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Nova Scotia s Part 
in Trie Great War 




Lieut-Governor of Nova Scotia. 





(Captain R.O.) 





All Rights Reserved 

Copyright, Canada. 1920, by 
M. S. Hunt. 



TWO years have passed since the last gun was fired in the 
Great War on the \Vestern Front and hitherto no attempt 
has been made to place before the people of Nova Scotia a 
comprehensive history of the various Military Units and Patriotic 
Organizations which won for the Province imperishable fame. 

Anyone who makes an impartial investigation of Nova Scotia s 
response to the call of duty will concede that the sturdy little 
Province by the sea achieved an enviable record. In some respects 
it surpassed the other Provinces of the Dominion in promoting the 
successful conclusion of the great conflict not only by the number 
of splendid troops it supplied in proportion to its population, both 
for Overseas and Home Service, but also because it had in its 
capital city, Halifax, the Naval Base of the British Empire on the 
Atlantic Coast, and from its spacious harbor sent many hundreds 
of ships Overseas laden with Canadian and Allied troops and 
received them after the Armistice when they were employed in 
returning the victors to their homes. From Nova Scotia ports, 
chiefly Halifax and Sydney, were also shipped munitions, supplies 
and equipment required by the Army in the field. The appreciation 
of the troops and their dependants on their return from Overseas 
of the welcome given them by the representatives of the citizens of 
Halifax, and the comforts and kindnesses bestowed upon them, has 
been attested by many grateful letters received from homes scat 
tered over the North American continent. The patriotic work of 
the Nova Scotia Branch of the Red Cross Society, with its country 
auxiliaries, \vas magnificent. All other patriotic societies and 
organizations gave equally valuable service. In fact, Nova Scotia 
played a role in the conduct of the war which will redound to her 
glory for all time. May the same sense of unity and spirit of self- 
devotion, which characterized her people during the v;ar, be re 
tained undiminished and be used wisely in time of peace. 

In giving a review of each of the Military Units which were 
mobilized or organized in Nova Scotia for service in the Great War, 
narrative has been adhered to as far as possible. Official war . 



records were consulted in so far as they were available, but a 
great deal of information had to be gathered from personal war 
diaries and interviews. The book contains as complete a history 
of Nova Scotia s part in the Great War as could be compressed 
into a single handy library volume. And it has several unique 
features. It contains many engraved portraits of Nova Scotian 
officers who made the supreme sacrifice, of officers commanding 
Units, leaders of patriotic organizations, and groups of special 
persons and events, and a reproduction of the authentic Nova 
Scotia Coat of Arms, granted by Charles I all of which will be of 
great interest to readers of this history. 

Before closing this preface special recognition should be made 
of J. D. Logan, M.A. (Dalhousie Univ.), Ph.D. (Harvard Univ.), 
formerly Sergeant in the 85th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders, 
for his patient, keen, and thorough reading of the entire manuscript, 
with important alterations and corrections. 

I am also deeply indebted to Major J. G. Johnstone, R.O., for 
his indefatigable assistance in the compilation of this volume. 

For information and assistance my thanks are also due to : 
Colonel W. E. Thompson, Colonel Thos. Cantley, Lt.-Col. S. G. 
Robertson, C.B.E., Lt.-Col. H. Flowers, Lt.-Col. Joseph Hayes, 
D.S.O., Lt.-Col. D. H. Sutherland, Lt.-Col. R. B. Simmons, Lt.-Col. 
A. W. Duff us, Lt.-Col. T. M. Seeley, Lt.-Col. J. L. McKinnon, 
Lt.-Col. E. C. Dean, Major C. E. McLaughlin, Major G. B. Cutten, 
Acadia Univ., Major A. A. Sturley, Univ. of King s College, Major 
J. F. Taylor, Major M. D. McKeigan, Major W. G. McRae, Major 
D. A. McKinnon, D.S.O., Major P. O. Soulis, Capt. G. C. 
McElhinney, M.C., Capt. Angus L. McDonald, Hon. Capt. Clarence 
McKinnon, Capt. B. M. Beckwith, Capt. F. G. Kingdon, Capt. G. T. 
Shaw, Lieut. W. H. Whidden, Dr. H. P. McPherson, St. Francis 
Xavier University, Professor Fraser Harris, Medical School, Dal 
housie University, Principal F. H. Sexton, Nova Scotia Technical 
College, Mr. A. A. Campbell, Mr. F. A. Crowell, Mr. Mel. Miller. 
Mr. Stuart McCawley, Mr. Wilfred Hearn, Mr. J. McL. Fraser, 
Mr. J. A. Walker. M HuNT 

Capt. R.O. 




NOVA SCOTIA S COAT OF ARMS (Granted by Charles I ) 

PORTRAIT of His Honour the Honourable McCallum Grant, LL.D., 

Lieutenant-Governor of Xova Scotia 



PORTRAIT of Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada, during the War. . 
PORTRAIT of the Honourable George Henry Murray, Premier of Nova 









I. Headquarters Military District No. 6 i 

II. 6th Canadian Mounted Rifles 9 

III. pth Siege Battery 22 

IV. 10th Siege Battery 28 

V. I7th Field Battery 31 

VI. 23rd and 24th Field Batteries 41 

VII. 36th Field Battery 43 

VIII. I4th Brigade, CF.A 56 

IX. Royal Canadian Regiment 58 

X. i;th Battalion 65 

XI. 25th Battalion 70 

XII. 40th Battalion 92 

XIII. 64th Battalion 95 

XIV. 85th Battalion and Band 99 

XV. io6th Battalion 116 

XVI. i I2th Battalion 119 

XVII. i85th Battalion 122 

XVIII. I93rd Battalion 130 

XIX. 2i9th Battalion 133 

XX. 246th Battalion 146 

XXI. 2nd Construction Battalion 148 

XXII. Forestry Corps 154 

XXIII. No. 6 District Depot 157 

XXIV. Canadian Army Service Corps 161 

XXV. Canadian Ordnance Corps 1/3 

XXVI. Canadian Army Medical Corps i?7 




XXVII. Canadian Army Dental Corps 226 

XXVIII. Canadian Army Pay Corps 231 

XXIX. Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery 236 

XXX. Canadian Engineers 242 

XXXI. Militia Units on Home Service 243 

XXXII. ist Regiment Canadian Garrison Artillery 245 

XXXIII. nth Brigade, C.F.A., and Composite Artillery Company 250 

XXXIV. 63rd Regiment 253 

XXXV. 66th Regiment 259 

XXXVI. 94th Regiment 263 

XXXVII. Composite Battalion 268 

XXXVIII. Depot Battalion 272 

XXXIX. "B" Unit, M.H.C.C 275 

XL. University of Acadia College 280 

XLI. University of Dalhousie College 282 

XLII. University of King s College 289 

XLIII. University of St. Francis Xavier s College 294 

XLIV. Presbyterian College, Pine Hill 296 

XLV. Recruiting in Nova Scotia 300 

XLVI. Ocean Transport 305 

XLVII. Munitions 3 

XLVIII. Demobilization 322 

XLIX. Vocational Training . 33 

L. Patriotic Fund 345 

LI. Victory Loan - 347 

LII. Red Cross Society; and Willing War Workers, Green 

Feather Society and Catholic Ladies Society 350 

LIU. Knights of Columbus 370 

LIV. Young Men s Christian Association 377 

LV. Halifax Citizens Reception Committee 381 

LVI. Creche at Pier 2 386 

LVII. St. Matthew s Church 394 

SPECIAL SKETCHES, with Portraits 399 

"FELT DAWN" A Literary Appreciation of a phrase in McCrae s 

poem, " In Flanders Fields " 436 

XI 1 

Premier of Canada during the Great War. 

Premier of Nova Scotia during the Great War. 

Nova Scotia s Part in the Great War 


UPON the opening of the World War the following were the 
principal Staff Officers at Halifax, the headquarters of 
Military District No. 6:- 

Col. R. W. Rutherford, G.O.C. ; Col. W. W. Humphrey, A.O.C. ; 
Major R. J. Hayter, G.S.O. ; Major A. H. W. Powell, D.A.A. 
& Q.M.G. ; Major W. Gibsone, D.A.A. & Q.M.G. Fortress. 

Military District No. 6 then embraced the Maritime Provinces, 
but later in the war, when Compulsory Service came into force, New 
Brunswick was made into a separate District, No. 7. 

The aforementioned Staff bore the brunt of this sudden change 
from peace to war, and met and overcame the resultant many new 
problems with great credit to themselves. 

The sudden deluge of work included the calling out and recruit 
ing up to strength of the Halifax City Regiments, viz. : ist Regiment 
Canadian Artillery, 63rd Regiment Halifax Rifles, and 66th Regi 
ment Princess Louise Fusiliers, as part of the War Garrison of 
Hr. 1 . fax; supplementing this Garrison later by a Regiment styled the 
Composite Regiment, called up by Companies from other Militia 
Regiments in Nova Scotia and from the 82nd in P. E. Island ; call 
ing out the 94th Argyll Highlanders to guard the cable and wire 
less stations at North Sydney, Marconi, Louisburg, and Canso, and 
detachments of Artillery from the P.E.I. Heavy Brigade to protect 
the Harbors of North Sydney and Canso ; the provision of guards 
for the wireless station at Newcastle, N.B., for the International 
Bridge at St. Leonard s and Vanceboro, and the calling out of the 
3rd Regiment Canadian Artillery and the 62nd Regiment Infantry 
for the defence of St. John, N.B. 

1 i 


This meant that the immediate necessities of war called upon 
the Maritime Provinces to furnish, equip and train and keep supplied 
some 3,000 officers and men, of whom almost 2,600 were supplied 
by the Province of Nova Scotia; and of these more than 1.500 
men from the City of Halifax. 

This accounts for the fact that in the mobilization of troops for 
the first contingent at Yalcartier there were not so many men 
reported there for duty from the City of Halifax or from rural 
Cape Breton as might have been expected. The officers and men, 
though keen to enter this larger sphere, were compelled to do this 
guard and garrison work, and were only relieved and permitted to 
join Overseas Battalions as new men could be found willing to take 
their places. 

In addition to equipping this force the further pressing duty 
upon the H. O. Staff was the working out of a system of recruiting 
to take care of the thousands of young men anxious to get into the 
Overseas Battalions as they were authorized, and to train these men 
and officers. 

The first change in H.O. Staff came in December, 1914, when 
Major \Y. E. Thompson was called in from his Regiment, the 63rd 
Halifax Rifles, then doing duty on McXab s Island, to take over 
the work of Inspector of Outposts and Detachments throughout the 
District, with the rank of Lieut. -Colonel. 

This officer succeeded, upon the retirement of Colonel Humphrey 
in March, 1915, to the appointment of Assistant Adjutant-General 
and Officer in charge of Administration. He remained at H.Q. 
throughout the war and until October i, 1919, having succeeded 
to the command of the District in December, 1918, upon the retire 
ment of Major-General Lessard. He was promoted full Colonel in 
May, 1916. and during the summer of that year he acted as 
Commandant at Aldershot Camp in addition to doing his work as 

Every officer at H.O. was continually on the watch for an 
opportunity of proceeding overseas. The chance came first to Major 
Hayter, who was offered the position of Brigade Major at Val- 
cartier and was permitted to accept in September, 1914. A careful, 
most painstaking officer, always at work, always thinking about his 
work, he left his impress : and at Valcartier, in England, and in 



France the same qualities marked his value. His great modesty 
may have somewhat retarded his promotion, though he won the 
rank of Brigadier-General before the war closed. 

For some time the work of G.S.O. was rather perfunctorily 
performed by officers awaiting their chance to go overseas and 
was not again severely faced till it was taken on by Major A. X. 
Jones on his being invalided home from France after service with 
the 25th Battalion. He carried on till his health broke down in 
January, 1917, when Major Soulis acted temporarily till the arrival 
of Col. \Y. R. Lang, who arrived in this station with General 
Lessard. remaining till May, 1918, when he was succeeded by Major 
\\". G. Haggarty. 

There was a bit of a struggle between Major Gibsone and 
Colonel Thompson for the command of the 4Oth Battalion, the 
second Overseas Battalion to be raised in this District, but the prize 
fell to the former, and his place was taken by Major R. B. \\ilhs, 
who filled the duties of D.A.A. and O.M.G. Fortress for the balance 
of the war with great credit. 

Early in 1915 Major Powell was promoted to the rank of Lieut.- 
Colonel. His special work was responsibility for recruiting and 
the organizing, officering and equipping of Units for Overseas 
Service. He brought great energy and ability to this work, and 
when New Brunswick was converted into a separate District he 
was detailed to that District as A.A.G., February, 1916. 

Lieut. -Colonel Powell was succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel B. R. 
Armstrong, of St. John. X.B., who came out with his Regiment, 
the 3rd C.A.. at St. John upon the outbreak of the war, and who 
in addition to this command was the representative of the Officer 
Commanding the District in Xew Brunswick, and had a special 
supervision over recruiting in that Province. He carried on the 
duties of D.A.A. and O.M.G. for District Xo. 6 till demobilized in 
September. 1919. 

His work was of a very high order, his grasp of details was 
unusual, and his knowledge of shipping and business affairs was 
of great assistance, particularly in connection with the very import 
ant work of transporting, embarking and disembarking troops. 

This latter work assumed such dimensions that it was found 
necessary to provide him with an assistant. Major "V\ . D. Tait 



served in this capacity for a time till he assumed command of 
McGill Heavy Battery for service Overseas, when, in June, 1916, 
he was succeeded by Major P. O. Soulis, who came out on the 
outbreak of war with his Regiment, the ist C.A. 

Major Soulis was given the special department of Statistics 
and Documents, and the supervision of all embarkations and dis 
embarkations. The combination of these two officers made this 
most important work proceed so smoothly that hundreds of 
thousands of men went through this port with the bulk of the 
citizens not realizing that anything unusual was going on. 

It should be mentioned, however, in this connection, that the 
work of H.Q. could not have met with the success it did, 
were it not for the very efficient executive work of Major A. P. 
Lomas, the executive head of the Department of Transport and 
Supplies during the rush-time of this most important work. Nor 
could the work of H.Q. have met with success in this matter had it 
not been for the energy and co-operation which the Clearing 
Services Command, represented here first by Lieut. -Colonel H. F. 
Adams and later by Lieut. -Colonel Cram, brought to its work of 
passing troops going and coming through its depot at Pier 2. 

When after Compulsory Service came into operation the 
necessity became evident for an officer to be detailed to give 
exclusive attention to the compilation and care of soldiers docu 
ments, the choice most naturally fell upon Major Soulis. He made 
a close study of the work, and his system met with so much approval 
that many of his ideas were adopted by Militia Headquarters and 
were put into general operation. Major Soulis continued to hold 
the appointment of District Record Officer till demobilized in July, 

Both Colonel Armstrong and Major Soulis were South African 
Veterans, the former having lost a foot in action there, and the 
latter having been mentioned in despatches. 

In December, 1914, Colonel Rutherford was promoted to the 
rank of Brigadier-General, and in October, 1915, was given his step 
to Major-General. He was an officer of much more than ordinary 
attainments, and filled well the office of General Officer Com 
manding, always carrying the confidence and respect of his Staff. 
A noticeable increase in defective hearing shown during a 



conference of General Officers at Ottawa led Militia H.O. to bring 
about his retirement, and in November, 1915, he was succeeded 
by Major-General Thomas lienson. 

General Benson brought a long training in military affairs, a 
broad outlook, an attractive personality, and good judgment to cope 
with the many questions arising in the District. He gave up his 
command in February, 1918, to the regret of his Staff and of 
citizens who had been wont to do business at Military Head 
quarters. He was given leave till July ist of that year, and his 
valuable services were recognized by investment with the order of 

General Benson s successor was Major-Genera! T. L. Lessard. 
who retained command till December 28, 1918, when he was 
succeeded by Colonel W. E. Thompson. 

The work done by the Garrison at Halifax during the war was 
most arduous, exacting and valuable. From August /, 1914. 
when Canada entered the war till final demobilization, the work 
was kept up continuously, and upon the strictest laws of military 

Only such officers whose places could be filled by volunteers 
were permitted to proceed Overseas, and no man was relieved for 
this broader field of action unless there was a man ready to takt 
his place. This being so, it was the exception for an officer once 
on the Staff or for any well-trained officer of the Units out. 
particularly of the Artillerv. or for good non-commissioned officers 
and specialists to get a chance for Overseas. They all knew that 
should the war terminate without their getting over they would for 
the rest of their lives be compelled to explain that they were not 
permitted to go and felt keenly how flat such an explanation would 
fall. They had. however, the consolation that they were doing a 
necessary and valuable work and were buoyed up with the hope 
their chance would yet come ; and if not, the State would at least 
recognize their voluntary services as at least equal to the services 
of those, many of whom were draftees, who had not proceeded 
further than England or St. Lucia. Up to the time of writing, 
however, no such recognition has been forthcoming. 

The above sets out in most skeletonized form the ordinary 
duties of H.Q. consequent on the Country being at war, and the 



Port of Halifax being the only port of embarkation and disem 
barkation for Canadian troops and supplies of war during the most 
strenuous months of the year. 

In addition were the extra responsibilities of caring for troops 
awaiting embarkation. These troops were not only Canadians 
but also troops from United States, Australia, New Zealand and 
some 50,000 laborers from China. 

When a contingent passed through the port, either coming in 
or going out, from illness or other causes some were left behind, 
and these had to be cared for, often taxing the facilities of the 
barracks and hospitals to their utmost. In the summer of 1918 
when we encamped at Aldershot, some 5,000 United States troops 
and a whole shipload was suddenly disembarked at Sydney suffering 
from the " flu." 

The temporary derelicts from Canadian troops passing through 
the City of Halifax were taken care of by being attached to the 
Composite Battalion, under Lieut-Col. H. L. Chipman. When 
ready for Overseas these were attached to another unit going- 
through. The records show the number of such exceeded 10,000 
men. Lieut. -Colonel Chipman deserves special mention for his 
splendid administration of the Composite Battalion and for his 
wise handling of many difficult problems not to be met in an 
ordinary Garrison Battalion. 

Again, the awful catastrophe which befell the City of Halifax 
on December 6, 1917, when a ship loaded with high explosives 
exploded in the harbor, spreading death and devastation broadcast, 
placed a great burden upon the Garrison and proved its great value 
in a sudden emergency. Every officer and man of every Military 
Unit and Department, with a ll the military facilities of the Garrison 
were rushed into the work of removing the dead and wounded, 
fighting fires, preparing shelters, transporting and feeding the 
destitute, doing police duty and the hundred and one things that 
came to the hands of a willing, well-trained body of troops. 

The Ordnance, under Lieut. -Col. Arthur Panet, opened wide 
its doors, and one of the first orders issued from H.Q. was for 
every available man of the 63rd from McNab s and the 66th from 
York and also every artilleryman of the ist C.A. from the forts 
to be rushed to the city and. proceeding to the devastated area by 



way of the Ordnance Yard, for each to carry with him a blanket 
for the wounded and destitute. This order was fully carried out, 
Col. Panet, though himself wounded, travelling continuously to and 
from the area of most suffering to see that as many as possible 
were cared for. 

Major H. P. Lomas, then at the head of the Department of 
Supplies and Transport, met the necessities of the sufferers with 
the same breadth of judgment, bigness of heart and broad inter 
pretation of regulations which marked his most successful admin 
istration throughout the war of this the essentially business 
department of the Service. 

Elsewhere in this publication will be found articles dealing with 
specific work done in this District during the war, so that in this 
article it is only attempted to give a general idea of who sat at 
Headquarters during these strenuous times and a general idea of 
the work they were called upon to originate and supervise; and it 
must be borne in mind as the detail of this specific work is studied 
and admired or condemned, the responsibility and the direction was 
always with that often maligned, seldom praised or congratulated, 
but nevertheless patient, long-suffering, faithful, headquarters. 

This article cannot properly close, however, without mention of 
the other heads of Departments in addition to those specially 
mentioned above because of their close association with the matters 
dealt with, who so heartily and with such great self-sacrifice 
performed their various duties, each in their turn : 

Lieut.-Col. J. A. Grant, Lieut.-Col. McKelvie Bell, and Col. 
H. S. Jaques as Assistant Directors of Medical Service. 

Lieut. -Colonel Houliston, Lieut. -Colonel Benoit, Lieut.-Colonel 
Van Tuyl, and Major Pringle, Commanding the Royal Canadian 

Lieut.-Colonel Dean, Assistant Director of Transport and 

Col. S. J. R. Sircom (Brig.-General upon Retirement), Assistant 
Director of Pay Services. 

Col. J. F. Macdonald, Senior Ordnance Officer. 

Major J. A. Proudfoot, District Signalling Officer. 

Lieut.-Col. H. F. Adams and Lieut.-Colonel Cram, Clearing 
Services Command. 



THE 6th Canadian Mounted Rifles was recruited from the 
different Maritime Provinces Militia Cavalry Regiments- 
"A" Squadron from the 8th P.L.F. (headquarters Sack- 
ville, X.B.), and 36th P.E.I. Light Horse (headquarters Charlotte- 
town, P.E.I.) ; " B " Squadron from the 28th N.B. Dragoon Guards 
(headquarters St.- John, N.B.), and "C" Squadron from the I4th 
King s Canadian Hussars (headquarters Canning, Nova Scotia). 

The establishment of officers and warrant officers consisted of 
the following: 

O.C., Lieut-Col. R. H. Ryan, South African, Russian- Japanese, 
American-Mexican Wars; 2nd I.C., Lieut-Col. A. E. Ings, Militia 
Long Service Medal; Capt. and Adj., Capt. B. W. Roscoe (later 
Capt. J. W. Long) ; Q.M., Major R. A. March ; O.M., Major Colin 
Macintosh; Chaplain, Capt. G. A. Kuhring; M.O., Capt. F. A. R. 
Gow; Sig. Off., Capt. H. R. Emmerson; Asst. Adj., Lieut. E. M. 
Arnold ; Vet. Off., Lieut. J. S. Roy ; R.S.M., L. W. Long. 

"A" Squadron O.C., Major A. J. Markham; 2nd I.C., Capt. 
B. W. Roscoe; Lieut. A. T. Ganong, Lieut. G. N. D. Otty, Lieut. 
G. R. Barnes, Lieut. W. D. Atkinson, Sqd. Sgt.-Major N. Dawes. 

"B" Squadron Major C. H. McLean; 2nd I.C., Capt. M. A. 
Scovil; Lieut. E. J. Mooney, Lieut. E. A. Thomas, Lieut. H. S. 
Everitt, Lieut. Geo. Morrisey, Sqd. Sg-t. -Major J. M. Lamb. 

"C" Squadron M^or T. A. Lydiard ; 2nd I.C., Capt. J. C. 
Gray; Lieut. H. H. Pineo, Lieut. J. P. Knowlton, Lieut. W. J. 
Brown. Lieut. H. L. Bowness, Lieut. B. M. Beckwith, Sqd. Sgt.- 
Major George Gill. 

Colonel Ryan and many of the officers and other ranks had 
volunteered at the outbreak of the war but owing to the expected 
necessity for the employment of mounted troops in the Maritime 

2 9 


Provinces (the I4th K.C.H. having- actually received orders for 
mobilization) their services were not accepted. It was also inti 
mated to Colonel Ryan, who was at Valcartier, when the First 
Division was mobilized, that in the event of the Maritime Province 
Cavalry not being mobilized as Militia Units for home service he 
would be permitted to raise a Cavalry Regiment from these Units 
and would be given command thereof, owing to his previous service 
and experience in the field. 

Accordingly Colonel Ryan returned to Nova Scotia and in 
December, 1915, received orders to recruit the Regiment. 


The Regiment was mobilized at Amherst, N.S., mobilization 
dating from March 17, 1915. 

The period during which the Regiment was quartered at 
Amherst was spent in perfecting the organization, taking on recruits 
and training the latter, owing to restrictions being largely confined 
to setting-up exercises, arm drill and route marching with inspections 
by various Generals. 

While at Amherst a draft of two hundred volunteers was sent 
as reinforcements to the Infantry Regiments in England to make 
up for the losses sustained by the Canadians in the Second Battle 
of \ pres. These were replaced by new recruits. 


In May, 1915, the Regiment was moved to Yalcartier, being- 
brigaded with the 4th and 5th C.M.R. s, under command of Colonel 
(later Brigadier-General) C. A. Smart. 

Training- at Valcartier was intensive and performed on foot, as 
horses had not been received, the Cavalry formation being however 
retained. Here the Unit received instruction in musketry and rather 
prided themselves in their ability in this line. 

While at Valcartier and also when at Amherst they were asked 
if they would volunteer to serve as dismounted troops, and the 
answer was always that " we will serve in any way we arc needed." 




The 6th C.M.R. left Yalcartier early in July for England, 
embarking at Quebec on the slow South American cold storage 
boat Herschel. Naturally the accommodations were not of the best, 
as there were six hundred men and four hundred horses on a boat 
without practically any passenger accommodation. Their eleven 
days voyage ended at Devonport, where they got a great reception. 
At Exeter they were met at the station by the good ladies of that 
town and given bags of food and fruit, and had their water bottles 
filled with hot coffee and tea. Many times since has this been spoken 
of in grateful words by the men, who were hungry and cold from the 
long train journey. On arrival at Camp in Dibgate they found 
themselves once more camping in the sand. As active service in 
Egypt had been spoken of, the Unit thought the authorities must be 
trying to accustom it to its future surroundings. 

While at Dibgate the Unit received a draft of officers and men 
from the 8th C.M.R., under command of Lieut. T. D. Johnstonc 
(later Capt. in Command of "B" Co., 5th C.M.R., wounded): 
second in command, Lieut. H. X. Bate (transferred to R.C.D. s, 
when Regiment was broken up). Many of the men who had been 
sick, owing to the strenuous training, had been transferred to 
hospital, and when convalescent were sent to the Cavalry Reserve 
Depot. These had been replaced by the draft of men from the 8th. 


The Regiment proceeded to France on October 24, 1915, the 
Brigade being attached to General Seely s Cavalry Division, oper 
ating as Corps Troops in the areas of Ploegsteerte and Messines. 

The following officers and warrant officers went to France with 
the Regiment and saw service at Ploegsteerte and Messines during 
the fall and early winter months of 1915. 

O.C., Lieut.-Colonel Shaw (later O.C. ist C.M.R., killed in 
action June 2, 1916). 

2nd I.C., Lieut.-Colonel Ings; Adjt., Capt. J. W. Long; Q.M.. 
Major R. A. March (later to 4th C.M.R. Battalion) ; P.M., Major 
C. Mclntosh (later to Can. Artillery) ; M.O., Capt. F. A. R. Gow 
(later to Can. Artillery) ; Sig. Officer, Capt. H. R. Emmerson (later 



-Major 2 ipth Infantry Battalion) ; Vet. Officer, Lieut. ]. A. Roy 
(later to Fort Garry Horse). 

"A" Squadron Major A. J. Markham (later to Fort Gam- 
Horse), Capt. B. \V. Roscoe, Lieuts. A. T. Ganong, G. N. D. Otty, 
. Barnes, T. D. Johnstone ; Sqd. Sgt.-Major N. Dawes. 

"B Squadron Major C. H. McLean, Capt. M. A. Scovil, 
Lieuts. E. J. Mooney, E. A. Thomas, H. S. Everett, George 
Morrisey; Sqd. Sgt.-Major I. M. Lamb (all later to Ath CMR 

"C Squadron Major T. A. Lydiard (later to R.C. Dra 
goons), Capt. J. C. Gray, Lieuts. H. H. Pineo, T- P. Knowlton, 
B. M. Beckwith, H. N. Bate; Sqd. Sgt.-Major Geo. Gill, D.C.M 
later R.S.M. 5th C.M.R. 

Lieut.-Colonel Ryan transferred to the Artillery, in which he 
served with distinction to the end of the war being decorated for 
conspicuous gallantry in the field. 


The Division was withdrawn from the trenches in December. 
1915, and orders were subsequently received that the ist and 2nd 
C.M.R. Brigade should be reorganized into the 8th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade, consisting of ist, 2nd, 4th and 5th Battalions of 
Mounted Rifles. The junior Regiments in each Brigade, namely 
the 3rd and 6th C.M.R., were split up between the two senior 
Regiments, thus forming four Infantry Regiments. 

The ostensible reason for this was the necessity of relieving 
infantry in trenches and the unsuitability of the cavalry formation 
for that purpose. The change in formation necessitated the transfer 
to England of officers of senior rank. 

The command of the reorganized Brigade was assumed by Brig.- 
Gen. V. A. S. Williams on January i, 1916, and training in infantry 
drill and tactics was gone at in dead earnest by all ranks. 

This training continued both in the line and out and the Brigade 
occupied the Ploegsteerte area until March, 1916, when it was moved 
to the Ypres Sector as part of the newly-formed 3rd Division, 
commanded by General Mercer, and took over the Hooge-Hill 60 



The disposal of the various Squadrons of the 6th C.M.R. was as 
follows : 

" A " and " C " Squadrons were formed into " D Company of 
the 5th C.M.R. Battalion, the company officers and warrant officers 
being : 

Captain B. W. Roscoe (later Major, D.S.O., 2nd I.C. 5th C.M.R. 
Battalion, wounded June 3, 1916, at Sanctuary Wood) ; 2nd I.C., 
Captain H. H. Pineo (later killed in action at Mt. Sorrell, Ypres 
Sector, July, 1916) ; Lieuts. A. T. Ganong, G. N. D. Otty, G. R. 
Barnes; Lieut. J. P. Knowlton (later to record office at Rouen, and 
received promotion there to Captain) ; C.S.M. George Gill (later 
R.S.M. 5th C.M.R. Battalion) ; B " Squadron was formed into 
D Company of the 4th C.M.R. Battalion, the company officers 
and warrant officers being: Major C. H. McLean (later 2nd I.C. 
4th C.M.R. Battalion); Capt. M. A. Scovil ; Lieut. George 


The first serious engagement in which the Brigade was con 
cerned was the Battle of Sanctuary Wood, which began June 2, 

The disposition of the Brigade was: ist and 4th C.M.R., front 
line and close support; 5th C.M.R., Battalion H.Q. and three Com 
panies in support at Maple Copse; one Company in reserve at 
Zillebeke Bund; 2nd C.M.R. in Brigade reserve near Poperinghe. 

The morning of June 2nd was clear with good visibility. About 
8 a.m. the Hun started a heavy bombardment, which grew in inten 
sity, and information was received that an attack was in progress 
on the sector held by the 7th and 8th Brigades. The bombardment 
continued unabatingly, and about twelve o clock mines were seen 
to be blown. The whole of the area held by the two Brigades was 
being systematically and furiously shelled, and communication with 
the forward area was impossible. 

About 2 p.m. Captain Roscoe received orders to reinforce with 
his Company, the remainder of the Battalion at Maple Copse. There 
was no route specified, the officer conveying the order remarking 
that he hoped they would get through. 



The only other officer with the Company at this time was Lieut. 
G. N. D. Otty, but it developed that the N.C.O. s had the requisite 
requirements of leadership and judgment. The Company, led by 
Captain Roscoe, advanced to the support of the remainder of the 
Battalion, and in full view of the enemy, through an extremely 
heavy barrage of fire, reached Maple Copse with few casualties, 
reporting to Lieut. -Colonel G. H. Baker, then commanding the 

Orders were then received to connect up with the /th Brigade 
on the left, to dig in and hold the Copse to the last. Then it was 
that the N.C.O. s showed those qualities of leadership and judg 
ment, which later w r ere to be recognized in a substantial manner. 

C.S.M. George Gill, with twenty men was ordered to occupy and 
hold a strong point whose garrison had been killed. This he did 
with great bravery, showing much skill in defending the position. 
Sgts. George Chase, H. McGarry and T. W. Martin led detachments 
through the Copse and dug in on the edge next the enemy. Lieu 
tenant Otty N\;as absolutely fearless in assisting in the disposition of 
the Company, refusing to avail himself of anything that looked like 
shelter. He remarked to the Company Commander that if he was 
to be killed that would happen and that his men were his first 
consideration. Unfortunately he was hit and killed within a short 
time after arrival at the Copse. 

The enemy made several ineffectual attempts to break through 
the line, and at each repulse his artillery fire became more severe. 
There was absolutely no shelter from his fire, and the Copse was like 
an inferno. The Company held the position, and were reinforced the 
next morning by the 2nd C.M.R. s. After this things quieted down 
and the remnants of the Company marched out that night. 

At the roll-call on relief only one officer (Lieutenant Barnes) and 
twenty men answered their names, the remainder of the Company 
which went into action 130 strong, having been either killed or 

Captain Roscoe had been wounded on the morning of June 3rd. 
after the 2nd C.M.R. s had arrived, and the command of the Com 
pany was taken over by Lieutenant Barnes, who was the Battalion 
Bombing Officer, and with his bombers had been active in the 
defence of the position. Lieutenant Barnes made several very daring 


patrols, practically between the posts of the enemy, who had 
attempted to push down hill in the long grass. It was through his 
efforts that the Unit was able to concentrate its rifle fire on the 
dangerous places and dislodge several machine guns. Lieutenant 
Barnes afterward got the M.C. for his work on this occasion. 

The Battalion, reduced to some 300 all ranks, moved into rest 
billets, and the losses were filled by a large draft of officers and 
other ranks from England. 

In the reorganization of the Battalion Major D. C. Draper 
(later Brigadier-General Commanding the Brigade) became O.C. 
(Lieut. -Colonel Baker having been killed in the engagement) ; 
Captain Roscoe was promoted to be second in command, awarded 
the D.S.O. for his work on the occasion and mentioned in 
despatches. The command of " D " Company was taken over by 
Lieut. H. H. Pineo (later promoted Captain), with Lieutenant 
Barnes, 2nd I.C. 

Sergt. Harold McGarry was promoted to C.S.M. in place of 
George Gill, who was awarded the D.C.M. and promoted to be 
Regtl. Sgt.-Major for his meritorious services and bravery evinced 
during the battle. Sergt. Geo. Chase, who was severely wounded, 
was awarded the Military Medal and slated for a commission. 

The 4th C.M.R. Battalion also lost heavily in the battle, and 

D " Company of that unit thereafter practically lost its identity 

as a Maritime Province Company, owing to the casualties suffered. 

The command of the Brigade was taken over by Brig.-General 
T. H. Elmsley, D.S.O. (afterward Major-General), replacing 
General Williams, taken prisoner in the battle, while the command 
of the Division devolved upon Major-General Lipsett, D.S.O. (later 
killed in action), the Divisional Commander, General Mercer having 
been killed during the action. 

The Brigade, and incidentally the Company, under the new 
command had another very strenuous period of training, and after 
an initiation trip for the new men the whole Company moved up 
again to take their place in the line. While in training they had 
the benefit of the advice of a C.S.M. from the Welsh Guards, 
which was a great help, especially to the N.C.O. s. This training 
showed later on the Somme. 




On the first trip in after the June fight, the Unit took over the 
line on Mount Sorell. The first night in, the Hun started his 
regular trench mortar strafe. One of the first of these landed on 
the signallers dugout, next company headquarters, and buried the 
men on duty there. Captain Pineo and Lieutenant Barnes, together 
with some of the men, started in to dig them out. At that time 
they could still hear the men groaning. Almost immediately after 
ward the Hun threw over another trench mortar. The men saw it 
coming by the trail of sparks, and all scattered up and down the 
trench. Captain Pineo was struck and instantly killed. The work 
of rescuing the men who had been buried need not have been per 
formed by him. It was his anxiety for his men that cost him his 
life. Lieutenant Barnes at once took over the command of the 
Company. Word was here received that the Hun had dug some 
mines under the trench occupied by the Company, and to be on the 
lookout. During the night a party who were digging out in front 
uncovered a mine sap and on pulling up some planks from the roof 
saw a man with a lighted candle passing under the lines. Explo 
sives were immediately obtained and the sap blown. This evidently 
put the " wind up " the Hun for he blew the remaining mines, some 
of which were hardly clear of his wire. 


Shortly after this the Unit left for the Somme, arriving in 
Albert on September ist, after a long, hard march, and severe 
training. They moved up in support and were selected as one of 
the two Companies to be first over the top. In this engagement, 
owing to previous officer casualties, the sergeants had to lead 
Platoons. The attack on September 151)1 between Moquet Farm 
and Courcellette was the first occasion in which the Tanks were used. 
The Unit had wonderful success on this day, losing very few men 
in the attack. Afterward, out of one hundred and twenty, forty 
were killed and sixty wounded, holding the trench. Lieutenant 
Barnes was awarded the bar to the M.C. and his majority 



for his work on this occasion. Xo one could speak too highly 
of the way in which he led his men, and it was largely due 
to his dash that the attack was so successful. Mention should 
be made here of Sergeant Low r ther, who was left behind with a 
party of ten men to garrison the trench until relieved by incoming 
troops. He lost a leg and several of the men were killed and 
wounded before the relief was accomplished. Sergeant Lowther 
was awarded the M.M. Sergt. -Major McGarry, who had been 
recommended for a commission, was killed in this action. 

The Unit s next attack was on October 2nd when " D " Com 
pany was in support. The objective was Regina Trench, strongly 
held by two divisions of German Marines, \vho had just been 
brought from Ostend to try and stop the Canadians. This was one 
of the stiffest hand-to-hand fights the Company ever had, and 
naturally the casualties were very heavy. Several times the Com 
pany managed to bomb several hundred yards of trench clear, but 
each time the Hun would come back with reinforcements. At 
daybreak, with bombs and ammunition completely exhausted, the 
few survivors were forced to withdraw to the jumping-off trench. 
Every officer engaged was either killed or wounded. Sergt. -Major 
Holmes, who led the Company on this occasion, after the officers 
w-ere knocked out, was awarded the M.M. Captain Beckwith, who 
had been detailed as O.C. of the 8th L.T.M. Battery, and had joined 
the Company for this occasion was wounded in the face. His 
leadership and energy were of great assistance, and it was largely 
due to him and his battery who were carrying ammunition that the 
Company was able to hold on as long as it did. 

The remainder of the time at the Somme was spent in relieving 
and holding front-line positions. The Battalion was complimented 
by the Army Commander for its fine work while at the Somme, a 
personal visit being paid by him to Battalion Headquarters for that 

In addition to the decorations mentioned as being won here, 
many of the officers of the Battalion were cited for bravery and 
gallantry in the field. Sergeant T. \Y. Martin was awarded the 
M.M. and slated for a commission for a daring reconnaisance of 
the enemy line under artillery fire. 



The Unit s next move was to the Yimy front, where it was soon 
apparent that preparations were being made for a terrific onslaught 
on the Hun. Some time was spent here in assisting in the work of 
preparation, after which the Unit was withdrawn with the rest of 
the Brigade for a period of intensive training in attack over a taped 
layout of the enemy trenches. The Unit was then moved up to its 
part of the line, being in close support to the 4th C.M.R. Battalion. 

The Battle of Yimy Ridge will live in history as the great 
achievement of the war, owing to the position being considered 
impregnable and the fact that it was captured with inconsequential 
losses, mainly due to a well considered plan of attack, absolute 
co-operation between all branches of the service and thoroughness 
of preparation. 

The Company carried on with the usual steadiness during 
the engagement and rendered valuable assistance, its losses being 


For some time after the capture of Yimy Ridge it was found 
impossible to bring up the artillery within range, as the Hun had 
retired to a line on the outskirts of Lens and Douai. The Company, 
with the rest of the Battalion, pushed over the Ridge and were in 
position as a sacrifice Battalion to fight to the last man, in the event 
of a counter attack being launched to retake the Ridge. Trenches 
were constructed, deepened and strengthened, but the expected did 
not happen, and finally the guns were able to get up within range, 
from which time ordinary trench routine was resumed. 

During a tour in the trenches on this front a raid was attempted 
by the Hun on the Company front. It was unsuccessful, the enemy 
being repulsed with heavy loss. 

Lieutenant Holmes was awarded the M.C. for his work on this 
occasion, displaying great coolness and gallantry in holding off 
single-handed, until reinforced, a party of Huns. 

The Battalion at this time was under the command of Major 
Roscoe, D.S.O., who the day following the attempted raid received 
a message from the Divisional Commander complimenting the 



Battalion on their steadiness during the attack. A few days after 
the Brigade was withdrawn from this sector. 

The Company, which up until now had been practically all Mari 
time Province men, under the new reinforcement scheme drew 
their men from Quebec, and for a while the Company was made up 
almost entirely of French-Canadians. After Passchendaele, during 
which the Company gave its usual assistance to the Battalion, the 
wounded men began to come back as well as some of the N.C.O. s 
who had been granted commissions, and once again it became a 
Maritime Province Company. It was at Passchendaele that Capt. 
L. C. Eaton was killed, just before going over the top. 

In the winter of 1917 the Unit moved back to their old front at 
Yimy. In March, 1918, the Battalion put on a raid of 250 men. 
Lieutenants Gillis and Young of the old H D " Company took part in 
this, and were both awarded the M.C. for their work. Gillis in 
particular had done some very fine work during the second attack 
on the Somme. He had come back from hospital with an unhealed 
wound in his arm. and although it \\as too late for him to secure a 
rifle and the necessary equipment, he took a pick-axe handle and 
joined his Company in going over the top. He brought back the 
prisoners, sixty in all, taken on that occasion. 

After a pleasant spring spent in reinforcing different parts of 
the line, in August the Unit once again took the road south for 
Amiens. The work done by the Company during this attack was 
spectacular. One of their accomplishments w r as the capture of 
a 5.9 Battery in action at point-blank range. One of the old 6th 
men was awarded the D.C.M. for his work on this occasion and 
Lieutenant Barnstead was awarded the Croix de Guerre for his 

Lieutenant Smith was very seriously wounded during the next 
scrap in front of Arras, called the Second Battle of Arras. He had 
been a stretcher-bearer-Sergeant with the old Company and was 
awarded a commission in the spring of 1917. He was given the 
M.C. for his work at Arras in the taking of Monchy. He after 
wards died of wounds in London. His work all the time he had 
been with the Battalion had been exceptional and the award of his 
M.C. was very popular. 



The next fight was for Cambrai, which as far as this Company 
was concerned consisted of a hunt for Huns through the ruins, 
collecting souvenirs by the way. The Company had a brush with 
the Bosche on the other side of the town, but they were merely 
scouts left behind and pulled out as soon as fired upon. The Com 
pany was sitting down having dinner when the English troops came 





through. As there had been no barrage they did not know that the 
town had been taken. From here the Company went to Valen 
ciennes and then on to Mons. Lieutenant Gillis was wounded at 
Valenciennes and invalided to England. 

The following other ranks of the 6th C.AI.R. Regiment, who 
went to "D" Company of the 5th. obtained commissions with the 



Battalion for gallantry and devotion to duty on the field : J. \Y. 
Lewis, M.C. (later Capt. 8th Bgd. Light Trench Mortars) ; L. C. 
Eaton (later Capt. O. C. " D " Company, killed at Passchendaele) ; 
A. C. Wiswell, wounded June 2, 1916 (later Div. Bombing Officer, 
Bramshott) ; W. O. Barnstead, Croix de Guerre ; C. G. Dunham. 
M.C., wounded June 2, 1916; H. A. Smith, M.C., died of 
wounds received at Monchy, Aug. 28, 1918; L. J. Young, M.C., 
wounded June 2, 1916, and at Monchy, Aug. 28, 1918; A. E. 
Gillis, M.C., wounded three times ; A. H. Weldon, wounded June 
2. 1916; T. W. Martin, M.M., wounded Aug. 9th at Vimy; W. J. 
Holmes. M.C., M.M., wounded at Lens, 1916; F. I. Andrews, M.M., 
wounded June 2, 1916, and November, 1918; Gordon Campbell, 
wounded twice; C. \Y. McArthur, M.M., wounded twice; A. H. 
Whidden, wounded June, 1916: A. Desbrisay, wounded June, 1916. 
died since returning home. 

Cadets undergoing training when Armistice was signed : Duncan 
Chisholm, Campbell McLellan, YVm. H. Graham, M.M., J. A. 
Cameron, D.C.M., Walter Anderson, D.C.M. 

The following were gazetted to other Regiments: A. Rogers, 
X. Rogers, D. B. Holman, Stuart Roy, B. Elliott, Geo. Morrison. 

" B" Squadron and Headquarters, 6th C.M.R. s, went to the 
4th C.M.R. Battalion and formed " D " Company of that Battalion 
under the command of Major C. H. McLean, D.S.O (later 2nd i/c 
4th C.M.R. s; Capt. M. A. Scovil, 2nd i/c (seriously wounded and 
taken prisoner June 2, 1916). Lieut. H. S. Everett, bombing 
officer 4th C.M.R., was wounded at Sanctuary Wood, May, 1916. 
Lieut. E. A. Thomas was killed in action at Sanctuary W 7 ood. 
Lieut. Geo. Morrisey, Intelligence Officer of 4th C.M.R., was killed 
in action June 2nd, 1916, while attempting to save a comrade s life. 

The following X.C.O. s received commissions from the 4th for 
gallantry and devotion in the field: C. W. Hicks, wounded June 
2, 1916 (afterwards bombing officer. 34th Reserve, Seaford). 
J. H. Craigie, gazetted to the Imperial Infantry; X. McKenzie, com 
mission with the 85th X.S. Highlanders : J. O. Spinney, commission 
with the 52nd Battalion; H. B. Fenis, Lieutenant R.A.F. ; J. J. 
Rowland. 4th C.M.R. ; J. H. Harris, Depot Battalion, St John: 
W. C. Wetmore, 236th Battalion. 



THE 9th Canadian Siege Battery was composed of officers 
and men belonging to the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery. 
Most of the X.C.O. s and men came from Xos. I and 2 
Companies, R.C.G.A., at Halifax, X.S. A small number came 
from Xo. 5 Company at Esquimalt, B.C. All the officers of the 
original Battery came from the strength of the R.C.G.A. at Halifax. 

For months the R.C.G.A. had been mobilized in the Forts for 
the defence of Halifax; and because the defence of these Forts 
was a prime necessity, and no other troops being available, it was 
impossible, in the view of Headquarters, to relieve the R.C.G.A. for 
service Overseas. 

The possibility of an attack from German ships at first kept up 
excitement, but as the "War progressed this soon diminished and the 
men looked down from the Forts at transport after transport bear 
ing troops Overseas. These were trying days for men keen them 
selves to go, and it was difficult to make them believe, as they were 
constantly told, that their duty was here. Volunteers for Overseas 
were asked for more than once but nothing happened. 

Eventually during the summer of 1916 a definite proposal, made 
by Lieut.-Col. S. A. Reward, then acting C.R.C.A. at the Citadel, 
to raise a Siege Battery from the R.C.G.A. was granted, on the 
understanding that men to replace those taken away should be 
found and trained. This was soon done, and the Battery sailed for 
England on Sept. 27, 1916. 

After a long delay in England the Battery was equipped with 
six-inch howitzers, and landed in France on March 2 2nd. The sub 
sequent moves of the Battery after its arrival at the Front is best 
set forth by the following list of Battery positions: Mont St. Eloy 
-Battle of Arras or Vimy Ridge; Hill 131 ( Cabaret Rouge): 
Angres; Hill 70; Frizenberu; Ridge Battle of Passchendaelc : 



Thelus; Calonne ; Maroc; Petit Vimy; Les Tilluels ; Souchez; 
Lievin; Villers Cagnicourt Battle of Canal du Nord; Barrelle 
Wood; Sauchy Lestree Battle of Cambrai; Blecourt; Bantiguy; 
Marquette; Escaudain; Wavrechain-sous-Denain Battle of Valen 
ciennes ; Herin ; Valenciennes ; St. Saulve ; Onnaing ; Mons. 

During the incessant fighting of all this period it is not known 
which will be considered as major operations, but the Battle of 
Arras or Vimy Ridge, Hill 70, Passchendaele, Canal du Nord, 
Cambrai and Valenciennes will be considered as such as far as the 
Canadian Corps is concerned, and in all of which the Qth C.S.B. did 
its part. 

After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, the Group Commander showed 
his appreciation of the work of the Battery by a special letter of 
recognition for good work done. It had been a very strenuous time. 
The Battery arrived there only on April 5th. The position was in 
an open muddy field. There was not much time to get ready. 
Gun platforms were constructed and camouflage erected, ready to 
move the guns in at night. All material, as well as the ammunition, 
had to be carried a long distance. For three nights there was no 
sleep, but guns were registered on April 7th and the Battery took 
part in the bombardment on that and succeeding days. 

After Vimy the Battery moved forward to a position between 
Angres and Cite du Caumont. It had a long and memorable stay 
here during the protracted fighting round Lens. The position was 
a very forward one for a six-inch Battery, and the Hun machine 
guns at night seemed very near. Our infantry front line at first 
was rather uncertain just here and German snipers and posts used 
to occupy empty houses at night not very far from the Battery. It 
was a good position. The guns were just behind a hill which 
screened their flash and were well concealed from aeroplane obser 
vation. The men off duty had good deep Hun dugouts, some 600 
yards in rear. But the place was shelled continually. 

The Battery had wonderful luck, shells day after day dropping 
all round the guns and B. C. Post. Funk pits were soon con 
structed near the guns for men to take cover when necessary. It- 
was during one of these enforced cessations of fire that a little 
episode occurred. The Xo. I, on looking out, saw an old gunner 
( Gunner Forde) calmly sitting on the trail of his gun and quietly 

2 3 


using most abusive and lurid language against the enemy. On 
being asked by him why he did not obey the order to take cover, 
he said, " There is not a blankety blank Hun living who will make 
me take cover." It then transpired that he had habitually stayed 
behind in this manner on such occasions. 

One of the chief dangers was from splinters. In trying to get 
our guns many of the Hun shells exploded on the top of the ridge 
in front of them, which sent showers of splinters for 800 yards, so 
that the daily relief going and coming from dugouts to guns had 
an anxious time. During the stay at Angres many other batteries 
came to the locality, but did not stay long, leaving for sunnier 

It was during one of these visits that the first decoration was 
awarded to the Qth C.S.B., Gunner Makin getting the M.M. for 
pulling some gunners belonging to another battery out of the debris 
in which they had been buried by hostile shell fire. But many 
others deserved a decoration as well as he and were frequently 
recommended for it. 

In May the Battery had their most unlucky day. one chance shell 
killing seven and wounding six. 

It was in June that a Staff Officer informed the Battery that for 
the time it had been in France it had (a) fired more rounds than 
any other Battery, (b) had received more shelling than any other 
Battery, and (c) was the most advanced Battery on the front. 

In October the Battery left Lens area for the Xorth with the 
Canadian Corps, which was to relieve the Australians in the opera 
tions against Passchendaele. It remained in the Ypres Salient till 
Dec. I3th. The Battery relieved three R.G.A. Batteries in turn. 
going further forward each time. By a merciful providence the 
ground was soft, and in consequence many enemy shells were 
" duds " ; otherwise nothing could have prevented heavy casualties. 
Constant shelling and bombing; the enemy s aeroplanes everywhere: 
ours not in sight. 

The Ypres Salient is the abomination of desolation one big 
graveyard. A peculiarly depressing place, nothing can describe it : 
it has to be felt. A complimentary letter was published from 2nd 
Division describing the Heavy Artillery s work in the taking of 
Passchendaele as the " perfection of Heavy Artillery barrage." 



The Battery moved South again, and for the first time in eight 
months went into rest at Ham-en-Artois, arriving at that place on 
Dec. 1 5th. It seemed almost too good to be true. Jan. nth found 
the Battery back in the line again at Petit Yimy. Then followed 
uneventful moves to Calonne (Feb. 3rd) and Maroc, where there 
were good cellars for the men. 

About this time there was a change in Brigade Commanders. 
On the new one asking the former one which was the best Battery 
in the Brigade, the 9th was given a reputation it might well be 
proud of. 

On Feb. 25th the Battery was back again at Petit Yimy position 
with one section in rear near Les Tilluels. Preparation for the 
expected Hun offensive was the order of the day. Successive 
defensive systems were prepared. Batteries were issued \vith Lewis 
Guns and were ordered to wire their positions. Many battery posi 
tions were prepared and camouflaged. It was hard work for the 
men who had heavy days and nights of firing to carry out at the 
same time. Again the Battery found itself the most advanced in 
the Brigade, and was always being called upon to fire on the most 
distant target in consequence. In case of a successful Hun attack 
the position would have been impossible to get out of with the steep 
\ imy Ridge immediately in rear and all the roads registered and 
under observation by day. It seemed that the role of the Battery, 
under such circumstances, was that of a sacrifice Battery. Gradu 
ally the infantry in front were drawn in until the line was held by 
little more than machine gun posts. The field guns took up posi 
tions behind and one woke up one night to the unusual sound of 
our own field artillery shells passing over our heads. 

The G.O.C. paid the Battery a visit after a worse than usual 
" strafe," but he found the men with their " tails up." He said 
they were doing good work and that was why they were being kept 
in that position. Three distinct times was the B. C. confidentially 
warned that the attack was expected on the morrow and three times 
nothing unusual happened. 

March 2ist passed and the Huns great attack which was to last 
nine terrible days commenced. It was to the south of us, and not 
till the 28th did it reach our neighborhood. But Arras remained 
firm, and there was no advance worth speaking about on our front. 



At 3 a.m. the enemy started shelling- the Battery with gas. He 
attacked persistently with heavy gun fire till 12 noon and again in 
(he afternoon. At night every half hour he put down bursts of 
harassing fire and concentrations, hut the fire of the Battery was 
kept up in spite of it and gas. The next day the enemy continued 
his tactics: not a half hour but Battery, billets, roads and railway 
received his attention. Two of the signallers (Dickey and West) 
did noble work in repairing our telephone line, nearly a mile, 
through a regular barrage of high explosive and gas, their job 
being made more difficult by some defensive wire entanglements 
which had been recently placed over our line. 

Now succeeded several months when the enemy s chief energies 
were directed to other parts of the Front, and the British Army 
was recovering from its wounds, filling up its ranks and organizing 
for the coming glorious advance which was to end the war. 
During these months the Battery had positions at Souchez and 
Lievin, neither of these being pleasant spots, but where life was 
more or less normal ; that is, daily and nightly tasks of firing, some 
times counter battery shoots, sometimes destructive shoots, or 
harassing fire, to all of which the Hun replied in kind. At Lievin 
he gave us two bad gas bombardments, but the results, had he 
known them, would have been bitterly disappointing to him, to such 
an extent had we been educated by this time in anti-gas measures. 
At Villers Cagnicourt Chere was some heavy firing and obstinate 
fighting before the enemy was driven across the Canal du Nord. 
At Barelle Wood the Battery was a day, and at Sauchy Lestree. 
during the fight for Cambrai, which was very severe, several days 
were spent. At this place the Huns night bombers were very 

But it w r as now moving warfare in earnest. Blecourt and 
Batigny w r ere hot places for a day or two. At Marquette and 
Escaydain a night only was spent in each. Wavrechain-Sous- 
Denain was easy. At Herin the Battery took part in the very fine 
artillery preparation for the taking of Valenciennes, and at St. 
Saulve on Nov. 4th it had its last casualty of one man killed. 

During all this moving warfare, conditions were a great con 
trast to the previous trench warfare. Guns sometimes took up 
positions in fields almost untouched by shellfire. The laborious gun 



pit was nearly unknown. The woods and trees were no longer shot 
to pieces, and occasionally one walked into billets to find cut flowers 
still fresh on the window sill, or table, left there by the retiring Hun 
the day before or by its civil occupants who had been forced to leave 
with him. 


Authority for organization. H.O. 1-36-129. Names of original 
officers with rank: Major (Lieut. -Col.) S. A. Reward. Capt. 
H. R. N. Cobbett. Lieut. D. W. McKeen, Lieut. D. A. MacKenzie, 
Lieut. \Y. K. I ,. Starr. Lieut. C. B. Thackray, all of R.C.A. 

Reinforcements: Lieut. E. S. Hoare, Lieut. IT. R. Onntcr. Lieut. 
R. Cruit. Capt. C. MacKay, Lieut. M. A. \\ ilson. Lieut. E. T. 
Chesley. Capt. J. E. Lean. Lieut. J. S. Millar. Lieut. \\ . A. F. 
Fairchild. Lieut. F. C. Harding, Capt. H. T. Seaman. Major \\ . G. 
Scully, all of C.G.A. ; Lieut. Warren (Portuguese Interpreter); 
Lieut. P. Moyara, Portuguese troops ; Lieut. J. C. Fraser, C.G.A. 

Numerical strength : Officers, 6; W. O. and S. Sergeants, 8 ; other 
ranks, 144. Total all ranks, 158. 

Date of sailing for Overseas: 27th September, 1916. 

Date of return to Canada: May 9th, 1919. 

Commissions : Gunners Young and S. Smith to R.O.C. training 
school for commissions. 

Honors: Military Cross, 2; Dist. Conduct Medal, 2; M.S.M., 3: 
Military Medal, 13: mentioned in despatches, 3. 

Total number of battle casualties: Officer, i; other ranks, 67: 
total, 68. 


THE proposal to recruit a. purely Xova Scotian Artillery Unit 
originated when four young officers had just completed their 
training with the Royal School of Artillery at Halifax. 
These young officers were: Lieuts. Wm. Henry L. Doane, ist 
R.C.A. ; Frederick H. Palmer, ist R.C.A.; Robert Parker Freeman, 
ist R.C.A. ; Robert Edward Jamieson. ist R.C.A. . 

The proposal was laid before Major J. M. Slayter, R.C.A., 
and after discussion he agreed to undertake to obtain the necessary 
authority and to take over, at any rate temporarily, the work of 
the Battery, if such was approved. 

On August i, 1916. authority was applied for from the General 
Officer Commanding Military District Xo. 6 for leave to raise a 
Battery of Siege in Halifax for service Overseas. On August 12, 
1916, the organization of Xo. 10 Draft Siege Artillery Battery was 
approved, and on October i, 1916. authority was received from 
headquarters for the appointment of the following officers: Major 
J. M. Slayter, R.C.A. (in Command); Lieuts. Win. H. L. Doane. 
ist R.C.A.; F. H. Palmer, ist R.C.A.; R. P. Freeman, ist R.C.A.: 
R. E. Jamieson, ist R.C.A. 

Barrack accommodation was found for the proposed Battery in 
South Barracks, and at once the work of active recruiting was 
taken up. By the end of Xovember. 1916, the Battery was raised 
to a strength of eighty-five officers and men. Preliminary exam 
inations were completed and as quickly as the men completed their 
preliminary training, they were passed on to Instructional Courses 
to qualify as Battery Commanders, Assistants, Signalling and 
Gun Laying, and all the various specialties that go to make up a 
Siege Battery. On December n, 1916, Lieut. W. H. L. Doane 
was promoted to fill the vacancy of Captain in the Battery. This 
completed the establishment of officers. 



In accordance with orders received on December 16, 1916, Lieut. 
Crosby and fifty other ranks were warned to hold themselves 
in readiness to proceed Overseas. They embarked on the 
SS. Scandinavian on January 23, 1917. Recruiting continued 
steadily and on March 26, 1917, Capt. \V. H. L. Doane with fifty 
other ranks proceeded Overseas on the S.S. Missinabie. 

Capt. F. H. Palmer being now the senior Lieutenant of the 
Battery was promoted to Captain, March 27, 1917. On April 12. 
1917, Lieut. M. B. Archibald, ist R.C.S., and Lieut. R. D. Lacon, 
ist R.C.A.. were appointed to the Battery. Lieut. R. P. Freeman 
and fifty other ranks were warned on May 17, 1917, to hold them 
selves in readiness to proceed Overseas. They sailed on the 
Olympic on the 28th of May. 

On November 5, 1917, warning was received that three officers 
and two hundred X.C.O. s and men would proceed Overseas. As 
the Military Service Act was now about to become law, organ 
izations which had previously handled voluntary recruiting would 
now completely change their character. Ample man power being 
available, it would only be necessary to outfit and start preliminary 
training of men raised under the Act. 

In view of this the Draft embarked for Overseas service on 
November 23, 1917, on the SS. Mctagama, consisting of Major 
J. M. Slayter. Captain Palmer and one hundred and fifty N.C.O. s 
and men. Lieutenant Archibald and fifty other ranks proceeded 
Overseas on the SS. Olympic. Lieutenant Lacon, and some forty 
men. the latest joined recruits, were left in Halifax to carry on the 
Depot under the Military Service Act. 

As the personnel of the detachment who made up this 
sailing were of an exceptionally high character, and had had con 
siderable training in specialties, it was hoped that they might be 
retained as a Battery for service Overseas. 

On arrival at Witley, Surrey. England, it was found that there 
were such heavy demands for reinforcements for Batteries and 
Brigades already authorized, that it would be impossible to retain 
the organization as it landed at \Yitley. Specialists were sent for 
extra courses, and as these were completed were drafted very 
largely to the newly- formed loth, nth and I2th Siege Batteries, 
and to the 3rd Brigade of the C.G.A. 



The Depot of the loth Siege Battery at Halifax continued under 
Major George Oland, with Lieutenant Lacon, Lieutenant McXair 
and Lieutenant Baird, sending forward drafts and having raised 
and equipped and sent forward some ten officers and about eight 
hundred X.C.O. s and men. The Depot at Halifax was finally 
absorbed after the Armistice in the 6th Artillery Depot. 

These are the bare facts as taken from records, which do not 
signalize the splendid self-sacrificing work of such officers as 
Captains W. H. L. Doane, R. P. Freeman, F. H. Palmer, and 
R. E. Jamieson; and such X.C.O. s as Jenkins, Fultz and Holmes. 

From beginning to end this Unit was marked by the high 
standard of the men that it drew, the remarkable lack of crime of 
even the pettiest sort, and the earnestness and whole-hearted 
manner in which all ranks endeavored to qualify themselves for 
their duties Overseas. 


ijth BATTERY (6th BATTERY, C.F.A.} 


THE i/th Battery had the unique distinction of being the only 
combatant Militia Unit in Xova Scotia to be accepted as a 
Unit of the Canadian Expeditionary Force for service Over 
seas in the First Canadian Contingent. On the day that war was 
declared between Great Britain and Germany, the Department of 
Militia and Defence -wired its acceptance of Lieut-Colonel H. G. 
McLeod s offer of the i~th Battery, C.F.A., as a Unit for service 

The mobilization of the Battery was purely a matter of selection, 
for many more than the required number applied for enlistment. 
On August 28, 1914, the Battery left Sydney with the full war 
strength of 141 officers and men, four guns and 123 horses. The 
trip to Yalcartier was uneventful. Shortly after our arrival there 
we were disappointed to hear that the Unit would have to be split 
in order that the new war establishment of six-gun Batteries might 
be completed. The right section of the i/th was to be amalgamated 
with the iQth Battery from Moncton and \Yoodstock, while the left 
section went with the 2ist Battery of Westmount. Montreal. Thus 
Major McLeod was to command the new 6th Battery. C.E.F., keep 
ing with him Capt. J. Geo. Piercey, while Capt. J. A. MacDonald. 
our own " Johnnie Angus," was lost to us, and went to the new 
5th Battery in the same Brigade. 

The two weeks spent in Yalcartier Camp were pleasant. The 
getting used to military routine, drill and ceremonials was not at 
that early date a hardship. The novelty had not even begun to 
wear off then. The reviews held by Sir Sam Hughes first and His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught subsequently, bad a certain 



amount of pleasure for all of us, despite adverse weather conditions. 
Yet it was not without a certain degree of impatience that we 
awaited the word to set sail for England. 

Eventually, after many false alarms, the \vord came, and we 
donned full marching order to set out for Quebec and the waiting 
transports. What a memorable sight was that Armada congre 
gated at Gaspe Bay ! Thirty-three of our largest ocean greyhounds 
in full steam, ready and anxious to hasten to the assistance of our 
Mother Country in her hour of need. The order was signalled 
from the flagship to set out last letters of farewell were hurried 
aboard waiting tenders, a lingering last look was taken at the 
shores of Canada, and the First Canadian Contingent bade farewell 
to the peaceful land of the Maple Leaf and set its gaze to the East 
where lay discord and strife. 

Ocean trips generally are never very much out of the ordinary, 
and with the exception of one or two submarine scares, absolutely 
without foundation, we steamed our uneventful, out-of-the-way 
course to Merry England and war. The monotony was relieved 
by routine, athletic competitions and musical entertainments. It 
was in the organization of the latter that the popular Canadian 
composer of present times, Gitz Rice, closely related to the Cape 
Breton Rices, Brent and Walter, first secured prominence in 
musical circles. However, if the trip w r as uninspiring, such could 
not be said of our reception at Plymouth. Bands playing, throngs 
cheering, the shores of the city blocked with thousands of people- 
England certainly did its duty that day in welcoming to its shores 
her Canadian sons. 

Disembarkation lasted a week, but finally the " Old i7th " landed 
at Devonport and were soon en route for Salisbury Plains. De 
trained at Amesbury we were greeted with a downpour of rain, and 
it was very little else we saw in the weather line during the whole 
of our stay on that historic plain. Mud, mud, mud, and then more 
mud; drill, drill, drill, and then more drill, sums up Salisbury 
Plains, relieved only by brief leaves to London and provincial 
towns. How we cursed the mud ! Finally, however, we were 
moved into comfortable quarters at Urchfont, where we enjoyed 
real English hospitality and good cheer. Even the Plains had its 
pleasant side, though. Our first Christmas away from home was 


1 7th BATTERY (6th BATTERY, C.F.A.} 

spent there, and royally did Major McLeod and his fellow officers 
endeavor to give us a real Christmas. 

\Ye spent about a month at Urchfont before the call came for 
which we had been impatiently waiting. On February 8th, 1915, 
we left for France. Embarking at Avonmouth we set out for the 
scene of war. The Allies at that time were being pressed from all 
sides. The Bases of Calais, Boulogne, and Rouen were seriously 
threatened. So it was to St. Nazair, a port in the Bay of Biscay, 
that the Canadians were sent. On February I3th we first set foot 
in France; on the :6th we detrained within hearing of the guns, at 
Hazebrouck, marching further in to billets at Borre. 

From Borre the 6th Battery moved up into action and took its 
first position at Fleurbaix on March ist. The first round was fired 
into the German front line by Captain Tom Kitchen, then Bom 
bardier, and we took it as a good omen that the second round was 
observed to have sent our enemy s field kitchen skyward. While 
at Fleurbaix the Battery played its part in the mix-up of March 
loth at Neuve Chapelle, and it was in this same position we under 
went our baptism of fire fortunately with no serious casualties. 

On March 29th, the Brigade to which the 6th Battery was 
attached, was withdrawn to rest billets at Watou. It was here, on 
Easter Sunday, that the first intimation of the hardship and danger 
to be expected at Ypres was given us by our Commanding Officer, 
Col. J. J. Creelman. The Easter Service was conducted by Rev. 
Canon Almon, and a feeling of intensity was apparent as he 
impressed upon us the sad fact, that of those who heard him that 
day, many would, before long, make that greatest sacrifice. And sO 
indeed it proved. Yet when, on April i8th, we first caught a 
glimpse of the city of Ypres, then with a population of about twenty 
thousand, with its shops, estaminets and business places generally 
in full swing, it was hard indeed for us to believe that our padre 
could be correct. Little did we foresee that in four short days this 
city, beautiful, even after its first bombardment, would be a mass 
of ruins, its population fleeing to safety with a miserable handful 
of personal belongings, its Cathedral and historic Cloth Hall and 
invaluable treasures forever lost to posterity. Yet such was to 

3 33 


The bombardment of the Second Battle of Ypres commenced on 
the 2 ist, and on the 22nd the Hun let loose his devilish fumes of 
poison gas. The French to our left fell back, exposing our flank, 
leaving a gap of over a mile. Our own boys held, but at what a 
price! Reinforcements from our own reserves were hurriedly sent 
up, and all that was left of our First Division was spread over the 
whole of a three-mile front. But they held on for that day and the 
next. On the 23rd, from our position near St. Julien, we took 
part in what I firmly believe to have been the most dramatic action 
that the Battery was engaged in during its stay in France and 
Flanders. Our infantry had fallen back to reform for a counter 
attack. The enemy advanced after them at a range of about 1,200 
yards from our guns. Two of our latter were immediately switched 
to the left at an angle of 45 from their original line of fire. The 
remaining two were galloped over clear country under heavy shell 
fire to take up a new position. 

\Yith approximately only 100 rounds of ammunition, exposed to 
the heaviest shell fire, we waited until the enemy were sufficiently 
advanced to come under our "open sights so that every round 
might count. So on they came until 600 yards separated us. The 
order came for us to retire. This Major McLeod ignored, but 
instead gave the word to open fire. The /th Battalion charged at 
the same time, with the remnants of the Kilty Brigade. Round 
after round we poured into the still oncoming enemy until at last 
they were held and finally swept back through Langemarck wood. 
Three new positions were taken up by the Battery that night, and 
finally we were settled at Indian Hill, near \Yieltje, and to the side 
of Potijze. What a hell-hole it was! Our casualties were fast 
mounting up, both among the personnel and horses, and unfor 
tunately a number of these were deaths. On May ist we took up 
a position on the banks of the Yser Canal, and remained there until 
the Division was withdrawn for reorganization at Hinges. 

On May iQth we were again, as part of the " Flying /th 
Division " hustled into hot action at Festubert, and in the following 
month at Givenchy. It was at the latter place that a gun from the 
6th Battery was placed in action in the front line trench, a " stunt " 
subsequently acknowledged by the General Officer Commanding. 


1 7th BATTERY (6th BATTERY, C.F.A.) 

From the " Orchard Position " at Givenchy the Old i/th was sent 
into action at Xeuve Eglise, where for a long time they enjoyed 
comparative peace, with only occasional casualties, and nothing 
more than " raiding " work, which was first commenced on this 
front, to relieve the monotony. It was while here that the 2nd and 
3rd Divisions came over and the Canadians became an Army Corps. 
It was here, too, that we lost our Major. 

Major McLeod was of the type of 
officer most beloved by the Canadian rank 
and file. Quick, alert, a thoroughly skilled 
Artillery Officer, he surely would have 
forced early recognition from headquar 
ters had he been spared to attain it. Ter 
rible was the blow to his " boys," when his 
body was found in a small pond not many 
rods from the gun position. His was not 
even the glory of the death from bullet or 
shrapnel. Yet his duty had been well done, 
to his God, to his country, to his fellow LT.-COL. G. H. MCLEOD. 
officers and men. This brief outline of the 

Old i/ith would be even more inadequate were the writer to omit this 
humble tribute to a dear friend and beloved Commanding Officer. 

Christmas, 1915, was spent at Xeuve Eglise, and again we had 
to thank our officers for providing the usual Christmas trimmings. 
Conditions were not as they had been in England, and, unfor 
tunately, many of the old faces were missing. Such were the 
fortunes of war, and we who had been raw recruits one short year 
before were beginning to look at things as philosophic veterans. 

In the latter part of January the Battery was withdrawn to 
Caestre for a brief rest, being relieved by one of the Units of the 
2nd Division. Early in February we went to Lederzeele, and 
about March 2oth found ourselves in action once more at Neuve 
Eglise. Just about this time rumors, hitherto vague, became more 
certain that the Battery was once more to move Ypresward. 
Rumor became a definite fact on April 4th, and we found ourselves 
in position at Railway dugouts, a trifle to the south of Ypres City. 
Here we remained in complete quiet until the 2oth, when in the 
Hill 60 scrap we received our first taste of gas shells. 



It was during the month of May that the organization of three 
Howitzer Batteries was undertaken and sub-sections from all the 
Batteries in the Division were utilized to form these Batteries, and 
sub-section " C was separated from the 6th to help form the 
D, 48th Battery of 4-5 s. The complete organization of this 
Battery had not been consummated before the German hordes again 
attacked in force, this time at Soisele Hill and Sanctuary Wood. 
All sub-sections reported back to their own Batteries for duty, and 
the 6th Battery again played its important part in the Third Battle of 
Ypres. On the morning of June I3th the Canadians counter 
attacked and regained the ground lost in the 2nd of June scrap. 

The remainder of the month of June was passed quietly in the 
Ypres Salient, as was also the month of July, with the exception of 
a little excitement at " The Dump." About the middle of August 
the Battery went into billets for rest and tactical drill at Polin Cove 
and on the 26th entrained at Audruicq for the Somme. 

On detraining at Aix la Chateau on the 27th, the Battery, after 
one day s forced march, went into action at Mesnel on the 28th. 
On September 3rd the Old I7th supported the attack of an Imperial 
Corps on Thiepval, which was unsuccessful. We then moved into 
position at La Boiselle on ground won from the enemy during the 
fighting there in the early part of July. Glad we were to see at 
long last ground won from the Hun. Seemingly we were now 
engaged in driving him back, steadily and surely. The Germans 
were retreating the end of the war was in sight so we thought. 

On September I5th the attack on Courcellette was commenced. 
Who of us that were there can easily forget the glory of that early 
sunlit September morning ! The writer was fortunate enough to be 
one of a party of Artillery Signallers to " go over " with the second 
wave " of infantry and was forward when the signal dropped 
from one of our air craft came to advance. The intensity of the 
bombardment was overwhelming. It was impossible to hear the 
loudest shout of the man adjoining you. We were all frantic 
.cheering, yelling, jumping up and down in our excitement. It was 
pandemonium, let loose with a vengeance and we were winning. 
We were advancing. The Sugar Refinery was reached and our 
Battery was advanced. Courcellette was taken by the 25th and 26th 
Battalions and again we were moved forward until we were 


i7fh BATTERY (6th BATTERY, C.F.A.} 

practically within two hundred yards of where the German front 
line had been on the morning of the I5th. This position Pozieres 
Wood had been won by the Australians at a terrible cost some 
weeks before. 

From the I5th until 1 the 26th of September we were kept busy 
consolidating the ground won from the enemy. On the 26th we 
were again called upon to take part in a glorious action which won 
Thiepval for us. We were also successful in our first attack on 
Regina Trench. Such heavy action was not successfully won with 
out our paying the price, however, and the 6th Battery of October, 
1916, little resembled the Old i/th that left Valcartier in September, 
1914. Heavy had been the toll of lives and casualties. 

It was on October 2Oth that the last remaining gun brought 
from Sydney, was condemned after firing 20,010 rounds of am 
munition. From this on, the writer (having been wounded at the 
Somme sufficiently to keep him out of action for the remainder of 
the war) must depend, not on personal observation, but on infor 
mation derived from divers sources. 

Early in November Desire Support Trench was taken, and a 
little later on in the same month our wagon lines were again 
situated at Albert. The march along Bouzincourt, Varennes, 
Raincheva, Frevent, St. Pol, St. Michel and Marquay was un 
eventful. On the 3Oth the Battery stopped at Pernes, for a well- 
earned rest. Our 1916 Christmas dinner was held here, and mighty 
well was it celebrated. On January 6th we started out for Bruay, 
Ruitz, Hersin to Fosse 10 and finally into action at Bully Grenay. 

On February I3th the first landing of the Canadians in France 
was suitably celebrated at noon, by the firing of " Battery cheers " 
and " Brigade cheers." From then on is merely a series of names, 
Hersin Wagon Lines, Maisnil-les-Ruitz, Camblain 1 Abbe, until the 
E2 position behind Neuville St. Vaast. On the 25th the Battery 
was again changed from a four to a six-gun Unit. From Neuville 
St. Vaast the Old i/th went to Vimy. Who will forget Bentata 
Tunnel? Who will forget the morning of the I3th when two 
guns of the old Battery went to form the composite Battery at 
Bois Carre, to the right of Thelus? On the night of the i6th the 
Battery went over the Ridge, and from there on the story of the 
6th is the same as that of the other Nova Scotia Units that took 



part at Yimy. From Yimy to late in July was uneventful. On 
the 22nd of that month our wagon lines were established at Les 
Brebis. On the 23rd we went into action behind Loos Grassier. 
Things remained quiet until August I5th when the Hill 70 scrap 
for Lens commenced. On September 9th we were at Lievin, and 
remained in that vicinity for about one month. 

Around October ist a move was made to Boyeffles, where the 
wagon line was established. On the 6th the Battery took up a 
position behind the cemetery at Lievin, where we remained for 
some time. On the 24th of October we were again en route for 
Ypres, our old hunting ground, via Bethune, Morbecque and Gode- 
waersvelde. On the 29th our wagon lines were settled at a spot 
just south of St. Julien, and on the ist of November we took up a 
position, which shall ever be consecrated in memory of our First 
Canadian Contingent, for the Passchendaele show. On the 23rd 
we were again en route south, via Bailleul, Strazeele, Haverskerque 
and Vendin-les-Bethune. On November 26th the Battery was again 
at the Old Lievin cemetery. Christmas Day, 1917, was celebrated 
at Haillicourt. 

On January 24th the Battery took up a position behind Loos 
Grassier, where they remained in comparative quietness until March 
22nd, when a new position behind the double Grassier was taken. 
On the 29th we went into action at Ronville Dump between Arras 
and Achicourt, and from there to the Old Mill at Achicourt on 
April ist. On the 8th we were out at Anzin, on the 9th at 
Musketry Valley position, in front of St. Laurent Blangy. The 
Battery was withdrawn for rest at Hermanville on May 25th, and 
on June ist was inspected with the other Batteries in the Brigade 
by the Corps Commander. On the loth Divisional Sports were 
held, in which the old Battery won its quota of prizes. 

On July 1 5th we went into action at St. Laurent Blangy, and 
on the 24th were back again at Achicourt Old Windmill position. 
August the ist saw the Unit at Berlincourt. and on the 3rd they 
entrained at Prevent for Amiens. "We detrained the following day 
at Prouzel and left for Bois de Boves. On August 5th we took up 
a position at Bois de Gentelles, and on the 8th took part in the 
" kick off " for the Amiens show with a night position in front of 
Cayeux. From the 9th until the i6th is simply a sequence of names 


1 7th BATTERY (nth BATTERY, C.F.A.} 

that spells the hardest action ; Caix Valley, Warvillers, Le Ouesnoy, 
Warvillers. On August 2ist the Battery was en route back to 
Saleux, via Cayeux, Domart and Boves \\ ood, where they en 
trained for Aubigny and Dainville Wood. 

The " kick off for the Drocourt-Queant line came on Sep 
tember 2nd. On the 3rd our position was taken up just east of 
Villers Cagnicourt, and on the 6th the 6th Battery was at Bainville 
on rest, where they remained for about three weeks. On the 26th 
the Battery went into action at Buissy, and on the 27th took part in 
the attack on Canal du Xord and Cambrai. The Old i/th had the 
honor to be the first Battery to cross the Canal at Inchy, and 
immediately after took up position just east of the Canal beyond 

October was merely a repetition of names. The Battery took 
part in the general rout of the enemy, until November 7th found 
them at Crespin, in action for the last time. On November the 
loth the last round was fired from the Battery in this position by 
Gunner Malcolm MacDonald of " B " subsection, the very same 
subsection that fired the first round on March i, 1915. 

At n a.m. of November nth hostilities ceased and the fighting 
was finished. The "Old I7th," however, marched into Germany 
as part of the Army of Occupation and completed the work that 
the original had set out to do. Very few, however, of the original 
members were left by that time. Yet those of us, who were unable 
to share in the glorious hour of Victory, were recompensed by 
knowing that our successors nobly carried on in our places equally 
as well as, if not better than, we ourselves could have done. The 
Battery embarked at Southampton on S.S. Olympic, and arrived at 
Halifax on April 21, 1919. It was demobilized the same day and 
consequently its home city, Sydney, was deprived of the pleasure of 
welcoming it as a Unit. 

Officers: Killed ................ ............. 5 

Died ............................... 2 

Other ranks: Killed .......................... 19 

Died of wounds ................ 13 

Died ........................... 2 





D.S.0 3 

M.C 10 

D.C.M 4 

M.M 28 

Bar to M.M i 

M.S.M i 

Croix de Guerre i 

Despatches 12 




IN November, 1914, Lieut.-Col. T. M. Seeley, of Yarmouth, N.S. 
(O.C. nth Brigade, C.F.A.), was commissioned to organize the 
23rd Battery of Field Artillery, to represent the Maritime 
Provinces in the 6th Artillery Brigade, C.E.F. The temporary 
headquarters were at Fredericton, N.B., but recruits were to be 
drawn from any part of the Maritime Provinces. Many were 
furnished by the 3rd, 4th and nth 
Brigades of the Militia Artillery. An 


important factor in the new Unit was 
a group of twenty-five or thirty students 
who joined from the University of New- 
Brunswick and other universities. 

The recruiting proceeded at such a 
rate that Lieut.-Col. Seeley soon found 
himself with fifty or sixty men over 
strength. He appealed to headquarters 
for authority to have a second Battery 
formed, which was granted. Lieut.-Col. 
B. A. Ingraham, R.O.. of Sydney, C.B., 

was commissioned to organize the 24th Battery, also at Frederic- 
ton. He took over the surplus from the 23rd, and in addition 
brought a large detachment of fine men from Cape Breton. 

These Batteries trained side by side until February 18, 1915, 
when they were mobilized with the 2ist Battery of Kingston and 
the 22nd Battery of Montreal, and sent Overseas February 22nd 
on SS. Megantic, under Lieut.-Col. E. W. Rathburn. 

The Mayor of Fredericton, the Premier of New Brunswick, the 
Earl and Countess of Ashburnham, and the citizens generally were 
very kind to the artillerymen during their sojourn in Fredericton. 
4 4* 



Just previous to sailing there were several changes made in the 
personnel of the officers. Lieut-Colonel Seeley was detailed to 
organization duty in Canada, and Major J. K. MacKay was placed in 
command of the 23rd Battery. On sailing the staff was: Major 
MacKay, O.C. ; Capt. E. A. Chisholm; Lieuts. J. E. Read and 
McEachern. The . Staff of the 24th Battery was: Lieut- 
Colonel Ingraham, O.C. ; Capt. A. T. MacKay (of P.E.I.) ; Lieuts. 
G. St. C. A. Perrin and O. Mowatt. 

Arriving in England the Batteries received a brief training at 
Shorncliffe, after which they were drafted to the Second Brigade, 
C.F.A., and Divisional Ammunition Column in France. A lar-e 
proportion of the X.C.O. s and men of these Batteries won com 
missions and distinctions on the field. 




THE 36th Battery was formed in Sydney in September, 1915, 
Major Walter Crowe being the organizer and leading spirit 
in it. The rush of applications for positions in the Battery 
was so great that over one hundred had to be turned away. Major 
Crowe selected his men with great care; and the subsequent 
achievements of the Battery is evidence that his judgment was 
good. To Major Crowe must be given 
a great deal of credit for the splendid 
record which the Battery achieved Over 
seas. He remained with it as its Com 
manding Officer and supervised nearly 
all its early training, took it Overseas in 
March, 1916, but on account of being 
very much over age could not accom 
pany the Battery to France; so the 
command was given to Major D. A. 
MacKinnon, of Charlottetown, P.E.I. 

The Battery arrived in France on MAJ D A MACKINNON, D.S.O. 
July I4th, 1916, and was almost imme 
diately placed in action on the Ypres Salient, which was a very 
" hot " spot. They were in action only twenty- four hours when they 
received quite a heavy shelling from the enemy. They remained in 
this position for about a month, firing day and night, and their quick 
response to all calls from the infantry was remarked upon. The 
next move was to Kemmel, which was a nice quiet spot, and the 
boys enjoyed themselves very much while in that vicinity. Early 
in October the march for the Somme commenced. It occupied a 



week; and about the I2th of October the Battery went into action 
about one thousand yards in the rear of Courcellette. They received 
considerable shelling but returned one hundred rounds for every 
one they got. After the Battle of Regina Trench they moved 
forward in front of Martinpuich, with the expectation of another 
great battle which never materialized. While in this position they 
were constantly shelled, the discomforts were terrible, mud and 
rain preventing any kind of decent accommodation ; but the gunners 
were better off than the drivers at the wagon lines; there the mud 
was two feet deep, and the trials and sufferings almost unendurable. 
Nearly all the ammunition had to be carried to the guns by packing 
it on horses and mules backs, taking it up over trails, inasmuch as 
the roads were death traps, on account of enemy fire. Notwith 
standing this the Battery kept up its reputation for activity, having 
fired on several occasions well over one thousand rounds in a few 
hours. They were highly complimented for their splendid conceal 
ment and for the brave way in which they carried on under very 
discouraging difficulties. On the 2Oth of November the Division 
pulled out of the Somme, greatly to the relief of all. 

A week s tramp to the Ecuri Front commenced, the first two 
days being teeming rain and bitter cold. It was during this march 
that Sergt. Sam Wilson, one of the most popular men in the 
Battery, contracted pneumonia and died in a few days, mourned by 
all. During the following months the Battery stayed in position 
doing garrison duty, but in February they were forced to leave 
and made three shifts of positions in three days. The bitter cold, 
it being the coldest winter in forty years, and the shortage of fodder 
for the horses, coupled with the hard work which so much moving 
entailed, caused the death of a great many horses and mules. The 
hardships of the drivers were also particularly severe, shelter was 
at a premium, and the winter of 1916 and 1917 will ever remain as 
a very disagreeable memory. 

Early in March preparations commenced for the Battle of Vimy 
Ridge, the drivers being constantly employed at night hauling vast 
quantities of ammunition to forward points. The month was very 
rainy with high winds, and all night the men would be exposed to 
the rain and winds and return at daybreak tired and exhausted, 



cold and wet to the skin. The sufferings which they experienced 
that winter, and the grim determination with which they carried 
through their duties will never be forgotten. On the 25th of March 
the 36th was changed to a six-gun Battery, absorbing one-half of 
the 29th Battery. It was a splendid consolidation, the new-comers 
proving very excellent gunners and drivers, and brave men. About 
the ist of April, 1917, the Battery moved forward to a little 
hollow near the Arras road, facing Vimy Ridge. Rude pits had 
to be constructed for the guns, and these they soon fashioned into 
a home for the Battery. The Batteries were as thick as flies in 
this hollow, and we had neighbors on all sides of us. The 2nd of 
April 1 saw everybody registering on targets in the enemy lines, and 
one had almost to crawl about to prevent being hit by our own guns. 
As the enemy had observation of this position they very quickly 
began to use it, shelling the area with gas and high explosives. It 
was a most uncomfortable position, and had the battle been delayed 
a few days longer and the enemy been given a chance to get more 
heavy artillery, there is no doubt that they would have given us a 
bad time. 

The Battle of Vimy Ridge started at 5 o clock, April 9th. It was 
the biggest battle we had ever been engaged in, and every one was 
quite interested to see how it would pan out. It was a great success, 
and we quickly got orders to move our position forward so as to be 
able to range on the retreating enemy. This was accomplished very 
speedily. The battle practically ended on April loth, and no 
further move was made forward. On the i4th we took our guns 
down into the village of Vimy being, we believed, one of the first 
Batteries to enter that much shelled village. We were lucky in getting 
in and lucky in getting our teams out, as the roads were shelled 
most terrifically. It was three weeks after that before we could 
bring a wagon of any description down the roads to the Battery. 
All ammunition and supplies had to be brought on pack horses and 
mules along trails leading over the ridges, but by the exercise of 
great care they managed to keep up our ammunition supplies and 
prevent casualties. 

The first two weeks which followed in our position were memor 
able for the amount of gas which the enemy hurled at us. We 



wore our masks practically all night. Thanks to a sufficient gas 
drill and gas protection our casualties were slight, ^"ith the energy 
and resource which characterized our boys they set to work and 
built a position which was the envy of all. It was so constructed 
that it was impossible to detect it by aeroplane or other observation. 
Speaking tubes connected all the gun-pits with the command post, 
and each pit had a tunnel leading into the other ; so that if one was 
severely bombarded, an escape could be made through the other. 
The walls of the pits were nicely decorated with captured German 
material, and the appearance was such as to strike an inspecting 
officer most favorably. The greatest attention was paid to 
strengthening each defence, as the shelling was intense both by day 
and night. It was lucky that all these precautions were taken ; for 
on the 24th of June, just as the Battery had completed firing a trial 
barrage, the enemy opened up with four batteries of heavy artillery. 
The bombardment was terrific, and almost all varieties of shell 
were used, including armorpiercing shell, which went down ten 
feet in the ground and then exploded. It was marvelous that there 
was anything left of the Battery, the whole position was covered 
with shell holes. One of the shells passed through the shelter in 
which Corpl. John McVicar, of Sydney, was with his gun detach 
ment. The shock instantly killed Corporal McVicar and dazed some 
of the others. At the same time others had become casualties. The 
day will be long remembered as one which inflicted great sorrow on 
the remaining members of the Battery. While we were in this 
position Corporal Jack and Gunner Wheatley were also wounded, 
and there were several regrettable casualties among the drivers at 
the wagon lines. 

Early in July the Battery moved to a forward position near 
Vimy and, while there, was subjected to another terrific bombard 
ment in which they had nearly one thousand rounds of ammunition 
destroyed. Several of the officers had close calls, and those who 
are alive will never forget the experience. About the 3ist of July 
the Battery moved to Hill 70, and took up a position behind the 
double crassier. They constructed a good position in a very short 
time. The place was alive with Canadian Field Batteries, and it 
did not take the Hun long to discover the fact. Nearly all the 



Batteries were silent,; that is, they were not to do any firing until 
a battle commenced, but the 36th and a few others were selected to 
do all the firing, including the heavy task of demolishing the wire 
in the German trenches, so that our infantry could get through. 
This the Battery did to the entire satisfaction of the infantry, 
although it was at quite a heavy cost to themselves, as they were 
constantly shelled day and night, and the 
position was a most trying one. The 
battle, which took place about the I4th 
of August, was one of the bloodiest of 
the whole war. The Hill was the key to 
Lens, and the Hun determined to retake 
it at all costs. In one day there were 
fourteen counter attacks made by the 
Hun, and on every occasion the field 
artillery responded, instantly killing 
many thousands of Germans. The work 

of the 3 6th throughout this engagement CAPT F H TINGLEVj M . c . 
was commented on and needs no men 
tion here. In one day they brought up from the ammunition dump 
and fired over five thousand rounds of ammunition. For two weeks 
the gunners had practically no rest, while the drivers that could be 
spared from the wagon lines came up and assisted in getting 
ammunition ready. So active had the Battery become that the 
Hun determined to destroy it and made several attempts but with 
out success. However on the night of the 24th of August, while 
the Battery was firing an S.O.S., in response to a call from the 
infantry, they were subjected to a very intense shelling with a new 
gas, afterwards known as mustard gas. This gas is very much of 
the nature of sulphuric acid, and the burns made by it are very 
similar. In a short time several men were struck by the shells, 
some wounded and some killed; others going to the assistance of 
their suffering comrades got the gas on their hands and were 
terribly burned. It was an awful night, and some very gallant deeds 
were done. The returns next day showed three killed, three officers, 
and twenty-five others gassed. Some of the men who were gassed 
on that occasion never recovered from it. The effects will be with 



them as long as they live. It was a very bad night for the Can 
adian Artillery. Other Batteries suffered, some even more severely, 
but they received unstinted praise for the gallant way they stuck 
to their guns. Besides the above, the Battery suffered a great many 
other casualties while in the Hill 70 Sector. In addition to Lieu 
tenants Teed and Fleet being gassed, Lieutenant Longworth was 
severely wounded. On the night of the 2Qth of August we were 
relieved by a British Battery, but the relief could not be completed 
in quiet, the Hun shelling the position very severely with gas. 

We were all pleased to leave that vicinity, and our next position 
was on the Vimy Front, which was nice and quiet ; and everybody 
had a very pleasant time until the loth of October, when the 
Canadian Corps marched to Passchendaele, a trek that was under 
taken with anything but light hearts, for its reputation as a death 
trap was known to all. On the 2ist of October we took over 
from an English Battery, who were in a very bad way, having been 
practically shot to pieces. Everything was in very bad shape, only 
two guns being in action; but with great courage the boys set to 
work and very soon had the best position in the Salient. They 
protected their guns and themselves by the use of sand bags; and 
in that way saved many valuable lives. Conditions were such as 
to be almost impossible of description. The mud was up to one s 
knees, and the place seemed to be nothing but shell holes filled with 
water. The enemy had perfect observation on us from the village 
of Passchendaele. On the 24th of October we registered our guns 
on its church, and the battle started on the 26th. During the 
progress of the battle we were severely shelled, Gunner Ira 
Stewart, of Charlottetown, being instantly killed. All the gunners 
carried on very heroically notwithstanding the shelling, and the day 
ended with a great victory for the Canadians. 

A few days later we had moved forward to a position in front 
of Kansas Cross, and in a short time had prepared a very fine 
position considering the materials at hand. The artillery programme 
was a very extensive one, firing starting at 5 o clock in the morning 
and continuing at intervals several times through the day and night. 
The daily expenditure of the Battery ran well over one thousand 
rounds, and this had to be transported by pack mules a distance of 
eight miles from the ammunition dump. While on their way to 



the guns they were subjected to scattered shelling and to bombing 
by overhead planes. At night they got no rest either at the guns, 
or the wagon lines, heavy bombing planes circling over the area 
and dropping their contents indiscriminately. The casualties of 
the Canadians in these terrible battles are well known, their suffer 
ings are beyond description. No words of mine can adequately 
portray the courage, fortitude, cheerfulness and devotion to duty 
exemplified by the officers and men of the 36th Battery in the 
terrible battles which culminated in the capture of Passchendaele 
Ridge. Among the officers it would be unfair to particularize, for 
all did their part nobly; but I believe that I could speak of Lieut. 
Andrew Livingstone s three weeks experience as a forward officer 
as being the most awful of the lot. Words could not picture the 
things he saw and what he went through. To Lieut. Chas. Shrieve, 
of Digby, I always gave the greatest credit for the resourcefulness 
he displayed in building the positions. For his gallant conduct he 
was awarded the Military Cross. Lieutenant Teed had previously 
received the same decoration for similar conduct at Hill 70. 

On the I4th of November the most awful experience the Battery 
ever had was encountered. The night before the enemy had 
attempted a counter attack but the signal from the infantry had 
met with such instant response from the field artillery that his ranks 
were practically decimated. In retaliation he turned every gun he 
could command on the Batteries of field artillery in front of Kansas 
Cross. There were probably twenty English and Canadian Bat 
teries within an area of three hundred yards; and on these at 1.30 
in the afternoon was placed a bombardment that for intensity has 
probably never been excelled. Guns and ammunition were blown 
up at every volley, one entire Battery being wiped out, with all its 
personnel. The 36th received their share of the shelling, their 
dugouts being blown up and the gunners and officers buried beneath 
them. They had, however, suffered very few casualties considering 
the terrible ordeal passed through; but those who were placed at 
the guns on that day will never forget the experience. 

On the 2ist of November they moved out of Passchendaele, 
the Hun shelling the position just as they were leaving, and the 
succeeding Battery being practically annihilated within a few days. 



A period of recuperation ensued, which did much to recover the 
morale of the Battery. In January they moved down into the Vimy 
Front, suffering the ordinary run of casualties, but without any 
very serious troubles. On the 2ist of March, 1918, the Hun put 
on his famous offensive, and it was feared that he would attempt 
to take Vimy Ridge. As there was very little chance of getting 
the guns out if he broke through our infantry lines, it was decided 
to move the Batteries from the plain to the top of the Ridge, where 
they were put for defensive purposes. The 36th Battery was 
selected as a sacrifice Battery and were left in their position in front 
of \ imy. Their task was to harass the enemy as much as possible, 
their daily expenditure of ammunition running from a thousand to 
two thousand rounds. This activity of one Battery did not escape 
the alert attention of the Hun ; and on the 28th of March, when he 
made his famous attack on Arras, a little to the south of Vimy, he 
took on the 36th Battery in great style. In three hours it was 
estimated by observers on the Ridge that over two thousand rounds 
were fired into the Battery. Guns and dugouts were blown up and 
a tremendous lot of damage done. Some brave deeds were carried 
out by members of the Battery, and among the decorations received 
for this affair were Military Medals by Sergeant Cashen, of Sydney, 
and Signaller MacKenzie and Bombardier Peter Laforte. All the 
members of the Battery acted most heroically. That night orders 
were given to retire the Battery from this untenable position, and 
in the new one they carried on with much more comfort. 

About the ist of May the Battery went into training for open 
warfare, and remained in training until July when they went into 
the line for a few weeks. On the 28th of July they were drawn 
from the line, and on the first of August started on the famous 
march to Amiens. The greatest secrecy was maintained regarding 
the destination of the Canadians, and it was not until the night of 
the 4th of August that we knew our destination. The nights of the 
5th, 6th and 7th were utilized in bringing up thousands of rounds 
of ammunition and getting ready for the big battle which started 
on the 8th. The Battle, of Amiens was the hand-writing on the 
wall, so General Ludendorff has told us. On that day the 36th Battery 
occupied six positions, giving the most splendid aid to our glorious 



infantry. At half past four in the afternoon a German aeroplane 
swooped down on the Battery and killed several horses, wounded 
some of the men and Lieutenant Manning. The casualties would 
have been greater but for the bravery and coolness of the machine 
gunners, who poured a constant volley into the Hun and actually 
killed him, his plane crashing in a few minutes. 

The Battle of Amiens continued for several days with constant 
advances. On the night of the I3th we were ordered to place 
three thousand rounds of ammunition in an advanced position for 
another Battery. Sergt. J. \V. Boutillier was given charge of the 
unloading. \Yhile waiting for the arrival of the ammunition his 
party was subjected to heavy shell fire. Sergeant Boutillier and 
Sergeant Swift were killed and several others were wounded. 
Sergeant Boutillier was one of the most outstanding men in the 
entire Battery and his loss was very keenly felt. For his bravery 
on this occasion Corpl. A. J. McGillivary was awarded the Croix 
de Guerre. 

On the 1 9th of August the Battery started on its march for the 
Battle of Arras, arriving at Arras on the night of the 23rd of 
August and going into position that same night. The night of the 
24th was utilized in bringing up ammunition. On the 25th they 
rested. On the morning of the 26th the famous Battle of Arras 
opened. It was a day full of stirring incidents, the 36th Battery 
suffered severe casualties. The following days were very busy, 
the Battery constantly moving into new positions, shelling the 
enemy, and being shelled in return. On the morning of September 
ist orders were received to cut wire on the Hindenburg line, and 
to expend upwards of four thousand rounds for that purpose. 
The position which the 36th Battery occupied was a very exposed 
one, and under observation by balloons and other means. The 
Battery had about completed one task when the enemy started to 
shell us very severely. At first the rounds fell short. Lieutenant 
Teed was at the telephone, and thinking that I did not receive the 
orders at the guns ran down to shout an order to No. 2 gun in charge 
of Sergeant McKay. Just as he got there an enemy shell landed, 
instantly killing Sergeant McKay, Gunner John Corn foot and Lieu 
tenant Teed. These were three of our very best, and the blo\v was 


one of the saddest in the 36th Battery s whole experience. Lieut. 
Lionel Teed was from St. John, and had -been with the Battery 
from its commencement. He was a brave officer, an extremely 
clever one, and loved by all. Sergeant McKay and Jack Cornfoot 
were also very popular. The wire cutting was completed. Not 
withstanding the shelling the brave boys of the 30th carried 

on as though nothing had happened., 
The battle which took place the next 
day broke the Hindenburg line, the 
strongest trench fortification ever util 
ized in warfare. 

A succession of moves forward was 
then made. The Batteries kept close 
behind the infantry in their pursuit of 
the Hun. On the i4th a halt was made, 
and the Batteries transferred to another 
section of the Front. They took up a 
LIEUT. D. iTEED, M.C. position in the village of Sudemont, 

which was a very "hot" place, being 

almost constantly under shell fire. A number of casualties occurred 
when we were in this position, notably Corpl. John McSween, who 
lost a leg, and Sergeant Philpott and others. On the I7th the 
Battery started for the Battle of Cambrai, arriving in that sector on 
the evening of the i8th. The nights of the ipth and 2oth were used 
in bringing up ammunition to a position in the little town of Inchy, 
where a battery position had been selected. The ammunition could 
only be drawn up under the greatest difficulties, for the roads were 
under heavy shell fire. Some very gallant deeds were done by the 
drivers and those in charge of them. For one particularly gallant 
exploit Corpl. A. Morrison received the D.C.M. 

The morning of the 2ist was beautiful and the battle was 
wonderfully successful. Before ten o clock thousands of yards of 
enemy territory had been penetrated and Bourlon Wood captured. 
The enemy field artillery recovered and shelled us vigorously, and 
we suffered several casualties. The battle continued for several 
days, with constant gain of territory for us. On the night of the 
28th, while Lieutenant Livingstone was unloading ammunition, his 
drivers and the gunners were subjected to heavy shell fire and we 


had many regrettable casualties ; among the drivers, Frank Hughes, 
of Charlottetown, and Driver George McDonald, of Sydney. 
George was one of the most wonderful guides in France, and his 
loss was a severe one. The next few days saw several moves of 
positions, and on the 5th of October the 36th Battery was in a 
position at Raillencourt. On the evening of October 7th orders 
were issued for the Battery to move up 
to a position in the rear of St. Olle. 
The six guns with ammunition and 
ammunition wagons arrived at the posi 
tion and were starting to unlimber when 
a volley of German shells landed directly 
in them. The casualties were terrific, 
over 50 per cent, of those present being 
killed or wounded together with twenty 
horses. The whole thing occupied only 
a few minutes, but it saddened a great 
many hearts. Lieut. Chas. Shrieve was CAPT CHAS ~HWEVE, M.C. 
shot through the chest and died instantly. 

Captain Craig was severely wounded through the hip. Lieutenant 
Livingstone was wounded in two places and his ankle broken. 
Twenty-eight N.C.O. s and men were killed or wounded. Among 
the killed was the very popular Bombardier John Drysdale. The 
blow was a demoralizing one, but the undaunted courage of the 
remaining members of the 36th was equal to the task. Within 
three hours the guns had been transferred to new positions, and 
lines of fire laid out, and the Battery ready for action. 

The Hill 70 gas episode and the shelling received the night of 
October the 7th were two of the worst experiences that any 
Battery had ever been called upon to endure, but the brave boys of 
the 36th met both with unflinching courage and proved themselves 
worthy of all the encomiums which had been bestowed upon them. 
For gallant work on this occasion several members of the Battery 
were decorated. On the loth of October Cambrai was captured, 
the 36th Battery doing its share to make the battle a success. 

From Cambrai they moved northward again, occupying various 
positions with various degrees of fortune until November ist, when 



the march towards Mons commenced. This was one long suc 
cession of triumphs, culminating in the capture of the celebrated 
city on the morning of the nth of November. On the afternoon 
of the loth we were in position at Je-Mappes, about one thousand 
yards from Mons. At 3.30 in the afternoon orders were received 
to fire on the railway at Mons, and while engaged in doing that 

several enemy shells were fired into the 
Battery, one of which instantly killed 
Lieut. Fred Longworth. of Charlotte- 
town, and wounded Sergeant Dickson 
and several others. Sergeant Dickson 
received thirty-two wounds but managed 
to pull through. On the morning of the 
nth at 6.30 word was received that the 
Armistice was signed, and a March-Past 
was ordered to take place in the City of 
Mons. There was great rejoicing at the 

LT. F. j. LONGWORTH, M.c. g ood news > inasmuch as the suffering of 

the last three months was beginning to 
tell on the remaining members of the " Old Guard." 

I cannot close this account of the doings of the 36th Battery 
without making reference to the wonderful qualities which the 
officers, N.C.O. s and men displayed. It was easy to command a 
Battery like the 36th. They were everything that could be desired. 
Loyal, brave and good-humored, with the greatest devotion to duty, 
they cannot be too highly praised by me. Every man was a hero 
and every man deserved decorations many times over. I feel that 
it is but fitting that I should here mention the fact, when speaking 
about decorations, that the 36th Battery received a very large share 
of them, including one D.S.O.. two Croix de Guerre, eight Military 
Crosses, one bar for Military Cross, ten D.C.M. s and twenty 

Military Medals. 

On November 21, 1918, Major D. A. MacKinnon, who com 
manded the 36th Battery from its arrival in France on July 14. 
1916. and who took part with the Battery in all its battles, was 
granted sick leave to Canada. 

The loss of so many brave officers and brave men had been a 
severe shock to him. and his nerves became greatly unstrung. It 



was with sincere regret that he parted with the boys after nearly 
three years of strenuous fighting. The Battery, after a short stay 
in Belgium, was transferred to England, demobilizing in March, 
1919. On the 36th Battery s return to Sydney, X.S., they were 
tendered a most notable reception. 


Major D. A. MacKinnon, Charlottetown, P.E.I Distinguished Service 

Order and Croix 
de Guerre. 

Capt. F. H. Tingley (killed), Moncton Military Cross. 

Capt. A. L. Anderson, Toronto Military Cross and Bar. 

Lieut. D. L. Teed (killed), St. John, N.B Military Cross 

Lieut. C. D. Shrieve (killed), Digby, N.S Military Cross. 

Lieut. R. Fleet, Montreal Military Cross. 

Lieut. F. J. Longworth (killed), Charlottetown Military Cross. 

Lieut. J. W. L. Harris, Moncton, N.B Military Cross. 

Lieut. A. B. Manning, Toronto Military Cross. 

Lieut. A. Livingstone, Sydney, N.S Military Cross. 

Lieut. I. Alexander, Fredericton, N.B Military Cross. 

Lieut. J. O Grady, Winnipeg 


1 4th BRIGADE, C.F.A. 

THE I4th Brigade, C.F.A. , was organized in the spring of 
1916 and was part of the 4th Division Artillery, which 
trained at Petawawa in the summer of 1916. The 14th 
Brigade, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel John L. McKinnon, 
/ of Halifax, N.S., was composed of the following Units: Head 
quarters, 7 officers, 40 men, recruited in Nova Scotia. Batteries, 

55th and 56th, recruited in Guelph, Ont. ; 
58th, recruited in New Brunswick ; 66th, 
recruited in Montreal. Brigade Ammu 
nition Column, 3 officers, 120 men, re- 
^ jjj; cruited in Nova Scotia. 

In addition to the O.C., Lieutenant- 
Colonel McKinnon, the following other 
^^^^ Nova Scotia officers proceeded Over- 

i Ik seas with this Brigade: Capt. G. C. 

Oland, Halifax, Adjutant; Capt. C. V. 
Trites, Liverpool, Medical Officer, both 
attached to Brigade Headquarters; 

LT.-COL. J. L. M KINNON. . , - ,-,-,, 

Major S. C. Oland, in command of 66th 

Battery; Lieut. J. Vickery, 58th Battery; Brigade Ammunition 
Column, Capt. F. S. Burns, Lieut. Herbert Stairs, Lieut. W. M. 
Ray, Lieut. T. D. Farquahar. 

The 4th Divisional Artillery, consisting of the I2th, I3th, I4th 
and 1 5th Brigades, and Divisional Ammunition Column, left Canada 
on September n, 1916, and completed training in England. 

In the fall of 1916 the Imperial authorities for the Imperial 
Army adopted the formation of six-gun Batteries instead of four- 
gun Batteries, reducing Brigades in each Division. The Canadian 
authorities followed in January, 1917, and from the ist, 2nd and 



1 4th BRIGADE, C.F.A. 

3rd Divisions in France a new 4th Divisional Artillery was recon 
stituted, and the old 4th Divisional Artillery became 5th Divisional 
Artillery, which later became Corps Artillery. 

On the formation of the Nova Scotia Regimental Depot, Lieu 
tenant-Colonel McKinnon was given command and was later 
appointed Deputy Judge Advocate General, Canadian Forces Over 



THE Royal Canadian Regiment was raised on December 21, 
1883, as a Unit of the new Canadian Permanent Force, for 
the instruction of the Canadian Militia by establishing 
schools of instruction for officers and non-commissioned officers, 
and by the formation of a nucleus of officers and non-commissioned 
officer instructors to assist at the various Militia Camps. The 
Regiment was first known as the " Infantry School Corps." 

In 1885 " C Company, stationed at Toronto, joined a mixed 
force of Militia under the command of Lieut. -Col. W. D. Otter, 
which marched across the ice along the North Shore of Lake 
Superior to the Xorth-West, to suppress the rebellion of the half- 
breeds, under the leadership of Louis Riel. The Company took 
part in the action of Fish Creek and the relief of Battleford on 
April 24th, and in the action of Cut Knife Hill on May 2nd. 
It also took part in the pursuit of Chief Big Bear during June and 
July. It remained in garrison at Battleford from July until 
October, when it returned to Toronto. This was the first occasion 
on which Canadian troops had conducted active operations and 
brought them to a successful conclusion without the aid of Imperial 

In 1892 the name of the Regiment was changed to the " Can 
adian Regiment Infantry," and the following year Queen Victoria 
approved of the Regiment becoming a Royal Regiment, known as 
the "Royal Canadian Regiment of Canadian Infantry," and granted 
permission for her Imperial Cypher, V.R.I., with the Imperial 
Crown, to be worn as a badge. 

In 1899, on the outbreak of the South African War, a second 
(Special Service) Battalion was raised under the command of 
Lieut.-Colonel W. D. Otter, and sailed on October 30, 1899, in the 
S.S. Sardinian, arriving at Cape Town on November 3Oth. In 



addition to minor skirmishes the Battalion took part in the following 
actions while in South Africa : 

2/th February, 



7th March, 

Poplar Gro\ e 

loth March, 


25th April, 

Israel s r 001 t 

ist Mav, 

Hont s Aek 

i6th Mav, 

Zano K.i\ er 

2Qtli May, 

Doom Kop 
Pretoria . 

4th June, 

The casualties in South Africa were thirty-nine killed, twen-ty- 
died of disease, one hundred and twenty-three wounded. 

The Battalion was represented at the annexation ceremony 
Pretoria on October 2 5 th by a party specially selected, and 
November 7 th it embarked at Cape Town for Southampton, arriv 
ing on November 2 9 th. The Battalion was inspected 
Majesty Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle, when she addres 
them and Thanked them for their services. This was the lasl 
inspection made by the Queen before her death. 

On December nth the Battalion embarked at Liverpool and 
sailed for Canada, arriving at Halifax on December 2 3 rd, whe, 

was disbanded. 

During the South African War the name of the 
changed to the "Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry. 
Majesty King George, then Duke of York, presented colors 
Regiment at Toronto on October 11, 1901, during his torn- 
British Empire. 

\ 3 rd (Garrison) Battalion of the Regiment was 
Halifax to release the ist Battalion Leinster Regiment (Royal 
Canadians) for service elsewhere. This Battalion was brougt 
a high state of efficiency and formed the greater part of the Garn< 
in the Fortress at Halifax. It was, however, disbanded 
after being relieved by an Imperial Regiment, the 5 th Battah 
Royal Garrison Regiment, in September, 1902. 

"in 1902 the name of the Regiment was once again changed, i 
coming known by its present distinctive title of 
dian Regiment. 

In 1904, a special banner, given by His Majesty King 1 
VII to commemorate the Regiment s services in South Africa, was 



presented at Ottawa on October 4th by His Excellency the 
Governor-General, Lord Minto. 

Imperial troops having been withdrawn and the defence of 
Canada taken over by local troops, the Regiment moved to Halifax, 
the establishment being raised to ten companies. 

On the outbreak of the European War in August, 1914, the 
Regiment was mobilized at Halifax, occupying the various forts. 
It was brought up to war strength by a draft of four hundred 
volunteers, men from the newly formed Camp at Valcartier, for 
the Expeditionary Force then being raised. Being trained regular 
troops, and the only ones available for service Overseas, the Regi 
ment, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel A. O. Pages, was sent 
to Bermuda on September gth to relieve the 2nd Battalion Lincoln 
shire Regiment, and were the first Canadian troops to go abroad. 
In August of the following year, the Regiment having been relieved 
by the 38th Battalion, C.E.F., proceeded, under the command of 
Lieut.-Colonel Carpenter, to France, via England, where it was re 
armed and re-equipped. It landed at Boulogne, under the command 
of Lieut.-Col. A. H. Macdonell, D.S.O., on October 3ist, and on 
moving- U p the line immediately became Corps Troops to the Cana 
dian Corps under Lieut-General Sir A. E. H. Alderson, K.C.B. It 
went into the trenches for the first time with the First Canadian 
Division, opposite Messines. 

At the beginning of 1916 it was one of the Battalions composing 
the 7th Canadian Infantry Brigade under Brigadier-General A. C. 
Macdonell, C.M.G., D.S.O., of the newly formed 3 rd Canadian 
Division, under Major-General Mercer, C.B. The Brigade con 
sisted of the Royal Canadian Regiment, Princess Patricia s Cana 
dian Light Infantry, 42nd Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada) 
and 49th Battalion (Edmonton Regiment), and, later, the 7th 
Canadian Machine Gun Company. The Regiment went into the 
line with the Brigade at Wulvergham, moving afterward to 
Kemmel and then to Ypres. 

The Regiment s first general action was that of the German 
attack on June 2nd to June 5th on Sanctuary Wood and Hooge, in 
the Ypres Salient. Here the Regiment, under Lieut.-Col. C. H. 
Hill, distinguished itself by its steadiness under the heaviest con 
centration of hostile artillery and trench mortar fire which up to 



that date had ever been brought to bear on British troops. By its 
rifle and machine gun fire the attempted infantry assaults against 
its lines were frustrated, and it was virtually the action of the 
machine guns, assisted by the 7th Canadian Machine Gun Company, 
that prevented a great disaster to the whole Ypres Salient. These 
guns had been unable to get away after being relieved on account 
of dawn breaking. On June 5th the Germans blew up three very 
large mines at Hooge, annihilating the Garrison. The guns, which 
were some distance in the rear, immediately mounted, fully exposed, 
on the Menin Road, and by their coolly directed fire threw back the 
German Infantry, thus preventing them from swamping our line 
and outflanking it both north and south on the Menin Road. The 
action of June 2nd to 5th exemplified the value of long training. 
The older men who had been in the Regiment for years, and who 
were considered as almost past their day, came to the fore wonder 
fully by their steadiness and discipline. This was shown particularly 
when during the hostile infantry attacks and intense shelling they 
remained cool and steady and withheld their fire, only letting forth 
their perfect deluge of bullets when a good target appeared. This 
encouraged and gave added confidence to the younger men. It was 
certainly the old soldier s day. 

Between June and August some extremely gallant trench raids 
and expeditions were carried out by the Regiment. One raid 
carried out was discovered by the enemy before starting, and came 
under intense fire from rifles, bombs and machine guns at close 
quarters. In spite of this the party rushed forward and inflicted 
heavy losses upon the enemy, but every man except one was 
wounded. Two officers and some men came out into the open and 
worked for two hours under fire collecting and bringing in the 

In September the Regiment moved south with the Canadian 
Corps under Lieut.-General Sir Julian H. G. Byng, K.C.B., 
K.C.M.G., M.V.O., to the Somme, where until November they 
took part in very severe fighting at Courcellette, Regina Trench, and 

The Battalion performed a very difficult feat on September I5th, 
when it came up from reserve and occupied a line just after dusk 
over absolutely strange ground, made unrecognizable by shell fire, 



and in so doing was obliged to change front twice. They occupied 
their position on time. Again, on September i6th, two Companies 
went forward to attack an enemy trench over open ground, in full 
view of the enemy, in face of deadly rifle and machine gun fire, 
starting at a distance of over 800 yards and being practically wiped 
out when less than 50 yards from the enemy s trench. 

On October 8th, at Regina Trench, the R.C.R. and one other 
Battalion were the only Canadian Battalions to capture and for the 
time hold objectives. There by its gallantry and determination the 
Battalion held on throughout the day outflanked and unsupported. 
A Battalion of German Marines was threatening the left, which 
necessitated a change of front. This was successfully accomplished. 
The enemy charged the position on three separate occasions, but 
were driven back with heavy loss each time. This, however, was 
accomplished only by heavy loss to the Battalion, for, when 
relieved, it mustered only one officer and eighty-one other ranks ; 
in one Company only five men remained. 

On leaving the Somme area the Regiment was so depleted that 
it was obliged to reorganize. The fighting had been of the bitterest 
hand-to-hand kind. 

The following order was published on leaving the area : 

" /th Canadian Infantry Brigade. 

This Brigade has just finished a series of operations of which every 
member may be justly proud. 

" The performance of the I5th September, 1916, when the R.C.R.. 
P. P. C.L.I., 42nd and 49th Battalions, went into an unknown area on 
four and a half hours notice, in broad daylight, and under heavy shell 
ing, reached and jumped off on time, not from prepared assembly 
trenches, but from a battered trench captured that morning, and, chang 
ing direction twice, captured and held three different objectives, together 
with some three hundred prisoners, has been characterized as one of the 
finest accomplishments by any Brigade in the war. 

" No one as time goes on can fail to be more and more impressed 
with the extent to which each arm of the military machine is dependent 
upon others for ultimate and lasting success ; a Brigade may do better 
than ever before, and still fail to gain their objective, owing to another 
arm not having fully accomplished its task. 

" The attack on September i6th, 1916, adds to, rather than dims, the 
glory. Both the R.C.R. and the 42nd Battalion (R.H.C.) knew the 
barrage had failed, that the Zollern Trench was fully manned, and that 
the chances of success were slight. Notwithstanding, the attacking com 
panies of these Battalions did their duty, knowing that the attack of the 
9th Canadian Infantry Brigade, timed for 6.30 p.m., depended entirely 
on their capturing their objective. They thrust the attack home gallantly 



and well, but, under the circumstances, with the odds so heavily against 
them, it was impossible to make good the Zollern Trench. 

" On the 8th October, 1916, Regina Trench was not battered in nor 
the wire cut, but we all have good reason to be proud of the performance 
of our Battalions that day the R.C.R. and 4Qth Battalion for their 
attack, the P. P. C.L.I, for their good work in the vacated front line, and 
the 42nd Battalion (R.H.C.) for cheerfully going in again to take over 
the defence of the line, although the} had been withdrawn a few hours 
before and were desperately tired. The Machine Gun Company also 
comes in for its share of the well-earned praise for its excellent barrage 
work and support of the Infantry. 

"We all feel particularly proud of the splendid work of the R.C.R. 
in driving through to their objective and holding it so long against odds. 
No one could have done better and few so well. 

" A. C. MACDOXELL, Brig.-Gen., 

" Comd g. /th Canadian Infantry Brigade. 
" 15-10-16." 

Iii November the Battalion moved north again to Xeuville St. 
Vaast, nothing of much importance happening with the exception 
of raids. These commenced after Christmas and became almost a 
daily occurrence. Daring deeds of all degrees were performed by 
all ranks, with the result that the Battalion was morally and actually 
master of the situation and owned " No Man s Land. 

On April 9, 1917, the Battle of Yimy Ridge commenced. This 
was one of the most perfectly planned actions that has ever 
occurred. Every man knew exactly what he had to do and how to 
do it, and where he was to go. The strong ridge which the 
Germans had held and fortified to the best of their ability fell into 
our hands with comparative ease. Many trophies were captured 
by the Regiment, and all their objectives were taken without any 
delay or hitch of any kind. This was accomplished in bitter 
weather and mud knee deep ; the ground captured was held intact in 
spite of the furious and continued attacks launched by the enemy 
to wrest our gains from us. 

After Vimy the Regiment took part in the following major 
actions: Avion, June, 1917: Hill 70, July. 1917; Passchendaele, 
October and November, 1917 (in the latter period eleven hostile 
attacks were successfully repelled) ; Amiens, 1918, where the Regi 
ment was on the extreme right successfully operating with the 
French : Monchy, August, 1918; Cambrai, where Lieut. M. F. Gregg 
won his V.C. ; Foret de Raisines, Valenciennes ; and last, but not 
least, the dramatic capture of the world famous Mons. The credit 



for the first to enter Mons has been claimed by the 42nd Battalion. 
This is a moot point, and is probably due to the fact that a Company 
of the Royal Canadian Regiment was detached to the 42nd and 
entered the City from the S.E. The indubitable fact remains that 
Lieut. W. M. King of the R.C.R. was the first to reach the square, 
where he was received by the Mayor at the Town Hall with his 
platoon, and where he signed the Golden Book of Mons, which was 
given by King Albert to the City on his departure in 1914. 

The Regiment returned to Canada and the C.E.F. personnel was 
demobilized at Halifax on loth March, 1919. 

The following distinctions and awards were gained by the Regi 
ment in the war of 1914-18: 

V.C i M.M 128 

G.B.E i Bar to M.M 10 

C.M.G 4 M.S.M jo 

C.B.E I Foreign Decorations 15 

D.S.O ii Mentions 35 

O.B.E 5 Commissions from the ranks : 

M.C 37 Lieut. -Colonel i 

Bar to M.C 5 Major 5 

D.F.C i Captain 14 

D.C.M 24 Lieutenant 28 

Bar to D.C.M r 2nd Lieutenant 4 



WHEN war clouds lowered on the European horizon in 
July, 1914, it would have been strange had the men of 
Pictou County, Xova Scotia, not been among the first 
to recognize their duty to civilization and the Empire. 

On Tuly 31, 1914, the officer commanding the 78th Regiment 
Pictou Highlanders wired the then Minister of Militia of Canada 
that his Regiment was ready for ,service, 
and received a reply, dated August i, 1914, 
expressing the Minister s thanks for the 
patriotic offer. On August 8th orders 
were received by wire from the Adjutant- 
General, Ottawa, as follows : " It is notified 
for information that not more than 125 
men with officers will be accepted from 
each rural Regiment. This order limited 
volunteering in Xova Scotian rural corps 
at once to that number. 

On August 20, 1914, 135 officers, non 
commissioned officers and other ranks left 
Xew Glasgow for Valcartier, being joined 

at Truro by a full quota of officers, non-commissioned officers 
and other ranks of the ;6th Colchester Rifles and small detach 
ments of the 63rd and 66th Halifax Regiments, a Company from 
the /5th Lunenburg Regiment under Lieut. -Colonel Andrews, and 
one from 69th. Passing through Cumberland County the Xova 
Scotian contingent was further augmented by a roll of officers, 
non-commissioned officers and men, up to the strength authorized, 
from the 93rd Cumberland Regiment, with their O.C., Lieut. - 
Colonel Murray, making in all a total of some five hundred officers, 
non-commissioned officers and other ranks. 
5 65 



Had each of the seven Nova Scotia Regiments of Militia been 
able to send the number authorized the contingent would have been 
little short of strength as a Regiment. Ottawa had apparently 
overlooked the fact that both the Halifax Regiments and the 94th 
of Cape Breton were on garrison duty, making it difficult for them 
to recruit beyond their then imperative needs or part with the 
number required. 

It was then proposed by the officers on board the troop train 
that steps be taken to form a Nova Scotian Battalion, so that all 
might serve together. The three senior officers of the contingent, 
Lieut.-Colonels Andrews, Cameron and Murray asked Lieut. -Col. 
S. G. Robertson, to undertake the organization and ask that he be 
given command. Although he had specialized as far as possible in 
Staff work and felt his services would be of more value in that 
line than in Regimental duty, the request was difficult of refusal 
and the proposal was accepted. 

From the time of arrival in Valcartier the Nova Scotians 
remained together until a wire was received from the Minister 
authorizing the organization of the Battalion. Unfortunately an 
excessive advertising of the Unit by a too friendly press in Halifax 
aroused Provincial jealousies and no doubt made fulfilment of the 
authorization difficult. It undoubtedly made it appear to outsiders 
that the Nova Scotian officers were doing a lot of advertising, an 
opinion that was far from the truth. Time dragged on ; a few 
officers and men losing heart joined other Battalions; but their 
number was small and all had the best reasons for doing so. In 
most cases it meant promotion. 

Shortly before the day of sailing, the raising of two new Units 
was authorized by Headquarters, to be numbered the I7th and i8th 
Battalions; and the personnel of the officers was published, which 
included one, if not two, of the senior Nova Scotian officers. 
Recruiting, however, showed that there were no available rank and 
file apart from the Nova Scotians, who, however, absolutely refused 
to join without their own officers. As all prospect of a Nova 
Scotian Battalion seemed to have vanished, therefore in order to 
get the men to join one of the new Units, after consultation with 
the men Lieut. -Colonel Robertson offered his services as Paymaster 
in that Unit. 



Hardly had his services been accepted by the Officer Com 
manding than the Premier arrived in Camp and called a meeting 
of the Nova Scotian officers for the following morning. At the 
meeting two proposals were made to the officers, who were asked 
to consider them and report their decision at a later hour. The 
proposals were to go then as a half Battalion or remain behind to 
be properly organized and sail later. The meeting of officers 
decided without dissent that to remain until properly organized was 
the only course open, in view of the shortness of time and lack of 
so much that was necessary. 

On this report being made to the Premier he stated that it had 
been decided to send us as a Battalion with the First Contingent, 
to allow us to recruit as far as possible and if necessary to send 
drafts later to complete our establishment. The colors of the 
Battalion were then presented by Lady Borden, with appropriate 

Within three days sufficient men had been recruited in Cape 
Breton, Pictou, Colchester and Cumberland Counties practically to 
complete the strength of a Regiment. 

The Premier was no longer in Camp, and transport was refused. 
Possibly, the momentarily expected sailing of the First Contingent 
made it impractical, and the Battalion sailed from Quebec on Sep 
tember 30, 1914, with a full strength of officers and non-com 
missioned officers and 773 other ranks, unbrigaded under strength 
and under-equipped, but with hearts burning with loyalty, on board 
the S.S*. Ruthenia. 

Just one hundred and twenty-nine years before the ancestors pf 
many of these men had been disbanded from the 82nd Highlanders 
in Halifax and given grants of land comprising 20,000 acres in 
Pictou County. The Regiment had been raised in Perthshire by 
Col. Alexander Robertson of Struan, then Chief of Clan Donnachie, 
and was commanded by him. Now commanded by one of the same 
race and family they were returning to do their part in the world s 

The nominal roll of officers was as follows : Lieut.-Col. Struan 
G. Robertson; Majors, Daniel D. Cameron and Daniel Murray; 
Adjutant, Capt. Charles E. Bent; Asst.-Adjutant, Lieut. L. Ray 



Captains: W. H. Allen, L. C. Bentley, W. B. Coulter, Alex. 
\Yatson, D. C. Sheppard, W. Forbes, Thos. Curwen Reid. 

Lieutenants: G. W. Harris, F. M. Bentley, F. M. McDonald, 
J. E. Christie, E. W. Mingo, C. J. Groggett, J. M. Gillis, Bruce 
Donald, A. N. Peerless, R. E. Russell, G. A. Ross, G. E. C. Eager, 
Norman McKee, J. R. Bell, Alister Fraser, Arthur Hunt Chute, 
B. J. Walker, A. Marlow. 

Paymaster, Hon. Capt. Arthur McKay ; Quartermaster, Hon. 
Capt. Robert McMeekin ; Medical Officer, Capt. H. Morrell ; 
Chaplain, Paul Gof orth ; Transport Officer, C. Hamilton Catty. 

For five months the Battalion saw service on Salisbury Plain as 
a Unit. No drafts arrived to bring the Battalion up to strength, 
but it was attached to one Brigade after another. Some one has 
said that the ardor of the Highlander springs from internal senti 
ment, and that the only thing his spirit cannot brook is disappoint 

It has ever been seemingly fated that governments failed to 
appreciate this characteristic of Scottish soldiers. Broken faith, 
real or supposed, caused rebellion in even the Black Watch in 1/43. 
In 1795, when it was proposed to break up the Cameron Highlanders 
by drafting, their Colonel told the Duke of York, then O. in C., " To 
draft the 79th is more than you or your Royal father dare do !" 
The Duke of York replied : The King, my father, will certainly 
send the Regiment to the West Indies." Colonel Cameron there 
upon losing his temper warmly rejoined: " You may tell the King, 
your father, from me, that he may send us to h 1 if he likes, and 
I ll go at the head of them, but he daurna draft us." 

Attempts were made to draft the men of the i7th but as they 
had been enlisted over three months the Army Act made such 
procedure illegal, unless voluntary, and the protest of the Officer 
Commanding, after threatened proceedings, was effectual. 

Four Battalions of the First Canadian Contingent, including the 
1 7th, were then made into Reserve Battalions, and the non-com 
missioned officers and other ranks were drafted into the First 
Division to make up for the wastage suffered during its sojourn on 
Salisbury Plain, which then through sickness, desertion and the 
obtaining of commissions in the Imperial Forces was equivalent to 



about ten per cent, of the original total strength of the First Con 


As a Reserve Battalion the i/th served throughout the War and 
practically all Nova Scotian Infantry Drafts passed at one time or 
another through its ranks. From it were drawn the drafts for the 
Highland Brigade ist Division, and latterly those for Nova Scotia 
Infantry Units in the Field. As a Reserve it outlived many of its 


Of the gallant hearts that left Nova Scotia in August, 
many have paid the price and sleep their last sleep on alien soil. 

"And, when the last Great Bugle Call 

O er Vimy sounding, throbs, 
When the last grim joke is entered 

In the big black book of Jobs, 
And Belgic battlefields give up 

Their victims to the air, 
I shouldn t like to be the man 

That played those men unfair." 

6 9 


IN endeavoring to write this brief account of the organization, 
training and operations of the first Battalion of Nova Scotians 

to be raised and equipped in their own Province and also the 
first from these " the sea-girt hills and vales," which have con 
tributed more than their quota of soldiers, sailors, statesmen, 
educators and men of affairs in the past, to man the trenches in 
France and Flanders, the writer regrets and wishes it understood 
that he is not writing from personal observations, inasmuch as (and 
this is what he regrets) he was not a member of the 25th Battalion 
until the spring of 1917. The substance, then, of the following is 
compiled from the War Diary of the 25th Canadian Infantry 
Battalion, and is submitted to the publishers of this volume at their 
request and with the fullest appreciation of the writer s inability to 
do justice to the task of chronicling four and a half years of any 
Battalion s history, least of all the splendid story of the indomitable 
courage and tenacious striving toward an ideal which were the 
predominant features of this, in -several respects, an unique Bat 
talion in the Canadian Corps. 

There are many omissions in the following narrative which the 
writer regrets are imperative in order to make it of sufficient 
brevity to allow of its publication in this volume. The nominal 
roll of officers is as issued by the Department of Militia and 
Defence on the Battalion s sailing from Halifax on May 20, 1915. 
The summary of decorations awarded was provided by the 
Adjutant-General, Canadian Militia. Ottawa, and does not include 
the medals won by General Hilliam, C.B., and several other 



officers and some other ranks when with Units other than the 25th 

It will be interesting to note in the list of original 2nd Division 
officers who marched across the Rhine at Bonn on December 13, 
1918, that only two were commissioned officers on September 15, 
1915. They are Major A. W. P. Weston and Lieut. G. M. 
McNeil, M.C. There were ninety-six other ranks with the Battalion 
on both the above-mentioned dates. 

In the narrative there are many points on which the writer 
would like to dilate at some length more especially on some of 
the deeds of heroism in the different actions. Of these deeds, 
practically in the earlier days (1915 and 1916), more went un 
recognized outside the Battalion than the sum of all the decorations 
won by the Battalion. To mention more than the few that fit into 
the narrative is obviously not feasible. 

One thing that cheered the 25th Battalion through all their long 
service in France was the pipe band under Pipe-Major Carson. 
Major J. W. Logan was responsible for the organization and equip 
ment of this fine band. There was nothing better in the armies in 

In pursuance of the Canadian Government s scheme to raise 
a Second Division for service Overseas, Lieut. -Col. G. A. Lecain 
(69th Regiment), of Roundhill, Annapolis County, was authorized 
to mobilize the 25th Battalion, Canadian Infantry, in Nova Scotia 
(October, 1914). Lieut. -Colonel Lecain established headquarters 
at the Armories, Halifax, and opened recruiting offices in Sydney, 
Amherst, New Glasgow 7 , Truro and Yarmouth. Recruiting com 
menced late in October, 1914. The official nominal roll of officers 
who received appointments to the Battalion is published here and to 
them is due the credit of the splendid organization and training 
which enabled these sons of New Scotland to rank second to none 
with the flower of the British Armies. Mention should also be 
made of the fine non-commissioned officers of the Battalion, and 
those loaned by the Permanent Force, who attended to the details 
of training with most commendable zeal. 

It should be remembered that this was Nova Scotia s first 
attempt at recruiting and organizing a full Battalion for service in 
the Great War, and the facilities for the proper fulfilment of such 


a task were far from perfect. In view of this then Xova Scotians 
should be, and, I think, are. unanimous in their praise of Lieut - 
Colonel- Lecain and all ranks of his Battalion for his organizing 
and so quickly training- a Unit which, though many times decimated 
and only a skeleton of a Battalion left, quickly and smoothly 
absorbed its reinforcements and carried on with renewed energy 

and greater deeds toward the high ideal 
of service for home and humanity. 

The writer has often had it suggested 
to him that it was a pity the deeds of the 
- 7 5th Battalion were not better known by 
the people at home. The reply to such a 
suggestion, on behalf of the Battalion is 
this: The reputation of the 25th Bat 
talion was safe in the hands of our com 
rades throughout the Canadian Corps, 
and our exploits in raiding were the 

LIEUT.-COL. G. A. LECAIN. marvel of two armies. These exploits 

and deeds with their inevitable accom 
paniment of blood and death were not fit subjects to press-agent 
into the already over-wrought family circles, which were possibly 
m receipt of one of those missiles of despair and death an " official 
telegram from Ottawa." We gloried in the encomiums of the 
Brigade, Divisional. Corps and Army Commanders, and still more 
in the hearty praise of our comrades in the " Y " or the canteens 
or estaminets. But no one thought of sending an account home. 
And why? Well, there were a good many Bills, and Jocks, and 
Toms and so on. who " went west " in that scrap. And what s the 
use of making it realistic to Mary and Xora and Bessie? "No, 
Pard, we would rather not." 

And there we will leave it and endeavor to adhere to a reso 
lution to make this brief sketch statistically correct. 

Before Christmas Day, 1914, the Battalion was at full strength 
and had the authorized ten per cent, reserve in training in the 
Armories at Halifax and later on the Common. In April the 
people of Xova Scotia presented the Battalion with two fine field 
kitchens and $2,500, the ceremony taking place at the Provincial 



Building, in front of the whole Battalion on parade and a vast 
concourse of people. 

As evidence of the fine spirit which animated the whole Bat 
talion the .following is copied from the official War Diary: 
University Reinforcement Company of the P.P.C.L.I. arrived in 
the city to embark for England, and the 25th Battalion was called 
on to supply seven men to bring it up to strength. The Battalion 
was formed up on the Common and an invitation extended for any 
who wished to go Overseas at once in this draft to take one pace 
forward. The whole Battalion, to a man, stepped forward making 
it necessary to search the records and select seven ex-Imperial 
service men. Privates Aldridge, Baker, Conroy, Cumberland, 
Erickson, Kehoe and Leonard were selected/ 1 

On sailing for England aboard H.M.T.S. Sa.ronia (Captain 
Charles, R.X.) on May 20, 1915, Haligonians and many from other 
points in the Province witnessed many a moving spectacle as bright 
countenances fought the dimming influence of heavy hearts as they 
wished the boys of the 25th Godspeed on their journey, and victory 
in the fight ; leaving their safe return or immortalization in the 
hands of the Creator who deals justly and well in all things. With 
(he 25th Battalion on board the Sa.vonia were those gallant sons of 
Quebec, the 22nd Battalion. Xo account of the doings of the 25th 
Battalion could do justice to its purpose without paying tribute to 
those noble French-Canadians who were continually associated with 
the 25th Battalion from embarkation at Halifax on May 20. 1915, 
to debarkation at the same port on May 16, 1919. Surely there is 
a lesson for our politicians and religious bigots in the close co 
operation which marked the attitude of these two Battalions toward 
each other throughout the period of their association. Our brave 
comrades of the 22nd Battalion showed us that the French- 
Canadian was not only generous in sympathy but quick to 
collaborate with his fellow Canadians of British descent on the 
broad principle of national welfare. In battle, in sports, or in 
argument over the estaminet tables, proof of the whole-hearted 
camaraderie between the 22nd and 25th Battalions was daily 
evident and fostered by both Units. 

The Sa.vonia docked at Devonport on May 29, 1915, and her 
valuable human cargo took trains for Westenhanger, in Kent County, 
6 73 


where they detrained in the middle of the night and marched to 
East Sandling Camp, in the ShornclirTe area, to which the 2nd 
Canadian Division had been assigned for the period of their inten 
sive training. 

While this training was being carried out the Battalion took part 
in Divisional Reviews by H.M. the King, Earl Kitchener, Lieut- 
General Sir Sam Hughes and General Steele, as well as one in 
honor of the visit to the area by the Premier of Canada, Sir Robert 
Borden, and Brigade and Training Inspectors. The 25th Battalion 
was now a Unit of the 5th (Eastern Canada) Brigade, 2nd 
Canadian Division, which consisted of four Battalions and details 
(22nd, 24th, 25th and 26th) drawn from Quebec, Montreal, Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick. The Brigade Commander was Lieut. - 
Colonel (now Major-General) Sir David Watson, and Major- 
General R. W. Turner, V.C., was Divisional Commander. 

After three and a half months of eight hours training per day, 
with four hours of practice in night operations frequently, the 
2nd Division was ordered to France. The 25th Battalion proceeded 
by boat from Folkestone to Boulogne on the night of September 
J 5> *9 1 5> and b y trai n on the following day from Pont de Brieques, 
a few kilometres from Boulogne, to a small station near St. Omer. 
From here to the front line was the first real test of the Battalion s 
morale and physical condition. Marching for five days with 
new (Kitchener s) boots over French and Belgian cobblestone 
roads, the Battalion relieved the King s Own Regiment on the 
night of the 22nd-2^d of September, 1915, the first Nova Scotia 
Battalion to face the Hun as a Unit. And not a man had dropped 
out in the gruelling grind of the last four days. The writer has 
been told, unofficially, that this was a record for the Division, and 
though it has never been confirmed, neither has it been denied. 

The first few tours in the front lines were spent in the H and I 
trenches, Kemmel Sector of the Ypres Salient, where the Hun was 
very active in mining operations. During the Battalion s second 
tour, which extended over six days, Fritz blew one large and three 
smaller mines on " B " Company, which killed twelve and wounded 
twenty, leaving a crater 65 feet by 35 feet and 25 feet deep. This 
resulted in no advantage to the enemy, inasmuch as the charge was 



situated so that it must have done considerable damage to his 

trenches, and the crater was promptly garrisoned by Nova Scotians. 
Late in October, 1915, Major E. Hilliam, a ist Division officer, 

succeeded Lieut. -Colonel Lecain in command of the Battalion; and, 

under his soldierly guidance, the 25th began to make the Bosche 

sit up and notice his surroundings. Under Major (as O.C., Lieut- 

Colonel) Hilliam s guidance the Battalion 

became expert in the little tricks which 

worried the enemy and made trench life 

more interesting. Notable among the 

many episodes which added spice to the 

daily routine was a raid on the Hun 

trenches by Lieutenant (now Lieut. - 

Colonel) Wise, and the stalking of a Ger 
man patrol in No Man s Land by Corporal 
(now Captain) Ernie" Canning, which 

resulted in the capture of one of their 

number and. the gaining of much informa- BRIG _ GEX E HILLIAM, 

tion. The small garrison of thirty-five C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O. 

25th Battalion men, under Lieutenants 

Morgan, Johnstone and McNeil, holding Nos. i and 4 craters at 

St. Eloi in April, 1915, gave the attacking company of Huns a 
sample of the unbeatable stuff they are made of. 

In April the 25th Battalion took over the line at St. Eloi where 
they remained about six weeks. This was beyond a doubt the most 
trying experience which the Battalion had to that time or has since 
been called upon to endure. There were no front line trenches. 
Five mine craters had to be occupied, since the front line trenches 
were all destroyed, and the men had to occupy most exposed posi 
tions. Every hole and every remnant remaining of a trench were 
used as the only possible cover, and mud, muck and water prevailed. 
Under continually heavy and harrowing fire and attacks the 
Battalion endured, though at the price of the loss of hundreds of its 
personnel. The German artillery fire in the Ypres Salient was the 
heaviest of the War. With enemy artillery on three sides, the 
situation may better be imagined than described. One crater that 
was occupied by the Battalion was attacked no less than five times 
between dusk and dawn in one night alone, but the crater was held. 



\\ hen the garrison was relieved there were not enough men left to 
bring out the wounded and a relief party had to be sent in for that 
purpose. On this front all intercommunication was impossible and 
isolated parties held the lines. The Battalion was highly commended 
by the higher command for their excellent work on this front. 

The Battalion spent 339 days on the Belgian Front, of which 164 
days were spent in actual front line trenches. Many good officers 
and men were killed or wounded. Among the former was 
Lieutenant Douglas, who was killed while fighting with the 6th 
(Western) Brigade in the craters of St. Eloi. Lieutenant Douglas 
was Battalion Machine Gun Officer and had been loaned with the 
machine gun section to the 6th Brigade during the furious on 
slaughts which the Hun was making on the craters. The men with 
Lieutenant Douglas were all killed excepting five who were captured. 

Besides the Kemmel and St. Eloi Sectors, the 25th Battalion 
were engaged at Vierstraat, Ploegsteerte, Hill 60, Hooge and Ales- 
sines. And it was here, also, that the Battalion obtained "Robert 
the Bruce," mascot and veteran of three years service in the land of 
his birth. It would be hard for one to see the immense, sleek goat 
now on the farm of Major Matheson at Baddeck and endeavor to 
imagine the same animal, two weeks old, hardly bigger than a cat, 
feeding from a bottle in the hands of Pipe-Major Carson in the 
kitchen of the band s billet in Locre. But they are one and the 
same animal. The members of the band bought him from the 
Madame " of the house for two francs (4oc.), and trained him to 
"swank" in front of the pipe band, eat cigarettes, drink beer, and 
demand his blanket at " lights out." He added many other traits 
and tricks to his repertoire before the Battalion was disbanded, and 
many a would-be possessor of our mascot has felt the force of his 
; butt sufficiently to make them all leave " Robert the Bruce " 
strictly to his own Battalion. 

The 25th Battalion played a leading part in the assault at 
Courcellette on September 15, 1916. The whole Corps welcomed 
the relief from the ground-hog tactics of the fray in Belgium and 
looked forward with keen anticipation to their participation in open 
warfare tactics on the Somme in Picardy. 

The troops marched a good portion of the long distance from 
Hazebrouck to Albert. The 25th Battalion spent a few days on the 



way in rehearsing practices in formations for advancing and assault 
ing and arrived in the brickfields of Albert where the whole Division 
and units of the ist and 3rd Divisions were massed under tarpaulins 
and corrugated iron, a few days in advance of September 15, 1916. 
The plan of attack on the immediate front of Courcellette was 
for the 4th (Ontario) Brigade to open the attack on the morning 
of the fifteenth (i5th) and clear the ground in front of Courcellette 
and on the sixteenth (i6th) the 5th Brigade would carry on the 
attack into the town. The 4th Brigade had their objectives cleared 
and consolidated so early in the day that the Divisional Commander 
decided to put the 5th Brigade over the top at 6 o clock in the after 
noon. Brig.-General MacDonnell (5th Brigade) divided the town 
evenly, pointed out the objectives to Lieut-Colonel Tremblay 
(22nd Battalion) and Lieut-Colonel Hilliam, explained that the 
other two Battalions would be in support and reserve and sent the 
Ouebecers and Nova Scotians to it. Both Battalions were led in 
person by their commanding officers, who set a fine example of 
leadership and courage to officers and men. The 25th and 22nd 
Battalions established their line well to the east of the ruined town 
and maintained their positions in the face of fierce counter-attacks 
until relieved a few days later. 

This operation, brilliant as it was in execution, cost the Battalion 
some of its most capable officers and men. Lieut-Colonel Hilliam 
was wounded in the hand, but refused to leave the line until his 
Battalion was relieved. He was in evidence everywhere throughout 
the attack with his long stick cheering his men and by his energy 
and daring urging them to their best endeavors. In his report to 
the G.O.C., 5th Brigade, he praised the work of officers and men 
very highly, and closed with the words, " General, I have the honor 
of commanding the finest body of men I have ever seen." 

Three Company Commanders, Major Ttipper ("A" Company), 
Major Brooks (" D " Company), and Capt John Stairs (" C 
Company), were killed, and the O.C. " B " Company, Major Flowers, 
was severely wounded. The Adjutant, Captain Dicky, Lieutenants 
Hobkirk, Howson, Craig and Doane were killed. The wounded 
included Capt. J. D. McNeil, Major Nutter, Lieutenants Wetmore, 
Ryan, De Young and Dennis Stairs. 



Before I pass from the doings of the Battalion on the Somme, 
it is necessary, in order to do justice to the narrative, to record the 
loss of one of the bravest and most capable officers of the Battalion 
and one who gave great promise as a fearless and resourceful 
fighter for high ideals. I refer to Lieut. L. H. Johnstone, who led 
the 25th Battalion in the fruitless and bloody attack on Regina 







Trench, October ist, 1916. While gallantly leading those men into 
a veritable hell of machine gun and shell fire, the " Iron Duke," as 
he was nicknamed by the gallant men he was leading, fell to rise no 

When the Battalion finally moved from the Somme area to be 
reinforced and recuperated there were less than one hundred of the 



original crusaders who marched so gaily from Flanders less than one 
month previously. Though they had received a hard drubbing they 
made the old nickname of " Herring-choker " one to be respected 
as long as memory lives and histories are written. Theirs was not 
the attitude of the torn and mangled dog with its tail between its 
legs. With reinforcements, which arrived while the remnants of 
the Battalion rested a few days at Bertrincourt, near Albert, they 
were transported to Hersin. and immediately went into the line at 
Bully-Grenay, on the Lens Front, where, with a pugnacity which is 
typical of the breed, they stirred up a quiet sector until it became 
the most frequently raided and most heavily shelled of their 

The first raid on this front, and one of the most successful, was 
the enterprise, on Christmas Eve, 1916, directed by Capt. W. A. 
Cameron and carried out by an officer and twenty men from each 
Company. The objective took in a point in the enemy lines known 
as the " Pope s Nose," owing to the peculiar twist in the trench 
which brought it to within fifteen yards of our line. Each party 
was successful in gaming entrance to the Hun trenches. In fact, 
two of the parties encountered no opposition, for Fritz had fled for 
cover. But the party from " D " Company, under Lieut, (now 
Capt.) \V. A. Livingstone, found their objective strongly manned 
and the men were able to get in some splendid bayonet and Mills 
bomb work. They saved seven specimens of German Kultur to tell 
our Intelligence Staff what they knew about the situation on the 
other side of No Alan s Land. 

Captain Cameron, Lieutenants Livingstone and Morris received 
Military Crosses in recognition of their energy and personal gal 
lantry in the above affair. 

Lieut.-Colonel Hilliam, D.S.O., was promoted to the rank of 
Brigadier-General and appointed to the command of the loth 
Infantry Brigade, 4th Canadian Division, in January, 1917. The 
Battalion at having their C.O. selected for a higher command recog 
nized that no promotion in the Allied Forces was more deserved; 
but regret at the Battalion s loss was expressed by all ranks. The 
effects of his soldierly training and administration of the Battalion 
remained with them throughout the \Yar. 



In the attack on Vimy Ridge, Easter Monday, April 9, 1917, 
the 25th Battalion was led by Major J. A. Delancey, M.C., until 
that brave officer was killed, after which Major (now Colonel) 
A. O. Blois, of Halifax (who had enlisted as a private in the 4Oth 
Battalion, been appointed to a commission in the 64th Battalion, 
transferred a subaltern to the 25th Battalion and had progressed 
at that date through the Adjutancy of the Battalion to the rank of 
Major), took command, and organized and consolidated the objec 
tives which had all been secured by ten o clock and were extended 
later in the day. 

Two of the Battalion pipers played the boys over the top that 
wintry morning, and although the German band and our own 


artillery drowned the skirling notes of the pibroch, our lads were 
fired with the spirit which prompted these two noble musicians 
to volunteer and insist on accompanying the Battalion through the 
muck and mire, the death and destruction which was let loose on that 
fateful day. They were awarded Military Medals for their splen 
did example of self-sacrificing disregard for personal safety. 

Lieutenant Hallisey, of Truro, was killed while proceeding to 
the " jumping off " position. Several officers were wounded, and 
the casualties among the N.C.O. s and men were very heavy. The 
death of R.S.M. " Dad " Henchcliffe. M.C., father of all the X.C.O. s 
and men in the Battalion, was particularly regrettable; for he was a 
very efficient warrant officer and a friend to all. 



Lieut. -Colonel Bauld commanded the Battalion at the taking of 
Fresnoy and Arleux late in February. While these were only local 
affairs and confined to a narrow front, they were the cause of some 
very severe casualties. " D " and " C Companies suffered very 
severely at Arleux. Captain Weare, M.C., was severely shell- 
shocked, Lieutenants Bell and Wallace, two very promising young 
officers, were killed, and scores of our 
men caught in the wire, in the darkness, 
were literally shot to pieces. 

Shortly -after this affair, two officers 
batmen from " C " Company went astray 
in the darkness with their officers rations 
and strayed into the enemy lines. Their 
whereabouts was a matter of conjecture 
until the publication of the roll of prison 
ers of war. In the thirty-eight months 
during which the 25th Battalion was in 

contact with the flower of the German LI EUT.-COL " STAN" B-\UII> 
War Lord s Legions, only eight of our 

men were captured alive. The five machine-gunners have 
already been noted. They were detached from the Battalion at 
the time of their capture. The two mentioned above were the 
victims of a dark night and unfamiliar recently captured ground. 
The eighth man to be captured was taken on the Mericourt Sector 
early in 1918 during a raid by a party of three officers and ninety 
Huns on a thinly held portion of the sector. We also succeeded in 
capturing one of the raiding party who was unfortunate enough to 
get into our wire entanglements. A great deal of information was 
gleaned from the captive regarding the training and composition of 
the raiding party. The man who was captured by the enemy had 
only joined the Battalion a few days previously. So what informa 
tion the German Intelligence Staff gleaned from him must have been 
purely family affairs. 

Early in July, 1917, Lieut. -Colonel Bauld obtained leave of 
absence to visit his home, and the command of the Battalion 
devolved on Major Blois, D.S.O., who commanded the 25th. until 
he in turn was granted leave to Canada in May, 1918. 



The 25th Battalion played a glorious part in the Battle of Hill 
70 on August 15, 1917. The boys went over the top from the shell- 
holes of Xo Alan s Land in front of Cite St. Laurent. " A " Com 
pany, in the first wave, secured the Hun front line. " B Com 
pany was through them as soon as the creeping barrage permitted 
and clinched the support line, while " D Company carried on to the 

limits of the town. The 24th Battalion 
then pushed on our positions 600 yards 
farther to the trench " X T un s Alley." 
Considering the amount of ground gained 
and the nature of the fighting, in ruined 
streets and over demolished buildings, the 
casualties were very light on the I5th. 
But the Hun artillery promptly laid down 
a barrage to cover his counter-attacks, 
which fell behind the front line and com 
pletely churned up the debris formerly 
COL. A. G. BLOIS, D.s.o. known as Cite St. Laurent, where the 25th 

Battalion was endeavoring to establish 

a defensive position. The counter-attacks of the Bosche gradually 
weakened, and by the iSth had ceased; but his artillery strafeing 
grew more intense as the days passed, causing many casualties. 

On the night of August 19-20, the 25th Battalion moved from 
their positions in Cite St. Laurent to the comparative peace and 
quiet of the front line. At daybreak the 6th Brigade on our 
immediate right were to attack and tighten the pressure already 
exercised on Lens. The Hun also divulged his reason for the 
systematic and furious shelling of our positions during the past six 
days when he launched an attack in force on the 6th Brigade and 
extending into our right (" D " Company s front). The O.C. " D 
Company, being in an advanced position and close to our own 
artillery barrage line, was ordered to place his men under cover, 
which he did, leaving only sentries at the entrances to shelters. 

Zero hour for the 6th Brigade s and the German attack coincided 
and both were demoralized by the intensity of the artillery fire they 



encountered before the assembly positions could be cleared. The 
result was that neither the 6th Brigade nor the Prussians opposite 
them left their trenches. But the artillery was not so active on the 
Front of our " D " Company, with the result that the Huns were 
throwing grenades down on our dugout steps before our men 
realized that they were trapped. Lieutenant Dauphinee was killed 
in a gallant attempt to clear the entrance 
to the dugout in which the whole Com 
pany was sheltered. Captain W. A. Liv 
ingstone, M.C., O.C. "D" Company, 
managed to force his way out by another 
entrance, and with a Lewis Gun spitting 
.303 bullets from his shoulder, he man 
aged to clear the trench of those who 
escaped his fusilade. But the trench was 
literally filled with corpses from the 
attacking hordes. Nor was the situation 
normal as yet. A party of Huns had got 
in on the right of our boundary, and CAPT . O WEN c. DAUPHINEE. 
Lieutenant Spurr and Sergeant Jordan, 

after expelling them, organized the survivors of the Company of a 
Western Battalion, who had lost all their officers and were in a 
precarious condition. The boys of " D " Company, reinforced by a 
platoon from " B " Company, which had been led up through the 
intense shelling by Lieutenant Bell, were busy all day repelling 
bombing parties which stubbornly attempted to force their way into 
our lines at the Battalion boundary the junction of Nun s Alley 
and Commotion Trenches. 

Captain Livingstone, whose work on this day merited the 
Victoria Cross, was severely wounded in the chest and collapsed 
immediately after he had cleared the Huns from his trenches, and 
Lieutenant Spurr commanded his company until relieved by a 
company of the Royal Canadian Regiment at night. Great credit 
is due Lieutenants Gibbons and Bell for their skill and judgment 
in rallying our boys and organizing the defences. The coolness of 
Sergeant Jordan saved the situation on the immediate right, when he 
rallied the overwrought survivors of the Western Battalion. Cor 
poral Boudreau, Company Sergt.-Major Bragg, Corporal Yeniot. 



and Sergt. " Dan " Fraser also distinguished themselves in inflicting 
punishment on the Hun and by their heroic conduct throughout the 
day. Company Sergt.-Major Bragg and Sergeant Jordan were 
awarded Distinguished Conduct Medals for their services on this 
occasion. Captain Livingstone, M.C., was awarded a bar, and 
Lieutenant Spurr, the Military Cross. 

At Passchendaele, on November 10, 1917, the 5th Infantry- 
Brigade was given the post of honor as a successful assaulting 
Brigade. The ist, 3rd and 4th Divisions and the 4th Brigade of 
the 2nd Division had been engaged in nibbling here and there at the 
Hun positions and had at length captured most of the Passchendaele 
Ridge. But the ruined town still remained in German hands. On 
the morning of the 6th November the 26th Battalion attacked and 
captured the ruins to the eastern limits of the town and after hold 
ing their gains for four days the 5th Brigade was withdrawn from 
the Passchendaele Sector, and returned to Lens. 

The 2nd Canadian Division remained in the Lens-Mericourt 1 
Sectors until the latter part of February, 1918. The only notable 
occurrence, other than the loss of one man to the Huns, as previ 
ously noted, was the stealth raid led by Lieut. P. R. Phillips, of 
Barrington, assisted by a covering party under Lieut. Max 
MacRae, of Westville. The raiding party of only five crawled 
over the Lens-Arras Road and made their way among the battered 
houses of Lens to one of the buildings of Fosse .3 and destroyed 
a dugout full of " Heinies," bringing the sentry who was on duty 
at the entrance into our lines. The prisoner proved to be a very 
observant chap and a great deal of information was gleaned from 
him. When questioned as to the great offensive which our Staff 
expected daily, he said no attack would be made on the Canadians. 
Fritz had probably had his fill of attacking Canucks when he broke 
his head on them in the First Battle of Ypres, at St. Eloi and the 


The 2nd Division had completed ten days of what was to be a 
months rest when the long-expected Hun offensive broke away 
south on the British right on March 2ist. The 25th Battalion had 
only started their syllabus of training and recreation when they 
were ordered south. The northern limits of this effort of the Hun 
was marked by the southern boundary of the Canadian Corps 



front, and here the 2nd Division took over the completely disorgan 
ized line of the Imperial troops. The sector was known as the 
Mercatel-Neuville Yetasse Sector. Here the 25th Battalion was 
engaged three months in punishing the German Division opposite. 
Each period of six days spent in the front line was marked by a 
raid on the enemy outposts, and sometimes our boys penetrated 
three-quarters of a mile into the Hun lines. So completely terror 
ized was Fritz by the vigorous onslaughts which occurred almost 
nightly and several times in broad daylight that no resistance was 
offered in most cases, and at length the news was gleaned from 
some of the last prisoners that the whole Division had to be with 
drawn for re-equipment. 

The 25th Battalion established themselves as the " Master 
Raiders "of the Canadian Corps, and were called on for some 
officers and non-commissioned officers to instruct the famous 
Guards Division in the new and most effective art of keeping Fritz 
worried. Six of the raids conducted on this front were led by 
one officer, Lieut, (now Major) Max MacRae, every one of which 
netted prisoners, besides machine guns and documents. Among 
the other officers taking part in these raids 
were Captains Anderson and Holmes, 
Lieutenants Lounsbury, Hawes, Bell. 
Johnstone. Holly. Burchell, Spurr. and 
Wright. It was here that the Battalion 
established its record of successful raids 
and became known throughout the 1st 
and the 4th Armies as the Raiding 
Battalion," putting on about thirty raids 
in this sector. 

Lieut. -Colonel (now Colonel) Blois, 
D.S.O., was granted leave to Canada and 

T-. .. AT-- LIEUT.-COL. T. WISE. D.S.O., 

handed the Battalion over to Major (now M c CUOTX DE GUERRE. 
Lieut. -Colonel) Wise in May, 1918. 

At the battle of Amiens, August 8, 1918, when the Canadian 
Corps was first launched into the grand offensive which broke the 
German morale and brought them begging for peace, the 25th 
Battalion was on the left of the Canadian Corps and in touch with 
the dashing Australian Corps on their left. The attack, like that 



of nearly two years previous at Courcellette, was made with the 4th 
Brigade taking Villers, Brettonneux, and Marcelcave on the 
Amiens-Roye Railway, and a considerable stretch of country to the 
right of those towns. The plans were so well guarded and the 
assemblage of troops, guns, etc., so effectively concealed, that the 
enemy was utterly stunned at the suddenness of the attack and the 
speed with which it was pushed. 

After the 4th Brigade had established their line in front of 
Marcelcave the 5th Brigade carried on the attack through Wien- 
court and Guillaucourt. The 25th Battalion encountered consider 
able opposition in a small wood south of Wiencourt; and it was 
there that most of the casualties occurred. Lieut. J. W. Holly, of 
St. John, was killed by machine-gun fire, and thirteen other officers 
were wounded in ousting the Huns from this wood. 

At Guillaucourt, Lieut. -Colonel Wise, who was the first to 
arrive at the objective, fell, severely wounded by a sniper s bullet. 
The Adjutant, Capt. N. H. Wetmore, utterly disregarding his own 
safety, sprang to his O.C. s assistance and became the target for a 

better directed bullet from the same sniper 
and fell, never to rise again. 

Major Day, second in command, who 
had been acting as a Brigade liason officer 
during the attack, immediately assumed 
command of the Battalion and directed it 
in the advance on the following day when 
the towns of Vrely and Meharicourt were 
taken. After having advanced twelve 
miles in two days, the 2nd Division gave 
place to the 4th, who carried on to the 

outskirts of Hallu. This attack was cer- 
TAPT. N. H. WETMORE. , , . . . , , , 

tainly the most successful in which the 

25th Battalion had thus far been engaged. An immense area of 
beautiful country with some important towns had been taken from 
the Hun, with surprisingly few casualties. 

After a few" days in the line in front of Hallu, the Battalion was 
moved to Berneville, near Arras, where the details were left behind 
and we were into it again over Telegraph Hill and down the 



eastern slope to the Cojuel River on August 26th a distance 
of four miles fighting all the way ; then across the dried-up bed 
of the stream on the 27th to Cherisy and past the Sensee River to 
the heights beyond; and then a tightening up of the Hun resist 
ance, which meant a fruitless hammering at the strongly wired 
positions in front of Upton \Yood and " the Crow s Xest " on the 


The 2nd Division had not rested since the 5th of August, and 
had penetrated to great depths in the enemy s lines on two fronts. 
The tired troops could accomplish no more. The writer can 
testify that men actually fell asleep on their feet on the night of 
the 2Sth-29th of August, when a counter-attack was imminent. 
The state of mind of men when so thoroughly exhausted as our 
boys were at the end of the third day, is one that cares not what 
may happen to a body so completely worn out. It is then that 
sentiment love of home, Battalion pride, and the shame of weak 
ness asserts itself and supports a man when everything tangible is 

" C " Company lost a splendid officer 
when Capt. M. L. Tupper was killed. A 
relative of Major J. H. Tupper, who 
" paid the price " at Courcellette in 1916. 
he had shown a fearlessness in the face of |; ; 
the enemy and a conscientiousness in all 
his duties which well merited his appoint- 
ment as O.C. " C " Company. \^/^ " 

The Battalion had a respite of two 
days at Hautes Avesnes, on the Arras- "^^Sfl "*^ 

St. Pol Road, over the anniversary of the -~ 

landing in France and the Battle of Cour- CAPT - M - L - TUPPER. 
cellette. September I5th, and was then 

continuously in the forward area until after the fall of Cambrai on 
October 9, 1918, engaging the Hun in the Inchy-Moeuvres and the 
Marcomg Switch Sectors, and clearing the Hun from the towns of 
Eseadoeueres and levuy, on the northern outskirts of Cambrai. 
B " Company, under Lieutenant (now Major) MacRae. M.C. 
(two bars), did splendid work at Inchy on the 2ist and 22nd 



September, when they captured seven machine guns, killing- the 
crews and straightening out a kink in our line. 

In this wonderful last hundred days of the War. when the Hun 
had to be dislodged from the positions he had been preparing . 
since his first check at the Marne in 1914, the deeds of valor which 
\vere enacted daily and hourly were too numerous to refer to here 
at any length. But mention may be made of some of the more 
notable recipients of War Decorations awarded officers, X.C.O. s 
and men, who served with the 25th Battalion. 

First in the list must come Lieut.-Colonel (now Brig.-General) 
Hilliam, who won the D.S.O. and two bars for personal gallantry 
in the field and was mentioned in despatches four times. He was 
also invested with the insignia of a Companion of the Bath (C.B.) 
and that of a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. 
George (C.M.G.). Another officer who carries two rows of medals 
on his breast is Major G. McL. Matheson, D.S.O., M.C., and M.M. 
Lieut.-Colonel W r ise wears the D.S.O. and the M.C., with the French 
Croix de Guerre. Lieut. M. M. Jordan wears the M.C., D.C.M. 
and Bar. 

Capt. Max MacRae was awarded the Military Cross three times. 
Company Sergt.-Major Dauphinee and Corporal Leggett each were 
awarded the Military Medal three times. Regimental Sergt.-Major 
Hurley was awarded the Military Cross, D.C.M. and French Croix 
de Guerre. Company Sergt.-Major Boudreau received the Croix 
de Virtute (Roumanian) besides the D.C.M., M.M. and Bar. 
Private Mickarek won the Russian Cross of St. George. And many 
officers and men won Military Crosses, D.C.M. s, M.M. s and Bars. 
A summary of the Battalion s record of awards is given further 


The last occasion on which the 25th Battalion was in hostile 
contact with the Hun was at the storming of Elouges, a mining- 
town near Mons, on November 8, 1918. The casualties, though 
very light, only eleven men being killed, included some of the 
originals who had seen the thing through to this ringing down of 
the curtain. Some eleven, including Company Sergt.-Major George 
Vincent, D.C.M., Corpl. John Morrison and " Billie " Roberts, who 
had weathered the storm only to be swept over at the harbor s 
mouth, lie asleep in the little civilian cemetery at Blouses, where 



their graves will be guarded and cared for by the grateful people 
of the town, who welcomed the Battalion as liberators. 

The boys of the Battalion were enjoying their " lionization " bv 
the populace at Alons when the news was received at 9 a.m. on 
November n, 1918, that we had but two hours more of hostilities 
when the Armistice would become effective. 

The regaining three days were given over to celebrating what 
had been fought for, and prayed for during the last four years 
Victory. A Thanksgiving Service was held in the little chapel in 
the town, conducted by the brave chaplain who had stuck to us 
through the " Last Hundred Days " -Capt. A. J. MacDonald. And 
the local pastor addressed us in an impassioned Address of Thanks 
in French, out of which the writer distinguished only the oft- 
repeated phrase, " Merci beaucoup, nos liberateurs." 

On Xovember 19, 1918, the Battalion started on the long march 
to the Rhine. \Ye crossed the German border near St. Vith at 
10.08 a.m., December 5th, with the Union Jack flying at the head of 
the column. At 10.47 a.m., December I3th, the Battalion crossed 
the Rhine at Bonn and proceeded to the " C6logne Bridgehead 
Outpost Line/ where we had the satisfaction of telling the Hun 
how he should act and also the pleasure of enforcing our instruc 
tions on him. 

After six weeks on the Rhine, during which all ranks had an 
opportunity of visiting the famous cities of Cologne, Bonn and 
Coblenz, the Battalion returned to Belgium and went into billets at 
Arvelais, near Xamur. On April 5, 1919, we started for Havre, and 
on the night of the 9th embarked on the old Prince Arthur, formerly 
of the Boston- Yarmouth service, and on the morning of the loth 
arrived at Southampton and proceeded by train to \Yitley Camp in 
Surrey, where, after a month s sojourn awaiting documents from 
the Record Office, we sailed from Southampton on the Olvnipic, 
May 10, 1919. 

On board were the whole 5th Brigade and the 29th Battalion. 
6th Brigade. After an uneventful though pleasant voyage, and to 
the accompaniment of the music of several bands and the shrill 
whistles of factories, boats and auto horns on both sides of Halifax 
Harbor, the Olympic docked at Pier 2: and after a farewell to the 
22nd, -24th, 26th and 29th we lined up for our march to the 



Armories, which triumphal procession, to the writer, seemed to be 
but a part of a great dream, as the memory of the exile from home 
now seems but an hallucination. 




Decoration. Officers - Ranks 

D.S.0 ................................................ 5 

M.C .................................................. 3/ 

2nd Bar to M.C ...................................... 

Bar to M.C ........... ............................... b 

D.C.M ................................................. 

Bar to D.C.M ....................................... 

M.M. .................................................. 

Bar to M.M ........................................... 

2nd Bar to M.M ........................................ - 

M.S.M ............................................... ; 

Croix de Guerre ..................................... 3 

Russian Cross of St. George ............................ 

Croix de Virtute Militate (Roumania) ......... ; ..... 

Medaille Barbatie si Credinta, 3rd Class (Roumania) ..... 

Total ................................... 5i 230 

Mentioned in Despatches, officers, 17; other ranks, 15. 


Lieut,Col. Lecain, G. A, O.C ........ *" ldhi11 ^"- Co 

Sponagle, J. A., M.D ...... Middleton, N.S 

, . ., . ...... , . 

Major Bauld D . S, D "Co ..... Halifax .... - .66th Regt. 

omd. .................. 63rd 

Conrad, W. H., 2nd Comd. 

MacRae, D. A., " C" Co. . . Baddeck 

McKenzie, L. H., Adjt. . . . Stellarton ................ /8th 

Weston, A. W. P.. Jr. Maj . Halifax .................. 66th 

Hon. Capt. Graham, E. E., Chap ..... Arcadia ................. 

. cB 

Hon. Capt. McPherson, D., Chap ..... Sydney Mines, L.B ....... u 

Capt. Margeson, J. W., Paymaster Bridgewater .............. 75tn ^ 

Medcalfe, W. B., " B " Co. Halifax ....... 

Purney, W. P., " D " Co . . . Liverpool ................ 68th ^ 

Tupper, J. H., " A " Co. ... Bridgetown .............. 69 h ^ 

Whitford. W. L., " D " Co. Chester .................. /^ th 

Lieut. Brooks, E. J.. " A " Co . Falmouth ................ 

Bullock, L. N. B., " D " Co. Halifax . . . .............. 6 3 rd 

Cameron, W. A, " A " Co. St. John, N.B ............. 

Delancey. J. A., " M.G." . . Middleton ................ 03". 

Eville, C. K., " B " Co ..... Halifax 

Grant, J. W., " B " Co ..... Amherst 



Lieut. Grant, J. A, " B " Co Halifax ..63rd Rect 

Johnstone, L- H., "C" Co. Sydney ... gist " 

Longley, H. G., " Trpt." . . . Paradise . . 6oth " 

Macaloney, C. W Halifax 

Morgan, E., " D " Co Bear River 6gth " 

Mosher. C. M Mahone Bay .... .7cth " 

Murphy, V. P., "D" Co... New Ross ... 75^ " 

McKay, K. L, "A" Co.... Inverness olth " 

McKinnon, D., "A" Co... Woodbine o 4 th " 

McLeod, H. A., "B" Co.. Salt Springs, Pic. Co. . 7 8th " 

McNiel, G. M., " A " Co. . . lona .... . .g 4 th " 

McNiel, J. D., "C" Co... Whitney Pier .... .SA 

Newnham, T. F., " Qmst." . Halifax , . R C G A 

Roberts, G. E., " C " Co. . . . 

Smith, B. H .66thRegt. 

Stairs, J. C., "A" Co " ..66th " 

Tanner, F. I., "C" Co.... Pictou CFA 

Young, G. R Kentville C M R. 

67001 R.S.M. Miles, H. F Halifax R.C.R. 

Strength of Unit on proceeding to France on Sept. I5th 1915 
Officers. Other Ranks. 

32 1,000 

Reinforcements after coming to France. 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

2 3i 3,829 

Wounded and sick to England. 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

T 56 2,557 

Killed in action and died -in hospital. 

Officers. Other Ranks. 

32 686 

Missing. Prisoners. Transferred. 

Off. O.Rs. Off. O.Rs. Off. O.Rs. 

2 64 .8 37 682 


THE 40th Battalion was authorized January I, 1915,. under the 
command of Lieut.-Col. W. H. Gibsone (R.C.R.). As the 
men were recruited, detachments were formed at McNab s 
Island, Halifax, Sydney, Glace Bay, North Sydney, Truro, Amherst, 
New Glasgow, Yarmouth, Lunenburg, Kentville and Dig-by. 

The Battalion was finally mobilized at Aldershot Camp, N.S., 
on May 11, 1915. Lieut.-Colonel Gibsone proceeded direct to 
France to become A.A.G. of the 3rd Canadian Division, which was 
then in process of formation. At Aldershot Camp, N.S., the 4Oth 
was first inspected by the Duke of Connaught and Brig.-General 
H. M. McLean, who commented on their splendid showing. On 
June 2ist, under the command of Lieut.-Col. A. G. Vincent, the 
4 oth Battalion moved to Valcartier Camp, Quebec. Before leaving 
for Valcartier two drafts were despatched, one of twenty-five men 
to the 25th Battalion, and another of 250 men and five officers to 
England, as reinforcements. 

At Valcartier strenuous work by all ranks drew special mention 
of the 4 oth by Major-General Sir Sam Hughes at a General Review 
of the Camp a week before sailing. The Battalion was also in 
spected later at Valcartier by the Duke of Connaught and also by Sir 
Robert Borden. A week before sailing a third call was made for 
reinforcements, and again five officers and 250 X.C.O. s and men, 
all picked, were despatched to England. 

Notwithstanding this great drain, on October 18, 1915. the 4Oth 
sailed from Quebec on the SS. Sa.ronia, with a strength of 1,143 



all ranks, under the command of Lieut.-Col. A. G. Vincent and the 
following officers : 

Major C. A. Andrews, Second in Command. 

Major J. C. Ditmars. 

Capt. J. S. Legge, Adjutant. 

Lieut. H. Fisher, Q.M. 

Lieut. G. M. Sylvester, Assistant Adjutant. 

Lieut. A. W. Cunningham, Sig. Officer. 

Lieut. H. St. C. Jones, M.G. Officer. 

Major Geo. Wood, Chaplain. 

Capt. E. Douglas, Medical Officer. 

Capt. G. H. Gillis, Paymaster. 

Major A. G. Nutter, O.C. "A" Company. 

Capt. W. E. Doane, Second in Command. 

Lieut. Geo. Campbell. 

Lieut. G. W. Anderson. 

Lieut. P. W. Freeman. 

Lieut. A. S. Allen. 

Lieut. J. Harley. 

Capt. C. R. Chishojm, O.C. " B " Company. 
Capt. H. P. Bell, Second in Command. 
Lieut. Mc.I. McLeod. 
Lieut. J. D. Mclntyre. 
Lieut. W. W. Pickup. 
Lieut. H. H. Heal. 

Capt. A. M. Ross, O.C. " C " Company. 

Capt. G. W. Dwyer, Second in Command. 

Lieut. G. B. Murray. 

Lieut. A. S. Churchill. 

Lieut. C. E. Little. 

Lieut. L. W. Ormand. 

Lieut: D. H. MacKenzie. 

Capt. W. Letcher, O.C. " D " Company. 

Capt. E. R. Dennis, Second in Command. 

Lieut. B. F. Davidson. 

Lieut. F. P. H. Layton. 

Lieut. R. Jago. 

Lieut. L. W. W. Slacke. 

Lieut. F. G. Robertson. 

Lieut. A. Anderson. 

On October 29, 1915, after an uneventful voyage the Battalion 
landed at Plymouth and proceeded to Bramshott Camp, being the 
first Canadian Infantry Battalion to enter that Camp, where they 
took over quarters from the Royal Irish Rifles. At Bramshott the 
40th joined part of the then contemplated 9th Brigade of the 3rd 
Canadian Division, which was under the command of General Lord 

Owing to the heavy demand for reinforcements, following the 
disastrous action of June 2, 1916 (the Third Battle of Ypres), 



the Battalion was moved to East Sandling to become the 4Oth 
Reserve Battalion, where drafts were despatched to nearly every 
Unit in the Canadian Corps. After many moves the /pth absorbed 
the remnants of the 64th, iO4th, io6th and H2th Battalions, and 
finally returned to Bramshott to become the 26th Reserve Battalion, 
and was finally absorbed by the i/th Reserve Battalion. 

The 40th Battalion has the distinction 
that practically every officer and man of 
the original Battalion saw service in 
France. Ten of the officers were killed 
in action, viz. : 

Capt. A. M. Ross. 

Capt. W. E. Doane. 

Capt. E. R. Dennis. 

Lieut. G. H. Campbell. 

Lieut. W. W. Pickup (Major). 

Lieut. G. M. Sylvester. 

Lieut. A. Allen (Capt). 

Lieut. F. P. H. Layton. 

Lieut. H. Fisher. 

Lieut. A. S. Churchill. 

In addition, nineteen were wounded. 
Twelve received the M.C., one the D.F.C. 

(killed in action at Vimy g eral were pr omoted -and mentioned in 
Ridge. April 5, 1917)- . Ti , , 

despatches for valuable service. It would 

be a long list to give the names of the N.C.O. s and men of the 
original 4Oth who gave their lives. Several were promoted to com 
missioned rank in the Field and many others were decorated for 
valor. Wherever they went they acquitted themselves in such a 
manner that although never to cross the Channel as a Unit, the 
40th always received honorable mention in every fighting Unit in 
the Canadian Corps. 





THE 64th Battalion was authorized in June, 1915, and mobil 
ized at Sussex, N.B., August I5th, 1915. It was originally 
intended that this should be a Highland Battalion raised in 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island; and 
having this in view, the officers were selected from the three 
provinces proportionately. 

When the Unit started to recruit, owing to New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island being still busy completing the 55th Battalion, 
all the recruits came from Nova Scotia, and eventually, when New 



(killed in action). 


(killed in action). 

Brunswick and Prince Edward Island began sending their quota, 
the ranks swelled to over 2,300, whereas the strength of a Battalion 
was only about 1,100 all ranks. 

The iO4th Battalion was then authorized as a New Brunswick 
Battalion, and all the New Brunswick men with some of the officers 
were transferred to the new Unit. 

Lieut.-Col. H. Montgomery Campbell, late 8th Hussars and 
Commanding Officer nth Infantry Brigade, Military District No. 6, 
was appointed Commanding Officer 64th Battalion. 



The Battalion organized and trained for ten weeks at Sussex, 
and early in November moved to Halifax, where at Pier Xo. 2 it 
went into winter quarters, continuing training till finally sailing on 
the 3ist of March, 1916, for Liverpool on the S.S. Adriatic. 

The following officers proceeded overseas with the Unit : 

O.C., Lieut.-Col. H. Montgomery Campbell. . Formerly 8th Hussars, N.B. 

Second in Command, Major H. Flowers -G.A., N.b. 

Junior Major, Major G. H. Maxwell ist C.G. A., N.b. 

Company Commanders- 
Major Angus W. McArthur 
G. Guy McLaughlin . 

Guy L. Mott 

Francis L. Stephens . 


Anglin, Gerald C 

Barbour, Roydon McF 

Bowron, Edward H 

Fairweather, Frank R 


Blois, Arthur O 

Campbell Herbert M. . 
Curren, Reginald H. . . . 

Flowers, Eric P 

Gale, John R 

Guildford, David A. 

Gunn, James D 

Henry, John D 

Hobkirk, Charles H. . . . 
Keswick, Robert McL. 

McKay, Reary 

McLean, James D. . . 
McCleave, Harry A. 

Murray, Ralph M 

O Leary. Harry 

Perks, Arthur J. . .... 

Rogers, William M. .. 
Russell, Bernard W. . 

Watt, William L 

Wetmore, Norman H. 
Winslow, Donald B. . 

Adjutant, Captain J. Hutton Wallace... 
Medical Officer, Capt. Arthur C. Jost... 
Quartermaster, Captain Samuel S. Wrij 



Hon. Capt, Rev. Wm. Fowler Parker. .. 
Hon. Capt., Rev. Father Patrick McQuillan 

Paymaster, Hon. Capt. Robert M. Hope 

9 6 

78th Regt., X.S. 
67th Regt., X.B. 
8ist Regt., X.S. 
66th Regt., X.S. 

O.T.C., X.B. 
O.T.C., N.B. 

78th Regt., X.S. 
62nd Regt., N.B. 

66th Regt., N.S. 
8ist Regt., X.S. 
i 4 th K.C.H., X.S. 
ist C.G.A., X.S. 
62nd, X.B. 
ist C.G.A., X.B. 
6gth, X.S. 
8th Hussars, X.B. 
71 st, N.B. 
73rd, X.B. 
6.T.C., X.B. 
O.T.C., X.B. 
76th, X.S. 
74th, X.B. 




C.F.A.. X.S. 
73rd, X.B. 
6.T.C., X.B. 
C.F.A., N.B. 

73 I d, 

8ist, X.S. 
C.A.M.C., X.S. 
R.C.G.A., X.S. 



C.F.A., X.B. 


On arrival in England, April 9th, the Battalion moved to Bram- 
shott, where it remained for four weeks. It then moved to Otter- 
pool for preliminary musketry, proceeding to Lidd for the final 
training in that branch. During the stay at Otterpool the Battalion 
was attached to the 6th Training Brigade, being inspected by Major- 
General Sir Sam Steele, together with the 63rd, 66th and 6gth 
Battalions. After the inspection Major-General Steele informed 
the troops that they were fully equal to any troops he had ever 
inspected, but that owing to certain exigencies of the war it was 
impracticable to send them to the Front as Units. Next day the 
drafting commenced and 198 were sent to the A.S.C. 

After one week at Lidd an order was received to send to Shorn- 


(killed in action). 


(killed in action ). 


(killed in action ). 

cliffe all those who had completed musketry. Five hundred other 
ranks in charge of Captain Fairweather moved out of camp at 
5 a.m. The next week was spent completing musketry, and on the 
following Sunday the remainder of the Battalion moved back to 
Otterpool. Other drafts were almost immediately called for of 
both officers and men. 

On July 3rd the last move was made to Caesar s Camp near 
Folkestone. The remainder of the Battalion was handed over to 
the 4Oth Reserve, and the 64th for all practical purposes ceased to 
exist. The O.C. and Staff were employed in winding up the affairs 
of the Unit, the other remaining officers being ordered to hold 
themselves in readiness to proceed to France. 



Every officer of this Unit eventually proceeded to France. Of 
the thirty-nine officers the following paid the supreme sacrifice, 
namely: Major G. H. Maxwell, Capt. Frank Fairweather, Capt. 
J. Hutton Wallace, Lieut. Herbert M. Campbell, Lieut. C. H. 
Hobkirk, Lieut. Reary McKay, Lieut. N. H. Wetmore, Lieut. H. A. 
McCleave eight in all. Of the remainder twenty-four were 
wounded, only seven escaping the casualty list. 

This Battalion was undoubtedly one of the best trained Bat 
talions leaving Canada. Many of its N.C.O. s finally reached the 
Commissioned Ranks, and the Units in France were always pleased 
to get a detachment of 64th men. 




TlrlE first distinctly Highland Battalion to be organized in 
Nova Scotia for active service Overseas in the late War was 
the 85th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders. The Battalion 
was authorized at Ottawa on September 14, 1915, with the appoint 
ment of Lieut. -Colonel Allison H. Borden as Commanding Officer. 
Headquarters for organization and mobilization were first estab 
lished at the Military Camp, Aldershot, N.S., on September 23, 
1915. Recruiting proceeded rapidly, the idea of a distinctly Nova 
Scotia Highland Battalion having fired with enthusiasm the people 
of the Province, who, true to their ancestral Highland spirit, were 
found deas gu cath " (ready for fight). The success of the re 
cruiting drew an order from Ottawa for Battalion Headquarters to 
be transferred to Halifax, and for the Battalion to be mobilized in 
full strength and stationed in the Armories. Mobilization resulted 
on October 14, 1915, with the 85th Battalion 200 over strength. On 
that day occurred the first parade of the Battalion a memorably 
impressive scene and event, by virtue of its contrasts in personnel; 
for in all ranks were officers and men who came from every walk 
of life, professional and industrial and commercial, with farmers 
and manufacturers amongst the officers, while clergymen, college 
processors, and teachers paraded shoulder to shoulder in the rank 
and file. 

The 85th Battalion has the distinction of being the senior, and, 
as it were, the parent Unit of the Xova Scotia Highland Brigade. 
But with the Brigade as such this chapter is not concerned. Its story 
has been told incidentally in connection with the other Units which 
made up the Brigade. It will suffice to remark, however, that this 
magnificent body of fighting men "the very flower of Nova 
Scotia s manhood " after being noted by the military leaders and 



authorities in England " as the finest body of troops sent over from 
Canada," was, under the exigencies of military supervision, finally 
broken up in England, and reorganized into two Battalions, the 
85th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders, and the iS$th Battalion, 
Cape Breton Highlanders. The latter Battalion- " siol nan gais- 
geach mora" became a splendid Unit in the so-called Fifth 
Division, but was denied the privilege and glory of seeing service 


in France as a Unit. The record of their compatriots, " D " Com 
pany of the Ssth Battalion, at Vimy and Passchendaele, a most 
glorious record, is sufficient proof that had the iSsth Battalion, 
Cape Breton Highlanders, got to France as a Unit, the name not 
only of Nova Scotia Province but also of the Island of Cape Breton 
would to-day be shining with still greater glory than that which 
they now possess for brilliant military achievement in the late War. 

TOO 1 


As it was, however, the records of individual officers and men of the 
185111 Battalion who had transferred to the 85th and other Units 
on the i85th being broken up just before the initial drive of 1918, 
were such as to give a noble name not only to themselves individu 
ally. but also to the i85th Battalion and Cape Breton Island, where 
this splendid Unit of fighting men was recruited. 

Reverting now to the 851!! Battalion as such, after due training. 
and many inexplicable disappointments in earlier sailing for Over 
seas, the 85th Battalion, and the other Units of the Nova Scotia 
Highland Brigade, broke camp on October n, 1916, and sailed for 
England on October 13, 1916, aboard H.M. Transport Olympic. 
The 85th and the Nova Scotia Highland Brigade disembarked at 
Liverpool on October 19, 1916, and immediately entrained for 
Witley Camp, Surrey, arriving in Camp the same evening. Follow 
ing the breaking up of the Nova Scotia Highland Brigade, and the 
reorganization of the 85th, the Battalion sailed for France on 
February 10, 1917, going into training for service in the Field at 
Gouy Servins. Bouvigny, and Bouvigny Wood, from which quar 
ters the Battalion moved up to Music Hall Line, in the reserves, to 
take part as " a working Unit " in the Battle of Vimy Ridge (April 
9, 1917). 

Including Vimy, the 85th Battalion was in the following engage 
ments Vimy, April 9 to 14, 1917; " The Triangle," June 20, 1917; 
Ontario Trench, June 26, 1917; Eleu dit Leauvette and the Horse 
Shoe, June 28, 1917: Lens, July to October, 1917; Passchendaele, 
October 28 to November 2, 1917; Arleux, June, 1918: Fompoux, 
July, 1918; Amiens, August 8 to n, 1918; Arras (Drocourt-Queant 
Line), September 2 to 5, 1918; Cambrai (Bourlon), September 25 
to October 2, 1918; Valenciennes, November, 1918; Quievrechain, 
November, 1918; Honnelle River, November, 1918. 

What the Battalion did after the signing of the Armistice is of 
no military significance. It returned from France to England on 
May i, 1919, took part in the Great March of Triumph through 
London on May 3, 1919; sailed from England for Canada on May 
31, 1919: and arrived at Halifax on June 8. 1919, and two days 
later marched through the City of Halifax, which was en fete to 
give the Unit a memorably joyous welcome home. It was not, how 
ever, a welcome from the city, but from the whole Province, and it 



is estimated that 60,000 outside visitors friends and relatives of 
the returned victors must have been present among the citizens of 
Halifax to witness the home-coming parade of the 85th Battalion, 
Xova Scotia Highlanders. A week later (June 15, 1919), a 
remnant company of the Battalion fell in at Grafton Park, Halifax, 
and headed by the Royal Canadian Regiment Band, marched with 
its King s and Regimental Colors to Government House, where the 
colors were deposited in the presence of His Honor Lieutenant- 
Governor Grant, Colonel W. E. Thompson, D.O.C, M.D. No. 6, 
and Staff. On the occasion Lieut. -Col. James Layton Ralston, 
C.M.G., D.S.O., with Bar, Commanding the Ssth, read an address 
of farewell to the officers and N.C.O. s and men assembled and 
thus the history of the 85th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders, as 
a fighting Unit, came to an end. 

In the proper places there will be explicit observations on the 
achievements of the Battalion, individual officers, N.C.O. s and men 
on the Field. In the meantime, following is a summary of the 
honors and awards (259 in total) that belong to the Battalion: 

C.M.G : i 

D.S.O 4 

Bar to D.S.O i 

M.C 34 

Bar to M.C 3 

D.C.M 15 

M.S.M 4 

M.M 1 66 

Bar to M.M 12 

Croix de Guerre 5 

Mentioned in Despatches twice 4 

Mentioned in Despatches Officers 

Mentioned in Despatches Warrant Officers i 

Total 259 

The first " big show " or engagement in which the 85th Battalion 
took part was that of Yimy Ridge. Theirs was not at first an 
envious situation. The Battalion had been substituted for another 
in the I2th Brigade, but the actual taking over did not ensue till 
after the Battle of Vimy Ridge. For that engagement the 85th was 
attached to the nth Brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Odium. For the Battle .of Vimy Ridge the 85th moved into posi 
tion in the reserves, and was to serve as " a working Unit," that is, 



to follow up the troops in action, and to carry ammunition, build 
dugouts, keep up communication trenches, clear wire entangle 
ments, and in general, as the phrase is. to mop up." The 85th, of 
course, could be called on, as they were, to fight in an emergency. 
But they were regarded as " green troops." and it was not considered 
likely by the authorities that the Battalion would be efficient and 
steady under slaughterous fire. As a matter of fact, all the while 
between the Battalion s arrival at Gouy Servins till the Unit moved 
out from quarters into the reserve at Music Hall Line for their 
part in the Battle of Yimy Ridge, the Commanding Officer, Lieut. - 
Col. A. H. Borden, the Second in Command, Lieut. -Col. E. C. 
Phinriey. the Adjutant, Major J. L. Ralston, and Assistant 
Adjutant, Lieut. A. T. Croft, had been preparing the Battalion as 
much for a fighting Unit as for a working Unit having had the 
German lines at Vimy all taped out to scale, and having trained the 
L nit in every detail of the coming operation, until all ranks knew 
the precise "lay " of the Vimy Front and how the fighting Units as 
such would operate in action. Thus considered, the 85th Battalion 
was not a Unit of "green troops" in the ordinary acceptance of 
the phrase. They were " ready for fight " and unexpectedly they 
got their chance, and achieved to their immortal glory. 

The Battle of Vimy Ridge opened in the early morn of Easter 
Monday, April 9. 1917. At -first it was all clear gain for the Cana 
dians. But, at last, toward the evening, word kept coming back 
that the Canadian advance was being held up, that Hill 145 re 
mained untaken. that it was a " nasty critical situation," because 
the enfilading of the Huns would destroy attacking troops totally, 
and that if Hill 145 were not somehow taken, the engagement would 
fail. Where were there fresh troops who could be sent in to take 
Hill 145 ? It is understood that Colonel Hilliam, commanding the 
25th Battalion, Xova Scotia s invincible " Shock Troops," recom 
mended that the 85th Battalion be selected for the feat. He assured 
Brigadier Odium that even if they were "green troops " they would 
be steady under fire. The die was cast. Orders came from head 
quarters that two Companies of the 85th were to go into the line at 
sundown and assault Hill 145. Lieut.-Col. Borden, Commanding 
Officer, selected C and " D " Companies, and placed Capt. 



Percival W. Anderson in command, with Capt. Harvey E. Crowell 
in command of " C " Company. 

At zero hour " C " Company went over the top, followed imme 
diately by " D " Company, but, for good reasons, without the usual 
barrage. The 85th had dared. The question now was on the part 
of the Units that had been held up. Would the 85th also DO? 
From the moment the Companies went over the top, they proceeded 
on to their objective, the crest of Hill 145, with the precision and 
steadiness of inured troops. There is no necessity to describe the 
assault in detail. But when the Huns first saw the 85th Companies 
going over the top. they were amazed. As the Companies proceeded 
forward, steady and indomitable in spite of the gun fire and the hail 
of bullets from concealed nests of machine guns, the while them 
selves wreaking destruction on the Bosche, the Germans became 
alarmed. And when the 85th Companies still kept on, in the same 
spirit, and w 7 ith the same effectiveness, the Huns became discon 
certed, and at last ignominiously turned and >; beat it," leaving Hill 
145 the Huns " pivotal strategic stronghold ; -in possession of 

the 85th Companies and the Canadian 
Corps. The clearing up of the Ridge 
and the advance of the 85th Companies 
to the Lens-Arras Road need not detain 
us. On the morning of April 14. 1917, 
the Battalion was relieved by the Royal 
Sussex, and marched back to rest quar 
ters at Bouvigny Huts. 

There were many acts of heroism on 
the part of officers, N.C.O. s and men 
during the first day of the Yimy Ridge 
LIEUT -COL E. c. PHINNEY. " show " and on later days. One phrase 

might be applied to summarize the con 
duct of the Commanding Officer (Lieutenant-Colonel Borden). the 
Second in Command (Lieutenant-Colonel Phinney), and the 
Adjutant, Major J. L. Ralston, who had the task of consolidating 
the line after the taking of the Ridge ; not only were they all the time 
" cool, calm and collected," but the three showed distinct military 
genius. Outstanding was the conduct of Capt. Percival W. Ander 
son, who, amongst other exploits, single-handed performed a deed 



of heroism which won for him the Military Cross (it should have 
been the Y.C.). One of the men in the patrols suffered a bad 
wound. His groans were heard in " No Man s Land," but he lay 
where the whole field was raked by rifle and machine-gun tire. 
Captain Anderson would not ask or command any of his men to 
attempt a rescue, but went out himself and carried the wounded 
man back to safety. This splendid soldier and officer was killed at 
the Battle of Passchendaele, his death profoundly regretted: for he 
knew no fear, and he w r as a superb officer and leader of men, a 
splendid example of the Cape Breton Highlander. 

The list of those who turned exploits and won awards at Vimy 
is too long to admit of detailed accounts. But specially to be men 
tioned are Capt. H. E. Crowell, Capt. H. B. Clarke, Chaplain, and 
later Transport Officer (acting) ; Lieuts. H. C. Verner (" Hell-Fire" 
Yerner), Douglas Graham, Hugh A. Crawley, F. C, Manning; 
and amongst the privates and N.C.O. s Pte. C. A. McLeod. Pt e. 
H. C. Steeves, Pte. A. J. Murphy, Pte. J. S. Westlake. Pte. L. M. 
Gates, Pte. K. Manoles, Pte. J. C. Taylor, Pte. C. J. Doucette, 
Runners, Ptes. W. E. Stackhouse, W. W. Pearson and G. B. Peck ; 
Lance-Corporal A. F. MacAree, Lance-Corporal V. M. Lindsay, 
Lance-Corporal H. W. Hardy, Corporal C. D. Reid, and Sergt. 
W. U. Martel. 

The courage, pluck, indomitableness and resourcefulness of the 
officers, N.C.O. s and men of the 85th Battalion at the Battle of 
Vimy Ridge were instanced not to glorify the Battalion, but to 
show forth the kind of "stuff" that was the spirit of the Unit. 
The same kind of spirit was shown in all subsequent engagements 
" The Triangle," Ontario Trench, Eleu dit Leauvette and the Horse 
Shoe and around Lens, up to Passchendaele. The outstanding 
phase of the long Battle of Passchendaele (October 28 to Novem 
ber 2, 1917) was the recapturing of the front line by " D " Company 
(Cape Bretoners), commanded by Captain Ross M. MacKenzie 
another " saving of the day," as at Vimy, by the 85th Battalion. 
The 85th was, as decided, to be in the line for a day before going 
over the top. However, before that move, " D " Company was to 
take over the whole Battalion frontage, the other Companies to 
remain at the rear. A Western Canadian Unit was in the line, and 
8 I0 5 


just as " D " Company reached the line for the relief of the Western 
Battalion, the Huns launched a violent and destructive counter 
attack. Captain MacKenzie and D " Company saw that the 
Western Battalion was falling back, and the Huns advancing in 
great force. It was a critical situation, and Captain MacKenzie at 
once offered himself and his Company to reinforce the retiring 
Unit. The offer was gladly accepted. Captain MacKenzie ordered 
his Company to drop all kit, and to fix bayonets and advance in 
true Highland fashion. With huzzas they made for the enemy- 
dashing upon the Huns with such a rush and momentum, that the 
Huns became bewildered, next were seized with panic, broke, and 
"beat it." The situation was saved, and the line recaptured 
shortly by continued advance to the position from which the 
Western Battalion was forced to retire. But that advance was 
costly in casualties, for it was covered by enemy machine guns and 
snipers posts. Then it was that the ancient fighting spirit of his 
Gaelic ancestors shone brilliantly in Captain MacKenzie, and he 
became the Gaelic Hero Cuchullain in the fight and in death. 
MacKenzie was shot through the abdomen some say he was liter 
ally riddled with machine gun bullets, and he fell. But he 
struggled to his feet and kept on with his Company, bleeding to 
death, and commanded his men, encouraging them, until he dropped 
exhausted into a shell hole. Even then, though undone, he would 
not be attended to, but kept encouraging his Company. Eventually 
he permitted himself to be placed on a stretcher, and while being 
borne away, he died like Cuchullain too, unconquerable in death. 
There were many other individual examples of heroism on that 
day and during the days that followed at Passchendaele. But the 
slaughter was awful : and while the engagement added fresh glory 
to the 85th Battalion, and is a memorial to the living, it is to be 
regarded as an apotheosis of all H.Sth officers, non-commissioned 
officers and men who fell at that mysteriously ordered engagement 
-Major P. W. Anderson, M.C., Capts. John M. Hensley, E. R. 
Clayton, M.C., and Ross M. MacKenzie, Lieuts. W T alter U. Martel, 
M.M., Frank O. Hutchison, Angus D. MacDonald, Norman C. 
Christie, Alexander D. Fraser, Fred J. Anderson, John R. Mac- 
Farlane, W. H. Murr and R. Salisman, and the 123 privates and 









non-commissioned officers. It was for their bravery and resource 
fulness and indomitableness their sheer invincibility at Passchen- 
daele that the 85th Battalion won from the other Units in the 
Canadian Corps and the Imperials the noteworthy, if slangy, 
complimentary epithet, " The Never Fails/ 

From Passchendaele to the signing of the Armistice would 
furnish only repetitions of the records of the 85th Battalion in 
action. It was all a most honorable and glorious record, quite 
worthy to stand beside -that of Canadian Units which had seen 
longer service. It would not do. however, to bring this summary 
narrative to a close without mentioning the characteristics of the 
outstanding officers, but for whom the 85th would not have been a 
reality, or would not have achieved so splendidly. First, let it be 
remembered perennially that all honor and distinction belongs to 
Lieut.-Col. Allison H. Borden for conceiving the idea of a distinctly 
Nova Scotia Highland Battalion, and, later, a distinctly Nova 
Scotia Highland Brigade. As an officer he always displayed vision 
and decision, great gifts for organization; and in the Field he was 
a gallant and resourceful soldier, to whom the loss of men in action 
was felt as a poignant personal loss. He was awarded the Dis 
tinguished Service Order. But posterity will gratefully remember 
him and honor his name as the Organizer and Commanding Officer 
of the 85th Battalion, Nova Scotia Highlanders, and the Organizer 
and Brigadier of the Nova Scotia Highland Brigade. Lieut.-Col. 
Earle C. Phinney was a young officer, and, in turn, filled several 
positions from Adjutant to Commanding Officer in Canada and in 
England, and had the honor of taking the 85th to France, where, 
though he had voluntarily reverted to Second in Command, he was 
temporarily in command till the arrival of Lieut.-Colonel Borden. 
He made a record at Vimy for coolness and resourcefulness in the 
Field. In a later engagement he was wounded, and was eventually 
invalided home. Lieut.-Col. J. L. Ralston, who brought the 85th 
home, as Commanding Officer, also served as Adjutant and as 
Commanding Officer in the Field. He was his officers and men s 
ideal of " the splendid soldier." intrepid and indomitable, and 
always resourceful. He was wounded several times ; and was 
awarded the D.S.O. and Bar to the D.S.O., and honored by the 
King with the C.M.G. Lieut.-Col. Joseph Hayes was unique as an 

1 08 


officer. He was the M.O. of the Battalion, and a more humane and 
intrepid M.O. there was not in the Canadian Corps. Though several 
years past the age limit, he never missed a day from the line from 
Vimy to Passchendaele, and did much to keep up the morale and 
fighting spirit of the officers and men of the 85th. In a phrase, 
Lieut.-Col. Joseph Hayes was a gallant officer, a genuinely brave 
soldier, and a humane and kind medical expert in the line. The 

UEUT.-COI,. J. 1,. RALSTON, C.M.G., D.S.O. 

hygiene of the Battalion, which was a record in the Canadian Corps, 
was due to Colonel Hayes rigorous supervision of camp and line 
sanitation and his meticulous care of the person, food and potables 
of the officers and men. He was awarded the D.S.O. It is im 
possible to make a " Homeric Catalogue " of the character and 
deeds of all the other officers. Suffice it to say that they all were 
good men and true. The Battalion had the distinction of having 
Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada, as Honorary Colonel. 


Killed in Action while serving with the 85th 
in France and Flanders 






LIEUT. CYRIL A. EVANS. Dipd af[er ret[]ra tQ 




LIEUT. J. 0. M LEO!). 



THE literary and the musical professions were well repre 
sented in the personnel of the 85th Battalion by one 
historian, two poets, and a brass and wood-wind band, an 
organization of instrumentalists that gave the Battalion additional 
and peculiar distinction and glory. Lieut.-Colonel Hayes in England 
and France acted as a free-lance war correspondent and, on arrival 
home, set to work to prepare the History of the 85th Battalion. He 
produced an illustrated work of nearly 400 pages a most readable 
volume, the first history of any Nova Scotia fighting Unit that had 
taken part in the late War. It was hurriedly prepared, under very 
difficult conditions, but despite a minimum of slight and inevitable 
discrepancies or omissions every history from Thucydides to John 
Richard Green has these it is a well-written and accurate work, 
a genuine monument to the literary acumen and devotion of that 
versatile and gallant officer, Lieut.-Col. Joseph Hayes. The two 
poets were the late Lieut. Frederick C. Manning, a brilliant alumnus 
of Acadia University, whose " Poems " were posthumously pub 
lished. They are excellent poems, both in conception and in crafts 
manship, and go to prove how great a wastage of brain power and 
rare spirit was caused by the late War. The other poet was Sergt. 
J. D. Logan, an alumnus of Harvard University. He was a free 
lance war correspondent at the Front. He published two volumes 
of war poems " Insulters of Death and Other Poems of the Great 
Departure" (1916), and The New Apocalypse and Other Poems 
of Days and Deeds in France " (1919), besides a series of magazine 
articles on special phases of the War, a series entitled " From Vimy 
to Passchendaele " (1918), and before sailing for Overseas a 
pamphlet on the 85th Band (" Canada s Champion Regimental 
Band ). All this is mentioned to show that military training for 
active warfare and actual warfare do not necessarily kill the finer 
spirit of men or turn soldiers from human beings into brutes. But 



the chief aesthetic glory of the 85th Battalion was its extraordinary 
fine marching and symphonic band. Following are the salient facts 
in its history. 

The band was the descendant of the old Albion Mines (Stellar- 
ton) Band, established in the 40*5 of the last century, and having 
a continuous history of nearly three-quarters of a century to date. 
It was for years the regimental band of the ^8th Pictou High 
landers. Lieut.-Colonel Borden, commanding the 85th, asked Lieut. 
Dan. Mooney, bandmaster of the Stellarton or /Sth Band, to 
organize a band for the 85th. The original personnel of the 85th 
Band, the personnel which went Overseas with the Battalion, was : 
Lieut. Dan. Mooney, Bandmaster; Sergt. ]. C. Profitt, Corpls. 
W. D. MacLeod and Alex. Myers, Ptes. A. H. MacDougall, R. H. 
Roy. Ronald MacDougal l, E. B. Mitchell (did not sail), R. Y. 
Geddes, C. A. MacDonald, A. ]. Fraser, T. R. Roy, ]. W. Hender 
son, T. B. Davidson (died in France), C. W. Appleton, H. P. 
Barnes, F. T. Freeman, ]. ]. Gray, T. Mason, C. A. (" Chud ") 
MacDonald, A. R. MacDonald, A. A. MacDougall, ]. R. Munro, 
H. H. Murray, C. E. Purves, G. A. Rackham, W. D. Jamieson, 
F. A. Ryan, W. P. Cameron, Joseph Smith, James Roy, D. W. 
Cameron, W. E. Gallagher, F. D. Mooney, A. F. Gallant, W. Dunn 
(did not sail, died later), Sergt. J. D. Logan. 

This band was distinguished in musicianship by versatility, vir 
tuosity and brilliancy. It had acquired a notable reputation for these 
qualities in Canada, and when Overseas, in England, where it was in 
demand by towns near Camp Witley, for social functions of a semi- 
military or war-propaganda nature. The Director of Musical 
Services, who came to Camp Witley, to hear and conduct the band 
at rehearsal said of it, in writing: " It is the best band that has 
come Overseas from Canada," and remarked specially on its pre 
cision in attack, its unanimity, its dynamic qualities and nuancing, 
and its brilliancy. 

Xow, bands in camp and rest quarters are regarded as good for 
the morale of Units, but generally were considered as impedimenta 
(or superfluous baggage) with a Unit active in the Field. But the 
officers and men of the 85th were insistent in their outspoken 
demand We want our band." The problem was how to keep 


the band from being broken up, and how to get the bandsmen, with 
their instruments, into France. It was achieved by the character 
istic resourcefulness of the Commanding Officer and officers. When 
the 8sth crossed to France the band was not on the establishment. 
The bandsmen, however, were brought over on the strength as 
fighting men, and the instruments came along too, somehow mys 
teriously, as part of the Quartermaster s stores (Capt. Robert 
Donaldson was Quartermaster and a kinder and more resourceful 
Quartermaster there was not in the Canadian Corps). The bands 
men and their instruments being in France, their fixed place on 
the establishment of the Battalion was finally adjusted by the 

The fame of this band soon spread throughout the 4th Division 
and the Canadian Corps, and into England ; and it became a matter 
of perpetual demand for the 85th Band to be present and to play at 
concert parties and at parades and other functions of the Division 
and Brigade. This was due more particularly to the versatility of the 
band in soloists and a group of entertainers amongst the personnel, 
who formed a concert party by themselves. It is without question 
that Thomas Roy, euphonium soloist; Percival Barnes, piccolo and 
flute soloist; R. MacDougall and D. W. Cameron, cornet soloists; 
J. C. Profitt and Alex. Myers, clarinet soloists; Alex. ("Attell") 
MacDougall, trombone soloist, and the trombone quartet (A. Mac 
Dougall, J. J. Gray, C. E. Purves, and James Roy) were as expert 
instrumentalists as the trained ear could wish to hear. They 
earned for the band its name for virtuosity and brilliancy. The 
group of entertainers comprised H. H. Murray, George Rackham, 
Frank ("Hunk") A. Ryan, C. W. Appleton and Ronald Mac 
Dougall. Murray was vocal soloist, with band accompaniment, 
having a rounded cantabile baritone. He was also " the lead " in 
the theatrical entertainment, sketches and vaudeville, with Rackham 
as foil. Ryan, Appleton and R. MacDougall were step dancers, 
and Ryan was noted for his eccentric dancing specialties. The 
group, assisted by the other members of the band, also produced 
" The Old Homestead," in costume, at the Front. 

On the day of the Great March of Triumph through London, 
May 3, 1919, the 85th Band made a distinct popular "hit" with 



the Londoners. The Director of Musical Services, noted the fact 
in the following official communication : 

" Argyll House, 

"London, W.I., 

" To " Ma y 5th, 1919. 


"Deputy Minister, O.M.F.C., 

"34 Grosvenor St., W.I. 

" g IR> I have the honor to bring to your notice the musical 
report of the bands marching through London: 

" The 85th Battalion Band, -thirty performers, under Lieutenant 
Mooney, Bandmaster. This famous marching band has been sadly 
depleted by war losses, but gave a fine, spirited performance, which 
was much admired. 

" I have the honor to be, 

" Sir, 
" Your Obedient Servant, 


" Musical Director." 

It should be noted that the band was considerably augmented 
when in France ; and that one member, T. B. Davidson, died, while 
Ben. Hichens and H. Luscomb were killed in action. It should 
also be noted that the 85* returned officers and men organized, 
under the name " The ,85th Clansmen," and " The 8$th Memory 
Club," to perpetuate the name of the Battalion and the memory of 
the fallen by reunions on the days of the engagements in which the 
Battalion took part. L. 




THE io6th Battalion, Nova Scotia Rifles, was authorized on 
November 8, 1915, and recruiting commenced at once. Being 
the first Rifle Battalion recruited in the Maritime Provinces, 
it appealed strongly to the members of the various rifle clubs and 

was soon up to strength. 

The standards of the Battalion were 
high. Regimental schools for the train 
ing of non-commissioned officers were 
established. The motto of the Battalion 
was " None So Reliable," and all ranks 
sought to make the Battalion worthy to 
bear such a name. 

Headquarters were established at 
Truro, where two Companies were sta 
tioned : the other two Companies were 
UEUT.-COL. R. INNES. stationed at Springhill and Truro. 


* Killed in action or died of wounds. 

Lieut.-Col. Robert Innes O.C. 

Major O. G. Heard Second in Command. 

Capt. C. M. Williams Adjutant. 

Capt. G. M. Bryce Quartermaster. 

Capt. E. L. Miller Paymaster. 

Capt. W. L. Muir Medical Officer. 

Hon. Capt. G. McL. Dix Chaplain. 

*Lieut. H. C. Dawson Assistant Adjutant. 

Lieut. S. D. Morrison Signalling Officer. 

Lieut. R. Flemming Machine Gun Officer. 

Lieut. T. T. Arenburg Bandmaster. 

*Lieut. W. R. McAskill Base Detail. 


(killed in action). 


(killed in action). 


(killed inaction). 

(killed in action). 


(killed in action). 


" A " Company. 

*Major E. W. Joy O.C. 

Capt. C. B. McMullen Second in Command. 

*Lieut. J. F. Hallisey 

*Lieut. P. A. Fulton 

Lieut. W. R. Cox 

Lieut. F. S. Huntley 

" B " Company. 

Major W. J. H. Moxom O.C. 

Capt. F. D. Dodsworth Second in Command. 

*Lieut. A. M. O Brien 

Lieut. M. McRae 

*Lieut. A. H. Walker 

Lieut. F. V. Burgess 

"C" Company. 

Major J. A. McPherson O.C. 

Capt. E. J. Lounsbero- Second in Command. 

Lieut. H. A. Allum 

*Lieut. R. H. Sawler 

*Lieut. C. E. Howson 

Lieut. G. R. Harrison 

"D" Company. 

Major J. R. Maxwell O.C. 

Capt. T. C. King Second in Command. 

Lieut. W. J. Brothers 

Lieut. M. J. Dryden 

Lieut. W. A. Livingstone 

Lieut. G. C. McDermid 

The Battalion left Canada July 15, 1916, and encamped at Lower 
Dibgate, Shorncliffe, England. There it met the fate of many other 
Canadian Units, by being broken up into drafts to reinforce Bat 
talions in the Field. 

i i2th BATTALION, C.H.F. 

AUTHORITY for the recruiting of the ii2th Battalion, with 
headquarters in the historic town of Windsor, N.S., was 
granted in November, 1915. Its personnel was composed of 
officers and men drawn chiefly from the western part of Nova 
Scotia, embracing the counties of Halifax, Hants, Kings, Annapolis, 
Digby, Yarmouth, Shelburne, Queens and Lunenburg. Recruiting 
progressed with unique rapidity and by the middle of April, 1916, 
the Battalion was at full strength. Over 1,500 men applied for 
enlistment, and of these about 300 were found medically unfit. 
The significance of this achievement will be seen when it is con 
sidered that it was accomplished without the aid of any extensive 
recruiting campaign, but by the united effort of each officer and 

In the early days of the Unit each county was allowed to keep a 
detachment, providing it numbered fifty men or more, who trained 
in their own locality until finally mobilized in Windsor in May, 1916. 
There the Battalion encamped on the hill of Fort Edward, where 
it was subjected to a rigorous training, and the progress made 
elicited much praised from Major-General Sir Sam Hughes, then 
Minister of Militia, who inspected the Unit about the beginning of 
July, 1916. The period of training at Windsor was one of keen 
enjoyment to all concerned. Its discipline was stern, its experience 
was at times hard, but the life was altogether wholesome and 
profitable, which was evidenced by the improvement in the bearing 
and appearance of the Unit during its short stay at Windsor. 

The Battalion was commanded by Lieut.-Col. H. B. Tremaine. 
The other officers were : Majors W. F. D. Brennan, second in com 
mand; T. M. Seely, M. S. Parker, T. A. Mulock; Capts. R. W. 
Churchill, O. G. Dauphinee (killed in action), R. T. Christie, 
J. Flemming (Adjutant), E. S. Spurr, M.C. (killed in action), 



M. P. Titus (Quartermaster), H. A. MacDonald (Paymaster), 
John St. C. McKay (Medical Officer), C. R. Gumming (Chaplain), 
G. R. Martell (Chaplain), Lieuts. J. T. Probert, M.C. (killed in 
action), R. S. Parsons, W. D. Comstock, J. W. Hughes, J. K. 
Swanson (killed in action), W. G. Foster (killed in action), 
G. M. Hebb (killed in action), A. M. Parsons. M.C.,. R. M. 
Morris, M.C., R. B. Logan, A. H. Creighton, P. L. Wilcox, 
J. W. G. Lardner, W. P. Harmon, W. H. Smith, J. C. Lithgow, 
R. W. Dill, E. W. Bell, C. C. Mo rash, M. L. Tupper (killed in 
action), W. J. Sangster, L. E. Langley (killed in action), R. Hen- 
shaw, R. M. McGregor (killed in action), O. H. Lunham, G. W. 
Banks, A. T. E. Crosby, H. L. Gates. 

Capt. G. R. Martell, Rector of Christchurch, Windsor, X.S., 
and Chaplain of the Battalion throughout its organization, did 
splendid work in recruiting and was beloved by all ranks. Owing 
to his inability to proceed Overseas, the Rev. Charles R. Cummings 
was appointed Chaplain and held the position until transferred to 
hospital duty in England preparatory to proceeding to the Chaplain 
_____ Services in France in January, 1917- 

Captain Martell died in June, 1918. 

Colors for the H2th Battalion were 
made by Mrs. Annie Pratt, of Windsor, 
Nova Scotia, and were presented to the 
Battalion by Mrs. Tremaine, wife of the 
Commanding Officer, on Friday after 
noon, July 21, 1916. The Battalion was 
formed up in mass in front of the band 
stand at Victoria Park, Windsor, and 
addresses were delivered by the Chaplain. 
Mavor Roach, and others. The next day 


the colors were deposited in Lhnst- 

church, -Windsor, where .the officers and men attended divine 

The ii2th Battalion embarked at Halifax, July 23, 1916, on 
H.M.T. Olympic, and arrived at Liverpool on July 3ist. Here it 
entrained and proceeded to Oxney Farm near Bramshott. The 
Unit remained there for about three weeks, after which it moved to 
Bramshott on the departure of the 4th Division for France. In 

1 20 

1 1 2th BATTALION, CM.F. 

Bramshott the Battalion was put through very intensive training, 
and on October 5th the first draft of 122 other ranks left for France 
to reinforce the 25th Battalion. On October loth, 212 other ranks 
and on October 29th, 40 other ranks were sent to the 25th Bat 
talion, all of whom proved to be a very welcome acquisition to that 
famous Unit. Other drafts found their way to the Royal Canadian 
Regiment. Most of the officers were detailed to special schools in 
various parts of England for a time, after which they were gradu 
ally absorbed by the Battalions already at the Front. At one time it 
was expected that the Battalion would become a Forestry Unit and 
be sent to France, but for some reason this did not eventuate, and 
the Battalion was gradually depleted until the remnant was finally 
merged into the 26th Canadian Reserve Battalion in February, 1917. 





IT is a difficult task indeed to compress a history of the iSsth 
Battalion into the space allotted for the purpose in this book. 
It is a difficult task, because, if we exclude those Battalions that 
saw active service as complete Units, the history of the iSsth is 
longer than that of any other Nova Scotia Battalion. It is a 
difficult task because, through this long association and through the 

high standard of efficiency to which the 
Battalion attained, there grew up between 
all ranks a spirit of pride in their Unit 
and of affectionate x regard for each other, 
which may be fairly said to be almost 
unique, and which deserves a monument 
much grander and more enduring than 
this sketch can hope to raise. 

The origin of the iSsth may be said 
to be in the 85th Nova Scotia Highland 
Battalion, recruited by Lieut-Col. A. H. 
Borden in the autumn of 1915. The 
enthusiasm with which the people of 

Nova Scotia hailed the advent of the 85th Battalion engendered the 
more ambitious idea of a Nova Scotia Highland Brigade, and in the 
months of February and March, 1916, there was conducted in Nova 
Scotia a recruiting campaign for the raising of three additional 
Battalions, to form, with the 85th, a complete Brigade. The remark 
able success of that campaign is now part of our Nova Scotian 

The Island of Cape Breton was given the task of raising a 
Battalion, to be known as the i85th and to be under the command 




of Lieut-Col. F. P. Day (then Major Day) of the 8sth Battalion. 
Though Cape Breton had already given men to the colors, in 
numbers far in excess of her due proportion, nevertheless, the 
prospect of seeing active service with a Unit distinctly and entirely 
Cape Breton, so fired the imagination of the young men of the 
Island that in three weeks the Battalion was recruited to full 

The sytem of recruiting employed was well calculated to obtain 
the best results. First, the officers were selected. Some of them 
were Cape Bretoners, serving with the 85th Battalion, a few came 
from the Officers Training Corps of the Colleges, but the majority 
were drawn from the 94th, the Cape Breton Militia Unit. These 
officers were sent out into their own native districts to recruit men 
for their own Companies or Platoons, and the assurance was given 
that men from the same locality would be placed together in the 
same Company, Platoon, or Section as the case might be, and under 
an officer from that locality. That assurance was kept sacredly. 

The motto selected for the Battalion was the same as that of 
the 85th" Siol Na Fear Fearail " " Seed of Manly Men." That 
motto was highly appropriate, for the ranks of the Battalion were 
in large part filled by descendants of Highlanders those manly 
men who peopled Cape Breton in late i8th and early I9th centuries. 
To the Highland element in the population of Cape Breton the i85th 
made its greatest appeal, for the promise had been given that the 
Battalion should wear Highland garb, and the prospect of joining 
a Unit which should be clad in that picturesque and historic dress 
undoubtedly touched the Highland imagination. But the other 
races did not lag behind. The French, Irish and English elements 
were well represented, and there were not a few recruits of Italian 
and Russian extraction. 

" A " Company of the i85th came from the counties of Inver 
ness, Victoria and Richmond ; " B " Company from Glace Bay and 
New Waterford ; " C " Company from North Sydney and Sydney 
Mines ; and " D " Company from Sydney. Broughton, eighteen 
miles from Sydney, was chosen as a mobilization centre, and there 
the Battalion assembled during the first week of April, 1916. 

At Broughton, three bands, Pipe, Brass and Bugle were or 
ganized. The citizens of Glace Bay, the Royal Cape Breton Yacht 



Club, the " Green Feather " Societies of North Sydney and Sydney 
Mines, and Mr. Thomas Cantley, of New Glasgow, each presented 
four pipes and three drums to the Battalion. Money for the pur 
chase of instruments for the Brass Band was subscribed by the 
citizens of Sydney. For the Regimental March, the stirring High 
land air, " A Hundred Pipers, was chosen. 

Broughton did not offer a suitable ground for advanced 
training; and so on May 26th, 1916, the Battalion entrained for 
Aldershot, N.S., where the Highland Brigade was to spend the 
summer of 1916, under the command of Lieut-Col. A. H. Borden, 
who had recruited and commanded the 85* Battalion. The other 
Battalions of the Brigade were the 85*, I93rd and the 2igth. 
During the summer the Brigade was reviewed by H.R.H. the Duke 
of Connaught, Governor-General of Canada; by Sir Sam Hughes. 
Canadian Minister of Militia : by Major-General Lessard, Inspector- 
General for Canada. It was twice reviewed by Sir Robert Borden, 
Prime Minister of Canada. On the last visit of Sir Robert Borden, 
he was accompanied by Lady Borden. who presented colors to the 
Battalion. The colors are of beautiful design, rich material and 
elegant workmanship. They were received on behalf of the 
Battalion by Major Harrington and Lieutenants Purves and Liv 
ingstone, and were blessed by Capt. Michael Gillis, Roman Catholic 
Chaplain to the Battalion. (The colors were taken to England with 
the Battalion and after the War were returned to Canada, deposited 
in the Cape Breton County Court House at Sydney.) 

On October 4th the Battalion underwent successfully at the 
hands of Major-General Lessard its last inspection in Canada. 
Preparations for embarking for England were begun and on October 
nth the 1 85th bade good-bye to Aldershot and entrained for 
Halifax. That evening they marched on board His Majesty s 
Transport, 2810," the war-time designation of the great steamship 


At five o clock on the evening of October I3th the Olympic 
steamed out of Halifax Harbor, bearing the Nova Scotia Highland 
Brigade, surely the most precious cargo that Nova Scotia ever 
entrusted to the mighty Atlantic. The docks at Halifax were 
thronged on that day with thousands of people from all parts of 



Nova Scotia who had come to say good-bye in many cases unfor 
tunately a last good-bye to relatives and friends. Nova Scotia 
loves her own, sorrows over their departure from her bosom, and 
watches their fortunes under foreign skies with a fond eye and an 
anxious heart. I was told in London that, after any battle in which 
Canadian troops had taken part, there were more enquiries at Cana 
dian Headquarters in London, from Nova Scotians, than from 
people of any other Province of Canada. I could well believe this 
to have been so, for in Nova Scotia character, friendship and 
loyalty to kith and kin are outstanding characteristics. 

The officers of the 1851*1 at the time of sailing for England were 
as follows: 

Honorary Colonel Col. D. H. MacDougall. 

Officer Commanding Lieut-Col. Frank P Day 

Second in Command Major J. G. Johnstone 

M H if rffi Capt R C Jackson. 

Medical Officer Capt. J. A. Munro 

Paymaster Capt. R. MacDougall 

Quartermaster Capt. J. T. Malone. 

Protestant Chaplain Capt. A. J. MacDonald. 

R C Chaplain Capt. Michael Gillis. 

Machine Gun Officer Lieut. J. A. Holland. 

" A " Company 

Officer Commanding Capt. T. Maclsaac. 

Second in Command Capt. A. L. Macdonald 

Lieutenants H. N. Price, John MacKenzie, 

J. D. MacKenzie, E. M. 
, Johnstone. 

B Company 

Officer Commanding Major G. S. Harrington 

becond in Command Capt. A. J. Maclnnis 

Lieutenants C. MacLeod, W. F. Carroll, 

T. A. McKinnon, J. H. Mac- 

" C - Company- 
Officer Commanding Capt. W. W. Nicholson 

Second in Command Capt. Alex. MacDonald 

Lieutenants T. D. A. Purves, D. N. Mac- 

~ ,, Donald, L. G. MacCorrison. 

D Company 

Officer Commanding Major T- W. Maddin. 

Second in Command Capt. C. W. Sutherland 

Lieutenants A. M. Fraser, D. M Wiswell, 

G. D. Crowell, D. Livingstone. 

The voyage from Halifax to Liverpool was made in a little 
over five days. The Battalion disembarked on the morning of 



October 1 9th, the Pipe Band playing the men down the gangway. 
Immediately the train was taken to Witley Camp, which was 
reached after a journey of eight hours. Here the Battalion settled 
down to work as part of the I2th Canadian Infantry Training 
Brigade, which name replaced the old name, Xova Scotia High 

land Brigade." 

In early December there came tidings which nearly every Cana 
dian Battalion that ever went to England had grown to dread. 
The Battalion was called on to supply a draft of 192 men for 
France. The other Battalions of the Brigade had received similar 
orders, the total number of men required from the Brigade being 
800. The call for these drafts seemed to spell the disruption of 
the Brigade, notwithstanding promises to the contrary in Canada. 
The strongest protests were made by officers of the Brigade, but to 
no avail On December 5th the drafts set out for Southampton 
whence they were to embark for Havre. The i8 5 th sent 20 men 
to the 42nd (Montreal) Battalion, and 172 men to the 7y< 
Battalion, also of Montreal. 

Each Battalion of the Brigade had now been considerably 
reduced in strength, and the Canadian authorities in England 
decided to amalgamate the 2i9th with the 85* Battalion, and the 
i 93 rd with the i85th Battalion. Officers and men in any one of 
these four Units who were not physically fit were sent to the i;th 
Nova Scotia Reserve Battalion at Bramshott. The Nova Scotia 
Highland Brigade was no more, and the hope in every heart now 
was that the two Battalions-S 5 th and i8 5 th-which constituted 
what was left of that Brigade, might reach France as Units. 

After the amalgamation of the igsrd, the officers of the 
were as follows : 

Officer Commanding ............... f-ieut.-Col. f ^ 

Second in Command - t ,CoI. * 

Musketry Officer ................... J.,eiit D. M. WisweU. 

Scout Officer ...... .... ............. j^u H. N . Price 

Bombing Officer ............... Lieut. J- 



" A " Company- 
Officer Commanding Capt. J. Maclsaac. 

Second in Command Capt. A. L. Macdonald. 

Lieutenants John MacKenzie, E. M-. Tohn- 

stone, T. E. Logan, C. J. 
" B " Company- Markham. 

Officer Commanding Major J. P. LeGallais. 

Second in Command Capt. F. B. Schurman. 

Lieutenants J. A. McKinnon, J. H. Mac- 
Ivor, J. Soy, P. T. Andrews, 
H. A. Dickson, A. D. 
" C " Company- Baxter. 

Officer Commanding Capt. W. W. Nicholson. 

Second in Command Capt. Alex. Macdonald. 

Lieutenants D. J. MacGillivray, H. F. 

Orman, L. G. MacCorrison, 
H. D. Cunningham, D. Liv- 
" D " Company ingstone. 

Officer Commanding Capt. R. C. Jackson. 

Second in Command Capt. C. W. Sutherland. 

Lieutenants A. M. Fraser, J. O. MacLeod, 

J. J. Murray, G. D. Croyvell, 
H. C. Lowther. 

About this time the Battalion received permission to use as its 
official name, " i85th Canadian Infantry Battalion (Cape Breton 
Highlanders)," instead of " i85th Canadian Infantry Battalion," 
as before. 

In the spring of 1917, the 5th Canadian Division was organized 
at Witley Camp, under the command of Major-General Garnet 
Hughes, who had already won high distinction in France. The 
i85th was given a place in that Division. The Division was 
assured that it would be sent to France, and in that hope it set to 
work with such earnestness that in the summer of 1917 it was 
regarded as one of the most efficient Divisions that had ever 
trained in England. The i85th by hard and persevering work had 
won the reputation of being unexcelled, and by many unbiased 
observers it was regarded as unequalled, in the whole Division. 
Certainly, the Battalion was often specially complimented by 
Inspecting Officers and was often singled out for particular honor. 
At the great Dominion Day Parade in London, in 1917, the Guard 
of Honor for the Colors was drawn from the i85th. Again and 
again its teams won from other Battalion teams in competitions in 
Musketry, Bayonet Fighting, Physical Training, Drill and Machine 
Gun Work. 



From the first the men had looked forward eagerly to the day 
when kilts would be issued to the Battalion. Their wish was 
realized in August, 1917, when kilts of the Argyll and Sutherland 
tartan were authorized to be worn, and sufficient kilts were sent to 
the Quartermaster to clothe the whole Battalion. 

Reference has been made already to the promise given to the 
5th Division that it would go to France intact. That promise was 
repeated several times, and the hope that it would be kept was the 
only ground on which men could be induced to remain contentedly 
in England. But no phrase has done better service during the War 
than the phrase " military exigencies," and it was invoked once 
again to justify the disbanding of the 5th Division in February, 

Coincident with the breakup of the Division came the order to 
the i85t-h to furnish a draft of two officers and one hundred men 
to each of the three Nova Scotian Battalions in France the 25th. 
85th and R.C.R. All the men at once volunteered. Sergeants 
reverted to the rank of private in order to get to France more 
quickly; Colonels reverted and became Majors; Majors became 
Captains and Captains Subalterns. The drafts for France were 
finally selected, and the rest of the Battalion was ordered to be sent 
to Bramshott, to be absorbed by the i/ th Reserve. On February 
23rd the Battalion paraded for the last time, the drafts for France 
stood fast, the draft for Bramshott swung out on the London- 
Portsmouth Road, the pipers played their last march, and the i85th 
passed out of existence as an Overseas Unit forever. 

It is idle now to lament its unhappy fate, or to deplore the 
peculiar policy that was pursued toward it and other Battalions of 
the 5th Division, but Cape Bretoners everywhere will always have 
difficulty in restraining a regretful sigh over the lot of their own 
and only Battalion. Let it always be remembered, however, that 
through no fault of its own did the i85th fail to reach France as a 
Unit. It kept faith with the people of Cape Breton, and it estab 
lished a standard which any Battalion might be proud to emulate. 

But though there never fell to this Battalion the supreme honor 
of battle or the glory of triumph, its individual members went 
forth to war, stronger in training, in discipline, in comradeship and 
in spirit from their association with the Cape Breton Highlanders. 



Every officer of the Battalion saw service in some theatre of war, 
and five of them now sleep on the field of honor Lieutenants 
Fraser, Holland, Maclvor, Livingstone and J. O. MacLeod. Nearly 
every other officer of the Battalion has been wounded, and several 
have been decorated for bravery. Of the men it is enough to say 
that incomplete returns show that 136 of them fell in action. On 


(killed in action). 


(killed in action). 


(killed in action). 


(died on active service) 

their graves may the turf lie lightly. Truer hearts or more gallant 
spirits never fought for any cause, and to them we may be sure that 
every Cape Breton tongue will apply with heartfelt sincerity the 
words that have been chosen for the crosses that will mark the 
graves of British soldiers buried in France " Their Name Liveth 

9 129 


THE I93rd Battalion was authorized on January 27, 1916, 
and John Stanfield, M.P. for Colchester, in the Dominion 
House of Commons, was gazetted Lieut-Colonel and 
appointed Commanding Officer. 

For a few weeks following this date the ig^rd Battalion was not 
regarded as a Highland Brigade Battalion, but on February 23, 

1916, Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield was offi 
cially notified that the I93rd had been 
selected as one of the Brigade Units. 

Organization for recruiting had 
already been effected, and the I93rd was 
in a position to join in the Brigade cam 
paign at once. The territory of the 
Battalion embraced the six Eastern 
Counties of the Mainland Cumberland, 
Colchester, Hants, Pictou, Antigonish 
and Guysboro, with headquarters at 
Truro. Within one month the Battalion 
was over strength. 
On March 24th Capt. J. L. Ralston, of the 85th Battalion, 
reported for duty as Acting Adjutant. His assistance was invalu 
able and counted for much in these early days of organization. 
Capt. J. Welsford MacDonald relieved him on April 7th and was 
appointed Adjutant. He was later succeeded by Capt. F. B. 

In February Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield had asked for the services 
of Capt. ^R. J. S. Langford, of the Royal Canadian Regiment, 
Halifax. On April i8th Captain Langford was attached to the 
, with the rank of Major, was appointed second in command 




and took over the duties of officer in charge of training. The high 
standard of efficiency to which the Battalion later attained was 
brought about by Major Langford s enthusiastic and unremitting 

The mobilization of the Battalions of the Highland Brigade at 
Camp Aldershot in May, 1916, is dealt with elsewhere in this 
volume. The I93rd arrived in Camp 300 
men over strength. 

Early in September the Brigadier, 
Lieut.-Colonel Borden, left for England, 
and was succeeded in the command of 
the Brigade by Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield. 
Major Langford took over the command 
of the Battalion with the rank of Lieut.- 

On September 26th, Lady Borden, 

wife of the Premier of Canada, pre- 

i -rr- , j r> L i /- 1 LIEUT. "TOMMY" LOGAN. 

sented King s and Regimental Colors Killed in action 

to the four Battalions of the Brigade. 

The distinctive color selected by the I93rd was Royal Blue." 
The Battalion embarked on the Olympic, October I2th. The 
officers at that time were : 

Lieut-Col. R. J. S. Langford O.C. 

Major J. P. LeGallais Second in Command. 

Capt. F. B. Schurman Adjutant. 

Capt. F. C. Baird Quartermaster. 

Capt. C. S. McArthur Paymaster. 

Capt. E. D. McLean Medical Officer. 

Capt. J. F. Tupper Chaplain. 

"A" COMPANY Major A. T. McLean, Company Commander; Capt 
C. A. Good, Second in Command; Lieuts. H. F. Orman, D. J. McGillivray 
P. Andrews, H. A. Dickson. 

"B" COMPANY Capt. R. K. Smith, Company Commander; Capt. R. G 
McKay, Second in Command; Lieuts. N. C. Christie, J. M. Soy, H. C. 
Lowther, C. F. Wetmore. 

"C" COMPANY Major A. A. Sturley, Company Commander; Capt. A. B. 
Todd. Second in Command ; Lieuts. H. DeW. Cunningham, H. B. Potter, 
J. A. Ross, C. J. Markham. 

"D" COMPANY Major J. W. MacDonald, Company Commander: Capt. 
G. McQuarrie, Second in Command; Lieuts. J. O. McLeod, W. E. McDonald, 
T. E. Logan, J. J. Murray. 


A few weeks after arrival at Witley Camp, Lieut.-Colonel 
Borden returned from the Front and resumed command of the 
Brigade. Lieut.-Colonel Stanfield, owing to ill-health, was in 
valided back to Canada. When the Brigade was broken up in Decem 
ber, 1916, the following officers, with 300 other ranks, were trans 
ferred to the iSsth Battalion: Lieut.-Colonel R. J. S. Langford, 
Major J. P. LeGallais, Major J. W. MacDonald, Capt. F. B. Schur- 
man, Capt. F. C. Baird, Lieuts. H. F. Orman, D. J. McGillivray, 

Andrews, H. A. Dickson, J. M. Soy, H. DeW. Cunningham] 
C. J. JVlarkham, J. O. McLeod, W. E. McDonald, J. J. Murray. 

The remainder marched to Bramshott, where they were absorbed 
eady in January, 1917, by the i;th Reserve Battalion, and used as 
reinforcements to the Nova Scotian Battalions in the Field. 



IN the limited space allowed for this article it is necessary to 
omit references to the stirring events which marked the recruit 
ing of the Battalions of the Xova Scotia Highland Brigade, the 
1 85th in Cape Breton, the I93rd in Pictou, Colchester, Cumberland 
and Hants Counties, and the 2191!! in Halifax and the Western 
Counties of the Province. Each contributed to the popular 
enthusiasm, and through the agency of 
the press any unusual success in one part 
was heralded throughout the Province 
and bore fruit in distant sections. 

In Halifax and the Western Counties, 
while there were many agencies at 
work, too numerous to mention, they 
naturally centred around the extraordin 
ary series of meetings addressed by 
Colonel Borden and Captain Cutten, 
when, accompanied by the 85th Band, 
they made their historic tour, commenc 
ing at Lunenburg on February 26, 1916, 
and ending at Wolfville on March I2th. 
chief points on the Halifax and South Western Railway and re 
turned by the Dominion Atlantic as far as Wolfville. While active 
recruiting in many places had preceded and prepared for their 
arrival, the extraordinary enthusiasm aroused by their speeches and 
by the martial strains of the band formed an epoch in each com 

Recruits enrolled were billeted in their own towns, and detach 
ments marched into Camp Aldershot on June ist from Lunenburg, 
Mahone Bay, Bridgewater, Lockport, Caledonia, Shelburne, Clarke s 
Harbor, Barrington, Yarmouth, Weymouth, Trenton, Digby, Bear 



They touched at all the 


River, Annapolis, Berwick, Bridgetown, Kentville, Woifville, Dart 
mouth and Halifax. 

The first Battalion orders on record were issued on March 6th 
by Major E. C. Phinney, who had been placed in temporary com 
mand of the 2i9th. Lieut. C. Holland was appointed Acting 
Adjutant. For some time the orders were chiefly concerned with 
the large accessions to the strength of the Battalion, daily reported, 
as the result of Colonel Borden s successful tour, and the formation 
of the various detachments. These recruits were now arranged in 
four companies, " A " in Halifax, " B " comprising the territory 
from Mahone Bay to Clarke s Harbor, " C " from Yarmouth to Bear 
River, and " D " from Annapolis to Woifville. 

The first public parade of " A " Company was on May 2;th 
to St. Matthew s Church to attend the memorial service for Lieu 
tenant Campbell, who had been killed in action, and who was the 
son of Mr. G. S. Campbell, one of the most active spirits in the 
recruiting campaign. 

In the history of the 2igth there is a humorous distinction 
between the first funeral procession and the first actual funeral of 
one of its members. One night in the early spring a fire occurred 
in a house in Barrington Street. Unfortunately the inmates could 
not be extricated in time, and some fatalities resulted. The charred 
remains of one -body was identified as -that of Metro fan Meik. a 
Russian recruit in the zigth. The funeral took place from St. 
Mary s Cathedral. A firing party was furnished by " C " Company 
of the 85th. The Last Post was sounded and full military honors 
paid to the dead. Next morning who should report in the orderly 
room but Metrofan himself, very much alive and feeling greatly the 
better for his leave, which had now expired. Who it was that was 
buried with military honors has never been discovered to this hour. 

The first actual funeral of a soldier in the 2igth took place on 
May 2nd, from the Military Hospital in Halifax. The deceased 
was Private Edwards, a native of England. The services were 
conducted by Hon. Captain MacKinnon. 

It was on Wednesday, February 23rd, that a letter came from 
Ottawa authorizing the formation of the 2igth and granting permis 
sion to appoint Major E. C. Phinney, of the 85th as temporary O.C. 
It was he who had the task of organizing the 219111, and the manner 



in which he accomplished this is a fine tribute to his executive 
ability. For the first few days he was assisted by Lieut. C. Holland, 
who acted as Adjutant. In the beginning of April a rumor was 
in circulation that the Highland Brigade was not to materialize aad 
that the 85th was to proceed immediately Overseas. Rather than 
miss this opportunity of going to the Front, Major Phinney relin 
quished his position as Commanding Officer of the 2i9th and went 
back to his former position in the 85th. 

On April 8th Lieut. -Col. N. H. Parsons became temporary C.O. 
of the 2i9th. He planned a tour of inspection, but his purpose was 
frustrated by a serious illness. Lieutenant Holland, who after 
wards became Staff Captain in the Nova Scotia Highland Brigade, 
was succeeded as Acting Adjutant by Lieut. John S. Roper. He 
along with Major Rudland and Lieutenant Wylie had been one of 
a Military Committee to assist in the formation of the Battalion. 
He remained Adjutant throughout its whole history. 

By May 4th Colonel Parsons felt sufficiently recovered to pro 
ceed with his tour of inspection, and during his absence the duties 
of command devolved on Major H. D. Creighton. But the atmos 
phere was surcharged with uncertainty and the Battalion was 
beginning to suffer for want of a permanent head. Lieut.-Col. 
Parsons returned to the 85 th, and, with him, Major Creighton. At 
last on May 5th, Lieut.-Col. \V. H. Muirhead assumed command. 
Immediately the unrest ceased, and the Battalion settled itself to the 
business of training. 

On the outbreak of the War Colonel Muirhead went at once to 
the new camp at Yalcartier and was given an appointment on the 
Divisional Headquarters Staff. But being unmarried and anxious 
to take his part in the actual fighting, he transferred to the Royal 
Canadian Dragoons before the First Canadian Contingent sailed, 
reverting to the rank of Lieutenant. Early in May, 1915, he crossed 
to France in the Canadian Cavalry Brigade, which included, with 
che Dragoons, the Strathcona Horse and the 2nd King Edward 
Horse. For nine months he was in the trenches, and witnessed 
some of the fiercest fighting of the War. 

In Canada the idea was gaining ground that new troops should 
be instructed in the latest methods of warfare, and this could only 
be done by bringing some of the officers from the Front. Colonel 


Muirhead was subsequently appointed second in command of the 
ii2th, which was recruiting at the time, and he returned in January, 
1916. As above stated he took over the 2i$th on May 5th. His 
keen intelligence, long familiarity with business methods, together 
with the stern experience he had known at the Front, fitted him in 
quite an exceptional manner for the command and training of a 

The Battalions at Camp Aldershot were arranged in order of 
seniority. Nearest to Aldershot Station was placed the 85th, and 
then in order the iSsth, I93rd and 2i9th. Beyond the lines of the 
2i9th were quartered the 97th, " The American Legion," made up 
of men from the United States, who had come to take their share in 
the fight for the freedom of the world. 

Later in the season the waste land beyond the 97th was cleared 
and became the home of the 246th, the reserve Unit of the Brigade. 
It might be of interest to mention that the Nova Scotia Highland 
Brigade wore Balmoral caps with feathers. The feathers were dark 
gray, but each one of them had a distinctive coloring. In the 85th, 
it was red; in the iSsth, green; in the I93rd, blue; and in the 2i9th, 

Naturally changes took place in the personnel of the officers of 
the 2i9th, especially late in the season, when the 246th was formed. 
But the following list represents with fair accuracy the situation 
during most of the summer: 

Officer Commanding Lieut-Col. W. H. Muirhead. 

Second in Command Major M. E. Roscoe. 

Adjutant Lieut. J. S. Roper. 

Quartermaster Major F. W. W. Doane. 

Paymaster Hon. Capt. H. D. Henry. 

Medical Officer Capt. D. P. Churchill. 

Chaplain Hon. Capt. C. MacKinnon. 

"A" COMPANY Major J. Rudland, Company Commander; Capt. H. A. 
Kent, Second in Command (Capt. Kent, after going Overseas, became 
Company Commander of " C" Company) ; Lieuts. V. G. Rae, E. R. Clayton, 
A. D. Macdonald, R. D. Graham. 

"B" COMPANY Capt. M. C. Denton, Company Commander; Capt. E. C. 
Miller, Second in Command (after going Overseas Capt. Miller became Com 
pany Commander) ; Lieuts. W. M. L. Robertson, J. Belvea, A C Kins 
E. J. Hallett. 

"C" COMPANY Major A. K. Van Home, Company Commander; (after 
going Overseas, Captain Kent) ; Lieut. G. D. Blackadar, Second in Com 
mand (after going Overseas, Capt. H. E. Crowell) ; Lieuts. H. E. Crowell, 


2i 9 th BATTALION, C.E.F. 

N. L. Chipman, W. J. Wright, Kenneth Campbell, who went over in a draft 
during the summer. 

"D" COMPANY Capt. G. H. Cutten, Company Commander; Capt. W. 
Noblett, Second in Command (Capt. Cutten became Major in the 246th and 
Capt., afterwards Major, H. K. Emerson, recently returned from the front, 
took command of " D " Company) ; Lieuts. A. D. Borden, J. P. McFarlane, 
J. C. M. Vereker and E. R. Power. 

In addition to these officers were Lieut. H. A. Love in charge of 
Signalling Section, and Lieut. \Y. L. Black of the Machine Gun 

During the summer Hon. Captain Father O Sullivan was added. 
He was employed most of the time in raising the " Purple Feather 
Fund/ and spent only a week or two in camp. 

The Battalion was fortunate in its Sergeant-Major, A. S. \Yard, 
who blended a strict sense of duty with a genial disposition and 
secured alike the approbation of the officers ^and the respect of the 

The Camp had not been long established at Aldershot when it 
was honored by a visit from Sir Sam Hughes, the Minister of 
Militia. On June nth. at 6 a.m. the Brigade vas paraded. Al 
though there had only been a few days of unu^d training, the 
impression produced upon the Minister was quite noticeable, and 
ever afterwards he showed a kindly appreciation of the Nova Scotia 

On August Qth the Camp was honored by another distinguished 
visitor, Sir Robert Borden, the Premier of Canada, who was accom 
panied by the Hon. David MacKeen, the Lieut. -Governor of Nova 
Scotia. The March Past was excellent, and the Premier, a native 
of the Province, was pleased to speak words of heartfelt apprecia 
tion and encouragement. Another inspection was made on August 
1 5th, but this was more of a formal military character and lacked 
the general significance of the previous reviews. 

The red-letter days of the Brigade s whole history at Aldershot 
were Friday the 25th and Saturday the 26th of August. On Friday 
the Camp was thrown open to the public, who flocked thither from 
every part of the Province. The resources of the railway were 
taxed to the utmost. Fully eight thousand people visited the 
grounds and witnessed the March Past. They were relatives of * the 
boys," and nothing revealed more clearly how tenderly the thought 
10 137 

2 i^th BATTALION, C.E.F. 

of the Province centred about the rows of white tents, where the 
flower of its manhood was encamped. By a happy thought the 
Camp Commandant, Col. W. E. Thompson, added to the ordinary 
review exercises a short march in column of route, so the men 
would pass immediately in front of their many friends. 

On Saturday morning Field-Marshall His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Connaught arrived. Exhilarated by the enthusiasm of the 
previous day, the Brigade excelled itself in its manoeuvres, and 
especially in the March Past. His Royal Highness, who was too 
fine a soldier to be guilty of a meaningless expression, declared that 
he had not inspected anything finer in the Dominion of Canada. 

One other function completes the tale of reviews. It was the 
presentation of colors by Lady Borden to the four Battalions on 
Monday, September 25th. No little practice was necessary for the 
involved movements connected with the ceremony. Once again the 
weather was propitious ; the sunbeams kissed the silken colors as 
they were unfurled to the breeze, and rousing cheers greeted the 
declaration of the Premier that they would shortly be sent over the 

That afternoon a competition was commenced between the various 
platoons of the Brigade, which resulted in the award going to the 
" thirteenth platoon " of the 2i9th, and as a sign that they had won, 
they were permitted to wear their feathers with the edge trimmed. 

On Friday, September 26th, a message arrived ordering the 
Brigade to be ready to go Overseas in six days, and cancelling all 
leave for officers and men. The announcement of this approaching 
embarkation would by itself have been sensational enough, but when 
it came accompanied by an order that no one should have the privi 
lege of seeing his home again, the men were fairly stunned. All 
had counted on a " farewell leave. At first everyone seemed par 
alyzed. Then their resolution took shape. It was not in the 
Colonel s power to grant leave but, though a strict disciplinarian, he 
understood the situation and felt a deep sympathy for the men, and 
determined that his attitude should be as lenient as possible. The 
men were resolute to see their homes, many of which were in the 
vicinity of the Camp. Every effort was made to stop them. 
Cordons with fixed bayonets were placed around the station at 
Kentville. But all to no purpose. The majority simply rose and 


2 1 vth BATTALION, 

went. They hired motor cars, mounted horses, or even walked 
For a moment there was a sense of alarm and humiliation, which 
quickly changed to confidence and pride as the men came streaming 
back, satisfied that they had seen their friends and ready to do their 
duty in facing the foe. This unauthorized farewell furlough was 
not confined to the 2iQth but was general in the 1851)1 and the I93rd 
as well. 

The six days warning was, of course, a mere preliminary 
measure but definite orders at last arrived for the 2i9th to march 
out on the I2th of October at 5 a.m. Never did Halifax seem 
lovelier than in the bright autumn air as the Battalion marched 
along Barrington Street and up Spring Garden Road and through 
South Park Street to the Common, where a vast company of friends 
and well-wishers had congregated to say good-bye. Ranks were 
broken and the soldiers mingled freely with the people. The " Fall 
In " sounded, the band struck up a lively air, and the march was 
resumed until the gates of the docks closed behind the last file. 
Opportunities of further adieus were granted in the afternoon 
within the limit of the dock, and then for the final time the troops 
climbed the long gangways to the decks of the transport. 

All night the Olympic lay at the pier. On Friday afternoon she 
moved up to Bedford Basin. Life belts were passed out and 
alarms practised. During the afternoon, when rumors that we 
were doomed to several days detention in the basin were at their 
height, the anchor w r as quietly raised and almost noiselessly the ship 
began to glide down the harbor. But the movement was quickly 
noticed on shore, and the tooting of tugs and the cheering of the 
crowds that rushed to the pier heads showed that the " boys " had 
not been forgotten by their friends. The shades -of night were 
gathering in as Cape Sambro fell astern, and the twinkle of its 
kindly light was Nova Scotia s farewell. Betting in New York 
had run as high as twenty to one that the Olympic would be sunk 
because the notorious German submarine L 53, which had com 
mitted serious depredations off Nantucket, was reported to be in 
the vicinity. Whatever anxiety may have been felt by those on the 
bridge, seemed not in the slightest degree to have reached the troops 
below, who had a confidence in the British seamanship that was 
almost sublime. 



On Tuesday night two destroyers picked up the ship and acted 
as consorts. Wednesday morning the coast of Ireland was in view, 
and Wednesday evening anchor was dropped in the Mersey, the 
voyage having been completed in four days and nineteen hours. 
We sailed on a Friday, and the thirteenth at that, but war has 
exploded the superstitions of the world along with many other 

Two or three hours were required for the disembarkation. 
Eight trains were required for the whole Brigade, and they were 
started at various intervals of time. The last two carried the 2i9th. 
It was nearly midnight when the train drew into the siding at 
Milford Station and, resuming their packs, the men began their two 
miles march into Camp. 

Witley Camp was situated on Witley Common, a sandy tract 
covered with scattered pines, known as Scotch fir, and with few 
houses in the vicinity. Milford Village was a mile and a half away, 
and Godalming three miles. The nearest town was Guildford, eight 
miles off. The county was Surrey, and the landscape among the 
most picturesque in all England. 

After the first cold snap that greeted the troops on their arrival, 
milder conditions prevailed ; the air became balmy ; the fresh, full 
foliage on the trees, and the fragrance of the flowers still in bloom 
seemed to carry summer into December. But as November drew 
into December cold mists settled into the valley where Witley Camp 
lay, and caused an acrid chill that seemed to eat into the marrow of 
the bone. Influenza (known as "flu" or "grippe") invaded the 
Camp. The sick parade in the morning increased by leaps and 
bounds; the general hospital at Bramshott and the sick detention 
hut of the Brigade were filled and could take no more. A special 
hut in the Battalion lines was secured and in a few days crowded 
out, and even the spare accommodation in the medical room was 
covered with bed boards on which lay fevered and coughing men. 
December will remain to the troops at Witley Camp something of a 

No one as yet seriously believed, or at least publicly announced, 
that the Highland Brigade would not be held together. Had not 
the Minister of Militia plighted his word to that effect? Had it 
not been a promise to the men when they enlisted? Towards the 


2i 9 th BATTALION, C.E.F. 

end of November, however, sinister rumors began to filter through 
and culminated on the 3<Dth November in the call for the first draft 
for France. Immediately the ,Camp was in a hubbub of excitement, 
for the draft required 800 men from the Brigade, and this obviously 
meant its dismemberment. All reasonable means that might avert 
the blow were employed, but the order was explicit. No officers 
were to go except those in charge of drafts, and they were to return 
from France whenever their duty was accomplished. All non 
commissioned officers chosen were to revert to the rank of private. 
Ultimately 115 went from the 2igth under the command of Lieu 
tenant King. The Brigadier addressed a few parting words, and 
to the strains of martial music and the skirl of the pipes the proud 
lads marched away leaving a thoughtful Camp behind. What was 
to be the fate of those who remained? Rumor again became busy, 
hope revived and old predictions were renewed, when once more 
with dramatic swiftness the axe fell and when it accomplished its 
business the Highland Brigade was no more. No one could have 
attempted to parry the blow more resolutely than the Brigadier. 
He felt keenly the pledges that had been given and the injustice to 
Nova Scotia ; and his efforts were not without a measure of success. 
Two Battalions of the four were preserved, the 85th and the i85th. 
Into the 85th some 350 men, nearly all the Lieutenants and Major 
Rudland, were drafted from the 2i9th. A large number from the 
I93rd were put into the i85th. The 85th received orders to prepare 
at once to go Overseas, though this was not actually accomplished 
until February loth. The iSsth was " slated " for the Fifth 
Division, and it was to remain in Witley Camp. The remainder of 
the Highland Brigade were to proceed to Bramshott Camp. It was 
in the last week of December that the large draft, carefully selected 
and splendidly fit, changed their feathers from purple to red and 
went over to the lines of the 85th. The officers packed their kits 
and the happy fellowship of the Mess Room, that had lasted from 
the happy days of concentration in sunny Aldershot, was dissolved, 
alas, never in its completeness to reassemble again. 

Between five and six hundred of the 2iQth Battalion still re 
mained. Kits and trunks were packed, adieus paid, our temporary 
English home broken up. and promptly at 12 o clock Saturday. 
December 3Oth; the Purple Feather ranks, now varied with blue and 



green and red feathers, moved off headed by the 85111 Band. The 
Battalion settled down in a pleasant part of the Bramshott Camp, on 
the brow of a hill overlooking the picturesque dale through which 
flowed a streamlet gathered from the meadows of Haslemere. 
Shottermill and Hammer. It was the country of George Eliot and 
of Tennyson s later years. Many travellers had come to it, but 
never any on so strange an errand. 

Presently there appeared in Camp the Old i;th. It had been the 
first Nova Scotian Unit sent Overseas. Apart from its Commanding 
fficer, Lieut-Colonel Cameron, it possessed hardly any Nova 
Scotians; it was officered and its ranks were filled almost exclusively 
by Western Canadians. This Battalion, like the famous Minotaur, 
had fed on the remnants of many others in its time. Would the 
Highland Brigade succumb to the usual fate or would it prove an 
indigestible morsel? 

At the commencement of 1917 a change of policy was inaugu 
rated affecting all the Canadian Camps in England. Witley was 
reserved for the Fifth Division. In the others the Training Bri 
gades became reserve ones, which would have a full strength of 
8,000 each, and each Reserve Battalion (2,000 in strength) would 
have some definite fighting Unit at the Front to which it would send 
reinforcements whenever required. The i;th was made a Reserve 
Battalion in the 5th Reserve Brigade; it was to reinforce the 25th 
and 85th and to be distinctively Nova Scotian; it was ordered to 
take over the 2i 9 th and I 93 rd. Officially the whale swallowed 
Jonah, but in the curious and unscriptural sequel Jonah took over 
the control of the whale from the inside. This second transfor 
mation was undoubtedly due to the fact that the i;th Reserve 
was to become a Nova Scotian Unit and naturally Nova Scotians 
assumed the dominant role ; and these were to be found in the ranks 
of the Highland Brigade. But it was also due to a stubborn and 
persistent esprit de corps that had always characterized the 2ig\h. 

The formal transference took place on January 2 3 rd, and that 
date marks the end of the 2i 9 th as a distinct military Unit, and 
forms a fitting close to this article. It has been the story of a 
splendid Battalion into which the Western Counties of Nova Scotia 
poured their best manhood with unstinted patriotism. It represents 


2 i^th BATTALION, CM.F. 

the finest sacrifice ever made by the loyal enthusiasm of that part 
of the Province. Fisherman, farmer, lumberman, student, minister. 
lawyer, doctor drilled side by side in a spirit of comradeship seldom 

It is not given to this bloodless narrative to trace to the field of 
battle the brave men that filled the ranks, but in the tale of their 
Battalions they will be found to have played their part in the defence 
of civilization bravely and well, and to have left to their country 
the legacy of an imperishable example. 

246th BATTALION, C.E.F. 

THE 246th Battalion was authorized in August, 1916, as a 
Reserve Unit to supply reinforcements to the Nova Scotia 
Highland Brigade. It was organized at Camp Aldershot a 
short time before the Brigade embarked for Overseas, and to it 
were transferred officers and other ranks who, from various causes, 
were temporarily unfit for service at the Front. Each Battalion 
of the Brigade was represented by one Company, " A " Company, 
the 85th Battalion; " B " Company, i8sth Battalion; " C " Company. 
1 93rd Battalion, and " D " Company, 2i9th Battalion. 
The officers were : 

Lieut. -Col. N. H. Parsons Officer Commanding-. 

Major G. B. Cutten Second in Command. 

Major H. H. Bligh Company Commander. 

Major H. D. Creighton Company Commander. 

Major M. A. McKay Company Commander. 

Major W. G. McRae Company Commander. 

Capt. A. McKinnon 

Capt. G. E. Roberts 

Capt. J. Armitage Adjutant. 

Capt. L. L. Titus Quartermaster. 

Capt. A. C. Wilson Medical Officer. 

Capt. C. W. Corey Chaplain. 

Capt. F. Robertson Paymaster. 

Lieut. R. V. Harris Asst. Adjutant. 

Lieuts. F. J. McCharles, A. T. E. Crosby, E. S. H. Lane, 
H. F. Lockhart, H. L. Mclnnes, A. W. Rogers, W. B. 
Ross, E. C. Shields, C. E. Smith, H. R. Theakston, 
W. M. Bligh. C. E. Baker. G. D. Blackadar. R. S. 
Edwards, N. Rogers, J. S. Roy. 

A detachment of the 246th under the command of Major H. D. 
Creighton was sent to Trenton to guard the Nova Scotia Steel 
Company s plant at that point, and was later relieved by a detach 
ment from the Composite Battalion. 

During the autumn and winter months recruiting became very 
difficult, and when the necessity for compulsory service became 


246th BATTALION, C.E.F. 

evident it was decided to discontinue organization and send the 
Battalion Overseas in drafts. The first draft, under the command 
of Lieuts C. E. Baker and W. M. Bligh, embarked in March, 1917, 
and on June 1st a further draft of 230 men and the following 
officers were sent Overseas : 

Lieut.-Col. N. H. Parsons; Major M. A. McKay; Capt. A. 
McKinnon, Capt. L. L. Titus, Lieuts. A. T. E. Crosby, R. S. 
Edwards, E. S. H. Lane, H. F. Lockhart. H. L. Tvfclnnes, A. W. 
Rogers, W. B. Ross, E. C. Shields, C. E. Smith. 

On arrival in England the draft proceeded to Bramshott, where 
one half of the men were sent to the i85th Battalion, then training 
at Witley with the 5th Division. The remainder together with the 
officers were absorbed by the i7th Reserve Battalion. 

The remainder of the strength left in Canada was transferred 
to Labor, Forestry, Special Service and other Units, the majority 
eventually going Overseas. 




NO. 2 Construction Battalion was authorized on July 5, 1916. 
Mr. D. H. Sutherland, of River John, N.S., a well-known 
railroad contractor, who had enlisted in the 1931^ Overseas 
Battalion, was given command of this Unit with the rank of Lieut.- 

An Infantry Battalion was not deemed advisable as the popu 
lation was not sufficient to send the 
necessary reinforcements; therefore a 
Construction Battalion was authorized 
to represent the colored citizens of 
Canada, who were demanding- that their 
race should be represented in the C.E.F. 
by a Unit composed of their own people. 
The colored citizens of Canada are 
settled principally in the Provinces of 
Nova Scotia and Ontario, although of 
__ Iate y ears a great many have settled in 

LIEUT.-COL. D. H. SUTHERLAND. Western Canada. Out of a total popu 
lation in Canada of 20,000, including 

men, women and children, Nova Scotia has 7,000; Ontario 5,000; 

Brunswick 1,000, and the remainder of the colored population 

are settled in Western Canada. It is estimated that 200 colored men 

were engaged in coal mines in Nova Scotia, and therefore not eligible 

The number of men who enlisted in No. 2 Construction 

from Nova Scotia was 500, so that of the men available in Nova 

Scotia, the colored citizens sent Overseas in No. 2 Construction 

Battalion fully 10 per cent, of their population as volunteers. 

Recruiting was carried on simultaneously wherever the colored 
population were located. A detachment of sixty men, under com 
mand of Capt. W. A. McConnell, was raised at Toronto and 


latterly joined the detachment at Windsor, Out., under the com 
mand of Capt. A. J. Gayfer. The Ontario recruits in all numbered 
350. About fifty recruits volunteered from Western Canada. The 
headquarters was first located at Pictou. X.S., and later trans 
ferred to Truro, where more barracks room was available. 

Xo. 2 Construction Battalion was the only volunteer Unit to 
engage in war-work before proceeding Overseas. A Company of 
250 men, under command of Capt. Kenneth A. Morrison, was 
employed during the months of January., February and part of 
March lifting rails from the Grand Trunk sidings at Moncton, 
Xappadogan and Edmundston, X.B., to be shipped Overseas for 
the Western Front. 

Following is a list of officers of this Unit: 

P- H - Sutherland Lieut.-Colonel and O.C 

Kenneth A. Morrison Capt. and Second in Command. 

<?r , SlC ! n , ey D , avie Capt- and Adjutant. 

Walter Adam McCqnnell Captain 

George Peter McLaren Captain 

A. J. Gayfer Captain. 

James Stuart Grant Captain and Paymaster. 

David Anderson Captain and Quartermaster. 

Russell R. McLean Lieutenant. 

James Bertram Hayes . . Lieutenant. 

Roderick Livingstone Lieutenant 

Haltpn Fyles Lieutenant. 

William L. Young Lieutenant. 

L. Bruce Young Lieutenant. 

Isaac Logan Banhill Lieutenant. 

Attached Officers Capt. Dan. Murray, Medical Officer. 

Hon. Capt. William A. White, 

Mr. Harry B. McLean, of the Cook Construction Company, and 
Wheaton Bros., presented the Unit with a set of band instruments. 
Mr. Andrew Wheaton also assisted the Unit financially. Mr. 
H. B. McLean was appointed Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel on 
account of his interest in and assistance to the Battalion. 

The Unit embarked at Halifax, March 25. 1917, on board the 
troopship Southland; in all there were 3,500 troops on board. The 
ship was in command of Captain Morehouse. and the troops in 
command of Lieut.-Col. D. H. Sutherland. The convoy arrived 
at Liverpool April 8th. During the passage great precautions were 
taken to guard against enemy submarines. Xo lights were shown. 



no bugles blown and a constant watch was kept day and night for 
floating mines and submarines. This period was the worst in the 
history of submarine warfare, as more ships were sunk during the 
week April i to April 8, 1917, than at any time during the War. 

The Unit entrained at Liverpool Sunday noon, April 8th, and 
left for Seaford, travelling by special troop train through a very 
picturesque country. Arriving at Seaford the Unit was escorted 
by a British band to our Camp under canvas, about two miles from 
the. depot. All troops arriving from Canada at this time were 
segregated ten days, to avoid the introduction of contagious dis 
eases. The Unit was taken on the strength of the Canadian forces 
at Seaford, under command of Col. G. S. Gardiner. 

Before proceeding to France, it was necessary for any Unit to 
have the full quota of men in accordance to the establishment of 
the Unit. As No. 2 Construction was 300 under strength, the Unit 
was reorganized into a Construction Company of 506 men and ten 
officers. As there was no provision on the establishment for a 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Lieut.-Col. Sutherland, Officer Commanding, 
reverted to the rank of Major to proceed to France in command of 
the Unit. 

While at Seaford, from April 8 to May 17, 1917, the Unit 
was detailed into working parties and employed in building 
trenches for the troops in training and in building and repairing 
roads within the bounds of the Canadian command. Permanent 
air picket was detailed about May 1st, to be in readiness in the 
event of air raids, which were of frequent occurrence. During 
the Sports Day Competition among the Canadian Forces at Sea- 
ford, the members of No. 2 Construction won a silver cup pre 
sented for competition by the British Y.M.C.A. 

The Unit was ordered to France on May I7th, and entrained at 
Seaford at 2 a.m., May I7th, arriving at Folkestone and proceeding 
direct to the Channel troopship at the pier. The crossing occupied 
two hours. The Channel boats carrying troops were well escorted 
by British destroyers on port and starboard sides, while the Silver 
Queen, a small-sized dirigible airship, escorted our troopship over 
head to sight for enemy submarines. Arriving at Boulogne at 
3 p.m. the Unit was escorted to a rest camp; twenty- four hours 


later, on May i8th, the Unit entrained at Boulogne and travelled 
by special troop train by Etaples, Paris, Dijon, Dole, Mouchard 
and arrived at our destination, La Joux, Jour Mountains, on May 


The Unit was attached to No. 5 District, Canadian Forestry 
Corps, under command of Lieut. -Col. Geo. Johnson. There were 
four Forestry Companies consisting of 170 men, 40 teams, logging 
and sawmill outfit, located within one-half mile radius from No. 2 
Construction Company s Camp. The officers and men of No. 2 
Construction were detailed into working parties and paraded daily 
to assist in the logging, milling and shipping operations of the 
Forestry Corps. 

The officers were employed as follows : 

Major Sutherland was in command of the Unit and kept a 
general supervision over the different working parties. 

Capt. J. S. Grant was employed as officer in charge of shipping 
for No. 5 District, and all lumber sawn by the four Companies was 
shipped at La Joux Station by No. 2 Construction men. A de 
tachment of fifty men, under command of Lieut. H. Fyles, assisted 
No. 22 Company, C.F.C., in logging and in the construction of a 
narrow gauge railway to transport saw-logs to the mill. The roads 
were kept in repair by Capt. David Anderson, No. 2 Construction, 
with a party of 100 men. A road plant consisting of a rock- 
crusher, steam drill, motor lorries and steam roller, was employed, 
and the roads were kept in a good state of repair where the heavy 
traffic demanded the best roads possible. 

The water to supply the Camp had to be pumped to an elevation 
of 1,500 feet by means of force pumps in relay. Lieut. Bertram 
Hayes was officer in charge of pumping stations and water lines. 
Capt. R. Livingstone was Transport Officer for No. 5 District, 
assisted by Lieut. Russell McLean, both of No. 2 Construction 

On December 30, 1917, Capt. K. A. Morrison left La Joux for 
Alencon, in command of 180 other ranks to report to the O.C. 
No. i District, C.F.C. ; Lieut. S. Hood was Adjutant of this detach 
ment. Fifty other ranks were despatched to 37th Company, C.F.C. , 
near Peronne. 


A few items, as follows, taken from the War Diary of this Unit 
July i, 1918, will be of interest: 

Dominion Day celebrated by the eleven Forestry Companies and 
No. 2 Construction Company, composing No. 5 District, in field 
sports held at Chapois. The four Companies from La Toux, 
namely, No. 22, 40, 50 and No. 2 Construction paraded to the 
grounds under the command of Major Sutherland. During the 
day, the band of this Company, by their excellent music, greatly 
assisted in entertaining the crowd and making the holiday a success. 

July 7, 1918: Camp inspected by Lieut-General Sir Richard 
Turner, V.C., accompanied by Major-General A. MacDougall, 
G.O.C. Canadian Forestry Corps, and Lieut. -Colonel Johnson, O.C. 
Jura Group. The interior economy and general tidiness were 
favorably commented upon. 

July 13, 1918: Hon. Capt. W. A. White, Chaplain, returns 
from visiting the Alencon detachment. 

July 14, 1918: Sunday, no work. The Mayor of Salins 
invited the Canadians in this district to send a detachment to Salins 
to take part in a review in which American and French troops 
were participating. Major Sutherland represented Lieut-Col. 
G. M. Strong, D.S.O., O.C. No. 5 District, C.F.C., who was absent 
on duty, and acted as reviewing officer of the Allied Troops at 
Salins, in commemorating the National Day and to do honor to 
the French Republic. The band of this Company, under the leader 
ship of Sergt. G. W. Stewart, played the National Anthem and a 
programme and greatly assisted in making the event a memorable 

July 15, 1918: Camp inspected by General Bouillard, Com 
manding 7th Army Division, French, and Lieut-Col. G. Johnson, 
O.C. Jura Group. 

April 3, 1918: The following telegram sent to the D.T.O., 
C.F.C., France, from the O.C. No. 2 Construction Company: 

Will you please recommend my Unit which is organized for 
construction work for transfer to Western Front." 

In April, 1918, Colonel Strong, D.S.O., O.C. No. 5 District, 
C.F.C., recommended that No. 2 Construction Company be given 
the establishment of a Battalion. This recommendation was approved 



by the G.O.C., General White, and General MacDougall, but held 
up for lack of reinforcements. 

Shortly after the Armistice, orders were received for this Unit 
to report at the General Base Depot, EtapLes. The Unit left La 
Joux, December 4th. One hundred and fifty Russian soldiers, who 
had been attached to No. 2 Construction Company during 1918, 
were taken over by No. 40 Company, C.F.C. No. 2 Construction 
arrived at Etaples December 7th, and was joined by the detach 
ment from Alencon and fifty men from 37th Company, C.F.C. 
The Unit sailed from Boulogne, December i4th, with 600 attached 
troops, under command of Major Sutherland, and arrived at Bram- 
shott Camp. The Unit was attached to the Nova Scotia Regi 
mental Depot, and from there dispersed to the several military 
camps representing the various military districts in Canada, to 
which the men would be forwarded for demobilization. The 
different drafts composing this Unit sailed the latter part of 
January, 1919, for Halifax. 

A letter was received by Major Sutherland from Major-General 
MacDougall conveying the thanks of the Canadian Forestry Corps 
to the officers and men of this Unit for their valuable and faithful 
services while attached for duty and discipline to the Canadian 
Forestry Corps. 



N February 15, 1916, the Colonial Secretary cabled to the 
Governor-General of Canada, H.R.H. the Duke of Con- 
naught, the following message : 

" H.M. Government would be grateful if the Canadian Government 
would assist in the production of timber for war purposes. Owing to 
the very serious shortage of freight for munitions, food, forage and 
other essentials, which is a matter of the gravest concern to H.M. 
Government, it is impossible to continue to import Canadian timber on 
a sufficiently large scale to meet war requirements, and arrangements 
must therefore be made for felling and converting English forests. 

" Chief difficulty is finding sufficient skilled labor, fellers, haulers 
and sawyers. One thousand five hundred men are urgently needed, and 
H.M. Government would suggest that a Battalion of lumbermen might 
be formed of specially listed men to undertake exploitations of forests 
of this country. If proposal commends itself to Canadian Government, 
would beg very early action. Suggest that men be enlisted into Can 
adian Expeditionary Force and despatched in small companies under 
competent supervision. Government is aware that lumber season is now 
in progress, but feel sure that men would enlist even at sacrifice of 
present employment if the reason of appeal were made known to them. 
Incidence of cost will be arranged as agreeable to Canadian Govern 

A further cable was sent on February 29th. So quickly did the 
Canadian authorities make up their minds, that on March I, 1916, 
a cable was sent stating that the Battalion asked for would be pro 
vided with the least possible delay. The raising of Units in this 
Corps exemplified the readiness of the Canadian Government to 
assist in the most unexpected direction. 

The 224th Battalion, under Lieut. -Colonel McDougall, arrived 
in England, April 28, 1916, and the 23oth, 238th and 242nd Bat 
talions followed within six months. 

Nova Scotia s quota in this branch of the Service was about 
525 officers and men, known as the Nova Scotia Forestry Draft, 



composed of three Companies with a personnel of officers as 
follows : 

Staff. Major M. C. Denton, Officer Commanding; Major E. J. 
Stehlen, Second in Command; Capt. J. G. Pierce Adjutant. 

"A" Company. Capt. M. D. McKeigati, O.C,; Lieut. A. Roy. 
Lieut. Parker McDonald, Lieut. David Neal. 

"B" Company Capt. G. D. Blackader. O.C. ; Lieut. X. P. 
McKenzie, Lieut. C. B. McDougall, Lieut. C. F. Kinney. 

"C" Company. Capt. II. B. Verge. 
O.C. ; Lieut. George Harding, Lieut R. S. 
Shi-eve, Lieut. W. V. R. Winters. 

Authorization for this Unit was 
granted in March, 1917. Recruiting and 
organization work began immediately by 
Companies, under the direct supervision 
of the Company Commanders in the 
various counties as follows : " A " Com 
pany in Pictou, Cape Breton. Victoria and 
Inverness; "B" Company in Halifax, 
Cumberland, Colchester and Prince 
Edward Island ; and " C " Company in 
Shelburne, Queens, Lunenburg, Yarmouth 
and Digby ; " A and " B " Companies mobilized at Truro : 
" C Company at Yarmouth ; and on May 2gth all Companies pro 
ceeded to Aldershot to complete the work of organization, after 
which they embarked on the White Star Line Transport Jnsticia, 
and arrived in England, July 4, 1916. 

The Base Depot for the Corps was at Smith s Lawn, Sunning- 
dale. Berkshire, within the confines of Windsor Great Park. This 
site was given to the Corps by His Majesty the King in December, 

About the middle of August the entire draft was broken up, a 
portion of the officers and men were absorbed into other Forestry 
Units, operating in England, Scotland and the South of France. 
Officers that were not disposed of in this manner transferred to the 
Flying Corps, Canadian Railway Troops, Infantry and Labor 
Battalions, subsequently getting over to France. 



Forestry Corps. 


It is difficult to conceive the multitude of ways in which timber 
was used for war purposes. At the Front, the Army very largely 
walked on timber, lorries drove on timber, railways, light and 
heavy, required huge numbers of sleepers or ties. Underground no 
less than above ground was timber used for dugouts, and all the 
complicated contrivances connected with trench warfare. From 
huts to ammunition boxes, from duckboards to stakes for barbed 
wire entanglements, the uses of timber ranged. The general speci 
fications for a Company s operation in this Corps was the pro 
duction of Sawn Lumber, Fuehvood, Pickets, Hurdles, Fascines, 
Faggots, Continuous Rivetting and Parry Sticks. 

In order to save time, and for other reasons, it was arranged 
that Canadians should bring with them their own machinery and 
equipment of the kind to which they were accustomed, with the 
necessary modifications to adapt it to the conditions in Britain and 
France. The work of the Forestry Corps was thus not only of the 
utmost assistance in meeting the need of timber for the War, and 
in saving tonnage, but was of permanent value in that it has knit 
more closely together the people of Great Britain, with their com 
patriots scattered throughout Canada. 



DURING the early part of 1918 when the Germans were 
making their last great drive, few people realized that prep 
arations were already made for the demobilization of the 
Canadian Corps. These preparations were due to the foresight of 
Headquarters Staff. Accordingly when the organization of No. 6 
District Depot was completed on the iSth of April, 1918, a District 
Depot was established in each Military District of Canada, each 
Depot being designated by the number of the Military District in 
which the Depot was situated. 

Lieut.-Col. B. W. Roscoe, D.S.O., was first appointed Officer 
Commanding, and he had under him a small but efficient Staff, with 
Capt. J. S. Davies, M.C., as Adjutant, headquarters being at Leith 
House, Hollis Street, Halifax. 

The functions of District Depots at first were many. Besides 
carrying out ordinary discharges, all personnel in the different 
hospitals had to be looked after, and in addition to this all casual 
ties who became fit for further service were allotted to the different 
Service Companies and Battalions in the District and to their own 
Units Overseas. 

No. 6 District Depot differed from the other Depots in so far 
that it had an Embarkation Casualty Section which handled all 
casualties, on embarkation ; that is to say, when troops were pro 
ceeding Overseas from the different districts of Canada, who for 
various reasons could not embark at the appointed time, they were 
taken on the strength of No. 6 District Depot and forwarded by 
some future sailing. 

This work was carried on by Lieut. -Colonel Roscoe until June, 
1918, when Lieut.-Col. D. A. MacRae, 25th Battalion, was ap 
pointed Officer Commanding, with Capt. G. T. Shaw, 3ist Battalion, 
as Adjutant, headquarters being removed to Wellington Barracks. 



From this time on the work began to increase owing to the 
great number of men returning from England to be demobilized. 
Demobilization went on very rapidly, and when the Armistice 
suddenly came it was realized that more speedily to carry out 
demobilization No. 6 District Depot would have to be enlarged. 
With this in view two Dispersal Stations known as " A " and " B " 
were added to the Depot, these Dispersal Stations being situated in 
Charlottetown and Halifax, and commanded by Major J. S. Stanley 
and Major J. G. Johnstone, respectively. To these officers was 
allotted the greater part of the organization of their respective 
stations which was carried on in such a manner that great credit 
was reflected upon the Depot as well as upon the officers com 

Everything was now in readiness to handle very speedily troops 
arriving for demobilization, so that when the first complete Unit, 
the Royal Canadian Regiment, arrived at the Port of Halifax 
early in March, 1919, it was demobilized in less than a day. This 
was made possible by the hard work of the Officer Commanding 
Dispersal Station B, Major J. G. Johnstone. 

This work was kept up by the stations throughout Canada until 
late in July, 1919, when it was found that the Canadian Corps had 
practically been demobilized. At first it was thought it would take 
two years to complete demobilization of our forces, but the whole 
work was carried on so speedily that the feat was practically 
accomplished in six months. This in itself speaks well of the 
splendid organization of the Depots. 

Xo. 6 Depot, besides demobilizing the Maritime troops, demob 
ilized a great number of troops from other districts, viz., the 
Cavalry Brigade, Engineer and Forestry Units, Railway Troops 
and several Hospital Units. The work of No. 6 Depot was highly 
praised by Gen. John Hughes during his tour of inspection, when 
he stated that No. 6 District was one of the best organized through 
out Canada. 

One will realize the immense amount of work done by No. 6 

District Depot by the results obtained ; that is to say, the total 

number of discharges from April 18, 1918, until the latter part of 

May. 1920, were one thousand five hundred and seventy-eighty 

(1.578) officers and twenty-seven thousand eistfit hundred and 



ninety-six other ranks (27,896), made up as shown in the table 
below : 

Reasons. Officers. Other Ranks. 

1. Medically Unfit. 

(a) Disability due to or aggravated by 

ser vice 76 2,983 

(>) Requiring further medical treat 
ment of long duration or voca 
tional education 38 507 

2. Demobilisation. 

All discharged other than above 1,462 24,299 

3. Struck off Strength. 

Deaths 2 17 

T ( io?8 27,896 

.transferred to other Districts 8 58 

It will be very gratifying to Nova Scotians to k:iow that the 
whole Staff of No. 6 District Depot were made up of Nova Scotia 
officer ranks, all of whom saw service at the Front, and it is sure 
when the records of the District Depots are compared that No. 6 
District Depot will be well to the forefront. 

Officers on strength No. 6 District Depot when organized : 

Officer Commanding Lieut.-Col. W. B. Roscoe 

D.S.O C.M.R. s. 

Second m Command Major A. B. Bucknell i$th L H. 

Adjutant Capt. J. L. Davie. M.C 2ist Bn 

Assistant Adjutant Lieut. J. A. Ross 85th Bn 

Quartermaster Capt. A. A. Clark .i 39 th Bn. 

June, 1918. 

Officer Commanding Lieut.-Col. D. A. MacRae. .25th Bn, 

Second in Command Major J. L. Davie, M.C.. . . 3ist Bn 

Adjutant Capt. G. T. Shaw 21 st Bn. 

Assistant Adjutant Lieut. A. F. Ferguson loth R R T 

Quartermaster Capt. A. A. Clark i 39 th Bn 

Records Officer Lieut. B. E. Elliott C.E. 

Leave and Furlough Section. 

Officer Commanding: Capt. M. S. Hunt 5th Bn. 

Second in Command Lieut. J. Harley 25th Bn. 

Details Company. 

Officer Commanding Capt. F. A. Ladd 7th Bn. 



Casualty Company. 

Officer Commanding Major L. D. V. Chipman. . . I3th Bn. 

Company Officers Capt. A. G. Foster 7th Bn. 

Lieut. W. H. Whidden Composite Bn. 

Lieut. H. A. Crawley 8sth Bn. 

Lieut. A. A. Crawley R.C.G.A. 

Discharge Section. 

Officer Commanding Capt. R. W. Dill 25th Bn. 

Section Officers Capt. J. A. Gunn I3th Bn. 

Capt. F. A. MacAloney R.A.F. 

Capt. W. Fisher 25th Bn. 

Lieut. G. W. Banks 38th Bn. 

Lieut. I. C. Banks Composite Bn. 

Hospital Section. 

Officer Commanding Major J. A. Mackenzie. . . . 85th Bn. 

Section Officer Capt F. T. DeWolfe C.G.A. 

Dispersal Station "A," Chalottetown. 

Officer Commanding Major J. W. Stanley C.G.A. 

Second in Command Capt. J. S. Bagnefl C.G.A. 

Company Officers Lieut. R. Richie C.G.A. 

Lieut. H. E. McEachern 50th Bn. 

Lieut. J. McDonald C.G.A. 

Lieut. J. White C.G.A. 

Dispersal Station " B," Halifax. 

Officer Commanding Major J. G. Johnstone 8sth Bn. 

Second in Command Capt. M. S. Hunt 5th Bn. 

Company Officers Capt. R. L. Billman C.G.A. 

Lieut. J. Bonner 8sth Bn. 

Lieut. B. E. Nicks I3th Bn. 

Lieut. J. H. E. Jones C.E. 

1 60 



IX the lexicon of the Army Service Corps, the word " impos 
sible " does not exist. It was this spirit, insistently inculcated 
since the organization of the Corps in 1902, that made the 
accomplishment of the seemingly "impossible" possible by the 
Canadian Army Service Corps in the Maritime Provinces when 
the Kaiser let roar his terrorizing thunderbolts in August, 1914. 

Blatant glory has seldom perched on 
the escutcheon of this hard-worked Corps, 
but, on the other hand, the capable work 
of the Army Service Corps has frequently 
been the means of attracting this coy bird 
to a resting place on the banner of many 
a Unit whose prowess fills the pages of 

Briefly, it is the efficient service of the 
Army Service Corps that makes possible 
the achievement of great things by the 

It is impossible to record the history 
of the Canadian Army Service Corps in the Maritime Provinces 
throughout the duration of the Great War and after without be 
ginning at the basis of the structure, namely, Xo. 4 Detachment of 
the Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps, now known as Xo. 6 
Detachment of the Royal Canadian Army Service Corps, having its 
headquarters at Halifax. 

On August 4, 1914, Xo. 4 Detachment was officered by five 
officers of the Canadian Permanent Army Service Corps] two 
attached officers of the Active Militia, and one officer of the Imperial 
Army Service Corps, attached. The Detachment was administered 
by Major E. C. Dean, who was attached to the Staff of Military 

11 161 



District No. 6 as an Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport 
(now Lieut.-Colonel E. C. Dean, Senior Supply and Transport 
Officer, attached to the Staff of M.D. No. 6). He was also Com 
mandant of the Canadian Army Service Corps School of Training. 
In command of the Detachment was Major R. O. Marks, an officer 
of the Imperial Army Service Corps, temporarily loaned to the 
Canadian Sister Corps. He was also Adjutant of the School of 
Training. The other officers of the Permanent Force were Lieut. 
H. O. Lawson (now Major Lawson, Senior Supply and Transport 
Officer, M.D. No. 3, Kingston, Ontario) ; Lieut. Keith MacDougall 
(now Major MacDougall, in charge of No. 6 Detachment. 
R.C.A.S.C.) ; Lieut. J. A. Gwynne (who proceeded Overseas as 
Adjutant of the Second Divisional Train) ; and Lieut., now Capt., 
George Simms, District Barracks Officer a most efficient, hard 
working officer, whose capability went a long way towards making 
possible the quartering and comfort of many thousands of troops 
in the Maritime Provinces. The splendid services rendered by 
officer his absolute devotion to his arduous duties, his zeal and 
tireless efforts in behalf of the C.E.F., and, at the same time, his 
careful supervision of all matters pertaining to the financial mteres 
of the public purse are well worthy of recognition. 

The two attached officers of the Active Militia were Lieut, (now 
Major) H. R. Hendy, of Esquimalt, B.C., and Capt. H. J. 
Keating, of No. 6 Company, Canadian Army Service Corps. 
Captain Keating is now stationed at Quebec. 

The rank and file of the Detachment numbered less than fifty- 
scarcely sufficient to care for the needs of Halifax Garrison in peace 
time. The available transport comprised about a half-dozen horses, 
two time-worn Ford passenger cars, two steamboats, and a " dumb" 
lighter Practically the whole of the land transport was earned out 
by horses and wagons under a civilian contractor Mr. George 


The Supply Depot, including grocery store, bakery, and 
shop, was located within the confines of Glacis Barracks- 
headquarters of the Army Service Corps at Halifaxin a small 
brick building which, under the regime of the Imperials, had 
used as a school for the senior children of Imperial soldiers in garri 
son at Halifax. Under peace conditions this building was inadequate 



for the purposes for which it was used, and, needless to say, under 
war demands its continuance as such was out of the question. All 
flour, bread, groceries, meat, and other supplies, had to be taken in 
and out of one small door. 

To meet war requirements, the garrison gymnasium situated 
about fifty feet from the old senior school building was taken over 
and converted into an ideal Supply Depot. The former grocery store 
was then opened up to enlarge the bakery, which was modernized 
by the introduction of electrically-operated machinery and new and 
enlarged ovens. The meat shop was also improved, the chill room 
enlarged and modernized by the addition of a " trolley " system for 
the expeditious handling of meat. Thus in a short time the handi 
cap with which the Army Service Corps labored at the outbreak of 
war was quickly overcome. 

The most serious difficulty, however, which had to be combatted 
was that of obtaining sufficient men to carry out the increased work 
thrown upon this Corps by the sudden strengthening of Halifax 
Garrison, and the calling out of troops to guard various points in 
the Maritime Provinces. This was a real and trying hardship. 
The other Permanent Force Units forming Halifax Garrison could 
not spare men to assist the Army Service Corps, as every man was 
needed within his own Unit. The problem was partly solved by 
calling up a number of non-commissioned officers and men of No. 8 
Company, Canadian Army Service Corps, commanded by Capt. 
F. W. Wickwire, with headquarters at Kentville, N.S. No. 7 Com 
pany, commanded by Major A. L. Massie, with headquarters at 
St. John, also supplied a few. Later on Lieut-Col. I. W. Videto, 
commanding the 63rd Halifax Rifles, and Lieut. -Col. A. King, con?- 
manding the 66th Princess Louise Fusiliers, very generously loaned 
a number of splendid men, whose ready adaptability made it pos 
sible for the Army Service Corps to " carry on." As time advanced 
enlistments made the Corps more or less self-sustaining, but the 
fact remains that never throughout the duration of the War were 
sufficient men actually enlisted in this branch of the Service to 
render it indepedent of other Units. This condition was probably 
due to the fact that the possibility of getting Overseas was greater 
by enlisting in other Units. 



Mention has been made of Xos. / and 8 Companies of the 
Canadian Army Service Corps. Both these Companies played 
important parts in the Great \Yorld War, at home and abroad. 
Major Massie took Overseas the Second Divisional Train, and all 
the officers and practically the whole of the rank and file of Xo. / 
Company accompanied him. Captain Wickwire, of Xo. 8 Company, 
after a short period as Deputy Assistant Director of Supply and 
Transport, M.D. Xo. 6, also went over to France with this Train, 
and rendered very efficient service with it in the fighting zone. 

The strengthening of the Garrison of Halifax made possible the 
fulfilment of the plans of defence, which had long since been care 
fully laid down. This, and the summoning of troops for guard 
purposes at various points in Xova Scotia and Xew Brunswick, 
threw a vast amount of work on the Army Service Corps, for not 
only had these troops, scattered over a wide area throughout the 
three Provinces, to be housed, and their daily wants in the matter 
of food, water, light, fuel, straw for bedding, transport and necessary 
services arranged for, but it was also required, following a precon 
ceived plan, to provide for them against the possibility of their being 
cut off from their source of supply. To do justice to the amount of 
labor involved in the organization and administration of this task 
would require a volume greater in size than this one, so all that 
can be done is to give a brief outline of the general scheme followed. 
When the Royal Canadian Regiment, with its supporting- 
artillery, were ordered to garrison points in the Island of Cape 
Breton and Canso, they left Halifax self-sustaining for fourteen 
days; that is, they carried with them reserve rations sufficient for 
fourteen days for all ranks. In addition they carried rations for 
current consumption sufficient for all ranks for a further fourteen 
days, but minus meat, butter and bread. Lieut. J. A. Gwynne. ot 
the Army Service Corps, and one clerk, accompanied the Regiment 
to Sydney to make necessary supply and other arrangements, 
tasks this officer had to attend to may be judged when it is known 
that he had to make contracts, and to arrange to supply the wants 
of troops located at nine different points, covering a frontage ot 
about fifty miles, and requiring travel by train, steamship, street car 
and automobile to reach the various posts. So capably was the duty 
performed that the troops had never to go without a meal, thei: 



rations being arranged with practically the regularity which pre 
vailed in Halifax under peace conditions. When Lieutenant 
G wynne was summoned for service Overseas, he was replaced at 
Sydney by Lieut. Horace Westmoreland. Later on this officer went 
to France as Transport Officer of the Royal Canadian Regiment, 
being replaced at Sydney by Lieut. Cecil Sircom. These three 
officers belonged to the Permanent Force, and received their train 
ing at Halifax. 

As the Supply and Transport Officer at Sydney found it impos 
sible to give any attention to the troops stationed at Canso, the 
work there incidental to the Army Service Corps was performed by 
the Officer Commanding the Guard, who received the necessary 
instructions by telegram and telephone from the Assistant Director 
of Supplies and Transport at Halifax, an Army Service Corps 
Clerk being sent to Canso to attend to the necessary accounting. 

An incident might here be related as exemplifying the difficulties 
that had to be overcome from time to time by the Army Service 
Corps. Certain heavy guns had to be transported from Prince 
Edward Island to points in Xova Scotia. Every effort was put 
forth to obtain the services of a ship capable of carrying these guns, 
but without success. Finally, after a delay of several days, Lieut.- 
Colonel Arthur Peake telephoned from Charlottetown to Halifax 
to say that a ship was then approaching Charlottetown Harbor 
which might be suitable. The A.D. of S. & T. at Halifax instructed 
him to approach the captain of this vessel and explain to him the 
situation, and if he was not agreeable to undertaking the task of 
transporting these guns, Colonel Peake was to commandeer the ship 
and move the artillery to the places directed. Whether it was 
Colonel Peake s persuasiveness or his war-like demeanor that had 
the desired effect cannot be stated with certainty. Time was spent 
only in removing sufficient of the ship s cargo to make it possible to 
load the guns, which were then transported with despatch. Mean 
while other arrangements had been made by the Army Service Corps 
to carry these guns to the points in Nova Scotia where they were 

The troops forming the actual defence force of Halifax and 
environments were supplied on the same basis as those sent to Cape 



Breton, so that in the event of necessity they could sustain them 
selves for fourteen days, and by the addition of tinned meat and 
biscuit, the period could be extended another fourteen days. 

Meanwhile troops had been summoned for the defence of St. 
John, N.B., which necessitated calling out a portion of No. 7 Com 
pany of the Canadian Army Service Corps, under the command of 
Major A. L. Massie. This detachment took up its headquarters in 
the Armories, and from there efficiently ministered to the wants of 
the troops on duty and in training at St. John and adjoining points 
Lieut J. Key, who had been trained at Halifax, was sent to St. John 
to take up the duties as District Barrack Officer, carrying out these 
duties very satisfactorily. Lieut. Arthur Biggar, who was also 
trained at Halifax, was despatched to St. John as Officer m Charge 
of Supplies, a position he filled very creditably until called for duty 
in France. The troops doing duty at St. John and adjacent points 
were also rationed on the same basis as were those on duty at 
Halifax, Cape Breton, and other points. 

It will be remembered that early in the War a Capt. Von 
Weghorn, an officer of the Prussian Army, startled the civilized 
world by an attempt to destroy the International railway bridge 
spanning the St. Lacroix River, between McAdam Junction, on the 
Canadian side, and Vanceboro, on the United States side. A suit 
case filled with dynamite was placed between the piers of the north 
east corner of the bridge on the Canadian side. The attempt 
failed, the bridge being only slightly damaged and traffic not 
delayed. It was considered expedient, however, to place an armed 
ouard on this bridge on the Canadian side. To Lieut.-Col. 
Dean, A.D. of S. & T., M.D. No. 6, fell the duty of making the 
necessary supply and other arrangements for this guard. 

A similar guard was placed over the new railway bridge span- 
nino- the St. John River at St. Leonards. 

Guards were also established over the Marconi Wireless Towers 
at Newcastle, N.B., and Barrington Passage, the latter under com 
mand of Lieut.-Col. T. M. Seeley. These guards required the usual 
attention on the part of the Army Service Corps. To maintain the 
guard at Barrmgton Passage was a cause of anxiety, as it was sta 
tioned at a point some miles off the main road, in the midst of a 
wilderness, and could be reached only in good weather, as the road 



leading to the Wireless Station from the main highway was well, 
simply impossible. 

Permanent guards were also maintained at Louisburg, Glace 
Bay, Whitney Pier, Sydney, North Sydney, Sydney Mines, Cran 
berry Head, Chapel Hill, Canso and various other places. 

Incidentally troops were gathering at Valcartier to form the 
First Contingent and the quota from the Maritime Provinces had to 
be transported to the place of rendezvous. The manner of the 
arrangement of this transportation was unique. Recruiting was 
being carried on in practically every city, town, village and hamlet 
in the Maritime Provinces. Movements were made when it was 
known that sufficient numbers of men had been recruited to justify 
sending them forward. On the A.D. of S. and T. rested the task 
of making train arrangements to get these recruits to Valcartier. 
It was done in this manner: Instructions w r ere sent to various 
recruiting centres to have certain numbers of recruits entrain on a 
certain train on a certain day. Thus, for instance, the first lot 
might entrain at Louisburg, and others along the line as far as 
Sydney ; probably some would be brought over from Sydney Mines 
and North Sydney to Sydney. At the latter place two, three or 
four special coaches w r ould be attached to a regular tram, and as 
this train proceeded towards Truro, the number of recruits would 
be augmented, until on its arrival at Truro it might have from two 
to three hundred on board. Meanwhile, a sufficient number would 
be run up from Halifax, and a special train would then be made up at 
Truro and run to Levis, P.O., where a transfer would be made for 
Quebec and Valcartier. At other times Moncton would be made 
the point at which a special train would be made up, in which case 
St. John supplied the completing quota to make up the train load of 
500 or thereabouts. It must be borne in mind, however, that the 
whole movement was planned ahead of time, and the transport 
scheme carried out on a definite plan. 

Obviously it was impossible to send out transport warrants to 
cover the movement of these various groups, so an arrangement was 
made whereby the railway authorities agreed to accept temporary 
interim receipts from officers or non-commissioned officers in 
charge of these groups, on the presentation of a telegram or letter 
of instruction from either the A.D. of S. & T. or any other Staff 



officer. These receipts were issued in duplicate, one copy of which 
was kept by the ticket agent and the other mailed to the A.D. of 
S. & T. Upon receipt of the latter, covering transport warrants 
were mailed to the ticket agents concerned. By this means some 
thousands of troops were moved expedi-tiously from the Maritime 
Provinces to Valcartier. 

New Units of the Canadian Expeditionary Force were forming 
in various parts of the Maritime Provinces, and it behooved the 
Army Service Corps to quarter them, arrange for supplies, water, 
light, land transportation, barrack equipment, and a thousand and 
one details incidental to the requirements of newly-formed military 
organizations, and of which only a trained soldier has the faintest 
conception. These new Units, or in some cases reinforcements, 
were scattered throughout the length and breadth of the three 
Provinces, at such places in Nova Scotia as : Halifax, Windsor, 
Truro, Pictou, New Glasgow, Antigonish, Sydney, North Sydney, 
Sydney Mines, Broughton, Glace Bay and Amherst. 

When the Malleable Iron Works at Amherst, were converted 
into a domicile for the involuntary reception and entertainment of 
adherents of the doctrines of the Kaiser and his admirers, a small 
detachment of the Army Service Corps was sent there to attend to 
their well-being. The late Capt. P. F. Keating was in command of 
this detachment which had also to look after the needs of the 
recruits quartered in Amherst. Captain Keating was trained at 
Halifax and later proceeded Overseas in command of No. 4 Com 
pany of the Third Divisional Train. This Company was recruited at 
Halifax, having its headquarters in the old Medical College Building 
at the corner of College and Carlton Streets. 

Shortly after the outbreak of war, Canadian horses began to 
find their way Overseas. In the first winter of the War the number 
shipped from the Port of Halifax was something like 17,000. On 
the Army Service Corps rested the duty of embarking these animals. 
The absence of forewarning of train loads of horses being en route 
for Halifax was sometimes the cause of great anxiety. At five 
o clock one Easter Sunday morning a telephone message from a 
railway official conveyed the tidings that there were three train 
loads of horses in the freight yards consigned to the Assistant 



Director of Supplies and Transport. As this was the first inti 
mation received of the movement of these horses, naturally no 
arrangements had been made for their reception, and as the ships 
by which they were to he conveyed Overseas were not in the 
harbor, it became necessary to arrange for their disentrainment 
without loss of time. Mr. M. McF. Hall, Secretary of the Halifax 
Exhibition, was called out of bed by telephone, the situation ex 
plained to him, and arrangements completed to detrain and stable 
the horses at the Exhibition Grounds. Every available man of the 
Army Service Corps was aroused from bed and marched to the 
Exhibition Grounds, there to care for these horses instead of pro 
ceeding to church to take part in Easter Sunday Service. Later, a 
detachment of artillerymen was told off to take on the responsi 
bility of these horses. At least on two other occasions consign 
ments of horses reached Halifax under similar circumstances. 

Another "job" of the Army Service Corps at Halifax was to 
receive, account for and send forward Overseas thousands upon 
thousands of parcels of " comforts " for the troops at the Front, 
these parcels coming from all parts of Canada, comprising every 
thing in size from an envelope containing a handkerchief to packing 
cases and barrels of comforts of every description. Every parcel 
received was given a number, registered, and then despatched 

Arrangements for the embarkation of complete Units and rein 
forcements of troops during the early part of the \Yar also fell to 
the lot of the Army Service Corps, the A.D. of S. & T. being the 
responsible officer. He had a most capable and efficient assistant in 
the person of Capt. S. A. Doane, of Army Service Corps, whose 
knowledge of steamship matters is unsurpassed, and who carried 
out practically all the details incidental to the embarkation of troops 
at Halifax. 

The Barrack Services under Capt. George Simms was a hard- 
worked branch, the pressure on which did not cease until long after 
peace had been declared. 

It is worthy of mention that throughout the War thousands of 

contracts for supplies were made and carried out by the Army 

Service Corps in the Maritime Provinces, involving the expenditure 

of millions of dollars, the accounting for which was also one of the 

12 1 60 


many duties of the Army Service Corps, yet not in a single instance 
was there the breath of scandal discernible, a single transaction 
questioned, or a suggestion of deviation from the ethical pathway 
of rectitude. Truly a glorious record and heritage for the Can 
adian Army Service Corps in the Maritime Provinces, with head 
quarters in the Metropolis of Nova Scotia. 

The statement has been made that at the outbreak of the Great 
World War there were stationed at Halifax eight officers of the 
Army Service Corps. Most of these were soon cleared out and 
proceeded Overseas. Major Marks, Lieutenants Lawson and 
MacDougall were summoned to Valcartier and accompanied the 
First Contingent. Lieut-Colonel Dean was called to take com 
mand of the First Divisional Train, but as his services at Halifax 
could not then be spared, he was not permitted to go. Later on he 
was given the command of the Second Divisional Train, but again 
he was held back, Major A. L. Massie of St. John being given the 
command. Col. W. A. Simson, a Nova Scotian, was placed in 
command of the First Divisional Train, which proved to be the 
" first " Train in more senses than one, inasmuch as it was conceded 
to be the best Train in France, barring none. 

On the establishment of an Army Service Corps Training School 
at Toronto, Capt. H. R. Hendy, of Halifax, was appointed Adjutant. 
On proceeding Overseas, he was replaced by Capt. Cecil R. Sitcom. 
Both of these officers received their training at Halifax, as did also 
upwards of one hundred officers, all of whom " made good " in 
Flanders Fields, bringing credit to themselves, the Army Service 
Corps and the Metropolis of Nova Scotia, where they were trained. 
Among Nova Scotia officers of the Army Service Corps who 
were trained at Halifax and saw service at the Front were: Capt. 
G. A. Redford, of New Glasgow; Lieut. D. A. Starr, of Halifax; 
Capt. " Ted " Foster, of Bedford ; Capt. G. \V. Underwood, of New 
Glasgow; Capt. Walter Taylor, of Halifax, who transferred his 
affections to the Army Medical Corps; Lieut. Frank S. Brennan, of 
Halifax, later transferred to the Flying Corps; Lieut. A. B. Dew 
berry, of Halifax. In addition Lieut. L. Pierce, of No. 8 Com 
pany, saw service in France, while Lieuts. J. A. Rose, G. H. 
Applegate, W. J. V. Tweedie, H. S. Crowe and F. D. Doyle, also 
of No. 8 Company, all Nova Scotians, performed meritorious service 



in Canada. Lieut. J. G. Ryan, of Kentville, received his training 
at Halifax and filled many important appointments at Sydney. 
Amherst, Aldershot, Ottawa and elsewhere. Physical unfitness 
rendered him unable to partake in the campaign Overseas. 

The Headquarters Company of the Fourth Divisional Train was 
organized at Halifax, the 200 members being recruited almost 
entirely from Nova Scotia. The Train was mobilized and trained 
at Halifax. It was commanded by Lieut-Col. E. C. Dean, who took 
it Overseas. Of this Unit a Canadian officer in high position in 
England said it was one of the best trained bodies of men that 
Canada had contributed to the Great War. 

On the departure Overseas of Lieut. -Colonel Dean, the duties of 
A.D. of S. & T. were taken over by Major A. P. Lomas, of No. 6 
Company of the Army Service Corps. This officer very efficiently 
administered the Army Service Corps affairs in the Maritime Prov 
inces for nearly three years, and rendered the British Empire 
invaluable service. He was ably seconded by Major E. E. Wood, 
who commanded the local C.P.A.S.C., now developed into a Com 
pany of upwards of 200 men, having about fifty horses and forty 
motor vehicles. 

The Permanent Detachment of the Army Service Corps at 
Halifax contributed very materially in personnel to the various 
Army Service Corps Units proceeding Overseas, the Detachment 
being made up largely of Nova Scotians. The training and dis 
ciplining these men received at Halifax had the effect of leavening 
the Overseas Units with which they became associated. 

When the casualties began to return from France, they came in 
ship loads, about ninety per cent, returning through the Port of 
Halifax. Sometimes as many as three vessels a week arrived. 
Most of the well-known big ships were engaged in bringing home 
these war-scarred veterans, among the number being the Olympic, 
Aquitania and Manretania. In this work the Army Service Corps 
played an important part, as they made all train, berthing and 
feeding arrangements, as well as issuing all ranks with the necessary 
tickets for transportation. The Army Service Corps worked out 
each train " consist," gave the completed train schedules to the rail 
road officials, who made up the trains in accordance therewith. 



Lieut. - Col. E. C. Dean, who had just returned from France, was 
appointed Chief Transport Officer. Other Army Service Corps 
officers employed on this important work were: Major F. W. 
\Yickwire (who later succeeded Colonel Dean as Chief Transport 
Officer), Capt. S. A. Doane, Lieut. Ken. Love, Capt. L. Prickler, 
and Lieut. George H. Edgar. Also assisting were eighty train 
conducting officers, one of whom was placed in charge of each troop 
train to look after the comforts of the men, see that they were 
properly fed, and that the train was run through to its destination 
without undue delay. 

Troops were disembarked at the rate of under one hour: 
the Olympic and Aquitania, each carrying- 5,500, were cleared in 
five hours. About twelve to fourteen trains on an average were 
required to despatch this number of men homeward, and the fact 
that over a quarter of a million men were thus entrained, ticketed, 
berthed and fed en route without a single mishap or complaint 
serves to illustrate the almost perfect system that prevailed. Troops 
were entrained at the rate of 1,000 an hour, which meant that a 
troop train departed every half hour, which may be considered 
quick work even from a railroad standpoint. 

Though he was not connected with the military in any way, 
at the same time a word of praise is due Mr. Ernie Cameron, now 
Superintendent of the Dining and Sleeping Car Department of the 
Canadian National Railways at Halifax, for the very able, efficient 
co-operation he gave the military authorities in making up trains, 
providing most excellent meals for the men en route and in many 
ways doing his bit to make the home-coming of the warriors a 
happy one. 

The Maritime Provinces, and Xova Scotia in particular, may 
justly be proud of the part played in the Great \Yar by their sons 
who wore the badges of the Army Service Corps. The highly 
creditable achievements of this organization a Unit usually little 
heard of, but which accomplishes big things has shed lustre on 
the names of the three Provinces down by the sounding sea. 



O\ the outbreak of hostilities the Canadian Ordnance Corps 
had a strength of four officers, fifty-five other ranks and 
thirteen civilians. It was very soon apparent that the 
Ordnance Depot would have to be kept working twenty-four hours 
per diem. All ranks therefore were immediately placed under 
canvas within the Depot, and shifts arranged so that work of the 
Ordnance Depot could be continued the whole period of twenty- 
four hours. 

The armament of the Fortress and the Royal Canadian 
Engineer Defence electric lights were immediately equipped up to 
war scale. All fighting equipment necessary for the Royal Can 
adian Regiment, the 63rd and 66th Regiments, and ist Regiment 
Canadian Garrison Artillery was immediately issued. Companies 
of the 94th and 78th Regiments were later clothed and equipped for 
duty at various strategic points in Nova Scotia. 

With the manning of all Forts it became necessary to place a 
highly trained mechanic, known as an Armament Artificer, in each, 
to keep all guns and machinery in repair, and ready for immediate 
action. These were provided by the Canadian Ordnance Corps. 

As soon as the Camp opened at Valcartier, it fell to the lot of 
the Canadian Ordnance Corps at Halifax to ship forward the bulk 
of the stores for equipping the Units being mobilized at Valcartier. 
Day after day, night after night, it was one continuous loading of 
cars to rush forward to Valcartier Camp. Special efforts were 
made to complete the i;th Battery, C.F.A., Sydney, with clothing 
and equipment before proceeding to Valcartier. 

Prior to the departure of the ist Division from Valcartier, an 
advance party from the Canadian Ordnance Corps was being sent 
to England to prepare for the arrival of the Canadians in England. 
Conductor J. D. Pitman and three non-commissioned officers and 


aen left Halifax with seventy minutes notice and proceeded to 
En-land as part of the Canadian Ordnance Corps advance party 
The party were each in possession of a haversack and water bott 
as their kit. Conductor Pitman received promotion to the rank 
of Major, and held Staff appointments on the various Divisions in 
France, finally being made Chief Ordnance Officer, Canadian ( 
seas Military Forces, and was awarded the D.S.O. 

As the Imperial Government was, during the early stage 
War urgently in need of guns and ammunition, all guns and am 
munition which could be spared from this district were immediately 
shipped away direct to the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich. 

Two Armament Artificers also left Halifax to proceed with the 
Canadian Artillery Brigades of the ist Division, and of these two, 
\rmament Q.M.S. Smith, it is regretted, after having greatly 
distinguished himself in action, died of the result of wounds. 

In October, 1915, the Halifax Detachment of the Canadian 
Ordnance Corps sent Overseas a nucleus of an Ordnance Mob! 
Workshop required by the Canadian Corps for the inspection, 
repair and upkeep of guns and vehicles of all kinds m the Field. 
This Unit was placed under the command of Major 
Buttenshaw, Inspector of Ordnance Machinery. This officer 
afterwards Chief Inspector of Ordnance Machinery Canadian 
Forces, and was awarded the D.S.O. Other ranks of the Detach 
ment were moved away from time to time Overseas as ordered from 
Ottawa Owing to the enormous amount of work required in 1 
clothing and equipping of C.E.F. Units in the district, it was 
necessary to more than treble the Staff, recruits enlisting being 
trained for their duties by the few permanent men who, thougV 
much against their own wishes, were kept in Halifax, and eve 
then all ranks were working day and night. The explosion which 
occurred in Halifax, December, 1917, also added to the wor* 
various temporary hospitals being equipped by the Canadian 

Ordnance Corps. 

In August, 1918, one officer and nine other ranks of the 
Detachment, C.O.C, were ordered to Vancouver as part 
Siberian Expeditionary Force. Several cars were loaded at 
W ith stores for this force and sent forward. The Halifax Detach 
ment with Ordnance men from other districts, arrived in 



at Vladivostock and at once opened up a complete Ordnance Depot, 
where work was carried on in the usual smooth manner. 

Several hundred thousand tons of ammunition, arms, equipment 
and clothing have been handled by the Canadian Ordnance Corps 
at Halifax during the period of the War, both coming from and 
going to England. The Ordnance Workshops at Halifax carried 
ou-t an enormous amount of repair work, and in addition manu 
factured large quantities of military stores which were unable to 
be purchased. Tradesmen enlisting in the C.E.F. in various parts 
of Canada, such as wheelers, blacksmiths, saddlers and armorers, 
who were required to accompany troops Overseas, were sent to the 
Canadian Ordnance Corps, Halifax, for training. The Ordnance 
Department was also called upon to carry out all repairs and testing 
of ammunition for the Naval Services, both Imperial and Canadian, 
in addition to that of the Land Service. This work has to be done 
by experts, and necessitates very long hours, as certain cordite 
tests have to run continually day and night for several days at a 

Since the War, all the equipment, including ammunition, for the 
new Reorganized Active Militia, is being handled at Halifax and 
reshipped to the various military points in Canada. 

The following officers and senior warrant officers of Canadian 
Ordnance Corps have served with Xo. 6 Detachment, Canadian 
Ordnance Corps, during various periods of the War: 

Colonel J. F. MacDonald; Lieut-Colonels A. H. Panet and 
M. C. Gillin; Majors A. S. Buttenshaw, D.S.O., and J. D. Pitman, 
D.S.O. ; Captains E. M. Cartmer, J. H. MacQueen, S. V. Cooke, 
A. M. Simons, J. N. Gibson, and R. N. C. Bishop; Lieut. G. E. J. 
Ball ; Conductors J. A. Villard, E. V. Hessian, A. Bentley, D.C.M., 
and A. Lable. 

In recognition of services rendered during War 1914-1918, His 
Majesty the King has graciously approved the grant of the title 
Royal " to the Canadian Permanent Ordnance Corps, and here 
after this Corps is permitted to bear the designation of " The Royal 
Canadian Ordnance Corps. * 



Twice mentioned in dispatches; M.O., 85th Infantry Battalion. 
30-10-15 to 19-12-17; M.O., 4th Divisional Tram, 19-12-17 i 
14-4-18; S.M.O., Central Group, C.F.C., 15-5-1 
O.C., No. 2 Canadian Stationary Hospital, 7-1-19 to 17-5 
Author ol The 85th in France and Flanders." 





" Men whisper that our arm is weak, 
Men say our blood is cold, 

And that our hearts no longer speak- 
That clarion note of old ; 

But let the spear and sword draw near 
The sleeping lion s den, 

Our Island shore shall start once more 
To life with armed men." 

THE medical men of this Province were no less ardent in their 
desire to serve their country in the \Yar than all the other 
professions, trades and callings. It was a contagion in the 
air that got into the blood. Sooner or later everybody got it and 
responded to it according to their own notion of service or oppor 
tunity. Medical men were needed at home as well as abroad. There 
were recruits to be examined and young soldiers in training requir 
ing medical and surgical attention and the country could not be 
stripped of medical service. No sooner were Units formed than 
there was a clamor for medical appointments. Some medical men 
even joined the combatant ranks, although they were soon returned 
to the medical service owing to the demand for medical officers. 
Also many Nova Scotia medical men went direct to England, or were 
already abroad, and joined up with the Royal Army Medical Corps. 
Many of these, with many regimental medical officers, owing to 
their isolation from the great body of medical men associated with 
Canadian Hospitals, will be overlooked in narratives of the doings 
of the medical fraternity. 

Before describing in detail the medical work done by Nova 
Scotians during the War, it will be useful to give a brief outline of 
the activities of the Medical Service in war. 



Medical attention is required all the way from the recruiting 
and training camps at home, and those in England and France and 
along the lines of communication, up to the front areas and fighting 
Units in the firing line, No Man s Land and the hand-to-hand 
encounter in the enemy trenches. But perhaps the function of the 
Medical Service which calls for the greatest vigilance and most 
thorough care is the prevention and control of epidemic and con 
tagious diseases. 

The most strenuous efforts of the Medical Services are exerted 
to rescue the man who is wounded in action, and to give him such 
prompt attention as will prevent him, as far as possible, from 
Weeding to death or dying from shock or exposure and to hasten 
him to a place where the best surgical skill can be exercised to save 
his life and limbs. 

The primary aid is under the direction of the Regimental 
Medical Officer who is assisted by sixteen stretcher-bearers and two 
orderlies whom it is his duty to keep in a constant state of efficiency 
by careful training, as unskilled men, during active operations, are 
constantly being added from the ranks to make up wastage. One 
Nova Scotia Regiment lost thirty-three per cent, of its stretcher- 
bearers in two hours in the Vimy Ridge engagement. 

This little coterie goes into the trenches with the Unit. The 
Regimental Medical Officer selects a Regimental Aid Post (R.A.P.) 
well to the front and as far as possible out of the direct line of 
enemy fire, so that the wounded may be safely cared for and 
promptly evacuated. The stretcher-bearers are detailed four to 
each Company, and these go with their Companies into action and 
accompany them wherever they go. They are the most exposed 
men in an engagement ; for while the combatants may advance in 
rushes and seek shelter as they go, the stretcher-bearer is con 
stantly exposed, going back and forth to the relief of the wounded. 
As a result of the efficiency these men attain, their dressings, 
applied on the battle-field during action, often can go untouched 
until they reach the hospital. 

At the Regimental Aid Post further treatment is given by the 
Regimental Medical Officer, food and hot tea or coffee are given 
and the wounded are rolled in blankets and made as comfortable 
as possible before being sent out. All cases are tagged, usually a 



\vhite tag showing the man s name, number, Regiment, the nature of 
"his injury, and any special treatment or remedies that may have 
been given. In dangerous cases a red tag is used, which secures 
.the right of way in rapid evacuation and immediate attention. 

As soon as casualties are ready for evacuation from the R.A.P. 
they are handed over to the Bearer Section of a Field Ambulance 
to be carried to their Advanced Dressing Station. As it is prac 
tically never possible to establish the Main Dressing Station suffi 
ciently far forward to convey stretcher cases to it in one relay, and 
at the same time have it accessible to motor ambulances, light 
railways and other means of rapid evacuation, Advanced Dressing 
Stations are set up as near the front as can be evacuated to the 
Alain Dressing Station by horsed ambulances with reasonable safety 
by day as well as by night. The evacuation of the wounded up to 
this point must usually be done at night on account of enemy 
observation; though the walking wounded are often able to take 
advantage of lulls in the hostile fire and make their way out during 
the day. Usually arrows are put up along the route pointing the 
direction for " walking wounded." 

The Main Dressing Station of the Field Ambulance is provided 
with facilities for attending to cases requiring immediate operation 
as the only means of saving life. It must be remembered that this 
Unit is on the field of actual operations and within reach of the 
direct fire of the enemy. The sick and wounded are here sorted, 
classified and evacuated as soon as possible to the Casualty Clearing 
Station (C.C.S.). The few r mild cases that can be returned to the 
line or sent to near-by rest camps after twenty-four or forty-eight 
"hours are held at the Field Ambulance, it being necessary to con 
serve, as much as possible, the man-power for the line. 

The Casualty Clearing Station affords the next relief. This is 
the first Unit completely equipped for urgent, formal major opera 
tions, and some have X-ray apparatus and electrically-heated 
operating tables. Although cases are not carried to a finality of 
treatment, and are only kept until fit to move after relief is given, 
practically all wounds are dressed at the C.C.S. After emergent 
operations wounds are often packed with dressings and hurried on 
to a general hospital in the Lines of Communication. It must be 
remembered that these Units are within range of enemy guns and 


liable to get short notice from the enemy, by concentrated high 

explosive shell-fire, to vacate, or they may have to advance with 

the advance of their own troops. Constant action is therefore 

necessary to maintain rooms for the steady stream of wounded 

which they must always be prepared to handle. It is only the most 

urgent operations that are performed, such as wounds of the 

abdomen, chest and brain, or such wounds as are liable to become 

lopeless through infection or complications before reaching the 

The C.C.S. is usually located at a rail head and has access to 

ambulance trains for evacuation. These trains are wonderfully 

equipped with an emergency operating room, kitchen, dining room 

for up-patients and Staff sleeping berths, dispensary, medical 

officers, nurses and orderlies. 

Now comes the first real hospital treatment. All along the 
coast of France and at suitable places were hospital centres such as 
:alais, St. Omer, Le Treport, Le Havre, Rouen, Etaples and 
Boulogne, with General and Stationary and Special Hospitals. 
These centres were under an A.D.M.S., who was informed usually 
twice daily by the different hospitals what empty beds were avail 
able. From this information convoys (hospital trains) were 
dispatched from the C.C.S. to the different hospitals. These were 
notified by telegraph of the approximate time of arrival so that 
ample provision could be made to transfer by motor ambulance the 
patients from the train, on arrival, to the hospital. 

These hospitals were all splendidly equipped with X-ray depart 
ments and pathological laboratories, and were well staffed with 
medical and surgical specialists, highly trained nurses and orderlies. 
When satisfactory progress had been made here, patients were 
transferred to England to similar, though more highly specialized, 
hospitals and convalescent homes, and finally, where necessary, were 
invalided home to Canada. 

The difference between a General and a Stationary Hospital 
was only in size, the former being primarily about twice the size of 
the latter. 

Nova Scotia contributed its quota to all these varied services, 
including three complete Medical Units. 

i So 



The first Nova Scotia Unit to be accepted and mobilized for 
Overseas Service with the First Contingent was a Medical Unit, 
No. 2 Clearing Hospital, which had recently returned from annual 
training at Sussex, X.B. Its headquarters was at Halifax and its 
Commanding Officer Major F. L. S. Ford, who afterwards became 
Colonel Ford, C.M.G., and was three 
times mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig s 

This Unit afterwards became No. I 
Canadian Casualty Clearing Station and 
had a most brilliant record, going 
through the whole war service of the 
Canadian Corps. 

Immediately after Great Britain en 
tered the \Yar on August 4, 1914. 
Major Ford telegraphed to Ottawa 
offering his Unit for Active Service, and 

. . . , ... COL. F. L. S. FORD, C.M.G. 

on August loth its mobilization was 

ordered at Liverpool, X.S. On August I2th a recruiting meeting 
occurred in the Town Hall, Liverpool, which was one of the first, 
if not the first, public recruiting meeting held in Canada. This 
meeting was addressed by Major Ford, the mayor of the town, and 
a number of other citizens. There was a great deal of enthusiasm, 
and then and there the Unit was recruited up to peace-time strength, 
and in a few days orders were received to entrain on August 20. 
1914, for Valcartier Training Camp, via Halifax. 

When the people of Queens County saw this first draft of the 
flower of their young manhood march away in the King s uniform 
for service on the battle-fields of Europe, they felt that the \Yar was 
a real thing and had already reached their erst-while quiet, peaceful 
homes. The send-off was appropriate to the occasion and the 
people were proud of their noble sons who so promptly responded 
to the call of Empire and bore themselves splendidly as they marched 
away amidst the acclaim of their friends and comrades. 

This Unit had always been recruited principally from Queens 
and Annapolis Counties, but had members on its strength from all 



over the Maritime Provinces and during the period of Active 
Service had on its roll men from all parts of Canada. 

At II a.m., August 22nd, the Unit arrived at Valcartier with six 
officers and forty-one other ranks, who were soon mixed up in the 
moil and swirl and grind of military training in that big Camp with 
some thirty thousand others. 

The officers, N.C.O. s and men who went to Valcartier from> 
Liverpool were: Major F. S. L. Ford, Commanding Officer; Capt. 
H. T. M. McKinnon, Capt. C. Harold Dickson, Capt. G. B. Peat, 
Lieut. H. A. Pickup, Q.M., Lieut. G. W. McKeen, Staff-Sergt. F. 
Burnett, Staff-Sergt. E. Dexter, Staff-Sergt. E. Hunt, O.M.S. R. 
Robar, Staff-Sergt. R. Brown, Sergt J. Fiendel, Sergt. McLeod : 
Privates A. Grouse, J. Gardine, L. Keating, P. Joudrey, A. Morris r 
N. Neily, M. Reid, L. Frost, W. Joudrey, W. Murray, H. Harnish r 
E. Conrad, G. McGill, H. Rafuse, C. Fraser, C. Holden, 
E. McGowan, C. Robart, W. Bernadine, J. Hallett, W. O Reilly, 
H. Oickle, C. Jollimore, S. White, A. Trefry, B. Smith, A. Joudrey, 
L. Brooks, H. Lantz, J. Downer, G. Conrod, R. Bell. 

On arrival at Valcartier this Unit took over No. 2 Camp Hos 
pital, and carried on as a Field Hospital. The Staff was kept 
pretty busy with the usual run of camp sickness among new recruits, 
camp diarrhoea, acute indigestion, fevers, camp accidents, and the 
usual P.U.O. s and N.Y.D. s thrown in. 

While at Valcartier, the O.C., Major Ford, was gazetted Lieut- 
Colonel. Capt. G. W 7 . O. Downsley, Capt. C. E. Cooper Cole, and 
forty other ranks of No. I Clearing Hospital of Toronto were taken 
on the strength as well as Major H. A. Chisholm, Capt. R. H. 
McDonald and Capt. J. M. Stewart. Lieut. G. W. McKeen was 
transferred as Medical Officer to an Army Service Corps and 
Captain Cole was retransferred to No. 2 General Hospital. 

At 4.30 p.m., September 25th, the Unit left by train for Quebec 
and embarked on the SS. Megantic at 6 p.m. The other Units 
to embark on this ship were: The I5th Canadian Battalion (48th 
Highlanders), Lieut-Col. John Currie ; The ist Divisional Ammuni 
tion Column, Lieut. -Col. J. Penhole ; No. i Canadian Field Ambu 
lance, Lieut-Col. A. E. Ross. 



After lying in the stream for five days the ship weighed anchor 
at 10.30 p.m. on September 3oth and proceeded down the St. Law 
rence River to the rendezvous in Gaspe Bay, for there were thirty- 
one troopships in this grand fleet which was to convey the Canadian 
Army of thirty thousand safely over the ocean to Old Mother 

As the good ship Megantic glided quietly down the river the 
stars shone brightly, the silvery moon was high in the heavens, and 
the clear frosty tang of early autumn was in the air. As the shim 
mering waters of this great river glistened and danced in the moon 
light all nature seemed to have an air of serene quietude and uni 
versal confidence. The scene might have been committed to canvas 
as an emblem of peace; but this was a first stage in the great 
adventure of war, the fullest bitterness of which many of that gay 
company were destined to taste. 

At 3 p.m., October 3, 1914, this great flotilla weighed anchor 
and put to sea, led by H.MS. Eclipse, immediately followed by 
the Megantic., containing the first Nova Scotia Medical Unit. 
There were a number of torpedo boat destroyers, and among the 
battleships were the Queen Mary and the Glory. After an 
uneventful voyage of eleven days this great flotilla arrived at 
Plymouth on October Hth. The reception given the Canadian 
Contingent everywhere was wonderful. The sentiment back of it 
all seemed to reach every heart. A splendid army of sturdy Anglo- 
Saxons from a new and great country had come three thousand 
miles over the seas to join the forces of the Mother Land within 
two months from the time she had entered the War. 

After lying in the stream for two days the Megantic docked 
and on October i6th the ist Canadian Casualty Clearing Station 
disembarked and marched midst cheering throngs through the 
streets of Plymouth together with the other Units, and entrained 
for the land of winter slush and mud at Salisbury Plains. At 
2 a.m. on a pitch dark October morning the Unit detrained at 
Patney and Chirton Station and marched to West Down North, 
where they arrived tired and weary after a sleepless night and a 
long march, at 7.30 a.m., October I7th. 



Major H. A. Chisholm was called for duty to the office of the 
A.D.M.S. Canadians shortly after arrival. Major Chisholm be 
longed to Antigonish, and was a member of the Permanent Army 
Medical Corps. He had a distinguished career Overseas and 
attained the rank of Colonel and was mentioned in despatches and 
awarded the honors of C.M.G. and D.S.O. He also held the im 
portant positions of D.A.U.M.S. ist Canadian Division; A.D.M.S. 
4th Division; A.D.M.S. attached to the office of the D.G.M.S. 
Canadians, London, and D.D.M.S., O.M.F.C., London. 

The unusually heavy autumn rains of 1914 converted the rolling 
downs of Salisbury Plains into seas of mud. through which the 
Unit wallowed and bathed and boated in its efforts to follow field 
training. The troops were all under canvas at this time. 

Lord Astor, then Major Astor, had a palatial residence and 
spacious grounds at Cliveden, near Taplow, Bucks, the grounds of 
which he offered for hospital purposes. In December No. I Cana 
dian C.C.S. was sent to Cliveden to establish a hospital, and for six 
weeks the entire personnel was busy in these preparations. This 
hospital, established by No. I Canadian Casualty Clearing Hospital 
of Nova ^Scotia, ultimately developed into the great Duchess of 
Connaught Hospital, afterwards officially known as No. 15 Canadian 
General Hospital, upon which thousands of Canadians, Australians, 
New Zealanders, South Africans and other Britishers can look back 
with grateful memories for the skilful and successful treatment and 
great kindness for which this hospital became noted. 

A Casualty Clearing Station is a field unit, and consequently 
when the ist Canadian Division was ordered to France this Unit 
received a move order and preceded the Division to France, landing 
at Le Havre at 10 a.m., February 3, 1915, on S.S. Hnanchaco 
from Southampton. On the same ship was another Canadian Hos 
pital Unit No. i Canadian Stationary, commanded by Lieut. -Col. 
Lorn Drum (now Colonel Lorn Drum, C.B.E., Inspector of Military 
Hospitals for Canada). These, however, were not the first Cana 
dian Units in France, as they were preceded in November. 1914, by 
a No. 2 Canadian Stationary Hospital, which was commanded in its 
last days in France and brought back to Canada by the writer. This 
was really the first Canadian Unit of any description to function in 
France as a Unit and the only one in France in 1914. 



After some six weeks stay at Le Havre the Unit was transferred 
to Boulogne, where it arrived at 9.45 a.m., February 26, 1915. 

Motion was usually rapid in France and changes made at short 
notice. Within a week this Unit had orders to proceed from Boulogne 
to First Army Headquarters at the Town of Aire-Sur-La-Lys, 
where it arrived Saturday morning, March 6th. On arrival the 
Unit was assigned to Fort Gassion, which had been a French prison 
before the \Yar but was now occupied by British troops as a rest 
camp, and there was also a Motor Ambulance Convoy billeted there. 
The work assigned to Xo. I C.C.S. was to take over this old prison 
and make it immediately ready for the reception of patients. 

The old buildings were filthy and in a dilapidated condition, and 
required a great deal of work to prepare them for patients, and all 
the equipment had to be unpacked and placed. The whole Unit 
went to work with diligence and determination and within forty- 
eight hours they brought order out of chaos and on Monday morn 
ing admitted and comfortably housed fifty patients. 

The Battle of Xeuve Chapelle was in progress and was the 
source of most of the patients during the week. 

Heroic work was done by the six nursing sisters who had been 
attached to and had come over to France with this Unit. They 
were: Vivian Tremaine, M.V.O.. R.R.C.. Frances M. Frew, M. U. 
Riverin, Amy Howard, Minnie Folletfe. 

Xursing Sister Follette, of Great Village, Colchester County, 
afterwards lost her life with the sinking of the hospital ship 
Llandovery Castle by the Germans. 

Xo. i Canadian C.C.S. was the only Canadian Unit in action 
during the Battle of Xeuve Chapelle. It was one of six C.C.S. s 
attached to the First Armv. Before the War w T as over there were 

- 1 % 

sixteen. This Unit showed such prompt action and capacity that it 
received the special commendation of Major-General Sir W. G. 
MacPherson, Director Medical Services, First Army, and in June 
the O.C., Lieut. -Colonel Ford, was awarded the C.M.G., the first 
awarded to Canadians in France. 

During this engagement Capts. C. H. Dickson and G. W. O. 
Downsley and a party of twelve orderlies were hastily sent to 
Merville to assist a British C.C.S., and at the Second Battle of 
Ypres, Captain Downsley and Captain T- M. Stewart, of Halifax, 



with Nursing Sister Follette and twelve orderlies were assigned to 
duty at Hazebrouck to assist another British C.C.S. 

There was heavy fighting throughout the summer of 1915 in the 
Bethune Sector, and No. I Canadian C.C.S. did a lot of heavy and 
trying work, and in addition detailed a section under Major 
W. T. M. McKinnon and Captain C. H. Dickson for duty with 
No. 2 British C.C.S., which was located at the Village of Cheques. 

This Unit continued its headquarters at Aire, and in May, June 
and September took its full share in the herculean task of evacuat 
ing the wounded from Festubert, Givenchy and Loos. During the 
battle of Loos over sixty thousand casualties were evacuated from 
the British Front by the various clearing stations in four days. 

One of the outstanding distinctions of No. i Canadian C.C.S. 
is that, when His Majesty King George V was seriously injured near 
Bethune in August, 1915, by his horse falling and rolling over on 
him, one of the nursing sisters of this Unit, V. A. Tremaine, was 
selected by the Director Medical Services of the ist Imperial Army 
for personal attendance upon the King. His Majesty was cared 
for in a chateau near Aire until he was able to be moved to England. 
Sister Tremaine and a second nurse who had been selected, Nursing 
Sister E. K. Ward, Q.A.I.M.N.S. Territorials, accompanied the 
Royal patient and nursed His Majesty through convalescence at 
Buckingham Palace. 

When Sister Tremaine finished her duties the King conferred 
upon her the M.V.O. and personally presented her with the insignia 
of that Order and made a personal gift of an exquisite brooch of 
gold and enamel set with diamonds. Her Majesty the Queen gave 
her autograph copies of the royal photographs. 

The Unit continued to operate at Aire until January, 1916, 
when it was transferred to Bailleul and opened up in a very fine 
pavilion of the Asylum for the Insane. This splendid building was 
subsequently destroyed by German shell fire and bombs. The Unit 
saw much strenuous work here, and had its first experience with 
gassed cases. Sixty of these out of eight hundred died within the 
first twenty- four hours after being brought in. 

Major Edward Archibald, of No. 3 (McGill) Canadian General 
Hospital, was attached to the Unit as a surgical specialist, and 
Major W. A. McLean, of Glace Bay, N.S., was transferred from 

1 86 


No. i Canadian General Hospital as his assistant, and afterwards 
succeeded Major Archibald. Major McLean was killed during the 
.-summer, of 1917 while at work in a C.C.S. in the northern sector 
of the British line. He was considered one of the most brilliant 
.surgeons in the British Army. 

In June, 1916, Colonel Ford was appointed Deputy Assistant 
Director of Medical Services of the Canadian Corps and Lieut.-Col. 
T. W. H. Young succeeded to the command. Later Colonel Young 
was succeeded by Major C. H. Dickson, who was promoted to the 
rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 

There was a great deal of activity on the Arras Front in the 
early spring of 1917, and preparations were being made for the 
drive for Vimy Ridge. At this time the Unit was transferred to 
Au-bigny, behind Arras. Under the energetic administration of 
Lieut.-Colonel Dickson this Unit was very much increased in 
strength and did valuable work during the Battle of Vimy Ridge 
and throughout the operations on the Arras Front. 

In the summer of 1917 the Unit was again moved to a position 
near Nieuport and arrived just as the Germans had broken through 
and made a nasty salient in the British line. Amidst this confusion, 
uncertainty and fierce fighting, the Commanding Officer, Colonel 
Dickson, quickly located his Unit and did such splendid work in 
the evacuation of the wounded that he was mentioned in despatches 
and awarded the D.S.O. 

The Unit remained at Nieuport for a few weeks only when the 
position became untenable for hospital purposes, owing to almost 
constant shelling and nightly bombing. Lieut.-Colonel Dickson was 
called to London for Staff duty, the command was taken over by 
Lieut.-Colonel A. G. H. Bennett, O.B.E., and the Unit was trans 
ferred again to the Arras-Vimy Front. 

During those anxious days of the early spring and summer of 
1918, while the Germans battered themselves hopelessly against the 
impenetrable wall of steel erected by the Canadians along the Arras 
Front this Unit did fine work in caring for and clearing the seriously 
sick and wounded and also got many casualties from that memorable 
drive of the Germans against the 5th British Army in March, 1918, 
as all the Ambulance and C.C.S. Units in that area were quickly put 
out of commission. 



When preparations were made for the final victorious Canadian 
drive which commenced at Amiens on August 8. 1918. this Unit 
was moved to that sector and followed the Canadian Corps through 
those strenuous days to final victory and accompanied the ist Cana 
dian Division on its victorious march into Germany. At Bonn 
No. i Canadian Stationary Hospital took over the famous St. 
Martin s Hospital, which was located on one of the loftiest hills in 
Bonn, and but two weeks before had dukes and scions of the lead 
ing aristocracy of Germany as patients, for it had been one of the 
most exclusive hospitals in Germany. Now it became the haven of 
the sick Canadian Tommy. 

It seemed like the realization of a fantastic dream to the 
medical Staff and nursing sisters, as well as the rank and file, to find 
themselves in a modern and well-equipped hospital with luxurious 
appointments and surroundings, as compared with four long years 
of mud and mire under canvas, in huts, and often broken-down 
buildings on the edge of the battle-fields of the Somme, Ypres, Vimy, 
Passchendaele, Amiens, Bourlon, Cambrai and Valenciennes, Mons, 
and then glorious victory. 

The following is an incomplete list of the battle casualties of 
this Unit : 


Alajor Walter Maclean; Nursing Sisters Mae B. Sampson and 
Minnie Follette, both killed on Hospital Ship Llandovery Castle; 
Pte Proctor, Pte. Vere Mason. 


Lieut. -Col. F. S. L. Ford, seriously, by piece of bombshell 
(fracture base of skull) ; Capt. E. C. C. Cole, seriously; Capt. R. H. 
MacDonald, Sergeant M. Neilly, seriously. 


(Dalhousie Unit.) 

Dalhousie University was early inspired with patriotic fervor. 
Within a month after the outbreak of war between Great Britain 
and German, Dalhousie University offered to the Government the 

1 88 


personnel of a Casualty Clearing Station. This offer was renewed 
in the spring of 1915. It was not known until later that this type 
of Unit was not in demand, and it was decided to offer the personnel 
of a Stationary Hospital. 

So anxious was Dalhousie to have a definite, tangible part in 
the more strenuous service of the nation in this great struggle, that 

a delegation was sent to Ottawa on 
August 13, 1915, representing the 
Governors and Faculty of the Uni 
versity. So well were the claims of 
Dalhousie presented that the offer was 
now accepted of a Stationary Hospital, 
to be known officially as " No. 7 Cana 
dian Stationary Hospital." Definite 
authority for this was received on 
September 27. 1915. 

When it came to the selection of a 

COL. JOHN STEWART, C.B.E. Commanding Officer everybody turned 

instinctively to that great outstanding 

factotum in Medicine and Surgery in Xova Scotia, Dr. John 
Stewart, whose name inspired enthusiasm, confidence and respect. 

Halifax was taxed to its utmost in supplying accommodation 
for troops. All the old military barracks were full, the Armories 
were occupied by infantry Battalions, the sheds on Xo. 2 Pier were 
also occupied, and there was consequently some delay in finding 
accommodation for the mobilization and training of this Hospital 
Unit. Dalhousie University came to the rescue and gave the old 
Medical College building on the corner of Robie and College 
Streets, and Principal Kaulbach, of the Maritime Business College, 
gave the use of the dining room and kitchen of the Business 
College restaurant as a mess room. By X T ovember ist the old 
Medical College had been converted into an adequate barracks and 
orderly room. 

The selection of the medical and nursing personnel and the 
recruiting of other ranks then commenced in earnest and the 
response was wonderful. For a Stationary Hospital only twelve 
medical officers and twenty-seven nursing sisters were required : 
but thirty medical men and eighty nurses applied. The material 



was all so excellent that it was a delicate and difficult task to select. 
Preference was given, however, to Dalhousie graduates and those 
connected with the University; and among the nurses preference 
was given to graduates of the two outstanding Nova Scotia nurses 
training hospitals, the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, and St. 
Joseph s Hospital, Glace Bay, as these were the only general hos 
pitals in the Province with the necessary number of beds to meet 
the requirements of the Military Service in the matter of training. 

Just before orders were received to proceed Overseas in the 
latter part of December, 1915, the Unit was inspected by General 
Benson, G.O.C. of this Military District, Colonel A. H. Powell, 
D.A.A. & Q.M.G., and Colonel Grant, A.D.M.S. These officers, 
were very generous in their praises of what the Unit had already 
accomplished in the way of training and establishing a snappy 
military organization. Their sturdy Commanding Officer, with his 
sixty-seven years of youth, had shown his magnificent qualities oi 
body as well 1 as mind and character. When Colonel Stewart set 
the pace on their route marches the youngest and most athletic had 1 
to let himself out. Colonel Grant, the A.D.M.S., referred to the 
splendid work already done in the service by members of the Staff, 
and mentioned particularly the work done by Major E. V. Hogan 
as Chief of Surgery at Cogswell Street Military Hospital and Major 
L. M. Murray as Chief of Medicine; and also expressed his regret 
at losing his Deputy, Capt. F. V. Woodbury, but congratulated the 
Unit on what it had gained thereby. 

The time set for leaving Halifax for Overseas was December 
31, 1915, via St. John, N.B. The departure at one time of so 
many professional men and women, who stood high in the con 
fidence of the people of Halifax and Nova Scotia, was a poignant 
reminder of the serious proportions assumed by the Great War. 

On the evening of the last day of 1915, when Dalhousie Unit 
entrained at North Street Depot, a large concourse of people were 
assembled, not only of Halifax but from many other parts of the 
Province. The bands of the 1st Canadian Artillery and 63rd 
Rifles, as well as the pipers, joined the citizens of Nova Scotia in a. 
fitting farewell. Their train pulled out amidst music and cheers. 

The Unit arrived at St. John at 6 a.m., New Year s Day, and 
went aboard His Majesty s Troopship Metagama. At noon the 



officers were entertained at luncheon by the medical profession of 
St. John at the Royal Hotel. The Unit sailed at 9 o clock on the 
evening of January I, 1916, with several other Units, with Col. 
H. C. Bickford as Officer Commanding troops. 

Sea voyages are pretty much alike. There are those who like 
their beer and poker, or bridge, and those who like to laze and read 
and sleep and sleep and read and iaze, or sit and think, or simply 
sit, while others wish they had taken the advice of the poet 
Praise the sea but keep on land." A convoy of torpedo boat 
destroyers was met at noon on the eighth day out, and at 3 a.m. on 
January loth the Unit landed at Plymouth and disembarked at 
9 a.m. 

The personnel on arriving in England was as follows : O.C., 
Lieut.-Col. John Stewart ; Majors E. V. Hogan and L. M. Murray ; 
Captains M. A. MacAulay, V. N. MacKay, K. A. MacKenzie, 
E. K. Maclellan, S. J. MacLennan, D. A. MacLeod, J. A. Murray, 
John Rankine, Frank V. Woodbury, Karl F. Woodbury (Dental 
Officer), Lieut. S. R. Balcom, Dispenser; Lieut. Walter Taylor, 
Quartermaster; Miss L. M. Hubley, Matron, and twenty-six 
Nursing Sisters ; one hundred and twenty-three N.C.O. s and men. 

The officers, non-commissioned officers and men entrained at 
once for Shorncliffe, where they arrived in the evening, while the 
matron and nursing sisters proceeded to London and were tem 
porarily quartered at Bonnington Hotel. They were afterwards 
distributed for duty between the hospitals at Westcliffe, Moore 
Barracks and Ramsgate. 

On the irth the Unit was inspected by Lieut.-Col. F. W. E, 
Wilson, of Niagara, Ontario, A.D.M.S. Shornclifre area. 

Billets were secured and the medical officers were employed on 
medical boards or as medical officers to various Units in the training 
camps, while the non-commissioned officers and men were assigned 
to various duties. 

On January I7th Capt. F. V. Woodbury was stricken with that 
dread disease among troops, cerebro-spinal meningitis. For some 
days there was great anxiety on his account, but he made a rapid 
and complete recovery. 

On February 5th Colonel Stewart, O.C. of No. 7 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital, was given command of Shorncliffe Military 



Hospital, with the forty subsidiary hospitals of the Dover area, in 
succession to Lieut. -Col. R. J. Blanchard. Xo. 3 C.C.S., of Winnipeg. 
He immediately recalled the nursing sisters and reassembled his 
Unit, and with his reorganized Staff manned Shorncliffe Military 
General Hospital and the Helena Hospital for officers. The Shorn 
cliffe Hospital alone had 800 beds, and altogether there were some 
10,000 beds in the hospitals taken over. Colonel Stewart and his 
Staff had a pretty busy time administering the hospitals of this 
large area. -Sir Frederic Eve visited these hospitals periodically. 

During this time there were some changes in personnel : Corpls. 
G. S. Mitchell and Eric Grant left to take commissions ; Capt. S. J. 
MacLennan went to Westcliffe Eye and Ear Hospital. Capt. E. 
Douglas joined the Unit during the latter part of the period here 
and sixteen other ranks were taken on strength. 

There was much excitement and anticipation when it was 
announced that the Unit was to proceed to France. The im 
pression got abroad somehow that the Unit was to go direct to the 
Arras and Somme areas, where they would be in close contact with 
actual warfare. This was the source of a good deal of enthusiasm. 
The Unit left Shorncliffe and proceeded to Southampton on Sunday, 
June 18, 1916, embarked there on the City of Benares and landed 
at Le Havre the same day. On arrival the Unit received orders to 
take over the Hotel des Emigrants at Le Havre from No. 2 Imperial 
General Hospital, which contained 400 beds. This was somewhat 
disappointing to the men after their anticipations of proceeding at 
once to the Front. However, all ranks settled down to steady work, 
and in a few weeks orders were received to establish a subsidiary 
tented hospital Unit at Harfleur, about six miles from Le Havre, 
to consist of 400 additional beds. This meant that the existing 
Staff had to man two hospitals of the same size, thus bringing a 
very heavy strain on the entire personnel, especially the nursing 
sisters and other ranks. Major L. M. Murray was placed in charge 
of the Harfleur Division. 

The main hospital was used for German wounded prisoners 
being sent back from the forward areas and for local sick from 
various Imperial Units at Le Havre. The subsidiary hospital was 
used for camp sick and accidents from the Canadian Base and 
several Imperial Units. 



As soon as these extensions were completed and in operation 
an urgent request was sent in for more men. Eventually a much 
larger number were sent than were required of P.B. men. (Per 
manent Base men are those who are no longer fit for service in the 
front areas.) These were with the Unit only a few days when 
orders were received to despatch to hospitals in another area a draft 
larger in number than the one received. This took away several old 
members of the Unit and left it shorter handed than ever, but the 
Unit " carried on " and did its work under difficulties. 

Constant changes were taking place in the staff. Capt. J. M. 
Stewart, nephew of the O.C., came to the Unit shortly after arrival 
in France from No. i C.C.S., and in August, 1916, Capt. F. V. 
Woodbury, Capt. M. A. MacAulay, Capt. John Rankine and Capt. 
Edgar Douglas were posted to other duties. Capt. E. K. Maclellan 
was posted to another hospital in March, 1917. Numerous officers 
from other parts of Canada were detailed for duty with this Unit 
from time to time. One of the most popular of these was Captain 
Ireland, of Ontario, who afterwards received the M.C. and was 
killed in action. 

On December 31, 1916, the hospital at Le Havre was handed 
over to the Royal Army Medical Corps and the personnel of Dal- 
housie Unit, which had been carrying on there, marched to Harfleur 
and joined the balance of the Unit. Once more the whole Unit 
was united and experienced a very general sense of satisfaction. 
Ample provision had been made for quarters, mess, dental offices 
and orderly room. 

In January and February, 1917, the weather was very severe, 
with steady, keen frost and a good deal of snow, "But," as Colonel 
Stewart puts it, " the bitterest memories are the indescribable mud, 
deep, tenacious and slippery." As spring approached it looked as 
if the summer were to be spent in the beautiful Lezard Valley, in 
which Harfleur was situated, and consequently potatoes and other 
vegetables were planted, shrubs set out and other work done with a 
view to beautifying the grounds. It was beginning to seem.- quite 
like home here. All the troops corning to France en route to the 
Front came through this base, and many Nova Scotians were met 
and old acquaintances renewed. Also a good many Nova Scotia 
boys trickled in to the hospital, and when they did they were 
13 193 


lavished with attention, and all the nurses and orderlies wanted to 
wait on them, and the pipers, too, would manage to make them 
selves heard and many a lad s eye was made brighter when he heard 
again the skirl o the pipes. 

There was no abiding place in France, and it was just as one 
got nicely settled down that he had to move, and at this very time 
the Unit got orders to proceed to the front areas and take over a 
hospital at Arques, which is a suburb of the City of St. Omer. 
Headed by the pipers the Unit marched off to the station Saturday 
evening, May I2th, but did not entrain until daylight the next 
morning when a special train was provided for the Unit and its 
hospital equipment. 

The hospital at Harfleur was taken over by a Welsh Unit, the 
40th Stationary Hospital, R.A.M.C. 

The route was through Yvetot, Amiens, Abbeville and over the 
Somme, past the former battle-field of Crecy, through Boulogne 
and Calais to St. Omer and to the little suburban town of Arques, 
which was reached at 2 a.m., A lay 14. 1917. The rumble of the 
artillery could now be plainly heard, and the eastern sky was 
aflicker with the flashings of guns. The Unit was now within 
thirty miles of the trenches. A noble old French Chateau with 
spacious grounds, and a canal running through them, was to be 
the domicile of the hospital. This same chateau had been occupied 
by the Duke of Wellington after the campaign of Waterloo. 

Tents were pitched on the grounds to supply the additional 
accommodations required, and the hospital equipment was soon 
unpacked and placed; tut there was considerable delay in getting 
the necessary supplies for the erection of kitchens, bath houses, 
pavilions, and material for other necessary alterations and accom 

The first convoy was received on June 8th and consisted of 
wounded German prisoners of war. There were 13 officers and 
379 other ranks. This was a large order for the first while not yet 
completely ready, and tested the resourcefulness and agility of the 
Unit. They rose to the occasion and handled the situation with 
great skill. Many of the men were only slightly wounded, and 
were soon discharged to prison camps. 



From this time on everybody was kept busy. Wounded came 
by ambulances, hospital trains and hospital barges down the canal. 
There were Imperial, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, East 
Indian and Portuguese troops. 

Dominion Day, 1917, will long be remembered by the inhabitants 
of St. Omer and vicinity. The Unit engaged a large field and 
advertised an athletic meet, and sent invitations to all the Units in 
the area. They all responded, for when July ist came, bright and 
sunny, the whole countryside turned out, including the civilian 
population. A splendid programme of sports was carried out, and 
Xo. 7 carried off a goodly share of the honors. In the shade of 
the trees of the chateau grounds in the evening tables were spread 
and the Unit sat down to a " family party " and enjoyed a season 
of conviviality and good fellowship. 

The next afternoon all patients who were able to be up, or to be 
carried out, were given a special tea on the lawn in honor of 
Dominion Day. While this was going on His Majesty the King 
with H.R.H. the Prince of Wales paid the Unit a surprise visit, 
His Majesty was particularly gracious in his felicitations to patients 
and Staff, by all of whom the honor of this visit was greatly 

During the summer the enemy aeroplanes were very active in 
bombing raids on the back areas, especially on moonlight nights. 
The first real bombing raid this Unit experienced was on Sep 
tember 30th. Enemy aeroplanes came over this area in great force 
shortly after sundown and began dropping numerous bombs. The 
loud swish of the bombs coming through the air followed by the 
fearful crash of the explosion was terrifying; but everybody, 
nursing sisters and all, " stood to " at their post of duty. Although 
No. 7 escaped there were serious casualties. Four men were killed 
and several wounded at the British Hospital just across the river, 
and four nursing sisters and sixteen men were killed at the Scottish 
Hospital in St. Omer, only two miles distant. 

On October 8th H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught visited and 
inspected the Unit. 

The first word of the terrific explosion at Halifax was received 
on December 8th, and many anxious days were spent awaiting 
definite word and to know just what had happened. 



The Commanding Officer, Lieut-Colonel Stewart, was called to 
the higher and more important duties of Surgical Consultant to 
hospitals in England and left the Unit, greatly to the regret of the 
entire personnel, on Thursday, March 7, 1918. The command of 
the Unit was taken over by Major E. V. Hogan, who was promoted 
to the rank of Lieut-Colonel. 

March and April, 1918, brought still more busy days to the 
Dalhousie Unit. Being so near the Front they received a very 
large number of wounded, many straight from the field of battle. 
Although this hospital had only 400 beds it frequently had 800 
severely wounded soldiers to look after. 

The final titanic struggles of 1918 had been ushered in when 
the fate of the world hung in a balance and men spoke hoarsely 
and with bated breath of the possible outcome. The Germans had 
smashed through the Fifth British Army in front of Cambrai and 
then hurled themselves against the Canadians on the Arras Front, 
only to be checked and beaten off. Then they sought a more 
vulnerable sector and attacked the Portuguese on the Bailleul Front. 
The Portuguese troops gave way and the enemy rapidly advanced 
towards Aire and got within less than three miles of this strategic 
point and were able to put shells into St. Omer, Arques and all 
sections of that hospital area, so that shelling became more or less 
constant and bombing raids were a nightly occurrence. There 
were a number of casualties among patients and Staff at some of the 
hospitals. AYord was hourly expected that Aire had been taken 
and that the Germans were marching on Hazebrouck and St. Omer. 
It was therefore considered that this area was no longer tenable 
for hospital purposes and orders were issued for all hospitals to 
evacuate at once. Dalhousie Unit entrained on April iSth for 

The Unit had received orders to promptly open up a large tent 
hospital at Etaples ; but these orders were subsequently cancelled, 
greatly to the disappointment of the Staff, and the entire personnel 
was posted to various other hospitals in that area. 

The Germans seemed to have acquired a special fancy for 
bombing and shooting up hospital areas, and on May i8th subjected 
Etaples to a very severe aerial bombardment by sixty planes. 
Casualties among officers, nursing sisters and men amounted to 



over a thousand. Dalhousie Unit lost two men killed Pte. F. W. 
Laidlaw and Pte. Takanayagi (Jap) and two others wounded, 
including the Commanding Officer, Lieut-Col. E. Y. Hogan, and 
Pte. W. G. O Tulle. 

Etaples had been a large hospital centre, but was now abandoned 
as such and the various hospitals were withdrawn to other places. 
The Dalhousie Unit was moved to Rouen, which was the largest 
base hospital centre in France. Here the officers and personnel 
were distributed and attached to various British Hospitals and had 
a further enriched experience, as there were very many casualties 
constantly coming in direct from the field of battle, owing to the 
demoralization of the hospital service in the front areas during the 
period of the German drive. Most of the nursing sisters had been 
allowed to go on leave, and some were sent to England. 

A special Canadian Hospital was to be established at Camiers, 
between Etaples and Boulogne, and Dalhousie Unit was ordered, 
in September, 1918, to reassemble and proceed to Camiers and 
take over a hospital of 1,000 beds at a site formerly occupied by 
No. 42 British Stationary Hospital. In the five months that fol 
lowed this hospital was crowded and the patients were all Can 

It was during this period that the Armistice came with its 
relaxing influences, its glorious sweets of victory, and happy dreams 
of home. Christmas also brought its good-cheer and was most 
pleasantly celebrated by the patients as well as the Staff with a 
splendid Christmas dinner and other festivities. 

Early in February, 1919, the Unit received orders to hand over 
to the Nova Scotia sister Unit, No. 9 Canadian Stationary Hospital 
the St. Francis Xavier Unit and proceed to Le Havre en route to 
England and Canada. The Unit sailed from Le Havre on March 
17, 1919, for Southampton, arriving there in the afternoon. The 
stay in England lasted only a month, but this was ample time for 
all the members of the Unit to visit different parts of the British 

During its service the Dalhousie Unit treated some 60,000 sick 
and wounded, 10,000 in England and 50,000 in France. 

On April 17, 1919, a happy group of Nova Scotians assembled 
on the docks at Liverpool and boarded the good ship Belpic with 



3,500 other Canadian troops for Home, Sweet Home. On April 
23rd that goodly company landed in Halifax and were greeted by a 
people proud of their noble sons returned with the laurels of 
victory. That happy group of Nova Scotians now assembled on 
the pier at Halifax and were given an ovation and cheered to the 
echo as they marched through the streets to the Armories to be 
demobilized. These were they who had gone in the honored name 
of Old Dalhousie. Well did they guard the honor of that name, 
and long may Dalhousie and Nova Scotia be proud of the record 
and deeds of the Dalhousie Unit. 

The following casualties occurred among the members of the 

Killed in Action: Ptes. Wm. Beck, B. E. Fraser, J. F. McLellan, 
Horace Grant, S. J. Dick, F. W. Laidlaw, Sergt. F. J. Howley, 
Ptes. J. C. Sutherland, P. L. Findlay, C. P. Wright, C. J. A. 
Guymer, Takanayagi (Jap). 

Died from Service Disability: Pte. C. J. McCarthy. 

Wounded: Lieut.-Col. E. V. Hogan, C.B.E. ; Major D. A. 
MacLeod, Ptes. W. H. Chase, F. F. Choote, Dawson (twice), 
Bugler J. E. Doyle (twice), Sergt. P. D. MacDonald, Pte. W. G. 
OTulle( twice), Sergt. F. H. Pond. 

The following Nova Scotia medical officers were at different 
times attached to the Dalhousie Unit : Gerald Grant, M.C. ; J. M. 
Stewart, A. E. Mackintosh, A. H. McKinnon, F. B. Day, J. A. 
Munro, E. D. McLean, E. D. Douglas, M.C. ; J. E. Ellis, Seymour 
MacKenzie, K. Blackadar, A. M. Covert, A. Ellis, J. I. O Connell, 
Andrew Love, W. H. McDonald. 

The following received commissions in the Field : H. B. Archi 
bald, Wm Beck (killed in flying), R.F.C., G. Dawson, M.C. 
(wounded and awarded M.C.), Geo. Edgar (awarded commission, 
Embarkation Officer in Halifax), C. W. Holland, A. R. McPherson, 
W. H. Pool, D. H. Sutherland, M.C., J. D. Vair, Horace Grant, 
G. Wright, M.C., C. C. Armstrong, H. C. Lewis, C. F. Moriarity, 
J. C. Sutherland (killed), P. R. Tingley, A. W. Webber, C. Glen- 
nister, C. E. White, C. P. Wright, G. C. Beazley, J. F. McLellan, 
M.M., G. H. Morrison, H. B. Titus, T. H. Whelpley, C. J. A. 
Guymer, D. H. Windsor. 



Promotions and Awards: Lieut-Col. John Stewart became 
Colonel and received the C.B.E., and later was Surgical Consultant 
to Canadian Hospitals in England. 

Major E. V r . Hogan assumed command of the hospital on the 
promotion of Colonel Stewart. He was promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant-Colonel, received the C.B.E. and was wounded in the 
Staples raid. 

Major L. M. Murray became heart specialist to Special Can 
adian Heart Hospital at Bushey Park. 

Capt. M. A. MacAulay, promoted to Major, left the Unit and 
was in command of various Units and Field Ambulances. After 
his return home was in command of Cogswell Street Military 

Capt. V. N. MacKay, promoted to Major and was retained in 
England for special laboratory work. 

Capt. K. A. MacKenzie, promoted to Major on leaving the Unit 
at Arques in the summer of 1917 and was detailed for duty at 
Colchester Heart Hospital as Heart Specialist. Subsequently he 
became Officer in charge of Medicine at Bramshott Military Hos 

Capt. E. K. Maclellan, promoted to Major, afterwards returning 
to Canada where he became Officer in charge of Pine Hill Military 
Hospital, and later President Standing Medical Board. In winter 
of 1917, Acting Officer in charge Surgical Service No. 12 Canadian 
General Hospital. 

Capt. S. J. MacLennan, transferred to Westcliffe Eye and Ear 
Hospital, on arrival in England, for special duty. Invalided home 
from England. 

Capt. D. A. MacLeod, mentioned in dispatches, wounded at 
Passchendaele in September, 1918, promoted to Major, and on 
return to Canada became Registrar at Camp Hill Military Hospital. 
Capt. J. A. Murray, promoted to Major, and on return to Eng 
land from France in summer of 1917 became Officer in charge of 
Clarence House Canadian Convalescent Hospital. 

Capt. John Rankine, left Unit in summer of 1916 and went as 
Medical Officer to No. i Entrenching Battalion. Was attached to 
No. 4 Field Ambulance, returning to Canada for duty in the fall of 




Capt. Frank V. Woodbury went to one of the Entrenching 
Battalions and was later attached to the Staff of the 3rd Division, 
recalled to England for Staff duty. Received promotion to Majority 
and subsequently promoted to rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Capt. Karl F. Woodbury served continuously and returned to 
Canada with the Unit, with much credit to himself and the Unit, as 
Dental Officer. 

Lieut. S. R. Balcom returned to England in July, 1917, became 
Quartermaster No. 12 General Hospital and promoted to Captain. 
He returned to Canada and took over duties as Officer in charge o f 
Medical Stores, Military District No. 6. 

Lieut, and Quartermaster Walter Taylor, promoted to Captain, 
served continuously with the Unit until recalled home at the time 
of the Halifax explosion in December, 1917, having had three 
children killed in the explosion and losing his property. Later 
became Quartermaster Cogswell Street Hospital. 

Matron L. M. Hubley served continuously with the Unit until 
April, 1918, subsequently attached for duty to No. 3 General 
Hospital and No. 8 Stationary Hospital, and Westcliffe Eye and 
Ear Hospital, returning to Canada, March, 1919. On returning to 
Canada she was employed as Matron of Cogswell Street Military 
Hospital. In December, 1916, Matron Hubley was awarded the 
Royal Red Cross, ist Class. 

Nursing Sister S. A. Archard served continuously with the Unit, 
with the exception of a short time at a Forestry Corps Hospital. 
She was awarded the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 

Nursing Sister R. S. Calder, invalided to England in October, 
1916, served with Canadian Hospitals in England during the rest of 
the War and was awarded the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 

Nursing Sister E. A. Cooke served continuously with the Unit 
in England and France, returning home with the Unit. She was 
mentioned in dispatches and was awarded the Medal of Queen 
Elizabeth of Belgium. 

Nursing Sister A. M. Johnston, mentioned in dispatches. 
Nursing Sister MacDonald, mentioned in dispatches and 
awarded the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 

Nursing Sister F. A. Rice, awarded Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class. 



Sergt.-Major G. T. Brown, recalled to England in June, 1917, 
receiving a commission as Quartermaster of C.A.M.C. General 
Depot, later being promoted to captain s rank and receiving the 

Sergt. P. D. MacDonald was transferred to the R.C.R. and was 
wounded in action. 

Sergt. F. J. Howley received a commission in service. While 
home on leave was killed in the Halifax explosion. 

Sergt. A. F. McGregor, recalled from Shorncliffe to Canada to 
complete medical studies at McGill. On graduating received com 
mission and later served again Overseas. He was promoted to 

Sergt. F. H. Pond obtained commission with an Infantry Bat 
talion and was severely wounded and invalided to Canada. 

Sergt. T. H. Robinson succeeded Sergt.-Major G. T. Brown, 
being promoted to warrant officer. 

Sergt. C. G. Sutherland, recalled from Shorncliffe to Canada to 
complete medical studies at McGill. On graduating received com 
mission and later served again Overseas, having been promoted to 

Corpl. E. McN. Grant left Unit in Shorncliffe, receiving com 
mission in i3th Battalion. Later invalided to Canada. 

Corpl. G. S. Mitchell promoted to Captain, later became Chap 
lain of the Unit. Invalided to Canada in October, 1917. 

Bugler J. E. Doyle, transferred to No. i Field Ambulance, 
promoted to Sergeant, wounded twice and awarded D.C.M. 


(St. Francis Xavier College Unit). 

With characteristic enterprise St. Francis Xavier College de 
cided, as the War went on, that it should stand side by side with 
other Universities of Canada in direct representation. In the 
autumn of 1915 the President and Governors offered a Medical 
Unit for Overseas. This seemed the most fitting service for a great 
Christian and humanitarian institution, and it was understood that 
hospitals were in demand. 

14 201 


Dr. H. P. MacPherson, President of the University, took the 
matter up direct with the Government of Canada, and in April, 
1916, authority was given for the acceptance of No. 9 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital from St. Francis Xavier. 

This announcement was received with great enthusiasm, and it 
was decided not to send the Unit away empty-handed. A subscrip 
tion list was opened and friends of the 
University were given an opportunity to 
subscribe to a fund to provide for some 
special equipment and to organize a band. 
The response was most generous, and in 
a very short time an ample amount of 
money was secured. Besides private sub 
scriptions, liberal donations were received 
from the Red Cross. Daughters of the 
Empire, Knights of Columbus and other 

LIEUT.-COL. R. c. M LEon. Busy days followed in selecting the 

personnel and organizing the Unit. No 

recruiting campaign was necessary. The loyal sons of St. Francis 
and daughters of Antigonish, and many others everywhere, were 
offering their services. As the brokers would say : " The stock was 
over-subscribed." And it was a matter of selection. 

The command was given to Lieut.-Col. Roderick C. McLeod, 
who had already enlisted in the C.E.F. and was daily expecting 
orders to proceed Overseas. Colonel McLeod was a graduate of 
St. Francis Xavier and had attained a wide reputation as a suc 
cessful medical practitioner of North Sydney. He was a man of 
a most genial personality and beloved by all who knew him. His 
appointment to the command of this Unit was hailed with universal 

Colonel McLeod was assisted in the work of organization by 
Major H. E. Kendall as second in command, an outstanding 
surgeon of Cape Breton; and Major J. S. Carruthers, an energetic 
Militia officer, was appointed adjutant. 

The enthusiasm among nurses for service in this Unit was 
remarkable. Applications poured in from every Province in 



Canada and from many parts of the United States, by mail and 
telegraph. Miss S. C. Maclsaac, a graduate of Mt. St. Bernard 
Convent, of Antigonish, was chosen as Matron. Miss Maclsaac 
was trained as a nurse at St. Joseph s Hospital, Glace Bay, in 
which institution she had charge of the operating room for three 
years. She had taken a post-graduate course at Mercy Hospital, 
Chicago, and when war broke out she was Assistant Matron at 
Mt. Zion Hospital, San Francisco. Miss Maclsaac therefore 
came to her new, important and strenuous post well qualified. 

The organization of the Unit was completed at the University 
Town of Antigonish, the seat of the mother College, St. Francis 
Xavier. The college authorities and citizens of Antigonish vied 
with each other in extending an enthusiastic reception to the volun 
teers as they came, and everything was done to make their stay 

Orders were issued from headquarters for the Unit to mobilize 
at Halifax in the spring of 1916. The officers took the C.A.M.C. 
Training Course at Cogswell Street Military Hospital, and the 
nursing sisters were also posted there, and faithful work was done 
in a general course of preliminary training. 

The original personnel was as follows : 

Lieut-Col. Roderick C. MacLeod, Commanding Officer ; Major 
Henry E. Kendall, Second in Command; Major J. Stewart Car- 
ruthers, Adjutant. 

Medical Officers : Capts. Alex. R. Campbell, J. F. Ellis, T. A. 
Lebbetter, A. H. MacKinnon, J. I. O Connell, L. D. Densmore, 
Hon. Capt. J. L. Johnson, Capts. R. MacCuish, J. A. McCourt, 
L. J. Violette, Hon. Lieut. Leo F. Fry. 

Nursing Sisters : Emma Ella Barry, Laura Emily Campbell, 
Sarah Catherine Chisholm, Monica Connell, Isabel Helen Dawson, 
Helena Margaret Ellis, Florence Mary Kelly, Nellie King, Annie 
MacDonald, Annie Helen MacDonald, Catharine Chisholm Mac- 
Donald, Catharine Eileen MacDonald, Catharine Tulloch Mac- 
Donald, Jessie MacDonald, Minnie Frances MacDonald, Flora 
MacDougall, Mary MacGrath, Sadie Catharine Maclsaac 
(Matron), Christena Mary MacKenzie, Dora MacKenzie, Annie 
Tremaine MacLeod, Marcella Agnes O Brien, Catharine Regina 



Shea, Edith Alexander Thompson, Mary S. Walsh, Anna Teresa 

The Unit was not long in receiving orders to proceed Overseas, 
and on June 19, 1916, set sail per S,S. Missinabie. After ten 
days sail on typical summer seas a landing was made at Liverpool 
Here the jolly family group was divided and the officers and men 
were sent to Shorncliffe and attached for instruction and duty to 
Shorncliffe Military Hospital, while the matron and nursing sisters 
entrained for London, where they were detailed, by the Matron-in- 
Chief, for duty to various hospitals in England. 

This was a sort of a period of orphanage ; but in exactly three 
months, September 29, 1916, the Unit was again reassembled for 
the purpose of taking over the Brams hott Military Hospital, No. 
12 Canadian General Hospital, which served the large military 
training camps of Bramshott and Witley. This was a splendid 
experience and training for the entire personnel. A great deal of 
excellent work was done. The Medical Division was taken charge 

of by Major Charles Hunter, of Winni 
peg, and Major H. E. Kendall was in 
charge of the Surgical Division, assisted 
by Capt. K. A. McCuish. 

While acting as the Medical Officer 
of the 5th C.M.R. s Captain McCuish 
received wounds at Passchendaele, from 
which he died. He was buried in the 
Military Cemetery at Remi Siding, near 
Poperinghe, Belgium, in a hero s grave, 
and now " sleeps where poppies grow 

CAPT. K. A M CUISH. ^ Flanders fields." 

The winter of 1917 taxed the cap 
acity of the hospital to the utmost, as well as the endurance of the 
Staff, owing to a very severe outbreak of influenza in the Bramshott 
area. The splendid manner in which the Unit rose to the great 
demands made upon it and coped with the serious condition that 
arose, called for special commendation from Major-General Foster, 
Director-General of the Canadian Medical Services. 



Here the first great sorrow came to the Unit in the illness 
and death of their beloved Commanding Officer, Lieut-Colonel 
MacLeod. He contracted anthrax poisoning, from which he died 
January 4, 1917. With military honors and amidst a large con 
course of sorrowing comrades he was laid to rest in the cemetery 
at Bramshott. 

Command of the Unit was taken by Major H. E. Kendall, who 
was promoted to the rank of Lieut-Colonel. Lieut-Colonel Gilmore 
of Toronto took charge of the surgical section. 

The spring of 1917 was a very hard period, as was also the fall 
of 1917. The damp and chilly English climate was very trying to 
new Canadian troops, and there was a large amount of sickness. 
A good many battle casualties were also received from France. 

A call came from France for more Canadian hospitals, and 
No. 9 Canadian Stationary Hospital was selected. The Unit was 
ordered to proceed to France, and sailed from Folkestone in 
December, 1917, landing at Boulogne the same day with the fol 
lowing officers: Lieut-Col. H. E. Kendall, Officer Commanding; 
Major Charles Hunter, Major Adair, Quartermaster; Capt. J. 
Williams, Pathologist ; Capt. H. L. Reazin, Capt. J. W. Lord, Capt. 
Andrew Love, Capt. W. F. Maclsaac, Capt. A. F. Slayter, Capt. 
D. A. Webb, Capt. J. Wilfred, Hon. Capt. J. O. Ralston, Chaplain ; 
Hon. Capt. P. White, Chaplain. 

Major Adair was subsequently Quartermaster at No. 3 Can 
adian General Hospital at Boulogne, where he died suddenly of 
uraemia following influenza in the spring of 1919. 

On arrival in Boulogne the Unit received orders to proceed to 
Longuenesse, near St. Omer, and open a hospital of four hundred 
beds. Here everything was found to be in readiness. There were 
hutted wards of corrugated iron, wooden administration buildings 
complete in every detail and ready for occupation. There was an 
excellent, well-lighted, well-ventilated and thoroughly-equipped 
operating room. The quarters provided for officers, nursing sisters 
and men were all that could be desired. 

It was only a few days before the Unit was ready to carry on. 
and early in January, 1918, the first convoy was received, consisting 
of over one hundred wounded soldiers from the Front. Excellent 
and steady work then continued. 



In February instructions were received from headquarters to 
enlarge the hospital to nine hundred beds. With willing hands and 
enthusiastic workers this was soon completed, and during the month 
of March a great many surgical cases were dealt with. Capt. A. 
Loos and Capt. A. F. Slater were the surgical specialists at this 
time. On account of the large number of surgical cases application 
was made for assistants. Capt. T. MacGregor, a noted Scotch 
surgeon of Glasgow, was sent for temporary duty. The officer in 
charge of the Medical Division was Capt. H. L. Reazin, a successful 
and well-known practitioner of Toronto. 

During the spring of 1918 the St. Francis Hospital Unit carried 
on under precisely the same conditions of harassing shell fire and 
nightly bombing as described in connection with the Dalhousie 
Medical Unit. 

The nursing sisters and hospital Staff displayed great courage 
all through these trying times, remaining at their posts in the 
operating room and hospital wards. No pen can describe the nerve- 
testing and nerve-wracking experience of hearing the swish through 
the air of those terrible and deadly bombs, then the terrific explo 
sions and rocking and trembling of the earth which meant destruc 
tion and death to many. The way those splendid young women 
carried themselves was magnificent. Without a quiver or the 
slightest hesitation they kept right along with their work and 
soothed and encouraged and ministered to their patients. They 
were the same living contradiction here as elsewhere to all logical 
relations, and the harmony of things. They would jump up on 
the operating table and scream at the suggestion of a mouse or 
trench rat; but would go out into the storm and darkness and fire 
to give a drink of water to a wounded soldier. 

The Unit was making preparations to still further expand the 
bed capacity of the hospital when orders were issued for all hos 
pitals in the area to evacuate at once. The wounded were sent by 
ambulance trains to the base, the equipment was packed up, and on 
April I9th the Unit moved to Etaples, which is a fishing village 
about twenty miles from Boulogne. It was a large hospital area 
and there were 25,000 available beds. 

On the outskirts of the town near the village of Le Faux a site 
was provided for the St. Francis Unit. The nursing sisters were 



detailed for duty to Xo. I Canadian General Hospital and No. 7 
Canadian General Hospital. The officers and men were under canvas. 

The Unit was under instructions to open a tent hospital of 600 
beds, and the work was progressing rapidly when that terrible air 
raid came at 10 o clock in the evening of May :8th and continued 
for nearly two hours. The casualties were very heavy and every 
hospital suffered. A number of live bombs dropped within the 
small area occupied by the St. Francis Unit. Two men were in 
stantly killed and thirteen wounded. The killed were Sergeants 
MacMillen and Taylor. They were buried in the Military Cemetery 
at Etaples. Seventeen hospital marquees of the Unit were de 
stroyed during this raid. It was fortunate that the Unit had not 
commenced receiving patients. 

One of the medical officers, Capt \V. F. Maclsaac, of Anti- 
gonish, was badly wounded, and succumbed to his injuries in No. I 
Canadian General Hospital on June 3rd. He was a young man of 
brilliant attainments, exemplary character and a promising young 
surgeon. He too was buried in the Mili 
tary Cemetery at Etaples. The whole 
Unit was in attendance at the funeral. 

Since a large part of the hospital 
equipment was destroyed it was decided 
to move the Unit to another area. All 
the railways were congested and every 
other means of transportation taxed to 
the utmost; consequently no means of 
moving the equipment could be obtained, 
and it remained packed for several 

months. Most of the officers and men COL. R. ST. JOHN MACDONALD. 
were detailed for duty to other hospitals. 

Lieut.-Col. H. E. Kendall was recalled for duty to England on 
August 28, 1918, and command of the Unit fell to Major R. St. J. 
MacDonald, who had been posted to the Unit a few months 

The Unit was instructed to be in readiness to open up a Con 
valescent Hospital for the Canadian Corps. But before this was 
carried out the Germans made an unconditional surrender which 
they were allowed to call an Armistice. 



Hopes were now high for an early, in fact, immediate return 
home, and this became the all-absorbing topic of conversation. 

Capt. A. Sterling, Capt. S. MacKenzie, Capt. G. Zwicker, Capt. 
G. Phillips and Capt. S. Whitehouse arrived from England on 
November 2oth and joined the Unit. Capt. Sterling had gone 
Overseas as a combatant officer with the R.C.R. s and saw con 
siderable fighting. Owing to the scarcity of medical officers in the 
summer of 1917 he was asked to transfer to the Medical Corps, which 
he did, and was posted to the Canadian Special Hospital at Etching 
Hill, where he remained until joining No. 9 Canadian Stationary. 

Major S. L. Walker was posted to this Unit on November 25, 
1918, and was afterwards promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 
He had been on active service with various Units since the spring 
of 1915. Colonel Walker was an excellent administrative officer 
and added strength to the Staff as second in command. 

The Unit received instructions to take over the special hospital 
at Camiers from the Dalhousie Unit, which had received orders to 
proceed to England en route to Canada. This change took place 
on February 8, 1919, and St. Francis Unit took over the hospital 
with 900 patients. 

In a short time the number of patients increased to 1,100 and 
St. Francis Unit had the honor of being raised to the status of a 
General Hospital. This gave an opportunity for some well-merited 
promotions among the officers, non-commissioned officers and men. 

At this time the Staff was as follows : 

Col. R. St. John MacDonald Officer Commanding. 

Ueut.-Col. S. L. Walker Second in Command. 

Major H. G. Murray In charge Medical Division. 

Major A. Sterling In charge Surgical Division. 

Major R. F. Slater Registrar and Paymaster. 

Major J. R. MacRae 

Major G. S. Gordon 

Major S. Sprague 

Hon. Capt. H. E. Law Quartermaster. 

Hon. Capt. A. E. Hagar . . . -Chaplain. 

Capt. S. P. H. Morlatt Dental Officer. 

Capt. F. Hinds Dental Officer. 

Capt. J. F. Elkerton 

Capt. J. D. MacDonald 

Capt. W. M. MacDonald .... 

Capt. A. R. Campbell 

Capt. G. Phillips 

Capt. S. Whitehouse 

Capt. G. Zwicker 



The stay at Camiers was made more pleasant for the personnel 
and patients by the attention paid to recreation and amusements. 
A baseball league was formed for the area and many good games 
were played, in which there was a great deal of enthusiastic interest. 
There was also much interest taken in tennis and quoits. A 
moving-picture theatre was constructed and equipped by the Can 
adian Y.M.C.A., under Capt. A. E. Hagar, which was an unfailing 
source of pleasure to the patients and personnel. The Y.M.C.A. 
also established a canteen and furnished a reading room. The 
Red Cross too, through its representative, Major F. Murphy, 
contributed very largely to the success of the Unit by providing 
comforts for the patients and a large amount of sporting equip 

A thrill of pleasant anticipation ran through the Unit when on 
May 2Oth orders were received that the patients were to be evacu 
ated at once with a view to demobilization and return to Canada. 
As soon as the patients were evacuated no time was lost in turning 
the hospital equipment and supplies in to Ordnance Stores. This 
was completed on May 28th and on May 3Oth the Unit moved to 
Boulogne, crossed to Folkestone the same afternoon and arrived 
at Witley Camp, Surrey, the next day. 

After a very pleasant month in England, occupied mostly with 
leave-taking and renewing old acquaintances, the Unit proceeded 
to Southampton and embarked on the 5.5. Olympic for Halifax 
on July 2nd, together with No. 7 Canadian General Hospital 
(Queens) and No. 4 Canadian General Hospital (Toronto). 

On July 8th at 6 p.m., after a voyage of only six days, these 
happy home-comers were docked at Halifax. The Unit was met 
by representatives of St. Francis Xavier College, whose name it 
had the honor of bearing, led by Dr. J. J. Tompkins. Dr. Tompkins 
invited the officers, non-commissioned officers and men to a re 
ception as well as farewell banquet at the " Green Lantern." Other 
guests present were Governor Grant, Hon. R. E. Faulkner, Hon. 
Senator Crosby, Col. John Stewart, Lieut.-Col. E. V. Hogan and 
John Neville. After an excellent supper the Unit was welcomed 
home in a very happy manner by Dr. Tompkins, Governor Grant 
and others. Col. R. St. J. MacDonald and Lieut.-Col. S. L. 
Walker replied on behalf of the Unit. 



The following- morning-, July 9th, the Unit was demobilized 
after over three years service Overseas. 

The entire personnel had changed since leaving Halifax for 
Overseas, and on demobilization was as follows : 

Col. R. St. J. MacDonald. . Capt. J. D. MacDonald. 

Lieut.-Col. S. L. Walker. Capt. W. M. MacDonald. 

Major A. Sterling. Capt. G. Z wicker. 

Major H. G. Murray. Capt. G. Phillips. 

Major G. S. Gordon. Capt. S. Whitehouse. 

Major A. F. Slater. Capt. W. H. P. Lavell. 

Hon. Capt. A. E. Hagar, Chap- Capt. W. B. Surleton. 

lain. Capt. M. MacKay. 

Hon. Capt. F. Kelley, Chaplain. Capt. J. MacBeth. 

Capt. A. H. Haugh. Capt. S. P. H. Morlatt. 

Following is a list of honors received by original members of 
No. 9 Canadian Stationary Hospital, as far as can be ascertained 
at the moment of writing: 

Lieut.-Col. R. St. John MacDonald. . Mentioned in dispatches. 

Capt. A. R. Campbell M.C. 

Capt. L. D. Densmore M.C. 

Matron S. C. Maclsaac Mentioned for valuable services, 

20-10-17; R.R.C., 2nd class, 
1-1-19; R.R.C., ist class, 31- 

Nursing Sister F. Kelley R.R.C., and class. 

Nursing Sister C. E. Chisholm Mention, 20-12-18; mention, 11-7- 

Nursing Sister Annie MacDonald. Mentioned for valuable services, 

Nursing Sister C. M. MacKenzie.. Mentioned for valuable services, 

Mentioned for valuable services, 

Nursing Sister C. R. Shea Medaille Militaire des Invalides. 


Less than half the Nova Scotia medical men who went Overseas 
served with the Nova Scotia Medical Units. This narrative would 
therefore be very incomplete without reference to the major 

Many of these had distinguished service with the Royal Army 
Medical Corps (R.A.M.C.) and with other Canadian and Imperial 
Hospitals, as well as with the fighting Units as Regimental Medical 
Officers and other general and special duties. 



Be it said to the honor of Nova Scotia that the organizing and 
directing genius of the Canadian Army Medical Service was sup 
plied by two Nova Scotians, Major-Gen. Guy Carleton Jones, 
C.M.G., who was born in Nova Scotia and practised his profession 
in Halifax, and Major-Gen. G. L. Foster, C.B., who was born in 
Nova Scotia and also practised his profession in Halifax. 

General Jones went Overseas with the First Canadian Contingent 
as A.D.M.S. and shortly after arrival in England was made 
Director of Medical Services, Canadian Expeditionary Force, with 
headquarters in London, which he organized and administered 
with great ability until he was made Medical Inspector, Canadian 
Expeditionary Force, in 1917. Later he became D.M.S. in charge 
of hospitals in Canada. 

General Foster succeeded General Jones as D.M.S. Canadian 
Expeditionary Force and later was made D.G.M.S., O.M.F.C., and 
successfully carried on the duties of that high and difficult office 
until the end of the War and the demobilization of the Canadian 

Another outstanding Nova Scotia Medical Officer was Lieut. - 
Col. H. M. Jacques. When the First Contingent left, Colonel 
Jacques became Acting D.G.M.S., Ottawa. He was A.D.M.S. 
2nd Canadian Division in France; he was three times mentioned 
for distinguished service in Sir Douglas Haig s dispatches and was 
promoted to the full rank of Colonel and awarded the D.S.O. and 
Bar for distinguished and gallant service in action. 

The nursing service has also brought great credit to Nova 
Scotia, and it is a further honor to the Province that the Canadian 
Army Nursing Service was under the direction of a Nova Scotian. 
The Matron-in-Chief was Miss Margaret C. MacDonald, of Bailey 
Brook. She was mentioned for distinguished services and awarded 
the R.R.C. She had seen active service in the Spanish-American 
War and was selected to accompany the Second Canadian Con 
tingent to South Africa.. 

The following is a synopsis of the Military Services of Nova 
Scotia medical men not previously mentioned, as far as can be 
obtained. It has been impossible to get a complete authentic record, 
and although every medical man on the Medical Register for the 
Province, who was known to have been in the military service, was 



written to personally for information, only thirty replies were 
received to 150 letters. The list is therefore liable to some errors 
and omissions. 


England as a combatant officer with the 8th Canadian Mounted 
Rifles in 1916. On this being broken up, a Canadian Cavalry Field 
Ambulance was formed, which Captain Archibald joined as a 
Medical Officer. He was in the Somme fighting, was two years in 
France, and was promoted to the rank of Major. 

ATLEE, MAJOR H. BENGE.-Enlisted in R.A.M.C. in Lon 
don, England, November, 1914. Appointed Medical Officer, Royal 
Munster Fusiliers. Served in Gallipoli, the Suvla Bay expedition, 
No. 19 British Hospital, Alexandra, Egypt, the 6gth Ambulance , 
Salonika. Was awarded the M.C. and promoted to the rank of 

BAULD, LIEUT.-COLONEL W. A. G., D.S.O. Enlisted 
1914. Demobilized June, 1919. Served in England, France and 
Salonika. Twice mentioned in despatches. Awarded D.S.O. 

20-12-16. Demobilized 12-12-19. Served in Canada . 0-12-16 to 
23-3-17, England 27-3-17 to 15-6-18, France 15-6-18 to 19-5-19. 
Was Neurological Specialist in Camp Hill Hospital, Halifax, 
27-5-19 to 12-12-19. 

BARSS, CAPT. G. A. Enlisted Captain R.A.M.C. in England 
29-8-15. Posted to Durham Light Infantry, with which he went to 
France in January, 1916. Served also with Scots Guards. Men 
tioned twice in dispatches for services in the Somme, 1916, and 
Cambrai, 1917. Demobilized 29-8-18. 

BLACKADAR, CAPT. K. K. Enlisted 5-1-17. Demobilized 

21-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

BLACKETT, CAPT. ARTHUR E. Enlisted c ap t. C.A.M.C. 

9-8-15. Demobilized 23-6-19. Served in Canada 9-8-15 to 18-6-16, 
England 18-6-16 to 4-5-17 and 2-9-18 to 18-1-19, France 4-5-17 to 

BORDEN, CAPT. R. F. Enlisted 1-7-16. Demobilized 
27-4-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 



BURGESS, CAPT. HARRY C. Served Overseas. No par 
ticulars available. 

BURNS, CAPT. ARTHUR S. Enlisted 19-2-16. Demobilized 
23-12-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

Enlisted 23-12-16. Demobilized 29-12-19. Served in Canada, Eng 
land and France. 

CAMPBELL, CAPT. JOHN G. D. Enlisted 26-12-16. De 
mobilized 29-11-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

CARRUTHERS, LIEUT.-COL. J. S. Enlisted 30-6-15. Re 
turned 26-1-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

Demobilized 30-9-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

CHURCHILL, CAPT. L. P. Enlisted 15-2-16. Demobilized 
11-3-19. Served in Canada, England and France. M.O. 2i9th 
Battalion. Served in France with 5th Field Ambulance, 3rd 
British General Hospital, 47th British General Hospital, 7th Cana 
dian General Hospital, ist Canadian Mounted Rifles and R.C.R. 
Awarded M.C. for gallant services at Battle of Arras. 

COCHRANE, CAPT. WILFRED N. Enlisted 13-11-16. De 
mobilized 1-1-19. Served in England and France; in France with 
No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital (Dalhousie Unit), 8th Cana 
dian Field Ambulance and 3rd Division Train. 

COCK, MAJOR J. L. Enlisted 9-3-15. Demobilized 12-1-20. 
Served in Canada, England and France. 

COFFIN, CAPT. WILLIAM V. Overseas Service. No par 
ticulars available. 

COLLIE, CAPT. JOHN R. M Overseas Service in the Navy. 
No particulars available. 

COVERT, CAPT. ARCHIBALD N. Enlisted 7-3-20. De 
mobilized 12-6-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

England when war broke out and enlisted in the British Navy July 
30, 1914. Was posted to H.MS. Argonaut, transferred to Hos 
pital Ship China and went to Salonika. Later joined the Army and 
went to France. On returning to England became D.A.D.M.S. 
Demobilized September, 1919. 



CROLL, LIEUT.-COL. ANDREW Enlisted 1-4-15. De 
mobilized 4-11-18. Served in Canada, England and three years in 

CURRY, MAJOR WILFRED A. Enlisted in R.A.M.C. in 
England. Had three years service in France as Surgical Specialist 
to No. 44 C.C.S. and No. 34 C.C.S. On returning to England was 
attached to Shepherd s Bush Orthopaedic Hospital, London. On 
demobilization was appointed Orthopaedic Specialist to Department 
of Soldiers Civil Re-establishment for Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island. 

No particulars available. 

DAY, CAPT. FREDERICK B, M.C. Enlisted 5-10-15. De 
mobilized 30-4-19. Service in Canada, England and France. In 
France served with No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital, ijth 
Field Ambulance. In trenches as M.O. 54th Canadian Infantry 
Battalion until wounded twice by shrapnel. Awarded M.C. for 
gallant services in action. 

DOBSON, CAPT. WM. L. Enlisted 16-9-17. Demobilized 
2 5-7-i9- Served in Canada and England. 

DONOVAN, CAPT. OSCAR C. Enlisted 11-19-15. Demob 
ilized 25-2-20. Served in Canada, England and France. Was a 
Surgical Specialist in France, and after returning to England was 
attached to Shepherd s Bush Orthopaedic Hospital, London. Was 
awarded the Croix de Guerre by the French. 

DOUGLAS, MAJOR EDGAR, M.C. Enlisted 17-8-14. De 
mobilized 29-9-19. Served in Canada, England and three years in 
France. In France served with No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hos 
pital, No. i Canadian C.C.S., No. 11 C.C.S., R.A.M.C., 4th Cana 
dian Field Ambulance, No. 13 Canadian Field Ambulance. Was 
wounded in head and hand at Lens, and wounded in left shoulder at 
Passchendaele. Awarded M.C. for gallant service at Lens. 

DOULL, CAPT. JAMES ANGUS, M.C., Croix de Guerre- 
Served in England and France. Particulars not available. 

DWYER, CAPT. THOMAS R. Enlisted 12-5-17. Demob 
ilized 10-11-19. Served in Canada and England. 



DYAS, CAPT. ALEX. D Enlisted 10-8-16. Demobilized 
8-10-19. Served in Canada, England and France as Ear, Nose and 
Throat Specialist. Wounded by shrapnel at Arras. 

EAGAR, MAJOR WILLIAM H. Service in Canada, Eng 
land and France as X-ray Specialist. 

EATON, CAPT. PERRY B. Enlisted 13-3-17. Demobilized 
11-9-19. Served in Canada and England. 

FREEMAN, CAPT. E. H. Enlisted 11-5-15- Demobilized 
31-1-19. Served in England, France, Salonika, Palestine and 


FREEMAN, CAPT. NELSON P. Enlisted 1-10-16. De 
mobilized 15-6-18. Served in Canada and England. Invalided 
home with paralysis, one side. 

GASS, CAPT. CHAS. L Served Overseas. Particulars not 

GITTLESON, CAPT. PHILIP M Served Overseas. No 

particulars available. 

GODFREY, CAPT. HARRY M. Overseas. No particulars 


GODFREY, CAPT. ALEX. T. Enlisted 22-10-16. Demob 
ilized 4-6-18. Served in Canada and England. 

GOUTHRO, CAPT. H. P. Enlisted 26-11-16. Demobilized 
1 2- 1 -20. Served in Canada, England and France. 

GOW, MAJOR F. A. R. Enlisted 14-10-14. Demobilized 
15-5-20. Served in Canada, England and France. 1914-1 5 Star. 

GRANT, CAPT GERALD W Enlisted 7-11-16. Demobilized 
15-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. Awarded M.C. 
for gallantry in action, and the 1915 Star. 

seas. No particulars available. 

HAYES, LIEUT.^COL. JOSEPH, D.S.O. Enlisted 24-9-15. 
Demobilized 16-5-19. Served in Canada, England and France. Served 
in France with 8sth Canadian Infantry Battalion, 4th Divisional 
Train, No. 10 British General Hospital. Facture Detention Hospital, 
S.M.O. Central Group C.F.C., O.C. No. 2 Canadian Stationary 
Hospital. \Vas twice mentioned in dispatches and awarded D.S.O. 

HART. CAPT. EDWARD C Served Overseas. No particu 
lars available. 



HEAL, JAMES G. F. Served Overseas. Particulars not 

HEMMEON, MAJOR JAMES A. M. Enlisted 1-3-16. De 
mobilized 6-8-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

HENDERSON, CAPT. CHARLES S. Enlisted 18-4-18. 
Demobilized 12-1-20. Served in Canada 18-4-18 to 7-12-18 and 
1-9-19 to 1 2- 1 -20, and in England 7-12-18 to 21-8-19. 

HINES, CAPT. ARTHUR Enlisted 31-5-16. Demobilized 
31-8-19. Served in Canada, England and two years in France. 
Was awarded M.C. for gallantry in Battle of Amiens, August 8th, 

JOST, MAJOR ARTHUR C. Enlisted 6-3-16. Demobilized 
1-8-19. Served in Canada and England. On demobilization held 
the temporary rank of Lieut.-Colonel. 

JOHNSON, CAPT. ARTHUR M. Highfield House, Bury, 
England. Served Overseas. No particulars available. 

Bury, England. Served Overseas. No particulars available. 

JOHNSON, STEPHEN R._Served Overseas. Particulars 
not available. 

KEAY, CAPT. THOMAS Enlisted 24-1-17. Demobilized 
11-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

KENNEDY, CAPT. GEORGE B. Enlisted 7-16-15. De 
mobilized 12-6-19. Transferred from C.A.M.C. to R.A.M.C., July, 
1915. Served in Canada, England, Malta (in St. Andrew s Hos 
pital), Fort Manuel, France, April, 1916, with 77th Field Ambu 
lance, No. 1 6 General Hospital, 5th Field Ambulance, 3rd Cavalry 
Field Ambulance, No. 2 Stationary Hospital, No. 223 Brigade, 
R.F.A., No. 7 Stationary Hospital, Boulogne, etc. 

KENNEDY, CAPT. WILLIAM F. Enlisted 18-8-18. De 
mobilized 1-3-20. Served in Canada, England and France in 
various arms of the Service. 

KENNY, CAPT. W. F. Enlisted 28-6-15. Demobilized 
28-2-20. Served in Canada, England and France. 

LYONS, CAPT. JAMES N. Served Overseas. No particu 
lars available. 

MAcAULAY, CAPT. DANIEL A. Enlisted August, 1918. 
Demobilized 5-3-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 



McAULAY, MIAJOR MURDOCK A. Enlisted August, 1915. 
Demobilized on disbanding of C.E.F., but continued in service of 
C.A.M.C. as O.C. Cogswell Street Military Hospital, Halifax. Also 
served in England and France. 

MACKASEY, CAPT. WAI. P. Served 31 months in the 
R.A.M.C. Was on service in England 6-9-15. Demobilized in 
Canada 4-5-20. Africa 1916. Chief Surgeon on Ambulance Ship 
in the Mediterranean. 

MEE CH, CAPT. LLOYD R., M.C. Served Overseas and was 
awarded the M.C. for gallant services. No particulars available. 

MILLAR, MAJOR J. ROSS M.O. German Prisoners of Wai- 
Camp at Amherst, March, 1915. Joined R.A.M.C. July, 1915, and 
proceeded to England. Joined No. 2 British General Hospital, 
France, in September, 1915. Posted to No. 37 C.C.S. in November, 
1915. Sent to Italian Front with No. 37 C.C.S. in November, 
1917. Transferred as Surgical Specialist to No. 9 C.C.S., 
January, 1918. In charge Advanced Operating Centre, Asiago 
Plateau. On returning to England assigned to duty with 
Shepherd s Bush Orthopaedic Hospital, London. On returning to 
Canada was appointed Orthopaedic Specialist to D.S.C.R. for Nova 
Scotia and Prince Edward Island, which position he resigned to 
resume private practice. 

1914. Demobilized 11-11-19. Served in Canada, also England, 
5-10-14 to 1-1-15; France 1-1-15 to 1-8-15; Gallipoli 5-12-15 to 
5-2-16; Egypt 5-2-16 to 6-2-17; Macedonia 15-4-17 to 17-10-17. 
Mentioned in Sir Ian Hamilton s dispatches, November, 1915. On 
return to Canada was O.C. Camp Hill Hospital, Halifax, and later 
D.A.D.M.S., M.D. No. 6. 

MORTON, CAPT. LEWIS M. Enlisted 11-10-15. Demob 
ilized 28-8-19. Served in Canada. England and France. 

MUIR, CAPT. WALTER H. Enlisted 16-11-15. Demobilized 
13-12-19. Served in Canada, England and France. Joined Staff 
of No. 7 Canadian General Hospital in France at Etaples 7-8-17. 
Sent to forward areas 28-8-17 for duty with No. 5 Canadian Field 
Ambulance. M.O. 6th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery 14-4-18. 
Was in all the activities of 2nd Division from Passchendaele to the 



MUXRO, CAPT. JOHN A. Enlisted 15-2-16. Demobilized 
31-3-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

MURRAY, CAPT. DAN. Enlisted 26-2-17. Demobilized 
1-8-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

MURRAY, CAPT. DUNCAN. Enlisted 4-11-16. Demobilized 
13-6-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

McCURDY, CAPT. DEXTER S. Enlisted 23-12-16. De 
mobilized, 12-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

Served in England and France. He was appointed O.C. of the ill- 
fated Hospital Ship Llandovery Castle, on her last voyage, on which 
he was drowned 


1915. Demobilized 28-12-18. Served in Canada, England and 
France. Was mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig s dispatches. 


No particulars available. 

MACDONALD, MAJOR P. W. S Enlisted early in 1915. 
Served in Canada, England and France. Was on D.M.S. Staff. 
London. Died of influenza in England. 

25-9-16. Demobilized, 4-6-19. Served in England on Surgical 
Staff, Kitchener Military Hospital. Went to France 10-10-17 and 
joined No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital as Second in Command. 
Surgical Specialist Staff of No. 3 Canadian C.C.S., 4-1-18 to 
14-8-18. On Surgical Teams No. 19 and No. 38, British C.C.S., 
and No. 32 British Stationary Hospital. Was in retreat of 5th 
Army and escaped with small surgical outfit. 

MACDONALD, CAPT. WILFRED M. Enlisted February, 
1917. Continued in C.A.M.C. after dispersal of C.E.F. Served 
in Canada, England and France. 

MACINTOSH, CAPT. ARTHUR E. Enlisted 30-6-15. De 
mobilized 15-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Served in France with No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

McKAY, CAPT. JOHN ST. C. Enlisted 25-11-15. Demob 
ilized 13-6-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

McKAY, CAPT. MURDOCK Enlisted 4-1-17. Demobilized 
12-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 



MACKENZIE, CAPT. SEYMOUR o. Enlisted 12-11-17. 

Demobilized 28-8-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

MACKINNON, CAPT. HUGH A. Enlisted 3-5-16. Demob 
ilized 15-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

McLARREN, CAPT. PHILIP D. Enlisted 30-5-17. De 
mobilized 12-1-20. Served in Canada, England and France. 

MACLEAN, CAPT. E. D. Enlisted 14-2-18. Demobilized 
21-2-19. Served in Canada, England and France. Went to Eng 
land with the Highland Brigade. On going to France was attached 
to No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

McLEOD, CAPT. JOHN KNOX Enlisted 25-5-17. De 
mobilized 31-5-19. Served in Canada, England and France. On 
returning to Canada was appointed O.C. Ross Moxham Hospital, 

O NEIL, MAJOR FREEMAN Enlisted April, 1914. De 
mobilized 15-7-19. Served in England 18-11-18 to 4-5-19; France 
19-6-19 to 30-6-19. 

McRAE, CAPT. DUNCAN R. Overseas. No particulars 

ticulars available. 

PARKS, CAPT. JOHN E. Enlisted 20-7-15. Demobilized 
15-6-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

PARKER, CAPT. VERNON H. T. Enlisted 31-3-17. De 
mobilized 26-8-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

PATTON, CAPT. WELDON W. Overseas. No particulars 

PENNINGTON, CAPT. JOHN W. Overseas. No particu 
lars available. 

POTTER, COL. JACOB L. Canadian Permanent Army 
Medical Corps. At outbreak of War was A.D.M.S., Military 
District No. 3. Called to office of D.G.M.S., Ottawa. Became 
acting D.G.M.S. and afterwards Deputy D.G.M.S. Went to 
Siberia with the Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

PORTER, CAPT. SYDNEY E. Enlisted 30-7-17. Demob 
ilized 31-5-19. Served in Canada and England. 

PATRICK, CAPT. IVAN YOUNG Enlisted 19-4-18. De 
mobilized 21-7-19. Served in Canada and England. 



PEAKE, CAPT. EDGAR P. Enlisted 3-7-17. Demobilized 
31-7-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

PICKUP, CAPT. WILLIAM A. Enlisted 16-7-14. Demob 
ilized 1-7-17. Served in Canada, England and France. 

ROBBINS, CAPT. WELTON H. Enlisted 15-9-17. Demob 
ilized 25-11-9. Served in Canada, England and France. 

Demobilized 21-11-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Awarded M.B.E. 

SPARROW, CAPT. CECIL J Enlisted 6-9-15. Demobilized 
-7-18. Served in Canada, France and the Balkans. 
SPONAGLE, LIEUT.-COL. J. A. Enlisted 20-11-14 as M.O. 
25th Infantry Battalion, which proceeded Overseas 20-5-15. Was 
M.O. ist Canadian Divisional Train in France. Went through 
Battles of Lens and Passchendaele with this Unit. In England 
held numerous important appointments among them: Pensions and 
Claims Board; O.C. of C.A.M.C. Training Depot; Duchess Con- 
naught Canadian Red Cross Hospital ; O.C. Canadian Hospital, 
Hillingdon House, Uxbridge. Had twenty-seven years previous 
experience in the Canadian Militia. Received Colonial Auxiliary 
Forces Officers Decoration for long service. Was demobilized 
February 16, 1920. 

SUTHERLAND, CAPT. COLIN G. Enlisted 1-6-17. De 
mobilized 9-6-19. Served in Canada and England. 

Demobilized 21-7-19. Served in Canada, England, Egypt and 
Salonika with No. i Canadian Stationary Hospital. 

TRITES, CAPT. CHARLES B Enlisted 18-4-16. Demob 
ilized 5-5-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 

WHITMAN, CAPT. GEO. W. Overseas service. No par 
ticulars available. 

WILSON, CAPT. ARTHUR A. C. Served in Canada and 

VVISWELL, CAPT. GORDON B. Enlisted October, 1915. 
Demobilized 6-2-19. Served in Canada, England and France. 
Was awarded M.C. for gallant service in action and was mentioned 
in dispatches. 



WYLDE, CAPT. CHARLES F. Served Overseas. No par 
ticulars available. 

ZWICKER, CAPT. W. D. Enlisted 24-1-17. Demobilized 
1 2-1 -20. Served in Canada, England and France. 


Capt-s. W. B. Almon, Hugh O. Blauvelt, William J. Barton. 
Thomas I. Byrne, Barry H. Calkin, Allister Calder, Michael T. 
Carney, Prof. John Cameron, George M. Campbell, John L. 
Churchill, Major James R. Corston, Capts. Allan R. Cunningham. 
John A. Davis, Lieut. David Drury, Capts. Charles S. Elliott, Guy S. 
Goodwin, John W. Gannon, W. H. Hattie, B. A. LeBlanc, Roy D. 
Lindsay, Vernon L. Miller, Major Ernest F. Miller, Capt. Angus 
M. Morton, Major Leander R. Morse, Capt. John A. Murdoch. 
Major Donald McDonald, Capt. Dan. F. Mclnnis, Lieut. Joseph 
W. McKay, Capts. Donald J. MacKenzie, John M. McLean, Majors 
Geo. J. McNally, A. G. Nichols, Lieut.-Col. Albert A. Schaffner, 
Capt. W. H. Schwartz, Lieut. Sieniewicz, Major Dugald Stewart, 
Lieut. Clarence W. Thorne, Capt. Solomon J. Turel, Major Philip 
Weatherbe, Major H. B. Webster. 


In connection with the Nova Scotia Hospital Units reference 
has been made to only a few Nova Scotia nurses. No account of 
the humanitarian service of the medical organization in the Great 
War should fail to give prominence to the noble work of the 
nursing sisters. What they have done to lighten the weary hours 
of the wounded, war-sick and homesick soldier has been stamped 
indelibly on hundreds of thousands of hearts throughout the world. 

Every effort has been made to get a complete list of all the 
Nova Scotia nurses who served in the Great War and where they 
served. The nearest approach to it is an official list of nurses who 
either enlisted or were demobilized in Nova Scotia at the head 
quarters of No. 6 Military District. This has been supplemental 
by submitting the list, for revision, to some thirty active service 
nurses and also a number of Medical Officers. Even now there 
will undoubtedly be some omissions and errors. 





England, France and Salonika. 

Clarke, Catherine Parker. Macintosh, Mary Catherine. 

Condon, Margaret. McKay, Alice Lettie. 

McKenzie, Elizabeth Margaret. 

England and Salonika. 
Brennan, Emily Lorraine. 

England, France and Russia. 
Cotton, Dorothy M., R.R.C. 

England and France. 

Archard, Sarah Ann, A.R.R.C. Bayers, Gladys Fuller. 

Allan, Ann Doctor, R.R.C. Beers, Vivian Gertrude. 

Arbuckle, M. B. Cameron, Josephine Christine. 

Benvie, Ada. Council, Monica. 

Black, Amy Isabel. Cooke, Elizabeth Ann; mentioned in 


Nova Scotia was as prominent in the Nursing as in the Medical 

Service, and is said to have contributed during the War more 
Matrons in France than any other individual Province in the 
Dominion. It gave the Matron-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, 
Miss Margaret C. MacDonald, R.R.C., M.M. des I (French Army). 
Miss MacDonald had previously seen active service in the Spanish- 
American War and the South African War. 

The other Nova Scotia nurses who were Matrons in France 
during the war were: Miss Georgina Pope, R.R.C. (Senior Matron 
in Canada), who went with the Canadian Contingent to the South 
African War as Matron; Miss Harriett Graham, R.R.C.; Miss 
L. M. Hubley, R.R.C.; Miss K. C. MacLatchy, R.R.C.; Miss S. C. 
Maclsaac, R.R.C.; Miss Elizabeth B. Ross. R.R.C; Miss A. C. 
Strong, R.R.C. 

Calder, Jennie Squair, A.R.R.C. Doyle, Elizabeth C. (Mrs.) 

Cameron, Annie May. Drew, Margaret Currie. 

Campbell, Laura Emily. Duthie, Edna Craig. 
Chisholm, Christena Elizabeth; men- Edgecombe, Lillian Grace. 

tioned in dispatches. Ellis, Helena Margaret. 

Chisholm, Sarah Catherine. Etherington, Ethel B. 

Churchill, Sarah. Fitzgerald, Lillian Mary. 

Davidson, Jessie Ann. Follette, Minnie (drowned Lland- 
Dawson, Isabel Helen. overy Castle }. 

Dempsey, Mary Catharine. Eraser, Annie Margaret. 



Fraser, Edith Morrow. 

Fraser, Pearl (drowned Handover^ 


Genders, Sarah Elizabeth. 
Gillan, Ina Gertrude. 
Gordon, Eleanor McLaren, A.R.R.C. 
Graham, Harriet M. (Matron), 


Gray, Dorothy Louise, R.R.C. 
Gray, Marguerite Olive. 
Guild, Effie Jean. 
Gunn, Mary Catharine. 
Haliburton, Marion Frances. 
Hazard, Mary Elizabeth. 
Howard, Alice Maud. 
Hubley, Laura May (Matron), R.R.C. 
Irwin, Eliza Blanche. 
Johnstone, Alice May; mentioned in 


Johnstone, Margaret A., R R C 
Kelly, F. M., R.R.C. 
Kendall, Helen Mary. 
King, Hazel Mary. 
Lamplaugh, Mary Edith, R.R.C. 
Landells, Margaret Jane. 
Lynch, Mary Theresa; Belgian de 

MacAulay, Lorinda. 
MacDonald, Annie ; mentioned in dis 

MacDonald, Annie Belle; French de 

MacDonald, Annie Helen. 
MacDonald, Catherine Chisholm. 
MacDonald, Catherine Tulloch. 
MacDonald, Helen Catherine. 
MacDonald, Hilda Havergill. 
MacDonald, Janet MacGregor, R.R.C 
MacDonald, Jessie Belle. 
MacDonald. Jessie Helen. 
MacDonald, Louise, A.R.R.C. 
MacDonald, Margaret, A.R.R.C. 
MacDonald, Margaret Clothilda (Pi- 
Matron, C.E.F.), R.R.C. (Florence 
Nightingale decoration). 
MacDonald, Mary Margaret. 
MacDonald, Mary Simpson. 
MacDonald. Minnie Frances. 
MacDpugall. Annie Claire. 
McCuish. Elizabeth Margaret. 
McDonald, Catharine Eileen. 
McDonald, Nellie Elizabeth. 
McDougald, Flora. 

McDougald, Margaret: French dec 
McGrath, Marv. 

Mclnnis, Florence Louise. 

Mclsaac, Sarah Catherine (Matron), 


-McKay, Helen Barbara, A.R.R.C. 
McKeel, Theadora, R.R.C. 
McKenzie, Charlotte. 
McKenzie, Christina Mary. 
McKenzie, Dora. 
McKenzie, Margaret Eliza. 
McKenzie, Minnie Hannah. 
McKinnon, Euphemia. 
McLatchey, Katherine O. (Matron), 


McLean, Catherine. 
McLean, Elizabeth Isobel. 
McLean, Marguerite. 
McLean, Mary Rachael. 
McLeod, Annie Tremaiue 
McLeod, Winifred G. 
McLeod, Isabella Gordon. 
McLeod, Margaret Christena 
McNeill, Mary Belle. 
Moresheacl, Eleanor Gorrill. 
Mosher, Eva Maud. 
Mulcahy, Grace. 
Mutch, Florence Sarah. 
Myers, Olga. 
Nicholson, Elsie Sarah. 
O Brien, Marcella Agnes. 
Paget, Catherine White. 
Paton, Florence May. 
Patton, Mary Steele. 
Pidgeon, Lj R.R.C.; mentioned in 


Pope, Georgia, (Matron). R.R.C. 
Rice, Frances Augusta, A.R.R.C. 
Richardson, Edith Louise. 
Rose, Lenora E. 

Ross. Elizabeth Belle (Matron) 
^ R.R.C. 
Schurman, Winifred Dobson ; 

French decoration. 
Shannahan, Mary Catherine 
Shea. C. R. 

Smith, Sarah Catharine. 
Stevens, Louise Myrtle. 
Strong, A. C. (Matron), R.R.C. 
Stuart, Evelyn Alary. 
Tait, Mary. 
Thomas, Lalia E. 
Thompson, Wilhelmine Irene. 
Thompson, Edith Alexandra. 
Urquhart, Lottie. 
Veits. Caroline Winifred 
Walsh, M. S. 
Walters, Emma Jane. 



Watson, Mabel Margaret. 
Watson, Maud. 
Waugh, Belle. 
Waughan, Belle. 
White, Catherine M. 

Anderson, Minerva Blanche. 
Bain, Margaret Winnifred. 
Barnes, Ellen Caroline. 
Bentley, Olla May.. 
Clarke, Edith Esther. 
Campbell, Annie May. 
Campbell, D. 
Coates, Dora Evelyn. 
Cameron, Elizabeth Vena. 
Cameron, Mary Lillian. 
Cameron, Sarah Belle. 
Colter, Bessie Long. 
Connors, Florence Marguerite. 
Cray, Bertha Geraldine. 
Currie, Alice Margaret. 
Desmond, Mary. 
Davies, Margaret Emily. 
DeWolfe. Annie Clark. 
Dunlop, Laura Alice. 
Ellis, Marion Dean. 
Fife, Lillian Jessie. 
Eraser, Lavinia Flora. 
Eraser, Flora Mathilda. 
Harrison, Eunice Knapp. 
Hallisey, Catherine Martina. 
Hillcoat, Anna Rebecca. 
Hubley, Jennie Mable. 
Hartling, Mabel. 
Howard, Mary Munroe. 
Jennex, Lenna (died). 

Anderson, Roberta. 
Andrews, Edith. 
Barnaby, Agnes Gertrude. 
Bearisto, Mary Kier. 
Bissett, Barbara Beatrice. 
Boland, Florence. 
Bauld, Muriel. 
Burton, Mary Elizabeth. 
Campbell, Jean Marion. 
Cook, Gertrude Pauline. 
Coolen, Anasthasia Muriel. 
Coolen, Mary Ellen. 
Davies, Edith Maria. 
Doull, Jessie Cameron. 
Dunbar. Lillian Campbell. 
Farry, Lucy. 

White, Helen St. Clair. 
White, Katherine Elizabeth. 
Williams, Maysie Ellen. 
Young, Anna Teresa. 
Young, Rose Olga. 


Layton, Adrianna R. 
LeDrew, Annie May. 
Mack, Beatrice Helena. 
Mombourquette, Katherine. 
Morrison, Daisy Dean. 
Mutch, Helen Frances. 
Murray, Ann Elizabeth. 
Murray, Emma Blanche. 
McCarthy, May Charlotte. 
McCuish, Harriet Mary. 
MacDonald, Jessie. 
MacDonald, Georgina Emily. 
MacDonald, Margaret Catherine. 
Mclnnes, Dorothy Jean. 
Macintosh, Margaret Isabel. 
McLeod, Sadie Isabel. 
McLean, Sadie Ethel. 
McNeill, Margaret Blanche. 
Morrison, Myrtilla Grey. 
Morrison, Jean Augusta. 
Payne, Sarah. 
Smith, Mabel Eliza. 
Sedgewick, F. M. 
Skerry, Annie Adelaide. 
Stewart, Margaret Wood. 
Stevens, Annie Jane. 
Thompson, Ethel Elaine. 
Torr, Alice. 
Tout, Dora Olivia. 
Urquhart, Lottie. 


Fitzgerald, Edith Maria. 
Fraser, Florence Amelia. 
Fraser, Frances Margaret. 
Gates, Sarah Gladys. 
Gilchrist, Marion L. 
Gillis, Christine Anna. 
Graves, Laura May. 
Haverstock, Laura Grace. 
Hayden, Mary Josephine. 
Holloway, Eva. 
Hunt, Minnie Hannah. 
Hunt, Myrtle C. (died). 
Keith, Gertrude. 
Kennedy, Margaret. 
LaPierre, Mary Ann. 
Larking. Nora Evelyn. 

22 4 


Jarvis, Jessie (died). 
Lejeune, Mary. 
Lester, Olla Dell. 
Logan, Caroline. 
Manning, Myra Aver. 
Mills, Ethel Rosamund. 
Morrison, Anna May. 
McCrea. Theresa Ann. 
MacDonald, Evangeline. 
MacDonald, Harriet Helen. 
MacDonnell, Mary Elizabeth. 
Mclnnis, Ellephallie Carrie. 
McKenzie, Helen Gertrude. 
McKinnon, Ruth. 
McLean, Josephine. 
McMarms, Laura. 

McManus, Lila Theresa. 
McXeill, Mary Eleanor. 
O Callaghan, Mary. 
O Leary, Catherine. 
Prest, Violet Ella. 
Ross, Vivian Russell. 
Schaffner, Marion Parker. 
Schaffner, Muriel Campbell. 
Steeves, Ina Maud. 
Sullivan, Mary Margaret. 
Sutherland, Roberta. 
Talbot, Frances Elizabeth. 
Trivett, Jean Dorothy. 
Urquhart, Susan Hone. 
Whidden, Mary. 
Young, Josephine M. 

Military Service No Particulars Available. 

Benjamin, Vera Louise. 
Christie, Freda Hope. 
Fraser. Elda Jean. 
Fvfe. Hannah G. 
Harrison, Jena Augusta. 
Hill, Eliza Victoria. 
Tones. Helen. 

Kelley, Margaret Neill. 
Mosher, Lydia T. 
MacDonald, Anna Bula. 
McKenzie, Jean Annie. 
McLeod, Marion. 
Perry, H. H. 
Purcell, Marv Louise. 





THAT Dental Services are a necessity in the army is one of 
the many lessons taught us by the War and it has been amply 
proved that the Canadian Army Dental Corps was re 
sponsible for placing at least 10 per cent of the Canadian and 
British troops at the Front who, but for the excellent dental ser 
vices provided, would not have been there. 

^g^JH Members of the dental profession in 

Nova Scotia were among the first to 
offer their services, and in August, 1914, 
three of them, Drs. B. L. Neilly, F. W. 
Bruce Kelly and H. L. Mitchener, were 
on duty at Valcartier Camp. Drs. Neilly 
and Kelly proceeded Overseas and were 
the first dental surgeons at the Front. 
So far as can be learned these were the 
only dental surgeons with the Canadian 
troops at that date, Captain Bentley of 
Ontario reporting early in September. 

For eight years previous to the War 

a Committee of the Canadian Dental Association on " Dental 
Services in the Army " repeatedly approached the Federal Govern 
ment with regard to a definite Army Dental Association to be 
administered by the Medical Services or otherwise, but were finally 
informed that the organization then existing, which consisted of 
twenty-six Dental Officers attached to the Army Medical Corps as 
Honorary Captains and Lieutenants, was quite saisfactory. 

On the outbreak of the War members of the profession through 
out Canada, realizing the necessity of dental services for recruits, 
voluntarily provided dental treatment for thousands of men who, 
otherwise, could not have been accepted. 




The attention of the Minister of Militia, Sir Sam Hughes, was 
directed to the importance and value of this work by Generals 
Fotheringham, Lessard, Loggie and others as well as by a sub 
committee of civilian dentists from Toronto, who proceeded to 
Ottawa early in 1915 under the direction of Dr. George Kerr 
Thomson of Halifax, Chairman of the Canadian Dental Associa 
tion s Committee on " Dental Services in the Army," with the 
result that the Minister immediately issued orders for a Dental 
organization, similar to that of the Medical, but entirely separate. 

To this action by the Minister is due the fact that Canada was 
the first country in the world to organize an Army Dental Corps 
separate and distinct from other military organizations. Dr. 
Thomson was first recommended by the Toronto Committee and 
the dental profession for Director of Dental Services, but Dr. 
Armstrong of Ottawa received the appointment, and in June, 1915, 
proceeded Overseas with thirty-five officers, thirty-five N.C.O. s 
and thirty-five privates. This organization was increased from 
time to time until there were over one thousand Dental Officers and 
other ranks on duty Overseas. 

It was realized that while it was necessary to provide dental 
services for men Overseas, it was even more important that they 
be made dentally fit before sailing; and in October, 1915, the Home 
Service organization was authorized with a Director at Ottawa 
and an Assistant Director in each Military District together with 
a strength of one officer, N.C.O. and private for each 1,000 men. 
This necessitated an organization of at least sixty of all ranks in 
Military District No. 6, which at that time included New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. 

Members of the dental profession in the three provinces re 
sponded notably to the call of duty, and, while it does not come 
within the scope of this history to mention the services of men in 
other provinces, it is desirable to put on record great appreciation 
of the excellent services rendered by members of the dental pro 
fession in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island who were 
on duty in Military District No. 6. One of the most prominent 
practitioners in St. John, N.B., Dr. James M. Magee, ex-President 
of the Canadian Dental Association and Dominion Dental Council 



and a member of the Nova Scotia Dental Association, who, before 
the War, was attached as Honorary Captain to the Army Medical 
Corps, was one of the first to join the Home Service organization 
in Military District No. 6. 

Major Thomson was appointed A.D.D.S., Military District No. 
6, on November ist, 1915. During his absence at Valcartier Camp 
in the summer of 1916, Captain Magee acted as A.D.D.S. in 
Military District No. 6 and later was appointed A.D.D.S. of 
Military District No.. 7 when New Brunswick became a separate 
Military District. 

The C.A.D.C. in Military District No. 6 was administered on 
a most economical and business-like basis, and at the Camp Hill 
Army Dental Surgery, one of the finest and best equipped in the 
world, many thousands of men were made dentally fit, not only 
before going Overseas, but also on their return to Canada, when 
a great many of them needed extensive restorative dental appli 

For several weeks after the great explosion, which occurred 
on December 6, 1917, the Staff of the Camp Hill Dental Surgery- 
rendered services and co-operated with the medical officers, part 
of the dental surgery being used as an operating room for the 
eye specialists. Some of the dental officers on duty were 
severely but not seriously injured, and duri-ng the first thirty- 
six hours after the explosion rendered valuable first aid to the 
injured, with whom Camp Hill was overcrowded. 

In 1916, at Aldershot Camp, two appendicitis operations were 
successfully performed in the Camp Dental Surgery, which was 
completed long before the Camp Hospital. These cases would 
probably have proved fatal had it not been for the foresight of 
the dental Staff in expediting the construction of this dental 

Through the efforts of Dean Frank Woodbury arrangements 
were carried out by the Dental Faculty of Dalhousie University 
for rendering dental services to the men of the navy before the 
work was performed by the Dental Corps. 



The following is a list of dental officers who served Over 
seas and at home : 

CANADA. Major G. K. Thomson, Major H. E. Mann, Capts. 
H. L. Mitchener, H. G. Dunbar, W. W. Woodbury, G. Tingley, 
J. M. Magee, A. G. Wicks, J. E. Sewell, J. B. Brown, J. E. 
Blanchard, F. C. Bonnell, I. K. Farrar, F. A. Godsoe, F. E. Burden, 
W. H. Steeves, L. O Leary (Q.M.), J. E. Jewett, A. Gasson, R. I. 
Robertson, F. W. Johnson, H. S. Allen, G. R. Smith, F. T. 
Bowness, Y. E. Gaudet, Mclntyre, F. G. Mann, F. W. Barbour, 
R. I. Irving, Lieuts. A. J. Cormier, H. Adamson, Guy Stultz, L. M. 
Finigan, A. K. Wade, A. J. Couglin, F. W. LeFugery, A. B. Crowe, 
H. C. Mclntosh, Regtl. Sergt.-Majors, F. E. Fahie, I. K. Jackson, 
F. B. Miller, Quartermaster Sergts. J. M. Blanchard, Laurie 
Blanchard, L. H. Jenkins, G. Sommers, Staff Sergts. A. H. 
Churchill, J. H. McLaughlin, E. S. Dexter, Sergts. A. W. Allen. 
L. M. Withrow, C. W r . Burgoyne, Staff Sergts. E. E. Hatfield, 
Neil Flannery, F. H. Phinney, Sergts. J. L. Sears, R. H. Wilby, 
Cox, C R. McLellan, R. C. Wall, J. St. C. Smith, C. E. Cantelope, 
T. Ranford, W. Hazelwood, Percy Rennels, W. R. Gunn, 
Quartermaster Sergt. L. McGuire, Company Quartermaster Sergt. 
W. H. D. Bence. 

OVERSEAS. Lieut.-Col. B. L. Neilly, Major F. W. B. Kelly, 
Major C. E. McLaughlin, Capts. R. J. McMeekin, Karl W 7 ood- 
bury, C. D. Desbrisay, S. S. Harvie, E. A. Randall, H. Clay, 
E. S. Millett, H. O. Harding, Arthur Viets, T. E. Robins, R. W. 
Frank, W. R. Fraser, Karl Damon, Otto Nase, J. P. Gallagher, 
J. McDonald, McNeil, W. R. Wilkes, R. C. Crosby, E. A. Randall, 
K. . Dobson, H. C. McDonald, Staff Sergts. J. E. Fraser, 
C. Garrett, R. B. Horton, Sergts. S. W. Hatfield, C. A. S. Carlow, 
H. O. Lord, F. A. McGarrigle, G. Lowine, Phillips, G. A. Barter, 
W. Dyer, Raymond King, W. Joy, J. McLean, McGibbon, J. L. 
Rogers, I. D. S. Ross, G. E. McDonald, H. E. Grey, V. D. Crowe, 
Collier, Jones, Butterworth, Doucette, Quartermaster Sergt. 



BEFORE the outbreak of the War in 1914 the Canadian Army 
Pay Corps had only sufficient Staff to deal with the small 
permanent force, of which it was an integral part. When 
the Canadian Expeditionary Force was organized, and troops 
mobilized for home defence, the C.A.P.C. was called upon to 
undergo the same strain and expansion demanded of every branch 
of the service. Outside of the army little is known of the respon 
sibilities suddenly thrust upon this department. It had to deal with 
all finances, pay, separation allowance, assigned pay, civilian em 
ployees, tradesmen s accounts, etc., and, as will be seen by the 
statement at the end of this article, No. 6 Detachment stationed at 
Halifax alone disbursed $53.357,388.08 between August, 1914, and 
July, 1920. 

In August, 1914, No. 6 Detachment, whose territory at that time 
included New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, as well as 
Nova Scotia, consisted of the following officers and non-com 
missioned officers: Lieut. -Col. S. J. R. Sircom (now retired with 
rank of Brigadier-General), Capt. J. L. Regan, Sergt.-Major J. 
Turner, Quartermaster Sergt. G. H. Saunders, Staff Sergt. G. T. 
Allum, Staff Sergt. C. A. Chew, Staff Sergt. B. A. Spink, Sergt. 
E. R. Kelly, Sergt. A. V. Chase, Sergt. W. A. Coyne, Sergt. F. A. 

This Staff was increased until at one time 14 officers and 120 
non-commissioned officers and men were employed. Some of these 
served in No. 6 Detachment throughout the whole period of the 
War. Others were transferred to various Units, went Overseas, or 
took their discharge. 



Every soldier, from a Tommy to a full-fledged General, will 
admit that as far as organization and administration were concerned 
the Canadian Army Pay Corps was beyond criticism. As soon as 
a man enlisted he received his pay regularly, no matter where he 
was in Canada or in England, in the Field, in hospital or on fur 
lough ; and when he returned to Canada for demobilization the 
cheque for balance of pay due was handed to him on the day he 
was discharged. In addition to this monies were forwarded to his 
dependants on account of Separation Allowance, and assigned pay, 
settlement made for clothing and equipment, which he purchased 
from stores on repayment, for Victory Bonds which he purchased 
during his services, remittances to his friends and other payments. 

All this entailed an enormous amount of work. Ledger sheets 
had to be kept up to date, pay books checked up, remittances looked 
after, cheques written, documents made up and sent along with the 
soldier from one place to another until he finally returned to 
Canada, bearing with him like documents from England. Every 
officer, non-commissioned officer and man knows the amount of 
detail work which this involved. 

Of the original Staff, Col. S. J. R. 
Sircom, affectionately known to the 
troops in this district as the " Grand Old 
Man," endeared himself to all ranks 
with whom he came in contact by his 
urbanity and kindly consideration. Col 
onel Sircom commenced his military 
career early in life. He joined the Hali 
fax Garrison Artillery as a 2nd Lieu 
tenant in 1878, and the 63rd Regiment, 
Halifax Rifles, in 1885. He transferred 
BRIG.-GEN. s. j. R. SIRCOM. to the Militia Staff with the rank of 

Major in 1905, and on January I, 1907, 

was appointed to the C.A.P.C. with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and became Paymaster of the 6th Divisional area. He was pro 
moted to the rank of Colonel on May 24, 1916. He proceeded to 
London as a representative of the Paymaster-General the latter 
part of 1918, and on his return from Overseas was retired to 
Pension with the rank of Brigadier-General. 



Capt. J. L. Regan proceeded Overseas with the First Contingent 
as assistant to Col. W. R. Ward, then Chief Paymaster Canadian 
Expeditionary Force. Captain Regan was largely responsible for 
the organization of the Canadian Pay Services in France and Eng 
land. He was later promoted to the rank of Colonel and appointed 
Deputy Paymaster-General. He was awarded the C.M.G., and on 
his return to Canada became Director of 
Pay Services at Ottawa. 

Quartermaster Sergt. J. Turner 
transferred to the Highland Brigade as 
Captain and Quartermaster. He was 
seriously injured in the Halifax ex 
plosion and is now invalided to Pension. 
Staff Sergeant G. T. Allum, now 
Sergeant-Major, is retired to Pension. 
Quartermaster Sergeant G. H. Saunders 
was promoted to the rank of Captain. 

Captain Saunders remained with No. 6 COL. j. L.REGAN, C.M.G. 

Detachment during the whole period of 

the War, and the admirable manner in which this Unit met all 
demands upon it, particularly during the trying months of demob 
ilization, was largely due to his energy, efficiency and foresight. 

Staff Sergts. C. A. Chew and B. A. Spink proceeded Overseas 
and both returned with the rank of Captain. The former was dis 
charged to Pension ; the latter is employed at Militia Headquarters. 
Staff Sergt. A. V. Chase went Overseas with the Clearing Services 
Command and returned with the rank of Captain. He will be 
remembered by all returning officers and men who passed through 
or had dealings with the Clearing Depot, Halifax, as a very efficient 
officer. Sergt. W. A. Coyne proceeded Overseas as Captain Clear 
ing Services Command and is now struck off strength. Sergt. F. A. 
Chew proceeded Overseas with the 25th Battalion, returned as a 
Captain in the C-A.P.C., and is now struck off strength to Pension. 

Capt. G. C. Sircom, son of Brigadier-General S. J. R. Sircom, 
after return from Overseas, was employed in the Pay Office, and 
now has a commission in the Permanent Army Pay Corps. 


Lieut.-Col. J. A. C. Mowbray, when war was declared, offered 
his services and was detailed as Paymaster to the 2nd Brigade, 
C.F.A., proceeding Overseas with that Unit. After serving in 
France for about one year he was recalled to London to fill 
a post in the Pay Office Headquarters. He became Deputy Assistant 
Paymaster-General, was awarded the O.B.E., and later was trans 
ferred to Canada to fill his present posi 
tion, which is designated as Senior Pay 
Officer for Nova Scotia. 

The following are a few of the 
officers who did good work in this 
Division during the War, either before 
proceeding Overseas or returning from 
Overseas on demobilization or as Pay- 
masters of Units: Major J. Taylor, 
Major M. H. Morrison, Major R. H. 
Humphrey, Major J. D. Murphy, Major 
Colin Macintosh, Capt. H. Powis 
Herbert, Capt. G. C. Milsom, Capt. 
W. W. Brignell, Capt. C. S. Simpson, 

Capt. R. Bartholomew, Capt. H. A. MacDonald, Capt. J. L. 
Melanson, Capt. R. H. Hardwicke, Capt. A. A. Cameron, Capt. Tait 
Scott, Capt. H. W. Ireland, Capt. Walter Ruggles, Capt. W. C. L. 
Bauld, Capt. R. MacDougall, Lieut. H. S. Major, Lieut. W. E. 
McDonald, Lieut. H. A. Allum, Lieut. H. S. Simpson, Lieut. W. J. 
O Donnell. 

To show the vast amount of work carried out by this Detach 
ment the following statement of monthly expenditure is appended. 
This does not include disbursements for clothing and equipment, 
horses, transports, camp supplies, wagons, etc., but purely pay and 
allowance of troops and their upkeep. Considering the amount of 
cash handled it is satisfactory to know that not one cent was lost 
to the public by misappropriation or otherwise. 










































4 2 






\pr . . 




Aug. . . 
Sept. .. 
Oct. ... 
Nov. .. 
Dec. .. 

Total .. 

Jan. . . 
Feb. .. 
Mar. .. 
Supp. . 
Apr. . . 
May . . 
June . 
July .. 
Aug. .. 
Sept. . 
Oct. .. 
Xov. . 
Dec. .. 






. $683,909 
. 872,284 
. 1,176,278 
. 1,113,762 
. 1^08,976 
. 1,378,733 
. 1,596.356 
. 1,638,684 
. 1,505,466 

. i,727A33 
. 1.178,085 
















$7.788,728 14 









1919 . 


il e 






Total ..$14,968,679 1 6 $2,010,774 70 


LDRD KITCHENER once remarked in reply to a question 
The Front is where a soldier is ordered to be." In accord 
ance with this, those men whose duties necessitated their 
being retained in connection with the Coast Defences, were made 
to abide by the decision of those responsible for the strategy of the 
defence of Canadian shores. 

After the War, the Permanent Force, of which the R.C.G.A. 
form a part, are the only persons in uniform; and the imputation of 
not being an Overseas Unit is not a good advertisement to attract 
recruits. Moreover, the imputation is not only unjust, but untrue, 
as the following will show: 

In July, 1914, relations between the British Empire and the 
Central Powers were very strained, and on July 3oth, four days 
before the War was officially declared, the R.C.G.A. were ordered 
to man the most important forts as a precaution, since it is an axiom 
in naval warfare that, if possible, a surprise attack is the first and 
best declaration of war. 

On August 5th Fortress Orders contained the following: 
War having broken out with Germany, the Halifax Defence 
Scheme comes into force herewith." 

On the 6th August, the ist Regiment, C.G.A., mobilized and 
proceeded to the Forts to complete the manning, since the R.C.G.A. 
alone were too few in number completely to man more than the two 
largest forts. 

The first portion of the annual training for the year had just 
been completed, and one can truthfully say that Halifax was as 
well able to repel a raid as any other fortress in the Empire at that 



It was thought by most people in the early days of the War 
that the War would last only a few months, and the personnel of 
the Defences had to find accommodation where they could, until 
well on into the winter; for coast forts in peace time are not 
provided with accommodation for lengthy occupation : consequently, 
both officers and men had a far from comfortable time until wooden 
huts were constructed. 

None of the Artillery Units allotted to the Fortress were for any 
length of time up to full strength, so that barely sufficient men were 
available to form the necessarv reliefs for the guns 

* o 

Xight and day, all through the War, from July 3oth, 1914, until 
after the signing of the Armistice, November u, 1919, enough 
men to work the guns had to be near them and alert, while on each 
gun was a sentry, who was relieved every hour, and whose duty 
was to watch seawards for the approach of any hostile craft. Not 
a very arduous task at .first sight, but enough to make most men long 
to be Overseas after a few months of it. 

Fortunately the Germans were not very enterprising, and con 
sidered that the presence of the Coast Defences was too great a risk 
to run, so that Halifax did not have to go through the horrors of a 
bombardment as well as the explosion, though, had the city been 
undefended, it would, no doubt, like several English towns, have 
received a few shells from time to time. 

In March, 1915, the 3rd Regiment, C.G.A., from St. John, N.B.. 
came for training, as St. John was about to be fortified, and a 
portion of this Unit was retained to reinforce the Units already 
doing duty in the Forts. In April. 1915, No. 4 Company. P.E.I., 
C.G.A., came for training. Some of these men had already been 
on duty with heavy field guns at Canso and Sydney. When trained 
they remained in Halifax, sending drafts Overseas from time to 
time, and proved themselves efficient gunners. 

In June, 1915, a number of N.CO. s and men sailed for the 
Front, but all efforts of others to do so were in vain, though 
several N.C.O. s and men took their fate in their own hands and 
stowed away on transports conveying infantry. Some of these got 
as far as France, but discipline had to be maintained, and all \verr 

2 37 


brought back. This incident will show that the men of the R.C.G.A. 
did not remain in Halifax from choice. 

In July, 1916, authority was at last obtained for the R.C.G.A. 
to form a Siege Battery, and this was quickly done; in it were 
some of the best N.C.O. s and men in the Corps, and the whole 
Battery were of splendid physique. This Battery left for Overseas 
in September, 1916, under the command of Major S. A. Heward, 
R.C.A. It arrived in France on the 22nd March, 1917, and took 
part in many big fights, including Vimy Ridge, Hill 70, Passchen- 
daele, Cambrai and Mons. Men of a Siege Battery get plenty of 
heavy work and little chance of heroic deeds as individuals, but the 
Battery has to its credit the following decorations : -Military Cross, 
2; Distinguished Conduct Medal, 2; Military Medals, 16; Meri 
torious . Service Medals, 3 ; while several other officers from the 
R.C.A. in Halifax were awarded the D.S.O. and M.C. 

As soon as the Battery left for Overseas, preparations for rais 
ing another were immediately made, and those officers and men 
Who were unable to go in the previous one vied with each other to 
get a place in this, but it was not authorized, and drafts only were 
found as reinforcements to the one already authorized. Moreover, 
it was deemed advisable that certain specially trained officers and 
men were essential for the efficient working of the Home Defence, 
and these could not go, even in drafts, unless they had others to 
replace them. 

It takes some time to make an artilleryman, particularly a 
garrison gunner, who is expected to know every type of gun from 
a light field piece to the heaviest coast defence gun, or siege 
howitzer, all of which form part of the armament of a coast 
fortress, so that, although no doubt if the War had lasted long 
enough all would eventually have been replaced, these men had to 

A number of R.C.A. officers w r ent over in charge of drafts of the 
R.C.G.A. or other Units. 

The ist Regiment, C.G.A., sent over many officers and men in 
drafts to infantry units and to an Ammunition Column. 

The P.E.I. C.G.A. Detachment also formed an Ammunition 



Early in 1915 the British Government decided to re-arm St. 
Lucia, and the Units at Halifax, with some additional personnel 
from Esquimalt and Quebec, were called upon to furnish men for 
this purpose. The first draft went in March, 1915. They had to 
mount the guns (some of which were of French pattern and quite 
strange to them), and generally organize the defences. 

In the autumn of 1917 and spring of 1918 the enemy submarines 
raided the Atlantic coasts of the United States and Canada, and it 
\vas very essential that the important port of Sydney, N.S., should 
be more strongly defended, so new guns of heavier calibre were 
sent from Halifax and mounted there. This necessitated additional 
men, and drafts from Toronto and British Columbia were detailed 
for this purpose. 

These men, some of them called under the Military Service Act, 
were an exceptionally good type and quickly made efficient 
specialists and gunners. Some were sent for training as officers 
and would have relieved those officers in the Forts who had been 
unable to get away. Unfortunately for them the Armistice was 
declared and hostilities ceased, so that this scheme did not 
materialize, though some of these men obtained probationers 

An important branch of the R.C.G.A. in Halifax is the Royal 
School of Artillery (Coast Defence and Siege) and this School, the 
only Siege Artillery School in Canada, was responsible for the train 
ing of most of the Siege Artillery Officers and Specialists, as well 
as several Batteries and Drafts that went Overseas after the First 

In addition to this, a gun practice at Halifax, Sydney and St. 
John was carried out under the supervision of the R.S.A. Staff, 
while courses for officers and specialists, Coast Defence Artillery, 
were also given. 

The establishment of Instructors was one officer and three other 
ranks, but as one N.C.O. Instructor was stationed at St. John, this 
was increased by a N.C.O. from the ist Regiment, C.G.A. 
Officers from the C.G.A. were attached as assistants for varying 

In June, 1915, the I.G., now Lieut.-Col. W. G. Beeman, D.S.O., 
R.C.A., went Overseas, and in 1916 his successor, Major H. R. N. 



Cobbett, R.C.A., went over with No. 9 Siege Battery. In 1918 one 
Warrant Officer Instructor was permitted to go; he was imme 
diately appointed Instructor at the Canadian School of Gunnery, 
Witley, England, and it was only with great difficulty that he 
managed to reach France, where he again was utilized as an 

The rest of the Staff felt most keenly the fact that they had to 
be retained in Canada, as their position after the War, when dealing 
with classes who had seen Overseas service, would not be at all 
enviable. It was very unfortunate that arrangements had not been 
made to replace them, so that they might go to the Front even for a 
short time, because although it is a fact that good teachers are born, 
not made, there is a tendency to think that anyone with long- 
experience in the fighting line must be a good instructor. 

Officers from all parts of Canada took courses at the R.S.A., 
and it speaks well for the training which they received that on reach 
ing England further training, other than three weeks at Lydd, was 
considered unnecessary in most cases, and at Lydd these officers 
usually took first place in the examinations held there. 

Many of them, who were unable to get positions in the C.E.F., 
were given commissions in the British Artillery, and in several cases 
commanded Batteries. 

Owing to the smallness of Staff and limited demand for siege 
artillery the actual numbers trained were not as large as those in 
other Artillery Schools, but with small classes the training was 
naturally very thorough. 

Among the Units trained may be mentioned : 

Coast Defence. Siege, 

ist Regiment, C.G.A. 2nd Montreal H y B t y. 

3rd Regiment, C.G.A. McGill Siege B t y and Drafts. 

P.E.I., C.G.A. 3rd C.G.A. Siege B t y and Drafts. 

Drafts from Toronto and B.C. R.C.G.A. Siege B t y and Drafts. 

And 10 courses for officers and Halifax (loth) B t y and Drafts, 

specialists lasting two months each. And 9 courses for officers and special 
ists, lasting two months each. 

Total number trained by R.S.A., exclusive of Batteries: 

Officers. .Men. Officers. Men. 

190 301 122 258 






Other Ranks. Sphere of Operations. 

288 Western Front. 

60 To St. Lucia. 

36 To C.E.F., Siberia. 

British Mission, Siberia. 

Total. . 22 



ist Regiment, C.G.A. 

Other Ranks. 

625 Western Front and St. Lucia. 

P.E.I. C.G.A. 
Other Ranks. 
3 no Western Front. 

On mobilization these units had: 

Officers. O.R. 

R.C.G.A 17 336 

ist Regt.. C.G.A 20 

4 Coy.. P.E.I., C.G.A 3 





Altogether about 80 officers and 1,500 N.C.O. s and men of the 
Artillery Units (including loth Siege Battery) stationed in Halifax 
were sent Overseas, and the majority of those mobilized in 1914 
who did not go were unable to do so either through being specialists, 
over age or low category. 

When it is realized that these Corps had great difficulty in 
obtaining recruits, owing to the fear that men would be retained for 
Home Service, the numbers shown are considered very creditable. 



THE Corps of Canadian Engineers has no local connection 
with any Province in the same way that Infantry Regiments 
and Battalions have. At the end of the War in France it 
consisted of some twelve Battalions, together with other small 
Engineering Units with Administrative Staffs, etc., which Units 
were recruited from all parts of Canada, and no particular Engineer 
ing Unit was sent from the Province of Nova Scotia. 

A great many individual officers and men were sent to the 
Engineers from this Province, and did very excellent work, but 
were posted to various Overseas Units, hence the impossibility of 
describing particularly the work and services of Nova Scotia 

As far as service in Canada is concerned the defence of the 
Fortress of Halifax was a very important matter, and the services 
of a very large number of officers and other ranks of the R.C.E. 
Permanent Force and Canadian Engineers, Active Militia, were 
employed at this Fortress throughout the War. Their strenuous 
duties and long hours in connection with the continual operation of 
electric lights and maintenance of fortifications were carried out 
untiringly and most conscientiously. 

Practically every officer and other rank in these two Corps not 
only volunteered for Overseas service, but also took very strenuous 
measures to get to France, by hook or by crook, and a great many 
of them were successful. Others unfortunately were retained in 
Halifax for the defence of that Fortress. 




T rlE following memorandum was prepared to bring to the 
attention of the Minister of Militia and Militia Council some 
facts and figures respecting the services of the Militia of 
Canada in Canada, and particularly the Fortress of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, and the Atlantic Seaboard, who although they repeatedly 
volunteered for Overseas were not allowed to go because their 
duties were held to be supremely important by those in authority. 

ist Halifax has always been a Military and Naval Station of 

the Empire, and confidential instructions have always been in exist 
ence and a comprehensive scheme of defence in the hands of 
officers commanding Units, to be put in force immediately on 
declaration of war. Therefore, the following Halifax Fortress 
Order was issued by the G.O.C. M.D. No. 6, August 5, 1914: 

No. 681. " War having broken out with Germany the Halifax 
defence scheme comes into effect forthwith." 

In accordance with this order all Halifax Units were imme 
diately mobilized and remained on duty in defence of Halifax 
practically for the duration of the War. The 94th Regiment was 
also mobilized for the defence of the Canso cable station, Cape 
Breton wireless station, etc., and other detachments were placed on 
active service at various points in the district. 

2nd The importance of Halifax as a Military and Naval Sta 
tion in British North America in the eyes of the Imperial and 
Canadian authorities is borne out by the following facts : 

(a) The immense amount of money spent in fortifications. 

(&) The inauguration of an examination service, whereby all vessels 
were examined before being allowed to enter the harbor. 

(c) Halifax was the examination port for North America, and at 
times there were upwards of 200 large ocean-going vessels lying at 
anchor in the harbor. 



(d) The manning of the Port War Signal Station, by which all 
British and Allied warships were passed in under secret "signals and 

O) All guns in the various forts were kept loaded, and the crews 
were kept standing by day and night, ready for instant action. 

(/) The infantry continually patrolled the coast, guarding the 
approaches to the city, and protecting cable landings and wireless stations. 

(g) When orders were issued to reduce the strength of the defences 
in September, 1914, the British Admiral on the Station informed Head 
quarters that if this order were carried out he would withdraw his fleet 
and mine the harbor, which would mean closing the harbor to all 

(h~) A Hydroplane Station was established, and patrolled the coast 
daily during the latter part of the War. 

(i) Owing to the protection afforded by the defences of Halifax, the 
authorities were enabled to dispatch from this port in the vicinity of 
300,000 Canadian troops, in addition to many thousand Colonial and 
Allied troops, including Australians, New Zealanders, Bermudians, Fiji 
Islanders, Americans, and some 50,000 Chinese labor troops. 

(;) By means of its defence Halifax afforded shelter for a large 
number of merchant vessels that were driven in by German raiders 
early in the War. 

It should also be noted that submarines were frequently in the 
vicinity of the harbor, and on one notable occasion a large oil tanker 
was sunk two hours after she left her pier, and several fishing- 
vessels were sunk off the coast, and other large transports and cargo 
vessels were driven ashore at the entrance of the harbor. The 
transport City of Vienna became a total wreck. Preparations were 
made and orders issued to provide against possible landing parties 
from German raiders. Stringent orders were issued providing for 
the screening of all lights in the city and prosecutions were issued 
for neglecting to carry out this order. 

The foregoing is enumerated with the object of showing the 
importance of Halifax Harbor as a \\ar Station and the necessity 
of having it properly defended by maintaining the Garrison at full 





THIS Unit was organized in 1869 for the purpose of assisting 
the Regular Forces of the Garrison of Halifax in manning 
the Forts. The Regiment has always been at a high state of 
efficiency, due to the superior class of men it has been able to attract 
to its ranks. 

From the date of its organization the Regiment has been com 
manded by many prominent citizens. 
The following is the list in order of 
service: Lieut.-Col. A. G. Jones (late 
Lieutenant-Governor of Xova Scotia), 
Lieut.-Col. Wm. Creighton, Lieut.-Col. 
George Mitchell, Lieut.-Col. Thomas 
Mowbray, Lieut.-Col. A. E. Curren. 
Lieut.-Col. F. H. Oxley, Lieut.-Col. A. 
G. Hesslein, Lieut.-Col. H. Flowers, 
and. in 1914, at the outbreak of war, by 

Lieut.-Col. J. A. Marshall followed at UEUT .. COL . A . w DUFFUS . 
the completion of his term of service 

by Lieut.-Col. A. W. Duffus, who commanded up to the cessation 
of hostilities. 

On August 3, 1914, Capts. A. N. Jones, S. C. Oland, and George 
Brew were detailed for duty at the examination Battery. On 
August 4th the Commanding Officer received orders to mobilize, 
and on August 6th the Regiment was detailed to and occupied its 
various posts in the Batteries of the Fortress of Halifax. All 
officers and men in the city reported for duty; those absent were 
summoned by wire and letter, and joined the Unit within a few 

2 45 


The following officers remained with the Unit during the War, 
but did not proceed Overseas, because the Department at Ottawa 
claimed their services could not be dispensed with : 

Lieut-Col. J. A. Marshall, Lieut-Col. A. W. Duff us, Major A. 
M. Bauld (Q.M.), Capts. J. M. Allen (Adjt), \Y. C. Bauld (P.M.), 
L. J. Donaldson (Chaplain), Major H. E. Gates, Major P. O. 
Soulis (transferred to H.Q. M.D. No. 6), Capts. C. Churchill. 
A. F. Haliburton, L. L. Harrison, Lieuts. O. A. M. Wilson, G. B. 
Isnor, W. J. O Connell, J. E. Rutledge, A. H. Thomson, Leo Esther, 
G. W. Carmichael, W. E. Forsythe, C. R. Hoben, H. C. Frame, 
P. L. Whitman, D. A. Forsythe, R. M. Fielding, F. A. Grant, AY. E. 
Stewart, E. K. Fielding, H. H. Miller, W. Mitchell, A. J. Hali 
burton, C. H. Crosby, F. S. Thomson. 

The Department of Militia and Defence at first ruled that no 
officer or man of the Fortress could proceed Overseas, as his services 
were required here and he could not be spared. Later on this 
ruling was somewhat modified and officers and men were relieved 
as soon as they could be replaced by new men and permitted to join 
various Units. Many, however, were not accorded this privilege, 
much to their chagrin. 

Six hundred and twenty-five men and the following officers were 
permitted to go Overseas at various times and with various Units 
and branches of the service, taking any chance that offered rather 
than remain at home : 

Lieut-Col. E. V. Hogan, Major G. H. Maxwell, Major J. L. 
MacKinnon (now Lieut. -Colonel), Major A. N. Jones, Capts. L. N. 
Seaman, E. L. Miller, S. C. Oland, G. M. Brew, F. S. B irns, G. B. 
Oland, G. A. Medcalf, P. B. Stairs, Lieuts. J. R. Curry, W. M. Ray, 
F. B. Sharp, G. A. Gaherty, R. W. Churchill, D. T. Maxwell, E. P. 
Flowers, D. A. Guildford, E. A. Bell, H. R. D. Lacon, R. F. B. 
Campbell, T. De\V. Farquhar, H. M. Stairs, E. S. Thomson, F. H. 
Palmer, R. P. Freeman, C. H. Coll, J. D. Smith, W. P. Potter, 
F. G. Hayden, H. W. L. Doane, W. M. Marshall, A. G. Wooten, 
H. St. G. S. DeCarteret, E. G. Dickie, A. E. Home, R. G. Crosby, 
F. M. Blackett, R G. McAloney, W. R. Harris, M. B. Archibald, 
H. B. Bell, T. H. Whelpley, O. R. Crowell. 

And from the Reserve of Officers, Lieut. -Col. H. Flowers and 
Major Allister Fraser, M.C. Of these Major G. H. Maxwell, 



Capt. Philip B. Stairs, Lieuts. E. G. Dickie and R. G. MacAioney 
made the supreme sacrifice. 

It is impossible to give a list of the many non-commissioned 
officers and men who were a credit to their Regiment on the fields 
of Flanders. Their records appear with the records of the Units 
in which they served. 

It is supposed by many that the troops of the Garrison lived in 
comparative luxury, whereas the contrary was the case. Many 
hardships were undergone and, apart from the fact that the Hun 
raiders gave Halifax a wide berth, knowing that an attack would 
mean a waste of ammunition, which could not be replaced this side 
of Zeebrugge, conditions generally were often not so good as in 
France, owing to the severity of our climate. The casements in 
which the men were supposed to be quartered in time of war were 
entirely unfit for occupation as, owing to long disuse, they were in 
a very damp and unsanitary condition. The Unit was, therefore, 
placed under canvas, and it was late in December before any 
attempt was made to provide proper and suitable winter quarters. 
Owing to a fine distinction made between the Militia and Overseas 
forces, which only an army man can understand, the men were not 
provided with a full kit, even boots being denied them until many 
of them were actually barefoot. Underclothing and other neces 
saries had to be purchased by the men themselves, until at last the 
responsible authorities awakened to the fact that there was a real 
war on. 

About August 16, 1914, the first Canadian Contingent com 
menced mobilizing at Valcartier, and orders were received calling 
for volunteers from the Garrison. The 1st C.A. were to provide 
one officer and twenty-five other ranks. Capt. George M. Brew 
proceeded to Valcartier with the draft, and on arrival was told he 
was not wanted and ordered to return to Halifax. This officer was 
so disappointed that he resigned his commission and travelled to 
England at his own expense, where he joined a Unit of the Imperial 
artillery and served with it during the greater part of the War. 

In September, 1914, it was considered unnecessary to keep the 
Units on garrison duty at full strength, and a reduction was pro 
posed. The naval authorities, however, insisted that a fully garri 
soned fortress was necessary as a protection for the Xaval Base, 



and no reduction was made. Later on the artillery forces were 
increased. All of which shows the importance placed on the 
Fortress by the Imperial authorities during war time. 

From time to time the Commanding Officer offered the services 
of the Unit for Overseas, and asked permission to form Batteries 
of heavy and field artillery, but without result. Small detachments 
were allowed to volunteer as emergencies arose, such as artillery 
Units being short of men, on account of casualties occurring, while 
passing through Halifax, and then only on condition that men were 
found to replace them. It was not until 1917 that permission was 
given to form an ammunition column, and immediately on its com 
pletion a second one. 

Much might be written of happenings during the war period 
which, while of interest to the officers, non-commissioned officers 
and men, were all in the day s work and of no historical value. It 
is sufficient to say that this Unit with the other Units of the Garri 
son performed their duties well and satisfactorily. 





THE nth Brigade was the junior Artillery Brigade of the 
6th Military District. It comprised in addition to the 
Headquarters Staff, the 2;th (Digby) Battery, the 28th 
(Pictou) Battery and the 2gth (Yarmouth) Battery. Although 
the Brigade was not ordered out on active service, it contributed 
possibly more than its original strength in personnel to the prose 
cution of the Great War. Almost the first day of the War the 
Comma.nding Officer (Lieut.-CoJ. T. M. Seeley, of Yarmouth, 
N.S.) wired the offer of services to headquarters and the Battery 
officers busied themselves with looking to the details of organization. 
Capt. F. W. Pickles, O.C. 2Qth Battery (Yarmouth), joined the 
i;th Battery of Sydney, one of the first Units on the march, with 
a detachment of eighteen non-commissioned officers and men from 
his Battery. Subsequently every artillery Unit and many of the 
Infantry Battalions had on their strength representatives of the 
iith Brigade. This was made possible largely by the untiring 
efforts of a few senior officers, who for some good reason or other, 
were unable to proceed Overseas. Prominent among these were 
Majors H. S. Hamilton, of Pictou; D. C. McKay, of Digby, and 
A. K. Van Home, of Yarmouth. 

The services of the officers of the nth Brigade, summarily put, 
were: Lieut.-Col. T. M. Seeley, O.C., was successful in organizing 
the 23rd Battery, C.E.F. ; a Company for guard duty at Barrington 
Passage, Radio Station, and a Company in the H2th Battalion, 



C.E.F., under Colonel Tremaine, with which the latter crossed the 
Atlantic. Capt. A. A. Durkee, Adjutant of the Brigade, organized 
at Valcartier the first Ammunition Unit in the C.E.F., and pro 
ceeded Overseas with the First Contingent. He was early at the 
Front, and was promoted to Major and Lieut-Colonel, and com 
manded, in turn, a Brigade Ammunition Column, a Battery, and a 
Brigade of Artillery. He was mentioned in dispatches and was 
awarded the D.S.O. Lieut.-Col. Durkee is also a South African 
War veteran. Capt. V. F. Connor, C.A.M.C., was on duty through 
the greater part of the \Yar, and rendered valuable service at the 
time of the great explosion in Halifax, December, 1917. 

The 2/th Battery contributed to the C.E.F. Capt. Glidden 
Campbell, of Weymouth, who went over with the 85th Battalion, 
and who was awarded the M.C. ; Lieuts. C. D. Shreve, M.C., killed 
in action in the artillery; K. V. Schurman and H. A. Marshall. 

The 28th Battery had to its credit in the C.E.F., Major J. K. 
McKay, of Pictou, who went over in command of the 23rd Bat 
tery, C.E.F. He commanded a Battery and a Brigade of Artillery 
at the Front, being latterly promoted to the rank of Lieut. -Colonel. 
He was severely wounded and received the D.S.O. From the 28th, 
Lieuts. C. E. Churchill, H. P. MacKeen, J. E. Read, J. D. Hickman, 
H. P. MacKenzie, and possibly others, entered the C.E.F. Capt. 
V. C. Johnson, Corps Reserve,, was Overseas. 

The 2Qth Battery furnished (in addition to Adjutant Durkee, 
already mentioned) Capt. F. W. Pickles, who commanded a section 
of a Divisional Ammunition Column at the Front; Lieut. Ralph 
P. Harding, who rose to the command of a Battery, with the 
rank of Major, and returned with the M.C. and the D.S.O.; Lieuts. 
W. Arthur Porter, G. St. C. A. Perrin, E. J. Vickery, G. O. Rogers, 
E. J. Stekelin, who became Major; H. E. Crowell, who became 
Major: S. C. Hood, Jr., who became Captain, and M. B. Davis. 
The 29th Battery claims the honor of having had in its membership 
at one time Brig.-General W. O. H. Dodds, C.M.G., D.S.O., now of 




IN April, 1915, detachments from the 2/th Battery (Digby) and 
the 2Qth Battery (Yarmouth) and No. i Siege Company 
(Mahone), were assembled at Yarmouth, under Lieut-Col. 
T. M. Seeley, for preliminary training, and in May following pro 
ceeded to Barrington Passage for guard duty at the Radio Station. 
Among their duties was the construction of a road three miles long 
through a very difficult country. Practically the whole strength of 
this Company transferred to Overseas Units. Officers, in addition 
to the O.C : Capt. W. T. Ernst, and Lieut. C. Melvin. 



THE 63rd Regiment, Halifax Rifles, was first organized as a 
Regiment in 1860, under the title of " The Halifax Volun 
teer Battalion. The Volunteer Companies which then 
composed the Regiment had previously been acting as independent 
bodies. The first Colonel was Sir Willian Fen wick Williams, of 
Kars. and on March 16, 1860, Capt. William Chearnley (late of 
H.M. 8th King s Regiment of Foot), who was in command of the 
Chebucto Greys, was by an order from Adjutant-General s Office 
appointed Captain Commanding the Halifax Volunteer Battalion. 
This was the official date of the organization of the Unit, better 
known as the 63rd Halifax Rifles. 

The Companies comprising the Regiment at its formation were 
the Scottish Rifles, Chebucto Greys, Mayflower Rifles, Halifax 
Rifles, Irish Rifles, and Dartmouth Rifles. In 1862 the Dartmouth 
Engineers joined the Regiment, which mustered seven Companies. 

On November 10. 1862, the Halifax City Council presented the. 
Regiment with its first set of colors. The presentation was made 
by the wife of the Mayor, Mrs. P. C. Hill. On the same date, Lady 
Mulgrave, wife of the Governor of Nova Scotia, in the name of 
the ladies of the City of Halifax, presented the Regiment with a 
silver bugle, which was to be shot for each year. This bugle is 
still in the possession of the Regiment. 

In January. 1865, Captain Chearnley was appointed Lieut.- 
Colonel and the Battalion reorganized, two of the Companies, the 
Irish Rifles and Dartmouth Engineers, disbanding. The Halifax 
Rifles, which was double strength, took the place of the Irish Rifles 
-the muster now being six Companies. This Regiment had its 
first call for service in 1866, doing garrison duty during the alarm 
caused by the Fenian Raids into Canada. The service lasted from 
June 6th to July 3ist. 



In 1868 the Regiment was transferred from the Volunteer Force 
to the Active Militia, and was officially designated as the Halifax 
Volunteer Battalion of Rifles, and on May 13, 1870, the Militia 
Department having been regularly organized, the name changed to 
the 63rd Battalion of Rifles, and later to 63rd Regiment, Halifax 
Rifles, which name it retained up to and during the late Great War. 

Successive Commanding Officers were as follows: Lieut-Col. 
Chearnley, 1865 to 1871 ; Lieut-Col. Andrew MacKinlay, 1871 to 
1872; Lieut.-Colonel Pallister, 1872 to 1879; Lieut-Col. J. W. 
Mackintosh, 1879 to 1890; Lieut-Col. J. D. Walsh, 1890 to 1892; 
Lieut.-Col. T. J. Egan, 1892 to 1898; Lieut-Col. John Crane, 1898 
to 1903; Lieut.-Col. J. T. Twining, 1903 to 1908; Lieut.-Col. C. A. 
Gunning, 1908 to 1913; Lieut.-Col. I. W. Vidito, 1913 to 1917; 
Lieut.-Col. C. A. Mumford, 1917 until demobilized 1918. 

The 63rd furnished 109 officers and men for service during the 
North-West Rebellion. Major Walsh was in command, with Capts. 
Hechler, Cunningham and Fortune and Lieutenants Silver, James, 
Twining, McKie, Fletcher and Fiske. Captain Corbin was ap 
pointed Quartermaster of the Provisional Battalion. They entrained 
for the West on April 4, 1885, and returned to Halifax and rejoined 
their Unit July 24 of the same year. The Regiment also furnished 
sixty-one officers, non-commissioned officers and men for service in 
the South African War. 

On the declaration of the Great War, August 4, 1914, the 63rd 
Regiment, Halifax Rifles was ordered out for service in defence 
of the Fortress of Halifax. One hundred men under the command 
of Capt. H. N. Clarke, with Capt. J. W. Logan, Lieut. E. R. Dennis 
and Lieut. F. H. M. Jones, proceeded at once to Wellington Bar 
racks, and the remainder of the Unit was at once mobilized and 
proceeded under command to the various war stations assigned to it. 

By August 5, 1914, the mobilization of the Unit being com 
pleted, the Regiment paraded in full strength under Lieut.-Col. I. W 7 . 
Vidito, with Major W. E. Thompson Second in Command, and 
Capt. D. R. Turnbull, Adjutant, and proceeded to their new 
quarters, Wellington Barracks, where the Composite Company 
under Capt. H. N. Clarke was absorbed, the officers and men re 
joining their old Companies. 



On August i2th " B " Company proceeded to McNab s Island 
under the command of Capt. C. A. Mumford, with Lieuts. C. N. 
Bennett and W. E. Doane. "D" Company, under Capt. H. F. 
Adams and Lieut. C. J. Roche, proceeded to York Redoubt. On 
August i8th " G " and " H " Companies proceeded to the Eastern 
Camp Site, Dartmouth. These two Companies were under the com 
mand of Major W. H. Conrod. " G " Company (Capt. E. A. Voss- 
nack, Lieuts. G. S. Kinley and G. C. Sircom) occupied York Farm; 
Company (Capt. H. N. Clarke and Lieuts. E. C. Phinney 
and J. W. Grant) occupied Kuhn s Farm. On August 25th " D " 
Company under Capt. H. F. Adams moved from York Redoubt to 
Camperdown, and on the same date "A" Company (Capt. F. C. 
Kingdon, Lieut. R. C. McDonald); " C " Company (Capt. H. G. 
De Wolfe, Lieut. H. J. Stech) and "F" Company (Capt. J. W. 
Logan, Lieuts. G. M. Sylvester and F. H. Jones) moved to McNab s 
Island. "E" Company (Capt. E. K. McKay, Lieuts. O. Vossnack 
and E. R. Dennis) moved to Lawlor s Island. The last four Com 
panies were under the command of Major W. E. Thompson. On 
August 30th headquarters and regimental details moved to McNab s 

Immediately on arrival at their stations each Company started 
the work of digging trenches, placing wire entanglements, con 
structing blockhouses, dugouts, etc. The men were driven at top 
speed at this work, officers and men working all day as well as 
doing picquet duty at night. 

During the early days of the War H.M. ship Suffolk, then 
engaged in hunting for the enemy cruiser Karlsruhe, called at 
Halifax in urgent need of coal, and was coaled in record time by 
the 63rd Regiment. 

On August 22nd the*first Overseas draft was called for and 
twenty-four non-commissioned officers and men under command 
of Lieuts. A. F. Major and G. L. Stairs, proceeded to Valcartier 
:amp. On November 25, 1914, forty-eight non-commissioned 
officers and men were transferred to the 25 th Battalion, C.E.F., 
which was then being organized, and on December 6th Major W H 
Conrod, Lieuts. L. N. B. Bullock, G. C. Sircom and J. A. Grant 
were transferred to that Battalion. 

2 55 


Major W. E. Thompson was called in by Headquarters Military 
District No. 6 in December, 1914, to take over the work of Inspector 
of Outposts and Detachments throughout the district, with the rank 
of Lieut-Colonel. 

On May 20, 1915, Capt. Wm. Taylor, Lieuts. C. J. Roche and 
J. A. Watters, with thirty-three other ranks proceeded to Jamaica 
on military duty. On August 13, 1915, thirty-six other ranks were 
transferred to the 4Oth Battalion, then in training at Valcartier. 
In September, 1915, an Overseas Company was formed to which 
officers and men given permission to go Overseas were attached for 
training. From this time, all drafts from the 63rd for Overseas 
Units were taken from this Company. 

An Overseas draft of 100 other ranks with Lieuts. W. D. 
Simpson, H. D. Hilton and C. D. Llwyd were struck off the 
strength of the 63rd Regiment on February 25, 1916. 

Major H. F. Adams was appointed Officer Commanding Dis 
charge Depot, Halifax, from July I, 1916. A draft of eighty-eight 
other ranks under command of Lieuts. H. A. Creighton and Ben]. 
Taylor embarked for Overseas on July 15, 1916. The Regiment 
was inspected by Field-Marshall H.R.H. Duke of Connaught on 
August 24, 1916. 

The 63rd was placed on a four Company basis from November 
i, 1917. The Company officers were: "A" Company. Capt. F. C 
Kingdon, Lieuts. J. A. Watters, H. V. Wier, G. W. Churchill, 
H. S. Holloway. " B " Company, Capts. H. J. Steck, D. W. Ken 
nedy, Lieuts. F. A. Taylor, C. S. Innes, H. R. McCaughin, G. R. 
Forbes. " C " Company, Capts. E. Ricketts, G. S. Kinley, Lieut,. 
T. L. Parkman, J. E. Mdlsom, C. N. Innes. " D " Company, Capts. 
O. F. Vossnack, W. Taylor, Lieuts. E. G. McMinn. W. R. R. 
Tayler, H. H. Irwin. 

Lieut.-Col. I. W. Vidito was transferred to the Reserve of 
Officers on July i, 1917, and was succeeded in the command of the 
Regiment by Lieut.-Col. C. A. Mumford. On the morning of 
December 6, 1917, five officers and 143 other ranks were detailed for 
relief work following the explosion at Halifax. On April 16, 1918, 
the 6th Battalion Canadian Garrison Regiment was authorized, and 
in May the 63rd Regiment was relieved from duty. The following- 
named officers were transferred to the 6th Battalion: Lieut.-Col. 



C. A. Mumford. Capts. E. Ricketts, H. J. Steck, E. K. McKay, 
G. S. Kinley, Lieuts. H. V. Wier, J. A. Walters, E. G. McMinn, 
G. W. Churchill, J. E. Milsom, H. R. McCoughin, G. R. Forbes, 
R. J. Cohvell. 

The undermentioned officers were transferred to the ist Nova 
Scotia Depot Battalion: Lieuts. H. A. Wilson, W. R. R. Tayler, 
H. S. Holloway, Majors A. R. McCleave and H. N. Clarke, Capts. 
F. C. Kingdon, J. D. Monoghan and Lieut. T. Parkman were re 
lieved from active service. 

On the organization of the First Canadian Contingent the 
Regiment volunteered for service Overseas, but much to the dis 
appointment of all ranks had to continue its allotted duties in the 
defence of the Fortress of Halifax. Owing to the heavy demands 
on the Ordnance Department for clothing and equipment needed by 
troops preparing for embarkation the requirements of troops on 
Home Service could not be met until late in 1914, and for some 
time clothing was patched with flour sacks or any other material 
available, and worn out soles of boots were reinforced with shingles. 
In spite of all discouragements the 63rd faithfully performed the 
tasks assigned it, and when at last it was permitted to send drafts 
Overseas it became the ambition of all ranks to obtain a transfer to 
the Overseas Company. Altogether the Regiment supplied 70 
officers and 815 other ranks for service at the Front. 

The following is a list of officers who served with the Regiment 

at various times during the War. Those who went Overseas are 

marked *: *Lieut. A. B. Anderson; Capt. H. F. Adams (now 

Lieut.-Col. R. O.) ; *Lieut. A. A. Allenback; *Lieut. W. B. Arthur; 

*Lieut. H. P. Bell (Captain C.E.F.) ; *Lieut. C. W. Bennett 

(killed in action) ; *Lieut. L. N. B. Bullock (D.S.O. and Bar- 

Lieut.-Colonel C.E.F.) ; *Lieut. F. A. Brewster (M.C.) ; "Lieut. 

G. A. Campbell (killed in action) ; -Major W. H. Conrod; *Major 

H. N. Clarke; Lieut. J. H. Congdon ; Lieut. G. W. Churchill; 

*Lieut. W. L. Coleman; Lieut. H. J. Crosskill ; *Lieut. R. J. 

Cohvell; -Lieut. T. F. Campbell; *Lieut. C. H. Colwell; *Lieut. 

A. H. Creighton; *Lieut. H. A. Creighton ; *Lieut. B. Currie 

(Captain C.E.F.); Capt. H. G. DeWolf; Lieut. W. H. Dennis; 

*Lieut. E. R. Dennis (M.C, killed in action) ; *Major F. W. W. 

Doane; *Lieut. H. W. L. Doane; *Lieut. W. E. E. Doane (killed 

17 2 57 


in action); -Lieut. S. Downer; *Lieut. J. S. Davie (M.C., Major 
C.E.F.); Lieut. R. F. Davison; *Lieut. A. C. Delacroix ; *Lieut 
E. R. Eddy; Lieut. R. G. Forbes; *Lieut. W. G. Foster (killed in 
action) ; "Lieut. P. W. Freeman; Lieut. L. A. Gastonquay; *Lieut 
G. H. Gillis (D.F.C., Captain C.E.F.) ; "Lieut. J. A. Grant; "Lieut" 
Grant; "Lieut. R. J. Harris (died); *Lieut. J. A Harris" 
! Lieut. H. E. Hilton (killed in action); "Lieut. H. S. Holloway 
: Lieut. W. A. Hendry; *Lieut. E. J. Hallett (M.C.) ; "Lieut E A. 
Hartling; Lieut. H. H. Irwin; *Lieut. C. S. Innes; *Lieut Colin 
Innes; -Lieut. F. H. Jones (M.C); Capt. R. J. Huston; *Lieut 
Jubien ; Capt. F. C. Kingdon ; "Lieut. A. L. A. Kane ; Lieut 
W. Kennedy; Lieut. A. W. Kidner; "Lieut. G. S. Kinley (Cap 
tain C.E.F.) ; *Lieut. G. H. Keeler (M.C.) ; Lieut J. H. LeBlanc 
: Lieut. C. D. Llwyd (M.C., killed in action) ; *Major J W Logan- 
Lieut. G. R. Leslie; *Lieut. O. W. Lingham; *Lieut. A T Lewis 
. Captain C.E.F.) ; *Lieut. A. F. Major (killed in action) 
Lieut J. E. Milson; Capt. R. A. Milson; Lieut.-Col. C. A. Mumford 
Lieut. J. D. Monaghan; Capt. A. R. McCleave; Capt. E. K McKay; 
Lieut. R. C. McDonald; Lieut.-Col. J. W. McMillan (Chaplain) 
"Lieut. Geo. O. McDonald (drowned); Lieut. E. J. McMinn 
McCoughin; *Lieut. A. T. McDonald (Major 
L.F.); Lieut. T. L. Parkman; "Lieut. P. R. Phillips (M C ) 
: Lieut. E. C Phinney (Lieut.-Col. C.E.F.) ; *Lieut. G. C. Pickford 
Capt. E. Ricketts; *Lieut. C. Roche (killed in action) ; Lieut G B 
Robertson; "Lieut. W. M. Rogers; "Lieut. J. S. Roy; "Lieut C E 
Scarfe ; "Lieut. W. D. Simpson ; "Lieut. G. C. Sircom; *Lieut. W J 
Stairs; "Lieut. G. L. Stairs (killed in action) ; Lieut. H J Stech 
Smith; "Lieut. G. M. Sylvester (killed in action); 
Lieut. B. A. Taylor (killed in action) ; *Major W. E. Thompson 
Colonel D.O.C., Military District No. 6) ; Capt. W. Taylor, 
Lieut. J. F. Taylor; Lieut. F. A. Taylor; Capt. D. R. Turnbull 
: Lieut. W. R. R. Tayler, Lieut.-Col. I. W. Vidito ; Capt E A. 
Vossnack; Capt. O. F. Vossnack; Lieut. J. A. Watters; Lieut. 
V. Wier; *Lieut. H. A. Wilson; Lieut. P. J. Webb; Lieut 
R. E. Wellard; Lieut. H. H. Westbrooke; Lieut. A. B. West. 



FOLLOWING Great Britain s declaration of war against 
Germany on August 4, 1914, the 66th Regiment, Princess 
Louise Fusiliers, immediately paraded at the Halifax 
Armories and the same evening sent an advanced party of four 
officers and one hundred other ranks in command of Capt. D. S. 
Bauld to Wellington Barracks, where the balance of the Unit under 
its Commanding Officer, Lieut.-Col. 
H. L. Chipman, followed, and estab 
lished its headquarters on August 7, 
1914. Preparations were immediately 
made to place the 66th Regiment on a 
war footing, and excitement ran high 
because it was felt by all ranks that, 
this being one of the oldest Units in the 
Province, the 66th Regiment would be 
among the first to see real service; but 
the fact that it was never sent Overseas 
caused in the later years of the War a 
feeling of bitter disappointment, par 
ticularly among those who were destined to carry on tame and un 
attractive garrison duty throughout the War. 

The " Halifax Defence Scheme " unfortunately condemned it to 
this uninteresting work, and although the Regiment repeatedly 
volunteered for service Overseas its requests were ignored. The 
defence of Halifax was altogether a thankless task, and the often 
repeated assurance that the Regiment was performing the duties 
required of it brought little consolation to the officers and men 
whose sole ambition was to join their comrades in the Field. 




The personnel of the officers who turned out with the Regiment 
at the time of the declaration of war was as follows : 

Lieut-ol. H. L. Chipman Officer Commanding. 

Major and Bt. Lieut-Col. A. King. . Senior Major. 

Major R. B. Simmonds Junior Major and Acting Adjutant 

Capt. L,. Stephen Acting Quartermaster 

Lieut-Col. M. A. Curry Medical Officer 

Lieut-Col. W. J. Armitage Chaplain. 

Major R. H. Humphrey Paymaster. 

Company Officers. 

Capts. A. W. Weston, G. W. Murray, J. McFatridge, D. S. Bauld, 
H. H. Bhgh. R. W. Frost, C. E. Dowden. J. R. Glazbrook ; Lieuts. 
W. B. Medcalfe, G. W. Stairs, G. H. Liddell, C. A. Pages, J C 
Stairs, J. R. Simmonds, G. Dwyer, W. C. Borrett, J. H. Crosskill 
B. H. Smith, R. F. Studd, F. H. Marr, F. R. Heuston, D Stairs 
G. E. Creighton, L. E. VanBuskirk. 

Later two officers reported for duty from the Corps Reserve, 
and during the period of the War twenty-five additional officers 
were granted commissions in the Regiment. The Regiment at the 
outbreak of the War was on an eight Company basis, and it was 
not until December 6, 1915, that the double Company system was 

The first move of importance was the sending of a detachment, 
on August n, 1914, of four Companies, B, E, F and G, and the 
Regimental Machine Gun Section, all under command of Major 
R. B. Simmonds, to Chain and Long Lakes, with instructions to 
prepare a system of trenches, blockhouses, etc,, and arrange gener 
ally for the defence of Halifax City from any possible attack from 
the West. This force was designated the " Chain Lakes Detach 
ment," and with interchanges of officers and other ranks remained 
on duty at this post until January 15, 1917, when it proceeded to 
York Redoubt. 

The headquarters of the Regiment was moved from Wellington. 
Barracks to York Redoubt on August 29, 1914, and remained there 
until the demobilization of the Unit on May i, 1918. In January, 
I 9 I 5> Lieut.-Colonel Chipman was seconded from the Regiment and 
took over command of the Composite Battalion, which had been 
organized for garrison duty, and Lieut.-Col. A. King was gazetted 
O.C 66th Regiment, and continued so until the Unit was relieved 
from active service in May, 1918. 



About December i, 1915, authority was granted for the Regi 
ment to organize a reinforcing draft, five officers and two hundred 
and fifty other ranks. The South Barracks on Sackville Street 
were immediately taken over, and recruiting and organization work 
in connection with the draft was proceeded with. The draft finally 
sailed for England on January 22, 1916. This draft was com 
manded by Capt. R. F. Studd, the other officers accompanying it 
being Lieuts. T. F. Morrison, W. K. Fraser, L. J. Atkinson, and 
W. S. Fielding. 

During the War the 66th Regiment was inspected by His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Connaught, His Excellency the Duke of 
Devonshire, Major-General Gwatkin, Chief of the Canadian General 
Staff, Major-General Lessard, Inspector-General of Eastern Canada, 
and by many other distinguished soldiers, and was at all times 
most highly complimented on its excellent state of efficiency. 

This Unit played a prominent part in the relief work following 
the great explosion of December 6, 1917, which devastated a large 
portion of the City of Halifax, caused the loss of some seventeen 
hundred lives and entailed untold suffering among so many families 
for months following. Lieut. -Col. R. B. 
Simmonds was in command of all military 
and naval relief parties engaged in rescue 
work in the devastated area, and later was 
placed in charge of a committee to pro 
cure relief for dependants of all men who 
were serving at home or Overseas. It 
was the duty of this committee to find 
food, clothing and shelter for the families 
of all soldiers who had suffered in the 

explosion. A large number of mechanics ^ 

were placed under the direction of this LIEUT .- CO L. R. B. SIMMONDS. 
committee and the work of relief 

practically completed by May i, 1918. That the duties of this com 
mittee were all carried out it might be mentioned that it effected 
practically permanent repairs to over one hundred and sixty houses, 
besides looking after the needs of many suffering families, for 
which it was complimented by the Minister of Militia and received 
the thanks of the Halifax Relief Commission. 



Notwithstanding that the Regiment was kept in Canada, it was, 
nevertheless, called upon to perform various and arduous duties at 
all times. That the Regiment also assisted in a very tangible way 
in winning the War is proved by the fact that the 66th Regiment, 
Princess Louise Fusiliers sent fifty-four officers and eight hundred 
and fifty men to swell the ranks of various Overseas Units of the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force, a large number of whom are now 
sleeping their last sleep in the fields of Flanders, having upheld the 
honor of their Regiment and proved their belief in its motto 
" Fideliter." 




MUCH has been written of what was done by Canadian Units 
in France and Belgium, but little has been said of the Units 
compelled to remain on home service, which had to content 
themselves with performing garrison duties and supplying reinforce 
ments to the army in the Field. 

The 94th Victoria Regiment, Argyll Highlanders, with Head 
quarters at Baddeck, Cape Breton, was at the commencement of 
hostilities perhaps the most distinctively Highland Battalion in the 
forces of the Empire, inasmuch as the Gaelic language was the 
mother tongue of eighty per cent, of its personnel. As a rural 
Battalion it is recognized as having sent more officers and men 
Overseas than any other similar Unit in Eastern Canada. All its 
original members, excepting those over age or physically unfit, were 
transferred to C.E.F. Units; many of them paid the supreme 
sacrifice, and a number of them were decorated for distinguished 


At 9.30 a.m., August 4, 1914, the Officer Commanding the 
Battalion, Lieut.-Col. J. D. McRae, received mobilization orders. 
The marching-out strength, including the Canso detachment, was 
377 all ranks. The eight Companies were commanded by the 
officers, and proceeded to their different stations, on the dates named 
below : 

A " Co.. Capt. D. P. McRae, Whitney Pier, Sydney /th Aug. 

B Co., Capt. D. A. McRae, Marconi Towers, Glace Bay 6th 

C Co., Capt. A. J. McNeil, North Sydney 5th 

D Co., Capt. M. A. McLeod, Marconi Towers, Glace Bay.. 6th 

E Co., Capt. M. D. McKeigan, Louisburg 5th 

F Co., Capt. R. Y. McKenzie, Lloyd s Cove. Sydney Mines.. ;th 

G Co., Capt. J. G. Johnstone. Canso . 5th 

- H Co., Capt. W. D. McKenzie, Sydney 7th 

Regimental Staff to Headquarters, 33 Charlotte St., Sydney.,. 7th 



Regimental Staff. 

Lieut-Col. J. D. McRae ..Officer Commanding. 

Major J. S. McLean Second in Command 

Major A. D. McRae Junior Major. 

Capt. W. G. McRae Adjutant. 

Lieut A. J. Mclnnis Instructor of Musketry. 

Lieut. G. M. McNeil Signalling Officer. 

Major M. A. J. McDonald Quartermaster 

Major Dan McDonald Medical Officer. 

Capt. M. H. Morrison Paymaster. 



n /-> 

" E" 

" G " 


Co., P. W. Anderson and J. A. Kiley. 
Co., W. W. Nicholson and F. J. McCharles. 
Co., A. J. McDonald and J. A. McDonald. 
Co., N. J. McDonald and A. N. McKenzie. 
Co., J. L. McKinnon and D. McKenzie. 
Co., D. McKinnon and D. McKenzie. 
Co., 1C. L. McKay and J. Mclsaac. 
Co., A. McKinnon and J. D. McRae. 

Captain C. C. Mclntosh was Chaplain of the Unit, but was not 
called out for service with it. 

During the years 1914 to 1918 the following officers, sixty in all. 
were transferred to C.E.F. Units : 

M. W. Morrison and J. G. Johnstone. 

D. A. McRae. 
K. L. McKay. 
M. D. McKeigan. 

A. J. Mclnnis. 
G. M. McNiel. 
J. D. Mclntyre. 
W. J. Brothers. 
C. McDermid. 
G. B. Morley. 
J. W. Maddin. 
J. H. Mclvor. 

C. F. Gallant. 
A. E. Wilcox. 
S. Schoefield. 

J. A. McDonald. 
David Neil. 
P. W. Anderson. 
J. D. McNiel. 

D. H. McKenzie. 
L. G. McCorrison. 

J. Mclsaac. 
W. G. McRae. 

J. A. McKinnon. 
J. A. Rankin. 
C. Campbell. 
A. W. McLean. 
W. A. Livingstone. 
T. D. A. Purves. 
R. A. Pertus. 
G. D. Crowell. 
C. R. McKenzie. 
W. E. Beaton. 
M. J. Dryden. 
Alex. McDonald. 
A. H. Walker. 
C. Holland. 
R. Flemming. 
W. R. McAskill. 
A. M. Fraser. 


W. W. Nicholson. 
D. McKinnon. 
A. McKinnon. 

S. D. Morrison. 

C. W. Sutherland. 

D. N. McDonald. 
W. H. McConell. 
B. Campbell. 

F. J. McCharles. 
J. A. Holland. 
M. W. McKinnon. 
H. C. Verner. 
T. C. King. 
R. M. McDonald. 
M. J. McRae. 
A. S. Henry. 
D. S. Carey. 
J. B. Fraser. 
Theodore Chisholm. 


From a total of 344 other ranks who came out with the Battalion 
at the commencement of the War, 311 volunteered for service Over 
seas. It took time to train a sufficient number of recruits to replace 
these men, but within six months all had been transferred to C.E.F. 
Units and were on their way to France. Altogether the Battalion 
during its period of service sent 3,632 men to the Front, and it was 
a difficult matter at all times to retain a sufficient number of men 
to perform the necessary duties. 

The eight Companies of the Battalion were called upon to per 
form Garrison Guard and Outpost duties at important shipping 
points, wireless and cable stations, not only in Cape Breton but also 
at Canso. For defence purposes the troops at Marconi Towers, 
Glace Bay, Louisburg and Canso erected blockhouses and wire 
entanglements, built redoubts and dug trenches, in addition to 
carrying into effect a syllabus of training designed better to fit the 
men for their more strenuous work with the Expeditionary Force. 

The Battalion was demobilized June 29, 1918, and the follow 
ing officers were transferred to " F Company, 6th Battalion, 
Canadian Garrison Regiment, who assumed the duties previously 
performed by the 94th : 

Capt. A. J. McNiel. 


J. A. McDonald. J. D. McRae. Bert Campbell. 

L. E. McDonald. A. J. McDonald. J. R. Fraser. 

Dan McKenzie. 

Major M. J. McDonald, Quartermaster, was employed as the 
representative of the A.D. of S. & T. in Cape Breton, and Major 
D. McDonald, Medical Officer, was attached to the A.D.M.S., Mili 
tary District No. 6. The undermentioned officers were relieved 
from duty and returned to their homes :~ 

Lieut.-Col. A. D. McRae. 

Major W. G. McRae. 

Major J. Darke (attached from 4th P.E.I. Heavy Battery). 

Capts. D. P. McRae, D. McKenzie. J. A. Kiley, J. L. McKinnon. 

Lieuts. S. A. Reeves, J. D. Aucoin. 

N.C.O. s and men in Class i of the Military Service Act, and 
those who were willing to be transferred, were handed over to 
"F " Company, 6th Battalion, C.E.F., for duty in Cape Breton. 
18 26 5 


The following 94th officers transferred to C.E.F. Units were 
awarded decorations : 

Major P. W. Anderson Military Cross. 

Major M. D. McKeigan French Croix de Guerjre. 

Capt. W. A. Livingstone Military Cross and Bar. 

Capt. G. B. Morley Military Cross. 

Lieut. G. M. McNeil Military Cross. 

Lieut. W. E. Beaton Military Cross. 

Lieut. A. S. Henry Military Cross. 

Lieut. J. D. Mclntyre Military Cross. 

Lieut. A. E. Wilcox Military Medal. 

The following officers were killed in action or died of wounds : 

Major P. W. Anderson, M.C. 

Capt. M. W. McKinnon. 

Capt. W. E. Beaton, M.C. 

Capt. Aubrey McKinnon. 

Lieutenants A. H. Walker, W. R. McAskill, J. A. Mc 
Donald, J. H. Mclvor, J. A. Holland, A. M. Eraser, 
R. A. Pertus. 

It is impossible at the present time to obtain a nominal roll of 
the N.C.O. s and men who fell on the field of honor. The list is a 
long one, and in many Cape Breton homes, mothers, wives, sisters 
and sweethearts mourn with proud resignation the lads who will 
not return. Neither is it possible to obtain a complete list of 
decorations awarded. The summary that follows has been compiled 
from incomplete, unofficial sources : 

D.S.O i 

M.C 14 

Bar to M.C 

D.C.M 15 

M.M 79 

Bar to M.M 10 

M.S.M. 4 

Despatches 3 

Croix de Guerre 2 

The undermentioned N.C.O. s and men obtained commissions : 

Sergt. G. McL. Matheson (Major, 25th Bn.) D.S.O., M.C., M.M.. Despatches, 

Pte. Jas. A. Anderson (Capt.. 85th Bn.) M.C. 

Corp. C. J. Oram (Lieut., 25th Bn.) M.C. 

Corp. D. A. Livingstone (Lieut., 25th Bn.)..M.M. 

Corp. K. Morrison (Lieut., Can. Eng.) M.M. and Bar. 

Pte. Thos. Toone (Lieut., Can. Eng.) M.C, D.C.M., M.M. 

C. S.-M. R. Roberts (Lieut, 25th Bn.) D.C.M. 

Pte. J. R. Burchell (Capt., 8sth Bn.) M.C. and Bar. 

Pte. H. N. McNeil (Capt., 8sth Bn.) M.C. 

Pte. W. V. McKinnon (Lieut, 25th Bn.)...M.M. 

Pte. M. Gray (Capt., Can. Eng.) M.C.. M.M. 



Under the reorganization scheme of the Canadian Militia the 
94th Regiment is wiped off the slate and is succeeded by tire ist 
Battalion, Cape Breton Highlanders (85th Battalion, C.E.F.). The 
officers, N.C.O/s and men of the old Regiment, who served in it for 
years before the fateful summer of 1914, cannot view its passing 
without a certain measure of sadness and regret. The spirit of 
comradeship that existed among all ranks encouraged them to carry 
on through many difficulties in years of peace and enabled them at 
a few hours notice to proceed in full strength to their allotted 
stations, on the declaration of war. 

Inspired by the Regiment s ancient motto, " Dileas d on 
Bhrataich " ("True to the Flag"), every man who was physically 
fit, and many who were not, volunteered for service Overseas. 
They did their duty nobly and gave their country a full and over 
flowing measure of splendid service. The memory of our comrades 
whose mortal remains sleep in the stricken fields of France and 
Flanders will be held in affectionate recollection as long as life lasts. 
Of them the soldier poet of Nova Scotia, Dr. J. D. Logan, a ser 
geant of the 85th Battalion, who served with many officers and men 
transferred to that Unit from the 94th, writes : 

" They gave the All that men can give ; 

They gave themselves that men might live, 
They are Christ s heroes. Lo. on their brows Love s diadem ! 
O God of Righteous Battles, let it be well with them." 




THE Composite Battalion was formed at Halifax from Com 
panies drawn from the Militia Regiments of Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island to replace the 
Royal Canadian Regiment, which was transferred to Bermuda 
shortly after the outbreak of hostilities. 

Companies consisting of three officers and fifty-six other ranks 

were supplied by the 67th, 69th, 7ist, 
74th, 75th, 76th, 82nd and 93rd Regi 
ments, and arrived at Halifax on Sep 
tember 8th and 9th, 1914, taking over at 
once garrison duties from the 66th Regi 
ment, P.L.F., which proceeded to York 
Redoubt for outpost duty. 

The following guards were furnished : 
Quarter Guard, Wellington Barracks; 
Gun Wharf; King s Wharf; Lumber 
Yard ; Station Hospital ; Grain Elevator ; 
North Ordnance; Dry Dock; Ridhmond 
Pier and Rockhead Hospital. Weekly 

Guards were also mounted at Fort Clarence, Fort Cambridge, Fort 
Ogilvie and Point Pleasant Battery. 

The Battalion was commanded by Lieut.-Col. A. E. Carpenter, 
R.C.R., with Capt. M. E. Roscoe as Adjutant: 

The Company officers were: ; A " Company (67th Regiment) 

Capt. C. G. McLaughlin, later transferred to 64th Battalion, 

C.E.F. ; Lieut. C. Rideout, I45th Battalion, C.E.F. ; Lieut. C E. 

Williams, 55th Battalion, C.E.F. " B " Company (69th Regiment) 

Major Whitman, resigned and replaced by Capt. M. S. Parker, 

ii2th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. S. McNeil; Lieut. J. C. Willett, 

i65th Battalion, C.E.F. "C" Company (7ist Regiment) Capt. 




H. Woodbridge, 55th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. C. A. Good, R.F.C.; 
Lieut. B. Wade, resigned and replaced by Lieut. F. Fitzpatrick, 
55th Battalion, C.E.F. "D" Company (74th Regiment) Capt. 
S. S. Wetmore, 55th Battalion, C.E.F. ; Lieut. J. A. Sproul, re 
signed; Lieut. M. P. Gillis, H2th Battalion, C.E.F. " E " Company 
(75th Regiment) Capt. W. L. Whitford, 25th Battalion, C.E.F.; 
Capt. A. Berringer, resigned; Lieut. C. C. Morash, H2th Battalion, 
C.E.F. "F" Company (76th Regiment) Capt. H. Dickie, resigned 
and replaced by Capt. W. H. J. Moxsom, io6th Battalion, C.E.F. ; 
Lieut. O. G. Heard, io6th Battalion, C.E.F. ; Lieut. C. Major, 4Oth 
Battalion, C.E.F. "G" Company (82nd Regiment) Major F. 
Boulter, later transferred to io5th Battalion, C.E.F. ; Lieut. A. 
McLeod, 1 05th Battalion, C.E.F. ; Lieut. G. E. Full, 4Oth Battalion, 
C.E.F. "H" Company (93rd Regiment) Major G. R. Oulton; 
Capt. J. N. McDonald, io6th Battalion, C.E.F. ; Lieut. D. Anderson. 

In addition to the duties already enumerated, Guard was 
mounted over prisoners of war at the Citadel and at the Detention 
Barracks, Melville Island. The prisoners were German officers 
and men capturd on the high seas, with a sprinkling of civilians, 
some of whom were found on captured ships ; others were residents 
of Canada whom it was found necessary to intern. 

In March, 1915, the Interment Station at Amherst was opened, 
and two and one-half Companies under command of Major G. R. 
Oulton, with Capt. J. N. McDonald, Lieuts. Davidson and Sproul, 
were sent there, and were replaced by one Company from each of 
the following Regiments : 78th Regiment Capt. J. A. McKenzie, 
later transferred to 85th Battalion, C.E.F.; Capt. J. R. Maxwell, 
io6th Battalion, C.E.F. gist Regiment Capt. E. S. Doering; 
Lieut. J. H. Wallace, 64th Battalion, C.E.F., killed in action ; Lieut. 
W. W. Slack, 40th Battalion, C.E.F. 93rd Regiment Capt. J. A. 
McPherson, io6th Battalion, C.E.F.; Lieut. P. Boucher, 165 th 
Battalion, C.E.F. 

Lieut. E. W. Joy reported for duty to replace Lieut. C. S. Major, 
transferred to 4Oth Battalion, and assumed the duties of Fortress 
Intelligence Officer. Other officers on duty were Major F. S. 
Heffernan (O3rd), Quartermaster ; Lieut. Keith Rogers" (C.S.C.), 
Signalling Officer; and Lieut. R. Innes (8ist), Musketry Instructor, 
afterwards O.C. io6th Battalion. 



Previous to July, 1916, each Company Commander had his own 
account with the District Paymaster and was responsible for all pay 
ments to his officers and men. When the Battalion was recognized 
as a Unit it was allowed a Paymaster. Capt. H. B. Verge received 
the appointment and retained it until transferred to the Nova Scotia 
Forestry Battalion in June, 1917, when Capt. W. S. Brignell took 
over his duties. 

The Battalion suffered considerably in the explosion of Decem 
ber 6, 1917, losing six men killed and 87 per cent, of the N.C.O. s and 
men injured. One officer and two N.C.O. s died in hospital from 
injuries received. The more serious injuries were received by men 
on guard at Richmond Pier, North Ordnance and Dry Dock. All 
the men killed, excepting one, who was killed in the barrack room, 
were members of these Guards. A snowstorm with high wind 
which raged for thirty-six hours after the explosion made the 
barracks almost untenable, as windows and doors were gone and no 
fires could be laid until the chimneys were inspected. The morale 
of the men was good during this period. Many N.C.O. s and men 
had their families living near the barracks, a large number of whom 
were killed and injured. 

The first draft of one hundred men from the Composite 
Battalion was sent Overseas in January, 1916, under command of 
Lieuts. W. S. Brown and O. Thome. A second draft of fifty-six 
men, under command of Lieut. W. R. Clark, sailed on June 26, 
1916. A number of men were transferred to the R.C.R. Base 
Depot from time to time and were included in Overseas drafts sent 
by that Unit. 

When the Military Service Act came in force in 1918, 125 
men in the Composite Battalion, who came under its provisions, 
were sent Overseas. The remainder were transferred to the 6th 
Battalion, Canadian Garrison Regiment. All the senior officers 
were transferred to their Militia Units, with the exception of Major 
J. E. Morse, who was transferred to the 6th Battalion, C.G.R. 
The junior officers were transferred to the Depot Battalion, ist 
Nova Scotia Regiment, excepting Lieut. W. H. Whidden and Lieut. 
I. C. Banks, who were taken on the strength of No. 6 District 
Depot and appointed respectively O.C. Casualty Company and Dis 
charge Section. 



The following officers were on duty when the Unit was dis 
banded : Lieut-Col. H. L. Chipman, Officer Commanding; Major 
G. R. Oulton, Second in Command; Major E. K. Eaton, R.C.R., 
Adjutant; Lieut. W. B. Arthur, Assistant Adjutant; Capt. W. W. 
Brignell, Paymaster; Major F. S. Heffernan, Quartermaster; 
Major D. G. Mossmain, O.C. "A" Company; Major F. Boulter, 
O.C. "B" Company; Major J. E. Morse, O.C. : C Company; 
Capt. G. L. Whidden, O.C. "D" Company; Capt. S. L. McNiel, 
Lieut. W. L. Coleman, Lieut. R. J. Colwell, Lieut. H. C. Crosby, 
Lieut. C. McLellan, Lieut. J. R. Campbell, Lieut. W. E. Mitchell, 
Lieut. W. H. Whidden, Lieut. I. C. Banks. 

Other officers who had served with the Battalion in 1916 and 
1917 were as follows : Lieut. C. A. Vaughan, later transferred to 
io6th and resigned; Capt. A. Stirling, I45th; Lieut. W. Ross, 38th 
Battalion; Lieut. S. Rogers, R.C.R. ; Lieut. St. C. Stayner, un 
attached; Lieut. S. Bradford, R.F.C. ; Lieut. H. F. Arthur, 
R.N.A.S. ; Lieut. R. Asher, R.F.C. 

The following officers of the R.C.R. also served : As Adjutant, 
Lieut. G. L. P. Grant Suttie, who replaced Capt. M. E. Roscoe, 
transferred to the 2i9th Battalion, being later relieved by Capt. 
V. W. S. Heron, who in turn was relieved by Major Eaton. 




THIS Unit was authorized on September 25, 1917, for the 
purpose of looking .after the draftees under the Military 
Service Act. Lieut-Col. H. Flowers, formerly of the 64th 
and 25th Battalions, C.E.F., was appointed to command, with 
Lieut-Col. D. S. Bauld, 25th, Second in Command. The original 

officers of this Unit were all officers with 
service at the Front in France, invalided 
home, and unable to return on account of 
various disabilities. It was due to this 
experience that they were able to handle 
this Unit, which eventually reached the 
proportions of a Brigade with credit to the 
Province of Nova Scotia and themselves. 

The strength of a Battalion is roughly 
i ,000 all ranks, and at times the strength 
of the ist Depot Battalion, Nova Scotia 
Regiment, reached over 5,000. 


The original senior officers were : 

Major F. L. Stephens 64th and I4th. 

Major O. G Heard io6th and 87th. 

Major W. McPherson H2th and 87th. 

Major G. L. Mott 64th and I3th. 

Major Stanley C.F.A. 

Later the following were attached : 

Major Tnman iO5th. 

Major W. Grant 25th. 

Lieut.-Col. N. H. Parsons 246th. 

Adjutant, Cantain Simpson 85th. 

Paymaster, Capt Geo. Parish 25th. 

Quartermaster, Capt. W. St.C. Tngraham 25th. 



From time to time new officers who had not seen Overseas 
service were attached, and these were sent Overseas with drafts as 
soon as they could be gotten ready. 

The real work of the Unit commenced about February i, 1918, 
because quarters for mobilization were not available earlier, on 
account of the destruction of property caused by the Halifax ex 
plosion in December, 1917. The work was carried on at the Ar 
mories, Halifax, under most trying conditions. "A" Company was 
quartered at Charlottetown to take care of the Prince Edward Island 
draftees, and remained there doing this work until demobilized. 
" B " Company was moved to Amherst early in March, 1918, re 
maining there until May i6th, when it joined the Battalion at 
Aldershot, Nova Scotia, the Companies in barracks at Halifax 
having moved to Aldershot on May I3th. 

From that date the work of the Unit was extremely strenuous. 
Draftees were ordered in at the rate of 250 daily, and the Camp 
soon assumed the appearance of a Brigade. The men were medi 
cally examined, inoculated, vaccinated, and their dental troubles 
administered to. They were clothed, trained, and when they had 
become sufficiently expert to form fours, were equipped and sent 
to England to complete the training so well begun here. 

This Unit dealt with all men coming under the Military Service 
Act, who were either ordered to report or were arrested for some 
default under the Act, and in this way about 14,000 men passed 
through the files of the Unit. Of course, there was considerable 
shrinkage, because many did not come up to the necessary physical 
standard, and because others became casualties. In all some 5,000 
recruits were sent Overseas. 

The largest draft was one of 1,700. This draft paraded at 
8 p.m. on August 3, 1918; the roll was called, documents checked, 
etc. The men were then dismissed and ordered to parade and 
entrain at 4.30 a.m. on August 4th. Every man of the 1,700 an 
swered the roll call but one. He was late for parade but in time to 
entrain. His excuse was that he had been married after being 
dismissed the night previous. Under the circumstances the O.C. 
forgave his tardiness. This was the last draft to be sent. The 
War in Europe began to take on a more cheerful aspect; the 



farmers and fishermen were required for harvesting, etc., and some 
leave was given. 

In September the Unit moved back to the Halifax Common for 
winter quarters. November nth the Armistice was signed, and 
almost immediately the welcome order to demobilize was received. 
By March, 1919. all the affairs of the Unit were a matter of history. 


"B" UNIT, M.H.C.C. 

IN the spring of 1915, when the casualties of the Canadian Over 
seas Forces commenced returning to Canada, the best methods 
of dealing with them had to be considered. The first men to 
return were not for medical treatment. They were dealt with by 
the Discharge Depots at Halifax and Quebec. At these points the 
men received their discharge from the army, their tickets to their 
homes, a suit of civilian clothes, and the balance of pay due to them. 
Towards the fall of 1915 the sick and wounded commenced 
returning, at first in small numbers : and they were also dealt with 
by the Discharge Depots. Those not requiring further medical 
treatment were discharged and sent to their homes, with three 
months pay, paid in three monthly instalments. Those who re 
quired further medical treatment were also discharged, but were 
sent to the Convalescent Home nearest to their homes. These Con 
valescent Homes were small, and most of them were placed at the 
disposal of the Government by private individuals. They were all 
equipped by the Red Cross, I.O.D.E., and other local societies 
organized throughout Canada by the women of Canada. In the 
autumn of 1915 the Military Hospitals Commission was created, 
with authority to accept and administer these Homes. The powers 
of this Commission were almost unlimited as to their control, 
administration, and creation of Hospitals and Convalescent Homes 
for the treatment of Canada s troops returning from Overseas. 

In the spring of 1916 the sick and wounded returned in great 
numbers, and the Military Hospitals Commission having foreseen 
this, was well prepared to receive them, having provided large 
Hospital and Convalescent Home accommodation throughout 
Canada from coast to coast. 

The question now before the Government was how r were the 
men to be kept under discipline in these Hospitals and Convalescent 
Homes when the men were no longer soldiers, having received their 



discharge from the army when passing through the Discharge 
Depots at ports of arrival. It was finally decided that those who 
required further medical treatment would not receive their dis 
charge on arrival, but would be forwarded to the Hospital 
or Convalescent Home nearest to their homes and these men 
would receive their discharge from the army when their medical 
treatment was brought to a finalty. 

To take charge of the administration 
and discipline of these men, in the 
various Hospitals and Homes through 
out the country, the Military Hospitals 
Commission Command was created in 
June, 1916, "B" Unit being the Unit 
charged with the administration of the 
Hospitals and Homes throughout the 
Maritime Provinces. The Officer Com 
manding this Unit during the whole 
period of its existence two years was 
MAJOR j. F. TAYLOR. Major J. F. Taylor, of Halifax, an 

officer who had done excellent service in 

the Pay Branch, and who was selected to command the Maritime 
Province Unit on account of his tact and business knowledge. 
Major Taylor organized arid administered the affairs of " B " Unit 
in a highly efficient manner at all times, showing great sympathy 
to the men under his command. Owing to his great tact and 
business ability, the Unit was second to none in Canada. 

The duties performed by " B " Unit were manifold. Military 
discipline was adopted to a certain extent in all M.H.C.C. Institu 
tions, but had to be administered with regard to circumstances. 
The officers saw only the aftermath of the terrible cataclysm 
enacted " over there," and their hearts were absorbed in the work 
of repairing broken humanity. 

The personnel of the Staff of "B " Unit on March i, 1917, was 
as follows : 

Major J. F. Taylor Officer Commanding. 

Capt. C. M. Mosher Adjutant. 

Capt. F. A. R. Gow Medical Officer. 

Captain Clarke Ouartermaster. 

Capt. A. A. Peachy Paymaster. 


"B" UNIT, M.H.C.C. 

On November I, 1917, Capt. C. M. Mosher resigned as Adjutant 
and Capt. Walter Whitford was appointed to that office and carried 
on until " B " Unit was dissolved. In November, 1917, Capt. H. ( 
Sircom, a returned officer, was appointed Paymaster to succeed 
Capt. Peachy, who had been transferred to the Discharge Depot 


The Hospitals and Convalescent Homes that were turned over to 
" B " Unit by the Military Hospital Commission consisted of the 

following : 

The Parks Convalescent Hospital St. John, N B. 

Ross Convalescent Hospital Sydney, N.S. 

Clayton Convalescent Home Halifax, N.5. 

Dalton Sanitarium North Wiltshire, P.E.I. 

Ross Military Convalescent Home was presented to the 
M.H.C.C. by Commander and Mrs. J. K. L. Ross, of Sydney, C.B., 

on June i, 1915. 

The personnel in each of these Hospitals were transferred to 
the M.H.C.C., and, with the exception of a few minor transfers, 
carried on in the same efficient manner that had characterized them 
from the organization of the M.H.C.C. By 
constructing and taking over other large 
buildings, the M.H.C.C. soon made ade 
quate arrangements for dealing with the 
large number of soldiers returning from 
Overseas. Pier 2 having been taken 
over by the Militia Department for a 
Clearing Hospital, it was transferred to 
the M.H.C.C., February 15, 1917. Neces 
sary alterations delayed the opening of 
this Hospital until April i, 1917. Its ^^^ 

worth as a Hospital was well demon- CAPT VVALIKR WHITFORD. 
strated both while under the command of 
the M.H.C.C. and later under the command of the Clearing Services. 

Pine Hill Presbyterian Theological College, Halifax, was taken 
over by the M.H.C.C. as a Convalescent Hospital on March i, 1917, 
and Capt. M. S. Hunt was placed in charge, with Major Philip 
Weatherbe, Senior Medical Officer, and Capt. John Cameron, Resi 
dent Medical Officer. Capt. Dexter McCurdy was also a member 
of the Medical Staff but was transferred on Overseas service in 



August, 1918. This Hospital, situated as it was, on the shores of 
the Northwest Arm, Halifax, proved a great boon to the returned 
convalescent soldiers. Its location adjoining Point Pleasant Park 
was an ideal one for the care and comfort of convalescent soldiers. 
There was an abundance of pure air, shady trees, and pleasant 
walks, and though quite removed from Halifax City and its noisy 
traffic, it was still sufficiently near to permit men able to walk to 
get a tram car running into the city, where they could enjoy a few 
hours with friends at a theatre or elsewhere. At the rear of the 
Home the waters of the Northwest Arm gave the men ample 
opportunity for boating, bathing and various other water sports, of 
which they took full advantage during the summer months. It is 
the unanimous opinion of the returned soldiers that Pine Hill was 
the Ideal Convalescent Hospital in Nova Scotia. 

In May, 1917, the Moxham Convalescent Hospital at Sydney, 
C.B., was opened, with Major F. O Neil in command. Major 
O Neil who had been in command of the Ross Convalescent Home 
from December, 1916, was an efficient officer and discharged his 
duties in a very satisfactory manner. 

During the latter part of July, 1916, an arrangement was made 
with Dr. F. A. Miller, of the Kentville Sanitarium, to deal with 
tuberculosis patients ; for a great number of the men returning 
from Overseas were pronounced tubercular. Within a very few 
days Kentville Sanitarium was full of patients, and although from 
time to time large additions were built to the Sanitarium, it was 
always taxed to its utmost capacity. In fact during the summer of 
1917, many hospital tents were erected on the Sanitarium grounds, 
for the accommodation of tubercular patients, and when autumn 
with its cold winds became too severe, many patients had to be sent 
to their own homes, to be treated until room was available at the 
Sanitarium, when they were recalled. Great credit is due to Dr. 
Miller for the splendid manner in which he dealt with the patients 
under his control. Capt. A. G. Forster, a returned officer, was in 
charge of Administration and Discipline of the Kentville Sanitarium 
and was a conscientious, hard-working officer. 

On July i, 1917, "B" Unit had on its strength 1,886 officers 
and other ranks all receiving medical treatment. About 50 per cent, 
of this number were out-patients, with home leave. These men 


" B " UNIT, M.H.C.C. 

were recalled to the Hospital from time to time as their physical 
condition demanded. 

About this time Xe\v Brunswick became a separate Military 
District, and it was decided to organize a separate M.H.C.C. Unit 
for New Brunswick. This was accordingly done, and the transfer 
of men and documents was completed in July, 1917. 

In the early spring of 1917 construction work was begun on a 
Convalescent Hospital at Camp Hill. Halifax, and by October i, 
1917, the building was completed sufficiently to receive patients. 
This hospital was fitted up with all modern medical appliances and 
proved a Godsend to the people of Halifax, when on December 
6, 1917, the city was shocked by the terrific explosion. 

At the opening of Camp Hill Hospital, Lieutenant .Blackwood 
was placed in charge by the M.H.C.C. and Major (now Lieut.-Col.) 
C. Morris was Senior Medical Officer. An efficient Staff was soon 
organized which carried on Until the Hospital was transferred to 
the A.M.C. on December 6, 1917. Immediately after the explosion 
all patients able to walk were given home leave and the Hospital 
and Staff complete was turned over to the Medical Relief Com 
mission for the purpose of dealing with the sufferers of the ex 

The writer of this article has visited Casualty Clearing Hospitals 
in Flanders on " Clearing Day " but never has he seen such human 
suffering as he saw at Camp Hill Hospital when he walked into the 
Hospital at 4 p.m. on December 6. 1917. The Hospital at Pier 2, 
also the offices of the M.H.C.C. were destroyed by the explosion. 
The Hospital was quickly rebuilt, but the offices were removed to 
Leith House, Hollis Street, Halifax, and these offices were retained 
until the Unit was disbanded. 

On March 31, 1918, the Military Hospitals Commission Com 
mand was disbanded by an Order-in-Council. The military end of 
the work was taken over by No. 6 District Depot, and the civilian 
end by the D.S.C.R. Final transfer of all equipment and records, 
etc.. of the M.H.C.C. to No. 6 District Depot was effected on April 
18, 1918. 



IN common with other universities in the Empire, Acadia emptied 
her halls when the call to duty came. Her ideals had always 
been those directly opposed to war, but to carry out these 
ideals, it was necessary to participate in it. Between six and seven 
hundred Acadia men and women enlisted. There was no definite 
Unit formed by the Acadia men, but they were found in all de 
partments of the service. Sixty were in the Nova Scotia High 
land Brigade, mostly in "D" Company, 2i$th Battalion; and their 
Platoon, number 13, won the Brigade trophy for efficiency. Ten 
students left Acadia at one time with the 4th Universities Company 
Reinforcements, Princess Patricia Canadian Light Infantry. The 
attendance at the University was cut down to about one half, not 
withstanding the fact that the number of young women remained 
constant. The Freshman class was unusually large, but as soon as 
the age of eighteen was reached, practically no fit man remained. 
Of the Acadia students, sixty-three lost their lives in service, sixty- 
two young men and one young woman. 

We have no definite figures concerning honors, but about eighty 
were conferred on Acadia men, one of which was the coveted 
Victoria Cross, the only one awarded to a college man in the 
Maritime Provinces, and, in fact, the only one awarded to a Mari 
time Province Unit. One of our Acadia men had the distinction 
of being the youngest Lieutenant-Colonel in the British Army, 
commanding the loth Alberta when twenty-six years of age. He 
received the D.S.O. and two Bars, the Military Cross, was five 
times mentioned in dispatches, and was recommended for the 
Victoria Cross. The only colored chaplain in the British Army 
was an Acadia man. In addition to those who enlisted in the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force, we had a number who enlisted with 



the Americans, and still others who enlisted with the British, all 
of whom gave splendid account of themselves. 

When the War broke out, there was a branch of the C.O.T.C 
at Acadia, but it went out of business early because practically every 
member enlisted. The officer in charge of the C.O.T.C. for Military 
District No. 6 told me that a larger number of C.O.T.C. men went 
from Acadia than from any other Maritime University. Since the 
War, many students have returned to the University to complete 
their work, and, without exception, they are making excellent re 
cords. Acadia has offered one year s free tuition to returned men, 
being the only university in Canada to do that. 

In 1919, the returned men at Acadia met, and, after consultation, 
decided that something should be done in the way of a Memorial for 
those who had given their lives in the War. The suggestion was 
made that this memorial should take the form of a Gymnasium, 
typifying the splendid physical condition, the manly vigor, and 
sporting spirit of the boys \vho went Overseas. 

In 1914 our Gymnasium had been destroyed by fire, and a com 
mittee of eight young men had been appointed to raise funds for a 
new Gymnasium. Of these eight, six had dropped the burden of 
responsibility of the Gymnasium and had gone to war, one of whom 
was killed at Passchendaele. It seemed most fitting that their work 
should be carried out by those who were left, and the next of kin 
of all those who had given their lives were consulted, and agreed to 
the proposal. 

As a result, this Gymnasium is now in process of construction, 
and will be a building in every way suitable as a Memorial for those 
boys who have fallen. On May 26, 1920, General Sir Arthur W. 
Currie, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., D.S.O., formerly Commander of the 
Canadian Corps in France, laid the corner stone of the new Gym 
nasium and delivered an address on that occasion. 

While we feel that Acadia s part in the War was no more than 
it should have been, we are justly proud of the willing sacrifice, the 
ready response, and the splendid record made by our Acadia men. 



THE activities of Dalhousie University in connection with the 
Great War may be considered under the following headings . 
(i) The Activities of the C.O.T.C. ; (2) The Dalhousie 
University Stationary Hospital No. 7, C.E.F. ; (3) Activities of the 
Staff; (4) Independent Undergraduate Enlistment. 

THE OFFICERS TRAINING CORPS. Great Britain was forced to 
declare war on Germany on August 4, 1914; so that when the 
University session of 1914 opened., it was under war conditions. 
The earliest corporate war effort of Dalhousie University was a. 
mass meeting in the Law Library, held on October 16, 1914, for 
the purpose of taking steps to form an O.T.C. The chair was 
taken by Earle C- Phinney, at that time President of the Council 
of Students. The meeting, which was most enthusiastic, was ad 
dressed by President Mackenzie, G. S. Campbell, Chairman of the 
Board of Governors, and by Major W. E. Thompson, Secretary of 
the Board. It was ultimately agreed to ask Major Thompson to 
organize an O.T.C. ; and all those willing to co-operate were invited 
to sign the roll. Ninety-two names were given in at once on the 
conclusion of the meeting; of these, five were whole-time Pro 
fessors. Drill began at once in the South End Rink, Sergeant- 
Major Graham of the Permanent Staff being instructor. 
Some of the original officers were : 

Major W. E. Thompson, O.C. 
Capt. D. Fraser Harris, Adjutant. 
Capt. Murray MacNeill. 
Capt. D. A. MacRae. 
Capt. George Henderson. 
Capt. A. W. Cogswell. 

Each was in command of a Platoon. 



Alumni and business men interested were permitted to join, and 
there was so much activity in the autumn of 1914 that by the middle 
of December the Corps was ready to be inspected by General Sir 
Sam Hughes, Minister of Militia. The inspection took place on 
December i8th in the South End Skating Rink, The maximum 
strength during the first winter session was close on 200. On May 
4, 1915, the Corps was inspected by General Rutherford, command 
ing the Garrison. Lectures continued well on into the summer of 

By the session of 1916 Professor John Cameron, of London, 
had been appointed to the Campbell Memorial Chair of Anatomy in 
Dalhousie University, and having had a considerable amount of 
military experience both with the Volunteer Artillery in Scotland 
and with Infantry Volunteers in England, was well qualified to take 
command of the O.T.C., Major Thompson, as Lieutenant-Colonel. 
having been appointed to the Headquarters Staff as A.A.G. of 
Military District No. 6. This Professor Cameron did with the rank 
of Major, and retained the command and gave most of the systematic 
instruction during the remainder of the existence of the Corps. By 
arrangement with Colonel Papineau, commanding the R.S.I., candi 
dates for commissions were examined at Wellington Barracks. In 
this way a considerable number of members of the O.T.C- obtained 
commissions and were enabled to proceed Overseas with the various 
Units which were being formed as the War progressed. No less 
than seven officers who had passed through the D.U.C. O.T.C. went 
Overseas with the 21 9th Battalion of the Nova Scotia Highland 
Brigade. Practically every able-bodied male student was a member 
of the O.T.C. during the first winter session; and no less than 
twenty-five members of it were students from the affiliated Presby 
terian College at Pine Hill. 

The session of 1916-17 was a very strenuous one. Drill took 
place in the evenings at the newly-erected Market Building at the 
head of Duke Street, Major Cameron superintending the drill and 
also giving lectures either there or in the rooms of the Board of 
Trade. During each winter firing practice was systematically carried 
out at the miniature ranges erected in the Engineering Laboratory 
of the Technical College. In March. 1917. the Corps was inspected 
in the Market Building by Major Cooper of the R.S.I. The O.T.C. 



is still in existence ready to become active again as soon as the 
University is in possession of a drill hall. 

STATIONARY HOSPITAL UNIT. The origin of No. 7 Stationary 
Hospital was the desire of the Medical Faculty of the University to 
serve their country in the Great War. Early in September, 1914, 
an offer was made to provide the personnel of a Casualty Clearing 
Station; this offer was renewed in the spring of 1915, but the 
Federal Government was not at that time in a position to accept it. 

It was very generally felt that the only School of Medicine in 
the Maritime Provinces ought to have a representation on the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force. Those who were the most active 
in renewing the offer were Major George M. Campbell, Major C. V. 
Hogan, and Capts. J. R. Corston, M. A. MacAulay, L. M. Murray 
and F. V. Woodbury. The Government accepted the offer on 
September 27, 1915. On November 1st, the old Medical College 
building was occupied as rooms for headquarters, and enlistment 
and training began. On December i6th the Unit was inspected by 
General Benson, G.O.C, and by Col. J. A. Grant, A.D.M.S., Military 
District No. 6. On December 3ist the Hospital sailed from St. 
John, N.B., on H.MS. Metagama, arriving at Plymouth on January 
10, 1916. On February 5th the Unit took over Shorncliffe Military 
Hospital, and on June 18, 1916, embarked for France. 

The personnel of the Dalhousie Hospital Unit was made up as 
follows : O.C., Lieut.-Colonel John Stewart, Majors E. V. Hogan 
and L. M. Murray, Capts. M. A. MacAulay, V. N. MacKay, K. A. 
MacKenzie, E. K. MacLellan, S. J. MacLennan, D. A. MacLeod, 
J. A. Murray, John Rankine, Frank V. Woodbury, Karl F. Wood- 
bury, Lieut. S. R. Halcom, Lieut, and Quartermaster Walter 
Taylor. The Matron was Miss L. M. Hubley, and there were 
twenty-six nursing sisters. Of all other ranks there were one 
hundred and twenty-three men. Sixteen additional men were taken 
on at Shorncliffe, England. 

The Unit arrived home from active service early in the morning 
of St. George s Day, 1919, on the SS. Belgic; in the evening they 
were entertained at dinner at the Green Lantern in Halifax. Col. 
John Stewart who returned a little later was entertained at a dinner 
given in his honor on June 20, 1919. 



ACTIVITIES OF THE STAFF: I. The Faculty of Arts and Science. 
-The only full-time Professor in the Senate to go Overseas on active 
service was Professor James Eadie Todd, M.A., who saw service 
with the B.E.F. in India and in Mesopotamia. Professor Todd, 
who remained with the troops until the end of the War, did not 
return to Dalhousie University. Professor Howard Murray, LL.D., 
during the first year of the War, was a member of the O.T.C. 
Professor MacNeill during the first year of the \Var had command 
of a Platoon in the O.T.C. Professor J. N. Finlayson, M.Sc., 
entered the O.T.C. at its formation and qualified for a commission 
in the infantry. Mr. J. W. Logan, M.A., went Overseas as Captain 
in the 25th Canadian Infantry Battalion, attained his majority in 
June, 1916, and. saw service in France until the end of the War. 
The Rev. H. A. Kent, M.A., D.D., having passed through the O.T.C. 
obtained his Captain s commission on March I, 1916, and went 
Overseas as a combatant in the 2ipth Battalion of the Nova Scotia 
Highlanders. Captain Kent saw service until September, 1917, 
when he was transferred to the Chaplain Service, in which he acted 
as Adjutant. He was also engaged in educational work in London 
until he returned to Canada in May, 1919. Mr. Harry Dean, 
Examiner in Music, had command of a Platoon in the O.T.C., and 
qualified for a commission in the infantry. 

II. The Faculty of Law. The Dean of the Faculty of Law, 
Professor D. A. MacRae, Ph.D., joined the O.T.C. and had com 
mand of a Platoon during the first session. Mr. John E. Read. 
B.C.L. (Oxon.), B.A. (Dal.), Rhodes Scholar, Lecturer on Real 
Property, enlisted in the 25th Battalion in November, 1914, but was 
immediately transferred to the Canadian Field Artillery, and took 
an officer s training course at the Royal School of Artillery, Kings 
ton. In February, 1915, Mr. Read joined the 23rd Battery of the 
C.F.A. at Fredericton and immediately proceeded Overseas. In 
July he was transferred to the Divisional Artillery (ist Canadian 
Division) and served in the 4th, 8th and 26th Batteries as Lieu 
tenant, being promoted to the rank of Captain in July, 1916, on his 
transference to the 2/th Battery. While Captain Read was Acting- 
Major he was wounded in January, 1917. From May, 1917, to 
March, 1918. he was Senior Gunnery Instructor at the Canadian 
School of Gunnery, being invalided to Canada in April, 1918. 



Captain Read was mentioned in Sir Douglas Haig s dispatches in 
June, 1917. 

III. Faculty of Medicine. After Professor Cameron relin 
quished the command of the O.T.C. he reverted to the rank of 
Captain, and entering the C.A.M.C. became Resident Physician of 
the Military Hospital which had been installed in the Presbyterian 
College at Pine Hill, Halifax. 

Professor A. G. Nicholls, who attained the rank of Major, 
entered the C.A.M.C. as Captain and discharged the duties of Chief 
Bacteriologist, Serologist and Sanitary Officer for the Halifax 
Garrison. Dr. W. H. Hattie, with rank of Captain, saw service 
with the C.A.M.C. in Halifax. Professor Fraser Harris, with rank 
of Captain, acted as Adjutant to the O.T.C. as long as that Corps 
remained in activity. The governors could not see their way to 
granting his request for leave of absence for Overseas service. 
Besides addressing recruiting meetings, Professor Harris gave 
courses of instruction in First Aid, under the auspices of the St. 
John Ambulance Association, to large classes of men, both in the 
service and to civilians, to women students and to cadets. 

The following members of the Staff gave their services in the 
C.A.M.C. in connection with the Halifax Garrison: Colonels George 
M. Campbell and M. A. Curry; Capts. W. Bruce Almon, M. J. 
Carney, J. S. Corston, J. F. Lawlor, G. A. Macintosh, Philip 
Weatherbe and Hugh Schwartz. 

IV. The Faculty of Dentistry. Although the health of the Dean 
of this Faculty, Dr. Frank Woodbury, precluded him from entering 
military service, both his sons were able to go Overseas. The elder, 
Frank Valentine, who at the outbreak of the War was already 
acting D.A.D.M.S. in Military District No. 6, with the rank of 
Captain, was immediately mobilized. This appointment he resigned 
to become Adjutant in the No. 7 Stationary Hospital, C.E.F., in 

In August, 1916, Captain Woodbury was appointed to No. 3 
Canadian Intrenching Battalion, and in August, 1916, proceeded to 
the Front at Ypres with that Unit. Later he was posted to the 
9th Canadian Field Ambulance, and saw service at Ypres, on the 
Somme, at Vimy and at Loos. Having been promoted, Major 
Woodbury was recalled to headquarters at London for Staff duty. 



He was ultimately appointed A.D.M.S. with the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel, returning to Ottawa for duty in November, 1919. 

Dr. A. W. Cogswell, Professor of Dental Pathology and Thera 
peutics, joined the O.T.C. in November, 1914, and as Captain had 
command of a Platoon. 

Dr. George Kerr Thomson, Professor of Crown and Bridge- 
work and Ceramics and Oral Hygiene, at the outbreak of the War. 
held the rank of Captain in the 63rd Halifax Rifles. Later he was 
transferred to the C.A.D.C. and appointed Assistant Director of 
Dental Services in Military District No. 6. When, early in 1915, 
Sir Sam Hughes ordered the organization of the C.A.D.C. Major 
Thomson was made First Director of Dental Services. In 1916 the 
Dental Services at Valcartier Camp were organized by Major 
Thomson with the assistance of Captain F. H. Bradley of Military 
District No. 4. Dr. W. W. Woodbury, Professor of Ortho- 
dontia, who had been appointed Captain in the C.A.D.C. in May, 
1918, proceeded to Aldershot Camp, where as A.D.D.S. for the 
Camp he had charge of all the Dental Services there. In October, 
1918, Dr. Woodbury was posted for special duty at McNab s 
Island, where he remained until January, 1919, when he was ap 
pointed to Camp Hill Hospital, to superintend the dental treatment 
of returned soldiers. He remained at this centre until general 
demobilization on November 15, 1919. 

Undergraduate Enlistment. From the very first hour of the 
War, the attention of the undergraduates had been directed to 
joining the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Up to the date of the 
Armistice five hundred and eighty members of the University had 
enlisted for military or naval service, either Overseas or in Canada. 
Of these, sixty-seven are known to have lost their lives, and forty- 
four to have received decorations for distinguished service. Of 
those who were decorated, five lost their lives. The decorations 
are as follows : 

D.S.0 3 

D.C.M 3, i with Bar 


M.M 4 

M.C 32, 2 with Bar 

Croix de Guerre i 

These do not include decorations awarded to members of the Staff. 



The names of those winning the D.S.O. are: John Keeller 
MacKay of Pictou (Law 13- 15), Colonel and O.C. 22nd Battalion 
6th Howitzer Brigade, B.E.F. J. Layton Ralston (Law 02-^03) 
Amherst, Colonel and O.C. of the Ssth Battalion, C.E.F. Barry 
Wentworth Roscoe, of Kentville (LL.B. 04), Major 5th C.M.R., 


At the outbreak of the War the University had on its books 398 
students, of whom 90 were women. Of the 308 male students of 
the session 1914-15 by the end of the session practically every third 
man had enlisted for military service. 

So many students left the Presbyterian Theological College, Pine 
Hill, Halifax, as to make it only the shadow of its former self. In 
the session of 1914-15 as many as twenty^five students from Pine 
Hill were drilling with the O.T.C. ; thirteen men from this College 
ultimately saw service Overseas. 

Of students of Engineering in the session of 1914-15, twenty- 
one were enrolled in the O.T.C. 

Of Law students twenty-two were on the roll of the O.T.C. 
during the first session. 

One cannot write of what Dalhousie University did in the War 
without a few words as to what she suffered. The only son of the 
Chairman of the Board of Governors, Mr. G. S. Campbell, LL.D., 
Lieut. George Henderson Campbell, was killed near Ypres in May, 
1916. He had graduated B.A. in the previous May, and was within 
only two days of his 2ist birthday. Two Rhodes Scholars lost 
their lives in the Great War. namely: Walter Melville Billman 
(B.A. 13), Lieut, ist Middlesex Regiment, B.E.F. ; and Harry 
Austin MacCleave (B.A. 16). Lieut. i3th Montreal Highlanders, 
C.E.F. While the accidental death of the young, the healthy and 
the brave is always a poignant sorrow, the passing of those who are 
also the finest products of the academic culture of their day is a 
catastrophe of the first magnitude. 





THE University of King s College at Windsor, N.S., has al 
ways been small in numbers, but always big in the spirit 
it has displayed and in the type of men it has fostered. 

It was founded in 1/89 the oldest University in the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas by United Empire Loyalists, by men 
who readily gave up all they possessed in a material sense rather 
than forsake their allegiance to an ideal. It is not surprising 
then that at all times there have been King s men ready to answer 
the King s -call and that the names of men such as Inglis and 
Welsford are held in special reverence by their Alma Mater. 

The spirit of loyal service and sacrifice that has actuated King s 
men was at once evident in her sons when the Great Call came in 
3914. and King s has every reason to be proud of her record of 
loyalty and devotion in the Great "War. More than four hundred 
of her sons were at the King s side during that fierce struggle for 

In 1914 there were at least twelve King s men, including seven 
Generals, holding commissions in the Imperial Army and the Cana 
dian Permanent Forces. 

Fourteen volunteers sailed with the First Contingent of the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force, four of whom were killed in action. 
The first King s man to make the Great Sacrifice was Capt. G. L. B. 
Concanon, who was killed in the .Dardanelles Campaign while 
serving with the 2nd Battalion of Australian Infantry. 

In the Second Contingent were some thirty-five students and 
graduates of the College and a number of " Old Boys " of the 

Amongst the notable enlistments from College during the War 
were the nine who volunteered for service in the Cycle Corps of the 
2nd Contingent, and some twenty, mostly students, who enlisted 
19 289 


together in the itj^rd Battalion, Nova Scotia Highland Brigade. 
This latter represented an enlistment of about 50 per cent, of the 
student body then in residence at King s College and included one 
of her Professors. 

During the period of the War the largest nu mber of male 
students in attendance at King s College was forty-eight, and this 
number was reduced to a few physically unfit men in 1917, and yet 
sixty-seven students actually enlisted from the College, and ten of 
them made the supreme sacrifice. In all twenty-three King s men 
fell in action on the Field of Honor. 

So reduced was the student body that when the Military Service 
Act came into effect there was not one physically fit student left to 
come under the provisions of that Act. 

Early in 1915 a contingent of the Canadian Officers Training 
Corps was organized at King s College under Professor Sturley as 
Officer Commanding, and did very useful work not only amongst 
the students at College, but also amongst the young men of Windsor, 
the seat of King s College. Its active life, however was short, 
for within about twelve months of its organization practically the 
whole of the personnel of the Corps had enlisted for Overseas 

Amongst the honors gained by King s men during the War were : 

O. B. Jones D.S.O. 

J. P. Silver D.S.O., C.B.E. 

C. Hill D.S.O. 

C. R. E. Willets D.S.O. 

H. A. Kaulback O.B.E. 

A. E. Andrew M.C. 

G. D. Campbell M.C. 

R. H. Morris M.C. 

C. V. Strong M.C. 

C. Campbell M.C. 

W. G. Ernst M.C. and Bar. 

G. B. Murray M.C. 

R. H. Tait M.C. 

D. L. Teed M.C. 

P. L. Parlee D.C.M. 

W. E. Warbttrton D C M 

G. L. Jones D.C.M. 

C. Blanchard M.M. 

T. W. Mavnard M.M. 

H. R. Poole Legion of Honor. 

R. H. Stewart Order of St. George of Russia. 

G. E. Mason Croix de Guerre. 



Of the many who distinguished themselves by gallant service, 
whether officially recognized or not, the record of a few of the 
younger generation must suffice as typical of all. 

Two of the first students to enlist were Edward Jeffery and 
George Mason. They enlisted together in the ranks of the First 
Contingent, i/th Battalion, and went over to France together with 
the 1 4th Battalion, 1st Canadian Division. For sixteen months 
they fought side by side all through the terrible winter of -1914- 
1915 in the Ypres Salient and came through that fiery ordeal un 
scathed. They returned to England together for their commissions, 
training together at Crowborough. Mason returned to France 
almost immediately after the course, but Jeffery was taken ill and 
was operated on for appendicitis; and it was not till April, 1918, 
that he was again sent to France. In June, 1918, he joined his new 
Battalion, i6th Canadian Scottish, and found himself posted to a 
Company commanded by Mason, now a Captain. So they were 
together again in France. On the night of the 26th September 
Jeffery received his first wound, but it proved fatal, and the next 
day he was laid to rest at Ligny St. Frochel, near St. Pol. Only four 
days later, on October ist, his great chum followed, and so these 
two, who for four long years had borne the burden and strife of the 
Great War with what seemed charmed lives, were reunited once 
more in that land where there is no more parting and no more 

Arthur Leigh Collett, B.A., had left King s for Oxford as a 
Rhodes Scholar, but at once forsook his work at Oxford and en 
listed in the Imperial Army. He served in France as a Lieutenant 
with the 8th Gloucesters, and in the autumn of 1915, in the Battle 
of Messines Ridge he was reported missing and later believed 
killed. Others from his Battalion reported missing at the same 
time were later reported as prisoners of war in Germany. There 
is little doubt that Collett fought gallantly facing the odd s and 
choosing to meet death rather than to cease for a moment, while 
life lasted, from striving for the ideals of justice and righteousness. 
A. B. C. Hilbert was one of the most popular students and 
one of the best athletes at King s. Enlisting with the Cycle Corps 
he transferred to the Royal Naval Air Service on reaching England. 



In July, 1917, he wrote: "I am at present resting after a twenty- 
two weeks illness due to a little ducking I got in the North Sea. 
I am flying again in August." In October came the news that he 
had fallen a second time in the North Sea, and now there he rests 
with many other gallant sons of Britain. 

Of the others who enlisted with him in the Cycle Corps, Turnbull 
and McConnick rest in soldiers graves in Flanders ; Crawford died 
in hospital ere he saw the foe; Foster and Parlee are back with us 
at King s, and though Parlee has lost a leg, his breast is adorned 
with that proud emblem of bravery, the Distinguished Conduct 
Medal ; Brittain has recovered from his serious wounds and is serv 
ing the King of Peace; Harley, Hallett and the rest are giving the 
same good account of themselves that they always gave as loyal 
sons of King s. 

George Stewart Burchell was one of that little band who enlisted 
together with the iQ3rd Battalion, Nova Scotia Highland Brigade, 
and joined the 8$th Battalion in France. He was one of the most 
promising of the younger sons of King s, a clever, manly, gentle 
manly young fellow. He fought for the cause of liberty and right 
and now rests in a soldier s grave in France. 

In the records of the King s College Advance Movement is 
the entry, u George Stewart Burchell, killed at the Front, his pay at 
his request, $100." May King s never cease to honor the memory 
of this loyal and gallant son. 

W. B. Ernst enlisted as a private in the iQ3rd Battalion, rose 
to the ,rank of Captain in the 85th Battalion, and was awarded the 
Military Cross and Bar. Ernst has not rested on his laurels, and 
since his return here has shown that in the field of scholarship, too, 
he will take no second place, and has captured the Rhodes Scholar 
ship from the Province of Nova Scotia. King s will ever have 
reason to be proud of the records of Ernst, so affectionately known 
as " Bill." 

Of others whom King s will always delight to honor may be 
mentioned Capt. D. L. Teed, M.C., and Gunner L. Wilkinson, who 
fell gallantly serving their guns, Lieut. AY. E. Warburton, D.CM., 
rewarded for his bravery in the Dardanelles, Lieut.-Col. C. R. E. 
Willets, D.S.O., the gallant and popular Commanding Officer of 
the R.C.R. in France, and now commanding the famous "Princess 



Pats." Cecil Blanchard, M.M., who was too young to enlist except 
as a bugler, but not too young to show that he came of loyal fighting 
stock: and the Campbell brothers, six of whom saw active service, 
and two of whom. Colin and Kenneth, lie " out there," some 
where in France. 

Though these records are brief and unworthy may they suffice 
to show that the true spirit of King s still lives in her sons, and 
that they, as of old. have upheld nobly her best traditions and 
realized in some measure her ideals of service, 




IN the Great War students, past and present, of St. Francis 
Xavier University served in every branch of the Forces of 
Canada, and in the armies and navies of Great Britain, France 
and America. But it is the especial pride of St. Francis Xavier 
to have furnished a complete Unit, if a small one, of the Canadian 
Expeditionary Forces. The Unit was officially known as No. 9 
Stationary Hospital, C.A.M.C. 

This Unit was organized in November, 1915, and was for some 
time quartered in the University itself. It left Canada for the 
United Kingdom in June, 1916, and proceeded to France in Novem 
ber of the following year. Till April, 1918, it was stationed at 
St. Omer, but the great German offensive of that spring made 
necessary its withdrawal to Staples, where it became part of the 
hospital system of the main British base. 

In the notorious bombardment of May 18, 1918, No. 9 was the 
first hospital to be attacked, and suffered severely. Its premises 
were completely destroyed, and more than forty per cent, of its per 
sonnel became casualties. Towards the end of 1918, the status of 
the St. Francis Xavier Unit was raised to that of a General 
Hospital. It returned to Canada in July, 1919, and upon the reor 
ganization of the Military Forces of Canada, was preserved as an 
integral part of the Active Militia. 

More than three hundred and fifty Xavierians joined the colors. 
Thirty-three were killed, or died on active service. The following 
decorations were won by students or alumni of the University : 



M.C ::..::::::;::::: : ,< 

First Bar, M.C . 

Second Bar, M.C. 




M.S.M .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 



Three professors of the Faculty of the University saw active 
service in the Canadian, Imperial and American Forces respectively; 
two were severely wounded and one received the Military Cross. 

In Canada during the War St. Francis Xavier took a becoming 
part in the forefront of every patriotic activity. A contingent of 
the Canadian Officers Training Corps was gazetted in April, 1915. 
Training had hardly been begun when the Corps lost the majority 
of its officers by enlistment and with the numbers of students con 
tinually dwindling at one commencement a single individual pre 
sented himself for graduation it became impossible to continue 

In every branch of war work pursued in the neighborhood of 
Antigonish, the locale of the University, the lead was taken by 
members of the Staff of St. Francis Xavier. The chairman of 
the local committee for the Patriotic Fund, the Antigonish County 
Organizer of the Victory Loan Campaign, and the Director of the 
re-establishment activities of the Knights of Columbus over a wide 
area of Eastern Nova Scotia, were professors of the University. In 
connection with the patriotic work of the Knights of Columbus, it 
may be mentioned St. Francis Xavier did its full share in the launch 
ing of the Dominion- wide campaign, which made it possible for 
this body to perform its splendid services to our troops at the scene 
of war. In brief in St. Francis Xavier, as in all the universities of 
the land, it was the aim of all compelled to " carry on " at home to 
become, by patriotic endeavor and sacrifice, not unworthy of those 
who went from it to fight their country s and the Empire s battles. 

Editor s Note. No. 9 Stationary Hospital Unit is more fully dealt with 
in Chapter xxvi. 



MINISTERS of the Gospel are the avowed ambassadors of 
the Prince of Peace ; and it is so constantly their task to allay 
the passions of the human heart and to preach universal 
love, particularly in their appeals for foreign missions, that many 
people felt that their ideal was at variance with the spirit of war 
and were prepared to find students for the ministry offering for 
other forms of patriotic service than fighting in the line. The 
extraordinary response of theological colleges and of sons of the 
manse all over the Empire showed how mistaken this idea had 
been. The message of the Cross and the call to self-sacrifice had 
quite the opposite effect. Young men who were going to be 
preachers experienced a new sense of responsibility; they knew that 
they could not consistently call others to a life of service and suffer 
ing, if they were not prepared themselves to lead the way. This 
is the attitude that prevailed among the students at Pine Hill, which 
is the oldest Presbyterian Theological College in Canada, and which 
will celebrate in 1920 its centenary. 

The intensity of this conviction surprised every one on the parade 
ground of the South End Rink, Halifax, when Col. W. E. Thompson 
organized the O.T.C. of Dalhousie University. The large majority 
of the students in residence at Pine Hill were there. The Divinity 
classes open late, and thus many had been in the city only a few 
days when this call came in the beginning of November, 191/1. 
Colonel Thompson has on several public occasions paid a fine tribute 
to these theological men; and they in return frankly acknowledge 
how much they were moved by the frank and earnest appeal of the 
Colonel himself. 

The O.T.C. was but a voluntary and preliminary phase of the 
grave decision; but it had a most stimulating effect, and nearly all 



the students who joined its ranks found themselves ultimately in 
active service. Right on the heels of the O.T.C. came the forma 
tion of a small Cycle Corps Unit, to which three from Pine Hill 
were admitted, the first to enlist for Overseas. This Unit was 
almost entirely made up of students, and its advent in Halifax was 
celebrated by a dinner given in the residence at Pine Hill. The 
dining hall was crowded. Colonel Thompson and Colonel Grant, 
A.D.M.S., spoke; the impression made was very deep; and prob 
ably at that hour a large number made up their minds to join the 
colors. The impression was intensified by the dramatic announce 
ment in the course of the dinner of the splendid sea victory at 
Falkland Islands, the news of which had just come over the wire. 

Before the year was out there came an urgent appeal for an 
Ambulance Corps, and fifteen responded. Few of them stayed 
long in the Army Medical Corps after they got across, but asked 
for transfers to fighting units, in which they played their part 
nobly, and where some of them laid down their lives. 

Early in 1915 the 6th Mounted Rifles were formed and eight 
more joined, going to England in July. In the summer four others 
enlisted in the No. 7 Overseas Hospital (The Dalhousie) Unit; and 
in the winter, 1915-16, five enlisted in the Nova Scotia Highland 
Brigade and five in the artillery. By the second anniversary of the 
War the great bulk of the Divinity students had entered the army, 
and most of these were already Overseas. 

Below is given a list of the names and of the Units to which 
they were eventually attached, and henceforward their history 
becomes identified with their Units and is told elsewhere. There 
were forty-eight in all, including the Principal and Professor H. A. 
Kent, who were ultimately on the strength of the Chaplain Service. 
Two received the Military Cross and one the Military Medal ; seven 
paid the supreme sacrifice ; and many were wounded or gassed. All 
but seven of those who survived continued their studies for the 
ministry on their return. 

Following is the roll of honor : 

John Ross, a Scotch lad, who, in the beginning of the War, joined 
the fleet, and went down with the Indefatigable in the Battle of 

Arthur P. Maclvor, from Cape Breton, joined the C.M.R., and 

was killed at Mount Sorel, on June 2, iqi6. 

20 297 


Earl Lockerby, from P.E.I., in the 42nd R.H.C. Killed at 
Courcellette, September, 1916. 

Ralph B. Clarke, B.A., from New Brunswick, joined the 26th, 
and was killed at Courcellette, on September 17, 1916. 

Stephen Dick, from New Brunswick, joined C.F.A., and survived 
until the final offensive in 1918. 

Lieut. Harold A. Smith, B.A., M.C., from Cape Breton; served 
in 5th C.M.R. ; wounded first on the Somme, and killed in May, 1918. 

Cyril Hyde, Lieutenant in the Royal Air Service; killed over the 
German lines. 

(Those marked with an asterisk were killed.) 


Capt. Principal C. Mackinnon, D>D., LL.D.. .Chaplain Service, O.M.P.C. 
Capt. H. A. Kent, D.D Chaplain Service, O.M.P.C. 


Lieut. B. C. Salter, B.A 42nd R.H.C 

Lieut. D. A. Guildford, M. A C.D.A. 

*Earl Lockerby 42nd R.H.C. 

*Lieut R. B. Clarke, B.A 26th Can. Infantry. 

L. B. Campbell, B.A 3rd Can. Field Ambulance. 

Lieut. J. K. Murchison, B.A R.F.A. 

R. A. Patterson, B.A C. A M C 

G. D. MacLeod, B.A C.H.A. 

D. J. Morrison C.A.M.C. 

P. B. Fox, B.A C.A.M.G.C. 

Capt. A. D. Archibald, B.A., M.C 8sth N.S. Highlanders. 

Lieut. J. G. Paterson, B.A R.F.A. 

*Lieut. Cyril Hyde R.A.F. 

Neil Macdonafd 85th N.S. Highlanders. 

Capt. Geo. Murray, M.C 8=;th N.S. Highlanders. 

Victor B. Walls C.A.M.C. 

J. S. Nickerson, B.A C.A.M.C. 

Colin U. McNiven 25th Can. Infantry. 

*J. S. Ross H.M.S. Indefatigable. 

*A. P. Mclvor, 3.A 5th C.M.R. 

"Lieut. H. A. Smith, B.A., M.C sth C.M.R. 

Lieut. Mel. McLeod 5th C.M.R. 

Norman A. MacKenzie 8sth N.S. Highlanders. 

D. P. MacLeod 4 th C.M.R. 

W. J. V. Tweedie 4th C.M.R. 

Lieut. John Craigie B.E.F. 

Capt. R. E. G. Roome R.F.A. 

Cadet P. C. Lewis R.A.F. 

Wm. Matheson S^th N.S. Highlanders. 

J. D. MacLeod i3th R.H.C. 

H. H. Blanchard, B.A., M.M 8sth N.S. Highlanders. 

R. H. Scott 85th N.S. Highlanders. 

2 9 8 


Lieut. E. S. Smith, M.A R. A.F. 

Lieut. McLaren Keswick 25th Can. Infantry. 

Neil M. Rattee, B.A 7th Overseas Hospital. 

John A. Nicholson, B.A C.F.A. 

Lieut. T. H. Whelpley 8;th Can. Inf. G.G. 

*Stephen J. Dick C.F.A. 

A. M. Gillis ioth Siege Battery. r 

Lieut. A. E. Kerr R.A.F. 

John Mackay ioth Can. Siege Battery. 

A. B. Simpson ipth C.F.A. 

D. F. Marshall, B.A I5th R.H.C. 

F. Yates ioth Can. Infantry. 

J. S. Bonnell, B.A 8th Siege Battery. 



THE number of men of military age in Canada at the outbreak 
of the War was approximately 1,720,000, and of this Nova 
Scotia s quota was 53,500. As the War progressed it was 
decided that Canada s contribution would be 500,000 and Nova 
Scotia s proportion 30,000, which was attained. 

At first no particular effort was made by the public to raise the 
various Units, the matter being left entirely in the hands of the 
Military. The ist Field Ambulance and the i;th Field Battery 
proceeded to Valcartier as Units, and thence Overseas with the First 
Division, the i/th, Nova Scotia s first Battalion, to our lasting 
disgrace, was left to paddle its own canoe to the rocks in Salisbury 
Plains, where it eventually became the i;th Reserve Battalion, 
supplying reinforcements to the Nova Scotia Units in the Field. 

The 25th was the first Battalion in which the public evinced any 
interest. This was mainly recruited from Militia Units, a large pro 
portion coming from the Island of Cape Breton and from Halifax. 
The 40th Battalion and the 6th Canadian Mounted Rifles, authorized 
in February, 1915, were recruited with comparative ease, the 4Oth 
entirely from Nova Scotia and the 6th C.M.R. from the three 
Maritime Provinces. At this time the 25th had not proceeded 
Overseas, and it was not until A/Lay that this Battalion, which in 
France earned for itself the title of the " Fighting 25th," sailed from 
Halifax, taking as its final complement part of the 4Oth Battalion. 

The 40th was then sent to Aldershot, N.S., for training, and 
was almost immediately called upon to supply a draft of 5 officers 
and 250 men. About this time recruiting slackened. The strength 
of the 4Oth dwindled, due to casualties from sickness and other 
causes, and it seemed that unless a special effort were made by the 
public this Unit would share the fate of the I7th, or worse. Mr. 
G. S. Campbell, whose son was among the officers of this Unit, 



brought tack from Valcartier the news that unless the Battalion 
was quickly brought up to strength it would be absorbed into a 
Battalion of another Province, and Nova Scotia would lose it. A 
strong Committee of prominent citizens was immediately formed. 
Money for advertising was subscribed, and a campaign launched, 
the effect of which never ceased during the period of the War. The 
4Oth was brought up to full strength, and in October proceeded 

As a result of the efforts of this Committee it was thought by 
Headquarters M.D. No. 6 that the work of recruiting throughout 
the Province should be inspected and reported on. Lieut.-Col. H. 
Flowers was selected to undertake this duty. Every important town 
in the Province was visited except in Cape Breton, which was supply 
ing many men through the energetic work of the Rev. E. Watering 
Florence. The prominent people in each town were induced to 
lend their assistance, forming such organizations as they in their 
wisdom deemed best. All the assistance that headquarters and the 
Halifax Committee could give was supplied at the request of the 
other centres. 

This proved most successful and when the 64th was authorized 
in August, 1915, to be recruited from the three Maritime Provinces, 
so great was the enthusiasm in Nova Scotia that in three weeks the 
full complement was supplied by that Province alone, and later the 
men from New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island became the 
nucleus for the iO4th New Brunswick Battalion. Lieut-Colonel 
Flowers went to the 64th as Second in Command, and Major 
W. B. A. Ritchie was appointed Officer in Charge of Recruiting. He 
was followed in December, 1916, by Major G. B. Cutten, of the 
Nova Scotia Highland Brigade. These officers were assisted by 
Capt. F. \N. Micklewright and Capt. F. T. DeWolfe. Apart from 
Capt. E. W. Florence, Captain Micklewright probably recruited 
more men personally than any other officer. 

The 64th Battalion being over strength, the 85th Battalion, Nova 
Scotia Highlanders, authorized some time previously, was ordered 
to proceed with recruiting. Numbers flocked to join its ranks. 
Men of responsible positions and lucrative salaries offered their 
services. In less than a month the Battalion was over strength 
and a large number of applicants were turned away. 



In the gloomy closing days of 1915, when the withdrawal of the 
Gallipoli Expedition was announced, and many cherished expecta 
tions were again doomed to disappointment, the whole British 
Empire was profoundly stirred, and began to take its grip with 
characteristic bulldog tenacity. All its resources were demanded, 
every available man must go. Consequently in January of 1916 the 
question was mooted, why should not Nova Scotia give a whole 
Highland Brigade, and those who applied too late for admission to 
the 85th be afforded another and more liberal opportunity of going 
to the Front? Perhaps no idea ever suggested in the Province was 
taken up with more hearty enthusiasm. 

During the first few weeks of 1916 organization was developed 
with great assiduity. It was decided to make use of the popular 
85th in the work of recruiting. Every soldier who believed he could 
recruit another man was given six days leave to do so ; and if he 
succeeded in recruiting more than one he was granted an additional 
six days. Officers who volunteered to raise a Platoon were given 
charge of the territory in .which it could be recruited. The results 
were in some instances amazing. Lads who seemed unlikely enough 
brought in recruits by the score. 

In preparation for this great " drive " a publicity campaign was 
organized on an extensive scale. Pulpit, press and schoolroom 
were commandeered, and gave themselves up generously to the work. 
Religious services were arranged at which moral issues of the War 
were brought home forcibly to the people. Military uniforms ap 
peared in the pulpits and unwonted martial strains, even from the 
bagpipes, were heard in sacred precincts. 

Perhaps the most unique feature of the campaign was the use 
made of the public schools. The Union Jack was widely displayed. 
The children were drilled in patriotic songs. Books were laid aside 
and mass meetings held at which prominent citizens delivered 
addresses until to the impressionable mind of the little children it 
was incredible that anyone should stay at home. A letter was 
addressed by Lieut.-Colonel Borden to the boys and girls of Nova 
Scotia. In simple language he explained the meaning of the War, 
and converted every child into an irrepressible recruiting agent 
among his big brothers at home, or in the circle of his friends. 



When the country had thus been duly prepared, and public 
feeling was running high, the master-stroke was given, which re 
sulted in the raising of "three Battalions in three weeks," a feat 
unsurpassed in the recruiting efforts of Canada. This was a series 
of meetings, held in every town, village and country hall, crowded 
to the doors, and characterized by the intense fervor of a religious 
revival. Notable among those who took part in the campaign for 
the I93rd and 2iQth Battalions were Lieut-Colonel Borden, Lieut.- 
Colonel Guthrie (invalided home from the Front), President Cutten 
of Acadia University, Dr. Clarence McKinnon, and a score of other 
public men, who gladly gave time and talent to the task. The band 
of the 85th Battalion accompanied the speakers in their tour through 
the counties of Lunenburg, Queens. Shelburne, Yarmouth, Anna 
polis. Dig-by, Kings, Pictou and Antigonish. 

Cape Breton had already contributed the i;th and 36th Batteries 
(the latter Unit was raised in a single day), a large proportion of 
the 25th and 4Oth Battalions, six hundred men to the 64th, three 
hundred men to the 85th, three hundred men to the io6th, besides 
keeping at full strength its Militia Regiment, the 94th Argyll High 
landers, which had been on active service from the outbreak of 
the War. Not satisfied with this the Island asked for and received 
authority to recruit a purely Cape Breton Infantry Battalion, to be 
included in the Nova Scotia Highland Brigade. Under the super 
vision of Major Gordon S. Harrington (later appointed Deputy 
Overseas Minister and promoted to the rank of Colonel) Cape 
Breton officers nnd men of the 85 th Battalion returned to their 
former homes and engaged in active recruiting. Meetings were held 
in every town and village, and addresses made by Mayor Richard 
son. F. A. CrowelL A. D. Gunn, D. A. Cameron, Dr. C. E. McMillan, 
Stuart McCawley, the late D. A. Hearn, and many other prominent 
people. As a result of their work, and in spite of the restrictions 
placed upon them by the G.O.C. M.D. No. 6, who forbade the 
enlistment of employees of the Dominion Coal Company and the. 
Dominion Iron and Steel Company, the iSsth Battalion, Cape 
Breton Highlanders was recruited to full strength within three 


In April, 1916, Mr. F. A. Crowell was requested to act as Chief 
Recruiting Officer for the County of Cape Breton. In a civilian 



capacity and without remuneration he accepted the position, and, 
assisted by Lieutenant Chirgwin and Sergt. A. Johnstone of the 94th 
Regiment, carried on the work until January, 1917. Up to the time 
the Military Service Act came into force the Island of Cape Breton 
contributed over seven thousand volunteers, including, in addition 
to the Units already named, 100 men to the 246th Battalion, 200 
men to the Composite Battalion, besides a large number to the 
several Artillery Units mobilized at Halifax, to the i65th, 169* 
and 239th Battalions, the Army Service Corps, Forestry Units, 
Railway Troops and Army Medical Services, with a lower record of 
rejection than in any other district in Canada in the case of the 
i85th only three per cent. 

It would have been impossible for the Chief Recruiting Officer 
and his Staff of paid officers and men to have made the success they 
did had it not been for the valuable services rendered by the volun 
tary recruiting officers all over the Province. These men worked 
faithfully throughout the War without remuneration, and not infre 
quently labored under misrepresentation. 



THE importance of the work done in Military District No. 6 
during the period of the Great War is doubtless not realized 
by the public, other than those who were directly interested 
in the work. Aside from Halifax being a fortified port, and the 
Naval Base of the Atlantic Fleet during the War, it was the point of 
embarkation of the Canadian troops for Overseas, with the excep 
tion of the First Contingent, which was sent Overseas from Quebec. 
Therefore the work, devolving on District No. 6, in handling the 
enormous number of Canadian, American, Australian and New 
Zealand troops that passed through here was a matter of consider 
able responsibility and care, not only in checking the men going on 
board ship, but also in providing accommodations, rations, etc., 
while they were held ashore at Halifax from a day to three or four 
weeks, awaiting the arrival of their transports. In addition it was 
necessary to make preparations for emergencies, of which there 
were several, including such things as the stranding of a troopship 
near the mouth of Halifax Harbor, which necessitated the safe re 
moval, landing and caring for the troops by other than the regular 

The detail work in connection with these duties was great and 
varied. For instance, the Department at Ottawa would arrange the 
date for the sailing of transports and the allotment of troops for 
each. The Department would then notify this district accordingly. 
The troops allotted to each ship would arrive by special trains, often 
before their transport reached port. During this period of waiting 
many casualties would occur, either through absentees, sickness, or 
from other causes, necessitating extra accommodation at the local 
quarters or in hospital. On the arrival of the ship these men would 
have to be checked on board individually, all casualties accounted 



for, complete returns made out, such as marching out state, lists of 
officers, inspection of all documents, and many other details. After 
that particular ship was loaded she would pull away from the pier 
and remain in harbor awaiting the loading of the other transports. 
Very often these transports would lie in the harbor for some days 
before sailing, awaiting the completion of the convoy, a result being 
that additional casualties would occur daily on each ship during 
that period. These had to be taken off the ship, in turn, all docu 
ments corrected to date so that when the ship sailed from the harbor 
an accurate record of every man on board was complete and thus 
enabled the Government to check the proper charges of the Steam 
ship Companies for transportation. In the early stages of the Wai- 
transports to the number of forty would sail from Halifax in one 
convoy, but towards the latter end of the War the Xaval Authorities 
provided for convoys not exceeding seventeen ships at one time. 

In all there were 284,455 Canadian troops embarked from -Hali 
fax. Some 50,000 Chinamen, and a large number of American 
troops also embarked from this port. In addition, ships with New 
Zealanders and Australians on board called at this port to join the 
convoys, and often were allowed to land for route marches and 
given shore leave. This also entailed much work on this district, 
due to the necessity of looking after casualties, absentees, etc. 

Of all the casualties occurring during these embarkations a care 
ful record had to be kept, and in due course, that is, as soon as 
possible after they became fit or were apprehended, they were sent 
Overseas on later transports. 

Many complicated questions arose during this period, as, for 
instance, men arriving on troop trains under arrest for misde 
meanors of various kinds, and thus necessitating this district dealing 
with such cases. 

Following is a summary of the Canadian troops that embarked 
at Halifax during the war period : 

Date. Embarked Monthly 

1915. Ship. Halifax. Total. 

Jan. 8 Zeeland 346 


Feb. 23 Meg-antic 40 

23 Missinabie 13 

28 Scandinavian 23 



Embarked Monthly 
ship Halifax. Total. 

Mar. 6 Grampian 

I S Northland 

21 ........ Corsican 

22 Orduna . 

26 Hesperian 

26 Chaleur . 

28 Missinabie 

Apr. 4 Scandinavian 

6 Georgia 

9 Chignecto 

10 Metagama 

12 Manchester Corporation 

17 St. George . . 

18 Northland 

18 Grampian I 

IA . Missinabie 44O 


May 2 Hesperian T 54 

20 Saxonia 2,2)5. 

20 Halifax 

=- 2,4/3 

June 14 Herschell . .. 

15 Caledonia l t33 , 

Aug. 8 Italia . J 2 " 

8 Caledonia 

9 Metagama 

26.. ..Caledonia 

. 4.907 

Oct. 23 Lapland . ... 

27 Orduna i,OQ5 

Nov. 19 Chignecto 

22 ,. Saxonia ...................... 2 ,494 

2^5 . . California ..................... T >9OO 

27 ........ Lapland ...................... 2,281 

Dec 3 ..... Chaudiere ..................... 9 

6 ........ Orduna ....................... T > 121 

8.. ..Italia ........................ 43Q 

- i ,649 

T an ?? ...Missinabie .................... I -59 I 

- -- 1,591 

Feb. 10 ........ Caraquet ...................... 2 4 


Mar. 13 ........ Lapland ...................... 2,127 

73 ........ Baltic ........................ 2 - 6 6 

30 ........ Empress of Britain ........... 3-54 2 

3 T ........ Adriatic ...................... 2 -44O 

- 10,715 



a t e - Embarked Monthly 

Ship. Halifax. Total. 
Apr. i ........ Olympic ........ -787 

T o /r- i ......... 0>// 

lo ........ Missmabie ......... ............ 1.717 

21 ........ Chaleur .................... 20 

23 ........ Empress of Britain .......... 4,020 

24 ........ Lapland .......... ^ 201 

29 ........ Olympic ..................... 5 ; 5 8 3 

May 6 ........ Chig-necto ......... 61 

12 ........ Baltic ..................... ;;; 2i6l2 

19 ........ Adriatic ....................... 2,325 

20 ........ Empress of Britain ............ 3^788 

26 ........ Grampian ..................... gg 2 

3 1 ........ Olympic ...................... 5,794 

- I 5 272 

June 18 ........ Empress of Britain ............ 3,420 

19 ........ Missinabie .................... 1,663 

28 ........ Olympic ...................... 5,755 

J uly 8 ........ Lapland ...................... 2,208 

15 ........ Empress of Britain ............ 3,778 

23 ........ Olympic ...................... 5^290 

28 ........ Caraquet ..................... ^62 

Aug. 6 ........ Scandinavian ........ - . ........ i,3Si 

7 ........ Cameronia .................... 1,430 

8 ........ Metagama .................... 1,581 

8 ........ Scotian ....................... 1,235 

14 ........ Empress of Britain ........ .... 3,704 

15 ........ Grampian .................... 1,471 

21 ........ Olympic ...................... S)IO g 

T 5,88 1 

Sept. ii ........ Scandinavian ................. 1,396 

IT ........ Cameronia .................... 1,412 

12 ........ Metagama .................... i[ 49 i 

12 ........ Northland .................... I 473 

18 ........ Olympic ...................... 5)486 

23 ........ Lapland ...................... 2,042 

25 ........ Southland .................... 1,379 

25 ........ Corsican ..................... 1,426 

Laconia 2 ^ 

26. Tusconia 2,360 

2 California i ] 61 

3 Missinabie i- 

r~ t * / 


3 Saxonia 2,417 

ii, 12 & 13. Olympic ... 5^988 

17 Cameronia 1,401 

17 Metagama i 72t 

17 Northland i. 662 

24 Grampian 1.6/3 

25 Mauretania 3,089 

25 & 26. ... Corsican T-,351 

30 Lapland 2^196 



. Embarked Monthly 

1916. Ship. Halifax. Total. 

Oct. 31 ... ..... Caronia ...................... 4> 2 5 T 

31 ..... Empress of Britain ............ 3,796 

- 32,4 4 
Nov. i ........ Southland ........ . ........... i,7oo 

13 ........ Olympic ...................... 5,9O9 

23 & 24. . . .Mauretania ...... ............. 3i 2 3 

27 ........ Metagama .................... 1,609 


Dec. 16 ........ Olympic ...................... 5,999 

27 ........ Northland .................... 36 

-- 6,035 

Jan. 23 ........ Scandinavian .................. 1,35 

24 ........ Canada ........................ !, 2 44 

26 ........ Grampian ..................... i,S 2 5 

- . 4,119 

Feb. 16 ........ Southland ............. .. ....... L/49 

16 ........ Missinabie ..................... 1.727 

Mar. 4 ........ Canada ........................ i, 2 4 T 

4 ........ Ansonia ....................... I O49 

25 ........ Metagama .................... 1,641 

25 ........ Lapland ...................... 1,637 

25 ........ Southland ..................... 892 

26 ........ Missinabie .................... i,595 

26 ........ Saxonia ...................... 2 ,357 


Apr. 9 ........ Carpathia .................... 2,341 

9 ........ Canada ....................... 1,282 

17 ........ Scandinavian ................. 1,194 

18 ........ Ansonia ....................... 1,102 

18 ........ Northland ..................... i,57 2 

18 ........ Grampian .................... 1,654 

27 ........ Olympic ...................... 5. 605 

30 ........ Megantic ..... ................ IJ4 1 

- - 15,891 
May i ........ Metagama .................... 1,696 

3 ........ Justicia ....................... 4,445 

28 ........ Olympic ...................... 5,823 

- . 11.964 

Tune 22 ........ Justicia ....................... 4> T 6o 


Aug. 6 ........ Olympic ...................... 100 

10 ........ Grampian ..................... 1,50 

11 ........ Missinabie .................... i,4 2 

- - 3,002 

Sept. 5 ........ Megantic ..................... 1,854 

Oct. 4 ........ Metagama ................... 1,276 

20 ........ Scandinavian .................. 9 2 5 


Nov. 20... ..... Scotian ....................... i,35 2 

24 ........ Megantic ..................... 1,637 

27 ........ Metagama ................... 1,182 

- 4,i7i 


Date. Embarked Monthly 

1917. Ship. Halifax. Total. 

Dec. 21 Missinabie 1,700 

21 Grampian 1,638 

28 Canada 1 1 


Jan. 19 Kursk 

27 Orita 

28 Scandinavian 

1, 660 

Feb. 5 Grampian 1,607 

5 Missinabie 1,678 

5 Canada 826 

13 Lapland 1,815 

21 Megantic 1,822 

21 Meletia 1,830 

21 Saxonia 2,138 

28 Metagama 1,692 

28 Kasmala in 


Mar. i Justicia 155 

8 Scotian 23 

8 Toloa 819 

13 Chaleur 29 

17 Saturnia 100 

25 Missinabie 1,656 

25 Scandinavian 1,293 

25 Grampian I 591 


Apr. 9 Metagama 1,672 

9 Tunisian 1,3*8 

9 Ulua 949 

17 Scotian 1,324 

17 Toloa 1,108 

17 Melita . 1,906 

May ii Tierisias 1,252 

ii Runic 

16 Ajana 

16 Valacia 

23 C. of Marseilles 


June 17 Pannonia 

24 Wiamana 

24 Gloucestershire 

24 .. Ionic 


July 2 Oxfordshire 390 

3 Valacia 185 


_ __ 

Total 284,455 



A BRIEF history of the work of the Shell Committee, its 
organization, and the part played by the Nova Scotia Steel 
and Coal Company in producing munitions during the first 
two and a half years of the War. 

On September 8, 1915, Col. Alex Bertram, Thomas Cantley, and 
Georo-e W. Watts were summoned by the Federal Minister of 


Militia, Sir Sam Hughes, to Valcartier. On meeting the Minister he 
stated that the British Secretary of State for War had advised the 
Canadian Government that the War Office were desirous of having 
shrapnel shells made in Canada, that the Canadian Government had 
decided to entrust the matter to a Committee of Manufacturers, and 
had so advised the War Office. It was understood that the advice 
of the Minister had been accepted, and that the names of the three 
gentlemen above referred to had been approved by the War Office 
as a Committee to carry on the work on their behalf. The men 
above named were then asked to serve as such Committee, without 
remuneration, which they agreed to do, and were requested to select 
one of their number as Chairman. On the suggestion of Thos. 
Cantley, Colonel Bertram was appointed Chairman, the Minister 
confirming the appointment of the Committee by a memorandum 
initialed " For Action." 

Later, Mr. E. Carnegie, of Welland, was added to the Com 
mittee, and at their request the Minister agreed that Colonel Benson, 
Master General of Ordnance; Colonel Lafferty. Superintendent of 
the Dominion Arsenal ; and Colonel Greville Harston, Inspector of 
Arms and Ammunition, should be added as Technical Members. 

The first meeting was held the same evening (September 8th) 
at the Chateau Frontenac, Quebec. The second meeting was held 
the following day at the office of the Superintendent of the 
Dominion Arsenal. The Committee were accorded the privilege ot 


dissecting the manufacturing costs of the various operations in 
volved in making shells of this type at the Dominion Arsenal, which 
at that time had an out-turn of about 200 per day. 

From the data there available and their experience as manufac 
turers the Committee advised the War Office that 200,000 shrapnel 
shells could be produced by the Committee and supplied to the Wai- 
Office at a price of $8.30 for the i5-pounder. and 88.55 each for 


the iS-pounder. On this information being cabled to London the 
Committee were at once instructed to proceed with the order. 

After the order was in process of execution a contract was pre 
sented by a representative of the War Office to the four civilian 
members, viz., Messrs. Bertram, Cantley, Watt and Carnegie, under 
which contract they were obligated to supply the War Office with 
these shells at the prices stated. This contract was duly executed, 



the Honorable Minister of Militia signing on behalf of, and repre 
senting, the War Office, the civilian members signing on their own 

While the first order was for 200,000 shells, additional orders 
were placed by the War Office with the Committee at various times 
between September, 1914, and November, 1915, aggregating in all 
$345,222,870.24. The contract prices were in most cases named by 
the War Office. In some cases the prices were the result of compro 
mise arranged by cable between the Committee and the War Office. 
In other cases the prices were those suggested by the Committee and 
were accepted by the War Office. 

As already stated, every order was covered by a contract between 
the War Office on the one hand and the four civilian members of 
the Committee on the other, for the carrying out of which the 
civilian members were collectively and individually responsible. 
When they resigned office a statement, which was prepared and 
duly audited showing the total cost, together with the surplus based 
on prices agreed upon and covered by contracts between the War 
Office and the four civilian members, showed that the contracts 
entered into amounted in all to $345,222,874.34. Approximately 
&7 l /2 per cent, of these orders were then completed, and the 
surplus the difference between the contract price and the cost of 
production was $42.097,584.57. less overhead charges, cost of 
inspection, guages. etc.. of $737,400.31. If i2 l / 2 per cent, be added 
to this overhead charge to meet similar expenses incidental to the 
completion of the contracts, $92,175.03 would require to be added, 
making the total overhead expenditure $829,575.34, or a total 
net surplus to the credit of the Committee on November 30, 1915, 
of $41,268,009.23. The total overhead cost, covering inspection, 
cost of guages. accounting, and office expense of the Committee, 
worked out at . 17. or less than one-fifth of one per cent, of contract 

In this connection it may be stated that the prices paid by the 
War Office to American makers in many cases were considerably 
higher than those paid in Canada for shells and other material. In 
other cases, where the prices were approximately the same, the 
volume of orders entrusted to the United States makers were very 



much greater than the corresponding orders placed with the Cana 
dian Shell Committee, and the American prices should have been 
considerably lower. Further, the orders placed in the United 
States were entrusted to an agent, who is reported to have received 
a handsome commission, whereas the services of the Canadian Shell 
Committee were freely given. 

In the early stages the executive work of the Committee was 
carried on by General Bertram, whose time was largely taken up in 
co-ordinating the machining of parts, and the placing of orders 
for components among Canadian manufacturers, while Thomas 
Cantley undertook to carry out experiments, both chemical and 
physical, looking to the production of open hearth basic steel to 
meet the specifications and tests called for by the War Office. 
Experiments were also carried out later in regard to steel discs, base 
plates, nose plugs, alloy steel armor plating, etc. Later Colonel 
Bertram, Thos. Cantley and G. W. Watts collaborated in fixing 
prices for component parts and machining and assembling of the 
different size shells. Later they devised a complete system of 
records, inspection sheets, transfer and shipping forms, store and 
stock forms, and a complete system of accounting was worked out 
and inaugurated by them. 

Late in September the Minister of Militia, on the suggestion of 
the Committee, approved the appointment of David Carnegie as 
Ordnance Adviser to the Committee, in view of the fact that he had 
had considerable experience in munition work at Woolwich Arsenal. 

When the War Office first appealed to Canada for assistance in 
supplying munitions, little was known of shell manufacturing in 
Canada. This being the case the Canadian Government decided that 
a Committee of Manufacturers could better serve the War Office 
than could the Government through any of the Departments; and 
then followed the formation of the Shell Committee as originally 
outlined. The Committee had before them three problems : First, 
that of securing steel of the requisite character; secondly, the forg 
ing of the steel into shell bodies, together with the supply of other 
component parts, comprising brass, copper, tin, zinc and antimony; 
and thirdly, the machining and assembling of these various com 
ponent parts. 


Up to the time that the request came from the War Office 
practically no men in Canada, with the exception of those employed 
at the Dominion Arsenal, knew anything about the manufacture of 
shells, or the material required for same. The steel hitherto used 
at the Dominion Arsenal had been supplied by the Crucible Steel Co. 
of America, and the War Office had stipulated that only Acid Open 
Hearth Siemens-Martin steel could be employed in shell forgings. 
As no Siemens-Martin steel was produced in Canada, and if the 
War Office adhered to their stipulation in that respect the entire 
steel supply would have to be obtained in the United States, the 
American makers, feeling sure that this would be done, promptly 
advanced their prices approximately forty per cent. 

At this juncture the Minister of Militia appealed to Thomas 
Cantley, then President and General Manager of the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Co., as to whether the S cotia plant could not produce 
steel which would meet not only the chemical but physical require 
ments of the War Office shell specifications. He at once expressed 
the belief that they could do so, and immediately proceeded to carry 
out exhaustive experiments, both chemical and physical, which 
proved conclusively that the Scotia Company could produce steel as 
called for by the War Office, and offered to supply it at a price as 
low as the original price asked by the American works, and indeed 
below the American price. Within a few days of receipt of the 
first order by the Shell Committee from the War Office, the Scotia 
Company supplied the Committee with steel for 200,000 shrapnel 
shells. The difference in price paid to the Scotia Company and 
the price asked by the American Co. for the steel supplied on this 
small order amounted to over $40,000. 

As regards forging of shells, the cost of producing the various 
component parts, the labor involved in finishing and assembling these 
the Committee were supplied with the cost of these various opera 
tions as carried on at the Dominion Arsenal, but the difficulty in 
volved was that the work, having been done there by a class of 
machine not in general use in Canada, and with the comparatively 
small order in hand, manufacturers could not be found who would 
purchase and install plant for this work and turn out shells within 
a reasonable time and price. 



Manufacturers throughout the country were invited to visit the 
Dominion Arsenal at Quebec, where they would be shown the various 
operations involved, and given all information re cost, methods em 
ployed, etc. Quite a number responded to this invitation. Some 
offered to undertake the work; others declined to undertake it on 
any basis whatever. 

Colonel Bertram volunteered that the John Bertram & Sons Co. 
would do a certain amount of machining and assembling, and Thos. 
Cantley, through his Company, the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Co., 
undertook to supply the steel and forgings, while Mr. Watt, of the 
Canadian General Electric Company, agreed to make some of the 
component parts. Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, on being appealed to 
by the Committee for assistance, instructed the Superintendent of 
the Angus Shops to take on some of the work, and generously 
promised that the Angus Shops would take up their share of the 

With the start made by these firms to encourage them, a few 
other manufacturers were induced to take up a share of the work, 
and thus the supply of components parts and machining of same for 
the first 200,000 shells was finally placed, and this initial order was 
shipped complete and to the entire satisfaction of the War Office 
some considerable time before the contract date. 

So soon as the work involved in the first trial order had been 
accepted by the manufacturers referred to, the Committee took up 
the organization necessary for the co-ordinating of the work on a 
larger scale; and as large orders were received in rapid succession 
from the War Office, contracts were made with different manufac 
turers for component parts, which were bought outright by the Com 
mittee. A full set of component parts for each shell was supplied by 
the assembly contractors, by whom these were finished and returned 
as completed shells, they being paid a fixed price on the shells which 
were completed, and which passed all the tests demanded by the Wai- 
Office, and were certified as such by the Government Inspection 
Bureau. The component parts before being accepted by the Com 
mittee and delivered to the finishing contractors were inspected and. 
certified by the Committee s inspectors. Any component parts 



spoiled by the assembly manufacturers had to be paid for by them 
at the actual cost of same. 

The first experiences of the forging and finishing contractors 
alike were disappointing. It was an entirely new business to every 
body engaged in the work, and the usual initial difficulties were met 
and overcome with varying success. 

It is safe to say that as far as the first order of 200,000 shells was 
concerned, the companies engaged, either as makers of component 
parts or as assembly contractors, received little, if any, profit for 
their work. They had only the usual reward that comes to pioneers 
in any new work. 

When the new and larger orders came in, both the material and 
the work were thrown open to competition. The Dominion Steel 
Corporation, the Steel Company of Canada, and other smaller steel 
producers were asked to supply steel and forgings. The same thing 
applied to manufacturing establishments, which were in a position 
to supply other component parts or to take on the work of machining 
and assembling. By the early part of 1915 the work was distributed 
throughout the entire Dominion. 

Those who had done the pioneering work, and who won their 
position through dearly-bought experience, and by venturing in where 
others lacked courage to do so, came under criticism from others 
who had not hitherto undertaken any of the work. To overcome 
this difficulty and to assure, hearty co-operation in the production 
of the largest amount of munitions possible, the Committee adopted 
the principle of naming a flat price for each component part, as well 
as for the machining and assembling of each size shell. 

All the orders placed thereafter, from time to time, were placed 
at a uniform price, both for the component parts and for the finish 
ing of the shells. The instant effect of this was that the accumu 
lated experience of the pioneering firms was placed at the disposal 
of the other manufacturers. Both forging and finishing shops were 
thrown open, their methods of working and costs were fully ex 
plained, and shown to other manufacturers. The newcomers thus 
saved the heavy cost of experimental work. 

Xew methods, improvements of great value in connection with 
the execution of the work, the outcome of the initiative adaptability 



of Canadians, wrought a revolution in the methods of production. 
All these improvements were in every case put within the reach of 
other manufacturers. Many of these have been adopted, not only 
by Canadian shell makers, but by shell makers in the United States 
and Great Britain. 

During the organization period from September, 1914, to April, 
1915, more than one member of the Committee worked from ten to 
seventeen hours per day, Sundays and holidays not excepted, and 
none of the members then appointed received one dollar by way of 

The part played by the New Glasgow works of the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company in the Great War is an interesting one. At 
the beginning of hostilities in August, 1914, there were only two 
Steel Companies in the United States who had either the plant or 
experience to produce either shells or armor plates, while none of 
the Canadian steel plants had any experience whatever. 

The first production of munition material, by way of shells and 
shell steel, was undertaken in Canada by the Shell Committee, and 
the story of the experiments carried on in the early days of Sep 
tember, 1914, which resulted in convincing the British War Office 
that basic steel, as made in Canada, would meet all the requirements 
of both shrapnel and high explosive shells, and which resulted in 
very large orders for munitions coming to Canada, is well known to 
all Nova Scotians, and has become a matter of history. 

Between October, 1914, when the Scotia plants produced 22,000 
shell forgings, and the signing of the Armistice, November n, 1918, 
the New Glasgow plant had made more than 15,000,000 shells 
these ranging in size from the 15-pounder shrapnel to 1 2-inch high 
explosive, the local plant being the only one in Canada which made 
the latter size. The total tonnage of forged shells produced at New 
Glasgow amounted in round figures to 180,000 tons. In addition to 
this a very considerable tonnage of shell and other munition steel 
was shipped to be worked up in other shell forging establishments 
in Canada and Great Britain. A further considerable tonnage was 
worked up into marine forgings. British shipyards about this time 
experienced great difficulty in obtaining heavy marine forgings to 
meet Lloyd s specification and tests. The Scotia forges had long 


been on Lloyd s list as approved makers of Marine Forgings. The 
British shipbuilders difficulty was now met by Scotia, which sup 
plied to various yards on the Clyde, the East Coast, and other yards 
complete sets of marine forgings of all classes for both mercantile 
and other vessels of large tonnage. The total quantity of marine 
forgings supplied Great Britain since the outbreak of war amounted 
to 9,000 tons. 

Most Nova Scotians are probably entirely ignorant of the con 
siderable amount of what might be called " research " and experi 
mental work carried out at the New Glasgow plant for the Govern 
ment, and while this did not produce the tangible results brought 
about in connection with the manufacture of shells, not a little of 
the data and knowledge accumulated, contributed in a very consider 
able degree to the successful development of both the offensive 
and the defensive equipment of the Allied forces. 

While this work was being done secrecy was essential, nothing 
was said and but little known of the work carried on along these 
lines. Now that the War is over the necessity for secrecy appears 
to be past. 

In February, 1919, the firm of William Beardmore and Co., of 
Glasgow, Scotland, in their works magazine, told the story of the 
evolution and development by them of bullet-proof material for 
the protection of armored cars, trench shields, armor-plate for the 
celebrated "tanks," and other work of a like character. The story, 
as told by the Beardmore people, in many important particulars 
runs on all fours with the experiments and results obtained at New 
Glasgow during the latter weeks of 1914 and the early part of 1915, 
when a series of exhaustive experiments were carried out at New 
Glasgow, first in connection with the production and testing of 
bullet-resisting steel plate. 

This matter was first brought to the attention of the writer by 
General Sir Sam Hughes in connection with the shield shovel, of 
which a good deal was heard during 1915 and 1916. This spade, 
as supplied by the American makers, was formed with a sharp 
cutting edge, and a loophole for a rifle, but had no handle. When 
deliveries began to be made by the American manufacturers, a 
certain quantity was collected at random and turned over to the 



writer for testing. This was carried out at the rifle range of the 
Fifth Royal Highlanders in the basement of the Bleury Street 
Armory, Montreal. It was then found that while practically all 
would stand Mark Six British Service Ammunition, they failed to 
withstand the much greater impact of Mark Seven Ammunition. 
Mark Six had a muzzle velocity of about 1,800 feet per second. 
Further investigation showed that the difference in bullet resisting 
power in the plates submitted w r as due to lack of uniformity. 

No handles had been supplied with the shovels, and no apparent 
effort had been made by the manufacturers to supply one which 
was suitable. Scotia s engineers were asked to meet the difficulty, 
which they did, and finally offered one which was adopted, weighed 
eight ounces, and was secured by a single rivet passing through a 
square slotted hole in the body of the shovel below the base of the 

At this time the question of supplying our army with armored 
machine-gun automobile trucks had become a pressing matter. The 
question had been turned over to a Toronto Committee. Great 
delay was experienced in securing sufficient suitable bullet-resisting 
plate, "and serious confusion resulted. The experiments in con 
nection , with the shovel had thrown great doubt on the efficiency 
of the steel being supplied by the Americans, and again the Scotia 
Company were asked to carry out tests and advise as to the matter. 

From hints which had filtered through from the army in France 
and Flanders it was known that the German Spitzer bullet was much 
more effective than the British new Mark Seven, and while the 
armor-plating contracted to be supplied by the Americans for these 
cars was guaranteed to withstand Mark Seven British Ammunition 
at 300 yards, the rumors in regard to the penetrating powers of the 
German Spitzer ammunition were most disquieting, and could not 
be ignored. 

At that time the United States were neutral, but were making 
ammunition for the Allies and others. By methods, which it is not 
necessary here to refer to, or explain, the General Manager of the 
Scotia Company was able to obtain a German Mauser Service Rifle, 
and by an expenditure out of all proportion to the real value, 
1,000 rounds of German Mauser Spitzer service ammunition was 



also secured. An improvised range was set up on the ice on the 
East River, Nova Scotia, at a point where, protected by steep banks, 
firing tests could be carried out, when it was demonstrated that .311 
Spitzer German ammunition, which, carefully chronographed, gave 
a muzzle velocity of 2,915 feet per second, easily penetrated the 
armor plate which resisted Mark Seven British Ammunition fired 
from either the Lee-Enfield or Ross Rifle. 

The effect, of course, was to call a halt to the manufacture of 
these plates, and at the same time to push forward experiments then 
under way in the production by the Scotia Company of bullet-resist 
ing alloy armor plates. Within a short time New Glasgow was able 
to offer the Department of Militia alloy steel, heat-treated plates, not 
exceeding 3-i6th of an inch thick, which successfully withstood 
point-blank impact at one yard from Mark 7 ammunition fired from 
the latest model Ross rifle. In one case two shots had struck the 
plate within less than one-half inch of each other, and they neither 
penetrated nor cracked the plate. 

Plates somewhat thicker were later supplied which withstood 
German Mauser ammunition at point blank range, and the result 
given by these plates when tested at the Proving Station in Toronto 
were so satisfactory that the Artillery Proving Officers, after the 
tests, placed them on exhibition outside the Camp, and later reported 
that the men felt the utmost confidence with the protection afforded 
them by this plating, which later was supplied and fitted to a propor 
tion of the machine-gun trucks then being equipped. Later the 
British Government asked the Scotia Company to tender for similar 
protective plating for armored trucks. 



DEMOBILIZATION, following a war of such length and 
intensity as that of the Four Years War from August, 1914, 
to November, 1918, is not a mere problem of repatriation, it 
is a problem of reconstruction a gigantic one at that desiderating 
the undivided efforts of every organization in the nation and the 
assistance of every citizen. 

Consider for a moment what had happened in the industrial 
world. During the four years of war, Governments were the 
chief employers of men, the chief purchasers of raw materials, and 
the chief sources of revenue for an overwhelmingly large portion of 
the population. To retain the ideals of democracy Governments 
were given unlimited power power which was utilized in organiz 
ing practically the entire life of the belligerent nations into a vast 
machine for turning out implements of war. Not only was this 
war-time industry mobilized under unified control, but the market 
for which its product was turned out could not be flooded. Indeed, 
it continually called for greater and greater production regardless of 
cost. The expansion of business, and the building up of a huge 
army of war workers, the scarcity of labor and raw materials, the 
shifting of markets, the meteoric rise of prices, the less rapid rise 
of wages, Government control of prices, raw materials and exports, 
the inflation of currency, the huge increase in national debts these 
were some of the phenomena which characterized the period. They 
justify the assertion that a revolution in the economic and industrial 
life of the nations had occurred. Even in Canada, remote from the 
scene of actual strife, a generation s changes were compressed into 
four short years. 

Then suddenly, on November the eleventh, the object for which 
the vast war machine had been built up was attained. The neces 
sity for its existence vanished over-night, and the world found itself 



face to face with the task of scrapping the industrial machine which 
had so effectively served the requirements of war, and of rebuilding 
one which would serve just as effectively the entirely different 
requirements of peace. The new task was more difficult tharr the 
old, and had to be accomplished in a much shorter period a few 
months, instead of four years. Again, the problems themselves 
were more delicate and intricate; largely problems of human 
psychology, not of mechanics, requiring for their solution not com 
pulsion, but education, persuasion and co-operation. The world 
has learned that it is much easier to make war than to make peace. 

The early days of 1914 and 1915 were days of mobilization 
problems, and they were problems indeed. The provision of arms, 
equipment and food had to be undertaken on a scale unheard of 
before. It was necessary to provide transportation for vast bodies 
of troops and great quantities of stores, to say nothing of the con 
struction of training camps, rifle ranges, and all the paraphernalia 
of war. The human element, fresh and easily responsive to 
patriotic appeal, presented few difficulties at that time. 

There are, however, certain conditions inherent in military life 
which go far towards unfitting the soldier for civilian occupation. 
Without entering into a discussion of the reasons for these condi 
tions, two of them at least may be enumerated. In military life 
individual liberty is impossible, but it is of supreme importance in 
civil life. Further, in military life ambition or self-interest, which 
may be considered a fundamental motive in human action, becomes 
of secondary importance. Self-interest is, in fact, disciplined into 
complete abeyance. The moment the soldier becomes a civilian the 
restraints upon his individual liberty are more or less removed, and 
it is entirely in keeping with the impulses of human nature if he 
should, for a time, go to the opposite extreme. Then again, he 
finds it no easy task to awaken the ambition lying dormant within 
him, and it frequently happens that it is only from bitter experience 
that he learns it is necessary to rely, in the first instance, upon him 
self. These two conditions alone emphasize how different are the 
various problems of demobilization and mobilization. The success 
or failure of the work of reconstruction depends, not so much on 
the highly-developed organization as on the amount of personal 
service, whole-hearted sympathy and understanding brought to the 



work by those who, together with the soldier, must face the many 
obstacles confronting him in the first stages of his return to citizen 

Without the active co-operation of the soldiers themselves the 
work of reconstruction could not be a success. Undoubtedly our 
present stability, in comparison with many other parts of Canada is, 
in a large measure, due to the initiative and strength of purpose with 
which our soldiers have met, and are meeting, the tasks of a hum 
drum every-day life. It would, no doubt, be surprising to the 
average citizen were he to know how many men in Nova Scotia 
have re-established themselves without assistance from the Govern 

It was not until the closing days of 1915 and the return of 
casualties gassed and wounded from Ypres, Festubert, and 
Givenchy, that the problems of demobilization began to press for 
attention. The country was sadly lacking in proper hospital accom 
modation and equipment, especially for the treatment of surgical 
cases. The disabled man was finding it no easy matter to re-estab 
lish himself and the provision of industrial training or suitable em 
ployment for him was an urgent need. In many other ways the 
necessity for a radical change made itself apparent. 

The actual work of getting the soldiers home and out of khaki 
was in the hands of the Department of Militia and Defence; but 
the methods of peace and war are as far removed as day and night, 
and it was soon recognized that the re-absorption of returned 
soldiers into civil life, with the least disturbance of economic condi 
tions, could not be best performed by an organization of the mili 
tary type. The first step in the direction of providing a suitable 
organization was taken when the Military Hospitals Commission 
was formed in the same year. The duties of this Commission 
eventually embraced almost every phase of the problem of demobili 
zation, from the provision of hospitals, convalescent homes and 
treatment, to vocational re-education for those who, through a 
disability were unable to return to their former occupation. 

Not all the emergencies were, of course, foreseen ; and from 
time to time changes for the better were made in the regulations. 
Shortly after the formation of the Commission a conference of 
representatives from the various Provincial Governments was called 



at Ottawa, and the suggestions there adopted involved an extension 
of the work by the appointment of a sub-committee of the Federal 
Commission in each Province, to assume the responsibility of finding 
employment for discharged soldiers. 

Immediately following this conference the Returned Soldiers 
Employment Committee of Nova Scotia, or, as it was afterwards 
known, the Nova Scotia Returned Soldiers Commission, was 
appointed. The importance of this work at the time could not be 
overestimated, for is not reconstruction fundamentally a problem of 
employment and employment conditions? This function, however, 
by no means exhausted the activities of the Provincial Commission. 
On executive questions of a local nature it was the advisory body of 
the Federal Commission at Ottawa, and its scope was extended as 
the need arose, until it embraced practically all matters dealing 
with returned men. On certain occasions the Commission main 
tained an early and aggressive stand on problems which were not 
merely of a local character, but which affected the economic life of 
the Dominion. 

When the Military Hospitals Commission was formed, it was 
found necessary to operate Interviewing Departments in conjunc 
tion with the Clearing or Discharge Depots at Halifax, St. John and 
Quebec, in order to secure information from which to compile 
records. Each returning soldier on the ship s nominal roll was ques 
tioned regarding his pre-war occupation, his future prospects and 
intentions, as well as other general information required. In the 
case of casualties the proceedings of the last medical board were also 
secured. At Halifax a Staff of returned men were engaged in 
this work under the supervision of W. B. MacCoy, Secretary of the 
Provincial Commission. As the interviewing for the whole of 
Canada was performed at the ports, it can be appreciated what a 
vast amount of work this entailed, particularly when handling 
hospital ships. The severely disabled men were, of course, unable 
to visit the Interviewing Department. Consequently it was not 
possible to proceed as rapidly as in the case of ordinary transports. 

Another detail of the disembarkation which involved a great 
deal of work on the part of the Commission was that of notifying the 
next-of-kin of returning soldiers. A copy of the Nominal Roll. 



prepared on the voyage across, was secured immediately after the 
ship had docked and the Secretaries of the Returned Soldiers Com 
missions in the various other Provinces were telegraphed a complete 
list of the men going forward with the names and addresses of 
their relatives or friends. 

The, Nova Scotia men were, of course, dealt with first, as in 
many cases they would arrive home within a few hours. Their 
names were either telegraphed or telephoned to the Secretaries of 
the Town Reception Committees who, in turn, notified the relatives 
and aided in providing a suitable reception. 

During the War, Nova Scotia was exceedingly fortunate in the 
matter of employment. The number of unemployed soldiers seldom 
averaged more than ten per cent., and was usually between two and 
seven per cent. However, the abnormal conditions prevailing after 
the signing of the Armistice rendered the number of placements by 
the Commission, for a time at least, almost negligible. Numbers of 
men were suddenly thrown on the labor market by the closing of 
war-time industries, while at the same time our soldiers were being 
returned in thousands. This was by no means the critical period. 
Many of the men returning after years of service Overseas felt 
the need of a well-earned vacation more than they did of a job, 
while those who had dependants and who were anxious, but unable, 
to secure immediate employment, were temporarily provided for by 
the war service gratuity. For the majority, the most anxious time 
arrived during the succeeding fall and winter months. It is not 
the intention, however, to deal with the employment activities of 
the Commission. Attention must be confined to work of a more 
general nature. 

As previously stated, the country, particularly Nova Scotia, 
was sadly lacking in hospital accommodation. In the spring and 
early summer of 1915, nearly all returned soldiers either came 
through the Port of Quebec, or, if disembarked at Halifax, were 
forwarded to the Discharge Depot there. Save in a few instances, 
such as severe casualties, these men as soon as medically examined 
were given transportation to their homes. Discharge Certificates 
were usually not issued for months after their return, and a great 
deal of confusion resulted. Indeed, few of the men were aware 



of their status, and it not infrequently happened that, instead of 
the longed-for piece of parchment, they received a letter from their 
Military District instructing them to report for duty, this after 
having perhaps accepted civilian employment. The uncertainty of 
their future added to the difficulties of obtaining a satisfactory 
position, for after a few experiences, employers generally hesitated 
to engage a man who was not in possession of a certificate releasing 
him to civilian duties. As time went on, too, pay complaints began 
to pour in by the score, due no doubt to an antiquated system of 
handling documents, and the poor working facilities afforded the 
District Pay Staffs. 

About the end of the following year the Provincial Commission 
advised the erection of a hospital, but although the officials of the 
Military Hospitals Commission apparently concurred in the Pro 
vincial Commission s views, the conditions remained unchanged. 
Repeated reports were made by the Secretary and concrete cases 
submitted, showing the necessity in certain instances for providing 
treatment. The situation became so acute that at a meeting of the 
local Commission, held on February 21, 1917, certain members, 
feeling that the existing state of affairs might be construed as re 
flecting upon them, tendered their resignations to the Chairman. 
These resignations were, however, held in abeyance for a few days, 
and a strongly-worded resolution was passed and forwarded to Sir 
James Lougheed. Several days later a special meeting was called 
at the request of the Director of the Military Hospitals Commission, 
at which were present two officials of that body with full authority 
to take what steps were deemed necessary in order to relieve the 
situation. The writer, who has had access to the correspondence 
and records, can state without fear of contradiction, that it was 
wholly clue to the efforts of the Provincial Commission that Camp 
Hill Hospital was erected in 1917. Readers who are familiar with 
conditions both then and during the period following the Halifax 
disaster must realize what a boon it was to have had this splendid 
institution awaiting any and all emergencies. 

The subject of Vocational Training was one in which the Com 
mission took a deep interest from the very first. One of its early 
steps was to institute a careful survey of all existing educational 



facilities throughout Nova Scotia, which could be used for the re 
education of disabled men. The re-training of this class was of the 
utmost importance, and the Commission successfully fought for the 
enactment of several regulations tending to broaden the scope of 
the Vocational Department. 

One of the most persistent efforts was made in the interest of 
the physically fit " boy soldier." Aside from the minor who had 
been disabled, no provision existed whereby these young boys could 
be afforded the opportunities of re-education or re-training. The 
need for this was foreseen by the Provincial Office some two years 
before the close of the War and no opportunity was lost in the 
furtherance of their proposal to place them on the same footing 
as the disabled man. It was most desirable to provide facilities 
for the education of these young soldiers who enlisted in the Forces 
at an immature age. Their decision was made at a time when they 
could not probably measure the consequences of their act, and for 
this reason the public was responsible for any disadvantages accruing 
to. them. The years spent in the army were just those during which 
they should have been fitting themselves to win a position of self- 
support and independence ; and it is not only an advantage to them 
selves, but to the country, that they have been assisted in preparing 
for the earning of a livelihood rather than having been forced into 
the ranks of unskilled labor. The step taken by the Government in 
the early part of last year was indeed satisfactory in consideration 
of the initial and continuous efforts of the Provincial Commission. 

The Soldier Settlement Act, passed in 1917, has proved to be 
one of the most satisfactory measures of re-establishment provided 
by the Government. As originally framed, however, it was of very 
little value to a man who desired to go on the land in the Maritime 
Provinces. The free grants provided by the Act were restricted 
to Dominion Lands, while here any land of value for agricultural 
purposes is privately owned. This was clearly placing under a 
handicap the Nova Scotian soldier who wished to stay in his 
native Province, inasmuch as the maximum amount which could 
be borrowed under the Act was only $2,500. The Provincial Com 
mission urged very strongly that the benefits to be derived should 
be equally distributed and enjoyed by soldiers wishing to go on 



the land in any Province. At the 1918 yearly meeting of Provincial 
Secretaries, held at Ottawa, the other Provinces were unanimous in 
supporting the Maritime representatives, and a resolution was passed 
petitioning the Federal Government to extend the provisions of the 
Act. This was done some time afterwards, and to-day we have in 
Nova Scotia some three hundred and fifty farms producing, and as 
many soldiers re-established in this way. 

The months which followed the erection of Camp Hill Hospital 
brought many changes. The Military Hospitals Commission ceased 
and was succeeded by the Department of Soldiers Civil Re-Estab 
lishment. New organizations arose, and new methods were inaugur 
ated in old ones to meet the constantly increasing needs and changing 
problems. But space will not permit to deal with all the phases of 
this many-sided and deeply interesting work. At best details can 
only be touched upon, and the three instances quoted of the Com 
mission s connection with the larger problems of reconstruction by 
no means exhausts an interesting store of past events. The 
part taken by W. B. MacCoy, K.C., 
Secretary of the Commission, is deserv 
ing of the fullest public recognition. No 
man has been more sincere or more 
zealous in safeguarding the interests of 
the Nova Scotian soldiers. His work 
was not undertaken without a sacrifice, 
but the appreciation of thousands of 
soldiers and dependants expressed in the 
letters of thanks contained on the fyles 
of the Commission, and in many other 
ways, has doubtless repaid him in full. w . B . MACCOY, K.C. 

Victory was the reward of loyalty and 

co-operation and the willingness of each and every soldier to 
subjugate self in the welfare of the whole, and play the game as 
best he could. Demobilization has required no less devotion, energy, 
and co-operation than did the War itself and the measure of success 
attained through the sympathy, tact, and ability displayed by how 
ever humble a servant in the great work of reconstruction will be 
reflected in the national life of Canada for the next generation. 
22 3 2 9 


THE aftermath of the Great War, which virtually ended with 
the Armistice on November n, 1918, should be historically 
different from the social and economic muddles and messes 
which have succeeded other prolonged struggles. Human nature 
has not changed, but society is more enlightened, more highly 
organized, and more averse to waste. 

The soldiers who returned to Canada from the Boer War were 
paid small Imperial pensions for disabilities incurred and were 
rewarded by grants of land in the great Canadian West, which 
almost all of them realized on immediately, selling them to " land 
sharks " for ridiculously small cash sums. It has been stated that 
most of the British veterans of the Crimea died in the workhouses. 
Just as the last War was fought with more highly developed 
death-dealing machines and apparatus, and consequently evolved 
entirely new means of counter-offensive and protection, so the 
Allied nations employed entirely new methods to compensate the 
disabled fighting men for the incapacities they suffered through 
service. The aim was to develop all of the remaining abilities and 
aptitudes of the crippled soldier so that he might be able to retain 
his place in civilian life as an active, independent, self-supporting 

Nova Scotia can justly claim the credit for starting the plan of 
vocational re-training developed in Canada. In July, 1915, Miss 
I. Matthews, who was assisting her sister, Mrs. J. K. L. Ross, in 
preparing the residence of the latter in Sydney for use as a conval 
escent home for soldiers, secured a pamphlet describing the early 
efforts of France in rehabilitating war cripples. She brought it 
to the attention of Hon. G. H. Murray, who asked Principal F. H. 



Sexton, of the Technical College, for some concrete practical ^sug 
gestions. The latter prepared a careful report on the methods 
which the Dominion might use to organize this work., and this was 
submitted to the Premier of Canada.. Sir Robert Borden. 

Just before this there had been created the Military Hospitals 
Commission to control the treatment in Canada of wounded and 


Principal Nova Scotia Technical College. 

disabled men returning from Europe. The report on vocational 
re-training was submitted to the Commission for consideration and 
action. The subject was regarded of such importance that a con 
ference of Provincial Premiers and other representatives was called 
to consider this and some other questions affecting returned men. 

Principal Sexton was sent as a Nova Scotian delegate to this 
conference and explained his ideas. He asserted that nearly all 

33 1 


maimed and crippled men could be put on their feet again as wage- 
earners by a short, practical, intensive course in vocational training. 
The men were adults who had already had some industrial experi 
ence and consequently would not need as much or as long training 
as youths being apprenticed in trades. During the last twenty-five 
years industry had been sub-divided into many specialized occupa 
tions, in many of which little physical effort was required. 
Advantage could be taken of the vocational experience of the 
soldier previous to enlistment and, in most cases, he could be trained 
for some occupation in the same industry where his disability would 
not be a handicap. That is, the crippled men could be moved side- 
wise in industry to some parallel occupation or, by means of a little 
education, could be lifted up higher and fitted for some supervisory 
position as boss, foreman, or superintendent. Thus, a structural 
steel worker, with some physical deficiency, would be trained for a 
position of draftsman. The coal miner, who was disabled, so that 
he could no longer dig coal at the face could, in a comparatively 
short time, be trained for the position of shot-firer, fire boss, mine 
examiner, overman, underground foreman, or mine manager. 

There were endless opportunities for fitting men for occupations 
that required more technical knowledge, more skill, and more 
mental capacity. Most of the Canadian soldiers had not much 
opportunity for vocational education in their youth, and the great 
majority could be prepared for better jobs with their disability than 
they had been able to qualify for before they enlisted. It was 
pointed out that technical schools could offer some courses for 
disabled men, and that the rest of them could be given intensive 
short apprenticeships in industry. The disabled men and their 
families should be supported in respectability during the course of 
training. It was emphasized that the soldier in the hospital should 
begin to do some work as soon as possible, so that he would not 
lose his habits of industry by too prolonged an idleness during 
treatment. This method of technical education would be expensive, 
but it would more than repay the country by making almost all 
the disabled men competent to maintain themselves as wage-earners 
for the remainder of their lives, and eliminate the great proportion 
of indigent, idle pensioners that had succeeded other great wars. 



The conference in September, 1915, enthusiastically recom 
mended that the Military Hospitals Commission proceed to develop 
vocational training of disabled soldiers along the lines proposed. 
Soon after this steps were taken to put the suggestions into actual 
practice. Principal Sexton was appointed, under the Commission, 
as Vocational Officer for Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, 
which office he has held for four and one-half years. 

When the convalescent hospitals were first opened in Canada, 
it was thought at first that all the men needed was the necessary 
medical treatment and a rest and then most of them would naturally 
return to work. People who had not had army training, and who 
had not endured the terrible experiences in the front line trenches, 
did not understand the psychological -reversal most of the soldiers 
had suffered. The ordinary Canadian was noted for his power 
of initiative. In times of peace he had developed resourcefulness 
and individuality. From thousands of occupations our men donned 
the khaki uniform. The first great lesson for the new soldier was 
that of implicit obedience to his superior officers. He was instructed 
that others would do his thinking for him. The responsibility of 
providing food, shelter, and raiment for himself and his dependants, 
which had been his constant effort in waking hours, was lifted from 
his shoulders. His habits were regularized to conform to a single 
standard, that of the well-disciplined soldier. In action he was 
forced into a condition of personal dirtiness that would have been 
absolutely repellent to him in ordinary life. He was subjected 
to the nerve-racking, soul-splitting ordeal of continuous fire of high 
explosives. Death lurked at his elbow continuously in a thousand 
hideous forms. He lived like a worm, and the taking and giving of 
human life became an hourly experience. He forgot what a normal 
mode of living was like, and his tours back and forth to the trenches 
seemed the whole of existence, with only a ghastly way out of it. 
Then came his " blighty," and the long, painful period of hospital 
experience where willing and loving hands ministered to every need. 
He was doctored, nursed and entertained lavishly. Is it any wonder 
that he found himself in an abnormal mental state, and that ordinary 
civilian life seemed petty and cold and humdrum? Is it surprising 
that he found himself slow to rouse himself and prepare to take 



up again some civilian task in the treadmill of industry which would 
reward him with only food, clothing and lodging? After the 
glorious comradeship with his fellows in facing death, the competi 
tive system in a life of routine duties seemed dull and deadly. 

It seemed evident from the first experience that work was the 
only panacea. Definite, interesting occupation alone offered the 
means of making the man forget himself, and of wrenching him 
around into the footpath of peace. Self-imposed routine duties of 
an absorbing nature provided the necessary attraction and distrac 
tion to enable the man to prepare himself again for a useful life in 
industry. Therefore interesting work of all kinds was provided to 
suit different abilities and disabilities. 

Three divisions of the work of re-training the disabled soldier 
developed as progress was made with this task, viz. : ( i ) Ward 
Occupations; (2) Curative Workshops; (3) Industrial Re-training. 
These will be taken up in the order named. 

1. WARD OCCUPATIONS. Basketry, weaving, leather work 
and other handicrafts were taught to the men in hospital right in 
the wards, as recreational activity, during the time of conval 
escence when the soldiers, as patients, are not advanced far enough 
in their recovery to leave their beds or to take up serious education. 

2. CURATIVE WORKSHOPS. Every hospital had either a 
separate vocational building or a portion of its space set aside for 
curative workshops. Here were held a variety of classes for men 
taking treatment who were able to leave their wards and who 
wished to study some subjects which would be of advantage to 
them when they were discharged from hospital and would re-enter 
civilian life or take up training for a new occupation. 

3. INDUSTRIAL RE-TRAINING. This was the most im 
portant division of the work and, in fact, constituted the main 
activity of the Vocational Branch of the Department of Soldiers 
: Civil Re-establishment. All soldiers who received a disability in 
military service through disease, accident or wounds which pre 
vented them from returning to their old occupations, were entitled to 
industrial re-training. Any man who enlisted under the age of 
eighteen, and whose apprenticeship or training for some useful 
occupation was seriously interrupted by the War. was also entitled 



to an industrial re-training course. Thousands of men had to be 
intensively trained for hundreds of different occupations in the 
shortest possible time. During their courses they and their 
dependants received pay and allowances to support themselves. 
Every kind of institution which offered definite vocational training 
was utilized, but a great proportion of the men were placed in 
industry itself to learn their new occupations. Special trade classes 
and schools had to be organized and equipped by the Department 
of Soldiers Civil Re-establishment to meet the new need. The 
main aim was to train the disabled soldiers and minors in six to 
ten months, so that they could earn the prevailing wage in suitable 
vocations. This aim was realized with results that have amply 
justified the predictions of experts in industrial education and the 
enormous expenditure of money necessary. The development of 
the three main divisions of the vocational work in Nova Scotia 
is interesting and illuminating, and promises much for" the future 
in pointing the way to further developments in our hospital treat 
ment and the reclaiming of the productive power of our men who 
have been or will be crippled by accident or disease. 

It was very evident from the first experience with returned 
disabled soldiers in Canadian convalescent hospitals, that they 
needed some definite work to engage their attention just as soon 
as they were able to do it. After a prolonged illness their morale 
was very low, and many were convinced that they were so badly 
disabled that they would never be good for anything again. Nerves, 
muscles, and tendons which had been seriously damaged by wounds, 
could be healed and brought back to part of their former power 
by operative treatment, massage, electric therapy, etc., but at a 
certain stage further improvement could take place only through 
the action of the will of the patient. At this point the soldier 
will try to make his damaged body function properly if he is 
absorbed in some interesting task. 

Consequently, handicraft work was introduced into the hospitals 
under the title of ward occupations. In the summer of 1917 
volunteers from the V.A.D. of the St. John Ambulance Associa 
tion were trained in different handicrafts at the Nova Scotia 
Technical College, and gave their services to the patients at Camp 



Hill and Pine Hill Hospitals. The value of the work soon became 
apparent, and a central training school for ward aides, as the 
handicraft teachers were called, was opened in Toronto. Young 
women of education, character, and aptitude were carefully selected 
for this work, and as soon as they had been given training, they 
were placed in every military hospital and sanitarium. TlTey co 
operated with the medical officers and nursing sisters in every 
particular, and a combined effort was made to get every patient 
busy at some kind of work just as soon as he was able to do any 
thing. Basketry, weaving, embroidery, leather tooling, raffia work, 
toy-making, wood carving, art craft, metal work, and other forms 
of occupation were provided. The chief difficulty was in first getting 
the individual interested ; and this task took an immense amount 
of tact and persuasion in some instances. 

The underlying motive was to divert the man s mind from its 
morbid state and to give him a mental stimulus back toward civilian 
life. In the majority of cases, the patient would make artistic 
objects for his relatives and friends. If he wished to keep the 
articles he merely paid for the cost of the material, but if he did 
not want them the Vocational Branch offered them for sale at a 
fair commercial value, deducted the cost of raw materials and 
gave the balance to the patient. There was no idea of instructing 
the men in gainful trades Which they could follow after their 

Too high a tribute cannot be paid to the high character and 
ability and the unflagging devotion of the Nova Scotia Ward 
Aides. They gave the same high form of unselfish, patriotic 
service that was characteristic of the best groups of women workers. 
The ward occupations were of enormous benefit in making the 
weary hours of the days pass quickly, in improving the discipline 
in the institutions, and in materially shortening the time of treat 
ment in many cases. The handicraft work has been specially 
developed for insane patients, and helps to fill the pathetic lives of 
the soldiers confined in the Nova Scotia Hospital for the Insane. 

A large proportion of the men in the institutions were not 
confined to their wards. Their disabilities were such, or they had 
reached such an advanced stage in their treatment, that they were 



able to move about and to perform light work. For these cases 
there was only a half-hour a day of treatment, and the rest of the 
time might be spent in playing cards, in reading magazines, or in 
sheer idleness. There was great danger that the men might become 
" hospitalized " and unfitted for the stern tasks of industrial life. 
Therefore, curative workshops were provided, where a wide range 
of classes was held for six or seven hours a day. Practical and 
accomplished instructors were in charge of the various branches, 
and nearly every soldier, physically fit to pursue such studies, could 
find something of interest and value. Many of the patients had 
never had a fair chance to get a good education, and a goodly 
number who had had such an opportunity had not availed them 
selves of it. A few of the soldiers did not even know how to 
read and write. As mechanics, most of the soldiers had acquired 
such skill as they possessed in a careless and haphazard manner 
and were not thoroughly competent. To suit the general needs 
and tastes of the patients, instruction was offered in business 
English, practical arithmetic, practical algebra, geometry and trig 
onometry, bookkeeping, stenography and typewriting, telegraphy, 
mechanical and architectural drafting, gardening, woodworking, 
shoe repairing, automobile driving and repair, etc. 

These adult students made amazing progress in their studies. 
Those who had forgotten all their mathematics, except the first 
four rules, covered years of school work in a few months, and in 
going over it the second time would never again forget it. For 
eigners and men who were illiterate learned the rudiments of 
arithmetic and the English language in a surprisingly short time. 
Others were absorbed in the work of the different classes, and 
gained valuable knowledge according to their ability and the length 
of time they stayed in the hospital. For some of them, who were 
not entitled to industrial re-training after discharge, it was their 
only opportunity to get general or vocational education. For those 
Who were so disabled that they could not return to their old 
occupations, the curative workshops offered a trying-out ground 
where they could test their aptitudes and often lay a solid basis 
for further training. It was a pathetic as well as an inspiring sight 
to see some grizzled hero bringing back muscular power to a 



scarred and withered arm in planing a piece of wood to make 
some piece of furniture for his home. The workshop offered 
practically the only method of treatment to the neurasthenic or 
" shell-shocked " patient. No medicine or massage or operation 
could help him, and only the stimulation of his self-interest in 
class work could get him to forget himself and thus gradually 
bring him back to normal. 

The first curative workshop classes to be opened in the Dominion 
started at the Ross Convalescent Hospital in Sydney, on April 4, 
1916. They were rapidly developed in every hospital and sana 
torium throughout Canada, and proved of immense benefit in 
helping to re-establish our disabled soldiers who received treatment 
in Canada. 

By far the most important division of the vocational work of 
civil re-establishment, however, was the industrial re-training. 
France and Belgium showed the way in which crippled men could 
-,be trained for future usefulness in suitable trades; and practically 
every belligerent country evolved a system of human rehabilitation 
for maimed soldiers. Canada had the advantage of time to plan 
and develop her methods of dealing with this problem before she 
was swamped with numbers, and consequently was able to establish 
a uniform system with centralized authority. The basis of the 
whole work was to give suitable training for every soldier who, 
through some disability incurred in military service, could not 
efficiently resume the occupation which he followed prior to 
enlistment. In addition to this class, all men classed as minors, 
who had enlisted under the age of eighteen, were later given train 
ing if their war service had seriously interfered with their 
preparation for their chosen occupation, whether they were disabled 
or not. 

Every effort was made to place the disabled man in the right 
position. He was interviewed by a sympathetic and competent 
official and counselled intelligently about the important choice of a 
new trade. The soldier already had industrial experience and, in 
the majority of cases, had some definite idea of what he wished to 
do. If his conceptions of the duties, remuneration, conditions of 
work, chances for promotion, stability, etc.. in the new occupation. 



were wrong, he was reasonably and patiently advised to make 
another choice. The disabled man, however, always made the 
decision about his own future. His own wishes were followed as 
far as possible, because he would make a failure of his training 
and of his new occupation if he himself was not satisfied and 


The queer trait of human nature that considers " distant fields 
as ever green" was much in evidence. During his former experi 
ence, the disabled soldier had always had a conviction that some 
other job completely outside of his own vocation was easier and 
better paid, or that some new development of industry was holding 
out its arms and screaming for workers. Consequently, there was 
a common tendency to enter some vocation wholly outside of his 
former experience. Most of the men were extremely reasonable 
and when all the facts were put before them they made wise 
decisions. Every definite effort was made to keep the man as 
close as possible to the industry in which he was employed before 
enlistment. If they had all tried to crowd into a few of the highly 
skilled occupations, there would not have been vacancies enough 
to give them all employment. So the training was made as wide 
as business and industry. Schools and classes were organized and 
equipped for those vocations which needed preliminary education 
under skilled instructors, and for which comparatively large groups 
of men were preparing. In cases where men were deficient in 
general education, and needed some fundamental knowledge of 
English and arithmetic in order to succeed, they were given inten 
sive preliminary instruction for one, two or three months before 
starting specialized vocational training. Every educational institu 
tion which offered intensive practical courses leading to wage- 
earning power, was made use of to the fullest extent. Industry 
itself, however, offered the widest opportunities, and a great 
proportion of the students were placed directly in industry to learn 
there how to fill the job acceptably under working conditions, so 
that at the end of their period of training they could slip over on 
the pay roll of the employer without any break. Other men, who 
had preliminary training in the special trade classes established 
by the Department of Soldiers Civil Re-establishment, were placed 



in industry for the latter part of their period of education so that 
they would get accustomed to workshop conditions, and in order 
that there would be no appreciable hiatus between training and 

In order to provide ample means for the training and employ 
ment of the thousands of men the War produced, it was necessary 
to secure the closest co-operation of the employers, trade unions, 
and the general public. It is a pleasure to chronicle the fact that 
everybody gave active help without stint. The Dominion Steel 
Corporation and the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, the 
largest single employers of labor in Nova Scotia, announced publicly 
that they would find a suitable place for every one of their former 
employees who had gone into military service and who desired 
work after his discharge. They carried out their promise, and 
also provided every possible facility for re-training disabled men. 
Trade unions also gave generous assistance, and waived all restric 
tions regarding apprenticeship where these might be detrimental 
to maimed and crippled soldiers who were learning new trades. 
Without all this splendid co-operation, the results achieved in 
Canada in re-training the disabled soldiers for future usefulness 
would have been impossible. 

The usual period of time that was found necessary to put the 
discharged soldiers on their feet so that they could earn the 
prevailing wage in a new occupation, was seven or eight months. 
During the War, when all labor was very scarce, employers would 
accept men and give them full wages after about six months train 
ing, but when competition became keener and more workers became 
available in 1919, eight months was found to be necessary in most 
cases, and sometimes even a whole year. During the period of 
learning a new vocation, the soldier s pension was suspended, and 
he and his dependants received a uniform scale of pay and allow 
ances as follows : 

Single man $60 oo per month. 

Married man and wife 85 oo " 

Married man with wife and one child 95 oo " 

Married man with wife and two children... 103 oo " 

Married man with wife and three children, no oo " 

For each additional child above three 6 oo " 



If training caused the man to live apart from his dependants, 
an extra allowance of $16.00 per month was granted. Owing to 
the increased cost of living, these rates were advanced on September 
i. 1920. 

All classes carried on by the Department of Civil Re-establish 
ment in Nova Scotia were conducted for eight hours per day in 
order to get the men accustomed to the conditions prevailing in 
industry. Where men were sent to educational institutions, or were 
apprenticed in industry, they were subject to the rules and regula 
tions in force at the place where they were learning. 

The scope of the work widened rapidly as it progressed until 
men were being re-trained for more than 300 different occupations. 
It is not necessary to give a list of these occupations, but the com 
prehensive field covered may be imagined if only those classified 
under the letter " A " were mentioned : 


Adding Machine Operator. 

Adding Machine Repairer. 

Advertising Agent. 

Aeroplane Manufacturing Worker. 

Agriculture Bee Keeping. 


Farm Tractor Oper 

Farm Mechanics. 


Fruit Raising. 

General Farming. 


Market Gardening. 

Poultry Raising. 

Seed Testing. 

University Course. 

Air Brake Mechanic. 
Architectural Draftsman. 
Armature Winder. 
Artificial Limb Maker. 
Art Lead Glazer. 
Art Metal Worker. 
Automobile Mechanic. 
Automobile Painter. 
Automobile Salesman. 
Automobile Storage Battery Re 

Automobile Tire Vulcanizer. 
Automobile Truck Driver. 
Automobile Upholsterer. 

The man who was placed in industry for training or employ 
ment was kept under constant supervision and visited every two 
or three weeks to ascertain his progress. If he was not securing 
proper treatment or opportunity to learn, he was moved to some 
other position. If his choice of occupation had not been wise, he 
was tried out in some other line of work. After he had finished 
his course, he was visited at least once a month for four months 
to see that his re-establishment was complete and his progress 



The first group to receive industrial re-training in Canada 
consisted of a number of unfortunate members of a British West 
India Regiment. A large number were landed in Halifax in 
February, 1917, from a transport and were sent to hospital to be 
treated for severe frost bite. Nine of them had to have both legs 
.amputated and eight of them lost one leg or a portion of a leg. 
Previous to enlistment these Jamaicans had been "cultivators" or 
agricultural laborers, and had very little education. When their 
hospital treatment was completed they were re-trained by the Voca 
tional Branch in Halifax. Mr. W. J. Clayton gave over his whole 
residence and the Provincial Branch of the Red Cross Society 
fitted it up completely for a convalescent hospital and re-training 
centre. The men were given instruction in three trades suitable 
to their disability, viz., tailoring, shoe repairing, and tin-smithing. 
At the end of five and one-half months they were sent back to 
Jamaica able to earn at least fifty per cent, more in their new 
occupations than they had received before as laborers. 

The work of re-training disabled Nova Scotian soldiers began 
seriously in the spring of 1917. A centre was established at the 
Technical College in Halifax. It was fortunate, indeed, that the 
Province had embarked on its scheme of technical education before 
the War, and that this splendid institution stood ready with all its 
equipment and trained Staff to render service to the men disabled 
"in war. The Provincial Government turned practically the whole 
establishment over to the Dominion Government for this work. 
Classes in garage mechanics, automobile tire vulcanizing, electricity, 
mechanical, architectural and ship drafting, land surveying, machine 
tool operation, stationary engineering, oxyacetylene welding, shoe 
repairing, etc., were organized. The institution became a busy .hive 
of industry. The numbers grew until larger quarters had to be 
secured for part of the classes. In the summer of 1919 a large 
igroup of demobilization barracks on Cunard St., Halifax, was 
taken over and specially fitted and equipped for educational 
purposes. This was called the Borden Re-training Centre, and the 
main portion of the work has been done there since that time. 
A number of the classes are still maintained at the Technical 



College, and this service will be rendered by the College until the 
whole task is completed. 

The number of re-training students in Nova Scotia increased 
rapidly in 1919 until it reached its peak with a strength of about 
2,300 in March, 1920. From this number it has rapidly declined. 
Altogether, in the Province, about 4,000 returned men have been 
granted courses to this date. When one considers that they were 
training for nearly 300 trades, and that they were being admitted 
to and discharged from courses every day, that they and their 
dependants must be paid twice a month, that employment must be 
found for them, that they must be followed up for four months 
after completing their training, and thousands of their difficulties 
smoothed out, the magnitude of the task can be appreciated. 

A centre for re-training men in agriculture was established at 
the Nova Scotia Agricultural College at Truro. Here again this 
advantage of having a fully equipped institution, with a Staff of 
highly-trained specialists ready to render service to the discharged 
soldiers, cannot be overestimated. All the re-training students from 
the three Maritime Provinces were sent here, because it was the 
only place in this area competent to meet their needs. Special 
courses adapted for the purpose were provided, and the regular 
Staff of the College gave unstintingly of their time and knowledge. 
Like the Technical College, the Agricultural College allowed dis 
charged soldiers to attend all regular courses without any tuition 
fees. The number of men applying for re-training in agricultural 
branches was small because most forms of farming demand p hy- 
sical fitness, and the army experience of the soldiers tended to 
make them wish to stick to industries in the towns. 

Contrary to the expectations of the public, very few men were 
blinded in the army. Wounds that would deprive a man of his 
sight usually killed him. Out of our forces of about a half million 
men, only 130 have had their vision impaired to such an extent 
that they require re-training. The Canadian authorities arranged 
with Sir Arthur Pearson that the blind men should all be trained 
in that splendid institution, St. Dunstan s Hostel, in London. In 
the early days of the War, however, a few blinded men drifted 
back to Canada without training. These were collected and about 



a dozen sent to Halifax, where they were given special instruction 
under the Military Hospitals Commission at the School for the 
Blind. They were taught Braille reading and writing, typewriting, 
Braille stenography, massage, and shoe repairing. Most of the 
men made remarkable progress, and are successfully earning their 
own livings to-day. 

Altogether Canada has granted about 53,000 courses of re 
training. From the very first she has followed a sane, practical 
policy, and has enjoyed the advantages of uniformity and central 
ized control throughout all the Provinces. 

The results speak for themselves. In Nova Scotia 65 per cent. 
of the men w ho have completed their courses are successfully 
re-established in the occupation for which they were trained. 
Another 20 per cent, are earning satisfactory wages in other lines 
of work than those for which they were specifically prepared. 
These men have changed because they saw better opportunities 
for themselves, individually, in another vocation, or they may have 
felt fit enough, after their course, to return to their old occupation. 
Their training will not be lost, because they are so much more 
competent because of having it. Ten per cent, of the men have gone 
out of the Province and cannot be traced. It is safe to conclude 
that most of these are successfully re-established. Two per cent, 
of the men are reported as unemployed, but it is not known to what 
extent this is due to lack of temporary opportunity or disinclina 
tion on the part of the man. Three per cent, of the men are 
reported as still ill and temporarily under treatment. 

This high salvage among war-wrecked men can be accepted 
with great satisfaction by every patriotic Canadian. Without the 
loyal co-operation of every section of society and the unflagging 
devotion to duty on the part of the large Staff of returned men 
who were engaged in administration and instruction, these results 
\vould have been impossible. Canada s record of reconstruction 
and her efforts to rehabilitate the brave soldiers who gave of their 
youth and strength in the service of the country, stand on a par 
with her militarv achievements. 



THE Nova Scotia Branch of the Canadian Patriotic Fund 
was organized in Halifax, September 2, 1914, with the 
late Lieutenant-Governor Hon. James D. MacGregor as 
Chairman of the Provincial Executive. On completion of his term 
of office as Governor, he was succeeded by Hon. David McKeen as 
Chairman, who acted to the time of his death, November 13, 1916. 
On appointment to the office of Lieutenant-Governor, His Honor 
MacCallum Grant became Chairman of the Executive. Other 
members of the Executive who have continued in office from Sep 
tember, 1914, to date, are: Hon. G. H. Murray, M.P.P., Premier 
and Provincial Secretary; Hon. Chief Justice Harris, Hon. E. N. 
Rhodes, M.P., the Chairman of County Branches; H. A. Flemming, 
Treasurer; and Arthur S. Barnstead, B.A.. LL.B., Secretary. 

The total amount raised and remitted to the Honorary Treas 
urer to March 31, 1919, was $1,847,883.31, and to March 31, 
1920, was $1,862,431.80. The total amount disbursed was to 
March 31, 1919, $1,628,177.04, and to March 31, 1920, $1,726,520.30. 

The Central Executive arranged for the collection of the 
amounts allotted to the Province in connection with the various 
campaigns, and county committees co-operating. With but one 
exception, every county municipality contributed to the Fund, and 
practically every town of the Province made grants. In two or 
three towns, private individuals made collections for the Fund 
.where no grant was made by the Town Council. 

The distribution of relief was supervised by the Provincial 
Executive, requisitions being drawn by the treasurer of every county 
for the money required, the list of beneficiaries being carefully 
.checked before the money was placed to the credit of the local 



.treasurer. The result of co-operation between the Provincial Ex- 
.ecutive and the various relief committees was so beneficial that 
very little difficulty arose and the rules and regulations of the Fund 
.were very carefully observed. Complaints by the families of 
soldiers themselves were very few, and all complaints were readily 
adjusted. The expense of both collections and disbursements was 
kept at a low figure, there being only one or two paid officials in 
the larger counties, and these but part time. In addition to that, 
.some small grants were made for stenographic and clerical 



Provincial Executive Committee. 

G. S. Campbell Chairman. 

S. A. Reward Secretary. 

R. H. Metzler. R- W. Elliott. 

P R Jack B. G. Burrill. 

W. B. Milner. W. F. Mahon. 

A. F. Mackintosh. W. I. MacDougall. 

H. M. Bradford. H. C. Coughtry. 

Bankers Committee. 

D. Macgillivray Chairman. 

H. A. Flemming. F- St. C. Harris. 

A. E. Nash. F. O. Robertson. 

Publicity Committee. 

Chairman J. R- McLeod. 

Special Names Committee. 
Chairman B. G. Burrill. 

Provincial Press Committee. 
Chairman Dr. J. D. Logan. 


County 1917-18. IQIQ- 

Annapolis Hon. S. W. W. Pickup. Hon. S. W. W. Pickup. 

Antigonish Rev. J. T. Tompkins. Rev. R. S. Macgillivray. 

Cape Breton John E. Burchell. Walter Crowe, K.C. 

Colchester A. J. Campbell, K.C. A. J. Campbell, K.C. 

Cumberland J. R. Douglas. Percy C. Black. 

Clare E. L. Comeau. E. L. Comeau. 

Dioby H. B. Short. H. B. Short. 

Guysboro E. C. Whitman. E. C. Whitman 

Hants -Rev. Dr. T. S. Boyle. Rev. Dr. T. S. Boyle. 

Inverness Rev. A. L. McDonald. Rev. A. L. McDonald. 

Kino-s . . W. H. Chase. George E. Graham. 

Lunenburg .V J. J. Kinley, M.P.P. J. J. Kinley, M.P.. 

Pictou East R. M. McGregor. John D. McDonald. 

Pictou West R. M. McGregor. J. Ed. McDonald. 

Queens A. W. Hendry. George S. McClearn. 

Richmond D. H. Campbell. D. H. Campbell. 

Shelburne R. Irwin, M.P.P. R. Irwin, M.P.P. 

Victoria Hon. W. F. McCurdy. Hon. W. F. McCurdy. 

Yarmouth E. K. Spinney, M.P. E. K. Spinney, M.P. 

Halifax County Hon. G. E. Faulkner. Hon. G. E Faulkner. 

Halifax City W. A. Black. W. A. Black. 





1917 and 1918 Victory Loans Final Returns. 

No. Sub. No. Sub. Volume Volume Objective 

County. 1917. 1918. 1917- 1918. 1918. 

Halifax City 7,656 9,918 $4,592,500 $9,314,050 $5,000,000 

Halifax County .. 1,472 2,402 533.2OO 1,003,950 615,000 

City and County . 9,128 12,320 5,125,700 10,318,000 5,615,000 

Annapolis 1,418 1,357 497,950 623,750 500,000 

Antigonish 1,218 1,369 430,000 554,050 430,000 

Cape Breton 11,251 I755i 4,208,100 6,631,900 4,000,000 

Colchester 2,294 2,693 1,003,500 1,374,130 1,000,000 

Cumberland 3,605 3,388 2,137,800 3,080,350 1,500,000 

Digby Municipality 844 927 292,850 463,100 500,000 

Clare Municipality 152 124,250 

Guysboro 1,079 1,258 377,9OO 425,850 37S,ooo 

Hants 1,460 1,873 527,300 793,ioo 650,000 

Inverness 920 922 324,900 399.7OO 325,000 

Kings 1,817 2.305 586,150 847,060 650,000 

Lunenburg 1,236 2,880 570,250 1,462,600 1,000,000 

Pictou 5,679 7,661 2,073,750 4,044,500 2.000,000 

Queens 628 634 258,150 343,400 300,000 

Richmond 638 564 164,500 200,650 175,000 

Shelburne 679 896 3*7,400 411,150 350,000 

Victoria 429 504 161,600 178,400 160,000 

Yarmouth 1,115 1,505 457,450 767,760 600,000 

Tota l 45,438 60,759 $19,515,250 $33,043,700 $20,130,000 

Unofficial objective, $25,000,000, being Nova Scotia s proportion of 

Nova Scotia Victory Loan Campaign, 1919. ^ 

County. Objective. Subscribed, of Subs. 

Halifax City t $4,750,000 $6,896,000 6,781 

Halifax County 475,000 1,521,000 2,421 

City and County 5,225,000 8,417,900 9,202 

Annapolis 35o,ooo 628,250 1,008 

Antigonish 300,000 453,200 786 

Cape Breton 3,500,000 4.936,200 8,8or 

Colchester 700,000 1,182,000 1,843 

Cumberland ... 1,250.000 3,199,650 2,266 

Digby (Clare Municipality) 180.3^0 144 

Digby (Digby Municipality) 1/5.000 339.3^0 458 

Guysboro 275,000 490,000 893 

Hants 500,000 618 ooo 1,147 

Inverness 225,000 399,ioo 711 

Kings 55o,ooo 932,800 1023 

Lunenburg 75o,ooo 1,247,750 1.7*9 

2,000,000 3,i74,7oo 2,812 

245.000 335,ooo 453 

Richmond 100,000 201,850 295 

bhelburne 275,000 376,100 628 

V ictoria 100,000 229,700 358 

450,000 1,180,000 1,281 

Total $17.145,000 $28.521.000 -6.398 






THE Red Cross has been the Angel of Mercy to the soldier 
lying on his fevered couch in hospital, for it brought to him 
succor and a message of hope and cheer. But coming in 
contact with it at a time when he was least able to apprehend the 
efforts which brought the help so sorely needed, he is apt to regard 
the Red Cross as a field institution and fails to appreciate the labor 
and sacrifice of the women at home who made its work of mercy 

The work of the Nova Scotia Branch of the Canadian Red Cross 
Society has been the raising of money, manufacturing and distri 
bution of goods, visiting and supplying the needs of hospital ships, 
trains, military and convalescent hospitals, and arranging concerts, 
drives and entertainments at private homes for returned men. Its 
work did not terminate with the declaration of peace but still goes 
on in almost as great a measure as in time of war, and will con 
tinue to do so as long as one returned soldier remains in our 

Many Nova Scotians, as well as returned men, do not appreciate 
the magnitude of the task accomplished by the Nova Scotia Branch 
of the Canadian Red Cross, and it is only possible here to give a 
brief outline of its activities. The women of every city, town and 
village in the Province gave the best of their thought, substance 
and action in order that the citizen soldier of Nova Scotia, whether 
in the fighting line or in hospital convalescing from wounds might 
have every possible comfort. At the end of 1915 the Province had 
thirty-one chartered and two hundred and sixty-eight auxiliary 
branches of the Red Cross. Every village and hamlet had its 
workers who contributed a steady stream of supplies and an enor 
mous amount of labor devolved upon the Provincial Branch at 



Halifax, which acted as a Gearing House for all branches through 
out the Province. 

The officers of the Provincial Branch during the War, with 
slight changes of office but not of personnel, were as follows : 

His Honor Lieutenant-Governor and Mrs. Grant. 

Mrs. William Dennis. 



Mrs. F. H. Sexton. 
Mrs. Chas. Archibald. 

Mrs. T. Benson. 
Mrs. A. W. Jamieson. 
Mrs. G. S. Campbell. 
Mrs. F. Woodbury. 
Mrs. W. J. Armitage. 
Airs. E. A. Kirkpatrick 
Mrs. N. Duffus. 
Mrs. A. Costley. 


Mrs. F. B. McCurdy. 
Mrs. Hector Mclnnis. 
Mrs. M. A. Curry (Hon.) 

Hon. Secretary. 
Miss Margaret Brown. 

Hon. Treasurer. 
H. E. Mahon, Ess. 

Executive Committee. 

Mrs. W. E. McLellan. 

Mrs. F. B. McCurdy. 

Mrs. H. W. Cunningham. 

Mrs. L. J. Donaldson. 

Mrs. G. A. Macintosh. 

Mrs. W. R. Foster, Dartmouth. 

Mrs. A. P. Scarfe, Dartmouth. 

Mrs. Crathorne, Dartmouth. 



Mrs. W. S. Munnis. Mrs. Frank Hope. 

Miss Jean Forrest. Mrs. J. A. Clark. 

Miss Constance Bell. Mrs. 1. B. Schaffner. 

Mrs. Sedley Thompson. Mrs. P. J. McManus. 

Miss Ella Ritchie. Mrs. W. T. Allen. 

Mrs. McKay McLeod, Sydney. Mrs. J. W. Longley. 

Mrs. M. A. Curry. Mrs. Geoffrey Morrow. 
Mrs. T. S. Rogers. 

Also the President of each Chartered Branch. 

Provincial Representatives on Central Council at Toronto. 
Mrs. William Dennis. J. L,. Hetherington. 

Mrs. Charles Archibald. H. E. Mahon. 

Advisory Board. 

Mr. J. L. Hetherington, Chairman. Mr. J. A. Neville. 

Mr. H. E. Mahon, Treasurer. Mr. C. C. Starr. 

Mr. Chas. V. Monoghan. Mr. Emil Gaboury. 

Mr. R. Corbett. Mr. H. McF. Hall. 

Mr. W. H. Dennis. Mr. F. A. Gillis. 

The annual report of the Provincial Branch for the year ended 
October 31-, 1916, shows a balance on hand at first of year of 
$10,961.26 and receipts for the year of $52,667.62. Disbursements 
amounted to $56,584.89, of which the principal items were : 

Remittances to Head Office, Toronto $29,278 38 

Remittances to endow 50 cots in Princess Patricia Hospital 2,500 oo 

Material for surgical dressings and garments, and wool for socks 18,163 17 

Office maintenance and expenses at Shipping Pier 1,388 12 

Clayton Military Convalescent Home 1,993 67 

Contributions to Special Objects 1,141 21 

The sum of $9,405.25 was collected for Prisoners Relief Ac 
count and $8,800 sent to England for expenditure. In addition 
to the above amounts the people of Nova Scotia subscribed $1,500 
to the Duchess of Connaught Prisoners Fund and $78,433.03 to the 
British Red Cross. 

Two thousand four hundred and seventy cases of goods were 
sent Overseas during the year, including 78 cases furnished No. 7 
(Dalhousie) Stationary Hospital, 112 cases to No. 9 (St. Francis 
Xavier) Stationary Hospital, u cases to Serbia and 60 to France. 

During the year ended October 31, 1917, the following amounts 
were collected : 

For General Purposes $62,179 8 

For Prisoners Fund 18,790 22 

For French Red Cross 21,897 63 

British Red Cross Collection 100,000 oo 

$202,867 65 


The principal items of expenditure were : 

Purchase of materials, hospital supplies, etc . . $39,674 4 

Sundry supplies I 3 I 

Marine and Fire Insurance 2 >35\ 

Contributions to Special Objects 4>7oo 51 

Tobacco, fruits and comforts at Pier 2 and City Military Hospitals 3,903 5 

Remittance to Head Office, Toronto 32,020 70 

Office Expenses 2 >55 66 

Forwarded to England for support of prisoners I2,oc 

Forwarded to Toronto 2,000 oo 

Forwarded to England for books for prisoners 100 oo 

Two thousand and ninety-nine cases of goods were sent Over 
seas, and a greatly enlarged demand for goods was made on this 
side of the water owing to the increasing number of returned men 
and the opening of the new convalescent hospitals as well as the 
arrival and departure of hospital ships and trains. The following 
institutions were supplied with goods on their requisitions : 

Clayton Military Convalescent Home. 

C.E.D. Corps. 

Discharge Depot 

Hospital at Pier 2. 

Pine Hill Convalescent Home. 

Rockhead Hospital (Soldiers ward). 

Infectious Hospital. 

Military Hospital, Cogswell Street. 

Visitors were always on hand on the 
arrival of hospital ships and the de 
parture of hospital trains to welcome 
the returning men and to see that they 
had every comfort necessary for the 
remainder of their journey. A room 
was given to the Red Cross Society for 
the storing of supplies at Pier 2. This 
was found most useful, as boats and 
trains were despatched as soon as pos 
sible only a few hours notice being- 
given for the filling of requisitions, which work, however, was 
speedily and ably done by Mrs. Sexton and her committee, Mrs. 
F. B. McCurdy and Mrs. W. T. Allen, the latter of whom carried 
on the work to the termination. Many returned men were de 
tained for days at Pier 2 until they went before their medical 
board. For these, concerts and entertainments were provided 
23 353 

Hospital Ships. 
Hospital Trains. 
Kentville Sanitarium. 
Dalton, P.E.I. 
Camp Hill Hospital. 
Truro Military Hospital. 
Aldershot Field Hospital. 



every evening by the Y.M.C.A., the Red Cross Society and the 
Churches. A special Y.M.C.A. Musical Club was formed in this 
connection which gave entertainments at a few hours notice. 

Two exhibitions of Red Cross work were held during the year, 
one at the Nova Scotia Provincial Fair, and another at the Exhibit 
of War Trophies, held in the Armories. 

A Committee on Sphagnum Surgical Dressings, under the able 
supervision of the Secretary, Miss Margaret Brown, was appointed. 
Dalhousie University very kindly gave the use of a fine laboratory, 
where boxes of sphagnum, collected from various points along the 
sea coast of the Province were prepared for use. 

Miss Jean Forrest was appointed Superintendent of Supplies at 


the Technical College and distributed parcels of yarn and cut-out 
work at wholesale prices, to some one hundred and thirty branches 
who found it difficult to obtain supplies locally. 

The cost of maintaining a prisoner of war at this time was 
$15 per month. The Nova Scotia Red Cross assumed the burden 
of two-thirds, or $10 per month for 270 men, the Canadian Red 
Cross paying the additional $5. The monthly sum required from 
Nova Scotia for the support of prisoners was therefore $2,700. 

Receipts for the year ended October 31, 1918, amounted to 
$408,482.66,- iof which $334,176.40 was raised by a Provincial Red 
Cross drive for funds during the second week in July. 



The Canadian Red Cross Society at their Annual Meeting, held 
in Toronto in 1917, decided to ask the different Provinces to raise 
certain sums of money during the year. Two hundred thousand 
dollars was named for Nova Scotia, but the Finance Committee 
knowing full well that the people of the Province would gladly con 
tribute to the Red Cross War Fund raised the - objective to 
$250,000, and then started to work under the able direction of 
Mr. J. L. Hetherington and Mvr. H. E. Mahon. Committees of 
citizens were formed in all the counties, and a complete organization 
arranged, with the result that every county went over the top," 
and the total amount contributed was $343,70* -77- 
deducted $9,525.37 for expenses in connection with the campaign, 
leaving the net amount of $334,176.40 to the Red Cross Society. 
Never did men and women from one end of the Province to the 
other work more enthusiastically, and never did our people con 
tribute more liberally than to this appeal from " the Greatest Mother 

in the World." 

The following amounts were raised in the several counties 

Guysboro ............................... 

Halifax (City) .................. 110,41687 

Halifax (County) ............................. S4S 3i 

Hants ......................................... I0 34 

Inverness ..................................... 2,90367 

Kings ....................................... I0 6s 

Lunenburg .................................... J 4>446 47 

Pictou ..................................... 4 !f 35 ? 

Queens ....................................... 6,341 61 

Richmond ..................................... 

Shelburne ........... . .............. 7,Soo oo 

Victoria ..... . ............................ 2 .463 38 

Yarmouth ..................................... 

Special ........................................ 

Total ..................................... $343,701 77 

Expenses .............. >5 2 5 37 

Final Total ...................... - -$334,i/6 40 



The expenditure for the year 1918 included: 

Purchase of materials, hospital supplies, etc.. . $38,700 04 

Sundry Supplies Ij2I g ^ 

Comforts to City Military Hospitals and Hospital 

Ships 9,331 ^ 

Special objects designated by remitters 4JS8 51 

Remittances to Head Office, Toronto 325*931 70 

Office Expenses and wages at Pier 2 2,746 49 

During the year 1918 the public maintained their interest in tin- 
Prisoners of War Department of the Red Cross. The amount 
collected was $20,943.01. of which $19,013.00 was forwarded to 
headquarters in London, England, for the support of prisoners. The 
food rations of each prisoner of war were despatched regularly 
three times every fortnight, which, considering there were 270 
men on the list, was no light undertaking. In addition to the food 
supply the prisoners received two complete outfits of clothing, in 
cluding everything from shoes and socks to overcoats. 

After the signing of the Armistice the work of repatriating 
prisoners went steadily on, and each steamer brought men who had 
spent many weary months in the prison camps, and they all testified 
to the value of the work done by this Society and declared that it 
was solely due to this that they were enabled to return to their 
homes. This department of Red Cross work has been most ably 
conducted by Mrs. Charles Archibald, nobly assisted by Miss 
Ritchie and Mrs. Longley. 

The beginning of this year was marked by the terrible Halifax 
explosion, by which 1,635 persons lost their lives and 10,000 people 
were rendered homeless. Much generous help was received by the 
stricken city. Everyone knows the splendid aid sent by the Ameri 
can Red Cross, and the people and Government of the United 
States in despatching to Halifax train loads and boat loads of sup 
plies, together with surgeons and nurses. Their neighborly kind 
ness will never be forgotten. 

But the help rendered by our own Canadian Red Cross is per 
haps not so widely known. The Chairman of the Executive in 
Toronto wired to the shipping agent in St. John to render every 
assistance possible in money and goods. The agent, Mr. Milburne, 
immediately requisitioned a special train, and brought with him all 
the Red Cross goods he had ready for shipment Overseas, making 



two car loads in all. This train was the first assistance from out 
side the Province to reach Halifax. Hearing that some of the 
injured had been conveyed to Truro, Mr. Milburne put off cases of 
hospital necessaries for their use at that station. A medical supply 
committee of the Canadian Red Cross Society was immediately 
formed with the sanction of the Halifax Relief Committee, Mr. 
Milburne being appointed Chairman, and Mrs. Sexton, Vice-Chair- 
man, with a Staff of forty-four voluntary workers. Twice daily all 
the emergency hospitals were visited and their wants noted and 
supplied the same day. The number of these hospitals, dressing 
stations, etc., amounted to sixty-two. 

At the same time, gifts of clothing, food and money poured in 
from Red Cross Branches all over Canada. Ottawa Branch shipped 
in one day eight carloads of clothing. The Nova Scotia Branch, 
under its President, Mrs. Dennis, co-operated heartily, practically 
every Branch and Auxiliary in the Province sending substantial and 
generous aid. 

Special mention must be made of the work of the President of 
the Windsor Red Cross, Mrs. P. M. Fielding, who organized a 
special train which arrived the evening of December 6th, bringing 
doctors and nurses from Kentville, Windsor, Truro and neigh 
boring towns. The Windsor Red Cross alone spent $422.74 on 
Red Cross supplies -and provisions for this trip, Hantsport and 
other Branches also providing hampers of food, so that the doctors 
and nurses had their meals en route and arrived in Halifax ready 
to go to work without an instant s delay, thereby saving many lives. 
Mrs. Fielding remained in the city, established and equipped three 
dormitories, which accommodated in all seventy-five nurses. What 
this meant to the stricken city will never be computed, and the Red 
Cross feels that all who helped can never be sufficiently thanked. 

It was not until the end of March that the Red Cross was able 
to resume its work for returned invalided soldiers. By that time 
the hospital on Pier 2, wrecked by the explosion, had been repaired. 
The hospital ships once more made their trips, and the Red Cross 
storeroom on the pier was re-stocked. Large requisitions were filled 
each month ; sometimes only a few hours notice was given to get the 
supplies on board sometimes only a few minutes notice in the 



case of a hospital train. On one trip the ship docked in the 
morning, landed her men and went out again with her new sup 
plies in the afternoon. At another time 1,400 shipwrecked men 
from S.S. City of Vienna were visited and supplied with filled kit 
bags, containing toilet necessaries, pipes and tobacco. Directly 
after, the Committee were called upon to minister to 300 influenza 
contact cases. This necessitated the workers going into quarantine 
for two days, very busy days, too, the telegrams alone requiring 
upwards of 300 telephone calls. The Y. M.C.A. and the Knights of 
Columbus Musical Club were always at hamd to cheer up men who 
were detained by the Medical Board, arranging for their benefit 
concerts, entertainments, motor drives and teas at private houses. 

One thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight cases of goods 
were sent Overseas, and the distribution of supplies on this side 
grew very greatly during the year owing to the increasing number 
of returned men and the opening of new convalescent homes. 

The financial statement for the year ended October 31, 1918, 
shows receipts of $36,848.65. Expenditures amounted to $41,804.01, 
including the following items : 

Purchase of materials, City and Provincial Hospitals $12,172 04 

Kentville Sanitarium 1,014 4 2 

Soldiers Reception Committee 9,000 oo 

Cigarettes 2,456 51 

Soldiers Comforts 2,260 23 

Libraries T 319 79 

Nurses 378 10 

Furnishings 2,201 36 

Clayton Hftspital f 175 oo 

Rental and Expenses at Headquarters, 314 Barrington 

St 3,858 89 

Office Expenses 1,789 85 

X-Ray Machines, Kentville 2,396 43 

Hospital Ships . 823 63 

No salaries whatever were paid to officers of the Red Cross 
Society. The only persons connected with the work who received 
anything for their services were the shipper at Red Cross warehouse 
at Pier 2, who was responsible for the receiving and sending for 
ward of our boxes, and the Office Secretary who took charge of the 
correspondence, kept the books, etc. She was assisted by a large 
corps of voluntary workers. 



With the signing of the Armistice great changes naturally took 
place in the daily work of the Nova Scotia Red Cross. Workers 
decreased in number, and those who remained faithful had to \vor.k 
extremely hard, as, although it was considered that the stores 
already sent would be sufficient for all Overseas demands, the 
reserve stock of stores for use in the hospitals in our own Province 
had to be kept up. 

At the time of the Armistice the surgical sphagnum dressings 
were still very greatly needed. Special efforts were put into this 
work, which continued till free transportation ceased on March 3ist. 
Forty-five boxes of the dressings were sent Overseas. An eminent 
Surgeon-Colonel in one of the Overseas hospitals gave it as his 
opinion that sphagnum dressings had saved the situation. 

Work for refugees of the devastated area of France was then 
taken up, sanctioned by the Head Office in Toronto, who provided 
samples and gave permission to use Red Cross materials for this 
good work. The patterns were duplicated in our office and dis 
tributed to Branches throughout the Province. The work was 
carried on for two months and 217 boxes of garments were sent 

Change of quarters for the Red Cross became imperative. The 
Technical College, which had sheltered Red Cross workers during 
the four years of the War, and had so generously allowed them the 
use of valuable equipment of every kind, was now overcrowded 
with its own work for returned soldiers. It was therefore decided 
to take over the lease of No. 314 Barrington Street from the Ameri 
can Red Cross, which had occupied it for the last year. 

It was thought best to continue the Canteen which the American 
Red Cross had established until such time as the Y.M.C.A. should 
take up this work. This Canteen, under the management of Mrs. 
Sexton, had a wonderful success, becoming a happy and home-like 
centre for returned men and greatly appreciated especially the hot 
Sunday dinners served by devoted workers. Much regret was 
expressed when, at the end of three months, it was closed and the 
work handed over to the newly-opened Red Triangle Hut next door. 

The principal work throughout the year was supplying the needs 
of the hospitals. Mrs. Munnis, who worked so faithfully as the 
Convener of the Hospital Committee resigned and was replaced by 



Mrs. Sexton. An enlarged committee was formed and a large staff 
of visitors began their duties, each having a special ward assigned 
to them. 

Twelve sun parlors at Camp Hill Hospital were furnished for 
the use of convalescents and made as comfortable and home-like as 
possible. The estimated cost was $500 each, subscribed for by the 
following Red Cross Branches: Amherst, Windsor, Wolfville, 
Westville, Trenton, Glace Bay, Halifax, Truro, Hazel Hill, Joggins 
Mines, New Glasgow and North Sydney. A brass plate, bearing 
the name of the donor, was affixed to the wall of each parlor. 
The cost exceeded the estimate by $240 each, which excess was 
paid from the central treasury. 

From November n, 1918, until September 30, 1919, 220,000 
men passed through the Port of Halifax, and 92 ships were met 
and as far as possible these men had the use of the Red Cross 
rooms at the pier. The Port Committee was on hand day and 
night to help make their landing on Canadian soil (many of them 
after years of service) a great home-coming. 

In the first days of disembarkation all men for Canada were 
held at Halifax for documentation. Later the military authorities 
changed their plan and it became their ambition to disembark and 
entrain these men in the shortest possible time so that only Mari 
time men waiting for local trains or men held for hospital treat 
ment came under the care of the Committee. 

Later on the Repatriation Department of the Canadian Govern 
ment requested the Red Cross to undertake the care of the returning 
soldiers families. About 5,000 soldiers dependants passed through 
Halifax and a fully trained nurse was placed on each train con 
taining soldiers wives and children. 

Hospital equipment was provided at Pier No. 2 for any women 
and children who were unfit to travel after landing from boat, or 
whose husbands were military patients and could not proceed. 
Often their luggage was not obtainable, and the Red Cross was 
called upon to supply such necessaries as infants outfits, women s 
pyjamas and bath robes, towels, soap, combs, hot water bottles, 
medicines, etc. 

In March when the Canadian Government decided to send the 
hospital ships to Portland, Maine, instead of Halifax, Col. Noel 



.Marshall requested that a Committee of our Port Workers should 
inaugurate the work at the new port. Mrs. W. T. Allen, Mrs. J. L. 
Hetherington and Mrs. F. B. McCurdy accordingly proceeded to 
Portland and very satisfactory arrangements were made whereby 
the Canadian Red Cross continued to fit ships with hospital stores, 
while the American Red Cross very courteously and generously 
provided canteen facilities and served refreshments to all the 

Perhaps no department of the Red Cross has developed more 
enthusiasm or been more splendidly supported than the work of 
Prisoners Relief. From a very small beginning it grew to be work 
of great importance, and one in which the people of Nova Scotia 
have abundantly shown their practical interest. It did not draw 
upon the general Red Cross Funds but appealed for a special 
offering from the public or from friends of men who were prisoners 
of war and found a most gratifying response, no less than $41,448 
having been contributed for this special purpose. 

Approximately 270 Canadian prisoners of war in forty-one 
different internment camps in Germany were maintained wholly or 
in part through the kindness of the people of Nova Scotia, at a 
cost per head of $10 per month. Almost all these men were 
" adopted " by friends or societies ; that is, such persons or societies 
agreed to pay a certain sum per month towards their maintenance, 
two dollars and fifty cents having been fixed as the minimum 
amount. The name and address of the adopted was given to the 
man, and his name, number and prison address to the adopter, and 
letters and cards were exchanged between them, often arousing a 
deep personal interest on the one hand and a sense of gratitude and 
appreciation on the other. 

Mrs. Archibald and Miss Ritchie were brought in close contact 
with the homes and families of prisoners of war. The amount of 
correspondence was very considerable, and the system used entailed 
a lot of book-keeping. The name and number of each man, date 
of capture, prison camp and any details that could be gathered 
were registered on a card index. The name of the " adopter : 
was also registered both here and with the Prisoners of War 
Department in London. 

24 36l 


Close touch was kept with the Department of " Missing Men," 
conducted in London and in a few instances it was possible to 
convey reassuring news to sorrow-stricken friends of the "missing 
men," although, too often, it became necessary to deprive them of 
the hope they so touchingly clung to. Yet even the bad news was 
softened somewhat by details of the death or capture of a man, 
obtained under the system inaugurated by Lady Drummond of 
Searchers " in hospitals who sought out wounded men of the 
same Platoon or Battalion of the person enquired for. These 
men, if able to write, would themselves send a few words telling 
when and where they had seen their less fortunate comrades. Even 
these meagre details were of some comfort to the mourning ones. 


Some of the heart-broken letters received were very hard to reply 
to, but when news was good and food parcels arrived safely showers 
of "acknowledgment cards" flowed in; and when, as often hap 
pened, the mail brought a personal letter f rorn some grateful mother 
or a few words from some of the poor boys behind barbed wire 
" somewhere in Germany," or when a rapturous letter came from 
some poor fellow transferred from his prison as " totally unfit" and 
sent to the free air of Switzerland, the ladies conducting this 
Department felt more than happy in being permitted to participate 
in such a work of mercy. Mrs. Archibald, Miss Ritchie, and their 
co-workers possessed in no small degree the confidence of the 
prisoners friends throughout the Province and deeply appreciated 



their attitude toward them and their loyalty and patience with the 
many unavoidable delays and mistakes. 

During the last two years of the War, as the work became 
heavier, this Department had associated with it Mrs. W. McK. 
McLeod, who acted as Secretary for Cape Breton, and Miss Almon. 
Special mention must also be made of the work of Miss Clara 
Dennis in meeting and welcoming home repatriated men who had 
been prisoners of war. During 1918-19 one thousand and eight of 
these men were met and greeted by Miss Dennis. To each man 
was handed a card of welcome from the Red Cross and a box of 
confectionery. He was asked to record his name, regimental num 
ber, German prison camp, and his home address in a book specially 
prepared for the purpose. That the men appreciated this informal 
but hearty welcome home is abundantly proved by the fact that 
Miss Dennis has since received from them hundreds of letters of 

It is impossible to give in detail the names of the many thou 
sands of devoted and faithful voluntary workers throughout the 
Province of Nova Scotia who sought no reward for their labors 
but the joy of knowing that the Society achieved its aim the 
alleviation of the sufferings of our fighting men. 

Red Cross Chartered Branches. 

Place. President. 

;\mherst Mrs. W. R. Fishleigh. 

Arichat Mrs. C. D. Terrio. 

Antigonish Mrs. D. G. Kirk. 

Baddeck Mrs. F. W. McCurdy. 

Harrington Mrs. Wilson Crowell. 

Berwick Mrs. Alex. Anderson. 

Bishop s Mountain Mrs. C. O. Downie. 

Brass Hill Mrs. F. Nickerson. 

Brule Mrs. A. C. Cook. 

Barney s River Mrs. Win. McDonald. 

Boulardarie Mrs. J. Fraser. 

Canso Mrs. C. O Donoghue. 

Cape North Miss Grace Gwynn. 

Chester Dr. C. O. Hebb. 

Dartmouth Mrs. W. R. Foster. 

Dominion No. 6 Mrs. Anna B. Wight. 

Goklboro Mrs. Edgar Silver. 

Glace Bay Mrs. P. E. Ogilvy. 

Halifax Mrs. Wm. Dennis. 

Hazel Hill Mrs. Dunning. 



Hantsport .......................... Miss Marcia Braine, 

Lawrencetown ........ . ............. Mrs. D. M. Balcom. 

Lawrencetown S.S ................. Mrs. J. F. Brown. 

Moser s River ..................... Mrs. Walter Smith 

Mulgrave ........................... Mrs. L. C. Dixon. 

New Glasgow ..................... Mrs. P. A. MacGregor 

North Sydney .................... . Mrs. J. J. Fallen. 

Pictou ................ . ............. Mrs. A. S. Stalker. 

Port Monen ...................... Miss C. Macaulay. 

Port Bickerton .................... Mrs. George Taylor. 

Point Tupper ..................... Mrs. James Swaine. 

St. Peters ......................... Mrs. J. Kemp. 

Sydney ............................. Mrs. H. A. Nicholson. 

Sydney Mines ..................... Mrs. B. Archibald. 

South Berwick .................... Mrs. G. R. Nichols. 

Tancook Island ................... Miss Beulah Wilson. 

Trenton ............................ Mrs. C. W. Stromberg. 

Truro .............................. Mrs. Harold Putnam. 

West Quoddy ..................... Mrs. Alex. Gamnon. 

Westville ........................... Mrs. R. Fraser. 

Windsor ............................ Mrs. P. M. Fielding. 

Wolfville ........................... Mrs. Harold Barss. 

Woodlawn .......................... Mrs. Jane Nauffts. 

Westchester Station ............... Mrs. W. O. Webb. 

Yarmouth .......................... Mrs. W. D. Ross. 

Red Cross Auxiliaries. 

Avondale ........................... Miss Bertha Crossley. 

Advocate Harbor ............. ...... Mrs. L. L. Hill 

Athol ............................... Mrs. J. W. Boss. 

Aylesford ........................... Mrs. C. N. Mclntyre. 

Apple River ....................... Mrs. E. Slocum. 

Billtown ---- ........................ Mrs. C. R. Bill. 

Bayhead ............................ Mrs. James Johnson. 

Baxter s Harbor ................... Mrs. Fred Ells. 

Bay-field ........................... Mrs. F. C. Gass. 

Bedford ............................. Mrs. E. Butler. 

Blandford .......................... Mrs. C. Woods. 

Bear River ......................... Mrs. L. J. Lovitt. 

Bridgetown ......................... Mrs. O. T. Daniels. 

Baccaro ............................ Mrs. G. L. Crowell. 

Barney s River ..................... Mrs. (Rev.) McDonald. 

Barronsfield ......................... Miss Nettie Baker. 

Beacon Hill ........................ Mrs. E. H. Langille. 

Big Baddeck ....................... Mrs. Alex. Anderson. 

Birch Grove ....................... Mrs. D. B. McDonald. 

Brooklynn (Queens) ............... Mrs. W. P. Godfrey. 

Brandford .......................... Mrs. C. Woods. 

Broughton .......................... Miss Ida McLeod. 

Centre Burlington .................. Mrs. F. G. Brown. 

Clarke s Harbor .................... Mrs. George Phillips. 

Central New Annan ................ Miss A. Mclntosh. 

Cherry Brook ...................... Mrs. Mary Grosse. 



Place. President. 

Chignecto Mines Mrs. F..-.M. Blenkhorn. 

Clam Harbor Mrs. J. B. Homans. 

Collingwood Mrs. Davies. 

Cook s Brook Mrs. Warren Cook. 

Caledonia Mrs. B. Lempton. 

Canaan Miss Bessie Shipley. 

Central Grove Mrs. Byron Melaney. 

Centre Gore Mrs. N. Grant. 

Centre Rawdon Mrs. J. E. Wood. 

Centreville Rev. H. M. Manzer. 

Clementsport Miss L. Hicks. 

Cleveland Mrs. D. A. McLeod. 

Conquerall Bank Mrs. Angus Weagle. 

Dalhousie East (Kings) Mrs. M. Oickle. 

Dalhousie East (Annapolis) Mrs. John Long. 

Dean Mrs. Campbell Brown 

Deep Brook Mrs. G. Marsters. 

Diligent River Mrs. W. W. Lamb. 

Digby Mrs. Eber Turnbull. 

Durham Miss Janet Blaikie. 

Ellershouse Mrs. H. D. Archibald 

Elmsdale Mrs. Chas. Thompson 

East Walton Mrs. Levi Lake. 

Economy Mrs. P. Huntley. 

Five Islands , Mrs. Calvin Corbett. 

Fenwick Mrs. F. B. Dickinson 

Freeport Mrs. Egar Ring. 

Five Mile River Mrs. H. Hennigar. 

Fraserville Mrs. Gaius Fraser. 

Glenville and Claremont . Mrs. C. A. McCabe. 

Grand River Mrs. McDonald. 

Guysboro Mrs. G. E. Buckley. 

Glengarry Miss Christine Fraser. 

Granville Ferry Mrs. W. Patterson. 

Giant s Lake . ". Miss K. A. McLean. 

Goldenville Mrs. L. Fraser. 

Goshen and Argyle Mrs. J. A. Sinclair. 

Great Village Mrs. C. B. Spencer. 

Greenwood Mrs. Chas. Neilly. 

Hammond s Plains Miss S. Schmidt. 

Hubbards Mrs. Bessie McLean. 

Harmony (Kings) Mrs. C. S. Spinney. 

Hemsford Mrs. James Falconer. 

Inverness Mrs. E. Brassett. 

Joggins Mines Mrs. R. J. Bell. 

Kingston Station Mrs. G. G. Power. 

Karsdale Mrs. G. W. Chisholm. 

Lake Ainslie Mrs. M. A. McKay. 

Lpuisburg Mrs. A. L. Bates. 

Liverpool Mrs. John More. 

Lunenburg .Mrs. Emily Smith. 

Lower Selmah and Sterling Brook... Miss Lena Spicer. 

Lochaber Mrs. John Brown. 

Latties Brook Mrs. W. J. Macdonald. 

Liverpool Mrs. John More. 




Place. President. 

Lockhartville Miss F. Mclnnes. 

Londonderry Mrs. J. G. R. Smith. 

Lower Granville Mrs. George Anthony. 

Lyons Brook Mrs. A. Hogg. 

Lockeport Mrs. Churchill Locke. 

Mpsherville, Stanley and Clarkeville.Mrs. H. B. Smith. 

Milford Station Mrs. Pooley. 

McPhee s Corner Mrs. James McPhee. 

Margaretsville Mrs. A. B. Coulstan. 

Marriott s Cove Mrs. Rupert Millett. 

Middle River Mrs. Mary MacDonald. 

Mabou Mrs. E. S. Bayne. 

Maccan Mrs. (Dr.) Forbes. 

Mahone Miss Nettie Zwicker. 

Malagash Mrs. Jacob Treen. 

Malagawatch Mrs. Hudson. 

Manchester and Port Shoreham ...Mrs. W. Bruce. 

Mapleton Mrs. G. E. Fletcher. 

Margaree Harbor Mrs. A. R. MacDougall. 

Melvern Square Mrs. E. F. McNeil. 

Merigomish and Piedmont Mrs. T. B. Olding. 

Middleton Mrs. W. Gwillim. 

Mill Village (Hants) Mrs. Hattie Wallace. 

Mira Gut Mrs. J. J. Philips. 

Moose Brook and Tennycape Mrs. W. F. Stevens. 

Millsville Mrs. R. MacKay. 

Mount Uniacke Miss Sadie Robinson. 

Nappan Mrs. Robert Donaldson. 

Neil s Harbor Mrs. Ed. Dowling. 

New Annan Miss Agnes Mclntosh. 

New Port -. Mrs. J. F. Rathburn. 

North Dartmouth Mrs. C. V. Vernon. 

New Campbellton Mrs. W. McKinnon. 

New Germany Mrs. H. P. Chesley. 

N.E. Margaree Mrs. J. H. Tulston. 

Noel Shore Mrs. E. S. Main. 

North Kingston Mrs. H. J. Neily. 

Oxford Mrs. J. R. Gilroy. 

Owl s Head Mrs. J. E. Parker. 

Oxford Junction Mrs. S. Colburne. 

Port Maitland Mrs. E. H. Porter. 

Port Greville Mrs. R. S. Kerr. 

Pleasantfield Mrs. Charles Arnburg. 

Paradise Mrs. H. P. Layte. 

Port Medway Mrs. Grace Andrews. 

Parrsboro Mrs. F. A. Rand. 

Pentz Miss Alberta Smith. 

Port Dufferin Mrs. E. W. Dunlop. 

Port Hawkesbury Mrs. D. Gillis. 

Port Hood Mrs. Daniel McLennan. 

Port La Tour Mrs. D. Snow. 

Port Hilford Miss Isabella Reid. 

Parker s Cove Mrs. H. Anderson. 

Plainfield Mrs. W. A. Graham. 

Princedale Mrs. Forman Wright. 

3 66 


Place. President. 

Ragged Island, East Side Mrs. Chas. Matthews. 

Richmond Mrs. A. G. Mclntosh. 

River Herbert .Mrs. T. Shipley. 

Rockingham Mrs. W. J. Clayton. 

Rodney and Windham Mrs. M. Y. Boss. 

River John Mrs. C. W. MacKintosh. 

River Philip - - Mrs. G. L. King. 

Rossway Mrs. Bessie Crowell. 

Sandy Point Mrs. Anzo Long. 

Sandy Cove Mrs. E. D. Morehouse. 

Shag Harbor Mrs. N. C. Nickerson. 

Shelburne Mrs. Martha C. Morton. 

Ship Harbor Lake Mrs. Alvin Webber. 

Shubenacadie Mrs. A. E. Culton. 

Smith s Cove Mrs. Edward Winchester. 

Southampton Mrs. Victor Brown. 

Spencer s Island Mrs. Edmund Spicer. 

Sackville. Mrs. Robinson. 

South Athol Mrs. L. D. MacKeen. 

Seal Island Mrs. John Smith. 

St. Croix and Sweet s Corner Mrs. J. F. Rathburn. 

Stake Road Dr. Barbara McKinnon. 

Sutherland s River Mrs. Dwight Burns. 

South Side Cape Sable Island Mrs. E. C. Nickerson. 

South Farmington Mrs. Wilkins. 

Springhill Mrs. David Stewart. 

Stellarton Mrs. George Gray. 

Stewiacke Mrs. Rachel Pollock. 

Stony Island Mrs. S. L. Brannen. 

Sydney River Miss Sarah McDougall. 

Selmah Mrs. Cyrus Weldon. 

South Rawdon Mrs. W. H. Lawson. 

South Bay Mrs. T. A. Young. 

Torbrook Mrs. A. B. Payson. 

Tupperville Mrs. L. H. Chipman. 

Tatamagouche Mrs. D. A. Cunningham. 

Upper Burlington Mrs. Harry B. Sandford. 

Upper Lakeville Mrs. Margaret Webber. 

Upper Musquodoboit Mrs. W. B. Hutchinson. 

Upper Economy Mrs. C. F. Lewis. 

Upper Rawdon Mrs. J. E. Weatherhead. 

Upper Port La Tour Miss Rosa Snow. 

Wallace Mrs. A. S. Murphy. 

Wilmot Mrs. J. B. Kilton. 

West New Annan Mrs. W. Wilson. 

Westport Mrs. E. C. Bowser. 

Wallace River Mrs. Chas. Fisher. 

Waterville Mrs. D. R. Pineo. 

Waverley Mrs. E. Fauchea. 

West La Have Mrs. Clarence Wambolt. 

Welton s Corner Mrs. P. A. Smith. 

West Apple River Mrs. Robert McWhirter. 

West Berlin and Eagle Head Mrs. B. Conrod. 




AN organization that blazed a new and unique track in the 
War, and accomplished great results, especially in the colliery 
districts of Cape Breton, was the Willing War Workers of 
Glace Bay. 

A number of the mothers, sisters, wives and sweethearts of the 
" over there/ finding that other Societies lacked the personal 

touch, banded themselves together to send 
parcels every week to their own home 
boys in France, and kept up the good 
work enthusiastically until Armistice Day, 
when they disbanded. 

Mrs. Gordon S. Harrington, wife of 
Colonel Harrington, Deputy Overseas 
Minister, was the first President, and Mrs. 
Stuart AlcCawley, of Glace Bay, the 

Mrs. Harrington went to. England in 

MRS. G. s. HARRINGTON. November, iQi6, and became actively in 
terested in war work for Canadian sol 
diers in that country, particularly at the Beaver Hut, Strand, 
London, and St. Dunstan s Hostel for blinded soldiers. 



THE Society was organized on March 9, 1916. The aim of 
the Society was, first, to aid recruiting; second, to look after 
the comfort of the men while quartered at Broughton, and 
as far as possible after they had gone Overseas; third, to assist in 
every possible way the wives and families of the men enlisting. 


rS- ? / J h T nstone > President. Mrs. O. Leiers, Treasurer 

Mrs. J. A. McLellan, Vice-President. Miss Daniels, Secretary. 

From the time of the Society s organization until the 18501 
Battalion was disbanded, the Society raised the sum of $207536 



which was devoted entirely to the use and comfort of the Battalion. 
In addition to this, Air. Walshaw, of the D.T.S. Co., collected the 
sum of $70.00, and the North Sydney Branch of the Green Feather 
Society also donated the sum of $43.00. These amounts were sent 
to England for the purpose of procuring Christmas dinners for the 

The visiting committee of the Society did very good work in 
looking after the wives and children of the men who had gone 

At the close of the War there was the sum of $12.00 in funds, 
which was presented to the G.W.V.A. after their organization. 


THIS Society was organized the second year of the War by 
the ladies of the Sacred Heart Parish. Sydney, and was 
intended to supply the religious needs of the Cape Breton 
soldiers and Chaplains, and to send comforts direct to the soldiers 
in the trenches. However, as the War went on, the Society en 
larged its scope and embraced all kinds of patriotic work. The 
work of the Society was carried on by packing tin boxes with 
fruit cake, candy, cigarettes, socks, khaki shirts, and other things 
too numerous to mention. These were addressed to each soldier 
and acknowledged in due time. 

The success of the Society was in no small measure due to the 
activity of the President, Mrs. V. F. Cunningham, who held that 
office during the four years of the Society s existence. 

The following short statement will give some idea of the work 
of the Society: 


Total amount received from general city collections $2,058 89 

Amount from other sources 975 80 

$3,034 69 

Paid supplies for boxes sent Overseas $2.153 79 

Chaplain s supplies 250 oo 

Catholic Hut Fund 200 oo 

Hospital supplies 305 90 

Local Hospital. Khaki Club, etc., etc 125 oo 

$3,034 69 


UNTIL the spring of 1918, the war work of the Knights of 
Columbus in Nova Scotia consisted in- aiding the work 
carried on at St. Mary s Army and Navy Club at Halifax, 
,and in sending money Overseas to aid the Catholic Army Huts 
in England and at the Front. The work done by these Huts became 
more and more extensive as the War went on, and the amount of 
rnoney that each council could send from its own funds became 
.wholly inadequate to enable these Huts to give efficient service. 

In May, 1918, His Lordship the Right Reverend James Morri 
son, Bishop of Antigonish, addressed a letter to the Knights of 
Columbus of the Maritime Provinces, setting out the needs of the 
.Catholic Army Huts and the slender financial resources at their 
.disposal. Accordingly," he says, "I feel it a pressing duty to 
ask the Knights of Columbus to organize a general public campaign 
for funds to provide our Catholic soldiers Overseas, or wherever 
they may be assembled, with Catholic Huts, Club Rooms and 
accessories thereto, in which the Army Chaplains may be enabled 
more efficiently and more conveniently to minister to their religious 
welfare, and where the soldiers themselves, irrespective of denom 
inational affiliations, may have at their disposal such accommoda 
tions in social life as may be a proper safeguard for their moral 

On the receipt of this letter the Knights began the work of 
organizing a campaign which extended throughout the whole of 
Canada. More than one million dollars were raised in the 



Dominion, to which sum the various counties of Nova Scotia 
contributed as follows: 

Halifax ............................................ $56,621 95 

Cape Breton ....................................... 28,562 80 

Pictou ............... . ............................. 9,50963 

Antigonish ........................................ 6 6 35 49 

Cumberland ....................................... 5,337 73 

Inverness .......................................... 4,80246 

Guvsboro .......................................... 3,330 05 

Yarmouth ........................................ 2 > 8 ?7 97 

Colchester ...................................... 2 , 4 75 29 

Kings ............................................ 2,405 57 

Hants ............................................ L9 66 

Richmond ......................................... 

Digby ........................................... 1 54 2 67 

Victoria .......................................... 1,14425 

Queens .......................................... *>* 2O 

Lunenburg ....................................... 

Annapolis ...................................... 444 

Shelburne ........................................ 68 SP 

Total for the Province ......................... $131,215 52 

The " Drive " by which this money was raised took place during 
.the week of August 19-24, 1918. The whole of the amount raised 
,was intended for work in England and France but, with the signing 
of the Armistice, the returned soldier problem demanded the 
.attention of the Knights, and Huts were opened in Halifax and the 
other dispersal areas in Canada. The work in Canada and Over 
seas was under the supervision of Lieut-Col. Clarence F. Smith, 
of Montreal, Comptroller. Large sums of the money were sent 
Overseas and the balance was devoted to the work of serving the 
returned men. 

Following are the names on the Executive Committee of the 
Knights of Columbus War Activities -.Messrs. John A. Neville, 
John F. O Connell, Jas. D. O Connor, Walter M. Godsoe, Thos. W. 
Murphy, Frank A. Gillis, Dan. T. Lynagh, Wm. A. Hallisey, Jno. 
P. Ouinn, Hon. Judge Chisholm, and Mr. William R. Wakely. 

The Knights of Columbus Catholic Army Hut, at No. 372 
Barrington Street, was opened December I, 1918, and Halifax 
may be regarded as the birth-place of the work of the Knights of 
Columbus Catholic Army Huts in Canada. All men of the Allied 



Armies and Navies were welcome, irrespective of race, creed or 
color. The Knights of Columbus slogan, " Everybody welcome, 
Everything Free," was carried out to the letter, with the exception 
that a charge of 2^. was made for beds, although of the total number 
of beds used about half were donated, inasmuch as many of the 
guests were in need of funds. Men arriving in transports were 
also given a bed free of charge. Mr. J. D. O Connor was Chair 
man of the Hut Committee, and associated with him were Mr. John 
F. O Connell, Mr. D. T. Lynagh, the late W. A. Monoghan, Mr. 
W. J. Williams, Mr. E. J. Scanlon, Mr. W. A. Hallisey, Mr. 
W. T. Murphy, Mr. W. E. Donovan, Mr. J. K. Kelleher, and Mr. 
W. R. Wakely. There was an average daily attendance at the Hut 
during December, 1918, January, February and March, 1919, o f 
1,300 to 1,500, and a total attendance of 177,060 from December I, 
1918, until the Hut closed on September 13, 1919. 

Mr. W. E. Donovan, Chairman of the Entertainment Committee, 
.arranged for weekly entertainments. The men in uniform were 
always most appreciative of the class of entertainment given at the 
Hut under the direction of the Chairman. He had the happy 
faculty of selecting the very best artists, and had the Columbus 
Musical Club to draw from as well as other local clubs. 

Refreshments were always served. Mr. W. E. Donovan never 
^.failed to have a number of young ladies in attendance, and they 
saw that every guest was generously supplied. The Hut was open 
daily from 10 a.m. to n p.m., and on Sundays from I p.m. to 
ii p.m., and the men had free use of the reading, writing and 
billiard rooms. Canadian and American newspapers and maga 
zines were supplied; writing paper and envelopes and all billiard 
and pool games were free. 12,983 games of billiards and pool 
were played from December, 1918, to September 13, 1919. May 
10, 1919, a dormitory of fifty beds was opened, and from that date 
to September 13, 1919, 2,725 beds were used. Of that number 
1.279 were supplied free of charge. 

Space in the building would not permit of the Knights of 
Columbus War Activities having a cafeteria, but there was a 



.canteen from which the following supplies were given away free, 
from December i, 1918, to September 13, 1919: 

Soft Drinks (bottles) 6,684 

Apples (barrels) 32 

Cigarettes (packages) 27,872 

Cigars 2,000 

Tobacco (pounds) 830 

Gum (packages) 1,605 

Coffee (cups) 55,175 

Oxo (cubes) 3,783 

Biscuits (pounds ) 2,389 

Chocolate Bars 7,668 

Matches (boxes) 8,304 


Canadian 27,121 

British and Foreign 6,042 

American 8,067 

It was not until after the Armistice was signed that a Pier 
Committee was organized under the able leadership of Mr. John 
P. Quinn as Chairman. His associates were Messrs. John Neville, 
Henry T. Kline, Harry C. Murphy, John D. Campbell, E. J. 
Murphy, John Fry, J. J. Penny, P. J. Hanifen, R. J. Flinn, Geo. 
A. Gauvin, and W. E. Donovan. 

The Returned Soldiers Reception Committee, made up of 
twenty-five men selected from the various clubs and organizations 
of Halifax City, with an Auxiliary Committee of five ladies, was 
organized in November, 1916. From that date the Committee 
received troop and hospital ships, and raised by voluntary sub 
scription $9,178.96. It also received $3.000.00 from the Halifax 
Victory Loan canvassers. Mr. John P. Quinn waited upon Mr. 
W. S. Davidson, Chairman of the Returned Soldiers Reception 
.Committee, and informed Mr. Davidson that the Knights of Col 
umbus were prepared to spend an amount of their funds toward 
.the reception of the troops returning from Overseas, either in 
conjunction with the Returned Soldiers Reception Committee, or 
alone. This brought in the Red Cross and the Y.M.C.A., and an 
agreement was made by each of the three organizations to contri 
bute to the funds of the Returned Soldiers Reception Committee 
to the extent of one-third each of the amount required by the 
Returned Soldiers Committee. From January i, 1919, until the last 



troopship arrived, $9,000.00 was contributed from each of the 
three organizations a total of $27,000.00. These funds were used 
for the purpose of purchasing cigarettes, fruit, chocolate bars, 
matches, flowers, newspapers, welcome cards, and for postage and 

From the time the work began, one hundred and thirty-eight 
.troopships disembarked about 305,655 men. In the distribution 
of supplies at the pier, the work was divided among seven teams 
of twelve each, each team having a captain and an equal, number 
of representatives from the Knights of Columbus, the Red Cross, 
Y.M.C.A., and the Returned Soldiers Reception Committee. Mr. 
Felix P. Quinn, of the Knights of Columbus, was a captain of 
one of the teams. 


There existed what was known as the Knights of Columbus 
Hospital Comfort Bureau. The following are the names of those 
serving on that Committee: Rev. John Quinan, Capt. M. Ryan, 

Jas. J. Bates, T. J. Burke, E. J. Griffen. 
Geo. J. Lynch, Jas. P. Mulcahy, Frank 
A. Gillis, and O. G. Burke. 

Mrs. Johanna Mary Ternan was 
appointed Secretary. 

Daily supplies were sent to Camp Hill 
Military Hospital and Cogswell Street 
Station Hospital and weekly visits were 
.made. On these visits fruit, candy and 
cigarettes were distributed by the follow 
ing committee of ladies: Mrs. Geo. 

MRS. JOHANNA M. TERNAN. Metzler, Miss Nita Gauvin, Miss Fannie 

Clark, Miss Metzler, Mrs. M. Foley, 
Miss Mary Neville, and Miss Frances Chisholm. 

In addition to the above Hospitals, supplies were sent to Pine 
Hill Convalescent Home, Rock Head Military Hospital, Kentville 
Sanitarium, Naval Hospital, County Jail, Victoria General Hospital. 
Lawlor s Island, Quarantine Station. Air Station. U.S. Flvins 

"- - O 

Corps and H.M.S. Hospital Ship Essequibo. 



Weekly visits were made to the Kentville Sanitarium by Mrs. 
W. S. Rothburn, of Kentville, and a committee of ladies, Miss 
McCormack, Miss Farrell, and Miss Kearney, under the super 
vision of Mrs. Johanna M. Ternan, of Halifax. 
At Christmas, 1918, there were: 


Camp Hill Hospital 440 

Naval Hospital 38 

Cogswell St. Hospital 300 

Kentville Sanitarium 200 

Nova Scotia Hospital, Dartmouth 70 

Pine Hill Convalescent Home 125 

Rock Head Military Hospital 60 

It was decided by the Hospitals Committee on Thursday, 
December 19, 1918, that candy and smokes should be sent to 
Kentville for the 200 patients. Four hundred boxes were pre 
pared containing three packages of cigarettes and a half-pound 
of candy for each patient. This work was done by a voluntary 
committee of three little girls and one little boy (the Misses 
.O Connor and Master O Connor, daughters and son of Mr. J. D. 
O Connor), and by little Miss Elliott. Provision was <made for 
Rock Head and Cogswell Hospitals. 

December 18, 1918, 328 stockings were made and rilled by a 
committee of ladies at the Knights of Columbus Club Rooms. 
Hollis Street. The stockings were all of different shades, and each 
contained fourteen articles, consisting of the following: One box 
of notepaper, one lead pencil, one cube of tooth paste, one tooth 
brush, three packages cigarettes, two boxes of matches, one small 
comb, one pocket handkerchief, one ash-tray, two chocolate bars, 
collar buttons, one pipe, one package tobacco and one tobacco 

Two hundred and three of these were sent to Camp Hill and 
one hundred and twenty-five to Pine Hill. As there were a number 
of very sick patients at Cogswell Street Station Hospital, it was 
requested that fruit be sent, and three cases of oranges, four cases 
of grape fruit and one keg of grapes were supplied. To the Nova 
Scotia Hospital, .Dartmouth, one hundred and forty parcels were 



sent containing three packages of cigarettes and a half-pound of 
candy. Stockings were sent to four soldiers in the County Jail, 
and nine stockings to soldiers in the Victoria General Hospital. 
To the N.S. Naval Air Station were sent two cases of oranges, 
two hundred packages cigarettes, two hundred cigars and two 
hundred chocolate bars. 


Christmas boxes were sent from the Head Office in Montreal, 
specially made for the Knights of Columbus Catholic Army Huts 
for distribution on this day to all Military Hospitals in the Dom 
inion. Each box contained one package gum, one Durham Duplex 
Safety Razor, one package razor blades, one shaving stick, one 
shaving brush, one package cigarettes, one box matches, one 
chocolate bar, one tooth brush, one tube tooth paste, one handker 
chief, and short stories. In addition twenty-six quarts of ice cream 
were distributed, also five hundred apples, fifty pounds of assorted 
kisses and fifty pounds of frosted cake. 

Many picnics were given patients who were convalescing during 
the summer of 1919, and entertainments given to special wards in 
Camp Hill and Cogswell Street Hospitals. 

From January i, 1919, to April 30, 1919, no fewer than 125,466 
personal requests for comforts were granted by the Knights of 
Columbus Hospital Comfort Bureau. 



FOR years previous to the Declaration of War, the Y.M.C.A. 
carried on its work in the summer Militia Camps; conse 
quently the War did not find the Association without some 
idea of the requirements of troops, and from the early days of the 
first big concentration at Valcartier, the " Y " tried hard to measure 
up to each new phase of war activity. 

In 1914 about 5,000 men were served in the camps of the Mari 
time Provinces. During the succeeding winter Y.M.C.A. work was 
established in the various barracks, and in 1915 the work on the 
piers at the points of embarkation was started. All this work was 
carried on continually from this time with increasing efficiency, 
not only in camps, barracks, and hospitals, but also on board trans 
ports and on troop trains carrying returning men. It consisted of 
the erection of large recreation buildings, giving assistance with the 
equipping of recreation rooms in barracks; the provision of free 
writing and reading materials, games, athletic goods, music, pianos, 
gramophones and records, moving picture machines and films ; the 
organizing of concerts on land and on board ships; social evenings 
in homes, churches, barracks, hospitals and otherwise; athletics, re 
ligious services ; supplying free hot drinks and doughnuts or biscuits 
at the disembarkation points and demobilization centres. 

The first large financial appeal was made to the people of the 
Maritime Provinces in the spring of 1916, when approximately 
$34.500 were raised for home and Overseas military work. During 
that year Association service was rendered to troops in eighteen 
different places in these Provinces. Each succeeding year saw 
most successful campaigns for larger sums of money, until 1918, 
when requirements began to decrease. Altogether about $679,600 



were raised in the Maritime area and spent on military work at 
home and Overseas. 

Large recreation buildings, which were much needed, were 
erected at Aldershot and Sussex Camps, each capable of accommo 
dating close to 1,000 men. These were used to capacity, and were 
practically the only adequate recreation centres. A large hut was 
erected in the Naval Dockyard, Halifax, for the men of the navy 
and the merchant marine. It was destroyed by the explosion, but 
was replaced by a larger structure, and was the great social centre 
for the men of the navy and the merchant marine. 

The large Red Triangle Hut, on Barrington Street, Halifax, 
was erected as a demobilization service to offset the inadequate 
housing facilities in Halifax, to provide meals and beds for return 
ing men who had to remain in the city while waiting for trains or 
demobilization, to assist returned men to become re-established in 
civil life by providing them with wholesome meals and beds at 
prices within their means, to help men taking Government re-training 
courses and drawing barely enough money to live on, and to provide 
them with a clean, attractive recreation centre. 

Other recreation huts were built and equipped at St. John, New 
Brunswick, and Cogswell Hospital, Halifax. A large building was 
leased and equipped as a Red Triangle Club at St. John, N.B. 
Clubs on a smaller scale were operated in Sydney, Windsor, Kent- 
ville, Nova Scotia, and Fredericton and Sussex, New Bnmswick. 

Work was carried on among the German prisoners of war at 
Amherst in return for which the German Government permitted 
the Y.M.C.A. to carry on work in certain camps in Germany where 
Canadians were confined. Only the work in the Internment Camps 
in Canada made this concession possible. 

Co-operating with the Sailors Comforts Committee, Halifax, the 
Y.M.C.A. workers visited many ships of the merchant service and 
supplied the men with reading and writing materials, games, 
mufflers, sweaters, socks, gloves, mitts, underwear, etc. Concerts 
were frequently arranged for the crews on shore. 

Uniform reports of activities and the attendance were not kept 
in the early days of the War, and it is impossible to arrive at any 
thing like accurate estimates of the extent of some of the services 



rendered. The report of a few activities for the two years of 
maximum efficiency may serve to indicate, however, the great extent 
to which the men patronized the Y.M.C.A. military services. 

Activity. Number, dance. 

Concerts 694 84,550 

Social evenings [2 > c 

Moving Picture Shows (free) 1,365 2^* 

Religious Services * 108 88,100 

Theatre parties arranged and conducted through courtesy 

of theatre managers, without charge to patients 356 12,619 

Illustrated Lectures 98 18,050 

Supplies Used. 

Magazines 162,685 

Sheets of writing paper 1,511,000 

Sex and health education booklets 39,o 

Athletic goods large quantities 

Pianos in continual use 

Billiard tables in continual use 3 1 

Gramaphones and records supplied continually 5 

Moving picture machines in continual use 9 

Reels of picture films per week provided, no charge 

made 40 

At the disembarkation piers, in co-operation, with various 
women s organizations, the Creche in Halifax, and the combined 
organizations in St. John, free hot or cold drinks and mixed biscuits 
were provided. At the Demobilization Centre, Halifax, co-operating 
with the G.W.V.A. Ladies Auxiliary, drinks and doughnuts or 
mixed biscuits were supplied free, and a six months membership 
ticket in any Y.M.C.A. was given to each man. 

A " Y " representative accompanied each troop train to its desti 
nation and carried a standard stock of equipment, gramophones, 
portable organs, music, song sheets, games, fruits, chocolate, and 
cigarettes. He rendered personal services in every way possible, 
such as wiring ahead, mailing letters, and carrying on a programme 
of concerts and games. These representatives were principally busi 
ness men, and all gave their services voluntarily. In all 449 repre 
sentatives accompanied troop trains. 

Further assistance was given returned men to re-establish them 
selves by Red Triangle Clubs at Halifax and St. John, where bed 
and board could be had at reduced rates. During the first year of 
the Halifax Club. 147.713 meals were served, and 38,855 beds 



occupied for one night or more. This work is still going on. The 
rate for bed and board was $i per day. The food was far above 
the average meal at similar prices. A programme of entertain 
ments, athletics, moving pictures, religious services, and educational 
lectures and discussions was carried on. The Association s hospital 
service will be continued as long as necessary, and funds are avail 




THE splendid service performed by the Halifax Citizens Re 
turned Soldiers Reception Committee had its inception in the 
fall of 1916, when Mr. P. F. Martin, at that time Mayor of 
the city, called a number of representative citizens together at the 
city hall for the purpose of forming a committee to extend a 
welcome to the men returning home. The matter did not take 
definite form, however, until a little 
later on, when a score of energetic 
citizens selected by the various National 
Societies, the Board of Trade and other 
organizations of the city, met at the 
Board of Trade Rooms in November, 
1916, at the call of Mr. W. S. 
Davidson, Vice-President of the Board. 
At this meeting the Committee was 
organized, as also an Auxiliary Com 
mittee of the following ladies : Mrs. G. 
McGregor Mitchell, Mrs. Geoffery 
Morrow, Mrs. T. Sherman Rogers. 
Mrs. Norwood Duffus, and Mrs. (Dr.) Ryan. Mr. W. S. Davidson 
was elected Chairman, Mr. Arthur B. Mitchell, Secretary, Mr. A. M. 
Smith, Assistant-Secretary, and Mr. W. A. Major, Treasurer. 
The excellence of the choice of this Executive was amply proven 
by the fact that the personnel remained unchanged from the night 
the Committee was formed until the last transport docked, and the 
work was finished. 

The following gentlemen composed the original Committee: 
Messrs. W. S. Davidson, W. A. Major, H. H. Marshall, C. H. 
Mitchell, J. McL. Fraser, Felix P. Quinn, C. E. Creighton, W. A 



Hart, A. M. Smith, Paul Creighton, W. E. Hebb, C. H. Climo, W. L. 
Kane, J. P. Quinn, P. T. Strong, and R. B. Colwell, representing 
the North British Society, St. George s Society, the Charitable 
Irish Society, the Canadian Club, and the Citizens of Halifax in 

These gentlemen, who became known as " the originals," carried 
or through fair weather and foul, night or day as occasion required 
from start to finish. The only exception was Mr. H. H. Marshall, 
who, to the great regret of his friends and fellow-workers, was 
ordered by his physician to seek a change of climate, his health hav 
ing broken down, but nevertheless, he was w r ith the work in spirit, 
always keeping in touch, sending greetings and material aid from 
time to time. 

In addition to those above-mentioned, the following gentlemen 
joined the movement later, entering into the spirit of the work 
with energy and enthusiasm: Messrs. E. J. Murphy, G. J. Allen, 
Cyril Gorham, A. W. Robb, W. R. Morton, H. C. Murphy, Hugh 
Fraser, Chas. Waterfield, R. A. Wood, W. S. Munnis, John D. 
Campbell, P. J. Hannifen, Geo. M. Wood, F. M. Guildford, R. K. 
Elliott, George Ritchie, G. W. Perry, J. A. Neville, H. T. Kline, 
J. A. Reid, V. B. Faulkner, J. L. Wilson, E. M. McLeod, Geo. T. 
McNutt, John Fry, J. J. Penny, J. M. Davison, George Robinson, 
W. R. Scriven, Wm. Wilson, Capt. W. F. Mitchell, W. E. Donavon, 
G. A. Smith, J. F. Roue, Walter Black, R. J. Flinn, G. A. Gauvin, 
George Winters, Howard Lawrence, W. Cyril Smith, Cyril Stairs, 
Sedley E. Thompson, J. L. Hetherington, H. E. Mahon, C. H. 
Wright, the late Professor Eben McKay, F. A. Marr, Allen Patrick, 
and H. R. Price. 

A number of ladies, Mrs. W. T. Allen, Mrs. M. R. Morrow and 
others, joined the original Auxiliary Committee of five above-men 
tioned, doing splendid work in connection with the cot cases, etc., 
but unfortunately a complete list is not available. Two young 
ladies deserving of special mention who became associated with the 
General Committee are Miss Edna Davison and Miss Helen Creigh 
ton. Their work was admirable, being here, there, and everywhere 
when required, untiring in their efforts, having the capacity to per 
form, as well as zeal to undertake. It is safe to say that the soldier 



boys who landed at Halifax will never forget the ladies connected 
with this Committee ; for their bright kindly faces, apart from their 
work, gave them a welcome home which is hard to express in words ; 
and it was not only on fine days when the sun was shining that 
they were to be seen on the pier when transports were expected, 
but in all kinds of weather, night as well as day, and only those 
who worked there know how cold it sometimes was at Pier 2 on 
a winter night. However, the welcome given the boys was warm 
enough to take away the chill of the weather. 

During the period in which this Committee carried on its work, 
138 transports disembarked some 200,000 Overseas men at Pier 2, 
and of this number very few indeed missed the kindly attentions of 
the Committee. 

The amount expended was as follows : 

Paid for Cigarettes, Tobacco, etc $14,473 51 

Fruit 7,93i82 

Postage, telegrams, telephones, etc 462 42 

Welcome Cards, badges, printing, etc 1,294 49 

Newspapers ^813 62 

Taxi service conveying local returned men to their homes 118 80 

Music I5 oo 

Baskets, equipment and sundries 278 66 

Matches 4)7 8 2 25 

Chocolate bars, cakes, etc 7,157 21 

Deficit exchanging money 9 50 

Flowers (for cot cases) 34 So 

Money refunded Provincial Recruiting Committee 9 oo 

Total $38,380 78 

A word or two in connection with these figures which are from 
the Treasurer s report. The item for postage, etc., would have 
been much larger but through the representations of the Committee, 
after the work had been carried on for a considerable time, the 
Government was induced to allow letters from returned men, on 
arrival, to be posted free, thus conserving the funds for other 
purposes. The item $15 for music does not mean that this was 
the extent of the music by any means; for the Commanding 
Officers of local military units very cheerfully permitted their 
bands to play on the pier on arrival of transports. 



Of the above total amount, the sum of $9,178.96 was received 
in voluntary subscriptions, and $3,000 from Halifax Victory Loan 
canvassers, which came in spontaneously and entirely unsolicited. 

As the end of the War approached and the number of returning 
men became greater, it became apparent that the funds would re 
quire to be largely augmented, and in order to cope with the good 
work, the Y.M.C.A., the Red Cross Society, and the Knights of 
Columbus very generously contributed equal amounts of $9,000, less 
a refund to each of these organizations of $266.06, being the balance 
or surplus left over at the close of the work. 

It was not long after the work began until a splendid system 
was evolved which worked with almost clock-like precision. The 
usual procedure was as follows: Immediately a transport was 
docked a certain number of the Committee were told off to go on 
board with the latest newspapers, collect telegrams and letters which 
were, as mentioned above, sent off free of charge, thus doing away 
with the inconvenience of hunting up stamps, etc. Whenever it hap 
pened that a ship had to drop anchor in the stream while waiting 
for a berth to dock at the pier and as these were busy days in 
shipping circles in Halifax, this very frequently happened a tug 
boat was promptly secured by the energetic Chairman, and a con 
tingent landed on board with newspapers, cigarettes, matches, fruit, 
etc. ; and, in most cases, if the ship was to remain at anchor over 
night, a concert party was always ready to join their efforts with 
those of the Committee in extending a hearty welcome to the boys, 
many excellent entertainments being given on board transports 
waiting to dock. The very best musical talent in Halifax was 
always ready and willing to respond at a moment s notice to calls of 
this nature. Mr. Davidson being one of the principal members of 
the large shipping firm of Messrs. G. S. Campbell and Co., of 
course always knew where to locate one of these tug-boats, as they 
own and operate a number of them, and although in the forefront as 
business men, and blessed with good memories, they must have for 
gotten to render any bills or charge for this excellent service. 

When the men left the ship and were entrained, a sufficient 
number of Committee-men having in the meantime been told off 
and sub-divided, allowing an equal number to look after each car, 



the cars being designated by letters " A," B," " C," and so on, 
beginning with the car nearest the engine, and each party knowing 
the particular car it had to look after, confusion or oversight was 
practically nil. The first Committee-man went through the car 
with baskets of apples and oranges, being followed by another with 
cigarettes and matches, a third and fourth bringing up the rear 
with chocolate bars, welcome cards, newspapers, and collecting any 
letters or postal cards the boys had scribbled while waiting for 
their train to back in. Oftentimes when large steamships like the 
Olympic, Mauretania, or Aquitania arrived, fifteen or twenty trains 
would be dispatched with an average time between of twenty or 
twenty-five minutes; so that the necessity for system was evident, 
or otherwise only a portion of the boys would be looked after; but 
in the way in which the work was handled every man received 
attention; and usually a few minutes were left over, before the 
conductor called "All aboard," in which to chat with them, give 
them a hearty handshake and wish them ; Bon voyage" and a safe 
journey to their destination. 

This sketch of the work of the Halifax Citizens Returned 
Soldiers Reception Committee is necessarily short. It does not 
begin to express the scope or extent of the work carried on by 
this Committee, but the boys who returned home no doubt still 
remember the way they were received and treated. 

Letters of appreciation were received from all parts of Canada 
and points in the United States. Such evidence of appreciation 
amply rewarded the Committee for any efforts they had made to 
ensure a hearty, and pleasant welcome home to those splendid men. 
who made the name of Canada for ever respected and glorious. 






THE first branch of the St. John Ambulance Brigade Overseas 
established in Xova Scotia was organized in June, 1916, as 
the Halifax Central Nursing Division No. 17, with Mrs. Bow 
man, Superintendent of the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, as 
Lady Divisional Superintendent. This division, besides being the 
first in the Maritime Provinces, was the largest in Canada. Most 
of the officers were graduate nurses, and all of the members had 
received their instruction in First Aid and Home Nursino- through 

o o 

classes held in Halifax by the sister organization, the St. John 
Ambulance Association. 

On Mrs. Bowman s removal from Halifax, Mrs. G. A. 
Macintosh was appointed Superintendent (April, 1917). Owing to 
greatly increased membership, and for the purposes of more 
efficient administration, the division was divided in July, 1918, into 
two Units, A. No. 17 and B. No. 47, Mrs. Macintosh being pro 
moted at the same time to be Lady District Superintendent in 
charge of the ^"omen s Aid Department (Military District No. 6). 
In January, 1920, a reorganization of the two divisions was made 
effective by which all active officers and members were assigned to 
Division A. 17, and the inactive members, or those in reserve for 
emergencies, to B. 47. The active division continues as one of the 
most efficient and effective in Canada under the able superintendence 
of Miss E. M. Pemberton, of the Victoria General Hospital. 

The war work in Nova Scotia of this organization falls under 
four heads : 

(o) Its work in Military Hospitals as auxiliary to the Army Medical 
and Nursing Service. 

(b) Its work in Xova Scotia in connection with the Red Cross Society, 

Y.M.C.A. Canteens, and other voluntary patriotic organizations. 

(c) Its work of ministration to women and children returning from 


3 86 


(</) Its emergency work on the day of the Halifax Disaster and in the 
relief work and hospital service for the weeks and months follow 
ing- the disaster. 


Hospital duties performed by the members of the Halifax 
Divisions during the \Yar include : 

(a) Eleven members who went Overseas, serving with great 
credit in hospitals in England. 

(&) Local hospitals. 

We believe Pine Hill was the first Military Hospital in Canada 
to recognize or use the services of the Brigade members. Three 
pioneers served for two years and were followed by others. 

In the latter part of 1918 the \Yomen s Aid Department was 
formed in Canada in co-operation with the military authorities, the 
Lady District Superintendent furnishing to the A.D.M.S. of each 
Military District the following personnel, the number given below 
being that of those who served in M.D. No. 6 : 

1. J ohtn-teer Section: 

(a) Nursing service of Brigade members, eight of whom served at Pine 

Hill Military Hospital. 
(>) Function Trainers, also Brigade members trained at Hart House, 

Toronto, two of whom served at Camp Hill. 

2. Special Scrvf.ce Section : 

Masseuses, trained at Hart House, Toronto, members of St. John Ambu 
lance Brigade, and serving at Camp Hill, Moxham Ross, Prince 
Edward Island Military Hospitals. 

Section 3 : 

General Service Section consisting of a General Service Superintendent 
Assistant Superintendent, bookkeepers, domestics and many there 
not Brigade members, but for a short time recommended by the 
Women s Aid Department of the Brigade. 

(c) Before the Women s Aid Department came into effect five members 

had served at the Xova Scotia Sanatorium in the tent Colony for 
tubercular soldiers. 

(d) During the Influenza epidemic of 1918 six members assisted the de 

pleted staffs in the Victoria General, the Dartmouth Emergency 
for two months, two members at Infants Home for two months, 
also for two months in the homes of the sick, at the Emergency 
Hospital, Hazelwoocl Hospital, St. Mary s Emergency Hospital, 
and for three weeks at Brocton Field Hospital, Mass. During the 
epidemic in the spring of 1919 a diet kitchen was organized and 
conducted and proper nourishment prepared and delivered to all 
asking for it, in the majority of cases no charge being made. 
The Brigade responded to requests for diet from the Victorian 
Order of Nurses, City Board of Health, Social Welfare Bureau, etc.. 

(<?) The hospital work performed after the explosion is mentioned 

(/) Miscellaneous duties performed in hospitals include mending each 1 
week at the Station Hospital, emergency bedmaking at Camp Hilli 
and hospital train service. 




At the Clearing Depot, Pier 2, a splendid work was accom 
plished. Over 13,000 beds were made for soldiers disembarking 
at this port. At very short notice members in sufficient numbers 
quickly responded to a call from the C.O. to prepare the beds 
required (at times as many as 800 beds were needed) in readiness 
for the men. 

An important work carried on at Pier 2 was the serving of meals 
three times daily for over a week to 150 men. 

Boats were met by the Lady District Superintendent, who, 
assisted by the members, welcomed and assisted when necessary any 
V.A.D/s returning to Canada from Overseas duty. 

A very interesting and important service rendered by the organ 
ization was in connection with the vocational re-education of the 
soldiers. For eight months two members read daily to blinded 
soldiers, assisting them in this way with their study. Four other 
members also performed like service for five and a half months. 
Ten members took a special two months course in weaving and 
basketry, nine of whom were able to instruct patients at Camp Hill 
Hospital for from one to seven months. 

Truly patriotic work has been performed under the Y.M.C.A. 
At their Red Triangle Hut a team of eight members have given one 
day each week and every sixth Sunday for one and a half years to 
serve meals to returned soldiers taking vocational courses in the 
city. Members have also served refreshments on trains to soldiers 
recently discharged and entraining for their homes. At the 
Armories members have responded at all hours, sometimes working 
all night to serve refreshments to soldiers just disembarked and 
awaiting their discharge. 

The Red Cross has been ably assisted by the making of numerous 
garments, surgical supplies, sphagnum moss dressings, and the 
raising of funds during campaigns. 

The following " drives " have been given willing and able 
support : 

Navy League, Patriotic Fund, Knights of Columbus, Children s Hospital, 
Victorian Order, Salvation Arnry, Maternity Hospital, and the Canadian Red 

3 88 


For two years a rest and refreshment room has been con 
ducted at the city market and has been of great benefit to the market 
people who often drive long distances. 

For two years the Halifax Dispensary has had the assistance 
daily of a member for clerical work. 

The Halifax Welfare, Victorian Order of Nurses, and many 
other organizations have had assistance, and many kindnesses have 
been performed, such as assistance given at orphans picnics. 

First aid booths have been conducted at exhibitions, Wanderers 
Athletic Grounds, and first aid rendered during public processions 
and individually in the even-day life of the members. 

All service rendered except that required in the last two sections 
of the Women s Aid Department has been voluntary and performed 
quietly and systematically in times of emergencies, and in war as 
in times of peace for the public good. 


It is unnecessary here to refer to the causes and disastrous 
results of the great explosion on the morning of December 6. 1917. 
As nearly as can be ascertained more than 1,500 people lost their 
lives, approximately 5.000 people were injured, of whom about 
i. ooo received more or less serious injuries. AVith hundreds of 
other citizens the members of the Halifax Divisions of the Brigade 
responded at once to the calls for assistance, and within an hour 
more than 140 members were on duty in the devastated area; on 
the Common, in improvised aid stations, and in the various emer 
gency hospitals rendering first aid to the injured, the very object 
for which they had all been trained. 

Later in the afternoon and through the two or three days fol 
lowing they added to their duties those of material relief, and mini 
a few days later the citizens organization was established when 
the Brigade workers were fitted in under their Lady Superin 
tendent as part of the medical relief work. 

About sixty of the members remained on duty as V.A.D. s in 
Camp Hill Hospital, the Y.M.C.A., Morris Street, and the various 
other hospitals for from one to five months following the explosion. 
For a short period following the disaster eight members of the St. 



John (N.B.) Division assisted the local division in providing per 
sonnel for the various hospitals. 

The total of the services rendered during the period December 
6th to 31 st shows 1,098 days of hospital work, 217 cases of district 
relief followed up, 140 missing children located, as well as other 
missing persons traced, food distributed, and first aid service 

An official report forwarded through regular channels to the 
headquarters of the Brigade in England was referred by head 
quarters to the parent organization, the Ancient Order of the Hos 
pital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, and in the spring of 
1920 selected members of the Halifax Division and various citizens 
who co-operated with the Brigade in its invaluable work, were 
presented by the Lieutenant-Governor with the beautifully engraved 
certificates of thanks of the Order for their services rendered on 
the occasion of the disaster. 


IX the spring of 1917, when the German submarines were trying 
to starve Britain into surrender, the Canadian Government 
thought it wise to bring home the dependants of our soldiers 
who were not actuary engaged in war work in the United King 
dom. The Olympic arrived in Halifax Port one morning with 
T.OOO women and children aboard, as well as her usual number of 
invalided soldiers. Many hours passed before the last travellers 
entrained for their homes, and one may imagine the scene at Pier 2 
where these tired women waited for long hours with no shelter or 
food and no comforts for their little ones. 

It was felt that something must be done to welcome those sol 
diers dependants who had left their loved ones in England or 
France, and who could not surmise what the future held in store 
for those from whom they were separated. A committee of ladies 
was formed to look after all soldiers dependants on their arrival 
in Canada. Spacious rooms, \vith kitchen, dining-room, rest-room, 
nursery and bath-rooms were provided by the Government at 
Pier 2, together with a sum of money sufficient to furnish 



For three years a band of ladies under the presidency first of 
Mrs. Benson, wife of General Benson, and later of Mrs. J. G. 
McDougall met all boats and cared for all travellers with the most 
wonderful devotion. As soon as the gangway was secured their" 
work began. It mattered not whether the ship was docked at 
/ a.m., or at midnight, on a summer morning, or on a cold winter 
evening, the workers were always there. Two of the Committee 
went on board to see if there were any special cases to be looked 
after and to notify those aboard of the Creche Committee s willing 
ness to help them in every possible way. 

Some stood at the gangway to welcome tired mothers and relieve 
them of their tiny but very heavy burdens. Others led them to the 
warm and comfortable quarters provided for them. In the kitchen 
busy hands had been at work, and sandwiches and fragrant hot 
coffee were not wanting; while in the nursery many young girls 
were preparing beds with cool white sheets in which to lay Canada s 
young and welcome immigrants. 

Although the railway authorities were wonderfully expeditious 
in getting the trains despatched, still many hours had to be spent at 
the Creche days sometimes and, once or twice, even nights. The 
scenes when a boat arrived with many hundreds of women and 
children defy description. Parties were constantly being brought 
to the rooms by willing and helpful guides. If husband or father 
was there, he saw his dear ones safely housed, and he himself 
returned to look after the tickets and baggage. If the mother was 
in charge, she accompanied her little ones to the Creche, and after 
seeing them safe and happy, was assisted in collecting her baggage 
and procuring transportation. Kind hands undressed the babies, 
washed, warmed and fed them and laid them to sleep in comfort. 
The older children were also fed and then amused by toys and 
picture books. Older travellers, completely tired out by the long and 
often rough voyage, found indeed a warm and steady bed a source of 
joy. Times and movements of trains were called in the waiting 
rooms, and to the outgoing trains the travellers were finally escorted, 
as comfortable and as happy as it was possible to make them. 

The Red Cross placed a most efficient trained nurse at the dis 
posal of the Committee, and it is not possible to tell how much her 
services were appreciated by those who, though not fit for hospital 



and anxious to complete their journey, were still much in need of 
care. In a general way, as well as in her professional capacity, the 
trained nurse rendered services of a very high order. Space does 
not permit to tell of all the various activities carried on at the 
Creche money was exchanged, hotel accommodation secured for 
those remaining over in Halifax for a few days, telegrams were 
sent, meal tickets given to those who needed them on the trains, 
babies were supplied with necessaries for travelling, and money was 
many times given to those who through stress of circumstances had 
not the wherewithal to complete their journey. 

The returned men were always eager to assist in any way they 
could, and the bands of the Canadian Battalions gave all great 
pleasure by their delightful music. 

Arrangements were made for any needing hospital care; and 
they were continually visited by members of the Committee while in 
Halifax City. The military authorities placed an ambulance at the 
disposal of the Committee for such cases. The Committee had the 
fullest support and co-operation of the military authorities. They 
also had the assistance of a hundred w r orkers who gave up all 
engagements and pleasures when it was known that a boat was 

The Creche Committee deeply regretted the departure from 
Halifax of Mrs. Benson and Mrs. McKelvey Bell, under whom they 
began their work. The ladies who carried on to the close of opera 
tion were: 

Mrs. McCallum Grant Hon Chairman. 

Mrs. J. G. McDougall Chairman. 

Mrs. Hector Mclnnes Vice-Chairman. 

M rs. W. A. Henry Secretary. 

Mrs. W. E. Thompson Treasurer. 

Mrs. David McKeen. Miss Jessie MacKenzie. 

Mrs. G. S. Campbell. Lady Townshend. 

Mrs. Clarence MacKinnon. Mrs. M. A. Curry. 

The Creche closed on 3ist December, 1919. Since the iSth 
November, 1918, the Committee and its helpers met 120 ships laden 
with returning Canadian soldiers, their wives and families. On 
one steamship alone, the Megantic, were 600 women and children, 
1 80 of the children being under twelve months of age. On several 
occasions there have been as many as 900 women and children on a 
steamer, and, in one instance, the Olympic brought 1,000. All were 



sent on their homeward journey rested, refreshed, and cheered ; 
and the kindly welcome they received has made the name of the 
Atlantic Gateway dear to the hearts of thousands of people the 
Dominion over. Countless letters bear testimony to unfeigned 
appreciation and gratitude. One newspaper extract may be per 

The Ottawa Journal of December 28, 1918, says : " While this 
work, and, to a large extent, its financial obligations have been 
borne almost entirely by the citizens of Halifax, as the benefits 
accrue to the country as a whole the gratitude of the people of 
Canada is due to the small band of workers who for the past 
eighteen months have generously and patriotically assumed the 
burden for the whole Dominion." 

Those were busy days at Pier 2 ; and although much sacrifice was 
demanded of the Halifax Creche Committee, it is not too much to 
say that it was willingly and joyfully given by those who wished to 
have some small share in the work of the Great War. 





[A description of the work done by each of the churches in Nova Scotia 
would require a book in itself. The following article on the activities of 
St. Matthew s Church, Halifax, is typical of the manner in which the churches 
of all denominations throughout the Province watched over the spiritual 
and material welfare of men of the Overseas Units. EDITOR.] 

EARLY in the War, as soon as it became evident to the citizens 
of Halifax that the struggle against " Might " would endure 
for some time, and that this station would become again and 
remain an important rendezvous for the army and navy while 
hostilities lasted, the question of showing some tangible appreciation 
to the volunteers who were rallying to the colors became paramount 
in many minds. Noticing the presence of many of these men at 
the regular church services in St. Matthew s the minister (Rev. 
J. W. Macmillan, D.D.) conceived the idea of having special re 
ceptions so that they, while in Halifax, should find a real church 
home and get sociably acquainted with members of the congrega 

Such receptions were held at the close of the usual Sunday 
evening services. Many of the men were met thus and later wel 
comed at various homes during the week. It was later found 
expedient for these hosts to join forces so as to be able to entertain 
larger numbers than could be accommodated at the houses, and it 
was thus that the Thursday evening entertainments originated in 
the schoolroom of St. Matthew s Church during October, 1914. 
These gained immediately in popularity until crowded houses with 
S.R.O. signs continued for five winters without intermittence, 
except for a few weeks following the great explosion of December, 

The ladies of the congregation were from first to last the chief 
motive power at all these meetings, and the secret of their success. 



Some were not publicly in evidence but worked " behind the scenes 
in supplying and providing the refreshments that formed a most 
important part of these functions and did yeoman service. The 
work was quickly organized into a perfect system, everybody being 
assigned to a task that suited the particular attitude of the worker, 
with plenty of eager helpers always on hand as reserves. 

This organization was not any premeditated system nor was it 
arranged on the basis of any other movement, but being almost 
impromptu formed itself with a naturalness according to the needs 
as they developed until it appeared to become as perfect as is 
humanly possible and so it continued with an earnest patriotic zeal 
on the part of the people anxious to help but unable to go to the 
field of war because of their sex or their age limit. Some dis 
tinguished themselves as caterers, cooks, coffee makers, -waiters or 
waitresses and even as dishwashers. Others at the doors as wel 
coming committees or indoors as cartoon makers, lantern manipula 
tors, contest managers, leaders of choruses and accompanists or 
" masters of ceremonies " and chairmen. Others again found work 
in advertising the meetings at the various ships and barracks until 
it became the rule that every new Regiment or warship arriving at 
Halifax was promptly advised of these Thursday evening meetings. 

The entertainment itself evolved into a systematic method by 
natural causes too, rather than by design. Noting the crowds of 
soldiers ami sailors on the streets at an early hour the doors were 
opened at 6.30 p.m. and immediately the hall began filling. To 
entertain the early arrivals a magic lantern displayed reproductions 
of recent war cartoons and cheery messages, while various popular 
songs and choruses thrown on the screen by the same method with 
a good accompanist at the piano got every one settled down for a 
hearty sing-song. Each week the cartoons were supplemented with 
additions and new songs added, along with items of current interest 
and latest news, more pictures of local topics and jokes that were 
fully appreciated. These opening features proved attractive and 
were followed with some contest varying weekly in their style and 
nature, for which prizes were awarded always two at the least and 
sometimes as many as twelve, most of them being made and given 
by the ladies of the congregation that were keenly contested for by 
the men in uniform. This first portion of the meeting soon became, 



an essential part of the entertainment and was usually controlled 
by a " master of ceremonies," who between 7.45 to 8 o clock would 
surrender his position to the chairman of the evening, and he in 
turn would call the meeting to order with the singing of the 
National Anthem, and after a few words of welcome the concert 
proper was conducted. 

In this respect all the best and cleverest artists, without dis 
tinction of class or creed, responded willingly and enthusiastically 
to the committees having charge of the programmes. These com 
mittees rotated in their work and there arose a healthy competition 
between them in acquiring special performers and singers to assure 
successful concerts. 

At nine o clock an adjournment for refreshments took place. 
This half-hour provided an opportunity for conversation as well as 
for eating; the lantern threw cartoons and pictures, jokes and songs 
on the screen so that good humor continued to prevail. During 
this interval some committee members moved among the audience 
seeking for impromptu items for a programme that was continued 
along with choruses from 9.30 to 10 o clock and even later for the 
benefit of such as had special " late leave. 

The interest in these entertainments did not wane. It never 
flagged at any period of the five winters. The workers never tired 
of their tasks, nor was there ever any difficulty noticed in obtaining 
a bountiful supply of musical talent or refreshments to ensure 

The secret of any extra degree of popularity for these Thursday 
evenings cannot be attributed to any one cause but rather to a com 
bination of circumstances. To a great degree the down-town 
position of St. Matthew s made a strong appeal. The early start of 
these concerts caused them to be better known perhaps, and the 
fact of their regularity and continuity helped matters greatly, and 
yet, perhaps more than all, the ladies of St. Matthew s were a greater 
factor than all these. This can be stated without in any degree 
disparaging the great work done by other churches and institu 
tions or of ladies who were equally active in other places, and yet 
these ladies as a body were able to greet all the men in uniform 
with a heartiness that was promptly felt and without at any time 
the semblance of that familiarity that breeds contempt or of a 



patronizing air to which soldiers and sailors especially are most 
sensitive, and at no time was there anything but the most respectful 
and kindly feeling shown on either side. 

No smoking was indulged in at these gatherings, and none ap 
peared to wish the privilege. The men refrained out of their 
natural respect to the ladies in the audience. Later on some " No 
Smoking Allowed " signs were placed in the ante-rooms, where 
some were wont to indulge in a few puffs during the intervals, but 
this was done on account of the fire risks in the older part of the 
structure and did not occasion much if any comment. 

To the credit of the men themselves it can he recorded now that 
though between 125 and 150 of these meetings were held and the 
average attendance was well over 400 men in uniform at each, only- 
two men were noticed to be the worse for liquor, and one of these 
occasioned the only instance of a disagreement over any contest 
that took place on those evenings, and in his case the offender came 
back to the following meeting and apologized for his own unseemly 
behavior. This is a record for our soldiers and sailors of which 
the people of St. Matthew s feel particularly proud. In itself it 
repays them fully for any efforts that were undertaken and leaves 
them ready to entertain such men whenever an opportunity occurs., 

The Sunday evening services of song were in some respects even 
more successful than the Thursday night concerts. A better chance 
to meet and know the men was afforded, and a better opportunity 
provided to intermingle and converse. The strangers invariably 
seemed to meet people from their own home towns or provinces, 
and the men from Britain found enthusiasts from Scotland, Eng 
land, Ireland or Wales ready to greet them on mutual racial 

The addresses on these occasions always had a more serious, 
religious or sentimental strain than was noticeable on week nights, 
and the Rev. Dr. Clarke, who succeeded Dr. Macmillan in 1916 as 
minister of the congregation was always ready to tell a good story 
and point a moral with good effect. The lantern was used for 
throwing the words of well-known hymn tunes on the screen, and 
the singing often had the fervor of a revival meeting. As each 
Unit or Regiment was known to be embarking for the Front, " God 
Be With You Till We Meet Again " was invariably sung and often 



that hymn, " Eternal Father Strong to Save " and various war 
time versions thereof were prayerfully sung. Besides the hymn 
singing there were always solos, duets or quartettes rendered by 
the church choir and other artists. Refreshments were served 
before dispersing, but were plainer than the fare dispensed on 
Thursdays, being confined to tea and biscuits so as to lessen the 
labor in deference to the Sabbath. These however, were greatly 
appreciated by men who had eaten their suppers at 4 p.m. with no 
other meal in prospect until the next day. 

Some thousands signed their autographs in visitors books that 
were frequently passed around for signature, and among them are 
those of hundreds who now lie in Flanders fields or gave their lives 
for God and King and Country in other spheres of the War zone. 
Many appreciatory letters were received from boys and men after 
they left Halifax, expressng their appreciation of these receptions, 
some of them comparing the wintry nights in the trenches or on 
the North Sea with the peaceful hours spent at St. Matthew s. 
Many wives and mothers in all parts of Canada have heard of 
St. Matthew s and Halifax and have shown their thankfulness in 
many ways for the attention given their husbands and sons while 
here. The work of the Halifax Churches combined with the activi 
ties of the Citizens Reception Committee and the Y.M>.C.A. work 
at Pier 2 throughout the War have made the name of Halifax well 
and favorably known throughout the land. Even now that the War 
is over the duty of the churches towards the strangers within their 
gates should be continued the need is great though the boys and 
men may not be in uniform and many of these could enjoy and 
appreciate as the soldiers and sailors did. a warm and kindly wel 
come from a Christian community. 





To the organizing ability, and more especially the extraordinary 
genius for administration, of Col. W. E. Thompson must be given 
the chief credit for the splendid achievement and unsullied record cf 


Military District No. 6. Second in Command of the 63rd Halifax 
Rifles at the outbreak of the War, he was, in December, 1914, 
called in by headquarters to assume the duties of Inspector of Out 
posts and Detachments throughout the district, with the rank of 



Lieutenant-Colonel. In March, 1915, he was appointed Assistant 
Adjutant-General and Officer in Charge of Administration of 
Military District No. 6. In May, 1916, he was promoted to the 
rank of Colonel; and during the summer of that year, in addition 
to his duties as Assistant Adjutant-General, was Commandant of 
the Camp at Aldershot. In December, 1918, Colonel Thompson 
succeeded to the command of Military District No. 6. 

The effect of his personality and of his genius for organization 
and, more particularly, administration, on the whole service of 
Military District No. 6, as well as on its morale, was extraordinary. 
He was regarded by Headquarters Staff, even by the three General 
Officers Commanding, before he succeeded to the command, as the 
authentic administrative " Mind " of the district. No other military 
district had such varied and great administrative problems and 
such heavy responsibilities as Military District No. 6, and yet the 
War was concluded with not a single mark against the adminis 
tration and not a breath of scandal on its personnel and their 
conduct of the various Departments. For that splendid achieve 
ment Colonel Thompson was chiefly responsible. 

In heart, however, he was eminently the soldier. Repeatedly lie 
volunteered for active service Overseas, and even specially appealed 
to Ottawa for permission to go Oversas with a Unit, but the 
Canadian Militia Department was obdurate, declaring that his 
genius for organization and administration was of such a character 
that he could not be spared from headquarters Military District 
No. 6. Strict, firm, and soldierly at headquarters, Colonel Thomp 
son, notwithstanding, exemplified democracy in the most undemo 
cratic of institutions, the army. His genuine democracy, his 
tempering of justice with mercy, and his fine kindliness won for 
him the high respect and admiration of all ranks. 

Col. Gordon S. Harrington, K.C., is a son of the late C. S- 
Harrington, K.C., of Halifax, N.S. He was admitted to the Bar 
on October 19, 1904, and practised his profession at Glace Bay, N.S. 
He was one of the original Company Commanders of the 85th 
Battalion with the rank of Major, and, on the formation of the 
Nova Scotia Highland Brigade, returned to Cape Breton and super 
vised the recruiting of the i85th Battalion. He was transferred to 




that Unit with his rank of Major and proceeded Overseas with it. 
When the Brigade was broken up he was sent to the Imperial First 
Senior Infantry School at Bedford, where he passed the qualifying 
examination with the highest marks ever attained at that institution. 
On reporting to the Xova Scotia Regimental Depot at Bramshott 
he was posted to the i/th Reserve Battalion, of which he was suc 
cessively Second in Command and O.C. In May, 1917, he was 


transferred to the Staff of the Overseas Minister, London, and a 
short time later was appointed Assistant Deputy Minister. In 1918 
he was appointed Deputy Minister and promoted to the rank of 
Colonel. He served in the field on Corps Headquarters. 

Having in mind the fact that at the sudden outbreak of war, 
August, 1914, the permanent military force of Canada only num- 



bered 3,075, it will be readily understood that the Department of 
Militia and Defence was at once compelled to grapple with an 
enormous task for which no one could expect it to be prepared 
. he situation had to be met. The work had to be done. It had to 
be done quickly, and it is to the everlasting credit of Canada that 
we had men of outstanding ability and energy to cope successfully 
with the urgent situation. 

By July, 1916, our military force was 312.844. Of these 


Secretary of Department of Militia. 

136,185 were in Canada and 1/6,659 were Oversea?. The number 
was daily increasing; and only those who were in close touch with 
the tremendous work of organizing, equipping, supplying and des 
patching such an army can realize what that meant in comparison 
with the work of administering affairs in regard to about 3,000 men 
during times of peace. 



In these circumstances, and in view of the further fact that the 
exigencies of affairs frequently called the Minister of Militia away 
from Ottawa for the purpose of visiting recruiting centres and 
military camps in Canada, as well as Canadian Headquarters in 
England, the Government decided that it was necessary to have a 
Parliamentary Secretary of the Department of Militia and Defence: 
and, accordingly, on July 16, 1916, by an Order-in-Council the office 
was created endowing the holder with general authority in regard 
to administration of the Department, and directing that during the 
absence from Ottawa of the Minister, the Parliamentary Secretary 
should also preside at all meetings of the Militia Council and report 
to the Privy Council through the Prime Minister. 

Fortunately, the services of a man of wide experience in business 
affairs, of well-known executive ability and withal energetic in 
discharge of duty, in the person of Mr. F. B. McCurdy, M.P., was 
available, and the Prime Minister wisely asked him to take up this 
very important work. 

Mr. McCurdy willingly agreed; but with one stipulation. The 
salary affixed to the office was $5,000. Mr. McCurdy was past 
military age, but he believed that every man should, as far as was 
in his power, contribute to national duty. He, therefore, stipulated 
that his services as Parliamentary Secretary of the Militia Depart 
ment would be a free contribution to the country, and he so served. 

Immediately after Mr. McCurdy s appointment, Sir Sam 
Hughes, Minister of Militia and Defence, went Overseas; and from 
that time, which, it will be remembered, was a very active and 
critical period of the War, until the creation of the Ministry of 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada, Mr. McCurdy played a very 
important part in the vital work of building up and strengthening 
Canada s great arm}-. 

Naturally Mr. McCurdy while discharging his weighty duties 
with due and patriotic regard to the national interests of the whole 
country, had a sympathetic ear for his fellow Nova Scotians ; and 
it is well known that his good judgment and influential voice pre 
vailed in regard to irritating questions as to the representation of 
Battalions at the Front, with results that afforded great satisfaction 



to the people of his native Province. It is sufficient to say that 
Air. McCurdy s eminent record as Parliamentary Secretary proved 
the unerring judgment of the Prime Minister in selecting the right 
men for responsible positions. 

At the election of December, 1917, Mr. McCurdy was returned 
by acclamation for Colchester, his native county. 

F.R.C.S., LI..D., C.B. 

Son of George and Elmira Foster. Born at North Kingston, 
Kings County, Nova Scotia, May, 1874. Graduated M.D. 1896, 
University of New York, U.S.A. First appointment, Canadian 
Militia, August 4, 1897, Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon, 68th 
Regiment, Kings County, Nova Scotia. Served with Yukon Field 
Forces as P.M.O., March, 1898, to July, 1900. April, 1913, appointed 
Assistant Director of Medical Services, Military District No. 2, with 
headquarters at Toronto, Ontario. September, 1914, sailed from 
Quebec with First Canadian Contingent and appointed A.D.M.S. 
1st Division Canadians, with the rank of Colonel. Served in 
France from February, 1915, to September, 1915, as A.D.M.S. 1st 
Division Canadians. September, 1915, appointed Deputy Director 
of Medical Services, Canadian Corps, on its formation and served 
with Canadian Corps in France until February, 1917, when ap 
pointed Director-General of Medical Services, Overseas Military 
Forces of Canada with the rank of Major-General, headquarters in 



London, England. March, 1920, appointed Acting Director-General 
of Medical Services, Canadian Militia, with headquarters at Ottawa. 

Medals and Decorations. 

1914-15 Star. 

General Service Medal. 

Victory Medal with Leaf. 
Decorations, Military. 

Companion of the Order of the Bath. 

Knight of Grace, St. John of Jerusalem. 

Officer Legion of Honour. 

Civil Honors received as Head of the Canadian Medical Service during 
:he Great War, 1914-15. 

October, 1919, Edinburgh University conferred the degree of F.R.C.S. 
June, 1920. McGill University, conferred the degree of LL.D. 

C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Lieut.-Col. Charles E. Bent was a Captain in the 93rd Cumber 
land Regiment at the outbreak of the War. He immediately volun 
teered for active service and, as Adjutant of the i"/th Battalion, 
accompanied the First Division to England. On the breaking up 
of that Unit he took a draft over to the I3th Battalion, arriving in 
France April, 1915. He reported for duty with the I5th Battalion 
and was given command of a Platoon. He became a Company 
Commander immediately after the fighting of Festubert, 1915; 
Second in Command December 31, 1915; and Officer Commanding 
rhe i5th Battalion in May, 1916. He took part in all fighting with 
the First Division until wounded August 9, 1918, near Caix, east 
of Amiens. He rejoined his Battalion on October ist, and after 
the Armistice proceeded with the Army of Occupation to Germany. 
He acted as Brigade Commander on several occasions and was in 



command of the 3rd Brigade from October 20 to November 24, 
1918. He took part in the following battles : 

Festubert 1915 

Givenchy 1915 

Messines 1915 

Ypres 1916 

Ploegstee.rte 1916 

Ypres 1916 

Hill 60 1916 

Sanctuary Wood. .1916 

So mine 19*6 

Vimy Ridge 1917 

Hill 70 1917 

Passchendaele .... 1917 

Telegraph Hill . ..1918 

Amiens 1918 


Qtteant Line . . . 1918 

and others up to the signing of the Armistice, November u, 1918. 


D.S.O. and Bar. 
1914-15 Star. 

Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal. 
Seven mentions in despatches. 



Lieut.-Col. J. A. McDonald started his military career by 
enlisting in the i;th Sydney Field Battery in 1896, receiving first- 
class certificate from the R.S.A., Quebec, winter of 1897-98, en 
listed for service in South Africa 1899, served in " E " Battery and 
4th C.M.R., obtained commission in the i;th 1906, qualified and 
promoted through the various stages until he took command of the 
P>attery in 1913, was still in command at outbreak of the War in 
August, 1914, when he volunteered the Battery for Overseas service 
through the then Brigade Commander, Lieut.-Col. H. G. McLeod. 
August 8, 1914. On arrival at Valcartier he was posted as Captain 
to the 5th Westmount Battery, 2nd Brigade, C.F.A., promoted in 
Field to rank of Major May, 1915, and took command of 7th 
Battery, promoted to rank of Lieutenant-Colonel April. 1917, and 



was posted to command the 3rd Brigade, C.F.A., commanded this 
Brigade until it was demobilized in Canada in May, 1919, except 
for period of three months, during which time he was attached to the 
4th Canadian Division Artillery Headquarters, acting as C.R.A. 

During the above period of four years and ten months on active 
service he went through every engagement in which the Canadian 
Corps took part from the day the First Canadian Division landed 
on French soil (February 12, 1915) up to the day of the Armistice, 
November n, 1918. 

Decorations are as follows : 
Queen s South Africa Medal, Three Clasps. 
D.S.O., London Gazette, 1117. 
Mentioned in despatches, London Gazette, 4 i 17- 
Mentioned in despatches, London Gazette, 28 5 18. 
Mentioned in despatches, London Gazette, 31 12 18. 
Mentioned in despatches, London Gazette, n / 19. 
Awarded Bar to D.S.O., London Gazette, 1219. 
1914-15 Star, London Gazette, 3 5 19. 

Total period of service, twenty-three years, of which six years and four 
months were spent on active service. 


Went Overseas January, 1915, unattached, with the rank of 
Major. He was first attached to the Canadian Convalescent 
Hospital at Bearwood Park. From there he went to Bath, thence 
to Moore Barracks Hospital, and was later appointed Medical 
Examiner of the Pension Board, London. He went to France as 
Medical Officer of a Labor Battalion. He was promoted to the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and received the appointment of Com 
manding Officer of the medical personnel of the Hospital Ship 



Uandovery Castle. This ship was torpedoed by an enemy sub 
marine on June 27, 1918, and Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonald was 
drowned. Out of the entire ship s company there were only twenty- 
four survivors, and of the hospital personnel of ninety-seven onlv 
one officer and five other ranks escaped. In spite of their appalling- 
circumstances the conduct of all on board was in fitting keeping with 
the proudest traditions of the British Army and the mercantile 
marine. And throughout nothing was more marked than the cool 
ness and courage of the fourteen Canadian Nursing Sisters, every 
one of whom was lost. Two of the nursing sisters Pearl Fraser 
and .Minnie Follette were Nova Scotians. 

Miss Macdonald was born at Bailey s 
Brook, Pictou County, and is a daughter 
of the late D. D. Macdonald. She is a 
sister of Col. R. St. John Macdonald, who 
was in command of the St. Francis 
Xavier Unit. Miss Macdonald served in 
the Spanish-American War, in the South 
African War, and later in the Canal Zone 
at Panama. In November, 1906, she was 
appointed a Nursing Sister in the Cana 
dian Army Permanent Medical Corps, and 

Matron-m-Chief of Cana 
dian Nursing Sisters. 

the appointment of Matron-in-Chief and 
was m command of three thousand Cana 
dian Nursing Sisters during the Great 

War. She has been decorated with the Royal Red Cross and the 

Florence Nightingale medal. 

Lieut. M. F. Gregg, a graduate of Acadia University, Wolfville. 
won the Victoria Cross while serving with the Royal Canadian 
Regiment. The following is the official record as published in the 
London Gazette: 

" On September the 28th, when the advance of the Brigade 
was held up by fire on both flanks and by thick, uncut wire, he 
crawled forward alone and explored the wire until he found a 
small gap, through which he subsequently led his men and forced 




an entry into the enemy trench. The enemy counter-attacked in 
force and through lack of bombs the situation became critical. 

" Gregg, although wounded, returned alone under a terrific fire 
and collected a further supply, then rejoined his party which was 
now much reduced. Despite a second wound he reorganized his 
men and led them in the most determined way against the enemy 

trenches,, which he fin 
ally cleared. He person 
ally killed or wounded 
eleven of the enemy and 
took twenty-five prison 
ers, besides capturing 
twelve machine-guns in 
this trench. Remaining 
with the Company, de 
spite his wounds, he 
again. on September 
3Oth. led the men in 
attack until severely 
wounded. The outstand 
ing valor of this officer 
saved many casualties 
and enabled the advance 
to continue." 

Pee. John Croak, 
V.C., was born in New 
foundland and came to 
Glace Bay with his par 
ents at four years of age. He attended St. John s School, New 
Aberdeen, Glace Bay, and afterwards worked as a miner in No. 2 
Colliery, Glace Bay (the biggest in the world). He volunteered for 
Overseas service in the 55th Battalion and was transferred to the 
I3th Battalion. He died of wounds received in action on August 
8, 1918. His father, mother, two sisters and two brothers are living 
at Glace Bav. 




The official notice from the War Office announcing the award 
of the Victoria Cross was as follows: 

" On August 8, 1918, during the attack on Amiens Defence 
System, after being separated from his section, Private Croak 
encountered a machine-gun nest in Ring Copse, which he dealt with 
by first bombing unassisted and then jumping into the post, taking 
the gun and crew prisoners. Shortly afterwards he was severely 
wounded in the right arm but refused to desist. 

" In a few minutes his Platoon, which this soldier had rejoined, 
again encountered a very strong point, containing several machine- 
guns and they were forced to take cover. Private Croak, however, 
seeing an opportunity, dashed forward alone, and was almost im 
mediately followed by the remainder of the Platoon in a brilliant 
charge. He was the first to arrive at the trench line, into which he 
led the men, capturing three machine-guns and bayoneting or cap 
turing the entire garrison. 

" The perseverance and courage of this gallant man were un 
doubtedly responsible for taking the strongest point in the whole 
day s advance. 

" Private Croak was again severely wounded in the knee and 
died in a few minutes. 7 

On November 23. 1918, Lieutenant-Governor Grant formally 
presented the Victoria Cross to his 
mother, Mrs. James Croak, of New 
Aberdeen, Cape Breton. The Lieutenant- 
Governor complimented the parents and 
a sister who accompanied them on the 
fact that their son and brother had so 
well demonstrated that he came of good 
stock and was a good soldier, a brave 
man, and a hero. 

Major Cecil Verge Strong, M.C.. son 

of Percy T. Strong, Esq., of Halifax. MAJOR CECIL VERGE STRONG, M.C. 
He was O.C. I5th Field Company. 

Royal Engineers, and the youngest Commanding Officer in the 
British Army. He was killed in action March 10, 1917, aged 
23 years. Buried Piney Post Cemetery, Maurepas, near Peronne. 
Mentioned in despatches five times. 





Major J. Arnold Delancey, M.C., joined the 4Oth Battalion and 
transferred to the 25th Battalion as machine gun officer. He was 
Adjutant of the 25th in France and attained his majority in 
October, 1916. He was killed at Vimy Ridge, April 9, 1917, while 
leading his Battalion, of which he was in temporary command. 
He was decorated with the Military Cross. He had a distin 
guished career and was rapidly promoted on account of his good 
work at the Front. 

Major Edward \Y. Joy went Overseas with io6th Battalion. 
Transferred to 78th Battalion in France. Killed in action at Vimy 
Ridge, April 9, 1917. 

Lieut. Kennet Stairs. Born 1889. Killed in action September 
30, 1918, while serving with 6oth Battery, C.F.A., near Cambrai. 

Lieut. Philip Boyd Stairs, D.S.O. Born 1895. Wounded while 
serving with 5th Canadian Division, T.M.B. Died of influenza at 
Valenciennes, November 21, 1918. 

Capt. George W. Stairs. Born 1887. Killed at St. Julien, 
April 24, 1915, while serving with the I4th Battalion. 

Capt. John C. Stairs. Born 1891. Killed at Courcellette, Sep 
tember 15, 1916, while serving with the 25th Battalion. 

Capt. Gauvin L. Stairs. Born 1896. Killed at Moquet Farm, 
near Courcellette, September 7, 1916, while serving with the I4th 

Pte. Graham Stairs. Born 1894. Died of pneumonia at Halifax, 
December 10, 1915, while serving with the 85th Battalion. 

" One by one Death challenged them. One by one they smiled in his grim 
visage and refused to be dismayed." 





Sons of Mrs. Edward Stairs, Halifax. 



Sons of George Stairs, Halifax. 


Sous of Gauvin L. Stairs, Halifax. 

CAPT. E. J. 





Capt. E. J. Dwyer was Second in Command of " C Company, 
85th Battalion. He left the Battalion shortly after it arrived in 
England to join the 25th Battalion in France. After serving with 
the latter Unit for six months he was detailed to proceed to 
Mesopotamia, and sailed on the Nyansa. This ship was torpedoed 
and Captain Dwyer was drowned. 

Capt. L. .Ray Cutten, an officer in the 93rd Cumberland Regi 
ment. He volunteered for service Overseas at the outbreak of war 
and was Assistant Adjutant of the i;th Battalion. He transferred 
to the i5th Battalion and again to the 2nd Battalion, in which he 
was a Company Comaader and was recommended for the -Military 
Cross. He was killed at Maple Grove, near Hill 60. June 5. 1916. 
Buried near Poperinghe. 

Capt. Edgar S. Spurr. M.C., obtained his commission in ii2th 
Battalion. Promoted to rank of Captain July 24. 1916. Reverted 
to go to France, where he served with the 25th Battalion. Awarded 
the Military Cross and regained the rank of Captain. August 15. 
1917. Killed in action. June 14. 1918. 

Capt. George Collins Parish. Yarmouth. N.S. Jmmediately 
after the outbreak of the Great War. was appointed Lieutenant in 
the 8 ist Regiment Canadian Infantry. 

Commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 4Oth Battalion, C.E.F. 
Recruited a Platoon in Yarmouth for that Unit, took them to Val- 
cartier. After a period of training he was sent Overseas in com 
mand of a reinforcing draft of 250 men. 

He was attached to the I7th Reserve Battalion at Bramshott for 
a period, when, in 1916, he was posted to the 25th Battalion, and 
sent to Belgium, was severely wounded and invalided home. On 
his partial recovery he was posted to the ist Nova Scotia Regiment, 
Depot Battalion, as Paymaster, with the rank of Captain. He con 
tracted influenza and died October 28, 1918. Was interred at 
Mountain Cemetery, Yarmouth. 

27 4*7 


Six sons of G. Douglas and Kate G. Campbell, of VV eymoulh, 
were volunteers in August, 1914. 

COUN, the youngest, enlisted first and served at McXab s Island. 
He joined the 23rd Battery at Fredericton in November. Proceeded 
Overseas in March, 1915, and arrived in France the following June. 
Severely wounded at La Bassee, June ic^th. On discharge from 
hospital he joined the Imperial Service and obtained his commission. 
Returned to the Front during- the winter of I9I5 16 - Received 
multiple wounds July igth and was awarded the M.C. After dis 
charge from hospital he was decorated by the King and again 
returned to the Front. Passed examination for aviation during 
the summer, but returning to the artillery was killed in action near 
Passchendaele, October 10, 1917. 

TOAI. also joined the 23rd Battery and proceeded to England 
with Colin. He was transferred to the 3rd Battalion and served at 
the Front from June to December, 1915. Trench life and its filthy 
conditions undermined his health, and in December he was shell- 
shocked and sent to hospital. He returned to Canada in 1916. 

KKNM; .nf began his training for active service at Halifax, later 
going to Valcartier. He was sent to Weymouth to assist in re 
cruiting the 85th and 2i9th Battalions. He proceeded Overseas in 
August, 1916, and joined the 42nd Battalion. He became Bombing 
Officer of that Unit, and was killed at Yimy Ridge, January 18, 
K) i 7, and buried at Mount St. Kloi. 

JOHN DUNCAN, joined the io6th Battalion at Truro in January, 
Kji6. Arrived in England, July, 1916, and at the Front in December, 
1916. Wounded in hand and thigh at Vimy Ridge, April 8, 1917. 
Returned to the Front and served until shell-shocked at Rochmont. 
Returned to Halifax, June, 1918. 

GUDDEN. the eldest, was already in the Militia when the Wai- 
broke out, his commission being dated June, 1914. He was in 





command of the Digby Detachment of the Garrison Artillery at 
Barrington, N.S., and joined the 85th Battalion in October, 1915, 
as Machine Gun Officer. He proceeded Overseas with that Unit, 
arriving in France in time for the Vimy show. He was appointed 
to the command of " B " Company in October, 1917. He led his 
Company at Passcbendaele, wiping out over a dozen machine gun 
nests and capturing a pill-box single-handed. Was blown into the 
air by a shell and, although wounded, refused to leave the line. He 
was awarded the M.C. He carried on with the Battalion until 
June, 1918, when, after an attack of trench fever and suffering 
from the effects of gas, he was sent to the South of France to re 
cuperate. He later transferred to the Forestry Corps, taking com 
mand of the /9th Company and was promoted to the rank of Major. 

ALBERT MUXGO, volunteered in 1914, but as his five brothers 
had left his father s business, it was decided that he should remain 
at home. He was so anxious to join up, however, that he was 
reluctantly permitted to do so, and in the early spring of 1916 
enlisted in the 58th Battery, C.F.A. He went to the Front with 
that Unit and remained with it to the finish. He was the last of 
the four surviving brothers to arrive home. 


Capt. H. A. Murray joined the 24th 
Battalion as Lieutenant during the winter 
of 1915 from the McGill C.O.T.C., and 
served as Transport Officer until May, 
1916. Promoted to Captain in July, 1916, 
and to Acting-Major while in command 
of a Company in September, 1916. Was 
Company Comander of " D " Company, 
24th Battalion, when killed in fighting for 
Regina Trench, near Courcellette, on 
October I, 1916. 



Capt. Edward C. Clayton, M.C., son of W. J. Clayton, Halifax. 
Appointed Lieutenant 85th Battalion, December 28, 1916. Pro 
moted to rank of Captain, August 9, 
1917. Awarded Military Cross, Eleudit 
Leauvette. Although not his turn to lead 
his Company in the attack on Pass- 
chendaele Ridge he urged his reasons for / 
doing so upon his Commanding Officer so 
strongly that permission was given him. 
He was killed by a piece of shell just as 
his Company advanced in the attack, but 
he had made his preparation so carefully 
that they carried on, annihilated the 

,,,.,.,. . CAPT. EDWARD C. CLAYTON, M.C. 

enemy, gained their objectives, dug in, 

and held their position intact until the Battalion was relieved. 

Capt. Harry Elthan Hilton, only child of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. 
^^^^^ Hilton, of Kingston, Nova Scotia. Born 

JJJL jfek September 16, 1894. When war broke 

out was on the Staff of the Bank of Nova 

r ?" Scotia. He enlisted in the 63rd Regi- 

S^s/fi "ient on August 14, 1914, gazetted 

Lieutenant the following month and 
sailed for England with a draft of the 
63rd on March i, 1916. Went to France, 
June 14, 1916, and was attached to the 

42nd Battanon - He fought at Cour- 
cellette and various other engagements 

,, o T 

throughout the bomme campaign. Later 
was transferred to the 7th Trench Mortar Battery and was killed at 
Vimy Ridge. Gazetted Captain, January 13, 1917. 


Capt. A. S. Allen, M.C., son of Mr. Arthur E. Allen, of Yar 
mouth, N.S. Born at Glenwood, Yarmouth County, July 23, 1895. 
At the age of sixteen he entered the service of the Bank of Nova 
Scotia, and in 1913 was transferred to the Barrington Street 
Branch, Halifax. He qualified as Lieutenant in the 8ist Regiment 



and proceeded Overseas with the 4oth Battalion. In March, 1916, 
he joined the iSth Battalion in France. He was later gazetted 
Captain and awarded the Military Cross. In November he trans 
ferred to the R.F.C. On April 30, 1917, 
while reconnoitering over Gouzeaucourt 
his plane was attacked by six enemy 
machines. Captain Allen was hit by a 
machine-gun bullet and was dead when 
his plane crashed. Lieut. D. Mactavish, 
Inverness, Scotland, who accompanied 
him on this flight, writes : 

I can never forget him as I saw him 
at the last, calm and collected to the end, 
sighting and firing until his strength gave 
out and he was overcome by exhaustion. 
It is given to a few men to live greatly, but to be able to die as he 
did is a gift of God. Truly he won -Per crdita ad astra. 




Capt. J. E. Almon, son of the late Dr. Thomas Almon, of 
Halifax. Killed in action at Passchendaele, while serving with the 

Lieut. Cyril McLellan Mowbray, only son of Lieut. Col. J. A. C. 
Mowbray, O.B.E., Senior Pay Officer, Military District No. 6. 
Killed in action, November 10, 1917, at Passchendaele, aged nine 
teen years, while serving with the 5th Canadian Battalion. 



Second Lieut. John Struan Robertson, 
son of Lieut. -Col. Struan G. Robertson, 
of Pictou. Born in Westville, Pictou 
County, November 17, 1896. Got his 
commission from the Royal Military Col 
lege, Kingston, Ont., in 1917. Attached 
to the R.F.A., B. 46th Brigade, I4th 
Division, 5th Army. Killed near Benay, 
in the neighborhood of St. Quentin, 
March 21, 1918. 


Lieut. George Macdonald Sylvester. 
Went Overseas with 4Oth Battalion as 
Assistant Adjutant. Transferred to I4th 
Battalion and was killed at Regina 
Trench, September 26, 1916. 


Lieut. Walter Melville Billman. At 
Oxford at outbreak of war. Joined 
Officers Training Corps, Oxford. 
Appointed Second Lieutenant 6th Bat 
talion ist Middlesex Regiment. Died of 
wounds received at Battle of Somme, 
November 5, 1916. 









Lieut. Howard Charles Dawson, son of Mr. and Mrs. C. M. 
Dawson, of Truro, N.S. He was killed while on scout duty at Ablain, 
St. Nazaire, on January 12, 1917, at the age of 22 years. He was 
buried in Sucrerie Cemetery, near Lens. He enlisted in January, 
1916, in the io6th Battalion and transferred to the 26th Battalion in 
October, 1916. He was scout officer of this Battalion when killed. 

Lieut. John H. Fiendal went Overseas as a Sergeant in Xo. i 
Casualty Clearing Hospital. Was given a commission and joined 
the 25th Battalion in 1916. He was killed at Vimy Ridge, April 


Lieut. Thomas Louis Brennan trained at Aviation School, 
Toronto, and went to England December, 1915. Completed his 
training there and went to France early in 1916. \\ as wounded, 
and after being discharged from hospital was employed as an 
Instructor, and returned to Canada early in 1918. Up to the time 
of his death was attached to the Aviation School in Toronto. He 
died of influenza October, 1918. 

Lieut. G. H. Campbell, son of George H. Campbell, Esq.. of 
Halifax, joined the 4Oth Battalion with the rank of Lieutenant. 
He proceeded Overseas with that Unit, and was later transferred 
to the ist Canadian Pioneers. He was killed at Battersea Farm. 
Ypres, May 16, 1916, aged 22 years. 

Lieut. F. P. H. Layton, only son of George A. Layton, Esq., of 
Truro. Born April 13, 1888. Educated at King s College School 
and Dalhousie University. Admitted to the Bar in 1912. \Yhen 
war broke out was practising in. Vancouver. He obtained a com 
mission in the 4Oth Battalion and transferred to the 4th Canadian 
Mounted Rifles. He was killed in action July 23, 1916. 

Lieut. Alfred S. Churchill. Killed in action April 9. 1917. at 
Vimy Ridge, while serving with the Royal Canadian Regiment. 










Lieut. W. T. Beck. Served in Egypt with Royal Air Force. 
Killed November 15, 1918. 

Lieut. Harold Archibald Smith, M.C. Born at Londonderry 
May 13, 1893. Educated at Sydney Academy and Dalhousie Uni 
versity. Graduated B.A. 1913 and went to Labrador as missionary. 
At Pine Hill College autumn of 1914. Enlisted in 6th C.M.R. 
January, 1915. Wounded at the Somme, September 15, 1916. 
After convalescence went to Bexhill and rejoined his Unit as 
Lieutenant. Awarded Military Cross August 26, 1918. Two days 
later at Monchy Heights was severely wounded. Died September 
I4th at Prince of Wales Hospital, London, and buried in Brook- 
wood Cemetery. 

Lieut. Albert F. Major, son of F. G. Major, Esq., of Halifax. 
Went Overseas with i4th Battalion of Montreal. Killed in action 
at Zillebeke Heights June 3, 1916. 

Lieut. Gordon M. Hebb, son of Levi Hebb, Esq., of Bridge- 
water, N.S. Killed in action near Courcellette while serving- with 
78th Battalion. 

Lieut. W. S. Fielding, son of George H. Fielding, Esq., 
Stipendiary Magistrate, Halifax, N.S. Called out for service with 
his Regiment, the 66th Princess Louise Fusiliers, at the outbreak of 
war. Proceeded with a draft from that Regiment to England in 
January, 1916. He was transferred to the /th British Columbia 
Battalion in France. He was twice wounded. Killed in action at 

Lieut. J. T. Probert, M.C. Before the War Lieut. Probert was 
an accountant in the service of the Intercolonial Railway at Halifax. 
He was attached to the Royal Canadian Regiment in France, and 
was killed in action at Cambrai, September 30, 1918. 

Lieut. Gerald E. Cragg, son of C. J. Cragg, Bridgewater, Nova 
Scotia. Killed in action June 3, 1916, aged 22 years, 4 months, 
near Ypres, Belgium, while serving with the 3rd Toronto Regiment. 



Lieut. Jas. O Neill Fitzgerald, M.C., enlisted in the 4Oth Bat 
talion, was transferred to 25th Battalion in France, May, 1916, and 
served till April, 1917, when he was promoted to commissioned 
rank. He rejoined his Battalion in October, 1917, and was wounded 
at the Battle of Amiens, August 9, 1918, and awarded the Military 

Cadet H. S. Simson enlisted in the 2nd Canadian Divisional 
Cyclist Company on April 19, 1915. He accompanied his Unit to 
France on September 15, 1915, and was wounded October 8, 1916, 
during the Somme offensive. He was awarded the Medaille 
Militaire (French) on July 6, 1917, for work on the Somme. 
Joining the Royal Air Force in July, 1918, he served until the sign 
ing of the Armistice. 

Lieut. Walter O. Barnstead joined the 6th Canadian Mounted 
Rifles at Halifax, February n, 1915, and proceeded to France with 
his Unit in October, 1915. He was transferred to the 5th C.M.R., 
promoted to commissioned rank in April, 1917, and served with 
his Unit until the Armistice. He was awarded the Croix de Guerre 
at Amiens, 1918. 

Capt. G. M. Drew was called out with his Regiment, the ist 
Canadian Garrison Artillery, on August 22, 1914, and left for Val- 
cartier early in September. From Valcartier he proceeded to Eng 
land, joining the Royal Garrison Artillery. He proceeded to 
France with the ist Siege Battery in September, 1915, and served 
with this Unit and various Trench Mortar Batteries until June, 
1916, when he was invalided to England suffering from trench 
fever. After service in England, Capt. Drew returned to France 
in May, 1917, with the 259* Siege Battery, and served in the Ypres 
Salient and Nieuport areas till the signing of the Armistice. 

The four boys mentioned above are all in the employ of the 
Furness Withy Company, Limited. 










Lieut-Col. Charles J. T. Stewart, D.S.O., was the son of the 
late Lieut-Col. C. J. Stewart, of Halifax. He went Overseas with 
the P.P.C.L.I. Was awarded the D.S.O. and French Croix de 
Guerre. He was killed in action September 28, 1918. 

Lieut. J. G. Laurier Fraser, son of the late Lieut. -Governor 
O. C. Fraser. Enlisted at Moose Jaw in the 229th Battalion and 
sailed for England in September, 1916. Transferred to the i6th 
Battalion. Killed in action March 6, 1918. 

Lieut. Jas. Blair, son of Lieut. -Col. H. C. Blair, of Truro. 
Killed in action. 

Lieut. J. C. Sutherland. Killed in action. 

Lieut. Ian C. McGregor. Went Overseas November, 1916. 
Trained in England with Royal Flying Corps. Went to France as 
pilot, April, 1917, attached to Squadron 56, and later transferred to 
Squadron 60. Wounded September 21, 1917, and was eight months 
in hospital in France. Died at Saranac Lake, X.Y., March 5, 1920. 
Officially credited with eleven machines. 

Capt. Nelson P. Freeman, of Bridge water, stricken with 
paralysis while on service in England, was invalided to Canada, 
and died. 

Emile Gaboury, son of Dr. T. C. Gaboury, the late representative 
of the County of Pontiac, Quebec. Came to Halifax in 1911 as 
Manager of the Nova Scotia Branch of the Imperial Tobacco Com 
pany of Canada, Limited, and after war broke out was appointed 
French Consul. Notwithstanding his many duties. Mr. Gaboury 
took an active interest in the Victory Loan, Red Triangle, Knights 
of Columbus, and the Salvation Army. He was a particularly 
strong and active member of the Red Cross, and played a large role 
in the welcoming of returned soldiers at Pier 2. During the War 
he appealed for the Red Cross in all the theatres of Halifax as well 
as throughout the Province, and organized Red Cross branches in 
many of the smaller towns. 



Garnet James Colwell, Lieutenant 66th Halifax Regiment. 
Served in Canada 1915-1918. Sent Overseas May 16, 1918. 

Cyril Henry Colwell, Lieutenant 63rd Halifax Regiment. Served 
in Canada 1915-1917. Sent Overseas September 5, 1917. 

Ray John Colwell, Lieutenant 63rd 
Halifax Regiment. Served in Canada 
1916-1918. Sent Overseas August 3, 

Mrs. May B. Sexton, B.Sc., Vice- 
President, Canadian Red Cross Society, 
Nova Scotia Branch. Ex-Municipal 
|p Regent for Halifax, I.O.D.E. Ex-Chair- 
mL man Halifax Playgrounds Commission. 

^^^ Ex-Vice-President Local Council of 

MRS. MAY B. SEXTON, B.SC. \\ Omen. 



Andrewes, F. L. 
Annand, C. D. 
Anthony, L. F. 
Atkinson, C. H. 
Aucoin, J. D. 
Austen, G. A. 
Banks, C. N. 
Barry, J. R. 
Bezanson, G. A. 
Blair, R. G. 
Boudreau, L. P. 
Bowers, C. C. 
Boyd, R. J. 
Browne, A. S. 
Bryson, W. E. 
Buckley, W. A. 
Butler, J. K. 
Cain, C. L. 
Cairns, J. A. 
Cameron, J. A. 
Cameron, N. P. 
Campbell, J. A. 
Campbell, J. A. 
Campbell, R. B. 
Chisholm, A. D. 
Chisholm, J. D. 
Chapman, P. T. 
Cornwall, H. A. 
Cosman, E. A. 
Cotter, J. G. 
Coumans, R. G. 
Crowell, A. L. 
Crowell, C. L. 
Cunningham, PI. 
Curll, M. H. 
Daniel, G. H. 
Demers, J. C. 
DesBrisay, A. S. 
Dexter, R. 
Dickie, E. C. 
Dickie, K. R. 
Dickie, L. W. 
Dickson, G. M. 
Dodge, C. M. 
Doucette, H. H. 
Douse, G. A. P. 
Durham, E. B. 
Dustan, S. B. 
Embree, D. T. 
Ernst, W. A. 
Farnell, A. H. 
Flannery, C. G. 
Flinn, G. 

Forsythe, J. S. G. 
Fraser, A. Elmer. 
Eraser, A. Ernest. 
Fraser, A. M. 
Eraser, L. G. 
Gage, L. G. 
Gass, C. 
Gorham, E. R. 

Goudrey, K. H. 
Grant, B. E. 
Gregory, H. S. 
Haines, R. S. 
Hains, A. P. R. 
Hall, H. L. 
Hanna, V. M. 
Harding, C. E. 
Hatfield, A. W. 
Hawkins, G. S. 
Henderson, H. F. 
Herman, R. R. 
Johnston, J. L. 
Johnstone, G. H. 
King, D. A. 
King, J. J. W. 
Kirk, J. H. 
Kierstead, A. L. 
Knowles, J. E. 
Kyte, S. E. 
Kinnie, E. F. 
Knowles, J. E. 
Langille, L. H. 
LeLievre, P. 
Lordly, E. F. 
Longley, E. G. 
Love, H. A. 
MacDonald, D. W. 
MacDougall, J. I. 
MacDougall R. 
MacKenzie. W. K. 
MacKay, J. W. 
MacLean, C. W. 
Mann, C. H. 
Alarch, J. E. R. 
Matthews, C. F. 
Melvin, W. D. 
Merriam, S. G. 
Merritt, F. G. 
Milner, C. H. 
Millett, J. N. L. 
Moore, A. J. 
Morrison, W. H. 
Morrow, J. 
Morash, J. R. 
Mosher, A. T. 
Mosher, W. A. 
Mulcahey, T. J. 
Murray, B. 
McAlpine, A. F. 
McCallum, H. M. 
McClafferty, J. K. 
McDonald. A. H. 
McDonald, D. A. 
Mclntyre, J. A. 
McKenzie, H. 
McKenzie, K. 
McLaren, A. F. 
McLean, M. A. 
McLeod, H. H. D. 
McRobert, J. A. V. 

Neville, E. V. 
Newell, A. D. 
Newell, E. D. 
Nickerson, E. C. 
Noonan, P. 
O Connell, J. F. 
O Keefe, T. P. 
O Toole, A. G. 
Page, E. H. 
Peers, R. H. C. 
Peters, W. H. 
Pickard, H. J. 
Pitman, M. R. 
Power, M. L. 
Poirier, W. P. 
Price, E. 
Prince, W. S. 
Rafuse, S. A. 
Redding, R. E. 
Rhind, C. E. 
Richardson, R. B. 
Ripley, L. W. 
Risser.-W. A. 
Roche, G. E. 
Ross, C. S.. 
Ross, J. K. 
Ryan, A. M. 
Scriven, J. A. 
Shaw, H. J. 
Shields, D. D. 
Smith, A. R. 
Smith, G. J. 
Snell, L. L. 
Spence, C. M. V. 
Spence, R. E. 
Stanley, F. A. 
Sterns, H. E. 
Stephens, A. E. 
Stewart, W. I. 
Strople, H. G. A. 
Stubbs, H. C. 
Stewart, D. J. 
Tanner, H. R. 
Troy, L. T. 
Tupper, M. L. 
Turnbull, G. A. 
Turnbull, G. V. 
West, C. F. 
Whidden, E. L. 
Wicks, W. E. 
White, G. 
Wickwire, L- H. 
Wilmot, A. J. 
Wallace, H. 
Wilson, J. L. 
Wilson, W. M. 
Winters, G. W. 
Withrow, C. A. 
Zinck, A. M. 
Zinck, PL A. 


One of Nova Scotia s Leading Patriotic War Workers. 


"The Three Shining Lights" of Pine Hill Military Convalescent Hospital. 


Drowned at st A.Llandorery Downed at sca.Llantiorcry Kspecial i v note d for his Sur- 
Castlc, June 27. 1918. Castle. Juno 27. K)i8. gical Work following 

the Great Explosion, 
December 6. 1917. 


"JMt iaron" 

1% &>Utart IHrCawlry 

WE were sitting on the beach at Mini. Just a lovely 
Cape Breton moonlight nig-ht. The youngsters 
were singing and telling- yarns. One kid recited 
McCrae s great poem, " In Flanders Fields," and one of 
the boys who had been "over there" asked UP if we knew 
what McCrae meant when he wrote the phrase, " Felt 
Dawn." Nobody seemed to be entirely clear on the 
question, and we asked our friend, the veteran, to describe 
it for us. Here are his words: 

A cold, drizzly rain that is eating through your khaki 
into your very heart 

A sea of mud black, slimy, sticky, stinking mud. 
The duck boards floating in ooze. 
Your feet wet and heavy, and your toes squichy. 
Not a sound of any kind. 

The nearest human ten yards away just around 
" the bay." 

Darkness supreme. Xot even an enemy flare. 

You strain your eyes over the parapet to the barb- 

Your battalion s life depends on your keeping awake. 

Oh, the strain! Oh, the funk that is trying to grip 
your very soul! 

Would to God something would happen! This eternal 
watching is fearful. 

Then a rustle in the grass; a wave of movement first 
like the ripple you hear when a stone is " skipped " on a 
quiet pond; then an extra chill in the air: then a glow to 
the east Tis Dawn. 

You let loose your "clip" and you fire like, mad 
towards the Hun. Other sentries fire, and the salvo to 
dawn gets the whole line. Thousands of men all along 
the front start a strafe a crazy, aimless strafe which 
lasts for only minutes. Then, as if some great unseen 
General had whispered a command, men regain their 
" morale," and the rifle fire quietens, and dies away. 

The sun struggles up. 

A bird on a shattered stump whistles. " Coo, Coo." 

Your blood warms again. You have " felt dawn." 
Another day has had its birth. The rations will soon be 
up. Relief is coming. The war is still on, and the bird 
has showed you that, after all, it is better to smile than 
to worry. 

God is still in command! 


Union Terminal Garage 

Queen St., Opposite Kent, Halifax, N.S. 


EQUIPPED with the 
most modern machinery, 
we are in a position to do all 
kinds of repair work, including 
reboring of cylinders and 
pressing on solid truck tires 
with a 200-ton hydraulic press 






P.O. Box 184 Tel. Sack. 3477 

W. McL. Robertson, Manager 




liver smiths 


Fine Platinum Mounted Diamond 
Rings, Bar Pins, Necklets, Articles 
in Sterling Silver and Silver Plate, 
Cabinets, Silver Knives, Forks and 
Spoons, Cut Glass, Fine China, 
Leather Goods, Stationery, Clocks, 
Bronzes, Fine Jewellery Repairing 
and Remodelling. Watch and 
Clock Repairs. 

Copper Plate, Steel Die and General Engravers 

8 5th Battalion 


65 c. each 


493-495-497 Barringtcn Street 


We fpecialize. 
on t^Cwiature 
pedals and 
Deco:ation. c . of 
the Great War 



should be paid for, 
but at the prices we 
charge for 


you can fit yourself out and 
be affected very little by 
Luxury Tax. 

Frank Colwell,Ltd. 



Green Lantern Building. 

Motor Sales 

Company, Limited 



F. W. D., Federal 
and Defiance Trucks 

HALIFAX 75-77 Granville St. 



Sydney Post 

Morning Afternoon Weekly 

The various editions of the Post 
are read by upwards of 45,000 
of the biggest wage-earners in 


Post Publishing 
Company, Limited 

. Sydney, Nova Scotia, , 









Company, Limited 

Dartmouth, N. S. 




Sunny cubes or California 
Peaches, Pears, Maraschino 
Cherries ana Prunes, coated 
witn cnocolate ana swim- 

* * 

ming in nectar. 

Just one Cnocolate treat 
out or more tnan a hundred 
made by 

Moirs Limited, 





that will give good service and has a neat appearance 
is what you get when you purchase an 

Atlantic Marine Motor 

We also manufacture a complete line of 



Write us for information and prices 

Lunenburg Foundry Co., Limited 




Capital Paid Up $7,000,000 

Reserve Fund and Undivided Profits 7,574,043 

Branches from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific 

Halifax Office: Corner Granville and Duke Streets 

R. G. SARE, Manager 





The most delicious refreshment is a 
dish of Scotia Ice Cream made in 
30 velvet smooth combinations of 
cream and fruit flavors. 

For dessert every week, for refresh 
ment every day, for convalescents, 
for dances and dinners, there s noth 
ing so popular because nothing so 
pleasant as 


Scotia Pure Milk Co. 

615 Barrington St., Halifax, N.S. 

North Sydney 

Established 1872 




The North Sydney Herald is sent 

to subscribers in nearly every post 

office in Cape Breton Island. 

Average sworn circulation 
of Weekly in 19 19, 4,769 

Sydney Foundry 
&Machine Works 


Sydney, Cape Breton 




Works : Pitt and Johnstone Streets 
Docks : North Esplanade 


Oxygen - Acetylene and Electric 
Cutting and Welding 

J. W. Gumming 
& Son, Limited 


New Glasgow, N.S. 


Mason & Dean, Limited 

Wholesale Fruits, Vegetables 
Tobaccos, Cigars, Confectionery 


Cor. George and Falmouth Box 570 

Phones 749-760 Branch at Glace Bay 


Wholesale Fruits, Produce, 


The McDONALDS did tkeir bit in tKe 
war. So did 

Alex. McDonald 

The leading Tailor of North Sydney by 
furnishing the best Clothing to the boys. 
He is still on the job at the old stand in the 

NORTH SIDNEY, N.JS. Tel. 191. 

Sydney Motors, Limited 

Dealers in 




Cor. George and To^wnsend Streets 

Tel. 300 SYDNEY. N.S. P.O. Box 399 


^Vholesale Fruits 
and Confectionery 

George Street, Sydney, N.S. 


\Vhole3ale and Retail Dealers in 


PROVISIONS, and all kinds of 


North Sydney 


When in town make it a 
point to visit 



North Sydney - N. S. 

H. G. HAGEN & CO. 



:: HEATING :: 
Sydney, N. S. 

Compliments of 


Sydney Minss and North Sydney 
Cape Breton 


Ford Parts 


Dealer in Canadian Ford Cars 

Sydney Mines, N.S. 


Dominion Iron ^ Steel Company 


Manufacturers of 


PIG IRON, Basic and Foundry Grades, 



STEEL RAILS All sections up to and 

including 100 Ihs. per lineal yard. 


Reinforcement Bars, Plain or Twisted. 

WIRE RODS All qualities, in Gauges No. 5 to 21-32". 

WIRE Plain, Annealed, Galvanized, Coiled Spring and 
Barbed Fence. 

WIRE NAILS All standard and special patterns. 

Benzol, Toluol, Solvent Naphtha, Bengas (Motor Fuel). 


Sydney, N.S. 1 1 2 St. James Street, Montreal, P.Q. 



Coal Co 

minion ^oai company 


19 Collieries Output, 5,000,000 tons annually. 

"Dominion" Coal - - Screened, run of mine and slack. 
Springhill" Coal Screened, run of mine and slack. 

Collieries at Glace Bay, C.B., and Springhill, N.S. 
Shipping Port? Sydney and Louisburg, C.B., and Parrsboro, N.S. 




or at the offices of the Company at 171 Lower Water Street, Halifax, N.S., 
and to the following agents : R. P. & W. F. Starr, St. John, N.B.; Buntain, 
Bell & Co., Charlottetown, P.E.I.; Hull, Blyth & Co., 1 Lloyds Ave., 
London, E.G.; Harvey & Co., St. John s, Nfld. 


McDougall & Cowans 

Members Montreal Stock Exchange 




34 King Street West 

58 Prince William St. 

1 16 Mountain Hill 

211 Union Bank Bldg. 


218 Portage Ave. 

185 Hollis St. 



Irresistible Styles in 


Are on Display at All Seasons 

in OurExtensive Ready- to- Wear 


Ladies and Gents Wearing Apparel of every 

description. See our stock before you buy 


All Mail Orders Receive Our Best Attention 

We are expert Ladies and Gents Tailors and Furriers 
Electric Passenger Elevators to All Departments 




Real T Estate and Insurance 


Railway and Steamship 
Ticket Agents 

Possessing unexcelled facilities for 

effecting all classes of Insurance 

in some of the strongest British, 

Canadian and American 


Commercial Street 
Glace Bay, N.S. 

Charlotte Street 
Sydney, N.S. 

J. A. Marven 




St. John 

Manufacturers of "WHITE LILY" 


\Ve mention here only a few of our 
regular lines : 

Arrowroot Social Tea Fig Bars 
Coco^Taffy Fancy Wine Hydrox 
Assorted Sandwich Marshmaliow 
Graham Wafers Ginger Snaps 
Apricot Wafers. Graham Sandwich 

Ask for and insist on 

Marven s "White Lily" Cream Sodas 

Sold in tins, toxe, packages and barrels 

670 Barringtcn Street, Halifax 

Petrie Manufacturing 
Co., Limited 


Aerated Waters 
Distilled Waters 
Mineral Waters 



Isnor Bros. 

Stores where men like to come for 
their Clothing Why ? 

Honest Values 

(that s the answer) 

69 iGottingen Street 

>: - _ 

Agricola Street 

(Cor. Bloomfield Street) 

Isnor Bros. 


This Store s Policy 

To represent goods exactly as to their qual 
ity; to sell to those who know and to those 
who don t know values at a uniform fair 
price; to fulfill all guarantees and cheerfully 
correct all mistakes; to deserve your con 
fidence hy always giving yju satisfaction. 


Jeweler and Optician 

New Waterfcrd 




Chappell Bros. & Co. 

Brookland Street, 





Groceries, Flour, Feeds and Produce 

North Sydney 


Donald J. Buckley 

"The Druggist" 
Buckley s Busy Bend 

Prince and Charlotte Streets 

C. & G. MacLEOD 

Booksellers and Stationers 

Sydney and Glace Bay, N.S. 


Dealer in 

Dry Goods, Clothing, Carpets, 

Furniture, Men s Furnishings, 

Crockery, Shoes, Groceries and 



McKinnon & Cameron 



344 Esplanade 

Sydney, N.S, 


Dealer in 

Confectionery, Fruits, Tobaccos, 

Cigars, Etc. 

Photo Studio in connection. Our 
enlargements are the best 


Eastern Jewellery Co. 

Phone 121 S. PORTE, Manager 


Green Block, Charlotte Street 
Sydney N.S. 

Have your home wired now 

Let us do the "wiring in your home, and 
you will receive the hest material and 
workmanship. Call us for estimates on 
your work; telephone number i,696. 


Charlotte Street - Sydney 


Acadia Coal Company 


Stellarton, N.S. 

Miners and Shippers of the 



Unexcelled for Steam Purposes 
Popular for Domestic Use 

Manufacturing, Steamship, and Railway 
Companies give it high endorsements. 

Shipments by water from Pictou Landing, N.S. 
Shipments by rail, via Intercolonial Railway. 

For Prices and all Information, 
address General Offices: 


Systematic Saving Made Pleasant and 


Q Here is the plan under which many of our clients, setting aside sums as 
small as $10 monthly, have accumulated $5,000 and upwards with annual 
additions of more than $300 to their incomes. 

Q You buy through us a security of recognized merit, yielding > /r or more 
for municipals, T r or more for Corporation bonds. 

J You pay $10 a month for each $100 and are charged with 6^ interest on unpaid 
balances but are credited immediately with the full interest on your investment, 
as paid. 

fl As you proceed with your payments ths difference of interest in your favor 
increases, adding to your income, and as time goes on the purchase of one 
security after another brings you nearer to independence 

Write for further details 


Members Montreal Stock Exchange 


Thompson & Sutherland Limited 

Dealers in 


Wholesale and Retail Stores at 





The Hardware Men 


John R. Francis 
& Son 

Dealers in 

General Shelf Hardware, 
Glass, Paints and Oils, 
Enameled and Tinware 


Undertakers and Licensed 

Strict attention given 
to day and night calls. 

Phone connections day and night 

Main St., Sydney Mines, N.S. 

P. O. Box 486 


can buy their outfitting most 
advantageously at this store. 

Crowell s standard goods- 
complete from head to toot 
will appeal to your good busi 
ness judgment, on account or 
tbeir reliable quality and tbeir 
fair prices. 

show you the way to 
better outfitting values. 


Crowell s Ltd. 

Sydney, C. B. 

For the Veterans of the 

Great War in all 

Branches of the 



is none too good, every time and all 
the time 

in Halifax, for instance 


Halifax Hotel 

Hollis Street 

Which was the "Stamping Ground 
for H M. Overseas Forces passing 
through Halifax. 

Come in and see us again when you 
are in town. 

If you Shop at 


you ll get value for ycur money 

Stylish Dress Goods and 
Silks, Dress Trimmings, 
Gloves, Hosiery, House 
Furnishings and Furniture, 
Men s and Boys Furnish 
ings, Good Footwear. We 
carry an up-to-date stock to 
fit all. Choice Groceries. 

All at lowest prices 

McArel Bros, 

Glace Bay, N.S. 


Francis Book Store 

Newspapers, Magazines and Latest 
Boob, School Supplies Wall 
Papers, Etc. Stationery the very 

W. J. Francis 


When ij North Sydney do not forget to 


"She House of Qjality" 



Tel. 193 

Home Bottling Company Ltd. 

Manufacturers of \VhoIesale Dealers 
High Grade Aerated in Cigarette*, 

\Vaters Cigars, etc. 

The up-ro-date Bottling Plant of Eastern 
Nova Scotia 

D. R. Mancini, President 
Main St. - - North Sydney. N.S. 

R. H. DAVIS & CO., LTD. 

\Vholesale and Manufacturing Stationers 
Branch Warehouse and Office. 542 George 
St.. Sydney, N.S. Head Office and Plant, 

Yarmouth, N. S. 

Scholars, ask your retailers for Davis lOc. 
series of Exercise Books a /id Davis \Vriting 
Tablets. The l>est values on the market; 
made in Nova Scotia from "Made in 
Canada raw material. 

McKenzie & Company 

Norman McKenzie, Manager 

Heavy and Shelf Hardware, Stoves, 

Ranges, Kitchen Furnishings, 

Plumbing and Repairs 

Masonic Block Commercial Street 
P.O. Box 784 - Telephone 167 


Manchester Meat Market 

Harry Samuels, Prop. 


Main Street 

Glace Bay, N.S. 



Remember -we specialize in 
Complicated Prescriptions 

Plummer Avenue 


J. M. MacLEAN, Prop. 

High Class Tailors 

Gent s Furnishings 

Boots and Shoes 


"In the Health of the People 
Lies the Wealth of the Nation" 

Angus A. Macdonald 


"The Medical Hall" 


J. W. Smith. A. J. Morrison, 

President Secretary 


\Vholesale Flour, Feeds. Oats, Etc. 
Phone 18 SYDNEY, N.S. 

License Nos. 12-79, 0-797, U-88 29 


C. E. Choat & Co 



Agents for 

Sussex Dry Ginger Ale 
Weston s Biscuits 
Pascall s English Sweets 

Pickford and Black s Wharf 




We specialize on Commercial Fireproof 
Structures, Design and Construction 

Also Reinforced Concrete Bridges 

Xbe present higk prices on lumber and allied products 
nave created conditions under which a fireproof building 
will cost no more and_m certain instances less than a 
so-called brick or concrete building. 


Room 1 Post Building 
Telephone 761 SYDNEY, N.S- 


Brookfield Bros. 


Halifax, N.S. 



Willis Pianos 


Perfect as t o 


An instrument with these 
essential qualities that dis 
tinguish it as an ideal piano 
for the home. 

Prices as low as ccnsistent with 
quality Convenient terms. 

Willis Piano & Organ 


50 Granville Street 

J. C. Larder 

Wholesale Fruits 



P. O. Box 690 

T I k 

1 eleph 



We always carry 
complete stocks of 
General Groceries, 
Flour and Feeds. 

We specialize in 
Drug Sundries and 

Cape Breton Wholesale 
Grocery Co. Limited 

Corner George, lo-wnsend 
and Bentmck Streets 


Hillis and Sons 






Ashliy Corner Grocery 

Phone 81 


Groceries, Provisions, Fruits, 

Confectionery, Crockery and 

Tinware, Bakery. 




Wholesale and Retail 


N. S. 


Fine Shoes 




:::: HARDWARE :::: 

Paints and Glass 

Automobile Supplies 

:::: o o :::: 

SYDNEY Nova Scotia 


Importers of 



SYDNEY - Nova Scotia 

The Cape Breton boys, who beat 
the "Bosche" now wear 

FasKion Craft 


Opposite Y. M. C. A. 
SYDNEY - - N. S. 


Dry Goods, Millinery, 
Ladies Ready-to-\Vear, 
Garments, Carpets, Etc. 

LUNENBURG - - - N. S. 

Compliments of 



Repairing of Fine 
Watches a Specialty 

Bishop Block, Charlotte St. 


Hudson & McEachen 

"The Big Store with the Small Prices" 

Groceries, Meats, Provisions 
SPECIALTIES Fresh and Salt Fish, 

Butter, Eggt, Etc. 
GASOLINE TANK Capacity 500 gal- 

Ions. Get your Supply from us. 


Corner Victoria Road and Prince Street. 


QUR Part is the Great Work of helping 

^*to s ipply the demand for Chinaware. 

Glassware, Earthenware, Enamelware, 

Tinware and Aluminum-ware, and Toys 

and Fancy Goods 

\Ve can meet your requirements. 

Our Stock is complete and prices will 

stand comparison 


83 Gottingen St. Phone Lome 221 



Cable Address : 

Direct Telegraphic Communication : 
Western Union and Great North Western 





Builders of Passenger and Cargo Vessels up to 1 5,000 tons, 

Marire Slips Dartmouth N.S. 

4 Cradles Capacity up to 3,000 

Drvdock Halifax, N.S. 
Dimensions 550 ft. long. 
100 ft. wide. 
30 ft. depth on sill. 

NOTE Four snips are now on the -way being built for the Canadian 
Merchant Marine, 2 of 8,100 tons D.W. and 

2 of 10,500 

30 per cent, of the men now employed on new ship construction_have served their 
country during the late war. These men are now assisting in rounding out 
Canada s National Policy, hy building ships r which will carry Canadian 
exports to all parts of the world. 


Cable Address : "NATFISH" 

License No. 1-036 


President and General Manager 

National Fish Co. 


Wholesale Fish 

P. O. BOX 1104 

Owners of the Steam Trawlers 
"Lemberg" and "Venosta" 

Branch at 
Port Hawkesbury 




Company, Limited 

Contractors Supplies of 
All Descriptions 

Fireproof Materials 
a Specialty 

Office : 




Established 1863 Incorporated 1901 

Christie Trunk & Bag 
Co., Limited 

Manufacturers of 


Sample Trunks anc! Cases 
a Specialty 

Amherst, N.S. Canada 








Sydney s Leading Grocery 

The largest variety at right prices 
Fresh fruits and vegetables a specialty 

251 Charlotte Street 
Phones 90 and 91 




\Vholesale Dealers in 

Flour and Feed, etc. 

Corner Townsend and 
Douglas Streets 

Glace Bay Cycle & 
Motor Co., Ltd. 

Ford Dealers and Service Station 
Garage Sales Rooms and Workshops 

Main Street 

The Store That Treats 
You Right 


Choice Groceries, Fruits and Produce 
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Veal, Game and Poultry 

112 Gottingen Street HALIFAX 

George V . Fader, Manager 

Lome 994 

When in Sydney 

Buy Your Drugs 



"The Reliable 
Druggist " 

" If you get it at Manson s it s good " 

The Eternal Question 

It will be simple work to choose an 
exquisite Engagement Ring for the best 
girl in the "world if you look over Ross s 
line. SKow your good taste in ring as 
well as girl. Please her. 


Jeweller, etc. 

City Meat Market 

Dorchester Street 

Dealers in all kinds of 

Fresh and Cured Meats, Poultry 

in season ; also, a full line 

of Vegetables 

Opp. Poet Office. B. W. Pearce, Mgr. 

G. A. Coleman, D.V.S. 

(Graduate Toronto University) 

Veterinary Surgeon 
North Sydney 

Nova Scotia 


The Exclusive Ladies and 
Children s Wear Store 

"When in cloubt buy at Rice s" 

Commercial Street 


Commission Merchants 

Real Estate 
Scrap Metals, etc. 

P.O. Box 45 Phone 102-2 




Regular Sailings HALIFAX - LIVERPOOL in Winter 


LIVERPOOL in Summer 

Ex-members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force will 
find the steamers of this Line old friends 

For sailing dates and rates apply 



General Agents for Nova Scotia and P.E.I, 
or to Local Agents 


P.O. Box 119 Phone 1418 

General Engineers and Contractors 


STRUCTURAL STEEL Bridges, Frames and Fire Escapes, 
Fabricated and Erected 

BOILER REPAIRS Patching, Re-tubing and General Repairs 
by Expert Men 

EXCAVATION (By Steam Shovel) Cellar, Sewer and Water 
French Excavating 

PUMPING- Centrifugal Pump for Cellar, Trench and Ship Work 

MARINE WORK Floating Plant, Electric and Oxy-Acetylene 
Welding and Cutting, Re-tubing, Pumping, and General Repairs 

SHOP WORK Machine Work, Forging and General Repairs 

We are situated with ideal transportation arrangements, having side 
tracks and water shipping points. Good attention on outside jobs. 

"The Rotary High Speed Steam Engine" 



Automobiles, Auto Steamers, Motor Boats 

Trucks, Factories and Machine Shops 

Canada s Sole Manufacturers Send for Booklet 

Tl IF 1\/IFM who wore "Kelly - Halifax" 
1 1111. IVlILilM made Leggings, S. B. Belts, 

Kit Bags, Purses, Money Belts, or other Military Equipment, or who 
travelled with "Kelly " Luggage, and you ll understand why "Kelly-Hali 
fax" on Leather Goods is all the guarantee required by those who know 


KELLYS LIMITED, 11 6- us Grannie street, HALIFAX 




Vooght Brothers 

North Sydney 
Nova Scotia 


Daily importations from Europe 
of Dress Goods, Tapestries 
and Ladies Wear. 


Contains the largest assortment of 
High Class Footwear and at most 
reasonable prices. 


Carries a full and complete range 
t of the best that money can buy 
_ efficiency being our watchword. 

Vooght Brothers 

North Sydney sOld Business Establishment 






A Modern Hotel oper 
ated for your comfort 
and safety and favorably 
located in the heart of 
interesting things shops, 
parks, theatres, churches, 
rorts, navy yard and 
historical points. 

Accommodation for 300 



are the men whose clothes we tailor. The fit of 
the shoulders is one of the strong points of our 
tailoring. Our work attracts attention for the 
elegant line? we give to this part of the Garment. 


tailor made and ready made garments is one of cut 
and finish. Not stock patterns, but individual 
lines are used and the garment fits the wearer 
and not clothiers models, 



Tom McCartney 

ffllliards an J Pool 

Established 1889 

Phone 81 


A. R. MacDOUGALL, Prop. 

\Vholesa1e Manufacturers aiid Bottlers of 

The Celebrated Red Seal Brand 
Aerated Waters 

P.O. Box 149 FactoryClyde Ave. 




Manufacturers of the Finest Class of 



N. S. 

Telephone 399 

Wood & McConnell 

Wholesale Grocers 

Telephone 541 P.O. Box 159 


The old reliable SINGER stands the 
test as our Veteran Boys stood the 
test in France. When buying a Sew 
ing Machine get the SINGER and 
you will not be disappointed. Sold 
on easy terms. Big discounts for 

Singer Sewing Machine Co. 

346 Charlotte St. SYDNEY, N.S. 

For Satisfaction in 
Men s and Boys Outfitting try 

338-340 Charlotte St. SYDNEY, N.S. 






Lome 40 




Cor. Cornwallis and Gottingen Sts. 

Go to 





329 Charlotte Street, Sydney, N.S. 

John B. Morrison 


403 Charlotte Street 


Royal Household (Spring Wheat) Flour. 
Canada s Best (blended) Flour. 
All lines Cereals. Feeds, Grains. 
Lipton s Teas, Coffee, Cocoa, Jelly 
Powders, etc. 

Ingraham Supply Co., Ltd. 


1 1 you had a building which 
I"" 1 brought in to you $5,000 a 
year, would you have it 
sufficiently insured? 


property, produc 
ing thousands of 
dollars a year and that revenue 
will cease at your death. *\ 

Are you sufficiently insured 

How long should a man support 

his wife ? 

Some men say "As long as he lives." 
Most men will say "As long as 

she lives." 

That support can bs made 
sure by Income Policies 
of the Mutual Life. 


Manager for Nova Scotia 



A good place to buy 


No better Shop to buy 



Everything required from an up- 
to-date Dry Goods House. 



27 Men Enlisted 
2 Paid the Supreme 



Let us who remain per 
petuate their memory, not 
by blare of horns and roll 
OT arums, but by sucb 
service to our fellow men 
that such a catastrophe 
cannot Kgam occur. 

Cape Breton Electric 
Company Limited 

Your Meals 




are prepared and served 
with utmost care. 

Everybody visits " The 
Green Lantern when 
visiting Halifax. 

The Green Lantern 




Building Material 

Opposite C.N.R. Depot 
NEW GLASGOW, N.S. Tel. 170 

All our drinks are marie from pure 

cane sugar and the best extracts 

that money can buy. 


Mineral \Vater ^Vorks 

The firm of 


Maritime Building, New Glasgow, N.S 

do a live and up-to-date Real Estate 
business. If you contemplate purchas 
ing a farm, business site or private 
dwelling house in Nova Scotia s indus 
trial centre get in touch with this firm 
and be assured of prompt and court 
eous treatment. 

John Midgley & Co, 

Real Estate of all Classes 
Life and Fire Insurance 



The Beautiful Bras 
d Or Lakes 

Who has not heard of the 

most picturesque beauty 

spot in all America the 

famous Lakes of Bras d Or ? 

The Bras d Or Steamboat Co. run 

from North Sydney, Nova Scotia, 

a palatial steamer, the "Marion," 

touching at intermediate points. 

with Dudley Warner s historical 

Baddeck the terminal point, close 

by Graham Bell s laboratory. 


F. C. Bezanson & Co. 


Jewellers and Opticians 


The Enormous Price of Clothes 

That is the question answered by 


who are making suits and overcoat? to 
measure, prices ranging from $17 to $45. 


Charlotte St., Sydney, Nova Scotia 


we pay particular attention to the require 
ments of RETURNED MEN. 


Men s Outfitters 

Colin McNab & Co. 

Dealers In Groceries ano! Fruit 

Everything stored and handled by sanitary 

We give High Quality, Low Prices. 
Prompt Delivery. 

\Ve solicit your orders Phone Harhour 41 

Portland Street, Dartmouth 


or si ent in death s embrace, or enjoying 
health in the happy family circle, 


is always a sweet solace to ?omeone, be it 
parent, wife, son ordaughteror sweetheart 



Robb Engineering Works, Limited 


Manufacturers of 





\Ve carry a full line of Electrical 

Supplies and shall be glad to quote 

on electric work of any kind in 

Cape Breton or Nova Scotia. 


The House of Good Clothing 

Headquarters for high-grade C lothing and 
Furnishings for Men and Boys. 


G. M. BOYD, Manager 

The Sydney Record 

carries daily all tKe worlci news 
in addition to all the Cape Breton 
news besides several feature pages 
not published in any other paper. 

^\^rlte us for Sample Copy 
Record Publishing Co., Limited 
Box 360 Sydney, C. B. 

Phone L. 1506 

^ F. W. Maling 

Electrical Contractor 
180 Gottingen St., Halifax, N.S. 

\Viring and Supplies, Motor and 
Generator Repairs a Specialty 


Paints, Oils and Varnishes, Sporting 

Goods, Electrical Supplies and Flashlights, 

Automobile and Bicycle Tires. 

North Sydney, N.S. 

H. C. Ballum & Co. 

\Vnolesale Produce 


Commission Merchants 

The Store \Vbere Quality 
Proves Itself 

Sydney Mines Drug Store 

" Rexall " Store 





The most up-to-date hotel in North Sydney. 
Open all day and all night. A first-class 
grill service in connection. The rooms are 
the best in Cape Breton and all newly furn 
ished and renovated. Meals served at any 
hour of the day or night. Afternoon tea and 
cake can be had every afternoon in the tea 
room. Hotel is very centrally located and 
has every home comfort for the tourist and 
traveller. V. E. SNOWDON, Proprietor. 

L. Nicholson Limited 

Ladies and Men s Tailoring 

Mens Furnishings and 
Ready-to-\Vear Clothing