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Full text of "Nova Srbija"

■■■■■■■ 

96 HOBA CPBHJA 



MHorHx Ty4>03HHx CTeHa. Hedo cy rHncoM h cyMno- 
poM npo>KeTe MHore Kyne Koje cy caciaBJbeHe oa Byji- 
KaHCKor nene^a, necKa h Jianjuia. Ty ce Ha/ia3H h tbo>k- 
^eBHTa BO.ua, qnja je TeMnepaTypa HeuiTo BHiua oa 
o6HHHe. Hcto TaKO, y aojihhh Ta6anKe Pene koa cejia 
>Kejie3HHKa HMa jaK H3B0p KHce;ie h rBoadjeBHTe bcw, 
H3 Koje CO2 y K^o6yKOBHMa CKaqe. y Tona;iOBHhcKoj 
PeuH cyMnop ce jaBJba y bc/wkhm KOJiHHHHaMa, o6hmho 
hhct h y ^e6jbHM >KHuaMa. Haj6oraTHj'e pyAHe )KHue 
3ana)KeHe cy y aiHBy 3;ieT0BCKe ro/ieMe Pene h y 
AOJiHHaMa aeHHx npHTOKa. Ty cy ao npe 40Ao50ro- 
AHHa h TypuH pyAe TonHJiH. Ha nyTy oa KpaTOBa 3a 
rieqeHHuy no3HaTH reo;ior Amu Bye BHAeo je koa ce/ia 
B.iH3aHua cpe6poHOCHH ra^eHHT. Ha o6e CTpaHe pene 
One h y npaBuy oa H>e npeMa MaHacrnpy bhah ce 
npeno 1 km. Ayra, h 20 ao 30 m. Ae6e;ia pyAHa muu,a, 
y Kojoj je T. U,BHJHh naiuao rBO»^a, MaHraHa, cpe6po- 
HOCHor ra^eHHTa, nnpHTa h xajiKonnpHTa. Ha npocTOpy 
H3Metjy ilyror XpHAa, /IecHOBCKor MaHacTHpa h ce/ia 
J],o6peBa BH^e ce mnixt oa nHpy;i03HTa. JJajbe HMa 
>KHua Koje y ce6H caAP>Ke Ma^axHT, cpe6pOHOCHH ra 
jiemn h c(J)a^epHT. 

HcnHTyjyhH TpocKBy H3 Te o6;iacTH, M. JleKO 
Haiuao je y h>oj OBe pyAe: rBO^e, MaHraH, ojiobo, 
uhhk, 6anap h cyMnop. no Muwjheihy J. Ueujuha, y 
nHpHTHMa h xa^KonHpHTHMa Tpe6a Tpa)KHTH TparoBe 
n^eMeHHTHx pyAa. EpynTHBHO 6pAO, CeocKa KopHJa, 
cacraBJbeHO je oa By^KaHCKor necKa h nenejia myje 
h upBeHe 6oje, kojh cy cjiohcchh y cnojeBe. BeoMa je 
6oraTa cyMnopoM, kojhm cy CBe creHe npoaceTe h kojh 
ce necTO jaBJba y Ae6;t>HM >KHuaMa. CyMnopoM je Haj- 
6oraTHJH Aeo KopHJe kojh ce 30Be Kyjia. Ty(J)03He 
Mace y KOJHMa ce Ha;ia3H cyMnop cacraBJbeHe cy y 
rviaBHOM oa a^yMHHHj'yM-cH^HKaTa ; cyMnop je Bpjio 
hhct, ca He3HaTHHM TparoBHMa ce^eHa h yrjbeHHKa. Ty 
je ao npe KpaTKor BpeMeHa Balden cyMnop y BehHM 
KO^HMHHaMa. Zlajbe cy Ty(})03He Mace necTO npo^eie 
rnncoM h npeByneHe ona^OM. y Tyc})y ce jaBJbajy h 





C BA KHMEBHA 3MPyiA 

K0J1O XXII. Br. 154. 



Dr. JEBTO AEJHJEP. 



HOBA CPBHJA. 



£5" 

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- 



,• - 

- 









CPnCKA KH)H>KEBHA 3AHPyrA 
(kOJ\0 XX1i)bP. 154. 



Dr JEBTO JEJIHJEP 




HOBA CP5MJA. 



<CA 40 C/1HKA y TEKCTy H KAPTOM HOBE CP5H.lt;) 




:orp 



1918. 



584898 

m 



n p e a r o b o p. 



y oboj KtbH3H ,nao caM reorpa(J)CKH npervieix n 
ohhm o6;iacTHMa ^oca^aiujbe CTape Cp6HJe h MaKc- 
AOHHj'e Koje caMHfcaBajy HoBy Cp6HJy. rioKyiuao ca>.i 
Aa thm nper/ieiiOM asm ujto jacHHJy h iijto BepHHjy 
D/IHKy O 3CM/bH, HdCHHM npHpoAHHM oco6HHaMa, H o 
>KHBOTy tteHa Hapo^a. J\a to nocTHrHeM, HHcaM a- 
ycraB/bao Ha caMOM onwcy Haj*Ba>KHHJHx nojaBa, Beli 
caM noKyiuao na tc nojaBe o6jacHHM, h na hx rpy 
nmueM no HanHHy ibHXOBa nociaHKa. Ilo ohom npa- 
bh/jv za jc CBaKa CTBap jacHa no Hammy CBora no- 
daHKa h no HCTOpnJH CBor pa3Bnha, ja caM y oboj 
KibH3H H3paAH0 KpaTKy Hcropnjy pa3BHha OHHX Mop- 
<})o;ioujkhx e^eMeHaTa kojh cy Hajjaqe n3pa>KeHn y 
npnpoAH 3eM/bHiuTa h tberoBOJ n;iacTHUH H3^araibCM 
Te HcropHJe ymao caM y 06/iacT HayiHHX nmaiba c 
KOJHMa je Haiua qmajiaMKa ny6;iHKa BeoMa Ma;io no3- 
HaTa. Thmc caM cc h3/io>kho onacHOCTH jxa mh ce *a- 
Mepn ujto roBopHM o cTBapHMa 3a Koja je^aH aeo 
name ny6/iHKe neMa cnopo HHKaKBor HHTepecoBau.a. 
A/ih ja caM no/ia3Ho c rvieAiiLUTa ^a HHJcaHa OBawBa 
Haymia 06/iacT He Mowe 6hth Ba>KHa caMO no tomc 
ko/ihko je OBaj h/ih OHaj jieo ny6/iHKe cxBaTa h )Ba- 
>KaBa, Beh no ohhm yTHuajiiMa Koje h>chh pa3HH 06- 

jeKTH BpUJe Ha H3BCCHy 3eM/by H IbCHO CTaHOBHHUJTBO. 

36or Tora caM kojx cbbkc nojaBe nacrajao jia tc ym- 
uaje nar/iacHM, jxa hx no MoryhcrBy h o6jacnHM, h 3a 
pa3yMeBaibe lunpoj ny6/iHUH yiHHHM ziaKiunM. 

Ohh kojh cy noKynjaBa.TH na nony/iapnujy nojc- 
ahuq rpane ohhx nayna kojc cy ny6/iHUH OBaKO M&no 

J103H3TC, MOllH tiC ZiaKO CXBaTHTH TCUiKOiiC KOJ€ C3M 



IV nPEnroBOP 



y obom pa^y HMao #a caBJia^aM. Tpe6a;io je npHKa- 
3HBaite y^ecHTH TaKO jx& oho 6yjie. y ochobhhm cbo- 
jhm upTaMa HayqHO, a y hcto BpeMe h ny6;iHUH jacHO. 
MefrjyTHM. Ta #Ba 3axTeBa Bpjio necTo ce Meijy co6om 
HCKJbynyjy. y TaKHM c;iy'iajeBHMa y Hac ce o6hmho y 
KOHuecHJaMa npeMa toj HajiuHpoj ny6;iHUH hui^o h 
cyBHiue iiajieKO, TaKO jia. ce nayna pa3BOj!tfbaBajia. 
y TaKHM c/iynajeBHMa ja caM y3HMao y o63Hp Ma- 
xom OHy ny6^HKy Koja HMa H3BecHa HayqHa HHTepe- 
coBaH>a, h o6patjHBao caM ra nHTaita OHaKo KaKO ce 
OHa MaxoM o6pat)yjy y HeiwaqKOJ h cj)paHuycKOj jihtc- 
paTypH, c tom caMO pa3;iHKOM ujto caM y MHorHM aiy- 
qajeBHMa #aBao onuiTa Hay^Ha o6jaiDH>ett>a o no- 
jeAHHHM reorpa(J)CKHM nojaBaMa h HayqHHM TeopnjaMa. 
Flope^ Tora caM y^emaBao cboj p:mhhk h HanHH H3- 
Jiaratba TaKO £a cy aouhhjh nojMOBH 6h;ih y janoj 
Be3H c npBHMa. Mhgjihm #a caM y MHorHM TaKHM oiy- 
najeBHMa ycneo ^a 6y^eM jacaH, a kojihko caM 6ho 
HHTepecaHTaH oAJiynHhe HHTa;iaqKa ny6/iHKa. 

OHe reorpa(})CKe nojaBe Koje cy o6pal]eHe y ohom 
iieny Kibnre r\ne ce roBopn o o6;iHUHMa 3eMJbHiiiTa. 
HHcy caMO Ba>KHe 3a pa3yMeBatbe AaHaujtbHx aHTpono- 
reorpa(j)CKHx ojiHOca Beh cy caMe no ce6n tojihko hh- 
TepecaHTHe h 3aHHMJbHBe Aa he hx Mohn MHTaTH CBaKH 
ko bojih npHpo^y h ko ce HHTepecyje nnTatbHMa Ha 
npnpo^HHX HayKa. IlpHKa3yjyhH HaJHOBHJy reo;ioiiiKy 
npoiHJiocT o6;iacTH HoBe Cp6nje, h o6jaiHtbaBajyhH 
n^acTHKy tbHxoBa 3eM/bHniTa, ja caM ymao y o6;iacTH 
je^He HayKe Koja je y HaJHOBHje BpeMe ynHHHJia 3HaTHe 
HanpeTKe, a o KOJHMa Hauia ny6;iHKa Aocaaa HHj'e hh- 
KaKO o6aBeiiiTaBaHa. TaKO he iunpa cpnci<a ny6;iHKa ca#a ; . 
y OBaKBOM o6^HKy h Ha OBaj HanHH npBH nyT, Mohn #a 
ce yno3Ha c pa^OM h3bcchhx npHpoziHHX cn/ia Koje Ha 
3eMajbCKOj noBpuiHHH Bpiue orpoMHe noc/iOBe, h Koje 
cy 3a opraHCKH >khbot Ha 3eMJbH h jbyzicKy KyjiTypy 
oa Heo6HHHO Be;iHKor 3na i iaja. TaKaB je Ha npBOM Me- 
CTy pa# TeKyhnx BO^a, kojh ce BpmH no craJiHHM, ca/*a 

npH.aHHHO £06pO HCnHTaHHM 3aKOHHMa, H y KOMe OTKpH- 

BaMO to/ihko CHCTeMe h nopeTKa ^a HaM Taj pa# ne- 



nPE/iroBOP V 



cto Ha^HHH Ha paa cbcchhx 6Mha. TanaBJeH paa npo- 
crpaHHX je3epcKHx BO^a Koje cy, y H3BecH0 reo/ioniKo 

BpeMe, CBOJHM HeH3MepHHM, n.iaBHM H TajaHCTBeHHM 

uacaMa 3axBaTa.ne orpoMHe npocropHJe Ba^KaHCKor 
no^yocTpBa h ocTaBH.ie y n;iacTHUn cpncKHX 3eMajba 
BeoMa MHoro TparoBa. HL>hxobh Ta^acH cbojom yaap- 
hom CHaroM npeHHanaBa^H cy h Mo^e^Hpa^H noTajiaibe 
o6^HKe 3eMa:bCKe noBpuiHHe h 0CTaBH;w MHoro6poJHe 
TparoBe CBora ayror h HeyMopHor pa#a. 

HajBehe npHpo^He jienoTC HoBe Cp6HJe h hteH 

HOHOC HHHHhe BCrtHKa je3epa, HapOMHTO OxpH^CKO, 

flojpaHCKO h flpecnaHCKO, h MHoro6poJHa Ma;ia, h He- 
o6hmho >KHBonHCHa je3epa no BpxoBHMa ILIape, Ko- 
pa6a, riepHcrepa h ApyrHx n/iaHHHa. JeiiHa HapoMHTa 
rviaBa y Hauioj kh>h3h nocBehena je onHcy thx Be/iH- 
khx je3epa, y KOMe cy H3HeceHe npHpojiHe oco6nHe 
HdHxobc BOjxe h h>hxob yiHuaj Ha OKo^HHy. 

CBa OBa (})H3HMKO-reorpa(j3CKa npoMaTpa^a H3He- 
ceHa cy y onniTeM neny K^Hre. Ha npBOM Mecry y 
K»eMy je npHKa3aH reorpadpcKH no;iO)Kaj HoBe Cp6Hj"e, 
a y noce6HOM neny onncaHe cy nojenHHe Behe o6na- 
cth h npHKa3aH je >khbot napOAa y ibHMa. FlapTHJa o 
reorpa(j)CKOM nojiowajy h onwcn nojczmHHx o6;iacTH 
nanncaHH cy TaKO aa he hx moHh npoMHTaTH OHa n>- 
6^HKa Koja y onujTe i iHTa KibHre. Ty cy H36eraBaHa 
CBa o6janin>ejba h CBe Teopwje, h ue;ie nnaBe 6aBe ce 
cauHM onHCHMa o6;iacTH h npHKa3HBatt>eM npn/iHKa h 
oflHoiuaja OHaKHx KaKBe cy AaHac. y TOMe onejbKy jxao 
caM onHC cbhx BapoiHH HoBe Cp6nje. Y3 onHce, no 
HapoMHToj >Ke^H Tocno/iHHa CeKpeiapa CpncKe Kh>h- 
aceBHe 3a;ipyre, Aao ca^ u HdopHJe nojeziHHHX, na- 

pOHHTO Ba>KHHJHX BapOUJH. THMe CaM H3 oG.iacTH CBOJe 

HayKe npenjan na 06/iacr iipyre Hayi<e, h cboj nocao 
joui bhujc oroKao. HnaK caM ce rpyjxwo ^a CKynim 
ujto bhujc nojiaTaKa o crcaBHOj npom/iocTH HaniHx Be- 
Hhx BapoujH. HeMoryhe je 6h/io #a 3a OBaKO KpaTKo 
BpeMe aaM noTiiyne ciHKe tc npoin/iocTH. To npeBa- 
3M/ia3H h Mojy CHary h Mojy cnpeMy. Ja caM noKyinao 
5a re c/imkc, no Hajno?niaTnJHM pajiOBHMa, nonymiM h 



VI npEaroBOP 



V4hhhm hx 3a HJHpy ny6/iHKy npHcrynaHHHJHM. Ako h 
y TOMe 6yneu, 6ap aoHeKJie, ycneo, 6nhy 3aaoBOJbaH. 

FIo^amH 3a OBaj pa.n y3eTH cy HaJBehHM azjiom 
H3 no3HaTor pa#a „Ochobh 3a reorpa(J)HJy h reo;io- 
rHJy MaKenoHHJe h CTape Cp6Hje" on V. Rp. JoBaHa 
U,BHJHha. y TOMe oncoKHOM ,ne;iy Koje je pa^eHO Ha 
HajiuHpoj HayMHOj ochobh, Hamao caM no^aTKe CKOpo 
o CBHMa nHTa^HMa i<oja cy Morvia HHTepecoBaTH hh- 
Ta^anKy ny6miKy. H3 tbera cy je^HHO y3eTH noaaTUH 
o HaJHOBHjoj reo^oiiiKOJ nponuiocTH, 3aTHM onncH no- 
jcuhhhx odrcacTH, na naK h noje^HHHX BapouiH. Flo- 
jxaTUH Tora Rena MaxoM cy npepaijeHH y H3BecHoj MepH 
jxa 6h 3a ny6;iHKy nocrajm npHcrynaHHHJH. OnnceHeKHx 
o6^acTH h npHpo^HHx nojaBa ja caM y Mojy KH>Hry 
yHocHO HenpoMeHDeHe H3 V. U,BHJHheBe KtbHre. To caM 
hhhho ouRe r^e je T. UbhjhH y 36HJeHy o6;iHKy Ra- 
Bao pe3HMe cbojhx ona>KaH>a h HcnHTHBatba y noje- 
HHhhm o6^acTHMa. Ta MecTa ce o;yiHKyjy h3bcchhm 
oco6HHaMa crHJia, a KaTKa.n cy to £y6oKe nimne hm- 
npecHJe caMor HcnHTHBaqa kojh je^Hy o6;iacT Heno- 
cpeAHO oceTH, h 36or Tora 6u CBaKO npepat)HBaH>e 
Tora MaTepna^a hid;io caMo Ha LUTeTy jacHohe h hh- 
TepecaHTHocTH. 36or Tora caM Hamao 3a noTpe6HO na. 
TaKBe onwce yHocHM HenpoMeiteHe. CBa MecTa Koja 
cy no,n 3HauHMa HaBO.ua yHeceHa, i\n,e to Hapo^HTO 
HHJe HanoMeHyTO, y3eTa cy H3 cnoMeHyTora T. U,BHJHheBa 
ae;ia. CaMo je Reo HacTpaHH 114 y3eT H3 Rena I\ K. 
KocTHha „TproBaHKH ueHTpH h nyTeBH". Ha hcth caM 
HaqHH nocTynHO h c ohhcom cnoncKe qapuiHJe or V. 
OojaHa HoBaKOBnha h ohhcom >KHBOTa ApHayTauja y 
JlpeHHUH or F. Tonopa CTaHKOBHha. nope/* obhx yno- 
Tpe6jbaBaHa cy h Aejia ^pyrHx nncaua, Koja hy npH 
Kpajy OBor npe^roBopa UHTHpaTH. 

Ho6poTOM Mor 6HBuier HacTaBHHKa a ca^a mh- 
HHCTpa npocBeTe V. . T by6oMHpa JoBaHOBHha, ao6ho caM 
or MHHHCTapcTBa npocBeTe noMoh c kojom caM npo- 
nyTOBao BehH Reo HoBe Cp6Hj'e h nonyHHO OHe no- 
iiaTKe Koje caM 6ho CKynno MHTatbeM JiHTepaType. Ha 
thm nyTeBHMa no^HUHj'cKe h BOJHe B^acTH Hume cy 
mh Ha pyny. HapoHHTy 3axBa/iHOCT ziyryjeM T. Liepo- 



riPEiiroBOP VII 



BHhy, Ta.naiiJHjeM OKpy>KHOM Hane/iHHKy y CKonjby, h 
T. AflHMnHhy, OKpy>KHOM Hawe^HHKy y Enm/by, kojh 
cy Me HapoHHTO noMor/in npH HcnHTHBatby Hapo/mor 
>KHBOTa h npH onHCHBatby Bapouin CKoruba h BnTOJba. 
Tocnoiia ocfwuHpn npH^encKor rapHH30Ha h V. Ubctko 
IleTpoBMh, AaHaiujbH npeiice^HHK npH-iencKe oniuTHHe, 
6uj\w cy npeMa mchh y ripH/ieny BaHpejjHO npe^ycpeivbH- 

BH. y FIpH3peHy MH je CBOJHM BCNHKHM no3HaBaft>eM 

fIpH3peHa h n>eroBe HcropHJe Bp/io MHoro noMarao V. 
CreBa JlHMHTpHJeBHh, peKTop 6oroaioBHJe. y FIpH- 

IIITHHH H HbeHOJ OKO^HHH HHHHO MH je BC/IHKHX yC/iyra 

3a nyTOBatbe h HcnHTHBatte BapoiuH pe3epBHH Kane- 
TaH r. Jaiua HeHaAOBHh. riope^ Tora y CKon;by mh 
je or Be^HKe kophcth 6ho moj luko/ickh iipyr r. Jla3ap 
vlaHKy.noBHh, a y E>HTo;by T. Zip. IleTap /Ia3apeBHh h 
H^eroBa rocnotja. 

ripH H3pa£H KhbHre h npn ynoTpe6H .imepaType 
noMara;m cy Me cbojhm caBeTHMa HaniH no3HarH Hay- 
neihauH: V. V. . by6oMHp JoBaHOBHh, flaB/ie [lonoBHh, 
JoBaH TomhH, CTaHoje CTaHOJeBHh, Kocia KocthH, Up. 
Thxomhp 'frop^eBuh. 3a onnce Bapoiun y 06/iacrH 
CTape PaiuKe noKynHO mh je HaJBehn #eo nojiaTaKa 
moj yqeHHK I\ ISop^e rionoBHh. F. riaB;ie FIonoBHh, 
kojh je 6ho TaKO . T by6a3aH na npoHHTa moj pan y py- 
Konncy, cbojhm yMecHHM npHMeA6aMa yquHHo mh je 
bckhkhx ycnyra. 

I . npo(|)ecop JoBaH IIbhjhIi ao3bojiho je aa ce 
Kapia Koja je npn.io>KeHa y3 obo zie/io H3pajw y Feo 
rpac{)CKOM 3aBO^y yHHBepcHTera, h aonycTHO mh je 
aa ce noc^y>KHM 4)OTorpacJ)HJaMa Koje cy ac/iom \be- 
roBa .THHHa CBOJHHa, a ac/iom CpncKor Feorpac})CKor 
3aaojia. 

riopeA I. UBHjnheBHx, y H^ycrpoBanoM Ac.iy OBora 
4e;ia ynoTpe6^»eHe cy (})OTorpa({)HJe OBe rocnoiie: Mh/i. 
bopojeBHha, Xp. UpHH^oBHha, JbyCnmc Ba;iHha, .by- 
6oMwpa IleTKOBHha, KaneTana M. FleJHHHOBHha h Bace 
Paay/ioBHha. 

Cboj HMenoBanoj rocnojH HCKpeHa Ciaro^apuocr! 

Ha Kpajy 6e/ie>KHM OBe nncapcKe h ujTaMnapcKe 



VIII ^PEz^^0B0i- , 



rpeuiKe: Ha c. 73, 6 pe# 03,ao, ctojh Jla3ta3e m. Jlan- 
za3e, h 7 pea 03iio, ctojh ApMan m. Api/an; c. 125, 
8 pea 03ro, ctojh (-BfiAe(5<Wgj m. Bmogoz; c. 143, 19 
pea 03,n;o, ctojh JXayMipiiKa m. JlayAtyiiKa ; c. 124, pea 
19—20, Fw KHHeey Tpe6a aa oTna^He; c. 253, pea 14 
03^0 ctojh yeuJbenoM m. U,eujbeHOM\ c. 254. pea 12 
03ro, ctojh Ih)irx)i([va m. TLoizdoiava. 

J. A- 



:\ H T E P A T y P A, 



1.) J. Uaajuh, Ochobh reorpaupHie h reo;iorHJe 
Mane^OHMJe h Crape Cp6nje. Beorpa/i 1906 — 1911. — 
2.) Hcto Ha HeMaqKOM. — 3.) ./. Cvi/ic, Die tektoni- 
schen Vorg&nge in der Rhodoppenmasse. Wien 1902 
(H3iiaft>e 6em<e aK'^eMHJe Hayna). — 4.) /. Cvijic, Die 
Tektonik der Balkanhalbinsel. Wien 1 ( K)4. :>.)./. Heu- 
iuhy, fpynHca^be Hapo;ia Ha Ba;iKaHCKOM Flo/iyocTpBy. 
Beorpaa 1913. — 6.) G77. HoeaKoeuh, CMopaBeHa Bap- 
Jiap. Beorpaa 1894. — 7.) Cut. /7c>tftf/aw////, BajiKaHCKa 
nHTan>a m Mai^e HcropujcKO-no/iHTHMKe 6e/ieuiKe o 
Ba^KaHCKOM Ilo-ayocrpBy. Beorpan 1906. — 8.) Cm. 
HoeaKoiuih. FIpHJien y npBOj iio/ih XIV. Bena. IViac 
80. — 9.) Kociiia Kocmuii, TproBaqKH ueHTpH fl flpy- 
mobh no cpncKOj y cpeflibeM h hobom BeKy. 

Beorpa.il 1900. — 10.) &ctupe6oerb H. G, Grapa Cep6i>i 
h A^6aHH'/f. CnuMeHHK Cpn. Kpa.n. Ai<a;i 11 11.) 

H.cmpe6oerb II. C, 06i>maHH n iciiHTypeuKHxi»Cep6oBi». 
C. NeTepc6ypn>. (886.— L2.) Dr. K. Jiredek, Die Han- 
delsstrassen und Bergwerke \on Serbien uhd Bosnien. 
Pra^ 18 ) Hcuiu, Die Siaat und Gesellschaft im 

mittelalterliclien Serbien. Wien 1912 14.) Aww/rr., I'paa 
CKonne. no pe(})epaTy K. Kocmha y JIpervieAy reo- 
rpa(J)CKe .iMTepaType BaAicaHCKor 1 Io/iyocrpBa" cBecKa I . 
15 ) J. Xdiiii-HnciLhCDuh, Vpan Bhto.m., y „5paCTBy"j 
16.) flciuu, .ly>KHa CTapa CnGwja, KyManoscKa oG.iacT. 
Beorpa^ 1909. - 17.) Jb Koeaneeuh, IIpH.ien. Bejiec, 
Oxpua, y ..BpacTny* kh>. I. 18.) BpanucAas Hytuuh, 
C KocoBa Ha cHii.e Mope. Beorpaa 1902. 19.) Ileum. 
Kocobo. Onue 3eilJbe w napo/ia. Hobh Ca/i V 
— 20.) rpyUieeuh, O OxpH.iy h OxpnacKOM .lenepy. 



X nPEAroBOP 



IlpeuiTaMnaHO H3 nUapurpa^CKor F^acHHKa". U,apH- 
rpa;i 1900. — 21.) racuion rpaeuje, HoBona3apCKH 
GaHuaK. Beorpa^ 1913. — 22.) Mean KocaHHuh, Ho- 
nona3apcKH CaHuaK h iberoB cthh^kh npo6/ieM. Beo- 
rpan. 1912. — 23.) floil Bozdan JlaAeeuh h Mean Upo- 
iuuh, BacojeBHhH y TypcKoj rpammH. „Hacejba M kh>. HI. 

— 24.) IJeiuap MpKOwuh, Cpejute FIoTapje h FIoJiHMJe. 
..Hacejba" khd. I. — 25.) BeAU l ch A, Cep6bi h Bo/irapbi 
B-b 6a^KaHCKOMb coK)3i. C. neTepc6ypr'b 1913. — 26.) 
Pucuia HuKOAiih, KpaJHiDTe w B/iacnHa Hacejba" kk>. 
VIII. — 27.) Ilopdanij Msanoeiy, CiiBepHa MaKcuoniH. 
Go(J)hh 1906. — 28.) Dr. Jos. Mailer, Albanien, Rume- 
lien und osterreichisch-montenegrinische Grenze. — Prag 
1844. — 29.) CiueeaH CuMuh, JIcchobckh MaHacmp, 
Beorpaji 1913. — 30.) Todop CiuaHKoeah, flyTHe 6e- 
.ieniKe no CTapoj Cp6uJH 1871 — 1898. Beorpajx 1910. 

— 31.) He6ap h iberoBa okojihh3, on, M. M. BeJb., yqn- 
Tejba. „BpacTBo" VIII. — 32.) Ceeiuo3ap ToMiih, CKon- 
CKa UpHa Topa. „Hacejba cpiiCKHx 3CMajba u Kib. III. — 
33.) Petar Matkovic, Putovanja po balkanskomu po- 
iuotoku srednjcga vieka. „Rad" Jug. Ak. Zn. i Umj. 
knj. 42. — 34.) CpncKe crapHne no Mai<enoHHJn. BejieuiKe 
c nyTOBaiba apxwMaHzipHTa AHTonnna or roAHHe 1865. 
CnoMeHHK Cpn Kpajb. Ak. IX. — 35.) Jos. Muiuko- 
8iik, KocoBCKa 6nTKa. Beorpa;j. 1890. — 36.) Co6pa- 
Hie coHHHeHin A. ruAhcfiepdunza. ToMb TpeTift. Boomi, 
FepueroBHua h Ciapa« Cep6ni. C. neiepc6yprb 
1873. — 37.) KondaKoaii, MaKe,noHifl. Apxeojiorn i ie- 
CKoe nyTeiuecTBic. C. neTepc6yprb 1909. — 38.) Xclh 
J r., nyroBahbe Kpo3 nopemmy JtpHHa h Bap^apa. 
IlpeBCO Mhx. Hhk. MjihH. Beorpa/i 1876. — 39.) Andpa 
CuiecfiaHOBuh, CTapa cpncKa upKBeHa apxmeKTypa h 
>i>eH 3Haqaj. „CpncKH Kn>H>KeBHH I/iacHHK" 1903. 



J. a. 



C A R P >K A J. 



\HA 



OnuiTH jieo 

I rpozpaipCKii Cio.iOMcaj 3 

1. OniuTe oco6HHe reorpa4)CKor no;ic»Kaja ... 5 

2. Be3e ca cyce.tHHM 3CM.i>a.Ma 7 

i TaaBHe cao6pahajHe .iHHuje 11 

4. HaJBaAHHJH iieo HoBe Cp6Hje. Ba.iKaHCKo je3rpo 17 

II Oqaiihu 3eM.hiiiuiua 22 

I OCHOBHH H fipB06HTHH OO.IMUH (yTMliajti VMVTap- 

h>hx 3evia.hCKHX cn.ia) 22 

II Pa.iBHTaK o6/iHKa (Pan cno.i.Hnx cn.ia) .... 33 

.Icjctbo je3epcKe Boae 

1. ErejcKo j23epo n fterosH yTHitaJH 

2. Paj TeKyhHx uo.aa 47 

a) PeMHH H MOpCKH C.1HBOBH 18 

0) HeKO.iMKo HHTcpecnuTHtix iiojana y pciHHM 

AOaHHavfa 50 

b) McTopnj.1 paiBHTKa peMHnx joamia 

'0 TparoBH najcTapujHx pcwHHX no.iHHa .56 

p) IIocTaHaK Bapaapa m Jberona pc i iHOi 

C.1HB.1 

Y) IIoCTaiiaK HCKIIX UHU1HX HOHplIlM . . , 

Hi BeAiiKa je3epu y Hoeoj Cp6uju 

II>hxobc (Jnhhukc oco6hhc 

I. OxpiiACKO le.iepo . . 

' I IpCCIiaHCKO it iCp<> .... 

3. AojpaHCKO Ictcpo .... ... 

lloceoHii ,ieo 
Onnc nojeAMHHx o(5/iacTM m moctb 

1 fopttt fJoeapdapje 



XII CAflP>KAJ 

CTPAHA 

BapoiiiH ropn>er IloBap/iapja 

1. CKorube 106 

2. KyMaHOBO . . , 121 

3. Be.nec 124 

4. LllTHn 127 

5. KpaTOBo 129 

6. KpHBa na.naHKa 131 

7. Te-roBo 132 

8. TocTiiBap 133 

II MaAeiu c okoauhom Konana u Padoeuiuiua . . 135 

III TuKeeuiKa kowlauhci 143 

IV Mopuxoeo 146 

V BeefjeAiijcKa KOiuAuna u BoJMuja 149 

VI JXojpan u hbezosa KoiaAuna 151 

VII Ouiuiue ocoduue Jyjicne MaKedomije .... 157 

VIII CoAyn 163 

IX 3auadna MaKedouuja 

a) Bpcjanna o6;iacT 166 

1. 6hto.i> 194 

2. npujien 202 

3. Oxpim . 211 

4. Grpyra 217 

5. Kpymeso : . . . . 218 

6) Zle6ap h H>eroBa OKO^HHa 222 

b) Flopeq, KnqeBO h KonaM 226 

X KocoecKa Ciuapa Cp6uja 

a) Kocobo h MeTOXHja 230 

6) Kocobo riojbe 232 

b) MeTOXHja c okojihhgm npH3peHa .... 244 
r) BapouiH Kocobckc Crape Cp6Hjc .... 250 

HOflpHMCKO-MCTOXHJCKC BapOIIUI 

1. npHripcn 253 

2. neh 261 

3. ToaKOBHua 262 

Kocobckc x<e7ie3Hii'iKc Bapoma 263 

BapoiuH '.aGaMCHOi no/io>Kaja 268 

Hobo ISpao 270 

Tpvi naj3iia'jajHHja crioMeHHKa ciape cpncKe ny/nype 272 



CA£P>KAJ XIII 

XI. Ciuapa PauiKa 275 

BawHWjt oo.iacTH h npeac.iH 281 

BapouiH Oape PaniKe 

1. Hobh na^ap , . 290 

2. ripHjeno.i>e 293 

3. BepaHe 294 

4. CjeHHua 295 

5. HoBa Bapoui 297 

njbeB.-be 296 

7. flpHGoj 301 



HOBA CPBMJA. 



i 



OniUTH AEO. 



Il-)l.\ I IUIIA 



1. PEOrPAOCKM nOJIOKA.I. 

HMa H3BecHa cyMa nojaBa Koje yTHMy Ha oniuTC 
npnpo;iHe oco6nHe CBaKe 3eM^e h Koje cy H3pa>KeHe 
y >KHBOTy CKOpo CBHJy Hapojia. CBe Te oco6HHe 
MO>KeMO noAe.THTH y OBe ^Be rpync. ripBy rpyny ca- 
MHJbaBajy OHe oco6hhc Koje ,no;ia3e on oniUTer no/io- 
>Kaja je^He 06/iacrH Ha 3eMa;bCKOJ Kpy;bH h on h.chhx 
Be3a c Be/iHKHM 3eMa/bCKHM MopHMa h KonHHMa. Jlpyry 
rpyny caMHn>aBajy OHe oco6HHe Koje AO/ia3e on Be3a 
ca caBpeMeHHM Ky;iTypHHM uempHMa h cbctckhm cao- 
GpahajHHM /iHHHJaMa. Ha noc/ieTKy, y OBy ;ipyry rpyny 
cna/iajy h OHe ocodHHe Koje nona3e on. npaBua h npn- 
pojiHe janHHe £p>KaBHHx rpaHHiia h Bcaa ca cyce^HHM 
^p>KaBaMa h Hapo^HMa. 06e OBe rpyne nojaBa oapeiivjy 
OHe oco6HHe Koje cy no3HaTc no£ hmchom oco6uhu 
zeozpacpcKO? uo.wxcaja. FIpeMa TOMe, Mcljy oco6nHa.via 
reorpacf)CKor no/iowaja CBaKe 3CM:i»e pa3.nnKyjeMO £Bc 
Bpcre, on kojhx npBy BpcTy mhhc iberoBe npnpo;ine 
oco6hhc, a Apyry JberoBe Ky/iTypHe h iio/ihthmkc 
ocoChhc. 

OHe oco6HHe kojc AO/ia3C on onniTcr no.iowaja 
je;me 06/iacTH Ha 3c\ia:bCKOj noBpujHHH h on h.chhx 
Be3a ca cbctckhm MopHMa h bc.thkhm KonmiMa, yrwty 
Hajnpe na k/ihmckc oco6hhc CBaKe 3cm.i>c, a npcKo h,hx 
iia tben cno^HH H3rncn h Ha >khbot ^ena napoja. Jep 
je no3naTo na CKopo CBe one BeM/bC woje cy 6/iH>Ke 
eKBaTopy h bc/ihkhm cbctckhm MopHMa HMajy Mnoro 
6.na>Ky K/iHMy h jpyK'injy (Ji/iopy h npnpcsAy on omi\ 



HOBA CPBHJA 



3eMa;ba Koje cy 6;w>Ke 3eMa/bCKHM noAOBHMa h Koje cy 
oa Mopa najhe yByneHe y Be;iHKe 3eMajbCKe kohthhchtc. 

Hcto TaKO no3HaTO je Aa he OHe 3eMJbe Koje cy 
6nu}Ke caBpeMeHHM ueHTpHMa jbyACKe KyjiType h Koje 
AOAHpyjy Ba^KHe jiHHHj'e CBeTCKor cao6pahaja, moHh 
jiaKuie yqacTBOBaTH y caBpeMeHOM jbyACKOM KyjuypHOM 
paAy h )KHBOTy, Jep KyjiTypaH, y CMHCJiy oniiiTe JbyA- 
CKe Ky^xype, MOHce 6hth caMO OHaj HapoA kojh je y 
crajmoM h HenocpeAHOM AOAHpy c HaJKyATypHHJHM 
3eM^aMa h HapOAHMa. 

CpncKH HapoA je HacejiHO 3eMJbe Koje cy join 
oa ncmeTKa cpeAH>er Bena 6#Jie noA yTHuajeM ABajy, 
y to BpeMe HaJBa)KHHJHx KyjiTypHHx cpeAHHa, rpHKO- 

BH3aHTHJCKe H HTaJIHJaHCKO-pOMaHCKe Ylon yTHuaJHMa 

thx ABajy Ky^Typa oh je y CpeAft>eM Beny no4eo Aa 
pa3BHJa CBOJy HapOMHTy cpncny Kyjuypy, hhjh cy Haj- 
60JbH OCTaUH oqyBaHH y MHOro6pOJHHM upKBaMa H 
MaHacTHpHMa HoBe Cp6Hj'e. HouHHJe, npeno BH3aH- 
THJCKe KyjiType Aomao je caoj MycjiOMaHCKO-apancKe 
Ky^Type, mhjh cy yTHuajn 6hjih 3HaTHO H3panceHH CKOpo 
y CBHMa cpncKHM 3eMJbaMa, a HaJBHiue y 3eMjbaMa Koje 
caqHtbaBajy HoBy Cp6HJy. Ha Taj HanHH cpncKH HapoA 
ce Ha;ia3HO Ha craAHOJ npenpeTHHUH yTHuaja bcnhkhx 
Ky^TypHHx ueHTapa. 

y Hobom BeKy Ky;rrypHH eBponcKH ueHTap noMe- 
peH je H3 HTa^HJe y CpeAft>y EBpony. Haj6;m>Ke h 
HajjiaKuie Be3e H3Mel)y CpeAH>e EBpone h HOiaMCKor 
OpHeHTa HAy npeno cpncKHx 3erviajba, h to MopaBCKO- 
Bap^apcKOM aojihhom. Ha Taj HanHH nojaqaHa je Ba>K- 
hoct reorpa(})CKor nojioataja cpncKHx 3eMajba, jep, nopeA 
Henocpe^HHx Be3a ca ueHTpHMa caBpeMeHe JbyACKe KyA- 
Type, ao6hah cmo h jeAHy oa HajBa>KHHJHx cbctckhx 
cao6pahaJHHx ./iHHHJa. Ta AHHHJa cboj'hm HaJBehHM jienoM 
MAe Kpo3 AocaAaimty H K p 03 HoBy Cp6HJy. riocjiczuba 
AP>kh HaJBa>KHHJe TanKe Tora nyTa. 

C rjiejiuuna obhx pa3HOBpcH»x oco6HHa npOMa- 
TpaheMO reorpa(})CKH no;io>Kaj HoBe Cpdnje, h noKy- 
luaheMO Aa OApeAHMO HeKaAamifcy h caAauifoy BpeA- 
hoct nojeAHHux Ba>KHHx cao6pahajHHx AHHHJa, h ohhx 
06/iacTH Kp03 Koje OHe npo;ia3e. 



rEOfTA'M KH nO/IO)KAJ 



1. OnujTe oco6HHe reorpa(J)CKor nojiowaja. 

Crapa Cp6Hj'a h MaKeziOHHJa Ha/ia3e ce H3Meljy 
39° 56' 50" h 43 u 38* 25" ceBepHe uiHpHHe h H3Met)y 
36° 34' 45" h 42" 27' 40" hctohhc jxymnne no $ep- 
ckom no^HeBKy. PbHxoBa noBpniHHa Be^HKa je 74.709 
km-. Or ao catamite Cp6Hj'e Behe cy 3a 26.409 km-, a 
on. nocajiauiihQ ByrapcKe Maibe 3a 24.000 km.- Tpa- 
HHue cy hm y r.iaBHOM oBe: OKyKa peKe BHdpHue 
Ha jyry, ceBepHa rpaHHua HoBona3apcKor CaHuaKa na 
ceBepy, ROJiuna UpHor UpHMa Ha sana^y h MecTe na 
HdOKy. 06e 3eM^e Ha;ia3e ce y cpejiHHH Ba/iKaHCKor 
FIo^yocTpBa, h Ha Taj HanHH #o;iHpyjy ce CKopo ca 
CBHMa 6a^KancKHM 3eMJbaMa. 36or Tora cy y npnpoziH 
obhx 3eMa^a H3pa>KeHe npHpouHe oco6HHe pa3HHx rq- 
zioBa Ba/iKaHCKor I~Io;iyocTpBa, Koje ce cbojhm BeliHM 
,ie;iOM Ha^a3H y ohoj o6;iacTH Koja ctojh uor yTH- 
uajeM npHpo^HHx oco6HHa Cpe/u)3eMHor Mopa, h Koja 
je no3Haia nca hmchom Me^HTepaHCKa 06;iacT. HnaBHe 
npHpo^He oco6hhc Te o6;iacTH cy obc OHa npe/urraB. i>a 
npe^a3Hy o6;iacT H3Metjy £Be ^pyre 06/iacrH, Koje ce ozi/ih- 
Kyjy H3 OCHOBe pa3/IHHHTHM npHpoAHHM oco6HHaMa. 
Ha ceBepy je Cpe^fba h CeBepHa EBpona, y KOJHMa 
iiyBajy oueaHCKH BeTpoBH, h y KOJHMa KHiua nazta y 
CBa Ro6a touhhc. Ha jyry je Caxapa, y kojoj ayBajy 
cyBH BCTpoBH, h Koja je noTnyno cyBa, CKopo cacBHM 
6e3 KHuie. MeAHTepancKa 06;iacT, Kao npe/ia3Ha o6/iacr 
H3Metjy B;ia>KHe h yMepeHe cpejifee-eBponcKe k^hmc h 
cyBe caxapcKe, npHMH^a je oco6hhc h je/iHe h iipyre 
o6;iacTH. Or Cpe/iibe EBpone HMa hco6h i iho B/ia>KHe 
3HMe, a or Caxape HCKJbyqHBO cyBa ;ieTa. C oBaKOM 
k^hmom y Be3H je cno;t>HH usrnejx teM/bHuiTa, cnenna;iHO 
iberoB najropibH 3eM.i»anH c;ioj, kojh iiaje xpany 6n;by, 
h kojh MHoro yTHMe na KapaKTcp 6H;ba, iberoB cno;bnn 
H3Me^HHawHH ycntBaiba. no3naTO je ^a Me/iHTepancKa 
BereTanHJa HMa obc oco6hhc: 3e.i>acie oh.i.kc yciieBajy 
ixsa nyia y roiiHHH, y npo/iehe h y jecen, a nponaAajy 
.iBa nyra, 3HMH h ;ieTH. 3hmh npona;iajy 3601 x/ia;i- 
iiolie, .'icth a6or cyme. JXpseuacTQ 6hjukv o,viHKyj\ 
.iHiHliCM kojc HMa uBpcTy h cjajny nOBpUJHHy, 11 kojc 
Odaje 11 up ,imc 3e/ieHO. 



HOBA CPBHJA 



OBe oco6HHe MeflHTepaHCKe 06;iacTH jaKo cy H3- 
pa>KeHe y kjihmh h 6HJby MaKe/jOHHJe h Crape Cp- 
6Hj'e. Te cy oco6HHe, y pa3HHM o6;iHUHMa, npo^pjie nym 
Bapnapa CBe no KanaHHHKe lOmcype h npemeBCKor 
pa3Bol]a. MaKeaoHHj'a h CKoncna CTapa Cp6Hja, c obhm 
Me^HTepaHCKHM oco6HHaMa, pa3JiHKyjy ce oji cbhx ocra- 
;ihx 3eMajba y yHyTpamtboCTH EIo^yocTpBa. To cy #aK;ie 
OHe npHpo^He ocodHHe Koje je MaKeaoHHJH h Orapoj 
Cp6HJH AOHeo HdHxob cBeTCKH nojio>Kaj h HbHxoBe He- 
nocpe^He Be3e c ErejcKHM MopeM, npeMa KojeM cy 
OTBOpeHe ay6oKOM h npocTpaHOM aojihhom Bapaapa. 

Ca r^e^HuiTa cnojbHHx h yHyTaptbHx cao6pahaj- 
hhx npH^HKa, 3a MaKe^OHHJy h Crapy Cp6HJy MCOKe 
ce pehH #a HMajy HajnoBOJbHHJH nojioacaj Meijy CBHMa 
3eMJbaivia Koje ce Ha;ia3e y yHyTpanitbocTH BajiKaHCKor 
Ho/iyocTpBa. OHe HMajy HajsroAHHJe h HajKpahe Be3e 
c o6a/iaMa JaapaHCKor h ErejcKor Mopa, a HenocpeflHO 
ce AOAHpyjy CKOpo ca CBHMa 3eMJbaMa Ba;iKaHCKor 
rio^yocTpBa. Ajih 3a Ty Heo6HHHy reorpa(J)CKy bath- 
hoct MaKeaoHHje h CTape Cp6nje oa HaJBeher 3Hanaja 
je to uito Kpo3 feHx npo;ia3H MOpaBCKO-Bap^apcKa no- 
jiHHa Koja hx aoboah y aowv ca 3eMJbaMa Cpe/tfbe 
EBpone h ca Cpe^oseMHHM MopeM. Ta 3ro#Ha y3_ny)KHa 
y^o^HHa, Koja npeacraBJba HaJKpahn nyT H3Mel)y Cpe/tfbe 
EBpone h Jyro3ana.zi.He A3HJe, yTHqe 3HaTHO Ha nojw- 
THMKy Ba>KHOCT Ba;iKaHCKor nojiyocrpBa. OBanaB TpaH- 
3hthh 3Hanaj HeMajy h He Mory HMaTH ocTajia ABa Me- 
AHTepaHCKa noJiyocrpBa, AneHHHCKO h nnpeHejcKO. 
FIpeHMyhcTBa Koja Ba^KaHCKO fIo;iyocTpBO HMa npeA 
hbHMa jecy OBa: oa EBpone HHje nperpatjeHo b&jihkhm 
n^aHHHCKHM 6eAeMHMa, Kao uito je AneHHHCKO h rinpe- 
HejcKo; y npaBixy ceBep-jyr npoxoAno je h 3HaTHO CKpa- 
heHo; Ha H3.na3y MOpaBCKO-BapAapcKe yAOJbHHe Ha/ia3H 
ce ny6oK h npocipaH Co^yHCKH 3a;iHB, KaKBor HeMa hh 
AneHHHCKO hh FlHpeHejcKo nojiyocrpBO. Obhm cbojhm 
reorpa(})CKHM oco6HHaMa OA^HKyje ce BajiKaHCKO riojiy- 
octpbo h oa AneHHHCKor h oa IlHpeHejcKor, a Te Here 
oco6HHe npeACTaBJbajy rviaBHH y3poK 36or Kora ce 
noc^e^H^a no-nyocrpBa, y Be3aMa H3Me^y CpeAfoe EBpone 



rEOrPA<t>CKH nOJIO/KAJ 



h 5^H)Ker HdOKa, c Ba/iKaHCKHM riojiyocrpBOM He Mory 
hh ycnope^HBaTH. 

2. Be3e ca cyceAHHM 3eMJbaivia. 

OHe oco6HHe Koje cy Aoin/ie oa Be3a ca #oca- 
^aujHDHM 6a^KaHCKHM 3eM^.aMa Tano cy H3pa>KeHe y 
>KHBOTy MaKeixoHHJe h dape Cp6wje #a he ce OHe 
ocehaTH h no;i hobhm no;iiiTHHKHM npHJiHKaMc . 36or 
Tora heMO tobophth o AOcaAanjHDHM rpaHHixaMa Ma- 
Ke^OHHj'e h Ciape Cp6Hje He Kao o HeweM ihto h ca.ua 
nocroJH, Beh Kao o rpaHHuaivia Koje cy nocroja/ie h 
ocraBH/ie Tpara y OAHOiuaJHMa H3Met)y obhx h Apynix 
6a;iKaHCKHx 3eMa;ba. 

OHe 06/iacrH MaKeaoHHJe h dape Cp6HJe Koje 
caHHH>aBajy HoBy Cp6HJy rpaHHHH;ie cy ce ca ceBepa 
AOca^aHDOM Cp6HJOM h ByrapcKOM, c jyra ErejcKHM 
MopeM, Teca/iHJOM h EnnpoM, ca 3ana.ua Ap6aHHJOM, 
ca ceBepo3anana Bochom h XepueroBHHOM. npeMa no- 
c^eAH^HM 3eM^aMa MaKe^OHHJa h dapa Cp6HJa HMajy 
jaKe npHpoAHe rpaHHue, Koje HHHe bhcokc h Henpo- 
xo^He n/iaHHHe, a caMO cy ca Cp6HJOM HMa.ie pa3HO- 
BpcHe h /iane Be3e, Tano aa cy CBe Tpn 3eMJbe h no 
caaa caMHH>aBa/ie je£Hy cao6pahaJHy, a aoHeK/ie h 
npHpoAHy ue^HHy. MaKe^OHHJa h dapa Cp6HJa y ao- 
ca^aujibHM cbojhm rpaHHixaMa npeAcraBiba/ie cy je^Hy 
caMOda^Hy, npnpo^HO orpaHHweny uer.HHy. HaJMBpiuha 
h HaJHenpoxoflHHJa je 6H.ia rpaHHua npeMa ByrapcKOJ. 
OHa je Hirnia noBHJapuHMa OcoroBa, Pine h Pomona. 
ripeMa Cp6HJH £p>Ka/ia ce Benua Fo/inja — KonaoHHK, 
npeMa UpHOJ Popn orpaHaKa FIpoK/ieTHja, a npeMa 
Ap6aHHJHn/iannHCKor BeHua MoKpaHoCKa M/ianHHa — Ja- 
6.iaHHua. 

OBe cy 3eM.-be jxzkjiq ca cbhx CTpaHa 3aTBopenc 
Be/iHKHM h HenpoxoAHHM n;iaHHHaMa, caMO cy OTBopenc 
Ha jyry npe\ia ErejcKOMMopy h Ha ceBepy npeMa Cp6HJn 
h ao/ihhh MopaBe. 06e cy 3eM.-be, ^aK^e, 3a cboj cao- 
6pahaj ca cbctom H3BaH Ba/iKaHCKor rio/iyocrpBa 6n;ie 
ynyheHe HCK;byqHBO Ha ErejcKO Mope h Ha Cp6HJy. 
Hnje/ma oa yHyTpanjjhux 6a;iKaHCKHX 3eMa;i>a HHJe ca 



8 HOBA CPBHJA 



CiapoM Cp6HJOM h MaKeAOHHJOM HMajia TaKO hhthmhc 
h TaKO npnpoiiHe Be3e Kao uito hx je HMajia Cp6HJa 

y reorpa(j)CKOM no;iO)Kajy obhx 3eMajba wvia TaKO 
MHoro cjih^hhx h 3aje;iHHHKHx oco6HHa aa CBe TpH 
3eMJbe caqHHDaBajy jeAHy caodpahajny uejiHHy Ha Baji- 
KaHCKOM flojiyocrpBy. H3Metjy thx oco6HHa HCTahH heMO 
caMO OBe. Kao iiito MaKe/ioHHJa y jy>KHOM ae;iy FIo- 
jiyocrpBa 3ay3HMa ueHTpa;iHH no/io>Kaj H3Met}y Ap6a- 
HHje h TpaKHj'e, TaKO h Cp6wja y ceBepHOM neny jiokh 
y cpezmHH H3Metjy ByrapcKe h Bochc Y o6e 3eMJbe, 
h y Cp6HJH h MaKeAOHHjH ca CTapoM Cp6HJ0M, peKe 
TeKy y MepH,zmaHCKOM npaBuy, h THMe ojiaKmaBajy 
ycnocTaBJbaibe JiaKHx cao6pahaJHHx Be3a. Y MaKe.no- 
hhjh Teny peKe y npaBuy ceBep-jyr, a y Cp6hjh y 
npaBiiy jyr-ceBep. JXbq rviaBHe peKe, MopaBa h Bapaap, 
to^hko cy y Ha3a^ noMepHJie CBOja pa3Boi]a aa h>h 
xoBa BOno^e^HHua qecTO He npeAcraBJba HHKaKBe npe- 
npeKe cao6pahajy. To je cjiynaj ca npeuieBCKHM actiom 
Te BO^o,ne^HHue, kojh npeacraBJba pa3BO^e y jxojihhh 
hjiu noBHJy. Oihb MopaBe bcjihkh je 38.280 km.-, a c;ihb 
Bap^apa 27.925 km.- 06a 3ajeaHo BejiHKa cy 66.205 km. 2 
3a ao/iHHe obhx peKa Be3aHa je rjiaBHa 6a;iKaHCKa 
KOMyHHKauHOHa jiHHHj'a, >Kejie3HHua Beorpafl— Co/iyH, 
h Kao uito o6e ,aojiiiHe npeacTaBJbajy je;iHy cao6pa- 
haJHy ^HHHj'y, TaKO hcto Cp6nja c MaKeAOHHjOM h Ora- 
poM Cp6njoM CBe BHiue nocTaje je^Ha cao6pahaJHa h 
KyjiTypHa uejiHHa. 

Pa3^HKe Koje ce jaBJbajy y npHpcun ao catamite 
Cp6nje h MaKe^OHHJe ca CTapoM Cp6njoM npe cy y 
cranky #a roptbHM MOMeHTHMa ycnoBJbeHO jcuhhctbo no- 
jaqajy ho ^a ra oaia6e. TaKe npnpoae cy pa3JiHKe y 
kjihmh, BereTau.HJH h npnpoAHHM npoziyKTHMa, Koje 
ycaoB^aBajy 6oraTy Metjyco6Hy H3MeHy CHpOBHHa. Cp- 
6Hj'a je HarHyTa y npaBuy jyr-ceBep, ynyheHa je Ha 
Cpe;iH>y EBpony h npHMHJia je MHore cneMeHTe cpe,n- 
ibe-eBponcKe nyjiType. MaKe/iOHHJa je, o6paTHO, HarHyTa 
y npaBuy ceBep-jyr, ynyheHa je Ha hctohhc o6a;ie 
Cpezio3eMHor Mopa, h totobo CBa je nojx yTHuaJHMa 
Me^HTepaHCKe h BH3aHTHJcKO-UHHuapCKe Ky^Type. Ho- 
pen Tora, y MaKcnoHHJy h CTapy Cp6njy H36Hj'ajy 



rtorPA«t>CKH no/io>KAJ 



MHorH TpaHCBep3a^HH iiyieBH kojh hx AOBOAe y aoahp 
c o6a;iaMa JaapaHCKor h JoHCKor Mopa. Cp6HJa TaKBHx 
nyieBa HeMa, jep cy npnpoAHe /iHHHJe Y^KHue — Hy- 

6pOBHHK H HhUI — KOCOBO — CKaflap nO^HTHMKH 3aTBO- 

peHe. Cbh obh MOMeHTH yTHua/iH cy #a ce £y>K mo- 
paBCKO-BapiiapcKe y#ojbHHe BpiiiH BeoMa jana h BeoMa 
>KHBa pa3MeHa npnpoAHHx npojiyKaia h Ky^TypHHx 
yTHuaja. FlpeKO Cp6HJe, ManeAOHHJa h Crapa Cp6HJa 
AO^a3e y jiojiHp ca Cpe^tbOM EBponoM, h npeKO H>e 
npHMajy e/ieMeHTe cpeafoe-eBponcKe Ky/rrype. Cp6nja je 
MopaBCKO-Bap^apcKOM ao/ihhom npHMH/ia MHore e/ie 
MeHTe BH3aHTHJCKO-uHHuapcKe Ky^Type, kojh ce HaJBHiue 
ocehajy y o6/iHKy BapoiiiH, THnoBHMa Kyha h ft>HX0By 
HaMeiiiTajy, HanHHy >KHBOTa, pa#a h BapouiKOJ houjh>h, 
cneuHa^HO jkchckoj. flope^ Tora, thm cy nyTeM y Cp- 
6HJy aolijjih MHorH 3aHaTH, BpcTe n^eMeHHTHX Bohana 
h Ky/iTypHor 6H;ba. Ha noc/ieTKy, Te ce 3ajc£HHHKe Be3e 
ocehajy aoHeK-ne y Tpa#HUHOHa;iHoj KH>H>KeBHOCTH, pa3- 

HHM 06/lHU.HMa npHMHTHBHe HapO^He VMeTHOCTH, Hapo- 
HHTO HapOAHHM /IHpCKHM neCMaMa Ca n03HaT0M My3HKOM. 

OBaKO pa3HOBpCHHX npHpoAHHx H Ky/nypHHx Be3a 
c MaKe^OHHJOM h CrapoM Cp6HJOM HHJe HMa;ia Hnje^Ha 
£pyra 6a.iKaHCKa 3eM/ba, h y TOMe ca Cp6HJOM He 
MO>Ke ce HHJe^Ha or ibnx hh ycnope^HBaTH H nope;i 
.nocaAaiuH^Hx ho/ihthmkhx npn^HKa Koje cy HHHH/ie 
Be^HKe cMcnbe obhm Be3aMa, yTHuaj 3roxiHHx npn- 
POahhx Be3a ycneo je jxa j\a cBora jaKor H3pa>Kaja. Ha 
Taj HaMHH, Cp6HJa h MaKe^ounja ca CrapoM < , p6njoM 
ynyheHe cy jya nocraHy je£Ha KyjiTypHa, eKOHOMCKa H 
no/iHTH4Ka ue.iHHa. C yTHuajeM kojh y TOMe norneiiy Ha 
MaKe^oHHjy h Crapy Cp6njy Mowe bpujhth Cp6nja, 
He MO>Ke ce ycnope/iHTH yTHuaj HHje;iHe apyre 6a.iKaH- 
CKe iip>KaBe. H 36or Tora cy Be3e o6ejy 3eMa.i.a raKO 
npHpoAHC. 

Ojx MHoro Maimer cy nHawaja npupojuie BC3e h.-i- 
Mel)y Cp6nje h Kocobckc Crape Cp6nje. Ta Ma»>a 

H.HXOBa Ba>KHOCT £0;ia3H OA TepeHCKHX TeilJKOiia, oji 

3a6aHenocTH npeMa rviaBHOJ KOMynnKauHOHOj .hhhhjh, 

H Oa TCHJKHX IIO/1HTHMKHX IlpH/IIlKa KOJC Cy JOT 

B/iaAa/ie y Kocohckoj Oapoj Cp6njn I lena/ia cy tc 



10 HOBA CPBHJA 



Be3e 6w\e oa MHoro Beher 3Haqaja, 36or Tora hjto je 
^HHHj'a Kocobo — Cna^ap npeAcraBJbajia Haj3roAHHJH h 
HajKpahH nyT H3 Cp6HJe 3a JaApaHCKO Mope. Taj nyT 
y CpefltbeM BeKy 6ho je CKopo hcto tojihko Ba>KaH 
Kao ihto je .ziaHac BaacHa MopaBCKo-BapAapcKa yAO- 
jbHHa. To je 6wio y oho BpeMe KaA je HTajmja npeA- 
craBJbajia eBponcKH KyjuypHH ueHTap, a 3anaAHa 6a;i- 
KaHCKa o6a;ia KyjrrypHy neoHy jiHHHJy BajiKaHocor 
ITo^yocTpBa. 36or Tora cy qedo h uiHpetba cpncne 
Ap>KaBe ynpaBJbaHa Hajnpe yroMe, npaBuy na cy Ten 
OH#a cnpeTajia y MopaBCKO-BapAapCKy Ao;iHHy. Cboj 
npBo6HTHH 3Hanaj Taj nyT He MO)Ke noBpaTHTH ; oh 
He MO)Ke nocTaTH rjiaBHa cao6pahaJHa apTepHJa Baji- 
KaHCKor FIo^yocTpBa, na h KaA 6h ce H3MeHHJie no- 
^HTHHKe npH^HKe Koje Ha H>eMy BJia^ajy, h KaA 6h ce 
CB;iaflaJie cBe TepeHCKe h noJiHTHHKe TeuiKohe y ao- 
jihhh ilpHMa h Ha mcaobckoj o6a;iH. Ajih nouiTO HTa- 
jinja nocTaje CBaKH AaH CBe BehH noTpouiaq Hanrnx 
CHpOBHHa, BancHocT OBora nyTa MOHte ce noBehaTH KaA 
6h ce OACTpaHHfle cnoMeHyTe TeniKohe, KaA 6h ce H3- 

BpUJH^H BCTIHKH TeXHHHKH paAOBH Ha MeAOBCKOJ H 

Apa^Koj o6a;iH, h KaA 6h ce HaHHHHJia nym flpHMOBe 
Ao;iHHe >Kejie3HHaa. 

n^aHHHCKH BeHau JaBOp — ro;iHJa — KonaoHHK He 
canHH^aBa OHaKO Be;iHKe npenpene 3a cao6pahaj Kao 
luto hx npe^CTaBJbajy n^aHHHe Ha rpaHHUH ByrapcKe. 

y npBOM HMa 3roAHHx npece^HHa h penHHx ao- 
/iHHa, KOJHMa cy AOcaAa hih;ih MaxoM KapaBaHCKH, a 
Bp^o peTKO kojickh nyTeBH. TaKaB je paiUKii uyui oa 
PauiKe ao HoBor fla3apa, kojh je y cpeatbeM Beny 
Hinao Ha Fleh, MeTOXHj'y h 3ctcko flpHMopje. 3aTHM, 
oa Ba)KHOCTH MO)Ke 6hth h uLouaukko-kocobcku uyiu, 
kojh H,zie oa KypinyMJiHJe npeno Flpenojiua 3a IlpH- 
uiTHHy. flajbe cy no3HaTH h MopaecKu iiyule8u l Hapo- 
hhto OHaj kojh HAe oa Bpatbe npeno THJbaHa 3a 

flpHUJTHHy. 

ByrapcKa npeMa MaKeAOHHJH h CTapoj Cp6HJH 
HMa^a je npHpoAHe Bp;io TeuiKe rpaHHue. Ybnx cy ca- 
wHH>aBa^a BHCOKa, njiehaTa h tcluko npoxoAHa 6ma 
OcoroBa, Pw;ie h PoAona. Oa caAa he Ta rpaHHua hhh 



rEOrPA*CKH nOJIOMCAJ 11 

BeHueM OcoroBa Ha Ma^eiuKe FI/iaHHHe, y npaBuy Ha 
n^aHHHy fbiayiu. 3a aocaaaiutbe rpaHHue H3Mei]y By- 
rapcKe h MaKeaoHHJe I\ UbhjhH Ka>Ke obo: „H3y3eBiuH 
A;ine h FIupeHeje, y EBponH HeMa Tano hbpcthx rpa- 
HHua h BehHx npenpena cao6pahajy Kao ujto cy obh 
MacHBH H3Meh)y ByrapcKe h MaKe#OHHJe u . 36or obhx 
TepeHCKHx TeiuKoha ByrapcKa je cao6pahajeM o^BOJeHa 
on Crape Cp6Hj"e h MaKe^oHHJe. hfoeHe cao6pahaj*He 
npH/iHKe ynyhyjy ByrapcKy Ha hctok h Ha jyro-HCTOK, 
y npaBuy y KOMe TeKy tbeHe HaJBa>KHnje pene, y3 
Koje ce Mory carpa^HTH Ba>KHe cao6pahaJHe ;iHHHje. 
ByrapcKa ce pa3BH/ia y npaBuy thx cbojhx Ao;iHHa, h 
3aTO je H3^y>KeHa y npaBuy sana^-HCTOK, Kao ujto je 
CpoHJa ay>K MopaBCKO-Bap^apcKe ao.ihhc H3Ay>KeHa y 
npaBuy ceBep-jyr. CBe OBe TepeHCKe npH^HKe 6H;ie 
cy y3poK ujto ce HHJe momo ny>Ke BpeMeHa B^a^aTH 
hh H3 ByrapcKe MaKe^OHHJOM hh H3 MaKcuoHHJe By- 
rapcKOM. 

3. T^aBHe cao6pahajHe jihhhjc 

PeTKO ce r\ne MO>Ke Tano jacHO bhacth Kano no- 
jeiXHHe HH3HHCKe /iHHHje, HapoMHTO penHe jxo^HHe, npe- 
y3HMajy na ce y.iory h 3Hanaj kojh nojeflHHHM o6;ia- 
CTHMa Aaje ibuxoB reorpacJ)CKH no;io>Kaj. TaKBe peMHe 
ao/ihhc napoHHTO MopaBe, Bapaapa h Mapnue, 6mc 
cy on HecyMFbHBa yTHuaja Ha Ky/iTypHa h HcropHJCKa 
KpeTaiba, Ha o^pa30Baibe #p>KaBa h na pacnopeA Hapo.ua 
Ha Ba^KaHCKOM no/iyocrpBy. Ojx cbhx BehHx eBponcKHX 
no^yocrpBa, Ba/iKaHCKO ce o;yiHKyje THMe ujto HMa 
3ro,ine y3/xy>KHe KOMyHHKauHJe h ujto HHJe, Kao Ane- 

HHHCKO H riHpeHejCKO, OJX EBpOne OABOJeHO BCHHKHM 

n^aHHHCKHM BenuHMa. Ha Ba/iKaHCKOM rio/iyocrpBy 
HMajy £Ba y3dyjfCHa uyfua, Koja ce cacrajy koa Hniua, 
h to nyTCBH Beorpaa— CciyH h Hhuj — Uapurpaa. Ohh, 
HapoMHTO co.iyHCKH nyT, npeAcraB/bajy HaJKpahu nyT 
H3Meljy Cpejiibe KBponc h CyecKor Kanaka. On no- 
npeHHHx nyTCBa OiyiHKyjy ce THMe ujto npe/ia3e 3ro;v 

HHJHM pt'MHHM AO/IHHaMa, IUTO npO/ia3C Kp03 3CM/bC 

noBO/bHHje n^acTHKc H BChc n.io^HOCTH h ujto HMajy 



12 HOBA CPBHJA 



3roAHHJe h Kpahe Be3e c HaJKyjiTypHHJHM eBponcKHM 
ap>KaBaMa. Ho;iHHe MopaBe, Bapaapa h MapHue, Kpo3 
Koje ohh uny, cacraBJbeHe cy oji npocipaHHx KOT;iHHa 
Koje cy noBe3aHe peTKHM h KpaTKHM KJiHcypaMa; no- 
cnejiibe ne HHHe hh npn6;iH)KH0 OHaKO Be;iHKe npe- 
npene cao6pahajy Kao ujto ra HHHe KJincype Ha no- 
npeMHHM nyieBHMa. HeraKJiH cmo Aa hh npemeBCKo 
pa3Boije Ha co^yHCKOM nyiy He hhhh HHKaKBy 036HJbHy 
CMemy cao6pahajy. Teace cv TepeHCKe npHJWKe na 
HHuiKO-uapHrpajiCKOM nyTy. Oh HMa aa npe^e pa3Bolje 
H3Mei)y HnuiaBe h HcKpa koa ZIparoMaHa 800 m. anco- 
jiyTHe BHCHHe, h pa3B0^e H3Meijy HcKpa h Mapnue, 

OKO 740 M. BHCHHe. 

TepeHCKe CMera>e Koje ce jaBe Ha obhm nyie- 
BHMa HHcy hh npH6jiH>KHO OHaKO BejiHKe Kao Ha no- 
npeHHHM nyTeBHMa. y3#y)KHH nyTeBH npo;ia3e Kpo3 
o6^acTH pOAoncKor njiaHHHCKor CHCTeMa, kojh ce on- 

/IHKyje Be^HKHM 6pOJeM npOCTpaHHX H nJIOIJHHX KOTJIHHa 

h n^ehaTHM n;iaHHHaMa, Koje cy pa3HHx npaBaua h peTKO 
cy noBe3aHe y n/iaHHHCKe BeHue. IlonpeHHH 6a;iKaH* 
ckh nyTeBH npo;ia3e Kp03 njiaHHHCKe o6;iacTH c bhcokhm, 
rycTo 36Hj'eHHM, KpuieBHTHM BeHUHMa kojh npHna^ajy 
HajcHpoMauiHHJHM o6;iacTHMa Ba^KaHCKor noJiyocrpBa. 

3a y3^y>KHe nyTeBe, HapoHHTO 3a 6eorpa£CKO- 
co/iyHCKH nyT, on Be^HKe je Ba)KH0CTH h to ujto cnaja 
njioj^uy h 6oraTy FlaHOHCKy PaBHHiiy c o6a;iaMa Erej- 
CKor Mopa. 3a tteroB npaBau h 3Haqaj, nopcn; HcraK- 
HyTHx, or Be^HKe Ba>KHOCTH 6ho ]e h nojio>Kaj Co- 
jiyHCKor 3a^HBa. 06a;ia H3Mel)y CojiyHa h Op(J)aHa 
ojiyiHKyje ce ^y6oKHM 3a;iHBHMa h npeflcraBJba Haj6ojbe 
pa3yl]eHy 6a;iKaHCKy o6a;iy. 

06a y3/iy)KHa nyTa HMajia cy Kp03 CBa BpeMeHa 
bckhkh 3Hanaj 3a caoopahaj H3Met)y EBpone h npeatbe 
A3HJe. 06a cy nyTa carpazuuiH PHMJbaHH, h ohh cy ocra/iH 
rjiaBHH nyTeBH Bn3aHTHJCKe HMnepHJe. H3ivie.ua aa cy 
ce norjiaBHTO ibHMa KpeTa^H noxo^H Amne h xyHCKHX 
weTa, ABapH, Hctohhh Toth, y hcko^hko h Oiobchh. 
ily>K 6eorpaflCKO-cojiyHCKor nyTa BpuiH ce HH3 Bap^ap 
uinpeFbe HeMan»HhcKe cpncKe Ap>KaBe. UapnrpaflCKHM 
nyTCM npo/ia3e rviaBHH KpcraniKH noxo^H. Y npaBuy 



rEOfPA'PCKU n0.10)KA.i 



13 



obhx yAo;bHHa none^H cy TypuH pacnpocTHpaTH CBOJy 
B^acr, h n>HMa cy cc Hajneiuhe Kpeia^e Be;iHKe TypcKe 
bojckc hbHMa cy AycTpHJaHUH y XVII h XVIII BeKy 
6hj\h npHBpeMeHo npoap/m Ha Ba;iKaHCKO rio/iyocrpBO, 
h y £o;ihhh MopaBe 6nne cy ce MHore Ba>KHe 6HTKe. 
Hor/iaBHTO jxyya OBe KOMyHHKauHJe (J)opMHpa;ia ce Cp- 
6Hj'a, h npeivia jyry ce paiunpH^a. 

Ba>KHOcr MopaBCKO Bap^apcKe y;xo;bHHe Kao Haj- 
Ba>KHHJer y3£y>KHor nyia h Kao pacKpcHHue HajBa>K- 
hhjhx nonpenHHX nyieBa oceha ce y bcuhkom YTHuajy 
kojh OHa BpuiH y >KHBOTy 6a^KaHCKHx Hapo^a. OHa 
CBe BHiue nocTaje rviaBHH HOCH/iau eBponcne Ky^Type 
h eBponcKor HaMHHa >KHBOTa, kojh ce nonpeMHHM ny- 
TeBHMa CBe BHiue uiHpH y o6;iacTH 3ana/iHe h Mctomhc 
MaKe/iOHHJe. y eTHorpa(f)CKOM norvieny OBa je ;iHHHja 
BpniH/ia ABOcrpyKe yTHuaje. OHa je Ha noje^HHe ne- 
;iOBe MaKeAOHCKor cTaHOBHHiiiTBa yTHua^a H3Je;iHaMa- 
Bajyhn, h to je H3a3Ba;io jeAHO/wKocr napo^He cno- 
BeHCKe Ky/iType y ue.iOM crcHBy Bapiiapa h Jy>KHe 
MopaBe. C #pyre CTpaHe, Bap^apcKa y^ojbHHa npHBy- 
K^a je npe.Ma ce6n orpaHKe CBHJy 6a/iKaHCKHx Hapo^a, 
h 36or Tora y it»oj >KHBe noMemaHH CKopo cbh 6a/i- 
KaHCKH Hapo^H. IlopeA cpncKo-c^OBeHCKe BehHHe, y 
aojihhh Bap^apa cpeiaMo OBe Hapo^e : Ap6aHace, 
TypKe, a no CBHMa BapoujHMa 3HaTiie Mace TpKa h 
UHHuapa. 3HaMaj BapaapcKe h MapHMKe ao/ihhc Typun 
cy oceTH/iH OAMax, na cy join y noweTKy CBOje BJiacTH 
Ha Ba/iKaHCKOM I~Io/iyocTpBy y o6e jxojihhq Hace/iH/in 
Be^HKe Mace TypcKor craHOBHHLiiTBa. Ap6anacH cy ce 
KpeTa/in BeHueM IUape h Kapa^ara, npeiu^H cy AO/iHHy 
Bapaapa h Hace/iH/iH ce y MaibHM oa3a\ia h c iberoBe 
;ieBe CTpaHe. Kao HajBa>KHHJa npe/ia3Ha o6;iacT H3Mcliy 
HBpone h A3Hj'e, Ba/iKancKO IIo/iyocrpBO je npuByK/io 
Ha ce Macy eBponcKHx h a3HJCKHx Hapoaa. II 36or 
Tora HHi\ae ce y EBponn Ha TaKO Ma;ioM npocropy ne 
cacraje TaKO MHoro pa3HOBpcnHx Hapoaa h paca Kao 
na Ba^KaHCKOM rio/iyocrpBy. OiHKa Tor eTHorpaiJKKor 
mapeHH.ia HHr^e ce TaKO jacHo He bhah Kao y Bap- 
^apcKoj ao/ihhh. 

I la jana/iHoj 6a.iKancKoj ooa.nn HMajy /iBe na/- 



\\ HOBA CPBHJA 



naMHUja uotipenna uyiua, kojh o6a;ie JaapaHCKor 
Mopa h o6^acrH ap6aHauiKHx njiaHHHa aoboac y aoahp 

C MOpaBCKO-Bap^apCKOM AOJIHHOM H C nJlOAHHM MaKe- 
AOHCKHM H CTapO-Cp6HJaHCKHM KOTJIHHaMa. 

3ana^Ha 6a;iKaHCKa o6a;ia oa PHJeKe (OujyMe) 
AO TpqKe npeAdaBJba 3aTBopeHy MOpCKy o6ajiy. OHa 
je y cbom ceBepHOM Reny TaKO pa3y^eHa h 6oraTa 3a- 
^HBHMa Aa ce c h>om y TOMe norjie^y Mory ycnope- 
t)HBaTH caMO Hene eBponcKe o6a;ie. Ajih je Ta apTH- 
KyjiauHj'a oa Ma^or 3Haqaja 3a yHyrapHbH cao6pahaj 
Ilo^yocTpBa, jep cy cbh th 3a;iHBH y sajieijy 3aTBO- 

peHH BHCOKHM, KpIlieBHTHM H HenpOXOAHHM BeHUHMa 

kojh ce npy>Kajy napajie^HO c mopckom o6a;iOM. Th 
BeHUH cy y3pOK uito 6oraTO pa3ytjeHa AaJiMaTHHCKa 
o6a;ia He Moace Aa Ao6Hj'e cboj npaBH 3Hanaj. Pene 
Ha 3anaAHOM Ae;iy BajiKaHCKor flojiyocrpBa, Koje TeKy 
nonpeMHO Ha npaBau njiaHHHCKHx BeHaua, MaxoM cy 
Ma^eHe, KpaTKa TOKa, aojihhc hm ce BeoMa peTKO 3a- 
ceuajy y HaJBHuie BeHue n/iaHHHa AHHapCKor h rpMKO- 
ap6aHCKor n^aHHHCKor cHCTeMa. OBe HenoBOJbHe npH- 
jihkc MeHbajy ce Ha jihhhj'h Cna^ap — MeTOxnja — Kocobo. 
Oko CKa^apcKe Kotjikhc njiaHHHCKH bchixh noBHJajy ce 
H3 npaBua ceBepo3anaA-jyroHCTOK h npe;ia3e y npaBau 
jyro3anaA-ceBepoHCTOK; ohh AaKJie Ha TOMe Mecry npe- 
CTajy hHh napajieJiHo c o6ajiOM, Beh ujiy nonpenHo Ha 
o6a;iy, h thmc ojiaKiuaBajy npncryn oa o6a;ie npeMa 
yHyTpaujHDOCTH. y pa^Baivia TeKTOHCKor cyAapa AHHap- 
ckhx h rpqKO-ap6aHCKHx njiaHHHa kojh ce BpuiH y oboj 
o6^acTH, h qHJa cy nocneAHua OBa noBHJafoa n/iaHHH- 
ckhx BeHaua, HacTaje hh3 tcktohckhx noTOJiHHa (kot- 
;iHHa) Koje ce pe^ajy oa o6a;ie npeMa yHyrpauihbocTH. 
Te KOT^HHe cy OMoryhHJie ;iaKuiH cao6pahaj H3Meijy 
yHyTpauiHjOCTH h jaApaHCKe o6a;ie, h one cy 6hjiq 
y3poK ujto je y CpeAfoeM BeKy Kp03 h>hx npo;ia3HO 
no3HaTH 3eTCKH nyT, h uito je cKaAapcKa o6a/ia npeA- 
craBJbajia jeAHy oa Haj6oraTHJHx h HaJKyjiTypHHJHx 
o6^acTH Ba^KaHCKor I~Io;iyocTpBa. 3a rpa^efce jeAHe 
HopMa^He )Ke^e3HHHKe npyre oa Ba>KH0CTH je h to uito 
cy OBe KOTJiHHe Mei)yco6Ho Be3aHe aojihhom Zlpnivia, h 
uito hx OHa h3boah Ha MopcKy o6a;iy. 



rEOrKVH.KH no.io>KA.i IS 

Yc/iea OBora TeKTOHCKor cyKOoa MeH>a ce h npa- 
Bau HCTOHHe jaapaHCKe o6a.ne. Mecro npaBua ceBepo- 
3anaA-jyroHCTOK, or MenoBe Ha jyry OHa HMa y rviaBHOM 
npaBau ceBep-jyr. 36or Tora je ja^paHCKa o6a.na OB^e 
Hajjawe yrHyia h Mope je na\iiy6. j he y KonHO npo;ip/io. 
H3 obhx pa3^ora, h 36or 3rojHnJHX Be3a c yHyTpaiu- 
jboiuhy, Me^OBCKa o6ana 3a Be3e c MTa/iHJOM HMa/ia je 
y CpeiiHbeM Beny 3Haqaj neoHe, HCTopHJcne h Ky^TypHe 
o6a/ie. Cbh obh momchth ycjiOB;i>aBajy bc/ihkh 3Hanaj 
dapor 3eiucK0^ vum CKa0apcKO-upu3peHCtwz iiyula. 

CKaAapcKO-npH3peHCKH h;ih 3eTCKH nyT (129 km. 
Ryr) no.ia3H or npHCTaHHLUTa Me^OBe h H^e CKa^ap- 
ckom paBHHuoM ro ce;ia Mjeia, n3HaA Kora cy paBHHHe 
cpe;ube-BeKOBHor JJan>a. Ty Hanyiina UpHMOBy K/mcypy, 
Koja je 82 km. ^yra, h nociaje 6pacKH nyT. HaJBehe 
bhchhc AOcrr.Hce Ha koch JUp3H (653 m.) h n/iaHHHH 
flyKH (964 m ). Kor Bacnaca, cpeA^e-BeKOBHor Cb. 
Cnaca, cnyujTa ce nonoBO y AO^HHy UpHMa, aajbe HRe 
Kpo3 dpyTCKy paBaH Ha craBaMa Be^or h UpHor UpHMa, 
Kpo3 o6/iacr ZbyMy h na ripH3peH. OziaBiie cy BORuna 
£Ba nyia; jeaaH Kpo3 a<yne CpeziCKy h ChphhhH, Ha 
KanaHHK, a iipyrn 3a Jlnn/ban. IlpBH je 3HaTHO KpaiiH 
or AaHamiber nyia Kpjn H^e Kpo3 UpHOJbeBCKH K/ia- 
Hau 3a VpoineBau (OepH30BHh). 36or Tora ujto ce 
neibe Ha 3HaTHe bhchhc, h 36or Tora ujto ce Ha Tpn 
Mecra (kor ce/ia TiepaTa, y I ojancKOJ PeuH h koa XaHa 
<t>;ieTa) Mopa cnyniTaTH h npe/ia3HTH peMHe Ao;iHHe, 
OBaj nyT He mojkc nocTaTH cao6pahaJHH nyT Beher 3Ha- 
qaja. HnaK y ;IpHMOBOJ K/iwcypn, 3aTO ujto je H3ay- 
6eHa y MeKHM ({wihujhhm creHaMa h cepnenTHHHMa, 
MO>Ke ce nanpaBHTH 3roAHa K&fteaHHmca npyra Koja 
6h KocoBCKy CTapy Cp6njy H3B0iui/ia na o6a/ie ^aR- 
paHCKor Mopa. BacnocTaB.i.nibe cao6pahaja Ha obomc 
nyTy HMa Ra ce 6opn h c iipyrHM TeuiKohaMa, Hapo- 
mhto c anapxHjOM Koja na OBOMe nyry B/ia;;a. Mcto 
TO^HKy TcuiKohy cawHibaBahe h nHTaibe npHCTamiLUTa, 
jcp je MeAOBCKa ziyica n.iHTKa, 3acyTa necKOM, He3a- 
ujTHheHa h H3^o>KeHa y^apuy jannx ceBepunx BCTpOBa. 
36or Tora, h naR 6h ce ao/ihhom UpHMa npoBe/ia >kc 
/ie3iiHMKa npyra, ohj 6h viopa/ia ,ia ce cBpujaBa h.ih y 



16 HOBA (TBH.lA 

oapcKOM npHCTaHHiiiTy h;ih Ha kom npHcraHHiHTy y 
6;ih3hhh flpaqa. 

Ha jyry on CKa^apcKe kottwhc, aojihhc JtpHMa 
h MeToxHje, Hacrajy njiaHHHe rpHKo-ap6aHCKor cHcreMa, 
kojh je ApyKMHJe n^acTHKe on miaHHHa .HHHapcKor ch- 
deMa, Koje ce npyatajy on jby6jbaHCKe no CKaAapcKc 
kot^hhc noc/ieAtt>e cy, kojihko ce ca/ja 3Ha, Behe 
BHCHHe ho apdaHaiiiKe. Zlajbe, cacraBJbeHe cy on, Kpen- 
ibaKa, kojh hhhh npocTpaHa, rojia, jaKO KpuieBHTa h 
TeniKO npoxojxHa 6njia noja cy nopetjaHa jeAHO 3a 
ApyrHM on odajie npeMa yHyTpauiHbocTH. Oa Ba^HOCTH 
je na Kp03 HdHx HeMa AyranKHx npo6oJHHixa Koje 6h 
nonpenKe npoceua;ie ueo n;iaHHHCKH CHcreM h KOJHMa 
6h ce Morao bpujhth cao6pahaj U3ue\)y IlpHMopja h 
yHyTpauiHDOCTH. — ApdaHCKH cy bchuh hh>kh, jane cy 
36njeHH h cacTaB^eHH cy noiviaBHTO on mckhx fynuw- 
hhx creHa, h 36or Tora cy ce y H>HMa Monie pa3BHTH 
nonpenHe pe^He aojihhc, on kojhx HeKe, Kao JleBOJi h 
LLlKyM6a, npo6HJajy cKOpo CBe n^aHHHCKe BeHue. Hdh- 
xoBe ao/ihhc cy ycne h K/mcypacre, a;iH ce tt>HMa Mory 
carpa^HTH CBe MOAepHe KOiviyHHKauHJe Koje 6u Be3a;ie 
ueHTpa^He Ae^OBe nojiyocrpBa c mopckom o6a;iOM. 

H3 HaBeAeHHx pa3Jiora jacHO je ihto je HaJBaac- 
hhjh nonpenHH hctophjckh nyT, dpaHKO-duuLojbCKii uyiu 
wnw dapa Via Egnatia, Be3aH 3a rpqKO-ap6aHCKH njia- 
hhhckh cHCTeM h 3a BberoBy HaJBa>KHHJy npo6oJHHuy, 
Ao;iHHy LLlKyM6e. OBaj nyT carpaAHJiH cy PHMJbaHH 
OAMax nocrce ocBOJe^a MaKeAOHHj'e, na je 3aAP>Kao 
cBojy Ba>KHOCT CBe no AaHac. nojia3HO je on Zlpana 
(Dyrrhachium) na je nuiao ao;ihhom UlKyM6e (Genusus), 
na je npeKO npeceA-flHHe h njiaHHHe KaHAaBHj'e (^a- 
HaujH>a Be/iHHKa rircaHHHa?) CHJia3HO y OxpHA (Lichni- 
tes), MHJa je b3>khoct y TOMe oito npeACTaBJba TaqKy 
Ha kojoj Via Egnatia H3Jia3H H3 inyMOBHTHx ap6aHCKHx 
n^aHHHa y n;iOAHe h npocrpaHe 3anaAHO-MaKeAOHCKe 
kot^hhc Zla^e je nuiao Kp03 npecnaHCKy KOTJiHHy, 
npeKO PecHa, npeceA-flHHe TbaBaTa y Ma;iy uanapCKy 
h Be^HKy 6nTOJbCKy (neJiaroHHJCKy) KOiviHHy. Hajbe je 
Hinao, npeKO npece^HHe Khjiht JlepBeHT (948 m.), y 
KOT.THHy Cao\\\)On (OcrpBCKO Je3epo) Ha Boach (Edessa), 



n:orPA<('< kh no/io>KAj 17 

HeKaAaiuiby Bapoiu fle^y MHje ce pa3Ba/iHHe BH#e Kon 
ce;ia nodosa y Co^yHCKOJ KaMnaibH, 11 upeKO Co^yHa 
3a LUpnrpa/i. On Co^yHa .no 5HTO.i>a ^aHac H/ie >Ke- 
/ie3HHua, a on 5HTo:ba no OxpH^a HanHtteH je Ao6ap 
ko/ickh nyT. On OxpHiia no Zlpana joiu h caaa Bflaaa 
KHpHMHJCKH cao6pahaj. Reo on Oxpnaa no 6HT0^>a 
npeAcraB^a Haj>KHB;bH nyT y yHVTpaimbociH Flo^yo- 
dpBa. hbHMe ce H3B03e Ha 6HTo;bCKy >Ke^e3HHMKy 
cTaHHuy 3eM^>opa^HHMKH h crowapcKH npojyKTH Be- 
;ihkhx ae/iOBa Cpeatbe Ap6aHHJe h o6;iacTH bc^hkhx 
je3epa 3ana;xHe MaKeAOHHJe. HaponHTo je y jeceH >khb 
OBaj nyT, „>KHBJbH ho BapoiHKe y/iHue MHornx MaKe- 
AOhckhx BapoujH. To je npaBH Kop30 3anaAHe Mane- 
AOHHj'e, Ha KOJeM ce cycpehy KHpnunje c KO^HMa h 
KOHDHMa, xpHmhaHCKH h TypcKH TproBUH, ap6aHaujKe 
nor^aBHue, y KpaTKO CBe pa3He HapoaHOCTH h npy 
ujTBeHH oiojeBH 3anaziHe MaKe;*OHHJe h Ap6aHHJe" 
(UbhjhH, Ochobc I.). 

4. HaJBawHHJH neo Hose CpoHJe. BaviKaHCKo je3rpo. 

VTHuajeM 03Hxnonpe4HHx"KOMyHHKauHJa, nojenHHH 
nenoBH MopaBCKO-Bap^apcKe ynojhune £o6h/ih cy Ha- 
POhhth caoGpahaJHH, Ky/iTypHH h CTpaTerHJCKH 3Hanaj. 
y TOMe nor/ieay no.io>Kaj Crape Cp6HJe MHoro je Ba>K- 
hhjh on no/iowaja MaKeAOHnje. liojeflHHH ac/iobh Ct. 
Cp6HJe HMajy CKopo AOMHHaHTaH no.io>Kaj Ha Ba;iKaH- 
ckom Ilo^yocTpBy Kao Tawne kojc HMajy Be3e y CBHMa 
npaBUHMa, h H3 koj'hx ce Mowe naj/iaKiue yTHuaTH Ha 
cyce^He 3eM^>e. 

3a CTapy Cp6njy on npecy^He b8>khocth je to 
ujto HaJBa>KHHJa nonpeMHa KOMyHHKaunja y ceBepno.M 
ae/iy no/iyocrpBa H36nja y iboj na MopaBCKO-BapAap- 
CKy AO.iHHy, h ujto HMa 3roAHe Be3e y CBHMa npan- 
UHMa. 36or obhx noBO/bHHx npHpoAHHX Be3a, CTapa 
Cp6nja ca cyce^HHM Ae/iOBHMa Cp6nje h ByrapcKe na- 
3BaHa je u,eniupa.iHOM 6aAtCOHCKOM oo.iaiuhy, Koja HMa 
Haj^aKUje HenocpeAne Be3e ca cyce.iHHM ma. Y 

tv 06/iad cna,na CKoncKa oo/iacr c Obmhm IIo.beM, 
KyMaHOBOM h npemeBCKHM pa iboIjcm, Kocobo, Kpajemi 

HOBA CPUMJA 



18 HOBA CPtiHJA 



oko Bpaite, JlecKOBua, rinpoTa h HHiua y Cp6Hjn, h 
KpajeBH oko TiycreHAH;ia h Cocjwje y ByrapcKOj. y toj 
o6;iacTH cKoncKO-npemeBCKa o6;iacT HMa jeAHHCTBeH 
no;io>K2j. OHa HMa JiaKe h CHrypHe Be3e y CBHMa npaB- 
UHMa, jipmn y ce6u KJbyq HajB'a>KHHJe y3Ay>KHe KOMy- 
HHKauHJe h fteHy Be3y c r/iaBHOM nonpe^HOM KOMy- 
HHKauHJOM ; Ha noc/ieTKy, CKoncKO-npemeBCKa je o6;iacT 
3HaTHa ca CBor npnpoAHor 6oracrBa. 36or cbhx obhx 
oco6HHa, CKoncKO-npemeBCKa o6jiacr nociaje cpczmurre 
H3 Kora ce Moate Haj/iaKine 3aBJianaTH npocTpaHHM o6;ia- 
CTHMa Ba^KaHCKor flo/iyocrpBa, h H3 Kora ce Moate pa3- 
bhth je^Ha cHa>KHa AP>KaBa y yHyipamibocTH Baji- 
KaHCKor FIo^yocTpBa. H3 thx pa3/iora, V. LJ,BHJHh je 
cKoncKO-npemeBCKy o6jiacr no Ba)KHOCTH h3abojho oa 
ocra;iHX h Ha3Bao je 6aAKancKUM je3tpoM (Ubhjhh, 
OcHOBe I, dp. 47, 52). 

HecTO je y Hac HCTHijaHa BaacHOCT no;io)Kaja 
Kocoea riojba. him Kao iuto ce H3 ropH>er bhah, Ko- 
cobo je Aa/ieKO oa MopaBCKo-BapAapCKe yAOJbHHe, h 
c H>OMe je Be3aH0 AyranKOM KaqaHHHKOM KjmcypOM, 
Koja ce jiaKo #a 3aTBOpHTH. Oho AaKjie He Bjia.ua hh- 
jeAHHM Ae;iOM r^aBHor y3Ay>KHor nyTa. 3aTHM HeMa 
nyHe hh npaBe Be3e c AOcaAamibOM Cp6njoM, nnja 
nnaBHa KOMyHHKauHOHa h Ky/rrypHa dpyja HAe mo- 
paBCKO-BapAapcKOM yAOJbHHOM. Oho je oa MeToxnje 
h nozipHMa Ha jyro3anaAy, h oa Cp6nje Ha ceBepo- 
HCTOKy, orpatjeHo n;iaHHHaMa. Te cy TeuiKohe He3HaT- 
HHJe npeMa IlehH h FIpH3peHy. Oho je npocTpaHa h 
npHBpeAHO 6oraTa KOiviHHa, c okojihhom Koja je my- 
MOBHTa h 6oraTa pyAaMa, h cnaAa y Hajn/iOAHHJe AejiOBe 
rio/iyocTpBa. HMa Ao6pe npHpoAne Be3e ca CKaAapCKHM 
h 6apcKHM upHMopjeM, 3aTHM c HoBona3apcKHM CaH- 
uaKOM. 3aT0 oho yTHne ueHTpa/iHinyhH Ha jeAny MHoro 
Maiby o6/iacT, HapoqHTo Ha ceBepo3anaAHe npajeBe, y 
Her<o/iHKO h Ha rioAPHM h MeTOXHJy. Oho HMa bckhkh 
3Hanaj 3a HoBona3apcKH CaHuaK, 3aTHM 3a Be3e BocHe 
h XepueroBHHe ca ueHTpa/iHHM 6a/iKaHCKHM 3eM^»aMa 
h MopaBCKO-BapAapcKOM yAOJbHHOM. C KocoBa ce MOtfte 
jaue Ky/nypHO u no;iHTHm<H yTHijaTH Ha HoBona3apCKH 



rEorpA*CKH iio/io>kaj 10 



CaHyaK, h Ha BocHy h XepueroBHHy, ho H3 aoca;iaLiiH>e 
Cp6Hj'e. 

TaKBy, perHOHa^Hy (06/iacHy) Ba>KHOCT HMajy 
MHorH ae/iOBH HoBe Cp6nje. Ha npBOM Mecry, TaKBa 
je eeAeiuKO-uiiuuucKa o6aclcui, y kojoj ce Ha;ia3e pac- 
KpcHHue MHorHx Ba)KHHx nyTeBa h MHora 3HaTHa Tp- 
roBanKa MecTa. y toj ce 06/iacrH CTHny npo/iyKTH 60 • 
raie oko/ihhc, 3aTHM n/iaHHHCKHx 06/iacrH K/iene h 
Xaca, OBHer I~Io/ba, KonaHCKe KoiviHHe, OcoroBHJe, 
FlHJaHua h Ma/ieiua, h Ha noaieTKy, nyieM FIpH/ien- 
TpaACKO, y Be/iec Ao;ia3e npo^yKTH 3HaTHHx #e;ioBa 
FleJiaroHHJe, HapoMHTO npH/iencKe oko^hhc 

y 3ana^HOj MaKe^oHHJH ueHTpa/iHy o6.iacT npea- 
CTaB.-ba ne.iaiOHiijcKa KoiuAuna, MHJe je cpeAHime Bh- 

TOJb. y HdOJ Ce CTHHy MHOrH Ba>KHH nyTCBH H3 Ap- 

6aHHJe, Ennpa, Jy>KHe h CeBepHe MaKeiiOHHJe. 3a n>y 
cy Be3aHe KOiviHHe: OxpHACKa, FIpecnaHCKa, KopnaH- 
CKa h CapH^o/i, 3aTHM >Kyna >Ke;ie3HHK, 11 3HaTHH jie- 
;iobh KHMeBa h nopena. 

CeBepHH neo ao;iHHe UpHMa, HapoMHTO dedapcna 
ooaclciTi, npeflcraBJba je#Hy or HaJ3a6aqeHHJHx h najjane 
oabojshhx o6^acTH ue;ie HoBe Cp6Hj'e. Bhcokhm h 
TeiiiKO npoxoflHHM BeHUHMa OHa je o^BojcHa or UpaM- 
Kor FIpHMopja h or 06a tlo/iora. Be3e Koje nocrojc 
npeKO bhcokhx n^aHHHCKHX npeBOJa BehH aco ro^HHe 
cy HeynoTpe6^HBe, jxenoM 36or bcthkhx CHeroBa, a 
n,e/iOM 36or HecHrypHOCTH Koja je y thm o6.iacTHMa 
B/iaaa.na, h Koja y ap6ancKHM n.ianHnaMa h caj B.Ta^a. 
y npaBuy ao^hhc UpHMa, npe.via ripH3peHy, caoopa- 
haj ce HHJe Morao pa3BHTH 36or necHrypHHx npn/iHKa, 
Koje he h or caaa TaMO B/iaaaTH. Ha Taj HanHn, rq- 
6apcKa 06/iacr BMahe Be3e caMo c OxpHAOM, h, 3a 
/icnbHx Meceun, c TocrHBapoM h c TeTOBOM. 36or Tora 
he 6hth je^Ha or HaJHeonxo/iHHJHx, h ckohomckhx h 
crpaTernjcKHx, noTpe6a R2L ce ne6apcKa 06/iaer ihto 
npe Be>Ke, 3roAHHM cao6pahaJHHM ziHHHJaMa, c TeTo- 
bom h c ao/iHHOM Bapaapa. 

y nac ce MHoro roBopH/10 o reorpacJ)CKOj Ba>K- 
hocth Cuiape Paiiine h.th Hodoua3apcKu: Caw/aha. 
To je BHCOKa, KpmeBHTa, npnpoAHo Mnpcro orpafyeHa 



20 HOBA CPEHJA 

n^aHHHCKa o6jiacr, ckohomckh aocTa CHpoMauma, Koja 
je CBOJy HapOMHTy no-nHTHHKy Ba>KHOCT noCuna. 3aio 
uito ce Kao kjihh yBJianHJia Metjy ABe cpncKe apataBe. 
Ty Ba>KHOCT nojanaBao je h Taj MOMeHaT uito je je- 
jxhsl dpaHa np>KaBa Ty o6;iacT cMaTpa/ia Kao no:ia3Hy 
6a3y 3a CBOja ^ajba ocBajatba Ha HCTOKy h ihto je 6ma 
h bojhhhkh nocejia. To je 6ho je^HHCTBeH no;io)Kaj 
no^HTH^KH 3aTBOpeHe 3eM^>e, no;io>Kaj Ha ocHOBy Kora 
je Ubhjhh ctbopho nojaM noflHTHHKe 3eMJboy3HHe. Ca.ua, 
Ka^a cy ce cacrajie rpaHHue zusajy cpncKHx KpajbeBHHa, 
CTapa PaiuKa H3ry6n^a je Her#aiHH>H 3Haqaj 3eM^oy- 
3HHe. OHa HMa nocne oc^o6o^CH.a OTBOpeHe rpaHHue 
npeMa ceBepy, npeMa HCTOKy h npeMa jyry. Je^HHO je 
3aTBOpeHa npeMa Bochh, h to y npaBuy y KOMe uny 
#o;iHHe HdChhx HaJBaacHHJHx pena. H ckohomckh h nojiH- 

THHKH nOJIO>Kaj JOJ je HecyMtbHBO nOBOJbHHJH. Aj\U Ta 

n^aHHHCKa o6;iacT He Moace BHiue HMaTH CBOJy HeKa- 
AanjH>y Ba>KHOCT, h to HapOHHTo y BpeMeHy Ka^a ueo 
MO^epHH Jby^CKH >khbot CTpyJH y npaBuy npeivia hhckhm 
KOTJiHHaMa h ^y6oKHM peHHHM'^o^HHaMa. Je^HHo he ca- 
nyBaTH Moacaa CBOJy crpaTernjcKy Ba^HOCT, Kao BHeoKa, 
TeuiKO npHCTynaHHa h npHpo^Ho yTBptjeHa o6;iacT. 

n^acTHKa MaKe^OHHJe h CTape Cp6nje, ca cbo- 

JHM H30JIOBaHHM KOTJiHHaMa H 3aTBOpeHHM o6jiaCTHMa, 

HeodHHHO je noBOJbHa 3a pa3Bnhe OBaKHx HHzuiBHAy- 
ajiHHX reorpa(J)CKHx uejinna. Ta 3eMJba y cbom BeheM 
Acny oapetjeHa je £a )khbh >khbotom kojh je pa36njeH 
y BHUie MatbHX ue;iHHa, oa kojhx je TeuiKO cacTaBHTH 
je^Hy Ky^TypHy, HauHOHajiny H jipmaBuy ueJiHHy. TaKaB 
no/io>Kaj 6ho 6h HecyMftHBO Te>KaK h BeoMa Hesro^aH. 
H 36or Tora AO^HHa Bap^apa, Koja no cpe^HHH npe- 
ceua Te o6e 3eMjbe, HMa, h 3a caMy yHyTpauiH>ocT, Heo- 
6hhho Be^HKH 3Haqaj. hfooMe cy 0Be 3eM;be ao6ivic 
je^Hy Be;iHKy cao6pahaJHy apTepnjy y Kojy ce cnmy 
nyTeBH H3 CBHJy 06/iacrH, koj'om CTpyJH >khbot h Kyji- 
Typa ue^e 3eMJbe, h npeMa kojoj ce y^euiaBa >khbot 
h cao6pahaj CBHJy ocra;iHx KOT/iHHa. 

HoBa Cp6HJa HMa jiaKJie je^Hy ueHTpa^Hy jiu- 
HHJy y Kojy cc CBe cnme h H3 Koje ce Ha CBe CTpaHC 



TEOrPA^CKH n0.10>KAJ 21 



Mory ;iaKO BpuiHTH pa3HOBpcHH yTHuajH. C Tora me- 
.HHiuTa OHa HMa noBOJbHHj'e reorpa(J)CKe npn;iHKe o^ 
cbhx ocra^Hx 6a;iKaHCKHx 3eMajba, H3y3eB nocajiauiihQ 
Cp6Hj'e. Hh ByrapcKa hh TpHKa HeMajy Tano 3ro;ine 
cao6pahaJHe apTepHJe Koje B/ianajy cao6pahajeM ue;ie 
3eMJbe, Kao iuto je HMa HOBa h /locaAatuFba Cp6Hj'a. 

HocMaTpaHDeM reorpacf)CKe Kapie bhah ce na je 
canauiiha Cp6HJa 3arocnoaapH/ia HaJBa>KHHJHM TawKaMa 
y yHyTpaiiJHDOCTH Ba/u<aHCKor I~Io;iyocTpBa. OHa rocno- 
Aapn CBHMa ohhm o6;iacTHMa Koje caMHH>aBajy Tano 
3BaHO 6ajiKaucKO je3rpo. A;ih je on HaJBehe Ba>KHOCTH 
iuto je Cp6Hja 3arocno#apH/ia CKopo ue/iOM MopaBCKo- 
BapjiapcKOM .ho^hhom, h iuto jy je ocnrypa.ia no6pHM 
npnpoiiHHM rpaHHuaMa. Ha Taj HanHH, Cp6nja je no- 
6ujia KJbyv on HajBa>KHHJHx reorpa^CKHx TanaKa y 
yHyTpauubocTH Ba^naHCKor no/iyocrpBa, h Ha nyTy je 
na nocTaHe, ynpaBO 36or Tora, HaJBa>KHHJa 6a;u<aHCKa 
^p>KaBa. Ba>KHOCT reorpa(})CKHx npn^HKa Hauie npo- 
ujHpeHe OTai I i6HHe je TO/iHKa, h 3a Hac TaKO noBO/bHa, 
na je 3HaTaH /ieo Haujux caBpeMeHHKa je#Ba cxBaTa h 
oceha. Mh cmo can y TaKBHM npn/iHKaMa na ce ne 
MopaMO Kao no cana TyacHTH Ha cboj CKpo3 HenoBo- 
jbaH reorpa({)CKH no^o>Kaj. 3aBHCH caMo on Hac, on 
name Bpe^HOCTH, yMeujHOCTH, ziyiueBHe CHare h Ky/i- 
TypHor pana, na na ce thm jcahhctbcho noBO.'bHHM no- 
.io>KajeM no Kpaja kophcthmo h na ra yMBpcTHMO. 



npyrn ,heo. 

OB^MUM 3EMJbHLL[TA. 

H y £Oca,naiiiH>HM HauiHM H3JiaraH>HMa mh cmo 
qeiiihe roBOpHJW o 3Haqajy nojeflHHHx reorpa(})CKHx 
o6jeKaTa, h o Ky;rrypHOj h eKOHOMCKOJ Ba>KHOCTH no- 
je^HHHx njiacTHHKHx upia. H y AajbeM H3Jiaraft»y, Ha- 
POhhto npH onHcy noje^HKHx o6jiacTH. cpeTaheMO ce 
BeoMa necTO c yTHuaJHMa obhx HHHHJiaua. Th cy yTH- 
uaJH pa3HOBpCHH h no nopeKJiy HHHHJiaija oji kojhx 
#0Jia3e h no janHHii kojom ohh yTHqy. Ohh ce ocehajy 
h y ocTaJiHM cpncKHM 3eMjbaMa, Kao h Ha ue^oj 3e- 
MajbCKOj* uoBpuiHHH. Ajih o6;iacTH Koje caqHH>aBajy 
HoBy Cp6njy pa3JiHKyjy ce or ocrajinx cpncKHx 3e- 
Majba THMe iiito HMajy MHoro CTapnjy reoJiouiKy nponi- 

.JIOCT H KOMn^HKOBaHHJy n^aCTHKy, KOJa pa3HOBpCHHJHM 
H MHOro6pOJHHJHM CBOJHM C/ieMeHTHMa yTHHe Ha Jby^CKH 

>khbot. jja 6h HaM th yTHuajn 6h;ih jaCHH, MH keMO 

xpOHOJIOIHKHM pCZJOM H3^0>KHTH nOCTaHaK H pa3BHTaK 

OBe n^acTHKe h HdChhx nojeAHHHX e^eMeHaia. 

I. OCHOBHM M npB06HTHM o6nUi\V\. 
YTHuaJH yHyiapH>Hx 3eiviajbCKHX cHjia. 

Ha Ba^KaHCKOM noflyocrpBy HMaMO neT njiaHHH- 
ckhx CHcreMa, or kojhx ce CBaKH o^JiHKyje cbojhm 
HapoHHTHM oco6HHaMa. 0,3, thx CHCTeMa 3a n^acTHKy 
HoBe Cp6nje HMajy Ba>KH0CTH caMO TpH, h to :'po,zion- 
ckh, rpMK0-ap6aHCKH h;ih nHH^CKH, h ^HHapcKH ruia- 



0I..1HUH 3EM/LH11JTA 



HHHCKH CHCTeM. [~lpBH 3ay3HMa CKOpO CBe o6^8CTH 

6HBiue MaKeAOHHJe h Crape Cp6Hje, aok nocneAfoa 
nsa. 3a^a3e y HdHX caMo nojeAHHHM cbojhm orpaHUHMa. 
TlHHapcKH h nHHzicKH chctcm 3ay3HMajy ueo 3anaaHH Aeo 
Ba^KaHCKor FIo^yocTpBa. FIpBH ce npywa oa Jhy6jhan- 
cne KcnviHHe Ha ceBepy no CKa^apcne KcnviHHe Ha jyry, 
h no MeroxHJe, KocoBa, KonaoHHKa h PyAHHKa na 
HcroKy. hbeMy AaK/ie npnnaAajy CBe n/iaHHHe XpBaTCKe, 
Ha^MauHJe, BocHe, XepueroBHHe, UpHe Tope, CeBepHe 
Ciape Cp6nje h 3anaAHe no/iOBHHe AOcaAanitt>e Cp6nje. 
Ohhackh n.iaHHHCKH CHcreM npy>Ka ce oa CKa^apcKe 
h MeTOXHJCKe KoT/iHHe no Jy>KHe TpHKe. HcronHa My 
je rpaHHua, y rviaBHOM, Oxphacko Je3epo h AO/iHHa 
UpHor ZlpHMa. 06a OBa n/iaHHHCKa cncreMa npea- 
cTaBJbajy M/iaAe n/iaHHHe Koje cy cacraBJbeHe on BHiue 
napa^e^HHx BeHaua kojh c ncroKa 3aTBapajy ja^pan- 
CKy o6a;iy. CaMO cy bchuh npBor cncreMa npocrpaHHJH, 
n^ehaTHJH h npaBH^HHJe. cy rpa^eHH, a nope^aHH cy 
TaKO Aa HaJBHUJH bchuh h bpxobh A0/ia3e cKopo y 
cpe^HHH caMor CHCTeMa. Bchuh Apyrora cy y>KH, 36h- 
jeHHJH, HHcy TaKO CHMeTpHMHo pacnope^eHH h ApyKHHJe 
cy reo;ioiiiKe rpahje. 

Hctomho on 06a OBa CHCTeMa je podouchu uau- 
huhcku cuciueM, kojh je Ha ceBepy orpaHHqeH 6a/iKaH- 
ckhm n^aHHHCKHM chctcmom, a c jyra h ncroKa Erej- 

CKHM H MpaMOpHHM MopCM. On CBHX OCTa/IHX, pOAOnCKH 

CHCTeM ce pa3/iHKyje THMe liito oh HHj'e cacraBJbeH H3 
HenpeKHAHHx n^aHHHCKHx BeHaua kojh cy y h3bcchom 
peAy nope^aHH, Beli je cacraB/beH H3 BHiiie n/iehaTHx, 
Mecro ycaM^eHHx n/iaHHHa h ayooKHx h npocrpanHx 
KOT^HHa, Koje cy MaxoM y pa3HHM npaBUHMa nopeljanc, 
h CKopo 6e3 HKaKBor nopeTKa pa3MeiiJTeHe. Mh OBAe 
HeMaMO naK/ie jeAny n.iaiiHHCKy ue-iHHy h;ih jeAan ueo 
CHcreM n/iaHHHa, Beh HMaMO pa3ne rpyne ruianniia KOJC 
cy ue\)y co6om H30ABajane h H3pa36njaHe. 36or Tora 
ce o6hmho h hc roBopn o poAoncKOM n^aHHHCKOM 
cHcreMy Beh o poAoncKoj MacH. 

UeHTpa/my 06/iaer poAoncKor n/ianHHCKor CHCTeMa, 
h/ih poAoncKe n.iaHHHCKe Mace, caMHibaBajy n/iaumi 
Be/iacnua, LLlap/iHJa, Ilnpnn, PoAone, Pn;ia, Bcluh:., 



24 HOBA CPBHJA 



Kapa^ar h XopTaq, Koje ce Ha;ia3e y AOcaAaumoj 
Hctomhoj MaKe^OHHJH h Jy>KHOj ByrapcKOj. O^aBAc 
poAoncKH njiaHHHCKH CHCTeM npy>Ka CBOje pa3He, Maite 
h Behe, KpaKOBe npeMa 3anaAHOJ MaKeAOHHJH, npeivia 
KocoBy, h Ay>K MOpaBCKe AOflHHe npeMa HyHaBy, rjie 
ce nojcuHHa BberoBa Man>a OAeJbetba npodnjajy npeMa 
ceBepy H3Meijy orpaHaKa AHHapcKor cncreMa h njiaHHH- 
ckhx orpaHaKa Hctohhc Cp6nje kojh npnnaAajy Kap- 
naTCKOM njiaHHHCKOM CHdeMy. 

PoAoncKH n/iaHHHCKH CHCTeM AOAHpyje ce, AaKJie, ca 
CBHMa n^aHHHCKHM CHdeMHMa Ba^KaHCKor riojiyocrpBa. 
TpaHHue H>eroBe cy HerAe Man^e a HerAe BHuie iacHe. 
TpaHHHHe o6jiacTH cy o6hmho KOMnjiHKOBaHe reo-JiouiKe 
rpa^e, h y TaKHM npHAHKaMa je o6hhho TeuiKO OApe- 
ahth rpaHHuy H3Me^y ABa cyceAHa njiaHHHCKa CHcreMa. 
y r^aBHOM ce y3HMa Aa ce npeMa AHHapcKOM njiaHHH- 

CKOM CHCTeMy rpaHHMH JIHHHJOM Koja H^e OA Py^HHKa 

Ha KonaoHHK h Ha Kocobo Iiojbe; npeMa rpqKO-ap6aH- 

CKOM n^aHHHCKOM CHCTeMy TpaHHUe HJXy y TJiaBHOM 

aoahhom UpHor UpHMa Ha Oxphacko Je3epo, a Ha 
AOAHpy c orpaHUHMa njiaHnne Ba;iKaHa HacTaje hh3 
n^aHHHa Koje cy no cbojhm oco6HHaMa 03HaqeHe Kao 
n/iaiiniie Koje HHHe npe;ia3 H3Mel]y 06a CHCTeMa. 

PoAoncKH n^aHHHCKH CHCTeM npeacraBJba Haj- 
cTapHJH n^aHHHCKH CHCTeM Ba;iKaHCKor Ilo^yocTpBa, 
ynpaBO H>eroB HajcrapHJH Aeo. CBe ocra;ie njiaHHHe 
cy MHoro MAalje oa H>era, h HMajy ApyKHHJy npoujAOcr, 
ApyKHHJy HCTOpHJy pa3BHha h ApyKHHiy njiacniKy. Po- 
AoncKH n^aHHHCKH CHCTeM npeACTaBJba jeAaH oa H aj- 
cTapHJHx n^aHHHCKHX cncreMa Ha 3eMajbCKOj noBpuiHHH. 
Ta cTapocr ce onieAa y TOMe hjto cy CBe Te njiaHHHe 
cacraBJbeHe oa HajcTapHJHx cTeHa, uito cy CBe h3jiom- 
jbeHe y 6e36poj Man>Hx KOMaAa, h ujto AaK;ie CBe 
npeAcraBJbajy caMo ocTaTKe oa HeKaAauntHx nAaHHHa. 

H poAoncKH njiaHHHCKH CHCTeM nocTao je OHano 
Kao ujto je nocTao HaJBehn Aeo AaHauiiBHx njiaHHHa 
Ha 3eMajbCKoj noBpuiHHH : nadupaweM nope 3eMajbCKe. 
ZU 6hcmo pa3yMeAH nocTaHaK poAoncKor njiaHHHCKor 
CHCTeMa, 6nhe noTpedHO Aa y KpaTKHM upTaMa o6ja- 
chhmo caM npouec HaGnpaHba. Ha npBOM Mecry Tpe6a 



OB/IHUH 3EMJbHIHTA 25 



na OiiroBopHMO Ha OBa nHTan>a : KaKo ce Mowe m6u- 
paTH KOpa 3eMa;bCKa Koja je cacraB;beHa on hbpcthx 
creHa, KaKBH cy 3Haun Tora Ha6Hpatba h 'kojh cy My 
y3pouH? Ha Ta nHTatba curoBopHheMo oBaKo. Ko je 
nona3no y Haiue nnannne h 3arvie;iao pa3He no/io>Kaje 
Koje 3ay3HMajy c/iojeBH ohhx creHa on kojhx je ca- 
CTaB^ena n/iaHHHa, BH^ehe na cy creHe necTO Ha6paHe 
y orpoMHe 6ope Koje cy KaTKaa no MHTaBe KH/iOMeipe 
^yre. HecyMibHBO je, ^aK^e, na HMa creHa Koje cy 
Ha6paHe CKopo OHaKO hcto Kao luto ce Ha6epe Kouan 
cyKHa h/ih n/iaTHa Kan ra c je^He crpaHe noTHCHeMO. 
Ha ce h HBpcTe CTeHe Mory Ha6HpaTH, AOKa3a^H cy (J)h- 
3HMapH kojh cy pa3He creHe MeTa^H noji orpoMHH npn- 
THcaK h y Be^HKy TeMnepaTypy. Ohh cy £OKa3a/iH na 
h HaJHBpiuhe creHe, non orpoMHHM npHTHCKOM h y 
H3BaHpeiiHO bctchkoj TeMnepaTypH, nocrajy e;iacTHMHe, 
h na ce Mory npecaBHJaTH Kao KOMaa TaHKe ;iHMe (n/iexa). 
Ha Tpehe nHTatbe MO>KeMO o^roBopHTH caMO TeopHJcKH. 
3h3mo na 3eMJba HMa CBOJy B-nacTHTy Ton^OTy. Ako ce 
cnyiHTaMO y £y6oKe pyzmnne h TyHe^e, 3HaMO na } 3a 
CBaKHx 30 no 34 Mdpa Ay6HHe, TeMnepaTypa ce no- 
Beha 3a \enan creneH. floujTo no cpeztHuiTa 3eM^>e 
HMa npeno 6000 KH/iOMeTapa, to ce MO)Ke 3aMH- 
cvihth KaKO y>KacHa BpyhHHa Bnana y cpe^Hiuiy 3eM;bc 
Ty Ton/iOTa Mopa 6hth TO/iHKa na pacrana cBe CTeHe 
h CBe MHHepa/ie. 36or Tora ce h npeTnocraBJba ^a 
ce cpe^HUJTe 3eM^>e Ha/ia3H y ycHJaHO tcwhom cratby. 
O TOMe cnenone h By/iKaHCKe .laBe, kojc HecyMibHBO 
AO/ia3e H3 bc.hhkhx £y6HHa, h Koje H36njajy na 3eM.i>y 
y ycHJaHO tcmhom craiby. 

CynpoTHO TOMe, BacnoHCKe npodopHJe Koje cc 
Ha/ia3e oko 3eM.be y>KacHo cy xnanne. C noMohy 6a- 
.lOHa AOKasaHO je na na BHcnuaMa on 10 KibioMCTapa 
Bnana TeMnepaTypa on 60 creneHH ncnoA Hy;ie. 36or 
OBora cBera, 3eM/ba je npHnytjCHa na ry6n CBOjy to- 
n/iOTy h na ce nocTeneHO x/ia/iH. X/iahetbeM, OHa CBe 
BHUje CMaibyje CBOjy janpcMHuy. To x.ialjeibe jaue o< 
CpCJUUirre sen/be no MBpcra Kopa i.CKa, Koja je 

CKopo cacBHM x.naAHa. CpejHUJTe ce, <6or Tora, 6p>Kc 
x.ia^n h 6p>Ke cMaibyje. ; rora, H.^Mehy ikcrfl h 



26 HOBA CPBHJA 



HBpcre Kope CTBapajy ce npa3HH npodopH h uiynjbHHe 
Koje npeacTaBJbajy MecTa c;ia6e omopHe moHh. 36or 
Tora, y hdhx ce CTponouiTaBa HBpcra Kopa 3eMa;t>CKa, 
Koja tom npn^HKOM o6hhho Hcnyua. TaKO HacTajy Be- 
;iHKa yay6jbeH>a y KopH 3eMajbCKoj, oHaKBa Kao uno 
cy kotjihhc bckhkhx OKeaHa h Mopa. OHe nyKOTHHe 
Koje ce jaBe Ha KopH 3eMajbci<oj 30BeMO pacedu. Ohh 
Mory j& 6yny HdpraHH y BHiue JiHHHj'a, a Mory ,na 
npe^CTaBJbajy h jeflHy jiHHHJy, Mory rsl H3i7ieaajy Kao 
3janehe nyKOTHHe, a Mory h #a 6yay npeKpHBeHH 

3eMJbOM. 

3eMajbCKa Kopa ce, aaKJie, ycjie/j ry6jbett>a to- 
n^OTe, CMe^KypaBa Kao iiito ce civie}Kypa Kopa or ja- 
6yKe Ka^ ce ocyuiH. Ohh KOMa^H 3eMJbe kojh noTOHy 
y jiyCuny Bpuie 6oqHH npHTHcaK Ha OHe cJiojeBe kojh 
ce Ha;ia3e y ,ziy6HHaMa. Th cy cjiojeBH noa bcjihkhm 
npHTHCKOM KOJH ,HOJia3H or cnojeBa kojh Jie>Ke Ha H)HMa, 
a Ha^a3e ce aaKJie h y bcjihkoj BpyhHHH. 36or Tora 
ohh h Mory aa ce TaKO Ha6npajy. 

OBaKHM npouecoM Ha6Hpatt>a nocrajie cy npBO* 
6htho CBe n^aHHHe Ba-JiKaHCKor riojiyocrpBa. O caMOM 
poAoncKOM njiaHHHCKOM CHCTeMy 3Ha ce obo. Oh je 
cacTaBJbeH o^ HajdapHJHx CTeHa 3eMajbCKe noBpuiHHe, 
nor^aBHTO or KpncrajiacTHx uiKpHJbaua 1 . CBe CTeHe or 
kojhx je cacraB;beH poaoncKH CHdeM 6njie cy HadpaHe 
y najieo30JHKy, h to npe nepMa 2 . PoaoncKa Maca je 

1 CBe deHe on kojhx je caciaBJbeHa 3eMajbCKa noBpuiHHa 
MoweMO, npeMa h>hxobom nociaHKV, noae;iHTH Ha TpH Bpcie. IlpBy 
upcTy caqnH>aBajy KpurtuaAacuiu uiKptubu,u; ohh npeacraBJbajy Haj- 
dapHJe deHe 3e\ia;bCKe noBpniHHe h CTajiHO o6pa3yjy ocHOBy Hai- 
n.y6ibviu h HajcTapHJHM ce/iHMeHTapHHM creHaMa. ZXpyry BpcTy ca- 
wH^aBajy ceduMeHiuapHe cmene, Koje nocrajy TajioweFteM Ha AHy 
MopcKOM, a Tpehy MHHe epyuiuueHe cmene. To cy CTeHe Koje cy 
nocra;ie H36auHBaH>eM ycnjaHO tcmhhx Maca H3 yHyTpauifcocTH 3eMJbe. 
Pa3;iHKyjy ce Mehy co6om nomaBHTO npeMa MHHepajiHMa oa kojhx 
cy cacTaB.-heHe, npeMa HaHHHy Ha kojh cy Ha 3eMa^CKOj hobpuihhh 
M3^HBeHe, KaTKaa h npeMa reo/iouiKoj CTapocTH, a h thmc uito neKe 
Huajy tnojeBe a HeKe hx neMajy. 

- Feo^ouiKy npouuiocT acuhmo Ha wempH nepHO/ie, h to Ha 
ajxxajHK, na^eo30JHit, Me3030JHK h kcho30jhk. I Apxajurc npeacTaBJba 
HajcTapHJy nepnojiy reo/ioiUKe npouiJiocTH, reo/iouiKy npftHcropHJy, 

M3 KOJe HCMaMO HHKaKBH* 3HaKOBa no KOJHMa 6HCMO MOHIH 3aKJbyMHTH 



OWIHUH AtLMJhHWTX 



TaAa, BepoBaTHO, HMa/ia o6auk BeHanHHx n.iaHHHa. OHa 
je aouHHje yTHuajeM TeKyhwx BOfla 6ma nocreneHo pa 
3opaBaHa h pa3HoineHa, TaKO Aa je npH noneTKy TepuH- 
jepa npeACTaB;ba/ia 06/jacr ca n/iaHHHaMa Ma.ae bhchhc, 
c npocTpaHHM peMHHM AO^HHaMa, MHoro6poJHHM je3e- 
pHMa h paBHHixaMa. y cpe/iHHH TepuHj'epa Hacraje no- 
hobho H3AH3aH5e h Ha6Hpaft>e, npH KOMe 3HaTaH aeo 
n^aHHHa AOCTH>Ke or npH^HKe nauamiby BHCHHy. Ha- 
6paHe 6Huie M/iatje n/iaHHHe Ha .neBOj o6a;w Bap/iapa. 
y to BpeMe poAoncna Maca HMa/ia je MecTHMHue Ka- 
paKTep BeHaMHe n^aHHHe; caMO noje^HHH bchuh HHcy 
HMa/iH oiuTpe noBHj'apue h rpe6eHe, Kao ihto hx o6hmho 
HMajy M-rca^e n^aHHHe, Beh cy 6h/ih MaxoM n;iehaTHJH h 
Ha Bpxy 3apaBHDeHH. 

no npH^HUH y hcto BpeMe jaBHiue ce hobh noKpe™ 
y npaBOj po/ioncKoj MacH, to jecT y o6.iacTH KpHcra/ia- 
cthx creHa, o6pa30Baiue ce y H>oj Be/iHKe nyKOTHHe Koje 
Hcnpeceuaiue 3eM^>y y CBHMa npaBUHMa, HCTprauie n.ia- 
HHHCKe BeHue,npeceKouje paBHHue h peMHe#o/iHHe. Zly>K 
thx nyKOTHHa hjih pace^a noTOHyme orpoMHe n;iace 3e- 
MajbCKe Kope, a zipyre ocrafloiue Ha cbojhm npBo6HTHHM 
MecTHMa, h;ih ce Bp/io Ma^o noMepHiue. OH^e rae ce y 
je^HOJ TaMUH cacTa^e BHiue pace.ua, h;ih r^e pace;ui 

na je y \htMy 6h.io HKaKBa opraHCKor >KHBOTa ApxajcKH repeal 
cacTaB.i>enH cy oa KpncTaaacTHx uiKpn;baua. II Ha.wo.iojcKa uc- 
puoda acim ce Ha ujcct c|)opMaunja : 1) npcKaMftpiiyM, 2) Ka.MopnyM. 
3) cii.iyp, 4) ;icboh, 5) Kapoon H o) nepst. HI Me3030JCKa uepuoda 
.lean ce Ha TpH c|)opMauHje: 1) Tpujac, 2) jypa hS) KpeAS. W l\> - 
H030JCKO. uepuoda ae.iH ce Ha 1) Tcpunjep H 2) KBapiep. Tep- 
UHjep ce ae;iH Ha: a) couch, 6) o.iHroucn, bi mhoucii mi) h.ihouch. 
Eouea h o.inroueH o6hmho ce naniBajy iid.ieocen, I mhouch m 
ii.ihouch neotcH. KuapTep ce .ic.ih u dtuyettyM BOjtyenyM Haj« 
cTapMJn TparoBn Jbyxcxor >KHBOTa cy jn.iyBnja.inc CTapOCTO. 

3a juuuun&y OJUCTIiy 3evia-T>cKe noBpniHHc najBa>KHHje cy Kap- 
6oncKa h Tcpunjcpua (|)opMauHja.CpcaHHo.M nap60M ■ Tepunjcpa H3tp- 
ujeHa cy Be-iHKa yCnpaika y Kopn 3eMa.i»cKoj. y cpejUlWl repmjepi na 
6pane cy h yxuimyTe aanaiiiH.c n.ijuchc u.iaiimie. IIupcucjn, Oijepa 
HeBaaa, AT.iac, A.nm. Aiichhhh, KapMTH, ,'lnnapcKc H.iaiuiHC, I'p'iKo- 
ap6aHCKe n-iannne, BaanaH, KtBKlS, Xnsiaaajn H Kupju.i.cpn Cbh 
aaHaiHH,H kohthhchth h MOpa noweaH cy tck y repOHJepy joGuBa™ 
cboj jaiiauiH^H oo.ihk. y Kap6unv CJ iiabpaHC bpeTan.cKc ii.iaHHHc, 
ApjcHH, huiC3H, LllBapuHa.u n Xapu BftOHOMCIOI juawaj hapduna Je 
y rOMC ihto cy y m.cmv CTOKMKU orpOMU cK.iaaoBM KaMoiui yi.i.a. 



28 HOBA CP1SHJA 



OHBHHHiue BehH Aeo 3eMajbCKe nofipniHHe, o6pa30Bame 
ce npodpaHe crapocpdnjaHCKe h MaKeAOHCKe kotjihhc 
Koje 6ejaxy onKOJbeHe ctpmchhthm h bhcokhm creHO- 
bhthm iiyBapOBHMa, h TaKO nocTame H30JiOBaHe M 3a- 
TBOpeHe. 

Kojihko cy My6oKo TOHy^e OBe njiace, Mo^e ce 
caMO iiph6;ih>kho ouchhth. TaKO, Ha npHMep, orvieAajio 
OxpHACKor Je3epa bhcoko je HaA MopeM 690 m., a 
AyooKO 286 m. Vajiumnxa. mnaji itera BHCOKa je 2043 
m. npeMa TOMe, oBAe cnyiuTaH>e h3hoch H3JMan>e 1729 
Meiapa. H3Me^y AHa npecnaHCKor Je3epa h IlepH- 
depa Ta pa3JiHKa h3hoch 1678 m., a CKOpo hcto to- 
nuKa je H3Mel]y OdpoBCKor Je3epa h Hhhc CnoncKa 
KoT^HHa BHCOKa je 25C m., a JaKynnua H3Ha.ii. H>e 2250 
m. OBAe cnyHJTaH>e h3hoch HaJMaHDe 2000 MeTapa. 
CKOpo HCTa pa3^HKa je H3Meijy KocoBa Flojba (500 ao 
600 m.) h LLIape (2510 m.). OBe pa3^HKe AOCTH>Ky Haj- 
Behy BHCHHy oko CojiyHCKor 3a;iHBa, kojh je Ay6oK 
oko 1000 MeTapa, a H3HaA H>era je 0;iHMn bhcok 2935 
m. Pa3;iHKa AaKJie h3hoch oko 4000 Meiapa. H3 OBora 
ce bhah ^a je cnyniTatbe 6hjio Hajjane oko ErejcKor 
Mopa h y ao;ihhh BapAapa. 

y BpeMe KaA je no^ejio paceAatte poAoncKe Mace, 
Hacrajio je Ha6HpaH>e MJialjHx njiaHHHCKHx cHCTeMa Ha 
Ba^KaHCKOM Ilo^yocTpBy. HecyMtbHBO je Aa cy to- 
hbeHba h CTponoujTaBaHDa bckhkhx Maca KOj'a M cy y to 
BpeMe BpmeHa y poAoncKOJ Macn, 3HaTHO yTHua;ia Ha 
o6;ihk h npaBau MJialjHx naaHHHa. To ce bhah no TOMe 
hito cy CBe Te njiaHHHe y o6;iHKy BejiHKor jiyKa rpy- 
nncaHe oko poAoncKe Mace, riopeA Tora, 6ope MJia- 
1)hx n^aHHHa HarHyTe cy yBeK y cynpoTHOM npaBijy 
oa po^oncKe Mace, h to 6ope AHHapcKor h rpHKO-ap- 
6aHCKor CHCTeMa npeMa 3anaAy, a dope Ba^KaHa cKopo 
6e3 H3y3eTKa npeMa ceBepy. H3 Tora ce bhah Aa cy 
H3 poAoncKe Mace BpuieHH 6ohhh npHTHCUH Ha 6ope 
M^al)Hx n^aHHHa. PoAoncKa Maca, Kao HajcrapHJH Aeo 
KonHa, HHj'e cnyyKwia. caMO Kao 6paHa h ycraBa 3a 
KpeTaHae 6opa, Beh je aKTHBHO ynecTBOBa^a y cTBa- 
pafey M^ai]Hx n/ianHHa THMe ujto je BpniHTia noTHCKe 
y CBHMa npaBUHMa. 



OTJIHUH 3EMJbHIUTA 

Kao ujto ce bhah, poaoncKa Maca npe£craB;ba 
npaBy paceflHy n^aHHHy. HcnpeceuaHa je c BHiue yHa- 
kpchhx paceaa, TaKO na cy o^ npBodHTHe n/iaHHHe 
ocra/iH caMO KOMann. HiviaMO, aaK/ie, y cpeaHHH Ba;i- 
KaHCKor Ilo^yocTpBa ]ejxny dapy n/iaHHHy, Koja je 
6e3 o6^HKa, 6e3 ue;iHHe h pa36HJeHa y 6e36poj ycaM- 
/beHHx rmaHHHa h n;iaHHHCKHx rpyna. H3Meijy obhx 
cy &y6oKe KOT.nHHe h pewHe £o;iHHe, Koje cy o6hhho 
Meljyco6HO Be3aHe, h hhhc rpyne on ayranKHx h npo- 

CTpaHHX HH3HHCKHX JIHHHJa. 

Haj,ny>Ky h HajnpocipaHHJy hh3hhcky ;iHHHJy npe/i- 
craB/ba ROJiHHa Bap^apa, Koja je cacraBTbeHa on BHiue 
npocrpaHHx KOiviHHa h peHHHx K^Hcypa. Ue;ia Bap- 
AapcKa JlojiHna npeAcraBJba o6;iacT y kojoj cy ce 
CTeK/iH MHoro6poJHH pace^H, kojh ce HacraBJbajy xu> 
/ihhom MopaBe npeMa ceBepy no YrapcKe PaBHHue h 
Ha jyry no ocrrpBa CaHTopHHa y Cpeno3eMHOM Mopy. 

BapnapcKa nojiana npeAcraBJba najBehy pace^Hy 
/iHHHjy Ha Ba/iKaHCKOM rio/iyocrpBy h HaJBa>KHHJH n/ia- 
cthhkh e/ieMeHaT y ucioj MaKe;iOHHJH h BeheM ae/iy 
Crape Cp6Hje. MaKcaoHHJy h CKoncKy dapy Cp6Hjy 
OHa Ae/w Ha rbq CKopo je^HaKe no/iOBHHe, on koj'hx 
je^Hy 30BeMO Hctohhom MaKe£OHHJOM, a Apyry 3a- 
naAHOM MaKeAOHHJo.M. Hoiuto Meljy Hctohhom h 3a- 
naAHOM MaKeAOHHjOM HMa 3HaTHHx MopcJ)o.TOiiJKHx pa3- 
;iHKa, nonuna Bapaapa npeACTaB:i>a, Ha Taj naHHH, 
Ba>KHy Mopc{)o^oiiJKy npeKpcTHnuy. Te cy pa3.iHKe y 
obomc y 3ana£HOJ MaKeAOHHJH pace/in o6pa3yjy BHiue 
rpyna, kojc HAy MaxoM y npaBuy ceBep — jyr. TaKBy 
npBy rpyny o6pa3yjy paceAH kojh Hjy ao;ihhom Up- 
Hor ZlpHMa Ha Oxphacko Je3epo, Ma/iHMKo Je3epo n 
na KOT^HHy Kopne. OBa rpyna paceAa npeACTaBJba, Kao 
ujto cmo Beh HCTaK^H, BeoMa Ba>Kny TeKTOHCKy rpa- 

HHUy H je.lHy OA HaJH3pa3HTHJHX n/iaCTHMKHX npeKpeT- 

HHua. HnrAe ce Ha TaKO Ma/ieHy npocropy BC MOry 
oceTHTH CBe n.nacTH i iKe pa3/iHKe Koje nocTojo H3Meljy 
poAoncKe Mace h M/ialjHX Ha6panHX n/ianHHCKHx ch- 
creMa, Kao Ha oboj ^hhhjh. Ha 3anaAy cy M;ia/ie ap- 
GaHaiUKe n/iaHHHe, ycKHx, jaKo 36hjchhx Henaua kojh 
cy cacraB/bCHH on M/ialjnx a -:\;\ lieflTapHHI CTena, ana 



MJ HOBA CPBHJA 



HdOKy cy o6;iacTH npocTpaHHX KOTJMHa, h n^ehaTHx 
MaxoM ycaMJbeHHX njiaHHHa, Koje cy Me^y co6om pa- 
craBJbeHe npocrpaHHM KOTJiHHaMa h 3apaBHHMa. 

Hctohho or OBe jiHHHJe jaBJba ce hh3 imaHHHa 
Koje cy, y ochobh, cacraBJbeHe oa pa3HHx na;ieo30j- 
ckhx creHa, a caMo no BpxoBHMa ce jaBJbajy Man>a 
ocTpBa oa Me3030JCKHx CTeHa. y toj rpynn HaJBa>K- 
HHJe cy njiaHHHe : fa^H^Hua, rieTpHtbCKa FIjiaHHHa, 
H^HHCKa n^aHHHa, CroroBo, JaMa, Bncrpa h Kopa6. 
Hctohho oa OBe njiaHHHCKe rpyne je HH3HHCKa jih- 
HHJa Koja H^e oa npecnaHCKor Je3epa Ha Khmcbo h 
rio-nor. Yby na HCTOKy 3aTBapa rpyna n^aHHHa Koja 
noHHH>e oa K/wcypcKe rinaHHHe, na HAe Ha HepeACKy, 
riepHCTep, Bnrjiy, npocrpapfeCKy, HejiojHuy h Cyxy 
Topy kojx rio-nora, Koje cy cacraBJbeHe oa KpHcrajia- 
cthx uiKpHJbaua h KpHcrajiacTHx KpeHfeaKa. UeHTpa^Hy 
o6;iacT y 3anaAH0J MaKeAOHHJH npecTaB^a npocipaHa 
BnTOJbCKO-npHJiencKa KoTJiHHa, Koja ca CapHtjo;iCKOM 
Kotjihhom (o6;iacTH oko OdpoBCKor, FleTpcKor h Bpan- 
HHHKor Je3epa) npeAcraBJba HajnpocrpaHHJe yAy6jbeH>e, 
y 3anaAHOj MaKeAOHHJH. H3Me^y OBor yAyGjbeHja h ao- 
jihhc Bap^apa HacTaje npocrpaHa njiaHHHCKa o6jiacT y 
kojoj cy Hnqe, KoKyqb, J\ywu,a, B^aieu h Cejiemca, Koja 
ce Ha ceBepy HacTaBJba y Ba6yHy. To je 06/iacr bh- 
cokhxh npocTpaHHX n^aHHHCKHxdHJia, HaJHenpHCTynan- 
HHJa h HaJHenpoxo^HHJa o6;iacT y uejioj MaKeAOHHJH, 
Kojy je npoceK;ia jcahho AOJiHHa UpHe Pene, h Koje 
3aTBapajy BHCOKy n^aHHHCKy o6;iacT Mophxobo. Te cy 
n^aHHHe cacraBJbeHe BehHHOM oa KpHcrajiacrHX h epyn- 
thbhhx CTeHa, nopeA kojhx ce, HapOMHTO y hctohhhm 
napTHJaivia h 6mvKe aojihhh BapAapa, CBe BHUie jaB- 
jbajy pa3He najieo30JCKe creHe. 

OBa n^aHHHCKa rpyna 3aBpuiyje ce Ha ceBepy 
rpynoM njiaHHHa Koje cy cacraBJbeHe on najieo30jcKHx 
h Me3030JCKHx CTeHa. HaJBa>KHHJe n^aHHHe y toj rpynH 
cy: JanynHua, rojieniHHua, XUyTHua h KapauHua. ripeA- 
craBJbajy o6jiacr HaJBHUJHX ManeAOHCKHx njiaHHHa h 
H3BopHy o6jiacr Bpjio MHorHX peKa. 06e nocjieA*be 
rpyne cawHPbaBajy jeAaH Ba»:aH njiaHHHCKH 6eAeM kojh 
pacraB^a 3ana^Hy ManeAOHHJy oa aojihhc BapAapa. 






OBflHUH 3EM;bHIlJTA 31 

HdOHHa MaKeAOHHj'a je ^pyKMHj'er cacraBa h 
n.iacTHKe. CacraB/beHa je HCKJbyqHBo on KpHcra^HHx 
iuKpH;baua h epynTHBHHx creHa. Pace^H uny MaxoM y 
npaBuy HCTOK-3ana;j, h 36or Tora cy CKopo CBe kot^hhc, 
h 3HaiaH neo n/iaHHHa. y TOMe npaBuy H3iiy>KeHe. Yc/iea 
Tora npaBua, KOMyHHKauHje c Bap^apcKOM Ho^hhom 
cy MHoro /iaKuie, a 36or kshx HcTOHHa MaKe/iOHHJa HMa 
HHTHMHHJe Ky;iTypHe h eTHorpacpcKe Be3e c ao/ihhom 
Bapjiapa ho 3ana^Ha MaKeAOHHja. y ceBepHOM ,ne;iy 
HdOMHe MaKe^OHHje, HapoMHTO Ha /locajjaiiJHDOj Typ- 
CKO-6yrapcKOJ rpaHHUH, npeB/iat)yjy bhcokc n/iaHHHCKe 
o6^acTH; a ujto H^eMO najbe npeMa jyry, kotahhc 
nocTajy CBe qemhe h npocTpaHHj'e, a n^aHHHe CBe 
petje, HH>Ke h ycaMJbeHHJe. Ta nojaBa ce £OHeK/ie bhah 
h y 3ana;moj MaKeaoHHJH. OHa HaroBeunaBa y kom 
je npaBuy npouec paceixaiBa h TeKTOHCKor crpono- 
iiiTaBaHja 6ho hhtchchbhhjh. CBe ihto hacmo /ia;be 
npeMa jyry h o6a;iaMa ErejcKor Mopa, tcktohckh npo- 
uecH cy CBe M/iatjH h hhtchchbhhjh, crponoiHTaBaHDa 
cy CBe M/iaija h CBe Behnx pa3Mepa. 

FIojaBa na/ieo30jCKHx h mc303ojckhx creHa y 3a- 
na^HOJ MaKeAOHHJH £OKa3yje aa je 3HaTaH aeo 3a- 
na^He MaKe^OHHJe y na;ieo30JHKy h Me3030JHKy 6ho 
noTOHyo no^ Mope, y KOMe cy cTanomeHQ OBe creHe. 

y Hctomhoj MaKeilOHHJH h y UeHTpa.THHM Ae^OBHMa 

po^oncKe Mace Tora TO^eita HHje 6h/io; Te cy 06/iacTH 
Kpo3 CBa reo/ioiuKa BpeMeHa npe^CTaB.^a^e KonHo. 
36or obhx pa3/iHKa H3Met)y ueHTpa/iHHX 06/iacTH po- 
,ioiiCKeMace h n/iaHHHa 3ana;iHe MaKe^OHHj'e, noc/iejube, 
y paHHj'a BpeMeHa, HHcy CMaTpaHe Kao ^eo poAoncke 
Mace, Beh Kao zieo AHHapcKor n;iaHHHCKor CHcreMa. y 
naJHOBHJe BpeMe, na/ieo30JCKe h Me3030JCKe n/iaHnne 
3anaAHe MaKe^OHHJe CMaipajy ce Kao npe/ia3Ha o6;iacT 
H3Metyy n/ianHHa rpMKo-ap6aHCKor h po/ioncKor cucieMa. 
Jep one HMajy 3aje^HHMKHX oco6HHa c oCa^Ba chctcmh. 
C rpMKO-apGancKHM 3aje;uiHWKO hm je to ujto cy ca- 
cTaB.heHe on ceziHMeHTapHHx creHa, h ujto ce ABa Haj- 
Ba>KHHja Mopc{)o^oiiJKa e.ieMCHTa, kot.ihhc H luaHiiHe 
iipywajy y npaBuy •eBep-jyr. A^h HnaK to npywarv 



32 HOBA CPBHJA 

HHje npecy^aH (j)aKTop y n;iacTHUH 3ana;nie MaKe;u)- 
HHj'e, Beh npouec paceflaiba, kojh je ztao AaHauiH>H 
o6;ihk 3ana;moj MaKe^OHHJH, h kojh je 6ho hcto- 
BpeMeH c ohhm y Hctohhoj MaKenoHHJH. Taj npouec 
6ho je o;yiyqyjyhH 3a 3ana.zi.Hy MaKeaoHHJy, h oh je 
jrrHuao Ha o6pa30Batt>e n;iacTHKe 3anaAHe MaKeaoHHje 
CBe no AOflHHe UpHor flpHMa h OxpH^CKor Je3epa. 
36or Tora UpHH XlpHM h OxpH^CKO Je3epo npencraB- 
jbajy 3ana.zi.Hy MopcJojiouiKy rpaHHuy po^oncKe Mace. 



y Be3H c obhm tcktohckhm oco6HHaMa poaoncKe 
Mace je h nojaBa epyuiuueHux cmena y MaKeaOHHJH 
h Crapoj Cp6HJH. flouiTo epynTHBHe o6;iacTH npea- 
CTaBTbajy Haj6oraTHJa pyAHniTa Ha Ba^KaHCKOM flojiyo- 
crpBy, nHTatt>e nojaBe epynTHBHHx CTeHa HMa OB^e BHiue 
eKOHOMCKH h npHBpe^HH 3Haqaj, h 36or Tora heMO h>h- 
xoBy nojaBy npHKa3aTH caMO y HaJKpahHM upTaMa. 

flpaBau h pacnopcn nojeAHHHx pace.ua y po#on- 
CKOj* MacH HHje 6ho caMO o# BaaoiocTH 3a ^aHaHJH>y 
n^acTHKy, Beh h 3a nojaBy Her^aiuHbHX ByjiKaHa h aa- 
HaniHDH pacnopeji epynTHBHHx CTeHa. HaJBeha Maca 
epynTHBHHx CTeHa Ha Ba^KaHCKOM Ilo^yocTpBy Be3aHa 
je 3a BejiHKe paccznie ^hhhjc HMajy, y rviaBHOM, #Be 
TaKBe JiHHHJe. 

FIpBy npe^cTaB^a noMeHyTa MopaBCKO-Bap^apCKa 
;iHHHJa, a Apyry JiHHHja Koja pacraBJba jyacHe orpaHKe 
Ba^KaHa on Cpe#H>e Tope, CaKpa h GrpaHue. FIpBa 
npe^craBJba HaJBa>KHHJy pacenHy jiHHHJy Ha Ba^KaH- 
ckom no^yocTpBy, ^y>K Koje cy H3BpuieHa, Kao ujto 
cmo BHucnH, Haj^y6jba TOHDetba Kope 3eMJt>HHe. 3Hanaj 
Apyre JiHiwje je y obomc OHa ce y o^nroueHy h mh- 
oueHy Ham;ia Ha rpaHHUH ABajy pa3^HHHTHX tcktoh- 
ckhx noKpeia. Ha ceBepy, y Ba^KaHy je BpuieH npouec 
na6HpaHDa, a Ha jyry, y poaoncKoj MacH, npouec pa- 
cenaH>a. npouec Ha6Hpan>a ce BHUje BpuiH y xopH30H- 
Ta/iH, h, Ka^ ce ycnopean c npouecoM pace^aHba, kojh 
ce BpuiH y BepTHKa^H, oh je MHoro njinhn. HauiaBniH 
ce Ha npeKpeTHHUH thx ABajy pa3;iHHHTHx noKpeia, 
jy>KHO-6a/iKaHCKa pace^Ha JiHHHJa 6n;ia je or ABa CKopo 



0E/1HUH 3fc.MJbHLU.TA 33 



cynpoTHa npoueca pacrp3aHa, h 36or Tora je npea- 
craB/ba/ia ziHHHJy Hajc/ia6Hje omopHe MohH. 36or Tora 
cy ce y tboj jaBH/w ay6oKH pace/iH, ;iy>K kojhx cy 
H3BpuieHa Haj;iy6jba TOJbetba Kope 3eMa:bCKe. Ta to- 
ibeifea H3a3Ba^a cy HCTHCKHBatbe orpoMHHx Maca JiaBe 
H3 3eMa^>CKe yHyipauiFboCTH. 3a MopaBCKO-Bap^apcny 
paceAHy /iHHHjy Be3aH je hh3 Be/iHKHx epynTHBHHx 
06/iacTH. y H>eMy je, Ha ceBepy, Hajnpe py^HHMKa epyn- 
THBHa 06/iacT, H3a Koje, Aajbe npeMa jyry, Rona3e 
KonaoHHMKa, BpatbCKa, KpaTOBCKO-3/ieTOBCKa, mophxob- 
CKO-MenieHCKa, tjeB^e/injcKa h BcneHCKa. Taj hh3 3a- 
Bpiuyje ce y co/iyHCKOJ paBHHUH. y H>eMy je HaJBa>K- 
HHJa h HajnpocTpaHHJa 06/iacT KpaTOBCKO-3/ieTOBCKa, 
Kojy heMO y TpeheM £e;iy OBe KhbHre HaponHTO onHcaTH. 
Hpyni oilman hh3 MHHe o6.iacrH epynTHBHHx CTCHa 
Koje ce jaB/bajy Ha jyry Ba/iKaHa h H^we^y n/iaHnna 
HcTOHHe CpdHJe. OHe noMHtby Ha UpHOM Mopy jaM6o.i- 
cKO-6ypracKOM epynTHBHOM o6/iaiLihy, H3a Koje ce aa/be 
npeMa 3ana,ay HacraB/bajy cpezitbe-ropcKa, BHCKapcKO- 
,'byjbHHCKaHupHopeHKayHcTOMHOJ Cp6nJH.Taj hh3 epyn- 
THBHHx deHa Be3aH je 3a yHyiapibH o6oa Ba/iKaHa h 3a 
napowHTe TeKTOHCKe nojaBe Koje Hacrajy npn noBHJan>y 
6a^KaHCKHx BeHaiia, h 3a y;iy6;beiba Koja ce jaB/bajy 
na rpaHHUH H3Me^y orpaHaKa KapnaTa h Ba/inaHa. 

II. Pa3BMTaK 06/iMKa. 
Pa,i cnojbHH.x CH.ia. 

yHyiapH.e 3eMa.bCKe cn/ie Koje CToje y Be3H ca 
x/iafr)eH 3 eM seitibe, npeacTaB.bajy je;ian on naJBa>KHn 
jhx (J)aKTopa y CTBapaiby n/iacTHMKHx 06/iHKa Ha 3C- 

MaJbCKOJ riOBpiHHHH. TlopeK^O H pail THX CH.ia BH^C.lil 

cmo y nponi/ioj r/iaBH. One CTBapajy CTpyKTypy, r/iami. 

H OCHOBHe UpTC y 3CM3.1.CKOJ n/iaCTHUH. HpcayKTH 

ii.HxoBa pa.ia OAAHKVJy ce Be/iHKHM AmeB3HJam H 
rpyGHM (])opMa.Ma. H>hxobhm gejCTBOM CTBOpenc 
jiaJBehe n.iaHHHc iia sena/bCKOj HOBpuinHn Hj6tceHM 
naJBehHX CMTCKHX MOpa. One ma.uiBajy nocrajan.r 
hobhx n/iamiHa H pa36HJan>c H ynponaujhaBaibe cTa- 

• ir.r. \ 3 



34 HOBA CPBHJA 



Phjhx. npBH ce upouec BpuiH y o6;iHKy H3£H3aH>a H 
Ha6Hpatba, a Apyrn y o6;iHKy paccnatta h dpono- 
uiTaBatba. 06a npoueca aajy njiacTHUH CBaKe 3eMjbe 
oho uito je iviaBHO y HdOJ : H>eHe ,HHMeH3HJe h ibem 

OCHOBHe MOp(J)OJIOUJKe upTe. 

riopcn yHyiapHoHx 3eMajbCKHx cHJia, or orpoM- 
Hor 3Hanaja cy h cnojbHe 3eMajbCKe CH/ie, Metjy ko- 
jHMa Ha npBOM MecTy aojiase pa3He aTMOC(j)epcKe 
cune. Metjy H>HMa je HaJBaHomJH pa^ TeKyhHx BO.ua, 
3aTHM je3epCKe h Mopcne BO#e, h Ha nocjieTKy ao- 
;ia3e AHeBHe h ro;miuH>e npOMeHe y kjihmh h TeM- 
nepaTypH Ba3^yxa. O k>hxobom pa^y roBopHhe ce 
onuiHpHHj'e Ha HAyhHM dpaHaivia. OB^e heMo HdahH 
caMO HaJBHAHHJe h HaJKapaKTepHCTHMHHJe oco6HHe h>h- 
xoBa pa^a. Taj ce paa cacroJH y CTBapaH>y hobhx 
o6jiuksl Ha totobhm npeAMeTHMa ; cacTOJH ce ynpaBO 
y MoaejiHpaiby njiacnmKHx o6jeKaia kojh cy HacrajiH 
jxejcTBOM yHyTapfeHx 3eMajbCKHx CHJia. TaKBa ce npe^- 
daBa Ao6Hj'a yBeK Kan nocMaTpaMO na^HHe HeKe 
n^aHHHe Kojy cy H36pa3na;ie MHore peKe h noTOUH. 
Te CHJie pa3opaBajy h pa3H0ce CBany njiaHHHy, CBaKO 
6p^o h CBaKH Aeo 3eMajbCKe noBpiHHHe kojh ce anace 
H3Ha^ MopcKor orjieaajia. OHe, ^aKJie, CBa y3BHmeft>a 
MO^ejiHpajy h pa30paBajy, ynpaBO pa3opaBajy hx mo- 
Ae/inpajyhH. flope^ Tora Te CHJie He Tpne bhchhckc 
pa3^HKe, rpy6e (J)OpMe, hh BeJiHKe ^HMeH3HJe. 36or 
Tora Ha cyBOJ 3eMjbH OHe pa30paBajy CBe uito ce oa- 

^HKyje H3BeCH0M BHCHHOM, IlITO CTpiIIH H UITO HMnO- 

Hyje, a MaTepnja;i kojh ocTaHe on Tora pa30paBait>a 
npeHecy peKe no o6a;ie MOpCKe h Ta;io>Ke ra Ha any 
Mopa h oKeaHa. Thm MaTepHJa^OM Hcny^aBajy MOpCKe 
KOT^HHe, h tbHxoBa AHa CBe BHiue ce y3#H>Ky npeMa 
bhchhh MopcKor oivieAajia. Te cn/ie He Tpne, aaKJie, hh 
BejiHKHx BHCHHa hh npeTepaHHX ^y6nHa. hbHxoBa je 
rexuha na 06/iHKe 3eMajbCKe noBpiHHHe AOBe,ziy y H3- 

BeCHy BHCHHCKy paBHOMepHOCT. 

C o63HpoM Ha OBaKaB pa#, cnojbauiH>e CH/ie cy 
na3BaHe pa3opHHM h/ih AecrpyKTHBHHM cHJiaivja, jep 
oHe pa3opaBajy CBe n^acTHMKe o6jeKTe Ha 3eMajbCK0j 
noBpiiiHHH. CynpoTHO TOMe, pa£ yHyTap?*>HX CHJia ivjo- 



iMUH 3tM7bHHJTA 



rao 6h ce, no cbojhm HaJBa>KHHJHM oco6HHaMa, 03Ha- 
•ihth Kao CTBapajyhH. OBe 03HaKe, pa3opHH h crBa- 
pajyhH, HMajy caMO Ba>KHOCTH Kan je roBop o bhchh- 
ckhm pa3^HKa\ia Ha 3eMa;bCKOj noBpuiHHH. HHane, pan 
cnojbHnx (})aKTopa, c o63HpoM Ha opraHCKH >khbot h 
.'by^CKy Ky.nypy, y ochobh je MHoro noBO^HHJH ho 
pa^ yHyiapfcHx 3eMa;bCKHX CH/ia. 

Oil HapOHHTe Ba>KHOCTH 3a /byACKH >KHBOT je tt>H- 

xobo pa3opaBaibe bhhjhx n^aHHHa, Koje cy, 36or cbo- 
JHX BCTCHKHX BHCHHa, OUITpHJe K.lHMe h c/ia6nje nnon- 
hocth, y oniHTe He3ro£HHJe 3a opraHCKH >khbot h ^>y^- 
CKy Ky^Typy. MBpcre creHe on kojhx je cacraBJbeHa 
3eMa/bo<a Kopa o6hhho cy, caMe no ce6w, Hecnoco6He 
na aajy xpaHy opraHCKHM dBopoBHMa. Tpe6a na noty 
yTHuaJH cno.-bHHx (J)aKTopa, HapoHHTO npoMeHe y Ton- 
/ioth Ba3/iyxa h Ba3;iyiiJHa boas, na #a ce Te creHe 
pacnpcHy h na ce npeTBope y CHTaH necaK y KOMe 
oH/be MO>Ke ycneBaTH. 3a JbyacKH >khbot h Ky/nypy 
on HaJBeher 3Hanaja je pan Tenyhe BO^e, Koja npo- 
ceua n/iaHHHe, OTBapa 3aTBopeHe kot/ihhc h noMohy 
peMHHx nojiuna, Koje OHa y mbpctoj creHH H3^y6e, 
CTBapa ^y^HMa MoryhHOCTH na c Matbe Hanopa npe- 
,ia3e Behe o6.iacTH. Th OAHOinajn H3Me^y pana ne- 
dpyKTHBHHx CH/ia h /byacKor >KHBOTa cy M.MorocrpyKH 
h pa3HOBpcHH, h c ibHMa heMO ce y naujeM pany Meujhe 
cpeiaTH. OBjie Tpe6a na ce HcraKHe to na cno;bHH 
cj)aKTopH ^ajy noc/iexubn o6/ihk n^acTHUH CBaKor 3cm- 
/bHiHTa, h na HMajy MHoro Teimbe Be3e c opraHCKHM 
>khbotom h jby^CKOM Ky/iTypOM ho yHyTapibH 4>aKTopH. 
36or Tora heMO ce paaoM npBnx (faKTopa Ma;io bhhjc 
na6aBHTH. 

I. /lejcTBo je3epCKe Bo/ie. 

ErejcKO Jeiicpo h ii.ciokii yinuajn. 

y oho BpeMe KaA cy ce OHe npoMCHe Bpnju.ic y po- 
noncKOJ n^aHHHCKoi Macn Ha jyroHCTOKy on Da/iKaHCKor 
rio/iyocrpBa, y 06/iacrH aaHaujjber ErejcKor Mopa ana- 
aa.ie cy iipyKHHJe np&ftHKe. V to BpeMe BHJC Gh/io ia 
iiaujHier ErejcKor Mopa, Beh je Mecro H»era 6h/io koiih<> 



36 HOBA CPliH.lA 



Koje je Be3HBa;io Ba^KaHCKo riojiyocrpBO cMa^OM A3hjom . 
OcTamH Tora KonHa cy AaHaiHH>a ocipBa h nojiyocrpBa 
ceBepHor Aejia ErejcKor Mopa (CnopaAH, KHKJiaAH, 
Tacoc, JleMHoc, Jle36oc). y to BpeMe HHJe 6hjio hh 
5oc(j)opa, hh JlapAaHejia, hh MpaMOpHor Mopa, h moivio 
ce H3 EBpone y A3Hj'y npe;ia3HTH cyBHM. CuaBHO ce 
3Ha Aa je to KonHO 6hjio noKpHBeHO 6e36poj*HHM je- 
3epHMa, oa kojhx cy ocTa^H MHoro6poJHH TparoBH Ha 
pa3HHM erejcKHM ocTpBHMa. y HaJHOBHJe BpeMe T. Ubh- 
jnh je yTBpAHO Aa CBa Ta je3epa HHcy HHurra Apyro 
AO npeocTaTUH jeAHor orpoMHor je3epa Koje ce npy- 
xlzjio oa npeno;iua h rpAeflHHKe fOwcype ao erejcKHx 
ocTpBa Koca, PoAOca h KpHTa, h ao o6a;ia Majie A3Hj'e. 
To Be^HKo je3epo Ha3Bao je EzejcnuM Je3epoM. hbe- 
roBy ocHOBHy noBpuiHHy MHHH^a je odjiacr oa BoAeHa 
Ha 3anaAy ao MecrHHe Kjincype Ha HCTOKy, h oa Be- 
jiaome Ha ceBepy ao CeBepHHx CnopaAa Ha jyry. H3 
Te ocHOBHe Mace hojjih cy pa3HH Kpaun kojh cy 3a- 
^a3H^H Ay6oKO Ha jyr, 3anaA h ceBep, h HcnyHHJiH 
je3epcKOM boaom CKOpo CBe KOTJiHHe MaKeAOHHJe, 
CTape Cp6HJe, Tecajinje h TpaKHJe. JeAaH TanaB Ay- 
6okh 3a;iHB Huiao je aojihhom BapAapa ao CKoncKe 
KoT^HHe, Koja je y HajcrapHJoj (})a3H npeACTaBJbajia 
jeAaH oa HajnpocrpaHHJHx h HaJAy6jbHx 6aceHa Tora 
Be^HKor je3epa. H3 CKoncKe Kotjihhc nojia3HJia cy 
Tpn KpaKa, oa kojhx je jeAaH nuiao AaHauitbOM npe- 
uieBCKOM yAOJbHHOM h cnajao ce c BpaH>CKHM 6aceHOM, 
Apyrn je Hujao KaqaHHHKOM KjiHcypOM h cnajao ce ca 
kocobckhm 6aceHOM, a Tpehn je nuiao AaHauntOM Bap- 
AapcKOM K^HcypoM, JlepBeHT, y tctobckh 6aceH. M3 
BpatbCKor 6aceHa Huiao je jeAaH pyKaBau, Kpo3 TpAe- 
/mqKy fOincypy, h cnajao ce c jiecKOBanKHM 6aceHOM, 
kojh je npnnaAao jeAHOM ApyroM, hcto TaKO orpoM- 
hom je3epy, FlaHOHCKOM Je3epy, Koje je noKpHBa^o 
ue^y AaHaiHH.y yrapcny PaBHHuy, 3axBaTajio ue;iy Aa- 
HauiH>y LUyMaAHJy, h Ay>K MopaBCKe AO^HHe Aonn- 
pajio Ha jyr ao JlecKOBua h FIpoKynjba. H3 KocoBCKor 
6aceHa, kojh je npnnaAao ErejcKOM Je3epy, Hiujia je 
npeKO ripeno^ua jeAHa OTOKa Koja ra je cnaja^a c npo- 
KynaMKHM 6aceHOM, kojh je npnnaAao FlaHOHCKOM Je- 



01,/lHUH MKMJbHLUTA 37 

3epy. Kocobckh 6aceH 6ho je Aajbe y Be3H c mcto- 
xhjckhm 6aceHOM, kojh ce npoayacaBao najbe ,ny>K no- 
jiane UpHMa MOK^a npeMa cKa^apcKoj kot^hhh. 

Ha jyro3anaAHOJ fberoBOJ nepH({)epHJH, y j^aHaiu- 
feoj Co/iyHCKOJ KaMnatbH, o#Baja;ia cy ce flBa KpaKa, 
h to je^aH je Hiuao ^y>K aoahhc pene BHcrpnue ao 
AaHaumer KocTypcKor Je3epa, a ApyrH on Boaena npeKo 
MyxapeMCKe Fipecen/iHHe y 06/iacr ^aHanjtbHx je3epa 
OcTpoBCKor, BpanHHMKor, IleTpcKor h 3a3epaua. rio- 
c/ieflFba neTHpH je3epa npeacTaBJba/ia cy je^Hy je3ep- 
cKy ue^HHy mhjh ce 6aceH npy>Kao on Kh3/ih Hep- 
BeHTa koa JlepHHa ao Kapaua/iapa Ha ceBepy on Cp- 
6nue. To je3epo Ha3Bao je T. LJBHJHh K^acHMHHM hmchom 
EopaejcKO Je3epo. Oho je 6h;io OTBopeHO Ha TpH 
dpaHe, h to: MyxapeMCKOM je3epoy3HHOM 6h/io je y 
Be3H ca co^yHCKHM 6aceHOM h c rviaBHHM 6aceHOM 
ErejcKor Je3epa, Kapaya/iCKOM je3epoy3HHOM Ha jyry 
KOMyHHUHpa/io je c jy>KHHM erejcKHM GaceHOM, a kh3/ih- 
AepBeHTCKOM je3epoy3HHOM npe;iHBa;io ce y aaHaintby 
6HTO^>CKO-npH^encKy h/ih ne/iaroHHJCKy KOT^HHy. fle- 
^aroHHJCKO Je3epo npywa.io ce jxaneKo Ha ceBep H3Mef)y 
n^aHHHe Ba6e h BadyHe, 6h/io je 3aTBopeHO ca cbhx 
cTpaHa, h mhc/ih ce na Hnje oTHua^o hh npeMa rojiuhu 
Bap^apa, hh npeMa Oxphackom h FIpecnaHCKOM Je3epy. 
npe^CTaB^a^o je #aK/ie HajoflBojeHHJH h naj3ana;iHHJH 
neo ErejcKor Je3epa. Ha 3anaAy on ibera, Kao Hapo- 
MHTa je3epcKa rpyna Koja HHje 6n/ia y Be3H c ErejcKMM 
Je3epoM, 6n/ia cy aaHainiba jeaepa, Oxphacko h npe- 
cnaHCKO. ripBO je HMa/io CKopo hcth o6/ihk Kao h 
iiaHac, a jpyro ce npy>Ka;io Ha ceBep no Pecua h na 
jyr no Kopwe h ro Aanaunber Ma/iHHKor Je3epa. 
ApecnaHCKO, Ma;io h Ma/iHMKO Je3epo npeAcraB/ba/ia 
cy je/UH je3epcKH 6aceH. H3 Bap^apcKor 6aceHa npy- 
>Kao ce je^an KpaK jxy>K ao/ihhc UpHe Kpo3 o6.nacr 
MopnxoBO, h Aonnpao je ojx npn/iHKe no npea .ia- 
naiiiH>y CKOMHBHpcKy K/incypy y ao/ihhh UpHe. 

Kao ujto cmo BH^e/iH, HMaMo TparoBc jeAHor 
orpoMHor je3epa Koje je 6h/io AyraMKo npeKo neT 
CTOTHHa KH.ioMeTapa, h Koje je cbojom boaom 6h.io 
HcnyHH/10 CKopo cbc kot/ihhc (/rape CpGHJe, Mane 



38 HOBA CPBHJA 



HHJe, CeBepHe TpHKe, TpaKHJe, JyacHe ByrapcKe h 
3HaTHHX aejiOBa 3ana;me Ma;ie A3HJe. 3eMJbe BajiKaH- 
cKor no^yocrpBa H3iviefla;ie cy y to BpeMe cacBHM 
apyKHHJe ho AaHac. To je 6wia npaBa je3epcKa oSjiacT, 
Moivio ce Ha CBe dpaHe nyTOBaTH je3epHMa, jep CBa 
Mecra Koja AaHac ;ie>Ke Ha Ha^MopcKoj bhchhh HcnoA 
800 m. 6n^a cy noA boaom, h 36or Tora cy CBe npe- 
ceflJiHHe HcnoA 800 m. npe^CTaBJbajie je3epoy3HHe ko- 
JHMa ce moivio njiOBHTH. 

Obo je3epo cupHca^o ce Kao uejiHHa CBe aok ce 
HHJe no*iejio o6pa30BaTH ErejcKO Mope, HaponHTo 
HjeroB ceBepHH ,aeo. Ta^a 6HBa paceAaibeM OTBopeH 
H>eroB jy>KHH okbhp, h BO^a ErejcKor Je3epa none^a 
je OTHuaTH y ErejcKO Mope. To OTHuaibe jane ce oceTH/10 
Hajnpe y 3ana,zjHHM je3epCKHM 6aceHHMa. noHHHby ce 
3ana,zi;HH 6aceHH npeTBapaTH y 3ace6Ha je3epa. Hajnpe 
ce h3.hbojh;io Fle^aroHHjcKo Je3epo, na OH^a Eopnej- 
cko. Fle^aroHHJCKO Je3epo h3abojhjio ce 3a BpeMe Te- 
pace 1 oa 670 #o 680 m. Oho y to BpeMe ry6H Be3y 
c EopaejcKHM Je3epoM. noaie,att>e y hcto BpeMe ry6H 
Be3y c E/iHMejcKHM Je3epoM (KOTJiHHa Cp6Hue), a^H 
3aap>KaBa Be3y c Akchjckhm Je3epoM, Koje je 3ay3H- 
Ma.io y niaBHOM AaHaniFby Co;iyHCKy KaMnaity. Hhtc- 
pecaHTHO je aa je ErejcKO Je3epo, h nocjie noniTO je 
H3ry6H;io Be3e ca 3ana^HHM ManenoHCKHM 6aceHHMa, 
o^pHca^o CBOJ Ay^OKH 3a;iHB kojh je Hiuao aojihhom 
Bap^apa naK ao rpaeJiHHKe JOwcype. Hcto TaKO o#p- 
>Ka^o je noaie Tora h Be3e c naHOHCKHM Je3epoM. To je 
BepoBaTHO moivio 6hth ycne;; Tora ujto cy ce y oboj 06- 
,/iacTH BpjiiHJiH npouecH HHTeHCHBHHjer cnyuiTafta, Te je 
TaKO BapaapCKH pynaBau ErejcKor Je3epa Morao ay^Ke 
BpeMeHa ji& ce o#P>kh y Be3H c rviaBHHM je3epcKHM 
daceHOM. 

Obhm H3flBajatt>eM mh cmo AOUHHJe ao6h;ih BHiue 
caMOCTa^HHx je3epcKHX 6aceHa, oa kojhx cy hckh y 
noMeTKy 6h;ih Be3aHH caMo OTOKaMa, a AOUHHJe cy h 
Te oTOKe npecyuiH^e, na cy MHora caMo Kpo3 noj^eMHe 

1 Je3epcKe Tepace cy npH6pe>KHe je3epcKe ^HHHje Koje 110- 
dajy yziapHOM cHaroM je3epcKnx Ba/iOBa. O HsHXOBy nociaHKy ro- 

BOpHheMO flOUHHJe. 



0B/IHU.H 3EMJbHUITA 39 



nehHHCKe xo^HHKe Mel]yco6HO KOMyHHUHpa^a. Hhbo 
H30.iOBaHHx je3epa h flajbe je cn;iaujH>aBao. HHTepe- 
caHTHO je Ra je to cn;iaLUtt>aBaH>e Bo^e BpmeHO CKopo 
y CBHMa je3epHMa napa/ie;iHO. TaKO, Ha npHMep, y cbhmi 
KOT^HHaMa caMocra^HHx je3epa bhahmo Ra HMa hcth 
6poj Tepaca, caMO Te Tepace peTKO cy Here bhchhc 
Hivia 3HaKOBa Ra to cn/ianjttjaBatt>e HHje hui/io phtmh- 
mkh, to jeer Ra ce je3epcKa BORa cnycTH^a Ha je^aH 
hhbo na ce Ty hcko BpeMe 3a^p>Ka^a, na ce noHOBO 
cnycrn/ia Ha join hh>kh hhbo h Ty ce oneT Heno BpeMe 
3a;jp>Ka/ia, h TaKO najbe. Cn/iaHJHDaBaH>e je3epcKe Bojie 
BpuieHO je ocuH^Hpajyhn. Bo^a ce je3epcKa cnyuiTa/ia 
Ha je^aH hh>kh hhbo h Ty je ocraja^a hcko H3BecH0 
BpeMe. y^apHOM CHaroM cboj'hx Ba/ioBa, OHa je y 
npH6pe>KHHM napTHJaMa yceua^a 3ape3 h;ih Tepacy. 
Flocne H3BecHor BpeMeHa je3epcKa BORa ce He cnycrH 
Hero ce noHOBO nonHe 3a hcko^hko MeTapa, noTonH 
MHora Hace;ba h rpaljeBHHe Koje cy ce Ha;ia3H.ne Ha 
o6a/iH h/ih Ha cyBy. Tepaca ocraHe hcko/ihko MeTapa 
hor boaom. OBe noRBORne Tepace, 3aTHM TparoBH Ha- 
ce:ba, TeMejhu Kyha h apyrnx 3rpaAa kojh ce Ha/ia3e 
ncno;i Boae, Haj6o/bH cy 3HaK 3a to Ra ce hhbo je3epa 
noneo. H3a OBora Hacraje noHOBHO cn/iauifbaBaibe je- 
3epcKor OMe^a^a, h oho ce o6hmho cnycrn HH>Ke Hero 
iHTO je h paHHJe 6h/io. 3a obo OBaKO cn/iaimbaBajbe 
je3epa y KOMe HMa h Haao;ia>KeFba h y3MHua*ba je- 
3epcKe BOAe, Ka>KeMO Ra ce Bprnn ocuH/inpajyhH, a oho 
cn/iaujHDaBatt>e kor Kora BO^a ona.ua Ha Hume HHBoe 
na ce BHine HHKaA hc noBpaha na BHUje, Ha3HBaM0 
Phtmhmkhm onaaafbeM. 

OBa K0/ie6aiba je3epcKe bojiq 6n/ia cy HajoceT- 
.•bHBHj'a h naj6o.*be cy npoywena Ha Octpbckom Je3epy. 
Ko je nyTOBao >Ke/ie3HHU0M or Co^yHa BnTO/by, Morao 
je c ocrpoBCKe >Ke/ie3HHMKe craHHue Ra bhah y je3epy 
je^aH KpembawKH Kpm Kojny 06/iHKy no/iyocrpBa 3a;ia3H 

y jC3Cp0, H KOJH JC C KOnHOM BC3aH jeflHHM CQRJIOM. 

Ha TOMe Kpiijy HMa TeMe^»a h 3H^0Ba or Kyha, a na 
Bpxy ce bhrm yaMHJa c MnnapeTOM. Ty je ro npe ne 
aeceT h neT roAHHa 6h.io cc/io kojc ce 3Ba/io Crapo 
OrrpBo. Oho je MMa.no CYBy MSV C koiihom. Qkq 



40 HOBA CPBHJA 



1858—1860 roAHHe none/ia je je3epcKa BO^a HaAo/ia- 
3hth, noTonnjia je Majiy npece^JiHHy, h oa Tora no;iy- 
ocTpBa nocTa/io je caMO Ma;io octpbo. CejbauH cy ce 
pa36erviH h Hace;w;iH y Bo^eHy, BHTOJby h okojihhm 
ce/iHMa. Ueo Taj Kpm, ochm Bpxa Ha KOMe je uaiviHJa, 
6ho je noji bo^om. Bo^a ce 6una none/ia oko 18 Me- 
Tapa H3Ha^ cBor paHHJer cratta. TaKO cy non^aBJbeHa 
MHora ce^a h MHorH nyieBH Ha o6a;iH OcipoBCKor 
Je3epa, a MHora ocrpBa y je3epy 6H;ia cy noKpHBeHa 
bojiom. ToAHHe 1899 Taj je Kpm npe.a.CTaBJbao nojiy- 
octpbo hhjh je Bpx, Kpm ca uaMHJOM, 6ho 17 m. Ha.n; 
bohom, a 1910 H3 BO^e je BHpHO on Hbera caMO Kpm 
ca uaMHJOM. Kao ihto ce bhah, y Octpobckom Je3epy 
Bo^a ce H3BecHO BpeMe nunte na ce OH,na cnyuiTa. 
BpeMe Koje npoTeKHe H3Mei]y HaJHHacer cnyuiTaft>a h 
HaJBHiner £H3aH>a je pa3JiHHHTO ; y rviaBHOM, Taj pa3MaK 
y BpeMeHy h3hoch 23 jxo 33 roAHHe. 

OBaKO pHTaMCKH h ocuHJiHpajyhH cnyuiTa^a ce 
Bo^a cBHJy MaKe^OHCKHx je3epa, ochm OxpH^CKora. 
CnyuiTajyhH ce TaKO, BOAa je3epCKa je Ha noaieTKy 
H3ry6n^a OTOKe Ha noBpuiHHH, h je3epo je npecrajio 
Aa othhc OHa je3epa Mnja je KcnvmHa cacraBJbeHa oa 
KpenH>aHKHX CTeHa, nonejia cy Ha nocneTKy aa oTHny 
Kpo3 no^3eMne nehHHe h xoflHHKe, kojhx y KpemtaqKHM 
TepeHHMa yBeK HMa. Ha Taj HaqnH CBa 3ana^HO-ivia- 
Ke^OHCKa je3epa, H3y3eB OxpH^CKO, npecrajia cy aa 
OTHHy no noBpuiHHH, Beh oTHny noA3eMno, Kpo3 no^- 
3eMne nyKOTHHe h nehHHCKe xoahhkc TaKe noii3eMHe 
OTOKe HMajy npecnaHCKO, Majio, Octpobcko, FleTpcKO 
h BpanHHHKO Je3epo. 

Joui BHUie cy ncyineHa h cn^acHy^a OHa jesepa 
Koja cy ce Ha;ia3HJia 6;iH>Ke Bap^apy. Oa MHoro6poJHHX 
je3epa Koja cy ce HeKaA Ha;ia3HJia y KOT/iHHaMa Kpo3 
Koje AaHac Bapaap npojia3H, ocra/ie cy caMO Matte 
MOMBapH h 6apc i<oje ce ca^a ona>Kajy Ha HaJHH>KHM 
napTHjaivia thx KOTJiHHa, napoHHTO y flo;iory h CKon- 
ckoj Kotjihhh. Oa Hei<aAauiH>HX bc/ihkhx je3epa Jy>KHe 
MaKe^OHHje, ocrajia cy nc3HaTiia je3epa Koja cy MaxoM 
6e3 OTOKe, w Koja CBe BHiue Ao6HBajy mrneji MOHBapa. 
Be3 HKaKBe otokc cy Ty3;iy- r Fr>o;i, BeuiHMKO h AjBa- 



OI./IHUH 3EM/bHUJTA 41 

ch/icko Je3epo ; PwaHCKO h AMaTOBCKO Je3epo wviajy 
upHBpeMeHy OTOKy, a caMO HojpaHCKO Je3epo HMa 
HopMa/my OTOKy, Koja OAH;ia3H y PwaHCKO h Am3tobcko 
Je3epo. OBa je3epa HeMajy hh no^3eMHnx OTOKa. Ycneii 
Tora lino He OTHwy HHKya, y ibHMa ce Bpuie Be;iHKa 
BO^eHa HcnapaBaFba. MHoro6poJHH MHHepa.iHH cacrojun 
kojh cy ce Ha;ia3H;iH y je3epcKoj boah, h Koje ziOHOce 
noTOUH h peKe, none/in cy na ce y Behoj MepH Ta- 
/io>Ke Ha jiuy h no OKpajuHMa thx je3epa. Tano cy 
Hajnpe cra;io>KeHe M/iaae KpewtbaHKe creHe. y caaaunbe 
BpeMe y hckhm je3epHMa ce Ta/io>Ke cojih (NaCl h MgCb). 

y HaJHOBHJe reo/ioiuKO BpeMe, Ha o6a/iaMa obhx 
je3epa Ta;io>KH ce HCKJbyqHBO co. Co ce Ta;io>KH/ia h 
3a BpeMe BH3aHTHJe, jep KaHTaKy3eH cnoMHFbe cnaHa 
je3epa y 6;ih3Hhh Co/iyHa. Ta/io>KeH>e c/iaHe nope Haj- 
jaqe je y Ty3/iy-Too/iy, AuH-Tbo^y h AMaTOBCKO-ap- 
waHCKOM Je3epy. Hero TaKO npnnajy ce^>auH n,a y 
cKoncKoj B^aTHJH, Koja npcucraB/ba nocne;ubH ociaiaK 
Heraauitber CKoncKor Je3epa, H3a jyiapibe poce, Ha 
TpaBH ocraHe Hena co Koja ctouh MHoro npHJa. 

MHoro6poJHH cy 6h/ih y3pouH kojh cy yTHua/in 
na ce HcyiuH bcahko ErejcKo Je3epo h noje^HHa Maiba 
je3epa. Ha npBOM Mecry yTHua/io je to iuto ce crpo- 
noujTa/ia 3eMa;bCKa Kopa y iberoBHM jy>KHHM napTHJaMa. 
Thm CTponoLUTaBaH>eM oTBopen je jy>KHH o6o^ 4 Erej- 
CKor Je3epa h oho je otck/io y ErejcKo Mope. To je 
6ho npBH h MaBHH y3poK ujto je npona/10 KrejcKo 
Je3epo. noaie Tora cn/iatmbaBa/ia cy h HcyujHBa.ia ce 
nojeiiHHa OABOJeHa je3epa. Ako npoMaTpaMO pacnopeA 
thx je3epa, on^a bhahmo jxa hx HaJBHine HMa y 3a- 
na/iHOJ MaKe^OHHJH, Maibe y J>tohctomhoj, a y ciHBy 
Bap^apa HeMa hx HHKaKO. Hero TaKO ona>Ka ce Aa cy 
ce y 3ana£HOJ MaKeAOHHJH OApwa/ia caMO OHa je3epa 
Koja HHcy 7 c;iHBy Bapjiapa. Ako npaTHMO reo/iouiKy 
HCTopnjy Bap^apa, BH^eheMO na cy Hcyiuena cBa OHa 
je3epa y Koja je yuj/ia Ma Koja npHTOKa Bapaapa. npeMa 
TOMe, jeaaH oa MaBHHX y3poKa ujto cy npona/ia Miiora 
caMOcra/iHa MaKe^OHCKa je3epa 6ho je Bapaap, kojh 
ce cbojhm npHTOKaMa 3aceuao y OKBHpe KOT/inna y 
KojHMa cy 6una je3epa, 3a/ia3HO y kot/ihhc h Mcyujiiiiao 



HOBA CHBHJA 



hx Ha kojh HaMHH je to BpmeHO, BHAeheMO y jeAHoj 
or H^yhHx r^aBa. 

IlopeA OBora, 6ho je oa b3>khocth h jeAaH Apyrn 
(J)aKTop, a to cy npoMeHe y kahmh. H3 3eMJbHHe npo- 

UIAOCTH 3HaMO R3L Ce HeCTO jaBJbaO HH3 TOAHHa Koje 

cy 6oraTe khuiom h CHeroM, a H3a h>hx cy ce jaB^a^e 
roAHHe Koje cy cyiiiHe. Y npBHM roAHHaMa CBe pene 
HMajy BHiue BOAe h CBe cy Ay6A>e; je3epCKa boas y 
TaKHM roAHHaMa HaAOAa3H, nette ce, nAaBH tbHBe, ny- 
TeBe h Hacejba, Kao iiito cmo bhacah y Octpobckom 
Je3epy. 3a BpeMe cyuiHHx roAHHa BOAa onaAa, h mh 
Ha^a3HMO noA ibom TparoBe HerAamiber JbyACKor pa^a. 
To cy Ta HHTepecaHTHa KAHMCKa KOAe6aii>a, Koja ce 
H3MeHayjy or npHAHKe CBaKe TpHAeceT h TpH roAHHe. 
Ako hacmo Ry6jbe. y npouuiocT, mh HaAa3HMO 
TparoBe jeAHor Beoivia BAaaoior h xjia^Hor Ao6a Koje 
30BeMO Aedeno do6a. 3a BpeMe AeAeHor ,3.06a KAHMa 
y cpncKHM 3eM^aMa 6wi3. je BAaaoia h xAaAHa or npH- 
AHKe Kao y AaHaniJboj CKaHAHHaBHJH. Taaa cy noje- 
AHHa MaKe^OHCKa je3epa HMaAa BOAe y H3o6HJby, h 
ibHxoBe KOTAHHe 6une cy HcnyHbeHe boaom. flocAe 
Tora HacrynHAO je cyBJbe h TonAHJe BpeMe, Koje Tpaje 
CBe ro AaHac. HeMajyhn aoboa>ho npHTOKa, je3epCKa 
ce Boaa CBe BHiue ncnapaBaAa h cnyiiiTa;ia, rok ce 
Be^HKa je3epa HHcy pa36HAa y 6e36poj MaibHx, hah 
cy ce cacBHM HcyiHHAa. 

ErejcKO Je3epo 6hao je oa BeAHKor yTHuaja Ha 
nAacTHKy MaKeAOHHj'e h CTape Cp6nje h no H>eH rou,- 
hhjh pa3BHTaK. MHoro6poJHH cy TparoBH oa OBor je- 
3epa canyBaHH y AaHainitoj nAacrnuH MaKeAOHHj'e h 
CTape Cp6Hj'e. Ko je 6ho, Ha npHMep, y CKonA,y h 
neo ce Ha CKoncKH rpaA, BHAeo je Ha jyry c OHe CTpaHe 
BapAapa nAaHHHy Boaho. Ako ce nocMaTpajy ceBepHe 
naAHHe Te nAaHHHe, BHAehe ce Aa OHe He naAajy y 
o6AHKy OAceKa hah y o6AHKy jeAHe HarHyTe nAouiTHHe, 
Beh ce ona>Ka Aa cy Te naAHHe pauiHAatbeHe Ha BHuie 
paBHHJHx noAOBa h Mara>Hx OAceKa kojh naAajy npeMa 
CKonA>y h npeMa aoahhh BapAapa. 36or thx noAOBa, 
ueAa ceBepHa naAHHa BoAna HMa H3rAeA orpoMHHX 



Ob/IHUH 3EMJbHHJTA 43 

deneHHua, y Kojwvia cy noje^HHH cryntbeBH bhcokh 
no 6/iH3y croTHHe Meiapa. Ca rpa.ua ce MO>Ke Ha6po- 
jaTH oko /iBafleceT TaKHx nojxoBa, on kojhx cy MHorH 
npoKHHyTH h HcnpeceuaHH japyraMa h AO^HHHuaMa 
MafeHxnoTOKa. Kaa 6hcmo H3Mepn/iH BHCHHy thx nojeflH- 
hhx noAOBa, OH^a 6hcmo bhac/ih na ce cbh th noaoBH, 
no cbojoj bhchhh, Mory rpynHcaTH y #Be a MO)KAa h 
y TpH BHCHHCKe ue;iHHe. HaJBHiiiH noAOBH npe^craB^ajy 
KOMa^e je^He Tepace Koja ce AH>Ke oko 460 MeTapa 
H3nan ^o^HHe Bap^apa, a H3naA Mopcne noBpiuHHe 3a 
750 m. To je HajuiHpa h HajnpocrpaHHJa Tepaca, Koja 
je y HaJBehoj MepH o6pat)eHa. Hcnofl H>e ce bh#h HHaca, 
3HaTH0 y>Ka Tepaca, Koja je MHoro BHiue HCKH^aHa, a 
y Matboj MepH o6pa\)ena. Ta je Tepaca BHCOKa 640 no 
670 MeTapa. Hcno/i h>hx ce bh£h jom je;ma MHoro 
paBHHJa h HH>Ka Tepaca, wnja ce paBHHHa npy>Ka on 
ce/ia Bo^na no ^o^HHe Bap^apa, npeMa kojoj ce OHa 

JIOMH H CnyilJTa jeAHHM Bp/IO CTpMHM oacckom. OlHMHe 

npHJiHKe ce BHae h y BpatbH, HapoMHTO Ha na^HHaMa 
n^aHHHe Kpcrn/iOBHue, Ha KOJHMa ce bhah ce^aM TaKHx 
noiiOBa, CBe je^aH noBpx Apyror. HaJBHUJH h Hajnpo- 
cTpaHHJH noAOBH 30By ce TioiHKa. OBe Tepace ce BH/ie 
y CBHMa KOT^HHaMa Crape Cp6nje h MaKe/iOHHJe, or 
Fpfle/iHHKe K/iHcype no Teca^HJe. Te Tepace cy MaxoM 
cacraB^eHe on (})HHHJer necKa h r/iHHe, a nocyTe cy 
i iecro uubynKOM, h 3aTO cy 3roziHe 3a 3eMJbopaAH>y 
h Hace/bene cy. Ako npaTHMO pacnpocrpaibeH>e noje- 
ahhhx Tepaca, BHzieheMO na ce najBHrne Tepace He 3a- 
ApwaBajy y KOT^HHaMa, Beh H3/ia3e H3 ibnx na ce jaB- 
Jbajy y cyce^HHM KOTJiHHaMa, H3 kojhx oneT H3.ia3e 
na ce yB^ane y nojeAHne K.incype, y KOJHMa H3r/ieAajy 
Kao HeKH BHcehn noAOBH, Kpo3 ibHx ce npo6HJajy h 
jaBJbajy y Tpehoj kot/ihhh, h nay TaKO no ue/ioj 3eM^>H. 
36or obhx Tepaca na/jHHe nojejiHHHx KOT/iHHa h no- 
nHHa He na^ajy onaKO crpMeHHTO h He H3Me;ujy Kao 
CTeHOBHTH 3h^obh, Beh ce cnyiiJTajy crymbeBHTO h 
MaxoM cy o6pa^ene. TaKaB H3rvie;i na^nnaMa nojeaH- 
hhx jxo^HHa h KOT/iHHa zia;io je ErejcKO Je3epo. hbe- 
i obo ce aho HeKaaa ne.no no HaJBHUJHx Tepaca. Ta^acn 
je3epa yAapa.nn cy Ha Ty o6a/iy, 3acena/iH ce Ha n»oj, 



HOBA CPBHJA 



npaBH;iH yceKe h noAOBe Ha tboj, h Ta;io>KH;iH Ha H>HMa 
je3epcKH Myjb, necaK h uiJbyHaK. IIoiuto ce je3epo 
cnyuiTa^o CBe HH>Ke, oho je h Ha hhjkhm cbojhm cra- 
HaHMa cbojom y^apHOM CHaroM CTBapa^o Tepace, h 3aTO 
Ha CBaKOJ na^HHH HMa hx y BeheM 6pojy. 

y Be3H ca OBaKOM HcropHJOM ErejcKor Je3epa 
pa3BH^H cy ce o6;ihuh bcjihkhx Kjincypa Ha BajiKaH- 
ckom FIo^yocTpBy, HapOMHTO y Grapoj Cp6HJH h Ma- 
KeAOHHJH. Ko je nyTOBao Kpo3 je^Hy or thx Kjincypa, 
Ha npHMep Kpo3 rpAeJiHHKy, KanaHHHKy h/ih hh3 Bap- 
Aap, h aKO je na3H0 Ha o6;ihk obhx Kjwcypa, oh je 
Morao BH^eTH obo. CrpaHe thx aojiHHa Ruiny ce or 
pene Hajnpe CTpMeHHTO ; Ta ctpmchhtoct npe;ia3H KaT- 
KaR y npaBe creHOBHTe OAcene, h #o;iHHCKe na^HHe 
HMajy H3r;ieA okomhthx 3H.noBa. KaR ce HcnHeMO Ha 
npBH OAceK, OH^a o6hmho bhahmo #a ce c o6e CTpaHe 
.nojiHHe, rope noBpx ocena hh3 peny, npy)Kajy noAOBH 

KOJH Cy HCTO TaKO Ca CTpaHa 3aTBOpeHH CTpMeHHTHM 

naAHHaMa. Kan ce nonHeivio h Ha OBe na^HHe, Ha H>HMa 
oneT Ha^a3HMO no^OBe kojh nay y npaBuy pene h 
kojh cy oneT 3aTBOpeHH na^HHaivia. neibyhH ce TaKO 
or pene y3 na^HHe H>eHe Ronime mh Ha;ia3HMO BHiue 
OBaKBHx noAOBa. Ako 3arjie,naM0 y ^Ha obhx noaoBa. 
BHjieheMO, BehHHOM, r& ohh HHcy cacraBjbeHH or HCTor 
MaTepnja^a or Kora cy cacTaBJbeHH ctchobhth oaceuH 
kojh 3aTBapajy kophto AaHauiH>e peKe, Beh or necna, 
r/iHHe h o6jiyTKa. flo oBOMe necKy h niHHaMa HayKa 
o^pe^yje uiTa cy to hoaobh, rz jih cy to ocraTUH or 
Rua Hene penHe AOJiHHe hjih or je3epoy3HHe. 

KaR ce OBaKBe KJincype nocMaTpajy c Behnx bh- 
CHHa, H3r^e,najy Kao ROJiune Koje ce CBe BHuie cyacaBajy 
h y KOJHMa nojczmHe Tepace H3rvie,najy Kao yMeTHyTe 
£o;iHHe. OBe Tepace h no^OBH cy or Be;iHKor 3Hanaja 
3a )khbot y obhm KflHcypaMa, h 3a tt>HX0By npoxoa- 
hoct. JXna AaHauiHsHX AOJiHHa Mory Ra HMajy h cbojhx 
npouiHpett>a noja 6h ce Morvia o6paijHBaTH h Ha KOJHMa 
6h ce HOBen Morao Hace/iHTH. Ajih cy TaKBa MecTa 
MaxoM 3aicnohbeHa or cyHua, h no BehH rqo AaHa 
Ha^a3e ce y ceHun, a or peMHe BO/ie noja ce y peun 
o6apa npeKO 6p3aKa h c/ianoBa, Rime ce napa noja 



0E/1HUH 3KM.1>HIUT.\ 



OBa Mecra mhhh B;ia>KHHM, 3hmh je30BHTO crynQHHM h 
BeoMa He3roAHHM 3a >khbot. Ako y K/iHcypH HeMa npo- 
crpaHHJHx npoiuHpetba Koja cy nyme h jaqe ocbct- 
jbeHa, Hace^?a H36eraBajy OBaKBa nojiuucKa rpoT^a h 
nctby ce Ha Tepace, Koje cy 3a 3eM:bopa;iiby 3roAHHje, 
Koje cy cyHHaHHj'e, cyB/be, CBeT^Hj'e h 3a ;by.acKH >khbot 
noBO^HHJe. TaKBa Mecra y K/mcypaivia Koja cy jane 
H3HeceHa npeMa cyHuy h 3aK/iOFbeHa on BeTpa, wecro 
npeAcraB^ajy Mecra Heo6HMHo 6/iare K^HMe, h Mecra 
BeoMa 3ro;iHa 3a /ieMH/inuiTa. FIphmhthbhh khphuhjckh 
cao6pahaj kojh je CBe no HaJHOBHJer BpeMeHa B/ia;jao 
y obhm o6^acTHMa, h kojh je Ha pacno/iowetby HMao 
cacBHM npHMHTHBHa TexHHMKa cpe^CTBa, o6hmho Hnje 
Morao £a ce Bprnn nopezi pene, Beh ce neo Ha TaKBe 
ncxnoBe h Tepace h HLuao je nyw. ibHX. 

THnoBH obhx flo;iHHa Haj6o.be ce Mory bhucth 
aKO ce or Cb. H;iHJe (E/iec XaHa) y KanaHHMKOJ K/ih- 
cypn nonHeMO npeMa ce/iy 5/ian.HMa. TaKBor cy Tuna, 
y rviaBHOM, CBe Bap^apeBe K/wcype on CKon.-ba no Co- 
nyua. OBe cy K/iHcype nocra.ie Ha OBaj HaMHH. OHe cy 
y CTapnja reo^oujKa BpeMeHa, h to y BpeMeHa npe 
Hero je nocra/io ErejcKO Je3epo, 6H/ie MaH>a cyBa 
y/ierHyha, on kojhx cy Kpo3 Hene Morvie Tehn h pene. 
BehHHa thx yrtemyha nocra/ia cy cnynjTaibeM 3eMJbH- 
ujTa /iy>K Behnx nyKOTHna y Kopn 3eMa;bCKoj. Kan je 
nocTa^o HrejcKO Je3epo, h Kan ce iberoBO or/ieaa/io 
none^o no bhchhc thx y/iernyha, oho ce ynuno y n>ux, 
y HeKHMa ce none/io no Be^HKe bhchhc, h OHe cy npeAcraB- 
.ba.ie je3epoy3HHe, a y ^pyrnMa je 6h;io n^HTKO, h 
je3epcKa ce BO^a ay>K FbHx npe/iHBa/ia H3 kot/ihhc y 
KOT^HHy. Je3epcKa bo/u yaapa/ia je y CperoBe thx 
£0/iHHa, noarpH^a/ia je h.hxobc naaHne, CTBapa/ia je 
Tepace h ype3e, h Ha Taj naMHH hx je npoujHpHBa/ia. 
KaKO je y je3epHMa cn/iawn.aBa/ia BO^a, cn;iaiHibaBa/ia 
je h y h>hxobhm OTOKa\ia h je3epoy3HnaMa. JIho crape 
OTOKe ocra^o je rope y BHCHflH, H jeaepCKB BOAa je 
none y hh3hhh noHO»o mnpH.ia aho je3epoy3Hne h 
nonoBO je crBopn/ia na cbom any Tepacy h Mpea na 
cbojhm iia/wnaMa. Ona AOJiHHa je 6H/ia y>Ka on OHe 
HcyujeHe CH.ia je ynpaBO yceieHJ y iboj, M lur.iejia.ia 



46 HOBA CPBHJA 

je Kao aa jy je HeKO yMeTHyo y crapHjy aojiHHy. TaKO 
ce cn^aimbaBaibeM je3epcKor oivieAajia CBe BHiue cny- 
iiiTa^o aho je3epoy3HHe, aojiHHa joj je 6HBa;ia CBe 
y>Ka, a CBe BHiue HeKa,naiuH>Hx aojihhckhx no^OBa ocra- 
jajio je y BHCHHaMa. Ha noaieTKy je npecyuiHJia je- 
3epoy3HHa h Mecro H>e ce jaBHJia pena. OHa je y no- 
cneAHae aho je3epoy3HHe yceKaa CBOje kophto, Koje 
ce CBe BHiue y.ayo'jbHBajio h yceua^o, aok #0JiHHa HHJe 
&o6ma cboj KjmcypacTH o6;ihk ca ctpmhm ctchobhthm 
na^HHaMa, h £y6oKHM h ycKHM aojihhckhm ^hom. 

flopeA obhx yceKa h Tepaca, on ciapor ErejcKor 
Je3epa ocrajie cy MHore 3apaBHH, Koje ce nunty n3naji 
AaHauiBDHx penHHx AO^HHa no HeKOJiHKe ctothhc Me- 
Tapa, h Koje cy MaxoM OTBOpeHe y cbhm npaBUHMa. 
CBe TaKBe 3apaBHH Koje ce Ha;ia3e Ha BHCHHaMa Hcno^ 
800 m. npeAcraBJbajy ocTaTKe Hei\o;auiH>er je3epcKor 
AHa. OGh^ho cy cacraBJbeHe or ivuiatjHx mckiuhx CTeHa, 
h nocyie cy necKOM h uubyHKOM. Or thx noBpuiH 
HaJBa^HHj'e cy obc 

H3Me^y TpAejiHHKe Kjincype h ErejcKor Mopa 
HMa y r^aBHOM RBe TaKBe noBpuiH. JeflHa, BHiua, pa- 
cnpocrpaHbeHa je H3BaH h H3Ha,n, KOTjiHHa, h tbeHa ropH>a 
HBHua aoriHpe ^o bhchhc oko 800 m. Oco6hto je npo- 
CTpana h THncKH pa3BHj'eHa oko Bapnapa, or CoJiyHCKe 
KaMnafBe ro KanaHHHKe h rp^eJiHqKe Kjincype. Y h>oj 
cy yceneHe cse K;wcype Bap^apa, Ha HBHuaMa je pa3- 
hobpcho pa3rpaHaia h Hapowro ce £y6oKO yBJiaqn y 
AOJiiiHe. floTnyHO ce aia>Ke c pacnpocTpaft>eH>eM Erej- 
CKor Je3epa 3a BpeMe HberOBHx HaJBHiuHx oraita BO^e; 
ochm HaJBHiue erejcfce Tepace, Koja je ropH>a HBHua 
OBe noBpuiH, Ha H>oj ce Kao BHJyraBH o#ceK bhah Ha 
BHiue Mecra h je3epcKa Tepaca or 670 — 690 m. 

Hoioa OBe HMa HH>Ka noBpui, pa3BHj'eHa noivia- 

BHTO Ha 060Ay je3epCKHX KOTJIHHa, MeCTO H Ha HHCKHM 

npenaraMa H3Mei^y KOT/iHHa ; nocjie,nft>e je Bpcre paBHa, 
npocTpaHa noBpm H3Me^y AKcnjcKor, MnrAOHHJCKor h 
CTpHMOHCKor Je3epa, 3aTHM ypaBH>eHO 3eMJbHurre H3- 
Meijy TpnnoJbaHe h JlapHCKe Kotjihhc nnja noBpuiHHa 
cene HaGpaHe MepMepe. Hn>Ka noBpui ce noTnyHO aia>Ke 
ca pacnpocTpaH>eH>eM ErejcKor Je3epa hhckhx cratt>a 



OIl.lHUH 3l-;M:bHLLITA 17 



h/ih ca pacnpocTpatt>eH>eM nojeaHHHx kot/ihhckhx je- 
3epa, 3aTO ce Ha \bo] BH^e oBne OHAe o/iceuH h.ih 
o6a;ie thx je3epcKHx crania. 

OBe CBe noBpiiiH cy je3epcKor nopeK-ia h ewe cy 
n/iHOueHe CTapocrH. 3ay3HMajy 3HaTHe Ae/iOBe Ba;i- 
KaHCKor Ilo^yocTpBa, h Aocajia cy yTBptjeHe h Hcnu- 
TaHe nor^aBHTO y 06/iacrHMa ErejcKor h IlaHOHCKor 
Je3epa. Ha ceBepy or TpAe^HHKe K/wcype jaB/ba ce 
npocrpaHO ypaB^eHo 3eM^>HiuTe, c bhchhom oko 750 
m., h c/ia>Ke ce c pacnpocrpaHDeHaeM HaHOHCKor Je3epa 
n^HOueHe CTapocTH. BehH #eo CeBepHe h Cpe^e Cp- 
6HJe npHnaaa oboj h/ih hh>koj noBpiuH, Hapcmmo ue;ia 
LllyMa^HJa, h o^aBAe ce OHa npcTacro yB^aMH y CBe 
r/iaBHHJe aojiuhq. 3aceHeHa je y Hajpa3HOBpcHHJHM cra- 
pHM creHaMa, h peTKO cy Ha HdOj cmyBaHH je3epcKH 
ce^HMeHTH. Here Bpcie je noBpiu Koja je pa3BHJeHa 
y CeBepHOJ Bochh, h HaponHTO y CeBepHOj" ByrapcKOj 
oa HyHaBa ro Ba/inaHa, r^e ce TaKot)e npcTacro yB/ianH 
y3 6a/iKaHCKe ao/ihhc Mcokc ce npaTHTH Kpo3 ue/iy 
B/iaiuKy HcnoA Jy>KHHx Kapnaia, y Koje ce y3 ao^hhc 
npcracTO yB^aHH, a jaBJba ce h y yHyTapibHM KapnaT- 
ckhm 6aceHHMa. 

TaKHx noBpiuH HMa y Mctoxhjh, oko jlpHMa h 
CnaAapcKor B;iaTa, y aoiboj XepueroBHHH h Ha^ia- 
Uhjh. CKa^apcKa noBpiu je BepoBaTHO MapHHCKor no- 
peK/ia, jep je #OKa3aHO na je Ta 06/iacr y n/iHOueHy 
6H/ia noTon/beHa MopeM. 

Je3epcKe cy noBpiuH jaKO pacnpocrpie Ha Ba;i- 
KaHCKOM rio^yocrpBy, h HMajy bc/ihkh 3Hanaj 3a 6a/i- 
KaHCKy Mop4)0^orHJy. 

2. Pan TeKyhHx Boaa. 

y obom o/ie/bKy heMO H3HeTH KpaTaK nper/ie/i o 
TOMe KaKO cy nocTa/ie h KaKo cy ce pa3BH.ie peMHe 
AO/iHHe y MaKe^OHHJH h Crapoj Cp6HJH. npn o6paAH 
Tora nHTan,a ApaoheMO ce OBor peaa. Hajnpe heMO 
H3HeTH oniuTe XHaporpacjKKe npu.iHKe y MaKCAOHHjii 
h Crapoj Cp6nJH, na heMO npehn Ha online oco6hhc 
ilhxobhx AO.'iHua. 3aTHM heMO [ipehH Ha CTBapH KOJC 



18 HOB A CPBHJA 

cy cneuHa^He h KapaKTepncnmHe 3a noje^HHe peKC 
ii ifcHxoBe aojihhc Una noc/ieTKy heMO H3HeTH reo;ioiiiKy 

HCTOpHJy nOJe^HHHX £OJlHHa, KOJOM heMO 06jaCHHTH 

KaKO cy OHe nocra/ie. IloHeheMO naKJie ojx oco6HHa 
Koje ce Hajnpe BH^e h Koje cy HaJHHTepecaHTHHJe. 
Mhcjihm aa je OBaj HanHH H3^aratba obhx nHTatba 
HaJ3roAHHJH. A sro^aH he 6hth HaponHTo ca.ua, nocne 
paTOBa y KOJHMa cy orpOMHe Mace Haiuer Hapoaa 
npomjie Kpo3 OBe 3eMJbe h yno3Ha;ie hx y ucjihhh. 
ZIpyrH aeo Haiuer Hapo^a, npaTehH BOJHa KpeTaH>a, 
HMao je HenpecTaHo reorpa(j)CKy KapTy npe^ o^HMa, 
h TaKO cy onuiTa reorpa(})CKa 3Han>a y HameMJiapoay 
ca^a 3HaTH0 npouinpeHa. MHorHM HauiHM 6hctphjhm 
BOJHHUHMa .ziecHJio ce oho lino ce £emaBa;io MHorHM 
nyTHHUHMa kojh cy nponyTOBajiH Be;iHKe o6;iacTH : ohh 
noHHft>y reorpa(J)CKH npOMaipaTH. HecTH cy ca^a aiy- 
qajeBH na h HecrpyqHa Jinua Tpaace o6jainH>eti>a o hh- 
TepecaHTHHM reorpa(})CKHM nojaBaMa Koje cy 3ana3HJia 
Ha cbojhm bojhhm noxo^HMa. 36or Tora heMO mh no- 
ne™ c npHKa3HBaHDeivi ohhx nojaBa Koje cy HaJBHuie 
yoqjbHBe h Koje cy HaJHHTepecaHTHHJe. 

a) PeiHH H MOpCKH CJiHBOBH. 

Pene MaKeAOHHJe h CTape Cpdwje o6pa3yjy TpH 

MOpCKa H BHUie peHHHX CJIHBOBa. Mel]y MOpCKHM CJIH- 

BOBHMa HaJBa^KHHJH je g/ihb ErejcKor Mopa, kojh je 
bchhk 48.311 km. 2 , h KOMe npnnafla HaJBehn aeo Ma- 
Ke,noHHJe h CTape Cp6nje. DiaBHa peKa y c/iHBy Erej- 
CKor Mopa je Bap^ap, mhj'h c^hb je bcjihk 27.925 km.-, 
h kojh npeACTaBJba HaJBaaoiHJy peKy y yHyTpauiH>ocTH 
uejior Ilo^yocTpBa. Oihb UpHor Mopa y Grapoj Cp- 
6hjh Be^HK je 13.698 km. 2 y ibeuy je HaJBehn ckhb 
peKe MopaBe, KOja ca cbojom noBpuiHHOM on 8552 km. 2 
npeflcraBjba CKOpo flBe TpehHHe uejior upHOMopcKor 
crcHBa. CBe peKe ja^paHCKor MopcKor cnHBa npHna^ajy 
c^HBy peKe JlpHMa, kojh ce zieJiH Ha cjihb 5e;ior 
flpHMa (4.271 km. 2 ) h Ha cjihb UpHor flpHMa (3.367 
km. 2 ). Flopefl obhx ocTaje HaM noBpuiHHa o,n, 5.059 km. 2 , 



OL/1HUH 3ElUbHUlTA 



Kojy caMHFbaBajy c/ihbobh nojeAHHHx noHopHHua m 
06/iacrH 6e3 oTOKa. 

Pa3Bol]e H3Me!iy ErejcKor h JajipaHCKor Mopa HMa 
KapaKTep HopMaAHor pa3Bot)a, jep ce ap>kh n/iaHHH- 
cKor BeHua kojh un.e oa HepeACKe H/iamme, Ha Fle- 
pHdep, Bnr/iy, nocTpafoCKy n^anHHy, Bncipy h LUap- 
n/iaHHHy. Pa3Bofje H3Meljy erejcKor h upno-MopcKor 
cAHBa ap>kh ce y r/iaBHOM BeHua LUapa — UpHa Topa 
(Kapa^ar) — PyjaH. Hoahhom JleneHua o6.iacT erejcKor 
cviHBa npe^a3H npeKO Tora BeHua, y^a3H y KOTAHHy Ko- 
coBa FIoA>a, ii Ty, Mecro HopMa.iHor pa3Bot)a, Haciaje 
noBHJa, pa3Bo^e y kot/ihhh. C.iHMaH o6/ihk HMa pa3- 
uo\)Q. Ha npemeBCKoj npeccA^HHH. CBe pene 3anaAne 
MaKeaoHHJe, H3y3eBuiH o6^acTii 6e3 OTOKa (cahbobc 
je3epa CapnljOAa, Ma/ie h Be.iHKe npecne), 3aTHM ycKe 
06/iacrH apiiMCKor c.THBa, npnnaAajy CAHBy peKe Bap- 
Aapa h BHCTpHue T^aBHe npnTOKe BapAapa y 3anajxiioj 
MaKe^oHHJH cy: TpecKa, MapKOBa PeKa, Ba6yHa, UpHa 
PeKa, Kapa A3MaK. To cy yjeAHO h iviaBHe Aecne npn- 
TOKe BapAapa. /IeBe npHTOKC BapAapa cy : /leneHan, 
fIqHH.a ca KpHBOM, Bpera.imma ca 3/ictobckom PeKOM 
h KpHBOM JlaKaBHuoM. 06hmhhm pa3Maipan,CM na KapTH 
bhah ce na je cahb BapAapa HapoMHTo npocipan y 
3anaAnoj MaKeAOHHJn. Ha /icboj* cipann BapAapa H>e- 
fob cihb je npocrpaH caMO y CKoncKOJ Crapoj CpCnjn 
h CeBepo-HCT04HOJ MaKCAOHHJH, r\ae cahbobhm3 nqHH»c 
ii Bpera/iHHue AOCTH>Ke y npaBuy npeMa ncroKy naj- 
liinpe CBOJe ^HMeH3HJe. MeljyTHM y jy>KHOM je.iy cboj'c 
/icbc o6a/ie, Bap^ap 3HaTno ry6n y Be/nmnnH cBora 
c/iHBa, 3aTO UJTO ce cahb CrpyMe, ao.thhom pexe Opy- 
MHue, a>6oko yB:iaMH npeMa 3anaay H Aonupe y neno- 
cpeAHy 6.iH3nny BapaapcKc- /Io.ihhc. 36or thx npn.iHKa, 
Bap^ap na cbojoj JieBOJ CTpami, oa yiuha Bpei a.nnme 
npeMa jyry, HCMa hhjcahc Behe npnTOKe. KaA ce OBe 
npn^HKe nocMaTpajy c Mopc})OAOLHKO-reoAoujKe Ta i ike 
r/ieAHLHTa, oiiAa ce mokc pehH Aa je BapAap ycneo Aa 
npoujHpH cisoj cahb CByaa iac ce uncy OCehaAH hobii 
yTHuajn kojh cy HacTa.in nocraHKOM ccBepnor ;i 
trejcKor Mopa. IloiiiTO h Crpy.Mima npuna/u CAHBy 
Erejcxor Mopa, 0Ha je MOMa hc caiio 

ll"UA •('MIJA 4 



f>0 HOBA CPl.HJA 

ripen perpecHBHOM epo3HjoM Bapaapa, Hero 4aK je 
ycneBa^a h aa MecrHMHije bo^h c h>hm ycneiiiHy 6op6y. 
36or TaKBHX npHJiHKa, pa3Botje H3Mel)y Bap^apa h 
CTpyMe npejxcraBJba BeoMa H3BHJyraHy KpHBy jiHHHJy 

KOJa HaJIHHH Ha flBOCTpyKO JiaTHHCKO cjiobo S. Pa3- 

Boije H3Mei)y Bap^apa h CTpyMe H^e Hajnpe n^aHHH- 
ckhm BeHueM OcoroBHJa-Ma^em, r^e ce c;ihb Bap^apa 
npHMHne aojihhh CTpyMe Ha o#CTOjaH>e oji\5ro 20 km. 
BoAOAeJiHHua, KOJa je no jy>KHHx orpaHana Majienia 
HiiiJia y npaBuy ceBep-jyr, oajchhom ce noBHja y 
npaBau jyroHCTOK-ceBepo3ana,zj, £p>KH ce hcko BpeMe 
n^anKaBHue, na or ft>e CKpehe noHOBO jyry h ap>kh 
ce y rviaBHOM cpejiOKpahe H3Meljy LLlTHna h PanoBHiiiTa. 
OaaTJie BOAo^e^HHua OKpehe noHOBO Ha hctok, jep 
Bap^apeBa npHTOKa KpHBa JlaKaBHixa ycneBa rsl ce 
ay6oKO yByne y o6;iacT CTpyMe. Ha 3ana#y or BapouiH 
CTpyMHue BOAOAeflHHija C e Rpxai noBHJapua Fl/iaym 
njiaHHHe h ujie y rviaBHOM napa/ie;mo c aojihhom Bap- 
Aapa. Kor BapouiH CrpyMHue pena CTpyMa ycneBa rb. 
ce je^HHM cbojhm KpaKOM npHMaKHe Bp^o 6;iH3y ro y 
#o;iHHy Bap^apa, h Ty ce BOAOAeJWHua npHMnqe ro- 
jihhh Bap^apa Ha oflcrojatbe on 10 ao 15 km. 

6) HeKOJiHKo HHTepecaHTHHX nojaBa y peMHHM 

AOiiMHaHa. 

Be^HKe cTapocp6HJaHCKe h ManenoHCKe peKe or- 
.jiHKyjy ce THMe ujto MHore or h^hx nocTajy y npo- 
CTpaHHM KcnviHHaMa Koje cy HeKa^a 6H;ie HcnytteHe 
je3epHMa. TaKO, Ha npHMep, Bap^ap nocraje y nojioni- 
Koj Kotjihhh, BejiH JlpHM nocTaje h pa3BHj'a ce y Me- 
toxhjh, HaJBehH aeo Co/iyHCKe BHCTpHue pa3BHja ce y 
kot/ihhh HeKaAauifter E/MMejcKor Je3epa, a IipHH UpHM 
nocTaje y Oxphjxckom Je3epy. y OBOMe h y mhohim 
nojaBaMa bhrq ce Be3e H3Mef)y HerAauiHjHx h AaHani- 
h>hx je3epa h penHHx AOJiHHa. 

Hpyra onuiTa nojaBa je Ta uito Be^HKa BehHHa 
r^aBHHx peKa Tene y MepHAHj'aHCKOM npaBuy, h to y 
npaBuy ceBep — jyr, ceBepo3ana,n-jyroHCTOK, h o6paTHo. 
TaKaB npaBau y rviaBHOM HMajy OBe peKe: Bapaap, 



OtiJIHUH 3KMJI.HUJTA 51 



UpHH JlpHM, CrpyMa, Mecra, BncrpHua, Ta^HK, Mo 
paBa h MHore H>HX0Be npHTOKe. Or Ba>KHOCTH je r2l 
ce HcraKHe h to rz. OBe peKe He TeKy y HdOMe cviepy 
h ano cy HCTora npaBua. BehHHa peKa Tene y npaBuy, 
or ceBepa Ha jyr h;ih or ceBepo3ana;ia Ha jyroHCTOK, 
a/iH hx HMa Aocra Koje TeKy h y o6paTHOM npaBuy 
to jecT y npaBuy or jyra Ha ceBep h on jyro3ana;ia 
Ha ceBepoHCTOK. y TOMe ce pa3.iHKyjy peKe MaKe.no- 
HHJe h Crape Cp6Hj*e or peKa MHorHx cyceAHHx 06- 
^acTH, HapoHHTO Cp6nje, CocHe, Ap6aHHj'e, y KOJHMa 
CKOpo cse rojiuhq HMajy MaxoM hcth npaBau h CBe 
peKe TeKy CKopo y hctom CMepy. C tom pa3.iHK0M y 
Be3H je h OBa. y nocneaibHM o6;iacTHMa npaBau peMHHx 
AO^HHa ynyheH je y npaBuy na^a nojeziHHHx bhchhckhx 
ue.iHHa; peKe Cponje, Bochc CeBepHe ByrapcKe H 
Ap6aHHJe TeKy y npaBuy na/ia n.naHHHa, a i\iaBHa pa3- 
BO^a ^p>Ke ce HajBHUJHx n.iaHHHCKHx BeHaua kojh ce 
Ha/ia3e y ilhxoboj no3ajHHH. y MaKeaoHHjn h Cra- 
poj CpoHJH n.naHHHe peTKO o6pa3yjy bc/ihkc n/ianHn- 
CKe BeHue, Beh Bp/10 necTO npeacraB/bajy H30/iOBaHe 
BHCHHCKe ue/inne, h 36or Tora HHcy Morvie 6hth or 
TaKor yTHuaja Ha npaBau penHHx ROJiana. OB^e cy 
o6hhho Be/iHKa TeKToncKa y/iemyha h tcktohckc hh- 
3HHCKe .THHHJe npe^craB/ba/ie oG.iacTH y KOJHMa cy ce 
cKyn;ba/ie Bone Ma/inx peKa h o6pa30Ba/ie ce Bche 
peKe. OHe cy mccto o6pa30Ba;ie h npBo6HTHy penny 
6a3y ORZKne cy peKe yHa3a£ noMepa.ie CBOJa KopHTa, 
naceua.ie ce y n/iaHHne h n/iannncKe npenare H3Me))y 
nojcAHHHX KOT.inna. To noMepan>e pemwx ao/inna y 
Ha3a ; T huj^o je Mecro TaKO jia/ieKO rz cy KaTKa.i 6m- 
Ba^e npeceneHe HaJBHine n.ianHiie, a peKa je cbojhm 
penoM /locervia y cyce/wy KOT/iwuy, y kojoj je CBe 
peKe noxBaTa^a h npnnojn/ia hx y ce. IlpBoGnTHO, 
peKa je 6n.ia rzkjiq npncn.i>ena rz ce ap>KH npaBua 

BC/IHKHX TeKTOHCKHX y.lCIfiy ha, KOJHMa je OHa MOMa 

Haj6p>Ke H naj.iaKUJe nocrnhn MaBini uh:i» >KHBOTa CBaKe 
nojeAune peKe, to jeer Halm cboj H3/133 Ha MopcKy 
oGa.iy. rioujTO cy Bounce hhjhmckc /ihumjc npeaecTH- 
unpane bctchkhm paceAHMa, kojh izom hiii.th y 

pHflHJaHCKOM npaBuy, pa^yM^HBO HaM je 3auiT0 Behnna 



HOBA CPBHJA 



peMHHx AO^HHa y 3ana^Hoj h CpeaiBOj MaKeAOHHjn 
Hiiajy MepHUHjaHCKH npaBau. PeMHe ,no;iHHe cy noja- 
qa^e h o;iaKuia;ie npoxoAHOCT tcktohckhx hh3hhckhx 
jiHHHJa h THMe 3HaTHo .nonpHHejie TOMe uito cy OBe 
o6;iacTH HapoqHTO npoxo^He y MepnnHJaHCKOM npaBuy. 
Tpehy Ba>KHy oco6HHy hhhh caM o6;ihk penHHX 
AO^HHa, 3aTHM jaqHHa h HaMHH TOKa h pana peqHe 
boac Be^HKa BehHHa pena MaKezuDHHJe h CTape Cp- 
6nje HMajy K0MU03UuiHe iajiw cacuiaejbene doAune. 
OHe cy cacraBJbeHe oa HH3a KOT.iHHacrHX npouiHpetfca 
Koja cy Me^yco6HO Be3aHa aojihhckhm TeaiauHMa h 
K^HcypaMa. OBaj o6jiuk penHHX AOJiHHa yaioBJbeH je 
HapOHHTHM MOp(j)OJIOUIKHM pa3BHheM obhx 06/iacTH, a 
Ha npBOM MecTy thm uito cy pene HMa^e .na ce pa3- 
BHJajy y o6:iacTHMa qnje cy ochobhc n;iacrHHKe upie 
Beh hujie H3pai)eHe, uito cy ce RZKJie pa3BHJa/ie y 
Hac/ie^enoj n^acTHUH, Koja ce, Kao uito cmo paHHJe 

HCTaKJIH, OA^IHKOBa^a H30^0BaHHM npOCTpaHHM KOTJIH- 

HaMa, Koje cy 6une nocrajie £y>K H3yKpuiTaHux ;iHHHJa 
oa pacczia. FIoujTO je pena HMa^a roTOBe HH3HHCKe 
/iHHHj'e ^y>K KojHx je H3paljHBa;ia cBOje kophto, h n>eH 
ce rviaBHH Mopc})o/iouiKH paA cacToiao y TOMe na no- 
Be>Ke H30.iOBaHa KOTJiHHacra yAy^Jbetba, na npocene 
H3Met]y Pbux npenare h ctboph KJiucypacre nojinne. 

Ko je nocMaTpao je£Hy Behy MaKe^OHCKy peKy 
y ue^HHH, Morao je ona3HTH aa qecTO y H»e3HHy ao- 
hbeM TOKy cpeTaMO ycKe, KJweypacre ao^hhc Koje 
cy nyHe 6p3aKa h cnanoBa, h 36or Tora OHe Hucy hh 
y HajiiohbeM jieny cbot TOKa 3roAHe 3a n/iOBHA6y. 
Hcto TaKO, necTO y roptt>eM TOKy thx pena Hatjy ce npo- 
crpaHa KopHTa y KOJHMa peKe Teny cnopo h M/iHTaBO, 
npaBehu 6e36poj 3aBOj'a (MeaHziepa) h cTBapajyhu npu- 
BpeMeHa je3epa, cra;iHe Monapu h 6apyuiTHHe. HaJHH- 
TepecaHTHHJe je to uito ce Tane pa3;iHKe Bp/io qecTO 
ona>Kajy y jchhoj hctoj peuH h uito ce nan Mory h Buuie 
nyTa #a noHOBe y je^HOj hctoj penHOj aojihhh. Cnopo ce 
MO>Ke pehn a& pena OBe oco6HHe npoMeHH oho^hko nyTa 

Kp03 KO/1HKO KOTJIHHa H KJIHCypa npolje y CBOMe TOKy. 

Jep totobo y cBanoj Behoj kot^hhh jaBe ce y Behoj 
MepH oco6HHe Aoiber TOKa, a y CBanoj K/incypn oco- 
6HHe ropiber TOKa. Te cy nojaBe Ba>KHe AaK^e 36or 



OBJIHUH 3EM:bHUJTA 



Tora ujto OHe oco6HHe Koje cmo hsbhr^h na rvieaaMO 
y ^OKseM Tony peKa Ha;ia3HM0 y roptbeM, h o6paTHO. 
C obhm y Be3H cy h OHe HHTepecaHTHe Be3e H3- 
< Met)y r^aBHHX pena h HdHXObhx npHTOKa. Ho^HHe mho- 
thx, HapoHHTO BapaapcKHX npHTOKa, y/ia3e y AO/iHHy 
CBOJe rviaBHe peKe bc/ihkhm o;iceuHMa npeKO kojhx ce 
pe^Ha Boaa o6apa y 06/iHKy c/ianoBa h BOAona^a. 
Zlo^HHa rviaBHe peKe qecTO je npeBHiue ,ny6oKa npeMa 
AOflHHaMa tt>eHHx npHTOKa, Koje cy npeMa fboj ocra^e 
Kao BHcehH. 

CBe OBe nojaBe Mory ce o6jaaiHTH KOMn/iHKO- 

BaHOM HCTOpHJOM H HeHOpMaJIHHM pa3BHheM nOJC/lHHHX 
peHHHX CHCTeMa, H JOUJ HCZlOBOJbHO H3pat)eHHM peMHHM 

;io/iHHaMa. HHJe^Ha Beha ManeAOHCKa pena He npea- 
crraB^>a je^Hy Mopapo/ioujKy ue^HHy. OHe ce hh y cbojoj 
reoJioiUKOj npoiu^ocTH HHcy pa3BHJa/ie Kao je;ma ue- 
^HHa. ripBo6HTHO HHJe nocrojajia jeAHa peKa, Beh BHiue 
peKa. oa kojhx ce CBaKa pa3Bnja.ia y noneTKy Kao 
3ace6Ha ue^HHa h;ih Kao Aeo jeAHor Apyror pe<i- 
Hor c/iHBa. Kao TaKBa, CBaKa je HMa;ia cbojc Hapo- 
MHTe AOibe epo3HOHe 6a3e, Koje cy y BehHHH npeA- 
craB^a^a or/ieAa;ia pa3HHx, MaxoM H3o/iOBaHHx je3epa. 
FIocTaHKOM ropiher AeJia ErejcKor Mopa Hacra/ia je 
>KHB^>a epo3Hj'a, BehHHa peKa ynyheHa je y npaBuy 
npeMa jyry, npeMa ErejcKOM Mopy. Mnore H30/iOBane 
je3epcKe KOiviHHe kojc cy npeAcraB;ba;ie AOibe 6a3e 
CTapHx peKa OTBopene cy, jbnxoBy BOAy h ueo c/:hb 
Hac/ie^H/ia je h yByK/ia y ce HOBa peKa. HHAHBHAy- 
a^He ocodHHe thx npBoCHTiinx peKa HacieAH/>e cy h 
HOBe peKe, h TaKO cy nocra/ie pa3/iHKe y hoboj peun. 
Te pa3/iHKe y AO/wnaMa nojeAHHHx peKa nncy ce 
CBe jxo cajia MOMe OAcrpaHHTH, hh yc/ieA Tora hjto 
MHorH ;iOKa;iHH h pernoHa/iHH tcktohckh noKpeTH kojh 
cy ce Bpinn/iH y Aounnja reo/ionjKa BpeMcua 3HaTHO 
yMHO>KaBajy h nojawaBajy tc pa3/inKe. hbnMa ce liory 
o6jacHHTH h OHaKe Be3e H3Metyy hckhx r/iaBunx peKa 
h HdHxobhx npHTOKa, napoMHTO y c/iHBy BapAapa. 
YcneA napowHTHx tcktohckhx noKpeia na yinhy h y 
AOtbeM TOKy BapAapa, noc;ieA»bH je TaKO jaKO yAy6no 
CBOje Kopnio Ra cy ymha n.eroBHx npHTOKa Koje cy 



~ I HOBA CPBHJA 



paHHJe 6mie y HHBoy Bap^apcKe Ho^HHe, ocrajia bh- 
cehH. Thm cy Hacra;iH oianoBH Koje Ha cbom ymhy 
npaBe MHore npHTOKe Bapijapa. MHore npHTOKe Te)Ke 
#a hhbo CBor KopHTa cnyde #o HHBoa Bap,napa; to 
nonemaBatfee noHHe ce najnpe BpiiiHTH Ha caMOMe 
ymhy, r\n,e npHTOKe Hajnpe h npHMe ocrajie oco6hhc 
Bapjjapa; or Bap^apeBa yuiha Te oco6hhc nocieneHO 
ce no^Hy uihphth y3 kophto npHTOKe. Ha Taj HaqHH 
h c^anoBH noMepajy CBOj'e MecTO y3 kophto npHTOKe, 
npH neMy MHorH, nyTyjyhH TaKO y3 kophto, 3a ayro 
ocTaHy y uejiocTH a mho™ ce pa36wjy y 6e36poj Ma- 
HdHx c;ianoBa, kojh Mory 6hth y 6;ih3hhh, h OH#a o6pa- 
3yjy CTeneHHnacTe cnanoBe, h;ih ce Mory Me^ycooHo 
y^aJbaBaTH, h OH#a MecTO jen.Hor c^ana zjo6HBaMo BHUie 
crcanoBa y jeAHOJ penHoj aojihhh. 

y peKaMa MaKeaoHHJe h CTape Cp6HJe cpeiaMO 
KaTKa,zi nojaBe Koje H3r^e^ajy HejionmHe h Heo6jaui- 
HiHBe, h Koje 36or Tora hito cy peTKe, h uito ce He 
noayiiapajy c npHJiHKaMa y HOpMa;iHHM pe^HHM #0- 
^HHaMa, CMaTpajy ce Kao npHpo^HH Kypno3HTeTH. Kao 
TaKBe CMaTpajy ce MHoro6poJHe uoeu/e Ha pa3Bol)HMa 
nojejiHHHX mopckhx h peHHHx cjiHBOBa, MHoro6poJHe 
^yiiHOBaTe OKyKe y penHHM #OJiHHaMa, cnyqajeBH 6u~ 
(fiypKdniijci, h MHore £pyre reoMOp(f)o/ioinKe nojaBe. 
y HopMa;iHHM npH^HKaMa, rviaBHa pa3Boi)a cy MaxoM 
Be3aHa 3a nojcuHHe bhchhckc uejiHHe, jipme ce MaxoM 
r^aBHor noBHJapua Kora n/iaHHHCKor BeHi;a h rpe6eHa. 
H 3aTo cy peTKe h Heo6HMHe nojaBe Ka^ ce Hat)y pa3- 
Bol^a y AO^HHaMa, Ha npece^JWHaMa h;ih y KOTJiHHaMa. 
TaKa pa3Bol)a 30BeM0 uoeujaMa. y CTapoj Cp6HJH 
HMaMO ABe noBHJe, Koje cy 0,0. Be;iHKor 3Hanaja 3a 
cao6pahaj h npHpo^He Be3e H3Meijy cyce^HHx o6jia- 
cth. To cy npeuieBCKa h KOCOBCKa noBnja, Ha pa3BO^y 
H3Met)y Bapaapa h MopaBe; Ha npBOJ je BO^OAe^HHua 
H3Mel)y MopaBnue h fIqHH>e, a Ha ^pyroj H3Mel)y He- 
poztHMKe, oahocho JleneHua, h Chthhuc 06e noBHJe 
cy oa HapoHHTa 3Hanaja 3a cao6pahaj, jep ce npeKo 
HjHx H3 je,zi,Hor penHor CHCTeMa npe^a3H y £pyrH 6e3 
BehHx TepeHCKHx TeniKoha. Ha noBHJaMa cy qecre no- 
jaBe 6H(J)ypKauHJe ; to cy onyqajeBH y KoJHMa ce BO^a 



GB/IHUH 3EM.JbHllJTA 55 

jeiiHe peKe panBa y £Ba KpaKa, on kojhx jeaaH H^e y 
peKy jeflHor peMHor CHCTeMa, a apyrn y pe*y apyror 
CHcreMa. FIoBHJe Hacrajy MaxoM Ha Taj HanHH ujto cy ce 
ca^aiuFbe peKe pa3BHJa/ie h y Ha3a;i noMepa.ie Rym. 
jeiiHe CTapHJe hh3hhckc jihhhjc hjih iuto cy o6e 3auj/ie 
y ao/iHHy je^He iipyre peKe h no^e/in/ie je Met)y co6om, 
h/ih Ha noc/ieTKy Ha Taj HaMHH ujto je jenHa peKa no- 
Mepn/ia y Ha3aa csoje kophto, npeceK/ia npBodHTHo 
pa3BO^e h yin/ia y flo/iHHy /ipyre peKe. 

rtocMaTpafeeM npaBua £0/iHHa noje.aHHHx MaKe- 
ilOHCKHx peKa, HapoHHTo BapiiapeBHx npHTOKa, onawa 
ce na Te peKe MHHe Mecro ny^HOBaTa CKpeTaiba H3 
CBor npBodHTHor TOKa, TaKO jya qecro y iipyroM 
zie/iy CBora TOKa noMHy TehH y o6paTHOM npaBuy. 
y TaKHM npn/iHKaivia peKe npaBe OHe My^HOBaTe OKyKe 
y npaBuy cbojhx jio/iHHa, qnja ce nojaBa o6hmho He 
nonyiiapa c bhchhckhm h TepeHCKHM npn/iHKaMa. y Ma- 
Ke^OHHJH qecre cy peKe Koje y ropibeM ae/iy CBor 
TOKa TCKy y MepniiHJaHCKOM npaBuy, ApwehH ce npaBua 
TeKTOHCKHx hh3hhckhx /iHHnja. A.iH OHe oaje^aHnyT 
HanyiHTajy OBaj npaBan, CKpehy Ha AecHo h/ih Ha /ieBO, 
Mecro noTnyHO nonpeMHO Ha npBo6nTHH npaBau, h TeKy 
K/incypoM Koja cewe Be/iHKe n.iaHHHCKe ucthhc Ko,i 
oBaKHx OKyKa HajqyjiHOBaTHJe je to luto ce bhah aa 
ce npBo6nTHa HH3HHCKa .iHHHJa Rym. Koje je peKa TeK/ia 
h Aa;be y hctom npaBuy h uoji hcthm npH/iHKaMa npo- 
ity>Kyje, na ce peKa nnaK He ap>kh Te /ihhhjc Beh CKpehe 
na AecHO h/ih na /ieBO, na ce 3aceua y Be/iHKe ii/ianHHC. 
Hero TaKO 4)hhh cy h ohh c/iyqajeBH r\ae peKa tohc 
nope^ jciHe CTapHJe pe4He AO/inne h/ih nopea KaKiu 
apyre hh3hhckc /ihhhjc, na ce nnaK ne ap>kh roTOBe 
h H3paJ)ene ao/ihhc Beh ce 3aceua y n/iaHnne h MBpcTe 
CTene, y KOJHMa je Mopa/ia Mnoro cnare noTpouiHTH 
40K je H3iiy6H/ia CBOjy ycKy, KpmeBHTy h cryniheBHTy 

flO/IHHy. 

Cbc oho nojaBe npeAcraB/bajy Ba>KHe npoo.ie.Me y 
Mopcj)o/iorHJH Aanaojibnx pewnnx nojinna. Hckh or thx 
npo6/ieMa noda/iH cy, 6ap y h3bcchoj Mepn, jacHH H3 
AOca,aaujH>Hx namnx n:i.naran>a. Ocra/ie nojaBe 6nhe 
jacnc h i c.TiietiH.x HJ/iaran.a, y KOJHMa he Chtm \ 



56 HOBA CPKHJA 



KpaTKHM upiaivia npeacTaBjbeHH nociaHaKH pa3BHhe Haj- 

Ba>KHHJHX peHHHX flOJIHHa. 

b) HdopHJa pa3BHTKa peMHHX IJOJIHHa. 

a) TparoBH HajeTapHJHX pe^HHX ffOJiHHa. 

Ha ocHOBy AaHaiuibHx mop4)ojioujkhx e;ieMeHaTa, 

TeiUKO je CTBOpHTH CJIHKy OHOJ IUiaCTHUH KaKBy je 

HMa^a po^oncKa Maca npe ho ujto je pa30peHa TeK- 
tohckhm npouecHMa h npe ho ujto .cy y h>oj nocrajie 
KOT/iHHe. Meijy AaHaiutkHM mop(J)o;ioujkhm o6/iHUHMa, 
Majio hx je 3a Koje ce MO>Ke pehH m noTH^y H3 Bpe- 
MeHa npe nociaHKa KOTJWHa. Hhhh ce #a ce to MOHce 
c BehoM cHrypHOuihy pehH je^HHO 3a HeKe bhcokc 
npecejiyiHHe Koje ce jaBJbajy H3Met]y noje#HHHx kot- 
jiHHa, h 3a BHCOKe AOflHHCKe no^OBe H3Ha^ hckhx k;ih- 
cypa. Hdhxobhm AeTajbHHM HcnHTHBaH>eM, npo(J)ecop 
UbhjhH je yTBpAHO Aa Te npecezyiHHe h aojihhckh 
no^OBH npe^CTaBJbajy KOMaije peHHHX £OJiHHa Koje cy 
er3HCTnpa;ie y BpeMeny npe o6pa30BaH>a KOTJiHHa, h 
Koje cy npouecoM pacenan>a h CTBapaH.a KOTJiHHa 6njie 
HCKHAaHe h yHHuiTeHe. Th ocraTun o# ynponamheHHx 
peMHHx AO^HHa Beoivia cy npocrpanH, y nonpenHOM 
npoc})H^y noKa3yjy OHy CHMeTpHJy Kojy HMajy CBe HOp- 
Majme pe^He jxo.wue, h Ha nocneTKy Ha hckhm je HatjeH 

CTapH peMHH UJJbyHaK, a Ha HeKHM HaH3MeHHHHO peMHH 

h je3epcKH THMe je HdHxobo nopewio HecyMtbHBO yTBp- 
i^eHO. 3a kotjihhc Koje cy nocra;ie paceAan>eM nope 
3eMajbCKe y CBHMa je3HUHMa y3eT je HeMaHKH Ha3HB 
zpa6en; OBe penHe AOJumz Koje cy crapnje or kot- 
jiHHa Ha3BaHe cy upezpadencKUM doAunciMa, noiuTO cy 
nocTOJa/ie npe ho luto cv nocTa^e kotjihhc. 

TparoBa or nperpa6eHCKHx #o/iHHa HMaMO £Be 
BpcTe. Je^uH npeAcraBjbajy BHCOKe npeceA/iHHe H3Mel)y 
noje^HHHx KOTviHHa, Koje ce jwxiy bhcoko H3Ha/i Haj- 
BHmer crania Erejcnor Je3epa. 3HaTaH #eo npece^HHa 
Koje ce Ha;ia3e Ha BHCHHaMa mnaji 800 m. npezurraB- 
Jbajy ocTaTKe on riperpa6eHCKHX pewHHX £o;iHHa. y h>hx, 
oa Ka^ cy yHHuiTeHe, HHJe hhioa y;ia3H/ia peMHa hh 
je3epcKa BOAa. OHe npeflcraBJbajy yivipTB/beHy AOJiHHCKy 






ob/ihuh 3em;bhujta 57 



napwaa, ocraTKe on HCKOMa^aHHx penHHx nojiuna kojh 
cy oda^H Ha cbom npBo6HTHOM no;io>Kajy, noK cy 
.apyrn HdHxobh flercoBH npouecoM paceaatba 6h ih 
OTKHHyTH h 3a HeKO^HKe xn/ba;ie Meiapa cnyujTeHH y 
ay6HHy, r^e ce, nonpHBeHH bc;ihkhm MacaMa je3ep- 
CKor h peHHor uj.'byHKa, caja Kpnjy Ry6oKO Hcno.ii 
ma KOT^HHa. Kao Ha\ny6jbH yceuH y n/iaHHHCKHM npe- 
naraMa H3Mef]y nojexiHHHx KOiviHHa, ohh cy on yBeK 
6h;ih on HaJBeher 3Hawaja 3a cao6pahaj, h 6h;ih cy 
on Be^HKor yTHuaja Ha no/io>Kaj h pa3BHhe hckhx Ba- 
poujH. Kao HaJTHnHHHHJH npcucraBHHUH TaKHx nperpa- 
6eHCKHx no;iHHa cy OBe npece;yiHHe: T>aBaT H3Metjy 
nenaroHHJe h FIpecnaHCKor Je3epa, ripncaT H3Met)y 
npn-iencKe kot.ihhc h Bap^apcKHX >Kyna Ba6yHe, Xaca 
h K/iene, FI/ieTBap H3Met)y npn/iencKe h pajaMKO-THK- 
BeiuKe KOT^HHe, FIpeBTHC H3Meljy KopMaHCKe h npe- 
cnaHCKe KOiviHHe h 6yK0BCi;a npece^HHa H3Mefyy npe- 
cnaHCKe h oxpHACKe kotjihhc. 'foaBaTCKa npeceii/iHHa 
npy>Ka ce on dnmrbCKe KOiviHHe no PecHa, cacraBJbeHa 
je on Tp:i pa3He napinje, on kojhx je HaJBHina OHa 
koa ce/ia MarapeBa r\ne je iunpoKa 1 no iVi kh;io- 
MeTap. Mhhh ce na OHa npe/iCTaB.ba ocraTaK on \enue 
AO/iHHe, Koja je nuj/ia aa/ieKO Ha jyr no jiaHaimbe 
co/iyHCKe paBHHue. Kao AajbHH ibeHH TparoBH MOK^a 
Mory ce CMaTpaTH npece#/iHHe KH3/iH-HepBenT, H3Mehy 
6HT0^>CKe KOT/iHHe h OcTpoBCKor Je3epa h MyxapcM- 
CKa ynonuua H3Me^y OcrpoBCKor Je3epa h Co/iyHCKe 
PaBHHue. rioc/ic;ube nse 6n/ie cy aouuhjc npeTBopeHe 
y je3epoy3HHe, na cy yjiapHOM cnaroM je3epcKHx Ta- 
;iaca h Ta/ioweibeM je3epcKHX ce^HMeHaTa 6n/ie 3HaTH0 
Aec})opMHcane HnaK ce ibhxob npBo6HTHH ao/ihhckh 
KapaKTep 3HaTH0 owyBao. FI/ieTBap h Flpnca^ npea- 
craB^ajy KOMane on npBo6HTHor Kopma FI/ieTBapcKe 
h ripn/iencKe PeKe, Koje cy npe pa3Bnha BapiiapcKC 
Ho/iHHe H3 ropHjHX o6;iacTH pena Ba6yHe H Pajua 
TeK/ie y npaBuy aanaiiHbe npn.iencKe kot/ihhc. II>h- 
xobh TparoBH BH^e ce h aaHac Kao 3apeui h noaoBH 
kojh ce y npo;iy>Keiby n/ieTBapcKe h npHcaacko np€« 
cea/iHHe BH^e Ha HBHua.\ia h no dpaHaMa npn.iencKe 
KOT^Hfie. Obc peKe cy npona.ie y 6op6n c BapiapeBHM 



58 HOBA CPEHJA 



npHTOKaivia Ba6yHOM h Pajueivi, Koje cy noMepHJie CBoja 
KopHTa y na3aji, 3am;ie y H3BOpHy o6;iacT FIpHJiencKe 
h ITneTBapcKe PeKe, OTe;ie hm MHoro6poJHe H3Bope h 
Bo^y, h TaKO hx o6e3r^aBHJie, ycneji Hera cy erne 3a- 
Kp>KJbaBH^e, cjihhho Kao iiito HOBeqj:^ Tejio nowHe 

A2l Kp>KJbaBH H BeHe Ka^ My Ce OflV3Me MHOrO KpBH. 

O oboj HHTepecaHTHOJ 6op6H Koja ce y AH;iyBHyMy 
pa3BHJia H3Met]y Bap^apcKHX npHTOKa h ^pyrnx Ma- 
kchohckhx peKa, o pa3HHM o6^HUHMa Te 6op6e h o 
HbeHHM r^aBHHM y3pouHMa, roBopHheMo onuiHpHHJe kza 
6y^eMo roBopHJiH o reojioiiiKOj* hctophjh Bap^apa. 
ZIpyry rpyny nperpa6eHCKHx ^.o^HHa HHHe OHe 
AO^HHe Koje cy 6une TaKO hhckc aa je npH HaJBHiiiHM 
je3epCKHM CTatbHMa y jbhx yuina je3epcKa BO#a, h 
Koje cy xyro BpeMeHa npe^CTaBJba^e je3epoy3HHc. 
y neKHM o.a. H>HX, nouiTO ce ouchh/io je3epo, pa3BHJie 
cy ce peKe, qnje nonum #aHac npeacraBJbajy ( a,y6oKe 
h TecHe K;wcype, hhjh je o6/ikk h HanHH nocraHKa npefl- 
CTaBJbao je^aH oji ohhx HayqHHX reorpa(J)CKHx npo6/ieMa 

O KOJHMa Ce MHOrO AHCKyTOBaJIO, KOJHMa nOCTOJH 

MHoro TeopHj'a h xHnoie3a, h Koje cy o6jaiuft>eHe TeK 
OBaKBHM .neTajLHHM CTyAHJaMa KaKBe je npo(j) U,BHJHh 
BpiiiHO Ha BajiKaHCKOM rio^yocTpBy. JIho TaKBHx cra- 
pHx ao;iHHa caqyBaHO je y o6jiHKy Behnx h MatbHX 
KOMaiia, noKpHBeHHx HaH3MeHHMHHM c/iojeBHMa je3ep- 
CKor necKa h penHor mjbyHKa, kojh ce KOHcraTyjy bh- 
coko H3Ha,n Ana Ranauiibux KJincypa, h kojh npaheHH 
h HcnHTHBaHH Ha BejiHKHM /jajbHHaivia, Aajy cjiHKy npo- 
dpaHHx, 6naro HarHyTHX pennnx AO^HHa. TaKBe penHe 
;io;iHHe o6hhho cy mnpe h npocrpaHHJe on ohhx cra- 
pnx peqHHx .nojiHHa Koje HHcy HHKaKO 6n;ie npeTBo- 
peHe y je3epoy3HHe. TaKBH cy KOMa^H crapnx £o;iHHa 
OHaj H3Ha,fl; ce;ia Kapaua;iapa, H3Metjy eop^ejcKe h 
e^HMejcKe KOT/iHHe, KHSJiH-UepBeHT, H3Meijy 6nTOJbCKe 
KOiviHHe h OcTpoBCKor Je3epa, 3aTHM MyxapeMCKa h 
B^a^oBCKO-BCueHCKa y^ojhHHa. 

OBany h oihhho KOMnjiHKOBaHy HCTOpnjy h n;ia- 
CTHKy HMajy CBe Behe h ny6jhe KJincype BajiKaHCKor 
flo^yocTpBa. Hdhxobo npBo6nTHO nopeK.no Moace 6hth 
pa3^nqHT0, a/in je 3a ibHxoB AaHauitbH q6jihk HaJBa>K- 



OBVIHUH 3EMJbHUlTA 59 



HHJe to uito cy CBe y H3BecHa reo;iouiKa BpeMeHa npe;i- 
CTaBJha.ie je3epoy34He, h niro cy hm BHiue napTHJe H3- 
pa^eHe y^apatbe.M je3epcKHx Ta.iaca. TaKBor nopeK/ia 
CKopo cy CBe Behe K;incype Ba/iKaHCKor Ilo/iyocTpBa, 
H3Met]y kojhx cy Hajno3HaTHje h Haj6o/be HcnHTaHc: 
Tbep/ian Ha UyHaBy, KanaHHMKa K/wcypa, rpnenvmna 
K^Hcypa, 3aTHM MHoro6poJHe Maibe K/iHcype y ^o'*hhh 
MopaBe, Bap^apa, y peKa\ia Jy>KHe MaKeaoHHJe h Te- 
ca.iHJe. 

£) FIoGTaHaK Bapnapa w H>eroBa pe4Hor eJiHBa. 

Bap^apcKa nonwrn cacTaB/bena je on HH3a npo- 
crpaHHx KOT^HHa, Koje cy Mehyco6HO Be3aHe tcchhm h 
Ay6oKHM K.iHcypaMa. Bap^ap H3BHpe HcnoA LUape, y 
ce;iy BpyTOKy, na npoTHMe Kpo3 KOTTiHHy flo/ior, Koja 
je ziyra 45 no 50 KH.ioMeTapa. On H3Bopa no K^Hcype 
ilepBeHa Teqe y npaBuy ca jyro3ana#a Ha ceBepoHCTOK. 
y K^HcypH ZlepBeHy npaBH onupy OKyKy h caBHJa Haj- 
npe y npaBau ceBepo3anaA-jyroHCTOK, 3aTHM y npaBau 
3ana^-HCT0K, h noHOBO y npaBau ceBepo3anan-jyro- 
hctok, h ceBep-jyr. riocae^iba ABa npaBua, c Ma^HM 
H3Mena\ia, ocTajy cse no iberoBa MopcKor yiuha K/ih- 
cypa HepBeH, Koja pacTaB/ba no/iouiKy 03 CKonrKe 
kotjihhc, £yra je 17 — 20 km. On yuiha TpecKe no KaT- 
^anoBCKor B/iaTa Tene Kpo3CKoncKy KOT/iHHy. On yiuha 
riMHfbe no BatUHHa Ce/i Hacraje TaopcKa K/iHcypa, 
ayra 4 no 5 km. On Be/ieujKe K.iHcype no JJeMnp Ka- 
nHJe Bapjao npoTHMe .ipo3 KOT-iHHy THKBeui, Koja je 
iiyra oko 50, a HJHpoKa oko 40 km. AeMHp KanHja je 
HaJBeha Bap^apcKa K^Hcypa. On aeMHp-KanHJCKe no 
cTpyMHWKe >Ke/ie3HMUKe cranHue nyra je oko 19 km , 
a cacraBJba thkbcldky h i)CBl)e;iHJcKO-6oJMHJcKy kot- 
.THHy. nor 1 KOT^Hna ujHpoKa je 5 no 6 km., a ny- 

raMKa oko 30. H.Ma H3rvie/i npouiHpene pemie ,io- 
;ihhl\ ll'/.i'iv be h Co/iyncKe Kawiaibe Bapaap npo- 
na3H Kpo3 Unran>cKy K.incypy, Koja jc iiyra 10 km., 
a AyooKa 100 no 150 m. Kao uito ce bhah, ao/iHHa Bap- 
;i.apa cacTaii.i.cua je on neT bcahkhx KOT/iMna, hcto 
to/ihkoi 6poja neliH.x K.iHcypa, h on .-tHaTiior 6poja 



60 HOBA CPBHJA 



MaH>Hx aojihhckhx npoiiiHpetfea KJiHcypacrnx yceKa, H3- 
Mehy koj'hx Bapaap npaBH MHorodpoJHe OKyKe h 3aBOje. 
3a HdcpHJy Bapaapa oa HaJBehe BaaoiocTH je 
#a ce HdaKHe ' to jxa cy CBe OBe kotjihhc y pa3Ha 
reo^ouiKa BpeMeHa 6une HcnyHbeHe je3epHMa. Ta je3epa 
cy npBo6HTHO npeAcraBJbajia ^e^OBe ErejcKor Je3epa. 
ZlouHHJe cy OHa npeTBopeHa y caMocTa^He je3epcKe 
6aceHe. J\a ;ih cy th 6aceHH 6hjih Meijyco6HO Be3aHH 
je3epoy3HHaMa h OTOKaMa, Kao luto cy 6hjih MHorH 
y Jy>KHOj MaKe£OHHJH, H Hj'e AOBOJbHO jacHo. Bapaap 
ce noneo pa3BHJaTH TeK nan je Be^HKO ErejcKO Je3epo 
pa36HJeHO y Maite 6aceHe. Bh^jih cmo #a je y aa- 
HauiHDeM aohdCm c/iHBy Bap^apa 6wio pa3BHJeHO Akchj- 
cko Je3epo, Koje ce nocjie^Hbe hsabojhjio oh ocra- 
;ihx ne;iOBa ErejcKor Je3epa, h Koje je 3axBaTa;io aa- 
HamtbH Co^yHCKH 3a;iHB h Co;iyHCKy KaMnaBby h npy- 
yuano ce Ha ceBep no .naHauiHber Ap^KaHCKor Je3epa h 
UHraifcCKe KjiHcype. Haj^ajbe ce ORpynajio y Be3H ca 

dpHMOHCKHM (CTpyMHHKHM) H MHI\n,OHajCKHM (aJBaCHJI- 

CKO-6eiiiHHHHM) Je3epoM. Be3e cy npeKHHyTe ycjiea 
cn^aniHDaBaHDa Boae y CBa TpH je3epa. Kaa je orjie^a/io 
AKCHJCKor Je3epa cna^o ro #aHaiiiH>e Ha^MopcKe bh- 
CHHe oa 250 m., oho je nonejio nocTajaTH caMOcrajiHO 
je3epo. O CTapocTH AKCHJCKor Je3epa 3Ha ce to %a je 
oho nocrajajio 3a BpeMe Jie^eHor #o6a h nocjie H>era. 
HaK;ie nocTaja^o je y BpeMe Ka^a ce npBH nyT jaB- 
jbajy Ha 3eMa;bCKOj noBpuiHHH TparoBH jby^cKor >kh- 
BOTa. npBH jbyjiu jaBH/iH cy ce jjaKJie Ha 3eMJbH Kaaa 
HHJe 6h;io Bap^apcKe ilo^HHe OBane KaKBa je aaHac. 
Akchj'cko Je3epo He 6h moivio oncTaTH #a je H>eroB 
okbhp npeivia ErejcKOM Mopy 6ho OBano OTBopeH Kao 
uito je OTBopeHa £aHaniH>a CcnyHCKa KaMnaH>a npeMa 
Co^yHCKOM 3a^HBy. JyatHH okbhp AKCHJCKor Je3epa, 
kojh ce jaMaHHO h paHHJe no^eo cnyuiTaTH, cnycTHO 
ce noTnyHO h Hiime3ao nocne .zmJiyBHyivia. Kaa ce cny~ 
ctho Taj okbhp, Akchj'cko Je3epo je otckjio. Ajih ce 
AOUHnje ErejcKO Mope h3;ihjio no #aHaujH>oj Co-JiyHCKOj 
KaMnaHDH, na ce aoijHHJe nocreneHO noByKJio. 

Bap^apcKa ao;iHHa nonejia ce HHTeHCHBHHJe pa3BH- 
jaTH Ten o;i KaKo je HUjqe3^o Akchjcko Je3epo h k&r 



Oli/IHUH 31 M.bHHJTA 



ce ErejcKo Mope noByK.io H3 Co/iyHCKe KaMnan>e. y 
Co/iyHCKOJ KaMnattiH npH Kpajy an/iyBHyMa jaBHiue 
ce MHorH pace^H, kojh ce Met)yco6Ho H3yKpinTauje. 
BehH ^eo 3eM;bHiHTa kojh o6yxBaTHiue th pacean 
noTOHy. 

PeKe Koje cy ce y/iHBa-ne y Akchjcko Je3epo h 
y Co;iyHCKH 3a^HB ErejcKor Mopa, noc/ie HcyniHBaiba 
AKCHJCKor Je3epa h noB/iaHefoa Co.iyncKor 3a;iHBa, 6Hine 
npoziyweHe. y TOMe npo.ay>KHBaH>y ohc noneine TehH 
no AHy 6HBiuer je3epa. Hdhxobo kophto ce ^aK^e Ha 
Taj HawHH cnycTH.io. Mum ce cnycrn^o h npo^y>KH^o 
kophto, peKa je Ao6H/ia Behn na^ h penHa Bo^a je 
none.ia 6p>Ke TehH h jane yceuaTH ce y .aoTa^aiubbe 

KOpHTO, KOJe je 04 HOBOr KOpHTa 6H^0 3HaTH0 BHine. 

TaKBe npoMeHe H3BpujeHe cy h Ha Bap/iapy, kojh ce 

y^HBao y Akchjcko Je3epo. Oh je noweo ^a y;iy6:i>yje 

CBOJy Ao;i.iHy h na je noMepa y na3a,n Hajnpe ce 

cnycrHO y UHrafbCKoj K/incypn, na je CBOJe kophto 

npo,ay>KHO Kpo3 6oJMHCKO-*)eBJ)e/iHJCKy KOT/iHHy. Thm 

npo;iy>KHBaibeM y Ha3a^ yceKao ce y npewary Koja je 

pacTaBJba/ia 6oJMHJcKo-t)0Bl)e.iHJCKy h THKBCiHKy kot- 

^HHy, a thm yceuaiheM nocra/ia je Aanaunba JleMnp Ka- 

nnja. Ha Taj HaqHH Bap^ap je y ce iiphmho CBy Bo;iy 

H3 THKBeiUKor je3epa h H3 ohhx peKa kojc cy ce y.in- 

Ba;ie y thkbcluko je3epo. Ha Taj namm Uapjap ce 

3HaTH0 o6oraTHO boaom. Ii)eroBa CHara nnce je no- 

craja/ia Beha, h oh je pa3BH0 join Bciiy aqjizthoct. Jep 

3Ha ce A2L ce jawmia h CHara joauc peKe wepn no mho- 

>khhh n>ene Bo;ie h no 6p3HHH c kojom othmc. Ha 

cviHHaH HawHH Bapaap je h aa/be na ccBep npoaywa- 

Bao CBOJe kophto, 3aceuao ce y npeuaie kojc cy no- 

croja/ie H3Mel)y nojeAHnnx KOTAHHa, ia/ia3H0 y noje- 

AHHa je3epa, npHMao H.nxoBy Bo;iy y ce, h TaKO ce ( 

BHUje 6oraTHO boaom h cna>KHO ce. 

Ohc peKe Koje cy ce pannje y/iHBa.ie y Cojmhjcko, 
THKBeujKO, ckohcko h no/ioniho je3epo, nocra.ie cy 
npHTOKe Bapaap3. k'a.i je Bapxiap nainao y to kot.ihhc. 
oh je oueAHo\Bo^y h.hxobhx je3epa. Je3epcice npirroKe 
cy no i ie.ie Aa TeKy no ;iny crapor je3epa n one cy Ha 
Taj HawHH aoGn.ie crpMnjn iiaA h noieJie cy Dpxce 



<J2 HOBA CPliHJA 



TehH, hcto OHaKO Kao iiito je h Bap#ap noneo 6p>Ke 
TehH Ka^ ce HcyuiHJio Akchjcko Je3epo, h Ka^a ce 
H>eroBa AOJiHHa cnycTHJia Ha aho AKCHJCKor Je3epa. 
36or Tora cy ce h HOBe Bap^apcKe npHTOKe no^ejie 
jaqe yceuaTH y AOTa.ua hi n>e cBOje kophto h CBe BHine 
ra y Ha3a^ noMepaTH. CBe Bap^apCKe npHTOKe y to 
Ao6a uuajie cy OBy 3ajeAHHHKy h oniiiTy oco6HHy: CBe cy 
ce £y6oKO yceaa^e y ROTajiamibe kophto h noMepa^e 
cy ce y Ha3a£. HaponHTO je 6hjio Baaoio noMepatbe 
y Ha3a^. Thm noMepaHbeM peKe cy 3aceua;ie y CBOjy 
H3BopHy o6^acT h y CBOja pa3Botja. Oho je qecTo Bp- 
uieHO TaKO HHTeHCHBHo aa cy MHore peKe npoceK^e 
CBOja pa3B0^a, npeuuie npeKO h>hx, h ymne'y o6;iacTH 
h c^HBOBe Apyrnx peKa. OB^e HMaMO AaKJie one hh- 
TepecaHTHe npHMepe 6op6e H3Meljy nojeAHHHx peKa. 
BapAapCKe npHTOKe, ycjiez BejiHKe 6p3HHe CBor TOKa 
h c orpoMHOM kojihhhhom BO^e, OAJiHKOBajie cy ce H 
BehoM CHaroM, h OHe cy o^HOCHJie no6ejiy y 6op6n 
ca peKaMa apyrnx cjiHBOBa. y toj 6op6n MHore peKe 
H3 Apyrnx c^HBOBa nory6H;ie cy CBOje H3BopHe o6;ia- 
cth, h roptbe Ae^OBe cbojhx zto^HHa, a OHe cy ocrajie 
ca caMHM aohdHM cbojhm tokom. BapaapcKe npHTOKe 
cy ce 3aceK/ie y n>HX0By o6;iacT, npeceKJie cy tt>HX0By 
AOJMHy, h CBy Boay H3 h»hxobhx H3B0pa OKpeHyjie v y 
CBOja KOpHTa. TaKBe peKe noje cy nczuiervie y toj 
Be^nqaHCTBeHOj* 6op6H, HHcy H3ry6n;ie >khbot, a;iH cy 
H3ry6H/ie CBOjy BO^y, H3ry6n;ie cy CBOjy KpB h CBOjy 
cHary. H OHe H3ryie,aajy H3aHl)a;ie h AOTpajajie. O h>h- 
xoboj HerAaujH>oj Be^nqHHH CBeAoqe H>HXOBa npocTpaHa 
KopHTa, a H>HX0By calamity c/ia6ocT npeAcraBJbajy Ma;iH 
BO^aeHH M^a3eBH kojh Teny Kpo3 Ta npocTpaHa KopHTa. 
Cajviax ce bhah Aa 3a TaKO Ma;ie peKe He npHCTajy 
TaKO npocTpaHa KopHTa. Te peKe Ha-anne Ha MpuiaBe 
jby^e kojh ce o6yKy y o^e/io KpynHHx Jhyjxu. hbnxoBa 
cyA^HHa c^HHHa je cyA^HHH jby^CKor Te/ia Ka# My ce 
o/iy3My Be^HKe ko^hhhhc KpBH. OHe BeHy h cnpeMajy 
ce aa noTnyHO npecaxHy. 

H3HeheMO HeKOJiHKO npHMepa o toj HHTepecaH- 
thoj 6op6n Koja je BoijeHa Ha Her£anitt>eM pa3Boljy 
Koje je oj^Baja^o cjihb Bap^apa h zipyrnx MaKeAOHCKHx 



1HUH 3BM/bHUlTA 

pena. Th npHMepH HHTepecaHTHH cy h Kao npHpo^HH 
KypH03HTeTH h Kao AOKy.MeHTH o TOMe KaKO je nocrao 
^aHaiuibH c.iHB Bapaapa. Hajnpe heMO npehH Ha TXpny 
Peny h Ha HCTopnjy fbeHa pa3BHha. OHa h no ny- 
>khhh CBOje ^o^HHe h no Be^HMHHH cbot cnHBa npea- 
craB/ba HaJBehy npHTOKy Bap^apa. y H>eHOJ /io/ihhh 
H3^Bajajy ce £Ba £e/ia, kojh ce Mefjy co6om cacrajy y 
je^Hoj Bp^o oiiiTpoj oKyuH. TopibH tok UpHe npezi- 
craB/ba ^o.iHHa Koja Hue Kpo3 >Ke.ie3HHK (JleMHp Xii- 
cap) h BHmrbCKy KoT/iHHy ro CKOMHBHpcKe K.iHcype. 
y TOMe jiQJiy UpHa PeKa Tewe MaxoM y npaBuy ca 
ceBeoa Ha jyr. HpyrH neo npeflcraB/ba tbeHa ao;iHHa 
on CKOMHBHpcKe K;iHcype no yiuha y Bap^ap. y TOMe 
/ie/iy TeMe pena cKopo y npaBuy ca jyra Ha ceBep; 
Tewe naKJie y npaBuy kojh je cynpoiaH npBOMe. 06a 
ce nena Ha /iaKaT cacTajy h H^y y npaBUHMa kojh cy 
riapa.ie.iHH. H Hajo6HHHHJH nocMaipan Kaa nocMaipa 
obo MeH>att.e npaBna nociaBuhe nHTafoe: 3auuT0 peKa 
TaKO oiHTpo Meiha npaBau, CBora toko. Ako Ha npn/io- 
>KeHOJ KapTH npoMaipaMO nojimiy UpHe PeKe, BH/ieheMO h 
OBy CTBap, Koja HCTOTaKO H3Me^a ny^HOBaTa h Heo6jaiu- 
jbHBa. OHa Tewe Kpo3 BnTO/bCKy KoT^HHy, HHj'e je jxho 
bhcoko oko 600 m , h 3aceua ce y n.iaHHHe Koje cy 
BHCOKe npeKO 2000 if. Ta nojaBa HaM nocTaje join 
My^HOBaTHJa Ka,T H3 KapTe bhahmo na je peKa HMa/ia 
mhoto Hn>Ke 3eM/bHUJTe h MHoro noBOJbHHJe ycviOBe 
na OTeqe npeMa Octpobckom Je3epy, y npaBuy crape 
je3epoy3HHe Kh3.th JlcpsQur. rioc/ie Tora ao/ia3e h 
MHorn Heo6HMHH o6/ihuh y ibenoj ao^hhh. y >Ke/ie3- 

HHKy H BHTOJbCKOJ KOT/IHHH HMa paBHO, HO 1 KM UJH- 

poKO aho, 6/iare CTpaHe h Tewe cnopo, a y MopnxoBy 

H THKBCUJy, HapOMHTO >' IipBOM, HMa #y60KO H TeCHO 

AHO, Tene 6p30, c MHoro 6p3aKa h BO^ona^a OHa na 
K/ie y ropjbCM TOKy HMa OHe ocoCnne Koje ce y apyniM 
peKaMa BHiie MaxoM y aoibeM TOKy, a y AOH>eM TOKy 
HMa ocoGhhc ropiber Tona. 

CBe Te nojaBe Koje H3r/ie;iajy h hcoGhwho h peTKe, 
MOH<e oGjacHHTH HCTopnja ibCHa pa3BHTKa. Mcnn- 
THBahbCM Te HCTOpHJe yTBpr^eno je obo. V neoreny je 
nocroja/ia jeAHa peKa Koja je TeK/ia Kpon >Ke.ie3HHK 



(>-! HOBA CPHHJA 



h y^HBa^a ce y bc/ihko riejiaroHHJCKO Je3epo. I"Io- 
cne/ihbe je 6hjio y Be3H c Eop^ejcKHM Je3epoM npeno 
npcce^HHe Kh3/ih ZtepBeH. Y hcto BpeMe nocroja/ia 
je h Apyra peKa Koja je Huuia Kpo3 Mophxobo h yjiH- 
Ba^a ce y thkbcuiko je3epo. JlaHaiiiHDe CKOHHBHpcKe 
lOmcype y to BpeMe imje 6yuio, Hero je Ty 6hjio pa3- 
Boije H3Met]y THKBeuiKor h ncaaroHHJCKor je3epa. Oapa 
AOJiHHa UpHe Pene y H>eHy AaHaumeM nejiy oa Mo- 
pHxoBa ao ymha y BapAap 6nm je MHoro BHuia h 
npocTpaHHJa oa tteHa AaHamtber KopHTa. TparoBH Tora 
cxapHjer KopHTa Mory ce h AaHac upaTHTH Kpo3 Mo- 
Phxobo CBe ao CKOHHBHpCKe JOincype. npeA h>om hx 
cacBHM HecTaje. 3HaMH Aa je crapa peKa AonHpa/ia 
caMo ao CKOHHBHpcKe K/iHcype. Ka^a je BapAap no- 
MepatbeM CBOJe aojihhc y Ha3a# Aonpo ao y 6aceH 
CTapor THKBeuiKor je3epa h Hcyiuno ra, AOJMHa mo- 
pHxoBCKe UpHe oajcahom Ao6H.na je Ha CBOMe AOTa- 
nauiit»eM ymhy CTpMeHHT naA, h OHa ce nonejia y/m- 
BaTH y AOJiHHy BapAapa, Koja je 6HJia MHoro AyoVba. 
Ylonena je Tehii bcmikom 6p3HH0M, h 3aTO ce nonejia 
jaKO yaydjbHBaTH. H OHa je nonc/ia 3aceuaTH ce y 
CKOMHBHpcKo pasBotje, npeceK;ia ra je, yiu;ia je y 6yl- 

TOJbCKy KOT/IHHy H HaHCna 6HTOJbCKO wjiyl ne^aroHHJCKO 

je3epo, Koje je Hajnpe H3ry6HJio Be3y c Octpobckhm 
Je3epoM, na je nocae aojihhom UpHe y BapAap noT- 
nyHO otck/io. OHaj Aeo UpHe kojh je TeKao Kpo3 
>Ke;ie3HHK Hajnpe je jiyiao no o.ue^eHoj 6HTOJbCKOj 
kotjihhh, aok h H>era MopHXOBCKa Upna Hwje yxBa- 
THJia, yByKJia ra y CBOje kophto, h H>eroBy BOAy oa- 
Be;ia y BapAap. Eto TaKO je nocra;ia OHa OKyKa koa 
CKOHHBHpa h CBe OHe ocrajie nojaBe Koje HaM H3r;ie- 
Aajy My^He h HcnorHMHe. 

C/iHHHa 6op6a BOAHJia ce H Ha pa3Boi)y Koje pa- 
craBJba c/ihbobc FlpH^encKe h FI/ieTBapcKe Pene c je^ne 
dpaHe, h Ba6yHe h Pajua c Apyre CTpaHe. npn;iencKa 
h FI/ieTBapcKa PeKa yjiHBajy ce y BHTO/bCKOJ Kotvihhh 
y UpHy, Ba6yHa ce nenocpeAHO y^HBa y BapAap, a 
Pajau y UpHy PeKy, h to y ibeHy AOtt>eM TOKy. KaA 
jiociviaTpaMO AO/iHHe npBHX ABejy peKa, bhahmo OBe 
ibHxoBe oco6HHe : aojihhc cy npocTpaHe, a peKe He- 



Ob/IHUH 3tfAJbWB 



3HaTHe. H^yhH y3 AOAHHy, mh y H>eHoj H3BopHOj 06- 
;iacTH He Ha^a3HMo ohhx iavBopeHHx, oKpyrviacTHx 
yAy6:betba Koja Ha.iHwc na Me.ieHKe 1 . y ropn>eM cbom 
TOKy pene H3rvieAajy Kao OAceqeHe, jep cy y 3a.ietjy 
OTBopeHe. KaA ce HAe y3 AO.iHHy Pajua y npaBuy 
npe\ia IT/ieTBapcKoj ripeceA.iHHH, bhah ce, y bhchhh oa 
250 m. H3Ha^ AaHatutber penHor KopHTa, jenHO CTapHJe 
peHHO KopHTO, Koje je HarHyTO cynpoTHO npaBuy y 
KOMe na^a AOAHHa Pajua. KaA npetjeMo n.ieTBapcK-y 
FlpeceAAHHy, to crapo kophto BHAeheMO h no HBHuaMa 
npH^encKe Kot.thhc. Obac je to kophto HarHyTO y 
npaBuy y KOMe tchc ITieTBapcKa PeKa. ITo obomc 
cTapoM KopHTy bhah ce na je y paHnja BpeMeHa TeKAa 
je^Ha peKa H3 ropibe o6;iacTH Pajua y npaBuy ITpH- 
/iencKe Kotahhc Haj6o/be onyBan KOMaA Te AO/inne 
je caMa FI/ieTBapcKa ripeceA^HHa. H3 OBora ce bhah 
Aa pa3BoJje H3Met)y H^eTBapcKe PeKe h Pajua nnje 
6h/io yBeK Ha IT/ieTBapcKoj npeceA^HHH Beh MHoro 
Aa.be y ropn>eM Ae/iy AaHaimber Pajua To pa3Bol)C 
6h/io je HaJMaite 4 ao 5 km. hctomhhjc oa AaHamiber. 
H3 OBora CBera bhah ce na je IT/ieTBapcKa PeKa H3- 
ry6H/ia cboj ropn>H tok, :iaTO ujto joj ra je npeo- 
Teo Pajau. 

OiHHHe cy nojaBe KOHcraTOBaHe h na pa3Bolj> 
H3Met)y IlpHJiencKe PeKe h 5a6yHe, oahocho n>ene 
npHTOKe H3BopiHTHue. Ha n>HX0By pa3Boljy naJBa>K- 
HHJy TaHKy npeAcraB. T ba npecen inna IlpncaA. OBaj HMa 
H',r:ieA uinpoKa ceA-ia Koje ce OiWHKyje iipocrpanHM 

paBHHM AHOM KOJC MHHH VTHCaK HCKC CTape AOAHHC 

y npaBuy npeMa M3BopiHTHun cnyujTa ce crpMO, h 
paujw.naibeH je mhohim Ao/iniiaMa, a npeMa ITpH/ienuH 
HMa Bp/10 6nar Harn6. y npaBuy npeMa Ilpn/ieny uchoa 
CaMOBH/iua ao MapKOiwx Ky.ia o.iaro ce cnyujTa hoa 
kojh ce ona>Ka c o6e cTpane npn/iencKe Pckc h kojh 
H3MeAa Kao Ra npeAcraB.-ba npoAynvCibe paBHora npii- 
caacKor Ana. Taj no;i je mccthmhuc nocyT 
peMHHM o6^yuHMa, Meliy KOJHMa iipea/ialjyjy oC/iymi 
KBapua. iMecTHMHue iia/ia3ii ce na tom noAy chbh hook, 

1 H tBOpilC [Vlllc 06.1 a cth K-»JC HI 
MSBOpHC 'ICTCI! 
UOBA 1 1 BHJA 5 



HOfiA CPBrfJA 



MoapHKacra h >KyhKacTa rjiHHa, a npeno obhx je nocyT 
penHH uiJbyHaK c MacoM odjiyTana oa KBapua h oa 
KpHcra;iacTHX iuKpHJbaua. OBaj MaTepHJaji HecyMH>HBO 
Ka3yje na je obhm nojiou TeKJia BOAa, h as oh npefl- 
craBJba odaTaK Heraaiunber penHor KopHTa. 

H 3a FIpHJienKy h 3a FljieTBapCKy PeKy KapaKTe- 
Phcthhho je to lino hh jeAHa hh apyra HeMajy H3BopHe 
ne^eHKe, ujto hm pa3Boi]e npeflcraBJbajy npeceflJiHHe, 
h ujto o6e npcucraBjbajy Majie penHue c He3HaTHHM 
BOAeHHM M^a3eBHMa, a Teny y npodpaHOM KOpHTy. 
BeJiHHHHa KopHTa He o^roBapa HHKaKO bcjihhhhh peKe, 
Tano fla nocTaje HecyMH>HBO na namwibe peKe HHcy 
Monie HanpaBHTH obo kophto. OHe cy ra HanpaBHJie 
OH^a Ka^ cy pacnojiarajie BehoM MacoM Boae h Ka^ 
cy HMajie CBOje H3BopHe qe^eHKe. ripeivia onHcaHHM 
npH^HKaMa HecyMifcHBO je aa je h npHJienKa HeKa^a 
6HJia MHoro flyaca, h #a je tfeeHa AOJiHHa 6HJia CKpa- 
heHa 36or Tora ujto je H3BOpiuTHU.a yiujia y H>eH 
ropftH tok, OTeJia joj H3BOpHy qe^eHKy, npeceKJia je 
h CKpaTHJia. HecyMH>HBO jia H3BopiUTHua pacno;ia>Ke 
BehoM CHaroM h &a HMa >KHBJby epo3HJy ho FIpHJienKa. 
To je floiijjio yc^e^ Tora ujto y o6;iacTH Ba6yHe na^a 
BHUje aTMoaf>epcKHX Tajiora (KHuie h CHera) ho y o6;ia- 
cth FIpH^enKe; 3aTHM ujto je Ba6yHa 6;iH>Ke aojihhh 
Bap^apa, h ujto ce HenocpeAHO y;iHBa y Bap/jap. Bh- 
AejiH cmo Beh Kano je jane y£y6,jbHBatt>e ^ojiHHe Bap- 
Aapa npeHeceHO h Ha H>eroBe npHTOKe, Koje cy 36or 
Tora no^ejie joiu ja^e ayncTH CBOje kophto h npo^y- 
>KaBaTH ra y Ha3a,n. 

Hcth TaKH npouecH H3BpujeHH cy Ha pa3BOt^y 
MervieiUHHue h UpHe Pene. npHTOKe MervieiUHHue, Koje 
ce 30By KynaBHua h Bht^h, npo6H;ie cy oporpa(})CKo 
6h;io MopHxoBCKo-MerjieHCKHx njiaHHHa, 3aiujie cy y 
Mophxobo, h 3aceKJie ce Meijy H3BopHe Kpane FIopCKe 
h Ma^eMCKe Pene, Koje ce yjiHBajy y UpHy. FIoujto 
h Mer^eujHHua h UpHa npunaflajy criHBy Bap^apa, 
TeiuKo je 6h;io o6jacHHTH Kano ce cjihb MeivieiHHHue 
Morao pa3BHTH Ha ujTeTy cjiHBa UpHe PeKe. 3aca;i,a 
ce Ta nojaBa o6jaLuu>aBa OBaKO. MerjieHCKa crpaHa 
MOpHxoBCKO-Mer^eHCKor pa3Bot)a 6/iH>Ka je Co/ryHCKOj 



OB^HUH 3EM;t>HllJTA 6) 



KaMnaibH, y kojoj cy, Kao iiito cmo BHae/iH, y HajHo- 
BHJe reo/iouiKO BpeMe H3BpiueHa Be/iHKa crponoiiiTa- 
Batha 3eMJbHiiiTa. Y;ia3ehH Henocpe^Ho y Co^yHCKy 
Ka.\inaiby, MeryieujHHua je npe oceTH/ia noc;ie;ume Tora 
CTponoiuTaBaHDa ho UpHa, Koja ce y;iHBa y Bap/iap, 
h Koja je Te nocaeAHue Morvia occthth tck nocpeAHO 
npeKO Bap^apa. 

Ha oiHMHe npouece Mowe ce cbccth h cKpeiaibe 
Fo^eMe Pene kor KyMaHOBa, rue ona ounpoM onyKOM 
CKpehe npeMa jyroHCTOKy, h Tene K/iHcypoM y rimiihy. 
Crapo kophto Fo/ieMe kojhm je OHa TeK/ia npeMa Bap- 
Aapy bhah ce h ca^a. To je oho npocrpaHO kophto 
kojhm Tene n^HTKa h TpoMa Xaua/iapcna Pena, Koja 
HeMa hh to/ihko CHare na Ro\)e ro Bapaapa, Beh ce 
H3ry6n y 6/iaTHiHTHMa CKoncKe Kot^hhc JXojmua Xa- 
ija^apcKe PeKe npencTaB/ba noYbu rqo HeKa^aume Fo- 
.ne.Me PeKe naR ce OBa y/niBa/ia Henocpeano y Bap/iap 
h Kaa HHJe npe/nrraB/ba/ia npHTOKy FlMHibe. 

H3 oBora CBera bhah ce Ra je ctchb Bap^apa 
npBo6HTHO 6ho mhoto y>KH. FberoBa 3ana^Ha rpaHHua 
mnjia je or MopHxoBa na ceBepHy o6;iacT Pajua h 
BaCyHe, oaaK/ie ce npywa.ia Aa;be npeMa ro/ieiiiHHUH 
h AaHaujn>oj aojihhh TpecKe. O^Te npBo6HTHe boao- 
iie/iHHue iberoB ce c/ihb npeMa 3ana;iy npoujHpHO Ha 
npocTopnjy Koja je innpoKa neaeceT no meceT kh/io- 
Meiapa, a £yra i iKa ABanyTa to/ihko. Kao nocrcenHua 
OBora Lunpetba Bap/iapcKor c/iHBa 6h/io je to hjto cy 
ce HcyiHH/ia cBa OHa je3epa y Koja je Bap^ap yuiao 
Ma h je^HOM cbojom npHTOKOM. Ocia;ia cy aaK/ie caMO 
OHa je3epa ro kojhx nnje Ronpna HHJe^Ha npHTOKa 
BapAapa. 

r) HocTaHaK hckhx bhujhx noBpwH. 

Ko na>K^>HBo MHTa nauja Hanaraiba, mowc ona- 
3hth Ra cmo ro ca/ia naJBchy na>KH>y o6paha.in na 
n.iacTHMKe nojaBe kojc ce Ha.ia3e Ha BHcnuaMa Hcnoa 
MO Mdapa anco.iyTHe bhchhc. Ca^a Tpe6a xia bhahmo 
KaKO H3r/ieaajy omh achobh 3CM.i»HLUTa kojh ce na- 
.i,i ie na BHCHHUMa H3Ha/i 800 m. hhohhc. Ko C€ DCO 



68 HOBA CPBHJA 



iia Kojy MaKeAOHCKy n^aHHHy Morao je ona3HTH obo. 
KaA ce H3 Hene KcnviHHe hjih peHHe nomine nen>eMO 
Ha n^aHHHy, H^eMO y3 n;iaHHHCKe na^HHe Koje cy o6hhho 
dpMeHHTe. 3a Te nanHHe bhacjih cmo a& OHe Mory 
6hth H3JiOMJbeHe y BHuie noAOBa, a Mory HMaTH h 06- 
jihk BHCOKor creHOBHTor 3H#a. Kajx ce nonHeMO Ha 
n;iaHHHy, mh bhahmo ^a n;iaHHHa y cbojhm HaJBHmHM 
napTHJaMa HMa o6;ihk npocTpaHe 3apaBHH Koja ce 
npyao no hckojihro KHJiOMeTapa, h Koja je o6pa- 
c/ia cohhom TpaBOM, a pe^e luyMOM. y BehHHH MaKe- 
aohckhx h CTapocp6Hj'aHCKHx njiaHHHa HeMa ohhx Ry- 
thx h ycKHx n.iaHHHCKHx noBHJapau,a h rpe6eHa Koje 

Ha^a3HMO Ha BpXOBHMa CKOpO CBHJy ^HHapCKHX H 

rpqKO-ap6aHCKHx njiaHHHa. FIoBHJapuH h HaJBHine nap- 
THJe Mane^OHCKHx n^aHHHa H3ryie#ajy Kao na cy 03ro 
3apy6jbeHe h HceneHe. OHe ce cacroje or 3apaBJbeHHx 
noBpuiH Koje cy Ha CBe CTpaHe oTBOpeHe, npeMa ojih- 
>khm KOT^HHaMa o6hhho H3epeHe, hjih cy CBeAeHe y 
o6^HKy BeoMa 6;iarHx Ky6eTa. H3 thx 6j\2lto CBe#e- 
HHX, He3HaTHO H3epeHHX h TajiacacTHX 3apaBHH AHJKy 
ce Matta y3BHiuett>a Koja cbojom bhchhom MHoro He 
o^cKany on CBOJe 6JiH>Ke oko^hhc Te bhcokc noBpuiH 
y MHoroMe Hajmne Ha OHe je3epcKe 3apaBHH Koje ce 
jaBJbajy Ha BHCHHaMa HcnoA 800 m. Ann Ha obhm no- 
BpuiHHaMa HeMa je3epcKor mjbyHKa h necKa, hhth Ka- 
kbhx npyrnx je3epcKHx TparoBa. FIocTaBJbeHO je nH- 
Tafce: KaKO cy nocrajie Te noBpuiH? 

Hivia je#Ha HayqHa TeopHJa Koja o6janiH>aBa no- 
CTaHaK obhx noBpuiH. Flo toj TeopHJH OBe noBpuiH 
cy nocTa^e AejcrBOM TeKyhnx BO.ua. MoptyoJiouiKu pan 
TeKyhHx BO^a BpuiH ce oBaKO. 3aMHC/iHMO jeAHy Mnany 
n^aHHHy Koja HacTaje HadnpatbeM h H3AH3aHDeM nope 

3eMa^>CKe HJIH MOMCHTa/lHHM H3flHBaH>eM By^KaHCKHX 

Maca. KaA Ha Ty n;ianHHy naAHe npBa KHma, CHer hjih 
neji, je^aH ijeo i^HXOBe BO,u,e ynnhe ce y 3eMJby, a 
ApyrH he noTehH hh3 njiaHHHCKe na^HHe. Bo.ua ujto 
OTHqe hh3 n^aHHHy H3iiy6Hhe Ha n^aHHHH Ma;ie >KJie- 
6oBe. kojh he nocrajaTH CBe,ay6jbH h CBe iiiHpH ujto 
BHiue ce cnyiHTaMO HH3 njiaHHHy. Bjih>kh >K/ie6oBH 
he ce cKynjbaTH, cacrajaTH h CBOjy sojiy chochth y 



0E/1HUH 3EM^>HUJTA 09 



je/iaH m.ne6 kojh he 6hth CBHMa 3aje^HH i iKH h Behu 
ojx CBanor or jbhx. Ha noAHO>KJy n.ianHHe th lie 
xu\e6oBn npeAcraB^aTH Beh Ma;ie noTOKe h peKe. 
Kaaa HAeMo y3 Te noTOKe, BH/ieheMO &a ce CBe BHiue 
paMBajy h jxa CBe MaibH 6HBajy. Ako /iy>Ke BpeMeHa 
nocMaTpaMO jeaaH o# ohhx Maibnx >K.ie6oBa, mh heMO 
BH/ieTH na ce ohh noc.ie CBaKe KHine CBe BHiue yay- 
6jbyjy, h na tbHxoBa BO^a o^hoch CBe BHiue 3e\i;be h 
KaMetba. TeKyha BO^a Ha Taj HannH pa3HOCH h pa30- 
paBa n/iaHHHy. y TOMe je noMawy h MHorH zipyrn 
npnpoAHH (J)aKTopH. Ha npBOM Meciy npoMeHe y to- 
n/iOTH Ba3Ayxa. yaieix jawer 3arpeBaH>a no jiany h x/ia- 
\)en>a no hoHh, cieHa Mopa #a npoinnpyje h na CTe>Ke 
CBOj'y 3anpeMHHy. riouiTO CTeHe HHcy e.nacTH<iHe, OHe ce 
npHTOMecTe3aFby pacnpcKaBajy upacnaaajy. HayhH hh3 
n/iaHHHy, peKa ce cpeia ca mhofhm KOMa/jHMa oji pa- 
cnaAHyTHx cieHa. Te>Ke KOMa^e peKa H3 noneTKa o6h- 
/ia3H, a Maibe hoch co6om. Obh OAJiOMJbeHH KOMazw 
creHa c.iy>Ke peuH Kao HeKa Bpcia TBp^or opyija ko- 
jhm 0Ha ny6e h npomnpyje CBOje kophto. TeKyhn y 
o6;iHKy 6p3aKa h cnanoBa, peMHa BO^a yiiapa obhm 
creHaMa o CBOje aho h pa3opaBa ra. 06H/ia3ehH oko 
ohhx KpynHHJHx cTena, peKa o/jhoch oko h>hx chthhjc 
KaMefee h OHy 3QMJhy Ha kojoj OHe ;ie>Ke. OHa nocre- 
neHo Hcn^awe caB CHaj MaTepnja/i c kojhm cy tc crene 
noAynpie. Kan hm TaKO OAHece ocHOBy, ciene ry6e 
paBHOTe>Ky h cave ce CKOTpjbajy HH3a CTpaHy. LLIto 
Ay>Ke Tpaje OBaj pa/i pewne boac ona he cbojc ko- 
pHTO cbc BHUje yiiy6jbHBaTH, a n/iaHHHy CBe BHiue pa3- 
hochth. MHore cy n^aHHHe na OBaj Hawnn 6n;ie peM- 
hom boaom pa3HeceHe H cKopo cpaBn>eHe c(mopckom 

nOBpU-IHHOM. 

A/ih &a 6h peMHa BOAa noTiiyno pa3ne.ia ruiaHHuy, 
noTpe6HO je ja ce n/iaHHHa hhk3ko ne H3AH>Ke n ;ia 
ce mopcko oryieaa/io HHKaKO hc cnyima. MopCKO orvie- 
Aa/io h na/iMopcKa Bucmia n^anHHeJnpeACTaB.hajy 
naJBa>KHHJe t3mkc y cBaKOJ peMHOj ao/ihhh. >Khbot 
CBaKe peKe nownibe na Bpxy n.iamiHe a cnpwaBa 
na o6a^H MopcKoj. UIto ce bhujc n.iannn 
\iM\an MopcKor or/iena/ia, thm jc h naa pc i nior kop 



70 HOBA CPEHJA 



BehH, A uito penHO kophto HMa BehH naa h iiito je 
y online crpMHj'e, penHa BO^a 6pa<e Tene h jane y^apa 
y jjho h 6oKOBe CBora KopHTa, h OHa he ra CBe BHiue 
npoiiJHpHBaTH h y,ny6jbHBaTH. Ako Tano peKa pa^H Ha 
croTHHe xHJba.ua ro^HHa, OHa he ycneTH #a pa3Hece 
ue/iy n^aHHHy. Ajih CBe ujto peKa BHiue pa30paBa h 
pa3HOCH n/iaHHHy, naa n>eHa KopHTa nociaje CBe MatbH, 
peKa CBe cnopnje Tene h 6HBa CBe Matbe cnocodHa aa 
ce yceua h jya hoch cboj MaiepHJaji. Ako Majio ijeTajb- 
HHJe nocMaTpaMO pa^ je^He TaKe CTape peKe, mh heMO 
BH^eTH obo. y ft>eHy AOibeM TOKy .no/iHHa joj je npo- 
CTpaHa, n/iHTKa h 3acyTa iujbyHKOM h necKOM. PeKa no 
fooj TpoMO H^e, h cboj tok HecTO noiviepa ca^ Ha AecHy 
ca# Ha ;ieBy cxpaHy. OHaj MaTepnjaji ujto ra je CHe/ia 
c n^aHHHe ocraBJba y cbom KopHTy. Oko Te peKe 
AecHO h JieBO iiinpH ce Tajiacacra 3apaBaH, y kojoj ce 
He BH^e pa3Boija H3Meijy nojeAHHHx peKa, h y kojoj 
cy Beha y3BHineHDa Bp/io peTKa. y ropHbeM TOKy peKa 
je joui 6p3a, #o;iHHa joj je join Aocra #y6oKa, peKa 
joui pa30paBa h pa3HOCH n^aHHHy, ajw Taj MaTepnjaji 
He MO)Ke #a CHece no Ha MopcKy o6a;iy. Ako Ay>Ke 
BpeMeHa noTpaje OBaKO CTaH>e, peKa y cbom ^oi^eM 
TOKy 3acyhe CBOJy ao/iHHy MaTepnja/iOM, noMepahe ce 
CBe npeMa 6oKOBHMa, h TaKO he ypaBHHTH Be/iHKe npo- 
CTopHje. y TaKHM c/iynajeBHMa o6hhho ce pa36nje y 
BHiue pyKaBa, oTOKa h MeaH^epa, kojh nocTeneHO H3- 
ry6e Be3y c peKOM, h on h>hx nocrajy ycrajajie BO^e 

H/IH MpTBHUe. 

C je^He njiaHHHe o6hhho Tene BHiue peKa; OHe 
je CBe pa3opaBajy, h CBe CKyna cTBapajy OBaKe 3a- 

paBHH KaO UJTO Cy BpXOBH MaKe^OHCKHX IIJiaHHHa. 

A;ih cajja HacTaje obo nHTau>e. H3 nocanaum>er 
H3/iarait>a bhah ce n& TaKe 3apaBHH nocTajy Ha MajiHM 
BHCHHaMa, Ha KOJHMa peKa HMa BeoMa 6nar na#, h 
r#e je ft>eH pa^ He3HaTaH. Ako je TaKO, onzja KaKO cy 
nocTa/ie OBe noBpujH Ha noBHJapuHMa MaKeaoHCKHx 
n/iaHHHa kojh ce Ha;ia3e Ha n^aHHHaMa on npeKO 2000 m. 
HaztMopcKe BHCHHe? Ha to nHTaH>e aajeMO OBaj 0,0x0- 
Bop. H3 reo/ioiuKe npoin/iocTH 3HaMO #a cy njiaHHHe 
po^oncKe Mace y apxaHKy na6paHe, h %a cy Kpo3 ueo 






OBJIHUH 3EM;bHlllTA 71 



Me3030HK MHpoBa^e. To BpeMe, Koje h3hoch Ha mh- 
.iHOHe ro^HHa, 6mo je aoBOJbHO #a pa3opH h pa3Hece 
n/iaHHHe po;xoncKor cHcreMa. H\ia 3HaKOBa no KOJHMa 
ce MO>Ke 3aK^.yHHTH na cy n;iaHHHe poaoncKor ch- 
creMa npH Kpajy 6uj\e CKopo cacBHM pa3opeHe h pa3- 
HeceHe. C flOTajxamibHM n;iaHHHaMa flecn/io ce ctihhho 
Kao Ka^ ce cacene jejiHO /ipBO h or tbera ocraHy caMO 
TpynHHe. H on n^aHHHa po;ioncKor CHcreMa ocra/ie cy 
6me caMe TpynHHe. 

A^h y o/inroueHy Haciaje noHOBO H3,nH3a*be n;ia- 
HHHa po^oncKor CHcreMa. H3r^e^a na cy MHore n;ia- 
HHHe 3a BpeMe Tora H3,/iH3aHDa h;ih HeuJTO aouHHJe 
HcnpcKa^e, na cy ce jeziHe napinje H3AHrvie y BHCHHy, 
a apyre cy ce CTponoiuia^e y ny6nuy. Te H3AHrHyTe 
napTHJe on HeKa/iaiHPbHx n^aHHHCKHX TpynHHa cany- 
BaHe cy y ohhm bhcokhm noBpuiHMa Koje ce jaB.hajy 
Ha BHCHHaMa H3Ha£ 800 m. h Ha noBHJapuHMa n;ia- 
HHHa. Hhhh ce na cy noBpiun npH TOMe H3£H3a*by Be- 
Hhhom caMO H3epeHe h/ih 6/iaro cBeaeHe. Je^HHO je 
noBpiH Koja je 6H/ia Ha Mecry AaHaimber O/iHMna cBe- 
AeHa y o6;iHKy o6;ior Ky6eTa. Thm Kpy>KHHM H3#H3a- 
ibeM nocTao je ziaHaLmbH O/iHMn. ilpyre n/iaHHHe, Kao 
na npHMep Jy>KHH KapnaTH h n^aHHHe CeBeponcTOHHe 
Cp6nje, 6H/ie cy Ha6paHe, h Her/iaiiiiba noBpm jiodH^a 
je Ta^acacr o6/ihk. 

Eto Ha Taj nawHH ce o6jaLmbaBa nocraHaK bhco- 
khx noBpujH h 3apaBibeHHx n^aHHHCKHx noBHJapaua y 
n^aHHHaMa Mane/iOHHJe h CTape Cp6nje. Tpe6a AOiiaTH 
na cy npe OBaKO o6jamibaBaHe h OHe noBpuin ujto ce 
Ha;ia3e ncnojx 800 m. bhchhc T. UBHJHhy je nom/io 3a 
pyKOM na AOKa>Ke na Te nospiuH npe^CTaB.bajy una 
CTapHx je3epa. 3a noBpniH H3HaA Te bhchhc hhjc ce 
join Morvio to AOKa3aTH. Topibe o6janjihLMi>e kojc cmo 
najiu 3a nocraHaK bhcokhx noBpiun no i ie;io je Aa cmue 

036H.bHe CBOJC npOTHBHHKe, Ha npBOM MCCTy r. LJ,BHJHtia, 

kojh lie ra Momna aoneK/ie h h3mchhth. Ta nayqna 
no^CMHKa MOH<e 6hth HHTepecanTHa caMO .ta crpyq- 
ibaKe. \\ 36or Tora y n,y OBfle hcIicmo y/ia3Hin 



/ Z MUtJA ^roirlJA 



HI Bejikwa je3epa y Hoboj Cp6njn. 

FbHXOBe (|)H3HHKe 0C06HHC 

BejiHKa je3epa Ha BajiKaHCKOM FloJiyocTpBy cy 
orpaHHMeHa Ha Jyn<Hy MaKeaoHHJy. Ha npocTopy oa 
OxpH^CKor h IlpecnaHCKor je3epa Ha 3ana,ny, no Cepeaa 
Ha HcroKy, h ao 41° ceBepHe reorpa(})CKe uiHpHHe, no- 
peljaHO je 19 je3epa. CBa Ta je3epa Ha;ia3e ce y Be- 
jihkhm KOT^HHaMa Koje cy BehHHOM nocrajie cajiOMOM. 
BehH #eo thx je3epa npeAcraBjba npeocTaTKe on, He- 
r^auiHDer ErejcKor Je3epa, a caMO 3a je^aH aeo h>hx 
(Oxphacko, IlpecnaHCKO h Majio) HHJe ce Morvio no- 
Ka3aTH aa cy 6n;ia y Be3H c ErejcKHM Je3epoM. Me- 
JiyTHM HecyMH.HBo je &a cy h OHa nocrojajia y BpeMe 
ErejcKora Je3epa. 

3HaqajaH je pacnopea h reorpa^CKH no;iO)Kaj 
obhx je3epa. HaJBeha eBponcKa je3epa, He panyHajyhH 
y to jiHMaHe h #pyra npH6pe>KHa MopcKa je3epa, Mory 
ce noAe.iHTH Ha TpH rpyne, h to na : ceBepHa eBponcKa 
je3epa, ajinnjcKa je3epa, h jyjKHO-MaKe^OHCKa je3epa. 
HajawiepcKO h B;iaTHO Je3epo y MafjapcKOJ H3y3H- 
Majy ce Kao njiHTKa je3epa. IlpBa rpyna je3epa Be3aHa 
je 3a o6;iacT Be;iHKe ceBepHe rviauHjainije. fIo3HaTO je 
Aa je y AHJiyBHyiviy 6H;ia noA jicaom CBa CeBepHa Eb- 
pona, or Jie^eHor nojia #o JWHHje Koja ujie or JIoh- 
AOHa Ha ,ape3£eH, JIaBOB, KnjeB h Ka3aH. Ta rjiauH- 
jauHJa ocTaBHJia je H3a cede orpoMHe Mace creHa, 
r^auHJaJiHor uubyHKa, necKa h Myjba kojh AaHac no- 
KpHBajy 3eMJbHHJTe CeBepHe EBpone. fIoniTO je pacron- 
jbeH nen Be^HKe ceBepue rjiauHj'auHJe, H3a h>hx cy 
ocrajia h Be^HKa ceBepnoeBponcKa je3epa. Zlpyra 06- 
jizct bcahkhx eBponcKHX je3epa cy je3epa y A^nHMa h 
ibHXOBOj Haj6^H>Koj okojihhh. OHa cy Be3aHa 3a o6;iacT 
HerAauiH>Hx h AaHannbHX a/mnjCKHx nieqepa. 

AncTpaxyjyhH Majia n^aHHHCKa, peHHa h o6a;iCKa, 
norviaBHTO ^HMaHCKa je3epa, MO)Ke ce pehH #a or no- 
MeHyTe jy>KHe rpaHHue ceBepHe rviainijauHje no Erej- 
CKor Mopa HeMa TaKO bckhkhx je3epa Kao luto cy 
Hama jy>KHO-MaKeflOHCKa je3epa. 

3a no;io>Kaj obhx je3epa Ba>KHO je to uito cy 



OEJIHU.H 3EMJbHHJTA 73 



nopeijaHa oko ceBepHor 6aceHa ErejcKor Mopa. Kan 
npe^eMO Ha Ma;ioa3HJcKy CTpaHy ErejcKor Je3epa, Ha- 
H^a3HMO Ha Apyry rpyny je3epa, h to Ma/ioa3Hj'cKa 
je3epa. OHa c MaKe^OHCKHM je3epHMa MHHe nojac je- 
3epa Koja cy pacnopefjeHa oko ErejcKor Mopa, h 3aio 
HDHxoBy 06/iacr Kao ue/iHHy MO>KeMO Ha3BaTH ezejcuo.u 

je3epCKOM 30H0M. 

FIpoTHBHo a^nHJCKHM h ceBepHoeBponcKHM je3e- 
pHMa, jy>KHO MaKe^OHCKa je3epa HHcy Be3aHa 3a nojaBy 
rviewepa Ha Ba;iKaHCKOM no/iyocipBy, h h>hxob nocraHaK 
HeMa Be3e ca rviauHia;iHOM enoxoM. hbnxoBe onune 
oco6HHe cy OBe: npBO, Ha/ia3e ce y o6;iacTH HaJM/iahHx. 
TeKTOHCKHx ca/iOMa Ha Ba^naHCKOM rio/iyocrpBy ; £pyr0 f 
3ay3HMajy nna HajivuiatjHx MaKeaoHCKHx KoiviHHa, h 
Tpehe, Be/iHKa BehHHa h>hx, Kao ujto cmo BHae/iH, npe^- 
craB^ajy ocraTKe on Heniaujhber ErejcKor Je3epa, Koje 
je nodoja^o Ha HeraamtbeM bcihkom erejcKOM KonHy, h 
Koje ce pacnpocrHpa^o £y6oKO no y o6;iacT naHamiber 
ErejcKor Mopa h no Ma;ie A3Hje. 

Haj'3HaTHHJe on cbhx je Oxphacko Je3epo, Kojr 
je Be/iHKO oko 270, km.- £y6oKO 286 m., h Koje je Haj- 
Ay6^>e on cbhx. HajBehe je FIpecnaHCKO Je3epo, kojc 
je bcuhko oko 288km. j , a ziy6oKO 54 m. Iberon je jieo 
h Ma/io Je3epo, Koje je Be/iHKO 52 km-. Jy>KHO on obhx 
je Ma/iHMKO Je3epo, a MHoro na:uc na jyry KocrypcKO 
Je3epo. Ha HCTOKy on FIpecnaHCKor Je3epa HMa y npo- 
crpaHoj kotjihhh Koja ce 30Be CapHtjo/i MeTHpn je3epa: 
OcrpoBCKo, FleTpcKO, 3a3cpun h BpanHHHKO. Mcl]y 
jbHMa Octpobcko je HajBehe h Hajay6/be ; oho je Be- 
/ihko oko 77 km.-, a ay6oKO 62 m. V Co/iyncKOj Kaif- 
naihH h na n>eny hctomhom o6ojiy HMa ueTHpH Man»a 
h n/iHha je3epa : PIa3apcKO, P>KaH h.th ApMan h Ty- 
3J\y\)on. Mctomho on Co/iyHa y kotjihhh Jla3ra8e HMa 
ABa je3epa: AJBacn;icKO h Bclijhmko. Ha nocicTKy, y 
AOjpaHCKO-cepecKoj kot/ihhh HMa Tpn jeaepa : Jlojpan- 

CKO, ByTKOBCKO H TaXHHCKO. 

Mh lieMO OBae npHKa3aTH <|nun i iKe oco6hhc 
caMO ohhx Be^HKHx je3epa Koja cy npuna/ia Hoboj 

Cp6HJH. 



74 HOBA CPBHJA 



1. OxpnucKo Je3epo. 

Ha^a3H ce y npocrpaHOj h #y6oKoj kotjihhh 
npaBua ceBep-jyr Koja ce cnycTH/ia H3Metjy Vammmxe 
Ha HCTOKy h MoKpaitcKe n^aHHHe Ha 3ana,a.y. ZfyranKo 

je 30 KM, UIHpOKO 13 KM, B&TIHKO 270 KM.' 2 , JiyCOKO 

286 m, a Ha;ia3H ce Ha bhchhh on 690 m. Flo Be/iH- 
hhhh 3ay3HMa apyro, a no ay6HHH npBO MecTO Metjy 
cBHMa 6a;iKaHCKHM je3epHMa. y ue-noj EBponn HMa caMO 
ce/iaM je3epa Koja cy AyoVba on OxpH^CKor. HaJBeha 
y;iy6jbeHba Ha;ia3e ce y neHTpa/iHOM #e/iy iberoBa #Ha. 
HaJBehy KOJiHHHHy BO/je ^odHBa H3 H3Bopa kojh H3- 
6njajy hjih Ha je3epCKHM o6a/iaMa hjih Ha H>eroBy #Hy. 
Bo#a thx H3Bopa je 6ncTpa h y CBa roAHintba Bpe- 
MeHa HMa cra;iHy TeMnepaTypy 0,3, 9° no 11°C. DiaBHH 
H3Bopn H36njajy Ha jy^KHOj* h hcto^hoj o6ajw. Ha jy>K- 
hoj o6a;iH Hajjaqn H3BOpH cy CBeTOHayMCKH, uynieMH- . 
ldkh h Bpejia no^ KpacnoM. npBH je Hajjaqn h H36a- 
uyje oko 40 Ky6HHHHx MeTapa Boae y ceKyH^H. rion- 
Bo;jHe H3BOpe MeuiTaHH 30By „BHpqeTa". 0a h>hx cy 
Haj3HaTHHJa : KajiHinKO Bnpne, JIhhcko Bnpne h Ory- 
aeHMe. Bona OxpnacKor Je3epa aaKJie je noTnyHO H3- 
BOpCKa. Bpe/ia Ha tberoBoj jy>KHOj o6a;iH noraqy He- 
cyMfeHBO H3 no,n3eMHe OTOKe IlpecnaHCKor Je3epa, Koje 
je bhcoko 906 m., h y^ajbeHO 16 KH/ioMeTapa. OBa 
HHda H3BOpcKa BOAa je on BejiHKor 3Hanaja 3a cj)H- 
3HHKe ocoOHHe je3epcKe BO#e. 36or n>e je, y rviaBHOM, 
Bo^a Oxpn^CKor Je3epa Heo6H i mo 6ncTpa h npoBHAHa. 
3a BpeMe MHpHHx h Be^pHx ^aHa Ta npoBHflHOCT H3- 
hoch on; 12*4 m. no 16*2 m. OxpH^CKO Je3epo ce HHKaa 
He Mp3He, a TeMnepaTypa H>eroBe Bo^e HHKaA He na^a 
HcnoA + 4°C. Ta TeMnepaTypa y CBHMa ,ny6HHaMa 
HHJe Hera. 

Ha ,ziy6HHaMa no 30 MeTapa, TeMnepaTypa Boae 
je onajia cnopo h paBHOMepHo, CBera 3a 2.4° C hjih 
008°C 3a jeaaH MeTap. On 30 no 35 m. TeMnepaTypa 
je onajia 3a 1.6°C, a on 35 no 40 m. ca 2.4°C. on. 40 
no 45 3a 2°C, on 45 no 50 3a 0.8°C, a H3Meijy 50 h 
60 m. 3a 2-2 C. IlpeMa TOMe TeMnepaTypa je Hajjane 
ona;ia na ny6nmi on 35 no 45 m., h to 3a 4-4°C hjih 



OB/IHUH 3EMJhHim\ 75 



3a 0.44°C 3a 1 m. Ay6HHe. riocne Tora HMa Ma/iHX npe- 
KHjxa Ha £y6HHaMa or 45 ro 50 m., a or 50 ro 60 
noHOBO ce jaB.ha 6p>Ke ona^anje, h to 3a 022 U C Ha 
1 m. Or 60 ro 70 m. ona^a 3a 1 m. 0*1 4°C, a or 70 m. 
ro 220 m. TeMnepaTypa ona,na Ha CBaKH Mdap ,ay6HHe 
3a 0018 U C. Kzr OBe npoMeHe y TeMnepaTypn npoMa- 
TpaMO y npaBuy 0,503^0 npeMa rope, ohrsl bhahmo 
r?l TeMnepaTypa Harvio CKawe Ha rbz Mecra, h to Haj- 
npe Ha Ay6HHaMa or 60 ro 50 m., a 3aTHM Ha ny6n- 
Haivia or 45 ro 35 m. FlpBO noBehaBaH»e TeMnepaType 
3BaheMO cnope^HH h;ih RO\hn TeMnepaTypHH ckok, a 
apyro ropHoH h/ih rviaBHH TeMnepaTypHH ckok. Boay 

KOJy AOdHBa H3 OHHX MHOro6pOJHHX H3BOpa, OxpHACKO 

Je3epo ry6n Ha rbz HanHHa, h to HcnapaBaiteM h oto- 
kom koa CTpyre, Koja ce 30Be CrpyuiKH h/ih UpHH 
ZIpnM. Hcno/i BapoiiJH CTpyre UpHH UpHM noAHBJba 
h pa36nja ce y 6e36poj pyKaBaua h KpaKOBa, or kojhx- 
ce je^aH HaTpar Bpaha je3epy h ry6n ce y M/iaKBaMa. 

HMa 3HaKOBa H3 kojhx ce Moace ca cnrypHomhy 
3aK^>yMHTH r& je orvieaa/io OxpH^CKor Je3epa y je- 
BeTHaecroM BeKy 3HaTHO napacio, iijto ce bhah no mho- 
ro6poj*HHM Ka^iipMHcaHHM nyTeBHMa, jbHBaMa h KyhaMa 
Koje ce 3ana>Kajy y nojeAHHHM npH6pe>KHHM napTH- 
jaMa, 3aTHM uito cbh MeuiTaHH TBp^e aa je je3epcKO 
or/ieaa/io 3a noc/iea^nx ce^aMAeceT ro ocaM^eceT ro- 
jHHa nopac/10 3a 5 m. To aoHeK/ie noTBpljyje h no3HaTH 
iincau XaH, kojh ce vor. 1863 6aBHO y OxpH/iy. 
/laK.ie h OBne HMaMO CKopo ciHMHy nojaBy Koja je 
ona>KeHa h Ha CKa^apcKOM B/iaTy. HaJBepoBaTHHje je 
R2. cy Te npoMeHe je3epcKor or/ie:ia/ia npoy3poKOBane 
k/ihmckhm npoMenaMa. A/ih he CBaKaKO 6hth OAyTnuaja 
h OHe nojaBe Koje HaBOAH h Kocra FpynqeBHli : UpH- 
MOBa OTOKa kor CTpyre 3acnna ce necKOM kojh Ha- 
hocc bhcokh Ta/iacn jy>KHora BCTpa. J\o npe 80 ro 90 
roaHHa Mopa/ia cy TpH ce/ia r2l MHcre to yinhe. Ohh 
cy ra mhcth/ih Ha Taj na hub ihto cy CBaKe jeceHH Ha- 
roHH/w 6hbo/ic ;ia npol)y ZIphmom or CTpyre ro ila- 
6oBJaHCKe K/mcypc. To jc MHinlieibe caaa npecra/io, 11 
3aT0 je hhbo je3epa Hapacrao. 

Be&poeu u KpeHUube — „yc/ie;i pa3/niMnnr 



76 HOBA CPBHJA 



3arpeBaft>a BejiHKe je3epCKe npodopHJe h bhcokhx, 
MaxoM ro/iHx n^aHHHa ihto je OKpyacaBajy, HMa Ha 
Oxphackom Je3epy ahcbhhx BeipoBa kojh cy hctobcthh 
ca GKHHHHM npHMopcKHM BeTpoBHMa. y TaKBe cna^ajy 
8eulepmiK,,HohniiK hjih zopniiK, a BepOBaTHO h cuipMeu,. 
Ohh totobo csaKora AaHa AyBajy, H3y3eBiiiH 3HMCKe 
Meceue, Ka^a hx HeMa ; Ta^a ce CMeHbyjy ceBep, jyr, 
h ApyrH Matte BHiue JiOKa;iHH BeTpOBH ; TaKBH cy: Enem- 
hhk, kojh ^yBa H3 nomine CaTecKe, MpaniHHK, kojh 
^yBa or norpawa npeMa ceBepy, rpaAHiHHHK, on 
Tpnenue npeMa 3anaAy h GronaH, on fleurraHa npeMa 
JlHHy. JleTH ce obh BeTpOBH peTKO jaBJbajy, h ja caM 
3a ABe HefleJbe 6aBJbeHba Ha Oxphackom Je3epy no- 
CMaTpao caM ceBep h BeJiHKy „6paH" Kojy oh nuyne. 

Je^HHO BeTepHHK AyBa CBaKH AaH h y CBHMa Ae- 
jiOBHMa je3epa ; ynpaBO, to HHJe BeTap, jep HeMa npaBua, 
Beh nnpKaHDe h frapjinjatfee Koje ce pacnpocTHpe c je- 
3epa y pa3HHM npaBUHMa npeMa o6a;iaMa. rtoHHibe 
yBeK H3yTpa Ha 2 no 3 caxaTa noc^e pa^an>a cymja, 
a npecraje no npaBH;iy oko 3 c. no n., ajiH KauiTO h 
AOUHnje, TeK oko cyHneBa 3a;iacKa. y 3 c. no n. hjih 
AOUHHJe, H>era cmchh crpMeu, kojh MeHba npaBue, ajiH 
BehHHOM AOJia3H ca 3. h J. 3., Kauiro h ca rajiHHHue. 
Kao us. je CTpMeu no^eiaK HohHHKa h ojanajm Hoh- 
hhk, npoH3BeAeH BehHM pa3JiHKaMa y 3arpeBan>y je- 
3epcKe noBpiHHHe h okojihhx njiaHHHa. Jep crpMen, je 
jann Bdap kojh peAOBHO AH>Ke BHCOKy „6paH"; nocne 
cyHneBa 3a/iacKa 3Apy>KH ce c npaBHM hoHkhkom, kojh 
npecTaje TeK npeA cyHqeBO paijaHbe. KaA HeMa CTpMua, 
BeTepHHK ce oceha ao npeA cyHqeB 3a;ia3aK, a Ta^a 
ra CMeHH o6nqaH hoHhhk hjih ropHHK, BeTap kojh npeKO 
uejie Hohn y cbhm npaBUHMa c njiaHHHa npeMa je3epy 
AyBa, CBe ao npeA cyHneBO patjaHbe. Jann je on Be- 
TepHHKa a 3HaTHO cjia6HJH on crpMua, kojh Harjio na^a 
c njiaHHHa Ha je3epcKy noBpujHHy, y^apa o H»y h bpth 
je, AH>KyhH TaKO onncaHe HCKHAaHe Tajiace. 

Oil cyHneBa paljafoa na no 7 hjih 8 c. np. n. OBJiaAa 
npn^HKOM cMCHe HohHHKa h BeTepHHKa noTnyHa th- 
LUHHa Ha Oxphackom je3epy. 

CTpMeU H OCTaJIH BeTpOBH, OCHM^HeBHHX, AH>Ky 



OEAHUH 3EMJbHLUTA 

Be/iHKe Ta^ace, h ja caM hcko/ihko nyia nocMaTpau 
Ta/iacc oa 1*5 m. bhchhc, kojh no 10 ao 12 caxaia 
xyne h /ioivie ce no je3epy. A/ih nopeA OBora Ta/ia- 
CHor KpeTatba, BOAa OxpHACKor Je3epa noKa3yje Kpe- 
Taibe jouj oa ABe Bpcie : 

1. flocae jaKHx BeTpoBa npnMehyjy ce dpyje 
h Kpeiaibe je3epcKe BOAe cynpoxHo oHOMe npaBuy 
y KOMe je Bdap AyBao. HapoMHTo ce ona>Kajy ABa 
KpcTafba, je^no c J. Ha C, oa Cb. Hayivia Ka Ox- 
pHAy, Koje HacTyna nomaBHTO noc/ie ceBepHor Beipa, 
h TaKBO KpeTatbe OxpnfjaHH 30By CeBepoBa BoAa; 
noc/ie jy>KHHx BeipoBa Kpehe ce BOAa ca C. na J. 
y3^y>KHOM ocobhhom OxpHACKor Je3epa, h to Kpe- 
TaFbe 30By JyroBa BoAa. 06a KpeTaiba Mory ce ja- 
bhth h noc;ie crpMua, kojh Me^a npaBue. OHa ce 
Haj6o;be pacno3Hajy nopeA pTOBa h oko no/iyocrpBa 
TpeneTa, 3aTHM no /ie/iyjaiby h no no/ieraiby npH6pe>K- 
hhx 6n/baKa, Tpcja h pece. KaA je CeBepoBa BoAa, 
waMUH ce h caMH Kpehy oa Cb. HayMa npeMa OxpHAy, 
a o6pHyTO KaA je JyroBa BoAa. Pn6apcKe Mpe>Ke 6h- 
Bajy Aa.icKO Ha C. h;ih Ha J. OAneceHe. H3rvieAa AaK.ie 
jacHO na ce CeBepHa BoAa jaB/ba yc/ieA Tora hjto 
ce AyBaibCM BeTpa ca ceBepa HaroMH/ia BOAa y jcahom 
Kpajy je3epa, h, KaA Bdap npecraHe, ona noHHibc 
npeMa C. OTHuaTH ; hcto BpeAH y npoTHBHOM cmh- 
cny 3a JyroBy Boay. 

2. KaiiiTO ce jaB/ba h ApyKunje Kpeiaibe je3ep- 
CKe boac, Koje ce Mopa HAenTHi|)HKOBaTH ca no 
thm seiches, ripn noTnyHO r/iaTKOj noBpiHHHH h.ih npn 
cnaGHM BCTpoBHMa, hhbo je3epa Hapacre, 3am\i naanc 
Ha ceBepnoj h/ih jy>KHOj o6a/iH OBa^Hor je3epa. Ph- 
6apn Ka>KyAa MaMUH kojh cy y3 oxpHACKe h/ih cb. iia- 
yMCKe o6a/ie, ocrany Ta^a na cyBy. /la.i.e H3i.ic;i,: 

ce TaKBe AOHHBe^auHJe je3epcKe noBpujHHe npo.Ma- 
Tpajy h na 3ana,THH.\i h na hctomhhm o6a/iaMa 
OHA.e tac je oho 3HaTHe HJupHHe; n3i.icAa Aa ce ona- 
KBe nonpeMHc AenHBe/iawije napo i inro onaxcajy koa ce/ia 
Ileiirrana. KaA nacraHy 6o:i>e h Ky/iTypunje npwiHKe 
oko OxpHACKor Je3epa, na \btuy he ce seictu s MohH 
oco6hto Aera/i>no npoyianaTH, 36or ona/Mocm 6a- 
cciia h iberoBe n^acTHKe. Miije HOUbyqeHO ;ia ce na 



78 HOBA CPBHJA 



HbeMy KOHdaTyje h ruiHMa h ocena, jep ce MO>Kfla 
oho ocrajaH>e naMaua Ha cyBy MO«e c H»HMa AOBecTH 
y Be3y." 

JXneene upoMene 6oja. — „noc;ie #aHa ca khujom 
h dypoM, Hacra;io je 6hjio Jieno BpeMe. CyHue nene, 
Ba3,nyx je Ha,n je3epoM npoBH^aH, a Ha o6a;iaMa Tpe- 
nepH japa hah naj, kojh o6aBHJa h HaJBHiue BpxoBe 
oko je3epa : Ja6;iaHHuy, Kpcrau h Ta^nqHuy. Oko na- 
Maua je Ton^a n^aBa je3epcKa Bo^a, y Kojy bha ^a- 
:ieKO npo^Hpe, a r#e oh H3.ua, Hadajy OHe n;iaBeHKa- 
cTO-upHKacTe Ay^HHe o,zi kojhx ce crpaxa HeMa, jep 
je je3epo thxo h rviaTKe noBpuiHHe; y H>HMa HMa, Ka>Ky 
pH6apH, TaKo MHoro pn6e Kao apooHor necna. Or je- 
3epa ce pa3BHj'a npeMa n^aHHHaMa 6nar BeTpnh, kojh 
ynpaBO He ayBa, Beh nnpKa, hap^nja, h 30Be ce Be- 
TepHHK, HajnpHj'aTHHJH BeTap OxpHACKor Je3epa; to 
ynpaBO HHJe BeTap, jep HeMa npaBua, Beh Hac ca cbhx 
cTpaHa o6^HBa cbok Ba3#yx kojh HMa MHpnc Boae; 
36or H>era je Oxpn^cKO Je3epo nem HapOHHTO npH- 
jaTHO. Oh He npaBH Tajiace, Beh (J)HHe Ha6ope Ha je- 
3epcK0j noBpujHHH kojh H3i7ieflajy Kao ohh Ha npn- 
THCHyTOM n;iHLuy, h th cy HadopnhH TaKo o6;ih Kao 
aa je je3epcKa noBpuiHHa yjbeM noKpHBeHa; Her^e ce 
rpyne Hadopa npeceuajy h HMajy njiaH Mpence. 

Ta^a jienoTy je3epCKy yBehaBajy h Jiene je3ep- 
cKe nTHue, oco6hto 6e;iH JiadeflH, kojh bh:oko HaA je- 
3epOM jieTe, jaTa or KpeuMaHa, kojh hhcko JieTe h 
cBaKH Mac na/jajy no je3epy, h upHH hopobh, kojh ce 
no je3epy nbypajy. Oho Ta,n;a h jby^HMa o>khbh, oco- 
6hto aKO je na3apHH nan y OxpH^y, CTpy3H h flo- 
rpaauy ; Kao nocyTH no je3epy, HCKpcHy MHoro6poJHH 
qaMUH, kojh y aa/bHHH Kao upHe nere H3i7ie,najy, 
6/iH>Ke Kao HenpaBH/me MpKe Mace, jxok ce jeflBa He 
pa3a3Hajy Kao hslmixu nyHH Jbyjw, aceHa h 3eMJbopa,n- 

HHMKHX npOH3BOAa H3 OKOJIHHX CCfla. 

Ajih He6o h Bas^yx HHcy hh je^aH caT noTnyHO 

HCTH H3Ha^ OBe BCrtHKe H fly60Ke KOTJIHHe Koja je 

onKOJbeHa Bp/io bhcokhm n^aHHHaMa. Mac cnja jy>KHO 
cyHue, MHJa ce 3paKa HenpnjaTHO oceha; 3aTHM Hanno 
HacTynn x;iaflOBHHa or o6;iaKa KOJHMa ce He6o Ha/i 



HUH 3EMJbHUITA 79 

je3epoM npeBywe, joiu Heiuhe npHJaTHa no-rcyx/ia/ioBHHa 
or MecTHx npaMeHacrHx o6;iaKa Kpo3 Koje ce cymje 
oceha. FIoTnyHe thiuhhc HMa Ha Oxphackom Je3epy 
caMo paHO H3jyipa, npn^HKOM CMeHe BeipoBa: HohHHKa 
h BeiepHHKa. A Kaz* y3My xyjaTH jaKH BeTpoBH h He6o 
ce npeByqe upHHM rycTHM o6/ian.HMa, 6oja Bojxe OxpuR- 
CKor Je3epa nociaje y ue^HHH upHKacra, a no ifeoj 
ujyMe, ujyuiTe h npcnajy bhcokh Ta/iacn Kao upHe 
Mace, HHJa ce caMo TeMeHa 3a6e/iacajy, KaR ce cKpuie. 
Taj HenpnjaTHH yTHcaK yBehaBa ce npea Bene h Hohy, 
Ka^a jc3epo ncny^aBa MOBeKa je30M h cTpaxo.M. 

Boja BO^e je y npn6pe>KHHM n;iHfiHM napTHJaMa 
ro cy6/iaKycTpHCKor o^ceKa oTBopeHo-3e;ieHa : to je 
He({)pHTCKO 3e/ienH/io, oco6hto npHJaTHO KaR je rho 
noKpHBeHO 6h/io B/iaKHacrHM 6h;io ry6acrHM h ^e6e- 
/ihm a/iraMa. Or cy6;iaKycTpHCKor o^ceKa npeMa Haj- 
BehHM < ny6nHaMa BORa nocraje CBe BHiiie n/iaBa ; Be- 
npnx h ;ienHx Rana Boja OxpnncKor Je3epa HMa Ton;io 
n/iaBeTHH;io, Koje je npnjaTHHJe o^ He6ecKor n/iaBeT- 
HH^a ; to je OTBopeHO, npo3paMHO h npoBH^HO n.ia- 
BeTHHJio, a/iH HnaK 3aracHTHJe or ne6ecKor ; npnjaT- 
HHJe je h on o6HHHor MopcKor n/iaBeTHH/ia, Koje je 
joiu 3aTBopeHHje. OBaj HopMa/ian pacnopeA 6oja y 
Oxphackom Je3epy Mecro ce Men>a. KaR cyHue Kpo3 
06/iaKe npocHJaBa, 6oja Bone nocTaje 3aTBopeno-n/iaBa, 
c Ma/io 3e.rceHH.ia ; Kan cyHue 3a^e 3a rycre od^ane, 
y iby ce Meina CBe BHUje upnora ; nan nantjy nepjacTH 
h npaMenacTH o6/iau,H, kojh no je3epy ocraB/bajy ceHKe 
Kao /incnaTe rpane, 6oja borq nocTaje3e/ieHKacTO-n/iaBa, 
AaK/ie bhujc 3e/ieHKacra \te obhx h npeTxoxmux npo- 
MaTpaiba bhah ce jxa 6oja BOAe 3aBHcn: 1°, ORRy6nHQ, 
jep je naJBeha pa3.iHKa H3Mel)y npnGpoKnnx napTHJa 
ao cyC/iaKycrpucKor OAceKa, r\ae je 6oja 3e/iena ca 
pa3HHM HHancaMa, h ay6oKor je3epa, trq npeB.iatjyje 
n/iaBa 6oja ; 2", or cacraBa una, jep aKO je obo nojx 
a/iraMa, Bona je <e/iena; aKO je or crena, on/ia i 
6ojy boac MCLua npupo^Ha 6oja cTene; a aKO je on 
lu.i.yHKa.onaa je Bona OTBopeHO 3e/iena ca inapaMa, htr., 
3°, or naoG/iaqeHocTH, jep, y Ma kojoj ntpTHJH, je3epo 
HMa npyKMHJy 6ojy npn BeapoM h cynwanoM BpeMtMiy. 



80 



HOBA CPBHJA 



a ApyK4Hjy Ka^ nau^y o6;iauH, h;ih npH upHOJ HaTy- 

UlTeHOCTH. 

y 3 caTa noc/ie no^He noHHe flyBaTH pe^OBaH 
BeTap OxpH^CKor Je3epa, crpMeu, kojh H3 noqeTKa 
caMO hap^HJa, a^H MOKe #a ojaqa, h Ta^a xyJH : ayBa 
HCKH,naHO, Ha MaxoBe, h 6p30 y36ypKa ue;io je3epo. 
Or H>era nocTajy KpaTKH, oirnpH Ta^acn, qnja ce Te- 
MeHa Kprue h kojh ce KaTKa^ npecKaqy. Ka^ 3a^e 
cyHue, CMeHH ra hohhhk, Majio jaqn or BeTepHHKa h;ih 
AHeBHora BeTpa; oh nnpKa h hapjinja ca okojihhx 
n^aHHHa ca cbhx CTpaHa npeivia je3epy, HeMa .naKJie 
Kao h BeTepHHK je^Hor o^peijeHor npaBua. 06hhho 
noHHe hapjinjaTH Ha 2 #o 3 caTa nocjie cynqeBa 3a;iacKa, 
na ce oceha uejiy Hoh h H3j'yTpa, #ok ce cyHije He 
po^H. Ta.ua ra CMeHH BerepHHK, ajiH He ojiuax, jep 
H3Met]y hdHx HMa KaTKa/i, Kpaha, KaTKa^ pyxta. nay3a 
noMeHyie THiHHHe. Ann je caMO oko Cb. HayMa Ha 
jy>KHOj o6a;iH je3epa HohHHK pe^OBaH Bdap, kojh no- 
qHHDe h npecTaje, Kao ihto je rope H3Jio>KeHO. I~Io 
ocTa^HM ^e^OBHMa je3epa oh ce no npaBHJiy jaBH TeK 
npefl 30py." 

2. FlpecnaHCKO Je3epo. 

npecnaHCKo Je3epo 3ay3HMa jy>KHH aeo npo- 
dpaHe KOTJiHHe Koja ce Ha;ia3H H3Metjy nepHcrepa h 
Hepe^CKe n^aHHHe Ha HCTOKy, h Ta^nqnue, Cyxe Tope 
h Top6eua Ha 3ana^y. CeBepHH &eo Te kotjihhc npefl- 
craBJba aho HcyuieHor je3epa; to je pecaHCKa paB- 
HHua. MHoro Behn ago kot^hhc je no# ripecnaH- 
ckhm h Ma;iHM Je3epoM. H Ma;io Je3epo, Kao h pe- 
caHCKa paBHHua, npeACTaB.7ba;iH cy AejiOBe ripecnaH- 
CKor Je3epa. Majio Je3epo je TeK y HaJHOBHj'e BpeMe 
o^BojeHo THMe uito cy je3epCKH BajiOBH Hadaua^H 
orpoMHe Mace necKa Ha MecTy rue cy o6a je3epa 6njia 
Be3aHa. HapoA pa3;iHKyje Tojieiviy Flpecny, no;* kojom 
pa3yMe ceBepHH #eo npecnaHCKe KoT/iHHe, no jiHHHj'e 
Koja 6h Be3HBa;ia Kohcko, octpbo Be/iHKH rpafl h rie- 
Pobckh 3a^HB. OAaB^e npeMa jyry HacTajy Majia npe- 
cna h Ma;io Je3epo. 



OBflHUH 3EM;bMUTA 81 



Orviezia;io flpecnaHCKor Je3epa Ha;ia3H ce Ha bh 
chhh or 906 m. Be/iHKO je 288 km. 2 , a ay6oKO 52 m. 
Oho je ^aK^e HaJBHuie h HaJBehe or cbhx bc/ihkhx 
6a^KaHCKHx je3epa. 

y ceBepnoM Reny flpecne h y3 nepHdepcKe o6a/ie, 
6oja je3epcKe BO^e je >KyhKacTa h upHKacro-wyhKacTa, 
rok je Rym. 3anaAHHX KpeHfoaqKnx o6a;ia flpecne 
OTBopeHO-3e:ieHa, hc^phtckh 3e;ieHa h MacrcHHKHHa 3e- 
jienu.ia. y Ma;ioj ripecnH, Koja jiokh y KpeHfoany, 
oko cbhx o6a/ia je borsl 3e/ieHa. H3Haa ayd/bHx nap- 
THj'a Ma;ie flpecne h H3Ha# hhbhhkc H'creHCKe yBa.ie, 
Menia ce y 3e/ieHy 6ojy BO^e hchito n.iaBeTHH^a. 

y ceBepHOM neny Ma;ior Je3epa 6oja BO£e je oko 
o6a/ia upHKaaro->KyTa, a ii3Haa £y6;bHX napTHj'a Hh/ih- 
6apcKH >KyTa ; y jy>KHOM ycKOM #e;iy, koj'h je yoKBHpeH 
Kpewtt>am<HM OAceuHMa, 6oja BO£e je OTBopeHo-3e.ieHa. 

HaJBeha je npoBHAHOcr je3epcKe BO^e 6n;ia Ha^ 

HHBHMKOM Vjiy6liHOM OR 7'2 If. H jy>KHO OR ibe 7'4 m.; 

HHawe npoBH£Hocr BOAe npecnaHCKor Je3epa pacre y 
rviaBHOM y npaBuy ca C. Ha J., 3aTHM y npaBuy ca H. 
Ha 3. MeijyTHM je y ue^OM Ma^oM Je3epy He3HaTHa h 
peTKO r#e npe/ia3H 1 if., 36or onncaHnx opraHCKHx h 
xyMycHHx cacrojaKa. 

Hi thx Mepeiba nana3H rz y f o;ieMoj ripecnn h 
Ma;iOM Je3epy HeMa TeMnepaiypnora CKOKa, HeMa ra 
hh y KpniiCKOj yBa/in or 27 m. Ay6HHe. Mel)yTHM ce 
y hhbhhkoj yiia.in Ma;ie flpecne KOHdaTyjy rbz TeM- 
nepaTypHa CKOKa, Kao h y Oxphackom Je3epy: je^an 
y Ay6HHH or 15 ro 25 m., a zipyrn 35 ro 45 m.; ohh 
cy jacno oflBojenn jeanuM oiojeM borq or 25 ro 35 m. 
y KOMe TeMncpaiypa Bp;io cnopo ona;ia. 

y npocrpanoj f o/ieivioj ripecnn, unja je ue/ia no- 

BpiHHHa JieTH H3/I0>KeHa jaKOJ HHCO^aUHJH, MHJa BOAa 

ca;jp>KH MHoro cycnen^OBaHHX necTHua h n.Ma wyiy 
6ojy, 3arpeje ce JieTH ueo boachh oioj or noBpuinne 
ro AHa; na noBpujHHH 6n/ia je TeMnepaiypa bo 
a Ha Rny h ;xy6nnH 27 m. caMO 18", aaK;ie je 6n/ia 
TeMnepaTypHa pa3/iHKa na KpajtbHM noBpnjHna.Ma bo- 
AeHor c.noja or 27 m. Ae&bHHC cavio 2,5° C. Te.Mne- 
paTypa Bozie ona/ia HCTHHfl neimo 6p>Ke na ;iy6nnn 

110M\ 



82 HOBA CPBHJA 



ojx 15 no 25 m., a^H ce He MO>Ke roBopHTH o npaBOM 
TeMnepaiypHOM CKOKy. JXok ce Oxphacko h OcrpoB- 
cko Je3epo HHKa^ He 3aMp3aBajy, o6a FlpecnaHCKa cy 
ce nocJieflHDHx 90 roAHHa uejia Mp3Jia, H3y3eBiuH hh- 
BHHKy yBa^y, Koja ce Morvia caMO Aa npeByqe TaHKOM 
/ieAeHOM KopoM. MeijyTHM je Ha Tojieivioj flpecnn jieA 
6ho TpH nyia TaKo Ae6eo Aa ce ca caoHHuaivra npe- 
;ia3H;io c je^He CTpaHe je3epa Ha Apyry. npeMa TOMe, 
y npecnaHCKOMe Je3epy Haciyna 3a BpeMe Bpjio onrrpHx 
3HMa HHBepCHa CTpaTH(J)HKauHJa BOAe no TeMnepaTypH, 
t.j. cjiynaj Aa cy ropfoH crcojeBH BOAe HH>Ke TeMnepa- 
Type ho AOtbH, HHja je TeMnepaTypa Ta^a BepoBaTHO 
oko 4° C; aok y Oxphackom h Octpbckom BiaAa 
CTa^Ha AHpeKTHa cipaTH(J)HKauHJa, T.j. roptt>H cnojeBH 
cy yBeK BHiue TeMnepaType ho aoh>h. ToMe je y3pOK, 
nopeA oiUTpHJe kjihmc FIpecnaHCKor Je3epa (Koje jiokh 
oko 200 m. BHiue on. OxpHACKor, a oa OcTpoBCKor qaK 

OKO 370 M.) H (J)H3HKa^HHX OC06HHa BOAe (MHOrH H 

K^ynHH cycneHAOBaHH Aejinhn), join h Maft>a Ay6HHa 
FIpecnaHCKor Je3epa, 36or Koje je tberoB Ton^OTHH 
pe3epBoap He3HaTHHJH ho y Apyra ABa je3epa, Hapo- 
mhto He3HaTHHJH ho y OxpH^CKOM Je3epy. 

Ha ripecnaHCKOM Je3epy B/iaAajy hcth ahcbhh Be- 

TpOBH KaO H Ha OxpHACKOM, H 30By Ce AeHHK H HOhHHK. 
OCHM OBHX BeTpOBa, KOJH Ce CBaKH AaH CMefbyjy, 

AyBa JieTH OB.ua OHAa h 3ropeH, h to ca Ta^HHHue; 
o6hhho noMHe OHAa KaA npecTaHe achhk a join ce He 
nojaBH HohHHK. Oh OAroBapa, AaKJie, CTpMuy OxpHA- 
CKor Je3epa." 

3. AojpaHCKo Je3epo. 

ZlojpaHCKO Je3epo je 42*65 km.' 2 bcjihko, 10 m. 
Ay6oKo, a orvieAajio My je 148 m. bhcoko H3HaA Mop- 
CKe noBpniHHe. HMa o6/ihk oKpyn/iacre yBa/ie Koja 
je HeuiTO BHuie H3ByneHa Ha jyry h ceBepOHCTOKy. 
JXho fceroBO HMa o6/ihk Kap^nue nnja ce HajAy6/ba 
TaqKa Ha^a3H 6/iH>Ke npeMa jyroHCTOHHOJ o6a;iH. BoAa 
My HMa TaMHO h 3aracHTO 3e;ieHKacTy 6ojy, a CKopo 
je^HaKO je Ton^a h Ha AHy h Ha noBpuiHHH. ./TeTH 



Ob/IHUH 3hMA>HLUTA 8^ 

HMa TeMnepaTypy 1 4*4° ao 158° Ue.iCHjycoBHx. BoAa 
My je /iaKa, ynoipe6:baBa ce 3a nunc h KyBaibe. rio 
6hctphhh h npoBHAHOCTH BOAe ZlojpancKO Je3epo ce 
H3Aoaja oj cbhx n.iHTKnx MaKCiioHCKHx je3epa. Haj- 
Beha npoBHanocT My je 3'65 if. ripoBHAHHJe je ho Be- 

IUHHHO, AJBaCHACKO H TaXHHCKO. IlpOBHAnO je CKOpO 

nao Octpbcko Je3epo. Koje je on, n>era ce^aM nyia 
ny6jhe. Hhbo HojpancKor Je3epa HHJe ue;ie roAHHe 
da^aH h Ha hctoj bhchhh, Beh pacre h ona^a npeMa 
Ao6y roAHHe. F/iaBuy BOAy Ao6nBa on Bpe^a Koja H3- 
6Hjajy Ha tberoBOj hbhuh, h oa hoaboahhx H3Bopa. 
y (J)e6pyapy nomiy th H3Bopn H36auHBaTH Behe Mace 
BOjie, h je3epcKO orvieAa/io noMHe Har.io pacTH. TaKO 
Tpaje ao anpHAa, KaAa noHHe ona^aTH. HaJBehe craH>e 
je3epcKa BOAa AOCTHHte y anpH/iy. Ta^a ce BOAa nonne 
BHUje on no/ia Meipa HaA cbojhm pannJHM CTatbeM. 
Ona^a CBe no aBrycra. V jeceH h 3HMy odaje Ha hctom 
CTaiby. Or Ha3aa AeceT roAHHa ona>KeHO je na BOAa 
cbc BHUje pacre. y noneTKy Mapia 1901 je3epcKa BOAa 
je 6H/ia to/ihko HaAom/ia ^a cy r/iaBHa y/inua, Map- 
HiHJa h no.noBHHy na3apa y BapouiH Hojpany 6hah to- 
ahko non/iaB/beHH Aa ce Mopa/io no HaMeujTeHHM Aa- 
CKaMa npe/ia3HTH. Ta.ua cy ABOpnuira cbhx Kyha y thm 
y^HuaMa Gn/ia noA boaom. Pn6apcKe KO/iH6e 6n/ie cy 
TaKO^e non/iaB.-bene h 36or Tora MHore HanyujTene. Te 
roAHiie je3epcKO ornenano je napac/io 3a 80 canTHMe- 
Tapa. JXa He 6h Bapoiu 6H.ia cacBHM non/iaB/beHa, mo- 
pa/iH cy npoKonaTH Kopnro fro.iaje Koje ce 6h.io 3a- 
cy/io. Ta#a je kophtom "I.So.iaje, noTeK/ia 6p3a h jaKa 
pena, kojom ce y naMuy momo cnycrnTH y ApuaHCKO 
Je3epo. 

no je.iepy ce Hecro ona>Kajy, KaA je BOAa Mynia 
h 6e3 Ta/iaca, mccthmhuc K.io6yKOBH kojh A0;ia3e oa 
hoaboahhx H3Bopa. Te H3Bope pn6apH no3najy Ao6po 
36or Tora ujto ce oko h>hx pn6a Kynn, h 30By hx 
t ,KaJHauHMa". 

O BowHhy 1900 ne/io je3epo ce CMp3.io h nen 
je pa3opno CBa AOBHima h pnGapjKc Ko.infie. Jit 
OAp>Kao neT !!c;u' ba H iia n.eMy ce npe/i<i3H:io c jca- 
hot Kpaja Ha ApyrH. flaMTH cc ah ce uc.io aaicpano h 

6* 



84 HOBA CPBHJA 



npe 20 roAHHa. HHane CBaKe 3HMe 3aMp3Hy ce caivio 
n^HhHHe nopeA o6a;ia. 

Oa BeTpoBa Hajja^iH je „BapAap" h/ih kphbh Beiap, 
kojh noAH>Ke Be;iHKe Ta^ace. Obh Hajjane Jiynajy HCTO^Hy 
o6a;iy, Koja je 36or Tora noTnyHO HHcra o^TpcKe. Oia- 
6hjh cy ceBepoHCTOHHH „KpnBeu.", h ceBepHH, kojh ao- 
.na3H c BejiacHue, „KajiHiiiHHK" hjih „npaB Beiap". Haj- 
chjihhjh je „^o6poBeH", KOJH JXOJia3U c jyroHCTOKa, KOJH 
je jaK Kao npaBa o/iyja, ajw kojh ,ayBa Bp;io peTKO h 

06HHHO 3HMH. 



nOCEBHM JXEO. 

01 IMC IIOJEAHHHX OBJ1ACTH W MECTA 



I. I'OPhbE nOBAP^APJE. 

HajroptbH neo Bap^apeBa c/iHBa npeAcraB/ba 3ace- 
6ny npnpoAiiy, eKOHOMCKy, na ,noHeK/ie, h Ky/nypHy ue- 
jinny. Ca cbhx CTpaHa onKO/beH je bc/ihkhm n^aHHHaMa, 
H3Met)y KOJHx cc npo6HJajy ycKe h TemKO npoxojuie 
K.iHcypacTe penHe ,ao;iHHe. Ha ceBepy, npe\ia KocoBy, 
MeToxnJH h ao/ihhh Jy>KHe MopaBe, 3aTBopeH je LLIapoM, 
UpHOM TopoM (KapanaroM), PyjHOM h Ko3JaKOM. Ha 
3ana;iy je 3aTBOpeH To/ieiuHHUOM h 5a6yHOM, a Ha jyry 
Be^eiuKOM K/iHcypoM. HcroMHy My rpaHHuy MHHe Bpe- 
ra^HHua h 3/ieTOBCKa Pena. 

Hempa/my o6/iacT y TopHaeM noBap^apjy mhhh 
CKoncKa KoT.iHHa. V fboj ce CTHwy nyieBH ca cbhx 
CTpaHa, h H3 ibe ce neHTpa/iHiuyhn yTHMe Ha ue.ny ry 
o6;iacT. 3a iby je ckohomckh Be3an h flo/ior, kojh ca 
Popn>HM IloBapaapjeM KOMyHHunpa Cyxoao.umoM. Ha 
3ana^y cy n.iaHHHCKC >nyne K/iena, Xac h Ba6yna, Koje 
ce no cbojoj k.ihmh, Be/ieTaunJH h Hapo;uioj npHBpeAH 
3iiaTH0 paanmcyjy oj o6;iacTH oko Bapaapa. no cbom 
)KHBOTy h cao6pahajy ynyhene cy Ha Bap^apcKy no- 
Jinny, h mhhc eKOHOMCKy no3a^HHy BapoujH Be/ieca. 
Hctohiui fleo Popiber IloBapjapja caMHibaBa japaBan 
Obmc flo^e h KparoBCKe pyaapcKe 06/iacrH. ropn.n 
(vihb Bpera.'iHHU", Mi/ieiu h KowaHCKa KoT/inna yc 
BcriHKe yAa.bCHOCTH, TepeHCKHX TeujKoha h 3ace6Hor 

>KHBOTa HMHJy 3HaTH(> ApyKMHJe K.1HMCKC H npHBpCAHO 

iipH.nHKr, h nOfUUQfl loneK.ne Kao lacefma ofi.iacr, 



88 HOBA CPBHJA 



DiaBHy h ueHTpa^Hy o6;iacT y roptbeM IloBap- 
Aapjy hhhh Ckouckcl KoiuAima, y Kojy ce CTHHy ko- 
MyHHKauHj'e ue;ie o6;iacTH, h Ha Koje OHa yTH^e ueHTpa- 
jiHiuyhH. y CKoncKy KoTJiHHy panyHaheMO OBe 06/iacTH: 
B;iaTO hjih BjiaTHJy y aojihhh BapAapa, CKoncKy UpHy 
Topy, Topiba h IloHba Ce^a h Top6eme. FloBpiuHHa 
UpHe Tope h CKoncKe paBHHije h3hoch 393 km' 2 , fla- 
HopaMa CKoncKe KoT/iHHe je oco6HTe Jienoie : BHAe 
ce BHCOKe, rvioMa3He n/iaHHHCKe Mace, MaxoM rojie, HeKe 
h inyMOBHTe, 3aTHM ouiTpH BpxoBH h rpyne oa 3aBp- 
iiiKacTHx BpxoBa ; Hajjienmn cy JaKynnua h Jby6oTHH, 
kojh cy HaJBHiiiH, h hhjh HMno3aHTaH H3nieA nojanaBa 
h to iuto cy h ^eTH noA CHeroM. riopeA Tora CKon- 
cKa KoT^HHa ce OA^KKyje BejiHKHM 6pojeM ycKHx h 
Ay6oKHx K^HcypacTHx AOflHHa Koje ca cbhx cTpaHa y 
n>y H36Hj'ajy h bhahkc Ha CBe cipaHe OTBapajy. TaKBe 
cy KJincype : JlepBCH H3Mei]y TeTOBCKe h CKoncKe Kot- 
^hiic, KaqaHHHKa lOincypa H3Mel]y noc;ieAtt>e h Ko- 
coBa, TaopCKa FOiHcypa npeMa Bejiecy h KJincypa 
FlqHfbe H3HaA KaT/iaHOBa. Ha ceBepy h HCTOKy OHa je 
OTBopeHa, jep ce aho H^eHO AH>Ke Ha 3apaBHH ZIyre 
hbHBe h OBHe nojbe. 

y cKoiicKoj pasHimii pa3JiHKyjeMO ABa AeJia, h to 
Aeo kojh ce Ha^a3H y paqBaMa BapAapa, JleneHua h 
TpecKe, h jyroHCTOHHH Aeo, kojh je MaxoM noA moh- 
BapaMa, h kojh ce 30Be EAauluja. npBH Aeo, kojh 
heMO 3BaTH Ckoucko Mefyyeofje, cacraBJ^eH je oa n;ia- 
BHua h HaHoca ropitHx Tpnjy pei<a. Th cy HaHOCH y 
Ay6HHH oa LUJbyHKa h necKa, a no Bpxy ao 1 ao 3 m. 
BHCHHe je upHa MyjbeBHTa 3eMJba, Koja je 3HaTHe n;iOA- 
hocth. y MeljyBofjy cy necra njiHTKa, necKOBHTa y;ie- 
myha, Koja cy Hcnyn>eHa MOHBapaMa h 6apaMa. Ha- 
Pohhto MHoro TaKBnx MOHBapa HMa H3Mei)y BapAapa 
h jy>KHor o6oAa CKoncKe Kotjihhc. HaJBeha je OHa ihto 
ce npy>Ka oa 6nBuie TypcKe rHMHa3Hj'e npeMa A^n6e- 
roBy HH'iviyKy. Te MO'nsape npeAcraBJbajy ocTaTKe oa 
nerAaiHFber BapAapeBa KopHTa, i<oje je oh HanycTHO 
h noqeo Tehn ceBepHHJe. H3y3eBuiH OBe MOHBape, h 
one naprnje oko BapAapa h TpecKe, ocra/iH Aeo Me- 
JjyBO^a je Bp/io n^oAaH, totobo ce MO>Ke pehH>JAa je 






TOPIbK nOBAP^APJE 



to Hajn^OAHHJH jxeo CKoncKora Uojha. Bo^e H3 pcKa 
H3Be,neHe cy y ja30Be KOJHMa ce HaTanajy ibHBe h 
Kpehy BO,neHHue. 36or OBora 6oraTdBa y bojxh h OHa- 
Kor cacraBa 3eM;bHHJTa, MeljyBO^e je hcoGhmho ujiojxho. 
Ochm o6hhhhx >KHTa ceje ce nnpHHan, hciijto naMyna 
h aHacoHa, a Bp;io MHoro h noBplia. 

y B^aTHJH ce Bap^ap, y3 npo/ienbe h jecetbe 
KHiue, ch/iho pa3^eBa h n/iaBH BehH jieo B^aTHj'e. Hcto 
Tano, MHore pene He Mory jxa Aonpy y Bapaap, Beh ce 
pa3/injy no no;by. 36or Tora cBera y OBa ,1106a ro- 
AHHe B.iaTHJa npe/icraB/ba npaBO je3epo, Koje ce .aou- 
HHj'e noByne, a/iH on ibera ocTaHe no no;by MHoro Bo#e 
h Be^HKHx 6apa. 3aio ce ueo OBaj Kpaj 30Be B.iamo 
turn BjaiUnja. On thx MOMBapn HHKa/j He npecytnyjy 
fopne BjaiTw h KaiuAanoecKo Je3epo. FIpBO je .nem 
Ayro 50 no 100m., a ^pyro je bcjihko 424 km.- Obh 
cy je3epa no HBHuaMa o6pac/ia poro30M, kojh cranoB- 
hhijjtbo cene h ynoTpe6:baBa y AOMahoj npHBpcin. 
y ohom Ae;iy B/iaTnje kojh .neTH ocTane cyB HMa Bp.To 
6vjhhx /iHBa^a. 36or Tora CBera B/iaTHJa je cpe^ibe, 
rae me. h c/ia6e po^hocth. 3HaiaH iben ^eo hhjc 3a 
o6pal)HBaibe, Beh je nojx c/ia6HM /iHBa/iaMa h naujaMa; 
h 3aTO no ibeMy HMa /ie™ MHoro TopoBa, oko kojhx 
cKoncKe ue;ie6i f iHJe TOBe cTOKy Kojy npoaajy TproB- 
UHMa h Ko/by 3a nacTpMy. 

n Oene F1o.bc je 3apaBan, Koja ce H3HaA CKoncKe 
Kot.ihhc .iH>Ke 3a 100 ,10 150 m. h HMa cpcaiby bh- 
cHiiy oko 400 m. Ha 3ana;iy je orpaHHweno Bap^apo.M, 
h to on ytulia Bpcra.iHHue no yinha Il i iHii»e. I BcroBa 
ceBepHa rpaHHua je HH3 epynTHBunx Kyna, Koje npe/i- 
CTaB.i.ajy pa3Bol)e H3Meljy Bpera/nmne h KpHBe Pokc, 
a pa3Bol)e H3Mel)y 3/ieTOBUJTnue h A3MaKa je lberoBa 
HCTOMHa rpannna. Ha jyry Aonupe no HH3a noBC3aimx 
6p;u h Koca, Meljy KOJHMa je iiaJBHinii Boroc/iOBau, 

OR 550 M. BHCHHC, HaJKapaKTepHCTHMHHJM II C3 CBHX 

crpaHa BH^aH, KynacT Bpx Obmct Ilo.ba. V obhm rpa- 
HHuaMa je Obhc fIo:i>e AyrawKO, y npaBuy ca ceBepa 
na jyr, 40 no 60 KM., a LunpoKO ca HCTOKa iia 3ana,i 
oko 30 km. Apea/i je iberoB bchhk oko 1400 km. 
I'jiaBiia peKa OBMera flOM, A3M8K, iipnrnwe Bpcra/i- 



90 HOBA CPBHJA 



hhuh. hberoB je oihb bcjihkh oko 609 km.-, a Ay>KHHa 
oko 40 km. CKopo y cpeztHHH OBqer IToJba je H»eroBO 

MaBHO MeCTO H Tp>KHUJTe, Cb. HHKOJia HJIH KjIHCeJIH. 

JyroHCTOMHH Aeo OBHer flojba, Ha AecHoj o6a/iH Bpe- 
ra^HHiie a y 6;ih3hhh UJTHna, 30Be ce Jokcbo flojbe. 
flpocTpaHO MeljyBo^e H3Meijy FlqHHbe h KpHBe 
PeKe Koje je Ha C. orpatjeno KpHcrajiacTOM njiaHHHOM 
Ko3jaKOM a Ha H. AonHpe CKopo ao hxnyiHHe C/ia- 
BHUiTa, 30Be ce Cpedopex; MattH hctohhh Aeo Te 06- 
jiacTH, y HenocpeAHOj 6jih3hhh OiaBHuiTa, 30Be ce 
Ciupat^UH. Cpe^opeK h CrpauHH cy Be;iHKe njioqe Ha 
KOJHMa ce AH>Ky MHorH KynacTH tojih BpxoBH, nope- 
i^aHH y npaBixy ceBepo3anaA-jyroHCTOK. HMajy cpeAH>y 

BHCHHy OA 500 AO 600 M., C HaJBHUIHM BpXOBHMa 
OKO 900 M. 

Ha jyro3ana,ny oa Be-JieuiKe Kjiwcype cy cjihbobh 
Tono;iKe h Ba6yHe, kojh cy CKyna bcjihkh 930 km 2 . 
C/ihb obhx peKa noAeJbeH je y ABe >Kyne. y ceBepo- 
3anaAHOM Ae/iy n>eroBa je acyna Xac, HcnoA n^aHHHe 
TojieiuHHue h HjeHHx orpaHaKa; OHa 3axBaTa c^hbobc 
Tono^Ke h Toptbe Ba6yHe ao H>eHHx cacTaBaKa ca 
peKOM H3BopuiTHuoM. y Xacy HMa oko 24 ce/ia, oa 
koj'hx je rviaBHO BoroMHJia, npHBpeAHH ueHTap >Kyne. 
Oa daBa H3BOpuiTHue h Ba6yHe, Aajbe hh3 Ba6yHy, 
HacTaje >Kyna KAeua, o6yxBaTa h ce/ia oko qyKacTor 
Bpxa HCTor HMeHa, h Aajbe H3Metjy peKe Ba6yHe h 
OBora Bpxa ao BapAapa. DiaBHO ce/io h aAMHHHcrpa- 
thbhh ueHTap K;iene je MHneBO. Y K/ienH HMa oko 
25 cejia." 

„ TeuLoechca KoulAUHa']e BejiHKa oko 232 km 2 . Orpa- 
\)ena je Ha C. 3. IUapoM, Ha J. B/iaxHHHuoM h ByKO- 
bhkom, a Ha J. H. CyxoM TopoM h >Kcahom. Remi ce 
Ha Tpn napTHJe. Hajseha je ToptbH Flojior, y Kojy ce 
panyna odjiacr oa BapAapeBHx H3BOpa h n^aHHHe 
ByKOBHKa ao TeTOBCKe BncrpHue, h y kojoj je maBHO 
Medo TocTHBap. CeBepHH Aeo kotjikhc, oa TeTOBCKe 
BHCTpnue ao BapAapCKor ZlepBeHTa, 30Be ce JIohdH 
rio;ior, h MOHce ce y3eTH na je TeTOBO H^eroBO niaBHO 
Medo. Oa TeTOBa ce ao ,HepBeHTa npywa ncnoA LLIapa 
Ba^oBHTa noAropHHa, cacraBJbeHa nonnaBHTO oa penHHx 



TOPHjE nOBAP/lAKIE 

n^aBHHa, Hajryiuhe Hace^eHa, h 30Be ce nonrop\ CKopo 
y cpe^HHH no^ropa je Ma;ia KO/ia6a Teapue. Hano- 
c/ieTKy, HaJHHJKH #eo TeTOBCKe KoiviHHe, oko caMora 
Bap/iapa totobo HeHace^ea, 30Be ce Bap^apnja Te- 
TOBCKa KoT/iHHa HMa oTBope caMo Ha hctomhom OKBnpy, 
h H>HMa cy or HajpaHHJHx hctophjckhx BpeMeHa BOAH/ie 
h Bo^e KOMyHHKauHJe 3a CKon;be. F/iaBHH h umpH 
otbop Ha^aiH ce H3Me^y Cyxe Tope h n/iaHHHe /KeiiHa, 
h 30Be ce y hctomhom ae/iy Cyxoao/iHua, a y 3ana/uiOM 
Ka;upMH-5ora3; H>HMe BOAHapyM OATeTOBa£0 CKon/ba. 
Xlpyrn otbop je K/iHcypa Bap^apeBa Ha C. on. /KeiHa, 
h 30Be ce ZtepBeHT. To je OHa Be/iHKa OKyKa kojom 
Bap^ap o6H/ia3H oko >Ke;ma h y;ia3H y CKoncKy Kot- 
/iHHy; rt>0Me bo/ih pt)aB KapaBaHCKH nyT kojhm ce Hae 
H3 ce.na Hoiber flo/iora h LLJape y CKon^e". 

V Ckohckoj Kotvihhh ce Beh ocehajy yTHuajn Me- 
AHTepaHCKe k/ihmc HapoHHTo ce oceTH Be/iHKa pa3- 
/iHKa Kaji ce Henocpe/iHO Jiohe or Bpaibe y CKoncny 
Koiyinny. fiera cy npaha, ca Matbe khiuc, paHHJe no- 
MHihy h Ryma Tpajy. KyMaHOBCKO-npeuieBCKa 3apaBan, 
h aKo je HHCKa, npeacraB/ba 3HaTHy npenpeKy 3a yTH- 
uaje MeAHTepaHCKe k/ihmc JleTH cy y CKoncKOJ paBHHmi 
necHOCHe were, Ba3Ayx je Bpyti h or 6apcKHX ncna- 
pen>a 3aryuj.^HB; h npn MaibeM BeTpy CBa ce o6aBHje 
y 06/iaKe or npauiHHe. 3H.\ia je Ha npoTHB Bp/10 oiiJTpa. 
Oco6hto je rocbrzh x/ia/iaH ceBepHH Bdap kojh 
iiyBa npeKO KyManoBCKo-npeujeBCKe 3apaBHn h Hanocn 
orpoMHe CMeTOBe. HapoMHTO je jaK na flyroj Hhbh h 
na npocTopy H3Mctjy CKon/ba h KyManoBa. 

y 06/iacTH MapKOBe Pene, yc/ica Tora luto je 
ujywa HCKopeibena n 3eM:i»HinTe noinynu oro/ie/io, Ba- 
3^yx je Tonao h cyx. flpeKO OBe cyBe h 3arpejaHe n/10- 
mc /ieTH CTa.mo ayBajy jaKH BeTpoBH, kojh y^umviaBajy 
CTapn je3epcKn necaK h My/b h pa3H0ce ra no CKon- 
CKOJ Kotvihhh, o6aBHjajyliH ce Mecro y cu/iawe o^ npa- 
HJHue. MecTe cy /lOKa/we 0/1 v June, a 1 pa;* ;ieTH no 
mime nyTa t\ 

Omie Ho/be npeACTtBJbi yaAiiniyTy n na cbc 
li pane OTBopeny 3apaBaii. Vc/iea Tora KJlHMa je El| 
MeH;bHna, uecie cy inMioro/ie n o/iyje. tana >pa, 



92 HOBA CPEHJA 



jieia cy ncapKa h 6ecKHiuHa. 3HaiaH jxeo je jicth Tano 
cnpjbeH h ro na. HMa H3ryieA dene. CBe je nowyTcao 
h yBenyjio, caivio no c;iaTHHaMa HMa Majio 3e;ieHHJia. 
H MaftH BeipoBH AH>Ky npauiHHy, HdHHa y MaHboj MepH 
ho Ha 3apaBHH MapKOBe Pene. CyHqaHH 3paun neKy 
h JiaKO 3arpeBajy oro^e^H, >KyhKacTH, JiHCKyHOBHTH ne- 
caK, kojh ce 6jbemTH h He aa y ce nor/ieaaTH. CKOpo 
HHi\a;e HeMa #pBeTa. JXpBO 3a rpatjy ao6HBajy oa Ko- 
coBCKe MnTpoBHue. OraH> y KyhaMa o/ip>KaBajy oia- 
mom h ca Majio ApBa. H3iyieaa &a yBeK HHJe 6hjio 
OBaKO rojio. Ha yAajbeHHJHM MecTHMa Hat)e ce joui h 
ca^ no kojh xpacT. 

Oihbobh Tono;iKe h Ba6yHe cy ca cbhx cipaHa 
3arpai]eHH njiaHHHaMa : roJieuiHHUOM, BoponojbeM, Ba- 
6yHOM h MyKacTHM BpxoM KjienoM, a OTBopeHH cy caMO 
npeMa Bap,n;apCKOj ao;ihhh koa Be^eca. IlopeA Tora 
OHe cy eKcnonHpaHe npeMa ceBeponcTOKy. CpeA^a 
BHCHHa hm je 250 jio 300 m. Vcneji, cbhx thx ocodHHa, 
c^hbobh Tono;iCKe h Ba6yHe cy JieTH Ma;io cbokhjh 
oa ocTa^Hx o6^acTH Koje cy uoa hctom reorpacj)CKOM 
uiHpHHOM. JleTHoe KHHie HHcy peTKe. Ba6yHa h To- 
no^Ka HHKa^ He npecymyjy. Flo roJieniHHUH, Ba6yHH 
h oko npnca^a HMa CHTHoropnue, MecTHMHue h KpynHe 
rope. Hho KOT^HHe je BehHM aejioM h ;ieTH 3e^eH0. 
no k^hmh h BereTauHJH h onurreM H3rvie,ay, obh c;ih- 
bobh HHHe RoneKJie npe^a3 H3Me^y MczurrepaHCKe h 
cpeAH^e-eBponcKe k^hmc 

3aK^otbena IUapOM Ha ceBepy a OTBopeHa Cy- 
xoaojihuom npeMa CKoncKOj Kotjihhh h Bap^apy, Te- 

TOBCKa KoiVIHHa £p>KH Cpe^HHy H3Mel]y jy>KHHX H/IH 

MaKe^OHCKHX H ceBepHHx HJIH cTapocpdnjaHCKHX KO- 
T/iHHa. noaiezutHMa ce BHUie npn6^H)Kyje. 3HMa je 
cueroBHTa, ouiTpa, #yra, a;w 6e3 #yroTpaJHHx jaKHx Be- 
TpoBa; noHHibe y rviaBHOM Ha Mecen jiaua. npe ho y Cko- 
njby, a xjiaAHoha nonycTH Heuno AOijHHJe ho y CKonjby. 
ripo/iehe h jecen cy KpaTKH h khihhh. ./IeTH ce Bpjio 
peTKO oceha HecHOCHa MaKeAOHCKa >Kera, Beh je Ba3- 
j\yx MaxoM cbok h npnjaTaH, Kao y Majy y jy)KHHM 
MaKe^oncKHM KOT^nnaMa. 0;yiHKyje ce 3HaTiiOM ko/ih- 
whhom aTMOC(j)epcKHx Ta/iora, HaponnTo KHme h cHera, 



TOPFbE nOBAPflAPJE 93 

Koje aohocc MaxoM 3ananHH h jyro3ana^HH BeTpoBH. 
Oco6hto cy or BeTpoBa 3aK,ioft>eHH npncojuH h to- 
n.iH Flo^rop h ocTa.ie jy>KHe crpaHe Ulap-ri/iaHHHe h 
fbeHa cyno^HHa. TeTOBCKa je KoiviHHa HapoHHTO mho- 
ro6poJHHM iuapCKHM peKaMa jano hbbo nibQua \ pe i ma 
h noTOMHa Bo^a ce pa3BOiin Ba^aMa, h ue/ia KoiviHHa 
6HBa BeiuTaqKH HaBO/ubeHa. 

y Be3H C OBaKHM (J)H3HMKO-reorpa(J)CKHM H K/IH.M- 

ckhm npn/iHKaMa, jaB/bajy ce h pa3,iHKe y npHBpeAHOM 
>K»BOTy Hapcaa, cneunja/iHO iberoBy HanHHy 3aHHMa?ba. 
y CKoncKOJ paBHHUH oa.ihmho ycneBajy BHHorpa^H, 
HapoMHTO Ha npHCOJHHM dpaHaMa CKoncKe Kot.ihhc 
Flo caMOj* paBHHUH ceje ce MHoro >KHTa, Maibe ziyBaHa 
h a(})HOHa. y paHHj'a BpeMeHa oko ^IeneHua 6n/ia cy Be 
.iHKa opH3HUJTa, or koj'hx cy cana ocTa^H Ma^H Ae/iOBH. 
y Uphoj Fopn ^y^H ce 6aBe noiviaBHTo o 3eMJbo- 
pajibH, jxocra h o BHHorpaAapcTBy, o6Ae/iaBajy ;iaH h 
Kyjejby, h neryjy CBH/ieHy 6y6y. nopci Tora koa 
nyhe ce 6aBe join o ixynijep.iyKy h ApBOAejbCTBy, a 
Kao neKapn Hjy h y ryp6ei7iyK ; nopea Tora pa/je Ha 
na^HHuy y CKoncKOJ paBHHUH, a 6aBe ce h npaB.be- 
h.cm hy\iypa. Ce;ia oko KaiviaHOBCKor Je3epa 6aBe ce 
MHoro h pH6apcTBOM. KaiviaHOBCKO Je3epo je Bp/io 60- 
raTO ph6om. y hbeMy HMa tuapaHa, coMOBa h jery.i.a. 
Ue.no je je3epo H3naBano je/uioM MOBeKy noji 3aKyn, 
a r/iaBHH 3aKynHHK nem\ je3epo Ha HeKO/iHKO n noB6\i", 
Ha KOJHMa /iOBe MaibH 3aKynHHUH. Pn6a ce /iobh pa- 
3hobpchhm cnpaBaMa, or kojhx cy MHore cnoMeHyie 
y napTHJaMa o OxpHjucKOM h /lopjaHCKOM Jc-3epy. Cra- 
hobhhlutbo oko MapKOBe PeKe 6aBH ce 3CM:bopa;iibOM, 
Man»e CTOwapcrBOM; Top6eiuH npaBe mhoto hyMypa, 
kojh npo^ajy y Be/iecy h y CKon.i.y. 

Obmc Ilo.be npeAcraB/ba o6.nacT cpe^n>e ujiorho- 
cth. Hajn.io;iHHJe je Cb. HHKO.bCKo Ho.he h no/iHHa A3- 
MaKa. Flo ii.ioahhjhm Ae/iOBHMa Obmct I Io i>a ceje ce 
noMaBHTO niuenHua, sanm m.ik win a(J>HJOH, no< 
JUfcH y iiajnoBHJe Bpe.Me y orpoMnn.M pa.iMepa.Ma. I 
Miioro BHHorpaAa. y cpe^HBaiby /ie-nine nonaxcy 
„ryp6ci,irijaMa'' H3 cyaumix ihto Ma- 

.iema. M uviena iia je y mhmjmm BptM€HHi 



94 HOBA CPEHJA 



AHHJe. JXanac je BHiue doqapCKH Kpaj ho 3eMjt>opa- 
ahhmkh. no H>eMy ce BH^e MHora cra^a pBaua h Be- 
jihkh HonopH KOH^a h roBe.ua, Koja y okojihhh ^ocra 
ueHe. OBue cy KpynHe, HMajy ^yry ByHy, jano cy ue- 
ibeHe h Kynyjy hx 3a 6anHJia. B^aTHUiTa y oko^hhh 
LLlTHna 3acejaHa cy opH30M, ocia^H aeo paBHHixe je no# 
KyKypy30M, nmeHHijoM h MaKOM. nocJie^tbH ce MHoro 
ca^H h no3HaT je y ue^oj MaKe#OHHJH. CMOJiy or MaKa 
H3B03e y Co^yH h npo^ajy chivicckhm TproBUHMa. 

y cjiHBy Tono;iKe h Ba6yHe ct3hobhhujtbo ce 
nor^aBHTO 6aBH 3eMjbopa^JbOM, HapoHHTo BHHorpa- 
AapcTBOM h 6aiuTOBaH^yKOM. Flo ;iyKaivia y rojiuhu 
5a6yHe ceje ce nmeHHija h opH3, kojh je aia6HJe Bp- 
de, 3aTHM MHoro BapMBa, Koje ce ueHH Kao Haj6ojbe 
y MaKeAOHHJH h HMa HajBehy u,eHy. Ha oko/ihhm n;ia- 
HHHaMa Ha;ia3e ce B^auiKa daqHJia, Ha KoJHMa jipxte 
oko 6000 OBaua. B/iacn npoBOAe 3HMy y Teca/iHJH. 

y o6^acTHMa ccBepHo or OBner flojba npHBpe- 
Ahh je }khbot 6ho jane 3aBHcaH or npHpoae 3eM;t>H 
LUTa, HapoMHTO foeroBa neTpor^a^CKor caciaBa. Or 
M/iaAor HaropHMHHa Ha 3ana£y .no cejia HHBH^HHa kor 
Ko^aHa, h or n/iaHHHe Ko3j'aKa Ha ceBepy no OBner 
Flojba Ha jyry, npocTHpe ce KpaTOBCKO-3;ieTOBCKa epyn- 
THBHa 06/iacT, Koja je cacraBJbeHa norjiaBHTO or Tpa- 
xhiohahhx CTena, 3aTiiM MecTHMHue or 6a3a^Ta, Jiey- 
UHTHTa, aH^esHTa h ryfya. To 3eMJbHiirre je y npaBuy 
3ana,zi;-HCTOK ^yro 45 ro 50 KHJiOMeTapa, a y npaBuy 
ceBep-jyr 10 jio 30 km. Hcnpeceuaho je HH30M nyKO- 
THHa, or koj'hx r/iaBHe H#y y npaBuy HCH.-3J3 , h jxyxt 
kojhx ce H3^n^a HaJBeha Maca epynTHBHHx cieHa. 
Joui h caaa ce Mory peKOHCTpyHcaTH ByjiKaHCKe Kyne 
h o6;ihuh Kpaiepa, kojh cy MaxoM AecrpyKUKJoM jaKO 
Ae(})opMHcaHH. y TaKO je^HOM CTapoM By^KaHCKOM Kpa- 
Tepy uana3n ce Bapoiu KpaTOBO, a y .apyroM MaHa- 

CTHp JleCHOBO, 3aTHM MHOrH BpXOBH, KaO U,pHH BpX, 

KopHj'a h flpyrH. OcoBHuy h niaBHo y3BHuieH>e OBe 
epynTHBHe o6;iacTH mhhh hh3 By^KaHCKHx njiaHHHa h 
Kyna Koje ce RWKy Ha JieBoj dpaHH Ta6aHKe h KpHBe 
PeKe. y TOMe HH3y cy HajKapaKTepHCTHWHHJH Ilene- 
HHua, Pf^aBHua, UpHH Bpx, Orpa>KeBau h Hyi<a. OBa 



iOFIi! nODAHAAPJE 

r.iaBHa oporpa({)CKa ocoBHHa epymHBHor jeM/bHima 
Be>Ke ce Ha H, 3a OcoroBCKe n.iaHHHe, a Ha 3anajiy ce 
ry6H y TepuwepHOM 3eMJbHinTy oko riHHH>e. 

OBe creHe cy MaxoM jaKo TpouiHe, .iai<o ce pa- 
cna^ajy, h on ilhx ociajy ,ne6e:iH c/iojeBH necKOBHTe 
3eM/be, Koja je MaxoM upHa. MnaK 3e.\i;bHiiJTe HHJe 
nnojxuo, jep npeKO ;ieTa HeMa AOBo;bHo KHine, h oho 
odaje cyBO h cnpjbeHO. Cneuna.THO Tpe6a mhoto khhic 
3a OHaj cyHljepacTH Tyc[), kojh ce y neraK pacna^a. 
3aTO je CpeaopeK y .neTO cyBa BHeopaBaH, 6e3 ApBeia, 
ca cnapyuieHOM TpaBOM, cnp/beHa, y r/iaBHOMe cype H 
UpHe 6oje. flope^ Tora n3Bopn cy Bp;io peTKH, h ujto 
iix HMa cacBHM cy c/ia6H; peMHue h noTouu npeKO /ieia 
iipecyiue. 36or Tora ce 11a cpe^opeMKOJ BHeopaBHH nein 
jaKo oceha ocKy/iHua y boah. Hctc je c})H3HOHOMHJe h 
n^OAHOCTH h dpauHH. no ibCMy CKopo HeMa ^pBeTa, 
hhth TparoBa on uiyMe. 

OBe 06/iacTH, nanac Tano cupoMaujHe, y 6ynyh- 
mocth he je^HOM necyMfbHBO npcAcraB/baTH jeiiHy on 
Haj6oraTHJHx 06/iacrH y npoujHpeHoj Cp6HJH. KpaTOB- 
CKO-3/ieTOBCKa epyriTHBua o6.nacT npeAcraBJba jeany 
Haj6oraTHJnx h HaJ3Ha\icHHTHJHx pyAHHx 06/iacrH 11a 
ue.iOM FIo^yocTpBy. Join Xaiiu Ka.npa hcthmc 3/ia-rae 
H cpe6pne KpaTOBCKe py;iHHKe, h bcnh na cy ce on 
ibHx y KpaTOBCKOJ Ky3HHUH hobuh KOBa.iH. Amu Bye 
je 3a6e.ie>KHO na KpaTOBCKH pyanHmi caapwe nor.ia- 
bhto cpe6poBHTH raviemrr y nopc|)npy, h na ce on 400 
OKa ra/ieHura #o6HJa 200 OKa o/iOBa h 700 apaivia 
cpe6pa. W npe TpHAecer rpflecer ro^HHa cy no- 

jcjhhh npejy3HMaMH na/iH/iH py^e y KpaTOBCKOJ oko- 
.ihhh Ha MHoro MecTa Mnoro6poJHH cy TparoBH ho- 
BHJer h dapHJer py^apcrBa, napowHTO oko KpaTOBa, 
3/icTOBa, TypcKor Py^apa, Ho6peBa, Jleiunnua, y no- 
mum Ta6aMKe Pckc h KpiiBe. To cy MaxoM pyaapcKe 
Ky.ie, pyAapcKH noTKOim H pync, h Miioro6pojnc Kync 

OH TpOCKBC. 

T^aBHa na/ia3HUJTa pyzia H pyzuuix >KHna cy OBa. 

y AOAHHH peKe riOBHUJHi;e, npHTOUM KpHBC, H3 .; 

ce cyMnop h ihiic, KOJHMa je npeny«iena iiOBpujmia 



96 HOBA CPBHJA 



MHorHx Tyc})03HHx creHa. Hedo cy rHncoM h cyivino- 
poM npo>KeTe MHore Kyne Koje cy caciaBJbeHe oa Byji- 
KaHCKor nene;ia, necna h jiannjia. Ty ce Ha;ia3H h rBO>K- 
^eBHTa Bo^a, nnja je TeMnepaTypa HeiiJTo BHiua oa 
odHHHe. Hcto TaKO, y aojihhh TadaMKe PeKe koa cejia 
>Kejie3HHKa HMa jaK H3Bop KHcejie h rBo>KijeBHTe BOAe, 
H3 Koje CO2 y Kjio6yKOBHMa cKane. y Tona;ioBHhcKoj 
PeuH cyMnop ce jaBJba y bcuhkhm KOJinqHHaMa, o6hhho 
hhct h y ^e6jbHM )KHuaMa. Haj6oraTHj'e pyAHe >KHue 
3ana>KeHe cy y aiHBy 3;ieTOBCKe ro;ieMe Pene h y 
AO/iHHaMa aeHHX npmoKa. Ty cy ao npe 40Ao50ro- 
AHHa h TypuH pyAe toiihjih. Ha nyiy oa KpaTOBa 3a 
neneHHuy no3HaTH reojior Amu Bye BHAeo je koa ce/ia 
B;iH3aHaa cpe6poHOCHH rajieHHT. Ha o6e CTpaHe pene 
One h y npaBizy oa n>e npeMa MaHacTHpy bhah ce 
npeKO 1 km. Ayra, h 20 ao 30 m. Ae6e;ia pyAHa >KHua, 
y kojoj je T. U,BHJHh Haiuao rBOHri)a, MaHraHa, cpe6po- 
HOCHor rajieHHTa, nnpHTa h xajiKonnpHTa. Ha npodopy 
H3Metjy Zlyror XpHAa, JlecHOBCKor MaHacTHpa h ce/ia 
JXo6peBa BHAe ce 7KHu,e oa nHpyji03HTa. ,Hajbe HMa 
>KHua Koje y ce6H caAp^e Ma/iaxHT, cpe6poHOCHH ra- 
jichht h ccf)ajiepHT. 

HcnHTyjyhH TpocKBy H3 Te o6jiacrH, M. Jleno 
Hamao je y H>oj OBe pyAe: rBoadje, MaHraH, ojiobo, 
uhhk, 6anap h cyMnop. flo MHnubeH>y J. Ueajaha, y 
nnpHTHMa h xa^KonnpHTHMa Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH TparoBe 
n^eMeHHTHx pyAa. EpynTHBHO 6pAO, CeocKa Kopnja, 
cacTaB^eHO je oa ByjiKaHCKor necna h nenejia >Kyie 
h upBeHe 6oje, kojh cy cjiokchh y c^ojeBe. BeoMa je 
6oraTa cyMnopoM, kojhm cy CBe CTeHe npo>KeTe h kojh 
ce qecTO jaBJba y Ae6;t>HM >KHu,aMa. CyMnopoM je Haj- 
6oraTHJH Aeo Kopnje kojh ce 30Be Kyjia. Ty(J)03He 
Mace y KOJHMa ce Ha;ia3H cyMnop caoraBjbeHe cy y 
rviaBHOM oa a^yMHHHj'yM-CH^HKaTa ; cyMnop je BpJio 
hhct, ca He3HaTHHM TparoBHMa ce^eHa h ynbeHHKa. Ty 
je ao npe KpaTKor BpeMeHa BaJ^en cyMnop y BehHM 
KOJiHMHHaMa. Hajbe cy Ty(})03He Mace necTO npo)KeTe 
rnncoM h npeByneHe ona^OM. y Ty(J)y ce jaBJbajy h 
>KHue nHpHTa h xa;iKO-nHpHTa. Oa fl/iaBHue h UpHora 



rOPtt>E riOBAPflAPJE 



Bpxa ao ce/ia I p^n.iuBua npywa ce yAoaHHa no 4Hjhm 
ce crpanaMa BHAe Tyc})OBH kojh cy jaKO npo>KeTH cyivi- 
nopoM. Hde ce nojaBe BHAe Ha I,JrypH h H3Met]y H>e 
h ce/ia IlpHKOBua. Ha l.lrypn Ha;ia3e ce KynHima oa 
crape TpocKBe. Y npHMepuHMa Koje je AOHeo HbhjhIi, 
Jlp. M. CTOJHJbKOBHh Haruao je MHoro o.iOBa, >Ke;ie.3a, 
h CH^HKaTHor AHOKCHAa, npn/iHMHO 6aKpa, a^yMHHHj'a, 
MaHraHa h aHTHMOHa, Bp/io Ma.no UHHKa, Ka.TUHJyMa, 
MarHe3HyMa h Ka;wyMa. 

Je^Hy oa Haj6oraTHJnx 06/iacTH y onujTe y Crapoj 
Cp6HJH h MaKeAOHHJH npeAcraB/ba TeTOBCKa KoT/iHHa. 
y cTaiby je Aa HcxpaHH He caMo CBOje craHOBHHHJTBO, 
Hero h oKo.iHe KpajeBe. 

hbene r.iaBHe Ky.nypne 6ha>kc cy KyKypy3, jenaM, 
pa>K h OBac. Oko ce.ia Manpa ncnoA FocTHBapa HMa 
Bp/io Ao6por AyBana. Ha o6a;iaMa BapAapa ceje ce 
MHoro .nana h KOiion;be. Ha^ne, OHa je BoheM jeAHa oa 
Haj6oraTHJHx KpajeBa Ba/iKaHCKor no/iyocrpBa. Oa Te- 
TOBCKe BncrpHue no KawammKe K/incype, ueo npodop 
je noKpHBeH niyMOM oa Bona, y bhujhm napTHJaMa 
pady KeereHOBH, kojh cy na bcthkom r/iacy y ne/ioj 
CnoncKOJ dapoj Cp6nJH, a.in oa cBera Boha Hajno- 
3naTHJe cy MyBeHe no/ionine ja6yKe, Koje cy OAaBAC 
npeneie y Cp6HJy h no3Haie noA hmchom tctobckhx 
ja6yKa. HaJBHine ce ueHe rocTHBapcKe jaGyKC, Hapo- 
mhto y rocTHBapcKHM ce/iHMa Bo>khuh h PeMaHHMa. 
rio/ioiiiKe ja6yKe cy ce y bc^hkhm KO.iHMHnaMa H3B0- 
3H/ie h y Hapnrpa;i; h.hxobc naj6o/be Bpde 30By ce 
1 y.ia6nje. II.Ma mhoto h 6ociaHa, kojh nopeA Kouan- 
CKor y>KHBa najGo.i.H rviac, nopeA Tora h uc.thx Caima 
KpymaKa h in.i.nna. BnnorpaAa HMa Maibe h bhho je 
/ioujhjc. TeTOBCKa KoiviHHa je 3naTiio 6oraia H myMOM, 
h CTanoBHHUH ce 6aBe yrvbapcTBOM h apboac.i.ct 
Yc.ieA MHornx bhcokhx ii.ianHna, oKO/inna TeTOBCKa 
HMa ycioBe 3a cTowapcTBO. LUapcKO h KOpa6cno cu- 
iyBCHO je n cnyno ce n/ialia no CBHMa yaice- 
AOHckhm BaponiHMa. TparoBa CTapor pyAapcTBa n 
PVAimx Ha.Ta:mujTa HMa H3HaA ce/ia /laKajnue koa 
I'ocTHBapa. IIoa nnaRHHOM ByKOBHKOM na/ia3e ce pa3- 
BaiHiie rpaAHha k^»jh ce 30Be 3bc3AHho Ka/ie ; noA 

ii' 7 



( >8 HOBA CPKHJA 



h>hm cy caMOKOBH, r^e ce rBO^K^e Tonn;io. A. Bye 
cnoMHibe y Ulap-ruiaHHHH ABe MHJbe oa TeTOBa Hene 
crape pyAHHKe h 6aKapHe pyAe koa cejia MejioneKa. 
OrpoMHy BehHHy CTaHOBHHiiiTBa y rop^eM no- 
Bap^apjy hhhh cpncKO CTaHOBHHinTBO, Koje ce jienn Ha 
npaBOCJiaBHe h MyaiHMaHe. Ajih nopeA Cp6a HMa y 
oboj o6;iacTH h Apyror CTaHOBHHiiiTBa: Typana, Ap6a- 
Haca, B;iaxa h U,HraHa. Kp03 OBy o6;iacT npo;ia3H eT- 
Horpa(})CKa rpaHHua H3Mel]y Cp6a h Ap6aHaca. OHa HAe 
y r^aBHOM npemeBCKO-KyMaHOBCKOM yAOJiHHOM, h to 
oa PHCTOBua nopeA FIpeiiieBa h OAMax 3anaAHO oa 
KyMaHOBa. Ap6aHacH ce cnyniTajy npeMa >KeJie3HHHKOj 
jihhhjh, Mec.THMHue cy je npeimiH, Kao koa KyMaHOBa, h 
y caivioj BapouiH KyMaHOBy HMa ap6aHauiKHx nopoAHua 
Koje cy noTypqeHe; hcto TaKO HMa hx h y CKon^>y, a Kao 
Ap6aHacH Ap>Ke ce caMO 30—40 Kyha K3tojihhkhx Ap- 
6aHaca. y aiHBOBHMa nHHtbe h KpHBe HMa He3HaTHHx 
Maca HOBHj'er h crapHJer CTaHOBHHiiiTBa, TaKO h. np. 
TypaKa h TypCKHX Myxaunpa HMa y CBHMa BapouiHMa, 

TAe^OHH 06HHH0HHHe BehHHy CTaHOBHHiiiTBa; BpJIO peTKO 

hx HMa y ce;iHMa OBe o6jiacTH. TaKO BehHHy ^HHe y 
CpeAfeeM h H,oft>eM Kotbapy, PaxMa30Buy, ArHHOM 
Cejiy, UlHuiOBy h lOienoBuy y KyMaHOBCKOj o6;iacTH. 
Rajhe TypcKO je cejio OpojocoBije, a HMa hx MHoro y 
TypCKOM PyAapy h y cejiHMa Ope/iy, UpeHKy h y 3;ie- 
TOBy. Hcto TaKO HMa hx y KapiiinjaKy, y roptBHM 
h ^.ohdHm CejiHMa, y onuiTe y MapKOBOJ Peun. Ha 
Obhcm nojby mhcto cpncKa ce;ia npeoB/iatjyjy y ceBe- 
po-3anaAHOM Ae/iy h noA BorocnoBueM, a y jyatHOM 
cy Ae/iy TypcKa. npnnaAajy TypcKOM n^eMeHy Jy- 
pyUHMa, Koje ce BeoMa AaBHO Aoce^H^o H3 Ma;ie 
A3Hj'e; HMajy H3nieA nen>a h opOHyjia CTaHOBHHUJTBa, 
npeACTaBJbajy MO)KAa HaJHeKy;iTypHHJe craHOBHHUJTBO 
obhx KpajeBa. /IpyKqHJH cy Typun KoifcapH, kojh 
cy Tpe3BeHH, BpeAHH h Bp/io paAHH ; h jeAHH h Apyrn 
3Hajy noHeiiJTO cpncKH h 6yrapcKH. npnnaAajy ohom 
Be^HKOM TypcKOM nojacy kojh ce npyata oa Op- 
(J)aHCKor 3a/iHBa ao ceBepo-3anaAHe HBHue OBqer 
flojba, h kojh je Ha3BaH BapAapcKHM TypcKHM nojacoM. 
OBnenojbCKH JypyuH cy HajceBepHHJH Aeo oa Tor He- 



TOPHdE nOBAP^APJK 99 



npoKHHyTor TypcKor nojaca, kojhm je oiobchcko cra- 

HOBHHLUTBO pa3ABOJeHO Ha ABC nO^OBHHC Tc ABC 

no^OBHHe cy oohmho 6e3 Be3c, h Ta noABOj'eHOCT je 
HecyMfoHBO yTHua/ia Ha to na ce CTaHOBHHiuTBO Hctomhc 
h 3ana£He MaKe^OHnje y pa3/JHWHTOM npaBuy pii3- 
BHJa. Thmc cy 6e3 cyMtbe n3a3BaHe MHore pa3/iHKe kojc 
ce onawajy H3Met)y craHOBUHLUTBa Hctomhc h 3anaAiie 
MaKCAOHHJe. H cpncKo cranoBHHiuTBO Oa4er flo^a 
MaxoM H3r.ic.ia 6caho, y H3AepaHoj oachh, qecro no;iy- 
ro;io, Tynor H3Meiia h y6njcnor jyxa. FIopcATHKBeiuKor 
CTaHOBHiiiuTBa Ha ;ieBOJ CTpami Bap/iapa, CTaHOBHHUiTBO 
OBMer no.ij.a npeACTaBJbanajGeiiHHJe CTaHOBHHiuTBO ue^c 
MaKCAOHnjc h CKoncKe CTape Cp6nje. CacBHM cy ^pyK- 

MHJH,CHeprHMHHJH HTpC3BCHHJli COJbaaHOKO BOTOClOBUa. 

Obo TypcKO craHOBHMLHTBO, oa Obmct no:i>a npoAp.io 
jc AOHeK.ic h y AOibH aco pe:<c 5a6ync, rae ra HMa 
hcko^hko ce/ia, on kojhx cy najno3naTHja Top^H 11 
Hoilh OpH3apn, 3aTHM Hcap-BajHpH. riopezi oaora y 
ToptbCM rioBapAapjy HMa h HeuiTO B/iaxa, napoMHTO hx 
HMa MHoro y ceBepo-HCTOHHOM zie/iy aocaAamtbe Ckoiickc 
CTape Cp6nje, 3aTHM y cycciHHM 06/iacrHMa na CBe 
CTpane oko flOca/iaLuibe cpncKO-6yrapcKO-TypcKC Tpo- 
Mel)C. Ihia hx Ha (, iapoj ri/jan;niH H na cpncKOJ h 6yrap- 
ckoj CTpaiiH, 3aTHM iia 6yrapcKoj crpaHH oko KoMa H Cpc- 
6pne. HnaK : ojj cbhx ccBepmix n/iamina Ba/iKaHCKor Uo- 
/iyocrpBa, naJBHUJC hx HMa y n.iaiiHHCKOJ rpynn OcoroBa, 
r;ie he nx 6hth oko Tpn xn;baAe Ayma; HMa hx y ko- 
nancKOM AC/iy 0:oroBa, na H/iawKaBHun H na 6yrap- 
CK( j crpaiiH HCfiOA Pyjua, h ^Ba Maiba nacc:i>a ncnoA 
.^IecKOBCKor Manacnipa. riopcA Tora nx HMa n era/inn 
nacraibCHHx, y mhoihm napoujHMa, napouHTO y Kowa- 
HHMa, KpHB } na.nanuH, K'yMaiiOBy n IIlTHiiy /le/ie ce 
iia UpHC it bwie B/iace. Hckh cy 0,1 ibiix CTa/ino na- 
ce/bemi, a.iH hx Behrniy mhhc HOuaACKii B.iacn, kojh 
^eTH>KHBe no n/iaHiinaMa, xpaiic nor.iaBHTO OBue h koh>c, 
a 3hmh CH.iajc y xcyaHHJa MecTa, a napo'iHTO y ao/inny 
Kpnue H (Imhii.c, H Ty n/ulujy 3a SHMtby Hciiamy. V 
KOMan.KOM Kpajy o.Mii H[u;ic;aB i3jv H C8JU r.iaBue KM- 
.1 je ca ko i! nme ohhm KpajeBima aajy y m 

KOJIHKO CpeAH>%BeKOBHH H OlUl I n.i[» j . 



100 HOBA CPBHJA 



ohh kojh ce cra;iHO HaciaHe, 6p30 ce noaiOBeHe. Hcto 
TaKo HMa HeuiTO BJiauiKHx JieTH^Hx Hacejba no n;iaHH- 
HaMa JlayTHUH h Co;iyHHUH, Ha KOJHMa ce ap>kh ro- 
AHLUHbe oko 6000 OBaija. 3hmh cna3e y Teca^HJy, a;w 
hx HMa y npn;ieny cra;iHO HacraHbeHHx h nocaoBetbe- 
hhx. 3Ha ce Aa hx je y cpeAH>eM Beny 6ujio y obom 
Kpajy MHoro BHme h rsl cy nocnoBeHoeHH. 

CTaHOBHHUiTBO CpeAOpeKa, CpauHHa, npHBOpe 1 !- 
Kor Kpaja, OcoroBHJe h KonaHCKe o6;iacTH 30Be ce 
UJoilUf a H>HX0Ba o6;iacT LUoHAyK h/ih HIoucko. Me- 
cto ce LlIormMa Ha3HBajy h cpncKH craHOBHHUH OBner 
flojba, uiTHncKe, paAOBHUiKe h crpyMH i n<e okojikhc, 
FiHJaHija, Ma^ema h Pa3^ora; 3aTHM qecTO LLIonHMa 
Ha3HBajy craHOBHHK^ BHiuHx Ae;iOBa BpatbCKe n^Htbe, 
B^acHHCKe o6^acTH, JIy)KHHue h rinpoia, a y Byrap- 

CKOJ CTaHOBHHKe PaAOMHpCKe, Bpe3HHHKe H CO(J)HJCKe 

Kot^hhc Flo HajnpocTpaHHJHM rpaHHuaMa, LlIonH 6h 
npe^CTaBjba^H Be-nHKH eTHorpa(J)CKH nojac oa Bpan>e h 
rinpoia, na ao UlTHna h CrpyMHue ao 6;iH3HHe Bap- 
Aapa. Ha HCTOKy Aonnpy ao HcKpOBe K/incype, Co- 
(J)Hj'e h JlynHHue, a Ha 3anaziy 3axBaTajy norpaHHHHe 
BHCOKe n;iaHHne H3Meijy ByrapCKe h Cpdnje, npeJia3ekH 
3HaTHO y Cp6Hj'y. A^h rpaHHue LLlonoBa h itHxoBa 
reorpacJKKa o6;iacT HHcy noy3AaHe. Ta ce o6;iacT MOH<e 
h npouiHpHTH h cy3HTH, jep ce HMe lllon CMaTpa Kao 
norpAHO, h peTKO ko xohe Aa npH3na Aa je Lllon. Beh 
ce npeMa TOMe bhah Aa HMe LLIonoBH He npeACTaBJba 
HHKaKBO n/ieMeHCKO HMe; hcto TaKo 3na ce Aa ohh 
He npeAcraB/bajy HHKaKBy eTHorpa(J)CKy ue;iHHy, jep 
je CTaHOBHHiHTBO pa3HOBpcHa nopeKJia, AOcejbeHO H3 
MHornx cyceAHHx o6;iacTH. 

Kao je3rpo moncKe o6;iacTH MO>Ke ce cMaTpaTH ago 
oa OBner Flojba ao nnpoTCKor BncoKa ca Orapo- 

Cp6HJaHCKHM JUon^yKOM, CO(})HJCKHM, paAOBHIHKHM H 
6pe3HHHKHM KpajeM. IUTa 3HaMH hmc lllon, KaKBa je 
iberoBa eTHMOJiornja, HHJe AOBOJbuo jacHO. HeKH nncun 
aoboahjih cy ra y Be3y ca hmciiom Tpa i iKor n/ieMCHa 
CaneJH, Koje je >KHBe/io i<paj Be/ior Mopa npeKO nyia 
oa ocTpBa Taca. Ann je yTBp^eno Aa je to o6jaujtbeibe 
carnHM npoH3Bo;hHO h 6e3 CBaKe jacHe Kay3a/iHe Be3e, 



TOPIbE nOBAPAAPJE 101 

Me^yTHM 3Ha ce aa #aHac HMe LLIon HMa c/ihhho 3Ha- 
qeibe Kao llito ra HMajy HMena Top/iaK h LLlHJaK, hjih 
AOHeK.ie Kao h HMe Ba;wja y Bochh. To cy CBe no- 
rp'AHa HMeHa, h 3a ibnx je Be3aHO 3HaweH>e upociuaK, 

dllB.bUK H ZAyflClK. 

HnaK H3Me.ua ^a pacnpocrpaibetbe H.vieHa LUon, 
6ap y OHOMe iberoBOMe y>K0M 3Haqeft>y, Hehe uhth 6e3H3- 
BecHH.x jawHx pa3/iora. TaKO na npHMep 3Ha ce ^a cy 
TpuH 3hmh ro^HHe 1048 pa36n.TH BOJCKy neMeibenjKy 
o& 80.000 /byAH, nama/in je Ha npe^ajy h nace;iH/iH 
je „no paBHimaMa Cpe^ua, Hnuja h OBner riojba'. 
Hcto TaKO 3Ha ce ^a cy y toj 06/iacrH Hace/baBaHH 
h KyMaHH. CnoMeny.iH cmo #a y oboj o6.iacTH Koja npea- 
craB/ha AaHaiLHbH IUon/iyK HMa ^ocra B/iaxa. 3Ha ce 
Aa hx je y cpe^fbeM BeKy on.io mhoto BHiiie h rsl hx 
je £ocra noc.iOBeibeHo. Ka/i cse obo CBe^eMO yje^HO, 
nocraje HecyMibHBO na cy LLIonoBH npoH3Htu/iH H3 
CNiece Cp6a, rieqejbera h B.iaxa. ITpeMa TOMe nocTaje 
BepoBaTHO na je HMe IUon npBo6HTHO~Mopa/io 03ua- 
qaBaTH HeKaKBy eTHorpacJ)CKy MemaBHuy. 

HecyMibHBO je ^a LLIonoBH AaHac y MHoroM no- 
i.iejy npeixcraB/bajy napouHTy eTHorpac{)CKy ue^nny, 
Koja ce 3HaTHo pa3.iHKyje on craHOBHHLiiTBa ocra/ie 
MaKc/ionHJe, na h o;i cranoBHHiuTBa ocra/ie Cp6nje n 
ByrapcKe. HMajy Aocra cbojhx napounTHx cthhhkhx 
h ncHxo.ioiiiKHx upia. Toko, na npHMep. IIJonoBH na- 
POmhto y miaBMHCKHii of>/iacTHMa, /khbc TaKO naTpn- 

apxa.THHM II IipHMMTHBHHM /KHBOTOM fla Ce C IbHMO y 

tomc nor/ie;xy jcina kojh /ipyrn Kpaj CTape Cp6nje H 
MaKeflOHnje iioxce ycnopeljunaTH. TaKO na -npHMep I 
ce ynopeijyjy ca iiaTpnapxa/iHHM o6;iacTHMa aanajgHHX 
h ceBepo3ana;iMHx cpncKHx o6/iacTH, bhah ce na mi 
y ujupoj onoj ujoncKOJ oo/iacTH ncMa hh Tpara on 
ii.ieMCua hh opaTCTBa, hh cbhx ohhx nojaBa Koje npaTe 
n/ieMeHCKy opi ami unnjy, Kao ihto cy ruieneHCKO oce- 
!ian,c, KpBHa ocbi ije/unmica n.ieMc-ncKa h GpacTBena 

HMaii.a, 3aCHHBaH>e H rpynncaiit na 6paCTBeHOJ 

OCHODHUH. A.iM HM8 jcinn COUHaJIHO ornn'iKa nojaBa 
no Kojnj ce UIonoBH 3hj iicyjy on hctoihhx 

[injano: no 



102 HOBA CPBHJA 

jaBa 3a#py>KHora >KHBOTa. FIopeA Te oco6HHe, h nopeA 
pa3HHx je3HHHHx oco6nHa Koje moncny o6;iacT aoboac 
y HenocpeAHy Be3y ca cpucKHM craHOBHHUJTBOM Hctohhc 
MopaBe, y iiioncKOM craHOBHHiiiTBy HMa Ba>KHa join 
je^Ha eTHHHKa oco6HHa, a to je idto CKOpo cbh LLIo- 
noBH c/iase c/iaBy, qera npaBe* 6yrapCKe o6;iacTH hh- 
KaKO Heiviajy. TaKO, Ha npHMep, HcnHTyjyhH pacnpo- 
CTpatbeH>e pa3HHx jihhtbhcthhhhx h eTHorpac})CKHx 
oco6HHa npo(J)ecop Be/iHh je yTBpAHO caeAehe: Aa 
ocHOBHe, cpncKe je3HHHe oco6HHe Aormpy Ha hctok ao 
^HHHj'e Koja HAe oa hctomhc HBHue n^aHHHe njiayiua 
Ha n^aHHHy TaBpaH, na Aajbe Ha roptbH tok Bpera;i- 
HHue y npaBuy npeMa TiycreHAHJiy. Oa thx Ba>KHHx 
ocodHHa cy HajrviaBHHJe OBe: 1) peqHHK o6;iacTH Ha 
3ana#y OBe jiHHHj'e je mhcto cpncKH ; 2) ynoipe6jbyje 
ce cpncKO ft h \), MecTO 6yrapCKor -hit h >ka; 3) cbo 

C/IOBeHCKO CTaHOBHHUITBO 3ana^HO OA Te JIHHHJe CJiaBH 

c/iaBy, Koje Ha HCTOKy OATcnHHHJe CKOpo hhioko HeMa; 
4) 3a^pyre ce jaBJbajy CKopo HCKjbyqHBO Ha 3ana^y 
oa Te ;iHHHJe. 

H3ivieAa Aa cy h y cnojbHeM H3nieAy OBora era- 
HOBHHiHTBa canyBaHH TparoBH pa3HHX eTHOrpa(J)CKHX 
MeuiaBHHa h ohhx TytjHX paca c koj'hm ce ct3hobhhiijtbo 

OBHX 06^aCTH y pa3HHM HCTOpHJCKHM BpeMeHHMa Me- 

uia/io. y BehHHH npeoB/iatjyje o6nHaH ctcobchckh THn, 
kojh ce OA^iHKyje cpeAfcOM bc^hmmhom, bcnhkhm n;ie- 
hHMa, HJHpoKHM jiHueM h jaKHM jaroAHuaivia. IlopeA 
obhx ocodHHa Ban<He cy K>HX0Be ncnxHHKe oco6nHe. TaKO 
Ha npHMep mhhh ce Aa je obo CTanoBHHiiiTBO y Be- 
hHHH cyMopno, ca Maibe BeccrcocTH h xyMOpa, h Beoiwa 
Gna6e 4>aHTa3HJe. y TOMe cy ohh npaBa npoTHBHOCT 
CTaHOBHHiuTBy 3anaAHe MaKeAOHHJe, cneuwa^HO npH- 
/iencKe OKOJiHHe, qnje je CTaHOBHHiUTBO no3HaTO 3(5or 
CBOje AOceTJbHBOCTii h xyiwopa. Hncy 6hctph hh aocct- 

JbHBH, a^H Cy jaKO H3Ap>KJbHBH. C OBHM OCodHHaMa 

je y Be3H h to ilito H3rvieAajy qecTO BeoMa HenoBep- 
JbHBH, Mo>KAa h ^ynaBH, h HHcy oco6hto npeAy3HM- 
;bHBH. A/ih HHcy hcto TaKO npraBH, Kao uito cy qe- 
iuhe Cp6n 3anaAHHx h ceBepo-3anaAHHX KpajeBa. Ilo- 
peA obhx oco6HHa, 0A3anaAHHx cpncKHx KpajeBa pa- 



TOPFbE nOBAPAAFJI 



3/iHKyjy ce h THMe iiito HeMajy encKHx necaivia, Hapowmo 
jyHawKHX, Beh HMajy /ihpckhx necaMa, Koje cy MecTO 
rpy6e h BHiue ceH3ya/iHe. 

XUHauiibe craHOBHHUJTBO y cTapo-cpf>njaHCKOM 
UJon^yKy pa3HOBpcHorajenopeK.Ta. ripeMa^oca^amibHM 
HcnHTHBaibHMa H3ivieaa na he HaJBehw aco AOce.beHor 
CTaHOBHHUJTBa 6hth nopcK.ioM MaXOM H3 ueHTpa^HHX 
cpncKHx o6/iacrH, napowHTO oa KocoBa, rn:baHCKe oko- 
/iHHe Jla6a h H6pa, 3aTHM oa He6pa, a HMa hx kojh 
Ka>Ky na cy nopeic/iOM oa E/i6acaHa. BepnBaTHO, to he 
6hth floce/bemuiH H3 cpncKHx oa3a y Jy>KHOJ MaKe- 
hhjh, kojhx je y cpejubCM BeKy 6uno 3naTH0, h oa 
hx cy cc HeKe caMyBa.ie HaK ao Aainc Hero t3ko 
or Ba>KHOCTH je: H3 HCTopHJCKHx cnoMeHHKa 3Ha ce j\a cy 
Cp6H PauiaHH or 12 ao 14 BeKa y 3HaTHHM MacaMa Ha- 
ce.baBaHH no uchom LUon/iyKy, n to napoHHTO y crapo- 
cp6njancKH LLJon/iyK m y OKO/iHuy Co({)HJe ; nopeA 
obhx 611.10 je AOce.i>aB3iba ca Jyra h HcroKa, Hapo- 
i ihto oa Be/ieuiKe h npn-aencKe o6;iacTH, 3aTHM hx je 
6h/io on. Je^peHCKor Bn/iajeTa, or caMOKOBCKor h Ryn- 
HHHKor npaja. nopcA obhx yce:baBaiba 6h.io je 3HaT- 
hhx Hce^aBaiba, iiaponHTO y BpaibCKy riMHiby, Hho- 
rciiiT, Ilo/baHHuy, CKopo Kpo3 ue/iy MopaBy, ;io Kparyje- 
Ba4Ke JleneHHue. Hcto TaKo HMa hx Bp/10 mhoto y 
ByrapcKOJ, Ka.MO cy ce oacc;ih;ih noc/ie oc.ioooheiba 
ByrapcKe. 

H3 OBora ce bhah Ra ce y obom cTaHOBHHUJTBy 
ocehajy pa3HOBpcnH TparoBH n oco6hhc, kojh noKa3yjy 
Ra je obo cTanoBHHUJTBO 3ace6He eTHorpacfKKe kom- 
no3nunje. Mhc/ih ce #a jc on.ie 6h/io iipbo6htho cra- 
hobhhujibo KOJe je H3auuiO M3 yKpiuTan>a C/iOBena, 
neneibera, ca Ky.vamiMa 11 B/iaaiMa. A;ih cy na obo CTa- 

HOBHHUJTBO KOJe je lipOH3HLU/10 H3 yKpiJJTaiba 3HaTHO 

yTHua.in aoce.i.'jHHUH H3 3anaAHHX cpncKHx 06/iacTH, h 
to jc cTanoBHHiuTBO y >BHOJ KY.nypH Aa 

nac iiornyno cpncKO. 

ILIo'i.iyKnpcACT.JB.'ba jeiHny oG/iacrCKoncKC Crape 
Cp6nje h MaKeAOHMje y kojoj ce jaan>ajy ccJia pa36n- 
jenoi BJiactiHCKor Tuna. Ta cy ce.ia pa36njetia naBHiue 
rpyna i:oje ce iiuiaae o6hmho Ha Hirna Koca h 



104 HOBA CPBHJA 



6peroBa h^h no crpaHaivia h>hxobhm. TaKBa ce;ia o6HqHO 
3ay3HMajy Be^HKe npodopHJe, KauiTO no 8 no 10 km. 
y npeqHHKy. Kyhe jenHe rpyne npnnajxajy MaxoM je- 
Ahoj nopo^HUH. Kyhe y nojeAHHHM rpynaMa cy o6nqHo 
36njeHe, h no TOMe ce Taj Tnn ce/ia 3HaTH0 pa3;iHKyje 
on pa36njeHHx ce;ia y 3ana^HHM cpncKHM 3eMJbaMa, 
HapoMHTO y lUyMazjHJH h GrapoM B^axy. 

3a nojaBy ce;ia BJiacHHCKor Tnna KapaKTepHcnmHe 
cy ABe CTBapn, hto: pacnpocTpatt>eHbe OBor Tnna no- 
ayaapa ce y niaBHHM upTaMa c pacnpocrpatbetbeM rnvieHa 
LLIonn h LLloncKO ; .npyro, MaxoM y CBHMa npoMaTpa- 
hhm cjiyqajeBHMa OBa cy ce;ia Ha^eHa y KpHcrajiacroM, 
rpaHHTHOM h M;iai)eM epynTHBHOM 3eMJbHuiTy Koje je 
HcnpeceuaHO hccthm AyooKHM AOJiHHaMa, hjih cy y n>eMy 
qecTH caMOda^HH h H3o;iOBaHH o6^huh, Kao epynTHBHe 
Kyne h njione. 3anaAHa rpaHnua oBora Tnna cejia n^e 
y r^aBHOM BeHueM n;iaHHHe PyJHa, owax hcto^ho on 
npeuieBCKO-KyiviaHOBCKe yAOJbHHe. On Mempua h Ky- 
MaHOBa CKpeHe npeMa jyroncroKy, npeceua IlqHiby 
H3Ha^ LLIynjber KaMeHa, na 3aTHM H^e pa3BolieM H3- 
Meijy nnHH^e h BperajiHHue, Ha n/iaHHHe UpHH Bpx h 
fljiaBHuy, jy>KHO on KpaTOBa ; on lUynjber KaMeHa no 
n^aBHue rpaHHua je HMajia y rviaBHOM npaBau hctok- 
3ana^, 3aTHM CKpehe jyroncTOKy, h xBaia ce roptt>e 
Bpera^HHue Kon cejia Tpqe, TaKO na ce;ia uejie Oco- 
roBHj'e h n/iaHHHCKHx Ae;iOBa FlnjaHua npHna^ajy BJia- 
CHHCKOMe THny, noK cy y ocra;iOM flHJaHuy h Majiemy 
ce;ia paspeijenor h 36Hj'eHor THna. B/iacnHCKH THn cejia 
npe^a3H dyrapcKy rpaHHuy h pacnope^eH je no hy- 
ctchah/ickom KpaJHUJTy h 3HaTHOM Aeviy 3Henojba. y 
Cp6HJn cy BJiacHHCKora THiia BHma ce;ia Bpan.cKe IlHHike 
h CBa ce^a y oiHBy B/iacHHe no ;iy>KHHHKe KOT/iHHe, 
y Kojoj ce H3BpuiH npe;ia3 y ce;ia 36njeHora THna. 

3ana#H0 on, OBe o6/iacni jaB/bajy ce #Ba THna 
ce/ia, h to THn 36hjchhx hjih ckouckux cejia, h hum- 
jiyKKiix cejia. 06a THna jaBJbajy ce no ue;ioj CKoncKOJ 
kotjihhh, y aojihhh MapKOBe PeKe h Ha Obmcm rio;by. 
IlpBH je THn MHoro neiuhH. HaJTHnnqHHJe je pa3BHj'eH 
y CKoncKoj UpHOJ TopH. Ta cy ce.rca o6j\\\K2l hjih OKpy- 
r/iacror hjih AyryjbacTor. y i^HMa o6hhho HMajy n^e 



rop*t>E noBAPAAPJE 105 

rviaBHe y/iHue Koje ce Me^y co6om ceKy. Ha pacKpuihy 
thx ABajy y/iHua HMa o6hhho npa3aH npocTop, kojh 
ce 30Be zyeno (y nHpOTCKOM Kpajy h y Jy>KHOJ Mane- 
aohhjh cpedceAo). Kyhe cy cacBHM yipnaHe h 36HJeHe 
je^Ha ao Apyre, h.th H3a jeAHe HH>Ke bhph HenocpeAHO 
KpoB Apyre, bhujc 

y MHT/iym<HM cciHMa Kyhe cy rpynncaHe oko 6e- 
roBCKe Ky^e. OHe Mory 6hth nopetjaHe y HH30Be c o6e 
dpaHe 6eroBCKe Ky/ie, c jiHueM OKpeHyTHM yHyipa, Tano 
Aa cno^.a CBe HHHe jeaaH 3ha, h.ih Mory 6hth pa3- 
6auaHe oko 6eroBCKe Ky;ie. y noc/ieA^eM c/iyqajy, Kyhe 
cy MaxoM orpaijeHe 3HAOBHMa on hepnHHa. flyTeBH HAy 
o6hhho H3a obhx ce;ia h;ih nopeA HdHx, a BeoMa peTKo 
Kpo3 ibHx. y cpeAHHH hhtvihhkhx ce/ia cy Be/IHKe, abo- 
cnpaTHe 6e;ie 6eroBCKe Kyhe. CacToje ce o6hhho H3 
o^e.^eiba 3a MyiUKe hjih ce.iciMjyKci, h xapeM.iyKa, OAe- 
;beiba 3a >KeHe h Aeuy. Oko h>hx cy Apyre 3rpaAe 3a 
nocayry, Koibe h >khto. XapeM^yK Hecro MO>Ke npea- 
daB^aTH h 3ace6Ha 3rpaAa. Taaa y3a ib HMa Be;iHKa 
6aiuTa, y Kojy ce H3 xapeM^yKa MO>Ke HenocpeAHO 
HhH, a ca cbhx dpaHa je orpatjeHa bhcokhm 3haom oa 
hepnHMa, KaKo 6h >KeHe 6n/ie 3aK;ioH>eHe on noivieAa 
crpaHMeBa. 

TunoBH ceocicux teyha HHcy y AOBOJbHoj MepH 
HcnHTauH. Je^HHo y CKoncKOj UpHoj TopH HMaMO Ae- 
ra i>HHJe HcnHTany ceocKy Kyhy. Ona ce y online oa- 
.iHKyje bcihkhm AHMCH3HJaMa, HapoMHTO cy pa3BHJeHe 
y xopH30HTa^H; HMa hx u; byuia h (iaociipaiTiHUna. 

06e Bpde cy 3HAaHe oa HeoTecanor KaMen>a h/ih hep- 
nn'ia, h CKopo CBaKa je 3HAOM on hepriHqa orpaljeHa. 
KpoBOBH cy oa npyha, a Mory 6hth noKpHBemi CJULUOU t 
aacKOM h iicpnnqeM. ZlBocnpaTHHue Mory 6hth ue/ie 
na ABa cnpaia, aKO cy Ha i iiiibene na paBHy 3eM^.HUJTy, 
h/ih MO>Ke caMO je^an Aeo 6hth Ha ABa cnpaia a Apyni 
aeo na jeAan cnpaT, aKO je Ha crpMenHTy jeM.bHUJTy. Ha 
roptbeM cupary HMajy peAOBHO Tpn npocropHJe : Ky- 
xHH.a („Kyha u ), wapAaK h OAaja. MapjaK npeAcraB^a 
ca crpaHa omopeH AOKcaT kojh ce uciom crpaHOM 
ropn»era cnpaia npywa. „Kyha' mo>kc 6hth nperpafyena, 
H ouna ce y jeAHOM Ae/iy Kyna Ha onbniiiTy. a y Apy- 



106 HOBA CPBHJA 



roMe, kojh ce Ta.ua 30Be nnonnHJia", HohHBa CTOKa, y 
AOtbeivi cnpaTy je ulpeM, y KOMe ce ap>kh Mpc, nnhe, 
KOBMe3H c pyBOM, h 3eMJbopaAHHqKe cnpaBe; KaTKa^ 
je nperpatjeH, h OH^a y ApyroM jieny HohHBa CTOKa. 
npH3eM^>yiue HMajy yHyrpaiiitbH pacnopca. hcth Kao h 
ropibH cnpaT ^BoenpaTHHue. 

y orpa^eHOM ABopHiirry je zyeno, h eypna (x;ie6- 
Ha neh). Oko obhx Kyha HMa Ma^o 3rpa^a. HaJBa>K- 
HHJe cy : aM6ap, koui 3a KyKypy3, n;ieMH>a 3a CTOHHy 
xpaHy, roBeAapHHK h KOHHHa. Hapo^HTe 3rpa^Hue y 
UpHOJ TopH cy deeojcmue 3Zpaduu,e, y Kojwvia AeBOJKe 
jxpme cBoje CTBapn, h y KoJHMa cnaBajy. 

y HHCKHM KOTJIHHaMa, 3aTHM Ha Obhcm flojby, 
Kyhe cy MHoro je^HOCTaBHHJe, Man>e, noKpuBeHe Kpo- 
bhhom, jeAHoenpaTHe h je/uiohejiHHHe. 



BapouiH TopHber noeap/iapja. 

1. CKOiuse. 

Ha;ia3H ce Ha ceBeposana^Hoj hbhuh CKoncKe 
KoT^HHe, c o6e CTpaHe ;wiHHe BapAapa, Koja je Ha 
tom MecTy oko 2 KH^iOMeTpa niHpOKa. BehH #eo CKonjba 
Ha^a3H ce na jieBOj o6a/iH Bap^apa, a MatbH Ha AecHOJ, 
HcnoA njiaHHHe Bo^Ha. JXecun #eo BapouiH ce HajiasH 
Ha noc.aeAtfcHM orpaHUHMa UpHe Tope, a jicbh je Ha 
HaJHH>KOJ Bap^apcKOj TepacH. I"IoJiO)Kaj CKonjba oape- 
\)eu je npaBUHMa MHoro6pojHHx AOJiHHa Koje npoce- 
uajy OKO^He njiaHHHCKC MacHBe h AOBOJxe CKoncKy 
KoT/iHHy y AOjwp c MHoro6poJHHM o6^acTHMa. Hajnpe, 
Nomina Bap^apa aoboah ra y Be3y c KOT/iHHaMa Cpejx^e 
h Jy>Kne MaKeAOHHj'e. HajropfbH £ecr Bapziapa h npe- 
ce^JiHue KanjipMH Bora3 AOBO#e ra y Be3y c hjioahhm 
FIo/ioroM, a npeKO n>era h CBHMa >KynaMa HcnoA LLIape, 
BHCTpe, ca c/ihbom peKe Pa^HKe h UpHor UpHMa. J\o- 
jihhom peKe Tpeci<e OTBopeH je npHCTyn y 3aTBOpeHe 
06/iacTH flopeH, Khhcbo, Konan h 3ajac. JXojihhsl Jie- 
neHua npo6HJa n/iaHHHCKH BeHau LLlap-n^aHHHa — UpHa 
Topa w aobojxh CKoncny KoTJiHHy y Be3y c Kocobckom 
CTapOM Cp6HJ0M h c ao^hhom Be;iHKor /IpHMa, Koja 



lOPlbK nOBAPflAH-iK 10' 



Crapy Cp6njy H3bo;ih Ha .laapaHCKO Mope. HH3HH- 
ckom .ihhhjom KyiviaHOBO Ayap/iapn Be3aHO je 3a npe- 
meBCKO pa3BO^e h 3a Romwy MopaBe. Ho/ihhom rimi^e 
h KpHBe 0iip>KaBaHa je Be3a ca TiycreHAn/ioM h Co- 
4)hjom, a npeno OBMer flo/ba hujjih cy nyTOBH 3a 
HcTOHHy h JyroncTOMHy MaKe^OHHJy, cneuHa/iHO 3a 
o6;iacT CipyMe, 3a iJojpan h Cepe3. Ba>KHOCT CKon^a 
je AaK.ie y TOMe luto ce Ha/ia3H na H3^a3y MHorHx 
pewHHx AO/iHHa h Ha pacKpcHHUH Ba>KHHx nyTeBa. 

y CKon:by pa3/iHKyjeMO ;iBa Ae/ia, h to je^aH c 
AecHe a Apyrn c /ieBe dpaHe Bap^apa. leBH neo je 
BHiuH a ^ecHH hh>kh ; npBH je Ha je^HOM 6pery koj'h 
ce H3Ha£ ao.ihhc £H>Ke oko 50 m., a apyrn je y paB- 
hhuh. Ha caMOj* ceBepo3ana#HOJ hbhuh cnoMeHyior 
6pera je HyiuaHOB Tpa^, kojh je ujththo y.na3e y ro- 
.iHHe JleneHiia, Bap^apa h TpecKe. H3 OBora ca bhah 
#a je no;io>Kaj CKonjba Kao h MHorHx Haiunx Hajcra- 
Phjhx Bapo.LH 6ho ycnoBJben crpaTernjcKOM Ba>KHOLiihy 
OHora MecTa Ha KOMe je HaMHiben. 

T^aBHH Reo BapouiH je Ha ;ieBOj ooa/.H Bapjjapa. 
Thm rqjiom npoTime peMHua CepaBa, Koja je BehHM 
AC/iom noKpuBeHa h c/iy>KH Kao npHpo^HH KaHa;iH3aTop. 
y TOMe cy ae/iy HajcrapHJe rpa^eBHHe, Koje cy ocra;ie 
noc/ie no>Kapa or 1689. Ty cy pa3HH tbpao 3H^aHH 
xaHOBH, Kao KanaH Xan, Cy.TH XaH, KjyTy6 XaHe. Kyp- 
iiiyM/iH XaH h MHore uaMHje. 3a KjyTy6 XaHe npnna 
ce r2l je y ibeMy HeKa^ 6n/ia 6n6;iHOTeKa. y To\ie 
ae/iy BapoiuH je h Be;MciUaH, kojh ce He Mowe ycno- 
petjHBaTH hh c ohhm y Co/iyny. na hh c ohhm y Ca- 
pajeBy, a:iH kojh, 3a CBaKor OHora ko npBH nyT H3 
Cp6nje £0/ia3H Ha OpneHT, npe/icTaB;ba npaBy 3Ha- 

MeHHTOCT. 

To je cK;ion or tcchhx, pa3HOBpcHo H3yKpujTa- 
hhx y/iHua, noKpHBeHH.x kpobom or AacKe, y KOJHMa 
cy AyhaHH c pa3HOBpcHOM podoM h MnoroGpoJHe 3a- 
HaT/iHJCKe paiiHOHHue. y Be3HcraHy HMa CKopo cbhx 
ohhx pa^fba Koje y TOMe Kpajy iioctojc Ty Iictc Hahn 
cbc 3anaTe h cbc paAH.e, h cbc lijto ce iicmc h KyBa 
h 3a jeacibe npo^aje. Pa;ube luy h ujapeHo h Memo- 
bhto h no rpynaMa, a/iH 6e3 peaa h utcreMa. i> 



108 HOBA CPBHJA 



HeTe nahH Ka3aHUHJe, kojh npaBe Ka3aHe h /iene MaH- 
rane no ^opMaMa Bor 3Ha oa Kojera Ao6a Hacnefye- 
hhm, a h HOBora BpeiweHa TeHeheunje, kojh npaBe h 
njiexaHe (frypyHe, TaKO no 3^y qyBeHe koa Hac. Ty heTe 
Hahn MaflH(J)aKTypy HCTOMHy, OHy HOBy h npOMeHjbHBy, 
CBaKe roAHHe h CBaKH qac ApyKHHj'y; OBy BaJKaAainiby, 
crapy h HenpoMeHjbHBy, ca bcmhthm Mycipaivia h 60- 
jaMa n>eHe hniaJKe, inaMajiaue, Kymnje, maMHJe h t. a- 
OHaMo heTe Hahn nyuiKapa, kojh Beh MejiaHxojiHHHo 
rvieAa cboj 3aHaT, h OBAe crpaniHO noTHCHyT chjihom 
(J)a6pHKauHJOM h ycaBpiHaBaibeM BojeBaBba h opy>KJa; 
OBaMO KyjyHUHJy r^e join n^eTe CBOJe (})HJiHrpaHCKe 
paztOBe no MycTpaMa 3a Koje oh h He aiyTH Aa cy 
MO)KAa oa CTapnx JejiHHa ; OHaMo oneT Tep3HJy h yKpaj 
tt>era 6oraTO H3Be3ene KOMaAe pyxa ap6aHaniKor, oneT 
ca BaJKaAauiHDHM KpojeM, HaKHTOM h uiapaMa ohhx 
hcthx MoniBa Koje Ha;ia3HTe h y (pHJinrpaHCKHM no- 
c^OBHMa KyjyHUHJCKHM, h qaK y nocjiOBHMa 3HAapa hjih 
pe3ana Ha KyhaMa, Ha apbchhm pe3apHJaMa, y ko^hko 
to caMo MaTepHJa^ Aonyuna, h Ha pa3HHM cnoMeHH- 
UHMa. H3paAa 6pHTaBa qyBeHa je jaKO y CKonjby, h 
HdOm ce 6aBe hckojihko paAH>H H3Metjy rpaAa h crape 
fcynpnje H3BaH Be3HCTaHa. PaAH>a HOBa h dapa, H3- 
B03Ha h yB03Ha, dpaHa h AOMaha, ceocKa h BapouiKa, 
*OBAe ce y nyAHOJ MeujaBHHH yKpuiTa h AOAHpyje. H 
Ty je jom BpeBa, JiapMa, Jiyna 3aHaTa, rypaH>e, noTH- 
CKHBaHDe, nora^atbe." (C. HoBaKOBHh, „C MopaBe Ha 
BapAap" c-63 — 64) y 6jih3hhh Be3HCTaHa je qyBeHH 
KypiuyMAii-XaH. To je ABoenpaTHa, BeoMa npocTpaHa 
srpaAa, Ae6ejinx 3HAOBa, 3HAaHa oa TecaHa KaMeHa, 
ca MHoro cBOAOBa, h hcko^hko 6a;iKOHa oa TecaHa 
KaMeHa. CBe cy co6e Ha cboa ca3HAaHe, a 3rpaAa je 
6n.na o^obom noKpHBeHa. ZlBopHuiTe My je KajiApMH* 
caHo, a Ha cpeAHHH je 6ho meApBaH (boaockok)* 
y AOhbeMjfcnpaTy cy 6une Mara3e, a y ropiteM 
co6e 3a nyTHHKe, Oa 1878 nocrao je TaMHHua ko* 
cobckot BHJiajeTa. CTapocT oBor 3Aan>a HHj'e aobojbho 
HcnHTaHa. HeKH MHC/ie Aa je Ta 3rpaAa npeocrajia join 
oa JycTHHHjaHa, Apyrn MHCJie Aa je to 3a BpeMe uapa 
flyujaHa 6una KacapHa, a Tpehn TBpAe Aa je to Typ- 



tOPlbE nOBAlUAIMi 100 

cKa rpafjeBHua. Cnrypno jc caMO to Aa je Ta 3rpa^a 
npeocra.ia H3a no>Kapa oa 1689 roAHHe. 

y tomc jne.iy BapoiuH cy MHoro6poJHe i.ia.MHJe, 
kojhx he y ue/iOM Cnon/by 6hth oko 26. JeAan oa 

HaJ3HaMeHHTHJHX TypCKHX apXHTeKTOHCKHX cnoMeHHKa 

jc Fa3H-Hca-6eroBa uaMHJa, Koja je rpa^eHa Ha Meciy 

Her^aiUHDe upKBe cb. 'fooplja. y ue^oj rpal)H B/iaAa 

n noTnyHa cHMeipnja 6e3 HKaKBe norpeiuKe, Aa joj ce 

caMO ahbhth mokcmo" (C. HoBaKOBHh). 3nAaHa je Te- 

caHHM je^HaKHM qeTBpiacTHM KaMeHOM. CBaKH KaMeH 

y 3H^y onTonen je TpodpyKHM peAOM n/bocHaTe TaiiKe 

ixurne ca iuhpokhm KaTOBHMa Ma^Tepa. Tpa^eHa je 

AaK^e c/ihhho nao iuto cy rpaljeHe MHore 3aAy>n6HHe 

Haiunx cpeAH^eBeKOBHHx B/iaAa/iaua. KpoB joj je oa 

o.ioBa, Koje ce 6ej\n h H3 Aa/iena bhah. Oko ite je 

CHMeTpHMHa, /ieno orpaljena aB-nnja, a npeA y^acKOM 

je noA .nenHM khockom necMa, ca /ienoM Ba30M Ha cpe 

Ahhii, H3 Koje H36HJa hcko^hko K.-byqeBa BOAC 3Ha* 

MeHHTa je h BypMa/iH-I.IaMHj'a. To je npocipaHa qe- 

TBpiacTa 3rpajia, ca npocrpaHHM TpeMOM na CTy6oBHMa 

y npeAH>eM neny; 3HAaHa MeTBpiacTHM jeAHaKHM Ka- 

MenoM, H3Mel)y Kora cy yMeTHym KBaApaTH oa uh- 

ivie h Ma^Tepa, TaKO na ueo 3ha HMa H3ivieA reoMe- 

TpHJCKor M03aHKa, kojh mhhh npHJaiaH yTHcaK. Hapo- 

mhto bhcokhm MHHapeTOM OA.iHKyje ce Jaja-naiHHHa 

uaMHJa. Ty je h caxaT-ny/ia oa upBeBe unr/ie, y o6;iHKy 

3BOHHKa ; HMa ;ien H3rvieA. y ceAaMHaecroM BeKy nyT- 

hhuh cnoMHiby y CKon/by jeAHy ApBeny Ky/iy ca ca- 

tom h 3bohom. To he BepoBamo 6hth OHa ny/ia 3a 

Kojy XauH-Ka/iqba bcth Aa je H3 BpeMeHa HeBepHHKa. 

He MO>ne ce AOKyqHTH na :ih AaHaujiba caxaT-Ky/ia HMa 

KaKBe Be3e c tom apbchom Ky/iOM. 3a Me/ia-uaMHJy 

roBopn ce Aa je naMHii.ena Ha Meciy upKBe Cb. Bpa- 

MCBa, a <a Cy/iTan-MypaTOBy jcahh Be/ie Aa je 6n:ia 

upKBa Cb. BoropoAHue. a Apyrn Cb. rieipa. y MeAa- 

MaMHJH HMa BOAa, Ha Kojy AO/ia3e CpnKHibe kojc K 

paljajy, h yMHuajy ce. y TOMe Ae/iy BapouiH je h upKBa 

Cb. Cnaca. To je Ma/io, cno.'ba HeyrvieAHO h HeynycHo 

3AaH>e, Ay6oKO yKonano y 3CM:i.y, <Gor «iera HSTJieA* 

Kao &a je y TypCKO BpeMe rpatyeno. yHyTpaujiboeT upKBe 



110 HOBA CPBHJA 



npeixcraBJba oho hjto je OA^HKOBajio OBy upKBy oa 
ocra/iHx. To je yMeTHHHKH oa ApBeTa H3paijeHH o.iTap 
h neBHHije. 

y TOMe Ae;iy BapoiiiH HMa BHiue uiexoBCKHx Te- 
KHJa, neT xaMaMa, TpH npaBOcnaBHe h jeAHa KamnHHKa 
upKBa. Kao h y CBaKOM Medy y KOMe >KHBe MyaiOMaHH, 
h Ha nepn(j)epHJH CKonjba HMajy BejiHKe npocTopHj'e Koje 
3ay3HMajy MycnoMaHCKa rpo6^»a. TaKBa jeAHa npocTO- 
pHJa Ha;ia3H ce Ha ceBeponcTOHHOM Ae.ny BapouiH. Ty 
cy rpo6jba pa3HHx TypcKHx jyHaKa kojh cy aiaBHO najiH 
npH ocBajatby CKon/ba. Ha HaJBHineM 6pery je Typ6e 
Ta3H-6a6e, 6apjaKTapa Typcne BOJCKe, kojh je nao Ha 
TOMe Medy. Oa Ta3H-6a6e ao BapouiH Kaaty Aa HMa 
ce^aM rpodoBa, y KojHMa je caxpatbeHO ceAaM Be3Hpa 
kojh cy na^H npn ocBajatby CKonjba, h kojh cy 36or 
Tora nocTa^H „ra3Hj'e" (nocBeheHH jyHaun). 

Kao y CBHMa opneHTajiCKHM BapouiHMa, h OBAe 
craHOBHHuiTBO >khbh noAeJbeHO no pa3HHM BepaMa. Oji 
rpazja npeMa HCTOKy h ceBeponcTOKy, Ha noBHJapuy 
6pera je TypcKa Ma^a, H3Mel]y rpaAa h BapAapa je 
JeBpejcKa Majia, a c AecHe CTpaHe BapAapa je 4>pa- 
HaqKa Majia, y kojoj CTaHyjy EBponjbaHH. ZloMahe 

XpHIllhaHCKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO (Cp6H, TpUH H UHHUapH) 

}khbh c o6e CTpaHe BapAapa OHaj Aeo cpncKor cra- 

HOBHHUJTBa KOJH Ce 6aBH npeTe^KHO 3eMJb0paAH30M >KHBH 

y nepH(J)epHJCKHM Maxa;iaMa, HapoqHTo y Maxa^H Ton- 
xaHH h Hanpy, a 6aurroBaHH >KHBe MaxoM Ha paBHHUH 
nope# BapAapa. Ha nepn(})epHJH BapouiH cy unraHCKe 
Ma/ie, a nocyieAH>e BapouiKe Kyhe npecTaB/bajy CTaHOBH 
6ocaHCKHx h xepueroBaqKHx MyxauHpa. 

Hobhjh jkhbot noHHFbe Aa ce pa3BHja Ha o6a;iaMa 
BapAapa h y paBHHUH c JieBe CTpaHe BapAapa. Ty 
je HajMOAepHHJH h Hajjienum Aeo BapouiH, kojh ce oa- 
^HKyje hobhm MOAepHHM 3rpaAaMa h npaBHM yjiHuaMa. 
Ha o6a^aMa BapAapa cy noKa;iApMJbeHe h nonnoHaHe 
y;wue Koje Cflyace 3a uieTH>y h Ha KojHMa nonHH>e CBe 
BHuie Aa ce pa3BHJa cao6pahaj. HapoHHTy >khboct h 
jienoTy CKonjby Aaje BapAap, kojh cbojhm npocrpa 

HHM H 03HAaHHM KOpHTOM jypH 3HaTHOM 6p3HHOM. 

Boja BOAe je 3e;ieHKacTa h dncTpa. Ha BapAapy cy 



rOPtt>E nOBAPflAPJE 1 1 1 

ABa MOda. JeAaH je crapH Ayuianos Mociu, kojh npej- 
craB;ba joiu jeAHy CKoncKy apxHTeKTOHCKy 3HaMeHHTOCT. 
H3H^aH je na BHiue y BpiuaK CBeAenux onaHa, Met)y 
KOJHMa je cpeAH>e HaJBHiue, TaKo Aa je moct y cpeAHHH 
naJBHiuH, na ce OAaT/ie cnyuiTa npe.via o6e o6a.ie peKe. 
Tope je moct noKa/iapM/beH. HBHue cy My HeKaA 6ane 
orpa^eHe no Mdap bhcokom orpaAOM oa TecaHor Ka- 
MeHa, a y cpeAHHH je 6ho weTBpTacT 6a;iKOH. y ho- 
BHJe BpeMe moct je Ha Bpxy upoiuHpeH h Taj je 3ha 
cpyiueH. Hobh moct je ApBeHe rpa^e 

McUXopuja. — CKon;be npcAcraB/ba jeAHy oa Haj- 
CTapwJHx BapoiHH y yHyTpatiihbocTH Ba/iKaHCKor Ilo.iy- 
ocTpBa. Kao Bapoui nocToja^o je join npe Hero cy Phm- 
jbaHH ocbojh^h OBe 3eMA>e. HajcTapHJa cy My HMCHa 
Scupi, Skupoi, Skopion, Skopia. Scupi ce npBH nyT 
cnoMHR>y y IlTO/iOMeja h y IlaJTHHrepoBOJ Ta6;iH. 
Joiu y noneTKy upyroi a BeKa CKynH cy 6h/ih pHMCKa 
KO/iOHnja Hace/bena Hcny>KeHHM . phmckhm BOJHHUHMa 
H3 BHMHHaunyMa (naHaujH>er KocTOua). y ibHMa je pHM- 
CKa K)7iTypa ocraBH/ia Be/iHKe TparoBe. Oa Cnyna cy 
no.na3HAH 3HaMeHHTH ApyMOBH npeKO y/innjaHa (Jlnn- 
;baHa Ha KocoBy) 3a Ila^MauHJy, y JIhxhha (Oxpha), 
y Fle.iaroHHJy, y Be/ia3opy (Be/iecJ, y Hajcyc (Hhlu) 
h Cep^HHy (Co<t>HJy). CKynH cy 6h;ih yKpaiueHH xpa- 
MOBHMa, KynaTH/iHMa, 3rpaAaMa, a y &IH3HHH cy ce 
Ha/ia3H;iH pyAHwun rBOwIja, 3/iaTa h McpMepa. Floc/ie 
KoHCTaHTHna BeJiHKor CKynH nocTajy rviaBHH rpaA 
npec{)eKType .H-ipAaHHJe, h enncKoncKa pe3HAenuH<a. y 
CTpaiiJHOM 3eM.bOTpecy oa 518 roAHHe CKynn 6hujc 
cpaBibeHH ca 3eM/bOM. 

y 6;iH3HHH CKOIlA>a pOAHO Ce BH3aHTHJCKH Uap 

JycTHHHJan Ce.io y komc ce poaho 3Ba/io ce Taypn- 
cnja h.ih Taopecnja. y 6/ih3hhh Tora ce.ia Gho je rpaa 
Be opnjaHH. HeKH MHC/ie Aa Taypncnjy Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH 
HerAe y Aananjiboj TaopcKoj fOincypn h y ce.iy Taopy, 
kojh ce na/iaje jyxoib oa KaiTianoBCKor Je3epa, n^Meljy 
CKon.i>a h Be/ieca. Hpym VHOie Aa no hmchy B< 
pHJaHH h no hckhm ocraTHHwa oa CTapnna, Ta Mecra 
Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH y AanaujibeM ceny BopAOBUHMa. Jy- 
CTHHHjaH je nopywene CKynH noAnrao h na.mao UX 



112 HOBA CPBHJA 



JyCTHHHJaHa ripHMa. BH3aHTHJCKH HCTOpHK npOKonHJe 

OBaKO onHcyje Taj rpaA: „HHJe JiaKo H36pojaTH 60- 
>KaHCKe xpaMOBe, hhth ce Mory peHHMa onncaTH abo- 
poBH BejiHKauia hh BejmqHHa ABopaHa, hh JienoTa Tp- 
>KHiiJTa, hh y/mua, hh necivie, hh Kynamna, hh aomobh 
c npoAaBHHuaMa. npocTO Aa Ka>KeM, Bapom je BejiHKa 
h MHorojby,nHa h y CBeMy 6;iaroyroAHa, h TaKBa Aa 
MO>Ke 6hth crojiHua CBeKO/iHKe OBe o6;iacTH". ITopeA 
Tora JycTHHHj'aH je HanpaBHO HapOHHTy TpaoiHuy, y 
Kojoj je 6hjio CMeuxreHO BHuie AyhaHa. T. CTOjaH HoBa- 
KOBHh mhc^h Aa he to 6hth RamwibH KypuiyMJiH XaH, 
y KOMe ce join y ceAaMHaecroM Be Ky npoAaBa;io h 
KynoBa^o. 

Bpjio BepOBaTHO je Aa je JycTHHHJaHOBa rpaije- 

BHHa H HyBeHH CKOnCKH BOAOBOA, KOJHM Ce AOBOAH 

Bo^a H3 CKoncKe UpHe Tope, ABa h no caTa AaJieKo 
oa CKon^a. Taj boaoboa cnoMHite ce Kpo3 aeo 
cpeAfcH BeK. y hobom BeKy cnoMHft»y ra CKOpo cbh 
nyTHHUH kojh cy npouiJiH Kp03 CKonjbe. Taj boaoboa 
HMa npeKO 100 CBOAOBa s kojh cy bhcokh 3*25 m. Cry- 
6obh h cboaobh rpaljeHH cy oa TBpAe qeTBpTacre uh- 
rvie, a 03ro Ha ft>HMa je HaMeuiTeH KaHa;i 3a BOAy, 
kojh je DJHpeK 0*80 h noKpHBeH. 

y cpeAH»eBeKOBHOj Cp6HJH CKonjbe je 6hjio jeAaH 
oa HaJ3HaMeHHTHJHx rpaAOBa, H3i7ieA CKonjba no3HaT HaM 
je H3 pa3HHx HauiHx HCTOpHJCKHx cnoMeHHKa. Bapoiu 
je 6n^a onacaHa 3KAHHaMa Ha KOJHMa je 6hjio BHuie 
Ky/ia, Kao uito cy „nHpra o6;ia" h „nHpra BOAeHa". 
Ha rpaACKHM KannjaMa 6n;ie cy orpoMHe Kannje, oa 
kojhx cy HaJ3HaivieHHTHJe „Be;iHKa BpaTa" h „BOAeHa 
BpaTa'. y ihemy je 6hjio h jeAHO yTBp^etfce, 3aTHM 
MHoro upKaBa, na^aqa (nanaTa) h ABopoBa. KaA cy ra 
Cp6n roAHHe 1282 y3e;iH oa BH3aBTHHaua, craHOBHHiu- 
tbo My je 6h;io npeTe>KHO rpqKO. y jeAHOJ noBC/bH 
KpaJi>a Mn^yTHHa H3 roAHHe 1299—1300, cnoMHtbe ce 
orpoMHa MHo>KHHa rpqKHx (j)aMH/iHJa y CKonjby. H3 
6e/ie>KaKa KaHTeKy3eHOBHx 3Ha ce Aa je jom roAHHe 
1350, AaK^e 70 roAHHa nouiTO cy ra Cp6n 3ay?.e;iH, 
6h;io y FbeMy TaJHHX bh33hthjckhx npHcrajiHua. y ne- 
TpHaecTOM BeKy nocraAe <eAHa oa HaJBa>KHHJHx cpn- 



rOFHaE nOBAPAAPJE 113 

ckhx BapoiiJH. Bho je pe3H^eHUHja cpncKiix Kpa^>eBa 
h uapeBa, napoMHTO uapeBa flyiuaHa h Ypoiua Ohh 
ra Ha3HBajy „aiaBHH h MacHH uapcKH rpa^ CKon/be". 
y ibeiviy ce ronHHe 1346 flyman KpyHHcao 3a cpncKor, 
rpwKor h 6yrapci<or uapa. y ibeiviy je Here ro/iHHe 
cpncKH MHTpono/iHT npor/iaujeH 3a cpncKor naTpnjapxa. 
ToiiHHe 1349 ^p>Kao ce y CKon^y bc;ihkh ca6op Ha 
KOMe je AOHeceH h H3paf)eH MyBeHH HyiuanoB 3aKO- 
hhk. Obhm 3aKOHOM cy ypefjene CBe cpncKe 3eM/be, 
o^pef)eHe cy BepcKe h hmobhhckc npH/iHKe, h oahoch 
H3Mel)y noje^HHHx apynjTBeHHX K/iaca. 

Ko/ihko je to 6no BamaH rpa^, bhzih ce Haj6o:be 
no ohoj na>KFbH Kojy cy CKon/by noK^aiba.iH npBH Typ- 
ckh Cy^TaHn. J\ok joui HHcy 6h/ih ocbojh/ih Uapnrpafl, 
CKon^»e ce CMaTpa.io je^HOM oa eBponcKHx TypcKHX 
npecroHHua. TaKO, Ha npHMep, Cy/iTan Baja3HT £p>Kao 
je npecTOHHuy Mac y Je;ipenH.\ia, a Mac y CKon/by. 
OjMax mhm ra ocBOJHLue, Typun noMeme KO/iOHH30BaTH 
jo.iHHy Bapiiapa, h Ha npBOM Mecry o6paTHiue na>KFby 
Ha CKon;be. TaKO y TOKy 14-or h 15-or BeKa TypuH 
Hace^Hiue y CKon;by Be/iHKy MHO>KHiiy TypcKor cra- 

HOBHHUJTBa. 

y neTHaecroM h mccHaecTOM Beny na CKon:baH- 
ckom Tpry Morauje ce£o6nTH HajjeBTHHHJe h naj6o, T be 
cpncKo h Mal)apcKO po6;be. 3a TypcKor BpeMena, Ha- 
Pomhto y LuecnaecTOM Beny, CKon:be je 6h/io HaJBche h 
HaJ3HaMeHHTHJe uecTO y ynyTpaiuibocTH Ba.iKancKor no- 
.lyocTpBa. y luecHaecTOM Beny paMyna.no ce ,ia y Ckoi: 
H.via na 30 000 Kyha. TproBa.io ce nor.'iaBHTo KO>KaMa. 
Objic cy ce ko>kc npenpaB.-ba.ie, H y on.iue 6H.ia je pa3- 
BHjeHa KO>KapcKa HHAycTpnja. Ko>Ka, BocaK h apyre 
cnpoBHHC OAHocH/ie cy ce npeK ja 3a I Ira.iHj'y, 

HapoMHTO 3a M/ictkc h AiiKotiy. y to Bpe.Mc na CKOn- 
ckom Tpry jaB;bajy ce h JeBpejn, kojh noMHiby KOHKy- 
pncaTH h MJieiaHHiia h Jly6poBManHM3. HyGpoBMann 
cy TproBa/w bhhom. Bm/ih cy noKynona/w Miioro 
Kojy cy 3aca.an^H Bnnorpa,iHMa h BolnbamiMa. Bmio- 
rpaae cy hm o5pal)HBa/in cpncKH poooBH, Koje cy ohh 
3a jeBTHHe HOBue 02 Typaxa KynoBa.in. V :ae- 

ctom BeKy CKon;be ce cnoMHibe Kao Miioro-foyAHa Tp- 

■ OBA CPIIIJA 6 



114 HOBA CPBHJA 



roBHHCKa sapoiu. roAHHe 1604 panyHa^o ce Aa y ibeMy 
HMa 40.000 Kyha. y to BpeMe nopeA JeBpeja y Tpro- 
bhhh ce jaBJbajy h JepMeHH. „CKonjbe je Ta^a HMajio 
/ien h >khb 6e3HdaH; npenpacaH ojiobom noKpHBeH Ka- 
paBaHcepaj ; y BaponiH h H3BaH BapoiiiH Jiene TproBe 
OKHheHe zipBeTHMa ; MHore uaMnje; boaoboa; y-nnue 
AacKaMa noKpHBeHe; ;iena HieTa/iHiUTa ; jany TBpljaBy 
h r^acoBHTy caxaTHy Ky/iy, HHJer ce 3BOHa 3Byun Ha 
Aa;ieKO pa3^eraxy no nuTOMOJ 3e^enoj okojihhh. y Tp- 
tobhhckhm Be3aMa CTajaiue ca Co;iyHOM h Upaqeivi. Pa3- 

■TIHHHTe CHpOPHHe (ByHa H BHHO) H KOpAOBaH H3B03HJIH 

cy ce y ilpaq, ao Kora cy KapaBaHH Ronasmu 3a neT 
AaHa. HaMUH h Ma^e 6apKe nflOBJbaxy hh3 Bapj^ap ao 
Co/iyHa. y 6jih3hhh 6exy 6oraTH 3/iaTHH h cpe6pHH 
pyAHHUH, a y rpa^y ce KOBauie HOBau." y tbeiviy je 6wj\o 
Bp;io jeBTHHO ^HBeiH. CMaTpa;io ce Kao jeAHO oa Haj- 
UHBHJiH30BaHHJHx TypcKHx MecTa, H3 Kora cy H3aiU^H 
MHorH TypCKH yqeHH jbyAH. 

floc^e OBor MHpHora pa3BHha, OBy HanpeAHy 
Bapom npH Kpajy ceAaMHaecror BeKa 33acch BejiHKa 
Hecpeha. ToAHHe 1689 AycrpHJaHUH ocBOJHiue oa Ty- 
pai<a CKonjbe, noiiiTO cy ce Typun noByKJin H3 hbera. 
17 OKTo6pa 1689 aycTpwjcKH renepa;i IIhko/iomhhh, 
noujTO HapeAH Te ce Hajnpe CBe n3Hece H3 Bapoiun, 
3ana;iH je ca cbhx CTpaHa, na ce nyH paAOCTH noByne 
Kpo3 KaqaHHK y npH3peH, rAe ra nocjie AeceT AaHa 
CTH>Ke Ka3Ha Bo>Kja. yMpe oa nyre. Oa 12.000 Kyha, 
40 uaMHJa h 7 ao 8 bc/ihkhx xaHOBa, mije HHiuTa oera;io. 
OBaj ^anoMHCJieHH aKT flHKOflOMHHHJa ynponacTHO je 
CKonjbe, h oho ce HHje moitio nonpaBHTH hh nocne 
200 roAHHa. y ocaMHaecTOM Beny CKonjbe npeAcraB- 
jbame BeoMa ona/iy h Ma/ieny Bapom, Koja je TproBa/ia 
KopAOBaHOM. HeKH ra naK cnoMHity caMO Kao npe- 
HohHiHTe. FlpeA ibHM ce cnoMHibe jeAHa TBpljaBHua 
Koja je qyBajia KapaBane kojh cy Kpo3a \h npo;ia3H;iH. 
CBe ujto ce BHiue oamhhcmo y ACBeTHaecTH BeK, CKonjbe 
ce CBe BHUje onopaB/ba;io. flyTHHUH H3 npBe no/iOBHHC 
AeBeTHaedor Ha3HBajy ra H3 noqeTKa ocpeAibOM Ba- 
poniH. Amh Bye ra craB/ba Mel)y TypcKe TproBe Apy- 
rora peAa. H3 ciinca aouhhjhx nyTHHKa bhah cc KaKo 



HU'ibK IlOH.UUAl'.IE 115 

CKon;be y 19 BeKy CBe BHiue Hanpeayje. Oa iue3Ae- 
ceTHx h ceAaM^eceTHX roAHHa npo n.ior BeKa no^Hibe 
Harvio naiipcjOBaTH. HaponHTo je nowe/io HanpeAOBaTH 
o;i KaKO je nanHibeHa >Ke/ie3Htfua h oa KaA je nocra.io 
cpeAHime KOCOBCKor BH/iajeTa (1886 roAHHe.) CKon.be 
ce y nocneAibe BpeMe TaKo pa3BHJa/io Aa je oho jxanac 
je^Ha oa HaJBeiiHX H HaJBa>KHHJHx BapoiuH y yHyTpani- 
HjOCth flo.iyocTpBa. HapoHHTy he Ba>KHOCT ao6hth aKO 
ce Be>Ke >Ke.ie3HHU0M ca 3ana#H0M MaKeAOHHjoM, Ha- 

P0MHT0 C AOAHHOM UpHOr UpHMa. 

Ako ce AOBe^e y Be3y 3HaiaH 6poj CTaHOBHHUJTBa 
nojeaHHHx BapoiuH y Hoboj Cp6HJH ca ohiuthm Ky.i- 
TypHHM h npHBpeAHHM craibeM 3eM;be, BHAehe ce Aa 
BC.iHHHHa BapojJH He npeAdaBJba H3pa>Kaj Ky.nypHor 
h ckohomckot ciaiba 3eM/be. Y Crapoj Cp6nJH h Ma- 
KeAOHHJH BaponiH cy Hecpa3MepH0 BeAHKe, h npeMa 
cbom Ky/nypHOM cratby h npeMa cranky cbojc okcthhc 
Obc nojaBe ao.ia3e OTyAa luto cy ce CKopo CBe Ba- 
pouin y XIX BeKy nenpnpoAHO pa3BHJa;ie. HMa BHUje 
pa3/iora 36or kojhx cy ce BapoiuH y nocae^fbe BpeMe 
HapoMHTO jaKO pa3BHj'a.ie. Ha npBOM Meciy y3poK je 
to ujto HMa 3HaTan Aeo Myc.iOMancKor cTaHuBHHiiiTBa 
Koje >KHBe CKopo napa3HTCKH, oa npnxoAa HHT/iyKa. 
Taj Aeo CTaHOBHHUJTBa. h to CKopo CBe MHT/iyK-ca- 
x iGnje, nacTanH.ie cy ce y BaponiHMa, h ry >KHBe CKopo 
HHKaKO ne yqecTByjyhH y npHBpeAHOM >KHB0Ty BapoiuH, 
hc pa^eliH HHUJTa h xpanehH ce oa npHXOAa Koje mm 
AOHOce ibHxoBe MHcfwnje. Xlpyrn Aeo CTaHOBHHUJTBa 

MHHC pa3H0BpCHH MyxaUHpH To Cy MyC/IOMaHCKH Hce- 

;bCHHUH kojh ce AOce.'baBajy H3 ohhx oG/iacrH Koje 
cy HeKaAa dn/ie TypcKe h kojc cy norna.ie noA ncKy 
xpHiuhaHCKy ApwaBy. HaJBHiue hx HMa H3 AOcaAaibe 
CpGnje, H3 DyrapcKe h H3 Bocne. Obo cTaHOBHHiiJTBO 
npeAcraB.ba/io je OHaj ejieueoaT kojh je y TypcKe Ba- 
poujH yHOCHO HaJBHOie HeMupa h ncpe^a, n kojh je 
npeMa xpHiuhaiiHMa ca i iyBao HaJBHiue Mpwibe. riope;i 
ohhx iiahH he ce KaujTO y Bapo:iiHMa CTape Cp6nje h 
no Koja ap6anaiiiKa (f)aMH/iHJa, 3aTHM Aocra AOce/beHHKa 
H3 TypcKHx MaKeA r »HCKnx ce.na. H Hi nOJOAHHHX 0( 



1 i 6 HOBA CPEHJA 

cth cpncKO-Myc^OMaHCKor craHOBHHiUTa. CBe obo da- 
hobhhiiitbo 6kjio je noji bcjiukhm yTHuajeM Typcne 
nyjirype h TypCKorje3HKa. Myc/ioMaHCKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO 
CKopo CBHJy BapoiuH Crape Cp6Hj'e, a napOMHTO Ma- 
KcnoHHJe, pa3yMe h roBOpn TypcKH. Cbh cy npHMa;iH 
TypcKH HawnH >KHBOTa, TypcKH nor/icn, Ha cbct, h Typ- 
ckh cy oceha^H. 

Ha hcth HaMHH na#a y ohh 3HaTan 6poj xpnui- 
haHCKor craHOBHMiJTBa i<oje >khbh y BapoiuHMa Crape 
Cp6HJe. To je CTaHOBHHUJTBO ABOJaKor nopeK/ia. Je- 
AHO cy TpuH H UnHuapH, kojh cy aolujih ca pa3HHx 
dpaHa Ba^KaHCKor Ilo^yocTpBa h HacejiHJiH ce nao 
TproBUH, hhhobhhuh, pei^e Kao saHaT^Hj'e. ZIpyro je 
cpncKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO, Koje je y bc/ihkoj BehHHH cny- 
qajeBa nopeK^OM H3 cyce^HHX ce;ia h;ih H3 6jih>khx 
BapouiH. To cpncKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO MO>KeMO npeiwa Ha- 
HHHy 3aHHMaHDa noae/MTH y TpH rpyne. ripBy rpyny 

MHHH OHO CTaHOBHHUJTBO KOJe Ce 6dBH BapOIHKHM Ha- 

hhhom pa^a (TproBHHOM h 3aHaTHMa), a Apyry rpyny 
hhhh CTaHOBHHUJTBO Koje 3aKyn./byje noje^HHe u>HBe y 
okojihhh BapouiH,. cneuHa.HHo Ha o6a^aMa Bapiiapa, h 
Ha KOJHMa npoH3Bat3a HCKJbyquBO 3e^en. To cy ohh 
no3HaTH 6auiTOBaHH kojh >khbc CKopo HCKJbyqHBO Ha 
nepH(J)epHJaMa Bapoiuu h o6pa3yjy 6aujTOBaHCKe Ma;ie. 
Tpthy rpyny o6pa3yje CTaHOBHHUJTBO Koje ce HCKJby- 

HHBO 6aBH 3eMJbOpaAH>OM H )KHBH HCKJbyHHBO O 3eMJbO- 

pajiibH. TaKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO )khbh HajBHUje y Ma^H Ton- 
xaHH h Hanpy. To CTaHOBHHUJTBO HMa MaxoM CBOJe jbHBe, 
Koje ce Ha;ia3e o^Max no BapoiuH, h;ih y3HMa 3eMJby 
Ha no/iOBHHy h TpehHHy oa CKoncKHx ara h 6eroBa. 

>KHBH CKOpO HCKJbyHHBO CeOCKHM WHBOTOM, CaMO pa^H 

3eMJby, cam a(J)HOH, nuieHHuy, KyKypy3 h #yBaH. 
BaujTOBaHH >KHBe nope^BapAapa HaJBHine y JeHH-Ma- 
xa/iu h ra3H-MeHTaui-Maxa;iH. Obo^hko 3roMn/iaBaH>e 
xpuuihaHCKor HCKjbyqHBO 3eM^>opaAHH i iKor h ceocKor 
craHOBHHUJTBa y BapoiuHMa MO>Ke ce o6jacHHTH jcuhho 
yTHuajeM HecurypHHX h necpei^eHux npu^HKa Koje cy 
B^a^a^e y obom jieny EBponcKe Typcne. CraHOBHHLU- 
tbo je BeoMa MHoro 6e>Ka;io H3 ce^a, 3aTO ujto je y 



roribi-: noBAHjAivit 1 17 

BapoiiJHMa, r\ae cy 6n/ia ce^HiuTa B/iacTH, momo >kh- 
BeTH 6e36c^HHJe h CHrypHHJe. 

OBe rbq Bpcre BapouiKor craHOBHHUJTBa He pa- 
3,iHKyjy ce caMO no 3aHHMaiby, Beh h no Hammy lie- 
nor )KHBOTa, napo^HTO no HaHHHy ue/ior KyhHer pana, 
yHyTapibevi pacnopeziy h cnoJbaujtbeM H3rj\ejxy Kyhe. 
y 3eM/bopa;iHHHKOJ KyhH pa3/iHKyjy ce TpH nena. 
On coKaKa je Kyha, Koja je ;iHueM OKpeHyia o6hhho 
yHyipa npeMa flBopy h h>hbh. Ha Kannjy, Koja je nopezi 
Kyhe h/ih y caMOJ KyhH, je npocipaHa, BehHM ae/iOM npa- 
3Ha npocTopnja Koja ce 30Be w ABop". Ta je npocropHJa 
03HnaHa 3haom no 1 1 2 — 2 m. bhchhc ZlBop HHje no- 
no^en. hberoB cpe£H>H h rviaBHH #eo 3ay3HMa n ryMH0 M . 
MecTO ce mccto ABopa ue/ia npocTopnja 30Be ryMHO. 
HacpeA ry.vina je no6njeH apBeHH CTynau 3a koj'h ce 
Be>Ky KOibH Kan Bpxy. Taj arynau 30Be ce „CTO>Kep' 1 . 
y yrviy ^Bopa nope/i caMe Kyhe je „a\i6ap" HawmbeH 
on ^acaKa h npyha h o6hhho na #Ba cnpaia. y no- 
HoeM ce ^p>kh o6hmho >khto, a ropibH je OTBOpeH. On 
Bchhk AeHa (BacKpca) no jeceHH Ha aM6apy ce Be4e- 
paBa h cnaBa. Hajo,oFbH £eo ABopa, koj'h H36nja Ha 
tbHBy, 3ay3HMa „n/ieMiba a , y kojoj ce #p>KH c/iaMa h no- 
^onpHBpe^HH a;iaTH. ITneMiba je CBa on n-neiepa, no- 
KpHBeHa je cviaMOM, h Ha fboj cy ABOj'a Hacnpaiuna BpaTa, 
kojhx jeAHa H3^a3e y ABop a /ipyra y aB/injy. 
CBaKa 3eM.bopaAHHMKa Kyha ap>kh croKy, h to Haj- 
Man>e Kpany, B0/ia h Marapua. Ohh kojh >KHBe Ha 
caivioj nepn(j)epHJH Bapoiun H kojh HMajy BHiiie ibHBa, 
npme h 6nB0/ia h neuiTO OBaua, on kojhx npoaajy 
m/icko y BapoiiJH, 3a Marapua Ka>Ky na je to Heo6n i iHo 
3roAna h npaKTHMHa >KHB0THiba 3a npeHamatbe Ma/inx 
TOBapa H3 ibHBe y Kyhy h o6paTno. By6pe Koje na^ne 
CKyn^a ce npeKo 3HMe na roMH/ie h ocraB/ba y aB- 
/ihjh na ce o npo/iehy H3nece Ha ibHBy. CroKa HohHBa 
y n/ieMibH h/ih y napowHTOJ 3rpaAH Koja ce -iom 

on yniOBa y aBopy naMHHH h 30bc „noH,nH/io u . I Iohzumo 
MOH<e npeACTaB.baTH h HapoHHTO o/ie;beH neo y Kyl»n 
yHyTpaujibOCT 3eM;bopaAHHMKe Kyhe je ouaj. Cn> 
ee y;ia3H y npocropnjy Koja ce 30Be n Tpevme* 
Kora boac BpaTa y no/i3eM/be h/ih w BH36y\ y *Kyhy' 



1 1 8 HOBA CPBHJA 



(KyxHtba) h y „conne". Y bh36h ce ap>kh bhho, pa- 
KHj'a, cHp, Meco h ;iaHa (Kynyc). y „KyhH" je Ha no#y 
3eMJbaH0 orHDHLUTe ca cbhx CTpaHa KaMeHHM njionaivia 
onepBa>KeHO, a H3Ha,n; ttera o rpe#H bhch „Bepyra". 
Ha orHDHiiiTy ce peTKO jio>kh BaTpa, jcp cy upBa CKyna. 
36or Tora Ha MaHrajiy pacnajbyjy hyMyp, h Ha H^eiviy 
ce KyBa. X;ie6 neny y BaponiKOJ (J)ypyHH. OnbHurre 
je AaHac 36or Tora H3ry6H/io CBOJy (})yHKUHJy, jep ce 
Ha tt>eMy HHKa^ He jicokh. HnaK oho ce CKOpo y CBHMa 
KyhaMa rpa^H TeK H3 HaBHKe. y yrviHMa cy KOB*ie3H y 
KOJHMa ce MecH xjie6. Co6e cy HenonoljeHe, caMO je 
„conqe" H3Ha£ H36e nono^eHo h npeKpHBeHO „MyTa- 
4>om" (chbhm npocTHM hHJiHMOBHMa koj'h ce npaBe 
MaxoM oa K03je RJiaKe). y je^HOM yniy je uunjiep c 
jacTyuHMa. IlpH Bpxy 3Hfla oko uejie co6e je Majia 
ApBeHa no^HHHua, „pa(})", a y jeAHOM yr/iy je HKOHa. 
CaMO je Ta co6a OKpeneHa; ocra/ie npocTOpHJe cy pet^e 
OKpeneHe. Kan, ce xohe Aa cnaBa, OH^a ce no Heno- 
noi)eHOM no^y npocrpe poro3, na no tbeiviy Hh^hm, a 
no hH^HMy jiyuiQK. ripo3opH cy ^ocra Be/iHKH, co6e 
cy BHAHe, a Ha np030pHMa cy H3yKpniTaHH MajiH jxp- 
bchh ^HpeHHhH kojh Tpe6a #a cnpene CBanora ko 
6a Kpo3 npo30p xTeo aa npcape y co6y. 

Kao uito ce bhah, 3eMJbopa,HHHHKa Kyha y CKonjby 
canyBa^a je HCKjbyMHBO OHaj THn kojh je HMa;ia Ha 
ce^y, a nopca, Tora npHMHJia je h Aocra BapouiKHx e;ie- 
MeHaTa. H3Me^y 3eMJbopaAHHHKHx Kyha npo;ia3e MajiH 
ycKH h KpHBy^aBH coKauH kojh ce CBaKH nac panBajy 
h 3aBpuiyjy 3aTBOpeHHM yjiHijaivia, Koje ce y Bochh 
30By w hop-coKauH". 

CacBHM je ApyKMHJH THn Kyhe ocra;ior craHOB- 

HHUITBa. H TprOBaHKH H 3aHaiVIHJCKH AeO CTaHOBHH- 

uiTBa HMa hcth THn Kyhe H )KHBH CKOpO HCTHM Ha- 

HHHOM >KHBOTa. y TOMe HHCaM MOraO HahH HHKaKBe 

pa3/iHKe H3Metjy Kyha cpncKor, rpqKor h uHHuapcKor 
CTaHOBHHUJTBa. Ueo >khbot npBo6HTHO ce o6pa30Bao 
yr/ie/iaFbeM Ha TpKe h U,HHuape. H y TOMe nornejiy 
jaBJbajy ce caMO pa3^HKe Koje ce h HHane BH,ne H3Me^y 
6oraTHJer h CHpoMauiHHJer craHOBHHUJTBa. yTnuaj rpn- 
Kor h UHHuapcKor craHOBHHinTBa Ha BapoiiiKH jkhbot 



ropibE noBAP/upjE 119 

06HMHO je Bp/IO Be/IHKH. y BehHHH Bapoiun HapOHHTO 

Jy>KHe, 3ana£He h CpeAibe MaKeaoHHJe rpHKH je3HK 
pa3y.Me ce h roBopH ce mhoto. 

Kyhe xpHiuhaHCKe, HapoHHTO 6oraTHx xpniuhana, 
He pa3.iHKyjy ce MHoro ojx Kyha MyoiOMaHCKHx. F.iaBna 
pa3/iHKa je yTOMe luto cy npaBOcnaBHe Kyhe BHiue H3- 
HeceHe Ha coKaK, a MyciOMaHCKe cy yHeceHe ynyipa. 
Oko Myc^OMaHCKHX Kyha BejiHKe npodopHJe cy ooa 
6aujTaMa, kojhx y TaKO bc;ihkoj MepH HeMa y xpnui- 
haHCKHM KyhaMa. ITopeA Tora xpnujhaHCKe Kyhe Meljy- 
co6ho cy noBe3aHe KannunuHMa, TaKO aa ce Kyhe ue^or 
je^Hor Maiher Kpaja Mory o6HhH KanHUHUHMa a Aa ce 
He H3at)e Ha y/inuy. Kpo3 KannuHKe ce >KeHe Meljy- 
co6ho nocehyiy, a y Be l ie ce Kpo3 ibnx HAe Ha noce.na, 
a MecTO cy Kpo3 KanHi,iHKe 6e>Ka.iH h caKpHBa/in ce 
no^HTHMKH KpHBUH Koje je roHH;ia TypcKa B.iacT. y 
xpHiuhaHCKy ce Kyhy y;ia3H Ha Be/iHKy KanHJy oa zp- 
Bda, Koja ce H3HyTpa 3aTBapa/ia Me/MMHHM TojaraMa 
h.ih HapoMHTO jaKHM qe/iHHHHM KBaKaMa. Kp03 Kannjy 
ce Hajnpe y^e y npa3an npodop kojh ce 30Be „ABop u . 
y ABopy y pa3HHM yr/iOBHMa cy : MyTBaK (Kyjua), 6ynap 
h „6aBMa u . BaBHOM ce Ha3HBa Ma.ia ao no.na Meipa 
BHCOKa cocf)a uBeheM 3acat)ena. AB.inja je yBeK Ka.i- 
apMHcana. TIpH y/ia3y y Kyhy, o6hmho c /ieBe dpane, 
HMa npocTop kojh je ca crpaHe OTBopen. TaKO Aa je 
H3HaA ibera ocraB/beH caMo TaBaH ropiber cnpaia. Taj 
je Aeo noAe/beH na ,i,Ba Ae/ia. JeAaH ociaje y HHBoy 
aB^Hje, h oh je non/iowan, a Apyrn Aeo je ao Tpn ne- 
UHMeTpa y3AHrnyT oa 3eM.be h nonoljcn jc Aacu 
npBH Aeo 30Be ce „TpeM", a Apyrn „cocJ)a u . Ha cocjih 
ce .neTH Bewcpa, a Mecro h cnasa. H3 rpeMa ce y/ia3H y 
cpeAiby npocropHJy Aoiber Aoua, kojh ce 30Be ,Kyi 
To je Aanac :.iaxo.M npa3an npocTop H n.Ma anauaj 
Ijyapaha H3 Kora boac Bpara y pa3He cooe, kojhx 
o6hmiio HMa bhujc. K'yxHiba mo>kc KaTKaA R ic 11 

y jeAHOj oa nporropuja y caivioj KyfaH. Taaa ce Kyjua 
30Be „jauaK u . y jayaKy je onbHiiiTe hccucho y 3H 
Mccto je cocf)a orpatjeiia caMHM npo3opHMa. Taaa ce 
una 3obc ., i.iaM.iyK". yHyTpaLmboci co6a je OBaKa. 
I la jnpe ao Bpaia je zieno 03HAana (Jiypyna oa hep- 



120 HOBA CPBHJA 



iiHHa, BHcoKa oa noAa no KpoBa; OHa ce jioaoiJia H3 
je^He co6e, a y Apyroj co6h 6ho je xaMaM. TaKBa neh 
je 6una. yBeK OKpeneHa. Y3 neh je 6ho „xaMaMiJHK", y 
KOMe ce yMHBa^o. Okojio npH 3H#0BHMa cy on ^acana 
HaHHH>eHH „,no;ianH", y Koje cy ce Meia^e cnaBahe 
xajbHHe. Ha roptbeM cnpaTy H3HaA TpeMa h cocj)e je 
ca dpaHe OTBOpeH npocrop kojh ce 30Be y CKonjby 
„ja3;iaK", a y TeTOBy „qapiiaK". Ha ropfeeM cnpaTy 
CBetuTeHHqKHX nyha necTO je 6wia h 3ace6Ha co6Hua 
Koja je CBa 6wia yKpanieHa HKOHaMa. Ta codnua 3Bajia 
ce „napaK;iHC". y napaK/mcy ce CBeuneHHK mo;iho 
Bory, HcnoBenao, HHTao mojihtbc xpHinhaHHMa, a necTO 
h TypuHMa. CBe co6e h y AOtbeM h y ropn>eM cnpaTy 
y KOJHMa ce cnaBajio 3Ba;ie cy ce npocTO co6e, a OHe 
Koje cy 6n,7ie 3a npHMaibe 3Bajie cy ce odaje. V o#a- 
jaiwa okojio CBa neinpn 3H^a je MHHflepjryK. TaBaHHue 
Ha co6aMa cy on MajiHX aaniHHua Koje cy TaKO nope- 
^aHe #a iHHe o6/ihk 3Be3jxe, hjih ce y 06/iHKy cyHqeBHX 
3paKa pa3H^a3e H3 cpe/iHHe. OBaj ooVihk Kyha je BeoMa 
CTap. EHi7ie3 BpayH, kojh je 1669 h 1670 roAHHe 6ho 
y CKonjby, 3a/ia3HO je y noje^HHe CKoncne Kyhe h 
onHcao hx. Oh hx OBaKO onncyje: „0;viHHHHJe cy Kyhe 
3acTpie hH.iHMHMa, a TaBaHHue cy hm CByna HSAejbeHe 
y Tpoyrvie, KBa^paie h pa3He Apyre o6;iHKe, na no3/ia- 
heHe h Huiapane pa3HHM 6ojaMa. Ajih HHr^e y mapaMa 

HeMa HHKaKBe CJIHKe HH >KHBOTHH>e HH dH-JbKe". 1 06hhho 

ce cnaBa Ha AyineuHMa kojh ce npocrpy no no^y. y 
HOBHj'e BpeMe CBe BHiuenpeoBJiatjyjy .upBenHH rB03£eHH 
KpeBeTH. y AOtbeM cnpaTy cy y Hajcrapnje BpeMe 6n;ie 
HapoMHTe npocTopnje3a KOft>e Kojecy ce 3Ba;iH „axapH". 
HouHHJe cy axapH nocrajiH 3ace6Ha 3rpa^a y ABopy. 
y TaKHM npHAHKaMa o^Max H3Ha^ Kannje 6n.aa je no- 
.HHrnyTa 3rpa^a 3a ccho y Kojy ce ca coKaKa ceHo y6a- 
UHBajio, h Ta ce srpa/uma 3Ba;ia „OTJiyKaHa".£UHacHeMa 
axapa hh OTJiyKaHa HHKaKO. Kao ihto ce bh#h, BehHHa 
AaHaui?bHX CKoncKHX Kyha HMa mrnen ohhx Kyha KaK- 
bhx je 6hjio y CBHMa BaponiHMa y Cp6nJH, h kojhx h 
AaHac y bcjihkom 6pojy HMa Haj6oraTHJe Kyhe OBora 



1 C. HobakommIi, Ba^naHCKa mn-aita, c. 84. 



rOi'IbK PIOBAPAAPJE 

THna HMa.iH cy I'puw h UHHuapn. Kyhe cy rpanH/in 
MajdopH H3 oKO^HHe He6pa. 

Kyhe Mvc/ioMaHCKe HMajy CKopo hcth yHyTapibH 
pacnope^. CaMo ce Ha;ia3e cbg y 6aujTaMa, kojc ce y 
Hepcay OAp>KaBajy, a/in cy nyne 3e/ieHHJia h Ba3iiyxa. 
Ymhhh/io mh ce Ra ce MycnoMaHCKe Kyhe y yHyipaiu- 

FbOCTH MHOrO HHLUhe /Ip/KC HO XpHIuhaHCKC 

. : 

KyManoBO ce na.na3H Ha Meery r^e KyManoBCKO- 
iipenieBCKa yao/iHHa H3/ia3H y npocrpaHH 6aceH peKe 
Hwmbe, H to na pacKpnjliy nyTCBa kojh Hay 3a flpe- 
meBO, KpHBy ria/iaiiKy, KpaTOBO h CKon/be. Oho ce 
Ha^a3H Ha CTaBaMa KoTOJCKe h OnajcKe PeKe. Ojx O- 
najcKe PeKe OABaja ce npe/i BapouiH jenaH KpaK kojh 
ce npoBOAH Kpo3 KywanoBO h kojh je CBe ro HaJHO- 
BHJer BpeMCHa npe;iCTaB;bao r/iaBuy Boay y KyMaHOBy 
Taj KpaK 30Be ce Baaa. Ha iboj HMa cejia.M so^eHnua 
H ibOMe ce HaBOAibaBajy cbc 6aujTC. Onaj neo rpa^a 
Kpo3 kojh npo/ia3H Baaa o/viHKyje ce bcahkhm 3c;ie- 
hh.iom h Be^HKHM /ipBeheM Koje pade no 6aujTaMa 
h ^BopHiuTHMa. Ojx roAHHe 1893 Ky.MaHOBO je roGujio 
,ao6py Bo/iy, Koja je boaoboaom noBeaeHa H3 aTapa 
ce/ia BqrvuuU. 

KjiHua je y KyManoBy oiuTpHJa no y Ckoh. 
.icTihe BpyliHue cy £OCTa 3naTHC, a/in cy amme x/ia- 
Anohe, 36or jaKHx ceBepHiix BeTpoBa, HeoBnmio bcthkc 
h necHOcne. Jlenbe hoIih h Beuepn cy necpa3\iepHO 
XJiaAHe. Ta x/iajHoha AO/ia3H 36or 6/ih3Hhc Behux n.ia- 
HUHa, cnenna/iHO Kapa-ZUra, a h 36or KyManoBCKO- 
npeujeBCKe yAO.iHue, kojom x/iajxnn ciBepiiH BeTpoBH 
npo^Hpy y C^oncKy Kor.iHuy, H 360T Tora ce KyMa- 
HOBCKa K/iHMa ne CMarpa 3a naJ3ApaBiijy. KyManoBO 
je CBe ao noweTKa XIX BCKa npeACTaB.^a^o oGhhho 
Behe ce.no, Kao ujto je caaa M/iaAO-HaropnuaHe. Ta- 
KBa c&lfl y to BpeMe npeiiCTaB.i.3.'i ihh: 

KpiiBa Ila/iaiiKa, I'lbM/iane, <l>epn30BHh, u jxp. Jolii oko 

KyMai -hjio cavio ,\ xpmiiti 

ckhx h ABa^eceT u laHCKHX Kyfaa. I <»aune I 



\L1 HOBA CPBHJA 



HMa^o je 650 Kyha, oa kojhx je 350 Kyha 6hjio xpnni- 
liaHCKHx h 300 Myc^OMaHCKHx. Hanac y KyMaHOBy HMa 
12 469 cTaHOBHHKa. hberoBO craHOBHHUiTBO yMHO>KHJio 
ce Heo6HMHO Harvio 3a 70 roAHHa. KyMaHOBO ce Ha;ia3H 
y 6/ih3hhh CTapora }KerviHroBa, h oho je npHMH;io HeKa- 
Aaujti>H 3Hanaj }KerviHroBa. Ho npe cpncKO-TypcKHx pa- 
TOBa oa 1876 h 1878 roA-, y KyMaHOBy je 6h/io BHiiie 
MyciHMaHa ho xpniuhaHa, a noc/ie thx paTOBa 6h/io je 
BHme xpHmhaHa. FIoc;ie thx paTOBa 3y;iyMH HaA cpn- 
ckum ceocKHM cTaHOBHHuiTBOM nocra/in cy Behn, H OHO 
ce noqe.no CBe BHme HacratbHBaTH no BapouiHMa 

Kao Hy CBHMa TypcKHM BapoujHMa, y KyManosy 
ce pa3/iHKyje xpniuhaHCKH h Myc/iHMaacKH ^eo rpa^a. 
XpnujhaHH 3ay3HMajy ncroMHH, jyro-HCTOMHH h 3a.iaAHH 
Aeo rpa^a, a MycaHMaHH ceBepHH h ceBepo-3aiuAHH, 
a y 3anaAHOM jxeny Meuiajy ce ca xpHtnhaHHMa. Y/iHue 
y TypCKOM Aejiy rpa^a cy ycKe h KpaTKe, a y cpncKOM 
OHe cy npaBe h innpoKe. KyMaHOBO ce Ae/iH Ha 12 
Maxa^a, oa kojhx cy Hajcrapnje : Bapoui-Maxa^a, TeKe, 
BapH6eroBa h BeAHHCKa Maxa^a. OHe cy ce nopeljajie 
Ay>K Ba^e, Koja HAe ynopeAO ca OnajcKOM Pckom. H3- 
Metjy thx, HajcTapnJH je Aeo rpa^a oHaj oko EcKH-IJa- 
MHJe, y ueHTpy TypcKorAefla rpa^a. Hajcrapnje KyMa- 
HOBCKe nopOAHue MO>Ke ce pehu Aa OBAe acHBe oa 
npe 150—200 roAHHa. 

rioiHTO je TaKO cpa3MepH0 hobo MecTo, y KyMa- 
HOBy Heiwa HHKaKBHx ocraTaKa oa CTapHHa. HMa caMo 
neKO/iHKO 3HQMCHHTHX 3rpaAa. Oa thx cy HaJ3naMeHH- 
THje OBe: UpKBa Ce. HuKOAe y BapoiH-Maxa/in, Koja 
je CTapa npeno 85 roAHHa; upKBa Ce. Tpojui^e y Ka- 
pancKoj Maxa/iH, Koja je noAnrnyTa 1902 roAHHe. 
EcKU-L^aMU y OpTa-ByHap Maxa;iH, noja je noAHrHyTa 
1751 ro^HHe; OHa HMa Tpn BeAHKa KydeTa h MHHape, 
h OA^iHKyje ce bckhkhm AHMeH3HJaMa; HMa BeAHKa h- 
Mahba, oa kojhx npHMa roAHnjfr>e oko 8.000 AHHapa. 
H3 HCTor BpeMeHa je h CaxauL-Kyjia. Jenu-IJaMuja je 
noAHTHyTa 1803. IlopeA Tora HMa ce^aM iueKiija, oa 
kojhx je HajBehy noAHrao LLIex UJepHCJ), nce^eHHK H3 
JlecKOBua. y 6ah3hhh EcKH-yaMHj'e je h XyhyMaT, cpe 
CKa ABoenpaTHa 3rpaAa oa cna6or MaTepnjana, noAH- 



rHyia 1880 ro^HHe. BeAedu/e, to je Ma/ia ^BOcnpaTHa 
oniUTHHCKa Kyha. flope/i Tora 6n/ia cy Tpn Tpra, a a'> 
npe npaTKor BpeivieHa nocTojao je h y KyivianoBy 6e- 
3HdaH. On jaBHHx npHBaTHHx 3rpajia HCTH^y ce xotc.t 
Co/iyH h TpaH£ XoTe/i. 

3aHaTH cy y KyMaHOBy npn/iHWHO pa3BHj'eHH H 
CBe no naJHOBHJer BpeMeHa 6wj\w cy opraHH30BaHH y 
ecHacJ)e. HajcTapHJH cy rpHMapCKH, a6ai,wjcKH, hypwHj- 

CKH, CaMapMHJCKH, MyTaBUHJCKH H nOTKHBaHKH. On CTa- 

Phjhx 3anaTa Hiviajy ecHaciKKe ype/i6e: hypqnjcKH, 
nanyuHJCKH, MyTaBunjcKH, a6auHJCKH. Haj6o/be ce pa3- 
bhoh HaJBHiue je pa3rpanaThypMHJCKH 3aHaT. Oh npe^- 
craB/ba yjeiiHO h Hajype^eHHJH ecHacJ). hberoBe ypeA^e 
cy najcaBpnieHHJe h HajopHrHHa/iHHJe, TaKO na oh npe^- 
craB/ba HajyMe/iHHJH ecHacJ) y KyManoBy. 36or Tora 
Ha JiHTHJaivia hypqnjcKH ecHacj) H^e npe/i CBHMa £py- 
thm. OBaj 3anaT npe 90 roAHHa nonemi cy Be/ienianH 
y KyMaHOBO. Ho npe npaTKor BpeivieHa 6ho je y py- 
KaMa CTpaHaua, a ca^a cy cbh npeiu/in y pyKC Kyivia- 
HOBaua. Tiyp'iHje wviajy H CBOj'y 3ace6Hy 3rpajiy Tiyp- 
MH-Xan y Ehack Maxa/in, y KOMe cy CByn y naoKO/io 
noAHTHyTe hyp^HJCKe pa;ube. HMa hx 29. /iBopniiiTe 
TiypwH-Xana je OKpyrvia o6;iHKa, y komc cy tByn y 
HaoKO/io noAHTHyie hypMHJCKe pa/wonHiie h npoaaBiiHue. 
MyTaBUHJCKH 3anaT hcto TaKO jc 3acTyn/ben, H\ia 19 pa- 
jXHOBHiia. MyTaBMHJe pa^e nonpoBue, Bpchc, Top6c, fin- 
care, h to naJBHiue on K03je nnaKe. Ro ripe 20 roAnna 
6ho je wyscH H nanyunjcKn 3anaT, kojh je ca^a npe- 
TBopen y .jiOH^aypauHJCKH". H KyjyHUHJCKH 3aHaT cy y 
KyiviaHOBo aohc.th Be/ieiuann, h to oko 1830 roAHHe. 
KyManoBun cy no npe 40 ro/inna o6pal)HBa m caivio 
/ihbcho h KOBano cpeupo. A on rana cy nowe.in 
o6pahyjy h cpc6pHy >KHuy. 

riope^ 3aHaTa, KyMaHOBHH ce 6aBc Aocra h km bo- 
paAH>OM. CBaKH HMyhHHJH KyMaHOBau n\ia no hciijto 
3HpaTHe 3eMA>e KOjy oopaljyje muhmb hah apra- 

TH.via. Kan AOMaha HHAycrpifja pa BHjeHa je H3p 
cyKHa, K.iaiiin.a hVih jupia I vkho i 

cc no ueAOM BaAKaHCKOM IIo/iyocrpBy. 

TproBHHa je jaico njeHa. 1 fapomw 



124 HOBA CPBHJA 

BHJeHa TproBHHa ca >khtom, ctokom h byhom. y oko- 
jihhh KyMaHOBa HeMa BHHorpa^a, a;iH je 3aTO qyBeH 
onHj'yM H3 KyMaHOBCKe okojihhc Kao Ba>KHa >Ke;ie3- 
HHHKa cTaHHua h Kao eKOHOMCKH ueHTap c^HBa TopHse 
n^Htbe h KpHBe, KyMaHOBO he HMaTH BejiHKy 6y- 
jiyhnocT. 

3. Be«7iec. 

Bejiec HMa oco6hth no;io}Kaj : jiokh Ha y^acKy y 
BejieuiKy K/wcypy, h to Ha o6eMa crpaHaivia Bapnapa, 
Koje cy Be3aHe MOCTOBHMa, 36or qera cy ra Typun 
Ha3Ba^H TiynpH.iH. Me^yTHM je crapH Bejiec, Be^ec 
BH3aHTHJCKe nepnoAe h 6yrapcKHx h cpncKnx BpeMeHa, 
oho HeKO^HKO MHHyTa Ha HH)Ke, HH3 Bapnap, a Ha #a- 
HauiHoe ce MecTO noTnyHO npeMecTHO y TypcKO BpeMe. 
H ca/ja ce to MecTO 30Be CrapH Bejiec; H3HaA H>era 
je Ka/ie, a ncnoA fr>era MapKOBa MexaHa. ZJajbe on 
Be^eca jicbom o6a/ioM Bapaapa ao npecBeTe BHAe ce 
TparoBH cTapor nyTa, a koa IlpecBeTe Hena Bp;io ciapa 
KaJi/ipMa h pa3Ba^HHe upKBe o kojoj MHCJie Aa je Haj- 
CTapnja BeJiemKa upKBa. y Be;iecy caAa HMa no Kh- 
qeBy oko 15.624 . craHOBHHKa, OioBeHa h Typana. 
Bejiec je Aajbe Bapoui H3Meijy ABejy KJincypa: Ta- 
opci<e h Be^eujKe; no TOMe oh BJiaAa BapAapcKOM 
KOMyHHKauHJOM. Bejiec je y paHHJHM BpeMeHHMa 6ho 
CTaHHua KHpnyHJCKor cao6pafcaja 3a OAMop Ha y/ia3y 
h npn H3^a3y H3 BapAapcKnx KJincypa. Ha TOMe 
MecTy je OBMe riojbe OTBopeHO npeMa Bap^apcKOJ 
aojihhh, h Mopa koa Bcrceca Ha H>y H3;ia3HTH, a TaKo 
hcto h cBa o6jislct Bpera/niHue. Ha AecHOJ o6a/iH 
BapAapa cy OpH3apcKe BpaTHHue, h HSHMa boah npH- 
;iencKH nyT. Ha Taj na^HH Bejiec je ueHTap h hbop y 
komc ce BapAapcKa KOMyHHKaunja yKpiiiTa ca Ba>KHHM 
KOMyHHKaunjaMa Koje BOAe npeMa HcTOKy h 3anaAy 
oa Bcrceca. Ha tbHMa je pacnope^eH hh3 3HaTiiHX Ba- 
poiiiH i<ao ihto cy : KonaHe, LLIrnn, Bejiec h flpH/ien, 
h Taj HH3 je CKopo y jeAHOJ jihhhjh, Koja je.ynpaBHa 
Ha BapAap; pa3y\ie ce na je ibHXOB no;io>Kaj, ochm 



i urmr. ii\jDi\r,ir\rir. 



Tora onuuer y3poKa. yoiOB/ben h ;ioi<a;iHHM npn.iH- 
KaMa, Koje cmo 3a BehnHy thx Bapoiun paHHJe o6e- 

/IOKH/IH. 

Be/iec je Bp;io ciapo Mecro : noMHtte ce join 
216 rojXHHe npe XpHda no;* hmchom Bn/ia30pa (ypa 
Ha a^6aHCKOM je3HKy 3HaqH moct). Bn/ia3opa 6una je 
HaJBehH rpaa y rieoHHJH. On HMeHa Bn/iasopa y cpe^- 
H>eM Beny pa3Biio ce o6/ihk Be/iec (BsXsdd6q). Ch ce 
npyn<ao 3ana;uiOM o6a/ioM Bap^apa, £eceT MHHyTa jy>K- 
hhjc cu ^anaiuHDer Be.ieca, o Meiwy h ca^ CBe^oqe ABe 
pa3Ba;beHe upKBe, kojhx je no npeTepanoM npHqaity 
Be.neiuaHa 6h/io no 36. Be/iec dapora BCKa 6ho je 
na rpammvi MaKe^OHHJe h HapnanHJe. 1 

O Be/iec cy ce OTHMa.in pa3Hii Hapo^H. On Zlap- 
iiaHaua ocbojh ra 216 npe XpncTa MahejOHCKH Kpajb 
tl^n.inn III. PoiiHHe 168 npe Xpwcra 3aje^HO caMahe- 
aohhjom no\)e non PnM/baHe h ocTa^e y B/iacni hcto- 
•iHe pHMCKe uapeBHue no Kpaja ^eBeiora BeKa. Ka^a 
6yrapcKH B/ia,aaou.H, KopHcrehH ce cpncKOM necaoroM 
h nouenaHOinhy, ocBOJHLue ManeiiOHHJy h ;ip>Kauje je 
no nponacTH 6yrapcKe ap>KaBe 971. Uocne hcko^hko 
ro^HHa nuroiue. ce npoTHB rpMKe B/iacTH MaheAOHUH, 
npeABoijCHH cboj'hm jyHaMKHM uapeM CaMyH/iOM, h ocho- 
Baiue napeBHny Koja je AonHpa^a no Ja^paHCKor h 
Be.ior Mopa, h 3a hcko BpeMe h ByrapcKy 3axBaTa/ia. 
floc/ie nponacTH iiaheAOHCice uapeBHue (1018 rem.) 
AOinao je c ibOM h Be/iec non rpm<y B/iacr. Kan cy 
3anaAH>auH ocbojh.ih rpm<o uapcTwo 1204, GyrapcKH 
nap Ka/iojaH ynoTpe6n Ty npwimcy to 3aB.iaaa He 
hom MaheAOHHJoif, a Mo>Ke 6hth h BenecoM, jop l 
6eiue y ibcroBoj B/iacrH h OxpH/i. rioc/ie norH6Hje 
Ka/iojauoBe 1207 noKOi >yrapcKor npecmna H^eroB 

cecrpHh Bopn.io, on MHjer HacHJba noooKe y Cp6njy 
>pOMHp Crpea, Kojn je, join 3a >KHBOTa HeiiatbHHa, 
KopHcr* 6opG 'H3anTiije h Kpcraoia H 

latbHHHM ocBajaihCM no xohhjh, AHrao 

ycraHaK y jyro-HCTomioM Kpajy MaKC/iomije : M ce 

I H nocrao H»eroB 3anoi j 



1 2b HOBA CPBHJA 



hhk y CrpyMHUH. Ho .nouHHJe CTpe3 ce owe-me on 
Tpna, ocbojh TBp£H rpa£ FIpoceK, kojh je BJiazjao Bap- 
^apcKHM TecHaueM JleMHp-KannjoM, h H3a6pa oBaj rpafl 
3a CBOj'y npeeTOHHuy. Ysanyji je rpnKH uap noKyina- 
Bao #a ocbojh npoceK, c Tora ce H3MHpH ca CTpe30M h 
y^a^e 3a h> CBojy yHyny no KhepH. KaA He3axB3jiHH CTpe3 
oneT OTna^e ojx Tpna, obh ce H3MHpHiue c ByrapHMa 
( 1 202 rofl.)» Te oh 6h ociaB^eH caMOM ce6H, He HMa^e KyA, 
Hero ce noKopH 6yrapcKOM uapy, h Beh 1206 ro^HHe 
3anoBe#anje y FIpoceKy Ka.nojaHOB BOJBO^a LIlHUJMaH. 
y to BpeMe BJiaAame y Cp6njn OreBaH HeMattHb, Ope- 
30B Tena no npBOJ >KeHH. Oh BpJio Jieno npHMH Crpe3a, 
kojh My npH6en<e oko 1208 ro#., no6paTH ce c HdHm 
h naze My Bojcny Koja ocbojh HcTO^Hy MaheAOHHJy 
cBe ao IlpoceKa, y KOJeM CTpe3 oneT HaMecra ceon 
npecTO. Ojibbjiq je oh ynpaBJbao hcko^hko ro/jHHa 
cbojom jipynaBOM, Kojoj je no cboj npwiHUH h Bejiec 
npHna^ao, npH3HaBajyhn Ha^ co6om BpxoBHy BJiacr 
deBaHy HeMaibHhy, a Ka^a je noKymao m ce o# tbera 
OTpme, norn6e (1213) oa hckhx Be^HKauia kojh HHcy 
xt&tih #a ce o^Bajajy oa CBOje 6pahe y Cp6njH. 

floaie cmpth CTpe30Be, Be^ec ^o^e y pyneTo- 
Aopy KoMHeHy, Tana enupcKOM AecnoTy, a ojx 1222 
uapy. no6e£HBLUH h 3apo6HBimi 1230 ro^HHe uapa 
To^opa, kojh 6eme TacT Ta,naHbeM cpncKOM Kpajby Pa- 
nocrcaBy, 6yrapcKH uap JoBaH AceH II ocbojh ue.ny 
MaKe^OHHJy, ^aK^e h Be/iec, a;iH ra Beh noc;iel6ro- 
AHHa noBpaTHuie Tpun, h ocrajje y h>hxoboj B/iacTH cse 
jxo Kpajba CTeBaHa JleHaHCKor, kojh ra crajiHO npnca- 
je^HHH Cp6nJH. 3a B^a^e HymaHOBe ynpaBJbaiue Be- 
.necoM — kojh Haiu apxnenHCKon XUhhjio Ha3HBa „cJiaB- 
hhm" rpa,aoM — 3naMeHHTH ^ecnoT cpncKH JoBan 
O^HBep, onyx >kchh CaMyn^a HeMan>Hha, 6paTa ,fly- 
maHOBa no ouy. 

Ka# cy TypuH ocbojh^h MaKeAOHHJy, #oujao je 
y FbHxoBy B^acT h Be^ec, kojh ce noMaKao Heinro ce- 
BepHHj'e. 

y ce^aMHaecTOM BCKy iiOAHmyTa je y Be.iecy 
B^aAH'iancKa crojiHua, Koja ce h ^anac obac na;ia3H. 



i unut MUDrtrMArJL 



4. D 

IViaBHH jxto LUTHna je oko pene Xothhc, a Ma- 
xa/ie My ce nen>y y3 Tam^H-BaHp h y3 Xncap. flpo- 
,ay>KaBa ce ro cacraBana Bpera;iHHue h Xgthhch ro- 
tobo ce cadaBHo ca Hobhm Ce^OM, Koje je y onHcaHOj 
K/incypn Bpera iHHue ojMax hcuor LLJTHna h ynpaBO 
ite/OBO npearpatje. y oko/ihhh ce npHna Ra je y „CTapo 
BpeMe" LLlTHn 6ho iia Je>KeBy Llojby, ceBepHO or CBor 
^anaujiber MecTa, h ^a ce 3Bao Je>KeB TpaA. IlpoTHBHo 
obom HapcuHOM BepoBaihy, LUTHn ce y Bp/io paHHM 
cnoMCHHuaMa noMHtbe. V hctophjh ce LLlTHn Bp.ao paHO 
cnoMHFbe. y 111 BeKy noc/ie XpHCTa LUTHn ce 3Bao 
AcTk6o h 6ho je je#an or HaJBa>KHHJHx rpa^OBa y 
neoHCKOJ o6.nacTH. Bh33hthhuh cy ra 3Ba;iH Ctwioh 
(It r.if-iof). BH3aHTHHUH cy ra y3e.iH or uapa Ca.\iyH.ia 
roAHHe 1015. ByrapH cy ra y3e;iH or TpKa 3a Bpeiwe 
uapa Ka.iojaHa. H3i7ieAa Ra. je h LLIrHn 6ho y ;ip>K3BH 
6yrapcKor OA^ieTHHKa Crpe3a h fla je HMao Hcry cyfl- 
6nny Kao h Beaec. ; >Ha ce Ra cy ra C?6h y3e;iH noc/ie 
Ben6y>KACKe 6nTKe. Ifjnvie je ynpaB.mo /lyiuaHOB ,a,e- 
cnoT O.uiBep, a noc.ie nponacTH HyiuaiiOBa uapcTBa 
h>hm je ynpaB/bao khc3 Kohctshthh. He 3Ha ce Ka^a 
cy ra y3e/in Typun or Cp6a. Kpo3 CBa BpeMeHa y 
cpeatbeM BeKy 6ho je cbc ro ceAaMHaedor Bena yTBp- 
ljeno MecTO Ha Xwcapy cy pa3B3/iHne cTapor rpaaa h 
ABejy upnaBa Cb. JoBana KpcTHTCi.a h MeTp^eceT My- 
MCHiiKa : y Hobomc Ce^y je upKBa Cb. Cnaca, a no- 
3naro je Ra je h obo 6h.io ceAHiiiTe Mopo3BHUJKe enn- 
CKonnje, Koja ce y cpeaibeivi Beny npeMeujTa^a H3 
Mopo3BH>KAa y Ma/iem, 3;ieT0B0 h Hobo Ce/io. Ochm 
Tora no/io>Kaj LUTHna je or CTpaiernjcKe bs>khocth, 
jep je on Ha y:i33y y no3Haiy K/iHcypy Bpera/wnue; 
H to je noBOA H3 Kora 6h ce momo h3bccth rh je 
janaiiiibH no.iowsj LLlTHna Be/iHKe cTapocm. Kao h 
Miiore name Dapoinn, h LLlTHn cey cpeaibCM BCKy ac.tho 
Ma rpa;i H no^rpalje; noc/ieaibe ce noK3TK3;i no rpM- 
H33HBy 3Ba.io aMnopHJe. LLIthhcko noj.rpa^e hm3.io 
je BHiiie inr.ie.T. ce.ia ho M3MeA Bapomn ManacTHp 



HOBA LPiiKJA 



XnjienAap je y luthiickom noArpa^y HMao neAeceT cra- 
coBa (HMa^a) noA BHHorpaAHMa. 1 

OKO/iHHa UlTHna je cpeAfoe njiOAHOCTH. CeBepHO 
oa BapoiuH HMa oko Bpera;iHHae npocrpaHHJa paBHHua, 
ajm MecTHMHue 6apoBHTa. Oko thx 6^aTnuiTa 3acejaH 
je opH3, a no oucahhjhm MecTHMa KyKypy3, niuenHua 
h MaK; nocjie^HDH ce Bp.no MHoro caAH, h hjthhckk 
a4)H0H h iuajiaraHCKO Mac^o no3HaTH cy y MaKeAOHHJM 
CMO^y oa Mana H3B03e noiviaBHTO y Co^yH h npoAajy 
emviecKHM TproBUHMa. HnaK no njiOAHOCTH iHTnncKa 
KOT^HHa H30CTaje MHoro H3a KonaHCKe h paAOBHiiiKe 

KOTVlHHe. 

LLlTHn hhhh yracaK nene h Bp/io Be^HKe Bapoinn 
TypCKor Tnna, cBaKOJano jeAHe oa HajjieniiiHX y obhm 
KpajeBHMa. Oco6hto cy .nene MHoro6poJHeTypcKe abo- 
cnpaTHe Kyhe. CTaHOBHHiHTBO je y BehnHH cpncKO, 
3aTHM TypcKO, a nopeA Tora HMa MHoro JeBpeja h Uh- 
raHa. JeBpeja HMa oko 800 Ayma, a;iH ce y HapuiHJn 
Bp;io jai<o ocehajy. H ano cy Cp6n y litany y Bp/io He- 
3HaTHOJ BehHHH, y okojihhh tberoBOj nor^aBHTO >KHBe 
Jypyn,H. TaKO cy, Ha npHMep, H>HX0Ba CBa ce.na Ha 3a- 
paBHH H3Mei]y IllTHna h PaAOBHnrra Koja ce 30Be Jy- 
pyK/iyK h y kojoj HMa 26 hhcto jypyqKHx ce;ia, no- 
peA Apyrnx y KOJHMa cy noMewaHH ca Cp6nMa. Me- 
l^yTHM je h caM LLlTHn y paHHJHM BpeMeHHMa CBe ao 
XIX BeKa 6ho hhcto TypcKa hjih npeTe>KHO TypcKa Ba- 
ponj. Oa noneTKa XIX Bena none/in cy ce Cp6H ca 
ce.na y BeheM 6pojy AOcejbaBaTH ; Taj ce npouec Henpe- 
daHO HacTaBJbao. H caA ce y IllTHny 3Hajy CTapHJe 
h HOBHJe cpncKe nopoAnue Koje cy ca ce/ia AOcejbeHe. 
HapoMHTO Hxje MHoro y hobom ce/iy, h oho ynpaBO 
hhhh Aa LIlTHn HMa OHy He3HaTHy cpncny BehHHy. 
Ha^>e je HecyMtbHBO Aa je npnpaniTaj koa Cp6a Behn 
ho koa TypaKa. TypuH cy ocHa>KeHH MyxauwpHMa H3 
ByrapcKe h Cp6nje kojh cy ce noc/ie paTOBa oa 
1878 roAHHe y IllTHny HacraHHJiH. 

.Ho paTOBa oa 1876 h 1878, h npe ho luto je ca- 

1 Jir^ek, Staat und ( iesellschaft iin mittelalterliclien Ser- 
bien, c. 



li.E nOBAPAAHJL 129 

rpa^eHa Bap^apcKa >Ke/ie3HHua, LUinn je 6ho jeaaH 
on HeKo;iHKo Haj*Ba>KHHJHXTproBaMKHx ueHTapa MaKe- 
^OHHJe h Crape Cp6nje. fc)cHM ue/iora c/iHBa Bpera/i- 
HHue, HMao je jhkhx TproBaqKHx Be3a ca jy>KHOM Cp- 
6hjom, napoHHTO BpatbeM h JlecKOBueM, 3aTHM ca 
cyccAHHM KpajeBHMa ByrapcKe. Y ibeMy je oco6hto 
6h.io pa3BHjeH0 KO>KapcTBO h H3B03H/io ce na XH.-ba.ne 
KO)Ka or .iHCHua, KyHa, 3eMeBa, h t.A. Kazia je noc/ie 
1878 r. H3ry6HO BC3y c ByrapcKOM h Jy>KHOM Cp6n- 
jom, h TproBMHa h OBaj KonapcKH pazi cy na/iH. hbe- 
roBy pa3BHTKy cMeiajy h ohh ceoc«H TproBH KaKBHx 
HMa y 3/ieTOBy, Bhhhuh h Cb. Hhkojih. HnaK LLJTHn 
HMa TproBaMKH 3Hanaj 3a hctomhc KpajeBe, Hapoqmo 
3a Ma/ieiiJ, rhijanau h KoMaHcny KoiviHHy, 3aTHM 3a 
OB'ie Flo/be h JlaKaBHuy. Oh je ynpaBO jouj jaK jio- 
Ka.THH TproBHHCKH ucHTap. Ca BapiiapcKOM ^O^HHOM 
h h.chom >Ke.ae3HHMK0M npyroM LLlTHn HMa Tpn KOMy- 
HHKnuHJe: LUTHncKO-Be/ieiHKH £pyM, h /ioujHje nyTCBe 
kojh BO£e 3a KpuBO/iaK h Fpa/iCKO y TnKBeiuy. Thm 
ce nyieBHMa H3B03e npOH3BO^H Bpera/iHHue, OBMer 
rio:ba h Hoibe /laKaBHixe, a yB03e pa3H0BpcHH CTpaHH 
ecnann. Be/ieiiJKH je /ipyM norviaBHTo 3a ko/ickh cao- 
Cpahaj, a Apyra ABa cy ca\io KapaBancKH nyieBH, 
Bp.io /ioujh, a ochm Tora Mopajy ao >Ke^e3HHMKHX da- 
HHua Bap^ap Ha cKe/iaMa npeliH. A/ih /ieTH ce na Bap- 
/iap ra3HTH, h naTOBapeHe Ma3re h Koibe npcBo^e npeKO 
H.era. Ha obhm nyieBHMa ce join bhah >khb KapaBan- 
ckh caoGpaiiaj, cpnajy ce noBopKe or KapaBaHa, no- 
r/iaBHTO Ma3re, HaTOBapene tbokIjCm, caH^yuHMa ne- 
Tpo/ieyMa H ecuanHMa. Ohh cy /ieTH hcto TaKO noce- 
henH nao h mTHiicKO-Be^eujKH nyT, jep ce H>HMa Ta^a 
yoxce nhn, a npaliw cy, n KapaBancKH npeHOC je jeB- 

THHHJH. 

rCpBTOBO. 

KpaTOBo cc iia.ia3H Ha ceBepHOM iie/iy no3naie 

KpaTOBCKO-3/ieTOBCKC By.lKaHCKC OU/iaCTH, y ^O.'lHHH 
HMKC PcKC, ]CRUe OR liaJBa)KHHJHX npHTOKa KpHBe 

i Bapotu je y tcchom o6/iyKy kojh je yoKBH- 

■4 ..' 



130 HOBA CPBHJA 



peH orpaHUHMa oa JlHcua, 3aTiiM /leiuheM, ByKOBueM 
h n^aBHuoM. KaA ce nonHeMO Ha jcnaH oa obhx bh- 
coBa h norjie^aMo o6;iyK kojh 3aiBapajy n;iaHHHe h 
y KOMe jiokh KpaTOBO, BHAeheMo Aa ueo o6;iyK HMa 
u3rneA jeAHor ByjinaHCKor Kpaiepa. H HecyMttHBo ce 
KpaTOBO Ha/ia3H Ha Meciy 113 Kora cy HeKaAa H3 
3eMa^CKHx Ay6nHa H36Hj'a;ie ycHj'aHo-TeMHe ByjiKaHCKe 
Mace. Taj KpaTep je caA Ma;io ouneheH, a Ta6am<a 
Pena ra je npope3a;ia y npasuy HCTOK-3anaA. Th npo- 
pe3H cy Tano tcchh Aa He KBape odihth o6m\i< Kpaiepa. 
BapoiiJKe i<yhe cy no Kocaivia H3Met)y pe^unx ja- 
pyra, y Bp;io ctpmhm no;io>KaJHMa, h Bp;io cy 36njeHe. 
Te Koce cy Ay6oKO noTOUHMa pa3pHBeHe, TaKO Aa jc 
qedo caodpahaj H3Metjy cyceAHHx waxa^a AOCTa hc- 
3ronaH 36or Ay6oKnx japyra Koje ce Mopajy npe;ia- 
3HTH. 36or OBaKor nojiconaja, cBaKH npncryn KpaTOBy 
je HapOMHTO Te>KaK. TeujKe cy hcto Tai<o h KOMyHH- 
KauHJe H3Mel]y KpaTOBa h cyceAHHx MecTa. XU 6u ce 
OAp>Ka;ie Be3e H3Met)y pasuHX jienoBa BapouiH, naHH- 
HdChh cy npeKO japyra KaMeiiH moctobh ca jeAHHM bh- 

COKHM CBOAOM. CaMO THM y3aHHM MOCTOBHMa, npeKO 

kojhx Ko;ia He Mory npehn, Be3aHH cy Meijyco6HO no- 
je^HHH acjiobh KpaTOBa kojh ce Ha^a3e no crpanaMa 
CTpMnx Koca. y^Hue cy BHjyraBe h hccto TaKO crpMe 
Aa je y3 thHx xeinKO hrh HeKe cy ynpaBO ycKe cre- 
neHHue H3Meijy ABa HH3a Kyha, h Te cy creneHHue 
yceneHe y MeKine ByjiKancKe creHe. MecTH cy hopco- 
KauH. Kyhe cy y 6jih3hhh jeAHa ao Apyre, KauiTO jeAHa 
Ha Apyry HaanoiteHe, h, y3a CTpaHe Koca nopeijaHe, 
BHpe jeAHa H3HaA Apyre. YjiHue cy y hckojihko 6;ia>Ker 
narH6a jeAHHo y TypcKOJ Maxa^H Cy^TaHa MypaTa. 
H3HaA OBe Mace oa 36hjchhx BapouJKHx i<yha H3AH>Ky 
ce MHora MHHapeTa h bmtkh ouaun TypcKnx Kyha, TaKO 
Aa je KpaTOBO Bapom /iene nepcueKTHBe, Kojy joui 
nojanaBa aM(j)HTeaTpa/iaH pacnopeA nojeAHHHX Bapoin- 
khx Ae^OBa h Kyha. 

„ KpaTOBO je AaKae y TaKO He3roAHOM no/io>Kajy 
Aa ce Bch no TOMe bhah A3 je jcahho 36or pyAapcTBa 
momo na obom MecTy nocTaTH. H3rvieAa Aa je Ha obom 
Mecry h/ih nerAe y oko/ihhh 6h;io jom phmcko py- 






ropibE noBAFUAp.ii-: 131 



ziapcKO nace^e. K. JnpHHeKy je hckh KpaTOBau no- 
Ka3HBao HoMHUHJaHOBC HOBue Kojn cy y BapoujH Ha- 
l^eHH. KpaTOBO ce npBH nyT noMrnte y MeipHaecroM 
Beny, a Beh je y npBO TypcKO BpcMe 6h.io Ba>KHO 
mgcto. Xaun Ka/i(J)a Hcrnqe 3.naTHe h cpe6pHe KpaTOB- 
CKe py^HHKe, h Be/in jxa cy ce ojx ibnx y npaTOBCKOJ 
Ky3Hnun hobuh KOBa.iH. Taj py^apcKH pa^ je h jxoix- 
HHJe noc/ie ccaaMnacror Bena HacTaB:i>au, a/in y MaibHM 
pa3MepHMa. Amu Bye je 3a6e/ie>KHO na KpaTOBCKH py/i- 
hhuh ca;ip>Ke nor.naBUTO cpe6poBHTH ra/ieHHT y nop- 
cf>npy. Th cy py;mnun 6oraTH. 1836 roAHHe cy y Kpa- 
TOBy 6n/ie ABe nehn. A Bye ce c6aBecTno na. ce on 
400 0Ka ra/ieHHTa Ao6nja 200 OKa o/iOBa h 700 apaMa 
cpe6pa." H npe 30 ao 40 roAHHa cy nojejxHHH c.na6H 
npiuy 'iiMaqn Ba;in^H pyae no KpaTOBCKoj oko.ihhh na 
Mnoro MCCTa Koja cmo Beh noMeHy.in. 

BapouiHua I Ila/irnKa na.ia'in ce y ao.iwiH 

Kpitne Peice, Ha anco/r r «oj bhchhh oa 682 m. Ona je 
y KJiHcypH Kpi !> v OBa npaBit npn H3:iacKy 

M3 ocorOBCKHi »«na. i ;iTBopena h y n/iannne 

Ay6oKO yByweiia Bapom, Koja ce Ty pa3BH/ia 36or Ha- 
poMHTiix cac6pahajHiix npiuiHKa H 36or >Ke.ne3nnx py^- 
HHKa y 6.1H3HHH. Hi pom mia onaj H3IVI % KOJH HMajy 
cBa MecTa Koja ce HaJiaae na crpMHM crpaHaMa pemnix 
Aonmia. Kyhe cy no crpanav He AOJiHHe, rpaijene 

je^na noBpx i i na.iumnyje jir 

CBaKa Kyha na Taj naqnn it Ma OTBoput nor.uu y pe i my 
/lo/ntny h na cynpOTHy CTpany peKo. .V TaKHM uapo- 
uniMa, npeima cy Kyhe 36njene He oceha ce OHa tc- 
CKo6a ii Kao y 36HJeHHM nace:i>nMa y 

paBHHUH. 

KpuBa I la.iaiiK.i vpno wibao hbo >na 

je nojiirnyTa ok ro/inne Il.trvnua ;ia je Ty 

Hajnpe 6wio mbjio vTBpljen.c kojc je 'ivna.io 
Kpoa K/iHcypy, h je oko 1634 n 

naiua. EanHJa "l ;a je oniicao ro yTBljetbe, h cno- 

mhm>c ;ta je Beh y to BpeMc nana \ rnplr >HJI0 



liUBA C.h'bHJA 

800 Kyha, Koje cy 6me noKpuBCHe AacKOM h hepaMH- 
aom. riopeA Tora y tboj je 6n;ia pa3BHJena >Ke;ie3Ha 
MinycrpHJa h pyAapcrBo. Pyzte cy ce, H3r^e^a, BaAH-ie 
y aojihhh KpHBe PeKe, jep EBAtija 4e;ie6HJa Be;iH Aa 
je Ba3Ayx y KpHBOj Ila^aHUH npHJaTan, ajin boas hhjc 
Ao6pa, jep npo/ia3H Kpo3 >Kene3He pyjxe. 3a ruianHHe 
H3Metjy KpaTOBa h KpHBe fla/iaHKe Ka>Ke Aa cy nyHe 
dape myMe, hhjh BpxoBH AOCTH>Ky He6ecHe BpxoBe, 
a Ha H>HMa HMa >Ke;ie3HHx pyAa y toahkoj* ko/ihhhhh 
Aa hm HeMa hh no^eTKa hh Kpaja. y OBOMe npHKa3H- 
Ba^y HMa AaK/ie OHe no3Haie opHCHTa/iCKe npeiepa- 
hocth c kojom ce cpeTaMO h koa BH3anTHJCKHx nncaua 
i<aA, Ha npHMep, onncyjy nojeAHiie BapoujH h ibHXOBa 
6oracrBa. 

7. TeTOBO. 

„TeTOBO je y cpe^HHH kotahhc, noA orpaHKOM 
LUape kojh ce 30Be ri/icma h kojh ce 33Bpuiyje 3a- 
paBfceHHM 6pnom Ba;nene; y iberoBy 3ajiel)y je npo- 
dpaHa h Ao6po HacejbeHa AOAHHa TeTOBCKe BncTpnue 
hjih FleHe. Ha bhchhh je or 430 ao 450 m., MaibHM acjiom 
y paBHHUH, BehHM no crpaHaMa, uejio yoKBHpeHO Bohtba- 
UHMa h BHuorpaAHMa. Bapom je TaKo 6oraTa H3BopcKOM 
h TenyhoM boaom Aa ce c FbOMe Mory nopeAHTH caMO 
BoAen, Bep h I-beryiu. MecMe cy MnorodpoJHe h bpao 
jane. BncTpnua je pa3BeAeHa y MnorHM Ba^aivia Kpo3 
CBe KpajeBe BapouiH h Kpo3 ABOpniura ; y CBaKoj ce Kyhn 
nyje H<y6opeibe Bhctph'ihhhx BOAa, h CBaKa Kyha HMa 
H3o6njba BO^e; oco6hto je to cjiynaj ca xpninhaHCKHM 
KpajeM HcnoA Ba/iTena, kojh je jaManHO yc/ieA Tora 
pe-naTHBHO i jhct. TeTOBO ce xBa/in Kao HaJ3ApaBHj'a 
Bapoui obhx KpajeBa." 

V FbeMy HMa 20.070 ciaHOBHHKa, oa kojhx bc- 
hHHy HHne TypuH h TypuH3HpaHH Ap6aHacn, a Ma- 
ibHHy Cp6H.JoiH oko no^OBHHe 19 BCKaTeTOBCKa i iap- 
mHJa je 6n;ia noiviaBHTO MyxaMeAaHCKa, a TaKo h 
mh(J)/ihuh TeTOBCKe Kotjihhc. Oa KaKO je nacTaJio 3a 
rproBHHy h TeKOBHny 3roAHHJe h cvioGoAHHJe BpeMe, 
xpHuihaHH cy ce nowe/in ckohomckh CBe BHine cua- 






TOPhbE IIOBAPAAPJH lOO 

>khth, h totobo CBa BapoiiJKa TproBHHa npeni;ia je y 
ibHxoBe pyKc, a h mhoth hhcJlihuh. Cbc no ceiiaM^e- 
ceTHX rcuHHa 19 BeKa TproBHiia ce Kpeia/ia BHiue npeMa 
CKaupy ho npeMa Co/iyny ; XaH (Albanesische Studien, 
c. 105) je 3a6e/ie>KHO aa je CKa^apcKH H3B03 6ho oko 
420.000 rpoiua (y neTp^eceTHM ro^HHaMa 19 BeKa). 

8. r ap. 

CacBHM je jpyKqHJH TocTHBap, kojh je Ha cbom 
;iaiiauiibeM Mecry y TypcKO BpeMe no^HrnyT, H3rvieiia, 
oko MaHacTHpa Cb. HHMHTpuja, h Kao aa cy My upBH 
cTaHOBHHUH 6hjih ccbaun ii3 oko/ihhx ce/ia. Oh je y 
ropibeM ne;iy TeTOBCKe KoiviHHe, r\ne ce n/iaHHHCKe 
kocc ziOMe npe^a3ehH y paBan, h npeacTaB/ba ueHTap 
n.iaHHHCKHx KpajeBa kojh cy Ha 3ana^y h jyry oji 
TeTOBCKe Kot/ihhc. y ibCMy iiMa 4387 ciaHOBHHKa, 
Meljy KOJHMa je 300—400 xpninhaHa, a ocia.io Typun 
h TypuH3npann Ap6aHacn; iiMa h Ma/iH 6poj LLlKOApaHa, 
kojh cy ziaTHHH, 3aTHM hcko/ihko B/iaujKHx nopozwua. 
MapujHJa je Ma.ia. Cbh ayhanH on jipBeia : no3Haia 
TypcKa wapiunja. TproBHHa h 3anaTH cy y TypcKHM h 
ap6aHauiKHM pyKaMa, caivio Bp.io Ma;io y cpncKHM h 
B/ianiKHM. vloiij 1910 r., Ka^ je F. HbhjhH TaMO 6ho, obo 
je 6H^a apaMHJCKa Mapuinja, cacBHM HecHrypua, y kojoj 
MecTo KpB na^a ii Mecro ce 3aTBapa ; oko Bapoiun cy 
C/1060AHO KpcTapn^ii ap6anaujKH KawauH, h CBa Map- 
mHja, a Hapo i iHTo oho Ma/10 xpHUjliana, 6h/ih cy y naJBC- 
- dpaxy. Kao Ilch m TuKOBHua, TocTHBap je cna- 
;iao y Bapoui anapxHJe h Hacn.ba. \\3m\b3jih cy ga ce 
ap6aHamKn KanauH, o6oraTHBiijn ce h/ichom, Hace/byjy 
y IocTHBapy. 

Cpc,iHUj;<j M'viropa nocraje cbc bhluc cc/jo It 

apufii y KOJeM 1 1 m a 50 60 ;iyliana h kojc ce nocreneno y 

lOUJHUy npeoGpaha. Ho UbhjhIicbhm o6aBeniren.nMa, 

;or.iaBHTO Apuayni c iiliijto Ma.no Ty- 

paKa h C/ion- vthm no *y y hmi 

nx cy 600 xpiiujhaiicKii I 
UH \p6anacn cy hobhjh 
« ■hhum. j 1 rpajy OHHy May 



134 HOBA CPBHJA 



npBeHCKo; HMa hx AocejbeHHx H3 ,He6pa, Kao uito cy 
Kapa-BehnpOBUH h MexMeA-A/iHJHHH, 3aTHM H3 npn- 
ujTHHCKor ccrca T/iore, H3 ce.ia Ja>KHHua noA Jby6o- 
thhOxM, Kao uito cy Beiiia;mH h FIphujobuh, a H3 Maha 
cy >KaT^njeBUH. 

y Ckoikkoj Crapoj Cp6nJH, napoHHTo y oko/ihhh 
CKonvba h KyMaHOBa, caqyBami cy mhoth MaHacnipH 
h upKBe kojh cy noAHrnyTH 3a Bpeivie HeMaibHhcKor 
B^aiiatba y obhm KpajeBHMa. HapOMHTO je MHoro TaKHx 
MaHacTHpa h upKaBa y CKoncKOj Upnoj TopH. Oa thx 
upKaBa h MaHacTHpa hckh cy y pa3Ba/iHiiaMa a hckh 
cy joui OHyBaHH. HaJ3HaTHHjn cy obh : MaHacTnp Ma- 
TeJHh h^h Maiejqe koa KyMaHOBa, 3aAy>«6nHa uapnue 
JcneHe, upKBa Cb. Tooptja y cejiy CTapoM HaropnnaHy, 
3a,n > y>K6HHa Kpajba Mn;iyTHHa. 3a Ty upKBy pycKH apxe- 
o/ior KoHjiaKOB Ka>Ke Aa ra je „nopa3H/ia" cbojhm H3- 
rjieixoM, h Aa je to jeAiia oa naJBehnx cpncKnx upKaBa. 
y K^nicypH MapKOBe PeKe je MapKOB MaHacTHp ca 
xpaMOM Cb. HHiwHTpnja, kojh je toahhc 1345 oohob- 
jbeH oa Kpajba ByKauiHHa. riopeA. OBora y CKoncKOj 
UpHOJ TopH cy OBe ciape upKBe h ManacTHpn: Ma- 
nacTHp ApxaHre/ia Muxan-na, kojh je HanHibeH 1641, 
ABe upKBe y ce/iy KyqeBHuiTy, c6e rpaljeHe y cpncKOM 
CTH^y, ManacTHp ycncnnja CBeie BoropOAHuc. y ce/iy 
Hepe3HMa noA KapuijaKOM je MaHacTHp h upKBa Koje 
je joui 1164 roAHHe noAHrao BH3afiTHjcKH uap A/ick- 
CHJe KoMHen. y ce/iy Jby6oTHiby cy pa3Ba/iHHe upKBe 
Cb Hhko/ic, Koja je 6n;ia carpal)ena 3a bdcmc uapa 
ZlyiuaHa. 

B^H3y KpaTOBa Ha/ia3H ce MaHacrnp /Icchobo, 3a- 
Ay>K6nHa ZlyujaHOBor bojboac O/iHBepa. Taj je Mana- 
cmp 3HaMeHHT no cbojhm yTHuajnivia Koje je y cea 

BpeMeHa BpilJHO H3A CpnCKHM CTaHOBHHLUTBOM OHHX 

KpajeBa. Ajih je 3a iiac oa naJBehe Ba>KH0CTH ujto je 
y iherviy cawyBan npBo6HTHH >KHBonnc. floa Ko3Jai<OM 
je MaHacTHp KapnHHa, kojh ce y cpeAH^eM cei<y ;mao 
ApxiubCBHua libera je na cbojoj GaujiHiiH noAHiao 



rOIMhE nOBAPAAPJE 



ceBacTOKpaTop ZlejaH >KapKOBnh 3a BpeMe LUpa jly- 
ujaHa. riope^ obhx cy 3Ha\ieHHTH MaHacTupH riwHibCKH, 
Fla^aHaMKH h Be/ieujKH. 



II MA/IEW C OKO/IHHOM KOHAHA H PAflOBMIITA. 

„Ma^eiu jeyoKBHpen LuyMOBHTHM n/ianHHawa cpe- 
Aibe bhchhc Bpa:myroM, flapyuoM, Totchom h CyocTpc- 
;iom, Koje ce CKyna 30By Ma/ieineBCKe Il/iaHHHe. rbo- 
roBa y3iiy>KHa ocoBHna je MepuAHJancKora npaBua, ;i\- 
rawaK je oko 20 km., a mnpoK HaJBHiue oko 10 km. 
Cpe;uba BHCHHa ;wa KOT.iHHa je oko 700 m. hberoBi 
n.iaHHMe cy y oG.iyKy nope^anc, h thmc je kot/ihh • 
c jy>KHe CTpaHe cacBHM TBp^o 3arpa^eHa, a ca ccBepne 
OTBopeHa. 3aTO Ma/iem HMa OHaKBy cpeAH>e CBponcKy 
K.iHMy Kao BHiue 06/iacrn jy>KHe Cp6HJe. y MaKejxo- 
HHjii iieMa Beher KOHTpacra ho iuto je H3uet)y OBe 
KOT^HHe h KOMaHCKe h/ih pa/ioBHiiiKe, h aKO cy y ne- 
nocpeAHOj 6/ih3hhh. HcTHiia y Ma/ieni ce panyna H 
ona BHeopaBaH oko IJyMaKaJHe h MaMyiviHJe, Ha kojoj 
ce Beh ocehajy yTHuajH Ton;inje, jy>KHe k/ihmc ; Ha iboj 
cuer pe^e najia h Bp.io KpaTKO BpeMe ce o^p>kh. A.th 
no npaBOM Ma/ieiny 3H\ia je Bp.io oiHTpa n MHoro 
cuera iiana^a, kojh ce MeceuHMa o.ap>KH. 3aio HaTon.mjy 
BHCopaBan oko MaMyT.iHJe Ma.ienjcBun Hcrepyjy npeKO 
3HMe h nanacajy CBOjy crony, h oh je 3aje;uiHMKa cbo- 
JHna Ma/ieiHCBCKHx ce.ia. OBaj naj6o/bH h najn.io;ubijn 
Aeo Ma/iema, napoMHTo naiuo.vi, .iHBaaaMa H inyMOM, 
ocrao je nenace.i>eH jc/ihho yc/ie/l necHrypnocTH. JIcth 
neMa y Ma/ieiny ohc 3anape H Bpyher h 3arym/bHBor B33- 
ayxa Kao no cyceanHM KOTJlMJiaMa. II obac npeoB/ia- 
byjy TOIWH A&HH, a.ni je naxiyx cbc>k, hc6o je mccto 
oG.iauno H naaajy npaBH ii.i.ycmt, Kao no ceBepniiM 
Oa.iKancKHM seMJbaiM. II npo.iehe H jccen HMdjy I 
nyno ocoCiine BaniHl KpajeBa. 

n.iacTHMKH ce oko Ma.ieiiia, aiano h oko IlHJaHua, 
H3ABajajy Tpn /ic.ia : KpHCTaJtdCTe, myMOBHTe n/iaHHHC, 



HOBA CPBHJA 

Koje HHHe dpaHe, 3aTHM HeoreHe n^one h xyMHHa, Koje 
MHHe BHiiJH CTynatb y kotvihhh h i<oje cy pa3pHBeHe 
noMeHyTHM ypBHHaMa; OHe c;ia3e y npaBy ajiyBujajiny 
paBaH h;ih aho KOiviHHe. IlecKOBHTe HeoreHe n/ione 
cy HenjiOAHe, peTKo cy r^e Ky^THBHcaHe, MaxoM cy 
yipHHe h no tBHMa npeno JieTa nace MHora CHTHa CTOKa. 
A^yBHj'a^Ha paBaH oko BperajiHHue, Be.aHKe anco^yTHe 
BHCHHe, HajdojbH je Aeo Majieina. OHa je CBa OHaKO 
3e^eHa Kao BHCOKe paBHHue jyro-3anaAHe Cpdnje, jano 
je HaTonjbeHa boaom MHoro6poJHHx H3Bopa kojh no 
HdOj H36Hjajy, a pa3BeAeHa je y Ba^aivia h BOAa Bpe- 
rajiHHue. Hivia OTaBa Kao no HauiHM KpajeBHMa H Ky/i- 
TypHe cy 6njt>Ke MaxoM cacBHM Apyre ho no AOcaAam- 
HdHm KOT^HHaMa. Ceje ce MHoro KpoMnnpa, 3aTHM 
xejbjxe, pa>KH, npoca, jemvia, OBca, nopeA KyKypy3a h 
nmeHHue; HeMa AaKJie naMyKa, opH3a h BHHorpaAa 
ocra;iHX MaKe^OHCKHX KouiHHa.. 3ejieHe ce necTH Boh- 
tbauH, HapOHHTO uiJbHBapH, h OKyhHHue cy orpaijeHe 
n^oTOBHMa h BpjbHKaMa, qera y cycejxHHM KOiyiHHaivia 
TaKO^e HeMa. 

Majieui ce He Mo^e ncxpaHHTH, h Ma^emeBUH 
cBane ro^HHe )khto Kynyjy. DiaBHO hm je 3aHHMa*be 
CTonapcTBO, Hapo^HTO OBue h K03e, a HMa flocra h 
CBHfea. Jep naina h jiHBaAa HMajy aobojl>ho, h no crpa- 
HaMa n^aHHHa, h Ha BHeopaBHH oko MaMyiviHJe no 
HeoreHHM njionaMa, h HanocrceTKy OTaBe oko Bpera;i- 
HHue. Ctokom cy Haj6oraTHj'a ccrca BjiaAHMHpoBO h 
BepoBO, h HdHXObc OBue Kynyjy crpyMHHKH TproBUH h 
H3B03e 3a UapHrpa^. 

He Mory H3B03HTH hh noBpfce hh Bohe, jep ra 
je HnaK y MatbHM Ko;iHHHHaMa. Ilqe^apcTBO je r^e r^e 
jane pa3BHJeHO, HaponHTO oko ce^a YMJieHa. Jaqe je 
pa3BHjeHO ApBOAejbCTBO, rpa^e ajiaTKe h H3B03e Ha 
bhhhhkh na3ap. Flo Ba^aBHuaMa npaBe Ao6ap majaK, 
kojh ca npoflaje y UlTHny h KonaHHMa. 

A;ih Kao cbh n^aHHHUH koa kojhx ce HHcy oao- 
MahH^H caBpuieHHJH HannHH pa^a, Ma^euieBUH He Mory 
>KHBeTH oa cbhx obhx npoH3BOAa, Beh y MacaMa HAy 
y nena;i6y, „ryp6ei7iyK", noA cbojhm „AparoMaHHMa", 
Hajneinhe y OBne Flojbe. MHorH 3najy h AyH^epcKH 



MA/IELU C 0K0.THH0M KOHAHA H PA£OBHIJJTA 137 

3aHaT h uny y ryp6ei;iyK „qeTaMa" Koje npeaBOAe 
ycTa6aiue, HaJBHine y HcroMHy MaKejOHHJy, a.in h y 
/ipyre 3eMJbe. 

y Majieiuy HMa 15 ce;ia, h BehHHa craHOBHHUJTBa 
npHna^a LLJonoBHMa; to je oho hcto craHOBHHiUTBO 
Koje je h y rinjaHuy, no OcoroBHjH, oko KpHBe fla- 
;ianKe h y zeny jyro-HcrowHe Cponje. r/iaBHo Medo 
je IlexHeBo, h/ih, Kao iijto cy ra 6ujih y HOBuje BpeMe 
TypUH, Ha3Ba ih, OcMaH/iHJe. V ibeiuy HMa 5 ro 600 
Kyha h 4 ''.-, cy Typun. To je Ma/ia na/iaHKa ca ;ienoM 
wapuiHJOM y Kojoj npeoB.ialjyjy 3aHaTH : rpHHapcTBO h 
KyjyHun;iyK; Ty je h ceflHWTe My;wpa. TaKO je flex- 
hcbo H3rvie,na;io 1900 ro£. MefjyTHM je 3eMJbOTpecoM 
on 1904 ro^HHe riexqeBo CKopo ca 3eMJbOM cpaBH>eHo; 
MHore HOBe Kyhe Koje ce 3HAajy, aahe na/iaHUH mo- 
^epHHJH H3Mej,. Hpyro bcthko Mecro y Ma^euiy je 
BepoBO ca 400 Kyha on kojhx cy caMO 100 TypcKe, a 
HMa HeKO/iHKO Kyha xepueroBaqKHX Myxai,inpa on Hhk- 
iunha h Ko^auiHHa. Th iMyxaunpn ocHOBa.TH cy jezuio 
hobo cc.no: Be3rahe BHine BepoBa; noinyHO cy owy- 
Ba/in jy>KHH flHa/ieKar, HOimby h odnwaje, a ,noce;beHH 
cy noiuTO je UpHa Topa 3ay3e/ia H>nxoBe KpajeBe. 
H.\ia hx h H3 6H/iehcKe o6^acTH. Metjy TypuHMa npe- 
OB/iaf)yjy Myxaunpn H3 ByrapcKe, a/in HMa h no kojh 
Myxauwp H3 hhhikc hih ziecKOBaMKe 06/iacTH. y OCTa- 
ntut cc.iHMa HeMa hh TypaKa hh Myxaunpa, Hero cy 
hhcto uioncKa. OHa cy pa3pel)eHOi mna Kao y Oco- 
roBHJH. Kyhe cy hm MaxoM n^eiape h/ih 03HAaHe on 
Heo6pah,eHor KaMCHa, hepaMHAOM h/ih kpdbhhom no- 
KpHBene. Ilviajy MaxoM flBa cnpaia, h Ha ropibeM HMa 
wapjxaK (iiHBaHaHa) noA kojhm je cyBOTa, n 30Be ce rboo. 

Vicnon Ma/ieiua Bpcra/innua y/ia3H y KOT/iHHy 
Koja ce 30Be HnjaHau h Koja je hcthx n.nacTHWKnx 
oco6nHa ca Ma/ieinoM. Ona OB/ie npHMa npHTOKy >Ke- 
/bOBHuy, Koja H3BHpe y n/iannnH Ko.i. 

nnjaiiaMKa KOT/imia je 15 — 16 km. jyraqKa, y 
cpejouby pyKy km. rnnpoKa, aho joj je anco/iyTHe 

bhchhc 600 — 630 m. OHa je na 3ana;iy orpaHHMeHa oco- 
ruBCKOM K/incypoM, H3 Koje Bperamiima H36nja TeK koa 
IlcTn6aibe. Kao Ma/ieui, h OBa BHcoKa KOT/iHHa . 



138 HOBA CPBHJA 



ruiaHHHCKy K^HMy Koja je c;iHHHa ca ceBepHHJHM 06- 
jiacTHMa Ba.iKaHCKor no/iyocrpBa, h npOH3BOAe thx 
o6.iacTH. Man>e je uiyMOBma oa MaJiemeBCKor OKBHpa, 
a/in Bzh no dpaHaMa ro/iaKa hMa bhcokc rope no ko- 
joj cy H3MemaHe 6yKBa, xpad h 6op. Cejy ce ncra 
>KHTa Kao y Majiemy, a Hajn;iOAHHJH Aeo oko U,a- 
peBa Ce;ia >KHTHHua je nnjanaHKa. HMa Aocra uubH- 
Bapa, Te HjjbHBe h cyme. Ajih nnaK h OBAe jedOHap- 
ctbo iviaBHO 3aHHMaibe. y rinjaHuy je 12 ce/ia, a nnaBHO 
je UapeBO Cejio, Koje ce paHnje 3Bajio BaaubeBO. HMa 
H3rvieA najiaHKe ca Ma^OM napiuHJOM. Oa 300 nyha 
220 cy TypcKe, a ocrajie xpninhaHCKe. y nnjaHanKHM 
ce^HMa HMa MHoro noMaKa." 

Majia PaAOBHLUKa KoiviHHa npeACTaBJba roptbH 
C./IHB CrpyMnue, Koja ce OBAe 30Be CTapa Pena. Ha 
ceBepy je orpatjeHa Orpa>KAeHOM h Kocaivia Il/iaqKOBHue, 
oa kojhx ce HajBeha Ha AecHoj CTpaHH noApnuiaHCKe 
Pene 30Be H3BeAeH. Ha jyry je yoKBHpeHa hh>kom 
MacoM n^aHHHe CMpAeaca h KynacTHM BpxoM nnjiaB- 
Tene. Ha 3ana#y je 3apaBaH Koja ce 30Be JypyKJiyK. 
Ha HCTOKy H3Meljy Orpa>KAeHa h CMpAewa ycKOM ao- 
;ihhom, nopeA ce;ia nonpajqeBa, npoB-JianH ce pena 
dpyMHua. Pa^OBHuiKa KOTJiHHa je Heo6nMHe njiOAHO- 
cth. y tboj oa-nhmho ycneBajy aKHTa, opH3, naiviyK, a(j)H- 
joh h noBphe. PaAOBHuiKa >KHTa cy HapOHHTO n,enbeHa. 

PadoeuiuiHe je Bapoinnua Koja je npe paTa HMa-na 
oko 7000 cTaHOBHHKa, on kojhx cy BehHHy ca^HtbaBajiH 
Typun. Hcto TaKO h y oko^hhh PaAOBHurra Jypyun 
cy canHFbaBa/iH 3naTHy BehHHy ciaHOBHHuiTBa. Bapo- 
innua je CBa y BpTOBHMa h 3e^eHH^y, H3 Kora ce Ha- 

pOMHTO H3AH>Ky BHTKe TOnO/IC U,e^O CTaHOBHHUJTBO, 

nopeA TproBHHe h 3aHaTa, 6aBH ce h 3eM;bopaAH>OM. 
HapiuHJa je Ma/iena, a;w >KHB/ba h 6ojbe ypetjeHa ho 

y MHOrHM CyCe^HHM BapOIHHMa. CpnCKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO, 

Koje je y MaibHHH, HMa hckhx TaMHHx ycnoMeHa o npo- 
lhjiocth. Hajcpe>KHia je ycnoMeHa Ha HeMatbnhcKy cpn- 
cny AP>naLy, jep 3najy Aa je Tana y PaAOBHuny ceAeo 
cpncKH BOjdOAa. XU/be ce nejacHO npnwa nenoj KHe- 
rnibH Pa^H Koja je ce6n HanpaBH^a ABopoBe y ca- 
Aaiuiboj HaupcKOj MaxaAU, h TaKO je nocra/ia Bapom 



MA/1EIH L OKO.'IHHOM KO l lAHA H PAJIOBHLHTA 139 

Koja ce no iboj npo3Ba.ia. Zla.i.e ce npnwa aa je y ce.iy 
KoHMCTy, y ao.ihhh JlaKaBnue, Gn/ia Be/iHKa Bapoiu, 
rpa£ h MHTpono^HJa. 

y panoBHiiJKOJ kot.thhh H oko/ihhh npeB/ialjyjy 
Ma/ia ccna oa 10 ao 20 Kyha, a/in HMa h bcthkhx ca 
150 Kyha. BdiHHOM cy MHT/iyun. CBa cy 36njeHa, oko 
ii>hx HMa wedo Boha h ja6/iaHOBa. Y cTaHOBHHiuTBy 
nocTOJn npciiaibe o tomc .na cy yqccTBOBa.iH y hckhm 
bc.ihkhm ceo6aMa Koje cy ce KpeTa/ie npeMa ceBepv. 
napoMHTO npeMa Cp6nJH. 

„OporpacJ)CKH ce OcoroB cacrojn H3 jibs %ej\a } 
H3Mel)y kojhx je Ay6oKa npecczyiHua ZleBeGanp 1200 if. 
CeBepHH, MHoro hh>kh ago HeMa jeAHor HMeHa, Ma na 
ce Ha crapHJHM h aaHanjibHM napiaMa 03HanaBa HMe- 
hom HoranHua. To je y>KH Benau Mepn/wjaHCKor npaBna, 
kojh ce npeKo riaTapnue Be3yje ca CTpeinepoM, a Ha 
3ana,ny je y Be3H ca Ko3JaKOM. HajBHUja iberoBa TanKa 
je Fo/ieMH Bpx, 1830 m. Ha jyry on # fleBe6aHpa je Oco- 
roB y y>KeM CMHC/iy. Oh HMa cpe;iiby BHCHHy oko 1600 m., 
cacroJH ce nor/iaBHTO H3 £Be n/iaHHHCKe Mace Koje cy luh- 
POkum 6h/iom Be3aHe : hctomhc, Koja je Ha rpaHHUH H3- 
Meijy CKoncKe CTape Cp6nje h ByrapcKe h Kojy heMO no 
najBHUjeM Bpxy 3BaTH PyJHOM, h 3ananHe, nnja jenaj- 
BHiua TaMKa UapeB Bpx, kojh Typun 30By Cy.naH- 
Tene. 06e cy Mace 3Be3flacre crpyKType h npeAcraB- 
Jbajy r.ioMa^ne oporpacj)CKe MBopoBe. Ma.no BHiua je 
HCTOHHa, mhjh je Bpx PyjaH (2230 m.) h HaJBHinn Bpx 
OcoroBa. Ca ibera H3Bnpe KpaK Bpera^HHue, Koja ce30Be 
Typannua, 3aTHM KpnBa PeKa. Ojy ibera ce na cbc crpaHe 
pa3H^a3e orpoMHa n/iaHHHCKa h BHCOKa 6n/ia, h to: 
npeMa Jyry Ba/iTauuHHua (1990 m.), na HCTOKy Bcr- 
Bynap (2050 m.), na 3aTHM npeMa Tiycren/iH.'iy niyMO- 
bhth noBHJapau LUariKC (2189 m.), Ha ceBepy BaitfAe- 
pima (1990 m.), h na 3ana;iy HjnpoKO 6h/io koj'hm ce 
PyjaH bokc 3a UapeB Bpx OBaj je Ma/io'iinwn (2104 
m.) h hctc CTpyKType h n/iacTHKe Kao PyjaH; na jyry 
ozi ibera o^Baja ce Gn/io KniKa, na < cBepy HypaMKo 
Bh/io, a na 3anaAy noMHibam SIoneH. 

Ochm MacHBHocTH h 3Be3AacTe CTpyKType, Ocu- 



[40 HOBA CPBHJA 



fob HMa join obc rwacTHHHe ocodHHe. Ha hbeiviy HeMa 

jaKO H3HeceHHX H OLUTpHX BpXOBa, Beh Ce H3Ha^ nio- 

Ma3He Mace Ma/io AHHty 3aBpinKacTH ro;iH BpxoBH. A;ih 
je caB pa3yt)eH Bp;io &y6oKHM #o;iHHaMa h npeAcraBJba 
Ba)KaH xH^porpa(})CKn MBOp H3Mel]y n^Htbe, KpHBe, 
Bpera.nHHue h Crpyivie; oco6hto cy ay6oKe h K/iHcy- 
pacTe AO.iHHe Ha jyro-3anaAHOj CTpaHH OcoroBa, Kao 
iijto je Ronuua 3;ieTOBiiiTHU,e, 3aTHM Crape h;ih KonaH- 
cKe PeKe h >Ke^e3HHue. 

OcoroB je myMOBHTa n^aHHHa, y kojoj npeBJia- 
Ijyje jiHCHaTO jipBehe, a oko HaJBHinnx BpxoBa HMa h 
6opoBe rope. CaMO cy My jyaoie CTpaHe BehHM aejiOM 
ro;ie. FlauiOM je Bpjio 6ora*r, h nooie LLIapa, Kopada 
h JaKynnue HecyMH>HBO je y tom norvie;iy Haj6ojba 
iMaHHHa obhx od^acTH. 36or Tora, h 36or Behe cnryp- 
hocth, HeMa y obhm ceBepHHM Ae^OBHMa CTape Cpdwje 
h MaKe^oHHj'e hh y je^Hoj njiaHHHH BHuie UpHOByHana 
ho no OcoroBy; HaJBHuie h>hxobhx npnBpeMeHHx Ha- 
cejba HMa no JIoneHy h Ka^HH-KaMeHy y H3BopHnrry 
3^eTOBHTHue, hjih ynpaBO tbeHa Kpana JeuiTepna. Ha 
hctomhoj 6yrapcKoj CTpaHH PyJHa HMa KO^n6a Be^nx h 
Uphhx B;iaxa. Ochm Tora ceJbauHMa okojihhx cejia 
npeaajy 3;ieTOBCKH h KonaHCKH TproBUH CBOj'a Be^HKa 
cra^a Ha ncxpaHy h TOBJbeFbe 

H3Mel]y OcoroBa h nnjaHaMKO-Ma/ieineBCKHx n;ia- 
HHHa npo6nja ce Bpera;iHHaa Bpjio .nyranKOM KJiHcy- 
pOM, Koja ce 30Be OcoroBCKa h;ih FlHJaHaqKa. Bncona 
n^aHHHCKa o6;iacT Ha #ecHoj CTpaHH H>eHoj, hjih ynpaBO 
jyro-HCTOMHe CTpaHe OcoroBa, 30By ce OcoroBHj'a. Flo 
H>oj cy CBa ce^a B/iacnHCKor h/ih neMaTCKor THna; Ha- 
POmhto je jano pa36njeHO h y MHore Maxa/ie noAejbeHO 
Be/iHKO ce^o ZlpaMMe na aecHOj CTpaHH Bpera/iHHue. 
Je^HHO 36njeHO cejio OBe o6;iacTH je KajiHMaHue. Obo 
je je^aH HenpoKHHyT nojac ce^a BJiacHHCKor THna, koj'h 
ce oa Bpera/iHHue Kpo3 OcoroBCKy o6;iacT, KpaJHmTe, 
Cpe^opeK h CrpanHH npy>Ka ao nnpoTCKe Jly>KHHue." 

„J\ho KoqaHCKe KOTJiHHe je cacBHM paBHO, a;iy- 
BHJa^HO ; je,ziHHO Hcnoa ce^a Hhbhuc HMa AH^yBHJa^Ha 
Tepaca 8 — 10 m. BHCOKa h cacTaB^.eHa oa o6^yiaKa 



\ /IK III C 0K0/1HH0M K04AHA H PAAOBHIIITA 141 

KBapua h KpHCTa.iacTHX uiKpH/baiia. Ochm Tora ce ok- 
BnpoM no/ba bhah 3apaBibCHOCT y Kojy je KOT/iHHa 
y/iowena. FloMeHyr je neo Te 3apaBibeHOCTH H3\iet)y 
KoMapa HOpH3apa; 3apaBibeH0CT je HcnoA hctomhot 
jiena FI/ia'iKOBHiie hcko/ihko KM/iOMerapa .. iunpoKa. 
C/wmia je riHuen/ieHy kojh ce jaB/ba oko 6ocaHCKO- 
xepueroBaqKHx Kapawx no/ba. 

Kpo3 KonaHCKy KOT^HHy npoTHMe Bpera/iHHua, 
Koja je OBiie h /icth 6oraTa bohom. To AO/ia3H OTyaa 
ujto ce y KonaHCKOJ kot/ihhh cKyn/bajy Kpaun h CKopo 
CBe bo/iom jane npirroKe Bpera/iHHue, Kao : 3/ieTOB- 
lUTHixa, CTapa h.ih KonancKa PeKa, Maca/iHnua h/ih 
OpH3apcKa PeKa, OcoJHHiia ca ripeK/ianjuHiiOM h B/ia- 
TaujHHuoM, h 3pnoBCKa PeKa. y KonancKOJ kot/ihhh 
je XHiiporpac{)CKa ne/ieHKa Bpera/iHHue, h OHa ce OBAe 
Kao 3HaTna peKa CTBapa. y3 KHine h Ton/beibe CHeroBa 
ce y KOT/iHHy cra i iy h MHorH noToiw h peMHue, Hapo- 
hhto c n.ianKOBHue. CBe Te MHoro6poJHe npHTOKe ro- 
Hoce n/ioziHe nanoce h odnaB/bajy po;iHy 3eM/by ko- 
qaibCKe kot/ihhc OHa je ibHMa h ao6po HaBO/ubeHa 
jolu noTnyHHJe ycvie/i Tora iuto cy Bpera/iHuua h ibeHe 
jawe npHTOKe y Miiore Ba^e pa3BeAeHe. 

Ca CepecKHM Ilo/beM, Mer/ieHOM n MeTOXHJoM, 
KonancKa KOT/iHua je Hajn/io;iHHJa y Crapoj Cp6nJH h 
MaKeAOHHJH, OHa je ynpaBO pacKomne n/ioaHOCTH. Pa- 
BaH y3 jy>KHy nnnuy no/ba 3acal)cna je nor/iaBHTO ny- 
BanoM, o komc ce 6aBe Jypyun H3 n/ianKOBHMKHX ce/ia. 
CpeAibH, Ma/io y/iy6/beHH /ieo kot/ihhc 30Be ce KopHTO. 
Oh je h y no3HO zieTO HaTon/beH boaom, h H3y3H\ia- 
jyhH HCKe 6apcKe napTHJe, Koje cy noji poro30M, caB 
je 3acejaH opH30M. To je rviaBHH npoH3Bo;i OBe kot- 
/IHHC, H „KOMaHCKH opH3" no3naT je Kao Haj6o/bH ; OH 
ce Ha CKoncKOj nnjaiui uchh naJBHiue, h aohuhjch je 
npe 1878 roji. h y Bpaibe h /IecKOBau. Oa ocoroBCKe 
K/incype na aok Bpera/wnua hc H3a^e H3 KOMancKe 
kot/ihhc, CByn cy nope;i n>e caivia opH3HHJTa, caMO no 
oue^HHJHM uecTHMa Kyxypya. rio opH3nnjTHMa je b 
BaaaMa pa3BCAcnu, h ona Ty ctojh no 40 Aana, aok je 
opiia Be vnnje h.ih ;iok He Hcnap;i, na ce OHM HOBa 
nyiijTa. Haj/iy6;bH Aeo kot/ihhc je AaK/ie npeKO Lie- 



I4z HOBA CPbHJA 



jior Jieia orpe3ao y OBy BeniTa4KH AOBeAeHy BOAy, 

H3HaA KOJC Ce jeAHHO AH>Ky HCyhKaCTH OpH3HH B.iaTOBH. 

OpH3 ce ceje h y AOJWHaMa Bpera/niiiMHHHx npmoKa, 
HapoHHTo oko OcoJHnue h IlpeKJiaiiiHH4Ke Pckc 3a- 
thm y AOft>eM TOKy Maca/mnue ; OBAe oko cejia OpH- 
3apa pOAH Haj6oJt>H nnpHHaq KonaHCKe KOiviHHe, h 
3eM:ba je HajcKynjba. H KO^aHCKH KyKypy3 h;ih uape- 
BHua ueHH ce Kao Haj6ojbH y MaKeAOHHJH. TaJH ce h 
Bp^o Mnoro 6ocTaHa, HapOHHTO oko ce/ia HuBHue; Te 
/iy6eHHue cy oa HaJBehHx, Bpjio MecTO 10—15 KH/ia 
TeniKe. y Majioj kojihhhhh ceje ce npoca h nmeHHue. 
36or 6apa kojhx MecniMHue wvia, 36or BOAe Koja 

no OpH3HLIlTHMa CTOJH AOK He HCnapH, KOMaHCKa KOT- 

jiHHa je Bp^o He3ApaBa, h Majiapnja je OBAe cra;iHa 60- 
^ecT ; HapoHHTO ce oa n>e ;ieTH naTH KaA cy Be;iHKe >Kere. 
A KOMaHCKe ^eTPbe >Kere no3Haie cy, jaqe ho h y hckhm 
jy>KHHJHM MaKeAOHCKHM KoiyiHHaivia : Ba3Ayx je Bpyh, 
3aryuj^>HB, TOKaK, a y3 to ce hcchocho ocehajy cyH- 
naHH 3pauH, kojh neKy. YcjieA Tora, h ycaeA opH3HHiTa, 
AHOM KOT^HHe totobo neivia Hacejba, aok cy no CTpaHaMa 
fteHHivi MHoro6pojHa, Be^HKa h Bp/10 6oraia ce;ia. y 
Haj/ieniuHM cy no^OKajniwa ce^a HcnoA ri/ianKOBHue, 
Kao Mop03BH3A, rAe je 6n;ia ciapa enHCKonnja, a Ha- 
POhhto BHHHna, Koja je Ha 3apaBHH noA orpOMHOM h 

UiyMOBHTOM FlnaHKOBHUOM, Ca CBe)KHM Ba3AyxoM H 

boaom. OHa je h HaJBehe ce.no KonaHCKe KOiviHHe, 
ca MHorHM jiennivi TypcKHM Kyhaivia. CraHOBHHUH Bpjio 

Cy >KHBH H aKTHBHH, H „BHHH4KOM 6yHOM M nOHCKH 

cy ycTaHUH y obhm KpajeBHMa. Metjy TypuHMa npe- 
OB;iafjyiy JypyuH h MyxaunpH H3 6yrapCKHX BapouiH. 
y cpeAy je y Bhhhuh na3ap, kojh He ycTyna ko- 

HaHCKOM. TprOBUH H3 okojihhx BapouiH, HapOHHTO 

KonaHa h IIlTHna, AOHOce ecnane, h cejbaun H3 ko- 
naHCKe oKo^HHe, OcoroBHJe, rinjaHua h Ma/ieina, AOTe- 
pyjy cTOKy h AOHoce KO>Ke, ByHy, Maaio, BOcaK, hta. 
y3 nyT ce cpeTajy KapaBaHH chthhx Marapaua, kojh 
cy ocaiviapeHH h c o6e CTpaHe bctchkhm ecnanHMa Ha- 
TOBapeHH ; y n>HMa cy noivieHyTH npoH3BOAH, Koje ce- 
jbaun npoAajy, h Apyrn, Koje cy y Bhhhuh KynwiH. 
JXpyKHHju cy TproBaMKH KapaBaHH, MaxoM koh»ckh. 



MAJIBPJ C OKO/IHHOM KOHAHA H PAflQBHUJ TA 143 

KnpHunje cy B;iacH, kojh >khbc nomaBHTo Ha Oco- 
roBCKHM n^aHHHaMa, h 6aBC ce o CTonapcTBy H kh- 
pnun/iyKy Ohh 3HMy npoBejy no oko/ihhm BaponiHNia 
h ce.THMa, a mhoth y ibHMa odaHy h cra/mo ce Ha- 
crane. TaKBHx B.iaxa HMa y KonaHHMa 35 Kyha, y KpH- 
boj Ila.iaMUH HHHe npeKO 3HMe 3HaTaH Aeo cranoB- 
HHiiiTBa, a HeKH cy h HacTaibeHH. Y HuBHHanHMa HMa 
5 Kyha cra/wo HacTaibcunx B/iaxa, HMa hx OBixe y Bh- 
hhuh h no apyrHM KonaHCKHM ce.iHMa. Obh HacrafbeHH 
B.iacn ce 6aBe norviaBHTO o KHpnuH.iyKy, a ohh ho- 
Ma^CKH ca OcoroBa, Jlonena, hta , Apwe epre/ie KOH>a 
h na bHMa Bpuie npeHOce ecnana. JleTH necTO chocc 
h npo/iajy CHer ca OcoroBCKHx n;ianHHa, 3amM ApBeHy 
rpa^y. ria3apHHM je /xaniiMa qapmnja nyna y KowaHHMa 

H BHHHUH THX B.iaiUK'HX KHpHl,IHJa." 



rHKi ::iika kot.iuha. 
Ha/ia3H ce H3iief)y n/iaHnna n/iaByma, HayMUHKa 

H KOHMaTa H H3MCl)V UiyMOBHTHX MopHYQBCKHX H.ia- 

hhiii Ha jyro-3anany. HyraMKa je oko 50 KH.ioMeiapa, 
mnpoKa oko 40 KH/iOM6Tapa, a Be^HKa 2.047.7 km 2 , rioc/ie 
MeTOxnjcKe KoT/inne, THKBem je naJBeha y Oapoj Cp- 
6hjh h Mai:eAOHHJH. IViaBF*' THKBeiHKy KOMynHKauHJy 
oj. crapnue npecTaB/ba.na je AO.iHiia Bap,iapa ; nope;i 
Tora nonpewHHM KOMynHKaiuijaMa HMa/ia je BC3e ca 
I Ipn.neriCKOM h BHTo:bci<OM Kot.thhom. ca MopuxonoM, 
ca LliTHnoM h OpyMHuoM. HapOMHTO je pannje 6ho 
Ba>naH nyT 3a ripn/ien, na komo ce H jaHac cpeiajy 
KapasanH Ma3rn ca ecnannMa h mhoto khphuhjckhx 
Ko/ia, h na noc/ieTKy Mnoro6pojnH xaiioBH, kojh cy 
CBe AO .mnac c 'lyBann. Oa Kai«> j< IHOM Bap/iapa 

npupa;uua ^i.ic.umna, unaj je nyT OR CBOJe BaxcHO- 

larao i 'o. 

TnKBeuj je naJHH/Ka n naJTon/inja kot.thii, 
MaKeAOHHJe. Y n.eMy yceBH C83py na Meceu aana npc 
hu y Ckohckoj h Bhhu.i/koj KOTJIHHH. CHCI na/i a peTKO 



144 HOBA CPBHJA 



h o^p>kh ce caMO HeKO^HKO Aana. Knma na^a y jeceH 
h y noneTKy npo;ieha ; Ta^a je 3eMJbHiiiTe HaTonjbeHO, 
B^a>KHO, nomyHO 03e;ieHH, a penHije #o6HJy Bo^y. Beh 
KpajeM (j)e6pyapa noHHite #a 3e;ieHH, KpajeM jyHa Ha- 
CTyna HecHOCHa >Kera, Koja je hco6hhho jaKa; Ba3ayx 
je Bpyh, H3 to^hx nnona h necKa 3paqn TonjioTa h 
6Hj'e Kao japa. Ue^or Jieia He6o Hnje HHKa^ Hao6;ia- 
neHO h cyHue dnje 6e3 npeciaHKa. H3BOpH npecaxHy, 
a Ma;ie pe^Hue npecyuie. JjpBa cy h uiyMe BeoMa peine, 
h 3aTO HeMa xnanoBUHe, hh 3aKJioHa o^a; cyHua. Bp£- 
ckh Aeo THKBeiua Ha ;ieBoj CTpaHH Bap^apa ;ieTH je 
caB ro h upH, 36or Tora ihto ce jaKO pacna^ajy MO,npH 
h McyTH neinwapH h npH TOMe npeBJiane hckom uphom 
HaB^aKOM. PeTKH cy 6yceHOBH TpaBe, kojh cy noTnyHO 
cnapyuieHH, TaKO rb. HeMa hh name. YceBH cy peTKH h 
MaxoM KpHCJbaBH. TaKO JieBa 6p4CKa cipaHa THKBema 
Ha^HHH JieTH Ha npaBy nycTHtby. Ce^a cy 3HaTHO 
Man>a Hero Ha #ecHOJ CTpaHH. Kyhe cy cacBHM y 6;iH3y, 
6e3 pe^a Ha6auaHe, He3rpanHa o6;iHKa, HawHtbene oa 
HeoTecaHHx n;iona, 6e3 Ma^Tepa, noKpHBeHe Tan>HM 
nemnapcKHM n/ionaMa hjih KpoBHuaivia. y ABopnuiTHMa, 
hh oko cejia, HeMa HHr^e apBeTa. 3aTO cy 3hmh h3jio- 
aceHH jaKHM BeTpOBHMa, a ;ieTH hx 6nje HecHOCHa Hcera, 
36or Tora ce y obom Kpajy THKBema yMwpe, craHOB- 
hhuitbo ce pacejbaBa, h HMa MHoro nycTHx ce;ia. Ty 
CTaHyje TypCKO imeMe JypyuH, kojh npeACTaBjbajy rpoMO, 
jieibo h HeKy^TypHO ct3hobhhujtbo, h Koje thm oco6h- 
HaMa 3HaTHO noBehaBa onuny 6e^y OBor Kpaja. 

MHoro je njioAHHJH h HacejbeHHJH onaj #eo .TH- 
KBema kojh je Ha Aecnoj CTpaHH Bapnapa. OBjxe Kao h 
y aojihhh PajHe, CBa n/iOMacra 6p^a Koja cy cacraB- 
jbeHe oa necKa h KpenH>aKa 3acat)aHa cy bhhobom jio30m. 
To je orpoMaH BHHorpaACKH Kpaj, c kojhm ce bhho- 
rpa^CKH KpajeBH AOcaAauitbe Cp6nje He Mory ycnope- 
>)HBaTH. THKBeiu ca PajueM h CxpyMHUOM npeAcraBJba 
HaJBehy BHHorpa^apcKy o6;iacT y ue;ioj MaKeAOHHJH. 
HaJBHiue je 3aca^eHa ;i03a upHora rpo>K^a, on, Koje 
HMa BHme Bpda, a 30By ce HnKOAHHKa, HnmaBKa h 
THKBeiHKa ;i03a; Ma^e je 3aca^eHa 6e;ia Ji03a, Koja ce 
30Be flpHapKa, a joiu Man>e BerviepKa, Koje HMa up- 



THKBEUJKA KOT/IHHA 



BeHKade 6o6e Kao crpyMHMKO rpo>K^e. HaJBHme ce 
xBa/in rpom^e ce/ia PocoMaHa h KaMeH rojiz. U,eH- 
Tap THKBeiuKH je Ka8adapu,u, y KOMe ce npo^aje th- 
KBeiuKO rpoK^e h bhho. y ibeMy CTaHyjy thkbcujkh 
6eroBH, totobo caMO IloMauH, kojh BehHHOM roBope cpn- 
ckh. noc/iezubHx roiiHHa Kao Ba>KHe nHJaue 3a rpo>Kl)e 
nocTanc cy h >Ke/ie3HHMKe craHHue J\euup KanHJa, 
KpHBO/iaK h Tpa^cKO. PaHHj'e ce rpowlje H3B03H/io Haj- 
BHiue 3a Co/iyH, a 3a nocjiembux 10 roiiHHa najBHiue 
y Cp6njy Flope^ rpowlja npoaaje ce y bchhkhm ko- 
^HMHHaMa bhho, paKHja h cnphe. Flo BHHorpaiiHMa HMa 
AOCTa ao6pa Boha. Ha aecHoj crpaHH Bap^apa y Th- 
KBeujy y bchhkhm KO/iHMHHaMa ca^H ce ac[)HOH, cy3aM, 
aHacoH h naMyK. y ao/ihhh UpHe ceje ce aocra nn- 
pHHna, oko UpHe HMa nocra poro3a, or Mera ce npaBe 
acype h H3B03e 3a ripn/ien h Co/iyH. HnaBHO MecTO y 
TnKBeujy jecre KaBa^apue. To je Bapoiu 6oraTHX th- 
KBeiHKHX 6eroBa, MHJe ziene Ky/ie caMHibaBajy HajBehH 
h Haj/ieniiJH Reo Bapoiun. MecTa BaTOiua h HeroTHH 
AoGnjajy CBe Behn 3naqaj, HapoMHTO noc/ieaibH, jcp je 
y 6/ih3hhh KpHBO/iaK, h y ibeMy ce np>KH je^aHnyT 
He^e^Ho na3ap. HeroTHH HMa MapiHHJy h h3mca3 Kao 
Ma/ia BapoujHua. H y JbeMy ce/in aocra thkbcujkhx 6e- 
roBa h HMa ziennx hcko/ihko 6eroBc»<HX ny.na. Tpa^CKO 
h KpHBO/iaK cy >Ke/ie3HHqKe craHHue 3a FIpH/ien h 
IUTHn, o6a cy >KHBa, Harvio nanpe^yjy h paciy. y Tpaj- 
ckom HeMa ce/ia bc!i caMO xanoBa kojh pa^e nor.ia- 
bhto y jeceH 3a BpeMe H3B03a rpowfya. MeljyTHM je 
KpnBO/iaK bcnhko ce/io ca Ma/ioM HapuinjoM npcTOKHO 
ocMaH/iHJCKOM, a Ma/io noMaMKOM. Ca o6e nooieAH>e 

TaHKC H3B03C >' BC.THKHM KO.HHMHHaMa n/IOMC OR apTH- 

/louiHcra Koje \qrho HCMaMKO ^pyiHTBO ccmc y ce.iy 
FIonaanJH h H3B03H y HeManKy, 3aTHM 3a Co/iyH, Hhhj, 
Btorpaa h CocJ)njy. 

Ha accho] dpaHH Bap^apa cy ce/ia 6o/ba h Beha 
ho Ha /lesoj. Ce.i.auH cy MaxoM MH(}) i iHJe KaBa/iapcKtix 
h HeroTHHCKHx CeroBa. no bhhjc Hmjwuja craHyje y jea- 
hom ayrawKOM, 3ajca"HMH0M, npn3CMH0M cranycaBHiLie 
nperpaaa h ouaKa. Th CTanomi Mory Chth Kao H.np. 
onaj y MH(}).TyKy Kopnjn ro 80 Mdapa jiyraMKH. Heka 

HOBA CP6UJA !■> 



14(i HOBA CPB1IJA 



cy ce;ia ncmejbeHa Ha BHiue MHiviyKa, ajiH BehHHa cejia 
canHHaaBajy HHT/iyK je^Hor 6era. 

CacBHM je ^pyKHHJH H3r^eA paBHuue oko Bap- 
.napa, Koja ce npy>Ka on BeneiiiKe JOwcype .ao XleMHp- 
Kannje. PaBHHua je 3acejaHa >khtom, a no crpaHaMa cy 
Hajqeiuhe BHHorpa/m. HajnjioAHHj'e cy napTHje H3Mel]y 
yjianua h FpaacKor h Horaje h TpivmHiuTa. 



IV. MOPMXOBO. 

3a THKBem je eKOHOMCKH Be3aHa BHCOKa n;ia- 
HHHCKa o6^acT Mophxobo, Koja noHHtbe on FIojioujKor 
MaHacTHpa y THKBeiuy h npyaca ce y3 AO^HHy UpHe 
CBe no CKOHHBHpcKe K;iHcype. hberoBy ceBepHy rpa- 

HHUy HHHH HH3 BHCOKHX H CTpMHX nJiaHHHa, H3Met)y 

kojhx cy HaJBehe flpeujjbeH, PyjeH h Pa,no6HJbCKa FLaa- 
HHHa. H3Meijy BHm/bCKe Kotjihhc h MopHxoBa je Ce- 
/ienKa n^aHHHa, a Ha ziecHoj crpaHH UpHe cy mophxob- 
CKO-MerjieHCKe njiaHHHe, H3Me^y kojhx je HaJBHuia Hwne, 
ca cbojhm BpxoM KajMaK-Ha/iaH, kojh je 2525 m. bhcok. 
On CKOHHBHpcKe K/iHcype no rio^oujKor MaHa- 
CTHpa Mophxobo je AyranKo oko 50 KHJiOMeTapa; no- 
BpujHHa fceroBa h3hoch 1390 KBazipaTHHx KHJiOMeTapa, 
a cpe^Fba BHCHHa My je oko 1000 MeTapa. Mophxobo 
je AaK^e HaJBHina KOiviHHa MaKeAOHHJe h CTape Cp6nje. 

MopHxoBCKO-Mer^eHCKe njiaHHHe, nopea ocoroB- 
CKO-MaJieuiKHX njiaHHHa, riepncTepa, JaKynnue h IUape 
npencTaB^ajy HaJBehy n^aHHHCKy Macy y Hoboj Cp6HJH. 
OHe cy ca cbhx crpaHa onKo;beHe ,ny6oKHM h npo- 
dpaHHM KOT^HHaivia h peHHHM #o;iHHaMa. Ha ceBepy 
cy TnKBeui h Pajau, Ha 3anaAy je Fle^aroHHJa, Ha jyry 
je Capntp/i h MervieH, a Ha HCTOKy nonnna. Bap^apa 
c H>eHHM KOT^HHaMa. y cpeijHHH Tora BHCOKor n;ia- 
HHHCKor CK/iona je KopyTHHa Mophxobo, Koja ce Ha- 
^a3H c o6e CTpaHe UpHe. y n>oj HeMa Behnx jezmo- 
craBHHX paBHH Beh cy caMO OBiie-OH^e Man>e 3apaBHH, 
Koje 30By UoaohU. Ocra;jH HberoB fleo HHHe BHeopaBHH 



M0PHX0B0 147 



h MacHBHe, MaxoM 3apaBtbeHe Koce, Koje cy npoceHeHe 
h pacraB/beHe Ay6oAo;iHHaMa. Flo TOMe cbom H3ivieAy 
MopnxoBO Ha.iHMH Ha BHCOKe n.aaHHHCKe 06/iacrH xep- 
ueroBaqKe rioBpuiH h upHoropcKHx BpAa. K/iHMa je 
oiuTpa, HecTO c oco6nHa\ia cpeAtbe-eBponcKe k^hmc 
Zlo/iHHe cy Bp^o Ay6oKe h nyHe boac BHHOBa /103a 
y H>eMy He ycneBa, a n^eMeHHTO Bohe Bp/io peTKO. 
CBe n/iaHHHe ochm Ce/iem<e npenpHBeHe cy rycTHM bh- 
cokhm ujyMaMa, Met}y KoJHMa npeB/ial)yjy neTHHapn. 
Mophxobo npeacraB/ba HajinyMOBHTHJy o6.iacT iicae 
HoBe Cp6HJe. TproBHHa c APBHMa jaKO je pa3BHJeHa. 
HhHXOBa ,npBa cnyiHTajy ce cn/iaBOBHMa ao y Bapjap, 
oiiaK^e cy ce y paHHJa BpeMeHa peKOM cnyujTa/ia ao 
Co/iyHa. y iiiyMaMa HMa MHoro MeABeAa, ByKOBa, cpHa, 
je^eHa h ahba>hx cBmba. Uopeix Tora jaKO je pa3BH- 
jeHO CTOMapcTBO, jep je ue/ia 06/iacT Bp/io 6oraTa na- 
ujaMa. ripe neTpAeceT roAHHa XaH je panyHao Aa y 
MopHxoBy HMa oko cto xn;baAa OBaua. I~IopeA cto* 
qapcTBa MopnxoBJbaHH ce MHoro 6aBe ApBOAe/bCTBOM 
h 3HAapcTBOM. Mophxobckh Aynijepn nyiyjy MHoro no 
CBeTy, MaxoM y BehHM rpynaMa no 20 ao 40 h>hx y 
jeAHOM iipyuiTBy. hbnxoBe AyHtjepcKe Apy>KHHe cy Ma- 
xom opraHH30BaHe, h HMajy CBora Bot)a, kojh norafya 
nocao h npHMa nopyi;6Hne. Hay h Kao HaAHHwapn y 
6;iH>Ke kot/ihhc rAe o6pat)yjy ilhbc 

y toj TeujKO npncTynaMHOJ h 3aTBopeHOj o6;iacTH 
HeMa HHr^e npaBora nyia, Beh caMO nyTaiba Koje cy 
c/iwHHe upHoropcKHM HororrynHMa, h pefye KOAOB03a. 
OHa npe.acTaB.ija HaJMHCTnjy c/iOBencKy o6/iacr y ue/ioj 
MaKeAOHHJH. CaMO y ce/iHMa KoHOiiHWTy h Mpe>KHH- 
koj HMa ne3HaTaH 6poj AOce/bCHHx Ap6anaca, a y Tpa- 
aeujHHUH, ByAHMepuy h BemHiHTy HMa Ma/io B/iaxa. 
MopnxoBO je, nopeA Tora, o6.iacT naTpnapxa.iHe ny/i- 
Type ca jeABa npnMeTHHM TypcKHM h rpm<o-UHHuap- 
ckhm Ky^TypHHM yTHuajeM. Obo CTanoBHHiHTBO h no 
cbojhm ncnxHHKHM oco6HnaMa mhhh 3acc6ny oa3y y 
MaKCAOHHJH. Oho je OTBopeHO, aocct.i.hbo, OTpecHTo, 
a nopeA Tora Mnpno h Bp/io rocro/byfiHBO. Obo je 

MO)KAa jeAHHO CTOMapCKO CpnCKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO Koje 

ne 3Ha 3a Kpaijy h n/iennA6y crow 



148 HOBA CPBHJA 



CBa MopHxoscKa cejia cy cio6oAHa. HeMa mhcj)- 
wnja hh HHT^yqKor eKOHOMCKor CHCTeMa. OBe hmobhc 
npH^HKe, nopeA qHdor n.iaHHHCKor Ba3Ayxa h cjio- 
6orhot CToqapcKor >KHBOTa, yTHua/ie cy 3HaTHO Ha pa3- 

BHhe HapOHHTHX nCHXHMKHX OC06HHa. Mel)y MOpHXOB- 
CKHM Ce/IHMa CBOJOM BCnHMHHOM H npHBpeAHHM )KHBOTOM 

HapoMHTO ce H3iiBajajy nBa, h to Pojtcden, qnje cra- 
hobhhihtbo nopeA CTonapciBa 3HaTHO npnBpet)yje h 
py^apcKHM 3aHHMaHDeM; 3aTHM BuiuaAuuiule, HajBehe 

MOpHXOBCKO CQJIO OR 220 Kyha, aAMHHHCTpaTHBHH ueH- 

Tap uejior MopuxoBa. 06a OBa ce/ia cy Ha Aecnoj 
dpaHH Uphe. JleBa cipaHa je Man^e HacejbeHa, a nopeA 
Tora Ty cy h ce;ia mhoto Maita. Y MopHxoBy HMa Ma;io 
dapor >KHBOTa h ocTaTana oa CTapHna. y po>KAeHCKOM 
Maj^aHy HMa TparoBa CTapor py^apcKor pa^a H3 cpezi- 
Haer BeKa. Hojiohikh MaHacTHp 3HAaH je y cra/iy oxpHA- 
ckhx upKBeHHX rpabeBHHa h H3nieAa no TOMe Bp^o 
CTap. nopeA Tora, y ce/iy Mctchhuh HMa MaHacTHp cb. 
H/iHJa, y ce^y MaHacTHpy je MaHacTHp Cb. Boropo- 
AHua, a koa ce.na B30BHha je MaHacTHp L Ie6peH. 

Mhhh ce Aa he MopnxoBO nopeA HOBo6pACKe h 
KpaTOBCKe o6;iacTH nocTaTH HaJ3HanajHHJa pydapcna 
o6Aaciu y ue^oj Hoboj Cp6HJH. Ubhjhh je Hawao mho- 
ro6poJHe TparoBe pyAa oko ce;ia Po>KAeHa, Ha .neBOJ 
dpaHH pene BHCTpnue, a HapoMHTO y pojkachckom 
Maj^aHy kojh ce 30Be A;iujap h kojh ce Ha;ia3H 4 ao 5 
KH^OMeiapa oa cejia PomjieHa. A/iinap je ao6ho hmc 
no noMeTHHM c/iOBHMa HberoBHX 3aKynHHKa A/iaTHHa h 
LLlapHHJo. y H^eMy je noHe^o 036n/bHHJe HcnHTHBahbe 
oa 1889, a 1891 je 3anoMeo npaBH py^apcKH paA. y 
KbeMy o6hhho pa^e oko 120 paAHHKa, a nonaTKaA 
hx HMa h ao 400. Pa^HHUH cy MaxoM cejbaun H3 oko- 
^hhc BaAH ce o6hmho aHTHMOH, pea^rap h ayponnr- 
MeHT. Tbpah ce j\a py#a caiip^KH 60% aHTHMOHa h Aa 

HeMa HHKaKBHX IHKOAJbHBHX CaCTOJaKa. Ha nOBPLUHHH 

CT^Ha MecTo ce BHAe h KpHcra;iH rnnca. JeAaH crpyq- 
fcaK (KpeHep) Hainao je y ApymTBy c pea^rapoM hob 
MHHepa;i jiopaHAHT, a 4>y/iOH je KOHcraTOBao cth6/iht, 
cepBaHTHT, aHTHMOHCKy 6;ieHAy h Ba;ieHTHHHT. HMa py- 
AapcKHx onaHa H3 paHHj'er BpeMeHa, no KojHMa H3nieAa Aa 



TbfcB'ftfL/IHJCKA KO'IVIHHA M bOJMHJA 

je nor/iaBHTo BafyeH aHTHMOH. HecyMJbHBO je #a HMa Tpa- 
roBa or py^apcKor pa.ua H3 XII h XIII BeKa. y H3Bop- 
hoj o6;iacTH peKe B^atuHue, napoMHTO Ha craBaMa 
B/iaujHU.e h MajjeMCKe PeKe, UbhjhH je Haiuao Kynn- 
lura or aHTHMOHCKe TpocKBe. AnTHMOHa, pea.irapa h 
aypHnHTMeHTa HMa Ha mhothm MecTHMa OBe 06/iacrH, 
a.iH ce Ba;je caMo y A;mjapy. HsuaR Po>KAeHa Ba^H 
ce h xpoMHT. riope^ obhx r^aBHux py^a HMa MHoro 
rnnca h cyMnopa. Ha H3rope/ioj MyuH nope^ ce/ia 
Po>KAeHa HMa h >Ke;ie3HHX py^a. 



V. fbEBTbh/IMJCKA KOTJ1MHA V\ bOJMHJA. 

M3MeJ)y UnraHCKe K^Hcype h HeMHp Kannje no- 
cToje RBe roTOBo cpac/ie Bap^apcKe KOT/iHHe, Koje cy 
y ue/iHHH oko 30 KH/iOMeTapa AyraMKe a oko 6 kh- 
.lOMeTapa innpoKe. OHe cy Ha 3ana^y orpatjeHe bhco- 

KHM UJyMOBHTHM OrpaHUHMa MopHXOBCKO-Mer/ieHCKHX 

n^aHHHa, a na HCTOKy to/ihm Kapadan/iOM, 3aiHM 
orpaHUHMa Fl/iayuja h Be-iacnue. PaBaH TbeBlje/iHJCKe 
KoT^HHe cadaB^eHa je or Ae6e;iHX chviajiOBa wy-rora 
necKa, 3aTHM or n/iaBHHa h naHoca pa3Hnx pena Koje 
y/ia3e y ToeBljcnujcKy KoT/inny. IlpeMa TOMe KoiTinna 
He 6h 6n/ia oco6htc n^o^HocTH, a/in cy o6e KOT/iHHe 
6oraTe bo^om, Koja ce pa3BOAH h n/iOAHOcr 3naTno no- 
jaqaBajy. TjeBlje-injcKa KoT^HHa Beh CKopo cacBHM je Me- 
AHTepaHCKe k/ihmc; 3hmh naaa Bp/io TanaK cuer, npaBe 
3hmc CKopo HHKaKO HCMa; Knunia BpeMeHa cy npo- 
.iche h no3Ha jeccH. CyinianH 3pami cy zieTH jaKH, 
a/in hc ca>KH>Ky h ne np.be Kao y oko/ihhh Co-nyna h 
HeMa ohhx 3anapnHX hohh Kao TaMO. Yc/iea Tora /icth 
KoiviHHa TocBljo/injcKa hhjc onaKO cnp.beHa, no Jtoj 
HMa npaBHX ziyroBa or naBHTnue, Kynnne, r\w 
py>Ka h >Koyiba ; ona aaK/ie HMa Me^HTepaHCKy k.i; 
ca cbokhjhm ^ctom. 36or obc k/ihmo H uoracTBa boac 
OBzie ce Mo>Ke o6pai)HBaTH Ky/nypHO 6n/be, h 3601 
Tora je OBa KOiviHHa Bp;io 6oraTa. 



150 HOBA CPBHJA 



'foeB^ejiHjcKa KouiHHa je Ha npBOM MecTy CBH-nap- 
ckh Kpaj, nopeA BoAeHa je^aH oa rjiaBHHx CBH^ap- 
ckhx ueHTapa y MaKeAOHHJH. Flo ce^HMa h oko ce/ia 
BHAe ce bc/ihkh AyAHttauH, oHaKo Kao y 3ana^Hoj Cp- 
6hj*h uiJbHBauH. nopeA AyAHfoaKa HMa Aocra bhho- 
rpa.ua, rt>HBa noA naMyKOM, cycaMOM, AyBaHOM h 60- 
daHOM. y 3HaTHOJ kojihmhhh ceje ce nuieHHua h Ky- 
Kypy3. 3a TbeB^e^HJCKy KoiviHHy MOH<e ce pehH %a je 
CKopo npeHacejbeHa, aok UnraHCKa K^Hcypa h HeMHp 
Karmja HHcy CKopo HHKaKO HacejbeHe 36or Hecnryp- 
hocth Koja ce y H>HMa oceha. TbeB^ejiHjCKa ce^a cy 
HeodHHHO Be^HKa, cnaAajy y HaJBeha cejia y MaKeAO- 
hhjh, a ochm Tora OHa cy MHoro6poJHa h 36HJeHa. 
TaKBO Hacejbe je Ha npBOM Medy caMa TbeB^e^nja, 
Koja je ao npe 25 roAHHa 6ma ce^o, a oa TaAa je 
nocra/ia cpeAHurre Ka3e h ceAHtme KaJManaivia. Ty je 
caAa >KHBa BapouiHua, qnja je iviaBHa yjinua npaBa h 
HMa H3r^eA cpeAft>e-eBponcKHx BapouiKHX yjinua ; cno- 
peAHe cy yjinue TecHe h KpHBe, o6hhho TypcKO-BH- 
3aHTHJCKor THna. HcnoA Bapoiun cy bcjihkh AyAHtbaun 
h nojba ca cycaMOM h naMyKOM, a H3HaA ft»e cy no 
dpaHaMa BHHorpaAH. Y nocneAifcHM roAHHaMa noAHr- 
liyTc cy ABe (})a6pHKe 3a HcnpeAatt>e CBHJie, pa3BHO ce 
>khb paA, h CTaHOBHHUiTBO je ca pa3HHX dpaHa npH- 
THuajio; HMa y feoj h eBponcKHX crpaHaua, 3aTHM, y 
HajHOB; je BpeMe, y npHJMMHOM 6pojy h co/iyHCKHx Je- 
Bpeja, a;iH HaJBHUie HMa OiOBeHa, oko 3.000; 3aTHM 
Typana h MepKe3a, oko 1.200, h B/iaxa, oko 150. 

Jy>KH0 oa TbeBije^HJe npocTHpe ce o6;iacT hhcto 
TypcKor CTaHOBHHUJTBa, y kojoj cy HaJBeha ce;ia Ma- 
jaAara, oko 3 500 Ayma, h Kapace/iaBa, oko 2.100 Ayma. 
36or HapOHHTHX TepeHCKHx npHJiHKa Ta cy ce^a pa3- 
6njeHa y BHiue Ma^HX 36hjchhx Maxa/ia. Kyhe cy hm 
Be^HKe, ABoenpaTHe, OKpeneHe h ca bhtkhm ouauHMa, 
h orpaljeHe bhcokhm 3HAOBHMa oa hepnHna. HMa Ty- 
pana h y ApyrHM ce^HMa, TaKO Aa he hx CBera 6hth 
y BeB^e^HJCKOJ Kotvihhh oko 15.000 Ayma. Jyro3a- 
naAHO oa TaeBijejiHJe noHHH>e o6;iacT BJiaiiJKHx ce;ia, 
Koja HHHe ucaHHy ca B^amKOM o6;iacTH Mcn/ienoM. A;ih 
3HaTHy BehHHy y TbeB^e^HJCKOJ Kot^hhh MHHe C/iobchh, 



AOJPAH H KOT/IHHA L>1 

kojh >KHBe y Be^HKHM, 36hjchhm ce;iHMa, KOJHX HMa 
BHiue cao6o^HHx ho mhc})mhjckhx. Kyhe h OKyhHHue 
thx ce/ia cy orpaf)eHe 3H£0BHMa on hepntma, a y;iHue 
cy ycKe h BHJyraBe. KpoBOBH Ha Kyha.via cy on TpcKe 
h hepavinne. Uempa/iHa npocropHJa y oiobchckoj KyhH 
30Be ce uoAaiuna^ y Kojy ce Hajnpe c BpaTa y.ia3H h 
oko Koje cy nope^aHe co6e ca KaMHHHMa ; y iboj ce 
rocTH AoneKyjy h npeKO aaHa cejH. rithn HeMa HHi\ae. 
floA je on Ha6HJeHe 3e\i:be Koja je hSkom 3eM/baHOM 
CMeiuoM npcMa3aHa, TaKO n& je r/iaaaK h ^a /jeno H3- 
ivie^a. Kyhe cy MHcrnje ho y ocra.iHM MaKeAOHCKHM 
ce.THMa, na naK h y MHorHM o6;iacTHMa AOcaaauiibHx 
cyio6oAHHX 6a^KaHCKHX 3eMa;ba. Kyha ce ;iaKO BeipH 
h npeacraB.ba je^Hy on HajcaBpiueHHJHx Bpcia ceocKe 
Kyhe Ha ue/iOM no/iyocrpBy. CTaHOBHHiHTBO je Ky;i- 
TypHHJe on ocra^or MaKeAOHCKor, na naK Ky/iTypHnje 
on CTaHOBHHiiJTBa HeKHx ceBepHHx 6a;iKaHCKHx 3eMa.ha. 
riopeA er3apxHCTa h naTpHJapujHcra, y H>HMa je 6h;io 
KaTo.THMKHX, nporecraHTCKHX h yHHJaTCKHX npHcra/nma. 
CTaHOBHHiHTBO ce Bp;io mhoto 6aBH neHa/i6oM, Koja 
je Bp/io BepoBaTHO 6n/ia on yTnuaja h Ha npoMeHe y 
je3HKy h Ha obo BHme Ky/iTypHO craibe caMor cia- 

HOBHHUJTBa. 



VI. IOJPAH M hbtloBA KOT71HH 

Ha jyro3anaAHOj CTpanH ZIojpaHCKor Je3epa na- 
/ia3H ce Bapouj floAeHUH h.ih Up j pan. On je ckohom- 
ckh ueiiTap ziojpaHCKe KOT/iwue, ochm Tora neaa.ieKO 
on ibera npe;ia3e ^Ba nyTa : je^afi npeKO OypKo j<i 
BoJMHJy, a apyrH 3a Cepe3. Hhjc no6\\o Behu juaqaj 
hh on KaKO je carpat)CHa >KC/ie3HHna, Koja nopen jc- 
3epa 3a Cepe3 bo;iii. M.via totobo aM^HTcaTpa.ian no- 
/iowaj h hcoChmho /ien h3mca c je3epa. BehH aeo Ba- 
poujH ce na/ia3H na jeiinoj Tepacn; Kyhe cy Ml 

BHCOKC, .IHIICM OKpCHyTC je3epy, C MHOrHM npo3op 

h Tec))epHMHMa uoKcaTHMa). OHe cy MaxoM no/iHrr 



152 HOBA CPEHJA 



jczma H3Ha^ jpyre, rb. 6yl CBana HMa^a Jien H3rjiea m 
je3epo. Taj roptbH .neo je TypcKa Bapoiu c kphbhm, 
TecHHM h ctpmhm yjinuaMa ; HMa oko 600 Kyha, BehH* 
hom Ha .ziBa 6oia; Ha npo3opHMa cy ApseHe peiueTKe 
h^h „KaBe3H", c jiHua HcnoA CTpeje Ha 3Hziy pa3He 
iuape, a ^.BOpHuiTe orpaljeHO je bhcokhm 3haom npeMa 
yjiHUH, #a ce He MO>Ke HHiiiTa yHyipa bhacth. y oko- 
jihhh npeoBJialjyjy TypuH, y CBaKOM norjie^y Bp;io 3a- 
ocra/iH, Te Bapoiu, ochm o6HHHe Typcne MapujHje, HeMa 
HHKaKBor 3Haqaja. Oko BeJiacHixe npeoBJiatjyje cjio- 
BeHCKO CTaHOBHHuiTBO, Koje H#e y neHaji6y, 3a BpeMe 
MceTBe, no cyce&HHM MaKeaoHCKHM KOiviHHaMa, Hapo- 
hhto co-nyHCKOj. nopco. je3epa je xpHinhaHCKO-cjioBeH- 
CKa Ma/ia c rviaBHOM napiuHJOM h na3apoM (TproM), Koja 
HMa oko 400 Kyha. DiaBHa yjinua hjih qapuiHJa c ,ny- 
haHHMa h Ka^aHaivia npy^a ce cacBHM nopeA o6a/ie, 
na je Ka/unio, npn HaJBehHM noBOAitHMa, je3epo 
n;iaBH. OHa je Aocra innpoKa, npaBa, h HeMa THno6HHHe 
TypcKe qapuiHJe, Beh BHiue eBponcKe: Kyhe cy MaxoM 
ziBocnpaTHe, HOBHJera, ccnyHCKora THna oa cjia6e rpatje, 
Ha ropibeM ce cnpaiy craHyje, a y AOft>eM cy .ayhaHH 
6e3 heneHaKa h;ih Ka(|)aHe ca cro/iOBHMa h CTO/wnaMa, 
BehHHa Kyha je Ha rbsl cnpaTa. 3haobh aotbera cnpaTa 
cy or KaMeHa. a ropibera oji crca6HJe rpaije, Hajqeinhe 
or TpcKe, ynpaBO oji .neca Koje cy TaHKHM caojeM Ma;i- 
TepHcane cnojba h H3HyTpa. y AOtbeM cnpaTy ce peTKO 
CTaHyje; Ty je BejiHKa o#aja ca cry6oBHMa, y kojoj ce 
CK/iaitajy pH6apcKe Mpeace, a^aTH h .apyre CTBapn. Flo 
upBenHM CTeneHHuaNia ce neite Ha roptbH cnpaT, Ha 
KOMe ce CTaHyje. Bcahkh jieo BapoiiiKor CTaHOBHHniTBa, 
HapoHHTO OiOBeHH, oko 250 Kyha, npeKO 1.000 jxywa, 
6aBH ce h >khbh o pH6apcTBy. Je3epo je ph6om npe- 
6oraTo: coMOBHMa, mapanHMa, 6e.nBHU.OM h KOCTepOM. 
XBaia ce roAHiHHbe oko 350.000 OKa, a TypcKa BJiacr 
y3HMa^a je roAHintbe ^eceTKa oko 1.500 TypCKHX nupa. 
Hh Ha je^HOM MaKe^OHCKOM je3epy HHJe pn6ap- 
ctbo TaKO pa3BHj'eHO Kao Ha JlojpaHCKOM Je3epy. O 
pH6apcTBy ce oB^e 6aBH pejiaTHBHO BehH 6poj cra- 
HOBHHKa ho na #pyrHM je3epHMa. Pn6y pa3Hoce h 
npo^ajy no CBHMa oko^hhm MecTHMa, 3aTHM y KyKyuj 



AOJPAH H lb! HA 

fbeBfye;iHJy, Be.iec h CrpyMHuy. JlojpaHUH cy npH3HaTH 
Kao Haj6o/bH pH6apn, h ohm cy rviaBmi pn6apn h 

Ha DyTKOBCKOM, TaXHHCKOM, AJBaCHTCKO-BeUJHMKOM, 

PwaHCKOM h A.viaTOBCKOM Je3cpy ; Taj ibHxoB pa a je 
HeKa BpcTa ncqa.a6apcTBa. HojpaHCKH pw6apH HMajy 
HaJBHiiie h Hajpa3HOBpcHHJHx cnpaBa h naMnna 3a XBa- 
Taibe pH6e. 

Oco6hto cy HHTepecaHTHa H>HX0Ba ziOBHuiTa Ha 
ZlojpaHCKOM Je3epy. FIpH6pe>KHH 1 tpckom o6pac/in ^e- 
/iobh je3epa noiie^eHH cy Ha 50 — 60 JioBHiiiTa, Koja 
cy MaxoM npHBaTHa CBOJHHa. JloBHiuTa cy orpaticua h 
zajbe Hcnperpa^HBaHa TpcTeHHM .rcecaMa. y /lOBHLUTa 
nytHTajy THue noAceMeHHx KpH/ia, Koje ce 30By npaja 
h BpaHHUiufua, OHe n^aiue pw6y h 36HJajy je y CBe 
Maibe nperpa^cHe oaejbKe ( w aM6ape"), i\ae je OH^a pw- 
6apn XBaTajy. 3a to Bpe.vie craHyjy y KO/iH6aMa Koje 
cy koa ^oBHiHTa no^HrHyTe. MHoro6poJHH pH6apn cy 
bc/ihkh #eo rcaHHe y obhm KO/iHGaivia oko /lOBHUJTa, 

TC >KHBe aM(J)HOHJCKHM >KHBOTOM. Ko.1n6e Cy AHTHyTe 

y npH6pe>KHoj 30hh, mc je ,ny6HHa 1 — i,5 m. FIo6h- 
jeHO je Ko;be h/ih AHpeuH, npeKO ibnx cy no.no/Kene 
^acKe, a CTpaHe H KpoB cy oil TpcKe. Te Ko/in6e cy 
/iaK/ie no no/iowajy h KOHcrpyKUHJH CKopo hctobcthc 
c upencTopHJCKHM na/ia(j)HTCKHM rpaljeBHHaMa. y ocTa- 
.tom. BemiKa pn6apcKa BeuiTHHa, MHoro6pojnH pn6ap- 
ckh a/iaTH, 4y,ana /iOBHiiiTa kojhx Hna i ie ne.Ma na 

KCAOHCKOM H OCTa^HM 6a/IKaHCKHM jC3CpHMa, H OBe 

KO.iH6e Koje /inue na na/iac})HTe, BepoBaTno cy 3naK 
HeKor crapor, nac/ieljHBanor Hamnia pa,aa h >KHBora. 
Flo TOMe ce ^a.'be bhah %a je Hojpan npBo6HTHO mo- 
pao 6hth pH6apcKO nace/bc. Cousinl IH, HCTtiHa, 

na ociiOBy AOKa3a kojh HHcy noyMiaiw, na y c/iobch- 

CKOM CTaHOBHHUJTBy n.via KpBH crapnx II -'Olia. 

Koa XepoAOTa H.\ia onnc jc3epa ije h h 

tobhx naKO/baua; to je je3epo y reorpa<J)CKOJ H n:ro- 
pujcKoj /iHTeparypn hachth(J)HI ca p 

MaKcaoncKHM je3epHMa. Xcp onncyie 6op6y 

Mefyy riepcHJaHam H IleoHa. „Ca.\io on, mje mo- 

rao Mera6a3 &a cas/ia nine 

rianreoHa h jeaepa flpasHJac A/u 



1)1 HOBA CPBHJA 



noKyuiaj h npeMa oHHMa kojh cy ce HacraHHJiH Ha 
caMOM je3epy, h to y rpafjeBHHaivia Ha KOJby, Koje cy 3a 

3eMJbOM Be3aHe JCUHHM JCHHHHM yCKHM moctom. Kojbe 

Ha KOMe doje OBe apBeHe craJHije #OHe;iH cy npBH 
nyT 3aje^HO cbh qjiaHOBH orceMeHa h no6o;iH y je3epo; 
^ouHHJe je yBezieH o6nMaj aa CBaKH kojh y3Me jenHy 
>KeHy, a CBaKH je y3HMao BHtue »eHa, Mopa aohcth TpH 
Koua c njiaHHHe Op6e;ioc h no6nTH hx. CBaKH on fle- 
OHaua HMa Ha obom Kony KOJiH6Huy y kojoj CTaHyje, 
h Ha Hboj cy Bpaia, Ha noiiy K0^n6e, i<po3 Koja ce 
cjia3u je3epy. Ma;iy Aeuy Be3yjy y3HU0M 3a Hory fla 
He ynazmy y je3epo. KotBe h Terviehy amy xpaHe pn- 
6aMa, kojhx HMa TaKO MHoro ,aa hm je ^OBOJbHO caMo 
OTBopHTH BpaTaHua h cnycTHTH y je3epo Ha y3HUH 
npHBe3aH npa3aH koui na #a ra noc/ie He 6aui Ayror Bpe- 
MeHa H3ByKy nyHor pn6e. u 

FIoy3iiaHO je Aa cy HieoHH craHOBajiH y jyro- 
hctomhoj MaKe,a;oHHJH h #a je ripa3HJac y tom Kpajy. 
FI^aHHHa IlaHreoH je ^aHaiuHDH FIpHap, H3Ha^ yuiha 
CrpyMe h CTapor AivKJDHno/iHca. Op6e/ioc je Bejiacnua 
h H>eHH orpaHUH H3Mei)y Axios-a h Strymon-a, to jeer 
Bapiiapa h CrpvMe, Cousinery (Voyage dans la Mace- 
doine, t. I., c. 93 h 180) je TaqHO HAeHTH(J)HKOBao Xe- 
poAOTOB f!pa3HJac c AaHaniHbHM JJopjaHCKHM Je3epOM; 
Ha to HHJe o6pahaHa AOBOJbHO BejiHKa na>KH>a. A/ih 
npeMa HajHOBHJHM ncnHTHBattHMa UBHJHha, Flapqa h 
no., MO>Ke ce cMaTpaTH CKOpo Kao yTBpl^eHO n& je Flpa- 
3Hjac AaHauiH>e ZlopjaHCKO Je3epo. XeponoT noMHtbe 
Ha jyry on npa3HJe 3^aTHe pyflHHKe, h XpH30xoc Ha- 
boah (no napweBy peapepaTy) #a je jy>KHO on ZlojpaH- 
cKor Je3epa HaHinao Ha TparoBe CTapor py^apcTBa. To 
he MO)Ki*a 6hth TparoBH pa#a Ha MameTHTy. 

H3 noMeHyTe 6e;ieiiiKe Xepo^OTOBe bhah ce aa 
cy rieoHH cTaHOBa^H Ha cyBy, Ha „n;iaHHHH FlaHreoHy", 
h Ha je3epy. Flo TOMe je HajBepOBaTHHJe aa cy FleoHH 
fIpa3HJaca 6h;ih pn6apcKa n^eMeHa h #a cy 36or Tora 
cTaHOBa.iH y na^acJ)HTHMa. 3aTO h naHauiH>H aojpaH- 
ckh pn6apH )KHBe Be/iHKH aeo ro^HHe y MO^epHHM 
na^ac})HTHMa, 3M(J3h6hjckhm jkhbotom. 



flOJPAH H HjITOBA kot/ihha 155 

HojpaHCKa KOT^HHa je Bp/io no6po Hace;beHa: y 
o6^acTH Tbo/i-Bauiy, noil kojhm ce iimchom noApa3y- 
MeBa CBa KOT/iHHa ca cbojhm okbhpom, n\ta hx oko 28 
ce/ia. HaJBHiue hx je Ha ohoj oueziHOJ npocipaHOJ paB- 
hhuh on ceBepo-HCTOHne o6a/ie 30 najHHe Be.iacHue. 
no HdChoj no^ropHHH h Ha Bockh. BehHHa cy. ynpaBO 
BHiue 03 ABe TpehHHe, TypcKa h/ih jypyHKa. Mucra cy 
cnoBeHCKa — xpnujhaHCKa — ce/ia caMo: flaTapoc, 
HHKy/inh, Hhmohu h Hyp6a;iH; HoH>e h Top^e Top6a- 
cobo cy noMaHKa, noTypneHHx CnoBCHa, ocaM cy Me- 
iiJOBHTa, a ocra/io cy CBe MyxaineaaHCKa. 

BehHHa cy Bp/io Ma;ia, no ^eceTHny nyha, a Haj- 
Beha cy .Hoite h Topi^e rop6acoBO ca no 120 Kyha, 
3aTHM, Matba, Ai<aHua;iH h Cyp.iOBO. OiOBeHCKa cy hh- 
c{)/ihuh, ;iok Typun HMajy concTBeHy 3e\uby. JypyuH 
cy Hace/w/iH OBy 06/iacT BepoBaTHO y hcto 306a Kan 
h one KpajeBe nope^ OpcfiaHCKor 3a/iHBa. 

Tnn MyxaMe^aHCKHx ce.ia je OBaj : OHa cy Ma/ia 
h jano 36HJeHora THna H Ha TaKO \ia/iHM .aa^HHaMa 
jya ue/ia ropiba paBan H3Me^a Kao jeziHO bc/ihko ce.io 
ca MHorHM Maxa/iaMa h.ih KpajeBHMa. J\a je OBaKaB Tnn 
y npHpoan JypyKa, jom 6oJbe ce bhah no ohh.m ce.iHMa 
Koja .tc/Kc Ha na^HHH Be.iacHue noBHCOKO, h koa ko- 
jhx ce Mory jacHHJe yoMHTH H3ABOjeHe rpyne Ma;ia. 
Ochm Tora na^a y omh Aa ohh npeTnocTae.i.ajy 
rio.io>Kaje Ha hh>khm n.iaminaMa (na npHMep, BeujHK) 
h.ih noAropHHaMa, r^e cc pa/inje 6aBe CTonapcTBOM 
nero 3eM^opaAfHOM, a c.ia3e y paBHune ca\io onit 
rAe je 3eM;t>HUJTe Bp.io n.iOAHO. 

Kyhe cy hm MaxoM hhckc, jeAHOKaTue h cno;ba 
neoKpeMene. Koa ohhx y paBunun o6hmho cy caivio 
TeMe.'bH oa Ka.Mena, a 3Haobh oa hepnn i ia, rioKpuBCHC 
cy qeiuhe kpobhhom ho hepaMHAOM. OtfyltHHUC cy 
Bp.io Ma/ie, necTO h 6e3 orpaAe. OBa ce.ia :po- 

MaujHa, nycTa, 6ea 3c.ieHH.ia h cy.Mopna. 

C/iOBeHCKa ce/ia cy Beha, raKohe 36HJeHOi tuna, 
ho 6e3 Maxa/ia H KHBJba H ano cy miuJi.ihu.' 
3aHHlfflb€ y kotvihhh je sembopiAiba, a nc>A lie.iacn- 

IIOM iTOMapCTBO; MaJBHllir HMI CHTHC < <>Ke, K 



156 HOBA CPBHJA 



h OBaua, ajiH ce no JiHBa^aMa h yTpHHaMa Hanacajy 
Be^HKH ue-nenH BOJiOBa, KpaBa h 6HBo;ia. CBa je OBa 
CTona MaxoM jypyqKa, jep cy HH(}HHJe caMO paTapH, 
h omepeheHH no^.CKHM pa^OBHMa totobo npeKO ue;ie 
ro.nHHe. 

Oa iuyMCKor .apBeha HMa y paBHH HaJBHuie ny- 
6oBa, 6pecTOBa h AHBJbHX KpymaKa, a CTpaHe OKBHpa 
cy MaxoM rojie h;ih no;; Me^HTepaHCKHM MaKHJaivia. 
MecTHMHixe Ha Be^acHUH HMa 6yKOBe rope, riope^ 
o6a;ia h Monapa pacre rycT 6apcKH iueBap, a no 
nojby HMa h npocTpaHHX yTpHHa ca ^o6poM TpaBOM. 

y BapoiHH ZlojpaHy totobo HCKJbynHBO 3aHH- 
Mafte xpniuhaHCKor cTanoBHHuiTBa je ph6o;iob, aok ce 

TypCKO BHUie 6aBH TprOBHHH H 3aHaTHMa. Je^HHO 

OB^e pa3BHJeH0 je Ma;io h rajette cbhjichhx 6y6a h;ih 
„K0)KypaKa M , h to He pa^H, TproBHHe, i<ao oko TbeB- 
i^e^Hje, Beh ko/ihko je noTpe6Ho CBH/ie 3a n;ieTeH>e pH- 
6apcKHx Mpe>Ka. 

K/iHMa je Majio ouiTpHJa Hero oko BeuiHHKor Je- 
3epa, jep HHi\o.e OB^e HeMa Ky^Type naMyKa h Ma- 
aiHHa HapoqHTO cy 3HMe cryAeHe, TaKO jia ce no- 
Ka^HiTO 3aMp3He ue^io je3epo. . • 

TypcKH ceJbauH hjih Jypyun Hdora cy rana h 
ocodHHa Kao h ohh no BeuiHKy: OMa^eHH, jaKO up- 
HOMaibacTH h onajbenH; noByneHH h HenoBepjbHBH. 
3Hajy caMO TypcKH h doje Ha npHMHTHBHOM CTynHby 
^pyujTBeHor pa3BHTKa, jep HeMajy peAOBHHx uiKO^ia. 
PaAe caMO ohojihko ko/ihko hm je noTpe6HO 3a >kh- 
bot h He npehy ce ,na;ieKO, — o6hhho jio na3apa y 
ZlojpaHy h AKaHyajiy, Ha KOJHMa npo^ajy HeuiTO on 

CBOJHX CTOHapCKHX H 3eMJbOpa£HHHKHX npOH3BOAa. O- 

neno hm je: upHe naKiunpe, ryn> c pyKaBHMa kojh 
BHce ojx paMeHa, no3a#H mnpoK nojac, Ha rviaBH (J)ec, 
oko Kora o6hhho yBHJajy inaMHJy hjih neniKHp, a Ha 
noraMa onaHun. >KeHe hm ce Kpnjy on CTpanaua. 

XpnujhaHCKH, CAOBeHCKH eJieMeHaT je npeMa Typ- 
ckom Ma^o6pojan Kao peTi<o rjie y ztpyroj 06/iaerH. 
OioBeHH cy noTMHH^eHe h Bpe^He HH(})4HJe, kojh nope# 
Tora qeuihe crpa^ajy on 3yj\ywia cbojhx jaqnx cyce^a, 



OniilTE OCOBHHE JTOCHE MAKEAOHHJE 

iuto Haj6o:be ^OKa.iyjy pa3opeHa ce/ia HHhmcko h;ih 
MHhmuh Ha ceBepHoj o6am\ je3epa. Oil rt>Hx cy nonpH- 
Ma.iH MHoro iuto ujTa o^ oAe.ia, roBopa h HawHHa >kh- 
BOTa: TaKO HMa hx ixocia kojh yBHJajy ujaMHJy oko 
c{)eca, a y roBopy ynoTpe6/baBajy MHore TypcKc peHH 
H ue/ie H3pa3e. Obo nooneiiibe ce HapoMmo ona>Ka 
koa iiojpancKHx pn6apa, kojh y3a CBaKy Apyry. Tpchy 
pen AOMehy TypcKy: ,/ieueK", „(})eKaT u , H iipyre. Y 
bc^hkhm ce/iHMa non Bc/iacnuoM, HoibeM H TopfbCM 
rop6acoBy, HMa C/iOBCHa MyxaMe^anaua h.ih FIoMaKa 
kojh hc 3najy TypcKH. Ohh cy npHMH.iH Hc.ia.M y ^o6a 
jypyqKe HaBa/ie y OBe KpajeBe na 6h caqyBa^H thmc 
CBoja HMan.a, 

Ma na je Xlojpan Ha Ba>KHOj >Ke:ie3HHHKOj npy3H 
Co;iyH — Ccpc3 — Uapnrpa^, nnaK je aa/icKO H30crao 
rproBHHOM h npo.MeTOM on ohhx MecTa nopea Bap- 
Aapa, na npniviep o.t. 'IbeBhje/iHJe. C Tora cy h KOMy- 
HHKauHJe y oboj kot.ihhh BHiiie ziOKa/iHor 3nanaja. Haj- 
Ba>KHHjH je onaj nyT npeKO <I>ypKe h Boj.MHJe 3a dpy- 
MHny, a h onaj hh3 Tbo/iajy 3a Kapacy.iH. y kot/ihhh 
HMa join Asa Ba>KHHJa nyra : jeiiaH boah hchoa Bockc 
y AKaHua/iH, r\ae ce jcnaHnyT neiiejbHO £p>KH na3ap 
3a OHa ropfba ce.na, a apyrn ynope^o ca >Ke/ie3HHMKbM 
npyroM y nopojcKO no:be. Cao6pahaj je, ochm >kc.ic 
3HHU0M, HCK/byniBO caMapcKH, MaxoM na KoibHMa, na 
waK h na je;iHorp6HM KaMH.iaMa: y Bapoujn HMa je;iaH 
TypMHH neKO/irfKO KaMH.ia h c ibHMa pajn khphumjckh 
.•jaHaT. Caoopahaj H3Meljy Bapoiun h >Kc.ic3iinHKe cra- 
HHue BpojH ce o6hhho npeBoweibCM na taMUHMa. 



VII. OnUJTE OCOBHHE iy>KHE MAKEAOHHJE 

„Jy>KHy MaKeAOHHJy lime co/iyncKa, AOJpaHCKa, 
cepecKa h apaMCKa kotjihhi iHcamiM yaojimiaifa, 

Koje cy H3Met)y n.;i>: n KOJC hx B< 

ziyncKa Kor.iHiia Ha ujhpoko ii ; lopena, 

pa 



158 HOBA CPBHJA 



KpaTKy JeHHKejcKy KjiHcypy, a #paMCKa je KoiviHHa 
hhckom n^aHHHOM Chmbojiohom 3arpaf]eHa oa KaBa;i- 
CKor 3a^HBa. CBe cy y od^acTH MeAHTepaHCKe K7inMe 
h/ih cy H3;io>KeHe tbenHM jaKHM yTHuaJHMa. y h»hx ce 
cTHHy MHore peKe H3 OKO/mor n/iaHHHCKor 3eMJbnmTa, 
Koje HaHOCHMa no£M/iaijyjy j\ho ^KOiyiHHa h HaBOAfoa- 
Bajy ra. 3aio Jy>KHa MaKe^OHHJa cna.ua y Hajn^oAHHj'e 
KpajeBe He caMO Ba^KaHCKor FIo^yocTpBa Beh Huejie 
EBpone. Objxq. ycneBajy Ky;iTypHe hujhue BejiHKe Bpcn- 
hocth. CepecKa KOTJiHHa Aaje HaJBHiue naiviyna oa cbhx 
o6^acTH eBponcKe TypcKe, 3aTHM y 3HaTHOJ kojihmhhh 
nc»3HaTora „TypcKor ^yBaHa". A;w rjiaBHa o6;iacT OBora 
AyBaHa je ApaMCKa KOiviHHa c HyspaiviHJCKOM ynomi- 
hom, h ApaMCKO-Hy3paT^HJCKH AyBaH ce HaJBHiue ueHH; 
Aajbe y oboj kotvihhh ycneBajy naMyK h opH3. y co- 
jiyHCKOJ kotvihhh ce raJH naMyK, opH3 h TiyBaH (no- 
cjie^hbH norjiaBHTO oko fla3apa), a y MervieHy, kojh 
H36nja y KaMnatby, KyjiTHBHine ce nanpnKa y Behwvi pa3- 
MepaMa; no3HaTO je Aajbe jxa ce OB^e nonpaBH.ay.no- 
6njajy roAHiuibe no ABe >KeTBe. CrpaHe KoiviHHa, Ha- 
POhhto npncoJHC, noKpHBeHe cy BHHorpaAHMa, H HaJBHUie 
ce ueHH rpo>K^e h bhho oa Hberyma h ryivieHue y co^yH- 
ckoj Ba^aHAOBa y Bojmhjh, 3aTHM ue^or ceBepHor OKBnpa 
cepecKe KOT/wne. HdHna obh BHHorpaiiH no npocrpaH- 
CTBy H30CTajy H3a thkbchikhx h crpyMHMKHx. Jano cy 
pacnpocTpajbeHH ziyAHibauH h MHoro ce pa^n Ha cbh- 
.lapcTBy. y HeKHM Bapotnnivia h ce/iHMa, Kao Bo^eHy, 
T^eBlje/iHjH h okojihhh, totobo cy CBe Kyhe yzieineHe 
3a CBH^iapCKH paA y CBHMa KOiviHHaMa ce ceje cycaM 
h acJ)HOH. PacnpocrpahbeHe cy CMOKBe, 6a^eMH, Ke- 
deHH h opacH, jxok cy MacjiHHKe Bp/io peTKe. H ano^ 
cjieTKy ce y CBHMa KOiviHHaivia cejy >KHTa: Kynypy3, 
nnreHHua, h Apyra. 

Ha ceBepy on KoiviHHa cy Bp/io npocipaHe, naujHe 
n.iaHHHe, 6oraTe ctokom, h CTonapcTBO je Bp;io Ba>KHa npn- 
Bpe^Ha rpaHa jy>KHO MaKe/ioHCKor craHOBiiHiHTBa. riope^ 

B/iaxa, H C.lOBeHCKO H TypCKO CTaHOBHHLUTBO Ce BeJIHKHM 

Ae;iOM 6aBH o CTonapcTBy. rioujTO cy 0Be kot^hhc Me#H- 
repaHCKe kjihmc h 3hmh 3e/ieHe, to n^aHHHCKH cTonapn, 
napoMHTO B/iacn h Ap6anacH, c/ia3e y jeceH ca cbojom 



onWTE OCOBHHE JV>KHii MAKEAOHHJE 



ctokom y CBe noMeHyTe KOiviHHe, h 3aTO cy ohc 3Hmh 
qecro npeKpH/beHe orpoMmiM crajHMa chthc ctokc 
UpBeHa rpar^a h hy.viyp, kojh ce Ha n.iaHHHaivia npaBH, 

3HaTHH Cy npHXCaU CTaHOBHHLUTBa, THM 3HaTHHJH UJTO 

cy nehH MaHra.iHMa OAMetbeHe. — Ha noc.ieTKy cy 
jy)KHO-MaKeAOHCKe n^aHHHe h py.iasia doraie, iiapo- 
mhto xpOMHTOM, ra.ieHHTOM, aHiHMOHHTOM, pyaaMa >Ke- 
.ie3a, pea.irapoM h aypHnnrMCHTOM. A/ih je 3eM:bHiuTe 
Bp/io CHpoMaujHO yr/beM, h, cyiiehH npeMa aocza no- 
3HaTOM reo^oujKOM cacraBy, He\ia H3Me^a ,ia he ce 
HahH CTapHJH yrajb y BehHM KO/nmnnaMa. 

A/ih nopea obhx npcayKaia n/iaHHHe h Ton/inx 

H nJlORHHX KOT.IHHa, CTaHOBHHlilTBO Jy>KHe MaKe/lOHHJC 

npHBpetjyje h HapoMHTHM HawnnHMa paiia kojh He y/ia3e 
y no3Haie 6n;iaHue. TaKBH cy Ha npBOM Meciy npnxoan 
oa na\)?i ca jeapH/iHMa, o KOJHMa ce 6aBe norviaBHTo Tpun. 
He3HaTHHJH cy npHxoAH on nena/iCapcTBa, noiiiTo craHOB- 
hhujtbo Jy>KHe MaKenoHHJe ne urq y ohhm pa3MepaMa 
y neqa;i6y Kao ocra.io. HaJHe3HaTHHJH cy npiixcaw oa 
napoMHTHX 3aHHMavha Kao ujto cy Bapunje (na npHMep 
y KepeHKejy win riaj.saiby koa Co^yHa, r\ae ce CBe 
CTaHOBHHUjTBO on 1.000 Kyha o tomc 63bh), KaMeno- 
pecuH (HapoHHTO o6pat)HBaibe MepMepa oa Bo3£ara 
h CMHihuue), ph6o.iob y Mopy h jc3epnna n apyra 3a- 
HHMaiba." 

n C^OBeHH3HpaH.e Baponui je ohllith npouec kojh 
ce napowHTO y npotn/iOM BeKy Bpinno y MaKeAOHHJH. 
C/iobchh cy ce aoce.i>aBa;iH H3 ce/ia y Bapomn noma- 
bhto 36or Belie HecnrypHOCTH no cemiMa. Jlounnje je 
Ha to nocraja/ia oa cuq Beher yinuaja TOKiba no kojoj 
cc ccocko CTanoBHHUJTBO CKyn/ba y nempHMa >khb- 
;bera pa.ua h Kyjuypimjera >KHBOTa. 36or 0Ba ABa 
y.-^poKa C/iobchh cy riper B/ia;ia/iH CKOpo y CBHMa »a- 
ponjHMa CKoncKe Crape CpGwje h CeBepHe MaKCAOnnje. 
Hcth npouec ce BHJe y jeAHlKOJ Mepn H3Bpuino y ko- 
cobckoj h MdoxiijcKOJ Oapoj Cp6njH. nor/iaBHTo 36or 
ap6aHaujKor CTanoBHHiiiTBa, Koje y BapoujHMa oap- 
>KaBa wecTO Behy iiecurypnocr no no ce.iHMa ; a/in |c 
ochm Tora y Bapomn npnTHua/io Miioro6pojHO ap6a- 

HaUJKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO OK0.1I1HC. V .K/KHOJ MaKC/lOHIlJH 



ibU H0BA CPBHJA 

^aHac cy Oiobchh y BehHHH naji TypuHMa h Tpumvia 
caMO y BoAeHy, JlojpaHy, Kynymy h JIaHra3H. Tpun 
HMajy BehHHy y HDcryiuy, Cepe3y h KaBa^H, a TypUH 
y ria3apy, Bepy, HeMHp-Xncapy, 3n;baxoBy, JlpaiviH h 
FIpaBHiiJTy. LLIto Oiobchh HeMajy no BapoiiJHMa Jy>KHe 
Mane^OHHJe CBOjy BehHHy ochm noMeHyTa Herapn Me- 
CTa, TOMe HHj'e pa3^or HecHrypHocr hhth caadHJH ny;ic 
>KHBOTa h pazia. HanpoTHB, to je o6a;iBOJe HanpeiiHHJe 
y BapoiiJHMa Jy^KHe ho CeBepHe MaKe/ioHHJe. JeaaH 
OA Ba>KHnx y3pona roptbe nojaBe je OBaj : y mhofhm 
KpajeBHMa jy»He ManeiioHHJe HMa Typana h TpKa h no 
ce^HMa BHUje ho OiOBeHa. XLajbe, Oiobchh cy HMa;iH 
.aa H3£p>Ke y BaponiHMa Jy>KHe MaKe/iOHHJe Be^HKy 
KOHKypeHUHjy c Tpunivia h U.HHuapHMa, 3aTHM c JeBpe- 
JHMa h JepMeHHMa, kojhx cbhx Hivia MHoro BHine y Ba- 
pomHMa Jy>KHe ho CeBepHe MaKeAOHHJe.HaKo cyjy>KHO- 

MaKe^OHCKH OlOBCHH BpJIO IHTe/lJbHBH H HHTCHHreHTHH, 

h aKO cy, AO/iasehH ca ce;ia y BapouiH, npHCBOjn;iH 
no3Haie JieBaHTHHCKe nor^e^e Ha cbct, 6e3 kojhx He 
6h moivih no BapoujHMa HanpejiOBaTH, nnaK HHcy mo- 
ivih, 36or noMeHyTHx KOHKypewaTa, pcnaTHBHO OHaKO 
HanpeAOBaTH Kao no BaponiHMa CeBepHe MaKeflOHHj'e. 
A;ih ce Oiobchh npn cbcm tom CBe BHUje ocehajy h 
HaMHOwaBajy h y caMOM Co/iyHy h Cepe3y. 

YTBp^eHO je m cy BapouiH Jy>KHe MaKeziOHnje 
Bp/io crape, ochm Tora y BehHHH or HdHx npeoB/ia- 
r^yjy Tpun c LI,HHuapHMa, Typun h JeBpeJH, no npe- 
,aHcno3HUHJH BapoujKH cneMeHTH (AHTponoreorpa(})CKH 
npo6/ieMH Ba^KaHCKor I~lo;iyocTpBa. Hace;ba I). Hdh- 

XOBO CTaHOBHHIHTBO CKOpO Ce HCKJbyHHO 6aBH Tp- 
TOBHHH H 3aHaTHMa, He H 3eMJbopaAH>H, Kao IHTO 
je cnyMaj ca 3HaTHHM actiom CTaHOBHHUJTBa, MaxoM 
M^a^HX, HapoMHTO mhcto cpncKHX h 6yrapcKHX BapouiH 
y ceBepHHM £e;iOBHMa Ba^KaHCKor rio/iyocrpBa. 

OcTa^a Hacejba no cojiyHCKOJ, 'aojpaHCKoj, ce- 
pecKOJ h ^paiviCKOJ cy norviaBHTO MH(J)^yuH, pe^e cjio- 
6o#Ha ce^a, KaAiHTO h MeniOBHTor Tnna, aKO ce je- 
ZiaH ^eo ce^.aKa OTKynno. Ochm TpaKHje HHi\ae HeMa 
y TypcKOJ BHine MH^HKa, hhth je HBpiuhH MHT.iy^KH 
CHcreM, ho y obhm paBHHM h n^o^HHM o6^acTHMa Koje 



OllUJTfc OCObfc. KH£ MAKEJOHr lbl 



cy cy.iTaHH oaMax no ocBOjett>y japHBa/iH Kao THMape 
h 3HjaveTe, h no KOJHMa je HaccbaBaHO TypcKO 3eM- 
jbopaaHHHKO craHOBHUJTBO H3 Ma.ie Ajhjc A-ih HMa 
wajeBa ja cy c.io6o;iHa ce.ia nocra/ia MHT.iyuiiiia 
I ujto cy ce y HeBO."bH npoja.ia h.ih ujto hm ce 
KakaB CH.iaH TvpwHH HaMemyo 3a 6era. Ce.io npHnaja 
h.ih jejHOM 6ery. h Taja je jeaaH wrjiyic, h.ih je no- 
je.i>eHO Ha jBa h.ih BHine 6eroBa, h Taja ce cacrojH 
H3 BHUje MHT.iyKa. BeroBH rpaae HHT.iyqKe Kyhe, a.iH 
H>HMa npHnajajy h OHe Kyhe h.ih craje Koje 6h caMH 
ce.*baiiH Ha oeroBCKOj 3eM,"bH carpajH.in. BeroBH cy 
nor.iaBHTO Typun, Kainio Fpun, JeBpejn h /IeBaH- 
thhuh, cacBkM peiKO Giobchh. Mh*hhjc ce 30By opaHH 
h.ih japuyuje (Hano/iHHapH), h nor.iaBHTO Ha toHMa no- 
HHBa MHT.iyMKa CHoreMa, 3aTHM aj.baKHuje h.ih momuh, 
kojh HeMajy CBOJe Temehe croKe, h 3aT0 He Mory no- 
il japHunje. y CBaKOM MHi/iyKy HMa cy6aina, Typ- 
hhh h.ih ApoaHac, kojh 6era 3acryna, MOTpehH Ha 
ce.i>aKe, Ha noje.iy xpaHe h jpyrnx npoH3Boja H3Mef)y 
6era h Hw(})qHja. Oh nocTaB/ba ceJMene, kojh qyBajy 
japHUHJcKeH>Hse. fIoo6.iHKyH pacnopejy K>ha HMa aaa 
THna MHT.iyKa. JejHH cy reoMeTpnjcKor o6*iHKa, no- 
crpojeHH Kao KBaapaT h.ih npaBoyraoHHK, a jpyrn H3- 
r/iejajy Kao ce/ia 36HJeHa h.ih pa3pe^eHor THna obhx 
paBHHixa. 

ripHMepH npBHx MHT.iyKa cy To.ioc y cepecKoj 

KOT.1HHH H K'OMaMap.lHJa Ha HCTOHHOJ o6a.1H AMaTOB- 

CKor Je3epa. Ma.io 6o."bH yTHcaK MHHe mht.i>uh jpyre 
Bpcre, y KOJHMa craHOBH nncy noa hcthm kpobom h 
y KOJHMa je c.io6oja KpeTan>a Beha. ripHMep OBora 
THna je ce.io h'yrfa.WBO y Co.iyHCKOj KavnatbH. 

CBe HenoKpeTHO HMatbe. 3CM/ba h 3rpaje, npn- 
najajy 6ery, a noKpeTHO, a.iaT, CTOKa h jpyro, npn- 

3 japnuHJH. Flo/ia ceMeHa jaje 6er, a no.ia japn- 
UHJa. Oj .ieTHHe ce Hajnpe h3abojh uapcKH neceiaK, 
o Kowe cbh car.iacHO TBpje aa 6HBa yBeK BehH oj 
jeceTHHe. Ocra-io noae/ie Ha jeaHaKe aenoBe 6er h 

. UHJa. FIpeMa TOMe 6h japnuHJa Tpe6ao ja jo6nje 
ieTHHe. Be.ie ja ao6njajy caMO 30— 

UCBA CPMUA 11 



162 



HOBA CPBHJA 



Japnunja jiajbe Aaje 6ery neTBOpa KOJia ApBa roAHiUHae, 
aKO HMa rope y oko^hhh. Ako 6er HMa Apyre seMjbe 
ocHMHHT^yKa, japHijHJe Mopajy Ha H>oj no HeKOJiHKO AaHa 
roAHiutfee KyjiyHHTH. Ako japm,inja Kynn rAe H»nBy, 6er 
Hepa^o rvieAa Aa oh Ty 3eMjby o6pai)yje. Ako HHj'e 
#y>KaH, japHunja Moace HanycTHTH 6era h tteroB HhiviyK. 

Tokh je no;io>Kaj MOMaKa hjih ajjbaKHHJa. Ohh 
HeMajy CTOKe hh 3eMjbopaAHH4KHx cnpaBa, h o6pat)yjy 
6eroBCKy 3eM^>y Kao HajaMHHUH, AodHBajyhn xaK: 
CTaH, xpaHy h 100 — 120 rpoma roAHLHH>e. Ber hx 
MO>Ke yBeK ca HHiviyKa KpeHyTH. HMa h TaKBHx ajjbaK- 
HHja KOJH caMO daHyjy Ha HHiviyKy, n^ahajyhn CTaH 
h KyjiynehH 6ery h;ih cydauiH hcko^hko AaHa roAHiutbe. 
Ohh necTo o6paljyjy Apyre 3eM/be, Koje HHcy 6eroB- 
CKe, h MaxoM Ao6njajy BHuie oa npHHOca aceTBe ho 
japnuHje. Ohh Mory TaKO HMyhHHJH nocTaTH, a;m to 
ce, TBpAe, He CMe ca3HaTH, jep aKO A03Ha 6er, Aahe 
hm Ha cn;iy d3uezap h^h japHUH/iyK. 

H japnuHja h aj^>aKqHJa n^ahajy ochm AeceTKa 
h OBe uapcKe AaHKe h/ih „AaBaHHHe" : 6adejb yum boj- 
HHuy, eexuAUHy hjiu AaHaK 3a H3ApH<aBatt>e uapcKHx 
jbyAH KaA cy Ha nyiy, h joAiiapecu, AaHaK 3a nyieBe; 
noc^eAH>H ce AaHaK MO)Ke c Tpn AaHa roAumtbe oTKy- 

JiyHHTH. 

KaA ce CBe y3Me y o63Hp, japHi^ja Aodnje ro- 
AHume y noBOJbHOM cjiynajy 30% CBOJe 3apaAe. 

HnT^yuH reoMeipHJcKHX o6;iHKa hjih c pa3pel)e- 
hhm KyhaMa, kojh H3 Aa^ieKa Kao upHe roMH;ie H3rvie- 
Aajy, BaataH cy cneMeHaT y reorpa(})CKOJ cjihuh jywHO- 
MaKeAOHCKHX paBHHua. no H>HMa ce AaJbe bhah h 
CJiHKy AonyH^aBa H3MyHeH0 h qecTO (})H3H4kh ynivia^o, 
npjbaBO h oro/iejio HHiviyqKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO, Koje ce 
BeKOBHMa MyqH noA onncaHOM ckohomckom HajaMHHi- 
kom CHdeMOM. Oho je HCTHHa yCnjeHora Ayxa h c 
MHoro poncKHx oco6HHa, a;iH je y tbeiviy noA Ayro- 
TpaJHHM npHTHCKOM HaroMH;iaHa BejiHKa cyMa eHeprnje 
3a noKpeT, ocr^o^eifce h Mopa^Hy eBOJiyuHJy." 



co/ivh 163 



yiii. ccriVH. 

rioniTO ce Cp6HJa npoiuHpn/ia TaKO Aa/ieKO Ha 
jyr h nouuTO je 3aB/ia,aa/ia CKopo ue/iOM MopaBCKO- 
Bap^apcKOM yaojbHHOM, ona je THMe nocTa/ia rocnoaap 
ue/ie OHe no3aAHHe h ohhx reorpa(})CKHX /iHHHJa ko- 
JHMa je ycrcoB/ben reorpa(})CKH no/iowaj h Hanpe^aK 
Co.nyHa. Co.iyH na Taj naMHH nocTaje Haj6.iH>Ke h Haj- 
npHpoAHHJe npHCTanHiine cpncKO. FIopeA npnjaTejb- 
ckhx Be3a Koje nocTOJe H3Meby TpMKe h Cp6nje, h 
obh he MOMeHTH 3HaTHO aonpnueTH Aa MaKeaoHHJa 
h Oapa Cp6nja Hehe H3ry6nTH 3Hanaj co/iyHCKe eKO- 
HOMCKe nosa^HHe, hhth he Co/iyH 6hth oiuTeheH Kao 
mopcko npHCTaHHLUTe. H3 obhx pa3/iora roBopwheMO 
o Co/iyny BHiue ho iuto Iicmo roBopiiTH o xipyrHM 
MecTHMa i<oja ce Ha.ia3e H3BaH rpaHHua npouiHpeHe 
Cp6nje. 

0,1 ohhx MOMeHaTa kojh cy yc.iOBH.nH bc/ihkh 
3nawaj Co/iyHa naJBa>KHHJH cy obh. Y H>eMy ce CBp- 
maBa iiaJKpalia, HajnpocrpaHHJa h najnpoxonHHJa 6a/i- 
KancKa HH3HHCKa .THHHJa, MopaBCKO-Bap/iapcKa y^o- 
;t>HHa. {-bene aHTponoreorpaijKKe BpeaHOcru cy Beii 
jiobo^jHo HCTaKiiyTe. 3a Co.nyn je o# Ba>KHOCTH ujto 
Ta .THHHJa H36nja na naj^y6.-bH, HajnpocTpaHHJH h naj- 
saK.ioii.L'HHJH 3a/iHB Ba-iKaHCKor Ilo^yocTpBa. Co/iyn- 
ckh 3a/iHB je OTBOpcn, c.io6o;jaH, HCMa Mopey3HHa KO 
JHMa ce MO>Ke .naKO :*aTBopnTH h HMa c/io6oAHHJe h 

pa3H0BpCHHJC BC3C C OCTa/lHM flC/IC BHMa Cpeao3eMHor 
pa H Ca CBHMa CBCTCKHM nOMOpCKHM KOMyHHKaUH- 

ja.\ia no HJe^aH /ipyrn ;ieo ncnyocrpBa, H3y:ieB FpHKC. 

co y3iiy y o63up ahmch3Hjc ne.ior flo^yocTpBa 
h ny6Hiia Co.iyncKor 3a.iiiBa, no/ionoj Co.iyna hhjc 
nepHcjicpHJCKH, Bcii ce bhiuc npnG/iHwyjc ueHTpa.iHOM. 
Ha Taj naunti Ccwiyfl je no cbom reorpaijKKOM no/io- 
>Kyjy OApeljeH :ia ca6npa iiajpa3H0BpcnHjc BC3e bc/im- 
khx AC/iosa Ilo.iyocTpBa. Hope^ cbhx obhx MOMenaTa, 
*a Co/iyn je OM na>KH0CTH H to uito HMa naJKpahe 
m ic ca CpeAH>OM Eaponon h <.a CyecKHM Katia.ioM 

one iiobo.'i.hc ocoohhc ywHHH.nc cy COJiyH naJBa* 
iiHJn.M nDHMOpCKOM napoiun u«.nor no/iyocrpBa. 



164 HOBA CPBHJA 

Co;iyH je y CBa HdopHJcKa BpeMeHa 6ho jenHa or 
HaJBaH<HHJHX 6a^KaHCKHx BapoiuH. y HOBHJe BpeMe 
noMeo je Harjio HanpeiiOBaTH or KaKO je npoceneH 
CyecKH KaHa/i h carpa^eHa MopaBCKO-BapnapcKa h 6h- 
TOJbCKa >Ke^e3HHixa. Or Ta/ia je Co/iyH nociao HajBa>K* 

HHJe npHCTaHHIUTe 3a H3B03 CHpOBHHa 6a^KaHCKHX 3e- 

Majba h 3a opneHTa;iHy TproBHHy hckhx cpeAibe-eBpon^ 
ckhx Ap>KaBa, HapOHHTo HeMaMKe h Aycrpo-yrapcKe. 
Oh je ROcaRa. 6ho rviaBHo H3B03HO Medo EBponcne 
TypcKe h HajBa>KHHJe npHcraHHUJTe BajiKaHCKor rio- 
jiyocrpBa. H3 H>era ce H3B03e cbh npoayKTH cyccaHHx 
o6^acTH, HapoHHTO >KHTa, naMyK, .ayBaH, kokohh, MaK, 
cycaM, CTOKa, ByHa, Koace, K03ja ;uiaKa h pyiie. 3HaTaH 
je h yB03 eBponcKHX hhayctphjckhx npoH3BOiia h ko- 
jiOHHa^HHx ecnana. y Co/iyHy HMa h hcko^hko (J)a- 
6pHKa 3a H3pa^y naMyKa, KO>Ke, MeTa/ia, 6oja h canyHa, 

3aTHM BHLiJe napHHX MJIHHOBa. 

y cTapoM h cpejin>eM Beny CojiyH je 6ho jejiHa 

OR HaJBa>KHHJHX, flOUHHJe H HaJKyJITypHHJHX rpqKHx Ba- 

pouiH. Or 1430 ncmntt>y ce y \b HacejbaBaTH Typun, 
kojhx HMa oko 30— 40 OOOr ripn Kpajy 16 Bena Hace- 
jih/ih cy ce uinaHCKH JeBpejn h;ih CecfiapduM, or kojhx 
je je.naH aeo npHMHO HaiaM. Taj zieo 30Be ce JJoHMe 
una MaMiiH. flpBHx HMa oko 60 — 70.000, a japyrnx oko 
10.000. TpKa je 3a TypcKor BpeMeHa 6hjio 20 — 25.000. 
Bpoj OiOBeHa HaponHTO pacre, oco6hto or KaKO cy 
npecrajiH npeianaTH ce y TpKe. Bnhe hx oko 10000 
Aytna. Ha nocaeTKy HMa JleBaHTHHaua h EBponjbaHa 
oko 8.500. npn6^H>KHO he 6hth y Co^yHy oko 
160.000 ayiua. 

H no 6pojy h no >KHBOTy h pa^y, HaJBa>KHHJe co- 
/iyHCKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO cy JeBpejn. Ohh cy no3HaTH He 
caMO Kao HHTejinreHTHH h OKpeTHH TproBUH, Beh cy h 
4)H3hhkh CHa>KHH, TaKO rz Bpuie HaJTe>Ke HOcaHKe h npn- 
CTaHHiUHe nooiOBe. Mefyy co^yHCKHM ct3hobhhqjtbom 
npeacTaB^ajy HecyMibHBO HajcHa>KHHJy pacy. Hncy iia- 
KJie (J)H3hmkh AereHepHcaHH Kao ujto ce HHane necTO 
ona>Ka ulor JeBpeja. Ctea je nojaBa 36or Tora join nyR- 

HHJa UJTO je OBO CTaHOBHHUJTBO na HH>KCM cryrifby 

Ky/iType, ujto HeMa ce/ia H3 kojhx 6h ce moivih (j)H- 



oonyH . 165 

3HMKH o6HaB. r baTH h ujto ce BeoMa peTKO yKpiuTajy 
c ^pyrHM pacaMa. H3rvie;ia na hx oiipwaBa Bp/io ype- 

*)eH HBpCT nopOAHHHH >KHBOT H £y60Ka CpOAHHMKa 

A>y6aB. riopcA JeBpeja y Co.nyHy ce ona>Kajy HajBHiue 
TpuH h JleBaHTHHUH. Fpun cy noc/ie/iibHx ^eceT no 
ABa^eceT roiiHHa 3HaTHO nocpHy/in h y CBHMa noc/io 
BHMa ycryKHy/in npeA JeBpeJHMa. Ha TproBHHy cy on 
Be^HKor yTHuaja EBponjbanH, kojhx HMa cra.iHO h npn- 
BpeMeno Hace.fbeHHx; to cy MaxoM TproBUH h iproBaMKH 
areHTH, hhhobhhuh >Ke;ie3HHm<Hx, boaoboahhx h no- 
LUTaHCKHX anpeKunja, HH>KehbepH h npeiiy3HMaMH. hfc>H- 
xoBa je Te>KJba aa y KpaTKo BpeMe cieKHy, na aa ce 
BpaTe y CBOJy 3e\i;by. 36or toi a je h.hxob paA h Tp- 
roBHua MaxoM eKcn/ioaTaTopcKH. y XVIII Beny EBpo- 
njbanH cy no oko/ihhh co^yHcnoj ap>Ka/iH MHT/iyKe, 
kojh cy ce o;yiHKOBa/iH zienHM 6aujTaMa h BH/iaMa. y 
ropibHM, na h y cpezubHM c/iojeBHMa TpKa, JeBpeja h 
JleBaHTHHaua, na pa3H0BpcHe nawnne oceha ce noBpniHa 
3ana;iHO-eBponcKa Ky/nypa h pacnpocTpaibeno je 3Haibe 
(J)paHuycKO-.ieBaHTHHCKor je3HKa. OBa >KHBa h c/ioGoiwa 
Bapoiu, y kojoj je nopeA uapnrpaACKe Flepe h Tanaie 
6h.io HajBHiue /ihmhc hmobhc 6e36eAHOCTH y TypcKOJ, 
npHB/iaqn/ia je mhoto h C/iOBeHe ca ce.T h cyceinnx 
BapoiuH, h ohh cy ce y noc^eAibHM iieueHHJaMa naMHO- 
>kh/ih y Co/iyHy h nnne he«e nepnqbepHJcKe KpajeBe. 
Me^y ibHMa ce pa3;iHKyjy ABa e.iCMeiiTa: cpncKH h 6y- 
rapcKH rproBUH, saTHM CaujTOBanH h pajxnHUH tokhx 
h rpy6;bnx noc/iOBa Co/iyH je y uo.ihhh Bapoui Me- 
ujOBHTor, HCTOMfbawKor h MeAmepaHCKor THna, nownibc 
Ha o6a/iH MopcKoj kcjom, na komc naaa y own Beac- 
Ky/ia, Kojy cy BepoBaTHO M/iennhH rpaAH.in, ocra;ia 
Bapouj neibe ce oAaBAe aMqbmcaTpaAHO ao ciapor 
rpa.aa JeAHKy/ie-Ka/iecn, na mhjoj ce Bp/io crapoj ochobh 
AH>ny 3haobh, BehuM ac.iom H3 M/ieTaqKe enoxe. V 
BapoujH cy i<ylie c/ia6e, MaxoM TypcKO-opnonTa/icKor 
THna h apBCHe rpafye. rio3HaT je co/iyncKH 6e3HCTCH, 
kojh npeAcniBJba neny jo my y.inny npcKpuBcuy apb:- 
hhm KpoBOM; y lbOMy cy Ayhann muxom OTBoponn, po6a 
"Miecona CKOpo CBa Hano.be H unsa/ia hcm3 cbct^octh 
hh CBewa Ba3Ayxa, Te ce Bp.io Mecro ona>Kajy mnoBH 



166 HOBA CPBHJA 



H3HypeHH h 6;ieAH. Ha jyro-HCTOKy or Bea3-Ky;ie je 
hobh Haj/ienuiH rqo BapoiuH, Ka/iaiviapHJa, ayranaK hh3 
BH/ia, c^hmhhx OHHMa Koje ce BH^ajy Ha Kpcjiy h FIpHH- 
KHny koa UapHrpa^a. 



IX. 3AHAAHA MAKEAOHMJA. 
a.) BpcjaMKa o6jiacT, 

no cbojhm reorpa(})CKHM Be3aivia h njiacnmKHM 
oco6HHaMa, 3anaAHa MaKeAOHHJa ce 3HaTHO pa3;iHKyje 
or HdOHHe MaKeAOHHJe h rojihhq Bapaapa. 3ana£Ha 
ManeiiOHHJa ce Ha;ia3H H3Me^y Ap6aHHJe h rioBap^apja. 
Ap6aHHja ce OAJiHKyje bhcokhm h 36njeHHM BeHUHivia, 
ycKHM h K^HcypacTHM AO^HHaMa, h iijihtkom h HenpH- 
CTynaHHOM o6a;iOM. XtojiHHa Bap^apa npeAcraBJba Ay- 
6oKy HH3HHCKy jiHHHJy, Koja upo^a3H Kp03 cpezuiHy 
ManeaoHMJe h MHore o6;iacTH roboru y Be3y c MOpeM. 

OHa HMa HHTHMHHJe Be3e C HCTOHHOM MaKeAOHHJOM 

ho ca 3anaAHOM, 36or Tora iuto KOiviHHe Hctohhc Ma- 
KeAOHHJe mxy nonpenHO Ha npaBau, Bap^apcKe aojihhc 
h npeMa tt>oj cy OTBopeHe, a £o;iHHe 3anaAHe Mane- 
AOHHJe nay napa.ieJiHO c aojihhom Bap/japa, MaxoM y 
npaBixy ceBep-jyr, TaKO #a ce c HdOm HHr^e He rorvl- 
pyjy h HHcy OTBopeHe npeMa iboj. flaKJie, npBH y3poK 
ujto je Sana^na MaKenoHHj'a OABOJeHa or rojiuhq Bap- 
Aapa AO^a3H or npaBua npyaotba h>chhx KOiviHHa. 
HpyrH y3poK je y TOMe lqto cy CBe KOiviHHe 3anaxiHe 
MaKeAOHHj'e or Bap^apCKe #o;iHHe OABOJeHe bcnhkhm, 
n/iehaTHM n;iaHHHaMa, Kao uito cy Hhmc, Ce-aenKa, Ba- 
6yHa h To leniHHua. Flopcn. Tora Tpe6a HcrahH h obo. 
Ho^HHe3anaAHO-MaKeAOHCKHx peKa, Koje TeKy y npaBuy 
3ana,n;-HCTOK, h Koje 6h no cbomc npaBuy 6H^e 31 OAHe 
3a ycnocTaBJbatbe Becsa H3Mel)y 3ana;uie MaKe^onHjc 
H Bap^apa, HMajy MaxoM o6;ihk peHHHX >KApe;ia, Te- 
cHaua h KJiHcypa, TaKO rz cy Ha MHorHM MecTHMa npo- 
cto nenpHCTynaMHe. 36or TaKHX 06/iHKa HHcy ce mojvih 
pa3BHTH Ao6pH nyieBH hh Ry>K Upue hh y3 TpecKy. 
3a cao6pahaj c rioBapaapjeM ocTa^H cy bhcokh n;ra- 
hhhckh npeBOJH h npece/uiHHe Koje ce Aajy /iaKO 3a- 



SAfUmHA MAKKflOHHJA 

TBopHTH, u Koje cy 36or BCTHKe BHCHHe h ctpmchhthx 
naiiHHa 3roAHe CKopo HCK/byqnBO 3a khphuhjckh ca- 
o6pahaj. TaKBe cy npeceA/iHH.: IlpeBTHC H3Metjy Kop- 
qaHCKe h npecnaHCKe kot/ihhc, IlpncaT H3Met)y ne;ia- 
roHHJCKe KOT.iHHe h peKe Ba6yHe, h fl/ieTBap H3Met)y 
THKBema h ne/iaroHHJCKe kot/ihhc Cbh obh momchth 
yTHua^H cy Ha to iuto je 3anaAHa MaKeaoHHja npeMa 
ocra/iHM .ae^OBHMa MaKe/iOHHJe ocra;ia 3aTBopeHa, iuto 
je >KHBe^a AOHek;ie oaBOjeHHM >khbot, h luto HMa to- 

JIHKO CBOJHX HHAHBHJXya^HHX OC06HHa. 

OBe o6.iacTH cy OTBopeHe jenHHO npeMa Co^vh- 
ckoj KaMnafbH, h H>HMa npo/ia3H cnoMenyTa Via Eg- 
natia CaMO^Taj aeo npeACTaB.'ba npe;ia3Hy 06/iacr H3- 
Mel)y Hotter noBapaapja h Ap6aHHj'e. 

3anaAHa MaKe^OHHJa ce cacTojH on obhx mecT 
npocTpaHHX KOT.iHHa. HaJHCTOHHHJa je KOT^HHa Capu- 
Ijoa, y Kojy cna^a 11 oG^acT oko OcrpoBCKor Je3epa. 
hbeH ckohomckh ueHTap je Bapoinnua CypoBHMeBO. 
Ha 3ana;iy on CapHtjo.ia je FleAazoHiija h/ih 6uiuoA>- 
chO-upiueucKa KoiuAUHa. y \ho\ HMa TaKO mhoto Ba- 
poiHH Aa ce no 6pojy h bc/ihhhhh BaponiH He Mowe 
c ihOM ycnopet)HBaTH Hnje^Ha Apyra o6;iacT Ba/iKaH- 
CKor rio.iyocTpBa Koja 6h 6n/ia H>eHe Be;iH i iHHe. Haj- 
Ba>KHHJe cy Baponin: Bhto^>, ripn/ien, KpyuieBO h Jle- 
pHH. CeBepo-3ana^HO on OBe je Ma/ia KOT^HHa }KeAe- 
3huk h/ih IXeMup-Xucap, y kojoj ce Kao ckohomckh 
ueHTap pa3BHja ce/io npH6n/iua. 3ana#HO on Fle/iaro- 
HHJe je upecuancKa komaiiho. h/ih Flpecuci, y kojoj cy 
ABa je3epa, FIpecnaHCKO h Ma/io. P/iaBHa cy MecTa Pe- 
can h HnKO/ieu. BehH Aeo OxpudcKe koiuauhc 3ay- 
3HMa je3epo, Ha mhjhm cv o6a.naMa BapouiH h Bapo- 
uJHue: OxpHA, Crpyra, FIoju pa;ieu h CrapoBa. C obom 
kot/ihhom je na ceBepy Be3ana Ma/ia, a/in >KynHa, n/io- 
zina h rycTO Hace/bena KOT/inna He6pii,a, oko ropn>er 
h cpe^iber TOKa peKe CaTccKe, y kojoj ce pa3BHJa .io- 
Ka.iHH ucmap 3aer7iaBe. Ha jyry on OxpnacKe je 

KopHdHCKCl KOUIAUHCI C BapOUJH KopHOM. V BC3H Ca 3a- 

naaHO-MaKCAOHCKHM KOT/innaMa cy Ue6ap h Pena Ha 
ceBepy, h/ih kot/ihhc oko Pa/iHKe h n>emix npnTOKa 
eve w Ma/ie PeKe. 



168 HOBA CPbHJA 



M noje^HHe 3ana,nHo-MaKe;iOHCKe KOTKHHe Me^y- 
co6ho cy Be3aHe bhcokhm npece^HHaMa, KOJHMa cy 
caMO H3y3eTHO 6hjih HaHHiteHH Ao6pH uyieBH. 36or 
Tora ce Hapo^HH >khbot y nojeflHHHM KOTjiHHaivia pa3- 
BHJao cKopo He3aBHCHO oil )KHBOTa ycycejiHHM KOT/IH- 
HaMa. HaJBHiue cy H3o;ioBaHe h o^bojchc OxpnziCKa h 
FIpecnaHCKa KoTJiHHa. HapoMHTO jvhchh acjiobh no- 
crce/ufce kotjihhc Ta o^bojckoct je H3a3Ba.na MHore 
pa3^HKe Koje ce ona>Kajy y HapoAHOM >KHBOTy noje- 

AHHHX KOTJIHHa. 

CKopo cacBHM on. obhx KOT^HHa cy OABOjeHe 
Ma;ie h 3aTBopeHe nJiaHHHCKe KOT;iHHe y CeBepHoj Ma- 
KeAOHHJH Khhcbo, flope 1 ! h 3ajac. 

Kaumci. H3Met)y obhx KouiHHa h oko fr>HX cy 
BHCOKe n^aHHHe, Koje cy MaxoM npeKO 2000 m. bhcokc, 
ruiehaTe h ca npocTpaHHM 3apaBrt>eHHM TeivieHHMa. V- 

CJieA 3HaTHHX BHCHHa H Be/IHKHX KO^HMHHa aTMOC(})ep- 

ckhx Tajiora kojh najjajy y obhm 06/iacTHMa, tbHxoBa 
K^HMa je MHoro CBe>Knja ho iuto 6h ce to momo 3a- 
KJbynHTH npeMa h>hxobom reorpa(j)CKOM no/io)Kajy. Ha 
CBHMa njiaHHHaivia h JieTH HMa bctchkhx CHe>KaHHKa, kojh 
ce Tone, xpaHe MHoro6pojHe H3Bope h noTOKe, h y 
HHCKe cyBJbe o6;iacTH inajby orpoMHe KOJiHHHHe boac 
36or Tora je K/iHMa Ha n^aHHHaMa h JieTH CBeaca, a 
Hohn cy h y HaJTonjiHJHM jieTtbHM MeceuHMa TaKO xjia- 
AHe #a ce TeivinepaTypa Ba3£yxa npe,n, 3opy npH6;iH- 
>Kyje Tamm CMp3aBaH>a. YnpaBO 36or OBaKHx n^acTH- 
hkhx npnJiHKa, Ba3Ayx je y KOTJiHHaMa h /ieTH cbok, 
HapoHHTO y jyTpy h y Bene, Kazia y hckhm KOT^HHaMa, 
Kao Ha npHMep y 6HTOJbCKO-npH;iencKOJ, rpaHHHH ca 
xjia^HohoM. Mhhh ce na 6h 3anaflHO-MaKe;iOHCKe kot- 
jihhc, 6e3 obhx n;iaHHHa, y npnoc cbojoj 3HaTHOJ an- 
co^yTHOj bhchhh, no caMOM cBOMe reorpa(})CKOM no- 
;iO)Kajy, Mopa^e HMaTH MHoro Tonjinjy, cyBJby, JieTH 
qaK h HecHOCHy K;iHMy, oa npn^HKe OHany KaKBy 
HMajy KOT^HHe JIoFber h Cpe^er rioBap^apja. To 
ce, y ocrajioM, oceha no ohoj 3anapn h hcchochoj Bpy- 
hhhh Koje y dHTO^CKO-npH^encKOJ kotjihhh h Capn- 
fyo/iy saB^a^ajy hhm nacTane thxo BpeMe h hhm npe- 
CTaHy $$. flyBajy ohh pa3HH noBeTapun kojh c pa3- 



3AriAAHA MAKEflOHHJA 169 



hhx n^aHHHa AO.ia3e h H3 pa3HHX npaBaua ayBajy, na 
ocBewaBajy h pacx^a^yjy 3arpejaHH Ba3£yx. /IeTH>e 
>Kere y KOT/iHHaMa cy HnaK necTe, h 36or Tora iuto 
cy AHa KcnviHHa o6hhho ro/ia, 6e3 iuyMe h Ce3 TpaBe, 
OHe cy hbk h HecHOCHe. MecTO ce jiecu aa 3a BpeMC 
thx >Kera, Kan je 3eM/ba 3arpejaHa, \ayHy jaMH BeipoBH 
h iiHTHy CH/iHe Mace necKa m 3eM.be h ue/ie 06/iacrH 
noKpHJy o6/iauHMa on npaiuHHe. TaKBe nojaBe wecre 
cy HapoMHTo y CapHtjo/iy. 

Be/IHKa BHCHHa, jaKH BeTpOBH H 3HaTHa MHO>KHHa 

aTMOC(})epcKHx Ta.iora H3a3HBajy hco6hmho x^a^He h 
CHeroBHTe 3HMe, Koje ce cwiHKyjy jaKHM Hft»eM h Me- 
ciom MaMOM 3a BpeMe 3hmckhx Meceuw KOT/iHHe cy 
BeoMa qecTO noKpHBeHe rycTOM h B/ia>KHOM Mar/ioM 
Kojy 30By „CHhbaK". y Te aaHe MecTO ce ona>Ka na cy 
BHtiie noBpiuH H3HaA KOT.iHHa, napoMHTO OHe no npH- 
cojhhm CTpaHaMa, orpejaHe cyHueM, noje ce Ha chok- 
hom noKpHBaqy 6/beniTH. Ta^a je pe^OBHO y Marvio- 

BHTHM KOT/IHHaMa XAa^HHJe HO Ha BHLHHM nOBpiHHMa, 

Koje cy cynnaHe h ocBeT/beHe. 36or Tora je y bhco- 

KHM UHHUapCKHM BapOUJHliaMa H Ce/IHMa 3HMH Ton/iHJe 
HO y 6HTO/LCKOJ KOT/IHHH, y KOJOJ TCMnepaTypa 3HMH 

MO>Ke aa naAHe #0 30° HcnoA Hy;ie. To 3Hajy cbh cra- 
hobhhuh bhcokhx uHHuapcKHx Hace:ba, KpyujeBa, To- 
neuja, MarapeBa h TpHOBa. Hera nojaBa, caMO y Ma- 
iboj MepH, oiawa ce h y CapHtjo.iy. 

OBana CKcecHBHa K/iHMa, Koja ce ozi/iHKyje BeoMa 
>KapKHM .leTHva h x.iajHHM 3iiMaMa, CHBa 3HaTHO yMa- 
ibena y ohhm KOTJiimaMa mhjc je hho HcnyibeHo boaom. 
3na ce na Bene Boaene Mace Bpme na k/ihmh cbojc 
oko/ihhc jnojaKe yTHuaje: /ieTH pacx;iat)yjy ua.-uyx 
kojh ce no/i yTHuajeM japKor cyHua 3arpeje, a BHlfH 
nyujTajy Ton/ioTy Kojy cy .icm y ce npHMH.ie. Be/iHKa 
je3epa cnywe y oboj oG/iacrH Kao neKa Bpcra Ton^oT- 
hhx pe3epBoapa. To Ao;ia3H oiyaa iijto ce Boaa cno- 
pwje 3arpeBa ho Baaayx H ro/ie crone. Hcto Tano cno- 
pnje OTnyiuTa Beh npwfJbeHy Ton/iOTy. H3 obhx pa- 
3/iora K/iHMa je y npccnancKOJ h oxphackoj kot/imhh 
3HMM Ton^Hja ho y Onro/bCKoj n capnljo.iCKOj kot.ihhh 

TaKO, Ha npHMep,,CTaHOBHHHH,CVCCAHMX odacTH BH 



170 HOBA CPBHJA 



Ka# nyiyjy o,a OxpH.ua BHTo;by, m on TbaBaTa Ha- 
daje 3HaTH0 Beha xjiaaHoha. HecTO je y Oxpnay TeM- 
ncpaiypa caivio 3 ao 4 CTeneHa Hcnoa Hyjie, aok je y 
BHTOJby — 20°. Hcto TaKO. Kaa ce JieTH flana3H H3 ca- 
pa^o^cKe h 6HTOJbCKe KoiviHHe npeMa ripecnH h Oxpnuy, 
oceha ce ,aa ce AOJiasn y CBe>K h npHjaTaH jieTHoH Ba3- 
xyx. H3 obhx pa3/iora Boaa Oxpn/iCKor Je3epa HHKazt 
ce He CMp3aBa, h 36or Tora oho 3hmh, k&h je tt»eroBa 
OKOJiHHa noKpHBeHa CHeroM h JieaoM, 3panH TonjioTy, 
noBehaBa TeMnepaTypy Ba3j.vxa h y6;ia)KaBa ouiTpHHy 
3HMe. Th ce yTHuajH HapoMHTO ocehajy y ceBepHHM 
npH6pe>KHHM paBHHuaMa oko Oxpnaa, Crpyre h y Re- 
6puH, Koje cy 3aK^0H>eHe on ceBepHHx BeTpoBa. 36or 
Tora y obhm 06/iacTHMa KJiHMa je Heo6HMHO 6;iara, h 
y H>HMa ycnexa n;ieMeHHTO Bohe Koje y apyrHM o6;ia- 
CTHMa He Mo>Ke ycneBaTH. 

OBane BHCHHCKe h KJiHMCKe npHJiHKe HHcy aony- 
CTHJie #a ce y oboj o6jiacTH pa3BHJe Me^HTepaHCKa 
(J)jiopa hh Me^HTepaHCKO KyjrrypHO 6HJbe. Obh ynmajn 
na^ajy y o^h thm BHiue iuto ce OBe o6;iacTH Ha/ia3e y 
6;ih3hhh ErejcKor, JoHCKor h Ja^paHCKor Mopa, h uito 
;ie>Ke Ha reorpacj)CKOJ euhphhh Ha kojoj o6hmho oce- 
haMo MHoro jane yTnuaje Me^HTepaHCKe (JMOpe, OHaKBe 
on npHAHKe KaKBe ocehaMO y aojihhh Bapaapa. Kyji- 
TypHe 6njbKe obhx o6mlctu cnopo cy HCTe Kao h y 
ceBepHHM cpncKHM 3eMJbaMa, caMO c tom pa3JiHKOM ujto 
OBjie ycneBajy Ha MHoro BehHM BHCHHaivia. 

npuepeda. CyBaTH, kojhx HMa MHoro Ha TeMe- 
HHMa h naAHHaMa n^aHHHa, npcucraBJbajy Hajdojbe h 
HajnpocTpaHHje n^aHHHCKe Hcname Ha Ba;iKaHCKOM flo- 
jiyocrpBy. 36or Tora je OBjie p23BHJeHO n^aHHHCKo 
CTonapcTBO HajiuHpHx pa3Mepa. BaHHJatbe v. cTonapcKa 
n^aHHHCKa KpeTan>a Bpme ce y bckhkhm pa3MepaMa. 
T^aBHa cy KpeTan>a OBa. JleTa ce npoBo^e Ha iiepH- 
depy, BHCTpoj, HHMy, JadJiaHHUH, Kopa6y h Ulapn, 
a 3HMa y Co/iyHCKOJ KaMnaibH, TecajiHjcKOJ kotvihhh, 
apTaHCKOJ paBHHUH h MycaKHJH. KpeTan>a ce Bpme 
cBaKHx neT no iuecT Meceun, y noneTKy jieia h jeceHH. 
On BejiHKHX h MHoro6poJHHx cra^a, i^e^a 3anaAHa Ma- 
KeAOHHJa Ta^a o>khbh. CroqapcTBO npeflcraBJba Haj- 



UIAAHA MAKLM.OHHJA 171 

na>KHHJy npHB^eAHy rpaHy. Hj^mo ce oaBc naJBHiuc 
ApoMyHH h^h UHHuapH, 3aTHM Ap6aHacH, na OH^a ao- 
/ia3e Cp6H. Oa cbhx HaHHHa npHBpe^c, HajBHUie ko- 
pHCTH AOHOCH CTOUapCTBO. HapounTO je pa3BHJeHa H3- 
B03Ha TprOBHHa Ca >KHBOM CTOKOM, ByHOM, KO>KOM, CH- 
pOM H MaCTOM. 

Oa cbhx C/iOBeHa Ba/iKaHCKor no/iyocrpBa, pa- 
HHJe cy ce HaJBHine CTOMapcrBOM 6aBH/iH PeKa.iuje h/ih 

CTaHOBHHUH OKO peKe PaAHKe H FbeHHX npHTOKa To- 

;ieMe h Ma/ie PeKe. Ohh npnna/iajy cpncKOM n/ieMeHy 
MHJauHMa. hbHXOBa ce;ia orpaHHMeHa cy Bp/io bhco- 
khm n^aHHHaMa, MaxoM npeno 2000 m. bhchhc Koje 
ce oa/iHKyjy npocrpaHHM, rycTOM TpaBOM o6pac/iHM 
6H^HMa. lieo Taj Kpaj oxuiHKyje ce oimpoM ktihmom, 
h Hesro^aH je 3a 3eMJt>opaAH>y. 3a pa3;iHKy oa HOMaA* 
ckhx ApoNiyHa, obh HMajy CBOje njiaHHHe Koje cy, no 
TpaziHUHJH, otcjih oa B/iaxa. CBe aok Ap6aHacH HHcy 
none/in npoAHpaTH y oBy o6/iacr, Pena^HJe cy HMa/ie 
Be^HKa craAa OBaua Koja cy /ieTOBa;ia no oko/ihhm 
n/iaHnnaMa, a 3HMOBa/ia y npHMopjy ErejcKor Mopa. 
CBaKH je HMao Be/iHKa CTa^a. 3a caM ra/iHMHHK ce 
tbpah Aa je HMao npcKO 100.000 OBaua. Ha jeAHy 6a- 
MHJy h/ih /ieTH>y Hcnaojy H3/ia3H no 6000 OBaua non 
ynpaBOM jeAHor 6aMa. no bc/ihhhhh Kp^a, c tt>HMa ce 
Mory ycnopeljHBaTH join caMO hckh B/iacn h Aa/iMa- 
thhckh „5yMaHH", kojh ca daAHMa on 5000 ao 10.000 
OBaua H3/ia3e Ha n/iaHHHe /iH4Ke, 6ocaHCKe h xepue- 
roBaHKe. FI/ianHHa ce Ae/w Ha ncnauje Koje ce 30By 
KiuAe. a OBe ce, aKO Hnje n^aHHHa ceocKa, Aajy noA 
3aKyn. 3a >khbot Ha n/ianHHH CTOMapH o6pa3yjy yapy- 
>Keiba Koja ce 30By xapauiune, Koje he ca cbojom cto- 
kom eKcn^oaTHcaTH n/iaHHHy. U,aK/ie HCTa yupyweiba 
Kao h y ceBepo-3anaAHHM cpncKHM 3eMJbaMa. Onaj kojh 
y jeAHOJ KapaujHUH HMa najBHme CTOKe 30Be ce te- 
xaja. Oh ynpaB/ba 6awHJOM h/ih nocraB/ba 3a to ua • 
pahexajy. FIopeA napahexaje Ha 6aqnjn je 6an kojh 
chph cwp, cfiuiypie HjeroB noMaraq, odayufa, kojh ao- 
hoch ApBa, BOAy, totobh Kawa.viaK, Kofuapmija je actc 
Koje HaroHH OBue Ha CTpyry ioa hx My3y. Y3 to HMa 
iiobhujo cej Me Ha HAH ^cpyOenuuja :axoM iiaj- 



172 HOBA CPBHJA 



MJbeHH Ap6anacH kojh HyBajy 6a^HJy on apaMHja. Kao 
h Aa^MaTHHCKH BynaHH, h obh 3ace6HO nyBajy My3HHue, 
a 3ace6HO jajiOBy CTOKy. 

OBaj CTOMapcKH >khbot, kojh HMa y ce6n MHoro 
onujTer 6a;iKaHCKor, h kojh ce oa ceBepo-3ana#HHx 
cpncKHx CTOMapa (WiHKyje MHorHM HecpncKHM BJia- 
ihkhm h TypcKHM na3HBHMa, HHTepecaHTaH je h no He- 
khm HaqHHHMa MJieKapcKor paaa, kojh necTO mrnena'jy 
Kao npeocTamn HeKe npaciape Ky^Type. TaKaB je 
o6Hnaj ynoTpe6^.aBaHbe ycnjaHHX KaMeHHTHX o6;iyTaKa 
kojh ce 6auajy y cyiie c M^eKOM h 3HpoM (cypyTKOM) 
na ce MJieKO ycHpn h na. ce oabojh cnp or Mac;ia. 
HHane H3ivien 6aMHj'e h 6anH^a (cTaHa, KOJiH6e) cjih- 
qaH je ocrajiHM 6a;iKaHCKHM KaTyHHMa h 6aMHJaMa. 

CTonapn H3 JlpuMKona, H3 cejia oko Ja6;iaHHue 
h H3 Tenor Bp^a, He y^ecTByjy y oBaKO bcjihkhm Kpe- 
TaHDHMa. FIoluto cy TaMO ce;ia o6hmho BHCOKa h n;ia- 
HHHCKa, HoHxoBa CTOKa shmh cHJia3H y .no^HHy UpHor 
JlpHMa h H>eroBHX npHTOKa, r#e cy tt>HBe h cronapcKe 
CTaje y KoJHMa CTOKa npe3HMH. y npo.nehe, Ka^ ce y 
.ao^HHaMa noHHy cejaTH KyKypy3H, Bpahajy ce y cejio. 
IlpaBor 6aHHJaH^a Ty HeMa. CaMO OHa cejia HMajy 6a- 
HHJia Koja cy y 6jih3hhh Behnx njiaHHHa. 

36or Tora urro BehH rqo 3eMJbHurra 3ay3HMajy 
BHCOKe n^aHHHe h hito cy MHore KoiviHHe HcnytbeHe 
je3epHMa, a AHaHcymeHHX je3epa MaxoM MO^apHa, oceha 
ce ocKynHija y 3HpaTHOj 3eMJbH. HajBHme je HMa y 
HcyineHHM je3epcKHM KOTJiHHaMa Kao ujto cy 6HTOJt>- 
CKa, CapH^oji h KopqaHCKa. H OHe HHcy HcymeHe, na 
36or Tora 3HaTHe npocTopHj'e oko UpHe y 6hto^»ckoj 
kot/ihhh joiu cy no# 6apaMa, Koje npeAcraBJbajy ociaTKe 
oa dapHx je3epa. HnaK je 6nTOJbCKa KOT/iHHa HajBe- 
hHM Ae^OM nocejaHa >khtom, HapoHHTO KyKypy30M. OHa 
npeacraBjba arpHKy;iTypHO Haj6oraTHJy 06/iacr 3anaflHe 
MaKe^OHHJe. OHa je jejuna y ciaiby ^a HcxpaHH cbojc 

CTaHOBHHUJTO H R2i )KHTO y 3HaTHHM KOJlHHHHaMa H3- 

B03H. Kaa ce peryjiHiue jiojiuna UpHe h kslr ce oueae 
6apyuiTHHe h MOMapH, 6HTOJt>CKa KOTJiHHa he 6hth je- 

AHa OR Hajn^OAHHJHX MaKCHOHCKHX KOTVIHHa. 

OHe napTHje npecnaHCKe h oxpHACKe kottikhc 



3AIIAJ.HA MAKEflQHHJA 1 7S 

Koje cy HcyiueHe, hco6hmho cy n/iojHe. PeceHCKa paB- 
HHua aaje to/ihko >KHTa ko;ihko Tpe6a 3a cey npe- 
cnaHCKy kot/ihhv, a oxpnztCKa He Aaje to^hko >KHTa, 
a/in je OKO.iHHa OxpH.ua h He6pua doraTa noBphe.M, 
BoheM, a HMa h BHHorpana. Oxpn^cKo noBphe je qy- 
Beno, nponaje ce MaK h y BnTo.by. MyBeHe cy oxpha- 
CKe Tpeiuibe, Koje cy Be/iHKe Kao opacn h jano mh- 
pniny, 3aTHM oxpniicKe ja6yKe, Koje ce y 3HaTHHM ko- 
.iHMHHaMa H3B03e y Ennp, Teca/injy h TpqKy. Bp/io cy 
ueibeHe KpyiiiKe, aytbe, nj/bHBe, nenyHH (unibe) H 
oxpn/icKo rpoK^e. 

Oko OxpH^rKor h FIpecnaHCKor Je3epa jaKO je 
pa3BHJeH ph6o/iob. MHoro nopoanua h ce/ia 6aBe ce 
HCKjbyHHBO pH6apcrB0M Ocoohto cy uen>eHe oxpHA- 
CKe jeryjbe h nacTpMKe, Koje ce y bctchkhm ko/ihmh- 
navia H3B03e h y ceBepHe Ga^KaHCKe 3eM:be flonnpy. 
YoieA Tora ujto cy h HajBehe n/iannHe ro/ie h o6pa- 
c/ie caMO >K6yfbeM, OBAe iuyMa He ziaje oco6ht npHHoc. 
Hcto TaKO pyAapcrBO Hnje HHKaKBa npHBpe^Ha rpaHa. 

FIopeA obhx, HMa join jeflHa rpaHa npHBpeae Koja 

CTOJH CaMO AOHCK.ie y Be3H C (})H3HMKHM ocoCHHaMa 

ca.Mor 3eM^.HLUTa. To je ue i iaA6a h.ih zypoeiTi.iyK. Oa- 
hobhhhj'bo obhx 06/iacTH Hfle y neMa/i6y BHiue ho 
craHOBHHUJTBO IloBapiiapcKe h Hctomhc MaKejOHHJe. 
May MaxoM y ByrapcKy, CpCnjy, PyMynnjy, 3aTHM y 
TpMKy, a y najnoBHJe BpeMe CKopo HCK/byMHBO y A.\ie- 
pHKy. HajBHiue H^y ApoMynn, h to uny CKopo cbh 
CKopo y hctoj Mepn Hjy Cp6n h Ap6anacH H3 ,fle6pa, 
Pexe h UpHMKO.ia. Ha crpaHH ce 6aBe pa3H0BpcHHM 
3anaTHMa h AOHoce 3HaTHe cyMe HOBaua, KoJHMa ce 
H3jp>KaBa bc.ihkh aco CTanoBHHUJTBa. Onawa ce Aa y 
ne i ia/i6y nay n/iaHHHCKa ce/ia bhujc ho ce/ia Ma KOT/inna. 

IjaiiHC KOM\'HUKaHlljt' 11 HCIHUHU Cao6pQ haja , Ktt* 

puuujcKii cao6pahaj t kohquu u xcihobu. Or ko.ih- 
Kor yTimaja MO/Ke na 6yjie npupo^a je^He oG.iacTH 
na pa3ne oG.ihkc napoancr >KHBOTa, OBAe CC napo- 
i ihto bh>ih nopea ocra/ior h Ra npjHua raiBHHl K0- 
MyHHKauHJa. W oboj 06/iacTH, Koja ce cacrojH on 
HH3a ayOoKnx KOT^nna Koje cy ca cbhx crrpana orpa- 



HOBA C^BHJA 



\)em bhcokhm n^aHHHaivia, 6poj niaBHHx KOMyHHKa- 
UHJa Mopa 6hth orpaHHqeH, a npaBau ibhxob crajiaH. 
TjiaBHe KOMyHHKauHje cy Be3aHe 3a Ay6oKe npeceA- 
/iHHe, h;ih napqaA CTapHx AO/iHHa. Oil 3Haqaja je Aa 
ce HCTaKHy OBe ABe reorpa(})CKH HHTepecaHTHe CTBapH. 
CBe npeccuJiHHe h CBa napwaA CTapHx AOJiHHa yno- 
Tpe6jbeHe cy 3a KOMyHHKauHje. 36or Tora iiito je orpa- 
HHneH 6poj thx npeceA^HHa, n>HX0Ba cao6pahaJHa Ba>K- 
hoct odaje cra/ma, h nojeAHHH nyTeBH 6hjiu cy y crait>y 
Aa cboj npaBau h cboj bctchkh 3Haqaj onyBajy npeKO 
ABe xHJbaAe roAHHa. TaKaB je cjiynaj c no3HaTOM Via 
Egnatia, Koja HAe oa Jlpaqa aojihhom UJKyM6e Ha 
OxpHA, BHTOJb, Bo^eH h Co/iyH, h Koje ce y nnaBHOM 
Ap>Ke AaHannba 6HTOJbCKa >Ke;ie3HHua h dHTOJbCKO- 

OXpHflCKH nyi\ 

IlopeA OBora Be^HKor TpaH3HTHor nyTa kojh 3a- 
na^HOJ MaKeaoHHJH Aaje 3Haqaj nocpeAHHHKe 3eMJbe, 
HMa 6e36poj MatbHx yHyiaapwux uymesa kojh Beacy 
noje^HHe kotjihhc Oa k3lko je npopaAHJia 6HTOJt>cKa 
»ce^e3HHua, BHm/b je nociao cpeAHniTe h pacKpcHHija 

CBHJy THX KOMyHHKaUHJa, H THMe je KaO BapOUJ 3HaTHO 

Hanpe.fl.OBao. TaKaB jeAaH nyT boah oa BHTOJba ao Kpy- 
meBa h IlpHJiena, r^e ce nocjieAHH paqBa h HAe npeKO 
npHcaTa Be^ecy h npeKO IT/ieTBapa 3a BapaapcKe ko- 
T^HHe Pajau h Thkbcih. 06a cy H3ry6n;ia cboj Her- 
AaumH 3Haqaj oa KaKO je AOBpnieHa 6HTo;bCKa ace- 
jie3HHua. Oa Matter je 3Haqaja nyT kojhm ce HAe H3 
6HT0^»CKe KOTJiHHe 3a >Ke;ie3HHK, 3aTHM 3a FIopeH h 
Khhcbo. Bojhu je nyT kojh oa FIpH^ena boah npeKO 
ce;ia BpOAa 3a Khmcbo h nopen. Be^HKy Ba>KHOCT HMa 
nyT kojh ce oa /lepHHa nett>e Ha nncoAepCKy npeceA- 
jiHHy, na panBajyhH ce boah Ha 3anaA y EHJiHurre h 
Kopny, a Ha jyr y KocTyp. y Capnljo;iy HMa caMo je- 
AaH nyT kojh oa craHHue CypoBHneBa boah jyry npeKO 
ce^a CoTHpa h Ha;i6aHTKeja y Kaja^ap. Oa foera ce 
npeMa B/iaxoK;iHcypH OABaja KapaBaHCKH nyT, kojh je 
HapoHHTO 36or rypGeuHja jaKO noceheH. y npecnaHCKOJ 
kot/ihhh HMa caMo jeAaH Ao6ap nyT, kojh ce ncnoA 
'BaBaTa OABaja oa oxpHACKor ApyMa h HAe 3anaAH0M 



3AnA£HA MAKEJ10HHJA 1 7f> 

o6a/ioM FlpecnaHCKor Jesepa, npe;ia3H npecen/iHHy FIpeB- 
thc, nne 3a Kopny h aajbe 3a JafbHHv. To je no3HaTH 
enHpcKH nyT, kojh je nooie Via Egnatia HaJBa>KHHJH y 
ue/ioj 3anaiHoj MaKeaoHHJH. Oj OpyMe h OxpH^a 
H,ay 3a He6ap BeoMa ptjaBH KapaBaHCKH nyTeBH. 

H3Met)y BnTo;ba, PecHa h Oxpnna, no Kopqe h 
Kodypa je h can y jeKy Kupui/u/CKu cao6pahoj\ kojh 
je nopen HoBona3apcKor CaHuaKa h EnHpa joui je- 
Ahho y obom Kpajy OMyBaH. To cy y r/iaBHOM Kapa- 
BaHCKH TpaHcnopTH, kojh ce cacroje on noBopKH Koiba 
h Ma3rH HaTOBapeHHx ecnanHMa h 3eMa;bCKHM npoH3- 
BOUHMa. Taj HanHH cao6pahaja HapOMHTO je jkhb y 
jeceH xana noMeHyTH nyT H3Metjy BnTo:ba. PecHa h 
Oxpnna nocraje nyH CBeia Kao HajwHB/be y/inue y 
MaKeiiOHCKHM BapoiOHMa. ripo(})ecop U,BHJHh, kojh je y 
BHiue MaxoBa nyTOBao obhm nyTeM, nao HaM je >khb 
onwc OBora nyia, Hannna nyTOBarba h npeHohHima 
y xaHOBHMa: .Cpeiajy ce i<Hpnunje ca HaTOBaneHHM 
KOfbHMa h Ma3raMa: CBaKH Mac ce Han/mH Ha 50 no 
100 HaTOBapeHHx Mairn h;ih KOH>a. Hncy peTKe hh 
noBopKe on khphuhjckhx KO/ia, Koje ByKy 6hbo/ih 
h^h bo/iobh, h Kpehy ce HapoMHTo npeMa Pecny h 
Oxpnny. KapaBaHCKH h ko^ckh TpancnopTH Hoce H3 Bh- 
mrba npoH3BO^e eBponcKe HHnycrpHJe. MaxoMeBponcKH 
6o<$n. Ma3re cy HaJBHiue HaTOBapeHe rB03neHHM Maie- 
pHjanoM, neTpo^eyMOM y caHnvuHMa h BpehaMa 6pa- 
uiHa. Y3 FbHx nny KHpnyHJe: TocKe ca 6e;iHM (})ecoM 
h KapaKTepHCTHMHHM npw Bpxy saiuH^eHMM onaHUHMa 
ca khtom, Tpuh h UnHuapn on Kopne, Bn/iHiijTa h 
Kocrrypa, odyqeHH qecro y aniepHJe, 3aTHM MaKenoH- 
ckh C/ioBeHH, noMaBHTO on Pecua h Oxpnna. ca up- 
bchhm qaKiiiHpaMa h «|)epMeHHMa. Ha no6po onpeM/be- 

HHM KOFbHMa jailjy TOCKaHCKH H HHHljapCKH TprOBUH 

h/ih TypcKH 6eroBH, 3a K0jn\ia nny mccto ibuxoBe c.ivre 
h raBa3H ; nocnentbH 6oraTO h KHni.acro oneBeHH. Tp- 
roBUH ce necTO B03e h y KO/iHMa h;ih KapyuaMa. 3aTnvi 
npoMHHe ue/ia uHHuapcKa noponnua h/ih BHiue bn, 
h >KeHe h neua, cbh Ha Ma3raMa h/ih Ha Kon>HMa, h 
Hoce co6om CBe ujto hm Tpe6a 3a iipenohHiiiTe h xpany, 
laTHM caH/iyKe ci Kyn/benH.M cTBapHMa ja loMahy no 



176 HOBA CPBHJA 



Tpe6y; to Ty MaxoM UnHijapH kojh ce Bpahajy H3 ne- 
qa;i6e. YaeK ce Ha obhm jipyMOBHMa cpeTajy MHorH 
nonoBH h Ka/iyijepH, kojh cy, y HOBHJe BpeMe, ycnen 
no3HaTHX aoratjaja y MaKejiOHHJH, nocrajm Hapo^HTO 
noKpeTJbHBH. Hedo ce BH^e h yHHTejbH pa3HHx Ha- 
po^HOCTH, ajw nor^aBHTO cjiOBeHCKe KpBH a pa3HHx 
nponaraHiiH, kojh cy y BHTOJby ao6hjih HHcrpyKimje 
hjih n^aiy 3a cboj MyHHH pazi, y KOMe je HnaK t3ko 
Ma^o Ky^TypHora h npocBeTHora. CpeTajy ce aaKJie 
npeacraBHHUH cbhx ^pyiuTBeHHx cjiojeBa 3ana,n.He Ma- 
Ke/ioHHJe h Aji6aHHj"e h oceTH ce, 6ojbe Hero y qap- 
ihhjh h^h nyTyjyhti no ce^HMa, >khbot h ny;ic thx 
o6^acTH. 

A/ih cy Ha obhm nyTeBHMa niaBHO HnaK KHpn- 
ijLHJe ca KapaBaHHMa h kojickhm TpaHcnopTHMa, Hapo- 
huto npBe. Obh ce cnopo Kpehy, npe;ia3e npeKO /jana 
OApe^eHa Oflcrojatfea h HMajy or CTapHHe yTBpljeHe 
KOHaKe. 3Ha ce, Ha npHMep, #a Ha nyTy on BnTOJba 
npeMa Kopqn h JaibHHH HMajy Hajnpe na. npeHohe y 
PecHy, 3aTHM y CTeft>y, Ha 3anaiiHoj o6a;iH ripecnaH- 
ckot Je3epa, y 3Be3£H, Ha cesepHoj hbhuh KopnaHCKe 
KOT^HHe, 3aTHM y KopHH h aajbe. y THM KHpHUHJ- 
ckhm npeHohHLUTHMa HMa HaJBHuie h Haj6ojbHx xa- 
HOBa. To cy MaxoM HaJBeha 3£atba obhx o6;iacTH. 
Orpal}eHa cy bhcokhm KaMeHHM 3haom, HMajy TeuiKa 
^pBeHa BpaTa, Koja ce y aKiuaM 3aTBapajy h c MyKOM 
ce hko AouHHje nyuiTa. H3y3eBUJH HenoBO/bHe cnyMa- 
jeBe, KHpHUHJe CTH>Ky Ha KOHaK npe 3a;iacKa cyHua. 
YHyTpa, y obom rpa^Hhy cy .nyraHKe KOHDywHHije, h to 
je rviaBHO y xaHOBHMa. Obh cy Ty 36or ctokc h 3a n^y 
CBe HMa. CaM xaH je no npaBHJiy Ha aba cnpaTa. y £Oft>eM 
ropn BaTpa, h Ty ce ueo Ran h CKOpo ue^y Hoh nene 
Ka(})a; tby jeaHHO Mory rocrn y xaHOBHMa ao6hth. Ajih ce 
necTO y oboj npocTOpHJH h;ih y3 Hby, koji 6ojt>HX xa- 
HOBa Ha/ia3H ziyhaH, y KOMe ce MO>Ke KynHTH ayBaHa, 
hn6pHTa, x;ie6a, jaja, a KauiTO h Meca. KHpnunje h 
TproBUH Kynyjy Te noTpe6e h caMH cnpaBJbajy je^o, aKO 
HHcy co6om noHe^H, h;ih hm cnpaB/bajy xam,inje, kojh 

Cy y OBHM KpajeBHMa rOTOBO HCKJbyHHBO U,HHUapH H 

Tockc KnpHUHJe h HohnBajy y^xaHy, nopea BaTpe, 



3AnAAHA MAKEAOHHJA 177 

i 

h;ih y K<myiuHHUH nope;i CBOje ctokc Me^yTHM Tp- 
roBUH, 6eroBH h ocTa^H 6o:h\\ nyTHHUH HohHBajy y 
co6aMa ropier cnpaia, hhjh cy np03opn OKpeHyTH Ha 
OHy crpaHy iuto Ha nyT rvieiia. y BehHM xanoBHMa HMa 
h no Hena co6a 3a rocre. H3y3eBuiH Oxpna, Kopqy, 
Ja^HHy, y xaHCKHM co6aMa HeMa KpeBera, h HHCTOTa 
je ayrnjcBCKa. HeMa Behe MyKe 3a nyTHHKa ho Hohn- 
BaTH y thm co6aMa, a Ha x/ia^HOM BpeMeHy ce to Mopa. 
no ibHXOBOM uojyy cy npocrpTe jeAHa h/ih jiBe acype, 
h to je CBe y oboj co6h, hhih je noa OHe np^>aBiHTHHe 
on Koje ce Kowa je>KH, a ayBapoBH cy H36p:baHH h iotobo 
upHH. Met)yTHM y noMeHyTHM xaHOBHMa 6o/be Bpcre no 
noay cy npocTpTe ciaM^aMe, npeKO kojhx cy y/iewaHH 
Hh^hmh h MacHH jacTyuH kojh ce uaK/ie. flopeii nyTHHKa 
cy CKopo peAOBHH rocTH obhx np^aBHx h OMaujheHHx 
co6a nauoBH, qnja ce TpKa h UHKa KaujTO ue/iy Hoh 
c/iyina ; rxienie cy Bp/io arpecHBHH h pa3Hecy xpaHy 
Kojy cy nyTHHUH cnpeMH.in, KaiiJTO H3r/iol)y h OMaui- 
heHe KanyTe. Hncy mhoto 6ojbH hh ohh xaHOBH y ko* 
jHMa HMa KpeBeTa. 

y ABopnujTy xaHa, petje H3BaH xana, HMa bc/ihko 
iipBO, HaJMeujhe n-iaTan h/ih jeiXHa Bpcra xpacra, oko 
Kora je y3BHHieH>e, no3HiiaHO h 3eM/bOM Ha6njeH0, Ha- 
;ihk Ha ryBHO, h to je Te({)epHM 3a 6o:he nyTHHKe, r\ae 
ce ohh Hajnpe OAMope h nnjy Ka(})y. ya n.era je no 
npaBH^y MecMa h/ih 6ynap. 

KnpHUHJe ca 6hbo/ickhm h/ih bo/iobckhm KO/iHMa 
HohHBajy na .iciiom BpcMeny H3BaH xaHOBa : nopetiajy 
Ko/ia y npyr, Kao Kapy, orpa^e ce, h y tom 3aTBO- 
peBOM npocTopy ropn Be/iHKa BaTpa oko Koje noce- 
Aajy; aouhhjc na CMeny cnaBajy TaKO na hx HMa 6ya- 
hhx ue.ic HOhH: ohm npeceae nymcliH ^yBan h nnjyhn 
KacJ)y. Kaa je zieno BpeMe, h KapaBancKe KHpnuHje na- 
/iowe BaTpy y ABopnojTy xana h oko n>e npecnaBajy 
h/ih npecene ue/iy Hoh, y hctom pacno/io>KeH>y Kao 

H lipBH." 

Tuuosu ccaci u Kyha. — Hnrae ce TaKO jacHO hc 
BHiie pa3HOBpcHH yTHuajH KoJHMa je 6ho H3/io>KeH >kh- 
bot CTaHOBHHLUTBa 3ar]ajiHe MaKeaonnje Kao na th- 
noBHMa ceia w Kyha. Be/iHKe ce paviHKe ocehajy y 

■OBA cruuA 12 



1/0 HOBA CPBHJA 



cBaKOMe cejiy npeivia TOMe #a jih je cpncKo, apOMyH- 
cko hjih ap6aHaniKO. Tnn cejia, cnoJbHH h yHyiaptbH 
H3i7ien ceocKHX Kyha, Kao h caM yHyTpauiiBH >khbot, 
y ochobh je iipyKMHJH koa CBa Tpn Hapo^a. flope^ 
Tora onancajy ce pa3JiHKe Koje ^o/ia3e on Tora aa jih 
je cejio HHT^ynKo hjih HHJe, #a jih je nojbCKO hjih njia- 

HHHCKO, JX2L JIH je BHLIie 3eMJbOpa^HHHKO HJIH CTO^ap- 

cko. Cbh obh yTHuajH ona>KaHH cy h HaroBeniTaBaHH 
h y flpyrHM cpncKHM o6jiacrHMa, ajiH ibhxob yTHuaj 
peTKo rue Aa je 6ho tojihko jan, h peTKo i\ne jo,a je 
H3a3Bao tojihko pa3JiHKa Kao y oboj o6jiacTH. 

Ha npBOM MecTy na#a y oih pa3JiHKa H3Mehj 
cpncKHx h pOMaHCKHx Hacejba. y npBHM ce jaBJbajy 
pa3JiKKe npeivia TOMe £a jih cy HHTjiyqKa h/ih HHcy, 
3aTHM npeMa pa3HHM o6jiacTHMa, npeivia TepeHCKHM h 
bhchhckhm pasjiHKaMa ; koa apyrnx ce ona>Kajy pa3- 
jiHKe npeMa TOMe #a jih cy to cejia CTajiHO HacTaibe- 
hhx U,HHuapa („ryp6euHJa") hjih cy to KaTyHH ho- 
M3ACKHX ApOMyHa. 

no Tnny cpncKHx cejia h Kyha y 3ana^Hoj Ma- 
kchohhjh HMaivio £Be ueJiHHe, on koj'hx npBy caqHHr.a- 
Bajy dHTOJbCKa, npecnaHCKa h oxpnucKa KOTJiHHa, a 
Apyry cejia JpHMKOJia, PeKe, h ae6apcKor Kpaja. 

y npBOM ^ejiy no Tnny pa3JiHKyjeivio ABe BpcTe 
cejia, h to nojbCKa h njiamiHCKa. Ta pa3JiHKa je H3a3- 
BaHa THMe uito cy ce nojbCKa cejia pa3BHJajia no,n, yTH- 
uajeM HHTjiy^Kor CHcreMa, a Apyra cy 6HJia cjio6o,h- 
HHJa or iberoBHX yTHuaja. 

CKopo CBa cejia cnoMeHyTHX KOTJiHHa cy hhcJ)- 
/iyun, peh,e je^Hora cnaxnje, BehHHOM BHiiie ibhx. Koa 
cbhx hh^^hjckhx cejia KapaKTepncrHHHO je to hjto cy 
36ujenoza iuuua, ynpaBO pa36HjeHa cy y BHine rpyna, 
y KOJHMa cy Kyhe Meljy co6om jaKO 36njeHe. Ako cejio 
npnna^a je^HOM cnaxnjn, OH^a cy CBe Kyhe 36njeHe y 
je^Hy rpyny. y cpe#nHH TaKor cejia je BeJiHKa arHH- 
CKa Kyha, 3H#aHa, OKpeneHa, c Aocra bhtkhx AHMtbaKa, 
h o6h4ho Ha ABa cnpaTa. Oko it>e cy 36njeHe CHTHe, 
npjbaBe, HeoKpeqeHe ceocKe Kyhe, Koje cy MaxoM ox 
neoTecaHor KaivieHa, 6e3 MajiTepa, 6jiaTOM o6jienjbeHe, 
o6hhho noKpHBeHe kpobhhom, pel)e hepaMH^OM. Ako 



J.-AII.\4"rt 1YJ/\I\C,U > VJI . 



ce.io npnnaaa hcko/ihuhhh cnaxnja, OH^a ce ce/io acjih 
Ha HeKO/iHKO rpyna, ynpaBO Ha oho/ihko rpyna kojihko 
HMa cnaxHJa. Y cpe^HHH rpyne je cnaxHJCKa h;ih arnn- 
CKa Kyha, a oko n>e cy KaTKaA 6e3 pezia 36njeHe ce- 
ocKe Kyhe, a neiuhe cy y 06/iHKy Kpyra h.ih napa^e- 
.lorpaMa orpaJ)eHe 3ajeAHHHKHM 3hjiom 0,1 3eM;be h.ih 
hepnHMa, kojh neiuhe HMa najicTpeiiiHHuy. Y noc.neA- 
HdCM cnyMajy ceocKe Kyhe cy 6/iH>Ke hbhuh 3Hiia, a 
arHHCKa je y cpenHHH orpa^eHa npodopa. TaKaB H3- 
r/iea HMajy h 0Ha no;bCKa ce.ia Koja cy ono6o;iHa. 

y CBaKOM ce/iy, na 6w\o hhb4hjcko h;ih c.io- 
6oaho, je^Hora are h.ih BHiue ibnx, HMa yBeK jejaH 
c.no6o^aH npocrop, o6hmho y 6.ih3hhh upKBe, Ha KOMe 
ce cadajy h o npa3HHUHMa Hrpajy ko/io. Taj ce npo- 
CTop, aKO je npn 3eM/bH, 30Be ciupencio (t j. cpe£- 
ce;io), a aKO je noanrHyT on leM.-be, OH^a ce 30Be iuy.\i6a. 

Kyha je o6hmho ABO^e/bHa h HMa MaxoM abc npo- 
CTopnje, h to : Kyhy 3a Jbyae h uonduAy 3a croKy. 
ToMe pacnope^y o^roBapajy h ABOJa BpaTa, h to rviaBHa 
cy jy>KHa, a cnope^Ha cy ceBepHa. Ha npBa y;ia3e h 
-'byAH h CTOKa, a Ha Apyra caMO ^»yAH. IlpcA bc.th- 
khm BpaTHMa c jeaHe h apyre crpaHe HMa TpeM h.ih 
upeiuKyhuje, i\ae ce ;ieTH aoneKyjy tocth. HeNia hh 
TaBaHa hh ouaKa. Hhm ce innpn no ue^oj KyhH h H3- 
/ia3H Ha 6auy y KpoBy. Y3 OBy Kyhy ona>Kajy ce obc 
3rpa,ae : Koiuape 3a wyBaibe CTBapn nojeAHHHX 3a;ipy- 
rapa, n/ieBiba 3a ceHO, 3aTHM Tp/ia 3a CTOKy, CBHn.au, 
KOKOLUHHau, xaM6apH, KoiueBH, a KaTKaa h x/ieGna neh. 

n^aHHHCKa Kyha ce 3HaTHO pa3/iHKyje on no/b- 
CKe, h to na npnoM Mecry npocrpaHHJHM npocropoM 
oko Kyhe. Ha TOMe npocropy pa3.iHKyjeMO MCTupn 
ae/ia, h to: mccto rvie je Kyha, ryMHO, ABop h \ 
hhk. Kyha je Ha Kpajy ABopnujTa 6/iH>Ke y/innn. Cbc 
cy Kyhe jeAHOcnpaTue, 3HAane KaMeHOM h 6/iaTOM, a 
noKpHBeHe KaMeHOM n^OMOM h c/iaMOM. M.Majv ABOJa 
BpaTa, t'o.WMa (jywua) h .ua.ia (ceBcpiia). AeJtM ce 
Ha Kyhy 3a /byAe h uoHOu.iy 3a crony. W Kyhn ce 
pa3^HKyjy obh aciobh : ozhbiuuule, pyiia no 1 m. ujh- 
poKa a 1 Vi m. AyraMKa; oko oribHiirra cy : cpednoBoA 
H3Mel)y oru.HUjTa h BpaTa, npa3an npocTop na komc 

IP 



fcMecapHJa" (peayina) MecH x;ie6; c JieBe h aecHe OTpaHe 
orhbHiiiTa cy miuuuiuia, Ha KoJHMa cnaBajy lvuiatja ^ie- 
Jbajiy a y npcmejby je nauiAaHUK, Ha KOMe cnaBajy 
CTapnja nejhaji. Cbh obh npocTopH cy y hctom HHBoy, 
Ha no,ny kojh je HaHH^eH oa Ha6njene 3eM^>e. J\o „ro- 
;ieMHx BpaTa" y noH^H^H je „H36a a , npocTopHJa 3a 
rocTe. Ako Heivia „H36e", OH,na je y ^BopHiuTy HaHH- 
H>eHa .aBocnpaTHa, qeTBOpoyrjiacra 3rpa;inua, o6;ien- 
jbeHa 6/iaTOM, noKpHBeHa n;ionoM, c TaBaHOM h c He- 
kojihko MajiHx npo3opa, Koja ce 30Be KyAtme. To je 
rocTHHCKa Kyha Ocrajie 3rpa;i;e y ^BOpHnrry cy OBe: 

KOIliapa, JKHTHHUa, KOMHHa H .flpBHHK. 

y aajbHHH or je^Hor no ABa qaca o^cejia pacry- 
peHa cy iupAa, h Ha pbeMy je ajatH 3a OBue, ca TpH 
CTpaHe 03H/iaH h noKpHBeH caaMOM; ilpecAO je orpa^eH 
npodop npea ajaTOM; fiAeena 3a ceno h koau6cl 3a 
qo6aHe. 

CacBHM ApyKiHJH THn Kyha h ce;ia je y UpHM- 
Ko;iy, ,ne6apCKOM h peKa^HjcKOM Kpajy y obhm ce^HMa 
noHHtty Beh aa ce ocehajy ohh yTwuaJH kojh #o;ia3e 
c HCTOHHor jaapaHCKor npHMopja, h kojh cy 3anaziHHM 
o6^acTHMa Ba;iKaHCKor ncnyocrpBa aohchh MHore 3a- 
je^HHHKe oco6HHe y THny cejia h Kyha, 3aTHM y mho- 
thm nojaBaMa MaTepnajiHe KyjiType, a BepOBaTHo HHcy 
ocra;iH 6e3 H3BecHor yTHuaja hh Ha ncnxojiorHJy Ha- 
poaa. y ZlpHMKO^y ce;ia cy pa36HJeHa y Maxa^e h Kpa- 
jeBe y KoJHMa cy Kyhe H3Mel)y ce6e o6hhho 3HaTHO 
yiiajbeHe, TaKO rsl no cnojbHDeM H3rvie;iy uamme Ha 
HeKa myMa^HJCKa a jom BHuie Ha upHoropcKa h xep- 
ueroBaMKa ce/ia. OBae HMa h 3ace;iaKa, kojhx HeMa y 
cnoivieHyTHM KOT/iHHaMa. y nojeAHHHM MaxajiaMa h 3a- 
ceouHMa HMa rpyna o^ cpoahhmkhx Kyha, Koje OAro- 
Bapajy ueMaTHMa Jyro3anaziHe Cp6HJe h poAOBHMa 
UpHe Tope h XcpueroBiai riopcfl. Tora CBaKa Kyha 
HMa oko ce6e Behy npoi upnjy y kojoj je BpT h bor- 
H>aK h Koja o/iroBapa myMa^HJcKHM OK>hHnuaMa h 
xepueroBaHKHM orpa^aMa. CBaKO ce;io HMa cBojy 3a- 
je^HHHKy npec/iaBy, a nopea Tora CBaKa nopoanua, 
Kao h y ocra/ioj MaKe^OHHJH h Crapoj Cp6nJH, HMa 
crcaBy, Kojy OBfle 30By ceeden. Ce;ia peKa^HJCKe o6;ia- 



cth m Ae6apcKor Kpaja o;yiHKyjy ce THMe iuto cy CBa 
Bp;io Be/iHKa h iuto cy noae/beHa y Maxa.ie, y KOJHMa 
cy Kyhe jaKO 36HJeHe. Flo H3pa£H Kyha, no bcihmhhh 
h cnojbHjeM H3MCiiy, OBa ce;ia Ha.iHHe Ha Ma;ie Bapo- 
iUHue. Thu je ce/ia CKopo hcth OHaKaB Kao koa U.hh- 
uapa, Ha Koje cbojhm >khbotom h HHawe MHoro Ha/inne. 
CeocKe Kyhe obhx o6:iacTH pa3/iHKyjy ce oa Kyha 
y cnoMeHyTHM KOT^HHaMa THMe ujto iiMajy aba, a KaT- 
Kan h Tpn cnpaTa, iuto cy ce £aK/ie pa3BHJa.ie y eep- 
uiuKaAHOM upaenv, aok cy ce Kyhe jy>KHHX KOT^HHa 
3an. MaKeziOHHje pa3BHj'a/ie y xopH30HTa;iHOM npaBuy, 
36or nera cy ocra/ie jeAHoenpaTHe. IlpBH npaBau pa3- 
BHha je 3ajeziHHMKa oco6HHa Kyha Ap6aHHJe, UpHe 
Tope, XepueroBHHe h ZlajiMauHje, Koje no oboj oco- 
6hhh h no napoMHTOJ rpai)H MHHe 3ace6ny rpyny Kyha 
Ha Ba/iKaHCKOM rio-nyocrpBy, Koja 6h ce MOMa Ha3- 
BaTH ja^paHCKO-npHMopcKa rpyna. HHTcpecaHTHO je 
iuto ce H3 Ka3HBaH>a MHornx MemTaHa ;u)3Haje aa OBaj 
THn Kyhe HHJe or yBeK 6ho pauinpeH y oboj 06/ia- 

CTH. T. TOMa CMH/baHHfi, yMHTCfo, KOJH je pOUOM H3 

ce/ia TpecoHMe y Peun TBpun aa cy paHHJe Kyhe, aok 
cy ce craHOBHHUH 6aBn;iH npeTe>KHo CTonapcTBOM, 6n;ie 
„npH3eMna GnaMett>aMa no^HmyTa on 6pBaHa h OMa- 
3aHa 6/iaTOM u , a „oa KaKo je npecra/io CTonapcTBO, 
Hapojx ce o/iao ryp6eT/iyKy h 3anaTHMa; KaKo cy Be- 
hHHOM jhyAH 3H£apH h rpal^eBHHapH, to cy h CBOJe 
Kyhe yuec /ih npeMa rpaljancKHM" (UbhjhIi, III, 1014 
h 1015). Hero TaKO npeHeceHa je y HOBHJe BpeMe 
H3 BapoiuH h.th H3 zia.TMaTHiicKor npHMopja ^BOcnpaTHa 
3Haana Kyha y XepueroBHHy H ^a.iiviaTHHCKO 3aropje; 
npe H>e je y XepueroBHHH npeoB^af)HBa/ia npH3eMna 
c.iaMHHua, a/in Heo/ien;beHa, oa cyBOMehnne, a y ;ia.i- 
MaTHHCKOM 3aropjy je 6n/ia 6pBHapa noKpHBena ;ia- 
ckom. Hero TaKO h caaamiba Kyha y Upnoj Topn npe- 
B/iaaa/ia je tck y HOBHJe BpeMe. HcropHJa h pa3BHTaK 
ap6aHaiHKe Kyhe HHCy im npnG.in>KHO no3naTH. H3 
OBora ce nnaK bh/ih a& oBe sajeAHimice oco6nHe y 
MaTepna/inoj Ky/iTypn ne Tpe6a cboamth na ncny oco- 
6hto ,ay6oKy crapocr, a joiu Man>e hm Mory 6hth y3- 
poK eTHorpa({)CKe MeiuaBHHe H3Metyy ToMaHa h Cia- 



nuD/i v^rDnon. 



BeHa, Koje cy, ano hx je KaA h 6ujio, MHoro crapnje 
oa eTHorpa4)CKHx MemaBHHa y hctohhhm h ueHTpaji- 
hhm cpncKHM o6jiacTHMa, rjie cy OHa BpiueHa Kpo3 
ueo cpe^tbH h hobh BeK, CBe ao AaHac. 36or oBora 
ceBep03anaAHe cpncne 3eMJbe, HapoHHTo BocHa, Xep- 
ueroBHHa, JXanManuja. 6e3 npHMOpCKHx BapouiH h BehH 
Aeo UpHe Tope, Ba>KH;ie cy oa yBeK Kao eTHorpa(J)CKH 
HaJHHiuhe h HajcBe>KHJe cpncKe o6;iacTH. 

Kyha obhx o6;iacTH OA^HKyje ce bcjihkom npo- 

CTopHJOM y kojoj cy ABOp HJIH aBJ.HJa, 6a6HCl, BpT, 

n^eMft>a 3a ceHO, KOTap 3a amy h KapMa 3a ApBa. Ha 
KyhaMa cy o6hhho ABOja BpaTa, MaAa epaiRa h iupeM- 
chca h;ih zoAeMa epaiua. Hcnpen ro^eMHx BpaTa je 
xoahhk, kojh ce 30Be upeiuKyka. BpaTHHue Ha rojieMHM 
BpaTHMa cy jane, oa ApBeTa, h 3aTBapajy ce H3HyTpa 
noMohy HaponHTHX jaKHX rB03AeHHx nojiyra h 6paBa. 
DiaBHe npodopHJe cy : „Kyha" (Kyxntba), OAaja, OAajne, 
npHJaiejbCKa caaja, napAaK, TpeM h hepa;i. y hckhm Ky- 
haMa canyBaH je MpaqaH npocTOp, uondiiAa, Koja je 
HeKa.aa c/iy>KH.7ia 3a HohHBan>e CTOKe, a ca^a ce yno- 
Tpe6jbyje 3a ocTaBy. TiepajiH cy Ha aoh>cm cnpaTy, h 
c/iy>Ke h^h 3a croKy h;ih 3a qyBaFbe pa3Hor jecTHBa: 
MacTH, cupa h Kynyca. Ocrajie npocTOpHje cy Ha cnpa- 
TOBHMa. Ha cnpaTy je HaJBaaandja npocTopHJa Kyha. 
OnbHUJTe je o6hhho nopeA 3HAa; H3Ha# H>era je ouaK, 
y o6;wKy H3BpHyTor JieBKa, kojh xBaTa ahm c onbH- 
HiTa. yHyTpauiH)OCT Kyhe y onuiTe je HCTOBeTHa ca 
yHyTpaiHH>onjhy 6a;iKaHCKe BapouiKe Kyhe. Obh ouaim, 
MycaH^epe h AOJiann, AOKa3yjy ^a ce OBa Kyha pa3BH- 
ja;ia yrjieAafceM Ha 6a;iKaHCKy BapoiHKy Kyhy. 3a OBy 
o6^acT KapaKTepHCTHHHa je npocTopHJa cKpu6miu,a, 
HHJa nojaBa npeAcraBJba je^aH BeoMa n3pa3HT AOKyMe- 
HaT 3a couna^He h hmobhhckc npHJiHKe Koje cy ao 
npe roAHHy AaHa y oboj o6;iacTH B/iaAa;ie. „CKpH6HHua 
je HajcKpHBeHHJH Aeo Kyhe. OHa je TaKO noAeuieHa Aa 
ce He Mo>Ke ona3HTH, a c/iy>KH 3a cKpHBa^be cTBapn 
oa noxape." Kao nooieAHua HecnrypHa acHBOTa h Kao 
AOKyMeHT h 3a couHajme npn^HKe, Mory ce CMaTpaTH 
h ABOJa HacnpaMHa BpaTa y Kyhn, o6;ihk BpaTHHua h 
naHHH 3aTBapan>a BpaTa. HeKe oa thx nojaBa 6H;ie cy 



3a TypcKO BpeMe pauiHpeHe no ue/iOM FIo^yocTpBy, h 
CByiia cy HMajie hcth 3HaHaj, jia ce oa 3y/iyMhapa naKiue 
caKpHj'y h yMaKHy: >KeHe, ^eBOJKe, ;byiiH h HMafee. 

HBOpOBH Cy MaXOM nOn.TOHaHH, 063HiiaHH Be/IHKHM 3H- 

AOBHMa, tsko na je TeiuKO yhH y h*hx. 

EiiiHozpacpcKe CipuAiiKe. — ETHorpacJ)CKe npH.iHKe 
y 3ana;iHOJ ManeiiOHHJH cy mhoto KOMn.iHKOBaHnje ho 
h y je/uioM ^pyroM neny Ba^KaHCKor no/iyocrpBa. OBae 
ce iioiwpyjy Cp6H, TpuH, Ap6aHacH, ApoMyHH h Typun. 
T^aBHH iieo CTaHOBHHUJTBa caMHihaBajy Cp6H. Ohh y 
BeheM iie/jy 3ana^He ManeiiOHHJe MHHe KOMnaKTHy Macy, 
Koja je KOMnaKTHHJa h Maibe pa30HJeHa ho ujto je to 
oiynaj y apyrHM iie/iOBHivia MaKeiiOHnje. CaMO Ha H>e- 
hhm jy>KHHM h 3anaiiHHM rpaHHuaMa B/iaiia MeuiaBHHa 
Hapoiia h eTHorpacJ)CKO mapeHH/io. 

Hiiyhn c jyra H3 Ennpa h jy>KHe Ap6aHHJe, enHp- 
ckhm nyieM, Cp6a He\ia CBe no npece^HHe FIpeBTHca 
HBaH Fl/iaHHHe, ochm 2 — 3 ce^a cpncKa y KopnaH- 
ckoj kotvihhh. HacTajy y npecnn. HBaH n.TaHHHa h 
IlpeBTHC cy eTHorpac^cKa rpaHHua H3Meljy TocKa h 
Cp6a, ann h H3BecHa Ky/iTypHa rpaHHua. Jep KpajeBH 
jy>KHO oil IlpeBTHca cy noil noTnyHHM yTHuajeM rpqKO- 
BH3aHTHJCKe Ky/iType, naTpHJapmnje h rpMKor HauHO- 
Ha^H3.\ia : h TOCKancKO CTaHOBHHHJTBO h ApoMyHH oce- 
hajy ce Kao FpuH. CeBepHO or FlpeBTHca th Ky/iTypun 
HauHOHa^HH yTHuaJH 3HaTHO ocna6e. CaMO MHoro6pojna 
cpncKa Tonorpa(})CKa HMeHa KopnaHCKe kot^hhc h jy>KHO 
Oil n>e nojiceliajy Ha paHHJe, jaMawHO MHoro6poJHO cpncKO 
CTanoBHHUJTBO, Koje je iie/iHMHue eMHrpnpa/io Ha ceBep, 
a ae;iHMHue ce y FpKe H Tockc npeTonn/io. 

McljyTHM y KOCTypcKoj 06/iacrH HeMa oujTpe rpa- 
HHue H.-JMeljy Cp6a h CTpaunx napo;ia. Ca.M KocTyp je 
THncKa rpHKa Bapouj. y kojoj ce ry6n MyxaMeiiancKa, Typ- 
CKa Man>HHa h cacBHM ne3HaTan 6poj no/iynorpMennx 
Cp6a. A/ih no ce/niMa necyMibHBO npeoB.ialjvje cpn- 

CKO CTaHOBHHHJTBO, MHJH JC 3HaTaiI RCO y oO.iaCTH He- 

cpaMy, jyro:3ariajHO Oil KocTypa, noTypwen; HMa npn- 
/iHwaH 6poj Ap6anaca, 33thm Ma/in 6poj Oc.Mati.iHJa h 
npaBHX TpKa. Bc.ihkh je 6poj naTpujapujHJcKHX Cp6a 
kojh npHnajajy rpm<oj napTHJH. Bp.io je jaK yTnuaj 



184 HOBA CPEHJA 



rpqKO-BH3aHTHJCKe KyjiType h rpuH3Ma. H cejia h Kyhe 
cy ApyKHHj'e ho y ceBepHHJHM KoiyinHaMa. Cejia cy Be- 
jiHKa, 36HJeHa, qedo c bcjihkhm. MaxoM OKpeneHHM Ky- 
haMa, y khth oa ja6;iaHOBa, peTKO je Koje cejio 6e3 
rpMKor hjih UHHuapcKor 6aKajia, a MaBpoBO (y KOMe 
HMa 3HaTaH 6poj Tpna h Unnuapa) HMa Behy HapiiiHJy 
Kao BapouiHue. 

CacBHM cy ^pyra^HJe npHJiHKe y o6;iacTH CapH- 
\)ony. Obo je HaJBeha Typcna oa3a y 3ana/i,HOj MaKe- 
.hohhjh, rycro HacejbeHa Ma^oa3HJCKHM Kon>apHMa (or 
KoHHJe),KOJH 3ay3HMajyo6;iacT ofl KapaTama jxo B/iaxo- 
KJiHcypcKe n^aHHHe, h on OcipoBCKor Je3epa ro KowaHa. 
CTaHyjy y ABe BapouiKue, Kaja^apy h IJyMH, h y npeno 
cto, MaxoM Ma^HX cejia. Oco6hto je rycT hh3 TypcKHx 
ce;ia Ha jy>KHoj hbhuh njioziHora ByuaKa: 3eMJbHuiTe 
jio6po o6pal]eHO, Be;iHKe KaMeHe Kyhe c bhtkhm oua- 
UHMa H ; KapaKTepHCTHHHHM o63HAaHHM ceocKHM 6yHa- 
pHMa; H^yhH ceBepHOM o6ony CapH^ojia, npeMa Fle- 
TpcKOM h OcrpoBCKOM Je3epy, 3eM^»HuiTe nodaje He- 
ujiOAHHJe, ce^a cBe 3anap^o>KeHHja: Befc Ha^daHTKej 
je TaKaB, a Cothp join BHtue. Jy>KHa rpaHHua Cp6a 
npo;ia3H OBae Octpbckhm je3epoM, 3aTHM MajiKOM, 
Hnne h KH3^H-ZI,epBeHTOM. Ajih jy>KHO or OBe rpaHHue 
odaiy Meljy KOH>apcKHM cTaHOBHHuiTBOM HeKOJiHKe cpn- 
CKe oa3e, HapoHHTo ce^a IlaTejiHK, Bp6eHH h CypoBHMeBO, 

Ca CTaHOBHHLUTBOM eHeprHMHHM H Heo6H4HO BpeAHHM. 

Ha 3ana/iy ce Cp6H rpaHHue ca Ap6aHacHMa. 

Ca.ua Ta rpaHHua npo;ia3H Oxphackhm Je3epOM, 
TaKoJ'^a je Ha 3ana^y on H>era je^HOCTaBHO ap6aHa- 
idko CTaHOBHHiuTBO, Koje 3ay3HMa h dapy cpncKy 
o6^acT MoKpo, 3aTHM Topy Ha jy>KHOJ cTpaHH je3epa; 
Ha 3anaAHOJ CTpaHH OxpHflCKor je3epa cpncKO je ce;io 
caMO Panoxvia, a y JlHHy HMa caMO cpncKa MatbHHa. 
Me^yTHM ce no cpncKOJ HOMeHKJiaTypH bh^h aa je 
Ha 3ana^y on OxpHACKor Je3epa oko peKe ZleBOJia 
h IUKyM6HJe 6hjio cpncKO CTaHOBHHiuTBO. Ha jieBOJ 
CTpaHH HeBo.ia, oaiviax Ha 3ana^y oaMycKOTOJba, Ha;ia3H 
ce o6;jacT OnapH, 3a nojy H3 xpoHHKe MycaKHJeBe 3HaMO 
na je y 15 Beny 6H.na HacejbeHa Cp6nMa; ohh cy ce Ty 
m MHoro ^ouHHJe 3a£p>KajiH, jep y 6HTOJbCKOJ kotvihhh 



3AnAAHA MAKEAOHHJA 



HMa cpncKor cTaHOBHHUiTBa Koje je nopeK/iOM H3 
Onapa. y hctoj kot/ihhh, na hsk y Ko3JanHJH, Ha cpn- 
CKO-TypcKoj rpaHHUH, HMa cpncKor craHOBHHUJTBa Koje 
je nopeK^iOM H3 e;i6acaHCKor Kpaja. 

Ha Oxphackom Je3epy je mKne je^aH #eo oho 
noKpeubHBe eTHorpac})CKe rpaHHue H3Met)y Cp6a h Ap- 
6aHaca Koja ce HapoMHTo y TOKy nocne/uba TpH BeKa 
Ha iiJTeTy Cp6a npeMa HCTOKy noMepa/ia. Kao na je 
ap6aHaujKO npo^wpaihe npeMa Hcimy 3aycTaBH/ia bo- 
neHa Maca OxpHACKor Je3epa, jep, Ma aa h Ha HCimy 
on H>era HMa Beh 3HaTHHx ap6aHaiHKHx oa3a y IlpecnH 
h 6nTO- T bCKOJ kot/ihhh, HnaK cy Ha ocTa/iHM TawKaMa 
OBe rpaHHue Ap6aHacn aa/be Ha hctok npo;ip/iH. Kao 

UJTO heMO ^OUHHJe BH^eTH, TO HHJe H3a3BaHO BehOM 

n/ioAHOinhy Ap6aHaca ho Cp6a, Beh apyrHM y3pouHMa, 
noMaBHTOTHMeujTo jeoBo^oj.HpHa .iHHHj'a H3Me^ynao- 
py>naHorap6aHaujKorcTaHOBHHiuTBa noB/iamheHe Myxa- 
MeiiaHCKe Bepe h HeHaopy>KaHHx Cp6a, kojh cy >KHBe;iH 
y je^HOj 6ecnpaBnoj ApwaBH. 36orTora Beh oko Crpyre 
nOxpn^a, join BHiiieHa jyroHCTOHHoj cTpaHH Oxpnackor 
Je3epa, qecTo je B/ia,aa/ia ;iHWHa h HMOBHa HecnrypHOCT. 

Ha ceBepy on Oxpn^CKor Je3epa je Ae6apcKa 
06/iacT, y kojoj CTaHyje Bp.no eHeprHMHO h pa3y3#ano 
ap6aHaujK0 n/ieMe UnGpa/inje, Koje je He caMO noapGana • 
ujh/io HCKaAaujiby cpncKy 06/iacr >Kyny, Ha /ieBOj o6a/in 
UpHMa, Beh npeuj/io h Ha ^ecHy cipaHy UpHMa h Be- 
/ihkhm oa3aMa Hace.iH/io Pa^HKy. ro/ieMy Peny, 3ajac, 
Khmcbo, h npo;ip:io CKopo no Be/icca Ha Bapjapy. Join 
ce y n^aHHHCKoj 06/iacrH H3Met)y Kopa6a h Bacrpe, y 
peKa-iHJCKoj Ka3H, norviaBHTo y Ma/ioj Peun, ,ap>KH 
eHeprHMHO n.ieMe cpncno Mnjaun, kojh >khbc y Bp.io 
bc/ihkhm 36hjchhm ce/iHMa h 36or kojhx Ae6apcKH Ap- 
GaHacn HHcy Be3aHH ca cbojhm oa3aMa Ha HcTOKy. 

H3Meljy He6pa h OxpH^CKor Je3epa iia.ia3H ce 
o6/iacr jano H3MeujaHor CTanoBHHUJTBa, c o6e crpaHe 
ZlpHMa, 06/iacr je.iHMHue apHayTCKa h noapHayhefla, 
a ae/iHMHue y nponecy noap6aHaiuaBaiba. O^p/Ka^a ce 
Kao mhcto cpncKa 06/iacT ZU'6pua, oko CftTecice, AC 
npHTOKe ZlpHMa ; fte/IH ce na I'opn.y H Zloiby ZU'6pny. 
ra CBera 22 ce.ia, on kojhx cy caMO 6 MH(}).iyuH ; naj - 



186 HOBA CPBHJA 



Behe je ce.io GiaTHHa, ca 140 Kyha, a.iH MyjinpcKO ce- 
jnuiTe je Ma.io ceno 3jer.iaBe. CpncKH je h Uphmko/i, 
ca r.iaBHHM ce.iHMa Ja6.iaHHUOM, MoapnqeM h Jlyno- 
bom. Me^yTHM oj y.ia3a UpHMa y ZUooBJaHCKy Kjih- 

y HacTajy Ap6aHacn, c o6e CTpaHe peKe, 3aTHM 
RBJbQ ao J.e6pa mcuiobhto cpncKo, ap6aHauiKO, Typ- 
cko h noMaMKo CTaHOBHHiiiTBO ; obh nocie^foH cy Be- 
Hhhom noap6aHaiueHH. 

„OcTa.iH HapojH 3anaaHe ManejOHnje, Ka^ ce 
ancTpaxyje oj onHcaHHx rpaHHHHux oo.iacTH, jaB.*bajy 
ce Kao Behe h.ih Man>e oa3e h aHK.iaBe y ohoj ochob- 
hoj ciOBeHCKOJ MacH, 3aTHM no BapoiiiHMa, HHHehH y 
HeKHMa 3HaTHe BehHHe. Meljy s>HMa ao/ia3e Ha npBO 
Mecro Apo.MyHH, He tojihko no opojy ko.ihko no 3HaT- 
hom yTHuajy. 

OBje cy ApoMyHH MHoro6poJHHj*H h or Beher 
3Haqaja, He caMO 3a BapouiKH )khbot, ho h y Koje.vi 
^pyroM npajy MaKenoHHJe. He/ia ce y ABe rpyne, Koje 
ce 3HaTH0 paauncyjy. 

1. JejHH cy HOMajcKH Apomvhh, koj'h cy o6hhho 
nopeK.ioM H3 jy>KHe ApoaHHJe, HapoMHTO H3 MycaKHJe 
h H3 FIjiHja, h 30By ce OapujepnoTH. HckVbyqHO cy 
cronapH ca OBuaMa, He peTKO uptae h epre/ie KOH>a. 
HeMajy cra.iHHx craHOBa. JleTO npoBO^e no 6a.iKaH- 

M n.iaHHHaMa, oj dape n.iaHHHe y CpoHJH, na jo 
ne.ionoHecKHx n.iaHHHa, h majy caMO nacrHpCKe npn- 
BpeMeHe craHOBe hih Ka.iHBe. y jeceH c.ia3e y npH- 
Mopcne paBHHue ErejcKora h JoHCKora Mopa h/ih y 
npocrpaHe >KynHe kot.ihhc, nor.iaBHTO y Teca.injcKe, y 
ypyi&nyK Ha hctohhoj crpaHH O/iHMna, y co.iyHCKy 
KaMnafoy, y MycaKHj'y, y n.ioBjHHCKO no^e oko Ma- 
pHue, y cepeck-y h tjeBlje/iHJCKy KOT/iHHy. Ty npe3HMe 
ca ctokom, na ce y npo/iehe Bpahajy y n.iaHHHe. 
OBe ApoMyHe ciobchcko 6a.iKaHCK0 CTaHOBHHUJTBO 30Be 
B.iacHMa, UpHOByHmiMa, CapaKaqaHHMa, h KapaKaqa- 
HHMa. ApoMyHH HeMaiy CBOje n.iaHHHe, h CBe hm je 
Te>Ke n.iahaTH cnyne name 6a/iKaHCKnx n^aHHHa. 

H y 3ana^Hoj MaKejoHHJH je Ma;iH 6poj apo- 

ckhx CTOHapa. CapanaMaHH h 4>apinepHOTH zio.ia3e 
noj cboj'hm crapeiLiHHaMa, Koje 30By qe.iHHUHMa, Ha 



3AIIA,HHA MAKETOHHJA 187 

FlepHCTep, Ha JaKynnuy ca Co^yhckom, Ha Hnne, Ka- 
paTaui h Ta^HHHuy. HMa hx CBera hcko;ihko croTHHa. 
y jeflHOM Kpziy HMa no hcko/ihko xH^>a^a oBaua. hbnx 
npaie wobaHH h/ih haje, kojh ce pacno3Hajy no Hapo- 
mhtom ujTany, Bp;io ayraqKOM h npn Kpajy /ieno H3- 

BHJaHOM H H3pe3aHOM| TO je HCTH LUTan KOil CBHX CTO- 

napa Ba^KaHCKor no/iyocrpBa. Y3 h^hx Hiiy Mo6aHCKH 
ncn. Hia Kp^a ce Kpehe HaTOBapeHO ue;io apoMyHCKO 
noKpeTHO ce/io : Ha KOfoHMa h Ha MarapuHMa jamy 
jbyjw h >KeHe, y ceneTHMa cy Haipnana Aeua, h ochm 
Tora Ha CBaKOM Koiby cy HaTOBapeHH Hh;ihmh, he6aA, 
noH^aBe, jacryun, 3aTHM aacKe, h totobo CBa Kyhua 
iipBeHa rpalja h KyhHO nocylje. Upejx Bene HanpaBe 
maTop Ha „MepaMa", h Ty npeHohe, a koh>h h OBue 
oko inaTopa nacy. CaMO je^Hora aaHa Ha noMeHyTOM 
MecTy cpeo caM 15—20 Kpaa, oko 50 — 60 xn/baaa 
OBaua. 

2. A/ih rviaBHo apoMyHCKO CTaHOBHHiHTBO 3ana- 
ahc MaKeAOHHJe HHHe cra;iHO HacraibeHH ApoMyHH no 
ce/iHMa, BapoujHuaMa h BapoujHMa, kojh ce 6aBe naj- 
pa3HOBpcHHJHM 3aHHMaibHMa, ochm 3eM;bopa;iibe, ii 
koa Hac cy no3HaTH noA hmchom U,nHuapa; OBAe ^a- 
K/ie HC\ia ApoMyHaseM^opa^HHKa, kojh cy h HHawe ca- 
cbhm peTKH, a HMa hx jcahho Mel)y OapiuepnoTHMa 
y MycaKHJH h hcujto Ma/io y Mer/ieHy, y Jy>KHOM Ma- 
KeaoHHjn. Flo oG.iacTHMa y KOJHMa CTanyjy Mory ce 
noAe.iHTH na ABerpyne: 6HTOJbCKO-KpyineBCKy, h B/ia- 
xoK/incypcKy. I3poj cra.MOBHHUJTBa y thm rpyna.Ma H3- 
Beo caMH3Bajra»AOBC CTaTHCTHKe, Koja ce noKa3a.ia Kao 
na>KJbHBO paljeHa h y rviaBHHM upiaMa noy3aana. 

BHTOJhCKo-KpyujeBCKa rpyna je 3naTHO Beha, h y 
iboj HMa 28.000 flo 30.000 ApoMyna, h to y Toneujy, 
Ma^OBH i Ty, TpnoBy c MarapeBOM, HnTono/by, 3a 
y BlITOJby, KpyiueBy, y Ma/iOM ce.iy TpcTeiiHKy, h y 
ripH/ieny. 

y B^axoK^HcypcKoj rpynn HMa oko 11.000 Apo- 
Myna, h to y B.iaxoK.iHcypn, B/iany. Cncany, nmin- 
/iHujTy, h fliJbe na ceoepy oa OBBZ, y HeeeciUl h flu- 
coAepy, h bhluc B/ianjKnx nopo/iHiia y HeroBaHy, Be.n 
KaMeHy u .^acKOBuy. 



188 HOBA CPBHJA 



Ochm OBe ABe rpyne, me cy BJiauiKa ce^a HnaK 
y6.iH3y, HMa hx h cacBHM pacTypeHHx: y PecHy h y 
cyceiiHOM JaHKOBuy, y Hacejby Ka^HBe, H3Meljy PecHa 
h Oxpn,aa (Ma #a ce hckh oh obhx Kpehy), y Oxpnuy 
h ce;iy Be^HUH koa CTpyre, 3aTHM Ha jyry y Bhjih- 
iiiTy, Kop^H, y ce^HMa Kop^aHCKe KoiviHHe: apoMyH- 
ckoj CTonaHH, apoMyHCKOJ IlJbacH, h y MopaBH; 3a- 
thm y XpynHiiiTy, TpeBeHH, LLIaTHiHTH h Ko>KaHy. 

Ca nocJie^fcHM BapoiuHuaMa HMa ApoMyHa y 3a- 
naiiHOJ MaKenoHHJH oko 45.000. hjih CKOpo Va on 
cbhx ApoMyHa Ba;iKaHCKor FIojiyocTpBa, me hx no Baj- 
raHAOBOJ CTaTHCTHUH HMa oko 150.000. 

fIo.ao}Kaj h THn apoMyncKHx Hacejba, Kao h ran 
Kyha, Bp^o cy KapaKTepncTHHHH. FIpBa upTa kojom ce 
o# cJiOBeHCKHx Hacejba pa3^HKyjy, jecre Be;iHKa bh- 
CHHa : cBa cy bhcoko H3HaA cjiobchckhx ce^a, oa 
900 — 1.200 m. BHCHHe, y bhchhckoj 30hh, r^e KyjiTypHe 
6HJbKe TeuiKO ycneBajy. Rajhe HHcy y jioJiuuaMa, Beh 
no cTpaHaMa n^aHHHa, Ha KocaMa h rviaBHuaMa, Ha no- 

JIO>KaJHMa KOJH Cy yBeK >KHBOnHCHO, KaiHTO apTHCTHMKH 

H3a6paHH; OBaauiHDH Cp6n, ochm MnjaKa, ocHHBajy 
cBOja ce/ia y AcnHHaMa, TaKO aa ce He npHMehyjy aok 
hm ce He npn6;iH>KHMO. To cy .najbe 3apaBH n^aHHH- 
ckh no^o>KaJH, jaKO cyHnaHH 36or TeMnepaTypHe hh- 
BepcHJe, 3hmh MaxoM TonjiHJH Hero #Ha KOT/iHHa. y H»HMa 
h oko H>HX cy Haj6ojbH H3Bopn. no npaBHJiy h 6ncTpe 
n^aHHHCKe pennue, Koje cy y Ba^aMa cnpoBcaeHe Kpo3 Ha- 
cejba. H3Hazi ce;ia je o6hmho 3a6pan»eHa JiHCHaTa ropa, 
HMa me me h qeTHHapa H3MeinaHHx c 6yKBOM, „KopHj*e." 
CBa ce^a cy BejiHKa Kao Bapouitme h BapouiH, 
h Kyhe cy 36njeHe, a;iH ^pyK^nje 36njeHOCTH ho no 
cpncKHM cejiHMa: Kyhe cy jeflHa H3Ha£ £pyre, TaKO 
#a pen bhujhx Kyha npo3opHMa ivie^a npeKO peaa 
hh>khx Kyha; CBe HMajy naKJie cno6ojxaH nomeji Ha 
KOT.iHHy, h;ih aKO cy oko rviaBHua, HMajy nor/iea Ha 
BHine CTpaHa. CacraBJbena cy on crpMHx h MaxoM ycKHx 
y/wua, Koje cy creneHHHacTe, Kao gradini jy>KHO HTa- 
^HJaHCKHx BapouiH ; MecTH cy hopcoKaun. Kyhe cy 
Oil KaMeHa 3H#aHC, y hckhm ce^HMa 3HaTHHM #e;iOM 
op TecaHa KaMeHa, MaxoM ^socnpaTHe, cnnqHe #aKfle 






3AnAHHA MAKEflOHHJA 189 

poMaHCKo] KyhH Koja ce jaB;ba oko Cpe>ao3eMHora 

Mopa, CMMO UJTO MeCTO paBHHX H HHCKHX KpOBOBa 

HMajy BHiue on ruioqe h hepaMH^e. y^a3ehH y Kyhy 
y.3 creneHHue, &o\)e ce Hajnpe y jeaaH HajnpocipaHHJH 
iieo, no^aTHy, Koja ce Hana3n h Ha AOtbe.M h Ha rop- 
HjeM cnpaiy Kyhe. a caivio Ha houuKOBHMa Kyhe cy cooe 
h KaMape 3a ocTaBe; Ha notteM cnpaiy je£aH hoiuaK 
3ay3HMa KyjHa. OHa Be.iHKa npocTopHja je ca jwsa- 
HHMa h MHoro6poJHHM npo3opHMa ; y \ho'j ce npeKO 
iiaHa cem h Ty ce tocth npHMajy. 

Hcth cy /laK.ie no;io>KaJH h THn ce/ia Kao kor 
ApoMyHa, TpKa h TocKa EnHpa. Flo CBeMy cy HiieH- 
thmhh ca HacejbHMa yM6pnje h Jy>KHe HTa.inje, caMo 
hjto y H>HMa HeMa ohhx ocraTaKa CTape Ky^Type, a 
y.mue cy Kao h TaMO ca gradini-Ma. H Kyha je ciHMHa 
jy>KHo-HTa/iHJaHCKOj, H3MeH>eHa oho^hko ko/ihko oiurpa 
K/iHMa 3axTeBa. 

3a BehHHy Hace;ba ce noy3naHO 3Ha za ce HHcy 
pa3BH^a H3 Ka.iHBa HOMancKHX ApoMyHa, Beh cy hx 
ocHHBa^H ApoMyHH, kojh cy h paHHJe >khbc.th y cnim- 
hhm BapoiHHMa h ce.iHMa. Hhko ce y obhm apoMyH- 
ckhm ce.iHMa He 6aBH 3eMJbopajiihOM, hhth ce y ibHMa 
y oniuTe 3HaTHO npnBpeljyje. To cy ce.ia apoMyHCKHx 
ryp6cuHJa, MaihHX h.ih Behnx penTHJcpa. 3aTO Hiije hh 
noTpe6HO aa OBa Hace/ba 6y;iy na r/iaBHHM KOMyHHKa- 
UHJaMa. Ona cy yBCK o/i h>hx yaa/bena ; ca\io je y 
Ma.ioj Mcpn na to Mor.ia yTHuaTH TOKiba za 6y^y 
> K'.loii.CHa h 03 HacHJba. 

flocerHO caM b3>khhj^ apoMyncKa iiace.i.a iiomc- 
h>'thx /iBejy rpyna, n Kao npHMepe 3a imixob ran, 
3aTHM pa.T H /KHiiOT y ibHMa h '.a ry6cpT.iyK, H3/io- 
>KHhy cBoja upoMaTpaiba o hcko-ihkhm. 

HopeK/iOM H3 KpajcBa jy>KHO oa ripcBTHca, OBH 
ApoMvnn rpuH3npanH cy jouj/ih y 3ana;my MaKeao- 
HHjy. .3na.in cy rpMKH Kao h cboj je3HK, ko.i mhothx 
ce rpHKH H koh Kyhe roBopn.io. florviaaHTO cy ohm 
4>opMHpa;iH 3accCny xpmijhancKy Mapmnjy n "lapiiinjcKH 
HaMHfl >KHBOTa, OHaj ihto cy ra johc.ih K3 MyaconbJb- 
h rpaMOCKC o6.iacTH. M caja Boae hc ca.vio Tpro- 
BawKc Kfbgre Ha rpMKOM je3HKy, Beh je to rviaBHH je3HK 



190 HOBA CPBHJA 



xpHiuhaHCKe napiuHje, aajbe otmchh je3MK, kojhm ce 
no HdHxobom MFbeHby MO)Ke CBe Haj6ojbe na H3pa3H. Ohh 
cy ce HSJeAHa^HJiH ca rpuHMa h ocHHBa^n h H3^p>Ka- 
BajiH rpHKe uiKO/ie. To cy KpyroBH y Kojwvia je Haj- 
BHiue ueHbeHa „rpHKa MynpocT". Oco6hto ce ueHe h 
CMaTpajy 3a HajnaMeTHHJe JiyKaBH Jbynu. Th qapuinj- 
ckh ApoMyHH h TpuH cy HajcuaHHJH BejiHKOj naTpH- 

japUIHJCKOJ UpKBH H HecyMtBHBO BpJIO no6o>KHH. HdH- 

xoBe Kyhe .zumiy no6o)KHOU]hy. Mojie ce Bory no £Ba 
Tpn nyTa npeKO aaHa h ype^HO nocehyjy upKBe h o 
it>HMa ce cbojckh crapajy. node CBe nocTOBe, cpe,n.y 
h neTaK. Flo AyBapoBHMa co6a Bnce H3Be3eHH HamncH 
kojh onoMHtby Ha mhjioct h Ka3Hy Bo)KJy. HapOHHTO 
cy )KeHe no6o>KHe h Bp.no Mopajme; nopOiiHMHH )khbot 
je HBpcT h cpoiiHHqKa ;by6aB 3HaTHa. Kao h hckhm 
HapOAHMa, no6o>KHOCT hm He CMda #a 6yny HaJBe- 
uiTHJH, necTo pa(j)HHHpaHH eKcn;ioaTaTopH cbojhx 6jih>k- 
h>hx. Ajih hx je Ta o^aHOCT BepH BHUie cnpeqaBa;ia aa 
ce He Typqe ho ocra;ie 6a;iKaHCKe xpHinhaHe: TpuH, a 
HapoHHTO UnHuapn cy ce HaJMan>e on cbhx TypMH/iH. 
H OHAa Kan hx Be^HKa UpKBa HHje MOivia na 3auiTHTH, 
Kan cy hm h pa3opeHe h Bapoinn h yHHUiTeHa HMaiba, 
ohh ce HHcy TypHHJiH, Beh cy ce pa36erviH y Matte 
onacHe KpajeBe. 

ApoM>HH H3 noMeHyTHX TpHj'y rpyna, a HapoMHTO 
ohh H3 3ana^He MaKeaoHHJe, hihjih cy y ryp6eiyiyK 
no BapouiHMa h jkhbjbhm MecTHMa Ba;iKaHCKor riojiyo- 
dpBa, HapoMHTO nope^ rjiaBHHX ApyMOBa. Y3 fbHx cy 
hujjih h npaBH TpuH. riopeA EBponcKe Typcne nona- 
3Hjih cy y Cp6njy h Byrapcny, HapoMHTO npe ocjio6o- 
Ijefba, h npe;ia3H^H cy ZlyHaB; noK cy y Cp6nJH h y 
cpncKHM o6;iacTHMa ceBepHO on ZfyHaBa npeoBJiaijH- 
Ba/in U,HHuapH, y ByrapcKOJ (HapoMHTO Hctomhoj Py- 
Me^HJH) 6h/io je MHoro BHHie TpKa, kojh cy 3HaTHHM 
nej\OM 6unu CTapHHUH. Ajih cy caMO nojcuHHanHO, na 
h to peTKo, npoflHpa;iH y ceBepo-3anaAHH aeo Ba.n- 
KancKor nojiyocrpBa, on MnTpoBHue Ha ceBep, y CaH- 
uaK, BocHy c XepueroBHHOM h 3ana.aHy Cp6njy, Ha- 
POmhto perKO y Y>KHue, Jlo3HHuy, BajbeBO, ManaK, 
KpajT>eBO. Mel)yTHM, cra;iHO cy ce HacTaitHBajiH, no- 



3AHAAHA MAKEflOHHJA 191 



era/in cy r/iaBHH qapumjcKH e.icMCHaT y noMopaBCKHM 
h noiiyHaBCKHM BapowHMa, h y hckhm >KHB/bHM Me- 
CTHMa HCTOHHe Cp6nje. flope^ Typaxa nor.iaBHTO cy 
ohh (J)opMHpa.iH THn dape napujHJe, Koja ce MO>Ke 
Ha3BaTH rpMKO-UHHuapcKOM. riocp6/beHe miHuapcKe h 
rpMKe nopoAHue 6n/ie cy MecTO h or 3HaTHor no.iH- 
THHKor yTHixaja (HHKO.ia XpHCTHh H3 B;iaua, TeoprHJa- 
AecH H3 <J>ypKe. TepMaiiH H3 MarapeBa, h up.). A/ih cy 
HapoHHTO no;i HjHxobhm yTnuajeM (})opMHpaHa 3aHH- 
Matt>a xaHUnja h 6aKa/ia, kojh cy ce pa3HQj/iH h H3BaH 
BapoiuH, no cBHMa MecTHMa >KHB;bera paiia h cao6pahaja. 
Th THnoBH cy y Cp6ajn CKopo Hiime3/iH, a/in caM 
npoMaTpao i{>hxob HaMHH >KHBOTa h pana y Teca/iHjH h 3a- 
na^Hoj MaKCAOHHJH, r\ae cy join y nyHOM jeKy. y mhofhm 
ce/iHMa nocToje xaHOBH y3 kojc HMa h 6aKa.iHHua, h y 
Teca^HjH je OBa Ba>KHHJa ojxaHa. Th „6aKa;iH u cy no 
npaBH.iy naJHMyhnHJH Jbyjlh cbojc oko^hhc MaxoM h 

Bp/lO UCU>eHH, Ii TH Cy „KHpHOC" H,1H, KaKO C.Y HX KOA 

Hac 3Ba.in, „KHp" nan „hnp u . yBeK cy 6aKa.iH y 3a- 
na^HOJ MaKc^OHHJH UHHuapn h/ih Tpun, noHeKH rpuH- 
3HpaH TocKa. Th OKpeTHH .i>y^H, HMajyhn Bume Bpe- 
MeHa, Ao6njy nper/ieA Hajx npocTHM ckohomckhm >kh- 
botom ce/baKa CBOJe oko/ihhc napoMHTO c^obchckhx, 
kojh, paAchii 3CM:i»y, He mhc.ic h/ih ncMnjy BpeMeHa Ra 
MHC/ie, h MecTO HeMajy npervieja hh naa cbojhm B/iacni- 
thm CTatbeif; 3Hajy npnxoji h eKOHOMCKy BpeaHocr cBa- 
kot ce/baKa h no3HaTHM HanHHHMa hx eKcn.ioaTHUjy no 
Kpaja. Ilor.iaBHTo na oBaj nauHH cy ce oGoraTH/in Be- 
hnna rpMKHx h UHHuapcKHX cnaxHj'a h TproBaua y 3a- 
naiiHoj MaKeAOHHJH. A/ih ce npH xaHUHJCKo-oaKa.i- 

CKOM 3aHHMaiI,y KOA CBHJy pa3BHJe UHUHJailJTBO, KOJC 

hx hh o6oraheHe ne uanyiuTa. /loui/in cy BehHHOM H3 
Aa/hmie y crpany eTHorpac})CKy cpeAHHy cavio p. 
3apaAe, luto Belie 3a llito Kpahe Bpeice, >aa on ce pa- 
HHje ca ryp6eT/iyKa KyhaMa BpaTH.in. He Tpawe yr- 
Jiena h qaCTH on Tora, EbHMa crpanor CBCTa. 3najy 
KaKo je h.hxobhm npeuHMa h/ih n>H\ia caMHMa oth- 
.viana h pa3opaBana HMOBnna KaKo hm mo/kc 6hth cnpe- 
mch paa iia flyxce Bpeue, h iaTO Tpeoa ncwa/niT;: 
rehH, h to hm nocrane r/iaBHO 3a BpeMe ryp6eT/iyKa. 



192 H0BA UPkHJA 



EKcn^oaTaTOpCKH paa UHHuapCKHx h rpMKHX xaH- 
i,iHJa h 6aKa;ia, kojh cy y3 to h ununje, 6ho je rJiaBHH 
pa3^or aHTaroHH3My kojh ce pa3BHO H3Met}y ujhpokhx 
cjiobchckhx Maca, cpncKHX h 6yrapcKHX, h H3Mel)y IpKa h 
UHHuapa. A^h najhe, CBaKa japocT Typcna npeMa xpHui • 
haHHMa H3^HBa^a ce norviaBHTo nan OiOBeHHMa, jep 
cy ce TpuH h UnHuapH, Kao rnnqn h My/ipHJH, 3Ha;iH 
tojihko na H3MaKHy #a Typcna HacHjba h>hx mhmo- 
n\)y; HCTHHa to HHJe moitio yBeK 6hth, h no3HaTO je 
aa cy h ohh nam™. Ha nocjieTKy cy TpuH h UnHuapH 
yMe/iH m HaJ)y Ha^HHa jya y^y y Typcny Qj\ym6y Kao 
ehHMH, MyaBHHH, 3acTynHHUH xpnuihaHa, h t. £. J\o\\- 
HHj'e, Ka,n cy npecra;iH 6hth He3Ha;iHue, to hcto cy 
pa;m/iH h 6a^KaHCKH CjioBeHH, HapoHHTO ByrapH, am 
HnaKHHcy TpuHivia onpocTH^H. Y3 to cy aoiujie upK- 
BeHe, er3apxHJCK0-naTpHJapuiHCKe h HaunoHa;iHe 6op6e 
H3Metjy TpKa h Byrapa, Koje cy noMeHyTH aHTaronH- 
3aM flOBe/ie ^o HaJBHiue TaqKe. To ce CTajioaowo, h 
y3ajaMHa Mp>KH>a H3Metjy TpKa h Byrapa nocrajia je 
totobo oco6nHa HapOAHHX ^yiiia. 

ApoMyHCKe oa3e y 3ana;moj MaKejiOHHJH Mory 
HMaTH H3BecTaHHiauHOHa/iHO-nojiHTHHKH 3Hanaj CaMOaKO 
ocTaHy y Be3H c TpuHivia, y hhjoj cy 6;ih3hhh h no^ 
hhjhm cy Ky/rrypHHM yTHuajeM. PyMyHCKa nponaraH^a 
HHje hh y oboj, 3a H>y HajnoBO^HHJoj 06/iacrH, Hanpa- 
BH/ia Be.iHKuxycnexa, am je HnaK rpqKH yTHuaj *bOMe 
y HeKO^HKO oc^a6^»eH. Ochm Tora HMa y noc;ie,zitt>HM 
AeueHHJaMa cnyqajeBa Jia ApOMyHH h OB^e ry6e CBOj'y Ha- 
UHOHa^HOCT, npe/ia3ehn y GiOBeHe. MeJjyTHM je no- 
CJieatbe pe^OBaH cjiyqaj ca ohhm ApoiwyHHMa kojh 
ocraHy ayro ro^HHa y ryp6eTJiyKy hjih ce cra;iHO Ha* 
CTaHe y Cp6nJH h ByraprKOJ. HapOHHTO hx HecTaje 
MeniOBHTHM >KeHHii6aMa. Ha nocjieTKy, U,HHuapH cy ne- 
cto 6e3 aeue um ca Ma/io aeue. 3aT<> je HecyM^HBO 
A? he BpeMeHOM HecraTH UnHuapa y 3ana,aHoj Mane- 
;iohhjh, oHaKO Kao uito hx je CKopo Hecrajio y Cp- 
6hjh h ByrapcKOJ." 

IloAOMaj eapoiau. Hanpca cy noMeHyie apo- 
MyHCKe BapoiHH h BapoiuHue, Koje cy 6e3 npaBHX 
Be3a ca cbojom oko^hhom, HHcy 36or the nocra;ie, hhth 



3AnAflHA MAKEAOHHJA 193 



cy Ha H>y jane ynyheHe. To cy Hace^a apoMyHCKHx 
ryp6epi,iHJa. 

fIo/IO>KaJH CBHX OCTa^HX BapOLUH Cy 3aBHCHH oa 

reorpacf)CKHX h ckohomckhx npn/iHKa iuHpe oko^hhc 
h/ih caMO CBOJe kot^hhc To cy Ha npBOM Mecry Ba- 
poiHH Koje cy nocra/ie Ha r/iaBHHM TaqnaMa ap6aHa- 
HJKO-MaKe^oHCKor nyia h/ih crape Viae Egnatiae; zajbe 

Cy OHH eKOHOMCKH UeHTpH CBOJe KOT/IHHe h/ih jeiiHor 

Ae/ia Ft>e3HHa ; Ha noc/ieTKy cy yBeK Ha no/io>KaJHMa 
KOJHMa cna3^ h/ih or kojhx no/ia3e nyTeBH H3 je^He 
KOT^HHe y apyry. Me^y ft>HMa ce pa3/iHKyjy RBe rpyne: 
je^He cy Ha >Ke/ie3HHMKOj /ihhhjh Koja boah oa Co- 
j\yna BnTo/by, h Te ce mhoto 6p>Ke ckohomckh pa3BH- 
jajy h >KHB^>e pacry, Kao Bhtojb, JlepnH h Cy^OBHneBo; 
zipyre cy Ha ohom zie/iy ap6aHauiKOMaKe^OHCKor nyia 
Ha KOMe B/iaaa CTapH cao6pahaj h npeHoc, h OHe ce 
c/ia6o pa3BHJajy hjih CTaiHHpajy, Kao Oxpnjx, CTpyra 
h PecaH. Koa BHTO^a je on Ba>KHOCTH join jeaan mo- 
MeHaT: fceroB 3HaTaH crpaTerHJCKH no/io>Kaj, 36or Kora 
je nocTao h cpe/iHiUTe no/iHTHHKe ynpaBe BH/iajeTa; 
oh je Ha H3/ia3y ap6aHauiKor nyia 3a 6HTo/bCKy kot- 
;iHHy h npeMa TOMe h ueHTap h K/byn 3a bojhhmkc 
noKpeTe npeMa Ap6aHHJH ; y HOBHJe BpeMe je ao6ho 
Behn 3HaMaj h Kao bc/ihkh bojhh^kh ueHTap cnpaM 
TpqKe; oh je 6ho HaJBa>KHHJH bojhhmkh ueHTap ysanaa- 
hom ae/iy eBponcKe TypcKe, h n>eroB je rapHH30H pe- 
AObho 6ho bc/ihkh 10.000 — 20 000 ;byAH. 

Ochm CypoBHMCBa, CBe ropibe BapoujH cy ^a- 
K;ie Ha OAa6paHHM reorpa({)CKHM no/io>KaJHMa cra/iHe 
BpeAHOCTH, h, Kao ujto je HanpeA yTBpljeno, Ha 
FhHMa cy joui or rpMKo-pHMCKe enoxe yBeK nocTo- 
ja/ia 3HaTHa Hace/ba. CaMO ce CypoBHMeBO ammo oa 
KaKO je carpafyena >Ke/ie3HHua h HMa y/iory H3B03He 
h yB03He TaMKe 3a CapH^o/i, uHnuapcKa Hace/ba 
B/iaxoK/incypcKe 30He h 3a KocTyp. y c/ieacliHM pe- 
AOBHMa 6nhe npeoraB/beH aeTa/bHH reorpa<}jCKH no- 
/iowaj h >khbot cbhx r/iaBHHX BapoujH 3anaAHe Ma- 
KCAOHHJe. 

HOBA CPBHJA 1 



i 94 HOBA CPBHJA 



1. Ehtojl. 

BHTOJb je Ha 3ana4H0J hbhuh ne;iaroHHJCKe kot- 
^HHe, Ha no.HHO>KJy nepHcrepa, OHj,e me ^aBaTCKa 
yflOJbHHa H3^a3H y ne^aruHHjCKV KOT.iHHy. Behn aeo 
BapoiuH je oko peKe Zlparopa, KOja, Kao CBe 6yJHe 
n^aHHHCKe pene, jypH Kpo3 Bapom bc^hkom 6p3HHOM. 
KopHTO pene je c o6e dpaHe 03H,naH0, h iteroBe o6e 
dpaHe npaTH ^ocra npocipaH Kej. Kpo3 jyacHH aeo 
BapouiH Tene peqnua Kypy-Zlepe. Oko ZJparopa h H3- 
Meijy H>era h Kypy-Zlepe nemn HajjienuiH jxeo BapouiH, 
kojh je BehHM aejiOM ro6ho H3i\aefl cpeAHbe-eBponcKe 
BapouiH. Me^yTHM je 6e3HdeH Ha JieBOJ dpaHH ilpa- 
ropa, a Ty cy h pa3HH TproBH, >khthh, apBapcKH h 
CTonapcKH. PeTKa je Bapoiu y kojoj HMa tojihko npa3- 
hhx Meda, „Mei\naHa", Kao uito hx HMa BHTOJb Ka^ 
ce Bapoui nociviaTpa c Kora 6jmyKer dp^a, y ft»oj ce 
bhah Bp/io MHoro 3e/ieHH;ia. 

Bapoui ce .aejiH Ha ABa^eceT h neTHpn Maxajie. 
T^aBHe cy : KAUce win Uphceeno MaAO. Y HdOj cy Kyhe 
CBHJy KOH3y;iaTa, CBe 6aHKe, rpnKa MHTponojinja, rpqKa 
upKBa, onuiTHHCKO no3opHuiTe, cpncKe h rpHKe uiKOJie. 
y TOMe ae;iy BapouiH daHyjy HaJBHUie TpuH, jcjihhh- 
3HpaHH Cpon h U,HHuapH. y PoKKa MaAO je 6n;ia 
dyrapauiKa MHTpono^nja c 6yrapauiKHM uiKOJiaMa. Ty 
>KHBe noivieuiaHO Tpun h Cp6n. .y Mennap MaAO cy 
6h;ih ao npe flBe Tpn roijHHe CKOpo caMe 6auiTe. Ca,na 
je to hobh aeo BapouiH. H Ty >KHBe noMeuiaHO Cp6n 
h TpuH. TypuH h Ap6aHacH >KHBe y MaxajiaMa Koje ce 
30By: EMHp-He^e6n, Ca^aTaui, ZloraH, KjyqyK, Ula- 
ADBaH h ByjyK. CBe cy Te Maxa^e c flecHe cTpane 
Xlparopa. Ty HaJBHUie HMa h uaMHj'a. MycjiHMaHCKO 
CTaHOBHHUiTBO thx Maxajia roBopn TypcKH, ap6aHauiKH 
h cpncKH. Ilo 3aHHMau>y cy qHT^yK-caxH6nje, capann, 
apa6auHJe h no kojh TproBau. y jyroHCTOHHOM ,ne;iy Ba- 
pouiH HapoHHTO npeMa upkbh Cb. Heaejbe >KHBe 6a- 
uiTOBaHH. HacTa^eHH cy y Hobo Ma/io (JeHH Maxa/ia). 
Ohh pa/ie HdHbc Koje 3a;iHBajy boaom H3 Zlparopa. 
Thx 6auiTOBaHa 6nhe npeKO 3.000 ayuia. JeaHa Tpe- 
hHHa oa h>hx cy cTapnje craHOBHHuiTBo, a ABe Tpe- 



3AnA£HA MAKtflOHHJA 195 

hHHe mhhh HOBHje CTaHOBHHiuTBO Koje je npe iieccT no 
neTHaecr roiiHHa floce/beHO, 36or 3y;iyMa, H3 6hto^ckc 
oko/ihhc OABOjeno h HenoMemaHO >KHBe JeBpeJH h 
U,nraHH, y EbpejcKoj h Bajnp Maxa;iH. A Ha npajy Ba- 
poiUH >KHBe 6ocaHCKH Myxai;npn. 

y BHTO.'by HMa cpa3MepHO MHoro na3apa. no 
TBpljeH^y Up. J. BacHJbeBHha, y BnTO/by HMa neceT 
rviaBHHx TproBaMKHX h 3aHaT^HJCKHx na3apa. Hajype- 
Ijchhjh h Haj.TeniuH Tpr y BnTO/by je 6e3uciUeH, kojh 
je carpatjeH npn Kpajy ceaaMhaecTor BeKa. Be3HcreH 
je carpa^eH y HeKO/iHKO pe;iOBa h HMa cto ayhaHa h 
npoiiaBHHua. r/iaBHH apTHKa;i kojh ce y nseMy npo- 
Aaje je npeACH h HenpeaeH naMyK. 3aTHM ce npoAajy 
Haj/ienuje (})paHuycKe h KHTajcKe CBH/ie, nepcnjcKH Hh- 

flHMH, (J)paHUyCKH UJTO(t)OBH, flH/IHMH H UJTO(})OBH H3 

({)a6pHKe y ce/iy UnoBy. A HaponnTy naaaby npHB^aqe 
Jienn Iih.ihmh H3 npn/inna h Kowana. Je^Ha oa Haj- 
MaBHHJHx MapiuHJa je Bacuukq L Iapiuuja. Ty ce y r/iaB- 
hom npo^ajy ohh apTHK/in kojc iidjBHLue Tpoiun 6h- 
TO/bCKa oKo/iHHa, a hcto TaKo npoayKTH UHHuapcKe 
kvIihc hh,ivctphjc H3 cyce^HHX uHHuapcKHx Hace^»a. 
/KuiTiHii IhiAap je je/iaH o& HaJBehnx TproBa y Bh- 
TOJby. Ha ibCMy ce npo^aje HCKJbyMHBO >khto h 6paujHO. 
Ha ibeMy cy CBe >KHTapcKe Mara3e. noiiJTO ne.naroHHJ- 
cna KOT/inna npe^cTaB^a HaJBa>KHHJy >KHTHHuy 3ana;uie 
MaKeAOHHJe, y B»To;by je ycpeacpe^cHa >KHTapcKa Tpro- 
Bima sa hckc Ae/ioBe 3ana;ine MaKe,noHHJe, 3a Ap6a- 
HHJy h Efinp. Ha Aiu-llazapy ce npoiiaje croKa, Koja 
ce iiaJBHiue H3B03H 3a TpMKy, h ApBeHapnja. Ha HcK.\ie3- 
ria3apy ce npo^ajc naJBHUie neKMC3, kojh npaBe Jy- 
pyuH H3 Kajnap.iHJa; 3aTHM ce npo^aje mcji, HayT 3a 
npaiubcibe /ieG.ieCHja, KatLiHKc, a Jiem H /iea. Ha Odyn 
,apy ce npo/iajy ,apBa, hyMyp, apBcua jannja, a na 
JJchckom Ua.iapy ce npo&aje /ian. Koiion.^a, Koje Ky- 
nyjy HapoMHTO JeBpeJKe H npepaljyjy. Ha tomc na3apy 
je h BuSep'XOH, y komc ce na iuyihko npojaje Bcry- 
uana a.iLBa nanpwKa, 6n6ep h 3Cjthh. flopen obhx 
HMajy napoMHTH na;iapn 31 npo^ajy pn6c, OBaua, Boha, 
oiua^a h co/ih. 

y BirrOJbV cy 3acryn;beHH cbh saHaTH kojh cy 



196 



HOBA CPBHJA 



6h/ih 3acTyn^>eHH y EBponcKoj TypcKoj. Cbh cy 3aHaTH 

opraHH30BaHH h ypetjeHH ecnacpcKii. y BmoJby HMajy 

32 ecHa(})a. HajcaBpuieHHJH h HajrviacoBHTHJH je ecHa(}) 

KyjyHyLujctai. KyjyiiuHj'e HMajy CBOjy y/inuy c JieBe 

dpaHe ilparopa, Koja ce 30Be KyjyHunjcKa 4apuiHJa. 

Haj6ojbe KyjyHUHj'e cy UHHuapH H3 KpytueBa. Ohh cy 

join 3a BpeMe KHe3a MH/ioma ,n;o;ia3H;iH y Cp6njy h 

uiapa^H cy khokcbo opy>Kj'e. HMa MHoro uaiiyiiLiija, 

kojh Ha Cohom Tpry HMajy oko 50 pa^HOHHua. Hcto 

TaKO MHoro6poJHH cy h o6yhapu, kojh ce Ha/ia3e y Je- 

mhuj MapujHJH. Capami cy HCKJbyqHBO Typun, a TaKO 

hcto h iuadaqu, kojh npenpaBJbajy Koace, HajBHtue jar- 

ft>ehe. HMa MHoro h Jopzawtufa, kojh npaBe jopraHe, 

jiymeKe, jaciyKe, HJHJbTeTa h MHHaep/iyKe, a y3rpeii 

npo^ajy h Kpeq. HoKapn h nyiiJKapn cy HCKJbyqHBO 

TpuH, noTKHBaqn cy caMo Typu.n. CmnapH cy Cp6n h 

UHHuapH. TiypHHJe cy caMo Cp6n. Xa/iBeuHje h 6o- 

3aunje cy caMo „TouKe" (Ap6aHacn). 3H#apH cy Ap- 

6aHacH h Cp6n H3 ce;ia CMHJbeBa. XaMajiH, KOBaqn h 

CBHpaMH cy HCKJbyqHBO UnraHH. PpynHcaHH cy y QraM- 

6oji HapniHJH h uleAaAU, kojh npo^ajy qbHHHJe crape 

CTBapn, a TaKO hcto h 6iubapu, kojh npoaajy jieKOBe 

Oil TpaBa. BaHKapH h capacjw cy MaxoM JeBpejn h Tpun. 

TaKO £aK/ie y ijejioM npHBpenHOM >KHBOTy OBe BapouiH 

oceha ce He caMo crapa 6a;iKaHCKa h TypcKa npn- 

Bpe^Ha opraHH3auHj'a Beh h BepcKa h HauHOHa/ma no- 

ijejbeHocr caMor CTaHOBHHUiTea. Oceha ce #a CBaKa 

HauHJa HMa cbojc Hac/ie^He, hjih c/iyqaJHO npHMJbeHe, 

HaK^oHocTH npeMa h3bcchhm BpcTaMa pa#a h 3aHHMan>a. 

y BHTo/by HMajy qcrwpH npaBocJiaBHe upKBe h 

jeziaH napaK/inc, 3aTHM 37 uaMHj'a, KaTO/iHHKa h npo- 

TecTaHTCKa upKBa h Tpn jeBpejcKe 6oroMOJbe. CXa; npa- 

Boc^aBHHX upKasa HaJ3HaMeHHTHJa je upKBa Cb. JJhmh- 

TpHJa, Koja je o6HOBJbeHa 1830. 3HaMeHHTa je h upKBa 

Cb. He^ejbe, Koja ce Ha;ia3H Ha npn^encKOM jipyMy. 

To je CTapa o6HOB/beHa upKBa. y ii>y ce CKynjbajy ce- 

JbauH H3 oko/ihhx 6HTOJbCKnx cejia. 3a ce^aM uaMHJa 

ce TBpiiH #a cy carpa^eHe na MecTHMa Ha KOJHMa cy 

HeKaii 6n;ie upKBe. H3Met)y cbhx uaMHJa Haj*3naTHHja 

je McaKHJe Ha BHTTIaaapy. 



3AriAilHA MAKEflOHHJA 197 

BHTOJb je 6no cpejwiuTe 3a cBe BepcKe n Haun- 
OHa^He nponaramie y 3ananHOJ MaKenoHnjn. Ho ooio- 
6o\)etha y Brno/by je 6h/io ocaM pa3HHx rnMHa3nja n 
no^yrHMHa3HJa (rpqKa, cpncKa, 6yrapcKa, py.viyHCKa, 
nne TypcKe, no jejHa jeBpejcKa n ;ia3apnTCKO-KaTO- 
;iHMKa). Ochobhhx ujKO/ia TpuH cy nMa;w 10, Cp6H 3, 
ByrapaiuH 3, Typun 33 MeKTe6a, aMepHKaHCKa MHCHJa 
n KaTO^HMKa no 1. nopen Tora Typun cy nMa/in ynn- 
Te/bCKy ujKOJiy n jezwy 3aHai7injcKy ujko ly.'Kfonwap- 
HHua cy HMa^H Typun 4, Tpun 2, Cp6n n Byrapaujn 
no 1. LUraMnapnje cy HMa/in Typun 2, Tpun n Ap6a- 
nacn no 1. TpMKe njKO.ne n upKBe n.viajy 6oraTe (J)oh- 
ilOBe, oko 18 000 eHr.iecKnx /inpa. Hcto TaKO CBe ua- 
Mnje n\iajy 6oraTe BaKy(})e. 

riopejx OBora Tpun nM^jy #Be CBOJe 6o;wnue, a 
Ap>KaBa je mvia/ia Tpn. Y3 ibnx cy 6n/w riacrepoB 3a- 
boa n ^yiiHHua. 

HajnHTe/inreHTnnje n HajHanpezmnje cTaHOBHnuj- 
tbo npejicTaB.'bajy Tpun n UnHuapn Onn iiajy toh ue- 
;ioj Bapomn. OHaj cpa3MepHO Be/WKn eBponcKH n3rvieii 
BnTo.'by cy nann ohh. HajMHoro6poJHnjy n Haj6o/by 
nHTe^nrcHunjy HMa/in cy UnHuapn. 

Hcropnja BnTo:ba Hnje jacna hh oho/wko no- 
3HaTa Kao ndopnja apyrnx Behnx Bapomn HoBe Cp- 
6nje. Mnc.in ce &a je y 6/w3nHn BnTO/ba 6n/ia Bapoin 
XepaK/iea, wnjn ce ocramn Bn^e na jy>KHOJ CTpaHn Bn- 
To.ba n^yhn ce/iy ByKOBy. H iiHaie oko BnTo.-ba n.via 
Mnoro TparoBa on ncKnx crapnx pa3Ba/inHa. IToa nMe- 
hom Buto/h (BovtsXlov) cnoMnibc ce 1014 3a BpcMe 
B/iaae uapa CaMyn^a. H3 ncror BpcMCHa, 1019 — 20, y 
jejxnoj noBe.-bn uapa Bacn/inja cno.vwtbe ce 6nTO/bCKn 
enncKon. Hmc Maiiacrnp, KaKO ra caaa 30By crpaHun, 
a noKaTK3A n AOMahe cpncKO craHOBuniUTBO, noMntoe 
y Behoj Mepn aa ce jaB.i.a tck y 17 BeKy. TypcKn 
nncun 17 BeKa 30By ra To/in-MaHacTHp, a to tie 6.nn 
ndo ujto n BnTo/b-Manacrnp. V upwaBn Kpa/ba By- 
KamnHa Brno 1. je 6no jezwo Oil Ba>Knnjnx Mecra. 0,i 
Cp6a cy ra ore/in Typun 1382-83, Koje je npciBo 
BojcKOBoha la;ia LlIaxnH. 

WnaK w;i cBera OBora ce biiiii na Bhto*. wnKan 



198 HOBA CPBHJA 



HHJe 6ho OBaKO Hanpczma hh oBaKO Ba)KHa Bapoui Kao 
iiito je aaHac. Oh je nocrao OBano Ba>KHa Bapoui Ten 
y noneTKy ^eBeTHaecTor BeKa. y 19 BeKy nocTao je 
eKOHOMCKH uenTap 3a CBy 3ana;my MaKeflOHHJy, 3a 
3HaiaH neo Ap6aHHJe h EnHpa. hberoB ckohomckh 3Ha- 
qaj 3HaTHO je nojaqa^a h co/iyHCKa >Kejie3HHua, Koja ce 
y H>eMy 3aBpinaBa. TpMKH h ap6aHaujKH ycraHUH Kpa- 
jeM ocaMHaecTor h noneTKOM AeBeTHaecror Bena yra- 
uajiH cy 3HaTHO £a Bhtojb nocraHe hojihthmkh h aa- 
MHHHCTpaTHBHH uemap 3ana,nHe MaKeAOHHj'e. FIoiiito 
je 1829 - 30 CBJianaH ap6aHaniKH ycraHaK, Bhtojb je no- 
CTao r/iaBHO aAMHHHcrpaTHBHO cpe^HuiTe OBor Kpaja. 
Hoivie je BHTOJb 6HBao noa npH3peHCKHM h cnon- 

CKHM BH^ajeTOM, a JCZIHOM H UOA TiyCTeHAHJIOM. To- 

AHHe 1835 nocTaje ceAHurre PyMe;iHJCKor BHJiaje- 
Ta. ToAHHe 1844 CBeneH je Ha ce^Hune caHuanaTa, 
a 1864 nocTao je oneT ceaHurre Bajinje, a 1868 
oneT je CBcaeH Ha cpeAHurre 6HTOJbCKor canuaKa, kojh 
je noTna^ao nojx co/iyHCKH BHJiajeT. 1874 y3BHineH je 
on^eT Ha cieneH BHJiajeTCKor cpe^HtuTa, a 1876 cBe/ieH 
oneT Ha cpe^HiiiTe caHuaKaTa. ToiiHHe 1881 KOHa^HO 
je noaHrHyT Ha creneH BH/iajeTCKor ce^HiHTa. Bhtojb- 
ckh BHJiajeT 6ho je bckhk 27.300 KBaapaTHHX khjio- 
MeTapa, a HMao je neT caHuaKa: 6htojbckh, cp6hmkh, 
^e6apcKH, KopnaHCKH h eji6acaHCKH. 

HaJMHOro6pOJHHJe 6HTOJbCKO CTaHOBHHUlTBO HHHe 

Cd6h npaBOCJiaBHH, 3aTHM TypuH h Ap6aHacH, na OH^a 
U,HHuapH, h nocaeAHoH cy no 6pojy TpuH. npe ocjio- 
6olieH>a panyHajio ce #a y BHTOJby HMa 3000 cpncKHX. 
3800 TypcKHX h ap6aHaniKHx, 1000 unHijapCKHx h 200 
rpMKHX Kyha. HajcTapnje 6HTOJbCKO CTaHOBHHUlTBO npe^- 
craBJbajy TypuH. Meijy H>HMa HMa nopoiuma Koje cy 
or Ha3aA 300 ronma y BHTOJby. npe^craBJbajy mhpho 

H ^OCTa nHTOMO CTaHOBHHLLITBO. HMa H3BeCHHX TOKfoa 

h 3a eBponcKHM >khbotom. Cpe.aHjeBeKOBHO cpncKO cra- 
hobhhlutbo 6h/io je MaxoM pacejbeHO h yHHnjTeHQ. Ha- 
HauiH>H Cp6n noHejiH cy ce y Bhtojb HacejbaBaTH Kpa- 
jeM ocaMHaecTor BeKa, a Hajjaqe flocejbaBan>e H3BpineHO 
je y apyroj nojioBHHH aeBeTHaecror Bena. HocejbeHHun 
cy MaxoM H3 cejia 6HTOJbCKe h npHJinncice OKOJiHHe, 



3AnAAHA MAKEAOHHJA 199 



§ 



a HMa hx h H3 ocra/iHx 6;ih>khx BapoujH h HdHxobHX 
cejia. HMa hx Aocra oa He6pa, 3aTHM oa TeTOBa h 
fIpn3peHa. H LlHHuapH cy ce jaqe noMe.in Hace/baBaTH 
Ten y ocaMHaecroM BeKy KaA je pa3opeH h>hxob rpaA 
MycKono^»e. Uhhlupcko ct3hobhhiutbo ce CBe BHiue 
yMHOKaBa^o AOce^aBahbeM H3 UHHuapcKnx Hace^a no 
6hto^>ckoj okoahhh. MHoro hx je npeTon^eHO y TpKe. 
Ap6aHacH cy ce Hace/iH/iH c jyra h ca 3anaja. Ap6aHacn 
xpHiuhaHH n TouKe u AOce/beHH cy MaxoM H3 EnHpa. Ohh 
cy crapHJH AOce:beHHUH h BehHM Ae/iOM npeTanajy ce 
y Tpne, a KaTKaA h y Cp6e. M;iat)H AOce/beHHUH cy 
Myc^OMaHH Ap6aHacH, kojh cy nopeK/ioM H3 pa3HHx 
ccna 6HTo;bCKe h npn/iencKe okoahhc h oa Re6pa. 
JIhctom ce npeTanajy y TypKe. y AaHaimboj ApHayT- 
Ma^H HeMa CKopo HHJeAHor Ap6aHaca. 

CrapHJe BapomKe Kyhe npnna^ajy Tnny online 
6a/iKaHCKe BapomKe Kyhe. Taj mn Kyhe cmo onnca.iH 
y CKonjby OBAe je KapaKTepncTHMHo luto MHore Kyhe 
3ay3HMajy Be/iHKe npocropnje, CBe cy .thucm OKpeHyTe 
ynyipa h 3aTBapajy ABopnuiTe y o6;iHKy KBaapara h.ih 
napa.ie.iorpaMa. Y TaKHM KyhaMa o6hmho HMa bhujc 
cranoBa. Te Kyhe HMajy H3rvieA xaHOBa h/ih KapaBan- 
ckhx CTaHHua KaKBe cy ce CBe AOcaA OApmane y 
06/iacTHMa y KoJHMa B.iaAa khphuhjckh cao6pa!iaj. Kao 
nocaeAHua 3aTBopeHor ncroMtbaMKor >KHBOTa Mory ce 
CMaipaTH MHoro6poJHH KanHUHUH kojh no3aAH Be>Ky 
cyceAHe xyhe. KannuHKe HMajy h xpniuhaHH h Mycio- 
ManH. FIpHMajy Aa je y MyT6ax-CoKaKy KannunuMMa 
noBe3aHo npeKO iue3AeceT Kyha. 06oa npocTopa kojh 3a- 
y3HMajy Te Kyhe Ayr je npeKO 400 m. riouiTO CBaKa 
TaKa Kyha HMa h 6aiHTy, oiua je pa3ymbHB0 Aa ce y 
TaKOJ rpyrm 0,1 Kyha MO>Ke ziaKO caKpHTH. M/iaAOTypun 
cy Ch/ih napeAH/in Aa ce cbh KannunuH na xpniuhaii- 
ckhm KyhaMa 3a3HAajy. 

Bhtoa je iiaJBHiue npHMHO eBponcKora. h oa 
cbhx Bapoiiin HoBe Cp6nje Menu ce y i uinn.io Aa oh HMa 
HaJBHUje eBponcKora. JaKH eBponcKH yTnuajn bhac ce 
y H3MeA>' uapoiiJH, rpaAH.n hobhjhx K>ha, houjh»h cra- 
HOBHHIHTBa H IbeTOBy >KHBOTy. Th Ky.iTypHH na:ipeTUH 
aouj/ih cy oa Be3a ca Co/iyHOM, 3aTHM oa 3HaTHor 



200 HOBA CPBHJA 



6poja UHHuapcKHXH rpqKHx nopOAHua, HapoHHTo npBHx, 
Koje nyiyjy no uejioj EBponH h y cBoja 3a6aneHa 
Mecra AOHOce MHoro eBponcne Ky^Type h acHBOTa. To 
Hanio npeo6pa)KaBaFbe y3poK je iiito y BnTOJby HMaMo 
Bp/io Ma/io CTapHX Kyha, ohhx npocrpaHHX MycnoMaH- 
ckhx Kyha Koje ce o^HKyjy bcjihkhm npocropnjaMa, 
MHOiiiTBOM npo30pa h (J)hhom pe36apHJOM. TaKe Kyhe 
Ha^Hqe Ha capaje, h OHe cy 3HaK Be^HKor rocnoflCTBa, 
OHora HCTOHHDaMKor ^eyjiajiuor rocnoACTBa. HsrvieAa Aa 
je TaKO rocnoACTBO HeKaAa B^a^a^o h y obhm o6;ia- 
CTHMa, anu je noqejio 3HaTno onaAam CnojbainibH h 
yHyTpauiH>H mrneji 6eroBCKHx Kyhay MaKeAOHHJH qedo 
caMO noAceha Ha OHy pacKom opHeHTa^CKe apxHTeK- 
Type, opHaMeHTHKe h pe36apHJe KaKBe ce nearo BH^ajy 
no Kyhaivia GocaHCKHX 6eroBa. OHaKHX ;ienoTa h OHaKe 
pacKowH Koja ce h caA bhah no MHorHM 6eroBCKHM 
Kyhnivia no CapajeBy, TpaBHHKy, Baiboj JlyuH, Mocrapy 
h TpaaaMuy, ja caM BeoMa peTKO nieAao y MaKeAO- 
hhjh h Crapoj Cp6HJH. ria nnaK MaKeAOHCKH 6eroBH 
hhc> CHpovaiiiHHjH oa 6ocaHCKHx. Ha npoTHB, ja MH- 
cjihm Aa cy mhuto 6oraTHJH. Cjaj y cnojbHeM H3nieAy 
Kyha, HannHy aaiBOTa h OAeJia MHoro je BehH y Bochh 
ho y MaKeAOH^jn. 36or Tora y Bochh jom h caAa 
cpeTaMO BHuie opHeHTajiCKe pacKoinn ho y MaKeAO- 
hhjh. MaKeziOHCKH 6eroBH cy H3rvieAa BHuie no^ara^H 
Ha xapeMCKH >khbot ho 6ocaHCKH. MaKeAOHCKe 6eroB- 
cKe Kyhe cy 36or Tora qecTO yivieAHHJe H3Hyipa ho 
cnojba. CBe je yAeinaBaHo 3a >kubot HceHCKHH>a y xa- 
peMy h 3a npoBOAH>y c ibHMa. 

HocaAa cy canyBaHe y BnTOJby ABe TaKe ciape 
6eroBCKe Kyhe. CTapHJa h HHTepecaHTHHJa je Kyha 
XauH-CiviaHJi 6eia h Mycra(j)a-e(})eHAHJe y EMHp-Ma- 
xa^H. Ty caM Kyhy AeTajbHHje onncao h chhmho. C jiHua 
je Ayra 27 MeTapa. FIoAe;beHa je h npe3HAaHa Ha ABa 
Ae/ia, oa kojhx je^aH 3ay3HMa 18, a ApyrH 9 MeTapa 
LunpHHe. Ja caM noKyuiao Aa je chhmhm OHaKBy KaKBa 
je H3rjie^a^a npe Hero je nperpatjeHa h Aa je (J)oto- 
rpa(J)HUjeM y ue^HHH. Uo panyHy 6hto^>ckhx TypaKa 
Ta je Kyha rpaljeHa npe 250 ao 300 roAHHa. Oko H»e 
je npocTpaHa 6anm, Koja hhhh jeAHy npocTopHjy 



* 



3AI1AZIHA MAKEflOHHJA 201 

c aB;iHJOM. BauiTa je nyHa uBeha h BohaKa. Kpo3 6auiTy 
Tene noTOK, a Ha cpe^HHH aB/inje je /ien boaockok. 
y npeceKy Kyha HMa o6j\hk npocTpaHa HeTBopoyrvia 
HHJe cy £y>Ke crpaHHue ABanyTa Behe on Kpahnx. 
CpeiiHHy Tora napa/icnorpaMa 3ay3HMa bc;ihkh npocrop 
kojh mhhh xajaiu. C iiecHa h c .rceBa o^xajaTa cy 
BeoMa npocrpaHe co6e c nehHMa Koje ce /iowe H3 cy- 
ceiiHHx co6a. OBe co6e HMajyomiiTH H3r;ien co6a je- 
Ahq OBaKe opHeHTa^CKO-TypcKe Kyhe. H30Ko;ia cy hh- 
ckh npocrpaHH MHHAep/iyun ca iiiHJbTeTHMa. BpaTa cy 
yBeK y je^HOM yrviy, H3Me^y jiBa 3H#a. y BpaTHMa ce 
pa3/iHKyje cno;bHH h yHyTpaiuhbH neo. yHyTaptt>H aeo 
BpaTa OHBHMeH je (J)hhhm pe36apHj*aMa Koje cy Heo6o- 
jeHe, >KyTe h mhctc na 3aT0 MHHe npHJaTaH yTHcaK. 
TaBaHH cy yKpaiueHH (})hhom pe36apHJOM. y houieTHMa 
cy Ha MHHiiepHMa Hapcmma uiHJbTeTa. ripo3opH cy Be- 
.thkh, bhahh, ca nyHO MafbHX OKana, h MeAajy y 6aiUTy. 
y co6aMa HMa MHoro no/inua, pa(j)OBa h .ao.iana, ;ieno 
H3pe3aHHx. Ha no/iHuaivia cy or/ieaa/ia. CTaK/io h apyre 
CHTHHje CTBapn. y ao-ianHMa cy cnaBahe xa;bHHe, zy- 
iiieuH h jopraHH. XajaT je naiocaH MepMepoM, a code 
.aacKaMa. y cpe^HHH xajaTa je inecTocrpaHO ncnyn- 
weH>e H3 Kora ce y3AH>Ky MpaMopHH CTy6oBH kojh 
ap>Ke 6a;iK0H, kojh ce 30Be ja3/iyK. Ha ropibH cnpaT 
Hae ce y3 creneHHue Koje cy OA6e/ior MpaMopa, ca ^p- 
BeHOM /ieno H3pe3aHOM orpa^oM. Ha roptbeM cnpaiy 
ja3/iyK 3ay3H\ia cpeziHUJHH aeo hcto OHaKO Kao luto 
ra 3ay3Hvia xajaT y /unbeM. C ibera je BaHpeaaH no- 
r^en na nepncrep h OKo/iHHy. .flecHO h /icbo cy o^aje 
Koje cy nyHe npo3opa ca 6e36poj Ma.inx OKaHa, 36or 
kojhx H3^e,aa Ra je CBa Kyha y craK/iy. CBaKa o^aja 
HMa cboj 3ace6aH H3/ia3aK na TaBaH. Hnrjie ce He iue 
H3 co6e y co6y. Co6e cy Heo6nMHO npocrpaHe h nyHe 
Ba3/iyxa h CBeT/iocrH. One cy hcto onaKO HaMeujTeHe 
Kao h co6e. CaMO HeMajy nehn. Mefyy ibHMa je je;wa 
oaaja 3a rocre. HoMaha Me/ba;i 3hmh >khbh y AOH>eM, 
a ^eTH Ha roptbeM cnpaTy. 36or Tora ropibH cnpaT h 
HeMa nehn. 

BnTOJb HMa zieny OKo/iHHy. Ct3hobhhujtbo 6o^>e 
ce KopwcTH npnpo^HHM^^enoTaMa ho craHOBHHUH apy- 



202 HOBA CPBHJA 



thx ManeiiOHCKHX BapoiiiH. MHoro6poJHe cy 6anrre y 
caivioj BapouiH h Ha nepncfiepHJH BapouiH y Koje ce 
H3^a3H Ha Te(J)cpHH. FIpaBe ce H3JieTH h y OKo;iHHy. 
MHoro HMa npHBaTHHx eKHnano h Ko/ia Koja ce y3H- 
Majy noji HajaM. Ta(j)epHHH cy opneHTajicKH cneuna- 
jihtct, a y BHTOJby H3r/ieAa HMa HaJBHuie CMHG/ia 3a 
to. Ha Te4>epHHe ce H^e y OKo/ma cejia h y MaHa- 
CTHpe. Ha hdHx H,ay h xpniuhaHH h Typun. Hapo^HTO 
ce H3^eTH npaBe JieTH y TpHOBO, MarapeBO h ByKOBO. 
OBa ce;ia HMajy H3rjiea BapouiH, h y ibHMa ce >khbh 
h pa^H BapouiKH. MHorn TproBUH »<HBe y TpHOBy h 
MarapeBy. a pa^n,e ;jp>Ke y Bum/by. y TpHOBy je Ma- 
HacTHp Boropo^HHHHa ycneH.a, a y MarapeBy CBe- 
Tor Tbopt)a. Ha ca6op tphobckh £OJia3e CBa 6/iH>Ka h 
MHora ^.ajbHa ce;ia. y Te MaHacTHpe AOJiase Ha Tecj)e- 
pHH h TypCKe h xpnuihaHCKe nopoanue. H MHore npo- 
Beay TaMO no Behn #eo /ieTa. y thm cejiHMa 3HaTHO 
je pa3BHj'eHa TproBHHa, a y HOBHj'e BpeMe noqejia ce 
pa3BHJaTH h HHnycTpHja. y TpHOBy HMa (J)a6pHKa raj- 
TaHa h 3a 6ojen>e npe^HBa 3a flOMahy noTpe6y. y 
ilnoBy HMa Tpn 4>a6pHKe uiaJKa, hH/iHMa h raJTaHa. y 
(J)a6pHKaMa pa^H no 250 ao 300 pa/j,HHKa. y ByKOBy 
ce npepat}yje nyBeHa 6yKOBCKa nanpHKa. CTaHOBHHKa 
HMa y BHTOJby 48.370. 

2. IIpHtzren. 

H3Mel)y cbhx BapouiH h rpa^oBa cpeaibeBeKOBHe 
Cp6nje FIpH/ien hjih npn/inn je, y aouhhjhm BpeMe- 
HHMa, nocTao y cpncKOM Hapo/iy Hajnony-napHHJH. y 
cpncKOJ Hapo^HOJ necMH peTKO je kojh apyrn rpaa Tano 
oneBaH Kao ujto je ripH/wn MapKa KpajbeBHha. Ha- 
po^Ha necMa neBa MHoro h o RpyruM BaponiHMa cpeji- 
H>eBeKOBHe Cp6nje, HapoMHTO o IlpH3peHy, KpyiueBuy, 
Cna^py h o CMeaepeBy. A/ih H3r/ie;ia aa je y cpncKOM 
Hapo^y, HapoMHTO y iberoBy 3ana^HOM .ne/iy, ripHJien 
h Hajno3HaTHJH h Hajnony^apHHJH. CpejubeBeKOBHe Ha- 
po^He Tpa^HUHJe HaJBHuie cy ce 3a,nD>Kajie Ha .zusa 
MecTa cpeAH»eBeKOBHe Cp6HJe, h to Ha KocoBy h FlpH- 
zieny. FIopeA KocoBa npHJien je HaJMHJinje Hauie hcto- 



jrtliAAn-^ fflftntAunrun 



Phjcko Mecro. KocoBy h npn/ieny HcneBane cy Haj- 
MHoro6pojHHJc h Haj.ieniue HapoAHe necMe y KOJHMa 
ce oneBa Hatua cpeAtoeBeKOBHa npoui/iocr. Kocobo h 
npH/ien canHJbaBajy ABa HaJBeha h Haj/ieniua uHK/iyca 
uauiHx HapoaHHx necaMa. 36or Tora CBera Kocobo h 
npH/ien npeAcraBJbajy ABa Hajno3HaTHJa h Hajnony.iap- 
HHj'a Meda HoBe Cp6nje. 

FIony^apHOCT KocoBa ^aniue je o6jacHHTH. Koa 
npn/iena cy oa Ba>KHOCTH Bp/io MHore cTsapn. Ha 
npBOM Medy, HHTepecanTno je iuto je IlpH.ien Hajno- 
ny/iapHHJH h iuto je HaJBHiue 6ho oneBaH y 3anaAHOM 
Acny cpncKor HapoAa, HapoMHTO y Upnoj Fopn, 3a- 
naAHOJ Cp6nJH, XepueroBHHH, Bochh h Ha^MauwJH. 
3aTHM je HHTepecaHTno to ujto npn;ien HHj'e npeACTaB- 
jbao hh HaJBehy hh Haj/ieniuy Bapoiu y cpenibeBeKOB- 
hoj Cp6HJH. Ta Be^HKa nony/iapHocr npn/ieny je Aoui.ia 
caMO or Tora iuto je oh 6ho npecromma MapKa Kpa- 
/beBHha, HaJBehe /iereHAapHe ahmhocth y ue/iOM Jyro- 
cnoBeHCTBy. Upo6.ieM MapKa Kpa;beBHha HHJe AOBOJbHO 
o6jaLuibeH hh y cpncKOJ .iHTepapHoj HCTopnjH, a jouj 
Matte y AyxoBHoj hctophjh cpncKor HapoAa. 3Ha ce 
Aa oh HHJe npeAcraB/bao hh HaJMyApnjer B.iajiaoua hh 
HaJBeher BojcKOBoijy, hhth je ocraBHO H3a ce6e KaKBa 
Be^HKa Ky/iTypHa h no^HTHMKa Ae.na, hhth je npoiun- 
pno cpncKy ApwaBy. fla nnaK je nocTao Hajnony^ap- 
HHJa jyrociOBeHCKa HCTopnjcKa /ihmhoct. MaK ce Mowe 
pehn Aa je MapKO Kpa/beBHh Hajnony/iapHnja .ihhhoct 
Ha ue^oM Ba^KaHCKOM no/iyocrpBy. Jep neMa hcto- 
pnjcKe Ga^KaHCKe ahhhocth o kojoj cy to/ihkh h TaKO 
pa3HOBpcHH napoAH neBa.nn h Koja je nony/iapHa Ha 
Tano npocTpaHoj TepHTopHJH, Kao ujto je MapKO Kpa- 
;beBHh. Hcto TaKO je HHTepecaHTHO iuto je Ty nony- 
/iapHOCT nocTHr.ia HCTopnjcKa .ihmhoct Koja noTHMe H3 
jeAHor HapoAa kojh Hiije, 6ap y cpeAtfeeM BeKy, npeA- 
craB/bao HaJKy/iTypHHJH 6a/iKaHCKH HapoA. HiiaK Taj 
npHMep ujto je /ihmhoct Koja je Hajnony/iapunja Ha 
Ba/iKancKOM no/iyocrpBy 6n/ia cpncKor nopeK/ia h 
ujto je >KHBe/ia Kao cpncKH B/iaAa/iau, cbcaomh o Be- 
/ihkoj jiyxoBHOj CHa3H cpncKor HapoAa. Ako ce AyxoBHa 
jaMHHa jeAHor Hapo/w Mowe uchhth no yTHuaJHMa Koje 



luun Vji unun 



oh BpujH Ha cyceAHHM n^eMeHHMa h HapoAHMa, on^a 
caM npHMep KpajbeBHha MapKa Haj6ojbe cbcaohh o 
TOMe /ia cpncKH HapoA npeAcraBJba AyxoBHO Hajja^H 
Hapoa Ba^KaHCKor no/iyocrpBa. 

3a Hac je OB^e or BaaoiocTH Ra. KOHcraTyjeMO to 
jxa je flpH/ien nocrao TaKO no3HaT h crcaBaH caMO 36or 
Tora ihto je 6ho npecroHHLia KpajbeBHha MapKa. HHane 
no CBHMa cbojhm ocodHHaMa FIpH^en npeAcraBJba Bapom 
Apyrora HJiH.HaK h Tpehera peAa. He Ha;ia3H ce hh 
Ha je^HOM oa HaJBa>KHHJHx cao6pahajHHX nyTeBa. CKopo 
je^HaKo je yAajbeH h oa BapAapcKe rojwhq h OAcra- 
por iipaqKor nyTa. 36or Tora H»eroB reorpacj)CKH no- 
jio>Kaj Heivia hh OHaj cbctckh 3Hanaj Kao luto ra HMa 
Beorpdn m Co.nyH, hhth HMa oniiiTH 6ajiKaHCKH 3Ha*iaj 
Kao ihto ra HMa CKonjbe h Hhuj. Hcto TaKO HHJe eKO- 
homckh npencTdBHHK OHaKO npocTpaHHx o6;iacTH Kao 
ihto je 5nTo/b h Kao ihto je y cBOje BpeMe 6ho npH- 
3peH. Oh jc caMO ckohomckh h Kyjirypnn ueHTap Majie 
npHJicncKe kot/ihhc h join hckhx cyceAHHX 06/iacrH. 
Kao luto je no3HaTO npnjiencKa KOTJiHHa je Aeo Be- 
jiHKe nejiaroHHJCKe kot/ihhc, Koja ce AeJiH Ha 6nTOJb- 
ckh h npH^encKH Aeo. FlpHJiencKH Aeo nejiaroHHJCKe 
kot/ihhc MOHce ce CMaTpaTH CKopo Kao 3ace6Ha kot- 
jiHHa, Koja je ca TpH CTpaHe hbpcto orpai^eHa h or 
6HTo;bCKor Rena. OABOjeHa jeABa hckojihko KH/iOMeTapa 
iiiHpOKHM npeBojeM kor A/iHHaua. To je OHaj npeBOJ 
kojh je y Hac no3HaT uor hmchom BaKapHO TyBHO, Ha 
KOMe ce 6n;ia OHa cnaBHa 6nTKa y npBOM 6a/iKaH- 
ckom paTy. 

Or ocTa^HX KOTJiHHa 3anaAHe MaKeAOHHJe npn- 
jiencKa KOTJiHHa ce OA^HKyje THMe ihto je HajBHuie 
eKcnoHnpaHa npeMa 3anaAy h ihto HMa HajjiaKuie h 
Haj6p>Ke Be3e ca CpeAfoHM h ropH>HM FIoBapAapjeM. 
Ca Tpn CTpaHe onKOJbeHa je bhcokhm h npocTpaHHM n/ia- 
HHHaMa, y KOJHMa HMa bhcokhx npeBOJa h npece^HHa 
Koje ce Aajy AaKO 3aTBopHTH h 6paHHTH. To cy npeceA- 
^HHe: Fl/ieTBap, npeKO Kora Hue nyT 3a odJiacTH Pajau h 
THKBem, ripncaA, npeKO Kora HAe nyT 3a Ronuny Ba6yHe 
h 3a Be^ec, h xaiHKa npece^HHa, npeKO Koje HAe nyT 3a 
ce^o BoroMH/iy. FIopeA obhx nyTeBa or BaaoiocTH je no- 



peMKH h.ih KHMeBCKH nyf, kojh nae npeKO nmviyKa Bap- 
6apoce. FIpH.ien aakvie ma no.io>Kaj kojh je npnpojHo 
BeoMa jaKo yrBp^eH, a.iH kojh unaK aonyiuia Be3e h 
KOMyHHKaiiHJe y CBHMa npaBUHMa. T^khm no.iOKajeM 
jB/beHa je eKOHOMCKa h crpaTerHJCKa Ba>KH0CT ripH- 
.iena. Ta crpaTerHJCKa Ba>KH0CT 6H.ia je y3?ok ujto je 
FIpH.ien y cpejH>eM BeKy. HapoMHTO 3a BpeMe BH3aH- 
THJCKe B.iacTH, npejcraB.'bao HajBa>KHHJe Mecro y ja- 
Haiuttjoj 3anaaHOj MaKcjOHHJH. OHa je hcto t3ko jeaaH 
01 y3poKa iuto je, Kao norpaHHMHo bh33hthjcko yTBp- 
t}ett>e. ayro BpeMeHa 6ho npejMeT 6op6n H3Me^y Cp6a 
h Bh33hthh3U3. 

HcropHJCKa npoui.iocT npn.iena je, nnaK ; Bp.io 
npoMeH."bHBa, Kao ldto je 6h.i3 npoMeH.-bHBa npoiu.iocr 
ue.ie OBe 3eM.T>e Hh H>eroBa HajcTapHJa npoirniocr 
HHJe jOBO.i>HO HcninaHa. Oa npH.iHKe npe XH.-bajy ro- 
jHHa OTeuie ra oj TpKa Byrapn. Kaj cy Tpun >hh- 
ujth.ih 6yrapcKy ap>KaBy (roaHHe 971), 3aB.iajaiue h 
FIpH.ienoM. Ta B.iacT Tpaja.ia je caMO hcko.ihko ro- 
aHHa, jep ra oc.ioCoan shsmchhth MaKeaoHCKH uap 
CaMyn.io. kojh je 6ho Tacr Cb B.iajHMupy, B/iajsouy 
3eie h IlpHMopja. y 3HMy 1014 rojHHe, nocie HaMe 
cmpth CaMVH.ioBe, OTeme Tpun h3hobo OBaj rpaa h 
ap>Kaiue ra aBecra h ujecHaecT roaHHa. rioc.ie no6eje 
KOjy je, rojHHe 1230. Haa rpMKHM uapeM ToiopoM 
KoMHeHOM oap>Kao 6yrapcKH uap JoBaH AceH II npn- 
naje ripH.ien ByrapHMa, kojh ra ojp>Kauje caMO KpaTKO 
BpeMe, jep ra Beh 1246 ocbojh ennpcKH jiecnoT Mh- 
xan.io AH^e.i II. a oa H>era 1254 rojHHe JoBaH Baiau, 
rpMKH uap. y caBe3y c MuxaH.iOM AHhe.ioM 6ho je 
cpncKH Kpa.-b ypouj, kojh je roaHHe 1258 6ho ocbojho 
Ilo.ior h o6.iacTH CBe ao ripH.iena. Zla /ih je 6ho ocbo- 
jho h npn.ien, He 3Ha ce TaMHO. TpwKH uap noiua/be 
npoTHB Kpa/ba Vpouja h aecnoia Mnxan.ia BOJCKy 
kojom je 3anoBejao Mmxieio ria;ieo:ior, jouhhjh bh- 
3aHTHJCKH uap Ma.io H3a Tora nouja.'by y noMoh Mh- 
xaH.iy h Jpyry bojck)' noj 3anoBe;iHHUJTBOM Tbopfya 
AKpono.iHTa, kojh 3ay3Me npn.ien h yjapn Ha Vpouja, 
a.iH ra Cp6n koa flpH/iena noiyKOUJe. flpH.ien nnan 



20b HOBA CPfcHJA 

He npHnaae Cp6HMa Beh cnnpcKOM AecnoTy, ojx Kora 
ra aouHHJe noHOBO oayseine Bi3aiiTHHUH. 

3a CBe BpeMe BH3aHTHjcke BJiaiTH, hcto TaKO h 
nojx apyrwvi cpeijfoeBeKOBHHM rocno^apHMa, FIpH^en je 
npe^CTaBJbao HajBa>KHHJe bojhhhko h hojihthhko Me- 
cto He caMO y Sana^Hoj Beh y uejioj CeBepHoj h Cpca,- 
HdOj ManeiiOHHJH. Ty je 6h/io cennniTe ueHTpajme boj- 
HHHKe H nOJIHTHHKe B/iaCTH y obhm KpajeBHMa. Kojikko 
ce 3a BpeMe BH3aHTHJCKe B/iacrH nojiara^o Ha Ba>KHOCT 
IlpH/iena bhah ce Haj6ojbe no TOMe ihto je y ft>eMy 
yBeK 6opaBHO no Heno Ofl uapcKor poaa. 

y ko/ihko ce ca#a yTBp^HTH Moace, Cp6H cy npBH 
npBH nyT 3aB/ia;ia/iH npnjieuoM y cpncK0-BH3aHTHJ- 
ckom paTy oa 1296-97. y TOMe je paTy Kpajb Mn.ny- 
thh on, TpKa 6ho y3eo uejiy CeBepHy Ap6aHHJy, rpa^ 
Upaq, CKoncKy o6;iacT, OBne riojbe, 3-aeTOBo h fln- 
jaHau, ae6apci<y, KHneBCKy h nope^Ky o6;iacT. H3- 
rne^a aa je Kpajb MnjiyTHH nocrce ocBojetba IlpHJiena 
noneo y H>eroBOJ okojihhh HacejbaBaTH Cp6e PauiaHe, 
jep ce y aouhhjhm noBejbaMa cnoMHtbe ce/10 Byqje 
„ihto ra je Hace^HO cbcth Kpajb". Hcto TaKO 3Ha ce 
aa je Kpajb Mn;iyTHH nomoiviarao MaHacTHp TpecKa- 
Bau. Ka.ua je FIpH;ien noHOBO nomao no^ B/iacr bh- 
3aHTHJCKy He 3Ha ce TaqHO. T. CTOjaH HoBaKOBHh mh- 
gjih aa je to 6h;io roAHHe 129S, Ka^a ce Mn;iyTHH 
noMHpno c rpuHMa, h Ka^a ce okchho Chmohhaom. 
A;ih h nocjie Tora nocroja;ia je y IlpHJieny jaKa cpn- 
CKa napTHj'a, Koja je onp)KaBa;ia Be3e c KpajbeM Mn;iy- 
thhom h CTeBaHOM fleqaHCKHM. 3a H>HxoBe BJia^e 
FIpH^en je 6ho cKopo ca cbhx crpaHa OKpyateH TepH- 
TopHJOM cpncKHx B/iaAaaaua. Kpajb CTeBaH JJeqaHCKH 
je join BHiue ctcchho Taj Kpyr, ocbojhbuih Be^ec h 
FIpoceK, h nokyuiaBuiH aa ocbojh h OxpHA, y HeMy 
HHj'e ycneo. 

flpH^en je aeqbHHHTHBHO jiowao y cpncKy Bjiacr 
y noneTKy ZlyinaHOBe B^a^e, h to H3Meijy 1331 h 1334 
roflHHe. ETHorpa4)CKe npn;iHKe Koje cy y caMOM FlpH- 
;ieny h y HberoBoj oko^hhh B-naiia/ie npHJiHMHO cy no- 
3HaTe. BehHHy BapoujKor craHOBHHinTBa caHHtoaBa/iH 
cy TpuH, aok cy BehHHy ceocKor cTaHOBHHUJTBa canH- 



oftiin/i.nrt rani\c|i,unriJA 



fbaBa^H Cp6n. B.iacn, kojhx je y to BpeMe 6hjio cnopo 
no CBHMa cpncKHM 3eM/baMa, y oko/ihhh flpH/iena ce 
He noMHfoy. y noweTKy HymaHOBe B/iacrH, y oko/ihhh 
flpH/iena cnoMmby ce MHora nycra ce/iHHJTa. HeKO- 
.iHKO roAHHa AOUHMJe BehHHa thx ce/imuTa cnoMmby 
ce Beh Kao ce/ia. 3HanH Aa cy 6n/ia Hace/beHa. Flo oBOMe 
H3MeAa Aa je noc.ie AO/iacKa noA cpncKy B/iacr Ha- 
crynH/io hobo Hace^aBafee npn/iencKe OKO/iHHe. Ka- 
paKTepHCTHnaH je (J)aKaT 3a TaAainrbH HaMHH ynpaBe 
to ihto ce jacHO bhah Aa cy rpwKOJ B/iacre/iH noA 
cpncKOM B.ia^OM 6n/ia npH3HaTa npaBa Ha OHa HMatba 
Koja je OHa AOTaaa HMa/ia. y noBe/baMa y Kojwvia ce 
cnoMHH>y concTBeHHUH HMaiba, HaBeAeno je oca\ueceT 
jihhhhx HMeHa. Oa thx ocaMAeceT HMeHa neaeceT h 
neTHpH cy mhcto rpqKa, aok je mhcthx rpncKHx 6h/io 
CBera AeBCTHaecr. 3HanH Aa cy B/iacre/ia 6n/ia Behn- 
hom rpMKe HapojHocTH. Kpa/b HymaH je KynoBao 
HMaiba oa nojeAHHHX B.iacTe/iHHa h noK/ian>ao hx Ma- 
HacTHpy TpecKaBuy. 

Mhm je ocbojho npH.ien, Ryuian je HaJBehy na- 
>KH.y oopaTHO ManacTHpy TpecKaBuy HapoBao My je 
MHora ce/ia, upKBe h Memxe y flo-iory, flopeMy, 
KnMeBy, 5a6yHH, no rie/iaroHHJH, HapoMHTO oko 5h- 
TO^»a h JlepHHa. riopcA Tora Aao My je TpehHHy npn- 
xoAa oa Tpra npH/iencKora, h ao3bo/iho My je Aa 
CBaKe roAHHe o MHTpoBy AaHy ap>kh nanaljyp. 

KanaB je flpH/ien y to BpeMe H3r,ieAao, He 3na 
ce TaMHO. 3na ce caMO na je HMao yTBpl^eibe, „Ky/iy 
npn/iencKy". y ibCMy caMOM 6h/io je Ta^a ujecT up- 
KaBa. BaBehH ce roAHHe 1348 y Ilpn.ieny, H3Aao je 
HymaH xpncoBy.-by he/iHJH Cb. CaBe, y kojoj FlpH/ien 
Ha3HBa „Be/inKOC/iaBHH rpaA npH/ieir. Ko/iHKy je Ba>K- 
>khoct y to BpeMe HMao ripn/icn Hlj6oJb€ ce bhah no 
TOMe ujto ra je Hyujan inadpao Kao jeAHy oa cbojhx 
pe3HAenuHja. Hero TaKo y tbeny je GopaBHO h uapeB 
jeAHHau ypouj. Kao HaJBa>KHHJeM MecTy y cbojhm ho- 
bhm 06/iacrHMa, Hyinan je y npn.ieriy nocraBHO 3a 
ynpaBHTe/ba CpeAtbC MaKCAnnnje jeABOr oa najeno- 

C06HHJHX CBOJHX MHMOBHHKa, ByKaiHHUa MpibaBMCBHha. 

Kao Ba>KHO Mecro ByKainnn je Aounnje flpH/ien ywn- 



208 HOBA CPBHJA 



hho npecroHHuoM cBora KpajbeBCTBa. Oh je 6ho npe- 
croHHua MapKa KpajbeBHha, kojh ra je, KaKO H3ivie;ia, 
joiii BHiue yTBpAHO. flo;* cpncKOM B;iauihy ocrao je 
npeKO iue3AeceT ro/iHHa, CBe £0 cmpth Mapna Kpa- 
jbeBHha (13^5, ron.). 

HaHauitbH npHJien ce aejiH Ha xpHuihaHCKy h 
Typcny Ma^y. XpHiuhaHCKe Ma;ie aejie ce npeMa napo- 
xHJaMa h 30By ce HMeHHMa ohhx nonoBa kojh Te na~ 
poxHJe nocjiyacyjy. TaKO HMaMO : flon HnKOJiOBy MaJiy, 
non-Tbop^HJeBy MaJiy h XauH-flon HKOHOMOBy Ma;iy. 
TypcKe cy Majie OBe : Ak MenHT, TpH3;ia, Ta6aHa h 
ToKaT Ma;ia. XpnujhaHH ce 6aBe 3aHaTHMa, TproBH- 
hom h 6aujTOBaHJiyKOM. HapOHHTO je pa3BHJeH KOBa- 

HKH H KaJiajUHJCKH 3aHaT. HdHXOBH Cy npOH3BOAH ny- 

BeHe npHJiencKe cennpe h Tecne, Koje ce H3B03e y Be- 
^ec, CKonjbe h fIpH3peH. H3pa^yjy h 6aKapHe cyae, 
Koje H3B03e y KnqeBO h KpymeBo. KoBaMH cy HCKJby- 
hhbo xpHiuhaHH. Meijy xpHuihaHHMa orpOMHy BehHHy 
MHHe Cp6H. Hivia Heurro Majio Tpna h UnHuapa, kojh 
ce 6aBe TproBHHOM h ceocKHM Tep3HJiyKOM. MatbH aeo 
cpncKor craHOBHHUJTBa 6aBH ce 3eMJbopa,zufeOM h 6a- 
uiTOBaH^yKOM. HaJBHUje npoH3Boae MaK h ayBaH. ripe 
je 6h;io MHoro BHHorpaaa, ajiu hm ce BHuie peHTH- 
pa;io aa caae ayBaH h a(})HJOH, h BHHorpaite cy hcko- 
peHH^H. Hay MHoro h y nena;i6y. HapoHHTO cy MHoro 
hujjih y AiviepHKy h ByrapCKy. 

TypuH cy peHTHepn, HHTJiyK-caxHdnje, a je^aH 
^eo 6aBH ce 3aHaTHMa. BpJio bcjihkh aeo, 3a TypcKor 
BpeMeHa, >KHBeo je on c;iy>K6a. Bh/ih cy nojbaun, Ka* 
Ba3H koa 6oraTHx xpniuhaHa, koa ujKOJia h MaHa- 
CTHpa, a mho™ cy 6h;ih >KaHAapH h nacBaHunje. To- 
bhhom ce 6aBe CBera ft>HX Tpojnua. HH*iviyK-caxH6HJe 
HMajy HapoMHTe jiyhane y KOJHMa npoaajy caMO CBoje 
)khto. CKopo cbh caae AyBaH h caMH ra ceKy h npo- 
aajy. Be/iHKa Maca hx >khbh BehHHOM 6e3 nocjia. Flo 
Ba3,n:aH ceae y Ka(j)aHH, nnjy Ka(J)y, nyme ayBaH h 
pa3roBapajy. floMahn hm je je3HK TypCKH, a;iH 3Hajy 
h cpncKH. 

y FIpHJieny HMa BeoMa 6oraTHx Jby^H, h xpniu- 
haHa u TypaKa. HMa xpniuhaHa kojh cy MjuiHOHepH. 



3AnA£HA MAKEflOHHJA 209 

06oraTH/iH cy ce HajBHiue TproBHHOM h /iaBatt>eM 
HOBua Ha npnnjion. 

ripH^en ce ae/iu Ha aeo y KOMe ce Tpryje h H3- 
patjyje, h neo y KOMe cy caMo Kyhe 3a CTaHOBan>e. 
TlpBH jxqo je y3 peKy h 30Be ce wapuiHia, a ^pyrH 
neo je Ha nepH(})epHJn, h 30Be ce Ma/ia. no Ma.iaMa 
cy Kyhe MaxoM npn3CMHe, hhckc h hepa.MH^OM noKpn- 
BeHe. rio Ma/iaMa HeMa ayhaHa. 

y npn/ieny je upKBa Cb. UnMHTpnja, on/iHKyje 
ce /ienHM bh33hthjckhm cth/iom, c bhcokhm Ky6eTHMa 
h mhothm ycKHM h /ienHM npo3opHMa y IbHMa. 

ripn/ien je Ha aaHaunbeM no/iowajy noiiHrHyT y 
TypcKO Bpe.Me. CrapH npn.ien h.ih MapKOBa Ila.iaHKa 
6ho je 3a 20 MHHyTa Aa;be Ha ceBepo-3anaiiy, me 
je cana ce.no Bapoiu, HenocpenHO no;* MapKOBHM Ky- 
ziaMa. Flo OBOMe H3r/iejia jja je crapn npw/ien HMao 
THn noarpalja, noiHTO je /iewao HenocpejHO noa 
npH^encKHM rpa^oM. kbr/ieaa rb ce npect:baBaH>e H3 
BapoiiiH y iianaunbH npn.ien Bp.io nocreneHo BpuJH.io. 
H\ia aocTa riopo.-inua Koje naMre Ka.i cy ce npece- 
/iH/ie. MipKOBa na.iaHKa ca^a ce 30Be MapKOB Fpa^. 
CiaHOBHHUH MapKOBa Tpaiia npH4ajy na ce AanaiuibH 
npn.ien nce/ino npe cto ,io cto neAeeer ro^uHa Bh/io 
je Jbynu kojh cy naMTH/iw Kajia cy Ha Mecry ^anauj- 
H>er npH.iena 6n.ie caNie h>hbc h .iHBaae OpiOBawKa 
Pcna 6n/ia je ,iy6oKa, h HHj'e 6n/ia 3acyTa necKOM h 
Lu.i.ynKOM nao caja. Kyhe BehHHe ooraiania cy Ha 
o6a/in OpaoBaMKe Peice. 

CTaHOBHHUH MapKOBa Fpaaa 6aBe ce 3eM^>opa- 
afbOM h cTowapcTBOM, a nopcj Tora cBaKH 04 h.hx 
HMa y npn/ieny h cboj /whan. MuTepecanTHO je ype- 
^LMt.e MapKOBa rpaaa. He/in ce na bhluc Maxa/ia. 
CBaKa Maxa/ia HMa CBOjy c/iaBy, h cijaKa ahwc upK- 
BHuy cbomc CBCTHTc.'by. 3uor Tora y tomc maaom 
Merry HMa bhuic upKBHua h ocrraTaKa oa apKBeHHl 
CTapHiia. y ToMe HMa h3bcchc c/ih i ihocth H3Mel)y npn- 
ziena H ripiupena. To cy BapoiDH y KOJHMa ce ojip- 
>Ka/io iiajBHirie ocTaiaKa on cpciibeBeKOunor cpncKor 
)KHBoia. CTaHOBHHUH MapKOBa rpa/ia npnnajy ;u je 

HOBA CPLHJA M 



210 HOBA CPBHJA 



y H>eMy HeKan 6hjio 70 uito MatbHx, iiito BehHX up- 
KaBa. Zip. JoBaH X. BacnjbeBnh TBpnn na y Map- 
KOBy fpany HeMa j^ocejbeHHKa, Beh caMO crapHHaua, 
h A2L ce Bapom y obhm KpajeBHMa 30Be yBeK Hajcra- 
pHJa rpaiicKa Ma;ia. 

36or 3rojiHor nojiowaja FIpHJien je h y cpentbeM 
Beny 6ho Ba>naH Tpr, a Kpo3 CBe TypcKO BpeMe y H>eMy 
ce iip>Kao jenaH on HaJBa>KHHJHX Bainapa Ha ue/ioM 
Ba^naHCKOM no/iyocrpBy, Ha kojh ce ca cbhx CTpaHa 
AOJia3H/io. H can je ripn/ien musa TproBam<a Bapom, 
h H>eroBH xpHiuhaHCKH CTaHOBHHUH ca Be^emaHHMa h 
LLlTHn^>aHMMa cnanajy y Hajnpe^y3HMJbHBnje TproBue 
obhx KpajeBa. Kao na je on cbhx bpcth TproBHHe Haj- 
Ba>KHHJa TproBHHa ca ctokom, Koje y okojihhh nocra 
HMa 36or ;io6pnx nauia no njiaHHHaMa, Hapo^HTO no 
JanynHUH, JUyTHUH h Ba6yHH, r^e ce rajn MHora 
KpynHa h CHTHa CTOKa. flajbe ce 3naTHHj'e Tpryje c ny- 
BaHOM, >khtom, onHj'yMOM h npn;iencKOM nanpHKOM, Koja 
je noc/ie MemeHCKe Hajno3HaTHJa y MaKenoHHJH. y 
rpa^y ce on n^eTBapCKor MepMepa H3patjyjy Ha,arpo6HH 
cnoMeHHUH, CTeneHHue, KopHTa h .ap. 

y Upuneny *UMd 22.230 craHOBHKKa, ca npeTe>K- 
hom cnoBeHCKOM BehHHOM h 3HaTHHM 6pojeM Typana. 

M3Ha;iMapK0Ba Tpana, Ha jeziHOJ rpaHHTHOJ creHH, 
jHH)Ky ce npeocTaTUH on rpana KpajbeBHha Mapna. Ta 
CTeHa HMa o6/ihk rpoMane ca 6e36poj CTy6oBa h 3y- 
6aiia, ca Bp/io crpMHM dpaHaMa Koje Mecro npe.na3e 
y BepTHKa^He onceKe. rpoMana Ha kojoj je 6ho ca3H- 
AaH cpenHDeBeKOBHH MapKOB rpaji, Kao h MHore rpo- 
Ma/ie y 6/ih3hhh, HMajy TaKO onupe Kom-ype na MHHe, 
HapoMHTO no HofcH, cTpaxoBHT yTHcaK. 3nAHHe HHcy ca- 
qysaHe y uenHHH. OHe cy caqyBaHe y hcko^hko pe- 
aoBa, kojh o6n^a3e oko deHOBHTe rpOMane. riopen 
Tora onyBaHe cy h HeKOJiHKe xy;ie. Thm ciapHM 3hah- 
HaMa h ny/iaMa join Bnuie je nojaqaH OHaj nynHOBaTH 
h BejiHHaHCTBeHH o6/ihk rpana. CBe Te 3HAHHe cy no- 
nyua/ie, nocpHyne h opoHyne, TaKO na he ce CBe to 
6p30 HCKBapHTH aKo ce ko He nocTapa na to nonpaBH 
h yTBpflH. y rpaACKHM 3HAHHaMa pyCKH apxHMaHnpHT 



JAU.X \Kf.aOHHJA 

AHTOHHje na^a3Ho je ue/ie uperpiuTH jeMMa h apyror 
>KHTa. Tpaa je naiHtbeH oj unne h neceqeifor Ka.Mena. 

Ujh rpaao.M je MapxoBa upKBa, Ma/ieHa h rpa- 
fyeHa y BH3aHTHJCKOM CTMJiy. HcnpeA upKBe je TpeM, 
kojh je Hac.ioibCH yciiiTO Ha creny, a HeiuTo Ha Mpa- 
MopHe CTy6oBe. V z\\y TpeMa cawyBano je 6m/io 18b5 
HeiuTo >KnBonHca y tom >KHBonHcy caqyBaHa je c.iHKa 
Kpa/beB.iha MapKa. PycKH apxHManiipHT Ahtohhjc Ty 
c.iHKy onwcyie oBaKo: C aecne (jy>KHe) cTpane Hac/iH- 
Kan je MOBeK on TpHiieceT rojnua y BH3aHTHjCKOM uap- 
ckom o^e/iy c KpyHOM Ha.iHK Ha apxnjepej Ky MHTpy h 
c KpyroM oko rviaBe Kao luto ce Mehe CBeun.via. Y ne- 
choj My je pyuH ayrawaK Kpcr c £Be npe^are. C o6e 
crpaHe r.i;iBc HMa pa3roBeiaH Hamnc y TpH pe^a: *Bl> 
X(pncT)a 5(or)a Fl.penL Kpa/i MapKO*. 

MaiiacTHp TpecnaBau ca3HjaH je hcto TaKO y 
CTeHH. 36or Tora hjto My je 3eM. T bHOJTe ctpmchhto, ita- 
nacTHp je cacTaB-'ben H3 neKo/iHKO Tcpaca XpaM je 

CTapHHCKOT CTH.ia, Ca UlHpOKHM Ky6cTOM y CpCAHHH. 

YnyTpa je >KHBonHcaH. W y ibeMy je canyBana c/iHKa 
Kpa;ba MapKa h uapa C-R^ana JlyiuaHa, caMO^puiua 

CBHX CpUCKHX H flOMOpCKHX 3CMa.'ba. 



3. Oxp 

„OxpHii je no^HrnyT na ceBcpnoj o6a.iH je3epa. 
Oh je eKOHOMCKH ucHTap oxptucKe KOTJlHHe, /leopue, 
UpHMKO.ia h To/ior Bp.ia. Ochm Tora na H.cra je y 
MHoroMe ckohomckh ynyhen H JU'6ap. Oh je nopeji Bh- 
TO^ar.iaBna Fupoiu Ha apGanaLUKO- -<om nyiy, 

cTapoj Via Egnatia re je c tbHue yneico ih h 

c.iGjcmhckh xpaj. Objc je na crapoj Via Egnatia Gn/ia 
Bapoiu Lichnidus, a noGie phmckot upeMuia ce ; 
bho Oxpiu, kujh cy oam Bn31RTMJe apMUJlll 
rapw, KpaTKO npeMe Hopnami, h Hi -i. kojh 

cv ra OCBOJMJIH y nnqcTKy B/ia.ie CreBaHa HyiuaHa oko 
1332-1334 roa. 3a ilytuaHOBO »au Oxpn- 

AOM ctBacTOKparop BpaHKO M la/u-Honnh. oiau H 
BpaHKOBiiha. llo CMprn uapa ypoma Oxpiu je 6hu y 



212 HOBA CPBHJA 



^p^aBH KpajbCBHba MapKa, h H>HMe je ynpaB^ao wy- 
naH Tpona. KpajeM 14 BeKa saB/iaaauje OxpHAOiviTypuH. 

Hrpao je Ba>KHy y^iory y upkbchom WHBOTy 6aji- 
KaHCKHx OioBeHa. 1018 ro,n,. noziHwe y OxpHiiy ca- 
MOcra/iHy apxHenncKonnjy rpMKH uap Bacn.nnje II non, 
Kojy cy CBe jxo ocHHBatba caMocrajiHe cpncKe upKBe 
cna^a^H h Kocobo, BeorpaA h PaiiJKa. KpajeM 14 BeKa 
h no^OBHHOM 15 6mia je nozi oxphackom h pyiviyHCKa 
upKBa, a o^n: nponacTH nehKe naTpHJapniHJe (1459) na 
Ao o6HaB^>aH5a H>eHor 1557, h enncKonnje cpncKHx 3e- 
Majba. Oxpn^cKa apxnenncKonnja je yKWHyTa 16 ja- 
Hyapa 1707 toji., HacKopo noc/ie yHwuTetba nthKe 
naipHJapiuHJe, h o6e cy noma^e noA rpHKy uapnrpaA- 
CKy naTpnjapiiJHJy. 

TjiaBHe BapouiKe Kyfce h yjiHue cy nope^aHe Ha 
CTpaHaMa KpemtaMKe ropnue ynKajbe, noneBiuH on 
caivie je3epCKe o6a;ie na no oxpnacKor rpaaa. Kyfce cy 
Tano je^Ha H3Haa Apyre £H3aHe na CBaKa HMa c npo- 
3opa cno6o.naH H3nieA Ha je3epo. TaKBH cy actcobh 
OxpH^a: Bapouj, MapujHJa, roptt>a B/iaujKa Maxa^a h 
MecoKpacro. Ha oboj CTpaHH je oco6hto Jiena upKBa 
Cb. KnuMema (oxpH^CKa MHTpono;iHJa), Kojy je y Haj- 
HOBHJe BpeMe npoynno KoHiiaKOB. OB^e cy h pa3Ba- 
jiHHe on ABopaua ycnaflHH-GeroBHX. y paBHH cy zie- 
jiobh Oxpnaa: Bocna, y kojoj cy Typun, KoMHUJTe, cpn- 
ckh Kpaj, 3aTHMCapaj-Maxa^a h .floHba B^auiKa Maxa/ia. 

OxpuA je no nojioatajy je3epCKa Bapoui h pn6o- 
jiob je Kpo3 CBa BpeivieHa, Kao h AaHac, 6no cra;iHO 3a- 
HHMaHaesHaTHorAe^a cTaHOBHHUJTBa. „PH6ao/iOxpH;ia", 
XBajbeHa y HapoAHHM necMaivia, no3naTa je Kao Hajy- 
KycHHJa y BehcM acny Ba;iKaHCKor FIo^yocTpBa. rio- 
MHn>e je jouj h CTpa6oH. y Be3H cy ca 3aK/iott>eHHM 
noAo>KajeM h je3epcKOM k;ihmom jaKO pa3BnjeHO no- 
DpiapcTBO h BohapcTBO oko Oxpn#a y Jlc6puH, O KO- 
JHMa je h paHHje 6h;io roBopa. OxpHA je Tano 6;iare 
K^HMe na MO>Ke 6hth k/ihmcko jickobhto MecTO. 

y TypcKO BpeMe pa3BH.no ce y Oxpnny 3aHaTCTBO, 
Koje je none/io onaaaTH on KaKO cy carpal)eHe 6an- 
KaHCKe >Ke^e3HHue Oco6hto je pa3BnjeH hypnujcKH 
3aHaT. y OxpH^y cy npaB/beHa jaKO ueibeHa ij[y6eTa, 



:-saiiaaha makkaohh.ia 

hyp^eTa, AH6aAeTa hta. CnpoB hypMHJCKH ecnan Ha- 
6aB/ba;iH cy HapoMHTO hypqnjcKH TproBUH y /Ia'nunry, 
noMaBHTO Ha /lajnuHUJKHM BaiuapH.via (Leipzigermesse). 
Joiu je K. TpynMeBHh 3anaMTHo KaAa ce y OxpHAy oko 
50 Kyha 6aBH/ie hyp4HJCKHM 3aHaTOM AaK.ie joiu oko 
no/ioBHHe 19 BeKa. CBaKa hypqnjcKa paAfoa 3aHn\ia.ia 
je 40 — 50paAHHKa, AaK-ne y OxpHAy je Gn.io 2500— 300Q 
pa^HHKa HypMHJCKHX. hbHXOBa je naAHHua 6njia 20—25 
rponr. . Ochm Tora cy MHore >KeHe koa Kyha uiH/ie h 
MOMe 3a Tpw ;iema Meceua jxa 3apaAe 300 AHHapa. 
TiypMHJcKH ecnan je pa3HOiueH no ue/iOM BaAKaHCKOM 
Ho.iyocrpBy, a HapoMHTO je MHoro npoAaBano Ha Baiua- 
pHMa y Flpn/ieny h Cepe3y. 3HaTaH je Aeo Bapoiun >kh- 
Beo oa Tep3njcKor 3aHaTa, h OxpHA ce TaKMHMHO ca 
KocTypoM y H3par}HBatby Haj(})HHHJer 6a/iKancKor OAe/ia, 
Koje je Ha Aa/itKO pa3HoiueHO h npoAaBaHO. 

Ca^a ce BHAe caMO TparoBH oa crapnx 3aHaTa h 
TproBHHe oxpHACKe. OxpHA je ociao norviaBHTo uen- 
Tap h r.iaBHH rpaA o6;iacTH Koje cy na ibera ynyneHe, 
3aTHM Bapoiu pH6apCTBa, noBpiapcTBa h BohapcTBa. 
CKopo y hcto BpeMe ca onajiaibeM 3aHaTa, y Oxpnjy 
je 6h/io CBe HecHrypHHJe yc.ieA AOce;baBaiba Ap6aHaca. 
Typ6eT^yK je y3HMao CBe Belie pa3Mepe; Oxpurjann ce 
paAH 3apa le pa3H/ia3e no CBponcKOj TypcKoj M ce- 
BCpHHM 6a^KaHCKHM 3CM.'baMa, HapoMHTO no Cp6njn H 
JjyrapcKOJ, h He peTKO TaMO H ocTajy." 

O 6pojy craHOBHHUJTBa y 19 BeKy HMaMO OBe no- 
AaTKe : Dr. Muller je 1838 roA. 3a6e/ie>KHO Aa y OxpH- 
Ay HMa caMO 750 Kyfya, a A <pah Aa je CKopo 
y hcto BpeMe y OxpHAy 6h/io 9 000 cianoBHHKa X. F 
Tozer ce o6aBCCTHO Aa je 3a BpeMe iberoBor nyTO- 
Ban>a H3ifeijy IttbO h 1870 toa- 6h/io y OxpHAy 15 000 
CTanoBHHKa, no.ia xpHwhana no/ia TypaKa, h no 
cy BehHHOM Ap6anacH. Y nocieA>boj AeceTnnn 19 
BeKa Gh/io je y OxpHAy no Poctkobckom 1 1.875 flj 
Mehy KOJHMa anco/iyTHy Behmiy iHHe GiOBeim. 
3aTHM MyxnMCA^HCKe fere, 3950, H ApouyHN, 
Ayuja; no KnqcBy, mhjh cy iio.uhh CKopo u ncror 
BpeMCHa, HMa y OxpHAy 14 860 Ayiua, Me^y KOJHMa 
Byrapa 8.000, TypaKa 5.000, ApHayTa 800, ApoMvua 



214 HOBA CPBHJA 



460, U,HraHa 600. UbhjhH je paqyHao aa y Oxpnuy 
HMa 12 — 14.000 ayiiia h ^a HecyMn>HBO BehHHa npH- 
na^a MaKe^OHCKHM C/iOBeHHMa. Flo H>eroBHM o6aBeuiTe- 
feHMa, Me^y oBHMa BehHHy MHHe AOcejbeHHUH H3 okoji- 
hhx ce;ia, HapoqHTo H3 JlpHMKOJia h Jle6pue; y Ma- 
H>eM cy 6pojy dape oxpH^CKe nopoawue. Hcth je 
Gaynaj h ca MyxaMCuamjHivia, Meijy KOJHMa hobhjh ap6a- 
HaiuKH AOcejbeHHUH qHHe BehnHy; ohh ce y Oxpwuy 
Hanio TypuH3Hpajy. BajraHU je yTBp^HO &a cy 150 
Kyha oxphackhx ApoMyHa #ocejbeHe norviaBHTO H3 
MycKonoJba, Hhkojihuc, JlyHre, Tpa6oBa koa Jlynre h 
JlHHOTona. Hivia hckojihko Kyha h npaBHX TpKa. JJaHac 
y Oxpnay HMa 11.038 ayiua. 

Hh y je^HOJ je3epcKoj BapoiiiH MaKeaoHHJe HHcy 
TaKO pa3BHJeHe meTH>e h H3/ieTH Ha qaMUHMa Kao y 
OxpHAy. Ha MyBeHHM bcahkhm qaMUHMa ca honiKaMa 
npaBe OxpH^aHH nemhe H3Jiirre ro OyAeHHMHiHTa,, 
onncaHHX jaKHx H3B0pa Ha hctohhoj crpaHH je3epa, 
3aTHM ro TopHue h ro IlajbaHa. Behe H3;ieTe npaBe 
caMO o npa3HHUHMa. y omh cb. HayMa KpeHe ce H3 
Oxpnaa no npaBH;iy 50 — 60 qaMaua ca oxphackhm no- 
po£Hu.aMa, npeMa MaHacmpy cb. HayMa, h, yTpKyjyhH 
ce. npncnejy y MaHacTHp, rae hx noqeKajy 3BOH>ett>eM. 
C/iHHHe H3^eie npaBe h y KajwuiKH MaHacTHp. 



3HaTaH rqo oxpHACKor craHOBHHUiTBa >khbh or 
pH6o^OBa. Ph6o/iob je Hapo^HTO pa3BHJeH Ha OxpHA- 
ckom h npecnaHCKOM Je3epy. MHoro6poJHa ce^a Koja 
ce Ha^a3e Ha o6a;iaMa thx .HBajy je3epa, Kao h 3Ha- 
TaH aeo BapouiKor CTaHOBHHiUTBa y Oxpn^y, OpyrH 
h noiirpauy, >KHBe HCKjbyMHBO or pH6o;iOBa. Ta cy 
je3epa 6oraTa h y pa3HHM BpcTaMa pH6a h y 3HaTHOj 
HdHXOboj ko^hmhhh. Hapoa pa3/iHKyje y rviaBHOM rbz 
BpcTe pn6a, h to OHe Koje HeMajy KpjbyuiTH (jbycKe) 
h OHe MHje je tcko noKpHBeHO jbycKaMa. npBe 30By 
u mhcthm", a jipyre ^hb^hm" pn6aMa Metjy mhcthm 
pn6aMa HaJBa>KHHJa je „nacrpBa a , a 3aTHM „6ejbBHUa". 
npeMa BpeMeHy y KOMe ce ;iobh, h npeMa Mecry Ha 
KOMe ce ;iobh, nadpBa je ao6H;ia pa3Ha HMeHa, Kao: 



3AnA^HA MAKEAOHHJA 215 



/ieTHHua, 3HMKa, KpecHHua, ryiuaBKa, aa/ijanKa, Ma- 
jojua (on HMeHa Meceua Maja), h np. 06nMHa Te- 
>KMHa nacTpMKe je ABe no tou OKe, bjih hx HMa on 
10 h 15 OKa. IlacTpMKa Te tokhhc 30Be ce „KpanoT- 
hhk" h B KpanoTmma a . flacTpMK'a je HajyKycHiija pn6a 
OxpHiicKor Jc3epa, MOK^a HajyKycHHJa Ha ue:ioM 6a;i- 
naHCKOM no^yocrpBy. Hcto TaKO MacoBHTa je h je- 
ry^>a, Koja Mo>Ke 6HTHTeiiJKa on ibq na no neT OKa. 
y paHHJa BpeMena OBa pn6a ce npoiiaBa/ia on -iBa no 
;ieceT rpoiua Ha ony. Hajcnyruba je 6n;ia ;ieTHHua. 
Mehy „jHB:bHM u pH6aMa Haj3HaMeHHTnjH je „Kpan" 
(ujapaH), kojh MO>Ke 6hth Te>KaK on neT na no una* 
AeceT OKa. HajcuTHnja h HaJMHoro6poJHnja pn6a Ox- 
pH^CKor Je3epa je „n/iaujHua', Koja je yKyca c/iHMHa 
cap^HnaMa. XBaiajy ce mh/ihohhm?, h CHpoTHiba hx 
MHoro TpoiuH Kao CBaKOAHeBHy xpaHy y nocHe naHe, 
Pnoapn HMajy MnoroCpoJHe h pa3H0BpcHe cnpaBe 
3a xBaTaihe pn6e. HMa hx CBera oko TpmiaecT. Haj- 
Ba>KHHJe cy obc „B/iaK u je orpoMHa Mpe>KHna ca nsa 
KpH/ia, ziyra on 30 no 40MeTapa, a innpoKa 8 no 10 
Meiapa. Onepncaibe c obom Mpe>KOM, HapoMHTO c TaKO- 

3BaHHM neiHTaHCKHM B^aKOM, BeOMa je TeiHKO h kom- 

n^HKOBaHO h H3HCKyje MHoro nocia. Y3 Taj B.iaK nae 
naJMaibc neT Jbyjn, on kojhx CBaKH y o^pe^eHo Bpevie 
BpiuH CBOjy (f)yHKUHJy. npeMa kojoj CBaKH on thx Jbynu 
HMa h cboj Ha3HB. OBa ce cnpaBa ynoTpcC^aea c 

Ha nyMHHH J03epCKOJ, HapOMHTO Ha OHHM „BHp i ItTHMa u 

y KOJH.va h oko kojhx HMa Haj/ieniue pn6e, g6hmho 
^eTHHue. C/iHMaH je OBOMe „Mer\aaHCKH B/iaK u , kojh je 
CKopo hctc KOHCTpyKiuije, caMO ce oh noc/ie ;iOBa 
Mopa H3B;ia i iHTH na o6aBy na 6n ce H3 Jbera y/ioB- 
;beHa pn6a Hcrpec.ia. [IeurrancKHM ce B/iaKOM Baje 
caMO /ieTunue, a MenaaHCKHM inapaHH, k.ichobh, rpyHUH 
h ckoGvcth. Hpyre BpcTe Mpewa cy no3HaTe non r. 
hom „B«naMKa'' h „»/ia i Je\ „K/byq" je Ma/ia Mpc>KHua 
Koja ce 6aua y npocTope kojh cy 3arpafyt.HH, h Koja 
ce, nan ytyy y iby pn6e, JCAHHM >'>kltom CMpcKa h 3a- 
TBopn Kao upt'ha. Koja ce onaa h3hoch y wyn. „Mpe- 
>kom" ce najHBajy caMO one Mpewe Koje cy nanpaB- 
*>eHe on TaHKor n jaKor ^anenor KOHua h.ih on cbm-ic 



216 HOBA CPBHJA 



JXyra je 30 ao 40 MeTapa, a uiHpoKa je^aH MeTap. OHa 
ce pa3anHHbe no HohH, a Byqe TeK cyTpa Ran y jyTpy. 
OBHMa cJiHHHe cy cnpaBe: „Mpejua a , M rpyHeiHHHK" h 
„caqMa", h „henqe". H nocjieAFbe ABe cy on Mpe>KHHe; 
„caqMa" HMa H3r.ien noKJiomja kojh, Kan ce 6auH, pa- 
CTBapa ce y Ko;iyT kojh Kan na.ntHe Ha aho je3epa no- 
KJionn pn6y h nocne ce HapoqHTHM y>KeTOM cMpcKa, 
3aTBopn; „henqe" HMa H3rjiea (J)eca h hy^aBa h oho 
ce cnyuiTa no Ha .ziho je3epa. Yjihuom hjih „jaAHUOM" 
XBaTajy ce CHTHe pn6e h jeryjba. OcTKMa, Koje ce npn- 
qBpde Ha jxpiKajbe jiyro 8 no 10 MeTapa, jiOBe ce 
pn6e h jeryjbe no JIpHMy oko CTpyre, HapoMHTo ce 
jiOBe KpanoBH (uiapaHH) Kan ce y TpCKaMa MpencoM 
3aTBope. Ha peKaMa MHoro ce pn6e JiOBe KOUHMa (npBH 
na^oK jeAHHHe KOTeu) h BpmaMa. 

3a xBaTan>e pn6e h 3a je3epcKe Ba;iOBe yaeineHH 
cy HapoqHTH MyHOBH. Th qyHOBH cy oco6HTa H3iviena. 
Hajwqe Ha AyraqaK caH^yK kojh je 03ro OTBopeH. Ca- 
craBJbeH je, y ochobh, on ABa orpoMHa qaMOBa fle6;ia 
Koja cy ca erpaHe HCKonaHa h KJiHHUHMa npHKOBaHa. 
Ha tbeMy cy c yHyTapn>e crpane npHKOBaHe HapoHHTe 
AacKe Koje qyBajy MyH on Ta;iaca. HanpaBJbeHH cy TaKO 
na Mory H3ap)KaTH HaJBehe Ta^ace. Ohh ce Mory Kpe- 
TaTH caMO y Hanpea 36or Tora ce npe;ubH #eo, „npeA- 
HHua", napOMHTHM TepeTHMa ocnrypaBa. MyH noKpehy 
Bec^aqH, kojh Becjiajy caMO c aecHe CTpaHe, a ibHM 
ynpaBJba „npHMaq" hjih KpMaHOUi. Ako cy „B03aqH" 
(Bec/iaqn) HceHCKe, OH^a, no hckom odnqajy, OHe Be- 
cjiajy caMO c JieBe CTpaHe. HapoHHTe cy Beoiaqnue 
>KeHe h ^eBOJKe H3!ce;ia Tpnejaua h neimafla. Tpnej- 
qaHKe cy no3HaTe Kao jane h Kao BeuiTnje BecjiaMHue. 
OHe KaA Becnajy pe^OBHO neBajy. Haj6oJbH h HaJBe- 
uiTHJH pn6apH cy cejbaun H3 Ta jxBa ce^a MyHOBHMa 
ce c^y>Ke 3a xBaiaite pnde h 3a npeHoc po6e h jbyw 
H3Mel)y nojeaHHHX MecTa Koja ce Ha/ia3e Ha o6a/iaMa 
je3epa. HapoMHTo ce qyHOBHMa BpuiH cao6pahaj Kan 
cy na3apHH #aHH y Oxpn/iy, Crpyrn h noarpauy. 
riopen obhx HMajy 6oraTHJH Jby^H HaponHTHX qyHOBa 
3a memy h npoBofyette no je3epy. HMa HapoqHTHx 
qynoBa ca KHoaniMa („houiK tt ) h/ih qapaauHMa kojh 



3A11AZIHA MAKEZIOHHJA lit 

cy npecTpTM HrnvreTHMa, a od/ioaceHH „nepHHuaMa ' 
(jacTyuHMa), Ha Koje iueTa i iH ;ierHy, nyiue, rvieaajy, no 
Ma/io apeMajy h y>KHBajy. 

y crapHJa BpeMeHa ph6o;iob je 6ho CKQpo crco- 
6oaho 3aHHMatbe. CBaKH ko je XTeo /iobhtii n/iahao je 
Ap>KaBH h/ih OHOMe ko je npe^craB^ao h y3ypriHpao 
TypcKy B/iacr y Oxpnay H3BecHy cyMy HOBaua. y no- 
c/ieaibe BpeMe je yBezieH o6nMaj na /ip>KaBa Aaje noa 
3anyn Ha rojjHHy iUHa h.ih abz nojeiiHHHM 3aKynu.HMa. 
Th 3aKynu,H no;ie/ie ucrco je3epo Ha noje^HHe ae/ioBe 
kojh ce 30By ^che^a^", na hx aajy 3a H3BecHe cyivje 
HOBaua noje^HHHM jioBUHMa, kojh OH^a HMajy npaBa 
na ziOBe ro^HHy aana, a^H caMO y TaMHO yTBpfyeHHM 
rpaHHixaMa cBora „chejba" . 

Ph6o^ob je jeaHa BeoMa Ba>KHa npHBpe^Ha rpaHa 
Ha CBHMa je3epH\ia. Oh je KopHcraH, npBO, hjto ^aje 
jeBTHHy h 3ApaBy xpaHy oko.ihom craHOBHwiiTBy; iipyro, 
hjto H3B030M pn6e craHOBHHiHTBO 3HaTHO npHRpetjyje, 
h Tpehe, hjto je h y BapouiHMa OxpMAy, Cipy3H h 
riojupauy pa3B.ijeHa HapoMHTa pn6apcKa unaycTpHJa. 
3HaTaH #eo CTaHOBHHHJTBa 6aBH ce n.neieibeM Mpe>Ka, 
rpaJ)eibcM qaMaua h neca/ia. h H3pa^0M ocra/inx pn- 
6apcKHX cnpaBa. Ako ce ycne na ce yBeae pauHOHa/mo 
pn6apcTBO, h aKO ce ycne na ce npepaijCHa p^6a c 
HaujHx je3epa H3Hece na eBponcKe nnjaue, HMahe Be- 

.IHKe KOpHCTH H Ap>KaBa H BpeflHO CTaHOBHHUJTBO OBHX 

KpajeBa. 

CTpyra. 

„Cipyra ;ic>kh y rviaBHOMe Ha MecTy rae UpHH 
UpHM H3,ia3H H3 Oxpn/iCKor Je3epa ; on Tora H3/ia3a 
cy dpy>KaHCKe Kyhe yAa/beHe ca.vio 300—400 m. OHa 
je npaBa jc3epcKa Bapouj, y Kojoj Behn rqo CTauOB- 

HHUJTBa >KHBH OA pH6o/10Ba, HapOMHTO ojx -noBa Ha je- 

ry/by Oa.Max Hcnoj. Opyre, Rp\m je Hcnperpat)nBaH 
^ecaMa h/ih „TajranHMa u , pa3HOBpcHO H3BHJyrannM orpa- 
AaMa on npyha. Kpo3 Koje BOAa npoTH i ie, a y 3aBoj- 
UHMa ce 33Ap>KaBa h XBaTa crpyujKa HAH oxpnacKa 
jery/ba, Kojy HapomiTO jy>KHH BeTpoBH HH3 UpHM Ha- 



218 HOBA CPEHJA 



repyjy. CTpy)KaHH iwjy caMO je3epcKy BOiiy m' florae 
norviaBHTO or pn6e h ncmpha. OrpyuiKe >KeHe cexBa^e 
Kao Hajjieniue y 3anaztHOJ MaKe^OHHJH, nopeA CMH;beB- 
ckhx. CrpyacaHH Tpryjy ca Cpe£tt>OM ApOaHHJOM, h y 
CTpy3H ce npine BamapH y (})e6pyapy h cenTCM6py, 
noMaBHTO 3a npoH3BOAe H3 cpeAtt>e Ap6aHHJe. y 
Crpy3H HMa 4120 CTaHOBHHKa, Meijy KOJHMa no KtmeBy 
h Poctkobckom npeBJialjyjy MaKeAOHCKH Oiobchh, a/iH 
HMa h 3HaTHa ap6aHaiiiKa MatbHHa." 

5. KpynieBO. 

„y ceBepo-3ana^H0M jieny 6HTOJbci<o-npHJiencKe 
KOT^HHe, Ha naAHHH y bhchhh on 1170 — 1200 m., CMe- 
uiTeHa je y n/iHTKOj japy3H KpyuieBCKe PeKe, noA 6pAOM 
rpyMeH>eM CKOpo 600 m. HaA paBHH kot^hhc Be/iHKa 
Bapoui KpyiueBO jeziHa oa HaJBHiunx BapouiH Ba/iKaH- 
CKor FIonyocTpBa. y^Hue cy nocrpojeHe no dpMHM 
CTpaHaivia 6piia h CBe cy crpMe h ycKe, BnjyraBe h 
Ka;i,npMHcaHe 6;iOKOBHMa h aobo;mio Heo6pai]eHHM nap- 
Ma^HMa or rpaHHTa. 3aTO cy MHcre, ajin je cao6pahaj 
y tbHMa OTOKaH. Kyhe cy BeviHKe, ca3H^aHe oa rpa- 
HHTa h noKpHBeHe (J)h;ihtckhm njionaMa, MaxoM Ha ABa 
cnpaTa, ca KaMeHHM ouauHMa, yroAHe h Aocra yKycHe 
h CBe ca 6a;iKOHHMa; HeKoje cy cnojba He 6am jienHM 
ujapawa H3Ma;iaHe. H Ha KyhaMa h Ha jbyAHMa ce bhah 
Aa cy HMyhHH. Ca^a je KpyuieBO norviaBHTO Bapoui 
ryp6euHJa." 

KpyiueBO je y 18 BeKy 6h;io MajiH midpnuK koj'h 
cy Kynn/iH ApoMyHH npOTepaHH H3 MycKonojba n Tpa- 
mocth. Ohh cy My Aa.nH AaHaiHH>H THn pyMyHCKor Ha- 
cejba. JlouHHJe cy ce OBAe Aoce;baBa;iH ApoMyHH H3 
Iljbace, MeuoBa, JlHHOTona h HnKOJinue, 3aTHM Cp6n H3 
okojihhx 06/iacTH, Hajnocne h Ap6aHacH. Mehy Cp6HMa ce 
pa3/iHKyjy ABe rpyne no roBopy h no oackv : Mnjaun 
H3 JU6pa h BpcjauH H3 okojihhc IlpHJiena, KnqeBa, 3a- 
thm H3 >Ke;ie3HHKa H Met)y Ap6aHacHMa HMa TocKa h 
,Zln6pa;iHJa. Flo BajraHAy 6h;io je y KpyineBy 1889 roA- 
15000 Ayuia, or kojhx BehHHy MHHe ApoMyHH. CaAa HMa 
y KpyineBy 7941 CTanoBHHK. 



.Xotobo cbh ApoMyHH cy 6h^h h/ih H^y y ryp6e- 
T^yK no cboj EBponw, y noc.ienu>e BpeMe h y Amc- 

pHKy, H M?XOM Cy TprOBUU H MexaHUHj'e. Y paHHJHM 

BpeMeHHMa 6h;io hx je MHoro y Beorpa^y, a.m cy ce 
npeTonH/iH y Cp6e, hcth je cny^aj ca ApOMynuMa kojh 
uny y ryp6eT.iyK y ByrapcKy. riopeA CBe pyviyHCKe 
nponaranje, BchHHa hx je ocia^a y rpnKoj napinjii, 
Koja HMa BehHHy y KpyuieBy; H.\ia n noc/iOBeibciiHX 
Apo.MyHa, kojh nponanajy cpncKOJ 11 6yrapcKOj nap- 
thjh. H KpyiueBCKH Oiobchh BehHHOM nay y rvp6e- 
T/iyK Kao nyntjepn, h to y Cp6Hj'y, ByrapcKy h Py.\iy- 
Hnjy. BchHHa npnnaaa 6yrapcKOJ naprnJH, Koja je noc;ie 
rpMKe Haijawa, a Mau>e cpncKOJ napTHJH (83 Kyhe ca 
340 Ayiua) Bpoj MaKeAOHCKHx GiOBeHa y KpyuieBy hc- 
npeKH,nHO h nar/io pacTe, TaKO za he KpyuieBO no 
BehHHH craHOBHHUJTBa H3ry6nTH THn uHHuapcKe sa- 
ponin, jep obh cbc Maibe npnpauiTajy, h pal)aH>eM h 
or aoce/baBajba. y KpyuieBy je 3hmh BHuie MyuiKor 
craHOBHHUJTBa ho /ieTH, jcp ce 3hmh mhoth, BpaTe ca 
neHa/i6e. CrapHJH, kojh cy nocTa/iH HMyhHH, ne luy 
BHuie y newa/i6y, Beh >KHBe on creMeHe roTOBHHe." 



McropHJcKHM CTapHiiava 3Ha\ieHHTe cy h o6a/ie 
OxpuiicKor h IlpecnaHCKor Je3epa. HaponnTo je HHTe- 
pecaHTHa CTpvia KpcubawKa o6a;ia H3Me^y HuBHue h 
.lo3HHKa, Koja je BHCOKa 20 no 30 Mdapa. y toj o6a/iH 
Mecre cy CTeHOBHTe CTpexe h/ih noTKonuHe, or kojhx 
cy MHore npeTBopeue y upKBHue h ckhtobc H3na.i 
thx CKHTOBa h upKBHua cy deHe pa3HOBpcne 6oje, a 
H3 h>hx cy MecTO H3pac/ie Knre or JipBeha h uBeha 
Koje cy ce Ha;me/ie uaji je3epo. CXiMax ncnoji thx 
KHTa apBeha h UBeha BH£e ce Ha KpembanKHM cto- 
naMa cnHKe CBCTau*, H3pahjeHe y >khbhm 6ojaMa, na- 

POMHTO UpBeHOJ H n/iaBOJ, 38THM KpCTOBH yOKBHpCHH 

KpyroBHMa, na cviHKe pa3nnx >KHBOTHtba, HapownTO je- 
^ena h cpua, oneT y upBenoj 6ojn. Oih i cTBapn 

BHiie na jy>KHOMe o;iceKy Ma-iora rpaaa, y komc je 
nehHHCKa upKBHua Cb. na&rca. 3hji upwne H crcne cy 
won cjiHKaMa, kojc cy yK>cHHx 6oja, a cg C l T eJW cy 



ZZV HOBA CPBHJA 

Ha H>HMa rpqKora THna. OpHaMeHTHKa hHJiHMa Ha ko- 
JHMa Xpncroc jiokh T. U,BHJHha je onoMHHDa^a Ha opHa- 
MeHTHKy HauiHx dapHX hH^HMa. Hcto T3KO Ha OAceny 
ManapHJn H3paijeHa je crcHKa Cb. Hmkojic 

HaJBehe pa3Ba;iHHe cy Ha ocrpBy An;iy, Koje je 
oko ABa KHJiOMeTpa jxyro h cacraBJbeHO je or BHiue 
MaBH^acTHx 6pe>KyjbaKa. CTapHHe Ha Awjry npervie/iHO 
h jacHO je onHcao npo(}). Ubhjhh (III, 739, 740): „Ha 
An;iy HMa MHoro pa3Ba;iHHa h #pyrnx dapHHa. Jy>KHH 
HaJBHuiH Bpx 30Be ce Ka/ie, h Ha iteMy ce BHAe Te- 

MeJbH H TparOBH 3H£OBa. Hcthx OCTaTaKa HMa h Ha 

ocTajiHM rjiaBHuaivia, napoHHTo Ha MpaMopy, i\ae ce 
jacHO pacno3Hajy TparoBH rpanHfca JXajhe H3ivie,na rsl 
je uejio odpBO 6hjio orpaljeHo 3h#om, jep HMa ocra- 
Tana or rpa^CKHX 3H#OBa h Ha o6ajiH h y TpecaBCKOJ 
npH6pe>KHOJ 30hh. Kao rz cy Ha C. 3. crpaHH 6H;ia 
BpaTa ocTpBCKor rpa^a, jep ce hcto h ca#a 30Be flopTa. 
Ce^auH ca An;ia Ka>Ky aa je or riopTe no FlepoBCKe 
Ky-ne Ha DiaiiHOMe flo;by boaho Ka;izipMHcaH nyT, 
nope^ n>era 6n;ia je CTpanopa Koja ce 30Be FlHpr, h 
jw>Ke ce H3 TpcKe H3Mei)y C. 3. pia An;iOBor h KpHHe. 
Oko 3H^OBa HMa no ^Hy je3epa no jny6HHe or, 4 m. 
TeMejb ojx 3rpa^a, h cejbaun ca Anjia Rpxte aa je oko 
rpa^a 6wjia Kacada (no^rpa^e). Flo CTpaHaMa An/ia HMa 
pa3Ba;iHHa or MHornx upKaBa h MaHacTHpa. Jlo6po cy 
onyBaHe h HMno3aHTHO H3r\ne2iajy pa3BajiHHe HaJBehe 
upKBe, o kojoj Ka>Ky rsl je 6n;ia npecnaHCKa MHTpo- 
nojinja; HbeHH 3haobh cy or TecaHor 6Hrpa, npouia- 
paHH pe^OBHMa yMeTHyTMx unrajba, H3HyTpa OKpeqeHH, 
h Ha fcHMa je oqyBaH >khbohhc; Behnx je AHMeH3nja 
ho h je^Ha upKBa oxdhrckot h npecnaHCKor Kpaja. 
B/iH3y H^e je ao6po oqyBaHH MaHacTHp Cb. Boropo- 
AHue, koj'h h caR eny>KH. Ochm Tora HMa TeMejba h 
3HAOBa or jeiiaHaecT nopyuieHHX MaHacTHpa h upKaBa 
kojh cy 6h;ih Ha An;iy h/ih npeKO nyTa Ha o6a;iaMa 
je3epa, HapoHHTO Ha hctohhoj ;' 3Hajy ce h CBeun ko- 
juMa cy MaHacTHpn 6h.ih nocBeheHH : Cb. Tbop^e, Cb. 
HHKO/ia h MapeHa cy Ha hctomhoj o6a;iH je3epa npeMa 
Cb. TepMany h npeMa cbctoj Cb. Ahh TopHMKOj ; Ha 
J, 3. CTpaHaMa Aujia cy: 12 anocTOJia, Cb. flHMHTpHJe, 



ATaHac urn. ; Ha jy>KHOJ crpaHH An;ia je Cb. Cnac. Ha 
nocvieTKy ce Ha ocrpBy bhjih o6pafyeH KpenHH KaMeH 
on flpvrHX nopyiueHHX rpa^cBHHa. 

Ochm CBeTe Tope hhthc Ha 5a;iKaHCKOM Flo/iyo- 
dpBy HeMaTo^HKO pa3Ba.THHa on upKaBa h MaHacTHpa. 
Ah/i je h y no6o>KHoj IlpecnH 6h/io CBeTO octpbo. y 
okojihhm ce^HMa HMa TpaAHUHJa ^a cy upKBe h ocra-ie 
rpaljcBMHe 3H/iaHe Ka# je OBAe 6H/ia „Kpa/bUJTHHa u . 

BehHHa rpatjeBHHa h HdHxobhx ocTaiaKa cy H3 
ao6a CaMyw^OBor MaKe^oncKor uapcTBa, nnja je upe- 
ctohhlu 6H^a oBzie (976 — 1018). Kao na .aouHHJe HHJe 
HHiHTa 3HaTHHJe 3Hzuho Ha AH.ny, a MOKua je h ony- 
CTeo. Ce^aun ca.MO 3Hajy na ra je 3ay3eo HeKH apHa- 
yTCKH 6er h aoBeo Ha ibera c/iOBeHCKe MH(})MHJe ; noc^e 
je 3eivvby h HdHX npenpo/iao jeiiHOM 6oraTOM 6hto^j- 
ckom TpKy, mhjhm noTOMUHMa Am h caaa npnnaiia. 
3a BpeMe Mora 6aBJbeH>a Ha An/iy craHOBa;ia je jeaHa 
Be/iHKa c^OBeHCKa Hncj^wjcKa 3a;ipyra on 67 M.iaHOBa, 
h to Ha C. 3. Kpajy ocipBa, y hcko/ihko Kyha. >KnBe 
noMaBHTO on pH6apcTBa, 3aTHM on BHHorpaAa, Boha, 
a cejy h HeiuTO Ma/io >KHTa. BcnHKe c/ioBencKe 3a- 
/ipyre naTpnapxa/iHor >KHBOTa KapaKTepHCTHHue cy 3a 
CKpoBHTe KpajeBe oko Ma^e flpecne h Ma/ior Jc3epa". 

w Hm t noy3£aHHx HcropHJcKHX h apxeo/iomKnx no- 
^aTaKa no Kojmvia ce 3na #a cy Ha Tpn ocrpBa llpecne: 
Ah iy, Tpaiiy h Ma/iOM rpa#y 6w^e npecromme crcoBeH- 
CKor ManeiiOHCKor uapcTBa on 976 — 1018 r. nocne 
XDHcra. y cpeiiibeM BeKy noMHibe ce ripecna Kao 
Bapouj, je/ina on npecroHHua uapa CaMyn/ia (1014 r.); 
no H3BciiiTaJHMa bh33mthjckhx nncaua Ta je npecro- 
Hnua 6n/ia na ocrpBy. Ocbojhbujh /Iapwcy. CaMyn/io 
Aaae npeneTH y flpecny momith Cb. AxH/iHJa, .lapHiu- 
Kor naipoHa; no upkbh Cb. Axn/inja (ca/ta je 30By „Mh- 
Tpono/inja") Ha3BaTO je obo ocrpBO ixonnnje An/i. Flo 
ZL\'K.i>aHHHOBoj xpohhuh y6njen je npe^ npecnancKOM 
upkbom no 3anoBccrn uapa JoBana Bia;iHC/iaBa (oko 
1015 r.) cpncKH JuBan B/iaanMwp. y ycraiiKy 10/2 r. 
nopyiun/iH cy rpa.i, uapeB ABop h on;baHKa.in xpaM 
Cb. AxH/iHja HeyaqKM h (J)paniiycKn BOJHHmi kojh 
< v f>u.nn y c/iyw6H BioaHTujcKoj. OHaj xpaM y nehnnn 



222 HOBA CPBHJA 



Ha Ma;ioM Tpa^y noanrao je 1369 r. „Tiecap" HoBaK 
3a B/iajie cpncKor Kpajba ByKauiHHa. — O cnwKaMa 
CBeTaua h CKHTCBHMa Ha K.nn(})OBHMa Majie flpecne 
Koje cmo noMHita^H, HeMa hctophjckhx noiiaTaKa, a 
HHcy hh HHaqe npoynaBaHe; a;iH je BepOBaTHO #a cy 
h OHe H3 OBora ,0,06a, " 

6) JXe6ap h H>eroBa OKOJimia, 

Bapoui jle6ap Ha;ia3H ce Ha no^HO^jy KpnH n^a^ 
hhhc Koja npe^CTaBJba jy>KHH orpaHaK n^aHHHe Kopa6a, 
Medo Ha KOMe je Bapoui H3iiHrHyTO je H3 penHHX ao- 
.iHHa h H3^o>KeHO cyHuy. flope/i, Tora, to je Medo ca 
cbhx dpaHa onKOJbeHo n^aHHHaivia, TaKO jia je ibHMa 
nomyHO 3aiuTuheHO o^ BeTpoBa. CBa OKcyiHa 6p^a cy 
6e3 ujyMe, h 36or Tora OHa H3 ^a^HHe 6/beuiTe cbo- 
jom 6eJiHHOM. flopea Tora Ha MHorHM BpxyHUHMa HMajy 
Ma;ie* upKBHue, noje non/ie^ jom BHiue npHB/iane. Ba- 
pouj ce Aemi Ha bhujh h hh>kh Aeo. Jeaan je Ha crp- 
MeHHTOM 6pn\\ a ^pyrH je Ha nojbaHH Koja je or no- 
jinne UpHor UpHMa yziajbeHa TpH neTBpTH caTa Kpo3 
cpeiiHHy BapoiuH npo^a3H japyra je^He penHue Koja 
.neTH CKopo cacBHM npecyiHH; ajiH cjeceHH TaKO Ha6yja 
Aa non^aBH 6/in>Ke kyhe. 

Kyhe cy jaKO noTpnaHe h 36HJeHe je^Ha no 
jipyre. Kyhe 6oraTHJHx Ap6aHaca cy BeJiHKe h cnojba 
;ieno H3paljeHe. Cp6H HHcy CMejiH Kyhe y/ienmaBaTH, 
h 36or Tora cy hm cno^a npocTe h HeyrvieaHe. Bh- 
Bajio je Cp6a kojh cy noKyuiaBajm na Kyhe cnojba 
y^enniajy, a;iH cy TaKe Kyhe OH^e *pe#OBHo Kypiuy- 
MHMa n3peineTaHe. HaJBa>KHHJe cy 3rpa^e OBe: Be^HKa 
uaiviHJa na cpeziHHH BapouiH, c bhcokhm, 6e;iHM MHHa- 
peTOM, ca OKpyrviacTHM h jihmom noKpHBeHHM Ky6e- 
THMa. y toj qa.MHJH Ap6anacH cy ,a.p>Ka;iH 36opoBe Kafl 
cy ce 6yHH/w npoTHB BJiacTH hjih Kajj cy cnpeMa^H 
HeiuTO npoTHB Cp6a. Flopeix OBe HMa jom neT cno- 
pe/uiHX uaMHJa. Bhchhom cBOj'e Ky;ie na^a y ohh h Ba- 
poujKH caT, kojh je ca3H£an or H^o6patieHa pernor 
o6^yTKa, a nope;* Tora join je h HeoKpeneH, TaKO aa 
y ujyn^HHaMa H3Mehy nojeAHHHX o6;iyTaKa BpaHe npaBC 



dAWAAHA MAKbAUHHJA 



rHe3^a. Ha jyro3ana,HHOM Kpajy BapoiUH na^a y omh 
Be/iHKa ABoenpaTHa KacapHa Koiy cy Ky/iyKOM noAH- 

MH Cp6n H3 XU'6pa H H3 OKOJ1HHC RiHaA BapOliJH, 

uor BpxoM ko]h ce 30Be Cb. HiiKo/ia, Ge/iH ce cpn- 
CKa npaBOcnaBHa upKBa, nopeA noje je h rpoG/be. Join 
naaajy y omh 6eroBCKe K>he y cpeAHHH BapoiUH, Koje 
cy c cno/ba HiuapaHe pa3HHM Goja.via, h npHB/iaqe Ha 
ce nawiby. CBe ocra/io ochm obhx 3rpaAa je chtho, 
He3HaTno h np^aBO. Ma/ie HeoKpcMCHe KyhHiie noKpH- 
BeHe hepaMHAOM, TecHe h BHJyraBe y.iHiie npeipnaHe 
CMeTwieM h t)y6peTOM, Aajy oboj 3a6aweHOJ BapoiUH 

npaBH HCTOMlbaMKH H3I7ie/l. 

ZUGap je ca ocra;inM CBeTOM Be3aH obhm nyTe- 
BHMa : npeivia jyro3anaAy HAe nyT 3a E.iGacaH, npeMa 
jyry 3a OxpHA h 5nT0/b, a npewa HCTOKy 3a Ck'orube. 
H3 Oxptua ce aobo3h 3eJTHH (HeGpann ra 3uBy , 
oio"), Mac/iHHKe h jy>Kno Bohe Oa OxpH^a ce ao- 
B03H pnGa, najBHiue yco/beHe jeryybe. Kao jeAaH oa 
3HaKOB3 KaKO je npocTO h npHMHTHBiio Ae6apcKO cra- 
HOBHHmTBO cny>KH to QJTO cy h Jlpn.M 11 PaAHKa nyHH 
pH6e, a/in hx .flcGpanH hc y.viejy /iobhth h 3aTo ao- 
6aB/bajy yco;bCHy pw6y H3 OxpHAa. H3 E>HTo/ba h 
CKonA^a Ao6nBajy TproBaHKH ecnan, a H3 Ta^HMHHKa 
hcko/ihko Bpcra cwpa, OBMiy nadpMy h ByHy. /Kuto 
ce aohoch H3 BHTo/ba h TocTHBapa. CBaKa K>ha rnvia 
CBOje BHuorpaAe, kgjh oa^hmho ycneBajy, h 3Gor Tora 
CBaKa K>ha HMa CBora BHua h paKuje. 

3aHaTH KOJHMa ce fli-GpanH 3aHHMajy cy obh: 

nyilJKapCKH, KyjyHMrljCKH, Tep3HJCKH, KOBaMKH, 3HA3p- 

ckh, onanMapcKH. MO/iepcKH, 3urpac})CKH, Ka3anyHJCKn, 
h;ipay;ijCKH h GojayujcKH. HyuiKapcKH 3anaT paA^' caMO 
ApGanacn. Kyjym.iMjCKH je najcaBpiueHnjn oa cbhx, a 
paAe ra HCK/by i iHBO CpGif. KoBa»m cy msxom UiiraHH. 
3nAapcKH 3aHaT je BCOMa pa:*Bnjen. Hcto TaKO Bp.io 
cy BeiuTH h 3orpa(})H, kojh yMejy c|)iiHO Ra pe>Ky 
aPbo, h Aa npaae y ibeMy (J)nne (f)ur\pe yiivipam- 
ibocTH CKopo cbhx 3naTHHJnx upnana 3anaAHe MaKe- 
AOHHje cy n3naAH.in neGapcKii 3orpa({)n. IbnxoBa ce 
BeiuTHiia MO>Ke bhacth h y CKOnCKHM upKHa.Ma. Hcto 
raKo cy MyBcmi AtGapcKH 3HAapn. Hounpa.iH cy no 



224 HOBA CPBHJA 



ue;iOM Ba^KaHCKOM FIojiyocTpBy. PanHJiH cy 3HaMe- 
HHTe rpafyeBHHe no uenoj CTapoj Cp6nJH h MaKeno- 
hhjh, 3aTHM no Cp6nJH, ByrapcKoj, Bochh h Xepue- 
tobhhh, flaHac Hny no ue/ioj EBponH. Ap6aHacH ce 
6aBe HeuiTO Tpr obhhom, ajiH caMO He3HaTHa MaibHHa, 
a ocraiaK je >KHBeo Ha paqyH paje. y BapouiH ce H3- 
pa^yje jieno 3eMJbaHO nocy^e h raj'TaH, kojh ce H3- 
B03H. H.Majy ABe nnjaue, h to jenHa 3a >khto a npyra 
3a HaMHpHwue. FIa3apHH naH je Henejba. XlpjKH ce caMO 
no no;iHe. Cejbaun Ha nHjauy no;ia3e y bc^hkhm rpy- 
naMa. Hero TaKO on.rca3e. flpaTe hx HajMJbeHH cejMeHH, 
ApHayTH, kojh Tpe6a na hx qyBajy on 3y^yMhapa. He- 
cto ce necn na th qyBapn Kan H3aljy H3 BapouiH on- 
jbaqKajy cejbaKe kojh cy hx HaJMHJiH. A qecTO cy ce 

TH CejMeHH y^py^KHBa^H C TypCKHM BOJHHUHMa na 3a- 

je/iHH4KH on^aqnajy cejbaKe kojh cy ce Bpaha^H c 
na3apa. 

y oko/ihhh ^e6apcKoj HMajy nBe cyMnopHe 6att>e. 
JenHa je BHine ce^a BaHHiuTa, jenaH can ynajbeHa on 
He6pa, a npyra je y no/iHHH pene PanHKe Kon ce;ia 
floHoO-KocoBpacTH. Kon ce/ia PaJMHue HMa MajnaH th- 
nca, on Kora npaBe ouaKe Ha Kyhaivia h orHoHiHTa. y 
oko^hhh ne6apcKoj ponn Bp;io no6ap nyfiaH, Kora HMa 
BHiue BpcTa. 

0«o;inHa ne6apcKa cBa je Hacen>eHa Cp6HMa. On 
thx Cp6a jenHH cy MycnnMaHH a npyrn cy npaBo- 
c^aBHH FIpBH ce 30By Top6euiH, 3aT0 ujto cy CBOjy 
Bepy 3a „jenHy npa3Hy Top6y npoMeHnnH". Top6eniH 
npencraBJbajy ct3hobhhujtbo Koje je nHTOMHj'e ho Ap- 
6aHacH. CBeTKyjy MHore xpnuihaHCKe npa3HHKe. Mho™ 
roBope h cpncKH h ap6aHaiuKH, a;iH 6o;be cpncKH 

y caMOj BapOHiH >KHBe Cp6n, Ap6aHacn h U,h- 
raHH. HMa h hcihto on CKopa nocejbeHnx U,HHuapa. 
BehHHa Ap6aHaca )KHBe;io je on jaTaKOBatt>a, Kpa^e h 
OTHMaH>a. HHaqe no ueo naH npoBone 6ecnoc/ieHH no 
Kac})aHaMa. yenen Hepana h pacnyuiTeHa >KHBoTa MHorH 
ceonajy npoTHBnpnponHOM h nepBep3H0M HaHHHy >kh- 
BOTa. HHane >KHBe y MOHoraMHJH. )KeHe hm ce Kpnjy, 
h MHoro cy Mopa/iHHJe ho MyiiiKapun. TaMHO npa3- 
Hyjy npa3HHKe h nocTe paMa3aH. ZloKne ron 6h h>h- 



3AflAflHA MAKEAOHHJA 

xob nocr Tpajao, Aoivie ne 6h CMeo hh je^aH Cp6HH 
Ha y^MHH nyiiJHTH, nmH BO£e h/ih jecTH. 

CpncKO cranoBUHiuTBO je BeoMa no6o>KHO. CBaKe 
HeaeJbe une y upKBy. flope^ Tora csaKa nopoziHua 
HMa y KyhH HapoqnTy co6y y kojoj ce Mo/ie Bory. To 
je HeKa BpcTa £OMahe Kane/ie. CBaKa nopozuma c/iaBH 
cboj „VoJ\eMAaH u , to jeer c/iaBy. 

CpncKO cTaHOBHHUJTBO £e6apcKe OKOJiHHe HMa 
CBe one o6nqaje Koje HMa h CTaHOBHHUJTBO iipyrnx 
cpncKHx oG.iacTH. CBaKe ro^HHe ce £p>Ke h Bpiue jxo- 
AO.iq, KO.ieae, ;ia3apHue, Ijyp^eBCKH ypanaK h 6o>KHhHH 
npaaHHUH. HHTepecaHTaH je oGHMaj OBora Kpaja &a ce 
CBaii6e h Benwajba Bpiue caMO Ha IleTpoB ziaH (29 jyHa). 
CBa.a6a ce CBaa6yje MHTaBHx iuecT AaHa; noMHibe #Ba 
AaHa npe FleTpoBa-jiHe, a CBpiuaBa ce Tpehn AaH no- 
cne tot npa3HHKa. M/iaztenun He CMejy y upKBy nhn 
oa rieTp )Ba ro HnKo./ba-AHe. Koa upKBe Ha HnKOJb- 
ixan nrpajy M/ia/ie ko/io. 

nopeu CBOic no6o>KHOCTH HapoA je mhoto h npa- 
3H0BepaH. Bcpyje y BaMnnpe, BH/ie, BeuiTnue, cchkc 
mnocyMe h zipyre nojaBe. LLJia cy BaMriHpn, BH/ie h 
BeiuTMue, no3HaTo je CBaKOM MHTaouy. CenKe cy nohHa 
npHBHhefba, h nocrajy MaxoM oa oriTHMhUx BapKH. Hh- 
TepecaHTH^ cy BcpoBaiba y TO/iocyM. Tc/i c>mh Ha- 
/inwe Ha CTapooiOBeHCKe h pHMCKe KyhHe 6oroBe. To- 
/iocyMH cy HCKa BpcTa ^yxoBa kojh HCKJbyMHBO caMO 
y KyhaMa npe6nBajy, h caaKa Kyha HMa CBora to/io- 
cyMa. Ohh ce Meljyco6HO pa3/iHKyjy y TOMe hjto cy 
hckh Ao6pn a hckh 3/ih. CBany Hecpehy Koja ce y 
toj Kyhn £ecH, EbHMa npunncyjy. Y bo3H c obhm Be- 
pOBaibHMa jaKO je paenpocrpro 6ajaibe h raiaibe. y 
CBaKOM noc^y HMa Gajaiba h raiatba, c KOJHMa cy ne- 

CTO HOMtHJaHe H MO/lHTBe. 

fleoapcKa Houjiba je OBa. MyujKapuH Hoce (})ec 
C mfaaHKuM, 3aTHM tiene (ryu.) h cnyiuTcny he/iaBKy, 
zio/iaMy, nnjac pa3HHM 6ojaMa nujapaH. Hcnoa AcnaMe 
Hoce „u l iMaAaH M , Gcmbh (MaKiiJnpt) h CBH/iene noTKO- 
JieilKe. /leTH ce ne Hoce MaKUjn; h HCnOA zm/iaMe 

HMajy liinpoKc rahe, h Taaa ce Ha noraMa HOCC ToaRyQH. 
HCenoce noce „3o6aH , i<j ', Koje je iuuhk Ha MyiuKy ,ao- 

ur,n\ CPW 



J26 HOBA CPbtfJA 



/iaMy, caMO je apyKMHJe HiuapaHO, uiHpoK h KpaiaK 
nojac c pecHuaivia ca crpaHe cnyruTeHHM, 6oBqy (Ke- 
uejby) oa ByHe h;ih oa naiwyKa. 3hmh Hoce uoKy Koja 
Ha/iH r iH Ha KanyT. Ha niaBH je luapeHa nana, a ncnoA 
H>e n jiapnHHa" oa n^aTHa, Koja je H3Be3eHa no crpa- 
HaMa. no neJiy h no BpaTy HCKHheHe cy HOBUHMa. 
Ha nojacy ce HaMecTH no hcko;ihko inapeHHX inaMnja, 
no Bpx koj'hx M^a^e yuene Hoce cpe6pHe na(})Te. Bep- 
hoct je koa cpncKHX >KeHa Heo6HHHa. HaK h koa ohhx 
Koje MyweBH ocraB/bajy no ABe u no TpH roAHHe. Ba- 
poujKe >KeHe paAe caMO AOMahe, a ceocKe h AOMahe 
h no^CKe nocaoBe. 

b) Ilope^, KH^eBO h Kona^. 

riopeq je 06/iacr oko cpeAtter TOKa peKe Be;iHKe, 
oa ce;ia BpoAa Ha jyry ao ccrca 3Ayn>a Ha ceBepy. To 
je n^aHHHCKa o6;iacT OHBimeHa bhcokhm 6H;iHMa, a yHy* 
Tpa HcnyH>eHa hhckom 3apaBHH Kojy cy jvuia^e, ^ydoKe 
peqHe AOJiHHe Hcei<;ie h pa36H/ie je y noBHJapue h 
Koce. Mehy pe^HHM AOJiHHaMa HaJBa>KHHJe cy ao/ihhc 
Be^iHKe, TojieMe h TpecKe; oa ibeHHX MHornx npnTOKa 
je HaJBeha Ma/ia PeKa, Ha kojoj je MecTO CaMOKOB. 
H3Mel)y Ma/ie PeKe h Tojieivie ah>kc ce noBHJapau 4>oj- 
hhk, ca bhchhom ao 1000 m., kojh pa3ABaja riopeq Ha 
ceBepHH h jy>KHH. Me^y ocrajiHM yHyTpamtbHM noBHJap- 
UHMa h Kocaivia HapoHHTO ceH3ABaja niOMa3HH Ko3;aK. 

Ha HCTOKy je IlopeH orpatjeH AyraMKHM h luh- 
POkhm 6pAHMa, a na 3ana#y n/iaHHHOM Me^OHUOM. Ha 
ceBepy h ceBepo3anaAy nperpaljeH je oa CKoncKe h Te- 
TOBCKe KOivjHHe orpaHuwvia KapmjaKa h CyBOM TopoM, 
Kpo3 Koje ce npodHJa TpecKa, KpaTKOM h KpuieBHTOM 
K^HcypOM koa ce;ia LUHiueBa. 

H3 OBano hbpcto orpah^Hor riopena BOAe ABa 
nnaBHa nyTa, oa kojhx je^aH HAe npeKO ce/ia BpoAa, 
3a KnneBO npH./ieii h 6HTo;t>CKy KOTviHHy, a Apyrn 
npeKO ce/ia 3Ayn>a 3a CKonjbe npBH je 6oji>h, actcom 
je npaBH ko/ickh nyT, a ApyrH je neniaHKH, CTpM h 
He3roAaH. 

KonaweM ce Ha3HBa ropibH h cpeAfoH c/ihb Cry- 



3AnA;iHA makeaohhja 121 



zene h/ih H6pOBe PeKe. Ta o6;iacT orpabeHa je ca cbhx 
crpaHa bhcokhm n/iannnaMa: BncrpoM, Ka/ieHAepnuoM, 

JaMOM H flpOCTpattjCKOM fl.iaHHHOM. K.THMa h n/io£- 

hoct cy OHaKBe nao y n.naHHHCKHM oCiacTHMa aoca- 
jiaimhe Cp6nje. y oboj Ao6po o6patjenoj pewfioj ao- 
;ihhh HMa 15 cpncKHX h jeAHO ap6aHaujKO ce/10. 

H3BopHH npeiieo To^eMe PeKe h/ih TpecKe 30Be 
ce y jeAHOM Ae/iy Top^e Khhcbo, a y iipyroM 3ajac. 
flpeiieo or BapoiuH KnweBa hh3 VoJiQMy no 6poACKe 
K/incype 30Be ce JloFbe Khhcbo. 

yc/ie;i Tora ilito je npoxo^aH y npaBuy ceBep- 
jyr, riopen npe^cTaB.'ba nocpeAHHHKy o6.iacT H3Met}y 6h- 
TO^>CKe h rKoncKe kot^hhc Kpo3 ibera ce MO>Ke yhH 
y 3ananny MaKCAOHnjy h Mory ce o6hHh BapjapcKe 
K/incype, Koje ce Aajy /iaKO 3aTBopHTH, h kojc cy y 
pamija BpeMeHa 6ujic yTBp^eHe. 3aTO ce h npBa cpn- 
CKa ocBajaiba y MaKeaoHHJH He npehy ao;ihhom Bap- 
Aapa, Beh cy nuj;ia Kpo3 FIopeM flpn/ieny. 

y obhm 06/iacTHMa >KHBe noMeiuaiiH Cp6H npa- 
BOCflatiHH, IloMauH, Cp6n Myc^HManH h Ap6anacH. 0;i 
cbhx obhx o6.iacTH CTnorpa(J)CKH je naJMHCTHJn riopeM. 
On iberoBnx 38 ce;ia caMO y ABa Ma.na ccaa HMa Ap- 
6anaca. CpncKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO y FIopeMy npnnaAa 
n/ieMeny BpcjauHMa, kojh npeAcraBJbajy HajcTapnje cra- 

HOBHHUJTBO OBHX 06/iaCTH. flopeA IbHX HMa H HdUTO 

BeoMa CTapnx AOce.i>cHni<a oj OaApa, Oxpnaa h cy- 

ihx o6aacTH. fIopem<H Bpcjaun cy uptfOMatbacTii. 

CMdjH h peTKo niaBH. Pacra cy ocpeAiber h Ma/ior. y 

OniHTC Cy CHTHHJHI KOCTHJy H rpa^C HO CTaHOBHHLUTBO 

Cpejfbe h HcroMHe MiKe.iOHHje; napo'iHTO HCMajy Kao 
ohh jaKe BH.iHue h jaoyqnue. Hoce oae/io oa Conor 
luaJKa, np.io peTKo oa upHor, 3aTHM no3naTe khmcbckc 
Kane. /Kene, TaKotye upnoMaibacre, totobo rapaBe, Bp.io 

Cy CHTMC H MCKHX, HO peTKO CaCBHM nHTOMHX upia 

.THua. noBC3yjy ce npno.M uapaftfOM h hoco w 3y6yii : 
pyKaBH na KOtuyjblMa H AOibH o6oa Komy/be H3Be- 
3enH cy upBcHUM rooMeTpHJCKHM cJ)iirypaMa. H ohc DC 
o6MOTaBajy noja :ko hc ohoahko Kao ce/banKe 

6HTo^CKora no;ba H ikene u A>yAn cy pp/10 hpcahh. 






nuoft v^rDHJA 



H ano je BehHHa IlopeMaHa y neqa;i6H, CBe cy ibHBe 
oko ce.na ypa^eHe, h no no;t>HMa ce BHAe Ha pa#y no- 
maBHTO }KeHe. 

Ce.ua cy no npaBW/iy Ma/ia. HaJBehe cejio je Jlo- 
KBHiia, y KOMe HMa 110 Kyha CaMO mecT ce;ia cy hhcj)- 
;iyun, a CBa cy ocra/ia cno6oRHd. Cejia cy pa36HJeHa 
Ha Maxajie, Koje ce Ha3HBajy no HMeHHMa noje^HHHx 
nopOAHua. MecTO ue/ie Maxajie npnnaAajy jeAHOJ no- 
POahuh. TaAa CBe Kyhe jeAHe Maxajie oiaBe HCTy cnaBy. 
CBaKoj TaKOJ Maxa;iH 3ajeAHH4Ke cy ncnauie h inyMe, 
a 3HpaTHa 3eMJba jeaHe TaKe Maxa^e je OABOj'eHa, y 
jenHoj rpynn, h HenoMemaHa ca 3eMJbOM Apyre Maxajie. 
H OBAe cy Aaoe Kyhe pa36HJeHe Ha Maxa^e, Kao ujto 
je to cjiy^aj Ha B/iacHHH, r^e 36HJeHe Maxajie ca BehHM 
6pojeM Kyha H3i7ie.najy H3 AajbHHe Kao 3ace6Ha ce/ia. 

CeocKe Kyhe cy MaxoM 6e#He, oa njioia, paca- 
hom cjiaMOM hjih kpobhhom noKpHBeHe, 6e3 ouaKa H 
npo3opa To cy Hajrope Kyhe. y HaJHOBHje BpeMe no- 
HHH>y ce jaBjbaTH 3HAaHe Kyhe, n^o^OM noKpuBeHe, 
Koje cy o6hhho Ha ABa cnpaia. JeAHoenpaTHa ce Kyha 
AChh Ha Kyhy h noHAHJiy. Ca BpaTa ce Hajnpe y.na3H 
y noHAHJiy, y kojoj je CTOKa. Kyha je oa noHAHJie oa- 
BojeHa HerAe 3haom, a HerAe caMO apbchom orpanoM 
hah n^eTepoM, kojh je o6hmho bhcokao 1 m., a HHKaA 
He Aonnpe ao TaBaHa. Y KyhH ropn BaTpa h craHyje 
ce, ap>kh ce CBe KyhHO nocytje, cyiHH >khto h ap>kh 
CBa xpaHa. Ty cy hhckc npocTopuje ca npope3HMa y 
3H/u)BHMa kojh ce KanKOM 3aTBapajy, upHe oa rapw, 
npenyHe nocy^a. Uoix hm je 3eMJbaH. y hckhm jeA- 
HocnpaTHHM KyhaMa HMa y3 OBaj Aeo j>AHa Oiiaja, ca- 
cbhm peTKO h abc PeTKO je y3 noHAH/iy Ma;iH oa- 
BojeH npocrop, kojh ce 30Be H36a, h y n>oj ce Apace 
Kaue h joui KaKBe ocTaBe. 

y ABoenpaTHMM KyhaMa Ha AOH>eM cnpaTy je noH- 
AH/ia, KauiTO h H36a, a yHyTpa y noHAH/iH cy crene- 
HHue Koje BOAe Ha roptbH cnpaT. Ty jbyAH craHyjy. y 
H>eMy je HerAe caMO w Kyha" ca jeAHOM OAajoM, y HMyh- 
hhjhx cejbaKa ca ABe OAaje, oa kojhx je jeAHa 3a ro- 
de. CKOpo HHKaA He Apace CTOKy y 3ace6HOJ srpaAH. 
HBopHuiTe HHj'e orpaheHo, h oko Kyhe peTKO HMa Ka- 



kbhx npyrnx 3rpa;ia. CaMO y hckhm ce/iHMa n-aeMtbe 
cy 36HjeHe y \eany rpyny h ;ip>Ke ce aa/be on ce.na. 

TophbH h ZloJbH Konan cy CKopo nomyHO cpn- 
CKa o6^acT. y JlotheM KwHeBy BehHHy HHHe Cp6H npa- 
BOC^aBHH, a.iH HMa m aocTa FIoMaKa, h jeaHO ap6a- 
HaiuKo ce.io. y TopHDeM KnneBy Ap6aHacH h FIoMauH 
HHHe CKopo npeKo no^oBHHe craHOBHHUJTBa, a 3ajac 
je CKopo caB noap6aHaiueH. >Khbothc npn.iHKey obhm 
o6^acTHMa cy chhmhc OHHMa y FIopeMy. 

OBe cy 06/iacTH 6n/ie Ha nyiy na 6yny noap6a- 
HameHe. Ap6aHacH cy CBe BHiiie npo^Hpa/in h CBe 
bhujc Hace^aBa/iH ce. Ohh cy ce Hajnpe jaBJba/in y 
qeiaMa Kao 3y;iyMhapH, n:baqKa/iH cy CTOKy, o;xboah/ih 
#euy h Jbyne h yue*bHBa/iH cy. Thm cy Hajnpe no- 
ctht/ih to jxa je paA h >khbot no ce/iHMa nocTao He- 
Moryh. Hajnpe ce HanyiuTa/io croMapcTBO no n^anH- 
naMa h o6pat)HBaFbe ohhx 3eMa/ba Koje cy aa/be on 
ce/ia. CTaHOBHHiiJTBy cy Ha Taj HaMHH OAy3eTH cbh 
ycnoBH 3a >khbot, h oho je Mopa-io hHh y nena/i6y. OBa 
ce;ia Mopa/ia cy HMaTH ap6aHaujKe HajaMHHKe h/ih Ae- 
pyaeHUHJe, kojh cy hx MyBa^H. Obh HajaMHHUH ce Haj- 
npe Hace/ie y ccny, h mccto no ujyiviaMa 3y/iyMhapH 
cy Ta^a y ce/iy. Ohh ^p>Ke Be3y ca cbojhm can/ieMe- 
HHUHMa y He6py, h ohh hx noMawy. HacTajy Tajia ot- 
MHue HMaiba, y6HJaiba, h cpncnor craHOBHHUJTBa no- 
creneHO HecTaje h Hce^>aBa ce. TaKo je y Konawy 
ce/io HpyroBO 6h/io CTpax 3a CBOjy OKO/iHHy. 

1/cjicn OBaKBHX npn^HKa CBe BpcTe paaa 6n;ie cy 
jaKO orpaHHMene, h rviaBHa 3apaAa nocra/ia je neMa;i6a. 
y newa;i6y nay cbh MyiHKapun on 13 no 60 roAHiia. 
Hnje 6h/io Kyhe Koja no HeKor on cbojhx w/iaHOBa 
HHje c/ia;ia y „ja6aHy u , a y kojoj Kyhn HMa bhuic 
MyujKHx, koa Kyhe ocTaHe je^an h/ih ABojnua. y ne- 
na/i6H ce 6aBe ayHfyep.iyKOM, CTpyrapcrBOM, mhoth cy 
x.ic6apH, Kacann, mieiravHJe h nw/napn. Hay naJBHUje 
y B.iaiHKy, 3aiHM y Cp6n)y h ByrapcKy 

y nena/i6y no/iase o6hmho y MapTy, a Bpahajy 
ce noueTKOM HOBeM6pa. HeKH ociajy no ziBe no Tpn 
roiuiHe, pe^e h BHiue ro^HHa. 

V caMOM HopeMy je rviaBwa npwBpwiia BohapcTBO 



230 HOBA CPBHJA 



Bohe je Bp;io Ao6po h HMa ra pa3HHX Bpcia. Oko 
1 cy Be;iHKe npodopHJe noKpHBeHe BohitauHMa. Haj- 
Bmue HMa ja6yKa h Kecrefba, 3aTHM KpyiuaKa, Tpe- 
iuapba, opaxa h ujjbHBa. Bohe npo^ajy nor/iaBHTO y 
ripujieny h CKon^by. 3eMJbopaAtt>a je cna6a h cra- 

HOBHHUITBO Ce CBOJHM >KHTOM He MO>Ke HCXpaHHTH. 

Toivie je maBHH y3poK iuto He Mory o6pat)HBaTH OHe 
H>HBe Koje cy y^ajbeHHJe on cejia. Cejy nor/iaBHTO Ky- 
Kypy3, pa>K, jenaM, npoco, ypoB h 6peHHuy, Bp/io pe- 
tko h nuieHHuy. BHHorpa^a HeMajy, a bhho ao6HBajy 
H3 CKonjba. 3HaTaH cy npnxo^ HMa^H on iuyivie. H3- 
B03e jpBeHy rpa^y h hyMyp, 3aTHM pa3He nojbonpH- 
Bpe^He a^aTKe. 

CTonapcTBO je 6uno CKOpo cacBHM HanyurreHO, 
jep cy 36or cnrypHOCTH Mopa^H HanycTHTH „6aqH/ia" 
y n/iaHHHH. CTOKy jipm.e oko Kyha. HnaK H3B03e He- 
ujto Mpca y flpH/ien, 3aTHM ypjy y TocTHBap, rjne je 
HapoHHTO Ap6aHacH Kynyjy. 



X. KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA. 
a) Kocobo h MeTOXHJa. 

Kocobo h MeTOXHJa c npH3peHCKHM KpajeM h 
riojipHMOM MHHe BejiHKy reorpac})CKy ue;iHHy 3a nojy 
cy Be3aHe mapCKe myne: CnpHHHh. Cpe^cna, OnoJbe 
h Topa, h jihmckc >Kyne : fbaB h TycHH^e. Ona je Po- 
ro3HOM HBpcTO orpatjeHa on CTape PauiKe hjih Hobo- 
na3apcKor CaHyana, y kojoj HeMa npocTpaHHX kocob- 
CKO-MeToxHJCKHx KOT^HHa, Beh HacTaje o6;iacT bhcokhx 
h KpiueBHTHx n^aHHHCKHX BeHaua. C jyra je orpa- 
\)eua UlapoM h Kapa^aroM, Koje cy npo6HJene Kaqa- 
hhmkom K/iHcypoM, Te cy Kocobo h MeTOXHJa y Be3H 
ca TophbHM noBap^apjeM h KOTviHHaMa CKoncKe Oape 
Cp6Hj'e, Koje cy cjimmhc n/iacTHKe, a^H .apyKHHJe kjihmc 
h BereiauHje. YivieTHyTH H3Mei)y paujKHx KpajeBa h 
Topiber FIoBap^apja, HBpcro orpa^eHH, h npHpo^no 
6oraTH, Kocobo h MeToxnja 6h;ih cy ueHTpajma o6/iacr 
cpncKe HeMaHbnhcKe /ipwaBe 3a speMe teene HaJBebe 



KOl.OBCKA ^TAPA LPHHJA 231 

cHare. y h>oj cy MHora Ba»<Ha Mecia h hctophjckh cno- 
MeHHUH H3 Haiue Be^HKe npouj.iocTH : FIpH3peH Hobo 
Bpno, 3BeqaH, flayHH, fleh, JXevauH, TpaqaHHua h 
BatbCKa. HeMa HHJeAHe apyre 06/iacrH y CpncrBy Koja 
6h ce no to/ihkom 6pojy cnoM.HHKa n no to/ihkhm 
HCTopujcKHM ycnoMeHaMa Mor/ia ycnope^HTH c Koco- 
bom h MeTOXHJOM. H 36or Tora cy c npaBOM naujH 
dapHJH nncuH OBy o6;iacT Ha3HBa/iH HaiuHM cbcthm 
KpajeBHMa h „Kpa^>HUOM h uapnuoM npaBOM Cp6njoM a 
(M. Mn;iojeBHh). 

KOCOBO C MeTOXHJOM H npH3pCHCKHM KpajeM WHHH 

Aeo OHe ueHTpa.iHe 06/iacrH Ba/inaHCKor ncnyocrpBa 
on Koje HMa HajKpahnx h HapoMHTHX npH.ia3a JanpaH- 
ckom h ErejcKOM Mopy, h H3 Koje ce Nio>Ke Haj/iaKine 
3aB/ia£aTH 3HaTHHM r^jiom FIo/iyocTpBa. On oco6mor 
je 3Hawaja OBa H>HX0Ba ocoOnna. HeMa bhcokhx, Te- 
ujko npoxojHHx n^aHHHCKHX Maca Koje 6h hx orpa- 
t^HBa/ie Oil Ap6aHHJe h on ^o^HHe Be/iHKor UpHMa. 
J\ok HHJe 6H.ia carpat)eHa MHTpoBawKO-CKoncKa >Ke;ie- 
3Hnua, TproBaHKH nyTCBH H3 KocoBa h MeTOxnje huj/ih 
cy noMaBHTo npeMa CKa^py, aaTHM npeMa Jbeiny h 
Zlpaqy. TproBaMKH npoMeT je 6ho naJBHiue Ha Ty crpaHy 
ynyheH. JaapaHCKa o6a;ia oko CKa^pa 6n;ia je weoHa 
h HCTOpHJcna o6a/ia OBe 06/iacrH; npe;icTaB:ba/ia je 
HaeHO npHMopje. Ta otbopchoct HHe3anjTHheHOCT npeMa 
Ap6aHHJH jeaan je on pa3.iora ujto cy OBjie Ap6aHacn 
Aa^>e Ha hctok npoap/in, h to fla/be ho nnae nyw ny- 
raMKHX rpaHHua H3Mel]y Cp6a h ApCaHaca Ann on 
ce^aMAeceTHx ro;uiHa npom/ior BeKa, on KaKo je ca- 
rpaijeHa MHTpoBaMKa >Ke^e3H.ua, a HapowHTO jzounnje 
Kan je ^OBpiueHa ;iHHHja CKon/be — Co/iyn, totobo je 
cacBHM Hecra/io TproBaMKHx Be3a ca CKajpoM, h Tpro- 
BaMKH npoMeT KocoBa h Mctoxhjc ynyheH je norvia- 
bhto npeMa Co/iyHy. 

KocoBCKa CTapa Cp6nja OABOjena je on CKoncKe 
CTape Cp6nje n/iaiiHHCKOM npewaroM LiJape h Kapa- 
Aara, Koje cy npocewcHe .ayrawKOM h tcchom k\m;imm- 
kom K.iHcypOM. Ta n/iannncKa npeqara npeAcraB/ba 
BeoMa otiJTpy npnpoAHy rpannny. Ha jyry on ifee, Kao 
ujto cmo BHjie^H, npeoB;ial)yjy oco6hhc MeAHTepaHCKe 



22)2 HOBA CPBHJA 

k^hmc Ha ceBepy on KaqaHHHKe fOiHcype He ocehajy 
ce hh cj\a6n HdChh yTHiiajn. Kocobo, MeToxnja h jpyre 
KcnviHHe Ha ceBepy on KanaHHKa HMajy cpe;ufce-eBpon- 
CKy KJiHMy. JleTH HeMa OHaKHX acera Kao y Ckofickoj 
CTapoj CpdHJH. He6o je neiuhe Hao6;iaqeHo, KHine cy 
qeuihe; aTM0C(J)epCKH Ta;io3H cy npaBHJiHHJe pacno- 
petjeHH Ha CBa roflHiniba BpeMeHa. iipeKO 3HMe naaajy 
bctchkh CHeroBH, 3dor Tora HMa BHuie pe^Hua, Koje hh 
jicth He npecymyjy. Per<e hhjh je cjihb kojihko ohhx 
Ha jyry on KanaHHHKe Knncype HMajy MHoro BHiue 
BO^e. HMa MHoro BHine pena Koje ce Mory CMaTpaTH 
aa cy EoraTe boaom h qnje cy AOJiHHe h JieTH B.na>KHe 
h noKpHBeHe 6yJHHM 3e;ieHH;ioM. 36or Tora CBera y 
CKoncKoj CTapoj Cp6nJH HeMa ;ieTH OHe cnpjbeHOCTH 
h cnapyiueHOCTH, hhth 3eMjbHiuTe HMa OHy >KyhKacry 
h upBeHy 6ojy Kao idto ce bhah jy>KHO on KaMaHHHKe 
KjiHcype. y Kocobckoj CTapoj Cp6HJH npeuBJiatjyje 
o6pac;io 3e^eHO 3eMJbHinTe : bctchkh inyMCKH KOMn/ieKCH 
xpacTOBe h 6yKOBe rope, 6yJHe name h JiHBa^e. Jy>K- 
hhx Ky^TypHHx 6HJbaKa HeMa HHKaKO, a peTKH cy h bh- 
HorpaAH. MecTO ft>HX ce jaBJbajy npocTpaHa nojba ca 

>KHTHMa, HapOMHTO nUJeHHUOM H KyKypy30M, 3aTHM 

uiJbHBauH, kojh noHHH>y o#Max oko KaqaHHKa h npeMa 
ceBepy CBe ce BHuie npocTHpy. Hajjann BeTpOBH cy: 
KoiuaBa, Koja ayBa „on cyHiia", to jecT on, HCTOKa, a 
on Cp6Hj'e ziyBa ceBep. y jeceH no KocoBy h MeTO- 
xhjh H3jyTpa ce enemy rycTe Marvie Koje ce CBe BHuie 
pa3petjyjy ihto ce cyHue BHuie neft>e. H3a Marvie Ha- 
CTajy Haj/ienniH ;uhh. TaKa MarjiOBHTa jyipa Heo6HMHO 
cy xjianHa, a Ha no/me )Kera je HecHOCHa. CHer noHHH>e 
na^arn o MnTpoBy nue. CBane ro^HHe He na.ua je^i- 
HaKo; aKO na^He bcjihkh, onpxm ce no Meceu flaHa. 
Knuja naaa HaJBHine y jeceH. 

6). Kocobo riojbe. 

Kocobo je npocTpaHa KOT;iHHa npaBua ceBep-jyr 
Zlyra je 84 km., a mnpoKa 14 km. {on npHiuTHHe no 
ZIpeHHue). flpoTHBHo ocTa^HM KOTJiHHaMa HoBe Cp6nje, 
Aho KocoBa npeflcraBjba pa3Bol)e H3Mel}y npHTOKa Erej* 



KOCOBLKA CTAPA CPBHJA 233 

CKor h UpHor Mopa. To ce pa3B0^e Ha/ia3H y jy>KHOM 
Ae.ny KocoBa flo/ba koa ce/ia HepoAHM^a. Oho je Bp;io 
hhcko h npeAdaB/ba M/iaAO pa3B0^e Koje ce pa3Bn;io 
Ha AHy Her/iaujiber kocobckot je3epa. HncKa Koca koa 
KyKe, cacraB/beHa oa jc3epcKor necKa h uj/byHKa, pa- 
craB/ba c/ihb HepoiiHMKe, Koja tqhq npeMa jyry y /le- 
neHau, hwhb Chthhuc, Koja, noMHibyhn H3 6ape Ca3- 
/iHJe, npHMa UpHO/beBy, UpeHHuy h Jbyuiry c zieBe h 
MHore npHTone c AecHe CTpaHe, Kao Ta^HMKy, JaibCBKy, 
TpaManKy, npHuiTeBKy, Jla6 h CaMOApe>Ky. H3.ia3chH 
H3na£ HepoA'iM/ba, HepoAHMKa ce panBa Ha hbhuh 
KocoBa h je^aH Aeo ce OABaja h Tewe npoceKOM Kpo3 
6pAO BaTy npeMa ceBepy y CnTHHuy. Ha npBH nonieA 
Mor/io 6h ce pehw na OBjxe HMaMO peTKy nojaBy jia ce 
je/iHa peKa pawBa h y^HBa y ABa pa3.iHHHTa peHHa 
c/iHBa. Ann Ta nojaBa HHJe nocra.ia npwpoAHHM nyTeM, 
jep je yTBpt)eHO Aa je OHaj npoceK BeiuTawKa TBope- 
BHHa, a CTBopeH je Aa ce ;iaKUie BOAa HaBpHe y jeany 
BOjieHHuy. T^aBHa Maca HepoAHMKe Te4e Kpo3 Jy>KHO 
Kocobo h yTHne y /IeneHau koa KawaHHKa. 

CHTHHua yTHMe y Hoap HcnoA MmpoBnue. OBaj, 
TenyhH H3 n^aHHHCKe o6/iacTH oa Crapor Ko-naujHHa 
y npaBuy 3anaA-ncTOK, AOAnpyje ceBcpHy TaMKy KocoBa, 
h OAJeAHOM caBHJa npeMa ceBepy h yceua ce y Bwuje 
n^aHMHCKe o6.iacTH. 

FIojenHHH ac/iobh npocrpaHe kot/ihhc HMajv pa3- 
/iHMHa HMena. HajniHpH Aeo, oa <t>epH30BHha h Hepo- 
AHM/ba na ao ByMHTpna, npeACTaBJba npaBO Kocobo, h 
y H>eMy cy r/iaBne kocobckc BaprvujH h Mecra : IlpH- 

UJTHHa, ByMHTpH, OcpH30BHtl H JIlUUMH. Jy>KHH y3anH 

Aeo KocoBa, noMaBHTO AO/iHua Jlenenua, 30bc ce 06HLU, 
a 6pe>Ky^KacTH aco H3ftiel)y HepoAHMKe h Cmthhuc ao 
noA n/ianHnv /KeroBau 30Be ce /Iytobh; jcaaH Aeo ziyroBa 
jy>KHO o;i <4vpn30BHha 30Be ce nayH-flo/bc; y Hajjyw- 
HHJeM Ae/iy 06Hiie je KaqaHHK, kojh HMa c/ia6e BC3e 
ca Kocobom h npeAcraB/ba Bapoiu na H3.na3y H3 Kana- 
hhmkc K.iHcype. Kao jy>KHH, hcto ce TaKO cy3H h ce- 
Bepnn Aco KocoBa h npefje y ByMHTpHCKO-MHTpoBHMKH 
pyKaBau, y komc je na Chthhuh no3Haio HcropHJcKn 
Mecro flaHTHHa. 



234 



HOBA CPBHJA 



Cnopo Ha cpe^OKpahH H3Me^y IlpHiiiTHHe h By- 
MHTpHa y/iHBa ce y CHTHHuy Jlad, kojh AOJia3n H3 
JlancKe >Kyne h;ih Ma;ior KocoBa. HiiyhH H3 Ma;ior 
KocoBa, oh y Bctchko Kocobo H36nja JlancKOM K;ih- 
cypoM h;ih TeHeuj^o^CKHM KaamieM. Onjie r^e Ta k;ih- 
cypa H36Hj'a y Kocobo Uojbe H3BpmeH je jenaH o,n; 
HajBehHx cbctckhx aoraljaja, 6ho ce kocobcku 6oj. Tok 
Tora 6oja npeMa ca^aiHtbeM no3HaBaH>y CTBapH, 6ho 
je OBaj. TypuH cy aolljjih oa HoBor Bp.ua, noaejbeHH 




pia KocoBa riojba h KocoBC«e6nTKel389 r. npeAdaBACH no.iowaj cpi- 
ck« h TypcKe BojcKe c o6e dpaHe Chthhuc. 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CrbHJA 2'6b 

y flBa oApeAa, oa kojhx je aecHH KpcHyo HcnoA 6pna 
Ko3HHue, a ApyrH Ha BejbeTHH h na TpanaHHuy. Ckoh- 
ueHTpnca/iH cy ce y FIphuithhh. Cp6n cy aouj;ih c 
Ma.ior KocoBa ao/ihhom Jla6a. FIpeMa HcnHTHBaibHMa 
Job. MniiJKOBHha, y kocobckom 6ojy pa3/iHKOBa/ia cy 
ce OBa qeTHpH crania. 

Cp6H cy ce nocrpoJH/iH Ha TepacH c AecHe dpaHe 
/Ia6a. y cpe^HHH je buna BOJCKa kojom je KOMaHAO- 
Bao Jyr Bor\naH, Ha /ieBOM KpH/iy je 6ho B.iaTKO By- 
KOBHh, a Ha aecHOM A- BohxhobhH. y no3aaHHH 3a 
;ief)HMa Jyr Bor^aHa 6ho je KHe3 JIa3ap, a H3a H>era 
non TpjeMOM y pe3epBH ByK BpaHKOBHh. TypuH cy 
6h;ih nocTpojeHH c .neBe cipaHe Jla6a. y cpeAHHH cy 
6h/ih JaHHMapH, Ha aecHOM KpH/iy Baja3HT, Ha ;ieBOM 
JaKy6, cy^TaH MypaT c rapnoM H3a JaHHwapa, a pe- 
3epBa noA 6pAOM Ma3rHTOM. LUaTop MypaTOB je 6ho 
Ha zieBOJ o6a/iH r/iaAHe BoAe noA Ma3rHTOM. FIpBO 
craH^e 6oja je H3r/ieAaA0 OBaKO. JIcbo TypcKO KpH/io 
npe/ia3H Jla6. Cp6n hx AOMeKyjy. OropneHa 6HTKa Ha 
.thhhjh ByKa-flpyroBau. JXpyro cTa^e: Cp6w cy36HJajy 
;ieBO TypcKO KpH/io, 6auajy ra Ha ueHTap h pe3epBy. 
MypaT thhc Me^y TypuHMa noMeTenocT. Baja3HT c 
pe3epBOM Koja je 6HAa koa Ta3H MecraHa H3 no;ba 
Hana^a Cp6e y 6ok. Oko ra3rf MecTaHa oropMeHa 
6op6a. Ty HMa Mnoro rpo6oBa. Jl33ap Kpehe pe3epBy. 
CpncKO zieBO KpH.no HeaKTHBHO. TypuH 3ao6H/ia3e cpn- 
cko Aecno KpH/io. MeTBpTo craibe: Pa36HjeH0 cpncKO 
AecHO KpHAO 6nBa 6aMeH0 Ha ueHTap h pe3epRy, na- 
craje 36pKa, y kojoj TypuH onKO/baBajy Cp6e. FIoB/iaHH 
ce B/iaTKO ByKOBwh h ByK BpaHKOBHh, kojh cy ce no- 
Ka3a;iH HaJBHiue neaKTHBHH. Ocra/iH Cp6H, onKo;beHH, 
cbh rHHy (Flo pacnpaBH Job. MHiuKOBHha, KocoBCKa 
6wTKa BeorpaA, 1890). 

C Kocobom cy Be3aHe h Ha bbera ckohomckh yny- 
hene cycejHe kot.ihhc h npocTpane peine Ao/inne. 
TaKBH cy, noMeBiUH c Jyra, CnpunHh, 3aTMM Toptba 
M »paBa ca BipouuH PibH/iaHOM h Jloiba MopaBa HAH 
H3MopHHK; c Kocobom je y Be3H h npocrpaHa hobo6pa- 
CKa o6/iacr c MHoro6poJHHM TparoBHMa crapora py- 
AapcTBa. Oko npaBor lUHpuKor KocoBa cy na jana^y 



236 HOBA CPBHJA 



UpeHHua c JlanyuiHHKOM, a Ha ceBepo-HCTOKy npo- 
dpaHa JiancKa KoiviHHa hjih Jla6, y kojoj je niaBHO 
MecTO noayjeBo; y ropH>eM Reny Jla6a je acyna Be- 
^acHua, Koja ce y cnoMeHHuaivia 3Ba;ia nBpx;ia6; kor 
Hac, h aKo 6e3 pa3/iora, 3a Jla6 ce OAOMahnno wvie Ma/io 
Kocobo. Ha noaieTKy Bpe;m noMeHyTH h >Kyny OapH 
Ko;iaiiiHH, o6;iacT npeTe>KHO cpncKor craHOBHHuiTBa, 
Koja ce npyaca OAMax H3HaA MnTpoBHue na ro H3- 
Bopa H6pa. 

KocoBCKa 3eMJba no KpajeBHMa je BHine upBeH- 
Kacra, a no cpenHHH nenejbacTa, a oko ce/ia JlnBa^e, 
Kofcyxe, ra3H-MecTaHa h ro 6;iH3y rVio6o.a;epHHn.e je 
upHHixa. 3eMJba je ponHa h MecrnMHue 6o;be po^n Ha 
cyujH Hero Ha khiuh. HaJBHine ce ceje nineHHua, jenaM 
h KyKypy3; pa>KH ce ceje HaJMan>e. KyKypy3a HMa BHine 
Bpda, nao ujto cy ,,6p3aK M , „Jie6;ie6HJa" h „kojiom- 
6oh BejiHKH". 3a nmeHHuy h je^aM 3eMJby opy ruiyroM, 
h to ABa nyTa : jicth yrape, a y jeceH H3opy pa/ioM 
h nocejy; 3a KyKypy3 3eMJby yrape y anpnny, a cejy 
oko Cb. HHKO^e npojieTH>er. flopezi Tora caae KpoM- 
nHp, cejy kpomha (^yn) m jbyTHKy (nanpHKy). Jlp>Ke 
flocra h CTOKe, HapoHHTO OBaija, 3aTHM KOHba h K03a. 
Pipe 30—40 roAHHa HMa^H cy kocobckh ceJbauH h 
CBOje n^aHHHe, Ha Koje cy ;ieTH h croKy H3roHH/iH, a;iH 
y noc/ieafee BpeMe 36or apHayTCKor 3y;iyMa He Kpehy 
je HHrAe H3 ce^a. Hir^e^a Ra Kocobo Moace nocraTH 
jeiiaH or Haj6o/t>HX BohapCKHX Kpajesa. Ha HbeMy ycneBa 
CBaKOBpcHO Bohe, Kao Ha np. mjbHBe, ja6yKe h KpynjKe; 
HMa no KpajeBHMa h rpoactja, a/w He ca3peBa Haj6oJbe. 
BehH aeo 3eMjbe canHhbaBajy HHTJiyun. Hn(J)qHJe cy h 
Cp6n h Ap6aHacH, caMO Ap6aHacH peTKO n^ahajy arHH 
RoxoRaK. Cp6n n.nahajy o6hmho arn neTBpTHHy, a np- 
>KaBH ^eceTHHy. I~Iope;i Tora Cp6n cy Mopa^H n/iahaTH 
h je^aH npocBeTHH RauaK, kojh je or npnjiHKe h3ho~ 
cho qeTpneceTH neo or CBera ceocKor npnxo^a. Or 
Tora AaHKa cy H3Ap>KaBaHe Myc/iOMaHCKe uiKOJie, Ko- 
cobo je npaBa arpHKyjuypHa o6/iacr, jep oho aaje to- 

flHKO >KHTa Ra MO>Ke HCXpaHHTH H CBOJe CTaHOBHHUJTBO 

h Ra npeodaje 3a H3B03. Or ue^OKynHe kocobckc 



K0C0BCKA cTAPA CfbWJA 257 



nuieHHue caMo jeana MeTBpTHHa noTpoinn ce Ha Ko- 
coBy h oko^hhh, a tph MeTBpTHHe H3Be3y ce 3a Co/iyH. 

Ce/ia KOCOBCKa 3ay3HMajy Maxo.M Be/iHKe npocro- 
pnje, jcp cBe Kyhe, HapoMHTO cpncKe HMajy Be/iHKe 
npodpaHe aB-nnje, Koje 30By „o6op". Bp/io Mecro TaKBa 
ce/ia no oniuieM pacnopeay nyha c.iHMHa cy luyMa^HJ- 
ckhm ce/iHMa a kocobckh o6opH oaroBapajy npocrpa- 
hhm inyMajiHJCKHM OKyhHHuaMa. y cbskom o6opy HMa 
no BHine 3rpana; or h>hx je HaJBa>KHHJa Kvha h Tpe- 
mobh, y KOJHMa CTanyje nejhajx, a 3aTHM Ao/ia3C ocra/ie 
3rpa>ae 3a CTOKy h 3a ocraBy. 

BehHHa thx 3rpazia cy rpa^eHe or n^eTepa, 06/ien- 
jbene cy 6/iaTOM, a noKpnBCHe c/iaMOM h/ih hepaMMaoM. 
HajBa>KMHja h HajnpocTpaiiHJa 3rpana 30Be ce cpncKH 
„Kyha u , a ap6aHaniKH „iunHJa u ; y H>oj je onbuimeH ouaK 
npn 3n,ay, kojh je n3Be,aeH y ^HM^aK. y Kyhn ce Mecn, 
KyBa h £p>Ke cy/iOBH h xpaHa. y KyhH ce He cnaBa. Jbynw 
cnaBajy y „TpeMOBHMa". CBaKa Kyha HMa OHO/iHKOTpe- 
MOBa ko/ihko HMa y n>oj 6paMHHX napoBa. ApHayTH 
TpeM 30By n hn^ep M . y TpeMy He ropn BaTpa, y H>eMy 
je pa36oj, KpeBeT, caHnyun c orqjiom, ByHOM h ko- 
Honn^oM. HMa rbq Bpcre KpoBeTa. Jcahh cy Ha seiMbH, 
cadaB^eHH or MeTHpn iiacKe Koje cy HcnyibeHe caaMOM, 
h 30By ce w nocTe^>a a . Hpyrn cy y3AHrHyTH or 3eM^>e, 
h 30By ce n Tpoii>aK u . CBaKa xceHa iipnai cBOje crBapn 
y cbom TpcMy. CBaKa or h»hx ,ao6Hje cBy ByHy h ko- 
non/by KO|a npnnazia ibeHoj (J)aMH/iH|H, h ca\ia je o6pa- 
hyjo. y hckhm KyhaMa HMa napowHTa 3rpaAa, Kojy 
Cp6n 30By w co6a u , a Ap6aHacn „o/iaja u . y co6h je 
ouaK y KOMe ropn BaTpa, a oko ibera je khmohh „mhh- 
£ep\ na KOMe cnaBajy tocth h npHjaie/bn. IlopeA obhx 
cy jouj OBe 3rpaAe : „6a i RBHna u h/ih ^a/innK". y kojoj 
ce ^P>kh cnp h m.icko, 3aTHM w aM6ap M 3a >khto, „ap" 
3a bo/iobc, B TopHLUTe u h „nojaTa" 3a OBixe. ApuayrcKe 
Kyhe oko Jlan.i.tr Ce/ia h TpaMaHnue HMajy cKopo 
hcth pacnopc/i y Kyhn h ABopnoiTy Kao h cpncKe, 
caMO MCCTO npHJCMHe Kyhe HMajy MaxoM Ky.ie H nap- 
^aKe. Kv/ie cy iiBOcnpaine, TBpjo 3H,iana 3/iaiba ca 
Ma/iHM .ipo3opHMa h MHoro6pojnHM nyoiKapHHuaMa, 



23b HOBA CPbHjA 



HapAaun ce pa3;iHKyjy oa Ky:ia y TOMe ujto Ha rop- 
HoeM cnpaTy HMajy npocTpaHe AOKeaTe. 

PacnHTyjyhH ce o )KHBOTy Ap6aHaca h ApHay- 
Tauiay okojihhh npHLUTHHe, TpanaHHueH Jlanjber Ce^a, 
nncau je A03Hao Aa ce ohh y AOMaheM >KHBOTy. y Ka- 
paKTepy h o6H i iaJHMa, 3HaTHO pa3JiHKyjy oa Cp6a npa- 
BOGrcaBHHx. CKopo cbh Ap6aHacn tux KpajeBa Ap>Ke no 
Tpn ao neT meHa, npeMa TOMe kojihko je ko 6oraT. 
CBaKa )KeHa HMa CBOJy co6y h/ih „hH;iep\ CBaKa paAH 
3a CBOJy Aeuy, a CBe 3ajeAHHHKH 3a AOMahHHa CBaKa 
oa HdHx tokh Aa 3a My>Ka HaMHHH ujto Jieniuy xajbHHy. 
My>K }khbh ca CBaKOM Ha H3MeHHue no HeAeJby AaHa. 
ApHayTKe Hoce AHMHJe, 6oje hoktc m Kocy. hfoHxoBO 
3aHH\iaHDe ce cacTojn y OBOMe: iuHJy, Bp;io MHoro Be3y 
h;ih „iuapajy", Kao ujto Kaa<y kocobckc CpnKHtbe, yMejy 
BeoMa ;ieno Aa TKajy, h to hn/iHMe h cyKHO. M/iat)a 
yuena crapHJy 30Be „jeHt)a", a CTapnja MJiai^y „Hyca". 
HecTO Mory Aa 6yAy h jbydoMopHe jeAHa Ha Apyry, . 
HapOMHTO aKO My>K y OAcny h;ih y qeiviy ApyroM 
OABaja jeAHy oa Apyre. MecTO ce AemaBa Aa ce h no- 
CBaAe, h y TaKBHM cjiyiajeBHMa My>K hx noMHpH 6a- 
THHaMa. 

Cp6H cejbauH H3 TpaqaHHue h H3 JIanjber Ce;ia cy 
mh tbpah;ih Aa ce Ap6aHacH y >KHBOTy h o6HHaJHMa 
Bp/io MHoro pa3/iHKyjy oa Cp6a npaBOcnaBHHX. Ochm 
MHoroM<eHCTBa h ohhx nojaBa Koje cy y Be3H c TaKHM 

nopOAHHHHM >KHBOTOM, HCTaKJIH Cy MH HeKOJlHKO pa3- 

^HKa, oa kojhx cy HaJBa»<HHje obc KaA yMpe jeAaH 
6paT, Apyrn 6paT MO}Ke Aa y3Me tberoBy yAOBHuy. KaA 
ce »eHe 3a AeBOJKy, Aajy feeHOM ouy MHoro HOBaua. 
CaMOM npoBOAauHJH Aajy ao neT TypcKHX Jinpa. CBaA- 
6eHH cy hm o6imaJH jeAHOcraBHH. y HdHx hc HAe M^a- 
AOHceHDa y CBaTOBe Kao koa kocobckhx Cp6a. y h>hx 
HeMa hh KyMaHH „crapejKa u . Hcto TaKO „Ha CBaA^y HeMa 

HH TOM HH CBHpKa". MtfM M/iaAy „AOHecy M M^aAO>KeHoH, 
cbh CBaTOBH HAy Kyhu. y „npBHH a AO^a3H M^aAHH 
OTau ca Tpn HOBeKa h OABeAy je Kyhn. I~Ioc;ie MOMne 
HAe y Ta36nHy ca hcko^hko JbyAH, h noHece CBaKo] 
>KeHCKOj Ha Aap no jeAHy ujaMHJy. HeMajy npa^HHKa 
ochm BajpaMa h neTKa, na h h>hx CBeTKyjy caMO ao 






KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 239 

n n/ia;iHe u (noane). 36or Tora hm ce Cp6n no;xcMeBajy: 
n BajpaMHiiiTe ro n/iaaHHUJTe, oa n/iaanHiuTe Ha 6yfbH- 
ujTe". Bp.io bc/ihkh ^eo ApGaHaca cy mhbmhjc h >KHBe Ha 
3eM/baMa c kojhx cy OTepa/in Cp6e. CKopo cy cbh 
HMa^H Te 3eM;be Kao CBOje, na cy hx npoaajiH h no- 
nw^H. HouHHJe cy Ha hcthm ibHBaiwa nocra/iH qHBMHj'e 
npHiHTHHCKHx ara h 6eroBa, c kojhx cy hm Bp;io c/ia6 
AOXO^aK AaBa^H. 

H3 OBora ce bh;j.h jxa y >KHBOTy kocobckhx Ap- 
6aHaca HMa Bp/io mhoto TypcKora h onuner Myc/io- 
MaHCKor. V\3rj\ena &a cy mhoto ;ipyKMHJH /ipeHHMKH Ap- 
HayiatiJH. Hajnpe.y ibHXOBy >KHBOTy HMa mhoto xpniu- 
haHCKHX h cpncKHX o6HMaja. MiMeJjy thx heMO ncraK- 
HyTH obc CBana apHayicna Kyha y UpcHHixn HMa ry- 
cne, h CKopo cbh 3Hajy ry^HTH y3 ryc/ie h cBHpaTH y 
raJAe. Hpyro, c/iaBe Ba;ubH-;iaH, npaBe Bazube Bene, 
3acTnpy cnaMy, h Ha Bo>KHh Bpuje y BohibaKy h koji 
croKe Hde o6HMaje Kao h Cp6n npaBoc.iaBHH. Hcto 
TaKO c/iaBe h 'ByprjeB-aaH. ApHayTaniKe >KeHe H3 oko- 
^Hue HcBHMa AO/ia3e y /leBH^Ky upKBy H3Met)y Ycnpca 
h Toypl)eB-aaHa h CBana zierHe nopea rpo6a Cb. JaHH- 
hnja, a naa o;ie. CBana ra ziapnBa. ricpeii Tora cbh 
c/iaBe Mn.iouja OGn.inha Kao jynaKa h CBor 3eM^>aKa. 
Bp;io MHoro ibHx, HapoMHTO no Mctoxhjh, 3a^n>Ka.nH 
cy CBOj'a CTapa HMCHa, Kao: GrcnaHOBH^H, rionnhn, 

BoJKOBHhH, JleKHhH, ToJKOBHhH, CTOJKOBHhH H iip>TH. 

3a JlpcHHMane V. CiaHKOBHh Kawe jya cy hohochth, 
rocro/by6HBH h npaBH jyHaun. CBOje i/iaBapc noujTyjy 
h cnyujajy. H ohh Kao h xcpucronaMKH h GocancKH 
Myc^HMaHH Bp/io MHoro ucHe o6HHaj LUHUjanor KyM- 
CTBa. riope^ Tora ohh noujTyjy h qyBajy cae CTape 
cpncKC 3a;iy>K6HHe, upKBc h ManacTHpc. Mhoth naMTe h 
crapy CBOiy c.nauy. Pauynajy no npaBOc/iaBHHM npa- 
3HHUHMa. MaxoM HMajy jcany >KCny, Koja ce 3a pa3- 
/inny on TypKHH>a h oa apHayTCKnx >KCHa oko Tpa- 
wanHiie hc Kpnje on rocTa, nap^imo ano ra neMa ko 
^p\TH .aoMCKaTH. y onujTe oOViaJH Cp6a Apna)Tauja 
v.ii' ro cc pai^iHKyjy o^ apGanauikHX oGiiMaja. Omh „hc 
roBope jejuaKo, ne ncnajy jcaHaKO h hc MHCie je- 
aHaKO". H3Meaa npcMa CBCMy aa cy obh ApHayTaiun no 



240 HOBA CPBHJA 

CBOJMM 06HHaJHMa H no CBOJHM HaBHKaMa MHOro6^H)KH 

Cp6HMa H3 3ana^HHX cpncKHx o6;iacTH h ruieMeHHMa 
TopFbe Ap6aHnje Koja cy nocra;ia MemaBHHOM H3Me^y 
Cp6a h Ap6aHaca. TaKO, Ha npHMep, y h>hx ce no- 
6paTHMCTBO CMaTpa KaO KpBHO cpoactbo, a KpBHa 
ocBeia ce BpujH^a Haj6pH>KjbHBHJe. 

O H3ivie;iy ce/ia h Kyha Cp6a ApHayTauia y Zlpe- 
hhuh Haj6ojby cjiHKy nao je V. Toaop CraHKOBHh, kojh 
je Ayro BpeMeHa mHBeo y obhm KpajeBHMa, h KaKO H3- 
nieAa, yMeo je na deKHe Ao6pe Bese ca Cp6nMa Ap- 
HayiaiiJHMa. J-bnxoBa ce;ia h HdHxob )khbot y JXpenrnxn 
onHcyje OBaKo: 

„ApHayTaiuH ce y onrirre 3aHHMajy 3eMA>OAeji- 

CTBOM H CTOHapCTBOM, a y IlOApHMJby JOUI H BHHO- 

rpa/iapcTBOM, h CBe CBOje noc/ioBe Bpiue MapjbHBO. 
BohapcTBO hm hac oco6hto oa py^e. H y n;iaHHHH h 
no nyieBHMa rue roA Ha^y KaKBy AHBJbaKy KpyujKy 
hah ja6yKy, Ka^eMe je. y flpeHHUH caM BHAeo nyHO 
Ao6po ypeljeunx BohitaKa. Kyhe cy hm o6hhho Ha 
oue^HOM h 3/ipaBOM 3eMJbHuiTy h MaxoM 6;iH3y KaKBe 
pene hah H3Bopa ca Ao6poM boaom. y Kyhn h y abo- 
pniiJTy hm je Ba3na ype^HOCT h npuMepHa HHCTOTa. 
Pyxo hm je TaKol^e hhcto. Kyhe cy hm noKpHBeHe he- 
paMHAOM h;ih KaMeHHM njionaMa, a HeMa hh neT oa 
cto jxa cy nonpHBeHe cJiaMOM h kpobhhom. Oa ocra- 
;ihx Kyha cy jenna TpehHHa 03HAane oa hepnnna, a 
ABe TpehHHe cy caMe Kyjie, noAHrnyTe oa KaMeHa h 
Ma^Tepa, HapoMHTO y nehcKoj h JjaKOBHHKOJ HaxHJH. 
Ky/ie cy hm ABoenpaTHe, a HMa hx h TpocnpaTHHX. 
Ha HeKHMa oa thx Ky;ia HMajy noAHrHyre h CTpanope, 
TaKohe oa TBpAor MaTepwa/ia, noje cy hm, Kao uito cy 
hm h Ky^e, ca CBHj'y CTpaHa ca Ma3raAaMa, Kpo3 noje 
nyuajy y OA6paHH. KaA ko naAHe Ha KpB, oh ca Te 
CTpa>Kape na3H Aa My ce ocbcthhk c Koje cipaHe He 
6h npHKpao. Hh HajcHpOMauiHHJer ApHayTaiua abo- 
pniiJTe HHJe 6e3 Hy>KHHKa, h ao OBora HMa Ma h Haj- 
y3aHHj'a Ka^upMa. >KHBe y 3a,apy3H h HMajy Aocra Be- 
jiukq 3a£pyre. 3aApy>KHe nopoAHue HMajy oko Ky;ie 
hn^epe (Bajaie), y KojHMa CBaKH y cbojoj co6h ca cbojom 
>KeHOM h chthom acuom HohHBajy. OApac;iHJa Aeija 






KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 241 

HMajy CBOjy 3aje;iHHMKy co6y y Ky;iH. KaKO y Ky;iH, 
TaKO h y o6hmhhm KyhaMa HMajy no je#Hy onBOJeHy 
co6y cnpeMJbeny 3a rocre. Co6a rocrHHCKa je ouaK- 
;iHj'a. Ho caMora ouaKa je iiOMahHHCKO Mecro, Koje je 
3acTpTo CHua/ieTOM h.ih nycraKHjoM or obhobckc Koa<e. 
Ty My je h ueo npn6op 3a Kacj)y. 

ZIoMahHH y 3a£py3H kojh ynpaB/ba ue/iOKynHHM 
HMatt>eM, a HapoMHTO kojh bpujh npoijajy npoH3BOjxa 
h BpiuH noTpe6He Ha6aBKe 3a Kyhy, He Mopa 6hth h 
HajcTapHJH y Kyhn, a/in ce oh nnaK ca crapnJHM or 
ce6e AoroBapa h cnopa3yMeBa. Ciapau ceRH y3 ouaK, 
Te AOweKyje h ncnpaha roore, HaiiMe^a crony, a no 
kojh CTapau h Hae ca ctokom Ha naiuy. y 3a;*py>KHHM 
KyhaMa h >KeHe paie CBOJe KyheBHe noaiOBe, Kao: Me- 
niere x;ie6a, KyBan>e je^a, MeujeH>e nma h t. r., CBe 
no pe;iy Ha He^e^y iiaHa. CBaKoj >KeHH y Kyhn Mopa 
Aohn pea, H3y3HMa)yhn 6aMnue. H3 Tora je pejxa ocno- 
6ot)eHa caMO OHa Koja ocrapH h Koja uoBeae cHaxy 
3a CHHa, Te je CHaxa 3aMeHH. Ho aKO CBeKpBa 3aBO«iH 
CHaxy, OHa je noMa>Ke y noc/iOBHMa Kan, je CHaxnH peA. 
HeBOJKe y 3a;ipy3H He Mory 6mth pe^yiue. KaA je Koja 
>KeHa y apyroM cranky, ocao6u^eHa je TeujKora noc/ia. 
MecTO ce AeujaBa Ra ce y Kyhn no 3 — 4 nyia 3a naH 
HaMeujTa Tpne3apnja 3a rocTe. 3a o6hmhc ce rocre 
h3hoch Ha Tpne3y oho ujto h AOMahn jeay, a to je 
2 — 3 napqeTa cwpa ca cmokom, 2—3 r. iaBHue upHora 
/lyna h Bpyha npoja, h HaJ3aA je^aH nyH MaHaK yapo- 
6^>eHe npoje y M-ieKy. Obo iincy tocth kojh HapoMHTO 
AoJ)y y rocre, Beh cy to nyTHHUH kojh, Hiiylin 3a Koje 
apyro ce/io h/ih Bapouj, CBpaTe na pynaK h/ih npe 
HohnujTe, na Ma th tocth 6h/ih h Heno3HaTH yKyha- 
HHMa y Mnjy Kyhy no/iaie. 3a 3HaK jia he ce aohcth 
pynaK h/ih Benepa, aoMahHii he no3BaTH toctc r?l nepy 
pyKe, 3aiiJTa je jeaan or ynyhaHa Beh npHHeo Boay, 
apwehn y .neBOJ /leren, a y aecHoj pyuw Kpqar ca bo- 
AOm, a npeKo paMeHa y6pyc, Te cBaKOM rucry naj .ie- 
reHOM no/mje pyKe flu3HBaibe aoMahnna aa tocth 
nepy pyKe, no3HBan,e je Aa tocth ceAHy 3a Tpne3y. 
CBaKH HMa CBojy MapaMy oko nojaca, h mhm ce^He 3a 
Tpne3y, MapaMy pacnpocTpe npeKo cnyTa. HoMahHH 

HOBA CPEHJA 



242 HOBA CPBHJA 



he cecTH Ha hcth Kpaj h pehn: „H3BO/iTe." Pyne nepy 
h nocjie jejia. HHKa^ Hehe CBe nojedH hhth Tpara on 
jie6a ocTaBHTH. KaKO ce ko Hajeiie, oh bpxobhm i np- 
CTHj'y ^OTaKHe HBHixy Tpne3e, na CBOj'a ycTa, h peKHe: 
„Japa6H myhyp", ujto 3HanH: Ca3naTe;by CBera, tq6u 
HeKa je xsa^a 1 Toct ce Hehe hhioa £a nowajiH na je 
p^aBO yroiuheH, ho ce XBa^H ca penHMa : Ka(J)e, nyBaHa 
h Myxa6eTa OABHiue, a cojjh h xjie6a kojihko je Bor 
#ao. ApHayTamH HHKora He nacre bhhom h paKHJOM. 
y MecTO Tora nacre .nyBaHOM h Ka(J)OM. Hehe hh cbo- 
jHMa jxa HMeHyjy jejia Koja cy y rocTHMa jejiH. npeMa 
rocTHMa h ^aHHMa je roinheifce. 3a Kyaia, npnjaTejba, 
potjaKa h no6paTHMa, rowjiu ohh HaponHTO hjih c/iy- 
qaJHO, KOJbe ce jartbe, jape, OBaH h t.a-, a Ha 6p3y 
pyKy Koja KOKOuiKa hjih nHTa, a y AaHHMa CBa;i6e, 
CTpH>K6e h t.#., HeMa H3y3eTKa: cbh ce tocth 6e3 pa- 
3^nKe nonacTe. JXoKJie cy tocth 3a co(})poM, jeaaH he 
on aoMahnx MyiHKapaua CTOjaTH nopefl co(J)pe, ^p>KehH 
y aecHOJ pyuH can/iaK (ruiexaHa nama) ca nnjahoM 
bohom. Totobo y CBaKoj Kyhw Hwa cnpeMJbeHHX 100, 
200 h 300 Kopa neneHHX 3a nHTe, na Ka^ toct aoije, 
nHTa je 3a nac roTOBa. ApuayTainH, Kao h Cp6n npa- 
BOc^aBHH, HaJBHme je;iy KyKypy3HH x;ie6, neMeH y 
upenyjbH. nineHHHHH xjie6 peTKO jejiy. rimeHHiry npo- 
Aajy, a ocTaBe ohojihko kojihko Tpeoa 3a ceMe h Me- 
ineibe nHTa. XpaHa hm je CBaKozmeBHa, npeno uejiora 
jieTa, cnp, upHH Jiyn, M/ieKO h Bpyha npoja. JUanyTa 
je HcaejbHO npoivieHa y xpaHH THMe uito 3a Benepy 
KOJby KOKonJKe h;ih Mece nHTe On HOBeM6pa na no an- 
pHJia, npeKO uejie 3HMe, xpaHe ce nacTpMOM ca Kyny- 
com. riacrpMy cnpeMH CBana Kyha, npeMa 3a,n,py>KHOM 
h hmobhom crafty, 100, 200 h 300 ona, Kan KOJby 6paBe 
3a nacTpMy, HHHe ro36y. Ta^a ce 3a rocre o6hhho 
cnpeMH Meco Ha nnpHHqy. HajcnpOMaujHHJH ApHayTaui, 
Kan 6yae K.aao 6paBa 3a nacTpMy, HMa 2 — 3, a 6ora- 
thjh no 10 h 20 rocTHJy 3a BenepoM. 

y nyhn ce npn pywKy h Benepn ACJie Ha Tpn 
Tpne3e. ripBO ce nocraBH 3a iieiry, nocjie 3a rocre, a 
aKO rocTHJy HeMa, OHAa cbojhm jby^HMa. >KeHe je,ay 
najnocne, CBe yjeflHO^H ca pe^yuioM h ca 6a i iHH0M, 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPI.HJA 

PeTKa je CTBap na ApHayTauj OTepa cBOJy >KeHy, 
noK Met^yTHM Kon npaBHx TypaKa o6n i ma je CTBap 
^aHac OTcpaTH je;uiy, a noc/ie hcko/ihko jaHa h zipy- 
ry >Kehy." 

H3 OBora cBera ce bhah na ^peHHHKH ApnayTaujH 
HMaiy CKopo Here o6HMnje h >KHBe hcthm >khbotom Kao 
h Cp6n npaBOC/iaBHH. y TOMe noivieay ohh cy MHoro 
6/iH>Ke Cp6HMa ho Ap6anacHMa. FIopeiiTora ohh HMajy 

HapOMHTH CMHCaO 33 3CM,1.0paAHHHKH >KHBOT, HapOMHTO 

3a BohapcTBO, Hera y npaBHM ap6aHaujKHM 06/iacTHMa 

CKOpO HHKaKO HeMa. 

CupuHuhcm /Kyiia je ycKa, ayrawKa h BHCOKa 
n/iannncKa KoiviHHa noa Jby6oTHHOM, Koja je ca cbhx 
crpaHa orpat}ena n/iaHHHaMa h HMa TeLmbe Be3e h c 
Kocobom h ca Cpe;iCKOM >KynoM koa fIpH3peHa. Hho 
Te kot.ihhc bbabsh ce HaJBehHM cbojhm nejioM Ha ae- 
choj crrpnHH JleneHua. y toj n/iaHHHCKOJ KopyTHHH 
HMa CBera ccaaMHaecr cc/ia, o.a kojhx je aeBeT mhcto 
cpncKHX, ce;iaM ap6aHaujKnx, a je/iHO je no no/ia cpn- 
cko h ap6aHamKO. Ap6aHacn BehnHOM >KHBe y^ovbeM, 
a Cp6n y ropfbeM jxe/iy CnpHHnha. CpncKa ce/ia cy 
Beha h 36HJeHHJa on apoaHaujKHX. Cfla ce nanase y 
3e/ieHH/iy on Boha h apBcha, h bcHmhom cy OKpyr/ia 
o6.iHKa. Kyhe cy Man>e h Heyr/ie;uiHJe or ap6aHaujKHx, 
a/in cy 3HAaHe, o6/ien;beHc, 11 HHKajx Hncy OKpeneHe. 
CBaKH £Bop je 3H£om orpaljCH, TaKO na ce Kpo3 ce/io 
Kao H3Me!)y rpaiicKHX n/iaTHa npo;ia3H. Ap6aHaujKe 
Kyhe cy MaxoM Be/iHKe, on Ka.viena 3HnaHe, onpeMeHe, 
hepaMHAOM noKpHBCHc, h HMajy MHoro ouaKa. CBaKa 
ap6aHaniKa Kyha HMa nap/UK, kojh je na/iHK Ha ah- 
Banaiiy Kon 6ocaHCKHX Myc/iHMana. KaujTO cy rpyne 
on Kyha orpa^eHe npaBHM 3HAOM, na H3Me^ajy Kao 
navitHKe. 

I.iaBiio 3aHHMan»c CupnnHhana je CTonapcrBO. 
C o6e crpane /leneHixa je npaBa n.iaiiHHCKa o6.iacT ca 
uiyMaMa, H3 Koje aorone Ha canKaMa .lpBa h rpaljy. V 
CnpHHHhy HMajy McrnpH MajiiaHa H3 kojhx ce Ba^H 
xpoM. CraHOBHuajTBo ce ne oa/iHKyje ocoGhthm 3npaB- 

JhZbl HH MBpCTHHOM. HMa MHoro ryUJaBOCTH, HapOMHTO 

Mefyy Ap6aHacHMa. HuTepecaHTno je na cy cbh Cp6n 



244 HOBA CPBHJA 

CHpHhaHH zo6pe Tep3HJe. C thm 3aHaTOM nyTyjy no 
Kocosy, 7Ia6y, FIo/ipHMy H,CKonci<oj oko/ihhh na Kpoje 
h iDHJy. y noc/ieaFbe BpeMe H£y mhoto y ryp6eoyK, 
HapoMHTO cy hui^ i y ByrapcKy h PyMVHHjy. y Haj- 
HOBHJe BpeMe wjxy MHoro y AiwepHKy. FIoa yTHuajeM 
„AiviepHKaHaiia a noMHH>e ce Men>aTH HaMHH >KHBOTa H 
>KHBOTHe noTpe6e nowe^e cy ce Me^aiM. y Chphhhr- 
ckoj }KynH HMa ^eTpHaecT upnaBa, oa kojhx cy ce^aM 
y pa?.Ba;inHaMa. 

b). MeTOXHJa c okojihhom FIpHSpeHa. 

„MeTOXHJa h npH3peHCKa o6jiacrnpeiiCTaBJbajyc;iHB 
Bejiora JlpHMa ao iteroBHx ciaBa ca UpHHM JIpmmom. 
To je npocTpaHa TeKTOHCKa KoiviHHa, noja je or ocra- 
;ihx bhcokhm njiaHHHaMa orpaijeHa : Ha ceBepy Hajnpe 
^.e^OBH npoK-neTHJa, Ko>KHDe;i c BornheBHuoM h Ko- 
npHBHHKOM, 3aTHM MoKpa ropa, Koja npecTaje hh 3a- 
riaay or MmpoBHue; Ha jyry je orpaJjeHa LLIap Flna- 
hhhom; oil KocoBa je OABajajy uume n/iaHHHe ca mhohim 
npeBojHMa: MnMaBnua, ro/ieui h UpHOJbeBa ; Ha 3a- 
najiy oko ApHMCKe K.nHcype 3arpat]yiy je Mnp/iHTCKe 
n^aHHHe. yHyTpa, y kotvihhh, H3£n>Ky ce ^o 3HaTHe 
BHCHHe ocaMjbeHe ocTpBacTe n/iaHHHe: JXemwKa Fl/ia- 

HHHa. MH^aHOBaU, H HapOHHTO riaiHTpHK H KopHTHHK 

y 6/ih3hhh Ilpn3peHa. 

MeToxnjoM ce 30Be ceBepHH jieo TeKTOHCKe kot- 
/iHHe, H3BopHiHHa McneHKa Bejior ,HpHMa, HcnoA Monpe 
h KonpHBHHKa jxo npea TbaKOBHuy, h y fboj je nnaBHO 
MecTo rieh. JXej\n ce Ha neinpH napTHJe. CeBepHH 6pe- 
>Ky^>KacTH aeo Hcno£ Cry,aeHHm<e FI^aHHHe, >K;be6a 
h MoKpe, 30Be ce FIoArop; rptkh ue^y o6;iacT or 
IlehH ro cejia PyaHHKa y nojoj HMa oko 60 cejia, h 
Mei)y H>HMa Hctok HMa CKopo ueHTpa^HH no;io)Kaj. 
Hctohhh £eo MeTOXHj'e 30Be ce flptKopynjbe h 3a- 
XBaTa Kpaj Ha .neBoj cipaHH Be/ior JlpHMa. or Uor- 
ropa na no pa3Bo^a HjMetjy Mnpyme h T/iHhe. y rviaB- 
HOMe c;ihb pene DiHHe, npHTone Be;ior UpHMa. JX^k 
cy o6e OBe o6;iacTH 6pe>Ky;bKacTe h .aho hm cacraB- 
JbeHO OR CflaTKOBOflHHX HeoreHHX H CTapHJHX deHa, 



KOCOB PAPA CPBHJA 1*0 

jyro3anaiiHO or h>hx Hacraje npaBa aJiyBHja^na h rh- 
;iyBwja/iHa paBaH MeioxHJe, H3Met~jy nehaHCKe BHcrpHue 
h UpHMa, h 30Be ce FIpeKO Boae, h y *boj HMa oko 
25 ce/ia. 3ananHH rqo oko AewaHCKe BHcrpHue 30Be 
ce PeKa, h y fby ce panyHajy oko 45 ce/ia. PaBaH h 
no6plja oko TbaKOBHue, 3aTHM 6pe>Ky/bKacTa o6;iacT 
Ha AecHoj dpaHH UpHMa, CBe ro yiuha BHcrpHue y 
ZlpHM, 30Be ce Xac, h TbaKOBHua je iberoBO nnaBHO MecTO. 

y npH3pencKoj o6.nacTH ce no Hapo^HOJ homch- 
K^aTypH H3£Bajajy RBa Kpaja. BpiiCKa o6;iacT Ha /ie- 
boj dpaHn ZIpHMa ro n^aHHHe MH.iaHOBua h Bpxa 
Ocrpo3y6a 30Be ce rioflpHMa, h y HdOj je HaJBehe Hacejbe 
OpaxoBau; OHa iip>KH .ao nyia kojh bo;ih or Upu- 
3peHa npeKO Zly^a 3a Kocobo. HecHO or OBora nyTa 
ro Koua Ba/iKaHa h UpHOJbeBe HacTaje npnapeHCKH 
noarop, kojh Tpaje CBe ro RyjbCKe npece^HHe Ha 
UpHO^eBH ■ 

Oko.iuhcl npu3pena. — y oko-hhhh FIpH3peHa 
canyBa/iH cy ce CBe ro aaHac Ha3HBH mhothx cpeaBbe- 
BeKOBHHX cpncKHx >Kyna. flocanaiinba opraHH3au.HJa 
ap6aHaujKHX h apnayTaiuKHx 6aujH6o3yKa y okojihhh 
IlpH3peHa noaypa;ia ce y r/iaBHOM c npocTpaHCTBOM 
cpeziibeBeKOBHHX >Kyna. TaKO, Ha npuMep, cyxopewKH 
6ajpaK 3ay3HMa 06/iacr ciape wyne FIoAropa, ;by6HH- 
ckh 6ajpaK 3ay3H\ia >Kyny CpeacKy, a no/iyiiJKH 6aj- 
paK 3ay3HMa CTapy >Kyny BpcKOBO, MHje ce H\ie y aa- 
HainH>eM cranoBHHLUTBy H3ry6H^o. Crapy o6.nacT flo- 
ApHMjbe h/ih AaHaiutby Ilo^pHMy, Koja 3ay3HMa 06/iacr 
H3Mt^y Be/ior ilpHwa, UpHor ilpHMa h npH3peHCke 
BncrpHue, 3ay:iHMajy 6ajpaun no;iyujKH. Ma/mxowcKH h 
ocrpo3yriCKH. Crapn naTkOBCKH „r\ ..ii> u koj ISakOBHue 
na3HBoa ce xacKHM 6ajpaKOM, a Ono.bCKa >Kyna ono/b- 
ckhm 6ajpaKOM. H3 OBora ce bhah rz H.via hckc Be3e 
H3Mehv pacnopeaa h opraHH3au.Hje HauiHX cpeaibeBe- 
kobhhx >nyna haouhhjhx apHayTanjKHx6ajpaKa. Ta Be3a 
je ip>KaHa THMe ujto je 3naTaH Aeo dapor cpncKur 
CTaHOBHHiuTBa npcujao na Mc/iaM h noap6aHacHO ce. 

CBe OBe wyne nyiie cy ocTaTaKa na cpe^JbCBe- 
KOBHe cpncKe CTapHHe, a CKopo CBa ce/ia cy nocroja^a 
h y cpeA^eM bck)\ caMo c tom pa3/iHK0M ujto cy oH^a 



246 HOBA CPEHJA 



y ltHMa >KHBe;iH Cp6n npaBOCAaBHH, a AaHac BehnHy 
HHHe ApHayTamH h Ap6aHacH. 

y FIo^pHMJby HaJ3HaMeHHTHJa cy ce.ia BeJiHKa 
XoHa h OpaxoBau. Ta cejia, HaponHTO OpaxoBau, no 
cbom cnrjbtt>eM H3rvieAy namme Ha Ma;ie BaponiHue. 
I-bHxoBa OKO^HHa npencTaBJba Haj6ojby BHHorpaAapcKy 
odjiacT y ueAOJ mctoxhjckoj kotjihhh. OraHOBHHUH Be- 
^HKe Xone cy y BehHHH Cp6n npaBOCAaBHH, kojh cy 
ce yBeK onJiuKOBami OTpecHTOinhy h jyHaiiiTBOM. da- 
hobhhuh cejia OpaxoBa npe^CTaBJbajy BeoMa BpeAaH 
HapoA. 3a jbhx Ka>Ke pycKH KOH3yji JacTpe6oB Aa cy 
nopeK^OM aocejbeHHUH oa KpajbeBa h HaqKa y Aoca- 
Aaumoj CpdHJH, oa nyjia. cy ce nocemiJiu 3a BpeMe 
Kapal)opt)eBa yciaHKa. y OpaxoBuy nehcKH MaHacTHp 
HMa CBOJe BHHorpa,ne. Cp6H npaBOCAaBHH HMajy CBOjy 
upKBy, a ApHayTauiH CBOje Tpn uaMHJe. 

06;iacT FIoArop 3ay3HMa cjihb Cyxe PeKe, Koja 
Hadaje H3 noTOKa kojh ce cadojy Ha 3anaAHHM na- 
AHtfaMa n^aHHHe Xoua BajiKaHa. Ta o6Aacr, HapoHHTO 
H>eHH hh>kh achobh, He OAAHKyjy ce 3ApaB0M kjihmom, 
36or Tora CTaHOBHHiHTBO je He3ApaBO, h c/iadnje ce 
mho>kh. CaAa y HH3HHaMa )KHBe ApHayTauiH h Ap6a- 
nacH, kojh cy Cp6e noiepa^H H3 jbhxobhx cejia, h obh 
cy Mopa/w Aa ce nacejbaBajy Ha CBoje HerAauitbe Ka- 
TyHe. A/ih cy h Ty MOpa;w Aa npHMajy HCJiaM. JeAHO 
oa HajBHUJHx ceaa je Ma;iHqeBO, Koje ce Ha;ia3H or 
npHAHKe Ha bhchhh or 1000 m. To je ceAO 3HaMeHHTO 
36or Tora ihto tteroBH craHOBHHUH npnnoBeAajy rs. 
je o^aTJie nopeKAOM nopOAHua Kapa^op^eBHha, hhjh 
je npaRQR no6erao 36or Tora ihto je y6HO qeTnpn 
Typq«Ha. Tpo6oBH thx Typana h AaHac cy canyBaHH. 

Cpe^cna >Kyna or ocraAHX o^HKyje ce thm uito 
je OHa HaJBHUie caqyBa^a cpncKH KapaKTep. CKopo no- 
^OBHHy Hr»eHa CTaHOBHHuiTBa ca^HibaBajy Cp6n npaBO- 
CAaBHH, a ocra;iH Aeo canHHbaBajy Cp6n Myc/iOMaHH, 
kojh cy canyBa^H cboj cpncKH je3HK. FIpBO ce noqejio 
TypHHTH ceAO Jby6HHbe, Koje ce Ha;ia3H noA mapCKHM 

BpXOM Ko6HAHUOM, HHJe Ce CTaHOBHHUITBO HCTypHHAO 

oa npHAHKe npe 170 roAHHa. y ceAy XlpajHHhHMa My- 
c^OMaHH cy CBe ao paTa 1875 CAaBH;m CBOjy CAaBy, 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 247 

jiomhjih Ko/ian, KynH.m cy npoc(£ope h hiii^h Ha jih- 
TyprHJy. Taaa hm TypuH Hapenniue jya ce Mopajy jlo- 
>KaTH jcAHe Bepe, a He hbq. W Cpe/iCKOj /KynH HMa 
jxeBer upnaBa, Koje cy MaxoM BeoMa CTape. y cpeafoeM 
BeKy Cpe^CKa >Kyna^. 6n;ia je Bp/io 6oraia luyMOM, 
Me^y kojom je 6h/io h MHoro neTHHapa. LUp HyinaH 
je CTaHOBHHUHMa CpeacKe )Kyne 6ho daBHO y ^y>K- 
HOCT jxa MaHacTHp cb. ApxaHre.ia CHa6,ueBajy jiyqeM. 
Ca^a y CpeacKOj HMa caMO Ma/wx ociaTaKa on Her- 
jauiH>HX qeTHHapa. 3a BpeMe TypaKa 6aBH/iH cy ce 
npaB-JbefoeM yr/ba, MHMe cy MHory ujyMy ynponacmriH. 

06^acT ropa Ha^a3H ce H3Me^y LLlape h KopHT- 
HHKa. HMa o6;ihk BHCOKe n^aHHHCKe KopyTHHe, Koja 
je ay6oKHM 30/iHHaMa peKa n/iaBe, Bpo;xcKe, PacTe- 
.iHiiiKe h HdHxobhx npHTOKa HceneHa y BHiue KOMa^a. 
Kao y MHorHM n/iaHHHCKHM o6;iacTHMa, ce/ia OB^e 6e>Ke 
H3 ,ay6oKHX japyra H netby ce Ha OTBopeHHJa Mecia. 
H no cbom n/iaHHHCKOM KapaKTepy h no KaKBohn 3eM- 
jbHima, OBa o6;iacT npeAHCTHHHpaHa je #a nociaHe cto- 
wapcKa o&iacr. Joui no npe;i cpncKo-TypcKH paT on 
1875 TopaHH cy HMa^H Heo6HMHO Be/iHKa cra;ia, h 6a- 
bh/ih cy ce HCK;byMHBO CTOMapcTBOM. npHMajy na je 
6h.io BHUje AOMahHHa kojh cy HMa;iH npeKO 5000 OBaua. 
Ha 3hmobhhk Hiii/iH cy Ha o6a:ie ErejCKor Mopa, y 
TpaKHJy, na naK h y Ma/iy A3HJy. Hooicai^hx TpH^c- 
ceT roAHHa nowe^H cy ZbyM/baHH cbc BHine njbaMKaTH, 
h TopanH cy Mopa.iH CBe BHiue HanyimaTH cronapcTBO 
h OAaBaTH ce ryp6eT.ayKy. y ryp6eT/iyK way no cBHMa 
6a/iKancKHM 3eM;baMa, HapoMHTo no Cp6nJH, Bochh h 
XepueroBHHH, ByrapcKOJ H PyMyHHJH, h no Ma.noj 
A3hjh. CKopo HaJBehn ;ieo 6o3aMHJa, a;iBeuHJa h ca- 
;ie6uHJa y 6a;iKaHCKHM 3eMJbaMa canHibaBajy ohh. 

TopaHH npejcraB/bajy cpncKO Myc/iHMaHCKO cra- 
hobhhlutbo Koje ce on OKO/inor ap6anaujKor h apua- 
yTaujKor CTaHOBHHiiJTBa 3naTHO pa:^HKyje h no je3HKy 
h no ucnoj ayxoBHOj Ky/nypn. y Topn i!>ia 27 ccaa, 
\ieJ)y KojHMa je HaJBehe ce/io Bpo.i. Cbh roBope cpn- 
ckh. Ha Hc/iaM cy noMCHH npe/ia3HTH jouj y 16 BeKy, 
na cy ce noTnyno HcrypHH/iH y 19-om BeKy. noc/iezui>a 
xpunihaHCKa ziywa yMp/ia je y Bpo>iy roflHiie lb 



248 HOBA CPBHJA 



f-bHX0Be CTape upKBe cpyniHO je 3y6 BpeMeHa. Ajih ce 
h aaHac nouiTyjy MecTa r^e cy OHe 6mie. O hckhm 
npa3HHUHMa CKynjbajy ce koa cbojhx 6hbuihx upKaBa. 
nopca Tora na/ie 6a;ubaKe h c/iaBe Hene cpncKe npa3- 
hhkc HapOHHTO oiaBe "Byp^eB-^an, Kao ihto ra cnaBe 
CBe OKO/me o6jiacTH, h cpncKe h ap6aHatuKe. Ha Tbyp- 
ijeB-naH npHpeJ)yjy ce MHore Hrpe, HapoMHTO pBaft»e. 
ZlaHac ce Ta pBatta npHpeijyiy Ha ^aH CBa^6e, h kzji 
ce iiena o6pe3yjy (cyHeTe). U,ejia ce/ia je^Hor ncror 
#aHa Bpiue CBa.a.6e h o6pe3yjy MymKy aeny. TopaHH 
Hrpajy kojio hcto Kao h cejbPUH H3 CHpHHHhcKe h 
CpeacKe >Kyne. Ajih no.a yTHuajeM xoua >KeHCKe He 
yqecTByjy y thm KOJiHMa. Ba)KHo je to ujto ohh He no- 
dajy Ap6aHacH Kao ujto cy nocrajiH MyoiOMaHH Cp6n 
H3 Apymx o6jiacrH CTape Cp6H]'e. Ajih ce ona)Ka aa 
cy ce noqe/ia noapHayhHBaTH OHa ceJia Koja ce Hajia3e 
Ha rpaHHUH npeivia JbyMH. HapoHHTO Jieno cpncKH ro- 
Bope H>HxoBe ^eHe. MyniKapuH, nayhn no ryp6eTjiyKy 
h MemajyhH ce c Ap6aHacHMa, noqejiH cy /ia KBape cboj 
cpncKH je3HK. y ryp6eTJiyK ce H#e TaKO MHoro aa no 
mhothm cejiHMa 3hmh HeMa MyiuKapaua kojh 6h cckjjh 
6a,zi;tt>aKe. 36or Tora ce Taj o6nqaj CBe BHUie HanyuiTa. 
Meiuoxuja. — „yTBpJ)eHO je na jeMeToxnja 3aKJio- 
iteHa on ceBepHHx BeTpoBa, Bpjio HaBOAibeHa, h mhhh 
jeaaHD on Hajn^o^HHJHx KpajeBa BajiKaHCKora flojiyo- 
CTpBa ; cyiiehn no BereTauHJH, H3rjie^a n* y H>oj HMa h 
mopckhx yTHuaja ca 3anana. 3nMe cy Kpahe h MaH>e 
oujTpe ho na KocoBy: CHer na/ia y ^eneivi6py, a no 
npaBHJiy ra Hecraje KpajeM (})e6pyapa. JleTHHa y Me- 
toxhjh paHHj'e cracaBa ho Ha KocoBy. flo npaBH/iy ce 
Ao6njajy #Be >KeTBe, a JiHBane ce no TpH nyia Koce. 
HapOHHTO ce xBajin mctoxhjcko noBphe, oco6hto na- 
cyjb, kojh ce y 3HaTHHM KOJiHMHHaMa H3B03H npeMa Mh- 
tpobhuh; Heryje ce h MHoro KOiiiTaHa 3a cTOKy. Bohe oco- 
6hto ycneBa ; OB/ie HMa noc/ie TeTOBCKor noaropa 
HajBHuie KecTeHa, 3aTHM MHoro ja6yKa, on kojhx ce" 
XBajie HajBHuie 6y3Jinje, Koje cy tjjko npoBHAHe aa 
ce ceiwe bhah. FIoMeHyTO je 6oracTBO h paBHHX ae/iOBa 
MeTOXHJe >K6yi£>eM h chthom uiyMOM; a H3uan ZleHana 
h flehn HMa no njiaHHHaMa myMa on 6opa, je/ie h 



KOCOBCKA GTAPA CHBW.JA 



cwpne, 3aTHM npocrpaHHx cyBaia. MMa AaKAe yoiOBa 
h 3a CToqapcTBO bcjihkhx pa3Mcpa h oho je HapoMHTO 
pa3BHjeHO y FI/iaBy; moHh he ce eKcn^oaTHcaTH h pa3- 
HoapcHa iuyMa. 

OBaKO 6oraTa 06/iacr je 3a BpeMe cpeAft>e-Be- 
KOBHe cpncKe Ap>KaBe 6hjiz jaKO Hace/beHa. To ce cavio 
y hcko/ihko bhah no mhothm ce/niMa ;;oja ce MecTO 
cnoMHfoy y HatuHM cnoMeHnuaMa, HapoMHTO y AeMaH- 
ckoj xpHCOBy^>n. Baiue ce Mo>Ke H3BecTH no 6e36poj- 
hhm pa3Ba.iHHaMa oa upKaBa h oa Kyha. He caMO Aa 
y CBaKOM apHayTCKOM ce/iy HMa pa3Ba.iHHa oa cpncKHX 
UpKaBa, Beh ce Ha ibnx Han/ia3H h H3BaH AaHaumnx ceAa, h 
necTO ce jaKO CKpHBeHe y ujyMapuHMa h m.6yihy. 1^3Ba- 
jiHHe or upKaBa cy napomiTo noMeHyTe koa M. Mn;ioje- 
BHha h Xn^(J)epAHHra. Y npopeljenuM cpncKOM craHOB- 
HHUJTdy Kpy>Ke nptme Aa cy OBje 3a BpiMe „uapeBHHe M 
6wj\a Bt'^HKa Hace;ba. h or AaHaiuibHX ce.ia TaKBa cy. 
Ka^Ky, 6H.ia: 5aH>a, Cyxo Tp.io, PyAHHK h floArpalje. 
Ocum ZLewana h Cb. riaipHjapiuHje HMa join OAp>KaHHX 
Mait»Hx upKaBa, Koje cy MaxoM 6h.ih h>hxobh mctoch, h 
HapoMHTO ce noMHibe TopnoMa y rioAropy. 

Ca^a je nAOAna MtjTOXHja oia6o Hace^eHa. Ilpe- 
B^a^yjy Ma;ia ce.Ta or 10—20 Kyha. HaJBthe je ce.no 
HcrHHwhH, Koje ce y napoAHUM necMaMa 30Be Mcth- 
HHua. ca 150 Kyha Ap6aHaca h noap6anaujeHHX Myxa- 
unpa H3 Cp6nje. CBa cy ce/ia ocnoBaHa y KpqeBHHaMa, 
h no TOMe ce bhah Ra je noc/ie Ky/nypne enoxe, y ko- 
joj je MeToxHJa 6n.ia rycTO Hace/bena, neo OBaj Kpaj 
noAHB/bao. h noHOBa cy ocnHBana Ma/ia Hace.ba y iuy- 
MaMa. ripeB/iat)yjy ce/ia pa3peijeHora Tuna, a.in hx HMa h 
jaKO pajpcljCHHx. Ccna MeiuoBHTor CTaHOBHHiuTB.i Ae/ie 
ce no npaBH/iy Ha Maxa/ie, Koje ce 30By cpncKa, apua- 
yTCKa, ziaTHHCKa, h;ih no HMemiMa nupoAHua CB^ka 
Kyha orpafyeHa je „o6opoM u , n;iOTOM, Ha KuMe je rope 
na6auaHO Tpibe. 

MaxoM y cpeAHHH n o6opa u je apuayTCKa Kyha, 
Koja je no npaBH.iy Ky/ia, 03HAaHa oa recanoi waMona, 
Ae6eAHX 3HA0Ba, 6e3 npo3opa, nyH>Tpa je n Aau>y no- 
.lyiaMa. y 3HAOBHMa cy oTBopn hjih Ma3ra/ie, ca yaa- 
hhm npope3HMa Kp03 Koje ce caMO nyujKa Mowe npo- 



1 HOBA CPBHJA 

ByhH. Ha KpOBy Kyjie, H3Mefcjy bhtkhx ouaKa, j\u>Ke. 
ce no npaBH^y CTpa>Kapa, oneT ca Ma3ra;iaMa 6e3 npo- 
3opa. Flo ce^HMa ce 6e;ie OBe Kyjie, y^ajbeHe je/ma 
oj. apyre, a H3Me^y h>hx cy Bohtbaun h jiyroBH. Ky;ie 
h th JiyroBH cy CKpoBHUJTa h CHara ApHayTa. no my- 
MapuHMa xBaiajy 3acejxc h cBeTe ce je^an apyroMe, a 
aKO ^yryjy KpB, 3aTBapajy ce y Ky;ie. Beh ohihth H3ivie£ 
uyjia h LuyMapaKa H3MefjyH>HX Aaje yTHcaK o Hecnryp- 
hocth Koja y MeToxHJH BJiana. YTncaK HecHrypHOCTH no- 
jaqaBa ce THMe iiito CBaKO hoch nyuiKy, h ^ena on 12 
no 15 roAHHa. Ako koch hjih ope, y 6jih3hhh My je 
nyinKa, h hhm Heno3HaT hobck Han^e, ocraBJba Kocy 
h n;iyr h y3HMa nyuiKy. Boah bojiobc h hoch nyinny 
npeKO paMeHa, KaiHTO oko Ky;ia HMa #pBeHHx qap- 
AaKa. He peTKO cy ohh npnjienjbeHH y3 Ky/ie. A;ih h 

OHH HHCy OHOJ1HKO OTBOpeHH Kao no Ce^IHMa H3BaH 

MeTOXHj'e. 

CacBHM cy apyKinje cpncne Kyhe, 6n.no y hhcto 
cpncKHM 6hjio y MeinoBHTHM cejiHMa. OHe cy yBeK je/ma 
y3^pyry h no npaBHJiy 6e;mor H3i7ieo.a. HajnpHMHTHB- 
hhjh cy Tnn rp6yjbaqe, ynpaBO c/iaMHe K0Jin6e, Ha^HK 
Ha cn6ape, kojhx je HeKaaa no Cp6Hj'n 6h;io. 3aTHM 
HMa 6pBHapa, caaMOM noKpHBeHHx, peTKO hepaMH^OM, 
h Ha nocneTKy n/ieTapa ; o6e HMajy ABOja BpaTa. OuaKa 
HeMa, Beh Ha onaMjbeM cy KpOBy otboph Kpo3 Koje 
npo^a3n ahm, h 30By ce opJbaK. Kyha je no^ejbeHa 
y ABa #ejia, h y jeaHOM je cTOKa, a y npyroM Kyha y 
y>KeM CMHC/iy, £aK/ie orfeHuiTe c BaipoM, r^e caMo 
3hmh CTapHjH HJiaHOBH nopojxnue HohnBajy. Oko Kyhe 
HMa yBeK hn^epa 3a ocTaBy, n H>KHHa h;ih Bajaia 
y KOJHMa ce HohnBa h kojh HMajy y^ory co6a. Y3 ap- 
HayTCKe Kyhe HeMa hHJiepa h H>KHHa. Ha nocjieTKy y 
6/ih3hhh Kyhe HMa h AeBojaHKHx KOJinda h;ih #eBOJa- 
hkhx Kyhepa." 

r.) BapouiH KocoBCKe Crape Cp6HJe. 

„H3B03 h yB03 KocoBa, MeTOXHJe n npn3peHCKe 
KOT^HHe 6no je no ce^aMAeceTHx roflHHa npom^ora 
BeKa ynyhcH nor/iaBHTo npeMa CKa^py h Ja^paHCKOM 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 251 

Mopy, y Matboj MepH npeMa Beorpaay h CapajeBy, 
CKonjby. 

Ho Tora ce BpeMeHa o;ip>Ka/ia Ba>KHOCT ciapor 
TproBaHKor nyTa FIpHspeH — CKa^ap, kojh cc y cpeji- 
iheM Beny 3Bao 3eTCKH nyT h/ih Ta-injaHCKH Via de 
Zenta. Taj, ca;xa nanyiuTCHH h 3anyiiiTeHH nyT Hj^e oa 
IlpH3peHa zio/ihhom npH3peHCKe BncrpHne Ha ce;ia 
>Kyp h UlK03y, na ;ieBOM crpanoM ZIpHMa Ha Hobh 
XaH (ap6aHauiKH XaH-Mpw); 3aTHM npeKO MOCTa Ha 
JhyMn (Ypa Jbyiic) h Be3HpoBa Mocia na HpHMy 
(Ypa Be3Hpn) Ha Bacnac (Bay-HcnacHT). Rajhe, no 
Cnaiipa cy jom OBe r.iaBHe TawKe Ha tom nyiy: Ky- 
ziyMpnja, <tvieT, Tiaapa Ma;iHT, MHxa/t>Ha, Bap/ieT, Opa- 
xoBO-lioJbe (Oyiua Ape), ITyKa, TiepeT, JloroHba CKyibc, 
FoMcnh, Tiac})a TypHnpeHK h MjeT, H3Ha/i Kora cy 
pa3Ba;iHHC /jajHHa (Hatta). Taj nyT je 6ho yBeK 3a 
KapaBane npoxoAan, a y nocieafoHM BpeMenHMa CBe 
HecnrypHHJH. Raj caM 1911 roAHHe XTeo ibHMe npohH 
on CKa^pa fIpH3peHy, 6ho ra je H3Ha^ MjeTa 3aTBO- 

PHO HeKH MHpH/lHTCKH nOMaBHUa. 

Or KaKO jc carpaJjeHa KOcoBCKa h MopaBCKO- 
Bap^apcKa >Ke;ie3HHua, yB03 h H3B03 ce ynyTHO no- 
r/iaBHTo npeMa Co;iyHy, a ycJien Tora je y pa^y h Tp- 
tobhhh BaponiH HacTao npeoKpcT h BpeH>e y TproBa- 
mkhm h 3anaT.iHJCKHM KpyroBHMa, Koje ce HHJe join 
noTnyHO yMHpn^o. Hacra/ia je HOBa >KHBa 6op6a 3a 
oncTaHaK H3Meljy Mecra : ojawa.ia cy h nocra/ia napo- 
ujHMa paHHJa ce<ia h He3naTHH apyMCKH xanoBii, k:io 
MmpoBHua, JiHn/baH h <J>cpH30BHh, a oc.ia6n.iH cy 
paa h TproBnna y crapuM naponjiiMa. Kao FlpH3pi 

IlpHUJTHHH II T)aKOBHUH. 

0,1 6ep/iHHCKor Konrpeca je jouj jeziaii unnn.iau 
nopeMeTHOCTapv BapouiKy paBHOTOKy h ma3Bao Bpeihe 
napoMHTo y kocobckhm BapoLUHMa. To cy Myxaunpn 
H3 CpGnje h Bocne. On Hajjawer cy ynmaja 6h.ih 
xaunpn H3 Minna, .TecKOBna n Bpaibe, KOJH cy. >kh- 
Rehu i! mi paiiHjc y KHBAIM h nanpeziHHJHM eKO- 

ckhm ucirrpHMa, yHe/iii y TproBanKii >khbot obhx 
oG.iacTH ninne nonpcTa H >khbocth. Ochm rora, obh m> 

HpM, npoTcpaini Ma ( bojhx Rapoiim m pcHpOTC/lM, 



252 HOBA CPEHJA 



o^a^H cy ce pa/iy h tckobhhh c bctihkom eHeprnjoM, 
He 6npajyhH necTO cpeacrBa h MeHbajyhH yTBp^eHe o^- 
Hoce TproBanKor pejxa y kocobckhm h noapHMCKHM Ba- 

pOUIHMa. y HeKO/lHKO Cy H3MeHHJIH H je3HK H THn KO- 

cobc})ckhx qapujHJa. y tt>HMa ce npe jiocejbeiba Myxa- 
unpa roBopHJio norviaBHTO cpncKH h TypcKH, Matte 
ap6aHauiKH; or aoce;beH>a Myxaunpa je ap6aHaiuKH 
je3HK Bnuie yodHHajeH. Jlajbe, npe Myxaunpa cy ce 
Ap6aHacH, ^.ocejbeHH ca cejia y BapouiH, Ha KocoBy h 
y FIpH3peHy Typnn3Hpa;iH, npHMajyhH je3HK h npn/ia- 
ro^aBajyhH ce TypcKOM ayxy napuinje, OHOMe ujto cy 
ra yTBpAHflH Typun ep/iHje. H noc;ie£tt>e je #o;iacKOM 
Myxaunpa nopeMeheHO, h MaxoM ce join HHje ycra/iHO 
oapetjeHH THn qapuiHJe. 

y Be3H c nocjie,a;Ffc>HM MyxaijHpcKHM yTHuajeM Ha- 
roBecTHhy je#Hy MHcao Koja ce ca^a He MO)Ke flOBOJbHO 
o6pa3^o>KHTH. Bhjio je yTHp^eHO jia Cp6n ncmeTKOM 
19 Bena HHcy hhhh^h BehHHy BapouiKor CTaHOBHHUjTBa 
hh y HaJMHCTHJHM cpncKHM o6.nacTHMa, Beh cy >KHBe;iH 
no cejiHMa, 6h;ih cy Hapoa oja, cejia, cejbaMKH Hapo£. 
Morao ce H3BecTH 3aKJbyqaK jia. Cp6n Hncy HMa^H 
HAH HHCy JOHI CTeKJIH cnocodHOCTH aa OCHHBajy Be- 
/iHKe BapouiH. fpun h ByrapH, >KHBehn noji hcthm 
no^HTHHKHM npnjiHKaMa, HMa/iH cy BapouiH ca cbojhm 
BehHHaMa. ropn>H 3aKJbyqaK he ce, H3ryie#a, y HeKO- 

JIHKO npOMeHHTH JieT3iJbHHM CTyAHJaMa o nO^pHMCKO- 

MeToxHjCKHM BapoujHMa. Hivia H3BecHnx no^aTaKa h 
3HaKOBa jia cy Cp6n h nocne ap6aHaun<e HHBa3Hj'e 
nyro BpeMeHa ^uhh/ih BehHHy craHOBHHUiTBa y riehn, 
a HapoHHTO y FIpHipeHy, r\ae cy join y npBHM nee?- 
THHaMa 19 BeKa npeB.naijHBajiH, a .aouHnje, nocraBuiH 
MaH^HHa, ,nyro cy npynami CBy TproBHHy y cbojhm 
pyKaivia h AaBa;iH THn BapouiH. Obo ce MO>Ke H3- 
BecTH H3 no^aTaKa Dr. J. Mullera, /lyroroflmuFber ;ie- 
Kapa y Typcnoj bojcuh, kojh ce Hapo^HTO y obhm 
KpajeBHMa 6aBHO h HecyMfoHBO hx y npBOJ no/io- 
bhhh 19 Bena Haj6ojbe no3naBao; HaBeuihy hx npn 
pa3MaTpaiby noje/iHHHx BapouiH. Hcto TBp^e h crapn 
MeuiTaHH. Be^HKH 3Haqaj cpncKor TproBanKor pe^a 
y obhm BapouiHMa jc jaKO CMaFbeH tck oji nace 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 253 



/baBan>a Myxaunpa. Ochm Tora cy Tana cpncne Man>HHe 
y ciapHM BapoiuHMa h Mhtpobhuh nocra^e He3HaT- 
HHJe, jep je noce;baBaH>CM Myxau^pa nopacTao 6poj 
MyxaMenaHCKor CTaHOBHHtuTBa Bh/io 6h oh BcnHKor 
HHTepeca TaMHO yTBp/iHTH Taj MyxaMe^aHCKH npwpa- 
uiTaj, Kao h to KaKO cy ce KpeTa/iH 6poJHH oahoch 
H3Mc^y Cp6a h MyxaMtjaHaua y CTapHM BapoiuHMa 
obhx 06/iacrH; Mo>K^a he ce y TypcKHM .noKa/iHHM apxH- 
BHMa HahH 3a to ynoTpe6:bHBHX nonaTaKa. 

Ca/ia ce Mory y obhm 06/iacTHMa h3jibojhth abc 
MaBHP rpyne BapoiuH: nonpHMCKO-MeTOXHjCKe h ko- 
coBCKe BapouiH, h Me^y noc/ieAH>HMa, iia^>e, KOcoBCKe 
>Ke^e3HHMKe BapouiH, h 3a6aneHH /lOKa/inn h aAMHHH- 

CTpaTHBHH UeHTpH." 

J.) riojpHMCKO-MeTOXHJCKe BapOUJM. 

To cy npH3peH, fleh h roaKOBwiia. BapoiuH nnon- 
hhx KOT/iHHa, Koje cy aanac yaa/beHe on r.iaBHHX ko- 

MyHHKaUHOHHX .IHHHJa H >KHBC nOMaBHTO Oil CBOJHX 

OKO.iHHa. Mt'f)y h>h\ a je HajnoBOJbHHJer no/iowaja h 
HaJBt hw FIpn3peH, HajBeha Bapoiu y o6;iacTHMa ceBepHO 
oa LLI^p n^aHHHe. 

1. ' eH. 

flpii3peH je Ha peun Bhctphuh, woa 6pjoM Ybh- 
;beHOM, no KOMe ce no/iowaj ripn3peHa H3 naieKa pa3- 
no3Haje. Bapoiu je Ha Bhctphmhhoj n/iaBHHH, 3aTHM Ha 
je3epcKHM Tt-paca.Ma, na KojwMa je rpan H3 TypcKor 
Bpi'Mena (Ka.baja). y 6/ih3mhm ry n/iaiiHue IlaujTpHK, 
KopHTHHK h Illapa. riopeii Elehif, ripn3peH je na naj- 
zieriiueM no/io>Kajy obhx KpajeBa. Hcno/i Bapomn cy 
n.iojiHa n>>ApHMa 11 Ilozirop, 3aTHM Ijikobh'jkh Xac, 
kojh je TaKo^e 3HaTHHM ne/ioM ynyhen Ha npH3pencKy 
nHJany; ckohomckh cy 3a npn3pen npHBeaaiie h wap- 
CKe »yne CpencKa, Ohclc h ,'byMa /Ke.uMHHMKa era- 
HHua 3a ripinpen je <I>*.pH30Biih, no Kora boah onn- 
caHH upno/beBCKH nyT. 

Hajcrapuja npoiu/iocT flpmpena hhjc 



254 HOBA CFBHJA 



HcnHTaHa. He 3Ha ce HHiuTa o tteroBOj npoiujiocTH npe 
pHMJbaHa. Hcto Tano He 3Ha ce TaqHo je jih oh Kao 
Bapoiu nodojao h 3a BpeMe PHMJbaHa. 3Ha ce caMo 
jia je Herae y HberoBOj okojihhh 6una pHMCKa Bappiu 
Koja ce 3Ba;ia TepaHiia JHpeneK mhcjih &a je OHa OHJia 
Ha Medy ^aHaiutber FIpH3peHa. ZlpyrH CTpyqtt>auH cy 
je Tpa>KH^H y pa3HHM MecTHMa npH3peHCKe okojikhc 
TaKO, ,HparaiueBHh je mhcjiho na ce cma Ha;ia3H;ia Ha 
daBaMa peKe HcTOKa h DiHHapa, Amh Bye jia je OHa 
6HJia Hervie koh JlyqaHa, a JacTpe6oB je Tpa>KH y na- 
HauifeeM ce/iy CyBOj PeuH. 

Uoji HMeHOM FIpH3peH (rpqKH IlQiodidva) cnoMHH^e 
ce y noneTKy je^aHaecrora Bena. ToAHHe 1020 y tbeMy 
je BacHJinje MaKe^OHau Byrapoy6nua 3acHOBao enH- 
CKonHJy. y hctom Beny noma^a noA cpncKy BJiacr. 
CpncKH Kpajb Muxanjio Aao j e npH3peH c HberoBOM 
okojihhom CHHy BcuHHy Ra HdHM ynpaBjba. Kao ynpa- 
BHTe^> npH3peHCKe o6.nacTH Boahh je pa36HO je^Hy 
BH3aHTHJCKy BojcKy Koja je 6HJia yna^a y Cp6HJy. Oh 
je 6ho y o6;iacTH Kpajba Bo^HHa, kojh ce 1073 ro^HHe 
y H>eMy KpyHHcao 3a 6yrapCKor uapa. Ca nponaiuhy 
cpncKe ^p>KaBe y XI Beny h FIpH3peH noma^a no# 
BH3aHTHJci<y o6^acT. y ^BaHaecTOM Beny HeMajta ra 
Ha Kpahe BpeMe ocBaja, anu ra 6p30 Hanyuna. JJou- 
HHJe ra Ha;ia3HMO y BJiacm BH3aHTHJCKor uapa A;ieK- 
CHJa Tpeher, h y o6;iacTH enupcKHx ^ecnoTa. y hcto 
BpeMe JlnnjbaH Ha KocoBy 6ho je y cpncKHM pynaMa. 
3a BpeMe Kpajba UparyTHHa (1278—1282) 6ho je y 
cpncKHM pyKaMa. FIpH i<pajy Tora Bena noTna,ne #e- 
(|)hhhthbho no;* cpncKy o6^acT, h y 6p30 noc/ie Tora 
nodajie HaJ3naMeHHTHja Bapoiu y cpe^FbeBeKOBHoj Cp- 
6hjh. Kpajb MHJiyTHH, Uap XlyiuaH h Uap ypoiu 6a- 
bh^h cy ce qeuihe y ibeMy, h MHoro cy AonptiHcnH jxa 
ce pa3BHJe. Kpajb Mw;iyTHH ca3H#a y npH3peny Ha 
peuH JleBHUJH upKBy ycneHHJa Cb. Boropo^Hue, Koja 
je aouHHJe npeTBopeHa y qaMHj'y h 6h npo3Bana UyMa 
UaMH. 3a BpeMe uapa JJyiuaHa FIpH3peH ce pa3BH jio 
CBor HaJBeher BpxyHua. Beiue je/jHa ojx naJBehHx h naj- 
c^aBHHJHX TproBam<HX BapoujH. y IberOBOJ OKOJIHHH 
fieiue Buuie rpa^oBa h uapcKHx j^Bopaua, Kao iuto cy 



KOCOBCKA CTAFA CPbHJA 



Ph6hhk, ripH3peH h BHiuerpa^, 3aTHM mhoto B/iacre- 

J1HHCKHX ^eTHiHKOBaua. Ko/IHKO je TO 6nna 3HaMeHHTa 

h HanpenHa Bapoiu bhuh ce no TOMe ujto je npH3peH 
KOBao cboj HOBau. FIpH3peHCKHM rpaaoM ynpaB.^bao jc 
KecpaAiija, kojh je yBeK 6ho Cp6HH no^aHHK cpncKor 
uapa, a TproM je ynpaB/bao KH€3 % kojh je o6hmh i 
6ho poiiOM H3 npHMopcKHX cpncKHX rpajOBa, naJBHine 
H3 /Iy6poBHHKa h KoTopa. flopeii k>hx 6ho je napu- 
HUK, 3aKyni!HK uapHHe. H iiapnHHUH cy 6hjm MaxoM 
KoTopann h ZIy6poBqaHH. Mhhh ce na je cpeaFbeBe- 

KOBHO ripH3pCHCKO CTaHOBHHUJTBO 6h/IO jaKO H3MCIIJaiIO. 

Behmiy cy whhh/ih Cp6n noiiaHHUH cpncKor uapa, 3aTHM 
je 6h.io KoTopaHa, Hy6poBMaHa, Kopqy/iaHa, Cn/behana 
H 3aiipaHa. Hcto TaKo 6h/io je M/ienaHa, <t>/iopeHTH- 
nana h Caca, 3aTH\i Ap6aHaca h B.iaxa. Cbh obh crpaHuu 
>KHBe^H cy y Ko.iOHHjaMa. CBaKa on obhx KO.iOHHja 
HMa/ia je CBoja iiapoMHTa npaBa. HajBHine je 6h.io Ry- 
6poBMana. Ohm cy HMa;iH h cboj reHepa;iHH KOHcy.iaT. 
Ko;ihko je 6m.io dpaHor e/ieMeHTa y npmpeny bhjui 
ce ua\6ojhQ no tomc ujto ey OB#e KamiHUH HiiaJiH 
^Be upKBe : CBdy Mapujy npH3pencKy h CBeior fleipa 
noBpx fIpH3peHa. OBne je 6h/io h ceiiHiiJTe npaBO- 
c.iaBHor enncKona. ypoin II noK/ioHno je npH3peH- 
CKOMy enncKony rpa.n npH3peHCKH (rop^n rpa;i, Bh- 
inerpaj), 3aje/iHO ca rpaacKOM upKBOM. xpaMOM CBeTor 
Hhko/ic, na y ibeMy MyBa enncKoncKy pn.3HHny h na 
ce y c/iyqajy onacnocTM Mowe y ib ck/iohhth. flounnje 
je Zlyujan TBp^aBy jiao HOBo-ocnoBanoM MaHacrHpy Cb. 
Apati^e/ia, a enncKony y naKna>ay ,iao Tpn ce.ia. 3a 
BpeMe 6ypnnx Bp^-Muia Mnorn rpaljann 6n ce noB.ia- 
um.ih y rpa;x. ronuHe 1332 mo.th.i3 je < ay6poBa i iKa ko- 
/lOHHJa Kpa;ha HyinaHa A8 mm nonycru na ca.vw Mory 
y rpn.iv nocTan/baTii cipawe. KaKO 6h 6h.ih CMrypHHJH 
*a ce h 3a CBOjy po6> A Kajx ce ro/iune L372Hhk 
A.iTOManoBHli c bojckom npnMHuao npn:ipeny, cbh J\y- 
6poB i ianH no6erouie H3 BapoujH y rpan H y MaHaCTHp 
Cb. Apaiiljc/ia. 

C nponainhy cpncKC uapeBiwe iiohuh.l' npona- 
.lam h caM ripn^Kn Kao HaJBa>KinijH rpa^ y ,ap>KaBn. 
oh je najBiimo h oceTHo H.cny nponacr. Ilpn3pen je 



HOBA CPliHJA 

nponao join npe Hero je noTnyHO najia cpejiHbeBeKOBHa 
cpncKa ^p>KaBa h npe Hero cy ra TypuH ocbojh^h. 
Beh roiiHHe 1433 cnoMHH^e ce Kao HanyojTeHo MecTO, 
a TypUH ra 3ay3euie hctom 1455, h to 20 nana nouiTO 
je na;io Hobo Bp#o. A^h mhm cy noa TypuHMa npH- 
^HKe nocTa^e Ma;io cpt^eHHj'e, IlpH3peH ce noHH^e 
Bp/io 6p30 onopaB^aTH. To je aouuio OTy#a uito je 
6ho Ha Ba>KHOJ Taqun Taiiamtber 3eTCKor ApyMa, a 3a- 
thm OTy.ua uito Kp03a h. HHje npo^a3HO HHJe/iaH Ba>K- 

HHJH BOJHH .ZlpyM, H TaKO je 6HO nOUITe^CH OR LUTeTHHX 

yTHuaja Koje cy Ha nojeiiHHe BapomH BpuiH;iH bcjikkh 
bojhh noxoAH. H 36or Tora CBera FIpH3peH Beh y 16 
BeKy ce cnoMHH>e Kao a<HBa TproBaqna Bapom, Koja 
je HMajia npocrpaHe KapaBaHcapaje h MHoro6poJHe ny- 
haHe. y 17 BeKy cnoMMfey ra Kao jeAHy oa HajBthnx 
BapouiH Ba^KaHCKor ricnyocrpBa Je^aH nyTHHK H3 
noneTKa ce^aMHaecTor BeKa paqyHa aa je y Ilpn3peHy 
6hjio 8 600 Kyha. a ccxJwckh apxnenHCKon rieTap ro- 
AHHe 1655 3a6e/ie>KH0 je na y fIpn3peHy HMa 12.000 
Kyha, Metjy KoJHMa je 6h;io k3to./ihmkhx CBera 30. W 
to BpeMe £Oia3H/ia cy Ha LLIapy Cy^TaHOBa CTana Ha 
jieTtby Hcnauiy. y ocaMHaecTOM BeKy y ripH3peHy cy 
Heo6HHHO pa3BHJeHH 3aHaTH h TproBHHa. Oh nocTaje 
r^aBHO MecTO Ha Ba^KaHCKOM flojiyocTpBy 3a H3pa,ay 
TypcKor opy>KJa. ripH3peHCKO opy>KJe H3B03H ce MaK 
3a MHCHp. HapOHHTO je nyBeH npn3peHCKH caxTHJaH, 
pa3He KyjyHUHJCKe h Tep3H|CKe H3paAe. CBH/iapcTBO je 
Bp^o #o6po pa3BHJeHO. TproBHHa je ycpe£cpet)eHa y 
KBapTy EviHHHTy, r\ne ce Ha/iaaH nonpHBeH 6a3ap ca 
orpoMHHM 6pojeM jiyhaHa. 

M3Mel}y cbhx BapouiH flocanaimbe CTape Cp- 
6hjc y FIpM3peHy je HaJBHiue canyBaHO ocTaTaKa on 
cpe.nHDeBeKOBHHx cpncKHx CTapHHa. Ha npBOM MecTy 
Tpe6a cnoMeHyTH upKBy ycneHnja CBeTe Boropo^H- 
ue, Kojy HapoA 30Be CBeTa FleTKa, a Typuw UyMy 
yaMH Ta je upKBa TeK y 17 om BeKy 6mia npe- 
TBopeHa y uaMHJy. UpKBa je ca3H/iaHa y 06/iHKy KpcTa 
ca neT Ky6eTa Ha rviaBHOM Ky6eTy HMa uiecT OKaHa, 
Koja cy ao 30 cm. niHpoi<a, a no 2 m. BncoKa. y cBa- 
kom or cnopeflHHX Ky6eTa HMa hx no neTHpH. UpKBa 



KOLOBLKA CTAPA CPKHJA 

je ca3HiiaHa on neweHor hepnHMa. Ha ceBepHOM h jy>K- 
hom Ky6eTy 6n.io je ymcthmmkh HcnncaHO n\ie CBe- 
Tor CaBe. Ha 3H£0BHMa H3iiyipa 6H/ia je >KHBonHcaHa. 
TypuH cy je KpeneM npeMa3a/iH, a.iH h aaHac Ka;i ot- 
naHe hpen bhah ce MHBonHC. Ta upKBa 6H/ia je 3a 
ayro noiiiTOBaHa h oa Myc/ioMaHa, HapoMHTo Myc/io- 
MaflHa cpncKor nopeK^a, nnje cy >KeHe TaJHO nocehH- 
Ba/ie OBaj xpaM. 

Crapa je h upKBa Ce. Cuaca. To je 6wm. con- 
CTBeHa upKBa B/ncre/iHHa M/ia/ieHa B.iaaojeBHha, kojh 
je >KHBeo y BpeMe uapa AyiuaHa. y jejiHo Bpevie Cp 
6h cy je 6h.ih HanycTH-iH, h y iboj je CTOKa n/iaHAO- 
Ba/ia, Tana je MHoro nocTpa;ia;ia. Oj, Cp6a cy je 6h/ih 
OTe/lH LiHHuapH. 

dapa je h npnea Ce. Boptja, Ma/ia h HHCKa 3rpa- 
ziHua. To je 6n,ia nopo^HMHa upKBa 6paTCTBa PyHO- 
BHha. kojh cy ce Hcryp^H/iH. 

UpKBa Ceeiuoz HiiKO.ie 6n/ia je 3acyia m^yHKOM 
h necKOM jeAHor noTOKa kojh je £o/ia3HO c UBHjbeHa. 
OrnpH^H cy je 1858 toahhc. H to je Ma/ieHa, He- 
3HaTHa upKBHua, a casnaana je y cpea^eM BeKy. 

M»*l)y AaHaoJM.HM npn3peHCi<HM gaMnjaina Hivia.HX 
cHrypHO joui Koje cy 6n;ie upKBe. 

npn3peHCKn rpaa HaMHFbeH je Ha MecTy Heniaiutbe 
BH3aHTnjCKe TBpljaBo. Taj rpa^ je HMao mhoto CBOAOBa, 
noA3eMHHx xuAHHKa h BOAOBOAa Ha hctomhoj crpann 
or TBp^aBe 6n/ia ie nauHibcua iiap-jMHTa 3rpa/ia 3a bo- 
AeHe 6yHape. Kaaa cy TypuH y ie.iH ripH3pen, TBphaBa 
je 6hj\2l cpyiuena. rioc.ie cy je Typ :h noHaB/ba.iH Ha 
3anaAHoj dpaHH rpaaa MaxMyT-naiua PoTy/ioBbh na- 

MHHHO je BCVlHKy Ky/IV, y KOJy je CMeCTHO 3BOHO Koje 

je y3eo H3 c.\iezicpeBCKe upKBe roAHHe 1813. 

Ha • i caia iipewa jyroHCTOKy, y K.incypH Bh- 
CTpHue cy pa3Ba.mne cpcuibCHCKOBHor rpaiia Bmue- 
rpaaa. y cpejitbeu BeKy 3BaJiH cy ra h Bmiierpaa h 
. I opibH rpaA*»3a pa^.iHKyoA „iloiber TpaAa", to jeer 
npH3peHCKe TBpljjBc. To je iipbo6htho 6n/ia BiuanTHJ- 
cKa cTpa>napnHua, Koja je nojuiriiyTa na HajaroAHMJen 
MecTy y ao.thhh BHCTpnue. CpGn cy ra ytuuWAH rpa- 
AOM H y IbC'My C33HAa^H upKby Cb. HHKO/ie. ToBopH 

HUBA CPBHJA 



258 HOBA CPEHJA 



ce Aa je Ha tbeiviy 6n;ia HeKa orpoMHa cTaiya Koja je, 
KaKO TypuH Bepyjy, 6w\a ncnytbeHa AyKaTHMa. IlpeA 
rpa^OM je 6ho moct. Y TOMe rpa^y Ap>KaHa je pH3- 
HHua npH3peHCKe enHCKonHJe, y HdOJ cy qyBaHe enn- 
cKonHJCKe KHoHre h yTBapn. Cejbauw ce;ia PaB^e h Cejia 
y Cpe^CKOJ >KyriH Mopa/in cy cra/mo AP>KaTH crpa>Ky 
Ha MOCTy h npen, MaHacnipOM Cb. ApxaHre^a. A CBa 
OKO.iHa ce^a Mopa^a cy to hcto hhhhth KaA je to Hamao 
3a noTpe6HO HryMaH IIoa 6pAOM Ha KOMe je 6ho Bh- 
uierpaA uap HywaH je roAHHe 1348 HanHHuo Maua- 
culupCeeiuoz ApxameAa MuxauAa. Y tbCMy je 6wjia 
upKBa, o kojoj ce roBopHJio OBaKo: „riaTOC npn3peH- 
CKe upKBe, AenaHCKa upKBa, nehcKa npenpaTa, 6atbCK0 
3/iaTO h pecaBCKO nncaHHJe HHr^e ce He Hajia3e". Ma- 
HacTHp Cb. ApxaHre^a MnxaHJia pa3opeH je roAHHe 
1615 h oa HDeroBa k iMeHa HaMHtbeHa je CnHaH-naiHHHa 
uaMHJa y FIpH3peHy. 

Vjie je 6ho rpaA Pu6huk, kojh ce AOCTa cnoMHH>e 
y cpe^HDeBeKOBHHM cnoMeHHUHMa, cana HHJe jacHO. Ja- 
crpe6oB mhcjih Aa ra Tpe6a Tpa>KHTH Ha Mecry Koje ce 
ca,na 30Be By3auH;iyK, h Koje ce Ha;ia3H Ha no caTa 
AajbHHe oa r1pH3peHa. 

y FIpH3peHy HMa 29 uaMHJa. oa kojhx je Haj- 
3HaMeHHTHJa CHHaH-naiUHHa uaMHJa. 3a AaHamiby Ka - 
TOAHHKy upKBy npHHajy Aa je HaMHibena Ha MecTy 
upKBe Cb. JlHMHTpHJa. Ha Bhctphuh je TeKHj'a Mapaiu, 
h koa H>e ABa orpoMHa n.iaTaHa, 3a Koje ce mhc/ih 
Aa cy H3 BpeMeHa Uapa flyuiaHa. riopeA obhx y Ba- 
pouiH, HapoHHTO y ohom AeJiy oko BorocjiOBHJe, HMa 
pa3HHX ocTaTaKa H3 cpeA^eBCKOBHe cpncKe cTapHHe. 

H AanaujFbH FIpH3peH je 3HaMeHHTa TproBaMKa h 
3aHaT^H|cKa Bapouj. FlaAajy y ohh MHoro6poJHH 3aHaiH 
6a.nKaHCKora THna: ceA^iapH, caMapuHJe, KOBaqn, 3.na- 
Tapn, rpHHapn, KyHAypunje, h t. a- FIo3HaTH cy npn- 

3peHCKH (})H^HrpaHCKH paAOBH, HapOHHTO yTHCKHBaHDe 

cpMe y apbo h npaBjbeHoe cpe6poM Be3eHnx HH6yKa, 
KyTHj'a, oKBHpa h t. a. no thm h KyheBHHM H3pal)e- 
BHHaMa ripH3peH ce CMaTpa 3a HajoTMeHHJy Bapoiu 
obhx KpajeBa h no ibeMy ce ynpaBJbajy h y*yc h 
MOAa, napoMHTO >KCHCKa. Bapom je noAeJbeHa Ha 24 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 

Maxa/ie h tia MHoro6poJHe ecHa(J)CKe napiiiHJe (Tep3H- 
Maxa^a, JleBHma, CapanaHa, HeMHpuHJe, >Khthh Tpr, 
Ilana3 Hapinnja). 

Ha na^HHaMa Tepace Ha koj'oj je npH3peHCKH 
rpaa je Bapom Ma/ia, y koj'oj >KHBe cnopo HCK/byHHBO 
Cp6H npaBOC/iaBHH. Ta Maxa/ia npeflcraBJba HaJBHUJH h 
HaJMHCTHJH ixeo BapoiuH. H3Mei^y nyha h no aB,injaMa 
H36njajy MHoroopoJHH M^a3CBH CBe>Ke n/iamiHCKe Boae, 
Koja ce pa3BOAH no aB/injaMa h c.ny>KH Kao HCKa Bp- 
cra npnpo;iHnx KaHa^a 3a MHiuhehbe. Cp6H >KHBe join 
npn y^a3y y Bapom, y npaiy kojh ce 30Be 5a>KAapaHa. 
TypuH >KHBe y paBHHUH, oko CnHaH-natuHHe uaMHJe, 
r\ne je, na>Ky, 6ho HyiuanoB ABop. Mhcjih ce #a Bapom 
Ma/ia y cpeflfoeM BCKy HHJe 6n;ia Hacc/beiia, Beh aa 
cy Ty 6h/ih BHHorpa^H h jicthoHkobuh npH3peHCKe 
B/iacie/ie. V obom ,icny BaponiH HMa ccaaivi Ma/inx 
cpe^HDCBeKOBHHX upKBHua. To he BepOBamo 6hth no- 
pojMMne Kane/ie nojciHHHx BcnHKaiua Koje cy ohh 
rpa/ui/in y3 CBOJe .ncnbHKOBue. 

TproBHHa je Bp/io >KHBa h ro upe 30 zo 10 ro- 
AHua 6u/ia je norviaBHTO y cpncKHM pyKaMa; h caja 
je cpncKH je3HK nope^ TypcKor h ap6aHaiuKor qap- 
UJHJCKH JC3HK. Behn 3HaMaj cpncKor TproBaMKor e/ie- 
MenTa y bc3ii je 6ho H3Met}y ocra.nor h ca pe.iaTHBHO 
6o:lom CHrypnoinliy Koja je y ripn3pciiy no -npe lie- 
ko/jhko jieneHHJa n.na/ia/ia. To noMHiby CKopo cbh cra- 
Phjh nyniHUH, a TBp^e h MCiiiTaHH. [1pn3pen je yBCK 
6ho Ba>KaH ueniap TypcKe nojuc H uhbh.ihc B/iacni. 
To je Bp.io crapn rpa,i, ca yrnpijeiiHM i iapujnjcKHM pe- 
aom h TproBawKHM era I kojh je yBCK 6no mho- 

ro6pojan h MohaH A.in y nocneAH leueHHjaua 

iipH^pcHCKa wapujHJa 6n.ia je y cue BeheM cipaxy on 
. hy.M.Lana, kojh cy y IHKO nyia H Bapom onca- 

J)HBa.TH. V ripH3pcny jc Kanrro OB-na/iaBa.io 6e3B:iaiijhc, 
h MapujHj'a cc 3aTBapa.i,i. To HHJe H3MeH>eHO HH OCHH- 
BanjCM KOHcy.naTa pycKOi B66 rofl, .1 aouHHJe ay- 
crpujcKor h Ta.iHJancKor. iia .ia cy napo'iino pycKii 
Koncy.iH jaKO 3aujTHliaBn.iH 11; vaBHe. Vnopeao 

ca dpaxoM 0,1 JhyuJb&HB pa3BHjao ce y [lpH3pe- 
hv nyzaMeAiRCKO - apHayTCKH ())aHaTM ilo.i phm 



260 HOBA CPBHJA 



yTHuajnM3 je y HeKO/iHKO oc;ia6H;ia cpncKa TproBHHa 
y ripH3peHy HnaK cy ce Cp6n h nopeii Tora oceha/iH 
jaKH h Ky^TypHO cy HaJBHine erojajiH. riopezi ochobhhx 
iDKOJia HMajiH cy 6oroc/iOBHJy h TproBaMKy ujKO^y, 
CBora JieKapa, h 3HaTaH 6poj iUKO/iOBaHHX TproBaua. 

Flo Mmiepy, kojh je ynoTpe6HO TypCKe xapaqKe 
cnHCKOBe. ro/iHHe 1838 y npH3peHy je 6yu\o 6000 Kyha, 
Me^y KOJHMa je 6hjhj 18.000 npaBoc/iaBHHX Ayiua, nor/ia- 
bhto Cp6a. 4000 MyxaMeziaHaua, 2 150 KamnHKa. Flo Mh- 
;iepy cy Cp6H hhhhjih */b, ApHayTH Ve, U,nHuapH Via, 
a OcMaH^Hje caiwo Veo npH3pencKor craHOBHHUJTBa. 
H3HeHal]yje bcihkh 6poj npH^peHCKnx Cpoa, a/iH HeMa 
pa3/iora HeBepoBaTH Mn;iepy. HenyHHX 20 ro iHHa 
noc/ie Mn;iepa noceTHO je npH3peH A. Xn/h(j)ep;iHHr 
h H3Heo aa y FIpw3peHy HMa caMO 12.000 craHOB- 
HHKa. Taj 6poj He H3iviena BepoBaTaH. Xh;i (^ep/iHHr je 
^ajbe caoniuTHO aa y npH3peHy HMa 3000 MyxaMeiia- 
Haua, 900 cpncKHX h 100 KamaHMKHX Kyha. H oh je 
3anHcao jia je TproBHHa 6n/ia Ta.ua nonnaBHTO y cpn- 
ckhm pyKaMa h fla ce TproBajio ca CKa^poM, Beorpa- 
jiom h CapajeBOM HenyHHX #eceT ronHHa noc/ie Xhji>- 
(J)epAHHra npowao je Kpo3 FIpn3peH aycTpHjcKH KOHcy;i 
XaH h yTBpAHO as. y FIpH3peHy HMa 11 540 Kyha ca 
46.000 daHOBHHKa. Join JacTpe6oB je HcraKao j& to 
Mopa 6hth HeKa norpeiHKa, jep je y npH3peHCKOM Ca;i- 
HaMe ojx 1874 ro4. 3a6tvie>KeHO &a y IlpH3peHy HMa 
3687 #oMOBa, a Jacrpe6oB je Haiuao na hx HMa 4089 
(CnoMeHHK Cpn. Kpajb. AKa#eMH|e, XLI, Beorpaa, 1904. 
c. 40). Mel)y npH3peHCKHM Cp6HMa je Bp;io Ma/io cra- 
pHHaua; Behnna cy ^ocejbeHHUH H3 o6/ih>kh3HX ce;ia 
h BapouiH, 3aTHM H3 TeroBa, He6pa, H3 UpHe Tope 
h THKBeiua. Hvia 21.244 craHOBHHKa. 

Flo reorpa(J)CKOM no;io>Kajy ripH3peH 6h Morao 
HMaTH, h HMao je y paHHJHM BpeMeHHMa MHoro Behn 
3naqaj ho AaHac. Hapo/iHa ra necMa 30Be „cpncKHM 
UapHrpaAOM". Taj Behn 3Haqaj y cpeAHbeM BeKy HMao 
je npH3peH 36or CBor CTpaTernjcKor h KOMyHHKaun- 
OHor no/io>Kaja. Oh je y saKJiotbeHOM no;io>Kajy noa 
ULlap-n^aHHHOM, a 6ho je Ha nepncj)epHJH ueHTpa/iHe 
06/iacTH HeMafeHhcKe zip>KaBe; ibeMy je 6hjio tciiiko 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPhHJA 

npHhw, a H3 H>era ce c bcnhkom bojhom CHarovi Morvio 
noMHUJJbaTH Ha ocBajajta jy>KHO on LUape. FIoMeHy/iH 

CMO npH3peHCKO-CKanapCKH, IipHCbeBCKH H MeTOXHJCKH 

nyT, kojh ce cacTajy y npH3peHy. A/ih h LLIapa je 
npoxoiwa n.nanHHa h npeKO n^e 6h ce momh cnpo- 
bpcth ao6pn ^pyMOBH. MeljyTHM cy npeMa TpaaHUH- 
jaMa h npeMa ocrauHMa on pa3Ba.iHHa, y paHHJHM Bpe- 
MCHHMa, Mowna y HeMaibHhcKO £o6a. HMaiH 3Haqaja 
H KapaBaHCKH nyTeBH, kojh Boae npeKO LLlape; noMe- 
HyTO je na ce Taj KapaBaHCKH cao6pahaj OApwao CBe 
£ok HHJe carpatjeHa KocoBCKa >Ke/ie3HHua; ca^a je jane 
nocehen caMO npH3peHCKO-TeTOBCKH nyT KapaBaHCKH 
fIpH3peH he ao6hth npaBy Ba>KHOCT caMO aKO nope;* 
H*era h;ih Kpo3 H>era npo^e ayHaBCKO-jaapaHCKa >Ke- 
^e3HHua. 

2 :ieh. 

„neh, Ha peuH Bhctphuh, uor orpaHUHMa flpo- 
K/ieTnja, Mowe ce no JienoTH no/io>Kaja ycneniHo TaK- 
mhmhth ca IlpH3peHOM. OHa je BapoujKH ueHTap Me- 
TOXHJe h cycejiHHx n/iaHHHCKHx 06/iacrH PyroBe, FI/iaBa, 
BepaHa h Po>Kaja. B/iare je k/ihmc h 6oraTe oko^hhc 
y Kojoj je pa3BHJeHO h BohapcrBO, BHHorpaaapcTBO, 
CBH^apcTBO h HeroBaibe ;iyBaHa W itoj cy CKopo Kao 
h y ripH3peHy pa3BHjeHH TaMO noMeHyTH 3aHaTH 6a;i- 
KaHCKora THna. rioujTO je y flehH 6n/ia cpncKa na- 
TpHJapujuja, OHa je Kpo3 iiyra BpeMeHa 6H/ia nyxoBHH 
ueHTap cpncKor Hapo.ua; h cazta je Cb. naTpHJapujHJa 
Be^HKH chmbo^ napoimor je^HHCTBa. 

Up J. Mn/iep je 3a6e/ie>Kno na je y FlehH oko 
ltt.38 tor. 6h;io 2400 Kytia ca 12000 CTaHOBHHKa ; or 
ibHX cy r&MO 130 Kyha 6n/ie npaBoc/iaBHe, 20 KaTo- 
/ihmkc a ocTa/ie MyxaMcaaHCKe. A/ih je no o6aBeujTciby 
Up Mn.nepa i otobo CBC nehcKO CTanoBHHiiJTBO cpn- 
ckot nopeK.ia, n3y3CBUJH 100 apHayTCKHX, 62 ocm3h 
/ihjckc h 28 UHHuapcKHx nopoamn. l Ai noc/ieTKy, no 
Up Mn/iepy rieii je 6n/ia npe 1 45^ roA. MHoro Beha 
Bapouj, a noTOM jc ona/ia yc.iej nce/bana^a Cp6a. Koja 
cy ce 36h.13 ochm tc roiinne join 1481, 1690 h 1740 

(UHT. U'.iO CTD, 74) 



262 HOBA CPBHJA 



3 r 5aK0BHi;a. 

„Ti)aKOBHua je y paBHH oko pene Epe3HKa h Ha 
Ma^o BHineM HeoreHOM 3eMJbHinTy. Ha H>y je ynyben 
#eo Xaca, FIojipHMe h MeToxHJe, 33thm hctomhh ne- 
j\obh MHpH^HTCKe h Ma^HCHJCKe o6;iacTH. OHa je rviaBHo 
ce^HiiiTe apHayTCKHX 6eroBa h cJdhchhx rviaBapa. Ba- 
pOUJKO CTaHOBHHLUTBO je Bp;io npe,ny3HMJbHB0, a;iH 
MHorH, He HMajyhH jiHMHe h hmobhc cnrypHOCTH y cbo- 
joj BapoiuH, paccnH/in cy ce no cbhrdkhbjbhm MecTHMa 
ceBepHO o^. LLIap-rijiaHHHe; TbaKOBnaHH cy oco6hto 
npe,ay3HM^bHBH TproBUH h xaHunje. 

Flo MH;iepy, ToaKOBHua je oko 1838 6uji3l Bpno 
Be^HKa Bapoin ca 18000 MyxaMe^aHaua, 2000 Cp6a 
h 450 KaTOJmqKHX ApdaHaca. MeljyTHM? no Hapo#- 
HOCTHMa Mnviep OBaKO panm^raHDaBa fiaKOBHMKO cra- 
hobhhujtbo: 17000 ApHayia, 3800 Cp6a h 180 OcMaH- 
^Hja. XHjb^epaHHr je 3a6eJie>KHO jia je y TbaKOBHUH 
1857 ro^HHe 3500 ap6aHaiDKHX Kyha, 60 cpncKHX h 
70 KaTo;iHHKHx. Mory ce nope^HTH h noAauw, Koje 
je 3a6e;ie>KHO MHviojeBHh (KitHra II, dp. 124). Ba- 
BehH ce y TbaKOBHUH 1900 tor., HHcaM Morao ^oHh 
A0 TaHHHJHX no^aTana o 6pojy Kyha. PeKJiu cy mh £a 
MyxaMe/iaHCKHx Kyha HMa oko 4000, a 6poj cpncKHX Kyha 
6h ce npeivia pa3/iHHHHM n3BopHMa Kpeiao oko 60—130. 

rieh h "BaKOBHua cy BapouiH ap6aHauiKe aHap- 
xHJe, KpBHe ocBeie h KpBapHHe, h y ibHMa caMO 3a 
neKO BpeMe Menace 3a pyKOM KaKBOM eneprHMHOM My- 
TecapH^y h KaJMaKaMy ^a ycraHOBe hckh cHomjbHB peA. 
OBaj ce He MO>Ke #a yTBp^H, mrnejia, norviaBHTO 36or 
AOCc/baBafea Majwcopa h MnpH^HTa y T^aKOBHuy a y 
rich noiviaBHTO a6or AOcejbaBatba PyroBaua h ApHayia 
H3 n^afea, 3aTHM 36or AHBJber craHOBHHiiJTBa y okojihhh. 
rio^c/bene cy na Maxa^e, h y ToaKOBHUH, cBaKa Maxa/ia 
HMa cBOjy 3ace6ny qapuiHJy, jep mho™ ycnen KpBH, He 
6a cmctih AO/ia3HTH y 3ajeAHH i n<y T JapmHJy: CBaKH nan 6h 
ce ydnja^H. y ocra;iOM, to ce h OBaKO AemaBa: npea moj 
A0^a3aK y T>ai<OBnuy 1900 r. norHnyjio jeycpeflHapujHJe 
ce#aM jby^H „36or KpBH". H 3anTHJe ap6aHaujKor no- 
peKJia qecTo HMajy KpB h cmcjih cy #a Me npate caMO Kpo3 



KOCOBCKA CTAFA CPBHJA 



H3BecHe Maxa.ie. JXo npe nBe nocjitjuht roziHHe obo cy 
6n/ie Haopy>KaHe BapoiuH: CBaKH mobck, h jiyhaHunja h 
OHaj iuto noTKHBa BO.iOBe, HMaiy y3a ce MapTHHKy h/ih pe- 
BO/iBep. TypcKa B.iacr Hnje HMa/ia HHKaKBor ayTopH- 
Teia, Beh noje^HHH ap6aHaujKH nor/iaBapn, Kao My/ia 
3eKa y FlehH, h Pn3a 6ej h BajpaM Uyp y ToaKOBHun. 
flopTa je HMa^a caMO y to/ihko 3Hanaja uito je, Aa- 
jyhH obhm H ^pyruM 3HaTHHM Ap6aHacHMa BC.iHKa boj- 
KHMKa 3Baita h Harpajie, npeKO h>hx Mnr.ia yTHuaTH 
Ha Ap6aHace. FIocvieiiHDe cy hckh oa obhx nor/iaBapa 
npHMa.iH h on crpanHx, Be^HKHx npmasa. >KHBe ycpea 
BapouuH y Ky^aMa kojc cy orpa^eHe bhcokhm 3haom, 
h yHyTpa #p>Ke KaiuTo no ctothhc Haopy>KaHHX mo- 
MaKa kojh hx nyBajy h y/iHBajy CTpax y BapouiH h no 

OKO/1HHH, OflHHHO CpeAH>eBeKOBHHM pa3(5oJHHHKHM pH- 

TepHMa. XpninhaHCKO ct3hobhhujtbo je noil OBaKBHM 
npw/iHKaMa je 6e3 HKaKBa npaBa h 6e3 ;iHHHe h hmobhc 
cnrypHOCTn: necTO ce zieujaBa &a nojeauHH ochohh Ap- 
HayTH yueibyjy 6oraTnje :by£e HOBwano, y3HMajy H3 
xpniuhaHCKHX iiyhaHa lijto hm Tpe6a a He n^ahajy, 
OTHMajy >KeHe, h Ha nooieTKy ncrepyjy ca HMan>a h Kyha; 
3aTO je cpncKO ct3hobhhujtbo ocnpoTe.no, MaxoM npaBa 
«f>yKapa, oco6hto y ToaKOBHUH." 

KocoBCKe >Ke:ie3HH4Ke BapouiH. 

„0a H^nxnocTaje HaJBaxuniJH <I>epii306iiii, Kao pac- 
Kpmhe nyieBa h Ba>KHa TproBHHCKa craHHua. Kao ujto 
je noMeHyTO, oh je CTannua 3a npH3pen, rioiipuMy, 
npH3peHCKH Ilo^rop, 06Huy, JlyroBe n ribM/iane. 3aio 
ujto je nopeA npyre h ujto je y ibeMy Ma/io Ap6a- 
naca ( pe^aTHBHo je CHrypua Bapoiunua. 

4>epH30Bnh je nocrao ynpaao on Ka/i je carpp- 
fyeHa KOCOBCKa H<e/ie3HHua. Ho Taiia je Ha tberoBy MecTy 
c>H/ia ujyMa ce/ia HnKOAHMa, h yH>oj Ma;w xaH HeKora 
<t>epn3a. HaHac y <J>epn30BHhy HMa oko 400 Kyha h 
200 ayliana ca bc;ihkhm MaraumniMa, napowHTO 3a ko- 
cobcko >kht«», 3aTHM 3a eBponcKe ecnanc, kojh ce OAaB^e 
;ia:i.e pa3H0ce. 

^epH30Bnhy cy Cp6n iiajaKiHBHHje CTanoBHii- 
uiTBo, h ai<() hx neMa bhiiic 04 38 Kyha. Me^y frl 



264 HOBA CPbHJA 

npBO MecTO 3ay3HMajy npH3peHUH, kojhx HMa 24 no- 
poAHiie h/ih 32 Kyhe. Rajbe HMa 3 i<yhe H3 IlpHUJTHHe, 
h no jeAHa H3 CpeACKe, r^HJiaHa h Be^eca. Oa cbhx 
je HajdapHJa nopoAHiia CHHaAHHOBHha, H3 npH3peHa, 
Koja ce HaceAHJia npe 40 roAHHa, a ocraAe cpncKe no- 
poAHue cy Aomjie nocjie/ufcux 15—20 roAHHa. 

MyxaMe^aHaua HMa oko 160 Kyha, h oa HbHx cy 
100 Kyha 6ocaHCKHx MyxauHpa cpncKorje3HKa, a ocra;ie 
ap6aHauiKHX Myxauwpa H3 Cp6nje; h jeAHH h Apyrn cy 
AOce^>eHH nocne 1878 roA. Ha nocneTKy HMa hckoahko 
Kyha TaMoiiiFbHX Ap6aHaca. 

y OepH30BHhy je musa KaTo/iHMKa nponaraHAa, 
h nodoJH Te>Ktba Aa ce OBAe Hace;iH hito BHiiie ap6a- 
HaiuKHx KamnHKa; HMa hx 22 Kyhe, AOcejbeHe H3 ripH- 
3peHa h H3 CKaiipa. 

Bp;io aKTHBHH cy h UnHuapH, kojhx HMa 18 Kyha, 

AOCCJbeHHX H3 6HTOJbCKe UHHUapCKe 30He : H3 BHTOJba, 

Toneina, h MarapeBa h KpyiueBa. 

Hanoc/ieTKy cy ce y nocneaFbHM roAHHaMa no- 
qe^H AOcejbaBaTH UnraHH H3 npnuuTHHe, h HMa hx oko 
50 Kyha, no^a MyxaMe^aHCKe, no;ia npaBoaaaBHe Bepe. 

Ha 120 m. oa ce/ia JlnnjbaHa none^a ce oko Jiiin- 
jbaHCKe CTaHHue (})opMHpaTH Ma;ia BapouiHua, a;iH Bp/io 
>KHBa. y kojoj ce CKyruba H3B03 h yB03 3HaTHHX Ae./iOBa 
KocoBa, ca AyhaHHMa, Mara3aMa h MexaHaMa. JInnjbaHUH 
OBy HOBy BapoiiiHUV 30By dacHOH. Ty HMa 10 Kyha Cp6a 
H3 JlHnjbaHa, J\. TyiuTepHue, FIpH3peHa, IlpHuiTHHe h 
Be/ieca. flajbe HMa 8 Kyha U,HHuapa, Kojncy 3a noc;ieatt>e 
ABe iieueHHJe cbh H3 Toneina AOcejbeHH. Ha nocneTKy 
HMa 4 MyxaMeaaHCKe Kyhe, oa kojhx cy ABe H3 TbaKO- 
BHue, h jbyAHce6aBe6aKa;icKOM paAfoOM. jeAHa H3 FIpH- 
iuthhc jeAHa H3 CKonjba. J[aHac HMa 3405 craHOBHHKa. 

Mel)y AaHaujtoHM kocobckhm BapoujHMa flpu- 
luiuima je HecyMtbHBO HajcTapnja h CMeiuTeHa y hcto- 
mhom Kpajy HajuiHpe kocobckc napTHJe. Ona je npaBa 
KOcoBCKa BapoiiJ. y HdChoj 6;ih3hhh, Vk caxaT Ha jyry, 
AH>Ke ce MaHacTHp TpanaHHua, Hajjienuia HeMa^HhcKa 
3aAy>K6HHa ; Ha nyTy kojh oa npnuiTHHe boah 3a By- 
MHTpH HMa TparoBa oa upKBe CaMOApe)Ke. HiMet)y 
flpniUTHHc h JIa6a 6n;ia ce KOCOBCKa 6nTKa, h Ha tom 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 265 

nojby cy CBe TypcKe ycnoMeHe Ha KOCOBCKy 6HTKy. 
OBne ce c /ieBe CTpaHe nyTa iuto boah 3a ByMHTpH 
H3/I33H rpo6HHua cy/iT3H3 MypaTa : yaMHJa ca May30- 
AeyMOM y komp cy caMO epue h yTpo6a MypaTOBa, a 
Te.no je y jeAHOj usmhjh y BpycH. j 6/ih3hhh OBe rpo6- 
HHue je zipyra npocra U3MHJ3 ca rpo6oM Ta3H-Me- 
CTaH-6eja, MypaTOBa 3acraBHHKa, kojh je TaKolje no- 
rHHyo y kocobckom 6ojy." 

ripHiiJTHHa je 6H/ia jeA3H on 3HaMeHHTHJnx rpa- 
AOB3 y cpeA^eBeKOBHOJ Cp6HJH. OHa 6eiue BHiue nyia 
pe3HAeHUHJ3 cpncKHX Kpa^>eBa. Kpa/b Mn/iyTHH, Cre- 
BaH HewaHCKH, uap HyiuaH, a AOUHnje BpshkobhHh h 
rpe6e^»aHOBHhH 63bh/ih cy ce h nncsAH noBejbe y 
flpHUJTHHH. y flpHiuTHHH je CTaHOBao usp Hyuj3H ro- 
AHHe 1342, h T3A3 ce koa H>era 6aBHO Kao 6eryHau 
BHjaHTHJcKH uap JoBaH KaHTaKy3eH, kojh FlpHiuTHHy 
npHKa3yje Kao HeyTBp^eHO ceAo c Kpa;beBCKOM nana- 
tom. KaA je U,ap HyiuaH pe3HAHpao y flpHLUTHHH, y3 
H>era je 6ho caBeT oa ABaAeceT h mcthph AOcrojaH- 
CTBeHHKa, y mhjhm je Ae6aTa\ia yqecrBOBa/ia h uapnua 
Je/ieHa. y FIphujthhh je 6wna Ay6poBaqKa KO/ioHnja, 
Koja je Ap*a/ia noA 3aKyn uapHHy. HouHHJe je npH- 
niTHHa 6H/ia npecTOHHua ByKa BpaHKOBHha. 3Ha ce 
Aa je h y 17-om BCKy 6wna jeAHa oa 3HaivieHHTHJHX 
BapoiuH, y kojoj je 6H/ia A\6poBaMKa Ko/ioHHJa h y- 
npaBa 06/iHHabHX MaJAaHa. y 18-om h 19-om BeKy 6n.ia 
je MyBeHa 36or cbojhx naHa^ypa, Ha Koie cy AO/]a3HAH 
TproBUH H3 Co/iyHa, JeApeHa, Ap6aHHJe, BocHe h Hniua. 
y noneTKy 19-or BeKa 6n.ia je ct'AHLUTe KocoBCKor 
Bn/iajeTa, Koje je AOUHHJe npeHeceHO y flpH3peH h 
CKon/be. 

B ripHiiiTHHa je Kpo3 CBe TypcKo BpeMe ao AaHac 
6H/ia ceAHnue MyxaMeAaHCKHx 6eroBa kojh cy Ap>Ka;iH 
3eMjbe Ha KocoBy ; ochm jbhx 6hj\o je y npniiiTHHH 
TypaKa 3anaT^HJa, kojh cy ce HapownTO 6aBH^H 3a- 
HaTHMa KoibCKe onpeMe h KyjyHyn/iyKOM. Xn/b(|)ep- 
bhht je 1857 roA. 3a6e/ie>KHO Aa y ripHiiJTHHH HMa 
1503 Kyha, oa kojhx 1200 MyxaMCAaHCKC, a 300 npa- 
BocaaBHHX ; nocneAibH ao 1820 toa. HHcy HMa/iH up- 

KBC rio MOJHM 06aBeilITeihHMa je 19 lO roA. 6h/io y 



266 HOBA GPBHJA 



npHiiiTHHH oko 4.000 Kyha, or kojhx je 3.200 Myxa- 
Me^aHCKHX, 531 cpncKa Kyha, 60—70 jeBpejcKHX, a 
ocTa^e UHraHCKe h qepKecKe. Mel)y MyxaMeaaHUHMa 
HMa MHoro Myxaunpa' H3 CpSnje, a ocrajio cy Ap6a- 
HacH H3 okojihhx cejia h npe;iy3HMJbHBH TbaKOBUH ca 
TypuHMa Ep^Hj'aMa. Ho ^ocejbaBaHba Myxaunpa h 0B,ne 
je, Kao y FIpH3peHy, TproBHHa 6wia y cpncKHM py- 
KaMa, a Typun cy )KHBe;iH or npHxo^a ca qH(j)jiHKa h 
or 3aHaTa. Ca^a cy 3HaTaH #eo TproBHHe npey3e;iH wy- 

XaUHpH, HapOMHTO H3 HHUia H H3 JiecKOBua. 

AjIH ripHLUTHHa HHje HaJB3>KHHJH TprOBHHCKH UCH- 

Tap Ha KocoBy. OHa je yaajBCHa or >Kejie3HHqKe npyre 
7—8 KHJioivieTapa h npHimeBCKa je craHHua koa ce^a 
Dio6onepHue. Hnje Ha iby ynyheHa hh Beha o6jiacr, 
ochm JIa6a, KOMe je rjiaBHa nnjaija npniuTHHa, a npBa 
jiOKajma FIoflyjeBO. Ha nocneTKy h npHuiTeBCKO cra- 
hobhhujtbo je no CKopa npeiiCTaBJbajio 4)aHaTH30BaHy 
TypcKO-ap6aHaniKy Macy, HenpHJaTejbCKH pacnc»Jio>KeHy 
npeMa HOBHHaMa, na h npeMa H<e;ie3HHUH. Ajih FIpH- 
iiiTHHa Hnan HMa 3Haqaj 36or noMeHyie, h ano c;ia- 
6nje TproBHHe, Kao niaBHH auMHHHcrpaTHBHH ueHTap 
Ha KocoBy. JlaHac HMa 18.174 ciaHOBHHKa. 

BymiiupH je 6ho Bapoiu apHavTCKe aHapxnje, 3aio 
je nope^ n>e >Kejie3HHua npouuia CKopo 6e3 HKaKBa 
yTHuaja. H aKO je CTapo MecTO, ocra;io je c Ma/iHM 
6pojeM cTaHOBHHiiiTBa. XHJb^ep^HHr je 3a6e;ie>KHO rsl 
y ByqHTpy HMa 400 Kyha, or kojhx cy 250 Kyha My- 
xaMe^aHCKHx, a 150 cpncKHX. Flo T. CTaHKOBHhy je 
6h;io y ByqHTpHy oko 1900 ro^HHe oko 800 Kyha, or ko- 
jhx cy 250 cpncKe, a ocra;ie MyxaMe^aHCKe; MeijyTHM, no 
MHTponojiHJCKOM cnHCKy or 1910. roA-, V ByqHTpHy HMa 
caMO 210 cpncKHX Kyha. HaHac HMa 5749 craHOBHHKa. 

MHoro je BaacHHj'a Muiupoeut^a, Koja je join 1871 
6n^a ce^o ca 150 Kyha c^aMapa. XHJb^ep^HHr je 1857 
3a6e/ie>KHO jxa je MnTpoBHua He3HaTHO mccto, Ma^a 
or ByqHTpHa. nocra/ia je naj>KHBJbe kocobcko MecTO 
or KaKo je carpal^eHa KocoBCKa >Kejie3HHua. rio Jppen-y 
je y Mhtpobhuh oko 1890 6h;io 21000 CTaHOBHHKa, 
or kojhx cy 16.000 MyxaMe^aHUH, a ocra;io norviaBHTo 
Cp6n, c Ma/iHM 6pojeM B^axa h TpKa. Me^ytHM ca.ua 



KOCOBCKA CTAl'A CPBHJA 

y Mhtpobhuh HMa oko 1100 Kyha, on kojhx cy, npeivia 

MHTponO/IHJCKHM CnHCKOBHMa 180 Kyha npaBOCTiaBHHX 

Cp6a, HCTHHa Aocra 3aapy>KHe, a ocTa^e cy MyxaMe- 
aancKe. Meljy MyxaMe^aHUHMa HMa Bp/io 3HaTaH 6poj 
Myxaynpa H3 Bocne h XepueroBHHe, Kojii h cazia ro- 
Bope cpncKHM j'g3hkom h HHHe HaJBehy Maxa.iy y ce- 
BepHOM Ae/iy MnipoBHue. H.via ^ocra h ApHayia H3 
Cp6HJe. MHTpoBHua je 3HaTH0 bojhhmko mccto h rap- 
HH30H ce mhtpobhmkh necm nette no 10 000 Jbynu. 

MmpoBHua je non 3BeHaHOM, < ao6po oqyBaHHM 
rpa^oM, kojh je BehH on Hobot Bp/ia, TBptje on ft>era 
3H;iaH, h 6ho je jezma on npecroHHua cna>KHe HeMatbHh- 
cKe iiHHacTHJe. Bapoiu je nocipojeHa H3Met)y H6pa 
h CHTHHue, a Kpo3 ity npoTHne pewnua ,'byuna. O- 
CHOBaHa y HajceBepHHieM zie/iy KocoBa, r\ae ce 3aBp- 
ujyje >Ke/ie3HHua h oziaK/ie nonHtbe 6ocaHCKH nyi\ 0Ha 
je craHHua 3a yB03 h H3B03 3HaTHHx o6;iacTH. Ha H>y 
cy ynyheHH He caMO crapn Ko/iaujHH h MeTOXHJa ca 
FlehH, Beh h 3HaTHH zie/iOBH ceBepHor KocoBa h n6ap- 
CKe zio/iHHe. Ha nocneTKy, HaJBa>KHnje je to iuto je Mh- 
TpoBHua yB03Ha h H3B03Ha cTaHHua HoBona3apCKor CaH- 
MaKa. 3aTO OHa noaraje r.iaBno TproBaMKo Mecro Ha Ko- 
coBy, c kojhm ce jouj je^HHO OepH30BHh MO>Ke y 6ynyh- 

HOCTH TaKMHMHTH. u HaHaC HMa 9354 CTaHOBHHKa. 

BcmcKy npxay, 3 caia Ha ceBep on KocoBCKe Mh- 
TpoBHue, carpanno je 3a na^rpodHy upKBy Kpajb Mh- 
.lyTHH oko 1315 r. „fIo cbojhm aocra bcjihkhm nn- 
MeHcnjaMa, no tcxhhhkoj caBpuiCHOCTH, no /ienoTH pa3- 
Mepa, no 6oraTCTBy opuaMeHTHKe, no apxHTeKTOHCKHM 
o6/inuHMa, HajcaBpiueHHJe h najnpeuH3HHJe H3BezieHHM, 
no /ieno CMHUj/benHM h opnrHHa/iHHM KanHTe^HMa, 0By 
rpal)eBHny CTaB^>aM Ha npBO Medo on (, bhx rpafyeBHHa 
y poMaHCKOM CTH/iy no^nrHyTHX Ha cpncKOM 3eM/bHUJTy" 
(A. CTcc{)aHOBHh). Oil zipyrnx cpncKHX rpaljeBHHa pa3.iH- 
Kyje ce obhm: Ky6e Behnx pa3Mepa ho non ocra/inx 
cpncKHX upKaBa, n.iHTKO, h 3axBaia CKopo ue;iy hjh- 
pHHy rpal]eBHHe. Cno/bHH 3HAOBH onyrTianaHor KaMena 
y Tpn 6oje: 6e;ic, upBeHe h Moupe, Koje cy HaH3Me- 
hhmho nope^ane. Ho no/ia cpyiueHa. rio npe;iart>y y 
noHeTKy 15 BeKa npeTBopeHa y uaMHJy, h Aanic ce 
bhah MHHape Ae^OM nopyiueHO. 



268 HOBA CPBHJA 

BapoiiiH 3a6aieHor nojiowaja. 

„JIena je BapouiHua rn>ujiaHe> ckohomckh ueHTap 
ropH>e h JXoihe MopaBe. rpbHJiaHe je HOBa Bapoui. 
OcHOBao ra oko 1750 roA. BaxTH6er I^HHHh, Ha Medy 
CTapora MaHacnipa cb. JoBaHa, Koje je 6n.no MonapHO, 
h no TOMe je rtt>H;iaHe HMe ao6hao (T. GranKOBHh, 
Uht. actio, c. 2.). CeAHiuTe je TypCKHx 6eroBa kojh 
Ap>Ke njiouHe MopaBCKe 3eMJbe. Ca^a y HfeHJiaHyHMa 
oko 1000 nyha, oa kojhx cy 407 cpncne, a ocra;ie My- 
xaMcaaHCKe. HeKH oa MyxaivieAaHaua cy AoceJbeHH c 
HoBOr BpAa, y KOMe je 3a BpeMe JacTpe6oB^»eBnx ny- 
TOBaHDa 6hao join 30 MyxaMcaaHCKnx nyha. OcrajiH My- 
xaMeziaHUH cy no T. CraHKOBHhy (Uht. actio, c. 8) Ap- 
HayTauin cpncne KpBH. XUnac HMa 7.767 ciaHOBHHKa. 

H Ja*>e8o ce no no;io>Kajy MO)Ke panyHaTH y ko- 
coBCKe BapoujH, a;iH je 3ace6Hora >KHBOTa h pa.ua, HHJe 
aoahphvto hobhm KOMyHHKauHJaMa, h npeACTaBJba y 
MHoroM noivieAy pyAHMeHTHy Bapoui. 

OHa je ca^a y Ay6oKoj aoahhh JaibeBKe, y Te- 
chom no;io>Kajy oko Kora ce AH>Ky ro^a 6pAa, h njia- 
BHHe HdHxobhx noTOKa 3acnnajy Bapoin. OBa ce Ae/iH 
Ha Maxa/ie: Je3epue, BHpoBue, TypcKy Maxa-ny, DiaMy, 
JXoiby h TopHoy Maxa/iy, ConoT h ria^KHh. JaiteBUH 
TBp^e Aa oho paHHJe Hnje 6hao Ha obom MecTy, Beh 
H3Mel]y 6pna BopcnHHa h CypH>eBHue, h ohh to MecTO 
30By CTapo JafoeBO. fIpnMajy Aa cy CTapo Jan>eBO 
ocHOBa^H py^apH, OHAa KaA ce rpaAHAa upKBa Tpa- 
HaHHua. PaceJbeHO je 36or 3y;iyMa, h npnqajy 3a ABa no- 
Kojba Koja cy ApHayTH npnpeAHAH y Crapoivi JaibeBy. 
Ha AaHaujH>e MecTO Aocejiww cy ce 36or to a luto 
cy OB^e 6H^e Kyjie hckhx chahhx 6eroBa CnaxnJHha, 
Te cy nx obh 3ainTHhaBa/iH. 

y 1910 roA- 6hao je (KaA caM TaMO no Apyrn nyT 
6ho) 515 Kyha, oa kojhx cy 400 KamnHMKnx Cp6a hah 
„JlaTHHa" (KaKO hx npaBOG/iaBHH 30By), 75 Kyha ApHa- 
yTa h ApHayTaina, 20 Kyha Myxanwpa H3 Cp6nje, 2 
Kyhe TypaKa UlaM/inja (h3 LUaivia, M. A3HJa) h oko 18 
Kyha MyxaMe^HHCKHX UnraHa. Kyhe cy no npaBHAy hho- 
Kocne, y 2 — 3 HaJMHorojbyAHHJe HMa ao 15 Ayina. 

Meljy ,,/laTHHHMa" (obh npaBOcnaBHe 30By Baa- 



KOCOBCKA « TAFA LFbHJA 

CHMa) RBe nopoiiHiie cy crapHHanKe, £Oce;beHe H3 Cra- 
por JatfceBa, h 6poje 110 K>ha. Te RBe nopoAHue cy 
T^acuHOBHhH H na/inhn. Ocra/iH cy CTapn aoce/bCHHUH, 
CTapHjH or 200 ro^HHa. HaJBHiue hx je ;joce:beHO „npe 
300 Fo^uMa - ', h to 4 nopoAnue ca 7y Kyha, h „npe 
250 roziHHa", h to 4 nopo^Hue ca 40 Kyha. HajM/iatja je 
je/iHa nopo^Hua ca 7 Kyha, ^oct.beHa „npe 200 rojHHa". 
Ochm noMeHyTHx nopoiiHua H3 Crapor JameBa, ocra/in 
cy zioce^eHH H3 obhx KpaieBa: 

HaJBHiue hx je H3 TpaMaHHue y Bochh : 2 nopo- 
;iHue ca 62 Kyhe. 3aTHM ROJiaie KaTO/inun or (j)nca 
BepH a, aoce/beHH H3 Ma/iHcnje, h to jc^Ha nopoa^ua 
ca 34 Kyhe. Hi KpaTOBa cy aocejbeHe abc nopo^Mue, 
Oil kojhx ce pa3rpanaTHj'a 30Be Tni6apn, h 3Haiy Ra cy 
rowjih Kao pyiiapH. H3 Fkhn cy aoce/beHe 2 nopo- 
AHue ca 25 Kvha, H3 ripH3peHa 1 noponnua ca 17 Kyha, 
H3 Ckoiickc UpHe Tope 2 nopo^Hue ca 15 Kyha H3 
CKon/ba 1 ca 12 Kyha. Ochm H3 Bochc, ca ceBepo-sa- 
na/ia cy aoce/beHe h OBe nopoziHue: H3 Ckajipa 1 ca 
11 Kyha, H3 Ha/iMauHJe 1 ca 16 Kyha, h ca LI_InpoKor 
Bpniera y XopueroBHHH 1 ca 18 K>ha Hc3HaTaH je 
6poj Kyha Heno3HaTor nopeK/ia. Ymhtc^j ByKa^HH flo- 
noBnh H3 TyujTipnue ,ap>KH Ra cy OHe H3 obhx Kpa- 
jeBa, MO>Kiia H3 HoBor Bpna. 

IlpaBoc^aBHH Cp6n H3 oko^hhc TBp^e Ra cy MHore 
or obhx nopo^Hua npn aocejbaBamy 6H/ie npaBocnaBue 
h R3 cy ce iiouHHje noKaTo/iHMH/ie 3a BpeMe l.lHHOBhha, 
kojh cy c/iomh/ih Moh CiiaxHJnha; noKaTO^HMH^H cy ce 
Be/ie 36or Tora ujto cy Time 6h.th 60/be 3aujTHheHH 

OR HaCHJba. Mct)\THM, KaKO Ce H3 H3/IO>KeHOr BHJH. ,10- 

ce/bCHnun cy blIihhom h3 MecTa h KpajeBa y KoJHMa 
je 6h;io h/ih momo 6hth KaTO^HKa. A/in HiMeja ne- 
cyMibHBO Ra je ro Kpaja 18 BeKa 6h;io y JameBy npa- 
Bdc.iaBHiix. jcp je nodoja/ia npaBOc/iaBtia upKBa Cb. 
Hhko/r-; na it.mn.M TeneJbHlia je ,inrnyTa naHaujma Ka- 
To^HMha upKBa. Ha/be je y O.ihjmhh JaibeBa na aeCHOJ 
CTpanH rpaqaHKC mime ccia Bd^oBua 6mo npaBoci mmi 
MaHacTHp H.;j« H.ioBHua. kojm je onycTeo TeK 1762 ro- 
^HHe (Tl. KocTnh, CnoMCHHK Cpn. Kpa;b. AxajieMije 
XLLX, c. :*6.-49). 



HOBA CPbMJA 



ApHayTa h ApHayiaina HMa 70 Kyha, h to iiomh- 
ibaTHx CnaxHJHha 20 Kyha, Tama 24 Kyhe, or (J)Hca 
Con 23 Kyhe, h nopo/urne HeKpnha 8 Kyha. FIoMeHy- 
thx 20 Kyha Myxaijnpa .nocejbeHe cy nocne 1878 roA. 
H3 Cp6HJe. 

no 3aHHMatby je JatbeBO pynHMeHTHa Bapoinjep 
cy ce y iteMy oqyBajiH nocjienttH ocrauH MeTajiHe HH^y- 
dpHJe HoBora Bpjxa. Or Tyqn JiHj'y KaHnn/ia, CBehttaKe, 
rpHBHe, npcTett>e, h HaponHTO MHoro KpcTOBa, h npo- 
#ajy hx no KocoBy, Mctoxhjh h npH3peHCKOJ oko^hhh, 
3aTHM no Cp6njn, ByrapcKOJ h RiauiKOJ. PaHnje cy 
nyTOBa/i'i h npoaaBa/in CBOJe H3paijeBHHe h no cboj 
MaKeaoHHJH ro CojiyHa. J\ajbe y MacaMa, a;iH HeyKy- 
cho H3patjyjy no KyhaMa aceHCKy HoniHDy h pa3HOBp- 
CHe y6pyce, Koje npo^ajy no KocoBy, h noTHCKyjy yKy- 
CHy KocoBCKy Homtby, Koja CKyno craje. HnaK cy peTKH 

HMyhHHJH JaHDeBUH. 

Meljy npe3HMeHHMa npeoBJial)yjy npe3HMeHa 3a- 
na^HHx KpajeBa." 

Hobo Epao. 

Hobo Bpzio, ztaHac ceoue or 6 6e;uMx h CHpoMaui- 
hhx Kyha, Ba>KHO je caMO no cbojoj npoui;iocTH. y ,npy- 
roj no;ioBHHH 14 h y npBOJ no;ioBHHH 15 BeKa 6h;io 
je je^HO on HaJ3HaMeHHTHjnx Mecra y cpcatbeBeKOBHOJ 
Cp6njn. FIoa cpncKy BJiacr aolujio je ac(})hhhthbho 
roAHHe 1282, 3a BpeMe KDajba Mn;iyTHHa. Kao Tpr 
nojaB^yje ce npBH nyT rojxHHe 1325. Ta^a ra je 6no 
3aKynno ,Hy6poBMaHHH riacKOje TyqeTHh. HoijHHJe y 
HbeMy cTa^HO >khbh AyGpoBaMKa KOJiOHHJa. riopeA foe 
6una je h MJieTanKa Ko/ionHja, Koja je KynoBa^a n/ie- 
MeHHTe Meia^e h cnajia hx y M^eTKe. Ajih or cbhx 
Haj3HaqaJHHja je 6nna cacKa KOJiOHnja, jep cy Caen 
6h/ih pyaapn. CacKa KOJiOHHJa HMajia je h CBOj'y 6o- 
roMOJby, a Caoi cy y Hobom Bpay ocrajiH HaK ro 16 
BeKa, TaKo aa cy ra hckh nyTHHUH y 16. BeKy Ha3H- 

Ba/IH HeMaHKOM KOJIOHHJOM. 

y OKOJIHHH HoBOr BpiU y orpOMHHM KOJIHHHHaMa 

ce Kona^o cpe6po h 3/iaTO. KoHCTaHTHH <£>h/io30(}) Ha- 



KOCOBCKA CTAFA CPbHJA 271 



3HBa ra „rpan cpe6peHH y HCTHHy h 3.iaTHH u . O 60- 
racTBy hobo6p;kkhx py/uiHKa nocroja/ie cy y 3anaA- 
hoj EBponH npaBe 6ajKe, h Hobo BpAO npe/KTaB/ba/io 
je je^Hy or HaJ3HaMeHHTHJnx BapoiuH y yHyTpaujibo- 
cth Ba.TKaHCKor no/iyocrpBa. Kotihko je 6h.to ueibeHO 
y BpeMe KHe3a J4a3apa, bh^h ce na;6o/be no TOMe luto 
je Ha CBOJe HOBue cTaBJbao noiriHc: „Novamontana 
moneta argentea". HaJBehe CBoje pa3BHhe ;iocTH>Ke 
noA B^aiioM HecnoTa CreB;iHa H Toyp^a, Ka^a je HMa/10 
oko 40.000 CTaHOBHHKa. PyAapcTBO 6eiue hcoGhmho 
pa3BHjeH0, a TproBHHa Heo6HMHo >KHBa. y FbeMy >khb- 
:baxy JlyOpoBMaHH, Ta^njaHH, CacH h cpncKa B/iacre/ia. 
Ha \h ao/iawaxy TproBUH ca cbhx cipaiia, h y ibeMy 
ce Moraxy nyTH npBe hobocth. Heh y noneTKy 15 
Bena 6enie je^HO or Haj6o/be yTBptjeHHx MecTa, h H3- 
np>Ka MHoro6poJHe Hanane. FIpBH Hana^ H3iip>Ka 1412, 
a zipyrn 1427 ro^HHe. 06a nyTa ojiGpaHHiue ra Cp6H, 
y3 3HaTny noMoti KO/iomicTa. floc/ie nana CMe^epeBa 
Hobo Bp :o ce ;ip>Ka/io TpH roiiHHe na.io je 1441 
inn cerenHHCKHM MHpoM 6h BpaheHo oneT Cp6nMa. 
To^HHe 1455 cy/naH Myxar.iej II onKO/iH Hobo Bp^o, 
rpan ce nocne 'ieTpneceT aaHa npejiaae, tberoBO cra- 
hobhhluto 6h caceweno h pacnpo,naHO. a iberoBO 60- 
racTBO pa3neceHO. TVivie Hobo Bp£0 npona^e nomyHO. 
y3a^y;i ce TypuH Tpyljaxy #a ra noAHTHy Ha HeniaiiJiby 
BHCHny. Oho ce bhujc HHKa;i ne nonpaiiH. V npijoj 
no.ioBHHH 17 Bena pa;; y pyaHHUHivia HHje 6ho npe- 
dao. y to Bpe.Me no.ioBiiHa TypcKor cpeGpnor HOBua 
KOBaHa je oa cpe6pa Koje je i'>GHBaHo H3 HOBo6p < a- 
ckhx py^HHKa. Bapoiu caMa HMa/ia je CBera 200 Kyha, 
Mel)y KOJuMa je 6h/io 100 TypcKHx h jcnpejCKux. y 
Apyroj fio/iobhhh hctot BCKa Hobo Bp^o je HMa/10 
cBt-ra 10 nyha, a y TypcKO-aycTpnjcKHM paTOBHMa ro- 
AHHe 1689 cnoMHibe ce ca\io nao rpaAwh. To npona- 
aaibe nacTaB.i.eno je y 18-om 11 19-om BCKy. 

y iUHaujibeM Hobom Spay h h>ltoboj 6.ih>koj 
okojihhh Mnoro6pojHH cy TparoBH on ner\aaiinbc ibe- 
roBe bcih'ihhc h py^apcKor pa^a. TaKO, Ha npuMep, 
Ha ccBcpy oa Jaibc-Ba, H3Mel)y KypeniujTa h CTpa>Ke. 
IlBHjwh je npoMaipao jciaHaecr rpyna ojfl pyaapcKHx 



272 HOBA CPBHJA 



OKaHa h noTKona. OKHHMa ce cna3n y HarhyTe, MaxoM 
Kpahe noTKone. y Kojwvia ce pacno3Hajy ype3H h yaapuH 
qeKHha. Ochm Tora HMa jeHAeKa, 5 ao 6 MeTapa Ay- 
6okhx, kojh Hjty no 3eMJbH. To cy ocraun pyAapcKor 
paaa kojh ce KpeTao y npaBijy pyAHHx Hoiua, Koje 
HHcy 3a.na3H/ie y Ay6nHy. 

Ha caMOM Hobom BpAy BHAe ce MHora OKHa, 
noTKonw h 3aKonHHe, HapoHHTO Ha Ma;ioj h BeJiHKOJ 
n^aHHHH, oko ce;ia BocraHa, y Khcckom FIoTOKy h 
Ha MecTy PaBHHiDTy. nopeA Tora Ha/ia3H ce MHora 
TpocKBa y TpHHqeBuy, KpajbeBoj Peun, h noA Jlem- 
TapeM. HcnHTyjyhH KOMaAe TpocKBe, KOHCTaTOBaHO je 
Aa y H>oj HMa HajBHUie >KeJie3a, a ocia^o je MaHraH, uhhk, 
ca HeiHTO o-aoBa h cyMnopa. HMa MHoro h pyAapcKHX 
Ky/ia, h to y Jleinjy, Ha Bpx Be/iHKe UmuuHe, y KpHBOJ 
Pcuh. Pa3Ba^HHe oa rpana h TparoBH oa BapouiH cy 
Ha bhchhh oa 1100 ao 1 120 Mdapa. Hobo6packh rpaA 
je Ao6po onyBaH. Ca cbhx CTpaHa rpa^a BHAe ce mho- 
ro6pojHH TeMeJbH oa Kyha, Koje cy 6H/ie, KaKO H3Me.ua, 
3roMH^aHe 6e3 npaBn/iHHX yjiHua. DiaBHH Aeo BapouiH 
je oko y3BHuien>a Koje ce cana 30Be Banp. Ha H»eMy 
je 6n;ia upKBa Cb. neTKa, Koja je y uaMHJy npeTBO- 
peHa. HMajy joui pa3Ba/iHHe oa mcthph upKBe, Koje ce 
pacno3Hajy no npenpaTH h o^Tapy. y 6;ih3.ihh rpaAa 
cy ABa Be^HKa h Bp;io CTapa jaBopa, TaKotje H3 c/iaB- 
Hor cpncKor Ao6a. 

TpH Haj3HawajHHja cnoMeHHKa dape cpncue Kyjuype. 

Tpn Haj6ojbe onyBaHa h HajiHanaJHHJa cnoMe- 
HHKa CTape cpncKe yMeTHOCTH, Haj3HaMeHHTHJa 6ap y 
Kocobckoj Crapoj Cp6nJH, BpeAe Aa ce noce6HO onnuiy 
h npHKaH<y. 

rjaiupujapiuuja y nehn je npocTpaHa, ajin HHCKa. 
ApxHTeKTypa joj npnnaAa BpeMeHy KaAa je cpncna cpeA- 
HDeBeKOBHa yMeTHOCT 6H/ia none;ia onaAaTH. FIpBodHTHy 
3rpaAy 6ho je noAHrao Apyrn cpncKH apxnenncKon, 
yqeHHK Cb. CaBe, Cb. ApceHHJe y 13 BCKy. nopeATora, 
OHa je y BHine MaxoBa o6HaBJbaHa h Aorpat]HBaHa. 
XpaM HMa o6;ihk neTBOpoyraHHKa, c Ma^HM, yKpurre- 



KOCOBCKA CTAPA CPBHJA 273 



hhm B BhiCTynaMH", h cacTOJH ce H3 OBa HeTHpH zejia: 
Be/iHKe npenpaie, Be/iHKe cpe^Hie upKBe rocnoflHaer 
Bo3HeceH>a, jy>KHor ..npHflt.aa" (cnope^Hor o/uapa) 
npecBeie BoropoziHue h ceBepHor o;napa Cb. ZIhmh- 
TpHJa. H3Ha^ o/uapa Be/inne upKBe jwxie ce uiHpoKO 
h npn/iHHHo cn/bouiTeHO Ky6e, Koje je noKpHBeHO o/io- 
bom. Hcto TaKO H3Ha£ 06a cnope^Ha o/uapa AHwy 
ce join ABa Maiba KydeTa. Ta TpH Ky6eTa doje 36h- 
jeHa \ejxno no apyrora h HMajy cno/ba TOKan h 3Aenacr 
H3rnen. YHyTpa naK aajy npeKpacaH ecJ)eKaT, HapoMHTO 
36or jane cBeT/iocrH iijto npo6nja Kpo3 MHoro6poJHa 
Be^HKa oKHa Koja 3ay3HMajy cKopo \ ueo 6omhh neo 
Ky6eia. 

TpH waca aa/ieKo oa naxpHJapiuHJe, Ha H3/ia3y 
KTiHcypacre ao/iHHe JleMaHCKe BncTpnue, Ha nonHOH<jy 
MeTOXHJCKHx n/iaHHHa, na/ia3H cc MciHCicuiup Uenanii, 
hjih Bucoku JJenaHU, HajcviaBHHJa 3aay>K6HHa Be/iHKe 
cpncKe npouj^ocTH h ibeHe Ky/nype. To je cpncKa „uap- 
CKa 3a;iy>K6HHa M , „na je Jbenuje y CBHJeiy HeMa". PycKH 
KOHcy/i Xn/b^epaHHr mhcih na cy Bhcokh HenaHH 
naj.ieniUH h HaJ3HaMeHHTHJH cpncKH MaHacTHp, Haj6o;bH 
cnoMeHHK cpncKe Be/iHMHHe h no6o>KHOCTH, kojh ce MO>Ke 
y6pojaTH Me^y HajcaBpujeHHJa jie/ia BH3aHTHJCKe yMeT- 
hocth. rpaAHO ra je 1323 — 1330 Majdop Bn^e KoTOpa- 
hhh. Tpa^eHH cy y po.viaHCKOM CTH.ny. UpKBa je ro^eMa 
h BHCOKa, H3pafjena y o6.iHKy npcra, ca je^HHM OKpy- 
ivihm h bhcokhm Ky6eTOM. CaMa iheHa cno;baujHOCT 
Xn/bcJjepiiHHra je „nopa>KaBa.ia ' cbojom HeodHHHOM .ie- 
noTOM. Cno^aiHibH 3haobh on AO/ie no rope cacroje 
ce on MpaMopHHx n.ioMa Koje cy npaBH^HO pacno- 
pel)eHe y xopH30HTa/iHHM pe^OBUMa, on kojhx je Haj- 
hh>kh Oil 6e/iora MpaMopa, ApyrH on py>KHMacTor, Tpelin 
oneT on 6e/iora, mctbpth on cypora ; nocyie Tora na- 
hobo ce H3Meibyje hcth hh3 6oja. KpoB upkbchh je on 
o/ioBa. H Ky6e'je noKpHBeno o/iobom, Koje je TaKO Ma- 
chbho Aa, KaKOce npHMa, HHJe Tpe6a;io noKpHBaTH Ky6e 
join on roAHHe 1335 Kaiia je npBH nyT nonpHBeHO. 
Hon ^yrHM yTHuajeM BpeMena to je o.iobo £o6h.io 
6ojy Koja Ha^HMH na cjaj 6aKpa. Ha Ky6eiy ctojh Be- 
.ihkh npacTapn Kpd H3 MacHBHora cpe6pa. Ma hctom- 

MOBA CPBHJA 



274 HOBA CPBHJA 



hoj CTpaHH na.ua y ohh OKpyniHHa BejiHKor ojrrapa, 
nopeji H>era OKpyniHHe Koje npHna^ajy cnopeflHHM 

O^TapHMa CB HHKOJie H Cb. JiHMHTpHJa, npOCKOMH- 

Ahjh Be/iHKor o;iTapa h ph3hhuh. Tux neT cjeAHfbeHHX 
OKpyrviHHa npeAcraBJbajy Heo6HHHO Jieno cjeAHtbaBafbe 
jiHHHJa. Ha cpe^HHH Be^HKor o;rrapa je HanHfeeHO Be- 

JIHKO OKHO, H3Ha^ KOra Ce BHIH OJIOBHH KpOB ; TO 

okho je ca dpaHa yKpameHO ca £Ba Matta MpaMopHa 
CTy6a, Koje cbojhm jietjHMa no^p>KaBajy KapnjaTHAe 
Koje HMajy o6/ihk 3rp6jbeHa HOBeKa. Ha# cpeAHHOM 
OKHa H3paljeHa je jby^cKa rviaBa H3 mhjhx ycTa H3;ia3H 
BHHOBa Ji03a Koja ce jienn Ha #Be rpaHe Koje cy c aecHa 
h c ;ieBa cn/ieieHe oko OKHa. y jio3obom jinny canpH- 
BeHe cy nTHue h (J)aHTacTHHHe >KHBOTHH>e, yMeTHHHKH 
H3BajaHe. UpKBa HMa Tpoja BpaTa, or koj'hx ce jeflHa 
Ha^a3e Ha sana/uioj CTpaHH, y cJ)acaAH upKBeHe npe- 
npaTe, a Apyra aBoja cy ca ceBepHe h jyauie CTpaHe 
Te npenpaie. H3Ha^ CBaKHx Bpaia y KaMeHy je ncre- 
caH OKpyrviH cbo^i kojh ce cyatyje y hcko^hko MaxoBa, 
Tano Aa thm o6pa3yje hcko^hko npimbeHOBa. CsaKH 
oil thx npujjbeHOBa onHpe ce o Man>H MpaMopHH cry6. 
H CBaKH or thx npnjjbeHOBa yKpauieH je HapoHHTHM pe- 
jbe(j)HMa y KOJHMa cy npe#CTaBJbeHe bhhobc Ji03e, JiHmhe 
c HBeheM, cnnpajie h TaHKH >K;ie6oBH. Ha ceBepHHM 
BpaTHMa, cTy6oBH npBor pe.ua kojh Apace npinjbeHOBe 
o6aBHJeHH cy bhhobom ;i030M, CTy6oBH apyrora pe^a cy 
OKpyr/iH, Tpehera H3yBHJaHH, qeTBpTora cy HeTBopo- 
yraoHH, neTor ocMoyraoHH. KanHTe;iH thx cry6oBa cy 
KopHHTCKor CTH^a. Oihmho je h Ha .npyrnM CTy60BHMa. 
UpKBa je y ochobh Tpo6po;ma, HMa, Kao ujto cmo bh- 
ae/iH, Tpn o/iTapa, ynpaBO TpH upKBe, or koj'hx je 
cpe£tt>a HajiHHpa; Ta HMa h HKOHOcrac oji 6e;ior Mpa- 
Mopa kojh je no,nejbeH Ha neT no;ba. CTy6oBH kojh 
jiene 6po^oBe yrvianaHH cy h HMajy poMaHCKe Kann- 
Te;ie. Cry6oBH cy bhcokh 7.34 m., a upKBa or noiia #0 
ocHOBHue Ky6eTa 19 MeTapa, a no Bpxa Ky6eTa 25 Me- 
Tapa. Ilpo30pH cy je£HO.n % e;bHH, ABO/iejbHH h Tpcae/bHH, 
TexHHHKa npeuH3HOCT Moace ce MepHTH c jiaHaiuibOM 
TexHHKOM. TpoAe/bHH oJiTapcKH npo3op HaflMainyje cbo- 
JOM JienQTQM, BCTCHHHHOM H 6oraCTBOM opHaMeHTHKe H 



CTAPA FALUKA 

•jyBeHH CTy^eHMMKH npo3op. CBa opHaMeHTHKa HMa po- 
MaHCKH KapaKTep, H3 Mera ce \io>Ke biucth n$ cy ce 
TparoBH peHecanca, kojh ce y no^eTKy 15 BeKa tck 
no4eo y Hra;iHJH pa3BHJaTH, occth/ih h Ha cpncKOM 

I pa i iaHiiu,a, aoBptueHa 1321 ro^HHe, HMa neT Ky- 
6eia. flopeA r/iaBHe upKBe HMajy Ane napaK-ince, Koje, 
Kdm ce ivieiiajy c no;ba, wHHe jeaHy u^e/inny Ha^ y^ia- 
30M Ha bhchhh cnpaTa Ha/ia3H ce Kane/inua Kpa;ba 
Mn/iyTHHa. n.iaTHa c no^>a cy on TecaHor KaMena, no/io- 
>KeHa y pe£OBe H3Mel)y £Ba, i\aerae Tpn peAa oneKa, 
TaKO aa ce H3Meibyje upBeHa 6oja oneKa ca 6e/iH- 
MacroM 6ojom ;iena h CHBO-3e/]eHKacroM 6ojom KaMeHa. 
Ky6eTa cy c no:ba ocHOBe ocMOCTpaHor npaBH-nnor no- 
/inroHa, a Ha npeceuHMa dpaHa cy OKpyr/iH cry6HhH 
kojh cy, Kao h 3h40BH Ky6eia, on mhcthx npaBH/wo 
Be3aHHx oneKa, noje ce cMen>yjy c oe/iHwacTHM cno- 
jeBHMa ziena. XopH30HTa/iHH h ziyMHH bchuh 3HjiOBa, 
Kao h ziyMHH bchuh Ky6eTa, H3BeAeHH cy H3 no TpH 
h.ih MeTHpn cjioja HHK-uaK n.'boiHTHMHue no/iowemix 
oneKa, iijto CBe aaje rpal)eBHHH oco6chh KapaKTep. 
Ilpo3opH Ky6eTa cy jeAnoae:bHH, a Ha 3H£OBHMa cy 

^BOAe.l>HH H TpOJieJbHH. Ha JbOJ HeMa CKOpO HHKaKBHX 

n^acTHHHHx opHaMeHaia. OHa ce Mowe y3eTH Kao npH- 
MepaK apxHTeKTOHCKO-ecTeTHMKor caBpmeHCTBa, h to 
36or nennx o6/iHKa Ky6eTa, bhtkhx pa3Mepa ue.ie rpa- 
^eBHHe, 36or CBor KOHceKBCHTHO H3BeAeHor opraHCKor 
CK-nona, h 36or hcoChmho CHMnaTHMne xapMOHH'uie ue- 

/IHHC UpKBy py>KH rOAHHe 1570 npHMHTHBHO £03H- 

AaHa npenpaTa. 



XI. C1APA PA11IKA. 

Ha ceBepo3ana,ay on KocoBa rio;ba Hacraje n/ia- 
HHHa Poro3Ha, Koja noMHibe on BaibCKe bhujc MHTpo- 
BHue h npvwa ce no HoBor Fla3apa. To je npocrpana 
h n/iehaTa n^aHHHa. Koja OABaja npocrpane KVTAHUt 
CTape Cp6HJe on KpiuenHTHx h n/ianmiCKHX 06/iacrH 



276 HOBA CPbHJA 



3ana^HHx cpncKHX 3eMajba. OHa RZKjie mhhh ouiTpy 
rpaHHuy y TepeHCKOJ n^acTHUH cpncKHX 3eMajba. 

Ha 3ana,ay h ceBepy on Poro3He Hacrajy o6;iacTM 
Ciape PaiuKe h;ih HoBona3apcKor CaHuaKa, Koje ce 
h no cbom cnojbHDeM H3i7ie,ny, no k^hmh h BpcTaMa 
6njba, no npHBpejjH h HapoiiHOM acHBOTy 3HaTHO pa3- 
^HKyje ojol cbhx ^oca^auiHDHx o6;iacTH HoBe Cp6nje. 
Ha npBOM Medy na.ua y ohh ujto OBne HeMa OHaKO 
npodpaHHx h paBHHx KOT^HHa Beh ue/iy o6;iacT 3ay- 
3HMajy BHCOKe KpuieBHTe n^aHHHe Koje cy y BeHue 
3rpynHcaHe, a 3aTHM ncnpeceuaHe £y6oKHM, Kjwcypa- 

CTHM H TeUJKO npOXO.ZI.HHM pe^HHM £OJIHHaMa y KOJHMa 

ce caMO peije jaBJbajy He3HaTHnja npomnpefoa h 3a- 
paBHH. 36or TaKe n;iacTHKe Crapa Paiuna h no cbo- 
joj kjihmh h no Hapoimoj npHBpcuH hhhh jeAHy npH- 
po^Hy ue^HHy ca 3ana^HHM cpncKHM 3eivubaMa, Hapowro 
Uphom TopoM, XepueroBHHOM, Jy>KHOM h 3anaAH0M 
Bochom h Zla^MauHJOM. riope^ obhx npHpo^HHx pa3- 
^HKa Koje ce oceTe Kan H3 KocoBa npe;ia3HMO npeKO 
Poro3He, on Be^HKor cy 3Haqaja h eTHorpa(j)CKe pa3- 
;iHKe Koje cy ourrpo H3pa)KeHe c o6e CTpaHe Poro3He. 
Jy>KHO h hctomho on Poro3He je od^acT MOpaBCKO- 
BapnapcKHx Cp6a, a Ha 3anany on n>e HCHBe Tano- 

3BaHH flHHapCKH Cp6n, KOJH BehHHOM TOB.Ope jy)KHHM 

HapenjeM, kojh cy HapoMHTo pa3Bn;iH Hamy encny noe- 
3njy, h kojh cy 3a nocaeiiFbHx cto no ABecra roijHHa Ha 
cpncKy HCTOpujy Hajjane yTHua^H, npH qeiviy cy y jaBHH 
>khbot cpncKor Hapo.ua, HapoHHTO y n>eroBy ayxoBHy 
Ky^Typy, yHe;w nyHO CBor cxBaTatba, cbojhx cneuHaji- 
hhx ocehatba h CBora 6yJHor TeMnepaMeHTa. Uopen 
OBora, Poro3Ha je h 36or Tora Ba>KHa eTHorpa(J)CKa 
rpaHHua ujto Ha 3ana,ny on H>e Hacrajy o6;iacTH y ko- 
jHMa je npouec acHMH/iaunje, npouec nocp6jbaBaH>a h 
nocnoBett>HBaH>a 6ho Tano jaK na Ha ue;ioj o6;iacrH 
Koja noHHH>e on Poro3He, KonaoHHKa h MopaBe h 
Koja ce npy>Ka no CaBe h Ja^paHCKor Mopa, HeMa 
CKopo HHKaKBa apyror Hapo^a ceM cpncKor h;ih cpncKO- 
xpBaTCKor. Oa ohhx 3HaTHHx Maca pOMaHCKor craHOB- 
HHiiJTBa Koje je y cpeAH>eM Beny >KHBe;io no upHO- 
ropcKHM, xepueroBaMKHM, 6ocaHCKHM h Aa^MamHCKHM 



CTAPA PAUJKA 277 



n^aHHHaMa, 3aTHM no npHMopcKHM BapoujHMa, AaHac 
CKopo HeMa hh Tpara. CBe je to nocp6.^eHO h noxp- 
BaheHo. flBe cy cpncKe 3eM/be HaponHTO 3ac.iy>KHe y 
TOMe lino je Taj aeo cpncKor Hapo,na 6ho Tano eKcnaH- 
CHBaH, n/ioaaH H jaK. To cy ROcanaum>a IipHa Topa, 
XepueroBHHa, a c ?bHMa h CTapa PaiuKa, Koje cy Ha- 
ce/iH;ie BehH £eo 3ana^HHX 3eMa/ba, Koje cy paujHpHJie 
yTHuaje jy>KHor ^Ha^eKTa Ha ue/ioj o6;iacTH H3Mef)y 
MopaBe h Ja^paHCKor Mopa. 1 flope/i obhx MOMeHaTa 
Poro3Ha je Ba>KHa 36or Tora ujto Ha 3ana£y h Ha ce- 
Bepy oji ibe npecraje Ha^npaFbe ap6aHaiHKor crceMeHTa 
y cpncne 06/iacrH. HHHapcKH Cp6H cy, H3rvie;ia, h (})h- 
3hhkh h Ky^TypHO jaHH on Ap6aHaca, aok cy MopaBCKH 
h BapaapcKH Cp6n 6h/ih oa h>hx caMO Ky/irypHO jaMH, 
ujto hm je y mhcto (J)H3hhkoj 6op6H Ma/io Bpeae/io. 
y CTapoj PaiuKOj Ap6aHaca HMa caMO y neiiiTepy, h th 
cy, KaKO je to F. JoBaH TomhH HecyMH>HBO £OKa3ao, 
HacH^HO on TypcKe B/iacrH npe ABecra roAHHa Ty Ha- 
ce;beHH. A/ih je KapaKTepHCTHHHO ujto th aoce/beHHUH 
HHcy momh /ja nocraHy cpeaHiiiTe 3a noap6aHauiaBaH>e 
CTape PaiHKe, Kao luto cy to cnHHHe ap6aHaujKe oa3e 
y Kocobckoj h CKoncKOj CTapoj Cp6HJH Bpio wecro 
nocraja/ie, Beh cy iuTa BHiue npe^CTaBJba^H oa3y Koja 
je, nojx yTHixajeM cpncKor je3HKa h Ky^Type, Mopa^a 
aa Meiba cboj HaMHH roBopa, zia HayMH cpncKH je3HK, 
h na. y cboj ap6aHauiKH je3HK npHMH cpncKH aKuenaT 
h MHore cpncKe penn, Tano <aa ce npaBH Ap6aHacH c 
lbHMa Bp^o TeuiKO cnopa3yMeBajy. 

nopeA OBora Poro3Ha je h Bawna aHTponoreo- 
rpa(J)CKa rpaHHua, jep Ha ceBepy ojx n>e Hacrajy ce;ia 
pa36Hjena THna, ce;ia y KOJHMa cy Kyhe Mefyy co6om 
jaKO yaa/beHe, aok cy Ha jyry ce/ia MHoro 36HJeHHJa. 
Kyha ceocna je hcto TaKO pa3/iHMHTa c o6e crpaHe. 
Ha jyry je Kyha oa hepnHwa, 6;iaTa h KaMeHa, a na 
ceBepy, y CTapoj PaiuKoj, npeH/iat}yje Kyha c apBe- 
hom rpaf^OM. 

1 IloreopHjii I . npo^) bcinha, h mynanHjcKH roBop nocrao je 
ymuajeM xcpueroBanKor ana/ieKTa Ha hctomhc cpncKe anaaeiae 
Tano AaHac luynaaHjcKH roBop HMa rpaMaTHKV, cHHTakcy h anueHTc 
xepueroBaMKor roBopa, a oa hctowhoi roBopa, kojh je, kbko ce t<> 
HecywH>HBO aowe AOKa3aTH, paHHJe B^aaau > aaHaiuH,oj UJyMaanJH, 
HMa tv oco^HHy ujto CTapo 1 H3roBapa Kao e. 



278 HOBA CPBHJA 



FlocMaTpaHa y ue^HHH, CTapa Pamna HMa H3ivieA 

OIDTpO OHBHMHHe H HBpCTO OrpaljeHe BHCOKe nJiaHHH- 

CKe 06/iacrH HHJa cpeAfoa BHCHHa Ha Hcrony npe;ia3H 
1000 MeTapa, a na 3ana^y ce ap>kh H3Me^y 800 h 
900 m. CeBepoHCTOHHy joj rpaHHuy HHHe n^aHHHe Top- 
hhk (1550 m) MypieHHua (1485 m), JaBop (1509 m), 
To^HJa (1931 m.), h KonaoHHK (2140 m.) OuiTphHy Te 
rpaHHue nojaqaBa h Ao;iHHa pene YBua, Koja HAe c h>om 
roTOBO ynope^HO. Jynoiy rpaHHuy hhhh joj BeoMa Ay- 
6oKa, CKopo Henpoxo^Ha AOJiHHa Tape, Kojy c Aoca- 
Aaintbe upHoropcKe CTpaHe npaie bhcokh orpaHiiH 
ZlypMHTOpa h CHtbajeBHHe, TaKO Aa je OHa npeMa jyry 
Hajjane 3aTBOpeHa. CeBepo-3anaAHa rpaHHua je hhho, 
h HMa BHUie hhckhx h jiaKuinx npe;ia3a, 36or Hera je 
Crapa PauiKa oa yBeK HMa;ia Bp;io hhthmhc Be3e c jy- 
roHCTOMHOM Bochom. Ty rpaHHuy HHHe njiaHHHe Bhr 
(1345 m). JaBopje (1487 m.), KoBan (1439 m.) h Jby- 
6nMHa (2239 m.). BaacHH npe;ia3H cy HapoHHTO pa3BH- 
jeHH Ay>K penHHx AO/iHHa. HajBehn &eo penHHx ao- 
AHHa Tene y npaBuy npeMa ceBepy h ceBep03anaAy 
3aTO je CTapa PauiKa y TOMe npaBuy naJBHine h npo- 
xoAHa. MHoro6pojHe npnpoAHe Be3e h 3roAHHJH ny- 
TeBii cy OBy 06/iacr HapoHHTO Be3a;iH 3a 6aceH 3a- 
na^He MopaBe n 3a 3anaAHy Cp6njy. y TOMe nornejxy 
cy HapOHHTO Ba>KHe AOJiHHe H6pa, PauiKe h YBua, ko- 
JHMa paujKH KpajeBH HenocpeAHO H3^a3e y MopaBCKy 
AO^HHy. Oa BejiHKe CMeTHbe 3a cao6pahaj je 6uno to 
ujto HHJe/ma oa obhx pena He npeceua y ue;iHHH OBy 
o6;iacT. JeAHHH je JIhm y AnaroHa;iH cene, a;iH je ft>e- 
roBa AOjiHHa ocra/ia 6e3 3Haqaja 36or Tora iuto je Bp/io 
MecTO HenpoxoAHa h iuto Ao;ia3H H3 bhcokhx n^aHHH- 
ckhx o6^acTH. HenpoxoAHOCT y npaBuy ceBep-jyr, Ha- 
POhhto ceBepo3anaA-jyroHCTOK, HapoHHTO je nojanaHa 
thm MOMeHTOM ujto rpaHHuy npeMa AOCaAaujH>oj UpHOj 
TopH hhhh Ay6oKa KJincypa 6yJHe Tape, h ujto ce 
c OHe CTpaHe Tape Ha;ia3e HaJBHiiiH n^aHHHCKH bchuh 
h BHCOKe KpineBHTe noBpiHH*KOje cy, 36or bctchkhx 
CHeroBa, caMo ;ieTH npoxoAHe. 36or Tora cy Be3e up- 
HoropcKHx o6;iacTH ca CTapoM PaiHKOM BeoMa TeniKe, 
Ha MHorHM MecTHMa CKopo HeMoryhe. Haj3roAHHJe cy 



CTAPA PAUJKA 



OHfle rA£ KaKBa Ay6;ba penHa nomwa hac v npaBuy 
npeMa ceBepy, Kao iuto je cnywaj c aoahhom JlHMa oa 
AHiipHJeBHue ao BepaHa, h c aoahhom Tape oa Ba- 
poujH Ko/iauiHHa ao MoJKOBua. To cy jeAHHa ABa npaBua 
y KOJHMa ce OBe ABe 06/iacrH Mory BC3aTH 3i~oahhjhm 
nyieBHMa. Ocra-nn npe/ia3H, Kao Ha npHMep Ha JleBep 
TapH, 3roAHH cy caMO 3a nemaHKH h .naKUJH Knpn- 
Mhjckh cao6pahaj. y ceBepo-3anaAHOM Ae.ny, npeMa 
Bochh, pene TeKy y npaBuy npeMa n>oj. A/ih y tomc 
npaBuy npe/ia3H cy MaxoM y od.iHKy npeceA.iHHa, 36or 
Tora ilito cy MHore penHe aoahhc Ay6oKe, K/iHcypacre 
h cyBHiue ycne. 

H3 obhx cbhx pa3/iora, h y Be3H c pa3HHM no- 
ahthhkhm MOMeHTHMa, pa3yM.-bHBO je ujto cy HaJBa>K- 
hhjh nyieBH 6h/ih y3Ay>KHor npaBua, to jeer npaBua 
ceBepo3ana>a-jyroHCTOK. C Tora r/ieAHUjTa yBeK je 6ho 
Ba>KaH 6occlhcku ilyifi, kojh je 3aAOBOA>aBao noipe6e 
Koje je H3HCKHBao KHpnyHJCKH HaMHH cao6pahaja. On 
je, HAyhH y npaBuy npeMa Mht[)obhuh, Mopao Aa ce 
6opH c bcthkhm TepeHCKHM TeiiJKohaMa, h r2l npe/ia3H 
n/iaHHHe 3naTHe bhchhc h Ay6oKe peMHe aoahhc 36or 
Tora Taj nyT 3a MOAepaH Haimi cao6pahaja ne mowc 
HMaTH ony Bpe^HOCT Kojy je HMao ao cana. 

Kha ce HcnHCMO na jeAHy oa obhx bhuihx n/iannna 
h Ka^a c ibenocMaipaMO ue;iy 06/iacr Crape PaujKe, ona 
H3MeAa Kao bhcok h npocrrpan xoahhk mhjc je aho H3< 
6pa3iiaHO napa.ie.THHM, Aocra 36njeHHM h o6hmho Ha- 
3ynnaHHM TeMeHHMa n/iaHHHa Koje CBe HAy y npaBuy 
on ceBcpo3anaAa na jyroncTOK, h Koje mhhc re je ue.ia 
06/iacr Haj6o. r be npoxoAHa y npaBuy lhnxoBa npy>Kan»a. 
Ona je npncTynaMHa caMO ca abc cipane, H to H3 ao- 
.iHne JlHMa h on PaiuKe, npHTOKe Hopa. CBy^a na 
ApyrHM MecniMa tokc je npncTynaMHa, jep CBaKH onaj 
kojh 6h y n»y xTeo Aa npoApe Mopao 6h ce neTH na 
bhchhc HajMaiiiC oa 1300 MCTapa. 36or cbhx thx oco- 
6nna CTapa PaujKa npeAcraB.i.a jejny oa najnenpn. 
naMHHJHX h naJMBpiuhe orpal)ennx oOViacTH na Da.iKan- 
ckom FIo/iyocTpBy. Ha Taj na i iHn y n>y je tcujko npo- 
ApeTH, a/in je TeiuKO h H3 HbC tuahH. OBaKO 3aTBo- 
peHt h MBpcTO orpaheHe reorpacj)CKe ue.iHHe nrpa/ie 



280 HOBA CPBHJA 

cy ap;io qecTo npecy^Hy fia)KHOCT y hctophjh cpncKor 
Hapoaa. 3aTBopeHe h hbpcto orpafyeHe njiaHHHCKe o6;ia- 
cth npeflcraBjbajie cy oa yBeK ueHTpe cpncKe eTHorpac})- 
cKe cbokhhc, yTOHHuiTe cpncne HauHOHajme cbccth, h 
Meda y KoJHMa cy ce, Moauia Ha hckoj* npBodHTHOj 
cpncKoj ochobh, BpuiHJia pa3Ha couHajma jeAHH>eH>a 
cpncKor Hapoaa. y oboj njiaHHHCKOJ, HCKJbyqHBO cto- 
napcKOj, eKOHOMCKH cHpoMauiHoj, a/iH hbpcto orpalje- 
hoj n^aHHHCKOj o6;iacTH y^apeH je TeMejb chahoj He- 
MaibHhcKOJ npnoBH. HHTepecaHTHa je CTBap uito, Kano 
to npeMa ca^amiteM no3HaBaH>y Hauie npouiaocTH H3- 
rjie;ia, 3aqeTaK toj bckhkoj ^pHcaBHOJ opraHH3auHJH 
Ha^a3HMO y jeflHoj Hamoj crapoj h, Kano H3i7ieaa, on- 
uiTOJ cpncKoj couna^Hoj opraHH3auHJH, Koja je H3pa- 
>KeHa y pacnope^y h ype^eity Haumx cpeAH>eBeKOBHHx 
>Kyna. OiHMHy CTBap Ha;ia3HM0 h y aouhhjoj Hamoj 
hctophjh. y je^Hoj Apyroj hcto TaKO hbpcto orpaije- 
hoj h HenpHCTynaMHOj, CHpoMauiHoj h CTonapcKOj 06/ia- 
cth pa3BH^a ce Hajnpe je^Ha cjiH^Ha couHajma opra- 
H»3auHja, H3 Koje je AOUHHJe nocra/ia je^na Majia, njia- 
HHHCKa h CTonapcKa AP^asa. To je aaHauiHba LJpHa 
Topa, hhjh npBH 3aqeiaK caMHH>aBa KaiyHCKa HaxHJa, 
Koja je, Kano H3i7ie,na, noqejia aa ce HacejbaBa Ten or 
neTHaecTor Bena, h y kojoj ce jaBHJia n^eiweHCKa op- 
raHH3auHj'a H3 Koje ce flouHHJe pa3BH^a cpncKa apacaBa 
Koja ce 30Be UpHa Topa. H3 OBora ce CBera bhah oa 
KO^HKor cy eTHorpa(J)CKO r 3Haqaja, 3a Hapaae OBano 
npoMeHjbHBe h hy#jbHBe cya6HHe, OBane njiaHHHCKe 
o6;iacTH, Koje cy 3a Ham y HauHOHajmy ercHcreHUHJy 
6nne or kophcth 6aui 3a to uito cy ckohomckh CHpo- 
MamHe h HenpHCTynaqHe .Ekohomcko CHpOMauiTBO, He- 
npHcrynaHHOCT h oiiiTpHHa KflHMe OBaKHx o6;iacTH cy 
iviaBHH ycrcoBH uito Tane n/iaHHHe 3a cBe yru>eTeHe 
Hapo,ne npcucTaBJbajy yTOHH uiTa h Heny BpcTy HauHO- 
Ha^HHx yTBp}]ett>a, y Koja ocBajaH h ynbeTan, kojh je 
o6hhho JiaKOM Ha komothhjh h JiaKuiH >khbot, Te>Ke 
npo^Hpe. H 36or Tora je pa3yMJbHBo uito cy UpHa 
Topa, CTapa PauiKa h XepueroBHHa, oa yBeK, npea- 
CTaBJba^e ueurpe cpncKe eTHorpa(j)CKe cbokhhc h uito 
cy y H>HMa 3acHHBaHe /ipwaBe Koje cy AOUHHJe nocTa- 



CTAPA PAILIKA 281 



ja;ie Be/iHKe h jane. H 36or Tora OBaKe n/iaHHHCKe 06/ia- 
cth, npeM.ua OHe 3a Ky^TypHH HanpeaaK n 3a pa3BHhe 
HauHOHa^Hord^arocraiba npe.ncraB.'bajy i!3BecHecMeTft>e, 
HnaK cy on Be/iHKor 3Hanaja 3a HapoAHy cy;i6HHy, 6aiu 
3aTO uiTO cy £o6po ynBpiuheHe, ujto HMajy oiiJTpy 
K^HMy h npHBpe^aH >khbot y KOJHMa ce pa3BHJa Hapojx 
je^HOCTaBan h (})H3hhkh hco^hmho jan, kojh ce Harvio 
mho>kh h y AaHHM MOMeHTHMa n.iaBH oko ce6e, Kao 
ujto n/iaBH noTOK kojh nociaje on CHeroBa kojh ce 
BeKOBHMa roMH/iajy y n/iaHHHH, na ce ojuje^HOM pacTone. 
Ca OBaKO bcthkhm BHCHHaMa, on Mopa jaKO yna- 
;beHa h orpatjeHa n/ianHHaMa Koje npe^craB.'bajy jaKy 
npenpeKy 3a npoAHpatbe Ton/iHX h B/ia>KHHX npHMop- 
ckhx BeipoBa, Crapa PaujKa ocy^eHa je na HMa Bp/10 
oiiJTpy K^HMy. H 36ujba obo je je^ua on Hajx/iaflHH- 

JHX H HajCHOKHHJHX CpnCKHX OOViaCTH. Ta K^HMCKa 

oiuTpHHa nojanaHa je y nocnenthe BpeMe h thmc ujto 
je CKopo CBa iuyMa yHHuiTeHa, h ujto je ocra/10 ro/10 
Kpemt>aMKo 3eMJbiiujTe, y KOMe 6e3 iiiyMe ^eM^e Bp/10 
6p30 Hecraje, THMe ujto npona/iHe y no£3eMHe nehHH- 
CKe xoAHHKe h luto je bona oflHece, a ue/ia 06/iacr 
cBe BHiue oro.'baBa, CBe BHuie ,ao6HJa o6/ihk KaMeHe 
nycrmbe Koja ce /ieTH crpaxoBHTO ycnja a 3hmh oneT 
CTpaxoBHTO xnanu- CTapnx oiyMa, KOJHMa cy nocTO- 
ja/ie HHTaBe 6aJKe, h KOJHMa MHorH nyTHHUH H3 pa- 
hhjhx BpeMeHa jaB^ajy, CBe BHiue HecTaje, TaKO na ua 
BHCHHaMa Hcnozi 1.300 m. uiyMe HeMa CKopo HHKaKO. 
Obom yHHHJTaBaiby iuyMe, Koje cy TypcKe B/iacrH mc- 
cto CBecHO noMara/ie, Tpe6a ujto npe era™ Ha nyT, 
aKO HeheMO na Ta 06/iacr npHBpeano noTnyuo npo- 
na^He. 36or OBaKnx npn/iHKa cyBH h x.ia^HH BeTpo- 
bh AyBajy h 6e3 CMeTibe h 6e3 npeKHAa. 3hmc cy 
ayre, Bp/10 oujTpe h nyHe cHera. CByaa ce npHwa 

BCflHKHM CMCTOBHMa H Be/IHKHM I10rH6HJaMa OA 

CHera h cryaeHH. Ct3hobhhujtbo ce h npeKO ;ieTa to- 
n;io OACBa h r/iaBa My je yMOTaHa no npeKO y- 
ujHJy. 36or OBaKO oujtphx 3HMa h cyBHx/ieTa, Koja 
lie peTKO HacTynajy, Mecre cy y oboj 06/iacTH r.iaAne 
roflHHe, o KOJHMa AOMahH -neTonncuH h caapeMeHH sa- 
riHCH MHoro roBope. IVia^He toahhc y tbkhm 06/iacTHMa 



282 HOBA CPBHJA 



rope nycroiiie ho h caM paT h 6o;iecT. Hapo^ Harp- 
He H3 rwiaHHHCKHx o6;iacTH y HH3HHe, r.ne je 3eMJba 
n^ioziHHJa h y KOJHMa >khbh 3eMJbopaAHHqKH HapoA, 
kojh, Beh no cbom Ha^HHy 3aHHMattja, MO)Ke npe jia 
cnpeMH 3HMHHuy, h Kora caMa npnpo.ua n>eroBa 3aBH- 
qaja 6ojbe ocnrypa or CBaKHx H3HeHa^eH.a. 3a BpeMe 
obhx naaAHHx roAHHa MHoro6poJHe pauiKe nopoAHue 
Hace;iH;ie cy ce y aojihhh 3ana.zi.He MopaBe, oko Y- 
>KHua h y LLIyMaflHJH, 3aTHM Ma/io no KocoBy h Me- 
toxhjh, h Ha nocjieTKy no uejioj Bochh, r^e cy Aonpjie 
AO CaBe h ao JiHHKe rpaHHue. Kao Haj3aKjiofbeHHJa h 
no CBOMe npaBuy Haj3roAHnja o6;iacT 3a Behe mh- 
rpauHj'e Ka^a cy HH)Ke o6;iacTH 6mt Matte cnrypHe, 
CTapa PauiKa je c;iy>KH^a Kao Ba)KHa MHrpaunoHa 
uaAa 3a CBe OHe nopoAHue Koje cy ce ce^H^e H3 Ko- 
coBCKe CTape Cp6nje y npaBuy npeMa Bochh, XpBaT- 

CKOJ H OiaBOHHJH. 

Ba>KHHJe o6jiacTH h npe^ejiH. 

IlOJeAHHHM nJiaHHHCKHM BeHUHMa H peHHHM A0- 

^HHaMa H3AejbeHa je CTapa PauiKa Ha BHtiie MaHbHx 
o6/iacni h reorpa^CKHx uejiHHa. HajnpocrpaHHJe yAy- 
6jbeH»e, ueHTpa^Hy h HaJBa>KHHJy o6;iacT y oboj n;ia- 
hhhckoj o6;iacrH npe^CTaBJba Hoeoua3apcKo Ilojbe, 
Koje ce npy>Ka nopeA peKe PauiKe h npocTHpe oa Fla- 
3apHiHTa ao FleTpoBe UpKBe, y jiymimy oko 8 kh;io- 
MeTapa, a y iunpHny 700 ao 800 MeTapa. To je jeAHO oa 
HajBehnx nojba y uejioj Orapoj PamKoj, y n>eHOM hctoh- 
hom ,ne.ny HaJBehe, nopeA Tora n/iOAHO h n^aHHHaivia 
3aKJiOHDeHO. A^h je join Ba>KHHJa OBa H>eroBa KapaK- 
TepHCTHKa. y H>eMy ce 3Be3Aacro cyTH4y ocaM rviaB- 
nnx h Hei<o;iHKO MaH>HX peHHHx AOJiHHa Koje y H>era 
y^a3e h;ih H3 Hbera H3;ia3e. DiaBHe cy AOflHHe PaiHKe, 
JbyACKe, Ce6HneBe, JoinaHHue, TpHaBCKe h H36hhkc 
PeKe h ,He)KeBe. Ha Ba/iKaHCKOM no/iyocrpBy HeMa 
Meda r^e 6h ce Ha TaKO Ma^OM npocTopy cacraBJbajie 
TaKo MHoro6poJHe nomme. To je CKpHBeHa, hbpcto 3a- 
rpa^eHa KOT^HHHua, H3 Koje ce ycKHM Ao;iHHaMa MO>Ke 
H3ahn y CBHMa npaBUHMa, h to npeMa jyry h 3ana^y 



CTAPA PAUJKA 283 



y CrapH Ko/iaiuHH, y 6epaHCKy h 6je.iono;bCKy 06/iacr, 
na ceBepo3ana,ay y CjcHHuy, h napoMHTO /iaKO npeMa 
ceBepoHCTOKy ao/ihhom PaiuKe y H6ap. Te cy ce jxo- 
;iHHe aa.ie JiaKO 3aTBOpHTH, h 36or Tora je uena ko- 
T^HHa 6H.ia npnpo,iHO yTBptjeHa. y toj kot/ihhh je 
6ho npBH 3aMdaK HeMaibHhcKe apwaBC, h y it>oj ce 
OHa opraHH30Ba/ia, a Ka^a je .nonHHJe oja i ia/ia, paiuH- 
pH^a ce hh3 PaniKy h Kpo3 H6apcny ao/iHHy. V toj 
kot/ihhh je 6ho dapH Pac, no KOMe je Aounnje 
cpncKa jipwaBa Ha3BaHa PaiuKOM. CrapH Pac je 6ho 
npeMa yiuliy Ce6HMCBCKC y PauiKy, Ha Mecry Koje ce 
^aHac 30Be na3apHiuTe. To je MecTo oko 7 kh/iomc- 
Tapa Ha 3anan yja/beHO on AaHaimber HoBor ria3apa, 
yje^HOJpaBHH Koja je ;iyra 300MCTapa, a 150MeTapa 
LunpoKa. II AaHac ce bh^c 3H£HHe KOJHMa cy 6n/ie 3aT- 
BopeHe K/incype PauiKe H Ce6n4CBCKe, Kojuvia ce je- 
£hho MO>Ke yhn y to no/be Hi OBora 3arpat)CHor 
KOT/ia momo ce .naKO yliH y caaaiinbe HoBona3ap 
no/be h n>HMe 3aB/ia;iaTH, a y c/iywajy HenpnjaTe.i»- 
ckot Hanajia Paujann cy ce .naKO Mor/in noByhn y OBaj 
3aTBopenH yrao HoBona3apcKor rio.i>a. 

Ha cynpoTnoj CTpann HoBona3apcKor rio.i.a, oko 
jejiaH h no KH.iOMCTap ojx Hobot ria3apa, na.ia3H ce 
lleulpoRa Hpi<ea jciHa o,t najcTapHJnx nawnx upKaBa, 
Koja je HC3ipanHor 06/iHKa, ae6e.iHx 3H/iOBa, ca muoto 
MpamiHx H 3an/ieTennx xo^HHKa, h Koja ce 3naTHO 
pa3.iHKyje on jipyrux naujux upkbchhx rpai)CBHna h '. 
neMaiiiHiiCKor BpcMena W toj je upKnn Henaiba, y 
MeTpAeceToj roamiH cbot>khbot3, H9 KaTO/in i iKe npe- 
ujao y npaBociaBuy Bepy. y n>oj je Cbcth CaBa mh- 
pno Cpahy CTCBana h Bykana h y H>OJ je ou.ia cto- 
.THua painKe MHTpono^HJc. 

Ha ceBepo-3ana^y ox IlerpoBe UpKBe no a 
jxa/ieKo, na jcthom r/iaBH^acroM opay Koje ;ioMHHHpa 

CBOM OK0.1HHOM, HapOMKTO patUKHM nyiL'M UJ TO B0.T.H 

3a CpGnjy, AH>Ky ce pa3Ba.iHiie Bypfjeeux rtsa, 

Koje je, KaKO hckh iBp^e, noAnrao lic.Man.a 
H36aBHi nehmie y Kojy cy ra 6paha 3ati 

Xnjbtyep,iu\\\ , KOJM )c yjiaSHO J IbHX, OC06hTO \H.nn 



284 HOBA CPEHJA 



HjHxob )KHBonHc h paqyHa ra Mehy Haj3HaTHHJe ocraTKe 
cpncKor »<HBonHca HeMaFbHhcKor ao6a. 

Ha Bpjio ^enoM nojioacajy, y 6;ih3hhh HHTepecaHT- 
Hor BpeJia PauiKe h Be/innaHCTBeHor n>eHa Boaonaaa, 
Hajiaae ce pa3Ba/iHHe Couohana „PaniKOj Ha H3Bopy", 
3aAy»6HHe Kpajba ypoiua (XpanaBor), TeMejbH Cono- 
haHa cy oa HcyhKacTor CHTH03pHor nemnapa, 3haobh, 
cboaobh h Be;iHKO, AOda onyBaHO Ky6e carpatjeHH cy 
oa TecaHe CHre, BpaTa h npo3opn cy yoKBHpeHH yrjia- 
MaHHM MepMepOM ca ype3aHHM mapaMa Koje noacehajy 
Ha Hapo^He Be30Be h npcucraBJbajy HajjieniiiH opHaMe- 
HaT ConohaHa. „no JienoM pacnopeay noje#HHHx ae- 
/iOBa h onuneM njiaHy. ConohaHH cna^ajy Me^y Haj- 
■nenuie HeMaibHhcKe rpaijeBHHe. CBe yHyTapibe crpaHe 
3H,noBa cy uqa MHorHM cjiHKaMa Koje ce oflJiHKyjy jkh- 
bhm, totobo .upacTHMHHM 6ojaMa, npeAdaBJbajy jaKO me- 
MaTH3HpaHe CBeue h aora^aje H3 upKBeHe HcropHje, 
h H30CTajy H3a 6ojbHx c/iHKa y rpanaHHUH, y KOJHMa 
HMa HecyMfcHBO BHiiie yMeTHHHKora h c;io6oAHora. Ajih 
HMa y ConohaHHMa c;iHKa Koje Mory HMaTH bckhkh 
HHTepec; cnHKe Koje npeflcraBJbajy hmbot Kpajba fle- 
qaHCKora, h y KOJHMa HMa Hapo#HHX THnoBa y Hapo- 
ahoj houihdH H3 TpHHaedora Bena" (UsHJHh, Ochobh, 
IN 1155). KpoB upKBe je nopyuien, MecrHMHue h 3h- 
AObh, h upKBa je Ha nyiy #a cacBHM nponaAHe, ano ce 
3a BpeMe He nociapa 3a H>y. 

y oko^hhm ce^HMa >KHBe HCKJbyHHBo Cp6n ce- 
jbauH, Mel)y KOJHMa npeB/ial]yjy Cp6H npaBOG/iaBHH h&a 
Cp6HMa Myc^OMaHHMa. Cbh MyaiOMaHH HOBona3apcKe 
OKo/iHHe roBope cpncKHM je3HKOM. Jenen h Poro3Ha 
cy qHcro cpncKH KpajeBK. Th craHOBHHUH roBope jyac- 
hhm HapeMjeM, h no cbojhm cnoJbHHM aHTpono^ouiKHM H 

(J3H3HHKHM OC06HHaMa npHFia^ajy flHHapCKHM Cp6HMa, H 

to THny epcKO-H6apcKOM. BehHHOM cy AOcejbeHHUH, h to 
oa CTapor Ko^aiHHHa h upHoropcKHx Bpaa, HaponHTO H3 
PoBaua. Metjy Myc/iOMaHHMa. HMa BHUie crapHHaua', ajiH 
hdhx HMa BHiue H3 BocHe, XepueroBHHe h UpHe Tope. 
CTaHOBHHiiiTBO obhx ce;ia 6aBH ce norjiaBHTO o cto- 
4apcTBy, 3eMJbopaflH>H h KHpHUH/iyKy. 3eM;t»opa;ufea je 

36or HHT^yHKOr CHCTeMa CaCBHM npHMHTHBHa, h CKopo 



HHKO OA MHBMHJa He £06HJa T0.1HKO >KHTa A& 6H CC 

Morao H3^p>KaTH npeKO ue/ie ro^HHe. Objxq je y ny- 
hom jeny KapaBaHCKH npeHOC ecnana. BocaHCKHM ny- 
TeM npeMa Mhtpobhuh H3B03H ce CHp y Ha6pHuaMa, 
KO)Ke, ByHa, KaipaH h apBeHa rpa^a, a yB03e ce pa- 
3hobpchh TaK03BaHH eBponcKH ecnanH. y rojihhh 
PaujKe, HapoMHTO oko ConohaHa, ce/ia BpaJKOBaua, 
BapeBa, JlyKOupHJeBa h H3Ha^ Hobot PIa3apa, HMa 
h jio6pa Boha. 

Obh ce^auH, h to cavio npaBoc.TaBHH, >khbc;ih cy 
y poncrBy non HaJTe>KHM HHT^yqKHM chctcmom. 36or 
Tora cy Ky;iTypHO crpaiuHO H30cra/IH, 6oja>K.'bHBH cy, 
MpmaBH h HcnHJeHH. a totobo yBeK cy H3rvie£a;iH 

6pH>KHH. Oil H>HX Cy 60Jbe H3paibeHH, OTpeCHTHJH H Be- 

ce/iHJH 6h/ih Myc^OMaHH, kojh cy 6hjih y MHoro 6o^>hm 
COUHa/IHHM h npHBpeAHHM npH.iHKaMa. 

Ha 3ana;iy BDe/ia PaujKe h ConohaHa Hacraje Kp- 
uieBHTa noBpuj rieuiiuep, Koja je BHCOKa 1000 no 1200 
Mdapa. Ona je CKopo CBa cacraB.-beHa on KpenH>aKa, 
h y iboj HMa BpTawa, nehHHa, pena noHopHHua h Ma~ 
/ihx je3epa. HajBa>KHHJe je je3epo H3Mel)y ce/ia Bpaha- 
KOBHha, Bnoua h Tyunba, no^ 6pnoM TpajanoM. 3a 
to je3epo je Be3ana npnna o Cbctomc CaBH. FleujTep 
je noMaBHTO cyBaTCKa o6/iacr c Bp.no peTKHM Hace- 
jbHMa, on kojhx cy cpncKa caivio CyxoAO/i h By^eBO, h 
Ae^HMHue HyJKe. y ocra;iHMa >KHBe noMCHyTH Ap6a- 
HacH. riojaBa ap6aHaujKor e/ieMCHTa y toj 06/iacrH oce- 
ha/ia ce HapoMHTO y TOMe idto je rieuiTep npe^acTaB^a.ia 
je^ny on HaJMaibe H03naTHX o6/iacrH y EBponn. 36or 
Tora je y KapTaMa 6n/ia npe/tcTaBJbena 6e;iOM 6ojom. 

rieuiTep naKJiQ npejcraB/ba je/wy BHCOKy, cyBy 
KpmeBHTy BHeopaBaH, c Koje BOAa noHnpe y noA3eMHe 
iiehHHe, xoahhkc h peKe, H Koja npeMa TOMe He npn- 
na^a hh jc/ihom on cycezmnx pe i iHnx c.iHBOBa. Ona ce 
Ha.ia3H H3Mel)y c/iHBOBa ,'InMa, Mopa PaujKe h Bane, 
Koje ce pa3HHM cbojhm Kpamiua 3aceuajy y H>y, a/in 
HHJeAna je noTnyHO hc ocBaja. 

Ha jyry on IleiHTepH, H8Mel)y peKC BucrpHue h 
. beujHHue, Hacraje oG-iacr Buxop, kojh je caeraB/beH 
or BHine Ma.iHx .lo^mia h kojh uenoj ocViacrn jxaje He 



286 HOBA CPBHJA 



MHpaH THn. 06;iacT je nyHa Boae, HHxce napTHj'e cy 
3acejaHe KyKypy30M h 3o6h, hjih cy non myMOBHTHM 
Bohfr>auHMa, y KOJHMa HapoHHTO ycneBajy nyBeHe 6h- 
xopcKe ja6yKe. Ha 6pnHMa je myMa CKopo cacBHM yHH- 
uiTeHa, ccjia cy Ma^eHa, nen>y ce ao 3HaTHHX BHCHHa, 
1100 ao 1200 m. BHCHHe, h Ha^a3e ce MaxoM noA dp- 
mhm caceuHMa KpeMftaKa kojh ce c neurrepcKe bhco- 
paBHH cnyiiJTajy nomyHO OTKpHBeHH y nomine 6nxop- 
ckhx pena. y cpe/ubeM BeKy y obom Kpajy 6n;ia je 
BHXopcKa >Kyna. 

Ha cynpoTHOj crpaHH or Bnxopa, Ha jieBOj crpaHH 
JlHMa, HacTaje o6.nacT JIohdH KoJiaiuHH, hhjh ueHTpajiHH 
Aeo hhhh £o;iHHa peKe BpaHeiua. 06;iacT iuyMOBHTa, 
6oraTa naiuaMa, y hh>khm napTHj'aMa aocra B/ia>KHa h 
o6patjeHa, h Kao TaKBa HMa ycjiOBa jia. npHBpeflHO Ha- 
npcayje. y RoibeM KcviaiuHHy HMa MHoro cpncKor My- 
aiOMaHCKor cTaHOBHHiuTBa, Koje je nopeK/iOM H3 rop- 
ier Ko^auiHHa y Aocanauiifcoj UpHoj TopH. 

Bnxop h JXo\ku Ko^aniHH ce Ha;ia3e y Henocpe- 
AHOM aiHBy pene JlHMa, Koja npeAcraBJba HaJBa)KHHJy 
peKy h HajKy^TypHHj'y o6;iacT ue/ie CTape PaujKe. Ca 
peKOM TapoM JIhm 3aTBapa je^Hy maHHHCKy h cyBaT- 
CKy o6;iacT Koja je H3£y>KeHa y npaBuy jyroHCTOK-ce- 
Bepo3ana^. y AaHaujHDHM HMeHHMa peKa h MecTa HMaMO 
canyBaHa HMeHa cpeAHbe-BeKOBHHx cpncKHX >Kyna. Tano, 
Ha npHMep, y cJiHBy peKe JBy6oBHlje, JieBe jihmckc npn- 
TOKe, 6n^a je Jby6oeii1jCKa JKyua ; oko MecTa BpcKOBa 
y .naHauiHjeM floFbeM KojiaujHHy 6n;ia je BpcKOBcua 
}Kyaa\ y #o;ihhh peKe BpaHeuia 6n;ia je JKyua Bpa- 
v neia. Oko Cpeatber JlHMa, y 6/ih3Hhh £aHaujtt>er HpH- 
jcnojba, 6HJia je >Kyna Upna CuJena, y kojoj ce Ha;ia3H 
MaHacTHp Mn/iemeBa. Ha HMe Hei\aatutt>e >nyne ono- 
MHibe HMe AaHauiiber ce;ia U,pHa CTHJena Koje ce Ha- 
/ia3H y hctoj >Kynn. CeBepHO o# OBe a<yne y ao^hhh 
/UHaujFbe peKe 3BJe3AaHKe 6n/ia je atyna 3e/e3d. ZU- 
Hac ce Ta o6/iacr 30Be Be/iHKa >Kyna. Oa npnjeno;b- 
cKe KOT/inne ao BnujerpaAa c o6e CTpaHe JlHMa npy- 
>Ka^a ce >Kyna U.a6ap h/ih JJadapCKa }Kyua, y kojoj 
cy 6hah ManacTHpn OpaxoBnua h Batba h rpaa JXo- 
6pyn. y aojihhh peKe Tape 6n;ia je }Kytla Tapa, y 



CTAPA FALUKA ZO I 



kojoj je cpeaPbeBPKOBHO ce/io npeMhaHe, h aonHHj'a 
ce/ia TbypVjeBHha Tapa Jk'Bep Tapa h Hec})ep Tapa. 
H3 OBora ce bhjh r2l cy crape >Kyne 3ay3HMa/ie y 
CTBapH caMO Hn>Ka, n.noiiHHJa Mecia, 6.ia>Ke k/ihmc. 
Ha 3anajy or JlHMa, ynpaBO H3Mct)y rojihhq 
JiHMa h Tape, Hacraje ro/ia h crcHOBHTa KpembaMKa 
BHCopaBan, ca MHoro6poJHHM 3aTBopeHHM y/ierHyhH.\ia, 
n BpTaHaMa", 06/iacr o6pac/ia 6ycoBH.via o iupe n/ia- 
HHHCKe TpaBe Ha kojoj nacy CTa^a chthhx OBaua. To 
je, y ue^HHH, HajcyBJba h najHeKy/iTypunja ofi/iacr ue/ie 
Crape PaiiiKe, Koja je caMO OBae ourc 3acejaHa jeq- 
mom h KapniuHKOM, H BeoMa peTKO Hace/beHa. JXo.iw- 
hom pene TiOTHHe no^e^eHa je Ha cBojy HerowHy h 
3ana;iny no.iOBHuy, or kojhx je iipyra Matba, a/in Buiua 
h cypoBHJa. UeHTpa^HH rqo OBe 06/iacTH mhhh ao/iHHa 
pene Tiothhc y kojoj Hajn/io;iHHJH h HaJKy/iTypunjH 
Aeo npe^CTaB.-ba FI/beBa;bCKo flo^e, Koje je nyHO BOiie, 
3acejaHO KyKypy30M h apyrnvi >KHTHMa. Ue.ia 06/iacT, 
Koja je joiu y noweTKy AeBeTHaecror BeKa 6n/ia noR 
iuyMaMa. iiaHac je cacBHM ro/ia. 

JlaHaiiiiba Bapoiu fljbeejha nocra.ia je, KaKO npe.\ia 
CBeMy H3Meiia, TeK y neinaecTOM bck>- y cpeiiif.cM 
Beny y I~I;beBa;bCKOM i~lo;by 6h/io je Ma/io nace/i>e 
Bpe3HHua h/ih Bpxu6pe3HHua, na peuu ncrora HMena. 
3Ha cc Aa je y iberoBOj 6/ih3hhh 6h.io phmcko na- 
ce/be Koje ce 3Ba-io Sapua. IfcrJieJUi zia je y aeceTOM 
BCKy y oko/ihhh n^eBJba 6ho rpaj. kojh ce 3Bao Bpe3- 
hhk. nyniHUH H3 uiLCHaecror BeKa n^eB.^e h.ih Ta- 
c/inuy cnoMHiby Kao Ma/io ce/io, y komc cy craHOBa/m 
npaBocaaBHH Cp6w ; [1/beBftbCKO llo.j.e on.io je o6pa- 
oio rycrHM iuyMaMa y Kojn.via cy ce cai<pHBa/iH xaj- 
iiVUH kojh cy neiuhe Hana^a^n nyTHHKe kojh cy npcKO 
fl/beB/ba hhj.ih H3 Hy6poBHHKa 3a Hum 11 £a;bc 3a 
UapHrpa^. A.ih Bell npn Kpajy ujecnaecTor BfKfl (1581 
roR.) ii y iiOMCTKy cena.MHaeeTor BeKa (1621 roil.) 
FLbeB/be cecnoMHfbe najnpe Kao Bihe neCTO, na noc/ie 
Kao Beha B.ipoiuHua, Koja je 6n.ia QOAeJbCHa na hh/Kh 
Aeo, Kpaj pcKc. rjie >KMu.i>axy Typuu, h BHU1H fleo, rjM 
CTaHOBdxy Cp6n. y noweTKy cejiaiffiaeCTOf BeKa, He 
hko ro;iHna lonHwje, cnoMHibe ce Kao Be.iHKa na- 



2ti8 HOBA CPBHJA 



^aHKa y kojoj je 6hjio ceaHinTe caHnaK-6era xepue- 
roBanKor. Ilo Hapo^HOM npe^atby FI^eBjbe je ao6hjio 
HMe no TOMe ihto cy OB^e 6wbe ruieBape, „nJbeBJba" 
MaHacTHpa CBeTe TpoJHue. 

ycjiea Tora uito je BehH #eo 3eMJbHuiTa orojieo, 
Hsiyieaa rsl ce h KJiHMa 3HaTHO noonrrpHJia. HapoHHro 
je BHeopaBaH ocra;ia HesaKJiotteHa oa xjia^Hor ceBep- 
Hor Beipa, ycnea qera Haciajy Bp;io oiiiTpe 3HMe h 
x^aiiHe ^eTtbe HohH. Bcjihkh HaHOCH CHera, BejiHKa 
xjiajmoha, h HapoHHTO jaKH BeTpoBH, y3poK cy ujto cy 
MHore o6^acTH 3hmh npocTO HenpoxoAHe h no hcko- 
jihko MeceuH oa ocra;ior cBda o^BOJeHe. 36or Te 
KJiHMe Ha BHcopaBHHMa ycneBajy caMO CTpivma acHTa, 
h to HapoqHTO jenaM h ejb,a;a, a nnieHHua h pa>K c;ia- 
6nje. Flojba n pe^He AOJiHHe MHoro cy a<ynHHJe, njioa- 
HHje h HacejbeHHJe. HajnnTOMHJa h HajnjiOAHHJa je 
AO^HHa JlnMa, HapoHHTo OH^e rjxe OHa HMa Behnx npo- 
lUHpetba h uiHpnx nojba. y HdOj nopea ctpmhhx aon-a 
ycneBa h KyKypy3, a BHHOBa Ji03a caMO petje, h to 
caMO no 3aKJioft>eHHJHM Ae^OBHMa H>eHnx npncoJHHx 
CTpaHa. npeMa MHorHM 3HaunMa H3rvie;ia #a ce BHHOBa 
;i03a y paHnja BpeMeHa MHoro BHine KyjiTHBHcajia. To 
CBeAoqe MHora HMeHa h Ha3HBH nojeAHHHx MecTa, nao 
BnHorpaAH, J1o30bhk, HTaKo Aajbe. A Kao Hajcnryp- 
hhjh AOKa3 3aTo cnyHce HaM Tecnepe MaHacrnpa Tpo- 
jnue H3 mecHaecTora h ceAaMHaecrora BeKa, y KOJHMa 
ce pa3HHM cejbauHMa, ManacTHpcKHM HHCJHHJaMa, \no- 
nyurra #a ca^e BHHorpaa u na 6epy rpojK^e. Kynypy3 
ce ceje h y ao;ihhh Tape, ajin h to y 3aK^on>eHnJHM w 

CyHMaHHJHM MeCTHMa. EKOHOMCKe H KJIHMCKe pa3^HKe 

H3Mel^y ,ay6oKHx, 3aK^ohbeHHx pe^HHx aojiHHa h bhco- 
khx h OTBOpeHHx noBpuiH cy 3HaTHe. no AHy flO/lHHe 
h cpe^HHOM fteHHx CTpaHa noHHH>e ce opaTH npH CBp- 
meTKy jaHyapa, a npH Bpxy npn CBpmeTKy MapTa hjih 
AOUHHJe. Ha BHeopaBHH ce ope join aouhhjc Ca6H- 
pan>e jieTHHe no my h no cpcunHH CTpaHa 6HBa Kpa- 
jeM jyyia, a npn Bpxy KpajeM aBrycTa, a Ha BHeopaBHH 

JOUJ AOUHHJe. 

Crapa PaniKa Hace^eHa je cnopo HCKJbyqHBO Cp- 
6HMa npaBoc/iaBHe h Myc/ioMaHCKe Bepe. H3y3eT8K uhhh 



CTAPA PAUJKA 289 



fleiiiTep, y kojoj cy Hace/beHH Ap6aHacH. Cp6H Mycno- 
MaHH nace^eHH cy HapoMHTo Ha rpaHHUH 6ocaHCKOj, 
3aTHM y 06/iacHMa Ha jyry on CjeHHue h oa HoBor 
ria3apa. To cy CKopo MHcre cpncKO-MyaioMaHCKe o6;ia- 
cth. MHane y MHorHM apyrHM 06/iacrHMa >KHBe noMe- 
uiaHH Cp6H npaBOc;iaBHH c Myc/ioMaHHMa. Myc.iOMaHH 
MHHe, nopea Tora, BehHHy cnopo y CBHMa BapoiuHMa. 
Mefyy HaHMa iiMa aocra h npaBHX Typana, h HeuiTo 
Ap6aHaca. Ue/io to Myc/iOMaHCKO ct3hobhhujtbo ro- 
BopH cpncKH, a BapoiuKO nopeA cpncKor h TypcKH, 
KaTKaa 60.156 TypcKH Hero cpncKH. CeocKO MycnoMaH- 

CKO CTaHOBHHILITBO TOBOpH je^HHO CpnCKH, H TO jy>K- 

hhm HapenjeM, c oco6HHaMa upHoropcKor h xepuero- 
BaHKor roBopa, a Mecro c ohhm oco6HHaMa roBopa 
KOJHMa ce oa/iHKyjy HCK/bynnBO 6ocaHCKH Cp6H My- 
caoMaHH. rio HaqHHy roBopa, no cbojhm o6HMajHMa, a 
HapoMHTo no cbom MeHTa^HTeTy, ohh MHHe je^Hy ue- 
ziHHy c 6ocaHCKHM Myc^OMaHHMa. TaKBH cy HapOMHTO 
M^iOMaHH crapoceaeouH, kojh npeiurraB^>ajy MHoro 

MHpHHJe H CTa.lO>KeHHJe CTaHOBHHlllTBO OA MyC/IOMaH- 

ckhx AOce^>eHHKa H3 HeraaunbHX lypcKO-upHoropcKHx 
norpaHHMHHx 06/iacrH. To cy MaxoM Ko/iaiuHHUH, Hhk- 
iiJHhH h KopjeHHhH, kojh cy aoce/baBaibeM y BehHM Ma- 
caMa npoujHpH^H h nojaqa/in 06/iacrH xepueroBaMKor 
h upHoropcKor roBopa. Ohh cy y OBe h OHano HeKy;i- 
TypHe 06/iacrH yne/iH Mnoro BHUje AHB/bHHe, HecHryp- 
hocth, n/bam<e, Hacn.^a h npBHe ocBeTe. FIpeMa crapHjeM 
MycaoMaHCKOM CTaHOBHHuiTBy, Koje ce o6hhho na3HBa 
BoLUibauHMa, obh H3rvie;iajy AHB/baMHHJH, npacKaBHJH, 
necia/iHHJH h cnoco6HHJH 3a weTHHMKy aKunjy h n/bam<y. 
„BoiiJHDauH u cy tpomhjh, wecro H3i^eAajy pe3HrHHpann, 
a/in cy nyHH Bcpcne \ip>Kfbe h ocoChtot 4>aHaTH3Ma, 
kojh je cra/iaH, totobh Ha HaJBehe 3/iomhhc h cnoco6HH 
3a MHoro ujTO-ujTa. 

CpucKO npaBOc/iaBHO CTaHOBHHiiiTBO, no cbom no- 
peK/iy, no oco6nHaMa roBopa h hoiuilh, H no hcto- 
PHJckhm ycnoMeHaMa, ae/in ce na MeTHpn rpyne, h to 
Ha: XepueroBue, BacojeBHhe, CrapoB/iaujaHe h Pa- 
ujaHe. Xepu,ezo8u,u 3axBaTajy y rviaBHOM ouaj aco CTape 
Paiune kojh je y cbojc BpeMe npHna^ao apwaBH Xep 

MObA cpihja ly 



29U HOBA CPBHJA 



uera CrjenaHa, aaKJie o6;iacTH Ha ;ieBOj CTpaHH peKe 
JlHMa. 3axBaiajy Aan;ie o6;iacTH oa 6ocaHCKe, oa- 
hocho xepuerosaHKe rpaHHije ao Hoft>er Ko;iamHHa h 
BHxopa. Ohh Hoce no3HaTO xepueroBanKO OAe/io, c 
n^aBHM iua^BapaMa, 6jejiaiOM h upbchhm ueiviaAaHOM, 
h roBope no3HaTHM xepueroBanKHM Hape4jeM. Baco- 
jeeuhu ce HacejbaBajy c o6e dpaHe pene JlHMa, ao- 
nupyhH Ha ceBepy y niaBHOM ao Jby6oBHi)e h Jbeiu- 
HHue, qHHe je^Hy reorpa(J)CKy h n^eMeHCKy u.e/iHHy c 
BacojeBHhHMa y AOcaAauifooj Upnoj Topn, h npeA- 
CTaB^ajy Tpehn Aeo cbhx BacojeBHha. C BacojeBHhHMa 
}KHBe noMeiuaHH AOcejbeHHHH H3 cbhx ocTa^nx upHO- 
ropCKHx n^eMeHa, HaponHTO Kyqa h rinnepa, a;iH hx 
BacojeBHhn He npH3Hajy 3a CBOJe a/ieivie h Ha3HBajy 
hx Cp6^aqHMa h AiuaHHMa. Hoce no3Haiy BacojeBHh- 
CKy HOUJH>y h roBope HjHxobhm HaHHHOM roBOpa. Y 
oko^hhh HoBe BapouiH h CjeHHue, Hapo^HTO Ay>K ao- 
ca^aujH>e cpncne rpaHHue, )KHBe Cuiapo6Aaiua,Hii y koj'h 
ce oa odajior craHOBHuiHTBa H3ABajajy cbojom h%ih- 

tt>OM H CBOJHM n03HaTHM nCHXH4KHM oco6HHaMa. 06hhho 

cy OKpeTHH h AOBHTjbHBH, Hoce upHe nejieHrnpe, upH 
Meivia^aH, KpaTaK upH rytb h upBeHH uia^ oko rviaBe. 
Te CTapoB^amKe oco6HHe, HapcmHTo oaoio, Kao jeB- 
THHHj'e h npaKTHMHHJe, npeHOCH ce h Ha ocra/io cra- 

HOBHHUJTBO. PaQJaHHMa 6H Ce M0I7I0 Ha3BaTH CTaHOB- 

HHUJTBO HOBona3apcKe OKO^HHe h aojihhc PauiKe. FIo- 
peK^OM je oa aoceybeHHKa H3 pa3HHx KpajeBa. >KHBe;io 
je hoa TeujKHM arpapHHM OAHOCHMa, pace^>aBa^o ce 
BHuie Hero h jeaaH Kpaj, HapOHHTO y Cpdnjy noA Ka- 
pafyopf^eM. Ojxqjio My je 6e;io cyKHO ca upHHM raJTaHHMa. 



BapoujH Ciape PawKe. 

1. Hobh riaQap. 

Bhac/ih cmo Aa y cpeAH>eM Beny Hwje 6h;io Ho- 
Bor ria3apa, Beh Aa je y iberoBo] okojihhh 6ho rpaA 
Pac. „y aouhhjhm BpeMeHHMa Hedaje h ciapor Paca, h 
oa 1346 ao 1459 roA. noMHtbe ce TproBHUiTe Kao 
HajBa>KHHJe MecTO na TproBanKOM nyTy H3Metjy J\y6poB- 



CTAPA TAIUKA ^y 1 

HHKa h Hmua. MeijyTHM npH Kpajy 15 BeKa Hecraje HMeHa 
TproBHiuTe, a jaBJba ce aaHaiiiFbe HMe Hobh FIa3ap, 
MaxoM y TypcKOM o6.ihky Kao JeHH-fIa3ap. Oco6hto 
hccto ra noMHiby nyTHHUH 16BeKa, Koje je npoywaBao 
n. MaTKOBHh. Flo H>HMa je Hobh Ila3ap HaJBeha Ba- 
poiu Ha nvTy H3Met)y ,Hy6poBHHKa h HHtua, y kojoj 
HMa oko 6000 Kyha, c MHorHM uaMHJaMa, KapanaH-ce- 
paJHMa h jiyraHKHM 6a3apoM; 6ho je Hace^eH Typ~ 
UHMa, Jly6poBMaHHMa ti M.ienanHMa, h KaTO/iHUH cy 
HMa/iH Kane/iy y jeAHOj Kyhn. Ha iberoBOM Tpry cy ce 
npoiiaBa^H npoH3BOAH H3 MaKe£OHHJe, BocHe, Cp6nje 
h Ap6aHHJe. Haj>KHBJbe cy 6nne FberoBe TproBaHKe 
Be3e ca CKa/ipoM, ,fly6poBHHKOM, CapajeBOM, Hhujcm 
h Co^yHOM, n H3BO>KeHH cy noMaBHTO Byna, Kowe h 
BOcaK. Ta«aB 3Hanaj jc 3a;ip>Kao Hobh fla3ap CBe ro 
no^eTKa 15 Bena. Hobh PIa3ap je jaKo nocpHyo or Bpe- 
MeHa Kapa})op*)eBa yciaHKa. 3a BpeMe Kapa^opt)eBa 
noxo^a Ha Hobh ria3ap h ziouHHJe npece/in/iH cy ce 

H3 BapOHJH, a HapOHHTO H3 OKO/IHHC, MHOTH Cp6H y Cp- 

6njy, h Taj ce npouec h aouHHJe hhjc HHKaKO 3aycraB- 
;bao. Pace/iH/iH cy ce h mhoth MyxaMe^aHUH. npecTa/ia 
je TproBHHa ca Cp6njoM h Hhujcm, h o^ crapnx Tp- 
roBawKnx Be3a o^pHOBao je join >KHBe Be3e ca CKa- 

ApOM. CTaHOBHHUJTBO Ce 6h.10 TaKO 3HaTHO CMafbH/IO 

ja je XwhtyepRunr 1857 r. naiuao y Hobom FIa3apy 
caMO 1500 MyxaMejiaHCKHX h 100 npaBOC/iaBHHx ro- 
MOBa h/ih oko 12.000 daHOBHHKa. rioc/ie Tora Bpe- 
MeHa Hobh I~Ia3ap ce y hcko/ihko onopaBHO, napoMHTO 
or KaA je carpaljeHa KOCOBCKa >Ke/ie3HHna, h or Tora 
BpeMeiia je yiiyheH norviaBHTO Ha CcnyH. 

H ca;ia Hobh ria3ap HMa bc.ihkh jnaqaj h iiaj- 
Behy MapiiiHJy na nyTy H3Mel)y FIpH3peHa h CapajeBa. 
.Tokh Ha najnoBO/bHMJeM Mecry ucmpa^Hora no.i.a, 
HajnpocrpaHHJe h naj6oraTHJe paBHH HoBona3apcKor 
CaHuaKa; aa/be je 3(5or noMCHyinx 3Be3Aacrnx ao/iHna 
Ha ibera ynyheHa Beha OKO/inna. Oh je r/iaBHo MecTO 
h r.iaBHO OAMopnuiTe na CocancKOM nyiy kojh or mh- 

TpOBHHKe >Ke.ie3HHMKC CTaHHUC BOAH M ri/bCB/bC H L>0- 

CHy; HCTHna jc 3nawaj Tora nyia 3naTHO onao or KaKo 
je Aycrpo-yrapcKa -iayse/ia Bocny. Ha noc.ieTKy je Hobh 



292 HOBA CPBHJA 



riaaap 6ho h ociao niaBHO ceflHiirre MyxaMeaaHCKHx 
6eroBa obhx KpajeBa. y H>eMy, aaKJie, HMa join 3HaT- 
Hor eKOHOMCKor >KHBOTa; H>eroB na3ap npeacraBJba h 
jiaHac y^Huy Koja je ayranKa oko 80 m. h une no- 
npe^Ke npeKO ue/ior ueHTpajmora nojba h peKe PaniKe: 
to je THncKa TypcKa Hapmnja, norjiaBHTO on apBeHHX 
jiyhaHa h heneHaKa, mnan kojhx je #pBeH KpoB, no- 
AynpT .apBeHHM cry6oBHMa, h TaKO je c o6e crpaHe 
3HaTaH Aeo na3apa HaTKpHBeH. Te HacjiOHe 30By caua- 
UHMa, h 36or h>hx ce Moace y qapuiHJH h no pl^aBOM 
BpeMeHy yroflHo KynoBaTH h npoaaBam DiaBHH cy Tp- 
roBUH h 3aHaT^nje Typun epjinje, 3aTHM MyxauHpH no- 
cejbeHH H3 BocHe h HnKinnha, h Ha nocjieTKy Ma;io Tba- 
KOBaua, je^HHH apHayTCKH npeAcraBHHUH y Hobom ria- 
3apy,KOJH zpyKe xaHOBe h 6aBe ce KyjyHUHJCKHM 3a- 
HaTOM. Ue^a qapuinja roBopn cpncKH. OHa ce yBene 
3aTBapa, h CBe HapinHHJiHJe craHyjy H3BaH qapinnje, no 
MaxajiaMa. no mom o6aBeniTeH>y HMa ca^a y Hobom 
FIa3apy 3700 MyxaMe^aHCKHx Kyha; y KyhH HMa npo- 
ceHHO 5 ayina, h npeMa TOMe y Hobom Ila3apy HMa 
oko 18.500 MyxaMe^aHaua cpncKora je3HKa. OKOJiHHa 
je BehHM aejiOM npaBOcnaBHa; cpncKa cy cejia 6e3 H3y- 
3eTKa Hufyjiyuu, a MyxaMe^aHCKa BehHM aejiOM. 3aTO je 
Hobh ria3ap ceaHime noMeHyTHx MyxaMe^aHCKHX 6e- 
roBa, Haj6enitt>Hx h Hajjbyhnx He caMO OBe o6;iacTH; 
ohh cy HapoMaTO cktiohh OTMHuaMa h 3yjiyMHMa, h 
3aTO je Hobh FIa3ap craJiHO 6ho je/ma on HajHecnryp- 
hhjhx h Haj(J)aHaTHHHHJHx BapouiH eBponcKe TypcKe. 
Cp6n cy cKopo OHaKO hcto noTHnrreHH Kao y IlehH h 
TbaKOBHUH. OAY3eTa hm je MoryhHOCT 3a Behn paa h 
hhko ce He cMe jane odoraTHTH. Kao iuto je noMe- 
HyTO, Cp6n cy ce oji noneTKa 19 BeKa jaKO pacejwjiH, 
h no MHorHM BapouiHMa 3ana^He Cp6Hje no3HaTH cy 
AOcejbeHH TproBUH „na3apuH" ; HMa hx qaK y Jaro- 
Ahhh. Caaa HMa y Hobom na3apy 160 cpncKHx no- 
MOBa, MaxoM 3aapy>KHHx, TaKO %a. y jeaHOM HMa oko 
10 ayina, h npeMa TOMe HMa CBera Cp6a y Hobom fla- 
3apy oko 1600; He3HaiaH 6poj on h>hx 6aBH ce 3aHa- 
iHMa, TprosHHOM, MexaHUHJiyKOM. no mojhm o6aBenrre- 
hbHMa, on Cp6a cy caMO ABe nopo^Hue crapHHUH: Ko- 



CTAPA PAUIKA 293 



MaTHHe, on kojhx HMa h je^Ha HoiaMH3HpaHa rpaHa, 
3aTHM Kyjiarnhn, on kojhx je yBeK 6h;io h can HMa 
CBeujTeHHKa. Ocra;ie cpncKe nopoAHue cy aocejbeHe 
nocyie^HDHx 50 — 80 toa-, MaxoM H3 oko^hhx ce/ia, 3a- 
thm H3 H6apcKor Ko.iaiuHHa, on Be/ieca (jeaaH je on 
h>hx CBeujTeHHK), on Oone h H3 PoBHua y UpHoj TopH. u 
Ca^a HMa 13.433 CTaHOBHHKa. 

2. UpBjexxtoe, 

JIokh y jeAHOj ycKOj a Bp/io /ienoj ao/ihhh JlHMa 
c o6a#Be n>eroBe crpaHe. Behn h rviaBHH Aeo BapouiH 
je Ha aecHoj crpaHH, aok je Ha apyroj cipaHH Bp.io 
Ma;iH aeo, oahocho Kpyr KacapHCKH kojh je aycrpHJ- 
CKa BOjcKa npn OKynaunJH npHJeno^a no^nr/ia. 

JIhm je npo;ia3ehH Kpo3 fIpHJeno;be npH/iH4HO 
uinpoK h 3a BpeMe OTanatt>a bc/ihkhx CHeroBa h na- 
naft>a Be/iHKHx KHiua qedo Moate to/ihko ^a nano\)Q 
Aa AecHy crpaHy ripHJeno.*ba n^aBH. 1897 roA. 6n;ia 
je Be/iHKa non/iaBa, ycrceA Koje cy HeKe Kyhe noMe- 
peHe h HeKe nojaTe OAHeceHe. BoAa je Taiia n/iaBH/ia 
npHj'eno/be CBe no wapiunje. YoieA JiHMa h FberoBHx 
non^aBa caMo je Mecro Aocra He3ApaBO h B/ia>KHO. 

JlnMOBe cy npHTOKe : CejbaMHHua, Koja ce y/ieBa 
c AecHe dpaHe JlnMa BHiue I~IpHJenoA>a Ha Mecry 
Ko/iOBpaiy, h Mn/iemeBCKa PeKa, Koja ce y/iHBa y 
/Ihm HH>Ke ripnjeno/ba c AecHe crpane. OBa je peKa 
^eTH o6HMaH noTOK, a.iH KaA HaAofye yc/ieA KHiua h 
OTanaiba CHeroBa, TeiuKo je pa3/iHKOBaTH na /ih je 

flttM BehH \iJ\H OHa. 

FIpHJenojbe no naJHOBHJoj ct3thcthuh HMa 3355 
CTaHOBHHKa, oil kojhx anco/iyTny BehHHy MHHe Cp6H 
Myc/iHMami. Bapoiu je Aocja iHCTa a h npn/iHMHo ype- 
fyeHa. riopeA jeAHoenpaTHHX h hhckhx ujHHApaHHX Kyha 
HMa npn/iHHan 6poj ABoenpaTHHX h MOAepHHx 3rpaAa. 
IViaBHay/iHua, a h r/iaBHH aeo Bapoiun jcctc qapmnja, Koja 
ce upocTHpe nyAi ue/ior ripHJeno.ba ; y rviaBHy y/inuy 
H3/ia3e joiu caMo hcko/ihkc ycKe y.wume. Y MapiuHJH 
.1 r.iaBHe Ka^ane h Co^h xoTe.in On 6o. r bHx CJ 



294 HOBA CPBHJA 



Kacj)aHa: „IJ,pKBeHa Ka(})aHa M h „06yhHHHHa Kac})aHa". 
Oa xoTcna : „/Ihm* h „MHHHha XaH". 

FIpHJenojbe HMa ochobhy uiKOJiy h HHMcy ruMHa- 
3HJy. Cp6H HMajy h Bpjio Jieny upKBy. On xyMaHHX 
ydaHOBa je neBaMKo ADyuiTBO „Cb. CaBa", Koje no- 
ctojh join Oa npe 20 roAHHa. Myc;iHMaHH HMajy Tpn 
uaMHJe. 

H3 FIpHJenojba BOAe kojickh nyieBH 3a rL/beBJbe 
npeKO HOBor .nHMCKor Mocra h HOBonpoceneHH kojickh 
nyT 3a npH6oj, c kojhm ripHJenojbe boah HaJBHinn ca- 
o6pahaj. 3aTHM nyT 3a CjeHHny, kojh je ao MHJioiue- 
Bor Rona kojickh a OAaTJie khphuhjckh. IlyT kojh boah 
3a ripH6oj koa ymha BHCTpnue y JIhm OABaja ce h 
3a HoBy Bapoiu, kojh je TaKoije TeK nponijie roAHHe 
npoce^eH MetiyTHM, khphuhjckh nyT kojh HAe AHpeK- 
tho 3a HoBy Bapoiu cacBHM je ptjaB h onacaH. 

FIpHJenojbe ca JIhmom HMa BejiHKy 6yAyhHOCT, 
HapoHHTO joui oa KaKo je nocra;io OKpyaoio MecTO. 
Bapoiu ce jcahho Mo>Ke uihphth hh3 JIhm Ha jieBOJ 
CTpaHH: AaHaujHDH rviaBHH ago BapouiH anco/iyTHO ce 
HeMa rAe BHiue ujhphth. 

3. BepaHe. 

JIokh y roptbCM TOi<y JlHMa, a npy^a ce ca o6aABe 
fceroBe crpaHe. Behn h r/iaBHH Aeo je Ha jieBOj CTpaHH, 
OAaK^e ce h 6epaHCKO nojbe HacTaBJba. C AecHe je 
CTpaHe Bp;io Ma/iH TypcKH Aeo, H3HaA Kora ce AH^e 
6pAO JacHKOBau Koje je TypuHMa c/iy>KH;io Kao Ao6po 
h npHpOAHO yTBp^eiiDe. 

OBaj Kpaj c AecHe CTpaHe 30Be ce ApeMH, 36or 
Tora ihto cy Ty 6hjih xapeMH TypcKHX HHHOBHHKa h 
o(j)HUHpa. HapoAHO HMe Tora Kpaja jecTe npocHHe. 

DiaBHa Bapoiu c AecHe CTpaHe actih ce Ha ropHby 
h AOH>y Maxa/iy ; ceBepHO oa h^hx je r/iaBHH Aeo BapouiH, 
4apiHHJa. H3Me^y napiunje h yjinue Koja boah MaHacTHpy 
byp^eBHM CTy6oBHMa HMa npa3aH npocTOp, 6HBiue 
rp>KHiijTe, Koje ce 30bc Bervfy'K. rip'eKO JlHMa cy ABa 
MOCTa kojh Be>Ky ApeMe ca rviaBHOM Bapoiun. Moctobh 
cy noAHrHyTH Ha KpajeBHMa BapouiH. H3 r/iaBHe nap- 



< TAPA PAUJKA 



LUHJe 3a ApeMe HAe ce hobhm moctom kojh je Ha ce- 
BepHOJ crpaHH, aok je crapH Ha jy>KHOj crpaHH CKopo 
nocTao HeynoTpe6^HB. 

BepaHe HMa oko 3.000—3.500 daHOBHHKa, ojx kojhx 
MycnoMaHH MHHe BehHHy. Cp6H xpnujhaHii HMajy ocnoBHy 
iHKO^y ca 150 — 200 yneHHKa h ocHOBuy iHKo^y c aecHe 
crpaHe JlHMa Koja cny>KH 3a \)zkq H3 nona/beHHx okojihhx 
ce;ia, h ca^a HOBO-OTBopeHy HH>Ky rH\ma3HJy. UpKBe 
y BapoiHH neiviajy. MeTBpT caia yna:beHH 03 BepaHa Ha- 
/ia3e ce TbyptjeBH Cry6oBH, kojh rpatjaHHMa c/iywe y 
MecTO BapoujKe upKBe. Oa Ky/nypHHx yciaHOBa aaHac 
Cp6n HMajy o6HOB. r beHy MHTaoHHuy, Kojy cy TypuH 
npe 6h/ih 3aTBopn^H. Typun cy TaKO^e HMa/w ocHOBHy 
iHKO/iy h py>K/iHJy (HH>Ky rHMHa3Hj'y). HMajy aaHac h 
ABe yaMHJe. 

On 60/bHx 3rpa^a cy HeKO/iHKe KacapHC h HOBa 
3rpaAa 06/iacHe ynpaBe 6uBiuer TypcKor yhyMaia. CBe 
cy ocra/ie 3rpaAe BehnnoM npocre h jeAHocnpaTHe. II 
OBiie cy y rviaBHoj qapujHJH, Koja ce Ay>K JlHMa Kpo3 
ne/iy Bapouj npoTe>Ke, CBa HaiyienjTBa, rocTHOHHue h 
Ka(J)aHe. y Ber/iyKy je 60/bH xotctc FIonoBHha, h y 
MapoiHJH KacJ)aHe JaKa Kyqa, „Kom u h LUeKy/iapqeBa 
Ka4>aHa. 

BepaHe BpujH cao6pahaj bchhhom ca AHupnjeBH- 
UOM, Po>KajeM, flehH, h HemTO ca Bhjctihm no.^eM h 
CjeHHUOM. OcKy^HixoM 60/bHx KOMynHKauHja, jep cy 
cbh nyTeBH Bp/10 p^aBH H KHpHUHJCKH, OCHM HOBO 
TpacHpaHor 3a AHjipnjeBHu.y, h TproBHHa je y obhm 
KpajeBHMa Aocra cna6o pa3BHJeHa. 

/Ie>KH Ha BC/IHKOJ H TO/IOJ BHCOpaBHH CJeHHMKOr 

no/ba Ha iberonoj ceBepo-3ananHoj crpaiiH, a c Aecne 
crpaHe peKe YBua, on Kora je ueTBpT caia yAa:i>eHa. 
BapoiH je roTOBO nomyHO opncHTa/icKor Tnna, 
ca hhckhm jeAMOcupaTHHM KyhaMa, ca bhcokhm ihhh- 
iipaHHM KpoBOBHMa, c AyhaHHMa ca heneHUHMa, xaHO- 
BHMa, irr.fl. MnaK, nopeA oanx oco6hh8, caMa Bapow 



296 HOBA CPfcHJA 



h yHyipaiuifcocT H>eHora aoiBOTa hoch KapaKTep h Ha 
40BeKy ocraBjba yTHcaK hhcto cpncne BapoiiiH. 

HMa 4539 CTaHOBHHKa, oa kojhx Cp6H xpniuhaHH 
HHHe caMO je^Hy AeBeTHHy; octajio cy MycjiHMaHH. Ap- 
Hayia H3 neiirrepH HMa caMO hckojihko Kyha. OKO^HHa 
naK cjeHHHKa HMa no^a xpniuhaHa h nojia MycjiHMaHa. 

Cp6n xpnuihaHH HMajy ocHOBHy iiiKOJiy ca 100 ao 
150 yqeHHKa h upKBy, Koja je Ten npe 12 roAHHa noAHr- 
Hyia, HHane cy ce npe c;iy>KH^H KanejiOM. CpncKH Aeo 
BapouiH, kojh ce Ha;ia3H Ha ceBepHoj CTpaHH, ae/in ce Ha 
ABa nena: TopH>y h AOity Maxajiy. TopH>a Maxajia Ao6njia 
je ca,na Ha3HB „JaBOpCKa yjinua". Hanac Cp6n HeMajy 
HHKaKBy KyjiTypHy hhth nan xyMaHy yciaHOBy. npe ne- 
thph roAHHe nocToja^o je neBaqKO ApyuiTBO, a 1910 r. 
ycraHOBJbeHa je 6nJia h cpncKa HHTaoHHua. y caMOM 
CBOMe 3aneTKy Typcne B;iacTH yKHHyjie cy o6aABe 
ycraHOBe. 

TypcKH Behn ago BapouiH, Kpo3 kojh npOTHne H 
pe^Hua TpaGoBHua, HMa HeKOJiHKe Maxajie, oa kojhx cy 
HaJBehe : FIotok, HMaM Maxajia h MaBHha Maxa;ia. Typun 
HMajy Tpn uaMHJe, jeAHa oa HdHx je y rpaAy, kojh ce 
Ha;ia3H Ha Bpxy napuinje ao cpncKe Maxajie. TpaA je 
Ma^H h orpa^eH Bpjio c;ia6HM 3haom, HHane HHJe hh- 
KaKBO yTBpljeHje. 3aTHM, Typun HMajy neTHpH ochobhc 
iiJKOJie ca 500 — 600 i^aKa, neiopa3peAHy rHMHa3njy 
(HAaAHJy) h «eHCKy paAeHHHKy uiKOJiy HaMen>eHy HCKJby- 
mhbo 3a hn^HMapcTBO. Tihjihmobh ce, oa flene ByHe 
cjeHHMKHx OBaua, AOCTa Ao6po h caBpuieHo H3pal)yjy. 

y^Hue cy y BapouiH AOCTa uiHpOKe, na npHJiHMHO 
h HHCTe. Hajr^aBHHj'a je yjiHuayiapuiHJa, y kojoj cy h 
CBa HaA-neiiiTBa, paA^e, xotctch h Ka(J)aHe. Bhbihh xa- 
hobh npeTBopeHH cy y xoiejie, oa kojhx cy „XoTe/i 
Cp6HJa" h „JaBOp" Haj6ojbH. 

Ha no;ia caia H3HaA BapouiH Ha ceBepHoj dpaHH 
Ha^a3H ce yTBp^eite JlynoniaB, a Ha ceBepo-HCTO^HOJ 
dpaHH qeTBpT caTa oa BapouiH je Man>e yTBpl]eibe Ha Pa- 
AHiuHha BpAy. Hctohho oa CjeHHue npoTOKe ce npo- 
dpaHo cjeHHHKO nojbe, 3 caTa AyranKO h 2 uinpoKO. 
FloiuTO je oCpac^o chthom TpaBOM, jep je 3a ycese 



CTAPA PALUKA 297 



ocmm OBca "h HeujTO jewMa cacBHM HeruioAHO, he H>eMy 
BehHHOM nacy KpAa qyBeHHx cjchhmkhx OBaua. 

TproBHHa ce BehHHOM boah ca CKon/beM h Co- 
ziyHOM, rAe H3B03e croKy h ctohhc npoH3BOAe, a Ha- 
POhhto y CKon^e qyBeHH cjchhmkh CHp. H3 noMeHyTHx 
BapouiH AOB03e MaHycfiaKTypHy h KO/iOHHa;iHy po6y. 
CaB cao6pahaj BpiuH ce KHpnuH/iyKOM, jep Ao6pHx 
ApyMOBa HeMa. Jcahhh ApyM boah npeKo JaBopa 3a 
HBan>Huy, HHaqe 3a ocra.ie BapouiH, Hobh fla3ap, 
ripHJencbe, HoBy Bapoui, Ewje^o Flo/be, BOAe o6hmhh 
nyieBH. 

HcBa Bap; 

HoBa Bapoiu .iokh y jeAHOj Aenoj ao;ihhh Ha bh- 
chhh npeKo 1000 MeTapa. Kpo3 u»y npoTHne noTOK 
kojh H3BHpe HcnoA n;iaHHne CeKHpnue. HenocpeziHo 
y3 Bapoiu ca HcroqHe h 3anaAHe crpaHe AH>Ky ce He- 
KO/iHKa 6pAa. Ha ceBepo3anaAHOj crpaHH je n/iaHHHa 
THKBa h ao \he Pa>KHiuTa. Ha jy>KHOJ crpaHH je IJLlTHn 
h Bapnue, a Ha jyro-3anaAHOJ CTpaHH je 6pAO OuHHa 
CTHjeHa. 

HoBa Bapoiu je jeAHHa Bapom y CanuaKy me cy 
npaBOcyiaBHH Cp6n no 6pojy CTaHOBHHiiJTBa jeAHaKH 
ca Myc^HMaHHMa, a ujto cBaKojaKO Tpe6a npHnHcaTH 
6hbujoj 6/ih3hhh cpncKe rpaHHue a h mhcto cpncKOj 

OKO^HHH. 

HMa 400 — 500 nyha ca 2909'craHOBHHKa, oa kojhx 
hhhc no/ioBHHy npaBOCiaBHH Tp6H. Cp6n cy BehHHOM 
TproBUH h to, ochm hcko/ihuhhc, TproBUH Ha Ma.io. Behn 
Cp6H TproBUH cy h 4H(})/iyK-caxH6HJe. 

Typun H3 HoBe Bapoiun cy BehHHOM qn(j)/iyK-ca- 
xn6nje, a 3a MH(})HHJe HMajy Cpde ce;baKe H3 oko;ihhx 
ce/ia. Ohh naK Typun kojh HeMajy CBOje 3eM:be bcIih- 
hom cy 6aKa;iH n/in CHTHHMapcKH TproBUH. 

HoBa Bapoiu aqjih ce^Ha ABa nomyHo OABOjeHa 
Ada : cpncKH h TypcKH. CBe noipe6e Cp6n Ao6njajy 
oa cpncKHx npoAaBaua, a Typun oa cbojhx npoAaBaua. 

CpncKH Aeo, kojh ce na;ia3H Ha 3anaAnoj crpaHH, 
Ae^H ce Ha Maxa.ie : 3e6nH0Bau, Kao i/iaBHa, h Hobo 



298 HOBA CPBHJA 



h Crapo flojbe, 06ajia h OpaHa kslo Maite Maxa/ie. Typ- 
ckh #eo aejiH ce Ha ABe rviaBHe Maxa;ie : UnraHCKH 
BHrTteBH, OAMax ao cpncKor Aejia, h ropH>H Aeo, Bpa- 
HomeBau. TypcKH Aeo BapouiH je Ha 6ojbeM nojio>Kajy, 
h jcahho Ha TOMe Kpajy HoBa Bapoui MO)Ke ce ujhphth. 
Cp6H HMajy ocHOBHy uiKOJiy ca 120 — 150 IjaKa h 
no cnojbaujtbocTH Jieny upKBy. ripe cy Cp6n HMajiH h 
neBaHKO /ipyiHTBO „3opa", Koje cy Typun yKHHyjiH, na 
je to hmc ca/ja j&to hobo-ochob3hom ApyuiTBy „Tpe3- 

BeHOCTH". HCTO TaKO CKOpO je OCHOBaH h „Coko". 

TypaH cy TaKo^e HMajiH ocHOBHy uiKOJiy ca 
150 — 200, tjaKa a HMajy h jeAHy uaMHJy, HHane neMajy 
HHKaKBe xyMaHe h KyjuypHe yciaHOBe. 

Kyhe cy y Hoboj BapouiH BehHHOM uiHHApaHe, 

Ca BHCOKHM KpOBOBHMa, OCHM HeKOJIHKO 60JbHX H MO- 

AepHHx cpncKHx Kyha. TjiaBHa yjinua je napuiHJa, Koja 
ce Ay>K uejie BapouiH npOTe>Ke. y h>oj cy r/iaBHe paAH>e, 
rocTHOHHue h Kacj)aHe. Bojbh xoTeji je „HoBa Cpdnja" 
h Ka(})aHa „CpncKH Kpajb". 

TproBHHa je totobo CBa y cpncKHM pynaMa. H3- 

B03H Ce BehHHOM CTOKa H CTOHHH npOH3BOAH, OA KOJHX 

cy qyBeHH KaJMaK h cyBo Meco, oahocho npuiyTa. Cao- 
6pahaj ce boah ca okojihhm BapouiHMa Bp;io pljaBHM 
nyieBHMa. Ca^a je CBa TproBHHa ynyheHa jcahho Ha 
y>KHue, aok je npe 6n;ia ca CKonjbeM h CojiyHOM. 

Je^HHH HOBonpoceneHH kojickh nyT boah npeno 
KoKHHa BpOAa — Jby6nuja 3a y>KHue, ocrajiH cy ny- 
TOBH KHpHUHJCKH h HeAOBpuieHH npeKo BHcrpHue 3a 
npHj'enojbe h IlpH6oj. 

y oko^hhh HoBe BapouiH Ha noMeHyTHM 6p^HMa 
HMa ocTaTana oa Kapa-Tbop^eBHx maHaua H3 1809 
roAHHe. 

HeTHpH caia Aa;ieKO oa HoBe BapouiH Ha ce- 
Bepo-3anaAHOJ CTpaHH je MaHacTHp Baita, 3a^y)K6HHa 
Kpajba B/iaAHcnaBa HeMaiBHha. y3 MaHacTHp je h Aocra 
^eKOBHTa 6aH>a, no kojoj je h ManacTHp ao6ho hmc 

6. UjbeBJbe (IlJbeBtTLa). 

FIjbeBJbe ce Ha;ia3H y ceBep03anaAHOM Ae-ny hobo- 
na3apcKor caHuaKa h oa 6ocaHCKe rpaHHue y^a^eHO 



CTAHA PAUJKA 



je 36 KH^OMeTapa. npeivia TOMe oho je noc/ie IlpH6oja 
Haj6^H>Ke Bochh h XepueroBHHH oa cbhx Bapoiun y 
CaHuaKy. JIokh y Ma.ioj kot/ihhh n:beB/baHCKor no^»a, 
a c ^ecHe CTpaHe peKe TiOTHne. Bapoiu h no/be c 
/ieBe crpane Tiothhc onKOJbaBajy 6paa h r/iaBHue: 
Mhacthho Bpao, JanbH/ie, Vojiy6n\ha f BopoBau, FVia- 
BHua, BormueBau, BarH6eroBo BpAO, rLanjeuj h Maiba 
n/iaHHHa KopHJeH. 

Kpo3 BapoiLL npoTHne Ma^a pe4Hua Bpe3HHua, 
Koja H3BHpe H3 6e3£aHa noa OpyiueBHuoM 11, Ae/iehn 
Bapoiu na jiBSi Ae/ia, y LLIeBapHMa koa Mecra Abao 
BHHe y^eBa ce y TiOTHHy. 

Bapoui je cacBHM MHCTa h .iena, niTojeMHHH Haj- 
6o/bOM BapoiuH y CaHuaKy, a no mhctoth cnrypHO je 
or Haj6o;bHX BaponiH oc;io6ol)eHHx KpajeBa. HnaK, nopeA 
mhothx opneHTa/iCKHX oco6HHa (iiyhaHH c heneHUHMa, 
Typcne Kacf)aHe, hqkojiuko xanoBa), oHa HMa H3r/ieA 
cpeAfoe-eBponcKe Bapouin. y kojoj ce nopeA rope Ha- 
6pojaHHX rpa^eBHHa Mory bhacth h MOAepHe paAibe, 
6o;be Kac{)aHe, xaHOBH-xoTe.iH h MHoro /iennx npn- 
BaTHHX 3rpaAa. Bapoui je noAe;beHa Ha ABa Ae.ia: 
cpncKH h TypcKH. CpncKH HMa Tpn Maxa/ie — KBapTa — 
h to: MoheBau, TyBna h Bapoui. MyciHMaHCKH naK 
Aeo HMa cejiaM Maxa/ia : Pn3BaHHJa, XaMHAHja, Xaun 
XacaH, Mncnp Axmct, Xai,iH-3eliHpHJe, XyceHH-riaiuHHa 
h UnraHCKa Maxa/ia. 

n^>eB^>e no HaJHOBnjoj craTHCTHUH oa 1913 roA. HMa 
7940 CTanoBHHKa, oa kojhx i mhhc MyoinMann a ocra- 
TaK Cp6n npaBOC^aBHH. Cp6n cy y cBaKOM nor.ieay Kya 
h KaMo OAMaK/iH oa Myc/iHMaHa, Koje je BepcKH 4)ana- 
TH3aM to/ihko yTyKao Aa cy y Ky/uypHOM nor.iCAy 
ocra/iH hcth OHaKBH KaKBH cy 6h;ih jouj npe 100 ro- 
AHHa, a MOKAa h bhujc. 

Oa jaBHHX ycTanoBa Cp6n HMajy ocHOBny uiKO.iy 
ca 500—600 yneHHKa, MeTBopopa3peAHy rnMHa3HJy 
Koja je npe 13 roAHHa ycTaHOB/bcna, h Hiucy AeBOJa- 
MKy, oahocho paAeHHMKy uiKO/iy. 3aTHM, Cp6n HMajy 
neBaMKO ApyuiTBO „BpaTCTBO" Koje nocTojn join oa 
npe 20 roAHna, a Koje je yc/ieA HecpehHnx npn.iHKa 
y TypcKoj c BpeMeHa Ha BpeMe o6ycTaB/ba/io paA- Sfa 



i'iOO HOBA CPBHJA 



„BpaTCTBO" 6wi2L je yBeK h cpncna HHTaoHHua, Kojy 
je Hdacy^HHa nocTH3aBa^a KaoH „BpaTCTBO". 3aTHM 
Cp6n HMajy CBOJy urreAHOHHUy, „<I>oHAMaHacTHpa Cb. 
TpoJHue", kojh je ao npe hckojihro roAHHa paAHO, a 
AaHac je cacBHM yMpTBJbeH. 

Myc^HMaHH y BapouiH HMajy oko 10 ockobhhx 
uiKOJia ca 1000 — 1500yqeHHKa, neiopa3peAHy rHMHa3HJy 
„HAaAHJy" h HH)Ky 6orocviOBHJy „MeApecy". FIopeAOBora 
TypuH y rijbeB^>HMa HMajy AeBeT ijaMHJa, oa kojhx 
je Be^HKa uaMHj'a „XyceHH FlaiuHHa" HaJBeha h Haj- 
6ojba. fIo3^aheHH no;iyMeceu,H Ha Ky6eTHMa uaMHJe no 
HapOAHOM npeAau>y cajiHBeHH cy oa KpdOBa ca Ma- 
HacTHpa MH/iouieBe. IJaMHJa ce Hajia3H y ueHTpy Ba- 
pouiH, y niaBHOJ napuiHJH, Koja cbojom HMno3aHTHo- 
mhy y^eniuaBa mrnen BapouiH. Cp6n y BapouiH HeMajy 
UpKBe Beh nocehyjy MaHacrnp Cb. Tpojnuy, neTBpT caTa 
y^ajbeH oa BapouiH Ha iteHOJ ceBepOHcronHoj crpaHH. 

UeHTap cpncKor jiena BapouiH je „PacKpCHHua", 
i\ae ce mecr y^nua yKpurra. Ty cy h Haj6ojbe Ka(J)aHe: 
>KHBKOBHhaHMaHacTHpa CB.TpojHue. DiaBHH Kop30 je 
Be/iHKa h uinpoKa yjinua y Bapoui Maxa;iH. Oa ro- 
CTHOHHua 3a npeHohHune h xoTe^a 3HaTHe cy: ABe 
BaJHha rocTHOHHUe (xotc/ih) h rocraoHHua „Be;iHKa 
Cp6nja" y Bapoui Maxa;m. Oa 6ojbHx KacJ)aHa y ocra- 
;iom Aejiy BapouiH jecy : HapOAHa Bauna, Koja je jicth 
oco6hto Jiena, h Ka$aHa ApyuiTBeHe nHBape. 

Oa 4>a6pHKa y n^>eBJbHMa Ha;ia3e ce OBe : Zlpyui- 
TBeHa IlHBapa, (j)a6pHKa univie h upena, h MaibH napHH 
m^hh. flpe HeKOJiHKo roAHHa nocrojajie cy h ABe mo- 
AepHe nehn 3a cnpaBJbaibe Kpena. OHe AaHac He paAe, 
nouiTO noTpe6y HCTora 3aAOBOJbaBajy Maite Ko;iH4HHe 
npena Koje cejbaun cnpaBJbajy. 

Haj6ojbH Aeo BapouiH jecre bojhhhkh ;iorop, kojh 
ce Ha/ia3H Ha ceBeposanaAnoj crpaHH fljbeBJba. Jlorop 
je npe 30 roAHHa noAHivia Aycrpnja 3a CBOJy BOjCKy, 
a Tano ra je ypeAHJia ca hckojikko napKOBa Aa no 
flenoTH, xHrneHH h bcjihmhhh cnaAa y Haj6ojbe ;iorope 
Ha Ba^KaHy. y cpeAHHH HaJBeher h Haj6oJber napKa 
HanpaBJbeHO je BeunaMKO je3epo Koje y npeHHHKy hme 
oko 70 MeTapa. 



CtAPA rALUKA 



y TproBaMKOM nor/icay n.beBJbe AaHac ctojh Bp;io 
cfla6o. On KaKO je yKHHyT jiy6poBaHKH apyM h Be3a 
c Hy6poBHHKOM, oa Ta^a je h TproBHHa CBeneHa Ha 
MHHHMyM. Hanac ce BehHHOM TproBHHa h cao6pahaj 
boah ca Bochom, a/in y Ma^oj Mepn. H3B03e ce cnpo- 
BHHe: ByHa, KO>Ke h MHorH ctohhh npoH3Bo;m, a yB03H 
ce BehHHOM KO/ioHna-nria h MaHy^aKTypHa po6a. 

Cao6pahaj ce Bpuin Ko/iHMa. H3 n^eB^a BO^e 
ApyMOBH 3a FIpHJeno.'be, Meia/baKy — YcTHnpaqy, h He- 
AOBpiueH apyM njbeB^e— CjeBepHH — Py/io, kojhm ce 
cao6pahaj Bpiun KOtbHMa, KHpnuH-ayKOM. Flo aaHa- 
iuhdCm CBOMe no/iowajy, ho/ihthmkom noae;iOM CaH- 
Mana, eKOHOMCKe npn^HKe OBe BapoiiJH c aaHa Ha aaH 
he onaAaTH, 36or Hera ce 6ojaTH j& h caMa Bapoiu 
TOTa^HO He npona^He. 

7. npuSoj. 

FlpH6oj je Ma^a BapoiiiHua, ca cbojhx 800—1000 
craHOBHHKa. YaajbeHa je CBera 3 km. or YBua Ha 60- 
caHCKOj rpaHHUH. JIokh c/iecHe cipaHe vlHMa, a H3HaA 
ibera ca ceBepHe h hctomhc cTpaHe jxamy ce OMaifce 
Koce h 6pna : flaHa T^aBa, Tonyuia. h Bje/iHHKa Koca. 
C /ieBe nan crpaHe JlHMa, Ha jyro-3ana;iHOJ crpaHH 
ripH6oja, ^H>Ke ce n/iaHHHa Bnh. 

Kpo3 FIpH6oj npo/ia3H CBera jenHa r/iaBHa y/inua, 
Ay>K Koje cy noanrHyTe Kyhe. OBy y/iHiiy c ;ieBe crpaHe 
npoceuajy join Tpn Man>e y^Hue. V cpeaHHH npn6oja 
h rviaBHe y/iHue Ha/ia3H ce Ma/10 noBehH npocrop npa- 
Boyrviacror 06/iHKa kojh c/iy>KH 3a npH6ojcKy nnjauy. 
Oko H>e cy h 6ojbe npH6ojcKe Kyhe no/inrHyTe. FIpH- 
6oj no cbojoj cno;baujHOCTH HMa Hsr.iQn MHcre cpejxH»e- 
eBponcKe BapoiiJH, a h caMa Bapom ca cbojom oko- 
/ihhom h Ihmom kojh nopea ibera npoTHMe Bp;io 
je HHCTa. 

H Cp6n npaBOC^aBHH h MycriHMaHH HMajy no 
je^Hy ocHOBHy ujKO/iy. Myc/iHManH HMajy ABe yaMHJe, 
a Cp6n upKBe HeMajy, Beh ce MecTO hbe c/iywe Kane- 
now. JawH yTHuaj CBera cpncKora jacHO ce noKa3yje 

ii y3^H>KC iiaA TypCKHM. 



302 hoba criMJA 



Cp6n HMajy ApyiiJTBO „Coko m Koje je npe ro^HHy 
AaHa ycraHOBJbeHO h HHTaoHHuy Koja je npe ABa Me- 
ceua ycraHOBJbeHa, noK Me^yTHM Typijn HeMajy hh je- 
Ahc Ky^TypHe ycTaHOBe. Y „CoKo;iy" HMa h hcko^hko 
Myc/iOMaHa. 

Oil jaBHHx rpatjeBHHa ripH6oj HMa M,sa Jiena xo- 
Tejia: „ripH6oj w h „BaHDy". XoTe;i FIpH6oj no cbojoj 
ypeJ)eH0CTH cna/ja y Haj6ojbe xoie^e oc;io6oijeHHx Kpa- 
jeBa. Hcto TaKo je MoaepHa h Bp/io (J)HHa Ka(j)aHa koa 
„JXb3. rio6paTHMa M . Xotck h Ka(J)aHa Ha;ia3e ce y r/iaB- 
hoj yjinixa Ha njiauy nnjaue. 

npn6oj je no ca^a y TypcKOJ no a^MHHHCTpa- 
thbhoj noaejiH 6ho My.nHp^yK, onuiTHHa. Ahckchjom 
obhx KpajeBa on CTpaHe Cpdnje npn6oj je nocTao 
cpecKO MecTO. 

Ilo^a caTa y^ajbeH on YBua, )Kejie3HHm<e cra- 
HHue y rpaHHUH BocHe, y noc7ie,zufce BpeMe nocTao 
je Bpjio )khbo TproBanKO MecTO. HanpeAOBaH>e npH6oja 
h ^cHBJbH cao6pahaj Hacrahe Ten ca.ua, jep he caB H3B03 
h yB03 ca Bochom H3 obhx KpajeBa hrh npeKo H>era. 

Cao6pahaj ce BpniH KOJiHMa, ,npyMOM kojh bo^h 
on YBua Ha npn6oj, a cuaivie y flpHJenojbe. 



*& 








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CejbaHKe ws CxoncKe UpHe Tope. 




MaHacTup Cb. FlaHTejjieMOHa. 




Ilk'nHocTac yfupKBH Cb. Cnaca \ Ckoii 

\Uk UHl :>ui(i, v MHOZOJU ikuU rha na C.lUHH, 

paooet' de6apt i fapa u ncusoBaama. Mnote epOcxe upKer. 

napoHtUBo u.i 17 u IB se/ca, y Qpa$ttMt Me6paMu t w.w,. 

oMUapy cAUHuy pesdapujy, HfUuc jt o&tuttU MutuAetbe da j< ' 

Hf>Kfi<i :p(i/;t'Hti v cpt ttty 




MaHacTHp y ceny Hepe3y (CKoncKa UpHa Topa). 




KoHauH y MaHacTHpy Cb. ApaHije/ia y CKonckoj UpHOJ TopH. 




ManacTHp Cb. Aparije/il y CKoncnoj Hpuoj ropn 

floducHyiu y ciun.iy > : ^(iHiin/uipa, 

'' Ohtanu, mijy c.uiKy 

IfJfO Ha BpedtbOJ ntipnmi. 




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Tpodjbe y lll-rany Ha hbhuh iiiTHncKe kotjimhc 




Bafba KaT^aHOBo H3Me^y Ci<on, T ba h Be/ieca. 






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<3-i 





npmien. y no3a#HHH 6p^o Ha KOMe je 
MapKOB Tpa^. 




MaHacTHp TpecKaBan koji flpmiena. 




Pa3Ba/ume MapKona rpajia y ripmieny. 



Mapxosa ./ Ho je^yQpa 

6pda hi; fe Qoduznyin zpat 

timnu o<) zpadcKux 
MiduHii. \ aduHU jednu 

Kv.ui Koja nam . 

3HaiUH0 otumth- XUJlpM 

;n, Budu re a .. 
01 uytua. koju 




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CpncKa >KeHCKa Hoiuvba y IIphiijthhh. 

Oeaxey notutby UMajy jieiuu cnopo cee^eapomaHKe 
% Koco8CKe Ciuape Cp6uje, 




ManaciHp Mhjh Dl 







ApnayTCKa Kyjia y Mctoxhjh. 




.ManacTHp ConohanM. 




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Pa3Ba;iHHe MaHacTHpa BaibCKC 
koa MHTpoBime 



KAPTA 

HOBE CPBMJE 




I H- 












DR 

309 

D37 



Dedijer, Jevto 
Nova Srbija 



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