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IT is nearly two centuries since a separate edition of 
Novatian's Treatise on the Trinity was produced by 
an English clergyman, John Jackson, and published in 
London. To this editor and his immediate predecessor, 
Edward Welchman, we are indebted for valuable help 
towards the emendation of a corrupt vulgate text, in 
the absence of all manuscript evidence. But they left 
much still to be done, and the text of the present edition 
can only claim to mark a further advance towards 
textual purity. My first duty was to provide an in- 
telligible text, and this, I trust, has been accomplished. 
The aim of the Commentary has been to make the 
treatise speak for itself. Criticism and theological 
dissertation were reserved, in the main, for the Intro- 

The interest of the Treatise, and its importance at 
the present day, will hardly be questioned. It is at once 
the earliest systematic treatise on its subject, and the 
earliest monument of Roman theology. It transports 
us to a critical period in the history of Christian thought. 
Then, as now, the battle-ground of contending schools 
of opinion was the doctrine of the Person of Christ. 
It may be said of doctrines and formularies with no less 
truth than it is said of institutions, that the study of 


<e I 

v A 


their origins and ordered growth is the surest key to 
their meaning. There is no better introduction to the 
study of Christology than the Treatise of Novatian. 
Much that nowadays to the popular mind is new and 
modern, is there to be found in germ or tendency. The 
Divinely-endowed Man of the Adoptianists has re- 
appeared in the Christ of humanitarian theories, and 
there are modern critics who dissolve the historical 
Christ into an idea as unsubstantial as the Christ of the 
Docetic Gnostics. Again, far removed as is the writer's 
standpoint from that of those who disavow " the dividing 
line between man's being and God's," he can say that 
the Word of Christ bestows on man divinity. It may 
be said in truth, that Novatian is as instructive by his 
limitations of insight and definition, as he is by his 
positive contribution to the problems of the Creed. For 
he is not merely the pale reflexion of Tertullian, as 
might possibly be inferred from dogmatic writers. The 
student may think that the Treatise scarcely earns the 
title which it has come to bear, and it is true that more 
is said about the unity of the Godhead than about Its 
tri-personality. But the writer will not allow his sub- 
lime conception of the Divine ' monarchia ' to exclude 
that other conviction, which Scripture and experience 
have rooted in his mind, that Christ is, in a real sense, 
God as well as Man. 

It has not been an easy matter to prepare, at a 
distance from libraries, an edition requiring constant 
reference to authorities, and in particular to the earlier 
printed texts. I am indebted to Mr Falconer Madan, of 
the Bodleian Library, to Professor Dr Binz of the Uni- 
versity Library at Basel, for practical assistance ; to 
Prebendary Goudge for the use of the Wells Theological 
College Library ; and to the Rev. E. G. Meyrick Wood, 


Vicar of St Stephen's, Shepherd's Bush, and to the Rev. 
H. R. Joynt, Rector of Marksbury, for the use of some 
valuable books ; and lastly, to my brother, Mr F. Porter 
Fausset, of the Inner Temple, who did some useful work 
for me in the British Museum. But my chief thanks are 
due to Dr Mason, the General Editor of the Cambridge 
Patristic Texts. It is not easy to express in a few words 
what this little book owes to his continuous criticism 
and encouragement, and, in many passages, to his actual 
collaboration. I have drawn freely upon his great stores 
of theological and patristic learning. Many of the inter- 
pretations to be found in the Commentary represent the 
result of prolonged consultation between us ; and I have 
had the privilege of discussing with him the larger aspects 
of Novatian's theology. This general acknowledgment of 
Dr Mason's unwearied kindness has to stand in place of 
any acknowledgment in detail. He has bestowed more 
pains upon the work of another than some men bestow 
upon their own. 



St Thomas' Day, 1908. 



i. Novatian and the 'Corpus Nouatianum 3 . 

2. The literary history of the de Trinitate : 
its date and arrangement . 

3. The Subordination of the Son 

4. The Pre-existence of the Son of God . 

5. The Person of Christ, according to No- 

6. The Deification of Man . 

7. On the use of the term 'Person' in regard 
to Deity 



xiii xxii 

xxii xxix 
xxix xxxv 
xxxvi xlii 

xlii Iv 
Iv Ixi 

Ixi Ixiv 




a = cod. Anglicus Pamelii. 

7 = Gelenius (Froben, Basel, 1550). 

Pa = Pamelii editio 1579. 

G = Gangneius (Paris, 1545). 

We, Ja, edd. Angl. = E. Welchman (Oxford, 1724) 

and J. Jackson (London, 1728). 
Migne = Patrologiae Latinae torn, iii (Paris, 1886). 
Latin. = Latinius Viterbiensis ap. Pamelium. 
ms. Wow. =a Vatican MS used by J. a Wouwer in his 

Emendationes Epidicticae (Francofurti MDCIII). 
Ed. Paris 1545 = 6. Rhenani operum Q. Sept. Tertulliani 

F. Jun. = comments by Franciscus Junius. 


'Verius cogitatur Deus quam dicitur, et uerius est quam 
cogitatur.' (AUG. de Trinitate.} 

i. Novatian the Roman presbyter: and the 
1 Corpus Nouatiamtm? 

We do not possess the materials for a complete life 
of Novatian ; but that which we know about the man 
may help towards a clearer understanding of the style 
and the vicissitudes of his literary remains. It is not 
necessary to discuss the truth of the statement of Philo- 
storgius 1 that he was by birth a Phrygian, although he 
drew some of his followers from that fanatical race and 
shared some of its characteristics. According to a 
letter of Cornelius, Bishop of Rome, to Fabius, Bishop 
of Antioch, at one time he was ' possessed ' for a con- 
siderable period and had to call in the exorcists of the 
Church of Rome, where he resided ; and falling into a 
grievous sickness, had received clinical baptism, but on 
his recovery had failed to receive the seal of confir- 
mation from the Bishop 2 . Nevertheless the Bishop 
(Fabian or one of his predecessors) advanced him to 
the order of the presbyterate, doubtless owing to his 

1 Hist. Eccl. viii 15. So the schismatic Montanus was a native of the 
neighbouring Mysia. 

2 apitd Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vi 43. 


great intellectual gifts, in spite of the expressed disap- 
proval of the clergy and many of the laity 1 . 

From Cyprian we learn that Novatian had been a 
follower of the Stoic philosophy; and we may trace its 
influence in his partiality for the syllogism in argument, 
as well as in his cosmogony (cf. de Trinitate c. iii 
with notes; and de Spectaculis ix, if Novatian V). It 
is certain that by the year A.D. 250 his abilities had 
gained him a commanding position among the forty- 
six Roman presbyters. It was in that year, when the 
martyrdom of Fabian created a vacancy in the Roman 
see, that we find a couple of letters 2 addressed by 
Novatian on behalf of the Roman clergy to Cyprian, 
Bishop of Carthage, asking his counsel upon the vexed 
question of the treatment of the ' lapsed/ i.e. those who 
under stress of the Decian persecution had sacrificed. 
In both letters there is an austerity of tone in regard to 
these offenders, not wholly unmerited in view of their 
peremptory demand for indulgence 3 . The writer is 
none the less ready to ' remit the case to the bishop,' 
as soon as a successor to Fabian should be found, and 
meanwhile to confer with bishops, priests, deacons, 
confessors and faithful laity elsewhere upon this ques- 
tion 4 . But perhaps some words at the opening of 

1 apttd Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vi 43 KaT^i^d-rj rov irpeo-fivTepiov Kara 


2 Letters xxx and xxxvi in Cypr. Epistolae : in Migne, Patrol, iv, 
col. 315 (numbered xxxi), also ib. iii, col. 993, and ib. iv, col. 311 (num- 
bered xxx). The evidence for the authorship of xxxvi is not quite as strong 
as that of xxx, for which Cyprian vouches (Ep. Iv 5). 

3 Ep. xxx 7 'qui petitur flecti debet non incitari': Ep. xxxvi i 
'lapsorum fratrum immoderata petulantia usque ad periculosam uerborum 
temeritatem producta ' ; ib. 3 ' neque sine instinctu quorundam ausuros 
fuisse omnes tarn petulanter sibi pacem uindicare.' Cp. Ep. xxiii (Migne 
xxii) 3. 

4 xxxvi 2 sub fin., xxx 6, 7 sub fin. 


letter xxx are ominous : ' he who has a clear conscience, 
resting on the vigour 1 of evangelical discipline, who 
is his own true witness in the court of heaven, is wont to 
be content with the judgment of God alone.' Novatian 
had evidently prejudged the question, as one that involved 
not merely the discipline, but the healthy 'vigour' of the 
Church : and upon the election of Cornelius to the 
vacant see of Rome 2 he placed himself at the head 
of the party of rigorists who held that the lapsed, 
while they might be exhorted to repentance, were 
to be excluded from Church communion for ever 3 . 
Then followed the fatal step of his life. He procured 
three bishops, simple and ignorant men (avQpcoTrovs 
dypoiicovs KOI aTrXoiKJTarou?) from a remote part of 
Italy, to consecrate him bishop in rivalry to Cornelius 4 : 
after which he bound his adherents by oath upon the 
Consecrated Elements not to desert him for Cornelius. 
In the autumn of the year 251 he was excommunicated 
by a council of sixty bishops held at Rome ; but the 
Novatianist schism, to which the name of KaOapol or 
1 Puritans ' was afterwards given, spread as far as Spain 
in the west and Syria in the east, and is found in exist- 
ence as late as the sixth century. 

Of the later career of Novatian little or nothing is 
known. From ch. i of his de Cibis ludaicis it appears 
that for a time he was separated by circumstances from 
his Roman adherents. There is a story, but again it 

1 A very characteristic word in Novatian, as also in Cyprian. 
1 March 5, 251 : Tixeront, Hist, des Dogmes, p. 378. 

3 Bardenhewer, Geschichte d. altkirchlichen Litteratiir, Freib. in Breisg. 
1903, ii 561 refers to Socr. Hist. Eccl. iv 28, Cypr. Ep. 55. 27: 57. 4. 

4 We can hardly credit the statement of Cornelius that they performed 
the act in a drunken condition, under compulsion, at the tenth hour: 
a legend of the order of the 'Nag's Head' fable. (Ref. to Euseb. vi 
43. 89.) 


rests on the testimony of his rival, that in time of perse- 
cution he went into retirement, and when implored by 
the deacons to bring comfort to his suffering brethren, 
replied that he wished to be a presbyter no longer and 
was a lover of a different philosophy 1 . Possibly he 
was more zealous in theological study than in the fulfil- 
ment of the pastoral office. Socrates has a tradition 
that he suffered as a martyr in the persecution of Valerian 
(after A.D. 257). 

Novatian is not the only instance which Church 
history furnishes of a man of undoubted spirituality 
and high intellectual endowments, in whom some one 
austere or even morbid conviction, gaining impetus from 
an autocratic temper, has overborne the larger principles 
of charity and Catholicity 2 . We may regret that Cor- 
nelius could characterise a learned fellow-Christian as a 
* cunning and malignant creature.' But when the same 
writer refers to him ironically in the same letter as * this 
marvellous man,' ' the brilliant,' ' the dogmatist,' ' the 
champion of ecclesiastical science/ * the vindicator of 
the Gospel 3 / he preserves for us, unintentionally, the 
encomiums which the admirers of the schismatic 
lavished upon him. The rare culture and eloquence 
of Novatian could not be denied, but it was easy to 
accuse him of being a 'better philosopher than Christian 4 / 

1 Cornel, ap. Euseb. I.e. 

2 'nee fraternam caritatem nee ecclesiasticam unitatem tenuit' (Cypr. ad 
Anton, in Migne iii, col. 815). 

3 Cornel, ad Fab. Antioch. a? (Migne iii 761) T 5oXe/>< Kal KaKo-rjOei 
Oriply. Ib. passim 6 6avfJ.d<rio$ oSros, 6 Xa/ATrporaros, 6 doy/Jt-ariffTris, 6 TT}S 
KK\r)<na<7Ti.Krjs e7ri<rr?J/i?7s UTrepatrTTKTT^s, 6 e^Si^TTjs TOU euayyeXiov. 

4 'quisquisille est et qualiscumque est, Christianus non est qui in Christi 
ecclesia non est. lactet se licet et philosophiam vel eloquentiam suam 
superbis uocibus praedicet,' etc. (Cypr. ad Anton., Migne iii 815) : 'inter 
Christianos et philosophos plurimum distat' (ib. col. 807): 'in perniciem 
fratrum lingua sua perstrepens, et facundiae uenenatae iacula contorquens, 


and his scholarship would have commanded more re- 
spect at Alexandria than it could at Rome and Carthage. 
Moreover, Roman Stoicism, even as we have it in 
Seneca, with whom Weyman 1 finds in our writer points 
of affinity, lacked the breadth of humanism : it is more 
akin to the spirit of Calvin than to that of Erasmus. 

The Novatianist schism was a revolt against the dis- 
cipline, not against the doctrine of the Catholic Church. 
Whatever may be thought of the conformability of 
certain statements in the de Trinitate to the Nicene 
standard, neither this nor any other of Novatian's works 
was disallowed on account of heterodoxy. In fact 
these treatises have been preserved solely on their 
intrinsic merits. But the writer has paid the price of 
secession : a heavier price indeed than his more eminent 
precursor, a man of a kindred spirit, Tertullian. Such 
of his writings as survived, survived only under cover 
of some other name ; they are to be sought among the 
supposititious works of Tertullian, Cyprian or Origen. 
In the same way, in the fifth century some writings of 
Apollinarius were * disseminated under the famous names 
of Athanasius, Julius, and Gregory ThaumaturgusV The 
history of the de Trinitate, as related in pages xxiii, 
xxiv, provides the best example of this survival under 
a disguise ; and in the same way, the pastoral letter 
known as de Cibis ludaicis was bound up with the works 
of Tertullian. We know that Novatian was a prolific 
writer. Jerome mentions the following works of his, 
in addition to the above-named : de Pascha, de Sabbato, 
de Circumcisione^ de Sacerdote, de Oratione, de Instantia 
('of perseverance under trial'), de Attalo*. He also 

magis durus saecularis philosophiae prauitate quam sophiae doniinicae 
lenitate pacificus ' (Cypr. Ep. Ix 3, Migne iii 860). 

1 Landgraf u. Weyman, Novat. de Cib. lud. p. 225. 

1 Gore, Dissertations, p. 153. 

! Hier. de Vir. III. c. 70: adding 'multaque alia.' 

F. N. b 


speaks of a collection of Letters 1 . Of these two only 
are extant, the letters addressed on behalf of the Roman 
clergy to St Cyprian and preserved among his Epistles 2 . 
They form an important contribution to our general 
impressions of the style characteristic of this writer, 
and illustrate his attitude on questions disciplinary and 

For Novatian stands out among the Christian writers 
of the Western Church as the earliest Latin stylist. 
For a long time Greek was the official language of the 
Churches of the west, the Roman Church not excepted. 
It was the signal service of Tertullian to the Western 
Church that he provided her with a Latin terminology 
of doctrine, much as Cicero long before had created 
the philosophical terminology of the language. But 
the style of Tertullian was the replica of the man : 
strong, harsh, knotty, often disjointed, only sometimes 
settling down into a passionate current of eloquence. 
Novatian had studied the African father to good pur- 
pose, as even the extant titles of his works shew ; but 
he brought to the task of theological exposition some- 
thing which was his own, a facile pen which had been 
trained to its purpose by the study of great classical 
masters, in particular of Virgil. 

As far as I know, there was no one in the third 
century worthy to be named with him in this respect. 
Thus in the analysis of his style, rhythm and diction, 
we have a touchstone which can be applied, with the 
hope of a constructive certainty, to other works which 
have hitherto been placed among the writings genuine 
or apocryphal of some Catholic father. And thus this 
long-lost author may be restored inuenias etiam disiecti 
membra poetae though perhaps with varying degrees of 

1 Hier. Ep. x ad Paul. c. 3. 2 v. supra, p. xiv. 


certitude. There are five treatises included among the 
works of Cyprian which some leading scholars now 
attribute to Novatian : the de Spectaculis, de Bono 
Pudicitiae, de Idolorum Vanitate, aduersus ludaeos, and 
de Laude Martyrii. Space forbids me to enter into 
the question here ; but I should consider the author- 
ship of Novatian proved for the de Laude Martyrii, 
which (as Harnack says) was enough to establish the 
writer's fame as an orator 1 , just as the de Trinitate 
establishes his fame as a theologian ; and proved also for 
the de Spectaculis. The former is a letter to martyrs in 
prison, the latter the letter of a bishop from his place 
of exile to his adherents. In the two treatises (the de 
Laude Martyrii and de Spectaculis) we find the writer's 
old partiality for elaborate metaphor 2 , his use of hy- 
perbaton 3 , of rhetorical formulas of transition and quali- 
fication 4 ; and some of his characteristic words 5 . 

His fine effects are often secured by the use of 

1 It must be admitted that for this very reason the de Laude Martyrii 
falls below the theological level of the writer's best work: there is too 
apparent a straining after effect. 

2 E.g. from wounds, de Sped, i 'sanitatis obductae cicatricem,' Ep. 
xxxvi 3, Ep. xxx 3 'obducere cicatricem': from the sea and its shores, 
de Laud, Martyr, iv, comparing de Trin. i, p. 3, 11. 2 7. 

3 E.g. de Trin. v 'ad humanorum relata esse exempla uitiorum': de 
Laud. Martyr, xxi ' unius cuncta sunt temporis, unius poma feruntur 
aestatis': de Sped, v 'si perrogem quo ad illud spectaculurn itinere per- 

4 E.g. de Sped, ii 'hoc in loco non immerito dixerim ' vi 'ut de hoc 
scenae inquinamento...transitum faciam' : Cib. lud. ii 'ut ab exordio... 
incipiam': Laud. Martyr, xiv 'atque ut transeam cuncta': de Trin. xxi 
init., xxii init. : ' ut ita dixerim,' de Trin. vi, p. 19, 1. lonote. 

5 E.g. 'cumulus' 'crown of completion,' Ep. xxx 6, Laud. Martyr. 
iv, xi: 'praesto,' de Trin. xxiv, p. 89. 3, Laud. Martyr, vi, de Sped, i: 
'expedio,' de Trin. xxiv, p. 90. 3, Laud. Martyr, iv, de sped, vi: 'robur, 
robustus,' Laud. Martyr, viii, xvii, Cib. lud. iii : 'uigeo, uigor,' de Trin. 
viii, p. 27. 3, de Sped, i, Ep. xxx init., Ep. xxxvi init.: substantives in 
' -mentum ' passim. 


anaphora for the balancing of clauses. See the following 
passages, dk Trinitate ii, p. 9, 11. 5 14, x, p. 31, rosq. 
xxix, last sentence : ep. xxxvi 3 : de Land. Martyr, iv 
ad init., vi ad init. : Cib. hid. i, second sentence, and the 
fine satirical passage in de Sped, v on those who could 
tell a horse's pedigree for generations ('memoriter totam 
equini generis subolem computantes '), but were ignorant 
of the Gospel story. Other features are his command 
of Virgilian diction 1 , and of classical prose rhythm 2 
especially noticeable in the clausulae of his paragraphs. 
A test of a different kind is to be found in a study of 
the quotations, which conform to the type represented 
by the Old Latin versions (based on the Septuagint), 
rather than to the Hebrew text as it was afterwards 
rendered in the Vulgate 3 . 

Of the other treatises, the de Bono Pudicitiae, an 
anonymous episcopal letter, exhibits the best features of 
Novatian's style, antithetic force, varied diction and 
rhythm, and some play of fancy : while its austere 
moral tone is what we should expect from the leader 

1 Most noticeable in Laud. Martyr, cc. vii, xvi, xx, xxi, xxiii. Even 
Cib. lud. has such Virgilianisms as 'arborum fetus' (v. Georg. \ 55). In 
the de Trinitate we find ' tantae molis,' c. i, p. 6. 7 (cp. Aen. i 33) 
and other instances which are noted in Index III. Harnack (' Eine bisher 
nicht erkannte Schrift Novatian's v. Jahre 249 250') pp. 26 33 gives 
copious reff. to Georgics and Aeneid, although, in the opinion of Ammundsen, 
Navatianus og Novatianismen, p. 27 note, he overstrains his point. 

2 The reference is to Zielinski's canon of the clausula or close of the 
'period' in the classical writers, the best type being --- | --or the same 
resolved: v. Classical Review, vol. xix, p. 164 (Mr A. C. Clark). The 
Laud. Martyr, constantly conforms to this. 

3 Cp. de Trin. iii, p. 10, 1. 6 n. There is no doubt that there were 
more than two Old Latin, versions: cp. Studia Biblica (Oxford) i on the 
'Corbey St James.' The oldest may have been an Afra, or Latin version 
for the African Church, Greek having long remained the speech of the 
Roman Christians. Aug. de Doctr. Chr. ii 15 'in ipsis interpretationibus 
Itala ceteris praeferatur, nam est uerborum tenacior cum perspicuitate sen- 
tentiae.' Schanz, Gesch. Rom. Litt. iii, 772. 


of a ' Puritan ' secession. The de Idolorum Vanitate, 
with its varied antiquarian learning and its exposition 
of the ' monarchia ' of God and the fulfilment of Jewish 
prophecy in the Coming of Christ, has an even stronger 
claim to be included in the Opera Novatiana from its 
close contact with the de Trinitate. How could the 
writer's view be more aptly summarised than in the 
words, ' hie deus noster, hie Christus est, qui mediator 
duorum hominem induit quem perducat ad patrem : 
quod homo est esse Christus uoluit, ut et homo possit 
esse quod Christus est ' ? (Idol. Van. xi). The tract or 
sermon aduersus ludaeos is also attributed to Novatian, 
4 by Harnack with certainty, by Landgraf with reserve 1 .' 
The internal evidence is slight. 

Another of the spuria of Cyprian which has been 
attributed to Novatian is the treatise de Singularitate 
Clericorum, its theme being ' ne clerici cum feminis com- 
morentur.' In spite of the resemblances in diction, in 
the text of its quotations, and in rigorist temper to the 
work of Novatian, it cannot yet be said that anything 
more has been demonstrated than that this treatise is 
coloured by the influence of Novatian 2 . 

But the discovery by the well-known patristic 
scholar, M. Pierre BatifTol, of twenty homilies, entitled 
in the MSS Tractatus Origenis de libris SS. Scriptiirarum, 
which he published in the year 1900, has given rise to an 
animated discussion in German and English reviews. 
BatifTol supposes that Origen was the author of a Greek 
original, translated by Victorinus of Pettau. Weyman 
and others maintain that the Latin is original, and the 
work of Novatian. This theory is maintained with much 

1 Herm. Jordan, d. Theologie der neuentdeckten Predigten Novatians, 
Leipz. 1902, p. 68. _ 

2 F. v. Blacha, de Sing. Cleric. Breslau, 1904. 


skill by H. Jordan in a monograph of the year 1902*. 
The whole question is lucidly treated by Bardenhewer 2 , 
to whom we must refer our readers. Suffice it to say 
that while the originality of the Latin is established 
conclusively, we are confronted by a serious difficulty 
when we attempt to prove Novatian's authorship. The 
Trinitarian formulas of the Tractatus indicate a later 
stage in doctrinal development than that of the de 
Trinitate ; they are sometimes Nicene or post-Nicene 
in character 3 . The advocates of an identity of author- 
ship for the two works must of necessity assume for the 
Tractatus a touching up by a later hand. The hypothesis 
of Weyman and Jordan remains at present unproved r 
if it is ever to be established, it can only be by a very 
close textual study of the manuscripts in order to find 
traces of an ' altera manus.' 

2. The literary history of the treatise de Trinitate, its 

date and arrangement. 

i. St Jerome is our earliest authority for the 
existence of this treatise among the works of Novatian ; 
a list of which he gives, closing thus : ' et de Trinitate 
grande volumen quasi eVtro/i^i; operis Tertulliani, quod 
plerique nescientes Cypriani existimant 4 .' Again, he 
controverts an assertion of Rufinus, that the Macedonian 

1 H. Jordan, op. cit. 

2 O. Bardenhewer, Geschichte d. altkirchlich. Literattir, vol. ii 568 


3 Bardenhewer quotes ' deus uerus de deo uero, unigenitus ab ingenito * 

(Tract. 3). 'Christum uerum deum et uerum dei filium unigenitum de 
ingenito natum ' ( Tract. 20). ' Nemo enim uincit nisi qui patrem et filium 
et spiritum sanctum aequali potestate et indifferenti uirtute crediderit' 
(Tract. 14). Cf. Jordan, Theol....Novatians, pp. 52, 53, on the relation of 
Tract. 3 and de Trin. c. 18. 

4 Hieron. (de Vir. III. c. 70) opp. i (Migne) col. 453. 


heretics, * who blaspheme against the Holy Spirit/ had 
hawked the Libellus de Trinitate of Tertullian about 
the streets of Constantinople at a small price, having 
incorporated it with the Epistles of Cyprian, whose 
authority they wished to claim for their heresy. Jerome 
pronounces this a twofold falsehood, saying that the 
work is neither Cyprian's nor Tertullian's but Novatian's, 
* cuius et inscribitur titulo et auctoris eloquium styli 
proprietas demonstrat 1 .' 

Some perplexity has been created by Jerome's 
description of the work as an epitome of a work of 
Tertullian's. There is nothing in the writings of the 
latter except the aduersus Praxean which can come 
into consideration : he has left no treatise de Trinitate. 
And our treatise is distinctly longer than the adu. 
Praxean, and also contains some thoughts which remind 
us rather of Irenaeus than of Tertullian 2 . 

The theory proposed by Mr J. Quarry that the 
de Trinitate is a translation from a lost Greek original, 
probably the work of Hippolytus against Artemon, finds 
no supporters 3 . It is amazing to find that scholar 
speaking of 'the very barbarous air of the work as a 
Latin composition.' As a writer Novatian can hold his 
own with Tertullian or Cyprian ; enough has been said 
already 4 of the independent merits of his style, as it 
may be judged from his acknowledged writings. 

The preservation of the treatise, after the writer's 
schismatic action had discredited him in the eyes of 

1 Ruf. de Adult. Libr. Orig. 2 : Hieron. lib. ii c. Rufin. 19. 

2 E.g. the application of Hab. iii 3 in Iren. (Harvey) iv 55. 2 and 
de Trin. xii, p. 41 : of Deut. xxviii 66 in Iren. v 18. 2 and de Trin. ix, 
p. 29. See also Introd. pp. xxvi n. 4, Ivi. 

3 Hermathena,) no. xxiii, Trin. Coll., Dublin, 1897. Anticipated in 
effect by Hagemann, rom. Kirche it. i. Einfltiss, 1864. 

4 Introd., p. xviii foil. 


posterity, was due to the happy accident which con- 
nected it (as Jerome's allusion shews) with the works 
of Tertullian 1 . Under that illustrious name it survived; 
and although no extant MS of Tertullian contains it 2 , it 
was printed in early editions of that father, the first 
being that of J. Gangneius, Paris, 1545, who (according 
to Pamelius, a later editor) based his text on a MS in the 
possession of Politianus. This edition of Gangneius 
does not appear to have had a separate existence of its 
own, but to have formed part of the 1545 edition of 
B. Rhenanus' Tertullian (Guillard, Paris), which is to 
be found in the British Museum. In this not on the 
title page, but in the middle of his 'catalogus operum 
Tertulliani' Rhenanus says that this treatise, along 
with others, are here published for the first time, by the 
good offices of Gangneius 3 . 

The next edition is that of Sigismund Gelenius, 
published by Froben at Basel in I55O 4 , which professes 
to rely largely on a MS formerly belonging to an 
English monastery which Gelenius calls 'coenobium 
Masburense,' lent to him by John Leland the antiquary 5 : 

1 Similarly the de Cibis ludaicis connects with Tertull. de Mundis atque 
Immundis Animalibus. 

2 The de Cib. ludaicis exists in one MS in the Imperial Library at 
Petersburg, under the title of Tertullian. 

3 After the twenty-two titles of Tertullian's known writings we read as 
follows : ' Haec vero sequentia opuscula nunc primum eduntur in lucem 
beneficio Joannis Gangneii Parisini theologi et Christianissimi Galliarum 
regis primi eleemosynarii : ex vetustissimo cod. desumpta.' 

4 'Q. Sept. Flor. Tertull. ad complures veteres e Gallicanis Germanis- 
que bibliothecis conquisitos recognita codd. in quibus praecipuus fuit unus 
longe incorruptissimus in ultimam usque petitus Britanniam.' 

5 Who ace. to Pref. of Gelenius' ed. of 1562, 'communicavit exemplar 
in Masburensi coenobio gentis eius vetustissimo repertum.' [Dugdale's 
index of Monastic houses knows none so named: a friend suggests 
' Malvurensi,' 'of Malvern.' Malmesbury is also suggested.] See Lupton's 
edition of Tertullian de Baptismo, p. xxxvi. 


but unfortunately Gelenius does not particularise the 
readings of that MS. I have examined this edition care- 
fully and noted its important readings. 

The next editor, Jacob Pamelius of Bruges, who 
published an edition of Tertullian (first edition, Antwerp, 
1579), was the first to issue the de Trinitate (and the 
de Cib. htdaicis) under the name of Novatian, and to 
divide it into chapters. He expresses his obligation to 
another ancient British MS, citing its readings in his 
notes, and describing it as 'Anglicum MS exemplar Dn. 
Joannis dementis.' In the absence of all manuscript 
evidence, these citations afford valuable evidence for the 
text of the treatise 1 . 

Oxford has the honour of having produced the first 
separate edition of the de Trinitate, with notes by 
Edward Welchman, in the year 1724. This was quickly 
followed by the edition of John Jackson (London, 1728), 
which exhibits a stronger theological grasp and greater 
critical power. Up to the present time Jackson has 
spoken the last word ; for the Venice edition of the 
fathers by Gallandi (1767) follows his text, and is in 
its turn followed by Migne (Patrologiae Latinae torn, 
iii 86 1 970). 

It is difficult to see how any substantial improvement 
can be made in the text, until some fortunate scholar 
lights upon a manuscript of merit. We may think that 
we trace (especially in the last chapter) the hand of the 
theological redacteur, who prefers an orthodox to a pure 
text ; nor is it wonderful that this has happened, when 
we find Arnobius the younger roundly quoting its 

The British MSS aforesaid have vanished without trace. I was 
informed by Prof. Dr Binz, librarian of the Universitats-Bibliothek at Basel, 
that in the i6th cent, the MSS after passing through the Froben press were 
not uncommonly handed over to the printers, as being of no further use. 


phrases as Arian 1 . But in such a case all emendation 
must remain conjectural. 

ii. As regards the date of the de Trinitate, Dr 
Harnack supports the view which has approved itself 
to most writers, that it was written before Novatian's 
lapse into schism, which occurred in A.D. 251. The 
reference to Sabellius 2 , who was a disciple of Noetus, 
would indicate a date somewhere about A.D. 250; while 
the work must be placed after the date of Tertullian's 
adu. Praxean, which Bardenhewer gives as 217 or 2I3 3 . 
The view of Hagemann (Rom. Kirche, p. 401), that it was 
a controversial tract written in support of Hippolytus 
in his dispute with the Roman Church, is purely con- 

iii. The treatise falls into four main divisions. The 
first three answer to the Roman Creed, which may be 
reconstructed in part, as Novatian knew it, from the 
opening words of these divisions, somewhat as follows : 

1 Credo in Deum [unum] Patrem et Dominum omni- 
potentem [rerum omnium conditorem]: et in Filium Dei, 
Christum lesum, Dominum Deum nostrum: credo etiam 
in Spiritum Sanctum [ecclesiae repromissum].' 

The words printed in brackets seem to the present 
writer to have had, in all probability, a place in 
Novatian's Regula iieritatis*, although not so considered 
by Dr Swete (Apostles' Creed, p. 108, ' Rule of Faith ace. 
to Nov.') or (for the most part) by Dr Burn (Introduction 
to the Creed, p. 46) ; they are found in substance in 

1 In the Dialogue with Serapion: Duchesne, Hist. anc. de Ptglise i 307. 
We know that Gangneius took a liberty with the text : n. on xvi, p. 55, 
1. n. 

2 de Trin. c. xii: cp. n. in Robertson, History of the Church i, p. 159. 

3 Altkirchl. Lit. ii, p. 368. 

4 For this term see Irenaeus, adu. Haer. \ i. 20, with Harvey's note, 
and ib. i 15. 


Tertullian (Virg. Vel. i, adu. Prax. i 16, ap. Swete, 
p. 107), and in paraphrase in our text 1 . 

In view of the important issues at stake, any evidence 
for the original form of the Roman Symbol is to be 
welcomed. Harnack holds that it was based upon 'the 
baptismal formula and confessional formulas of a sum- 
marising character... including Eastern formulas,' and 
originated about the middle of the second century. But 
there are valid grounds for believing that it had its 
prototypes also in the East, baptismal (and Trinitarian) 
confessions. Harnack will not admit their existence, 
and yet there is evidence for them which cannot be 
hastily rejected : notably, the /cavcov TT)? aX-ydeias asso- 
ciated by Irenaeus with baptism 2 , and the irepl Trio-reco? 
ypacfrrj (' received from the bishops before us ') laid by 
Eusebius of Caesarea before the Council of Nicaea in 


The first section of the de Trinitate relates to God 

the Father (chs. i viii) ; the second to God the Son 
(chs. ix xxviii) ; the third section to God the Holy 
Ghost (ch. xxix). The last two chapters (xxx, xxxi) 
form a complementary section, setting forth the unity 
of the Godhead especially as against Adoptianist and 
against Patripassian heretics (of the school of Sabellius). 

1 Reasons are given for accepting 'unum' in n. on c. ix, p. 28. 6. 
The whole question of the presence of this word 'One' in the original 
Roman Creed is a difficult one : Zahn supposes it was introduced on anti- 
Gnostic grounds and afterwards omitted to counteract Monarchian teach- 
ing ; and Burn takes a similar view, holding also that Tertullian's Creed 
probably contained 'unum,' but that in that of Novatian it is missing (op. 
cit. p. 58). Loofs (Symbolik i 6. 3) cannot decide: Harnack denies its 
presence in R (Apostles' Creed, Eng. tr. p. 72) ; and doubtless its presence 
there would strengthen the position of those who trace R back to Eastern 
(perhaps Johannine) sources. 

2 Consult Loofs, Symbolik i, 5, on Oriental Baptismal Symbols of 
the Ante-Nicene period. 


Though the treatise now bears on its title-page the 
theological term ' Trinity,' this term occurs nowhere in 
the text, as though the writer had intentionally avoided 
it ; for the word ' Trinitas ' (Tpta?) occurs in Theophilus 
of Antioch, Hippolytus, and Tertullian. 

The distribution of the subject over the chapters 
indicates of itself that the predominant question for 
the writer is the relation of our Lord to the Father 
as it is conditioned by the Incarnation, and the union 
in Him of the two natures. The doctrine of the Holy 
Ghost is so slightly handled, that certain heretics 
claimed the treatise in support of their own views 1 . 
Unquestionably Novatian never speaks of Him as 'tertia 
persona' or even as 'deus': he is content with the 
designations * spiritus sanctus/ ' paraclitus,' ' spiritus 
ueritatis,' and in one place (c. xxix, p. no, 11), 'spiritus 
dei.' But the writer so enlarges on the operation of 
the Holy Spirit in the soul and in the Church, as to 
leave no doubt that he, no less than Tertullian, held 
the doctrine of His Personality 2 . 

A strange dislocation of pages occurred in the arche- 
type MS of our ancient copies of this Treatise: by which 
the section beginning ' ex quo manus ' (end of ch. xix, 
page 73, first line) and ending with ' sed filium compro- 
basse' (the last words of ch. xxvii, page 100, second 
line) was transposed so as to follow the words towards 
the end of chapter xiv ' illuc redit ubi prius fuit ' (page 
47, line 28). Thus the old editions (such as that of 
Pamelius) begin their ch. xxiii with ' quod si de caelo,' 
and thus to the end of the Treatise. Subjoined is a 
comparative table of chapters in the old editions, and 
in Welchman's (who restored the right order) : 

1 c. xvi, p. 55, 1. ii n. and above, i i. 

2 Harnack, D.G. i 3 , p. 537 n. 


Old editions. Modern editions, 

xxiii xivyfo. xv 

xxiv xvi 

xxv xvii 

xxvi xviii 

xxvii xix to esset Christtts 

xv xixyfw. xx 

xvi xxi 

xvii xxii 

and so to the end. 

3. The subordination of the Son. 

The Christology of Novatian is based on that of 
Tertullian. It cannot be questioned that the Church 
had not yet attained to the view of the Person of Christ 
which belongs to the developed creed of post-Nicene 
theology. Her dogmatic system was in process and 
flux ; and the phenomenon will, probably to the end 
of time, affect students variously. One man will see 
in it the growth of the mythus, or at least of human 
opinions fated to * have their day and cease to be.' 
Another will see in it the progressive revelation of 
Divine truths to the Church as she is able to apprehend 
them. On either view, if it should be possible to isolate 
a particular doctrine and examine it at one stage of its 
development, the gain will be clear. 

We have first to glance at the problem presented to 
the Catholic thinker in the earlier half of the third 
century. The age of Apologetics, addressed to the 
Pagan or Jewish enemy of the faith, was past ; it was 
to the more insidious approaches of the heretics that the 
growth of a system of theology (as distinct from the 
Apostolic /crjpvyjjLa and the primitive avpl3o\ov) was 
'due. At first it had been enough to know Jesus Christ 


as ' the Lord,' ' the Son of God/ * our Saviour/ ' the 
Master/ and to await His speedy return in glory. The 
Gnostic heresies, which threatened the adulteration of 
Christianity with a fantastic philosophy, compelled 
Christian thinkers to find some more satisfying formula; 
or rather, sent them back to the New Testament to find 
the elements of such a formula in the Johannine doctrine 
of the Logos. The like may be said of the Catholic 
reply to the Ebionite teaching, which reduced our Lord 
to the place of a second Moses. At the beginning of the 
third century two tendencies of thought were apparent: 
the Humanitarian view of Christ, which is represented 
by the ' rationalistic Monarchians ' (better named 
'Adoptianists/ as holding that Jesus Christ was merely 
the adopted Son of the Father 1 , who received Divine 
Svva/jus at His baptism) ; and the view of the Modalist 
Monarchians, of whom Sabellius was the best-known 
representative. As against the former, it was necessary 
to establish His equality with the Father 2 . As against 
the latter, with whom the Patripassians 3 are to be classed, 
it was necessary to establish the distinction of Persons in 
the Trinity. This could not be done without a careful 

1 Harnack, D.G. i 3 , p. 182. Schaff, Ante-Nicene Christianity ii, 
p. 572 sq. Theodotus and Artemon were the chief exponents of this 
heresy, cp. Tixeront, Histoire des Dogmes^, c. viii, i. 

2 I.e. that in Him evdbicrjffev irdv rb TrXiy/jw^a KaToiKr/aai. (Col. i 19) : in 
contrast with the Gnostic emanation theory. Cf. c. xxiii, p. 85, 1. 6n. 

3 The Patripassians denied the distinct Personality of the Son. Chief 
among them were Praxeas and Noetus, both favoured by the Popes of their 
day, Victor and Callistus. Praxeas taught that the Father became man and 
suffered in Jesus Christ: 'ipsum patrem descendisse in uirginem, ipsum ex 
ea natum, ipsum passum, denique ipsum esse lesum Christum' (Tertull. adu. 
Praxean i). The Patripassians may be called 'modalistic Monarchians': 
i.e. they insisted on the Unity of the Godhead to this extent, that they 
represented the Trinity as denoting three 'modes' of manifestation, not 
Three Persons in the Godhead. We have a further development in the 
teaching of Sabellius. 


study of the question ' cur Deus homo ?'; and a study of 
the Incarnation furnished a much-needed correction to 
the pantheistic tenets of Valentinus and his followers, 
and to the docetic views of Marcion. 

We cannot here do more than indicate the salient 
points in Tertullian's Christology. The Son of God, 
the Word, is not a mere attribute of the Father, such 
as His wisdom or power ; His generation is before the 
creation of the world. His Sonship is threefold : the 
Word eternally in God 1 ; the Second Person coming 
forth in the act of creation ; the Son become Man, a 
visible Personality over against God 2 . A docetic Christ 
could not have atoned for our sins, and the ' oeconomia ' 
of salvation demands that the Son should act on earth in 
the Father's name 3 . Thus the Son is very Man, and is 
distinguished from the Father, though of one substance 
with Him and with the Spirit. Tertullian's favourite 
illustration is that of the sun and its light : * even a ray 
of the sun considered by itself I call sun, but I do not 
therefore proceed to designate the sun, whose is the ray, 
Ray 4 .' There is 'distinction' but not 'diversity 5 .' 
He can even speak of the Son as a ' portio ' of 

1 Tertull. adu. Prax. v 'ante omnia deus erat solus... solus autem, 
quia nihil aliud extrinsecus praeter ilium, ceterum ne tune quidem solus, 
habebat enim secum, quam habebat in semetipso, rationem suam scilicet, 
quae ratio, .sensus ipsius est. hanc Graeci \6yov dicunt.' 

2 Consult Dorner, Doctrine of Person of Christ (Eng. tr.) I ii pp. 58; 
68, 69: and Tert. adu. Prax. xiv 'consequens erit ut inuisibilem patrem 
intellegamus pro plenitudine maiestatis, uisibilem uero nlium agnoscamus 
pro modulo deriuationis' : also adu. Prax. v, vi, vii passim.', viii init. 
on the irpofioM] which, though a Valentinian term, he adopts. 

3 adu. Marc, iii 8 'sic nee passiones Christi eius fidem merebuntur: 
nihil enim passus est qui non uere est passus. uere autem pati phantasma 
non potuit. euersum est igitur totum dei opus.' 

4 adu. Prax. xiii. 

5 id. ix. 


Deity 'ex ipsius dei substantia et ut portio aliqua 
totius 1 .' 

Tertullian was the first to give full theological value 
to the Sonship of Christ, as distinct from the idea of 
the Logos, which taken by itself might have merged 
into the theosophic fancies of the age. He did much to 
define the distinction of Persons; but he failed to place 
the equality of the Son upon an absolute basis. He was 
satisfied to find the ground of the Trinitarian distinction 
in the Godhead in the fulfilment of the purpose of 
Creation and Redemption. The Valentinian spoke of 
the 7rpo/3o\ai of Aeons ; and Tertullian, and Novatian 
too, expressed the relation of the Son to the Father in 
terms (such as proferri, procedere) which a later theo- 
logical instinct has rejected 2 . And thus the subordination 
of the Son to the Father as the source of Deity is stated 
in terms which infringe upon His equality within the 
Godhead 3 . In one passage he seems even to deny His 
pre-existence ' fuit autem tempus, cum...Filius non fuit' 
(adu. Hermog. iii), but there it is the Name rather than 
the Person that is in question. 

Novatian is heir to the Christology of Tertullian, 
and must be studied in connexion with his predecessor. 
His gifts are literary rather than philosophic : those of 

1 adu. Prax. xxvi: cp. ix 'pater tota substantia est, filius uero deriuatio 
totius et portio': adu. Marc, iii 6 'filius portio plenitudinis.' v. Dorner, 
op. cit. p. 78. 

2 These terms may have been suggested by the Stoic distinction between 
the Logos frdiaderos and Trpo<f>opii<6s, unspoken thought and thought ex- 
pressed : v. c. xv, p. 50, 11. 12 20. 

3 Although Tertullian asserts His unity of substance. 'They are called 
Two, not as Gods nor as Lords, but qua Father and Son : and that not by 
separation of substance, but by disposition, when we pronounce the Son 
indiuiduum et separatum a patre, nee statu sed gradu alium': and below, 
'One God, from the very fact that He is to be called God in rirtue of 
His unity with the Father,' adu. Prax. xix. 


popular exposition, of logical arrangement of ideas, and 
of Scriptural exegesis, but not that of metaphysical 
insight. His purpose is didactic and practical. And 
so we find that his Christology is no less subordinationist 
than Tertullian's, except in one particular : he allows 
room for the conception of an absolute and eternal dis- 
tinction in the Godhead, when he allows that Divine 
relations are timeless 1 . It may be added that in ch. xviii 
he adapts Tertullian's figure of the sun and its rays for 
the purpose of a fine description of the gradual self- 
revelation of God's Image to man 2 . Still he can only 
maintain the unity of the Godhead by positing a 
' procession ' of the Son from the Father which is no 
less subordinationist than that of Tertullian. 

There is nothing in the conception of the Son's' 
subordination to conflict with the orthodoxy of a later 
time. Even such a theologian as Dr Liddon can write 
thus, referring to St John xiv 28 6 Hartfp pov fjueifav 
fjLov eariv. ' Even if our Lord is here speaking... of His 
essential Deity, His words still express very exactly a 
truth which is recognised and required by the Catholic 
doctrine. The subordination of the Everlasting Son to 
the Everlasting Father is strictly compatible with the 
Son's absolute Divinity ; it is abundantly implied in 
our Lord's language ; and it is an integral element of 
the ancient doctrine which steadily represents the 
Father as Alone Unoriginate, the Fount of Deity in 
the Eternal Life of the Ever-blessed Trinity 3 .' The 
utmost that need be said of Novatian's language is that 

1 De Trin. xxxi, p. 121, 11. 4, 5 'principium natiuitatis ante omne 
tempus accepit.' 

2 Contrast the crude language of Tertullian, e.g. in passages quoted 
supra n. i, p. xxxii: and cp. de Trin. xxviii, p. 103, 11. 23 sq. 

3 Liddon, B.L? p. 199 : also Bp Westcott's masterly note on Jo. xiv 28, 

F. N. < 


it is sometimes unguarded. Generally, he describes the 
relationship of the Son to the Father by such terms as 
' oboedientia/ 'subditus/ 'subiectus,' 'minister/ 'angelus' 
and ' minor patre 1 .' The writer, in his desire to contro- 
vert the Sabellian confusion of Persons in the Godhead 
(according to which ' Filius Dei ' and ' Deus Pater ' were 
not equal, but identical), fails to emphasise their trans- 
cendental equality. And yet even the expression 'minor 
Patre ' has the highest Authority, and may signify 
precedence not in essence but in personality 2 . 

It would be well if theologians had always remem- 
bered, in discussing the mysteries of the Divine Nature, 
that the terms and the logical processes, through which 
alone the subject can be presented, are human and ipso 
facto inadequate. In this question of the subordination 
of the Son to the Almighty Father who is the * Fount of 
Deity 3 ,' the significant fact is that of obedience, the fulfil- 
ment of the Divine Will ; and it is probable that the 
thought of inferiority, which man cannot but associate 
with that of service, is utterly alien from the thought of 
the Divine Mind. In the Divine Life there may be an 
interchange of energy of which the conditions are but 
dimly discernible to us through the hints of revelation. 
It has already been remarked that inferiority in the sense 
of posteriority in time does not enter into the writer's 
conception of the subordination of the Son. He exalts 
the Son far above all created existences. It may indeed 

1 c. xxvii, p. 99, 11. 13, 14, 'dum ergo accipit sanctificationem a patre, 
minor patre est': other reff. pp. 38, 15 ; 64, 16, 17; 81, 10 16; 96, 10 sq. 
and note, xxviii, p. 103, 25 n., xxxi passim esp. p. 117. 5 p. 118. 5. 

2 Harnack, like many others, credits Nov. with the doctrine that the 
Son when His work is finished will cease to exist independently, but there 
is nothing in c. xxxi (to which he refers) to justify this. Cp. n. on xxxi, 
p. 122, 1. 12. 

3 Origen. 


be said that his teaching contains an antidote to some 
of our modern popular theology. The wide acceptance 
of the ' kenotic ' doctrine, though this doctrine by no 
means implies humanitarian views, may encourage a 
tendency to forget the other side of the truth as to 
the Person of Christ. On the other hand, in regard to 
the worship of Christ, Novatian is no less cautious than 
the earliest Christians, whose prayers were almost always 
offered to the Father through the Son, and their worship 
to Jesus Christ in His whole Person, the Godhead in the 
Manhood 1 . 

It is the characteristic of Christians that they ' know 
the Father' (i Jo. ii 14). In our Western indifference to 
the finer distinctions of doctrine we have fallen into a 
form of opinion, which sometimes can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from the Tritheism against which every pious 
Jewish Christian would have sternly protested 2 , and 
which has lent itself to transactional theories of the 
Atonement. It is safest to keep the exact words of the 
New Testament on this matter before our minds. While 
Christ and the Father are One, He is the Only Way to 
the Father. And as Christ reveals unto men the Father, 
so the Spirit reveals unto men the things of Christ. In 
proportion as the Church assimilates that revelation, she 
is animated by the Living Spirit of Christ, and is herself 
' the extension of the Incarnation ' for the sake of the 
world and indeed of the whole universe. 

1 Liddon, B.LP 378 sq. Walpole, Vital Religion, p. 62. Harnack, 
D.G. i 3 , 174. De Trin. xiv, p. 46, 24 'in orationibus mediator inuocatur.' 
Cf. language of Greek Fathers irpoaKvvG) TOV X/HO-TOU rb 'Lvva.^brepov ; e.g. 
Athan. on Jo. xx 28, and Jo. Damasc. Orth. Fid. iii 8. 

1 Cf. Dr Inge, Personal Idealism, pp. 36, 37 'this error has come 
about through the unfortunate use of the word " Person" with its misleading 

C 2 


4. The Pre-existence of the Son of God. 

A careful study of the system of Praxeas as far as we 
can gather it from Tertullian's treatise will shew that he 
denied the pre-existence of the Son, in holding that God 
the Father became incarnate in the Person of Christ 1 , 
in other words, that before the Incarnation the Son had 
no existence 2 . Even the Catholic writers who contro- 
verted this Patripassian teaching base the Tri-personality 
of God on the claims of the work of redemption. The 
Trinity is in danger of becoming a mere ' oeconomy,' 
as in the systems controverted 3 . The eternal existence 
of the Logos in the Father is, in Tertullian, rather formal 
than real ; for he can compare it with the existence of 
unuttered speech in a human mind, suggestive as an 
illustration, but not an adequate parallel. Again, his 
application of the words of Isaiah 'ego primus et in 
superuentura ego sum ' in connexion with St John's * in 
principio erat sermo,' is this : that the Word was be- 
gotten in the beginning ('in principio prolatus'), whereas 
the Father has no beginning (' initium '), as being be- 
gotten of none : and this ' beginning ' of the Word 
Tertullian seems to connect in that passage with God's 
purpose of Creation. In fact in his desire to escape the 
charge of ditheism, he approximates to that Gnostic 
doctrine of Aeons, which at the beginning of the same 
chapter he combats 4 . 

1 adu. Prax. i 'ipsum dicit patretn descendisse in uirginem, ipsum 
ex ea natum, ipsum passum, denique ipsum esse lesum Christum': ib. ii 
'post tempus pater natus et pater passus, ipse deus, dominus omnipotens, 
lesus Christus praedicatur.' v. de Trin. c. xxvi. 

2 See Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vi 33. i : and Dorner op. cit. I ii 35. 

3 Cp. supra, p. xxxi. 

4 See adu. Prax. xix, together with vi ' ut primum deus uoluit ea, quae 
cum sophiae ratione et sermone disposuerat intra se, in substantias et 
species suas edere, ipsum primum protulit sermonem...ut per ipsum fierent 
uniuersa'; and with the close of xiii. 


How far is this the case with Novatian ? A study of 
the latter part of ch. xvi may serve to shew that his view 
is more in accordance with Catholic standards ; thus 
the words ' sublata substantia fuit 
Christus ante mundi institutionem ' conform entirely to 
the Nicene statement 'begotten of His Father before 
all worlds.' Again, His coexistence with the Father is 
conditioned by His generation before all time, as we 
read in ch. xxxi ' cum sit genitus a patre, semper est 
in patre. semper autem sic dico, ut non innaturn sed 
natum probem. sed qui ante omne tempus est, semper 
in patre fuisse dicendus est.' A careful study of that 
chapter will reveal a certain distinction between the 
views of Novatian and Tertullian. Novatian does with- 
out doubt find the purpose of the Son's generation in 
the creation of the Universe. Thus we read : ' hie ergo 
quando pater uoluit, processit ex patre : et qui in patre 
fuit, quia ex patre fuit, cum patre postmodum fuit, quia 
ex patre processit, substantia scilicet ilia diuina, cuius 
nomen est uerbum, per quod facta sunt omnia, et sine 
quo factum est nihil' (p. 118, 11. 5 9). Similarly in 
c. xv (p. 50, 17), it is said of the Word, 'non otiose 
prolatum est.' But the writer is careful not to commit 
himself, as Tertullian seems to do, to the statement that 
the Son proceeded from the Father not only for the 
purpose of, but at the moment of Creation. He says 
rather : ' principium natiuitatis ante omne tempus ac- 
cepit' (p. 121, 1. 4); and twice in ch. xxxi asserts that 
the Son's 'birth' was 'quando pater uoluit' (pp. 116, 
1. 4, 1 1 8, 1/5). It is a ' procession from the Father ' 
before all time. Beyond this assertion of an extra- 
temporal generation the writer does not take us. He 
does not definitely affirm an eternal generation of the 
Son 'qua filius dei.' It must be added, that the passages 


already quoted suffice to shew that Novatian affirms the 
1 always ' existence of the Word in the Father, before the 
generation of the Son : however hard it may be to re- 
concile such language with his disclaimer of temporal 
relations 1 . The De Trinitate indicates for us a fresh 
moment in the progress of Christian thought towards 
the great formula of Athanasius, the Aoyos o/uoouo-to? in 
which Sabellian modalism and Gnostic subordinationism 
alike found their corrective. From the first a true instinct 
led the Church to reject any view of the Incarnation 
which represented it as a transient theophany. 

The pre-existence of the Eternal Word is a dogma 
for which the current Christology of Germany is content 
to find an explanation by reference to the Platonic 
philosophy of the Idea. Harnack, in a learned and 
exhaustive excursus on the subject 2 , thinks he can trace 
its genesis from the convergence of Judaic and Hellenic 
lines of thought. On the one hand there are the Jewish 
speculations as to a 'pattern' of earthly existences, things 
and persons, ' laid up in heaven 3 '; on the other hand, the 
Platonic notion of voov^eva and fyaivoneva, spiritual con- 
ceptions taking a fleshly veil which was their inadequate 
manifestation. The critic then avers that there is a 
difference of view as regards the Person of Jesus Christ 
between the New Testament writers, between Paul, the 
author of ' Hebrews,' of the Apocalypse, of I Peter, and 
the Fourth Evangelist ; the last-named alone distinctly 

1 Ammundsen rightly explains the ' semper ' as meaning ' before all 
time ' rather than ' in eternity,' in view of such language as ' antecedat 
necesse est cum, qui habet originem, ille qui originem nescit' (p. 117, 
1. 7sq.), Nov. og Novatianismen, p. 35. 

2 D.G. i 3 , 755 764. Refer also to ib. pp. 98, 99. 

8 Exod. xxv 40: Jerusalem, the Temple, the Law; the Patriarchs, 
Moses. There was a pre-existent Israel, a pre-existent Messiah, in the 
thought of God: Harnack, I.e. and i 98. 


representing the pre-mundane Christ as #609 &>v ev 
7T/909 rov Oeov. Harnack takes I Pet. i 18 as a locus clas- 
sicus for what he would consider the simpler and earlier 
expression of this belief; especially the words TrpoeyvaMr- 
fjuevov /JLV irpo KaTa/3o\ij<; KOGJAOV, fyavepwdevros Be K.T.\., 
as parallel to the Rabbinical view of the Messiah, which 
( hypostatized the essence and exalted it above space 
and time.' 

It is interesting to observe that this view, which 
limits the concept of pre-existence to God's predesti- 
nation, is precisely the view which Novatian rejects in 
favour of the fuller belief 1 ; and it may justly be urged 
that the passage in question refers to the sacrificial work 
rather than to the Person of Christ 2 , and that I Peter 
contains language which is, at the lowest, compatible 
with the fullest belief in Christ's Divinity 3 . 

Then again, Harnack denies that in the earliest 
Christian writings there is any distinction between the 
a-dpt; and the Trvevpa in Christ, for which he makes 
St Paul responsible, quoting Rom. i 3. This he regards 
as a Hellenizing transformation of the Jewish idea of the 
Messiah ; which involves, by its distinction between the 
irveviia ^(ooTTOiovv (i Cor. xv 45) and the crapf- its in- 
adequate veil, the postulate of a pre-existent Spirit who 
is Divine ; and thus for the <f>avpovo-0ai of the Idea 
St Paul substitutes its KevovaOai or raTrewovadai in 
assuming flesh 4 . Thus the Pauline Christology would 
be a recasting of the Hebraic notion of the Messiah in 

1 v. quotation from c. xvi supra. 

2 Cp. St Peter's words in Acts ii 23 TTJ upia^vg j3ov\fi KCU 
TOV deov 

3 ii 3, 4 : iii 15: iv ii. 

1 And thus Greek Christians could summarise Pauline Christology 
as the so-called Clement does, Ep. ad Corinth, ii 9 5 X/HOTOS 6 Kijpios o 
<ru><ra$ Tjjuas, wv ^v rd Trp&Tov Tri>ev/j.a, eytvero <Tap% /cai ourcos Tj/uas 


the mould of Greek philosophic thought : the end deter- 
mines the beginning ; the Si ov involves the e ov or in 
other words the idea of Christ as the dpxrj Trdo-vjs Kriarews 
(Apoc. iii 14) ; and we are carried from soteriology into 
the sphere of cosmology. But it is otherwise in the 
Johannine writings : in which ' apart from the Prologue, 
a separation of irvevfia (Xo-yo?) and crapf in Christ is not 
presupposed : it is always the whole Personality to whom 
everything exalted applies 1 .' For, as Harnack conceives, 
this Hellenizing of Christian dogma was arrested in 
Church teaching by the influence of the Monarchians, 
of Athanasius, and of Biblical passages which pointed in 
another direction. 

Against this theory of the evolution of the dogma of 
the pre-existence of the Second Person it may be urged: 
{a) That, except in the Johannine Prologue and 
St Paul's speeches at Athens and at Lystra, there is 
very little indeed in N.T. theology which suggests the 
' acute Hellenisation ' on which such stress is laid by 
Harnack. We might expect it in the Pauline Epistles, 
but we do not find it, whereas we do find expressions 
which remind us of Tertullian's ' quid simile philosophus 
et Christianus?' 2 (b) It cannot be said that the N.T. 
contains a single theological treatise. The words of 
Harnack, just quoted, on the Johannine idea of 'the 
Whole Christ/ may be set against his treatment of the 
historical Person of Jesus. We must not expect to find 
a reasoned system and a clear-cut terminology in the 
N.T., any more than we can expect to find grammar 
before language and logic before thought. Men wrote 

1 And therefore, according to Harnack, 'for the original readers, if 
they were educated Greeks, the Prologue must have been more intelligible ' 
than the succeeding narrative. 

2 ApoL xlvi. 


out of the fulness of an inspired experience, individual 
and yet gained in the community 1 , (c) At the same, 
time we dare not hastily abandon the underlying pos- 
tulates of the Christian faith, which were established 
beyond further dispute by the controversies of an age 
rich in subtle intellects to whose gift for metaphysical 
speculation the Western mind of to-day rarely attains. 
And to those who believe in the Divine guidance of the 
Church such an abandonment is not open, (d) We must 
always distinguish between first principles and deduc- 
tions. In the case of the latter, human imperfection 
must qualify the effort to express Divine mysteries in 
human language 2 . For example, we may take the 
application of the word * Son ' to the Pre-incarnate. 
' The only passage in the N.T. which goes wholly and 
obviously behind the fact of Incarnation drops altogether 
the words Father and Son 3 ,' from which the thoughts 
of priority and subordination are inseparable. Hence 
Marcellus of Ancyra, prominent in the refutation of 
Arius, held that the Logos is only called Son as a 
result of the Incarnation. But Marcellus went too far 
in thereby denying the personal pre-existence of the 
Logos. The fact is, that we cannot understand much 
about the eternal relations within the Being of Deity. 
It is in the light of the Incarnation as the supreme 
Theophany that the Christian student must think of the 

1 Cp. Bp Gore, B.L. (1891) p. 131 'it is important to notice that there 
is no moment when Jesus Christ expressly reveals this doctrine [the 
Trinity]. It was overheard rather than heard? 

2 Cf. n. on 'Person,' p. Ixii. 

3 Moberly, Atonement and Personality, p. 214. Cf. words of Marcellus 
quoted ib. 211 from Euseb. Eccl. Theol. I xviii, p. 864 efre yap 'IT?(TOU, 
etre X/HOTOI) dvd/AaTOS fjt,vrj/j,oi>evoi 77 6eLa ypa<f)ri, rbv /xerd T?}S avdpuirivov b'vra 
aapKbs TOV deov A.6yov ovoi^a^eiv (patveTai. et 5^ ris /cai irpb TTJS N^as Ata^/c^s 
TOV XpicrroO [17 TOV] TtoO oVo/xa T( Abyti) fj.6vy deiKvtivai 5tii>ao~6ai Trayy\\Oiro, 
evpr/cret TOVTO 7rpo07?rt/cws 


Trinity, (e) Finally, it is incumbent on the student 
to remember that the word itself, as Christ spoke it, 
is greater than all interpretations, for it is Spirit and 
Life ; and that it is vain for the critic to object to the 
central place of the * Christological question in the 
Gospel of Christ 1 .' The word spoken cannot be 
separated from the Word who spake. * The Christ of 
the Church is the dominant fact of the history of the 
race, and humanitarianism is inadequate, with its drastic 
method of levelling down the indications of the Divine 
in history, against which human nature protests and will 
continue to protest 2 .' 

| 5. The Person of Christ \ according to Novatian. 

Novatian has been charged with more than one 
heresy in regard to the Person of Christ. According to 
the Danish scholar, V. Ammundsen, Epiphanius places 
him between Sabellius and Noetus as an upholder of 
the same tenets 3 ; and though he himself does not 
endorse the charge, or even deny Novatian his place in 
the line of development which issued in the Nicene 
teaching, he goes so far as to say that, if we judge 
the work from the standpoint of a later orthodoxy, a 
whole series of heresies will come to light in it, Arianism, 
Apollinarism, Nestorianism and Adoptianism. We need 
not however follow Ammundsen to these lengths, as a 
careful examination of the teaching of the Treatise will 

1 Refer to Harnack, What is Christianity?' tr. Saunders 2 , p. 125 
' Christology is treated as though the Gospel had no other problem to offer,' 
and p. 147. 

2 Dr Sanday in Hastings' Diet. Bibl., art. 'Jesus Christ.' 

3 Ammundsen, Novatian og Novatianismen, p. 18, n. 2, referring to 
Epiphan. Panarion. Haer. Ixv. 


For this purpose, it will be best to enquire: first, 
what Novatian intends by the formula ' Christus deus/ 
which he is so zealous to defend 1 ; and secondly, what is 
his conception of the Humanity of our Lord 2 , for which 
he constantly invokes the foundation-text, 'Verbum 
caro factum'; and thirdly, in what form does he state 
the union of the two natures, human and Divine, in the 
Person of Christ ? 

i. We cannot examine the formula * Christus deus ' 
without first considering, what meaning Novatian gives 
to the simple idea of Godhead, as expressed in the word 
'deus. 5 He is mainly concerned to vindicate it against 
the false notions of the Gnostic schools of thought on 
the one side, and the Patripassians on the other ; the 
former setting a Demiurge or inferior God over against 
the One God, the latter confusing the Father with the 
Son. That is why he lays such stress on the Creative 
and Providential action of the One God, who ' contains 
all things 3 / who transcends human thought and lan- 
guage 4 . He is one, without an equal, and the Name 
of God is but a designation vouchsafed by Him to 
the human intelligence, which cannot grasp its content 5 . 
On the other hand, our conception of God ('quicquid 
esse potest quod deus est,' ' quicquid illud est totus 6 ') 
must exclude all idea of human passion, physical and 
mental, of human frailty and mortality 7 , of origin and 
change 8 . 

What then is Novatian's conception of Godhead, as 
it is found in the Son? An examination of his ex- 

1 Thus p. 37, 11. 15, 1 6 'deum credendum esse qui ex deo sit.' 

1 P. 37, 11. 14, 15 'hominem credendum esse, qui ex homine sit.' 

3 Pp. 7, 1. 3; 25, 1. 1 8. 4 Pp. 7, 11. 1820; 8, 11. 1520. 

5 P. 16, 11. 49. 6 Pp. 15, 1. 8; 21, 1. 17. 

7 Pp. 92, 1. 3; 93, 1. 2. 8 Pp. 14, 11. 13; 2j, 11. 1721. 


position will reveal certain points of difference. Christ 
is 'dominus deus noster, sed dei films' (c. ix init.). It 
is not necessary to traverse again the ground already 
covered by us in treating of the Pre-existence of the 
Son. But this much may be said here. As He is God 
in His origin, He was glorified in His personal essence 
before the world was established, and was with God to 
receive His command that the world should be created ; 
and as the Word of God He descended from heaven. 
On earth, He shews that He knows the secrets of man's 
heart, He forgives sins, He heals diseases, He assures 
man of immortality and even of divinity 1 , He is omni- 
present to be invoked in worship 2 , and He bestows that 
enduring salvation which mere man could not give 8 . 
If we allow that He is Son of God, we are bound to 
confess him God 4 . And yet He has Himself stated 
' on what principle ' He is God, namely, ' as the Son of 
God born (natus) of God/ or, * as being the Son, not the 
Father 5 .' From the crucial passage in Philippians ii 
the writer argues that He never placed Himself on the 
same level with the Father, ' remembering that He has 
what He is simply by the Father's gift 6 .' The Father 
is ' immensus,' i.e. subject to no local limitations ; the 
Son is, or may be, 'confined in space,' coming, as the 
prophet said, from the South, in other words, from 
Bethlehem (c. xii, p. 41 sq.) 7 . The argument against 
the Sabellians requires that this should refer to Him 
as God and not merely as Man. 

Again, God the Father is invisible, no human eye can 
contemplate Him : He transcends the reach of thought 8 . 

1 P. 51, 11. 10, ii. 2 P. 46, i. 22. 

3 P. 39, 11. 12 15 ; 52, 11. 12 16. 4 P. 40, 11. 21, 22. 

5 Pp. 99, 1. 7; 84, 11. 12, 13; 54, 1. 4. 6 P. 81, 11. 1013. 

7 P. 60, 11. 14 19. 8 P. 12, 11. 9 n. 


He can only be seen in His works, for His glory blinds 
the mental vision, even as the sun dazzles the eyes 1 . 
But the Son is visible at will. Novatian repeatedly 
pronounces Him 'the image of God the Father 2 ', who-' 
is seen at work in the acts of Christ; for Christ is 'the 
imitator of the Father's works 3 .' Just as Tertullian (adu. 
Praxean xiv, xv) holds that even before the Incarna- 
tion 'the Word was seen in a figure (in aenigmate), in 
dreams and visions,' Novatian recognises in the angelic 
visitations of the Old Testament the manifestations of 
Him who is 'angelus pariter et deus 4 .' As Tertullian 
believes that by the Incarnation the Word became 
' plenius uisibilis,' dwelling upon the fulfilment of the 
Divine promise to Moses, Novatian believes that the 
Son 'sets forth the Father's heart 5 ' and announces His 
dispensation 6 : so that by seeing the image of the Father 
in the Son, a man may feel as if he had already seen 
the Father 7 . This was the meaning of the answer given 
to St Philip 8 , Consistently with this view, we read in 
ch. xxxi that there is One alone who is invisible, 
whom human faculties cannot grasp: for any other view 
would involve a ditheism. Thus far, Novatian is in 
practical agreement with Tertullian, in contrasting the 
Invisible God with the Son in whom He is visible 9 . 
But the former carries the thought a step further, to 
the idea of an advance in spiritual vision until a man 
can really see God. This seems out of keeping with his 
insistence on the absolute invisibility of the Father. 
But he has to controvert the position of those who 

1 P. 8, 1. 20 p. 9, 1. 5; 116, 1. i. 2 E.g. p. 62, 1. 10. 

3 P. 81, 11. 2, 3. 4 P. 67, 1. 19. 

5 P. 68, 1. 5. 6 P. 65, 1. 4. 

7 P. 103, 11. 21 23, 8 P. ioo, 11. 6io. 

9 Cp. adu. Prax. xxiv ' opera per quae pater in filio non uisu, sed sensu 


would identify the Son with the Father, and this leads 
him to contrast with the answer to Philip the blessing 
pronounced on the pure of heart. How could Christ 
promise what He had already bestowed ? There must 
be a future vision of God 1 . We are not told how this 
is to be reconciled with the distinction which the writer 
maintains, in respect of invisibility, between the Father 
and the Son : he does not even raise the point, but 
perhaps he would find the reconciliation in the thought 
of an inconceivable development of man's spiritual 
faculty, such as the words of c. xviii may imply 
('gradatim enim et per incrementa fragilitas humana 
nutriri debuit per imaginem ad istam gloriam, ut deum 
patrem uidere possit aliquando 2 '). We may also refer 
to what is said below (6) on the 'Deification of man 8 .' 

Something must also be said upon the obedience of 
the Son, and it enters into Novatian's conception of 
His Divinity. He is 'oboediens patri qua films 4 '; He 
obeys and ever has obeyed the Father in all things 6 ; 
He holds the power over all things, but by the 
consignment and sufferance of His Father ('sed qua 
traditam, sed qua concessam, sed qua a patre proprio 
sibi indultam 6 '). The expression 'famulus' in ch. x 7 is 
another very strong assertion of this relationship of 
subjection. In the exposition of the cardinal passage 
(Philipp. ii 6), which we have in ch. xxii, he distinctly 

1 P. 62, 11. 13, 14, with note. 

2 P. 62, 11. 12 sq. 

3 It is instructive to compare the treatment of the same question by 
Irenaeus (adu. Haer. iv 34. 5, 7); thus he says, 'homo etenim a se non 
uidet deum. ille autem uolens uidetur ab hominibus, a quibus uult et 
quando uult et quemadmodum uult...uisus quidem tune per spiritum pro- 
phetice, uisus autem per filium adoptiue, uidebitur autem et in regno 
caelorum paternaliter.' 

4 P. 38, 1. 15. 5 P. 81, 11. 15, 16. 
6 P. 96, 11. 12, 13. 7 P. 32, 1. 5. 


implies that, though our Lord is 'in the form of God/ 
it would have been usurpation on His part to claim an 
equality with God: far from doing so, at His nativity 
He took the form of a slave. (Here we may refer to 
what has been said in 3 about the 'subordination' of the 
Son.) It is not necessary to suppose that the idea of 
service and obedience (' morigera oboedientia/ p. 120, 
1. 1 8) carries with it, in Novatian's mind, that of an 
essential inferiority of the Son, which such a phrase as 
'substantiae communio' definitely excludes 1 . He would 
no doubt have assented to Tertullian's reference of the 
'unum sumus' of St John x 30 'ad dilectionem patris 
qui filium diligit, et ad obsequium filii, qui uoluntati 
patris obsequitur 2 .' He attributes to the Son of God 
the 'natura dei' in the way of omnipresence, and the 
'uirtus dei' and 'uis diuinitatis 3 .' But his position would 
have been greatly strengthened had he grasped the 
thought of ' substantia ' in its later metaphysical sense. 

It is just here that Novatian fails to provide a 
doctrine of Christ's equality with the Father, which 
shall give to his formula 'Christus deus' its full content. 
A good deal of stress is laid upon the oneness of Father 
and Son ('ego et pater unum sumus/ not 'unus'), but it 
is a moral and practical unity, described in such terms 
as 'concors patri suo deo inuentus/ 'unum per concor- 
diam et per amorem et per dilectionem 4 / rather than 
an essential unity. This is most apparent in the analogy 
drawn from the reciprocal relation of Paul and Apollos 5 . 

1 P. 122, 1. 9; see also p. 121, 1. 16 'non aut dissonantia aut inaequali- 
tate diuinitatis.' 

2 Adu. Prax. xxii. 

1 Pp. 46, 1. 22; 120, 1. 4; 122, 1. 8; cp. de Idol. Vanit. c. xiv 'ut uim 
diuinae maiestatis ostenderet.' 
' Pp. 123, 1. 5; 97, 11. 16, 17. 
5 Ch. xxvii, p. 98, 11. 5 sq. i Cor. iii 8. 


In that case the same expression, * unum sunt,' is held 
to imply a unity in truth, faith and religion, a unity of 
feeling together with a distinction of persons. Perhaps 
it is not necessary (with Ammundsen 1 ) to dismiss this 
as nothing more than a somewhat crude analogy drawn 
from human nature ; for there is a Divine element in 
the unity of the faithful, although Novatian does not 
say so. Yet certainly, taken by itself, that illustration 
scarcely helps us towards understanding Novatian's 
doctrine of the unity of the Father with the Son. 
Earlier in the treatise he tells us that Christ claimed 
it 'from the conscious sense of Divinity 2 '; or again, in 
virtue of His origin and 'procession' from God 3 . Finally, 
the writer, taking up the terminology of Tertullian, 
declares Him to be the 'Second Person after the Father' 
distinguished from the Father 4 . 

The fact is, that Novatian was as deeply impressed 
as were his opponents by the fact of the Divine ' mon- 
archia/ and finds it difficult so to reconcile this with 
the separate personality of the Son, as to maintain 
the eternity of His Divine essence. Perhaps it is not 
surprising that, being the man he was, he did not dwell 
on the love of God, to which there is a passing reference 
in ch. vii, as he dwells on His wisdom, power and 
majesty. ' Clearly what was necessary/ as Dr Ottley 
says 5 , 'was a more profound idea of personality in regard 
to the Godhead.' As it is, while Novatian insists on 
the true 'conjunction' of the Son of God with God 6 , he 
generally represents His Divine powers as held by Him 

1 Nov. og Novatianismen, p. 36. 

2 P. 44, 1. 16. 3 P. 52, 11. 1921. 

4 Pp. 94, 1. 10 ; 97, 11. 5, 6. 

5 Doctrine of the Incarnation, \ 269. 

6 P. 56, 11. 12, 13. 


solely by direct grant and transmission from the Father 1 . 
But he has another conception of the Divine Sonship 
that of the 'image of God/ which might have supplied 
a solution of the problem which embarrassed him. It 
is interesting to learn, notwithstanding, that at the 
Council of Nicaea, at which the Novatianist Bishop 
Acesius was present, it appeared that his adherents, who 
were familiar with the de Trinitate, were strong advocates 
of the doctrine of the 6fj,oov<riov 2 . 

Harnack, indeed, with some other scholars, represents 
Novatian as teaching that the Son's circumscribed exist- 
ence is bound up with His task, and ceases when that 
task is completed 3 . Again, Dorner goes so far as to 
say that Tertullian and Novatian do not assert the 
Divinity of Christ as clearly as the Patripassians: 'prior 
to His generation for the creation of the world,' he says 
'the Son had not a personal existence in God'; and 
again he says that those two writers and the Patri- 
passians were agreed ' that the existence of the Son 
or the time of His origin depended on the will of the 
Father 4 .' And no doubt the view which is taken of the 
eternity of Christ a parte post must vary with the view 
taken of His pre-existence a parte ante. But the 
closing words of the treatise, in which a 'reversion' of 
the Son's Divinity to the Father is asserted, will not 
substantiate the theory of a re-absorption which some 
have attempted to base upon them. As will be 
seen by the notes on the passage, the 'return ' of the 

1 Thus p. 59, 11. 24, 25 ' sed enim deo praecipiente ut homo fiat, deus 
refertur esse, qui hominem facit' ; and p. 96, 11. 12, 13 quoted above. 

2 A. Harnack, art. 'Novatian' in Kealencyc lopddie fur prot. theolog. 
Kirch. (Leipzig, 1902). 

* A. Harnack, Dogmengesch? i 586 n. 2. 

' Dorner, Doctrine of the Person of Christ^ I ii p. 82. Consult also 
H. Jordan, Theologie.,,Novatians> pp. 95 99. 

F. N. 


Son's Godhead to the Father, spoken of in that passage, 
is not a future thing, but an ever present fact. It is 
the movement by which the union of the Son with the 
Father is maintained. The passage must be taken in 
connexion with some earlier words of the same chapter 
'He who is before all time, must be said to have been 
ever in the Father ; for time cannot be attributed to 
Him who is before time. For He is always in the 
Father, or else the Father would not always be Father 1 .' 
So again, 'He received the beginning of His birth 
("principium natiuitatis ") before all time/ We must 
admit, in conclusion, that there is a want of precision 
in Novatian's Christology. Christian thought was still 
feeling its way towards a more perfect self-expression: 
as yet the relativity of the Divine Sonship to the acts 
of Creation and Redemption almost wholly determined 
its composition. 

ii. We must turn our attention next to the treatment 
which the doctrine of the Incarnation receives in the 
de Trinitate. It must be premised, that Novatian holds, 
with Tertullian and earlier Fathers, that two natures 2 
were united in Christ, the ' films dei ' and the ' filius 
hominis/ each in His own ' substantial' This is a ' deep 
and hidden mystery,' anticipated in the purpose of 
God and fulfilled in Jesus Christ our Lord, for the 
salvation of the human race 4 . It was the necessary 
condition of that salvation, that man and God should 
be brought into accord through a Mediator 6 , who is not 

1 P. 117, 11. 3 6, with the notes. 

2 But neither he nor Tertullian ever uses the expression ' duae naturae. ' 

3 P. 43, 1. 8. So Tertull. adu. Prax. xxvii ' filium dei et filium hominis 
...sinedubiosecundumutramque substantiam in sua proprietate distantem.' 

4 P. 86, 11. 710. 

6 P. 46, 1. 24. Cp. p. 78, 11. 7, 8 'pignerata in illo diuinitatis et hu- 
manitatis uidetur esse concordia.' 


of this world and yet of this world 1 .' The Scripture 
argument, on which Novatian entirely relies, is as strong 
in defence of Christ's Manhood as of His Godhead 2 . 

It is when we come to examine Novatian's treatment 
of the Humanity of our Lord that we find ourselves in 
considerable perplexity. What does he understand by 
'homo'? There are passages which would tempt us to 
suppose that he identifies it with ' caro,' the corporeal 
nature. Ammundsen maintains that Christ is set in con- 
trast with 'ceteri homines/ who are 'non caro tantum 
sed caro et anima 3 ,' for that in Him the 'Verbum dei' 
answers to 'anima' in other men. We may compare 
the application of Genesis xlix 1 1 in ch. xxi : the 
Flesh is the 'garment' and the Body the 'vesture' put 
on by the Word of God at the Nativity, cleansed by 
the Passion, put off at the Death, and resumed at the 
Resurrection. 'By this substance, received that it might 
be cleansed, the Humanity is expressed ("homo ex- 
primitur").' From the operation of the Word Novatian 
infers the Deity of Christ: but he seems to forget for 
the moment that the word 'homo' includes a human 
will and consciousness. Was this also 'put off' at death ? 
A similar criticism is applicable to the a fortiori argu- 
ment from Christ's words 'Fear not them which kill the 
body 4 .' 

There are however other passages in the Treatise 
which may modify our judgment. In ch. xxiv we find 
the words ' hominem filium hominis ' explained in the 
following line by ' homo et caro et fragilis ilia sub- 
stantia 5 '; and lower down, we have the expression 'homo 

1 P. 49, 11. 19 21. 2 P. 36, 1. 16 p. 37, 1. 10. 

3 P. 92, 11. 10 14. Ammundsen, op. cit. p. 37. 

4 P. 92, 11. 16 sq. 
8 P. 87, 11. i, 2. 


et ilia caro corporis 1 .' We might instance also the 
expression of ch. xvii ' postmodum secundum carnem 
hominem 2 ,' which would be pure tautology, if 'homo' is 
the equivalent of 'caro.' Again, by the very implication 
of the metaphors in 'sponsa caro' and 'mediator' and 
' conexio mutua 3 ,' two natures are united which are in 
some sense in pari materia and not the one physical, 
the other spiritual. The fact is, that in his anxiety to 
dispose of the current fancies of a 'docetic Christ,' with 
his 'fabulous body' and 'sidereal flesh,' whom he apos- 
trophises so indignantly in ch. x, Novatian was more 
careful to affirm the physical substance than anything 
else. It cannot however be denied that, strongly as 
he insists upon the close union of the two natures, he 
leaves much that is unsatisfying in his treatment of the 
Humanity of our Lord. Thus we read in ch. xxiv 
(where the notes should be consulted) that the Son of 
God is Son in the proper sense (' legitimus ' or ' princi- 
paliter'), but that in a secondary sense that Name 
belongs to the 'Man in virtue of His union with the Son 
of God 4 .' This is certainly very like the Nestorianism 
(so called) of a later generation. 

A more serious point is raised by the words of ch. 
xxii: 'He was content to take upon Him the form of 
a slave... and the substance of flesh and body which He 
took upon Him by His birth, as it came to Him from 
the servitude of the sins of His forefathers according 
to His manhood 5 .' This appears to leave the sinlessness 
of the Humanity in doubt; as also does the passage in 
ch. xxi which speaks of Christ as ' cleansing manhood 
by His Passion' (' abluens ex parte suscepti hominis 

P. 87, 1. 17- ' P. 59.1- i3- ' P. 44, 11. 3> 4- 

4 See especially p. 88, 1. 19 sq. 5 P. 82, 11. i 4. 


passione 1 '). It is possible that these expressions, on 
which a different construction may be placed, are simply 
unguarded : otherwise they disallow the perfection of 
Christ's Humanity and the true freedom of His human 
Will. Had the writer followed out the mediatorial 
doctrine into its ultimate bearings, he would scarcely 
have left his words as they stand. As it is, beyond the 
facts that Christ is invoked in prayer as mediator 2 , and 
that salvation is in Him alone 3 , and that He bestows 
immortality and perpetual salvation 4 , soteriology proper 
receives little notice. 

iii. In chapters xi, xxiii, xxiv we find a statement 
of that which was called by later theologians the 'hypo- 
static union/ It receives a simple expression in the 
words of ch. xv, 'homo est enim cum deo iunctus, et 
deus cum homine copulatus 5 .' Tertullian had sought 
to state it in philosophical terms of a sort : ' uidemus 
duplicem statum, non confusum, sed coniunctum in una 
persona, deum et hominem lesum 6 '; and again, 'cum 
duae substantiae censeantur in Christo lesuV We have 
already alluded to a certain resemblance in Novatian's 
teaching to that which was afterwards known as Nes- 
torianism. It was the essence of that doctrine to draw 
a sharp dividing line between the Godhead and the 
Manhood in Christ, ' to treat them as separate personal 
existences, as though a man and God were joined to- 
gether, so that our Lord was not one Person but two 
Persons, and no real union of God and man was effected 

1 P. 79, 1. 14 to the end. H. Jordan (op. cit. pp. 136, 137) quotes 
Tract. pseudo-Orig. 203. i ' carnem etenim hominis obnoxiam peccatis 
sicut uestimentum adsumpsit.' 

2 P. 46, 1. 24. * P. 39, 11. 1215. 

4 Pp. 51, 1. 10 ; 5-2, 11. 14, 15. 5 See also c. xxi, p. 77, 1. 18 sq. 

6 adu. Prax. c. xxvii. 

7 ib. c. xxix. Harnack, D. G. i 3 553 sq. 


in Him 1 .' Stress was also laid upon the right choice of 
a word to express the conjunction of the two natures,, 
the passible Man and the impassible God. Nestorius 
himself insisted on the word <rvvd<j>eia ('contact' or 
' cohesion ') 2 , in preference to such terms as Kpaais, A"?t9, 
<rvy%v(rt,s. The student of the De Trinitate will find in- 
it certain anticipations of Nestorian language. Besides 
what has been already cited, in regard to Novatian's 
treatment of the Humanity of our Lord, we find the 
union of the two natures expressed as follows. Inc. xxi, 
'the Word assumes Man and so dwells with Him and in 
Him among us, that neither is the humanity (homo} 
withdrawn from Christ, nor is the Divinity denied 3 / 
In c. xxiv, the heretics, we are told, wish to make out 
that ' the Man, the Son of Man, is identical with the Son 
of God (eundem atque ipsum, id est hominem filium 
hominis etiam filium dei).' Again, in the important 
discussion on the words of the Annunciation in the same 
chapter, 'the Son of God in the proper sense ["legiti- 
mus"] assumes that Holy Thing, and attaches to Himself 
the Son of Man 4 .' Another notable expression is found 
in the same chapter; the Son of Man 'holds on loan 
["faeneratum et mutuatum"] that which of Himself He 
could not possess.' The truth is, that Novatian was like 
Nestorius in this, that he wished to maintain the true 
Manhood no less strenuously than the true Godhead, in 
Him who is ' the pledge of concord between Deity and 
Humanity 5 '; and therefore he distrusted any fusion of 

1 Bethune-Baker, Nestorius and his teaching, p. 45. 

3 ib. pp. 90, 91. We are not here concerned with the fact, now 
established by Mr Bethune-Baker, that Nestorius was no ' Nestorian, * 
ib. 198. 

3 Pp. 77, 1. 19 78, 1. 2. 

4 Pp. 88, 1. 19 89, 1. 3. Cp. p. 86, 1. 5 'per assumptionem carnis." 

5 P. 78, 11. 7, 8. 


the two which might ' withdraw ' the Manhood, and 
denied that a true human nativity could 'evacuate' the 
Godhead 1 . But in dwelling on this aspect of the matter, 
he forgets to analyse the third word in his constant 
formula ( uerbum caro factuml and prefers to say that 
the Word 'assumes' Flesh, as though Flesh had not 
been taken into the very Person of the Son of God. It 
is plain that he had not attained to that conception 
of the relation between the Natures in the One Person 
of Christ, which to later theologians is known as 
the * communicatio idiomatum.' And yet it is surely 
evident, from the varied and tentative character of his 
terminology, that he is feeling about for the right 
phrase to shew that it is neither a transmutation or 
disappearance of the human into the Divine, nor a 
mechanical juxtaposition of the two. It is a ' mystery.' 
Novatian does not set himself to find any one form of 
expression for this mysterious fact, nor to speculate 
upon the problem of the Divine Personality which it 
implies. As yet like the doctrine of the Third Person 
of the Trinity it had not passed from the region of 
Christian faith and experience into that of theological 

6. The Deification of man. 

In the theology of the second and third centuries we 
find the hope of the human race frequently expressed in 
terms of a Deification : and there are two passages in 
the de Trinitate, which present this thought as it was 
commonly conceived: xv, p. 51, 11. 10, II 'uerbum 

1 P. 85, 11. 57. 


Christi praestat immortalitatem, et per immortalitatem 
praestat diuinitatem ' : and xxix, p. 109, 1. 11 p. no, 
1. i, especially '(corpora) assuefacit cum caelesti uirtute 
misceri, et cum spiritus sancti diuina aeternitate sociari,' 
and 'ad decreta ipsius discunt se moderanter temperare.' 
In brief, Christ's word, if a man keep it, bestows an 
immortality which is at once the means whereby he 
receives Divinity, and itself ' wedded ' (socia) to Divinity 
and the * fruit of Divinity'; and his very body, in obeying 
the decrees of the Spirit, is associated with Its Divine 
eternity. There is a progressive scale : obedience, im- 
mortality, Deification. We may compare the words of 
Theophilus of Antioch (circ. A.D. 180), in regard to 
Adam, 'iva rrjpijo-as rrjv evroXrjv rov Oeov piaQov KOfjui- 
crj]Tai Trap avrov rrjv dOavacriav /cal yevrjrai #eo? (ad 
Autol. 142). 

The mystic idea of the kinship of God and the 
human soul is found at every stage of thought. The 
early Greek fathers felt that God became man in order 
that man might become God : might enter into the 
Vision of God, which itself is immortality. Thus 
Irenaeus can say, ' The glory of God is the living 
man ; the life of men is the vision of God/ and in 
another place, ' each received a penny, having as the 
king's image and superscription the knowledge of the 
Son of God, which was immortality ' (adu. Haer. iv 34. 7 
and iv 58. 9, in Harvey's edition). ' If man had not 
been made one with God, he would not have been able 
to partake of immortality. For needs was that the 
Mediator between God and men should through His 
own kinship with either (rfjs iSia? irpbs e/carepovs olicet,o- 
T?;TO<?) bring both into friendship and oneness of mind 
(oftovoiav), and present man to God and make God 
known to man' (iii 19. 6): and finally, 'we were not 


made gods at the beginning, but at first men and then 
gods/ with a reference to Ps. Ixxxii. 6 (v. iv 63. 2, 3) 1 . 

Undoubtedly there was much in Holy Scripture to 
encourage such a speculation : the original account of 
man made in the image of God, the teaching about 
being made 'children of God' (e.g. I John iii i, 9), 
St Peter's words 'partakers of the Divine nature 2 ', 
and especially the identification of the believer with 
Christ in Pauline teaching. As the expectation of an 
imminent Parousia faded from Christian minds, the idea 
of a gradual and spiritual regeneration of all things 
a growth of men into the likeness of God laid an 
increasing hold upon them. A vaster reach is given to 
the Divine purpose implicit in the Incarnation, which 
is thus regarded not as a remedy only for the Fall, but 
as God's original and eternal counsel in creation 3 . 

The thought of man's kinship with God and pro- 
gressive Deification was no novelty. It may be traced 
in Aristotle's words about perfect happiness : ov yap y 
avOpwrros evTiv OVTCD fiiMO-erai, aXA,' y Oelov TI ev avrw 
V7rdp%ei, and again, ov %prj dvdptoTrwa typovelv avOpcoirov 
6Wa...aXX' ecj) oa ov evSe^erai dOavari&w (Ntc. Eth. 
x /. 8). It was a commonplace with the Stoics, who 
regarded the human soul as possessing, through reason, 
a special relationship to the Divine Being. 

The later Stoics use even stronger language, Seneca, 

1 There is a useful note in Harnack, D. G. i 3 p. 518. 

2 v. Bp Westcott, Gospel of Life, c. vi : Gen. ix 6, i Cor. xi 7, 2 Pet. i 4. 

3 Consult Prof. Inge, Personal Idealism, p. 73, and H. Jordan, Theol. 
Nov. p. 83 quoting Tractat. 8. 27 'similitudinem autem in Christo 
reseruauit, per quem qui ad imaginem dei factus fuerat rursus ad similitu- 
dinem reformaretur in ipso,' and Tertull. de Bapt. v 'ita restituitur homo 
deo ad similitudinem eius qui retro ad imaginem dei fuerat: imago in 
effigie, similitudo in aeternitate censetur.' (The similitudo is something 
higher than unfallen manhood, the imago: it is a Deification.) 


Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and call the soul a ' frag- 
ment,' ' emanation/ ' particle ' of God, and even roundly 
call its reason ' God 1 .' ' God is near thee/ writes Seneca, 
' is with thee, within thee, Lucilius, a sacred spirit is 
seated within us.' ' Reason is simply part of the Divine 
Spirit sunk in the human body 2 .' This might equally be 
called Neo-Platonic. 

Such language tended to a certain fluidity, as 
Dr Inge calls it, in the use of the word 0eo?, which 
is not without parallel in Hebrew literature. It is 
a consideration which we cannot afford to neglect. The 
Christian psychologist cannot but detect a rhetorical 
ring about some of the sentiments thus expressed even 
by orthodox Fathers. 

What has Novatian to tell us about the relation of 
human nature to the Divine Spirit? His psychology is 
limited to the dualism of caro and mens (anima\ which 
he contrasts with the ' simplicity ' of the Divine Nature 
as an ' alloy of bodily elements ' (c. v, p. 18, 1. 5, cf. xxv, 
p. 92, 1. 12): as regards the action of the Divine Spirit 
(who is 'inhabitator corporibus nostris,' xxix, p. 109, 

I. 10) on the human spirit, he is content to say that 
the mind progresses by understanding to the 'spirit/ 
until ' changed itself in spirit ' it can know something 
more about God ; with which we may compare i, p. 3, 

II. u, 12, 'He gave him mind, reason and prudence, that 
he might be able to imitate God/ This does not take 
us further than a ' similitude Dei/ On the other hand, 
we read that the Holy Spirit is the ' Renewer of those 
who are dead in sin ' (vii, p. 23, 11. 18, 19), this involving 

1 M. Aurel. ii 4, v 27, xii 26. 

2 Sen. Ep. Mor. iv 1 2. i : vii 4. 1 2. Refer also to Lucan ix 564 580 : and 
esp. to a valuable art. by Prof. Sonnenschein on 'the New Stoicism,' 
Hibbert Journal v 3. Also Zeller, Stoics, etc. , Eng. tr. p. 204. 


the thought that in place of a sin-laden immortality 
(i, p. 5, 11. 2 4) man comes to share the 'Divine eternity' 
of the Spirit through the obedience of holiness (xxix, 
p. 109. ii p. no. i). It is only sin which prevents 
corruptible man from growing into the likeness of the 
incorruptible 1 God. It is the Incarnation through which 
flesh, the seat of corruption, is brought into contact with 
Deity, Christ being 'mediator Dei et hominum,' who in 
Himself ' clasps into harmony things of earth and things 
of heaven 2 .' It remains to add, that the whole argument 
of chs. xiv, xv turns on the belief that mere man is not 
and cannot conceivably become what Christ is : ' since 
man cannot do works like unto the heavenly works of 
God ' (xiv, p. 47, 1. 1 2). 

Here Novatian leaves us, having barely touched the 
real problem of the kinship of the human and Divine 
through the element called in the N.T. Trvevpa. To 
him the Divine generally appears as transcendent 
rather than immanent 3 : a Power that enters ab extra ; 
and the reconciliation of the 'Deus' and 'homo' in Christ 
is but vaguely indicated. And similarly he asserts that 
the will is free (i, p. 3. 15 p. 4- 8), but does not examine 
the content of the idea. 

The question of the reconciliation of the human and 
the Divine finds many answers in the course of human 
thought. It may be said that the problem will always 
elicit one of two types of solution : the one theocentric 
and the other anthropocentric : in the former, God is 
transcendent, above and outside His world, in the latter 

1 iv, p. 16, 1. 12. 

2 xxiii, p. 86, 11. 2, 3. Cp. 'pignerata in illo diuinitatis et humanitatis 
concordia,' xxi, p. 78, 1. 7. Also from de Idol. Van. xi passage quoted 
supra p. xxi. 

3 v. however n. on p. 26, 1. 2. 


He is immanent in His world : in the one case man 
obeys a law, in the other he realizes his own higher 
nature. The circles of view will intersect, and thus 
common points are found, (a) There is a Christian 
pantheism, the pantheism of S. Paul when he said, ' in 
Him we live and move and have our being,' and spoke 
of the Divine Will 'to sum up all things in Christ 1 ': 
but it must be sharply distinguished from that vague 
modern pantheism which can see no difference, save of 
degree, between God and His creature man. St Paul 
studiously avoids the Stoic and neo-Platonic phraseology 
of deification, (b) There is the conviction that the 
individual is only himself when he remembers that he 
exists in and for the whole 2 . Thus social service 
emerges as the ideal of conduct. 

There is a strong resemblance between these 
Christian theories of Deification and the modern effort, 
rather Stoic than Christian, to find in Christ an apo- 
theosis of humanity not really unique. But in the 
former we recognise the tendency to exalt man to the 
level of God, in the latter to lower God to the level 
of man. In each some important element is under- 
estimated. In the latter^ the Catholic Christian of every 
age would note that the fact of sin receives an inter- 
pretation which is unknown to Holy Scripture and fails 
to satisfy the deepest convictions of the human heart ; 

1 Acts xvii 28 : Eph. i 10. 

2 So Moberly, A tenement ', p. 252 'Never am I, as I, so capable, so 
personal, so real... as when by the true indwelling of the Spirit of God, 
I enter into the realization of myself, as when I at last fulfil... all the 
unexplored possibilities of my personal being, by a perfect mirroring of the 
Spirit of Christ.' Also Bp Westcott, Incarnation and Common Life, esp. 
the Third Address : ' Man was broken into men that in every variety of 
relation he might work out his separate powers before all were summed up 
in the Christ,' ib. p. 83. Finally, refer to Bp Gore, The New Theology 
and the Old Religion, lectures iii, v. 


and that accordingly the redemptive purpose of the 
Incarnation receives an interpretation which is wholly 


7. On the use of the term 'Person' in regard to 


A clear distinction must be made between the 
theological use of the word, which we have in this 
treatise, not quite for the first time in Christian litera- 
ture, and the philosophical use, which is purely modern. 
Of the latter it need only be said that the belief in a 
Personal God is contrasted with Pantheism and with 
any form of Theism which represents God as Un- 
knowable, as Impersonal Law, as the Infinite, and so 

It has been said, with a certain truth, ' Personality, 
as we conceive it, is essentially a limitation and a 
relation. Our own personality is presented to us as 
relative and limited ; and it is from that presentation 
that all our representative notions of personality are 
derived. Personality is presented to us as a relation 
between the conscious self and the various modes of his 
consciousness 1 .' ' It is only by conceiving God as a 
Conscious Being that we can stand in any religious 
relation to Him at all... it is from the intense conscious- 
ness of our own real existence as Persons that the 
conception of reality takes its rise in our minds : it is 
through that consciousness alone that we can raise 
ourselves to the faintest image of the supreme reality 
of God 2 .' 

1 Dean Mansel, Bampton L. iii, p. 84. 

2 ib. p. 87. But read a luminous note in Dr Illingworth {Personality, 
Human and Divine, L. iii, n. 12), shewing that in God alone there is 
Personality, without limit but self-determining, as Lotze says, * Perfect 
personality is in God alone.' 


But whatever ' person ' may have come to signify in 
later thought, in the early writers ' persona ' is a term 
simply chosen to indicate, for no human term could ex- 
press, the distinctions in the Divine Essence which we call 
the Trinity. So the standing formula in Tertullian is 'una 
substantia tres Personae'; and of baptism he says, 'nee 
semel, sed ter, ad singula nomina in Personas singulas 
tinguimur ' (adu. Prax. xxvi). On what principle was 
this term chosen ? That it was chosen with deliberation 
we are certain : the early fathers were reluctant to go 
beyond the letter of Scripture, but the strange specula- 
tions of the Gnostics compelled them to interpret and 
comment, and formulate. In the case of this particular 
word, it was not necessary to do more than to refine 
upon a usage already to be found, in a verbal way, in 
2 Corinth, i 11, ii 10, and perhaps iv 6, if the old Latin 
versions gave ' persona ' as the equivalent of irpoavTrov 
there. From the original sense of a role or character 
in a play, the word persona came, in classical usage, to 
denote a ' type or representative or standing example ' 
of a class, and even an ( individual member' of a class 1 . 
Still more significant is its juristic use, to denote a sort 
of legal abstraction : an individual or a corporation has, 
in the sight of the law, a persona a complex of certain 
rights and duties 2 . Hence, starting from this legal 

1 ?'. de Trin. xviii, p. 66, 1. 6 'prophetes ex p. dei': and ib. p. 65, 1. i 
'p. angeli': xvi, p. 58, 1. 4 'personarum et rerum omnium ordo.' Also 
my n. in Cic. pro Cluent. 59 (Longmans). Its first meaning, as a stage- 
word, was ' an actor's mask. ' 

2 Refer to a note on 'persona,' Trpbffuirov, by Mr Bethune-Baker in 
Texts and Studies, vol. vii (Cambridge, 1901), p. 70 sq. ; who says 'It is 
the condicio, status, munus which any one has among men in general, and 
in particular in civil life. And so it is the man himself so far as he has 
this or that persona. Thus slaves, as not possessing any rights of citizen- 
ship, were regarded by Roman law as not having persona : they were 

or persona carentes? 


usage, it occurred to Tertullian as the best term for his 
purpose : he conceives Almighty God as the ' tota sub- 
stantia' from whom proceed 'officiales' to administer 
His Monarchy 1 . Thus it indicated essential distinctions 
in the Godhead (and particularly in Its operations), 
which such a word as species could not have done with- 
out risk of Sabellianism. It was first used by Tertullian 
of the Son, through whom the Father speaks : cp. the 
classical ' personam alicuius suscipere.' He is anxious 
to explain that neither ' substance,' the Godhead or the 
Manhood, loses its own ' proprietas ' or is blended into 
a ( tertium quid,' a kind of mixture distinct from either. 
* We see,' he says, ' a double state of being, not confused 
but conjoined in One Person 2 ,' in which the theological 
sense of Person is explicit. 

The Greek equivalent in Hippolytus is irpoawTrov, 
a word which has a similar stage-origin : cp. adu. Noet. 
14 eva Oebv epw, irpocrwira e Svo, oltcovofj,ia 8e rpirrjv 
-rrfv ^apw rov ayiov Trvev/jLaro?, from which Harnack 
infers that as yet it was not attributed to the Holy 
Spirit 8 . 

It is well known that viroaracns was the equivalent 
preferred in post-Nicene writers, as being free from any 
Sabellian suggestion. Like the memorable o/ioouo-to?, 
the term ' persona ' is not Scriptural, but has approved 
itself to the Christian consciousness from the earliest 
ages. But we must be careful not to read into it all 
that a developed psychology implies, when human 

1 ' Atquin nullam dico dominationem ita unius sui esse...ita monarchiam, 
ut non etiam per alias proximas personas administretur, quas ipsa pros- 
pexerit officiales sibi,' adu. Prax. iii. 

2 ib. xxvii. 

3 Mr Bethune- Baker (I.e. p. 73) thinks that Hippolytus uses the term 
as a rendering of 'persona,' which he must have found in familiar use 
at Rome, where probably he learnt his theology. 


1 personality ' is under discussion. It is another matter 
to imagine that we can get behind these theological 
terms to the supposed simplicity of primitive Christianity. 
A school of thinkers has attempted to eliminate meta- 
physics from theology, and to draw a sharp distinction 
between religious ' value-judgments ' and the theoretic 
judgments of philosophy. But no satisfying system of 
thought has resulted. A place must be found for human 
reason, beside Revelation and the spiritual and moral 
faculties, in any true theology. 




1 I. Regula exigit ueritatis ut primo omnium credamus in 
deum patrem et dominum omnipotentem, id est, rerum 


I. '/ belime z'w God the Father 
Almighty, Maker of heaven and 
earth ' : who not only created but 
gave them their proper order and 
constituent elements. To sea and 
land He gave a law which they 
should observe, as an example to 
man. He made man in His own 
image; the elements of his body are 
earthly, but there was a Divine 
inbreathing of reason and intelli- 
gence. Man alone was created a free 
agent : but lest free will should break 
its bounds, God gave him a law, 
in the form of a particular com- 
mand. Disobedience brought death 
into the world; but God tempers the 
penalty by cursing not man but his 
labours, and withholding an immor- 
tality of guilt while He gives hope 
through Christ. There is a region 
above the firmament , in which dwell 
the Angels: and a region below the 
earth, in which the souls of just and 
unjust await final judgment. 

i . regula . . ueritatis] Th e Creed , 
as it existed in the Roman Church 
of Novatian's day, is paraphrased in 
these opening words and in those of 
chaps, ix and xxix : being itself (in 
this its earliest form) scarcely more 
elaborate than the Baptismal For- 

F. N. 

mula and certainly much shorter 
than the later recension known to 
us as the 'Apostles' Creed.' Con- 
sult Harnack, The Apostles' Creed, 
c. ii (translated from article in 
Hauck-Herzog, Realencycl.), and 
Swete's Apostles' Creed, p. 14. The 
Creed appears in Tertullian in a 
fuller form, with certain Eastern ele- 
ments ( l unicum Deum,' ' secundum 
scripturas '), in the treatises adit. 
Praxean ii, de Virg. Vel. i, de 
Praescr. Haeret. xiii, xxxvi: it 
is called by him 'regula fidei una 
omnino, sola immobilis et irreforma- 
bilis' (v. Lumby, Hist, of Creeds, 
ch. i). So Aug. Confess, viii 30 
(after his conversion) uses the ex- 
pression 'stans in ea regula fidei.' 

Thus regula represents KW&V of 
Gal. vi 1 6 ; alike the ' rule of truth' 
and 'rule of faith,' sometimes called 
the ' rule of the Church,' which de- 
termines the form of her corporate 
life and is (in the Creeds) her corpo- 
rate utterance. The modern con- 
trast of 'forms' with 'faith' or 'life,' 
to the disparagement of the former, 
rests on a misapprehension of this 
idea. Cp. Westcott, Canon of N.T. 
App. A. (See Introd. p. xxvi.) 

2. deum patrem et dominum 
omnipotentem] Harnack (op. cit. 
p. 72) states that in the Roman 



omnium perfectissimum conditorem, qui caelum alta sublimitate 
suspenderit, terrain deiecta mole solidauerit, maria soluto 
liquore diffuderit, et haec omnia propriis et condignis instru- 
mentis et ornata et plena digesserit. nam et in solidamento 
5 caeli luciferos solis ortus excitauit, lunae candentem globum ad 
solacium noctis mensurnis incrernentis orbis impleuit, astrorum 
etiam radios uariis fulgoribus micantis lucis accendit : et haec 
omnia legitimis meatibus circumire totum mundi ambitum 
uoluit, humano generi dies, menses, annos, signa, tempora, 

TO utilitatesque factura. in terris quoque altissimos montes in 
uerticem sustulit, ualles in ima deiecit, campos aequaliter 
strauit, animalium greges ad uarias hominum seruitutes utiliter 
instituit. siluarum quoque robora humanis usibus profutura 
solidauit, fruges in cibum elicuit, fontium ora reserauit, et 

15 lapsuris fluminibus infudit. post quae, ne non etiam ipsis 
quoque deliciis procurasset oculorum, uariis florum coloribus 
ad uoluptatem spectantium cuncta uestiuit. in ipso quoque 
mari, quamuis esset et magnitudine et utilitate mirabile, multi- 

6 mensurnis a : menstruis al. 

furnished in full and orderly dis- 
tribution with their appropriate 
agencies ' : explained in what 

solidamento] = Gk 

symbol the expression 6ebs 
iravTOKpaTup displaced an older ex- 
pression e?s debs iravTOKpdrdJp: just 
as Tertullian omits Patrem. But 
Harnack goes on to refer this word 
(when it occurs) to the paternal re- 
lation of God to the Creation, rather 
than to any anticipation (in the mind 
of the author of the Creed) of 'uni- 
cum Filium eius ' (in Novatian Filium 
Dei} which follows. We need only 
reply, with Dr Swete (op. cit. 
ch. ii), that the writers of the 2nd 
century constantly identify the Fa- 
ther of the Universe with the Father 
of the Only-begotten Son: thus 
Justin Ap. i 22 fjt.6vos t'St'ws uios rt^ 

With regard to efs, ' unicus Deus ' 
(Tertull. I.e.), cp. note on c. ix init. 
See also Introd. 2 iii, p. xxvii, 
with note. 

3. haec omnia... digesserit] 'all 
these [sky, land and sea] He has 

/iTt; cp. Aug. Con/, xiii 16, and 
see Ronsch Itala u. Vulgata p. 24. 

6. mensurnis increm. orbis] 'by 
her monthly phases.' 

7. uariis] Cp. i Cor. xv 41. 

8. legitimis meatibus] ' law- 
appointed orbits,' = 'per legem 
diuinam institutis,' Jackson. 

9. dies, menses] Gen. i 14. 

13. 'He has hardened the stout 
timber of the forests to serve the 
needs of man, has called forth the 
crops for food, has unlocked the 
mouths of the springs, for the flow- 
ing of the rivers.' 

15. ne non... procurasset] 'lest 
He should have failed to provide also 
for the feast of the eyes.' Cp. de 
Cib. lud. vi ' uentri procuration est.' 



moda animalia, nunc mediocris, nunc uasti corporis fingit, 
ingenium artificis de institutionis uarietate testantia. quibus 
non contentus, ne forte fremitus et cursus aquarum, cum 
dispendio possessors humani, alienum occuparet elementum, 
fines litoribus inclusit : quo cum fremens fluctus et ex alto 5 
sinu spumans unda uenisset, rursum in se rediret nee terminos 
concessos excederet, seruans iura praescripta : ut diuinas leges 
tanto magis homo custodiret, quanto illas etiam elementa 

Post quae hominem quoque mundo praeposuit et quidem 10 
ad imaginem del factum : cui mentem et rationem indidit 
et prudentiam, ut deum posset imitari : cuius etsi corporis 
terrena primordia, caelestis tamen et diuini halitus inspirata 
substantia : quern, cum omnia in seruitutem illi dedisset, 
solum liberum esse uoluit. et ne in periculum caderet 15 
rursum soluta libertas, mandatum posuit, quo tamen non 
inesse malum fructu arboris doceretur, sed futurum, si forte, 
ex uoluntate hominis de contemptu datae legis praemone- 

1. nunc mediocris] Cp. Ps. ciii 

(civ) 25. 

2. de institutionis u.] 'by the 
variety of His appointment': for 
de cp. 1. 1 8 'de contemptu,' p. 120 
1. 8 'de numero duorum deorum.' 
The sense lies between 'instrument' 
and 'cause,' the noun governed 
being abstract not concrete. 

4. 'Should seize upon a foreign 
element at the expense of its human 
possessor.' Ps. civ 9. 

5. ex alto sinu] 'from the far 
sweep' of the hollow, lit. 'fold': 
as below p. 6 1 . 4 ' mundi huius sinus ' 
' reaches. ' In p. 6 1. 1 1 the meaning is 
rather 'bosom' : in p. 241.22 'store,' 
from the idea of 'emptying the lap.' 

7. ut diuinas cet.] cp. note on 
p. 2 1. 8, legiiimis. 

n. ad imaginem j Gen. i 27. 

12. ' Though the elements of his 
body were earthly, yet its substance 
was heavenly and of the Divine in- 
breathing.' ' Diuini halitus,' a gen. 

of description further explained by 
'inspirata.' In the first Tractatus 
pseudo-Origenis de libris SS. Scr. 
(as to which v. Introd. i, p. xxi) 
we find this distinction between the 
outer man ' de limo terrae plasmatus ' 
and the inner man ' (anima inuisibilis 
immortalis rationabilis mobilis) ad 
imaginem Dei factus.' It is also 
frequent in Irenaeus, who holds that 
man can only attain his perfection 
through the Incarnate Son, who is 
' unitus et consparsus suo plasmati 
secundum placitum Patris' (adu. 
Haer. iii 16. 6). Cp. Introd. 6. 
14. cum omnia] Gen. i 28. 

1 6. mandatum posuit] Gen. ii 


17. sed futurum ... praemon.] 

' but was forewarned that evil would 
follow, if at all (si forte), by man's 
exercise of his own free will in 
disregard of the law laid down.' 
For de cp. n. on 1. 2. Perhaps 
praemoneretur is a marginal gloss 

I 2 



retur. nam et liber esse debuerat, ne incongruenter dei 
imago seruiret : et lex addenda, ne usque ad contemptum 
dantis libertas effrenata prorumperet : ut et praemia condigna 
et merita poenarum consequenter exciperet, suum iam habens 
5 illud, quod motu mentis in alterutram partem agitare uoluis- 
set ex quo mortalitas, inuidia utique, in ipsum redit; qui 
cum illam de oboedientia posset euadere, in eandem incurrit, 
dum ex consilio peruerso deus esse festinat. cuius tamen 
poenam nihilominus indulgenter temperauit, dum non tarn 
10 ipse, quam labores eius maledicuntur super terra, nam et 
quod requiritur, non ex ignorantia uenit, sed spem hominis 
futurae in Christo et inuentionis et salutis ostendit : et quod 

9 temperauit deus coni. We. 10 terra y : terram G. 12 redemp- 
ionis et sal. coni. We. 

tionis et sal. coni. We. 

on doceretur, and has displaced 
some such word as peccaretur. 
Jackson conjectured praemandere- 

1. incongruenter] ' anoma- 
lously ' : cp. in a different application 
i Cor. vii 22 ' seruus libertus Domini.' 
So Greg. Nyss. Catech. Or. v sub 
fin. el yap ru avdyKy TTJS dvBpuTrivijs 
eTreffTdTfi fays, die^etiffdr] av i) CIKUV 
icar' eKeivo TO ptpos, a\Xo7y>tw0et0'a 
T avofjiolip 7T/)ds TO apx^TVTrov, ' if 
necessity had governed man, the 
(Divine) Image would have been 
falsified in this respect by its un- 
likeness and alienated from its arche- 

2. lex addenda] 'A law had to 
be imposed, for fear lest an un- 
bridled liberty should break out, 
even to the contempt of the Giver ; 
so that man might receive merited 
rewards or due punishments as the 
result of his actions (consequenter), 
henceforth taking as his own doing 
[2 Cor.] that which he had 
chosen to set in motion, as his mind 
swayed him in either direction.' 
This implies that in unfallen man 
free will is self-determining or au- 
tonomous, not moved from without : 

in fact it contains the germ of the 
developed Augustinian doctrine on 
that matter (e.g. in his de Libero 
Arbitrio). The relation of free will 
to grace in fallen man is not here 
touched upon. Consult Mozley, 
Predestination, ch. viii 206 sq., who 
quotes the words of Aug. de Corr. 
et Grat. c. xi, the first man ' had such 
an assistance given him as he could 
use if he willed, and neglect if he 
willed : not one by which it was 
caused that he did will.' 

6. inuidia utique] 'simply by 
envy,' 'by the Devil's envy of man,* 
Gen. iii 5 : cp. Wisd. ii 24 'inuidia 
diaboli intrauit mors in orbem terra- 
rum,' and infra p. 13 1. 15 n. De 
oboed., 'by obedience.' Cf. siipra 
f de institutionis uarietate.' 

8. deus esse] Gen. iii 5. 

9. non tarn ipse] Gen. iii 17. 

1 1 . quod requiritur . . . ] 'the 
fact that he is sought,' i.e. in Gen. 
iii 9, 'comes from no ignorance' on 
the part of God, 'but exhibits man's 
hope of a coming rediscovery and 
salvation in Christ.' For inuenti- 
onis et s. see Lk. xix 10 'to seek and 
to save.' 




ne de ligno arboris uitae contingat arcetur, non de inuidiae 
maligno liuore descendit, sed ne uiuens in aeternum, nisi 
peccata Christus ante donasset, circumferret secum in poenam 
sui semper immortale delictum. 

Quamquam etiam superioribus, id est, super ipsum quoque 5 
solidamentum partibus, quae non sunt hodie nostris contem- 
plabiles oculis, angelos priiis instituerit, spiritales uirtutes 
digesserit, thronos potestatesque praefecerit, et alia multa 
caelorum immensa spatia et sacramentorum infinita opera 
condiderit, lit immensus hie licet mundus paene nouissimum 10 
magis dei corporalium rerum appareat opus esse, quam solum. 
namque quae infra terram iacent, neque ipsa sunt digestis et 

i eiicitur ms. Wow. 

i. non ... descendit] 'does not 
proceed from': cp. Gen. iii 22. 

i. 'Lest... he should always bear 
about with him for his punish- 
ment an immortality of guilt.' 
The fathers commonly regard this 
exclusion as a mercy rather than a 
judgment: 'that evil might not be 
immortal and that the punishment 
might be an act of benevolence,' 
Greg. Naz. Orat. xxxvii i. See 
Irenaeus adu. Haer. iii 23. 6. 

3. donasset] ='condonasset.' So 
Novatian apud Cypr. Epist. xxx 7 
quotes Mt. xviii 32 'donaui tibi 
omne debitum,' where Vulg. has 
* dimisi.' 

7. angelos prius inst.] The 
question of the creation of Angels 
before the universe is treated by 
Aug. de Ciuit. Dei xii 16 : his con- 
clusion being that they may have 
existed 'in all time,' but that time 
cannot be 'coeternal with the im- 
mutable eternity of the Creator ' : 
and that Angels did not exist 'be- 
fore all time.' He refers Gen. i i 
(by a mystical interpretation of 'the 
heaven') to their creation. Cp. 
also the last three books of his 
Confessions. The Schoolmen, fol- 
lowing Ecclus. xviii i ' Qui uiuit in 
aeternum creauit omnia simul, ' held 

that they were created simulta- 
neously with the universe. 

ib. spiritales uirtutes...] Cp. 
Milton P. L. ii 310: 

'Thrones and Imperial Powers, 

offspring of Heaven, 
Ethereal Virtues ! ' 
Cp. Lightfoot on Col. i 16 on this 
subject. In Tertull. de Praescr. 
Haer. xivii 'uirtutes illas et angelos 
inferiores hominem fecisse' it is a 
Gnostic term. 

8. ' Established many other 
measureless spaces of heavens, and 
mysterious operations without limit.' 
In its wider sense sacramentum de- 
notes a spiritual truth embodied in 
any outward form, be it of words or 
symbol, and represents the Greek 
fj.vffT'ripiov. See Diet, of Christian 
Antiq. s.v. ' Sacraments.' 

i o. paene nouissimum . . . solum] 
'is to all appearance the latest of 
God's material creations rather than 
His only work.' 

12. neque ipsa sunt] = ' ne ipsa 
quidem sunt,' 'are not themselves 
either.' This 'region below the 
earth,' thus locally designated in 
keeping with the notion of a flat 
earth, is the Hades of the parable 
(Lk. xvi 19) : in which the just and 
the unjust are already divided, 


ordinatis potestatibus uacua. locus enim est quo piorum 
animae impiorumque ducuntur, futuri iudicii praeiudicia sen- 
tientes : ut operum ipsius in omnibus partibus redundantes 
magnitudines non intra mundi huius capacissimos licet, ut 
5 diximus, sinus conclusas uideremus, sed etiam infra ipsius 
mundi et profunda et altitudines cogitare possemus ; et sic 
considerata operum magnitudine, tantae molis digne mirari 
possemus artificem. 

II. Super quae omnia ipse continens cuncta, nihil extra 2 

10 se uacuum deserens, nulli deo superiori (ut quidam putant) 
locum reliquit. quandoquidem ipse uniuersa sinu perfectae 
magnitudinis et potestatis incluserit, intentus semper operi suo, 
et uadens per omnia, et mouens cuncta, et uiuificans uniuersa, 
et conspiciens tota, et in concordiam elementorum omnium 

15 discordantes materias sic conectens, ut ex disparibus elementis 
ita sit unus mundus ista coagmentata conspiratione solidatus, 

'feeling already the sentence that 
anticipates the coming Judgment.' 
The idea of a purgation is not 
hinted at here, any more than in 
Tert. de Anima 58, which N. pro- 
bably has in view. Cp. also Hip- 
polytus, p. 68 (Lagarde). 

5. sinus] See n. on p. 3 1. 5. ' But 
also might be able to conceive of 
them below the abysmal depths of 
the world itself.' 

II. God is above all ; He Jills 

and moves all; in Him all things 

find their reconciliation and unity. 

(a) As He contains all, nothing can 

exist otttside Him. He is infinite: 

nothing can transcend Him. He is 

eternal: nothing can precede Him, 

and He is withotit end, subject to no 

law of time, (b) The mind cannot 

conceive, the tongue cannot express 

Him: we can only feel, we cannot 

explain. Words fail, such as Light, 

Potency, Majesty: these are His 

attributes, not Himself. (c) We 

can only say that He is that which 

we cannot tmderstand or measure, 

unthinkable. Eyes that gaze on the 

sun are only dazzled. As God and 

Parent of all virtues He transcends 
them all. He is mind begetting and 
filling all things, directing natural 
causes to the good of the whole. 

9. 'Over all these things God 
Himself containing all things, and 
leaving no space outside Himself, 
has allowed no room, as some fancy, 
for a higher God.' An allusion to 
the Gnostic theory of Valentinus 
and others that above the ' Demi- 
urge' (or Creator) is a higher God 
'Bythos' (or 'Depth') with his in- 
termediate Aeons. The system of 
Mithraism, which at this period had 
a wide vogue throughout the em- 
pire, assigned to Mithras (the sun- 
god) a position like that of the 
Gnostic Demiurge. 

15. ' That the universe has been 
so compacted into one by the con- 
solidated harmony of dissimilar ele- 
ments, that no force can break it 
up.' The whole passage amplifies 
Col. i 1 7 Kcti avrbs 'tarw irpb iravruv 
Kal ret iravra. fi> curry CFVvevTTjKev, 
though it may be observed that St 
Paul is speaking of Christ, and N. 
of the Father. 



ut nulla ui dissolui possit, nisi cum ilium solus ipse qui fecit, 
ad maiora alia praestanda nobis, solui iusserit. hunc enim 
legimus omnia continere : et ideo nihil extra ipsum esse 
potuisse ; quippe cum originem omnino non habeat, conse- 
quenter nee exitum sentiat : nisi forte, quod absit, aliquando 5 
esse coeperit, nee super omnia sit, sed dum post aliquid esse 
coeperit, infra id sit quod ante ipsum merit, minor inuentus 
potestate, dum posterior denotatur etiam ipso tempore. ob 
hanc ergo causam semper immensus, quia nihil illo maius est ; 
semper aeternus, quia nihil illo antiquius. id enim quod sine 10 
origine est, praecedi a nullo potest, dum non habet tempus. 
ideo immortalis, non deficiens in consummationis exitu. et 
quoniam sine lege est quicquid sine origine est, modum tem- 
poris excludit, dum se debitorem nemini sentit. 

De hoc ergo, ac de eis quae sunt ipsius et in eo sunt, nee 15 
mens hominis quae sint, quanta sint, et qualia sint, digne 
concipere potest, nee eloquentia sermonis humani aequabilem 
maiestati eius uirtutem expromit. ad cogitandam enim et ad 
eloquendam illius maiestatem et eloquentia omnis merito muta 
est, et mens omnis exigua est. maior est enim mente ipsa, 20 
nee cogitari possit quantus sit, ne si potuerit cogitari, mente 
humana minor sit, qua concipi possit. maior est quoque omni 

1 8 uirtutem sermonis edd. 21 potuerit a Pa: quia si poterit cogi- 

tari m. hum. minor sit oportet G. 

3. omnia continere] reference 
perhaps to Wisd. i 7. 

5. nisi forte...] 'unless far be 
the thought from us He began at 
a certain time to exist, and is not 
above all things.' 

ii. dum non habet tempus] 
'insomuch as time is nothing with 
Him.' 'Non deficiens...,' 'as not 
passing away to a completed end.' 
For ' consummatio ' cp. Jerem. xxx 
ii (Vg.), and see Ronsch Itala u. 
Vidgata p. 310, who cites O. L. Mt. 
ii 15 'adconsummationem Herodis.' 
Cf. p. 1 1 7 1. 3 ' qui ante tempus est,' 
with note on 1. 2. 

17. 'Nor can human eloquence 
put forth a power commensurate 
with His greatness.' For 'uirtutem ' 
cp. p. 8 1. 8, p. 9 1. 9 : Gk 56va/ 
' Sermonis' (v. crit. n.) was added in 

20. ' For He is greater than the 
mind itself, nor can His greatness 
be conceived, for could it have been 
so conceived He would be less 
than the human mind which could 
conceive Him.' The whole passage 
expresses the transcendence of God 
as well as the limited philosophical 
vocabulary of Latin can express it. 




sermone, nee edici possit : ne si potuerit edici, humane sermohe 
minor sit, quo, cum edicitur, et circumiri et colligi possit. quic- 
quid enim de illo cogitatum fuerit, minus ipso erit : et quicquid 
enuntiatum fuerit, minus illo comparatum circum ipsum erit. 
5 sentire enim ilium taciti aliquatenus possumus ; ut autem ipse 
est, sermone explicare non possumus. siue enim ilium dixeris 
lucem, creaturam ipsius magis quam ipsum dixeris ; ipsum 
non expresseris : siue ilium dixeris uirtutem, potentiam ipsius 
magis quam ipsum dixeris et deprompseris : siue dixeris 

10 maiestatem, honorem ipsius magis quam ilium ipsum descrip- 
seris. et quid per singula quaeque percurrens longum facio? 
semel totum explicabo : quicquid omnino de illo rettuleris, rem 
aliquam ipsius magis et uirtutem, quam ipsum explicaueris. 
quid enim de eo condigne aut dicas, aut sentias, qui omnibus 

15 et sermonibus et sensibus maior est? nisi quod uno modo 
(et hoc ipsum quo modo possumus, quo modo capimus, quo 
modo intellegere licet?) quid sit deus mente capiemus, si 
cogitauerimus id ilium esse, quod quale et quantum sit non 
possit intellegi, nee in ipsam quidem cogitationem possit 

20 uenire. nam si ad solis aspectum oculorum nostrorum acies 

i ne dici possit ms. Wow. edici coni. Latinius/r0 dici. 
sine interrogationis not a edd. 

17 licet 

2. et circumiri et colligi] 'to be 
comprehended and gathered up.' 

4. minus illo comparatum cir- 
cum ipsum] ' will be incommen- 
surate with the compass of His 

6. siue enim ilium dixeris 
lucem...] taken from Theophilus 
Antioch. i 3 ei yap 0<s avrbv eiTrw, 
irolfina, avrov elVw. 

1 2 . rem . . . uirtutem] ' some pos- 
session or virtue.' God in Himself 
transcends all human thought and 
language, and can only be de- 
scribed through His attributes : in 
Himself He is unthinkable. 

1 6. et hoc ipsum... licet] The 
question only indicates the paradox 
of saying that our only way of con- 

ceiving of God is to affirm that He 
is inconceivable. Previous editors 
take the words as a limitation of the 
statement ' capiemus, ' ' quo modo ' 
meaning ' as far as.' 

20. ' If the vision of the eyes 
begins to fail us in beholding the 
sun, so that their gaze cannot rest 
on the orb itself, overpowered by 
the bright rays that meet it, our 
mental vision undergoes the same 
experience in all our thinking about 
God : and the more it concentrates 
itself on the contemplation of God, 
the more is it blinded by the light 
of its own thought.' The idea is 
that of a mind ' dark with excess of 



hebescit, ne orbem ipsum obtutus inspiciat obuiorum sibi 
superatus fulgore radiorum, hoc idem mentis acies patitur in 
cogitatione omni de deo ; et quanto ad considerandum deum 
plus intenditur, tanto magis ipsa cogitationis suae luce caeca- 
tur. quid enim de eo (ut iterum repetam) condigne dicas, 5 
qui est sublimitate omni sublimior, et altitudine omni altior, et 
profundo omni profundior, et omni luce lucidior, et omni 
claritate clarior, omni splendore splendidior, omni robore 
robustior, omni uirtute uirilior, omni pulchritudine pulchrior, 
ueritate omni uerior, et fortitudine omni fortior, et maiestate 10 
omni maior, et omni potentia potentior, et omnibus diuitiis 
ditior, omni prudentia prudentior, et omni benignitate be- 
nignior, omni bonitate melior, omni iustitia iustior, omni 
dementia clementior ? minora enim sint necesse est omnium 
genera uirtutum eo ipso, qui uirtutum omnium et deus et 15 
parens est : ut uere dici possit id deus esse, quod eiusmodi 
est cui comparari nihil potest. super omne est enim quod dici 
potest. mens est enim quaedam gignens et complens omnia, 
quae sine ullo aut initio aut termino temporis causas rerum 
naturaliter nexas ad utilitatem omnium summa et perfecta 20 
ratione moderetur. 

3 III. Hunc igitur agnoscimus et scimus deum, conditorem 
rerum omnium, dominum, propter potestatem, et parentem 

9 uirilior] uiritior edd. : uirosior coni. Ja. 13 bonior a. 

9. uirilior] thus I amend uiri- 
tior, an unknown word. Jackson 
suggests uirosior from Tertull. de 
Anima 19, which hardly supports 
its use here. 

18. 'A mind. ..which without 
beginning or end of time orders 
with supreme and perfect reason, 
with a view to the good of the whole, 
causes in their natural connexions.' 
* Finis omnium bonorum et altitudo 
uitae et profunditas eloquiorum tu 
es ' : Imit. Christi iii 59. 

III. This our God is Founder 
of all things, their Lord and Parent, 
as Holy Scripture shews: He main- 

tains the balance of this earthly 
frame, and will not give His glory 
to another, made or imagined by 
idolater or heretic. He says that 
no temple contains Him, in order 
that we may be wise in the know- 
ledge of His true glory. By His 
Spirit He would turn us from 
brutal pride to the gentleness of the 
humble hear ted: that we may recog- 
nise that God, rather than Nature, 
is the Fottnder of natural order. 
His invisible greatness we learn 
through things visible : of whom and 
in whom and through whom are 
all things. 




propter institutionem : hunc inquam, qui dixit^ et facia sunt 
omnia ; praecepit, et processerunt uniuersa ; de quo scriptum est: 
omnia in sapientia fecisti ; de quo Moyses : deus in caelo 
sursum et in terra deorswn ; qui secundum Isaiam mensus est 
5 caelum palmo, terrain pugillo : qui aspicit terram^ et facit earn 
tremere : qui continet gyrum terrae, et eos qui habitant in ipso 
quasi locustae : qui expendit monies in pondere, et nemora in 
stater a, id est certo diuinae disposition! s examine : ac, ne facile 
in ruinam procumberet magnitudo inaequaliter iacens, si non 
10 paribus fuisset librata ponderibus, onus hoc moderanter terrenae 
molis aequauit. qui dicit per prophetam : ego deus, et non 
est praeter me. qui per eundem prophetam refert quoniam 

i. institutionem] 'ordering,' 
with the idea of 'instruction' for 
intelligent beings, as explained 
below (p. n 11. ii 13): 'qua pater 
conferre sapientiam,' ' ferinos animos lenitatem trahere uolens.' See 
also n. on c. viii, p. 25 11. 2, 5. 

ib.. Ps. cxlix 5, ciii (civ) 24: 
Deut. iv 30. 

4. Is. xl 12, Ps. ciii (civ) 32. 

6. Is. xl 22 Vulg. ' qui sedet 
super gyrum terrae, et habitatores 
eius sunt quasi locustae': ib. 12 'quis 
appendit tribus digitis molem terrae, 
et librauit in pondere monies, et 
colles instatera?' In ch. xxx infra 
the word is ' suspendit.' ' Pondere, ' 
'balance, 'much the same as 'statera,' 
'scales.' The writer in his O. T. 
quotations used a version made 
from the LXX, not, as the Vulgate, 
from the Hebrew ; thus ib. v. 22 6 
TOV yvpov TTJS yijs /ecu oi 
ev af/Tij cJs aKptdes, verse 
12 rLs f-ffrrjire TO. 6/577 <TTa6fji,$ /ecu 
rets vdiras fvy ; Cf. notes on ch. 
ix and Introd. i, p. xx, note 3. 

8. examine] prop. ' tongue of 
the balance,' so 'the exactness' of 
the Divine distribution of elements. 

ib. ne facile sq. ] ' He laid out 
this mighty earthly mass in just equi- 
poise, lest if it were not held in due 
equilibrium, the huge ill balanced 

fabric should collapse and fall into 
ruin': cp. Ps. ciii (civ) 5 'non in- 
clinabitur in saeculum saeculi.* 
'Moderanter,' lit. 'with controlling 
force.' This ancient argument fora 
Creator gains a far wider scope of 
application, when we regard the uni- 
verse in the light of modern science : 
every organism within it consisting 
of co-ordinated parts in equilibrium. 
'The living being resembles a deli- 
cately constructed machine ' (Stewart 
and Tait, Unseen Universe, ch. vi). 
Order prevails in the infinitesimal, 
as well as in the infinitely great : 
the most recent science has found 
it within the atom, which is now 
itself disintegrated. ' The laws of the 
physical universe are mathematical 
relations' (Prof. Flint, Theism, pp. 
134). 'Masses attract each other, 
elements combine with each other, 
in invariable proportions' (ib. 136, 
quoting Is. xl 12, as in our text). 
What was called the ' argument from 
design' is better called the 'argu- 
ment from order and adaptation/ 
which maintains that the order which 
actually exists was meant to exist 
(Flint, p. 164). This leads to the 
idea of design, of a Causa Causans, 
a Creator Mind. 

u. ego deus] Is. xlv 18, 22. 


maiestatem meant non dabo alteri ; ut omnes cum suis figmentis 
ethnicos excludat et haereticos, probans deum non esse qui 
manu artificis factus sit, nee eum qui ingenio haeretici fictus sit. 
non est enim deus, cui, ut sit, quaerendus est artifex. quique 
adhuc adiecit per prophetam : caelum mihi thronus est, terra 5 
autem scabellum pedum meorum : gualem mihi aedificabitis 
domum, aut quis locus requiei meae? ut ostendat quoniam 
multo magis ilium templum non capit, quern mundus non 
capit. et haec non ad sui iactantiam, sed ad nostri scientiam 
refert. neque enim ipse a nobis desiderat magnitudinis gloriam, 10 
sed nobis uult religiosam, qua pater, conferre sapientiam. 
quique praeterea ferinos nostros animos et de agresti im- 
manitate tumidos et abruptos ad lenitatem trahere uolens, 
dicit : et super quern requiescet spiritus meus, nisi super 
humilem et quietum, et trementem uerba mea ? ut deum aliqua- 1 5 
tenus quantus sit possit agnoscere, dum ilium per spiritum 
collatum discit timere. qui similiter adhuc magis in notitiam 
nostri nolens peruenire, ad culturam sui nostros excitans animos, 
aiebat : ego sum dominus, qui fed lucem et creaui tenebras ; ut 
uicissitudinum istarum quibus noctes diesque moderantur non 20 
naturam nescio quam putaremus artificem, sed deum agnos- 

2i putaremus ex ms. Wfaveri]&: -emus al. 

i. maiestatem meam | Is. xlii 8. 14. Is. Ixvi 2 Vg. 'ad quern 

3. manu artificis] Cp. Hos. autem respiciam nisi ad pauperculum 

viii 6, Acts xix 26. et contritum spiritu? ' 

ib. qui ingenio haer. fictus sit] 15. aliquatenus] 'in a measure': 

Tertullian speaks of heretics, 'neque as far as finite minds can under- 

ab idololatria distare haereses, cum stand. 

auctoris...eiusdem sint, cuius et 16. per spiritum collatum] 

idololatria Deum aut fingunt alium 'through thebestowal of the Spirit': 

aduersus Creatorem, aut si unicum cp. i Jo. iii 24. 

Creatorem confitentur, aliter eum 19. Is. xlv 7. 

disserunt quam in uero ' (de Praescr. 20. non naturam nescio quam] 

xl). 'not something called Nature': in 

5. Is. Ixvi i. general reference to the pantheistic 

12. 'To draw to gentleness our view of Nature, held especially by 

souls beastlike and in their rude the Stoics: as described, e.g., in 

untamed condition proud and ob- Cicero de Nat. Deorum i 100, 

stinate.' The idea of advance from 'who, judging from results so mag- 

feritas to humanitas is frequent in nificent and glorious, when they 

classical Latin, e.g. Lucr. v 925 sq., looked upon the universe itself, and 

Cic. de Off. iii 32. upon its parts, the sky, the lands 




ceremus potius (quod erat uerius) conditorem. quern quoniam 
obtutu oculorum uidere non possumus, de operum magnitudine 
et uirtute et maiestate condiscimus : inuisibilia enim ipsius, 
inquit apostolus Paulus, a creatura mundi per ea quae facta sunt 

5 intellecta conspiciuntur ; sempiterna quoqueeius uirtus et diuinitas : 
ut animus humanus ex manifestis occulta condiscens, de operum 
magnitudine, quae uideret, mentis oculis artificis magnitudinem 
cogitaret. de quo idem apostolus : regi autem saeculorum 
immortali, inuisibili, soli deo honor et gloria, euasit enim 

10 oculorum contemplationem, qui cogitationis uicit magni- 
tudinem : quoniam, inquit, ex ipso et per ipsum et in ipso 
sunt omnia. nam et imperio eius omnia, ut ex ipso sint : et 

i auditorem ms. Wow. unde conditorem Wow. auctorem F. Ursin. 

and the seas, and upon their or- 
naments, the sun, the moon and 
the stars, and when they marked the 
maturing of the seasons, and their 
changes and alternations ['muta- 
tiones uicissitudinesque '], conceived 
the existence of a sublime, exalted 
power that had created these things 
['aliquam excellentem esse praestan- 
temque naturam, quae haec effe- 
cisset'] and moved and controlled 
and directed them ' (tr. by Prof. F. 
Brooks). Similarly (ib. ii 58) 
the founder of the Stoics, Zeno, de- 
clared that Nature was, in the case 
of the universe, 'non artificiosa 
solum, sed plane artifex? The 
writer probably remembered the 

i . quod erat uerius] ' as is 
more true ': the tense assimilated to 
the imperf. aiebat^ agnosceremus. 

i. 'We learn to know Him by 
the greatness of his works.' Cp. 
Wisd. xiii i 5. For 'de ' v. n. on 
p. 3 1. 2. 

3. inuisibilia enim] Rom. i 10. 

7. mentis oculis] o! 600a\/xoi 
TT)S Kapdias, Eph. i 18. Cp. the 
famous line of Epicharmus, vovs opfj 
/ccti vovs ctKotfei, raXXo, /cw0a 


8. regi autem] i Tim. i 17. 

ir. Rom. xi 36. The Greek 
has e aurou, as the Origin : 5i' 
avrov, as the Efficient Cause of all 
things, referred generally, but not 
always, to the Son (Heb. ii 10, 
Westcott), to whom uerbo eius di- 
gesta points : ets airrov, as the Final 
Cause or Goal, expressed in Hebr. 
I.e. by 5t' ov, and rendered by N. , 
as in Vg., by in ipso. The distinction 
between kv and ets is not rigidly 
observed in the Latin versions; see 
e.g. Matt, xxviii 19, Rom. vi 3 (Vg.), 
i Cor. viii 6 (where Hilary and 
others read 'in illo' or 'in ipso'), 
xii 13 (Vulg. 'in uno spiritu'). It 
is not indeed certain that the N.T. 
writers were always clear upon it 
themselves (Blass Gr. ofN. T. 39.3). 
Here the closing words associate in 
ipso and in ipsum : the former sug- 
gesting to us Col. i 17 (v. Lightfoot), 
Christ the 'principle of cohesion in 
the universe'; the latter r Cor. xv 
28, the consummation of all sentient 
existence in God. It is to be 
observed that N. does not, like 
many other patristic writers, make 
the three clauses refer to the three 
Persons of the Trinity respectively. 

Ill, IV] 


uerbo eius digesta, ut per ipsum sint : et in iudicium eius 
recidunt uniuersa, ut dum in ipso exspectant libertatem 
corruptione deposita, in ipsum uideantur esse reuocata. 
4 IV. Quern solum merito bonum pronuntiat dominus : 
cuius bonitatis totus testis est mundus, quern non instituisset, 5 
nisi bonus fuisset. nam si omnia bona ualde^ consequenter ac 
merito et quae instituta sunt bona bonum institutorem proba- 
uerunt, et quae a bono institutore sunt, aliud quam bona esse 
non possunt. ex quo omne malum facessit a deo. nee enim 
potest fieri ut sit initiator aut artifex ullius mali operis, qui nomen 10 
sibi perfecti uindicat et parentis et iudicis, maxime cum omnis 
mali operis uindex sit et iudex; quoniam et non aliunde 
occurrit homini malum, nisi a bono deo recessisset. hoc 
autem ipsum in homine denotatur : non quia necesse fuit, sed 
quia ipse sic uoluit. unde manifeste et quid malum esset 15 
apparuit, et, ne inuidia in deo esse uideretur, a quo malum 
ortum esset, eluxit. 

9 facessat edd. 13 recessisse coni. Latinius : Ja. 

2. libertatem] Rom. viii i\. 

IV. God alone is good and the 
Author of good : evil is a departure 
from Him. God is unchanging 
withotit increase or decrease: the 
former would involve origin, the 
latter death : but He saith, I am 
that I am. For where there is no 
birth) there can be no change. There- 
fore He is One, the Supreme Being, 
without any like unto Him : for there 
cannot be two Infinites : He must 
contain the whole or else cease to 
be God. Consequently no proper 
Name of God can be uttered : for a 
name must cover the attributes com- 
prehended, which in this case is 
impossible. The Name is given that 
men may find mercy thereby. God's 
im mortality follows. 

4. solum... bonum] Lk. xviii 19. 

6. omnia bona] Gen. 131. 

9. facessit] (thus I emend 
' facessat ') ' is a departure from God.' 

Here the word is equivalent to 
abhorret, or recedit. For the literal 
sense cp. Liv. i 47. 5 'facesse hinc 
Tarquinios.' Proficiscor contains the 
same root. 

12. The sentence is irregular but 
expressive, ' evil does not cross 
man's path from any other quarter, 
unless he had gone back from the 
good God.' So Jer. ii 19 ' malum 
et amarum est reliquisse te Dominum 
Deum tuum.' 

13. hoc... ipsum] sc. declension 
from God. 'Denotatur,' 'is stig- 
matised,' cp. Ecclus. xix 5 (Vg.) 
'qui gaudet iniquitate denotabitur ' ; 
or merely ' designated ' as p. i r 9 1. 1 5. 

15. 'Hence it plainly appeared 
what evil was [sc. the defect of the 
will], and lest there should be any 
appearance of jealousy in God, it 
became manifest from whom evil had 
taken its origin,' sc. from the Devil, 
who was jealous of man, p. 4 1. 6. 



Hie ergo semper sui est similis, nee se umquam in 
aliquas formas uertit aut mutat, ne per immutationem etiam 
mortalis esse uideatur. immutatio enim conuersionis portio 
cuiusdam comprehenditur mortis, ideo nee adiectio in illo 
5 umquam ullius aut partis aut honoris accedit, ne quid um- 
quam perfecto defuisse uideatur; nee detrimentum in eo 
aliquod agitur, ne gradus mortalitatis receptus esse uideatur : 
sed quod est, id semper est, et qui est, semper ipse est, et 
qualis est, semper talis est. nam et incrementa originem 

10 monstrant, et detrimenta mortem atque interitum probant, 
et ideo : ego, ait, sum deus, et non sum mutatus, statum suum 
tenens semper, dum id quod natum non est, conuerti non 
potest. hoc enim in ipso, quicquid illud potest quod est 
deus, semper sit necesse est, ut semper sit deus, seruans 

15 sese uirtutibus suis. et ideo dicit : ego sum qui sum. quod 
enim est, ideo hoc habet nomen, quoniam eandem semper sui 
obtinet qualitatem. immutatio enim tollit illud nomen 'quod 
est ' : quicquid enim aliquando uertitur, mortale ostenditur 
hoc ipso quod conuertitur : desinit enim esse quod fuerat, et 

20 incipit consequenter esse quod non erat. idcirco et merito in 
deo manet semper status suus, dum sine detrimento com- 
mutationis semper sui et similis et aequalis est. quod enim 

15 et id quod coni. We. 

i. Jas. i 17. 

3. 'The alteration implied in 
change from one thing to another 
involves a fraction of what might 
be called death.' 

6. nee detrimentum sq.] 'nor 
is there any question of diminution 
in Him, lest it should seem that a 
step to mortality had been taken.' 
Absolute perfection excludes the 
possibility of change to less or more 
of a quality. 

8. quod est... qui est... qualis 
est] His essence, Person, attributes. 

ii. Mai. iii 6. 

13. hoc enim in ipso] 'What- 
ever powers Deity possesses must 

always be in Him.' The want of 
abstract terms makes the Latin 
bald and uncouth, in contrast with 
Greek. The phrase 'quod est deus' 
to express 'Godhead' is a par- 
ticularly frequent one in Hilary de 

1 5 . ego sum qui sum] Ex. iii 1 4. 

ib. quod enim est...] 'That 
which is, is so called,' i.e. is said to 
' be, ' 'just because it always preserves 
the same attributes.' Thus the Self- 
existence of God implies the per- 
manence of His attributes. 

21. dum sine detrimento sq.] 
' for without change or loss He is 
always Himself and invariable.' 



natum non est, nee mutari potest : ea enim sola in conuersionem 
ueniunt, quaecumque fiunt uel quaecumque gignuntur ; dum 
quae aliquando non fuerant, discunt esse nascendo, atque ideo 
nascendo conuerti. at enim ilia quae nee natiuitatem habent 
nee artificem, excluserunt a se demutationem, dum in qua 5 
conuersionis causa est, non habent originem. 

Ideo et unus pronuntiatus est, dum parem non habet : deus 
enim, quicquid esse potest quod deus est, summum sit necesse 
est. summum autem quicquid est, ita demum summum esse 
oportet, dum extra comparem est. et ideo solum et unum 10 
sit necesse est, cui conferri nihil potest, dum parem non habet. 
quoniam nee duo infinita esse possunt, ut rerum dictat ipsa na- 
tura. infinitum est autem, quicquid nee originem habet omnino, 
nee finem. excludit enim alterius initium, quicquid occupauerit 
totum. quoniam si non omne id quod est, quicquid est, con- 15 
tinet, dum intra id inuenitur quo continetur, minus inuentum 
eo quo continetur, deus esse desierit, in alterius .potestatem re- 
dactus, cuius magnitudine, qua minor, fuerit inclusus : et ideo 
quod continuit, deus potius esse iam coeperit. 

Ex quo effectum est ut nee nomen dei proprium possit 20 
edici, quoniam non possit nee concipi. id enim nomine 
continetur, quicquid etiam ex naturae suae condicione com- 

7 deus enim. quicquid F. Jun. 

5. dum in qua conuersionis...] 
' not having beginning, in which 
lies the cause of change.' Birth is a 
change from not-being to being. Cp. 
Plato Repitbl. 381 (one of his 'types 
of theology ') ' God, too, cannot be 
willing to change : being, as is 
supposed, the fairest and best that 
is conceivable, every God remains 
absolutely and for ever in his own 
form ' (tr. Jowett). 

7. deus enim quicquid cet.] 
' For God must be in the highest 
degree whatever Godhead can be.' 
Cp. p. 14 lines 13, 14 for the form of 

15. quoniam si non omne...] 
' Since if it (the Infinite) does not 

contain all that exists (whatever it 
be), then being found within that 
which contains it, it is less than the 
containing element, and thereby will 
have ceased to be God.' 'Et ideo 
quod '...'and therefore that which 
contained will rather claim to be 

21. nee concipi] = 'ne concipi 
quidem,' a frequent use of nee: so 
nee ipsis intellectibus below. Cp. 
'tu voluptatem summum bonum pu- 
tas: ego nee bonum,' Sen. Dial. 7. 
10. But it is less often found (as 
here) after a principal negative. N. 
here repeats what he has said above 
in c. ii. 




prehenditur. nomen enim significantia est eius rei, quae 
comprehend! potuit ex nomine. at quando id de quo 
agitur tale est, lit condigne nee ipsis intellectibus colligatur, 
quomodo appellationis digne uocabulo pronuntiabitur, quod, 
5 dum extra intellectum est, etiam supra appellationis significan- 
tiam sit necesse est? ut merito quando nomen suum deus 
ex quibusdam rationibus et occasionibus adicit et praefert, 
non tam legitimam proprietatem appellationis sciamus esse 
depromptam, quam significantiam quandam constitutam ; ad 

10 quam dum homines decurrunt, dei misericordiam per ipsam 
impetrare posse uideantur. 

Est ergo et immortalis et incorruptibilis, nee detrimenta 
sentiens omnino, nee finem. nam et quia incorruptibilis, ideo 
et immortalis ; et quia immortalis, utique et incorruptibilis ; 

15 utroque inuicem sibi et in se conexione mutua perplexo, et 
ad statum aeternitatis uicaria concatenatione producto, et 
immortalitate de incorruptione descendente, et incorruptione 
de immortalitate ueniente. 

7 aut praefert ms. Wow. 15 perplexa...producta : corr. edd. Angl. 

i . nomen enim significantia . . . ] 
'a name is the indication of that 
thing which from the name could 
be comprehended,' sc. by the intel- 
lect. But the significance of this 
Name cannot so be grasped. For 
significantia cp. p. 20 1. 18. 

6. ut merito sq.] 'So that 
rightly enough, when God attaches 
and exhibits His Name upon certain 
grounds and occasions, we know 
that strictly and properly it is not a 
word of designation, but rather a 
general indication that has been 
given.' In what follows, the O.T. 
use of the Name of the Lord is 
shewn, as e.g. in Prov. xviii 10. See 
Hilary de Trin. v 2 1 ' loquendum 
non aliter de deo est quam ut ipse 
ad intellegentiam nostram de se 
locutus est.' 

12. est ergo] sc. 'deus.' On 'in- 
corruptibility,' v. Introd. 5, p. Ivi. 

1 6. ' And extended by reciprocal 

implication into the condition of 

V. If anger and hatred are pre- 
dicated of God in Scripture, they are 
not vices and passions in Him, who 
is incorruptible and impassible. His 
anger and hatred are deliberate and 
rational, and have a remedial pur- 
pose towards mankind. Whereas 
human nature is formed of diverse 
elements, which the vice of anger 
rouses to discord, the Divine Nature 
is simple and cannot be corrupted. 

This chapter alone, rather than 
ch. vi, touches the modern cavil 
against the anthropomorphism of 
Christian teaching. ' An anthropo- 
morphic God is the only God whom 
men can worship, and also the God 
whom modern thought finds it in- 
creasingly difficult to believe in ' 
(Morison Service of Man p. 49, 
quoted Lux Mundi* p. 97 q. v.). 
The word itself is misleading : 



5 V. Cuius etiam si iracundias legimus, et indignationes 
quasdam descriptas tenemus, et odia relata cognoscimus, non 
tamen haec intellegimus ad humanorum relata esse exempla 
uitiorum. haec enim omnia, etsi hominem possunt corrum- 
pere, diuinam uim non possunt omnino uitiare. passiones 5 
enim istae in hominibus merito esse dicentur, in deo non 
merito iudicabuntur. corrumpi enim per haec homo potest, 
quia corrumpi potest : corrumpi per haec deus non potest, 
quia nee corrumpi potest. habent igitur ista uim suam quam 
exerceant, sed ubi praecedit passibilis materia, non ubi prae- 10 
cedit impassibilis substantia. nam et quod irascitur deus, non 
ex uitio eius uenit, sed ad remedium nostri illud facit. indulgens 
est enim etiam tune cum minatur, dum per haec homines ad 
recta reuocantur. nam quibus ad honestam uitam deest ratio, 
metus est necessarius, ut qui rationem reliquerunt, uel terrore 15 
moueantur. et ideo omnes istae uel iracundiae dei, uel odia, 
uel quaecumque sunt huiusmodi, dum ad medicinam nostram 
proferuntur (ut res docet), ex consilio, non ex uitio uenerunt, 

i legitimas : corr. edd. Angl. 

anthropopathy or anthropopsychism 
would give the real content of the 
idea. True, Harnack (D. G. i 3 
531) expresses thus the teaching of 
the older fathers (as Irenaeus, 
Tertullian, Hippolytus) ' God is all 
light, all understanding, all Logos, 
all spiritual activity : everything 
anthropopathic and anthropomor- 
phic must be excluded from the 
conception of God ' : but one of his 
references to Tertullian is enough to 
shew that the moral and spiritual 
attributes, which appear in man in 
an infinitely less degree, are by that 
father predicated of God : ' pro- 
ponam, Deum non potuisse humanos 
congressus inire, nisi humanos et 
sensus et affectus suscepisset, per 
quos uim maiestatis suae, intole- 
humilitate temperaret ' (adu. Marc. 
ii 27). 

i. iracundias] the plural of 

F. N. 

abstract words of feeling denotes 
particular instances of that feeling : 
'dolores, gaudia,' 'recurrences of 
pain, triumph.' 

3. ad humanorum cet.] ' nar- 
rated of Him in the sense in which 
these are human vices.' 

4. 'All these affections, though 
they may corrupt human nature, 
cannot at all impair the Divine 
essence.' In the next sentence, 
passiones must be taken as the 
predicate, istae being attracted in- 
to agreement : such things may 
rightly be called 'passions' in men, 
man starting with a ' passibilis 
materia.' Observe the contrast be- 
tween materia and substantia. 

15. ut qui rationem...] 'in 
order that those who have aban- 
doned reason may be moved, though 
it were only by terror.' 

18. ex consilio] ' of set purpose.' 




nec ex fragilitate descendant ; propter quod etiam ad corrum- 
pendum deum ualere non possunt. materiarum enim in nobis, 
ex quibus sumus, diuersitas ad iracundiae consueuit corrum- 
pentem nos excitare discordiam; quae in deo uel ex natura 
5 uel ex uitio non potest esse, dum non utique ex coagmentis 
corporalibus intellegitur esse constructus. est enim simplex, et 
sine ulla corporea concretione, quicquid illud est totus, quod 
se solus scit esse ; quandoquidem spiritus sit dictus. et ideo 
haec quae in hominibus uitiosa sunt et corrumpentia, dum ex 
10 corporis ipsius et materiae corruptibilitate nascuntur, in deo 
corruptibilitatis uim exercere non possunt, quoniam quidem, 
ut diximus, non ex uitio sed ratione uenerunt. 

VI. Et licet scriptura caelestis ad humanam formam 6 

1 1 quandoquidem Pa. : quoniam quidem a y. 

i. materiarum ... discordiam] 
Anger in man is represented as a 
conflict of discordant elements in his 
nature which ' breaks him up ' (cor- 
rumpit) : doubtless the elements of 
reason and passion, or the spiritual 
and the corporeal. On the other 
hand God is represented as ' in any 
case understood not to consist of 
bodily elements in amalgamation.' 
' That Whole which He alone knows 
Himself to be, though we cannot 
define it ['quicquid illud est'], is 
simple and without the admixture 
of anything bodily.' For the expres- 
sion see p. 21 1. 17, with note. The 
reference is to Jo. iv 24. There is 
some tendency, in Christian thought, 
to adopt the Platonic position, a 
dualism which disparages the body; 
and we are reminded of Virgil's 
purgatory for souls, 

'donee longa dies, perfecto tem- 
poris orbe, 

concretam exemit labem, purum- 
que reliquit 

aetherium sensum atque aurai 

simplicis ignem,' 
Aen. vi 745 747. (Refer to Introd. 

5f P- lviii -) 

But there was always another 

tendency of thought, to which 

Tertullian gave an extreme expres- 
sion 'Who will deny that God, 
though He is mind, is also body? 
For a spirit is a body of its own 
kind after its own image. But even 
things invisible have their own 
body and their own form with God, 
through which they are visible to 
God alone ' (adu. Praxean vii). 

The solution of the problem (the 
relation of finite and infinite 
elements) must depend on the 
meaning given to the Incarnation 
(v. Illingworth, Personality Human 
and Divine, lectures ii, iii, esp. 

PP- 53 74)- 

VI. The anthropomorphic language 
of Holy Scripture is not intended to 
confine the Divine majesty within 
human and corporeal limits : the 
language of the prophets was para- 
bolic, adapted to the understanding 
of the people, which was finite. God 
is a Spirit : and it is His spiritual 
potencies which are represented by 
such terms as eyes, ears, feet. 
Such members are not necessary 
to God, who has no complexity of 
nature, and is all sight, all hear- 
ing, and so forth. A diversity of 
members would imply birth and 



faciem diuinam saepe conuertat, dum dicit : oculi domini 
super iustos j aut dum : odoratus est dominus deus odorem 
bonae fragrantiae ; aut dum traduntur Moysi tabulae scriptae 
digito dei\ aut dum populus filiorum Israel de terra Aegypti 
manu ualida et bracchio excelso liberatur ; aut dum dicit : os 5 
enim domini locutum est haec\ aut dum terra scabellum pedum 
dei esse perhibetur ; aut dum dicit : inclina aurem tuam, et 
audi; nos qui dicimus, quia lex spiritalis est, non intra haec 
nostri corporis liniamenta modum aut figuram diuinae maies- 
tatis includimus, sed suis illam interminatae magnitudinis (ut 10 
ita dixerim) campis sine ullo fine diffundimus. scriptum est 
enim : si ascendero in caelum, tu ibi es : si descendero ad inferos, 
ades : et si assumpsero alas meas, et abiero trans mare, ibi manus 
tua apprehendet me, et dextera tua detinebit me. rationem enim 

8 sed nos 7 : nos edd. Angl. 

i sq. The reff. are to Ps. xxxiii 
1 6, Gen. viii 21, Ex. xxxi 18, Ps. 
cxxxv (cxxxvi) 12, Is. i 20, Ixvi i, 
2 K. xix 16. 

8. nos qui dicimus...] 'we who 
say that the law is spiritual do not 
confine the fashion or shape of the 
Divine majesty within these out- 
lines of our own bodily nature, but 
extend it, if I may so say, over the 
field of its own illimitable greatness 
without any bounds.' Ammundsen 
(Novatianus p. 29), referring to 
Dom Butler's article in the Journal 
of Theol. Studies Oct. 1900, p. 114, 
compares this passage with the Ca- 
tena fragment of Origen, Delarue 
ii 25. He says that it is not im- 
possible that N. had read the work 
of Origen, though he shews no trace 
of his theological influence ; but 
(like Butler) he thinks it more pro- 
bable that N. knew the writing of 
Melito which Origen combats in 
that passage. 

10. ut ita dixerim] qualifying 
the metaphor : so in de Cib. hid. iv 
init., v. Introd. p. xix, note 4. 

12. Ps. cxxxviii (cxxxix) 8, 9, ro. 

13. et abiero trans mare] The 

quotation agrees neither with LXX 
nor Vulg., while it omits /car' opdpov 
(diluculo), possibly following the 
variant KO.T' 6p06v. The writer used 
an old Latin version which, in this 
case, diverges from LXX more than 
usual. See Sabatier's Vetus Italica 
ad loc. and cf. note on iii, 1. 9. 

14. rationem enim cet.] N.'s 
use of the words temper amentum 
and dispositio elsewhere helps us to 
understand his meaning here. In 
his epistle numbered xxx among 
those of Cyprian he twice uses the 
former word : 7 ' sed in ipsius 
postulationis lege temporis facto 
temperamento,' i.e. 'but using 
moderation with regard to times 
and seasons in the form of their 
petition'; 8 'cuius temperamenti 
moderamen nos hie tenere quae- 
rentes,' i.e. 'we here are thinking 
of exercising this reasonable mode- 
ration.' With this use may be 
compared Cyprian's own in Ep. v 2 
'prouidete ut cum temperamento 
(with moderation) fieri hoc tutius 
possit,' contrasted with 'glomeratim 
. . .per multitudinem semel iunctam ' ; 
and in Ep. liv 3 'nos tempera- 

2 2 




diuinae scripturae de temperamento dispositionis cognoscimus. 
parabolis enim adhuc, secundum fidei tempus, de deo pro- 
phetes tune loquebatur, non quomodo deus erat, sed quomodo 
populus capere poterat. ut igitur haec sic de deo dicantur, 
5 non deo sed populo potius imputetur. sic et tabernaculum 
erigere populo permittitur; nee tamen deus intra tabernaculum 
clusus continetur. sic et templum exstruitur ; nee tamen deus 
intra templi angustias omnino saepitur. non igitur mediocris 
est deus, sed populi mediocris est sensus ; nee angustus deus, 

10 sed rationis populi angustus est intellectus habitus, denique 
in euangelio : ueniet hora, dominus aiebat, cum neque in monte 
isto, neque in Hierusalem adorabitis patrem^ et causas reddidit 
dicens: spiritus est deus : et eos ergo qui adorant in spiritu et 
ueritate adorare oportet. efficaciae igitur ibi diuinae per mem- 

15 bra monstrantur : non habitus dei, nee corporalia liniamenta 
ponuntur. nam et cum oculi describuntur, quod omnes uideat 
exprimitur; et quando auris, quod omnia audiat proponitur; 
et cum digitus, signincantia quaedam uoluntatis aperitur; et 
cum nares, precum quasi odorum perceptio ostenditur ; et cum 

20 manus, quod creaturae sit omnis auctor probatur; et quando 
bracchium, quod nulla natura contra robur ipsius repugnare 

7 clusus: v. p. 41. 4. 

mentumtenentes. . .iustamoderatione 
agenda librauimus.' We have al- 
ready had an example of dispositio 
in 3 'certo diuinae dispositionis 
examine' in the sense of 'provi- 
dential ordering.' Cp. de Cib. lud. 
i 'haec omnia gratia... et dispo- 
sitione diuina, ne aut minus redde- 
retur robustioribus...aut amplius 
tenerioribus.' In the present passage, 
accordingly, N. seems to mean, 
' The meaning, or doctrine, of Holy 
Scripture may be gathered from the 
considerate manner in which it is 
vouchsafed to us.' 

2. secundum f. tempus] 'ac- 
cording to the period reached in the 
development of faith' ; i.e. as the 
age was capable of believing. 

1 6 omnes y : -ia ultro corr. Pa. 

4. ut igitur. . .] ' for such language 
[of anthropomorphism] being applied 
to God, the people and not God 
must be held accountable.' 

8. mediocris] 'finite,' lit. 
' ordinary ' or ' commonplace,' and 
so de Laud. Martyr, ix, xviii ' hu- 
mana mediocritas': cp. 'mediocri- 
tati,'Tertull.tftife..d/a*v. ii 2 7, quoted 
supra ch. v, in trod. note. 

10. angustus] (passive sense) 
1 straitened. ' 

11. ueniet hora] Jo. iv 21, 24. 

14. efficaciae] 'potencies': 'habi- 
tus,' 'appearance.' The following 
passage is a fine defence of the 
' anthropomorphism ' of Holy Scrip- 




possit edicitur; et quando pedes, quod impleat omnia nee sit 
quicquam ubi non sit deus, explicatur. neque enim stint ei 
aut membra aut membrorum officia necessaria, ad cuius solum 
etiam taciturn arbitrium et seruiunt et adsunt omnia. cur enim 
requirat oculos, qui lux est ? aut cur quaerat pedes, qui ubique 5 
est? aut cur ingredi uelit, cum non sit quo extra se progredi pos- 
sit? aut cur manus expetat, cuius ad omnia instituenda artifex est 
et silens uoluntas? nee auribus eget, qui etiam tacitas nouit 
uoluntates. aut propter quam causam linguam quaerat, cui 
cogitare iussisse est? necessaria enim haec membra homini- 10 
bus fuerunt, non deo, quia inefficax hominis consilium fuisset, 
nisi cogitamen corpus implesset; deo autem non necessaria, 
cuius uoluntatem non tantum sine aliqua molitione opera sub- 
sequuntur, sed ipsa statim opera cum uoluntate procedunt. 
ceterum ipse totus oculus, quia totus uidet; et totus auris, 15 
quia totus audit; et totus manus, quia totus operatur; et totus 
pes, quia totus ubique est. idem enim, quicquid illud est 
totus, aequalis est, et totus ubique est. non enim habet in se 
diuersitatem sui, quicquid est simplex, ea enim demum in 
diuersitatem membrorum recident, quae ueniunt ex natiuitate 20 

i. quod impleat...] 'it is ex- 
plained that He fills all things and 
that the place does not exist where 
God is not.' 

4. etiam taciturn] ' even un- 

ib. seruiunt .. omnia] Ps. cxviii 
(cxix) 91. 

9. 'Whose thought is a com- 
mand.' Man's purpose fails of a 
result, * unless his body fulfils his 
thought ' : the result follows the 
will of God without an effort 
(molitione) or rather attends it 

12. cogitamen] air at; elptj^vov : 
the lexicons refer to Tertullian (sic) 
de Trin. 6. 

17. idem enim cet.] The phrase 
'quicquid illud est totus' has oc- 
curred before, in the sense of the 
undivided fulness of the Godhead, 

which we cannot presume to define. 
The same must be the meaning 
here. 'Aequalis' seems to mean 
'unvarying,' 'the same throughout,' 
i.e. without any differentiation of 
parts. N. wishes to say that the 
entire sum of God's being (however 
little we may be able to understand 
what that sum is) is absolutely one 
and incapable of being distributed 
into parts, and is wholly everywhere. 
19. ' It is only those things, 
which proceed from birth to dissolu- 
tion, which will be resolved into 
diversity of members : those things 
which are not composite are un- 
conscious of such diversities.' Cp. 
Bp Butler's contrast of the 'in- 
divisible ' consciousness of our own 
existence with the ' discerptible ' 
material body (Analogy I i). 


in dissolutionem. sed haec quae concreta non sunt sen- 
tire non possunt. quod enim immortale est, quicquid est, 
illud ipsum unum et simplex et semper est. et ideo quia 
unum est, dissolui non potest; quoniam quicquid est illud 
5 ipsum extra ius dissolutionis positum, legibus est mortis 

VII. Sed illud quod dicit dominus spiritum deum, 7 
putem ego sic locutum Christum de patre, ut adhuc aliquid 
plus intellegi uelit quam spiritum deum. hominibus enim 

10 licet in euangelio suo intellegendi incrementa faciens disputet, 
sed tamen et ipse sic adhuc de deo loquitur hominibus, quo- 
modo possunt adhuc audire uel capere; licet, ut diximus, in 
agnitionem dei religiosa iam facere incrementa nitatur. in- 
uenimus enim scriptum esse quod deus caritas dictus sit; 

15 nee ex hoc tamen dei substantia caritas expressa est: et quod 
lux dictus est ; nee tamen in hoc substantia dei est : sed 
totum hoc de deo dictum est quantum dici potest; ut merito 

i sedhancja. 8 putem a : -oedd. 10 facientibus edd. corr. We. 
13 incrementa... scriptum esse apud Migne excidit. 

VII. But even when God is called substance of God is expressed in the 

a Spirit, this is not an exhaustive term "Charity." Again, because 

definition : any more than when He He is called Light, it does not 

is called Love or Light. Such desig- follow that the substance of God is 

nations are given in order to lead contained in this. The whole is 

men onwards to the recognition of predicated of God only as far as it 

God, whom the heart and mind of applies. So that with good reason 

man cannot grasp. The very ex- again, when He is called a Spirit, it 

pression ''Spirit' 1 is material in its is not an exhaustive definition (lit. 

origin : no less than Fire, which is He is not called the whole of what 

applied to God in the O. T. He is) : the purpose is, that, when 

9. ' For though Christ discourses man's mind progresses as far as 

to men in His Gospel to give them the conception of Spirit, having 

fresh measures (incrementa) of under- itself undergone a spiritual change, 

standing, nevertheless, even He still it may be enabled, through the 

speaks of God to men so far only Spirit, to conclude that God is 

(sic] as they are able to hear or to something even greater.' The latter 

bear it, allowing that, as was said words may embody, indistinctly, the 

before, He strives to make their thought of 2 Cor. iii 15 18. 
religion progress towards the recog- n. quomodo possunt adhuc 

nition of God.' N. refers top. 11 audire edd.] If adhuc is genuine, 

1. ii 'nobis uult religiosam . . con- it takes up the adhuc of the principal 

ferre sapientiam.' 'For we find in sentence: * still, 'i.e. even under N.T. 

Scripture that God is called Charity ; teaching, 
it does not therefore follow that the 14. i Jo. iv 8, i 5. 



et quando spiritus dictus est, non omne id quod est dictus 
sit; sed ut dum mens hominum intellegendo usque ad ipsum 
proficit spiritum, conuersa iam ipsa in spiritu aliud quid 
amplius per spiritum conicere deum esse possit. id enim 
quod est secundum id quod est, nee humano sermone edici, 5 
nee humanis auribus percipi, nee humanis sensibus colligi 
potest. nam si quae praeparauit deus his qui diligunt ilium, 
nee oculus uidit, nee auris audiuit, nee eor hominis aut mens ipsa 
percepit, qualis et quantus est ille ipse qui haec repromittit, ad 
quae intellegenda et mens hominis et natura deficit? denique 10 
si acceperis spiritum substantiam dei, creaturam feceris deum. 
omnis enim spiritus creatura est. erit ergo iam factus deus. 
quomodo et si secundum Moysen ignem acceperis deum, 
creaturam ilium esse dicendo institutum expresseris, non 
institutorem docueris. sed haec figurantur potius quam ita 15 
sunt. nam et in ueteri testamento ideo deus ignis dicitur, 
ut peccatori populo metus incutiatur, dum iudex ostenditur. 
et in nouo testamento spiritus esse profertur, ut refector in 
delictis suis mortuorum per hanc bonitatem collatae credentibus 
indulgentiae comprobetur. 20 

8 VIII. Hunc ergo, omissis haereticorum fabulis atque 

1 8 refertor y: effector et creator coni. Latin, unde refector et creator 
Pa. : nos refector. 

3. conuersa iam ipsa in 
spiritu] v. Introd. 5, p. Iviii. 

4. id enim quod est] refers again 
to Ex. iii 14. 

7. i Cor. ii 9. 

1 1 . omnis . . . spiritus creatura] 
sc. in the literal sense of the word. 
Cp. the ambiguity of John iii 8. 
So Gallandius comments: 'These 
words do not at all refer to the Holy 
Spirit. Novatian is shewing that 
God cannot be designated by man in 
any word which is not far removed 
from His infinite majesty. There- 
fore whether He is called Light or 
Spirit or Fire, none of these ex- 
pressions can properly be applied 
to God. They are figurative, not 

literal.' According to Pamelius 
(who also misunderstands the pas- 
sage), the Pneumatomachi, gratified 
by this and similar passages, pub- 
lished the Treatise under the name 
of St Cyprian. See Introd. t i. 

ib. iam] inferential : ' it follows 

13. ignem] Deut. iv 24. 

14. 'You will have given ex- 
pression to something made, you 
will not have set forth the Maker.' 

18. refector] 'renewer.' 
ib, in delictis . . mortuorum] 
Eph. ii i. 

VIII. This is the God "whom 
the Church worships, attested by 
Nature in all its elements, which 


figmentis, deum noiiit et ueneratur ecclesia; cui testimonium 
reddit tarn inuisibilium quam etiam uisibilium et semper et tota 
natura : quern angeli adorant, astra mirantur, maria bene- 
dicunt, terrae uerentur, inferna quaeque suspiciunt : quern 
5 mens omnis humana sentit, etiam si non exprimit : cuius im- 
perio omnia commouentur, fontes scaturiunt, amnes labuntur, 
fluctus assurgunt, fetus suos cuncta parturiunt, uenti spirare 
coguntur, imbres ueniunt, maria commouentur, fecunditates 
suas cuncta ubique diffundunt. qui peculiarem protoplastis 

10 aeternae uitae mundum quendam paradisum in oriente con- 
stituit : arborem uitae plantauit ; scientiae boni et mali similiter 
alteram arborem collocauit ; mandatum dedit ; sententiam con- 
tra delictum statuit ; Noe iustissimum de diluuii periculis pro 
merito innocentiae fideique seruauit ; Enoch transtulit ; in 

15 amicitiae societatem Abraham allegit ; Isaac protexit ; lacob 
auxit; Moysen ducem populo praefecit; ingemiscentes filios 
Israel e iugo seruitutis eripuit ; legem scripsit ; patrum subo- 
lem in terram repromissionis induxit; prophetas spiritu 
instruxit ; et per hos omnes filium suum Christum repro- 

20 misit ; et quando daturum se spoponderat, misit. per quem 
nobis in notitiam uenire uoluit, et in nos indulgentiae suae 
sinus largos profudit, egenis et abiectis locupletem spiritum 

4 quoque coni. Ja. 

are subject to His power. The peculiar occupation of His first - 

relation of God to His chosen people created a Paradise in the East as a 

culminates in the Mission of Christ, world of eternal life ' ; Gen. ii 8. 

through whom is the knowledge of 'Protoplastis' is a word of Tertul- 

God,andinthemissionof the Apostles. Han's, taken from the Greek of 

God's Providence cares for the greatest LX X . 

and the least; He watches over the n. arborem uitae] Gen. ii 9 

individual and the community. He Vulg. 

sitteth enthroned above the Chendrim. 14. Gen. v 24. 

The world itself is His chariot, with 15. Jas. ii 23; Gen. xxii 12; 

angelic guidance and the curb of xxx 43, xxxii 16. 

natural law. 16. Ex. iii 9, 10. 

4. quaeque] needs no emenda- 20. per quem cet.] N. has in 

tion ; ' things under the earth, every view the Marcionites and other 

one.' Cp. p. 25 1. ii 'minima quae- heretics, who said that the God re- 

que'; p. 26 1. 2 'ad usque singula vealed in Christ was not the God 

quaeque.' of the O. T. or of Nature. 

9. 'Who appointed for the 22. sinus largos profudit] 



conferendo. et quia ultro et largus et bonus est, ne totus hie 
orbis auersus gratiae eius fluminibus aresceret, apostolos institu- 
tores generis nostri in totum orbem mitti per filium suum 
uoluit, ut condicio generis humani agnosceret institutorem, 
et, si sequi maluisset, haberet quern pro deo in suis iam 5 
postulationibus patrem diceret. cuius non prouidentia tan- 
tummodo singillatim per homines cucurrit aut currit, sed 
etiam per ipsas urbes et ciuitates, quarum exitus prophetarum 
uocibus cecinit; immo etiam per ipsum totum orbem, cuius 
propter incredulitatem exitus, plagas, deminutiones poenasque 10 
descripsit. et ne quis non etiam ad minima quaeque dei pu- 
taret istam infatigabilem prouidentiam peruenire, ex duobus, 
in quit dominus, passeribus unus non cadet sine patris uoluntate, 
sed et capilli capitis uestri omnes nwnerati sunt\ cuius etiam 
cura et prouidentia Israelitarum non siuit nee uestes consumi^ 15 
nee uilissima in pedibus calciamenta deteri, sed nee ipsorum 
postremum adulescentium captiua sarabara comburi. nee im- 
merito ; nam si hie omnia complexus est omnia continens 

2 aduersis ms. Wow. unde fortasse legendum auersis. 15 siuit a : 

sinit al. r8 omnia continens a suppleuit. 

'lavished upon us the stores of His 
kindness.' Cp. n. on p. 3 1. 5. 

2. institutores] 'instructors': 

irdvTa rd 26vr)...5i5a- 
Matt, xxviii 19. Teaching 
Rom. xii 7, 5i5d(T/ca\ot 
i Cor. xii 28, Eph. iv u, i Tim. iii 
7) stands very high among the func- 
tions of the Apostolic Ministry : and 
naturally if, as S. T. Coleridge said, 
' the Christian Faith is the perfection 
of human intelligence.' Refer to p. 10 
1. i 'institutionem,' with note, for a 
somewhat different use of the word. 

3. Mk xvi 15 Vulg. 'in mun- 
dum uniuersum. ' 

4. 'That the lowly human 'race 
might know its Instructor' (or 
'Founder'). The expression 'con- 
dicio humana ' or ' generis humani ' 
is frequent, from Cicero onwards, in 
the sense of 'human nature under 
the limitations of frailty.' 

5. si sequi cet.] Henceforth if they 
chose to follow Him, they should 
in prayer address God as their 
Father, instead of calling Him God 
(Matt, vi 9). Thus we read in 
c. xxviii 'quod praemium consecu- 
turus esset, quisquis ilium sequi 
...uoluisset, ut uidere patrem posset.' 
8. exitus] ' overthrow,' e.g. 
Tyre and Babylon. 

17. Matt, x 29, 30 Vg. 'super 
terram sine Patre uestro. ' 

15. Deut. viii 4 Vg. 'uestimen- 
tum tuum...nequaquam uetustate 
defecit et pes tuus non est subtritus.' 

17. postremum] 'lastly,' marks 
the climax: classical 'postremo.' 

ib. sarabara] (Dan. iii 94 Vulg. 
sarabala) a Chaldaean word for 
'hosen' or Persian breeches: LXX 

1 8. omnia continens] Wisd. i 7 : 
cp. p. 7 1. 3. 




(omnia autem et totum ex singulis constant), pertinget conse- 
quenter eius ad usque singula quaeque cura, cuius ad totum, 
quicquid est, peruenit prouidentia. 

Hinc est quod et de super cherubim sedet^ id est, praeest 
5 super operum suorum uarietatem, subiectis throno eius ani- 
malibus prae ceteris principatum tenentibus, cuncta desuper 
crystallo contegente, id est, caelo omnia operiente : quod in 
firmamentum de aquarum fluente materia fuerat deo iubente 
solidatum, ut glacies robusta aquarum terram pridem con- 

10 tegentium diuidens medietatem dorso quodam pondera aquae 
superioris, corroboratis de gelu uiribus, sustineret. nam et 
rotae subiacent, tempora scilicet, quibus omnia semper mundi 
membra uoluuntur talibus pedibus adiectis, quibus non in 
perpetuum stant ista, sed transeunt. sed et per omnes artus 

15 stellata sunt oculis ; dei enim opera peruigili obtutu con- 
templanda sunt. in quorum sinu carbonum medius est 

14 ortus edd. emend. We. 

i. ad usque singula quaeque] 

' His care will penetrate to every 
particular, seeing that His Provi- 
dence extends to the whole, whatever 
it be.' The doctrine of a 'particular 
Providence,' as stated by Novatian, 
is singularly free (as far as it goes) 
from anything of an arbitrary or in- 
termittent character. It contemplates 
man in communities, nof in isolation 
('per urbes et civitates'); there is a 
solidarity of created things, and the 
writer dwells on God's immanence 
rather than on His transcendence. 
In the figurative language of pro- 
phecy, He is said to be throned 
above the Cherubim, and at the 
same time He rides upon the chariot 
of rolling years and cosmic move- 
ments subject to the reign of law, 
and instinct with a spiritual life, 
which is spoken of under the image 
of fire. 

4. desuper cherubim] Ps. Ixxix 
i (Ixxx i) 'qui sedes super cheru- 
bim': Ezek. i 26, and below, Ezek. 
i 22. The whole of the following 

passage is an interpretation of the 
vision in Ezek. i. Cf. Dr Sanday's 
words : ' There is a group of 
natural phenomena that in Hebrew 
literature is especially associated 
with God's presence... phenomena 
of earthquake and storm. ..the bril- 
liance of lightning ... the rushing 
wind... all expressive of irresisti- 
ble power.... The primitive Hebrew 
when he saw these things asso- 
ciated directly with them the pre- 
sence of God.' Life of Christ in 
Recent Research p. 10 f. 

8. As all modern commentators 
explain, the Hebrew word in Gen. 
i 6 denotes 'expanse' rather than 
'firmament.' Cp. Ezek. i22 (Vulg.) ; 
and n. on 'solidamentum,' c. i. 

12. rotae subiacent cet.] Ezek. 
x 9, i 19. 

15. stellata sunt oculis] sc. 
'animalia' (the cherubim) or 'Dei 
opera': see Ezek. x 12 and i 18 
Vg. ' totum corpus oculis plenum in 
circuitu ipsarum': also Apoc. iv 6. 

1 6. 'And in their bosom is fire 



ignis; siue quoniam ad igneum diem iudicii mundus iste 
festinat; siue quoniam omnia opera dei ignea, nee sunt 
tenebrosa, sed uigent; siue etiam, ne, quia ex terrenis ista 
fuerant orta principiis, naturaliter de originis suae rigore tor- 
perent, addita est omnibus interioris spiritus calida natura, 5 
quae frigidis concreta corporibus ad usuram uitae aequalia 
omnibus libramenta ministraret. hie est igitur currus, secun- 
dum Dauid, dei. currus enim, inquit, dei decies milies multi- 
plicatus, id est, innumerus, infinitus, immensus. sub iugo 
enim naturalis legis omnibus datae alia quasi frenis reuocata 10 
retrahuntur, alia quasi effusis habenis excitata impelluntur. 
mundum enim istum currum dei cum omnibus et ipsi angeli 
ducunt et astra; quorum uarios licet meatus, certis tamen 
legibus uinctos, inspicimus ad metas defmiti sibi temporis 
ducere; ut merito nobis quoque cum apostolo et artificem 15 

3 lucent coni. Latin. : luce uigent We. 7 ministraret coni. We. 

monstraret edd. 9 numerus infinitus et immensus G. 

of glowing coals in the midst, either 
because ' etc. The passage regards 
fire as a destructive or penal agency ; 
as a vital principle; as a spiritual 
principle. See Ezek. i 13, x 7. No 
emendation of ' uigent ' is wanted : 
it is a favourite word of Novatian, 
v. Introd. p. xix, n. 5. 

i. ad igneum diem] i Pet. iii 

5. spiritus] Ezek. i 21. 

6. quae frigidis cet.] ' which 
mingling with chill bodies might 
supply all of them with propor- 
tionate energies for the exercise of 
life.' Libramenta seems to mean 
the momentum which each receives 
in the way of spiritual force, which 
vitalises brute matter. 

8. Ps. Ixvii 18 (Ixviii 17) 'currus 
Dei decem milibus multiplex.' In 
A.V. and R.V. the singular is 
treated as collective and referred 
to the angelic host (2 K. vi 17), 
Here it is regarded as a proper 

1 2. ' For the Angels on their part 
guide that chariot of His with all 
His creatures, the world and the 
stars; and the revolutions of these, 
complex as they are, yet bound by 
laws which cannot be broken, we 
see them conduct to the goal of a 
time prescribed to them.' Probably 
angelos is subject of ducere, recalling 
the preceding words angeli ducunt. 
Et ipsi (KO.I afoot) means 'as well as 
the law of nature. ' In this pictur- 
esque interpretation of O.T. imagery, 
the charioteer is the Angelic host, 
the yoke and reins are the laws of 
nature imposed by the will of God, 
who rides on the chariot of the 
Universe and all its parts, sentient 
or inanimate. ' Lex naturalis ' is 
probably Stoic language. The con- 
nexion of Angels with the forces of 
nature is taught in such passages as 
Hebr. i 7, Ps. ciii (civ) 4 where 
Trveti/Aara means 'winds' (v. Bp 
Westcott ad Zoc.}. 




et opera mirantibus exclamare iam libeat: o altitude diuitia- 
rum sapientiae et scientiae dei^ quam inscrutabilia indicia eius 
et inuestigabiles uiae eius ! et reliqua. 

IX. Eadem regula ueritatis docet nos credere post patrem 9 
5 etiam in filium del, Christum lesum, dominum deum nos- 
trum, sed dei filium; huius dei qui et unus et solus est, 
conditor scilicet rerum omnium, ut iam et superius expressum 
est. hunc enim lesum Christum, iterum dicam huius dei 
filium, et in ueteri testamento legimus esse repromissum et 

10 in nouo testamento animaduertimus exhibitum, omnium 
sacramentorum umbras et figuras de praesentia corporatae 
ueritatis implentem. hunc enim Abrahae filium, hunc Dauid, 
non minus et uetera praedicta et euangelia testantur. hunc 
ipsa Genesis, cum dicit : tibi dabo et semini tuo ; hunc 

15 quando luctatum ostendit hominem cum lacob; hunc, 

13 hunc non minus edd. : fort, legendum hunc non minus dei. 

i. Rom. xi 33 where Vulg. reads 

IX. ' 1 believe also in the Son of 
God, Christ Jesus, our Lord God, but 
the Son of God? He was promised 
in the Old Testament and is revealed 
in the New Testament incorporating 
what was shadow and mystery. 
The Promise traced through Moses, 
the Prophets, and the Psalms. 

5. 'etiam in filium dei, Chris- 
tum lesum, dominum deum nos- 
trum'] Cp. note on ch. i, where 
the First Article of the Baptismal 
Creed is given. The close similar- 
ity to the Apostles' Creed of the 
West is evident, especially in the 
addition of the words 'Dominum 
nostrum.' This is not to be found in 
Tertullian's Creeds (as given by 
Hahn Symbole, pp. i, 3); but Ire- 
naeus (contr. Haer. iv 6a) has rbv 
Ktfptoi' i)fji.&v (ib.). 

6. sed] N. wishes to guard the 
unity of the Godhead ( ' monarchia ') . 

ib. huius dei] controverting Mar- 

cion's view that Christ came from 
'the good God' Who is distinct 
from the Demiurge or Creator. 
May not the word unus have formed 
part of Novatian's Creed, having 
been preserved here, though omitted 
in c. i init. or perhaps purposely 
dropped because of its unfamiliarity 
to later Roman copyists? It answers 
to unicus in Tertullian's creed (de 
Virg. Vel. i, adu. Prax. i). See 
Introd. i iii, p. xxvi. 

10. 'Fulfilling the shadows and 
figures of all types and prophecies 
in the realised embodiment of the 
truth.' The meaning of sacrament a 
is not to be restricted: it denotes 
'mysteries.' So de Cib. lud. v 
'Christus...omnia quae sacramen- 
torum nebulis antiquitas texerat 
patefaciens.' Cp. p. 5 1. 8 n. 

12. 'To Him, the Son of Abraham 
and Son of David, alike the ancient 
prophecies and the Gospels bear 
witness. ' We must take non minus 
as equivalent to ' pariter.' 

14. Gen. xvii 8. 

15. Gen. xxxii 24. 



quando dicit : non deficiet princeps de luda, neque dux de 
femoribus eius, donee ueniat is cui repromissum est, et ipse erit 
exspectatio gentium, hunc Moyses, cum dicit : prouide alium 
quern mittas ; hunc idem, quando testatur, prophetam uobis, 
dicendo, suscitabit deus ex fratribtts uestris : eum quasi me 5 
audite ; hunc, quando dicit : uidebitis uitam uestram penden- 
tem node ac die, et non credetis et. hunc Isaias : prodiet uirga 
de radice Jesse, et flos de radice ems ascendet ; hunc eundem, 
quando dicit : ecce uirgo concipiet et pariet filium ; hunc, 
quando sanitates ab eo futuras collocat dicens: tune aperientur 10 
oculi caecorum, et aures surdorum audient: tune saliet claudus ut 
ceruus, et diserta erit lingua mutorum ; hunc, quando patientiae 
uirtutes expromit dicens : non audietur in plateis uox eius ; 
harundinem quassatam non conteret, et linum fumigans non 
exstinguet ; hunc, quando eius euangelia descripsit : et dis- 15 
ponam uobis testamentum aeternum, sancta Dauidfidelia ; hunc, 

II clodus a. 

i. Gen. xlix. 10 Vg. 'non 
auferetur sceptrum de luda et dux 
de femore eius, donee ueniat qui 
mittendus est' : LXX otf/c ^-"* "''" 


3. Exod. iv 13 Vg. ' mitte 
quern missurus es.' LXX 7r/>oxV ) ' (rcu 
6wctyu,e.voj> aXXoy ov aTrooreXets. 

4. Deut. xviii 15 'prophetam 
de gente tua et de fratribus tuis sicut 
me suscitabit tibi dominus deus tuus : 
ipsum audies.' 

6. uidebitis uitam uestram cet.] 
Deut. xxviii 66 Vg. 'et erit uita tua 
quasi pendens ante te. timebis 
nocte et die, et non credes uitae 
tuae.' The early fathers often give 
this passage a Messianic reference. 
Thus Iren. adu. Haer. iv 20. 2 
(Harvey) 'ostenditur pendens in 
ligno et non credent ei. ait enim 
" et erit uita tua pendens ante oculos 
tuos et non credes uitae tuae" ': ib. 
v 1 8. 2, with the comment 'qui 
igitur non receperunt ilium non 
acceperunt uitam.' Add the newly 
discovered cts "JUvdcii-w of Irenaeus 

79 ; Tertull. adu. lud. xi ; Cypr. 
Testim. ii 20. 

7. Is. xi i Vg. 'et egredietur 
uirga de radice lesse.' 

9. Is. vii 14. 

10. sanitates... collocat] 'brings 
forward the acts of healing that 
were to be performed by Him.' Cp. 
de Sped, ii 'cum de stadio sumit 
exempla, coronae quoque collocat 

ib. Is. xxxv 5, 6: for 'audient, 
diserta 'Vulg. has 'patebunt,aperta'; 


12. patientiae uirtutes] 'mira- 
cles of endurance.' 

13. Is. xlii 2, 3: for 'in plateis,' 
'harundinem' Vulg. has 'foris, ca- 
lamum'; LXX w, Kd\a/j.ov. 

15. euangelia descripsit] 'the 
Gospels' of the New Testament. 
A fanciful interpretation of Isaiah 
Iv 3, in which God's ' covenant' with 
Israel is described, as in Jerem. xxxi 


1 6. sancta Dauid fidelia] 'the 

lovingkindnesses of David the un- 


quando gentes in ipsum credituras prophetat : ecce posui eum 
in principium et praecipientem gentibus. gentes quae te non 
nouerunt inuocabunt te, et populi qui te nesciunt ad te confugient ; 
hunc eundem, quando ad passionem eius exclamat dicens : 
5 sicut ouis ad occisionem ductus est, et sicut agnus coram tondente 
se sine uoce, sic non aperuit os suum in humilitate \ hunc 
quando flagrorum eius ictus plagasque descripsit : liuore eius 
nos sanati sumus; aut humilitatem : et uidimus eum, et non erat 
ei species neque honor, homo in plaga et sciensferre infirmitatem ; 

10 aut quod populus non erat crediturus : tota die expandi manus 
meas ad populum non credentem ; aut quod resurrecturus a 
mortuis : et erit in ilia die radix lesse, et qui surget imperare 
gentibus, in eum gentes sperabunt, et erit requies eius honor ; aut 
cum tempus resurrectionis : quasi diluculo paratum inueniemus 

1 5 eum ; aut quod sessurus ad dextram patris : dixit dominus 
domino meo : sede ad dexteram meam, donee ponam inimicos 
tuos scabellum pedum tuorum ; aut cum possessor omnium 
collocatur : postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes hereditatem tuam, 
et possessionem tuam terminos terrae ; aut quod iudex omnium 

20 ostenditur : deus iudicium tuum regi da, et iustitiam tuam filio 

failing ones,' as Dr Cheyne translates Here again N. gives a text which 

the Hebrew (Is. Iv 3). The Vulg. is resembles LXX more than Hebr. or 

quite different, reading ' misericor- Vulg. but does not translate it exactly, 
dias Dauid fi deles.' LXX rd 6Vta lo. Is. Ixv 2. 

AaueJS ra Trtord. Refer to n. on 13. requies eius] Is. xi. 10 77 

p. 10 1. 6. dpaTraucris atfrou LXX: 'sepulcrum 

i. Is. Iv 4, 5 (Vulg.) 'ecce eius' Vulg. N. is drawn by the 

testem populis dedi eum, ducem ac ' surget ' to see a prophecy of the 

praeceptorem gentibus : eccegentem Resurrection. 

quam nesciebas uocabis, et gentes 14. Hos. vi 3. Vulg. * quasi dilu- 

quae te non cognouerunt ad te cur- culum praeparatus est egressus eius' 

rent.' Again the text is nearer to 'his going forth is as sure as the 

LXX than Vulg. morning' R.V. But LXX usopOpov 

6. in humilitate] ,the words ^TOI^OV evp^ffofji-ev adr6v. Note that 
belong really to the next verse here the writer's text diverges even 
(Is. liii 8) : where Cheyne translates from LXX. N. appears to have 
* through oppression. ' Vulg. has ' de forgotten that he began with ' hunc 
angustia ' : LXX v rrj Taireu>6<rei. Isaias/ and has mentioned no fresh 

7. Is. liii 5. name. 

9. homo in plaga cet.] Is. liii 3 15. Ps. cix (ex) i, 2. 

LXX &v0p<i)7ros Iv irXrjyfj (Sv Kal et'Swj 18. collocatur] 'is represented ' : 

<f>epeiv fj.a\a.Klav, Vulg. 'uirum do- cf. p. 29 1. 10 supra. Ps. ii 8. 

lorum et scientem infirmitatem/ 20. Ps. Ixxi (Ixxii) i. 

IX, X] 


regis. nee hoc in loco plura persequar, quae annuntiata de 
Christo omnibus haereticis sed et ipsis ueritatem tenentibus 
magis nota sunt. 

10 X. Sed illud admoneo, non alterum in euangelio Christum 
exspectandum fuisse, quam hunc a creatore ueteris testament! 5 
litteris ante promissum ; maxime cum et quae de ipso praedicta 
sunt impleta sint, et quae impleta sunt ante praedicta sint. ut 
merito haereticorum istorum testament! ueteris auctoritatem 
respuentium nescio cui commenticio et ex fabulis anilibus ficto 
Christo atque fucato possim uere et constanter dicere : "quis 10 
es ? unde es ? a quo missus es ? quare nunc uenire uoluisti ? 

2. 'To all heretics, and even 
more so to those who hold the 
truth.' The arrangement of Scrip- 
tural proofs from ' the law of Moses, 
the prophets, and the psalms' re- 
minds us of Luke xxiv 44. 

X. The heretics posit an ima- 
ginary Christ, of whom the O.T. 
knows nothing. We cannot under- 
stand how such a Christ cotild have 
come: he would have stood in no 
intelligible relation to man and the 
universe. The cult of such a Christ 
would be blasphemy against the 
Father ; nor could he give man 
salvation from sin or the hope of 
resurrection. There is no witness 
in the Law and Prophets to such 
a Christ. Why did he wear the 
semblance if he hated the reality of 
a body? If he was a phantom, all 
he did was phantasm too ; if he 
wore only a 'sidereal body,' he is 
not the Saviour of the human body. 
But He stibmitted to the law of 
death, and exhibited in His own 
Body the law of resurrection. Not 
the substance but the guilt of the 
flesh is excluded from the Kingdom. 

7. 'So that in the face of those 
heretics who disdain the authority 
of the Old Testament, I might with 
justice address their imaginary 
Christ, the specious creation of old 
wives' fables, in words of uncom- 
promising truth.' 'Merito' denotes 

as in pp. 16 1. 6, 49 1. 19 logical ne- 
cessity or the requirements of consist- 
ent statement. ' Haereticorum ' to 
be taken with ' Christo,' as p. 33 1. 5 
'eum haereticorum Christum.' The 
heretics whom this chapter refutes 
are the Docetae (especially Marcion 
and his follower Apelles), and the 
Gnostics. Marcion drew a sharp 
contrast between the Old and New 
Testaments, rejecting the former in 
a rationalistic spirit (cp. 1. 8 ' testa- 
menti ueteris auctoritatem respuen- 
tium'). The Gnostics did not deny 
but allegorised the O.T. 

9. commenticio cet.] Both Doce- 
tae and Gnostics distinguished the 
Heavenly Christ from the man 
Jesus; they 'evaded the Incarnation 
because of its real contact with 
matter.' Of Marcion Tertullian says 
(de Carne Christi i) 'qui carnem 
Christi putatiuam introduxit, aeque 
potuit natiuitatem quoque phantasma 
confingere.' The Syrian Gnostics 
also taught that the whole visible 
appearance of Christ was a phantom, 
and denied His birth. (Consult 
R. L. Ottley , Doctrine of the Incar- 
nation i 1 80, 181: Harnack D. G? 
i 247 n. 263 ; Tixeront Hist, des Dog- 
mes pp. 196, 203.) Cp. i Tim. iv 7. 

1 1 . quare nunc uenire uoluisti ?] 
'why at this particular time?' a 
reference to the suddenness of the 
descent of the heavenly Christ ac- 


quare tails? uel qua uenire potuisti? uel quare non ad tuos 
abisti, nisi quod probasti tuos non habere, dum ad alienos 
uenis ? quid tibi cum mundo creatoris ? quid tibi cum homine 
conditoris? quid tibi cum figmento corporis, cui eripis spem 
5 resurrectionis ? quid ad alienum uenis famulum, alienum solli- 
citare desideras filium? quid me a domino eripere conaris? 
quid me in patrem blasphemare atque impium esse compellis ? 
aut quid sum a te in resurrectione consecuturus, qui me ipsum 
non recipio, dum corpus amitto ? si saluare uis, fecisses 

10 hominem cui salutem dares, si a delicto eripere cupis, ante 
mihi ne delinquerem contulisses. quod autem tecum suffra- 
gium circumfers legis? quod habes testimonium propheticae 
uocis ? aut quid mihi possum de te solidum repromittere, cum 
te uideam in phantasmate et non in soliditate uenisse ? quid 

15 ergo tibi cum figura corporis, si corpus odisti ? immo reuinceris 
corporis quod odisti circumferre substantiam, cuius suscipere 
uoluisti etiam figuram : odisse enim debueras corporis imita- 
tionem, si oderas ueritatem. quoniam si alter es, aliter uenire 

cording to Marcion: cp. Tertull. to give salvation.' 'Fecisses,' 'past 

adu. Marc, iv n 'subito Christus, jussive' subjunctive, as sometimes 

subito et loannes : sic sunt omnia in Cicero: so in next sentence, 'you 

apud Marcionem. ' should have bestowed on me in 

1. qua uenire potuisti] 'by advance an immunity against sin- 
what way?' ning.' A Docetic Christ could not 

2. nisi quod probasti] ' Nisi have either suffered for our sins, or 
quod ' and ' nisi quoniam,' like the risen in the flesh for the promise of 
classical 'nisi forte,' append the true our immortality. 

alternative: 'but the real truth is n. suflragium] = suffragatio- 

that etc.' nem, 'support.' 

3. cum homine c.] 'with man, 15. flgura] 'the outward form.' 
the Maker's work: with a makebe- St Paul's ffx^/^o. u>s &v6pwiros (Phil, ii 
lieve body ' :, v. infra p. 33 11. 10 15. 7, where however the iJ-optyy SotfXov 

5. alienum famulum] Cp. ' alie- is also attributed to Christ), 
num seruum' Rom. xiv 4. ib. reuinceris] 'art proved': if 

8. qui me ipsum non recipio] the true Christ hated the reality of a 
' in that I do not recover myself (my body, He would have hated even 
personal identity) in losing my body.' its semblance. The argument turns 
The hope of a bodily resurrection is on His being Himself the Truth, 
clearly bound up with the bodily Jackson quotes Tertull. adu. Marc. 
Resurrection of the Lord in the iii 10 'cur enim non in aliqua alia 
mind of all primitive Christians. digniore substantia uenit, et in 

9. ' If you wish to save, you primis sua, ne et indigna et aliena 
ought to have made a man to whom uideretur eguisse?' 


debueras, ne dicereris films creatoris, si uel imaginem habuis- 
ses carnis et corporis. certe si oderas natiuitatem, quia 
creatoris oderas nuptiarum coniunctionem, recusare debueras 
etiam imitationem hominis, qui per nuptias nascitur creatoris." 
neque igitur eum haereticorum agnoscimus Christum, qui in 5 
imagine (ut dicitur) fuit et non in ueritate : nihil enim uerum 
eorum quae gessit fecerit, si ipse phantasma et non ueritas fuit : 
neque eum, qui nihil in se nostri corporis gessit, dum ex Maria 
nihil accepit, ne non nobis uenerit, dum non in nostra sub- 
stantia uisus apparuit : neque ilium, qui aetheream siue si- 10 
deream, ut alii uoluerunt haeretici, induit carnem ; nullam in 
illo nostro intellegamus salutem, si non etiam nostri cor- 
poris cognoscamus soliditatem: nee ullum omnino alterum, 
qui quoduis aliud ex figmento haereticorum gesserit corpus 
fabularium. omnes enim istos et natiuitas domini et mors 15 
ipsa confutat. nam et uerbum, inquit loannes, caro factum est, 
et habitauit in nobis \ ut merito corpus nostrum in illo fuerit, 
quoniam quidem nostram carnem sermo suscepit. et sanguis 

9 ne non] neque Latin. : neque enim Ja. 1 1 induit] uoluit 

edd. ne ullam mendose Mign. 12 nostram y We. : -ae Ja. 

1 5 fabularum 7 Pa : fabularium coni. F. Jun. 

3. creatoris ... nuptiarum con- should see no salvation even in our 

iunctionem] 'the Creator's ordin- own Christ, if we did not recognise 

ance of marriage.' also [in Him] the solid substance 

8. 'And we do not recognise of our own body.' 
such a Christ as bore within Himself ib. induit] The editors have 

nothing of our body, having received 'uoluit,' which seems impossible 

nothing from Mary, for fear lest He after ' uoluerunt,' as Fr. Junius felt 

may not have come to us at all, in when he explained it ' a uoluendo 

that He did not present Himself in non a uolendo.' 
our own substance when He ap- 14. corpus fabularium] <rcD/ua 

peared.' /xutftDSes : see crit. note. For the 

n. alii haeretici] e.g. the Syrian form cp. ' singularius, ollarius.' 
Gnostics Satornilus and others. Am- 16. uerbum... sermo] "As early 

mundsen (Novatianus p. 37) sup- as the second century Sermo and 

poses that the heretic referred to is Verbum were rival translations of 

Apelles, who, according to Tertull. the Greek term Ao7oj. Tertullian 

de Cam. vi 8, attributed a sidereal gives both, but seems himself to 

bodytoChrist. SeeHauck's Realenc. prefer 'Ratio.' ' Sermo ' first became 

xii p. 274, also Tertull. de Praescr. unusual, and finally was disallowed 

li. in the Latin Church," Plummer on 

ib. nullam in illo cet.] 'We St John i i. On the Logos-Doc - 

F. N. * 




idcirco de manibus ac pedibus atque ipso latere demanauit, ut 
nostri censors corporis probaretur, dum occasus nostri legibus 
moritur. qui dum in eadem substantia corporis, in qua mori- 
tur, resuscitatus ipsius corporis uulneribus comprobatur, etiam 
5 resurrectionis nostrae leges in sua carne monstrauit, qui corpus, 
quod ex nobis habuit, in sua resurrectione restituit. lex enim 
resurrectionis ponitur, dum Christus ad exemplum ceterorum 
in substantia corporis suscitatur. quoniam, cum caro et sanguis 
non obtinere regnum del scribitur, non carnis substantia damna- 
10 ta est, quae diuinis manibus, ne periret, exstructa est; sed sola 
carnis culpa merito reprehensa est, quae uoluntaria hominis 
temeritate contra legis diuinae iura grassata est. qua in 
baptismate et in mortis dissolutione sublata caro ad salutem 

12 qua] quia edd. : cf. p. 64 1. 14. 

trine v. Sanday Criticism of Fourth 
Gospel Lect. vi and esp. also p. 244 
'In the writers of the next gene- 
ration to Ignatius e.g. in Justin 
the conception of the Logos is in- 
fected by Greek philosophy, giving 
to it more or less the sense of reason, 
whereas in Ignatius the leading 
idea is, as we have seen it to be 
in St John, that of revelation': and 
again (ib. 193) 'the Divine Word, 
Divine utterance, creative, ener- 
gizing, revealing.' In the O.T. the 
Word of the Lord denotes the word 
spoken in power, and that only. Cf. 
Ps. xxxii (xxxiii) 6, cvi (cvii) 20, 
Is. xl 8 : and Prof. Inge, Personal 
Idealism ii. 

2. dum occasus nostri legibus 
moritur] 'in dying under the laws 
of our (human) dissolution' : a quasi- 
causal use of ' dum ' which is frequent 
in N. Here, as in 'resurrectionis 
nostrae leges,' we must not think of 
the modern use of 'law' as simply 
denoting an 'invariable sequence or 
concomitance,' nor of the Pauline 
'law of sin and death.' The writer 
merely means the conditions (es- 
pecially corporeal) of death. 

8. caro et s. cet.] i Cor. xv 50, 
where Vg. has ' possidere.' 

9. non carnis substantia dam- 
nata est] In view of the Gnostic 
disparagement of matter, N. explains 
that the Bible pronounces no con- 
demnation of ' flesh ' in the natural 
sense of the word; it is only the 
sinfulness of the flesh ('sola carnis 
culpa ') which is condemned and 
put away ( ' sublata ' : compare Rom. 
xi. 6 ' ut destruatur corpus peccati '). 
It is by the process begun in baptism 
and completed by the beneficent 
action of death that the flesh is 
purified and is restored to the state 
of innocence. 

12. qua in baptismate cet.] The 
simple correction of ' quia' to 'qua' 
relieves us of the necessity of under- 
standing 'caro' in a double sense, 
as ' taken away ' in baptism and 
death in order to ' return to salva- 

13. ad salutem reuertitur] the 
positive result ofBaptism is described 
in Tertull. de Bapt. v 'ita restituetur 
homo Deo ad similitudinem eius qui 
retro ad imaginem Dei fuerat.' 

X, XI] 



reuertitur, dum ad statum innocentiae, deposita criminis mor- 
talitate, reuocatur. 

11 XI. Verum ne ex hoc quod dominum nostrum lesum 
Christum del creatoris filium in substantia ueri corporis 
exhibitum asserimus, aliis haereticis hoc in loco hominem 5 
tantum et solum defendentibus, atque ideo hominem ilium 
nudum et solitarium probare cupientibus, aut manus dedisse 
aut loquendi materiam commodasse uideamur, non sic de sub- 
stantia corporis ipsius exprimimus, ut solum et tantum hominem 
ilium esse dicamus; sed ut diuinitate sermonis in ipsa con- 10 
cretione permixta etiam deum ilium secundum scripturas esse 
teneamus. est enim periculum grande, saluatorem generis 
humani, totius dominum et principem mundi, cui a suo patre 
omnia tradita sunt et cuncta concessa, per quem instituta sunt 

9 solum tantum edd.: et ins. Ja. 

i. criminis mortalitate] 'the 
death of sin.' 

XL But we do not dwell on the 
Manhood to the exclusion of the God- 
head. As Christ is Very Man and 
not only God, so He is Very God and 
not mere man. He is Lord of the 
universe, to whom all things have 
been committed by the Father, and 
before whom nothing is except the 
Father. To deny His Godhead is to 
dishonottr the Father. 

The heretics only see one side of the 
truth, the human infirmities, not the 
Divine powers. On the one side are 
His sufferings, on the other His 
mighty ^vorks. If the latter do not 
prove His Godhead, no more can the 
former prove His Manhood. The 
proof of both is found in Scripture. 

He who is of God is God, He who 
is of man is man. The two N attires 
in the Person of Christ are contrasted 
at some length. His limitations 
prove htiman weakness', His majestic 
attributes, Divine power. There is a 
danger of oversetting the rule of Faith 
by a one-sided assent to correlative 

5. aliis haereticis] The refer- 
ence is to the ' Adoptianists,' who 
held that in Christ is the virtue 
(dijvafjus) but not the essence (ovffia) 
of the Godhead. See Introd. 3 
p. xxx. 

ib. hoc in loco] 'on this topic,' 
i.e. 'in this connexion.' 

7. nudum et solitarium] merely 
repeats the idea of bare manhood. 
Manus dedisse etc. 'to have capitu- 
lated to them or allowed them the 
foundation of an argument.' 

10. 'As the Divinity of the 
Word enters into the union of the 
Natures. ' For ' concretio ' cp. p. r 8. 7 
' sine ulla corporea concretione, ' ' ad- 
mixture,' p. 27. 5 'spiritus calida 
natura frigidis concreta corporibus,' 
'united' or 'amalgamated with': 
Cic. N. D. i 71 says of Epicurus 
'in natura deorum...indiuiduorum 
corporum concretionem fugit,' 'an 
aggregation of indivisible particles.' 
Thus the root idea is of two or 
more elements growing into one. 
Later theologians preferred the terms 
unitio, commixtio, (Tiry/c/occcrts, /utts. 
See Petavius de Incarn. iii 2. 




uniuersa, creata sunt tota, digesta sunt cuncta, aeuorum om- 
nium et temporum regem, angelorum omnium principem, 
ante quern nihil praeter patrem, hominem tantummodo dicere 
et auctoritatem illi diuinam in his abnegare. haec enim 
5 contumelia haereticorum ad ipsum quoque deum patrem 
redundabit, si deus pater filium deum generare non potuit. 
sed enim ueritati caecitas haereticorum nulla praescribet, 
nee quoniam in Christo aliquid tenent, aliquid non tenent, 
alterum uident, alterum non uident, eripietur nobis illud quod 

10 non uident, per illud quod uident. quasi hominis enim in 
illo fragilitates considerant, quasi dei uirtutes non compu- 
tant ; infirmitates carnis recolunt, potestates diuinitatis ex- 
cludunt. quando si probatio haec ex infirmitatibus Christi 
illuc proficit, ut homo ex infirmitatibus comprobetur, probatio 

15 diuinitatis in illo collecta ex uirtutibus illuc proficiet, ut etiam 
deus ex operibus asseratur. si enim passiones ostendunt in 
illo humanam fragilitatem, cur opera non asserant in illo 
diuinam potestatem ? ne, si hoc non profecerit ut deus ex 
uirtutibus asseratur, nee passiones proficiant ut etiam homo 

i. tota] In Latin of this date 
the plural of totus is on its way to 
become the tutti todos and tous of 
the Romance languages. See Ronsch 
Itala u. Vtilgata p. 338. 

ib. aeuorum ... regem] Cp. 
i Tim. i. 17, Rev. xv 3. 

3. ante quern] The writer pro- 
bably refers to His origination from 
the Father before all time. On 
this question cp. xxxi, p. 117 11. 2 sq. 
' semper autem . . . originem nescit, ' 
and notes on that chapter. 

4. in Ms] refers to the 'omnia' 
of p. 35. 14. 

7. praescribet] 'shall lay down 
the law for, 5 as below, p. 37. 14. It 
may, however, be taken in the special 
sense 'enter a preliminary objection,' 
as in Tertullian's 'praescriptio hae- 
reticorum': then translate 'shall set 
limits to.' 

10. quasi hominis... quasi dei] 
each practically one word, ' the 

frailties of a man,' 'the powers of 
a God.' 

12. recolunt] 'reflect upon,' 
' recollect ' : excludunt, sc. ' mente 

14. illuc proficit ut... compro- 
betur] 'avails to prove Him.' 

1 8. ne si...] lit. 'for fear lest': 
i.e. 'for otherwise neither will His 
sufferings avail' etc. In other 
words : you may as reasonably 
question the true Humanity as the 
true Divinity: each rests on the 
same sort of evidence, the 'opera' 
and the 'passiones' of the historical 
Christ. For (p. 37. i) 'whatever 
principle is established in the case of 
either thesis, will be found to have 
been accepted in the other.' In the 
Scripture account the Godhead is 
as unmistakable as the Manhood. 
It is significant that the writer finds 
it just as hard to doubt the one 
as to doubt the other. 




ex ipsis esse monstretur. quaecumque enim lex in alterutro fuerit 
posita, in altero inuenietur esse suscepta. periculum enim 
erit nee hominem ilium ex passionibus ostendi, si non potuerit 
etiam deus ex uirtutibus approbari. non est ergo in imam 
partem inclinandum et ab alia parte fugiendum, quoniam nee 5 
tenebit perfectam ueritatem quisquis aliquam ueritatis exclu- 
serit portionem. tarn enim scriptura etiam deum annuntiat 
Christum, quam etiam hominem ipsum annuntiat deum ; tarn 
hominem descripsit lesum Christum, quam etiam deum quo- 
que descripsit Christum dominum. quoniam nee dei tantum 10 
ilium filium esse proponit, sed et hominis ; nee hominis tantum 
dicit, sed et dei referre consueuit : ut dum ex utroque est, 
utrumque sit ; ne si alterum tantum sit, alterum esse non possit. 
ut enim praescripsit ipsa natura hominem credendum esse, qui 
ex homine sit, ita eadem natura praescribit et deum credendum 1 5 
esse, qui ex deo sit : ne si non et deus fuerit, cum ex deo sit, 
iam nee homo sit, licet ex homine fuerit, et sic in alterutro 
utrumque periclitetur, dum alterum altero fidem perdidisse 
conuincitur. qui legunt ergo hominis filium hominem Chris- 
tum lesum, legant hunc eundem et deum et dei filium 20 

i ex ipsis a : ab i. al. 2 in altero om. Migne. suspecta y, a/. : 

corr. We. 17 sic G : om. y. 

12. sed et dei referre con- 
sueuit] ' but is also wont to call 
Him the Son of God.' 

16. qui ex deo sit] See Westcott 
on John viii 42. The expression 
was used by Ign. Eph. vii 2 /ecu e/c 
Mopfas Kal e/c 0eoD; by Justin Dial. 

by Hippolytus c. Noel, xi icavra. 
Tolvvv 8C O.VTOV, avrbs 5e iwvos K TOV 
Trar/w's ; and by Tertullian (e.g. 
ApoL 21 'ex deo prolatum didici- 
mus ' ; adu. Prax. 1 1 ' filius non 
erit alius quam qui ex ipso prodiit, 
sermo autem prodiit ex ipso'). It 
was taken up by the Fathers of 
Nicaea, ycvvrjdtvTa K TOV iraTpbs 
jj-ovoyevT), TOVTCVTIV K rijs ovffias TOV 
TTCIT/XJS, dew CK 6eov. The Creed of 

the Arians, called that of Sirmium, 
has the formula yeyevvrj^voy (JLOVO- 
yevTj /j.6vov CK fj.6vov ftirb TOV Ka.Tp6s, 
debv K 0eov, OIMOI.OV TI$ yevfricravn 
avTbv iraTpl KO.TOL ras ypatfids (Hahn r 
Symb. p. 124): where one observes 
that the term 0. K Qeov is evacuated 
of its full meaning by its context. 

ib. ne si non et deus] 'other- 
wise, if He should be found not to 
be God, when He is of God, it 
follows He is not man either, al- 
though He be of man, and thus in 
either nature both are at stake, 
the one being proved to have been 
discredited by [the overthrow of] 
the other.' 

19. hominem Cnr. lesum] i Tim. 


nuncupatum. nam quo modo est, qua homo, ex Abraham, 
sic est etiam, qua deus, ante ipsum Abraham, et quo modo, 
qua homo, filius Dauid, ita dominus Dauid, qua deus, nuncu- 
patus est. et quo modo, qua homo, sub lege factus est, ita, 
5 qua deus, sabbati dominus expressus est. et quo modo, qua 
homo, sententiam patitur, sic omne, qua deus, de uiuis et 
mortuis iudicium habere reperitur. et quo modo post mundum, 
qua homo, nascitur, sic ante mundum, qua deus, fuisse 
perhibetur. et quo modo ex semine Dauid, qua homo, geni- 

i o tus est, sic item per ipsum, qua deum, mundus dicitur institutus. 
et quo modo, qua homo, post multos, sic, qua deus, ante 
omnes ; et quo modo ceteris, qua homo, inferior, sic omnibus, 
qua deus, maior. et quo modo in caelum, qua homo, ascen- 
dit, sic inde, qua deus, ante descendit; et quo modo ad 

\$patrem, qua homo, uadit, sic oboediens patri, qua filius, inde 
descensurus est. ita si mediocritates in illo approbant hu- 
manam fragilitatem, maiestates in illo affirmant diuinam 
potestatem. periculum est enim, cum utrumque legis, non 
utrumque sed alterum credidisse. ex quo quoniam utrumque 

20 in Christo legitur, utrumque creditur, ut fides ita demum uera 
sit, si et perfecta fuerit. nam si ex duobus, altero in fide ces- 
sante, unum, et quidem id quod est minus, ad credendum 

i quo modo Ja. : quomodo edd. Cf. p. 8. 16. 10 ita 7, al. : item 

We. : etiam Ja. 

2. ante ipsum Abraham] John p. 58. 14 'omnia,' 16 'et loanneset 

viii 58. ceteri.' 

35. Matt, xx 31, Gal. iv 4, 13, 14. John vi 63, xiv 28. 

Luke vi 5. N. ignores the fact that 16. mediocritates] 'limitations': 

the prerogative is expressly assigned cp. 'populi mediocris est sensus,' 

to Christ as the ' Son of Man '; and p. 20 1. 9 with ref. 

the same may be said of the future 19. alterum] = 'alterutrum': so 

Judgment (John v 27). de Cib. lud. iii 'aut utrumque. ..aut 

6. John v 21, 22: 'uenturum alterum. ..aut neutrum.' 

iudicare uiuos et mortuos' Creed of 21. 'For if, of the two principles, 

Tertullian (adu. Prax. i) and Roman the one comes short of acceptance, 

Creed. while the other, and that the less 

7 12. John xvii 5, Rom. i 3, important, is embraced in belief, 

John i 10, Acts x 36. the rule of truth is thereby overset, 

12. ceteris] 'other men,' Is. and such presumption will not be 

liii 3 : ' omnibus,' ' all beings ' or found to have brought salvation, 

even 'all things.' We may cp. but in place thereof to have entailed 




fuerit assumptum, perturbata regula ueritatis, temeritas ista 
non salutem contulerit, sed in uicem salutis de iactura fidei 
periculum mortis grande conflauerit. 

12 XII. Cur ergo dubitemus dicere, quod scriptura non 
dubitat exprimere ? cur haesitabit fidei ueritas, in quo scrip- 5 
turae numquam haesitauit auctoritas? ecce enim Osee pro- 
phetes ait ex persona patris : tarn non saluabo eos in arcu, neque 
in equis, neque in equitibus ; sed saluabo eos in domino dco 
ipsorum. si deus saluare se dicit in deo, non autem saluat 
nisi in Christo deus, cur ergo homo dubitet Christum deum 10 
dicere, quem deum a patre animaduertit positum per scripturas 
esse? immo si non saluat nisi in deo pater deus, saluari non 
potent a deo patre quisquam, nisi confessus fuerit Christum 
deum, in quo se et per quem se repromittit pater salutem 
daturum ; ut merito quisquis ilium agnoscit esse deum, salutem 15 
inueniat in deo Christo ; quisquis non recognoscit esse deum, 
salutem perdiderit, quoniam alibi nisi in Christo deo earn 
inuenire non poterit. 

Quo modo enim Isaias : ecce uirgo concipiet et pariet 
filium, et uocabitis nomen eius mmanue/,,quod interpretatum 20 
est nobiscum deus, sic Christus ipse dicit : ecce ego uobiscum 
sum usque ad consummationem saeculi. est ergo nobiscum 

16 esse deum G Pa. : et deum al. 
7 We.: quam... inuenire G. Pa. 

17 quoniam... earn inuenire 

a serious peril of the death of the 
soul from the loss of the faith.' 
'Iactura,' properly the jettison of 
cargo, implies a 'wilful and de- 
liberate loss.' 

XII. Old Testament proofs of the 
Godhead of Christ. The signs of 
healing, if they do not prove Christ 
the Son of God, must prove Him to 
be the Father. It is enough for our 
present purpose that they prove Him 
to be God. The prophecy that 'God 
shall come from the South* can only 
refer to Christ, and if these heretics 
deny this, they must, with the Sabel- 
lians, identify Christ with the Father 
who cannot be limited by space. But 

it must point to His birth at Beth- 
lehem, and in that case asserts His 
Godhead. In either case, Christ 
cannot be mere Man. 
6. Hos. i 7. 

13. nisi confessus fuerit...] The 
argument advances here per sal- 
turn, although the writer might 
have supplied the missing step by 
reference to Rom. x 9, i John iv 3. 

14. in quo se et per quem...] 
This is so often asserted in the N.T. 
that Novatian does not quote in 
support such passages as Acts iv 1 2. 

19. Is. vii 14. Vulg. reads 'uoca- 

20. Matt, xxviii 20. 


deus, immo multo magis etiam in nobis est. nobiscum est 
Christus : est ergo cuius nomen est nobiscum deus, quia et 
nobiscum est. aut numquid non est nobiscum? quo modo 
ergo dicit se nobiscum esse ? est ergo nobiscum : sed 
5 quoniam nobiscum est, Emmanuel, id est, nobiscum deus, dic- 
tus est. deus ergo quia nobiscum est, nobiscum deus dictus 
est. idem prophetes : conualescite, manus dissolutae, et genua 
debilia; consolamini pusillanimes sensu, conualescite, nolite timere : 
ecce deus noster iudicium retribuet : ipse ueniet et saluabit nos : 

10 tune aperientur oculi caecorum, et aures surdoritm audient ; tune 
saliet claudus sicut ceruus, et diserta erit lingua mutorum. si in 
aduentu dei dicit prophetes haec futura signa, quae facta sunt, 
aut dei filium agnoscant Christum, in cuius aduentu et a quo 
haec sanitatum signa facta sunt : aut diuinitatis Christi ueritate 

15 superati, in alteram haeresim ruentes, Christum dum filium 
dei et deum confiteri nolunt, patrem ilium esse confiteantur. 
uocibus enim prophetarum inclusi iam Christum deum negare 
non possunt. quid ergo respondent, cum in aduentu dei haec 
signa futura dicuntur, quae in aduentu Christi gesta sunt ? 

20 Christum qualiter accipiunt deum (deum enim iam negare 
non possunt), qua patrem aut qua filium? si qua filium, cur 
dei filium deum negant ? si qua patrem, cur eos non se- 
quuntur, qui eiusmodi blasphemias tenere uidentur? nisi 
quoniam nobis in hoc aduersus illos de ueritate certamine hoc 

25 interim sufiicit, ut quocumque genere conuicti Christum con- 
fiteantur et deum, quern etiam deum negare uoluerunt. 

ii si a: sin al. 16 confiteantur We. Ja. : -ebuntur priores. 

20 accip. deum Pa. sectitus a : accip. dominum al. 

7. conualescite cet.] Is. xxxv ' profiteantur, ' of what is a heretical 

3 6. The LXX here differs from assertion. 

the Vulg. : e.g. 'consolamini' repre- 23. 'Unless it be that, in this 

sents irapa.Ka\t(raT where Vulg. has contention with them about the 

' dicite pusillanimis, Confortamini.' truth, it is enough for our present 

14. sanitatum] 'cures'; so purpose that, no matter how they 
p. 29 1. 10. are refuted, they should confess that 

15. alteram haeresim] refers to Christ is also God; for this is what 
the Sabellian heresy : see Introd. 3 they wished to deny.' That is to 
p. xxx. say : do as they will, these doubters 

16. One would rather expect cannot help being inconsistent. For 



Per Habacuc prophetam ait : deus ab Africa ueniet et sanctus 
de monte opaco et condenso. quern uolunt isti ab Africo uenire ? 
si uenisse aiunt omnipotentem deum patrem, ergo de loco 
deus pater uenit, ex quo etiam loco cluditur, et intra sedis 
alicuius angustias continetur ; et iam per istos, ut diximus, 5 
Sabelliana haeresis sacrilega corporatur, siquidem Christus non 
filius sed pater creditur : et nouo more, dum ab istis districte 
homo nudus asseritur, per eos rursum Christus pater deus 
omnipotens comprobatur. at si in Bethlehem, cuius metaturae 
regio ad meridianam respicit plagam caeli, Christus nascitur, 10 
qui per scripturas et deus dicitur, merito deus hie ab Africo 
uenire describitur, quia a Bethlehem uenturus esse praeuide- 
batur. eligant ergo ex duobus quid uelint hunc, qui ab Africo 
uenit, filium esse, an patrem : deus enim dicitur ab Africo 
uenturus. si filium, quid dubitant Christum et deum dicere? 15 
deum enim scriptura dicit esse uenturum. si patrem, quid 
dubitant cum Sabellii temeritate misceri, qui Christum patrem 
dicit? nisi quoniam, siue ilium patrem siue filium dixerint, 

nisi quoniam see n. on x 2 : but in 
this case it corrects the preceding 
implication (that the heretics will 
not choose) under the form of an 
exception : ' but the truth is that 
they admit His Godhead.' For 
this use of interim , 'for the time 
being,' cp. xv 10. 

i. Hab. iii 3 Vulg. 'Deus ab 
austro ueniet et Sanctus de monte 
Pharan.' R.V.has ' God came \inarg. 
cometh] from Teman, and the Holy 
One from mount Paran.' The argu- 
ment that follows implies that 
every 'anthropopathic' passage of 
the O.T. refers to God the Son. 
It will be observed that N. sees no 
difficulty in submitting the Godhead 
of the Son to limitations from which 
the Father is exempt. See Introd. 


4. ex quo cet.] ' and in conse- 
quence is included in space.' Edd. 
have ' cluditur ' : the form is frequent 
in Tertullian and the African writers, 

and belongs doubtless to popular 
diction. See Ronsch Itala u. Vul- 
gata p. 465. 

6. The reference to Sabellius 
helps to fix the date of the Treatise : 
v. Introd. 2, ii. 

ib. corporatur] 'is embodied': 
i.e. they represent it. 

7. districte] 'rigidly.' Translate 
' it is strange how those heretics, 
while insisting upon the mere 
Humanity, are found on the other 
hand proving Christ to be the 
Father, God Almighty.' Note that 
' eos ' refers to the same persons as 
* istis ' : perhaps ' eosdem ' should 
be read. 

9. 'In Bethlehem which in its 
geographical aspect faces towards 
the South' : lit. 'the direction of 
whose measuring.' Bethlehem is of 
course S.W. of Jerusalem. 

1 8. nisi quoniam] 'except that, 
whether they call Him the Father or 
the Son, they are bound, though 


ab haeresi sua inuiti licet desciscant necesse est, qui Christum 
hominem tantummodo solent dicere, dum ilium, rebus ipsis 
coacti, deum incipiunt promere, siue dum ilium patrem, siue 
dum ilium filium uoluerint nuncupare. 

5 XIII. Ac sic et loannes natiuitatem Christi describens, 13 
uerbum, inquit, caro factum est, et habitauit in nobis, et uidimus 
claritatem et'us, daritatem tamquam unigeniti a patre, plenum 
gratia et ueritate. nam et uocatur nomen eius uerbum dei\ 
nee immerito. eructauit, inquit, cor meum uerbum bonum\ 
10 quod uerbum regis nomine consequenter appellat inferendo, 
dico ego opera mea regi. per ipsum enim omnia facta sunt 
opera, et sine ipso factum est nihil. siue enim^ inquit apostolus, 
throni, siue dominationes, siue uirtutes, siue potestates^ uisibilia 
et inuisibilia, omnia per ipsum constant, uerbum autem hoc 

reluctantly, to abandon their own 7. claritatem] John i 14 Vulg. 

heresy of saying that Christ is mere 'gloriam.' 
man: the logic of facts compels 8. Apoc. xix 13. 
them to affirm His Godhead, whether 9. eructauit cet.] Ps. xliv (xlv) 

they choose to call Him the Father i quoted by Tertull. adu. Prax. vii, 

or the Son.' See n. supra, p. 40. 23 xi reading 'sermonem optimum.' 
on 'nisi quoniam.' 10. 'The word which directly 

XIII. The same faith is estab- after He calls by the name of King, 

lished by the N.T. He is the when he adds "I tell My works to 

Word of God who was made Flesh, the King."' A difficult piece of exe- 

for by Him the worlds were made, gesis: the mighty universe ('opera 

Christ then is both God and Man: mea') was a thought in the mind 

in His nativity both natures met. of God ; the work of creation was 

The Son of God descended to earth God's utterance to the Creator 

and the Son of Man ascended to Word, who was Himself addressed 

heaven; and so, after the bridal union in the utterance. 
with flesh, returned to the glory which ib. appellat inferendo] ' Inferre ' 

He had with the Father before the is here used, like elffdyeiv in Greek, 

world was. Thus the glory and the for 'to mention,' ' speak of,' 'say.' 

authority of His Divinity areratified. Cp. infra p. 69. 8 'ipse angelus infert 

He is God, because He reads the secrets dicens.' It is so used by Tertullian ; 

of the heart ', forgives sins, descends e.g. adu. Prax. 18 'nominatur igi- 

from heaven, can say ' / and the tur unus deus pater, et alius absque 

Father are one {substance}," 1 receives eo non est. quod ipse inferens non 

the testimony of SS. Thomas and filium negat, sed deum alium.' 
Paul. Finally , all things were made n. John i 3. See Westcott 

by Him: therefore He is before all ('additional note' ad loc.). 
things: therefore He is God. If He 13. Coloss. i 16 Vulg. 'uisibilia 

were mere man, nothing would be et inuisibilia: siue throni siue domi- 

' through Him? which would 'con- nationes siue principatus siue potes- 

tradict Scripture. tales: omnia per ipsum.' 




illud est, quod in sua uenit, et stti eum non receperunt. mundus 
enim per ipsum factus est, et mundus eum non cognouit. uerbum 
autem hoc erat in principio apud deum, et deus erat uerbum. 
quis igitur dubitet, cum in extrema parte dicitur, uerbum caro 
factum est, et habitauit in nobis^ Christum, cuius est natiuitas, 5 
et quia caro factus est, esse hominem, et quia uerbum dei, 
deum incunctanter edicere esse; praesertim cum animaduertat 
scripturam euangelicam utramque istam substantiam in unam 
natiuitatis Christi foederasse concordiam? 

Hie est enim qui sicut sponsus egreditur de thalamo suo, 10 
exsultauit ut gigas ad currendum uiam ; a summo caelo egressio 
ems et usque ad summum regressio eius. quoniam usque ad 
summum, nee quisquam in caelum ascendit, nisi qui de caelo 
descendit, filius hominis, qui est in caelis, repetens hoc ipsum 
dicit : pater, clarifica me eo honore quo fui apud te antequam 15 
mundus esset. ac si de caelo descendit uerbum hoc tamquam 

6 quia] qua Latin. 

1. John i 10, ii Vulg. 'in pro- 
pria uenit.' 

2. John i i, 2. 

4. 'Who can hesitate to say 
upon the moment that Christ... is 
Man and. ..God?' 

8. utramque istam...] 'lias 
associated both natures in the one 
harmony of Christ's nativity.' The 
phrase utraque substantia, which is 
used by Tertullian, appears to come 
originally from Melito : see Loofs in 
Hauck-Herzog Realenc. iv 36. The 
'union of the two natures' is ex- 
pressed variously in the Treatise 
by the words 'concordia,' 'permix- 
tio' (xi), 'contextus,' 'concretus,' 'ex 
utroque conexus' (xxiv), 'commu- 
nio substantiae' (xxxi yf.) 'Verbi 
et carnis coniunctio' (xiv), 'Deus 
cum homine copulatus' (xv, xxiii), 
'confibulare' (xxiii). 

10. sicut sponsus] The mystical 
application of Ps. xviii (xix) to the 
Incarnation is very ancient. It is 
found in Iren. adu. Haer. iv 55. 4 
and e/s 'E?r/5. 85, and yet earlier in 

Justin ApoL i 54, Dial. 64, 69. See 
also Tert. adu. Marc- iv n, and 
Cypr. Test, ii 19. But the best 
known instance is found in Ambrose's 
Hymn 'Veni, Redemptor gentium ' 
' Procedit e thalamo suo, 
pudoris aula regia, 
geminae gigas substantiae 
alacris ut currat uiam. 
egressus eius a Patre, 
regressus eius ad Patrem.' 
Of course the application rests in 
part upon a misunderstanding of 
&npov TOU ovpavov. 

1 2 . quoniam usque ad summum] 
sc. 'regreditur,' with which 'nee 
quisquam ... ascendit ' is coupled, 
' and because ' etc. The reference 
is to John iii 13. 

15. honore] John xvii 5 Vulg. 

16. ac si de caelo cet.] ' If 
this Word descended from heaven 
as a bridegroom to the flesh, in 
order that, by assuming flesh, He 
might as Son of Man ascend thither, 
whence He had descended as the 




sponsus ad carnem, ut per carnis assumptionem films hominis 
illuc posset ascendere, unde del filius uerbum descenderat, 
merito, dum per conexionem mutuam et caro uerbum del 
gerit et filius del fragilitatem carnis assumit, cum sponsa carne 
5 conscendens illuc, unde sine carne descenderat, recipit iam 
claritatem illam, quam dum ante mundi institutionem habuisse 
ostenditur, deus manifestissime comprobatur. et nihilominus, 
dum mundus ipse post ilium institutus refertur, per ipsum 
creatus esse reperitur; quo ipso diuinitatis in ipso, per quern 

10 factus est mundus, et claritas et auctoritas comprobetur. 

Quod si, cum nullius sit nisi dei cordis nosse secreta, Christus 
secreta conspicit cordis: quod si, cum nullius sit nisi dei 
peccata dimittere, idem Christus peccata dimittit : quod si, cum 
nullius sit hominis de caelo uenire, de caelo ueniendo descendit : 

15 quod si, cum nullius hominis haec uox esse possit, ego et pater 
unum sumus, hanc uocem de conscientia diuinitatis Christus 
solus edicit : quod si postremo omnibus diuinitatis Christi pro- 
bationibus et rebus instructus apostolus Thomas, respondens 
Christo dominus meus et deus meus dicit: quod si et apostolus 

20 Paulus, quorum, inquit, patres et ex quibus Christus secundum 
carnem, qui est super omnia deus benedictus in saecula, in suis 
litteris scribit : quod si idem se apostolum non ab hominibus, aut 
perhominem, sed per lesum Christum constitutum esse depromit: 
quod si idem euangelium non se ab hominibus didicisse aut 

2 $ per hominem, sed per lesum Christum accepisse contendit : 
merito deus est Christus. 

Son of God, the Word since by a 
mutual nexus flesh wears the Word 
of God, and the Son of God assumes 
frail flesh ascending with the flesh 
which He had wedded to that place 
whence without flesh He had de- 
scended, of necessity He resumes the 
glory, 'etc. For 'merito' of logical 
consequence cp. p. 45. 3 'merito et 
deus est.' 

13. quod si, cum nullius sit...] 
An excellent selection of N.T. proofs 
of our Lord's Divinity ; among which 

it is interesting to find the Synop- 
tists represented as well as the 
Fourth Gospel. It is true that in 
Rom. ix 5 some modern commenta- 
tors render the passage otherwise. 
But see the commentaries of Gifford 
or of Sanday and Headlam ad loc. 
and also Illingworth Doctrine of the 
Trinity p. 45. The references are 
as follows: for lines 1 1 16, Matt, ix 
4, John ii 25, Mark ii 5, John iii 13, 
John x 30; for lines 19 25, John 
xx 28, Rom. ix 5, Gal. i i, 12. 




Itaque hoc in loco ex duobus alterum constare debebit. 
cum enim manifestum sit omnia esse facta per Christum, aut 
ante omnia est, quoniam omnia per ipsum, et merito et deus 
est: aut quia homo est, post omnia est, et merito per ipsum 
nihil factum est. sed nihil per ipsum factum esse non possu- 5 
mus dicere, cum animaduertamus omnia per ipsum facta esse 
scriptum. non ergo post omnia est, id est non homo tantum 
est, qui post omnia est, sed et deus, quoniam deus ante omnia 
est. ante omnia est enim, op\\& per ipsum omnia; ne si homo 
tantum, nihil per ipsum; aut si omnia per ipsum, non homo 10 
tantum : quoniam si homo tantum, non omnia per ipsum, 
immo nihil per ipsum. quid ergo respondent? nihil per ipsum, 
ut homo sit tantum ? quomodo ergo omnia per ipsum ? ergo 
non homo tantummodo est, sed et deus, siquidem omnia 
sunt per ipsum. ut merito intellegere debeamus nee hominem 15 
esse Christum tantummodo, qui est post omnia, sed et deum, 

cum per ipsum facta sint omnia quomodo enim aut 

hominem tantummodo dicas cum ilium etiam in carne 

1 5 nee] non coni. Ja. rectius uero huiusmodi uerba supplere post omnia 
(1. 17) 'nee deum tantummodo, qui ante omnia est, sed et hominem, cum 
caro factus sit.' 18 post dicas nescio quid amissum : fortasse, cum per 

ipsum facta sint omnia, aut deum. 

2. Not very logically set out. 
The argument is : if Christ made all 
things, He is before all things and is 
therefore God. But if He is mere 
man, He is after all things and did 
not create them. This latter state- 
ment contradicts the words of Scrip- 
ture, that 'all things were made 
through Him', and therefore He is 
not Man alone but God. 

8. Cp. Col. i 17 'ipse est ante 
omnes': ib. 16 'omnia per ipsum.' 

9. ne] as in xi, p. 36. 18. 

15. nee hominem... facta sint 
omnia] The words, as 'nee' shews, 
require some balancing clause, such 
as that which I have placed in the 
critical note. The only alternative 
would be to suppose that 'nee' is 
used to throw a stress upon the 
second member of the sentence, ' sed 

et deum ' : as in the classical usage of 
'nee' followed by 'et.' But the 
lacuna in the argument is no less 
evident here than in line 18. 

17. 'For how can you say that 
He is only man, or only God either, 
when you see Him as He is in the 
flesh? but on the contrary, as either 
nature is observed, either is of 
necessity accepted as an article of 
belief.' Surely 'aut deum' has been 
lost, if nothing more: 'either only 
Man or only God': the single aut is 
scarcely translatable. Jackson in- 
serts, in a footnote, after 'tantum- 
modo dicas' 'cum per ipsum facta 
sint omnia, aut deum tantummodo 
dicas ' : which also justifies the 
'etiam.' For nisi quoniam cp. n. 
on x, p. 32. 2. 

4 6 



conspicias; nisi quoniam si utrumque animaduertitur, utrum- 
que merito credatur? 

XIV. Et tamen adhuc dubitat haereticus Christum dicere 14 
esse deum, quern deum tot et rebus animaduertit et uocibus 
5 approbatum. si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo ueniens 
in hunc mundum in sua uenit, cum homo nullum fecerit 
mundum ? si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo mundus 
per ipsum factus esse refertur, cum non per hominem mundus, 
sed post mundum homo institutus referatur ? si homo tantum- 

10 modo Christus, quomodo non ex semine tantummodo Christus, 
sed uerbum caro factum est et habitauit in nobis ? nam etsi 
protoplastus non ex semine, sed tamen protoplastus non est ex 
uerbi et carnis coniunctione concretus : non est enim uerbum 
caro factum et habitauit in nobis. si homo tantummodo 

15 Christus, quomodo qui de caelo uenit^ quae uidit et audiit 
testificatur, cum constet hominem de caelo, quia ibi nasci non 
possit, uenire non posse? si homo tantummodo Christus, 
quomodo uisibilia et inuisibilia, throni, uirtutes et domi- 
nationes per ipsum et in ipso creata esse referuntur, cum 

20 uirtutes caelestes per hominem fieri non potuerint, quae ante 
hominem ipsum esse debuerint? si homo tantummodo 
Christus, quomodo adest ubique inuocatus, cum haec hominis 
natura non sit, sed dei, ut adesse omni loco possit ? si homo 
tantummodo Christus, cur homo in orationibus mediator inuo- 

XIV. Continuing the argument 
If Christ were mere man, how is 
it that He is the Word made Flesh, 
which cannot be said of Adam ? How 
is it that so many things are predi- 
cated of Him in the N.T., which 
imply that He came down from 
heaven and is more than man ? 

1 2. ex semine] ' of human seed.' 
Cp. Jo. i 13 'For though the first 
man was not born of seed, still he 
was not compounded of the union of 
the Word and Flesh : for [in Adam's 
creation] the Word was not made 

15. Johniii 31, 32. 

1 8. Col. i 16. 

22. quomodo adest ubique in- 
uocatus] An unqualified assertion 
of the worship of Christ: on the 
universality of which, consult Liddon 
B, Z. 8 pp. 379 sq. It is true that 
Origen, in his de Oratione xv, lays 
down the principle that Christians 
pray to the Father through the Son 
as Mediator and High Priest, and 
not directly to the Son. And yet 
elsewhere he vindicates prayer to 
Christ as practised by the Church 
(c. Cels. viii 12). 


catur, cum inuocatio hominis ad praestandam salutem inefficax 
iudicetur? si homo tantummodo Christus, cur spes in ilium 
ponitur, cum spes in homine maledicta referatur? si homo 
tantummodo Christus, cur non licet Christum sine exitio 
animae negari, cum in hominem commissum delictum referatur 5 
posse dimitti? si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo 
loannes Baptista testatur et dicit : qui post me uenit, ante 
me factus est, quia prior me fuit\ cum, si homo tantummodo 
Christus, post loannem natus, ante loannem esse non possit, 
nisi quoniam ilium, qua deus est, ante praecessit? si homo 10 
tantummodo Christus, quomodo quae pater facit, et filius fatit 
similiter, cum homo caelestibus operibus dei similia opera 
facere non possit? si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo 
sicut pater in se uitam habet^ ita dedit filio uitam habere in 
semetipso, cum exemplo patris dei homo in se uitam habere 15 
non possit, cum non in aeternitate sit gloriosus, sed in materia 
mortalitatis effectus ? si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo 
refert : ego sum panis uitae aeternae, qui de caelo descendi ; cum 
neque panis uitae homo esse possit ipse mortalis, nee de caelo 
descenderit, nulla in caelo constituta materia fragilitatis ? si 20 
homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo dicit, quia patrem deum 
nemo uidit umquam, nisi qui est a deo, hie uidit deum ? quoniam, 
si homo tantummodo Christus, deum uidere non potuit, quia 
deum nemo hominum uidit: si autem, dum ex deo est, deum 
uidit, plus se quam hominem, dum deum uidit, intellegi uoluit. 25 
si homo tantummodo Christus, cur dicit: quid si uideritis 
filium hominis ascendentem illuc ubi ante erat ? ascendit autem 
in caelum: ibi ergo fuit, dum illuc redit ubi prius fuit. quod 

1. inuocatio hominis... inefflcax] 7. John i 15. 
The bearing of this on the Invocation n. John v 19. 
of Saints is noteworthy. 14. John v 26. 

2. i Cor. xv. 19, Jer. xvii 5. 18. John vi 51 (Vulg.) 'Panis 
5. cum in hominem...] 'though uiuus qui de caelo descendi.' N.'s 

we are told that an offence against occasional differences from the Vul- 

a man can be forgiven': referring gate text in N.T. quotations are 

perhaps to i Sam. ii 25 (Vulg. ' si interesting, 

peccauerit uir in uirum, placari ei 21. John vi 46. 

potest Deus') and Matt, xviii 35. 26. John vi 62. 

4 8 



si de caelo missus a patre est, non utique homo tantum est: 
homo enim, ut diximus, de caelo uenire non potuit. non 
igitur ibi ante homo fuit, sed illuc ascendit ubi non fuit ; 
descendit autem dei uerbum, quod ibi fuit, uerbum, inquam, 
5 dei et deus, per quern facta sunt omnia et sine quo factum est 
nihil. non igitur homo inde sic de caelis uenit, sed dei 
sermo, id est deus, inde descendit. 

XV. Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo ait: etsi 15 
ego de me testificor, uerum est testimonium meum, quia srio 

10 unde uenerim et quo earn; \uos ignoratis unde uenerim aut quo 
earn, uos secundum carnem iudicatis\ ? ecce et hie illuc se dicit 
rediturum, unde se testificatur ante uenisse, missum scilicet de 
caelo. descendit ergo unde uenit, quo modo illuc uadit unde 
descendit. ex quo, si homo tantummodo Christus esset, non 

1 5 inde uenisset : atque ideo nee illuc abiret, quoniam non inde 
uenisset. ueniendo autem inde, unde homo uenire non potest, 
deum se ostendit uenisse. sed enim huius ipsius descensionis 
ignari et imperiti ludaei heredes sibi haereticos istos reddiderunt, 
quibus dicitur : uos ignoratis unde ueniam, et quo earn: uos 

20 secundum carnem iudicatis. tarn isti quam ludaei, carnalem 

6 sic] scilicet coni. Ja. 8 etsi a : si al. 

carnem iudicatis deerat, nifallor, in a : supplet Pa. 

10 uos ignoratis... 

2. ' Therefore He was not there 
before as Man, but ascended thither 
where [as Man] He had not been: 
and He descended as the Word 
of God, who was there [before], 
the Word of God, I say, and God.' 

XV. He who came down from 
heaven is of heaven , not of earth. 
The heretics are the spiritual heirs 
of the Jews who knew not whence He 
came. If Christ is mere man, would 
He have said, I am not of this ^vorld? 
Yet He is of this world in regard 
to His Manhood, though it was 
necessary for Him then to emphasize 
His Divinity. If He is mere man, 
He would not have said, I proceeded 
forth from God, as the Word who is 

God: nor would He have promised 
immortality to him who keepeth His 
saying, which proves that He Himself 
is immortal. Christ is from Abra- 
ham and yet before Abraham. Nor 
could He have promised to keep His 
sheep for ever: a promise which He 
observes. Nor would He say, I and 
the Father are one, if the Son is not 
God. The Jews at least understood 
His words in that sense: and He 
refuted their objection by a proper 
distinction of the Persons of the 
Father and the Son. 

8, 19. John viii 14, 15 Vulg., 
which has ' unde ueni et quo uado ; 
uos autem nescitis unde uenio aut 
quo uado.' 




solam esse Christ! natiuitatem tenentes, nihil aliud Christum esse 
quam hominem crediderunt, non considerantes illud, quoniam, 
cum de caelo homo non potuerit uenire, ut merito illuc posset 
redire, deum esse qui inde descenderit, unde homo uenire non 
potuerit. 5 

Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo dicit : uos ex 
inferioribus estis, ego desursum sum; uos de hoc mundo estis , 
ego non sum de hoc mundo ? ideo autem si omnis homo ex hoc 
mundo est, et ideo in hoc mundo est Christus, an homo tantum- 
modo est? absit. sed considera quod ait: ego non sum de 10 
hoc mundo. numquid ergo mentitur, cum ex hoc mundo sit, si 
homo tantummodo sit? aut si non mentitur, non est ex hoc 
mundo. non ergo homo tantummodo est, quia ex hoc mundo 
non est sed ne lateret quis esset, expressit unde esset : ego, 
inquit, desursum sum ; hoc est, de caelo, unde homo uenire non 15 
potest; non enim in caelo factus est. deus est ergo qui 
desursum est, et idcirco de hoc mundo non est. quamquam 
etiam quodam modo ex hoc mundo est ; unde non deus tantum 
est Christus, sed et homo; ut merito, quo modo non est ex 
hoc mundo secundum uerbi diuinitatem, ita ex hoc mundo sit 20 
secundum suscepti corporis fragilitatem. homo est enim cum 

19 est Christus] sit Christus a. 

i . tenentes] ' holding to the view 
that the carnal nativity of Christ 
was the only one.' 

3. Though the clause has begun 
with 'quoniam' ('that'), the con- 
struction changes to accus. and 

6. John viii 23 Vulg. has 'uos 
de deorsum estis : ego de supernis 

8. ' Then if every man is of 
this world and that is why Christ 
(as being man) is in this world, 
does it follow that He is only a 
man?' The underlying thought 
is that of John i 10 'in mundo 
erat et mundus per ipsum factus 
est.' The Word is in the world, 
men whom He made are of the 

F. N. 

world: it follows that He is more 
than man. The two words 'ideo' 
are not parallel to each other. But 
the combination of ' ideo ' and 
' autem ' is strange : there is no 
sequence of reasoning to account for 
' ideo. ' Possibly the true reading 
is si autem. 

ii. ' Does He lie then? if He is 
only man, He is of this world and 
therefore lies: otherwise, He is not 
of this world. ' 

19. ut merito] 'thus it properly 
follows. ' 

21. homo est enim...] A simple 
expression of what was subsequently 
called the hypostatic union (j/w<ris 
Ko.6' virbffTa.ffiv), or union of the 
two natures in One Person. Cf. 



deo iunctus, et deus cum homine copulatus. sed idcirco 
nunc hie Christus in unam partem solius diuinitatis incubuit, 
quoniam caecitas ludaica solam in Christo partem carnis 
aspexit, et inde in praesenti loco, silentio praeterita corporis 
5 fragilitate quae de mundo est, de sua sola diuinitate locutus est, 
quae de mundo non est : ut in quantum illi inclinauerant, ut 
hominem ilium tantummodo crederent, in tantum illos Christus 
posset ad diuinitatem suam considerandam trahere, ut re deum 
crederent, uolens illorum incredulitatem circa diuinitatem suam, 

10 omissa interim commemoratione sortis humanae, solius diuini- 
tatis oppositione superare. 

Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo dicit : ego ex deo 
prodii et ueni, cum constet hominem a deo factum esse, non ex 
deo processisse ? ex deo autem homo quo modo non processit, 

15 sic dei uerbum processit; de quo dictum est: eructauit cor 
meum uerbum bonum. quod quoniam ex deo est, merito et 
apud deum est : quodque, quia non otiose prolatum est, merito 
omnia facit; omnia enim per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ip so factum 
est nihil. sed enim hoc uerbum, per quod facta sunt omnia, 

20 [deus est]. et deus, inquit, erat uerbum. deus ergo processit ex 

20 deus est inser. Ja. 

Bp Gore, Bampton Lectures, iv, 
Liddon, Bampton Lectures, v 8 262, 
263, Mason, Faith of the Gospel'*, 
pp. 131 140 (v. Introd. 5 iii). 

2. 'Christ has in this passage 
laid stress upon the one side, that of 
His Divinity alone ' 

10. ' Porbearing for the moment 
to mention His Human estate, to 
overcome their unbelief by simply 
setting against it His Divinity.' For 
' interim ' cp. xii 23 n. 

12. Jo. viii 42 y<b K roG 0eoG 
%Tj\6ov /cat rJK<a, where Vulg. has 
' processi et ueni ' : Jo. xvi 28 e^X- 
dov K TOU 7rarp6s /cat e\r)\v6a els rov 
Kbafj.ov, where Vulg. has ' exiui et 
ueni ' : on which v. Westcott 
* issuing forth from the Father as 
the spring of Deity.' Jackson is 
wrong in his criticism, that the 

refers to the 'Verbi missio 
in mundum,' and not (as N. thinks) 
to the 'Verbi generatio ante mun- 
dum' : the 'entrance into the world' 
by Incarnation is signified by the 
rJKU and \-/i\v8a in those passages 
respectively. Mark the careful dis- 
tinction of terms: 'factum esse' on 
one side, 'natum esse, procedere, 
prolatum esse' on the other. See 
Introd. 3, p. xxxi. 

16. quod refers to 'Verbum' 
with a reference to John i i -ffv -rrpbs 
r. e. 

17. 'And which since it was not 
uttered without effect, accordingly 
makes all things. ' ' Non otiose, ' sc. 
'non ut nihil ageret, sed ut per 
ipsum mundus fieret' (Jackson) : cp. 
Athenag. Legat. p. 39 ivepyeiq, irpoe\- 



deo, dum qui processit sermo, deus est qui processit ex deo. si 
homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo ait : si quis uerbum meum 
seruauerit, mortem non uidebit in aeternumJ mortem in aeterrmm 
non uidere, quid aliud quam immortalitas est? immortalitas 
autem diuinitati socia est, quia et diuinitas immortalis est, et 5 
immortalitas diuinitatis fructus est. sed enim omnis homo 
mortalis est; immortalitas autem ex mortali non potest esse. 
ergo ex Christo homine mortali immortalitas non potest nasci. 
sed qui uerbum custodierit, inquit, meum, mortem non uidebit in 
aeternum. ergo uerbum Christi praestat immortalitatem, et 10 
per immortalitatem praestat diuinitatem. quod si non potest 
exhibere ut immortalem alterum faciat ipse mortalis, hoc 
autem Christi uerbum exhibet pariter et praestat immortali- 
tatem, non utique homo tantum est, qui praestat immor- 
talitatem, quam, si tantummodo homo esset, praestare non 15 
posset, praestando autem diuinitatem per immortalitatem, 
deum se probat diuinitatem porrigendo, quam, nisi deus esset, 
praestare non posset. 

Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo inquit : ante 
Abraham ego sum? nemo enim hominum ante eum potest 20 
esse ex quo ipse est; nee potest fieri ut quicquam prius 

21 quicquam... ipsum 7: quidquam...ipsam Pa.: quisquam [ut Ja.]... 
ipse Mign. 

2. John viii 51. 

4. immortalitas autem] Wisd. 
vi 20 'incorruptio autem facit esse 
proximum Deo.' See Introd. 6, 
p. Ivi. 

10. et per immortalitatem 
praestat diuinitatem] sc. to men 
His brethren. Owing to the diffi- 
culty of the words, Welchman 
wished to invert them ('per diuinita- 
tem praestat immortalitatem') and 
similarly below, 'praestando immor- 
talitatem per diuinitatem, immor- 
talitatem porrigendo.' But the effect 
would be mere tautology. The 
writer does not explain his somewhat 
bold expression, which 2 Pet. i 4 
and i Jo. iii i may justify. The 

idea is really the basis of Christian 

19. ante Abraham] Vulg. Jo. 
viii 58 'antequam A. rieret.' The 
text used by N. loses (as do Cod. 
Bezae, and certain MSS. of the Old 
Latin) the contrast between created 
and absolute existence (I AM) by 
omitting 'fieret,' where the best Gk 
MSS. have yevtadcu. 

2 1 . quicquam . . .ipsum] wrongly 
corrected by edd. to 'quisquam... 
ipse,' which would entail a meaning- 
less repetition. The clause (in the 
neuter) gives a universal scope to 
the previous clause (in the mascu- 
line) : cp. Col. i 17 (though not so 
Vulg.) 'He is before all things.' 



fuerit ante ilium ex quo ipsum originem sumpsit. sed enim 
Christus, cum ex Abraham sit, ante Abraham esse se dicit. 
aut mentitur et fallit, si ante Abraham non fuit, qui ex 
Abraham fuit: aut non fallit, si etiam deus est, dum ante 
5 Abraham fuit. quod nisi fuisset, consequenter, cum ex 
Abraham fuisset, ante Abraham esse non posset, si homo 
tantummodo Christus, quomodo ait : et ego agnoscam eas et 
sequuntur me meae; et ego uitam aeternam do Hits, et numquam 
peribunt in perpetuum ? sed enim cum omnis homo mortalitatis 

10 sit legibus alligatus, et idcirco in perpetuum se ipse seruare non 
possit, multo magis in perpetuum alterum seruare non poterit. 
at in perpetuum se Christus repromittit salutem daturum; 
quam si non dat, mendax est: si dat, deus est. sed non 
fallit; dat enim quod repromittit. deus est ergo, qui salutem 

15 perpetuam porrigit; quam homo, qui se ipsum seruare non 
potest, alteri praestare non poterit. 

Si homo tantummodo Christus, quid est, quod ait : ego et 
pater unum sumus? quomodo enim ego et pater unum sumus, si 
non et deus est et films? qui idcirco unum potest dici, dum 

20 ex ipso est, et dum films eius est, et dum ex ipso nascitur, dum 
ex ipso processisse reperitur ; per quod et deus est. quod cum 
inuidiosum ludaei putassent, et blasphemum credidissent, eo 
quod se ostenderat his sermonibus Christus esse deum, ac 
propterea ad lapides concurassent, et saxorum ictus inicere 

25 gestiissent, exemplo et testimonio scripturarum aduersarios 
suos fortiter refutauit. si illos, inquit, dixit decs ad quos del 

7 -am y Pa. : -o Ja. -o meas ms. Woweri. 20 et dum coni. Ja. 

23 Christum y Pa : -us coni. Ja. 26 dei om. y Pa. 

7. agnoscam] Jo. x 27 Vulg. Westcott on John x 30). The neuter 

'cognosce eas et sequuntur gender is here held to imply Sonship 

non peribunt in aeternum. ' and not personal identity. Cp. 

13. quam si non dat] Cp. a fine Tertull. adu. Praxean 22 ''Unum 

passage in Aug. de Doctr. Christ. sumus dicens Ego et Pater ostendit 

i 15 'nos immortalitate male usi duos esse quos aequat et iungit,' 

sumus, ut moreremur; Christus and ibid, 'tarn duos quam insepara- 

mortalitate bene usus est, ut uiuere- tos.' 

mus.' ib. si non et cet.] ' If the Son 

1 8. unum] &, 'one Essence, also is not God as well [as man].' 

not one Person: are not am'' (Bp 26. John x 35. 




uerba facta sunt, et non potest solid scriptura; quern pater 
sanctificauit et misit in hunc mundum uos dicitis, quia blasphemas^ 
quia dixi : filius dei sum ego? quibus vocibus neque se negauit 
deum, quin immo deum se esse firmauit. nam quia sine 
dubitatione dii esse dicuntur, ad quos uerba dei facta sunt, 5 
multo magis hie deus, qui melior illis omnibus inuenitur. 
et nihilominus calumniosam blasphemiam dispositione legitima 
congruenter refutauit : deum enim se sic intellegi uult, ut filium 
dei et non ipsum patrem uellet intellegi. missum enim se 
esse dixit, et multa opera se ex patre ostendisse monstrauit; 10 
ex quo non patrem se sed filium esse intellegi uoluit; et in 
ultima parte defensionis filii, non patris, fecit mentionem 
dicendo : uos dicitis^ quia blasphemas, quia dixi: filius dei 

9 se uellet coni. Pa. 

7. dispositione legitima] ' by 
the just ordering [of relations]': that 
is, ' by a statement of the just order- 
ing' of relations between the Son 
and the Father. In iii, p. 10. 8, dis- 
positio denotes the nice adjustment 
of elements in the universe. The 
word, and its kindred verb, had 
been used by Tertullian in a simi- 
lar connexion to that in which it 
appears here, as a translation of 
olKovouia and a synonym of ' dispen- 
satio.' The following passages from 
adu. Praxean will sufficiently illus- 
trate the meaning. In i ' unicum 
quidem deum credimus, sub hac 
tamen dispensatione, quam oeco- 
nomiam dicimus, ut unici dei sit et 
filius ' : ' custodiatur oeconomiae 
sacramentum, quae unitatem in trini- 
tatem disponit.' In 3 'simplices 
expauescunt, quod oeconomiam nu- 
merum et dispositionem trinitatis 
diuisionem praesumunt unitatis, 
quando unitas, ex semetipsa deri- 
uans trinitatem, non destruatur ab 
ilia, sed administretur.' ' uide ergo, 
ne tu potius monarchiam destruas, 
qui dispositionem et dispensationem 
eius euertis in tot nominibus con- 
stitutam, in quot deus uoluit.' In 

9 'bene quod et dominus usus hoc 
uerbo [sc. aliuni] in persona para- 
cleti non diuisionem significauit, sed 
dispositionem : rogabo enim inquit 
patrem, et alium ' etc. In 19 ' qua 
pater et filius, duo, et hoc non ex 
separatione substantiae, sed ex dis- 
positione': 21 'dispositione alium, 
non diuisione ' : 23 'habes filium 
in terris, habes patrem in caelis, 
non est separatio ista, sed dispositio 
diuina.' A study of these passages 
will shew that Tertullian is struggling 
to express a distinction of relation- 
ships within the unity of God by a 
term which shall not imply 'division'; 
and N. in the present passage follows 
him. For the doctrine, see Mar- 
tensen Dogmatics pp. 102 foil. 

9. John x 32, 36. 

IT. non patrem se sed filium] 
as opposed to Praxeas, whose sect is 
called by Tertullian 'Patripassian' : 
so too Noetus of Smyrna taught (circ. 
A. D. 200). Even Callistus is said 
to have taught that 'the Father 
suffered with the Son' (Hippol. 
Philosophumena ix u, 12), but he 
excommunicated Sabellius, and 
seems to have been feeling his 
way towards Nicene Christology. 




sum. ita quod ad crimen blasphemiae pertinet, filium se non 
patrem dicit : quod autem ad diuinitatem spectet ipsius, ego et 
pater unum sumus dicendo, filium se esse et deum probauit. 
deus est ergo: deus autem sic, ut films sit, non pater. 
5 XVI. Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo ipse dicit: 16 
et omnis qui uidet et credit in me non morietur in aeternum ? 
sed enim qui in hominem solitarium credit et nudum, male- 
dictus dicitur: hie autem, qui credit in Christum non male- 
dictus, sed in aeternum non moriturus refertur. ex quo si 

10 aut homo est tantum, ut haeretici uolunt, quomodo quisquis 
in eum credit non morietur in aeternum, cum maledictus 
esse teneatur qui confidit in homine ? aut si non maledictus, 
sed potius ad aeternae uitae consecutionem, ut legitur, desti- 
natus, non homo tantummodo Christus, sed et deus; in quern 

15 qui credit, et maledictionis periculum deponit, et ad fructum 
iustitiae accedit. 

6 uiuit Latin. Ja. 

XVI. If Christ is mere man, 
how can He promise eternal life to 
every one who believeth on Him ? for 
a curse is pronounced on those who 
trust in man. Again, how can He 
say the Paraclete will take of what 
is His and declare it? for the 
Paraclete does not receive knowledge 
from man but imparts it to him. 
It follows that Christ either deceives 
us, which is unthinkable: or the 
Paraclete, receiving from Christ, is 
less than Christ. This proves Christ 
to be God. 

Again, why does He place Himself 
beside God, without distinction of 
Deity, in the rule of faith laid down 
in jo. xvii 3? Why does He speak 
of the glory He had with the Father 
before the world was ? from which 
His pre-existence necessarily follows ; 
for mere man could only have had 
it after the world began. This 
cannot be explained away by pre- 
destination, which we dare not in- 
terpolate in the Sacred Text. It 
follows that Christ was in substance 

before the foundation of the world. 
But assuming predestination, it 
must correspond in God's purpose to 
the order of time: and thus Christ 
would be subsequent to others, Adam, 
Abel and the patriarchs. 

6. omnis qui uidet] Jo. xi 26 
Vulg. 'uiuit,' after the Greek. Prob- 
ably (as Jackson says) N. has con- 
fused the passage with Jo. vi 40. 

7. Jerem. xvii 5. Cp. p. 35. 7. 

9. si aut homo est] The alter- 
natives are stated in a confused 
way: we might have expected (in 
line 12) ' aut si deus': but N. alters 
the point of contrast, and writes as 
if the former member had been 
' maledictus erit quisquis in eum 
credit.' The first aut is in fact 

12. teneatur] so in pp. 36. 8, 
49. i, of holding a view: in ch. xxx 
the word is thrice coupled in this 
sense with credere. But perhaps 
here there is the idea of ' maledic- 
tione teneri': 'is placed under a 




Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo paraclitum dicit 
de suo esse sumpturum quae nuntiaturus sit? neque enim 
paraclitus ab homine quicquam accipit, sed homini scientiam 
paraclitus porrigit; nee futura ab homine paraclitus discit, sed 
de futuris hominem paraclitus instruit. ergo aut non accepit 5 
paraclitus a Christo homine quod nuntiet, quoniam paraclito 
homo nihil poterit dare a quo ipse homo debet accipere, et 
fallit in praesenti loco Christus et decipit, cum paraclitum a 
se homine accepturum quae nuntiet dicit: aut non nos fallit, 
sicut nee fallit, et accepit paraclitus a Christo quae nuntiet. 10 
sed si a Christo accepit quae nuntiet, maior ergo iam paraclito 
Christus est: quoniam nee paraclitus a Christo acciperet, nisi 
minor Christo esset. minor autem Christo paraclitus Christum 
etiam deum esse hoc ipso probat, a quo accepit quae nuntiat; 
ut testimonium Christo diuinitatis grande sit, dum minor 15 

2. Jo. xvi 14 'De meo accipiet 
et annuntiabit uobis,' Vulg. The 
language of N. may perhaps be 
interpreted in the same way as that 
of John xiv 26. Tertullian quoting 
the same text (adu. Prax. 25) says 
' de meo sumet, inquit, sicut ipse de 
patris.' N. does not attempt to draw 
any inference from this text with 
regard to the 'procession' of the 
Spirit ; as for example Basil does, 
de Spiritu Sane to xviii 46. Cp. 
Franzelin Tractalus de Deo Trino 
p. 452 foil. ; de Processione S. s. 
p. 47 foil. 

7. et fallit cet.] Mark the argu- 
ment from the moral character of 

9. aut non nos sq.] ' Other- 
wise as is the case He does not 
deceive us, and the Paraclete has 
received of Christ that which He 
shall announce.' 

n. maior ergo iam paraclito 
Christus est] Similarly in a letter of 
Athanasius to Serapion (i 21, 25) 
it is laid down that the Spirit has the 
same TO,IS and (f>v<ris in relation to 
the Son that the Son has in relation 
to the Father. Cp. Westcott ad loc. 

This statement of Novatian was mis- 
understood, and gained for the trea- 
tise some circulation, owing to the 
efforts of 'certain heretics who 
blaspheme against the Holy Spirit,' 
as to whom consult Introd. 21. 
An early editor, John Gangneius, 
altered the text into conformity with 
Catholic statement, reading 'Sed 
si a Christo accepit quae nuntiet, 
non est homo tantummodo Christus 
a quo accepit Paracletus Deus non 
minor, quoniam nee Paracletus a 
Christo acciperet nisi Deus esset 
Christus. Christus ergo se Deum 
esse hoc ipso probat, quod ab eo 
accepit Paracletus quae nuntiat: ut 
testimonium... sit dum ab illo Para- 
cletus sumit quae ceteris tradit.' 

14. 'By this very fact proves 
Christ to be God, from whom He 
has received what He announces.' 
The question of the Deity of the 
Holy Ghost (as against the Sabellian 
view of a mere emanation, or the 
later view of Macedonius and the 
Pneumatomachi that He is a Krlff^a 
or Troika) is not raised in this 



Christo paraclitus repertus ab illo sumit quae ceteris tradit. 
quandoquidem si homo tantummodo Christus, a paraclito 
Christus acciperet quae diceret, non a Christo paraclitus 
acciperet quae nuntiaret. 

5 Si homo tantummodo Christus, quare credendi nobis talem 
regulam posuit, quo diceret : haec est autem uita aeterna ut sciant 
te unum et uerum deum, et quern misisti lesum Christum"? si 
noluisset se etiam deum intellegi, cur addidit: et quern misisti 
lesum Christum, nisi quoniam et deum accipi uoluit ? quoniam 

10 si se deum nollet intellegi, addidisset: et quern misisti hominem 
lesum Christum, nunc autem neque addidit, nee se hominem 
nobis tantummodo Christus tradidit, sed deo iunxit, ut et deum 
per hanc coniunctionem, sicut est, intellegi uellet. est ergo cre- 
dendum, secundum praescriptam regulam, in dominum, unum 

15 uerum deum, et in eum quern misit lesum Christum conse- 
quenter, qui se nequaquam patri, ut diximus, iunxisset, nisi deum 
quoque intellegi uellet. separasset enim ab eo, si deum intellegi 
se noluisset. inter homines enim tantummodo se collocasset, si 
hominem se esse tantummodo sciret, nee cum deo iunxisset, 

20 si se non et deum nosset. nunc et de homine tacet, quoniam 
hominem ilium nemo dubitat, et deo se iungit merito, ut 
credituris diuinitatis suae formulam poneret. 

9 se uoluit coni. We. 13 se uellet font. We, 
We. ab eo y. : se ab eo Pa. 

17 se uellet coni. 

6. regulam] cp. n. on i i. 

ib. quo] here equivalent to 'ut,' 
' as to say.' 

ib. Jo. xvii 3 Vulg. has 'Ut 
cognoscant te solum deum uerum.' 

15. consequenter] 'similarly' 
or ' in consequence,' sc. of His being 
placed next to the Father. 

20. nunc et de homine...] 'as it 
is, He says nothing about the Man- 

21. 'In order to lay down the 
definition of His Divinity for those 
who should believe. ' ' Formula ' is 
a lawyer's term, probably in use 
among the Stoics; it is found in 
Seneca, whose influence on N. it 

illustrates. Cf. Hor. Sat. II iii 45 
'haec magnos formula reges ex- 
cepto sapiente tenet.' See Introd. 


23. The argument, like many 
others in the treatise, falls into 
syllogisms : thus 

(a) No one can have anything, 

unless he first exists. 
Christ had glory before the 

Therefore Christ was before 

the world. 

(b] No mere man could have 

glory before the world: 
Christ had this: therefore 
Christ was not mere man. 




Si homo tantummodo Christus, quomodo dicit : et nunc 
honorifica me gloria quam habebam apud te priusquam mundus 
essett si antequam mundus esset gloriam habuit apud deum 
et claritatem tenuit apud patrem, ante mundum fuit: nee enim 
habuisset gloriam, nisi ipse prius fuisset, qui gloriam posset 5 
tenere. nemo enim habere aliquid poterit, nisi ante ipse fuerit, 
qui aliquid tenet, sed enim Christus habet gloriam ante mundi 
institutionem; ergo ante institutionem mundi fuit. nisi enim ante 
institutionem mundi esset, ante mundi institutionem gloriam 
habere non posset, cum ipse non esset. sed enim homo gloriam 10 
ante mundi institutionem habere non potuit, qui post mundum 
fuit: Christus autem habuit : ante mundum igitur fuit. non igitur 
homo tantummodo fuit, qui ante mundum fuit: deus est igitur, 
quoniam ante mundum fuit et gloriam ante mundum tenuit. 
nee praedestinatio ista dicatur, quoniam nee posita est. aut 15 
addant hoc qui hoc putant. sed uae est adicientibus, quo modo 
et detrahentibus, positum. non potest ergo dici quod non 
potest adici. sublata ergo praedestinatione, quae non est 
posita, in substantia fuit Christus ante mundi institutionem. 
uerbum est enim per quod fact a sunt omnia, et sine quo factum 20 
est nihil. quoniam et si in praedestinatione dicitur gloriosus, 
et ante mundi institutionem fuisse praedestinationem, ordo 
seruetur, et ante hunc erit multus numerus hominum in gloriam 
destinatus. minor enim per istam destinationem Christus 
ceteris intellegetur, quibus posterior denotatur. nam si haec 25 

7 habuit corr. We. 

i. Jo. xvii 5 Vulg. 'Et nunc 
clarifica me tu...claritate quam 

1 5 . posita est] ' expressly stated ' : 
cf. p. 64. 9 'quia Deus positus est.' 
So immediately below, ' positum ' 
denotes 'the written word.' 

16. Apoc. xxii 18, 19 Vulg. 'si- 
quis apposuerit...siquis diminuerit 
de uerbis.' Cp. Dent, iv 2, xii 32; 
Prov. xxx 6, 13. But the word uae 
(oucu) does not occur in any of these 

25 intellegetur a : -itur y al. 

21. ' Since even granted that it 
is in predestination that He is called 
glorious, and that it is said that the 
predestination was before the foun- 
dation of the world, the order of time 
must be observed' etc. For the 
force of the subjunctive seruetur cp. 
' dicatur ' in line 20. 

23. Cp. Heb. ii 10. 

25. denotatur] 'designated' as 
in pp. 7. 8, 13. 14, and de Cib. 
lud. ii 'inconstans uideri denotabi- 



gloria in praedestinatione fuit, praedestinationem istam in 
gloriam nouissimus Christus accepit: ante enim praedestinatus 
Adam esse cernetur, et Abel, et Enoch, et Noe, et Abraham, et 
reliqui ceteri. nam cum apud deum et personarum et rerum 
5 omnium ordo digestus sit, ante hanc praedestinationem Christi 
in gloriam multi praedestinati fuisse dicentur, et hoc pacto 
minor ceteris hominibus Christus esse deprehendetur, qui 
melior et maior et antiquior ipsis quoque angelis inuenitur. 
aut haec igitur omnia tollantur, ut Christo diuinitas auferatur: 

10 aut si haec tolli non possunt, Christo ab haereticis diuinitas 
propria reddatur. 

XVII. Quid si Moyses hanc eandem regulam ueritatis 17 
exsequitur, et hoc in principio suarum nobis tradidit litte- 
rarum, quo discamus omnia creata et condita esse per dei 

15 nlium, hoc est per dei uerbum? id enim dicit quod loannes, 
quod ceteri; immo et loannes et ceteri ab hoc intelleguntur 
accepisse quod dicant. si enim loannes dicit: omnia per 

6 in gloriam Ja : -a edd. Cf. 1. 2. 7 -itur edd. : corr. Ja. 

9 non auferatur edd. : corr. We. 10 si haec t. n. possunt a : si haec 

in praedestinatione tantum dici non possunt G 7 glossema manifestum. 
14 discamus a : dicamus al. 

9. The argument is again a di- 
lemma: Christ was glorified either 
by predestination or else in His own 
personal essence (in substantia, ov- 
<rtoj5cDs) : if by predestination, He is 
shewn to be inferior to Adam, Abel 
etc., which is absurd : therefore He 
was glorified personally, and is 

ib. haec omnia] The arguments 
of chapters xi xvi. 

XVII. The same Rule of Truth 
appears at the beginning of the Books 
of Moses, in the account of the 
Creation by the Word of God, after- 
wards the Man Christ Jesus. 
Moses tells us that God made 
man; and the Evangelist, that 
through the Word of God all things 
(and consequently man] were made. 
It follows that Christ is God; and 

that in regard to His Person the 
O.T. and the N.T. are comple- 
mentary. To deny His Godhead is 
to contradict both Testaments. Moses 
assigns to God attributes of infinity, 
etc. And yet he introduces Him 
descending to the Tower of Babel 
and speaking actions which imply 
finite conditions. The reference can- 
not be to the Father nor to an Angel, 
but to the Son of God, who is higher 
than the Angels. 

13. et hoc in principio sq.] 'and 
has given us enough, in the begin- 
ning of his writings, to teach us ' 
etc. A verbal reference to Gen. i i. 

14. quo discamus] cp. the use 
of quo in p. 56. 6. 

1 6. ceteri] sc. the other Sacred 
Writers (not only the Evangelists). 




ipsum facta sunt, et sine ipso factum est nihil\ prophetes autem 
refert : dico ego opera mea regi ; Moyses autem introducit 
praecipientem deum ut lux fiat in primis, caelum firmetur, 
aquae congregentur, arida ostendatur, fructus secundum semina 
prouocetur, animalia producantur, luminaria in caelo atque 5 
astra ponantur; non alium ostendit tune adfuisse deo cui 
praeciperentur haec opera ut fierent, nisi eum per quern facta 
sunt omnia, et sine quo factum est nihil. ac si hie uerbum 
dei est (nam eructauit cor meum uerbum bonum) ostendit in prin- 
cipio uerbum fuisse, et uerbum hoc apud patrem fuisse, deum 10 
praeterea uerbum fuisse, omnia per ipsum facta esse. sed 
enim hoc uerbum caro factum est, et habitauit in nobis, Christus 
scilicet filius dei ; quern, dum et postmodum secundum carnem 
hominem accipimus, et ante mundi institutionem dei uerbum et 
deum uidemus, merito secundum institutionem ueteris et noui 15 
testamenti et deum et hominem Christum lesum et credimus 
et tenemus. 

Quid si idem Moyses introducit dicentem deum : faciamus 
hominem ad imaginem et similitiidinem nostram ; et infra : et 
fecit deus hominem, ad imaginem dei fecit ilium, masculum 20 
et feminam fecit eos? si, ut iam docuimus, dei filius est 
per quern facta sunt omnia, utique dei filius est per quern 
etiam homo institutus est, propter quern facta sunt omnia. 
sed enim deo praecipiente ut homo fiat, deus refertur esse 
qui hominem facit : facit autem hominem dei filius, uerbum 25 

1. Jo. i 3. 

2. Ps. xliv 2 (xlv i). See above, 
xiii p. 42. 10 with note. 

6. It is not easy to decide 
whether N. had or had not before 
his mind the interpretation of Genesis 
i i, which appears largely in later 
Latin writers, by which ' in prin- 
cipio ' (ev apxy) is made to mean 'in 
the personal Word, who is the 
Beginning.' See for ex. Aug. Conf. 
xi 1 1, with Dr Gibb's note. 

ib. cui praeciperentur haec 
opera ut flerent] ' on whom was to 
be laid the command that these 

works should be made.' 

13. postmodum] sc. after the 
Incarnation: in xxxi, p. 118 1. 7 
the word has the same reference. 

1 5 . institutionem] ' instruction , ' 
but in 1. 14 'inauguration' or 'be- 
ginning': cp. iii i note. The two 
senses are not far apart. 

1 8. Gen. i 26, 27. Vulg. reads 
in v. 27 'creauit' for 'fecit.' 

23. The argument turns on the 
assumption that the ' God ' who 
made man is the person addressed 
when ' God ' said ' Let us make.' 




scilicet dei, per quern facta sunt omnia^ et sine quo factum est 
nihil. hoc autem uerbum caro factum est, et habitauit in 
nobis: ergo Christus est deus. per Christum igitur homo 
factus est, ut per dei filium. sed deus hominem ad 
5 imaginem dei fecit; deus est ergo qui fecit hominem ad 
imaginem dei ; deus ergo Christus est. ut merito nee ueteris 
testamenti circa personam Christi uacillet auctoritas, dum noui 
testamenti manifestatione fulcitur, nee noui testamenti inter- 
cepta sit potestas, dum radicibus ueteris testamenti eiusdem 

10 nititur ueritas. ex quo, qui Christum, dei filium et hominis, 
tantummodo praesumunt hominem, non et deum, contra 
testamentum et uetus et nouum faciunt, dum et ueteris et 
noui testamenti auctoritatem ueritatemque corrumpunt. 

Quid si idem Moyses ubique introducit deum patrem im- 

15 mensum atque sine fine, non qui loco cludatur, sed qui omnem 
locum cludat : nee eum qui in loco sit, sed potius in quo omnis 
locus sit: omnia continentem et cuncta complexum, ut merito 
nee descendat nee ascendat, quoniam ipse omnia et continet et 
implet : et tamen nihilominus introducit deum descendentem 

20 ad turrem quam aedificabant filii hominum, considerare quae- 
rentem, et dicentem : uenite et mox descendamus^ et confundamus 

20 considerate coni. We. 

7. personam] equivalent of 
v-7r6ffTa<ns in the Greek Fathers. 
Cp. Westcott on Hebr. i 3, where 
however viroffrao-ts has the earlier 
sense of ouata 'essence' (Vulg. 'sub- 
stantiae'). The later use appears 
in the Cappadocian formula pla. 
ovcrla v rpifflv viroa'Tdcreffiv. See 
In trod. 7 on ' Person.' 

8. manifestatione] 'revelation,' 
sc. of Christ. This is parallel to 
the saying of Augustine (Quaest. 73 
in Exod.} 'nouum testamentum in 
uetere latet, uetus t. in nouo patet ' 
and in his de Catech. Rudibus 8 ' in 
ueteri t. est occultatio noui, in nouo 
t. est manifestatio ueteris.' It is to 
be understood on the principle that 
throughout the Bible Christ is 
preached (Rev. xix 10). 

ib. intercepta] ' undermined ' ; 
cp. p. 63. 14 'ne maiestatis ipsius... 
fulgore intercipi possit.' For this 
use of the word cp. Plin. Pan eg. 75 
'quae uos, ne qua interciperet ob- 
liuio, in acta mittenda censuistis.' 

15. non qui loco cludatur] 
expresses the attribute 'incompre- 
hensible' (Gk d%t6/)?7To$, Lat. 'im- 
mensus') of the Quicwnque uult. 

1 1 . uenite et mox descendamus] 
Gen. xi 7. The words 'et mox' 
present a difficulty. Previous editors 
have printed them as N.'s own 
words, separating ' uenite ' from 'de- 
scendamus' in order to emphasize 
the fact that others are invited to 
accompany the speaker. But in 
that case we should have expected 
in 1. 6 infra to read simply ' uenite, 




illic ipsorum linguas ut non audiat unusquisque uocem proximi 
sui? quern uolunt hie deum descendisse ad turrem illam, et 
homines tune illos uisitare quaerentem ? deum patrem ? ergo 
iam loco cluditur : et quomodo ipse omnia complectitur ? aut 
numquid angelum cum angelis dicit descendentem, et dicen- 5 
tern : uenite et mox descendamus, et confimdamus illic ipsorum 
linguasl sed enim in Deuteronomio animaduertimus rettulisse 
deum haec, deumque dixisse, ubi ponitur : cum disseminaret 
filios Adam, statuit fines gentium iuxta numerum angelorum dei. 
neque ergo pater descendit, ut res indicat; neque angelus ista 10 
praecipit, ut res probat. superest ergo, ut ille descenderit, de 
quo apostolus Paulus : qui descendit, ipse est qui ascendit super 
omnes caelos, ut impleret omnia, hoc est dei films, dei uerbum. 
uerbum autem dei caro factum est, et habitauit in nobis : hie 
erit Christus: deus ergo pronuntiabitur Christus. 15 

18 XVIII. Ecce idem Moyses refert alio in loco, quod 

descendamus.' It is a more satis- 
factory view that ' et mox ' forms 
part of the quotation, which answers 
to SeCre AccJ Kara/Sabres avyxt^nev 
of LXX. It may be conjectured 
that some such word as T&x a had 
found its way into the Greek text 
after Kal, and that N.'s version re- 
produces this. 

5. numquid angelum cet.] scil. 
it was no mere Angel. 

7. Deut. xxxii 8 ; Vulg. ' Quando 
separabat filios Adam, constituit 
terminos populorum iuxta numerum 
filiorum Israel' : but LXX has ws 
ditcnreipev utoiis 'ASd/z,, &m;(rej> opta 
idv&v Kara apid^bv ayytXav 6eov. 
The argument is contained in 
' rettulisse deum haec,' scil. 'non 
angelum.' N. makes the 'dissemi- 
natio' refer to the dispersion at 
the Tower of Babel. 

ii. ut ille descenderit] Bp 
Bull D. F. N. iv iii holds that the 
ante-Nicene Fathers for the most part 
expressed themselves unguardedly, 
in their zeal to prove, as against the 
heretics, that the Person of the Son is 
distinct from the Father. Thus they 

seem to forget that the nature of the 
Son is no less 'inuisibilis et im- 
mensa' than that of the Father. In 
reality, however, they held that the 
Son, as having His origin from the 
Father, can hold the office of Angel 
or Announcer of His Will, and 
while equally invisible and 'in- 
comprehensible, ' did ' by way of an 
economy ' shew Himself in certain 
places to men by means of certain 
sensible symbols of His presence. 

12. Eph. iv 10. 

XVII I . Moses says that God was 
seen by Abraham: and yet he says 
elsewhere that no one can see God 
and live; and so the N. T. It 
follows that not the Father but the 
Son was seen. He is the Image of 
God, through whose vision man 
may in time rise to the vision of God. 

As the sun does not rise upon a 
sudden in noontide splendour, thus 
human vision is gradually habi- 
tuated to the vision of the Son and 
shall at last behold the Father. 
Hence it is the Son of God, the Word, 
who has been seen and has dwelt 

among us. 




Abrahae uisus sit deus. atqui idem Moyses audit a deo, 
quod nemo hominum deum uideat et uiuat. si uideri non 
potest deus, quomodo uisus est deus? aut si uisus est, 
quomodo uideri non potest? nam et loannes, deum nemo, 
5 inquit, uidit umquam ; et apostolus Paulus : quern uidit 
hominum nemo, nee uidere potest. sed non utique scriptura 
mentitur; ergo uere uisus est deus. ex quo intellegi potest, 
quod non pater uisus sit, qui numquam uisus est, sed filius, 
qui et descendere solitus est, et uideri quia descenderit. imago 
10 est enim inuisibilis dei, ut mediocritas et fragilitas condicionis 
humanae deum patrem uidere aliquando iam tune assuesceret 
in imagine dei, hoc est, in filio dei. gradatim enim et 
per incrementa fragilitas humana nutriri debuit per imaginem 

The Angel who could promise 
Hagar a son was Divine: not God 
the Father, for an Angel is subject to 
another, bitt God the Son, the Angel 
of Great Counsel. Thus those here- 
tics gainsay the O.T. who pronounce 
Christ an Angel but not God. 

The Angel (one of three] who visited 
Abraham at the oak of Mamre, and 
was addressed by him as Lord, 
cannot have been God the Father, 
who is invisible, nor a mere Angel, 
who is finite, but God the Son alone, 
and the feast that followed was itself 
a mystery. Again, it is repeatedly 
said ' The Lord rained on Sodom fire 
from the Lord.'' Thus Christ, the 
Son of God, the Word begotten of 
the Father before Abraham was, be- 
came the guest of Abraham. 

The Angel at his second visit 
to Hagar speaks again as Lord and 
God, the Angel of Great Counsel. 
Christ is declared in Scripture to be 
not only Man but Angel, not only 
Angel but God, who sets forth the 
heart of the Father. 

i. Gen. xii 7 u(f>6rj Ktfpios ry 
i, LXX, 'apparuit,' Vulg. 
Exod. xxxiii 20. 

1 Jo. iv 12. 

2 Tim. vi 16 Vulg. 'quern 
nullus hominum uidit, sed nee uidere 


9. imago est enim] dK&v in 
Col. i 15, on which see Bishop 
Lightfoot's note, and Jo. i 18 : cf. 
XapaKT-rip in Hebr. i 3.' The arche- 
type has its copy, the seal its 
impression. Hippol. c. Noet. 7 5t<i 
yap rrjs elic6vos oftoias TvyxavoiJO"rjs 
eflyv oxrros 6 irar^p ylverai : Tertull. 
adu. Marc, v 19 'scientes filium 
semper retro uisum, si quibus uisus 
est in dei nomine, ut imaginem ip- 
sius. ' 

10. mediocritas] cp. p. 38. 16 
'si mediocritates in illo approbant 
humanam fragilitatem.' So here 
'that ordinary human frailty might 
grow accustomed ' etc. Aliquando 
(with 'uidere') 'at length.' Cp. 
de Lattd. Mart, xxv ' despecta nostra 
fragilitas.' For the thought cp. 
Irenaeus v 35. i, 36. 2. 

13. per imaginem] 'by the 
image,' i.e. express presentment to 
human sight. The vision of God 
in the 'O.T. is similarly discussed 
by Tertullian : ' God was seen ac- 
cording to men's capacity, not 
according to the fulness of His 
Divinity'; and again 'we are to 
understand the Father to be invisible 
according to the fulness of His 
majesty, but the Son visible in the 
exact degree of His derivation 
(pro modulo deriuationis), ' sc. from 



ad istam gloriam, ut deum patrem uidere possit aliquando. 
periculosa sunt enim quae magna sunt, si repentina sunt. 
nam etiam lux solis subita post tenebras splendore nimio 
insuetis oculis non ostendet diem, sed potius faciet caecitatem. 
quod ne in damnum humanorum contingat oculorum, pau- 5 
latim disruptis et dissipatis tenebris, ortus luminaris istius 
mediocribus incrementis fallenter assurgens oculos hominum 
sensim assuefacit ad totum orbem suum ferendum per incre- 
menta radiorum. sic ergo et Christus, id est imago dei et 
films dei, ab hominibus inspicitur, qua poterat uideri. et ideo 10 
fragilitas et mediocritas sortis humanae per ipsum alitur, pro- 
ducitur, educatur, ut aliquando deum quoque ipsum patrem, 
assueta filium conspicere, possit, ut est, uidere; ne maiestatis 
ipsius repentino et intolerabili fulgore percussa intercipi possit, 
ut deum patrem quern semper optauit uidere non possit. ex 15 
quo films est hie qui uidetur; dei autem filius, dei uerbum 
est; dei autem uerbum caro factum est et habitauit in nobis: 
hie autem Christus est. quae, malum, ratio est ut dubitetur 
deus dici, qui tot modis deus intellegitur approbari? 

Ac si et Agar ancillam Sarae de domo eiectam pariter et 20 
fugatam angelus conuenit apud fontem aquae in uia Sur, fugae 

i posset edd. : Ja corr. 
suppl. ex a. 

the Fountain of all Being. He 
illustrates by the analogy of the sun 
and his rays ; the latter we endure 
* pro temperatura portionis quae in 
terram inde [sc. a sole] porrigitur' 
(adu. Praxean c. xiv). But he has 
not Novatian's fine comparison of 
the growing Vision of God to the 
breaking of the dawn. 

3. lux solis subita] Cp. ch. ii, 
p. 8. 20 sq. 

1 1 . producitur] ' is advanced. ' 

12. 'That at last... it may be able 
to see God the Father also as He 
is.' So i Jo. iii 6 ' quoniam uide- 
bimus eum (sc. 'deum,' according 
to N.) sicuti est.' The mediation 
of Christ between the Infinite God- 

19 qui tot modis d. i. adprobari Pa 

head and finite human intelligence 
is well expressed in a passage 
quoted by Jackson: Euseb. De- 
monstr. Euang. iv 6 ws av ^ 
iravTeX&s rj rdv yfvvrjT&v dtroTrfooi 
0i/(Tis 3t' oiKelav drovtav Kal ddvva/mlav 
rrjs dyevv-^rov Kal dx^p^rov TrarpiKijs 
ofxrtas dieffTuxra, f^voi d Kal ct#ot 
rptyoiro T^S n^ffy* diroKatiovaa 
s, rjv 6 fJiovoyevr)* TOV 6eov 
ot/Trore rots irdffiv eirapK&v 
8ta\ifji,Trdj>i, Trdvrfi d ^wpwi' Kal 
dia irdvTWv 7rept7ropeu6/uevos, TTOVTUV 
ti- fays TTJS (TUTyplas -rrpovoei. 

14. intercipi] see p. 60. 8 note. 

1 8. quae, malum, ratio] a 
startling colloquialism : ' what reason 
in the world?' 

6 4 



causas interrogat atque accipit, et post haec humilitatis con- 
silia porrigit, spem praeterea illi materni nominis facit, quod- 
que ex utero eius multum semen esset futurum spondet atque 
promittit, et quod Ismael ex ilia nasci haberet, et cum ceteris 
5 aperit locum habitationis ipsius, actumque describit: hunc 
autem angelum et dominum scriptura proponit et deum 
(nam nee benedictionem seminis promisisset, nisi angelus et 
deus fuisset) : quaerant quid in praesenti loco haeretici tractent. 
pater fuit iste qui ab A gar uisus est, an non ? quia deus positus 

10 est. sed absit deum patrem angelum dicere; ne alteri sub- 
ditus sit, cuius angelus fuerit. sed angelum dicent fuisse. 
quomodo ergo deus erit, si angelus fuit, cum non sit hoc 
nomen angelis umquam concessum? nisi quoniam ex utroque 
latere nos ueritas in istam concludit sententiam, qua intellegere 

15 debeamus dei filium fuisse: qui, quoniam ex deo est, merito 
deus, quia dei filius, dictus sit, quoniam patri subditus et 
annuntiator paternae uoluntatis est, magni consilii angelus 
pronuntiatus est. ergo si hie locus neque personae patris 

14 qua Pa : quia y al. 
1 8 hie om. y al, suppl. Pa. 

1 6 patri subditus et om. y al. suppL Pa. 

4. 'And that Ishmael was to be 
born from her': late Lat. peri- 
phrasis for future, from which the 
Italian and French fut. is com- 
pounded ('facere habeo' = 'faro,' 
'ferai'). Cp. xix, p. 70. 8. 

5. ipsius] sc. of Ishmael. Cum 
ceteris ' among other things.' 

ib. actum] ' manner of life.' 
Cp. Cypr. de Unit, 21 'sit in actu 
suo cum disciplina modestus'; de 
Laps. 21 'actus nostri et animi 
secreta . . . ponderemus ' ; de Domin. 
Or. 14 'quominus...noster animus 
atque actus deo obsequatur'; and 
Pseudo-Cypr. de Spect. \ ' in uitae 
actu graues.' 

8. quaerant...] 'the heretics 
must consider what they make of 
the passage in question.' 

9. positus est] 'is stated, de- 
clared,' as in p. 57. 20. 

13. nisi quoniam] 'unless it is 

the case that,' giving the true hypo- 
thesis. Cf. p. 46. i, infra p. 65. 22. 
14. qua] sc. 'sententia': some 
emend, needlessly, to quia. 

16. dictus sit] The subjunctive 
is merely due to the subjective 
character of the particle 'merito,' 
' It follows that He is declared to 
be God.' 

17. Isaiah ix 6 LXX fteydXys 
j3ov\i)s ayye\os, Vulg. 'admirabilis 
consiliarius deus fortis.' The word 
' angelus ' in this connexion came to 
be distasteful. Jerome quotes the 
passage with 'nuntius' in its place 
(see Sabatier in loc.). Cp. the 
'Angel of the Covenant,' Mai. iii i. 
On this idea of a Theophany in O.T. 
times see Speaker's Comm. on Gen. 
xii 7. 

18. The argument is : He is both 
God and Angel ; terms which only 
meet in the Person of the Son of 


congruit, ne angelus dictus sit, neque personae angeli, ne 
deus pronuntiatus sit; personae autem Christ! conuenit ut et 
deus sit, quia dei films est, et angelus sit, quoniam paternae 
dispositionis annuntiator est: intellegere debent contra scrip- 
turas se agere haeretici, qui Christum cum dicant se et 5 
angelum credere, nolint ilium etiam deum pronuntiare, quern 
in ueteri testamento ad uisitationem generis humani legunt 
saepe uenisse. 

Adhuc adiecit Moyses, Abrahae uisum deum apud quer- 
cum Mambre, sedente ipso ad ostium tabernaculi sui meridie, 10 
et nihilominus, cum tres conspexisset uiros, unum ex illis 
dominum nuncupasse; quorum cum pedes lauisset, cinericios 
panes cum butyro et ipsius copia lactis offert, et ut hospites 
retenti uescerentur, hortatur. post quae et quod pater futurus 
esset, audit; et quod Sara uxor eius paritura ex ipso filium 15 
esset, ediscit ; et de exitu Sodomitarum, quae merebantur 
pati, recognoscit; et quod propter clamorem Sodomorum deus 
descendisset, addiscit. quo in loco si patrem uolunt uideri 
tune fuisse cum angelis duobus hospitio receptum, patrem 
uisibilem haeretici crediderunt: si autem angelum, cum ex 20 
angelis tribus unus dominus nuncupatur, cur, quod non solet, 
angelus deus dicitur? nisi quoniam, .ut deo patri inuisibilitas 
propria reddatur, et angelo propria mediocritas remittatur, non 
nisi dei filius, qui et deus est, Abrahae uisus et hospitio 
receptus esse credetur. quod enim erat futurus, meditabatur 25 
in sacramento Abrahae factus hospes, apud Abrahae filios 

God. The same argument is found same as that of lines 18 4 (pp. 64, 

also in Hilary de Trin. iv 23 : v. 65). 

Bp Bull D. F. N. IV iii 8, 14. 25. 'For when He became the 

' Hie locus,' the passage of Scripture guest of Abraham, He rehearsed 

about Hagar. (' meditabatur ') in a mystery (or 

ib. personae patris] z/. Introd. 7. sacramentally) that which He was 

n. Gen. xviii i. about to be, because He was one 

12. cinericios] Gen. xviii 6 day to be the like with Abraham's 

Vulg. 'fac subcinericios panes.' sons, whose feet He washed in 

16. exitu] Cp. p. 25. 8 'urbium token that it was He: requiting 

et ciuitatium exitus. ' in the sons the right of hospitality 

23. mediocritas] 'inferior posi- which their father had once upon 

tion,' here of angels as in p. 62. 10 a time advanced to Him (as a 

supra of man. The thought is the kind of loan).' It is best to supply 

F. N. q 


futurus; cuius filiorum pedes, ad probationem quod ipse esset, 
abluit; reddens in filiis ius hospitalitatis, quod aliquando illi 
faenerauerat pater, unde et ne qua esset dubitatio quin iste 
Abrahae hospes fuisset, in Sodomitarum exitu ponitur : 
5 quoniam pluit dominus super Sodomam et Gomorrham ignem 
et sulpur a domino de caelo. sic enim et prophetes ex 
persona dei : subuerti uos, inquit, sicut subuertit dominus 
Sodomam et Gomorrham. dominus ergo Sodomam subuertit, 
id est, deus Sodomam subuertit: sed in subuersione Sodo- 

10 morum dominus pluit ignem a domino, hie autem dominus 

uisus est Abrahae deus: deus autem hie hospes est Abrahae 

uisus utique quia tactus. sed cum pater, quia inuisibilis, nee 

. tune utique uisus sit, uisus est et hospitio receptus et acceptus 

est, qui solitus est tangi et uideri: hie autem films dei 

15 dominus a domino pluit super Sodomam et Gomorrham sulpur 
atque ignem. hie autem dei uerbum est: uerbum autem dei 
caro factum est> et habitauit in nobis : hie autem Christus est. 
non pater igitur apud Abraham hospes, sed Christus fuit; nee 
tune pater uisus est, sed films; uisus autem est Christus. 

20 merito igitur Christus et dominus et deus est, qui non aliter 
Abrahae uisus est, nisi quia ante ipsum Abraham ex patre deo 
deus sermo generatus est. 

Adhuc, inquit, idem angelus et deus eandem Agar, fugatam 
de domo Abrahae cum puero, consolatur et uisitat. nam cum 

25 ilia in solitudine exposuisset infantem, quia aqua defecisset ex 
utre, cumque puer ille clamasset, fletum et planctum leuasset, 
et audiuit, inquit scriptura, deus uocem pueri de loco ubi erat. 

12 quia 7 We: qua Pa. 13 hospitibus 7 Pa: corr. We. 14 filius 
qui solitus coni. Ja. 22 deus sermo 7 edd. We Ja: deus Pa. 

hospes with futurus. It is note- teaching ' duos esse Decs' ; and 

worthy that the application of the before him by Iren. iii 6. 
'Three Men' in a Trinitarian sense 7. Amos iv n. 

does not appear in Novatian. 21. ante ipsum Abraham] Jo. 

5. pluit dominus... a domino] viii 58. 

Gen. xix 24, quoted by Tertull. 27. et audiuit] Gen. xxi 17. 

adu. Prax. xiii in replying to the LXX elff-fjKovae 5e, which is closely 

heretics who accuse the Church of followed here (as generally by No- 


cum deum esse, qui uocem audisset infantis, rettulisset, adiecit : 
et uocauit angelus domini ipsam Agar de caelo; angelum referens 
esse quern deum dixerat, et dominum pronuntians esse 
quern angelum collocarat'. quique angelus et deus adhuc ipsi 
Agar promittit maiora solacia, dicendo: ne timueris; exaudiui 5 
enim uocem pueri de loco ubi erat. surge, sume puerum, et tene : 
in gentem enim magnam faciam eum. hie angelus, si angelus 
tantum est, cur hoc sibi uindicat ut dicat: in gentem enim 
magnam faciam eum, cum hoc utique genus potentiae dei sit, 
angeli esse non possit? ex quo etiam deus confirmatur esse 10 
qui hoc potest facere. quoniam ut hoc ipsum comprobetur, 
adicitur per scripturam statim: et aperuit deus oculos etus, et 
uidit puteum aquae uiuae, et abiit, et impleuit utrem de puteo, et 
dedit puero, et erat deus cum puero. si ergo hie deus erat cum 
puero, qui aperuit oculos Agar, ut uideret puteum aquae uiuae 1 5 
et hauriret aquam propter urgentem sitis necessitatem ; hie 
autem deus e caelo illam uocat ; angelus dictus, cum superius 
uocem audiens clamantis pueri deus esset potius, non alius 
intellegitur quam angelus esse pariter et deus. quod cum 
patri competens et conueniens esse non possit, qui tantummodo 20 
deus est, competens autem esse possit Christo, qui non tantum- 
modo deus sed et angelus pronuntiatus est, manifeste apparet 

i uocem audiuit infantis corr. Ja ex ms. Wow. 4 quique] fortasse 

qui. 1 8 potius] positus corr. Ja. 

vatian in O.T. quotations). Gal- 17. 'He who is called an Angel, 

landius' conjecture 'exaudiuit' (from although, earlier in the narrative, 

Vulg.) is unwarranted. when He heard the cry of the boy, 

4. collocarat] 'had represen- it was rather God, is understood, 

ted': cp. pp. 30. 1 8, 95. 8. etc.' Jackson emends Deus esset 

ib. quique] ' He, being Angel positus, thus weakening the text, 

and God,' introducing a fresh sen- Hie... uocat depends on si ergo: the 

tence. apodosis begins at angelus dictus, 

6. Gen. xxi 18. the subject to inlellegitur. 

8. cur hoc sibi cet.] ' why does 20. competens et conueniens] 

he claim the power of saying...?' 'appropriate and becoming.' Cp. 

12. Gen. xxi 19, 20. note on 'non qui loco cludatur,' 

13. uiuae] ^TOS LXX: not in p. 60. 15. A good instance of com- 
Vulg. petere in this sense is in Tert. de 

14. Me deus erat] Both here Bapt. 4 ' quamquam ad simplicem 
and in line 17 below, the word actum competat similitudo.' 

' deus ' has the force of a predicate. 

5 2 


non patrem ibi tune locutum fuisse ad Agar, sed Christum 
potius, cum deus sit, cui etiam angeli competit nomen, quippe 
cum magni consilii angelus factus sit; angelus autem sit, dum 
exponit sinum patris, sicut Joannes edicit. si enim ipse 
5 loannes hunc eundem, qui sinum exponit patris, uerbum dicit 
carnem factum esse, ut sinum patris posset exponere, merito 
Christus non solum homo est, sed et angelus; nee angelus 
tantum, sed et deus per scripturas ostenditur, et a nobis hoc 
esse creditur, ne, si non Christum tune locutum ad Agar 

10 uoluerimus accipere, aut angelum deum faciamus, aut deum 
patrem omnipotentem inter angelos computemus. 

XIX. Quid si et alio in loco similiter legimus deum 19 
angelum positum? nam cum apud uxores suas Liam atque 
Rachel lacob de patris illarum iniquitate quereretur, et cum 

15 referret quod iam in terram propriam remeare et reuerti 
cuperet, somnii quoque sui interponebat auctoritatem, quo 
tempore refert sibi angelum dei per somnium dixisse: lacob, 

4 si enim a : sed enim al. 7 sed et angelus a : sed angelus y aL 

4. exponit sinum] ' sets forth // prefigures the contention between 

the bosom,' i.e. inmost purpose. Christ and the Jews : in which they 

The expression is based upon Jo. i gained the victory of their un- 

18 6 &v ets r6v K.b\irov roO irarpbs righteousness, but were thereby lamed 

tKeivos ^yrjffoiro. Cf. Tertull. adu. in the walk of faith and safety. 

Prax. xxi 'hie unus sinum Patris The new name Israel symbolizes the 

disseruit, non sinum suum Pater ' : vision of Him with whom Jacob 

Tract. pseudo-Origen, 102. 20 sq. wrestled: he held Him fast as Man 

' sermo diuinus qui sinum Patris but asked His blessing as God. In 

enarrauit': and below, xxviii, p. 101 the Gospel this mystery is fulfilled, 

1. 1 6. The word e^y^o-aro in St the guilt of the Jews being proved. 

John has no expressed object : these Thus again, in Gen. xlviii, the 

writers must in thought have sup- blessing of Jacob on the sons of 

plied rbv Kb\wov. Joseph, God and the Angel are iden- 

XIX. Further proof that the tified and the sign of the cross is 

Angel of the O. T. is Christ. There made. 

is the vision of an Angel in a dream .13. nam cum cet.] Grammati- 

to Jacob before his departure from cally, the main verb is interponebat, 

Laban. This Angel who calls him- but the logical conclusion or apo- 

self God speaks also of the l Place of dosis is only reached at p. 69.9 

God? i.e. of the Father : whereas the 'non tantummodo' etc. 

Son is God and Angel. It is dan- 17. Gen. xxxi u 13: the text 

gerous to deny Him the name of God. follows LXX not Hebrew. Thus 

The Son is also God and Man: as the 'uariatos albos et uarios et cineri- 

story of the wrestling of Jacob shews. cios et asperses ' renders 


lacob. et ego, inquit, dixi : quid est? aspice, inquit, oculis 
fuis, et uide hircos et arietes ascendentes super oues et capras 
uariatos albos et uarios et cinericios et aspersos. uidi enim 
quaecumque tibi Laban fecit, ego sum deus qui uisus sum tibi 
in loco dei, ubi unxisti mihi illic stantem lapidem, et uouisti 5 
mihi illic uotum. nunc ergo surge, et proficiscere de terra hac, et 
uade in terram natiuitatis tuae, et ero tecum. si angelus del 
loquitur haec ad lacob, atque ipse angelus infert, dicens: ego 
sum deus qui uisus sum tibi in loco dei, non tantummodo 
hunc angelum sed et deum positum sine ulla haesitatione 10 
conspicimus, quippe sibi uotum refert ab lacob destinatum esse 
in loco dei, et non dicit "in loco meo." est ergo locus dei, est 
et hie deus. sed enim ibi simpliciter est in loco dei positum ; 
neque enim dictum est "in loco angeli et dei," sed tantummodo 
"dei." hie autem qui ista promittit, deus atque angelus esse 15 
perhibetur: ut merito distinctio sit inter eum qui tantummodo 
deus dicitur, et inter eum qui non deus simpliciter sed et 
angelus pronuntiatur. ex quo si nullius alterius angeli potest 
hie accipi tanta auctoritas, ut deum quoque se esse fateatur et 
uotum sibi factum esse testetur, nisi tantummodo Christi, cui, 20 
non quia angelo tantum, sed quia deo, uotum uoueri potest, 
manifestum est non patrem accipi posse, sed filium, deum et 
angelum. hie autem si Christus est, sicuti est, uehementer 
periclitatur, qui aut hominem Christum aut angelum tantum - 

5 unxisti a : erexisti y al. 21 quia... quia fortas se legendmn qua... qua. 

('streaked with white') /ecu Troi/ciXous is used of the Father, 'deus atque 

/ecu 0-7ro5oei5e?s ('grizzled') pavrofc, angelus' of the Son. ' Et hie' 

where Vulg. has 'uarios maculosos means 'the Speaker also': though 

atque respersos.' Below, 'qui uisus He is God, He speaks of 'the place 

sum tibi in loco dei ' is 6 6<j>6eis <roi of God,' meaning Another than 

tv Tbtry 0eoD, but Vg. has merely Himself. 

'ego sum deus Bethel.' 'Et ero 18. 'If there is no other Angel 

tecum ' (/cat &ro,ucu //.era aov) is want- whose authority we can allow to 

ing in Vg. stand so high that He professes 

8. infert dicens] 'proceeds with Himself to be also God.' Similarly 

the assertion.' Cf. p. 42. 10 'ap- in 1. 22 'that we cannot allow that it 

pellat inferendo,' with note. is the Father but the Son.' 

12. The writer argues from the 23. uehementer periclitatur] to 

words in loco dei (not meo, as might hold the right faith is 'saluus esse.' 
have been expected), that 'deus' 


modo dicit, subtracta illi diuini nominis potestate, quam ex 
scripturarum caelestium fide frequenter accepit, quae ilium et 
angelum frequenter et deum dicunt 

His omnibus etiam illud accedit, ut quo modo ilium et 
5 angelum frequenter et deum posuit scriptura diuina, sic ilium 
et hominem ponat et deum exprimens eadem scriptura diuina 
quod erat futurus, et depingens iam turn in imagine quod 
habebat esse in substantiae ueritate. remansit enim, inquit, 
lacob solus, et luctabatur homo cum eo usque in mane : et uidit 

10 quoniam non potest aduersus eum, et tetigit latitudinem femoris 
lacob, cum in eum luctaretur et ipse cum eo, et dixit ei : 
dimitte me, ascendit enim lucifer. et ille dixit : non te dimit- 
tam, nisi me benedixeris. et dixit: quod est nomen tuum ? 
et ille dixit^ lacob. dixitque ei: non uocabitur iam nunc 

1 5 nomen tuum lacob, sed Israel erit nomen tuum : quia inua- 
luisti cum deo, et cum hominibus potens es. et adhuc adicit : 
et uocauit lacob nomen loci illius, uisio dei ; uidi enim deum 
facie ad faciem, et salua facta est anima mea. ortusque est 
ei sol, mox ut transmit uisionem dei ; ipse uero claudicabat 

2ofemore suo. homo, inquit, luctabatur cum lacob. si homo 
solitarius, quis est iste? unde est? quare cum lacob con- 
tendit atque luctatur? quid intercesserat ? quid factum 
fuerat? quae ratio contentionis istius tantae tantique certa- 
minis? quare praeterea lacob, qui ad tenendum hominem 

14 etiam nunc edd. Angl. id p. 71. 13. 19 mox transiuit edd. : corr. Ja. 

7. 'And even thus early repre- 0-77, as against Vg. ' si contra deum 
senting in a figure that nature which fortis fuisti, quanto magis contra 
He was to have in very substance.' homines praeualebis. ' Similarly in 
Cp. 'nasci haberet,' p. 64. 4. the following quotation (verses 30, 

8. remansit enim sqq.] Gen. 31); e.g. 'uisio dei,' etdos 0eoO, but 
xxxii 24 27. The version ren- Vg. 'Phanuel.' 

ders LXX pretty closely : thus 19. mox ut transiuit] fylKa 

for 'tetigit latitudinem femoris irapri\de. 

lacob,' LXX has y^aro roO TrXdrous 22. quid intercesserat?] 'What 

TOU /7/>oO avrov, Vg. has ' tetigit had come between them ? ' 

neruum femoris eius.' But N. omits 24. 'Why. Jacob found to 

K<d tvdpK-rj<re rb TrXdros TOV nypou have on that account asked the 

(Vg. 'et statim emarcuit'). Below, blessing, unless it was because...' 

' inualuisti ' etc. follows frl<rxvffa.s The ingeniously perverse interpre- 

yttera 0eoO KCU /*era avdpuirwv 8vvar6s tation which follows (ignoring, 



cum quo luctabatur fortis inuenitur, et benedictionem ab eo 
quern detinebat postulat quia iam lucifer oritur, ideo postulasse 
reperitur, nisi quoniam praefigurabatur contentio haec inter 
Christum et filios lacob futura, quae in euangelio dicitur 
perfecta ? contra hunc enim hominem colluctatus est populus 5 
lacob, in qua colluctatione potentior populus est lacob repertus, 
quippe cum aduersus Christum iniquitatis suae uictoriam sit 
consecutus : quo in tempore, propter facinus quod admisit, 
incessu fidei propriae et salutis claudicare grauissime incertus 
et lubricus coepit: qui, quamuis superior damnando Christum 10 
repertus, eget tamen ipsius misericordia, eget tamen ipsius 
benedictione. sed enim hie homo, qui cum lacob luctatus 
est : non, inquit, uocabitur etiam nunc nomen tuum Jacob, sed 
Israel erit nomen tuum. ac si Israel est homo uidens deum, 
eleganter ostendebat dominus quod non tantum homo esset, 15 
qui colluctabatur tune cum lacob, sed et deus. uidebat 
utique deum lacob, cum quo colluctabatur, quamuis hominem 
ipsius in colluctatione retineret. et ut nulla adhuc posset esse 
dubitatio, interpretationem ipse posuit dicelido: quia inualuisti 
cum deo, et cum hominibus potens es. ob quam causam hie 20 
idem lacob intellegens iam uim sacramenti, et peruidens 
auctoritatem eius cum quo luctatus fuisset, nomen loci illius in 
quo colluctatus est, uocauit uisionem dei. superstruxit praeterea 
causas ad interpretationem uisionis dei porrigendam : uidi 

14 uincens coni. We. 24 uisionis om. priores : ins. We. 

in the notion of iniquitatis sttae 
uictoriam, the 'man's' unqualified 
commendation) contrasts with the 
fine application of the story, in 
Charles Wesley's hymn 'Come, O 
Thou Traveller unknown,' to the 
Christian in prayer. The ' ideo' refers 
back to the 'quia iam lucifer oritur,' 
not forward to the 'nisi quoniam.' 
It appears therefore that N. under- 
stood ' lucifer oritur ' to be a mystical 
prophecy of the coming of Christ. 

9. incessu fldei...] 'began to 
halt most seriously in the gait of its 
own faith and salvation, stumbling 

and slipping in its course.' 

14. uidens deum] so Philo de 
Abrah. p. 358 'IcrparjX e/o/ttfi/eiterat 
op&v Bel?: an interpretation not 
accepted by the moderns : v. critical 

17. quamuis...] 'though it was 
a man that he was holding in his 

21. intellegens iam uim...] 
'coming to perceive the meaning 
of the mystery, and penetrating to 
the majesty of Him with whom,' 
etc. For sacr amentum, see note on 
p. 5. 8. 


enim, inquit, deum facie ad faciem, et salua facia est anima mea. 
uidit autem deum, cum quo colluctatus est quasi cum homine : 
sed et hominem quidem quasi uictor tenuit, benedictionem 
autem quasi a deo, ut inferior, postulauit ita cum deo et 
5 cum homine colluctatus fuit. ac si colluctatio haec ibi quidem 
praefigurata est, in euangelio autem inter Christum et populum 
Jacob perfecta est, in qua quamuis populus superior inuentus 
sit, minor repertus est dum nocens comprobatus est, quis 
dubitabit Christum, in quo haec colluctationis figura completa 

10 est, non hominem tantum sed et deum agnoscere, quando- 
quidem hominem ilium et deum etiam figura ipsa colluctationis 
uideatur comprobasse ? 

Et tamen etiam post haec aeque non cessat eadem scrip- 
tura diuina angelum deum dicere, et deum angelum pro- 

15 nuntiare. nam cum Manassen atque Ephrem filios Joseph 
benedicturus esset hie ipse lacob, transuersis super capita 
puerorum manibus collocatis, deus, inquit, qui pascit me a 
iuuentute mea usque in hunc diem, angelus qui liberauit me 
ex omnibus malts, benedicat pueros hos. usque adeo autem 

20 eundem angelum ponit, quern deum dixerat, ut singulariter 
in exitu sermonis sui posuerit personam de qua loquebatur, 
dicendo benedicat pueros has. si enim alterum deum, alterum 
angelum uoluisset intellegi, plurali numero duas personas corn- 
plexus fuisset: nunc unius personae singularem numerum in 

25 benedictione deposuit ; ex quo eundem deum atque angelum 
intellegi uoluit. sed enim deus pater accipi non potest : deus 
autem et angelus Christus accipi potest. quern ut huius 
benedictionis auctorem etiam transuersas super pueros manus 
lacob ponendo significauit, quasi pater illorum esset Christus, 

5 ac sic edd. : cf. iiero pp. 59. 8, 63. 20. 14 et ante deum 

ins. We. 19 benedicat p. hos ins. Pa. secutus Fr. Junium. 22 al- 

terum deum ins. We. 

17. Gen. xlviii 15, 16. Christus] ' Implying that Christ was 

20. singulariter] 'in the singu- their father, so that he placed his 

lar number. ' For ' personam ' v. hands in a way that foreshadowed 

Introd. 6. the form and fashion of His passion.' 

29. quasi pater illorum esset The subjunctive 'poneret' shews 




ex quo manus poneret figuram et formam futuram passionis 
ostendens. nemo igitur Christum, sicut angelum non dubitat 
dicere, ita etiam deum haesitet pronuntiare, cum hunc eundem 
in puerorum horum benedictionem per sacramentum passionis 
digestum in figura manuum et deum et angelum intellegat 5 
inuocatum fuisse. 

20 XX. Ac si aliquis haereticus, pertinaciter obluctans 
aduersus ueritatem, uoluerit in his omnibus exemplis proprie 
angelum aut intellegere, aut intellegendum esse contenderit, in 
hoc quoque uiribus ueritatis frangatur necesse est nam si 10 
omnibus caelestibus terrenis et infernis Christo subditis etiam 
ipsi angeli cum omnibus ceteris, quaecumque subiecta sunt, 
Christo dicuntur subditi, et tamen quiuis angelus subditus 

i poneret edd. Angl. : ponere priores. 3 uerba pronuntiare usqi>e 

ad Jin em capitis restituit y ex cod. Britannico [sic Ja]. 4 et Pa a/. : 

in emend. We : ex...benedictione Ja. 7 ac si a : at si 7 al. 9 con- 

tendere ms. Wow. omissis uerbis angelum... esse. 13 dicuntur dii, 

iure et deus Christus. et si Pa. subditi ins. Ja : et tamen Fr. Jun. Ja. 

that the clause falls under the in- 
fluence of 'quasi.' The argument 
is this: Jacob in invoking the bless- 
ing of God who is at the same time 
the Angel, crosses his hands as he 
lays them on the boys' heads, and 
by that mystical action indicates 
that it is Christ who is bestowing 
the blessing in his person. ' Quasi 
pater illorum esset Christus' : it was 
naturally the father's office to bless. 
The idea that Christ was prefigured 
in the crossed hands is found in 
Tert. de Bapt. 8. 

i. ex quo manus] Cp. Introd. 
2 iii on the dislocation of the follow- 
ing chapters in the old edd. 

3. 'Since he perceives that lie 
was invoked, for the blessing of 
these lads, as alike God and Angel, 
through the mysterious sign (sacra- 
mentum} of the passion given in the 
crossing of hands.' 

XX. Btit supposing the heretic 
contends that He is only an Angel : 
Angels, though subject to Christ, are 
called in Scripture gods, and there- 

fore much more is Christ God. For 
what is true of the less is true of the 
greater. Again, Christ 'in the 
synagogue of the gods stood and 
judged the gods? doing thus that 
which God is said to do. And Moses 
was made a 'g>jd' to Pharaoh, though 
to him the name was given only in 
measure, to Christ above all measure 
and for all time. 

1 3. I accept Jackson's corrections 
in the text. Pamelius inserts dii, 
iure et Deus Christus after dicuntur, 
partly, he says, ' ex editione Gagnaei 
priori' ; in which it is probably a sheer 
interpolation, as Gelenius omits it. 
But it only confuses the premisses 
of the argument, which runs thus : 
'all things in heaven and earth and 
under the earth are subject to Christ, 
including the Angels : yet any Angel 
maybe called a god; a fortiori then 
Christ is rightly called God.' The 
former premiss is based on Eph. 
i 22. The latter premiss partly on 
Ps. Ixxxi (Ixxxii) i, quoted below. 




Christo deus potest dici ; et hoc si dicitur et sine blasphemia 
profertur; multo magis utique et hoc ipsi dei filio Christo 
competere potest, lit deus pronuntietur. si enim qui subiectus 
Christo angelus, deus promitur, multo magis et constantius 
5 Christus, cui sunt omnes angeli subiecti, deus esse dicetur. 
nee enim naturae congruit, ut quae minoribus concessa sunt, 
maioribus denegentur. ita si angelus Christo minor est, 
angelus autem deus dicitur, magis consequenter Christus deus 
esse dicitur, qui non uno sed omnibus angelis et maior et 

10 melior inuenitur. ac si stetit deus in synagoga deorum, in 
media autem deus deos discernit ; in synagoga autem aliquotiens 
Christus stetit; Christus ergo in synagoga deus stetit, diiudi- 
cans scilicet deos quibus dicit : usquequo personas hominum 
accipitis ? accusans scilicet consequenter homines synagogae 

15 non exercentes iusta iudicia. porro si illi, qui reprehenduntur 
atque culpantur, propter aliquam tamen causam hoc nomen 
adipisci sine blasphemia uidentur, ut dii nuncupentur, multo 
magis utique hie deus habebitur, qui non tantum deus 

3 quiuis subiectus font. Ja. 

8. magis consequenter Christus 
deus esse dicitur] ' it follows rather 
as a matter of course that Christ is 
said to be God.' The same use of 
consequenter ' by natural or proper 
consequence' occurs infra 1. 14 and 
pp. 4. 4, 79. 9. Cp. also p. 56. 15. 
10. At first sight, the argument 
in this chapter seems to us obsolete, 
turning as it does upon the Hebrew 
use of the word 'gods' to denote 
judges and others who by their office 
represent God before men, and upon 
the strangely literal interpretation 
of 'synagoga.' Yet it must be re- 
membered that our Lord Himself 
used the argument from the woid 
'gods' (Jo. x 34 38) in controversy 
with the Jews. It might be said 
that in so doing He was merely 
using an argumentum ad hominem : 
a principle which has sometimes to 
be invoked to explain His utter- 
ances. But the Christian scholar 

9 dicetur font. Ja. 

will use this principle with extreme 
parsimony. In the present case, 
may it not be implied that where 
'earthly power shews likest God's,' 
there is a real affinity and an antici- 
pation of contact between the human 
and the Divine, which is only fully 
realised in the Incarnation? Cf. 
Perowne on Ps. Ixxxii 6 and West- 
cott on Jo. x 36 'the Son of God': 
also 1 quotation from M. Godet in 
Abp Alexander's Witness of the 
Pss? p. 232 n. ' Biblical Mono- 
theism has nothing in common with 
the cold dead Deism which Jewish 
orthodoxy had extracted from the 
sacred books.... Every theocratic 
function, exercised in the name of 
Jehovah who conferred it, placed 
him to whom it was confided in 
living relation with the Most High.' 
13. Ps. Ixxxi (Ixxxii) 2 Vg. 'us- 
quequo facies peccatorum sumitis?' 



in synagoga deorum stetisse dicitur, sed etiam deos discernens 
et diiudicans ex eadem lectionis auctoritate aperitur. at si illi 
qui tamquam unus de principibus cadunt dii tamen nuncupantur, 
multo magis deus esse dicetur, qui non tantum tamquam unus 
ex principibus non cadit, sed ipsum quoque malitiae et auctorem 5 
et principem uincit. quae autem, malum, ratio est, ut cum 
legant hoc etiam Moysi nomen datum, dum dicitur, deum te 
posui Pharaoni, Christo negetur, qui non Pharaoni deus, sed 
uniuersae creaturae et dominus et deus constitutus esse reperi- 
tur? et in illo quidem hoc nomen temperate datum, in hoc 10 
profuse : in illo ad mensuram, in hoc supra omnem omnino 
mensuram (non enim ad mensuram, inquit, dat filio pater: 
pater enim, inquit, diligit filium] : in illo ad tempus, in hoc 
sine tenopore ; diuini enim nominis potestatem et super omnia 
et in omne tempus accepit. quod si, qui unius hominis accepit 15 
potestatem, in hac exiguitate huius datae potestatis nomen 
tamen istud dei incunctanter consequitur, quanto magis qui 
in ipsum quoque Moysen habet potestatem, nominis istius 
auctoritatem consecutus esse credetur? 

i in synagoga ins. We. 2 reperitur coni. We. 

2. ex eadem lectionis auctori- 
tate] 'by the authority of the same 
passage.' For the form of expres- 
sion cp. p. 16. 8 'legitimam propri- 
etatem appellationis.' 

3. Ps. Ixxxi (Ixxxii) 7. 

6. malum] note on ch. xviii, 
p. 63. 18. 

7. Exod. vii i. 

9. constitutus] sc. by the 

10. 'In the former case the 
name is given with a qualification, 
in the latter unreservedly.' 

12. non enim ad m.] Jo. iii 34, 


1 6. in hac exignitate...] 


spite of the narrow confines of the 
power given him, attains to that 
name of a God without any ques- 
tion'; lit. 'without hesitation' on 
the part of the sacred writers. 

XXI. The Divine Majesty of 
Christ proved by other Scriptures: 
in which He speaks of the raising 
again of the temple of His Body and 
His taking up of His life again. 
Only the Word, the Image of the 
Invisible God, who came down to do 
the Father's will, could thus speak. 
If He is the First-begotten of all 
creation, He cannot be mere man, 
made after all creation. The Incar- 
nation explains it: though before 
all creation, He assumes manhood. 
Neither His Manhood nor His God- 
head is to be denied: the two natures 
are conjoined in Him. Therefore He 
is Mediator between God and man. 
There is also the passage Coloss. ii 
15, which speaks of His stripping 
off the Jlesh ; which He took again 
at the Resurrection. By the force of 
terms, He must have stripped off 



XXI. Et poteram quidem omnium scripturarum caeles- 21 
tium euentilare tractatus, et ingentem circa istam speciem 
Christi diuinitatis, ut ita dixerim, siluam commouere : nisi 
quoniam non tarn mihi contra hanc haeresim propositum est 
5 dicere, quam breuiter circa personam Christi regulam ueritatis 
aperire. quamuis tamen ad alia festinem, illud non arbitror 
praetermittendum, quod in euangelio dominus ad significan- 
tiam suae maiestatis expressit dicendo : soluite templum hoc, et 
ego in triduo suscitabo illud \ aut quando in alio loco et alia 

10 parte pronuntiat : potestatem habeo animam meam ponendi et 
rursus recipere earn : hoc enim mandatum accept a patre. quis 
est enim, qui dicit animam suam se posse ponere aut animam 
suam posse se rursum recuperare, quia hoc mandatum acceperit 
a patre? aut quis dicit destructum corporis sui templum 

15 resuscitare rursum et reaedificare se posse ? nisi quoniam sermo 
ille, qui ex patre, qui apud patrem, per quern facta sunt omnia, 
et sine quo factum est nihil, imitator paternorum operum atque 

something other than Himself: i.e. 
He (the Word) is not man only, but 
wears the vesture of humanity. And 
so Gen. xlix 1 1 is mystically ex~ 

i. 'I might indeed very well 
winnow the statements of all the 
heavenly Scriptures, and, if I may 
so say, stir a whole forest in the 
matter of that question of Christ's 
Divinity.' For euentilare cp. Tert. 
de Fuga i 'pala ilia, quae et mine 
dominicam aream purgat,...con- 
fusum aceruum fidelium euentilans.' 
The idea of winnowing suggests 
that of 'stirring up a heap,' i.e. (in 
this case) 'sifting the teaching of 
many texts': silua denoting simply 
'a crowded mass.' For silua in a 
literary sense cp. Statius' collection 
of poems called Siluae, and Lord 
'Rz.zotfsSylvaSylvarum (a collection 
of natural phenomena). A close 
parallel is Tert. adu. Prax. xx ' pauca 
quae in silua inueniri possunt,'of the 
' forest ' of Scripture from which the 
heretics pick two or three texts. 

2. istam speciem] It is diffi- 
cult to define the sense of 'species' 
here. In Latin philosophy species 
stands for the Platonic 'idea': e.g. 
Cic. Acad. i 30 'hanc illi idtav ap- 
pellant, iam a Platone ita nomina- 
tam, nos recte speciem possumus 
dicere.' Thus the word might mean 
'notion,' 'belief,' 'view.' But it has 
also a legal sense, a 'case to be 
argued'; as in Plin. Ep. x 64 'haec 
quoque species incidit in cogni- 
tionem meam' : and hence we might 
explain it here as a 'question' of 
doctrine to be discussed. 

8. Jo. ii 19 Vulg. 'et in tribus 
diebus excitabo illud': and below, 
Jo. x 1 8 Vulg. 'potestatem habeo 
ponendi earn et potestatem habeo 
iterum sumendi earn.' 

15. sermo ille] is taken up 
below, after the qualifying clauses, 
by hie Chris tus (77. 6). 

16. Jo. i 3. 

17. imitator paternorum ope- 
rum] Jo. v 1 9 foil. 


uirtutum, imago inuisibilis del, qui descendit de caelo, qui quae 
uidit et atidiuit testificatus est, qui non uenit ut faceret suam 
uoluntatem, sed potius ut faciat patris uoluntatem, a quo missus 
ad hoc ipsum fuerat, ut magni consilii angelus factus arcanorum 
caelestium nobis iura reseraret, quique uerbum caro factus habi- 5 
tauit in nobis, ex nobis hie Christus non homo tantum, quia 
hominis filius, sed etiam deus, quia dei filius, comprobatur. 
Quod si e\. primogenitus omnis creaturae ab apostolo dictus sit 
Christus, quomodo omriis creaturae primogenitus esse potuit, 
nisi quoniam secundum diuinitatem ante omnem creaturam 10 
ex patre deo sermo processit ? quod- nisi ita haeretici 
acceperint, Christum hominem primogenitum omnis creaturae 
monstrare cogentur ; quod facere non poterunt. aut igitur 
ante omnem est creaturam, ut primogenitus sit omnis creaturae, 
et non homo est tantum, quia homo post omnem creaturam 15 
est : aut homo tantum est, et est post omnem creaturam. et 
quomodo primogenitus est omnis creaturae, nisi secundum 
uerbum illud quod est ante creaturam? et ideo primogenitus 
omnis creaturae caro fit et habitat in nobis, hoc est, assumit 
hunc hominem qui est post omnem creaturam, et sic cum illo 20 

6 qua hominis... qua dei com'. Fr. Jun. 17 nisi secundum nos coni.\ 

nisi quoniam dum edd. 

i. Col. i 15: Jo. iii. 31, 32 : vi It was the Arians who subsequently 

38. inferred from the expression that the 

4, 5. Is. ix 6 (LXX) : Jo. i 14. Son was a created being: and many 

6. ex nobis] refers to the of the Fathers were led away by 

Human Nature, answering to ex controversy into the false exegesis, 

Patre above. that it describes the Incarnate 

8. primogenitus cet.] irpiarb- Christ, the Kriiris thus denoting the 

TO/COS irdffys Krtcrecos: v. Lightfoot spiritual creation. 
I.e., who quotes Justin Martyr Dial. 17. Previous editions read quo- 

100 trpuTOTOKov TOV 0eoO Kol iTpo niam dum, in place of which I 

iravruv r&v KTiff^druv. The ideas of conjecture secundum : which may be 

priority and sovereignty are com- supported by p. 49. 19 'non est ex 

bined, as in Ps. Ixxxviii (Ixxxix) -27. hoc mundo secundum uerbi diuini- 

' All the fathers of the second and tatem.' The uncorrected text can 

third centuries, so far as I have only be rendered by making ' hoc 

noticed, refer it to the Eternal Word est ' introduce the apodosis, and 

and not to the Incarnate Christ,' treating ' et ideo primogenitus omnis 

Lightfoot, in approval, quoting this creaturae ' as a parenthesis, 
among other passages (Tertull. adu. 20. post omnem creaturam] 

Prax. 7, Hippol. Haer. x 33 etc.). Gen. i 26 foil. 



et in illo habitat in nobis, ut neque homo Christo subtrahatur, 
neque diuinitas negetur. nam si tantummodo ante omnem 
creaturam est, homo in illo subtractus est. si autem tantum- 
modo homo est, diuinitas quae ante omnem creaturam est 
5 intercepta est. utrumque ergo in Christo confoederatum est, 
et utrumque coniunctum est, et utrumque conexum est, et 
merito, dum est in illo aliquid quod superat creaturam, pigne- 
rata in illo diuinitatis et humanitatis uidetur esse concordia. 
propter quam causam, qui mediator del et hominum effectus 

10 exprimitur, in se deum et hominem sociasse reperitur. 

Ac si idem apostolus de Christo refert, ut exutus carnem 
potestates dehonestauit, palam triumphatis illis in semetipso, non 
utique otiose exutum carne proposuit, nisi quoniam et in resur- 
rectione rursum indutum uoluit intellegi. quis est ergo iste 

15 exutus et rursus indutus? requirant haeretici. nos enim ser- 
monem dei scimus indutum carnis substantiam, eundemque 
rursum exutum eadem corporis materia, quam rursus in resur- 
rectione suscepit et quasi indumentum resumpsit. sed enim 
neque exutus neque indutus hominem Christus fuisset, si homo 

8 humilitatis y Pa : corr. Fr. Jun. 
corr. Ja. 

5. intercepta] ' invalidated ' : 
cf. p. 60. 8 ' nee noui testamenti 
intercepta sit potestas,' with note. 

9. i Tim. ii 5. 

jj. Col. ii 15 Vulg. 'exspolians 
principatus et potestates traduxit 
confidenter, palam triumphans illos 
in semetipso.' Vetus I{a\a.hasexuens 
se, a more correct rendering of d,7re/c- 
dvffdfjievos. According to Lightfoot, 
the Latin Fathers generally inter- 
preted it as ' putting off [the body]' : 
thus, like Novatian, Hilar. de Trin. 
i 13 has 'exutus carnem': cp. R.V. 
margin. The rendering of R.V. 
'having put off from himself the 
principalities and the powers, he 
made a show of them openly ' (which 
represents the view of the Greek 
Fathers) presents much difficulty. 

13 et resurrectionem y Pa 

Bp Moule (Camb. Gk Test.) de- 
fends A.V. ' having spoiled ' for 
Himself 'principalities.' More is 
to be said for the rendering of 
the Latins than Lightfoot allows, 
when he speaks of 'an isolated 
metaphor which is not explained or 
suggested by anything in the con- 
text': r< 0-rau/jy, the preceding 
words, might suggest 'stripping for a 
contest. ' 

12. in semetipso] but the Greek 
has ev auTy, ' in it,' and so the Greek 
Fathers, rightly. 

ib. non utique otiose] 'in a 
merely purposeless way ' : utique 
after a negative 'simply' or 'at all'; 
as in p. 1 8. 5 'non utique ex coag- 
mentis corporalibus,' p. 48. i 'non 
utique homo tantum est.' 




tantum fuisset. nemo enim umquam se ipso aut spoliatur aut 
induitur. sit enim necesse est aliud, quicquid aliunde aut 
spoliatur aut induitur. ex quo merito sermo dei fuit, qui 
exutus est carnem et in resurrectione rursus indutus ; exutus 
autem, quoniam et in natiuitate fuerat indutus. itaque in 5 
Christo deus est qui induitur, atque etiam exutus sit oportet : 
propterea quod is qui induitur, pariter et exuatur necesse est. 
induitur autem et exuitur homine, quasi quadam context! cor- 
poris tunica, ac propterea consequenter sermo fuit, ut diximus, 
dei, qui modo indutus, modo exutus esse reperitur. hoc 10 
enim etiam in benedictionibus ante praedixit : lauabit stolam 
suam in uino, et in sanguine uuae amictum suum. si stola in 
Christo caro est, et amictum ipsum corpus est, requiratur, quis 
est ille cuius corpus amictum est, et stola caro ? nobis enim 
manifestum est carnem stolam et corpus amictum uerbi fuisse, 15 
qui uuae sanguine, id est uino, lauit substantiam corporis et 
materiam carnis, abluens ex parte suscepti hominis passione. 
ex quo siquidem lauatur, homo est, quia amictum, quod laua- 
tur, caro est : qui autem lauat, uerbum dei est, qui ut lauaret 

7 quod nos inserimus. 8 homine] homo edd. 12 et in 

sanguine uuae amictum suum ins. a. 13 amictus ipse 7 G : -um ipsum a. 
Sic p. 80. i -tus 7 G: -ti a. quisquis priores corr. We. 16 quique 

sanguine 7 Pa ('locus obscurus et quantum apparet mutilus aut corruptus ' 
Pa) : qui uuae s. con: We: qui in sanguine Fr. Jun. 17 et m. c. 

abluens 7 Pa. abluit coni. We. 

2. 'It must needs be something 
else, which is either divested of a 
thing or invested in it.' ' Aliunde ' 
is contrasted with ' se ipso,' and is 
regarded as an abl. case of the pro- 
noun, equivalent to 'alia re.' It 
only applies in strictness to the 
'spoliatur,' not to 'induitur.' 

9. consequenter] see n. on 
p. 74. 8. 

n. lauabit stolam cet.] Gen. 
xlix 11, where Vulg. has 'pallium 
suum.' For the rare neuter 'amic- 
tum,' cp. Isid. Orig. 19. 24. 15 
mantum Hispani uocant quod 
manus tegat tantum, est enim breue 


17. abluens ex parte cet.] 'in 
regard of the manhood which He 
took upon Him, cleansing it by His 
Passion ' : cp. amicti susceptor below. 
The amictum is the homo or 'human 
nature.' The passage is similarly 
applied in Hippol. de Antichr. xi 
aXfjMTi o&v ffTa<f)v\T)s, iroias d\\' 77 
7-775 crapKOS avrov u>s fidrpvos eirl i/Xou 
P\T)6elo"r)S ; and Tertull. adu. Marc. 
iv 40. For a different turn to the 
explanation see Justin Dial. 54, 63, 
76 ; Apol. i 32 ; repeated by Irenaeus 
els 2v5. 57 ; Haer. iv xx 2 : Cypr. 
Ep. Ixiii 6. 




amictum, amicti susceptor effectus est. merito ex ea substantia, 
quae recepta est lit lauaretur, homo exprimitur, sic lit ex uerbi 
auctoritate, qui lauit, deus esse monstretur. 

XXII. Cur autem, licet ad aliam partem disputandi 22 
5 festinare uideamur, ilium praetereamus apud apostolum lo- 
cum? qui cum in forma dei esset, non rapinam arbitrates 
est aequalem se deo esse ; sed semetipsum exinaniuit, formam 
serui accipiens, in similitudine hominum factus, et habitu in- 
uentus ut homo: humiliauit se, oboediens factus usque ad mortem, 

i o mortem autem cruets : propterea et deus ilium superexaltauit, et 
dedit illi nomen quod est super omne nomen ; ut in nomine lesu 
omne genu fiectatur caelestium terrestrium et infernorum, et 
omnis lingua confiteatur, quoniam dominus lesus in gloria est 
dei patris. qui cum in forma dei esse/, inquit. si homo 

15 tantummodo Christus, in imagine dei, non in forma dei re- 
latus fuisset. hominem enim scimus ad imaginem, non ad 
formam dei factum. quis ergo est iste, qui in forma dei, ut 
diximus, factus est angelus? sed nee in angelis formam dei 

2 sic ut... monstretur y : sicut...monstratur Pa. 
sin homo a/. 

14 si homo a : 

XXII. Lastly, St Paul's teach- 
ing in Philipp. ii 6 u must be 
examined. Christ is in the form of 
God, whereas man is only made in 
the image of God. He has proceeded 
from the Father, in the form of 
God, that He may be God of all. 

Yet He did not 'grasp at equality 
with the Father, ' remembering that 
He has His Sonship by gift of the 
Father. He rendered all obedience 
to the Father : anal accepted human 
frailty by His birth. Thus Heemptied 
Himself. This could not be said of 
a mere man, who would be enriched, 
not emptied, by the fact of birth. 
The authority of the Divine Word 
sinks itself for the time in taking 
Manhood. His immediate reward 
was the Name which is above every 

6. The quotation keeps closer 

than Vulg. to the Greek in reading 
in similitudine (not -em], and 
superexaltauit (Vulg. exaltauif) for 

17. quis ergo est iste, qui in 
forma dei, ut diximus, factus est 
angelus] ' What angel is this, who 
was made in the form of God ? ' 
The word 'angelus' is separated 
from ' iste ' merely for the sake of 
emphatic contrast with ' hominem ' : 
and the words 'factus est' are appli- 
cable only in conjunction with 
'angelus.' Angels are 'made '; N. 
asks whether any angel has been 
made on so exalted a plane of 

18. nee in angelis] 'not even,' 
as in p. 15.21. 'Nisi quoniam' in- 
troduces the actual fact, 'but the 
truth is that' etc. Cp. n. on 
p. 64. 13. 




legimus; nisi quoniam hie praecipuus atque generosus prae 
omnibus dei films, uerbum dei, imitator omnium paternorum 
operum, dum et ipse operatur sicut et pater eius, in forma (ut 
expressimus) est dei patris. et merito in forma pronuntiatus 
est dei, dum et ipse super omnia, et omnis creaturae diuinam 5 
obtinens potestatem, et deus est exemplo patris; hoc ipsum 
tamen a patre proprio consecutus, ut omnium et deus esset, et 
dominus esset, et deus ad formam dei patris ex ipso genitus 
atque prolatus. hie ergo quamuis esset in forma dei, non est 
rapinam arbitratus aequalem se deo esse. quamuis enim se ex 10 
deo patre deum esse meminisset, numquam se deo patri aut 
comparauit aut contulit, memor se esse ex suo patre, et hoc 
ipsum, quod est, habere se, quia pater dedisset. inde denique 
et ante carnis assumptionem, sed et post assumptionem cor- 
poris, post ipsam praeterea resurrectionem, omnem patri in 15 
omnibus rebus oboedientiam praestitit pariter ac praestat. ex 
quo probatur numquam arbitratum ilium esse rapinam quan- 
dam diuinitatem, ut aequaret se patri deo: quin immo contra, 
omni ipsius imperio et uoluntati oboediens atque subiectus. 

2. imitator] John v 19 foil. Cp. 
ch. xxi, p. 76 1. 17. 

4. 'And occupying Divine power 
over every creature, is also God 
like His Father, having however 
received this [honour] from His own 
Father that He should be both God 
and Lord of all, and God in the 
form of God His Father, begotten 
and produced from Him.' For 
'prolatus' cp. Justin Martyr, Dial. 
p. 285 D TOVTO TO T< 6vri dirb TOU 
irarpos irpofiX'qdzv 7^1/77/1,01 trpb irdv- 


(quoted by Bp Bull Def. F. N. pt ii 
p. 728) ; also Tertull. adu. Prax. c. 
viii 'protulit deus sermonem,' in 
contrast to the heretical use of irpo- 
/SoX?; by Valentinus the Gnostic ; also 
ApoL 21 'ex deo pro- 
latione generatum et idcirco filium 
dei et deum dictum ex unitate sub- 

12. et hoc ipsum] a strong 

F. N. 

assertion of the subordination of the 
Son: 'and that He has what He is 
simply by the Father's gift.' v. In- 
trod. 3. 

1 6. ex quo probatur sq.] 'that 
He never regarded His Divinity as 
a form of grasping, that He should 
equal Himself with God the Father: 
on the contrary,' etc. This passage 
taken in connexion with the passage 
cited in 11. 9, 10, certainly seems 
to shew that N .understands rapinam 
(apTray/jLov) in a sense which is rather 
that of our A.V. ('robbery,' i.e. 
usurpation) than that of our R.V. 
('a prize,' marg. 'a thing to be 
grasped'), though the general sense 
of the passage corresponds with the 
R. V. The clause ' ut aequaret se 
patri deo,' answers to 'aequalem se 
deo esse ' in the citation, and is 
evidently intended as an interpreta- 
tion of 'rapinam,' which in either 
case is the grammatical predicate. 




etiam ut formam serui susciperet contentus fuit hoc est, 
hominem ilium fieri et substantiam carnis et corporis, quam 
ex paternorum secundum hominem delictorum seruitute ue- 
nientem nascendo suscepit. quo tempore se etiam exinaniuit, 
5 dum humanam condicionis fragilitatem suscipere non recusauit. 
quoniam si homo tantummodo natus fuisset, per hoc exinanitus 
non esset. homo enim nascens augetur, non exinanitur : nam 
dum incipit esse quod cum non esset habere non potuit, ut 
diximus, non exinanitur, sed potius augetur atque ditatur. at 

10 si Christus exinanitur in eo quod nascitur, formam serui 
accipiendo, quomodo homo tantummodo est? de quo uerius 
dictum fuisset, locupletatum ilium esse tune cum nasceretur, 
non exinanitum : nisi quoniam auctoritas diuini uerbi, ad 
suscipiendum hominem interim conquiescens, nee se suis 

15 uiribus exercens, deicit se ad tempus atque deponit, dum 

3 paternorum et edd. 9 at si 7 : ac si a. 

N. understands the text to mean, 
"He did not think His Divinity 
('in forma dei esse') an equality 
with God, which would have been 
a usurpation, " or arrogation to Him- 
self of that which was not His. The 
force of rapinam can only be fixed 
by the context. But in Tertull. also, 
adu. Prax. vii, it seems to be taken 
in the same sense, as generally by the 
Latin Fathers (Lightfoot, ad I.e.}. 

1. hoc est, hominem ilium fieri] 
is perhaps a gloss, as the introduction 
of the emphatic ilium may be thought 
to shew. It breaks the flow of the 
sentence. If it is to stand, the ' et 
substantiam ' which follows must be 
coupled to ' formam, ' not to ' homi- 

2. quam ex paternorum sq.] 
* which He took upon Him by His 
birth, as it came to Him from the 
servitude of the sins of His fore- 
fathers according to His manhood.' 
N. evidently understands the 'forma 
serui' to be connected with sin and 
the loss of true freedom which it 
involves. Doubtless St Paul in- 
tended it to denote the position of 

a creature, without any reference to 
sin. It would not be easy to recon- 
cile N.'s language with the usual 
belief of Christendom with regard 
to the sinlessness of the humanity 
assumed by Christ. But perhaps 
he did not mean to assert that the 
humanity as actually assumed by 
Christ was in a state of sinful servi- 
tude, but only that it 'came' to 
Him from those who were in such 
a state. 

13. nisi quoniam auctoritas...] 
'but in fact the majesty of the 
Divine Word, condescending for 
the time being to take Manhood 
upon Him, and not putting forth 
His full powers, lowers and brings 
Himself down for a time, while bear- 
ing the humanity which He has taken 
upon Him.' On this self-limitation 
of the Incarnation (or 'a ceasing to 
exercise certain natural prerogatives 
of the divine existence ') v. Bp Gore, 
Bampton Lectures vi p. i58sq., Dis- 
sertations i i p. 88, 89, 90, referring 
to 2 Cor. viii 9. For 'interim' cp. 
p. 50 1. 10. For 'exercens' Latinius 
read exserens, 'putting out.' 



hominem fert quern suscepit. exinanit se, dum ad iniurias 
contumeliasque descendit, dum audit infanda, experitur indigna. 
cuius tamen humilitatis adest statim egregius fructus. accepit 
enim nomen, quod est super omne nomen, quod utique non aliud 
intellegimus esse quam nomen dei. nam cum dei sit solius 5 
esse super omnia, consequens est, ut nomen illud quod est 
super omne nomen sit eius, qui super omnia est. dei est ergo 
nomen illud quod super omne nomen est : quod nomen est eius 
utique consequenter, qui, cum in forma dei fuisset, non rapinam 
arbitratus est aequalem se deo esse. neque enim si non deus 10 
esset Christus, omne se in nomine eius genu flecteret, caeles- 
tium et terrestrium et infernorum : nee uisibilia aut inuisibilia, 
aut rerum omnium omnis creatura homini esset subiecta siue 
substrata, quae se ante hominem esse meminisset. ex quo 
dum in forma dei esse Christus dicitur, et dum in natiuitatem 15 
secundum carnem se exinanisse monstratur, et dum id accepisse 
nomen a patre quod sit super omne nomen exprimitur, et dum 
in nomine eius omne genu caelestium, terrenorum et infernorum 
se flectere et curuare monstratur, et hoc ipsum in gloriam dei 
patris succurrere asseritur ; consequenter non ex illo tantum 20 
homo est, quia oboediens patri factus est usque ad mortem, 
mortem autem cruets ; sed ex his etiam rebus superioribus 

i exinanit y G : -ivit Pa. 6, 7 nomen illud sit super omne quod est 
eius qui super omnia est edd.priores : ordinem uerborum restituimus, inserto 
uerbo nomen. 7 post dei interpungunt edd. priores. 15 natiuitate 

We. 20 sui decurrere Fr. Jun. : succedere vel sui cedere Ja. 

5. The argument of this very 
prolix passage is : God is above all 
things, therefore God's Name is 
above all other names: therefore 
that is the Name which Christ has 
received the Name which properly 
belonged to Him before His Incar- 

15. in natiuitatem] ' to the point 
of birth after the flesh.' 

19. in gloriam dei patris suc- 
currere] ' to redound to the glory 
of God.' This paraphrase of the 

closing words of the quotation 
brings them into accord with els 
56a> 0eoO Trarp6s of the Greek. 
The word succurrere used in this 
sense is difficult to parallel; unless 
perhaps in its medical sense, ' to be 
useful': Plin. 31. ro ' nitrum suc- 
currit et uenenis fungorum.' 

20. ex illo . . . quia] ' from the fact 
that.' The 'tantum' goes with 
'homo,' not with 'ex illo.' 

11. ' From these foregoing 
proofs which declare the Divinity 


8 4 



diuinitatem Christi sonantibus, dominus Christus lesus et 
deus, quod haeretici nolunt, esse monstratur. 

XXIII. Hoc in loco licebit mihi argumenta etiam ex 23 
aliorum haereticorum parte conquirere. firmum est genus 
5 probationis, quod etiam ab aduersario sumitur, ut ueritas 
etiam ab ipsis inimicis ueritatis probetur. nam usque adeo 
hunc manifestum est in scripturis esse et deum tradi, ut pleri- 
que haereticorum, diuinitatis ipsius magnitudine et ueritate 
commoti, ultra modum extendentes honores eius, ausi sint non 

10 filium sed ipsum deum patrem promere uel putare. quod, 
etsi contra scripturarum ueritatem est, tamen diuinitatis Christi 
argumentum grande atque praecipuum est; qui usque adeo 
deus, sed qua filius dei natus ex deo, ut plerique ilium (ut 
diximus) haeretici ita deum acceperint, ut non filium sed 

15 patrem pronuntiandum putarint. aestiment ergo an hie sit 
deus, cuius auctoritas tantum mouit quosdam, ut putarent ilium, 
ut diximus superius, iam ipsum patrem deum, effrenatius et 

7 esse et] et 7 : esse G Pa. 
ergo... sit deus suppl. ex a Pa. 

of Christ, ' referring to the substance 
of p. 83 lines 14 20. 

XXIII. He adverts to other 
heresies. The enemy of the truth 
sometimes provides its best proofs. 
The Patripassians are so much im- 
pressed by the truth of Chrisfs 
Divinity ', that they have gone too far 
and identify Him with God the 
Father. The Docetic Gnostics, fear- 
ing to evacuate His Divinity by 
uniting it "with a human nativity, 
deny the true Manhood. In either 
heresy ive find an argument for the 
truth of His Divinity. Holy Scrip- 
ture states the faith in its true 
proportion . In the Word made Flesh , 
heaven and earth are braced together, 
God being united to men and men to 
God. The Son of God is made Man 
by the Incarnation : the Son of Man 
is made God by receiving God the 
Word. This is the mystery ap- 
pointed before the ages for the salva- 
tion of mankind. 

13 deus est coni. We. 15 aestiment 

4. firmum est sq.] The Antwerp 
editor Pamelius illustrates copiously 
this opinion that ' the truth may be 
confirmed by the testimony of here- 
tics,' quoting Euseb. Hist. Eccl. vii 
6, Origen Horn, ix, Jerome Epist. 
75; but is careful to add that 'as 
no one is a judge in his own cause 
(sapiat in propria causa),' Pope Pius 
IV drew up the Index of interdicted 
books for all except those ' uiri 
doctissimi ' in whose favour the 
apostolic see makes an exception. 

10. promere uel putare] 'to 
express or at least to hold the 
opinion that' etc. 

12. argumentum grande atque 
praecipuum] It is, in truth, one of 
the most acute of N.'s arguments. 

13. plerique haeretici] as the 
Sabellians: already referred to (ut 
diximus) in ch. xii. 

1 7 . effr enatius . . . confitentes . . . ] 
'confessing Divinity in Christ with- 
out limit or reserve, constrained to 



effusius in Christo diuinitatem confitentes, ad hoc illos mani- 
festa Christ! diuinitate cogente, ut, quern filium legerent, quia 
deum animaduerterent, patrem putarent. alii quoque haeretici 
usque adeo Christi manifestam amplexati sunt diuinitatem, ut 
dixerint ilium fuisse sine carne, et totum illi susceptum detraxe- 5 
rint hominem, ne decoquerent in illo diuini nominis potestatem, 
si humanam illi sociassent, ut arbitrabantur, natiuitatem. quod 
tamen nos non probamus; sed argumentum afferimus usque 
adeo Christum esse deum, ut quidam ilium, subtracto homine, 
tantummodo putarint deum, quidam autem ipsum crediderint 10 
patrem deum : cum ratio et temperamentum scripturarum 
caelestium Christum ostendant deum, sed qua filium dei, et, 
assumpto a deo etiam filio hominis, credendum et hominem. 
quoniam si ad hominem ueniebat, ut mediator dei et hominum 

i confiteri Pa: tantum mouit quosdam effrenatius et eff. in C. diuin. 
confiteri, ut putarent Ja corr., alioqui confitentes. 

it by His manifest Divinity, so that 
though they read of Him as the 
Son, perceiving His Godhead, they 
came to regard Him as the Father. ' 
( I accept the emendation confitentes .) 
The words effrenatius et effusius 
repeat the idea of ' ultra modum 
extendentes honores eius ausi sint ' 
above, implying a devotional feel- 
ing which has outrun dogmatic cau- 
tion ('ratio et temperamentum 
scripturarum'). The words 'ut... 
putarent ' depend on the general 
sense of the participial clauses 
' effrenatius . . . cogente.' 

6. decoquerent] 'evacuate.' For 
this use, cp. Quintil. ii 4 'multum 
inde decoquent anni, multum ratio 
limabit.' These alii haeretici were 
those attacked by Tertullian in his 
de Carne Christi, of the Gnostic 
school, with its disparagement of 
the material. Basilides of Alex- 
andria (A. D. 117 138) regarded 
the Passion as the reclaiming of 
Christ's spiritual nature from the 
corporeal and psychical : Valen- 
tinus taught at Rome A.D. 137 to 
154, representing Christ as an aeon 

or emanation from Deity , who hav- 


ing merely an apparent body did 
not really suffer : Marcion, at Rome 
A.D. 140 to 155, held a similar 
docetic view. 

7. natiuitatem] Thus Marcion 
held that Christ was not born at all, 
but suddenly descended into the 
city of Capernaum in the i5th year 
of Tiberius to reveal God to man. 

n. cum ratio cet.] 'whereas 
the proportion and reserve of the 
heavenly Scriptures shew Christ to 
be God, as being the Son of God: and 
that He must be believed to be also 
Man, in that the Son of man has 
been taken into the Godhead.' N. 
refers (a) to the Patripassian heresy; 
and (b] to the Docetic heresies, re- 
spectively aforenamed. Cp. p. 19. 14 
' rationem enim diuinae scripturae 
de temperamento dispositionis cog- 
noscimus,' and Rom. xii 6 (Vulg.) 
' secundum rationem fidei. ' 

14. ut mediator dei et hominum 
esse deberet] ' that He might be the 
mediator.' This is an example of 
that pleonastic, almost auxiliary, use 
of debere which is common in later 




esse deberet, oportuit ilium cum eo esse, et uerbum carnem 
fieri, ut in semetipso concordiam confibularet terrenorum 
pariter atque caelestium, dum utriusque partis in se conec- 
tens pignora et deum homini et hominem deo copularet; ut 
5 merito films dei per assumptionem carnis films hominis, et 
films hominis per receptionem dei uerbi films dei effici 
possit. hoc altissimum atque reconditum sacramentum, ad 
salutem generis humani ante saecula destinatum, in domino 
lesu Christo deo et homine inuenitur impleri, quo condicio 
10 generis humani ad fructum aeternae salutis posset adduci. 

XXIV. Sed erroris istius haereticorum inde, ut opinor, 24 
nata materia est, quia inter filium dei et filium hominis 
nihil arbitrantur interesse, ne facta distinctione et homo et 
deus lesus Christus facile comprobetur. eundem enim atque 

Latin. See Goelzer Latinite de S. 
Jerdme p. 417. It is especially 
common in Gregory the Great; e.g. 
Ep. lib. VI ind. xiv num. 7 'utquos 
morituros conspexerit, debeat bap- 
tizare' : lib. XI ind. iv num. 66 'haec 
signa de fine saeculi praemittuntur, 
ut de animabus nostris debeamus 
esse solliciti.' The same kind of 
use recurs below, ch. xxiv p. 90. 9. 

i. confibularet, 'clench,' or 
'brace together.' Cp. c. xxiv ad 
fin, and de Cib. hid. v 'fibula cari- 
tatis mutuis membris innexum.' 

3 . utriusque partis . . . pignora] 
The idea is that man and God have 
entered into a mutual engagement, 
of which the Incarnation is the 
guarantee. Cp. p. 78. 7, 8 'pigne- 
rata in illo diuinitatis et humanitatis 
uidetur esse concordia.' 

7. sacramentum] cp. p. 5 1. 8 
note, Eph. i 1 1 ( Vulg.) ' sacramentum 
uoluntatis suae.' 

8. ante saecula] 2 Tim. i 9 
(Vulg.) 'ante tempora saecularia.' 

9. condicio generis humani] 
'the lowly estate of human nature,' 
as in p. 25. 4. 

XXIV. The heretics have failed 
to distinguish the Son of God from 
the Son of Man. They make out 

that Man in his frail substance is 
the same as the Son of Goaf, sup- 
porting their view by placing their 
own meaning on the -words of the 
Annunciation that the Son of God 
is of the substance of Mary. But 
it is only necessary to look carefully 
into the text: it is not primarily 
but in the second instance that the 
Child of Mary is Son of God. In 
the first instance, the Son of God is 
the Word of God, who became in- 
carnate through the Spirit. He it 
is who takes upon Himself that Son 
of Man and by the union of Natures 
makes Him Son of God. The pri- 
mary application of the name ' Son 
of God* is limited to Him who de- 
scends : in its secondary force, it is 
the ' Son of Man united with HimS 
Therefore the Angel duly distin- 
guished the Natures. Thus the Son 
of Man holds as it were on loan 
that which by His own nature He 
could not hold, the position of Son 
of God. There is a distinction and 
yet an association : Christ Jesits the 
Lord is Man and God. 

For the Christology of this passage 
see Introduction 5, pp. li, Hi, liv. 

14. eundem atque ipsum] 'the 
selfsame,' here the predicate: 'they 



ipsum, id est hominem filium hominis etiam filium dei, 
uolunt uideri, ut homo et caro et fragilis ilia substantia 
eadem atque ipse filius dei esse dicatur; ex quo, dum dis- 
tinctio filii hominis et filii dei nulla secernitur, sed ipse 
filius hominis dei filius uindicatur, homo tantummodo Chris- 5 
tus idem atque filius dei asseratur. per quod nituntur exclu- 
dere : uerbum caro factum est et habitauit in nobis ; et uocabitis 
nomen eius Emmanuel, quod est interpretatum nobiscum deus. 
Proponunt enim atque ilia praetendunt, quae in euangelio 
Lucae relata sunt, ex quibus asserere conantur, non quod est, 10 
sed tantum illud quod uolunt esse : spiritus sanctus ueniet in 
te, et uirtus altissimi obumbrabit tibi ; propterea et quod ex 
te nascetur sanctum, uocabitur filius dei, si ergo, inquiunt, 
angelus dei dicit ad Mariam, quod ex te nascetur sanctum, ex 
Maria est substantia carnis et corporis. hanc autem substan- 1 5 
tiam, id est sanctum hoc quod ex ilia genitum est, filium dei 
esse proposuit. homo, inquiunt, ipse, et ilia caro corporis, illud 
quod sanctum est dictum, ipsum est filius dei; ut et cum 
dicit scriptura sanctum, Christum filium hominis hominem 
intellegamus, et cum filium dei proponit, non deum sed homi- 20 
nem percipere debeamus. 

1 6 filium dei esse proposuit ex a suppl. Pa. 
deum Pa : corr. edd. Angl. 

20 non hominem sed 

wish Him to appear the selfsame 
person.' Thus p. 98 1. 10 'quis non 
intellegat...non eundem atque ipsum 
Apollo pariter et Paulum?' 

5. homo tantummodo...] 'the 
mere man Christ is asserted to be 
the same as the Son of God.' 

9. proponunt sq.] ' affirm and 
allege in support of it the statement 
in the Gospel of Luke,' sc. in i 35. 

r i . Vulg. has ' Sp. sanctus super- 
ueniet in te..,ideoque et quod nas- 
cetur ex te sanctum.' 

1 3 . si ergo , inquiunt . . . ] The pre- 
misses of this argument are (a) that 
' that holy thing ' is only the sub- 
stance of flesh derived from Mary : 
(t>) that the angel affirmed (proposuit] 

that holy thing to be the Son of God. 
The conclusion drawn by the heretics 
is, that the offspring of Mary is itself 
the Son of God and that therefore 
the title of Son of God is inexactly 
used. The logical, as distinguished 
from the grammatical, apodosis be- 
gins at homo, inqitiunt. 

1 8 foil, ut et cum. . .] The words 
in any case represent the ' heretical ' 
statement. It is simplest, with the 
English editors, to read non deum 
sed hominem : in which case perci- 
pere debeamus denotes the view thus 
forced upon us, that the ' Son of 
God ' is really mere man. For filium 
dei proponit cp. 11. 16, 17 'sanctum 
hoc... filium dei esse proposuit.' 


Sed enim scriptura diuina haereticorum et fraudes et furta 
facile conuincit et detegit. si enim sic esset tantummodo : 
spiritus ueniet in te, et uirtus altissimi obumbrabit tibi; propterea 
quod nascetur ex te sanctum, uocabitur filius dei, fortasse alio 
5 esset nobis genere aduersus illos reluctandum, et alia nobis 
essent argumenta quaerenda et arma sumenda, quibus illorum 
et insidias et praestigias uinceremus. cum autem ipsa scrip- 
tura caelesti abundans plenitudine sese haereticorum istorum 
calumniis exuat, facile ipso quod scriptum est nitimur, et errores 

10 istos sine ulla dubitatione superamus. non enim dixit, ut iam 
expressimus, propterea quod ex te nascetur sanctum, sed adiecit 
coniunctioriem : ait enim, propterea et quod ex te nascetur sanc- 
tum ; ut illud ostenderet, non principaliter hoc sanctum, quod 
ex ilia nascitur, id est istam carnis corporisque substantiam, 

15 filium dei esse, sed consequenter et in secundo loco : prin- 
cipaliter autem filium dei esse uerbum dei incarnatum per 
ilium spiritum, de quo angelus refert : spiritus ueniet in te^ 
et uirtus altissimi obumbrabit tibi. 

Hie est enim legitimus dei filius, qui ex ipso deo est, qui dum 

13 uerba non principaliter usque ad principaliter autem ex a suppL Pa : 
nimirum a prior e ed. exclusa ut haeresim sonantia. Sic quoque p. 90. 8 ut 
hominis filium usque ad dei et hominis filium. 

4. alio... genere] 'in another or 'primary ground.' 
sort' or 'way.' For this use of ib. hoc sanctum sq.] Though 

'genus' see Mayor Journal of Phi- N. appears in these words to limit 

lology xxix 147; Souter Study of the 'thing' which was born of Mary 

Ambrosias ter 107 f. to the bodily organism, in p. 89 1. i 

7. praestigias] properly ' sleight- he seems to attribute to it a human 

of-hand,' i.e. ' sophistries.' personality. 

ii. Of course this argument, rest- 19. ' For this is the Son of God 

ing on the presence of the conjunc- in the proper sense (legitimus} who 

tion et, is not a safe one ; for we find is from God Himself ; and in 

the combination 5i6 /cat in numberless assuming that "holy thing" and 

cases where the xat cannot be pressed, attaching to Himself the Son of 

e.g. Acts x 29. N. does not seem to Man and drawing Him over to 

have contemplated the possibility of Himself, He does by blending and 

treating sanctum as predicate. association with Himself certify 

13. principaliter... consequenter Him.' Praestat, properly 'guaran- 

et in secundo loco] 'primarily' or tees,' Kvpdi. Cp. de Trin. xv 'uer- 

' immediately ' . . . ' inferentially and bum Christi praestat immortalitatem 

in the secondary place.' So below et per immortalitatem praestat diui- 

principaliias ($. 89!. 4), 'originality' nitatem': de Cib. lud. ii 'culpae 



8 9 

sanctum istud assumit et sibi filium hominis annectit et ilium 
ad se rapit atque transducit, conexione sua et permixtione 
sociata praestat, et filium ilium dei facit, quod ille naturaliter 
non fuit ; ut principalitas nominis istius filius dei in .spiritu sit 
doming quLdescendit el_uenit ; ut sequella nominis in filio 5 
dei et hominis sit, et merito consequenter hie filius dei factus 

5 ut] et ? 6 dei et om. We : filius dei in homine coni. Ja : filius dei 
filii hominis ego malim. 

graui inruitur, si terrestris et hu- 
mana sacris et spiritalibus litteris 
doctrina praestatur.' However it 
may be that the clause 'et filium 
dei facit' is misplaced, and that 
praestat governs the clause quod... 
non fuit 'gives Him what He was 
not by nature and makes Him Son 
of God.' 

3. quod ille naturaliter non 
fuit] ' The doctrine is precisely the 
same as in the Spanish Adoptianists 
of the time of Charlemagne ; even 
in the expressions used, there is but 
a slight shade of difference, when 
Novatian refuses to recognise in 
Mary's son the legitimus filius dei. ' 
So Ammundsen p. 38, agreeing with 
Harnack (D. G. 3 i 587 n.), and com- 
paring Hernias Sim. v 6, who thus 
writes as to the Son of God, the 
' seruus ' in the ' similitude ' : ' uides 
igitur esse dominum populi, accepta 
a patre suo omni potestate,' and 
again, ' in consilio aduocauit ergo 
filium et nuntios bonos, ut et huic 
scilicet corpori, quod seruisset spiri- 
tui sancto sine querella, locus aliquis 
consistendi daretur, ne uideretur 
mercedem seruitutis suae perdi- 

4. ut principalitas . . . hominis 
sit] The passage, though difficult, 
may be so rendered as to give a sense 
consistent with that of the preceding 
passage in 11. 13 (p. 88) to 4 (p. 89). 
The words 'dbmini,' 'et hominis,' 
are predicates. For the phrase 'qui 
descendit et uenit' qualifying the 
former, cp. line 38 'probans quo- 

niam filius dei descendit.' In line 
26 'hie' refers to 'hominis.' It is 
more difficult to deal with ' in 
spiritu,' 'in filio dei.' For 'in 
spiritu' we must refer to p. 88. 16 *in- 
carnatum per ilium spiritum,' and, 
for the grammar only, p. 23. 3 'con- 
uersa iam ipsa in spiritu'; 'in' de- 
notes the sphere of application or 
the basis of the Name. But it is 
very awkward to say that the title 
of 'filius dei' belongs to the Man 
only 'in filio dei,' which must mean 
'in virtue of His union with the 
Son of God': and N. can hardly 
have written the words as they 
stand. If we were to adopt Welch- 
man's conjecture, the rendering 
would be simple, ' so that the second- 
ary right to the Name is vested in 
the Son of Man.' (Note that 'filius 
dei,' 1. 4, is treated as though in- 

4, 5. principalitas ... sequella] 
These or cognate words occur in 
legal language, of a first claim or 
duty and one postponed or second- 
ary respectively. Thus Scaevola 
1. 46 tit. 3, leg. 93 a med. ' ubi ei 
obligation!, quae sequellae obtinet 
locum, principalis accedit, confusa 
est obligatio.' See Dirksen's Man- 
uale s.v. 'principalis' 2 ; he gives 
' accessio ' as the equivalent of ' se- 
quella.' In the language of gram- 
marians, ' principalis' and ' principali- 
tas' describe 'original 'or 'primary,' 
as distinct from 'derivative' forms. 

6. consequenter] 'by conse- 
quence. ' Hie refers to ' hominis. ' 


sit, dum non principaliter filius dei est. atque ideo disposi- 
tionem istam angelus uidens et ordinem istum sacramenti 
expediens, non sic cuncta confundens ut nullum uestigium 
distinctionis collocarit, distinctionem posuit, dicendo : propterea 
5 et quod nascetur ex te sanctum, uocabitur filius dei : ne si dis- 
tributionem istam cum libramentis suis non dispensasset, sed 
in confuso permixtam reliquisset, vere occasionem haereticis 
contulisset, ut hominis filium, qua homo est, eundem et dei 
et hominis filium pronuntiare deberent. nunc autem parti- 

10 ticulatim exponens, tarn magni sacramenti ordinem atque 
rationem euidenter expressit, ut diceret, et quod ex te nascetur 
sanctum, uocabitur filius dei, probans quoniam filius dei de- 
scendit : qui dum filium hominis in se suscepit, consequenter 
ilium filium dei fecit ; quoniam ilium filius sibi dei sociauit 

15 et iunxit, ut dum filius hominis adhaeret in natiuitate filio 
dei, ipsa permixtione faeneratum et mutuatum teneret, quod ex 
natura propria possidere non posset, ac sic facta est angeli 
uoce, quod nolunt haeretici, inter filium dei hominisque, cum 
sua tamen sociatione, distinctio, urgendo illos uti Christum, 

20 hominis filium hominem, intellegant quoque dei filium, et 
hominem dei filium, id est dei uerbum (sicut scriptum est) 

4 collocarit] -aret? 9 et hominis unc. incl. We. 15 natiui- 

tatem 7 Pa: -te corr. Ja. 21 id est dei uerbum ex a suppl. Pa: id est 

uerbum 7. 

1. dispositionem] as p. 53. 7 'He held on loan, by the very fact 
'blasphemiam dispositione legitima of the union, that which of His own 
congruenter refutauit.' nature He was not competent to 

2. sacramenti] ch. xxiii, p. 86. 7. possess.' 

3. expediens] 'developing,' 'ex- 18. cum sua tamen sociatione] 
plaining': cp. p. nol. 7 'regulam 'yet with the proper association of 
ueritatis expedit' : de Laud. Martyr. the Two.' 

iv ' tune omne fidei roburexpeditur': 19. urgendo] a modal use of 

de Spect. vi ' cui ars sit uerba manibus abl. gerund : urgentis would have 

expedire.' given the same sense. A classical 

5. ne sidistributionem...] 'lest idiom: v. my note on Cic. Cluent. 

if he did not allot that partition of 167, referring to Verg. A. ii 81. 

natures with its due balance and left ' Pressing them to understand that 

it in hazy confusion, he might give Christ, who is man, the Son of 

the heretics a real excuse for' etc. Man, is also the Son of God ; and to 

9. deberent] Cp. note on p. 85 accept as Man the Son of God, that 

1. 14- is the Word of God who is (ac- 

16. ipsa permixtione posset...] cording to the Scriptures) God.' 



deum, accipiant, atque ideo Christum lesum dominum (ut ita 
dixerim) ex utroque contextum atque concretum, et in eadem 
utriusque substantiae concordia mutui ad inuicem foederis con- 
fibulatione sociatum, hominem et deum, scripturae hoc ipsum 
dicentis ueritate, cognoscant 5 

25 XXV. Ergo, inquiunt, si Christus non homo est tantum 
sed et deus, Christum autem refert scriptura mortuum pro 
nobis et resuscitatum, iam docet nos scriptura credere deum 
mortuum : aut si deus non moritur, Christus autem mortuus 
refertur, non erit Christus deus, quoniam deus non potest 10 
accipi mortuus. si umquam intellegerent aut intellexissent 
quod legunt, numquam tarn periculose omnino loquerentur. 
sed erroris semper est abrupta dementia ; et non est nouum si 
usque ad periculosa descendunt, qui fidem legitimam relique- 
runt. si enim scriptura proponeret Christum tantummodo 15 
deum, et nulla in illo fragilitatis humanae sociatio esset per- 
mixta, merito illorum hie aliquid ualuisset sermo contortus, 
'si Christus deus, Christus autem mortuus, ergo mortuus est 
deus.' sed cum non tantummodo ilium, ut ostendimus iam 

i post dominum edd. priores ex utroque conexum : om. Ja. 

2. in eadem] 'with either sub- 
stance meeting in the clasp of a 
reciprocal bond, is God and Man in 
one.' Cp. p. 43. 8 ' scripturam 
euangelicam utramque istam sub- 
stantiam in unam natiuitatis Christi 
foederasse concordiam.' 

XXV. The heretics' objections 
further considered That if Christ 
is not only man but God, and if He 
died and rose again, it follows that 
Scripture teaches that God died: so 
that Christ cannot be God. This 
rash objection would hold, if Scrip- 
ture declared that Christ is God 
only, without admixture of weak 
humanity. But Scripture does not 
so declare ; and that which is im- 
mortal in ffim remained incorrupt. 
Deity is impassible, humanity pass- 
ible. It was the Human in Him, 

not the Divine, which died. Even 
with other men, it is the flesh alone 
which dies. Immortality is the birth- 
right of the human soul: much more 
then of the Word of God who cannot 
be piit to death by human power or 
cruelty. For the soul was created 
through the Word of God. Thus 
the Word was not in His Godhead 
brought to mortality. Even in the 
case of the Patriarchs, the power of 
death availed only against the body. 

13. abrupta] prop, 'precipitous': 
hence 'desperate,' 'foolhardy.' 

1 7 . merito illorum . . . contortus] 
' their perverse argument would 
have been in this case deserving of 
some consideration.' Cp. Cic. Acad. 
ii 75 'contorta et aculeata quaedam 
sophismata. ' 


frequenter, deum sed et hominem scriptura constituat, conse- 
quens est, quod immortale est, incorruptum mansisse teneatur. 
quis enim non intellegat, quod impassibilis sit diuinitas, 
passibilis uero sit humana fragilitas ? cum ergo tam ex eo quod 
5 deus est, quam etiam ex illo quod homo est, Christus intelle- 
gatur esse permixtus et esse sociatus, uerbum enim caro factum 
est, et habitauit in nobis quis non sine ullo magistro atque 
interprete ex sese facile cognoscat, non illud in Christo mor- 
tuum esse quod deus est, sed illud in illo mortuum esse quod 

10 homo est? quid enim si diuinitas in Christo non moritur, 
sed carnis solius substantia exstinguitur, quando et in ceteris 
hominibus, qui non sunt caro tantummodo, sed caro et anima, 
caro quidem sola incursum interitus mortisque patiatur, extra 
leges autem interitus et mortis anima incorrupta cernatur? 

15 hoc enim et ipse dominus, hortans nos ad martyrium et ad 
contemptum omnis humanae potestatis, aiebat : ne timueritis 
eos qui corpus ocridunt, animam autem occidere non possunt. 
quod si anima immortalis occidi aut interfici , non potest in 
quouis alio, licet corpus et caro sola possit interfici, quanto 

20 magis utique uerbum dei deus in Christo interfici omnino non 
potuit, cum caro sola et corpus occisum sit? si enim hanc 
habet generositatem immortalitatis anima in quouis homine, 

i consequens est] edd. Angli addunt ut. u quando et in ceteris... 

ex a. suppl. Pa. 

i. 'It follows that what is im- expressing 'deity, 'cp. n. on p. 14. 13. 
mortal must be held to have re- 16. ne tim.] Matt. x. -28. 

mained uncorrupted.' On the fact 22. generositatem immortali- 

that God is not only impassible but tatis] lit. 'noble quality,' i.e. 

' incompassible, ' i.e. cannot be held 'birthright of immortality.' Cp. 

to have suffered with the Son in p. 28!. i 'praecipuus atque generosus 

His Human nature, cp. Tertullian prae omnibus dei films,' and de Cib. 

adu. Prax. ch. xxix, who argues lud. iii ' bonum suum non in animi 

that if the mud is stirred up in a generositate sed in sola carne ponen- 

clear stream, the fountain-head does tern.' The argument is 'a fortiori': 

not suffer: ' fluuii iniuria non pertinet if the death of an ordinary man does 

ad fontem.' It must be remembered not destroy the human soul, but only 

that a formula of the Patripassians the body, much less did the Death 

was ' pater compassus est filio': this, of Christ, in whom a Divine and a 

and not the Divine sympathy with Human nature are united, destroy 

men, is that which Tertullian and the Word of God in Him. Thus 

Novatian wish to controvert. 'God in Him does not die.' v. In- 

4. quod deus est] For this phrase trod. 5 ii. 




ut non possit interfici, multo magis hanc habet potestatem 
generositas uerbi dei, ut non possit occidi. nam si potes- 
tas hominum ad interficiendam sacram dei potestatem, et si 
crudelitas humana ad interficiendam animam deficit, multo 
magis ad dei uerbum interficiendum deficere debebit. nam 5 
cum ipsa anima, quae per dei uerbum facta est, ab hominibus 
non occiditur, multo magis utique uerbum dei perimi non 
posse credetur. et si plus non potest hominum cruenta 
saeuitia aduersus homines, quam ut tantummodo corpus 
occidat, quanto magis utique in Christo non ualebit, quam ut 10 
item tantummodo corpus occidat : ut, dum per haec colligitur 
non nisi hominem in Christo interfectum, appareat ad mortali- 
tatem sermonem in loco non esse deductum. nam si Abraham, 
et Isaac, et lacob, quos homines tantummodo constat fuisse, 
manifestum est uiuere omnes enim, inquit, illi uiuunt deo, nee 1 5 
mors in illis animam perimit, quae corpora ipsa soluit ; ius enim 
suum exercere potuit in corpora, in animas exercere non ualuit : 
aliud enim in illis mortale, et ideo mortuum, aliud in illis im- 
mortale, et ideo intellegitur non exstinctum, ob quam causam 
uiuere deo pronuntiati et dicti sunt, multo magis utique mors 20 
in Christum aduersum solam materiam corporis potuit ualere, 
aduersus diuinitatem sermonis non potuit se exercere. frangi- 
tur enim potestas mortis, ubi intercedit auctoritas immorta- 

1 1 idem edd. : eadem G : item nos corr. 
in illo coni. Latin. : inlico (sc. ilico) Ja. 

1 3 in loco 7 Pa ceteri : 

3. sacram dei potestatem] sc. 

'ut non possit interfici' (line i), a 
power inherent in the soul and 
given by God: dei being a 'sub- 
jective' genitive. 

13. in loco] This appears to 
be an adverbial phrase with the 
sense ' therein ' or ' in consequence ' : 
for which some support may be 
found in such a use of ilico as we 
find in Cic. De Fato 28 'nee si 
omne enuntiatum aut uerum aut 
falsum est, sequitur ilico esse causas 
immutabilis quae ' etc. 

15. Luke xx 38. It is worth 
while to observe how N.'s addition 
of 'illi' narrows the scope of the 

XX VI . Heretical objections from 
the other side ' If there is One God 
and Christ is God, Christ being One 
God with the Father is the Father? 
But they are using names without 
intelligence. The Son is the Second 
Person of the Trinity next to the 
Father: as may be shewn from many 
passages ofO.T. and N. T., especially 
of St John. The Lord Himself speaks 




XXVI. Sed ex hac occasione, quia Christus non homo 26 
tantum sed et deus diuinarum litterarum sacris auctoritati- 
bus approbatur, alii haeretici erumpentes statum in Christo 
religionis concutere machinantur, hoc ipso patrem deum 
5 uolentes ostendere Christum esse, dum non homo tantum 
asseritur, sed et deus promitur. sic enim inquiunt : si unus 
esse deus promitur, Christus autem deus, ergo, inquiunt, si 
pater et Christus est unus deus, Christus pater dicetur. in 
quo errare probantur, Christum non noscentes, sed sonum 

10 nominis approbantes. nolunt enim ilium secundam esse per- 
sonam post patrem, sed ipsum patrem. quibus quia facile 
respondetur, pauca dicentur. quis enim non secundam filii 
post patrem agnoscat esse personam, cum legat dictum a patre 
consequenter ad filium : faciamus hominem ad imaginem et 

15 similitudinem nostram; et post haec relatum, et fecit deus 
hominem, ad imaginem dei fecit ilium ? aut cum inter manus 
teneat : pluit dominus super Sodomam et Gomorrham ignem et 
sulpur a domino de caelo ? aut cum ad Christum : films 
meus es tu^ ego hodie genui te ; postula a me et dabo tibi gentes 

20 hereditatem tuam, et possessionem tuam terminos terrae ? aut 
cum etiam ille desideratus scriba ait : dixit dominus domino 

17 dominus a: deus al. 18 filius meus es tu ex a suppl. Pa. 

21 desideratus scriba om. y : aut cum etiam ille desideratus... domino meo 
Pa ex a. 

of the revelation of this Mystery: 
and defines it as the Rule of faith. 
1 might multiply Scripture proofs 
that He is born of the Father, ever 
obedient to Him ; ever holding power 
over all things, yet in so far as it 
has been delivered unto Him by the 
Father. The fact of this obedience 
forbids us to suppose that Christ 
is the Father. 

i. 'Other heretics [sc. the Patri- 
passians] break out with a design 
to unsettle the basis of religion in 
Christ : they desire to shew that 
Christ is God the Father, by this 
very fact that He is not only asserted 
to be Man but declared to be God.' 

14. consequenter] 'conform- 
ably' to such a view, in Gen. i 
26, 27. In v. 27 Vulg. has creauit, 
as of something ' for the first time 
called into being,' following the 
Hebrew. LXX has the verb troieiv 
throughout vv. 26, 27. 

1 6. Gen. xix 24 : cp. De Trin. 
xviii p. 66. 5. 

18. Ps. ii 7, 8: cp. De Trin. ix 
p. 30. 15. ad Christum, sc. 'legat 

21. ille desideratus scriba] re- 
ferring to the etymology of the name 
David, which means 'beloved,' 
'desired.' Ps. cix (ex) i. 


meo : sede a dextris meis, donee ponam inimicos tuos scabellum 
pedum tuorumt aut cum Isaiae prophetias explicans inuenit 
positum sic : haec dicit dominus Christo meo domino ? aut 
cum legit : non descendi de caelo ut faciam uoluntatem meam, 
sed uoluntatem eius qui misit me ? aut dum inuenit positum : 5 
quoniam qui me misit, maior me estt aut cum considerat 
scriptum : eo ad patrem meum et patrem uestrum, deum meum 
et deum uestrumt aut quando habet cum ceteris collo- 
catum : sed in lege uestra scriptum est, quia duorum testi- 
monium uerum est ; ego de me testificor, et testificatus est de me 10 
qui me misit pater ? aut quando uox de caelo redditur : et 
honorificaui, et honorificabo ? aut quando a Petro respondetur 
et dicitur : tu es filius dei uiui ? aut quando ab ipso 
domino sacramentum huius reuelationis approbatur, et dicitur: 
beatus es, Simon Bariona : quoniam hoc tibi non reuelauit caro 15 
et sanguis, sed pater meus qui in caelis est ? aut quando ab 
ipso Christo exprimitur : pater, clarifica me eo honore, quo fui 
apud te, antequam mundus fierett aut cum ab eodem dicitur: 
pater, sciebam quia semper me audis ; uerum propter circum- 
stantes dixi, ut credant quia tu me misistit aut cum definitio 20 
regulae ab ipso Christo collocatur, et dicitur : haec est autem 

3 haec dicit dominus om. y: inuenit positum... meo domino Pa ex a. 
8 collocutum edd. prior., corr. We. 

2. explicans] ' opening,' lit.' un- De Cib. lud. ii ' in primis illud col- 
rolling.' Inuenit, the subject is the locandum est legem spiritalem esse? 
same as that of quis non agnoscat 9. Jo, viii 17, 18 Vulg. 'ego 
supra. sum, qui testimonium perhibeo de 

3. haec dicit dominus Christo meipso; et testimonium perhibet de 
meo domino] Is. xlv i, where Vulg. me, qui misit me, Pater.' 

has 'Cyro' with the Hebr. The quo- n. Jo. xii 28 Vulg. 'et clarifi- 

tation is based on Kvply, an ancient caui et iterum clarificabo ' : there 

corruption of Ktf/o^ which the best are other variations in the quotations 

text of LXX reads : the same error of this chapter. 

appears in Tertull. adu. ludaeos vii, 13. Matt, xvi 16, 17. 

adu, Prax. xi and xxviii. 17. Jo. xvii 5 : cp. De Trin. 

4. Jo. vi 38. xiii p. 43. 15, xvii p. 57. i. 

6. Jo. xiv 28. 19. Jo. xi 42. 

7. Jo. xx 17 Vulg. 'ascendo ad 20. definitio regulae] cf. n. on 
Patrem meum. ' ' regula ueritatis ' ch. i. 

8. collocatum] a favourite word 21. Jo. xvii 3, 4: cp. De Trin. 
of the writer : here ' stated ' : in xvi p. 56, 6. 

pp. 30. 18, 67. 4 'represent': in 

9 6 



uita aeterna, ut sciant te unum et uerum deum^ et quern misisti 
lesum Christum, ego te honorificaui super terrain, opus perfect 
quod dedisti mihi ? aut cum item ab eodem asseritur et 
dicitur : omnia mihi tradita sunt a patre meo ? aut cum 
5 sedere ad dexteram patris et a prophetis et ab apostolis 
approbatur? et satis longum facio, si enisus fuero omnes 
omnino ad hanc partem uoces congregare; quandoquidem 
tarn ueteris quam etiam noui testamenti scriptura diuina 
ubique ostendat ilium ex patre natum, per quem facta sunt 

10 omnia, et sine quo factum est nihil, qui oboedierit semper 
patri et oboediat, semper habentem rerum omnium potestatem, 
sed qua traditam, sed qua concessam, sed qua a patre proprio 
sibi indultam. quid enim tarn euidens potest esse, hunc non 
patrem esse, sed filium, quam quod oboediens patri deo 

15 proponitur, ne si pater esse credatur, alteri iam deo patri 
Christus subiectus esse dicatur? 

XXVII. Sed quia frequenter intendunt ilium nobis locum 27 

8 non tarn ueteris edd. priores. 

4. Luke x 22. 

5. The ref. is probably to Ps. 
cix (ex) r (for which cp. supra ix 
p. 30. 15) and Mk xvi 19. Edd. 
refer to Hebr. i 3, but it is a ques- 
tion whether Novatian himself re- 
cognised the canonicity of the Ep. 
to the Hebrews, from which he does 
not quote, though it might have 
given him many references. On 
this point, cp. c. xxxi, p. 123. 7. 

6. et satis longum facio sqq.J 
' and I should be engaging in quite 
an endless task, were I to set myself 
to collect together all utterances 
whatsoever which bear on this 

10. oboedierit semper... et ob- 
oediat] thus p. 38. 15 'oboediens 
patri qua films' : p. 81. 15 ' omnem 
patri in omnibus rebus oboedien- 
tiam praestitit pariter ac praestat.' 

13. euidens] active here, 'con- 
clusive ' ' Lest if Christ be believed 

to be the Father, it should be said 
that He is subjected to another God 
the Father. ' Iam implies ' it comes 
to this, that there would be a second 

XXVII. The Patripassians lay 
special stress on the text ' Ego et 
Pater unum sumus.' But (a) the 
Persons of the Son and the Father 
are distinguished by the et : (b] the 
neuter gender unum denotes a con- 
cordant fellowship not a personal 
identity: (c) the plural sumus im- 
plies distinction of Persons; though 
They are one in concord and love. 
St Paul similarly uses unum to 
express concord, with distinction of 
persons and offices, when he says of 
himself and Apollos ' he that planteth 
and he that watereth are one [unum].' 
So generally. Men may be one in 
religion yet two in personality: the 
same, yet not identical. And in the 
sequel in St John, our Lord explains 


quo dictum sit : ego et pater unum sumus, et in hoc illos 
aeque facile uincemus. si enim erat, ut haeretici putant, 
pater Christus, oportuit dicere : ego pater unus sum. at cum 
ego dicit, deinde patrem infert, dicendo ego et pater, proprie- 
tatem personae suae, id est filii, a paterna auctoritate dis- 5 
cernit atque distinguit, non tantummodo de sono nominis, 
sed etiam de ordine dispositae potestatis ; qui potuisset dicere, 
ego pater, si patrem se esse meminisset. et quia dixit unum, 
intellegant haeretici quia non dixit unus. unum enim neutraliter 
positum societatis concordiam non unitatem personae sonat. 10 
unum enim non unus esse dicitur, quoniam nee ad numerum 
refertur, sed ad societatem alterius expromitur. denique 
adicit dicens, sumus, non sum, ut ostenderet per hoc quod 
dixit, sumus ego et pater, duas esse personas ; unum autem 
quod ait, ad concordiam et eandem sententiam et ad ipsam 15 
caritatis societatem pertinere, ut merito unum sit pater et 
films per concordiam et per amorem et per dilectionem. et 

3 ego et pater unus y Pa : om. et G et Ja : unum G. 14 ego ins. Ja. 
1 6 pertinere y: -et Latin. Pa, -eret al. 

to the Jews in what sense He calls n 14. ' Let the heretics under- 

Himself God: viz. as the Son of God stand that He did not say One (in 

sanctified and sent by the Father. the masculine); because One in the 

As receiving sanctification, He is neuter gender signifies a fellowship 

inferior to the Father. As sent, He of common feeling, not a unity of 

is proved to be the Son, not the person'...' Since its reference is not 

Father who is the Sender; for there numerical, but it is a declaration of 

cannot be two Fathers. And the fellowship with another.' A similar 

controversy is settled by His own argument is used by Tertull. adu. 

declaration that He is the Son of Prax. xxii, Hippol. c. Noet. 7 and 

God. many later writers. 

3. dicere ego et pater unus sum] 12. expromitur] Cp. the use 
Jackson says that Gangneius and de of 'promitur' in last ch. p. 94 1. 7 : 
la Barre read Ego Pater unum sum. hence Welchman's suggestion ex- 
Migne reports them as reading ego primitiir is unnecessary. 

et Pater unum sum : but this is pos- ib. denique] ' And in fact, ' a 

sibly one of his misprints. Jo. x 30. post-classical usage. 

4. proprietatem] 'peculiarity,' 14. unum quod ait... per dilec- 
' distinctive character.' tionem] This interpretation, though 

6. non t. de sono n.] ' Not true as far as it goes, is quite inade- 

only by the mere sound of the name quate from the later Catholic point 

[Son] but by the order in economy of view, nor does the illustration 

of power ' : that is to say /car' olico- (which follows) from j Cor. iii 8 

vo/m.iav. For 'dispositae' cp. n. on improve matters. The 'unity of 

c. xv p. 53. 7. essence ' is something much more 

F. N. T 


quoniam ex patre est, quicquid illud est, filius est, manente 
tamen distinctione, ut non sit pater ille qui filius, quia nee 
filius ille qui pater est. nee enim sumus addidisset, si unum 
se et solitarium patrem filium factum esse meminisset. 
5 Denique nouit hanc concordiae unitatem et apostolus Paulus, 
cum personarum tamen distinctione. nam cum ad Corinthios 
scriberet, ego, in quit, plantaui, Apollo rigauit, sed deus in- 
crementum dedit. itaque neque qui plantat est quicquam, neque 
qui rigat, sed qui incrementum dat deus. qui autem plantat, 

10 et qui rigat, unum sunt. quis autem non intellegat alterum 
esse Apollo, alterum Paulum, non eundem atque ipsum Apollo 
pariter et Paulum? denique et diuersa uniuscuiusque sunt 
officia prolata : alter enim qui plantat, et alter qui rigat. hos 
tamen duos, non quod unus sit, sed quod unum sint, proposuit 

1 5 apostolus Paulus, ut alter quidem sit Apollo, alter uero Paulus, 
quantum ad personarum distinctionem pertinet; [quantum uero 
ad concordiam pertinet], unum ambo sint. nam quando 
duorum una sententia est, ueritas una est, fides una est, una 
atque eadem religio est, unus etiam dei timor est, unum sunt, 

20 etiam si duo sint. ipsum sunt, dum ipsum sapiunt. etenim 

quos personae ratio inuicem diuidit, eosdem rursus inuicem 

religionis ratio conducit. et quamuis idem atque ipsi non 

sint, dum idem sentiunt, ipsum sunt ; et cum duo sint, unum 

1 6 quantum uero ad c. pertinet ins. Ja. 23 ipsum Pa ex a : ipsi al. 

than ' societatis concordia.' Refer bring out the contrast of ' unus ' 

to Introd. 5 i, pp. xlvii, xlviii. with 'unum,' which the latter would 

i. quicquid illud est] The have forfeited. 

neuter gives the effect of something 16. [quantum uero ad con- 

which cannot entirely be defined, cordiam pertinet] Jackson, follow- 

and need not (with Welchm.) be ing Latinius, inserts these words, 

altered to ille. Cp. iv p. 15. 7 Evidently the homoeoteleuton caused 

' quicquid esse potest quod deus the omission of the clause, 

est,' v p. 18. 7, vi p. 21. 17 'quic- 20. ipsum sunt, dum ipsum 

quid illud est totus.' sapiunt] ' they are the same thing, 

7. ego...plantaui] i Cor. iii 6. being of the same mind': post- 

ii. non eundem sq.] 'the self- classical use of ifse. ' Sapiunt ' = 

same person is not equally Paul and (J>povov<riv. 

Apollos.' Cp. note on xxiv, p. 86. 14. 21. ' For those whom personality 

14. The 'quod' construction is divides, religion brings together 

preferred to the more normal infini- again.' 
live construction 'esse,' in order to 


sunt, habentes in fide societatem, etiam si gerant in personis 

Denique cum ad has uoces domini imperitia fuisset ludaica 
commota et temere ad usque saxa succensa, ita ut discurrerent 
et dicerent : non te lapidamus propter bonum opus, sed propter 5 
blasphemiam, et quia tu^ cum homo sts, fads te deitm, distinc- 
tionem posuit dominus in ratione reddenda, quomodo se deum 
aut dixisset aut intellegi uellet. quern pater sanctificauit, inquit, 
et misit in hunc mundum, uos dicitis, quia blasphemas^ quia 
dixi^ filius dei sum ? etiam hie patrem habere se dixit. i o 
films est ergo, non pater patrem enim confessus se fuisset, 
si patrem se esse meminisset et sanctificatum se a suo patre 
esse proponit. dum ergo accipit sanctificationem a patre, 
minor patre est : minor autem patre consequenter [non pater] 
est, sed filius. pater enim si fuisset, sanctificationem dedisset, 15 
non accepisset. nunc autem profitendo se accepisse sanctifi- 
cationem a patre, hoc ipso, quo patre se minorem accipiendo 
ab ipso sanctificationem probat, filium se esse, non patrem 
monstrauit. missum praeterea se esse dicit, ut per hanc oboe- 
dientiam, qua uenit dominus Christus missus, non pater sed 20 
filius probetur, qui misisset utique, si pater fuisset. missus 
autem non fuit pater, ne pater subditus alteri deo, dum 
mittitur, probaretur. et tamen post haec adicit, quod omnem 
omnino ambiguitatem dissolueret et totam controuersiam erroris 
exstingueret. ait enim in ultima parte sermonis : uos dicitis^ 25 
quia blasphemas, quia dixi, filius dei sum ? ergo si euidenter 
filium dominus se, non patrem, esse testatur, magnae temeritatis 
et ingentis est furoris exemplum contra ipsius Christi domini 
testimonium controuersiam diuinitatis et religionis agitare, et 

14 non pater ins. We. 16 uerba et nunc autem... filium se esse 

ex asuppl. Pa, sed delendum et : hoc ipso quo...probat om. y. 17 quo : 
? quod. 

5. Jo. x 33. 8. quern pater sanctificauit] 

6. ' The Lord laid down a dis- loosely governed (as in the Greek) 
tinction, while stating the principle by dicitis : ' say ye of Him, Thou 
upon which He had said that He blasphemest?' Jo. x 36. 

was God or wished this to be under- 29. ' To set agoing a controversy 

stood.' about the Divine nature and about 





Christum lesum patrem esse dicere, cum animaduertat ilium 
non patrem se, sed filium, comprobasse. 

XXVIII. Adhuc adiciam illam quoque partem in qua 28 
dum haereticus quasi oculo quodam gaudet proprio, ueritatis 
5 et luminis amisso, totam caecitatem sui agnoscat erroris. 
identidem enim et frequenter opponit quia dictum sit : tanto 
tempore uobiscum sum, et non agnoscitis me ? Philippe, qui uidit 
me, uidit et patrem. sed quod non intellegit, discat. culpatur 
Philippus, et iure quidem meritoque, quia dixerit : domine, 
10 ostende nobis patrem, et sufficit nobis. quando enim ex Christo 
aut audierat istud aut didicerat, quasi esset pater Christus, 
cum contra magis, quod films esset, non quia pater, 
frequenter audisset, et saepe didicisset? quod enim dixit 
dominus, si me cognouistis, et patrem meum cognouistis, et 

4 propriae 7 Pa : corr. Ja. 

religion.' The subject of animad- 
uertat is the disputant. 

XXVIII. A second argument of 
the heretics is based on the words 
' He that hath seen Me hath seen 
the Father? Philip is rightly blamed 
for having failed to learn the truth 
taught by Christ, viz., not that He is 
the father, but that to know Christ 
is tantamount to know ing the Fat 'her ', 
to whom we are to come through 
Christ. For Holy Scripture often 
speaks in the ' prophetic present? 
What shall be is spoken of as what 
already is. In this sense he who 
sees the Son has seen the Invisible 
Father whose works He imitates. 
If the Father is Christ, how are we 
to account for many other passages 
in St John which distinguish the 
Son from the Father who sent Him ? 
To believe in the Son is to contem- 
plate the Image of God, through 
which we rise to the contemplation 
of the Father. Then there is the 
promise to the 'pure in heart J im- 
plying that the vision of God has 
not yet been gi'anted. Those two 
passages are the very eyes of that body 
of heretical doctrine: ^vitho^^t them, 

it is blindness. 

3. 'I will further proceed to 
the point upon which the heretic 
rejoices (so to speak) in an eye of 
his own, though he has lost that of 
truth and light, and in so doing 
must acknowledge the full blindness 
of his error.' There is a play upon 
the words uidit me. With amisso 
understand oculo. The metaphor is 
resumed in the last three lines of 
the chapter. For partem in this 
sense cp. p. 96 1. 6 ' omnes ad hanc 
partem uoces congregare.' 

7. Jo. xiv 9 Vulg. cognouistis 

9. Jo. xiv 8. The argument is : 
Philip is rightly blamed for his 
question, not because Christ whom 
he had seen is the Father, but 
because coming to Christ is, by a 
sort of anticipation, coming to the 

14. cognouistis] Jo. xiv 7. The 
Vulg. has -issetis in both cases, which 
one might be tempted to adopt, but 
that Tertull. adu. Prax. xxiv has 
' cognouistis,' as also uidet in the 
previous quotation. 




a modo nostis ilium, et uidistis ilium, non sic dixerat ut se 
patrem uellet intellegi, sed quoniam qui penitus et plene 
et cum tota fide et tota religione accessit ad dei filium, omni- 
bus modis per ipsum filium, in quern sic credit, ad patrem 
peruenturus sit, eundemque uisurus. nemo enim, inquit, potest 5 
uenire ad patrem nisi per me. et ideo ad patrem deum non 
tantum uenturus est, et cogniturus ipsum patrem, sed etiam 
sic tenere debet, atque ita animo ac mente praesumere, quasi 
iam nouerit patrem pariter et uiderit. 

Saepe enim scriptura diuina, quae nondum facta pro factis 10 
annuntiat, quia sic futura sunt, et quae omnibus modis fieri 
habent, non quasi futura sint, praedicat, sed quasi facta sint, 
narrat. denique cum nondum temporibus Isaiae prophetae 
Christus natus fuisset, quia puer, aiebat, natus est nobis\ et cum 
nondum accessum esset ad Mariam, et accessi ad prophetissam, 1 5 
dicebat, et concepit, et peperit filium. et cum nondum sinum 
patris Christus exposuisset, referebat : et uocatur nomen eius 
magni consilii angelus. et cum nondum fuisset passus, quasi 

1 7 uocabitur corr. Ja. 

i. a modo] 'henceforth.' From 
Tertull. adu. Prax. xxvi it is plain 
that the Patripassians based their 
opinion largely on this answer to 
St Philip, forgetting, as he says, that 
' so many plain pronouncements, 
antecedent and following, could not 
be overturned by one text (sermo), 
interpreted not only in the face of 
them, but of its own plain meaning.' 
Cp. n. on xxi, p. 76 1. i. 

3. omnibus modis] 'wholly,' 
* certainly,' as in 1. 1 1 below : an 
early Latin idiom revived, like 
miris modis of Lucr. i 123. 

5. Jo. xiv 6. 

8. praesumere] here simply 'to 
anticipate.' Generally it means ( to 
take for granted,' with an implica- 
tion of hasty or self-willed assump- 
tion ; thus in Tertull. de Testim. 
Aniniae iv 'cuius (resurrectionis) 
nos praesumptores denotamur' : and 


humani erroris 
qua haeretici esse 

c. xxx, p. 114. 

ir. fieri habent] 'are about to 
happen.' For this analytic future cp. 
Tertull. I.e. ' eum qui nasci habebat 
a uirgine, ab ipso annuntiari angelo.' 
Cp. c. xviii, p. 64. 4. 

13. denique] 'Accordingly'; cp. 
xxvii, p. 97. 12. 

14. Is. ix 6. 

15. Is. viii 3. 

1 6. sinum patris exposuisset] 
cp. xviii p. 68. 4, note. 

17. uocatur] as LXX KaXen-cu 
(Is. ix 6) : the old editions give 
' uocabitur' (as in Vulg.). The sense 
demands the present, ' praesens fulu- 
rascens? according to the writers 
argument. Similarly below, Is. liii 
7, iugulationem is a nearer equiva- 
lent of LXX a^ayfjv, than Vulg. 
' occisionem.' 




outs, pronuntiabat, ad iugulationem adductus est. et cum adhuc 
crux nusquam esset, aiebat : tota die expandi manus meas ad 
populum non credentem. et cum nondum iniuriose potatus 
fuisset, in siti, ait, mea potauerunt me aceto. et cum spoliatus 
5 adhuc non fuisset, dicebat, super uestem meant miserunt 
sortem : et dinumerauerunt ossa mea : effoderunt manus meas et 
pedes. prouidens enim scriptura diuina pro factis dicit, quae 
futura scit, et pro perfectis dicit, quae futura habet, quae sine 
dubitatione uentura sunt. et ideo dominus in praesenti loco 

10 dicebat: a modo nostis illum^ et uidistis. dicebat enim uisum 
iri ab eo patrem, quisquis filium secutus fuisset ; non quasi 
films ipse esset pater uisus, sed quod praemium consecuturus 
esset, quisquis ilium sequi et discipulus eius esse uoluisset, ut 
uidere patrem posset, nam et imago est dei patris, ut his etiam 

1 5 illud accedat, quoniam sicut pater operatur, ita operatur et films, 

et imitator est filius omnium operum paternorum ; ut perinde 

habeat unusquisque, quasi iam uiderit patrem, dum eum uidet 

qui inuisibilem patrem in omnibus operibus semper imitatur. 

Ceterum si ipse pater est Christus, quomodo confestim 

20 adicit et dicit : qui credit in me, opera quae ego facto et ipse 

faciet, et maiora his faciet, quia ego ad patrem uado ? et adhuc 

subnectit : si diligitis me, praecepta mea seruate : et ego rogaba 

patrem^ et alium aduocatum dabit uobis. post quae etiam illud 

subnectit : si quis me diligit, sermonem meum custodiet : et pater 

i. Is. Ixv 2. 

3. iniuriose potatus fuisset] 
' had been offered the cup of scorn.' 
For potare in this sense, see Ronsch 
It. u. V. p. 376. 

4. Ps. Ixviii 22 (Ixix 21). 

5. Ps. xxi 19, 18, 17 (xxii 18, 

I7 J 6). 

. 14. ut Ms etiam illud...] 'so 
that there is this further truth, that 
etc.' N. is giving the substance of 
Jo. v 17 and 19. Besides the future 
reward of seeing the Father, there 
is the fact that even now we see the 
Father at work in the acts of Christ. 
That is the meaning of the * et 


1 6. et imitator est cet.] So- 
c. xxii, p. 81. 2. 

ib. ut perinde habeat... inuisi- 
bilem] ' so that a man may feel just 
as if he has seen the Father already 
in seeing Him ' etc. 

19, 21. Jo. xiv 12, 15, 16. As 
the 'confestim ' shews, the preceding 
paragraph (' saepe enim scriptura ' 
to ' semper imitatur ') is parentheti- 
cal : ' ceterum ' resumes the main 

23. aduocatum] Vulg. ' Paracle- 
tum. ' 

24. Jo. xiv 23, 26. 




meus diliget ilium, et ad eum ueniemus, et mansionem apud ilhim 
faciemus. nee non etiam subdidit illud quoque : aduocatus 
autem ille spiritus sanctus, quern missurus est pater, ilk uos 
docebit et commemorabit omnia quaecumque dixero. praemittit 
adhuc istum locum, quo ostendat se esse filium, et merito 5 
subdidit, et dicit : si me diligeretis, gauderetis, quia eo ad 
patrem : quia pater maior me est. quid autem cum etiam 
ilia subnectit : ego sum uitis uera, et pater meus agricola : omne 
sarmentum in me non afferens fructum to Hit illud, et omne fructi- 
ferum purgat, ut fructum ampliorem ferat ? instat adhuc et 10 
adicit : sicut dilexit me pater, et ego dilexi uos ; manete in mea 
caritate ; si mandata mea seruaueritis, manebitis in mea cari- 
tate, sicut ego patris mandata seruaui, et maneo in eius caritate. 
adhuc ingerit, et dicit : dixi autem uos amicos, quia omnia 
quae audiui a patre meo, nota uobis fed. aggregat etiam hoc : 1 5 
sed haec omnia facient uobis propter nomen meum, quia ignorant 
eum qui me misit. 

Haec ergo numquam post ilia euidenter ilium non patrem 
sed filium esse testantia dominus subdidisset, si aut patrem 
se esse meminisset, aut patrem se uellet intellegi. nisi quo- 20 
niam ut illud exprimeret, perinde unumquemque iam habere 
debere, dum imaginem dei patris per filium uidet, atque si 
uiderit patrem quandoquidem unusquisque credens in filium 
exerceatur in imaginis contemplatione, ut assuefactus ad diuini- 
tatem uidendam imagine proficere possit et crescere usque ad 25 

ii uerba manete in mea... eius caritate Pa ex a. 
crescere Pa ex a. 

25 proficere p. et 

6. ib. 28. 

8. Jo. xv i, 2, where Vulg. has 
' omnem palmitem . . . non ferentern 
fructum, toilet eurn; et omnem qui 
fert fructum, purgabit eum, ut fruc- 
tum plus afferat.' 

ii. Jo. xv 9, 10 Vulg. 'in dilec- 
tione mea...praecepta.' 

ii, 14, 15. adicit... ingerit... ag- 
gregat] The evidence is cumulative 
or progressive. 

14, 16. Jo. xv 15, 21. 

20. nisi quoniam sq.] ' His only 
purpose was to express that every 
man should henceforth account it 
the same thing to see the image of 
God the Father through the Son, 
as to have seen the Father.' 

25. imagine] adverbially 'by' 
or 'in the image.' The influence 
of Platonic teaching is unmistake- 
able in such passages: e.g. Repub. 
516 A gwi?06fa* Si) <?OIT' o>, d /tA- 
Xot ra &vw o\l/ffdai, the prisoner 




dei patris omnipotentis perfectam contemplationem, et quo- 
ni&m, qui hoc animo ac mente combiberit et de omnibus sic 
futurum esse crediderit, patrem, quern uisurus sit, quasi iam 
quodammodo uiderit et hie iam sic habeat, quasi teneat, quod 
5 habiturum se pro certo sciat. 

Ceterum, si ipse pater fuisset, quid quasi futurum praemium 
repromittebat, quod iam praestiterat et dederat ? nam quoniam 
dicit : beati mundo corde, quia ipsi deum iddebunt, polliceri 
deprehenditur contemplationem et aspectum patris. ergo 

i o nondum dederat : cur enim repromitteret, si iam dedisset ? 
dederat enim, si pater esset ; uidebatur enim, et contingebatur. 
quando autem, dum contingitur ipse Christus et uidetur, repro- 
mittit tamen et dicit, quoniam qui mundo fuerit corde, deum 
uidebit, hoc ipso probat patrem se non esse, qui tune praesens 

15 cum uideretur repromittebat, quod patrem uisurus esset quis- 
quis mundo corde fuisset. erat ergo repromittens haec non 
pater sed films ; quia qui films erat, quod uideri habebat 
repromittebat : cuius repromissio superuacua fuisset, nisi films 
fuisset. cur enim repromittebat mundis ut uiderent patrem, 

in the cave of shadows ' will re- 
quire to grow accustomed before 
he can attain to the sight of the 
upper world,' and the whole context. 
In Plato the ascent through ' images ' 
to the Idea of Good is an ascent 
from that which is in process and 
shadow to that which is : uddy/ma 
IJ/VXTJS b\Kbv dwb TOU yiyvofj^vov eirl 
TO 8i> (ib. 521 D). Cp. R. L. Nettle- 
ship, Philosoph. Remains, pp. 366, 
367. But we must not imagine that 
Catholic writers, speaking of Christ 
as the Image of the Father (cp. 
Hebr. i 3, Philipp. ii 6, Col. ii 9), 
implied a lower degree of reality 
in Him. Novatian's view may be 
further studied in c. xviii init. 

i. et quoniam, qui hoc...] 
' The truth is, also, that the man 
who has taken this deep into his 
heart and soul, and has entirely be- 
lieved that thus it will be, has al- 
ready seen, in a manner, the Father 

whom he is to see hereafter, and 
here already has, as if it were in 
his grasp, that which he knows for 
certain that he will one day have.' 
The difficulty of this passage is due 
to the fact that both ' quasi ' and 
'sic' occur respectively twice and in 
different usages : the former ' quasi ' 
merely qualifies 'quodammodo,' the 
former 'sic' refers to the same truth 
as ' hoc.' The main assertion is 
contained in ' uiderit. habeat.' 
'Hie' means 'here upon earth.' 
Et quoniam carries on the nisi quo- 
niam, which expresses the actual 
state of things (cp. p. 40. 23 n.). 
' De omnibus,' an adverbial phrase 
(cp. p. 3. 2 note) to be compared 
with 'omnibus modis' p. 101 1. 3. 

8. Matt, v 8. 

17. quod uideri habebat] ' what 
should afterwards be seen ' : cp. fieri 
habent supra p. 101. u. 



si iam tune qui praesentes erant, patrem Christum uidebant ? 
sed quia filius erat, non pater, merito et filius, quia imago 
dei, tune uidebatur, et pater, quia inuisibilis, mundis corde, 
ut uideretur, repromittitur et notatur. 

Haec igitur satis sit etiam aduersus istum haereticum die- 5 
tasse, pauca de multis. campus enim, et quidem latus ac 
fusus, aperietur, plenius haereticum istum si agitare uoluerimus ; 
quandoquidem duo bus istis locis quibusdam effossis luminibus 
orbatus, totus sit in doctrinae suae caecitate superatus. 
29 XXIX. Sed enim ordo rationis et fidei auctoritas diges- 10 
tis uocibus et litteris domini admonet nos post haec credere 
etiam in spiritum sanctum, olim ecclesiae repromissum, sed 

4. notatur] 'is notified' or 'set 
down ' in scripture. Cp. Novatian's 
letter (Ep. Cypr. xxx 5) 'cum tam 
grande crimen per multos diffusum 
notatur exisse.' 

7. agitare] ' to hunt ' carries on 
the hunting metaphor in campus : 
as Hor. C. ii 13. 40 'aut timidos 
agitare lyncas.' 

8. ' Since now that he has 
been deprived of those two passages 
[sc. Jo. x 30, xiv 9], it is like the 
loss of his two eyes, and he is left 
utterly defeated in the blindness of 
his doctrine.' Cp. the first lines of 
the chapter. 

Part, dealing with the belief in 
God the Holy Ghost. 
XXIX. The promise of the Holy 
Spirit given through the Prophets 
to the Church was fulfilled through 
Christ. He is called the Paraclete or 
the Spirit of truth. In the Prophets 
He reproved God's people, in the 
Apostles He exercised His advocacy 
on behalf of the Gentiles. In Him 
is a diversity of offices, according to 
the times and seasons : but He is One 
and the Same. In the Prophets He 
wrought for a moment and in 
measure, in the Apostolic Chztrch 
He -works for ever and in fulness. 
Christ gave at His departure the 

promise of the Paraclete. His 
operations in the Church are 
charismatic : they are gifts of the 
Spirit to the Church, the Bride of 
Christ. He came upon the Lord 
in plenittsde, that He might be the 
Fo^mta^n-head of spiritual life, in 
fulfilment of prophecy. The Holy 
Spirit effects the new birth in 
Baptism, and makes us the temple 
of God, and sanctifies our bodies and 
associates them with His immortality. 
The Spirit conquers the flesh. The 
Spirit develops the Rule of Truth, 
banishes strange doctrines, guards the 
Gospels, and witnesses to the truth 
of Christ against heresy and its sacri- 
legious ordinances. He maintains 
the Chttrch in her integrity and 

10. digestis uocibus et litteris 
domini] 'by the words and Scrip- 
tures of the Lord set forth in due 
order,' i.e. ' in an orderly statement 
of the teaching of the Lord by His 
Word spoken and written.' Inter- 
esting as an early definition of the 
purpose of a Creed. 

12. olim eccl. repromissum] So 
in Tertullian's Creed (adu. Praxeam 
2) 'Qui exinde miserit, secundum 
promissionem suam, a Patre Spiri- 
tum Sanctum Paracletum. ' 




statutis temporum opportunitatibus redditum. est enim per 
loelem prophetam repromissus, sed per Christum redditus. 
in nouissimis, inquit, diebus effundam de spiritu meo super 
seruos et ancillas meas. dominus autem : accipite spiritum 
5 sanctum ; quorum remiseritis peccata, erunt remissa ; et quorum 
retinueritis, erunt retenta. hunc autem spiritum sanctum 
dominus Christus modo paraclitum appellat, modo spiritum 
ueritatis esse pronuntiat. qui non est in euangelio nouus, sed 
nee noue datus. nam hie ipse et in prophetis populum accusa- 

10 uit, et in apostolis aduocationem gentibus praestitit. nam 
illi ut accusarentur merebantur, quia contempserant legem : et 
qui ex gentibus credunt, ut patrocinio spiritus adiuuentur 
merentur, quia ad euangelicam peruenire gestiunt legem. 
differentia sane in illo genera officiorum, quoniam in tempo- 

15 ribus differens ratio causarum : nee ex hoc tamen ipse diuersus, 
qui haec sic gerit, nee alter est, dum sic agit, sed unus atque 
ipse est, diuidens officia sua per tempora et rerum occasiones 
atque momenta, denique apostolus Paulus : habentes, inquit, 
eundem spiritum, sicut scriptum est: credidi, propter quod 

20 locutus sum, et nos credimus, ideo loquimur. unus ergo et 
idem spiritus, qui in prophetis et apostolis ; nisi quoniam ibi 
ad momentum, hie semper, ceterum ibi, non ut semper in 

4 seruos fort, addendum meos. 15 diuersus a : diuiditur y al. 

i. redditum] 'duly bestowed': 
the word properly denotes the pay- 
ment of a debt or due. 

3. Joel ii 29. 

4. Jo. xx 22, 23 Vulg. remit- 
tuntur eis . . .retenta sunt. 

7. Jo. xiv 16, 17. 

8. sed nee noue datus] 'nor is 
there anything new even in the 
mode of His bestowal.' The 'differ- 
ences' mentioned below are a matter 
of degree and not of kind. 

9. populum accusauit] This 
seems a curiously limited view of 
the work of the Spirit in th e prophets ; 
and indeed N. dwells elsewhere on 
the perversity of the Jews, almost 
to excess (cp. de Trin. pp. 71. 5-8, 

23. 17, 48. 18: de Cib. lud. i adfin.\ 
also the treatise adu. ludaeos). But 
his special purpose here was to bring 
out, as against the Marcionites, the 
unity and consistency of the Spirit's 
action under the two covenants. 
Under the old, He had threatened 
to forsake the Jews : under the new, 
He fulfilled the threat. 

14. in illo] 'in Him.' Quoniam 
in temporibus etc. ' since with differ- 
ence of times occasions differ.' The 
language appears to be suggested by 
i Cor. xii 4. 

1 8. habentes cet] 2 Cor. iv 13. 

1 1 . ibi] sc. ' in Prophetis ' : hie, 
'in Apostolis.' 




illis inesset, hie, lit in illis semper maneret : et ibi mediocriter 
distributes, hie totus effusus; ibi parce datus, hie large com- 
modatus; nee tamen ante resurrectionem domini exhibitus, 
sed per resurrectionem Christi contributus. rogabo enim 
aiebat, patrem^ et alium aduocatum dabit uobis, ut uobiscum sit 5 
in aeternum, spiritum ueritatis. et : cum uenerit aduocatus 
ille, quern ego missurus sum uobis a patre meo, spiritum ueritatis, 
qui de patre meo procedit. et : si non abiero ego, aduocatus ille 
non ueniet ad uos : si autem ego abiero, remittam ilium ad uos. 
et : cum uenerit spiritus ueritatis ', ille uos diriget in omnem i o 
ueritatem. et quoniam dominus in caelos esset abiturus, 
paraclitum discipulis necessario dabat, ne illos quodammodo 
pupillos, quod minime decebat, relinqueret, et sine aduocato et 
quodam tutore desereret. 

Hie est enim qui ipsorum animos mentesque firmauit, qui 15 
euangelica sacramenta distinxit, qui in ipsis illuminator rerum 
diuinarum fuit, quo confirmati pro nomine domini nee carceres 
nee uincula timuerunt ; quin immo ipsas saeculi potestates et 
tormenta calcauerunt, armati iam scilicet per ipsum atque 
firmati, habentes in se dona, quae hie idem spiritus ecclesiae 20 
Christi sponsae quasi quaedam ornamenta distribuit et dirigit. 
hie est enim qui prophetas in ecclesia constituit, magistros 
erudit, linguas dirigit, uirtutes et sanitates facit, opera mirabilia 

i datus... commodatus a: -at. ..-at al. 
Latin., Ja. 17 qui Mign. typogr. err. 

4 per 7 Pa. : post corr. 

4 sq. Jo. xiv 16, 17: xv 26: 
xvi 7 : xvi 13. The Vulg. has 
Paracletus throughout, in place of 
aduocatus, with other variations ; 
e.g. for diriget in, odyy/io-ei els, it 
has docebit. 

13. pupillos] In the Vulg. of 
Jo. xiv 1 8 the word is 'orphanos': 
the legal term //*'//#.$, 'a ward,' is 
correlative to tutor, the ' guardian. ' 

1 6. distinxit] 'has brought out 
clearly ' or ' emphasized ' the Gospel 
mysteries : cp. what is said of ' evan- 
gelical law' in p. 1 06 lines 12, 13 

21, 23. dirigit] Probably the 
word is used in the old Latin sense 
given by Facciolati 'in duas partes 
diuidere, ' as the equivalent of diaftepl- 
&LV in Acts ii 3. The grammarian 
Paulus (p. 69 M.) says ' dirigere apud 
Plautum inuenitur pro discidere.' 
So we may tr. 'distribute' here. 

23. sanitates] so i Cor. xii 9 
'gratia sanitatum in uno Spiritu.' 
N. gives the word the sense of 
'cures'; so pp. 29. 10, 40. 14. 
Discretiones spirituum ib.z/. 10,' dis- 
cerning of spirits,' i.e. 'determina- 
tion between those prophetical gifts 




gerit, discretiones spirituum porrigit, gubernationes contribuit, 
consilia suggerit, quaeque alia sunt charismatum dona com- 
ponit et digerit; et ideo ecclesiam domini undique et in 
omnibus perfectam et consummatam facit. 
5 Hie est qui in modum columbae, posteaquam dominus 
baptizatus est, super eum uenit et mansit, habitans in solo 
Christo plenus et totus, nee in aliqua mensura aut portione 
mutilatus, sed cum tota sua redundantia cumulate distributus 
et missus, ut ex illo delibationem quandam gratiarum ceteri 

10 consequi possint, totius sancti spiritus in Christo fonte rema- 
nente, ut ex illo donorum atque operum uenae ducerentur, 
spiritu sancto in Christo affluenter habitante. hoc etenim 
iam prophetans Isaias aiebat : et requiescet, inquit, super eum 
spiritus sapientiae et intellectus, spiritus consilii et uirtutis^ 

15 spiritus scientiae et pietatis, et implebit eum spiritus timoris 
dei. hoc idem atque ipsum et alio in loco ex persona ipsius 
domini : spiritus domini super me ; propter quod unxit me, 
euangelizare pauperibus misit me. similiter Dauid : propterea 

8 cumulate d. et missus Pa ex a : cumulate admissus y al. 
quiescit...impleuit edd. net.: corr. edd. Angl. 

13 re- 

which were true and those which 
were false' (Stanley ad loc.}. 

6. Matt, iii 16, Jo. i 33. 

7. ' Not abridged in any 
measure or portion, but in His full 
outflow bountifully dispensed and 
sent forth.' In Jo. iii 34, ' He 
giveth not the Spirit by measure,' a 
general principle is laid down ; but 
N., like our A.V. and many ancient 
interpreters, understood the words 
to mean 'giveth not unto Him.' 

9. ex illo] sc. ' ex Christo,' as 
also in 1. n. 

ib. delibationem] ' taste ' or 
'sample.' In Rom. xi 16 (Vulg.) 
the word represents ajrapxn 'first- 

10. totius ... remanente] In 
Christ the entire fulness of the 
Spirit abides, like an ever-springing 
fountain, from which other men 
receive their particular streams of 

grace. Novatian, it will be ob- 
served, is not speaking of the eternal 
Procession of the Spirit from the 
Son, but of the gift bestowed upon 
Christ at His baptism for the benefit 
of men. 

13. Is. xi 2, 3. For 'uirtutis' 
(LXX iVx^os) Vulg. \&&fortitudinis. 

17. 'This self-same thing the 
prophet has said in another passage, 
in the person of the Lord Himself.' 
The quotation (from Is. Ixi i) is a 
literal rendering of the striking 
words of LXX, especially evayye- 
Xt'cracrtfcu TTTOJXCHS. Vulg. agrees in 
Luke iv 18, but in Isaiah reads ad 
annuntiandum mansuetis. On this 
punctuation, which connects 'euan- 
gelizare ' with ' misit, ' see Moulton 
Grammar of N. T. Greek i p. 143. 
It is accepted in the recent edition 
of the Vulg. by Eb. Nestle. 

18. Ps. xliv 8 (xlv 7). 




unxit te, deus, deus tuus oleo laetitiae a consortibus tuts, de 
hoc apostolus Paulus : qui enim spiritum Christi non habet, 
hie non est eius ; et : ubi spiritus domini, ibi libertas. 

Hie est qui operatur ex aquis secundam natiuitatem, semen 
quoddam diuini generis, et consecrator caelestis natiuitatis, 5 
pignus promissae hereditatis, et quasi chirographum quoddam 
aeternae salutis; qui nos dei faciat templum, et nos eius 
efficiat domum. qui interpellat diuinas aures pro nobis gemiti- 
bus ineloquacibus, aduocationis implens officia, et defensionis 
exhibens munera, inhabitator corporibus nostris datus, et ro 
sanctitatis effector ; qui id agens in nobis ad aeternitatem et ad 
resurrectionem immortalitatis corpora nostra producat, dum 
ilia in se assuefacit cum caelesti uirtute misceri, et cum spiritus 
sancti diuina aeternitate sociari. erudiuntur enim in illo et 
per ipsum corpora nostra ad immortalitatem proficere, dum ad 15 

i te, deus, deus tuus sic legitur apud Tertull. adu. Prax. xiii. 

2. Rom. viii 9. 

3. 2 Cor. iii 17. 

4. Two centuries later, Theo- 
doret affirmed (Haer. Fab. iii 5) 
that the Novatianist sect refused to 
practise Unction in connexion with 
Baptism : and in the present striking 
passage, the *seal' of Unction and 
the Laying-on of Hands is not men- 
tioned. Dr Mason (Relation of Con- 
firmation to Baptism, p. 122) thinks 
that the writer's 'silence concerning 
the "seal" may be interpreted as in 
the case of other ancient authors 
who ascribe the gift of the Holy 
Ghost to " Baptism" ; Baptism im- 
plicitly including it.' The twofold 
occurrence in the passage of the 
word unxit, in the quotations, makes 
for that view. Cornelius, Bp of 
Rome, in a letter to Fabius, Bp of 
Antioch, says that Novatian was 
privately baptized in sickness: and 
affirms that 'when he recovered, he 
never obtained the remaining things 
which a man ought to partake of 
according to the Church rule, and 
was never sealed by the Bishop.' 
On this question v. Mason, op. cit. 
p. 120; Bp Hall, Confirmation 

(Oxf. Library of Practical Theology) 
p. 69. 

6. Eph. i 14. 

7. i Cor. iii 17. ' Faciat... 
efficiat' are causal subjunctives, as is 
producat, 1. 12. 

9. Rom. viii 26 Vulg. 'inenar- 

1 1 . qui id agens sq.] ' So doing 
in us to bring our bodies to eternity 
and to the resurrection of im- 
mortality, while He accustoms them 
in His own person [or rather, in 
Himself] to be conjoined with 
heavenly powers and to be as- 
sociated with the Divine eternity 
of the Holy Spirit ' (Mason I.e.). 
For 'producat' cp. p. 63. n. The 
passage proceeds from the thought 
of the indwelling Spirit to that of a 
transfigured humanity, ' heavenly,' 
' immortal,' ' divine.' Dr Moberly 
(Atonement, p. 275) speaks of 'the 
universal principle, that the Pente- 
costal Church is IIveG/xa; and there- 
fore that everything in the Church 
is what it is only within the region, 
and informing principle, of Spirit.' 
Cf. Introd. 6. 




decreta ipsius discunt se moderanter temperare. hie est enim 
qui contra carnem desiderat, quia caro contra ipsum repugnat. 
hie est qui inexplebiles cupiditates coercet, immoderatas libi- 
dines frangit, illicitos ardores exstinguit, flagrantes impetus 
5 uincit, ebrietates reicit, auaritias repellit, luxuriosas comissa- 
tiones fugat, caritates nectit, affectiones constringit, sectas 
repellit, regulam ueritatis expedit, haereticos reuincit, improbos 
foras exspuit, euangelia custodit. 

De hoc idem apostolus : non enim spiritum mundi accepimus, 

10 sed spiritum qui ex deo est. de hoc exsultat, et dicit : puto 
autem quia et ego spiritum dei habeo. de hoc dicit : et spiritus 
prophetarum prophetis subiectus est. de hoc refert : spiritus 
autem manifeste dicit^ quia in nouissimis temporibus recedent 
quidam a fide> attendentes spiritibus seductoribus, doctrinis 

15 daemoniorum, in hypocrisi mendada loquentium, cauteriatam 
habentium conscientiam suam. in hoc spiritu positus nemo 
umquam dicit anathema lesum : nemo negauit Christum dei 
filium, aut repudiauit creatorem deum : nemo contra scrip- 
turas ulla sua uerba depromit : nemo alia et sacrilega decreta 

20 constituit : nemo diuersa iura conscribit. in hunc quisquis 

6 fugit edd. : corr. We. 
17 lesu Mign. 

9 item edd. : corr. Pa. Cf. p. 93 1. u. 

2. Gal. v 17. 

7. expedit] Cp. above, c. xxiv 
p. 90 1. 3. 

8. 'Is keeper of the Gospels.' 
This can only be said of the Spirit, 
as being the keeper of the Church 
' in perpetual virginity and truth ' 
(end of this ch., lines 8, 9). Thus 
we have in these words, and in line 
5 below ('incontaminata doctrinae 
dominicae iura custodit'), a third- 
century affirmation of the principle 
that 'the Church is witness and 
keeper of Holy Writ' (Art. xx). 

9. i Cor. ii 12. 

10. i Cor. vii 40. 

n. spiritus ... subiectus est] 
The right reading of the original 
(i Cor. xiv 32) gives the plural: 
but v. Tischendorf in loc., who 

cites for the singular some good 
authorities, including four uncial 

12. i Tim. iv r. 

17. anathema lesum] i Cor. xii 
3 where Vulg. has lesu. The best 
attested reading in the Greek is 
'I?7<roOs: while 'Ir/trou has only one 
uncial in its favour. 

19. decreta] Like the words 
above (1. i) 'ad decreta ipsius dis- 
cunt se moderanter temperare,' this 
refers to the particular rulings of the 
Spirit in the Church. Cp. the use 
of the verb in Novatian's letter (Cypr. 
Ep. xxxvi i ) ' quod contra euan- 
gelicam decretum uidetur ueritatem.' 
or sacrilegus as an epithet of heresy, 
cp. note on p. 112 1. 5. 




blasphemauerit, remissionem non habet, non tantum in isto 
saeculo, uerum etiam nee in futuro. hie in apostolis Christo 
testimonium reddit, in martyribus constantem fidem religionis 
ostendit, in uirginibus admirabilem continentiam signatae 
castitatis includit, in ceteris incorrupta et incontaminata doc- 5 
trinae dominicae iura custodit, haereticos destruit, peruersos 
corrigit, infideles arguit, simulatores ostendit, improbos quoque 
corrigit, ecclesiam incorruptam et inuiolatam perpetuae uirgini- 
tatis et ueritatis sanctitate custodit. 

30 XXX. Et haec quidem de patre et de filio et de spiritu 10 
sancto breuiter sint nobis dicta, et strictim posita, et non longa 
disputatione porrecta. latius enim potuerunt porrigi, et pro- 
pensiore disputatione produci, quandoquidem ad testimonium, 
quod ita se habeat fides uera, totum et uetus et nouum 
testamentum possit adduci. sed quia obluctantes aduersus 15 

5 charitatis edd. : corr. We. 

i. Matt, xii 32 Vulg. 'non 
remittetur ei neque in hoc saeculo 
neque in future.' 

5. includit J Probably a con- 
cealed reference to Cant, iv 12 
* hortus conclusus soror mea sponsa, 
fons signatus.' 

8. uirginitatis] Cp. 2 Cor. xi 2 : 
and see the letter of the Church of 
Lyons (Eus. Hist. EccL vi 40) TT/ 

FOURTH PART. On the Unity 
of the Godhead. This closing section 
of the treatise, although it involves 
some repetition of what has been 
already said, is not a mere appendix. 
It is necessary to the completeness 
of the scheme of the book. The 
first three sections have dealt with 
the doctrine (to use later language) 
of ' Three Persons ' ; this last deals 
with that of ' One God.' 

XXX. Brief as our discussion is, 
we have yet to shew that the belief 
that Christ is God does not traverse 
the belief that there is One God, as the 
heretics have argued who have held 
Him to be either God the Father, 

or mere man. Christ is really 
once more crucified between two 
thieves. They are blind to the plain 
statements of Scripture. We hold 
that there is One God, Maker of 
heaven and earth. But we may not 
neglect any portion of Scripture: and 
the Scriptural proofs of Chrisfs 
Divinity are plain. There is only 
One God: yet Christ was addressed as 
1 My Lord and my God? Reverence 
and logic will reconcile the two truths. 
We may confront our opponents with 
analogies: it is stated that there is 
One Lord, and yet Christ is Lord: 
' One Master, ' and yet St Paul is 
called Master: ' One alone good? yet 
Christ is good. If apparent contra- 
diction is reconciled in those cases, 
why not also in this ? 

1 2 . propensiore] ' more solid , ' lit. 
'weighing heavier in the scale.' 
Gallandius tr. ' more extended,' re- 
ferring to Persius i 57 (where, how- 
ever, Conington adopts the variant 
protenso). Jackson corrects propan- 

15. obluctantes sq.] 'heretics, 




ueritatem semper haeretici sincerae traditionis et catholicae 
fidei controuersiam solent trahere, scandalizati in Christum, 
quod etiam deus et per scripturas asseratur et a nobis 
hoc esse credatur, merito a nobis (ut omnis a fide nostra 
5 auferri possit haeretica calumnia) de eo quod et deus sit 
Christus sic est disputandum, ut non impediat scripturae 
ueritatem, sed nee nostram fidem, qua unus deus et per 
scripturas promitur, et a nobis tenetur et creditur. 

tarn enim illi qui lesum Christum ipsum deum patrem 

10 dicunt, quam etiam illi qui hominem ilium tantummodo esse 
uoluerunt, erroris sui et peruersitatis origines et causas inde 
rapuerunt, quia cum animaduerterent scriptum esse quod unus 
sit deus, non aliter putauerunt istam tenere se posse sententiam, 
nisi aut hominem tantum Christum, aut certe deum patrem 

15 putarent esse credendum. sic enim calumnias suas colligere 
consueuerunt, ut errorem proprium approbare nitantur. et 
quidem illi qui lesum Christum patrem dicunt, ista praeten- 
dunt : si unus deus, Christus autem deus, pater est Christus, 
quia unus deus : si non pater sit Christus, dum et deus 

20 filius Christus, duo dii contra scripturas introducti esse 

8 edd. promittitur ut a : corr. We promitur. 
Christus, Christus a. d. 7 : corr. Pa. 

18 si unus deus 

ever wrestling against the truth, 
have a standing quarrel with the 
pure tradition and the Catholic 
faith, offended as they are at Christ. ' 
For the gen. (objective in its cha- 
racter) with ' controuersiam, ' cp. 
p. 99 1. 29 ' controuersiam diuinitatis 
et religionis.' 

5. calumnia] (as below) suggests 
'captious objection.' Cp. de Cib. lud. 
\ ' haereticorum sacrilegis calum- 

ib. de eo quod cet.] ' We have 
to argue the fact that Christ is also 
God in such a way as not to inter- 
fere with the truth of .Scripture nor 
yet with our Creed.' Sic...ut non 
really gives the gist of the argu- 

8. promitur] 'is asserted, 'as in 

xxiii, p. 84. 9 ' ausi sint non filium sed 
ipsum deum patrem promere uel 
putare, ' and xxvi, p. 94. 6. The 
reading 'promittitur' could only be 
rendered 'is professed '; cf. i Tim. ii 
10 ' promittentes pietatem.' 

1 5. ' For they are wont to en- 
deavour to recommend their peculiar 
error by throwing their false objec- 
tions into the following logical form.' 
Colligere refers to the syllogistic form 
of the objection, as set out in the 
sentences following. Cp. xxv, p. 93. 

1 8. si unus sq.] This is the 
argument of the Patripassians. 

19. si non pater sq.] 'If Christ 
is not the Father, then, as Christ, 
the Son, is God also, it must appear ' 



uideantur. qui autem hominem tantummodo Christum esse 
contendunt, ex diuerso sic colligunt : si alter pater, alter est 
films, pater autem deus, et Christus deus, non ergo unus 
deus, sed duo dii introducuntur pariter, pater et films; ac si 
unus deus, cohsequenter homo Christus, ut merito pater sit 5 
deus unus. re uera quasi inter duos latrones cruci figitur do- 
minus, quo modo fixus aliquando est : et ita excipit haereti- 
corum istorum ex utroque latere sacrilega conuicia. 

Sed neque scripturae sanctae, neque nos causas illis per- 
ditionis et caecitatis afferimus, si qua in medio diuinarum 10 
litterarum euidenter posita aut uidere nolunt, aut uidere non 
possunt. nos enim et scimus et legimus et credimus et tenemus 
unum esse deum, qui fecit caelum pariter ac terram, quoniam 
nee alterum nouimus aut nosse (cum nullus sit) aliquando 
poterimus. ego sum, inquit, deus : et non est praeter me iustus 15 
et saluans. et alio in loco : ego primus et nouissimus, et praeter 
me non est deus. quis sicut ego ? et : quis mensus est palmo 
caelum, et terram pugillo ? quis suspendit monies in pondere, 
et nemora in stater a ? et Ezechias : ut sciant omnes quia tu 
es deus so/us, ipse praeterea dominus : quid me inter rogas de 20 
bono ? unus deus bonus, apostolus quoque Paulus : qui solus, 
inquit, habet immortalitatem, et lucem habitat inaccessibilem ; 
quern uidit hominum nemo, nee uidere potest. et alio in loco : 
mediator autem unius non est ; deus autem unus est. sed 
quo modo hoc tenemus et legimus et credimus, sic scriptu- 25 

i Christum esse contendunt supplet Pa ex a. 
nouissimus. 25 si...debemus? We. coni. 

1 6 ego ins. Ja. ante 

i. qui autem hominem sq.] 
the argument of the 'rationalistic' 
Monarchians or Adoptianists. 
7. excipit] 'is exposed to.' 
10. 'If there are things plainly 
laid down on the open page of the 
Bible which they either will not or 
cannot see.' 

15. The ref. is to Isaiah xlv 21, 
following the LXX ; not to Is. xliii 

16. et nouissimus] Is. xliv 6, 7. 

F. N. 

Jackson following Hebr. LXX and 
Vulg. inserts ego before nouissimus. 
The other quotations follow LXX. 
17. Is. xl 12. See p. 10. 4. 

19. 2 Kings xix 19, in the prayer 
of Hezekiah. 

20. Matt, xix 17. 

21. i Tim. vi 16. 
24. Gal. iii 20. 

ib. sed quo modo sq.] The sense 
is; just as we accept Scripture 
statements of the Unity of God, so 





rarum caelestium nullam partem praeterire debemus : quippe 
cum etiam ilia quae in scripturis sunt posita Christi diuinitatis 
insignia nullo modo debemus recusare, ne scripturarum auc- 
toritatem corrumpendo integritatem fidei sanctae corrupisse 
5 teneamur. et hoc ergo credamus, siquidem fidelissimum, dei 
filium lesum Christum dominum et deum nostrum : quo- 
mam in principio erat uerbum, et uerbum erat apud deum^ et 
deus erat uerbum. hoc erat in principio apud deum. et 
uerbum caro factum est, et habitauit in nobis. et : dominus 

10 meus et deus meus. et : quorum patres, et ex quibus Christus 
secundum carnem, qui est super omnia deus benedictus in 

Quid ergo dicemus? numquid duos deos scriptura pro- 
ponit ? quomodo ergo dicit, quia deus unus est ? aut num- 

1 5 quid non et Christus deus est ? quomodo ergo, dominus meus 
et deus meus, Christo dictum est ? totum igitur hoc nisi 
cum propria ueneratione et legitima disputatione teneamus, 
merito scandalum haereticis praebuisse credemur, non utique 
ex scripturarum caelestium uitio, quae numquam fallunt, sed 

20 humani erroris praesumptione, qua haeretici esse uoluerunt. 
et in primis illud retorquendum in istos qui duorum nobis 
deorum controuersiam facere praesumunt. scriptum est, quod 
negare non possunt, quoniam unus est dominus. de Christo 
ergo quid sentiunt ? dominum esse, aut ilium omnino non 

2 5 esse? sed dominum ilium omnino non dubitant : ergo si 

5 si quidem fideles sumus Wower. emend. 
edd., corr. Ja. 17 dispositione Ja. coni. 

\ r eteres. 

7 apud deum] deus 
20 qua a : quia edd. 

ought we to accept unreservedly 
every part of Scripture. Thus 
Welchman's emendation is un- 

5. siquidem fidelissimum sq.] 
* since it is a most faithful saying 
that Jesus Christ... is our Lord and 
God,' cp. 'fidelis sermo,' i Tim. i 


7. Jo. i i, 2, 14. 

9. Jo. xx 28: see p. 44. 19. 

10. On the passage Rom. ix 5 cp. 
n. on ch. xiii, p. 44. 13. 

17. disputatione] ' dialectic.' 
Jackson emends to dispositione from 
ch. xv sub fin. 

20. qua haeretici sq.] Pame- 
lius marks the play on the root- 
meaning of haeresis, 'choice,' as 
praesumptio means 'self- will.' Cp. 
note on p. 101 1. 8. 

23. Deut. vi 4. 



uera est illorum ratiocinatio, iam duo sunt domini. quomodo 
igitur iam secundum scripturas unus est dominus ? et 
magister unus Christus est dictus ; attamen legimus, quod 
magister sit etiam apostolus Paulus. non ergo iam unus 
magister : duos enim magistros secundum ista colligimus. 5 
quomodo igitur secundum scripturas unus magister Christus ? 
unus in scripturis bonus dictus est deus ; sed iisdem in 
scripturis bonus etiam Christus positus est. non igitur, si 
recte colligunt, unus bonus, sed etiam duo boni. quomodo 
igitur secundum scripturarum fidem unus bonus esse refertur? 10 
ac si non putant aliqua ratione offici posse ei quod unus 
dominus est, per illud quod est dominus et Christus ; neque 
ei quod unus est magister, per illud quod est magister et 
Paulus ; aut illi quod unus est bonus, per illud quod bonus sit 
nuncupatus et Christus ; eadem ratione intellegant offici non 1 5 
posse ab illo quod unus est deus, ei quod deus pronuntiatus 
est et Christus. 

XXXI. Est ergo deus pater omnium institutor et crea- 

2 unus est dominus et magister unus Christus dictus? at enim legimus 
Pa. edd. Angl. emendauerunt. 7 unus... est deus suppl. Pa. ex a. 

7 idem We. com'. n ac si Pa ex a. : at al. 13 illud y : id cett. 

1 6 ab illo quod unus est deus ei quod] ei quod unus est deus per hoc quod 



1 1 

Matt, xxiii 8. 

i Tim. in. 

Matt, xix 17. 

aliqua ratione offici posse 
cet. ] ' that it can be any obstacle to 
the truth that there is one Lord, 
that Christ also is Lord.' 

XXXI. There is One God, with- 
out origin, of attributes incomparable. 
From Him, when He willed it, the 
Word was begotten: the secret of His 
nativity is known to none, save only 
to Himself: who has always been in 
the Father. The Son is before all 
time ; the Father is always Father, 
without origin, and therefore ante- 
cedent to the Son, who is begotten 
of Him, and, as such, is less than 
He is. Through that Divine Being, 

the Word, all things were made. 
Necessarily then Christ is before all 
things but after the Father, God of 
God, the Second Person as being the 
Son. His Divinity does not take 
from the Father the glory of being 
the One God. Christ is God, not 
as a Being unborn, unbegotten, 
without origin; not as being Himself 
the Father, not as invisible and past 
comprehension. To give Him those 
attributes were to affirm two Gods. 
But the Son is what He is not of 
Himself but from the Father. He 
is the Only-begotten and First- 
begotten, the Beginning of all things, 
who attests the One God as First 
Origin of being. He does nothing 
of His own counsel, but ministers 





tor, solus originem nesciens, inuisibilis, immensus, immortalis, 
aeternus, unus deus ; cuius neque magnitudini neque maies- 
tati neque uirtuti quicquam, non dixerim praeferri, sed nee 
comparari potest. ex quo, quando ipse uoluit, sermo films 
5 natus est : qui non in sono percussi aeris, aut tono coactae de 
uisceribus uocis accipitur, sed in substantia prolatae a deo 
uirtutis agnoscitur. cuius sacrae et diuinae natiuitatis arcana 
nee apostolus didicit, nee prophetes comperit, nee angelus 
sciuit, nee creatura cognouit; filio soli nota sunt, qui patris 
10 secreta cognouit. 

to the will of the Father, thus by 
obedience proving the truth of the 
One God. Christ then is God be- 
gotten to be God and Lord and 
Angel. There is no discordance of 
attributes that ivould imply the ex- 
istence of two Gods. The Divine 
virtue of the One God bestowed on 
the Son returns upon Himself in the 
community of the Divine substance. 
7^he Son is Lord and God of all 
else, by His authority received from 
the Father. Thus the Father is 
rightly proved to be the One only 
True God. 

i. originem nesciens] 'without 
origin ' : the classicism is rather mis- 
leading here. Cp. the description 
of the Stoic 'qui nesciat [ = nequeat] 
irasci,' Juv. x 60. 

4. quando ipse uoluit] i.e. 
' when the Father willed ' : compare 
p. 1 1 8. 5, quando Pater uoluit. The 
same thought appears in Hippo- 
lytus c. Noetum, chs. x, xi. Cp. 
also Dorner I ii 86, who quotes from 
that Father, ' when it was God's will, 
He shewed His Logos as He willed, 
at the times afore appointed by 
Him.' On this question see Peta- 
vius de Trinitate, vi 8. The tendency 
of these earlier Fathers is to regard 
theTrinity as ' economic,' not ' hypo- 
static,' i.e. to treat the indication of 
distinctions in the Divine Nature as 
relative to the Divine action in time, 
rather than as absolute and eternal. 

Dorner remarks upon this subject, 
'distinctions confirm unity, for a 
unity evolved out of distinctions is 
more compact and self- sufficient * 
(ib. 83). On the analogy of human 
personality see Dr Illingworth, Per- 
sonality Human and Divine, pp. 67 
71, and Note 12. 

5. non in sono...] 'who is not 
understood as a sound that strikes 
the air or a tone of the voice forced 
from the lungs, but is acknowledged 
in the sense of a substantive power 
put forth by God.' Cf. Bull, Def. 
Fid. Nic. iii 8, 6 sq. The words 
are plainly directed against the Mo- 
dalist definition of the Logos in 
Stoic terms, as dijp rreirXrjyfjL^os $ 
rb tdiov aladT)Tbv aicorjs (Diog. Laert. 
55). The writer follows Tertullian 
adu. Prax. vii 'quid est enim, dices, 
sermo nisi uox et sonus oris et, sicut 
grammatici tradunt, aer ofifensus?' 
Hippol. Philos. x 33 6e6s \6yov airo- 
yevvq., ov \6yov ws <pwvr\v. Harnack, 
D. G. i 3 697 n. 

6. in substantia cet.] N. uses 
the word ' substantia ' in this chapter 
to represent inr6<rTa<ris, in a sense 
verging upon that of 'person,' not 
in its usual sense of ' substance ' or 
' essence ' (Heb. i 3) ; cp. p. 1 18. 7, 8 
' substantia ilia diuina, cuius nomen 
est uerbum' 'Being.' In p. 57. 24 we 
have 'in substantia fuit Christus 
ante mundi institutionem,' 'personal 




Hie ergo, cum sit genitus a patre, semper est in patre. 
semper autem sic dico, ut non innatum, sed natum probem. 
sed qui ante omne tempus est, semper in patre fuisse di- 
cendus est : nee enim tempus illi assignari potest, qui ante 
tempus est. semper enim in patre, ne pater non semper sit 5 
pater, quia et pater ilium etiam praecedit, quod necesse est 
prior sit, qua pater sit : quoniam antecedat necesse est eum, 

6 quia a : quin al. 6 sq. quadam ratione praecedit : quodam modo 
prior : aliquo pacto antecedat G y. 

1 . hie ergo cum sit genitus sq. ] 
Generation from the Father implies, 
N. says, that the Son was always in 
the Father. This step in the argu- 
ment he does not explain ; but pro- 
bably he means that such a relation- 
ship, in the case of the Divine Being, 
must necessarily be eternal. 

2. semper autem sic sq.] N. 
must wish to combat one of two 
errors. As the Son is always in the 
Father, it might be thought that 
His birth had not already taken 
place, before all time. Or, for the 
same reason, it might be thought 
that the Son has no birth at all, 
but has an independent and self- 
originated existence. In the former 
case, ' innatum ' would mean ' not 
yet born.' But the use of ' uatus ' and 
* innatus ' below (p. 1 19. 5 sq.) is con- 
clusive for the latter view. N. says 
therefore that this coeternal exist- 
ence of the Son does not mean an 
independent existence, but a deriva- 
tive one ; only (sed), where ques- 
tions of time are out of place, we 
must say that this derived existence 
has ' always ' been. v. Introd. 4, 
p. xxxvii. 

ib. innatum] 'unborn,' 'inge- 
nerate.' Bp Bull (op. cit. p. 478), 
while charging the writer with ' ex- 
pressing himself in a most perplexed 
manner,' says, 'it is most certain that 
he altogether shrunk from the [sub- 
sequent] Arian blasphemy respecting 
the Son of God, "there was a 
time when He was not" (rjv 


5. ne pater non semper cet] 
This argument for the eternity of 
the Son is implied in the words of 
Irenaeus iv n. 5 (Harvey), in con- 
nexion with 'reuelauerit' of Matt, 
xi 27 (Luke x 22) 'non solum in 
futurum dictum est, quasi tune in- 
ceperit uerbum manifestare patrem, 
cum de Maria natus ; sed communi- 
tas per totum tempus positum est. 
Ab initio enim assistens filius suo 
plasmati reuelat omnibus patrem.' 
It appears again in Origen Princ. \ 
2. 10, iv 28. 

6. quia et pater cet.] It is 
clear that in the supposed interests 
of orthodoxy as against Arianism 
some liberties have been taken with 
the original text of this chapter. The 
qualifying phrases quadam ratione, 
and in the next clause quodam modo, 
and in the following sentence aliquo 
pacto before antecedat, were wanting 
in cod. Angl. but interpolated (ac- 
cording to Pamelius) by Gangneius. 
The ed. of Gelenius reads them 
without brackets. At the same time 
these interpolations fairly represent 
the mind of N., for the whole con- 
text shews that he did not intend 
' praecedit ' to have a strictly tem- 
poral sense. Again, the sentence 
simul ut hie minor to nascitur, and 
lower down the words sed post 
Patrem, and again post Patrem qtia 
Filius, axe due to cod. Angl. : Gelenius 
omits them. Cf. n. on p. 119. 16 




qui habet originem, ille qui originem nescit; simul ut hie 
minor sit, dum in illo esse se scit, habens originem, quia 
nascitur, et per patrem quodam modo, quamuis originem 
habet, qua nascitur, uicinus in natiuitate, dum ex eo patre, qui 

5 originem solus non habet, nascitur. hie ergo quando pater 
uoluit, processit ex patre : et qui in patre fuit, quia ex patre 
fuit, cum patre postmodum fuit, quia ex patre processit, sub- 
stantia scilicet ilia diuina, cuius nomen est uerbum, per quod 
facta sunt omnia, et sine quo factum est nihil. omnia enim 

10 post ipsum sunt, quia per ipsum sunt, et merito ipse est ante 
omnia, sed post patrem, quando per ilium facta sunt omnia. 

i 5 simul ut hie... non habet nascitur a: om. y. Sed uicinis a : corr. 
Pa. 2 quia] qua F. Jun. font. 6 processit ex patre : et qui in 

patre fuit] haec uerba per dittographiam repetita exhibent edd. priores. 
7 cum patre postmodum fuit] et cum p. fuit (ed. Paris. 1545). n sed 

post patrem a : om. y Pa. 

i. simul ut Me minor sit. . .] sc. 
necesse est. 'At the same time He 
must be less, as knowing that He 
is in Him, having an origin, in that 
He is born ; and, though He has 
an origin in so far as He is born, 
yet, through His Father, He is 
somehow not far removed in His 
birth from Him, as being born of 
that Father who alone is without 
origin. ' On this view of the passage, 
the et couples uicinus to habens 
originem : and the strange expres- 
sion uicinus in natiuitate is meant 
to correct or modify the impression 
left by habens originem. The senti- 
ment ' uicinus... nascitur ' may be 
illustrated by Greg. Naz. Or. Theol. 
iii 1 1 et KO! fj,ya T<$ war pi TO 
fAfjda/j.oOfv up/j.rjffdai, OVK \O.TTOV rf 
vi(j) TO K TOIOIJTOV Trarpos. TT}S yap 
TOV dvaiTLov d6rj$ pCTty 01 - av > & 7i 
TOV avaiTtov. The word uicinus in 
later Latin frequently denotes close 
similarity or kinship: and here ex- 
presses proximity, not in time, but 
in nature. It is not necessary with 
H. Jordan ( Theologie . . . Novatians 
p. 98) to understand the writer to 
suggest, by a gross misuse of terms, 

a natiuitas of the First Person of the 
Trinity, to which the Son is 'uicinus/ 
i.e. nearly simultaneous, not 
even (as he says) in order to ' carry 
back the beginning of the Son as far 
as possible.' 

5. hie ergo cet.] resumes from 
p. 1 16. 4 ex quo, quando ipse uoluit. 

6. processit ex patre] The 
same writer dwells rightly on the 
fact that N. calls that eternal gene- 
ration processio (irpotXevffis, a going 
forth), as did Athenagoras : the term 
implying that He was in the Father 
before He proceeded from the 
Father, as the Creating Word. Cp. 
50. 14, 15 'ex deo quomodo homo 
non processit, sic dei uerbum pro- 
cessit.' See Introd. 3, p. xxxii. 

6. quia ex patre fuit] repeats 
the reason in p. 117 1. i 'cum sit 
genitus a patre, semper est in patre.' 

7. cum patre postmodum fuit} 
viz. after the 'natiuitas': so 'post- 
modum secundumcarnem hominem/ 
c. xvii p. 59. 13. 

ib. substantial Cp. n. on p. 116. 
6 above. 

ii. quando per ilium sq.] The 
stress is on the 'per.' It suggests 




qui processit ex eo, ex cuius uoluntate facta sunt omnia, deus 
utique procedens ex deo, secundam personam efficiens post 
patrem, qua films, sed non eripiens illud patri, quod unus 
est deus. 

Si enim natus non fuisset, innatus comparatus cum eo 5 
qui esset innatus, aequatione in utroque ostensa, duos 
faceret innatos, et ideo duos faceret deos. si non genitus 
esset, collatus cum eo qui genitus non esset, et aequales 
inuenti, duos deos merito reddidissent non geniti ; atque 
ideo duos Christus reddidisset deos. si sine origine esset 10 
ut pater, inuentus et ipse principium omnium ut pater, duo 
faciens principia, duos ostendisset nobis consequenter et 
deos. aut si et ipse films non esset, sed pater generans 
de se alterum filium, merito collatus cum patre et tantus 
denotatus, duos patres effecisset, et ideo duos approbasset 15 
etiam deos. si inuisibilis fuisset, cum inuisibili collatus, par 
expressus, duos inuisibiles ostendisset, et ideo duos compro- 
basset et deos. si incomprehensibilis, si et cetera quaecumque 

i post patrem qua filius a om. Pa. 6 ostensa Pa ex a pro ostensi. 

1 6 uerba si inuisibilis fuisset usqtte ad quia nee innatus est stippl. ex a Pa: 
quortim in loco Christus autem non innatus est legebant uett. ut ed. Paris. 


that Another exists beyond Him, 
whose agent He is. 

6. qui esset innatus] The 
subjunctive is assimilated to the 
hypothetical subjunctive on which 
it depends: and therefore the alter- 
ation of esset to est (by Welchman) 
is unnecessary : and similarly in line 
8 'genitus non esset.' The general 
sense is : ' had He not been born, 
as unborn He would be brought into 
comparison with the Father who is 
unborn, and, an equality on either 
side appearing, He would make a 
second unborn, and therefore two 
Gods.' In the parallel statement 
which follows, collatus ctim eo is 
regarded as a composite subject, 
taken up by aeqtiales inuenti and 
completed by a plural verb. 

14. tantus denotatus] ' being 
set down as great as He.' Cp. p. 
57- 2 5 'quibus posterior (Christus) 
denotatur': and p. 13. 13 note. 

1 6. The omission of the sentences 
si inuisibilis fuisset down to nee 
innatus est was evidently due to 
theological considerations. On the 
' uisibilitas ' of the Son see above 
p. 61. n n., p. 103 1. 20 sq. 

1 8. incomprehensibilis] Note that 
this is not the ' incomprehensible ' of 
the 'Quicumque Vult,' which repre- 
sents imniensus, dx^p^ros. This 
appears from Iren. iv 34. 6, on the 

vision of God : 

aKaTaXrjTTTos Kal OO/XZTOS, 6p<J)fj.evov 

tavrbv Kal KaTa\a/j.pav6fj.ei>ov 

X^po^^evov TOLS Trier-rots 

where the Latin rendering is ' in- 


sunt patris, merito, dicimus, duorum deorum quam isti confin- 
gunt controuersiam suscitasset. nunc autem quicquid est, non 
ex se est, quia nee innatus est, sed ex patre est, quia genitus 
est. siue dum uerbum est, siue dum uirtus est, siue dum 
5 sapientia est, siue dum lux est, siue dum filius est, et quic- 
quid horum est, dum non aliunde est, quam, sicut diximus 
iam superius, ex patre, patri suo originem suam debens, 
discordiam diuinitatis de numero duorum deorum facere non 
potuit, qui ex illo, qui est unus deus, originem nascendo con- 

10 traxit. quo genere, dum et unigenitus est et primogenitus ex 
illo est qui, quia originem non habet, unus est omnium rerum 
et principium et caput, idcirco unum deum asseruit, quern 
non sub ullo principio aut initio, sed initium potius et princi- 
pium rerum omnium comprobauit. 

15 Idem est denique quod nihil ex arbitrio suo gerit, nee ex 
consilio suo facit, nee a se uenit, sed imperiis paternis omnibus 
et praeceptis oboedit: ut quamuis probet ilium natiuitas filium, 
tamen morigera oboedientia asserat ilium paternae uoluntatis, 
ex quo est, ministrum. ita dum se patri in omnibus obtem- 

n qui quia ed. Paris 1545: qui a Pa: quia al. 12 idcirco unum 

deum adseruit G quern sequitur Pa : i. u. d. oportet adserere ed. Paris. 
J 545- 3 initium potius et principium Pa ex a. 15 sic 7: filius autem 
nihil G Pa. 

capabilis et incomprehensibilis [et a logical term, genus denoting a 

inuisibilis].' 'class of facts' or 'subject': thus 

2. quicquid est] cp. p. 98 1. i Quintil. (Inst. Or. x 7. 31) has 

with note. in hoc genere. In p. 88 1. 4 ' alio 

7. patri suo originem... J 'owing genere aduersus illos reluctandum,' 

His origin to the Father, He could the use is slightly different, 
not occasion any variance in the 12. idcirco... asseruit] Idcirco 

Divine Essence by making two Gods; takes up dum (1. 10) ; for the sense, 

for He drew His origin by genera- cp. the closing words of the chapter, 

tion from the One God. In this The subject of comprobauit (and of 

aspect, while He is both the Only- 'asseruit') must be 'Christ,' not 

begotten, and the First-begotten 'Scriptura' as Pamelius suggests, 
from Him who is without origin, 15. idem est denique quod 

there is but One who is the beginning nihil] ' It is, accordingly, of the 

and head of all things.' De numero same import that He does nothing 

duorum expresses the means by of His own will or counsel.' Idem is 

which discordia would be made : neuter. 

and is best explained by the words 19. ex quo est] referring to 

of p. 37 11. 17 19. Quo genere is paternae ( = patris). 




perantem reddit, quamuis sit et deus, unum tamen deum 
patrem de oboedientia sua ostendit, ex quo et originem traxit. 

Et ideo duos deos facere non potuit, quia nee duas origines 
fecit, qui ex eo, qui originem non habet, principium natiuitatis 
ante omne tempus accepit. nam cum id sit principium ceteris 5 

quod innatum est (quod deus solus pater est, qui extra origi- . 

nem est, ex quo hie est qui natus est), dum qui ex illo nascitur 
merito ex eo uenit, qui originem non habet, principium pro bans 
illud esse, ex quo ipse est, etiamsi deus est qui natus est, unum 
tamen deum ostendit, quern hie qui natus est esse sine origine 10 

Est ergo deus, sed in hoc ipsum genitus, ut esset deus. est 
et dominus, sed in hoc ipsum natus ex patre, ut esset dominus. 
est et angelus, sed ad annuntiandum magnum dei consilium 
ex patre suo angelus destinatus. cuius sic diuinitas traditur, 15 
ut non aut dissonantia aut inaequalitate diuinitatis duos deos 

3 deos ins. We. 4 eo...] deo quia originem habet ed. Paris. 1545. 

6, 7 quod deus. ..natus est Pa ex a. (5 cuius sic diuinitas... inaequali- 

tate diuinitatis Pa ex a : om. aut. ..aut inaequalitate G, ed. Paris. 1545: 
habet aequalitate Ja. 

i. de oboedientia] ' by His 
obedience,' as supra p. 120. 8 'de 
numero.' For N.'s teaching about 
the Son's obedience, see above p. 38. 
15, p. 81. 13 p. 82. 4, p. 96. 10 
13, p. 99. 1921. 

12. in hoc ipsum genitus, ut] 
does not specify the purpose, but 
the result. ' Gignere in deum ' is a 
frequent expression in Hilary. 

15. angelus destinatus] See 
p. 6 4 . 1518. 

ib. cuius sic diuinitas... uide- 
aturj There is a difficulty about 
inaequalitate, in view of the earlier 
words of the chapter : ' si non geni- 
tus esset, collatus cum eo qui genitus 
non esset, et aequales inuenti, duos 
deos merito reddidissent non geniti.' 
One might almost (with Jackson and 
Maran. Divin. J. C. iv 19. 2 quoted 
in Migne) have rather expected ae- 
qualitate, particularly after aut. But 

here the writer is not thinking of 
origin, but of Divine substance and 
attributes. ' His Divinity is so 
transmitted [by the Father] as not 
to let it appear, by any discord or 
inequality in its attributes, to imply 
two Gods.' Cp. supra, 'discordiam 
diuinitatis.' The two phrases inae- 
qualitate and dissonantia may be 
thus explained. If the Godhead of 
the one were a different thing from 
the Godhead of the other, there 
could not but be two Gods. Or if 
the two could be conceived of as 
having the same Godhead, and yet 
standing in no accordant relation, 
there would be two Gods. But if 
the Godhead of the one is wholly 
derived from the other, and abso- 
lutely the same thing, then the unity 
of the Godhead is maintained. For 
traditur cp. p. 122. 5 'traduntur,' 
ib. 8 'tradita,' and ib. 10. 




reddidisse uideatur. subiectis enim ei quasi filio omnibus 
rebus a patre, dum ipse cum his, quae illi subiecta sunt, patri 
suo subicitur, patris quidem sui filius probatur ; ceterorum 
autem et dominus et deus esse reperitur. ex quo dum huic 
5 qui est deus omnia substrata traduntur, et cuncta sibi subiecta 
filius accepta refert patri, totam diuinitatis auctoritatem rursus 
patri remittit. unus deus ostenditur uerus et aeternus pater, 
a quo solo haec uis diuinitatis emissa, etiam in filium tradita 
et directa, rursum substantiae per communionem ad patrem 

10 reuoluitur. deus quidem ostenditur filius, cui diuinitas tradita 
et porrecta conspicitur; et tamen nihilominus unus deus 
pater probatur, dum gradatim reciproco meatu ilia maiestas 
atque diuinitas ad patrem, qui dederat earn, rursum ab illo 
ipso filio missa reuertitur et retorquetur ; ut merito deus pater 

*5 omnium deus sit, et principium ipsius quoque filii sui, quern 

2 dum ipse cum his qua illi subiecta sunt patri suo subiicitur suppl. Pa 
ex a, om. ed. Paris. 1 545. 7 patri remittit : unus a, Pa : illi remittit 

unde unus ed. Paris. 1545, 7. 15 et principium ipsius quoque filii 

sui Pa ex a : om. ipsius quoque 7. 

i. subiectis cet.] Perhaps there 
is a reference to i Cor. xv 25 foil. 

4. huic qui est deus] Sc. 

5. et cuncta sibi... patri] 'and 
the Son is indebted to the Father 
for the subjection of all things to 

7. remittit] 'refers back,' with 
the idea of waiving personal claim. 

ib. 'The Father is shewn to be 
the One God, true and eternal : from 
whom alone this power of Divinity 
is emitted; and though transmitted 
to the Son and centred on Him, it 
reverts back again to the Father 
through their community of sub- 
stance.' 'Directa' is used as in 
p. 107.20 'quae...spiritus ecclesiae... 
distribuit et dirigit,' ib. 23 'linguas 

10. The meaning of ' reuoluitur ' 
becomes clearer from what follows. 

12. dum gradatim cet.] 'while 

step by step that majesty and Divinity 
returning on themselves are brought 
round and reflected back by the Son 
Himself upon the Father who gave 
them.' The underlying metaphor is 
probably that of the heavenly bodies 
in motion. So p. 2 1. 8 ' meatibus ' 
is used of the heavenly bodies. It 
is often supposed that N., like Ter- 
tullian before him and Marcellus 
after, teaches a future re-absorption 
of the Son into the Father. But of 
this there is here no trace. The 
verbs are in the present tense, not 
the future. N. is laying down the 
doctrine of what was later called 
TrejOix^P 7 ? " 15 * a mutual and intimate 
relationship of the Divine Persons, 
each dwelling in other; though he 
has hardly reached the doctrine of 
the Spirit as the * nexus Trinitatis ' 
which appears at a later time. See 
Introd. 5, pp. xlix, 1. 




dominum genuit : filius autem ceterorum omnium deus sit, 
quoniam omnibus ilium deus pater praeposuit, quern genuit. 
ita mediator dei et hominum Christus lesus, omnis creaturae 
subiectam sibi habens a patre proprio potestatem, qua deus 
est, cum tota creatura subdita sibi, concors patri suo deo 5 
inuentus, unum et solum et uerum deum patrem suum, 
manente in illo quod etiam atiditus est, breuiter approbauit. 

5 suo] sub Migne err. typogr. 7 manente in illo...auditus est 7 

Pa : manentem in se quod audiuit ab illo G : manens et in illo cui etiam 
subditus est emend. Ja collate c. xviii p. 64. 16, 17 : manens et in illo quod 
etiam subditum est H. Jordan (TheoL Nov. p. 108). 

3. mediator dei sq.] i Tim. 
ii 5: cp. ch. xxiii, p. 85. 14. 

5. concors] The opposite of 
the ' discordia ' and ' dissonantia ' 

7. manente in illo quod etiam 
auditus est] The passage is so 
obscure that, like Pamelius, 'locum 
aliis castigandum relinquimus.' As 
it stands, it can only be explained 
by supposing quod etiam auditus 
est to be a reference to Hebr. 
v 7. But, apart from the fact that 
Novatian does not appear to have 
regarded the Ep. to the Hebrews 
as a canonical authority, a stylist 
like Novatian could hardly have 
thus written in his peroration. 
No satisfactory emendation has ap- 
peared. It is possible that the 

words in question are intended to be 
a fresh assertion of the mutual in- 
dwelling of the Son and the Father, 
and that their original form was 
somewhat of this kind 'manentem 
in se, quod etiam ipse prolatus est 
ab illo.' Refer to c. xv p. 50 
11. 12 sq. Or again, a reference to 
the Son's obedience is possible, and 
the word 'manente' may have 
usurped the place of 'mandantem.' 
We may in that case compare the 
words of Hippolytus, c. Noet. xiv 
els yap kanv 6 0e6s' 6 yap /ceXetfwi' 
TraTTfp, 6 5e viraKotwv uio's, TO 5 
j-vverifov ayiov wvevua. Or possibly 
auditus may have been substituted 
for an original traditiim, used in the 
sense observed on p. 121. 15. 



Abstract terms in Latin, 14, 13 n. ; 

in the plural, 17 

Acesius, Novatianist bp, Introd. xlix 
Adjectives in -ius, 33 
Adoptianists, 35, (Spanish) 89, 113, 

Introd. xxx, xlii 
Alexander, Abp, Witness of the 

Pss., referred to, 74 
Ambrose, hymn Vent Redemptor, 43 
Ammundsen, Novatianus, 19, 33, 

89, Introd. xxxviii, xlii, xlviii, li 
Anaphora, use of, Introd. xx 
Angel, the, of Great Counsel, 64, 

17 n. ; cp. Introd. xlv; of the 

Annunciation, 90 
Angels, creation of, 5; their host, 

27 ; contrasted with Christ, 61, 80 
Anger in man a discord, 18 
Annunciation, words of, discussed, 

Anthropomorphism, 16, 17 notes; 

c. vi 
Anthropopathic passages of O.T., 


Apelles, 31, 33 
Argument, 'a fortiori,' 92; see 

'syllogism,' 'dilemma' 
Arians, 37, 77, 117 
Aristotle, Nic. Eth., Introd. Ivii 
Arnobius, Introd. xxv, xxvi, n. i 
Article xx quoted, no 
Athanasius, Ep. ad Serap. referred 

to 55> an d Introd. xxxv, xl 
Athenagoras, 118; his Legal. 

quoted, 50 
Augustine, referred to, Confessions, 

i: 2, 4 n. : 5: 42: 59; de Libero 

Arbitrio, 4; de Corr. et Gratia, 
4 ; de Ciuit. Dei, 5 ; de Doctr. 
Chr., 52; Introd. xx; de Catech. 
Rud., 60; Quaest., 60 

Baptism, begins the purification of 

the flesh, 34 
Bardenhewer, Geschichte d. Alt- 

kirchlichen Litteratur, Introd. 

xv, xxii 
Basil, de Spiritti Sancto, referred 

to, 55 

Basilides, 85 

Batiffol, M. Pierre, Introd. xxi 
Bethune- Baker, Nestorius and his 

teaching, Introd. liv; Texts and 

Studies, Introd. Ixii, Ixiii 
Binz, Dr, Introd. xxv 
Blass, Grammar of N. T., referred 

to, 12 
Body, the, of Christ real not 

'sidereal,' 32, 33 
Brooks, Prof. F., tr. Cic. N. D., 

referred to, 12 
Bull, Bp, Def. Fid. Nic., referred 

to, 61, 65, 81, 116, 117 
Burn, Dr, Introd. to the Creed, 

Introd. xxvi, xxvii 
Butler, Bp, Analogy, referred to, 21 
Butler, Dom, in Journal Theol. 

Studies, 19 

Callistus, 53, Introd. xxx 

Catholic faith, the, 112 

Change, involves birth and death, 

M, 15 
Cherubim, in figurative language, 26 



Cheyne, Dr, quoted, 30 
Christ, the ' Second Person after the 
Father,' 94, 119, Introd. 3 on 
' Subordination '; the hope of man, 
4; promised through Prophets, 
24; fulfils types of O.T., 28; 
His acts of healing, 29, 40, cp. 
107; the imaginary, of heretics, 
31, 32; not mere 'Man, 35, 36; 
chs. xv, xvi; proved Man by His 
sufferings, proved God by His 
works, 36 ; Divine and human 
attributes contrasted, 38 ; Judge 
of quick and dead, 38 ; His God- 
head subject to limitations, 41 ; 
forgives sins and reads the heart, 
5, 44; union of two natures, In- 
trod. 5 iii, 35, 90, 91; Introd. 
1, n. 2: 43: 49, 21 n. ; before all 
things, 45 ; the worship of, 46, 
69, Introd. xxxv ; the Word made 
Flesh, 46 ; came down from 
heaven, 46, 47, 48; gives eter- 
nal life, 54; associated as God 
with God, 56 ; His pre-existence, 
57 ; proved God by His making 
man in God's image, 59, 60 ; Ante- 
Nicene fathers on His Person, 61 ; 
as the Angel, chs. xviii, xix ; sets 
forth the heart of the Father, 68 ; 
represented as Man and God in 
O.T., 70; uses 'argumentum ad 
hominem,' 74, ion.; receives the 
name of God unreservedly, 75 ; 
put off and again put on Flesh, 
78; in the form of God, 80; 
imitates the Father in His works, 
81 ; has not 'equality' with the 
Father, 81, Introd. xlvii; His 
obedience, 81 (see 'oboedientia,' 
Index iii), 120, Introd. xxxiv, 
xlvi; question of His sinlessness, 
82, Introd. Iii; His Name above 
every name, 83; the 'kenosis,' 
83; the Mediator, 85, 86, Introd. 
1, liii ; His Death did not destroy 
the Word in Him, 92, 93; dis- 
tinction of Persons, 98, 102, 103; 
the Image of God, 102, 103, 25 n., 
Introd. xlix; His Baptism, 108; 
His Godhead does not interfere 
with the unity of the Godhead, 
112, 114, 119, 120, i2i. [See 
also 'Son of God,' 'Son of Man,' 

'Old Testament,' 'Union (hypo- 
static),' 'Testaments,' 'Patri- 
passians,' 'Docetae,' 'Novatian,' 

Christology, as held in Germany, 
Introd. xxxviii; central question, 
ib. xlii; see also under 'Novatian' 
and 'Tertullian' 

Church, the, her teachers, 25; the 
Bride, 107; 'Keeper of Holy 
Writ,' no, 8 n. ; maintained in 
her purity by the Spirit, in 
Cicero, 25, 4 n. ; 'Offices,' referred 
to, n ; de Nat. Deorum, n, 35; 
A cad., 76, 91; pro Cluent., 90, 
Introd. Ixii; de Fato, 93 
Coleridge, S. T., quoted, 25 
commixtio, 35, 10 n. 
communicatioidiomatum, Introd. Iv 
Cornelius, Bp of Rome, 109, Introd. 

xiii, xv, xvi 

Creed, purpose of a, 105 
Creed, Roman, of Novatian's day, 
.1, 28, 105, 38, Introd. xxvi, xxvii; 
of Tertullian, i, 38, 105; of Ni- 
caea, 37; of Sirmium (Arian), 37 
Cross, sign of the, in blessing, 73 
Cyprian, 23, Introd. xiv 
Cyprian, Epistles, referred to, 19, 
79, Introd. xvi, xxiii; Testimon., 
29, 43; de Unit., 64; de Laps., 
64; de Domin. Or., 64; Pseudo- 
Cyprian, see 'Novatian' 

David, meaning of name, 94 

De la Barre, 97, 3 n. 

Deification of man, Introd. 6, 51, 


Demiurge, the, 28 
Design in creation, argument from, 

10 with n. 

Devil, the, his envy of man, 4, 13 
Dictionary of Christian Antiq., 

referred to, 5 
di8a<TKa\ia -01, 25, 2 
Dilemma, the, used, 58 
Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the 

Philosophers, quoted, 116 
Dirksen, Manuale, referred to, 89 
Docetae, 31, Introd. Iii; of Gnostic 

school, 85 
Dorner, Doctrine of the Person of 

Christ (Eng. tr.), 116, Introd. 

xxxvi, xlix 



Duchesne, Histoire anc. de Veglise, 
Introd. xxvi 

Epicharmus, quoted, 12 

Epiphaniiis, Panarion. Haer., In- 
trod. xlii 

Eusebius, Demonstr. Euang. , quoted , 
63; Hist. EccL, 84, rn, Introd. 
xiii, xiv, xv, xxxvi ; Eccl. TheoL, 
Introd. xli 

Evil, a departure from God, 13 

Fabian, Bp of Rome, Introd. xiii, 

Fabius, Bp of Antioch, 109, Introd. 

Faith, must combine both sides of 

the truth, 38; its proportion, 85 
Fire, symbolic sense, 27 
Firmament, the, of Gen. i. 6, 26 
First -begotten, the, of all creation, 

Flesh, the, its sinfulness condemned, 

not its substance, 34; punned by 
baptism and death, ib. ; the ves- 
ture of the Word, 79, Introd. li sq. 
Flint, Prof., Theism, quoted, 10 
Franzelin, Tractatus de Deo Trino, 
referred to, ^5 ; de Processione S. s., 

Gallandius, 23, 12 n. : 67, in, 

Introd. xxv 
Gangneius, J., 55, 97, 117, Introd. 

Gelenius, editor of Novatian, 73, 

14 n. : 117, 6 n., Introd. xxiv 
Genitive, objective use, 112 
Gerund, abl., modal use, 90 
Gibb, Dr, on Aug. Confess., 59 
Gnostics, 6, 31, Introd. xxx, xxxvi, 
xliii, Ixii; the Syrian, 31, 33; 
see 'Docetae' 

God, His timelessness, 7, 1 1 ; His 
transcendence, 7, 8, 9, Introd. 
lix; Self-existence, 14; immuta- 
bility, 14; immortality, T4, 91; 
His Name, 15, 16; His imma- 
nence, 26, Introd. Iviii; 'incor- 
ruptibility,' 16, 17,92; His mercy, 
16; His Will, 21; His 'eyes' 
etc., 21 ; ubiquity of His Being, 
21 ; 'incompassible,' 92, i n. ; 
the First Origin of being, 120; 

on the Unity of the Godhead, 
chs. xxx, xxxi, pp. 114,. 115; 
Introd. xlviii ; an ' equality ' of 
Father and Son would imply di- 
theism, 119, yet see 121, 15 n.; 
see ' Anthropomorphism ' 
God the Father, Almighty, the 
Creator, i, 2 n.: 2, i sq.: 115,18; 
Introd. xliii; always Father, 117; 
'One,' 2 n., 56, Introd. xxvii ; 
has given the universe a law, 2, 
8: 3, 7; and a law for man, 3; 
contains all things, 6 ; infinite, 7 ; 
without origin, 7, 14, 116; 'in- 
comprehensible' ('immensus'), 7, 
60, 1 1 6, 119; transcends human 
thought and language, 7, 8, 119; 
greater than His attributes, 8; 
governs causes, 9; maintains the 
order and balance of the universe, 
10 ; Origin of all things, 12, 121 ; 
Final Cause, 12 ; anger and hatred 
in Him not passions, 1 7 ; sub- 
stance impassible, 17, 92; a 
Whole which is simple, 18; and 
which is not composite, 21, 
Introd. Iviii; in what sense He 
is called a Spirit, 22, and Love, 
ib. ; renews the 'dead in sins,' 
23; His chariot, 27 ; future know- 
ledge of, through Christ, 101 ; 
future and present vision through 
Christ, 1 02 ; vision of, to the 
pure, 104, Introd. xiv 
God the Son, see 'Son of God' 
God the Spirit, c. xxix, 23, 12 n. ; 
'less than Christ,' 55; promised 
to the Church through the Pro- 
phets, 105 ; the Paraclete, 106, 
107; consistent action under the 
Two Covenants, 106; diversity 
of offices, 106; in Apostolic 
Church works in fulness, 107 ; 
His 'charismatic' gifts, 107, 108 ; 
perfects the Church, 108; at our 
Lord's Baptism, 108; dwells in 
Christ without measure, 108; 
works in Baptism, 109; works 
in our bodies for holiness and 
immortality, 109; eternal Pro- 
cession of, not treated by N., 
108; His rulings in the Church, 
no; in the Trinity, 122, 12 n.; 
see also Introd. xxviii, Iviii 



Godet, quoted, 74, 10 n. 

Gods, Hebrew use of the word, 

74, ion.; cp. Introd. Iviii 
Goelzer, Latinite de S. Jerome, 86 
Gore, Bp, Bampton Lectures, 50, 

82, Introd. xli; Dissertations, 

82; The New Theology, etc., 

Introd. Ix 

Gospel, the, its mysteries, 107 
Gospels, the, foretold by Isaiah, 29; 

their keeper the Spirit, no 
Gregory Nazianz., referred to, 

Theol. Orations, 5, 2 n. : 118, 

i n. 
Gregory Nyssen., referred to, Catech. 

Or., 4 
Gregory the Great, quoted, 86 

Hades, a 'region below the earth,' 5 
Hagemann, Rom. Kirche, Introd. 

xxiii, xxvi 

Hahn, Symbole, referred to, 28, 37 

Harnack, referred to, Apostles' 1 

Creed, 2, i ; Dogmengeschichte, 

17, 31, 89, 116; Eine...Schrift 

Novatians, Introd. xx; see also 

Introd. xxvi, xxvii, xxxiv, xxxv, 

xxxviii sq., xlix, Ivii, Ixiii 

Hall, Bp, Confirmation (Oxf. 

Library Pract. Theol.), 109 
Hauck-Herzog, RealencycL, i, 33, 

Hebrews, Epistle to, its canonicity 

perhaps not recognised by N., 
96, 123 

Heretics, pick a few proof-texts, 76 ; 
testimony of, 84; 'foolhardy,' 91; 
'seeing see not,' 100 ; confuted by 
the Spirit, no; sacrilegious, no; 
standing quarrel with the pure 
tradition, 112; by them Christ 
again 'crucified between two 
robbers,' 113; selfwilled, 114 

Hermas, Sim., quoted, 86 

Hilary, de Trin., referred to, 14, 
16, 65, 78, 121 

Hippolytus, referred to, 6, 17; 
Introd. xxiii, xxvi, xxviii; c. 
Noet., quoted, 37, 62, 97, 116, 
123, Introd. Ixiii; Phtlosoph., 
53, 116; Haer., 77; de Antichr., 

79' J 7 
o/ioo&nos formula, the, Introd. 

xxxviii, xlix, Ixiii 

Horace, Satires, quoted, 56; Odes, 

quoted, 105 
Human nature, a vesture assumed 

by the Word, 79; see 'homo,* 

Index iii 

Ignatius, ad Eph., 37 

Illingworth, Dr, Doctrine of the 
Trinity, referred to, 44 ; Per- 
sonality Human and Divine, 18, 
1 1 6, Introd. Ixi 

Imitatio Christi, referred to, 9 

Immanence, of God, Introd. Iviii, lix 

Immortality bestowed by Christ's 
word, 51, Introd. lix; by in- 
dwelling of the Spirit, 109 

in, as equivalent of tv or et's, 12, 
ii n. 

Incarnation, its meaning, 18 ; mystic 
'bridal,' 43; entrance into the 
world, 50; the contact between 
the human and the Divine, 74, 
10 n., Introd. Ivii, Ix, Introd. 
5, ii ; its self-limitation, 82 ; a 
'pledge' between God and man, 
86; a mystery, 86, 7, Introd. xli, 

1, lix 

Index, the, of Pius IV, 84 

Infinite, the, 15, 9 sq. 

Inge, Dr, Personal Idealism, referred 
to, 34, Introd. xxxv, Ivii 

Interpolation of the text, 117, 6n. 

Irenaeus, referred to, 1 7 note ; adu. 
haer., 3, 5, 28, 29, 43, 62, 66, 
79, 117, 119, Introd. xlvi; Efr 
"EvSei&v, 29, 43, 79; contact 
with Novatian, Introd. xxiii, xxvii, 

Jackson, ed. Novatian, referred to, 

2, 4> 9> 3 2 45> 50> 54 6 3> 6 7 

73. 97, 9 8 "i* "3> "4. "if 
Introd. xxv 

Jerome, referred to, 64, Introd. 
xvii, xxii; Epist., 84, Introd. 
xviii; de Vir. Illust., Introd. 

Jews, their ignorance, 48; blind- 
ness, 50 ; deny Christ's Godhead, 
52; contention with Christ, 71; 
perversity, 106, 9 n. 

John Damascene, Orth. Fid.^ 
Introd. xxxv 

Jordan, H . , Theologie. . . Novatians, 



referred to, 118, 123, Introd. xxi, 

xxii, xlix, Ivii 
Jowett, tr. Plato, 15, 5 n. 
Judgment, the Last, 6 
Junius, Fr., referred to, 33 
Justin, Apology, 2, 43, 79; Dial., 

43> 77, 79 : 8l 4 

KaBapoi, Introd. xv 
Kenotic doctrine, Introd. xxxv 
, Introd. xxix 

and similar words, Introd. 

Language, human, limited, 7, I7sq. 
Latin, its philosophical vocabulary, 

Latinius, editor of N., 82, 98 

Law, the reign of, 26; use of the 
word in N., 34, 2 n. 

Liddon, Bampton Lectures, 46, 50, 
Introd. xxxiii, xxxv 

Lightfoot, Bp, referred to, 12, 62; 
quoted, 77, 8 n.: 78: 82 

Livy, quoted, 13, 9 n. 

Logos, Latin renderings of, 32, 
i6n.; doctrine of, 33, 34, 49, 
Introd. xxxii, xxxvi ; in creation, 
42 : 58 : 59, 6 n. ; made Flesh, 
46 et passim ; 'Verbi missio in 
mundum,' 50, 12; took vesture 
of humanity, 79 ; 'was born when 
the Father willed it,' 1 16 ; defined 
in Stoic terms by Medalists, 116; 
proceeded from the Father, 118 

Loofs, 43 ; Symbolik, Introd. xxvii 

Lotze, Introd. Ixi 

Lucan, Pharsalia, Introd. Iviii 

Lucretius, referred to, n 

Lumby, Hist, of Creeds, referred 
to, i 

Lupton on Tertullian de Baptismo, 
Introd. xxiv 

Macedonius, 55 

Man, made in God's image, 3,11: 
80, 16; earthly and divine ele- 
ments, 3, 13; free will, 3, 15; 
his disobedience, 4; exclusion 
from Eden a mercy, 5; has 
'passibilis materia,' 17; his facul- 
ties limited, 23; progress through 
Christ towards the vision of God, 
62, 63 

F. N. 

Mansel, Dean, Bampton Lectures, 

Introd. Ixi 
Maranius, Divin.J. C., referred to, 


Marcellus, 122, 12 n., Introd. xli 
Marcion, 28, 31, 85, 106, Introd. 


Marcus Aurelius, Introd. Iviii 
Martensen, Dogmatics, referred to, 

Mason, Dr, Faith of the Gospel, 

referred to, 50 ; Relation of Con- 
firmation to Baptism, 109 

Matter, passible, 17 

Mayor, Prof., in Journal of Phi- 
lology, 88 

Melito, referred to, 19 

-mentum, nouns in, Introd. xix n. 5 

Migne, Patrologia Latina, 97, 121, 
Introd. xxv 

Milton, referred to, 5 

Mind, the human, its finite view, 9 

Mithraism, 6 

Moberly, Dr, Atonement and 
Personality, quoted, 109, Introd. 
xli, Ix 

'Monarchia,' the, 28, Introd. xl, 
xlviii, Ixiii; see also tinder 'God' 

Monarchians, the Rationalistic, 113; 
see ' Adoptianists ' 

Monarchians, the Medalist, Introd. 


Morison, Service of Man, referred 

to, 1 6 

Moule, Bp, 78, ii n. 
Moulton, Grammar of N. T. Greek, 


Mozley, on Predestination, 4 
Mysticism, 51, 10 n. 

Nature, pantheistic view, n, 12; 

its witness to God, 24; its laws, 


Neo-Platonism, Introd. Iviii, Ix 
Nestle, Nov. Test. Latine, 108 
Nestorianism, Introd. lii, liii 
Nestorius, Introd. liv 
Nettleship, R. L., Philosoph. 

Remains, referred to, 104 
Nicaea, Council of, Introd. xlix 
Nicene theology, 53, Introd. xxvii, 


Noetus, 53, Introd. xxx, xlii 
Novatian, works referred to, de Cib. 



hid., i, 15 n.: 19, 20, 28, 38, 57, 
86, 88, 92, 95, 106, 112, Introd. 
xv, xvii, xxv ; apud Cyprian. Epp., 

5, 3: 19, 14: 105, 4: no, 19; 
Introd. xiv, xv, xviii; de Laud. 
Martyr., 20, 62, go, Introd. xix, 
xx ; de Spectac., 29, 64, 90, 
Introd. xix; adu. ludaeos, 106, 
Introd. xxi; de Bono Pudicitiae, 
Introd. xx ; de Idolorum Vanitate, 
Introd. xxi, xlvii, lix; de Singu- 
laritate Clericorum, Introd. xxi; 
his doctrine of Providence, 26; 
his Creed, i, 28; his scholarship, 
Introd. xvi, xvii; his Christology, 
Introd. 5, also xxix, xxxii, xxxiii, 
1 ; misunderstood by heretics, 55 ; 
argument based on faulty exegesis, 

6, 38, 61, 88, 93, 108; see also 
' Syllogism , ' ' Psychology ' 

Novatian, privately baptized but 
'never sealed,' 109, Introd. xiii; 
facts of life, Introd. i ; his 
probable works, Introd. xvii, xix; 
his style, Introd. xviii, xix, xxiii 

Novatianist schism, 109, Introd. 

Paulus, grammarian, 107 

111, 12 n. 

xv, xvii 

Obedience of Christ, 121, 2 n. ; see 

under 'Christ' 
Oeconomy, the (in relation to the 

Unity), 53: 97, 6 n. 
officiates, Introd. Ixiii 
Origen, Catena fragment, referred 

to, 19; de Oratione, 46; c. Cels., 

46; Horn., 84; Princ., 117; 

(Pseudo-Origenis), Tractatus de 

libris SS. Scripturarum, 3, 68 ; 

Introd. xxi, liii, Ivii 
Ottley, Dr, Doctrine of Incarnation, 

referred to, 31, Introd. xlviii 

Pamelius, editor of Novatian, 23, 

12 n., 73, 14 n., 84, 114, 117, 

123, Introd. xxv 
Pantheism, of Stoics, iii, p. 9; a 

Christian, Introd. Ix 
Parables, method of, in the prophets, 


Paradise (of Eden), 24 
Parousia, the, Introd. Ivii 
Patripassian heresy, 40, 53, 84, 92, 

94; chs. xxvii, xxviii; Introd. 

xxvii, xxx, xxxvi, xliii 

Periphrastic future, late Latin, 64, 

101, 104 
Perowne, Bp, on the Psalms, re- 

ferred to, 74 
Person, history of the term, 60, 6 n., 

Introd. 7, also xxxv 
Personality, distinction of, 98; 

Introd. xlviii, Ixi 
Persius, referred to, in 
Petavius, de Incarn., referred to, 

35 ; de Trinitate, referred to, 1 16 
tf)aiv6fj.eva, <t>avepov<r6ai ; Introd. 

xxxviii, xxxix 

Philip, St, question of, 100 
Philo, de Abrah., quoted, 71 
Plato, Republic, quoted, 15, 5 n. : 

103, 25 n. ; the 'idea,' 76, 2 n., 

Introd. p. xxxviii 
Platonism in Christian thought, 18 : 

103, 25 n. 
Pliny, Panegyr., quoted, 60; Epp., 


Pliny, Nat. Hist., quoted, 83 
Plummer, Dr, on St John, 33 
jrvevfjia, Introd. xxxix, lix 
Pneumatomachi, 23: 55, nn., i4n. 
Praxeas, 53 ; Introd. xxx, xxxvi 
'praesens futurascens' 101, 17;*. 
Predestination, 57, 58 
7r/30jSo\77 81, 4 n., Introd. xxxi, 


Procession of the Spirit, 55, 2 n. 
TrpoAeucris, 118, 6 n. 
Trpbffwirov, Introd. Ixii 
Providence, a particular, 25, 26 
Pseudo - Origenes, Tractatus, see 

under ' Origen ' 
Psychology, Novatian's, Introd. 


Quarry, J., in Hermathena, 

Introd. xxiii 

Quicumque uult, the, 60, 119 
Quintilian, Inst. Orat., quoted, 85 
'Quod' construction, the, 98 

Relativity of teaching in Scripture, 


Resurrection of Christ, 30 
Resurrection of the body, 32, 109 
Rhenanus, editor of Tertullian, 

Introd. xxiv 


Ronsch, Itala u. Vulgata, referred 
to, 2, 4n.: 7, n n.: 36, i n.: 102, 

Rufinus, Introd. xxii 

'Rule of truth,' referred to, i, 28, 
105, Introd. xxvi; developed by 
the Spirit, no; 'rule of faith,' 
that the Son is 'the Second 
Person next to the Father,' 95 

Sabatier, Vetus Italica, referred to, 

Sabellians, 84, Introd. xxxiv, Ixiii 

Sabellius, 41, 53: 55, 14 n., Introd. 
xxx, xlii 

Saints, invocation of, 47 

Salvation through Christ as God, 
39, 52: 69, 23 n. 

Sanday, Dr, Life of Christ in 
Recent Research, referred to, 
26; Criticism of Fourth Gospel, 
34; in Hastings, Diet. Bibl., 
Introd. xlii; and Headlam, Comm. 
on Romans, 44 

Satornilus, 33 

Scaevola, lawyer, referred to, 89 

Schanz, Geschichte Rom. Litteratur, 
Introd. xx 

Science, modern, 10, 8 n. 

Scripture, its anthropomorphic lan- 
guage, 19, 20; its considerate 
manner of revelation, 20, 22 ; 
declares Christ both Man and 
God, 37; not to be added to or 
taken from, 57; mystic inter- 
pretations, 65 : 70, 24 n.: 72, 29 n.; 
checks extravagance of devotional 
feeling, 85; refutes heretics, 88; 
its 'prophetic present,' 101 ; to be 
accepted unreservedly, 114; No- 
vatian's reliance on, Introd. li; 
his faulty exegesis, see under 
' Novatian ' 

Seneca, quoted, 15, 21 n.: 56, 21 n., 
Introd. Iviii; affinities with No- 
vatian, Introd. xvii, Ivii 

Siluae, of Statins, 76 

similitudo, Introd. Ivii, Iviii 

Son of God, the Efficient Cause of 
all things, 12 ; His origination from 
the Father before time was, 36; 
when the Father willed, 1 16, 1 18; 
His generation an eternal relation, 
117; termed a 'nativity,' 118; a 

'procession,' 50, 118; a 'birth,' 

119, 120; 'always' Son of God, 
ib.y Introd. xxxii, xxxvi, xlivsq. ; 
'ex deo,' 37, 81; Sonship not 
personal identity, 52; the Image 
of God, 62, Introd. xlv, xlix; 
through Whom man may at last 
'see God,' 63 ; all things through 
Him, 118; as the First-begotten 
and Only-begotten, attests the One 
God Who is the Origin of being, 

120, 121 ; is Lord, 121; has 
'natura dei,' Introd. xlvii; holds 
Divinity by transmission from the 
Father, Introd. xlix; His re- 
absorption into the Father not 
taught by N., 122 ; see also Introd. 
xli; His pre-existence, Introd. 
4; produced (prolatus) from 
God, 8 1 ; His subordination, 81, 
96; His visibility, 61, 103, 119, 
Introd. xlv; His obedience, see 
under 'Christ ' ; in the first instance, 
the Word, in the second, the Child 
of Mary, 88, 89; as such, is God, 
99; less than the Father, as 
receiving sanctification, 99; as 
sent, 99 

Son of Man, 38, 3 n. ; to be dis- 
tinguished from the Son of God, 
86, 87; human personality and 
bodily organism, 88, 13 n., 
Introd. li 

Sonnenschein, Prof., in Hibbert 
Journal, Introd. Iviii 

Soul, immortality of, 92, 93 

Souter, Dr, Study of Ambrosiaster, 
referred to, 88 

Speaker's Commentary, 64, 17 n. 

Spirit, a 'creature,' 23 

Spirit, the Holy, see under 'God' 

Stanley, Comm. on Corinthians > 
107, 23 n. 

Stewart and Tait, Unseen Universe, 
quoted, 10 

Stoics, on Nature, 12, 27; termin- 
ology, 56, 21 n.: 116, sn.; phi- 
losophy, Introd. xiv, xxxii, 
Ivii, Iviii, Ix 

Studia Biblica (Oxford), Introd. xx 

Subjunctive, past jussive, 32; by 
assimilation, 119 

Substance, of Godhead and of man- 
hood joined in Christ, 43 ; Christ 




pre-existent 'in substance,' 57; 
His community of substance with 
the Father, 122; v. Introd. xlvii, 1 

<njyx vffis > Introd. liv 

fftinfioXov, Introd. xxix 

Sun and rays, simile of, 9 

<rvvd<f>eia, Introd. liv 

Swete, Dr, Apostles' Creed, referred 

to, i, 2, Introd. xxvi 
Syllogism, use of the, 56: 112, i5n.; 

Introd. xiv 

Sylva Sylvarum, of Bacon, 76 
Synoptists, furnish proofs of Christ's 

Godhead, 44 

Tertullian, referred to, 17 note, 18, 
41: 53, 7 n., Introd. xxviii, xlviii; 
his Creeds, 28, 5 n., 6 n.: 38, 
6 n. ; his Christology, Introd. 
xxxi, xxxii, xxxvii, xlix, 1, liii; 
adu. Praxean, i, 18, 28, 37, 42, 
43. 52, 53> 55. 63, 66, 68, 76, 
77, 81, 82, 92, 95, 97, 100, 101, 
105, 116, 122; Introd. xxiii, xxvii, 
xxxi, xxxii, xxxvi, xlv, xlvii, 1, 
Ixii, Ixiii; de Virg. VeL, i, 28, 
Introd. xxvii; de Carne Christi, 
3* 33 : 85, 6 n. ; de Praescr. 
Haeret., i, 5, n, 33: 36, 7 n.; 
de Bapt., 34, 67, 73, Introd. Ivii; 
de Anima, 6, 9; adu. Marc., 17, 
20, 32, 43, 62, 79, Introd. xxxi, 
xxxii; adu. lud., 29, 95; ApoL, 
37, 81, Introd. xl; adu. Hermog., 
Introd. xxxii; de F^lga, 76; de 
Testim. Anim., 101; early 
editions, Introd. xxiv 

Testament, the Old, its imagery, 
27; its promise of Christ, 28; 
how treated by Marcion and by 
Gnostics, 31 : 106, 9n.; its proofs 
of Godhead of Christ, c. xii; 
anthropopathy, 41 

Testament, the New, its proofs of 
Godhead of Christ, c. xiii 

Testaments, Old and New, teach 
that Christ is God and Man, 59 ; 
their relation, 60, 70; agree on 
this Mystery, 96 

Theism, Introd. Ixi 

Theodoret, Haer. Fab., 109 

Theophilus Antioch., 8, Introd, 
xxviii, Ivi 

0e6s, Introd. Iviii 

Tischendorf, on i Cor. xiv 32, 110 
Tixeront, Hist, des Dogmes, 31, 

Introd. xv 

Theophany, in O.T., 64 
Tritheism, Introd. xxxv, xxxvi 
de Trinitate, the, its history, Introd. 

2, and p. xvii; MS dislocation,. 

Introd. xxviii, xxix; charged with 

'heresies,' Introd. xlii 
Trinitas, Introd. xxviii 
Trinity, the Holy, 12, nn., Introd. 

xli, Ixii ; regarded as 'economic/ 

1 1 6, 4 n., Introd. xxxii, xxxvi; 

the Spirit as 'nexus,' not as yet 

taught by N., 122, 9 n. ; the term* 

Introd. xxviii 

Unction, in Baptism, 109 

Union (called afterwards 'hypo- 

static'), 35, 10: 43, 8: 49: 78, 7sq. : 

97, 98, Introd. liii 
unitio, 35, ion. 

s, 116, 6 n., Introd. Ixiii 

Valentinus, 6: 81, 4 n.: 85, 6 n., 

Introd. xxxi, xxxii 
Version, Latin, used by Novatian, 

10, 19, 30: 47, 18 n.: 60, 21 n.: 

61, 66, 68, 70, 80, 95, 101, 103, 

107, 108, Introd. xx 
Victorinus of Pettau, Introd. xxi 
Virgil, Aeneid, quoted, 18; also 90 
Virgilianisms in Novatian, Introd. 

xx, see Index in 

Walpole, Dr, Vital Religion, Introd. 

Welchman, editor of N. , referred to, 
89, 97, 98, 119; Introd. xxv, xxviii 

Wesley, Charles, 71 

Westcott, Bp, referred to, i : 12, 
n n.: 27, 12 n.: 37, 16 n.: 50, 
52, 55, 60, 74, Introd. xxxiii 
( Gospel of Life) , Ivii ; (Incarnation 
and Common Life}, Ix 

Weyman, on Novatian, Introd. xvii 

Will, freedom of, Introd. lix 

Word, the, see 'Logos' 

Wrestling of Jacob, 71 

Zahn, Introd. xxvii 

Zielinski, canon of the clausula y 

Introd. xx 
Zeller, Stoics, Introd. Iviii 




i. i 58, 135 59 6 

6 26, 8 

H 2, 9 

26, 27 59, 18; 77, 20; 

94 H 

7 3 " 

8 3, H 

3i 13. 6 

ii. 9 24, ii 

17 3 16 

i". 5 4> 6, 8 

9 4 ii 

17 4 9 

22 5, i 

v. 24 24, 14 

viii. 21 19, 2 

ix. 6 Introd. Ivii 

xi. 7 60, 21 

xii. 7 62, i; 64, 17 

xvi. 7 sq 63, 20 

xvii. 8 28, 14 

xviii. i 65, 9 

6 65, 12 

xix. 24 66, 5; 94, 17 

xxi. 17 66, 27 

IB, 19, 20 67, 6, 12 

xxii. 12 24, 15 

xxx. 43 24, 15 

xxxi. 11-13 68, 17 

24-27 70. 8 

xxxii. 10 24, 15 

24 28, 15 

xlviii. 15, 16 72, 17 

xlix. 10 29, i 

ii 79, ii ; Introd. Ii 


iii. 9, 10 24, 16 

H i4 15 

iv. 13 29, 3 

vii. i 75, 7 

xxv. 40 Introd. xxxviii 

xxxi. 18 19, 3 

xxxiii. 20 62, 2 


iv. 2 57, 21 

30 10, 3 

vi. 4 114. 23 

viii. 4 25, 15 

xii. 32 57 21 

xviii. 15 29, 4 

xxviii. 66 29, 6; Introd. xxiii 

xxxii. 8 61, 7 


11. 25 

47. 5 


vi. 17 27, 8 

xix. 16 19, 6 

19 IT 3 J 9 


ii. 7, 8 94, 18 

8 30, 18 

xviii. (xix.) 43, 10 

xxi. 17-19 (xxii. 16-18) ... 102, 5 

xxxii. (xxxiii.) 6 34 

xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 15 19, i 

xliv. 2 (xlv. i) 42, 9; 59, 2 



xliv. 8 (xlv. 7) 

Ixvii. 1 8 (Ixviii. 17) 

Ixviii. 22 (Ixix. 21) 

Ixxi. (Ixxii.) i 

Ixxix. (Ixxx) i 

Ixxxi. (Ixxxii.) i 73, 14 


6 ... 74, 10 ; 

Ixxxviii. (Ixxxix.) 27 
ciii. (civ.) 4 





cvi. (cvn.) 20 ............... 

cix. (ex) i, 2 ...... 30, 15; 

96, 5 
cxviii. (cxix.) 91 ............ 

cxxxv. (cxxxvi.) 12 ......... 

cxxxviii. (cxxxix.) 8,9, 10... 
cxlix. 5 ........................ 

108, 18 
27, 8 

102, 4 
30, 20 

26, 4 

; 74. 10 

74. 13 


75. 3 
77, 8 

27, 12 

10, 8 

3, 4 
10, 3 

3, i 
10, 5 

94, 21 ; 

21, 4 

*9> 5 
19, 12 

10, i 


xviii. 10 16, 6 

xxx. 6, 13 57, 21 

iv. 12 in, 5 


i. 20 19, i 

vii. 14 29, 9; 39, 19 

viii. 3 loi, 15 

ix. 6 64, 17; 77, 4; 101, 14, 17 

xi. i 29, 7 

2, 3 108, 13 

10 30, 13 

xxxv. 3-6 40, 7 

5, 6 29, 10 

xl. 8 34 

12 10, 4; 113, 17 

22 IO, 6 

xli. 4 Introd. xxxvi 

xlii. 2, 3 29, 13 

8 ii, i 

xliv. 6, 7 113, 16 

xlv. i 95, 3 

7 ii. 19 

18, 22 10, ii 

21 113, 15 

liii- 3 30, 95 38, 12 



4. 5 

30, 7 

101, 18 

30, 6 

29, 15 


Ixi. i ........................... 108, 17 

Ixv. 2 ............... 30, 10; 102, 2 

Ixvi. i .................. n, 5; 19, 6 


ii, 14 

ii- 19 i3 J 2 

xv - 5 47, 35 54, 7 

xxx. ii 7, ii 

xxxi. 31-33 29, 15 


i. 13 26, 16 

18 26, 15 

19 26, 12 

21 27, 5 

22 26, 7, 8 

26 26, 4 

x. 7 26, 16 






V1 - 3 


26, 15 

25, 17 

39' 6 
30, 14 

viii. 6 ........................... n, 3 

ii. 29 ........................... 106, 3 



66, 7 

iii. 3 41, i; Introd. xxiii 


m. i 


6 4 , 17 
14, ii 


j; 7 7. 35 25, 18 

ii. 24 4, 6 

vi. 20 51, 7 

xiii. 1-5 12, 2 




xviii. i 5, 7 

xix. 5 13, 13 

i- 23 87, 7 

ii. 15 7, ii 

iii. 16 108, 6 

v. 8 104, 8 

vi. 9 25, 5 

ix. 4 44, ll 

x. 28 92, 16 

29, 30 25, 12 

xi. 27 117, 5 

xii. 32 in, i 

xvi. 16, [7 95, 13 

xviii. 32 5, 3 

35 47. 5 

xix. 17 113, 20; 114, 7 

xx. 31 38, 3 

xxiii. 8 115, 3 

xxviii. 19 12, ii ; 25, 2 

20 39, 20 


ii. 5 44. 13 

xvi. 15 25, 3 

19 96, 5 


i- 35 87, ii 

iv. 1 8 108, 17 

vi- 5 38, 5 

x. 22 96, 4; 117, 5 

xvi. 19 5, 12 

xviii. 19 13, 4 

xix. 10 4, ii 

xx. 38 93, 15 

xxiv. 44 31, 2 

i. i 33. 16; 43, 2 ? 5 16; 

114. 7 
2 114, 8 

3 42, ii ; 48, 5; 59 i; 

76, 16 
10 38, 10; 43, i ; 49, 8 

ii 43' 2 

13 46, 12 

14 42, 6; 43, 4; 46, n; 

77. 55 87, 7; 92, 6; 

114, 9 

15 47. 7 

18 62, 9; 68, 4 

33 Io8 6 

ii. 19 76, 8 

25 44. 12 

iii- 13 43. 12; 44, 14 

3i 3 2 46, 15; 77, i 

34, 35 75. 12 

34 108, 7 

iv. 21 20, ii 

24 18, 2; 20, ii 

V. 17, 19 IO2, 14 

19 47, ii ; 76, 17; 81, 2 

21, 22 38, 6 

26 47, 14 

27 38, 6 

vi- 38. 77. 2; 95, 4 

40 54. 6 

46 47, 21 

5i 47, 18 

62 47, 26 

63 38, 13 

vui. 14. 15 48, 9 

i7> 18 95. 9 

23 49. 6 

42 37. 16; 50. 12 

5i 5i, 2 

58 38, 2; 51, 19; 66, 21 

x. 18 76, 10 

27 52, 7 

3> 44, 15; 52, 18; 97, i; 

105, 7 ; Introd. xlvii 

32, 3 6 53, 9 

33 99, 5 

34-38 74, 10 

35 52, 26 

. 36 74, 10 ; 99. 8 

xi. 26 54, 6 

42 95, 19 

xii. 28 95, ii 

xiv. 6 101, 5 

7 100, 14 

8 100, 9 

9 ioo, 6; 105, 7 

12, 15, 16 102, 20, 21 

16, 17 106, 7 : 107, 4 

18 107, 13 

23 102, 24 

26 38, F4; 55, 2; 103, 2 

28 95,6; 103, 6; Introd. 

xv. i, 2 103, 8 

9, I0 i3, ii 

15 103, 14 

21 103, 16 

26 107, 6 

xvi. 7 107, 8 



xvi. 13 107, 10 

14 55, 2 

28 50, 12 

xvii. 3, 4 56, 6; 95, 21 

5 38, 7; 43. 15; 57, i; 

95, i7 

xx. 17 95, 7 

22, 23 106, 4 

28 44, 19; 114, 9 


ii. 3 I0 7, 23 

23 Introd. xxxix 

iv. 12 39, 14 

x. 29 88, ii 

36 3 8 > 12 

xvii. 28 Introd. Ix 

xix. 26 n, 3 


i. 3 38, 9; Introd. xxxix 

20 12, 3 

vi. 3 12, ii 

viii. 9 109, 2 

21 13, 2 

26 109, 9 

ix. 5 44, 20; 114, 10 

x. 9 38, 13 

xi. 6 34, 9 

16 108, 9 

33 28, i 

.30 12, ii 

xii. 6 85, ii 

7 25, 2 

13 12, ii 

xiv. 4 32, 5 


ii. 12 no, 9 

iii. 6-8 98, 7, Introd. xlvii 

17 109, 7 

vii. 22 4, i 

40 1 10, 10 

viii. 6 12, ii 

xi. 7 Introd. Ivii 

xii. 4 106, 14 

9 i>7, 23 

10 108, i 

13 12, n 

28 25, 2 

xiv. 32 no, ii 

xv. 19 47, 2 

25 122, I 

28 12, II 

xv. 41 2, 7 

45 Introd. xxxix 

50 34, 8 


i. n Introd. Ixii 

ii. 10 ib. 

iii. 17 109, 3 

iv. 6 Introd. Ixii 

13 106, 18 

v. 10 4, 2 

viii. 9 82, 13 

xi. 2 in, 8 


i. i 44, 22 

..12 44, 24 

iii. 20 113, 24 

iv- 4 38, 4 

v. 17 no, 2 

vi. 16 i, i 


i. 10 Introd. Ix 

ii 86, 7 

14 109, 6 

18 12, 7 

22 73, 13 

IV. IO 6l, 12 

II 25, 2 


i. 6 103, 25 n. 

6-1 1 80, 6 sq., Introd. xlvi 

7 32, 15 

i. 15 62, 9; 77, i, 8 

16 5' 7; 42, 13; 45, 3J 

46, 18 

17 6, 15; 12, ii; 45, 3; 

51, 21 
19 Introd. xxx 

9 i3, 25 n. 

15 78, ir 


i- 15 114, 5 

17 12, 8; 36, i 

". 5 37, 19; 78,9; 123, 3 

10 in, 8 

iii. 7 25, 2 

iv. i no, 12 

vi. 16 113, 21 




i. 9 86, 8 

ii US, 4 

vi. 16 62, 5 


i. 3 60, 7; 62, 9; 96, 5; 

103, 25 n. ; 116, 6n. 

7 27, 12 

ii. 10 12, n; 57, 23 

v. 7 123, 7 


i. 17 
ii. 23 

, 2 

, 15 


i. 1 8 Introd. xxxix 

ii. 3, 4 

iii. 15 

iv. ii 



i. 4 51. 10; Introd. Ivii 

iii. 12 27, i 


ii. 14 Introd. xxxv 

iii. i 51, 10 

i, 9 Introd. Ivii. 

6 63, 12 

24 n, 16 

iv. 3 39 J 3 

12 62, 4 


iii. 14 Introd. xl 

iv. 6 26, 15 

xv. 3 36, i 

xix. 10 60, 8 

13 42, 8 

xxii. 18, 19 57, 21 



Abel 58, 3 

abiectus 24, 22 

abluo 66, 2; 79, 17 

abnego 36, 4 

Abraham 51, 19; 52, 2; 58, 3; 

62, i; 65, 9; 66 passim; 93, 13 
abruptus n, 13; 91, 13 
abundo 88, 8 
accedo 14, 5; 54, 16; 70,4; 101, 

3, 15; 102, 15 
accipio, 40, 20; 56, 9; 72, 26; 

84, 14 

accuse 1 06, 9 

acies 8, 20; 9, 2; Virg. A. vi 200 
actus 64, 5 
Adam 58, 3; 61, 9 
addisco 65, 18 
adduce 86, 9; in, 15 
adhaereo 90, 15 
adicio 16, 7; 26, 13; 57, 21; 

65, 9; 67, 12; 88, n; 97, 13; 

100, 3; 102, 20 
adiectio 14, 4 
adiuuo 1 06, 12 
admitto 71, 8 
admoneo 105, n 
aduentus 40, 13, 18 
aduersarius 84, 5 
aduocatio 106, no; 109, 9 
aduocatus 103, 2; 107, 5, 13 
aequabilis 7, 1 7 
aequalis 14, 22; 21, 18; 80, 7; 

119, 8 

aequaliter 2, n 
aequatio 119, 6 
aequo 10, n ; 81, 18 
aestimo 84, 15 

aeternitas 16, 16; 47, 16; 109, n 
aeternus 7, 10; 116, 2; 122, 7 

aethereus 33, 10 

aeuum 36, i 

affectio no, 6 (pi.} 

affero 85, 8 

affirmo 38, 17 

affluenter 108, 12 

Africus 41, i 

Agar 63, 20; 64, 9; 66, 23 

aggrego 103, 15 

agito 4, 5; 99, 29; 105, 7 n. 

agnitio 22, 12 

agnosco 9, 22; 11, 16, 21; 25,4; 

33. 55 39. J 55 40, 13; 52, 7? 

72, 10; 100, 5; 116, 7 
agrestis n, 12 
alienus 3, 4; 32, 2, 5 
aliquatenus 8, 5 ; i r , 15 
aliquotiens 74, 11 
aliunde 79, 2 
allege 24, 15 
alligo, 52, 10 
alteruter 4, 5; 37, i, 17 
ambiguitas 99, 24 
ambitus 2, 8 
amictum 79, i$ff. 
a modo 101, i ; 102, 10 
anathema no, 17 
ancilla 63, 20 
angelus 24, 3; 27, 12; 36, 2; 61, 

5; 64, 6, 17; 65 passim ; 66, 

23; 68, 6; 72, 14; 73, 5; 80, 18; 

87, 14; 116, 8; 121, 14 
angustiae 20, 8; 41, 5 
angustus 20, 9 
anilis, 31, 9 
anima 76, 12; 92, 12 ff. ; 93, 6; 

Introd. li 
animaduerto 39, n; 42, 7; 45, 6; 

61, 7; 100, i ; 112, 12 



annecto 89, r 

annuntiator 64, 17; 65, 4 

annuntio 37, 7; 101, u; 121, 14 

antecedo, 117, 6 

aperio 20, 18; 76, 6; 105, 7 

Apollo 98, 7 sq. 

apostolus 25, 2; 44, 18; 80, 5; 

96, 5; 106, 10; no, 9; in, 2 
appareo 33, 10; 67, 22; 93, 12 
appellatio, 16, 4 
approbo 37, 4; 38, 16; 46, 5; 

63, 19; 94, 3; 95, 14; 112, 16; 

119, 15; 123, 7 
arbitrium 21, 4; 120, 15 
arbitror 81, 17 
arcanum 77, 4; 116, 7 
ardor no, 4 (//) 
aresco 25, 2 

argumentum 84, 3, 12; 85, 8; 88, 6 
arguo, iii, 7 
artifex 3, 2; 6, 8; 11, 3, 21; 12, 7; 

13. !<>; !5> 55 " 7J 2 7> 15 
ascendo 38, 13; 44, 2 ; 61, 12 

aspectus 104, 9 

aspicio 50, 4 

assero 36, 16; 41, 8; 83, 20; 87, 6, 

10; 112, 3; 120, 12, 18 
assigno 117, 4 

assuefacio 63, 8; 103, 24; 109, 13 
assuesco 62, n 
assuetus 63, 13 

assume 39, I ; 77, 19; 85, 13; 89, i 
assumptio 44, i ; 81, 14; 86, 5 
assurgo 63, 7 
astrum 2, 6 
auaritia no, 5 (//.) 
auctor 72, 28; 75, 5 
auctoritas 31, 8; 36, 4; 39, 6; 44, 

10 ; 60, 7; 68, 16; 69, 19; 75, 2; 

80, 3; 82, 13; 84, 16; 93, 23; 

97 55 "4. 3; !22, 6 
auersus 25, 2 
aufero 58 9 

baptisma 34, 13 

baptize 108, 6 

benedico 70, 13; 72, 16 

benedictio 64, 7; 71, i; 79, n 

Bethlehem 41, 9, 12 

blasphemia 40, 23; 53, 7; 54, i; 

74. i 
blaspheme 32, 7; in, i 

blasphemus 52, 22 
butyrum 65, 13 

caecitas 36, 7; 50, 3; 63,4; 100, 

5; 105, 9; 113, 10 
caeco 9, 4 
caelestis 18, 13; 46, 20; 47, 12; 

70, 2; 76, i; 83, ii ; 109, 5 
calciamentum 25, 16 
calco 107, 20 

calumnia 88, 9; 112, 5, 15 
calumniosus 53, 7 
campus 19, n ; 105, 6 
cano 25, 9; Virg. A. vin 499 
capio 8, 16, 17; 20, 4; 22, 12 
caritas 22, 13; 103, 12; iio,6(//.) 
carnal is 48, 20 
caro 33, u; 34, ii; 44, i; 59, 12; 

60, 2; 61, 14; 63, 17; 66, 17; 

68, 6; 77, 5; 78, 13; 79, 4 ff.i 

82, 2; 85, 5; 86, i; 87 passim ; 

92, 6, ii ; 114, 9; Introd. Ii, lii, 

castitas in, 5 
catholicus 112, i 
cauterio no, 15 
_certamen 40, 24; 70, 23 
cesso 38, 21 ; 72, 13 
charisma 108, 2 
chirographum 109, 6 
cinericius 65, 12; 69, 3 
circum 8, 4 
circumfero 32, 12, 16 
circumire 2, 8 
circumiri 8, 2 

claritas 42, 7; 44, 6; 57, 4 
claudico 71, 9 
cludo 41, 4; 60, 15; 61, 4 
coagmento 6, 16 
coagmentum 18, 5 
coerceo no, 3 
cogitamen 21, 12 
cogo 85, 2; 116, 5 
colligo 8, 2; 16, 3; 23, 6; 36, 15;. 

93, ii ; 112, 15; 113, 2; 115, 5 
colloco 24, 12; 29, 10 ; 30, 18; 

56, 18; 67, 4; 72, 17; 90, 4; 

95, Sn. 

colluctor 71, 5; 71 passim 
combibo 104, 2 
comissatio no, 5 (//.) 
commemoratio 50, 10 
commenticius 31, 9 
committo 47, 5 
commodo 35, 8; 107, 2 
commoueo 76, 3; 84, 9; 99, 4 
communio 122, 9 



compar 15, 10 

compare 81, 12; 116, 4; 119, 5 

compello 32, 7 

competo 67, 20; 68, 2; 74, 3 

complector 60, 17; 61, 4; 72, 23 

compleo 72, 9 

compono 108, 2 

comprehendo 14, 4; 15, 22 

comprobo 34, 4; 36, 14; 41, 9; 

44, 7; 67, ii ; 72, 8; 86, 13; 

100, 2; 119, 17; 120, 14 
compute 36, ii ; 68, n; 77, 7 
concatenatio 16, 16 
concede 35, 14; 64, 13; 96, 12 
concipio 7, 22; 15, 21 
concordia 6, 14; 43, 9; 78, 8; 

86, 2; 91, 3; 97, 10; 98, 5 
concors 123, 5 
concretus, -io 18, 7; 21, 21 ; 27, 6; 

35, io ; 46, 13; 91, 2; Virg. A. 

vi 746 

concutio 94, 4 
condensus 41, 2 
condicio 25, 4: 15, 22; 62, io; 

82, 5; 86, 9 

condignus 4, 3; -e 9, 5; 16, 3 
condisco 12, 3, 6 
conditor 2, i; 9, 22; 12, i; 28, 7; 

S^, 4 

condo 5, io ; 58, 14 
conduco 98, 22 
conecto 6, 15; 78, 6; 86, 3 
conexio 16, 15; 44, 3; 89, 2; 

Introd. lii 
confero 25, i; 32, n; 39, 2; 81, 

12; 90, 8; 119, 8 
confestim 102, 19 
confibulatio 91, 3 
confibulo 86, 2 
confingo i 20, i 
confirmo 67, io; 107, 17 
confiteor 39, 13540, 16, 25; 85, i; 

99, ii 

conflo 39, 3 
confoedero 78, 5 
confundo 90, 3, 7 
confuto, 33, 1 6 
congrego 59, 4; 96, 7 
congruenter 53, 8 
congruo 65, i ; 74, 6 
conicio 23, 4 
coniunctio 33, 3; 46, 13; 56, 13; 

88, 12 
coniungo 78, 6 

conquiesco 82, 14 

conquiro 84, 4 

conscendo 44, 5 

conscientia 44, 16; no, 16 

conscribo no, 20 

consecrator 109, 5 

consecutio 54, 13 

consequens 83, 6; 92, i 

consequenter 4, 4; 7, 4; 13, 6; 
14, 20; 26, i; 52, 5; 42, io; 
56, 15; 74, 8, 14; 79, 9; 83, 9, 
20; 88, 15; 89, 6; 90, 13; 94, 

J45 113. 5; "9 I2 
consequor 75, 17; 102, 12 

considero 6, 7; 9, 3; 36, ii; 

49, 2; 50, 8; 60, 20; 95, 6 
consilium 17, 18; 21, ii; 64, 17; 

108, 2; 120, 16; 121, 14 
consoler 66, 24 
censors 34, i 
conspicio 44, 12; 46, i; 63, 17; 

65, n; 122, ii 
conspiratio 6, 16 
constans in, 3 
constanter 31, io; 74, 5 
constituo 16, 9; 44, 23; 75, 9; 92, 

i ; 107, 22; no, 20 
constringo no, 6 
consto 42, 14; 45, i; 46, 16; 

5<>. 13; 93, '4 
constructus 18, 6 

consuesco 37, 12; 112, 16 

consummatio 7, 12; 39, 22 

consummatus 108, 4 

contego 26, 7 

contemno 106, ii 

contemplatio 12, io; 103, 24; 104, i 

contemplor 26, 15 

contemptus, 92, 16 

contendo 44, 25; 70, 21; 73, 9; 

H3' ^ 

contentus 82, i 

contexo 79, 8; 91, 2 

continentia in, 4 

contineo 6, 9; 7, 3; 15, n; 20, 7; 

25, 18; 41, 5; 60, 17 
contingo 63, 5; 104, ii 
contortus 91, 17 
contraho 120, 9 
contribuo 107, 4 ; 108, i 
controuersia 99, 24, 29; 112, 2; 

114, 22; 120, 2 
contumelia 36, 5; 83, i 
conuenio 63, 21; -ens, 67, 20 



conuersio 14, 3; 15, i 

conuerto 19, i 

conuerti 23, 3 

conuicium 113, 8 

conuinco 37, 19; 40, 25; 88, 2 

copulo 50, i ; 86, 4 

Corinthii 98, 6 

corporalis 5, n; 18, 16; 20, 15 

corporatus 28, n 

corporeus 18, 7 

corporo 41, 6 

corpus 79, 13; 82, 2; 87, 15; 88, 

14; 92, 19 
corrigo in, 7, 8 
corroboro 26, u 

corrumpo 17,4; 18, i; 60, 13; 114,4 
corruptibilitas 18, 10 
corruptio 13, 3 
creator 31, 5; 32, 3; no, 18; 

H5 18 
creatura 8, 7; 20, 20; 23, 11 ; 75, 9; 

77 passim\ 81, 5; 83, 13; 123, 3 
crimen 35, i 
crux 102, 2; 113, 6 
culpa 34, n 
culpo 100, 8 
cultura n, 1 8 

cumulate 108, 8 ; v. Introd. xix n. 5 
cupiditas no, 3 (//) 
curuo 83, 19 
custodio no, 8; in, 6 

damno 34, 9; 71, 10 

damnum 63, 5 

Dauid 1 08, 1 8 

de 3, 2 n. 18; 4, 7; 12, 2; 27, 4; 

1 20, 8 
debeo45, i ; 46, 21 -,64, 15; 86, in.; 

87, 21 ; 90, 9; 93, 5; 120, 7 
debitor 7, 14 
decoquo 85, 6 
decretum 110, i, 19 
decurro 16, 10 
deduco 93, 13 
defendo 35, 6 
defensio 53, 12; 109, 9 
deficio 7, 12; 66, 25; 93, 4 
definitio 95, 20 
definitus 27, 14 
dehonesto 78, 12 
deicio 82, 15 
deliciae 2, 16 
delictum 5, 4; 23, 19; 24, 12; 32, 

10; 47, 5; 82, 3 

delibatio 108, 9 
delinquo 32, n 
demano 34, i 
dementia 91, 13 
deminutio 25, 10 
demutatio 15, 5 
denego 74, 7 

denique23, 10; 97, iin. ; 98, 5, 12; 

99, 3; 101, 13; 106, 18; 120, 15 

denoto, 7, 8; 13, 14 .; 57, 30; 

119. 15 
depingo 70, 7 

depono 35, i; 54, 15; 72, 25; 82, 


deprehendo 58, 7 ; 104, 9 

depromo 8, 9; 16, 9; 44, 23; 

i 10, 19 
descendo 5, 2; 18, i; 38, 14; 48^ 

7; 83, 2; 89, 5; 91, 14 
descensio 48, 17 
descisco 42, i 
describe 8, 10; 17, 2; 20, 16; 

25, ii ; 29, 15; 37, 9; 41, 12; 

43, 16; 64, 5 
desideratus 94, 21 
desidero 32, 6 
destino 54, 13; 57, 29; 69, n; 

86, 8; 121, 15 
destruo in, 6 
desursum 49, 15 
detego 88, 2 
detraho 57, 22; 85, 5 
detrimentum 14, 6, 21; 16, 12 
deus, quod est 14, 13; 15, 8 
Deuteronomium 61, 7 
dicto 105, 5 
differens 106, 14 
diffundo 19, 11 
digero 2, 4; 5, 8, 12: 13, i; 36, 

i; 58, 5J 73, 5; 105, 10 ; 108, 3 
diiudico 74, 12; 75, 2 
dilectio 97, 17 
diluuium 24, 13 
dimitto 44, 13; 47, 6 
dirigo 107, 21, 23; 122, 9 
discerno "75, i ; 97, 5 
discipulus 102, 13; 107, 12 
disco 15, 3; 100, 8ff. ; no, i ; 116, 8 
discordans 6, 15 
discordia 18, 4; 120, 8 
discretio 108, i 
discurro 99, 4 
dispendium 3, 4 
dispense 90, 6 



dispono 97, 7 

dispositio 10, 8; 20, i; 53, 7.; 

65, 4; 90, i 
disputatio, in, 12 
dispute 22, 9; 80, 4; 112, 6 
disrumpo 63, 6 
dissemino 61, 8 
dissipo 63, 6 
dissoluo 7, i ; 99, 24 
dissolutio 21, 21 ; 22, 4; 34, 13 
dissonantia 121, 16 
distinctio 69, 16; 86, 12; 87, 3; 

90, 4, 19; 98, 2, 6; 99, 6 
distingue 97, 6; 107, 16 
distribuo 107, 2, 21 ; 108, 8 
distributio 90, 5 
districte 41, 7 
dito 82, 9 

diuersitas 21, 19; 99, 2 
diuersus 106, 15 
diuido 106, 17 
diuinitas 35, 10 ; 44, 9; 51, 5; 76, 

3; 77, 10; 78, 2; 84, i, ii ; 92, 

3; 99, 29; 103, 24; 114, 2; 120, 

8; 121, 15; 122, 7 
doctrina in, 5 
dominicus in, 6 
dono (i.q. condono), 5, 3 
dum 34, 2 n. 

ebrietas no, 5 (//) 

ecclesia 24, i; 105, 12; 107, 20; 

108, 3; in, 8 
edico 8, i ; 21, i ; 23, 5; 42, 7; 

44, 17; 68,4 
edisco 65, 1 6 
educo 63, 12 
effector 109, n 
efficaciae 20, 14 
effick>47, 17; 80, i ; 86, 6; 109,8; 

119, 2 

effodio 105, 8; Virg. A. in 663 
effrenatius 84, 17 

effusus 27, n ; 107, 2; -ius 85, j 
egregius 83, 3 
eicio 63, 20 
eleganter 71, 15 
elementum 3, 4, 8; 6, 14 
elicio 2, 14 
eligo 41, 13 
eloquor 7, 19 
eluceo 13, 17 
emitto 122, 8 
Emmanuel 39, 20; 40, 5; 87, 8 

enitor 96, 6 

Enoch 58, 3 

Ephrem 72, 15 

eripio 36, 9; 119, 3 

erro 94, 9 

error 86, 10 ; 88, 9; 91, 13; 99, 

24; 100, 5; 112, ii ; 114, 20 
erudio 107, 23 ; 109, 14 
erumpo 94, 3 
ethnicus n, 2 
euado 4, 7 ; 12, 9 
euangelicus 43, 8; 106, 13; 107, 16 
euangelium 20, n; 22, 9; 28, 13; 

2 9> r 55 3i> 45 44> 2 4; 7 r 4; 

76, 7; 87, 9; 106, 8; 110,8 
euangelizo 108, 18 
euentilo 76, 2 
euidens 96, 13 
euidenter 90, n; 99, 26; 103,18; 

113. " 
examen 10, 8 

excipio 4, 4; 113, 7 
excito n, 18; 27, n 
exclude 36, 12; 87, 6 
exemplum 17, 3; 73, 8; 99, 28 
exerceo 82, 15; 93, 17; 103, 24 
exhibeo 28, 10; 35, 5; 51, 12; 

107, 3 
exigo i, i 
exiguitas 75, 16 
exiguus 7, 20 
exinanio 80, 7 ; 82 passim 
exitium 47, 4 
exitus 7, 5, 12; 25, 8, 10; 65, 16; 

66, 4; 72, 21 
expedio 90, 3 ; 1 10, 7 ; Introd. 

xix n. 5 
experior 83, 2 

explico 8, 6, 12; 21, 2; 95, 2 
expono 66, 25; 68, 4; 90, 10 
exprimo 8, 8; 20, 17; 22, 14; 28, 7; 

35.95 38, 55 39> 5;49 J 4J 70.6; 

76, 8; 78, 10 ; 80, 2; 103, 21 ; 

119, 17 

expromo 7, 18; 29, 13; 97, 12 
exsequor 58, 13 
exstinguo 92, n; 93, 19; 99, 25; 

1 10, 4 

exspuo no, 8 
exstruo 20, 7 ; 34, 10 
exsulto no, 10 
extendo 84, 9 
exuo 78, ii, 19; 88, 9 
Ezechias 113, 19 


fabula 23, 21 ; 31, 9 

fabularius 33, 15 

facesso 13, 9 

fades 19, i; 70, 13 

facinus 71, 8 

faenero 66, 3; 90, 16; Introd. liv 

fallenter 63, 7 

famulus 32, 5 

fecunditas 24, 8 

ferinus n, 12 

festino 76, 6; 80, 5 

fidelis 114, 5 

fides 105, 10; in; 3, 14; 112, 2, 

75 "44 
figmentura n, i; 24, i; 32, 4; 

33, H 
figura 19, 9; 28, n ; 32, 17; 72, 

9; 73. i 
figure 23, 15 

firmamentum 26, 8 

firmo 53, 4 ; 59, 3; 107, 15, 20 

firmus 84, 4 

flagro no, 4 

flagrum 30, 7 

foedero 43, 9 

foedus 91, 3 

fons 1 08, 10 

forma 80, 18; 81, 3; 82, r 

formula 56, 22 

fragilis 87, 2 

fragilitas 18, i; 36, n; 38, 17; 

44, 4; 47, 20; 49, 21 ; 62, 10; 

63, 11; 82, 5; 91, 16; 92, 4 
fraus 88, i 

fructus 51, 6; 86, 9; 103, 9 
fucatus 31, 10 
fulcio 60, 8 
fulgor 9, 2; 63, 14 
furor 99, 28 
furtum 88, i 
fusus 105, 7 

genero 36, 6; 66, 22; 119, 13 

generositas 92, 22 

generosus 81, i 

gens 106, 10, 12 (pi.) 

genus 25, 3; 35,12; 40, 25; 84,4; 

88, 5; 106; 14; 109, 5; 120, 10 
gestio 52, 25 : 106, 13 
gigno 9, 18; 15, 2; 38, 9; 81, 8; 

87, 16; 117, i; 119, 7; 120, 3 ; 

121, 12; 123, i 
gloria 63, i; 83, 19 
gloriosus 47, 16 

Gomorrha 66, 5 
gradatim 62, 12; 122, 12 
grassor 34, 12 
gratia 108, 9 (//.) 
gubernatio 108, i 
gyrus 10, 6 

Habacuc 41, i 

habito 77, 19; 108, 6 

habitus 20, 15 ; 80, 8 

haeresis 40, 15; 41, 6 ; 42, i ; 76, 4 

haereticus u, 2; 23, 21; 31, 2: 

* v / > 

114, 18 

haesitatio 69, 10 
haesito 39, 5; 73, 3 
hebesco 9, i 
hereditas 109, 6 
homo 77, 20; 78, i, 19; 79, 8, 17; 

80, 2, 16; 82, 7; 86, 4; 87, i, 

2, 17; Introd. li 
honestus 17, 14 
honor 84, 9 (pi.) 
honorifico 96, 2 
hospes 65, 13; 66, 18 
hospitalitas 66, 2 
humanitas 78, 8 
humilitas 64, i ; 83, 3 

Iacob68, 17; 70,9; 71, 4; 72, 16; 

93, H 
iactantia n, 9 

iactura 39, 2 

iam 23, 12 

idcirco 14, 20; 34, i; 49, 17; 

1 2O, 12 

II, 22 

idem atque ipse 87, i ; ( 

identidem 100, 6 

ideo 7, 3; 14, 4, 16; 15, 3, 7; 

16, 13; 17, 16; 22, 2; 35, 6; 

49, 8; 63, 10; 71, 2; 90, i: 119, 

17; 121, 3 
lesus no, 17 
ignorantia 4, 11 
illicitus no, 4 
illuminator 107, 16 
imago 3, 11; 33, i; 60, 5; 62, 9; 

63, 95 7. 7? 77> i; 8 <>> 
14; 103, 22 ff. ; 105, 2 



imitatio 32, 17; 33, 4 
imitator 76, 17; 81, 2; 102, 16 
imitor 3, 12; 102, 18 
immanitas n, 13 
immensus 5, 9; 7, 9; 27, 9; 60, 14; 

116, i; 119, i8. 
immerito 42, 9 
immoderatus no, 3 
immortalis 5, 4; 7, 12; 16, 12; 92, 

2; 93, 18; 116, i 

immortalitas 51, 4; 92, 22; 109, 12 
immutatio 14, 2, 17 
impassibilis 17, n ; 92, 3 
impedio 112, 6 
impello 27, n 
imperitia 99, 3 
imperitus 48, 18 
imperium 81, 19; 120, 16 
impetus no, 4 
impleo 86, 9 ; 109, 9 
improbus no, 7; in, 7 
impute 20, 5 
inaccessibilis 113, 21 
inaequalitas 121, 16 
inaequaliter 10, 9 
incarnatus 88, 10 
incessus 71, 9 
inclino 37, 5; 50, 6 
include 40, 17; in, 5 
incomprehensibilis 119, 18 
incongruenter 4, i 
incontaminatus in, 5 
incorruptibilis 16, 12 
incorruptio 16, 17 
incorruptus 92, 2, 14; in, 5, 8 
incredulitas 25, 10; 50, 9 
incrementum 2, 6 ; 14, 9 ; 22, 9, 

12; 62, 13; 63, 7 
incumbo 50, 2 
incunctauter 43, 7; 75, 17 
indignus 83, 2 
indo 3, n 

indulgens 17, 12; -ter 4, 9 
indulgentia 23, 20; 24, 21 
indulgeo 96, 13 
indumentum 78, 18 
induo (33, 11) 78, 14; 79 passim 
inefficax 21, 11; 47, i 
ineloquax 109, 8 
inexplebilis no, 3 
infandus 83, 2; Virg. A. II 84 
infatigabilis 25, 12 
inferior 38, 12 
infernus 73, 11 

infero 42, ion.; 69, 8; 97, 4 

infidelis in, 7 

infinitus 5, o; 15, 12; 27, 9 

infirmitas 30, 12 

ingemisco 24, 16 

inhabitator 109, 10 

ingero 103, 14 

inicere 52, 24 

inimicus 84, 6 

iniquitas 68, 14; 71, 7 

initiator 13, 10 

initium 15, 14; 120, 13 

iniuria 83, i (//.) 

iniuriose 102, 3 

innatus 117, 2 ; 119, 5 : 120, 3; 

121, 6 

innocentia 35, i 
innumerus 27, 9 
insidiae 88, 7 
insignia 114, 3 
inspicio 63, 10 
instituo 5, 7; 13, 5; 21, 7; 23, 14 ; 

35, 14; 38, 10 ; 46, 9; 59, 23 
institutio 3, 2; 10, iw.; 44,6; 

57. 8; 59, 15 
institutor 13, 7; 23, 15; 25, in. ; 

115, 18 
insto 103, 10 
instrumentum 2, 3 
instruo 44, 18; 55, 5 
insuetus 63, 4 
integritas 114. 4 
intellectus 16, 3; 20, 10 
intellego 33, 12; 53, 8; 62, 7; 67, 

19; 72, 23; 73,9; 91, n 
intendo 9, 4; 96, 17 
intercedo 70, 22; 93, 23 
intercipio 60 8. ; 63, 14; 78, 5 
interim 40, 25; 50, 10; 82, 14 
interitus 92, 13 
interminatus 19, 10 
interpello 109, 8 
interpono 68, 16 
interpres 92, 8 
inter pretatio 71, 19 
interpreter 39, 20 
interrogo 64, i 
intolerabilis 63, 14 
introduce 59, 2, 18; 60, 14; 112, 

20 ; 113, 4 
inuenio 7, 7; 15, 16; 37, 2; 39, 

16; 53. 6; 72, 7; 119, 9 
inuentio 4, 12 
inuestigabilis 28, 3 


inuicem 16, 15; 39, 2; 91, 3; 

98, 21 

inuidia 4, 6 ; 5, i; 13, 15 
inuidiosus 52, 22 
inuiolatus in, 8 
inuisibilis 12, 3; 24, 2; 62, 10; 

66, 12; 83, 12; 102, 18; 116, i; 

119, 16 

inuisibilitas 65, 22 
inuocatio 47, i 
inuoco 46, 22; 73, 6 
loannes 42, 5 ; 58, 15 ; 62, 4 ; 68, 4 
loannes Baptista 47, 7 
loel 1 06, 2 
loseph 72, 15 
ipse 8 (passim)', 14, 8; (atque) ipse 

34, i; (et) ipse 65, 13; 97, 15; 

98, 20, 23; (neque) ipse 5, 12 
iracundiae 17, 13 
Isaac 93, 14 
Isaias 39, 19; 95,2; 101, 13; 108, 


Ismael 64, 4 

Israel 71, 14 
ludaeus 48, 18; 52, 22 
ludaicus 50, 3; 99, 3 
iungo 50, i; 56, 12; 90, 15 
iure 100, 9 

ius 3 75 34, 12; 93, 16; no, 20; 
in, 6 

Laban 69, 4 

largus 25, i 

latro 113, 6 

laus 79, 18; 80, 2 

lectio 75, 2 

legitimus 2, 8; 16, 8; 53, 7; 88, 

19; 91, 14; 114, 17; Introd. Hi 
lenitas n, 13 
lex 3, 7, 18; 19, 8; 22, 5; 27, 10; 

34 *; 37, i; 52, 10 ; 106, 11, 


Lia 68, 13 

liber 3, 15; 4, i 

libertas 3, 16; 4, 2 

libido no, 3 (//.) 

libramentum 27, 7; 90, 6 

libro 10, 10 

lingua 107, 23 

liniamentum 19, 9; 20, 15 

litterae 44, 22; 94, 2; 105, 11 ; 

liuor 5, 2 
locuples 24, 22 

F. N. 


locupleto 82, 12 

locus 6, i; 60, 15; 64, 18; 69, 12; 

80, 5; in loco 93, 13 
lubricus 71, 10 
Lucas 87, 10 
lucidus 9, 7 
lucifer 71, 2 

luctor 70, 9 fc 

lumen 100, 5 ; 105, 8 
luminare 59, 5; 63, 6 
lux 8, 7; 9, 4 , 7; 22, 15; 59, 3; 

63.. 35 120, 5 
luxuriosus no, 5 

machinor 94, 4 

magister 92, 7; 107, 22; 115, 4 

maiestas 7, 18; 8, 10; 9, 10; 12, 3; 

19. 9538, 17 (X-);<>3> 13; 76,8; 

116, 2 ; 122, 12 
maledico 4, 10 
malignus 5, 2 
malitia 75, 5 
malum 63, 18; 75, 5 
Mambre 65, 10 
Manasses 72, 15 
mandatum 3, 16; 24, 12; 76, 13; 

103, 12 

manifestus 85, i 
mansio 103, i 
manus do 35, 7 
Maria 87, 14, 15; 101, 15 
martyr in, 3 
martyrium 92, 15 
materia 17, 10; 18, 2 ; 26, 8 ; 35, 8; 

47, 16; 78, 17; 79, 17; 86, u; 

93, 21 

meatus 2, 8; 27, 13; 122, 12 
mediator 46, 24; 78, 9; 85, 14; 

113, 24; 123, 3; Introd. Hi 
medicina 17, 17 
medietas 26, 10 
mediocris 3, i ; 20, 8 ; 63, 7 
mediocritas 38, 16 (pl.)\ 62, 10; 

63, ii ; 65, 23 
mediocriter 107, i 
meditor 65, 25 
memini 81, 11; 83, 14; 97, 8; 98, 

4; 99, 12; 103, 20 
mens7,2o; 9,18; 23,2; Introd. Iviii 
mensura 75, n; 108, 7 
mensurnus 2, 6 
mentior 49, 1 1 ; 52, 3 ; 62, 7 
mereor 106, n 
meridianus 41, 10 




merito 13, 7; 14, 20; 16, 6; 17, 6; 
22, 16; 27, 15; 31, 8; 33, 17; 
39, 15; 41, ii ; 44, 3; 44, 26; 

45. !55 49 3> J 9? 50. I( 5; 56, 

21 ; 59 J 5; 6 <> 6, 17; 64, 15; 

66, 20 ; 68, 6 ; 78, 7 ; 79, 3 ; 80, i ; 

86, 5; 89, 6; 97, 16; 100, 9; 

103, 5; 105,2; 112, 4; 113, 5; 

114, 18; 118, 10; 120, i; 122, 14 
meta 27, 1 6 
metatura 41, 9 
ministro 27, 7; 120, 19 
misceo 41, 17; 109, 13 
misericordia 71, 11 
moderanter 3, 10; 10, 10 ; no, i 
moderor 9, 21; -o u, 20 
modus 7, 13; 84, 9; 101, 4 (pi-) 
moles 6, 7; 10, n 
molitio 21, 13 
momentum 106, 18, 22 
morigerus 120, 18 
mortalis 14, 3, 18 
mortalitas 14, 7; 47, 17 
Moyses 58, 12; 59, 2, 18; 60, 14; 

61, 16; 62, i; 65, 9; 75, 7 
multimodus 2, 18 
mundus 5, 10; 32, 3; 35, 13; 38, 

7; 46,6; 57, 4 ; 104, 16 
munus 109, 10 
mutilo 1 08, 8 
mutuo 90, 1 6 
mutuus 44, 3 

nascor 15, i ; 18, 10; 38, 8; 51, 8; 

82, 7 passim; 118, 4; 121, 7 
natiuitas 15, 4; 21, 20; 33, 2; 42, 

5; 43 9J 49 iJ 79 55 83, 15; 
90, 15; 109, 5; 116, 7; 118, 4; 
120, 17; 121, 4 

natura 11, 21; 15, 12, 22; 18, 4; 
24, 3; 7 55 46, 23; 74, 6; 90, 


naturalis 27, 10 

naturaliter 9, 20; 27, 4; 89, 3 
nescio 116, i; 118, i: n. qui n, 

21 ; 3 1 * 9 
neutraliter 97, 9 
nee 5, 12; 15, 21 #.; 80, 18 
necessitas 67, 16 
necto 9, 20; no, 6 
nihilominus 4, 9 ; 44, 7; 53, 7; 60, 

19; 65, n; 122, ii 
nisi forte 7, 5 
nisi quod 8, 15; 32, 2 

nisi quoniam 40, 23; 41, 18; 46, 
i; 64, 13; 65,22; 76,3, 15; 77, 
10; 78, 13; 81, i; 103, 20; 106, 


nitor 22, 12; 60, 10; 87, 6; 88, 9; 

112, 16 
nocens 72, 8 
Noe 58, 3 

nomen 83, 6; 94, 10; 97, 6 
nosco 94, 9 
notitia n, 17; 24, 21 
noto 105, 4 

nudus 35, 7; 41, 8; 54, 7 
numquid 40, 3; 61, 5; 114, 13 
nuncupo 38, i ; 42, 4; 65, 12, 21; 

74, 17; 115, 15 
nuptiae 33, 3 
nutrio 62, 13 

obluctor 73, 7; in, 15 
oboediens 38, 15; 80, 9; 81, 19 
oboedientia 4, 7; 81, 16 ; 99, 19; 

120, 18; 121, 2 
oboedio 96, 10; 120, 17 
obtineo 14, 17; 81, 6 
obtemperans 120, 19 
obtutus 9, i; 12, 2; 26, 15; Virg. 

A. I 495 

obuius 9, i; Virg. B. vi 57 
obumbro 87, 12 
occasio 1 06, 17 
occasus 34, 2 
occurro 13, 13 
oculus 100, 4 (metaph.) 
offero 65, 13 
officio 115, ii 
omcium 21, 3; 98, 13; 106, 14; 

109, 9 

omnibus, de (adverbial) 104, 2 
omnipotens i, 2; 41, 3; 104, i 
operor 21, 16; 81, 3; 102, 15; 109, 

opportunitas 106, i 
oppositio 50, ii 
opto 63, 15 
oratio 46, 24 
orbo 105, 9 
ordinatus 6, i 
ordo 90, 2; 97, 7; 105, 10 
origo 7, 4, 13; 14, 9; 15, 6, 13; 
52, i; 112, ii (//) "6, i; 118, 

1 ff.; 119, 10; 120, 7ff. ; 121, 

2 sq. 
ornamentum 107, 21 



Osee 39, 6 

ostendo 44, 7; 48, 17; 59, 6; 63, 4; 
68, 8; 85, 12; in, 4, 7; 119, 6, 

I2J 121, IO; 122, IO 

ostium 65, 10 
otiose 50, 17; 78, 13 

par 15, 7, ii ; 119, 16 

parabola 20, 2 

paraclitus 55 passi>n\ 106, 7; 107, 

12 ; Introd. xxviii 
paradisus 24, 10 
parens 9, 23; 13, 11 
pars 100, 3 . 
particulatim 90, 9 
passibilis 17, 10; 92, 4 
passio 17, 5; 30, 4; 36, 16; 73, 2; 

7.9, i.7 
patientia 29, 12 

patior 101, 18 

patrocinium 106, 12 

paulatim 63, 5 

Paulus 62, 5; 98, 5 sq.; 106, 18; 

109, 2; 113, 21; 115, 4 
peccatum 44, 13 
peculiaris 24, 9 
penitus 101, 2 
perceptio 20, 19 
percipio 23, 6; 87, 21 
percutio 63, 14 
perditio 113, 9 
perfectus 2, i ; 6, 11 ; 9, 20; 13, n; 

14, 6; 37, 6; 38, 21; 102, 8; 

104, i ; 108, 4 

perhibeo 19, 7; 38, 9; 69, 16 
periclitor 37, 18; 69, 24 
periculosus 63, 2; 91, 14; -e 91, 12 
periculum 35, 12; 37, 2; 38, 18 ; 

54, 15 
perinde 102, 16; 103, 21 

perimo 93, 7, 16 

permisceo 35, n; 90, 7; 91, 16; 
92, 6 

permixtio 89, 2 ; 90, 16 

perpetuum 52, 10 

perpetuus in, 8 

perplexus 16, 15 

persona 39, 7 ; 58, 4 ; 64, 18 ; 65, i, 
2; 66, 7; 72, 21, 23; 76, 5; 94, 
10; 97, 5, 10, 14 (//.); 98, 6, 
16, 21 ; 99, i; 108, 16; 119, 2; 
v. Introd. 7 

pertinaciter 73, 7 .'. 

pertingo 26, I 

perturbo 39, i 

peruersitas 112, n 

peruersus 4, 7; in, 6 

peruideo 71, 21 

peruigil 26, 15 

phantasma 32, 14 ; 33, 7 

Pharao 75, 8 

Philippus 100, 9 

pignero 78, 7 

pignus 86, 4; 109, 6 

plaga 25, 10 ; 30, 7; 41, 10 

planctus 66, 26 

plenitudo 88, 8 

pluralis 72, 23 

pondus 10, 10 

pono 56, 6; 57, 20, 22; 59, 6; 

61, 8; 66, 4; 70, 5; 72, 21 ; 73, 

i; 76, 12; 95, 3; 97, 10; in, 

u; 115, 8 
populus 1 06, 9 
porrigo 51, 17; 52, 15; 55, 4; 

64, 2; 71, 24; 108, i ; in, 12; 

122, II 

portio 14, 3; 37, 7; 108, 7 

postmodum 59, 13; 118, 7 

postremo 44, 17 

postulatio 25, 6 

potentia 8, 8 ; 9, 1 1 ; 67, 9 

potestas 6, 12; 9, 23; 15, 17; 36, 

(pi-)* 3 8 > 18; 42, 13; 60, 9; 

70, i; 75, 14; 81, 6; 85, 6; 92, 

16; 93, 23; 96, ii ; 97,7; 123,4 
potestates 5, 8; 6, i ; 107, 18 
poto 1 02, 3 
praecedo 7, n; 17, 10; 47, 10: 

117, 6 

praeceptum 102, 22; 120; 17 
praecipio 59, 3 
praecipuus 81, i; 84, 12 
praedestinatio 57, 20 ; 58, i 
praedico (-ere) 31,6; 79, ii ; (-are) 

101, 12 

praedictum 28, 13 
praefero 16, 7; 116, 3 
praefiguro 71, 3; 72, 6 
praeiudicium 6, 2 
praemitto 103, 4 
praemoneo 3, 18 
praepono 123, 2 
praescribo 3, 7; 36, 7 ; 37, 14; 

56, 14 

praesentia 28, n 
praesertim cum 43, 7 
praestigiae 88, 7 



praesto 7,2; 47, i ; 51 passim-, 52, 
16; 81, 16; 104,7; 106, u;Introd. 
xix n. 5 

praesumo 60, u; 101, 8 n. : 114, 


praesumptio 114, 20 

praetendo 87, 9; 112, 17 

praetereo 50, 4; 80, 5 ; 114, i 

praetermitto 76, 7 

praeuideo 41, 12 

primogenitus 77 passim; 120, 10 

primordia 3, 13 

princeps 35, 13; 36, 2; 75, 5 

principalitas 89, 4 

principaliter 88, 13; 90, i; Introd. lii 

principium 27, 4; 59, 9; 119, u; 

120, 12: 121, 4Sq. ; 122, 15 
probatio36, 13; 44, 17; 66, i; 84,5 
probo54, 3; 81, 17; 84, 6: 90, 12; 

104, 14; 121, 8; 122, 12 
procedo 10, 2; 21, 14; 50, 14; 52, 

21 ; 77, ii ; 118, 6; 119, i ; 

Introd. xxxii 
procure 2, 16 ^ 

produce 16, 16; 59, 5; 63, u; 

109, 12; in, 13 
profero 17, 18; 23, 18; 50, 17, 

20; 74, 2; 8i,9.; 98, 13; 116, 

6; Introd. xxxii 
proficio 23, 2; 36, 14, 18; 103, 25; 

109, 15 

profiteer 99, 16 

profundo 24, 22 

profuse 75, ii 

promitto 64, 4; 69, 15; 109, 6 

promo 42, 3 ; 74, 4 ; 84, 10; 94, 6; 

112, 8 
pronuntio 13, 4; 16, 4; 61, 15; 

65, 2; 69, 18; 81, 4; 84, 15; 

IO2, I 

propensus 1 1 1 , 12 

prophetes 40, 12; 59, i ; 66, 6; 96, 

5; 106, 9, 21 ; 107, 22; 116, 8 
prophetia 95, 2 
prophetissa 101, 15 
propheto 30, i ; 108, 13 
propono 20, 17; 37, n; 64, 6-; 

76, 4; 87, 9, 17; 114, 13 
proprie 73, 8 
proprietas 16, 8; 97, 4; Introd. 

proprius 2, 3; 15, 20; 58, ri; 65, 

23; 90, 17; ioo, 4; 112, 16; 

H4> 17 

protoplastus 24, 9; 46, 12 
prouidentia 25 passim 
prouideo 102, 7 
prouoco 59, 5 
prudent ia 3, 12 
pugillus 10, 5 
pupillus 107, 13 
pusillanimis 40, 7 
puteus 67, 15 

qua 40, 21 j 63, 10; 96, 12; 118,4 

qualitas 14, 17 

qualiter 40, 20 

quasi 36, 10, n 

'quicquid est' 26, 3 

'quicquid illud est' 18, 7; 98, i 

'quicquid illud est totus' 21, 17 

'quod deus est' 14, 13^. ; 92, 9 

'quod est' 81, 13 

Rachel 68, 14 

radius 2, 7; 63, 9 

radix 60, 9 

rapina 80, 6; 81, 17 . 

rapio 89, 2 ; 112, 12 

ratio 3, n 59, 21; 16, 7; 17, 14; 

18, 12; 19, 14; 20, 10; 75, 6; 

85, ii ; 90, ii ; 98, 21 ; 99, 7; 

105, 10 

ratiocinatio 115, i 
reaedifico 76, 15 
recede 13, 13 
receptio 86, 6 
recido 13, 2; 21, 20 
recipio 32, 9; 65, 19; 80, 2 
reciprocus 122, 12 
recognosco 39, 16; 65, 17 
recolo 36, 12 
reconditus 86, 7 
recupero 76, 13 
recuso 114, 3 
reddo 58, 1 1 ; 66, 2 ; 95, 1 1 ; 106, i ; 

119, 9; 121, i; 122, i 
redundantia 108, 8 
redundo 6, 3; 36, 6 
refector 23, 18 
refero 37, 12; 46, 9; 47, 5; 59, 

24; 67, i ; 80, 15; 122, 6 (ac- 


refuto 52, 26; 53, 8 
regula i, i ; 28, 4 ; 39, i ; 56, 6, 14 ; 

58, 12; 76, 5; 95, 21 ; 110, 7; 

Introd. xxvi 
reicio no, 5 



religio 98, 19, 22; 99, 29; 101, 3; 

i", 3 

religiosus 1 1 , 1 1 

reluctor 88, 5 

remaneo 108, 10 

remedium 17, 12 

remeo 68, 15 

remissio 1 1 1 , i 

remitto 65, 23; 122, 7 

repello no, 5 

repentinus 63, 2, 14 

reperio 38, 7 ; 44, 9; 52, 21 ; 56, i; 

71, 11; 122, 4 
repeto 43, 14 

reprehendo 34, n; 74, 15 
repromissio 24, 18; 104, 18 
repromitto 23,9; 32, 13; 39, 14; 

52, 12; i4jtaH*w; 105, 12 
repudio 110, 18 
repugno 20, 21 

require 4, u; 21, 5; 78, 15; 79, 13 
resero 2, 14; 77, 5 
respicio 41, 10 
respuo 31, 9 
resume 78, 18 
resurrectio 32, 5; 34, 5; 78, 13; 

81, 15; 107, 3; 109, 12 
resuscito 34, 4; 76, 15; 91, 8 
retineo 65, 14 
retraho 27, u 
retorqueo 114, 21; 122, 14 
reuertor 35, i; 68, 15; 122, 14 
reuinco 32, 15; no, 7 
reuoluo 122, 10 
rigor 27, 4 
robur 2, 13; 9, 8; 20, 21; Introd. 

xix, n. 5 

robustus 9, 9 ; 26, 9 
ruina 10, 9 
ruo 40, 15 

Sabellianus 41, 6 

Sabellius 41, 17 

sacramentum 5, 9; 28, n ; 65, 26; 

71, 21 ; 73, 4; 86, 7; 90, 2; 

95, 14; 107, 16 

sacrilegus 41, 6; no, 19; 43, 8 
saeculum 86, 8; 107, 18 
saepio 20, 8 
saeuitia 93, 9 
saluator 35, 12 
saluo 32, 9; 39, 9 
salus 4, 12; 32, 10 ; 34, 13; 39,2; 

47, i; 52, 12; 86, 8; 109, 7 

sanctificatio 99, I3sq. 
sanctifico 99, 12 
sanctitas 109, n; in, 9 
sanctum 87, 16 

sanitas 29, 10; 40, 14; 107, 23 
sapientia 11, 11; 120, 5 
sapio 98, 20 
Sara 63, 20; 65, 15 
sarabara 25, 17 
sarmentum 103, 9 
scabellum 11,6; 19,6; 95, i 
scandalize 112, 2 
scandalum 114, 18 
scaturio 24, 6 
scientia 11, 9 
scriba 94, 21 

scriptura 18, 13; 35, n; 37, 7; 
39, 4; 43, 8; 52, 25; 62, 6; 
64, 6; 65, 4; 66, 27; 68, 8; 
70, 2; 76, i; 84, 7 (pi.}; 85, n 
(//.); 87, 19; 88, i; 91 passim; 
96, 8; joi, 10; 102, 7; 110, 18; 
112, 3, 20; 113, 9, 25 (//.); 114. 
13, 19; n 5 passim 
secerno 17, 4 
secreta 44, n ; 116, 10 
secta no, 6 

secundum 20, 2; 23, 5; 35, 11; 
49, 20; 56, 14; 59, 4; (77, 10 ;) 
83, 16; 115, 2 
semen 46, 10; 109, 4 
sensus 8, 15; 20, 9; 23, 6 
sententia 38, 6; 64, 14; 97, 15; 

98, 18; 112, 13 
sentio 7, 5; 8, 5, 14; 16, 13; *i, 

21 ; 24, 5; 98, 23; 114, 24 
separo 56, 17 
sequella 89, 5 

sermo 7, 17; 8 (passim}; 23, 5; 
35, 10; 51, i; 52, 23; 66, 22; 
72, <zi; 76, 15; 77, n ; 78, 15; 
79, 9; 91, 17; 99, 25; also v. 
'the Word' Index i 
seruitus 3, 14; 82, 3 
sidereus 33, n 

significantia 16, i, 9; 20, 18; 76, 7 
significo 72, 29 
signo in, 4 
silua 76, 3 
similis sui 14, i, 22 
Simon Bariona 95, 15 
simplex 21, 19 
simpliciter 69, 13 
simulator in, 7 



sincerus 112, i 

singillatim 25, 7 

singularis 72, 24 

singulariter 72, 20 

sinus 3, 5 ; 6, 5, 1 1 ; 24, 22 ; 68, 4 ; 

101, 16 

siquidem 41, 6; 45, 14 
socia 51, 5; Introd. Ivi 
sociatio 90, 19; 91, 16 
societas 97, 10; 99, i 
socio 78, 10 ; 85, 7; 89, 3; 90, 14; 

91, 4; 92, 6; 109, 14 
Sodoma 65, 17 ; 66, 8 
Sodomitae 65, 16; 66, 4 
solacium 67, 5 
solidamentum 2, 4; 5, 6 
soliditas 32, 14; 33, 13 
solido 2, 2, 14; 6, 16; 26, 9 
solidus 32, 13 
solitarius 35, 7; 54, 7; 70, 21; 98, 


solitude 66, 25 

sollicito 32, 5 

sono 84, i 

sonus 94, 9; 97, 6; 116, 4 

sors 50, 10; 63, u 

species 76, 2 ; Introd. Ixiii 

spiritalis 5, 7 ; 19, 8 

spiritus n, 14, 16; 18, 8; 20, 13; 

22, 6; 23, i, 12 ; 27, 5; 88, 16 ; 

89, 4; c. xxix passim 
splendidus 9, 8 
splendor 9, 8 ; 63, 3 
spolio 79, i ; 102, 4 
spondeo 24, 20; 64, 3 
sponsa 107, 21 ; Introd. lii 
sponsus 43, 10; 44, 4 
statera 10, 8 
statuo 1 06, i 
status 14, n, 21 ; 16, 16; 35, i; 

94, 3 

stellatus 26, 15 

stola 79, 12 

strictim in, n 

subdo 64, 10, 16; 73, 11; 99, 22; 

103, 2, 6; 123, 5 
subiaceo 26, 12 
subicio 26, 5; 73, 12; 81, 19; 83, 

13; 96, 16; 122, i ff.; 123, 4 
sublimis 9, 6 
sublimitas 2, i ; 9, 6 
subnecto 102, 22; 103, 8 
suboles 24, 27 
subsequor 21, 13 

substantia 3, 14; 17, n; 22, 14; 
23, ii ; 32, 16; 33, 9; 34 passim-, 
35, 4; 43, 8; 57, 24; 70, 8; 78, 
16; 79, 16; 80, i ; 82, 2; 87, 2, 
15; 88, 14; 91, 3; 92, ii ; 116, 
6n. ; 1 18, 7; 122,9; Introd. xlvii, 

substerno 83, 14; 122, 5 

subtraho 70, i; 78, 2; 85, 9 

subuerto 66, 8 

succendo 99, 4 

succurro 83, 20 

sufficio 40, 25 

suffragium 32, n 

suggero 1 08, 2 

summus 15, 8, 9; -um, 43, 13 

superexalto 80, 10 

superior 72, 7; 83, 22 

supero 78, 7; 88, 10; 105, 9 

superstruo 71, 23 

supersum 61, n 

superuacuus 104, 18 

Sur 63, 21 

susceptor 80, i 

suscipio 32, 16; 37, 2; 49, 21; 
78, 18; 79, 17; 82, 14; 90, 13 

suscito 1 20, 2 

suspicio 24, 4 

synagoga 74, n 

tabernaculum 20, 5; 65, 10 

tacitus 8, 5; 21, 4 

temere 99, 4 

temeritas 34, 12; 39, i; 41, 17; 

99> 2 7 

temperamentum 20, in.; 85, 11 
temperate 75, 10 
tempero 4, 9; no, i 
tempus 7, u 
teneo 31, 2; 35, 12; 36, 8; 49, i ; 

54, 12; 59, 17; 92, 2; 101, 8; 

112, 8; 113, 25 
terrenus 27, 3; 73, n; 86, 2 
testamentum 23, 16, 18; 28, 9, 10; 

31, 8; 59, 16; 60 passim; 65, 7; 

96, 8; in, 15 
testificor 48, 12; 95, 10 
testimonium 32, 12; 52, 25 ; .55, 

15; 99' 2 95 IIJ 3> i'3 
Thomas 44, 18 

thronus 5, 8; 42, 13 
tonus 1 1 6, 5 
tormentum 107, 19 
tractatus 76, 2 


traditio 112, i 

trado 35, 14; 56, 12; 84, 7 ; 96, 12; 

121, 15; 122, 8 
transduce 89, 2 
transuersus 72, 16 
triumpho 78, 12 
tumidus n, 13 
tunica 79, 9 
turris 60, 20; 61, 2 
tutor 107, 14 

uacillo 60, 7 

uado 48, 13 

uae 57, 21 

ualeo 91, 17; 93, 10 

uena 108, n 

ueneratio 114, 17 

uerbum 13, i ; 77, 

81, 2; 82, 13; 88, 

1 20, 14; Introd. li; v. 'caro' 
ueritas 33, 6; 60, 10; 64, 14; 70, 

8; 73,8; 76, 5; 84, 5,8; 91, 5; 

98, 18; 100, 4; 1 10, 7; in, 9; 

112, i, 7 
uicarius 16, 16 
uicinus 118, 4 
uicissitudo 11, 20 
uigeo 27, 3 n. ; v. Introd. xv, 

xix n. 5 ; Virg. A. iv 175 
uindex 13, 12 
uindico 67, 8; 87, 5 
uirginitas in, 8 
uirgo in, 4 

18; 79, 19; 
16; 118, 8; 

uirilis 9, 9 

uirtus 5, 7; 7, 18; 8, 8, 12; 9, 9, 
15; J 4 15; 36, n ; 37, 4; 42, 
13; 107, 23 (pl.)\ 109, 13; 1 1 6, 
2,7; 1 20, 4 ; Introd. xlvii 

uis 17,5, 9; 18, ii ; 71, 21 ; 122, 8 

uiscera 116, 6 

uisibilis 24, 2; 42, 13; 65, 20 

uisio 70, 19 

uisitatio 65, 7 

uisito 60, 3; 66, 24 

uitio 17, 5 

uitiosus 1 8, 9 

uitium 17, 12, 18; 18, 12 

uiuifico 6, 13 

umbra 28, n (pi.} 

ungo 69, 5 

unigenitus 42, 7; 120, 10 

unitas 97, 10; 98, 5 

uolo 41, 2; 61, 2; 87, ii ; 116,4; 
118, 6 

uoluntarius 34, 1 1 

uoluntas 3, 18; 20, 18; 64, 17; 81, 
19; 119, i; 120, 18 

uotum 69 passim 

usura 27, 6 

utilitas 2, 10 

utiliter 2, 12 

utique 4, 6; 16, 14; 48, i; 51, 14; 
59, 22; 62, 6; 66, 12; 67, 9; 

7 r 17 5 74, 2 5 78, 13; 83, 4; 
92, 20; 99, 21 ; 119, 2 
uua 79, 1 6