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NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 
Vol. XXVII., 1920. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 



H Journal of Zooloo\> 

IN CONNECTION WITH THE THING MUSEUM. 



EDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dr. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXVIL, 1920. 



(WITH SEVENTEEN PLATES.) 




Issued at the Zoological Museum, Trino. 



PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON k VINEY, Ld., LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 

1920. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVII. (1920). 



MAMMALIA 

PAGES 

1. A new Fat-tailed Gerbil (Pachyuromys) from Western Algeria. Oldfield 

Thomas . . 313—314 

2. Captain Angus Buchanan's Ah- Expedition. — 1. On a series of small 

Mammals from Kano. Oldfield Thomas and Mabtin A. C. Hinton . 315 — 320 

3. A note on Typo-locality and Geographical Races of the Gundi {('hnudactylus 

gundi Rothm.). Oldfield Thomas ...... 506 — 507 



AVES 

1. The Birds of the Commander Islands. Ernst Haktert . 128 158 

1. The Birds of Buckinghamshire and the Tring'Reservoirs (Plates XII. — XIII. ). 

Ernst Hartert and Francis C. R. Jourdain .... 171 — 259 

3. The new Names in J. Hermann's Tabula Affinitatum Animalium. Erwin 

Stresemann ....... 327 332 

4. Types of Birds in the Tring Museum. Ernst Hartert .... 425 — 505 

COLEOPTERA 
1. Some African Anthribidae. Karl Jordan ...... 260 264 

LEPIDOPTERA 

1. Supplemental notes to Mr. Charles Oberthiir's Fauno des Lepidopteres de la 

Barbarie, with lists of the specimens in the Tring Museum (Plates XIV. — 

XVII.). Lord Rothschild ........ 1 127 

2. Notes on and Descriptions of Sphingidae (Illustrated). Karl Jordan . 159 — 162 

3. The Status of Plalysphinx bourkei Trimen (1910). Karl Jordan . . 163 — 166 

4. Some new African Sphingidae (Illustrated). Karl Jordan . . . 167 — 170 

5. New Geometridae. Loots B. Prout ....... 265 — 312 



PAOES 

6. On the Genus Elachyophtkalma Feld. Lord Rothschild . 321 — 326 

7. Sphingidae of Para (Plates I. — XI.). A. Miles Moss . . 333 — 424 

8. Supplementary notes on Dioplidac. Louis B. Protjt .... 508 — 509 

9. On some African Sphingidae. Kari, Jordan ..... 510 — 512 



INDEX 



513 — 544 



LIST OF PLATES IN VOLUME XXVII. 

I. — X. Caterpillars and Pupae of Sphingidae from Para. From drawings by A. Miles 
Moss. 

XI. Map of District of Para. By A. Miles Moss. 

XII. Photograph of Grasshopper Warbler. By O. G. Pike. 

XIII. Black-necked Grebe. By O. G. Pike. 

XIV.— XVII. Lepidoptera from Algeria. By H. and E. S. Knight. 



NOYITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



»a 



H Journal of Zooloo\>- 



EDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, E.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dr. ERNST HARTERT. and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXVII. 



No. 1. 

Pages 1—332. 
Plates XII., XIII. 

Issued June 15th, 1920, at the Zoological Museum, Trijjg. 



PRINTED BY HAZEIX, WATSON k VINEY, Ld., LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 

1920. 



Vol. XXVII. 

NOVITATES Z00L0GICAE. 

EDITED EV 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAN 



CONTENTS OF NO. I. 

1. SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES TO MR. CHARLES 

OBERTHUR'S FAUNE DES LEPIDOP- 
TERES DE LA BARB ABIE, WITH LISTS OF 
THE SPECIMENS IN THE TRING MUSEUM 
(Pis. XIV.— XVII.).*— PART II. . . . Lord Rothschild . 

2. THE BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS Ernst Hartert . 

3. NOTES ON AND DESCRIPTIONS OF SPHIN- 

GIDAE (Illustrated) Karl Jordan 

4. THE STATUS OF PLATYSPHIXX BOURKEI 

TRIMEN (1910) Karl Jordan . 

5. SOME NEW AFRICAN SPHINGIDAE (Illus- 

trated) Karl Jordan 

6. THE BIRDS OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE AND 

THE TRING RESERVOIRS (Pis. XII., XIII.) Ernst Hartert and 

Francis C. R. Jour- 
dain 

7. SOME AFRICAN ANTHRIBIDAE . . . Karl Jordan . 

8. NEW GEOMETRIDAE Louis B. Prmtt . 

9. A NEW FAT-TAILED GERBIL (PACHY- 

VROMYS) FROM WESTERN ALGERIA . Oldfield Thomas 

10. CAPTAIN ANGUS BUCHANAN'S AlR EX- 

PEDITION.— I. ON A SERIES OF SMALL 

MAMMALS FROM KANO .... Oldfield Thomas and 

Martin A. C. Hinton 

11. ON THE GENUS ELACHYOPHTHALMA 

FELD Lord Rothschild 

12. THE NEW NAMES IN J. HERMANN'S TABULA 

AFF1MTATUM ANIMALWM . . Erwin Slresemann . 



1- 


-127 


128- 


-158 


159- 


-162 


163—166 


167- 


-170 



i ii- 


-Z09 


260- 


-264 


265—312 


313- 


-314 



315—320 
321—326 
327—332 



* Plates XIV.— XVII. will be issued with the next part. 






NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 



Vol. XXVH. JUNE 1920. No. I. 

SUPPLEMENTAL NOTES TO MR. CHARLES OBERTHUR'S 
FAUNE DES LEPIDOPTERES BE LA BARBARIE, WITH 
LISTS OF THE SPECIMENS IN THE TRING MUSEUM. 

{Continued from Vol. XXIV. p. 409 (1917).) 

By Lord Rothschild, F.R.S., Ph.D. 
(Plates XIV— XVII.) 

THE long-expected volume of Mr. Oberthiir's Etudes de Lepidopterologie 
Comparee, containing the Noctuidae of Algeria, has at last appeared. The 
date on the wrapper is Octobre 1918, but the volume was only, received in 
March 1919, so the date of publication for the new names published therein 
must be taken as 1919. 

It calls for various remarks. Mr. Oberthiir has adopted Guenee's system 
of classification of the Noctuidae. Now, although the aim of Science is to establish 
uniformity of nomenclature and a single classificatory system, it is impossible 
to forbid the use of any system ; we can only regret, therefore, that such a 
renowned entomologist as Mr. Oberthiir adopts systems and methods abandoned 
by the majority of modern workers in Entomology. But while we can only 
regret this retrograde policy of Mr. Oberthiir, we can and must strongly deprecate 
the reasons he has and gives for not adopting Sir George Hampson's classification. 
Whatever other objections Mr. Oberthiir may have to the British Museum classifica- 
tion, he lays stress on one only, namely he harps upon the rather unfortunate 
error made by Sir George Hampson in placing Phragmatobia breveti berth, in 
the genus Maenas. This error has long ago been acknowledged by its author. 
Mr. Oberthiir makes great capital out of the aquatic habits of certain American 
species of Maenas as opposed to the desert habitat of bzeveti, quite ignoring the 
fact that the genus Maenas contains many African and Indo-Malayan species as 
well as American, and these are, as far as we know, non-aquatic in their habits. 
Sir George Hampson was misled by the somewhat aberrant neuration of P. breveti, 
which is almost identical with that of Maenas ; moreover, breveti is not a Tricho- 
soma as Mr. Oberthiir asserts, but a true Phragmatobia, The abortive wings of 
the $ are not a generic character, but only specific, as can be seen in the case of 
Cymbalophora rivularis Men., which has a 9 with abortive wings, while Cymba- 
lophora pudica Esp. and C. oertzeni Led. have the $ full winged. The aquatic 
habits of the larva are also only of secondary importance, for in the genus 
Spilosoma (Diacrisia) we find Spilosoma (Diacrisia) metalhana with a free 
swimming aquatic larva, while sannio and amurensis, which are very closely allied, 

1 



2 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

have ordinary terrestrial larvae. We cannot condemn a whole system simply 
because its author made one rather striking error. 

I have adopted the British Museum classification because so far there does 
not appear to be a better one. 

According to this classification, the family Noctuidae is divided into fifteen 
subfamilies, viz. : 

Agrotinae ; Hadeninae ; Cuculliinae ; Zenobiinae (Acronyctinae) ; Era- 
striinae ; Phlogophorinae (Euteliinae) ; Odontoninae (Stictopterinae) ; Sarrothri- 
pinae ; W ' ester manniinae (Acontiinae) ; Catocalinae ; Diphterinae (Mominae) ; 
Phytometrinae ; Noctuituie ; Polypogoniiiae (Hypeninae) ; and Hyblaeinae , 
Of these fifteen subfamilies, two, namely, the Diphterinae and Hyblaeinae l 
have no representatives in Algeria, and three others, the Phologophorinae, 
Odontoninae, and Sarrothripinae, have only one representative each. 

Sir George Hanipson, who is a great stickler for classical correctness, in the 
case of names forming subfamily appellations in which the ending is in "ia,'' 
insists on the subfamily being formed with the ending " ianae," such as 
Cucullianaehom Cucullia. The International Rules, however, say the sub-family 
term is to be made by the addition of the ending " inae " to the word, and so I 
have made the families Cuculliinae, Zenobiinae, Erastriinae, and W estermanniinat 
end in " iinae " instead " ianae." 

I am taking the species, in the first place, in the order Mr. Oberthiir has 
placed them in, for the purpose of critical remarks where these may be necessary ; 
but at the end I am giving a full list of the species and genera in the order followed 
by the British Museum classification. I am giving a list of the Algerian, Tunisian, 
and Moroccan specimens in the British Museum as well as those at Tring. 

1. Bryophila petrea Guen. 

Bryophila petrea Guenee, Hint. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. v. Noct. vol. i. p. 25. No. 22 (1852) 
(Andalusia). 

Mr. Oberthiir records this species from Maafa and Lambessa ; we have 
received 35 from Guelt-ea-Stel, 1 from Batna, and 1 El Kantara. 

There are in the Tring Museum 18 (J <$, 17$$ from Guelt-es-Stel. This series 
shows considerable variation in the forewings, some being pale grey with hardly 
any markings, while others are of a deeper brighter grey with conspicuous black 
markings, and a few have such dark grey forewings that the black markings 
show up hardly darker than the ground colour. 

1 ^Environs de Batna, 1914 (A. Nelva) ; 1 cj El Kantara, August 1917 (V. 
Faroult). 

2. Bryophila aerumna Culot. 

Bryophila aerumna Culot, Xoct. et Gtom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. i. p. 131, pi. 22. f. 17 (1912) (Giryville). 

Monsieur Culot quotes this and a number of other new species as "Oberth." 
because he adopts the names suggested by Mr. Oberthiir in his letters to him ; 
while Mr. Oberthiir quotes them as "Culot (secundum Oberthiir)." Both these 
methods are wrong ; the correct way of quoting is Bryophila aerumna Culot ; 
but if it is thought desirable to mention Mr. Oberthur's connection with these 
species, it should be done as follows: Bryophila aerumna Culot (Oberth. in lilt.) 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 3 

There are at Tring 32 specimens of this species from Sidi-bel- Abbes, September 
1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Perregaux, September 
1915 (V. Faroult) ; AIn Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult). 

[Bryophila aeton Culot = Catamecia mauretanica Stdgr. 

Calamecia jordana var. mauretanica Staudinger and Rebel, Cat. Lepid. Pal. Faun, pt. i. p. 213. No 

2192i) (1901) (Biskra). 
Bryophila aeton Culot, Noct. el Gtom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. i. p. 132. pi. 22. f. 16 (1912) (El Outaya). 

Neither Mr. Oberthiir nor Mr. Culot have perceived that the type of aeton 
is only a heavily marked fine specimen of Catamecia mauretanica Stdgr.] 

3. Bryophila divisa oxybiensis Mill. 

Bryophila oxybiensis Milliere, Rev. Zool. 1874, p. 242 (Cannes). 

Catamecia bryophiloides Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 330. No. 194 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The name divisa has one year's priority over that of pomula ; Esper being 
1791, while Borkhausen is 1792. Pere Engramelle, it is true, is older, but he has 
" La Pomule " not pomula, so the date of pomula is that of Borkhausen, who 
latinised Pere Engramelle's name. 

In 1913 (Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 125, No. 52) I unfortunately identified 
some unicolorous grey specimens of this insect from the Oued Nca as Bryophila 
pineti Stdgr., which I then only knew from a drawing. I have now discovered this 
error, and I name these unicolorous specimens ab. unicolor ab. nov. The form of 
divisa oxybiensis most similar in coloration to typical divisa must bear the name 
ab. rufilincta Rothsch. (Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 125 (1913)), and the form with 
the basal two-thirds of the forewing below median fold black is ab. distincta 
Rothsch., and, lastly, the very dark form ab. saturatior Rothsch., both described 
on p. 125. 

We have at Tring 1 Hammam R'hira June 1916, 1 Alger January 1914 
(V. Faroult) ; 27 c?c?, 21 $$ Oued Kca, June 1912 (E. H. and C. H.) ; 5 <?<?, 2 $$ 
Guelt-es-Stel, August - September 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 4 <?£, 2 $$ Ain Sefra, 
June— July 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 4 S3, 1 $ Les Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 
1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, July 1916 (M. Rotrou); 1 $, 1 $ Sebdou, July 1918 (P. 
Rotrou) ; 1 cJ Glacieres de Blida, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.). Of the Ain 
Sefra specimens 1 is ab. r u fit i acta and 1 the form of oxybiensis described by 
Staudinger as ab. striata, as is the Blida <J. 

In Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. I described 3 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel as 
Catamecia bryophiloides. These 3 (1 <J, 2 $$) are smaller than the 4 other Guelt- 
es-Stel specimens, the wings are narrower, they are of a brown-grey colour, and 
have almost obsolete markings. Both Sir George Hampson and Dr. Jordan, who 
have re-examined these specimens, consider they are only an extreme aberration 
of d. oxybiensis, with which I must agree. Therefore bryophiloides sinks as a 
synonym of divisa oxybiensis. The Tring series thus totals 70 specimens. 

4. Bryophila simulatricula Guen. 

Bryophila simulatricula Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gin. Lepid. vol. v. Noct. vol. i. p. 2fi. No. 24 
(1852) (Florence). 

There has been considerable difference of opinion concerning the status of 
this insect. When Sir George Hampson wrote vol. vii. of his catalogue, he 



i Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

considered it the same as palliola Borkh. = fraudatricula Hiibn., and Mr. 
Oberthiir appears to be of the same opinion. Sir George has, however, now come 
round to the opinion that it is a distinct species owing to the breeding of simu- 
latricula and palliola from the egg by Herr Piingler and some of his friends. 

I do not agree at all with Mr. Oberthiir. nor does Sir George Hampson, that my 
albomaculata = albimacula Oberth. has anything to do with true simulatricula, 
of which I have four specimens from Guelt-es-Stel and Ain Sefra agreeing very well 
with European specimens. 

2 ?? Guelt-es-Stel June-July 1913, 1 3, 1 $ Ain Sefra June 1915 (V. 
Faroult) ; in the Tring Museum. 

5. Bryophila albomaculata albomaculata Rothsch. 

Bryophila albomaculata Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 333. No. 178 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 
Bryophila simulatricula albimacula Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 9. pi. xd. f. 4033 (1919) 
(Batna). 

There are two distinct races of this insect in Algeria, the typical form from 
East and Central Algeria, which is paler grey more or less washed with yellow, 
and a darker grey race with no yellow wash from West Algeria. 

There are at Tring of the typical form : 1 £, 5 $$ Guelt-es-Stel, September 
1913 (V. Faroult) ; 3 ?? Batna (Nelya coll.) ; 2 $$ Metlili, S. of Laghouat, 
September 1917 (V. Faroult). 

6. Bryophila albomaculata grisescens subsp. nov. 

Differs from a. albomaculata in the darker grey of the forewings with no trace 
of yellow wash. The reniform stigma is generally white, but not always. 

6 <J<J, 5 ?$ Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 <J, 3 $$ Les Pins, 
September 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

7. Bryophila algae (Fabr.). 
Noctua algae Fabricius, Syst. Entom. p. 614. No. 103 (1775) (Germany). 

It is rather strange that I have received so few specimens of this species, which 
is very abundant in Algeria. 

1 (J, 1 ? Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 <J, 1 ? Environs de 
Batna, 1911-1912 (Nelva coll.) ; 1 ^ Les Pins, August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 <J 
Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult); 4 <$<S, 2 $? Rabat, Morocco (A. 
Thery) ; 1 $ El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

8. Bryophila galathea Mill. 

Bryophila galathea Milliere, Rev. Zool. 1874. p. 241 (Cannes). 

This species appears to be very rare in Algeria, as I have only a single example. 
1 ? Ain Sefra, May 9, 1913 (W. R. and E. H.). 

9. Bryophila bilineata Rothsch. 

Bryophila bilineata Rothschild, Novil. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 333. No. 179 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 
Bryophila rosinans Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 10. pi. xd. Nos. 4034-4037 (1919) 
(Gervville). 

This species = rosinans Oberth. and has five years' priority. It is quite 
distinct from ravula Hiibn. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 5 

There are at Tring 84 specimens, Guelt-es-Stel, August— September 1913 
(V. Faroult). 

10. Bryophila ravula (Hiibn.). 

Noctua ravula Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. Noel, f. 461 (1818) (Europe). 

There are 84 specimens of this species at Tring from A'in Draham, August — 
September 1911 (V. Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou); 
Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. 
Rotrou) ; Perregaux, September 1915 (V. Faroult) ; north side of Djebel Zaccar, 
August 1910 ( V. Faroult) ; Environs de Taourirt, Morocco, July 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

11. Bryophila anaemica Hmpsn. 

Bryophila anaemica Hampson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hisl. (8) xiii. p. 156. No. 3527« (1914) (Batna). 

This species was described from a very worn specimen ; it is quite probable 
that it is an extreme aberration of albomaciilata albomaculala, but as my <J is 
quite fresh and is very different from that species, I keep it separate. 

1 $ Batna (Nelva coll.). 

1 cJ type Batna, August 1910 (A. E. Eaton coll.) in British Museum. 

12. Bryophila receptricula pallida B. Baker. 

Bryophila pallida Bethune Baker, Trans. Enlom. Soc. Lond. 1894. p. 37. pi. 1. f. 4 (Alexandria). 

The Algerian specimens, though very variable, are all referable to the form 
pallida. 

There are 108 specimens at Tring : 49 Sidi-bel-Abbes, September - October 
1917 (M. Rotrou); 3 Les Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou); 3 Sebdou, 
September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 Messer, Prov. Oran, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
1 Perregaux, September 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 13 Foret de Tenira, September 1918 
(P. Rotrou); 2 Environs de Batna, 1911-1912 (Nelva coll.); 7 Ain Draham, 
September 1911 (V. Faroult); Rabat, Morocco, July— August 1913 (A. Thery) ; 
Messen, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 2 El Mahouna, July— September 1919 
(V. Faroult). 

13. Bryophila antias Culot. 

Bryophila antias Culot, Noel, el Giom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. i. p. 134. pi. 22. f. 13 (1912) (Sud Oranais). 

3 $$ are at Tring: Sebdou, September 1918 (M. Rotrou); Guelt-es-Stel, 
August 1913 (V. Faroult). 

14. Bryophila pseudoperla Rothsch. 

Bryophila pseudoperla Rothschild, Novit. Zonl. vol. xxi. p. 334. No. 180 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The $ type remained unique till 1919. 

1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, 4 J J, 1 $ Metlili, S. of Laghouat, September 1917 
(V. Faroult). 

15. Bryophila muralis (Forst.). 

Pkalaena muralis Forster, Nor. Spec. Ins. p. 74 (1771) (England). 

Both muralis and the form par accur in Algeria as well as extreme forms 
like par, but with no vestige of green tint. 



6 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Of the form muralis there are at Tring 16 specimens from Tunis ; Am Draham, 
August 1911, north side of Pjebel Zaccar, August 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Environs 
de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July -.September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Les 
Pins, August 1918 (M. Rotrou); Sebdou, July -September 1918 (P. Rotrou); 
Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). Of the form par and extremes, 
there are at Tring 8 specimens from Hussein Bey, May (Captain Holl) ; Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, August -September 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou). 

16. Oederemia precisa (Warr). 

Metachrostis precisa Warren in Seitz Grossschm. Erde, vol. iii. p. 23 (1909) (Mazagan). 

Jugurthia sabnonea Culot, Noel, et Geom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. i. p. 124. pi. 22. f. 12. (1912) (Zebch. nr. 

Sebdou). 
Catamec.ia subperla Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 336. No. 195 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The genus Jugurthia was founded by Monsieur Culot (Noct. et Geom. d'Eur. 
p. 124) to receive the 3 species microglossa, salmonea = qrrecisa, and subplum- 
beola, and consists of the mixture of the two genera of Sir George Hampson 
Oederemia {Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus. vol. vii. p. 405) type lithopasta Hmpsn. and 
Oedibrya founded on cinnomomina Rothsch. = subplumbeola Culot. As Oederemia 
antedates Jugurthia by four years, M. Culot's genus becomes a synonym. Mr. 
Warren's specific name precisa antedates salmonea by three years, and therefore 
both Mr. Culot's name and my subperla also become synonyms. 

There are at Tring, including the types of precisa and subperla, 347 specimens 
from Mazagan, Morocco, September— October 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Lalla 
Marnia, Oran, September— October 1914 (V. Faroult); Sebdou, September 1918 
(P. Rotrou); Merchich, Oran, September 1918 (P. Rotrou); Perregaux, October 

1915 (V. Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, September— October 1917 (M. Rotrou); 
Guelt-es-Stel, August— October 1913 (V. Faroult). 

This insect is extremely variable in ground-colour, varying from brown-grey 
to cinnamon-orange. 

1 <J, 1 9 in the British Museum (Guelt-es-Stel, received from Tring Museum). 

17. Oedibrya subplumbeola (Culot). 

Jugurthia subplumbeola Culot, Noct. et Gtom. d'Eur. p. 125. pi. 22. f. 14 (1912) (Geryville). 
Catamecia cinnamomina Rothschild, Xovit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 336 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

When I wrote my paper on the Guelt-es-Stel lepidoptera I had not got 
Mr. Culot's book, which accounts for my redescribing this insect. It is tolerably 
widely spread in Algeria, though nowhere very common. 

We have at Tring 29 specimens, including the types of cinnamomina and 
the aberrations suffusa, griseola, and fasciata, tl.e latter = ab. precisa Culot, from 
Guelt-es-Stel, September 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi Ferruch (A. Thery) ; 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, September 1918 (P. 
Rotrou) ; Les Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Aflou, September— October 

1916 (V. Faroult) ; Lambessa, 1914 (Nelva coll.). 

18. Pseudamathes volloni (D. Lucas). 

Amathes volloni Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1907. p. 342 (Kebili). 

This species was described from South Tunisia, and placed originally by 
Sir George Hampson in the genus Amathes. There are two specimens in the 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 7 

British Museum, and on more careful examination they prove to belong to a new 
genus Pseudamathes, which comes next to Pseudohadena in the Zenobiinae. It 
appears to be rare in Algeria, as I have only received a single cj from Aflou, 
October 10th, 1916 (Victor Faroult). 

19. Craniophora pontica (Stdgr.). 

Acronycta pontica Staudinger, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross. vol. xiv. p. 364 (1879) (KerasdereV 

This insect is fairly abundant in Algeria. We have at Tring 58 specimens 
from Sebdou, May— June 1918 (P. P.otrou) ; Hammam R'hira, May— June 1916- 

1917 (V. Faroult) ; Sakamodi, August 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine, 
April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Batna, July 1912 (Nelva coll.) ; Am Draham 
August — September 1911, north side of Ljebel Zaccar August 191G, Environs 
deSetif 1911 (Victor Faroult). 

Monsieur Oberthur says that his specimens from Sebdou are suffused with 
pink ; the few I have from there have no pink shade and are very dark. 

20. Acronycta tridens (Schiff. & Den.). 

Noct'ia tridens Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Work. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 67 (1775) (Vienna), 
We have at Tring 11 JcJ, 15 $$ from Ain Draham, July —September 1911 
(Victor Faroult) ; Bou Saada, March— May 1912 (V. Faroult); Batna (Nelva 
coll.) ; Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April 1914 
(W. II. and K. J.) ; 2 Jd Hammam R'hira, May 1917 (V. Faroult). 

21. Acronycta psi (Linn.). 

Phalaena psi Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 514 (1758). 

This species is not recorded from Algeria by Mr. Oberthur nor Mr. Culot. 
It was bred on cherry trees by Mr. M. Rotrou. 

We have 6 cjcS, 5 $$ (1 cripple) from SidiJoel-Abbes, Messer, and Ain Fezza, 
May— September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

22. Acronycta rumicis pallida subsp. nov. 

Differs from r. rumicis in being distinctly paler, but not so pale as rumicis 
ttiranica Stdgr. M. Oberthur has noticed the paler coloration, but did not give 
the Mauretanian form a name. 

We have at Tring 126 specimens from SidiJjel-Abbes, May — October 1917- 

1918 (M. Rotrou); Hammam R'hira, May— August 1916 (Victor Faroult); 
Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult); Batna, July 1912 (Nelva coll.); Ain 
Draham, July— September 1911 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum 1 $, Tangier, Juty 1902, Lord Walsingham. 

23. Copicucullia oberthuri (Culot). 
Simyra oberthuri Culot, Noct. et Giom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. i. p. 26. pi. 3. f. 1 (1909) (Aflou). 

Both Mr. Oberthur and Mr. Culot have placed this insect in the genus Simyra, 
with which it has nothing to do. It certainly has a slight resemblance to Simyra 



8 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1P20, 

dentinosa Frr., but it is a true Cucullid, and in spite of its pectinated antennae 
belongs with cyrtana Mab. to the genus Copicvcvllia. 

We have at Tring 181 specimens of this insect from Guelt-es-Stel October 
1912- November 1913, Hassi Baba November 1917 (Victor Faroult). There are 
3 (JcJ (Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912) in the British Museum ex Tring Museum. 

24. Lycophotia mansoura (Chret.). 

Agroti-j mansoura Chretien, Ann. Soc. Enlom. France, vol. 79. p. 498 (1910) (Gaisa). 

I have this species from Guelt-es-Stel in some numbers. The general run oi 
the specimens appear to have less sharply defined markings than is stated in Mr. 
Chretien's description. This insect is placed by Mr. Oberthiir in the genus 
Simyra, but it has not the remotest relationship with that genus : it is a true 
Agrotid, and together with the following species belongs to the genus Lycophotia 
of the subfamily Agrotinae, while Simyra is a genus of the Zenobiinae (Acronyctinae). 

There are at Tring 149 specimens from Guelt-es-Stcl, October 1912 
(V. Faroult). 

25. Lycophotia agrotina (Rothsch.). 

Actinotia agrotina Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 31G. No. CI (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

This species differs from mansoura in its much broader wings and more 
accentuated marking ; it is figured in vol. xxvi. pi. i. 

There are at Tring, including the type, 23 cJcJ, 3 ?$ from Guelt-es-Stel, October 
1912 (V. Faroult). 

26. Simyra autumna Chret. 

Simyra autumna Chretien, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. 79. p. 497 (1910) (Gafsa). 

This appears to be the only true Simyra occurring in Mauretania ; it is nearest 
to dentinosa Frr. 

I have not received this species, nor have I ever seen a specimen. 

Mr. Oberthiir mentions it after Sesamia crelica, having evidently added it 
as an afterthought. 

27. Argyrospila musculosa (Hiibn.). 

2\oetua musculosa Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. Noel. f. 363 (1808). 

I recorded vol. xxi. p. 337, No. 198, Oria myodea Ramb. The specimen was 
very greasy and turns out to be a very heavily marked musculosa. 

We have at Tring 396 Mauretanian specimens from Environs d'Alger, May 
1908, etc. (W. R. and K. J., Dr. Nissen and Captain Holl) ; Batna (Nelva coll.) ; 
Tunis; Guelt-es-Stel, May— June 1913 (V. Faroult); Hammam Meskoutine, 
May 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Khenchela, June 1911 (V. Faroult) ; El Kantara, 
June 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1917 (M. Botrou) ; Zmila, Prov. 
Oran, June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira. 
May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines May 1914, Lalla Marnia May 1914 (V. 
Faroult); Hammam R'hira, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.); Hammam R'hira, 
May 1916 (V. Faroult) ; El Mesrane, June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; El Hamel, May 
1912 (V. Faroult); Bou Saada and Djebel Kerdada, May 1912 (V. Faroult); 



Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 9 

Terres Blanches, May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Foret de Djelfa, June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
El Mahouna, June— July 1919 (V. Faroult). 

28. Sideridis lithargyria argyritis (Ramb.). 

Leucania argyritis Rambur, Cat. Syst. Lipid. Andal. pi. 8. f. 2 (185S) (Andalusia). 

Mr. Oberthiir considers this insect a distinct species from lithargyria, but it is 
the general consensus of opinion that it is the Mediterranean subspecies of that 
species. 

The Tring Museum possesses 77 specimens from Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 
1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou September 1918, and Foret de Tenira August 
1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Environs de Sctif, 1911 (V. Faroult) ; A'in Draham, August- 
September 1911 (V. Faroult). 

29. Sideridis albipuncta (Schiff. & Den.). 

Noctua albipuncta Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 84 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

Not so abundant as vitellina, but very plentiful in certain localities. 

The Tring series from Mauritania, consists of 160 specimens from Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, September— October 1917 (M. Rotrou); Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
Foret de Tenira, June— July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Les Pins, July 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Environs de Setif and Oued Hamidou, June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 

1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Blida, March 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, 
April— August 1912-1916 (W. R., E. H. and K. J., and V. Faroult) ; Masser Mines 
June 1914, north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916 (V. Faroult) ; El Mahouna, 
June— September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

30. Cirphis sicula (Treit.). 

Leucania sicula Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. x. pt. 2. p. 90 (1835) (Sicily). 

This species varies considerably in the amount of black along the median 
vein and fold, and also in the size and distinctness of the black and white dis- 
cocellular stigma. 

We have at Tring 143 Mauretanian specimens from Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
September 1917 (M. Rotrou); Sebdou and Foret de Tenira, September 
—October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines, June 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Mazagan, 
Morocco, March 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— October 1912- 

1913 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1908-1916 (V. Faroult, and W. R. 
and K. J.) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April— May 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Batna, May 1915 (Nelva coll.) ; Biskra, April 1908 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs 
d'Alger, May 1908 (W. R. and K. J., and Captain Holl) ; Souk Ahras, April 1914 
(W. R. and K. J.) ; Ai'n Braham August— September 1911, north side of Djebel 
Zaccar August 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Belvedere, Tunis, August —September 1915 
(M. Blanc) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faioult). 

The extreme form with heavy black colouring along median vein and fold 
is very similar to the insect described by Bellier de la Chavignerie (Ann. Soc. 
Entom. France, ser. 4, vol. iii. p. 42, pi. ix. f. 5 (1863)) as Leucania hispanica, 
which Sir George Hampson has placed as a synonym of Cirphis prominent; (Walk.). 
Mr. Oberthiir treats the dark Algerian sicula as hispanica, but I have not yet seen 
a true hispanica from Algeria. 



10 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

[Cirphis fuscilinea (Grasl.). 

Leucania fuscilinea Graslin, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. 2. vol. 10. p. 41 1. pi. 8. i. f. 2 (1852) (France). 
I cannot agree with Mr. Oberthur and Sir George Hampson that this is a 
synonym of sicula. The strongly marked post-median curved line of black spots 
is not present in a single one of my 120 Algerian, etc. sicula, nor in 12 European 
ones I have ; and my solitary Central Italian fuscilinea stands out most plainly 
from all the 132 in this character.] 

31. Leucania languida Stdgr. 

Leucania languida Staudinger, Iris, vol. x. p. 284. pi. ix. f. 16 (1897) (Jordan Valley). 

Mr. Oberthur records a single specimen from Biskra. I have never had 
one from Mauretania. 

32. Cirphis algirica (Oberth.). 

Leucania algirica Oberthur, Etud. Lepid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 19. pl.xd. ff. 4045, 4046(1919) (Batna). 

I have received 43 specimens of this species, 16 from Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 
—September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; and 2 from A'in Sefra July 1915, Hammam 
R'hira June 1917 (V. Faronlt) ; Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

33. Cirphis punctosa (Treit.). 

Siinyra punctosa Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. 2. p. 287 (1825) (S. France). 

We have at Tring 250 Mauretanian specimens, 181 Guelt-es-StoI, August — 
October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; and 53 from Sebdou and Foret de Tenira, 
September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Les 
Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou); Perregaux October 1915, Aflou October 
1916 (V. Faroult) ; Batna, 1913-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; El Mahouna, September 
1919 (V. Faroult). 

34. Cirphis putrescens (Geyer). 

Noctua putrescens Geyer in Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Xoct. ff. 730-731 (1827). 

We have 392 specimens at Tring from Guelt-es-Stel, August — September 
1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou and Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Aflou October 1916, Perregaux 
October 1915, Metlili, S. of Laghouat, September 1917 (V. Faroult). 

35. Cirphis loreyi (Dup.). 

Noclua loreyi Duponchel, Lepid. France, vol. vii. p. 81. pi. 105. I. 7 (1827) (France). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 116 specimens from Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, August — October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou and Foret de Tenira, June - 
July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Perregaux, October 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Aflou, October 
1916 (V. Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, September 1912— June 1913 (V. Faroult) ;. Le 
Kreiden (M. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines June 1914, Batna 1911-1912 (Nelva coll.) ; 
Tilghemt April 1912, El Kantara August 1917 (V. Faroult); El Golea, March 
1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Biskra, March 1908-1911 (W. R, and E. H., V. 
Faroult) ; Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Oued Hamidou June 1912, Ain 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 11 

Draham July 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Bou Saada, April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ham- 
mam R'hira, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs d'Alger (Captain Holl and 
Dr. Nissen) ; El Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum are 1 $ Central Plains, Morocco, June 1901, Meade 
Waldo ; 1 <J Biskra, December 1896, A. E. Eaton. 

36. Cirphis 1. album (Linn.). 

Phalaena I. al'mm Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. xii. p. 850 (1767) (Europe). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 130 specimens from Environs 
d'Alger, February -.May 1908 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Hammam R'hira, May 
1908 -June 1916 (W. R., E. H, and K. J., and V. Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April- 
October 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Laghouat, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Blida les 
Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.); Biskra, February —April 1908-1911 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs de Batna, April -August 1912-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; 
Lambessa, July 1912 (Nelva coll.) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Ain Draham, August —September 1911 (V. Faroult); Perregaux, October 1915 
(V. Faroult) ; Masser Mines, June 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Messer, September 1917 (M. 
Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, June — 
August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou); Aflou, October 1916 
(V. Faroult) ; Bou Saada, March— April 1911 (Victor Faroult). 

37. Cirphis congrua (Hiibn.). 

Noctwi congrua Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct. f. 616 (1827). 

This appears to be very rare in Algeria, as Mr. Oberthiir only received 1 and 
I have only 3 specimens. 

1 $ Hammam R'hira, August 28th, 1916 (V. Faroult); 1 ^ Hammam 
Meskoutine, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, October 1917 
(M. Rotrou). 

38. Sideridis vitellina (Hiibn.). 

Noctwi viteUina Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Sclvnett. Noct. ff. 379, 5->9 (1827). 

Both Warren's ab. pallida and my Borolia lacteicolor are the pale form of this 
insect. It is strange that this pale form is almost invariably smaller than the 
darker more strongly marked typical form. 

The series of Mauretanian examples at Tring consists of 319 specimens, 218 
typical vitellina and 101 ab. pallida Warr. from Environs d'Alger, May 1908 
(W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Blida les Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April 1914 
(W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam R'hira, May— June 1908-1913 (W. R., E. H., and 
K. J.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and V. Faroult) ; 
Batna, September 1910 — August-September 1912 (Nelva and V. Faroult); Bou 
Saada, April— May 1912 (V. Faroult); Oran, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.); 
Foret de Tenira, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Titen 
Yaya, May 1915 (M. Rotrou) ; Messer, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Am Draham, 
August— September 1911 (V. Faroult); Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult); 
El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 



12 NOTITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

39. Cirphis riparia (Ramb.). 

Leucania riparia Rambur, Ann. Soc. Obs. 1829. p. 261. pi. 6. f. 6. 

I have 8 Mauretanian examples of this species from Moroccan Frontier ; 15 
km. west of Lalla Marnia, May 1914 (V. Faroult) ; A'in Sefra, May 1915 (V. 
Faroult) ; Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

Not recorded by Mr. Oberthiir. 

40. Cirphis zeae (Dup.). 

Noctva zeae Duponchel, Lipid. France. T. vii. {Noel. vol. 4. pt. 1) p. 363. pi. 122. f. 4 (1827) (France). 

This species is not mentioned by Mr. Oberthiir. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 13 specimens from Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
August— October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; and 1 $ Foret de Tenira, August 1918 
(P. Rotrou). 

41. Cirphis unipuncta (Haw.). 

Noctva unipuncta Haworth, Lipid. Brit. p. 174 (1809) (Great Britain). 

This is also not mentioned by Mr. Oberthiir. 

1 (J Am Draham, August 1911 (V. Faroult); 1 ? Sidi-bel-Abbes, October 
1917 (M. Rotrou). 

42. Leucania obsoleta (Hiibn.). 

Noctua ohsolcta Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct. i. 233 (1827). 

Mr. Oberthiir has not recorded this species. 
1 $ Batna, July 1912 (Nelva coll.). 

43. Sesamia vuteria (Stoll). 

Phalaena vuteria Stoll, Suppl. Cram. Pap. Exot. p. 161. pi. 36. f. 5 (1783) (Cape Colony). 

Mr. Oberthiir records this species under Lefebre's name of nonagrioides, the 
date of which is 1827. I have received only females of vuteria. 

We have at Tring 10 $$ from Sidi-bel-Abbes, May— September 1917-1918 
(M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou and Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Blida, 
March 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Oued Hamidou, June 1912 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum are 1 (J, 1 $ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl and Leech coll. ; 
1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, March 1904, Lord Walsingham. 

44. Sesamia cretica Led. 

Sesamia cretica Leilerer, Noct. Europ. p. 225 (1857) (Crete). 

Mr. Oberthiir only records by name 2 species, but throws out a hint that 
Staudinger's var. et ab. striata is probably a distinct species ; my series not only 
shows this to be the case, but I have also a fourth species calamistis Hmpsn. I 
only have 8 typical cretica. 

1 <J, 2 ?$ Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 ? (dwarf) Perregaux, 
September 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 2 $$ Sebdou, July— September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
1 £ Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 13 

45. Sesamia striata Stdgr. 

Sesamia crelica var. et ab. striata Staudinger, Slett. Ento-n. Zeit. 188S. p. 27 (Fergana). 

1 have 2 $£, 3 $$, all of which are much paler than cretica, show no trace of 
pink ground-colour, and all have the dark median band from base to termen. 

2 (J(J, 3 $? from Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou and 
Foret de Tenira, June — July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Ain Draham, August — September 
1911 (V. Faroult). 

4(3. Sesamia calamistis Hmpsn. 

Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. ix. p. 325. No. 4754. pi. cxliv. f. 18 
(191U) (Grahanistown). 

This species, like vuteria, was first described from South Africa, and evidently 
like that species has a much larger range than we at first suspected. The 3 
specimens sent by Mr. Rotrou are quite typical. 

1 <J, 2 ?$ Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 



47. Argyrospila striata Stdgr. 

Argyrospila striata Staudinger, Iris, vol. x. p. 265. pi. I. f. 4 (1897) (CheUala). 

Two insects have been mixed up under this name by subsequent authors, 
viz. Timora albida Hmpsn. and the present species. This has been caused by 
both species having longitudinal white streaks on the forewings, and nobody 
having both species until we collected them. 

The Tring Museum series consists of 317 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel May 
1913, Puits Baba May 1913, Terres Blanches May 1913 (Victor Faroult); Ain 
Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Zuilla, June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, 
June 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

48. Timora albida Hmpsn. 

Timora albida Hampson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) xv. p. 450 (1905) (Algeria). 

This insect has been much confused with the previous one. 

The series at Tring consists of 81 specimens from Ain Sefra, May 1913-1915 
( W. R. and E. H. and V. Faroult) ; halfway between Ouargla and El Golea, March 
1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Guelt-es-Stel and Terres Blanches, May 1913 
(V. Faroult) ; Hassi Dinar, El Alia, Guerrara, El Arich, Hassi Sidi Mahmund, 
and Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

2 $$ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904 (Lord Walsingham), are in British 
Museum. 

49. Argyrospila dulcis Oberth. 

Argyrospila dulcis Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fosc. xvi. p. 23. pi. xdi. ff. 4052, 4053 (1919) 
(Geryville). 

I do not possess this species. 



] 4 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

50. Arenostola deserticola (Stdgr.). 

Calamia deserticola Staudinger, Iris, vol. xii. p. 371. pi. 5. f. 10 (1900) (Biskra). 

I have received a male and female of this species from Ain Sefra, June 1915 
(V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, 1914 (A. Nelva). 

The British Museum has 1 <$ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord 
Walsingham. 

51. Arenostola mabillei (D. Lucas). 

Tapinostola mahillei Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1907, p. 342 (Le Tarf). 
I have 1 $ Foret de Tenira, November 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

52. Oria fulva africana (Oberth.). 

Tapinostola fulva africana Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 26. pi. xdi. ff. 4048^050 
(1919) (Geryville, Aflou). 

The Tring series, all $$, consists of 9 specimens from Sidi-bel- Abbes, September 
—October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

53. Archanara neurica (Hiibn.). 

Noctua neurica Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. Xoct. f. 381 (1808). 
I have not received this from Mauretania. 

54. Archanara dissoluta (Hiibn.). 

Noctua dissoluta Hiibner, Europ. SchmetCNoct. ft. 659-661 (1818). 

I have 3 Algerian examples : 1 (J Hammam R'hira, May 1913 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; 1 ? Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 1 <J Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, July 1916 (M. Rotrou). The Hammam R'hira <J is quite black, as is the 
Sidi-bel-Abbes one. 

55. Archanara affinis sp. nov. 

This species is very close to neurica, but is darker, more blackish and can be 
at once distinguished by the 4 black points at the 4 corners of the reniform and 
the black points below the orbicular. This is possibly what Mr. Oberthiir calls 
neurica. 

1 (J Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

56. Stilbia anomala calberlae (Faill.). 

Caradrina calberlae Failla-Tedaldi, Nat. Sicil. vol. x. p. 29. pi. 1. f. 4 (1890) (Sicily). 
• 3 (JcJ, 1 ? El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

57. Stilbia algirica Culot. 

Stilbia algirica Culot, Nod. et Geom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 45. pi. 45. f. 18 (1914) (Geryville). 

We only received this very distinct species from Guelt-es-Stel and Aflou ; 
44 specimens Guelt-es-Stel October 1912, Aflou October 1916 (V. Faroult) are 
at Tring. 

1 <J, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel (ex Tring Museum) are in the British Museum. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 15 

58. Stilbia turatii D. Lucas. 

Stil'oia turatii Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1910, p. 272 (Le Tarf). 

I have never received this species. Up to March 1919 the only known 
specimens number 8, all $$, viz. 2 from Le Tarf hi coll. Daniel Lucas, and 4 Ain 
Draham, 1 Maafa and 1 Amasia, all in coll. Oberthiir. 

59. Stilbina numida (Oberth.). 

Hypeuthina numida Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. Fase. xiii. p. 27. pi. 6. f. 41 (1890) (.Magenta). 

We have principally received this species from Guelt-es-Stel. 

There are at Tring 110 S3, 18 $$ Guelt-es-Stel October 1912-1913, 2 $$, 
2 $0 Perregaux October 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, November 1917 
(M. Rotrou) ; 1 ? Batna (A. Nelva). 

In the British Museum are 3 <$<$ ex Tring Museum. 

60. Brithys pancratii (Cyr.). 

Noctua pancratii Cyrillo, Entom. Nap. pi. 12. f. 4 (1787) (Naples). 

The Tring series consists of 32 specimens from Environs d' Alger (Captain 
Holl and Dr. Nissen) ; Ain Draham, July 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Belvedere, Tunis, 
August— September 1915 (M. Blanc) ; Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult). 

61. Brithys encausta (Hubn.). 

Noctua encausta Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct. f. 392 (1827). 

1 have received 4 specimens of this species from Mauretania. 

2 S6, -' 9? Tunis. 

62. Spodoptera abyssinia Guen. 

Spodoptera abyssinia Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. v. Noct. vol. i. p. 154 (1852) 
(Abyssinia). 

Mr. Oberthiir has used Lederer"s name for this insect because Guenee remarks 
on the label of a specimen " not compared with type," and moreover put it in the 
genus Caradrina = recte Athelis, where it does not belong. Now because an 
author remarks he has not compared his specimens with his own type in another 
collection, it is no reason to say he doubted the identification, and we thus see 
into what nomenclatorial muddles those writers can bring us who strictly adhere 
to the shibboleth that a good figure alone makes a name valid. 

The Tring Museum has 29 Mauretanian examples from Biskra, March — 
April 1908-1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Mazagan, Morocco, October — December 
1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Rabat, Morocco, August 1913 (A. Thery). 

63. Athetis germaini (Dup.). 

BryophiUi germaini Duponchel, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. iv. p. 194. pi. 4a. f. 2 (1835) (Mont- 
pellier). 

Although Mr. Oberthiir says this is extremely common in Algeria, strange 
to say I only have received 2 specimens. 

1(J,1? Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912 and September 1913 (V. Faroult). 



16 Xovitates ZooLooroAE XXVII. 1920. 

64. Athetis aspersa (Ramb.). 

Caradrina aspersa Rambtir, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. iii. p. 385. pi. 8. f. 3 (1834) (.Marseilles). 
I have not received this insect. 

65. Athetis atriluna (Guen.). 

Caradrina atriluna Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gin. Lipid, vol. 5. Noct. vol. i. p. 252 (1852) 
(Abyssinia). 

This insect is not recorded by Mr. Oberthiir. 

The Tring series consists of 8 JcJ, 10 $$ from Mazagan August 1901 , Seksawa 
April 1905, Morocco (W. Riggenbach) ; Perregaux, September 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

66. Athetis alsines (Brahm). 

Noctua alsines Brahm, Ins. Kal. vol. ii. p. 114 (1791) (Mayence). 

This species also is not mentioned by Oberthiir. 

1 ? Am Draham September 1911, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel October 1913 (V. 
Faroult). 

67. Athetis blanda (Schiff. and Den.). 

Noctua blanda ScliirTermuller and Denis, Ank. Sysl. Werk. Schmelt. Wienergeg. p. 77 (1775) (Vienna). 

This is also not recorded by Mr. Oberthiir. Mr. Culot figures it on pi. 48, 
f. 4 of his Noctuelles et Geometres d' Europe, under the name of laraxaci Hiibn., 
which however dates from 1818 only. 

The Tring series consists of 14 <Jc?> 35 $$ Am Draham, August — September 
1911 (V. Faroult). 

68. Athetis casearia (Stdgr.). 

Caradrina casearia Staudinger, Iris, vol. xii. p. 375. pi. 5. f. 1 (1899) (Jordan Valley). 
I have not received typical casearia or the ab. bilineata Culot. 

69. Athetis pertinax inumbrata (Stdgr.). 

Agrotis inumbrata Staudinger, Iris, vol. xii. p. 363 (1899) (Zeitun). 

Victor Faroult sent me 2 <JrJ of this fine insect, hitherto only known from 
Asia Minor. 2 $$ Perregaux, October 1915 (V. Faroult). 

70. Lycophotia kermesina (Mab.). (PI. XVII. f. 19.) 

Noctva kermesina Mabille, Ann. Soc. Entom. France (4) 9. p. 55. pi. 2. fig. 10 (18G9) (Boscognagno, 
Corsica). 

Mr. Oberthiir has described Caradrina sua vis and Mr. Culot Caradrina 
flavida ; and Mr. Oberthiir suggests that these two insects may possibly be only 
colour varieties of kermesina Mabille. This is certainly the fact, and as kermesina 
is extremely variable, Mr. Oberthur's subspecific name of dclectans must also 
sink. 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 17 

The series at Tring consists of 92 specimens from Environs de Batna, 1913— 
1914 (Nelva coll.) ; Aflou, September 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, Sep- 
tember—November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). 

71. Athetis astigmata Rothsch. 

Athelis astigmata Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 336. No. 193 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

As I had not figured this species, Mr. Oberthiir as usual calmly ignored it, 
and redescribed it as devitifimbriata in his Fasc. XVI. p. 58 (1919). 

I have 1 (J, 2 $$ Gueltes-Stel, October— November 1913 (V. Faroult). 

72. Athetis ambigua (Schiff. and Den.). 

Noclua ambigua Schiffermiiller and Den. Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 77 (1775) (Vienna). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 197 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, 1909-1912 (Nelva coll.) ; Lambessa, 
October 1915 (Nelva coll.) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April — May 1914 (W. R., 
K. J., and E. H.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, May 
1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Perregaux, October 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912 
(W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam R"hira, May— June 1911-1915 (W. R., E. H., and 
Faroult) ; Oued Hamidou, June 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Bou Cedraia, May 1913 (V. 
Faroult) ; Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Imitaut and Mazagan, 
Morocco, May 1902-1904 (W. Riggenbach) ; Environs dAlger, May— September 
1908 (W. R., K. J., and Dr. Nissen) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

73. Athetis kadenii rufostigmata Rothsch. 

Athetis rufostigmata Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 335 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

Mr. Oberthiir says that the Algerian form is proximo, Rambur, but I consider 
it to be distinct, as it has the reniform stigma much darker, rufous not orange- 
yellow, and more strongly marked. 

I am convinced also that kadenii is a distinct species, not a form of fusci- 
cornis Ramb., as Sir George Hampson has stated it to be. 

We have at Tring 48 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, October 1913 (V. 
Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou); Saida, May 1913 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Perregaux, October 1915 and Masser Mines, June 1914 (V. 
Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, 1909-1912 (Nelva and V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, 
May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Oued Hamidou June 1912, and Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Les Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou) : Sebdou June, Foret deTenira September 
1918 (P. Rotrou). 

74. Athetis hispanica (Mab.). 

Caradrina hispanica Mabille, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. lxxv. p. 30. pi. 3. f. 1 (1906) (La Granja). 

Mr. Oberthiir places this as a local race of -selini Boisd., while Sir George 
Hampson considers it a distinct species. If Mr. Culot's figures of selini are 
correct, it is abundantly distinct. 

I have 9 specimens from Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Biskra, March 1914 (W. R. 
and E. H.); Souk Ahras, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.); Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 



18 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVI I. 1920. 

75. Athetis ingrata (Stdgr.). 

Caradrina ingrata Staudinger, Iris, vol. x. pp. 175, 286. pi. 4. f. 13 (1S97) (Syria). 

I have only received 1 specimen of this species, which appears to be very 
rare in Mauretania. 

1 cJ Environs de Batna, 1911-1912 (Nelva coll.). 

76. Athetis flavirena (Guen.). 

Caradrina flanrena Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. v. Noct. vol. i. p. 250 (1852). 

The Tring series from Mauretania consists of 15 <$<$, 19 $$ from Blida les 
Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.); Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912 (V. 
Faroult) ; Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Environs d' Alger 
(Captain Holl) ; Environs de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Berrouaghia, April 1914 (V 
Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and V. 
Faroult). 

77. Athetis flava (Oberth.). 

Caradrina flava Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. fasc. i. p. 45. pi. 4. t. 3 (1876) (Algeria). 

Mr. Oberthiir states that this insect varies much in size, but I have not 
found this to be the case. The small specimens that I have received all belong 
to my approximans, which is conspicuous by the heavy and broad greyish termen. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 204 specimens from Biskra, 
April 1908— March 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bordj Mecht-el-Kaid, April 1909 
(W. R. andE. H.) ; Bou Saada, April 1911— March 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Tilghemt 
April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; El Kantarn 
March— April 1911 (Faroult); Khenchela, June 1911 (V. Faroult); South 
Oued Mya and North of Am Guettera, April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 
Environs de Setif, 1911 (Faroult) ; Berrouaghia, April 1914 (V. Faroult) ; En- 
virons de Batna, 1913-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April 1913 ; Djebel 
Autan May 1918, Bordj Chegga March 1917, A'in Sefra March 1915, 
Mecheria May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Souk Ahras, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Oud Dehin and Oued Ag-eld, 
Timenaiin, March 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

The British Museum has 1 (J Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl ; 2 tftf El Kantara, April 
1913, P. A. Buxton. 

78. Athetis oberthuri Rothsch. (PI. XVII. f. 26.) 

Athetis oberthuri Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 126. No. 57 (1913) (South Oued Mya). 

The Tring Museum possesses 1 cj, 1 $ Oued Nca, April 1914, 1 <J, 3 $° f rom 
South Oued Mya, April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

This species is very similar to casearia Stdgr., but much more heavily marked. 

79. Athetis approximans Rothsch. 
Athetis approximans Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 334. No. 1S7 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The Tring series consists of 131 specimens from Rharis, April 1914 (Geyr von 
Schweppenburg) ; Guelt-es-Stel, August — October, 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Les 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 19 

Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Ain Sefra April 1915, Metliti September 
1917 (V. Faroult) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

Mr. Oberthiir has treated this as a dwarf form of flava, but besides the 
differences in marking, Sir George Hampson, who has carefully examined speci- 
mens, tells me it belongs to a different section of the genus. 

The British Museum has 1 (J Guelt-es-Stel ex Tring Museum. 



80. Athetis scotoptera (Ptingl.). 

Caradrina scotoptera Pungler, Iris, vol. xxviii. p. 47. No. 19. pi. iii. f. 18 (1914) (Jerusalem). 

This species is not recorded by Mr. Oberthiir. 

We have at Tring 2 $<$, 3 $$ from Environs de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Foret 
de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. 
Rotrou). 

81. Athetis jacobsi Rothsch. 

Athetis jacobsi Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 335. No. 190 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The series at Tring consists of 288 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, September — 
October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult); Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou); 
Environs de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Metlili, September 1917 (V. Faroult) ; El 
Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

82. Athetis clavipalpis (Scop.). 

Phalaena clavipalpis Scopoli, Entom. Car. p. 213 (1763) (Carniola). 

Mr. Oberthiir quotes this under Schiffermuller's name, because Guenee did 
so, but both Fabricius' name of quadri punctata and clavipalpis of Scopoli are older. 

In my account of the Lepidoptera of Guelt-es-Stel in 1914 I was misled 
by Mr. Warren's account of this insect in Seitz, and kept the small specimens 
apart as a distinct species under the name grisea, but they are only dwarf indi- 
viduals of clavipalpis, and if distinguished at all must stand as ab. minor. As 
grisea Rott. is only a synonym of clavipalpis and dates from 1776, grisea Eversm. 
1 848 must stand as cinerascens Tengstr. 

The Tring series from Mauretania consists of 677 specimens from Biskra, 
March 1908— April 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1908— May 
1913 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Blida les Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Environs d' Alger, June 1908 (Dr. Nissen) ; Djebel Cheddar, Mazagan, April 1902, 
and Seksawa, April — May 1905, Morocco (W. Riggenbach) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April 
—October 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, June- 
October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Perregaux, October 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, 
May 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Lalla Marnia, May— October, 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Masser 
Mines, May 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April — May 1914 (W. R., 
E. H., and K. J.) ; Environs de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Ain Draham, September 
1911 (V.Faroult) ; Bou Saada and Tilghemt, April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, 
May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Sebdou June, Sidi Djilali September, Foret de 
Tenira August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 
In British Museum, 1 <$ El Kantara, April 1913, P. A. Buxton. 



20 Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920 

83. Laphyma exigua (Hiibn.). 

Noctua exigua Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. Noct. f. 3G2 (1808). 

Of this very cosmopolitan insect the Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 
477 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, April — November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
El Kantara, June 1909 (Sidi Brahim) ; Environs d' Alger, May 1906-1908 (W. R., 
K. J., and E. H., and Dr. Nissen) ; Seksawa April 1905, Mazagan June 1900 — 
May 1902, Rahama, S.E. of Mazagan, May 1903 (W. Riggenbach) ; Hammam 
R'hira, May 1908— June 1916 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., and Faroult) ; Colomb 
Bechar, February 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Laghouat March, Tilghemt April 1912, 
Bou Saada April— May 1911-1912 (V. Faroult) : Ghardaia, April 1911 (W. R. 
and E. H.) ; North of El Golea, South Oued Mya, Ain Guettera, and In Salah and 
Igosten Tidikelt Oases, March — April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Khenchela, 
May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Blida, December 1915 (Faroult) ; Oued Nca and 
Sands of El Arich, June 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. 
Faroult) ; Oued Hamidou, June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, June — 
August 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Biskra, April 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Masser 
Mines, June 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Perregaux, October 1915 (Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, 
April 1913— July 1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult); Lalla Marnia and 
Moroccan Frontier, April — May 1914 (Faroult) ; Temassinin, Amgid, Oued Gif 
Aman, Oued Dehin, and El Mesrane, Hoggar Country, November 1913 — March 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Sidi Ferruch, November 1911 (Thery) ; 
Environs de Batna, 1911-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April — May 
1914 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 
Oued Abbou, Timassiuin, I-n-Kelemet, 30 kil. N. of Amgid, Amgid, Temenaiin, 
Oued Ag'elil, Oued Dehin, Oued Gif Amdu, January — March 1914 (Geyr von 
Schweppenburg) ; El Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 $ El Kantara, April 1913, P. A. Buxton. 

84. Prodenia litura (Fabr.). 
Noctua litura Fabrioius, Syst. Entom. p. 601 (1775) (East Indies). 

Of this widespread species I have from Algeria 1 64 specimens, from Perre- 
gaux, September — October 1915 ; El Kantara, El Outaya, August 1917 (V. 
Faroult) ; Biskra, March— June 1908-1912 (Hartert and Hilgert, W. R., and 
Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, August — September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

Mr. Oberthur employs Herrich-Schaffer's name retina for this species 
because he first figured it. 



85. Ulochlaena hirta (Hiibn.). 

Noctiia hirta Hiibner, Europ, Schmett. Noct. f. 591 (1827). 

Of this species I have only received 1 $ from Mauretania, all the rest are $$. 
The Tring series numbers 196 Algerian specimens from Environs de Batna (Nelva, 
Faroult, and Staudinger) ; Bordj-ben-Aneridj, October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Aflou, 
October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Hammam R'hira, March 1916 (V. Faroult). - 

The $ is flightless. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 21 

86. Derthisa trimacula (Schiff. & Den.). 

Bombyx trimacula Schiffermuller and Den. Ant. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 59 (1775) (Vienna). 

This is one of the most variable of known heterocera, and a number of indi- 
vidual forms have received names, among them ab. hisjxtna Boisd. grey with sharp 
dark pattern, ab. dentimacula Hiibn. same colour but dark marking reduced, ab. 
glavcina Esp. uniform rufous, ab. tcrsa Schiff. yellow dark marks in cell only, ab. 
gruneri Boisd. == albida Oberth. same only white, ab. tersina Stdgr. same only 
grey, ab. unicolor Dup. entirely yellow or buff. 

We have at Tring from Mauretania 1,191 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
September— November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Batna (Nelva coll., Staud. 
and Faroult) ; Bordj-ben-Aneridj, October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de 
Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult); Lambiridi, October 1910 (V. Faroult); Perregaux, 
October 1915 (V. Faroult); Afiou, September 1916 (V. Faroult); Foret de 
Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, October 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 1 <$, 1 $ Batna, Staudinger and Bang- 
Haas (ab. albida). 

87. Grammoscelis magnifica (Rothsch.). 

Derthisa magnified Rothschild, Novil. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 328. No. 145 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

Sir George Hampson pointed out to me that although this fine insect was 
a true Cucullid, it was not, as I thought, a Derthisa but a Grammoscelis. 

The series at Tring consists of 67 S3, 25 $$ from Guelt-es-Stel, October — 
November 1913 (V. Faroult) ; El Mesrane, November 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
Perregaux, November 1915 (V. Faroult); Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912, 
Medjez October 1911 (V. Faroult). 

88. Aglossestra mariae-ludovicae (D. Lucas). 

Hadula mariae-ludovicae Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1914, p. 311 (Tunis). 
Derthisa a/finis Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 328. No. 146 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

My description appeared in October, while that of Monsieur Daniel Lucas 
was published in June, so his name has priority. 

This species belongs to the genus Aglossestra of the subfamily Hadeninae. 
1 (J GuehVes-Stel, October 1913 (V. Faroult). 

The Genus Heliophobus Boisd. 

Mr. Oberthiir, following Guenee, makes use of the genus Heliophobus Boisd. 
and puts into it hispida Hiibn. ; scillae Chret. ; pierretii Oberth. (nee Bugnion) ; 
messaouda Oberth. ; and orana Oberth. (nee Lucas) : a regular olla podrida. 

• Neither Mr. Oberthiir nor the other authors who have used Heliophobus 
should have done so, as Boisduval himself states (Europ. Lepid. Ind. Meth. 1829, 
p. 69) that it is another name for Hadena Treitschke. 

Of the 5 species put in it by Mr. Oberthiir, hispida Hiibn. and scillae Chret. 
belong to the genus Leucochlaena of the subfamily Cuculliinae ; messaouda Oberth. 
and orana Oberth. (nee Lucas) belong to the genus Euxoa of the subfamily 
Agrotinae ; and pierreti Oberth. (nee Bugnion) belongs to the genus Pseudo- 
pseuslis of the subfamily Zenobiinae ( = Acronyctinae). 



" N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

89. Leucochlaena oditis (Hiibn.). 

Noctua oditis Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. Xoct. ff. 694. 695 (1822). 

There appear to be two forms of this species in Algeria, a small paler form, 
and a large dark form, but they do not seem locally constant and intergradations 
occur. 

The series at Tring consists of 151 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, Sep- 
tember—November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Aflou, September 1916 (V. Faroult) ; 
Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. 
Faroult) ; Batna (Nelva coll.) ; El Mesrane, November 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. 
Faroult). 

90. Leucochlaena scillae (Chret.). 

Heliopho'jtts scillae Chretien, Le Naluraliste, vol. x. p. 92 (1888) (Bone). 

26 (S3 El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

I have only 1$ specimen of the ab. datini Oberth. 

1 <J Ain Draham, October 1911 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum there is 1 $ Bone, Abbe de Joannis. 

[Euxoa pierretii (Bugnion). 

Episema pierretii Bugnion, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1837. p. 441. pi. 16. f. 3 (Egypt). 
Heliophobu-s marsdeni Bethune Baker, Trans. Entom. Soc. Lond. 1894. p. 40. pi. i. f. 9 (Egypt). 

This and the next species form a striking example of the fallacy of Mr. 
Oberthiir's dictum " Pas de bonne figure, pas de nom valable," for Monsieur 
Bugnion gives an excellent figure of the insect afterwards described by Bethune 
Baker as marsdeni and which is an Agrotid of the genus Euxoa, and yet both Mr. 
Oberthiir and Mr. Culot describe and figure as pierretii Bugnion a totally different 
insect afterwards described as Taeniocampa iellieri by Daniel Lucas, and which 
belongs to the subfamily Zenobiinae. Euxoa pierretii, as far as I can discover, 
has not yet been taken in Mauretania.] 



91. Pseudopseustris tellieri (D. Lucas). 

Taeniocampa tellieri Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1907, p. 196 (Gafsa). 

Heliopho'nts pierretii Culot (nee Bugnion), Noct. el Geom. d'Eur, pt. i. vol. i. p. 174. pi. 32. f. 6 (1913) 

(Biskra). 
Harpagoplmna diacrisioides Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 326. No. 130 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

This is the insect identified by Messieurs Oberthiir and Culot as Euxoa 
pierretii (Bugnion), but Mr. Culot has gone further and figured the same insect 
twice, once under the name of pierretii, and once under its true name of tellieri. 
Then unfortunately I also made a stupid error of negligence and redescribed it 
once again. 

The Tring Museum possesses 3 specimens : 1 rj, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, October 
1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; 1 <J El Mesrane, November 1913 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum there is 1 <J Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1020. 23 

92. Leucochlaena orana (Lucas). (PI. XV. £f. 27, 28.) 

Episema orana Lucas, Expl. Scient. d'Algirie, pt. iii. p. 384. pi. 3. i. 7 (1849) (West Algeria). 

Here again is shown the fallacy of insisting that figures are everything. 
Messrs. Oberthur and C'ulot have figured and described under the name of Helio- 
■phobus orana (Lucas) an insect which is not only not orana but belongs to a very 
different subfamily ; and yet Lucas gives a recognisable figure. 

The series at Tring contains 7 <$,$, 3 §§. 1 3 Oudjda, Morocco November 
1914, 1(J LallaMarnia December 1914, 1 ^LaMacta September 1915, 4 $$, 3$$ 
Perregaux October 1915 (Victor Faroult). 

93. Euxoa noctambulatrix (Chret.). (pi. XV. f. 20.) 

Gladocerotis noctambulatrix Chretien, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, p. 502 (1910) (Gafsa). 
Cladocera orana Oberth. (nee Lucas), Etiul. Lipid. Cornp. fasc. vi. p. 332, pi. exxviii. f. 1139 (1912) 
(Geryville). 

This insect, which both Oberthur and Culot figure as orana, is an Agrotid and 
not a Cucnllid, as the true orana is. Among minor differences the $ has abortive 
wings, while the $ of true orana is full winged, like the <$. It is curious that at 
the same time as Mr. Oberthur declares his orana to be an aberration of Chretien's 
noctambulatrix he figures them under the two names, and actually puts them in 
two different genera, Cladocerotis and Cladocera ! ! ! 

I quote this insect temporarily under Chretien's name noctambulatrix, because 
I have not been able to compare my specimen with Spanish ones, of which none 
are in England ; I feel sure, however, that when they can be compared they will 
prove that this insect is the same as Heliophobus boetica Boisd. Should this 
prove the case, the species would have to stand as Euxoa boetica Boisd. 

1 (J Sidi Ferruch (Thery coll.) ; 1 <S Sebdou, September 1908 (P. Rotrou). 

94. Euxoa messaouda messaouda (Oberth.). 

Luperina messaouda Oberthur, Etud. d' Entom. livr. ix. p. 39. pi. iii. f. 3 (1884) (Sebdou). 

This species was abundant at Guelt-es-Stel. 

The series at Tring consists of 518 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, October — 
November 1912-1913 (Victor Faroult); Aflou, September— October 1916 (V. 
Faroult) ; Mazagan, Morocco, September 1903 (W. Riggenbach). 

Among the Guelt-es-Stel series are several^ $ in which the red is quite absent : 
these agree absolutely with the Spanish form messaouda matritensis Vasq. This 
demonstrates the fact that an insect can occur sporadically among the typical 
form as an aberration, and yet in another locality assume the status of a distinct 
subspecies. 

95. Omphaloscelis polybela (de Joan.). 

Euxoa polyhela de Joannis, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1903. p. 28 (Philippeville). 

The Tring Museum possesses 306 specimens from Environs de Batna, Sep- 
tember—October 1910-1915 (Nelva, V. Faroult, Staudinger) ; Bordj-ben-Aneridj , 
October 1912 (V. Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, November 1917 (M. Rotrou); 
Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 1 (J, 1 $ Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 



24 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

96. Cladocerotis optabilis 'Boisd.). 

Heliophobus optabilis Boisduval, Icon. Lepid. Eur. vol. ii. pi. 74. IT. 2, 3 (1832). 

The ground-colour and the markings vary considerably, the latter being 
sometimes lemon-yellow, sometimes grey, and sometimes almost pure white ; 
all the specimens I have seen from Sicily are like the last named, but I have a 
number from Algeria quite identical. 

We have at Tring 308 specimens from Environs de Batna, September — 
October, 1910-1915 (Nelva. V. Faroult. and Staudinger) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, Sep- 
tember—October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
Perregaux, October 1915 (V. Faroult); Lalla Marnia, November 1914 (V. 
Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel October— November 1912-1913, Aflou October 1916 
(V. Faroult). 

The genus Cladocera Rmb. is preoccupied, so Sir George Hampson made the 
genus Clndocerotis for this species. 

In the British Museum are 3 <$£, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel ex Tring Museum. 

97. Euxoa rugifrons (Mab.). 

Agrotis rugifrons Mftbille, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1SSS. p. 42 (Gabes). 
Agrotis bledi Chretien, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1910, p. 500 (Gafsa). 
Agrotis urbana Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxv. p. 142. pi. vi. tig. 7 (1912) (Batna). 

This species is very common in Algeria. Our series at Tring consists of 504 
6pecimens from Guelt-es-Stel, October — November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult); 
Aflou, September — October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, September — 
October 1909-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; Bordj-ben-Aneridj, October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Medjez October 1911, Aflou October 1916 (V. Faroult). 

Neither Mr. Oberthiir nor Mr. Culot mention the name rugifrons Mab. 

98. Euxoa capsensis Chret. 

Euxoa capsensis Chretien. Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1910, p. 497 (Gafsa). 
Euxoa muriicolor Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 319. Xo. S3 (1914). 

I have only received this species from Guelt-es-Stel. 
80 Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). 

99. Euxoa lasserrei (Oberth.). 

Lvperina lasserrei Oberthiir, Etud. d" Entom. Fasc. vi. p. 86. pi. xi. ff. 13, 14 (18S1) (ilagenta, Sebdou). 

The Tring series contains 240 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, October — 
November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult); Les Pins, September 1918 (M. Rotrou) : 
Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Batna, November 1910-1911 (V. 
Faroult and Nelva); El Mesrane November 1912, Aflou September 1916, Aflou 
October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Tunis (Max Bartel). 

The British Museum has 1 £ Mauretania. 

100. Euxoa obesa lipara (Rambur). 

Agrotis lipara Rambur, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1S48, p. 68 (Algeria). 

Sir George Hampson places lipara, without comment, as a synonym of obesa, 
while Mr. Oberthiir treats it as a distinct species. The truth, however, lies in 
between, for lipara is a southern form of obesa and must be treated as a subspecies. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGIOAE XXVII. 1920. 25 

Our Tring series totals 497 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, September — October, 
1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, Lambessa, September, October 
1 909-1 914 (Nelva, Staudinger) ; Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Tlemcen, 

1915 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Aflou, October 

1916 (V. Faroult). 



101. Euxoa crassa (Hiibn.). 

Noctua crassa Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. S. 151, 152, 560 (1881). 

Treitschke (Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. i. p. 166. No. 19) gives a long explanation 
of how the erroneous identification of the present species with tritici Linn, arose 
and complains that Hiibner made matters worse by giving three figures of 
crassa and calling f. 1 51 tritici Linn. Sir George Hampson has caused still further 
difficulty by quoting crassa as of Treitschke, while its author was Hiibner, which 
is evident from Treitschke's own quotations. Sir George omits the ff. 151 and 152 
altogether. 

Sir George Hampson, Mr. Oberthiir, Mr. Culot, and most of the authors since 
Treitschke have united specifically crassa Hiibn. and lata Treit., in some cases 
because they thought they were representative forms, in others because they con- 
sidered them simply aberrations. Mr. Culot has committed a further error, 
influenced by Mr. Oberthiir' s statements : he figures as var. golickei Ersch. a 
Castille specimen lent by Mr. Oberthiir. 

E. golickei was described from Turkestan, and has the heavily plumed 
antennae characteristic of lata, of which it is undoubtedly a subspecies. 

Moreover, lata never occurs on the mainland of Europe, so Mr. Oberthiir has 
confounded a pale aberration of crassa with golickei, which latter is purely Asiatic. 

Now, all the authors who have united crassa and lata have drawn 
attention to two differences characteristic of lata ; one, the thicker and more 
heavily pectinated antennae, holds good, but the second, the brighter and more 
striking wing pattern, is not a constant character. 

There are, however, three characters which specifically separate crassa and 
lata quite definitely. 

Firstly, the orbicular stigma in both series of lata has a distinct whitish 
ring and stands out distinctly, while in crassa this ring is absent and the orbicular 
appears almost obsolete. 

Secondly, in $ crassa the hindwing is white shading into grey towards the 
termen, and there is no trace of a discocellular stigma ; while in $ lata the hindwing 
is brown, sometimes paler, or even whitish in the basal one-fourth, but always 
with a distinct discocellular stigma, except in a very few extreme melanistic 
individuals which are otherwise easily recognisable as lata. 

Thirdly, thereof crassa have short pectinations to the antennae, and at the 
distal end fully 4-5 mm. with no pectinations at all ; on the other hand, in lata 
the antennae have long pectinations (in the projJortion of 16 to 9), and only the 
last three or four joints are without pectinations. 

Our Mauretanian series of crassa consists of 49 $3, ^0 9$ from Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
September— October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

This species (crassa) appears entirely confined to West Algeria (Province 
Oran), while lata occurs all over Algeria and portions of Tunis and Morocco. 



26 Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

101a. Euxoa lata (Treit.). 

Agrotis lata Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. x. pt. ii. p. 24 (1835) (Sicily). 

This has since the time of Treitschke always been treated as a local race 
or aberration of crassa, which is erroneous. 

It is easily distinguished by the orbicular having a pale ring in both sexes, 
in the antennae of the $ being much more strongly pectinated, and in the dark 
hindwings with a discocellular stigma in the $. 

The Tring series from Mauretania contains 63 <JcJ, 59 $$ from Environs 
d' Alger (Dr. Nissen) ; Mazagan, Morocco, September 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; 
Rabat, Morocco (A. Thery) ; Messer September, Sidi-bel-Abbes September 1917 
(M. Rotrou) ; Ai'n Draham, Tunisia October 1911, Perregaux October 1915 (V. 
Faroult) ; Belvedere, Tunis, September 1915 (M. Blanc) ; Foret de Tenira, 
September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

102. Euxoa vestigialis (Rott.). 

Noctua vestigialis Rottemburg, Naturf. vol. viii. p. 107 (1776). 

This appears to be unrecorded from Mauretania. 

1 $ Lambessa, July 1914 (A. Nelva). 

I have seen a second $ from Thala, Tunisia, taken by Mr. Daniel Lucas. 

103. Euxoa spinifera (Hiibn.). 

Noctua spinifera Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. f. 389 (1827). 

Our Tring series contains 200 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, May — November 
1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, July— September 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira May, Sebdou 
June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; El Kantara, August 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Setif > 
1911 (V. Faroult) ; Bou Saada March 1912, Laghouat March 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
El Ou Saya August 1918, Tilghemt April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra, March- 
April 1908-1911 (W. R. andE. H.) ; Batna (Nelva and Faroult) ; Oued Hamidou, 
June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; South Oued Mya April, Bordj Saada February 1912 
(Hartert and Hilgert) ; Rabat, Morocco (A. Thery) ; Environs de Batna (A. 
Nelva); Messer, September 1917 (M. Rotrou); Blida, November 1915 (V. 
Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May —June 19C8-1916 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; 
Mazagan February— May 1902-1903, Seksawa, Morocco April 1905 (W. Riggen- 
bach) ; Environs d' Alger, May 1908 (W. R. and K. J.). 

In the British Museum are 2 $$, 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, March 1904, Lord 
Walsingham. 

[Euxoa spinifera hodnae (Oberth.). (PI. XVII. ff. 15, 16.) 

Agrotis hodnae Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. faac. iii. p. 45. pi. v. f. 8 (1878) (Bou Saada). 

The large series of spinifera collected all over Algeria since 1878 have proved 
that in Mauretania hodnae is only a sporadic aberration of spinifera, but in Egypt 
it has developed into the local race and must stand as a subspecies as above.] 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 27 

104. Euxoa hoggari sp. nov. (PI. XVII. ff. 12-14.) 

This is the insect erroneously named hodnae in 1915 (see Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8) xvi. p. 250. No. (16).). 

cJ$. Ground-colour creamy white. Antennae brown with pale grey serra- 
tions ; head and thorax whitish, more or less closely sprinkled with minute brown 
streaks ; abdomen cream buff ; anal tuft buff. 

Forewing cream- white, here and there streaked with pale wood brown, basal 
one-sixth of costal area with dense dark brown markings, a brown wedge in cell, 
reniform and spot below dark brown, a pale wood brown irregular band across 
wing enclosing reniform, an oval stigma on vein 2 joined by a deeply zigzag 
blackish line to inner margin, fringe white, a marginal line of dark dots and 2 black 
arrow heads above veins 5 and 6. Hindwing white washed with cream, cream- 
buff on abdominal area ; some specimens are strongly suffused with brown all 
over. 

Length of forewing, $ 15-19 mm. ; expanse, 35-43 mm. Length of forewing, 
5 16-22 mm. ; expanse, 37-50 mm. 

Habitat. 5 $<$, 7 ?? Oued Abou January, Oued Ag'elil March, Oued 
Tamoudat March, 20 kil. N. of Ideles March 1914, N. of the Hoggar Mts., Sahara 
(Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Bordj Chegga, February 1912 (Hartert and 
Hilgert). 

105. Euxoa doufanae (Oberth.). 

Agrotis doufanae Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Camp, fasc. xvi. p. 90. pi. xdii. ff. 4072-4073 (1919) (Col 
de Doufana Aures). 

I have received 80 specimens of this rare species. 

1 <$ Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 1 ? Mecheria May 1918, 1 c? 
El Hamel May 1912 (Victor Faroult) ; 57 J<$, 1 ? Bou Saada May, 14 $$, 
5 $$ Guelt-es-Stel May — June 1915 (V. Faroult). This was wrongly identified 
by me in 1914 as mauretanica. 



1C6. Agrotis suffusa (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena suffusa Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Work. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 80 (1775) 

(Vienna). 
Noctua ypsilon Rottemburg, Nalurj. vol. ix. p. 141 (1770). 

This widely spread insect occurs all over Mauretania. We have 311 speci- 
mens from Mauretania from Guelt-es-Stel, April, May, October 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
Timassinin January, I-n-kelemet February, 30 kil. N. of Amgid February, 
Amgid February, Ain Tahart February, Oued Ag'elil March, 20 kil. N. of 
Ideles March 1914, north of the Hoggar Mts., Sahara (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 
Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 
Environs de Batna, 1911-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; Biskra, March— April 1908-1911 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Colomb Bechar February, Tilghemt April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Oran, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bou Saada April, Bordj-ben-Aneridj 
October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, September— October 1917 (M. 
Rotrou); Ain Draham August— September 1911, Aflou October 1915, Ham- 
mam R'hira, May 1916 (V. Faroult). 



28 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

lo7. Lycophotia margaritosa (Haw.). 

Xochta margaritosa Haworth, Lepid. Bril. p. 218 (1809). 

Mr. Oberthiir quotes Engramelle as the author, but Ernst and Engramelle 
when describing species not yet described only gave French names to their insects, 
and therefore they are quite inadmissible as authors, and the names given to their 
species by Hiibner and others must be quoted under their respective authors. 
As, however, that part of Hiibner containing his saucia was published in 1827 and 
Haworth's margaritosa in 1809, this latter name must be used for the present 
species. 

Although fairly widespread in Mauretania, it is much rarer than the last. 

We have 86 specimens from Ai'n Draham, August — September 1911 (V. 
Faroult) ; Oued Hamidou, June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May — 
June 1908-1917 (V. Faroult, and W. R. and K. J.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, May— October 
1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Biskra March 
1909, El Kantara May 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Blida les Glacieres, May 1905— 
June 1908 (W. R., K. J., and Dr. Nissen) ; Environs d' Alger, May— June 1906- 
1912 (W. R. and K. J. and Dr. Nissen) ; Mazagan, Morocco, January — June 
1900-1903 (W. Riggenbach); Bou Saada April 1911, Djebel Aissa May 1915 
(V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Tlemcen, August 1917 (M. 
Rotrou). 

108. Euxoa trux trux (Hiibn.). 

Noctua trux Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. A'ocf. ff. 723, 725, 770 (1S26). 

This is a very variable insect, the aberrations terranea Frey, amasina and 
olivina Stdgr. occur in Mauretania quite abundantly. The subspecies lunigera 
Steph. appears to be confined to Great Britain. 

Our series from Mauretania consists of 562 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
September — October 1919 (V. Faroult); Aflou, September 1916; Ai'n Sefra 
July 1915, Perregaux October 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes September 
1917, Les Pins June 1918 (M. Rotrou); Lambessa October 1915, Batna 
1909-1915 (A. Nelva coll.); Hammam R'hira July 1916, Mecheria May 1918 
(V. Faroult); Sebdou July, Foret de Tenira September 1918 (P. Rotrou); 
El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum, 2 33 Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

109. Euxoa segetum (Schiff. and Den.). 

Phalaena segeium Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. pp. 81, 252. ff. 3 
a. h. (1775) (Vienna). 

Our Mauretanian series of this common insect numbers 764 specimens from 
Guelt-es-Stel May— November 1912-1913, Aflou October 1916 'V. Faroult) ; 
Colomb-Bechar March, April 1912, Bou Saada April 1912, Tilghemt April 
1912 (V. Faroult); Mazagan, Morocco, Imitanaut, May— July 1900-1904 (W. 
Riggenbach); Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.); Jakouren Kabylie 
June 1909, El Kantara March 19C9 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Batna, June—July 1912- 
1915 (Nelva coll.) ; Ain Draham, July — September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam 
R'hira, July 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September— October 1917 (M. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 29 

Rotrou) ; Lambessa, 1912 (Nelva coll.) ; Alger, January 1914 (V. Faroult) ; 
Djebel Antar, May 1918 (Faroult) ; Biskra, March— April 1908, 1914 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; Setil, S. of Biskra, March 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Djebel Zaccar Miliana, June 
— August 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Bordj-ben-Aneridj October, Tilghemt April 1912 
(V. Faroult) ; Laghouat, March 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ideles Haggar Mts., March 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 
In British Museum, 1 <J Mogodor, Leech coll. 



109a. Euxoa cos cycladum (Stdgr.). 

Agrotis cos var. cycladum Staudinger, Hot. Soc. Enlom. Ross. vol. vii. p. 121. 1. 1. f. 9 (1870) (Naxos). 

We have received 1 $ of this species from Mauretania ; Mr. Oberthiir records 
a series of 30 from Lambessa. 

1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, May 27, 1913 (V. Faroult). 

110. Euxoa rotroui sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 11.) 

This new species is exactly intermediate in appearance between Euxoa radius 
and E. trux. 

$. Antennae serrate, brown ; head pale pinkish mauve ; tegulae darker with 
dark brown edge ; patagia and rest of thorax pinkish mauve ; abdomen wood 

grey- 

Forewing pinkish mauve, basal one-fourth above vein 1 dark brownish mauve, 
an oblique transverse convex dentate line of same colour separated from this deeper 
coloured patch ; a darker brown mauve patch surrounding reniform stigma from 
which a shadow line runs straight to inner margin ; post-median convex dentate 
blackish line ; post-discal area clouded with brownish mauve. 

Hindwing white with nervures, costal and abdominal areas suffused with 
mouse-grey. 

Length of forewing, 16 mm.; expanse, 37 mm. 

1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 $ Oran, April 1913 (W. R. 
and E. H.). 

111. Euxoa constanti (Mill.). 

Agrotis constanti Milliere, Icon. vol. i. p. 165. pi. 9. ff. 1, 2 (1860) (Ardeche). 

This species is very rare in Algeria. I have only 5 Mauretanian examples. 
1 cJ Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912 (Victor Faroult) ; 4 <J<£ Environs de Batna, 
October 1912-1914 (A. Nelva coll.). 

112. Euxoa eos (Oberth.). 

Agrotis constanti eos Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. vii. p. 672. pi. cxci. Nos. 1841, 1847 
(1913) (Aflou). 

This species was supposed to be the Algerian representative of constanti, but 
Mr. Oberthiir in Fasc xvi. altered his opinion, and accorded the insect specific 
rank. As I have received typical constanti with grey-clouded hindwings and 
creamy-buff forewings from Algeria, I feel sure he is right. 

10 specimens Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). 



30 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

113. Euxoa christophi (8tdgr.). 

Agrotis christophi Staudinger, Berl. Entom. Zeit. 1870, p. 110 (Sarepta). 

I have received 1 1 specimens of this species, 1 of which = ab. lugens Stdgr. 
and 1 an intermediate aberration. 

6 33, 3 $? Environs de Batna, July 1911-1914 (A. Nelva coll.) ; 1 3 Khen- 
chela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 1 <J GuehVes-Stel, May 1913 (V. Faroult). 

114. Euxoa tritici (Linn.). 
Phalaena tritici Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. p. 320 (1761) (Sweden). 

It is very strange to find this essentially northern insect inhabiting Southern 
Algeria, where however it must be very rare. 

1 ? Metlili, N. of Laghouat, September 1917 (V. Faroult). 

115. Euxoa obelisca (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena obelisca Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werlc. Schmelt.Wienergeg. p. 80 (1776) (Vienna). 

Euxoa obelisca and E. bugeaudi are very closely allied, and when among 
a series of obelisca abnormal specimens occur, it is difficult to assign them correctly. 

The Tring series contains 79 Mauretanian examples from Guelt-es-Stel, 
October — November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna and Lambessa, 
October 1911-1915 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, September— October 1917 
(M. Rotrou); Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

116. Euxoa bugeaudi bugeaudi (Oberth.). 

Agrotis bugeaudi Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 94. pi. xdiii. Nos. 4080, 4081 (1919) 

(Aflou). 

The series at Tring consists of 84 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, October 
1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September— October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Sebdou May, Foret de Tenira October 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

117. Euxoa bugeaudi islyana (Oberth.). 

Agrotis bugeaudi islyana Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 95. pi. xdiii. Nos. 4082, 408:) 
(1919) (Lambessa). 

In the form from the Aures Mts. the red colour is almost always absent, 
though similar grey specimens occur sporadically with the typical Central and 
West Algerian form. 

The Tring series contains 91 Mauretanian specimens from Environs de Batna 
and Lambessa, 1911-1915 (A. Nelva coll.) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 
(V. Faroult). 

118. Euxoa hastifera abdallah (Oberth.). 

Agrotis hastifera abdallah Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 94. pi. xdiii. Nos. 4078, 4079 
(1919) (Lambessa). 

I have received very few examples of this species. 

5 33, 5 $$ Environs de Batna and Lambessa, July — September 1910-1915 
(A. Nelva and V. Faroult). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 'A I 

119. Euxoa mauretanica (Bang-Haas). 

Agrotis maurelanica Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxiv. p. 36. pi. iii. f. 4 (1910) (Sud Oranaie). 

The series from Algeria at Tring contains 324 specimens from Tilghemt, 
April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bou Saada, 
April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

In the British Museum are 1 J, 1 $ South Oran, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

120. Euxoa robiginosa (Stdgr.). 

Agrotis robiginosa Staudinger, Iris, vol. vii. p. 271 (1894) (Palestine). 

Of this very rare insect I have received 1 specimen from Algeria. (1 <J from 
Palestine is in the British Museum and 1 $ at Tring from the same country). 
1 J Environs de Batna (A. Nelva coll.). This is unique from Mauretania. 

121. Euxoa powelli (Oberth.). 

Agrotis powelli Oberthiir, Elud. Lipid. Comp. lasc. vi. p. 334. pi. cxxviii. ff. 1146, 1147 (1912) 
(Geryville). 

I have 1 1 Algerian specimens. 

1 (J, 10 ?$ from Guelt-es-Stel, May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, May 1913 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Oued Hamidou, June 1912 (V. Faroult). 

122. Euxoa cursoria (Hiifn.). 

Phalaena cursoria Hufnagel, Berl. Mag. vol. iii. p. 416 (1766). 

Of this species also I have received a single specimen, unique for Mauretania. 
1 $ Bou Saada, May 1912 (V. Faroult). 

[Euxoa distinguenda (Led.). 

Agrotis distinguenda Lederer, Noel. Eur. p. 221 (1837) (Wallis and Altai). 

I have not received this species from Mauretania. Mr. Oberthiir records it 
from Lambessa.] 

123. Euxoa oranaria (Bang-Haas). 

Agrotis oranaria Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. six. p. 133. pi. 5. f. 9 (1906) (Sud Oranais). 

This is an extremely abundant and variable species. 

The series at Tring numbers 1,084 from Guelt-es-Stel, April — June 1913 (V. 
Faroult) ; Bou Saada, March— May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, May 1913- 
1915 (W. R. and E. H., and V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia and Oued Nca, May — June 
1912 (Hartert and Hilgert); El Mesrane June 1913, Tilghemt April 1912, 
Mecheria June 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.). 

123a. Epipsilia simulatrix (Gey.). 

Noctua simulatrix Hiibner-Geyer, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct. f. 712. 

I have only received two of this species from Mauretania. Mr. Oberthiir 
records it from Bone under the name of nictymera Boisd. 
1 cJ, 1 $ El Mahouna, May 1919 (V. Faroult). 



32 Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 

124. Euxoa lucipeta (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena lucipeta Schiffermiiller and Denis, Auk. FSyst. Work. Schmett. Wien Geg. p. 71 (1775) (Vienna). 

I possess only 1 $ of this species taken by myself. 
1 2 Blida les Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.). 

125. Lycophotia photophila (Guen.). 

Agrotis photophila Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Lipid, vol. v. Noct. vol. i. p. 302 (1852) (B6ne). 

Guenee described this insect from a $, so if ignipeta Oberth. is really distinct 
it must always remain doubtful which of the two is the true photophila. 

The series at Tring consists of 101 specimens. 42 ,$<$, 48 $$ Ain Sefra, 
May^Tune, 1913-1915 (W. K. and E. H., and Faroult) ; 1 <J Msila, May 1915 

(V. Faroult) ; 10 <$$ Oued Nea, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

++ 

[Lycophotisa ignipeta (Oberth.). 

Agrotis ignipeta Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. fase. i. p. 45. pi. 4. £. 4 (1876) (El-May). 

Mr. Oberthiir and Mr. Culot describe this insect as having a similar wing 
pattern to photophila, but differing in the male in having the basal half of the 
antennae strongly pectinated ; while the J of photophila has simple cylindrical 
antennae. I have no specimen agreeing with this description, and from Mr. 
Oberthiir's statement (Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 98) he appears only to 
possess the (J type captured at El-May by M. Warion in 1868.] 

126. Euxoa celsicola gueddelanea (Oberth.). 

Agrotis celsicola var. gueddelanea Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 99. pi. xdiii. f. 4084 
(1919) (Djebel Gueddelane, Lambessa). 

I have only one pair of specimens from Algeria, but these are very much 
larger than any of the 65 specimens taken by myself and Dr. Jordan in 1908 
at La Grave and Le Lautaret in the Hautes Alpes. 

Expanse, 45 mm. ; largest specimen from Le Lautaret, 37 mm. 

1 (J, 1 $ Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

127. Euxoa kaaba (Oberth.). 

Agrotis kaaha Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. pp. 99. pi. xdiii. Nos. 4085, 4086 (1919) 
(Geryville). 

I have one $, which however is not so dark as the $ figured by Oberthiir and 
has the hindwings as in his (J. 
1 $ Batna (Nelva coll.). 

128. Euxoa radius radius (Haw.). 

Bombyx radius Haworth, Lep. Brit. p. 119 (1803). 

This insect, which is exceedingly abundant in Mauretania, appears in two 
local subspecies, radius radius Haw. in Central and West Algeria and radius 
erythroxylea Treit. in Tunisia and East Algeria. 

Our series of radius radius contains 700 specimens from Algeria and Morocco, 
from Biskra, February— April 1908-1916 (W. R. and E H., and Faroult) ; Bir 



Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 33 

Djefair, south of Biskra, March 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs d' Alger (Dr. 
Nissen) ; Mazagan and neighbourhood, Morocco, February — March 1902-1903 
(W. Riggenbach) ; Bir Setil, south of Biskra, March 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Bordj 
Chegga, March 1917 (V. Faroult); Environs de Setii, 1911 (V. Faroult); 
Environs de Batna (Nelva coll.) ; El Mesrane November, Guelt-es-Stel April — 
November 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Lalla Marnia March- 
April, Oudjda and Zoudj-el-Beghal, Morocco, November 1914 (V. Faroult) ; 
Sidi-bel- Abbes, September, October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Bou Saada March — May, 
Tilghemt April 1912, Aflou October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Perregaux, October 
1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

129. Euxoa radius erythroxylea (Treit.). 

Noctua erythroxylea Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. iii. p. 31 (1825). 

This insect which is a fixed local subspecies in Tunisia appears also spora- 
dically as an aberration in Algeria, and in Sidi-bel-Abbes is the prevailing form. 
I have 26 specimens from Sidi-bel-Abbes, of which 21 are erythroxylea, 1 inter- 
mediate and 4 typical radius. 

Euxoa radius erythroxylea comes as sole form as far west as Hammam Mes- 
koutine, is the prevailing form at Batna, and occurs sporadically in other parts 
of Algeria. I have none from Morocco, all mine from there being r. radius. 

The series at Tring from Ain Draham to Hammam Meskoutine contains 150 
specimens as follows: 113 Ain Draham, September 1911 (Victor Faroult) ; 19 
Souk Ahras April, 5 Hammam Meskoutine April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
13 El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

In addition to these we have at Tring sporadic specimens of this form as 
follows : 5 Batna (Nelva coll.) ; 1 Environs d' Alger, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
1 Hammam R'hira, April 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 2 Perregaux, October 1915 (V. 
Faroult) ; 21 Sidi-bel-Abbes, September — October 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

From Oran we have 5 $$ of gigantic size and of the black aberration, which 
for the present I will name ab. major ab. nov. Length of forewing, 20 mm. ; 
expanse, 46 mm. Length of largest $ erythroxylea , 17 mm. ; expanse, 39 mm. 

5 ?$ Oran Town, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.). 

Both in radius radius and radius erythroxylea the aberration with black-brown 
forewings occurs commonly. 

130. Euxoa imperator (Bang-Haas). 

Agrotis imperator Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxvi.'p. 142. pi. vi. f. 6 (1912) (Biskra). 

This fine species Mr. Oberthiir considers an exaggerated form of melanura 
Koll. This is not the case, as imperator is a true Euxoa while melanura is a true 
Agrotis sensu Hampson and therefore widely separated. 

We never found this species very abundant, and most of the material at 
Tring is Central Saharan. 

We have 38 specimens from Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bou 
Saada May, Djebel Kerdada May 1911-1912 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra (Staudinger) ; 
north of El Golea May, Oued el Far, south of Fort Miribel May, South Oued 
Mya May, Central Sahara, 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

In the British Museum is 1 ^ Constantine, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

3 



34 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

131. Agrotis nona berth. 

Agrotis nona Oberthur, EtwI. Lipid. Comp. fasc. vii. p. 62. pi. cxci. ff. 1840, 1846 (1913) (Afiou). 

I have only received this from Guelt-es-Stel. 

33 Guelt-es-Stel, October— November 1913 (V. Faroult). 

[Epilecta linogrisea lutosa (Stdgr.). 

Agrotis linogrisea var. lutosa Staudinger and Rebel, Cat. Lepid. Pal. edit. iii. p. 135 (1901) (Andalusia), 

I have never received this species from Mauretania. Mr. Oberthur received 
1 specimen from Khenchela.] 

132. Agrotis orbona (Hiifn.). 

Phalaena orbona Hiifnagel, Berl. Mag. vol. iii. p. 304 (1767) (Berlin). 

There is considerable confusion in our literature in connection with the two 
closely allied species we now call Agrotis orbona (Htifn.) and Agrotis comes (Treitr.). 
This confusion has arisen because both species have received the names orbona 
and subsequa. A. orbona (Hiifn.) was called sttbsequa by Schiffermuller in the 
Wiener Verzeichniss (1775) ; A. comes (Treit.) was called orbona by Fabricius 
in the Mantissa Insectorum (1787) and subsequa by Esper in the Schmetlerlinge 
Europas (1786). Guenee quotes Rottemburg, Naturforscher, vol. ix. (1776), as the 
author of his orbona, and as Rottemburg, in the place quoted, was criticising 
Hiifnagel's work, orbona of Guenee is certainly true orbona Hiifn. ; while his 
subsequa and consequa appear doubtful. Mr. Oberthur, however, appears to have 
applied the name of orbona Rott.-Guen. to comes, if we may judge by the localities 
he gives and from his having many variable specimens ; for while I have 31 
specimens of comes from Mauretania from a number of localities, I have only two 
true orbona with the conspicuous black subapical spot. 

1 <J Guelt-es-Stel, October 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ El Mahouna, September 
1919 (V. Faroult). 

133. Agrotis comes (Treit.). 

Nocliia comes Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. i. p. 254 (1825). 

Triphaena orbona Oberthur (nee Hiifnagel), Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 101 (1919) (Ain. 
Draham, Lambessa). 

This is much the more common of the two species, in fact after pronuba it 
is the commonest of the 6 " Yellow Underwings " found in Algeria. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 32 specimens from Guelt-es- 
Stel, October— November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult); Ain Draham and Tunis 
August — September 1911, Hammam R'hira June, north side of Djebel Zaccar 
August 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Batna (Nelva coll.) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, June — 
September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

Mr. Warren calls orbona Hiifn. subsequa Schiff. and comes Treit. orbona 
Hiifn. in Seitz Grossschmelterlinge tier Erde. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 35 

134. Agrotis pronuba (Linn.). 
Plw.lae.na pronuba Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 512 (1758) (Sweden). 

This is very common in some parts of Mauretania, and as variable as in 
Europe. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring comprises 21 1 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
April— October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, June— October 
1911-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; Environs d'Alger, May 1908 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Hammam R'hira May — July 1916, Ain Draham August— October 1911, El 
Hamel May 1912, Oued Hamidou June 1912, Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 
1912, Bou Saada May 1912, Boghari May 1913, Tilghemt April 1912, Sidi 
Bou Medine June 1917 (Victor Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and 
K. J.) ; Oran Town, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes June— Sep- 
tember 1916-1918, Titen Yaya June 1915 (M. Rotrou) ; Lalla Marnia, Decem- 
ber 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Mazagan, Morocco, October 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; 
Sebdou, June 1916 (P. Rotrou) ; Aflou, October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; El Aoudj, 
July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum is 1 $ El Kantara, April 1913, P. A. Buxton. 

135. Triphaena janthina intermedia subsp. nov. 

Mr. Oberthiir records specimens from Marseilles intermediate between typical 
janthina and his janthina algirica, and I have such specimens collected by 
Georg Kriiger in Sicily. Mr. Oberthiir also records a worn specimen from Lam- 
bessa of this intermediate race approaching nearest to j. janthina. 

I have 1 1 specimens from Sidi-bel-Abbes which in size and marking of fore- 
wings are similar to j. janthina ab. rufa Tutt, but the hindwings have a much 
narrower black border, though not quite so narrow as in j. algirica. I therefore 
describe this intermediate race as janthina intermedia. 

3 (JcJ, 7 ?$ Sidi-bel-Abbes, August— September 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
1 <$ Ain Draham (V. Faroult). 

[Triphaena janthina algirica Oberth. 

Triphaena janthina var. algirica Oberthiir, Etud. Lepid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 102. pi. xdiii. f. 4087 
(1919) (Alger). 

I have no specimen of this form.] 

136. Triphaena fimbria (Linn.). 

Plialaena fimbria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. xii. p. 842 (1767). 

I have only received two $t$ specimens of this insect. 
1 J Ain Draham, July 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Ain El-Berd, September 1918 
(P. Rotrou). 

137. Agrotis c. nigrum (Linn.). 

Phalaena c. nigrum Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 516 (1758) (Sweden). 

I have not found this so rare in Algeria as Mr. Oberthiir believes it to be. 

Our Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 119 specimens from Blida les 
Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. andK. J.) ; Hammam R'hira, May— June 1908-1916 



36 Novitates Zoologicae XXVTI. 1920. 

(W. R. and K. J. , and Faroult) ; Environs d' Alger, March— May 1906-1911 (W. R. 
and K. J. and E. H., and Dr. Nissen) ; Djebel Zaccar, Miliana, June 1916 (Victor 
Faroult) ; Blida February 1916, Oued Hamidou June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
Ain Draham, July— October 1911; Masser Mines, June 1914 (V. Faroult); 
El Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

138. Agrotis flammatra (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena flammatra Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 80 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

Our series at Tring from Mauretania is small : 12 specimens from Ain Sefra, 
May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Mecheria June 
1918, Djebel Aissa May 1915 (Victor Faroult) ; GuehVes-Stel, October 1913 
(Faroult). 

139. Agrotis leucogaster (Frr.). 

Noctua leucogaster Freyer, Neue Beitr. Schmett. vol. i. p. 38. pi. 21 (1831) (Prag). 

Of this species I have received 7 specimens from Tunisia. 

4 (?(?, 3 $$ Ain Draham, August— September 1911 (V. Faroult). 

Mr. Oberthur does not record it. 

140. Agrotis nisseni Rothsch. (PI. XVII. f. 18.) 

Agrotis nisseni Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. six. p. 125. No. 2 (1912) (Ain Draham). 

This fine large species appears to be very rare. Besides my 4 specimens, I 
know of only one other sent for identification to Sir George Hampson by Herr 
Piingler of Aachen. This species is nearest to atlantica Warr., but the ground- 
colour is entirely grey and wood-brown, not red and olive as in atlantica. 

1 <$, 2 ?$ Ain Draham September 1911, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel October 1913 
(Victor Faroult). 

141. Agrotis augnroides Rothsch. (PI. XVII. f. 17.) 

Agrotis augnroides Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 320. No. 92 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The type has remained unique. 

1 <J Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912 (W. R. & K. J.). 

142. Agrotis xanthographa (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena xanthographa Schiflermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 83 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

A common insect. 

I have 360 Mauretanian examples from Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. 
Faroult); Batna, September— October 1912-1914 (Nelva coll.); Perregaux, 
October 1915 (V. Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, .September 1917 (M. Rotrou); 
Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 
(V. Faroult). 



N0VITATE8 ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 37 

[Lycophotia margaritacea (Vill.). 

Noclua margaritacea de VilJers, Linn. Enlom. Faun. Suec. Descr. vol. ii. p. 272. No. 340. pi. 5. f. 16 
(1789) (Europe). 

I have not received any insect agreeing with margaritacea, but Mr. Oberthiir 
states that the insects he places under this name are more slaty coloured and are 
therefore duskier than European margaritacea. I am almost convinced that he 
has wrongly identified the specimens, and that he really has examples of the insect 
I named Euxoa lycophotioides, and which Sir George Hampson has examined 
and places in the genus Epipsilia. If this is so, and I am tolerably certain it is, 
then Lycophotia margaritacea does not occur in Algeria, and the insect so-called 
by Mr. Oberthiir is Epipsilia lycophotioides Rothsch.] 

143. Epipsilia lycophotioides (Rothsch.). (PI. XVII. fi. 28, 29.) 

Euxoa lycophotioides Rothschild, Novil. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 319. No. 81 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

I have not received this species from any other locality. 
15 <J,J Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). 

144. Agrotis praecipuina (Rothsch.). (PI. XVII. f. 9.) 

Epipsilia praecipuina Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 321. No. 97 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

I have only received 8 specimens in all of this species which at first sight 
looks like a xanthograplia washed all over with bright rufous. 

1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, September 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 3 $<$, 1 $ Ain Draham, Sep- 
tember 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 3 ^ Sidi-bel- Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

145. Epipsilia faceta (Treit.). 

Noclua faceta Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. x. pt. ii. p. 35 (1835). 

The Tring series contains 91 Mauretanian specimens from Environs d' Alger, 
January— December 1906-1912 (W. R., E. H., Dr. Nissen, Captain Holl, and 
Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira February 1918, Blida February 1916 (V. Faroult) ; 
Rabat (A. Thery). 

In the British Museum are 2 $$ Tangier ; 1 $ Mauretania, Staudinger and 
Bang- Haas ; 1 $ Hammam Meskoutine, March 1911, Meade Waldo. 

146. Amathes witzenmanni (Standi). 

Orthosia witzenmanni Standfuss, Mitth. Schweiz. Enlom. Gesell. vol. viii. p. 233 (1890) (Digne). 

I have very few specimens of tliis fine species, 10 (J<J, 5 ?$, of which 6 cJ(J are 
ab. plumbina Tnr., 2 $$, 2 $$> ab. griseola Rothsch., 2 <$£, 2 $$ ab. castanea 
Rothsch., and 1 $ dark grey entirely suffused with vinous red which I name ab. 
griseovinosa ab. nov. 

7 cJcJ Environs de Batna, 1911-1914 (Nelva coll.) ; 3 $$, 5 ?$ Guelt-es-Stel, 
October — November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). I have not any of the ab. vinosa 
Oberth. 



38 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

147. Monima stabilis (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena stabilis Schiffermiiller and Denis. Ank. Sijst. Werk. Schmeit. Wienergeg. p. 76 (1775) (Vienna). 

I have only 1 Algerian specimen of this species, which appears to be very 
rare in Mauretania. 

1 $ Environs d' Alger, March 30th, 1911 (W. R. and E. H.). 

| Monima cruda (Schiff. & Den.). 
Phalaena cruda Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmeit. Wienergeg. p. 77 (1775) (Vienna). 
I have no Mauretanian examples of this species. Mr. Oberthiir records it 
from Lambessa.] 

148. Amathes ruticilla (Esp.). 

Noctua ruticilla Esper, Schmetl. pt. iv. vol. ii. p. 525. No. 220. pi. clvii. (Noct. 78) f. 1. (1791) 

(Florence). 

I have received very few of this species. 

6 cJ(J, 4 ?$ Environs de Batna, 1913-1914 (Nelva coll.). 

149. Amathes lychnidis (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena lychnidis Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 76 (1775) 

(Vienna). 
Phalaena pistacina Schiffermiiller and T)enis,Ank.Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 77 (1775) (Vienna). 

I have 29 Mauretanian specimens from Environs de Batna, 1910-1914 (A. 
Nelva and V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, February — .June 1918 (V. Faroult) ; 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Environs d' Alger, January 1911 (W. R. 
and E. H.) ; Blida, December 1915 (Faroult). 1 specimen is ab. coernlescens 
Calb. 

150. Amathes lota (Linn.) 

Phalaena lota Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 513 (1758). 

Of this species the Mauretanian examples at Tring number 19 from Batna. 
12 <$<$, 5 ?9 Environs de Batna, October 1910-1914 (A. Nelva and V. Faroult) ; 
1 cJ Blida February 1916, 1 ? Aflou October 1916 (V. Faroult). 

151. Amathes macilenta (Haw.). 

Noctua macilenta Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 239 (1809). 

I have received 1 specimen of this species. 
1 ? Aflou, October 21st, 1916 (V. Faroult). 

152. Sidemia fissipuncta oberthuri subsp. nov. 

This is the insect Mr. Oberthiir has treated of as Orthosia ypsilon Schiff., but 
ypsilon Schiff. being preoccupied by ypsilon Rott., Haworth's name fissijmncta 
is the correct appellation. I have it treated as a subspecies at present, but 
believe it will prove a distinct species. Mr. Oberthiir says that the Algerian 
form appears to be very pale in colour and have the pattern much effaced ; but 
that he has too few specimens to confirm this. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOIOAE XXVII. 1920. 39 

The series from Algeria at Tring consists of 63 specimens, 20 from East 
Algeria and 43 from West Algeria, and they are very distinct from European and 
British examples. 

<J 9 differs from fissipuncta fissipuncta in being much paler, in the markings 
being less pronounced, in the submarginal band being much straighter and less 
sinuate, and in the postmedial band being well developed in most specimens and 
much nearer the reniform. 

14 <$£, 16 99 Environs de Batna, 1911-1912 (A. Nelva coll.) ; 17 <$<$, 18 $$ 
Sidi-bel-Abbes and Les Trembles, April— July 1914-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 2 <J<J, 
5 99 Sebdou and Foret de Tenira, May— June 1 91 8 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 <J Lalla Marnia, 
April 1914 (V. Faroult). 

Type $ Sidi-bel-Abbes. 

153. Omphaloscelis Iunosa (Haw.). 

Noctua Iunosa Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 230 (1809). 

I have received very few Mauretanian examples of this species. 

1 <J, 4 99 Guelt-es-Stel, October— November 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 5 $$, 1 9 
El Mesrane November 1913, 3 <$<$, 1 $ Aflou October 1916 (V. Faroult). 

[Amathes haematidea (Dup.). 

Noctua haematidea Duponchel, Lepid. France, vol. vii. p. 363. pi. 122. f. 5 (1827) (France). 
I have no Mauretanian examples.] 

[Amathes litura (Linn.). 

Phalaena litura Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. edit. ii. p. 320 (1761) (Sweden). 

Also of this species I have no specimens from Mauretania.] 

154. Amathes helvola (Linn.). 

Phalaena helvola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 507 (1758) (Finland). 

Phalaena rufina Sehffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmelt. Wienergeg. p. 86 (1775) (Vienna). 

Guenee, and consequently Oberthiir also, attributes the name rufina to 
Linnaeus and quotes " S. IT. 72." What this reference means I have been unable 
to trace, nor can I find any such name as rufina in Linnaeus. Rufina Schiffermiiller 
is described in the Wiener Verzeichniss, 1 775, so is much later than Linnaeus' 
helvola 1758. 

1 have 2 99 from Algeria of the red form. 

2 $$ Environs de Batna, 1913-1914 (Nelva coll.). 

155. Amathes lucida (Hiifn.). 

Phalaena lucida Hiifnagel, Berl. Mag. vol. iii. p. 302 (1767). 

The name nitida Schiff., used by Mr. Oberthiir, was published in 1775, eight 
years later than Hiifnagel's lucida. 

I have 2 Algerian specimens. 

1 cJ Hammam R'hira, February 1918 (V. Faroult) ; 1 9 Environs de Batna, 
1913-1914 (A. Nelva coll.). 



40 NOV1TATE8 ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

I Conistra silene (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena silene SchifFermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 85 (1775) (Vienna). 

I have not received this insect from Mauretania.] 
[Conistra veronicae (Hiibn.). 

Noclua veronicae Hiibner, Samm. Europ. Schmett. Noct. i. 541 (1827). 

This also is not in the Tring Museum from Mauretania.] 

[Conistra erythrocephala (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena erythrocephala Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wiemrgeg. p. 77 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

Again this species has never come to hand from Mauretania.] 
156. Conistra vaccinii sebdouensis (Aust.). 

Orrhodia sebdouensis Austaut, Lc Natur. 1880. p. 221 (Sebdou). 

The Algerian race, although just as variable as the European and British 
vaccinii vaccinii, is constantly different and is a well separated subspecies. 

I have 27 Algerian specimens from Environs de Batna, October 1910-1914 
(A. Nelva and V. Faroult). 

[Xantholeuca croceago (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena croceago Sehiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 86 (1775) (Vienna). 
This species we have not received.] 

157. Cosmia austauti (O berth.). 

Xanlhia atistauti Oberthiir, Elud. Enlom. fase. vi. p. 87. pi. 1. f. 3 (1881) (Sidi-bel-Abbes). 

Sir George Hampson unites this with palleago Hiibn., but I consider it a 
distinct species ; it differs at first sight from palleago by the much rounder and 
blunter apex of the forewings, in fact its shape is much more that of gilvago 
Schiff. 

This is very variable indeed, and the following aberrations have names ; pale 
nankeen as in type, but pattern heavy and brownish = ab. monilifera Culot ; 
orange-cinnamon with heavy sooty pattern = ab. batnensis Culot ; rosy cinnamon 
or rufous cinnamon, pattern not heavy = ab. algirica B.-H. (1912) = rosina 
Culot (1914). 

Our Mauretanian series at Tring numbers 216, from Environs de Batna, 
October 1909-1914 (A. Nelva, Faroult, and Staudinger) ; Bou Saada March 1912, 
Aflou October 1916, Lalla Marnia November 1914 (Victor Faroult) ; Foret de 
Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Bordj-ben-Aneridj, October 1912 (V. Faroult); Medjes October 1911, Aflou 
October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, November 1913 (V. Faroult). 

The British Museum has 2 £<$, 2 $<j> Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 41 

158. Cymatophora algirica (Culot). 

Cirrhoedia algirica Culot, Noel, et Gkom. d"Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 76. pi. 53. f. 1. (1914) (Lambessa). 

I have of this Mauretanian species 46 specimens — viz. 25 Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 (J Batna (Staudinger) ; 19 Foret de Tenira Octo- 
ber, 1 Sebdou September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The latter specimen was sent out as Cirrh. pallida var. ; pallida Stdgr. is 
quite a different insect from Asia Minor and has pure white hindwings. 

[Enargia ulicis Stdgr. and its allies. Mr. Oberthiir makes all the forms of 
Enargia, occurring in Algeria, forms of one species, ulicis Stdgr. Sir George 
Hampson, on the other hand, makes them out to be 3 good species. It is very 
difficult to decide this question, because it is complicated by the occurrence of 
3 distinct colour groups in each form : (1) Yellowish ochre grey = ab. griseo-olivacea 
Culot. (Form 2) Salmon to deep brick-red = ab. rufa Culot. (Form 3) Brown to 
black-brown = ab. brunnea Culot. I consider therefore my series too small to 
decide these points, and shall for the present follow Sir George Hampson and 
treat them as 3 species.] 

159. Enargia ulicis (Stdgr.). 

Cosmia ulicis Staudinger, Stett. EnUmi. Zeit. 1859. p. 214 (Granada). 

1 2 from Guelt-es-Stel (V. Faroult) ; 2 JJ, 6 22 El Mahouna, September 1919 
(V. Faroult). 

160. Enargia regina (Stdgr.). 

Cosmia regina Staudinger, Iris, vol. iv. p. 297. pi. 4. f. 2 (1892) (Asia Minor). 

1 have 1 2 very large and typical from Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. 
Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Le Tarf, D. Lucas. 

161. Enargia algirica Culot. 

Enargia algirica Culot, Noct. et Giom. a" Eur. p. 73. pi. 52. ff. 9, 10 (f. 8 appears to be an aberrant 

regina) (August 1914) (Lambessa). 
Amathes rufescentior Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 331. No. 163 (October 1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The Tring series consists of 20 <$<$, 18 $2 : 3 $<$ Batna, September 1913 
(Nelva coll.) ; 1 2 Lambessa, 1912 (Nelva coll.) ; 15 (J<J, 15 22 Guelt-es-Stel May 
1913, 1 J Ain Draham September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $, 2 22 El Mahouna, 
September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

2 (JcJ, 1 2 are the ab. griseo-olivacea Culot, and 1 <J, 2 22 are the ab. ruberrima 
Rothsch. 

The British Museum has 2 <?<?, 2 22 Guelt-es-Stel ex Tring Museum. 

162. Enargia jordani sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 27.) 

Nearest allied to borjomensis Stdgr., but differs in the orbicular and reniform 
being both strongly developed. It also differs at a glance in the antennae being 
so strongly serrate as to be almost pectinated while the 22 of all the other species 
have simple antennae. 



42 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

?. Antennae rufous brown ; head and thorax rufous cinnamon ; abdomen 
whitish grey, freckled heavily with black scales. 

Forewings rufous cinnamon, freckled with black scales ; antemedian line not 
strongly marked, reniform and orbicular very large, dark brown, postmedian 
line clearly defined and well marked sinuate and strongly dentate ; fringe entirely 
rufous cinnamon not edged with black as in vlicis and allies. Hindwing dull 
white ; a minute black stigma and a median sinuate angulate pale cinnamon line. 

Length of forewing, 18 mm. ; expanse, 41 mm. 

1 ? Souk Ahras, April 15th, 1914 (W. R. and K. J.). 

163. Miselia luteago (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena luteago SchifTcrmiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 86 (1775) (Vienna). 
(In Cat. Brit. Mus. as Polia.) 

I have only two Mauretanian specimens. 2 $$ Hammam R'hira, May 1916 
(V. Faroult). 

164. Hydroecia xanthenes orientalis (Oberth.). 

Jortijria xanthenes var. orientalis Oberthur, JSlud. Lepid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 127. pi. xdv. f. 4105 
(1919) (Batna). 

Most of my specimens are much paler than the figured type. 

1 have 1 2 Mauretanian specimens : 3 $<$, 5 $$ Lamberidi nr. Batna 
October 1910, 1 <J Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912, 1 $ A'in Draham October 
1911, 1 (J Hammam R'hira February 1918, 1 $ Blida November 1S15 (Victor 
Faroult). Most of the specimens are very large, especially the 9?, considerably 
larger than European specimens. 

165. Epipsilia straminea (Rothsch.). (PI. XVII. f. 10.) 

Euxoa straminea Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 318. No. 80 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

2 <JtJ Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912 (V. Faroult). 

166. Parastichtis monoglypha (Hiifn.). 

Phalaena monoglypha Hiifnagel, Berl. Mag. vol. iii. p. 308 (17G7) (Berlin). 

The Tring series from Mauretania is very small, 13^, 9$?: 11 c?c?> 4 $$ 
Batna 1909 (A. Nelva coll.) ; 1 <J, 3 ?? Hammam R'hira April— May 1917, 1 $ 
Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 1 <J, 1 $ El Mahouna, July 1919 

(V Faroult). 

167. Pseudohadena chenopodiphaga (Ramb.). 

Mamestra chenopodiphaga Rambur, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. i. p. 283. pi. 9. i. 7 (1832) (Corsica). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 67 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
April — November 1914 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Bordj Ferjan and Bordj 
Mecht-el-Kaid, east of Touggourt, April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bou Saada and 
Tilghemt April— May 1912, Am Sefra May 1915, El Mesrane May 1913, 
Biskra May 1910 (Victor Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
north of El Golea, March 1912 (Hartert and Hilgcrt) ; Mecheria, May 1918 
(Faroult). 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 43 

The ab. erubescens Stdgr. occurs all over Algeria amongst the type, but most 
frequently in the south. 

The British Museum has 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord 
Walsingham. 

168. Pseudohadena roseonitens (Oberth.). 

Mamestra roseonitens Oberthiir. Bull. Soc. Enlom. France. 1887. p. 49 (Biskra). 

Of this fine insect I have 12 specimens from Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. 
and K. J.) ; Bou Saada, May 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra (Staudinger) ; Bordj 
Chegga, S. of Biskra and Zaatscha, W. of Biskra, April 19C9 (W. R. and E. H.). 

169. Saragossa seeboldi arabum Culot. 

Saragossa seeboldi var. arabum Culot, Noct.el Giom. il'Eur. pt. i. vol. i. p. 112. pi. 19. f. 12 (1911) 
(Sebdou). 

Of this very rare species I have only 5 Algerian specimens. 

1 <$ Batna (Nelva coll.); 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, September 1913 (W. R. and 
K. J.) ; 1 J, 1 ? Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 <$ Bou Yousuf, 
September 1914 (A. Nelva). 

170. Hadula pulverata (B.-H.). 

Mamestra pulverata, Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xx. p. 71. pi. iii. f. 8 (1907) (Gafsa). 

Polia cinnamomeogrisea Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 121. No. 36 (1913) (Boriij Chegga). 

The series at Tring consists of 58 specimens from Bordj Chegga. Bordj 
Saada, and Kef-el-Dohr, S. of Biskra, February 1912 and March 1917 (Kartert 
and Hilgert, and V. Faroult). 

I only found out that cinnamomeogrisea = pulverata after the whole article 
was written. 

171. Hadula griseola (Rothsch.). 

Odonlelia griseola Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 121. No. 37 (1913) (halfway between Ouargla 
and El Golea). 

This insect appears to be rare ; only 2 further specimens in addition to the 
original 5 have come to hand. 

4 <3<S (including type of ab. rosacea) Mraier S. of Biskra, 1 $ halfway 
between Ouargla and El Golea February — March 1912, 1 <$ Hassi Dinar S. of 
Touggourt (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 $ Bir Stil, S. of Biskra, March 1917 (V. 
Faroult). 

172. Margelana irritaria (B.-Haas). 

Apamea lestacea var. irritaria Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxvi. p. 146 (1912) (Batna). 

This insect has been much confused ; Bang-Haas has placed it as a sub- 
species of Pallti perina lestacea Hiibn., Culot does not mention it, and Oberthiir 
places it as one of the many varieties he attributes to his Palluperina dayensis. 
Sir George Hampson, however, declares that structurally it is not a Palluperina 
at all, but a Margelana. 

I have 17 $<$ all from Batna, including 1 co-type. 

17 $$ Batna, 1909-1914 (A. Nelva). 

In the British Museum is 1 $ Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 



44 Novitates Zooxogicae XXVII. 1920. 

173. Palluperina powelli (Culot). 

Apamea nickerlii var. powelli Culot, Noct. el Qkom. d'Eur. p. 140. pi. 25. f. 10 (5) (1912) (Geryville). 
Luperina pseudoderthisa Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 332. No. 170 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

1 have 15 specimens of this species. 

5 33 Aflou October 1916, 4 33, 2 $$ Guelt-es-Stel September— October 1913 
(V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 3 Sidi-bel- Abbes, 
September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 3, 1 ? El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

174. Palluperina nickerlii graslini Oberth. 

Luperina nickerlii var. graslini Oberthur, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1908, p. 323 (Pyrenees-Orientales). 

This subspecies is the form found in Algeria ; I have 15 specimens. 

2 JcJ, 1 $ Batna October 1910-1914 (Nelva and Faroult) ; 5 33, 2 $$ Aflou, 
October 1916 (V. Faroult); Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou); 1 $ Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 2 33 El Mahouna, September 1919 
(V. Faroult). 

Mr Oberthur remarks that his Algerian specimens are paler and greyer than 
Mr. Culot's figure plate 25 f. 9, but mine are almost as dark, except the Sidi-bel- 
Abbes $ and 1 Batna 3- 

175. Palluperina dayensis (Oberth.). 

Luperina rubella var. dayensis Oberthur, Etud. Entom, fasc. vi. p. 80. pi. 11, i. 9 (1881) (Daya). 

Mr. Oberthur unites under dayensis all the forms of the teshicea section from 
Algeria. My series of testacea, rubella, etc. from all localities are too few for me 
to express an opinion, and so I have followed Mr. Oberthur in this instance. 

The series from Algeria at Tring contains 42 specimens from Environs de 
Batna, September 1909-1914 (A. Nelva) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, Messer, September — 
October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Guelt-es-Stel October 1912, Biskra 
November 1910 (V. Faroult) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

176. Palluperina dumerilii (Dup.). 

Noclua dumerilii Duponchel, Lipid. France, vol. vi. p. 277. pi. 90. f. 4 (1826) (France). 

I have 3 33, 4 $$ of this species, 1 § being of the ab. armoricana. 

1 3, 1 $ A'in Draham October 1911, 1 3 Aflou October 1916, 1 $ Perregaux 
November 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 1 3 Environs de Batna, 1913-1914 (A. Nelva) ; 
1 $ Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 $ El Mahouna, September 
1919 (V. Faroult). 

177. Sidemia fulva (Rothsch.). (PI. XVII. ff. 20, 21.) 

Meganephira oxyacanthae fulva Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 329. No. 151 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

We now have at Tring 1 1 33, 6 ?$ of this species : 6 33, 2 ?$ El Mesrane, 
November 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 3 33, 2 $$ Perregaux, September — October 1915 
(V. Faroult) ; 1 $ (type) Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 1 3 Biskra, 
March 1914 (W. R. and E. H.). 



Novitates Zoolooioae XXVII. 1920. 45 

178. Dasysternum faroulti sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 22.) 

$. Antennae greyish white ; head and thorax greyish sandy-cinnamon ; 
abdomen greenish buff. 

Forewing greyish sandy-cinnamon ; orbicular reduced to a point, reniform 
large white bordered inwardly with brown ; antemedian line strongly angled 
three times dark cinnamon brown, postmedian line strongly dentate-lunate 
running obliquely inwards, antemedian line basad and postmedian line distad 
bordered with white ; submarginal line white ; fringe chequered and lined with 
white. Hindwing dirty whitish grey, whiter towards termen, marginal hair- 
line brown. 

Length of forewing, 19 mm. ; expanse, 44 mm. 

1 $ El Mesrane, November 1915 (V. Faroult). 

179. Dasythorax rotroui sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 23.) 

$. Antennae dark brown, cylindrical ; head, thorax, and abdomen cinnamon 
wood-brown. 

Forewing cinnamon brown, freckled with black scales ; an incomplete ante- 
median line obliquely outwards to vein 2, orbicular with black ring and central 
dot, reniform large whitish, a curved dentate postmedian black line, post-discal 
area strongly irrorated with black scales. Hindwing milk white. 

Length of forewing, 15 mm. ; expanse, 34 mm. 

1 $ Messer, September 1917 (M. P*otrou). 

180. Namaugana chimaera sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 24.) 

This curious species is unlike any other Noctuid known to me. 

,$. Entirely wood-grey, with an intense satiny sheen. Forewing irrorated 
slightly with black scales, basal one-fifth more thickly, an oblique faint black 
hair-line from vein 1 outwards towards apex to vein 5, a submarginal row of 
black indistinct spots from vein 4 to inner margin. 

Length of forewing, 14 mm; expanse, 31 mm. 

1 {J Environs de Taourirt, Morocco, July 1918 (per M. Rotrou). 

181. Sidemia aflouensis sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 25.) 

Nearest to kostantschikovi Piingl. 

<$. Antennae amber-brown ; head and thorax slaty mouse-grey ; abdomen 
yellowish grey. Forewing slaty mouse-grey, orbicular and reniform indistinct, 
claviform prominent ; a dentate curved postmedian thin line, black pale grey on 
distad side. Hindwing white. 

Length of forewing, 15 mm. ; expanse, 34 mm. 

1 <J Aflou, October 1916 (V. Faroult). 

182. Thalpophila vitalba (Frr.). 

Noctua vitalba Freyer, Neue Beitr. vol. ii. pt. xxi. p. 48. pi. 124. fit. 3, 4 (1834) (Sicily). 

I have a series from Mauretania of 23 specimens : Am Draham, September 
1911 (V. Faroult) ; Environs d' Alger, September 1908 (Dr. Nissen and Captain 
Holl) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 



46 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

183. Trachea secalis (Linn.). 

Phalaena secalis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 519 (1758) (Sweden). 

This is one of the most variable of species, and has an enormous distribution 
from Great Britain in the west to Japan in the east, from Scandinavia in the 
north to Mauretania in the south, and in Asia from the Arctic Ocean in the north 
to India in the south. 

Mr. Oberthiir remarks that he has never seen a specimen of the ab. struvii 
Ragusa from Mauretania ; it certainly must be extremely rare there, but I have 
one very fine strongly marked specimen of this aberration from Setif. 

The series of Mauretanian examples at Tring consists of 209 specimens 
from Berrouaghia, April 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, September — October 
1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Lambessa, November 
1912 (A. Nelva coll.) ; A'in Draham, August — September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 
Environs de Batna (A. Nelva coll.). 

184. Procus faroulti (Rothsch.). 

Bryophila faroulii Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 333. No. 177 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

Mr. Oberthiir has described this insect under the name of Miana erratricula 
poicelli, but, as Sir George Hampson pointed out to me, the median and post- 
median lines run differently to those in erratricula , and he considers this a distinct 
species. Sir George Hampson also considers I was right originally in placing it 
in the genus Bryophila and not in that of Procus (Miana), but I am more than 
doubtful of this now, and prefer to treat it as a species of Procus. 

The Tring series consists of 42 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, August — 
September 1913 (V. Faroult). 

185. Procus furuncula (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena furuncula Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Sysl. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 89 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

This insect appears to be rare in Mauretania, as I have received only 4 3<S, 
3 $$. 

1 <J, 2 $$ Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 $ Foret de 
Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 ^ Ain Draham, August 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 
2 3$ Metlili, September 1917 (V. Faroult). 

18C. Miselia carpophaga (Borkh.). 

Phalaena carpophaga Borkhausen, Eur. Schmett. vol. iv. p. 422 (1792). 

Mr. Oberthiir places this species under the name of capsophila Dup. It is 
quite true that most of my Mauretanian specimens are ab. capsophila, but it 
cannot be treated as a separate species or subspecies, as it occurs everywhere 
with the type. 

We have at Tring 69 specimens from Sebdou, May 191S (P. Rotrou) ; Bou 
Saada, May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Souk Ahras, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Ham- 
mam R'hira August 1916, Messer June 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Batna, May — June 
1915 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Guelt-es-Stel 
May 1913, Meeheria May 1918 (V. Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918 (M. 
Rotrou) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 47 

187. Pronotestra silenides (Stdgr.). 

Uamestra silenides Staudinger, Iris, vol. vii. p. 273. pi. ix. f. 14 (1894) (Chiclava). 

The Mauretanian series of this insect at Tring consists of 152 specimens from 
Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and V. Faroult) ; Biskra, 
March— April 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Ghardaia, April 1911 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; Bou Saada, March— April 1911-1912; Mecheria May 1918, El Kantara 
March— April 1911 (Victor Faroult) ; Tilghemt, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Tunis, South Oran (Staudinger). 

In the British Museum are 1 o 1 Algeria ; 1 $ Tunis ; 1 <$ El Kantara, April 
1913, P. A. Buxton. 

188. Epia silenes (Hiibn.). 

Noclua silenes Hiibner, Eur. Schmett. Noct. i. 653 (1827). 

Polia trisagittata Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 322. No. 104 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The darker ab. sancta Stdgr. (Dianthoecia sancta Staudinger, Slett. Entom. 
Zeit. 1859, p. 213 (Chiclana)) has been placed by Sir George Hampson as an 
aberration of Epia nisus Germ. ; but I agree with Messrs. Culot and Oberthiir 
that it belongs to silenes Hiibn. 

My irisagiUaia is a J with very strongly developed markings and with very 
high colour contrasts. 

Our series at Tring consists of 149 Mauretanian specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
March — April 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine, 
April 1914 (W. R. andK. J.); Bou Saada, March— April 1911-1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Batna (Nelva) ; Mazagan, March 1902 (W. Riggenbach). 

[Miselia bicruris (Hufn.). 

Phalaena bicruris Hufnagel, Berl. Mag. vol. iii. pt. iii. p. 302 (1707) (Berlin). 

Mr. Oberthiir makes use of Schiffermiiller's name capsincola, but bicruris 
has nine years' priority. I have not received this species from Mauretania.] 

189. Miselia magnolii (Boisd.). 

Dianthoecia magnolii Boisduval, Ind. Meth. p. 125 (1829). 

My single <$ from Hammam Meskoutine has the ground-colour almost black, 
with no trace of rufous colouring so conspicuous in Mr. Culot's figure (Noct. et 
Geom. d'Eur. vol. i. pi. 20. f. 8). 

1 <J Hammam Meskoutine, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.). 

190. Miselia compta galactina (Turati). 

IHanthoecia galactina Turati, Nat. Sicil. vol. xx. p. 25. pi. 6. ff. 10, 11 (1907) (Sicily). 

The Algerian form appears to be this and must be very rare, as Mr. Ober- 
thiir only records it from Guelt-es-Stel, and I have only received 1 single (J also 
from there. 

1 J Guelt-es-Stel, June 1913 (V. Faroult). 



48 NOVTTATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

191. Miselia conspersa (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena conspersa Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk, Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 71 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

Mr. Oberthiir does not record this species, but Mr. Culot does so from Morocco. 

The series at Tring consists of 38 specimens from Environs d'Alger May 
1908, Hammam Meskoutine, and Souk Ahras April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Hammam R'hira August, Djebel Zaccar, near Miliana, June 1916 (V. Faroult) ; 
Guelt-es-Stel, April— June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918 (M. 
Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, May — June 1919 (V. Faroult). 



192. Miselia dysodea faroulti (Rothsch.). 

Polia faroulli Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 322. No. 106 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 
Hecatera dysodea africana Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 138 (1919) (Geryville). 

Mr. Oberthiir has renamed this insect as usual, because it has not been 
figured by me. 

The Tring series of Mauretanian examples numbers 43 specimens from Bou 
Saada April— May 1911-1912, Guelt-es-Stel September 1913 (V. Faroult); 
Tamarouth, Morocco, June 1904 (W. Riggenbach) ; Environs d' Alger (Captain 
Holl). 

193. Miselia antitypina (Rothsch.). (PI. XVII. f. 8.) 

Polia antitypina Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 322. No. 107 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

This species must be very rare, as I have only received the two <J<J from 
Guelt-es-Stel. 

2 <J<J Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult). 

194. Miselia filigrama 'Esp.). 

Nocta filigrama Esper, Europ. Schmett. p. 396. No. 137. pi. 130. f. 4 (1788) (Innspruck). 

I have 2 <£<£ of this species from Mauretania ; it is not recorded by Mr. 
Oberthiir. 

1 <J Tamarouth, W. Morocco, June 1904 (W. Riggenbach) ; 1 c? ? (Sand 
coll.). 

195. Miselia serena (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena serena Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 84 (1775) (Vienna). 

This insect is very variable and has received a number of names, but the 
forms Corsica, lettconota, obscara, etc., seem to occur together with the type and 
can only rank as aberrations. 

I have at Tring 17 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, April — May 1912-1913 
(W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Bou Saada, May 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam 
Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam R'hira, August 1916 (V. 
Faroult) ; Khenchela May 1912, Biskra April 1914, Environs d' Alger May 1912 
(W. R., K. J., and E. H.). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 49 

196. Metopoceras canteneri canteneri (Dup.). 

Polia canteneri Duponchel, Rev. Entom. SSb. vol. i. pt. i. p. 37. pi. 3 (1S33) (S. France, Hyeres). 

I thought in 1913, after comparing Guelt-es-Stel specimens with European 
ones, that typical canteneri did not occur in Algeria ; but I have since received 
from Messrs. Rotrou some specimens from the extreme west of the province of 
Oran which are indistinguishable from Portuguese specimens. I therefore must 
divide the Algerian canteneri into two local races. 

Of canteneri canteneri I have at Tring 9 specimens from Les Pins, June 1918 
(M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou June, Foret de Tenira May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

197. Metopoceras canteneri pallidior Rothsch. 

Metopoceras canteneri pallidior Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 123 (1913) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

Of this paler Central Algerian subspecies we have at Tring 4 c$<3, 3 $$. 
4 <£<?, 1 o Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; 
2 $? Bou Saada, May 1911 (V. Faroult). 

198. Metopoceras felicina (Douz.). 

Polia felicina Douzel, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. ii. vol. ii. p. 199. pi. 6. f. 2 (1844) (Marseilles). 

Of this species we have at Tring 100 specimens from Hammam Meskoutine, 
April— May 1909-1914 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Lalla Marnia, April— May, 
1914 (V. Faroult) ; Oran, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Mazagan, Morocco, 
March — April 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1908 (W. R. and 
K. J.); Bou Saada April 1911, Oued Hamidou June 1912, Guelt-es-Stel April 
1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, May 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum is 1 <J Forest of Marmora, April 1903, Meade-Waldo. 

[Metopoceras codeti Oberth. ; Ammetopa nisseni Rothsch. ; and Ammetopa 

codeti Hmpsn. 

There has been a most extraordinary amount of confusion in connection 
with these three insects, and it only shows how three experienced lepidopterists 
like Sir George Hampson, Monsieur Oberthiir, and Monsieur Culot can be deceived 
even when assisted by type specimens, good figures, and series of allied species. 

Metopoceras codeti Oberth. was first described and figured from Sebdou in 
1881 (Etud. Entom. livr. vi. p. 88. pi. xi. f. 10). In the description Mr. Oberthiir 
says, " Taille de Felicina ; mais les ailes un peu moins elargies," i.e. less broad. 
In continuation Mr. Oberthiir says that the forewings and thorax above are 
strongly washed with rose. Now, I have specimens from Am Sefra and Sebdou 
taken by myself and P. Rotrou which agree precisely with the original description 
and figure of codeti Oberth. 

In 1913 Mr. Culot published a description and figure professing also to be 
codeti Oberth. {Nod. et Geom. d'Evr. pt. i. vol. i. p. 166. pi. 30. f. 18). In his 
description Mr. Culot lays great stress on the narrow forewings, very sinuate and 
dentate postmedian line, and the greyish median space. Now, Mr. Culot states 
that his figure was taken from the " specimen typicum " of Mr. Oberthiir from 
Sebdou. This I cannot believe, as the drawing is totally different from the 
drawing in Etud. Entom. livr. vi., undoubtedly made from the type. More- 

4 



50 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

over, Mr Culot's figure is identical with Guelt-es-Stel specimens, while I have 
specimens identical with the figure in the Etudes from Sebdou and Ai'n Sefra. 
I feel sure that Mr. Culot received from Mr. Oberthiir a Guelt-es-Stel or El Outaya 
specimen in mistake for the original Sebdou specimen caught by Dr. Codet. 

Tn the Catalogue of Heterocera, vol. vi. Sir George Hampson created the genus 
Ammetopa, (p. 120) for two (J insects caught by Mrs. Nicholl and Mr. Eaton at 
Biskra, and which he had identified as codeti Oberth. This insect is totally 
different to either codeti Oberth., codeti Culot, or nisseni Rothsch., and belongs 
to a different genus. Finally, Ammetopa nisseni Rothsch. was described by me 
in 1913, because I compared my Guelt-es-Stel specimens with the Biskra ones 
in the British Museum, which I then thought were true codeti Oberth. I propose 
to figure codeti Oberth., codeti Hmpsn., and nisseni Rothsch. on one plate to show 
the differences. 

The true facts are these : There are two races of codeti Oberth., one the typical 
one from West Algeria (Province Oran), and the other from Central and Eastern 
Algeria (Provinces Alger and Constantine). This insect does not belong to 
the genus Metopoceras, but to Bryomima, and the two races must stand as Bryo- 
mima codeti codeti (Oberth.) and Bryomima codeti nisseni (Rothsch.). The 
insect identified by Sir George Hampson as codeti Oberth. will stand as Ammetopa 
codeti Hmpsn.]. 

199. Bryomima codeti codeti (Oberth.). (PI. XV. ff. 22. 23.) 

Metopoceras codeti Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. livr. vi. p. 88. pi. xi. f. 10 (1881) (Sebdou). 

Of this form we have at Tring 4 <$S, 7 $$ from Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. 
and E. H.) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Mecheria, May 1918 (V. Faroult). 

Of these the two taken by ourselves at Ai'n Sefra are identical with Mr. 
Oberth iir's type figure. 

200. Bryomima codeti nisseni (Rothsch.). (Fl. XV. ff. 24, 25.) 
Amtnetopa nisseni Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p 123 (1913) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

The principal distinction between this and codeti codeti is the much sharper 
and more distinct ante- and postmedian transverse bands on the forewings. 

Of this form I have 19 specimens, all from Guelt-es-Stel, March — April 1912— 
1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult and Dr. Nissen). 

201. Ammetopa codeti Hmpsn. (PI. XV. f. 21.) 
Ammetopa codeti Hampson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. vi. p. 120. No. 2222. fig. 32 (1906) (Biskra). 

This insect must be very rare, as my solitary specimen is only the third 
known. 

1 (J Oued Amra, north of I deles, April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

2 (JcJ Algeria and Biskra, March 1897 (A. E. Eaton and Mrs. Nicholl), in 
British Museum. 

202. Metopoceras omar (Oberth.). 

Cleophana omar Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Entom. France. 1887, p. 57 (Oued Leber, Tunis). 

Of this purely Mauretanian species, the series at Tring contains 329 specimens 
from Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912-1913 
(W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Bou Saada March, Laghouat March 1912, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOG1CAE XXVII. 1920. 51 

Djebel Kerdada May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Tilghemt, April 1911-1912 (W. R. and 
E. H., and Faroult) ; Ghardaia, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bordj Saada, 
Bordj Chegga, Kef-el-Dohr, February 1912 and March 1917 (Hartertand Hilgert, 
and Faroult) ; Biskra, March— April 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult, 
and Staudinger) ; El Kantara March 1911, El Hamel May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Constantine, Tunis (F.T.) (Staudinger) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Oued Nea, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Ai'n Sefra May 1915, Mecheria, 
May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira May 1917, Bou Saada May 1911 (V. 
Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, May 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, May 1918 
(P. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 1 <$, 1 $ Algiers ; 1 $ Biskra, March 1897, P. A. 
Buxton ; 2 <$$ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord Walsingham. 

203. Metopoceras morosa Rothsch. (PI. XV. f. 20.) 

Metopoceras morosa Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 326. No. 133 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

2 $6 Guelt-es-Stel, April 1913 (V. Faroult). I have received no more of this 
species, which differs from purplish varieties of omur in the antemedian band. 

204. Metopoceras khalildja O berth. 

Metopoceras khalildja Oberthiir, Etiid. Entom. livr. ix. p. 38. pi. 3. f. 1 (18S4) (Sebdou). 

Our series at Tring consists of 120 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, March — 
April 1913 (Victor Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Turns 
(Dannehl) ; Berrouaghia and Lalla Marnia, April 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Environs 
de Batna, 1911-1912 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Environs de Tunis, March— April 1915 
(M. Blanc) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 1 <£ Hammam Meskoutine, March 1911, Meade- 
Waldo. 

205. Scotogramma implexa (Hiibn.). 

Noctua implexa Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. f. 414 (1827). 

Our series at Tring consists of 225 specimens from Khenchela, May 1912 
(W. R. and K. J.) ; Batna, 1909-1914 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Souk Ahras, April 1914 
(W. R. and K. J.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and 
Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, 
May 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 4 Khenchela ex Tring Museum. 

206. Centropodia inquinata (Mab.). 

Hadena inquinala Mabille, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 18S8, p. 43 (Gabes). 

I have only received this insect from Guelt-es-Stel. 
69 Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). 
The British Museum has 1 <J Egypt. 

207. Antitype flavicincta (Schiff. and Den.). 

Plialaena flavicincta Schiffemiiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 72 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

I have 55 Algerian specimens of this insect from Blida les Glacieres, October — 
November 1910 (Dr. Nissen) ; Environs de Batna, 1910-1914 (A. Nelva and 



52 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, November 1916-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Hammam R'hira, 
December and January 1916-1918 (V. Faroult) ; Lalla Marnia December 1914, 
Lambiridi October 1910, Blida November 1915, Guillaumet December 1913 
(V. Faroult). 

[Antitype nigrocincta (Treit.). 

Polia nigrocincta Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. 2. p. 31 (1825) (Modling, nr. Vienna). 
I have never received this species from, or found it in, Mauretania.] 

208. Antitype dubia (Dup.). 

Polia dubia Duponchel, Lipid. France, Supp. vol. iii. p. 286. pi. 26. f. 4 (1836) (Aix). 

I received a <J of this species from Monsieur A. Nelva and 1 from Monsieur 
M. Rotrou. 

1 (J Environs de Batna, 1911-1912 (A. Nelva coll.) ; 1 <J Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
December 1916 (M. Rotrou). 

209. Antitype subvenusta Piing. 

Antitype subvenusta Piingler, Iris, vol. xix. p. 94 (1906) (Jerusalem). 

Although this species was described from Palestine, so many Steppe and 
Desert insects have a very wide distribution, that it is not very strange for it to 
turn up in Algeria. 

The specimens I have are all paler than the drawing made from Herr 
Piingler's type, but as they are not quite fresh and vary also much inter se, I do 
not venture to separate them subspecifically. 

I have 12 <$<$, 1 ^ of this species. 

12 (JcJ, 1 $ Environs de Batna, September 1910-1914 (A. Nelva and Faroult). 

210. Antitype argillaceago deliciosa (Oberth.). 

Polia venu-sta deliciosa Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1907, p. 345 (Sebdou) ; Etud. Lipid 
Comp. fasc. iii. pi. xxvii. ff. 147, 154 (1909). 

Mr. William Warren in Seitz (Grossschm. Erde, vol. iii. p. 136) treats this insect 
as an aberration of argillaceago ; this is certainly wrong, as typical examples of 
itigillaceago do not occur in Algeria. Mr. Oberthiir originally described this as a 
subspecies of argillaceago Hiibn. (vetntsta Boisd. was described in 1840, and so 
must sink, as argillaceago dates from 1827) ; but in 1919 (Etud. Entom. Comp. 
fasc. xvi. p. 143) he treats it as a distinct species. I think the original status 
attributed to this very beautiful insect by its describer is the correct one, and 
therefore it is here enumerated as a subspecies of argillaceago, notwithstanding 
my contrary statement in 1914 (Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 330, sub No. 158 (1914)). 

I have 65 <J<J and 7 $$, all from Guelt-es-Stel, of which 11 rftf, 1 $ are ab. 
squamosa Rothsch. ( = f. 147 Oberthiir). 

54 <$<$, 6 $$ Guelt-es-Stel, September— November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult). 
ab. squamosa Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 330, sub No. 158 (1914) 
f Guelt-es-Stel). 

II tJ(J, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, September— November 1912-1913 (Faroult). 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. £3 

211. Antitype germana Rothsch. 

Antitype germana Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 330. No. 159 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

Polia rosinata Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 142. pi. xdvi. f. 4119 (1919) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

Mr. Oberthiir as usual has renamed my insect, because I had not figured it. 
7 cJcJ, 3 $? Guelt-es-Stel, September— October 1913 (V. Faroult). 

1 <J in the British Museum from same source ex Tring Museum. 

212. Antitype hagar Rothsch. (PI. XVII. f. 1.) 

Antitype hagar Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xix. p. 125. No. 4 (1912) (Bou Saada). 

2 <J(J Bou Saada, March— April 1911-1912 (V. Faroult). 

213. Antitype sahariensis Rothsch. 

Antitype sahariensis Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Nat. Iilbt. (8) xvi. p. 251. No. 23 (1915) (Rharis). 
Polia salmonea Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 142. pi. xdvi. f. 418 (1919) (Biskra). 

Once more Mr. Oberthiir creates a useless synonym. 

I have received 3 specimens of this rare insect ; I had completely overlooked 
the Colomb-Bechar specimen. 

1 <$ Colomb-Bechar, February 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Rharis, Central Sahara. 
April 1914- (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 1 jj Djebel Antar, May 1918 (V. Faroult), 

214. Antitype discalis Rothsch. 

Antitype discalis Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xix. p. 125. No. 3 (1912). 

1 cJ, 1 ? Batna, October 1910 and 1912 (A. Nelva and Faroult). 

215. Antitype rosea Rothsch. 

Antitype rebecca ab. rosea Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 330. sub No. 157 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 
Epuntla concolor Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. p. 143. pi. xdvii. ff. 4120, 4121 (1919) (Geryville). 

In 1914 I wrongly identified this insect with rebecca Stdgr. 

It therefore is rather unfortunate that my aberrational name rosea has to 
stand for the species. 

The ground-colour varies from whitish cream or bufHsh grey to rosy or 
salmony cinnamon. 

The ab. suffusa is densely powdered with mouse-grey scales. 

I have 37 <J<J, 5 $$, all from Guelt-es-Stel. 

37 <5S, 5 ?$ Guelt-es-Stel, September— October 1912—1913 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum 2 <$■$ Guelt-es-Stel ex Tring Museum. 

216. Eumichtis lichenea (Hiibn.). 

Noclua lichenea Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmetl. Noct. ff. 562, 563 (1827). 

I have 71 Mauretanian specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912-1913 (V. 
Faroult) ; Environs de Batna (A. Nelva coll.) ; Aflou October 1916, Hammam 
R'hira February 1918, Lalla Marnia October 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
October — November 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, November 1918 (P. 
Rotrou) . 



54 NOVJTATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920, 

217. Aporophyla chioleuca (Herr.-Sch.). 

Polici chioleuca Hemch-Scliiiffer, Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur. vol. ii. p. 255. No. 221. Noel. pi. 16. ff. 76- 
78 (1845) (S. Europe). 

Sir George Hampson employs the name mioleuca Treit. [Schmett. Eur. vol. x. 
Suppl. pt. ii. p. 43 (1835) (Sicily)) for this insect. There is grave doubt as to 
this being correct ; Treitschke quotes his insect as being Hiibner's mioleuca, 
giving Samml. Schmett. Eur. Xoct. ff. 545, 746 as the citation ; now Hiibner's 
mioleuca has been quite correctly identified by Sir George Hampson as Agriopis 
aeruginea Hiibn., and must stand as aeruginea mioleuca Hiibn.. or only as aetu- 
ginea ab. mioleuca should it be shown that it occurs together with the type. 
Moreover, Treit scke lays stress in Ins description (p. 44) on the basal area of the 
forewing being marked grey and yellow, which is the case in aeruginea, but 
certainly not in the Aporophyla. I am therefore convinced that mioleuca and 
chioleuca Treit. (p. 46) are both referable to aeruginea Hiibn., and that the first 
name available for this insect is chioleuca H.-S. Mr. Oberthur considers 
mioleuca Rami), a distinct local race of chioleuca, but I feel sure it is only a more 
sombre-coloured aberration. 

The Tring series consists of 11 (JcJ from Hammam R'hira, December 1917 
(V. Faroult); Blida March 1915, Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Aflou, October 1916 (V. Faroult); Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 191S (M. Rotrou) ; 
Foret de Tenira, November 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

218. Aporophyla nigra (Haw.). 
Noctua nigra Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 192 (1809). 

Our series of Mauretanian examples at Tring consists of 50 specimens from 
Guelt-es-Stel October — November 1913, Aflou October 1916, Lalla Marnia 
November 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, November 1916 (M. Rotrou). 

219. Eombycia chretieni (Rothsch.). 

Calophasia chretieni Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 327. No. 137 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 
Bombycia viminalis emir Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 146. pi. xdvi. II. 4122, 4123 (1919) 
(Sebdou, Lauibessa). 

Mr. Oberthur has placed this insect as a subspecies of viminalis Fabr. and 
of course renames it emir because I did not figure it. 

It is certainly a distinct species and not a race of viminalis ; but it may 
turn out to be angularis Chret. If, however, the drawing in the British Museum 
made from Mr. Chretien's type is correct, it is not angularis, for the hindwing in 
$ angularis is white and the pattern is different. 

I have at Tring 9 $<$, 27 $$, viz. 2 JJ, 2 ?$ Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
1 $ Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 2 ?$ Guelt-es-Stel, 
May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Sakamodi, August 1912 (V. Faroult). 

The $ from Sakamodi is different from the 5 other $$ ; the hindwings aro 
nearly white, the orbicular stigma is smaller, rounder, and more distinct, and the 
central one-third of the forewings is much blacker ; this is probably aiigularis 
Chret. 

[Valeria oleagina (Schiff. & Den.). 

Bombyx olexvjina Schulerm tiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 59 (1775) (Vienna). 
I have not received this species from Mauretania.] 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 55 

220. Meganephria oxyacanthae (Linn.). 

Phalaena oxyacanthae Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 516. No. 113 (1758). 

1 have only received 3 specimens of this insect from Algeria. 

2 ^ Hammam R'hira, December 1917 and January 1918 (V. Faroult) ; 
1 ^ Environs de Batna, 1914 (A. Nelva coll.). 

Mr. Oberthur unites the Algerian examples with oxyacanthae benedictina 
Stdgr., but my 3 specimens from Algeria are very different from all my 226 speci- 
mens of o. benedictina from Amasia. The Algerian form will probably require a 
new subspecific name, but I have too few to venture on this course. 

[Agriopis aprilina bouveti D. Lucas. 

Agriopis bouveti Daniel Lucas, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1905. p. 51. pi. 5. ff. 2, 3 (Le Tarf). 
I have never received this.] 

221. Trigonophora meticulosa (Linn.). 

Pluilaena meticulosa Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 513. No. 95 (175S) (Sweden). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 75 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, 
May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September— October 1917-1918 (M. 
Rotrou) ; Environs de Batna (A. Nelva coll.) ; Am Draham September 1911, 
Boghari May 1913, Hammam R'hira March 1916 (V. Faroult). 

222. Rhizotype fiammea (Esp.). 
Bombyx fiammea Esper, Schmelt. vol. iii. p. 269. No. 79. pi. 53. f. 3 (1785) (South Italy). 

Mr. Oberthur uses Hubner's name of empyrea for this species, because he 
says the name fiammea has been applied to so many noctuids. As, however, they 
all belong to different genera and subfamilies, the danger of mistakes is not so 
formidable as Mr. Oberthur thinks ; certainly in this case it cannot justify the 
discarding of a name which has 32 years' priority over that of Hiibner. 

My Algerian material is very poor, 1 8 <$<$, 5 ?? from Lambessa and Environs 
de Batna, October 1912-1914 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, November 1917 
(M. Rotrou) ; Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

223. Rhizotype crassicornis obscura (Oberth.). 

Phlogophora crassicornis obscura Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 152. pi. cdlxxxii. ff. 
3974, 3975 (1919) (Lambessa). 

Mr. Oberthur on pages 148-152 gives an elaborate history of jodea H.-S. 
and very clearly points out the differences between the present species and that 
one. While both jodea and crassicornis occur together in Europe, in Mauretania 
only crassicornis occurs. Mr. Oberthur points out also that Algerian crassicornis 
differs considerably from those of Digne ; he, however, only names a $ aberration 
of it. As the whole of the Algerian crassicornis are different from typical Digne 
specimens, Mr. Oberthiir's aberrational name becomes the subspecific nime, 
and the Mauretanian form must be called Rhizotype. crassicornis obscura (Oberthur). 

The Tring series is very poor, 16 rJJ, 4 $$ from Lambessa and Batna, 
October 1912-1914 (A. Nelva coll.). 



56 Novitates Zoolocicae XXVII. 1920. 

224. Euplexia lucipara leonhardi Rebel. 

Euplexia leonltardi Rebel, Verk. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wim, vol. 59. p. 331. No. 1. text fig. 2 (1909) 
(Alma). 

Of this species the Tring series of Mauretanian examples consists of 129 
specimens from A'in Draham, August — September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Environs 
d' Alger, March- April, 1906-1911 (W. R. and E. H. and Dr. Nissen) ; Guelt-es- 
Stel September 1913, Environs de Setif 1911 (V. Faroult). This is a darker, 
duskier local subspecies, but the pattern differences given by the author are 
not confirmed in my series of 129 specimens. 

225. Polyphaenis xanthochloris graslini C'ulot. 

Polyphaenis xanthochloris var. graslini C'ulot, Noel, el Geom. a" Ear. pt. i. vol. i. p. 200. pi. 37. f. 5 (1913) 
(Castille). 

My two Mauretanian specimens agree well with Culot's figure of the 
Castille specimen, allowing for the difference of sex. 

1 (J Ai'n Draham, September 1910 (V. Faroult) ; 1 <$ El Mahouna, September 
1919 (V. Faroult). 

226. Luperina leucophaea (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena leucophaea Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ante. Syst. Werlc. Schmelt. Wienergeg. p. 82 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

This insect is stated b}- Mr. Oberthiir to be very abundant near Lambessa, 
but I have only received 2 specimens. 

2 £3 Environs de Batna, 1914 (A. Nelva coll.). 

227. Scotogramma sodae rosacea subsp. nov. 

Mr. Oberthiir states that Algerian examples of sodae Ramb. are much more 
rose-coloured than French examples. This is a constant character, and so I have 
named this form rosacea. 

Our series consists of 27 examples from El Mesrane June 1913, Bou Saada 
May 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra, March— April 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H.). 

The British Museum has 1 q Gafsa, Tunisia, 1913, G. C. Champion; 1 3 
Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord Walsingham. 

228. Scotogramma trifolii cinnamomina Rothsch. 

Scotogramma cinnamomina Rothschild, Xovit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 121. No. 36 (1913) (Nza-ben-Rzig). 

The Mauretaman examples are all more rosy-cinnamon, less grey, in tint 
than European ones, and so my name, given to an extra strikingly coloured 
specimen, must stand for the subspecies. 

Sir George Hampson and others have united with the typical form of this 
species treitschkei Boisd. ; this is, however, erroneous, as the genitalia are very 
different ; treitschkei is identical with Hiibner's pugnax, so this species will have 
to stand as Scotogramma pugnax (Hiibn.). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 285 specimens from Bou Saada 
April— May 1911-1912, Laghouat and Tilghemt April 1912, El Kantara March- 
April 1911, Environs de Setif 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia May 1912, Oued 



NOVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 57 

Nca April 1914, Sands of El Arich May 1912, Mraier February 1912 (Hartert 
and Hilgert) ; Bordj Chegga, March 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra March — April 
1908-1909, Bordj Saada April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs de Batna, 
1913-1914 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam 
Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. 
Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1908-1913 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Perregaux 
October 1915, Aflou October 1916, Guelt-es-Stel May— November 1912-1913 
(V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, June- August 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Mecheria 
June 1918, Ain Sefra May 1914, Colomb-Bechar March— April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Foret de Tenira October 191S, Tlemcen August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Environs de 
Taourirt, Morocco, July 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl. 

229. Scotogramma chimaera sp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 6.) 

(J. Differs from t. cinnamomina in its large size, bright sandy cinnamon ground- 
colour, proportionately narrower wings, very large and rounded reniform stigma, 
and the black submarginal band on the fore wings. On the hind wings all the 
veins are picked out in blackish grey. 

Length of forewing, 19 mm. ; expanse, 43 mm. 

1 <$ Ain Sefra, March 1915 (V. Faroult). 

230. Cardepia deserticola Hmpsn. (PI. XVII. ff. 2, 3.) 

Cardepia irrisor ab. deserticola Hampson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. v. p. 235, sub No. 1457, 

1905 (Syria). 
Cardepia affinis Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 122. No. 40 (1913) (Kef-el-Dohr). 

Sir George Hampson when diagnosing his new genus Cardepia gave as the 
principal difference the reniform truncate and strongly protruding frontal 
prominence, which was excised below. I may add from examination at Tring 
that this prominence has a distinct rolled edge or rim. 

Now Sir George Hampson places in this genus Cardepia two species, 
irrisor Ersch. and nova Smith. 

Under irrisor he describes from Syria an aberration under the name ab. 
deserticola. I have a number of specimens agreeing with his ab. deserticola from 
the desert regions of Algeria, all showing the strongly developed reniform frontal 
process, with a distinct rolled rim. 

When, however, Dr. Jordan examined our Ural and Turkestan irrisor, he 
found that the frontal prominence was quite different, being round, flatter, and 
devoid of the rolled rim. 

We found 12 specimens, mostly from the Central Hauts Plateaux of Algeria, 
agreeing in the shape and morphology of the frontal prominence with irrisor. It 
therefore becomes quite clear that at least two species have been confounded 
under the name irrisor, and they must for the present stand as Cardepia irrisor 
(Ersch.) (PI. XVII. f. 4) and Cardepia deserticola Hmpsn. 

Of deserticola we have at Tring 30 Mauretanian specimens from El Outaya 
March 1911, Bou Saada May 1910, 1911, Guelt-es-Stel March, El Mesrane 
June 1913, Colomb-Bechar March— April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Bordj Chegga, 
February— March 1912 and 1917 (Hartert and Hilgert, and Faroult) ; Kef-el- 



58 « NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Dohr, February 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Bir Djefair, March 1909 (W. R. and 
E. H.). 

The British Museum has 2 £$, 1 $ Hammam-cs-Salahin, February — April 
1904, Lord Walsingham. 

231. Cardepia irrisor mauretanica subsp. 'nov. (PI. XVII. f. 5.) 

^$. Differ from irrisor irrisor in having rounder shorter wings, in the ground- 
colour of the forewings being browner less whitish, and in the hindwings being 
much less white. The pattern on the forewings is also much less distinct. 

9 $$, 1 $ El Mesrane, June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 1 £ Bou Saada, May 1912 (V. 
Faroult) ; 1 ^ Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; I J Perregaux, Sep- 
tember 1915 (V. Faroult). 

This species has the frontal process rounded, and the rolled rim found in 
deserticola is absent. 

232. Miselia oleracea variegata (Aust.). 

Mamwlra variegata Austaut, Le Nat. ser. i. vol. vii. p. 142 (1885) (Oudjda). 

Monsieur Oberthiir is quite right when he says that the ground-colour of 
the Mauretanian race is vinous maroon rather than reddish ochraceous. He 
is also right in saying that the late Mr. Warren had not any accurate knowledge 
of the Mauretanian form of oleracea. I find under ab. variegata Aust. in the col- 
lection at Tring (the part arranged by Mr. Warren), 7 specimens from the 
Issykul and Thian Shan regions agreeing exactly with the figure in Seitz of 
variegata, i.e. of a greyish ochraceous colour, while Mr. Warren had placed 7 
Mauretanian examples among the series of typical oleracea. 

The Tring series of oleracea variegata (vera) consists of 104 specimens from 
Hammam R'hira, May 19CS-1917 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Environs 
d' Alger, March— May 1907-1911 (W. R. and E. H., and Dr. Nissen) ; Environs 
de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Mazagan, Morocco, February 1903 (W. Riggenbaeh) ; 
A'in Draham, August— September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, Messer, 
September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Environs de Taourirt, Morocco, July 1918 (M. 
Rotrou) ; Souk Ahras, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; El Mahouna, June 1919 
(V. Faroult). 

233. Eumichtis solieri (Boisd.). 

Hadena solieri Uoisduval, I ml. Meth. p. 120 (1S40) (Provence, Sicily). 

Our series from Mauretania consists of 198 specimens from Mazagan and 
Mhoiwla, Morocco, October 1902, Seksawa, Morocco, April 1905 (W. Riggenbaeh) ; 
Oudjda, Morocco, November 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Lalla Marnia, November 1914 
(V. Faroult) ; Foret de Tenira, October 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes 
September— October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Bou Saada, March 1912 (V. Faroult), 
February— March 1908 and 1916 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; El Kantara, 
Biskra, March— April 1911 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Lambiridi, October 
1910 (V. Faroult) ; Lambessa and Environs de Batna, 1911-1914 (A. Nelva coll.) ; 
Hammam Meskoutine, April 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; A'in Draham, September — 
October 1911 (V. Faroult); Bordj-ben-Aneridj, November 1911 (V. Faroult); 
Hammam R'hira, January— May 191 1-1918 (W.R., E. H., and K. J., and Faroult) ; 
Environs d'Alger, March— May 1907-1912 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., and Dr. 
Nissen) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 59 

234. Parastichtis arabs arabs (Oberth.). 

Hadena solieri var. (ou aberr.) arabs Oberthiir, Elud. d'Entom. livr. vi. p. 88. pi. xi. f. 8 (1881) 
(Sebdou). 

Mr. Oberthiir quite rightly says that standfussi Turati and ribbei Piingl. are 
only local subspecies of arabs ; of which there are now 5 subspecies described : 
(1) arabs arabs Oberth., (2) arabs biskrae Oberth., both confined to Algeria, the 
first in the Hauts Plateaux region, the second in the Desert Zone ; (3) arabs 
standfussi Turati ; (4) arabs ribbei Piingl. ; (5) arabs polyglypha Stdgr. Of the 
three latter we know No. 3 from Sicily and the coast region near Alger, while 
No. 4 is so far known only from Spain and No. 5 is known only from Palestine. 

Of arabs arabs we have at Tring 28 specimens from Sebdou, May 1918 (P. 
Rotrou) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Batna, May 1915 (A. Nelva 
coll.). 



235. Parastichtis arabs standfussi (Turati). 

Hadena standfussi Turati, Nat. Sic. vol. xx. p. 27. pi. vi. ff. 17, 18 (1908) (Busambra). 

This form is at once recognisable by its much greyer ground-colour, though 
not so clear grey as in arabs ribbei. 

Described from Sicily, the specimens recorded below are, I believe, the first 
record for Algeria. 

1 (J Blida les Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 1 J Sebdou, June 1918 
(P. Rotrou). 

[Parastichtis arabs biskrae (Oberth.). 

Hadena arabs liskrae Oberthiir, Etiid. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 157 (1919) (Biskra). 
I have no specimens of this pale sandy desert form.] 

236. Eremobia alpigena (Boisd.). 

Hadena alpigena Boisduval, Icon. Hist. Lipid. Tome ii. pi. 84. f. 5 (1834). 

The series of this insect at Tring consists of 1 specimen from Digne (Victor 
Cotte) and 26 from Algeria taken by ourselves. 
26 Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.). 



237. Eumichtis monochroma (Esp.). 

Phalaena monochroma Espcr, Schmett. vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 521. No. 21G. pi. civ. ff. 3-6 (1791) (Florence). 

Of this species the Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 47 specimens from 
Environs de Batna May 1915, Lambessa October 1915 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Aflou, 
October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912-1913 
(V. Faroult) ; El Mahouna, September 1919 (V. Faroult). Of these 20 are the 
grey form and 26 the dark form, and 1 is ab. suberis. 



60 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

238. Eumichtis roboris cerris (Boisd.). 

Hadena roboris var. cerris Boisduval, Ind. Meth. p. 121, sub No. 961 et footnote (1) (1840) (Spain, 
S. France). 

Mr. Oberthiir says that this insect is common at Lambessa in October and 
November, and that Mr. Harold Powell took over 80 specimens ; I have only 
3 Algerian specimens, and a specimen without locality out of the Sand collection. 

1 <J Hammam Meskoutine, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) : 1 cJ, 1 ? Aflou, 
October 1910 (V. Faroult). 

239. Dryobota furva (Esp.). 

Phalaena furva Esper, Schmetl. vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 530. pi. 158. ff. 1, 2 (1789) (Florence). 

Here again Mr. Oberthiir states that this insect is very common, while I have 
only received from Algeria 4 specimens. Mr. Oberthiir employs the name occlusa 
for this species and gives as the author Esper. The name occlusa, however, was 
given by Hiibner in 1827, 38 years subsequent to the date of Esper's furva, and 
so the latter must be used. 

3 (J(J, 1 ? Batna (A. Nelva coll.) ; 1 r? Guelt-es-Stel, October 191 3 (V. Faroult). 

239a. Eumichtis accipitrina (Esp.). 

Phalaena accipitrina Esper, Schmett. vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 393. pi. 129. f. 4 (1788) (Erlangen). 

The series of this species at Tring consists of 56 Mauretanian specimens from 
Aflou, October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Lambessa and Batna, October 1911-1915 (A. 
Nelva) ; Aflou October 1916, Guelt-es-Stel October— November 1913 (V. Faroult). 

240. Eumichtis protea (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena protea Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 84 (1775) (Vienna). 

Of this very variable insect I have 154 Algerian specimens from Environs de 
Batna and Lambessa, October 1911-1915 (A. Nelva coll.) ; Aflou, October 1916 
(V. Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, October 1913 (V. Faroult). 

241. Lophoterges millierei (Stdgr.). 

Lithocampa millierei Staudinger, Berl. Entotn. Zeitschr. vol. xiv. p. 119 (1S70) (Catalonia). 

I have only received 1 <$, 4 $$ of this very beautiful species. 

1 $, 1 ?Sebdou July 1918, 1 $ Foret de Tenira August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 
1 $ Hammam R'hira, May 1916 (V. Faroult) ; 1 ? El Mahouna, July 1919 
(V. Faroult). 

242. Dichonea areola mustapha (Oberth). 

Xylorampa lithorhiza mustapha Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 164. pi. xdvi. f. 4124 
(1919) (Lambessa). 

Mr. Oberthiir uses for this species Borkhausen's name of lithorhiza. because 
Guenee used it, but he acknowledges that it is the areola of Esper. As Esper's 
name antedates Borkhausen's by 3 years, the species must stand as areola Esp. 

We have at Tring 7 Mauretanian specimens from Alger, March 1914 (V. 
Faroult) ; Blida February 1916, Hassi Baba November 1917, Hammam 
R'hira February 1918, Lalla Marnia November 1914, Guelt-es-Stel October 
1912 (V. Faroult). 



Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 61 

243. Axylia exsoleta (Linn.). 

Plialaena exsoleta Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 515. No. 104 (1758). 

Almost all authors subsequent to Linnaeus spell the specific name of this 
species exolela, but Linnaeus spells it exsoleta, both as regards the name he 
bestows on the present insect and in the diagnosis ; he also spells it so in a 
footnote. Now although the method of spelling the adjective exoletus is more 
often used than the spelling exsoletus, both are correct Latin according to 
standard dictionaries, and therefore as Linnaeus deliberately uses the spelling 
with the s this must be adopted. 

This insect appears to be rather uncommon in Mauretania. We have 6 
specimens from Chauzy 1914 (M. Rotrou) ; Blida February 1916, Guelt-es-Stel 
March— September 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 1 larva A'in Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; 1 larva Hammam R'hira (V. Faroult); 1 $ Aflou, October 1916 (V. 
Faroult). 

244. Lithophane semibrunnea (Haw.). 

Nociua semibrunnea Haworth, Lepid. Brit. p. 171 (1809). 

The Algerian specimens I have are greyer than European ones. Mr. Oberthur 
also mentions this, but states that Tunisian (Am Draham) specimens are very 
red. As I have too few to judge, I refrain from naming it. 

1 $ Batna October 1910, 1 £ Perregaux November 1915, 2 $$, 1 $ Hammam 
R'hira February 1918 (V. Faroult). 

245. Giapholitha lapidea ochreimacula (Rothsch.). 

Cloantha ochreimacula Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 329. No. 148 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

It was unfortunate that I described this insect from the form with the 
yellow reniform. 

The Algerian subspecies differs from the European by being a duller purer 
grey with the pattern more obliterated. 

1 S Guelt-es-Stel, November 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 1 <J Batna, October 1910 
(V. Faroult). 

246. Cucullia verbasci (Linn.). 

Plialaena verbasci Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 515. No. 105 (175S). 

T never received this insect in any numbers, only 7 specimens coming to 
hand in eleven years. 

1 c?, 1 $ Hussein Dey, Alger, April 1910 (Captain Holl) ; 2 <$£ Batna, May 
1915 (A. Nelva) ; 1 <J Hammam Meskoutine, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 1 <J 
Souk Ahras, 1 <$ Tebessa, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) 

247. Cucullia thapsiphaga Treit. 

Cucullia tlutpsipltarja Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. 3. p. 120. No. 16 (1826) (Styrian Frontier). 

Of this species I only received 1 <J, 2 §§. 

1 cJ, 1 $ Batna, May 1912 (A. Nelva coll.) ; 1 $ Hammam R'hira, May 1916 
(V. Faroult). 



62 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII, 1920. 

248. Cucullia scrophulariphaga Ramb. 

Cucullia scrophulariphaga Rani bur, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1833, p. 20. pi. 1. f. 4 (Corsica). 

Of this species I have also not received many. 

5 cJcJ, 1 ? Environs de Batna, May 1912 (A. Nelva). 

249. Cucullia oberthuri Rothsch. (PI. XVI. f. 6.) 

Cucullia oberthuri Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) viii. p. 232. No. 3 (1911) (Bou Saada). 

This is the insect Mr. Oberthur identified as anceps Stdgr. I have compared 
it with anceps from various localities at Tring and in the British Museum, and Sir 
G. Hampson agrees that it is a distinct species and not anceps (PI. XVI. f. 5). 

The series now at Tring has been augmented by 3 specimens to 7 in all. 
4 (JcJ Bou Saada April —May 1911, 1 (J El Kantara March— April 1911, 1 <J 
Hammam R'hira April 1917 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and 
K. J.). 

250. Cucullia blattariae (Esp.). 

Phalaena blattariae Esper. Schmett. vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 518. No. 214. pi. 154. f. 4 (1786) (Florence). 
1 cj Plaines au Sud de Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

251. Cucullia scrophulariphila Stdgr. 

Cucullia scrophulariphila Staudinger, Stett. Entom. Zeit. vol. xx. p. 215. No. 10 (1859) (Chiclana). 

The ground-colour is more whitish in my Algerian specimens than in Spanish 
ones, but this seems to be the case in all the Mauretanian C'ucullias of the verbasci 
group. The Khenchela specimen is also much darker than the A'in Sefra ones. 

1 <J Khenchela, June 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 2 (J;?, 1 $ A'in Sefra, March 1915 
(V. Faroult). 

251a. Cucullia biskrana berth. 

Cucullia biskrana Oberthur, Elud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 167. pi. xdvi. ff. 4125, 4126 (1919) 

(Biskra). 

I have only received 1 J of this species. 

1 o 20 kil. S. of Bledet Amar, December 1913 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

252. Cucullia beata sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 7.) 

jj. This I consider the handsomest species of the innbratica group. 

Antennae brown, basal 10th white: head ash-grey: thorax pale bluish ash- 
grey ; abdomen paler, more whitish ash-grey, slightly tinged with cream colour 
laterally, median dorsal line and anal tuft darker. 

Forewing pale bluish ash-grey, slightly freckled with brown-grey scales, 
nervures in outer half darker, a median black line from base to halfway along 
and below median nervure followed by a much heavier oblique black band at 
the base of which is a cross bar. Above vein 4 is a narrow black line. 

Hindwings semi-vitreous white, nervures and marginal band ash-grey. 

Length of forewing, 17 mm. ; expanse, 39 mm. 

1 <J Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

This species is nearly allied to ianiceti Schiff., but is much smaller, and the 
black markings are very different. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII, 1920. 63 

253. Cucullia chamomillae calendulae Trcit. 
Cucullia chamomillae var. calendulae Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. x. pt. 2. p. 127 (1835) (Sicily). 

I have 61 Algerian specimens from Guelt-es-Stel, March — November 1912- 
1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Bou Saada, March— May 1911-1912 (V. 
Faroult) ; Souk Ahras and Tebessa, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Khenchela, 
May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; El Kantara, March— April 1911 (W. R. and E. H., 
and Faroult) ; Bordj Chegga, February 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Lalla 
Marnia May 1914, Hammam R'hira February 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Berrou- 
aghia, April 1914 (V. Faroult); Mazagan, Morocco, March — April 1902 (W. 
Riggenbach). Among these are several fine examples of ab. amoenissima 
Oberthur, Etud. Lepid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 169. pi. xdvi. f. 4129 (1919) (Biskra). 

In the British Museum is 1 $ Morocco, January — February 1902, Meade 
Waldo. 

254. Cucullia santolinae Ramb. 

Cucullia santolinae Rambur, Ann, Soc. Entom. France, vol. iii. p. 387. pi. 8. f. 4 (1834) (Corsica). 

Of this species the series at Tring from Mauretania numbers 37 from Guelt- 
es-Stel, March— April 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Bou Saada, 
May 1912 (V. Faroult); El Kantara March — April 1911, Boudj-ben-Aneridj 
November 1911, Hammam R'hira February 1918 (V. Faroult); Batna (Nelva 
coll.) ; Khenchela May 1912, Hammam Meskoutine April 1914 (W. R. and 
K. J.) ; Environs d' Alger and Hussein Dey, January — December 1908-1911 
(W. R. and E. H, and Captain Holl) ; Mazagan, Morocco, February 1902 (W. 
Riggenbach). One of the 2 specimens from Hammam Meskoutine was bred from 
a larva found April 1914 and emerged at Tring March 1915. 

255. Copicucullia syrtana (Mab.). 

Cucullia sijrlana Mabille, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1888, p. 51 (Gab&s). 

Of this species the Tring series consists of 85 specimens from Colomb-Bechar 
February— March 1912, Bir Stil March 1917, El Kantara March— April 1911, 
Bordj Chegga March 1917, Ai'n Draham September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Bordj 
Chegga, Bordj Saada, Nca-ben Rzig, February 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 
Ghardala, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Arefidji, March 1912 (Hartert and 
Hilgert) ; Biskra, March 1909 (W. R. and E. H.); Oued Abou, January 1914 
(Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

In British Museum 3 $,$, 5 $$ Hammam-es-Salahin, January — March 1904, 
Lord Walsingham. 

256. Empusada argentina (Fabr.). 

Noctua argentina Fabricius, Mant. Ins. vol. ii. p. 162. No. 185 (1787) (South Russia). 

The Tring series from Mauretania consists of 50 specimens from A'in Sefra, 
May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Mecheria, May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Batna (A. 
Nelva and Faroult) ; Bou Saada, May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Tilghemt, April 1911- 
1912 (W. R. and E. H., and V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
Les Pins August 1918, Environs de Taourirt September 1918 (M. Rotrou). 



g4 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

257. Brachygalea albolineata (Blach.). 

Oolophasia albolineata Blachier, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1905. p. 53 (Gafsa). 

Mr. Warren was perfectly correct in Seitz, when he said that Brachygalea 
leucorliabda and Criophasia albolineata Hampson are one and the same. As the 
Zoological Record only comes out more than a year later than the one recorded, 
it is not astonishing that Sir George Hampson missed Mr. Blachier's article ; 
but it is certainly an unfortunate slip, that he did not notice that his leucorhabda 
was the same as the insect he received from Bang-Haas under the name albolineata. 
As leucorliabda is designed as the type of Brachygalea and albolineata as that of 
Criophasia and Brachygalea has 114 pages priority over Criophasia, it is quite 
evident that Brachygalea must stand as the genus-name. 

Our series at Tring from Mauretania numbers 167 specimens from Biskra, 
February— March 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Bir Djefair, March 1909 (W. R. 
and E. H.) ; Ain Sefra, March— May 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; 
Guelt-es-Stel April— May 1913, Bou Saada March 1912, El Kantara March- 
April 1912 (V. Faroult); Bordj Chegga, February — March 1912-1917 (Hartert 
and Hilgert, and Faroult) ; Kef-el-Dohr, Mraier February, Arefidji, north of 
Ouargla March 1912, Oued Nca April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

In the British Museum are 1 <$ Tunis ; 3 <$$, 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 
1904, Lord Walsingham. 

258. Hypomecia quadrivirgula (Mab.). 

Epimecia quadrivirgula Mabille, Bull. Soc. Enlom. France, 1888, p. 51 (Gabes). 

Our series at Tring of this species consists of 138 specimens from Guelt-es- 
Stel, October— November 1912-1913 (V. Faroult); Alger January 1914, Bou 
Saada March 1912, El Mesrane November 1913, Hassi Baba November 1917 
(V. Faroult). 

259. Rabinopteryx subtilis (Mab.). 

Epimecia subtilis Mabille, Bull. Soc. Enlom. France, 1888, p. 51 (Gabes). 

Mabille was almost right in placing this insect in Epimecia, as it is next to 
that genus, differing in the upturned instead of porrect palpi. 

Our Tring series numbers 258 from Guelt-es-Stel March — May 1913, Bou 
Saada April 1911, Berrouaghia April 1914, Mecheria May 1918 (V. Faroult); 
Bordj Chegga, February— March 1912-1917 (Hartert and Hilgert, and Faroult) ; 
Biskra, March— April 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Ain Sefra, March— May 
1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 <J, 4 $$> Hammam-es-Salahin, March — April 1904, 
Lord Walsingham. 

260. Rabinopteryx <nelvai sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 4.) 

$. Antennae brown ; head and thorax brown-grey variegated and irrorated 
with dark brown ; abdomen yellowish pale grey. 

Forewing brown-grey, densely striolated with dark brown ; 3 oblique bars 
on middle of costal area and the orbicular and reniform brown, a somewhat 
obscured white band below median vein from base almost to termen, beneath 



NOVITATES ZOOT.OGICAE XXVII. 1920. 65 

which and coalescing with it is a similar black-brown band. Hindwings creamy 
grey, somewhat suffused with brownish grey. 

Length of forewing, 13 mm. ; expanse, 28 mm. 

1 $ Batna, 1914 (A. Nelva coll.). 

261. Catamecia mauretanica Stdgr. 

Catamecia jordana var. mauretanica Staudinger, Cat. Lepid. Palaear. Faun. pt. i. p. 213. No. 2192ft 
(1901) (Biskra). 

Mr. Oberthiir, agreeing with Mr. Culot and Staudinger, places this insect 
as a subspecies of jordana Stdgr., but after examining it with Sir George Hampson 
I have come to the conclusion that it is a distinct species, both from jordana 
Stdgr. and minima Swinh. (=bacheri Stdgr.). It differs from both in the white 
claviform patch edged with black. 

1 have 15 specimens. 

2 Biskra, March 1909-1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 12 Bordj Chegga, 1 Bir Stil, 
March 1917 (V. Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Tkout, April 1906, 3 $$, 3 ?$ Hammam-es- 
Salahin, April 1904, Lord Walsingham. 

[Catamecia jordana balestrei D. Lucas. 

Catamecia jordana var. balestrei Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1907, p. 181 (Nefta). 
I have never received this species.] 

262. Omia cyclopea (Grasl.). 

Cleopliana cyclopea Graslin, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. v. 570. pi. 17 B. f. 7 (1836) (Alfakar, 
Grenada). 

All the Omias are extremely rare. 

1 c?, 1 ? Lambessa (Staudinger) ; 1 $ Algeria (Deyrolle) ; 1 $ El Kantara, 
May 1909 (W. R. and E. H.). 

263. Omia oberthuri Allard. 

Omia oberthuri Gaston Allard, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. sxxvi (aer. iv. vol. 3). p. 320. pi. 6. 
ff. 3a, 36 (1807) (Lambessa). 

1 (J, 1 ? Lambessa (Staudinger). 

264. Amephana warionis (Oberth.). 

Cleophana warionis Oberthiir, Elud. Entom. livr. i. p. 48. pi. 2. f. 3 (1876) (Bou Saada). 

Our series at Tring contains 185 specimens from Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. 
and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; 
Bou Saada March — April 1912, El Outaya March, El Mantara March — April 

1911 (Victor Faroult) ; Biskra, Gafsa, Tunis (Staudinger) ; Tilghemt, April 1911- 

1912 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Mecheria, Djebel Antar, May 1918 (V. 
Faroult) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 2 $$ Tunis, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 
5 



66 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

265. Cleophana boetica diluta Rothsch. (PL XV. ff. 16, 17 [18].) 

Cleophana boeiica diluta Rothschild, Ann. Hag. Sat. Hist. (8) viii. p. 232 (1911) (Bou Saada). 

Mr. Oberthiir as usual ignores my name, because unaccompanied by a figure ; 
but acknowledges himself that the Algerian form is paler than the two European 
races. 

Our series at Tring contains 409 specimens from Lalla Marnia May 1914, 
Bou Saada March — April 1912, Berrouaghia April 1914, Masser Mines May 
1914, Mecheria May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Khenchela, May 1912, Souk Ahras 
April, Tebessa April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.); Batna, May 1915 (A. Nelva) ; 
Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult); Sebdou, 
May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

In British Museum 1 (J Bou Saada ex Tring Museum. 

265a. Amephana warionis x CI. boetica diluta. (PL XV. f. 19.) 

This specimen, taken at Guelt-es-Stel by Victor Faroult, April 8th, 1913, 
appears to me undoubtedly a hybrid between the above two species. It is some- 
what intermediate in pattern, and while the general facies and colour are that 
of boetica diluta it is strongly suffused with green. 

266. Omphalophana serrata (Treit.). 

Cleophana serrata Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. (Suppl.) vol. x. pt. 2. p. 121 (1835) (Sicily). 

This species is rather rare in Mauretania. 

We have from Mauretania 100 specimens at Tring from Mazagan, Morocco, 
April 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Morocco (Staudinger) ; Moroccan Frontier S.W. of 
Lalla Marnia May 1914, Lalla Marnia May 1914 (V. Faroult); Environs d'Alger 
May 1908, Hammam Meskoutine April, Souk Ahras April 1914, Khenchela 
May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.); Am Draham and Djerba, Tunisia (Staudinger, 
Bartels, and Dannehl) ; Sidi Ferruch, April 1911 (Andre Thery) ; Hammam 
R'hira, May 1908-1917 (W. R., E. PL, and K. J., and Faroult) ; Batna, May 1915 
(A. Nelva) ; El Mahouna, May— June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

267. Cleophana jubata Oberth. 

Cleophana jubata Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. livr. xiii. p. 31. pi. 6. f. 40 (1890) (Gabes). 

This is a rare species. 

The Tring series contains 71 specimens from A'in Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. 
and E. H.) ; Mecheria May 1918, Bou Saada April — May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Tilghemt, April 1911 (VV. R. and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 
(W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 1 (J, 1 $ Tunis, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

268. Omphalophana pauli (Stdgr.). 

Cleophana pauli Staudinger, Iris, vol. iv. p. 30. pi. 4. f. 4 (1891) (Jerusalem). 

Of this species there are 74 Mauretanian specimens at Tring from Lalla 
Marnia April 1914, Mecheria May 1918, Berrouaghia April 1914, Guelt-es-Stel 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 67 

April— May 1913, Bou Saada March— April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Tunis (Stau- 
dinger) ; Ain Sefra, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.). 

In the British Museum 1 $ Tunis, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

269. Cleophana pectinicornis Stdgr. 

Cleophana pectinicornis Staudinger, Stett. Entom. Zeil. vol. xx. p. 215. No. 9 (1859) (Chiclana). 

This fine species is abundant in some localities in Algeria. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring numbers 454 specimens from Lalla Marnia 
May 1914, Bou Saada March— April 1912, El Kantara March— April 1911 (V. 
Faroult); Fontaine Chaude, April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Gafsa, Tunisia 
(Staudinger) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and 
Faroult) ; Sebdou, April 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

Mr. Oberthiii' states that the typical Spanish form of this insect differs from 
Mauretanian examples in the brown being duller and darker. I have never seen 
Spanish specimens, but Rambur's figure (Cat. Syst. Ins. de VAndal. pi. xii. f. 4) 
only shows the fringe of the forewings less yellow, otherwise it agrees exactly. 

In the British Museum 1 <J Tunis. 

270. Copiphana gafsana (Blach.). 

Cleophana gafsana Blachier, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1905. p. 53 (Gafsa). 

Mr. Oberthiir quite rightly points out that Cleophana albino, B.-H. is 
nothing but an albinistic gafsana Blach. and rightly says it is intermediate between 
Mr. Culot's figures 14 and 15, pi. 59. I propose for Mr. Culot's figure 14 the 
name of ab. intermedia ab. nov., so that there would be 3 named aberrations of 
yafsana, viz. (1) ab. intermedia Rothsch., pattern of wings fully developed, though 
much paler than typical form, on a pale ground-colour ; (2) ab. albina B.-H., 
ground-colour pure white, pattern partially obliterated ; (3) ab. blachieri Oberth., 
entirely white nervures showing darker. 

This insect appears to be much more confined to the desert regions. 

We have at Tring 62 specimens from Colomb-Bechar March — -April 1912, 
Bou Saada April 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Tilghemt, April 1911-1912 (W. R. and E. H., 
and Faroult) ; Gharda'ia, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Tunis (Staudinger) ; 
Bir Djefair, March 1909 ( W. R. and E. H.) ; Oued Nca April 1914, N. of El Golea 
March, Mraier March 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

In the British Museum 1 J, 1 $ Tunis. 

271. Cleophana vaulogeri Stdgr. 

Cleophana vattlogeri Staudinger, Iris, vol. xii. p. 378. pi. 5. f. 9 (1899) (Biskra). 

Mr. Oberthiir says this is very common ; I have only had few specimens 
compared to the numbers of some other species of this group. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 80 specimens from El Outaya 
March 1911, El Kantara March 1911, Ain Draham September 1911, Colomb 
Bechar March — April 1912, Bou Saada, Laghouat March — April 1912, Tilghemt 
April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Sefra May 1913, Biskra March— April 1908-1914 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

In the British Museum are 3 rftf, 3 $$ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord 
Walsingham. 



68 Novitates ZOOLOOI0A.E XXVII. 1920. 

272. Cleophana fatinia B.-H. (PI. XV. ff. 13-15.) 

OUophana fatima Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xx. p. 73. p. 3. f. 14 (1907) (Tunis, Gafsa, etc.). 

Both Herr Bang-Haas and Mr. Oberthiir have mixed up two species under 
the name fatima — Herr Bang-Haas when sending out specimens to clients and 
Mr. Oberthiir when figuring the species (Etud. Lipid. Camp. fasc. v. pt. i.) ; in 
fact Mr. Oberthiir has mixed more than two species, as his figure 599 agrees well 
with versicolor Stdgr. 

The diflluem-vaulogeri group are very difficult to unravel, but I am con- 
vinced that Staudinger and Hampson have treated too many good species as 
varieties of diffluens and its European relations. I shall figure these to show the 
differences more clearly to Mr. Oberthiir and his friends, who will not acknow- 
ledge any other method of identification. 

I have only 4 specimens of this species, which appears to be essentially 
Tunisian and very rare in Algeria. 1 specimen each from Gafsa, Tunisia 
(Staudinger) (co-type) ; Tilghemt, April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia, April 
1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Oued Xca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

In the British Museum 1 $ Tunis, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

273. Cleophana affinis sp. nov. (PI. XV. f. 6.) 

Differs from fatima at first sight by its larger size and bright rufous not 
yellowish grey ground-colour. 

This is the insect figured by Mr. Oberthiir (Etud. Lipid. Gomp. fasc. v. pt. i. 
ff. 596, 597, 598) as fatima Bang-Haas ; but which is not that species. This 
mistake probably arose through Mr. Oberthiir having received from Dresden 
some of the later specimens sent out by Bang-Haas as fatima, but if not, then it 
is much more easily accounted for, because the photographic figure of fatima 
in the Iris would be easily confounded with the present species. 

cj $. Head and thorax deep rufous, not cream-white as in fatima, variegated 
grey and dark brown edgings ; abdomen wood-brown not yellowish grey. 

Forewing rufous, not bluish grey washed with buff as in fatima ; the fringe 
is rufous and brown, not dark wood-grey and buff ; the postmedian line is much 
more deeply angled, especially at vein 5 ; the lunate mark in the centre of the 
reniform is rufous, not black as in fatima. Hindwing basal half yellowish wood- 
grey, not cream- white as in fatima. (Type ? Mecheria.) 

Length of forewing, fatima $, 10 mm. ; expanse, 24 mm. 

Length of forewing, affinis ?, 14 mm. ; expanse, 33 mm. 

16 specimens from Bou Saada May 1911, Guelt-es-Stel April, Bou Sedraia 
X. of Djelfa May 1913, Mecheria May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, May 1913 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

274. Cleophana chabordis Oberth. 

Cleophana chabordis Oberthiir, Elud. Entom. livr. i. p. 47. pi. ii. f. 2 (1876) (Bou Saada). 

This in the more southern and desert regions appears to be very common. 

The series at Tring numbers 543 specimens. Mr. Oberthiir, because the white 
variety named albicans Stdgr. was not figured, calls this albino aberration niveata. 
Although aberrations are not supposed to be subject to the law of priority, still 
Staudinger's name, having been given fourteen years earlier, ought, I think, to 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 69 

be used. The numerous specimens intermediate between the ab. albicans and 
normal chabordis I propose to call ab. semialbicans ab. nov. 

Our 547 examples are from El Kantara March — April 1911, Tilghemt April 
1912, El Hamel May 1912, Bou Saada March— April, Djebel Kerdada May 1912, 
Guelt-es-Stel April 1913, Colomb-Bechar March — April 1912, Bordj Chegga March, 
Bir Stil March 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra March— April 1908-1914, Mraier 
April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Laghouat, March— April 1911-1912 (W. R. and 
E. H., and Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, May— July 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and 
Faroult) ; Dehibat, Ain Draham, and Gafsa, Tunisia (Staudinger) ; South Oued 
Mya halfway between Ouargla and Touggourt, El Alia between Touggourt and 
Guerrara, Guerrara, Hassi Sidi Mahmud March — April 1912, Oued Nca April 
1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Oued Amrah, April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

Of the 547 specimens 102 are ab. semialbicans and 42 ab. albicans. 

In the British Museum are 3 (J^, 3 $$ Hammam-es-Salahin, March — April 
1 904, Lord Walsingham ; 1 <J ab. albicans, Tunis. 

275. Amephana anrita (Fabr.). 

Noctua aurila Fabrioius, Mant. Ins. vol. ii. p. 179. No. 282 (17S7) (Spain). 

The series at Tring from Mauritania consists of 512 examples from Moroccan 
Frontier S.W. of Lalla Marnia May 1914, Lalla Marnia May 1914, Berrouaghia 
April 1914, Bou Saada May 1914 (V. Faroult) ; Batna, May 1911-1915 (A. Nelva) ; 
Hammam Meskoutine April — May 1914, Tebessa and Sunk Ahras, April 1914 
(W. R. and K. J.); Khenchela, May— June 1911-1912 (W. R. and K. J., and 
Faroult) ; Environs d'Alger, April— May 1908 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., and Dr. 
Nissen) ; Sidi Ferruch, April 1914 (A. Thery) ; Les Pins, June 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Hammam R'hira, May 1908-1917 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Gabes, Tunisia 
(Staudinger); Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and 
Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, May 1918 (P. Rotrou); El Mahouna, June 
1919 (V. Faroult). 

Mr. Oberthiir employs for this species the name of dejeanii Dup., as aurita 
Fabr. is not accompanied by a figure ; but aurita has forty years' priority over 
dejeanii. 

276. Cleophana diffluens mauretaniae subsp. nov. (PI. XV. f. 11.) 

<J ?. Differs from diffluens diffluens Stdgr. in having no shade of red-brown 
whatever ; d. mauretaniae differs from diffluens lusitanica Culot in having the 
distal half of the forewings sharply divided from the basal half, the basal half 
being almost deep black while the distal half has the ground-colour brown-grey. 
In this it is much nearer d. diffluens, as d. lusitanica has the distal half of the 
forewings sooty, so that in many specimens there is hardly any difference of 
ground-colour of the whole forewing. 

This is the insect Mr. Oberthiir enumerates as diffluens diffluens from Tunisia. 
This is the first record for Algeria. 

I have at Tring of this new form 25 specimens from Hammam Meskoutine, 
May 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; El Mahouna, May 1919 (V. Faroult). 

I have compared this with Chiclana specimens of d. diffluens (PI. XV. f. 10), 
and a series of 113 d. lusitanica collected by Dr. Jordan at Monchique in Portugal. 



70 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

[Cleophana difBuens lusitanica Culot. (PI. XV. f. 12.) 

Cleophana diffluent form, lusitanica Culot, Noct. et Gkom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 107. pi. 59. f. 10 
(1915) (South Portugal). 

Differs from diffluens diffluens and d. mauretaniae in having the whole fore- 
wing black, the basal half only in some specimens being of a deeper black. 

This form was distributed by Staudinger and Bang-Haas under the name 
of lusitanica, but I find the name was not published, so Mr. Culot's figure and 
description of ground-colour prove to be the first publication and he stands as 
the author.] 

277. Cleophana versicolor Stdgr. (PI. XV. ff. 7, 8.) 

Cleophana diffluens ab. versicolor Staudinger, Cat. Lipid. Pal. Faun. pt. i. p. 214. No. 221Ga (1901) 
(Mauretania). 

Mr. Culot and Sir George Hampson have also treated this as an aberration 
of diffluens, while Mr. Oberthiir calmly ignores it altogether. It is, however, a 
perfectly distinct species and occurs together with diffluens mauretaniae. 

We have at Tring 30 specimens from Constantino (Staudinger) ; Am Draham 
September 1911, Hammam R'hira May 1917, Bou Saada March — April 1912, 
Guelt-es-Stel April 1913, Mecheria May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Ai'n Sefra, May 1913 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

278. Cleophana marocana Stdgr. (PI. XV. f. 9.) 

Cleophana diffluens var. marocana Staudinger, Cat. Lipid. Pal. Faun. pt. i. p. 214. No. 22166 (1901) 
(Morocco). 

Mr. Oberthiir is somewhat doubtful as to the status of this insect, but I am 
convinced it is a good and distinct species. 

There are 12 specimens at Tring : 4 Tangier (Staudinger) ; 1 Rabat (A. 
Thery) ; 7 Sebdou, Morocco (A. Thery). 

The British Museum has 3 <$<$ Forest of Marmora, March 1903, Meade- Waldo. 

[Omphalophana adamantina (Blach.). 

Calophasia adamantina Blachier, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1905, p. 214 (Rabat). 

I cannot understand how all the authors, except the late William Warren, 
who mention this species have placed it in the genus Calophasia. Except for 
its black hindwings it is almost identical with pauli Stdgr., in fact Mr. Meade- 
Waldo (Trans. Entom. Soc. Lond. 1905) described and figured the specimen now 
in the British Museum as Cleophana pauli Stdgr. 

I have not received this species. 

The British Museum has 1 $ Forest of Marmora, April 1903, Meade- Waldo.] 

279. Calophasia kraussi Rebel. 

Calophasia kraussi Rebel, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 1895 p. 34S (Oued Nouemra, Sahara). 

Mr. Culot (Noct. et Geom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 101. pi. 58. f. 6) describes 
and figures the white aberration of kraussi as form, nmozim ; but already in 1913 
(Novit. Zool. vol. xx. pp. 124-125) I have described two aberrations of this 
species, the second ab. albo-ochracea being very close to Mr. Culot's maozim. 



.NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 71 

There are therefore three described aberrations : ab. maozim Culot, almost pure 
white ; ab. albo-ochracea Rothsch., white with buff lines ; ab. brunnea Rothach., 
like the typical form, but whole wings suffused and saturated with brown. I 
further propose to name the specimens intermediate between kraussi and ab. 
albo-ochracea ab. intermedia ab. nov. 

The series at Tring consists of 118 examples from Colomb-Bechar March — 
April 1912, Bou Saada March 1912, Laghouat March 1912, A'in Draham Sep- 
tember 1911, Guelt-es-Stel April 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Tilghemt April, Ghardaia 
April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; halfway between Touggourt and Ouargla, Arefidji 
north of Ouargla, Hassi-el-Hadjar, halfway between Ouargla and El Golea, north 
of El Golea, South Oued Mya, March— May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

Of these 118 specimens there are 2 ab. maozim, 3 ab. brunnea, 12 ab. albo- 
ochracea, and 27 ab. intermedia, leaving 74 typical kraussi. 

The British Museum has 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord 
Walsingham. 

280. Calophasia platyptera (Esp.) 

Noctua platyptera Esper, Schmett. vol. iv. pt. 2. p. 396. No. 138. pi. 130. f. 5. (1788) (Frankfort). 

The proportion of albinistic specimens in this species is very large. 

Our series at Tring numbers 26 specimens, of which 20 are albinistic = ab. 
subalbida Stdgr. 

26 examples from Ai'n Draham, August 1911 (Faroult and Staudinger) ; Souk 
Ahras, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam R'hira, April— May 1912-1917 
(W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Tizi Ouzou August 1914, north side of Djebel 
Zaccar August 1916 (Faroult) ; Environs d'Alger (Captain Holl). 

281. Calophasia almoravida Grasl. 

Calophasia almoravida Graslin, Ann. Soc. Bntom. France, 1863. p. 319. pi. 8. f. 6 (Grenada). 

Of this species I have 10 Algerian examples from Guelt-es-Stel April 1913, 
Bou Saada April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine April 1914, Khenchela 
May 1912 (W. R, and K. J.). 

282. Calophasia stigmatica Rothsch. (PI. XV. f. 26.) 

Calophasia stigmatica Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 125. No. 49 (1913) (halfway between 
Ouargla and El Golea). 

So far I have only received three specimens of this rare species ; Herr Piingler 
of Aachen has two others from Biskra. 

1 £ South Oued Mya April, 1 $ halfway between Ouargla and El Golea 
March 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, April 1913 (V. Faroult). 

283. Metapistis picturata (Rothsch.). (PI. XVI. ff. 2, 3.) 

Cleophana picturata Rothschild, Entom. Zeilschr. vol. xxii. p. 142 (1909) (Mraier). 

When Sir George Hampson first examined the single type specimen, he 
considered it belonged to the genus Harpagophana, but on my procuring three 
further specimens a thorough re-examination proved that this pretty little species 
was not a Cucullid at all, but must be placed in the Noctuinae under the genus 
Metapistis. Herr Bang-Haas of Dresden has received from Tunisia a fifth 
specimen. 



72 NOVITATES ZOOLOG1CAE XXVII. 1920, 

4 $? from Oued Nca April 1914, Arefidji north of Ouargla March 1912 
(Hartert and Hilgert) ; AIn Sefra, May 1915 (V. Faroult).; Mraier, April 1909 
(W. R. and E. H.). 

284. Rhodocleptria incarnata (Frej'er). 

Noctua incarnata Freyer, Xeu. Beilr. Schmett. vol. iii. p. 91. pi. 256. f. 4 (1839) (Constantinople). 

64 Mauretanian specimens of this species are at Tring from Environs d'Alger, 
May 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Bou Saada, May 1910-1911 (V. Faroult) ; Souk 
Ahras, April 1914 (VV. R. and K. J.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. 
and K. J., and Faroult). 

285. Xylina delphinii darollesi (Oberth.). 

Chariclea darollesi Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. livr. i. p. 49. pi. 4. £. 5 (1S76) (El Hacalba). 

This insect appears to be rare in Algeria, as I have only received 5 specimens. 
2 Bou Saada May 1911 (V. Faroult); 2 Foret de Tenira, 1 Sebdou June 
1918 (P. Rotrou). 

286. Chloridea nubigera (H.-Sch.). 

Heliothis nuliigera Herrich-Schaflier, Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur. p. 366 (1845) (Asia Minor). 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 155 specimens from Biskra 
March 1908, Col de Sfa (bred) (W. R. and E. H.) ; Khenchela June 1911, Bou 
Saada May 1911, Lalla Marnia May 1914, El Kantara August 1917, Mecheria 
May 1918, Djebel Antar May 1918 (V. Faroult) ; Oued Nca April 1914, Ghardaia 
May 1914, north of Am Guettera April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, May 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Am Sefra, 
May 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Saida, May 1913 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; Environs d'Alger (Captain Holl) ; Guelt-es-Stel, May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
Oueds Amra, Dehin, Ag-elil, March 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Les Pins, 
Titen Yaya May — August 1915 (M. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 ? Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl. 

287. Chloridea peltigera (Schiff. and Den.). 

Phalaena peltigera Schifferniuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 89 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

Of this world-wide species, the series at Tring from Mauretania comprises 
285 specimens from Hammam Meskoutine, May 1909-1914 (VV. R., E. H., and 
K. J.); El Kantara, June— August 1909-1917 (Sidi Brahim and V. Faroult); 
Khenchela June 1911, Bou Saada May 1911, Perregaux September 1915, Masser 
Mines June 1914, Lalla Marnia May 1914, Moroccan Frontier May 1914, Mecheria 
and Djebel Antar June 1918, A'in Sefra May 1915, Djelfa June 1913, AIn Draham 
August 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Titen Yaya May 1915, Sidi-bel-Abbes June — Septem- 
ber 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Biskra, March 1908 (W. R. and E. H.), Hammam R'hira, 
May — June 1908-1916 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., and Faroult) ; Mazagan, Morocco 
June 1901, Rio de Oro, south of Morocco August 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Guelt- 
es-Stel, March— October 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Environs 
de Taourirt, Morocco, July 1918 (M. Rotrou); El xMahouna, June 1919 (V. 
Faroult). 

In the British Museum are 1 cJ, 1 $ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl. 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 73 

288. Chloridea obsoleta (Fabr.). 

Noctua obsoleta Fabricius, Entom. Syst. vol. iii. pt. i. p. 456. No. 155 (1793) (South American Islands). 

I have very few Algerian specimens of this widespread species. 
15 specimens from Mazagan, Morocco, July 1903 (W. Riggenbach) ; Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, June— July 1917-1918 (M. Rotrou). 

289. Melicleptria scutosa (Schiff. and Den.). 

Phalaena scutosa Schiffermuller and Denis, An!:. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 89 (1775) (Vienna). 

Of this very widespread insect the Mauretanian material at Tring consists 
of 158 examples from Bou Saada April — May 1911-1912, Djebel Kerdada May 
1912, Puits Baba May 1913, Guelt-es-Stel April— October 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912 (W. R. and K. J.). 

290. Chloridea dipsacea (Linn.). 

Phaiatna dipsacea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. xii. p. 856. No. 185 (1767) (Sweden). 

This insect appears to be rare in Mauretania. I have only 9 specimens from 
Djebel Mekter, Ain Sefra May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Batna (Nelva coll.) ; 
Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.) ; El Misab, June 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Forest of Marmora, Morocco, Meade-Waldo. 

[Erithrophaia canroberti Oberth. 

JSrythrophaia canroberti Oberthiir, Elud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 182. pi. xdvii. f. 4130 (1919) 
(El Outaya). 

This species must be extraordinarily rare, as only the single (J? in Mr. 
Oberthur's collection are known.] 

291. Heliothis chanzyi (Oberth.). 

Anihotcia chanzyi Oberthiir, Elud. Entom. livr. i. p. 51. pi. 2. ff. 4a, b. (1876) (Oued Djeddi). 

I have only a single $ of this species taken by ourselves. 
1 ? Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912 (W. R. and K. J.). 

292. Xanthodes malvae (Esp.). 

Noctua malvae Esper, Schmett. vol. iv. pt. 2. sect. 2. p. 63. No. 241 (1796) (Hungary). 

I have only received 12 Algerian specimens of this species. 2 (JcJ Environs 
d' Alger (Captain Holl) ; 1 $ Biskra, April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 2 $$, 1 $ El 
Kantara August 1917, 1 $ Perregaux October 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 3$$ Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, August — September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 2 $$ Foret de Tenira, July 1918 
(P. Rotrou). 

293. Aegle vespertalis (Hiibn.). 

Pyralis vespertalis Hubner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Pyr. f. 159 (1818). 

Of this species there are at Tring 179 Mauretanian specimens from Guelt-es- 
Stel May — June 1913, Lalla Marnia May 1914, Sakamodi August 1912, Nedroma 
May 1914, Moroccan Frontier May 1914, Zoudj-el-Beghal July 1914, Masser 



74 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Mines May 1914, Ain Draham August 1911, Khenchela June 1911, north side of 
Djebel Zaccar August 1916, El Mesrane June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
June— August 1916-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1913 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; Hammam Meskoutine, May 1909-1914 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; Sebdou, 
Foret de Tenira, June 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

Some of these specimens have lost all the brown transverse bands of the 
fore- and hindwings, and look exactly like Metaegle pallida Stdgr., which caused 
me to record this latter from Guelt-es-Stel. 

[Erastria trabealis trabealis (Scop.). 

Phalaena trabealis Scopoli, Entom. Carn. p. 240 (1763) (Carniola). 

This form is confined to the countries north of the Mediterranean Sea. Some 
specimens from West Algeria and Morocco approach this almost indistinguishably, 
but alongside of them occur the strange medley of colour varieties treated under 
the next subspecies.] 

294. Erastria trabealis deleta (Stand.). 

Agrophila deleta Staudinger, Stetl. Entom. Zeit. vol. xxxviii. p. 190 (1877) (Algeria). 

Agrophila flavonitens Austaut, Le Xat. vol. ii. pt. xbc. p. 156 (1880) (Sebdou). 

Emmelia sulphuralis var. algira Oberthiir. EUid. Entom. livr. vi. p. 90. pi. 2. f. 2 (1881) (Bone). 

I have given the full synonymy of the Mauretanian race of trabealis because 
there has been considerable confusion as to the status of the forms to which 
the three names apply. Mr. Oberthur's algira is the aberration with the black 
markings reduced ; deleta is the form where the black is reduced to one mark only ; 
and flavonitens is the aberration with no black on the forewings. The specimens 
from Morocco and West Algeria in which the black markings are practically the 
same as in Europe I propose to call ab. parallela ab. nov. and the aberration with 
all the black markings replaced by stramineous olive I call ab. olivina ab. nov. 

At Tring we have 170 Mauretanian specimens, of which 12 are ab. parallela 
and 4 halfway between that and algira, and 18 are algira ; the remaining 136 are 
mixed flavonitens, deleta, and olivina. The 160 are from Mazagan, Morocco, April — 
June 1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Biskra, April 1908 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, May— August 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines, June 1914 (V. 
Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Rabat, May 1913 (A. 
Thery). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Biskra, March 1897, A. E. Eaton. 

295. Tarache lucida (Hufn.). 

Noctua lucida Hufnagel, Bert. Mag. vol. iii. p. 302 (1766) (Berlin). 

This is a very variable species, occuring almost black = ab. lugens Alph. and 
almost white = ab. insolatrix Hiibn. ; in between are the aberrations albicollis 
Fabr. and Solaris Oberth., but much whiter specimens exist than ab. insolatrix, 
and I propose the name ab. extremaab. nov. for the specimens with only a dark 
border and a few black dots in the white disc. 

We have at Tring 427 Mauretanian examples from Mazagan and Cape Blanco 
May— October 1902, Imitanut May 1904, Truchan May 1904, Rohama April- 
May 1903, Seksawa April 1905, Morocco (W. Riggenbach) ; Oum-re-Biah, Morocco, 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVTI. 1920. 75 

April 1901 (Hartert): Biskra, March— April 1908-1914 (W. R. and E. H.); El 
Kantara February — May 1909, Hammam Meskoutine May 1909 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; Environs d' Alger (Dr. Nissen) ; Casba, Alger (Captain Holl) ; Khenchela 
May 1912, Hammam Meskoutine May 1914, Souk Ahras April 1914 (W. R. and 
K. J.) ; Environs de Batna, 1913-1914 (A. Nelva) ; El Kantara March— August 
1911-1917, Masser Mines May 1914, Ain Draham July 1911, Perregaux October 
1915, Hammam R'hira April — June 1916-1917, Berrouaghia April 1914, Bou 
Saada and Djebel Kerdada May 1912, El Hamel May 1912, El Mesrane June 
1913, Oued Hamidou June 1912, Terres Blanches May 1913, Guelt-es-Stel April- 
September 1912-1913, La Macta, Perregaux September 1915, Lalla Marnia and 
Moroccan Frontier May 1914, Puits Baba May 1913, Laghouat March 1912, 
Mecheria May 1918, Nedroma May 1914, Msila May 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- 
Abbes July — September 1916 (M. Rotrou) ; Belvedere, Tunis, August — September 
1915 (E. Blanc) ; Sebdou, August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Oued Nca, April 1914 
(Hartert and Hilgert) ; Environs d'Alger, May 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Oran, 
April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Les Pins, September, 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Grottes de 
Tafna, Ain-El-Berd July— September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Rabat, Morocco, June 
1913 (A. Thery). 

The British Museum has 1 (J, 1 $ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl ; 1 $ Philippeville 
1 ? Hammam-es-Salahin March— May 1904, Lord Walsingham ; 1 $ Tangier, 1 <j| 
1 $ Mogodon, Leech ; 1 Biskra, April 1903, A. E. Eaton. 



296. Tarache biskrensis (Oberth.). 

Aconlia biskrensis Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1887. p. 58 (Biskra). 

We found this species far from common. 

The series at Tring numbers 63 from Colomb Bechar March — April 1912, 
Bou Saada May 1912, Djebel Kerdada May 1912, El Outaya August 1910, El 
Hamel May 1912, Ain Draham September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia, April 
1911 (W. R, and E. H.) ; Oued Nca April 1914, Sidi Hassi Mahmud April 1914, 
Oued Abiod May 1912, El Alia May 1914, north of El Golea, halfway between 
Ouargla and El Golea, Hassi el Hadjar, South Oued Mya March— May 1912 
(Hartert and Hilgert). 

This species is apparently as variable as lucida. 

297. Acontia luctuosa (Schiff. and Den). 

Phalaena luctuosa Schiffermiiller and Denia, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergcg. p. 90 (1775) (Vienna). 

Of this species we have at Tring 259 Mauretanian specimens from Mazagan, 
Morocco June— August 1900-1903 (W. Riggenbach) ; Environs d'Alger, May 
1908-1912 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., and Dr. Nissen) ; Sidi Ferruch, August 1911 
(A. Thery) ; Batna (A. Nelva) ; Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and 
K. J.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July— August 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Hammam R'hira, 
May— June 1911-1917 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Perregaux September 
1915, Zoudj el Beghal July 1914, Masser Mines May 1914, Environs de Setif 1911, 
Tizi Ouzou July 1914, Debrousseville September 1914, north side of Djebel Zaccar 
August 1916, Ain Draham September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Rabat, Morocco, June 
1913 (A. Thery). 



76 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

298. Lipatephia eremophila (Rebel). 

Armada eremophila Rebel, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, vol. xlv. p. 350. No. 10 (1895) (Ouargla- 

Ghardaia). 
Armada lacroixi D. Lucas, Bull. Soc. Enlom. France, p. 312 (1914) (Tunis). 

This pretty species has been entirely misunderstood. Mr. William Warren 
in Seitz figures and describes a totally different insect, entirely ignoring Rebel's 
statement that the forevving of his eremophila had a general resemblance in colour 
and pattern to Aedia funesta (Esp.). Dr. Rebel's name has priority over Monsieur 
Daniel Lucas's by twenty years, but Mr. Oberthiir and his friends will not agree 
as Dr. Rebel gives no figure. 

We have at Tring 15 specimens from Ghardai'a, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Ain Sefra March 1915, Colomb Bechar March— April 1912 (V. Faroult). 

There is 1 specimen of ours from Ghardaia in the British Museum. 

299. Nereisana oranaria (Luc). 

Chesias oranaria Lucas, Explor. Scient. d'Algerie, vol. iii. p. 392. No. 132. pi. 4. f. 4 (1848) (Oran). 

This insect was considered by its author to be a Geometer, and Mr. Oberthiir 
and others have followed him, but it is really a Noctuid and belongs to the 
Erastriinae. 

I have a single pair of this rare species. 

1 ? Souk Akras, April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 1 $ Environs d'Alger, Feb- 
ruary 1908 (W. R. and E. H.). 

The British Museum has 2 ?$ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl ; 4 £<$ Hammam Mes- 
koutine, March 1911, Meade- Waldo. 

300. Hadjina viscosa (Frr.). 

Mythimna viscosa Freyer, Neu. Beitr. vol. i. p. 39. pi. 21. f. 3 (1831) (Sicily). 

Victor Faroult caught two specimens of this species during his unfortunate 
trip to Perregaux, whence he had to flee for his life. 
1 {J, 1 $ Perregaux, September 1915 (V. Faroult). 

301. Iambiodes incerta (Rothsch.). (PI. XVI. f. 1.) 

Bryophila incerta Rothschild, Novil. Zool. vol. xx. p. 125. No. 51 (1913) (Oued Nca). 

This is almost certainly the insect Mr. Oberthiir enumerates under the 
name of Erastria juscula gueneei Fall. 

If this is so, it has been wrongly identified by Mr. Oberthiir, for the insect 
here enumerated is certainly not Lithacodia fasciana gueneei (Fall.). 

There are 7 specimens of this rare species at Tring from Oued Nca, April — June 
1912-1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

302. Eublemma scitula (Ramb.). (PI. XVI. ff. 21, 22.) 

Erastria scitula Rambur, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1833. p. 26. pi. ii. f. 16 (Corsica). 

Mr. Oberthiir remarks that he has no personal knowledge of this species 
having occurred in Algeria, but he was convinced it had been taken, and therefore 
included it. 



Novttates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 77 

1 have received 35 specimens of it from Monsieur Maxime Rotrou and 
others. It is very strange that I never received it either from Tlemcen or Sebdou, 
seeing that these places produce great numbers of olive trees. The strange 
habits of the larva in being carnivorous and living on the Coccid (Lecanium oleae) 
are not unique, many of the tropical species of Eublemma feeding on Coccidae. 

21 Sidi-bel-Abbes, August— September 1915-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 Ras 
Chergui, Ain Sefra July 1915 (V. Faroult) ; 9 Foret de Tenira, September 1918 
(P. Rotrou) ; 2 Messer, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sidi Ferruch, July 1911 
(A. Thery). 

303. Catablemma geyri (Rothsch.). (PI. XVI. 1 23.) 

Eublemma geyri Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8). xvi. p. 252. No. 28 (1915) (Tahihout). 

Of this species I only have 4 specimens. 

3 $$ Tahihout, April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 1 $ Ain Sefra, July 
1915 (V. Faroult). 

304. Eulocastra diaphora (Stdgr.). 

Brastria diaphora Staudinger, Hor. Entom. Soc. Ross. vol. xiv. p. 415 (1878) (Kerasdere, Asia Minor), 

Of this I have received 7 specimens. 

2 South Oued Mya, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 Colomb-Bechar, 
March 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 4 Oued-Gif-Aman, Oued Tamoudat, Oued Ahmra, 
Ti-n-Tabarik March — April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

The British Museum has 1 <J, 3 ?? Hammam-es-Salahin, April — May 1903- 
1904, Lord Walsingham. 

[Phyllophila numerica (Boisd.). 

Agrophila numerica Boisduva!, Gen. et Ind. Meth. edit. ii. p. 175. No. 1403 (1840) (Corsica). 

There have been 3 subspecies described : disjecta Warr. from Spain, not 
Sardinia as Mr. Oberthur states ; ornatula Christ, from Turkestan ; and deserti 
Oberth. from El Outaya, Algeria. Both Mr. Warren and Sir George Hampson 
make ornatula occur in Algeria, while Mr. Oberthur denies it, while erroneously 
applying disjecta Warr. to the large strongly marked Sardinian form. In addition 
to my 12 Algerian examples there are at Tring 9 European specimens, 7 from 
Sardinia and 2 without locality. The two latter appear to be typical numerica. 
As Mr. Oberthiir has erroneously applied Mr. Warren's name disjecta to the 
Sardinian form, in spite of the fact that in Seitz Mr. Warren expressly states 
that his name disjecta was given to the Ab. 1 of Hampson and its habitat was 
Spain, in order to prevent the perpetuation of the error I propose the name 
numerica sardoa subsp. nov. for the Sardinian form, which differs from n. numerica 
in its larger size and more conspicuous pattern. 

The 11 Algerian specimens consist of 1 from Sebdou, 2 from Guelt-es-Stel, 
2 from Bou Saada, and 7 from Ain Sefra. The 1 from Sebdou, 1 from Guelt-es- 
Stel, and 4 from Ain Sefra agree well with Guenee's figure of the Andalusian $, 
while the 6 others agree with " var. deserti Oberth." This proves deserti not to be 
a local race, but simply an aberration, and that the Algerian form is disjecta Warr.] 



78 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

305. Phyllophila numerica disjecta Warr. 

Phyllophila numerica ab. disjecta Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. iii. p. 274 (Spain). 

3 ?$ Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 (J, 1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, May— Septem- 
ber 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 2 J^J, 1 $ Bou Saada, May 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 3 <£<£, 4 ?$ 
Aln Sefra, May^July 1913-1915 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult). 

Of these the <$ from Guelt-es-Stel, the 2 <$<$, 1 ? from Bou Saada, 1 $ from 
Sebdou, and 1 $, 2 $$ from Aln Sefra, are ab. deserti Oberth. 

[Eublemma velox (Hiibn.). 

Noetaa velox Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. B. 507, 515 (1818). 

Mr. Oberthur does not mention this form, only velox velocior Stdgr. 

Mr. Warren has described a $ from Algeria ! as griseimargo which differs in 
being larger and more suffused with red ; I have a second still larger specimen 
of this form from Bou Saada. Although Mr. Warren's name was given to an 
aberration it will have to stand for the Algerian subspecies which differs from the 
type in being larger and less grey. The form velocior Stdgr. from Sicily is very 
distinct.] 

306. Eublemma velox griseimargo (Warr.). 

Leptosia griseimargo Warren, Novil. Zool. vol. six. p. 36. No. 79 (1912) (Algeria). 

My series consists of 31 specimens from Algeria : Bou Saada April — May 
1911, Lalla Marnia May 1914, Perregaux September 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam 
Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and K. J.); Ain Draham, September 1911 (V. 
Faroult) ; Guelt-es-Stel, October 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Foret de Tenira, Sebdou 
June — September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Les Pins August, Environs de Taourirt 
July 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Rabat (A. Thery) ; Mazagan, September 1903 (W. 
Riggenbach). 

[Eublemma polygramma (Dup.). 

Anthophila polygramma Duponehel, Lipid. France, Suppl. III. p. 519. pi. 44. f. 3 (1836) (Digne). 

I have never received this species.] 

307. Eublemma permixta (Stdgr.) (PI. XVI. ff. 1-5.) 

Thalpochares permixta Staudinger, Iris, vol. x. p. 266. pi. 4. f. 7 (1897) (Chellala). 
Eublemma mozabitica Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol xix. p. 126. No. 5 (1912) (Ghardaia). 

I am confident that my fellow- lepidopterists will not blame me very much 
for having redescribed permixta Stdgr. ; for I believe nine out of ten would have 
done so, if they had compared my type with the sandy yellow specimens of this 
variable insect in the British Museum or with Staudinger's original description, 
where the ground-colour is given as grey- green marked with brown. 

As it turns out on examination of more specimens, there are intermediate 
specimens between my mozabitica and the extreme sandy yellow form, but so far 
we have no example at Tring agreeing with Staudinger's original description. 

I propose to call the sandy yellow form ab. arenosa ab. nov. and the inter- 
mediate form ab. intermedia ab. nov., while the specimens with violet-mauve 
ground-colour will stand as ab. mozabitica Rothsch. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 79 

We have at Tring 23 specimens from Ghardaia April 1911, Ain Sefra May 1913 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; halfway between Ouargla and El Golea March 1912, South 
Oued Mya April 1912, Oued Nca April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; BouSaada, 
March— May 1911-1912 (V. Faroult). 

Of these 23 examples, 10 are ab. mozabitica, 5 ab. arenosa, 7 ab. inter- 
media., and 1 ab. nivescens. 

The extreme white form is ab. nivescens ab. nov. 

The British Museum has 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, May 1906, Lord Walsing- 
ham (type of ab. nivescens). 

308. Eublemma parva (Hiibn.). 

Noctua parva Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. f. 356 (1808). 

This species is almost as variable as ostrina, going from cream- colour without 
markings to specimens with basal half of forewing chestnut- brown and outer half 
almost black. 

The series of Mauretanian examples at Tring comprises 177 from Mazagan, 
July 1900 (W. Riggenbach) ; Hammam R'hira, May— June 1913-1916 (W. R. 
and E. H., and Faroult) ; Sidi Ferruch, July 1911 (A. Thery) ; GuehVes-Stel 
November 1913, Perregaux September 1915, Lalla Marnia May 1914 (V. Faroult) ; 
Ain Sefra, May— June 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Sebdou, June 
— September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, June — October 1916-1918 (M. 
Rotrou) ; Sebdou, El Misale, June — September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; A'inDouz, Les 
Pins, Environs de Taourirt, July — August 1917-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; La Mocta, 
September 1915 (V. Faroult). 

Of the 177 specimens 74 are from Sidi-bel-Abbes and 51 from Sebdou. 

In the British Museum are 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord 
Walsingham ; 1 <j> Batna, August 1910, E. A. Eaton ; 1 Tozeur, Tunisia, 1913, 
G. C. Champion ; 1 $ Tangier, Leech coll. 

309. Eublemma deserti (Rothsch.). (PI. XVI. f. 26.) 

Thalpocluires deserti Rothschild, Entom. Zeit. Stuttgart, vol. xxiii. p. 142 (1909) (Mraier). 

This very rare species at first sight looks like a minute washed-out parva, 
but in reality it belongs to a different section of the genus. 

2 <J<J Mraier, April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 1 $ Ain Taiba, May 1914 (Geyr 
von Schweppenburg). 

310. Eublemma cochylioides (Guen.). 

Micra cochylioides Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. vi. Noct. vol. ii. p. 245 (1852) (Island 
of Bourbon). 

This beautiful little species has a very wide distribution, ranging from the 
Canary Islands to Australia and the Fiji Islands. 

1 cj Sidi-bel-Abbes, July 1916 (M. Rotrou). 

This specimen is very bright, especially the yellow of the thorax and basal 
one-third of forewings. 



80 Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

311. Eublemma ostrina (Hiibn.). 

Noctua ostrina Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noel. ff. 399, 648 (1808). 

We find in Algeria all the forms of this extremely protean species from ab. 
cartliami H.-S. uniform yellowish to the darkest ab. porphyrina Frr., with abs. 
numida Lucas, purpurata Led., aestivalis Guen., and a host of others more or less 
intermediate. 

We have at Tring a Mauretanian series of 287 examples from Guelt-es-Stel 
March— May 1912-1913, Hammam R'hira May 1913-1916 (W. R., E. H., and 
K. J., and Faroult) ; north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Tilghemt April 
1912, Masser Mines June, Lalla Marnia May 1914, Ain Draham May 1911, El 
Kantara August 1917, Mecheria and Djebel Antar May 1918, Ain Sefra June 
1915, Bou Cedraia May 1913, Bordj-ben-Aneridj November 1911, Oued Hamidou 
June 1912, Bou Saada March 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Environs de Batna, 1913-1914 
(A. Nelva); Sidi Ferruch, July 1911 (A. Thery) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, Ain Dour, 
June — August 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, August 1918 
(P. Rotrou) ; Environs d'Alger May 1912, Khenchela May 1912, Hammam Mes- 
koutine April— May 1914, Souk Ahras April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Ghardaia 
April 1911, Biskra 1911, Oran April 1913, Tlemcen April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Rabat, July 1913 (A. Thery); Environs de Taourirt, July 1918 (M. Rotrou); 
El Mahouna, July 1919 (V. Faroult). 

The British Museum has 3 9$ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl ; 1 $ Philippeville, 2 <$$, 
4 $?, 1 larva, Hammam-es-Salahin, April — May 1904, Lord Walsingham ; 1 <$ El 
Kantara, April 1913, P. A. Buxton ; 1 <J Morocco, Stainton coll. ; 6 <$$ Tangier, 
Leech coll. 

312. Eublemma pseudostrina Rothsch. (PI. XVI. f. 25.) 

Eublemma pseudoslrina Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 339. No. 210 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

At first sight this might be mistaken for one of the innumerable varieties of 
ostrina, but the sooty-grey fringe and apex at once distinguish it. 
1 $ Guelt-es-Stel, August 1913 (V. Faroult). 

313. Eublemma subvenata (Stdgr.). 

Thalpochares subvenata Staudinger, Iris, vol. v. p. 288. No. 64. pi. iii. f. 13 (1892) (Tunis). 

4 Ain Sefra, July 1915 (V. Faroult). 

In the British Museum is 1 $ El Kantara, May 1903, Lord Walsingham. 

[Eumegethes tenuis (Stdgr.). 

Thalpochares (Eumegethes) tennis Staudinger, Iris, vol. x. p. 268. pi. iv. f. 6 (1S97) (Sfax). 

Mr. Oberthiir states that he is doubtful what family this belongs to ; this 
shows that because he will not acknowledge unfigured species, he also ignores 
all the rest of articles in which such unfigured species may be described. 

In my article on the " Lepidopterous Fauna of Guelt-es-Stel " in vol. xxi. 
Novit. Zool. p. 341, No. 228, I expressly point out that both Mr. Prout and Mr. 
William Warren had examined the insect and found it to be a Geometer and not 
a Noctuid. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 81 

Its right position is in the subfamily Oenochrominae, and Mr. Prout places it 
immediately after Myinodes inter punctaria Herr.-Sch. and in front of Theozena 
tenuis Meyr. 

The series at Tring consists of 45 examples from Guelt-es-Stel, November 
1913 (V. Faroult).] 

314. Eublemma albida (Dup.). 

Anthophila albida Duponchel, Lipid. France, Suppl. iv. p. 382. pi. 81. f. 1 (1842) (Marseilles). 

Mr. Oberthiir figures specimens of ab. gratissima Stdgr. from the Djebel 
Aures, and the ab. brunnescens Culot is from Lambessa. 

Among the 65 examples at Tring only typical albida and ab. albidior Culot 
are represented from Algeria and gratissima from Tunis. 

46 Environs de Batna, June 1900-1914 (Dr. A. Seitz and A. Nelva) ; 6 Tunis 
Dannehl, 10 Sebdou El Misab, June — July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 Hammam R'hira, 
June 1916 (V. Faroult)'; 1 Ain Fezza, June 1917 (M. Rotrou); El Mahouna, July 
1919 (V. Faroult). 

315. Eublemma grata (Guen.). 

Anthophila grata Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. vi. Noct. ii. p. 251. No. 1048 (1852) 
(South Spain). 

Of this species a number of forms have received names, viz. albicans Ramb. ; 
candicans Ramb. ; extranea Ramb. ; extraria Ramb. ; faroulti Rothsch. ; and 
ramburi Culot. Of these all but faroulti Rothsch. = ramburi Culot are un- 
doubtedly only aberrations. The status of faroulti is rather more complex ; while 
it undoubted^ occurs as an aberration among the other forms of grata, the fact 
remains that in the Guelt-es-Stel region it forms the bulk of the specimens, but I 
fear this is not sufficient to give it the rank of subspecies. Therefore the aberra- 
tions are as follows : 

ab. albicans Ramb., white, pattern obsolete. 

ab. candicans Ramb., white, pattern distinct, lines narrow. 

ab. faroulti Rothsch., white, pattern heavy, lines very broad. 

ab. extranea Ramb., greyish white, pattern medium. 

ab. grata Boisd., greyer, pattern feeble. 

ab. extraria Ramb., grey-brown, pattern strong. 

In the British Museum Catalogue Sir George Hampson has grata and candi- 
cans as two species, but this is natural in view of the very few specimens he 
had for comparison. 

The series at Tring consists of 173 examples from Guelt-es-Stel May — June 
1913, Bou Saada May 1911-1912, El Hamel May 1912, Zmila nr. Oran June 
1913, Terres Blanches and Puits Baba May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Batna, July 1910 
(Dr. A. Seitz and A. Nelva) ; Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Les Pins, July 
1917 (M. Rotrou). 

In the British Museum are 1 <$ Bou Saada ; 2 <JJ Guelt-es-Stel ex Tring 
Museum. 

[Eublemma albicans (Guen.). 

Anthophila albicans Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. vi. Noct. ii. p. 251 (1852) 
(Andalusia). 

The confusion surrounding this species is astounding, and the examination 
of the Uterature has been worse than perfunctory. We have to thank Messrs. 
6 



82 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

Oberthiir and Culot for the final solution ; though even Mr. Oberthiir has not 
got it quite right. The error arose in the first place by Boisduval, in his Genera 
and Index Melhodicus, edit. ii. 1840, p. 104, No. 1314, giving "Albicans Ramb. 
Faun. Andal." Now Rambur's Faune de I'Andaloitsie, although evidently more 
complete in manuscript, was never fully published. Of the Lepidoptera, pages 
213-330 of text and pi. 8-18 of figures are all that has appeared, the text running 
from Papilio podalirius to Sesia rltingiaejormis and the plates from Zegris to the 
Hesperidae among the Diurni and from Zygaena to Caradrina among the Nocturni. 
Thus Boisduval's Haemerosia, including albicans, was never published in that 
work. In 1858-1800 Rambur, however, published his Catalogue Systematique 
des Lepidopteres de V Andalousie, pp. 1-412 and Plates 1-22 ; the text, however, 
was never completed and probably some plates also are wanting, as livraison iii., 
which was to complete the work, was never published. Page 412 ends up with 
Pterostoma palpina unfinished, so that there is no text to the plates- 0-22, but 
as the figures are named, the new species stand good. 

On plates 10. ff. 4, 5 ; 13 f. 2 and 15 f. 1 Rambur figures four aberrations, to 
one of which he gave the name albicans, of a very different Eublemma to the one 
he proposed to call albicans in that part of the Faune never published. 

Meanwhile, however, Guenee in 1852 described as albicans (see above) the 
specimen in Boisduval's collection which was to have been published by Rambur 
as albicans in the Faune ; and as he gives a very good description and his type 
exists (see Culot, Noct. et Geom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. pi. 00, f. 15), albicans must 
stand for that species. 

Sir George Hampson in the Catalogue has divided albicans Ramb. (nee 
Guen.) = grata Guen. into two species, candicans Ramb. and grata Boisd. (see 
vol. x. pp. 125 and 155), and placed both albicans Guen. and albicans Ramb. under 
grata, quite failing to grasp the truth owing to the great confusion due to the non- 
publication of the part of Rambur's Fcmne containing the original figure and 
description of Boisduval's albicans. The correct solution of this complicated 
question is that there are two species grata Guen. and albicans Guen. But albicans 
Ramb., candicans Ramb., extranea Ramb., and extraria Ramb. are all colour 
variations of grata Guen. (see antea sub. No. 314), while albicans Guen. is a distinct 
species. 

.Mr. Oberthiir records 2 specimens of this species from El Outaya, but I have 
never received it.] 

310. Eublemma virginalis (Oberth.). 

Anthophila virginalis Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. livr. vi. p. 90. pi. xi. f. 1 (18S1) (Sebdou). 
Anlliophila caid Oberthiir ( = ab. caid), Etud. Entom. livr. vi. p. 91. pi. xi. f. 2 (1881) (Sebdou). 
Eublemma subterminalis Rothschild, Novit. Znol. vol. xxi. p. 338. No. 209 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

I have 82 examples, other than from Guelt-es-Stel, of this species, and that 
I consider too few to say anything about it, beyond that I agree with Mr. Oberthiir 
in his recent conclusion that his caid is only an aberration of virginalis. My 
subterminalis is a pure synonym of virginalis, and due to carelessness on my part. 

Of ab. caid there are 54 specimens and 28 virginalis among the 82 not from 
Guelt-es-Stel. All the 112 from Guelt-es-Stel are virginalis. 

The Tring series totals 194: 112 Guelt-es-Stel, June— July 1913, 1 
Djelfa June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 5 Am Sefra June— July 1915, 1 Bou Saada 



N'OVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 83 

May 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 15 Sebdou July— August 1918, 2 El Mizab, Foret de 
Tenira (P. Rotrou) ; 1 Sidi-bel-Abbes July 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 49 Les Pins, 
August 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 8 Environs de Taourirt July 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

317. Eublemma emir (Culot). 

Thalpochzres emir Culot, Noel, et Giom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 153. pi. 68. f. 4 (1916) (Geryville). 

Of this insect I have a very poor series, 9 Guelt-es-Stel June — July 1913 (V. 
Faroult). 

318. Eublemma deserta (Stdgr.). 

Thalpochares deserta Staudinger, Iris, vol. xii. p. 383 (1899) (Biskra). 

Of this purely desert species we have at Tring 47 specimens, 2 from north of 
and 45 from south of In Salah. 

1 $ north of Ai'nGuettera, 1 $ S. Oued Mya, April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 
45 Timassinin, Oued Ag'elil, Oued Dehin, Ideles, 20 kil. N. of Ideles, Oued 
Tamoudat, Oued Ahmra, Aceksem, Ti-n-Tabarik, Ai'n Tahart, Amgid, and 
Tahihout, Hoggar Mts. and Desert N. of Hoggar Mts. January — April 1914 (Geyr 
von Schweppenburg). 

In the British Museum are 1 ^ Biskra, Staudinger and Bang-Haas ; 1 $ 
Hammam-es-Salahin, May 1903, Lord Walsingham. 

319. Eublemma arida Rothsch. (PI. XVI. f. IS.) 

Eublemma arida Rothschild. Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 127. No. 65 (1913) (S. of El Golea). 

1 (J, 1 $ S. of El Golea, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

320. Catablemma cremorna Hmpson. nom. nov. 

Catahlemma conistrota Hampson, part., Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mies. vol. x. p. 192. No. 5296. pi. cliv. 
i. 29 (1910) (Beloochistan). 

cj$. Head and thorax white ; abdomen cream colour, washed with pale 
yellowish grey. 

Forewings costal area white, rest of wings and fringe yellow-grey powdered 
with black scales, more densely between the nervures. Hindwings yellowish grey. 

Length of forewing : largest 12 mm., smallest 9 mm. 

Expanse: largest 27 mm., smallest 20 mm. 

In British Museum 1 $ Tozeur, South Tunisia, 1913 (G C. Champion) (type). 

The series at Tring numbers 61 from Ain Sefra, May 1913-1915 (W. R. and 
E. H., and Faroult) ; Hassi Sidi Mahmoud, Hassi Dinar, El Alia, E. of Guerrara 
Oued Nca April 1914, El Meksa April, S. of El Golea, South Oued Mya May 1912 
(Hartert and Hilgert) ; Oued Abiod, April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Fontaine 
Chaude, April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Colomb-Bechar, March— April 1912 
(V. Faroult). 

321. Eublemma ernesti Rothsch. 

Eublemma ernesti Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxii. p. 232. No. 38 (1915) (Oued Nca). 

The 5$ and the 1^1 placed with this species, on closer examination prove 
not to belong here. 

1 <5 (type) Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 <$ Ain Sefra, May 
1913 (W. R, and E. H.). 



84 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

322. Eublemma albivestalis Hmpsn. 

Eublemma albivestalis Hanipson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. x. p. 191. No. 5292. pi. oliv. 
f. 25 (1910) (Dead Sea). 

3 $$ Oued N9a, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 2 <J<J, 7 $$ Les Pins, May 
—August 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 <J Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

323. Eublemma wollastoni N. C. Rothsch. 

Eublemma wollastoni N. C. Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. viii. p. 430. No. 27 (1901) (Sheiuji). 

3 $$ Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

324. Eublemma lacteola Rothsch. 

EubUmma lacteola Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxi. p. 339. No. 210 (1914) (Guelt-es-Stel). 

15 from Guelt-es-Stel, May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Am Sefra, May — July 1913- 
1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; South Oued Mya May 1912, Oued Nca 
April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Ras Chergui, July 1915 (V. Faroult). 

325. Eublemma albidior Rothsch. 

Eublemma albidior Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. (8) xvi. p. 253. No. 30 (1915) (Oued Ahmra). 

4 I deles, Oued Ahmra, Amgid, north of and in Hoggar Mts., March — April 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 2 Ai'n Guettera May 1912, Oued Nca April 
1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

326. Eublemma pernivea sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 20.) 

cJ $. Dazzling snow-white all over. 

Length of forewing, 10 mm. ; expanse, 22 mm. 

4 (JcJ, 1 ? Am Sefra, May— August 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and V. 
Faroult) ; 1 $ Sebdou, August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 $ Les Pins, September 191S 
(M. Rotrou). (? Ain Sefra, type.) 

327. Eublemma crocea sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 19.) 

$. Head dark yellow ; thorax and abdomen yellow-buff. Forewings saffron- 
yellow ; hindwings cream-colour. 

Length of forewing, 9 mm. ; expanse, 20 mm. 

1 $ A'in Tahart, north of Hoggar Mts., April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

I had thought this was a very bright aberration of deserta Stdgr. 

328. Eublemma confusa sp. nov. 

<J $. These 1 7 specimens had been mixed up with and mistaken for cremarna. 
They can at once be distinguished by the strongly produced acutely pointed apex 
of the forewing and the dark line running in from apex. Also by the strange 
accentuation of the median fold. 

cJ$. Head white, rest of insect whitish grey. Forewings irregularly dusted 
with black scales, subapical area washed broadly with rusty yellow, a dark line 
running in obliquely from apex ; central fold very deep and abnormally developed, 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 85 

as is a shorter fold below, both strongly powdered with black scales. Hindwings 
darker grey, with pale fringe. 

Length of forewing : <J 8 mm., $ 11 mm. ; expanse, $ 18 mm., $ 24 mm. 

4 <$<$, ! ? Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 $ Ain Sefra, June 
1915 (V. Faroult) ; 1 $ Gharda'ia, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.). 

[Eublemma lacemaria (Hiibn.). 

Geomctra lac.ernaria Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Geom. f. 422 (1818). 

Antkophila glarea Treitschke, Eur. Schmett. vol. v. pt. 3. p. 282. No. 6 (1826) (Dalmatia). 

I have never received this species.] 

[Eublemma suava (Hiibn.). 

Noctua suava Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. f. 578 (1818). 

Mr. Oberthiir places Rambur's blandula ^ pergrata $ as a form of suava, and 
says this is the Algerian race. Mr. Culot places Rambur's insect as a race of 
arcuina, although acknowledging it to be nearer suava. 

I have 1 $ from Sidi Ferruch which is red like the <J<J, but my other 6 $$ are 
all sooty slate-grey. There is, however, an apparently constant difference from 
European suava in that the black basal portion of the postmedian band is much 
broader, therefore I shall place the Algerian race for the present under Rambur's 
name, until it is possible to compare a good series from Spain with Algerian 
material.] 

329. Eublemma suava blandula (Ramb.). 

Noctua blandula Rambur, Cat. Syst. Lipid, de V And. pi. x. f. 2 (1858) (Andalusia). 

Sir George Hampson has put blandula as a synonym of arcuina ; this is at 
once disproved by the non angulate postmedian band. 

We have 9 £<$, 1 1 ?? from Mauretania : Mazagan, Morocco, September 
1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; Sidi Ferruch, July 1911, Rabat (A. Thery) ; Masser 
Mines June 1914, Ain Draham July 1911, Perregaux September 1915, Blida 
November 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, June — September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, 
September 1919 (V. Faroult). 

330. Eublemma syrtensis Hmpsn. 

Eublemma syrtensis Hampson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. x. p. 112. No. 5137. pi. cli. f. 28 
(1910) (Hamniam-es-Salahin). 

The type in the British Museum has hitherto been unique ; 1 $ Hammam- 
es-Salahin (Lord Walsingham). 

The small series at Tring shows no 'variation. 7 <J^ Environs de Batna, 
1913-1914 (A. Nelva). 

331. Eublemma jucunda (Hiibn). 

Noctua jucunda Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Noct. ft". 486, 492 (1S18). 

Our series from Mauretania of this contains 43 specimens from Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, July — October 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines June 1914, Ain 
Sefra June 1915, Guelt-es-Stel August 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de 
Tenira, August — September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 



86 Novitates Zooloqicae XXVTI. 1920. 

332. Eublemma purpurina (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena -purpurina Schifferniuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 88 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

I have 9 Mauretanian specimens: 2 <$<$ Ain Draham, September 1911 
(V. Faroult); 1 $ Khenchela, May 1912 (W. R. and K. J.); 2 $$, 4 $$ El 
Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

The 2 Am Draham $$ are ab. secunda Stdgr. with the mauve-lilac colouring 
reduced to a patch at the apex of forewing. 

333. Eublemma candidana (Fabr.). 

Pyralis candidana Fabricius, Entom. Syst. vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 245. No. 11 (1794) (Montpellier). 
1 ? Sidi Ferruch, July 1911 (A. Thery). 

334. Azenia sabulosa (Rothsch.). 

Eublemma sabulosa Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 127. No. 64 (1913) (South Oued Mya). 

The type and a second $ so far are all that have been recorded. 
1 $ South Oued Mya, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 $ Amgid, February 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

335. Synthymia fixa australis (Oberth.). 

Meloptria monngramma australis Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xvi. p. 199. pi. xdvii. f. 4137 
(1919) (Geryville). 

I have a very poor series of this handsome species. 

5 <3<3, 5 $$ from Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines, 
Moroccan Frontier May 1914, Oued Hamidou June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Foret de 
Tenira, June 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

336. Eriopus latreillei (Dup.). 

Noclua latreillei Duponchel, Lepid. France, vol. vii. Noct. vol. iv. pt. 1. p. 327. pi. 120. f. 2 (1827) 
(Provence). 

Our Mauretanian series is very scanty : 13 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel 
October 1913, Ain Sefra July 1915, Masser Mines June 1914, Bou Saada March 
— May 1912, Metlili north of Laghouat September 1917, Ain Draham September 

1911 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

337. Eriopus juventina (Cram.). 

Phalacna juventina Cramer, Pap. Exoi. vol. iv. pt. xxxiv. p. 245. pi. cecc. i. N. (1782) (Surinam ! !). 

Of this elegant species I have only 6 examples, 5 from Tunisia. I believe 
this is the first record for Mauretania. 

All 6 specimens (4 <$<3, 2 $$) are very pale, and the ground-colour some- 
what rufous, but as they are rather worn, it is not possible to say if the North 
African examples belong to a separate subspecies. 

3 cJcJ, 2 ?$ Ain Draham, Tunisia, September 1911, 1 <2 Oued Hamidou, June 

1912 (V. Faroult). 



Novitates Zoolooicaz XXVII. 1920. 87 

338. Phlogophora adulatrix (Hiibn.). 

Noctua adulatrix Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmelt. Noct. S. 517, 649, 650 (1818). 

Of this conspicuous insect the series at Tring from Mauretania consists of 
161 specimens from Hammam R'hira, May 1908-1911 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., 
and Faroult) ; Environs d'Alger, May 1908 (W. R., K. J., and Dr. Nissen) ; 
Biskra, March 1908 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R., 
E. H., and K. J.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, August-September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Am 
Draham September 1911, Environs de Setif 1911, El Kantara August 1917, Oued 
Hamidou June 1912, El Hamel May 1912, Bou Saada and Djebel Kerdada May 
1912, Masser Mines June 1914 (V. Faroult); Guelt-es-Stel, May— October 1912-1913 
(V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, May— June 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The British Museum lias 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord 
Walsingham. 

339. Phytometra orichalcea (Fabr.). 

Noctua oricluilcea Fabricius, Syst. Entom. p. 607. No. 70 (1775) (India). 
Noctua aurifera Hubner, Samml. Eur. Schmelt. Noct. f. 463 (1822). 

Mr. Oberthiir adopts Hiibner's name for this species, as lie figures it, but even 
under his system in regard to figures he ought to have adopted Martyn's name of 
chrysitina of twenty-five years' earlier date, as he gives a good figure in Psyche ; 
perhaps however Mr. Oberthiir, like many other people, adopts the very legitimate 
doubt as to Martyn's Psyche having been properly published. 

We have 34 Mauretanian specimens at Tring from Mazagan, Morocco, July 
1900 (W. Riggenbach) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July— August 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Oran, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs de Setif, 1911 (V. Faroult) ; En- 
virons d'Alger (Dr. Nissen). 

Mr. Oberthiir appears to have only one record of this species from Batna. 

340. Phytometra chalcytes (Esp.). 

Noctua chalcytes Esper., Schmelt. vol. iv. pt. ii. p. 447. No. 167. pi. cxli. f. 3 (1789) (Italy). 

Here also Mr. Oberthiir only seems to have one record, Lambessa. 

The Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 72 examples from Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
Messer, June — September 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Hammam R'hira September 
1916, Le Tlelat October 1915, Batna October 1910 (V. Faroult) ; Environs 
d'Alger (Dr. Nissen) ; Mazagan, Morocco, July 1900 (W. Riggenbach). 

341. Phytometra daubei (Boisd). 

Plusia dauhei Boisduval, Gen. et Ind. Meth. p. 159. No. 1281 (1840) (S. France). 

The Mauretanian examples at Tring number 13 from Biskra, March — April 
1908-1911 (W. R, and E. H.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou); 
Bordj-ben-Aneridj November 1911, Bou Saada March 1912, Lalla Marnia 
November 1914, El Kantara, September 1917 (V. Faroult). 

342. Phytometra accentifera (Lef.). 

Plusia accentifera Lefebre, Ann. Soc. Linn. Paris. 1827. p. 94. pi. 5. (I. 1, 2. 

Of this species I have 4 Algerian specimens : 1 Batna (A. Nelva) ; 3 Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, September 1916-1917 (M. Rotrou). 

Mr. Oberthiir has no record of this species. 



88 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

343. Phytometra intermixta Warr. 

Phytomelra intermixta Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. iii. p. 357. pi. 6ig. (1913) (Pu-Tsu-Fu. 
\V. China). 

This species has always been mixed up with orichalcea. 
3 Mazagan, Morocco, July 1900 (W. Riggenbach). 

344. Phytometra ni (Hiibn). 

Noclua ni Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Xoct. f. 2S4 (1802). 

Of this species we have 149 Mauretanian specimens at Tring. 

I had at one time decided that there were two forms of this species in Algeria, 
the typical form on the coast and in the Tell and a paler desert form elsewhere, 
but 1 find light and dark specimens from the same locality now that I have a 
good series. 

The 149 examples are from Sebdou, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Les Pins, 
Environs de Taourirt, July 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Blida November 1915, Aflou 
October 1916 (V. Faroult) ; Amgid, Ain Tahart, Oued Amra February — March 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Biskra, March — April 1908-1909 (W. R. and 
E. H.) ; Mazagan, Morocco, July 1900 (W. Riggenbach); Environs d'Alger 
(Captain Holl) ; Hammam R'hira May 1908-1916 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., 
and Faroult) ; Ain Sefra, May— July 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and 
Faroult) ; Colomb-Bechar March — April 1912, Perregaux September 1915, 
Oudida May 1914, Lalla Marnia April 1914, Djebel Kerdada and Bou Saada 
May 1912, Bir Stil March 1917, El Kantara August 1917, Oued Hamidou June 
1912, El Hamel May 1912, north side of Djebel Zaccar Miliana August 1916 (V. 
Faroult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, May— September 1915-1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Oran, 
April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. 
and K. J., and Faroult) ; Oued Nca April 1914, El Golea March 1912 (Hartert 
and Hilgert) ; Batna (A. Nelva) ; Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (W. R. 
and K. J.) ; Belvedere, Tunis, August — September 1915 (M. Blanc) ; Ain Draham, 
September 1911 (V. Faroult). 



345. Phytometra gamma (Linn.). 

Phalaena gamma Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 513. No. 91 (1758) (Sweden). 

This almost world-wide species is just as abundant in Algeria as elsewhere. 
I have not kept nearly all that have come to hand between the years 1908 and 
1919, during which I have been amassing Algerian material. 

The series retained at Tring from Mauretania consists of 268 examples from 
Mazagan, Morocco, January — July 1901-1903 (W. Riggenbach) ; Blida les 
Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Biskra January— May 1908-1914, 
Tlemcen April 1913, Oran April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Environs de Batna, 
1909-1912 (A. Nelva) ; Lambessa, July 1914 (A. Nelva) ; Environs d'Alger, May 
1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Hammam R'hira, February— May 1908-1918 (W. R., 
E. H., and K. J., and Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, Ain Fezza, Les Pins, July — 
September 1916-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Khenchela May 1912, Souk Ahras April 
1914, Hammam Meskoutine May 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April- 
October 1912-1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Perregaux October 1915, 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 89 

Oued Hamidou June 1912, Bordj-ben-Aneridj November 1911, Lalla Marnia 
April — May 1914, Blida February 1916, Nedroma May 1914, Masser Mines May 
1914, Mecheria June 1918, Ai'n Draham August — September 1911, Bou Saada 
March— May 1911-1912, Tilghemt April 1912, Boghar May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Sebdou, May 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Slassel Danoun, December 1913 (Geyr von 
Sen weppenburg) . 

In British Museum are 1 $ Hammam-es-Salahin April 1904, 1 $ Tkout, April 
1906, Lord Walsingham ; 1 cJ, 1 ? Hammam Meskoutine, April 1913, P. A. Buxton ; 
1 c? Tangier, Leech coll. 

[Protomeceras mimicaria (Oberth.). 

Cimelia mimicaria Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1887. p. 58 (Sebdou). 

In spite of the continued doubts evinced by Mr. Oberthiir as to the exact 
classificatory position of this very remarkable insect, I think there can be no 
doubt that its correct position is next to Synthimia and in front of Megalodes 
towards the end of the subfamily Zenobiinae (Acronyctinae). 

I have never received this insect.] 

346. Scoliopteryx libatrix (Linn.). 

Phaktena libatrix Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 507. No. 54 (1758) (Sweden). 

I have only had three Mauretanian examples : 1 <J, 1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, Sep- 
tember 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 $ El Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

347. Amphipyra pyramidea (Linn.). 

Phalaena pyramidea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 518. No. 119 (1758). 

I have just one dozen Mauretanian examples : from Blida les Glacieres 
June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Batna (A. Nelva) ; Ain Draham September 1911, 
Hammam R'hira July 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July— August 1917 
(M. Rotrou). 

These all belong to the large and fine form ab. variegata Warr. ; if this form is 
proved to be constant in Algeria and Tunis it would have to stand as a distinct 
subspecies — 

Amphipyra pyramidea variegata Warr. 

Amphipyra pyramidea ab. variegata Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. iii. p. 158. pi. 386- 
(1911) (Algeria). 

348. Pyrois effusa (Boisd.). 

Amphipyra effusa Boisduval, Eur. Lepid. Ind. Meth. p. 68 (1829) (Sicily). 

This insect is widely distributed in Algeria, being found far into the interior 
and also along the coast, though at Tring we have only examples from the Tell 
regions. 

24 specimens from Hammam R'hira, May— June 1911-1916 (W. R. and 
E. H, and Faroult) ; Blida les Glacieres, June 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Hammam 
Meskoutine, May 1909-1914 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; El Mahouna, June 1919 
(V. Faroult). 



90 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

349. Amphipyra tetra (Fabr.). 

Noctua tetra Fabricius, Manl. Ins. vol. ii. p. 138. No. 31 (1787) (Austria). 

Of this species the Tring Museum possesses a very poor Mauretanian series : 
7 specimens from Guelt-es-Stel October 1913, Ai'n Sefra July 1915 (V. Faroult). 

350. Amphipyra tragopoginis distincta subsp. nov. 

$. This insect is a very distinct subspecies of tragopoginis Linn., being larger 
and more brightly coloured. 

Head and thorax deep black-brown ; abdomen smoky wood-brown ; palpi 
and antennae black. Forewings basal three-fourths deep black -brown, powdered 
with dark grey, orbicular represented by a black spot or streak and reniform 
by two black spots ; outer one-fourth sooty blackish grey. Hindwings rusty 
wood-brown washed with sooty grey. 

Length of forewing, 20 mm ; expanse, 47 mm. 

1 $ north side of Djebel Zaccar, nr. Miliana August 1916, 1 $ Hammam 
R'hira May 1917 (V. Faroult). 

Mr. Oberthiir does not record tragopoginis. 

351. Mania maura (Linn.). 

Phalaena maura Linnaeus. Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 512. No. 88 (175S) (Mauretania). 

The series from Mauretania at Tring consists of 82 specimens from Batna 
(A. Nelva) ; Guelt-es-Stel August 1913, north side of Djebel Zaccar, nr. Miliana 
August 1916, Ai'n Draham July 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May — June 
1913-1916 (W. R. and E. H, and Faroult) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, September 
1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Lambessa 1912 (A. 
Nelva). 

352. Apopestes spectrum maura Warr. 

Apopestes spectrum maura Warren in Seitz, Grosssehmett. Erde, p. 370. pi. 686. (1913) (Algeria). 

The name maura could not be used for this insect before the genus was split 
in two, as it is antedated twenty-five years by Staudinger's maura, a species near 
catapfianes, described by its author as a subspecies of cakiphanes, but is quite in 
order now. 

This is not a very distinct subspecies of spectrum, but it appears fairly 
constant, the lines being less diffuse and narrower. 

The Tring series comprises 64 specimens from Batna (A. Nelva) ; El Kantara, 
March 1908-1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Mazagan, Morocco, July 1901 (W. Riggen- 
bach) ; Leila Kredidja, Tala Rana, Kabylie, July 1907-1908 (Dr. Nissen) ; Foret 
de Tenira, Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes July 1917, Les 
Pins August 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April— October 1912-1913 (W. ft 
and K. J., and Faroult) ; Perregaux October 1915, Aflou October 1916 (V. 
Faroult) ; Am Sefra, May— June 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; 
Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912, Medjes October 1912, north side of Djebel 
Zaccar, nr. Miliana August 1916 (V. Faroult). 



N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 91 

353. Autophila maura (Stdgr.). 

Spintherops catapkanes var. maura, Staudinger, Slett. Enlom. Zeit. vol. 49. p. 63 (1888) (Lambessa). 
Spintherops roseata Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xix. p. 126. No. 6 (1912) (Ghardata). 

One would not look generally for the description of an Algerian moth in an 
article dealing with Asiatic species, so I unfortunately redescribed the present 
species. 

Mr. Oberthur as well as Staudinger and most other authors have placed 
this insect under cataphanes Hiibn. as a race or variety, but Sir George Hampson 
is convinced that it and several other forms placed under cataphunes are distinct 
species. 

The series at Tring numbers 78 specimens from Biskra, March — April 1908- 
1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel July— October 1913, Ain Sefra May 
1915, Ras Chergui July 1915, Colomb Bechar March— April 1912, Msila May 1915, 
Bordj Chegga March 1917, Tilghemt April 1912, Laghouat March 1912, Bou 
Saada April — May 1911-1912 (V. Faroult) ; El Kantara March — August 1911- 
1917 (V. Faroult); El Kantara March— August 1911-1917 (W. R. and E. H., 
and Faroult) ; Sebdou, June — July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Oued Abbou, January 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Ghardaia, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) 
(including type of roseata) ; north of Ain Guettera, Ain Guettera, South Oued 
Mya, In-Salah Tidikelt Oases, Fort Miribel, north of El Golea April— May 1912, 
Oued Nca April 191-1 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl ; 2 <$£, 7 <j*j> Hammam- 
es-Salahin, March — May 1903-1904, Lord Walsingham. 

354. Autophila ligaminosa (Eversm.). 

Spintherops ligaminosa Eversniann, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 1851. p. 630 (Georgia and Armenia). 

This was taken by Mr. Oberthur to be typical cataphunes. Sir George 
Hampson considers it a distinct species. 

6 cfcj, 9 $$ Sebdou, August 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 ? Environs de Batna (Nelva) ; 
1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1916 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 <J Hammam R'hira, February 1918. 

Mr. Oberthur does not record this species, having in error put it down as 
cataphanes. 

355. Autophila dilucida libanotica (Stdgr.). 

Apopestes dilucida v. ? libanotica Staudinger, Cat. Lepid. Palaear. Faun. edit. iii. p. 251. No. 2723c 
(1901) (Lebanon). 

Staudinger, Mr. Oberthur, and most other entomologists have identified 
this insect as dilucida dilucida Hiibn., but I consider it agrees best with the sub- 
species libanotica Stdgr. 

In the Stett. Entom. Zeit. vol. xlix. p. 63 (1888) (Biskra) Dr. Staudinger 
separated a more rosy red Autophila as Spintherops dilucida var. rosea, and hitherto 
everyone has followed him without carefully examining a series of this very 
common insect. I was first struck by the longer and narrower wings of rosea, 
and then I found that I had both rosea and dilucida libanotica from Guelt-es-Stel 
and no specimens showing any intermediate characters. 

I at once got Rr. Jordan to examine the <$ genital armature, and we found 
that this differed in the two insects. I then looked up my non-Mauretanian 



92 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

material and perceived at once that there was a much greater resemblance 
between rosea Stdgr. and cerealis Stdgr. than between rosea and the forms of dilu- 
cida. Dr. Jordan on examining the genital armature of cerealis found that it 
really agreed with that of rosea. Therefore rosea is a subspecies of cerealis and 
not of dilucida, and must stand as Autophila cerealis rosea Stdgr. 

We have at Tring 102 Algerian examples of dilucida libanotica Stdgr. from 
El Kantara, March— April 1908-1911 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Batna, 
June 1909-1914 (A. Nelva) ; Guelt-es-Stel, May— June 1913 (V. Faroult) ; 
Djebel Chelia, June 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Environs d'Alger (Captain Holl) ; Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, June 1915-1917 (M. Eotrou) ; Bou Saada May 1912, Oued Hamidou 
June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May— June 1913-1917 (W. R. and 
E. H., and Faroult) ; Masser Mines, June 1914 (V. Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 <$ Algeria, Mrs. Nicholl. 

356. Autophila cerealis rosea (Stdgr.). 

Spintherops dilucida var. rosea Staudinger, Stett. Entom. Zeit. vol. 49. p. 63 (18S8) (Biskra). 

As the genital armature of the (J of this insect differs from that of dilucida 
and agrees with that of cerealis Stdgr., it proves rosea to be a distinct species from 
dilucida and that it is a subspecies of cerealis. 

We have at Tring 333 specimens of this species from Biskra, March 1908 
(W. R. and E. H.) ; Gafsa and Biskra (Staudinger) ; El Hamel May 1912, Mograr 
Foukani November 1916, Guelt-es-Stel May 1913, Bou Saada May 1912, Laghouat 
March 1912, Tilghemt April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Oued Nca April 1914, South 
Oued Mya, north of Ain Guettera, El Golea, April — May 1912 (Hartert and 
Hilgert) ; Oued Abbou January 1914, south of Ouargla December 1913 (Geyr 
von Schweppenburg) ; Ain Sefra, May 1913-1915 (W. R and E. H., and Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 <$ Mauretania. Staudinger and Bang-Haas ; 1 § 
Biskra, February 1894, A. E. Eaton ; 2 $? Hammam-es-Salahin, February 1894, 
Lord Walsingham ; 1 <$ Hammam Meskoutine, March 1911, Meade- Waldo ; 1 $ 
Sbietla, Tunisia 1913, G. C. Champion. 

357. Tathorhynchus exsiccata (Led.). 

Spinlherops exsiccata Lederer, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wien, vol. v. p. 204. pi. 2. f. 12 (1855) (Beirut). 

This species is by no means numerous in Algeria. 

I have only received 15: 5 Guelt-es-Stel, April— May 1912-1913 (W. R. 
and E. H., and Faroult) ; 3 Ain Sefra July 1915, 1 Bou Saada May 1912 (V. 
Faroult) ; 3 Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 2 Amgid February, 1 Oued 
Ag'elil March 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 



358. Anthracia ephialtes (Hiibn). 

Nortua ephialtes Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmmett. Noel. i. 652 (1822). 

Of this species I have only 8 specimens from Algeria. 

7 $? Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 $ Sebdou, September 
1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 (J, 1 $ Morocco, Meade- Waldo. 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 93 

359. Pandesma anysa distincta subsp. nov. 

cj$. Differ from anysa anysa in being smaller, less stoutly built, and more 
uniform deep grey in colour. 

Length of forewing: <J a. anysa 22 mm., a. distincta 15 mm. 

Length of forewing : $ a. anysa 24 mm., a. distincta 18 mm. 

Expanse : a. anysa <$ 51 mm., $ 55 mm. ; a. distincta <J 36 mm., $ 42 mm. 

1 cJ, 1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 ? Belvedere, Tunis 
(M. Blanc) ; 2 &J Ain Sefra, July 1915 (V. Faroult). 

Mr. Oberthur pointed out the difference from anysa anysa, but did not name 
the form, though he figures it. 

360. Pandesma anysa sennaarensis Feld. & Rog. 

Pandesma sennaarensis Felder and Rogenhofer, Reise der Novara, Zoology, vol. ii. sect. 2. pi. cxi. and 
Tafel-Erkl. f. 26 (1872) (Cape Colony and Sennaar). 

This form occurs in the interior of the Sahara ; the $<$ are much whiter 
and the $$ paler and less pure grey. 

4 (JcJ, 5 $$ Amgid, Oued Ag'elil, I-n-Kelemet, Oued Amra, February — March 
1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). I identified this in 1915 as a. terregena Christ., 
but it agrees best with Felder's form. 

Mr. Oberthur does not record this. 

361. Cortyta acrosticta (Piingl.). 

Pericyma acrosticta Piingler, Iris, vol. xvi. p. 290. pi. vi. f. 6 (1903) (Engeddi, Dead Sea). 

This is quite distinct from vetusta, under which Sir George Hampson has placed 
it as an aberration. 

1 (J Ti-n-tabarik, April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 
This is also not recorded by Mr. Oberthur. 

362. Cortyta rosacea (Rebel). (PL XVI. f. 17.) 

Pericyma rosacea Rebel, Denkschr. Math. -Nat. Akad. Wissensch. vol. lxxi. p. 60 (1907) (Socotra). 

I have a fine series of this very rare insect from the Algerian Sahara ; it does 
not vary except in size. 

1 $ South Oued Mya, April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 19 <J<J, 6 ?$ Oued 
Dehin, Amgid, Rharis, Aceksem, Oued Gif-Aman, Oued Tamoudat, Oued Ag'elil, 
north of Ideles, February — April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

Mr. Oberthur does not record this. 

363. Cortyta leucoptera (Hmpsn.). 

Hypaelra leucoptera Hampson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Land. 1896, p. 264. pi. x. f. 1 (Aden). 
Pericyma dispar Piingler, Iris, vol. xvi. p. 290. pi. v. ff. 7, la (1903) (Engeddi, Dead Sea). 
Pericyma fasciolala Warren, Novit. Zool. vol. xii. p. 24. pi. iv. ff. 11, 21 (1905) (Nakheila, Egypt. 

Sudan). 
Polydesma halnearia Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) I. p. 228 (1898) (Waterburg, Transvaal). 
Cortyta impar Hampson, Cat. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. xiii. p. 317. No. 8129. pi. ccxxxii. f. 21 

(1913) (Punjab). 
Homoptera eremochroa Hampson, Journ. Bomh. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 1222 (1912) (Deesa, Bombay). 

In the British Museum Catalogue of Moths Sir George Hampson has all the 
above 6 insects as separate species, but since the publication of vol. xiii. of the 



94 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

above Catalogue, two very remarkable series of specimens have come to hand, 
first a series of 1 8 specimens from the Algerian Sahara sent me by Herr Geyr von 
Schweppenburg in 1914, and secondly a very large series received by Professor 
Poulton from Mr. Feather collected in Somaliland. In these two series every 
intergradation between the 6 insects named above is represented, proving them 
all to belong to a single protean species with an extraordinary range of variation. 
Unfortunately leucoptera Hampson, as the oldest name, has to be used for the species, 
for the very white form to which it was originally given appears to be the rarest ; 
in my series of 21 Algerian specimens, only the <$ from Colomb-Bechar is of this 
form. 

1 <J Colomb-Bechar, March— April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 5 ££, 13 $$ Amgid, 
Oued Pehir, Oued Gif-Aman, Oued Tamoudat, Oued Amra, Rharis. Am Tahart, 
February — April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 2 $$ South Oued Mya, and 
north of Ain Guettera, April 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

The last two are type and cotype of fasciolata subsimilis Warren, but are only 
further aberrations of leucoptera, as is my Cortyta pungleri. 

This is also not recorded by Mr. Oberthiir. 

364. Hypoglaucitis benenotata moses Stdgr. 

Hypoglaucitis moses Staudinger, Iris, vol. vii. p. 284. pi. 9. f. 17 (1894) (Egypt [Cairo? ]). 

Of the 6 o;J, 6 ?$ from Algeria at Tring, 2 ,$<$ are typical moses, 1 <J is too 
worn to be sure of, and 3 <$<$ are ab. ochrea Warr. Of the 6 $$, 5 are ab. ochrea 
and 1 typical moses. 4 (JcJ, 3 $$ South Oued Mya, April 1912 (Hartert and 
Hilgert) ; Laghouat March 1912, Nedrorna and Lalla Marnia May 1914 (V. 
Faroult) ; 1 $ Aceksem, 1 $ Tahihout, April — May 1914 (Geyr von Schweppen- 
burg). 

Not recorded by Mr. Oberthiir. 

365. Mageutica alchymista alchymista (Schiff. & Den.). 

Phalaena alchymista Schiffenniiller and Denis, Ank. Syst, Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 89 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

Of typical alchymista I only have 3 specimens: 1 Hammam R'hira, June 1917 
(V. Faroult) ; 2 Batna (A. Nelva). 

Of ab. varia I have 1 $ from Batna (A. Nelva). 

The British Museum has 1 <J, 1 $ Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

366. Mageutica alchymista uniformis (B.-H.). 

Catephia alchymista var. uniformis Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxiv. p. 41 (1910) (Ain Draham). 

This form is not found in Europe, and in Eastern Algeria and Tunisia at 
least 95 per cent, of the individuals belong to it, so 1 consider it a good subspecies. 
(I have placed the form varia as an aberration under a. alchymista, but 1 am 
doubtful as to its status. Mr. Oberthiir says it is the prevailing form at 
Lambessa, but I have only 3 Batna examples, 2 being typical alchymista and 1 
varia. My material is useless for decision, being so poor in numbers.) 

Of a. uniformis we have at Tring 67 specimens from Ain Draham July — 
August 1911, Environs de Setif 1911 (V. Faroult). 

Of these 67 examples 4 are intermediate between uniformis and alchymista. 



XOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 95 

367. Catephia leucomelas (Linn). 

Phalaena leucomelas Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. p. 518. No. 121 (1758) (Europe). 

Mr. Oberthiir makes use of Rambur's name, which is 71 years later than 
Linnaeus's, although the latter's leucomelas is figured in Clerck's Icones. 

We have 7 Mauretanian examples : 4 Environs d'Alger, May — June 1908 
(W. R. and K. J., and Dr. Nissen) ; 3 Hammam R'hira, July 1917 (V. Faroult). 

368. Anumeta atrosignata harterti Rothsch. 

Anumeta henkei Itarterti Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. si. p. 469 (1913) (El Golea). 

This unfortunate insect has been banded about from pillar to post by Sir 
George Hampson, Mr. Warren, Mr. Oberthiir, and myself. It lias been called 
henkei Stdgr., spilota Ersch., henkei harterti Rothsch., and atrosignata Walk. 
The truth is that spilota Ersch., harterti Rothsch., and atrosignata Walk, are 3 
subspecies of one widely-spread desert species. 

The Tring Museum has 16 specimens: 2 <J(J, 1 $ El Golea, 1 <J, 1 $ San- 
dana, south of Ghardaia, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 2 <$<$ Bordj Mgeitla, 
April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 4 <?<?, * $$ Amgid, Aceksem, Tahihout, Oued 
Dehin, Ain Tahart, February — April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 1 Colomb- 
Bechar, March— April 1912 (V. Faroult). 

369. Anumeta sabulosa Rothsch. (PI. XVI. f. 15.) 

Anumeta sabulosa Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 129. No. 78 (1913) (South Oued Mya). 

Of this very distinct species we have 1 1 examples at Tring from South Oued 
Mya, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Amgid, Oued Dehin, Ain Tahaut, February 
— April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

The type was unfortunately recorded in the original description as a <J ; it 
is in reality a <j>. 

370. Anumeta spatzi Rothsch. (PI. XVI. ff. 11, 12.) 

Anumeta spatzi Rothschild, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xvi. p. 257. No. 51 (1915) (Amgid). 

Of this fine species the Tring series contains 11 specimens from Amgid, 
Tahihout, Ain Taiba, April — May 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

371. Anumeta major Rothsch. (PI. XVI. ff. 13, 14.) 

Anumeta major Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 130. No. 79 (1913) (N. of El Golea). 

In my article on Herr Geyr von Schweppenburg's collection (see above) I 
recorded 2 <$<$ and 1 $ as being major. On closer examination I find all 3 speci- 
mens from Ain Taiba are $3. 

1 ? north of El Golea, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 3 <J<J Ain Taiba, 
May 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

The most striking difference at first sight between spatzi and major is that the 
black spot in the hindwing is free in the white patch in major, while in spatzi it 
coalesces with the brown shadow band. This is the insect Warren described as 
harterti while figuring the real harterti. 



96 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

[Anumeta cestis cestis (Menet.). 

Catephia cestis Menetries Mem. Acad. Imp. St. Pet. Scien. Nat. vol. vi. Descr. Ins. Iiec. feu Lehmann, 
p. 74. No. 870. pi. vi. f. 10 (1848) (Bachkirie). 

This is a pure desert-loving insect, and where we caught it in 1909 in the 
Oued Souf region it was taken among the sand-dunes. 

The series from Algeria when contrasted with my series from Central Asia 
appears less robust, and the pattern of the forewings, when the whole of each 
series is compared with the whole of the other series, gives a different impression ; 
but the real difference lies in the dark patches in the hindwing, which are very 
heavy and generally confluent in cestis cestis and smaller and generally separated 
into three in the Algerian race. 

Of cestis cestis the Tring Museum has 25 examples, of which 4 are ab. punctata 
Men. and 5 ab. uniformis Warr.] 

372. Anumeta cestis parvimacula subsp. nov. 

^ 5- Differ from cestis cestis in being less robust and in the black markings 
on the hindwings being smaller in extent and generally broken up. 

65 specimens, of which 10 are ab. uniformis Warr., from Bordj Ferdjan Bordj 
Mgeitla, Bordj Mecht-el-Kaid, April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Arefidji, halfway 
between Ouargla and El Golea, north of El Golea, Hassi el Hadjar, Hassi Dinar, 
March 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Tilghemt April, Bou Saada May 1912 (V. 
Faroult). 

373. Anumeta hilgerti (Rothsch.). 

Palpangula hilgerti Rothschild, Entom. Zeit. Stuttgart, vol. xxiii. p. 142 (1909) (Bordj Ferdjan). 

The series at Tring contains 34 examples, of which 3 are ab. brunnea Warr. 
from Amgid, Oued Dehir, Temassinin, Oued Gif-Aman, Ain Taiba, Oued Amra, 
and north of Ideles, January — May 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Oued 
Abiod, Hassi el Hadjar, El Golea, halfway between Ouargla and El Golea, 
Arefidji, March — May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Colomb Bechar, March — 
April 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Bordj Ferdjan, Bordj Mgeitla, April 1909 (W. R. and 
E. H.). 

[At the end of the paragraph on Palpangula harterti Mr. Oberthiir mentions 
Anumeta sabulosa, stating it was described by Warren in Seitz, but that as it was 
not figured it was a " nomen nudum." This is Mr. Oberthiir's usual proceeding, 
but as he goes so far as to tell his readers that such a creature had been 
described, he might at least have given the author's name correctly. Anumeta 
sabulosa was described by me, and therefore the author of the name is Rothschild 
not Warren. As to the question of the authenticity of a name depending on a 
good figure, I maintain that far oftener a good description is more easily recog- 
nised than even a good figure ; especially as the figure only represents one speci- 
men and not a whole series, and in nine times out of ten represents the peculiari- 
ties which struck the artist's eye, while the differentiating characters may not be 
those emphasised in the drawing. 

In addition the International Rules of Nomenclature nowhere insist on 
anything more than a fairly accurate and consequently recognisable description, 



Novitates Zoolooioae XXVTI. *1920. 97 

and therefore Mr. Oberthiir and his friends who support him in his view about 
figures are not in accord with the general body of zoological opinion all over 
the world.] 

374. Anydrophila sabourodi (D. Luc). 

Palpangula sabourodi Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Enlom. France, 1907. p. 180 (Zarcine, Tunisia). 

Mr. Oberthiir as well as the author place this species in Palpangula = Anu- 
meta. This is quite wrong as sabourodi, and the 4 Central Asian species which 
form the genus Anydrophila are Catocalinae, whereas Anumeta {Palpangula) is a 
genus of Noctuinae separated by two families from the Catocalinae. 

We have the other 4 only recorded specimens, beyond the type, at Tring. 
2 £<$ Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 ^ Aceksem, April 1914 
(Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; 1 $ A'in Sefra, June 1915 (V. Faroult). 

« 375. Anumeta straminea (B.-H.). 

Palpangula straminea Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. six. p. 135. pi. v. f. 11 (1906) (Gafsa, Tunisia). 

Of this characteristic species we have at Tring a large series ; but curiously 
enough, although Mr. Oberthiir says it is common at Biskra, we only obtained 
two specimens there during our four prolonged visits. 347 specimens from Colomb 
Bechar March— April 1912, Bou Saada March— May 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Nza- 
ben-Rzig, Mraier, Tamerna, half-way between Touggourt and Ouargla, Arefklji, 
Hassi el Hadjar, north of El Golea, halfway between Ouargla and El Golea 
February — May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; south of Bledet-Ahmar, south of 
Ouargla, Slassel Dhanoun, Hassi Abbou, Oued Abbou, Timassinin, I-n-Kelemet, 
Amgid, December 1913 — February 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Biskra 
February 1908-1911, Bordj Ferdjan, Bordj Mgeitla April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Tunis (Staudinger). 

The British Museum has 2 $$ Hammam-es-Salahin, March 1904, Lord 
Walsingham ; 1 <J, 2 $$ Colomb-Bechar, February 1912, V. Faroult ex Tring 
Museum. 

376. Leucanitis kabylaria B.-H. 

Leucanilis kabylaria Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. six. p. 136. pi. v. f. 7 (1906) (Gafsa, Tunisia). 

We have at Tring 48 specimens of this insect from halfway between Ouargla 
and El Golea, March 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Bordj Mgeitla, Bordj Ferdjan 
April 1909, Ghardai'a April 1911 (VV. R. and E. H.) ; Bou Saada April 1911, 
Bordj Chegga March 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Amgid, north of Ideles, Oued Ag'elil, 
Oued Lehin, Oued Gif-Aman, February — March 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Tunis, Staudinger and Bang- Haas. 

377. Drasteria oranensis sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 16.) 

<J $. Antennae black-brown ; head and thorax pale sandy cinnamon, central 
streak on tegulae and edge of patagia deep rufous ; abdomen pale sandy 
cinnamon. 

Forewing sandy cinnamon, basal one-fourth almost completely saturated with 
brown with a number of irregular lines and rings of black, a clear transverse convex 

7 



98 KOVKTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

sandy band followed by two-thirds of remainder of wing being suffused with brown 
and covered with irregular black lines, leaving a whitish buff irregular patch, outer 
part beyond brown greyish sandy cinnamon, with brown marginal hair line, fringe 
white with brown central line and a dark cinnamon patch between veins 3 and 4. 
Hindwing white on basal two-fifths, black on outer three-fifths, black central 
stigma joined to black outer part in which fringe and large patch between veins 
4 and apex and a small patch at vein 2 are white. 

Length of forewing, 15 mm. ; expanse, 33 mm. 

2 cJcJ, 3 $$ Am Sefra, May 1913 (VV. R. and E. H.). 



378. Acrobyla panaceorum distincta (Rothsch.). 

Armada panaceorum distincta Rothschild, Nooil. Zool. vol. xxii. p. 234. Xo. 49 (1915) (Oued Nca). 

The Tring series of this insect contains 5 gg, 4 $$ from Oued Nca, Hassi 
Sidi Mahmud April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Bou Saada May 1912, Am 
Sefra May 1915, Colomb Bechar March— April 1912 (V. Faroult). 

379. Syneda cailino cailino (Lef.). 

Heliolhis cailino Lefebre, Ann. Soc. Linn. Paris. 1827. p. 94. t. 5. f. 1 (Sicily). 

Of this species we have at Tring 24 Algerian examples from Bou Saada, 
Djebel Kerdada, April— May 1911-1912 (V. Faroult) ; El Kantara, March— April 
1911 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Oued Nca, April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert). 

380. Syneda cailino philippina (Aust.). 

Lucanitis philippina Austaut, Le Nat. vol. ii. p. 237 (1880) (Oran). 

Differs from c. cailino in its darker more rufous colouration and wider dark 
outer portion of hindwings. 

1 cJ, 1 $ Colomb-Bechar, March— April 1912 (V. Faroult). 

381. Raphia hybris (Hiibn.). 

Noct-ua hybris Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Hchmett. Xocl. f. 518 (1818). 

I have received 19 specimens in all from Algeria. 

6 <J<J, 9 $$ Sidi-bel-Abbes, 3 $$ Messer, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 5 
Foret de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

1 ^, 5?$ are normal in colouration ; the rest are very melanistic. 

382. Catocala elocata (Esp.). 

Koctua elocata Esper, Schmelt. vol. iv. pt. i. p. 127. No. 43. pi. xcix. ff. 1, 2 (1786). 

I have received comparatively few specimens of this species. 

We have 36 Mauretanian examples : Mauretania ! ! (Staudinger) ; bred 
ex larvae ex Batna (Dr. A. Seitz) ; Environs de Batna, 1909-1914 (A. Nelva) ; 
Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912, A'inDraham July — September 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, August 1916 (M. Rotrou) ; Ain Sefra, June 19J5 (V. Faroult). 



N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 99 

383. Catocala oberthuri Aust. 

Catocala oberthuri Austaut, Le Nat. vol. i. p. 85 (1879) (Sidi-bel-Abbes). 

I have received a large series of this insect, mostly from the topotypical 
locality. It appears to be much commoner in the province of Oran than in 
Eastern Algeria. 

The series at Tring contains 386 examples from Environs d' Alger (El Biar), 
August 1905 (Captain Holl) ; Alger and Mauretania ! ! (Staudinger) ; Batna 
and ex larva ex Batna, July — August 19U3-1912 (A. Nelva, Dr. A. Seitz, and 
Maitre Sellier Taillefer) ; Ain Sefra, July 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Am Draham, July — 
September 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, August 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, 
September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The series varies much in the shade of colour and accentuation of pattern in 
the forewings and in the width of the black outer margin of the hindwings. 
Among this series are specimens distinctly referable to ab. transient B.-H., but 1 
have not received either ab. flavicans Oberth. or ab. haroldiana Oberth. 

Among the Ain Sefra series are 3 <$,$ and 2 $$ of a very strange aberration, 
very large and suffused with red ; this I propose to call ab. erubescens ab. nov. 

The genitalia of oberthuri and elocata are alike, and there are in my series 
some which look suspiciously like intermediates more or less. I am therefore 
very doubtful as to the validity of the two species ; it may very well turn out that 
oberthuri is a subspecies of elocata still in the making. 

The British Museum has 1 $ Morocco, August — September, Meade- Waldo ; 
2 (JcJ Crowley coll. ; 4 <3<S, 2 $$ Staudinger and Bang-Haas and Leech coll. 

384. Mormonia dilecta powelli (Oberth.). 
Catocala dilecta powelli Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. iii. expl. pi. and pi. xii. f. 13 (1909) (Daya). 

The Algerian race of dilecta Hiibn. diifers from dilecta dilecta by its more 
intense crimson hindwings and its greater variation in colour and pattern of 
forewing. The ab. dayremi Oberth. is the extreme melanistic phase and = 
ab. obscurata Spul. of dilecta dilecta Hiibn. 

The large series at Tring includes most of the intergradations as well as 
extreme dayremi. 

We have 1,035 examples from Environs d' Alger (Captain Holl) ; Ain Draham, 
September 1909-1911 (V. Faroult); Sebdou, July— August 1918 (P. Rotrou); 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, August 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 J Batna, August 1910, A. E. Eaton ; 1 cj, 1 ? Ain 
Draham, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

385. Mormonia sponsa laeta (Oberth.). 

Catocala sponsa laeta Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. iii. expl. pi. and pi. xii. i. 15 (1909) 
(Yakouren). 

The Algerian race of sponsa Linn, differs from sponsa sponsa in being larger 
and brighter and more variegated with white. Mr. Oberthur has also named a 
melanislic form ab. obscura. 

The Algerian series at Tring is a very poor one, and mostly not in good 
condition. 

22 specimens from Ain Draham, September 1909-1911 (Faroult and Stau- 
dinger) ; Sebdou, August 1918 (P. Rotrou) . 



N0VITATE3 Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 



386. Catocala promissa hilaris Oberth. 

Oatocala promissa hilaris Oberthiir. Etud. Lipid. Cornp. fasc. iii. expl. pi. and pi. xiii. f. 17 (1909) 

(Yakouren). 
Catocala electra Bang-Haas. Iris, vol. xxiv. p. 41. pi. iv. f. 1 (1910) (Ain Draham). 

The figure of Mr. Oberthur's hilaris from Yakouren is considerably darker 
and the median black band on the hindwing is shown much broader than in any 
Ain Draham specimen ; it also is smaller than most of those from there. 

Dr. Jordan has examined the genital armature for me of this and European 
promissa, and finds them similar. My readers will surely take me to task for 
adopting Mr. Oberthur's views here as to the status of promissa and hilaris, while 
I keep the much more similar insects as regards outward appearance, elocata 
and oberthuri separate. 

Although the genitalia are alike, I can only say that in that case they occur 
together, while here hilaris replaces sponsa. 

Time will show also whether after all the case may not be similar and that 
oberthuri replaces elocata, but is not yet so fixed as hilaris and therefore still 
produces a certain number of specimens, indistinguishable from elocata. 

I have one specimen only other than Ain Draham ones ; of these latter we 
possess 1'98 Ain Draham, July — August 1909-1911 (V. Faroult and Staudinger) ; 
1 cS Le Tarf, July 1908 (Captain Holl). 

The British Museum has 1 (J, 1 $ Ain Draham, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 



387. Catocala optata sultana B.-H. 

Catocala sultana Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxiv. p. 42. pi. iv. f. 2 (1910) (Ain Draham). 

Mr. Oberthiir is very emphatic as to the optata found in Algeria, Tunisia, and 
Morocco being all one entity and found in two forms named amanda Boisd. and 
selecta Boisd., and that Bang-Haas renamed this form sultana. Also because 
he has received a single specimen from Tangier less strongly marked and 
less bright than Bordeaux specimens, he says there is no fixity in local races, 
i.e. snbspecies. 

If these subspecies were absolutely fixed and showed a constant strong 
difference they would be species and not subspecies. To my mind, if 75-80 per 
cent, of specimens in one locality are constantly different from those of another 
locality, the form is worthy of a name. 

The Ain Draham form has at least 95 per cent, of the individuals larger and 
the colour above brighter than optata optata, and it is also larger and brighter 
than optata amanda Boisd., which only differs from optata optata in the sandy 
tint and deeper rose-colour beneath. This large Mauretanian form extends all 
along the Tell of Algeria, north of the Atlas, from Sidi-bel-Abbes in the west 
to Ain Draham in Tunisia (Kroumerie) at least in the east. 

The series at Tring contains 143 specimens from Ain Draham, July — August 
1909-1911 (V. Faroult and Staudinger) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July— August 1917 (M. 
Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 J, 1 9 Ain Draham, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1020. 101 

388. Catocala optata intermedia Hmpsn. (Bang-Haas in litt.). 

Catocala optata ab. intermedia Bang-Haas iiiccl. Harnpson, Cat. Lepid. Phot. Brit. Mus. vol. xii. p. 72. 
ab. 1 (1913) (Algeria (Batna)). 

This is the form Mr. Oberthiir says is amanda Boisd. ; it differs from both 
optata optata and optata amanda in the black central band of the hindwings being 
much less irregularly dentate, and in being narrow for the costal half and suddenly 
becoming broader from vein 5 where it forms a sharp angle. It also is still brighter 
rose than o. amanda on the underside of the hindwings. 

Our series contains 38 specimens from Batna, July — August 1910-1914 
(A. Nelva and Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Batna, Staudinger and Bang-Haas. 

389. Catocala puerpera rosea Aust. 

Catocala puerpera var. rosea Austaut, Le Nat. vol. vi. p. 391 (1884) (llorocco). 

The rather poor series I have are all characteristic rosea, being larger than 
puerpera puerpera Giorn. with the forewings sandy cinnamon, strongly washed 
with rose. 

17 examples from Am Sefra, July 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July — 
August 1917-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

390. Catocala conjuncta vivida Warr. 

Catocala conjuncta vivida Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. iii. p. 3U8. pi. 56b (1913) (Algeria). 

We have 749 Algerian examples, including the type of Warren's ab. fulva 
with fulvous yellow hindwings, from Sidi-bel-Abbes September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Ain Draham September 1909-1911 (V. Faroult and Staudinger); Environs 
d'Alger (Captain Holl) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The colour of the hindwings in Mauretanian examples is deeper and richer. 

391. Ephesia nymphaea (Esp.). 

Noctua nympliaea Esper, Schmett. vol. iv. pt. i. p. 158. No. 52. pi. cv. f. 4 (1787) (Lyons). 

This insect is also very variable as to colour and intensity of pattern of fore- 
wings, many specimens almost exactly resembling Ephesia flavescens Hampson 
from India, which must stand as Ephesia nymphaea flavescens Hampson. 

Our Mauretanian series contains 289 specimens from Blida les Glacieres 
larvae June, emerged Alger July 1908 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Tala Rana, July 1906 
(Dr. Nissen) ; Mazagan, Morocco, July — September 1901-1902 (W. Riggenbach) ; 
El Kantara, June 1909 (Cheli Brahim) ; Ain Draham, July 1909-1911 (V. Faroult 
and Staudinger) ; Batna, July 1908-1914 (Nelva and Taillefer) ; Ain Sefra, July 
1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes July 1917, Les Pins July 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

392. Catocala conversa (Esp.). 

Noctua conversa Esper, Schmett. vol. iv. pt. i. pi. ev.B. ff. 1, 2, 3 (1787). 

Of this species our Algerian and Tunisian examples number 228, including 
the aberrations carbonaria Staud. and seminigra Warr. 156 from Tunis (Stau- 



102 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

dinger) ; Ain Draham July — August 1911, Hammam R'hira June — August 1916, 
north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Mecheria August 1918 (V. Faroult) ; 
Batna, July 1909-1912 (A. Xelva) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes July 1917, Les Pins July 1918 
(M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, July 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

393. Ephesia eutychea (Treit). 

Catocala evlychea Treitschke, Schmetl. Eur. vol. x. pt. ii. p. 165 (1835) (Corfu). 

Although I have only the small series of 15 specimens of this southern species 
from Mauretania,' it appears widely spread. It is here recorded for the first time 
for our region. 

4 cJcJ, 4 ?$ Hammam R'hira June 1916, 2 £<$, 1 $ Masser Mines June 1914 
(V. Faroult) ; 1 J Sebdou, 1 cJ, 1 9 Foret de Tenira June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; 1 $ 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, June 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

[On the status of Catocala vallantini O berth. (PL XIV.) 

This insect was described as a species and figured Etud. Entom. livr. xix. p. 36. 
pi. vi. f. 53 (1894) (Bone) by Mr. Oberthur. In 1901 Messrs. Staudinger and 
Rebel in Cat. Lepid. Pal. Faun, on p. 250 (pt. i.) place this as a species following 
nymphagoga with the number 2,716 ; but make certain remarks which I translate 
as follows : " Described from a single q ; judging from the type specimen, this 
appears to be an aberration of the preceding species (nymphagoga), although 
Staudinger would rather see in it a subspecies. In 1912, when Sir George Hamp- 
son was writing vol. xii. of the British Museum Catalogue, I lent him all my large 
series of Catocalas captured by Victor Faroult at Ain Draham in July — September 
1911, among which were 3 vallantini and a long series of the insect Mr. Oberthur 
has recorded as nymphagoga without any qualification. Among these so-called 
nymphagoga are a considerable number in which the median black band of the 
hindwing is in process of reduction, and there is a complete gradation from the 
normal band to a band almost obsolete. Besides these there are two specimens, 
one a vallantini showing a distinct shadowy trace of the band, and a second 
in which the band is present, but almost gone. I suggested to Sir George 
Hampson that vallantini was only an aberration of the so-called nymphagoga. 
Sir George, however, after examining the series, came to a different conclusion ; 
in fact he declared, and afterwards published in vol. xii. of the Catalogue, that 
vallantini was a distinct species and belonged to Hubner's genus Ephesia, 
while nymphagoga was a true Catocala. In 1913 in Seitz -Mr. William Warren 
published vallantini as a subspecies of nymphagoga, at the same time treating some 
of the Algerian examples, with a normal central band to the hindwing, as nym- 
phagoga, and describing others as subspecies ! ! under the names of griseata and 
albijnixta ; while others again he described as aberrations under the names of 
contorta, jasciata, and julvipennis. Finally Mr. Oberthur in the volume dealt with 
in this article, viz. Etudes de Lepidopterologie Comparee, fascicule xvi., treats his 
so-called nymphagoga and his vallantini as two separate species ; and under 
vallantini makes the following remarks : " C'est une Espece des plus tranchees 
et les moins contestables parmi les Catocala a ailes iuferieures jauues de la Faune 
palearctique." 

When I was working at the British Museum during the months of March — 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 103 

July of this year (1919) preparing for this article and correcting identifications 
of Mauretanian Noctuidae, I again submitted the series of Ain Draham so-called 
ny7n.pha.g0ga and my 3 vallantini to Sir George Hampson, saying I could not feel 
satisfied with his former decision, and was still of opinion that vallantini was an 
aberration without the central band of the hindwings. He again said he was 
sure they were different species, and now laid great stress on what he pointed out 
as the different position and direction of the transverse lines of the forewings. 

I was not satisfied with this answer, and got Dr. Jordan to examine a series 
of these insects, both from Europe and Algeria. 

Sir George Hampson in the Catalogue, vol. xii. gives long diagnoses of the 
genera Catocala and Ephesia which I have carefully compared, and find all the 
characters given by him for both genera are the same except the following : 

Ephesia. "Fore and hind tibiae not spined ; mid tibiae spined. . . ." 

Catocala. " Fore tibiae not spined ; mid and hind tibiae spined, the latter 
only between the spurs. ..." 

Dr. Jordan found both European nymphagoga and the Algerian specimens 
with complete median band on hindwing, as well as vallantini, to have one or two 
spines on the hind tibiae ; thus in the first place proving that vallantini is a true 
Catocala and not an Ephesia. (These spines are more of the nature of stiff bristles, 
protruding between the scales of the legs, and must not be confused with the 
spars.) 

Now, after Dr. Jordan had proved vallantini to be possessed of spines exactly 
as in nymphagoga, he and I carefully compared the pattern of the forewings to test 
the validity of Sir George Hampson's contention that the transverse lines on the 
forewings were different in vallantini. At first sight this really appeared to be the 
case, but we soon found that when the strongly dentate and sinuate postmedian 
line had become obsolete, the ordinarily much less conspicuous submarginal band 
stood out more plainly. This submarginal band is much further from the termen 
than in most other groups of Noctuidae, and is easily mistaken for the postmedian 
line in the specimens where this latter has become obliterated. There are, however, 
in the series from Ain Draham a number where the postmedian line on the fore- 
wings is quite as much absent as in vallantini, while the hindwings have the central 
band. These at once proved to us that the Catocala vallantini Oberth. = Ephesia 
vallantini of Hampson was nothing more than an extreme aberration in which 
the greater part of the pattern of the forewings had become obliterated, and the 
central band of the hindwings had disappeared altogether. To prove this and 
also illustrate the great variability of this insect, I propose to publish a coloured 
plate showing a complete gradation from the forewing with all markings extremely 
sharp to the almost complete obliteration exhibited in Warren's ab. griseata $, 
and also every gradation in the hindwing from one with a distinct sharply defined 
central band = ab. normalis Rothsch. to the total absence of the band = ab. 
vallantini Oberth. 

But our thus proving that vallantini Oberth. is only an extreme aberration 
does not entirely explain all points connected with this insect. When in 1901 
Drs. Staudinger and Rebel made their observations on the type and unique 
specimen, as it was then, of Catocala vallantini Oberth., there were no other 
examples of a Catocala known from Algeria of the nymphagoga type, and this was 
what chiefly induced Staudinger in opposition to Rebel to consider it to be the 
Mauretanian subspecies of nympfiagoga. The large series sent from Algeria and ' 



104 NOVITATES ZOOLOG1CAE XXVII. 1U20. 

Tunisia since 1901 make it at once apparent that Staudinger was wrong and Rebel 
right as regards vallantini itself. 

Now, however, the question arises, What arc the specimens with median bands 
on the hindwings ? Are they true nymphagoga or are they not ? Esper described 
and figured his Xoctna nymphagoga Schmett. vol. iv. pt. i. p. 159. No. 53. pis. cv. 
f. 5 and cv.6. f. 5 (1787) from Lyons and South Italy, and I have examined at 
Tring a series of 140 European specimens consisting of 8 without any locality and 
138 from Quillery, France ; Landes, S. France ; Germany ; Dalmatia ; Austria ; 
HerculesfiirdS, Hungary; Sorgento, Sardinia; Sicily ; and Amanus Mts., 
Syria, and I have compared them with 367 Algerian and Tunisian examples. 
Among the European examples are specimens of the ab. anthracita Th. Mieg., 
ab. tinolia Led., ab. curvifascia and ab. nubilosa Schulze, as well as the type of ab. 
albinata Warr. ; while among the Mauretanian examples are the ab. vallantini 
Oberth., ab. normalis Rothsch., ab. leucomelas Oberth., ab. albimixta Warr., ab. 
griseata Warr., ab. jasciata Warr., ab. fulvipennis Warr., and ab. contorta Warr. 
I find the general run of Mauretanian examples (in fact 95 per cent.) are smaller, 
and in all of them the yellow of the hindwing is very bright, and there is much 
more tendency for the pattern of the forewings to become obliterated, while the 
central band of the hindwings shows all degrees of reduction till it is absent 
altogether in typical ab. vallantini. 

In the whole of the 146 European nymphagoga at Tring there is no specimen 
exhibiting any reduction of this central band, nor is there in the British Museum 
series. From all these points of difference, it is clear that the Mauretanian 
nymphagoga differ from the European ones. It remains to be seen what the}' ought 
to be called. Of the 8 names applied to Mauretanian specimens, that of vallantini 
Oberth. is not only the oldest but also was not used in an aberrational sense when 
first given. Therefore the name for the Mauretanian subspecies of nymphagoga 
must stand asC'atocala nymphagoga vallantini Oberth., with two extreme forms ab. 
normalis Rothsch. with complete median band to the hindwing and ab. vallantini 
Oberth. with this band absent.] 



394. Catocala nymphagoga vallantini Oberth. (PI. XIV. ff. 1-24 & 30-39.) 

Catocala vallanlini Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. livr. xix. p. 36. pi. vi. f. 53 (1894) (Bone). 

This subspecies differs from nymphagoga nymphagoga Esp. in its generally 
smaller size, brighter colouration, especially the yellow colour, and the narrower 
outer margin of the hindwing, and in the strong tendency to obliteration of pattern 
of forewing and the central band of the hindwing. There are two extreme forms : 
one ab. normalis ab. nov. with pattern of forewing and central band of hindwing 
strongly defined, and ab. vallantini Oberth. with the pattern of forewing almost 
obliterated and the band of hindwing absent. Between these extremes all inter- 
gradations occur ; for the names of the various intermediates see antea. 

The Tring series contains 376 Mauretanian examples from Ain Draham, 
Tunisia, July 1909-1911 (V. Faroult and Staudinger) ; Ax larva, the larvae Blida 
les Glacieres May, emerged Alger July 1908 j(W. R. and E. H.) ; Tala Rana, 
Kabylie July 1908, Mezarir July 1906, Leila Kredidja, Kabylie July 1907 
(Dr. Nissen) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
July 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, July 1919 (V. Faroult). 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 105 

[Note on the genus Ephesia Hiibn. 

Sir George Hampson takes as the type of Ephesia, Phalaena fulminea Scop. 

On examination of the long series of the species at Tring, Dr. Jordan found 
spines present on the hind tibiae in some individuals, while they were absent in 
others.] 

395. Anua tirhaca (Cram.). 

Phalaena tirhaca Cramer, Pap. Exot. vol. ii. pt. xv. p. 110. pi. elxxii. f. E. (1777) (Cape of Good 
Hope). 

Of this conspicuous insect the Mauretanian series at Tring comprises 36 
examples from El Kantara, March 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Batna September 
1910, Ai'n Draham September 1911, Guelt-es-Stel September — October 1912- 
1913, Bou Saada July 1911, Bordj -ben- Aneridj October 1912, Perregaux October 
1915, Lalla Marnia 1914 (V. Earoult) ; Sidi-bel- Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 
Environs de Taourirt, July 1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Hammam R'hira, June 1918 (V. 
Faroult). 

[Minucia lunaris (Schiff. & Den.). 

Pftatoena Smarts Schiffermiiller arid Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk: Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 94 (1775) (Vienna). 

Mr. Oberthur records the Mauretanian race of this species under the name 
of the European form, and only treats certain striking aberrations as such under 
the names of maura, rufa, and murina. It is quite true that while Mr. Oberthur 
has several hundred specimens from Mauretania, the Tring Museum has only 89, 
but yet among those 89 there are none like typical European specimens. I 
therefore propose to separate the Mauretanian race as a separate subspecies, and as 
it is very appropriate I shall adopt for it Mr. Oberthur's name of maura, although 
only given to an aberration.] 

396. Minucia lunaris maura (Oberth.). 

Pseudophia lunaris ab. maura Oberthur, Etud. Enlom. livT. ix. p. 39. pi. iii. f. 13 (1884) (Sebdou). 

The Tring series of I. maura contains 5 ab. rufa Oberth., 4 ab. murina Oberth., 
but no typical maura, all the rest being intermediates between murina and maura. 

89 examples from Batna, Lambessa (A. Nelva) ; Khenchela May 1912, Souk 
Ahras April 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, April 1918 (P. 
Rotrou) ; Lambessa May 1909, Environs d' Alger May 1908 (W. R. and E. H.). 

So far as I have seen, the sandy cinnamon-grey colour of the European form 
is never found in Mauretanian specimens, so that the diagnosis should read : 
" Differs from I. lunaris in the less sandy, more silvery grey ground-colour and 
in the much greater frequency of aberrations with red, olive, or mouse-grey ground- 
colour, and with obliterated bands." 

[The genus Clytie and the forms allied to illunaris Hiibn. 

Mr. Oberthur records Clytie illunaris from Algeria and says he has received 
specimens from various places all extremely variable, some being identical with 
illunaris, while others agreed with sancta Stdgr. and syriaca Bugn. I myself have, 
in addition to describing Clytie arenosa as new, from time to time recorded various 



106 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Clyties from Mauretania, viz. terrulenta Christ. ; ddunaris Stdgr. ; and syndaja 
Hmpsn. 

Now, the various species and races of this genus are very puzzling, owing 
mainly to the variation in the submarginal or postdiscal band on the forewings. 
Sir George Hampson enumerates the following as distinct species : devia Swinh. ; 
scotorrhiza Hmpsn. ; sancta Stdgr. ; illunaiis Hiibn. ; haifae Habich ; distincta 
B.-H. ; sydaja Hmpsn. ; aretwsa Rothsch. ; syriaca Bugn. ; sublunaris Stdgr. ; 
nabataea Hmpsn. ; ddunaris Stdgr. ; and terrulenta Christ. Mr. Warren in Seiiz 
has described and figured in addition to these luteonigra from the Amu Darya. I 
have non-Algerian examples of all these, except distincta B.-H., scotorrhiza Hmpsn., 
devia Swinh., and nabataea Hmpsn., more or less from their typical localities, and I 
find that I have among my Algerian material certainly the following : nabataea 
Hmpsn., arenosa Rothsch., sancta Stdgr., and syriaca Bugn., but I have not got a 
single specimen at all agreeing with illunaris. In addition to these 4 I have 1 ? 
from Am Draham which agrees exactly with Warren's luteonigra, except that it is 
larger than the 3 Amu Darya examples. There remain the insects I recorded 
as sublunaris and terrulenta. 

The series collected by Herr Geyr von Schweppenburg in and north of the 
Hoggar Mountains recorded by me as ddunaris are, I am now convinced, only 
very fresh and sharply marked sancta Stdgr. The insects recorded as terrulenta 
are certainly very small, but I am more inclined now to admit an error of identi- 
fication and consider them sandy sancta.] 

397. Clytie sancta (Stdgr.). 

Pseudophia sancta Staudinger, Iris, vol. x. p. 301 (1S97) (Palestine). 

By far the larger number of Clytie at Tring consist of this form. 

95 examples from South Oued Mya, May 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Oued 
Ahmra, Oued Ag'elil, Oued Gif-Aman, Oued Tamoudat, Ideles, north of Ideles, 
March 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg) ; Am Sefra July 1915. Masser Mines, 
June 1914,Guelt-es-Stel October 1912, El Mesrane June 1913,Bou Saada May 1911, 
El Kantara March— August 1911-1917, Batna 1910 (V. Faroult) ; Les Pins 
August 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

398. Clytie arenosa Rothsch. 

Clytie arenosa Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xx. p. 123. No. 69 (1913) (South Oued Mya). 

Of this rare species we have at Tring 3 specimens : 1 <J, 1 $ Oued Mya, May 1912 
(Hartert and Hilgert) ; 1 $ Oued Tahihout, April 1914 (Geyr von Schweppenburg). 

399. Clytie syrdaja Hmpsn. 

Clytie syrdaja Hampson (Pseudophia syrdaja, B.-H. ined.). Cut. Lepid. Phal. Brit. Mils. vol. xiii, 
p. 293. No. S102. pi. ccxxxi. ft". 19, 20 (1913) (Aulie Ata). 

1 $ El Mesrane June, Guelt-es-Stel July 1913 (V. Faroult). 

400. Clytie luteonigra Warr. 

Clytie luteonigra Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. 3. p. 338. pi. fi2rf. (1913) (Amu Darya). 
1 ? Ain Draham, Tunisia, September 1911 (V. Faroult). 



Novitates Zoolocicae XXVII. 1920. 107 

401. Parallelia algira (Linn.). 

Phalaena algira Linnaeus, St/st. Nat. edit. xii. p. 836. No. 98 (1707) (Algeria). 

There appear to be two forms of this species : one, a smaller one with the 
median band narrow and much constricted in the centre on forewing and more 
or less obscured by dark scales giving it a mauve tinge and with the band on 
hindwing very narrow ; and two, a larger one with the band on forewing broad 
and very little constricted and white and the band on hindwing much broader. 

This latter has been placed together with Syrian, Egyptian, and Arabian 
specimens under albivitta Guen. by Warren, who says in Seitz : " Always larger than 
algira," forgetting that Guenee says his albivitta is the same size as algira. Warren 
also attributes the name albivitta erroneously to Moore instead of Guenee. 

Sir George Hampson unites torrida Guen., albivitta Guen., jestina Walk., 
olympia Swinh., and algiroides Schultz under algira, and gives it an enormous 
range from France to Turkestan, all over Africa, Asia Minor, India, and Ceylon. 
I have too small a material to judge if he is right or whether there are two or more 
species or a series of subspecies. 

We have at Tring 59 Mauretanian examples from Environs d'Alger (Dr. 
Nissen); Hammam Meskoutine, May 1909-1914 (W.R.,E. H., and K. J.); Hammam 
R'hira, May— August 1908-1916 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult) ; Ai'n Draham, 
Tunisia August 1911, north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Guelt-es-Stel 
September 1913, Ai'n Sefra July 1915, Perregaux October 1915, Aflou October 
1916 (V. Faroult) ; Oran, April 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Ljebel Kerdada May 1912, 
El Kantara August 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Biskra, June 1912 (Hartert and ililgert) ; 
Sebdou, Foretde Tenira, June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 
(M. Rotrou) ; El Mahouna, July 1919 (V. Faroult). 

402. Grammodes stolida (Fabr.). 

Nocliia ptolida Fabricius, Syst. Entom. p. 599. No. 3S (1775) (East India). 

Of this species the series from Algeria at Tring comprises 44 specimens from 
Ghardai'a May, Oued Nca June 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Guelt-es-Stel July — 
September 1912-1913, Tilghemt April 1912, Bou Saada April 1912, El Outaya 
August 1918, Batna July 1910, north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Alger 
January 1914 (V. Faroult) ; El Kantara, June — August 1909-1917 (Cheli Brahim 
and Faroult); Sidi Ferruch, July 1911 (A. Thery) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, Les Pins, 
May— September 1917-1918 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, August 1918, 
(P. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 $ Batna, August 1910, A. E. Eaton. 

403. Grammodes boisdefirei (Oberth.). 
Ophiusa hoisdeffrei Oberthiir, Etiul. Entom. livr. i. p. 54. pi. 4. f. 6 (1876) (Biskra), 

2 c?c?, 1 9 Biskra, March 1914 (W. R. and E. H., and Staudinger). 
The British Museum has 1 $ Batna, August 1910, A. E. Eaton; 3 £$, 2 ?$ 
Hammam-es-Salahin, April 1904, Lord Walsingham. 

404. Grammodes geometrica (Fabr.). 

Noctva geometrica Fabricius, Syst. Entom. p. 599. No. 37 (1775) (East India). 

1 ? Aiin Draham, Tunisia, August 1911 ; 1 q Hammam R'hira, May 1917 (V. 
Faroult). 



108 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

[On Cerccala scajmlosa Hiibn., sana Stdgr., insana Herr-Sch., 
and algiriae Oberth. 

Mr. Obertbiir is continually complaining that other authors neglect his 
work and do not trouble to look up his species ; in the case of the Mauretanian 
Cerocalas it is he who has neglected other people's work, and persisted in uniting 
sana and his own algiriae specifically with scapulosa, with which they have nothing 
to do — being very distinct species differing from each other and from scapulosa 
in the genital armature, in the antennae, and in the legs. Sir George Hampson 
in vol. xiii. of the Catalogue already separated the 3 forms into 3 species, but after 
catching a large series at Am Sefra and receiving many from elsewhere I was not 
sure if there might not be more and I asked Dr. Jordan to investigate the material 
we possessed. This he did very thoroughly, and published the result in 
Novitates Zoologicae, vol. xxii. pp. 267-270, text figures 1-10 (1915). While 
Sir George Hampson is right in separating this group of Cerocala into 3 species, 
he has not got the synonymy of the two Mauretanian species quite right, as 
scapulosa Luc. nee Hiibn. belongs to sana and not to what he calls insana, but 
which must stand as algiriae Oberth. I consider the figure of Herrich-Schaffer 
and his locality so doubtful that the name cannot be used for either of the Maure- 
tanian species and I call them Cerocala sana Stdgr. and Cerocala algiriae Oberth. 
Mr. Oberthiir says he has never received what he calls the typical form of scapu- 
losa, as found in Andalusia, from Algeria ; this is quite natural, for the true scapu- 
losa is a perfectly distinct species from the two found in Mauretania and so far 
has never been recorded from south of the mediterranean, although the 2 other 
species have been at various times called scapulosa and otherwise confused with it. 
Mr. Oberthiir, at the end of his article on Cerocala scapulosa, somewhat qualifies 
his statements by saying that the fact of not finding the larger and darker true 
scapulosa in Mauretania might lead one to consider algiriae a distinct species. 
As a matter of fact Sir George Hampson's, William Warren's, and lastly Dr. Jordan's 
exhaustive studies and dissections of these Cerocalas have proved beyond doubt 
that there are 3 distinct species of Cerocala of this section, distinct in structure 
of genitalia, legs, and antennae as well as in appearance, viz. Cerocala scapulosa 
(Hiibn.), Cerocala algiriae Oberth., and Cerocala sana Stdgr.] 

405. Cerocala algiriae Oberth. 

Cerocala scapulosa var. algiriae Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. vol. i. p. 55. pi. iv. f. 7 (1S70) (Bou Saada). 
Cerocola insana Hampson, Cat. Lipid. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. xiii. p. 270. No. 8070 (1913) (Biskra). 
? ? Grammodes insana Herrich-Schaffer, Aussereur. Schrnett. i. 395 (1850) (Cape of Good Hope). 
Cerocala scapulosa form, biskrensis Culot, Noct. el Geom. d'Eur. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 182. pi. 73. i. 5 (1910) 
(Biskra). 

The series of this species at Tring includes individuals agreeing both with 
the figures of algiriae Oberth. and biskrensis Culot, the latter being rubbed speci- 
mens, and consists of 194 examples from Colomb Bechar March and April 1912, 
Bou Saada March— May 1911-1912, Tilghemt April 1912, Laghouat March 1912, 
El Hamel May 1912, Bordj Chegga and Bir Stil March 1917 (V. Faroult) ; Ghardaia 
and Tilghemt, April 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, March— April 1912- 
1913 (W. R. and K. J., and Faroult); El Kantara March— April 1911, Aflou 
October 1916 (V. Faroult); halfway between Ouargla and El Golea, Hassi el 
Hadjar, Arefidji north of Ouargla, Bordj Chegga, north of El Golea, February — 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 109 

March 1912, Hassi Sidi Mahmoud and Oued Nca April 191-1 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; 
Biskra, March 1908 (W. R., and E. H.) ; Gafsa, Tunisia (Staudinger) ; Ain Sefra, 
May 1913-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult). 

The British Museum has 1 <$ Biskra, April 1894, A. E. Eaton ; 1 cJ Biskra 
March 1906, 2 <$<$, 2 $$ Hammam-es-Salahin March — April 1904, Lord Walsing- 
ham ; 1 $ Tozeur, Tunisia, 1913, G. C. Champion. 

406. Cerocala sana Stdgr. 

Cerocala scapulosa var. sana Staudinger, Cat. Lepid. Pal. Faun. p. 241. No. 2594a (1901) (Antioch, 

Syria). 
Cerocala scapulosa var. Lucas, Ann. Soc. Entom. France (2) 8. p. 103. pi. 2. f. 3 (1850) (Djebel Amour). 
Cerocala scapulosa var.insana Staudinger, Cat. Lepid. Europ. Faun. edit. ii. p. 135. No. 1923a (1871) 

(Syria). 

Of this species the series at Tring consists of 192 examples from Ain Sefra, 
May 1912-1915 (W. R. and E. H., and Faroult) ; Biskra March 1908, Kef-el-Dor, 
Bordj Ferdjan and Bordj Mgeitha April 1909 (W. R. and E. H.) ; South Oran 
(Staudinger) ; Colomb-Bechar March— April 1912, Bou Saada May 1911-1912, 
Laghouat March 1912 (V. Faroult) ; Bordj Chegga, Nca ben Rzig, halfway 
between Ouargla and El Golea, Arefidji north of Ouargla, north of El Golea, 
Hassi el Hadjar February — March 1912 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Ghardaia, April 
1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; El Hamel May 1912, Guelt-es-Stel May 1913, Djelfa 
May 1913 (V. Faroult) ; Oued Nca April 1914 (Hartert and Hilgert) ; Hammam 
R'hira, May 1916 (V. Faroult). 

407. Antarchaea viridaria (Clerck). 

Phalaena viridaria Clerck, Icones Ins. Rar. sect. i. pi. 9. f. 12 (1759). 

This species is not recorded by Mr. Oberthur ; all my 6 specimens belong 
to the ab. modesta Car. with the maroon colour almost absent. 

5 Hammam R'hira, May 1911 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 1 Souk Ahras, April 
1914 (W. R. and K. J.). 

408. Antarchaea sanctiflorentis aurantiaeus subsp. nov. 

cJ$. Differ from sanctiflorentis sanctiflorentis Boisd. from Spain by theorange- 
rufous.ground-colour and the generally larger size, outer half more or less suffused 
with maroon red. 

Mr. Oberthur records sanctiflorentis from Ain Draham with no remarks. 
If he really got typical grey sanctiflorentis from Ain Draham, my insect is a new 
species ; but until I have seen Mauretanian specimens of true sanctiflorentis I prefer 
to treat this form as a good subspecies only. 

9 Ain Draham, Tunisia, July 1911 (V. Faroult). 

409. Antarchaea erubescens (B.-H). (PL XVI. f. lo.) 

Prothymnia erubescens Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. 24. p. 40. pi. iii. f. 11 (1910) (South Oran). 

The figure given in Seitz appears to be quite wrong. My $ is the second 
specimen recorded and differs from the $ in the whole forewings being so strongly 



110 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

suffused with red that the yellow ground so apparent in the $ is entirely invisible ; 
the median line of forewings more complete and visible than in the (J. 

1 $ Djebel Mekter, nr. Ai'n Sefra, 1,600-1,900 metres = 5,200-6,175 ft., May 
1913 (W. R. and E. H.). • 

410. Rivula sericealis distincta subsp. nov. 

$. Differs from sericealis sericealis Schiff. and Den. in having the curved band, 
leading from the reniform obliquely to the inner margin, distinctly defined instead 
of being a shadowy outline only ; smaller and less yellow, more cream-buff. 

$. With similarly well-defined band, but not so extended as in <J, and 
ground-colour yellower. 

1 (J Oued Hamidou, June 1912 (V. Faroult) ; 1 J Hammam Meskoutine, May 
1909 (W. R. and E.H.) ; 1 $ Environs d'Alger, May 1908 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 
1 <J Sidi-bel-Abbes, October 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; 1 (J Sebdou, September 1918 (P. 
Rotrou). 

411. Parascotia nisseni Turati. 

Parascotia nisseni Turati, 11 Natur. Sicil. vol. xx. p. 34 (1908) (Alger). 

Of this rare species I have only received 5 specimens. Neither Mr. Culot 
nor Mr. Oberthur mention the insect. 

1 Environs d'Alger, May 1906 (Dr. Nissen) (co-type) ; 1 Ain Draham, Tunisia, 
July 1911 (V. Faroult) ; 1 Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (VV. R. and K. J.) ; 
1 Hammam R'hira, May 1916 (V. Faroult) ; El Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

412. Zethes insularis Ramb. 

Ztthe-s insularis Rainbur, Ann. Soc. Entorn. France, vol. ii. p. 29. pi. 2. f. 1 (1833) (Ajaccio). 

Of this Mediterranean species the Mauretanian series at Tring contains 38 
examples from Hammam R'hira, May — September 1908-1917 (W. R., E. H., and 
K. J., and Faroult) ; Hammam Meskoutine, May 1914 (VV. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; 
north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Guelt-es-Stel May 1913, Oued Hamidou 
June 1912, Ain Sefra July 1915 (V. Faroult) ; El Mahouna, June 1919 (V. Faroult). 

One of the 3 Am Sefra specimens stands out from the rest of the 37 examples 
by its brilliant colouration and very sharply defined markings. 

413. Hydrilla caliginosa (Hiibn.). 

Noctua caliginosa Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmelt. Noel. No. 474 (1818). 

I have only received a single example of this species from Mauretania. 
1 <J Blida, December 1915 (V. Faroult). 

414. Miselia softa luteocinnamomea subsp. nov. (PI. XVII. f. 7.) 

Differs from sojla softa Stdgr. from Palestine in its sandy rufous-cinnamon 
not grey ground-colour and in the pattern being more sharply defined. 

1 (J El Kantara March— April 1911, 1 <J Perregaux October 1915, 2 Jd Bou 
Saada May 1911 (V. Faroult). 

There are 1 J, 1 $ in the British Museum from Hammam-es-Salahin, May 
1904 (Lord Walsingham). 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. Ill 

415. Miselia peregrina (Treit.). 
Hadena peregrina Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. v. pt. i. p. 330. No. 11 (1825) (South of France). 

I have received 2 specimens of this species. 
1 tj, 1 $ Tebessa (M. Bartel). 

416. Bryophila maeonis Led. 

Bryophila maeonis Lederer, Ann. Soc. Enlom. Belg. vol. ix. pp. 63 and 78. pi. iii. f. 8 (1865) 
(Kisilgye-Aole). 

1 (J Environs de Batna (A. Nelva). 

417. Athetis euxoides sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 8.) 

$. This is a giant among the Athetis and is like nothing hitherto described. 
Antennae brown ; head and thorax purple-brown ; abdomen wood grey. 

Forewings basal two-thirds purplish maroon-brown irrorated and streaked 
with grey, outer one-third brighter maroon strigillated with grey ; a marginal 
maroon-black band, fringe greyish rufous. Hindwings basal two-thirds semi- 
hyaline white washed with grey, outer one-third more strongly suffused and 
saturated with grey. 

Length of forewing, 18 mm. ; expanse, 42 mm. 

1 $ Batna (Nelva coll.). 

418. Athetis persimilis sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 9.) 

J. Similar to the dark form of quadripunctata F., but without the rufous 
submarginal band and with shorter broader wings. Head and thorax dark 
brownish grey ; abdomen slightly paler. 

Forewings dark brownish grey, costal edge deep buff, the black caradrine 
spots very conspicuous ; an oblique dark band from first spot, post-discal area 
sooty black-brown with huffish lines. Hindwings white, veins and edge of wing 
brownish grey. 

Length of forewing, 15 mm. ; expanse, 35 mm. 

3 S3 Souk Ahras, Apfil 1914 (W. R. and K. J.) ; 1 J Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

[Agrotis picata B.-H. 

Agrotis picata Bang-Haas Iris, vol. xxvi. p. 140 (1912) (Batna). 

This species is near glareosa Esp. and is most striking owing to the very 
dark hindwings. 

I have not received this and Mr. Oberthtir does not record it.] 

[Epia cinochrea (Chret.). 

Dianthecia cinochrea Chretien, Ann. Soc. Enlom. France, vol. lxxix. p. 500 (1911) (Gafsa). 

This species is nearest to silenes Hiibn., but smaller and paler purer grey. 
I have not received it, and Mr. Oberthiir believes it to be Pronolestra 
silenides Stdgr.] 



112 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

[Miselia grisea (D. Lucas). 

Polia grisea Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1908, p. 93 (Kebili, S. Tunisia). 
I have not received this species.] 

[Crosia hachem Dupont. 

Crosia hachem Dupont, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1910, p. 369, text fig. 1 (Mascara). 

I have not received this, and the type remains unique. Mr. Oberthiir should 
have acknowledged this as it is figured.] 

[Parastichtis spinosa (Chret.). 

Hadena spinosa Chretien, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. Ixxix. p. 501 (1911) (Gatsa). 

This fits better into Parastichtis than Eumichtis and is surely one of the 
Zenobiinae. I have never received it.] 

[Athetis distigma (Chret.). 

Caradrina distigma Chretien, Bull. Soc. Entom. France. 1913, p. 282 (Biskra). 

The author places this near atriluna Guen. ; but I think it comes next to my 
oberthuri and proximans. I have not received it.] 

[Athetis halimi (Chret.). 

Caradrina halimi Chretien, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1913, p. 282 (Biskra). 
I have not received this species.] 

[Proxenus bicolor Chret. 

Proxenus bicolor Chretien. Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1913, p. 304 (Biskra). 
I have not received this species.] 

[Bombycia angularis (Chret.). 

Calophasia angularis Chretien, Arm. Soc. Entom. France, vol. Ixxix. p. 504 (1910) (Gafsa). 

I have no Tunisian Bombycia of this group, and as I said antea under Bombycia 
chretieni mihi I am not sure whether the Sakamodi example enumerated under 
that species is not angularis. 

This question must await more material.] 

419. Eublemma nelvai sp. nov. (PI. XVI. f. 24.) 

(J. Antennae amber ; head and tegulae pale cinnamon, rest of thorax 
apparently also pale cinnamon ; abdomen dark cinnamon-grey. 

Fore wings pale rosy lavender, costal edge buff passing into rufous towards 
apex, a cinnamon rufous median line edged with cream- buff strongly angled 
outwards at discocellulars, inside this angle is the sooty black reniform, a 
postmedian rather less distinct line rufous also angled outwards, a submarginal 
broken line of sooty black spots, marginal fine cream-colour edged inwardly 
with rufous, fringe rufous. Hindwings mouse-grey, marginal line cream edged 
inwardly with rufous ; fringe grey, tinged with rufous. 

Length of forewing, 9 mm. ; expanse, 20 mm. 

1 (J Environs de Batna, 1914 (A. Nelva). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 113 

Mr. Oberthiir, following Guenee 's classification, omits from his list all the 
insects placed by Guenee in his Deltoid.es. This group, according to Guenee, 
contains what have hitherto been called the Hypeninae, together with several 
of the Noctuinae such as Bivula. 

The insects formerly called Hypeninae now make up the fourteenth sub- 
family of Noctuidae and must stand as Polypogoninae, according to Sir George 
Hampson's classification. 



420. Nodaria cornicalis (Fabr). 

Phalaena cornicalis Fabricius, Entom. Syst. vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 229. No. 374 (1794) (India). 

Herminia nodosalis Herrich-Schafier, Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Eur. vol. ii. p. 385. No. 607. pi. 118. f. 6U5 

(1845) (Sicily). 
Nodaria externalis Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec. Gin. Lipid, vol. viii. p. 64. No. 78 (1854) (Coast of 

Coromandel). 

I consider both these insects to be the same, although the late Mr. William 
Warren in Seitz, Grossschmetterlinge der Erde, kept them separate. Fabricius's 
name is undoubtedly the oldest. 

We have at Tring 35 Mauretanian examples from Environs d'Alger, May — 
November 1905-1908 (W. R. and E. H., Dr. Nissen and Captain Holl) ; Oued 
Hamidou June 1912, Bordj-ben-Aneridj October 1912, Ain Draham September 
1911, Bou Saada June 1912, Perregaux October 1915, Moroccan Frontier May 

1914 (V. Faroult) ; Rabat, Morocco, January 1913 (A. Thery) ; Blida, November 

1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 



421. Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.). 

Pyralis obsitalis Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Pyr. ff. 164, 165, 179 (1827). 

Of this insect the Mauretanian series at Tring consists of 119 specimens from 
Mazagan, Morocco, Mhoila nr. M.-zagan, January — April 1902-1903 (W. Riggen- 
bach); Rabat, Morocco, January 1913 (A. Thery); Environs dAlger, March — 
May 1908-1912 (W. R., E. H., and K. J., and Dr. Nissen); Hammam R'hira 
May 1916, north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Ain Sefra July 1915, Blida 
November 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, August — September 1917 (M. 
Rotrou) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, May — August 1918 (P. Rotrou). 



422. Pechipago (Zanclognatha auet. ) crinalis (Treit.). 

Herminia crinalis Treitschke, Schmett. Eur. vol. vii. p. 17. No. 8 (1S29). 

We have of this species 57 Mauretanian examples from Environs dAlger, 
May 1906 (Dr. Nissen) ; Hammam R'hira, May— June 1913-1916 (W. R. and 
E. H., and Faroult) ; north side of Djebel Zaccar August 1916, Ain Draham 
September 1916, Bou Saada October 1911, Blida November 1915 (V. Faroult); 
Sidi-bel-Abbes, August — September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, Foret de Tenira, 
September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

8 



114 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

423. Pechipago flavicrinalis sp. nov. 

<J. Differs at a glance from criiialis Treit. in the lunate reniform and much 
postmedian line of forewing, and in the greyish sandy-yellow colour of wings and 
body. 

9. Similar, but even brighter sand y- yellow colour. 

Length of forewing, <J 13-16 mm., $ 12-15 mm. ; expanse, (J 29-35 mm., 
$ 27-33 mm. 

5 £<$, 8 $$ from Am Draham August — September 1911, Bou Saada 
October 1911 (V. Faroult) ; Hammam R'hira, May 1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; 
Environs d'Alger, May 1908 (W. R. and K. J.); Ain Draham (Staudinger) ; 
Philippeville, bred from egg (Andreas); Foret de Yakouren, May 1909 (Mrs. 
Walsh). 

424. Ophiuche lividalis (Hubn.). 

Hypena lividalis Hiibner, Beitr. Gesch. Schmett. vol. ii. p. 4. No. 1 (1791). 

Of this species I have 2 specimens from 1 <J Sidi-bel- Abbes, September 1917 
(M. Rotrou) ; 1 <J Environs de Tunis, 1916 (M. Blanc). 

The Sidi-bel- Abbes $ expands 22 mm., while the Tunis one expands 32 mm. 

There are doubtless several other species of Polypogonime in Mauretania, 
but I cannot find records of any others. 

In order to complete the list of the recorded Noctuidae from Mauretania, 
I enumerate here certain Westermaniinae and others already enumerated by me 
in the earlier portions of these supplemental notes. 

425. Nycteola falsalis (Herr.-Sch.). 

iV ijcteola falsalis Herrich-Schaffer, Deulscli. Ins. vol. i. pi. 106. f. 1 (1829) (Germany). 

Our series at Tring from Mauretania consists of 58 examples from Environs 
d'Alger, May 1908 (W. R. and K. J.); Sidi Ferruch, July— August 1911 (A. 
Thery) ; Hammam Meskoutine, April— May 1914 (W. R., E. H., and K. J.) ; 
Hammam R'hira May 1911-1913 (W. R. and E. H.) ; Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912 
(W. R. and K. J.) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, May 
1918 (P. Rotrou). 

The British Museum has 1 Hammam -es-Salahin, March 1904, Lord Walsingham. 

One of the Sidi-bel-Abbes examples has the median band absent all but a 
round black spot above inner margin. 

426. Sarrothripus revayana (Scop.). 

Tortrix revayana Scopoli, Annus Nat. Hist. vol. v. p. 110 (1772) (Germany). 

Our Mauretanian series contains 17 specimens from Environs de Batna, 1911— 
1912 (A. Nelva) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, July— September 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Sebdou, 
June 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; Masser Mines June 1914, Ain Sefra July 1915, Ain Draham 
July— September 1911 (V. Faroult); Hammam Meskoutine, May 1909 (W. R. 
and E. H.). 

10 of these are ab. glaucana Lampa ; 4 are ab. obscura Warr. ; 1 is ab. 
lisculana Schmid ; and 2 are ab. ilicana Fabr. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 115 

427. Earias chlorophyllana Stdgr. 

Earias chlorophyllana Staudinger, Iris, vol. iv. p. 249 (1891) (Mardin). 

When writing on this species {Novit. Zool. vol. xxiv. p. 404 (1917)) I had no 
Mauretanian specimens, but since then the Tring Museum has received 6 speci- 
mens from Sidi-bel-Abbes, August — September 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

428. Earias albovenosana Oberth. 

Earias albovenosana Oberthiir, Etud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xiii. p. 27. pi. cdxxxvi. ff. 3767, 3768 (1917) 
(Lambessa). 

The Tring series of this now numbers 10 examples from Aiin Draham 
September 1911, Khenchela June 1911, Hammam R'hira June 1917, Ain Sefra, 
June 1915 (V. Faroult) ; Sidi-bel-Abbes, June— August 1917 (M. Rotrou) ; Foret 
de Tenira, September 1918 (P. Rotrou). 

429. Earias chlorion Ramb. 

Earias chlorion Rarabur, Cat. Syst. Lipid. Andal. livr. ii. pi. xv. f. 6 (1868) (Andalusia). 

Of this species there are 2 at Tring from Biskra, 1911 (W. R. and E. H.). 

430. Earias insulana (Boisd.). 

Torlrix insulana Baisduval, Faun. Madag. p. 121. pi. 16. f. 9 (1833) (Madagascar). 

Of this species we have 2 Mauretanian specimens from Sidi-bel-Abbes, 
September — October 1917 (M. Rotrou). 

431. Hylophila africana Warr. 

Hylophila africana Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. iii. p. 298. pi. 53m. (1913) (Ain 
Drabam). 

1 <J, 1 ? Ain Draham, <£ July 1911, $ no date (V. Faroult and Max Bartel). 
432. Abrostola tripartita (Hum.). 

Phalaena tripartita Hufnagel, Bed. Mag. vol. iii. p. 414 (1766) (Berlin). 

Mr. Oberthiir on p. 201, after Phytometra gumma,, mentions 3 species which 
he considers of very doubtful occurrence in Algeria ; among them is Abrostola 
triplasia. I have not received triplasia it is true, but I myself have captured 
tripartita. 

1 (J Environs d'Alger, May 6th, 1908 (W. R. and E. H.). 

This species was overlooked by me. 

The following are the doubtful species mentioned by Mr. Oberthiir in livr. i. 
of his Etudes Entomologiques in 1876 as having been taken by Dr. Seriziat and 
Mr. Gandolph and afterwards proved doubtful : 

Cirphis comma (Linn.). 

Abrostola triplasia (Linn.). 

Phytometra chrysilis (Linn.). 

Phytometra festucae Linn. 



116 NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

[Borolia sesamiodes Hmpsn. 

Borolia sesamiodes Hampson, Cat. Lepitl. Phal. Brit. Mus. vol. v. p. 575. pi. xcv. £. 17 (1905) 
(Hanirnani-es-Salahin). 

I have never had this. 

There are in the British Museum 4 (J^, 2 $ $ Hammam-es-Salahin, March — 
April 1904-1906 (Lord Walsingham). 
This species was overlooked by me.] 

433. Pseudomecia lithoxylea (Bang-Haas). 

Hypomecia Hlhoxylea Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xxvi. p. 157. pi. vi. f. 19 (1912) (Batna). 

1 (J October 1913 (V. Faroult). 

The only specimen received at Tring of this species had been mislaid, and 
so was omitted from its proper place in this article. 

434. Miselia cappa (Hiibn.). 

Noctua cappa Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmett. Xoct. f. 447 (1827). 

The single specimen received was mislaid when the portion of the article 
treating of the Miselias was being written. This appears to be the first record 
for Algeria. 

1 $ Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918 (M. Rotrou). 

435. Epipsilia faroulti sp. nov.* 

$. Uniform mouse-grey. Hindwings darker, with paler fringe and base. 
Forewings with two obsolete black antemedian lines, orbicular with faint and 
reniform with very pronounced black ring, 2 postmedian black lines, with row of 
black dots between. 

Length of fore wing, 18 mm. ; expanse, 42 mm. 

1 $ El Mahouna, September 27, 1919 (V. Faroult). 

This species is added here as it came to hand after the article had gone 
to press. 

The total number of species and subspecies of Noctuidae enumerated in this 
paper as recorded from Mauretania is 471 and 4 doubtful records. 

Mr. Oberthur records 337 and 3 doubtful ones. As, however, Mr. Oberthiir 
follows Guenee's classification, he has omitted the Polygoninae and the genera 
Sarrothripus, Nycteola, Earias, Hylophila, Rivula, and Parascotia, which are not 
Noctuidae according to Guenee. If we deduct from my list the 14 species included 
in these genera I have enumerated 457 species and subspecies as opposed to Mr. 
Oberthiir's 337— an increase of 120. Of Mr. Oberthur's 337 there are 32 which I 
do not possess or else have not received from Mauretania. Of the 471 I enumerate 
there are altogether 36 either not in the Tring Museum or else not from Maure- 
tania. Of the 441 species represented at Tring from Mauretania, the number 
of examples is 30,691. 

* All recent authors spell Hiibner's genus Epipsilia " Episilia," but the former spelling is that 
of the author. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 117 



LIST OF SPECIES IN THE ORDER OF THE CATALOGUE OF 
LEPIDOPTERA PHALAENAE IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

NOCTUIDAE. 

Agrotinae. 

1. Heliothis chanzyi (Oberth.). 

2. Rhodocleptria incarnata (Freyer). 

3. Chloridea dipsacea (Linn.). 

4. Chloridea peltigera (Schiff. & Den.). 

5. Chloridea nubigera (Herr.-Sch.). 

6. Chloridea obsoleta (Fabr.). 

7. Xylina delphinii darollesi (Oberth.). 

8. Melicleptria scutosa (Schiff. & Den.). 

9. Timora albida Hmpsn. 

10. Erithrophaia canroberti Oberth. 

11. Cladocerotis optabilis (Boisd.). 

12. Euxoa obesa lipara (Ramb.). 

13. Euxoa crassa (Hiibn.). 
13a. Euxoa lata (Treit.). 

14. Euxoa lasserrei (Oberth.). 

15. Euxoa messaouda (Oberth.). 

16. Euxoa noctambulatrix (Chret.). 

17. Euxoa rugifrons (Mab.). 

18. Euxoa capsensis (Chret.). 

19. Euxoa segetum (Schiff. & Den.). 

20. Euxoa vestigialis (Rott.). 

21. Euxoa spinijera spinijera (Hiibn.). 

22. Euxoa hoggari Rothsch. 

23. Euxoa hastifera abdallah (Oberth.). 

24. Euxoa mauretanica (B.-H). 

25. Euxoa doufanae (Oberth.). 

26. Euxoa powelli (Oberth.). 

27. Euxoa robiginosa Stdgr. 

28. Euxoa obelisca (Schiff. & Den.). 

29. Euxoa radius radius (How.). 

30. Euxoa radius erythroxylea (Treit.). 

31. Euxoa oranaria (B.-H.). 

32. Euxoa rotroui Rothsch. 

33. Euxoa cos cycladum (Stdgr.). 

34. Euxoa constanti (Mill.). 

35. Euxoa eos (Oberth.). 

36. Euxoa christophi (Stdgr.). 

37. Euxoa trux (Hiibn.). 

38. Euxoa tritici (Linn.). 



l]g NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

39. Euxoa distinguenda (Led.). 

40. Euxoa bugeaudi bugeaudi (Oberth.). 

41. Euxoa bugeaitdi islyana (Oberth.). 

42. Euxoa cursoria (Hufn.). 

43. Euxoa celsicola gueddelanea (Oberth.). 

44. Euxoa kaaba (Oberth.). 

45. Euxoa imperator (B.-H.). 

46. Euxoa lucipeta (Schiff. & Den.). 

47. Agrotis ypsilon (Rott.). 

48. Agrotis orbona (Hufn.). 

49. Agrotis comes (Treit.). 

50. Agrotis pronuba (Linn.). 

51. Agrotis norm Oberth. 

52. Agrotis c. nigrum (Linn.). 

53. Agrotis flammatra (Schiff. & Den.). 

54. Agrotis leucogaster (Frr.). 

55. Agrotis picata B.-H. 

56. Agrotis nisseni Rothsch. 

57. Agrotis xanthographa (Schiff. & Den.). 

58. Agrotis auguroides Rothsch. 

59. Agrotis praecipuina (Rothsch.). 

60. Epipsilia simulatrix (Gey.). 

61. Epipsilia faceta (Treit.). 

62. Epipsilia straminea (Rothsch.). 

63. Epipsilia lycoplwtioides (Rothsch.). 
63a. Epipsilia faroulti Rothsch. 

64. Lycophotia mansoura (Chret.). 

65. Lycophotia agrotina (Rothsch.). 

66. Lycophotia kermesina (Mab.). 

67. Lycophotia margaritosa (Haw.). 

68. Lycophotia photophila (Guen.). 

69. Lycophotia ignipeta (Oberth.). 

70. Epilecta linogrisea lutosa (Stdgr.). 

71. Triphaena janthina algirica Oberth. 

72. Triphaena janthina intermedia Rothsch. 

73. Triphaena fimbria (Linn.). 

Hadeninae. 

74. Saragossa seeboldi arabum Oberth. 

75. Scotogramma trijolii cinnamomina Rothsch. 

76. Scotogramma chimaera Rothsch. 

77. Scotogramma sodae rosacea Rothsch. 

78. Scotogramma implexa (Hiibn.). 

79. Miselia luteago (Schiff. & Den.). 

80. Miselia peregrina (Treit.). 

81. Miselia oleracea variegata (Aust.). 

82. Miselia softa luteocinnamomea Rothsch. 
82a. Miselia cappa (Hiibn.). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 119 

83. Miselia dysodea faroulti (Rothsch.). 

84. Miselia se.re.na (Schiff. & Den.). 

85. Miselia grisea (D. Lucas). 

86. Miselia bicruris (Hufn.). 

87. Miselia antitypina (Rothsch.). 

88. Miselia carpophaga (Borkh.) 

89. Miselia magnolii (Boisd.). 

90. Miselia filigramma (Esp.). 

91. Miselia conspersa (Schiff. & Den.). 

92. Miselia compta galactina (Turati). 

93. Luperina (Pacheira) leucophaea (Schiff. & Den.). 

94. Pronotestra silenides (Stdgr.). 

94a. Aglossestra mariae-ludovicae (D. Lucas). 

95. Epia silenes (Hiibn.). 

96. Epia cinochrea (Chret.). 

97. Cardepia deserticola Hmpsn. 

98. Cardepia irrisor mauretanica Rothsch. 

99. Hadula pulverata (B.-H.). 

100. Hadula griseola (Rothsch.). 

101. Monima stabilis (Schiff. & Den.). 

102. Monima critda (Schiff. & Den.). 

103. Sideridis lithargyria argyritis Ramb. 

104. Sideridis albipuncta (Schiff. & Den.). 

105. Sideridis vitellina (Hiibn.). 

106. Brithys pancratii (Cyr.). 

107. Brithys encausta (Hiibn.). 

108. Cirphis loreyi (Dup.). 

109. Cirphis I. album (Linn.). 
(Cirphis comma (Linn.)). 

110. Cirphis riparia (Ramb.). 

111. Cirphis algirica (Oberth.). 

112. Cirphis sicula (Treit.). 

113. Cirphis punctosa (Treit.). 

114. Cirphis putrescent (Gey.). 

115. Cirphis zeae (Dup.). 

116. Cirphis unipuncta (Haw.). 

117. Cirphis congrua (Hiibn.). 

118. Borolia sesamiodes Hmpsn. 

119. Leucania obsoleta (Hiibn.). 

120. Leucania languida (Stdgr.). 



Cucnlliinae 

121. Copicucullia syrtana (Mab.). 

122. Copicucullia oberthuri (Culot). 

123. Cucullia chamomillae calendulae Treit. 

124. Cucullia santolinae Ramb. 

125. Cucullia scrophidariphaga Ramb. 



120 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

126. Cucullia blattariae (Esp.). 

127. Cucullia scrophulariphila Stdgr. 

128. Cucullia thapsophaga Treit. 

129. Cucullia oberthuri Rothsch. 

130. Cucullia verbasci (Linn.). 

131. Cucullia beata Rothsch. 

132. Cucullia biskrana. 

133. Empusada argentina (Fabr.). 

134. Lophoterges millieri (Stdgr.). 

135. Hypomecia quadrivirgula (Mab.). 

136. Copiphana gafsana (Blach.). 

137. Cleophana chabordis Oberth. 

138. Cleophana boetica diluta Rothsch. 

139. Cleophana pectinicornis Stdgr. 

140. Cleophana jubata Oberth. 

141. Cleophana vaulogeri Stdgr. 

142. Cleophana affinis Rothsch. 

143. Cleophana fatima B.-H. 

144. Cleophana diffluens mauretaniae Rothsch. 

145. Cleophana versicolor Stdgr. 

146. Cleophana mauretanica Stdgr. 

147. Amephana warionis (Oberth.). 

148. Amephana aurita (Fabr.). 

149. Omphalophana serrata (Treit.). 

150. Omphalophana adamantina (Blach.). 

151. Omphalophana pauli Stdgr. 

152. Omia cyclopea (Gras.). 

153. Omia oberthuri Allard. 

154. Metopoceras canteneri canteneri (Dup.). 

155. Metopoceras canteneri pallidior Rothsch. 

156. Metopoceras felicina (Lonz.). 

157. Metopoceras khalildja Oberth. 

158. Metopoceras otnar (Oberth.). 

159. Metopoceras morosa Rothsch. 

160. Ammetopa codeti Hmpsn. 

161. Brachygalea albolineata (Blach.). 

162. Calophasia stigmatica Rothsch. 

163. Calophasia kraussi Rebel. 

164. Calophasia almoravida Grasl. 

165. Calophasia platyptera (Esp.). 

166. Leucochlaena oditis (Hiibn.). 

167. Leucochlaena scillae (Chret.). 

168. Leucochlaena orana (Lucas). 

169. Ulochlaena hirta (Hiibn.). 

170. Bombycia chretieni (Rothsch.). 

171. Bombycia angularis (Chret.). 

172. Derthisa trimacula (Schiff. & Den.). 

173. Aporophyla chioleuca (Herr.-Sch.). 

174. Aporophyla nigra (Haw.). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 121 

175. Lithophane semibrunnea (Haw.). 

176. Graptolitha lapidea ochreomacula Rothsch. 

177. Axylia exsoleta (Linn.). 

178. Dichonia areola mustapha (Oberth.). 

179. Dryobota furva (Esp.). 

180. Meganephria oxyacanthae (Linn.). 

181. Agriopis aprilina bouveti (D. Lucas). 

182. Eumichtis lichenea (Hiibn.). 

183. Eumichtis solieri (Boisd.). 

184. Eumichtis accipitrina (Esp.). 

185. Eumichtis protect (Schifi. & Den.). 

186. Eumichtis monochroma (Esp.). 

187. Eumichtis roboris cerris (Boisd.). 

188. Valeria oleagina (Schiff. & Den.). 

189. Antitype rosea Rothsch. 

190. Antitype hagar Rothsch. 

191. Antitype sahariensis Rothsch. 

192. Antitype flavicincta (Schiff. & Den.). 

193. Antitype nigrocincta (Treit.). 

194. Antitype dubia (Cup.). 

195. Antitype discalis Rothsch. 

196. Antitype germana Rothsch. 

197. Antitype argillaceago deliciosa (Oberth.). 

198. Antitype subvenusta Pungl. 

199. Rhizotype flammea (Esp.). 

200. Rhizotype crassicornis obscura (Oberth.). 

201. Bryomima codeti codeti (Oberth.). 

202. Bryomima codeti nisseni (Rothsch.). 
202a. Dasysternum jaroidti Rothsch. 

203. Dasythorax rotroui Rothsch. 

204. Conistra vacinii sebdouensis (Aust.). 

205. Conistra silene (Schiff. & Den.). 

206. Conistra veronicae (Hiibn.). 

207. Conistra erythrocephala (Schiff. & Den.). 

208. Grammoscelis magnifica (Rothsch.). 

209. Omphaloscelis polybela (de Joan.). 

210. Omphaloscelis lunosa (Haw.). 

211. Amathes ivitzenmanni (Standf.). 

212. Amathes ruticilla (Esp.). 

213. Amathes lychnidis (Schiff. & Den.). 

214. Amathes haematidea (Dup.). 

215. Amathes lota (Linn.). 

216. Amathes macilenta (Haw.). 

217. Amathes helvola (Linn.). 

218. Amathes litura (Linn). 

219. Amathes lucida (Hufn.). 

220. Cymatophora algirica (Culot). 

221. Xantholeuca croceago (Schiff. & Den.) (before Conistra). 

222. Cosmia austauti (Oberth.). 



j 22 Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 

Zenobiinae (Acronyctinae). 

223. Pyrois effma (Boisd.). 

224. Amphipyra pyramided (Linn.). 

225. Amphipyra tetra (Fabr.). 

226. Amphipyra tragopoginis distincta Rothsch. 

227. Anthracia ephialtes (Hiibn.). 

228. Mania maura (Linn.). 

229. Parastichtis arabs arabs (Oberth.). 

230. Parastichtis arabs standjussi (Turati). 

231. Parastichtis arabs biskrae (Oberth.). 

232. Parastichtis monoglypha (Hufn.). 

233. Parastichtis spinosa (Chret.). 

234. Trachea secalis (Linn.). 

235. Euplexia lucipara leonhardi Rebel. 

236. Procus faroulti (Rothsch.). 

237. Procus furuncula (Schiff. & Den.). 

238. Eremobia alpigena (Boisd.). 

239. Sidemia aflouensis Rothsch. 

240. Sidemia fulva (Rothsch.). 

241. Pseudomecia lithoxylea (B.-H.) (correct place after Stilbina). 

242. Margelana irritaria (B.-H.). 

243. Centropodia inquinata Mab. 

244. Pseudamathes volloni (D. Lucas). 

245. Pseudopseustis tellieri (D. Lucas). 

246. Pseudohadena chenopodiphaga (Ramb.). 

247. Pseudohadena roseonitens (Oberth.). 

248. Palluperina powelli (Culot). 

249. Palluperina nickerlii graslini. 

250. Palluperina dayensis (Oberth.). 

251. Palluperina dumerilii (Dup.). 

252. Trigonophora meticulosa (Linn.). 

253. Eriopus latreillei (Dup.). 

254. Eriopus juventina (Cram.). 

255. Oedibrya subplumbeola (Culot). 

256. Oederemia precisa (VVarr.). 

257. Bryophila muralis (Forst.). 

258. Bryophila pseudoperla Rothsch. 

259. Bryophila aerumna Culot. 

260. Bryophila bilineata Rothsch. 

261. Bryophila albimaculata albimaculata Rothsch. 

262. Bryophila albimaculata grisescens Rothsch. 

263. Bryophila algae (Fabr.). 

264. Bryophila receptricida pallida B. Baker. 

265. Bryophila ravula (Hiibn.). 

266. Bryophila maeonis Led. 

267. Bryophila divisa oxybiensis Mill. 

268. Bryophila simulatricula Guen. 

269. Bryophila antias Culot. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 123 

270. Bryophila anaemica Hmpsn. 

271. Bryophila petraea Guen. 

272. Iambiodes incerta Rothsch. 

273. Polyphaenis xanthochloris graslini Culot. 

274. Thalpophila vitalba (Fit.). 

275. Sidemia fissipuncta oberthuri Rothsch. (correct place after 238). 

276. Craniophora pontica (Stdgr.). 

277. Acronycta tridens (Schiff. & Den.). 

278. Acronycta psi (Linn.). 

279. Acronycta rumicis pallida Rothsch. 

280. Stilbina numida (Oberth..) 

281. Prodenia litura (Fabr.). 

282. Spodoptera abyssinia Guen. 

283. Laphygma exigua (Hubn.). 

284. Rabinopteryx subtilis (Mab.). 

285. Rabinopteryx nelvai Rothsch. 

286. Stilbia anomala calberlae (FaiLL). 

287. Stilbia algirica (Culot). 

288. Stilbia tnratii (D. Lucas). 

289. Athetis atriluna Guen. 

290. Athetis ambigua (Schiff. & Den.). 

291. Athetis kadenii rufostigmata Rothsch. 

292. Athetis flava (Oberth.). 

293. Athetis approximans Rothsch. 

294. Athetis clavipalpis (Scop.). 

295. Athetis jacobsi Rothsch. 

296. Athetis germaini (Dup.). 

297. Athetis pertinax inumbrata Rothsch. 

298. Athetis oberthuri Rothsch. 

299. Athetis aspersa (Ramb.). 

300. Athetis alsines (Brahm.). 

301. Athetis blanda (Schiff. & Den.). 

302. Athetis casearia (Stdgr.). 

303. Athetis astigmata Rothsch. 

304. Athetis hispanica (Mab.). 

305. Athetis ingrata (Stdgr.). 

306. Athetis flavirena (Guen.). 

307. Athetis scotoptera (Piingl.). 

308. Athetis euxoides Rothsch. 

309. Athetis persimilis Rothsch. 

310. Athetis distigma (Chret.). 

311. Athetis halimi (Chret.). 

312. Hydrilla caliginosa (Hubn.). 

313. Proxenus bicolor (Chret.). 

314. Hadjina viscosa (Frr.). 

315. Catamecia mauretanica Stdgr. 

316. Catamecia jordana balestrei (D. Lucas). 

317. Nainangana chimaera Rothsch. 

318. Hydroecia xanthenes orientalis (Oberth.). 



124 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVU. 1920. 

319. Enargia ulicis (Stdgr.). 

320. Enargia regina (Stdgr.). 

321. Enargia algirica (Culot.) 

322. Enargia jordani Rothsch. 

323. Arenostola deserticola Stdgr. 

324. Arenostola mabillei (D. Lucas). 

325. Oria fulva africana Oberth. 

326. Archanara neurica (Hiibn.). 

327. Archanara dissoluta (Hiibn.). 

328. Archanara affinis Rothsch. 

329. Sesamia vuteria (Stoll.). 

330. Sesamia cretica Led. 

331. Sesamia striata Stdgr. 

332. Sesamia calamistis Hmpsn. 

333. Simyra autumna Chret. (correct place after Stilbina). 

334. Argyrospila musculosa (Hiibn.). 

335. Argyrospila dulcis Oberth. 

336. Argyrospila striata Stdgr. 

337. Protomeceras mimicaria (Oberth.). 

338. Synthymia fixa australis (Oberth.). 

339. Azenia sabulosa (Rothsch.). 

340. Aegle vespertalis (Hiibn.). 

Erastriinae. 

341. Catablemma geyri (Rothsch.). 

342. Catablemma cremorna Rothsch. 

343. Eublemma velox griseomargo (Warr.). 

344. Eublemma lacernaria (Hiibn.). 

345. Eublemma suava blandula (Ramb.). 

346. Eublemma jucunda (Hiibn.). 

347. Eublemma syrtensis Hmpsn. 

348. Eublemma ostrina (Hiibn.). 

349. Eublemma pseudostrina Rothsch. 

350. Eublemma grata (Guen.). 

351. Eublemma cochylioides (Guen.). 

352. Eublemma parva (Hiibn.). 

353. Eublemma candidana Fabr. 

354. Eublemma scitula (Ramb.). 

355. Eublemma permixla (Stdgr.). 

356. Eublemma albida (Dup.). 

357. Eublemma deserti Rothsch. 

358. Eublemma purpurina (Schiff. & Den.). 

359. Etiblenuna polygramma (Dup.). 

360. Eublemma arida Rothsch. 

361. Eublemma subvenata (Stdgr.). 

362. Eublemma albidior Rothsch. 

363. Eublemma albicans (Guen.). 

364. Eublemma virginalis (Oberth.). 



Novitates Zooloqicae XXVII. 1920. 126 

365. Eublemma emir (C'ulot). 

366. Eublemma deserta (Stdgr.). 

367. Eublemma ernesti Rothsch. 

368. Eublemma albivestalis Hmpsn. 

369. Eublemma wollastoni N. C. Rothsch. 

370. Eublemma lacteola Rothsch. 

371. Eublemma pemivea Rothsch. 

372. Eublemma croceus Rothsch. 

373. Eublemma conjusa Rothsch. 

374. Eublemma nelvai Rothsch. 

375. Phyllo-phila numerica disjecta Warr. 

376. Eulocastra diaphora (Stdgr.). 

377. Nereisana oranaria (Lucas). 

378. Crosia liachem Dupont. 

379. Erastria trabealis deleta (Stdgr.). 

380. Tarache lucida (Hufn.). 

381. Tarache biskrensis (Oberth.). 

Fhlogophorinae (Euteliinae). 

382. Phlogophora adulatrix (Hiibn.). 

Odontoninae (Stictopterinae). 

383. Nycteola falsalis (Herr.-Sch.). 

Sarrothripinae. 

384. Sarrothripus revayana (Scop.). 

Westermanniinae. 

385. Earias insulana (Boisd.). 

386. Earias chlorion Ramb. 

387. Earias albovenosana Oberth. 

388. Earias chlorophyllana Stdgr. 

389. Hylophila africana Warr. 

390. Xanthodes malvae (Esp.). 

Catocalinae. 

391. Mormonia dilecta powelli (Oberth.). 

392. Mormonia sponsa laeta (Oberth.). 

393. Catocala promissa hilaris Oberth. 

394. Catocala optata sultana B.-H. 

395. Catocala optata intermedia Hmpsn. 

396. Catocala puerpera rosea (Aust.). 

397. Catocala elocata (Esp.). 

398. Catocala oberthuri Aust. 

399. Catocala conjuncta vivida Warr. 

400. Catocala conversa (Esp.). 



126 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 



401. Catocala nymphaqoga vallantini Oberth. 

402. Ephesia nymphaea (Esp.). 

403. Ephesia eutychea (Treit.). 

404. Minucia lunaris maura Oberth. 

405. Anna tyrhaca (Cram.). 

406. Parallelia algira (Linn.). 

407. Grammodes stolida (Fabr.). 

408. Grammodes boisdeffrei (Oberth.). 

409. Grammodes geometrica (Fabr.). 

410. Anydrophila sabourodi (D. Lucas). 

411. Callistege (Cerocala) algiriae (Oberth.). 

412. Callistege (Cerocala) sana (Stdgr.). 

413. Leucanitis kabylaria B.-H. 

414. Hyperglaucitis benenotata moses Stdgr. 

415. Clytie sancta (Stdgr.). 

416. Clytie luteonigra Warr. 

417. Clytie arenosa Rothsch. 

418. Clytie syrdaja Hmpsn. 

419. Cortyta acrosticta (Piingl.). 

420. Cortyta rosacea (Rebel). 

421. Cortyta leucoptera (Hmpsn.). 

Phytometrinae. 

422. Phytometra ni (Hiibn.). 

423. Phytometra daubei (Boisd.). 

424. Phytometra chalcytes (Esp.). 

425. Phytometra accentifera (Lef.). 
(Phytometra festucae (Linn.)). 

426. Phytometra gamma (Linn.). 
(Phytometra chrysitis (Linn.)). 

427. Phytometra orichalcea (Fabr.). 

428. Abrostola tripartita (Hiifn.). 
(Abrostola triplasia (Linn.)). 



Noctuinae. 



429. Anumeta atrosignata harterti Rothsch. 

430. Anumeta sabulosa Rothsch. 

431. Anumeta major Rothsch. 

432. Anumeta cestis parvimacula Rothsch. 

433. Anumeta hilgerti Rothsch. 

434. Anumeta spatzi Rothsch. 

435. Anumeta straminea (B.-H.). 

436. Drasteria oranensis Rothsch. 

437. Syneda caileno caileno (Lef.). 

438. Syneda caileno philippina (Aust.). 

439. Catephia leucomelas (Linn.). 

440. Mageutica alchymista alchymista (Schiff. & Den.). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

(Pages 102—104.) 
Nos. 

1. Catocala nymphagoga vallantini (Oberth.), $ Ain Tellout, 6.7.1917. 
2-9 & 11. Catocala nymphagoga vallantini (Oberth.), 6 $$, 2 <j>$ Ain Draham, 

July 1911. 
12. Catocala nympJiagoga vallantini (Oberth.), 1 $ Sebdou, 17.7.1918. 
13-15 & 17-24. Catocala nymphagoga vallantini (Oberth.), series of 6 q£, 5 $$ 

Ain Draham, July 1911, showing all intergradations from typical C. n. 

vallantini to form with central band on hindwing and sharp pattern 

on fore wing. 
10 & 16. C. nymphagoga vallantini ab. griseola Warr., $ $ Ain Draham, July 1911. 

25. C. nymphagoga nymphagoga Esp., <J Lorgono, Sardinia, July 1911. 

26. C. nymphagoga nymphagoga Esp., <J Dalmatia. 

27-28. C. nymphagoga nympJiagoga Esp., cj? Herculesfiirdo, July 1907. 
29. C. n. nymphagoga ab. alternata Warr., $ Guittery, France. 
30-39. C. n. vallantini Oberth., 3 £$, 6 §9 Ain Draham, showing variation, 
July 1911. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGIC.-E. VOL. XXVII. ig20. 



Pl. XIV. 




E. S. Knight, pinx. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Nos. 

1. Eublemma permixta ab. mozabitica Rothsch., $ (type) Ghardaia, April 

1911 p. 78 

2. E. permixta ab. intermedia Rothsch., $ OuedNca, April 1914 - - p. 78 

3. E. permixta ab. arenosa Rothsch., $ Oued Nca, April 1912 . p. 78 

4. E. permixta ab. nivescens Rothsch., $ Sandana, S. of Ghardaia, 

May 1912 - p. 79 

5. E. permixta (Stdgr.), $ Ain Sefra, June 1915 . . . p. 78 
0. Cleophana aftinis Rothsch., ? Guelt-es-Stel, April 1913 - - p. 68 

7-8. Cleophana versicolor Stdgr., <J° Bou Saada, May 1911 . p. 70 

9. Cleophana marocana Stdgr., Sebdou, Morocco - - - p. 70 

10. Cleophana diffluens diffluens Stdgr., $ Chiclana, for comparison . p. 69 

11. Cleophana diffluens mauretaniae Rothsch., Hammam-Meskoutine, 

May 1914 p. 69 

12. Cleophana diffluens lusitanica Culot, Caldas de Monchique, for 

comparison . . . . . . . . . p. 70 

13-15. Cleophana fatima B.-H., 1 <J, 2 $$ Gafsa (co-type, Tilghemt April 

1912, Ghardaia 1911) p. 68 

16. Cleophana boetica diluta Rothsch., <$ Bou Saada, May 1910 . p. 66 

17. Cleophana boetica diluta Rothsch., $ Sebdou, May 1918 - p. 66 

18. Cleophana boetica boetica Rmbr., J Caldas de Monchique, for com- 

parison. . . . . . . . . . p. 66 

19. Amephana warionis (Oberth.)X Cleophana boetica diluta Rothsch., 

Guelt-es-Stel, April 1913 p. 66 

20. Metopoceras morosa Rothsch., q (tyP e ) Guelt-es-Stel, May 1913 . p. 51 

21. Ammetopa codeti Hmpsn., (J Oued Amra, N. of Ideles, May 1914 - p. 50 
22-23. Bryomima codeti codeti (Oberth.), 2 JJ Ain Sefra May 1913, 

Sebdou May 1918 . p. 50 

24-25. Bryomima codeti nisseni (Rothsch.), cj$ Guelt-es-Stel, April 

1912, May 1913 - - - - - - • - - - p. 50 

26. Calophasia stigmatica Rothsch., <J between Ouargla and El Golea, 

March 1912 p. 71 

27-28. Leucochlaena orana (Lucas), (J$ Oudjda November 1914, 

Perregaux November 1915- - - - - - -p. 23 

29. Euxoa noctambulatrix (Chret.), <J Sidi Ferruch, Algeria . p. 23 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOIC/E. VOL. XXVII. Ig20. 



Pl. XV. 




I- 



t 



\\^ 




%f# 







^ " 








**/m 






iS 




20 





23 




24 




«i 



26 






Horace Knight^ pinx. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 



Nos 
1. 

2-3. 



Iambiodes iticerta (Rothsch.), 1 $ Oued N9a, April 1914 
Metapistis picturata (Rothsch.), $$ Arefidji, March 1912, 
N9a, April 1914 

Rabinopteryx nelvai Rothsch., $ Batna, 1913 — 1914 . . 

Cucullia auceps Stdgr., <J Ganden Aschabad, for comparison 
Cucullia oberthuri Rothsch., § El Kantara, May 1911 
Cucullia beata Rothsch., $ (type) Sebdou, 1918 - 
Athetis euxoides Rothsch., $ Batna . 
Athetis persimilis Rothsch., <$ Souk-Ahras, April 1914 - 
Antarchaea erubescens (B.-H.), $ Djebel Mekter, May 1913 . 
12. Anumeta spatzi Rothsch., ^J Amgid, April 1914 - 



Oued 



4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11- 

13-14. Anumeta major Rothsch., <J$ Aln Talba May 1914, N. of El 
Golea May 1912 

15. Anumeta sabulosa Rothsch., (J Amgid, February 1914 - 

16. Drasteria oranensis Rothsch., <$ Ain Sefra, May 1913 . 

17. Cortyta rosacea (Rebel), <J Oued Dehin, March 1914 - 

18. Eublemma arida Rothsch., <J (type) El Golea, May 1912 

19. Eublemma crocea Rothsch., $ Ain Tahart, April 1914 - 

20. Eublemma pernivea Rothsch., $ Ain Sefra, August 1915 
21-22. Eublemma scitula (Ramb.), (J$ Sidi-bel- Abbes, August 1916 

23. Catablemma geyri Rothsch., $ Tahihout, April 1914 

24. Eublemma nelvai Rothsch., $ (type) Batna, 1913 — 1914 

25. Eublemma pseudostrina Rothsch., (J Guelt-es-Stel, August 1913 

26. Eublemma deserti (Rothsch.), ^ Ain Taiba, May 1914 - 



p. 76 

p. 71 

p. 64 

p. 62 

p. 62 

p. 62 

p. Ill 

p. Ill 

p. 109 

p. 95 



p. 95 
p. 95 
p. 97 
p. 93 
p. 83 
p. 84 
p. 84 
p. 76 
p. 77 
p. 112 
p. 80 
p. 79 



NOVITATES ZoOLOGICE. Vol. XXVII. I920. 



Pl. XVI. 



w^Hgm 



v 







19 



■ 

20 



21 


15 v «f 

22 



- *7I 




'l/. />I»I.V 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Nos. 

1. Antitype hagar Rothsch., <J (type) Bou Saada, April 1911 . p. 53 
2 & 3. Cardepia deserticola Hmpsn., <J Bou Saada May 1910, <J Colomb 

Bechar April 1912 - - p. 57 

4. Cardepia irrisor (Ersch.), $ Uralsk, May 1906, for comparison . p. 57 

5. Cardepia irrisor mauretanica Rothsch., <J El Mesrane, June 1913 - p. 58 

6. Scotogramma chimaera Rothsch., $ (type) Ain Sefra, March 1915 . p. 57 

7. Miselia Sofia luteocinnamomea Rothsch., <J El Kantara, April 1911 p. 110 

8. Miselia antitypina (Rothsch.), £ (type) Guelt-es-Stel, April 1913 . p. 48 

9. Agrotis praecipuina (Rothsch.), (J Sidi-bel-Abbes, September 1917 - p. 37 

10. Epipsilia straminea (Rothsch.), <J (type) Guelt-es-Stel, October 

1912 p. 42 

11. Euxoa rotroui Rothsch., 1 $ (type) Sidi-bel-Abbes, May 1918- - p. 29 

12. 13, 14. Euxoa hoggari Rothsch., 1 <J, 2 $$ Oued Abou, S. Sahara, 

January 1914 . . . . . . . . p. 27 

15, 16. Euxoa spinifera hodnae (Oberth.), <J$, for comparison - p. 26 

17. Agrotis auguroides Rothsch., <J Guelt-es-Stel, April 1912 . p. 36 

18. Agrotis nisseni Rothsch., $ Guelt-es-Stel, October 1913 - - p. 36 

19. Lycophotia kermesina ab. flavida Culot, <J Guelt-es-Stel, October 

1912 p. 16 

20,21. Sidemia fulva (Rothsch.), cj? El Mesrane, November 1913 - p. 44 

22. Dasysternum faroulti Rothsch., $ (type) El Mesrane, November 

1915 p. 45 

23. Dasythorax rotroui Rothsch., $ (type) Messer, September 1917 - p. 45 

24. Natnaugana chimaera Rothsch., $ (type) Environs Taourirt, 

July 1918 p. 45 

25. Sidetnia aflouensis Rothsch., (J (type) Aflou, October 1916 - - p. 45 

26. Athetis oberthuri Rothsch., ^ (type) S. Oued Mya, April 1912. . p. 18 

27. Euargia jordani Rothsch., $ (type) South Ahras, April 1914- - p. 41 

28. 29. Epipsilia lycophotioides (Rothsch.), 2 ^ (types of inconspicua 

Rothsch. and lycophotioides Rothsch.), Guelt-es-Stel, October 1912 p. 37 



NOVITATES ZOOLOUIC/E. VoL. XXVII. I92O. 



Pl. XVII. 




Horace Knight, pinx. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOQIOAE XXVII. 1920. 127 

441. Magevtica alchymista uniformis (B.-H.). 

442. Acrobyla panacearum distincta Rothsch. 

443. Metapistis picturala (Rothsch.). 

444. Lipatephia eremophila (Reb.). 

445. Acontia luctuosa (Schiff. & Den.). 

446. Pandesma anysa distincta Rothsch. 

447. Pandesma anysa sennarensis (Feld. & Rog.). 

448. Raphia hybris (Hiibn.). 

449. Tathorhynchus exsiccata (Led.). 

450. Apopestes spectrum maura Warr. 

451. Autophila maura (Stdgr.). 

452. Autophila ligaminosa (Evers.). 

453. Autophila dilucida libanotica (Stdgr.). 

454. Autophila cerealis rosea (Stdgr.). 

455. Rivula sericealis distincta Rothsch. 

456. Scoliopteryx libatrix (Linn.). 

457. Zethes insularis Ramb. 

458. Parascotia nisseni Turati. 

459. Antarchaea viridaria (Clerck). 

460. Antarchaea sanctiflorentis aurantiacus Rothsch. 

461. Antarchaea erubescens (B.-H.). 

Polypogoniuae (Hypeninaei. 

462. Nodaria cornicaiis (Fabr.). 

463. Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.). 

464. Pechipago (Zanclognatha auct.) crinalis (Treit. ). 

465. Pechipago {Zanclognatha auct.) flavicrinalis Rothsch. 

466. Ophiuche lividalis (Hiibn.). 

The 4 species without numbers and in brackets are the 4 whose record is 
dubious. 



128 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 



THE BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 
By Eenst Hartert, Ph.D. 

THE Commander or Kommandorski Islands consist of two islands, Bering 
Island, the larger, and Copper (Mednij) Island, the smaller of the two. They 
are of special interest, as being the easternmost islands of the "Old World" in 
the north. It is natural that, considering how closely Tschuktschenland and 
Alaska on the one, the Commander and Aleutian Islands on the other hand, 
approach each other, a number of birds, even some land-birds, are common 
to both easternmost Asia and westernmost America, i.e. Alaska and the islands 
in Bering Sea. Nevertheless there is a very marked difference between their 
ornis, the bulk being distinctly palaearctic or nearctic. 

The literature on the birds of the Commander Islands is not large, but 
Stejneger's " Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands 
and in Kamtschatka " (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 29, 1885), with its valuable 
" Conclusions " and excellent plates, together with his Revised Catalogue of the 
Birds inhabiting the Commander Islands (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1887) are far 
better than a host of articles ; they may almost be called classical ornithological 
literature, and nearly exhaust the subject. Besides these writings there is the 
" Liste des oiseaux du Kamtschatka et des iles Commandores," by Dybowski 
and Taczanowski, in the Bull, de la Soc. Zool. de France for 1884, pp. 145-61, a 
mere " Liste " with localities. 

Then there is a recent article based on Mr. Sokolnikoff's collections made 
on the two islands 1907-1909, in Russian (!) in the Annuaire du Mus. Zool. Acad. 
Imp. Sciences de St. Petersbourg" xiv. (" 1909"), Memoires, pp. 48-76, entitled 
(in translation), " Short Outline of the Avifauna of the Commander Islands." 
It adds seven species to Stejneger's list — but Rhodostethia rosea, had already 
afterwards been added by the latter. 

The most recent article known to me is, however, S. Buturlin's " Les 
oiseaux de l'ile Mednij, de la grouppe Comander " (sic!) in Ornithol. et Avi- 
culture, Moscow, iv. livr. 2, No. 41, 1913. It contains a list of 59 species, 
one of which had not before been recorded from the group, and several 
others not from Copper Isle. It appears to be a careful, up-to-date work, 
but is written in Russian ! 

Besides these articles dealing with the birds of Bering and Copper Islands, 
they are mentioned in other writings, chiefly in Taczanowski' s great work, 
Faune Ornithologique de la Siberie Orientate," and, indeed, already a few by Pallas 
( 1 827) ! Pallas's statements were taken from the MS. of Steller, who was wrecked 
on Bering Island in 1741. From his notes Pallas described the now extinct 
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus. At that time they were abundant, and to a great 
extent Steller' s party lived on their flesh ; they were preferred to other Cor- 
morants on account of their size, as one was an ample meal for three hungry 
sailors. Steller' s men, however, did not exterminate the species, as a hundred 
years after, the Governor of Sitka, Kuprianoff, did not find it rare, and collected 
the few specimens known in the Museums of Petrograd, Leiden, and London. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 129 

As this Cormorant is described as very stupid and was much persecuted, it 
is generally supposed that it has been exterminated by men. This may be, but 
it is perhaps as likely that it was finally wiped out by an epidemic disease, such 
as took place in the winter of 1876 — 1877, when many thousands of Phalacrocorax 
pelagicus were destroyed and masses of the dead birds covered the beach all 
round the islands. The inhabitants of the islands, however, asserted that it 
had last been seen about 1852 or so. 

The almost complete collection made by Stejneger (about 2,000 specimens) 
is in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, U.S.A. 

About the same time as Stejneger the Polish explorer Dybowski made a 
collection on the islands, and his skins are in the Warsaw Museum, and the 
Governor, N. Grebnitski, collected birds which he sent to Stejneger and other 
ornithologists. 

Mr. N. Sokolnikoff, having held an official position on the Islands for a 
number of years, collected for the Petrograd Museum. His first collection is 
the one on which Bianchi based his article in 1909. The second collection, the 
one on which the following article is written, consisting of over 860 skins, was 
also intended for the Museum at Petrograd, but delivery being impossible, and 
the collection slowly deteriorating in the climate and under the conditions it 
was kept, Sokolnikoff offered it to the British Museum, who did not accept, and 
passed the offer on to Lord Rothschild, who bought the birdskins. 

As the above list shows, we have received 152 forms of birds from Mr. 
Sokolnikoff. 

21 forms known to have occurred we did not receive. 

23 were obtained for the first time on the islands. 

Stejneger's list (1887) had 143 species and subspecies. 

Bianchi's of 1909 contained 153, of which 5 were quite doubtful. 

Sokolnikoff's last collections confirmed 2 of Bianchi's doubtful ones and 
added 21 others to the list, which thus consists of — 

171 forms. 

1. Podiceps griseigena holboellii Reinh. 

<J ad., Bering Island, 21 .v. 1916. 

cJ in winter plumage, Bering Island, 16.xi. 1909. 

9 juv. in moult, 4.x. 11 (year ?), 31.x. 1912, 30. ix. 1911, Copper Island. 

Stejneger says it " does not appear at the islands except as a straggler." 
This is confirmed by the present collection, though the date of 21 .v suggests a 
breeding- place not far away. 

2. Podiceps auritus (L.). 

2 winter birds, evidently in their first year. Rare straggler, according to 
Stejneger. 

3. Colymbus adamsii Gray. 

cJ ad., Bering Island, 11. v. 1912. 
^ juv., Copper Island, 11. xi. 1910. 

Stejneger calls the White-billed Diver a winter visitor of rather rare 
occurrence, and he obtained one and saw another. 
9 



130 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVTI. 1920. 

4. Colymbus stellatus Pontopp. 

Fine adult specimens were obtained on Bering and Copper Islands in spring 
and summer, and 1 juv. in November on Copper Island. It breeds frequently 
on the islands and appears, according to Stejneger, about the first of May. 



5. Colymbus arcticus viridigularis (Dwight). 

Garia viridigularis Dwight, Avk 1918, p. 198 (N.E. Siberia and western Alaska. Type N.E. Siberia) 

S ad., Bering Island, 22. v. 1914. 
? juv., Bering Island, 26.x. 1911. 
c? ad., Copper Island, 12. vi. 1911. 
cJ in winter plumage, Copper Island, 20. xi. 1910. 

This species, judging from the dates, might possibly be breeding, but if so 
it must be very rare. 

(Bianchi enumerates Colymbus immer Brunn as an exceptional visitor.) 

6. Una lomvia arra (Pall). 

Several adult spring and summer specimens. 

An adult winter bird and a number of young ones in various stages. Also 
some eggs, but without indication of parents. 

Uria lomvia arra breads in great numbers on the islands, but among them 
Uria troille calijornica occurs sparingly ! 

U. 1. arra is very similar to U. I. lomvia, but generally a little larger (not 
smaller as stated in the Cat. B. Brit. Mils.), the bill often stronger, thicker, but 
shorter, sometimes, however, very long. 

(Mr. Sokolnikoff did not send any U. troille calijornica.) 

7. Uria columba columba (Pall.). 

A number of adult and young from April to October. If the dates are correct 
the spring moult is rather irregular, as a female from April 20th is in full black 
summer garb, another from the same date has still a good many white feathers 
left, while yet another (all females) from May 11th is chiefly white underneath, 
though the black feathers are appearing everywhere. The change to the winter 
plumage takes place in October. 

The wings of the Bering Isle specimens are only 174 to 177 mm., but one 
from Copper Island has wings of 1 82 mm. 

Abundantly breeding. 

(Uria carbo (Pall.) was observed in two pairs by Stejneger.) 



8. Brachyrhamphus marmoratus perdix (Pall.). 

A single male was obtained on May 11th on Copper Island. Since this 
form breeds on Kamtchatka and the Kuril Islands its occurrence on the Com- 
mander Islands, though not previously recorded, is not strange. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 131 

9. Synthliborhamphus antiquus (Gm.). 

A series from both islands, the latest date being September 27th. Breeds 
on both islands. 

10. Aethia pygmaea (Gm.). 
(Simorhynchus pygmaeus auct.) 
Both islands, mostly from the autumn and winter months, but one from 
May, and a few summer specimens. Breeding on both islands. 

11. Aethia cristatella (Pall.). 
(Simorhynchus cristatellus auct.) 
Though regularly breeding (at least during Stejneger's stay there) on both 
islands, Sokolnikofl only sent three adult winter birds and one young shot 
October 28th, 1912. 

12. Aethia pusilla (Pall.) 
(Simorhynchus pusillus auct.) 
A number of specimens from Bering Island from the winter months, in the 
spring as late as May 10th, 1912. A female was also obtained on Copper Island 
on April 17th, 1911. — No proof of the breeding of this Auklet on the Commander 
Isles has yet been obtained. 

13. Phaleris psittacula (Pall.). 

Obtained on both islands in June and July. A young in down on Bering 
Island, 20.vii. 1912. The down of the upperside, sides of head, neck, and body 
and throat sooty, lighter at base, breast and abdomen greyish white. 

(Cerorhinca monocerata was obtained by Grebnitzki, but neither Stejneger 
nor Sokolnikoff came across it.) 

14. Lunda cirrhata (Pall.). 

Several fine adults and young from the autumn months. None in winter 
plumage. According to Stejneger " occasionally, after severe gales, a few 
specimens are found cast up on the beaches." 

15. Fratercula corniculata (Naum.). 

Several summer and autumn examples. In a female shot 24.x. 1910 the 
basal plates have already fallen off. 

16. Sterna paradisaea Briinn. 

(Sterna macrura or arctica auct.) 

cj? ad., Bering Island, 24. vi. 1915. 
$ juv., Bering Island, 24. v. 1914. 
Breeds on the islands (Stejneger. p. 85). 

The adult S has quite an extended black tip to the upper mandible ! This 
is very rare in paradisaea, but it does exist sometimes. 



132 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

17. Sterna longipeanis Nordm. 

9 ad., Bering Island, 21. v. 1911. 

<?<J ad., Bering Island, 9.vi.l912, 29. v. 1914. 

Stejneger (p. 85) says that formerly he was wrong in giving it as breeding 
on Bering Island. The dates of Sokolnikoff s specimens, however, suggest the 
possibility, nay probability, of this species nesting on Bering Island. 

The name camtschatica Pall, is doubtful and cannot be accepted for this 
species. 

18. Sterna aleutica Baird. 

(?, Copper Island, 7.ix.l911. 

This bird, though known to have occurred on the Siberian coast, and said 
to have been found in Japan, is a new record to the Islands. 

19. Larus glaucescens Nauru. 

A magnificent series collected in the spring and summer months, and an 
adult female shot December 26th, 1911. 

This species is commonly breeding on both islands, and occurs in small 
numbers throughout the year. In the Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1884, p. 147, 
Dybowski and Taczanowski mention this Gull as Larus glaucus (cf. Taczanowski, 
Faune Orn. Siberie orient, ii. 1019), while their " Larus borealis " was, according 
to Taczanowski, t.c. i. p. 1030, " Larus cochin-nans," but I consider all the 
eastern Herring-Gulls east of the Taimyr Peninsula to be vegae. 

20. Larus argentatus vegae Palmen. 

A fine adult $ was shot on Copper Island, 9. vi. 1914, and four young birds 
were obtained in May and June of various years, both on Bering and 
Copper Islands. 

21. Larus hyperboreus Gunn. 1767. 
(Larus glaums Briinn. 1764, nee Pontopp. 1763.) 

Two adult, male and female, and two juvenile specimens were shot on 
Bering Isle in April, and another young in November. The adult male has the 
upperside darker, more bluish, the female lighter, almost whitish. 

This species had not yet been found on the Commander Islands, but as it 
breeds in the high north and migrates down south to Japan, its occurrence there 
was to be expected. 

22. Larus schistisagus Stejn. 

$ad., Bering Island, l.i.1911. 

c??ad., Bering Island, 13. iv., 17. iv., 17. iv., 16. v. 1912. 
$ ad., Copper Island, 12. vi. 1911. 
cj 9 J u v., Bering and Copper Islands, October. 

From these dates it appears as if the species might possibly breed on the 
islands, though Stejneger said it did not. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 133 

23. Larus canus major Midd. 

Lotus canus L. var. major Middendorff, Sibirische Reise, Zool. ii. 2. p. 243, Taf. xxiv. fig. 4 (1853 — 
Stanow6y Mountains to Sea of Ochotsk). 

3 ad., Copper Island, 26. v. 1912. 

$ ad., Copper Island, -l.vi.1911. 

c? juv., Copper Island, 23. v. 1911. 

4(J? med. aet., Bering and Copper Islands, May and June. 

2 juv., Bering and Copper Isles, September 1911. 

All these birds belong undoubtedl}- to the large eastern form of the Common 
Gull. The May and June dates of perfectly adult birds suggest the possibility 
of their breeding on Copper Island, though during Stejneger's visit they seem 
not to have done so. 

24. Larus canus brachyrhynchus Rich. 

Two young birds shot on Bering Island, 25. i. 1911, and Copper Island, 
9.ix.l911, are so much smaller than all L. c. major that they must belong to 
brachyrhynchus, which might very well occasionally visit the islands from North- 
western America. Also Stejneger got one small specimen, which he called canus, 
but if brachyrhynchus is separated from canus, these specimens must belong to 
the former. 

25. Larus ridibundus sibiricus But. 

Larus ridibundus sibiricus Buturlin, Mess. Orn. ii. p. 66 (1911 — Kolyma Delta and Ussuri Land. 
In Russian !). 

3 adult summer birds without dates. 

<$ ad., Bering Island, 19. v. 1915. 

2 ad., Copper Island, 11. v. 1910. 

cJ ad., Bering Island, 12. v. 1912. 

<J nearly ad., Bering Island, 5. v. 191G. 

$ juv., Bering Island, 9.xi.l912. 

2 nearly ad., Bering Island, 19. v. 1916. 

These specimens differ from most European birds shot about the same time 
of the year by somewhat darker, less coffee-brown heads of the adult ones, longer 
bills, and generally longer wings. The bill is 37-40 mm. long (from end of 
feathering on culmen), the wing is about 315 to 321 mm., while the bill in European 
specimens measures generally 29-36, the wing 302-310, very seldom to 315 and 
317 mm. The brown of the head in a specimen from Lombardia, Italy, is just 
as dark, and the same may be said of one from Mogador, Marocco, shot in March, 
by Riggenbach. The bill of the Lombardian bird is also very long, i.e. 39 mm. 

When Buturlin described his sibiricus he mentioned that it had a darker 
grey upperside, that the outer web of the fifth primary was always grey, and the 
dimensions larger, especially those of the tarsus. The strikingly longer bill is, 
however, not mentioned. The back of our Commander Islands birds is not at 
all darker, nor is the constantly grey colour of the outer web of the fifth primary 
a character, as it is mostly grey — though not rarely partially white — in European 
specimens. Japanese skins without date have the elongated bill, but their 
wings are rather short. 

Lena River specimens have the short bills of European examples and the 



134 NO.ITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

wings as a rule no longer than the latter, but their heads are very light, though 
summer birds in Europe have them very often equally pale. They would belong 
to " Chroicoceplialus ridibundus lavrovi " Zarudny, Mess. Orn. iii. pp. 29, 30 (1912), 
from Chirchik, Syr-Darya and Semiretchye, separated because they had lighter 
heads, and, if I had a correct translation of the Russian description, are found 
among darker- headed specimens. I do not consider this form separable, and 
treat " lavrovi " as a synonym of Larus ridibundus ridibundus. The easternmost 
form is apparently separable, but its distribution as yet very uncertain. 

Stejneger did not meet with this bird on the islands, though he found it 
nesting in Kamtchatka. The dates of Sokolnikoff's specimens suggest the 
possibility of its breeding nowadays on the islands. Bianchi added ridibundus 
to the list of Bering Island birds, as not breeding. 

26. Larus gelastes Keys. & Bias. 

An adult male, with the greyish black spots of the winter plumage behind 
the eyes and ear-coverts, was shot on Copper Island, 7.x. 1912. The inner web 
of the first primary has a wide slate-coloured inner margin. This is probably 
a remainder of the juvenile plumage, but very unusual. 

No Larus gelastes has ever been found so far east ; in fact, I do not know of 
a record further east than Issik-Kul and Karachi. 



27. Xema sabinii (Sabine). 

cJad., Bering Island, 16. v. 1913. 

Stejneger did not come across this species, nor was it obtained before by 
Sokolnikoff. 

28. Rhodostethia rosea (Macg.). 

cf ad., Bering Island, S.xii. 1911. 

? juv., Bering Island, 13. iii. 1914. 

<J juv., Bering Island, 9.xii. 1915. 

Stejneger in 1887 had no evidence of the occurrence on the islands, but 
in the Auk, 1898, p. 183, he recorded a specimen collected by Grebnitski on 
Bering Island, 10. xh. 1895. 

29. Rissa tridactyla pollicaris Stejn. 

This common breeding bird of the two islands, where opportunity for nesting 
exists, was obtained in summer and winter. 

In the young of all forms of Rissa the shorter secondaries are nearly quite 
white, only with a grey patch towards the base of the outer web, a striking 
peculiarity not mentioned in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 

30. Rissa brevirostris Bruch. 

c?$ ad., Bering Island, 7. v. 1912. 
$ juv., Copper Island, 24. vi. 1911. 
Breeding on both islands. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVI:. 1920. 135 

31. Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.). 

$ ad., Bering Island, 3.vi.l912. 
$ semi ad., Copper Island, 1 1 . vii. 1913. 

Mentioned by Dybowski as occurring on Bering Island, but Stejneger did 
not come across it. 

32. Stercorarius longicaudus Vieill. 

(?$ad., Bering Island, 4.vi.l911, 3.vi.l913. 

According to Stejneger, " an occasional, though by no means uncommon " 
visitor to the islands during migrations. The occurrence in June suggests the 
idea of a breeding-place not far away. 

33. Stercorarius parasiticus (L.). 

{Stercorarius crepidatus in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxv. p. 327, where the 
nomenclature is arbitrary.) 

4 adults with white underside, 3 with dark, from Bering and Copper Islands 
in spring and summer. Stejneger called the light phase comparatively rare. 
Also a young bird from Bering Island, 4 . viii . 1911. 

34. Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii Cass. 

(Fulmarus glacialis glupisha Stejn.) 

This bird breeds in large colonies on both islands. Sokolnikoff sent a fine 
series. Six belong to the dark form, C to the white one with more or less grey 
mantle. One from Bering Island, date unreadable, has whitish grey, very faded 
feathers on the back, while fresh feathers of a slaty grey colour come in ; most 
feathers of the underside are grey with whitish tips, some fresh ones, however, 
are quite grey. Another example, a bird of the year, Copper Island, 1.x. 1912, 
is pure white all over. 

35. Puffinus tenuirostris tenuirostris (Temm.). 
Six specimens from both islands, collected from April to June 18th. There 
can, judging by these dates, be hardly any doubt that this Petrel nests on the 
islands, and it is a pity that the habits have not been recorded, nor any eggs sent. 
Bianchi recorded it as nesting on both islands ! 

36. Oceanodroma furcata (Gm.). 
Specimens from Bering Island in spring and winter, and from Copper Island, 
where it breeds, in spring and winter. 

37. Oceanodroma leucorrhoa leucorrhoa (Vieill.). 
One male, Copper Island, 6. vii. 1911. Stejneger found it breeding at 
Tchornij Mys., Copper Island. 

{Diomedea albatrus occurs not rarely in the sea surrounding the islands, but 
we did not receive specimens.) 

(Haematopus ostralegus oscidans Swinh. is an occasional visitor, but we did 
not receive specimens.) 



136 Novit;<tes Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

38. Arenaria interpres interpres (L.). 

Several adult males from Bering Island, May and June 3rd, and young 
in September. 

It has not been proved to nest on the islands. 

39. Squatarola squatarola hypomelaena (Pall.). 

Two juvenile, September and October, Bering Island. 

Though there is some overlapping, the larger bill and generally longer wing 
of the eastern race cannot be denied, and therefore this subspecies should be 
recognized. 

40. Charadrius dominicus fulvus Gm. 

A large series from both islands in May and autumn, the latest spring date 
being May 30th. 

41. Charadrius mongolus mongolus Pall. 

A fine series of adult birds, both islands, from May and June, a pullus (Copper 
Island), July 27th, unfortunately already covered with many feathers. 

The black line separating the rufous chest from the white throat is often 
entirely absent, or only indicated. 

One juv. in first autumn plumage, September. 

42. Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus L. 

?, Bering Island, 21 .xi. 1911. 

The occurrence on Bering Island is extraordinary, as the species is not a 
northern one, though it extends eastwards to Corea. 

43. Gallinago gallinago raddei But. 

Scolopax (Gallinago) gallinago raddei Buturlin, Kuliki Rossieskoi Imperic-Premiya-k-Journal, in 
Psovaia i Ruzheinaia Okhota, 1912, p. 54 of the separate copy. (Breeding in E. Siberia. 
Russian !) 

Taczanowski said that the majority but not all Snipes in East Asia differed 
by having wider pale stripes and more rusty spotting on the upperside. less spotted 
jugulum, and wider sincipital line, also less spotted, more white axillaries and 
under wing-coverts. Buturlin named this form as above. Comparing eastern 
and European Snipes, it is obvious that no colour differences are of any constancy 
or found in the majority of specimens, but entirely individual, except the less 
spotted jugulum which is observable in the great majority of eastern Snipes, 
while such specimens, with almost uniform, less spotted jugulum are rare in 
Europe. Moreover, there is a tendency in eastern birds to have smaller di- 
mensions. European Snipes have wings of 129-140, females generally larger, 
135-140, males 129-136, exceptionally 127-128 only. Eastern Snipes have 
wings of 125-137, usually about 132, quite exceptionally to 140 mm. The wings 
of 12 snipes from Bering and Copper Islands measure 126-133, once 136 ; those of 
as many from the Tring Reservoirs 132 to 138 mm. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 137 

It is therefore advisable to tentatively recognize Gallinago gallinago raddei, 
though its characters are unstable and its distribution not yet certain. 

The Snipe is a common breeding-bird on Bering Island. Sokolnikofi collected 
specimens throughout the month of May. 



44. Gallinago solitaria Hodgs. 

GaUinaijo solitaria Hodgson, Gleanings in Science, iii. p. 238 (1831 — Nepal). 

?, Copper Island, 10.x. 1910. 

(J, Bering Island, 27.xii.1911. 

This species has not previously been recorded from the Commander Islands, 
but as it breeds from the Altai and Turkestan to Kamtchatka, its occurrence 
is not unexpected, only the December date is extraordinary. 

45. Erolia maritima quarta subsp. nov. 

5 <J$ ad., May, Bering and Copper Islands. 

9 ad., Copper Island, 2.ix. 1911, changing from summer to winter plumage. 
9 <J $ in winter plumage from both islands, collected in November, December, 
and March. 

The Purple Sandpiper of the Commander Islands differs from E. m. couesi 
from Alaska and the Aleutian Islands as follows '• 

In the winter plumage the foreneck and jugulum are darker slate-colour 
and less mixed with white. In the full summer plumage the edges to the feathers 
of the upperside are much wider and of a brighter ferruginous, so that the upper- 
side looks quite rust-red, with mostly concealed black centres to the feathers. 
The wings measure 121-127, in one $ even 130 mm. 

Type: <J, Bering Island, 11. v. 1912. N. Sokolnikofi leg. 

We know from Stejneger that this species is resident on Bering Island, but 
he says that some retire to more hospitable shores during the winter months. 



46. Erolia acuminata (Horsf.). 

5 autumn birds, September and October, both islands, where they are 
autumn migrants. 

47. Erolia maculata (Vieill.). 

Tringa maculata Vieillot,iVowt>. Diet. d'Hist.Nat. xxxiv. p. 46.5(1819 — West Indian Islands or southern 
U.S.). 

(Erolia maculata is the correct name for the "Pectoral Sandpiper," often 
called " Tringa pectoralis.") 

cJ?, Bering Island, 6, 10, 18. ix. 1911. 

Though only once recorded from the Commander Islands, byButurlin, 1913, 
it is not unexpected that this species passes through on migration. Where these 
birds winter is not yet known ; American examples migrate as far south as 
Peru, Chile, and Argentina. 



138 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

48. Erolia temminckii (Leisl.). 

2 2 ad., Bering Island, 26, 29. v. 1912. 
Somewhat rare on passage. 

49. Erolia subminuta (Midd.). 

4 adult specimens, Bering Island, March, May, July ; Copper Island, 
25. v. 1912. 

According to Stejneger mainly on passage, but a few stay over the summer, 
probably breeding. 

Bianchi, in fact, gives it as breeding, probably from notes by SokoLnikoff. 

50. Erolia ruficollis (Pall.). 

3$ ad., Bering Island, 25. v. 1914, 25. v. 1915, 25. vi. 1914. 
According to Stejneger only on migration, but the late date in June suggests 
the possibility of its nesting. 

51. Erolia alpina sakhalina (Vieill.). 

<J9ad., Copper Island, 13. v. 1912; Bering Island, 2.vi.l914, 24. vi. 1914, 
25. vi. 1914. 

According to Stejneger only on passage. The late dates of these birds 
suggest the possibility, but do of course not prove their breeding on the islands. 

52. Erolia ferruginea (Briinn.). 

<J ad., Bering Island, 2.vi.l916. 
2 ad., Copper Island, 12.x. 1910. 
This species has not yet been recorded from these islands. 

(Erolia tenuirostris = crassirostris, mentioned by Bianchi as doubtfully 
nesting, was not sent by Sokolnikoff to us.) 

53. Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (L.). 

Plalalea pygmea Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x. i. p. 140 (1758 — " Surinam " ! Errore !). 

2 ad., Bering Island, 5.ix.l911. 

Not previously recorded from the islands. 

("Calidris armaria" now to be called Crocethia alba (Pall.), was met with 
by Stejneger — one out of a flock shot.) 

54. Limosa lapponica baueri Naum. 

17 specimens throughout May and as late as June 2Gth, mostly with cinnamon 
underside, but some from the same days still white and barred. 

Though, Stejneger says, some individuals stay over summer, they were not 
nesting. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 139 

55. Limosa limosa melanuroides Gould. 

5 (J$ in fine nuptial plumage, obtained May 20th to 26th (mostly 1913), 
on Bering Island ; one (not sexed) with very little rufous colour, Copper Island, 
7.vi.l911. 

According to Stejneger a very rare visitor, as only one specimen was known 
to him. 

56. Tringa nebularia (Gunn.). 

(Totanus nebularius, Glottis nebularius, Totanus glottis auct. antiqu.). 
A fine series in breeding plumage from May 7th to the end of the month, 
on both islands. 

"Common during the spring migration" (Stejneger, p. 132). 

(Tringa gutlifer was not obtained. Stejneger mentions one specimen.) 

57. Tringa erythropus (Pall.). 

3 adults in fine black nuptial plumage from Bering Island, 23. v. 1913, 
16. v. 1914, 18. v. 1914. 
Rare spring migrant. 

58. Tringa incana incana (Gm.). 

11 fine adult males and females, Bering Island, 29. v to 12. vi, all in full 
nuptial plumage. 

Comes to the islands during the latter part of May, and may possibly breed, 
Stejneger thinks. 

59. Tringa incana brevipes (Vieill.). 

cJ9, Bering Island, 25. v. 1914, 2.vi.l913. 

9 in worn summer plumage, Bering Island, 24.x. 1911. 

7 juv., both islands, 31 . viii to 1.x. 

This is obviously the rarer form of incana, and Stejneger had obtained a 
single specimen only. Buturlin, however, recorded a male shot in 1912. As 
this is the Siberian form, which breeds in Kamtchatka, one would rather ex- 
pect it to nest on the islands, than the American T. i. incana — probably neither 
of the two does nest, though both pass through on migration. 

60. Tringa glareola L. 

17 specimens from the latter third of May and June, both islands, but only 
a few from Copper Island. 

Breeds, according to Stejneger, on Bering Island. 
There are no subspecies of T. glareola.. 

61. Tringa hypoleuca L. 

<J9, Bering Island, 22. v. 1912, 30. v. 1914, 29. v. 1913. 
Rather rare migrant (Stejneger). 
There is no eastern subspecies. 

(" Terekia cinerea " recorded from one specimen by Stejneger.) 



140 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

62. Philomachus pugnax (L.). 

cJad., Bering Island, 18. v. 1911. 

Evidently rare. Stejneger had only two specimens. 

Ridgway rejects the name Philomachus because the author was anonymous. 
This, however, is an arbitrary proceeding. It does not matter who described a 
bird, or who created a genus, as long as this was formally done and the names 
are acceptable under the Rules of Nomenclature. The names in the " Adum- 
bratiuncula " to Vroey's catalogue were also published without an author's 
name, and it was only found out incidentally that Pallas was the author. Leach's 
name Pavoncella is unacceptable, as Leach's work was not published at the 
time. Iredale called my attention to the fact that it was only printed as a list 
of labels for the use of the British Museum's officials, that only one or two copies 
exist, and that it was never for sale. The publication by the Willughby Society 
was a rather unnecessary act, but at that time British ornithologists were more 
reckless in the resurrection of forgotten old names than they are nowadays. 

63. Numenius cyanopus Vieill. 

$ ad., Copper Island, 14. vi. 1911. 
A rare visitor. 

64. Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scop.). 

8 <J<j> ad., both islands, 25. v to 26. vi. and 3 juv. 31 .viii to S.ix. 
Stejneger secured only two specimens on Bering Island. 

65. Phalaropus fulicarius (L.). 

5 <J$, Bering Island, 25. v to 16.vi. 

1 ad. Bering Island, 8 ad. and juv. Copper Island, September. 

Stejneger only once observed a flock in autumn, but could not secure 
specimens. 

The late dates of Sokolnikoff's specimens suggest the possibility of breeding 
on the island. 

66. Phalaropus lobatus (L.). 

4 ^ $ ad., Bering Island, May 26th and June 2nd to 26th. Also 6 September 
birds from both islands. 

Breeds numerously on Bering Island, teste Stejneger. 

67. Megalornis canadensis canadensis (L.). 

Ardea canadensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. p. 234 (1766 — " Habitat in America septentrionali." Ex 
Edwards, pi. 133, restricted terra typica therefore : Hudson Bay). 

cJ? ad., Bering Island, 18 and 20. v. 1914. 

Has occurred several times in Tschuktschen Land and Anadyr, therefore the 
occurrence on Bering Island is not very extraordinary. It probably visits the 
island from time to time, as a long, long-legged, long-necked grey bird, according 
to the natives, is observed occasionally (Stejneger, pp. 147, 135). 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 141 

68. Anser fabalis serrirostris Swinh. 

Anser segetum var. serrirostris Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871, p. 417 (China, in winter near 
Amoy). 

Half a dozen adult males and females from Bering Island, May and June, 
also a juvenile male, Bering Island, 9.x. 1911. 

All the adult birds show very clearly the large, wide beaks with curved 
under mandible of serrirostris, and even in the young one it is clearly indicated. 
This again speaks very much for the distinctness of the two eastern forms, 
serrirostris and sibiricus of Alpheraky, though their breeding- homes are not 
properly known, and both together as well as intermediate specimens occur in 
China on migration. 

(Bianchi mentions both serrirostris and " mentalis," but the latter name is 
a synonym of serrirostris ! ) 

69. Anser alburons (Scop.). 

Two ? juv., Bering Island, 16 and 18. xi. 1911. 

These appear to be typical albifrons. The so-called " A. albijrons gambelli " 
cannot be upheld in the sense of certain ornithologists. American and East- 
Asiatic White-fronted Geese are not as a rule larger or in any way different, but 
it is true that extraordinarily large specimens occur in North America, though 
their breeding range is unknown. It is therefore still possible that a large race 
exists somewhere, but very doubtful. No North-east Asiatic example seen by 
me is larger than some European ones. The conclusions of Swarth & Bryant, 
Vnivers. California Publ. in Zool. xvii. no. 11, pp. 209-222, that both forms are 
found in North America in winter quarters, are correct, but their supposed 
differences do not exist. Neither is the number of rectrices constantly different, 
nor the general colouration or size ; nor, as far as I can make out, the colour of 
the eyelid ! Final judgment about the two forms cannot be passed, unless a 
series from the various breeding-places be examined ! 

70. Anser caerulescens caerulescens (L.). 
(Anser hyperboreus hyperboreus.) 

A white female with partially brown secondaries and a few brownish feathers 
on the mantle, Bering Island, 30. v. 1911. 

If, as it seems to be the case, the grey-brown goose with blue-grey upper 
wing-coverts and the white ones are one and the same (cf. among others Hesse, 
Journ. f. Orn. 1915, pp. 159, 160, and Blaauw's breeding experiments !), the 
species must be called caerulescens (Anas caerulescens Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. x. 
1, p. 124, 1758), and not hyperboreus (Pallas, Spicilegia Zool. fasc. vi. p. 25). 

71. Branta canadensis hutchinsii (Rich.) (?). 

$ ad., Bering Island, 22.vii.1914. 

This specimen has 18 rectrices and a wing of a little over 400 mm. (400, but 
worn!). American authors describe hutchinsii as having 14 to 16 rectrices, 
" occidentalis " with 18 to 20 ; wings of the latter 41 1-458, while that of hutchinsii 
appears to vary from 375 to 451 ! It seems to me that hutchinsii and occidentalis , 
are not separable ! 



142 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

72. Branta canadensis minima Ridgw. 

<?? ad., Bering Island, 28. v. 1912. 

These two specimens seem to be actual minima ! Rectrices 16 ! Wings 
about 380 mm. 

73. Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawr.). 

$ juv., Bering Island, 9.x. 1910. 

Stejneger (pp. 149, 135) also obtained only a single specimen, in November 
1882. 

74. Anser canagicus (Sewastianoff). 

Adult males and females were obtained in October, November, January, 
February, and April 14th, young of the year in December, all on Bering Island. 

75. Cygnus cygnus (L.). 

$% first winter plumage, 1 and 4 October, Bering Island. 
Stejneger mentioned the species as observed but not positively identified, 
but Bianchi seems to have received it. 

(Stejneger obtained a young C . columbianus on Bering Island !) 

76. Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha L. 
(Anas boschas.) 

c?e?$$, Bering Island, April and May. 

1 (J ad., Copper Island, 28. iv. 1911. 

There is quite a series from Bering, but only one male from Copper Island. 
This seems to bear out what Stejneger wrote long ago : " Breeding numerously 
in Bering Island, comparatively rare on Copper Island." 

77. Anas strepera L. 

The head of a $ shot on Copper Island on May 13th, 1911 is sent. It is 
only a rare straggler, reported by Dybowski, but not observed by Stejneger. 

78. Anas acuta acuta L. 

May, July, and October, Copper and Bering Islands. Breeds numerously 
on Bering, sparingly on Copper Island, teste Stejneger. 

79. Anas crecca crecca L. 

The teal breeds also on the islands, and was obtained by Sokolnikofi on 
both, end of April, May and September. 

80. Anas querquedula L. 

Stejneger did not come across the Garganey, but Dybowski stated that it 
had occurred on Bering Island. Sokolnikofi sent two adult males and a female, 
obtained on Bering Island in summer. 



N0VITATE3 ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 143 

81. Anas formosa Georgi. 

£ ad., Bering Island, 16. v. 1911, 23. v. 1911. 

cJ juv., Bering Island, 6.ix.l911. 

? ad., Bering Island, 10. ix. 1911. 

tj ad., Copper Island, 9.vi.l911. 

Neither Stejneger nor Dybowski seem to have observed this species on the 
Commander Islands, but Bianchi recorded it from Copper Island. From the 
dates when birds were obtained it seems probable that it now breeds on the 
islands, which is not strange, as it nests in Kamtchatka. 

82. Anas falcata Georgi. 

(Eunetta falcata.) 

cJcJad., Bering Island, 17. iv. 1910, 17. v. 1914, 31. v. 1912. 
^ ad., Copper Island, 14. v. 1911. 

Stejneger says : " Occasionally straggling to Bering Island during the 
spring migration." 

83. Anas penelope L. 

Obtained on both islands in May, on Copper Island as late as May 14th, 1911. 
Stejneger says : " Visits the islands during the migration season." 

(Anas americana Gm. was picked up dead — one specimen — by Stejneger 
on Bering Island.) 

84. Spatula clypeata (L.). 

10 skins of both sexes, all collected on Bering Island from May 11th to 
June 4th, 1915, one female, 11 .x. 1910. The June date suggests the possibility 
of its nesting on the islands. 

Stejneger calls it a summer visitor to Bering Island, and adds " possibly 
breeding." Bianchi gives it as nesting. 

85. Nyroca fuligula (L.). 

Adult examples from both islands, from Bering Isle as late as 21.v, from 
Copper even 5.vi, and one October specimen. The late dates suggest the 
probability of breeding. Stejneger considered it rare, but admitted that it 
" may breed occasionally." 

85. Nyroca mania mariloides (Vig.). 

Adult males and females from Bering and Copper Islands, shot in May and 
June, one October. 

Stejneger found the Scaup commonly breeding on Bering Island. He 
considered the specimens to belong to N. marila marila, while he distinguished 

N. marila marila : " Palaearctic Region." 

N. marila nearctica (Stejn.) : " Nearctic Region." 

N. affinis : " Nearctic Region." 

N. affinis mariloides : " Pacific coast of Asia, from Japan southward." 



144 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

I am sorry to say I cannot follow this arrangement. I find that all specimens 
from the Far East — i.e. from Japan and China and from Bering Island — are (with 
few exceptions) smaller than European N . m. marila, the wings of 1 6 adult male 
examples measure 207-220 mm., in the European form 220-233 mm. Moreover, 
in nearly all cases the black barring of the upperside is coarser, thus giving the 
latter a darker appearance, which is particularly noticeable on the scapulars. 
In many cases, but not always, the head and nape are more purplish, less greenish. 
We must therefore, unless we suppress this form altogether, recognize a Far- East 
form breeding on Bering Island, and probably in Kamtchatka, wintering in 
China and Japan. 

The North American form has been suppressed even by the splitting 
American ornithologists, but I do not think that this is quite correct. I find that 
American males have the back barred as in mariloides, or even darker, the scapu- 
lars and wing-coverts very dark. Stejneger said, when describing them as 
Nyroca (Aythya) marila nearctica (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 29, p. 161, 1885), 
that " the primaries from the fourth quill were without whitish on the inner 
web." I cannot help thinking that he meant to say outer web, as I find no 
differences on the inner web, while it is true that in most cases the outer webs 
of the inner primaries are dark in American, with a white patch in European, 
Scaups. 

This, however, is not constant, as specimens without the white area occur 
in Europe, others with white — though very rarely — in America. The size of 
the American birds is as in N . m. marila, not as in N. m. mariloides. Under the 
circumstances, we should, at least provisionally, distinguish between the following 
forms : 

Nyroca marila marila : Europe, N. Asia, but not known how far east replaced 
by mariloides. 

Nyroca marila mariloides : Bering Island, and probably Kamtchatka and 
elsewhere. In winter China and Japan. 

Nyroca marila nearctica : N. America. 

Nyroca affinis : N. America. 

It is undoubtedly quite wrong to treat N. m. mariloides as a subspecies of 
affinis ! N . m. marila, mariloides, and nearctica are, in fact, very closely allied, 
while affinis is as a rule quite distinct and inhabits similar areas to that of 
nearctica. It must, however, be admitted that some specimens of affinis are not 
so typical as most of them. 

86. Nyroca ferina ferina (L.). 

An adult male, Bering Island, 13. v. 1911. 

This species is new to the islands and not known to extend so far eastwards. 
Stejneger says : " Very doubtful. Not reported from Kamtchatka." 

87. Bucephala clangula (L.). 

$ ad. in full nuptial plumage, Copper Island, 30. iv. 1912 (wing, 228). 
<J juv. (born in 1910), beginning to moult into adult plumage, Copper Island, 
18. v. 1911 (wing, 211). 

<J in very similar plumage, Copper Island, 11 .x. 191 1 (wing, 225). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 145 

2 $ ad., Bering Island, 6.x. 1911, 16. ii. 1914 (wings, 203, 212). 

$ ad., Bering Island, 29. xi. 1911 (wing, 216 mm.). 

$ ad., Bering Island, 1 . xii .1911 (wing, 197 mm.). 

It seems to me that the females shot on Bering Island, 6.x. 1911, 16. ii. 1914, 
and 29. xi. 1911, with wings of 203, 212, and 216 mm., must belong to the some- 
what larger B. clangula americana (Bp.), while the other specimens are B. clangula 
clangula (L.). From their plumage I do not think that the larger specimens can 
be young males. The two subspecies are indistinguishable, except that in a 
series the American race runs larger : wings, 228-240 (but seldom so large), while 
European birds (adult males in both cases) have wings of 216-227 mm. As many 
specimens overlap, single specimens are often indistinguishable. 

Stejneger said of " Glaucionetta clangula " that it was " a not very common 
winter visitor to the islands," but Sokolnikoff's specimens show that it also occurs 
during the spring migration. 

88. Bucephala albeola (L.). 

cJ juv. (sexed " $," but must be a young male), Bering Island, 19. xi. 1911. 

$, Bering Island, 13. i. 1911. 

" An accidental visitor during the winter 1882-83 " (Stejneger). 

89. Clangula hyemalis (L). 

A series of winter birds, Bering Island, November to April, and one young 
male, Copper Island, 31.x. 1910. 

According to Stejneger one of the commonest ducks on Bering Island, where 
it is resident throughout the year and breeds numerously. Yet Sokolnikoff has 
not sent any specimens in summer plumage, nor young in down ! The wings of 
adult males measure from 224-235 mm., while sometimes eastern specimens are 
larger, wing up to 240, but by no means constantly. 

90. Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus Brooks. 

Histrionicus histrionicus pacificus Brooks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, lis. p. 393 (1915 — 
North Pacific Ocean. Type Kamtchatka). 

Fully plumaged adult males, Bering Island, 12.xi. 1910 to end of December ; 
two males in eclipse, Copper Island, 15.viii. 1911 ; young male quite like females, 
but larger, Copper Island, 9.x. 1910 ; males moulting into first winter garb from 
both islands, December and January ; two females, Bering and Copper Islands, 
October and December. 

Stejneger says it occurs round the islands all the year round, " but apparently 
without breeding." 

Differs from H. h. histrionicus only in the larger bill. The chestnut-red 
stripe on the sides of the crown is not always paler and no character at all to 
distinguish the two races. 

91. Polysticta stelleri (Pall.). 

A number of both sexes throughout the winter. The earliest specimen is 
a specimen from Copper Island, September 5th, and there is one from October. 
The latest is a female from Bering Island, 9. v. 1913. 

10 



146 NOV1TATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

According to Stejneger, on the shores of the islands in winter in countless 
numbers, arriving at the beginning of November and staying until after the 
middle of May. 

92. Somateria mollissima v-nigrum Gray. 

<J $ ad., Copper Island, 15 and 18. vi. 1911. 

" Breed in very limited number in a few places on Copper Island, only 
occasionally flying over to Bering Island, round the shores of which it may be seen 
in winter " (Stejneger). 

93. Somateria spectabilis (L.). 

$, Bering Island, 4. i. 1912. 
Rare winter visitor. 

94. Oidemia fusca stejnegeri Ridgw. 

2 d'ad., Bering Island, 24. iv. 1913, 3. v. 1912. 

3 o 1 juv., moulting into the black plumage, Bering Island, 17 and 12. v. 1912, 
and Copper Island, 23. iv. 1911. 

6 $, both islands, October, November, and May. 
Stejneger says : " Rare in autumn and spring." 

96. Oidemia fusca deglandi Bp. 

2 adult males, Copper Island, 14. iv. 1911, and Bering Island, 24. v. 1912, 
and a female, Bering Island, 10. xi. 1913, are not 0. f. stejnegeri but deglandi. 
One of the males has the underside black, but the sides of the body brown in 
clear contrast, while the other has the whole underside brown, from the jugulum 
backwards. Both have the knob above the nostrils much less high than usual 
in stejnegeri and convex, not concave, in front ; neither of them have the black 
line in front of the knob, which is obvious in males of stejnegeri. The female has 
the frontal feathers continued along the culmen right over the commencement 
of the nostrils, a character which I have not seen in a female of stejnegeri, and 
which seems to be peculiar to those of deglandi. 

Brooks (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. lix. p. 393, 1915) described 
Oidemia fusca dixoni from Arctic Alaska, said to have the bill shorter in comparison 
to its length and wider, blunter at the tip. I am afraid I cannot appreciate these 
supposed differences, which seem to me to be individual, not racial, otherwise 
the Commander Islands specimens should more likely belong to the Alaskan 
subspecies. 

97. Oidemia perspicillata (L.). 

<J ad., Bering Island, 3.vi.l912. 

cJ juv., Bering Island, 6.xi.l911. 

The young male has a triangular patch on the hindneck, formed by white 
tips to the feathers. 

This species had not been observed on the Commander Islands by Stejneger, 
but Bianchi records it from Bering Island ; as, according to Palmen, it nests 
in the Tschuktschen Peninsula, the occurrence is not strange. 



Noyitates Zoolooioae XXVII. 1920. 147 

98. Oidemia nigra americana Swains. 

In winter on both islands, adult male as late as 18. iv. 1913, and a young 
male, beginning to moult into the black garb, even May 18th, 1912. 

99. Mergus merganser merganser L. 

cj ad., Bering Island, 1. v. 1913, 13. v. 1911. 

cJ ad., apparently already in eclipse, Bering Island, 13. v. 1911. 

<J juv., Bering Island, lO.xii. 1910. 

$, Bering Island, 2.vi.l912. 

One male has a rather distinct black alar bar, but not as wide as in M . m. 
americanus. The difference in the feathering on the bill is so very little different 
from that of M . m. merganser, that not much value can be attached to that ! 

100. Mergus serrator L. 

Adult males in full winter plumage were shot on both islands from May 15th 
to June 5th, a young male on Copper Isle, 10. ix. 1910, a female on 9.x. 1910. 
Evidently both M. merganser and serrator breed on Bering Island. Two young 
in down were sent, but whether they belong to serrator or merganser is doubtful. 

101. Mergus squamatus Gould. 

A male was shot at Copper Island, 9 . vi . 1 91 1 . 

This is a very interesting specimen, evidently a juvenile male apparently 
in partial eclipse plumage, the hind-neck and back being mixed with obviously 
fresh ashy grey feathers, while the blackish feathers on these parts are more or 
less old — though a few black feathers are also growing ! The upper head and 
neck are covered with brown, worn feathers, while deep black-green ones are 
putting in an appearance. I thus presume that this bird, though juvenile, and 
moulting the brown neck into the black-green of the adult, is assuming a 
partial eclipse garb on the back, which had already become black. 

Moreover, the locality of this specimen is of the greatest interest. While 
hitherto this species was only known from China, where La Touche collected 
specimens in winter and Zappey, among others, a series in Sechuan in November 
and December, Buturlin recorded an adult male on August 13th on the Lower 
Amur, and now Sokolnikofi got it in June on Copper Island ! We must there- 
fore suppose that M. squamatus nests in East Siberia and winters in China, 
chiefly Sechuan, Fokien (La Touche), and Hunan. 

102. Mergus albellus L. 

This species does not breed on the islands. An adult male in full plumage, 
Bering Island, 7. v. 1911 ; $ ad., Copper Island, 9. v. 1911 ; (J juv., Bering Isle, 
3.x. 1911. 

103. Phalacrocorax pelagicus pelagicus Pall. 

This species, which, notwithstanding the enormous mortality by apparently 
an epidemic disease in 1876-77, is very numerous on both islands, was collected 
in autumn, winter, May and June 



148 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

104. Phalacrocorax urile (Gm.). 

Only three juvenile birds were obtained on Bering Island. This species 
is much rarer and more difficult to shoot than P. p. pelagicus, according to 
Stejneger. The name urile of 1789 is based solely on Pennant's " Red-faced 
Cormorant," it must therefore be adopted instead of that of Ph. bicristatus, which 
is used in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 



105. Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pall. 

Now extinct. (Cf. Stejneger and Taczanowski.) 

Sokolnikoff collected some sterna. Though very much persecuted for 
food and said to have been much more stupid than other species, I fancy that 
not the persecution by men alone, but an epidemic like the one of 1876-77 (when 
perspicillatus is said to have been already extinct !) settled its fate. 

106. Lagopus mutus ridgwayi Stejn. 

Lagopus ridgwayi Stejneger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, i. p. 98 (1884 — Bering Island) ; id. Om- 
Erpl. Commander Islands and Kamtschatka (Bull. 29, U.S. Nat. Mus.), p. 194. 

Lagopus rupestris Gm. subsp. insularis Bogdanow, Consp. Av. Imp. Ross. i. p. 34 (1884 — Bering 
Island). 

A very fine series in full winter and summer plumage, juv. and pull., mostly 
from Bering Island. 

This subspecies has the <J in nuptial plumage darker, more rufous, somewhat 
of the colour of a Red Grouse, the pullus is brighter, more yellowish. Wings of 
adult males 195-201, ? 185-197 mm. 

107. Falco rusticolus candicans Gm. 

Falco candicans Gmelin, Sysi. Nat. i. 1. p. 275 (1788 — Terra typica substituta, Hartert, Vog. pal. 

Fauna, p. 1064 : Greenland !). 
Falco rusticolus uralensis Sewertzoff & Menzbier, Menzbier's Orn. Geogr. Europ. Russl. p. 228. pi. iii. 

(1882 — Ural Mountains. Russian !). 
Hierofalco Grebnitzkii Sewertzoff, Nouv. M6m. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, xv. livr. 3. p. 69. plate (1885 — 

Bering Island). 

4 white juv., 4 dark young, 1 white ad., 3 dark adults from both islands 
(mostly Bering), all shot in the winter months. 

These birds are indistinguishable from Greenland specimens. It is true that 
5 of these 12 show the 4th primary as long as the 1st, but (though I did not find 
this character in 50 Iceland and Greenland ones) it occurs also in Greenland, 
from where I have examined two with the 4th primary as long as the 1st ; in 
3 Tobolsk ones it is also obvious, in a fourth, however, not at all. I can, therefore, 
no longer accept uralensis and grebnitzkii, and consider F. r. candicans to be a 
circumpolar form, inhabiting Greenland and the arctic regions of America to 
Baffin- Land, northern Siberia to the Commander Islands. It is represented by 
two somewhat disputable southern subspecies, F. r. obsoletus in Labrador, and 
F. r. islandus in Iceland (cf. Vog. d. pal. Fauna, pp. 1064-1068), and a well 
separable one in Scandinavia, the true Falco rusticolus rusticolus, which of 
course never occurs in North America, though American ornithologists, not 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 149 

having grasped the fact that these birds in the arctic regions occur in dark and 
white varieties, admit it as a " species." 

Two of the dark-backed young birds show fresh grey-barred feathers, proving 
again that they moult into the dark adult variety only, while white birds remain 
white. 

Stejneger did not separate the white Bering Island Falcons from candicans, 
and distinctly said already that the alleged plastic differences of the so-called 
grebnitzkii were of no value whatever. He found a few pairs of the white Falcon 
breeding on Bering Island, and he believed that the dark birds were only winter 
visitors. 

108. Falco peregrinus pealei Ridgw. 

cj ad., Bering Island, 29. iv. 1913. 

12 (J $ juv., Bering and Copper Islands, September to January. 

? juv. of last year (1913), Bering Island, 4. vi. 1914. 

<J juv., evidently just flown, Copper Island, 29. vi. 1911. 

The old bird, apparently nesting on the island, agrees well with descriptions 
and a male from Vulcan Island (cf. Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 1049). The 14 young 
birds are remarkably constant, all being very dark on the underside, and the 
upperside having no rusty buff edges to the feathers or only very narrow ones, 
so that they look quite black from a distance. 

Nesting on both islands, breeding on high and inaccessible cliffs, according 
to Stejneger (p. 206). 

109. Falco peregrinus calidus Lath. 

4 cJ$ juv., Bering Island, October 1910 and 1913. 

Easily distinguishable from the young of F. p. pealei. The upperside is less 
black and has wide pale rust-coloured edges to the feathers ; there is more white 
on the sides of the head, and the underside is much more white and buff. The 
feathers of the breast and abdomen may be described as buff with a dark brown 
shaft-stripe, those of the young of F. p. pealei as black-brown with pale buff 
edges, and sometimes similar roundish spots — which are also present on the 
browner flanks of F. p. pealei. 

110. Falco columbarius insignis (Clark). 

[Falco coluinliarius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x. i. p. 90 (1758 — " America ").] 

Aesalon regulus insignis Clark, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxxii. p. 470 (1907 — Fusan, Corea). 

$>, Bering Island, 10. vi. 1915. 
Not hitherto recorded. 

111. Buteo lagopus pallidus (Menzb.). 

4 (J$ ad., Bering Island, 15. v. to 8.vi. 

These birds are very typical pallidus. The upperside shows much more 
white than European specimens, sharply contrasted with brown, but without 
any grey. Also the underside is not cream-colour but white, with the usual 
brown markings, as a rule, more restricted. Wings, (J 43-5-44-5, "§" (?) 
only 42-5 mm. 



150 Novitates Zoolooicae XXYII. 1920. 

112. Haliaeetus pelagicus (Pall.). 

cJ jun., approaching adult dress, Bering Island, 18.iii. 
Only an occasional visitor, according to Stejneger. 

(" H. hypoleucus" still mentioned as a species in Bianchi's list, is a variety 
of H. albicilla. Neither the latter nor leucocephalos was obtained by Sokolnikofi . ) 

113. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (L.). 

c? ad., Bering Island, 28.vii.1913. 

$ ad., Copper Island, 23. vi. 1913. 

These specimens have only an indicated brown breast band, like P. h. 
carolinensis, but similar specimens occur in Europe. The short wings (about 
460, but worn, and 470 mm.) prove them to belong to the European — Asiatic 
form. Stejneger quotes this Osprey as an occasional visitor to Bering Island 
only. He obtained specimens on Kamtchatka only. 

114. Nyctea nyctea (L.). 

cJ ad., Bering Island, 31 . vii . 1914. 

Upperside white, with the exception of a few small spots on scapulars and 
primaries, and a few bars on the secondaries ; in moult, growing secondaries 
with black bar. 

$ ad., Bering Island, 6. v. 1912. 

Above and below with brown-black bars. 

12 cJ$, Bering Island, September 2nd to April 2nd, but mostly December 
and January, varying from the darkest form with broad blackish bars to white 
with a few scattered spots and bars. 

It is a popular idea that these (and other) birds become whiter with age, 
but there is apparently no foundation for it. 

(No specimen of Asio jlammeus (Pontopp.) (accipitrinus auct.) was sent by 
Sokolnikoff, though Stejneger found it resident on both islands.) 

115. Aegolius funereus magnus (But.). 

[Striz funerea Linn., Syst. Nat. i. 1. p. 93 (1758—" Habitat in Europa").] 

Nyctala magna Buturlin, Orn. Monatsber. 1907. p. 80 (" Kamtschatka und das Gebiet von Kolymsk "). 

cj ad., Bering Island, 31. i. 1911. 

I suppose this must be Ae. f. magnus, of which I saw the type twelve 
years ago, but I have no specimens of either magnus or jakutorum, if the latter is 
different. The Bering Island specimen has more white on the upperside and is 
larger than Ae. f. funereus. Its wings measure 179 to 180 mm. 

The species is new to the islands. 



116. Cnculus canorus telephonus Heine. 

c? ad., Bering Island, 25. vi. 1914. Wing 221. 

$ ad., Bering Island, 19. vi. 1915. Wing 204 only. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 151 

$ ad., Bering Island, 26. v. 1914. Wing 207 only. 

" <5 " (?)» apparently a last year's bird, Bering Island, 11 .vi. 1915. 

The females are of the usual grey colour. 

117. Cuculus optatus Gould. 

cJ ad., Copper Island, 5.vi.l911. 

9 ad., Bering Island, 15.vi.1912. Grey variety. 

$ ad., Bering Island, September. Red-barred variety. 

In C. optatus the latter is very common. 

118. Dryobates major kamtschaticus (Dyb.). 

(Stejneger rejected the name kamtschaticus because of the former existence 
of a " kamtscJtatkensis " ; both names are, however, easily distinguished and 
cannot be considered to be synonyms. Stejneger' s " purus" is therefore a 
synonym of kamtschaticus. In practice both names are also widely different, 
the one being a subspecies of major, the other of minor ! ) 

cJcJ ad., Bering Island, 17. v. 1913 and 17.x. 1912 ; $ ad., 19.x. 1912. 

These are very typical ; wings 134, 140, and 135-5 mm. Two of these are 
smaller than those measured when I wrote my account in Vog. pal. Fauna, 
p. 907. 

D. m. tscherskii (p. 908) is exceedingly close to kamtschaticus, only the 
wings are generally (not always) shorter, and the bills less powerful and often 
shorter. The lateral tail-feathers of tscherskii have also, as a rule, more black 
than in kamtschaticus, but sometimes appear not to be different in this respect. 

Woodpeckers are, of course, only occasional visitors on Bering Island, where 
there are no forests, so that it cannot be a real Woodpecker home. 

119. Alauda arvensis pekinensis Swinh. 

Alauda pekinensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1863, p. 09 (Peking). 
Alauda blakistoni Stejneger 1884, 1892. 

c??$, Bering Island, 9. v. 1912, 29. v. 1913. 

According to Stejneger, " apparently a regular summer visitor to Bering 
Island, where a few pairs probably breed." 

120. Anthus gustavi Swinh. 

Anthus gustavi Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 90 (Amoy). 
Anthus stejnegeri Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1883, p. 95 (Bering Island). 

6 cj$ ad., both islands, all shot in June. 

A common breeder on the islands, not arriving before the end of May 

(Stejneger). 

121. Anthus cervinus (Pall.). 

3 <J? ad., Bering Island, 20. v. 1913, 29. v. 1912, 29. v. 1913. 
Stejneger did not come across the Red-throated Pipit and knew only of one 
occurrence. Anthus anadyrensis Allen 1905 is a synonym of cervinus. 



152 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XX VII. IV2U. 

122. Anthus spinoletta japonicus Temm. & Schleg. 

Anlhus pratensis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, Siebold's Fauna Japon., Aves, p. 59. pi. 24 (1847 — 
Japan). 

cj ad., Bering Island, 13. v. 1911. 

? ad., Bering Island, 31. v. 191 4. 

? ad., Copper Island, 15. v. 1911. 

According to Stejneger, not observed on the islands. 

123. Anthus (trivialis) macula tus Jerd. 
Anthus vwcalatus Jerdon, B. India, iii. p. 873 (1864 — India. Ex Hodgson, nomen nudum !). 
cjad., Bering Island, 27. v. 1913. 
c? ad., Copper Island, 18. v. 1911. 
Also new to the islands. 



124. Motacilla flava simillima Hart. 

Motacilla flava leucostrialus Stejneger, nee Homeyer ! 

Motacilla flava simillima Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 289 (1905 — Breeding Kamtchatka. Type 
Sulu Islands). 

8 £ ad., Bering Island, lo.v to 9.vi. 

1 (J ad., Copper Island, 16. v. 

This form is of particular interest, because it so closely resembles M. flava 
flava of northern Europe, though nearly the whole of Siberia is inhabited by 
M. /. thunbergi and the Baikal and Amur districts by M, f. taivana. In fact, 
one cannot say that simillima differs constantly in colour at all from flava, though 
generally the yellow underside is perhaps paler, and this has to be confirmed 
by specimens in fresh plumage. The only other differences are a somewhat 
larger bill and foot, especially larger hind-claw. The length of the wing is supposed 
to be greater, but the Commander Islands specimens do not bear this out ; 
their wings measure from 77-5 (worn, perhaps really 78) to 85-6 (worn, perhaps 
really 86) mm. The jugulum is, as a rule, much spotted with dusky, but this 
occurs also in other forms, and is, therefore, not much of a distinguishing character. 

125. Motacilla cinerea melanope Pall. 

[Motacilla cinerea Tunstall, Orn. Brit. p. 2 (1771 — Name for the " Grey Water Wagtail " of the 

Zoologia Britannica and the " Hoche-queue ou Bergeronette jaune " of Brisson).] 
Motacilla Melanope Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs. iii. p. 696 (1776 — Dauria). 

3 <$ ad., Bering Island, 28. v. 1911, 29. v. 1912, 30. v. 1914. 

2 ? ad., Copper Island, 6. v. 1911, 4.x. 1910. 

" One of the rarer spring migration visitors to Bering Island " (Stejneger), 



126. Motacilla alba ocularis Swinh. 
5 adults, Bering Island, 9 . v to 1 . vii. 
"?" ad., Copper Island, 31. v. 1911. 

Probably a more or less regular spring visitor to the islands. Stejneger 
obtained a single specimen. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 153 

127. Motacilla alba lugens Kittl. 

6 adults, Bering Island, 26. iv. to 16 .vi, and two September specimens. 
According to Stejneger, a regular spring migration visitor only, which does 
not remain to breed. 

128. Muscicapa (Siphia) parva albicilla Pall. 

cj ad., Copper Island, 7.vi.l911. 
$ ad., Bering Island, 5.vi.l914. 

The male has more red on the throat than usual, there is even a red patch 
on the chest. 

129. Muscicapa griseisticta (Swinh.). 

Butalis pollens Stejneger (p. 144) is doubtless a synonym. The species is 
only a very exceptional visitor to the islands. Stejneger had one single example. 

Sokolnikofl sent 1 " <j> " in worn plumage and dirty, obtained on Bering 
Island 5.vi.l912. 

Parrot described a Muscicapa griseisticta habereri from Iturup, Kurile Islands, 
because it had — a single specimen ! — a wing of 90 mm. That is indeed an 
exceptional measurement, but our Bering Island bird has a wing of fully 88 ! 
It is of course possible that a larger form exists, but that could only be proved 
by a series from its nesting-place. 

(No specimen of Muscicapa sibirica is in the collection of which Stejneger 
said it was " exceedingly numerous." Probably that is the case in certain years, 
but not always.) 

130. Bombycilla garrulus (L.). 

c? ad., Bering Island, 16. v. 1911. 
$ ad., Copper Island, 21. v. 1911. 
A rare visitor. Stejneger mentions only two specimens. 

131. Troglodytes troglodytes pallescens (Ridgw.). 

cj ad., Bering Island, 5.x. 1911. 
1 (J ad., 1 juv., Copper Island, 18.x., 19. viii. 1911. 

Resident on both islands, but commoner on Copper Island, according to 
Stejneger. 

132. Locustella ochotensis (Midd.). 

Acrocephalus ochotensis apud Stejneger. 

c?$ ad., Copper Island, 12, 14. vi. 1911. 
$ ad., Bering Island, 2.vii.l913. 
c$ juv., Bering Island, 2.x. 1911. 

The young bird has the underside yellowish, and evidently no white tips to 
tbe rectrices, though very dirty. 



154 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

133. Phylloscopus borealis borealis (Bias.). 

2 ad., Bering and Copper Islands, 6.vi.l914, 16.x. 1911. 

Visits the islands regularly in spring, and Stejneger thinks it is possible that 
some may remain to breed. (The treeless islands seem to me a most unlikely 
place for a Phylloscopus to nest.) 

134. Turdus fuscatus Pall. 

Turdus /meatus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. i. p. 451 (1827 — Dauria). 

9 ad., Bering Island, 20. v. 1911. 
cJ ad., Copper Island, 19. v. 1911. 

Stejneger quoted the occurrence of a single specimen, under the name of 
Turdus eunomus. 

135. Turdus obscurus Gm. 

J$ ad., Bering Island, 26, 27. v. 1914. 

cJ ad., Copper Island, 18. v. 1911. 

" Visits Bering Island occasionally during the spring migration " (Stejneger)> 

136. Tarsiger cyanurus (Pall.). 

6 (J? ad., Bering Island, 28. v to 4.vi.l912, 1914, 1916. 

9 ad., Copper Island, 31. v. 1911. 

Stejneger obtained a single straggler, 21. v. 1883. 

137. Luscinia calliope (Pall.). 

5 cJ $, Bering Island. 27 . v. to 1 6 . vi . 
3 c?> Copper Island, 3.vi. to 21. vi. 

Sokolnikoff evidently found these "occasional visitors" more numerous 
than Stejneger, and probably they pass over the islands fairly regularly in spring. 

138. Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (L.). 

Motacilla Oenanthe Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x. i. p. 1S6 (1758— Europa, terra typica : Sweden). 

9 juv., Bering Island, 23. ix. 1915. 
cJ juv., Copper Island, 2.ix.l912. 
Not in Stejneger's and Bianchi's lists. Apparently a rare passage migrant. 

139. Riparia riparia ijimae (Lonnb.). 

Clivicola riparia ijimae Lonnberg, Journ. Coll. Science Tokyo, xxiii. art. 14. p. 38 ( 1908 — Sachalin) ; 
Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 813. 

1 ad., sex doubtful, Copper Island, 20. vi. 1911. 

Bianchi had it from Bering and Buturlin from Copper Island. 

(Hirundo rustica tytleri is an occasional straggler, but was not obtained by 
Sokolnikoff.) 



Novitates Zoolooioae XXVII. 1920. 166 

140. Emberiza aureola Pall. 

2 cJ, 1 ?, Bering Island, 2, 4.vi.l914. 

Occasional visitor during spring migration, according to Stejneger. 

141. Emberiza rustica Pall. 

1 cj, 2 ?, Bering Island, 12. v to 27. v. 

2 J, 2 9, Copper Island, 16. v to 21 .v. 

Occasional visitor during spring migration, according to Stejneger. 

(Emberiza variabilis Temm. & Schleg. has occasionally occurred, but we did 
not receive specimens.) 

142. Calcarius lapponicus coloratus Ridgw. 

Calcarius lapponicus coloratus Ridgway, Auk, xv. p. 320 (1898 — Type: Copper Island). 

2 r? ad., 2 $ ad., 1 juv. in first plumage, Copper Island, May and June, the 
young bird 16. v. 1911. 

1 (J ad., 2 $ ad., Copper Island, May and June. 

The date of the young bird, just out of nest, is, if correct, very early. 
Stejneger did not notice the species earlier than April 21st, and found eggs from 
May 23rd to June 11th. The commonest breeding bird on both islands. 

C. I. coloratus differs from C . I. lapponicus in being larger, bill larger, wings 
longer, 95-5-104-5 mm., and the secondaries and upper wing-coverty of the 
males have wider rust-brown edges ; the $ has the neck-band, as a rule, more 
marked and less thickly spotted. 

143. Plectrophenax nivalis townsendi Ridgw. 

Plectrophenax nivalis townsendi Ridgway, Manual N. Amer. B. p. 403 (" Prybilof Islands, Alaska, 
and Commander Islands, Kamtschatka." Type : Otter Island in the Pribilof group). 

6 <J, 5 $, autumn, winter, May and June, both islands. Wings, <J 115-5 (once), 
117-118, 120 (once), $ 112-112-5 mm. 

According to Ridgway (B. North and Middle Amer. i. p. 152), a male from 
Bering Island measures 120, but according to Stejneger (p. 250), others measured 
only 110 and 113, though I doubt this is strictly correct. If adult males with 
unworn ivings have wing-measurements of 110 and 113, they are not bigger than 
European P. n. nivalis, while 120 is unknown in western specimens. Ridgway 
says that birds from "Aleutian Islands, including Commander Islands," Pribilof 
and Shumagin Islands have larger dimensions, " with relatively longer bill." 
Now this is perfectly true with regard to the Commander Islands birds, which 
have larger bills and longer wings ; but the Pribilof and Aleutian examples have 
not longer wings, specimens in the British Museum (measured by Thomas Wells) 
having wings of (^ ad.) 105, 111, 116 mm. 

Possibly the Commander Islands birds will have to be separated again from 
the Pribilof and Aleutian ones. Ridgway measures an adult male from Plover 
Bay, Siberia, with a wing of 113-3 mm., and says that " the largest specimens 
are those from the more western Aleutian Islands, including the Commander 
Islands, Kamtchatka ; the smallest are from Unalashka and the Shumagin 
Islands, at the opposite end of the chain. These latter are in reality intermediate 



156 XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVTI. 1920. 

between the island form and true P. nivalis, but seem nearer the former and, 
therefore, best referred to it."' He then gives " average " measurements, but 
unfortunately no individual ones, except where only one is measured. Average 
measurements are, in my opinion, misleading unless taken from a large series. 

144. Carduelis linaria linaria (L.). 

14 r?$, both islands, 1 January, 3 May, 1 June, 1 July 8th, 4 October. 1 
November, the rest with doubtful dates, apparently labels interchanged. 

There is a good deal of variation in this series, both in the bills and in the 
length of wings, but not one of these specimens has a bill as large as the specimen 
of holboelli. The wings do not exceed 78. except in one specimen with a very 
small bill and a wing of 79, while most of them have wings of 75 to 70, females 
less in most cases. 

Stejneger did not think that this form was breeding on the islands, as he 
did not come across it between the end of May and November. Sokolnikofl, 
however, sent 1 June and 1 July bird. 

145. Carduelis linaria holboelli (Brehm). 

A <$, Bering Island, 18. v. 1914, has a wing of 82-0 mm. and a strikingly 
higher and longer bill than all the above linaria, 12-5 mm. long. Stejneger 
obtained specimens of this form as late as June 13th, and says that it breeds 
on the islands. Sokolnikoff also sent a male, said to have been shot Bering 
Island 22. vi. 1912, but its plumage is too fresh for that date, and I consider it 
to be an autumn bird. This bird has a bill larger than what I consider typical 
linaria, i.e. nearly 12 mm. long, but the wing only 78 mm. Is it a hybrid or 
what? 

There is still some doubt about " holboelli.'' Is it a subspecies, a species 
or individual variety ? It nests together with C. I. linaria in its northern habitats 
but — I believe — not in its southern area. Is there any country where it alone 
nests ? 

(No form of C. hornemannii has been sent by Sokolnikoff, but Stejneger 
obtained seven specimens of C. hornem. exilipes in winter, between November 
and March.) 

146. Montifringilla tephrocohs maxima (Brooks). 

Leucosticte griseonucha maxima Brooks, Bull. Mils. Comp. Harvard Coll. lix. p. 405 (1915 — Type : 
Copper Island). 

18 cj$ ad., from various winter and spring months, both islands ; 1 juv., 
Copper Island, 15. ix. 1911. 

Wings, <$ 1 18-123, $ 113-119 mm. The pink spots on the upper tail-coverts 
are, as a rule, less bright in the females, otherwise the sexes do not differ in 
coloration. 

Resident on the islands. Larger than the Unalashka form, M. t. griseonuclta. 
Adult specimens from St. Paul, Kodiak, and St. George's Islands in the British 
Museum (measured by Thomas Wells) have wings of 109-114, twice 121 mm., 
while Ridgway gives average measurements of 1 12-78-1 17-80 and 119-13-121-92 
for the Commander birds. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 157 

147. Fringilla montifringilla L. 

5 cj, 2$ ad., Bering and Copper Islands, 1 4. v to 24. v. 

<J ad. (wrongly sexed $ !), Bering Island, 8.x. 1913. 

Regular visitor, but not nesting, according to Stejneger. 

It seems to me impossible to recognize an eastern subspecies (F. m. sub- 
cuneolata Kleinschm.). There is the same variation in the outer tail-feathers, 
the same extent of white. Sometimes specimens are very dark brown, but others 
are not, and also in Europe similarly dark brown individuals occur. 

148. Carpodacus erythrinus erythrinus (Pall.). 

£ (red), Copper Island, 11 . vi. 1911. 

cj (brown), Copper Island, 8.vi.l911 ; Bering Island, 2.vi.l914. 

$ ad., Bering Island, 5.vi.l913. 

I cannot distinguish these birds from C. e. erythrinus of Russia and the 
Baltic Provinces, and East Prussia. I cannot help doubting the difference of 
C. e. grebnitskii Stejn., from Kamtchatka, which is said to have a brighter red 
male. 

The species was unknown to Stejneger and Bianchi as occurring on the 
islands, where it is probably only a straggler. 

149. Pinicola enucleator kamtschatkensis (Dyb). 

Corythus enucleator kamtschatkensis Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, viii. p. 367 (1883). 

A female, unfortunately with left leg and attached label wanting, but probably 
from Bering or Copper Island. Differs from females of P. e. enucleator in being 
paler throughout, the back without orange-yellow, almost pure grey ; bill thicker. 

This species had not been obtained before. 

(A Crossbill — " Loxia curvirostra," according to Bianchi — has occurred on 
Bering Island, but we did not receive specimens.) 

150. Coccothraustes coccothraustes japonicus T. & S. 

Coccothraustes vulgaris japonicus Temminok & Schlegel, Siebold's Fauna Japan., Aves, pi. 51 (1850 — 
Japan). 

S ad., Bering Island, 24. v. 1912. 
New to the islands. 

151. Pyrrhula pyrrhula kamtschatica Tacz. 

Pyrrhula kamtschatica Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1882, p. 395 (Kamtchatka). 

tj ad., Bering Island, 27. vi. 1914. 

$ ad., Copper Island, 1 .vii. 1913. 

This rare Kamtchatkan Bullfinch had not previously been obtained on the 
islands. 

The <J has the upperside of a clearer grey than P. p. pyrrhula, the outer 
tail-feather has always a white wedge on the outer web. The female has the 
back less brownish and the underside lighter brownish. 



158 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

(Parus atricapillus kamtschatkemis is supposed to have been seen by a Cossack 
on Bering Island, but has not been obtained. Cf. Stejneger.) 

(" Corvus corone levaillanti " is mentioned by Stejneger as a rare straggler. 
These birds can, of course, not be levaillanti — a tropical form — but must be 
C. c. orientalis, which is found in Kamtchatka.) 

152. Corvus corax subsp. 

There is a remarkable series of not less than 20 Ravens from both islands, 
from January, February, April, June (1 juv.), July, September, October, and 
November (11). 

At present I am unable to say with absolute certainty to which race these 
Ravens belong. Their wings measure 405 ($ ad.) to very nearly 445 mm. Their 
wings are thus not longer, on an average even a little shorter, than those of 
European C. c. corax, but the feet and tarsi are very much stronger, heavier, and 
the bill larger, wider. One specimen from Anadyr appears to be indistinguishable. 
Two specimens (said to be males) from Yesso have the bills narrower, not so 
powerful, also the feet a little less strong than the males from the Commander 
Islands. 

In the Vog. d. pal. Fauna, pp. 4, 5 (1903), I kept doubtfully separate C. c. 
sibiricus, ussurianus, kamtschaticus, and behringianus, merely stating the differ- 
ences as given by Taczanowski and Dybowski. 

Buturlin (Mess. Orn. 1915, p. 107, 114, Russian with short English extract) 
united kamtschaticus, ussurianus, and sibiricus, and so did Poljakov (t.c. p. 17). 
They correctly stated that all Siberian Ravens have the first primary shorter 
than the seventh, and it seems that Taczanowski's contradictory statements 
were not correct, or based on exceptional varieties. 

Buturlin, however, had apparently no Ravens from the Commander Islands, 
and Sokolnikoff paid, by special instructions from St. Petersburg, special attention 
to Ravens, and brought together the present series, that it should be compared 
with Siberian and Kamtchatkan Ravens. Unfortunately, I am not able to do 
this, but I have been promised Kamtchatkan Ravens, and when they arrive, 
will go into the question again. Either the Bering and Copper Island Ravens 
are sibiricus or they form a separate subspecies : behringianus. 



Novhates Zooloqicae XXVII. 1920. 159 

NOTES ON AND DESCRIPTIONS OF SPHINGIDAE. 

By Dr. Karl Jordan. 

(With six text- figs.) 

1. Polyptychus paupercula senniger subsp. nov. (text-fig. 1). 

<J. A P. p. paupercula Holl. ( 1 889), armatura genitali distinguendus : harpa 
leviter trilobata. 

Hab. Bingerville, Ivory Coast, June, August, and September — October, 
1915, 4 <J<J (Gaston Melou), type ; Takwa, Gold Coast, 1 <$ (R. E. James). 

There are no differences in colour and pattern between the specimens from 
the districts Senegal — Niger and Niger — Congo. All 5 (J<J we have from the 
former district, though differing slightly inter se in the shape of the harpe, are 
distinguished from the more southern subspecies in the apical margin of the 
harpe being bisinuate ; the lower sinus is narrow and fairly deep, while the 
upper sinus is shallow (text-fig. 1). 

2. Polyptychus molitor R. & J. (1912) (text^figs. 2, 3). 

We described this species from some $$ in the collection of the British 
Museum obtained by H. A. Foy at Ibi on the River Benue, Nigeria ; cf . Novitates 
Zoologicae, xix. p. 132, no. 4 (1912). The Tring Museum has since received 
2 ^cj and 1 § from Sedhiou, Senegal, collected by R. Castell, the <J(J being caught 
in October 1917 and the $ dated simply 1917. 

The (J is smaller than the $ ; the forewing is narrower, its distal margin 
more oblique; with the apex more produced. Antenna stouter than in $, seriated 
cilia longer, otherwise similar to that of the $. Palpi larger than in the $, joint 
closed, third segment small in both sexes (not two-thirds of second as stated in 
the original description), second segment a little longer than wide measured to 
the base of the third (i.e. exclusive of the apical scaling). 

Tenth tergite (text-fig. 2) very hairy, broad, divided by a rounded sinus 
into two sharply pointed processes ; tenth sternite represented by a low mem- 
branous ridge. Clasper without friction-scales, deeply concave on the inner 
side, the ventral margin elevate ; above this ridge, in the cavity, a second ridge, 
the two ridges uniting distally and forming a large, pointed, conical process 
placed about halfway between dorsal and ventral margins and being almost vertical 
upon the plane of the clasper, leaning a little proximad (text-fig. 3). Apical 
portion of clasper weakly chitinised, nearly membraneous, clothed with long 
scales. Penis-funnel cylindrical, longer than broad ; penis-sheath also cylindrical, 
slightly widened at the apex, without armature. 

3. Polyptychus orthographus R. & J. (1903). 
We have now a specimen of the ?, from Luluaburg, Kassai, Congo. It 
agrees in markings with the J, but is much darker both above and beneath. 
The distal margin of the forewing is convex, with the apex projecting, the marginal 
area being wider than in the <J. The antenna bears prolonged seriated cilia, but 
the lateral grooves are indistinct, and the segments have a straight ventral 
outline (lateral aspect). 



160 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 



4. Polyptychus reussi Strand (1911). 

Our statement in Novitates Zoologicae, xxiii. p. 260, no. 23 (1916), that 
in Strand's description the costal margin of the forewing below is said to be 




Flo. \.~Polyptychu/i paupercula eenniger, $ ; harpe. 
Flo. 2. — Polyptychus molitor, <$ ; anal tergite. 
Fig. 3. — Polyptychus molitor, $ ; clasper. 

dark red is erroneous. I misread the description, which agrees with the $ of 
P. coryndoni R. & J. (1903). Strand's name, therefore, is a synonym. 



5. Temnora nitida spec. nov. (text-figs. 4, 5, 6). 

<$. Cervina ; alis anticis fascia olivacea fere recta oblique a costa ad 
marginem exteriorem extensa extus luteo marginata ornatis atque lineis trans- 



NOVITATES Z00LOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 



161 



versis e lunulis olivaceis compositis signatis ; posticis aurantiaco-rufis, fascia 
marginali brunnescente. Infra rufo-avellina, lineis e lunulis et angulis parvis 
compositis olivaceis notata. 

Long. al. ant. 26 mm., lat. 11 '5 mm. 

Hob. Diego Suarez, N.E. Madagascar, December 1916 (G. Melou) ; 3 $$. 
In the bright rufous hindwing this new Temnora resembles T. elegans Roths. 
(1894), but the oblique band of the forewing distinguishes nitida at once from 
that species. 

Body fawn-colour, abdomen more rufescent ; the scales on the thorax above 




Fig. 4. — Temnora nitida, $ ; anal segment, lateral view. 

Fig. 5. — Temnora nitida, $ ; harpe. 

Fig. 6. — Temnora nitida, £ ; penis-sheath. 



and beneath and on the upperside of the head pale-tipped ; underside rufescent, 
somewhat paler than upper. An ill-defined line above eye, another on second 
palpal segment likewise diffuse and inconspicuous, and scales at joint between 
first and second palpal segment creamy ; abdomen beneath with two rows of 
olive-black dots ; foretibia externally deep fawn-colour. 

Wings, above. Forewing fawn-colour, outer margin evenly rounded-convex 

in middle, concave anteriorly and posteriorly, not crenulate ; a well-defined 
olive band runs from the middle of the costal margin to below middle of outer 
margin, about T5 mm. broad anteriorly, widening digitally and here shading off 
to anal angle, on the distal side the band bounded by a pale line, which varies 

11 



162 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

in distinctness ; in basal half two pairs of transverse excurved lines, olivaceous, 
somewhat scalloped and more or less interrupted at the veins, the proximal 
pair rather indistinct, the second pair about 7'5 mm. from base at costa and 
ij mm. at hindmargin ; on disc a third pair, crenulate, extending from costa 
beyond band to hindmargin 1 1 mm. from base, excurved anteriorly and somewhat 
incurved posteriorly, i.e. slightly S-shaped ; further distally another pair, more 
or less indistinct ; the costal portions of the discal lines form a darkish triangular 
patch distally to the band, the base of the patch at the costa being about as long 
as the distance from the apex of the wing ; below apex a marginal luniform 
pale olive spot bounded proximally by purplish fawn scaling ; such scaling, 
which is slightly glossy, is found all over the forewing excepting the dark markings 

and the subapical, sepia-brown, area. Hindwing orange-rufous ; a darker, 

hazel, marginal band about 2"5 mm. wide below apex at its widest point, not 
strongly contrasting, bearing small black dashes on the veins, before anal angle 
a fawn-coloured diffuse patch. 

Underside duller than upper, rufous-hazel, forewing cinnamon-rufous from 
base to beyond middle ; outer half of both wings with four transverse lines, 
blackish above, dentate or crenulate, varying in distinctness, accentuated on the 
veins ; below tip of forewing a blackish marginal cloud ; abdominal area of 
hindwing paler than rest of wing. 

Genitalia : both the tenth tergite and sternite long and slender (text-fig. 4), 
the former with the tip convex and entire ; the sternite more acuminate with the 
apex dentate on the upperside. Clasper with five large friction-scales. Harpe 
(text-fig. 5) lying flat on the surface of the clasper, tapering, with the apex slightly 
turned upwards. Sheath of ejaculatory duct with an elongate patch of teeth 
ending apically with a small hook ; a swelling along the side of the patch 
continues proximad half around the sheath (text-fig. 6). 

6. Some Individual varieties of Xylophanes turbata Edw. (1887). 

A series of 1 ^ and 8 $$ of this species from Orange Walk, British Honduras, 
caught in May and June 1917, recalls the Eastern Hippotion velox F. (1793) by 
the variation in the pattern of the forewing. Two of the $$ are normal, having 
a conspicuous double line extending from the apex of the wing to the basal third 
of the hindwing, and five thin and inconspicuous lines between the double line 
and the outer margin, of which the mostMistal one is barely indicated. In the 
(J and one $ of the above series the double line is represented by a single thin 
line (corresponding to the outer line of the pair) and the following line is scarcely 
traceable. In the remaining 5 $$ the double line has more or less completely 
disappeared, excepting a dash at the wing-apex, which the other lines join. The 
brown cloud distally to the apex of the cell is distinct in all the specimens. 



Novitates Zoolooioae XXVII. 1920. 163 

THE STATUS OF PLATYSPHINX BOURKEI TRIMEN (1910). 

By De. Karl Jordan. 

r T^HE four species of Hawkmoths which we united in the new genus Platysphinx 
J- in the Revision of the Sphingidae (1903) are very similar to each other in 
colour and pattern. Therefore, when Dr. Trimen sent us a coloured sketch of 
a specimen very unlike those four species, we agreed with him that the sketch 
represented a new species, which Trimen then described as PI. bourkei, in Ent. 
Mo. Mag. (2), xxi. p. 209 (1910) (Zululand). 

In 1918 we received an example of this PI. bourkei, together with some 
specimens of what appeared to be Platysphinx jriabilis Distant (1897), all bred 
by E. E. Piatt at Eshowe, Zululand. Mr. Piatt, in a letter to us, pointed out 
that bourkei and piabilis were obtained from apparently identical larvae, and 
as, moreover, some of the imagines were somewhat intermediate, he asked us to 
investigate the structure of bourkei in order to ascertain whether bourkei was 
different from piabilis apart from colour. We compared the specimens early 
in 1919, and the result was as expected by Mr. Piatt. PI. bourkei agrees with 
piabilis in structure. Considering the great colour-similarity of the other species 
and their equally great dissimilarity in structure, that result was rather startling, 
and induced us to study all the material of Platysphinx we now have in the 
collection. 

1. Platysphinx constrigilis. 

When writing the Revision we had only a $ from Sierra Leone and a much- 
damaged <$ from the " Niger Coast Protectorate." Our series consists now of 
19 $<$ and 2 $$. There is a good deal of individual variability in the detail of 
the colouring and pattern, but all specimens agree in the hindwing beneath and 
the costal area of the forewing above and below being more or less suffused with 
white in between the transverse markings, and in the forewing having a strongly 
crenate submarginal line on both surfaces. 

The tenth tergite of the <J is broad, with the lateral margin uneven, the apex 
bent down, narrowed and truncate-emarginate. The tenth sternite is geo- 
graphically and individually variable, being long and either spiniform or more or 
less club-shaped. The clasper has at the base a long spiniform process projecting 
distad. This process, which lies on the ventral side of the ventral margin of 
the clasper and well separated from that margin, also varies geographically. 
The penis-funnel has a small conical projection on each side (not a ventral process 
as stated in the Revision, our figure on plate xxx of that work giving a lateral, 
not a ventral, view), and the apex of the large penis-sheath is produced downward 
into a pointed process, which is concave on the upperside and resembles the 
spout of a jug. This process is much more curved in some specimens than in 
others. 

In the $ the vaginal aperture is flanked on each side by a pointed process 
curved mesad. 

We cannot find any reliable distinctions in colour and pattern between the 



164 NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

two geographical races into which the species has developed, as evidenced by 
the structure of the genitalia. 

a. PI. constrigilis vicaria subsp. nov. 

Platysphinx constrigilis R. & J., Revis. Sphingidae, p. 224. no. 185. tab. xvii. fig. 3, xxiv. fig. 9, 
xxx. fig. 23, xxxiii. fig. 1 (1903) (partim. ; Sierra Leone and Niger Coast Protectorate, nee 
Cameroons and Congo). 

(J. Tenth abdominal sternite slender, slightly or not at all dilated before 
apex ; ventral spiniform process of clasper long, slender, straight or very little 
curved inward in ventral aspect. 

$. Process at side of vaginal orifice broad at base, almost gradually narrowed 
to near apex, here its outer margin rounded, apex pointed and directed mesad, 
the tip slightly twisted and therefore appearing, under a low power, rather 
shorter than it is in reality. 

Hab. Sierra Leone, type, 1 <$ (Bainbridge) and 1 $ (Clements) ; Wassaw 
district 45 miles, Akjah-bippo 46 miles, and Prestea 75 miles inland from 
Sekondi, Gold Coast, 5 cj^ ; Bibianaha, 70 miles north-west of Dimkwa, 700 ft., 
7. xi. 1910 (Spurrell), 1 ^ ; Obouassi, Gold Coast, September and November 
1909, 2 $3 ; Bingerville, Ivory Coast, March and April 1915 (Melou), 2 <$c5 ; 
Nigeria and ' L Niger Coast Protectorate," 2 cJcJ. 

b. PI. constrigilis constrigilis Walk. (1S69). 

Originally described from the Congo. 

cJ. Tenth abdominal sternite strongly widened-rounded before apex ; 
ventral process of clasper less slender than in the north-western subspecies, curved 
inward in a ventral view. 

$. Process at side of vaginal aperture slenderer than in the previous case, 
more gradually narrowing, the apical half particularly narrower. 

Hab. Niger to Congo. In the Tring Museum from : Ilesha, Nigeria 

(Humfrey), 1 <J ; Cross R., Nigeria (Martell), 1 (J ; Bopoto, Upper Congo (Kenred 
Smith), 3 cJcJ, 1 $ ; Upper Congo, 1 J. 

It would be of interest to know whether the two subspecies occur anywhere 
near one another in Nigeria. 

The remaining specimens of Platysphinx in our collection (and in that of 
the British Museum) represent three modifications of one type. The three forms 
strictly replace each other geographically according to the specimens inspected 
and differ constantly in the structure of the tail-ends only. The form designated 
by us in the Revision as PI. ■phyllis is found from the Senegal to the Niger ; the 
second, sligmalica Mab. (1878), inhabits the countries from the Niger to the 
Congo basin; and the third, piabilis Dist. (1897), is known to us from the countries 
further to the south-east : Rhodesia, South Nyasaland, Portuguese East Africa, 
and Zululand. The distribution given in the Revision must be corrected 
accordingly. 

The South-Eastern insect is, in structure, the most strongly modified of 
the three. The antenna of the <J are rather longer and stouter, and the distal 
margin of the forewing is somewhat less incurved posteriorly than in the West 



Novitatks Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 165 

African forms. I consider the differences to indicate that piabilis has attained 
to that degree of physiological aversion towards the allied forms which we now 
consider a true criterion of specific distinctness. 

The West African forms are more similar to one another. We have only 
one <J among the North- Western specimens, and this c? agrees in structure much 
more closely with the Niger-Congo <$<$ than is the case in the ??, while piabilis-g 
is very different in the tail-end. For that reason I am inclined to regard the 
two West Coast forms as geographical races of one species. But there is just a 
possibility that our North- Western <J is not the true c? of phyllis ; I should like 
to compare a second (J from the North- Western district before altering the status 
of phyllis and stigmatica we have assigned to them in the Eevision. 

2. Platysphinx phyllis R. & J. (1903). 

There is, apparently, no difference in colour and pattern between this and 
the following species. The type-specimen of phyllis is a $ with comparatively 
few spots on the hindwing ; the four examples we have received since 1903 do 
not share this peculiarity. 

<$. The tenth abdominal tergite broader than in the next subspecies, the 
apical sinus wider, and the apical process of the clasper much shorter. 

$. Vaginal plate posteriorly to orifice on each side with a finger-like curved 
process. 

Hab. Senegal to Niger. In the Tring Museum from : Sedhiou, Casamance, 

(native collector), 1 $ ; Konakry Island, Sierra Leone, 1 ?, type ; Wassaw 
district, 45 miles inland from Sekondi, Gold Coast, 1 <? ; Sekondi, Gold Coast 
(Hamlyn), 1 $ -; Zunguru, Nigeria, 1 $. 

3. Platysphinx stigmatica Mab. (1878). 

We have specimens only from the Congo and Angola. The species, how- 
ever, occurs doubtless also northward to the Niger. The specimen recorded in 
the Revision from Portuguese East Africa belongs to PI. piabilis. 

Hab. (Niger to) Northern Angola. In the Tring Museum : Bopoto, Upper 

Congo (Kenred Smith ; Oram), 5 <$<$, 1 $ ; south of Congo (Bentley), 1 ? ; 
Dondo, Northern Angola (v. Homeyer). 

4. Platysphinx piabilis Dist. (1897). 

Platysphinx stigmatica R. & J., Revis. Sphing. p. 225. no. 186 (1903) (partim ; Port. E. Afr.). 
Platysphinx bourkei Trimen, Ent. Mo. Mag. (2). xxi. p. 209 (1910) (Etshowe, Zululand). 

The $<$ from Rhodesia southward agree with the type from the Transvaal 
in the distinctive structure of the tail-end, as illustrated in the Revision, pi. xxiv. 
fig. 10, xxx. fig. 22, xxxiii. fig. 2. The specimen of bourkei received from Mr. 
Piatt shows the same structure. This is convincing evidence that bourkei is a 
colour-aberration of piabilis, if we consider the structural differences found in 
the other forms of this genus. However, it is a most interesting aberration, 
which I am inclined to look upon as the ancestral colour-type of Platysphinx. 

The sexual armature of the $ recalls that PI. stigmatica-^. The walls of the 
aperture are produced as a cylinder, more or less regular, with a deep sinus on 



166 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

the anterior side ; this cylinder is not supported as in stigmatica by a lateral 
wing, and the postvaginal plate is much less chitinised and smaller than in that 
species. 

The specimen labelled Portuguese East Africa and received from Messrs. 
Staudinger and Bang-Haas is larger than the others and has a deeper sinus to 
the genital cylinder. An East African subspecies ? 

Hab. Rhodesia to Zululand. In the Tring Museum from : Solwezi, 

Rhodesia (Dollman), 2 ?$ ; Ruo Valley, South Nyasa (Neave), 1 <J, 1 ? ; Portu- 
guese East Africa, 1 ? ; Eshowe, Zululand (Piatt), 1 <J, 1 $ and 1 $ ab. bourkei. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 167 

SOME NEW AFRICAN SPHINGIDAE. 

By Dr. Karl Jordan. 

(With two text-figs.) 

rpHE specimens described in this paper are all in the collection of A. J. T. 
-L Janse, of Pretoria, who kindly sent them to us for study and description. 

1. Polyptychus molitor Iautus subsp. nov. 

$. Magnus, colore cremoris lutescentis, thorace linea mediana et ala antica 
quatuor lineis transversis olivaeeo-fulvis, alis tenuissime ochraceo marginatis, 
linea tertia alae anticae lata. 

Al. ant. long. 59 mm., lat. 26 mm. 

Hab. Barberton, Transvaal (L. de Beer) ; 1 $. 

A very large form. Entirely cream-colour slightly washed with buff, much 
paler than P. m. molitor, which is more or less pinkish buff. Upperside of 
tibiae and tarsi ochraceous, foretibia and first foretarsal segment with a 
chocolate stripe on outer side. Middle line of thorax and four lines on fore- 
wing olivaceous tawny, the lines placed as in P. m. molitor R. & J. (1912) from 
the north-west of tropical Africa, but the inner line of the discal pair much 
broader and shading off outwardly ; hindmargin edged with orange- buff except 
base ; from apex to vein M 2 a large marginal drab area, half-moon-shaped, 
sharply defined at apex of wing, elsewhere diffuse, nearly reaching outer line, 

the veins in this patch remaining pale except towards distal margin. 

Hindwing rather paler than forewing, especially at base, with vestiges of two 
darker lines, of which the inner one touches the cell. 

On underside : the ground-colour nearly as above, palest towards base ; 
forewing with a slight diffuse yellowish tint around lower cell-angle ; both wings 
crossed in outer half by two nearly parallel brown lines, of which the inner one 
is slightly the broader and, on the hindwing. is about 1 mm. distant from the 
lower cell-angle ; as in P. in. molitor the forewing beneath has no dark marginal 
area ; the inner line on both wings costally less curved than in the N.W. African 
race. 

2. Libyoclanis metria spec. nov. (text-fig. 7). 

cJ. L. vicinae affinis ; alis anticis sine linea apicali obliqua, apice non 
productis ; posticis rufis margine abdominali pallide luteo ; segmento anali 
ventrali bilobato. 

Al. ant. long. 36 mm., lat. 12-5 mm. 

Hab. Emangeni, Rhodesia, 18. i. 1918 (A. J. T. Janse) ; 1 <J. 

The upperside of the head, thorax, and base of abdomen cinnamon with a 
tint of isabella colour, rest of abdomen creamy buff, breast pale clay colour. 
Upperside of femora and underside of tibiae creamy buff washed with pink ; 
tibiae and tarsi olive-gray, the tibiae pinkish towards apex. 

Wings, upperside. Forewing pale clay-colour ; apex pointed but not 



168 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 



produced, the distal margin not incurved below apex, more evenly convex than 
in L. vicina R. & J. (1915) ; the basal tuft of hindmargin more or less pink 
proximally and cinnamon distally ; between base of wing and vein M s a few 
blackish scattered scales which indicate a transverse line proximally to base of 
M 2 ; about halfway between cell and distal margin a transverse line faintly 
curved in S-shape, commencing at costal margin 9 mm. from apex and crossing 
M 2 4 mm. from distal margin, the four posterior internervular sections of the 
line more or less luniform ; on the proximal side of this line faint indications of 
another line parallel to the former ; a fuscous patch extends from hind angle to 
beyond R ! , bounded by the discal line, occupying the whole space between line 

and fringe from hind- 
margin to M 1 , then nar- 
rowing ; 5 mm. from apex 
between SC 4 and SC B an 
ill-defined fuscous spot 
composed of black dis- 
persed scales; cilia 

ochraceou s-buf f. 

Hindwing carmine-pink, 
costal margin paler, ex- 
treme base and the abdo- 
minal edge whitish cream, 
abdominal marginal 
border cream- buff, widen- 
ing considerably at anal 
angle, and extending 
along distal margin but 
soon fading away, distal 
margin dusted with black 
scales ; wing shaped as 
in L. vicina, but distal 
margin a little less in- 
curved. 

Underside of the 
colour of the abdo- 
men. Forewing with 

the cell (except base) and the area behind cell carmine-pink, this colour ex- 
tending to hindangle and distally fading away ; the outer discal line anteriorly 
quite distinct, posteriorly barely indicated, not reaching hindmargin, proximally 
to a faint blackish bar behind point of bifurcation SC' 1 ' 5 ; marginal area 
rather worn, without trace of the straight line which in the allied species runs 

from the apex obliquely to the disc. Hindwing with a few black scales in 

the outer half, these scales more numerous at and near the costal margin, 
forming a minute, ill-defined costal spot 5 mm. from apex. 

Antenna as in L. vicina, but slightly thicker. Anal tergite also as in that 
species, except that the two lobes are slightly shorter. Anal sternite different, 
being divided into two rounded lobes (text^fig. 7). Penis-funnel without dorsal 
lip, ventral lip carinate below. Above the funnel on each side a rounded lobe 
about as large as the lobes of the anal sternite, with scalloped edges, each tooth 




3* 



' ;■■'.■ •//; 
■ ><: 

Fig. 7. — Libyoclanis metria, <$ ; anal sternite. 

Fig. 8. — Xenosphingia jansei, q ; head from below. 





NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 169 

denticulate and bearing a hair on the ventral side ; the corresponding lobes of 
L. vicina small, with the teeth vestigial. Harpe as in L. vicina, but slightly 
broader at the apex. 

Xenosphingia gen. nov. 

Generi Ceridia R. & J. (1903) dicto affinis ; antennis fortissime pectinatis, 
palporum articulo tertio longissimo tcnui subcylindrico ad latus versus proiecto ; 
rostro nullo ; tibiis anticis et mediis spinosis, antica brevi, sine calcareo, postica 
duobus calcareis apicalibus armata. 

Genotypus : X. jansei spec. nov. 

A very strange genus, which shares with Ceridia the long-pectinated antenna, 
reduced foretibia, aborted proboscis, etc., but differs remarkably in the absence 
of the foretibial spur and in the length of the third segment of the labial palpus. 

Antenna (<3) reaching beyond apex of cell of forewing. bipectinate from base 
to tip, the branches of the central segments 15 mm. long, all scaled to the apex, 
shaft setiform in dorsal aspect, ventrally each segment dilated into a slightly 
claviform process which projects downward and is longer than a segment, with 
the exception of the processes of the proximal segments, of which the processes 
are short. 

Palpus : first segment short, rough with long hair-scales ; second long, 
flattened laterally, and here as well as at apex smooth-scaled, apex curved side- 
ways ; third as long as second, smooth, slender, rod-like, nearly cylindrical, 
directed laterad ; joint between first and second open ventrally (text-fig. 8). 

Abdomen without spines. 

Foretibia about one-third shorter than first tarsal segment, broad, without 
epiphysis, spinose on upperside, four apical spines long, the two central ones of 
them the longest. Midtibia spinose, a little longer than the first tarsal segment. 
Hindtibia without spines, half as long again as the first hindtarsal segment, with 
one pair of spurs, longer spur twice as long as the tibia is broad before apex. 
All the tibiae and tarsi smooth. Pulvillus and paronychium present, the latter 
with one fringed lobe on each side. 

Wings entire ; frenulum and retinaculum present. Forewing : SC 2 nearer 
to SC 1 than to apex of cell ; stalk of subcostal fork short. Hindwing : SC 2 and 
R l together from upper angle of cell, D 1 distinctly curved, not quite twice the 
length of D' = D 1 , lower cell-angle about 90°, not produced. 

3. Xenosphingia jansei spec. nov. (text-fig. 8). 

cJ. Viridis, antennis albis ramis anticis purpureo-squamosis, pedibus ex 
parte purpureis, alis anticis margine costali albato, posticis pallidioribus. 

Al. ant. long. 18 mm., lat. 9 mm. 

Hab. Sawmills, Rhodesia, 2. ii. 1918 (A. J. T. Janse) ; 1 <J. 

Upperside of body and forewing a soft chromium-green. Shaft of antenna 
and branches of posterior ( = outer) side creamy white, anterior branches purple, 
underside of both shaft and branches ochreous. Palpi and forecoxae washed 
with purplish tawny ; upperside of forefemur, a lateral stripe on mid- and hind- 
tibiae, the whole foretibia and tarsus, and the upperside of the mid- and hindtarsi 
purple. 

Wings, above. Forewing : costal edge creamy, shaded with fuscous 



170 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

in outer third, cilia of hindmargin, a posterior basal tuft, the longer scales of 
the fringes and a minute stigma creamy white ; parallel with distal margin and 
about 3 mm. distant from it a faint darker green line ; apex acuminate but not 
produced, distal margin straight below apex, then convex, hindangle rounded, 

projecting neither backward nor outward. Hindwing : paler than forewing, 

whitish green, base and hair of abdominal margin almost white ; distal margin 
as in forewing even, neither dentate nor undulate, anal angle faintly indicated. 
Underside pale green, costal edge of forewing creamy buff ; longest scales 
of fringes and the abdominal area of the hindwing whitish. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 171 



THE BIRDS OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE AND THE TRING 

RESERVOIRS. 

By ERNST HARTERT axd FRANCIS C. R. JOURDAIN. 

(Plates XII, XIII.) 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, being a purely inland county, is naturally less rich 
in records of migrating species than many others with extensive coast 
lines. It is therefore not surprising that comparatively few of the rarer and more 
accidental visitors have been recorded, but, on the other hand, it compares favour- 
ably with other inland counties. It has the advantage of varied scenery, for, with 
the exception of the south-east corner, most of the county north of the Thames 
valley is decidedly hilly, especially along the main ridge of the Chiltern Hills, 
which, however, lies for the most part within the Oxfordshire boundary, and 
attains in places a height of over 800 ft. Both the Chiltern slopes and the Chiltern 
Hundreds may be described as more or less dry chalk hills, wooded in places, 
chiefly with beech, and bare and open in other parts. Perhaps the two most 
interesting ornithological features of this district are the presence of the Cirl- 
Bunting, which is not rare near Wendover and Tring, and does not range much 
farther north in England, and the Stone-Curlew, which was formerly common, 
and still preserves a precarious existence in spite of agricultural operations which 
often result in the destruction of its eggs. The north of the county is to a great 
extent composed of grass land, with here and there beautifully- wooded parks, 
watered by little streams ; while the group of large reservoirs in the Tring district 
naturally attracts all the aquatic species in the district, and has a special interest 
as being the first definitely known breeding-place of the Black-necked Grebe in 
England for over forty years. Though lying chiefly in Hertfordshire, they touch 
the border-line of Bucks, while the Halton Reservoir is entirely within our county 
boundary. It is therefore impossible to exclude them from a survey of the Birds 
of Buckinghamshire. 

The Tring Reservoirs are now four in number. Three of these (Marsworth, 
Startop's End, and Tringford or Little Tring) form a group with a water- 
area of about 87 acres ; while the fourth and largest, Wilstone Reservoir, 
formerly divided into three, covers no less than 120 acres. In dry seasons the 
water-surface is much diminished, and the great expanse of mud and sand then 
exposed proves a great attraction to the Waders. Unfortunately at the beginning 
of the present century, when the water-level was low, Mr. Oldham had not begun 
to make regular observations in the district, and Hartert's time was too fully 
occupied to allow of much field work, while of late years the water has been con- 
tinuously high and the number of visiting Waders has been in consequence much 
restricted. 

We must not omit to mention the presence of the one great river which forms 
our southern limit, shut in by high ground on the west, and opening out lower 
down more and more widely till the great level from Eton to Staines and West „ 
Drayton is reached, mucli of which is only 50 or 60 feet above sea-level. This 



172 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVU. 1920. 

part of the county has quite a character of its own, and differs widely from the 
swelling uplands crowned with woods of the north of the county. 

Although, as will be seen from the Bibliography, a good many scattered notes 
on Birds have appeared from time to time, only two attempts have been made up 
to the present to compile an account of the Birds of the County. 

In 1S68, Alexander W. M. Clark Kennedy, then, as he describes himself "an 
Eton Boy," published a neat little volume of 232 pages on The Birds of Berkshire 
and Buckinghamshire. Considering that the author was only sixteen years of age 
at the time, the book is a most praiseworthy effort. After so promising a begin- 
ning to an ornithological career, one might well have expected that the author 
would achieve great distinction in this branch of science with more matured 
experience, yet with the exception of a few letters and short notes published in the 
Ibis, Zoologist and Field, this was his first and last work on birds. Retiring from 
the army, he led a country life at Knockgray, and died at the early age of forty- 
two in 1894. 

In 1902 the senior author of this treatise compiled, with the help of the 
present Lord (then the Hon. Walter) Rothschild, a list of the Birds of the County, 
which appeared in 1905 in the first volume of the Victoria History of the County of 
Buckingham. In this work 208 species were enumerated, and the principal sources 
of information were Clark Kennedy's book referred to above, notes in an old 
manuscript preserved at Dinton Hall, the records relating to the Tring Reservoirs 
published in the Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society, informa- 
tion kindly supplied by the Rev. H. D. Astley (formerly resident at Chequers 
Court), Mr. A. Heneage Cocks, Mr. Alan F. Crossman, Mr. Heatley Noble, Mr. 
Charles J. Wilson, and others, as well as personal observations in many parts 
of the county. 

Many, in fact most, of the records of birds from the Tring Reservoirs men- 
tioned in this work are confirmed by the presence of the specimens in question in 
the Tring Museum. The present Lord Rothschild has shot over the Reservoirs 
for thirty-five years past, and Hartert with him since 1892, while the keeper, James 
Street, has a good knowledge of birds and is always on the look-out for rare visi- 
tors. Unfortunately the list of Birds occurring at the Tring Reservoirs by the 
then Hon. W. Rothschild, published in the Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural 
History Society, v. pp. 70-84, was not actually compiled from the specimens in the 
Museum, but was written from memory. At that time few of the birds obtained 
were labelled with exact localities and dates, and some errors were therefore 
unavoidable. Moreover, some specimens were accidentally burnt by the care- 
taker prior to 1892, so that in one or two cases the evidence is not conclusive. 

For the last twelve years Mr. Charles Oldham has visited the Reservoirs 
practically every Sunday, and has placed his valuable observations at our dis- 
posal. We must also acknowledge the help received from Mr. Oliver Pike, who 
resided for some time near Marsworth Reservoir, and took many excellent photo- 
graphs of bird-life there. The old manuscript at Dinton Hall, in which many of 
the birds obtained in that neighbourhood are well figured in water-colours and 
described, was commenced by Sir John van Hatten in 1772, and the observations 
were continued by the Rev. W. Goodall into the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. Both Lord Rothschild and Dr. Hartert have examined this interesting 
MS. and verified the accuracy of the quotations, which were made by Sir John 
van Hatten's great-grandson, the late Colonel Goodall, who died a few years ago. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 173 

In addition to the Tring Museum, there is also a local collection of birds in the 
Bucks County Museum at Aylesbury, which contains some specimens of great 
interest. This collection has been visited by Hartert on several occasions, and 
the curator, Mr. Edwin Hollis, has also kindly supplied us with valuable details. 

There is also a collection of mounted birds in the Museum of Eton College, 
bequeathed to the College by the late Dr. Thackeray, Provost of King's College, 
Cambridge. According to the Guide to the Museum of Eton College of 1899, p. 1 
(appendix), this collection contains mostly specimens from Berks, and Bucks., 
including some hitherto unrecorded ones, and those marked (u) are from Bucks, 
only. Unfortunately this is not correct. Mr. W. D. Hill kindly informs us that 
the specimens in question have no exact localities and dates, and that nothing is 
known about their history. They are, therefore, probably the species mentioned 
in Kennedy's book, but not necessarily obtained in Berks, or Bucks. Thus the 
Great Black Woodpecker, Scops-Owl, Stilt, Bed-footed Falcon, Gadwall, Night-Heron, 
and White Stork mentioned in the Guide cannot be taken as records of occurrences 
in Bucks. 

In supplying notes from the southern part of the county, and more especially 
from the Thames Valle}', we have had the assistance of Mr. E. E. Pettitt, who has 
made a special study of the bird-life of the river. Mr. A. Heneage Cocks has also 
kindly furnished a series of ornithological extracts from his diaries, and Mr. W. D. 
Mackenzie contributes some interesting notes from the Fawley district. The 
Bibliography was originally compiled for the Geographical Bibliography of British 
Ornithology, by Messrs. W. H. Mullens, H. Kirke Swann, and the Rev. F. C. R. 
Jourdain, where it was published in a somewhat condensed form in 1919. It is 
mainly the work of the last-named writer, who desires to thank his collaborators 
for permission to reproduce this section with fuller references and some addi- 
tional matter, including records relating to the Tring Reservoirs. Finally, we 
must acknowledge our great indebtedness to Lord Rothschild for much assist- 
ance freely rendered, and for the great interest he has taken in the work. 

The numbers in brackets are those of the Hand-list of British Birds, 1912. 

1 (1). RAVEN. Corvus corax corax L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 39. Vict. Hist of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Now rare straggler, formerly resident. 

We have only a few notes on the occurrence of the Raven in Buckinghamshire, 
but it was probably a regular breeding species in olden times. In the manuscript 
at Dinton Hall are figures and notes of Ravens shot on March 25, 1828, and 
December 16, 1829. In 1868 Clark Kennedy wrote (p. 39) that " a few pairs 
have bred in Windsor Park from time immemorial," and Windsor Park is close 
to the borders of Bucks. Mr. Grossman (in litt.) states that on August 14, 188 7, 
he saw one of these birds at Farnham, near Slough, which he distinctly recognized 
by its hoarse note. 

2 (2). HOODED CROW. Corvus comix cornix L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 112. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Winter visitor. 

Generally more or less scarce, but sometimes occurs in fair numbers. ( 
Although seldom met within the hilly districts, it becomes more common along 



174 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

the Thames Valley and on the plains near Cheddington, Mentmore, and Leighton 
Buzzard. Locally known as " Royston Crow." A male shot near Aylesbury, 
February 25, 1907, is in the County Museum. 



3 (3). CARRION-CROW. Corvus corone corone L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 39, Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Resident generally. 

Although greatly reduced in numbers in those districts where much game 
preservation is carried on, this species manages to maintain a precarious existence 
almost everywhere. Where game is scarce and the birds are not shot when 
nesting, it is not uncommon, and is one of the species which have shown a 
perceptible increase since the war. 

C. M. Prior (Zool. 1876, p. 5005), writing from Old Wolverton, mentions a 
case where after four eggs had been taken from a Crow's nest, a second laying 
of four eggs was discovered in the same nest twelve days later. He adds that 
three birds were always to be seen in company at the nest. 

4 (4). ROOK. Corvus frugilegus frugilegus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 40. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Very numerous resident. 

There is hardly a park in the county without a rookery ; some are even 
placed in gardens in the middle of towns and villages. 

5 (5). JACKDAW. Coloeus monedula spermologus (Vieill.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 40. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Numerous resident. 

In spite of much persecution by keepers, common in many places, especially 
where there is much old timber. Nesting in hollow trees, old buildings, chimneys, 
and Rooks' nests. 

6 (6). MAGPIE. Pica pica pica (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 42. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Resident. 

Generally distributed, but everywhere more or less scarce, on account of 
the strict game- preservation during the past decades. Apparently increased 
since 1914. 

7 (8). SLENDER-BILLED NUTCRACKER. Nucifraga caryocatactes macrorhynchus 

Brehm. 

Once recorded,. 

A specimen was killed near Whitchurch, October 7, 1911, and is now in the 
County Museum at Aylesbury (Edwin Hollis, in litt., also examined by E. 
Hartert. The specimen was received in the flesh). 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 



175 



8 (10). BRITISH JAY. Garrulus glandarius rufitergum Hart. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 42. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Common resident. 

More or less common in all wooded districts. This species has increased in 
numbers considerably since 1914. 

9 (9). CONTINENTAL JAY. Garrulus glandarius glandarius (L.). 

Rare winter visitor. 

There is no doubt that the Continental Jay visits England in small numbers 
in winter, but not many seem to reach the Midland counties. Altogether only 
a few cases have been recorded, but this is probably due to the small number 
which have been critically examined. Nearly all the Jays killed in winter which 
the senior author has examined are typical rufitergum; but at least one, shot by 
Lord Rothschild near Tring, on the boundary of Bucks, and Herts., is an equally 
typical G. g. glandarius. 

10 (13). STARLING. Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 38. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 138. 

Numerous resident. 

Though a great many Starlings remain throughout the winter, their number 
diminishes somewhat after October, so it would seem that some move southwards. 
The flocks of Continental Starlings which arrive in autumn on the east coast 
appear not to reach this county. Starlings are now often a great pest to fruit- 
growers. There has undoubtedly been an enormous increase in their numbers 
during the last half-century, probably owing in a great measure to the diminution 
in the numbers of birds of prey. Mr. A. H. Cocks says that he has visited a covert 
in the county, used as a roosting-place by large flocks of these birds, which was 
entirely swamped in dung, so that nothing could grow in it. 

11 (14). ROSE-COLOURED STARLING. Pastor roseus (L.). 

Gould, B. Europe, vol. iii. text to pi. 212. B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 178. Vict. Hist, of Bucks. 
vol. i. p. 138. 

Rare, straggler. 

Only one instance is known to us for Bucks. Gould, I.e., states that a 
specimen was shot by John Newman, at Iver Court, near Langley, in Bucks. 

12 (15). GOLDEN ORIOLE. Oriolus oriolus oriolus (L). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 170. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 134. 

Rare summer migrant : no fwoof of breeding. 

Mr. Charles Wolley, writing to the Field, May 25, 1861, p. 451, under the 
initials " C. W.," states that a nest of this species with four eggs was taken near 
Stoke, Bucks., "a few days ago," and that the eggs were still in the possession 
of Fisher, the naturalist of Eton. Clark Kennedy adds that the eggs were 
purchased by Mr. \V0lIe3', and proved to be the rare variety of the Song-Thrush's 
egg, with black markings on a white ground. He also adds that a nest is said 
to have been found near Burnham, but gives no details. On May 19, 1879 (not 



176 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

1897 as stated in the Vict. Hist. Burks), a male was shot at Stoke Mandeville, 
and was recorded by H. White in the Field (May 31, 1879, p. 625). Probably 
it is to this occurrence that Mr. T. Marshall refers in a note to the Field (May 16, 
1891), in which it is stated that this species was recorded from near Aylesbury 
in May 1880. 

Finally Mr. A. H. Cocks (in lift, to the authors of the Vict. Hist, list) says, 
" This bird has been reported to have nested about three miles north from here 
in 1901, the nest and eggs having been taken; but I cannot answer for it 
personally." 

13 (16). HAWFINCH. Coccothraustes coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 35. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 136. 

Resident, fairly common in pkiies, though load. 

Apparently the numbers of this bird fluctuate, but this may possibly be due 
to persecution by gardeners, etc. Nesting near Windsor was recorded by Yarrell 
as far back as 1827 ; and Clark Kennedy mentions it as breeding in Windsor Park 
(Berks.), at Latimer near Chesham, near Aylesbury, Langley and Stowe Park. 
Mr. Heneage Cocks observed its nesting at and near Great Marlow, and Grossman 
at Burnham Beeches. It has also been observed at Chequers Court, Weston 
Turville, Halton, Newbury, High Wycombe, Cholesbury, Chesham, Drayton, 
and St. Leonards (near Tring). Mr. E. E. Pettitt meets with it occasionally in 
winter in the Thames Valley, but has not hitherto found it breeding there, though 
it is not uncommon as a breeding species in the Maidenhead district, where Major 
F. W. Proctor found several nests. 

14 (17). GREENFINCH. Chloris chloris chloris (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 34. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

Common resident throughout the year. 

Frequents orchards, gardens and hedges, associating in flocks in the winter. 

15 (18). BRITISH GOLDFINCH. Carduelis carduelis britannica (Hart). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 36. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

Resident. 

The Goldfinch had become scarce, especially in the neighbourhood of Ayles- 
bury, Wendover and Tring, about twenty years ago, and the blame for this was 
generally put on the bird-catchers, and probably not without reason, as the 
Goldfinch is very easily caught in nets and with birdlime. During the last ten 
years or so, however, it has increased again in numbers considerably, and may 
be frequently seen near the Tring and Halton Reservoirs, near Chesham, Beacons- 
field, Cholesbury, Aylesbury, Wendover and Halton, Cheddington and Aston 
Abbots. 

16 (19). SISKIN. Carduelis spinus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 109. Vict. Hist. «j Burks, p. 136. 

Irregular and rare winter visitor ; said to have bred on one occasion. Few 
recent records. 

Kennedy tells us that in his time many were caught by the professional 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 177 

bird-catchers near Eton and Windsor " every season."* He was informed by 
Burgess that it occurred near Chesham and Slapton, and by H. H. Crewe that 
a bird-catcher at Drayton Beauchamp " not unfrequently captures the Siskin 
in his clap-nets during the winter months, in that neighbourhood." 

According to Gould (B. of Great Britain, iii. text to pi. 37, 1873), Siskins 
were frequently met with by him in large troops in the woods of Taplow and 
Cliefden, especially in the neighbourhood of the lower road by the Thames side. 
The winters of 1857 and 1866-67 were noted for the occurrence of this species in 
great numbers. 

J. Steele- Elliott {Vict. Hist, of Bed fords, i. p. 112 note) points out that the 
reported nesting of the Siskin " in Bedfordshire " (Zool. 1880, p. 259) is an error, 
and should have been recorded as " in Buckinghamshire." The Rev. H. Burney 
(loc. cit.) states that two nests of the Siskin were found on his property in May 
1879, and several young reared. The note is headed, " Siskin Nesting in Bed- 
fordshire," but Mr. Burney wrote from Wavendon Rectory, Woburn, which is 
situated in Bucks. In answer to an appeal for further details, Mr. R. H. Mitford 
writes (t.c. p. 364) that Mr. Burney saw a Siskin in a cage in a cottage in his parish. 
It was stated to be one of five taken from a nest by a boy, who said that he found 
two nests with young in June 1879, one in the fork of a maple, and the other 
in a hornbeam. One young bird passed into Mr. Burney's possession, and his 
description satisfied Mr. Mitford, who was somewhat sceptical on the subject, 
that it was a hen Siskin. The nesting-sites, however, would be quite abnormal 
for this species, and more like those adopted by the Lesser Redpoll, so that possibly 
the two species were confused. Still more recently, Mr. E. E. Pettitt records 
the occurrence of this species near Colnbrook, on March 14, 1897. 

17 (20). TWITE. Carduelis flavirostris flavirostris (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. Ill (under the name of " Mountain Linnet, Linota montium "). Vict. 
Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

R:tre winter visitor. 

Kennedy, who describes this species as a winter visitor, but less abundant 
than the Lesser Redpoll, gave no dates whatever. We have specimens caught 
near Aston Clinton by a bird-catcher, 21 . xi . 1893, 5 . xii . 1893, and 1 1 . xi . 1898. 
Mr. Alfred Heneage Cocks wrote in 1902 that three Twites were caught near 
Skirmett in a Pheasant-trap in February 1902. 

[HOLBOLL'S REDPOLL. Carduelis linaria holboelli (Brehm). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

An adult male of this form, with wing 80, tail 62 mm. long, and a very pale 
crown, was caught by a bird-catcher near Aston Clinton, December 14, 1895, 
and is in the Tring Museum. 

It is, however, doubtful if holboelli is a distinct form, as it appears to breed 
within the same area as C. I. linaria. (Cf. Pract. Handb. vol. i. p. 60, 1919, also 
Nov. Zool. 1920.)] 

* It is, however, worth notice that, writing in the Zool. 1867, p. 705, of the occurrence of Siskins 
in a bird-fancier's shop at Eton, he states, '"I fancy these birds are not common about here, not 
having noticed any before." 

12 



178 XOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVJI. 1!>20. 

18 (22). MEALY REDPOLL. Carduelis linaria linaria (L.). 
Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

Must occur as irregular and rare winter visitor. 

As the Mealy Redpoll is known to visit the Thames Valley, and one has been 
taken near Ivinghoe, in Herts., close to the Bucks, boundary, there is no doubt 
that it occasionally visits our county. 

19 (23). LESSER REDPOLL. Carduelis linaria cabaret (P. L. S. Mull.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 110. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

Winter visitor, but also breeds locally in small numbers. 

Kennedy only records this species as a winter visitor from about the end of 
November onwards, and never very common. Hartert on several occasions 
has noted small flocks in autumn and winter, and there are several specimens 
in the Tring Museum from Aston Clinton, near Tring, caught in October and 
November. 

Twenty-eight years ago Lord Rothschild observed it several times on the 
"flats" near Champneys Park in summer, and Grossman has recorded breeding 
on Berkhamsted Common, close to the Bucks, boundary. C. Oldham {in litl.) 
states that he has seen a few pairs every summer about the Herts .-Bucks, boundary 
near Berkhamsted, and adds that he also saw one at Mentmore on June 15, 1913, 
" uttering its trilling song in flight." 

The only part of the county where breeding is known with certainty to have 
taken place is the Thames Valley between Shiplake and Wraysbury. Many 
scattered pairs used to haunt the various " rod beds " by the river, nesting in 
most cases on the Berks, side, and sometimes several nests might be found within 
quite a small area. The late Major F. W. Proctor found many nests in this 
district between 1905 and 1914; not only in willows, but also in thorns, furze 
bushes, and small trees at some little distance from the river. Mr. E. E. Pettitt 
gives details (in Hit.) of half a dozen Bucks, nests found by him in the same district 
between 1909 and 1916, but adds that after the severe winter of 1916-17 none 
were met with. 

20 (27). LINNET. Carduelis cannabina cannabina (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 37. Viet. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

Common resident. 

Common apparently everywhere. Very fond of nesting in gorse bushes, in 
which the nests may sometimes be found close to each other. 

21 (30). BRITISH BULLFINCH. Pyrrhula pyrrhula pileata (MacGill). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 37. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

Resident. 

The Bullfinch is common, though persecuted by gardeners on account of 
the damage caused by it to fruit-buds. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 179 

22 (33). COMMON CROSSBILL. Loxia curvirostra curvirostra L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 111. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

Irregular summer and winter visitor, which apparently nests occasionally. 

Immigrations take place from time to time, often in great numbers, and birds 
may then stop for a year or so and possibly nest. In the old manuscript at 
Din ton Hall is an excellent figure of "ye Crossbill or Shellapple" which was 
shot there in 1782, with the following notes : " Is an inconstant visitor of this 
island and breeds in ye pine-forests of Germany and Switzerland ; it feeds on ye 
cones of those trees. It is a fact that it changes ye shades of its colour in different 
seasons of ye year from deep red to yellow and ye females which are greenish 
alter to different varieties of the same colour. Ten of these birds were shot and 
several others seen by ye Rev nd W. Goodall in ye Wilderness of Dinton Hall 
August 8 th ' 1791. They had been observed by the servants some weeks, tho' 
they mistook them for bull finches. Q >T had they bred there ? As some of ye 
males had not then gained their full j^lumage and one of ye females had not as 
yet a single yellow feather." It is, of course, well known now that the red 
plumage is that of the adult male, though peculiar ideas about the plumages 
of Crossbills prevail occasionally even now. 

Kennedy records occurrences at Drayton (about 1847), and also at Fulmer, 
Risborough, and Burnham Beeches, and mentions a hen bird seen near Eton in 
November 1867. 

More recently T. Marshall recorded this species in the Wycombe district in 
1898 (Field, December 3, 1898, p. 897) ; while in December 1909 a flock of about 
thirty was seen at Fawley Court (H. Noble, Brit. Birds (mag.), vol. iii. p. 303). 
In March 1910 six were seen at Drayton Beauchamp (C. Oldham, i.e. p. 409), 
and several at Langley about the same time (H. Noble). A pair killed at Dinton, 
January 15, 1910, is in the County Museum (Edw. Hollis). 

The only definite record of breeding is that by Mr. R. Bulstrode (Brit. 
Birds (mag.), vol. vi. p. 60), who saw a flock of four or five birds near Gerrards 
Cross on March 27, 1910, and was shown a nest on April 1 which then contained 
four eggs. The young were still in the nest on April 23. 

23 (37). CHAFFINCH. Fringilla coelebs coelebs L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 31. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

Resident, but numbers apparently augmented by immigrants in winter. 
Very common in all wooded parts of the county. 

Mr. A. Mayall found eight eggs in a nest near Burnham, from which six 
young were reared, in May 1919 (Brit. Birds, vol. xiii. p. 80). 

24 (38). BRAMBLING. Fringilla montiMngilla L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 106. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

Winter visitor, sometimes in great numbers. 

The Brambling appears every winter, and has been observed from October 
to April, but generally between November and March. Numbers vary greatly, 
sometimes not many are observed, while in other years they are very numerous ; 
Hartert does not think that this depends on the severity of the winter — at least 
not in this country — but more on the amount of beech mast. From time to time 



180 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

enormous flights are observed. An influx of this kind took place in the winter 
of 1905-6, when the beech woods of the Chilterns swarmed with these birds, 
flocks of several hundreds being repeatedly seen. Considerable numbers were 
also present during the mild winter of 1919-20. 

25 (40). HOUSE-SPARROW. Passer domesticus domesticus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 33. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

Common resident. 

By far the most numerous of all birds in the county. One of the most 
obnoxious habits of this species is that of dispossessing the House-Martins of their 
homes. Sir. A. H. Cocks adduces some evidence that the Martins occasionally 
retaliate by killing the nestling Sparrows, but further evidence on the point is 
desirable (cf. Zool. 191G, p. 358). 

26 (41). TREE-SPARROW. Passer montanus montanus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 32. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

" A resident species, but noichere numerous and very local." 
The above words of Kennedy are still correct and well describe the status 
of this bird in Bucks. Kennedy reports a nest near Buckingham in a Sand- 
Martin's hole. He also mentions specimens killed near Datchet and Slough. 
From autumn to spring, however, Tree-Sparrows are common in the neighbour- 
hood of Wendover, Aston Clinton, Ivinghoe, where Oldham regularly observes 
them, usually feeding with House-Sparrows and Finches in farm-yards and stack- 
yards, and near Cheddington, but they are seldom seen in the summer. Mr. 
Oldham observed one near Cheddington May 10, 1908. Hartert has seen it near 
Aylesbury and Ovington. 

In the Thames Valley there are scattered colonies, which nest in the pollarded 
willows by the river-side, especially in the Maidenhead and Bray districts. Mr. 
Pettitt mentions a small colony at Horton. 

27 (42). CORN-BUNTING. Emberiza calandra calandra L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 29. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 137. 

Resident, 

Not actually rare in the arable districts, but nowhere numerous, and not 
often noticed in winter. Kennedy (I.e.) says " it congregates in large numbers 
late in the autumn and is gregarious until the return of the spring." We have 
never seen large flocks in Bucks, or Herts. 

In the Thames Valley Mr. Pettitt notes it as breeding near Taplow, Slough, 
and the reservoirs on the Middlesex border. 

F. A. Monckton has recorded a case in which the song was heard in November 
near Eton {Field, November 14, 1908, p. 888). 

28 (43). YELLOW BUNTING, or YELLOWHAMMER. Emberiza citaneUa 

citrinella L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 30. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 18. 

Resident. 

A common bird, but somewhat diminished in numbers since 1917. Mr. A. H. 
Cocks records a nest built in the side of a straw-rick, about 3 ft. 7 in. from the 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1020. 181 

ground at Skirmett (Zool. 1916, p. 352), but this is not a very infrequent 
occurrence. 

29 (47). CIRL-BUNTING. Emberiza cirlus cirlus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 176. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 138. 

Resident. 

The Cirl-Bunting breeds regularly in the Chiltern Hills district and neigh- 
bourhood. In winter it strays about, but apparently not usually very far from 
its breeding-grounds. The following are the localities from which we have 
evidence : Terriers End, near Tring (Chas. Oldham, evidently nesting) ; neigh- 
bourhood of Wendover (Hubert D. Astley, Oldham, Witherby, Hartert, nesting) ; 
Ashley Green, south of Berkhamsted, Coombe Hill, Chequers Court (Hubert I>. 
Astley, nesting) ; Drayton Beauchamp (4 . vi . 1864, nest found by H. H. Crewe, 
Field, 3 . xii. 1864, p. 384) ; Halton (skins of winter birds, eggs seen) ; Pitstone 
(caught in winter, H. H. Crewe) ; Ivinghoe (seen in winter, Hartert) ; downs 
between Princes Risborough and Wendover common, five males singing between 
Kimble and Wendover 4.vii.l910 (Chas. Oldham). In the Thames Valley it 
is of infrequent occurrence, but has been met with occasionally near Great 
Marlow. Mr. A. H. Cocks records one from Harleyford on January 26, 1884 
(in lift.). The winter of 1917 has greatly diminished the number of Cirl-Buntings ; 
near Tring we have not heard or seen them since. 

30 (53). REED-BUNTING. Emberiza schoeniclus schoeniclus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 29. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 138. 

Resident, but breeding birds wander about in autumn. 

Not rare in suitable places on rivers and reservoirs. Breeds on the Tring 
and Halton Reservoirs, on the banks of the Thames, Colne, Chess, and Ouse, 
and in Stowe Park. In winter in small flocks, which haunt stack-yards and high- 
roads. 

Mr. E. E. Pettitt found a nest of this species in June 1905 at Wraysbury, 
which was placed in the crown of a pollarded willow ! He has also on two 
occasions met with Cuckoos' eggs in Reed-Buntings' nests in the county, both 
in 1908, in the Colne Valley. 

A very remarkable clutch of four eggs, pale blue without any markings, 
was taken by James Street at Mars worth Reservoir on May 9, 1910, and is now 
in the Tring Museum. 

31 (56). SNOW-BUNTING. Plectrophenax nivalis (L.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 138. 

Winter visitor. 

Of somewhat rare and irregular occurrence in winter. The MS. in Dinton 
Hall mentions its occurrence there on January 8, 1776. Flocks have repeatedly 
been seen near Aston Clinton, and in 1895 near the Tring Reservoirs. On 
November 4, 1901, a male was shot at Drayton Lodge, Bucks., between Aston 
Clinton and Tring, by Mr. Henry Jenney. (February 22, 1894, another male 
was caught near Tring, between Tring and Aston Clinton, just in Herts.) 

Mr. C. H. Enison met with two on Ivinghoe Beacon on November 7, 1903 
(Field, November 14, 1903, p. 844). 



182 NOTITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

32 (61). WOODLARK. Lullula arborea arborea (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 29. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Probably resident. 

Local and scarce. Observed in spring and summer near Fulmer, Beacons- 
field, Princes Risborough, Halton, and Chequers Court. 

33 (62). SKYLARK. Alauda arvensis arvensis L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 27. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Resident. 

Common on fields and meadows, from autumn to spring in flocks, which are 
probably partly composed of continental visitors. Breeds freely both in corn and 
grass land. An entirely buff- yellow variety was shot in December 1863 at 
Weston Turville (R. Tyrer, Zool. 1864, p. 8957). Such varieties are not rare 
and have been observed in many other places in England and elsewhere. 

34 (67). TREE PIPIT. Anthus trivialis trivialis (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 8G. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 134. 

Summer resident. 

Not rare in wooded districts from April to September, but far from numerous 
in the Thames Valley, where, however, a few pairs may be found breeding in the 
Burnham and Taplow districts. 

35 (68). MEADOW PIPIT. Anthus pratensis (L.) 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 27. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 134. 

Resident and winter visitor. 

Nests in lowland pastures : on the canal banks near the Tring Reservoirs, 
Halton, Aylesbury, Buckingham, Castlethorpe, Farnham Common, Burnham 
Beeches, and, according to Kennedy, near Eton. In winter and during migration 
periods in small flocks near the Reservoirs. In the Thames Valley it is best 
known as a winter visitor, only a few pairs remaining to breed. 

36 (74). BLUE-HEADED WAGTAIL. Motacilla flava flava L. 

Once observed. 

" In a pasture bordering one of the reservoirs near Tring, on April 29, 1917, 
my sister-in-law detected a Wagtail differing in colour from the Ray's Wagtails 
with which it was consorting. As we looked down from the top of the reservoir 
embankment on the birds running to and fro in the short grass, it was an easy 
matter to distinguish the stranger by its blue-grey crown and nape, the con- 
spicuous whitish-buff superciliary stripe, the less distinct streak of the same 
colour through the ear-coverts, and the buff wing-bars. The upper parts and 
ear-coverts were greyish-brown, the breast and belly pale yellowish-buff passing 
into bright sulphur- yellow on the under tail-coverts. I cannot say positively to 
which subspecies of Motacilla flava the bird (a hen) belonged, but the blue- grey 
crown and the pale ear-coverts point to M. f. flava, the subspecies, apart from 



Novitates Zooloqicae XXVII. 1920. 183 

M. j. rayi, most likely to occur" (Chas. Oldham, Brit. B. vol. xi. p. 20, 1917). 
There is also a female in the County Museum, found dying near Aylesbury, 
June 2, 1911 (Edwin Hollis, in litt.). 

37 (79). YELLOW or RAY'S WAGTAIL. Motacilia flava rayi(Bp.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 85 (not 58). Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 134. 

Summer resident. 

Not a common bird, but more frequent in low-lying meadow land and 
in the neighbourhood of rivers, such as the Thames and Ouse. 

38 (80). GREY WAGTAIL. Motacilia cinerea cinerea Tunst, 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 26. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 134. 

A breeding species in very small numbers in the Chess Valley, otherwise winter 
visitor, not common. 

The first mention of the breeding of this species in Bucks by John Gould 
occurs in Jardine's Contr. to Ornith. 1849, p. 137, and is repeated in his Birds of 
Great Britain, vol. iii. p. 49 (1873), where he states that for many years he has 
been aware of the breeding of the Grey Wagtail in the Chess Valley, and that 
when the Duke of Bedford " favoured him with a day's fishing," he found the 
nest on a wall of Mrs. Dodd's beautiful garden, where it always nested. Another 
pair also bred at Latimer, but in this case he did not find the nest. 

R. B. Sharpe, in his articles on the " Birds of Cookham," (Quart. Mag. 
High Wycombe Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. ii. p. 49, 1869), alludes to Gould's discovery 
of this nest in- a rose bush against the wall, and the fact of the male bird being 
found on the four eggs. He also says that another pair bred at Elliot's Mill, 
two and a half miles up stream. Clark Kennedy (I.e.) was apparently unaware 
of Gould's observations, but says that a few have been procured on the Thames 
in summer, though it is better known there as a frequent winter visitor. Bryant 
Burgess, however, informed him that it bred annually on the banks of the Chess. 
Hartert did not meet with it at Latimer in 1902, but more recent observations 
by the Duchess of Bedford and Mr. W. Bickerton show that it still frequents 
its old haunts at Chenies. near Sarrat Mill, some distance below Latimer, where, 
however, it was not found in 1918, while no observation took place in 1919.* 

To other parts of the county it is only known as a winter visitor. Mr. C. 
Oldham states that it frequents the reservoirs, canals, and water-cress beds of 
North Bucks in small numbers regularly from early September to mid-March. 
The Rev. H. D. Astley has recorded it from Chequers Court, and it is met with 
every winter in the Thames Valley. 

39 (81). PIED WAGTAIL. Motacilia alba lugubris Temm. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 26. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 134. 

Resident, but a good many move southwards in the autumn and return in early 
spring. 

A common bird, and widely distributed. 

* The breeding-place near Sarrat Mill, close to Chenies, is just a stone's throw or so outside 
Bucks., in Herts., while Latimer and Chenies are well within the Bucks, boundary. 



184 N0Y1TATES ZOOLOGICAL XXVII. 1920. 

40 (82). WHITE WAGTAIL. Motacilla alba alba L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 134. 

Rare on passage ; has apparently once bred. 

On June 17, 1902, Hartert and Arthur Goodson went along the River Chess, 
near Latimer, in search of the Grey Wagtail. They failed to find the latter, 
but saw a pair of Wagtails feeding young which seemed to have quite grey backs, 
and which they took to be M. alba alba. A few hundred yards away they observed 
M. alba Ittgubris. On subsequent visits later in the year and in 1903 and l!iii4 
Hartert failed to see any grey-backed birds. Recently Mr. Chas. Oldham has 
observed the White Wagtail in spring, though not nesting. On May 5, 1912, 
he saw one on Wilstone Reservoir ; on May 4, 1913, one with a party of the Yellow 
(Ray's) Wagtails at Startops End Reservoir ; and on May 3 and 10, 1914, a single 
one on Wilstone Reservoir. 

41 (83). BRITISH TREE CREEPER. Certhia familiaris brittanica Ridgw. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 49. Viet. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Used not to be rare, but has greatly diminished in number since the severe 
winter of 1917. 

42 (86). BRITISH NUTHATCH. Sitta europaea britannica Hart. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 50. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Not uncommon in well-timbered parts of the comity, particularly in Burnharn 
Beeches and Ashridge Park, but somewhat local and not very numerous any- 
where. 

43 (88). BRITISH GREAT TIT. Parus major newtoni Prazak. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 23. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Generally the commonest of our Titmice. Though greatly reduced in 1917, 
increasing again rapidly in numbers. 

44 (90). BRITISH BLUE TIT. Parus caeruleus obscurus Prazak. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 24. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Common, and apparently in many places scarcely less numerous than the 
' Great Tit. 

45 (92). BRITISH COAL-TIT. Parus ater britannicus Sharpe & Dress. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 24. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Fairly common in woods, parks, orchards, and gardens, especially where 
conifers are grown. Though the species suffered greatly during the severe cold 
of 1917, it is already increasing remarkably. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 185 

46 (97). BRITISH MARSH-TIT. Parus palustris dresseri Stejn. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 25. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Used to be fairly common, but has become much rarer since the severe frost 
of 1917. It is, however, increasing again in numbers. 

47 (98). BRITISH WILLOW-TIT. Parus atricapillus kleinschmidti Hellm. 

The only record for Bucks of which we are aware is a male, formerly in the 
collection of H. H. Slater (now in the Tring Museum), shot by him at " Chersley, 
Bucks, 9.xi.l882.'' It was, of course, labelled by the collector as "Parus 
palustris," as at that time it was not yet distinguished, but is undoubtedly the 
present form. 

48 (101). BRITISH LONG-TAILED TITMOUSE. Aegithalos caudatus roseus (Blyth). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 25. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Resident. 

Used to be found in practically all suitable localities, but suffered greatly 
during the severe frost of 1917. Near the Tring Reservoirs it bred year after 
year, but has been exterminated in that neighbourhood and not yet seen again. 

Prior to 1917 it used also to nest fairly commonly at Burnham Beeches, 
Ditton Park, etc., but has disappeared almost entirely from that district (E. E. 
Pettitt). As it is beginning to recover its former status in Berks., it will probably 
reappear in these localities before long. 

49 (103). BRITISH GOLDCREST. Regulus regulus anglorum Hart. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 23. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Resident. 

Used to be fairly common in suitable localities, but has suffered greatly by 
the severe frost of 1917, and is now a rare bird. On July 28, 1918, Chas. Oldham 
heard one singing in the shrubbery at Aston Clinton Park, and another in the 
park at Ashridge on January 18, 1919 — the only two he has come across since 
the winter of 1916-17. Hartert has only seen a few near Tring, but not yet in 
Bucks., since 1917. In the south of the county it was formerly not uncommon, 
breeding in the Thames Valley at many points, but is only just beginning to 
reappear in small numbers. 

50 (104). FIRECREST. Regulus ignicapillus ignicapillus (Temm.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 173. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Exceptional winter visitor. 

Mr. Alfred Heneage Cocks informed us in 1902 of a specimen killed by his 
gardener, in his and his brother's presence, at Great Marlow in the sixties, about 
1863. It was mounted and is in Mr. Cocks's possession, but it was only identified 
as a Fireerest some years after. 

According to Kennedy (I.e.), two Firecrests were procured near Eton about 
1 865. This record is rather vague, and as soon after it is stated that a nest with 



1S6 N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

young, and the two parents, were brought to a Mr. Hasell in 1863, from Windsor 
Park, and the latter statement cannot be credited, the Eton record can hardly 
be accepted without caution. In Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 82, it is 
stated that one was shot in January 1887, presumably at the Reservoirs. This 
statement, said to have been made on the authority of the then Hon. Walter 
Rothschild, is evidently erroneous, as all the supposed author remembers is a 
verbal statement made to him by the late Rev. H. H. Crewe that it had occurred 
in Ashridge Park. 

51 (105). BEARDED TITMOUSE. Panurus biarmicus biarmicus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 174. 

Exceptional vagrant — one old record. 

On December 21, 1848, a pair, male and female, were shot on Wilstone 
Reservoir by the Rev. James Williams, of Tring Park. Only these two specimens 
were observed, and there is no other record of the occurrence of this species 
{Zoologist, 1849, p. 2418.) (About twenty years ago some specimens imported 
from Holland were released on Wilstone Reservoirs, but they disappeared.) 

52 (107). GREAT GREY SHRDSE. Lanius excubitor excubitor L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 168. Vict. Hist, of Backs, p. 134. 

Irregular and rare winter visitor. 

On January 8, 177S, one was shot near Dinton Hall. A female was shot 
near Wendover about the middle of November 1854, and a male on November 4 
of the same year near Weston Turville (H. H. Crewe, Zoologist, 1865, p. 9416). 
In the winter of 1859-60 a specimen was shot on the banks of the Thames near 
Clewer, Berks. According to Kennedy (I.e.), a male was shot in 1862 near the 
Almshouses at Stoke, another in the winter 1865-66 on the banks of the Thames 
near Windsor, a third at Hampden (no date) which was in Bryant Burgess's 
collection. Mr. A. H. Cocks also reports one shot close to Great Marlow, either 
in the eighties or early in the nineties. Hartert saw one in October 1895 near 
Halton. A female was shot by the present Lord Rothschild on the " Flats " 
close to the Bucks, boundary near Cholesbury, 17.x. 1895; a male by a keeper 
near Long Marston, also close to the boundary, 1 8 . xi . 1 896 ; another female caught 
in a Sparrow-trap at Wilstone Reservoir, 2 . ii. 1 916. 

53 (112). RED-BACKED SHRIKE. Lanius collurio collurio L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 72. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 134. 

Summer resident. 

Rather local and less common during the last twelve years or more than it 
used to be. In Kennedy's time it was common near Eton. Hubert D. Astley 
found it not rare near Chequers Court ; and Hartert has observed it there and near 
Wendover, Aston Clinton, Aylesbury, Buckingham, Dinton, Newport Pagnell, 
Castlethorpe, Wingrave, and Aston Abbots, but has not seen it recently near 
Wendover and Aston Clinton in places where it always used to be in evidence. 
Near the Reservoirs only about one pair has nested recentty. In the Thames 
Valley it is rather local, but Mr. Pettitt reports a few pairs breeding near Colne- 
brook, Horton, and Little Marlow. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 187 

54 (113). WAXWING. Bombycilla garralus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 174. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 135. 

Irregular and rare winter visitor. 

Kennedy (I.e.) writes : " An immense flock appeared along the eastern shores 
of our island in the winter of 1849-50, which was very severe, and several speci- 
mens were at that time procured in different parishes of Buckinghamshire. I am 
indebted to the Rev. Bryant Burgess for the notice of a Bohemian Waxwing 
which was killed at Ivinghoe Aston in January 1850, and which is now in his 
collection. An immense number of Bohemian Waxwings were shot in the neigh- 
bourhood of Buckingham during the spring of 1867, as Mr. J. W. Thorpe told me." 

[In Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 82, in a list of birds supposed to 
have occurred on the Reservoirs, it is stated that a Waxwing was " obtained in 
March 1883." Unfortunately this statement, made on the authority of the 
Hon. Walter Rothschild, cannot now be verified, as we cannot trace the specimen. 
In the Vict. Hist, of Herts, p. 201, it is said that " the first Hertfordshire specimen 
of the Waxwing was shot about a mile from Tring on the Aylesbury road, about 
1851." As the Bucks boundary is very little more than a mile from Tring, this 
may almost be regarded as a Bucks record.] 

55 (114). SPOTTED FLYCATCHER. Muscicapa striate striate (Pall.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 74. Vicl. Hist, of Bucks, p. 135. 

Summer resident. 

Common everywhere in parks, large old gardens, and certain woods. 

The blue unspotted type of egg has been found near Slough (H. H. Vyse, 
Zool. 1890, p. 352, and Field, August 16, 1890, p. 250). 

56 (116). PIED FLYCATCHER. Muscicapa hypoleuca hypoleuca (Pall.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 169. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 135. 

Probably occasional summer resident. 

The records for Bucks, are very few. According to Morris one was killed 
" many years ago " in the county, in the south-east, not far from Uxbridge. 
H. J. Elwes informed Kennedy of a well-authenticated nest taken near Eton in 
the summer of 1860. Mr. Heatley Noble, in litt. : "A nest with six eggs was 
taken on my late father's property, Berry Hill, Taplow, in June, 187- (the exact 
year cannot be given). The female was unfortunately killed on the nest." Mr. 
H. Heneage Cocks, in litt., says : " On May 12, 1883, our gardener at Great 
Marlow saw in our orchard a bird with white on the wings, which, from its move- 
ments and other habits, must have been a Flycatcher. He said it looked some- 
what like a female Chaffinch, but the beak was different. Sir J. A. Godley, 
K.C.B., reported several years before having seen one specimen there. Two days 
afterwards the gardener saw evidently the pair, but though I watched for them 
repeatedly I did not see them, nor were they ever seen again." On May 10, 
1901, Hartert heard the song and observed a male in the park of Mentmore. 
In June of the same year he found no trace of these birds, nor ever afterwards. 

Mr. Edwin Hollis, while fishing at Hartwell, August 22, 1919, saw a male 
Pied Flycatcher. It was quite clearly recognized, as it sat within 8 or 10 feet 
of the observer for several minutes. 



188 NOVITATES ZOOLOGKAE XXVII. 1020. 

57 (119). CHIPFCHAFF. Phylloscopus collybita collybita (Vieill.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 85. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Summer resident and autumn migrant. 

Common in all suitable localities. From February 10 to 18 a Chiffchaff 
frequented some willows on Wilstone Reservoir. (See Brit. B. vol. vi. p. 313.) 

In the Thames Valley it is generally distributed, and Mr. Pettitt notes it 
as especially numerous in Ditton Park. 

58 (122). WILLOW- WARBLER. Phylloscopus trochilus trocbilus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 84. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Summer resident ami passage migrant. 

Generally distributed and hardly absent from any suitable localities. 

59 (125). WOOD- WREN or WOOD- WARBLER. Phylloscopus sibilate sibilatrix 

(Bechst.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 84. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Summer resident. 

The Wood-Wren occurs from April to September in beech and oak woods, 
in the Chilterns and near Brickhill. In the Thames Valley it is decidedly scarce 
and entirely absent from the greater part of the district. Mr. Grossman, however, 
states that it was formerly fairly plentiful in Burnham Beeches and in the woods 
between that place and Ashley Green ; but Mr. Pettitt has failed to meet with it 
breeding. A few pairs, however, haunt the woods near the western boundary 
where the county is more hilly. 

[SAVI'S WARBLER. Locustella luscinioides luscinioides (Savi). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks p. 172. 

In the Zoologist, 1867, p. 704, Lord Clifton published a note saying that he 
believed that he had observed a Savi's Warbler in a low hedge near Eton, but his 
description of the bird he saw is by no means convincing ; in fact the statement 
cannot be accepted. As is well known, the species was formerly a summer resident 
in Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Huntingdon, but, except for a single bird obtained 
on Fair Isle (!) in 1908, has not been proved to occur since 1856. 

Another rather vague record appeared in Saunders' Manual Brit. B. ed. ii. 
p. 92 (1899), as follows : " There is some evidence that this species was noticed 
in May 1897, in the Humber district, as well as near Olney, Bucks. ' : The latter 
statement refers to an observation by Mr. C. J. Wilson, M.B.O.U., who kindly 
wrote to Hartert that he is fully convinced that the " Savi's Warbler is a just 
record," because he was close to the bird for some minutes, and the locality, the 
appearance, and the note of the bird were all in favour of its being L. luscinioides.] 

60 (133). GRASSHOPPER- WARBLER. Locustella naevia naevia (Bodd.). 

B. of Berks and Bucks p. 78. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Summer resident. 

Rather rare. The only certain localities we know of are : on the foot of 
the hills east of Halton (heard and seen by Arthur Goodson and Ernst Hartert), 



NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 189 

Aylesbury (eggs seen by Hartert), Mentmore (heard by Hartert), Castlethorpe 
(observed by the late Lionel Wiglesworth), Farnham Common (observed by Alan 
Crossman), Chesham and High Wycombe (teste Kennedy), Drayton Beauchamp 
(Kennedy, probably from information of Harpur Crewe). In the Thames Valley 
it is a rare visitor, but Mr. E. E. Pettitt discovered a nest with five eggs at Hythe 
End in May 1894. Breeding also took place there in 1904, as well as at Wrays- 
bury in 1919. Mr. Pettitt notes the arrival of this species in the county on April 
22, 1895, April 19, 1900, April 21, 1905, and April 30, 1910. In 1919 a pair nested 
close to Marsworth Reservoir, and the nest was found by Mrs. Oliver Pike, and 
some beautiful photographs taken by her busband. Mr. Pike is convinced that 
there were two pairs, but only one nest was found. The Grasshopper- Warbler 
had not occurred in this place during the last twenty-five years or more. 



61 (136). REED-WARBLER. Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus (Herm.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 80. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Summer- resident. 

Very common on the Marsworth, Wilstone, and Halton (Weston Turville) 
Reservoirs, and also on the Rivers Thames, Colne, Chess, and Ouse, wherever reeds 
abound. On the Tring Reservoir the Reed- Warbler is the usual and apparently 
only foster-parent of the Cuckoo, and all Cuckoo's eggs found there for the last 
twenty-five years are of much the same type, of course with some variations. 

Along the Thames and Colne Valleys it breeds commonly, as well as on the 
pond at Burnham Beeches. Mr. Pettitt has on two occasions found two Cuckoo's 
eggs in a Reed- War bier's nest in Bucks. 

For a note on unusually early nesting of this species at the Tring Reservoirs, 
see Brit. Birds (mag.), vol. ix. p. 48. 

62 (137). MARSH- WARBLER. Acrocephalus palustris (Bechst.). 

Bred in 1909. 

(In Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 76, it was stated, on the authority 
of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, that a Marsh-Warbler was shot near the Mars- 
worth Reservoir in August 1883, and was in the Tring Park collection. This 
statement seems to be due to an error in identification of a young Reed- Warbler.) 

At the time of the publication of the Vict. Hist, of Bucks, this species had not 
been ascertained to breed in the county. In 19C9 Mr. G. W. Kerr, who had 
previously discovered the Marsh- Warbler breeding in Surrey, was fortunate in 
discovering a nest with two eggs of this species, and also one of the Cuckoo in 
a dense nettle- bed not far from Magna Charta Island on June 1 4. The nest was 
about 12 yards from the river on firm ground, woven round two nettle stems, 
and about 18 in. from the ground in the parish of Wraysbury. (The locality in 
Surrey where the nest was foimd in 1907 is only a few miles south of the county 
boundary, and about five miles distant from where the birds were found breeding 
in 1909.) Subsequently Mr. E. E. Pettitt found a second nest at Wraysbury in 
the same nettle- bed, containing four Marsh- Warbler's eggs and one of the Cuckoo, 
on June 30, 1909, but the Cuckoo's egg was of a different type to that found on 
June 14 (Zool. 1909, p. 397). 



190 NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

63 (139). SEDGE-WARBLER. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 78. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 132. 

Summer resident. 

The Sedge-Warbler is generally distributed in the valleys, in the neighbour- 
hood of rivers, ditches, reservoirs and ponds, sometimes in thickly over-grown 
hedgerows quite a distance from water. Yarrell states that a single specimen was 
observed near High W^conibe in winter, without giving full date. Such a state- 
ment is hardly acceptable without proof, but curiously enough there are other 
statements of the occurrence of Sedge- Warblers in winter. 

64 (145). GARDEN- WARBLER. Sylvia borin (Bodd.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 82. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Summer resident. 

In similar places to the Blackcap, but far less common. Grossman and 
Hartert have observed it near Chesham, Beaconsfield, Burnham Beeches, Halton, 
Aylesbury, Buckingham, Mentmore, Ashridge Park, Castlethorpe, and Newport 
Pagnell ; but it occurs doubtless in many other places. In the Thames Valley 
it breeds in suitable spots, but in far smaller numbers than the Blackcap. Mr. 
E. E. Pettitt found a nest in Ditton Park which contained a young Cuckoo about 
four days old on June 5, 1906. 

65 (146). BLACKCAP. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla (L.). 

B. of Berks and Bucks, p. 82. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Summer resident. 

Common in parks, woods with undergrowth, gardens and spinneys. Gener- 
ally arrives end or middle of April, but Hartert. has heard it in full song on April 
10, near Wilstone Reservoir. 

66 (147). WHITETHROAT. Sylvia communis communis Lath. 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 83. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Summer resident. 

Common in suitable localities, such as hedgerows, commons, edges of woods, 
and some gardens. 

67 (148). LESSER WHITETHROAT. Sylvia curruca curruca (L.). 

B. of Berks and Bucks, p. 83. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Summer resident. 

The Lesser Whitethroat is generally less numerous than the Whitethroat, 
but not a rare bird. It is curious that it should be so much more plentiful in 
Middlesex than in the adjoining parts of Bucks. 

68 (155). FIELDFARE. Turdus pilaris L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 105. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 130. 

Winter visitor. 

Arrives usually in October or even November, but there are records by Lord 
Rothschild and others for September ; getting scarcer from end of March, and 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 191 

usually leaving before the end of April, but Crossman mentions ( Vict. Hist. Herts. 
p. 196) some seen at Great Gaddesden, on the boundary of Herts, and Bucks., on 

May 8, 1887. 

69 (156). MISTLE-THRUSH. Turdus viscivorus viscivorus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 12. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 129. 

Resident. 

Common in woods and parks over the greater part of the county, but not in 
any great numbers in the Thames Valley. 

70 (157). BRITISH SONG-THRUSH. Turdus philomelos clarkei Hart. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 13. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 129. 

Common resident. 

The British Song-Thrush is even more numerous than the Blackbird, and 
stays in Bucks, throughout the year, but a fair number pass through in the autumn, 
and some in the spring, evidently from higher ground in the north of England and 
Scotland. We have not been able to detect a specimen of the Continental Song- 
Thrush among them. The number of Song-Thrushes diminished very greatly 
in the severe winter of 1917, and though they have increased again considerably 
in numbers, they are still far behind their strength of before 1917. 

In the Newton collection at Cambridge is a clutch of four eggs of this species, 
taken near Stoke in May 1861, in which the ground-colour is perfectly white, 
with the usual markings. They were at first recorded as eggs of the Golden 
Oriole. See Ootheca Wolleyana, vol. ii. p. 288, and Field, May 25, 1861, p. 451. 

71 (159). REDWING. Turdus musicus L. 1758. 
[Turdus iliacus L. 1766, of most authors.] 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 106. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 130. 

Common winter visitor. 

Generally arriving about the middle of October and leaving towards end of 
March. Mr. Heneage Cocks formerly reported a specimen shot at Harleyford on 
July 28, 1871, and Mr. E. Burton Durham records one picked up in September 
1913 at Chesham Bois (Field, September 27, 1913). 

On March 11, 1906, Mr. A. H. Cocks met with an enormous flock of this 
species resting in some meadows near Skirmett. The birds were thickly distri- 
buted over eight acres of grass land, so that allowing for one bird to each square 
yard, there must have been over 38,000 birds present ! 

In the cold winter of 1917 all or nearly all Redwings which were in the county 
at that time perished ; but in the following winter, though scarcer than usual, 
more Redwings were seen than Fieldfares. The cold winter of 1854, according to 
the Field, also destroyed Redwings and Fieldfares " by tens of thousands." In 
1918 Redwings were generally very scarce. Hartert saw none until March, 
when he came to a place — a shrubbery of evergreens — where hundreds were 
roosting. In 1919 they were probably about as common as before the severe 
frost, and hundreds came to roost in the same place as the winter before, at least 
from January to March. 



192 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

72 (162). RING-OUZEL. Turdus torquatus torquatus L. 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 136. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 130. 

Passage migrant. 

Kennedy (I.e.) mentions a specimen shot at Risborough " in the spring " of 
1840, and another observed by Burgess in his garden at Latimer, September 9, 
1862. when specimens were also seen near Dundridge and Wendover. In Trans. 
Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 82, specimens supposed to have been killed in July 
1886, and in October of the same year, are mentioned. The former statement is 
probably incorrect, being from hearsay or recollection. In 1865 a male was killed 
near Burnham, and the Rev. H. H. Crewe observed specimens near Drayton 
Beauchamp, both in spring and autumn. Mr. A. H. Cocks informed Hartert, 
in lift., that one was shot near Chequers Court about 1878, and another at Stoke 
Mandeville " at least as long ago as 18S7." The Rev. Hubert Astley has several 
times observed Ring-Ouzels amongst the juniper bushes near Wendover and 
Chequers Court. In the Tring Museum is a (J shot at Wingrave 4 . xi . 1896, 
while others have been observed in autumn, and two shot near Tring, September 
14, 1893. Mr. E. E. Pettitt saw one on the Middlesex border, near Stanwell 
Moor, on April 1, 1907 (in Hit.). 

73 (164). BLACKBIRD. Turdus merula merula L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 14. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 130. 

Common resident. 

Certainly one of the commonest birds in the county, and a great nuisance to 
the fruit grower, making the growing of strawberries almost impossible, unless 
the beds are netted. 

74 (167). GREENLAND WHEATEAR. Oenanthe oenanthe leucorrhoa (Gin.). 

Passage migrant. 

This not uncommon passage migrant passes probably through Buckingham- 
shire in numbers, as there are in the Tring Museum three rather typical specimens 
shot in the neighbourhood of Tring : (J 20 . iv . 1893, (J 12 . iv . 1894, <J juv. 28 . ix . 
1896. 

75 (166). WHEATEAR. Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 76. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 130. 

Summer resident. 

Apparently less frequent than it used to be. Kennedy (I.e.) talks of it as 
" extremely numerous in summer " near Eton, where " a few nests are taken on 
the commons every year." The Rev. Hubert D. Astley found it regularly breeding 
on the slopes of Coombe Hill, near Wendover, and on chalk lulls above Princes 
Risborough, in the vicinity of Whiteleaf Cross. Arthur Goodson saw it in June 
near Buckingham. It used to breed on the bare slopes to the north-east of Tring 
Station (in Bucks), towards Ivinghoe Beacon, but has not bred there for at least 
eight or ten years, nor on the hills near Halton, where it nested regularly some 
twenty years ago. Mr. C. Oldham saw twice, in 1913 and 1916, old birds feeding 
young just out of the nest on Beacon Hill, near Wendover. Otherwise he has 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 193 

only observed Wheatears as passage migrants from the middle of March to the end 
of April, and again by the end of August. In the spring they are often observed 
near the Reservoirs, on passage, chiefly in April. On May 4, 1913, Oldham saw 
a male on the banks of Wilstone Reservoir which flew into a chestnut tree ; this 
is unusual, but Hartert has seen Wheatears sitting on bushes and fruit trees in 
the oasis of El-Golea in the Sahara. 

It is probable that a number of the passage migrants are Greenland Wheat- 
ears. 



76 (176). BRITISH STONECHAT. Saxicola torquatus hibernans (Hart.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 21. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 130. 

Local resident, but most birds leave their breeding-grounds in winter. 

In the Dinton Hall MS. recorded as being shot November 15, 1774. Now 
rather local, but one or more pairs nest on most of the commons, where gorse 
(furze) abounds. Mr. Oldham observed a pair on Cholesbury Common through- 
out the winter of 1917-18, where they mostly leave their nesting-grounds for the 
winter. Stonechats, on the other hand, often frequent the rushy margins of the 
Tring Reservoirs in winter, and Oldham observed a pair at Wilstone Reservoir 
throughout the winter of 1909-10, and again through the winter of 1910-11. 
Hartert saw them there two or three times in February and March, 1915 and 
1917. A few pairs breed in the south of the county : Mr. E. E. Pettitt has noticed 
two or three pairs at Burnham Beeches, and several pairs also breed near the 
Stanwell Reservoirs. 



77 (175). WHINCHAT. Saxicola rubetra rubetra (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 76. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 130. 

Summer resident. 

Somewhat locally distributed, and rare or absent from the hills and drier 
districts, but regularly breeding along the Thames Valley, though not in any 
numbers, also by the Ouse, Chess, in the Vale of Aylesbury, and in the north of 
the county. 

(A supposed occurrence of this species in winter, recorded in the Field for 
February 4, 1911, p. 230, is probably attributable to a hen Stonechat.) 



78 (178). COMMON REDSTART. Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (L). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 75. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Summer resident. 

The Redstart is generally not rare, but appears to be scarce on the Chiltern 
Hills and uncommon in the beech woods, though more frequent in the neighbour- 
hood of rivers, on the River Ouse, near Newport Pagnell, Castlethorpe, on the 
Chess and Thames, and breeds also in Stowe Park and Buckingham, near Ayles- 
bury and Halton, Chequers Court, Burnham Beeches, Mentmore, Amersham, 
and doubtless many other places. 

13 



194 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

79 (179). BLACK REDSTART. Phoenicians ochrurus gibraltariensis (Gm.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 171. 

Exceptional visitor. 

Kennedy (I.e.) mentions a specimen observed near Cookham, in Berks., not 
far from Bucks., but the evidence appears to be somewhat inconclusive. Mr. 

A. H. Cocks reports one as seen near Wooburn on June 11, 1909, a remarkable 
date for the appearance of this species. On November 6, 1915, however, Chas. 
Oldham observed a female or male of the year on the embankment of the Wilstone 
Reservoirs, a few hundred yards from the Bucks boundary. " At times the bird 
sought for food like a Robin on the sward which tops the embankment, but it 
fed mostly among the stones, and made frequent little sallies into the air to snatch 
insects, rising sometimes five or six feet above the ground. Twice whilst I watched 
it, visits were paid to an adjacent orchard, but the bird was back again in a 
minute or two on the embankment, where it seemed to find the best hunting" 
(Oldham, Brit. B. vol. ix. p. 185, 1915). 

(A supposed case of breeding near Windsor, reported in the Zoologist, 1916, 
p. 237, is probably attributable to the Redbreast, t.c. p. 421.) 

80 (180). NIGHTINGALE. Luscinia megarhyncha megarhyncha Brehm. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 81. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Summer resident. 

Generally absent from the hills and drier beech woods, but found in many 
places in the low-lying fertile districts, in the neighbourhood of water. 

They used to breed in the neighbourhood of the Reservoirs about twenty- 
five and twenty years ago, but have disappeared from there. 

As a rule this species is fairly well distributed in the Thames valley, and 
locally common. In 1917 Mr. Pettitt found it very scarce. 

J. Macmeikan reports the arrival of the Nightingale on March 29, 1874, 
an extraordinarily early date, and barely credible (Field, April 22, 1876, p. 464). 

81 (185). BRITISH ROBIN. Erithacus rubecula melophilus Hart. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 18. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 131. 

Common resident. 

We have never seen the continental Robin (E. rubecula rubecula) in the 
county and have not observed any migration. Of the many unusual nesting- 
sites that have been recorded, one of the most unusual ones — and not, we should 
say, beneficial to the books — is that of a pair which nested till recently, year 
after year, on bookshelves in a house near Amersham. 

82 (188). BRITISH HEDGE-SPARROW. Prunella modularis occidentalis (Hart.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 17. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Common resident. 

Found in every suitable locality. A perfectly white specimen, which had 
been noticed for eight months previously, was captured on its nest near Tring in 
April 1848 (H. H. Crewe, Zool. 1848, p. 2143). 



Novitates Zoolooioae XXVII. 1920. 195 

83 (189). WREN. Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 49. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Common resident. 

Found everywhere in woods, parks, orchards, gardens, and hedgerows. 

84 (193). DIPPER. Cinclus cinclus britatmicus Tschusi. 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 170. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 133. 

Exceptional visitor. 

According to Yarrell it has occurred on the Colne near Wraysbury, on the 
Bucks border. Goidd (B. of Great Britain, vol. ii. p. 41) says he has known of 
a solitary individual that had been killed on the River Chess. The Rev. H. Harpur 
Crewe observed one on the canal near Drayton Beauchamp (Kennedy, I.e.). 

T. Marshall, in a note on the occurrence of the Dipper in Hants., says that 
a Dipper frequented the upper waters of the River Wick, above High Wycombe, 
for two or three months in the autumn of 1894" (Field, December 3, 1898, 
p. 897). 

As Bucks is not a county with rapidly running mountain streams, the Dipper 
can never be anything else than an exceptional visitor, the River Chess alone 
approaching the type of stream suited to it, and that only in a few places. 

85 (195). SWALLOW. Hirundo rustica rustica L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 88. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 135. 

Common summer resident. 

Usually arriving in April, but in 1915 four were observed on the Tring 
Reservoirs from March 26 to 31. The present Lord Rothschild has recorded 
the hatching of one or more white Swallows together with normally coloured 
ones from 1891 to 1895, in Aylesbury, evidently the offspring of one pair (see 
Novitates Zoolooicae, vol. i. p. 667, and vol. ii. p. 484). 

86 (197). HOUSE-MARTIN. Delichon urbica urbica (L.) 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 90. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 135. 

Summer resident. 

Common, though absent from many apparently suitable villages. Supposed 
to diminish steadily, but numbers fluctuate — though rather fewer appear in some 
years, more are seen again in subsequent years. 

Does not, as a rule, arrive before April, but has been seen near Eton during 
the last week of March. Mr. Alfred Heneage Cocks observed an extraordinary 
number, he thought " about a million "(?), over the river and pool at Great Marlow, 
about 4 to 5 p.m. on September 18, 1896, and several hundreds on October 7, 
1889. An old bird and two young were seen by the same observer on November 
13, 14, and 15, 1889; and one is recorded from Eton on November 20, 1869 (" R. S.," 
Field, November 27, 1869, p. 458). The Rev. H. Harpur Crewe saw a Martin 
at Hartwell, near Aylesbury, on December 5, 1874 (Zool. 1878, p. 3833). 



196 Novitates Zoologicaz XXTO, 1020. 

S7 (198). SAND-MARTIN. Riparia riparia riparia (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 90. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 136. 

Summer resident. 

Not rare ; always to be seen on the Tring Reservoirs in summer, though we 
have not found their breeding-place anywhere near. 

A white Sand-Martin is recorded by T. Marshall as having been shot on the 
Thames, near Marlow Road, August 20, 1867 (Quart. Mag. High Wycombe Nat. 
Hist. Soc. No. vi. p. 146). 

88 (200). SWIFT. Apus apus apus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 91. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Summer resident. 

Common everywhere. Swifts leave in bulk before the end of August, but 
sometimes, though quite exceptionally, some are seen as late as October or even 
November. It is sometimes suggested that these are migrants from Scandinavia, 
but this must be erroneous, because the most northerly breeding birds leave 
first for the south. 

(For the last six years Swifts left the neighbourhood of Tring during the night 
from the 8th to the 9th of August, in 1919 leaving young in some nests to die.) 

89 (202). NIGHTJAR. Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 92. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Summer visitor. 

In suitable places by no means rare. It was, according to Kennedy, common 
in the woods near Beaconsfield, and is so still. It is also more or less regularly 
found, in summer, near Buckingham, Newport Pagnell, Bletchley, Aylesbury, 
Halton, Wendover, St. Leonards, Coombe Hill and Chequers Court, Princes 
Risborough, Burnham Beeches, Marlow, and the Hambleden district, and on 
the outskirts of Ashridge Park. 

90 (206). HOOPOE. Upupa epops epops L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 179. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 140. 

Irregular spring and autumn visitor ; one breeding record. 

On account of its conspicuous plumage this bird is generally shot soon after 
its arrival, and our records of occurrences go back for a century and a half. The 
Dinton Hall MS. has excellent figures of two birds with the following note 
appended : " Hoop or Dung Bird. Shot by William Lee of Ford, 1760. The 
vulgar in country esteem it a forerunner of some calamity. It visits these islands 
frequently, but not at stated seasons, neither does it breed with us." 

About 1828 one was shot near Eton Wick and brought to John Gould, being 
one of the first birds preserved by him. Kennedy also mentions one shot at 
Lacey Green in 1838 as being in the collection of the Rev. B. Burgess, who also 
informed him of a fourth, killed at Aston Abbots in 1851. 

One was seen by the Hon. G. F. Berkeley at West Wycombe in April 1859 
!R. B. Body, Field, May 7, 1859, p. 364), while another was wounded and captured 
alive at Burnham Gore, near Maidenhead, on May 3 (I. Ingatton, Field, loc. cit.). 
Kennedy also mentions one caught at Eton about 1860 or 1861, which lived for 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 197 

about two years in confinement and became very tame. A female was shot at 
Stewkley on April 24, 1862 (H. J. Jones, Field, May 3, 1862, p. 387). Another, 
killed about two miles from Buckingham in 1867, is recorded by Kennedy, who 
also states that specimens have been captured " more recently " near Chesham, 
but gives no date. 

In 1888 one was shot, presumably in April, on the Chilterns near Wendover 
(E. C. Odling, Field, April 14, 1888, p. 536) ; and in the following year W. Tomalin 
records one shot at Lavender Park Farm on November 21 (Field, November 30, 
1889, p. 777). 

All the above records probably relate to birds on spring or autumn migration, 
and no evidence of breeding in the county was forthcoming till 1916, when Mr. 
C. E. J. Hannett, in a letter to the Selborne Magazine, 1916, p. 93, stated that 
a pair had actually bred near Taplow in that year and had apparently reared 
at least one young bird. They were repeatedly seen in early spring by Mr. and 
Mrs. W. R. Duiistan, in a rather secluded garden, but were not disturbed and the 
nest was not found. Towards the end of the third week in May a single young 
bird was seen by Mr. Dunstan in company with its parents. It was actually 
caught by him, and described as about the size and weight of a good-sized Thrush. 
The birds disappeared shortly before June 25, but the two parents were again 
seen on July 5. 

91 (208). KINGFISHER. Alcedo atthis ispida L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 52. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 140. 

Resident. 

The Kingfisher is still regularly to be found on most streams and reservoirs. 
Though not particularly numerous, it is always to be seen on the Tring Reservoirs, 
in Stowe Park, and commonly on the Thames. It must have once been quite 
numerous, and would be commoner now if it were not so often shot without 
object or reason. A. R. Cocks tells us (Zoologist, 1891, p. 154) that a bird-stuffer 
at Great Marlow had nearly a hundred specimens to stuff in the year 1890. 

92 (209). BRITISH GREEN WOODPECKER. Picus viridis pluvius Hart.* 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 43. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Resident. 

Not rare wherever there are sufficiently old trees for them to nest in, but 
of course absent from treeless tracts. It seems, however, to become scarce on 
the lower ground in the eastern part of the Thames Valley, though fairly numerous 
in the beech woods of the western part. 

93 (211). BRITISH GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER. Dryobates major anglicus 

(Hart.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 44. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Resident. 

Apparently formerly more numerous than nowadays. Now very scarce 
in the Chilterns and Mid-Bucks generally, but evidently less rare in South Bucks. 

. * Recent examination of larger series by Witherby and Hartert make it very doubtful if this 
race can be separated, and it may be necessary to abandon it and call the British Green Woodpecker 
Picus viridis virescens Brehm, which appears to be the correct name of the Central European form, 
" pinciorum" being preoccupied. — E. H. 



198 N0T1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

In North Bucks it has been noticed at Stowe Park and Castlethorpe. Mr. Pettitt 
records it as breeding at Burnham. 

[BLACK WOODPECKER. Dryocopus martius martius (L.). 

Kennedy (B. of Berks and Bucks, p. 178) says: "In March 1867, while 
walking under some elms in Ditton Park, I saw a great Black Woodpecker busily 
engaged on one of the tallest trees within a short distance of me. I was suffi- 
ciently near to identify the bird with certainty, and had an opportunity of 
observing its movements for the space of half a minute, when it flew off with 
an undulating flight to a considerable distance, and was seen no more."] 

94 (212). BRITISH LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER. Dryobates minor 

comminutus (Hart.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 44. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Resident throughout the year. 

Though nowhere actually numerous, probably occurring in most of our 
larger parks, woods, and orchards. 

95 (213). WRYNECK. Jynx torquilla torquilla L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 86. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 139. 

Summer visitor. 

Regular summer visitor, but has recently decreased in number, at least in 
eastern and southern Bucks. Grossman found it common near Farnham and 
Burnham. A pure white specimen, a young bird of the year, was killed in 
September 1877 in the grounds of Wendover Hall and brought to H. Harpur 
Crewe on October 23. It is now in the Calke Abbey collection (Zool. 1878, p. 29). 

Mr. C. Wolley-Dod reports the arrival of this species at Eton on April 2, 1876, 
an early date (Field, April 8, 1876, p. 414), but " H. M. B." states that in 1911 
it was heard at Eton on March 13 (Field, March 18, 1911, p. 538). Some 
interesting notes on the nesting habits of the Wryneck, as observed at High 
Wycombe by R. C. Priestley, will be found in Wild Life, vol. ix. p. 268. 

96 (214). CUCKOO. Cuculus canorus canorus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 87. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 140. 

Common summer visitor. 

Cuckoos appear to be more or less common everywhere. Near the Tring 
Reservoirs, where they seem to lay exclusively in the nests of the Common Reed- 
Warblers, they are numerous. 

In the Thames Valley the Reed-Warbler is also a common foster-parent. 
Mr. E. E. Pettitt has met with eggs or young in the nests of the following species 
in this district : Marsh-Warbler (two cases), Garden-Warbler (one), and Reed- 
Bunting (two), in addition to the ordinary foster-parents. He also obtained 
eleven eggs which were obviously the produce of a single female in one season 
( Wild Life, vol. vi. pp. 56-60, 92-7). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 199 

[SNOWY OWL. Nyctea nyctea (L.). 

In the Zoologist, 1916, p. 313, Mr. A. Heneage Cocks gives full details of a 
Snowy Owl seen by him and others, on July 31, 1912, at Yewdon Manor, Hamble- 
den. When first seen it was seated on a sycamore tree in a hedgerow, but took 
wing, and after croaking hoarsely passed within 80 yards of the observer. On 
August 2 it was again seen by Mr. L. Deane, and two or three days later by Mr. 
Deane, sen., the bird passing within 8 or 10 yards of him. There seems to 
be no doubt as to the identity of the bird, but the date points to the bird having 
escaped from captivity. It is, however, worth noting that genuinely wild birds 
have occasionally been met with in summer : e.g. one is recorded from Elgin on 
June 18, 1917 {Scott. Naturalist, 1918, p. 274).] 

97 (222). LITTLE OWL. Athene noctua mira With. 

Athene noctua mira With., Brit. B. xiii. p. 283 (1920 — Holland, etc.). 
Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 141. 

Recently introduced, now common resident. 

Since 1890 Little Owls have been captured and reported from various parts 
of Bucks, and during the last eight or ten years have become quite common. 
All these are probably the offspring of the Little Owls introduced into Northamp- 
tonshire by the late Lord Lilford, from Holland. Lord Rothschild also released 
a number in Tring Park, but they almost, if not altogether, disappeared, and it 
is only recently that this species has become common in the neighbourhood of 
Tring. In the south of the county it has now become plentiful, being perhaps 
attracted by the suitable breeding-sites provided by the old willows near the river. 

Among the earlier records of occurrences, which illustrate the gradual spread 
of this species, may be mentioned the following : one at Turville, January 1894 
(C. J. Barnett, Field, May 26, 1894, p. 735) ; one at Fingest (T. Marshall, Field, 
January 30, 1897, p. 135) ; Bletchley, 1902 ; and Fulmer, November 20, 1911 
(H. H. Vyse, Field, December 2, 1911, p. 1234). 

98 (224). LONG-EARED OWL. Asio otus otus (L.). 
B, of Berks, and Bucks, p. 5. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 140. 

Resident. 

Not numerous, but breeds regularly in woods and large parks, as for example 
in Burnham Beeches and Fulmer (Clark Kennedy) ; the Chiltern Hills, at Beacons- 
field ; Ashridge Park (H. H. Crewe) ; and Mentmore Park. Sometimes congre- 
gates in considerable numbers ; in a wood to the west of Tring, Rothschild and 
Hartert saw probably not less than forty on one day in autumn, when Pheasant- 
shooting. 

99 (225). SHORT-EARED OWL. Asio flammeus nammeus (Pontopp.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 104. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 140. 

Autumn and winter visitor. 

Though not rare, of irregular occurrence, being apparently absent in some 
seasons, and not found every winter anywhere. Generally met with more 



200 Novttates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

frequently in the low-lying districts, such as the neighbourhood of Drayton 
Beauchamp, Marsworth, Long Marston (near the Reservoirs), and chiefly in 
October and November, but also in fields on the Chiltern Hills. 

[SCOPS-OWL. Otus scops scops (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 166. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 141. 

A. and H. Matthews wrote in the Zoologist, 1849, p. 2596 : " A bird of this 
species was shot by a farmer on the borders of Buckinghamshire, near Brill, in 
the spring of 1833, and taken to Mr. Forrest, from whom we shortly afterwards 
received information of its occurrence."] 

100 (229). TAWNY OWL. Strix aluco sylvatica Shaw.* 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 10. Vict. History of Bucks, p. 141. 

Common resident. 

The Brown or Wood-Owl is common in woods, parks, and other suitable 
places throughout the county. O. V. Aplin (Zoologist, 1884, p. 471) mentions 
an extremely grey variety " with the white markings conspicuous and no trace 
of rufous tawny,"' which was shot at Great Horwood, near Winslow, in July 
1884. In Great Britain the rufous tawny is the prevailing phase, while on the 
continent greyish specimens are commoner. 

101 (227). BARN-OWL. Tyto alba alba (Scop.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 8. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 140. 

Not uncommon resident. 

Though decidedly less numerous than the Tawny Owl, this species is by no 
means uncommon in suitable localities. Clark Kennedy states that a nest found 
in Burnham Beeches in 1865 contained the unusual number of nine eggs, while 
on one occasion eleven eggs were found in a nest near Tring. Mr. Grossman found 
a bird incubating one of its own eggs and two of the Stock-Dove at Newton 
Blossomville in 1893. 

102 (233). PEREGRINE FALCON. Falco peregrinus peregrinus Tunst. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 162. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Irregular straggler on jxissage and in winter. 

It is somewhat remarkable that we have comparatively few records of this 
species, when it is remembered that it occurs regularly every year in the neigh- 
bouring counties of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and possibly closer observation 
may result in its recognition as an annual visitor. 

The Rev. Bryant Burgess in 1846 saw one which had been shot in Liscombe 
Park. Another was reported by James Britten as having been captured in the 
sixties in Brickhill Wood, near Woburn (Clark Kennedy, I.e.). 

* In the Handlist of Brit. Birds, p. 109, we have called the British Tawny Owl Strix aluco aluco, 
but it must be separated from the continental form. It is smaller, wings $ 246-264 (?268), 
$260-276, while North and Central European examples measure $ 265-293, $267-304 mm. 
Moreover, the brownish- rufous coloration predominates, grey ones being comparatively rare, and the 
greyest not so whitish grey as the greyest and lightest on the continent, where the rufous type is 
very much rarer than the grey one. Cf. Vog. pal. Fauna, ii. pp. 102.1, 1025. — E. H. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 201 

Mr. A. H. Cocks (in litt. 1902) states on the authority of Mr. W. Rhodes that 
one was killed " about thirty years ago " at Fawley, and adds that another was 
trapped " recently " at the same place. 

An adult Peregrine shot at Old Windsor and sent to Curtis for preservation 
on November 5, 1879, may have been a trained bird (Zoologist. 1880, p. 70). 

Mr. G. Tickner killed a tiercel while pigeon-shooting about New Year's Day, 
1894 or 1895, at Collett Farm, between Aylesbury and Tring. 

Mr. John Chapman shot a moulting male in nearly complete adult plumage 
on October 4, 1897, at Folly Farm, near Long Marston, on the Bucks boundary. 

One was brought to the Rev. H. D. Astley at Chequers Court in the autumn 
of 1898, which had been found drowned in the small reservoir on Beacon Hill. 

Another male in full plumage was killed by a keeper, Charles Double, on 
October 10, 1905, at Folly Farm, near Long Marston ; and on April 17 of the same 
year a male moulting into adult plumage was shot near Tring. 

Mr. W. D. Mackenzie (Field, February 23, 1907, p. 307) states that in 1905 
a female was trapped in Fawley Park, and that another was picked up dead at 
the same place on February 5, 1907. 

Mr 0. V. Aplin (Zoologist, 1911, p. 7) records a fine and unusually dark- 
coloured Peregrine in first year's plumage, shot at or near Buckingham, November 
7, 1910. 

A beautiful old Falcon was shot at Wingrave, on February 8, 1913, only 
about two miles from Folly Farm, from which place two specimens are recorded 
above. 

In 1917 a pair of Peregrines stayed so late at Fawley Court as to lead to the 
impression that they were breeding in one of the old elms from 100 to 120 feet 
high, though no actual proof was obtained. In 1919 Mr. W. D. Mackenzie also 
noticed a pair on several occasions in April : both birds were seen on April 21. 
These birds subsisted almost entirely on Woodpigeons. 



103 (235). HOBBY. Falco subbuteo subbuteo L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 69. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Formerly bred in Bucks, and ■probably does so even now, ihongh only occasionally 
observed. 

According to Kennedy a pair nested in a wood near Datchet in the summer 
of 1861, but four of the young ones were shot at Thorney almost as soon as they 
could fly ; only two, however, were actually seen by Kennedy, and it is not very 
likely that four came from the same nest. The same author speaks also of speci- 
mens observed in Langley Park and of its occurrence near Chesham. 

An adult male and female were shot at Folly Farm, near Long Marston, 
close to the Bucks boundary, on August 14 and 16, 1894, by Mr. J. Chapman, 
and another adult male near Drayton Beauchamp, May 28, 1912, by W. H. Price. 
These specimens are in the Tring Museum. The last occurrence suggests that 
the bird might have nested not far away, if left alive ; and in the County Museum 
at Aylesbury are specimens shot near Wootton Underwood, August 1, 1908, and 
June 26, 1909. 

Mr. T. Steele Elliott (Zool. 1913, p. 465) also records an adult bird as killed 
at Lavendon on August 23, 1913. 



202 Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 

104 (236). MERLIN. Falco columbarius aesalon Tunst. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 102. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Winter visitor, but rare. 

(E. Curtis (Field, December 27, 1879, p. 853) records two young birds shot 
near Windsor, in Berkshire.) 

Mr. J. Chapman shot two adult males at Folly Farm, near Long Marston, 
on the Bucks boundary, on November 14, 1895, and December 21, 1897, both 
being now in the Tring Museum. 

On November 21, 1909, Mr. A. H. Cocks records a Merlin striking a bird 
(apparently a Starling) within a few yards of where he was standing, and carrying 
off its prey with some difficulty. Another was also seen by him while Partridge- 
shooting. 

C. Oldham [in litt.) has the following two observations : " February 21, 
1915. A Merlin stooped at a Goldfinch on the bank of Weston Turville Reservoir."' 
" February 25, 1917. An adult male observed near Wilstone Reservoir." 

105 (237). KESTREL. Falco rinnunculus hiinunculus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 1. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Resident. 

More in evidence in autumn and winter, but nesting wherever not destroyed 
by keepers, who, if not energetically checked, kill every " hawk " — and owl ! 

| RED-FOOTED FALCON. Falco vespertinus vespertinus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 102. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Exceptional vagrant — one reported occurrence. 

Kennedy (I.e.) gives the following somewhat unsatisfactory report: "The 
inspector of the Eton police force — an intelligent man, who has a taste for natural 
history — informed me that an Orange-legged Hobby was shot by the under-keeper 
on Sir Harry Verney's estate at Steeple Claydon, near Buckingham, in January 
1858. The date is an unusual one at which to find the species here, but my 
informant is acquainted with the bird and is not likeiy to have been mistaken."] 

[? GOLDEN EAGLE. Aquila chrysaetus chrysaetus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 154. 

Clark Kennedy (I.e.) mentions a Golden Eagle killed at Billing Bear, near 
Cookham, in Berkshire, but not far from the Buckinghamshire border. Date 
and year are not stated, but it was trapped by a keeper and its identification rests 
on the evidence of Briggs, who collected many birds for Mrs. De Vitre. There 
is no reason to believe that this specimen was ever seen by R. B. Sharpe (cf. 
Quart. Mag. High Wycombe Nat. Hist. Soc. 1867, p. 123). Probably the date 
was not later than about 1850. Another so-called "Golden Eagle," recorded by 
Kennedy from Berkshire is known to be a White-tailed Eagle, and this may 
well have been the case also in the present instance.] 



Novitates Zooloqicae XXVII. 1920. 103 

106 (242). ROUGH-LEGGED BUZZARD. Buteo lagopus lagopus (Briinn.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 165. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 141. 

Irregular and rare winter visitor. 

Kennedy (I.e.) mentions a pair shot in Bledlow Woods, not far from Princes 
Risborough, in November 1839. A specimen was trapped near Wycombe, 
December 6, 1880 (T. Marshall, Field, December 18, 1880, vol. ii. p. 905). Mr. 
Heatley Noble saw one at Fawley Court in the winter of 1885 or 1886. Three 
were trapped (one alive) in the late autumn of 1891 near Halton, two of which 
are preserved in the Tring Museum. In the autumn of 1912 Hartert saw one 
alive in the possession of Mr. Harry Jenney, which had been winged by his keeper 
not far from Aston Clinton. It lived for several weeks and then died. 

Probably a " huge hawk " seen by a keeper near the Reservoirs in the winter 
of 1917 was a Buzzard, and perhaps a Rough-leg. 

107 (243V BUZZARD. Buteo buteo buteo (L). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 104. Vict. Hist, of Bucks. vo\. i. p. 141. 

Formerly a resident, now only a very rare straggler. 

Although Buzzards probably bred at one time in most of our large woods, 
our information on this point is lamentably scanty, though fortunately we possess 
full details of what may have been the last nest in the county. Dr. Lamb, of 
Newbury, writing in the early part of the nineteenth century (circa 1814), de- 
scribed it as " very common " about that time in the neighbouring county of 
Berkshire.* Its disappearance must have been very rapid, for Clark Kennedy, 
writing in 1868, only gives three instances of its occurrence in the two counties 
and Sharpe, in his articles on the " Birds of Cookham " (October 1867), refers 
to one of these cases only. 

Mr. T. Marshal], in a note contributed to the Quarterly Magazine of the High 
Wycombe Nat. Hist. Soc. for January 1869 (p. 71), states that he has recently 
received a long and interesting account of the taking of a Buzzard's nest in Bucks. 
In 1806 Mr. R. Spicer, of Marlow, was a pupil of the Rev. Thomas Scott at Gaw- 
cott, near Buckingham, and while shooting in the neighbourhood with two fellow- 
pupils discovered a Buzzard's nest in the top of a high oak tree. " The tree was 
of great size, and the nest was built on a fork which towered some 5 feet above 
the rest of the tree. His companions tried, but in vain, to reach the nest. My 
informant then essayed to do so, and after labours which nearly exhausted him, 
succeeded in gaining the summit, and to his great joy found two eggs, very round, 
large and thick, white with yellow spots." The eggs were taken and the descent 
made in safety. 

In 1874 one was killed at Little Marlow, which, according to Mr. T. Marshall, 
had been observed and stalked for a long time previously. Another was trapped 
near High Wycombe early in March 1875 (T. Marshall, Field, March 30, 1875, 
p. 272). 

One was seen on the wing at Hambleden on May 18, 1900, by Mr. A. H. Cocks, 
who reports that a Buzzard (possibly the same bird) was killed at Datchet in the 
following June (Zool. 1904, p. 34). 

* Zool. 1880, p. 314. 



204 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Mr. E. M. Dowson saw one circling at 300-400 feet above the golf course at 
Stoke Poges on April 13, 1913 {Field, April 19, 1913, p. 772). 



108 (245). MARSH-HARRIER. Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 4. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 141. 

Said to have been resident in former times ; no recent data. 

Kennedy (I.e.) wrote : " Resident throughout the year, but nowhere numer- 
ous. It is distributed sparingly in both counties, and is doubtless often con- 
founded with the Hen-Harrier. It was formerly more common than it now is ; 
and when there was a greater extent of uncultivated heaths and moorland wastes 
the Marsh-Harrier might frequently have been observed sailing in mid-air in search 
of prey. A few are still to be seen at various seasons in the neighbourhood of 
Chesham ; and it remains all the year in some favoured localities, which are now, 
alas ! ' few and far between,' in the two counties. The Rev. Bryant Burgess, 
of Latimer, near Chesham, wrote me word of an immature Marsh-Harrier, which 
was killed some years ago at Risborough." 

Unfortunatety all these statements are rather vague and do not contain 
one single exact date. The next record is fortunately more precise. Mr. A. H. 
Cocks received a male alive, which had been winged near Spade Oak, Little 
Marlow, in the heavy snow of January 19, 1881. This bird was kept for several 
months in a walled-in garden, but was eventually killed by a Common Buzzard 
on May 30, 1882. 

109 (246). MONTAGU'S HARRIER. Circus pygargus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 166. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 141. 

Occurring occasionally. 

Clark Kennedy wrote [I.e.) : "The Rev. Harpur Crewe informed me that 
a specimen of this bird was killed some years since by Mr. A. H. Jenney in the 
parish of Drayton Beauchamp, in Buckinghamshire. It is now in the collection 
of Sir J. H. Crewe. Mr. R. B. Sharpe sent me word that a Harrier of this species 
was procured by a gentleman of his acquaintance near Eton in the summer of 
1867, and is now in his collection." 

Mr. A. H. Cocks [Field, February 8, 1873) records a specimen killed near 
Hurley in 1870. 

An adult male was trapped by a keeper near Wigginton, near Tring, close 
to the border of Bucks, in the spring of 1891, and is in the Tring Museum. 

110 (247). HEN-HARRIER. Circus cyaneus cyaneus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 4. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 141. 

Formerly said to have been common, now disappeared. 

Kennedy (I.e.) says that in the forties of the nineteenth century it was, 
according to Mrs. Hussey, " a common bird in Buckinghamshire." A male 
was shot at Eton College in 1857. A specimen shot in the Rev. H. H. Crewe's 
time near the reservoirs is in the collection of Sir Vauncey Crewe. Another is 
said to have been shot at the same place in December 1884. Kennedy also says, 



Nqvitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 205 

" The Hen-Harrier has occurred at Chesham and near Cookham, and it has been 
seen flying over Langley Park at such a low altitude as to enable the beholder to 
ascertain the species.'' Unfortunately he gives no dates for these occurrences. 
The latest occurrence of this species is that of a female bird, shot by a keeper 
at Upton Wood, Langley, on October 23, 1911, and recorded by H. H. Vyse in 
the Field for December 2, 1911, p. 1234. 



Ill (248). GOSHAWK. Accipiter gentilis gentilis (L.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Two occurrences only. 

A male shot September 10, 1789, near Dinton Hall, by the Rev. W. Goodall, 
is well figured in the Dinton Hall MS. 

In the Quart. Jov.rn. of the High Wycombe Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. ii. p. 15, a 
specimen of the Goshawk is recorded as having been exhibited at the third winter 
session of the Society, which had been shot near Stone. 

112 (249). SPARROW-HAWK. Accipiter nisus nisus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 3. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Resident. 

Breeds in larger woods in spite of persecution by keepers. In winter in 
parks and gardens, and working along uncut hedges. 

113 (250). RED KITE. Milvus milvus milvus (L.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 163. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Rare straggler, formerly resident. 

There is no doubt that this species, like the Buzzard, formerly bred in the 
larger woods of the county, and evidence of this is furnished by the prevalence 
of local names such as " Kite's Wood,"' " Kite's Hill," especially in the Vale of 
Aylesbury, as pointed out by John Young (Zool. 1892, p. 232). The same writer 
also states that an old gardener named Lloyd used to tell stories of the depreda- 
tions of the old birds, and of nests found in the neighbourhood of Quainton. 
The references to socks and small linen found in the nest show that in this case 
there was no confusion with the Buzzard. 

The late S. VV. Jenney shot a Kite near the Wilstone Reservoir in the sixties, 
which is now in the collection of Sir Vauncey H. Crewe. C. Wolley saw a Kite 
in a field near Eton " many years ago " (Kennedy, I. c). 

During the eighties one was reported to Mr. A. H. Cocks as frequenting 
the late Mr. J. P. Ellames's property at Little Marlow, but though seen on several 
occasions, managed to escape the usual fate of such visitors. 

Mr. Guy C. Robson informed the present Lord Rothschild that on December 
15, 1913, he twice saw a bird between Wendover and Halton which he felt sure 
was a Kite, and independent enquiries tended to confirm the identification. 
Kites were also identified in December 1913 in North Somerset, and from April 
to June 1913 in Derbyshire (cf. Brit. Birds, vol. vii. p. 299). 



206 NOVITATES ZoOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

114 (252). HONEY-BUZZARD. Pernis apivorus apivorus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 165. Vict, Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Norv only rare casual visitor on migration. 

Apparently this species formerly bred in the county, but as a nesting-species 
it has long been extinct, though it is possible that an occasional bird may 
still visit us, especially on the autumn migration from Scandinavia. 

In an article on the " Pern or Honey Buzzard," by Edward Blyth, in Charles- 
worth's Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 529 (1837), it is stated on John Gould's 
authority that this species " breeds annually " at Burnham Beeches. The assertion 
is repeated in A. G. More's paper in the Ibis, 1865, p. 13, " On the Distribution 
of Birds in Great Britain during the Nesting-season." 

Bryant Burgess informed Clark Kennedy of one which was captured in 1842 
between Chesham and Missenden. 

J. Gardner recorded one shot near Maidenhead in July 1867 (Field, July 27, 
1867, p. 73). This is, however, almost certainly a Berks, record, as Mr. W. J. 
Robson states (tn lift, to Mr. H. Noble, September 20, 1904) that a fine specimen 
exists at Attwood which was shot at Shottsbrook [Berks.] about 1866. This is 
evidently the bird set up and recorded by Gardner. 

Two were killed in Shabbington Woods, near Brill, on or about September 
23, 1882, by Mr. Henley's head- keeper, and one, a very dark bird, was set up by 
Darby of Oxford (F. C. Aplin, Zoologist, 1882, p. 116). 

115 (244). WHITE-TAILED, or SEA- EAGLE. Haliaeetus albicilla (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 155. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 142. 

Rare and irregular visitor in autumn or winter. 

The earliest definite record of this species is contained in a paper on " The 
Birds of Oxfordshire," by the Rev. A. and H. Matthews (Zool. 1849, p. 2594), 
where it is stated that a White-tailed Eagle was caught in a trap near Chequers 
Court in 1846. The Rev. H. G. Nind, of South Stoke, Oxon, also has a stuffed 
specimen, formerly in his father's collection, which was killed on the playing- 
fields of Eton about 1846, by the Rev. Edward Coleridge, then an assistant master 
there (E. E. Pettitt in litt.). Another is also said by Messrs. Matthews to have 
occurred " a few years ago " near Henley-on-Thames. Possibly this is the same 
bird that Yarrell recorded, without further details, as having been taken at 
Fawley Court, which is near Henley. C. E. Stubbs, when compiling his MS. 
"Sketch of the Ornithology of Henley-on-Thames about 1868," also states 
that " many years ago " a white-tailed Eagle was taken alive in a fir plantation 
at Fawley Court. Probably the actual date was somewhere in the early forties. 
(Cf. Zool. 1903, p. 445.) Kennedy mentions three or four occurrences from the 
Windsor district in 1851, 1856, and 1865, but all apparently from the Berks, side. 

An immature bird remained for some weeks in Fawley Court Deer Park 
during the shooting-season of 1894-5, under Mr. W. D. Mackenzie's protection. 
On one occasion he saw the Eagle settle in a tree just overhead. It was also seen 
by Mr. H. Noble (Zool. 1903, p. 13). Probably this is the same bird which is 
stated in the Vict. Hist, of Bucks., loc. cit., to have frequented Fawley Deer Park 
"about 1885 or 1886." 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 207 

116 (253). OSPREY. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 158. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Formerly the Osprey appears to have been an occasional visitor on migration 
tn the reservoirs and the Thames Valley, but there are no records si?ice 1901. 

The earliest occurrence of which we have any note is that of one killed in 
February 1845 at Chequers, which is stated by Clark Kennedy to have passed 
into the collection of Lady Frankland Russell. 

In 1853, according to the Rev. H. Harpur Crewe (or 1854 as quoted by Clark 
Kennedy), another was shot by a labourer on the bank of the canal at Halton, 
while devouring a dead pigeon which was lying on the towing-path, and passed 
into the possession of Sir Anthony de Rothschild, of Aston Clinton (Zool. 1865, 
p. 9416 ; Ibis, 1865, p. 114). One which was shot at Hambleden in the winter 
of 1858 had been seen for several days previously in the Fawley woods, according 
to Mr. Dalziel Mackenzie. 

One which had been seen fishing on the Thames for some days previously 
was shot by the lodge keeper at Ditton Park on September 24, 1862 (T. Willis, 
Field, October 4, 1862, p. 319). The date is erroneously given by Clark Kennedy 
as September 26, 1863. Throughout the greater part of September 1864 two 
Ospreys frequented the Wilstone Reservoirs. They were very tame, and were 
apparently not molested by the keepers, but on September 30 the female was 
killed, while eating a fish, by a country lad. The skin was afterwards given to 
Mr. Harpur Crewe. The male left the neighbourhood shortly after, but John 
Gould informed Mr. Crewe that another, also a male, was killed on the Thames 
near Maidenhead about this time, which was probably the same bird {Zool. 
1865, p. 9415 ; Ibis, 1865, p. 113). On May 9 James Street observed an Osprey 
at the Tring Reservoirs. R. B. Sharpe gives details of another, which had been 
seen near Hedsor for several days, and was finally shot on the Thames at Cookham 
on October 6, 1864. He also refers to another which is said to have been seen 
near the same place three days later, and was reported to have been killed at 
Windsor (Quart. Mag. High Wycombe Nat. Hist. Soc. 1867, p. 124). 

Clark Kennedy states that an Osprey was frequently observed on the Thames 
near Surley Hall in 1865, 1866, 1867, and the early part of 1868, but though 
frequently shot at, it managed to escape (B. of B. and B. p. 161). A female 
was, however, shot by Captain Robson near Maidenhead in August 1867 ( Vict. 
Hist. p. 143). L. Hibbert records another shot at Chalfont Park, near Slough, 
on September 28, 1883 (Field, October 6, 1883, p. 490), which had been there for 
about a fortnight previously. The last instance took place in 1901, when Mr. 
Pope, jun., shot one on Aston Hill, above Halton, on October II. Reports from 
two different sources would seem to indicate that a second bird was present in 
the neighbourhood. 

117 (256). WHITE STORK. Ciconia ciconia ciconia (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 189. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Once recorded. 

According to James Dalton, of Oxford, a stork was shot a few miles from 
Buckingham, in September 1846 (Morris, Hist. Brit. B. vol. iv. p. 162, ed. ii. 

1870). 



20g NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

118 (259). GLOSSY IBIS. Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus (L.). 

Once recorded. 

A Glossy Ibis, a bird of the year, was shot by a lock-keeper on the Wendover 
arm of the canal, not far from Halton, in October 1886, and is now in the Tring 
Museum (Littleboy, from Rothschild, in Hit., Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Sue. 
vol. v. p. 82). 

119 (260). COMMON HERON. Ardea cinerea cinerea L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 60. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Resident, breeding in two or three localities, and -present on the reservoirs and 
rivers throughout the year. 

Herons are always to be seen on the Thames, Ouse, and the reservoirs, but 
principally in late summer and autumn. On the Tring reservoirs it is no uncom- 
mon sight to see a dozen or more together. 

Probably the oldest heronry in the county is that which still exists, though 
in greatly reduced numbers, at Harleyford Manor, above Marlow, on the 
Thames. In 1866 C. E. Stubbs stated that there were over forty nests here, but 
in 1 902 Mr. A. F. Grossman found that this once flourishing colony had dwindled 
down to a few nests in two or three tall fir trees, and of late years the birds are 
said to have been much disturbed by timber felling. At Fawley Court there is 
now a flourishing colony, which in 1919 contained forty-four nests. Mr. W. D. 
Mackenzie has supplied us with some interesting notes on the history of this 
heronry, which is of comparatively recent origin. The first nest was built in an 
oak, some time in the sixties, but the young birds were taken. In 1890 there 
were two nests, four in 1891, and ten in 1892. About this time Mr. Mackenzie 
saw no fewer than sixty-four birds on the wing at once. They had evidently 
just arrived, and about half the number remained to breed, some sixteen nests 
being built that year. Up to 1910 the number of breeding pairs varied from 
eleven to sixteen, but from 1917 to 1918 it has remained stationary at about 
thirty. The Rooks at Fawley Court have forsaken their old haunts near the house 
and have followed the Herons to a wood about a mile away. 

Another heronry is said to have existed in Claydon Park, but we can find no 
direct evidence of this, and probably the statement is due to confusion of Claydon 
Park with Harleyford Manor, which belonged to Lady Clayton. 

About 1912 or 1913 a pair nested at Dinton on Colonel Goodall's property, 
but the site appears to have been deserted. Mr. Edwin Hollis discovered a small 
heronry of about a dozen nests near Gayhurst, about half a mile from the River 
Ouse, in March 1919 (E. Hollis in litt.). 

120 (266). NIGHT-HERON. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (L. ). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 189. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Exceptional visitor. 

According to Pennant (in litt. to Latham) an immature example (called the 
" Gardenian Heron ") was shot near Cliefden in Bucks in 1797. 

(Another immature example was killed near Thame, in Oxfordshire, not far 
from Buckinghamshire.) 

Sir H. Rae Reid (Field, August 26, 1899, p. 394) records the appearance 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 209 

of one of these birds at Taplow for three or four days in August 1899, but there 
is some r;ason to believe that this may have been an escaped bird. 

121 (267). LITTLE BITTERN. Lrobrychus minutus minutus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 186. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Rare visitor, chiefly to the Thames Valley. 

Clark Kennedy refers to several occurrences of this species on the Thames, 
but in most cases with somewhat scanty data. An immature bird, shot on the 
Thames near Windsor in the summer of 1826, was believed to have been bred in 
the neighbourhood (cf. Yarrell, ed. iv. vol. iv. p. 202, and Zool. Journal, 1827, 
p. 88). John Gould received another about 1828 from the Thames near Monkey 
Island, and a third was shot on Queen"s Eyot, near Windsor, in the summer 
of 1860. About 1856 or 1858 another was killed near Monkey Island, and others 
of which no dates are given, are said to have been obtained near Surley, Windsor 
and Uxbridge (Clark Kennedy, I.e.). 

T. Marshall (Field, October 7, 1865, p. 254) recorded a specimen shot in 
August 1865 on the Thames near Maidenhead. 

Mr. A. Allen records a male bird killed near Olney " a few weeks ago " in 
the Field, August 19, 1911, p. 474. 

122 (268). BITTERN. Botaurus stellaris stellaris (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 187. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Formerly breeding, now only an irregular and uncommon winter visitor. 

A nest was found on one of the Tring Reservoirs (the great Marsworth 
Reservoir) in 1849. The old bird was killed on the nest (!) and some of the eggs 
were taken. One of these is in the Newton Collection in Cambridge, another 
in that of Miss Ellen Williams, Tring. 

Kennedy (I.e.) records a specimen shot at Fawley Court in January 1864, 
one shot at Medmenham in 1851, and some killed near Chesham. One was shot 
at Cockmarsh, close to the river, January 14, 1871 (Cocks, Field, 1873, p. 135). 
The present Lord Rothschild shot one at the Reservoirs in 1890 or 1891. A male 
was shot on Cholesbury Common 12 . xii . 1892 by William Street ; other speci- 
mens were killed on the Tring Reservoirs 21 . xi . 1894 by James Street, 9 . ii . 1906 
by the present Lord Rothschild, and 12. i. 1916 by James Street, three of 
which were males. Another remained there for ten days, but left on 
January 14, 1909 (Brit. Birds, vol. ii. p. 309). 

In the winter of 1912 (probably in January, but date not recorded) 
Rothschild observed a Bittern for ten minutes at Marsworth Reservoir. 

Some years ago a Bittern stayed several weeks in winter at one of the 
reservoirs, but no note was made of the date. 

[An American Red Flamingo stayed several weeks on the reservoirs in the 
summer of 1918.] 

123 (271). WHOOPER SWAN. Cygnus cygnus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 118. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Rare winter visitor. 

Kennedy (I.e.) quotes the following instances of the occurrence in Bucks. 
In the winter of 1835 a Whooper was shot near Eton. Another was killed about 
14 



210 NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

1837 near Eton, and two were shot above Surley Hall in 1838. " Some " were 
procured in 1848 in the neighbourhood of Burnham, and two shot out of five 
between Cookham and Maidenhead in 1855. In the winter of 1862 two were 
killed at Wraysbury, and stuffed by Mr. Hasell, of Windsor. Another was 
shot " on the river" in the winter of 1865-6. " Others have been brought at 
various times to the Eton and Windsor bird-stuffers, but the dates of their 
occurrence have been forgotten." Seven were seen for some days in some 
meadows near Fawley and Greenlands during December 1860 and January 1861 ; 
two were afterwards shot at Medmenham and one near Windsor. " This Swan 
has been procured near Chesham." Some years before 1868 one was killed at 
Latimer and was, in 1868, in the collection of Lord Chesham. On February 21, 
1864, five " Wild Swans " were seen at Fawley, and with them were two Mute 
Swans ; the two latter were lulled, but the Whoopers flew westward over the 
( hiltern Hills. According to H. H. Crewe, the Whooper " occasionally visits 
the reservoirs at Wilstone and Marsworth in severe winters." 

In the winter of 1891 a flock of Swans visited the Tring Reservoirs ; two 
were shot, of which one is a Bewick's, the other a Whooper. Another Whooper 
was shot a week or two after. 

124 (272). BEWICK'S SWAN. Cygnus bewickii bewickii Yarr. 

Very rare winter visitor. 

In the winter of 1891 a flock of Swans visited the Tring Reservoirs; two 
were shot, of which one is a Bewick's, the other a Whooper. Both are in the 
Tring Museum. 

125 (273). MUTE SWAN. Cygnus olor (Gm.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. G4. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Semi-domesticated on many miters. 

On the Thames and the Tring Reservoirs Mute Swans are living and propagat- 
ing as if they were wild birds, and it is a wonderful sight to see them flying round 
the reservoirs, and from one to the other of these waters, but the3 r remain always 
more or less tame, and never attain the shyness of wild birds. 

126 (274). GREY LAG-GOOSE. Anser anser (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 199. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Rare winter visitor. 

According to Kennedy (I.e.), alighting sometimes on inundated meadows 
in the Vale of Aylesbury, near Hulcott and Aston Clinton. The Hon. Walter 
(now Lord) Rothschild informed Littleboy that a specimen was shot at the Tring 
Reservoirs in September 1886. The late L. W. Wiglesworth told Hartert that 
he had several times seen it on the River Ouse, near Castlethorpe. 

127 (275). WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. Anser albifxons (Scop.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 199. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 114. 

Rare winter visitor. 

According to Kennedy (I.e.) it has occasionally been seen and shot on the 
Thames (Eton, Datchet), and H. H. Crewe has observed it sometimes on the 
reservoirs near Tring. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 211 

" A White-fronted Goose with some Mallards in the rushes at Little Tring 
Reservoir. It rose with the Mallards, and flew across to Wilstone Reservoirs, 
but two hours later it was back at Little Tring, feeding in the rushes. When 
disturbed it flew off, but returned presently and pitched on the water. This is 
hardly the behaviour of a wild Goose" (C. Oldham in lift.).* 



128 (277). BEAN-GOOSE. Anser fabalis fabalis (Lath.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 117. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Rare visitor. 

According to Kennedy (I.e.), visits the Thames from time to time, and has 
been shot near Slapton and Chesham. 

(From time to time — according to farmers and keepers now much more 
rarely — geese are seen flying overhead, which may belong to this species, but 
they are never identified.) 

129 (283). BRENT-GOOSE. Branta bernicla bernicla (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 118. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Rare winter visitor. 

In 1865 a pair were shot near Datchet : one was killed on the Thames near 
Eton and another near Cookham during the hard winter of 1866-7 ; the late 
Rev. H. Harpur Crewe states that small flocks visited the Wilstone Reservoir 
in severe weather. Two were killed and several seen at Surley in January 
1867 (C. Kennedy, I.e.) 

December 7, 1913, Charles Oldham observed a Brent-Goose with two Sheld- 
Ducks on Wilstone Reservoir. It got up twice, while he watched it, once alone 
and once with the Sheld-Ducks, but it seemed loth to leave the water and dropped 
again, well out in the middle. 

130 (285). COMMON SHELD-DUCK. Tadorna tadorna (L.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 205. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Occasional visitor in winter or spring to the reservoirs awl Thames Valley. 

A male was shot in March 1780, near Dinton Hall, and is very well figured 
in the Dinton Hall MS. The Rev. H. H. Crewe informed Clark Kennedy that 
he had observed it several times in winter on the reservoirs near Tring. One 
was observed by Rothschild here 8 . i . 1 888, and another shot 6 . xi . 1893. James 
Street saw a third 10 . i . 1897, and a fourth was shot 12 . xii . 1899. Both birds 
shot were young males, and are now in the Tring Museum. C. Oldham saw two 
Sheld-Duck and a. Brent-Goose on Wilstone Reservoir 7 . xii . 1913, two birds on 
19 . iv . 1914, one on 18 . iv . 1915, a very wild male 28 . iv . 1918, and another 
12 . v . 1918, all at the same place. 

To the south of the county and the Thames Valley it is a scarce casual winter 
visitor. Clark Kennedy mentions one shot on the Thames near Cookham some 

* Knowing how many Geese and foreign Ducks are kept in England on ponds in parks and gardens, 
and considering that Canada-Geese have often visited the Tring Reservoirs, and that an American 
Flamingo was observed there two years ago, occurrences of all sorts of uncommon water-fowl are 
open to suspicion, and each case must be taken on its merits and judged by collateral circumstances. 



212 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1020. 

years prior to 1868, and also states (on R. B. Sharpe's authority) that one was 
seen near Cookham for several days during the winter of 1867-8. 

E. Curtis records one killed at Surley Hall on the Thames (Field, vol. liv. 
December 27, 1879, p. 853) ; and Mr. E. E. Pettitt informs us that on December 
30, 1906, he saw seven fly from the Bucks side and settle on the Stanwell 
Reservoir, within the Middlesex boundary (in litt.). 

Although this species is principally a resident on our low-lying coasts and 
estuaries, there seems no reason why the above records should not relate to 
genuinely wild birds, but it is possible that some may be due to the presence 
of escaped park birds. 

[RUDDY SHELD-DUCK. Casarca ferruginea iPall.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 144. 

Though we do not for a moment doubt that the many occurrences of this 
species in Great Britain and Ireland in 1892 and several other years are those 
of genuine wild birds from abroad, we must be prepared for the occurrence of 
escaped birds in England, and the two appearances in Bucks shoidd no doubt 
be referred to such. In 1S92 (Zoologist, p. 359) Mr. H. H. Vyse states that ten 
were bred at Stoke Park, near Slough, of which only two were caught and pinioned, 
while the rest flew away, usually when frost and snow came. 

" A specimen killed at Wootton Underwood in December 190S, in the Bucks 
County Museum. Probably an escaped specimen " (Edwin Hollis in lit!.). 

Mr. C. Oldham observed a male and female on the Tring Reservoirs, March 
21, 1915, of which he says, " no doubt escaped birds."] 

131 (287). MALLARD or WILD DUCK. Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 122. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Common resident. 

Nests in all suitable localities in small numbers, but in great numbers on 
the Tring and Halton Reservoirs, especially the former. From about 1890 
numerous eggs were hatched under hens and the ducks were fed during the whole 
year. This, in connection with intense protection from poachers and other 
unwelcome visitors as well as the destruction of all " vermin," resulted in an 
unnatural increase in the numbers of Wild Ducks, and regular battues were held, 
hundreds being killed on single days. From 1915-16 to the present time no 
eggs have been hatched under hens and no food could be given, the severe winter 
of 1916-17 caused some losses, and no doubt they were more closely shot down 
in the surrounding district, so that their numbers decreased considerably. While, 
therefore, small numbers only were shot, the decrease of the over-population 
of ducks of this kind was probably welcome to other species, and the reappearance 
of the Teal, among others, may be due to this fact. 

[GAD WALL. Anas strepera L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 121. 

We have no definite record for Buckinghamshire, but the late Rev. H. H. 
Crewe informed Clark Kennedy that the Gadwall " has occasionally been killed 
on the reservoirs at Marsworth and Wilstone " in winter.] 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 213 

132 (289). TEAL. Anas crecca crecca L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 123. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Resident in small numbers ; common autumn and winter visitor. 

" In the summer of 1861 two nests of this species were discovered among some 
moss and rank herbage growing by the side of a pond near Burnham " (Ken- 
nedy, I.e.). 

Both H. H. Crewe and James Williams stated in 1 868 that Teal then nested 
in limited numbers near the Marsworth and Wilstone Reservoirs. Apparently 
they continued to do so until 1887, when a nest with five eggs was found by James 
Street under a willow stump, which is exhibited, together with the old birds, in 
the series of groups of British Birds in the Natural History Museum. Since 
then there has been no definite record of the nesting of Teal until 1918, when a 
brood hatched off at Marsworth Reservoir on July 14 (James Street). In that 
same year Hartert saw some Teal in June, Oldham observed half a dozen at 
Little Tring Reservoir on July 6, and Hartert thirteen about the middle of 
August. In 1919 they were also seen in spring and summer. The late Lionel 
Wiglesworth found it breeding in small numbers near Castlethorpe. 

The Teal is a common winter visitor to the reservoirs. According to Old- 
ham's observations, the first migrants usually arrive in the last week in July 
(25, 1919; 25, 1914; 25, 1915; August 6, 1917 and 1918). From then until 
the end of March they are about the Tring and Halton Reservoirs in varying 
numbers — on July 1, 1914, Oldham saw more than a hundred on Wilstone 
Reservoir. He saw birds in pairs, " no doubt on passage," in some years about 
the middle of April. 

Teal are occasionally met with on the Thames in winter, especially during 
hard frost, when the inland waters are frozen over, and at the time of spring and 
autumn migration. 

133 (292). GARGANEY. Anas querquedula L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 123. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Rare visitor. 

According to the late Rev. H. Harpur Crewe, the Garganey " has been 
several times obtained on the reservoirs at Marsworth and Wilstone in cold 
weather" (Kennedy, I.e.). At the end of March 1849 four males and four 
females appeared on one of the reservoirs near Tring and remained for some days. 
On March 24 the Rev. J. Williams, with two other guns, obtained seven out of 
the eight shot.* Subsequently seven more appeared, but moved off on the 
following night (Zool. 1849, p. 2421). 

Miss Williams informed Littleboy (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 83) 
in 1887 that it was " an occasional summer visitor." 

A $ in partial eclipse, the only bird of this species ever observed by him 
on the reservoirs, was seen by C. Oldham August 3, and again August 11, 1918. 

* One of these was later examined by Rothschild, while in the possession of the late George 
Pratt in Marsworth. 



214 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920, 

134 (-293). WIGEON. Anas penelope L. 

B. of Berks and Bucks, p. 124. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Not uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant on rivers and reservoirs. 

" The first Wigeon usually arrive at the reservoirs in October (only in 1916 
I saw three on September 26), and from then until early April frequent the Tring 
and Halton (Weston Turville) Reservoirs in varying numbers. On February 
23, 1919, Oldham and Hartert saw a flock of twenty. Birds on passage occur 
in later April and May, e.gf. J 16. v. 1909, 3 24. iv. 1910, two $6 12. v. 1912, 
pair 13. iv. 1913" (C. Oldham in litt.). Said formerly to have been " very 
plentiful " on the Tring Reservoirs, but in recent years to have occurred there- 
in small parties only (Grossman, Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. x. p. 96, 1901). 

[MANDARIN DUCK. Aix galericulata (L). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 208. 

The adult male shot by Briggs on the river near Cookham in May 1866 
was, of course, an escaped bird.] 

135 (296). PINTAIL. Anas acuta L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 122. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Fairly regular but uncommon visitor. 

Clark Kennedy states that a male was shot on a sheet of ice in Stoke Park in 
the winter of 1863, while the female which was in its company escaped. The 
Rev. H. H. Crewe informed Kennedy " that this species visited the reservoirs at 
Marsworth, Wilstone, and Weston Turville every winter in considerable numbers." 
This latter statement can hardly have been correct, as the Pintail is now known 
to be rather irregular in its visits to the reservoirs. A male was shot February 
14, 1892, a female on October 3 of the same year, also in December 1893, 
though the last had apparently escaped from a pond near Tring. Another male 
in full moult January 31, 1006. An adult male was shot November 20, 1907. 
Mr. C. Oldham observed males on eight occasions, but females only once : — 

14.iii . 1909. A cj with some Mallards at Startops End. 

24. xi. 1909. A <J with Mallards on the ice at Marsworth Reservoir. 

12. i. 1913. A rS with some Mallards on Little Tring Reservoir. 

16. i. 1916. A J in a pack of Mallards on Wilstone Reservoir. It was still 
there January 23, and January 31 there were three males together— no female. 

1 .iv.1917. " Two Pintails flying at a great height over Wilstone Reservoirs. 
They dropped somewhere in the neighbourhood of the other reservoirs, and later 
I found them— both adult males— asleep on the margin of Little Tring Reservoir." 

1 .xii. 1917. An adult male with Mallards on Wilstone Reservoir. 

20.1.1918. An adult male with Mallards on Wilstone Reservoir. Several 
in February 1919, on Wilstone Reservoir. 

1 .ii. 1919. Two males and two females at Wilstone Reservoir. 

136 (295). SHOVELER. Spatula clypeata clypeata (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 121. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Resident in small numbers ; also regular autumn and winter visitor. 

Near Dinton Hall a Shoveler was shot on September 10, 1774, and four were 



NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 215 

seen, one of which was shot, on August 29, ,1800. The Rev. H. Harpur Crewe 
regarded it as a regular, though never a common, winter visitor on the reservoirs. 

Nowadays it is not rare in autumn and winter, and one, two, or three pairs 
have bred every year there for some time — from at least 1905 or before. In 
June 1918 Hartert came across a female leading eight ducklings along a ditch 
to the Wilstone Reservoir. In August he counted fifteen on Little Tring 
Reservoirs. During the last few years more pairs have nested. 

Mr. C. Oldham sends the following notes : 

" The first Shovelers usually arrive at the end of September or early in Octo- 
ber, and from then until mid-April are nearly always to be seen at the Tring 
and Weston Turville Reservoirs. In the winter 1914-15 the numbers were 
greater than usual. On December 6, 1914, I counted fifty-one on Startops 
End, and seventeen more at Wilstone; on January 24, 1915, I saw twenty-one 
on Wilstone; and on January 18, 1914, there were twenty at Weston Turville." 

Oldham also saw an old bird, August 23, 1908, others May 2 and 16, 1909, 
June 21, 1913 (three males in eclipse), July 25, 1914. 

It appears to be rarely met with on the Thames, but E. E. Pettitt saw a male 
near Queen's Eyot, February 18, 1917 (in litt.). 

137 (297). RED-CRESTED POCHARD. Netta rufina (Pall.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Rare visitor ; some specimens probably escaped birds. 

Littlcboy recorded a female shot on the Tring Reservoirs in September 
1887, but the specimen was erroneously identified by Rothschild, it being only 
an abnormally coloured female Scoter (Vict. Hist, of Bucks. I.e.). A flock of 
about forty individuals, however, visited Wilstone Reservoir in the autumn of 
1889 or 1890, out of which four males and two females were shot. Three males 
and one female of these are now in the Tring Museum, and a pair in Mr. John 
G. Millais' collection. The exact date is not preserved, the labels of the specimens 
giving only the locality. 

A beautiful male was shot on the reservoirs 9.xi.l915. On November 4, 
1917, Charles Oldham observed an adult pair on Little Tring Reservoir. In 
December 1918 a male was on Halton Reservoir for over a fortnight at least. 
It was seen on several occasions by Oldham and Hartert. 

As these beautiful birds have nested for several years in Woburn Park, this 
last bird — and possibly others of the single birds recently seen — was probably 
an escape ; it was by no means very wild. In January 1920 a male was recorded 
on Halton Reservoir by the keeper. 

138 (298). COMMON POCHARD. Nyroca ferina ferina (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 127. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 145. 

Not uncommon, but very load resident. 

The Pochard has, like the Tufted Duck, spread and increased in many parts 
of England, especially in the eastern counties. It probably nested in Bucks 
long ago, as a specimen was shot at Dinton Hall on June 16, 1825. In 1868 it 
was, however, not yet common, as Kennedy (I.e.) thought it still worth to record 
single occurrences, and he was informed by the Rev. H. H. Crewe that the Pochard 



216 Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 

had " on two occasions been known to breed on the water near Drayton Beau- 
champ," a nest containing eggs having been taken in June 1850 at the Marsworth 
Reservoir by a gamekeeper , of the Rev. James Williams, and a pair breeding 
on the banks of the same piece of water " a few years later." At the same time 
the late Rev. J. Williams, who had taken eggs at Wilstone Reservoir, believed 
that it bred there " in limited numbers every year." Now the species breeds 
numerously at the Halton and Tring Reservoirs. Their numbers seem to fluctuate 
somewhat, and have, since 1915, decreased a little, probably only temporarily. 
The Pochards that are killed during Duck-shoots are not very many. 

To the Thames and the south of the county generally it is chiefly known as 
an uncommon winter visitor in severe weather when the reservoirs are frozen. 
Breeding is, however, known to have taken place at one locality in the south of 
the county. Two pairs nested on a pond in the Burnham Beeches district in 
1916, and it is quite possible that they may have nested there previously (E. E. 
Pettitt. in lift.). 

139. BAER'S DUCK. Nyroca nyroca baeri (Radde). 

A male was shot, in the presence of the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild, on 
Marsworth Reservoir, on November 5, 1901. 

It is, of course, in many cases impossible to say whether a Duck shot in 
England is of direct foreign origin, i.e. a wanderer from afar, or whether it has 
escaped from ponds in parks where so many foreign ducks are now kept and bred 
in semi-confinement. In this case, however, all enquiries tend to prove that this 
specimen was a genuine migrant, though the first and only known occurrence in 
Europe. The specimen was exhibited by the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild at the 
B.O.C. meeting on November 20, 1901 (Bull. B.O. Club, vol. xii. p. 25). "The 
exhibitor urged in support of the view that the specimen was a wild, rather than 
an escaped bird : (a) that no specimen of this duck had escaped from the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens, where there were now four pinioned examples sent by Mr. Frank 
Finn, of Calcutta ; (6) that both the Duke of Bedford and Mr. J. G. Miilais had 
stated, in reply to enquiries on the subject, that they were not aware of any of 
these birds having been turned out on artificial waters in this country." 

In Brit. B. vol. i. p. 14 (1907), Howard Saunders deprecated the admission 
of Baer's Duck to the " British List," stating that it was " well known that the 
species had been introduced on the ornamental waters of England." In the same 
volume, p. 63, the Hon. Walter Rothschild replied, asking for further explanation 
of the statement with regard to the introduction to ornamental waters. No 
response, however, was forthcoming, and enquiries from dealers and owners of 
" ornamental waters " did not elicit any new facts about the introduction of 
Baer's Duck before or in 1901. 

140 (300). TUFTED DUCK. Nyroca fuligula (L.). 

,B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 129. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Now numerous resident on Weston Turville and Tring Reservoirs. 

In 1868 this Duck was only known to Kennedy (I.e.), and Harpur Crewe as 
a "common winter visitor" to the Tring Reservoirs. In 1893 it was already 
nesting on these waters, and also on the Halton (Weston Turville) Reservoir, 



Novitates Zoolooicai: XXVII. 1920. 217 

but not in large numbers. Since then it has become much more numerous and 
it is now a very common breeder. 

To the Thames Valley and the Stanwell Reservoirs it is still only known at 
present as a winter visitor, usually occurring on the river during severe frosts, 
but occasionally met with at other times. Pettitt reports it as common at 
Stanwell, and has observed it at Burnham, Horton, and Hambleden. 

141 (301). SCAUP. Nyroca marila marila (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 129. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Irregular winter visitor to the reservoirs. 

" On the 26th of January, 1855, the Rev. B. Burgess observed a female Scaup 
Duck swimming about in company with Coots and Dabchicks on the water in 
the park at Latimer, near Chesham, which was not frozen, and a few days after- 
wards Mr. Elliott, of Chesham Bois Mill, sent him a Scaup which he had just 
shot on the stream. The Rev. H. Crewe states that it is an occasional winter 
visitant to the Wilstone Reservoirs" (Kennedy, I.e.). G. A. Crewe records 
four seen by him about three weeks previously on the Grand Junction Reservoir, 
while staying at Drayton Beauchamp (Field, December 15, 1883, p. 809). One 
was shot on the Tring Reservoirs in October 1884; and in December 1900 or 
January 1901, Rothschild and Hartert observed a large flock. 

The following specimens are now in the Tring Museum : 

cJ juv., 2.xii.l892. 

$, 7.xi.l905. 

<J$, 20. xi. 1907. 

?, 12. i. 1912. 

cJ in nearly full plumage, 23. i. 1912. 

?, 24. i. 1913. 

Mr. Oldham made the following notes : 

"27.x. 1907. $, Wilstone Reservoir. 

" 1 8 . xii . 1 909. Adult <J, Wilstone Reservoir. 

"21.1 .1912. Pair on Marsworth Reservoir. $ not in full plumage, mantle 
only partially vermiculated and showing a good deal of brown, flanks dusky brown 
as in the $. Street told me some months afterwards that he had shot the <J and 
hit the $, but failed to drop her. On March 10 there was a $ — presumably this 
bird — standing with some Pochards and Tufted Ducks on an island in Little 
Tring Reservoir. She was there again on March 17, and, although she may 
have been wounded, was able to fly well. I saw the bird again at the same place 
on March 30, April 13, and April 21. I saw nothing of the bird after that until 
July 21. On that date she was on Marsworth Reservoir with two ducklings — 
sooty little things like young Tufteds. I have no doubt that the ducklings were 
hers, for she was with them for an hour and a half while I watched them in the 
morning, and again when I passed the place in the evening. There were many 
young Tufteds on the water, but the Scaup was never many yards away from her 
own two, and they went with her wherever she went in the corner of the reservoir 
that constituted their feeding-ground. Once, when a Coot came near them, she 
drove it away, and she made an angry rush at a Dabchick which approached 
them. She even drove off a Tufted Duckling, of larger size than her own, when 
it crossed their path. The Scaup had presumably paired with a Drake Tufted. 



21 8 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

[No bird showing sign of hybridism was subsequently shot on the reservoirs. 
— E. H.] 

" 4.1.1914. Two white-faced birds, on Marsworth Reservoir. 

" 15.iii. 1919. A female Scaup at Little Tring Reservoir." 



142 (302). GOLDENEYE. Bucephala clangula clangula (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 130. Viet. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Irregular winter visitor to larger waters. 

In 1849 the Rev. J. Williams stated that small flocks visited the Tring Re- 
servoirs annually, arriving at the end of October and staying till driven away 
by frost, but that nearly all were females or birds of the year. He records one 
fine male in full plumage shot early in 1849 (Zool. 1849, p. 2421). 

The late Rev. H. Harpur Crewe also described the Goldeneye as a " regular 
visitor " to the Tring Reservoirs, but its visits are now rather irregular, though 
by no means rare. Rothschild and Hartert have often seen single birds and small 
flocks, when shooting on the reservoirs, and the following specimens have been 
shot and are now in the Tring Museum : 

$, 26. i. 1893. 

(J juv., still in almost complete juvenile plumage, 10. i. 1901. 

$ad., 26.x. 1901. 

?, 28.xii.1905. 

$ad., 11. i. 1906. 

$ ad., 10. xi. 1908. 

cj ad. and $ ad., 13 .i . 1909, the <J in perfect plumage. 

(J of the year in almost complete juvenile plumage, 4 . ii . 1914. 

$ad., 6. u. 1914. 

cJ ad. in full plumage, 7.1.1915. 

<J with traces of eclipse plumage, 9.xi.l915. 

$, 24.xii.1915. 

<J juv., 1 .i. 1920. 

Larger flocks than usual were seen by Hartert in December 1893 and 
January 1894. 

Mr. Oldham observed the following specimens : 

1 .iii. 1908. An adult male and a brown-headed bird, Wilstone Reservoirs. 

10. iv. 1910. An adult male and a female, Wilstone Reservoirs. 

5.vii.l911. A brown-headed bird, Wilstone Reservoirs. 

30. xi. 1913. A male assuming full plumage and two brown-headed birds, 
Wilstone Reservoirs. 

20.xii. 1914. An adult male and brown-headed bird on Wilstone, a brown- 
headed bird Startops End Reservoir. 

21. xi. 1915. A male in nearly full plumage, and three brown-headed birds 
on Wilstone Reservoirs. 

20. i. 1918. A brown-headed bird, Wilstone Reservoirs. 

28. iv. 1918. A brown-headed bird, Wilstone — the latest date. 

From 24. xi. 1918 until mid-January 1919, two and sometimes three 
constantly on Wilstone Reservoirs. 

15. iii. 1919, three on Wilstone Reservoirs. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 219 

In February 1917, when the Reservoirs were frozen over and hundreds 
of Ducks were crowded together on a small open space on Wilstone Reservoirs, 
Hartert saw among them several adult males ; there were probably some females 
as well, but without a telescope he could not make them out in the crowd of other 
Ducks. 

On January 8, 1919, Lord Rothschild saw two adult males and a brown- 
headed bird on Wilstone Reservoir. 

On the Thames it is usually met with in hard winters, such as 1916-17, 
when it was not uncommon (Jourdain). Four were seen at Queen's Eyot on 
February 2, 1917, by E. E. Pettitt. 

143 (304). LONG-TAILED DUCK. Clangula hyemalis (L.). 

Very rare winter visitor. 

A young male was shot at one of the reservoirs 28 .x . 1892. An adult male 
still retaining some feathers of the summer plumage on back and scapulars was 
shot on the reservoirs 12. xi. 1906 ; a young male on Marsworth Reservoir 20. xi. 
1908 (Br. Birds, vol. ii. p. 309), and another male in moult 2.xi.l915. All four 
specimens are in the Tring Museum. 

On November 8, 1908, C. Oldham observed a young bird on Wilstone 
Reservoir, perhaps the same bird which was shot on Marsworth Reservoir on 
the 20th. 

[HARLEQUIN DUCK. Histrionicus histrionicus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 206. 

Clark Kennedy records one occurrence of this species on R. B. Sharpe's 
authority as having been shot during the winter of 1866-7 on the river at Maiden- 
head, and preserved by Wilmot, the bird-stuffer of that town. Sharpe does 
not refer to this specimen in his Handbook of the Birds of Great Britain. Probably 
a mistaken identification.] 

144 (309). COMMON SCOTER. Oidemia nigra nigra (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 125. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 146. 

Irregular and generally rare visitor to the Tring Reservoirs and the River 
Thames. 

Although chiefly a marine species, except during the nesting-season, the 
Common .Scoter has occurred not infrequently on the Upper Thames. Clark 
Kennedy mentions one shot in the winter of 1862 at Datchet, and another killed 
in 1865 near Cookham. The latter was a male in adult plumage, and was also 
killed in winter. E. Curtis (Field, March 29, 1879, p. 369) records a male seen 
by him, which was shot on the Thames near Windsor on March 22. 

On the Tring Reservoirs they are sometimes, though irregularly, observed. 
A female was shot in October 1884. 

In October and December 1892 there were quite a number on the reservoirs, 
four females being preserved in the Tring Museum. A young male was shot at 
Deadmere, Great Marlow, December 18, 1893, by Joe Cox, jun. (A. Heneage 
Cocks in litt.). 

On April 10, 1910, ten Scoters were observed by C. Oldham, Erwin Strese- 



220 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1A20. 

mann, and Ernst Hartert on Startops End Reservoir, seven of which were adult 
males. Five more — three of them adult drakes — were on Wilstone Reservoir, 
and eleven on Weston Turville Reservoir, of which seven were adult drakes. 
After a long spell of N.E., E., and N. wind, on the 9th it had veered to N.W. 
and on the 10th to a light S.W. breeze (C. Oldham, Brit. Birds, vol. iii. p. 414). 
On July 13, 1913, C. Oldham saw a female or immature male on Wilstone 
Reservoir, which was still there on July 19, on which day an adult male was seen 
at Weston Turville (op. cit. vol. vii. p. 119). The date of these latter records 
is remarkable. 

An adult male on Startops End Reservoir on March 7, 1915 ( C Oldham in 
lilt.). An adult <$ and an adult $ observed on Wilstone Reservoirs, April 29, 
1917 (idem, in litl.). February 7, 1918: an adult male shot on Marsworth 
Reservoir, preserved in the Tring Museum. 

Mr. E. E. Pcttitt informs us that two shot at Bell Weir are now preserved 
at the " Angler's Rest," Egham (in litt.). 

145 (310). VELVET SCOTER. Oidemia rasca fcsca (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucte. p. 206. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 211. 

Very exceptional visitor. 

J. Gould (Birds of Great Britain, vol. v. pi. 29, text) states that " during 
the severe winter of 1866-7 a splendid old male was killed at Cookham, in Berk- 
shire." This specimen was almost certainly shot on the river, which forms the 
boundary between the two counties. 

The Rev. H. Harpur Crewe told Kennedy that he had on two occasions 
observed the Velvet Scoter on the large reservoir near .Drayton Beauchamp in 
cold weather, but he gave no dates or other particulars ! 

Mr. J. M. Knapp records one killed at Linford, Bucks, on October 27, 1890 
(Field, November 1, 1890, p. 668). 

146 (312). GOOSANDER. Mergus merganser merganser L. 

B. of Berks, and Backs, p. 131. Viet. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Irregular and uncommon winter visitor. 

A female (called Mergus serrator, but from the figure a Goosander) was shot 
at Dinton Hall on November 26, 1774. Kennedy mentions several specimens 
obtained on the Thames in 1847, 1856, 1860, 1864, 1866, and 1867 (the last seen 
only), and says that in hard weather it is " often found on the reservoirs near 
Drayton Beauchamp." Mr. Heneage Cocks says (in litt.) that one was shot near 
Great Marlow January 27, 1881. Two were killed at Tring in February 1885, 
and two seen by the keeper on November 25, 1895, as well as two in January 
1896 (Vict. Hist, of Herts, vol. i. p. 211). Single females were shot there by 
James Street on November 8 and 29, 1901, and November 21, 1902. 

A most interesting specimen, a male in eclipse plumage, was killed by Street, 
August 31, 1903, and an adult male in full brilliant plumage was shot during a 
Duck-shoot on December 1 1 of the same year. 

Mr. Oldham observed two " brown- headed birds " (females) on Wilstone 
Reservoirs February 27, 1910, another on December 18 of the same year, which 
•' from the purity of its colours and small size he judged to be an adult female." 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 221 

January 21, 1917, he saw an adult male on Wilstone Reservoirs. A pair were 
on the reservoirs during the last week of December 1919 until January 1, 1920. 

147 (313). RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. Mergus serrator L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 131. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Rare winter visitor. 

The Rev. H. H. Crewe informed Clark Kennedy that small parties of four 
or five were seen on Wilstone Reservoir almost annually. " A year or two before 
1883, which was the first year I shot on the reservoirs, the Rev. A. Birch shot 
a female on Little Tring Reservoir, which he had stuffed " (Walter Rothschild, 
Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146). Several visited Marsworth Reservoir in November 
1901 ; on the 5th the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild shot a female, and on the 7th 
James Street a male and a female ; all three are in the Tring Museum. 

On the Thames it is of very rare occurrence, but a female is mentioned by 
Clark Kennedy as having been shot at Wraysbury in the winter of 1854, and 
another was reported by R. B. Sharpe from Cookham a few years prior to 1868. 

148 (314). SMEW. Mergus albellus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 207. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Rare winter visitor. 

The earliest record of this species from the county is that of a female shot 
on November 23, 1774, at Dinton Hall. Now and then small flocks or single 
birds — very rarely adult males — are observed on larger waters. In the winter 
of 1850-51, however, an adult male was killed on the Thames near Boveney 
Lock. In the winter of 1861-2 a flock of five was observed by Harpur Crewe 
on the Wilstone Reservoirs, where they remained several days (Kennedy, I.e.). 
Mr. A, Heneage Cocks records an adult male shot in January 1876 on the Thames, 
opposite Stonehouse {Zool. 1891, p. 153). A flight of nine visited Marsworth 
Reservoir about the middle of February 1885 (Littleboy, ex Rothschild, in lilt., 
Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 83). A young female was shot on January 
12, 1891, at the Brewery Sewage Works below Great Marlow (A. H. Cocks, Zool. 
1891, p. 153). 

On January 26, 1913, Oldham saw a single brown-headed bird on Little 
Tring Reservoirs, another (or the same) on February 22, and again March 2 ; 
while Lord Rothschild saw three, an adult male and two brown- headed ones, 
on Wilstone Reservoir. On January 6, 1917, Oldham again saw a brown-headed 
Smew on Wilstone Reservoirs, and again on January 20, evidently the same bird. 
Another female was seen by Oldham in the same place on February 17, and again 
March 3, while an adult female was shot there December 12, 1917, which had been 
seen for nearly a fortnight. 

149 (316). CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax carbo carbo (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 214. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Rare occasional visitor to the Thames and reservoirs. 

Clark Kennedy mentions one shot near Marlow Railway Bridge about 1857, 
on R. B. Sharpe's authority, and another shot on the Weston Turville Reservoir 
in 1858. 



222 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1020. 

The late C. E. Stubbs, of Henley (ob. 1872) states in his Egg-Bpok, probably 
completed about 1868, that he has known Cormorants shot in winter (among 
other places) at Bolney, Magpie Eyot, Medmenham, and Marlow (cf. Zool. 1903, 
p. 453). 

On June 2 and August 8, 1900, James Street observed single birds on the 
Tring Reservoirs, and on November 15, 1900, two specimens. 

Mr. A. H. Cocks saw a Cormorant or Shag flying on the Thames between 
Bisham and Marlow in a thick fog, but was unable to identify the species with 
certainty. This was some time prior to 1902. 

In 1902 an immature Cormorant was seen for some weeks on the Thames 
near Culham Court, above the Bucks boundary ; and either this or a second bird 
was subsequently seen on the river below Henley, according to Mr. C. Barnett 
(H. Noble, MSS.). 

On October 11, 1907, and April 29, 1909, young males were shot on the Tring 
Reservoirs, both of which are now in the Tring Museum. On April 25, 1909, 
Mr. C. Oldham saw a single bird on the reservoirs, doubtless the bird which was 
shot there four days later, and also records others seen at the same place on 
September 4, 1910, May 5, 1912, and July 25, 1914. Mr. Oliver Pike observed 
a Cormorant on Wilstone Reservoir, September 14, 1919. 

Mr. E. E. Pettitt informs us that there is a stuffed specimen at the " Bells 
of Ousely," Old Windsor, which was shot on the river at Wraysbury " a few 
winters ago." 



150 (317). SHAG. Phalacrocorax graculus graculus (L.) 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 214. 

Very rare visitor. 

According to Kennedy (I.e.), a Shag was shot on the Thames near Wraysbury 
in 1850. A bird of the year was shot on the reservoirs October 14, 1903, another 
October 22, 1908 (Brit. B. vol. ii. p. 309), and a third January 16, 1917 ; all 
three are in the Tring Museum. 

Mr. Oldham (in litt.) observed a Shag, also a young bird, at Marsworth 
Reservoir August 30 and September 7, 1913. In the Bucks County Museum 
in Aylesbury is an immature bird killed on Oving Church, 20.xii.1909 (Edwin 
Hoiks in litt.). 



151 (318). GANNET. Sula bassana (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 216. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 143. 

Accidental visitor : three occurrences. 

A Gannet was captured by the Rev. T. Rogers, at Sherrington, near Newport 
Pagnell, in November 1847. Another was killed on the canal near Wendover 
in 1886. In the Bucks County Museum, Aylesbury, is an adult male picked up 
alive, 9.xii.l91d, by a labourer in a meadow in Hambleden parish and brought 
to Mr. A. H. Cocks. Although apparently unable to move, no trace of injury 
could be found (A. H. Cocks and E. Hollis in litt.). 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 223 

152 (319). STORM-PETREL. Hydrobates pelagicus (L). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 218. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Rare straggler ; jour or five occurrences. 

F. 0. Morris states that a specimen was picked up dead near Buckingham 
but does not give the date. Kennedy records the finding, during the last days of 
October 1859, of a Storm- Petrel on the road opposite the Priory, Burnham, and 
also mentions another which was shot in the neighbourhood of Burnham in 1865, 
while a third was knocked down near Wycombe on January 21, 1868 (Zool. 
1868, p. 1178). About the middle of October 1877 a small Petrel (said to have 
been this species) was seen flying against a mill at High Wycombe, but recovered 
and flew away (Field, 1877, October 20, p. 441). In November 1880 a Storm- 
Petrel was picked up near Wendover (H. H. Crewe, Zoologist, 1881, p. 68). 



153 (320). LEACH'S FORK-TAILED PETREL. Oceanodroma leucorrhoa 

leucorrhoa. (Vieill.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 217.' Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Rare straggler ; three occurrences prior to 1868, two subsequently. 

" After a strong gale of wind in the summer of 1847 or 1848, a man named 
William Hibbs noticed a bird fluttering against a lamp at the corner of Brocas 
Lane, Eton ; he caught it, and it proved to be a Petrel of this species." " It 
appeared extremely thin, and was very weak, although in good plumage." " The 
Rev. Bryant Burgess, of Latimer Rectory, near Chesham, sent me an account of 
one of these rare Petrels which was taken in that neighbourhood. Upon the 1st 
of November, 1859, during a very strong gale of wind, Mr. Poulter, gardener 
to Lord Chesham, found a Fork- Tailed Petrel lying upon the ground in the deer- 
park at Latimer. * * * The stomach was empty, the whole frame was very 
thin and emaciated, and it was much battered about the head. * * * Another 
specimen was picked up in an exhausted state at Woughton, Buckinghamshire." 
One was caught alive in a hedge at Bierton, after the great gale of October 14, 
1881 (A. H. Cocks in lift.). This specimen is mounted in the Rectory, Maid's 
Moreton, near Buckingham (W. K. Clay in lift.). Mr. E. Hollis obtained for 
the Bucks County Museum a specimen from Mr. Littlechild Sleeper, in Westcott, 
which had been caught early in November 1910, having been mobbed by Rooks. 



[GREAT SHEARWATER. Puffiuns gravis O'Reilly. 

Mr. Archibald Allen, writing in the Field (October 28, 1911, p. 968), records 
a Greater Shearwater, Pujfinus major, as having been killed by striking telegraph 
wires " a few weeks since " near Olney. No investigation appears to have been 
made as to whether the specimen in question was correctly identified, and the 
date suggests the probability of confusion with the Manx Shearwater, which 
frequently occurs inland during September, though, curiously enough, there 
appears to be no record of this species from Bucks.] 



224 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

154 (336). GREAT CRESTED GREBE. Podiceps cristatus cristatus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 65. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Locally numerous breeding species on reservoirs, but few remain throughout 
winter. 

As is well known, the breeding- range of this Grebe has been extending during 
the last twenty years or more. The Rev. H. H. Crewe informed Clark Kennedy 
that he noticed a bird on Marsworth Reservoir in May 18(34. In the sixties it 
began to breed on the Tring Reservoirs, but it was then a rare bird. The first 
nest was found and the eggs taken by Miss E. Williams in 186T (Miss Ellen 
Williams in litt.). It is now a very common breeder on the Marsworth and 
Wilstone and also on the Halton (Weston Turville) Reservoirs. From state- 
ments by the keeper, the Hon. Walter (now Lord) Rothschild recorded (Trans. 
Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 81) on the Tring Reservoirs for 1884 not less 
than seventy- five nests, forty- five for 1885, forty- three for 1886, and that 115 
birds were seen in April 1887. These numbers were, of course, approximate, 
but may not have been exaggerated. In 1918 Street thought that about thirty 
pairs or more nested. The number varies, and the breeding pairs diminished 
greatly during the dry summers at the beginning of this century, when the reeds 
were dry ; but now, since the water has been very high for several years, their 
number has much increased again, and the bird will always hold its own, 
as it is strictly protected. Mr. Oldham sent the following very interesting, 
full notes : 

" Most of the birds have left by end of October, but unless there is hard and 
continual frost a few stay at Tring and Weston Turville through the winter. 
(Eight on December 18, 1910, stayed until January 12, 1911, when heavy frost 
drove all but one away ; about ten all through December 1912 and January 
1913; nine on December 20, 1914 ; eight on December 26, 1915 ; twenty at least 
on December 8, 1917, but frost in January 1918 drove all but two away.) The 
birds begin to return about beginning of third week in February (twelve on 
February 19, 191 1 ; thirty on February 22, 1914 ; nineteen on February 21, 1915 ; 
thirty-three on February 20, 1916), but in the backward spring of 1917 they were 
later : none to be seen on February 25. and only about a dozen on March 4. 

" In February and March there are usually a good many birds that show no 
signs of breeding-plumage (the majority are in full breeding-dress by middle of 
February). I take it that this species does not breed in its second year, and that 
these clean- necked birds are young of the previous year. I have often noticed 
animosity shown to them by the adults, and believe they are all driven off the 
waters by the adults before the actual nesting- season. 

"In Brit. Birds, vol. iii. pp. 30-1, I recorded nestlings at Weston Turville 
on May 2, 1909, but since then have seen still earlier young, e.g. at Wilstone on 
April21, 1912, and at Marsworth on April 27, 1913." 

Mr. L. W. Crouch (Br. Birds, vol. i. p. 327) records a nest found on May 20, 
1907, on a reservoir near Aylesbury, containing the unusually large number of 
seven eggs. 

On the Thames it is only seen occasionally during the winter, and does not 
breed either here or on the Stanwell Reservoir, where, however, it is a common 
winter visitor (E. E. Pettitt). 



N'OVITATES ZOOLOQIOAE XXVII. 1920. 225 

155 (338). RED-NECKED GREBE. Podiceps griseigena griseigena (Bodd.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 209. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Rare winter visitor. 

According to Kennedy (I.e.), a specimen was shot at Saunderton, near Ris- 
borough, October 10, 1848. The late C. E. Stubbs, of Henley, stated that it was 
occasionally met with on the Thames : one shot at Greenlands " some years ago " 
(i.e. prior to 1872) ; cf. Zoologist, 1903, p. 453. (The Rev. H. H. Crewe stated this 
species " had once been obtained at Tring," but, as so often, gave no particulars.) 
Oldham observed an immature bird, with the neck still retaining some stripes, 
on Wilstone Reservoir, December 18, 1910. There was a Slavonian Grebe on 
the water on the same day. Oldham further observed an adult, assuming summer 
dress, on Wilstone Reservoir, March 16, 1913. He saw this bird on several occa- 
sions up to and including June 22, 1913 (Brit. B. vol. vi. p. 374). Another adult, 
assuming summer dress, was seen by the same observer on Tringford (Little 
Tring) Reservoirs, February 8, 1914. This bird was picked up dead February 
10, showing signs of an old wound on one wing, and with a broken tarsus. Mr. 
Oldham thinks this was probably the same bird which he observed so often in 
the spring of 1913, but if so it is curious how it had escaped his and other people's 
notice in the interval between June 22, 1913, and February 8, 1914. 

156 (337). SLAVONIAN GREBE. Podiceps auritus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 132. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Bare winter visitor. 

Clark Kennedy records two specimens obtained near Windsor in 1858, 
another killed on January 17, 1861, below Windsor Weir, and a fourth shot in 
the winter of 1865 near Cookham Bridge. He also mentions a specimen killed 
December 9, 1867, on the Thames at Eton, and he " heard of another specimen 
which was shot on the Thames close to Eton " about the same time. 

Mr. Heneage Cocks's gardener shot one at Great Marlow " in the sixties." 
According to Rothschild two specimens were shot at Halton Reservoir between 
1874 and 1880. They were first identified by the late Rev. H. Harpur Crewe, 
and were afterwards seen by the present Lord Rothschild in a keeper's possession 
near Halton. Unfortunately we have not been able to find out what became of 
them. 

On March 14, 1909, Mr. Oldham observed an adult in winter plumage, but 
showing incipient ear-tufts and a tinge of chestnut on the flanks, on Wilstone 
Reservoirs. The bird was still there on March 21 (Brit. B. vol. ii. p. 426). 
Another specimen was observed by Oldham, December 18, 1910, and an adult 
also on Wilstone Reservoirs on April 1, 1917, and several times on the 8th and 9th. 
It was beginning to assume summer dress ; the flanks were tinged with chestnut, 
the cheeks ashy. 

On the Stan well Reservoir Mr. E. E. Pettitt saw a single bird from December 
25, 1913, to January 25, 1914, and also noticed another early in 1915 at the same 
place. 

15 



226 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

157 (339). BLACK-NECKED GREBE. Podiceps nigricollis nigricollis Brehm. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 210. Vicl. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Black-necked Grebes were obtained on the Tring Reservoirs as long ago as 
1 846 or 1 847 ; the specimens were mounted and seen by the present Lord Roth- 
schild, but their whereabouts are now unknown. The statement by Kennedy 
(p. 210, under the name of P. auritus) that it nested on the reservoirs, however, 
was an error, due to the name " Eared Grebe " being used for this and other species 
as well : the eggs taken by Mr. Williams were those of the Great Crested Grebe. 
The Black-necked Grebe, however, has appeared from time to time on the re- 
servoirs in the autumn and spring, but as an irregular and uncommon visitor only. 
There are specimens in the Tring Museum from November 24, 1903, November 
19, 1908, November 21, 1908, and April 23, 1909. Mr. Oldham observed speci- 
mens on April 18, 1909, November 5, 1911, December 26, 1915 (probably of this 
species), and January 20 and 27, 1918. 

Mr. Oldham was the first to observe these birds breeding on the reservoirs 
in 1918, and he published, among others, the following most interesting notes 
in the Bull. B. 0. Club, vol. xxxix. pp. 28-34 : 

" On April 28, 1918, I noticed two birds in full breeding-plumage, obviously 
from the slight difference in size a pair, swimming in close company on one of the 
reservoirs, and it was with a very lively interest that my sister-in-law, D., and 
I saw them again at the same place on May 4 and 14, for their sojourn suggested 
that possibly they would settle down and nest. Three days later D. saw four 
birds, and on the 21st a party of seven — three pairs and an unattached male. 
I had these seven birds under observation for some hours on the 26th. For the 
most part they fed in close proximity — indeed, at times a blanket would have 
covered the whole party, — but now and then a pair would detach themselves 
from the others and go off on a short cruise. Essentially sociable as the birds 
were, the odd male was treated with some intolerance, for at times one of the 
others made a rush at it as though to drive it off. That the birds, although 
paired, should at the end of May maintain this close association and 
spend hours together fishing in the open water was puzzling, for although 
from the first there had been indications of nuptial display — of which moro 
hereafter — there was nothing to suggest that nesting had actually begun, and 
at the breeding- place described in 1904 by Mr. O. V. Aplin (Zoologist, 1904, 
pp. 417-420), which is now generally known to be in Wales, young are often 
hatched at the beginning of June. The association that had obtained during 
the second half of May did, however, break down at the end of the month, for 
on June 1 the three pairs were feeding in different parts of the reservoir, whilst 
the unattached male was cruising alone, and after that date we only saw the 
birds singly or in pairs. By June 6 a pair had moved to one of the other reser- 
voirs, and later in the month another pair frequented the place for a day or two. 
On the 26th D. saw two birds, not mates apparently, fishing at some distance 
apart on this water. One of them went repeatedly into a thick bed of Typha, 
always at the same spot, behaviour which the head keeper noticed too on the 29th. 
The inference was that the bird was feeding a sitting mate, or more probably 
newly-hatched young, on the nest. The reservoirs are fringed in places with 
broad dense beds of reeds and Typha angustijolia — admirable nesting- places 



N0V1TATE9 ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 227 

for Grebes, — and, although the keepers by Lord Rothschild's orders were on the 
look-out for nests, it is hardly a matter for surprise that none was seen, for the 
recesses of the reed-beds could only have been explored at the risk of disturbing 
the birds. 

" On the last day of June a pair and an unattached bird were swimming in 
open water on the reservoir which the whole party had frequented during May. 
Even at a considerable distance one of this pair looked much more bulky arid sat 
higher in the water than its mate, and I suspected that it was carrying young. 
This suspicion was strengthened when its mate swam towards it with food in 
its mouth and passed the food to something on its back. With the telescope we 
could plainly see the heads of young ones protruding above the raised wings of 
the bulkier bird, but it was impossible to tell at the distance how many young 
there were. Once during the two hours we were at the place a single young one 
swam clear of the parent for a minute or two and then clambered up again over 
its tail. Except for a few brief intervals the other parent was constantly bringing 
food to the young, diving in the shallow water close to its mate. It stayed under 
water for only a few seconds at a time, and so achieved several journeys per 
minute ; indeed, its industry and activity were astonishing compared with the 
more leisurely tactics of the Great Crested Grebe when feeding young. Although 
I never ascertained how many young were hatched out by this pair — it is certain 
that there was more than one chick on the back of the old bird on June 30 — it 
may be that only one was reared, for in the latter part of July I could never detect 
more than one, with an old bird always in close attendance. On August 11, by 
which time it was well grown, this young bird was fishing on its own account, 
and I could see nothing of either parent. 

" Four days after our first sight of this brood D. saw a pair with newly 
hatched young on the other water, at the edge of the Typha-bed and close to the 
spot where she had seen the bird go in on June 26. We spent some time watching 
this pair at close quarters on the afternoon of July 6. The three chicks were 
carried on the back of one parent and fed in that position by the other, which 
came at frequent intervals with a small fish held crosswise in its bill. Now and 
then on the approach of the old bird with food a chick would slide into the water 
from the back of the nursing bird, only to regain its cradle quickly by climbing 
up over its tail. Once the bird that was carrying the young shook them off its 
back and dived. They swam immediately to the other bird, clambered up over 
its tail, and the roles of the old birds were reversed. A fortnight later the division 
of labour still obtained, but its mode had changed, for then one parent had sole 
charge of two and the other of one of the clamorous and apparently insatiable 
chicks, each party feeding independently of and at some distance from the other. 
On August 4 the young birds were diving and fishing to some extent on their own 
account, but most of the food was still caught by the old birds. By August 1 1 
the young, which were then about two-thirds the size of the old birds, were scat- 
tered about the reservoir and seemed to be quite independent of parental control. 
A week later I could find neither old nor young, and can only conclude that 
all the birds left the neighbourhood so soon as the young could fly— a proceeding 
in striking contrast with that of the Great Crested Grebes, which do not leave 
the reservoirs for the winter until the latter part of October. That two pairs 
nested and reared broods is beyond question. It may be that the third pair 
nested, but escaped notice — an easy matter if the total acreage of the reservoirs 



228 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

is taken into account ; but after the party broke up at the beginning of June 
little was seen of this pair or of the unattached bird. 

" As few people in this country have any first-hand acquaintance with the 
Black-necked Grebe in its nesting-haunts, some extracts from my note-books 
regarding the appearance and behaviour of the birds may not be out of place. 

" In life the silky yellow ear-coverts are not folded closely as represented 
in most figures, but, radiating from a centre, occupy a third of a circle and show 
as golden rays against the black cheeks. In conjunction with the upstanding 
frontal crest, the tip-tilted bill, and crimson eye, they contribute not a little to 
the bizarre appearance of the bird. The young for the first few days are much 
darker in colour than Great Crested Grebes of the same age and resemble young 
Dabchicks, but the stripes on the neck and body are more obscure than in either. 
At four weeks the stripes on the body are imperceptible and those on the neck 
difficult to make out, even with a glass, at a distance of a few yards. The birds 
are then dark ash-grey with fore-neck, breast, and cheeks white, and at a little 
distance look like young Coots rather than Grebes. Their rate of growth is 
astonishing. A couple of days makes a perceptible difference in their size and 
at six weeks they are more than two-thirds the size of the adults. The rate of 
growth in the Great Crested Grebe, and I think the Dabchick too, is much slower. 
The curious habit that Grebes have of protruding and wagging a foot behind them 
is practised early in life, for several times we saw a young one do so whilst on the 
old one's back. 

" Before nesting actually began there was evidence that the Black-neck 
engages in nuptial displays akin to those of the Great Crested Grebe, but unfor- 
tunately the performance which Mr. L. Huxley (P.Z.8. 1914, pp. 491-562) calls 
a ' shaking bout,' although often observed, was always engaged in at too great 
distance for details of pose and of the disposition of the plumage to be appreciated. 
Mr. Aplin (loc. cit.) refers to a bout between two birds that had a young brood, 
and such a thing may be not uncommon ; it certainly is not in the case of the Great 
Crested Grebe. On May 19 a bird — I think, a male — brought to the surface 
what looked like a piece of matted alga, and swimming up to its mate proffered 
the morsel, an action probably connected with courtship, whilst on May 21, 
D. saw two of the birds ' stand up in the water on their tails, facing one another 
and shaking and bowing their heads,' a performance obviously analogous to 
the ' penguin-dance ' of the Great Crested Grebe described by Mr. Huxley. 

" The paired birds usually kept close together, but sometimes when fishing 
they became separated and would then call to one another with a plaintive pee-eep, 
a note which Naumann (Nat. Vog. Deutschl. vol. ix. pp. 768-84, 1838) renders 
beeb. That author describes as bidder, vidder, vidder, vidder, another note which 
is very like the rippling cry of the Dabchick, though lacking perhaps something 
of its trill. In Wales I have heard a harsh creaking note strongly reminiscent 
of the call of the Partridge, and probably the analogue of the groaning croak which 
the Great Crested Grebe utters in the spring. The alarm-note resembles the 
whit of the Dabchick, but it is neither so loud nor so sharp. The hunger-cry of 
the young, uttered incessantly as they follow the old birds for food, is similar in 
general character to that of the Great Crested Grebe, which Mr. W. P. Pycraft 
(The British Bird Book, vol. iv. p. 427) aptly renders as pee-a, pee-a, pee-a, and 
of the Dabchick, but is not quite like either. The difference, although difficult 
to express in words, was apparent enough when the young of all three species 



Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920 229 

were calling at once in close proximity. The hunger-cry of the Dabchick is shriller 
and more quickly iterated than that of the Great Crested Grebe and lacks 
something of its querulous tone. 

" When feeding, the birds are more under water than on the surface. Half a 
dozen dives in deep water, not consecutive but taken at random, timed 25, 26, 
23, 27, 28, and 26 seconds respectively, but in shallow water and particularly 
when the old birds are feeding young the duration is often much less. So far 
as I could judge the young were fed exclusively on small fish, but when old enough 
to forage for themselves they took other food as well. They picked something, 
apparently small insects, from the surface of the water, and on one occasion one 
brought from the bottom what looked like a large drowned earthworm and 
swallowed it. 

" The birds evinced little fear of people walking on the reservoir banks and 
merely swam out for a few yards if anyone passed when they were feeding close 
inshore. When encumbered with a brood this indifference was even greater, 
and they would feed the young ones with apparent unconcern, although people 
were standing and watching them at a distance of a few feet. I was standing 
one afternoon at the water's edge looking at an old bird with two young ones. 
On two occasions this bird came to the surface just at my feet. It did then 
evince some alarm ; uttering a cry, whit, whit, whit, it rushed through the water 
for a yard or two with body submerged and head and neck only protruding, then 
dived again just as the Great Crested Grebe does under similar circumstances. 
This discomposure was, however, only momentary, and the bird resumed the 
even tenor of its fishing without more ado." 

In 1919 three, if not four, pairs returned to the reservoirs. According to 
Mr. Oliver G. Pike's observations (Brit. B, vol. xiii. p. 146, 1919), one pair was 
driven off from Marsworth Reservoir, where only one remained to breed. They 
had eggs by the middle of May, but the eggs disappeared, either being taken by 
a rat or Moorhen, or possibly by an unscrupulous egg-collector, who might easily 
have been guided to the nest by the conspicuous " hide " erected near the nest 
by Mr. Pike and a keeper, for the purpose of photographing nests and birds, 
which, as the photographs published in Country Life, Brit. Birds vol. xiii., and 
the accompanying plate show, was most admirably accomplished by Mr. Pike, 
at the second nest, which contained eggs early in June, the first egg being hatched 
on June 20. The birds on the other reservoir must also have hatched, but no 
exact dates are available. We have no doubt that these birds will now again 
return and regularly nest on the reservoirs, which are well watched by interested 
keepers, so that egg-collectors, if they should attempt to find eggs, will have 
small chance. In 1920 a specimen was seen on March 28 ! 

158 (340). LITTLE GREBE or DABCHICK. Podiceps ruficollis ruficollis (Pall.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 67. Vicl. Hist, of Bucks, p. 152. 

Common resident on ponds and reservoirs. 

Breeds in considerable numbers on the reservoirs, especially on those at 
Tring and Halton. It also nests commonly on the Thames from Boveney to 
Hambleden, and a pair or two may be met with on almost any suitable piece of 
water. Some leave the reservoirs and other inland waters for the rivers, which 
remain open, but many remain throughout the winter. 



230 NOVITATE3 ZoOLOaiCAE XXVII. 1920. 

159 (341). GREAT NORTHERN DIVER. Colymbus immer Briinn. 

II. of Berks, and Ducks, p. 210. Vict Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Bare winter visitor to the Thames and reservoirs. 

In the Dinton Hall MS. is a description and figure of an adult bird found 
by William Saunders in the neighbourhood on December 3, 1774. Dr. Lamb 
records one under the name of C. glacialis from Maidenhead in January 1794, 
and also a second, evidently an immature bird, as C. immer, shot at the same place 
and at the same time (cf. Zoologist, 1880, p. 317). In December 1841 another 
immature specimen was obtained on the Tring Reservoirs ; while what is described 
as a " young one " was captured alive in a ditch at Chequers Court on May 9, 
1850. In November or December 1859 a specimen was procured at Chesham, 
according to the Rev. B. Burgess. W. B. Botting records a specimen bought 
by him, which had been recently killed on the Thames near Great Marlow {Field, 
December 9, 1865, p. 426) ; and H. Noble states that one was killed near Temple 
Island, below Henley, in 1865, and is now in the possession of Mr. W. D. Mackenzie, 
of Fawley Court (Vict. Hist, of Berks, vol. i. p. 165). Another was also killed 
near Henley (but apparently just outside the county boundary) on November 
18, 1872 (C. A. Sheppard, Field, November 30, 1872, p. 530). 

On the reservoirs the keeper, James Street, observed one on February 15, 
1886. Rothschild also informed Littleboy that one was shot in November 
1885, and another on January 1, 1887 ; while another is said to have been seen 
in the following month (cf. Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. iv. p. 166, vol. v. 
p. 83, vol. ix. p. 159 ; and Vict. Hist. Herts, vol. i. p. 216). 

E. E. Pettitt informs us that there is a specimen at the " Angler's Rest," 
at Egham, which was shot by E. Hanks at Bell Weir in 1889. Street also reported 
another as seen on the reservoirs on January 12, 1897 (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. vol. x. p. 40). 

In the winter of 1905-6 E. E. Pettitt also noted one on the Stanwel 
Reservoir, just over the Middlesex boundary. 

On November 2, 1913, Oldham observed a restless bird on Wilstone Reservoir. 
"It frequently took flight, going from one part of the reservoirs to another. 
Finally it rose in circles until it became a mere speck in the sky, and then dropped, 
as I thought to Marsworth Reservoir, but I could not find it, when later I searched 
that water" (Oldham in litt.). It was almost certainly this bird which was 
picked up dead near the reservoirs November 8, 1913. The bill was damaged 
at the base, probably by shot, or possibly by striking a wire. 

160 (343). BLACK-THROATED DIVER. Colymbus arcticus arcfacus L. 

A female was shot by the present Lord Rothschild on Wilstone Reservoir, 
December 27, 1910, and is in the Tring Museum. 

161 (344). RED-THROATED DIVER. Colymbus stellatus Pontoppidan. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 134. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Bare winter visitor. 

According to Kennedy, I.e., this species was formerly the commonest of 
the three Divers, and specimens used to be killed almost annually on the Thames 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1020. 231 

near Windsor, Eton, and Datchet, occasionally at Maidenhead and Cookham, and 
once near Burnham. He states that most of the birds obtained are immature. 
There seem, however, to be no definite records from the river since 1864. They 
are very rarely seen on the Tring Reservoirs. 

On January 10, 1909, Oldham watched a specimen for some time on Wilstone 
Reservoirs (Zoologist, 1909, p. 77), where he also saw an adult on July 3, 1910. 

A female was shot on the Reservoirs, January 14, 1910, which is in the Tring 
Museum. 

The late Dr. Eagles, of Aylesbury, presented a mounted specimen to the 
Bucks County Museum in 1910, which he said he had shot himself " some years 
before " near Aylesbury railway-station. 

162 (345). WOOD-PIGEON. Columba palumbus palumbus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 54. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Common resident ; great increase in winter. 

Breeds everywhere in woods and parks. In winter appears in great flocks, 
wherever beech-mast is plentiful, but during the last twenty-seven years has never 
been so numerous as in the winter of 1894-5. 

[ROCK-DOVE. Columba livia livia L. 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

In 1902 Mr. A. Heneage Cocks wrote to Hartert as follows : "A wild, white- 
rumped Pigeon, slightly smaller than the Wood-Pigeon, and equally distinct 
from the Stock-Dove, is, or was, plentiful at one particular spot in Buckingham- 
shire, viz. a high chalk cliff, facing the Thames near the lower end of the Danes- 
field estate, near where Harleyford estate adjoins. These birds could always 
be seen flying thence over the river, and I have shot specimens, but never since 
I began collecting, and for some years now shooting has been stopped on the 
river, and I cannot say whether they are still there, but see no reason to the 
contrary." Mr. Cocks also had a good view of a white-rumped bird at Little 
Marlow, which rose from a gravel-pit by the roadside. 

As feral Pigeons are often almost indistinguishable from wild Rock-Doves, 
it is difficult to say whether these Pigeons were really originally wild birds or 
feral, though in the latter case all the individuals in a colony are not as a 
rule alike.] 

163 (346). STOCK-DOVE. Columba oenas oenas L. 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 55. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 146. 

Resident, common though local. 

Not rare generally where old trees afford nesting-places. Hartert (I.e.) 
supposed that Stock-Doves were migrants, because they are migratory in the 
northern parts of the continent, leaving their nesting-places in the autumn and 
returning to them early in March, if not before. They are, however, resident 
in the British Isles. Hartert also doubted the statements of Kennedy and H. H. 
Crewe, who reported " large flocks " and "great numbers" feeding upon beech- 
mast, and probably not without reason, though they flock together to some extent 



232 NOVITATES ZOOLOCICAE XXVII. 1920. 

in winter, as Oldham observed about twenty feeding on a fallow near Hastoe 
on April 25, and a flock of eleven on March 31, 1917, in a field near Wilstone 
Reservoirs. As at that time Stock-Doves in many cases have already eggs 
and certainly are paired at their breeding-places, these flocks (though not " large ") 
were possibly migrants from the north of the continent. 

164 (348). TURTLE-DOVE. Streptopelia turtur turtur (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 94. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 147. 

Summer resident. 

Seems to be not rare in all well- wooded parts and to have increased lately 
in several places. Breeds in considerable numbers in the Thames Valley. Mr. 

A. H. Cocks noted a great increase in the numbers of this species about twenty- 
five years ago. Like the Wood-Pigeon, the Turtle-Dove is at times attacked by 
diphtheria, and one was picked up by Mr. A. H. Cocks at Skirmett on July 31, 
1908, which had evidently succumbed to this disease. 

[INDIAN SPOTTED DOVE. Streptopelia chinensis suratensis (Gm). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 95. 

Donovan, Nat. Hist. Brit. B. vol. vii. pi. 149 and text (1816), figures and 
names " Columba albinotata " * specimens of 8. chinensis suratensis that passed 
into his collection from the Leverian Museum, said to have been shot in Bucking- 
hamshire, where, according to Latham, they had not been rare. No doubt these 
birds, which like other Doves are often kept in cages in the East, were " intro- 
duced by some fortuitous circumstance into the vicinity of Buckinghamshire,' 5 
as Donovan wrote.] 

165 (350). PALLAS' SAND-GROUSE. Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Fall). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 117. 

Exceptional visitor ; no specimen shot in Bucks seems to exist. 

Mr. A. F. Grossman writes (in litt.) : " During the visitation of this species 
in 1888 my grandfather saw a flock of birds at Farnham Royal, which from his 
description were undoubtedly of these birds. I was unfortunately unable to 
see them on going to the place about an hour afterwards." F. Bond recorded 
a flock of about a dozen birds as seen on June 19, 1888, near Staines Moor, on 
the borders of Bucks, and Middlesex (Zoologist, 1889, p. 227). Rothschild believes 
that he saw three flying overhead when shooting near Halton in 1896, but as it is 
not known that any visited Europe that year, we fear that a mistake was made. 

Edwin Hollis saw three birds, 28 . viii . 1908, flying over the road between 
Wendover and Aylesbury, which he took to be Sand-Grouse. They were certainly 
not Partridges, he says. 

On December 1, 1908, Rothschild recorded a flock of seven or eight of these 
birds which rose out of a turnip-field in the parish of Buckland, on the Bucks, 
and Herts, boundary, near Tring, while Pheasant-shooting (Brit. Birds, vol. ii. 
p. 309). 

• This name has been overlooked in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vol. xxi., and other synonymic lists. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 233 

166 (352). STONE- CURLEW or THICK-KNEE. Burhinus oedicnemus 

oedicnemus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 97. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Summer visitor in greatly reduced numbers, breeding very locally. 

Formerly this interesting species bred in some numbers on the slopes of the 
Chiltem Hills, and also on the chalky uplands near Ivinghoe. The late C. E. 
Stubbs had eggs taken at Fawley on May 23, 1860 (cf. Zoologist, .1903, p. 450). 
In Clark Kennedy's time its numbers had apparently already been diminished, 
but H. Harpur Crewe reported that it might still often be heard wheeling over- 
head on a summer's night at Drayton Beauchamp. Bryant Burgess also stated 
that its note had been heard near Chesham ; and Kennedy mentions occurrences 
near Aylesbury, Buckingham, and several times at Slapton. 

About 1900 Mr. A. H. Cocks found it still numerous in summer on the east 
side of the Chilterns near Skirmett, and from there to Turville Heath and across 
the Oxfordshire border. He relates how the birds used to spend some hours 
after sunset flying backwards and forwards past his house screaming, from the 
end of May onward. About the year 1909 or 1910 a great diminution in their 
numbers seems to have taken place (Brit. Birds, vol. viii. p. 173). Heatley Noble 
(loc. cit.) also states that up to 1905 one or two pairs bred regularly on a part of 
the Fawley Park estate. There are, however, entries in Mr. A. H. Cocks's diary 
of occasional appearances of this species up to much later dates. Three or more 
were heard on April 13, 1908, and again on the 17th, and others are noted under 
the dates of May 13, 1912, and August 8, 1913. The Bucks County Museum 
also contains an immature bird with the following inscription : " Bred on borders 
of Hambleden and Turville parishes. Captured with broken wing, 20.vii.1907 " 
(E. Hollis in lift.). 

A clutch of eggs now in the Aylesbury Museum was taken in May 1910 in 
the Saunderton district, and in April 1914 another nest with eggs was found and 
photographed, which hatched off successfully (E. Hollis, Brit. Birds, vol. viii. 
p. 121). According to the farmer the birds still breed in this locality annually 
(E. Hollis in lilt.). 

Although the Stone-Curlew is not now known to breed on the Ivinghoe 
Downs, it is worth noting that Hartert heard the unmistakable cry of this species 
over Tring both in 1914 and 1915. 

167 (351). OYSTER-CATCHER. Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 184. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Exceptional straggler. 

Kennedy says that specimens have occasionally been killed on the Thames, 
and instances one seen near Surley in March 1866, and another shot near Windsor 
" a few years since." Mr. A. H. Cocks believes that he recognized the note 
about midnight on August 8, 1S93, at Great Marlow. James Street shot a female 
of the year on Little Tring Reservoir on September 7, 1897 (not September 24, 
as stated in Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. x. p. 38). This specimen is now 
in the Tring Museum. Street also told Oldham that he had seen one on March 
20, 1915, at Marsworth Reservoirs. 



234 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XAVU. 1920. 

168 (356). DOTTEREL. Charadrius morinellus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 140. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Rare visitor ; no recent records. 

This bird, like the Golden Plover, seems to have been of much more frequent 
occurrence in former days. Being exceedingly good to eat and less shy than 
most other Waders, they were apparently caught and shot a great deal. Kennedy 
(I.e.) says that a few were shot in a field near Burnham in the spring of 1857, 
and that they were rarely seen in the vicinity of Eton and Windsor, also that 
they have been procured in the neighbourhood of Aylesbury and Drayton Beau- 
champ. The late Rev. H. Harpur Crewe had an adult male which, together with 
a female, was shot at Tringhoe, near Ivinghoe, August 14, 1862, by one of Earl 
Brownlow's keepers (Ibis, 1862, pp. 390-1). 

169 (358). RINGED PLOVER. Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 141. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Regular bird of passage. 

Seen in suitable localities, except during the breeding-season and in the depth 
of winter. Oldham sent the following notes about the reservoirs : 

" Bird of passage at the reservoirs. If there is much mud a good many are 
seen, but in seasons when the water is high there is no inducement for them to 
stay. I saw none in 1916 or 1917. 

"The spring passage apparently extends from mid-March to third week in 
May (my outside dates are March 14 [1909] and May 21 [1911]). 

" The autumn passage extends from end of July to third week in September. 
(I have only once seen a bird in October, i.e. on October 13, 1907.) The birds 
occur more frequently and in greater numbers in autumn than in spring. I saw 
a party of ten, immature birds, on September 11, 1910 ; one of fourteen, adult 
and immature birds, on September 18, 1910 ; and one of eleven, adult and im- 
mature birds, on August 9, 1914. 

"The birds often consort with Dunlins. Used to occur not infrequently 
on the banks of the Thames, and probably does so now, though there are no 
recent dates." 

[KENTISH PLOVER. Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus L. 

Although just outside our boundary, it seems wortli recording that G. W. 
Kerr saw a Kentish Plover at the Stanwell Reservoir, Middlesex, on April 21, 
1915 (in litt. to Pettitt).] 

170 (362). GOLDEN PLOVER. Charadrius apricarius L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 114. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Late autumn and winter visitor. 

The Golden Plover was, according to accounts by sportsmen and farmers, 
much more frequent formerly than it is now. We have no information of its 
annual occurrence of late years near the reservoirs, where it is now only seen from 
time to time in small flocks or singly, in winter. Several were shot near Aston 
Clinton and Marsworth in November and December 1917. Flocks are often 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 235 

observed near Aylesbury, Princes Risborough, and Chesham, also near Bucking- 
ham. Oldham observed a single bird, flying high, calling, near Marsworth on 
July 13, 1910 ; he heard one December 5, 1915, and again on March 19, 1916, 
and saw a flock of fifteen in a pasture near the reservoirs February 16, 1917. 

In the Thames Valley it appears to be more numerous, and E. E. Pettitt 
describes it as common in winter in the meadows between Taplow and Boveney. 



171 (365). GREY PLOVER. Squatarola squatarola squatarola (L.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Rare visitor. 

On November 25, 1819, a Grey Plover was obtained near Dinton Hall. 
According to Rothschild (information given to Littleboy) one was shot near the 
reservoirs in March 1885. A male was shot by Hartert on the Wilstone Re- 
servoir December 12, 1897, and is in the Tring Museum. 

172 (307). LAPWING. Vanellus vanellus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 59. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Common resident. 

The same birds seem to remain here throughout the year, but they assemble 
in great flocks after the breeding-season. In severe winters they suffer badly, 
and many die for want of food, as in the winter of 1917. 

173 (370). RUFF. Philomachus pugnax (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 193. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Occasional visitor. 

A Ruff was shot at Dinton Hall August 8, 1774. One was killed near Ches- 
ham in the sixties (Kennedy, I.e.). Single birds or small parties visit the Tring 
Reservoirs from time to time. Grossman ( Vict. Hist, of Herts, vol. i. p. 213) records 
specimens shot in August 1884 (one) and two in August 1886. Specimens shot 
there on September 5, 1894 (<J), September 19, 1898, September 15, 1904 ($ ad.), 
September 11, 1907 (? juv.), are in the Tring Museum. We know nothing of the 
bird shot August 17, 1895, which is mentioned by Grossman {Vict. Hist, of Herts. 
vol. i. p. 214). Mr. Oldham made the following observations : October 13 and 
20, 1907, a young $ ; May 9, 1909, a female ; August 23, 1914, a young <J, feeding 
on Mollusca (apparently Limnaea pereger) on the mud. 

174 (371). KNOT. Erolia canutus canutus (L). 

Rare visitor. 

A young male was shot on the Tring Reservoirs on September 15, 1904, 
and is in the Tring Museum. Mr. Oldham observed an adult bird, changing into 
winter plumage, but still retaining a good deal of chestnut colour on the breast, 
feeding with a Redshank on the mud at Wilstone Reservoirs, on September 12, 
1909. A specimen was shot near Halton, January 28, 1911, and is mounted in 
the Bucks. County Museum in Aylesbury. 



236 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 



175 (372). SANDERLING. Crocethia leucophaea (Pall.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 184. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Bare visitor. 

According to Kennedy, from information by George Lillywhite, a specimen 
was shot on the banks of the Thames not far from Surley Hall in the depth of 
the winter of 1 866. According to Rothschild it occurred on the Tring Reservoirs 
in 1886. An adult male was shot on August 18, 1902, near Drayton Beauchamp 
by Mr. J. Horwood. The skin is in the Tring Museum. On May 9, 1909, Mr. 
Oldham observed two Sanderlings with some. Dunlins and Ringed Plovers on 
the mud at Startops End Reservoir. It must always have been a very rare bird, 
and can never have been " fairly common " on the reservoirs, as reported to 
Littleboy (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 78). 

176 (373). DUNLIN. Erolia alpina alpina (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 145. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Not uncommon passage migrant and occasional winter visitor. 

Formerly not unfrequently seen on the banks of the Thames, but more 
regularly on reservoirs and ponds, if there is sufficient mud to feed on, therefore 
commoner when the water is low. Often consorts with other Waders, such as 
Ringed Plovers, and other species of Erolia. According to Oldham (in litt.), 
noticed from mid-March to mid-May, and again from mid-July to mid-October. 
In the spring mostly in small parties from two to four, or singly ; in autumn old 
and young often in parties of ten, twelve, and fourteen. Oldham observed Dunlins 
on November 21, 1909 (one), December 7, 1913 (four), and November 15, 1914. 
Hartert observed three in November and December 1915. A female shot on 
December 2, 1916, is in the Tring Museum. 

177 (374). CURLEW- SANDPIPER. Erolia ferruginea (Brunn.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Passage migrant. 

Three young birds were shot on the Tring Reservoirs September 3, 1892, 
and a young female August 28, 1893. Mr. Oldhain sent us the following notes : 
" A Curlew-Sandpiper and a Little Stint — both birds of the year — were 
feeding with a party of six Ringed Plovers and ten Dunlins on the mud at Wilstone 
Reservoir on August 29, 1909. Another Curlew-Sandpiper, or possibly the same 
bird as I had seen on August 29, was feeding by itself on the mud at Startops 
End Reservoir a week later. On August 27, 1911, a bird of the year was feeding 
with four Dunlins at the same place. On September 20, 1914, two were feeding 
with two Dunlins on the mud at Wilstone Reservoir." 

178 (375). LITTLE STINT. Erolia niinuta minuta (Leisl.). 

Viel. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Occasional migrant. 

Obtained on the Tring Reservoirs in August 1883 (not 1S85), and July 29, 
1893, the latter specimen being in the Tring Museum. Mr. Oldham writes (in 
litt.) : 



N0VITATE3 ZOOLOOIOAE XXVII. 1920. 237 

"August 29, 1909. — A Little Stint and a Curlew-Sandpiper — both birds of 
the year — feeding with a party of six Ringed Plovers and ten Dunlins on the mud 
at Wilstone Reservoir. 

"September 18, 1910. — A Little Stint with a Dunlin and fourteen Ringed 
Plovers on the mud at Wilstone Reservoir. 

"August 23, 1914. — A Little Stint with a Redshank and three immature 
Ringed Plovers on the mud at Startops End Reservoir. At Wilstone another 
Little Stint was feeding with two adult and one young Dunlin. 

[TEMMINCK'S STINT. Erolia temminckii (Leisl.). 

In Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 78, J. E. Littleboy wrote : " A 
Temminck's Stint was shot on the reservoirs in September 1887. It is preserved 
in Mr. Rothschild's collection." At that time local birds used to be stuffed by 
the late A. Minall. There are now two mounted specimens of Temminck's Stints 
evidently stuffed by Minall, one bearing under the stand the note " Rye," the other 
" Thames." Whether one of these was at the time supposed to be from the 
reservoirs, or whether the specimen has been destroyed, like the Marsh- Sandpiper, 
when attacked by moths, cannot now be ascertained.] 

179 (387). COMMON SANDPIPER. Tringa hypoleuca L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 98. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Common bird of passage, breeding in small numbers. 

Apparently nests near suitable watercourses, such as the Chess, Colne, and 
possibly the Thames. Mr. Oldham writes (in lift.) : " Regular bird of passage 
at the reservoirs from mid-April to third week in May, and again from end of 
July to mid-September. The earliest date in spring, during the past ten years, 
is April 9, and that, curiously enough, was in the inclement spring of 1917. I have 
only once observed specimens so late as October, i.e. on October 3 and 10, 1915." 

Although it is probable that a few pairs breed in the Chess Valley, there is 
no recent definite proof. Clark Kennedy states that it breeds near the Chess 
and Colne, and in Yarrell (4th ed. vol. iii. p. 447) the Editor says : " It is believed 
to have nested in Kent and in Buckinghamshire." As, however, isolated instances 
of nesting have been reported from Hertfordshire and Oxfordshire, there is no 
reason why a few pairs should not breed in Buckinghamshire. 

180 (389). WOOD-SANDPIPER. Tringa glareola L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 191. Vict. Htst. of Bucks, p. 150. 

Uncommon visitor. 

Kennedy mentions a specimen shot on Dorney Common near Eton in the 
sixties, and another killed near Surley in the spring of 1867. Between 1892 and 
1900 Hartert has observed several on the Tring Reservoirs, but the dates were 
not noted. Littleboy (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 78) recorded a 
specimen shot on the reservoirs in August 1886, on the authority of the Hon. 
Walter Rothschild. The specimen cannot now be traced in the Tring Museum, 
but at that time specimens used to be stuffed and the labelling left to irrespon- 
sible persons and frequently omitted. 



238 NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

181 (390). GREEN SANDPIPER. Tringa ochropus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 143. Vici. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Rare bird of passage. 

Kennedy mentions a specimen shot in the spring of 1859, near Chenies, in 
Buckinghamshire ; another shot on Dorney Common, near Eton, in the autumn 
of 1863, when a second specimen was seen at the same time. A pair was observed 
frequently near Fawley, in December 1864, where one was shot on December 
24, and another February 11, 1865. Two were also seen, and one shot, near Eton 
in the winter of 1865, and others killed at Cookham and Surley in 1865 and 1867. 
According^to the late Rev. H. Harpur Crewe, the Green Sandpiper has been 
observed " to frequent the reservoirs and canals near Drayton Beauchamp in 
small parties every winter," and a bird of this species was shot " many years 
ago " near Risborough. 

Possibly in Harpur Crewe's time the species may have been less scarce near 
Drayton Beauchamp, when some of the canals which are now dry contained 
water, but it was probably rare even then. In the Tring Museum is ,t specimen 
shot near Long Marston by Mr. J. Chapman. Mr. Oldham observed it on 
Startops End Reservoir on August 14, 1909, and near Wilstone Reservoir Sep- 
tember 13, 1914. Street reported four May 12, 1897. 

All through August 1918 single Green Sandpipers were seen by Hartert 
on the mud of Little Tring and sometimes at Wilstone Reservoir. On August 
11 Oldham saw three together at Little Tring; and E. E. Pettitt noticed one on 
Ham Island, River Thames, on August 3 of the same year. 

182 (397). MARSH- SANDPIPER. Tringa stagnates (Bechst.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Exceptional straggler. 

In October 1887 a specimen shot near the Tring Reservoirs was identified 
by Lord (then the Hon. Walter) Rothschild as the Marsh-Sandpiper. Unfor- 
tunately the mounted specimen was inadvertently burnt with a few other rare 
birds in 1890 (cf. Brit. B. vol. iii. p. 356, footnote ; Hand-list Brit. B. p. 184). 

183 (394). COMMON REDSHANK. Tringa totanus totanus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 191. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Breeds in small numbers, and is not rare on passage. 

Not uncommon on passage in spring and autumn, but also sometimes ob- 
served in winter. Has probably nested in small numbers for many years past. 
A specimen was shot at Dint on Hall on August 11, 1774. A little over twenty 
years ago Mr. Charles J. Wilson observed one and sometimes two pairs fre- 
quenting the River Ouse, just above Olney, during the months of May and June, 
for two or three years. " During May 1909, when the water was low, and there 
was much mud in consequence, three or four clamorous birds were always to he 
seen at Wilstone Reservoirs. On June 7 of the same year a pair was feeding on 
the mud at the edge of a big patch of rushes with a brood of downy young. I 
think another pair nested, but have no proof" (C. Oldham in litl.). In 1917 
and 1918 several pairs were observed nesting in a meadow near Aylesbury by 



N0TIT4TE8 ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 239 

Mr. Edwin Hollis. Three nests were found April 26 and 27, 1917, one April 27, 
1918, the hen bird sitting. An egg is in the Aylesbury County Museum. In 
1918 first seen March 23rd, in 1920 March 24th, in 1919 the first to return to 
this breeding-place was a pair observed by Edwin Hollis on March 15. On 
the Tring Reservoirs Mr. C. Oldham and Hartert have observed it as a bird 
of passage, usually singly in March and April, and again from end of June to 
end of August. It is rather an uncommon winter visitor, but Oldham observed 
it on November 26, 1916, and Oldham and Hartert saw one walking on the ice 
on Startops End Reservoir on January 6, 1918. 

Possibly a pair may nest occasionally in the Thames Valley, for Pettitt 
records this species from Ham Island on June 6, 1916, and thought that a pair 
was breeding here, but was not certain. 

184 (395). SPOTTED or DUSKY REDSHANK. Tringa erythropus (Pall.). 

One observation oj a flock in 1918. 

At mid-day, on August 25, 1918, Mr. Charles Oldham observed a party of 
five Dusky Redshanks dropping to the mud at Little Tring Reservoir. They at 
once began to feed in a large bed of Polygonum amphibium in three or four inches 
of water. After being put up they returned in a minute or two, feeding assidu- 
ously ; but after a stay of about an hour in all they got up, rose high in the air 
and went clear away (Brit. B. vol. xii. p. 117, 1918). This is the first and only 
record of the occurrence of this species in Herts., nor has it been observed in Bucks. 

185 (396). GREENSHANK. Tringa nebularia (Gunn.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 145. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Passage migrant. 

Kennedy reports one as shot near Chesham, and states that it has occasionally 
been obtained on the Thames. It also occurs on the Tring Reservoirs. Hartert 
has seen it several times in autumn during the last twenty-five years, but omitted 
to note the dates. Street saw it often in autumn and May. Oldham (in litt.) 
calls it " a rather uncommon bird of passage at the reservoirs." He notes the 
following occurrences : 

9 . v . 1909, one at Startops End Reservoir. 

12 . and 19 . ix . 1909, four at Wilstone Reservoir. 

13 . and 27 . viii . 1911, one at Startops End. 
23 . viii . 1914, one at Little Tring Reservoir. 
6 . ix . 1914, one at Startops End. 

13 . ix . 1914, one at Wilstone, the last three observations referring perhaps 
to the same bird. 

The species probably occurs every year. 

186 (398). GREY PHALAROPE. Phalaropus fulicarius (L). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 197. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Rare on autumn migration and ill winter. 

One was shot on the Thames at Windsor in December 1851, and another, 
much exhausted, was seen on the river at Maidenhead in the autumn of 1867. 



240 Novitates Zoologic.ve XXVII. 1920. 

In the autumn of 1866 there was an extraordinarily large immigration to 
England, and a specimen was then observed on the canal near Halton. A young 
bird, moulting into winter plumage, was shot on Tring Reservoirs 20 . x . 1891 ; 
a male was picked up in the woods near Tring, close to the boundary of Bucks., 
in December 1899 ; a female shot on Marsworth Reservoir 2 . xi . 1904 by Hartert, 
another female 18. xi. 1911. These four specimens are in the Tring Museum. 
(Crossman's statement that four were shot in October 1891 is apparently an 
error ; at least we can only trace the one mentioned above.) Mrs. and Miss 
Oldham observed a Grey Phalarope at the reservoirs September 29, 1919, 
swimming and flying over from Marsworth to Startops End Reservoir. 



187 (399). RED-NECKED PHALAROPE. Phalaropus lobatus (L.) 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 49. 

One specimen Tring Reservoirs, October 1885. Erroneously recorded as 
Grey Phalarope (Ph. fulicarius) in Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 83, 1890. 

[The supposed instance of breeding of Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus 
himantopus) in 1834 near Beaconsfield, recorded by Clark Kennedy (B. of Berks, 
and Bucks, p. 192), is of course quite unworthy of credit.] 

188 (402). BAR-TAHiED GODWIT. Limosa lapponica lapponica (L.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 192. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Uncommon passage migrant. 

There are very few records of this species. During the first week of May 
1846 a pair of these birds was observed to frequent a field on the farm of a Mr. 
Biggs, near Slapton. The hen bird was shot, and examined by the Rev. Bryant 
Burgess, of Latimer (B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 193, from a letter of Burgess). 
One was shot on the reservoirs in December 1880 (Rothschild, Trans. Herts. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 77). According to a letter from Mr. H. M. Roberts of 
Ivinghoe a specimen was shot in the winter of 1895 near the brewery, at Ivinghoe. 
An adult male in nearly full summer plumage was shot on Wilstone Reservoir 
on May 6, 1907, by James Street, and is now in the Tring Museum. On April 
29, 1917, Mr. Charles Oldham observed one feeding on swampy ground at the 
edge of Wilstone Reservoir, which did not show any of the foxy-red colour of the 
summer plumage. 

189 (403). BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. Limosa limosa limosa (L.). 

Rare passage migrant. 

A young female was shot at Wilstone Reservoir 24 . vii . 1 893, a young male 
15 . ix . 1904. Both are in the Tring Museum. 

Littleboy, apparently from information by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 
says that one was shot on the reservoirs in September 1886 (Trans. Herts. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. vol. v. p. 78, 1890 ; see also Grossman, Vict. Hist, of Herts, vol. i. p. 214). 
The specimen is not preserved. 



Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 241 



190 (404). CURLEW. Numenius arquata arquata (L.). 

B, of Berks, and Bucks, p. 142. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Passage migrant. 

Curlews have been observed chiefly on spring and autumn migration, and 
a few shot in many places of the county. They are heard almost every spring 
passing over the Tring Reservoirs in the evening, and on October 16, 1907, Street 
saw sixteen at the reservoirs. 

Oldham made the following notes : 

"July 21, 1912. — At 2.30 p.m. three Curlews came down to Wilstone Re- 
servoir. They did not alight; but circled round the reservoir two or three times, 
calling as they flew, and then rose and went off again. I lost sight of the birds 
behind some trees, and cannot say which direction they took. 

"March 2, 1913. — Wind W.S.W. ; a Curlew calling high overhead near Mars- 
worth Reservoir at mid-day. After circling round for a few minutes, it alighted 
in a field near the reservoir. 

"January 2, 1916. — A Curlew going north-east, with the wind, near Marsworth 
Reservoir." 



191 (405). WHMBKEL. Numenius phaeopus phaeopus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 143. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150, 

Rare and irregular visitor. 

The Rev. H. Harpur Crewe wrote (Kennedy, I.e.) : "A few specimens of 
the Whimbrel are seen almost every winter on the banks of the reservoirs here, 
that is to say, the Marsworth Reservoir, . . . The Weston Turville sheet of water, 
and the canals at Halton and Wilstone." Kennedy also notes that it is occasion- 
ally met with on the Thames in spring and autumn. Two were shot in the north- 
eastern corner of Buckinghamshire, not far from the River Ouse, in the second 
week of May 1894 (Aplin, Zoologist. 1894, p. 267). 

Probably the Whimbrel was always very rare, and the statement " almost 
every winter " not literally correct, as we have no recent evidence of its occur- 
rence, except that Mr. Headley saw two Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) at 
Tring on May 5, 1916 (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xvii. p. 40, 1918). 



[GREAT SNIPE. Gallinago media (Lath.). 
Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

No proof of occurrence in Bucks. 

The statement of the occurrence near Tring, in the Vict. Hist, of Herts, vol. i. 
p. 213, of an albino Great Snipe is an error, this variety being one of the Common 
Snipe. Among the numerous Snipe which Lord Rothschild and Hartert have 
examined from the Tring Reservoirs there has never been a single Great Snipe. 

In the Field, vol. xli. p. 135, February 8, 1873, A. H. Cocks wrote : " When 
shooting with Mr. T. O. Wethered by the river side at Marlow in September 
1871 (I think the 3rd), I saw a Great Snipe (O. major), but did not get it."] 

16 



242 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

192 (409). COMMON SNIPE. Gallinago gallinago gallinago (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 115. Vicl. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Resident, passage migrant and winter visitor. 

Common in suitable localities from October to March, and on the Tring 
Reservoirs a considerable passage takes place during the last days of March and 
till April 12. These Snipe never drum and do not attempt to nest there, though 
in one place the ground appears to be suitable. Kennedy states that nests 
have been found several times on East Burnham Common. Alan F. Crossman 
and Hartert heard Snipe drumming on Farnham Common in 1900 and 1901, 
so that they may have been breeding there. Apparently nested near Halton 
recently. 

In the Thames Valley, while the Corncrake has to a great extent disappeared 
from the meadows near the river, the Snipe has undoubtedly increased con- 
siderably in numbers, as is also the case in the neighbouring counties of Berks, 
and Oxon. Mr. E. E. Pettitt states that two or three pairs nest near Wraysbury, 
and that this species also breeds near Marlow, Medmenham, and Hambleden. 

[WILSON'S SNIPE. Gallinago gallinago delicata (Ord.). 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

No reliable evidence of occurrence in the British Isles. 

Harting (Zoologist, 1872, p. 3273, id. Handb. Brit. B. p. 143) stated that 
a specimen of the American Snipe, G. g. delicata (icilsoni of older authors), shot 
at Taplow. Bucks., on August 1, 1863, had been forwarded in the flesh for identifi- 
cation to Mr. Gould, in whose possession he had examined it. The case must 
remain doubtful, and can hardly be accepted as correct. The American Snipe 
is so similar to G. g. gallinago that single specimens cannot always be identified 
with absolute certainty. The chief differences are : normally sixteen tail- 
feathers in delicata, normally fourteen in gallinago, bill generally shorter in 
delicata, mostly longer in gallinago, sharper and more regular black cross-bars 
to the axillaries and under wing-coverts and usually cross-bars to the sides of 
the breast in delicata. Sixteen tail-feathers, however, occur also sometimes, 
and not so very rarely, in gallinago, and the bill as well as the cross-barrings differ 
in both forms. Moreover, Harting specially states that the " wilsoni " which 
he examined had only fourteen rectrices — thus lacking one of the chief charac- 
teristics of G. g. delicata \ ] 

193 (410). JACK SNIPE. Limnocryptes gallinula (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 110. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Winter visitor. 

A regular winter visitor and not rare, though far less numerous than the 
Common Snipe. It frequents the same localities as the latter, but occurs also 
on meadows and even on little bits of marshy ground among bushes and trees. 
A well-marked spring movement has been observed annually near the Tring 
Reservoirs, as in the Common Snipe, at the end of March and at the beginning 
of April. 

In the south of the county it seems to be much less frequently observed, 
and Mr. A. H. Cocks remarks of one flushed on October 25, 1909, at Skirmett, 
that it is the first seen by him there ! 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 243 

194 (411). WOODCOCK. Scolopax rusticola rusticola L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 114. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 149. 

Regular visitor in autumn and winter, but not numerous. 

Woodcock generally arrive towards the end of October, and may be found 
until the end of February, but they seem to be nowhere very common in Bucking- 
hamshire. In the last months of 1919 they were more frequent than usual near 
Tring and Halton. We have no recent records of their breeding in the county, 
but they have nested near Beaconsfield and near Burnham (1867). In the sixties 
a few birds bred near Stoke, Burnham, and Brickhill. According to Lord Roth- 
schild a pair nested in the woods above Drayton Lodge, at the boundary of Herts, 
and Bucks., about 1888, but the eggs were deserted, because one of the parents 
was shot by a neighbouring keeper ! (sic !). 

Mr. W. Dalziel Mackenzie informed Clark Kennedy that a Woodcock 
disturbed on December 13, 1859, perched on a large oak, where it remained 
for some time. 

195 (412). BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon nigra nigra (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 149. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Not uncommon on passage. 

In the Dinton Hall MS. occurs the passage : " These birds were shot by 
Sir John van Hatten and the Rev. W. Nance on May 10, 1774, at Elthorpe." 
It is a not unfrequent but somewhat irregular visitor to the Thames and other 
large waters. Clark Kennedy records one from Risborough, and about a dozen 
from the Thames Valley. It visits the Tring Reservoirs probably every year, 
generally throughout May, but in the Tring Museum are specimens shot on April 
22 and 27, while Oldham once saw three as early as April 19, 1914. The return 
passage begins early in August and lasts through September. Mr. H. Boswell 
Lee records one from near Amersham on July 28, 1906, and another near 
Wendover in August 1905 (Field, August 4, 1906, p. 239). In 1907 Mr. Oldham 
observed ten on Wilstone Reservoir on October 13 and three on October 20. In 
1913 he saw one there on October 19, and again on November 2 and November 9, 
but these occurrences in October and November are quite exceptional. On 
May 4, 1918, about 11 a.m., a party of nine Black Terns and about the same 
number of Common Terns with six Black-headed Gulls were seen by Mr. Oldham 
at Startops End Reservoir. An hour later, at Wilstone, another party of Terns, 
i.e. twelve Black and five Common Terns, were seen flying high in the direction 
of the other reservoirs. On returning to Startops End the observer found 
thirteen Black and five Common Terns there, probably the party he had seen 
over Wilstone at mid-day. On July 21, 1918, he saw an adult bird at Wilstone 
Reservoir ; September 8, a young bird about Startops End and Marsworth 
Reservoirs. Two were observed by Mr. E. Hollis over Halton Reservoir in the 
spring of 1918, probably in May. 

196 (417). SANDWICH TERN. Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis Lath. 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 150. 

Rare straggler. 

Mr. Heneage Cocks (Zoologist, 1895, p. 190) observed eight adult birds 
on the river opposite his house at Great Marlow on April 10, 1895. 



244 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

In October 1886 a pair was shot on the Tring Reservoirs (Vict. Hist, of 
Herts, vol. i. p. 214). 

197 (419). COMMON TERN. Sterna hirundo hirundo L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 147. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Not uncommon on passage. 

Seen in spring and autumn, and occasionally at other times of the year, 
on all larger sheets of water, especially the Thames and Tring Reservoirs. 

Oldham, in litt., writes : " Bird of passage, generally in small numbers, 
one to three or four, but occasionally in fair-sized flocks (twenty-eight on May 20, 
1910) to mid-June, the latest date being June 15, 1913. Less frequent and never, 
in my experience, in large numbers, on return passage from end of first week in 
August to mid-September. These birds often stay only for a short time — a few 
hours or perhaps only minutes — to rest and feed before passing on. At times 
they pass without stopping at all, as Gulls so often do ; for example, on August 8, 
1915, three flew over without stopping, going a little S. of W." 

198 (420). ARCTIC TERN. Sterna paradisaea Briinn. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 148. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Rare visitor. 

According to Kennedy this Tern is " occasionally seen at the Marsworth 
and Wilstone Reservoirs and at other large sheets of water." " Many years 
ago Mr. H. Daly shot one of these birds in autumn, near Eton " ; and in Novem- 
ber 1865 " an Arctic Tern was obtained at Boveney Locks." Several are also 
stated to have been killed near Windsor, and one by Gould near Maidenhead in 
May 1866. 

An adult female was shot at the Reservoirs by James Street on May 9, 1 893, 
and is now in the Tring Museum. The specimen is certainly an Arctic Tern, 
though the tip of the bill (in the skin) is blackish, as in Sterna hirundo. One " is 
said to have been obtained " in the spring of 1886, but no proof of this exists. 

199 (421). LESSER TERN. Sterna albifrons albiirons Pall. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 149. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Rare, irregular visitor. 

In summer and autumn occasionally in small flocks on the Thames, specimens 
having been shot near Windsor and Eton, according to Kennedy, who also records 
one shot on the canal at Slapton, in May 1850. Adult birds were shot out of 
small flocks on the Tring Reservoirs May 8 and 20, 1893. 

Near Tring four were observed at Wilstone Reservoir on September 4, 1910, 
by Mr. C. Oldham (in litt.). 

200 (427). BLACK-HEADED GULL. Larus ridibundus ridibundus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 151. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Common visitor at all seasons. 

Not unfrequently seen, chiefly in spring and autumn, but also at other 
seasons on the Tring and Halton Reservoirs, along the Thames and on other 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 245 

waters. Mr. Oldham writes (in litt.) : " I have notes of the occurrence in every 
month except June. As with other Gulls, parties often pass without alighting 
on the waters, but this species often stays for some days, especially in winter, 
picking up food on the "banks and mud patches. There seems to be a regular 
passage in March and April (a flock of twenty-four at Wilstone Reservoir on 
April 29, 1917), and again in August and September. A party of thirty-six 
passed over Marsworth and Little Tring Reservoirs on November 4, 1917, but 
so large a flock at that time of year is, I think, very unusual." 

In the Thames Valley it appears frequently, sometimes in considerable flocks, 
especially during floods in spring and autumn. Mr. A. H. Cocks reports flocks of 
about fifty or sixty at Skirrnett on April 22nd, 1917, and about forty seen on 
plough land near Skirrnett on January 28, 1918. 



201 (430). COMMON GULL. Larus canus canus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 152. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Irregular straggler, in fair numbers. 

Except Larus ridibundris this is evidently the least rare Gull visiting the 
county. It has not infrequently been observed on the Halton and Tring 
Reservoirs, and a specimen shot on October 20, 1892, is in the Tring Museum. 
Kennedy records it from Chesham, the Thames (near Windsor), Wycombe Rye, 
Fawley, and Chalvey (near Slough). 

Mr. Oldham writes (in litt.) : " I have notes of this Gull for every month 
in the year except June and July. It usually occurs singly or in parties of not 
more than half a dozen, but on September 30, 1917, a flock of thirteen immature 
birds was observed on Little Tring Reservoir. As a rule the passing Gulls do 
not stay on these waters for more than a few minutes, and very often they do not 
alight at all. Mature and immature birds are about equally numerous." 

In the lower part of the Thames Valley it occurs not uncommonly (E. E. 
Petti tt and F. C. R. Jourdain). 



202 (431). HERRING-GULL. Larus argentatus argentatus Pontopp. 

B. of Berks, and Backs, p. 135. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Rare visitor. 

Clark Kennedy mentions one caught on the river between Maidenhead and 
Windsor, January 25, 1855, and several seen between Surley and Eton in the winter 
of 1866-7. Among the large Sea-Gulls which now and then, chiefly after fogs 
or gales, are observed at the Tring Reservoirs, Herring-Gulls also apparently 
occur from time to time, but it is difficult to identify these birds with certainty 
at great distances, and no specimen exists in the Tring Museum. Mr. Oldham 
writes (in litt.) : " Much less frequent at the reservoirs than Larus canus ; in 
fact in eleven years I have only seen the species twice : 

" On August 3, 1911, three adults passed over Wilstone Reservoir, without 
alighting. Their course was S.W., wind E. 

" May 2, 1915, two immature birds passed over Wilstone without alighting." 

In the Thames Valley it is not infrequently seen on the wing in small flocks. 



246 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVJJ, 1920. 

203 (433). LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL. Larus tuscus affinis Reinh. 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Bare visitor on migration. 

A young female was shot on the Tring Reservoirs by Lord Rothschild on 
August 20, 1894. Others are believed to have been seen in winter, but there is 
no other specimen to prove this, while Mr. Oldham has never observed the species 
in the winter. He says (in lift.) : " Such evidence as I have seems to indicate 
a regular passage from S.W. to N.E. in spring, and in the reverse direction in 
autumn. These birds, like other Gulls, often drop down to the reservoirs, but 
do not alight, and after flying to and fro for a few minutes mount high in the air 
and continue their course. On August 30, 1908, a party of thirteen, mostly 
adults, dropped down to Little Tring Reservoir, but did not alight. Presently 
they soared to a great height, where they joined forces with another party of 
twelve, and all drifted away nearly due W., the wind being S.W. On September 
4, 1910, a flock of between thirty and forty, mostly adult or nearly so, but a few 
brown birds among them, alighted on Wilstone Reservoir. They stayed for 
perhaps ten minutes, then rose high and passed away to S.W., the wind being N. 
"September 18, 1910, a single adult bird was seen near Marsworth, flying 
high in a south-westerly direction. 

" May 5, 1912, a party of fourteen adults dropped down to Wilstone Reservoir 
but did not alight, then rose high into the air and passed away to N.E., wind E. 
"May 20, 1913, a single adult, Wilstone Reservoir. 

"August 16, 1914, a single adult passed over reservoirs, going a little W. 
of South. 

" August 26, 1917, two adults of pale British race, flying S.W., near Wilstone 
Reservoir." 

An adult male, killed at Bletchley 20. iv. 1910, is in the Bucks County 
Museum (E. Hollis, in litt.). 

This species, as well as the Herring-Gull, occurs not infrequently on the 
wing in the Thames Valley, generally in small flocks (E. E. Pettitt and F. C. R. 
Jourdain). 

204 (434). GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL. Larus marinus L. 

Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Exceptional straggler. 

Lord Rothschild and the keeper, J. Street, believe that they saw this species 
on the reservoirs about 1890, but no specimens were obtained. Street also states 
he saw four on September 9, 1 897, but no specimen was procured. 

205 (437). Kl'lTlWAKE. Rissa tridactyla tridactyla (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 151. Tict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Rare straggler. 

On January 11, 1830, a Kittiwake was killed near Dinton Hall. Kennedy 
has recorded it from Datchet, the neighbourhood of Eton, and Chesham. Mr. 
A. F. Grossman reports two as shot " at Tring " in January 1885 {Vict. Hist, of 
Herts, vol. i. p. 215). Mr. A. H. Cocks reports an adult bird, too weak to fly far, 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 247 

seen by him on the Thames about half a mile above Great Marlow, on February 
16, 1894 (in Hit.). 

Charles Oldham writes (in lilt.) : " I have no evidence of any regular passage 
of this species, and my few notes refer to occurrences in winter, and I think the 
birds are storm-driven and always more or less exhausted. 

" March 10, 1912, an adult on the bank of Wilstone Reservoir, obviously 
in state of exhaustion, and very loth to fly. It was at same place on March 17, 
and still reluctant to take wing. 

" December 14, 1913, an adult, Little Tring Reservoir. 

' ; December 20, 1914, an adult at Wilstone Reservoir ; another adult, some 
days dead, floating on the water. 

" February 14, 1915, an adult on bank at Startops End Reservoir ; almost 
too exhausted to fly." 

Hartert observed a single adult bird in December 1915, on Wilstone 
Reservoir. 

200 (440). POMATORHINE SKUA. Stercorarius pomarinus (Temm). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 210. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Exceptional straggler. 

Clark Kennedy writes : "I was informed by Mr. Gardner, of Oxford Street, 
that a Skua of this species was sent to them for preservation by a gentleman 
resident in Buckinghamshire, on whose estate it was procured. The precise 
date, or further particulars, I was unable to ascertain. A second was taken some 
years since near Crendon ; and Mr. Burgess told me of a third which was shot at 
Chesham, in November or December 1859. This last is in the collection of Mr. 
Lowndes." 

[A young Skua, probably the Long-tailed Skua, Stercorarius longicaudus 
Vieill., stayed several days at the Tring Reservoirs, during the end of August 
1919. It was very tame, and was closely observed and photographed by Mr. 
Oliver Pike. Being out of its element, it probably perished in some corner. (See 
Brit. B. xiii. p. 143).] 

207 (445). GUILLEMOT. Uria troiHe troille (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 211. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Very rare straggler. 

G. B. Clarke records a male caught in the river at Fenny Stratford on Novem- 
ber 13, 1852 ; another was seen near Simpson on November 14 of the same year 
(Morris's Naturalist, 1854, p. 224). 



208 (448). LITTLE AUK. Plotus alle (L.) 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 212. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Accidental winter visitor. 

Bryant Burgess informed Kennedy that a Little Auk was taken on one of 
the reservoirs near Drayton Beauchamp in December 1841. Mr. T. Marshall, 
writing to the Standard, December 21, 1901, stated that he knew of another 
obtained in Bulstrode Park, Bucks. 



248 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

One was found alive near Newport Pagnell on November 19, 1893 (W. E. 
Dawes, Field, December 9, 1893, p. 901). 

Edwin Hollis informs us that one was taken alive at Quainton on February 
2, 1912, and is now in the possession of Mr. Ashley, of Quainton. He also saw 
two others, obtained at Towersey about the same time, while being mounted 
at Weston's in Aylesbury. P. W. Horn also records one killed on the Chilterns 
near Ivinghoe, on February 4. This was a female, in very poor condition, and 
only weighing 3 oz. (Zoologist, 1912, p. 109). 

In November 1917 there was another irruption of this species, and several 
specimens were picked up in Kent, Sussex, Hants, and on two occasions in Bucks. 
On November 11 one was discovered, still living, in Sir Thomas Barlow's garden 
near Wendover, but died on the following day ; and another was picked up dead 
on the Halton (Weston Turville) Reservoir on November 17, which had evidently 
been dead for several da}'s (British Birds, vol. xi. p. 190). 

Mr. A. H. Cocks, who has had considerable experience of this species in 
Spitsbergen, saw one on the wing on the afternoon of December 8, 1919, at Skir- 
mett, near Henley-on-Thames. It was flying westward quite strongly, and 
showed no sign of exhaustion. The place where it was observed is about three 
miles from the nearest part of the Thames (in litt., December 9 and IS). 

209 (449). PUFFIN. Fratercula arctica grabae Brehm. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 212. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 151. 

Bare accidental visitor ; four occurrences. 

One caught in a ploughed field on the Luton Road, near Aylesbury, after 
the great gale of October 14, 1881 (A. Heneage Cocks). H. Howard Vyse (Field, 
November 19, 1910, p. 955) records a second, caught at Langley, on November 15. 

A third was caught at Oaken Grove, near the Oxford boundary, about 
November 19, 1914 (H. Noble, quoted by 0. V. Aplin, Zool. 1915, p. 212). 

On November 23, 191S, a female was found between the Waterworks and 
Aston Clinton, injured but still alive (E. Hartert, Br. Birds, xii. p. 191). 

[LITTLE CRAKE. Porzana parva (Scop.). 

A. F. Crossman states on the authority of the Hon. W. Rothschild that 
" a specimen is said to have been obtained at one of the Tring Reservoirs on 
January 5, 1887 " (Vict. Hist, of Herts, vol. i. p. 212), but the specimen cannot 
be traced.] 

210 (455). SPOTTED CRAKE. Porzana porzana (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 99. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Autumn migrant. 

This species, living, like many Rails, in the densest vegetation near water 
and overgrown ditches, is not easily detected, and may therefore be less rare 
than is supposed to be the case, and there is no reason why it should not breed 
in Bucks, though no such instance is known to us. On the reservoirs we have 
no proof of its occurrence since 1895. 

Clark Kennedy records specimens from Surley, Slough, Datchet, High 
Wycombe, and West Drayton (on August 27, 1860), as well as twice near Monkey 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 249 

Island on the Thames. The latest occurrence known to us is one from Olney 
in November 1897, recorded by Mr. F. Anslow Sole (Field, January 15, 1898, p. 93). 



211 (454). LAND-RAIL. Crex crex (L.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 99. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 147. 

Summer resident, now not common. 

Arrives during first week of May and stays till September. Kennedy records 
a specimen which was picked up in a field on the banks of the Thames, near Eton, 
in very poor condition, on Christmas Day 1865. Another is reported as having 
been seen and heard (!) on January 25, 1882, between Beaconsfield and Dropmore 
(Field, January 28, 1882). Though it is known to occur not infrequently in 
winter, especially in Ireland and on the Outer Hebrides, such birds are probably 
for some reason unable to migrate, and in most cases are probably doomed, as 
the species winters in Africa and cannot live through a northern winter. 

In former years it was much commoner in Bucks, though it is even now found 
in many suitable localities. Near the reservoirs Oldham and Hartert heard it 
in May, June, and July of 1910, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1918. 

In the Thames Valley, though formerly very numerous, it has now become 
very scarce, only a few pairs breeding here and there. Mr. Pettitt says that 
two or three pairs are generally to be met with near Wraysbury, and also a pair 
at Medmenham. 

212 (459). WATER-RAIL. Rallus aquaticus aquaticus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 61. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. 148. 

Not uncommon winter visitor ; resident in very small numbers. 

Clark Kennedy points out that specimens of this species have been obtained 
at all times of the year, and that every year a few are killed on the river near 
Windsor. He states that the nest has been taken near Eton on more than one 
occasion, but gives no details. In the neighbourhood of the reservoirs it occurs 
not infrequently in autumn and winter, and specimens have been obtained as 
late as April 13, which would seem to point to breeding in the district, though 
definite proof is wanting. 

We are indebted to Mr. E. E. Pettitt for details of nesting in the Thames 
Valley in 1896. On May 26 a man who was cleaning out a large osier bed near 
Wraysbury cut out a nest with six eggs, and on June 1 came across a second 
nest containing ten somewhat incubated eggs, so that obviously two pairs were 
breeding here. Since that time the cover has not been so good and no other nests 
have been found. Apart from its very distinctive notes, which, however, are 
not familiar to most people, the presence of this secretive species in summer is 
not easily detected. 

213 (460). MOORHEN. Gallinula chloropus chloropus (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 62. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 148. 

Common resident, widely distributed. 

Very common, even in small ponds in parks and gardens. Their numbers 
were considerably diminished after the hard frost in the winter of 1917. 



250 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

214 (461). COOT. Fulica atra atra L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 61. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, p. vol. i. p. 148. 

Fairly numerous resident on inland waters, but rather local. 

Common on larger reservoirs, occasionally met with on ponds and still back 
waters of rivers. Breeds in great numbers on the Tring and Halton (Weston 
Turville) Reservoirs, where their numbers are increased in winter. 

In the south of the county Mr. E. E. Pettitt records it as nesting at Horton, 
Rickeys Park, and Burnham, but not numerous as a breeding species. 

On the Thames it has only been known to nest very rarely. Mr. J. H. 
Carpenter recorded an instance of breeding near Marlow in 1899 (cf. Field, 
September 9, 1899) : and on May 12, 1919, Mr. E. E. Pettitt found a nest 
with seven eggs on the river between Marlow and Henley. 

[CAPERCAILLIE. Tetrao urogallus urogallus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 182. Vict. Hist, of Bucte. vol. i. p. 147. 

According to Kennedy, " in the autumn of 1855 a cock and hen were shot 
in the woods known as Burnham Beeches." The author concluded that it was 
most unlikely that they were " visitors from Scandinavia," and almost equally 
so that they could have flown from Scotland, so " that they must have escaped 
from confinement." Unfortunately the latter seems equally improbable, as 
Capercaillie are not usually kept in confinement.] 

215 (463). BLACK GROUSE. Lyrurus tetrix britannicus With, and Lonnb. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 5(5. Fi-ld, vol. xxii. 1863, p. 297. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 147. 

Rare straggler or introduced ? 

Clark Kennedy informs us that five Black Grouse from Holland were turned 
out in 1815 on Hurtwood Heath between Dorking and Guildford in Surrey.and that 
some of the descendants of these birds strayed as far as Finchhampstead in Berk- 
shire, and that they bred near Windsor, where some were also turned out a few 
years before 1868, but that " many have immigrated and are now located on Ascot 
Heath, Woking Common, Bagshot Heath, and other suitable localities." He 
also says that " a good many brace " were shot in 1867 in Berkshire, further that 
the last which came under his notice was a fine male killed on Hyde Heath, near 
Chesham, in 1852, and that this bird was then in the collection of Captain Fuller. 
In the Field, September 19, 1863, vol. xxii. p. 197, is the following letter : " Lord 
Curzon presents his compliments to the Editor of the Field, and begs to inform 
him that his keeper shot a very fine Blackcock in the woods near Penn House, 
Amersham. Lord Curzon is quite unaware from whence this bird could have 
come ; he has been seen during the summer, and has been sent to the Earl Howe, 
at Gopsall, near Atherstone." Unfortunately Kennedy did not explain how it 
was ascertained that " many immigrated " into Berkshire, and it is now impossible 
to ascertain whether the Bucks. Blackcocks, shot near Chesham and Amersham, 
were descendants of the introduced stock or stray birds from elsewhere. If 
introduced from Holland they would be Lyrurus tetrix tetrix, if indigenous L. 
tetrix britannicus With, and Lonnberg (cf. Brit. B. vol. vi. p. 270). Kennedy's 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 251 

statement that Blackgame were introduced from Holland is quite correct, but 
they were also indigenous in Surrey, and were present hundreds of years before 
any were introduced. 

216 (466). PHEASANT. Phasianus colchicus L. 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 56. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 147. 

Common in wooded districts and parks. 

Phasianus colchicus colchicus was introduced about 900 years ago, but it is 
now generally hybridized with P. colchicus torquatus, which was introduced about 
200 years ago and later. It is common in all wooded parts and parks of the 
county. Other subspecies of P. colchicus have also been introduced recently, 
and in addition P. versicolor has been turned down, and these birds have to some 
extent hybridized with the old stock. 

217 (467). COMMON PARTRIDGE. Perdix perdix perdix (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 57. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 147. 

Numerous resident. 

Common everywhere in suitable localities. 

218 (469). RED-LEGGED PARTRIDGE. Alectoris rufa rufa (L.). 
B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 57. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 147. 

Now locally common. 

Clark Kennedy said that the Red-leg was introduced into Windsor Park 
in the reign of King Charles II, but that all the descendants of the old stock are 
supposed to have perished. A century later it was successfully reintroduced 
into Suffolk, and subsequently into many other places, and is now well established 
in all midland and southern counties. It is now locally common in the county, 
though nowhere as numerous as the Common Partridge. " J. C. S. P.," in the 
Field, October 7, 1865, p. 256, reports four killed near Bicester in 1865, adding 
that he never heard of any before in the district. It is generally more fond of 
dry ground than of low-lying meadows, but this is not the case everywhere. Mr. 

A. H. Cocks remarks that when he first came to Skirmett quite half the stock of 
Partridges were Red-legged birds, but that since then the proportion of Grey 
Partridges has greatly increased, while the Red-legs have almost disappeared. 
In 1899 Mr. J. P. Athawes found a nest of this species with sixteen eggs on a 
straw-stack 18 feet from the ground at Loughton, near Bletchley (Field, July 22, 
1899, p. 178). 

219 (468). QUAIL. Cotumix coturnix coturnix (L.). 

B. of Berks, and Bucks, p. 138. Vict. Hist, of Bucks, vol. i. p. 147. 

Now very rare summer resident. 

Formerly not rare, though even in 1868 Kennedy called it " not common." 
He then said that " the majority of the Quails which are obtained in Berkshire 
and Buckinghamshire are shot either- in May or September." The shooting in 
May must have had a disastrous effect and is a thing almost incredible at the 
present time. In the Vale of Aylesbury Quails used to be fairly common about 



252 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

half a century ago, and a few were seen and occasionally shot in September 
near the boundaries of Herts, until twenty-five or twenty-six years ago. Since 
then Hartert has only at long intervals heard Quails calling in the summer near 
Cheddington, Leighton Buzzard, and Ivinghoe. Mr. Oldham heard one in a field 
of oats at the foot of Ivinghoe Beacon on July 14, 1917. The same observer 
heard one calling in a field of growing corn close to Wilstone Reservoir, near 
Tring, May 25, 1919, and again in a field of oats at the foot of Ivinghoe Beacon, 
June 29 of the same year. At the foot of this Beacon a few Quails were met 
with when shooting about thirty years ago, as Hartert was told by Mr. A. W. 
Vaisey. 

[The Rufous Tinamou mentioned by Allen as seen near Olney in Bucks. 
(Field, 1902, p. 288) was of course an escaped or introduced specimen.] 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 253 



AN ORNITHOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BUCKINGHAMSHIRE AND THE 

TRING RESERVOIRS 

By the Rev. F. C. R. Jouedain, M.A., M.B.O.U., etc. 

1827. Yabbell, W. Little Bittern [near Windsor] (Zool. Journ. 1827, p. 88). 
1831.. Tatem, J. G. The Kingfisher [near Loudwater and Woodburn] (Mag. Nat. 

Hist. [Loudon's], iv. p. 267). 
1837. Blyth, E. Notes on the Pern, or Honey Buzzard [breeding at Burnham 

Beeches teste Gould] (Mag. Nat. Hist. [Charlesworth], 2nd %, i. p. 536-41, 

partim) . 

1848. Crewe, H. H. White variety of the Hedge-Sparrow (Sylvia modularis) [near 

Tring] (Zool. p. 2143). 

1849. Crewe, H. H. Occurrence of the Hawfinch at Tring [at Drayton in April] (Zool. 

p. 2454). 
,, [Gould, J.] British Distribution of Motacilla boarula (Contrib. to Ornith. 

1849, p. 137) [breeding at Chenies]. 
„ Williams, Rev. J. Occurrence of the Bearded Tit (Parns biarmicus) near 

Tring [Pair shot at Reservoirs, 21. xii. 48] (Zool. p. 2418). 
,, Occurrence of the Garganey (Anas querqvedula) near Tring [seven obtained 

at Reservoirs, 24. iii. 49] (t.c. p. 2421). 
,, Occurrence of the Goldeneye (Anas clangula) at Tring [male shot on 

Reservoirs early in 1849] (t.c. p. 2421). 
1854. Claeke, G. B. Guillemot at Fenny Stratford, Bucks. (Nat. [Morris's]). 
1859. Body, R. B. The Hoopoe [seen by Hon. G. F. Berkeley at West Wycombe] 

(Field, May 7, p. 364). 
„ Ingatton, T. The Hoopoe [one wounded and caught Burnham Gore, May 3] 

(t.c, loc. cit.). 
„ Owen, J. W. The Egyptian Goose [shot at Marlow, November 1] (t.c. Novem- 
ber 19, p. 424). 

1861 . Hassell, G. Hoopers shot in Buckinghamshire [two at Wragsbury (= Wrays- 

bury), January 17] (Field, February 2, p. 93), Idem (Zool. p. 7385). 
„ " H. M. L." Sea-Swallows on the Thames [above Boveney Lock] (t.c. May 25, 

p. 451). 
„ C W[olley]. Eggs of the Golden Oriole [taken near Stoke : afterwards 

proved to be Song-Thrush's] (t.c, loc. cit. and August 3). 

1862. Crewe, H. H. [Letters on Dotterel and Cirl-Bunting in Bucks.] (Ibis, pp. 390-1 ). 
Jones, H. J. The Hoopoe [female shot Stewkley, April 24] (Field, May 3, p. 387). 

,, Willis, T. Osprey shot near Windsor [at Ditton Park] (t.c. October 4, 
p. 319). 

1863. Curzon [Visct.]. Blackcock in Bucks, [near Amersham] (Field, September 19, 

p. 297). 

1864. Crewe, H. H. Osprey, Great Grey Shrike, and Cirl-Bunting in Herts, and 

Bucks, (op. cit. December 3, p. 384). 
" F. W." Late Martin [on November 22] (Field, Xovember 26, p. 378). 
„ Tyeee, R. Bramblings in the Chilterns (Zool. p. 9023) ; Idem by H. H. Crewe 

(t.c. p. 9109). 
,, Tyrer, R., Jiin. A Yellow Skylark ; Hawfinch at Weston Turville (t.c. 

p. 8950). 

1865. Botting, W. B. Northern Diver in Buckinghamshire [on the Thames] (Field, 

December 9, p. 426). 



254 NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

1865. Crewe, H. H. [Letter on Ospreys and Cirl- Bunting in Bucks.] (Ibis, p. 113). 
„ Osprey in Bucks, and Hertfordshire and Great Grey Shrike and Cirl-Bunt- 

ing in Bucks, [two Ospreys at Wilstone Reservoir, September 1864 ; Cirl- 
Bunting breeding] (Zool. p. 9415). 

„ T. M[arshall]. Occurrence of a Little Bittern on the Thames [near Maiden- 
head] (Field, October 7, p. 254). 

,, " J. C. S. P." French Partridges in Bucks, (t.c. October 7, p. 256). 

1866. Marshall, T. Martins (Quart. Mag. High Wycombe N.H. Soc. p. 26). 

1867. Clifton, Lord. Savi's Warbler (?), Plover and Lesser Spotted Woodpecker 

in Bucks. (Zool. p. 704) ; A Strange Trap for Swallows (p. 990). 
,, Gardner, J. Honey-Buzzard [near Maidenhead, Berks.] (Field, July 27, p. 73). 
,, Kennedy, A. Clark. Ornithological Notes from Buckinghamshire (Zool. 

p. 637) ; Siskin in Bucks (p. 705) ; Curious Fact connected with the Bramb- 

ling (p. 706) ; Early Arrival of Swallows and Martins (p. 827) ; Instinct 

in the Swan (p. 916) ; Dates of the Departure of Immigrants for 1867 (p. 

1015) ; Lesser Spotted Woodpecker near Windsor (p. 1016). 
„ Marshall, T. The Green Woodpecker (Quart. Mag. High Wycombe N.H.S. 

No. iii. p. 73) ; White Sand-Martin ; The Wheatear (t.c. No. vi. p. 146). 
,, Ullyett, H. List of Wycombe Birds, No. 1 (t.c. No. iii. p. 68). 
1867-9. Sharpe, R. B. The Birds of Cookham, 8 pts. [unfinished] (op. cit. October 

1867 to July 1869) [partim]. 

1868. Clefton, Lord. Wood-Lark [seen in January at Eton] (Zool. p. 1132). 
,, Crewe, H. H. Scarcity of the Redwing (t.c. p. 1177). 

,, Kennedy, A. Clark. The Birds of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, a Contri- 
bution to the Natural History of the two Counties, post 8vo, pp. xvi, 232, ill. 
Eton and London. 

„ Swallows in November (Zool. p. 1058) ; Storm-Petrel in Buckinghamshire 

(t.c. p. 1178) ; Note on the Breeding of the Bittern in Buckinghamshire (t.c. 
p. 1255). 

„ Marshall, T. Late Martins (Quart. Mag. High Wycombe N.H.S. No. vii. 
p. 170). 

,, Newman, E. [Review of the Birds of Berks, and Bucks.] (Zool. p. 1243). 

1869. Bowstead, R. M. The Sparrow-Hawk and the Kestrel (Quart. Mag. High 

Wycombe N.H.S. p. 72). 
„ Marshall, T. The Common Buzzard [breeding in Bucks] (I.e. p. 71). 
„ " R. S." Late Hirundines [House- Martin, November 20; near Eton] (Field, 

November 27, p. 458). 

1870. Williamson, J. W. Wild Swans in Buckinghamshire [evidently C. olor] 

(Field, January 1, p. 9) ; Idem by " Berea " (t.c. January 8, p. 30). 

1871. " Harry L." Quails in Britain in 1870 [in Bucks.] (Field, January 28, p. 70). 
„ Mackenzie, W. D. Nests imbedded in Trees [Sparrow's nest in 8-9 in. timber] 

(t.c. June 3, p. 443). 
,, " Sept." Wild Swans near Thame [between Thame and Shabbington] (t.c. 
February 11, p. 108). 

1872. Harting, J. E. British Heronries [partim] (Zool. p. 3261) ; cf. also Idem by 

H. Burney (op. cit. 1873, p. 3651) ; Supposed Occurrence of Wilson's Snipe 
in Cornwall [and Bucks.] (Zool. p. 3273). 

1873. Cocks, A. H. Notes from Berks, and Bucks. [Montagu's Harrier, Redwing, 

etc.] (Field, February 8, p. 135). 

1874. Crewe, H. H. House-Martin [near Aylesbury on December 5] (Zool. p. 3833). 
,, "Head Keeper." Moorhen's Nest in Tree (Field, May 30, p. 524). 

1875. Marshall, T. Buzzards in Bucks, [at High Wycombe, etc.] (Field, March 2, 

p. 272). 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 255 

1876. Dod, C. W. Arrival of Summer Birds [Wryneck, April 2, at Eton] (Field, 

April 8, p. 414). 
„ " J. L. H." Late Martins [November 16] (Sci. Gossip, p. 23). 
„ Macmeikan, J. Arrival of Summer Migrants [Nightingale, March 29, 1874] 

(t.c. April 22, p. 464). 
„ Prior, C. M. Crow laying twice in the same Nest [and three birds to nest] 

(Zool. p. 5005). 

1877. Thurlow, J. Storm-Petrel driven Inland [High Wycombe, one seen] (Field, 

October 20, p. 441). 

1878. Blake, V. Arrival of Wryneck [at Slough] (Field, April 13, p. 453). 
„ Cocks, A. H. Provincial Names in Berks, and Bucks. (Zool. p. 334). 

,, Crewe, H. H. Albino Specimens of the Common Snipe and Wryneck (t.c. 
p. 29). 

1879. Curtis, E. Scoter on the Thames [near Windsor] (Field, March 29, p. 369), 

Idem (Zool. p. 220) ; Rare Birds in Berks. [Sheldrake on Thames] (Field, 
December 27, p. 853). 
„ White, H. Golden Oriole in Buckinghamshire [at Stoke Mandeville] (t.c. 
May 31, p. 625). 

1880. Burney, H. Siskin nesting in Beds, [errore Bucks.] (Zool. p. 259) ; Idem by 

R. H. Mitford (t.c. p. 364 ; cf. Vict. Hist, of Beds. i. p. 112). 
,, [Editorial] Dr. Lamb's " Ornithologia Bercheria " (Zool. pp. 313-25) [partim]. 
Marshall, T. Rough-legged Buzzard in Bucks. [High Wycombe] (Field., 
December 18, p. 905). 

1881. Crewe, H. H. Storm-Petrel near Wendover (Zool. p. 68). 
Hartlng, J. E. Food of the Wood-Pigeon (Field, November 5, p. 678). 

1882. Aplin, F.C. Honey-Buzzards in Bucks, [near Brill in September] (Zool. p. 116). 
,, " Korax." Corncrake calling in January [near Beaconsfield] (Field, January 

28, p. 129). 

1883. Crewe, G. A. Scaup-Duck inland [near Tray ton Beauchamp] (Field, December 

15, p. 809). 
,, Hibbert, L. Osprey shot near Slough [in Chalfont Park] (t.c. October 6, 

p. 490). 
,, Travis, T. Arrival of Waxwings [partim] (t.c. January 27, p. 131). 

1884. Aplin, F. C. Grey Form of Tawny Owl in Bucks. (Zool. p. 471). 

1888. Littleboy, J. E. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1886 [with Notes 

on Reservoirs] (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. iv. pp. 161-8). 
,, Lilford, Lord. Magpies attacking a Weakly Donkey [at Doddershall Park] 

(Zool. p. 184). 
,, Marshall, T. Crossbills in Bucks, [at Hughenden] (Field, December 29, 

p. 951). 
,, Odling, E. C. Hoopoe in Bucks, [at Wendover] (t.c. April 14, p. 536). 
,, Parrott, F. H. Starling Nesting in November [at Aylesbury] (Zool. p. 33). 

1 889 . Aplin , O . V . The Birds of Oxfordshire , pp . viii , 2 1 7 , 8vo , Oxford , 1 889 [partim] . 
„ Tomalin, W. Hoopoe in Buckinghamshire [Lavender Park Farm] (Field, 

November 30, p. 777). 

1890. Aplin, O. V. On Distribution and Period of Sojourn in British Isles of the 

Spotted Crake [partim] (Zool. p. 407). 
„ Knapp, J. M. Velvet Scoter Inland [at Linfield] (Field, November 1, p. 668). 
,, Littleboy, J. E. Notes on Birds observed in Hertfordshire in 1887, and on 

the Birds frequenting the Tring Reservoirs (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

v. 1887-9, pp. 76-88). 
„ Vyse, H. H. Unspotted Eggs of the Spotted Flycatcher (Field, August 16, 

p. 250, and Zool. p. 352). 



256 • NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

1891. Cocks, A. H. Smews in Bucks, and Oxon. (Zool. p. 153) ; Destruction of King- 

fishers (t.c. p. 154). 
„ Marshall, T. Bee- Eater in Leicestershire [and Golden Oriole near Aylesbury, 
1880] (Field, May 16, p. 738). 

1892. Aplin.O. V. On the Distribution of the (irl- Bunting in Great Britain [partim] 

(Zool. p. 174). 
„ Vyse, H. H. Ruddy Sheldrake in Bucks, [reared in captivity] (t.c. p. 359). 
„ Yottng, J. Reminiscences of the Kite in Bucks, (t.c. p. 232). 

1893. Dawes, W. J. Little Auk Inland [near Newport Pagnell] (Field, December 9, 

p. 901). 

1894. Aplin, O. V. Whimbrel in the Midlands [in N.-W. Bucks in May] (Zool. p. 

266). 
Baknett, C. J. Little Owl in Bucks, [at Turville] (Field, May 26, p. 735). 
,, Lewis, H. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1892 [incl. Reservoirs] 

(Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. vii. pp. 161-7). 
„ Marshall, T. Hawfinches in Bucks, (t.c. January 27, p. 127). 
1894-5. Rothschild, Hon. W. The White Swallows of Aylesbury (Novitates Zoolo- 
gicae,\. p. 667, and ii. p. 484). 

1895. Cocks, A. H. Sandwich-Terns on the Upper Thames [Great Marlow] (Zool. 

p. 190). 

1896. Lewis, H. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1894 [with Notes on 

Reservoirs] (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. viii. pp. 147-52). 

1897. De Castro, D. Terns on the Thames [Magna Charta I.] (Field, August 14, 

p. 307). 
„ Marshall, T. Little Owl [at Fingest] in Bucks, (t.c. January 30, p. 135). 
,, Walshe, P. Great Plover in Bucks. (Nat. Joum.). (Not seen.) 

1898. A. A[llen]. Californian Quail in Bucks, [at Newport Pagnell] (Field, January 

22, p. 124). 
„ Crossman, A. F. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1896 [with Notes 

on Reservoirs!] (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1898, pp. 148-60). 
„ Marshall, T. Crossbills in Bucks, [between Penn and Wycombe] (t.c. 

December 3, p. 897) ; Dipper in Hants, [also in Bucks. 1894] (loc. at.). 
„ Sole, F. Anslow. Spotted Crake in Bucks, [at Olney] (t.c. January 15, 

p. 93). 

1899. Athawes, J. P. Partridge's Nest in Straw-stack [at Loughton] (Field, July 

22, p. 178). 
„ Carpenter, J. H. Coots on the Thames [near Marlow] (Field, September 9, 

p. 478). 
„ Reid, Sm H. Rae. NighVHeron in Bucks, [at Taplow] (t.c. August 26, p. 394) . 
„ Webb, W. M. A Guide to the Museum of Eton College [Appendix, List of Birds, 

pp. i-iv], Eton College, 1899. 

1901. Crossman, A. F. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1897 (Trans. Herts. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. x. pp. 33-43, during 1898 pp. 84-102) [Reservoirs!]. 

„ A List of the Birds of Hertfordshire [many notes on Reservoirs] (t.c. 

pp. 84-102). 

„ Marshall, T. The Little Auk [in Bulstrode Park, Bucks.] (Standard, Decem- 
ber 21). 

„ Rothschild, Hon. N.C. [Exhibition of Baer's Pochard shot at Tring, November 
1901] (Bull. B.O.C. xii. p. 25) (cf. H. Saunders, Brit. Birds (Mag.), i. p. 14, 
and Hon. W. Rothschild, t.c p. 63). 

1902. Allen, A. Rufous Tinamu in Bucks, [near Olney] (Field, March 1, p. 288). 

1903. Aplin, O. V. Notes on Oxfordshire Ornithology by the late C. E. Stubbs 

[partim] (Zool. pp. 444-53). 



N0V1TATES ZoOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 257 

1903. Emson, C. H. Snow-Bunting on Chiltern Hills [on Ivinghoe Beacon] (Field, 

November 14, p. 844). 
,, Crossman. Notes on Birds observed in Herts. during 1900 [Reservoirs!] (Trans. 
Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. xi. pp. 47-52). 

1904. Cocks, A. H. Birds of Oxfordshire or Buckinghamshire ? (Zool. p. 34) ; Idem, 

by O. V. Aplin(<.c. p. 75). 

1905. Habtebt, E., and Rothschild, Hon. W. Birds [of Bucks.] (Victoria History 

of County of Bucks, i. pp. 128-52 ; 4to, London. 

1906. Bickbeton. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1903 [Reservoirs!] 

(Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. xii. pp. 125-33). 
„ Durham, E. B. Bramblings in Bucks, [at Chesham Bois] (Field, December 1, 

p. 948). 
„ Farwell, W. Bramblings nocking in Winter [at Burnham Beeches] (t.c. 

February 3, p. 182). 
„ Kerr, G. W. The Birds of the District of Staines, four papers [partim] (Zool. 

pp. 179-84, 230-4, 307-10, 386-9). 
,, Lee, H. Boswell. Black Tern near Amersham (Field, August 4, p. 239). 
„ Macpherson, A. H. Late Singing of Willow- Warbler [in August] (i.e. August 

25, p. 342). 
„ Noble, H. Birds [of Berks.] (Victoria History of Berkshire, i. pp. 140-66), 

4to. London. [Partim.] 

1907. "M. L." Bittern near Eton (Field, March 9, p. 394). 

„ Mackenzie, W. D. Peregrine Falcon in Oxfordshire [in Fawley Park] (Field, 
February 23, p. 307). 

1908. Bickerton , Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1905 [Reservoirs] (Trans. 

Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. xiii. pp. 49-63). 

„ Crouch, L. W. Large Clutch of Eggs of the Great Crested Grebe [seven eggs] 
(Brit. Birds, i. p. 327). 
Keer,G. W. The Birds of the District of Staines (Zool. pp. 137-43). 

,, Monckton, F. A. Corn-Bunting singing in November [near Eton] (Field, 
November 14, p. 888). 

„ Proctor, Majob F. W. The Lesser Redpoll as a Breeding Species in Berks. 
[partim] (Brit. Birds, i. p. 312). 

,, Vyse, H. H. Stone-Curlew in November [at Burnham Beeches] (Field, Novem- 
ber 14, p. 888). 

1909. "J. T. A." Summer Birds in North Bucks. (Field, May 1, p. 763) ; Scarcity 

of Nightingales (t.c. May 22, p. 890). 
,, Kebe, G. W. Marsh-Warbler [breeding] in Bucks. (Zool. p. 397) ; cf. Brit. 

Birds, hi. p. 232. 
,, Rothschild, Hon. L. W. Unusual Birds in Hertfordshire [Long-tailed Duck, 

Pallas' Sand-Grouse, etc.] [partim] (Brit. Birds, ii. p. 309). 
,, Smith, J. Beddall. Irruption of Crossbills [Bucks.] (op. cit. iii. p. 228). 
,, Vaughan, H. Green Sandpiper in Bucks, in January (Field, January 23, 

p. 157). 

1910. Noble, H. Irruption of Crossbills [Bucks.] (Brit. Birds, iii. p. 303) ; Idem by 

C. Oldham (t.c. p. 409). 
„ Oldham, C. Common Scoter and other Ducks in Herts, and Bucks, (t.c. 

iii. p. 414). 
„ Vyse, H. H. Puffin taken in Bucks, [at Langley] (Field, November 19, 

p. 955). 

1911. Allen, A. Little Bittern in Bucks, [near Olney] (Field, August 19, p. 474) ; . 

The Great Shearwater Inland [P. major killed by telegraph wires at Olney] 
(t.c. October 28, 968). 
17 



258 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

1911. Aplln, 0. V. Peregrine Falcon in the S. Midlands [near Buckingham] (Zool. 

pp. 7-8). 
"H. M. B." Arrival of the Wryneck [March 13, Eton] (Field, March 18, 
p. 538). 

,, De Grdchy, G. F. B. Supposed Occurrence of the Whinchat in Winter [? Stone- 
chat] (i.e. February 4, p. 230). 

,, Hollis, E. Nutcracker in Bucks [near Aylesbury] (Zool. p. 386) ; Nutcracker 
near Aylesbury (Field, October 14, p. 877) ; Slender-billed Nutcracker in 
Bucks. (Brit. Birds, v. p. 167). 

,, Vyse, H. H. Hen-Harrier and Little Owl in Bucks, [at Langley and Fulraer] 
(Field, December 2 and 23, pp. 1234 and 1394) ; Idem by A. H. Cocks, 
" R. B. B.," and " Rara Avis " (I.e. December 9 and 16, pp. 1289, 1350). 

1912. Bulstkode, R. Crossbill nesting in Bucks, [at Gerrards Cross, 1910] (Brit. 

Birds, vi. p. 60). 
„ Bickerton, W. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1908 and 1909 
[Reservoirs] (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. xiv. pp. 97-111 and 193-206). 
Horn, P. W. Little Auk [in Bucks.] (Zool. p. 109) ; cf. Brit. Birds, v. p. 311. 

1913. Baynes, G. K. Blackcap ... in England in Winter [at Bourne End, Decem- 

ber 29] (Brit. Birds, vi. p. 279). 
,, Dowson, E. M. Buzzard at Stoke Poges (Field, April 19, p. 772). 
„ Dukham, E. B. Redwing in September [at Chesham Bois] (t.c. September 27, 

p. 681). 
,, Oldham, C. Red-necked Grebe in Hertfordshire [twice seen on Reservoirs, 

1910 and 1913] (Brit. Birds, vi. p. 374) ; Common Scoters in Summer in 

Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire [Reservoirs, July] (t.c. vii. p. 119). 
„ Steele-Elliott, J. Hobby in Bucks, [at Lavendon] (Zool. p. 465). 

1914. Cocks, A. H. Stone-Curlew breeding in Buckinghamshire (Brit. Birds, viii. 

p. 173). 
,, Hollis, E. Stone-Curlew breeding in Buckinghamshire [on Chilterns] (t.c. 

viii. p. 121). 
,, Noble, H. Stone-Curlew breeding in Buckinghamshire [near Fawley Court] 

(t.c. viii. p. 173). 
,, Rothschild, Hon. W. Kite in Buckinghamshire [near Wendover, December 

1913] (op. cit. vii. p. 299). 

1915. Bickerton, W. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1912 and 1913 

[incl. Reservoirs!] (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. xv. pp. 155-66, 209-22). 
,, Hartert, E. Early Nesting of Reed- Warbler [May 16] (Brit. Birds, ix. p. 48). 
,, Hetherlnoton, W. C. Infertile Eggs in Nests of Whitethroat (t.c. p. 71). 
,, Oldham, C. Black Redstart in Hertfordshire [by Tring Reservoir] ((.e. , 

p. 185). 

1916. Cocks, A. H. Snowy Owl in Bucks, [in July 1912] (Zool. p. 313 ; cf. Brit. 

Birds, x. p. 122) ; Yellow-hammer's Nest in Rick (Zool. p. 352) ; House- 
Martins and House- Sparrows (t.c. p. 357). 
Gazeley.H.S. The Pochard in Bucks. (Wild Life, viii. p. 162). 
„ Hannett, C. E. J. [Letter on Breeding of Hoopoe at Taplow] (Selborne Mag. 
p. 98) ; cf . Brit. Birds, x. p. 122. 
>, ,, Kerr, G. W. The Lesser Redpoll in the Thames Valley (Wild Life, viii. p. 94). 
„ Pettitt, E. E. One Cuckoo — and others [eleven eggs from one female in a 
season] (Wild Life, vii. pp. 56-60, 92- 7). 

1917. Bickerton, W. Notes on Birds observed in Herts, during 1914 and 1915 

[incl. Reservoirs !] (Trans. Herts. Nat. Hist. Soc. xvi. pp. 93-105, 141-54). 
,, Cocks, A. H. Black-headed Gulls in Bucks [at Skirmett, April] (Field, May 5, 
p. 663). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE, Vol. XXVII, I92O. 



Pi.. XII. 




riwt. t r O. C. Pike. 



Grasshopper-Warbler feeding young, Marsworth Reservoir. 




' 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE, Vol.. XXVII, [020 



1Y. XIII. 




Phut, ty <>. G. Pike 



Black-necked Grebe on nest, Marsworth lieservoir. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 259 

1917. Oldham, C. Blue-headed Wagtail in Hertfordshire [at Tring Reservoirs] (Brit. 

Birds, xi. p. 20). 
„ Pettitt, E. E. Blue Eggs of Spotted Flycatcher ; Late Breeding of Dabchick 

{Wild Life, ix. pp. 12, 267) ; two notes. 
„ Priestley, R. C. Wrynecks [nesting notes at High Wycombe] (t.c. p. 268). 

1918. Jourdain, Rev. F. C. R. Little Auks in Kent, Sussex, Bucks. ... etc 

[two occurrences, November 1917] (Brit. Birds, xi. p. 190). 

,, Oldham, C. [On the Breeding of the Black-necked Grebe on the Tring Re- 
servoirs] (Bull. B.O.C. xxxix. pp. 28-34). 

,, Dusky Redshanks in Hertfordshire [Tring Reservoirs, August 25] (Brit. 

Birds, xii. p. 117). 

1919. [Editors.] Breeding of the Black-necked Grebe in Hertfordshire (Brit. Birds, 

xii. pp. 211-13). 
,, Hartert, Dr. E. Puffin in Buckinghamshire [near Aston Clinton] (t.c. 

p. 191). 
,, Mayall, A. Large Clutches of Chaffinch's Eggs (t.c. p. 80). 
,, Pike, Oliver G. The Black-necked Grebe a new Nesting Bird for England 

[with nine excellent photos, taken on Tring Reservoirs] (Country Life, 

xlvii. pp. 293-7, September 6, 1919). 
„ The Black-necked Grebe [on the Tring Reservoirs], with seven plates 

(Brit. Birds, xiii. pp. 146-54). 
,, Probable Long-tailed Skua in Hertfordshire [on Tring Reservoirs] (Brit. 

Birds, xiii. p. 143). 

1920. Cocks, A. Heneage. Little Auk in Buckinghamshire [seen at Skirmett, 

December 8] (Brit. Birds xiii. p. 246). 



2(,Q NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

SOME AFRICAN ANTHRIBIDAE. 
By Dr. Karl Jordan. 

1. Mecocerus albiceps spec. nov. 

$. M. fasciculate Kolbe (1S95) subsimilis, rostro cum capite vitta alba 
signato, elytris area albo tessellata dorsali communi magna in medio valde 
constricta. Rostrum latum deplanatum, dorso bicarinatum, basi sulco brevi 
mediano instructum. Pronotum sparsim granulatum ; carina dorsali recta in 
medio levissime interrupts, versus latera angulata, carina laterali alta. Elytra 
pone basin gibbosa, seriatim punctata, striis 1* et 2" parum impressis. 

Long. 12 mm. ; lat. 5'5 mm. 

Hob. Nguelo, Usambara ; 1 $. 

In the style of colouring the species agrees with Physopterus melanoleucvs 
Jord. (1913). The rostrum is broad, and bears dorsally on each side of the 
flattened median area a rather broad carina which is slightly bent outward in 
the middle and is distant from eye. At the base there is a short median groove, 
and another shorter and more rounded groove is situated beyond the centre, 
where the carina* widen and disappear ; between the second groove and the 
apical margin a slight median carina ; between the dorsal carina and the raised 
edge of the antennal groove the rostrum is impressed, but there is no sulcus 
along the carina. Frons broad, being anteriorly at its narrowest point half as 
broad as the rostrum is long, measured in the middle. The occiput brown, the 
white stripe tripartite. Antenna pubescent white, club with the exception of 
the base of segment 9 rufous brown ; segment II much shorter than III 
(measurements 7 and 10), IX in length like III, VIII and X like II, and XI a 
little longer than X. 

Pronotum much rubbed, with indications of an ochraceous median vitta ; 
at the sides a large basal ochraceous spot ; laterally and along the carina dispersed 
granules, on the disc a shallow depression ; carina with a small forward angle 
nearer the sides than middle ; lateral carina very prominent in dorsal aspect. 

Elytra with the base very distinctly marginate ; a large patch of white spots 
extends from the subbasal humps to the beginning of the apical declivity, in 
middle confined to the sutural interspace, anteriorly reaching to the third row 
and posteriorly to the fifth ; a white spot above shoulder and a few dots here 
and there ; the rows of punctures not impressed, with the exception of the first 
and second ; base and sides spotted with ochraceous. 

Pubescence of underside greyish white, side of metasternite ochraceous. tip 
of metepimerum white ; mesosternal process broader than long. Tibiae rufous 
brown, grey near base and beyond middle ; first and last tarsal segments grey 
with rufous-brown tips, second segment with few grey hair-scales ; first foretarsal 
segment longer than fourth. 

'2. Mecocerus balteatus spec. nov. 
$. Niger, subtiliter brunneo pubescens ; elytris, metasterno abdomineque 
pube cinerea densissime tectis, balteo lato nigro cinctis. 
Hab. Benito, Spanish Guinea ; 1 ?. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 261 

Near M. oculatus Jord. (1895). 

Head, rostrum, upper- and underside of prothorax, the extreme base of the 
elytra, mesosternum, apex of metasternum, and base of first abdominal sternite 
black clothed with a mummy-brown pubescence which does not conceal the 
dark colour of the derm ; rest of body covered with a dense ashy-grey pubescence 
which has a faint luteous tint ; on the elytra a transverse black band, 3'5 mm. 
wide near suture, narrowing at the sides, continuous with the transverse band 
of the underside, slightly brownish in sutural half ; the narrow basal band 
widened at the shoulders. Legs black, with thin grey pubescence, which is 
denser on the tarsi. 

3. Mecocerus de missus spec. nov. 

?. Niger, omnino schistaceo-griseo pubescens, elytris fascia transversa nigra 
notatis. 

Hab. Gaboon (A. Moequerys), 1 $, type ; Benito, Spanish Guinea, 1 $. 
Likewise a near ally of M. oculatus. 

Uniformly slate-grey, with the exception of the brown club of the antenna 
and a black median band on the elytra. This band is a little more than 1 mm. 
wide at the side ; it narrows slightly above and does not quite reach the suture. 

In the second specimen the band is broader and extends across the suture, 
but is much shaded with slate-grey and only its anterior boundary is well defined, 
while posteriorly the band fades away. 

Possibly both this form and the preceding one may ultimately prove to be 
colour varieties of M. oculatus. Several of the African Mecoceri closely resemble 
certain Longicorns (e.g. Acmocera), and among mimetic species one must always 
expect to meet with polymorphism. 

4. Mecocerus modestus spec. nov. 

cJ$. Signatura elytrorum M. annulipedi Karsch (1882) simillimus, sed 
constructione M. clathrati Jord. (1903). 

Long. (cap. excl.) 8-10 mm. 

Hab. Johann-Albrechtshohe, C'ameroons (L. Conradt), 1 pair, type <$ ; 
Cameroons, 1 <J and 3 ?$ ; Old Calabar, 1 <J. 

Perhaps a colour-variety of M. clathratus, but agreeing on the upper surface 
much better with M. anmilipes and even M. barombinus Kolbe (1895). The 
head and rostrum bear the same deep and wide median groove as in M . clathratus, 
the rostrum has the same length, being shorter than in M . annulipes, and the 
velvety spot on the metasternum of the $ is as large as in M . clathratus. The 
second tarsal segment and the apex of the first are black, not white as in M. 
anmilipes. 

The upperside is dull greyish drab with small greyish white spots : on the 
pronotum a dot on the disc on each side of the middle and about three indistinct 
ones on the sides, the grey pubescence being also slightly condensed in front of 
the scutellum and at the lateral angles ; on the elytrum a spot behind scutellum, 
another in first interstice further back, one in front of and three behind basal 
callosity of which two in third interstice, one behind shoulder-angle, a slightly 
transverse spot before middle at side-margin, three before apical declivity con- 



262 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

fluent, forming a short transverse bar across interstices 3, 4, and 5, about six 
small spots on apical declivity, a few minute dots or traces of them here and 
there in basal three-fourths. 

Underside rather more grey than upper, sterna with ill-defined lateral whitish 
spots, and the upper posterior angles of the abdominal segments likewise whitish. 



5. Physopterus cortex spec, now 

$. Color Ph. melanoleuci Jord. (1913) ; magis robustus, capite cum rostro 
latiore, antennarum scrobi multo majore, margine superiore ejus fere ad oculum 
continuato ; capite inter oculos carina mediana instructo ; antennis prothoracis 
basin fere attingentibus, articulis l c -4° longitudine aequalibus, 9° latitudine duplo 
longiore, duobus sequentibus simul sumptis longitudine aequali, 10° multo latiore 
quam longiore ; pronoto tuberculato, carina in medio interrupta atque antrorsum 
flexa ; elytris leviter fasciculatis pone basin gibbosis ; prosterno laevi. 

Long. 12 mm. ; lat. 55 mm. 

Hab. Usambara ; 1 $. 

A broad stripe, clay colour variegated with grey, extends from the apex 
of the proboscis to the base of the pronotum ; apical area of elytra similarly 
coloured ; scutellum and sutural area from base to the beginning of the apical 
declivity greyish white, this area narrow at base, reaching sixth interspace behind 
subbasal hump, narrowing abruptly before middle of elytra, and posteriorly 
reaching into third interspace, the area appearing sinuate or constricted ; sides 
of occiput, pronotum and elytra brown ; colour much less contrasting than in 
Ph. melanoleucus . Underside grey, with inconspicuous brown lateral spots on 
abdomen. Femora grey, brown at apex, tibiae grey and brown with three 
indistinct brown spots, tarsi greyish brown. Head and rostrum much broader 
than in Ph. melanoleucus ; a distinct median carina between the eyes. Rostrum 
appearing less strongly widened at apex on account of the great width of the 
basal three-fifths ; median channel deep and narrow at base ; dorso-lateral carina 
very prominent, being a direct continuation of the rim of the eye, curved, the 
two carinae not parallel, but first convergent and then slightly divergent ; upper 
margin of antenna! groove curved and nearly extending to the eye. 

Pronotum granulate, impressed before the scutellum and on the disc, with 
a transverse row of four humps, of which the lateral ones are the most conspicuous, 
being slightly penicillate ; depression in front of these humps without a raised 
median line ; carina as in Ph. melanoleucus, curved forward in middle and 
interrupted. 

Prosternum with some granules anteriorly on the sides, otherwise smooth, 
intercoxal process broad, also in mesosternum, where it is half as broad again 
as long. First foretarsal segment as long as fourth. 

The club of the antenna is slenderer than in the allied species, segment IX 
being as long as X and XI together ; X is half as broad again as long. 



6. Physopterus emmides spec. nov. 

$. Niger, supra albo-griseo et russo variegatus, capite inter oculos griseo, 
elytris ante et post medium densius grisescentibus, his areis ad suturam coniunc- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 263 

tis, antice ad scutellum continuatis ; subtus cum pedibus griseus, tibiarum 
dimidio basali supra plus minusve rufobrunneo. 

Rostrum supra planatum, biearinatum, sulco profundo mediano instructum, 
lateribus impressum atque praeter earinam profunde sulcatum, sulco sub-oculari 
etiam profundo. Antenna prothoracis basin paulo superans, articulo 3 io secundo 
longiore, clava tenui, 10° latitudine fere dimidio longiore. Pronotum convexum, 
leviter quadri-impressum, carina dorsali fere recta medio levissime interrupta, 
versus latera paululo convexa. Elytra basi marginata, ad suturam parum 
deplanata, gibbositate postbasali distincta non-penicillata, interspatio 3'° pone 
medium caeteris magis convexo, dilatato. 

Long. 12 mm. ; lat. 5'5 mm. 

Hab. Mundane, Cameroons (R. Rohde) ; 1 $. 

The grey pubescence of the upperside is densest on the frons, in the middle 
of the pronotum, and, on the elytra, in between and behind the subbasal humps 
and behind the middle, but is nowhere so conspicuous as in Ph. melanoleucus, 
and numerous small grey speckles are present on the russet portions of the 
upperside. 

The rostrum very strongly dilated at the apex ; the median sulcus deep, 
continued on to the frons, but here shallow, not extending to the middle of the 
rostrum, a narrower, more shallow and shorter sulcus beyond middle replaced 
on widened apex by a raised line. The carinae broad, not sharp, particularly 
broad at the eye, accompanied laterally for some distance by a deep groove which 
is placed almost underneath the carina ; sides of rostrum concave ; cariniform 
margin of antenna! groove curved, directed towards the underside of the head, 
joining the anterior margin of the deep, curved, genal groove. Frons at its 
narrowest point only as wide as the second antenna! segment is long ; occiput 
russet, centrally variegated with grey. Lengths of antennal segments II and III 
and VIII to XI are respectively 7, 10, 8, 10, 7, 9. Pronotum without conspicuous 
granules and without humps ; on the disc four shallow impressions, of which the 
two anterior ones are the deepest. Elytra without tufts ; the rows of punctures 
impressed, the dorsal interspaces slightly convex, the third, which is broad, more 
distinctly raised, especially behind the middle. Mesosternal process broad, 
apically dilated. First foretarsal segment one-fourth longer than last (exclusive 
of claws). 

7. Xylinades fustis spec. nov. 

$. X. lanugicorni colore et statura similis ; antennis decem-articulatis, 
articulis 10° et 1 1° in unum confusis. 

Hab. Benito, Spanish Guinea ; 1 $. 

The black median patch of the elytrum is larger than in X. lanugicornis 
Dalm. (1833), joining the two limbal spots. The tomentum at the apical sutural 
angle is rather long, forming a small tuft. The outer and under sides of the mid- 
and hindtibiae bear the same minute grey pubescence which is found on the 
upperside of the femora and tarsi. The anal sternite is shorter than in the $ 
of X. lanugicornis and has more numerous large punctures. The pronotum is 
not so distinctly depressed before and behind the centre. The chief distinction 
is found in the antenna, of which the club is shorter and consists of two segments 
only, segment X being so completely united with XI that no suture is visible. 



264 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

8. Cylindroides ventralis spec. nov. 

$ 9. Niger, albo pubescens, lateribus pronoti late ochraceo-fulvis, elytris 
macula diffusa basali communi ac fascia communi ante apicem declivem sita 
brunneo-ochraceis, hac fascia antice diffusa lateribus antrorsum continuata 
postice linea nigrescente in utroque elytro convexa terminata. Pronotum postice 
in medio depressum. Pygidium leviter convexum, sulco mediano instructum. 
Abdomen $ longitudinaliter depressum, parte depressa brunneo hirsuta, meta- 
sterno macula mediana hirsuta eodem colore. 

Hob. Warn, Niger, ii. 1896, iv. 1897 (Dr. F. Roth), 2 <J<J, type; Benito, 
Spanish Guinea, 1 ? ; Gaboon, 1 $ (A. Mocquerys). 

The brown colouring on the upper surface is variable in extent. The 
pronotum may be described as being clay-brown with a white median stripe 
which widens strongly in front. The transverse band placed before the apical 
declivity of the elytra is more or less sharply defined posteriorly, but quite diffuse 
anteriorly, being limbally either separated from or connected with the clayish 
limbal area which extends from the shoulder backwards. The tibiae bear two 
brown spots, one at the base, the other in the middle ; the foretarsus is brown. 

The pronotum is much less depressed centrally than in the other known 
species, and the middle line not at all raised in the depression. The underside 
of the J is characteristic, the longitudinal central depression of the abdomen as 
well as a rounded central space on the metasternum being clothed with stiff 
dark brown hair ; the margin of the penultimate abdominal segment is not 
elevate in the depression. The first tarsal segment is shorter than in C. albo- 
plagiatus Fairm. (1885). 



NovitaTes Zooloqicae XXVII. 1920. 265 

NEW GEOMETRIDAE. 

By LOUIS B. PROUT, F.E.S. 

Subfam. HEMITHEINAE. 

1. Dysphania translucida turbatrix subsp. nov. 

c? ?, 82-88 mm. Thorax above with the yellow anterior patch very broadly 
interrupted by a blue-black band, leaving posteriorly only a narrow, broken 
edging of yellow scaling. Abdominal yellow belts narrow. 

Forewing with the white markings restricted, the subbasal patch almost 
obsolete (dusted over with dark scales), the central band narrowed, the extra- 
cellular spots wanting, the submarginals more or less reduced and containing 

little or no yellow scaling. Hindiving with cell-mark small, dark border broader 

than in t. translucida, behind M' commonly reaching almost to the cell ; the 
contained yellow spots variable, but on an average considerably smaller than 
in t. translucida ; those on either side of R 1 and that before R' commonly dusted 
over or subobsolete. 

Solomon Islands : Choiseul, north side, December 1903, a series, including 
the type <$ ; Vella Lavella, March 1908. All in coll. Tring Museum, collected 
by A. S. Meek. 

2. Dysphania translucida floridensis subsp. nov. 

Like extreme forms of the preceding, but with the whole of the hindwing 
unclouded between M s and SM 2 . On the forewing the central band is purer 
white, rather broad in cell, very strongly constricted at M ! . 

Solomon Islands : Florida Island, January 1901 (A. S. Meek). Type in 
coll. Tring Museum. 

Pending exact anatomical investigation, I now treat translucida Montrz. 
(1856), tentans Walk. (1864), and tyrianthina Butl. (1882) as forms of a single 
species, leaving open the question whether they shall be merged with the yellow 
Moluccan numana Cram. As a rule, the tyrianthina group (tyrianthina Butl., 
fulvilauta Warr., semifulva Warr., and the new forms) can be distinguished by 
the restricted yellow in front of thorax — but this character is shared by schoutensis 
Joicey and Talbot (1916), which geographically belongs to the tentans series, 
and very occasionally even extreme forms of tentans ab. velata Bastelb. show 
signs of transition towards the same peculiarity ; the translucida group (t. trans- 
lucida only) by the clean white areas, the broad (commonly confluent) yellow 
markings of the hindwing, and tendency to develop yellow scaling distally in 
the submarginal spots of the forewing — but the subalbata form of " tentans " 
tends to approach this in the $. The tyrianthina group is generally also note- 
worthy for the loss of the dark patch in the middle of the hindwing between 
M ! and SM 2 , which seems pretty constant in the other forms ; but this patch 
develops in the new form turbatrix, commonly appears (though reduced) in 
semifulva Warr., and is well developed (though differently shaped — long and , 
narrow, not confluent with the abdominal patch) in the type specimen only of 
fulvilauta Warr. 



266 Novitates Zoolocicae XXVI J. 1920. 

3. Metallochlora misera sp. nov. 

(J?, 20-22 mm. Face grey -green. Palpus in <J less than 1£,* with third 
joint minute, in $ 2J, with third joint almost equal to second ; above grey-green 
with a few blackish scales, beneath whitish. Crown green, narrowly white 
between antennae. Thorax and base of abdomen above grey-green, beneath 
whitish ; crests moderate, red-brown mixed with black. Legs whitish ; hind- 
tibia in (J with the pencil rather strong, all the spurs short except the inner 
proximal. 

Wings shaped as in typical Hemithea, in ? rather broader, yet not quite so 
broad as in M. grisea Prout (Novitates Zoologicae, xxii. 318). Forewing 
with SC 1 free, R 1 connate or stalked, M' connate or stalked ; grey-green ; costal 
edge spotted, whitish ochreous and black ; lines white, irregular, in part ill 
defined ; antemedian from one-third costa, somewhat oblique outward, then 
sinuous ; postmedian from beyond two-thirds costa, incurved at radials, then 
rather strongly outbent, angled inward on submedian fold (here slightly thickened) 
and more weakly outward on SM S , reaching hindmargin at about four-fifths ; 
terminal line scarcely darkened, interrupted by whitish dots at veins ; fringe 

grey-green. Hindicing with antemedian line wanting, postmedian well 

expressed ; very slight indications of dark cell-mark ; termen and fringe as on 
forewing. 

Underside whitish ; forewing with slight flush in middle and with costal 
edge spotted. 

Bingerville, Ivory Coast, August 16-18, 1915, type o, May and June 1-7, 
1915, 2 $$ (G. Melon). In coll. Tring Museum. A <$ from Bopoto, Upper Congo, 
May 1903 (Kenred Smith), too poor to describe, has long stood in the same 
collection. 

Near grisea Prout, but differently coloured, postmedian line more angulated 
on fold, etc. 

4. Chlorissa allochroma sp. nov. 

9, 24 mm. Palpus 21, second joint with suberect scales above, third joint 
strongly elongate ; red above, whitish beneath. Vertex and thorax concolorous 
with wings ; abdomen very slightly crested anteriorly, posteriorly paler. 

Fiirewing broader than in solidaria Guen., termen rather straight and not 
very oblique anteriorly, much more oblique and slightly waved from M' ; SC 
connate with SC ! " S , not touching C, R 1 from stalk of SC ! " 5 , DC 1 strongly oblique 
posteriorly, M' shortly stalked; light cinnamon-rufous, irrorated and strigulated 
with white as in solidaria ; costal margin more olive-brownish, darkening apically ; 
lines thick, brown, slightly irrorated with black ; antemedian oblique outward 
from before one-third costa, rather strongly sinuous, the inward curves being 
at M and SM : ; postmedian from two-thirds costa to hindmargin rather near 
tornus (median area consequently rather broad), angled outward on R\ incurved 
between radials and more deeply between M' and SM 2 ; antemedian proximally 
(very narrowly) and postmedian distally edged with white ; terminal dark line 
indicated in anterior part only ; termen minutely dotted with white at vein-ends ; 

* In this article I have adopted Meyrick's convenient terminology, length of palpus being 
given in terms of diameter of eye, that of antennal ciliation in terms of diameter of shaft, that of 
tarsus in terms of length of tibia. 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 267 

fringe reddish, chequered with whitish opposite the veins, especially in posterior 

part. Hindwing fairly broad, but with abdominal margin long ; termen 

slightly waved, bent minutely at R 1 and more markedly at R 1 ; concolorous 
with forewing ; antemedian line replaced by an elongate cell-mark ; the rest 
as on forewing. 

Underside dirty white, the forewing flushed with reddish and with some 
smoky apical clouding ; markings obsolete ; terminal line of hindwing rather 
strong from apex to R 1 , accompanied on wing-margin by very slight narrow 
dark shading. 

Bingerville, Ivory Coast, 1915 (G. Melou). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

May be provisionally placed in the vicinity of solidaria, in spite of its broader 
wings, more sinuous postmedian line, and entirely different colour. 

5. Prasinocyma eichhorni sp. nov. 

2, 35 mm. Closely similar to perpolluta Prout (Novitates Zoologicae, 
xx. 430), differing as follows : 

Metathorax and abdomen entirely without the yellow dorsal line, the ab- 
domen with some ill-defined purple-brown dorsal markings about the fourth 
and fifth segments. 

Forewing with termen slightly more curved ; costal margin purplish 
chocolate, at base deepening towards Indian purple, only the extreme edge 

narrowly white ; terminal line stronger ; fringe pale chocolate, not yellow. 

Hindwing with the angle at R ! rather pronounced ; termen and fringe as on 
forewing. 

Forewing beneath suffused anteriorly with purple-grey ; both wings with 
fringe proximally nearly of the ground-colour, only slightly suffused, distally 
nearly as above, though greyer. 

Hydrographer Mountains, 2,500 feet, British New Guinea, April 1908 
(Eichhorn brothers). 2 22 in coll. Tring Museum. 

6. Comostolopsis stillata phylarcha subsp. nov. 

2, 14-15 mm. Smaller than the corresponding sex of s. stillata Feld. from 
S. Africa. 

Forewing with all the red-brown spots well developed ; the red-brown 
border, which in s. stillata consists of a mere thread, widened into a band 

averaging "5 mm., broadest towards apex, its proximal edge crenulate. 

Hindwing with corresponding distinctions, the cell-spot, in particular, enlarged. 

Bingerville, Ivory Coast (G. Melou), type 2 and another ; Takwa, Gold 
Coast (R. E. James). All in coll. Tring Museum. 

7. Comostola ocellulata sp. nov. 

cJ, 23-26 mm. In shape, ground-colour, and markings, similar to mundata 
Warr. but larger, the ground-colour sometimes slightly more bluish, the hindwing 
slightly less narrow. 

Forewing with DC characteristic ; costal margin more or less strongly rosy 
at extreme edge, then narrowly pale with dark irroration, on under-surface 
rather broadly infuscated proximally ; cell-spot small, round, brighter red than 



268 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

in mundata ; lines of white dots rather well developed, terminal red line very 
slender, slightly interrupted. Hind/wing similar, except costally. 

Arizan, Kagi district, Central Formosa, September 1906, July — August 
1 908, a short series in coll. Tring Museum, the type August 1908 ; also in coll. British 
Museum and coll. Joicey. Rantaizan, Formosa, May 1909 (a discoloured example, 
aberrant in the larger — though equally round — cell-spots) in coll. Tring Museum. 

This is no doubt the subtiliaria of Bastelberger {Iris, xxii. 173), but is very 
distinct from iiympha Butl. and the accepted subtiliaria in the straight termen 
of forewing, rosy costa, lack of red dots at outer edge of postmedian dots, etc. 

Subfam. STERRHINAE. 
8. Rhodostrophia calabra cypria subsp. nov. 

cJ $. Foreicing with cell-dot well developed, though less large than in c. 
tabidaria ; antemedian line generally thread-like or obsolescent ; postmedian 
band narrowed, measuring only about 1 mm. ; submarginal shade nearly always 
present, broad, but not very strong, separated from termen (as in c. tabidaria) 

by a thread of the ground-colour. Hindicing with cell-dot obsolete ; postmedian 

band more or less narrowed ; submarginal shade fairly well developed towards 
tornus, weakening anteriorly. Underside in general more blurred than in the 
other races. 

Cyprus : Aghirda, May 7-14, 1916 (G. F. Wilson), including the type ; 
Athanassa, on the plains, 465 feet, April 30 — May 6, 1916 (G. F. Wilson) ; 
Troodos, June 24, 1916 (G. F. Wilson), July 14, 1911 (J. A. Bucknill) ; all in 
coll. Tring Museum. 

Like R. calabraria everywhere, this race is very variable in colour, etc., but 
it seldom shows the bright coloration of the forms from S. and S.E. Europe, 
and scarcely ever the division of the postmedian band into two lines, as in those 
from Spain and France. 

9. Rhodostrophia calabra transcaucasica subsp. nov. 

$. In general almost as brightly coloured as c. calabraria from S. and S.E. 
Europe, the outer pink shade, as in that, touching the termen, the postmedian 
band nearly solid, not very broad, but rarely narrowed as in c. cypria ; both 
wings with cell-dots sharply expressed, though not so large as in c. tabidaria. 

Transcaucasia : Borjom. 6 $$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

10. Organopoda olivescens orbiculata subsp. nov. 

9, 34 mm. Larger than o. olivescens Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iii. 374) 
from North Queensland. 

Forewing with postmedian line more diffuse, rather more proximally 

placed. Hindwing with the cell-dot slightly enlarged, containing a few 

whitish scales, and enclosed in a round white spot which has a diameter of 
nearly 1 mm. 

Mount Goliath, Central Dutch New Guinea, 6,000-7,000 feet, February 1911 
(A. S. Meek). 2 ?$ in coll. Tring Museum. 



NOTITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 26 'J 

11. Semaeopus orbifera sp. nov. 

(J, 25 mm. Head, thorax, and base of abdomen above chocolate-brown, 
abdomen becoming paler posteriorly, with narrow whitish posterior edges to 
the segments ; underside mostly whitish, of palpus more ochreous, coxae and 
forefemur tinged with ochreous and reddish. Antennal ciliation about 1. 
Hindleg with tufts of hair partly dark smoky, partly dull ochreous, tarsus com- 
pletely aborted, a large spreading pencil of ochreous to whitish hair. 

Forewing not very broad ; SC 2 from cell ; chocolate with some sparse whitish 
irroration ; lines dirty white, irrorated — except in dots on the veins — with 
olive-grey ; antemedian from one-fourth costa to one-third hindmargin, slightly 
angulated outward on M and SM 2 and marked by a pale spot on SC ; postmedian 
from three-fourths costa to beyond two-thirds hindmargin, arising from a small 
pale spot at costa, very slightly excurved anteriorly, finely lunulate-dentate 
throughout, the teeth pointing inward on the veins ; cell-mark elongate, slightly 
angled outward at origin of R-, white, edged with some grey scales, enclosed in 
a large circular whitish patch of nearly 2 mm. diameter ; termen with slight 

indications of a dark line, interrupted by white dots at the veins. Hindwing 

not very broad ; termen rounded ; similar to forewing but without the first line. 

Underside much paler, with the cell-mark and postmedian line indicated ; 
cell-mark of hindwing with rather more extended dark bordering than above. 

St. Jean de Maroni, French Guiana. Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

12. Semaeopus simplicilinea Prout. 

<3\ 25 mm. Closely similar to mitranaria Walk, and geminilinea Prout 
(Novitates Zoologicae, xxiii. 382). 

Forewing with ground-colour nearly as in geminilinea, but slightly brighter 
ochreous, the dark irroration rather more reddish ; costal region and veins 
not appreciably darkened ; median fine single, as in mitranaria : postmedian 
approaching the subapical more closely than in geminilinea, and differing from 

that of both the allies in being rather strongly incurved between the radials. 

Hindwing coloured nearly as in geminilinea, but with the antemedian straight 
as in mitranaria ; the ochreous, blackish-edged cell-mark considerably smaller 
than in either of the allies. 

Underside similar to that of mitranaria but slightly darker ; cell-mark of 
hindwing reduced as above. 

San Ernesto, Bolivia (68° W., 15° S.), 1,000 m., August— September 1900 
(Simons). Type in coll. Tring Museum, determined by Warren as mitranaria. 
A slightly larger, more reddish-ochreous example from Pozuzo, Huanuco, Peru, 
800-1,000 m. (W. Hoffmanns) in the same collection. 

13. Lipotaxia rubicunda (Warr.) ab. irregularis ab. nov. 

(J, 20 mm. Ground-colour much lighter than in the name-type (Novitates 
Zoologicae, xii. 324), only becoming more reddish on forewing towards apex, 
at termen, and in the vicinity of a curved dark line which — as in segmentata Warr. 
(Novitates Zoologicae, xiv. 220) — runs from base of M to about two-tbirds 
hindmargin ; terminal patch small, dusky, ill-defined. 



270 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

St. Jean de Maroni. 2 <$<$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

Possibly a separate species though occurring together with typical rubicunda. 
Of two worn specimens from San Esteban, Venezuela, in the Tring collection, 
one appears to be referable to the name-type, the other to ab. irregularis. 

14. Lipotaxia perpulverosa sp. nov. 

<$, 21 mm. Closely akin to L. rubicunda Warr., perhaps a subspecies. Head 
and body nearly as in the darkest examples of that species, abdomen above 
noticeably infuscated. 

Forewing with darker irroration than in rubicunda, the costal margin broadly 
infuscated ; markings nearly as in rubicunda, the light apical and tornal patches 
rather more strongly irrorated, connected by more definite mid-terminal shading 
than in rubicunda ; a large greyish patch on hindmargin, shaped as in segmentata 

Warr. but much less conspicuous. Hindwing appearing rather fuller than 

in rubicunda, the abdominal margin being relatively less elongate ; much more 
strongly irrorated than in rubicunda ; a minute ocellated cell-mark discernible ; 
the interrupted subterminal line very fine, close to termen throughout, the apical 
and the (obsolescent) tornal patch consequently minute — narrower and shorter 
even than in segmentata. 

Underside paler than in rubicunda, especially on the hindwing ; the dark 
terminal shades weak, that of the hindwing narrow, rufescent rather than smoky 
and only developed apically. 

Rio Ucayali, Peruvian Amazons. Type in coll. Dognin. Also in coll. 
British Museum from Chaquimayo, S.E. Peru, 2,500-3,000 feet, June — July 
1910 (H. & C. Watkins). 

15. Trygodes dissuasa sp. nov. 

(J, 35 mm. Superficially scarcely distinguishable from small, well-irrorated, 
weakly-marked forms of spoliataria Mosch. (Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, xxxi. 
407) = columbaris Butl. (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1881, p. 347) (Venezuela — Surinam 
and Brazilian Amazons), of which it may well be a western representative, though 
having clearly attained specific rank. Antenna, as in spoliataria* with short 
lamellate teeth beneath and shortish fascicles of cilia. Midfemur glabrous, 
wanting the long, dense hair-tuft of spoliataria. 

Forewing with the green cell-marks reduced, consisting of a not very well 

defined roundish one at DC 1 and a smaller, very indistinct one at DC ! . 

Hindwing with the postmedian line almost obsolete, the green cell-mark fairly 
distinct, circular, lacking the small anterior projection of spoliataria. 

Quevedo, W. Ecuador (v. Buchwald). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

16. Ptochophyle nebulifera sp. nov. 

<J$, 22 mm. Face cream-colour, upper edge vinaceous. Palpus vinaceous 
on outer side. Vertex and antennal shaft cream-colour, slightly marked with 
dull vinaceous. Thorax and abdomen cream-colour, tinged with Naples yellow. 

Forewing broad, apex minutely produced, termen strongly curved from 
SO, appearing gibbous in middle ; areole fairly long, SO shortly stalked beyond 

* Mosehler calls them pectinate, which is inaccurate. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 271 

it ; pale Naples yellow to cream-colour, with irrorations and cloudings of olive- 
grey to smoke-grey ; these occupy, in varying intensity, almost the whole of the 
wings except a thick, interrupted submarginal line, which consists of more or 
less confluent paired spots between SC S and R 1 , between R- and M 1 (the anterior 
of this pair slightly farther from termen), and narrower spots between M 1 and 
tornus ; the cloudings less dense towards base and in region of postmedian line 

than elsewhere ; a minute black cell-dot ; fringe pale. Hindwing subquadrate, 

but with the angle in middle rather more rounded off than in innotata Warr. 
(Novitates Zoologicae, iii. 294), anal angle slightly produced ; M 1 not or 
barely stalked ; colours as on forewing, but with the ground-colour distinct 
at base, in a conspicuous and rather broad postmedian band and a less conspicuous 
antemedian ; subterminal row of spots more complete ; cell-dot white ; some- 
times a darkened patch developed at abdominal margin between postmedian 
and subterminal bands. 

Underside much less clouded ; forewing with vinaceous costal shade, ex- 
panding between SC and SC 1 in their proximal part, and with vague vinaceous 
shading in cell. 

British New Guinea : Haidana, Collingwood Bay, April 1907 (A. S. Meek), 
type <$ and a $ ; Hydrographer Mountains, 2,500 feet, April — May 1918 (Eichhorn 
Brothers), 2 <J(J ; all in coll. Tring Museum. 

17. Cosymbia maderensis azorensis subsp. nov. 

tj$, 22-25 mm. Considerably smaller and (especially in the <^) decidedly 
broader-winged than to. maderensis B.-Bak. (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1891, p. 216). 
Reddish irroration generally denser, giving to the insect a much warmer tone. 

Forewing with first line often well developed, strongly incurved anteriorly ; 
median shade slightly less oblique than in to. maderensis, more reddish, commonly 
very thick and strong ; postmedian row of dots often connected by a complete 
line, both above and beneath ; cell-dot small, only very slenderly black-ringed ; 
terminal dots rarely strong. Hindwing with corresponding distinctions. 

Azores, a good series collected by Ogilvie Grant, recorded by Warren 
(Novitates Zoologicae, xii. 441) as puppillaria Hb., and mentioned by me in 
Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 150) under maderensis but not fully worked out ; type <$ 
" above Calheta S. Jorge, 200 feet, May 7, 1907." The true puppillaria only 
occurred at San Pedro, Santa Maria, 2 $£, May 2, 1903, in a small, deeply-coloured 
form which will probably deserve naming as a local race, in spite of the extreme 
variability of puppillaria everywhere. 

18. Anisodes (Pisoraca) iners sp. nov. 

tj, 25 mm. Face whitish, upper edge buff. Vertex and antennal shaft 
pale cream-buff. Palpus with third joint long ; whitish, above and on outer 
side marked with dull red. Thorax, abdomen, and legs pale cream-buff, the 
inner side of foreleg mostly dull dark reddish. Hindtibia rather rough-scaled, 
the proximal spur well developed. 

Forewing rather elongate, apex not acute, termen subcrenulate ; areole 
long, SC S from before its extremity ; pale cream-buff, costally somewhat darker ; 
slight scattered dark irroration ; a black dot on C near base ; an antemedian 
series on SC, M, and SM ! before one-third and a narrow dot on cell-fold rather 



272 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1020. 

farther from the base ; a black cell-dot, followed by moderately thick buff median 
shade, which curves inward very slightly behind middle ; a curved row of small 
black postmedian vein-dots 2 or 3 mm. from termen ; small interneural brown 
(buff parti}' overlaid with black) subterminal spots, namely a weak subcostal, 
a stronger pair between the radials, one between the medians, and two almost 
confluent cut by submedian fold ; conspicuous black interneural dots on termen 

and minuter dots at vein-ends on base of fringe. Hindwing with termen sub- 

crenulate, the teeth at R 1 and R 3 strengthened ; M 1 separate ; similar to forewing, 
without the subbasal and the first antemedian dot ; the black cell-mark larger, 
somewhat elongate ; the median shade faint. 

Underside with the ground-colour somewhat paler still, but with a great 
part of the forewing (proximally and costally) flushed with pink ; both wings 
with feeble cell-mark and postmedian and terminal dots ; forewing in addition 
with a pinkish median shade and subterminal spots. 

La Oroya, Rio Inambari, Peru, 3,100 feet, September 1904, dry season 
(G. Ockenden). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

The smallest American Pisoraca known to me. 



19. Anisodes (Pisoraca) obthesia sp. nov. 

(J, 28-32 mm. Face brown above, whitish below. Vertex white. Occiput 
brownish. Palpus slender, with third joint moderately long ; first and second 
joints whitish beneath. Thorax and abdomen above pale grey, beneath whitish. 
Legs more brown ; hindtibia with moderate proximal spur. 

Forewing not broad, termen waved, tornus not strong ; whitish, irrorated 
with light grey-brown, more densely at base of costa ; lines grey-brown, not 
very strong, usually more or less thickened at costa ; antemedian from two- 
sevenths costa, acutely bent outward in cell and again in submedian area ; 
median and postmedian dentate outward on the veins ; median well beyond 
cell-spot, slightly oblique inward to SC, then oblique outward to R l , thence 
about parallel with termen. a little incurved between M s and SM 2 ; postmedian 
finer, nearly parallel with median, but curved instead of angled anteriorly ; 
double subterminal shade strong, enclosing a row of irregular white subterminal 
spots ; cell-spot small, black, somewhat elongate ; terminal line black, fine but 
scarcely interrupted, thickened into dots between the veins ; fringe with minute 

brown dots at vein-ends. Hindwing not broad, termen markedly crenulate, 

the teeth at R- and (especially) R 3 strong ; SC ! -R' connate or short-stalked, 
M 1 well separate ; marked nearly as forewing, the cell-mark minutely pale- 
centred. 

Forewing beneath white distally and along hindmargin, with rosy suffusions 
from base to postmedian line ; postmedian and proximal subterminal shade 
well developed ; terminal line and dots brown. Hindwing beneath almost 
unmarked. 

Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco, E. Peru (E. Bottger). 6 <JJ in coll. Tring 
Museum. 

20. Anisodes (Pisoraca) sypharioides sp. nov. 

<J, 32-38 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings, only the extreme 
anterior edge of vertex and inner edge of antennal shaft somewhat whitened. 



NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 273 

Third joint of palpus elongate, but not quite as long as second ; upper and outer 
sides marked with red. 

Foreiving not very broad, apex rather acute, termen waved ; areole well 
developed ; SC 5 from or from just before its apex ; ochraceous-buff with very 
fine rufous irroration ; antemedian and median lines rather thick, but faint, the 
former from one-fourth costa oblique outward, sharply angidated in cell, then 
waved, with a slight indentation on M and a deeper one on SM S , slight dots 
developed on SC', M, and SM 3 ; median denticulate, exteriorly somewhat ex- 
curved, rather remote from cell-mark, posteriorly somewhat incurved, reaching 
hindmargin scarcely beyond middle ; postmedian consisting of a row of distinct 
blackish-red vein-dots, placed nearly as in sypharia Guen. (Oberthur, fig. 3360) ; 
cell-dot small, white, very finely black-ringed ; termen with distinct interneural 

dots ; fringe slightly paler, except against the terminal dots. Hindwing with 

termen crenulate ; M 1 widely separate from R 3 ; concolorous with forewing, 
in proximal part very slightly paler ; antemedian fine, curved ; median sinuous, 
a little beyond cell-mark ; cell-mark large, black, with minute white pupil ; 
the rest as on forewing. 

Underside paler, posterior part of forewing and almost entire hindwing 
inclining to whitish ochreous ; cell-marks and the markings beyond present, 
the terminal dots prolonged into dashes. 

Santo Domingo, Carabaya, S.E. Peru, 6,000 ft., January 1901, wet season 
(G. R. Ockenden). Type in coll. Tring Museum. Also from Cushi, E. Peru 
(W. Hoffmanns), coll. Tring Museum, and from Loja, Ecuador, coll. Dognin. 

Has been misidentified with sypharia Guen., which has a different hindleg, 
white vertex, unmarked underside, and other distinctions. 

21. Anisodes (Pisoraca) endospila sp. nov. 

<J, 36 mm. Closely similar to rufistigma Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
xi. 510), but larger and rather lighter, the ochreous cloudings on the pale ground- 
colour being less strong. Face with a narrow but rather sharply defined dark 
reddish band at upper edge. Metathorax with a pair of sharp black spots. 

Foreiving with apex appearing slightly more acute than in rufistigma, the 
termen being straight and strongly oblique ; costal margin slightly darkened 
proximally ; lines finer, fairly well expressed ; cell-ring darker, rather more 
elongate and (like DC 3 ) oblique ; subterminal reddish spots before SC 5 , R ! and 

R 1 strong. Hindwing with termen almost straight from the rounded apex 

to the tail at R 1 , whereas in rufistigma there is an appreciable tooth at SC 2 and a 
pronounced one at R 1 ; costal area pale, with the markings more or less obsolete ; 
cell-ring as on forewing or slightly larger ; median shade thickening and blackening 
at abdominal margin. 

Forewing beneath with the rufous proximal clouding more transverse, 
its strongest part suggesting an oblique diffuse antemedian line (in rufistigma 
mainly longitudinal, occupying the greater part of the cell) ; median shade 
obsolescent before SC 5 ; subterminal spot in front of SC 5 obsolescent ; cell-mark 
blackish. 

Carabaya, S.E. Peru (G. R. Ockenden) : Oconeque, 7,000 ft., dry season, 
July 1904 (type) ; Agualani, 9,000 ft., wet season, October 1905 ; Santo Domingo, 
6,500 ft., dry season, October 1902 (smaller — 33 mm.). 

18 



274 Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

The type, otherwise in beautiful condition, has lost its abdomen, but the 
other examples show this to be irregularly spotted dorsally with reddish, which 
is not the case in rufistigma. 

22. Anisodes (Pisoracai zeuctospila sp. nov. 

<$ $, 27-29 mm. Face and palpus reddish above, whitish below. Palpus 
with second joint in <J somewhat roughened above, not reaching beyond frons, 
in $ rather longer and smoother ; third joint in $ moderate, in £ a little longer. 
Head, thorax, and abdomen concolorous with wings. Hindtibia in $ rather 
long, with coarse projecting sex-scales on inner side as far as the single proximal 
spur. 

Forewin abroad, apex blunt, termen curved, slightly waved ; buff (pale cream- 
buff, with rather copious pinkish-buff irroration) ; costal edges irrorated with 
blackish ; lines pinkish-buff ; antemedian rather thick but weak, excurved in 
anterior half, a small indentation at submedian fold ; median shade rather 
beyond middle, not very strong, somewhat dentate, somewhat incurved between 
radials and more deeply between M 1 and SM 2 ; cell-mark rather weak, forming 
a thick dash, midway between antemedian and median lines ; postmedian line 
midway between median shade and termen, nearly parallel with former, finer, 
more dentate, angulated inward near costa ; subterminal shades obsolescent, 
but with characteristic inter-radial spots almost as black as in bipunctata Warr. 
(Novitates Zoologicae, xi. 27), larger, confluent with a thick, equally black 
streak along R J to termen ; termen with small black interneural dots and more 

minute, less black ones at the vein-ends ; fringe pale in distal half. Hindwing 

broad, termen slightly crenulate, a rather stronger but still not prominent tooth 
at R 1 ; R'-M 1 almost connate ; first line nearer base than on forewing ; median 
shade almost obsolete (traceable at abdominal margin), the dentate postmedian 
appearing as a continuation of median of forewing ; a small angulated white 
cell-mark, with broad black circumscription ; subterminal shade obsolescent ; 
termen and fringe as on forewing. 

Forewing beneath with costal margin irrorated or suffused (in proximal 
part broadly) with vinaceous ; some vinaceous suffusion in cell ; cell-mark and 
the markings beyond reproduced in vinaceous ; posterior margin pale. Hindwing 
pale, the postmedian line indicated, at least at costa ; distal area with some 
vinaceous irroration ; terminal dots vinaceous. 

Fonte Boa, Upper Amazons (S. M. Klages), August 1907 (type (J), May 1906 
and July 1907 ($$), in coll. Tring Museum. 

I have also before me a $ which may easily prove to represent an aberration 
or local race of the same species from Suapure, Venezuela. 

23. Anisodes (Pisoraca,i calama sp. nov. 

<J, 25 mm. Palpus with third joint shortish-moderate. Hindtibia rather 
thick, especially in proximal part, which is clothed with rather coarse reddish- 
tinged sex-scales ; proximal spur long, distal pair shortish but unequal. 

Close to stramineata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, vii. 145). Ground-colour 
more yellowish, both wings with the reddish scales rather more sparse, but 
mostly tipped with black, giving the insect a much more freckled appearance. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920 275 

Markings the same, but rather sharper, median shade appearing more dentate, 
postmedian with the teeth accentuated by black dots at the extremities ; sub- 
terminal shades of forewing with more noticeable dark spots at radials and 
medians. Forewing beneath much more sharply and brightly marked than 
in stramineata. 

Calama, Rio Madeira, below Rio Machado, August — October 1907 (W. 
Hoffmanns). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

24. Anisodes (Pisoraca) difficilis sp. nov. 

cJ$, 28-31 mm. Like the preceding species, but larger, slightly yellower 
still. Hindfemur of $ with tuft of whitish and pale ochreous hairs in distal part, 
opposed to a dense pale-ochreous sex-tuft on proximal part of tibia ; hindtibia 
whitish, proximal spur long, distal pair shortish but unequal. 

Upper Amazons : S. Antonio de Javary, May 1907 (S. M. Klages), type <$ ; 
Fonte Boa and Rio Chucurras (Rio Palcazu), $$ ; in coll. Tring Museum. 

Probably this or the preceding may be a subspecies of stramineata Warr., 
but as the $ of the latter is still unknown it is impossible to form a judgment. 
I cannot at present distinguish the two new species by their markings, unless 
perhaps the median shade of forewing in difficilis is more deeply bent at the 
fold and the costal markings more darkened, i.e. with denser irroration. 

25. Anisodes (Pisoraca) insitiva sp. nov. 

<^$, 28 mm. Face above fawn-colour somewhat mixed with grey, beneath 
whitish. Palpus with second joint reaching well beyond frons, third joint long 
(little shorter than second) ; dull dark red, beneath whitish buff. Vertex and 
antennal shaft a little paler than wings. Thorax and abdomen concolorous 
with wings, the abdomen becoming a little paler at extremity. Foreleg mixed 
with red on coxa, the tibia and tarsus infuscated above ; hindtibia with the 
proximal spur long. 

Forewing with termen slightly waved ; areole wanting ; dull fawn-colour, 
with weak but rather copious darker irroration ; costal margin irrorated with 
dark grey ; first line indicated by dark dots on costa (at 3 mm.) and on veins, 
with a rather stronger, more distally placed dot on cell-fold (at 4 mm.) ; a 
moderately large black dot on DO, with some dark scales behind it suggesting 
the circumscription of an elongate ocelloid mark ; median shade very weak, 
sinuous, in its anterior half midway between cell-dot and postmedian, then 
curving proximad ; postmedian line chiefly indicated by dark vein-dots, strongest 
in anterior half, those on SC 2J (at their bifurcation) and R ! largest and farther 
from termen, the rest at about 15 mm. from termen ; termen with black inter- 
neural dots ; base of fringe with minute dark dots. Hindwing with termen 

appreciably subcrenulate, rather strongly convex in anterior part ; cell-spot 
large, whitish, black-edged, strongly recalling that of obliviaria Walk. ( = sus- 
picaria Snell., Tijd. Ent. xxiv. 80, t. 8, f. 6-6c, syn. nov.) ; median shade 
almost entirely obsolete ; the rest as on forewing. 

Underside paler, the forewing posteriorly and almost the whole hindwing 
nearly white ; forewing with slight fuscous suffusion at base of costa and in 
cell ; both wings with moderately thick dark cell-mark, extending nearly the 



276 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920_ 

entire length of DC*"*, and with the postmedian and terminal dots present, 
the latter elongate, especially on the hindwing, where they are connected by 
an extremely fine line. 

S. India : Palni Hills (W. H. Campbell), type $ in coll. L. B. Prout ; Nilgiris 
(G. F. Hampson), in coll. British Museum (found among " -pallida Moore," 
which represented a heterogeneous mixture) and coll. Tring Museum. 

Here also belongs the worn Anisodes recorded by me (Ent. Mitt. Deutsch. 
Ent. Mus. iii. 244) as " Pisoraca sp." (p. 42) from Kosempo, Formosa; the 
loss of one of the spurs of the hindtibia must have been due to accident or a 
unique sport. The species is not like any other known in the subgenus Pisoraca, 
its superficial resemblance being to small examples of obliviaria Walk., which 
belongs to the subgenus Perixera ( = Phrissosceles). 

26. Anisodes (Pisoraca) mesotoma sp. nov. 

<J$, 28 mm. Face buff-pink above, whitish below. Palpus li, with third 
joint in both sexes slightly deflexed, considerably shorter than second ; deep 
red, beneath whitish buff. Head, thorax, and abdomen concolorous with 
wings. Fore and middle legs in part reddened ; hindtibia in <J Ion" and slender, 
the single proximal spur long and slender. 

Forewing with areole well developed ; cream-buff with rather sparse but 
coarse vinaceous (slightly rufescent) irroration ; cell-dot rather small ; lines 
vinaceous ; antemedian zigzag, extremely ill-expressed, but marked with some 
fine, black-mixed dots on the veins ; median better developed and more concise 
than in most Pisoraca, only a little thickened and dentate-edged, gently curved 
near costa and very slightly incurved in posterior part, placed little beyond the 
cell-dot ; postmedian moderately distinct between the radials (where it shows 
some tendency to form a pair of small confluent spots), and between M 1 and 
hindmargin (where it is somewhat sinuous and irregular, bent at fold), slightly 
indicated in a subcostal spot, otherwise obsolete ; proximal subterminal shade 
indicated by a few small spots, at least between R 1 and R 1 and before and behind 
M ! ; distal subterminal shade scarcely indicated ; intemeural dots at termen 

and very minute vein-dots at base of fringe. Hindwing with termen faintly 

waved ; similarly marked to forewing, but with the cell-spot forming a small 
white, dark-edged ocellus, and the postmedian line rather finer and weaker but 
less interrupted ; median line at least as firm as on forewing, rather straight 
across middle of wing, a little curved anteriorly. 

Forewing beneath paler, partly whitish, the costal region proximally with 
pink suffusion ; markings (except first line) present, pinkish, the postmedian 
line fine but fairly complete. Hindwing whitish, feebly marked. 

Hainan : Henron, June 1904, type $ ; Youboi, June 1904, allotype $. 
Lower Burma, a weakly marked $. All in coll. Tring Museum. 

27. Anisodes tribeles sp. nov. 

tJ $, 24-27 mm. Face red above, becoming pale to whitish below. Palpus 
in <J over li, in $ about 2, in both sexes with third joint little shorter than second ; 
red above, white or whitish beneath. Vertex and proximal part of antennal 
shaft dirty white. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. Foreleg and 
middle femur in part reddened ; femora almost glabrous, hindtibia in J not 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 277 

quite as long as femur, with three crowded spurs, all generally well developed, 
the most proximally placed shorter than the other two (in Hainan and Formosan 
specimens sometimes quite short). 

Forewing rather short and broad, termen smooth, slightly curved, areole 
well developed, SC ! from its apex or little beyond ; cream-buff, coarsely irrorated 
throughout with vinaceous rufous ; lines rufous, mixed with grey, antemedian 
generally weak, placed well before one-third, somewhat curved, sometimes with 
three small dark vein-dots ; cell-spot not minute, not darker than the lines ; 
• median shade weak at costa, otherwise well expressed, anteriorly placed at 
three-fifths wing-length or beyond, behind middle incurved : postmedian weak 
or obsolete, but always marked with dark vein-dots, midway between median 
shade and termen or slightly nearer the latter, slightly oblique outward from 
costa, incurved between radials and very slightly behind M 1 ; termen with weak 
interneural dots ; fringe pale, least so proximally, with very minute rufous 

dots touching the vein-ends. Hindwing rather broad, termen nearly smooth, 

convex, especially between SC ; and M 1 ; first line usually indicated by minute 
vein-dots ; cell-dot very small, white, narrowly dark-ringed ; median shade 
close beyond it, straightish or gently curved ; the rest as on forewing. 

Underside paler, especially the hindwing ; forewing somewhat flushed, 
except at hindmargin ; median shade (at least on forewing) and postmedian 
dots (on both wings) indicated. 

Sudest Island, April 1898 (A. S. Meek), a short series, including the type, 
in coll. Tring Museum. Also from Hainan and Formosa (Takow), doubtless also 
in many other localities, though hitherto overlooked. 

Exceedingly like some forms of compacta Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
v. 426), which is a true " Pisoraca," otherwise scarcely distinguishable ; third 
joint of palpus a trifle longer, at least in <$, expanse generally less, upperside 
rather duller, less weakly marked, underside paler, less glossy, the markings 
better expressed ; apparently less variable, or at least I have seen no forma 
with the black circumscription of the cell-dots materially enlarged or with any 
additional cloudings, such as sometimes occur in compacta. 

28. Anisodes viator sp. nov. 

<J, 31-36 mm. Like prunelliaria H.-Sch. (Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. i. 
t. 59, f. 329) in colour and markings, but considerably smaller, the wings relatively 
shorter and broader. Hindleg of J; nearly smooth, except for a small femoro- 
tibial hair-pencil (in prunelliaria the femur is hairy, the pencil perhaps stronger). 
Abdomen less pale, with the dorsal dots at base weaker (less mixed with black). 
Wings on an average rather deeper in colour, on account of the denser red 

irroration. Forewing without definite red patches at base ; the red markings 

more mixed with black ; median shade often nearer to the cell-spot. Hindwing 

and underside with corresponding distinctions. 

Carabaya, S.E. Peru : La Oroya, Rio Huacamayo, Tinguri, and Santo 
Domingo (G. Ockenden), in coll. Tring Museum, the type from La Oroya, 
September 1904, dry season. Also from San Antonio, W. Colombia, 5,800 ft., 
November-December 1907 (M. G. Palmer), in coll. L. B. Prout et coll. Dognin ; 
and 1 £ from Chulumani, Bolivia, January 1901, wet season (Simons), in coll. 
Tring Museum. 



278 N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

29. Anisodes stigmatilinea sp. nov. 

$$, 30-32 mm. Similar to urcearia Guen., but readily ^distinguished as 
follows : 

Hindleg of (J with strong hair-pencil arising from femoro-tibial joint and 
extending fully one-half the length of tibia. First abdominal tergite with a 
pair of black dots at its posterior end (the dot at anterior end of second tergite 
also strong, the subsequent ones weakening). Wings relatively less broad ; 
irroration stronger, dots on the antemedian and postmedian lines stronger, that 
of the postmedian on R 5 more displaced proximally ; median line rather sharper, 
marked distally with rather noticeable dark dashes on R 1 , R 1 , and M 1 ; cell-rings 
rather more elongate. 

Santo Domingo, Carabaya, S.E. Peru, 6,000-6,500 ft., November 1902, 
wet season (Ockenden). Type <J and two ?$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

30. Anisodes pilibrachia sp. nov. 

cJ$, 22-27 mm. Almost exactly like ampligutta Warr. (Novitates Zoo- 
logicae, iii. 376; Timor, Queensland, Louisiades, etc.), replacing it in New 
Guinea, the Solomons, etc. Distinguished by the J foreleg which is quite 
normal in ampligutta, but in the new species has the tibia and first joint of tarsus 
densely clothed with felt-like hair. Third joint of palpus in £ slightly less 
elongate. Ground-colour a little whiter, the thick shadowy lines consequently 
standing out more sharply and giving to the insect a more variegated appearance ; 
median shade in general even more acutely dentate ; cell-mark of the hindwing 
subject to the same dimorphism — wholly black or only narrowly black-edged. 

British New Guinea : Upper Aroa River and Milne Bay. Dampier Island. 
Solomons : Bougainville (type in coll. Tring Museum), Choiseul, Vella Lavella, 
Guizo, Kulambangra, Rendova, Isabel, Guadalcanar, S. Christoval. 

It is interesting that the two allies occur together on Dampier Island. 

31. Anisodes ( Stibarostoma) turned nom. nov. 

Anisodes pallida Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxii. 691 (1908) (nee Moore). 

I have already pointed out (Ent. Mitt. Deutsch. Ent. Mus. iii. 244) that 
this interesting species has been misidentified. As it has never been named, I 
have pleasure in dedicating it to Dr. Turner, whose able revision of the subfamily 
has first made known its distinctive structure. The type will be from Queensland, 
presumably in his collection. It also inhabits New Guinea, Rook Island, and 
the Solomons. 

32. Anisodes (Perixera) argentosa nom. nov. 

Anisodes monetaria var. A. Guen., Spec. Gin. Lip. ix. 418 (1858) ; Oberth., Et. Lip. xii. fig. 3363 
(1916) (Borneo). 

This is clearly a valid species, not a form of monetaria. In monetaria, except 
occasionally in the Ceylon form, the areole seems to be invariably wanting (India, 
Malay Peninsula, Borneo) ; in every example of argentosa which I have seen 
(Travancore, Khasis, Penang, Singapore, Borneo) a small areole is present. 
Moreover, the distinctions, though slight, are sufficiently constant, notwith- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 279 

standing the variability of monetaria, and to the practised eye confusion is 
impossible. The silvery spangle of the hindwing, so inconstant in monetaria, 
is invariably large in argentosa. The following are undoubtedly mere aberrations 
of monetaria : hyperythra Swinh., argentispila Warr., pleniluna Warr., areolaria 
Guen. The race from the Moluccas, New Guinea and its satellite islands, the 
Solomons and N. Queensland, is also variable, but I think tenable under the 
name of Anisodes monetaria ceramis Meyr. (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1886, p. 209). 
To which race (if either) homoslola Meyr. {Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, p. 72 ; Talaut) 
belongs it is impossible to judge on a single specimen, though its specific identifi- 
cation is clear enough. Another single specimen, inornata Warr. (Novitates 
Zoologicae, iv. 216 ; Banda Islands), seems to be a mere aberration of m. 
ceramis, and is superficially a good deal like homostola. 



33. Anisodes (Perixera) flavispila subsp. nov. 

cj $. The white-grey ground-colour less tinged with brownish than in the 
North Indian flavispila Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iii. 372) — which also 
extends to Hainan — the discal ring of the hindwing only about one-half the 
size, on underside generally wanting, never strong ; forewing beneath with the 
cell-mark reduced in size. 

Milne Bay, British New Guinea, November 1898 — February 1899 (A. S. 
Meek), 4 $$, 2 $$ in coll. Tring Museum, including the type $. Also from 
Humboldt Bay (Dutch New Guinea) and Fergusson Island, the latter mentioned 
by Warren in describing the species. 

34. Odontoptila elaeoides sp. nov. 

<J $, 13-14 mm. Head black, the palpus beneath reddish ochreous. Antennal 
ciliation of <J long. Thorax and abdomen olive, paler and more ochreous beneath. 
Legs pale, the anterior pair more reddish, and on the upper and inner sides 
spotted with black ; hindtarsus of <$ slender, about one-half the length of the 
thickened tibia. 

Forewing olive ; lines dark grey, the postmedian best developed, slender ; 
antemedian excurved in cell, incurved behind ; median arising beyond three- 
fifths costa, incurved behind middle ; postmedian parallel with termen except 
posteriorly, where it bends almost to tornus, ending in a small dark tornal spot ; 
terminal line fine, slightly interrupted at the veins ; fringe ochreous, dark-spotted 

opposite the veins, especially near apex and at R 1 and M l . Hindwing with 

termen toothed at R 1 and feebly at R ! , smooth posteriorly ; as forewing, but 
with first line wanting and tornal spot rather ill-defined. 

Underside reddish, the forewing smoky in cell and a part of disc, the hindwing 
paler at abdominal margin ; median and postmedian dark lines well developed, 
especially the latter ; forewing with tornal spot well developed. 

St. Jean de Maroni, French Guiana. Type <$ and 2 $$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

Much smaller and darker than subviridis Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
xi. 43) and mimica Dogn. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xlvi. 343), the two species to 
which it comes nearest in shape, colour, and markings ; excisions in termen more 
shallow, especially in the $ ; $ hindtarsus much shorter (in subviridis about as 
long as tibia). Rather recalls " Ptychopoda " lignicolor Warr. (Novitates 



280 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

Zoologicae, xi. 41), which has still smoother margins, SC : of hindwing more 
shortly stalked and the jj hindtarsus aborted, but which may possibly also have 
to be referred to this genus, with whicli it agrees in the double areole, etc. ; 
its $ is unknown and may prove to have a two-spurred hindtibia, while that of 
Odontoptila has all the spurs well developed. 

35. Scopula (Pylarge) plionocentra sp. nov. 

cJ$, 18-22 mm. Face black. Palpus blackish, beneath pale. Antenna in 
$ with the joints projecting, ciliate in long fascicles (about 2). Vertex, thorax, 
and abdomen concolorous with wings, collar more ochreous. Foreleg mostly 
blackened on upper and inner sides ; hindleg in $ rather long, the tibia slender, 
with two long spurs, tarsus not abbreviated. 

Forewing fairly broad, apex rather blunt, termen smooth, gently and regularly 
curved, little oblique anteriorly, more so posteriorly ; pale ochreous whitish 
with a tinge of flesh-colour ; a few scattered black scales in places ; cell-dot 
small, sharply black ; lines greyer, rather diffuse and shadowy ; antemedian 
from about one-third costa, excurved in cell, then very oblique inward to one- 
fourth hindmargin ; median shade from costa well beyond middle (sometimes 
at almost two-thirds), excurved well beyond cell-dot, slightly incurved at fold, 
reaching hindmargin about middle ; postmedian line indicated by minute black 
vein-dots placed on the proximal edge of the first subterminal shade, that on 
R 8 rather strongly displaced proximad ; pale subterminal shade sinuous, with 
the inward curves at the radials and at the fold, placed between two feeble 
greyish shades of about equal width and shape ; termen with minute black 

interneural dots. Hindwing with costa rather straight nearly to apex, termen 

gently rounded ; first line wanting ; median shade just proximal to the sharp 
black cell-dot, slightly curving round it ; a postmedian shade-line in addition 
to the two subterminal ones, separated from them by a narrow pale space ; 
terminal dots as on forewing. 

Underside rather glossy, forewing strongly suffused in proximal half ; both 
wings with black cell-dot and pale subterminal with dark border on either side ; 
terminal dots indicated. 

Warri (Niger), 1897 (Dr. Roth), the type <J dated September, in coll. Tring 
Museum ; also from Agberi (Niger), Abanga River (Gaboon), Masindi and Busiro 
(Uganda). 

Misidentified by Warren (Novitates Zoologicae, v. 242) as minorata 
Bdv. (Faune Ent. Madag. 115) and made the type of a superfluous genus. 

36. Scopula insincera sp. nov. 

<J, 22 mm. Closely similar to sincera Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
viii. 208). Antennal shaft thicker, more strongly dentate, with longer fascicles 
of cilia (about 2). Hindtibia not dilated, little longer than femur ; tarsus slender, 
longer than tibia. 

Forewing slightly less pure white (more creamy), subcostally with some 
fine black irroration, which is wanting in sincera ; lines more direct, all nearly 
parallel with termen, the first rather far from base, strongly oblique, the last 
farther from termen than in sincera ; terminal dots virtually wanting. 



N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 281 

Hind/ioing with a few scattered black scales ; postmedian line more sinuous ; 
last line placed farther from termen ; terminal dots obsolete. 

Forewing beneath brown, only remaining whitish behind fold, in two narrow 
outer bands (distally to postmedian and between subterminals) and on fringe. 
Hindwing beneath with feeble postmedian line, two weak macular subterminals 
and traces of terminal (strongest between the veins). 

Johannesburg (E. A. Bacot), type in coll. L. B. Prout ; also a $ from Transkei 
(Miss F. Barrett) in coll. British Museum ; the latter a sport with SC'-R 1 of 
hindwing stalked for about one-third of their length (normally in this species 
and sincera about connate or barely stalked). 

37. Scopula euphemia sp. nov. 

(J$, 16-19 mm. Face and palpus black. Vertex whitish. Antennal joints 
slightly projecting, ciliation little over 1. Collar tinged with ochreous. Thorax 
and abdomen whitish. Hindtibia of £ little elongate, somewhat thickened 
and flattened, fringed on upperside, tarsus little shorter than tibia. 

Forewing rather narrow, costa very slightly curved, termen rather strongly 
oblique, smooth, gently curved ; white, sprinkled with scattered black scales ; 
lines light brown, rather thick ; antemedian very weak and diffuse, apparently 
sharply angled outward near the cell-dot ; cell-dot strong, deep black ; median 
shade strongly oblique from middle of hindmargin to SC 5 near postmedian, 
obsolete anteriorly ; postmedian line parallel with termen, 1*5 or 2 mm. therefrom, 
lunulate-dentate, the teeth directed distad and blackened ; subterminal shades 
feebly indicated ; a fine slight brown line on termen, marked with black inter- 
neural dots ; fringe white, with some minute and sparse black irroration beyond 

middle. Hindwing not broad, termen little convex, very slightly prominent 

(through a change of direction) about R 1 ; first line wanting, the other markings 
continued, more proximally placed, the median shade preceding the cell-dot. 

Underside similar, the forewing more suffused costally as far as the cell-dot ; 
teeth of postmedian line less black than above. 

S. Nigeria : Warri, August — October 1897 (Dr. Roth), type <J (worn) and 
two $$ (good) ; Ilesha (Capt. Humfrey), a worn $. All in coll. Tring Museum. 

38. Scopula erinaria isolata subsp. nov. 

3, 25-26 mm. Forewing with the median line fine, passing midway between 
the cell-dot and the postmedian (in e. erinaria Swinh., Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1904, 
p. 553, thicker, closely approximated or appressed to the postmedian) ; shade 
beyond postmedian rather strong. Hindwing with median shade well proximal 
to the cell-dot. 

Transkei, Cape Colony (Miss F. Barrett). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

The hindtibia may be slightly thicker than in e. erinaria. 

39. Scopula supina sp. nov. 

<J $, 22-27 mm. Face red-brown, in part or almost wholly overlaid with 
blackish. Palpus red-brown or blackish above, paler beneath. Vertex and 
antennal shaft proximally slightly paler than the body, occiput narrowly black-* 
edged behind ; antennal ciliation over 1 . Thorax and abdomen flesh-colour, 



282 Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

the abdomen with (generally indistinct) darker dorsal spots. Hindtibia in <J 
moderately long, dilated, with strong hair-pencil, the tarsus about three-fourths. 
Forewing rather broad, apex acute or even minutely produced, termen 
smooth, straightish and little oblique anteriorly, somewhat more oblique 
posteriorly ; flesh-colour, with slight and irregular dark irroration ; lines greyish- 
fleshy, extremely oblique ; antemcdian indistinct, acutely angulated in cell 
near the cell-dot ; cell-dot rather small, black ; median shade rarely thick, 
slightly dentate outward on the veins, running from middle of hindmargin in 
the direction of apex (or costa close thereto), but strongly angled at R' ; post- 
median slender and weak, but accompanied by slightly elongate dark dots on 
the veins, parallel with median, thus almost reaching the termen at R 1 , but 
retracted anteriorly ; subterminal shades moderate or rather strong, the proximal 
parallel with postmedian, the distal with termen, the pale space between in- 
terrupted where they meet about the radials ; termen with interneural black 

dots. Hindwing with costal margin fairly long, apical region well rounded, 

termen smooth, little convex, the bend at R J inappreciable ; markings of forewing 
(except first line) continued, the median shade generally thick, proximal to 
the cell-dot, anteriorly weak or obsolescent, postmedian line farther from 
termen, pale subterminal line complete, though anteriorly narrow. 

Underside paler and more weakly marked, especially the hindwing. 
Unyoro and Uganda, a good series (chiefly o^) from various localities, mostly 
collected by Dr. Ansorge, the type <$ from Kiorbezi, January 4, 1898. Also from 
Songive River, Lake Nyassa. Also (mostly Jrf) in a generally smaller and more 
deeply coloured form, which will perhaps require a subspecific name, from Ivory 
Coast and Nigeria ; the $ seems, however, to be in general more deeply coloured 
than the $ in this species. 

This is the Emmiltis (?) minorata of Swinhoe (Tr. Ent. Soc. London, 1904, 
p. 558), an equally unfortunate determination with that of Warren mentioned 
under S. plionocenlra above. The present species is recognisable at a glance 
by its shape and extraordinarily oblique postmedian line, which looks as though 
it ran to the termen, the terminal dot between SC 5 and R 1 forming a direct 
continuation of the postmedian dots. 



40. Scopula penricei sp. nov. 

cJ, 30 mm. ; $, 28 mm. Nearest sanguinisecta Warr. (Novitates Zoo- 
logicae, iv. 53), differing as follows : 

Face and palpus red-brown, merely irrorated with black, the palpus scarcely 
pale beneath. Forewing with termen slightly more irregular, the bend (or change 
of direction) about R'-M 1 being more appreciable ; lines browner (less grey), 
the first two weak, noticeably incurved in submedian area ; antemedian even 
more acutely angulated subcostally ; postmedian making a rather wide sweep 
anteriorly and with a minute tooth outward between SC' and SC S ; the markings 
beyond blue-grey, consisting of an elongate curved mark between the radials 
and a double spot between M ! and SM ! ; nearer the termen a pair of more or 
less developed blackish dots at R 1 and another pair at fold ; fringe more varie- 
gated, dark-dotted opposite the veins. Hindwing with termen slightly more 

waved, the angle at R' rather more pronounced ; median line more waved ; 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 283 

postmedian rather straight, somewhat farther from termen, at least in middle 
of wing ; fringe as on forewing. 

Underside more fleshy ; forewing without grey cloudings, both wings, on 
the other hand, with some conspicuous scattered black scales, especially on 
anterior parts of forewing. ' 

Angola : Chella Mountains, April 1900 (Penrice), type <J and allotype § 
in coll. Tring Museum. 

Warren (Novitates Zoologicae, viii. 208) did not discriminate this from 
true sanguinisecta. The leg-structure of the <$ seems to agree pretty closely — 
hindtarsus about as long as the tibia, which is thickened, with hair-pencil, perhaps 
less strongly than in sanguinisecta, but slightly damaged. 



41. Scopula oliveta sp. nov. 

cJ, 24 mm. Face black. Palpus small, black, pale beneath. Vertex white. 
Antennal shaft proximally dotted with black ; ciliation 1. Collar ochreous 
brown. Thorax and abdomen whitish. Fore and middle legs infuscated on 
inner side. 

Forewing rather broad, costa gently arched, apex fairly pronounced, termen 
very faintly waved, more oblique behind R 1 than anteriorly ; R 2 from before 
middle of DC ; white, in places with very faint olive-green tinge ; a black cell-dot ; 
light olive-green postmedian markings, consisting of a small and weak dash in 
front of SC S , an oblong patch 2 mm. in length behind SC S , crossing well beyond 
R 1 and proximally touching the succeeding patch at R 2 , and a somewhat pear- 
shaped patch between R 2 and hindmargin, its broad and rounded end anterior, 
its greatest width (about R 3 -M') 25 mm., at hindmargin about -5 mm., here 
proximally edged with some dark scales : indications of a narrow, paler olive- 
green, subterminal shade, angled inward about R 2 , and becoming more distinct 
near tornus ; a terminal row of interneural black crescents or flattened triangles ; 

fringe shaded with olive-green. Hindwing with termen weakly bent at R 1 ; 

cell-dot larger than on forewing ; similar markings beyond, the postmedian 
patches a little farther from termen, the subterminal shade slightly broader, 
more distinct anteriorly than posteriorly. 

Forewing beneath with the cell-dot obsolescent, the postmedian patches 
shadowy, grey, the entire area proximal to this, excepting the hindmargin, 
suffused with rosy grey, the subterminal shade obsolete ; fringe whiter. Hindwing 
beneath unmarked, except for the cell-dot and terminal triangular dots. 

San Jacinthe Valley, Theophilo Ottoni, Minas Geraes, spring 1908 (F. Birch). 
Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

A (J from Espirito Santo in coll. British Museum has the antennal ciliation 
over 1, the hindtibia little thickened, but with the hair-pencils present, hindtarsus 
about 1. I have seen a further example in the Oxford Museum. 



42. Scopula polyterpes sp. nov. 

cj, 20 mm. Face and outer side of palpus black. Vertex and antennal 
shaft white ; ciliation about 1. Collar brown. Thorax and abdomen dirty ' 
white with some dark irroration, the abdomen with faint broad cloudy belts 



284 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

dorsally. Foreleg infuscated on upper and inner sides ; midtibia slightly infus- 
cated ; hindtibia dilated, with strong hair-pencil, the tarsus almost 1. 

Forewing with ternien smooth, gently curved ; dirty white with a tinge 
of pinkish buff, the distal area predominantly ecru drab, the whole with sparse 
dark irroration ; cell-dot black ; lines brown ; antemedian slight, commencing 
in a fine, extremely oblique blackish line at one-fourth costa, forming a small 
spot at SC 3 mm. from base, excurved in cell, then oblique inward, inbent behind 
M and rather irregular ; median arising from a small dark spot beyond midcosta, 
first running towards cell-dot, then oblique outward, acutely angled outward 
at R 1 , then approximately parallel with ternien, but lunulate-dentate, sinuate 
inward between radials and between M : and SM ! ; postmedian fine, similarly 
formed to median, accentuated by some small black dots on veins and a small 
black mark on radial sinus ; subterminal line whitish, lunulate-dentate, pro- 
jecting inward and thickened between radials and filled-in proximally with 
slight paired dark spots in front of this and near tornus ; terminal dots sharp, 
black, very slightly elongate, very slightly connected by a fine grey line ; fringe 

brownish. Hindwing with ternien rounded, extremely weakly subcrenulate, 

the projection at R 1 scarcely noticeable ; proximally rather more coloured than 
forewing, especially in vicinity of median line, where there is some cinnamon 
suffusion ; cell-mark enlarged into an irregular ocellus of about -5 mm. diameter ; 
first line wanting ; median line strong, incurved proximally to cell-mark, acutely 
angled outward on base of M 1 ; postmedian line and distal area nearly as in 
forewing, the paired dark spots near tornus proximally to subterminal line more 
strongly developed. 

Both wings beneath (especially the forewing) more infuscated, and with 
fine blackish cell-dot and dark median and postmedian lines ; subterminal line 
and dark spots proximal thereto obsolescent on forewing, distinct on hindwing. 

Porten, Hainan, July 1904. Type in coll. Tring Museum. 



4"3. Scopula praesignipuncta sp. nov. 

$, 20 mm. Similar to sybillaria Swinh. (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 658), 
but altogether more sharply marked. 

Forewing with antemedian line well developed, rather regularly curved, 
the proximal area with rather strong dark irroration ; cell-dot round, relatively 
extremely large ; dark shading beyond postmedian rather strong, the pale 
subterminal line thick, with a longer proximal projection between the radials 

than in sybillaria and a rather ample one at tornus ; terminal dots strong. 

Hindwing with the markings similar but not quite so strong, excepting the 
cell-spot, which is fully as large as on forewing and slightly elongate along the 
discocellulars. 

Underside with pale band between cell-dot and postmedian line rather 
noticeable. 

Ryukyu Islands, June-August. Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

44. Scopula ophthalniica sp. nov. 

cJ$, 20-21 mm. Face black. Palpus black, narrowly pale beneath. Crown 
white. Antennal shaft white, tinged with brown ; joints slightly projecting, 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 285 

ciliation in $ strong, rather over 1, in $ vestigial. Collar light brown. Thorax 
and abdomen white, dorsally tinged with brown except at ends of abdominal 
segments. Hindtibia in g thickened, a fringe of projecting scales on upperside 
proximally, a thin hair-pencil on upperside from femoro-tibial joint, a stronger 
pencil beneath ; hindtarsus in $ slender, over one-half. Wings slightly less 
broad than in fibulata Guen. 

Forewing white, with brownish cloudings and fine irroration ; lines brownish • 
antemedian at one-fourth, oblique and slightly thickened from costa, angled 
subcostally and again on M and SM ! , between these two veins incurved and 
slight ; cell-dot black, surrounded by a small, not very distinct, brownish ring ; 
median line formed as in fibulata but rather less thick, placed rather more distally 
to the cell-dot ; postmedian formed nearly as in fibulata, but with the tooth at 
SC 5 slighter, that at R l rather longer and more acute ; distal area with shadings 
nearly as in fibulata, the thick proximal projection of the white subterminal line 
at the radials rather longer, that at the fold rather more angular and less compact ; 
terminal dark line broken into interneural dots and not running round apex ; 

fringe white, feebly dark-speckled. Hindwing much less dusted than in 

fibulata ; markings similar ; proximal line more slender ; white subterminal 
corresponding to that of forewing, the dark spots in its proximal side less confluent 
than in fibulata. 

Both wings beneath glossy, almost unmarked, the forewing strongly tinged 
with brown-grey except at hindmargin, the hindwing white. 

Bonthain, Celebes, 3,0C0— 7,000 ft., August 1896 (W. Doherty). 4 JJ, 
1 $ in coll. Tring Museum. 

Possibly a local race of ocellata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, vi. 33) 
from Sambawa, but the $ antennal joints appear to project slightly less and 
the hindtarsus may be a trifle longer. 

45. Scopula pseudophema sp. nov. 

<J$, 20-21 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings, the face mixed 
with dark fuscous in upper part, the palpus mostly dark fuscous on outer side, 
the abdomen with a row of blackish dorsal spots. Antennal ciliation in $ fine, 
little longer than diameter of shaft. Hindtibia in <$ moderately dilated, fringed 
above and with a strong hair-pencil from femoro-tibial joint, tarsus a little 
over one-half. 

Forewing rather broad, termen smooth, anteriorly straightish, then curving 
and becoming more oblique ; whitish ochreous, in places tinged with rather 
deeper ochreous ; black irroration minute and not copious ; lines fine and feeble, 
formed of pink scales with a slight black admixture, almost or quite obsolete 
at extreme costa ; antemedian from one-third costa, about vertical to middle 
of cell, then oblique inward and sinuous to about one-fourth hindmargin ; cell-dot 
small, black ; median line beyond, angulated outward on R l , then oblique 
inward and sinuous to middle of hindmargin, the deepest curve being inward 
between M= and SM ! ; postmedian about 2 mm. from termen, punctuated with 
black dots or outward teeth on the veins, from M' to hindmargin (and sometimes 
also more weakly anteriorly) overlaid with black scales, on R 1 angulated outward, 
incurved rather deeply between radials and very slightly between M 1 and SM ! ; 
distal subterminal line somewhat similar to postmedian but weaker, only black- 



286 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

mixed in posterior half ; proximal subterminal represented by pink, strongly 
black-irrorated spots except between the radials, the anterior two small and 
round, sometimes weak, the two between R 1 and M : elongate, those behind 
M 1 rather more proximal, subconfluent, smaller before than behind the fold, the 
general arrangement strongly recalling the Palaearctic species Ptychopoda 
dimidiata Hufn. ; termen with large black interneural dots ; fringe almost 

unmarked. Hindwing with termen rounded ; markings similar to those 

of forewing, antemedian line wanting, median proximal to the cell-dot. 

Underside weakly marked, cell-dots, terminal dots, and on forewing also 
the postmedian line and succeeding spots more or less well developed. 

Tambura, Southern Bahr-el-Ghazal, type <J in coll. Tring Museum. Binger- 
ville, Ivory Coast, July 28-31 (G. Melou), a $ in coll. Tring Museum. Sierra 
Leone (A. Bacot), a more reddish ab. ($) in coll. L. B. Prout. 

46. Scopula subpulchellata sp. nov. 

(J$, 22-26 mm. Rather larger and paler than the Hainan forms of pul- 
chellata Fab. ( = addictaria Walk.). Hindtibia in $ less strongly fringed above 
than in pulchellata, the hair-pencil whitish (not ochreous, as in that species), 
the tarsus a trifle longer. 

Foreimng with antemedian line more uniformly expressed (in -pulchellata 
commonly accentuated between M and SM, and often with minute blackish dot 
near hindmargin, which is wanting in subpulchellata) ; discal ocellus larger but 
rather vague, nearly always blind ; the characteristic markings distally to the 

postmedian feebly developed. Hindtving scarcely distinguishable from that 

of pale pulchellata, the postmedian line on an average less sinuate between the 
radials. 

Underside more weakly marked than in pulchellata. 

Hainan : Manchyo, June 1902, type and others ; Secha, May 1902 ; Hoihow, 
May 1902; Cheng-Mai, July 1902 and August 1904: Porten, July 1904; 
Taipinshi. June 1906 ; a good series in coll. Tring Museum. 

Mr. Burrows has kindly examined the genitalia of three males of subpulchellata 
and two of pulchellata, and finds that they differ greatly. In the new species 
the valves are fairly symmetrical, while in pulchellata the asymmetry is very 
marked indeed ; in the former the socii are long, in the latter represented by 
short horny processes ; the penis also differs widely. Indeed, subpulchellata 
genitalia come much nearer in all respects to misera subtincta Warr. (Novitates 
Zoologicae, iii. 372) from Tenimber, though the cerata are stouter and bowed, 
and are more equal in length. 

47. Scopula graphidata sp. nov. 

(3\ 27 mm. Larger than perlineata Walk. {List Lep. Ins. xxiii. 775). 
Ground-colour slightly whiter, but with a sparse, minute black irroration in 
places which gives to it a slightly rougher aspect. 

Forewing with antemedian line better developed, marked with dark dots 
on the veins ; median line angled outward on SM 8 ; postmedian fine, well expressed 
throughout (brown, finely overlaid with blackish), with much deeper bays inward 
at the folds, the proximal end of these more blackened than in perlineata ; proxi- 
mal subterminal shade thickened in the bays of the postmedian ; terminal 



NOTITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 287 

dots strong, elongate. Hindwing with angle at R 1 rather pronounced ; cell-dot 

small ; postmedian line nearly as on forewing ; terminal marks strong, elongate, 
almost confluent, the fine lunules of the posterior half giving to the wing-margin 
a more crenulate aspect than in perlineata ; fringe more distinctly dotted at 
vein-ends, the dot opposite R J conspicuous. 

Underside more strongly marked than in perlineata. 

Celebes (W. Doherty). 2 £$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

Presumably represents perlineata Walk, and spilodorsata Warr. (Novitates 
Zoologicae, ii. 93) in Celebes, but provisionally I regard the three as distinct 
species. 

48. Scopula ochricrinita sp. nov. 

cJ, 29-31 mm. Closely related to extimaria Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxiii. 782). 
Smaller. Hindtibial tuft ochreous and whitish-ochreous, without smoky ad- 
mixture ; hindtarsus still shorter (one-fifth or less ; in extimaria about one- 
fourth). Abdomen with the dorsal dots small. 

Forewing with the black scales sparser than in extimaria ; no black subcostal 
antemedian dot ; cell-spot forming a weak greyish oval mark instead of the 
black dot of extimaria ; postmedian with the black marks usually smaller and 
weaker ; terminal dots smaller, beneath weaker (but here showing more tendency 

to be connected by a greyish line). Hindwing with all the black dots of 

extimaria present, but reduced in size. 

Khasia Hills, Assam, February 1894 (type), March 1894 (2 ££), October 
1893 (1 (J, Cherrapunji), in coll. Tring Museum. Also a few other specimens in 
different collections. 

It should be added that stigmata Moore, sunk by Hampson to extimaria, 
is a good species, or at the least a very distinct race, more nearly agreeing with 
the new species in the cell-mark of the forewing above and in the continuous 
terminal line beneath, but with blacker tibial tuft than in extimaria, tarsus still 
less abbreviated, large blotches distally to postmedian of forewing, etc. Hamp- 
son's description of extimaria (Faun. Ind. Moths, iii. 427) was evidently drawn 
up mainly from stigmata. 

49. Scopula anatreces sp. nov. 

$, 35 mm. Face brown-black. Palpus blackish, narrowly pale beneath . 
Vertex and antennal shaft whitish brown, about 12 of the proximal joints of 
the antenna (after the first 2 or 3) each with a distinct black dot ; joints somewhat 
projecting, bearing strong fascicles of cilia. Collar ochreous-brown. Thorax 
and abdomen whitish brown, abdomen with a few black dorsal dots. Fore and 
middle legs partly brown ; hindleg whitish, the tibia dilated and somewhat 
elongate, with light ochreous-brown hair-pencil, the tarsus almost one-half. 

Forewing very slightly narrower than in most of the moorei group, termen 
oblique ; whitish brown, with sparse and minute black speckles ; cell-dot small, 
grey, faintly and narrowly surrounded with brownish shading ; lines light brown ; 
antemedian very fine and slight, but marked with black dots on the veins ; 
median thicker, but weak, dentate, slightly more oblique than termen from 
middle of hindmargin to R 1 midway between cell-dot and termen, thence very 
slightly oblique inward to costa ; postmedian fine, not strong, in part faintly 



288 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

edged proximally with grey, between the radials with thick black conjoined 
lunules, behind M : with three slighter ones ; this line is slightly oblique inward ; 
from costa to cellule 7, acutely toothed outward on SC J and especially on R 1 , 
more minutely on R 3 and M', these teeth punctuated with minute black dots ; 
a ferruginous distal edging to the black radial lunules, succeeded by two short 
thick ferruginous interneural streaks ; faint traces of similar pattern behind 
M : ; subterminal shades very faint ; termen with strong black interneural dots ; 

fringe with slight blackish dots at vein-ends. Hindwing with termen 

faintly subcrenulate, with a slight but appreciable angle at R ! ; antemedian 
line wanting, median shade continued, straightish, just proximal to the cell-dot, 
which is black and less small than on forewing ; postmedian line continued, 
lunulate-dentate, more direct than on forewing, the blackening* and the ferru- 
ginous markings beyond obsolete, except at extreme abdominal margin ; the 
rest nearly as on forewing, the pale subterminal line apparently deeply incurved 
between the radials. 

Underside with cell-dots and terminal dots black, median shade and post- 
median line well expressed, black-grey, the postmedian on both wings rather 
strongly inbent between the radials ; forewing proximally suffused, its hind- 
margin and the hindwing whiter. 

Arizan, Formosa, September 1906, type in coll. Tring Museum. Other 
examples from the same locality and of the same date in coll. Wileman (3 <$$) 
et coll. British Museum (2 33). 

Hitherto confused with S. moorei orientalis Prout (Ent. Mitt. Deutsch. Ent. 
Mus. iii. 241). Hindtarsus rather longer, hindwing slightly more angled, 
cell-spot of forewing concise, of hindwing black, postmedian line more deeply 
inbent between the radials, terminal line less continuous, fringe-dots obsolescent, 
median shade on forewing more dentate, on hindwing straighter, underside more 
strongly marked. It is just possible that it may prove a remarkable dimorph 
of punctatissitna Bastelb. (Ent. Rundsch. xxviii. 23 = quadrimacula Wilem., 
Ent. xlviii. 80, syn. nov.) ; <J antenna the same, tarsus apparently rather shorter, 
wings rather narrower, paler, antemedian line more expressed, postmedian of 
hindwing more distally placed, cell-spot of hindwing quite different. 

50. Scopula ochrifrons sp. nov. 

3, 30-32 mm. Face, vertex, and front of thorax clear light ochreous ; 
collar deep ochreous ; palpus bright ochreous, mixed above with blackish. 
Antennal shaft blackish, at extreme base ochreous ; ciliation long. Thorax, 
abdomen, and legs white ; foreleg infuscated on upper and inner sides ; hind- 
tibia greatly thickened, with strong hair-pencil ; tarsus abbreviated (about 
one-fourth). 

Forewing pure white ; costal edge very narrowly tinged with black ; veins 
finely reddish grey, as in radiata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iv. 434) ; first 
line obsolete ; median line grey, more or less weak, rather thicker than post- 
median, rather near the latter, especially at R 1 , where it is somewhat bent ; 
postmedian fine, grey, 2 mm. from termen, almost parallel therewith, inappreciably 
incurved behind M 2 , curved in front of R ' but almost obsolete anteriorly ; terminal 

line faint ; fringe white. Hindwing weakly angled at R J ; lines of forewing 

continued. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 289 

Underside white ; forewing with costal margin infuscated, the dark shade 
broad at base, narrowing distally, a scarcely appreciable rosy-grey flush in cell. 

E. Peru : Pozuzo, type (in coll. Tring Museum) and others ; Huancabamba, 
Cerro de Pasco ; La Merced, Chanchamayo. E. Bolivia : Charuplaya ; Chulu- 
mani. 

Intermediate between deiliniata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iv. 433) 
and radiata Warr., both of which, however, have the face black. Size of the 
former, and with similar lines, though the postmedian is in general rather nearer 
to the termen and the two subterminal shades (often developed in deiliniata) 
are always wanting ; forewing much less flushed beneath, more blackened at 
costa. Pure white colour and darkened veins as in radiata. S. leuculata Snell. 
(Tijd-schr. v. Ent. xvii. 59, t. 4, f . 8 = ? nigricosta Dogn., Hit. Nouv. Amir. Sud. 
iv. 8), which I have not seen, agrees in the ochreous head but has no markings. 

51. Scopula contramutata sp. nov. 

cj$, 21-24 mm. Smaller than immutata Linn. Antennal ciliation of <J 
similar. Hindtarsus of <J relatively somewhat longer (about two-thirds) The 
characteristic wing-form of immutata somewhat more accentuated (hindwing fully 
rounded apically, straightish from before R 1 to R ! , slightly bent at R 1 :, again 
straightish to near tornus). Both wings in $ on an average more ochreous than 
in immutata, the lines fairly thick, the dentate form of the postmedian and its 
inward curve between the radials always well noticeable ; forewing beneath 
less uniformly infuscated than is usual in immutata, the markings consequently 
standing out more distinctly. § very like a diminutive immutata 9, the post- 
median line (as in $) characteristically dentate and incurved. 

Chabarovsk, Ussuri Railway, June 4-22, July 14 and 30, August 9 and 19, 
1910 (E. Borsow), 8 <J<J and 1 $ in coll. Tring Museum. 

This is presumably the (hitherto unknown to me) Amurland " immutata " 
of Staudinger and Rebel and may possibly be a subspecies, but I strongly incline 
to regard it as distinct. 

52. Scopula nitidissima sp. nov. 

tj, 34-37 mm. Larger than pallida Warr. (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1888, 
p. 322), purer white and even more glossy. Lines almost entirely obsolete, 
the postmedian faintly discernible and sometimes the median and the proximal 
subterminal ; cell-dots as in pallida, terminal dots entirely wanting, or at most 
with a few very minute anterior ones discernible with the lens. 

Kashmir Valley, 7,000 ft., July— August 1903 (Colonel Ward), type in 
coll. Tring Museum. Also 4 $$ from Kulu, 1883 (Young). 

I scarcely think this can be a form of pallida, as Colonel Ward took both 
together without intermediates ; but in any case it is worthy of a separate 
name. Unless the antennal ciliation be slightly longer and the hindtibial hair- 
pencil slightly less strong, I can find no structural distinction ; hindtarsus aa 
long as tibia. 

53. Scopula okinawensis sp. nov. 

cJ, 28 mm. Face black. Palpus mixed with black above and on outer 
side. Vertex white. Collar ochreous. Thorax and abdomen white. 
19 



290 Novitatks Zoologicaz XXVII. 1920. 

Forewing rather broad, termen smooth, slightly bowed ; white, with 
extremely fine grey irroration ; costal edge tinged with buff, at least proximally ; 
lines grey ; antemedian fine, obsolete anteriorly, straightish from SC nearly 
5 mm. from base to hindmargin 3 mm. from base ; cell-dot minute, blackish ; 
median shade weak, not very thick, obsolete anteriorly, straightish (the posterior 
inward curve extremely slight) from SC at three-fifths wing-length to hindmargin 
rather beyond middle ; postmedian better expressed, waved, in posterior half 
parallel with termen (2 mm. therefrom), between the radials very weakly incurved, 
anteriorly curving gently away from apex ; subterminal white line rather more 
sinuous, hardly defined except by the absence of grey dusting ; termen with 

blackish interneural dashes ; fringe white. Hind/wing with termen moderately 

bent at R 1 , tornus pronounced ; first line wanting ; median shade very weak, 
sinuous, proximal to the minute cell-dot ; postmedian slightly farther from 
termen than on forewing, especially in middle, but bending slightly towards 
tornus behind fold ; distal area as on forewing. 

Forewing beneath with costal margin more broadly and brightly ochreous ; 
otherwise somewhat suffused as far as the median shade, except at hindmargin ; 
cell-dot indicated ; postmedian line well expressed, slightly thicker and browner 
than above ; terminal dashes well developed, slightly connected by a fine and 
weak line. Hindwing beneath white, with minute cell-dot and fine, not very 
strong outer line, this occupying the position of the proximal subterminal shade 
above, i.e. only about 1 '5 mm. from termen ; terminal line nearly as on forewing, 

Okinawa, May 1904. Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

54. Scopula flavifurfurata sp. nov. 

^ $, 24-26 mm. Face black. Palpus black, pale beneath. Antennal 
ciliation in $ apparently not long (damaged). Vertex, thorax, and abdomen 
pale yellowish, body beneath paler ; collar ochreous. Fore and middle legs 
somewhat infuscated on upper and inner sides ; hindtibia in q with moderately 
strong hair-pencil, tarsus little abbreviated (almost three-fourths). 

Forewing with apex minutely produced, termen more oblique in posterior 
than in anterior half, very slightly waved ; cream-colour with a tinge of buff 
and with minute dark irroration (mostly quite sparse, in costal region somewhat 
more copious) ; cell-dot small, blackish ; lines buff, rather thick ; antemedian 
rather before one-third, rather ill-defined, somewhat excurved in cell ; median 
from costa somewhat beyond middle, curved and rather ill-defined anteriorly, 
passing close beyond cell-dot and thence parallel with termen ; postmedian 
midway between median and termen, little incurved at radials but with ill-defined 
proximal teeth, slightly incurved at fold ; subterminal shades obsolescent ; 
terminal dots minute and not intense ; fringe concolorous. — Hindwing with 
termen bent at R 5 ; cell-dot rather sharper than on forewing ; antemedian line 
wanting ; median just proximal to cell-dot, little curved ; postmedian farther 
from termen than on forewing, more incurved between radials ; proximal sub- 
terminal shade better developed than on forewing ; terminal dots almost obsolete. 

Forewing beneath somewhat suffused, especially costally ; minute cell-dot 
present ; median and postmedian lines well developed, smoky, the postmedian 
rather more proximal than above. Hindwing beneath paler, the cell-dot and 
lines very feeble. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 291 

Subathu, July 1889 (type), August and June 1889 (2 $$), the last-named 
an aberration of more pinkish-buff tone, more recalling furfurata Warr. (Novitates 
Zoologicae, iv. 218), under which name Warren misidentified these examples. 

55. Scopula proterocelis sp. nov. 

cJ, 22 mm. Face and upperside of palpus blackish." Crown and antennal 
shaft yellow ; antenna minutely ciliated. Collar ochreous-yellow. Thorax 
and abdomen yellow, paler beneath. 

Foreiving yellow, with very sparse minute dark specks (invisible to the naked 
eye) ; cell-mark brown-grey, slightly elongate ; an irregular, not very strong, 
brown-grey postmedian line, feeble at costa and between R 3 and SM 8 , rather 
deeply inbent and slightly thickened between the radials, incurved between 
M 1 and SM« ; rather distinct dark interneural dots at termen, connected by a 

line of a slightly deeper yellow than the ground-colour ; fringe bright yellow. 

Hindwing with termen slightly bent at R 5 ; postmedian line obsolete ; cell-mark 
accompanied distally by a red-grey spot resembling that of straminea Feld. 
(Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. 128, f. 33), but rather more anteriorly placed (between 
SC 2 and R 3 — in straminea from R 1 to the medians) ; terminal dots moderately 
expressed anteriorly, becoming obsolescent posteriorly. 

Underside paler, both wings with brown-grey cell-dash, sinuous postmedian 
line (that of hindwing the weaker), and slight grey terminal line bearing indistinct 
interneural dots. 

Ilesha, N. Nigeria (Capt. Humfrey). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

At first sight remarkably similar to straminea Feld., which lacks the terminal 
dots, has the postmedian line much less irregular above, obsolete beneath, etc. 

56. Scopula rectisecta sp. nov. 

cJ, 30 mm. Face and upperside of palpus black. Vertex and shaft of 
antenna orange-ochreous ; antennal joints little projecting, ciliation rather 
over 1. Thorax, abdomen, and legs pale yellowish ; forefemur darkened above ; 
hindtibia rather long, strongly dilated, with hair-pencil, tarsus less than one-half. 

Foreiving moderately broad, costa somewhat arched posteriorly, termen 
smooth, very gently curved ; smooth yellow, without irroration ; costal edge 
narrowly golden ; markings golden-yellow ; antemedian line obsolescent, dis- 
cernible from M (just beyond origin of M 2 ) to hindmargin ; cell-mark elongate, 
not strong ; postmedian line straight, about 3 mm. from termen, not appreciably 
nearer thereto at R 1 than posteriorly, obsolescent costally ; no definite terminal 

line, the ground-colour here slightly deepened ; fringe deep golden. Hindwing 

almost inappreciably bent at R 3 ; cell-mark indicated; postmedian line con- 
tinued, complete, almost as straight as on forewing, reaching abdominal margin 
2 mm. from tor.ius ; fringe deep golden. 

Underside paler, unmarked ; costal edge and fringes nearly as above. 

Bitje, Ja River, Cameroons (Bates). Type in coll. L. B. Prout, paratype 
(rather smaller, worn) in coll. Joicey. 

Intermediate in size and markings between transsecta Warr. (Novitates- 
Zoologicae, v. 241) and laevipennis Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iv. 42), 
postmedian line straighter than in the latter, less oblique than in the former. 



292 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

57. Scopula coangulata sp. nov. 

(J, 24 mm. Face black. Palpus black, narrowly pale beneath. Vertex 
and antenna cream-colour ; antennal joints slightly projecting, fascicles of 
cilia rather long (about 2). Collar ochreous. Thorax and abdomen cream- 
colour, above clouded with buff-yellow, the abdomen in addition with some 
minute and sparse blackish irroration. Legs nearly as in the following species. 

Forewing slightly narrower than in butyrosa Warr. (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1893, p. 362), termen scarcely waved, very gently curved ; cream-colour, some- 
what clouded with buff or buff-yellow and with sparse black irroration ; lines 
buff ; antemedian slightly oblique outward from one-third costa, bent in cell, 
falling almost vertically on hindmargin at nearly two-fifths ; cell-dot black, 
placed on a small roundish buff cloud ; median from well beyond middle of 
costa, excurved (on R 1 almost angled) far beyond cell-dot, then running inward 
to fold at middle of wing, finally almost vertical to hindmargin but somewhat 
dentate ; postmedian arising from a thickened spot on costa before three-fourths, 
lunulate-dentate and highly irregular, forming an outward projection at SC 5 
and R 1 , deeply incurved between the radials and again rather deeply at fold, 
the outward teeth accentuated by small black vein-dots ; subterminal shades 
interrupted, especially the proximal, which is almost entirely wanting opposite 
the inward curves of the postmedian ; terminal black dots small but distinct 

in anterior half, very minute in posterior ; fringe concolorous. Hindwing 

with termen very feebly bent at R 3 ; first line wanting ; median curving proximally 
round the cell-dot, somewhat angled outward at M ; cell-dot sharply black, 
not surrounded with buff ; postmedian similar to that of forewing, but with 
the irregularities less extreme and the dark vein-dots obsolescent ; proximal 
subterminal complete, stronger than distal, and following the same course as 
postmedian ; terminal black dots small, but the series complete. 

Underside whitish, the forewing costally more shaded with buff and in 
cell with vague reddish-smoky suffusion ; cell-dots present ; forewing also 
with postmedian line (most distinct anteriorly), a slight thickening at its origin, 
as above, and a suggestion of a similar mark indicating the origin of the median ; 
terminal dots feeble. 

$ similar but larger, the black central dot of forewing above weak or almost 
wanting, leaving the roundish buff patch more noticeable than in the <$. 

Khasia Hills, Assam (native collector). Type $ and 2 $$ in coll. Tring 
Museum. 

Warren labelled the <J inangulata, but it is very different from that species 
except in the general course of the postmedian line. 

58. Scopula sublutescens sp. nov. 

(J, 20 mm. Face brown-black, narrowly pale below. Palpus brown-black 
above, pale beneath. Vertex and antenna cream-colour ; ciliation fairly close 
and even, scarcely over 1. Collar ochreous. Thorax and abdomen whitish 
cream-colour, the thorax with some slightly darker admixture. Forefemur 
and tibia infuscated on upper and inner sides ; middle leg more slightly infus- 
cated ; hindtibia somewhat long, dilated, with long pale hair-pencil ; hindtarsus 
about one-half. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. ]920. 293 

Forewing with termen smooth, almost straight ; whitish cream- colour, 
without black irroration (a few very minute fuscous dots in region of C discernible 
with strong lens) ; lines rather thick and vague, darker cream-colour, inclining 
to buff- yellow, wavy, all approximately parallel with termen ; antemedian from 
beyond hindmargin, apparently angled in cell, but obsolete anteriorly ; median 
from about middle of hindmargin, very slightly more oblique ; postmedian 
rather finer than the others ; both subterminals developed, the pale line between 
them rather thick, weakly sinuous ; no cell-dot ; terminal dots extremely minute, 

scarcely traceable except in anterior part ; fringe cream-colour, unmarked. 

Hindwing with termen very weakly bent at R 3 ; markings of forewing continued, 
except the antemedian. 

Forewing beneath with vague reddish-smoky suffusions, except at hind- 
margin and on subterminal line ; proximal part with some slightly darker 
irroration ; a fine postmedian line and minute terminal dots faintly discernible. 
Hindwing beneath whitish, unmarked. 

Khasia Hills, Assam (native collector). 2 <$$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

59. Scopula internata praeruptorum subsp. nov. 

<J$, 25-30 mm. On an average considerably larger than i. internata Guen. 
from South Africa. Ground-colour less ochreous, in the o generally fleshy-grey, 
in the $ generally dark grey or ochreous-grey, in both sexes very variable. 

Forewing with strong black dots on the fringe opposite the veins ; the 
blotch at tornus rarely well developed, in this case oftener dark grey than reddish. 

Hindwing with termen appearing slightly more irregular than in i. internata, 

though this is in part an optical illusion due to the presence of a strong black 
fringe-dot opposite the very slight angle at R 3 ; fringe otherwise dotted as on 
forewing. 

Escarpment, British E. Africa, 6,500—9,000 ft., January to March 1901 
(W. Doherty). A very long series in coll. Tring Museum. 

GO. Scopula perfilata (Warr. MS.) sp. nov. 

3 1 ?, 21-24 mm. Face black. Palpus blackish- fuscous above, light ochreous 
beneath. Tongue strong. Vertex white. Antennal shaft whitish ochreous, 
the minute serrations beyond the middle darker ; ciliation in $ nearly 2. Collar 
ochreous. Thorax and abdomen whitish ochreous, the latter above with rather 
strong blackish irroration, which usually condenses into more or less conspicuous 
mediodorsal spots. Foreleg rather strongly, middle leg less strongly, infuscated 
on inner side ; hindtibia of $ dilated, not markedly elongate, with a long pencil 
of whitish-ochreous hairs, hindtarsus rather over two-thirds. 

Forewing rather elongate, termen bowed, little oblique anteriorly ; whitish 
ochreous, with moderate blackish irroration ; lines light brownish ; antemedian 
weak, sometimes almost obsolete, strongly oblique outward from one-fourth 
hindmargin, acutely angled in cell, scarcely traceable anteriorly, sometimes 
marked with blackish dots on SM S , M, and SC ; cell-dots small but sharply 
black ; median shade strongly oblique outward from middle of hindmargin, 
vaguely defined distally, but generally appearing to throw out strong teeth on 
the veins, strongly curved or angled in radial region, where it is far distal to the 



294 Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920, 

cell-dot ; postmedian very near termen (2'5 mm. at costa, well within 2 mm. 
in most of its course), chiefly expressed by blackish dots or minute dashes on 
the veins, that on R 1 displaced distally (1 mm. from termen), that on R*- more 
proximal ; subterminal shades present but vague ; terminal interneural dots 
(or short dashes) strong ; fringe somewhat irrorated, especially opposite the 

veins. Hindwing with costa relatively rather long, termen rounded, tornus 

prominent ; median shade thick, incurved round the cell-dot, sometimes also 
with slight extension round cell-dot distally ; postmedian about 2 5 mm. from 
termen, incurved between radials, accentuated by distal teeth on the veins ; 
subterminal shades well developed ; termen and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside without ochreous tinge ; forewing, except at hindmargin and 
sometimes distal margin, with rather strong smoky suffusion, hindwing whitish ; 
both with postmedian line and cell-dot well developed, terminal dots more or 
less connected (at least on forewing) by a fine line ; fringes whitish, not or scarcely 
irrorated. 

Java : Bandong (type and others), Arjuno, Pengalengan (Preanger), a 
series in coll. Tring Museum ; Sindanglaya, June 23, 1910, Nongkodjadja, 
July 7, 1910 (E. A. Cockayne), 2 $$ in coll. L. B. Prout, kindly presented by the 
captor, but hitherto awaiting determination. 

Distinguishable at a glance from consimilata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
iii. 313) by the narrower wings, which rather approach in shape those of the 
African sublobata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, v. 19 = khakiata Warr., 
Novitates Zoologicae, xii. 389). 

61. Scopula paradela sp. nov. 

cJ$, 27-29 mm. Larger than delospila Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
xiv. 140). Antenna of $ with similarly projecting joints and long ciliation. 
Hindtarsus considerably longer (over three-fourths ; in delospila about one-half 
— Warren must have mismeasured). Abdomen without the minute blackish or 
fuscous dorsal dots which are commonly developed in delospila. Ground-colour 
slightly more creamy, without the slight violet-grey reflections of delospila. 

Forewing slightly broader than in delospila ; black basal dot behind M 
(omitted in Warren's description) wanting ; antemedian line complete though 
not strong, not black-dotted on veins ; median shade less deeply incurved behind 
middle ; postmedian rather near termen, less inbent at R ! ; fringe in proximal 

half more evenly irrorated, not developing definite dots at ends of veins. 

Hindwing with cell-dot larger than in average delospila ; fringe as on forewing. 

Biagi, Mambare River, British New Guinea, 5,000 ft., February — March 1906 
(A. S. Meek). Type cj and 3 ?$ i n C0 U. Tring Museum. 

62. Scopula homaema sp. nov. 

(J$, 23-26 mm. Akin to the preceding, but scarcely a subspecies. Hind- 
tarsus of (J scarcely three-fourths. Wings slightly broader still. Whiter, with 
sparse irroration. 

Forewing witli antemedian line rather more tremulous ; postmedian more 
deeply lunulate-dentate, the projection at R 1 appearing less acute (the anterior 
part being less oblique inward), the inward curves between the radials and at 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 295 

the fold, on the other hand, rather deeper ; terminal dots elongate ; fringe 

proximally less irrorated, but with appreciable dark dots opposite the veins. ■ 

Hindwing with postmedian line correspondingly formed ; proximal subterminal 
shade markedly crenulate ; fringe as on forewing. 

Solomon Islands (A. S. Meek) : Isabel, June — July 1901, type $ ; Treasury 
Island, Choiseul, Vella Lavella, Kulambangra, single??; all in coll. Tring Museum. 
Also in coll. British Museum from Alu, Solomon Islands, misidentified as per- 
UneatJ, Walk, by Butler (MS.), as undilinea Warr. by Hampson (MS.). 



63. Scopula saphes sp. nov. 

cj ?, 21-24 mm. Face black. Palpus black, pale beneath. Vertex white. 
Antenna of $ subdentate, with fascicles of rather long cilia (about 2J). Collar 
dull ochreous. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. Legs mostly 
pale ; foreleg partly infuscated ; hindtibia of £ dilated, somewhat elongate, 
with long white hair-pencil and proximally fringed with white above, tarsus a 
little over one-half. 

Forewing rather broad, costa scarcely arched anteriorly, markedly so 
posteriorly, termen smooth, very gently curved ; similar in colour to amala 
Meyr., but slightly more olive-tinged, the blackish irroration less extremely 
sparse, the markings olive-grey rather than ochreous ; cell-dot larger than in 
amala, terminal dots strong though small ; first line strongly curved near costa, 
median line thick, strongly excurved in anterior part, incurved behind cell ; 
postmedian denticulate, slightly incurved between the radials and posteriorly ; 
pale subterminal line rather thick, widening between the radials and near tornus, 
the greyish shades which border it broad, fairly well developed, especially in 

the $. Hindwing with termen rather strongly bent at R ! , markings as on 

forewing but first line wanting, median shade curving round proximal side of 
cell-dot, sometimes partly surrounding it. 

Forewing beneath pale greyish, hindwing whiter ; both with sharp cell-dot, 
postmedian line and terminal dots ; median and subterminal markings also 
traceable. 

British New Guinea : Upper Aroa River, end of June 1903 (A. S. Meek), 
3 (J<J (including type), 1 ? ; Hydrographer Mountains, 2,500 ft., January and 
April 1918 (Eichhorn brothers), 1 $, 1 $. 

64. Scopula heba sp. nov. 

J?, 16-18' mm. Smaller than amala Meyr. (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1886, 
p. 207).* 

Forewing with the lines finer, especially the postmedian, which is also less 
wavy ; median line rather more oblique than postmedian (in amala the two are 

parallel). Hindwing with termen less noticeably bent at R 1 than in amala ; 

lines finer, postmedian less incurved between the radials. 

Solomon Islands : Arawa, Bougainville (type) to Guadalcanal Also from 
St. Aignan, Woodlark, and Rossel Islands. A fine series in coll. Tring Museum. 

» Meyrick's measurements must have been made on the continental method— from tip to tip 
in set specimens. 



296 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

65. Seopula inactuosa sp. nov. 

c?$, 15-19 mm. Similar to actuaria Walk. Hindleg in J with the knee- 
pencil more conspicuous — apparently longer, oftener drawn out from the ab- 
dominal cavity. Wings more glossy, on an average more weakly marked. 

Forewing with apex a little more rounded, ternien rather less oblique ; 
postmedian line thicker, less angulated subcostally, not punctuated with black 
dots on the veins. Hind/wing with postmedian line similarly thickened. 

Forewing beneath with dark glossy suffusion, which is rarely noticeable in 
actuaria. 

Lesser Sunda Islands, probably everywhere from Sambawa to Tenimber 
(Sambawa, Sumba, Alor, Timor, Wetter, Dammer, Tenimber. in coll. Tring 
Museum, the type from Tambora, Sambawa, 2,500-4,000 ft., April to May 1898, 
(W. Doherty). Also from Key Islands, Toekan Besi, and, I think, Saleyer. 

On the Sunda Islands name-typical actuaria does not occur, but is represented 
by subsp. nigranalis Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iii. 378 = parumnotata 
Warr., Novitates Zoologicae, v. 19, syn. nov.), which in weakly marked 
examples almost loses the characteristic dark posterior spot of the postmedian 
line, while in some examples of a. actuaria from Borneo this spot begins to manifest 
itself, so that the races cannot be regarded as very sharply defined. 

66. Seopula serena sp. nov. 

cJ$, 16-18 mm. In structure, shape, and markings scarcely distinguishable 
from lechrioloma Turn. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.8. Wales, xxxii. 658), from Queensland. 
The wings sometimes not quite as narrow, but rather variable. 

Forewing slightly less white, more inclining to flesh-colour, sometimes even 
assuming the pinkish-buff tinge of the minorata group ; irroration in general 
rather less sparse than in lechrioloma ; antemedian line present, though weak ; 
the other lines more retracted near costa, the median usually rather more oblique 

than the rest ; terminal dots generally stronger than in lechrioloma. Hindwing 

concolorous with forewing and with similar development of the terminal dots. 

Forewing beneath (as also in lechrioloma) slightly infuscated, hindwing 
beneath whitish, sometimes with the lines fairly well developed. 

Freetown, Sierra Leone, 1914 (A. Bacot) ; type and others in coll. L. B. Prout. 
Also from Ashanti, Niger, Angola, Unyoro, Kavirondo, British East Africa, 
Nyassaland, Rhodes, Natal, Madagascar, Seychelles, in various collections. 

Mr. Bacot bred the species ex ovo, the imagines emerging in February 1915. 
The larva is extraordinarily long and thin, indeed thread-like, blackish brown 
with some paler brown mottlings, and with the head, thorax, legs, anal end, 
and prolegs almost entirely of the paler brown. That of lactaria Walk., which 
was bred by Mr. Bacot at the same time, is much less extreme in shape and 
is green in colour. 

67. Seopula campbelii sp. nov. 

<J $, 21-23 mm. Akin to aspilataria Moore, easily distinguishable as follows : 
Hindtibia of q rather less thick, the tarsus rather longer (slightly over 
one-half). 

Forewing with ground-colour paler, in the J with very little, in the £ with 



Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 297 

moderately copious (though very fine), dark irroration ; cell-dot distinct, though 
very small ; median line rather more oblique than termen ; postmedian rather 
more markedly crenulate ; proximal subterminal nearer to the postmedian than 

on hindwing. Hindwing with median line more proximal ; a cell-dot as on 

forewing ; postmedian less incurved between the radials (crenulate as on forewing). 

Forewing beneath with strong smoky suffusion, leaving hindmargin and a 
thick subterminal line and generally also a band between the median and post- 
median lines whitish. 

Palni Hills, S, India ( W. H. Campbell). A short series in coll. L. B. Prout, 
including the type. Also in coll. British Museum. 

68. Scopula pseudodoxa sp. nov. 

rj$, 15-18 mm. Similar in structure, coloration, and markings to coundu- 
laria Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, v. 18), and the species which I identify 
as thysanopus Turn. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxii. 663), all three being 
perhaps races of a single widely-distributed species. Build rather more 
robust than in coundv.laria, apex of forewing slightly less rounded, scaling less 
glossy, ground-colour sometimes paler, markings less uniform, the median line 
often weaker, the space between this and the postmedian often extended, post- 
median in general somewhat more sinuous, proximal subterminal shade showing 
more tendency to break up into spots. Forewing beneath more or less markedly 
infuscated, which is not the case in coundularia. 

Woodlark Island, March — April 1 897, type and others in coll. Tring Museum ; 
St. Aignan ; Sudest, April 1898. All collected by A. S. Meek. 

I strongly suspect this is the New Guinea " homodoxa " of Meyrick, but 
as one of the most important structural characters he gives (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
1886, p. 208) is " hindtarsus one-third" and this was evidently drawn from 
the Tonga and Fiji relative, his name must be restricted to that species. 

69. Scopula paradelpharia sp. nov. 

tJ$, 15-18 mm. Face and upperside of palpus black. Vertex whitish buff. 
Antenna with the proximal segments dotted with black above ; ciliation in <$ 
even, little over 1 . Thorax and abdomen pale pinkish buff above, whiter beneath. 
Hindtibia in <£ rather elongate, dilated, with strong whitish hair-pencil ; tarsus 
scarcely one-fifth. 

Forewing of medium breadth, costa gently arched posteriorly, termen 
smooth, very slightly curved, moderately oblique ; pinkish buff, sprinkled with 
a very few minute black scales ; costal margin paler ; lines darker, less pinkish, 
weak or obsolescent at costal margin, in part pale-edged (slightly reminiscent of 
the New-World genus Scelolophia) ; antemedian fine, at about one-third, bent 
in cell ; median generally firm, little thickened, bent near costa, slightly incurved 
in submedian area, occasionally touching, but usually farther beyond, the minute 
black cell-dot ; postmedian fine, excurved near costa, twice sinuate inward ; 
subterminal whitish, sinuous, accompanied proximally and distally by moderate 

shades ; terminal dots minute ; fringe almost unmarked. Hindwing with 

termen smooth, rounded ; first line wanting ; median sometimes weak, generally^ 
proximal to, occasionally touching, the minute black cell-dot ; the rest as on 
forewing. 



298 N0V1TATE9 ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Underside whitish, rather glossy, the forewing tinged with cream -huff and 
with the costal margin brighter ; unmarked, or (the forewing only) with the 
faintest possible indication of greyish lines. 

Bingerville, Ivory Coast, 1915 (G. Melon), a long series in coll. Tring Museum, 
including the type. Sedhiou, Senegal, 1917 (H. Castell), a short series in the 
same collection. 

Probably widely distributed in Africa, representing the inficita group of 
the Indo- Australian Region. A worn <J from Kilwa, German East Africa, shows 
the same structure, and a $ from Mayotte, Comoro Islands, the same facies ; 
other worn material is more doubtful. 

The much shorter $ hindtarsus affords a ready distinction from adelpharia 
Piing. 

7". Scopula tumiditibia (Warr. MS.) sp. nov. 

cJ$, 19 mm. Face black, pale at lower edge. Palpus mixed with black 
above. Vertex whitish buff. Antenna! joints in J slightly projecting, ciliation 
2. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. Foreleg as far as first joint 
of tarsus darkened on inner side ; hindtibia in <J enormously developed, about 
as long as abdomen, strongly dilated and with a long ochreous-tinged hair-pencil 
which reaches to the end of the extremely short tarsus. 

Forewing rather narrow, termen smooth, very gently curved ; pale cream- 
buff, clouded with pinkish buff and with some irregular black irroration ; lines 
marked with stronger irroration ; antemedian weak, oblique from one-third 
hindmargin, angled in cell ; median weak, excurved beyond the black cell-dot, 
deeply incurved behind M 1 ; postmedian irregular, lunulate-dentate, incurved 
between the radials and behind M 1 , thickened at these points, especially about 
R 2 ; subterminal shades weak ; termen with sharp triangular black interneural 

dots ; fringe almost unmarked. Hindwing relatively large, at least in the 

<J ; termen smooth, rather full, especiall}' about R s — M 1 ; cell-dot in (J larger 
than on forewing, paler in centre ; first line wanting ; median shade diffuse, 
curving inside cell-dot ; the rest as on forewing. 

Christmas Island (C. W. Andrews), in various collections ; the type (J 
(March 1898) in coll. Tring Museum. 

Misidentified by Hampson (Andrews's Monograph of Christmas Island, p. 71) 
as optivata Walk. I see no special resemblance ; apart from the remarkable <J 
hindtibia it differs in the narrower forewing, less fleshy colour, strong postmedian 
markings at R ! , large cell-spots of J (especially on hindwing), and other points. 



71. Scopula latitans (Warr. MS.) nom. nov. 

Accidalia reconditaria Snell., Tijdtchr. V. Enl. xv. 76. t. 6. f. 8, 9 (1872) (nee Walk. 1861), (Lower 

Guinea). 
Emmiltis latitans Warr. MS., in coll. Tring Museum. 

Mr. Warren seems to have suppressed his latitans in favour of reconditaria 
Snell., which he has clearly identified correctly ; but as the last-mentioned name 
is preoccupied, I propose to substitute that of latitans. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 299 

ADDENDA. 

During the months which have elapsed between my handing in the above 
paper and its being found possible to send it to press, several further novelties 
have been worked out, and in order to bring my work as nearly as possible 
up-to-date the following descriptions are added. 

StJBFAM. HEMITHEINAE. 
1. Comibaena multigruma sp. nov. 

?, 29 mm. Face green, finely edged with white. Palpus white, mottled 
with seal-brown at the ends of the first and second joints and on the third. 
Crown green, with narrow white anterior edge. Thorax above green, with a 
cream-whitish anterior band ; beneath white. Abdomen above green in middle, 
with large anterior and posterior seal-brown blotches ; beneath white. Legs 
white, with some blackish and seal-brown spots and dots, particularly at the 
knees and on the whole of the foretibial tuft. 

Forewing broad, with termen strongly curved behind middle ; SC 1 rather 
long-stalked, SC 2 arising beyond SC 5 , R 1 free, closely approximated, for a very 
short distance, to the subcostal stalk, then curving away ; bright green, as in 
the allies ; costal margin broadly whitish ; markings seal-brown ; cell-dot 
small ; a small blotch (rather more chocolate than the rest) near hindmargin 

2 or 3 mm. from base, not reaching M (resolvable with lens into separate though 
dense irroration) ; a large, irregular distal blotch from tornus to R 1 , nearly 

3 mm. in width at hindmargin, its proximal edge deeply indented at M J and 
excavated between M l and R', where its boundary-line describes a weakly M- 
shaped figure, its distal edge quitting the termen in front of M 2 , indented between 
M 1 and R s ; termen with seal-brown interneural dots ; fringe mostly dark, 

varying in intensity. Hindwing with termen rather fully rounded ; a small 

cell-dot ; a large apical blotch, proximally sinuate behind R 1 , its posterior 
boundary reaching R 1 proximally but receding somewhat distally, two small 
orange spots enclosed close to termen before and behind SC 2 ; a very small dark 
tornal spot ; terminal dots strongly elongate into dashes in anterior half ; fringe 
as on forewing. 

Underside whitish green, rather brighter at base of forewing, the cell-dots 
present ; shadowy reflections of the dark blotches of upperside ; fringe paler 
than above. 

Hydrographer Mountains, 2,500 ft., British New Guinea, February 1918 
(Eichhorn brothers). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

2. Neromia (?) propinquilinea sp. nov. 

9, 27-32 mm. Face red. Palpus fully one, third joint distinct, not minute ; 
reddish, beneath pale. Tongue well developed. Crown green, narrowly white 
in front. Antenna lamellate, with curved teeth nearly as long as diameter of 
shaft. Thorax and abdomen above green, with a white (in places yellow-tinged) 
ridge from metathorax to the whitish anal extremity ; beneath whitish. Foreleg 
reddish. 

Forewing with termen less straight than in most Neromia, being curved or 



300 



Kovitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 



almost bent in middle, more oblique posteriorly than anteriorly ; DC 1 rather 
deeply angled inward ; M' just separate ; bright light-green with some scattered 
metallic blue scales and with fine, moderately distinct, mostly elongate, transverse 
whitish strigulation ; veins slightly yellower green ; costal edge whitish, separated 
from the ground-colour by a line of yellow ; lines whitish ; antemedian fine, 
subobsolete, from before one-fourth costa to before one-third hindmargin, very 
slightly incurved behind M ; postmedian at scarcely three-fifths, thus more 
proximally placed than usual, nearly straight or slightly wavy, with faint 
suggestion of outward teeth at the veins, at least at R 1 and M" ; fringe yellowish 

white. Hindwing with termen rather full, slightly bent about R 1 ; SC" 

Very shortly stalked or just separate, M' just separate ; first line wanting ; 
second little beyond middle of wing, straightish from costa about to R ! , then 
very slightly curved, then again straightish ; fringe yellowish white. 

Underside much paler, whitish blue-green, unmarked ; costal margin of 
forewing buff, of hindwing whitish ; terminal line and fringe of both wings 
whitish. 

Sedhiou, Senegal, July 5-12 (type), March 25-27, May 21, 1917 (H. Castell). 
All in coll. Tring Museum. 

On both wings a very faint and minute reddish cell-dot is discernible with 
the lens, placed on DC 1 well behind the origin of R s and suggesting together 
with the white dorsal ridge of abdomen a definite affinity with the rubripunctilla 
group of Neromia. The $ antenna being formed nearly as that of the $ of 
clavicornis Prout (Novitates Zoologicae, xxii. 319), that of the S will probably 
prove well pectinate, and the new species will link up Neromia with Neurotoca 
in exactly the same way in which some species of Omphax link that genus with 
Heterorachis. The angulation of DC is rather suggestive of Neurotoca, but is 
perhaps not more extreme than in certain examples of Neromia picticosta, cohaerens 
or impostura. 

3. Microloxia polemia sp. nov. 

$, 21-22 mm. Face red. Palpus fully 2, second joint with less strongly 
projecting scales above than in herbaria Hb., third joint about as long as second ; 
reddish above. Tongue developed. Antenna with joints scarcely projecting, 
ciliation minute. Vertex green, very narrowly white-edged in front. Thorax 
and abdomen above green, becoming paler posteriorly ; beneath whitish. Foreleg 
mostly reddish on inner side. 

Forewing broad, costa very gently curved, termen oblique, straightish to 
R', then very slightly curved (about as in Syndromodes cellulata Warr.) ; SC 
anastomosing with C, R 1 barely stalked, R 2 rather extremely placed, M 1 connate ; 
green, nearly as in Chlorissa cloraria Hb. or slightly deeper ; costal edge ochreous ; 
lines whitish, extremely fine and feeble, sometimes not traceable ; antemedian 
apparently about parallel with termen, not discernible in front of cell ; postmedian 
farther from termen than in herbaria advolala, slightly bent inward in front of 
R s and more markedly behind M J ; fringe concolorous in proximal half, with a 
very fine whitish line at base, whitish green in distal half, separated from ground- 
colour by a fine white line. Hindwing with termen rounded ; SC 2 stalked, 

M' stalked ; concolorous with forewing, the lines obsolete. 

Underside paler green, unicolorous. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXVTI. 1920. 30L 

Kut-al-Amara, August 7 (type and another) and August 9, 1918, in coll. 
L. B. Prout, kindly presented by the captor, Mr. P. A. Buxton. 

Rather broader winged than halimaria Chret., to which possibly it is more 
nearly related than to herbaria. 

Subfam. STERRHINAE. 
4. Anisodes (Pisoraca) poeciloptera sp. nov. 

(J$, 36-45 mm. Closely akin to lutearia Dewitz (Verh. Leop.-Car. Alcad. 
xlii. 84, t. 3, f. 17); sometimes almost identical in coloration, much more variable, 
oftener more rufescent, the dark cloudings commonly stronger and more extended. 
Hindfemur of $ clothed with curled hair, as in lutearia. Wings on an average 
slightly broader. 

Forewing with costal margin almost as strongly darkened as in leonaria 
Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxii. 635), which is distinguishable, inter alia, by the 
glabrous £ hindfemur ; black dots on antemedian shade generally poorly 
developed ; median shade not projecting distally at R 1 , on the other hand almost 
or quite meeting the postmedian shade at R', with the consequence that a regular 
oval pale patch stands out prominently between the dark costal margin, R', 
the median and postmedian shades, providing a ready means for picking out 
poeciloptera from its allies by eye ; distal cloudings at the radials and between 
M 1 and hindmargin commonly strong, though never obliterating the subterminal 

and usually leaving a pale terminal spot in front of SM 2 . Hindwing with the 

median shade thick, almost or quite confluent with the postmedian about R 1 
and M 1 ; distal cloudings stronger than in lutearia, especially between M 1 and 
abdominal margin. 

Underside also variable, but in general less irregularly mottled and irrorated 
than in lutearia, the generality of forms being rather uniform ochreous or orange- 
ochreous as far as the postmedian, and with diffuse rather ill-defined redder 
cloudings distally. 

Ivory Coast : Bingerville (G. Melou), a long series, including the type ; 
Nigeria : Lagos, Warri, Degama. 

Described from extensive material in coll. Tring Museum, but no doubt 
generally distributed in collections ; hitherto assumed to be aberrant forms of 
lutearia. 

5. Anisodes (Pisoraca) dewitzi sp. nov. 

Ephyra lutearia $ Dewitz, Verh. Leop.-Car. Akad. xlii. 84. t. 3. f. 21 (1881) (nee <J). 

(2$, 32-38 mm. Again close to lutearia and with similar <J hindfemur. 
Ground-colour browner (less yellowish). 

Forewing with costal margin on an average rather more heavily dusted 
than in lutearia, yet not presenting the darkened appearance of poeciloptera ; 
markings nearly as in lutearia, median shade generally more slender, its teeth 
at R 1 and M 1 weaker, the pale band beyond consequently appearing less inter- 
rupted ; postmedian line of dots rather more incurved between the radials and 
especially posteriorly ; distal cloudings at the radials always weak, those, 
posteriorly to M 1 on the contrary often (as in Dewitz's figure) very strong, 
sometimes nearly black. Hindwing with corresponding distinctions. 



302 NOV1TATES ZOOLOGKAE XXVII 1920. 

Underside much as in the generality of poeciloptera, on an average more 
reddish, the reddish distal cloudings more strongly pale-mottled in their outer 
part. 

Ivory Coast : Bingerville (G. Melou), including the type ; Nigeria : Warri, 
Degama ; Gaboon : Lambarene, on the Ogove River ; Upper Congo : Yakusu. 

Described from a good series in col. Tring Museum. Differences in the 
shape of uncus, of tegumen, of valve, and its armature confirm the validity of 
the species in this group. 

As ab. (?) transmuta ab. nov. I describe a colour-form in which both wings 
have a paler ground-colour, generally with a fleshy tinge, and all the markings 
are olive-green. Bingerville, both sexes, including the type ; Warri, 2 $$. 
Genitalia not yet studied, but as some nearly typical examples show a tinge of 
greenish in the markings, I do not think this can be more than an aberration. 

6. Anisodes paratropa sp. nov. 

$, 46 mm. Differs from the lutearia group in having the termen of both 
wings deeply crenulate, with pointed teeth at the vein-ends, that at R 2 (especially 
on hindwing) considerably shortened. In the absence of the $ it is not even 
certain that it belongs to the same structure group. 

Wings broad. Forewing deep fleshy, with olive-grey irroration ; costal 

margin more densely irrorated, markings about as in dcivitzi, olive-grey ; ante- 
median not very deeply curved outward in cell, bearing black dots on SC and 
SM 2 but scarcely on M ; cell-mark narrower than in dewitzi ; median shade 
rather more vertical anteriorly, the proximal curve behind M 1 very abrupt ; 
distal shades rather vague, the posterior not stronger than the radial. Hind- 
wing similar ; the white, dark-edged cell-mark rather more elongate than in 
the lutearia group. 

Underside paler than in the lutearia group ; the forewing except behind 
fold, the hindwing scarcely except in distal area, with pinkish irroration or 
minute strigulation ; cell-mark indicated, especially on forewing ; median shade 
indicated on forewing only ; both wings with pinkish postmedian line, accen- 
tuated by darker dots on the veins. 

Nguelo, Usambara (Dr. Kummer). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

7. Anisodes (Brachycola) jocosa clara subsp. nov. 

cJ$. Differs from the other eastern forms (j. fimbripedata Warr., Novitates 
Zoologicae, ix. 355, and ghjcydora Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.8. Wales, xxxii. 
084) in having the dark irroration finer and sparser, the dark shading which 
accompanies the zigzag median line almost entirely obsolete, the two costal 
spots of this line sharply black ; the subterminal dots behind SC, the two between 
the radials and the one between the medians sharply expressed. In all these 
respects nearer j. jocosa Warr., from Assam, from which — like all the eastern 
races — it differs in its rather lighter ground-colour and in having the median 
line of both wings more distally placed, the cell-dot of forewing smaller and the 
cell-ring of hindwing larger, more narrowly margined with black. 

New Guinea, Admiralty, Vulcan, Rook, Trobriand, and Fergusson Islands. 
Type cj from Upper Aroa River, British New Guinea, March 1903 (A. S. Meek), 
in coll. Tring Museum. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 303 

8. Anisodes (Brachycola) cora sp. nov. 

<J, 36 mm. Close to niveopuncta Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iv. 48). 

Body and wings above paler, less fleshy-tinged. Forewing with markings 

more strongly expressed ; cell-dot enlarged into a small elongate ring, having 
a few pale scales in its centre ; median shade more deeply dentate, especially 

on R 1 and M 1 . Hindwing with the termen slightly more crenulate than in 

niveopuncta ; markings corresponding to those of forewing, the cell-spot formed 
as in many niveopuncta, the small white pupil being surrounded by a moderately 
thick black ring. 

Near Oetakwa River, Snow Mountains, Dutch New Guinea, up to 3,500 ft., 
October— December 1910 (A. S. Meek). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

9. Anisodes ockendeni sp. nov. 

(J$, 29-30 mm. Smaller than pintada Dogn. {Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxvii. 
159) ; palpus in both sexes a little longer, second joint perhaps less rough-scaled 
above ; hindtibia of <$ with a rather strong hair-pencil, proximal spur wanting. 

Forewing rather less elongate than in pintada, the red irroration denser, the 
grey cloudings, on the other hand, weaker, though variable (in the Huancabamba 
specimens nearly as in pintada) ; cell-ring on an average smaller, though variable, 
sometimes (as also sometimes in pintada, teste Dognin) predominantly black 
with only a small white pupil: ; postmedian line of dots more proximally curved 
anteriorly. Hindwing with corresponding distinctions. 

S.E. Peru : La Oroya (including the type $), Tinguri, and Santo Domingo, 
a long series in coll. Tring Museum, collected by G. Ockenden. Also from E. 
Peru : Huancabamba, near Cerro de Pasco ; Ecuador : Paramba ; Colombia : 
Muzo and Popayan ; Bolivia : Chulumani. 

I cannot find that this variable little species has ever been named. Apart 
from its less red colour, it differs from rufulala Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
xi. 510) in having the markings less oblique. Evidently Mr. Warren never 
differentiated it, as specimens in the Tring Museum are variously labelled pintada 
Dogn., urcearia Guen. (!), stramineata Warr., ochricomata Warr., dispergaria 
Moschl., tolinla Schaus. 

10. Anisodes curtisi sp. nov. 

<J, 37 mm. Similar to alienaria Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxvi. 1580). Lower 
part of face whiter. Midtibia glabrous. Hindfemur glabrous ; hindtibia with 

the proximal spur wanting. Forewing rather less broad ; venation normal 

(areole present, as in alienaria, but SC S not arising — as in alienaria — from near 
R 1 and diverging, but running almost parallel with R 1 throughout) ; less clouded 
with fleshy grey than in alienaria ; cell-ring smaller ; median shade less broad. 
Hindwing with corresponding distinctions. 

Underside less clouded with pink than in alienaria, the pink markings 
consequently standing out more distinctly. 

Penang, January 1897 (Curtis). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

May be placed next to effeminata Prout (Ent. Mitt. Deutsch. Ent. Mus., 
iii. 244), which is a broader-winged insect, with rather longer palpus, differently 
coloured face, different cell-mark of hindwing, etc. 



304 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVH. 1920. 

11. Anisodes incumbens sp. nov. . 

<J, 38 mm. Nearly related to recumbens Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
ix. 358), differing as follows : 

Wings narrower (termen of hindwing straightish from R 1 to tornus, except 
for the small teeth), ground-colour much more ochreous, markings grey with a 

slaty tinge. Forewing with costal margin grey ; median line even more 

oblique, reaching costa close to postmedian ; the shade which parts from it 
about the middle of the wing and runs to termen between the radials better 

developed than in recumbens, not interrupted. Hindiving with the cell-ring 

less black and less elongate than in normal recumbens. 

Markira Harbour, S. Christoval, May 1-9, 1908 (A. S. Meek). Type in coll. 
Tring Museum, unfortunately unique. 

Possibly a remarkable subspecies or aberration of recumbens, but this seems 
scarcely credible. In a good series of that species before me from Bougainville, 
Choiseul, Vella Lavella, Guizo, Kulambangra, New Georgia, Rendova, Isabel 
and Florida Islands, there is nothing at all approaching it in shape or colour. 

12. Anisodes epicoccastria sp. nov. 

<J, 34 mm. Face narrowly red above, then whitish with red irroration, 
which becomes weak below. Palpus with second joint reaching beyond irons, 
third joint long (about = second joint) ; red above, white beneath. Head and 
body concolorous with wings. Hindleg long and slender, glabrous, tibia with 
terminal spurs only. 

Wings in shape, colour, and markings almost exactly like an overgrown 
griseata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iii. 380), with the markings rather 
shadowy ; but that species belongs to the section Stibarostonui , with essentially 

different palpus. Forewing with the oblique shade from hindmargin between 

antemedian and median lines to termen between the radials rather broad but 
ill-defined ; terminal dots (as also on hindwing) minute and inconspicuous, red 
rather than black. 

Underside pale, extremely weakly marked. 

Upper Aroa River, British New Guinea, February 1903 (A. S. Meek). Type 
in coll. Tring Museum. 

13. Anisodes (Perixera) faustina sp. nov. 

(J$, 30-35 mm. Extraordinarily like the largest, lightest (most sparsely 
irrorated) examples of festiva Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, xiii. 90*), which 
has the hindfemur glabrous. The new species, however, has the typical structure 
of the section Perixera (Meyr.), the distal half, or rather more, of the $ hindfemur 
bearing a suberect tuft of red hair. Face while in lower half (in festiva red 
throughout). Otherwise absolutely constant differences can scarcely yet be 
indicated. 

Forewing with cell slightly shorter (appreciably less than one-half ; in festiva 
almost one-half) ; cell-dot generally (in festiva very rarely) shaded with red ; 

* Described with query as a Perixera, erroneously transferred to Pisoraca, Novitates Zoolooi- 
OAE, xiv. 144. It is really a " Perixera " (in sensuWarr., nee Meyr.), i.e. an Anisodes in sensu Turn. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1020. 305 

median shade rarely (in festiva generally) touching the cell-dot. Hindwing 

with a larger, predominantly red, patch at end of cell (but that of festiva is at 
times larger and redder than in> Warren's type). 

Forewing beneath in general less heavily suffused with red than in festiva. 

Dutch New Guinea : Upper Setekwa River, 2,000—3,000 ft., August 1910 
(type and two other JcJ), September 1910 (1 <J) ; Mount Goliath, 500 ft., February 
1911 (1 $). British New Guinea: Biagi, Mambare River, 5,000 ft., February 
1906 (1 9). All in coll. Tring Museum, collected by A. S. Meek. In the two 
last-named localities festiva occurred with it. 

14. Anisodes (Perixera) palirrhoea sp. nov. 

cJ $, 30-34 mm. Facies and coloration of multi punctata Warr. (Novitates 
Zoolooicae, vi. 330) * but considerably larger, perhaps slightly longer-winged. 
Palpus of <$ with third joint longer (about as long as second). Face below less 
pure white. Femoral tuft of $ deeper red. 

Forewing with the cell-mark narrow, generally obsolete posteriorly, only 
its anterior black dot sharply expressed ; median grey line deeply zigzag, its 
proximal (interneural) and distal (neural) darker dots sharply expressed, so 
as almost to suggest the appearance of a double line ; blackish confluent or 
subconfluent spots between the postmedian and subterminal often well developed 
costally, between the radials, and from M 1 to hindmargin, though subject to great 

variation. Hindwing with cell-mark much narrower than in multipunctata, 

its outline extremely fine or subobsolete, chiefly marked by a large black anterior 
dot and a small, more red-mixed posterior one ; median shade formed as on 
forewing but often weaker ; distal dark spots nearly correlated to those of 
forewing, the posterior one in the most strongly-marked examples forming a 
large and conspicuous tornal patch, traversed by the pale subterminal. 

Solomon Islands, widely distributed (Choiseul, Vella Lavella, Guizo, Kulam- 
bangra, New Georgia, Rendova), strangely misidentified by Mr. Warren as 
■porphyropis Meyr., and hence not hitherto described. Type from Vella Lavella, 
March 1908 (A. S. Meek), in coll. Tring Museum. 

15. Anisodes rudis sp. nov. 

cJ $, 42-46 mm. Face and palpus red above, white below ; palpus fully 2, 
third joint in both sexes about as long as second. Crown white, almost entirely 
covered with black scales except anteriorly. Antenna blackened above, clavola 
white beneath ; pectinations in $ long. Body above mostly concolorous with 
wings, the thorax crossed in front by a narrow leaden-grey band, the abdomen 
becoming paler at extremity ; beneath whitish, the pectus mixed with dull pink. 
Midtibia of $ densely clothed with very long white and pinkish hair. 

Wings robust. Foreiving with areole wanting ; vinaceous cinnamon, 

with very fine dark-grey irroration, giving a general effect of hazel ; costal 
margin blackish ; lines black-grey, rather diffuse and not very sharply defined ; 
antemedian from before one-fourth costa, rather oblique outward to fold, then 
obsolete, reappearing more proximally as a short streak from hindmargin 4 mm. 

* I think this is a synonym of thermosaria Walk. (Lint. Lep. Ins. xxvi. 1607), but as I have 
no Borneo material before me I prefer to use Warren's name. 

20 



306 NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

from base ; median shade rather beyond middle, slightly excurved in anterior 
half and incurved in posterior ; postmedian from five-sevenths costa, slightly 
angulated inward subcostally, then forming a long and gentle outward curve, 
at fold gently incurved, reaching hindmargin rather near tornus, some blacker 
vein-dots on its outer side increasing its otherwise feeble crenulation ; cell-mark 
rather long-oval, pale-centred but inconspicuous ; very faint indications of the 
proximal subterminal shade ; terminal interneural dots minute and not strong. 

Hindwing with termen very slightly or scarcely bent at R 1 ; antemedian 

line faint ; cell-dot sharply white, inconspicuously dark-bordered ; median 
shadowy, apparently encircling the cell-dot, at abdominal margin rather more 
distinct ; postmedian angulated at R', the black dots (or small dashes) more 
sharply expressed posteriorly than anteriorly ; the rest as on forewing, the fringe 
slightly paler. 

Underside deep fleshy pink, the markings scarcely indicated ; terminal 
dots rather distinct, partially — especially on hindwing — connected by a dark 
grey line. 

Near Oetakwa River, Snow Mountains, Dutch New Guinea, up to 3,500 ft., 
October — December 1910 (A. S. Meek). Type <J and 2 $$ in coll. Tring Museum. 
A very damaged $ from Sandakan, N. Borneo, appears to agree perfectly, in 
which case the species — like several of its congeners — has a wide distribution. 

Evidently closely akin to sciota Turn. (Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. Wales, xxxii. 692) 
from N. Queensland and subrubrata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, xii. 10) 
from the Solomon Islands. 

16. Anisodes dispilota sp. nov. 

(J, 30 mm. Structure of decussata Scheller (Sepp's Surin. Vlind. iii. 287, 
t. 132) = delineate. Warr. (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxx. 428), the hindtibia being 
extremely short, smooth, the first tarsal joint greatly elongate. Smaller. 

Forewing appearing relatively broader, the costal margin being slightly 
more arched, the termen behind R 3 rather less oblique ; rather paler, or of a less 
warm tone ; proximal markings weak ; longitudinal lines obsolescent ; cell-ring 
minute ; the line beyond slightly less oblique ; postmedian line almost as in 
decussata ; a dark blotch running from postmedian to termen between the 

radials. Hindwing with a dark line close to base ; antemedian and median 

lines slightly less approximated than in decussata ; postmedian rather less strongly 
bent before middle ; a dark blotch between M- and abdominal margin, reaching 
from postmedian line almost to termen. 

St. Jean de Maroni, French Guiana. Type in coll. Tring Museum. A $ 
from Demerara, British Guiana (J. Rodway), in coll. British Museum. 

17. Bytharia lucida angusticincta subsp. nov. 

3, 36-42 mm. ; $, 48 mm. Both wings with the distal border considerably 
narrower than in I. lucida Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, vi. 14), from the 
Bismarck Archipelago, only measuring 1*5 to 2 mm., at the apex of forewing 
3-4 mm. ; its proximal edge scarcely crenulate. 

Rendova, Solomon Islands, February 1904 (A. S. Meek). 4 <$<$, 1 ? in coll. 
Tring Museum. A single <$ from Choiseul, slightly intermediate, but should 
be referred here. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 307 

Remarkably similar to uniformis Swinhoe (Java, Sumatra, Borneo), which 
is larger, the borders of a more leaden hue, separated from the ground-colour 
by a whitish line. 

18. Scelolophia littoralis sp. nov. 

9, 19 mm. Similar to nycteis Druce (Biol. Centr.-Amer., Lep. Het. ii. 122, 
t. 52, f. 28), to which I refer as subspecies the smaller, brighter ignifera Warr. 
(Proc- U.S. Nat. Mus. xxx. 436) from French Guiana, and the large, heavily 
clouded latifasciata Bastelb. (Enl. Zeit. xxii. 159) from W. Colombia. Hindtibia 
without the rudimentary fourth spur, which is usually present in nycteis. Body 
and wings dark, the forewing as far as the end of the cell (except costally) and 
the hindwing in proximal half heavily suffused, thus most recalling nycteis 
latifasciata. 

Forewing with cell somewhat shorter, the median shade (which is curved 
somewhat inwards behind the vague cell-mark) more proximally placed ; the 
narrow dark sinuous postmedian band (characteristic of nycteis and the new 
species) more proximally placed, scarcely farther from cell than from termen. 
Hindwing with a vague sinuous median band parallel with the postmedian. 

Barranco, near Lima, April 1, 1913 (H. O. Forbes). Type in coll. Tring 
Museum, together with a more rufescent, almost uniformly suffused $ taken 
the following day. 

A J 1 from Callao, in coll. British Museum, doubtless referable here, shows 
nearly the same structure as nycteis, but has the sex-tuft of the underside of the 
hindwing apparently rather less elongate and more concentrated (roundish) ; 
wings rather broad, hindwing with termen slightly bent in middle, its underside 
whiter. Recalls also damaria Schaus (TV. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxvii. 193), which 
has no tuft on hindwing. 

19. Scopula alma sp. nov. 

<J, 19-21 mm. Face black. Palpus black, pale beneath. Vertex and 
antennal shaft white, ciliation slightly over 1. Collar ochreous. Thorax and 
abdomen concolorous with wings. Legs tinged with ochreous, the forecoxa 
above and forefemur and tibia on inner side blackish ; hindtibia white, not very 
long, dilated, with long hair-pencil, tarsus almost 1. 

Forewing not very broad, termen very gently curved, moderately strongly 
oblique ; white with a strong fleshy or fleshy-ochreous tinge (as in envutaria Hb. 
or flaccidaria Zell.), and with scattered dark irroration ; lines more brownish 
than in the species named ; antemedian obsolete costally, weak throughout, 
excurved, rather near the cell-dot ; cell-dot small, black ; median shade oblique, 
obsolete costally, moderately strong from R 1 or R ! near the postmedian to hind- 
margin at or slightly before the middle, almost straight ; postmedian fine, not 
very strong, slightly accentuated at the veins, placed about 1-5 mm. from termen, 
parallel therewith, obsolescent costally ; subterminal line white, little undulate, 
rather broader than in emutaria ; termen with sharp black interneural dots ; 

fringe slightly paler, at the tips free from irroration. Hindwing with termen 

very feebly bent at R 1 ; antemedian line wanting ; median straight, well proximal 
to cell-dot ; postmedian straightish or little curved, farther from termen than 
on forewing ; subterminal nearly parallel with termen ; termen and fringe as 
on forewing. 



308 NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Forewing beneath slightly greyer, especially at base, hindwing beneath 
somewhat whiter ; both with cell-dot and the markings beyond ; fringe whitish, 
scarcely irrorated. 

Nairobi, British East Africa. The type June 1905, paratype May 1906, 
both in coll. Tring Museum, collected by F. J. Jackson. 

Except in size, this rather recalls some of the tailed species — emutaria Hb., 
perlata Walk., etc. Perhaps near obliquisignata Bastelb. (Deutsch. Ent. Zeit. 
1909, p. 319), which I have not seen. 



20. Scopula opperta sp. nov. 

<J$, 24-28 mm. Face black-brown, narrowly whitish below. Palpus 
black-brown, whitish beneath. Antennal joints in £ slightly projecting, ciliation 
about 1 . Vertex white. Collar more or less buff. Thorax and abdomen whitish, 
dorsally with some grey irroration. Fore and middle legs somewhat buff, the 
former somewhat infuscated on inner side ; hindleg white, tibia in <J dilated 
with hair-pencil, tarsus almost 1. 

Forewing shaped about as in nesciaria Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxii. 750) ; 
white, finely irrorated with olive-grey, which easily discolours to a more brownish 
or fleshy tone ; costal edge narrowly tinged with buff ; lines olive-grey ; ante- 
median fine and weak or subobsolete, generally traceable from cell at one-third 
of wing-length to one-third hindmargin, with slight bend inward at fold and 
sometimes a slight tendency to form small spots or dots in cell, at fold, and 
behind M ! ; cell-dot black, minute ; median shade obsolete costally, oblique 
from R l at two-thirds wing-length to scarcely beyond middle of hindmargin, 
feebly lunulate-dentate ; postmedian at nearly three-fourths, feebly or scarcely 
lunulate-dentate, slightly inclining inwards costally, otherwise nearly parallel 
with termen, the customary radial and submedian curves very gentle or scarcely 
noticeable ; subterminal white line of medium thickness, sinuous or lunulate- 
dentate, the grey shades on either side of it moderate or rather weak ; terminal 
black dots small but well-developed, the anterior ones somewhat elongate, the 
posterior smaller and more detached ; fringe slightly irrorated, with a clearer 

white line at base. Hindwing rounded, scarcely bent at R 1 ; first line wanting ; 

median shade just proximal to (almost touching) the black cell-dot, which is 
slightly less minute than on forewing ; the rest nearly as on forewing, but with 
the postmedian rather more proximally placed. 

Underside whitish, the hindwing almost unmarked, the forewing more 
tinged with buff, especially anteriorly, and with minute cell-dot and weak, 
buff-tinged postmedian line ; both wings with terminal dots present but weak. 

Durban, Natal (G. F. Leigh). The type <$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

A few §§ from Durban and other localities in Natal have been known to 
me for several years, scattered in various collections, but I hesitated to describe 
it, lest it might be a mere colour-form of nesciaria Walk, or latitans Prout ( = 
reconditaria Snell., nee Walk.). The <$ structure, however, shows that it comes 
nearer to spoliata Walk. ; differs in having the hindtibia rather thicker, tarsus 
barely as long, antennal ciliation rather shorter, the colouring of the wings 
different, the postmedian line even, not punctiform, the anterior terminal dots 
elongate. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 309 

21. Hamalia perbrunneata sp. nov. 

cj, 19-21 mm. Closely allied to brunneata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
xii. 322), structure nearly the same, though the hindtarsus may be a trifle longer 
(well over one-half tibia, the first joint very slightly thickened, which is scarcely 
appreciably the case in brunneata). Head and body coloured as in brunneata. 
Wings brighter brown, less infuscated, the narrow dark borders and the terminal 
blotches of forewing (between the radials and at tornus) consequently showing 
up more distinctly. 

Forewing with median shade slender (in brunneata thick), usually crossing — 
in one example proximal to — the cell-dot ; postmedian line a little farther from 

termen than in brunneata, less angulated at R 1 . Hindwing with termen 

slightly less gibbous than in brunneata, postmedian line markedly farther from 
termen. 

Underside much lighter and less cupreous than in brunneata, especially on 
the hindwing, which is, moreover, usually much less strongly marked ; post- 
median line placed as above, on the hindwing less excurved behind middle than 
in brunneata. 

Pozuzo, Huanaco, E. Peru, 800 — 1,000 m., in various collections. Type 
and others (W. Hoffmanns) in coll. Tring Museum. Also from Calama, Rio 
Madeira, and from Charaplaya, Bolivia. 

Has been mixed with brunneata Warr., of which the type from Cundimamarca 
remains unique. I do not think it can be even a subspecies, but in any case 
it must be named. The group to which these species belong differs from true 
Hamalia in the stalking of SC ! of the hindwing and in the genitalia, and will 
require generic separation. 

Genus Lobocleta Warr. 

Lobockta Warr., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxx. 450 (1906). 
Metasiopsis Prout, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1910, p. 219. 

I think my Metasiopsis only differs essentially from Lobocleta Warr. in the 
non-pectinate $ antenna, and should be regarded merely as a subgenus. It is 
unfortunate that Warren mistook the bulk of this fairly extensive genus for 
Ptychopoda and only established a new genus on a single aberrant member of it, 
and almost equally unfortunate that in discovering the necessity for the generic 
separation of the bulk I overlooked Warren's already existing name of Lobocleta. 

22. Lobocleta xenosceles sp. nov. 

c??, 21-22 mm. Face and palpus blackish, the latter pale beneath. Head 
and body concolorous with wings, the collar brighter ochreous. Antennal ciliation 
in $ slightly over 1, in $ minute. Midtibia in (J with a strong hair- tuft at end ; 
hindtibia in $ dilated, rather elongate, with long strong hair-pencil (reaching 
nearly to end of first tarsal joint) and a small additional hair-tuft at extremity ; 
hindtarsus in <J abbreviated (less than half). 

Forewing shaped about as in indecora Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, 
vii. 162) or malepicta Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, xii. 46), colour intermediate 
between these, rather glossy, without (or with only very sparse and minute)* 
dark irroration ; markings about as in the species named, but, with the exception 



310 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

of the black cell-dot, always weak, sometimes almost entirely obsolete ; dots 
of the postmedian line usually better developed, at least at costa ; fringe paler, 

especially distally, marked at base with small black dots opposite the veins. 

Hindwing with termen scarcely waved ; similar to forewing. 

Forewing beneath with somewhat rosy flush, especially proximally, hindwing 
whiter ; both very feebly marked. 

Obidos, Amazons, October— November 1904 (M. de Mathan). Type <J and 
allotype $ in coll. Tring Museum. Also in the same collection, ex coll. Meyer, 
a (J labelled " Brazil " and 2 $, 2 $, merely labelled " S. America," all of which 
may be suspected of coming from the Amazons, as was certainly the case with 
many species in that interesting but badly localised collection. 

23. Lobocleta unigravis sp. nov. 

$, 19 mm. (Face abraded.) Palpus short, brownish, beneath white. Head 
and body white, the body above with sparse black irroration ; collar tinged with 
ochreous. 

Forewing with termen gently curved, moderately strongly oblique ; SC ! 
from close to end of cell ; white, with sparse black irroration (slightly more 
copious in proximal part of costal region) ; lines light ochreous brownish, the 
antemedian, postmedian, and two subterminals weakly expressed, the median 
rather stronger ; antemedian from about one-fourth costa, rather oblique outward, 
sharply angulated in cell, then nearly straight to hindmargin before one-third, 
dotted with black on SM* ; cell-dot rather large, sharply black ; median shade 
just beyond it, obsolescent costally, angled outward on R 1 and R 3 , incurved 
between, oblique inward to hindmargin a little beyond middle, but slightly 
angled outward on SM ! , where it is accentuated by some black irroration ; post- 
median and proximal subterminal approximately parallel with median but 
more crenulate, more markedly angled outward on SM', the postmedian arising 
from a rather noticeable black dot on costa and irrorated with black about SM ! ; 
distal subterminal close to termen ; black dots at vein-ends, the anterior ones 

particularly strong. Hindwing not very long, termen slightly waved, rather 

strongly gibbous, feebly bent at M> ; SC ! — R 1 stalked for about half their length ; 
similar to forewing, the first line undeveloped, the median incurved proximally 
to the cell-dot. 

Underside with the cell-dots and the postmedian costal dot of forewing 
strong, otherwise more weakly marked, the median and postmedian lines fairly 
well developed, terminal dots nearly as above ; costal margin of forewing ochreous 
brownish. 

La Plata town. Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

A very ordinary-looking little species, yet not particularly reminiscent of 
any other. In some respects, though rather whiter, it somewhat recalls Scopula 
albidulata Warr. (Novitates Zoologicae, iv. 432). 

24. Ptychopoda subfervens sp. nov. 

<J$, 20-25 mm. Very similar to fervens Butl. (7Y. Ent, Soc. Lond. 1881, 340). 
Both the colours paler, the ground-colour being whitish lavender-grey, the 
" red-brown " (burnt sienna or chestnut) markings more cinnamon-rufous. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 311 

Foreiving with costal edge less darkened than in fervens, remaining rufous ; 
antemedian line usually more complete, more strongly bisinuate ; postmedian 
different in form, being acutely angulated outward on R 1 , but less deeply incurved 
behind M 2 than in fervens ; the rufous band beyond not interrupted by the 
ground-colour between the median veins ; subterminal line more sharply white ; 

fringe paler. Hindwing with the markings in general weakly expressed, but 

with a complete, well-defined white subterminal, which forms an acute, V-shaped 
proximal projection on R s . 

Both wings beneath paler ; forewing somewhat darkened along costal 
margin and with shadowy indications of the markings of the upperside ; hindwing 
almost unmarked, with slight iridescence ; both wings with complete terminal 
line. 

St. Jean de Maroni, French Guiana, type o and others in coll. Tring Museum, 
allotype 9 in coll. Dognin. Also from Juan Vinas (Costa Rica) and Potaro 
(British Guiana), and a large, more ochraceous-marked $ from La Oroya, S.E. 
Peru, which latter may perhaps eventually prove to represent a local race. 

25. Ptychopoda palniensis sp. nov. 

C?, 20-25 mm. Face black. Palpus black above, brown beneath. Vertex 
whitish brown. Antennal joints triangularly projecting, ciliation nearly 2. 
Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings, collar brighter brown. Foreleg 
(except tarsus) darkened on inner side. Hindtibia dilated, longer than femur, 
fringed above and with long hair-pencil from femoro-tibial joint, tarsus extremely 
short. 

Forewing with areole moderately large, all the subcostals stalked beyond 
it, SO separating just before SO ; brownish white, strongly irrorated with 
slightly rufescent brown ; antemedian line not strong, obsolescent at costat 
strongly excurved between SC and fold and more slightly behind fold, oblique 
inwards to hindmargin ; cell-dot rather strong, black ; median shade obsolescent 
at costa, rarely strong, touching the cell-dot on its distal side, scarcely incurved 
posteriorly ; postmedian sharper, somewhat lunulate-dentate, the two customary 
sinuosities ; distal area darkened, leaving free a slight streak from costa just 
beyond the postmedian, a rather broad sinuous subterminal (formed nearly as 
in the biselata group) and some slight terminal spots ; termen with blackish 

interneural dashes ; fringe with small blackish dots opposite the veins. 

Hindwing with termen waved and sinuous, slightly prominent at R 1 — M 1 ; first 
line wanting, median proximal to cell-dot, postmedian little beyond centre, dark 
borders sometimes vague. 

Forewing beneath sharply marked, darkened to median shade, distal area 
nearly as above, fringe paler proximally. Hindwing whiter, with strong black 
cell-dot and rather weak brown median and postmedian lines ; terminal dashes 
strong. 

Palni Hills (W. H. Campbell). 5 $<$ in coll. L. B. Prout. Also in other 
collections. 

26. Cyllopoda janeira lugens subsp. nov. 

Hindwing with the black abdominal and distal borders broader than in* 
j. janeira Schaus (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1892, p. 286), and in addition with a black 



312 NOV1TATES ZOOLOOICAE Xx VII 1920. 

costal border above and beneath, which merely leaves free a slender, pointed 
streak of the ground-colour at base. Forewing in general with the yellow markings 
slightly reduced, as also the white scales at apex of fringe. 

Castro, Parana (E. D. Jones). Type <J and 4 $$ in coll. Tring Museum. 
Also in coll. E. D. Jones. 

It seems that this is the " approximans " of Schaus and Warren, but not 
of Walker. 

Subfam. LARENTIENAE. 
27. Lithostege buxtoni sp. nov. 

cJ, 34 mm. Face blackish brown, paler in middle. Palpus short and 
slender ; above dark, beneath pale. (Tongue concealed.) Antenna with fascicles 
of rather long cilia. Vertex and body light brown. Foretibia with terminal 
claws rather slender, the inner moderately long, the outer short. 

Forewing rather narrow, costal margin faintly sinuous, apex round-pointed, 
termen very oblique, gently curved posteriorly, tornus rounded off ; both areoles 
ample, their dividing vein from apex of cell, SO, SO 4 , and SO from apex of distal 
areole, R 1 from beyond its middle ; very pale brownish with strong gloss (as in 
Myinodes) ; an oblique dark line from apex nearly to hindmargin about 3 mm. 
from base, consisting of a series of very shallow lunules separated by slight distal 
and posterior indentations on the veins, slightly more longitudinal between M 1 
and M 2 ; anteriorly to this line the colour is white for some distance, distally 
and posteriorly slightly deeper brown ; fringe rather long, white, tinged proximally 

with brown, a shadowy brownish line dividing the two colours. Hindwing 

narrow and elongate ; C anastomosing with SC from near base to near end of 
cell ; M 1 separate ; glossy white. 

Forewing beneath slightly more greyish, the line feebly showing through, 
at least in apical part. 

Kangavar, Hamadan, N.W. Persia, 5,000 feet, December 6, 1918 (P. A. 
Buxton). Type in coll. L. B. Prout, kindly presented by the discoverer. A 
second cJ, considerably darker and with the line more deeply lunulate-dentate, 
has since come to hand from Mesopotamia (Shergat, Asshur, at light, December 27, 
1919, H. D. Peile), and has equally kindly been presented to me by Mr. H. T. G. 
Watkins. 

According to the £ antenna, will require a new section of the genus. With 
it will probably be associated — if my conjecture in Seitz, Macrolep. iv. 175 is 
correct — the enigmatical chaoticaria Alph. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 313 



A NEW FAT-TAILED GEEBIL (PACHYUROM YS) FROM 
WESTERN ALGERIA. 

By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

AMONG the mammals obtained by Lord Rothschild's expedition into Western 
Algeria in 1913, of which I gave a list in the Novitates,* there was a 
young Pachyuromys from Ai'n Sefra provisionally determined as P. duprasi, the 
Saharan form. But its colour was darker than one would have expected the 
young of P. duprasi to be, and Lord Rothschild has since made efforts to get 
further " Boubiedas " from that region. 

Thanks to the help of M. Victor Faroult, he has now obtained three adult 
skins from Mecheria, 100 km. north-east of Ain Sefra, and these he has kindly 
placed in my hands for examination. 

As I had expected from the colour of the young specimen, these adults clearly 
represent a new and much darker form, which, at Lord Rothschild's suggestion, 
I propose to name : 

Pachyuromys duprasi faroulti, subsp. n. 

Size and essential characters, including the skull and teeth, as in ordinary 
P. duprasi of the Algerian Sahara. General colour, however, very much darker, 
the back between " drab " and " buffy-brown," while duprasi is of a bright desert 
colour, like other Gerbils of the same area. In addition, instead of the colour 
passing without sharp line of demarcation into the white of the undersurface, the 
line of division is quite sharply marked, and there runs along just above it a 
broad band of bright " pinkish cinnamon," less developed on cheeks and flanks, 
broad and conspicuous on the rump. Ears short, buffy whitish with their extreme 
edges brown. Hands and feet wholly white as usual. Fine hairs of tail pale 
cinnamon. 

Dimensions of the type : 

Head and bod3' (from skin), 105 mm. ; tail, 62 ; hindfoot, 23. 

Skull, median length 33'2, greatest diagonal length to back of bulla 365 ; 
condylo-incisive length, 30' 7 ; diagonal length of bulla, 17 ; bi-meatal breadth, 
20 '5 ; upper molar series, 5. 

Hab. Plateau of Western Algeria. Type from Mecheria, 1,100 m. ; another 
specimen from Ai'n Sefra at the same altitude. 

Type. Skin and skull. B.M. No. 20. 3. 1. 1. Collected in the summer of 1918 
by M. Victor Faroult. Presented by Lord Rothschild. Four specimens in all. 

The three forms of Pachyuromys now known present remarkably little differ- 
ence in essential characters, either cranial or external, and should apparently 
only be considered as local subspecies, of which those from Egypt and the 
Algerian Sahara seem most nearly allied to each other. 

* Nov. Zool. xx. p. 586, 1913. 



314 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

The three forms may be distinguished as follows : 

A. General colour paler, passing gradually on sides into white of under- 
surface, the line of separation not marked by a cinnamon band. Edges of ears 
not darkened. 

(a) General colour more or less ochraceous buffy. Algerian Sahara. 

1. P. duprasi duprasi Lataste. 

(6) General colour very pale yellowish buffy. Natron Valley, Lower 
Egypt. 

2. P. d. natronensis de Wint. 

B. General colour darker, sharply demarcated on sides, and with a cinnamon 
band along the lower edge of the upper colour. Extreme edges of ears brown. 
Plateau of Western Algeria. 

3. P. d. faroulti Thos. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 315 



CAPTAIN ANGUS BUCHANANS AIR EXPEDITION. 

I. 

ON A SERIES OF SMALL MAMMALS FROM KANO. 

By Oldfield Thomas and Martin A. C. Hinton. 

T3 Y the kindness of the authorities of the Tring Museum we have been entrusted 
-*—* with the examination of a number of small mammals obtained by Captain 
Angus Buchanan, while stopping at Farniso, near Kano, North Nigeria (altitude 
1,700 ft.), in December 1919, on his way to explore the unknown regions farther 
north. 

These Kano Mammals have proved to be of so much interest and to include 
so many novelties that we have thought it worth while to give a complete list 
of them. 

The most striking form from a zoological point of view is undoubtedly the 
little short-tailed Gerbil Desmodilliscus buchanani, which represents a genus 
only discovered in 1917 and hitherto not included in the British Museum 
collections. 

The handsome little carnivore Poscilictis rothschildi is also a discovery of 
some interest, as it greatly extends the known range of its genus, which has 
only recently been distinguished from Ictonyx. 

By the generosity of Lord Rothschild, a set of the species obtained by 
Captain Buchanan, including the types of new species and subspecies, has been 
presented to the British Museum. 

The only place towards Kano from which the British Museum has hitherto 
received any noticeable collection of mammals is the Bauchi Plateau, some 
160 miles to the south-east, where the missionary brothers G. T. and J. C. Fox 
collected a number which formed the basis of papers by Thomas in 1911-12.* 
Practically all the species, however, prove to be different, and show that the 
two places are in different faunal areas, of which Kano is strikingly more of a 
desert character. 

1. Hipposideros caffer tephrus Cabr. 

6 28, $ 7. 

Adults, in normal dark coat, agreeing in every respect with H. c. tephrus 
as defined by Andersen (Ann. Mus. Genova [3], iii. p. 12). 

Measurements of $ and $ : forearm, 46, 47 mm. ; metacarpal III, 33, 34 ; 
ear, 13, 13 ; tail, 28, 25 ; hindfoot, 85, 8. 

Skull No. 7 : length condyle to canine, 169 ; maxillary width, 58 ; canine 
to m', 5 - 7. 

* Ann. Mag. N. H. (8) vii. p. 457, ix. p. 209, and ix. p. 083. 



316 NOVITATKS ZOOLOGICAE XXVII 1920. 

2. Pipistrellus culex Thos. 



<?5. 



3. Poecilictis rothschildi sp. 



$ 53. December 25, 1919. Type. 

A small species with rather sharply defined coloration and a small black 
tail-tip. 

Size about as in P. multivittata. Fur thinner, less loose and fluffy, so that 
as a consequence the black and white bands are more sharply defined, almost 
as much as in true Ictonyx, from which we have recently separated Pcecilictis. 
Black lines more absolutely black, less lightened by intermixed white hairs. 
General pattern quite the same, the ^-shaped marking on the back with a well- 
defined median black line. White frontal band much broader and more con- 
spicuous, its breadth approximating to that of the black muzzle band in front 
of it, and not much narrower than in the black crown band behind it. Below, 
on cheeks and interramia it is quite continuous, and nearly equally broad. Ears 
black with a very slight white edging at tip. Black bands on top of neck 
continued forward to join the black crown patch ; not cut off at the occiput 
as in other species. Belly with two inconspicuous rows of small white patches 
running down the sides from the axillary to the inguinal region. Tail not very 
bushy, mostly washed with white ; the terminal hairs tipped with black, as in 
P. libyca, but the black far less in extent. 

Skull about as in P. multivittata,, but rather more robust. 

Dimensions of the type skin, measured in flesh : 

Head and body, 222 ; tail, 126 ; hindfoot, 295 ; ear, 17. 

Skull (not yet received from Capt. Buchanan). 

A male skull sent home by Major Cock measures : condylo-basal length, 
50 mm. ; zygomatic breadth, 30 ; interorbital breadth, Ho ; intertemporal 
breadth, 115; mastoid breadth, 2V5 ; vertical height, including bullae, 21; 
palatal length, 24. Length of p' on outer edge, 5' 9 ; transverse diameter of m 1 
54. 

This little Zoril is a very well marked and striking species, and constitutes 
a great extension of the range of the genus Poecilictis, the previously known 
species occurring from Algeria to Suakin and the Upper Nile. Its original dis- 
coverer was Major Hubert Cock, R.A., who obtained a specimen at Zungeru, 
N. Nigeria, in 1904, but was only able to bring home the skull, which is now 
in the National Museum and is measured above. 

The genus Poecilictis has only been recently founded by us for the members 
of the Ictonyx libyca group, these being distinguished from true Ictonyx by various 
essential characters, of which the most noteworthy are the truncated skull, 
hypertrophied bullae, and more hairy palms and soles. P. multivittata Wagn., 
referred to above, is better known as frenata Sund., but this latter name is certainly 
a synonym of the former. 

We have much pleasure in naming this very handsome little animal after 
Lord Rothschild, by whom Captain Buchanan's expedition has been arranged, and 
to whose generosity the National Museum owes a series of all the species obtained, 
including the types. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 317 

4. Taterillus gracilis angelus subsp. n. 

c? 18, 19, 26, 40, 51, 58, 80 ; ? 35, 38, 52, 79. 

Paler than true gracilis and with whitish head-markings. 

Size as in true gracilis. General colour above more buffy, less ochraceous 
than in that animal. In some instances this is not so marked on the back, but 
the crown and forehead are in all cases of the paler and more buffy tint. Sides 
of muzzle white nearly up to eyes. A linear area along above eye and extending 
back to the ear-opening white or whitish, so that in upper view the whole frontal 
area is bordered on each side with whitish. Ears buffy. Hands and feet pure 
white. Tail very pale-coloured, generally whitish above, rarely rather buffy, 
and white below to the tip, including the underside of the pencil. 

Skull as in gracilis. 

Dimensions of the type : 

Head and body, 113 ; tail, 148 ; hindfoot, 29 ; ear, 19. 

Skull, greatest length, 33 ; condylo-incisive length, 29 ; palatal foramina, 
6 - l ; upper molar series, 5. 

Type. Young adult male, No. 51. Collected December 24, 1919. 

Distinguished from true gracilis by paler colour and the whitish lateral areas 
on the head. 

5. Gerbillus nigeriae sp. n. 

c? 48, 56, 57, 65 ; $ 24, 50, 55, 60, 62, 63, 64. 

A small Gerbil allied to the Sudan G. agag. 

Size about as in G. agag. General colour about normal Gerbil colour, not so 
vivid as in the North Saharan G. gerbillus. Cheeks white, a lighter patch in front 
of the eye, a more marked one behind it, and another behind base of ear. Ears 
buffy. Fore-limbs white from elbow, hind- from ankle ; feet comparatively 
short, soles hairy. Tail pale buffy above proximally, the rest white except that 
there are a few brown hairs in the inconspicuous pencil. 

Bullae small, about as in G. allenbyi and the small species of Dipodillus ; 
much smaller than in G. gerbillus and its allies. 

Dimensions of the type : 

Head and body, 98 mm. ; tail, 108 ; hindfoot, 23 ; ear, 13. 

Skull, greatest length, 28 ; condylo-incisive length, 243 ; zygomatic breadth 
15'5 ; nasals, 107 ; breadth of brain-case, 13'2 ; anterior palatal foramina, 
4 - 7 ; posterior palatal foramina, 26 ; bullae, 9x57; upper molar series, 4. 

Type. Old female, No. 55. Collected December 25, 1919. 

This pretty little Gerbil is no doubt closely allied to the G. agag of the Egyptian 
Sudan, but has longer ears, a tendency to lighter patches in front of as well as 
behind the eyes, and a buffy whitish instead of brownish upperside of tail, of 
which the terminal tuft is less developed and has less brown in it. 

6. Desmodilliscus buchanani sp. n. 
$ 25. 

Allied to D. braueri of the Egyptian Sudan, but with less enlarged bullae. 
Size about as in D. braueri, or rather smaller. Fur very soft and fine. 



318 NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920 

General colour above sandy fawn, the sides little paler than the back, the fur 
deep slaty blackish at base over most of the buffy area ; but in three nearly 
equidistant regions, one below the ears, one in the centre of the flanks, and one 
behind the hips, the slaty is absent, and the hairs are white with buffy tips. 
Undersurface as usual wholly pure white. Cheeks, a prominent patch behind 
the eyes, and another behind the ears white. Ears short, their proectote whitish 
with black edges ; metentote blackish but with fine white hairs on it. Fore- 
limbs and hindfeet white ; palms and soles apparently as described in D. braueri. 
Tail little more than half as long as the head and body, thinly haired, not pencilled, 
wholly white. 

Skull on the whole not dissimilar from that of D. braueri, as shown in the 
excellent figures published by Wettstein. The bullae are, however, a good deal 
less swollen, especially anteriorly, where they do not nearly reach the zygomata, 
nor surpass them laterally. Posterior palatal foramina even larger than in 
braueri, exceeding in area the anterior pair. 

Incisors exceedingly narrow, and so bevelled that the strongly marked 
grooves appear laterally to be halfway along the outer side of the tooth ; front 
surface white or whitish. Molars apparently very similar in structure to those 
of D. braueri, except that the anterior lobe of m, is more or less median, instead 
of diverging outwards. M 3 wholly absent, as in D. braueri. 

Dimensions of the type : 

Head and body, 66 mm. ; tail, 37 ; hindfoot, 15 ; ear, 9. 

Skull, greatest median length, 21 - 4 ; condylo-incisive length, 20 ; zygomatic 
breadth, 12 p 8 ; nasals, 7 ; interorbital breadth, 3'8 ; breadth of brain-case, 104 ; 
bi-meatal breadth, 128 ; distance between bullae across interparietal, 6 ; palatilar 
length, 9'3 ; anterior palatal foramina, 3'8 ; posterior palatal foramina, 2'9 ; 
diagonal length of bullae, 9'8 ; front of meatus to back of bullae, 8'5 ; upper 
molar series, 3'2. 

Type. Young adult female, No. 25. Collected December 19, 1919. 

This remarkable little Gerbil is a most valuable and acceptable addition to 
the National Collection, as it represents one of the few genera that we had not 
previously had. The original species was described by Dr. Wettstein * from 
near El Obeid in the Egyptian Sudan, and this is clearly a second species of the 
same genus, which is related to Microdillus, Desmodillus, and the other shorts 
tailed Gerbils. 

We have named it in honour of its captor, to whose interest in collecting 
small mammals we are indebted for the many novelties contained in this Kano 
series. 



7. Steatomys cuppedius sp. n. 

^ 36, 59; $ 39, 44, 61, 70. 

A small species of the S. minulus group, with comparatively long tail. 

Size about the same as in S. minutus and loveridgei, therefore much smaller 
than the ordinary species allied to S. pratensis, and still more so as compared 
with the only Nigerian species hitherto known, 8. caurinus. General colour pale 
drab, without definite darkening on crown or middle of back, though of course 

* Denkachr. Akad. Wise. Wien, vol. xciv. part ii. 1017, p. 115. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 319 

the sides are rather paler. Undersurface as usual white, the white area rising 
well up on the cheeks, and taking in the whole of the forelimbs, but not the legs. 
Ears of medium length, pale brown, a well-defined white spot at the base of their 
outer edge, just below the meatus. Hands and feet pure white. Tail decidedly 
longer than in minutus and loveridgei, almost wholly white, a few darker hairs 
on the middle of its upper surface at base and tip. 

Skull stoutly built ; bullae of medium size ; palatal foramina well open, 
reaching backwards to the level of the middle of the first lamina of m 1 . 

Dimensions of the type : 

Head and body, 81 mm. ; tail, 42' 5 ; hindfoot, 135; ear, 13' 5. 

Skull, greatest length, 217; condylo- incisive length, 20 4 ; zygomatic 
breadth, 1T4 ; nasals, 8'6 ; palatilar length, 95 ; palatal foramina, 4'2 x 2"1 ; 
upper molar series (worn), 3' 5. 

Type. Female, No. 70. Collected December 29, 1919. 

This Steatomys is readily distinguishable by its small size and comparatively 
long tail. On the other hand, the species discovered by Mr. Fox on the Bauchi 
Plateau — 8. cauriwus — is one of the largest of the genus, with a skull over 27 mm. 
in length. 

8. Arvicanthis sp. 

<?21, 68 ; ?4, 71, 72, 76, 77. 
A. testicvlaris group. 

9. Rattus (Mastomys) sp. 
<? 69 ; $ 47. 

10. Rattus (Myomys) daltoni Thos. 

3 8, 22, 31, 32, 42, 43, 46, 49, 75 ; ? 33, 37, 54. 

The majority of these specimens are quite like ordinary daltoni, but three 
of them, nos. 32, 46, and 49, are strongly melanistic, quite different from the 
rest, and so like large examples of Mus musctdus that they were at first supposed 
to be that animal, and then, on closer study, a special local blackish species. 
But we have now no doubt that they really are melanos of R. daltoni, thus giving 
an example of a somewhat rare phenomenon among wild Muridae, especially 
among such as inhabit dry countries. 

11. Leggada haussa sp. n. 

<J 13, 14, 10, 17, 29, 45 ; ? 15, 49, 67. 

A small pale gerbil-coloured species. 

Size among the smallest of the genus. Fur crisp, not spiny, hairs of back 
about 3 mm. in length. General colour above pale sandy or gerbil colour, not 
far from " cinnamon-buff." Sides " light ochraceous-buff." Undersurface as 
usual pure white, the white including the whole of the forearms, but a line of 
buffy runs down the back of the legs to the ankles. Ears pale brown ; a distinct 
white spot just below their outer base. 

Skull of normal proportions ; palatal foramina long ; choanse not specially 
contracted or pushed backwards. Molars of the highly developed Leggada type,, 
with long anterior lobe to m 1 . 



320 NOVTTATES ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Dimensions of the type : 

Head and body, 55 mm. ; tail, 37 ; hindfoot, 115 ; ear, 95. 

Skull, greatest length, 17; condylo-incisive length, 16"1 ; zygomatic 
breadth, 9 ; interorbital breadth, 3"2 ; palatal foramina, 4 ; upper molar series, 3. 

Type. Adult female, No. 67. Collected December 29, 1919. 

This tiny mouse is related to the ordinary W. African L. musculoides Temm., 
but is decidedly paler in colour, and always has a distinct white spot at the base 
of the ear. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOIOAE XXVII. 1920. 321 

ON THE GENUS ELACHYOPHTHALMA Feld. 
By Lord Rothschild, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

THE genus Elachyophthalma was established by Felder in 1861 for a species 
of the family Bombycidae. from Amboina which he called tricolor. Felder 
placed the genus in the Saturnidae (Attacidae), although it struck him as very 
aberrant, for he says in the footnote to the generic diagnosis, " Genus ab omnibus 
Saturniidis jam habitu discrepans, Ocinarae Walker secundum alarum formam 
fortasse accedens." 

Its right place in the system is in the Bombycidae, immediately following 
Gunda and Ocinara. The sexes are dimorphic and strangely different. The 
(Jc? described in this article are described for the first time, all the hitherto 
described specimens being $$. 

The diagnosis of the genus, given by Felder, is as follows : 

" Caput parvum, valde retractum. Oeuli minimi. Antennae (? nae) 
breves, sat late pectinatae. Lingua nulla. Palpi minuti, caput aequantes. 
Alae breviter ciliatae, integerrimae, anticae apice obtusae, margine externo 
convexo, vena subcostali quinque-ramosa (ramo primo ad cellulae extimum 
oriente), vena discoidali secunda fere in medio venae discocellularis arcuatae 
oriente, ramis ultimis medianis approximatis, primo remotiore, posticae ro- 
tundatae, vena costali ad basin cum subcostali connata, dein costae valde ap- 
proximata, post hujus medium desinente, vena subcostali longe post cellulae 
irregulariter clausae extimum ramificante, ramo tertio et secundo mediano 
valde approximatis. Pedes breves, setosi, tibiae posticorum calcaribus duobus 
apicalibus minutis. Abdomen ($ nae) subrobustum, alis posticis dimidio fere 
brevius, ano subvilloso." 

The synonymy of the genus is as follows : 
Elachyophthalma Felder, Ber. Kais. Ak. Wiss. Wien (Math. — N.W. Class), 

vol. xliii. (I) (25-44), p. 32 (1861). Type tricolor Feld. 
Laganda Walker, List. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. part xxxii. p. 389 (1865). Type 

picaria Walk. 
Diversosexus Bethune Baker, Nov. Zool. vol. xi. p. 402 (1904). Type bicolor 

B. Baker. 

There are two sharply defined groups of species : 1st, with the $9 more 
or less golden yellow, resembling in general facies the genus Gunda, and with 
the <J large with a diagonal orange band across the hindwings ; 2nd, with the 
$$ black, white, and yellow, or black and white, or black and yellow, resembling 
certain groups of Liparidae. and with the £ small and uniform brown. In the 
latter group must be ranged two aberrant species, of which only $9 are known, 
of a rufous-brown colour and mimicking almost exactly some species of the 
Eupherotid genus Cotana. There are at present known 18 species, as follows : 

1. Elachyophthalma megaxantha (Walk.). 

Artaxa megaxantha Walker, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. part xxxv. p. 1913 (1866) (Batchian). 

The type now in the Hope University Museum, Oxford, has remained unique. 
21 



goo Xovitaths Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920, 

2. Elachyophthalma inturbida (Walk). 

Leucoma inturbida Walker, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. part xxxii. p. 345 (1865) (Celebes). 
This has also remained unique. 

3. Elachyophthalma kebeae (B. Baker). 

Gunda kebeae Bethune Baker, Novit. Zool. vol. xi. p. 370. No. 4. pi. iv. f. 32 (1904) (Mt. Kebea). 
The series at Tring consists of 1 $ and 24 $?. The <J was hitherto unknown. 
cJ. Pectus orange ; legs orange-yellow varied with maroon-chocolate ; 
antennae chocolate-brown, pectinations no longer than in $ ; head, thorax, 
and abdomen chocolate-brown. 

Forewing maroon-chocolate-brown, disk sparingly sprinkled with yellowish 
hairlike scales, an indistinct antemedial, strongly zigzag shadow band ; disco- 
cellular stigma lunate black-brown ; a broad sinuate postmedian shadow band. 
Hindwing maroon-chocolate-brown, inner one-third sprinkled with yellow hair 
scales : a broad, oblique, wedge-shaped band of orange runs from base of wing 
to termen between veins 4 and 6 ; a trace of a sooty line crosses the orange 
before termen ; the hindwing is very long and ovoid. 

1 J, 1 $ Mt. Goliath, Central Dutch New Guinea, 5,000 ft., March 1911 ; 
1 $ nr. Oetakwa River, Snow Mts., Dutch New Guinea, October — December 
1910 ; 6 $$ Kumusi River, N.E. British New Guinea, May 1907 ; 1 $ Good- 
enough Island, 2,500 — 4,000 ft., April 1913 ; 1 $ Milne Bay, British New Guinea, 
December 1898 ; 1 $ Lower Aroa River, British New Guinea, November 1904 — 
March 1905; 1 $ Biagi Mambare River, N.W. British New Guinea, 5,000 ft., 
February 1906 (A. S. Meek coll.) ;— 6 $? Hydrographer Mts., N. British New 
Guinea, 2,500 ft., March 1918 (Eichhorn Bros, coll.) ;— 2 $$ Dorey, Dutch New 
Guinea, June 1 897 ; Kapour, S. W. Dutch New Guinea, January — February 
1897 ; 2 $? Humboldt Bay, N. Coast Dutch New Guinea, September — October 
1892 (W. Doherty coll.) ;— 1 $ Ninay Valley, Central Arfak Mts., Dutch New 
Guinea, 3,500 ft., February— March 1909 (A. E. Pratt coll.). 

The amount of dark scaling on the outer quarter of wings and the dis- 
tinctness of the two transverse dark bands varies much in the $$, and two of those 
from Kumusi River and one from the Hydrographer Mts. are practically pure 
yellow. The Dutch New Guinea $$ appear to be generally smaller than the 
rest, but two British New Guinea $$ are the smallest of all. 
Length of forewing, tf 22 mm. ; expanse, 47 mm. 

4. Elachyophthalma flava (Joicey & Talbot). 

Gvnda kebeae flava Joicey & Talbot, Trans. Entom. Soc. Lond. 1910. p. 384 (Arfak Peninsula). 

This is not a form of kebeae B. Baker, but a distinct . species easily 
recognised by the brown apical area of the forewing and the cream-grey 
tornal area of hindwing. 

5. Elachyophthalma keiensis sp. nov. 

$. Similar to kebeae but smaller, differs principally in having the legs golden 
yellow instead of sooty black, and in the first 3 rings of the abdomen being strongly 
suffused with yellow on the sides. 



Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 323 

Length of forewing, 21 mm. ; expanse, 47 mm. 

Hab. : 3 $$ Little Kei Island, March 1893 (H. Kiihn coll.). 

6. Elachyopthhalma flavolivacea (Rothsch.). 

Gunda flavolivacea Rothschild, Brit. Ornith. Union <k Woll. Exped., Lepid. p. 101. no. 552 (1915) 
(Utakwa River). 

1 $, type, Canoe Camp, Utakwa River, Dutch New Guinea, October 1912 
(A. F. R. Wollaston) ; 4 $$ Upper Setekwa River, Snow Mts., Dutch New Guinea, 
2,000—3,000 ft., August 1910 (A. S. Meek). 

7. Elachyophthalma dohertyi sp. nov. 

$. Head, thorax, and abdomen golden yellow. Forewing canary-yellow, 
some irregular antemedian and cellular streaks, a postmedian line joining on to 
the oblique apical one-third, the apical one-third of wing, and the margin dull 
maroon- brown. Hind wings deep golden yellow. 

Length of forewing, 17 mm. ; expanse, 37 mm. 

Hab. 1 $ Tenimber Island, June-^July 1892 (W. Doherty). 

8. Elachyophthalma meeki sp. nov. 

$. Pectus and legs sooty brown ; head sooty brown ; antennae shafts 
whitish, pectinations sooty brown ; thorax pale golden yellow ; abdomen sooty 
grey- brown, anal tuft white on basal half, pale grey on apical half. Forewing 
semi-vitreous pale golden yellow, apical one-third densely irrorated with grey 
scales. Hindwing semi-vitreous pale golden yellow. 

Length of forewing, 21 mm. ; expanse, 48 mm. 

Hab. 1 § Angabunga River, affl. St. Joseph's River, British New Guinea, 
6,000 ft. upwards, November 1904— February 1905 (A. S. Meek). 

9. Elachyophthalma semicostalis sp. nov. 

$. Pectus and legs sooty black-brown ; head sooty brown- black ; antennae 
black ; thorax and tegulae orange-buff, rest sooty black-brown ; abdomen sooty 
black-brown, anal tuft white. Forewing thinly scaled sooty black-brown, basal 
half with an olive tinge ; basal three-fifths of costal area orange-buff. Hind- 
wings basal two-thirds sooty black-brown, outer two-fifths orange-golden, fringe 
black-brown. Underside basal three- fifths of forewing obliquely dull orange- 
golden, outer two-fifths brown-black ; hindwing as above, but outer two-thirds 
heavily dusted with dark scales. 

Length of forewing, 22 — 26 mm. ; expanse, 48 — 58 mm. 

Hab. 2 $$, type, Upper Aroa River, British New Guinea, February — April 
1903; 1 $ Booboomie Aroa River, 2,000 ft., May 1905 (bred from cocoon) ; 
1 $ Kumusi River, N.E. British New Guinea, July 1907 (A. S. Meek) ;— 1 $ Dorey, 
Dutch New Guinea, June 1897 (W. Doherty). 

The cocoon of this species is most curious ; it is flagon-shaped, quite hard, 
and with a tail-like appendage 11 mm. long and dark brown in colour. It is 
suspended free in the air by a cord 40 millimetres long attached to the underside 
of a bamboo leaf. 



324 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

10. Elachyophthalma goliathina sp. nov. 

(J. Dark chocolate-brown above ; an indistinct darker zig-zag antemedian 
line and 2 darker serpentine zigzag postmedian lines more distinct on forewing ; 
apex of forewing more olive. Hindwing with rufous tinge, abdominal margin 
on edge with whitish lines. 

Length of forewing, 26 — 28 mm. ; expanse, 56 — 60 mm. 

Hah. 5 $$ Mount Goliath, Central Dutch New Guinea, 5,000 ft., February 
1911. 

11. Elachyophthalma tricolor Feld. 

Elachyophthalma tricolor Felder, Ber. Kais. Ak. Wiss. {Math.—N.W. Class), vol. xliii. p. 32 (1861) 
(Amboina). 

6 $$, incl. type, Amboina (Doleschall ex coll. Felder) ; 5 $$ Amboina, 
August 1892 (W. Doherty). 

12. Elachyophthalma bicolor (B. Baker). 

Diversosexus bicolor Bethune Baker, Novit. Zool. vol. xi. p. 403 (1904) (Dinawa) ($ descr. as <J ; 
Baker's $ is a Lymantrid). 

The amount of yellow at tornus of hindwings and the width and shape of 
the median band of forewings varies very much. 

5 $$ Milne Bay, British New Guinea, January — October 1 899 ; 1 ? Upper 
Aroa River, British New Guinea, March 1903 ; Booboomie Aroa River, 2,000 ft., 
May 1905 ; 1 $ Goodenough Island, November 1896 ; 2 $$ Kumusi River, 
N.E. British New Guinea, June 1907 (A. S. Meek) ;— 3 ?$ Hydrographer Mts., 
N. British New Guinea, 2,500 ft., April— May 1918 (Eichhorn Bros.). 

13. Elachyophthalma melanoleuca sp. nov. 

$. Legs, pectus, head, antennae, and thorax sooty black ; abdomen sooty 
black, anal tuft white with bright buff centre. Forewing sooty black, a median 
band broad, curved, white, reaching from inner margin to just below subcostal 
nervure. Hindwing sooty black, a large, irregular, white triangular patch 
extends from the abdominal margin to just above vein 5. 

Length of forewings, 25 mm. ; expanse, 55 mm. 

Hob. 3 $$ Humboldt Bay, September— October 1892 (W. Doherty). 

14. Elachyophthalma insularum sp. nov. 

<J. Uniform chocolate-rufous above ; sides of abdominal margin of hindwing 
with oblique white streaks. 

Length of forewing, 17 mm.; expanse, 38 mm. 
Hob. 1 tf Roa Island, July 1897 (W. Doherty). 

15. Elachyophthalma fergussonis sp. nov. 

cj. Uniform chocolate-brown above ; thorax with a mauve-grey suffusion ; 
forewings owing to the excavated termen strongly falcate ; hindwing tornus 
much produced, 3 strong oblique white bands on abdominal margin. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 325 

9. Pectus, legs, head, antennae, and thorax sooty black-grey ; abdomen 
sooty black, anal tuft buff-white below and on sides. Forewing sooty black-grey, 
a broad creamy white curved band from subcostal nervure to vein 1 ; area 
below vein 1 yellow on outer three-fifths. Hindwing basal two-fifths sooty 
grey-black, outer three-fifths yellow, slightly sprinkled with dark scales ; fringe, 
margin, and outer half of nervures sooty. 

Second 9 has yellow below vein 1 of forewing and outer portion of hindwing 
much obscured by black scales. 

Length of forewing, $ 17 mm. ; expanse, 39 mm. 

Length of forewing, 9 26 mm. ; expanse, 58 mm. 

Hob. 1 <J, 2 99 Fergusson Island, December 1894 — November 1895 (A. S. 
Meek). 

16. Elachyophthalma iniraluteola sp. nov. 

9. Pectus, legs, head, and thorax sooty brown-black ; abdomen sooty 
brown-black, anal tuft buff-white on sides. Forewing sooty brown-black above, 
with a broad curved white band. Hindwing above basal half except costa and 
base pale golden yellow ; outer half, costa, and base sooty brown-black. Below 
the white band on forewing is much s extended. 

Length of forewing, 23 mm. ; expanse, 51 mm. 

Hah. 1 9 Humboldt Bay, N. Dutch New Guinea, September — October 
1892 (W. Doherty). 

17. Elachyophthalma doreyana sp. nov. 

(J. Uniform rufous-chocolate above, a small yellow half-moon-shaped 
discocellular stigma in forewing, and white streaks on abdominal margin of 
hindwing. 

9. Uniform sooty grey-black ; a broad white median band on forewing, 
more even in width and more strongly curved than in bicolor B. Baker, tornal 
half of abdominal margin greenish buff with black band across centre. 

Length of forewing, <J 17 mm. ; expanse, 38 mm. 

Length of forewing, 9 26 mm. ; expanse, 57 mm. 

Hah. Dorey, N. Dutch New Guinea, June 1897 (W. Doherty). 

Diversosexus aroa B. Baker is not an Elachyophthalma at all, but a Lymantrid 
of the genus N'jgmia. 

18. Elachyophthalma cotanoides sp. nov. 

9. Pectus rufous-orange ; legs black, clothed on inner side with orange 
hair ; antennae brown-black ; head and thorax rufous-orange ; abdomen 
rufous-orange, anal tuft lead- blue at base, rest greyish white, centre rufous. 
Forewing chocolate-rufous ; basal three-fifths of costal area orange, nervures 
golden-yellow washed with rufous on inner four-fifths of wing, a darker rufous 
and yellow double postmedian band, beyond which nervures broadly golden 
yellow, a patch of golden buff between veins 2 and 4 on inner side of postmedian 
band. 

Hindwing chocolate-rufous, nervures on inner three-fourths slightly yellow, 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

a somewhat obsolete postmedian band yellow, beyond which the nervures are 
strongly golden yellow. 

Below both wings chocolate-rufous, nervures strongly yellow. 

Length of forewing, 25 mm. ; expanse, 56 mm. 

Hab. 2 $$ Upper Setakwa River, Snow Mts., Dutch New Guinea, 2,000— 
3,000 ft., August 1910 (A. S. Meek). 

19. Elachyophthalma mimiocotana sp. nov. 

?. Pectus and legs pale rufous washed with buff ; antennae chocolate-rufous ; 
head and thorax pale rufous ; abdomen pale rufous, a transverse band and anal 
tuft whitish. Forewing pale rufous, nervures golden buff, a patch occupying 
most of cell and some indistinct marks below it golden buff, a chocolate-rufous 
postdiscal band. Hindwing pale rufous nervures and broad postmedian band 
golden buff. 

Length of forewing, 21 mm. ; expanse, 47 mm. 

Hab. 1 ? Lower Aroa River, British New Guinea, November 1904 — March 
1905 (A. S. Meek). 



NOVTTATE8 ZOOLOQICAE XXVII. 1920. 327 



THE NEW NAMES IN J. HERMANN'S TABULA 
AFFINITATUM ANIMALIUM. 

By Dr. Erwtn Stresemann. 

IN 1783 Johann Hermann,* Professor of Natural History at the University 
of Strassburg, published a rather voluminous work entitled Tabula 
Affinitatvm Animalium,^ in which an attempt at a natural classification of 
vertebrates is made. J The birds are dealt with on pp. 131 to 235. 

Hermann was exceedingly well acquainted with the scientific literature of 
his time, and it might almost be said that his knowledge of birds was principally 
derived from the works of his predecessors in ornithology. Among the books 
quoted by him, BuSon's Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux, 1 770-9, § stands in the 
foremost rank. As every ornithologist knows, in that great work many repre- 
sentatives of tropical bird-life were for the first time characterized under French 
vernacular names. Hermann, an adherent of Linne's binomial system, thought 
it advisable to propose for a good number of these novelties generic and specific 
terms in the Latin language which are perfectly valid under existing rules, each 
being accompanied by a reference to the particular species or group in Buffon's 
work for which the new scientific term was intended. Some of these names have 
undoubted priority over others in current use. Hermann, it must be remembered, 
was the first author to introduce scientific designations for some of Buffon's new 
species. Shortly afterwards a Dutch author, C. Boddaert, followed in his steps 
by publishing the Table des Planches enluminees, now well known to ornithologists 
through the reprint edited by the Willoughby Society. It has been pointed 
out by C. W. Richmond j[ that Hermann's book has precedence over Boddaert's, 
the latter having been issued " in December 1783 or later." 

Owing to its scarcity, Hermann's Tabula Affinitatvm Animalium has been 
rarely taken into account by ornithologists. The earliest reference I find is that 
by Sclater,T( when quoting the generic name Myrmornis Herm. Several years 
later Cabanis and Heine ** unearthed Hermann's specific name discolor, which 
stood ever since for a Madagascar Roller of the genus Leptosomus ; while Rich- 
mond called attention to Tinamus soui and the generic term Lybius. In 

* A short biography of Hermann is to be found in R. Lauterborn's edition of L. Baldner's 
Vogel,- Fisch- und Thierbuch, Ludwigshafen, 1903, pp. xxxviii-xxxix. 

t Tabula | Affinitatum | Animalium | olim academico specimine edita | nunc | uberiore com- 
mentario | illustrata j cum annotationibus | ad historiam naturalem animalium | augendam 
facientibus | auctore | Johann Hermann — M.D. et Prof. | Argentorati 1783. 

{ The tract " Tabula Affinitatum Animalium, Strassburg 1777," mentioned by Engelmann 
and Carus, is a dissertation by G. Chr. Wiirtz, one of Hermann's pupils. This paper, consisting 
of 1 6 pages in 8vo, contains no new names. 

§ By a singular coincidence, Hermann's copy of that work, presented to him by Buffon's joint 
author, Guenau de Montbeillard, and provided with numerous manuscript notes by his own hand, 
passed into possession of the library of the Munich Museum, where it has been frequently consulted 
by me while compiling the present article. 

|| Auk 17, 1900, p. 179. A little-known memoir in which the author endeavours to determine 
every bird figured in Daubenton's Planches enluminees is due to Heinrich Kuhl (Buffonii et Daubentonu 
figurarum Avium coloratarum nomina systematica. Groningen, 1820). 

% Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1858, p. 270. 

** Mus. Hein. iv. 1802, p. 57 (Anmerkung). 



328 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

Ridgway's monumental work The Birds of North and Middle America, Hermannian 
names are quoted in the synonymy of various species. 

NEW GENERIC NAMES. 
FORMICARIIDAE. 

Myrmornis Hermann vs. Rhopoterpe Cabanis. 

Myrmornis Hermann, I.e. pp. 188, 210, 235, proposed for " Fourmilier " of 
Buff on, iv. p. 462. Type by tautonymy : " Le Fourmilier proprement dit " 
of Buffon, iv. p. 473 = Formicarius torquatus Bodd. 1783. Replaces Rhopoterpe 
Cabanis 1847. T}'pe by subsequent designation (Cabanis and Heine, 1859), 
Formicarius torquatus Bodd. 

CAPITONIDAE. 

Lybius Hermann vs. Melanobucco Shelley. 

Lybius Hermann, I.e. pp. 217/235. Type by monotypy, Lybius guifsobalito 
Herm. 1783 (= Loxia tridactyla Gmelin, 1789). Replaces Melanobucco Shelley, 
1889. Type by original designation, Bucco bidentatus Shaw, 1798. 

SAGITTARIIDAE. 

Sagittarius Hermann vs. Serpentarius Cuvier. 

Sagittarius Hermann, I.e. pp. 136, 165, 235. Type by original designation: 
"Sagittarius" Boddaert, Dierk. Mengehverk, vol. v. 1770, p. 17 = Falco ser- 
pentarius I. F. Miller. Replaces Oypogeranus Borkhausen, 1797, and Serpen- 
tarius Cuvier, 179S.* 

NEW SPECIFIC NAMES. 

FARADISAEIDAE. 

Falcinellus fastosus (Herm.) vs. Falcinellus striates (Bodd.). 

Promerops fastosus Hermann, I.e. pp. 194, 202, based on " Le Grand Promerops 
a paremens frises " of Montbeillard, in Buffon, vi. p. 472, has priority over 
Vpupa striata Boddaert, 1783. 

DICAEIDAE. 

Dicaeum australe (Herm.) vs. Dicaeum papuense (Gm.). 

Pipra australis Hermann, I.e. p. 223, based on " Le Manikor " of Buffon, iv. 
p. 431, takes precedence over Pipra papuensis Gmelin, 1789. 

TANAGRIDAE. 

Arremon taciturnus (Herm.) vs. Arremon silens (Bodd.). 

Tanagra taciturna Hermann, I.e. p. 214 note, based on " L'Oiseau Silentieirx " 
of Buffon, iv. p. 304, has priority over Tanagra silens Boddaert, 1783. 

* Cf. C. W. Richmond, Proc. U.S. Nat. A/us. 53. 1917, p. t^. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 329 

ALAUDIDAE 

Certhilauda eurvirostris (Herm.) vs. Certhilauda capensis (Bodd.) * 
et Certhilauda africana (Gm.). 

Alauda eurvirostris Hermann, I.e. p. 216, based on " Le Sirli du Cap de 
Bonne Esperance " of Montbeillard, in Buffon, v. p. 65, antedates Alauda 
ajricana Gmelin, 1789. 

TYRANNTDAE. 

Tyrannus eurvirostris (Herm.) vs. Tyrannus dominicensis (Gm.). 

Sitta eurvirostris Hermann, I.e. p. 204, is based on " La Grande Sitelle a bee 
croehu " of Montbeillard, in Buffon, v. p. 475, where we find Sloane's description 
of an apparently young bird. The name antedates Lanius dominicensis Gmelin, 
1788. 

FORMICARIIDAE. 
Myrmothera f campanisona (Herm.) vs. Grallaria brevicauda (Bodd.). 

Myrmornis campanisona Hermann, I.e. p. 189 note, based on " Le grand 
Befroi " of Buffon, iv. p. 470, antedates Formicarius brevicauda Boddaert, 1783. 

Leucolepis arada (Herm.) vs. Leucolepis musica (Bodd.). 

Myrmornis Arada Hermann, I.e. p. 211 note, based on " L' Arada " of Buffon, 
iv. p. 480, antedates Formicarius musicus Boddaert, 1783. 

Myrmotherula brachyura (Herm.) vs. Myrmotherula pygmaea (Gm.). 

Muscicapa brachyura Hermann, I.e. p. 229 note, based on ' Le petit Gobe- 
mouche tachete de Cayenne " of Buffon, iv. p. 554, and PI. Enl. No. 831, fig. 2, 
antedates Muscicapa pygmaea Gmelin, 1789. 

COTINGIDAE. 

Procnias averano (Herm.) vs. Procnias variegatus (Gm.) et Procnias 
nudicollis (Vieill.). 

Ampelis Averano Hermann, I.e. pp. 211, 214, based on " 1' Averano " of 
Montbeillard in Buffon, iv. p. 457 (based in its turn upon Marcgrave's " Guira- 
punga"), antedates Ampelis variegata Gmelin, 1789. J 

* Alauda capensis Boddaert, 1783, is preoccupied by Alauda capensis Linnaeus 1766 (Syst. 
Nat. xii. p. 268, Alauda sp. 8), which has been generally overlooked (for instance, by Reichenow, 
Vogel A/rikas, iii. p. 352). 

t Myrmothera Vieillot, Anal, d'une nouv. Ornith. el. 1816, p. 43 : " Esp. Befroi, et quelques 
autres fourmilliers de Buffon " ; type by monotypy : Myrmornis campanisona Herm. The generic 
name Myrmothera is to be found in Vieillot's tract on the same page as Grallaria, hitherto used in 
the same sense, but has precedence by several lines. — C. E. Hellmayb. 

% Marcgrave's Guirapunga, the sole basis of both Ampelis averano Herm. 1783 and Ampelis 
variegata Gmelin {Syst. Nat. I. ii. 1789, p. 841), had hitherto been referred to the Black-winged 
Bell-bird of British Guiana, Trinidad, and Northern Venezuela. Although — as pointed out long 
ago by Lichtenstein (Abhandl. Berliner Akad. a. d. Jahren 1816-17, publ. 1819, p. 163) — Marcgrave 
(Hist. Nat. Bras. p. 201) described a bird in change from juvenile to adult plumage, there can be 
hardly any doubt as to its having belonged to Procnias nudicollis (Vieill.), the only species of Bell- 
bird occurring in Eastern Brazil. In spite of the fact that Marcgrave's account is in several respects 



330 NOVITATE8 Zoolooicae XXVTT. 1920. 

Procnias alba (Herm.) vs. Procnias nivea (Bodd.). 

Ampelis alba Hermann, I.e. p. 213 note, based on " Le Guira Panga ou 
Cotinga blanc " of MontbeiLlard, in Buffon, iv. p. 454, antedates Ampelis nivea 
Boddaert, 1783. 

CAPITONIDAE. 

Lybius guifsobalito Herm. vs. Melanobucco tridactylus (Gm.). 

Lybius guifsobalito Hermann, I.e. p. 217 note, based on " Le Guifso Balito " 
of Buffon, iii. p. 471, is much earlier than Loxia tridactyla Gmelin, 1789. 

CORACIIDAE. 

Coracias abyssinicus Herm. vs. Coracias abyssinus Bodd. 

Coracias abyssinica Hermann, I.e. p. 197, based on " Le Rollier d'Abyssinie " 
of Montbeillard, in Buffon, iii. p. 143, antedates Coracias abyssinus Boddaert, 
1783. 

ALCEDINIDAE. 

Dacelo novaeguineae (Herm.) vs. Dacelo gigas (Bodd.). 

Alcedo novae Guineae Hermann, I.e. p. 192 note, based on Daubenton's 
PL Enl. No. 663, antedates Alcedo gigas Boddaert, 1783. 

CAPRIMULGIDAE. 

Chordeiles acutipennis (Herm.) vs. Chordeiles acutipennis (Bodd.). 
Caprimulgus acutipennis Hermann, I.e. p. 230 note, based on " L'En- 
goulevent acutipenne de la Guyane " of Montbeillard, in Buffon, vi. p. 547, 
antedates Caprimulgus acutipennis Boddaert, 1783. 

MICEOPODIDAE (Apodidae). 

Chaetura martinica (Herm.) vs. Chaetura acuta (Gm.). 

Hirundo martinica Hermann, I.e. p. 229 note, is based on " L'Hirondelle 

a queue caree de la Martinique " of Montbeillard, in Buffon, vi. p. 553, who 

refers to " L'Hirondelle de la Martinique " of Brisson, Ornith. ii. p. 499. The 

name has priority by several years over Hirundo acuta Gmelin, 1789. 

CUCXTLIDAE. 

Saurothera longirostris (Herm.) vs. Saurothera dominicensis Lafr. 

Cuculus longirostris Hermann, I.e. p. 186, based on the " Tacco " of Mont- 
beillard, in Buffon, vi. p. 402, antedates Saurothera dominicensis Lafresnaye, 1847. 

incorrect {e.g. he erroneously took the bristle-like feathers on the naked throat for fleshy wattles !), 
the name .4. averano cannot well be avoided as being the oldest for the East Brazilian Bell-bird 
and must be used in place of P. nudicollis (Vieill.) 1817, of which A. variegata Gmelin becomes likewise 
a synonym. 

P. variegata auct. (nee Gmelin) is entitled to the name Procnias carnobarba (Less.), since Lesson 
{Traile d'Orn. livr. 5, end of 1830, p. 3t>5, pi. 52, fig. 1) described and figured 8. n. Averano carnobarba, 
an adult male secured by Robin on the island of Trinidad. A little-known synonym thereof is 
Procnias lumbriciferus Gistel (in Gistel and Bromme t Handb. Naturg. alter drei Reiche, Stuttgart. 
1850, p. 295 : " in Waldern Brasiliens," errore !), accompanied by an excellent description of both 
sexes. Neither of these names is mentioned in the synonymy of 0. variegata in Volume xiv. of 
the Catalogue oj Birds in the British Museum. — C. E. Hellmayb. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVTI. 1920. 331 

OTIDIDAE. 

Houbaropsis indica (Herrn.) vs. Houbaropsis bengalensis (Gm.). 

Otis Indica Hermann, I.e. p. 138, based on " Le Churge ou l'Outarde moyenne 
des Indes " of Buffon, ii. p. 56, antedates Otis bengalensis Gmelin, 1789.* 

SYNONYMS OF HERMANN. 

Gracula Martinus Hermann, I.e. p. 195 note, ex Buff. iii. p. 423, " le Martin " 
= Acridotheres tristis (L. 1766). 

Paradisaea sexfilis Hermann, I.e. p. 166, ex Buff. iii. p. 171, " Le Sifilet 
ou Manucode a six filets " = Parotia sefilata (Penn. 1781). 

Lanius Gonolek Hermann, I.e. pp. 179-180, ex Buff. i. p. 314. " Le Gonolek " 
= Laniarius barbarus (L. 1766). 

Oriolus albistriatus Hermann, I.e. p. 204 note, ex Buff. iii. p. 197, " L'Etour- 
neau des terres Magellaniques ou le Blanche-Raie " = Trupialis militaris 
(L. 1771). 

Oriolus striatus Hermann, I.e. p. 204 note, ex Buff. iii. p. 265, " Le Loriot 
raye " (based in its turn upon Brisson, ii. p. 332, " Le Loriot a teste rayee ") 
is indeterminable. It invalidates the later Oriolus striatus Quoy and Gaim. 
1830, which has to bear the name Oriolus grand (Mathews) (Ibis, 1916, p. 297). 

Loxia jusca Hermann, I.e. p. 221 note, ex Buff. iv. p. 388, " Le Bouveron " 
= Sporophila lineola (L. 1758). 

Loxia flabellicauda Hermann, I.e. p. 186, ex Buff. iii. p. 463, " La Queue 
en Eventail " = Guiraca caerulea (L. 1758). 

Fringilla ministra Hermann, I.e. p. 220 note, ex Buff. iv. p. 86, " Le Ministre " 
= Cyanospiza cyanea (L. 1766). 

Loxia scandens Hermann, i.e. p. 216, ex Buff. iv. p. 398, " L'Hambouvreux " 
= Passer montanus (L. 1758). 

Pipra longicauda Hermann, /ex Buff. iv. p. 429, " Le Plumet blanc " = 
Pithys albifrons (L. 1766). 

Tanagra Misisippica Hermann, I.e. p. 214 note, ex Buff. iv. p. 252, " Le 
Tangara du Mississipi " = Piranga rubra (L. 1758). 

Tanagra mancipium Hermann, I.e. p. 211 note, ex Buff. iv. p. 263, 
" L'Esclave " = Dulus dominicus (L. 1766). 

Larus maximus Hermann, I.e. p. 146 note, description of a Herring-Gull, 
captured in the neighbourhood of Strassburg in September 1772 = Larus 
argentatus Pont. 1763. 

Emheriza Mytilene Hermann, I.e. p. 222 note, ex Buff. iv. p. 322, " Le 
Mitilene de Provence " = Emberiza rustica Pall. 1776. 

Motaeilla pyrenaica Hermann, I.e. p. 226, based on the " Pegot," excellently 
described by de Lapeirouse in Rozier's Observations sur la Physique, xiii. 1779, 
pp. 422-4 == Prunella collaris collaris (Scopoli, 1769) ex Pyrenaicis montibus. 

Psittaeus Arimanon Hermann, I.e. p. 182, based on the " Arimanon " of 
Buffon, vi. p. 175= Coriphilus peruvianus P. L. S. Muller, 1776. 

* Otis indica Herm. 1783 precludes the further usage of Otis indica Gmelin, 1789 (Syst. Nat- 
I. ii. p. 725), for which the next available name is Otis aurita Latham (Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 660). 
The species has therefore to stand as Sypheotis aurita (Lath.) in place of S. indica (Gm.). 



332 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

Anas melanocephala Hermann, I.e. p. 161 note, description of a specimen 
which had been ascertained by dissection to be a male, captured in January 1774 
(near Strassburg ?) = Bucephala clangula (L. 1758), description of a male in 
juvenile plumage. 

Anas Leucotis Hermann, I.e. p. 161 note, description of a specimen actually 
examined by the author = Nyroca marila (L. 1761), description of the female. 

Alcatras Hermann, I.e. pp. 155, 235, is based on the " Alcatraz " in Rozier's 
Observations sur la Physique, xiv. 1779, p. 475. The description of that bird, 
" translated from the Italian," appears to have issued from the pen of G. % Molina. 
This author gives Alcatraz as the Spanish name of Pelecanus Thagus Molina.* 
Alcatras Hermann, 1783, becomes, therefore, a synonym of Pelecanus Linnaeus, 
1758 ; its type is Pelecanus thagus Mol. 

* Cf. Molina, Saggio eulla storia naturale del Chili, 1782, p. 240. 



A List of the Contents of the first 25 volumes of Novitates Zoological, 1894-1918, 
arranged according to Subjects and Authors, is in course of preparation and will be 
ready for publication in the autumn. 



LEPIDOPtERA 



COLLECTED BY THE 



British Ornithologists' Union and Wollaston Expeditions in 
the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 

WITH TWO COLOURED PLATES 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D. 

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Issued November 15th, 1920, at the Zoological Museum, Tbing. 



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Vol. XXVII. 

NOVITATES Z00L0GICAE. 

EDITED BY 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAN. 
CONTENTS OF NO. II. 



PAGES 



1. SPHINGIDAE OF PARA (Pis. I— XI) . . A. Miles Moss . . 333—424 

2. TYPES OF BIRDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM Ernst Hartert . . 425—505 

3. A NOTE ON TYPE-LOCALITY AND GEOGRA- 

PHICAL RACES OF THE GUNDI (CTENO- 

DACTYLVS GUNDI ROTHM.) . . . Oldfield Thomas . 506—507 

4. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON DIOPTIDAE . Louts B. Proul . . 508—509 

5. ON SOME AFRICAN SPHINGIDAE (Illus- 

trated) KarlJordan . . 510 — 512 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



Vol. XXVII. NOVEMBER 1920. No. H. 



,A$ SPHINGIDAE OF PARA, BEAZIL. 

EARLY STAGES, FOOD-PLANTS, HABITS, ETC. 

By the Rev. A. MILES MOSS, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S., British Chaplain of Para. 

(Plates I-XI.) 

INTRODUCTION. 

rpHE present treatise, though published under the auspices of Lord Rothschild 
-L and Dr. Jordan in the Novitates Zoologicae of Tring, must be regarded 
as a sequel and continuation of my Sphingidae of Peru, produced by the 
Zoological Society of London in their Transactions for 1912 (vol. xx part ii 
No. 1). 

It was due to the warm appreciation of the results of my self-imposed task 
on the part of certain entomological friends in Tring and London that this small 
work was privileged to see the light. My information at that time was 
accumulated during a three years' sojourn in Lima, from which I made occasional 
expeditions over the Andes into the hilly, well-watered, and thickly-forested 
region of the Interior as far as the river Perene. The volume comprises notes 
relating to 47 species, with many coloured figures of the early stages of some 
22 which had come under my direct observation and been verified, together with 
a map of the limited district which I had the opportunity of exploring. The 
investigation of the early stages of Lepidoptera in general has for many years 
been to me the special charm of collecting, even in England, where, by comparison 
with distant Peru and other parts of the tropics, almost everything relating to 
larvae and food-plants is already known. An opposite state of things, however, 
prevails in S. America, where the large majority of its splendid butterflies and 
moths are known only as regards general locality in the winged condition. Little 
by little, at any rate, the different species of kindred or widely-separated groups 
have been falling into line ; and though in so vast a field of research the work of 
an individual for a lifetime can never be more than a measured contribution, I 
am now in possession of voluminous notes and figures relating to the larvae and 
pupae of Papilios, Morphos, Caligos, other butterfly genera such as Heliconius, 
Danais, Ithomia, Prepona, Calonephele, Ageronia, etc., the Notodonts with their 
wondrous diversity in larval form, the Bombyces, Saturniidae, and Limacodidae 
with their extraordinary spined and stinging caterpillars ; and last, but not 
least in interest, tfte elegant and highly-developed Sphingid family. 
22 



334 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

My hunting-ground, though remote from the former, and separated from 
it by some 3,000 miles, is nevertheless part of the same continent, and possesses 
a climate and a vegetation widely different from the Pacific Coast, but not 
altogether dissimilar from the Interior of Peru. The continuity, therefore, of 
my former investigations has been emphasized by the recurrence of species of 
wide distribution, and this to an even larger extent than I had anticipated. 

Common insects among the Hawk-moths, like Herse cingulata, Pseudosphinx 
teirio, Eriinnjis ello, etc., are known to have an enormously wide range in 
the American continent, reaching in some instances from Canada to Argentina, 
and from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic, inclusive of the West Indian Islands ; 
but I have been not a little surprised, when tabulating my Para species, to renew 
acquaintance with so many old friends. In Sphingidae alone I find that no 
fewer than 25 out of the 47 Peruvian species occur here in greater or less abund- 
ance. Now, after some eight years' residence in the immediate vicinity of the 
city of Belem (Para), my total list of Hawk-moths has just reached 90 distinct 
species — a remarkable number when contrasted with the mere 30 which the 
climate of Europe can support, or the 912 or so known to the entire world. In 
addition to the 22 species of which I have been fortunate enough to find the 
larvae, figure them, and more or less study their habits and food-plants according 
to the opportunity, 17 of this number being common to Para, I am now similarly 
informed in regard to at least 46 other species, not hitherto obtained or remaining 
unidentified. The larvae, generally at full growth, sometimes also in the earlier 
instars, together with a few characteristic pupae, have been figured life-size in 
water-colours, with all the patient care and faithfulness to detail which I could 
command in the matters of size, form, and colour. The pupae in many 
instances throughout an entire genus, such as Xylophanes, approximate to a 
certain standard or generic pattern, and the highly-important differentiating 
characters between allied species, such as those supplied by the form of the 
cremaster, are too minute to portray except by photography or by enlarged 
diagrams. For other reasons I have been obliged largely to eliminate the 
portrayal of the food-plants. 

Judging by numbers alone it would seem that Para is by far the richer 
field for Sphingidae, and this of course is true if balanced against Lima, which 
is merely an oasis of green on a desert coast. 

But when a comparison is made between the mouth of the Amazon and 
its head-waters in the region of Chanchamayo and Perene, it is by no means so 
easy to form a just relative estimate. Wallace and Bates discovered many 
butterflies in Para, but they never even saw many of the Hawk-moths which I 
find commonly here, and for the simple reason that in their day there were no 
electric arc lamps to attract them. 

There are none in the wild Interior of Peru to-day, and the wonder is, looking 
back at those hasty mule-back trips of ten days at a time, and not always at 
the best time, that one caught so much. Except for stray moths taken by 
day, or subsequently bred from larvae on those rare occasions when all con- 
ditions were favourable, the only attraction after dark in those parts was a 
solitary kerosene lamp. 

Here, in Belem, conditions are very different : we live in the midst of swamp 
and forest unending, 100 miles from the open sea, with the great muddy, tidal 
river in front of us, intersected by innumerable islands, and each one clothed to 



NoyiTATEg Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 335 

the water-line by an impenetrable tangle of trees and creepers. We live also in 
a blaze of electric light nowadays, and from far and near come the moths under 
the baneful influence of our nightly illuminations ; and this to such an extent 
that what was once superabundantly common when the electric plant was first 
installed about 1895, is now comparatively rare, through a process of decimation, 
as I suppose, within the area of light's attraction. Whether my explanation 
is adequate to account for the diminution I cannot say for certain, but many 
bear witness to the fact that there has been an obvious decrease in the 
number of corpses beneath every brilliant arc lamp since 1908, when the road- 
cleaners would sweep them up by the bin-full at a time. 

It is true that Erinnyis ello is still so common in the early months of some 
years, that on certain occasions it is no exaggeration when I say that I have 
counted over 200 at a single lamp. Thick, like a swarm of bees, they definitely 
obscure the light as they swirl around the globe or momentarily settle upon it. 
The insulated wires are practically invisible, so thickly are they coated with 
moths, giving them the appearance of being tattered to rags. On every adjacent 
object does ello settle, walls, palings, tree-trunks, foliage, and even human beings, 
while many lie squashed on the pavement beneath the feet of pedestrians or by 
vehicles in the road. Of no other species, however, in these parts can the same 
be said ; and having now lived in Para for considerable periods on and off since 
1911, and having worked the lamps at all times of year and searched every 
available part of the matto surrounding the city for larvae and imagines, I have 
come to the fixed conclusion that we possess an immense and extensive ento- 
mological fauna, corresponding to the vegetation, but that hardly anything is 
really abundant. Species in plenty but paucity of individuals is a characteristic 
of Belem, as opposed to other parts of the States of Para and Amazonas up-river, 
where butterflies like the Pieridae, for example, may sometimes be caught, 
40 or 50 at a single stroke of the net. 

These remarks apply with special force to such families as the Erycinidae 
among the butterflies, and to the Syntomidae, Limacodidae, and Notodontidae 
among the moths, and they are no less applicable to the Sphingidae. Statistics 
in the matter of relative abundance are apt to be erroneous and to defy conclusions, 
but my experience seems to suggest a fairly equal grouping of the Para 
Sphingidae under four heads, as follows : Single specimens or very rare ; rare 
or of spasmodic occurrence ; hidden but not rare ; common and occasionally 
abundant ; about 22 in each group. 

It is worth while to examine, and as far as possible to co-ordinate, the various 
causes which make for the abundance or scarcity of particular species ; for 
apart from the disturbance of nature's balance by the introduction of brilliant 
and attractive lights, for which man is responsible, there are many important 
factors over which he has little or no control, and which claim the attention of 
every observant person. 

Let us consider first the species which are abundant, and see why this is 
probably the case. Our conclusions "rank under three heads : 

( 1 ) General hardiness and adaptability of larva to withstand various 
climates and thrive on various food-plants. 

(2) The abundance and wide distribution of suitable plants. 

(3) The comparative or total absence of parasitic attack. 

All these conditions appear to be fully satisfied in the case of ello, which is 



336 Novitates Zoological XXVII. 1920. 

doubtless the commonest Sphinx hi the American continent, and so can still 
afford, better than any other, to lose a few millions periodically at electric lamps. 
Only once in numerous examples have I found it affected by dipterous parasites. 
The next point to notice is that Euphorbiaceae, with which the larva is chiefly 
associated, is an immense and widely-distributed Order of plant-life, and also 
that ello largely facilitates matters for itself by being able to feed freely on very 
many species belonging to different genera of that order. My idea, in short, 
then, is that the insect is hardier, and has a wider range of distribution, than any 
one species of those plants which sustains it as a larva ; and as one after another 
fails when the tropics are exchanged for the colder regions, its place is taken by 
some other plant which provides an equally nutritious pabulum. The chief 
means of sustenance in the Para region for ello are apparently two in number, 
the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), for which Para is famous, and the mandioca 
[Manihot utilissima), for which it is hardly less so, providing, as it does, the 
native substitute for bread and starch from here to the coast of Peru. Even 
with this abundance others are occasionally preferred, and thrice, to my surprise, 
have I discovered ello associating itself with the entirely distinct Order Sapotaceae, 
and feeding on the leaves of " abiu " (Lucuma caimito). In two of these cases, 
being half-grown, the larvae stoutly refused to eat anything else. One died 
of starvation through my too-prolonged experiment with other leaves ; with 
the other I gave way, hoping that possibly I had discovered the larva of E. 
lassauxi, a totally distinct creature associated with Asclepiadaceae, but this I 
only learnt three years later. It was carefully figured to note subtle points of 
difference, but on emergence, to the banishment of my hopes, it produced but 
a perfect and typical ello. In Barbados ello feeds on the deadly " manchineel " 
(Evphorb.) ; and in the Lima district it was more often found feeding on 
Euphorbia pilvlifera and heterophylla, Cnidoscolus fragrans, Cvrcas piirqans, 
and Poinsettia pulcherrima. 

Continuing this line of research, we pass briefly to such common and widely- 
distributed species as Herse cingulata, the Convolvulus Hawk of America, the 
larvae of which thrive equally well on the cultivated sweet potato of these parts, 
with its abundant wild variety called " salsa," as they do on any species of 
true bind-weed from north to south and right across the continent. This species, 
again, seems to enjoy complete immunity from parasitic attack. 

A few other examples may be cited, e.g. Protoparce sexta, a Solanaceous feeder, 
which is very widespread, and is as .much at home on the potato and tomato of 
North America as it is on the tobacco, the capsicum peppers, or the " jurubebas " 
of hotter parts. Within the great Order of Solanaceae, though more especially in 
the genus Solanum, there is never the lack of appropriate fodder ; and once 
again I have only occasionally found this species troubled with dipterous and 
hymenopterous parasites. Pseudosphinx tetrio, an Apocynaceous feeder, though 
limited to Plumiera, is never at a loss in establishing a large gregarious brood 
of larvae, which will as readily defoliate the Frangipanni trees adorning the 
gardens of the West Indies and Brazil as the many still undescribed species of 
that genus, known here as " sucuuba," and ranging throughout all the more 
open parts of these tropical forests. Never have I discovered any parasite 
which attacks this most showy and abundant caterpillar. 

Pachylia ficus, another very common and widely-distributed species 
associated with Moraceae, I recall for the particular purpose of showing 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 337 

that her adaptability to environment gives us at least one of the causes 
of her abundance, and affords a fine example of the working of an unerring 
instinct in regard to the distribution of her ova. I have learnt some botany 
from her at first-hand, and also a new riddle, which I may perhaps be pardoned 
for quoting as a good instance of appearance deceiving the eye, viz. — When is 
a willow tree not a willow tree ? — When it is a ficus ! Such a tree grows in our 
Botanic Garden in Para, and was at first quite erroneously recorded by me as a 
Salix. After repeatedly finding the caterpillar of this species on it and on many 
other trees of very distinct form and foliage, if I have not yet learnt how many 
different species of Ficus there are, I at least realize how deep and sound were 
the lines of our scientists, who, under the titles Moraceae and Urticaceae, were 
bold enough to group with Ficus such dissimilar trees as Artocarpus and Cecropia. 
On representatives of all three genera the larvae of Pachylia, especially P. syces, 
are often found feeding. 

My friend and botanical instructor of former days in Para, Dr. Huber of 
the Museu Goeldi, and a botanist of the very first rank, was greatly impressed 
with this interesting sidelight on our parallel studies. 

In their own limited degree, and in accordance with their particular needs, 
there are no finer botanists in the world than the moths, nor any such savants 
in the minute details of organic chemistry ; for, by methods beyond our com- 
prehension, they know exactly where to lay their eggs, and of what particular 
shade of composition those leaves must be to admit of nourishing their progeny, 
or of even providing them with their first green meal. P. ficus is sometimes, but 
rarely, stung by the same small hymenopterous fly which, in Para, too frequently 
brings about the destruction of its congener, P. syces. 

We have instanced enough by way of example, taking a few of the commonest 
species, to show, I hope correctly, why they are common. 

Everything is a matter of degree, and the conditions, favourable or un- 
favourable to the life of a species, would appear to differ in every case. In 
regard to the scarcity of many species, I have occasion throughout to point to 
causes which are traceable, and which, whether acting singly or in combination, 
are obviously enough to bring about the rarity of rare species, and reduce others 
to well-nigh the point of extinction. 

Before, however, considering these causes, there are other points in regard 
to abundance and wide distribution of which we must take account. The first 
is that such species as ello, cingulata, sexta and tetrio among those instanced, as 
well as many other moderately common forms like Pholus labruscae, are known 
to be long and strong fliers, as evidenced by their capture at sea and on the 
cold inhospitable heights of the Andes, far away from the localities and plants 
which gave them birth. This propensity of wandering, though it must result 
in the destruction of scores of individuals, betokens an extraordinary power of 
endurance, and exhibits an inborn tendency to spread and to establish when 
conditions are favourable. That this has been the case with many, one cannot 
doubt ; that it fails of its purpose in other instances, and more by faulty climatic 
conditions than by any shortage of food, is equally apparent. This is well 
illustrated in the case of P. tetrio, which was sometimes intercepted in its long 
flights over the Andes by the electric lights of Cerro de Pasco at an altitude of 
nearly 15,000 feet above sea-level, but which also frequently reached the coast 
from the Interior. There in the neighbourhood of Lima, the Frangipanni, its 



338 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

food-plant, was common in gardens, but the conditions were chill and gloomy, 
and never once could I discover its very obvious and easily-found larva, or 
induce a captured female to lay eggs. 

In England, to take a parallel case, we never tire of regretting that Euphorbia 
on the south coast and Galium on the sandhills of Lancashire are not enough 
in themselves to induce the lovely Celerio euphorbiae and C. gallii to take up their 
residence among us permanently. 

Returning to the question of abundance, an important feature to note is 
the greater hardiness sometimes observable in the larvae of many common species 
over rarer forms, the latter appearing to be more delicate and fastidious and 
susceptible of attack. Often have I noticed that a rare species, though provided 
with suitable food, will in many cases absolutely refuse to eat, if sealed up within 
the confines of a biscuit-tin ; whereas common things like sexta will finish off 
every scrap of leaf and stalk, and manage to pupate somehow, though deprived 
of nature's bounty. Fortunately, nature can provide no such harsh parallel, 
but even in the wild state caterpillars, like other creatures, have troubles many 
and various to meet ; and the extra degree of hardiness to withstand every wind 
that blows may quite conceivably spell the salvation of the individual and 
the increase of its kind. 

The percentage, too, in the death-rate of pupae, considered in relation to 
the brevity or longevity of the pupal period, is another factor of importance 
to note. Under artificial conditions this is certainly a very variable quantity 
with different species, but for that very reason it is difficult to generalize and to 
say exactly what happens in nature, for better or for worse. Undoubtedly here, 
as with larvae, some are more delicate, and are more readily influenced for weal 
or woe than others by conditions of humidity and temperature. 

The last point I wish to make in connection with the abundance of those 
species which we have been considering, and many others almost equally common, 
is that in proportion as they are common, due allowance being made for the 
limitations imposed by climate, range and extent of food-plant, general hardiness, 
etc., so are they comparatively free, not from outside foes, but from that still 
more serious and deadly complaint, parasitic attack in the early stages, which 
is generally irremediable. By this I do not, of course, mean that their abundance 
gives them any such immunity, but that the immunity which they enjoy in 
this respect is at least one of the prime causes of their abundance. This I take 
to be a most important consideration, and though even here there are exceptions, 
I am convinced that the converse is equally true, viz. that the rarity of many 
rare species, where the struggle for existence is obviously very severe, is primarily 
due to excess of parasitic attack in the early stages of those species. Doubtless 
all this is governed by the laws of nature, and summed up under the principle 
known as the " Survival of the Fittest," but I am bound to confess that I do 
not like the term, when thus applied. 

If, at any rate, my views are sufficient to explain why many species still 
remain common, we cannot deny that many others are rare ; and in facing the 
problem of rarity, which we must now do, and in searching for its causes, it is 
well perhaps to take the least important first and deal with the rest in an 
ascending scale. 



novitates zoologicae xxvii. 1920. 339 

Climatic Conditions. 

The weather must, of course, come in for its fair share of blame, but Para 
would not be Para without it, and all things considered we enjoy a really wonderful 
climate, the advantageous conditions which it produces being far in excess of its 
drawbacks. (See General Conditions, p. 358.) My accusations, therefore, under this 
head shall be limited to the following : Torrential downpours of rain, preceded 
by sudden sharp gusts of wind of short duration, which undoubtedly dislodge 
various larvae, and bring to their certain doom many that have only just emerged 
from the egg ; floods, which must occasionally drown ill-located larvae and 
subterranean pupae, but to what extent it is impossible to estimate ; excessive 
humidity, which frequently, even in nature, produces fungoid growth to the 
destruction of pupae with or without cocoons ; excess of direct sunshine, which 
in certain localities burns pupae to death, or deprives larvae of pabulum by 
drying up the food-plant. Such troubles, however, in Para do not amount to 
more than, if as much as, they do in other parts of the world, nor do they apply 
in any special measure to the Sphingidae. In fact, my experience inclines me 
to the belief that even collectively they constitute the least of the destructive 
forces which act and react upon the forms of life under consideration. 

Predatory Foes. 

A far greater responsibility undoubtedly rests with certain predatory foes, 
which comprise a woefully long and varied list. To illustrate this, I can but 
catalogue a number of individual instances which have come under my direct 
observation, as follows : 

(1) The " bemtivi " or golden tyrant, which is frequently seen assisting the 
lamp-cleaner by consuming Hawk-moths as well as the smaller fry left from the 
previous night. Not content with mouthfuls in moderation to be found in genera 
like Epistor, Perigonia, and Sesia, he sometimes has the audacity to sample 
with his damaging beak the large and showy representatives of Protambulyx, 
Amplypterus, Oryba, and Pholus. 

(2) The " bacurao " or night-jar, which carries on the same murderous 
game at night, waiting silently on the ground just outside some illuminated 
area in an open place, and rising to snatch the moths as they are drawn to the 
light. 

(3) Other insectivorous birds, small and great, and too numerous to mention, 
of such families as Formicaridae and Dendrocolaptidae, whose life's occupation 
is to hunt insect-eggs and caterpillars on leaf, stem, and trunk, and peck open 
cocoons. Though I cannot here cite special instances, it can hardly be doubted 
that young Sphingidae, especially when green, perish thus in considerable 
numbers. 

(4) Coming to domestic regions, the barn-yard fowl, the cat, and that par- 
ticular type of pedestrian whose mind is as heavy as his boot, I rank in one class, 
though they are not all birds. To their united and vandalistic efforts in the 
immediate vicinity of dwellings must be ascribed a very considerable shortage 
in those forms of living creatures which were surely meant to adorn the earth, 
and which are just as harmless as they are beautiful. Ignoring the obvious 
ravages of the hen and her brood, the chief victims are large Sphingid moths, 



340 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

" played " to death beneath every other street-lamp at night by cats, whose 
more normal avocations in life are temporarily suspended. Then come the 
great larvae of such genera as Cocytius, Protoparce, and Pachylia, which from 
their size, movement, and vivid coloration on the dead earth or pavement 
are very conspicuous objects, as they wander in search of suitable places to 
pupate. The destructive instinct at once comes uppermost, and is unfortunately 
not limited to children and school-boys. Though in many cases not in the 
least like snakes, they are, of course, always taken for them, and must be squashed 
or cut in half. 

(5) Of insect-eating animals I cannot speak from personal knowledge, but 
from the way in which small monkeys greedily devour cicadas, it is not un- 
reasonable to assume that Sphingidae have foes even from this quarter. 

(6) Then come the bats, whose ravages are but too well known. Though 
Vampirus is mainly a fruit-eating genus, and others have a decided taste for human 
and animal blood, the nightly destruction which prevails among the winged 
creation in general, Sphingidae included, must be enormous beyond computation. 
On favourable evenings in the main public square of Para, the central pavement 
of which is adorned with a monument and four brilliant arc lamps, I have seen 
as many as twenty very large bats at the same time, sweeping in and out of the 
illuminated area, twittering vociferously in chorus and devouring everything 
wholesale. I have many times seen one actually cling for a brief moment to the 
wire hanging in proximity to the globe, gobble an cllo or two, disturb half a 
dozen others with its wings, and decamp. 

(7) Under the general head of reptiles, but especially lizards, the destruction 
of Sphingidae, as of other families, is again enormous. The electric lamp is 
once more the rendezvous for toads and frogs. There are huge olive-brown, 
fat-bellied toads sitting beneath and ready to swallow up anything that is 
unwary enough to alight on the ground, or being dizzy, and perhaps singed, falls 
within the range of their leap. There are small frogs of several tree-climbing 
varieties, which I have frequently seen not only clinging to the smooth iron of 
the post, but on occasion quietly enjoying their suppers in line with forty or fifty 
Hawk-moths upon the insulated wire leading to the globe. 

Never, surely, was there such a place as Para for lizards in the matters 
of size, abundance, and variety. They are to be found in every part of the 
matto, wet or dry, in every garden, on every wall, and even in every house ; for 
a small sand-coloured and semi-domesticated cousin, named " osga " (Hemi- 
dactylus), is suffered to abide with us, because he is fond of mosquitos. " Osga " 
also sits upside-down on enamelled lamp-reflectors at night and waits for moths. 
I counted five the other day in passing a dozen street-lamps. But the point 
to remember above all is that all lizards and snakes, so far as I am aware, eat 
caterpillars and chrysalides, morning, noon, and night, and have apparently 
solved the knotty problem most satisfactorily to themselves, that they of all 
creation are the fittest to survive. The " acapu " palings which line the roads 
and gardens of Para are largely tressed with creepers like Cissus, Echites, 
Davilla, etc., and they are also thronged with lizards, untiring in their quest 
for food. It is here that many heedless Hawk-moths of such genera as Pholus, 
Epistor, Aleuron, and Leucorhampha deposit the greater portion of their ova ; 
for it is here that I have periodically been successful in securing a first innings 
at the egg-laying season. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 341 

Assiduous and prolonged searching results in the discovery of many ova 
and young larvae of these species on the out-branching tendrils and freshly- 
expanding leaves, but not for long will you find them there. A number of 
empty egg-shells and recently nibbled leaves too often betoken only that the 
devourer has been devoured. A fortnight later you will be fortunate if you 
discover a single caterpillar that had somehow escaped detection, and become 
too tough and fat or too snake-like to be eaten ; for in such positions the waste 
must be enormous, and it is clear that only the merest fraction of this potential 
life can ever reach maturity. Considering the perpetual depredations of lizards 
alone or in conjunction with other foes, the marvel is not that the majority of 
butterflies and moths are scarce hereabouts, but that many species which are 
rare survive at all. Possibly some have disappeared by this agency, and I 
presume that we shall none of us ever be any the wiser. Possibly they represent 
some of the missing links in that great chain of life of which to-day we behold 
but remnants in certain isolated units which seem to hinge-on to nothing and 
to defy classification. 

(8) Next come predatory insects. I use the term freely for convenience, 
to include all sorts of creeping, crawling, and flying creatures, which in turn 
bite, sting, and devour lepidoptera in all stages of life. Prominent among these 
are Arthropods such as centipedes and spiders, small and great, as well as lice, 
beetles and cockroaches, locusts and Mantidae, wasps and other flies, and last, 
but by no means least in effect, hordes of ants, whose ravages, whether conducted 
singly or by universal onslaught according to the habit of the species, certainly 
represent wholesale destruction on the grandest and most distressing scale. 

For the scavengers of refuse we have nothing but approval, but Para is 
so richly furnished that it has ants to eat everything, alive or dead, and half 
one's time is wasted in the futile attempts at warding off their insistent attacks. 
Besides the ants which fill your sugar-basin, eat your fruit, drown themselves 
in your drinks, and invade your entire food-supply, there are ants to consume 
not only your dried insects but living larvae and the young brood just out of 
the egg, which have been carefully sleeved-out on some growing plant. The 
sleeve-net is at once appropriated as the suitable locality for a new nest, 
with the larder already stocked at close quarters. 

On other occasions you import choice plants into your garden to serve in 
larvae-rearing, and during the night they are denuded of every leaf by a train 
of big red " saiiba " ants, whose earthworks may be in some one else's garden 
a hundred yards or more away. A very large solitary black ant known as 
" formiggo " (Ewponera) is often met with on the matto paths with a moribund 
caterpillar between his jaws. In short, there is not a place, not a tree-trunk 
nor a leafy bough, that is not the resort of one species or another of the ant 
world. They literally swarm everywhere, and are responsible for immense 
destruction. 

The attack of a common black predatory wasp has recently been very 
clearly demonstrated to me, still further explaining why the healthy young 
caterpillar of yesterday is no longer to be found on his perch to-day. In an 
attempt, which should otherwise have succeeded, to introduce a hardy species 
of Citheronia, found commonly at Pernambuco but unknown here, I reared 
some 300 young larvae from the egg. These were kept in the protection of my 
bathroom until they had reached the second or third instar, and were an inch 



342 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

or more in length. Then, considering them tough enough to withstand the 
elements, and sufficiently heavily spined to ward off predatory foes, I placed 
them out in a large net open at one end upon a guava tree with profuse leaves 
in my churchyard. Three days later my 300 were reduced to 3 by this miserable 
black thief, several specimens of which were seen still exploring the boughs, 
while one was actually inside the net munching at mangled remains. As no 
further trace of the rest could be found, I presume that the majority had been 
carried off to the nest. 

Thus does the struggle for life continue, and I know of no place which offers 
greater facilities than Para for the observation of its diverse phases and features. 

Parasitic Foes. 

We come now in order to the last but most insidious branch of foes to which 
lepidoptera in their early stages are exposed — viz. Hymenopterous and Dipterous 
parasites. Once again Para is full of them, and doubtless in many instances 
they are in themselves undescribed species, or if they occur in collections, they 
at any rate lack any demonstration of that intimate relationship with the various 
species of lepidoptera on whose life's blood they were nourished in their own 
larval stages. I have got nothing new in principle to narrate over and above 
what is known to exist in Europe and other parts of the world, but only to record 
the very widespread and pronounced character of this unlovely association in 
Para, as evidenced by the large proportion of one's caterpillars, which to one's 
disgust only produce flies and wasps. These may be very interesting in them- 
selves, and I kill and label them off under the name of the host for future 
identification ; but as it is impossible to specialize in all branches of entomology 
at the same time, I will at once confess to being the victim of a relentless prejudice. 
Among the Sphingidae, as illustrations of what I have too often experienced, I 
may cite the following instances : The eggs, generally laid on the under-surface 
of the tenderest leaves of the food-plant, are frequently " stung " by some almost 
microscopic hymenopterous fly. After the lapse of but a few days there emerge 
from one or several holes ten or a dozen of its progeny, which, marvellous to 
relate, have completed their entire metamorphic cycle within the confines of 
the egg-shell of the moth. 

This I observed in Cambridge and Windermere years ago in the case of the 
common Emperor-moth's eggs, and I have very frequently noted it not only in 
connection with the large ova of Cocytius, Protoparce, Protambulyx, Pachylia, 
Leucorhampha, and Pholus, but even with the smaller eggs of Xylophones, and no 
species seems to be immune. 

In P. syces, L. ornatus, and X. chiron, guianensis, anubus, and especially 
mossi, the larvae are too frequently stung by dipt era, producing from 10 to 30 
maggots with imagines resembling blue-bottles or the common house-fly. Many 
are subjected to attack by both diptera and hymenoptera ; the larva of X. anubus, 
for example, once producing a single and very large wasp grub which spun a 
tough black silk cocoon. 

The genus Protoparce is similarly troubled, not only by Diptera (the eggs of 
the parasite in this case being generally introduced in the region of the spiracles), 
but also, though more rarely, by a small wasp. In this latter case the full-grown 
grubs of the parasite emerge through the back and sides of the still-living but 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAB XXVII. 1920. 343 

sadly attenuated host, and spin little yellow or white silken cocoons in situ, 
standing up on end and reminding one of the almonds which sometimes adorn 
a plum-pudding. The larvae of a small Hawk-moth in Pernambuco, Neogene 
dynaeus, is thus literally decimated. On corresponding lines the genus Pachylia, 
especially syces, which is so much rarer in Para than ficus, is stung by a very 
small hymenopterous parasite, resulting in the production of some hundreds of 
tiny flies from the body of a single caterpillar. In this instance, the larva, while 
still clinging to a leaf, becomes completely encircled by a mass of tiny white 
cocoons closely woven together. The writhing larva then falls out or is devoured 
by ants, and what is left appears to be a thick lump of cotton-wool sticking to 
the leaf, of tubular formation and open at each end. 

In the case of dipterous parasites which affect species belonging to 
Acherontiinae, Sesiinae, and Choerocampinae, and possibly the two other sub- 
families, the exodus of the maggots from the body of the caterpillar invariably 
takes place in the puparium, and even after the spinning of a slight but deficient 
amount of silk. These Diptera, though bearing a striking resemblance to ordinary 
flies, of course represent many distinct species. It is more than possible, however, 
that some of the common parasitic species are by no means restricted to any one 
kind of caterpillar, but thrive at the expense of the lives of a number of larvae 
belonging to different species and genera or even to different groups. In other 
families of Lepidoptera, such as the Saturn iidae, the larvae manage to pupate in 
stout, well-woven cocoons with all the appearance of health, and only later do 
the dipterous maggots break through the walls of the chrysalis within, and form 
their own glossy brown oval cocoons alongside the corpse of their victim. 

This sometimes takes place here with a few Sphingidae which spin a covering 
web interwoven with fragments in the crevice of a tree-trunk, such as Isognathus 
scyron. In other cases the metamorphosis of a species of Diptera, sometimes 
that of one large hymenopterous fly, sometimes that of a number of small ones, 
is completed within the confines of the pupa-case itself, from which the flies 
emerge by separate holes. 

This is frequently observed here, as elsewhere, as a pronounced feature with 
many species of lepidoptera, the first prevailing with the Saturniid genus 
Rothschildia. The last-named variety is especially marked in such species as 
Papilio thoas and androgens, Aganisthos odius, Brassolis sophorae, Opsiphanes, 
etc., among the butterflies ; and I have only recently discovered that Isognathus 
allamandae Clark in Pernambuco is similarly attacked, though up to the 
present I do not remember to have bred any Sphingid parasite of this particular 
kind in Para. 

For the sake of completeness, as being a prevalent form, one other type of 
dipterous parasite deserves special mention. How far it attacks Sphingid larvae 
I cannot say, but the large Nymphalids of such genera as Caligo, Catoplebia, 
Opsiphanes, Dynastor, and Prepona are very extensively troubled by it. The 
method of egg-laying on the part of the female parasite, which I have caught 
in the act of ovipositing, is different, and for a brief period one degree less 
damaging, in that it gives the caterpillar, or rather its captor, a fighting chance. 
This I have repeatedly proved after a painstaking operation with the forceps, 
in which the temper of the " stung " caterpillar is sorely tried. The eggs, which 
are ochreous and tough, are gummed on. externally with diabolical accuracy of 
instinct, sticking like ticks at one end immediately behind the horned head of 



344 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXVII. 1920. 

the larva and in the interstices of the segments, so that the poor victim cannot 
bite them off. If found before the young maggots have hatched and eaten 
their way into the host's body, they may with great patience and care be 
removed, one at a time, 10 to 50 of them, and the larva will pupate and 
emerge as perfectly as if it had never been scented-out by so unwelcome a 
visitor. This method of procedure is adopted by certain species of Diptera 
in England, and I have more than once found the noble 1 larva of Oryba kadeni 
thus molested. 

Such, then, are the forces of decimation among the butterflies and moths 
of Para, and with parasitism in insect life I close my mournful list. The word, 
from being originally applied to the drone in human society, has come now to be 
used somewhat loosely, thereby losing some of its original force. In a true 
sense the cuckoo, which has ceased to build a nest and rear its own progeny, 
is a parasite. My use of the term here, however, is strictly limited to what 
I consider to be degenerate forms of life, whose evolution has had a downward 
tendency, and has involved the loss of an erstwhile independence by an unorthodox 
dependence for nutriment upon the living and prepared juices of another species 
in the same general order of creation. Such is our mistletoe, which no longer 
needs roots, but sucks the prepared sap of the apple-tree and the oak, and survives 
at their expense. Such is the Brazilian mistletoe, clustering as a thick yellowish 
mass among the upper branches of Genipa americana ; such also is the " herva 
de passarinho," which diminishes the health and fecundity, if it does not curtail 
the growth, of the orange and mango, and others like the " abacate," among 
the more indigenous trees of Brazil. Such, however, is not the orchid, which, 
like many another plant (ferns, Bromeliaceae, etc.), only finds a lodgment and 
support upon the trunk or branches of a tree, does not derive nourishment from 
its sap, and is quite erroneously termed " parasita " in the Portuguese tongue. 

Of parasitism among the insects I have already said enough to make my 
meaning clear. That it has its uses in preserving the balance of nature by 
limiting the over-rapid increase of those species attacked cannot be doubted. 
It is a selfish and harassed world in which we live, and just as parasitism looms 
large as a universal feature, so are we bound to acknowledge that this trouble 
in the insect world is quite in order. My contention therefore is, not that it is 
right, but that, so far as the present age is concerned, it is in full accord and 
harmony with those laws which we find actively at work in every other department 
of life. I contend, on the other hand, that it is very far from ideal, and that 
by no stretch of casuistry can it be reconciled with the assertion made in Genesis 
(chap. i. ver. 31), that " God looked upon everything that He had made, and behold 
it was very good." No matter how allegorical such passages as these may be, 
no matter how deficient as scientific statements, they stand, in my humble 
estimation, in their broad general outlines for essential truth. And, though it 
may be thought fanciful, I fail to understand how persons who refuse credence 
to the second great dogma, known as " the Fall," can effect any sort of recon- 
ciliation between nature and revelation. Accept " the Fall," and parasitism 
at once becomes at least intelligible as a part, not of a fair creation, but of a 
disorganized and perverted system ; and at the same moment, in the marvels 
of the Divine economy, one of the means necessarily resorted to to prevent 
matters from becoming worse. 

Not therefore by adopting the so-called " scientific " view of former days, 



Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 345 

not by ignoring the theological tenet regarding a fallen state, which for 
too long has been deemed at variance with the theory of evolution, but by 
accepting both the statements of the Bible and the plain truths of nature 
can one read Darwin and Wallace, and may I add Huxley, with the immense 
pleasure and profit to be derived from almost every page of their writings. 
And, further, I claim that one can emerge from this fiery ordeal not a rationalist, 
still less an atheist, but a believer still and a fuller believer, whose creed, if 
it has been subjected to the rationalizing process, has only been shorn of 
immaturity and excess, and readjusted to an altered perspective. 

By way of forestalling a possible criticism, it is obvious, from the previous 
verse to that referred to in the first chapter of Genesis, that vegetation was 
meant to serve as food for animal life and creeping things, and it is equally 
obvious that man was meant to eat animals ; but all this is the direct opposite" 
of parasitism, taken as I understand the word. 

To summarize, then, I cannot conceive it as any part of a very good creation, 
though evolutionary changes subsequent to " the Fall " may have necessitated 
it, that, for example, a healthily-nourished caterpillar, which has in itself all 
the potentialities of becoming that for which it was intended, viz. a perfect 
butterfly or moth, should have its vitals consumed by another creeping thing, 
the larva of another insect, in fact, simply to complete its own metamorphosis, 
no matter how equally perfect that other insect may be in the marvels of its 
own construction. Is not the world large enough for all ? Its near relatives 
still live on fruit or decaying wood or excrement, and at the least hasten on the 
purifying process whereby these substances are returned to their primal and 
scentless elements. 

The degenerate parasite, on the other hand, slowly tortures another living 
creature to death, and, having deprived the earth of an item of beauty so far 
in excess of its, own achievements, leaves behind a putrid and stinking mass 
for others to clear away. 

However much truth the term " Survival of the Fittest " may cover, it 
does so effectually cover up everything under that vaguely comprehensive and 
indefinable word " fittest," that it seems but to shelve difficulties. What is the 
fittest to survive, and why ? From what initial standpoint of enlightenment 
and authority do we argue that any one living organism is more fit to survive 
than another ? 

Is it not from all the evidence before our eyes, those plain broad facts which 
none can dispute or deny, that feeling bound to acquiesce in the inevitable we 
give it a name ? My objection is solely ranged against the word " fittest," for 
it seems to beg the question and to land us into an awkward dilemma. We all, 
for example, have our sense of beauty as opposed to ugliness, and there is 
even a general consensus of agreement upon the point. We all form relative 
estimates upon the practical utility and worth of things throughout the entire 
creation, animate and inanimate, and again there is a large general consensus 
of opinion. But how does nature deal with beauty and utility ? She is stern, 
relentless, and without discrimination, making no account whatever of our 
conventional standards and values. As often, in obedience to those elementary 
laws which enjoy universal sway, do her blind forces of destruction demolish 
the beautiful and useful as they burn rubbish. As often, in her milder moods, 
does she tenderly nurture the worthless weed by those same benign influences 



346 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

with which she fosters some type of growth that we account precious. We are 
left, then, to face two alternatives : ( 1 ) that our standards of appreciation and 
valuation, no matter how world-wide their support, are all wrong, which I do 
not believe ; for though confessedly conventional, they must bear some, relation 
to the absolute ; or (2) that, in the face of our ideas upon beauty and utility, 
those which actually do survive in the struggle for existence are thereby proved, 
ipso facto, to be the fittest to survive, which I no more believe. I am aware 
that I am employing the term in a somewhat unusual and restricted way, and 
it is in this sense only that I contend that the word " fittest " is made to do 
too much duty. At one time it stands as the equivalent of " strongest " or 
" cleverest," at another it simply represents superior brute force or the greatest 
cunning, or at best the most prepared. But it is when we come to a consideration 
of those disintegrating forces like parasitism among insects and plants that our 
rebellion against the use of the term " Survival of the Fittest " reaches high-water 
mark : for the successful parasite, though transcending the wisdom of a Solomon 
in the accuracy of its aim and in the attainment of its object — namely, supremacy 
in the struggle for life — does so by methods which are discredited and are 
altogether out of harmony with what we understand as the principles of justice 
and morality. Though it may serve a useful purpose in the general economy, 
judging by human standards, we are bound to acknowledge that on such occasions 
it is the fit which disappears and something worse, less valuable or less beautiful, 
which survives. 

Right or wrong, fit or unfit, parasitism is assuredly and immensely responsible 
for the reduced number of many representatives of practically all the lepidopterous 
families, and consequently for the reduction, almost to vanishing point, of 
one of nature's loveliest ornaments. 



Each of the five subfamilies into which the Sphingidae are now classified is 
represented in Para and in the following proportion : Acherontiinae 16, Ambulicinae 
6, Sesiinae 47, Philampelinae 9, and Choerocampiriae 12; and just as there 
are many other species of a more or less restricted range of distribution in different 
parts of the immense region drained by the Amazon and its tributaries, so possibly 
are there even more species near the southern side of its mouth than the 90 or 
so which I have had the good fortune to come across. Due allowance must 
of course be made for this in any subsequent remarks dealing with the parallelism 
or difference which obtains between the species considered. 

I now have some observations to make in regard to the features, habits, 
and peculiarities of the Para Sphingidae, which, when correlated, apart from 
any intricate or anatomical questions, constitute a striking array of facts, and 
go far in suggesting a true system of classification. Those with which I wish 
to deal are five in number : (1) Form, design, and colour of larvae ; (2) Pecu- 
liarities of their excrement ; (3) Method of pupation ; (4) Form, design, and 
colour of pupae ; and (5) The association of species or even whole genera with 
some particular Order of food-plant. 

(1) Form, Design, and Colour of Larvae. 

Here I would notice at the outset the general similarity of young Sphingid 
larvae on emergence from the egg, suggesting the close alliance of each species, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 347 

be it small or great, and forming the whole into one compact and well-defined 
family, irrespective of subfamily distinctions. The character to which I refer 
more particularly is the uniformity of the tail on segment 12, which at that 
stage is always a noticeable feature, of remarkable length, speedily changing 
from light to dark in colour, and when examined under the lens found to be 
rough in surface, frequently bi-lobed at the extremity, and surmounted by a 
single bristle on each fork. It is in this particular, or rather in the extraordinary 
variety of tail-formation, the partial or complete loss of this appendage in the 
succeeding stages, that we behold such striking specific differences. Stage after 
stage, as the skin is moulted and successive instars reached, does each species, 
ever true to its kind, exhibit a new form of tail or horn or hump, different from 
that which preceded it, different from that which is to follow, and in many 
instances, especially in the fifth and final instar, essentially different in length, 
thickness, quality, curve, and colour from even its next-of-kin in the same genus. 
This is most noticeably the case in the genus Xylophones, and perhaps least 
pronounced in Isognathus, where an exceptionally long whip-like black tail is 
retained up to the period of pupation, and where the difference between the 
various species in this one respect becomes more one of degree in length, roughness, 
and the presence or absence of a white ring or two. 

It is surely worthy of note, though I will leave it with those better versed 
in the laws of evolution to draw conclusions, that Isognathus is practically the 
only genus in Sphingidae, so far as I am aware, that retains the long, rough, 
flexible tail of the baby caterpillar to the full end of the larval period. Curiously 
a few deceptive Notodonts possess a very similar appendage. The kindred genera 
in this same subfamily Sesiinae exhibit very strange diversity of form in the 
tail, Erinnyis, the next-of-kin with almost identical pupa-form, being characterized 
by an appurtenance which in alope is like a rounded tusk, in ello and oenotrus 
like a swollen knob, and then a mere nipple-like point in the last stage. In 
Oryba achemenides, but not kadeni, it is like a sickle in the fourth instar and 
only a button or nipple in the final. In Enyo, Aleuron, Madoryx, and Leuco- 
rhampha, on parallel lines, the tail resembles a curved knife-blade, followed as 
before by the mere button. Hemeroplanes bears a rather stout grey and curved 
horn, while Pachylia has a small sharp spike in syces and a thick, blunt, but very 
diminutive hook in ficus. In Philampelinae the tail of Pholus anchemolus, after 
being reduced to a fine and absurdly disproportionate black hair in the foregoing 
instar, disappears altogether in the last. 

Its relatives Peacus fasciatus and vitis evolve on the same lines, but 
P. labruscae shows a new development, exchanging the flexible and curled pink 
filament of the fourth instar for a hard glossy disk, capable of a rapid undulatory 
movement. The Ambv.licinae, from my restricted acquaintance with their 
larvae, and the Acherontiinae, where I am more at home, seem in the main to 
possess what we are accustomed to regard as the normal horn, partaking more 
or less of the dorsal coloration of the larva or inclining to black, blue, or pink, 
stiff and stout in construction, though more slender in Ambulicinae, rather erect 
in posture, incapable of free movement, straight or finely curved, and generally 
bristling with small setiferous tubercles. Herse cingulata, Protoparce sexta and 
albiplaga are, however, exceptions to the rule, and, though it be only a matter 
of degree, exhibit strongly curved and rather smooth horns. In Choerocampinae 
the variety is so great that I fail in any attempt at description. Suffice it then 



34S Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

to say by way of contrast, that Xylophones gnianensis possesses a broad, thick, 
and perfectly straight blade-like horn, rough like a file on both upper and lower 
edges, but smooth on the sides ; while X. mossi in its last instar retains but 
the merest vestige of a down-turned tail upon the anal flap. 

True to the principles enunciated by Darwin in The Origin of Species, it is 
this strongly pronounced but variable feature, representing, as I suppose, the 
tail or horn possessed by the ancestral Sphinx, and ante-dating the various later 
evolutionary changes, such as have necessitated subfamily divisions, which has 
shown the greatest amount of variability in structure throughout the entire 
family. 

Nothing short of enlarged photographic diagrams, showing the evolution 
of the tail of each species during its five successive instars, species after species 
6et side by side for comparison, could serve adequately to portray the extra- 
ordinary degree to which this caudal appendage of the Sphingidae has varied. 

Coming to the later stages of larval development, colour and design, apart 
from their adoption as protective measures by resemblance to surrounding 
objects, seem also frequently, though with a few strange exceptions, to suggest 
a sequential progression, or at least a circular grouping of species. I refer in the 
first place to the seven lateral oblique stripes, so characteristic of Sphingidae 
throughout the world ; to their irregularity in Cocytius ; to the greater regularity 
of the same in Protoparce, P. albiplaga forming an exception ; to the fixed and 
constant deviation from the normal type, depending wholly upon the difference 
of food-plant in Protambidyx strigilis and Sesia ceculus ; to the extension of the 
seven to an eighth or even ninth stripe in species of Epistor, Sesia, etc. ; to an 
entirely distinct design in Isognathus, Pseudosphinx, Leucorhampha, and the 
later stages of Erinnyis ; to their transposition, pointing up towards the head 
instead of the tail in Pholus and Pachylia, P. resumens forming a most remarkable 
exception to this ; to their reduction to five in diminishing ratio in Pholus 
anchemolus and vitis, to six in eacus and their increase to eight in fascialus ; and, 
finally, to the partial reappearance of the customary seven stripes directed 
tailwards, when visible at all, in Xylophanes. 

The presence of a medio-dorsal stripe is again a characteristic attribute, 
appearing strongly in Cocytius, in many of the genera of Sesiinae, in Philampclinae, 
and to a partial extent in Choerocampinae, but seldom strongly marked in 
Protoparce and usually absent. 

Possibly a still more important and significant feature, specially characterizing 
the entire subfamily Sesiinae, with or without the addition of the oblique side- 
stripes, is to be found in the enclosure of the dorsal area by two lines adorning 
the face and continued at a slightly divergent angle, which then run parallel 
and unite somewhat more abruptly at the tail. This pattern is totally absent, 
so far as I know, in Acherontiinae, Ambulicinae, and Philampelinae, but reappears 
strongly in some species of Choerocampinae. 

Mere colour counts for but little, I presume, in the matter of classification, 
being so largely a question of adaptation, but even here there are features worthy 
of note. Though one occasionally meets with exceptions where the adaptation 
to surroundings is less perfect than in others, the rule of course holds good that 
green caterpillars with light stripes are to be found by day among the leaves 
which they so closely resemble in colour and design, and on which they feed, 
chiefly at night. Various devices are resorted to for protection during the day 



Novitates Zooloqicae XXVII. 1920. 349 

by caterpillars which are not green, or better, when they cease to be green 
after any particular moult. It is thus with the later stages of Erinnyis, and 
more especially with Madoryx and Leucorhampha, the larvae reposing with two 
or three pairs of claspers tucked up and unused, geometer-fashion, on branch 
or trunk, where they are by no means easy to detect. It is thus particularly with 
those species of Xylophones which, while young and green or coloured like the 
stalk, are well adapted to stay in the neighbourhood of the fresh shoots on which 
they are feeding. Indeed, a long journey at this stage woidd be not only uncalled- 
for, but would entail fatigue and danger. Quite the reverse, however, is the 
case when, by successive moultings, the caterpillar has grown larger and stronger 
and become brown, maroon, or peat-coloured. Then almost invariably is it 
only to be found, if searched for by day, on the darkest and shadiest part of 
the trunk near the ground, or quite frequently, as in the case of X. guianensis, 
at some distance from the tree, lying on the earth among dead leaves and sticks, 
an extremely inconspicuous object. The habits of X. anubus, loelia, and tersa, 
in association with their particular plants, are identical ; but X. porcus and 
chiron, which remain green to the last, have no need to move and seem to be 
aware of the fact, finding an umbrella of leaves sufficient protection from rain 
and sun and from prying eyes. 

On several occasions I have found X. tersa by way of variety retaining a green 
coat to the end of its larval period, and then, as though it knew all about the 
matter, it was perched-up on the top of a spray of Spermacoce in broad daylight, 
apparently justified for once in ignoring the secretive habits of its kind. 

Poor X. mossi, which is nearly always " stung," is exceptional in its habits, 
and would appear to be in a dilemma on account of its bright colour. When 
young it is reddish-maroon, and there is no doubt that it wonderfully simulates 
the little tailed red sheaths of the newly-expanding leaves of Pagamea, where 
it rests and feeds. Sometimes it develops into a grey-green with growth, and 
it is then equally well situated by remaining among the leaves. Usually, 
however, the colour turns to a brilliant burnt sienna on the sides with a pink 
back, lemon-yellow bands on segments 11 and 12, and five (sometimes six) 
patches of viridian green marking the side-stripes. In this predicament, allowing 
for the fact that the stems and branches of Pagamea guianensis are of a bright 
sienna colour also, instead of seeking the shade it elects to stay, but is thus too 
easily detected if at all exposed to view. 

In the case of the highly ornate larvae of Pseudosphinx and Isognathus, 
there is generally no attempt at concealment beyond selecting the under-surface 
of a Plumiera leaf for shade, and sometimes frequenting the trunk or branches 
in the blazing sun. As the well-known arrangement of warning colours largely 
enters into their composition, alternating belts of black and white, or black with 
yellow stripes and red heads, touches of blue or mauve, etc., I presume that they 
are not wanted, and they certainly behave as though they were aware of the fact. 
In this immediate connection it is interesting to note, the exception incidentally 
proving the rule, that there are at least two members of the group which act 
differently in this respect, Isognathus scyron and allamandae. These larvae are of 
a grey-brown colour and distinctly dowdy by comparison with their more gaily- 
attired congeners, invariably hiding away in perfect concealment during the day 
on the dull branches or among the roots of Allamanda cathartica. They are not 
Plumiera feeders like the rest, and it is significant that they should be almost 
23 



350 Novitates Zoologicae XXVII. 1920. 

the only species of the group which I have noted as being occasionally stung 
by both dipterous and hymenopterous parasites. 

The mimicry of small snakes, if one is right in using the term, is a marvel- 
lously pronounced feature in some species, and is to be had to perfection in 
certain members of the Sesiinae subfamily, such as Madoryx and Leucorhampha, 
in Pholus labruscae as an exceptional development in Philampelinae, and again 
very specially in many species of Choerocampinae. As, however, this resem- 
blance is effected by slightly, or extremely, different methods in almost every 
case, I prefer to reserve the subject to individual treatment in connection with 
the species thus enhanced. 

(2) Peculiarities of their Excrement. 

The next point upon which I wish to touch is the peculiarity of the excrement 
or frass of Sphingid larvae, which though constructed, as I suppose, upon a 
fundamentally uniform plan, and very similar to that produced by Notodonts, 
Saturniids, etc., is strikingly different in distinct species, and very often acts 
not only as a guide to the whereabouts of a larva, but informs the practised 
collector in advance of its precise identity as a species. By this I do not mean 
to infer that every single species can thus be discriminated in advance, but 
that by previous acquaintance with the larva, its habits and its association 
with some particular form of plant-life, the colour, size, shape, and general 
character of the excrement will, in the majority of instances, if carefully observed, 
betray the genus and very likely the exact species. 

I know too little of the digestive organs of larvae to say exactly what takes 
place, but the model upon which the excrement is constructed, a pellet of 
hexagonal and tripartite form with a central core, is well illustrated by that 
which is produced by Cocytius in the final instar. At this stage, in antaeus and 
cluentius at least, it invariably breaks up at the moment of extrusion into 21 
small brown fragments. In duponchel the pellet more often falls to the ground 
whole, but being of a dry character, and the divisions being well marked, it 
very readily breaks up as before into 21 pieces. 

For brevity I must confine my remarks to the last larval instar. In Herse 
the excrement is of an opposite character, being blue-black in colour, soft and 
wet, and consequently so far welded into one piece as largely to obscure the 
hexagonal design. This is even more the case in the genus Xylophanes, where 
many species deposit stiff black or dark brown pellets of enormous and seemingly 
impossible dimensions, and where the minute leaf-fragments are welded most 
compactly, layer upon layer in rough oval formation, showing but a trace, if 
anything, of the hexagonal design and nothing at all of the tripartite divisions 
or the core. It is no exaggeration to say that in the cases of X. guianensis, 
anubus, and mossi, for example, these pellets frequently approach an inch in 
length, and are proportionately thick. In these instances, though the larvae 
grow with exceptional rapidity, mossi never exceeding five days in its final 
instar and still fewer in each of the four previous stages, the number of pellets 
rarely exceeds 6 or 8 in the 24 hours. Conversely with other species where the 
excrement is small and neatly hexagonal, Sesia titan and fatbits, for example, 
will drop 50 or 60 pellets in the same time. P. sexta is a good illustration of 
this, being a hardy, voracious, and almost continuous feeder ; but of the 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 351 

excrement of Protoparce in general it may be said that it is moderate in amount, 
well-proportioned to the size of the larva, fairly regular in form, and in colour 
dark brown, yellow, or green, largely in accordance with the nature of the 
particular plant upon which the caterpillar has been feeding. In Protambidyx 
the excrement of strigilis and eurycles is small and light green, the hexagonal 
form being subdivided and giving it an exceedingly regular appearance. 

This character is shared by Oryba and to a limited extent by Pachylia, 
in both of which cases the frass, though large, is not excessive for such big 
larvae. In Oryba kadeni and achemenides the colour is light brown, and as 
it does not readily grow mouldy it is wont to retain its form for months after 
the larvae have pupated. Its position beneath bushes of Palicourea or 
Ourouparia, as the case may be, coupled with its size and general formation, 
leaves one in no doubt as to the identity of the species, even if, as too often 
happens, one is too late to discover the whereabouts of the particular caterpillar. 

The excrement of Erinnyis and Isognathus is rather small, that of Pseudo- 
sphinx somewhat elongate, hard and black, with sharp angular projections 
and frequently bent. Pholus produces very large soft pellets of a light or dark 
green coloration with the hexagonal form obscured but not obliterated. 

So much at any rate for a subordinate branch of the subject, which, if 
not the most savoury, is by no means devoid of scientific interest and is well 
worth the attention of the student of larval habits and early stages, as it so 
often leads to new discoveries. 



(3) Method of Pupation. 

Turning to the different methods employed in the formation of puparia, 
a few brief general remarks are all that are necessary. I notice in the first place 
that digging at the roots of trees for pupae is not only extremely arduous work, 
but that so far as Para is concerned it is next to useless, as the larvae of almost 
all species wander some distance on the ground and can seldom be traced. 
Many are subterranean, and, judging from their habits in captivity, do not 
hesitate to burrow deep into the earth to form their puparia in a loam that is 
sufficiently plastic to enable them to dispense with silk in the construction. 
So far as my experience goes, the entire subfamilies Acherontiinae, Ambulicinae, 
and Philarnpelinae behave in this way. In Choerocampinae the method is 
different, the larvae of Xylophanes never really entering the earth, but pupating 
at some distance from the food-plant on the surface of the soil, and being 
simply protected by scraps of growing or dead vegetation spun together by a few 
strands of strong glutinous silk to form a covering. 

It is in the subfamily Sesiinae that we see the greatest divergence in the 
method of pupation. All the species can, I imagine, produce silk, and some 
actually do produce a considerable quantity to form their cocoons. In Oryba, 
Epistor, Perigonia, and Sesia subterranean methods are adopted, and the quantity 
of silk is negligible. In Pachylia, Erinnyis, Pseudosphinx, Leucorhampha, Enyo, 
and Aleuron the species pupate in a loosely-spun cocoon formed on the surface 
of the earth among dead leaves and the roots of grass, etc. ; while in Isognathus 
and Madoryx, though it be but a matter of degree, a very considerable and 
completely closed-up cocoon is spun, not infrequently in the crevice of a tree- 



352 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

trunk or on rotten wood, any particles of debris within reach being used, as we 
should expect, to stiffen the web and render it inconspicuous. 

(4) Form, Design, and Colour oj Pupae. 

Referring to the pupae themselves, I can but once again go through the 
list and indicate the standard types, showing the lines on which species or genera 
vary from one another. In general, however, it is worthy of note that all the 
subterranean pupae, be they black, red-brown, or light mahogany in colour, 
are nearly uniform in tint and devoid of external ornament; whereas those 
species which spin cocoons, and remain more or less exposed to the light, are 
in most cases adorned with a freckled or linear arrangement of markings. 

The exceptions to this are to be found in such genera as Pachylia and 
Leucorhampha, where the pupae, though highly lustrous, are of a uniform light 
or dark brown, and Madoryx, where they are of a dead black, relieved by bands 
of ochre-yellow in the interstices of two or three segments. 

In Acherontiinae all the pupae vary slightly between a dark vinous and 
a yellowish brown, and are more or less glazed. 

Besides the cremaster, already referred to as possessing highly important, 
even if minute, specific characters, there is also throughout this entire subfamily 
the free but immobile proboscis-sheath, providing further good differentiating 
features between the species by the peculiarities of its lateral ridges and its 
curve, as well as its length and thickness ; but I am bound to acknowledge 
that this difference is exceedingly slight between some of the species of 
Protoparce. 

In Herse the sheath makes a double turn and is readily distinguished from 
all others. In Gocytius it is various, being a single but stout and well-protruded 
loop in antaeus and duponchel, while cluentius possesses a complete spiral like 
a small clock-spring or Ionic volute, owing to its greater length. It has been 
a surprise and regret to me that after so long a time in the district I have been 
unable to trace the early stages of htcifer and the rarer species beelzebuth and 
Amphimoea walkeri, and can therefore say nothing with certainty about their 
larvae or pupae. A large dried pupa in the Tring Museum, possessing a big 
single-loop proboscis-sheath, Dr. Jordan thinks can be referred to no other 
species than A. walkeri, but the data are absent. With the afore-mentioned 
genus Protoparce the sheath assumes a big bold curve in rustica and perplexa, 
is ample but more slender in sexta, diffissa, hannibal, and mossi, shorter but 
stouter in albiplaga and lichenea. In the genera Eury glottis, Hyloicus, and 
Neogene, so far as my experience goes, though none are found in Para, this sheath 
is simply a small turned-down piece lying in juxtaposition to the abdominal 
cases, as in the common Privet and Pine Hawks of Europe. 

The plain light brown chrysalis-form, more or less elegantly curved, without 
free proboscis-sheath and differentiated by many slight variations — such as the 
precise tone of colour and degree of glaze — is shared by many species in common 
belonging to the three central subfamilies. Such features characterize Pro- 
tambulyx, Pachylia, Oryba, and Pholus ; while Madoryx, Leucorhampha, Epistor, 
Perigonia, Sesia, etc., approximate to one another in darker hues. On the 
other hand, a certain standard pattern is adopted by Isognathus, Erinnyis, 
Grammodia, Enyo, and Aleuron, where the ground-colour varies between a 



Novitates Zooloqioae XXVII. 1920. 353 

reddish yellow and a light straw yellow, and the entire surface, which is highly 
glazed, is more or less heavily adorned with tar-black lines and spots. 

In Xylophanes an absolutely distinct type prevails in an elegantly-shaped 
but generally not very lustrous bone-coloured chrysalis, possessing a fine black 
line down the front to delineate the proboscis-case, an interrupted rnedio-dorsal 
line in black or brown, big black spots enclosing the spiracles which are of a 
dull red, while the rest of the surface is freckled by light umber patches and 
finely-pencilled lines and dots of a deeper hue. 

We have already stated that the cremaster stands first and foremost as a 
distinguishing character ; and as with the variations exhibited in the tails or 
horns of the larvae, so here a complete enlarged diagrammatic representation 
of the cremasters of all Sphingidae for comparison, group by group, is a decided 
want, and would form an adjunct to the evolutionary study of the family of 
the highest importance. 

Speaking generally, however, for a moment, and by way of leading up to 
the last phase of the subject with which I wish to deal, and which I trust will 
be found by no means the least important or the least interesting, I must first 
make reference to such items in my collection where I am still in the dark as 
regards their early stages. Some few of these have occurred singly and rarely 
as moths, and, providing no clue, have defied all my repeated attempts to 
investigate their origins. A few others have only been taken once or twice in 
the larval condition and subsequently bred. Some have been chance finds, 
in the first instances at any rate, while others have only been found after diligent 
and prolonged searching, and by testing to the fullest extent possible every 
hint which the first discovery seemed to suggest in regard to food-plant and 
locality. 

This has involved an increasing acquaintance with the botany of the district, 
and in this department I have at all times received most valuable information 
from the enlightened authorities of our local Museum and Botanic Gardens. 
I refer to Mr. F. Ducke, Miss Snethlage, and the late Dr. Huber, — a botanist of 
world-renown, whose untimely death through appendicitis in 1913 was a 
deplorable loss to the science, and whose skilled aid, in conjunction with that 
of the afore-mentioned friends, has to me been invaluable as an introduction to 
this vast study. The Flora Brasiliensis, an extensive series of volumes, but 
still largely incomplete, especially as regards Para, has also at times been useful. 
Finally, the authorities of the Botanical Department at South Kensington have 
on several occasions, when consulted, been most kind in rendering expert advice 
in the matter of identification. 

To one and all I am greatly indebted. It has perhaps given us all some 
extra work, but it has not been labour wasted, for by the mutual interchange 
of thoughts, ideas, and information on any given subject related to one's own 
particular study, knowledge has been disseminated, and our conceptions as 
individuals in our own lines of research have been broadened and amplified. 
Not infrequently also has the co-ordination of scientific facts in the realms of 
botany and entomology, which in their interdependence run on marvellously 
parallel lines, led to a happy readjustment of ideas that aforetime were hazy, 
and to the correction of positive errors. Hardly less important has been the 
marking of certain exact spots in the great border-line of knowledge which man 
has not yet passed, but which with time and patience, " by mutual sympathy 



354 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXVII. 1920. 

and mutual aid," he assuredly can encompass. I refer, for example, to quite 
a number of plants and insects which are still unknown to science, and conse- 
quently as yet possess no specific names, though their genera may be obvious. 
I refer also to a perfect host of lepidoptera, where some species are still waiting 
for a name and an approximately correct family status, and where anything 
like a full and complete system of classification, whatever else may count, must 
comprise some elementary acquaintance with early stages. In Europe, where 
so much has been done, and where the material is so meagre by comparison 
with the tropics of America, we are apt to imagine that if only we go about the 
matter in the right way, some one can surely be found who will be able to tell 
us all about the butterflies and moths of the latter continent. Nothing could 
be further from the truth ; and yet it was some such idea that I myself entertained 
before I went out to Peru in 1907 and found that in this, as in other matters, 
there was no high-road to knowledge, no pleasant hand-books of botany and. 
entomology, and no collector's guide to the district. What one does find is 
the wealth of Nature's resources which baffle description, coupled with an array 
of unforeseen difficulties and drawbacks which equally thwart one in the 
endeavour to wrest from her more than a mere tithe of her secrets. While 
making due allowance for all the splendid scholarly works on insects in general, 
and especially for those on particular groups and families, that have yet been 
published, the fact remains that the early stages of very many species of 
Lepidoptera, including some of the most beautiful forms in the natural creation, 
some of the most curious, some of the most grotesque in their marvellous adapta- 
tion to environment, are still, in the great majority of instances, unknown to 
science. 

If you have a collection of exotic Lepidoptera you may, by visiting one or 
other of the standard collections of the world, experience but little difficulty 
in getting most of your specimens named with a correct Latin designation as to 
family, subfamily, genus, and species, and you may also learn much as to the 
range of distribution which any particular species enjoys. But when it comes 
to the question of early stages, with even the most willing and enlightened of 
informants, there is often no one who can tell you in a thousand instances what 
the caterpillar looked like, what it fed upon, whether there was anything beyond 
the ordinary in its method of pupation or the egg-laying of its mother, or indeed 
anything at all about its habits as a living organism. Herein to me lies the 
intense interest of the quest, but when all this is unknown more than half the 
interest of a collection of moths vanishes. Having collected now for more than 
thirty years, with an ever-increasing enthusiasm as experience became enlarged, 
I have come more and more to regard a big collection with feelings akin to dismay. 
Though it be the outward and visible result of years of patient toil, in itself, and 
apart from other considerations, it can impart such limited information about 
that great world of life which lies behind it. The collection, without doubt, is 
highly necessary and important as a library of reference, case after case is very 
beautiful, a species here and there and now and again a whole genus exceptionally 
so, while another set are dull and monotonously alike to the untrained eye. 
But whether showy or plain, the fact looms larger than it once did that it is a 
cemetery of corpses, more or less well-embalmed and preserved, and, if well- 
ordered, possessing a number of interesting memorial tablets and epitaphs ! 
The mournfulness of the spectacle is of course considerably diminished and the 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 355 

interest sustained when whole families are entombed together under glass to 
facilitate the study of the comparative anatomy of their mummied remains, 
and especially when the epitaphs are generous enough to afford not only the 
name but the birth-place and date of decease ! 

Lest, however, I should shock any orthodox mind by such profane sentiments, 
let me at once call myself to order with an apology for my tangential wanderings 
and for discoursing at such length, and let me proceed to give some of those 
touches from the life, with which, at any rate, no one can quarrel, however 
much he may deplore the limitation of such information as is now available. 

(5) Sphingid Larvae and their Food-plants. 

We come then, finally, to a phase of the subject which has long appeared 
to me to be one of intense interest and importance — namely, Sphingid larvae 
and their means of sustenance. 

In a land that is nearly all forest, where the vegetation is rife and luxuriant, 
where in hundreds of cases one tree bears the strongest outward resemblance 
to another, but where, nevertheless, the range of absolutely distinct species in 
particular localities is in reality so great as seemingly to equal the number of 
individual items of plant life which greet the vision, it is not unnatural to inquire 
how is one in such a labyrinth of green to find out the names of particular species. 
How indeed, unless sooner or later one can come into touch with some very 
experienced informant ! 

But in truth, the finding of a name, the necessary symbol of communication 
though it be, is not the first point in order of importance. What I mean to 
emphasize by saying this is the paramount importance of first adjusting the 
eye to those nice shades of difference in plant-life which distinguish closely-allied 
species, and, still more important, species not at all allied but belonging to different 
Orders, and bearing often an extraordinary superficial resemblance to one 
another. The bewildering tangle of growth which characterizes the Amazonian 
forest not unnaturally tends to obscure its less prominent details ; and it is 
only after weeks, perhaps months, of experience in the same locality, that one 
is able to form some rough mental classification, and focus one's eyes upon 
individual objects. Then with the observation-faculties intensified, one learns 
by degrees to be less led by appearances, and to appraise at their true worth 
those characteristics which are more fundamental and which bind together 
in one great Natural Order many forms outwardly dissimilar. 

The specially-favoured locality selected by different trees and plants also 
calls for attention, be it the humidity and shade of overhanging matto-growth 
with its rich soil of decayed vegetation, or the region specialized by tabatinga 
clay or white sand, the sun-scorched dry and open " campo," the " capoeira " 
or simple woodland, the " igapo " or forest swamp, or the land to a greater or 
less extent under cultivation with its fruit-bearing trees, each special in itself, 
and each with a varied and specialized flora and fauna attached. In fact, to 
put the matter shortly, an abundance of quiet field-work with the closest 
observation of almost everything is undoubtedly the first requisite. Then it 
is time to secure a few names, if these have not already been obtained ; and 
if the species, and perhaps the genus too, cannot readily be identified, one ia 
seldom so out of luck's way as not to learn at least the Natural Order, which, 



356 NOVITATES ZOOLOGIOAE XXVII. 1920. 

as I shall endeavour to show, is often the most valuable of the three, and ought 
always to be recorded when possible. On procuring some desirable caterpillar, 
my plan is generally to take it home in a tin with a sufficient amount of its 
special plant to serve as food, and also a good sample-specimen to dry and 
preserve for future identification, not forgetting to note down its association 
with that particular larva. One speedily learns that it is often not possible 
thus to identify the plant without its flower, so this too should be sought for, 
though it is sometimes tiring and disappointing work. Further discoveries 
reveal the same larva, it may be, upon a number of distinct species which ultim- 
ately prove to belong to the same Order, or to one in the same general group 
of plants. The recognition of this alliance in the plant-world next offers a 
clue which, if followed up, not infrequently leads to the discovery of an allied 
caterpillar upon a kindred plant, and little by little one learns, for example, 
that an entire lepidopterous genus is associated with some particular genus of 
plants, or is at least confined to the group. Equally worthy of note is it that 
allied genera in the same lepidopterous subfamily are in frequent instances 
similarly restricted to one and the same Natural Order of plant-life. The last 
point in this connection is no less striking — namely, that an occasional instance 
occurs where an Order like Vitaceae, or possibly a single genus of that Order 
like Cissus, or the common grape-vine itself, will serve as a pabulum for species 
so distinct as to represent no fewer than three different subfamilies like Sesiinae, 
Philampelinae, and Choerocampinae, though this of course is very exceptional. 
The result of all these revelations has been to emphasize in my mind the great 
importance of the Natural Order, to give it always in this connection the place 
of precedence over generic or specific distinctions, and to work for the discovery 
of the larvae of those species which still remain unknown largely upon the 
analogous principle that they will probably some day be found to be associated 
with some plant or plants closely akin to those already known as the food-plants 
of kindred species in the lepidopterous world. 
I will give three examples in application : 

(1) Seeing that three species of Cocytius in nature feed on at least six species 
of Anonaceae, and perhaps a great many more, it is highly probable that the 
remaining two in Para, together with the closely-allied Amphimoea walkeri, 
are also Anonaceous feeders. Up to the present, however, this species with 
Cocytius lucifer and beelzebuth have only occurred as moths, and I have to confess 
my inability to trace their larvae. 

(2) In Para we have three species of Protambulyx and three of Amplypterus, 
and the whole six appear to be closely allied to one another. By exploring the 
caju tree, Anacardium occidentale, and the taperiba, Spondias lutea, and at least 
three other wild species belonging to this same Order Anacardiaceae, I have 
very often come across larvae sufficiently varied to convince me that I had 
secured different species, and as often have I been doomed to disappointment 
by breeding nothing but typical P. strigiiis. By continuing, however, to work 
on this principle, I have at last succeeded in finding the larva of P. eurycles on 
an Anacardiaceous tree like the ash, locally known as " tapiririca." 

The moth is common enough to leave me still wondering why its larva does 
not turn up more frequently, while as for P. goeldii and the genus Amplypterus 
I am yet no further advanced. 

(3) Out of 12 species of Xylophanes in Para I have taken the larvae of 7, 



NOTITATEa Zoolooicab XXVII. 1920. 357 

and, though two can feed on plants of distinct Orders, all but one in nature 
have been found associated with Rubiaceae — such as Spermacoce, Palicourea, 
Psychotria, etc. There is, therefore, a fair presumption at least that all the 
remainder are Rubiaceous feeders, and that in proportion as the alliance between 
any two or more is close, so are their larvae likely to be found feeding on these 
same plants or on species close akin. 

Perhaps the most striking exception to the general rule is to be found in 
Protoparce, which as a genus is commonly associated with Solanaceae, but where 
albiplaga seems to be limited to Boraginaceae and Anonaceae, the latter seeming 
to suggest a connection with Cocytius, which is extremely interesting. P. 
lichenea I have only taken on Citharexylutn, a Verbenaceous plant, while the 
common rustica associates itself with many plants in Verbenaceae, Boraginaceae, 
Bignoniaceae, and Oleaceae, but never with Solanaceae. Among the remainder 
of my acquaintance P. sexta, hannibal, and the rare perplexa are occasionally 
seen to be sustained in nature by two or three species of Aegiphila, another 
Verbenaceous genus, in place of their more customary Solanaceous plants. In 
the Andes of Peru I found the larvae of Euryglottis davidianus associated with 
Boraginaceae and Bignoniaceae, and as Euryglottis comes next in order to 
Protoparce it is highly instructive, providing a wealth of suggestion to the 
explorer, to learn that botanists group Boraginaceae, Bignoniaceae, Verbenaceae, 
and Solanaceae together in the series Bicarpellatae of the Gamopetalae. So 
once again our exception hardly does more than prove the rule. One is naturally 
led to suppose that there are important ingredients in the chemical composition 
of the leaf which are shared alike by all these plants, though so seemingly diverse 
in form, and that this nutritious principle is essential to the life not only of 
Protoparce, but of other species of other genera in Acherontiinae. 

Here, surely, is the evidence of design, to be accounted for as Darwin did 
by some grand evolutionary modifications in both plant and insect, running 
on parallel lines and reaching back into the remote ages of the past. Coming 
to present times, however, and allowing for the exceptions which greatly increase 
the number of those Natural Orders selected to provide food for Sphingid larvae, 
it is a striking and significant fact, and one which came to me as a revelation of 
analysis, that of the 63 Para Sphingidae whose early stages have been revealed, 
leaving at least another 27 where they have not, no fewer than 17 are associated 
in nature with Apocynaceae, 14 with Rubiaceae, 8 with Vitaceae, 7 with the 
gamopetalous Bicarpellatae, and the remainder as follows : Dilleniaceae 4, 
Anonaceae 4, Moraceae 3, Onagraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papayaceae, Anacardiaceae, 
and Asclepiadaceae 2 each ; Convolvulaceae, Piperaceae, Sapotaceae, Polygonaceae, 
Melastornaceae, Loganiaceae, and Vochysiaceae 1 each. 

Though I have occasion to refer to several other species of Sphingidae 
beyond the above 90, I naturally exclude them from my Para statistics. They 
form, as it were, a supplement, too small to stand by themselves, and too in- 
teresting to be ignored simply because they happened to live, one of them at 
Pernambuco, one in the Antilles, one at Iquitos, and three others anywhere 
from 500 to 1,000 miles up the Amazon. 

In conclusion I may say that, with the Sphingidae as one of my keenest 
specialities for a long period, I have striven to gather together every scrap of 
possible information relating to the life-histories of such species as have come 
under my notice. With this then, for the present, I must ask my readers to 



358 Novitates Zoolooicae XXVII. 1920. 

be content, and wait in hope for that day when errors shall be corrected and 
a few more gaps filled. 
Paha, January 1919. 

GENERAL CONDITIONS. 

Under this heading I have briefly sketched a number of more or less dis- 
jointed facts and figures, which may enable the reader more readily to picture 
Para and appreciate its advantages and disadvantages as an entomological 
centre. Such notes are often of considerable use to the practical collector. 

Belem (Para), with a population of about 120,000, is the capital of Para, 
the third largest State in Brazil, and is situated 1° 27' south latitude by 
48° 30' west longitude. 

Though nominally at the mouth of the Amazon, a glance at a large-scale 
map will show that the main bulk of Amazon water reaches the sea north of 
the great delta island of Marajo, whereas Para stands near the confluence of a 
distinct river-system, the immense Rio Tocantins proceeding from South Brazil, 
the Moju, the Ac