Skip to main content

Full text of "Novitates Zoologicae"

See other formats




".■.',''': ','>':'■ %''"-''''• .' 



■■■'■' ■■■";'. , i i ■■ 

;■•■':;■■■■■■ -^ -;■•:•, : 










Vol. XXXIII, 192G. 


H Journal of Zooloo\! 




Vol. XXXIII, 1926. 


Issued at the Zoological Museum, Trino. 





1. On the Birds of Feni and Nissan Islands. Ernst Hartert 

2. Remarks on " Review of the Genus Cacomanlis Mull." G. M. Mathews . 

3. Answer to the " Remarks on ' Re\dew of the Genus Cacomanlis. ' " Ernst 

Hartert ........... 

4. A Review of the Genus Corvus (Plates I-XII). R. Meinertzhagen . 

5. On the Birds of the District of Talasea in New Britain. Ernst Hartert 

6. On the Birds of the French Islands, north of New Britain. Ernst Hartert 

7. The Avifauna of Yunnan. Lord Rothschild ..... 

8. Types of Birds in the Tring Museum. Ernst Hartert .... 




1. New Geometridae. 

Louis B. Peout 

2. List of Hesperiidae in the Tring Museum collected on the Ivory Coast by 

G. Melon. N. D. Riley 

3. New Geometridae in the Tring Museum. Louis B. Prout 

4. The Agaristidae and Zygaenidae from the Bismarck Archipelago in the Tring 

Museum. Karl Jordan ........ 

5. On a Pyralid parasitic as Larva on Spiny Saturnian Caterpillars at Para. 

Karl Jordan .......... 

6. Some New Agaristidae, with Remarks on Nomenclature. Karl Jobdan . 

7. On some Old World Sphingidae. Kabl Jordan ..... 








1. Some New Anthribidae in the British Museum. Karl Jordan . 

2. New Eastern Anthribidae in the Tring Museum. Karl Jordan 



1. New Siphonaptcra. Karl Jordan 


INDEX 401—416 


PLATES I-XII. Heads of the Genus Corvus. H. Gkonvold. 





H Journal of ZooIoq\>- 




No. 1. 

Pages 1 — 56 
Issdkd March 25th, 1926, at the Zoological .Museum, Thing. 









1. NEW GEOMETRIDAE Louis B. Prout 1-32 





MULL" <''. 8f. Maihewt 53-54 


GENTJS CACOMANTIS '" Ernest Bartert . 55-56 


Vol. XXXIII. MARCH 1926. No. 1. 




I. Celerena mitis melanoprora subsp. a. 

(J$. Near C. in. evitans Prout (1916), from the Solomons. Palpus with 
2nd joint, predominantly black, only at base yellow (in the other races pre- 
dominantly yellow). Thorax with a blackish anterior hand well developed (in 
a few in minus from Bougainville feebly developed, otherwise wanting is m. 
evitans and m. mills). Abdomen with some black-grey maculation. Both 
wings with the black markings on an average broader than in m. evitans (but 
variable in that race). 

Bismarck Archipelago : New Britain (he. typ.) ; New Ireland ; New Hanover ; 
Rook Island ; Admiralty Islands. 

2. Aeolochroma prasina defasciata subsp. n. 

(J. Forewing with basal patch in its anterior half less developed, generally 
more mixed on SC with bluish white scales and with a subbasal admixture of 
these scales at costa ; antemedian line with the inward projection near costa 
generally lengthened; median area broadened, especially posteriorly, largely 
remaining green, only with a narrow dark (red- and black mixed) band proximally, 
some dark admixture posteriorly and some bluish-white admixture between 
M' and SM' ; postmedian line generally rather more sharply angled at R\ 
weakly angled at R' ; the red-brown, black-mixed band beyond well developed, 
almost as in ]>. spdilicoriiiii/ia Prout ( 11» I 7). but less bright.- [fimltriiig with the 
dark mark on DC' strong, the praesubterminal markings generally weak. 

Forewing beneath with the white mark in cellule 4 between cell-dot and 
postmedian clear and rather sharply defined. 

<J>. Similarly distinguishable by the form of the median band ; the white 
subcostal admixture generally sticmg, including a rather pronounced white 
mark just outside the anterior indentation of the postmedian. Forewing 
beneath with the white mark in cellule 4 as in the <J. 

Bismarck Archipelago : Rook Island, 1 <J ; New Britain (loc. typ.), 8 £,$ t 
2 $$ ; New Ireland, 3 cJcJ, 1 ? ; New Hanover, 2 <$<$, 1 $. 

Except for the rather less bulged termen and the lack of abrupt inward 



posterior curve of the postmedian. this more recalls viridimedia Prout (1916) 
than any hitherto known race of prasina. unless possibly the smaller p. 
spadicocampa of Biak. 

3. Terpna iterans sp. n. 

q. 58 mm. Near superans Butl. (187S). Face narrowly pale beneath 
as well as above. Palpus predominantly pale. 

Wings somewhat paler than in superans, at least in median area, the markings 
of upperside at first sight more suggestive of vigens Butl. or the erionoma Swinh. 
group. Foreicing with a fine subbasal line, thickening a little at costa ; ante- 
median much heavier (except at costa) than in superans, fairly equal in develop- 
ment throughout ; postmedian more distally placed than in that species, heavier, 
complete (not so broken into vein-dots) ; pale subterminal obsolete. Under- 
side less suffused with ochreous proximally. the heavy longitudinal blackish 
streaks wanting, the straightish. oblique antemedian of upperside faintly repro- 
duced ; cell-spots less large and round than in superans, that of the forewing 
being slightly concave on outerside. that of the hindwing relatively long and 
narrow ; subterminal row of spots not double, only the elongate, confluent 
pair in cellules i and 5 of the hindwing suggesting a possible confluence of two 
in each of the cellules named. 

China : district of Shanghai, type in coll. L. B. Prout. kindly presented by 
M. l'Abbe J. de Joannis, paratype in his collection. 

4. Thalassodes progressa sp. n. 

(J. 26-29 mm. : $, 27-34 mm. Face dull brown-red. Palpus in £ 1$, 
in $ just over 2 ; red on outerside, white beneath. Vertex white ; occiput 
green. Hindtibia in <J with slender hair-pencil. 

Wings shaped about as in the common T . digressa Walk. Ground-colour 
duller and more bluish green, with similar white irroration and strigulation, but 
with the lines extremely fine and almost obsolete ; costal edge of forewing 
similarly ochreous ; hindwing with more pronouned white on DC, though a 
little interrupted in the middle ; faint suggestions of a dark terminal line ; 
fringes pale ochreous. somewhat mixed with green proximally. 

Madagascar: Diego Suarez, March-July. 17 <$$, 7 $$ (G. Melou). Type 
in coll. Tring Museum. 

A larger £ from Nabagulo Forest, 15 miles from Kampala. Uganda, October 
25 — November 6, 1921 (W. Feather), shows similar structure and probably 
represents a race, but had better await more material from Continental Africa. 
T. digressa lacks the tibial pencil. 

5. Prasinocyma nonyma nom. n. 

Prasinocyma tichhorni Prout, Nov. Zool. xxxii. :!."> (1925) (nee Nov. Zool. xxvii. 2o7. 1920). 

By a very inexcusable oversight. 1 overlooked that I had already dedicated 
to the Eichhorn brothers a New Guinea species in this extensive genus. A new 
name therefore becomes necessary for the New Ireland species described 5 years 

6. Prasinocyma loveridgei sp. n. 

<J, 17-18 mm. Head and front of thorax whitish, slightly mixed with 
fuscous. Palpus scarcelv 1J, 2nd joint rough-scaled, especially above, where 


the scales project obliquely forward, 3rd joint short but distinct ; whitish, the 
2nd joint darkened on outerside. Antenna! shaft somewhat infuscated, the 
longest rjectinations about 4, apical third or more not pectinated. Thorax 
above predominantly fuscous, abdomen above more whitish, sprinkled with 
blackish-fuscous ; both beneath whitish. Hindtibia dilated, with hair-pencil 
and with a terminal process reaching to near end of 1st tarsal joint ; tarsus 
rather short. 

Forewing with cell at least J, DC curved, SO well free, R 1 connate or stalked, 
R 2 from little before middle, M 1 connate or shortly stalked ; dirty white, with 
copious but irregular dark irroration ; costa spotted; cell-mark black, crescentic, 
strongest on DC 2 ; ill-defined red-brownish clouding over a great part of the 
wing, occupying the proximal half excepting a vague antemedian band between 
M 2 and SM 2 and reappearing in a slightly incurved band (in the middle inter- 
rupted) from costa midway between cell-mark and termen to hindmargm close 
to tornus ; some blacker marking on this band near costa ; terminal spots 
black, interneural, slightly elongate ; fringe very weakly chequered. Hind- 
wing with termen almost rounded ; C closely approximated to about middle of 
cell, then rapidly diverging, R 2 as on forewing, M 1 shortly stalked ; whitish, 
the irroration slight and sparse ; a rather thin, rather elongate cell-mark ; ter- 
minal spots indicated. 

Both wings beneath nearly as hindwing above, the forewing, however, with 
costa spotted and anterior part (except distally) slightly suffused. 

Tanganyika Territory : Kongasa. April 23, 1917 (A. Loveridge), 2 tftf in 
coll. Tring Museum. 

Near perjmlverata Prout (1916), rather broader- winged, much less uniformly 
dusted. Possibly a race, as a $ perpulverata ab. subfasciata from Kenya Colony 
(April 1922) resembles it in the less uniform irroration. 

7. Metallochlora impotens sp. n. 

<J, 25-27 mm. Face orange-red. Palpus slightly over 1 ; red on outer- 
side, whitish beneath. Vertex white. Antenna pectinate, the branches very 
short (about 1) ; light-brown, at base white. Thorax and abdomen white, 
tinged with green above ; abdominal crest almost entirely obsolete. Foreleg 
tinged with red, especially the coxa ; hindtibia strongly dilated, with hair-pencil 
and slight terminal process ; terminal spurs short ; tarsus very short. 

Forewing with termen bowed, moderately oblique ; SC 1 generally anasto- 
mosing slightly with C, sometimes free, SC 2 shortly before SC 5 , R 1 connate or just 
stalked, M 1 connate or just separate ; whitish green, about as average captured 
lodis lactearia Linn. ; costal edge narrowly buff ; traces of a cloudy white ante- 
median ; a broad white postmedian, tapering a little anteriorly, here gently 
incurved, not quite reaching costa, from R 2 to M 2 rather more oblique than 

termen, at hindniargin about vertical ; fringe concolorous, at tips whiter. 

Hindwing rather broad for the genus, the angle at R 1 moderate ; SC 2 shortly 
stalked, M 1 shortly stalked ; concolorous with forewing ; a broad, strongly curved 
postmedian white line (band) about 3 mm. from termen. 

Underside whitish, the buff costal edge of forewing rather broader, at least 
at base ; frenulum dark-coloured. 

N.E. Madagascar: Diego Suarez, February-April 1917, 7 fig (the type 
dated March 4) ; Kulau, 1 <$. All in coll. Tring Museum, collected by G. Melou. 


Some specimens show indications of a darker cell-dot on each wing. The 
inclusion of the present and another similarly pectinated Diego Suarez species 
(1 <J, worn, facies of a white, well-banded glacialis Butl.) in Metallochlora will 
involve a slight change in my Key (Gen. Ins. cxxix. 16, no. 56), but seems justi- 
fiable ; the general habitus, genitalia, etc., would clearly place them in this group 
rather than in Antharmostes or Prasinocyma. 

8. Hemistola hypnopoea sp. n. 

<J. 20-27 mm. ; 9. 24-30 mm. Face red. Palpus slightly over 1, slender, 
2nd joint with some sparse, slender, long-projecting hair-scales above and beneath 
(easily lost), 3rd joint distinct, though small ; outerside reddish. Tongue well- 
developed, but slender. Antenna in $ with pectinations short (scarcely 2) ; 
in $ not pectinate. Vertex white ; occiput greenish. Thorax and abdomen 
pale green above, whitish beneath. Hindtibia in £ dilated, with hair-pencil 

Forewing with SC 1 anastomosing with C, M l separate ; dull pale yellowish- 
green, recalling Nothoterpna or AcoUesis ; costal edge very narrowly pale buff ; 
lines white, obsolete at costa ; antemedian slender, curved ; postmedian less 
slender, mostly straightish, about 3 mm. from termen, anteriorly curving inward 

before becoming obsolete. Hindwing with termen rounded, rather full ; C 

approximated to cell near base only, rapidly diverging ; R ; rather extreme, 
M l separate ; concolorous with forewing ; postmedian line continued, little 
beyond middle of wing, varying from almost straight to curved nearly parallel 
with termen. 

Underside whiter, the forewing. however, generally strongly shaded with 
dirty yellow-greenish except at distal and hind margins. 

N.E. Madagascar : Diego Suarez, mostly February -April. 25 $£, 6 $$ 
(lor. typ.) ; Kulau, 2 £q. Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

The large specimens perhaps belong to a separate brood as the two largest 
$$ are dated December 24 and January 8, but the only large <$ is undated. 
None are in perfect condition and they probably fade in relaxing. 

Si-bfa.m. STERRHIXAE. 
9. Scopula aspiciens sp. n. 

tJ?, 19-24 mm. Face black. Palpus black, beneath whitish. Vertex 
white. Antenna! shaft at base white, then more or less heavily spotted with 
black ; joints in q slightly projecting, ciliation fully 1. Thorax and abdomen 
concolorous with wings ; abdomen often (especially in the q) with blackish 
dorsal dots or small spots. Foreleg more or less infuseated on upper- and inner- 
side ; hindtibia in $ long, with moderate white hair-pencils, the tarsus scarcely I. 

Forewing slightly narrower than in average Scopula ; whitish, generally very 
densely (often almost throughout) irrorated with fleshy reddish, but sometimes 
remaining pale, thus very variable in colour ; a small black cell-dot, almost 
always partly ringed with grey scales and with a noticeable white spot between 
it on the median shade ; median shade generally rather thick, mixed red and 
grey (in varying proportion), a little beyond the cell-dot, slightly excurved 
anteriorly, more markedly incurved between M J and SM ! ; lines weak, greyish, 
antemedian bent outward in cell, marked with three darker dots on veins ; 
postmedian excurved near costa, incurved between radials and more slightly 

Novitates Zooloqicae XXXIII. 1926. 5 

between M ! and SM ! , slightly punctuated on the veins ; subterminal whitish, 
weak, nearly parallel with postmedian ; terminal dots small, black ; fringe 

rather more highly coloured than wings. Hindwing not very broad, termen 

only very slightly bent at R' ; cell-dot not ocellated ; antemedian line wanting, 
median curved round innerside of cell-dot. angled outward at base of R 1 ; outer 
area much as on forewing. 

Underside rather paler, much less reddish, the forewing in some specimens 
more or less suffused with grey ; cell-dots and terminal dots distinct, on forewing 
also the median and postmedian lines. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, February-September 1917 (G. Melou), a long 
series in coll. Tring Museum ; Morondava, a rubbed $ in the same collection. 

10. Hamalia ligys sp. n. 

cJ, 21-23 mm. Face brown, mixed with black. Vertex white. Occiput 
and front of thorax dusky brown. Antennal shaft white proximally, then mixed 
ivith blackish ; ciliation 1 or slightly over. Thorax and abdomen concolorous 
with wings, Hindtibia with the usual pale hair-pencil ; hindtarsus not so 
extremely abbreviated as in nigromarginata Dogn. (1890). 

Wings shaped much as in venipunctata Warr. (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxx, 
446), etc., coloured and marked almost as an aberration of the much larger 
nigromarginata Dogn. with the median shade less thick, more concise. Fore- 
wing with costal edge narrowly blackened ; cell-dot black ; antemedian line 
fine, straightish ; median shade faintly sinuous or almost straight, touching the 
outer side of, or almost crossing, the cell-dot ; postmedian much as in nigro- 
marginata, rather more equally developed throughout ; terminal spots between 
the radials and at tornus rather large, the former broadly triangular ; terminal 
line less thick and regular than in nigromarginata ; fringe slightly infuscated 

and with darker spots. Hindwing with sharp cell-dot, otherwise marked 

nearly as in nigromarginata. 

Underside much as in nigromarginata. 

Colombia : Cananche, Cundinamarca, September 1903 (M. de Mathan) 
type and two other $,$ in coll. Tring Museum. Peru : Palcazu and La Oroya 
(Rio Inambari) in coll. Tring Museum ; Ucayali in coll. Dognin. 

11. Hamalia exempta sp. n. 

<J, 20 mm. Face blackish, slightly paler below. Palpus very short and 
slender, blackish brown. Antennal ciliation li. Vertex white. Occiput and 
front of thorax dark brown ; the rest of thorax and abdomen concolorous 
with wings. Hindtibia with long whitish pencil from femoro-tibial joint ; tarsus 
slender, § or slightly over. 

Forewing with areole single, SC 1 stalked a little beyond ; light pinkish 
cinnamon to pinkish buff, rather thinly and smoothly scaled ; slight dark 
irroration ; costal edge narrowly blackish brown ; lines brownish grey ; ante- 
median indistinct, very slightly excurved in cell, crossing extreme base of M-, 
very slightly incurved between this and SM- ; median line fine, almost straight, 
from costa slightly beyond middle to hindmargin at about jj ; cell-mark not 
strong, slightly proximal to median line ; postmedian weakly sinuous, the out- 
ward curve about R'-M 1 perhaps the most noticeable ; terminal line blackish, 

6 Ni>yit\Ti:s Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

slightly interrupted; fringe rather pale, dark-spotted. Hitulwing with SC 

stalked for nearly half its length ; first line wanting, the others more proximal 
than on forewing, the median fine, bent proximally to the cell-dot, the post- 
median continuing the median of forewing, rather more markedly excurved 
between R 1 and M ! than on forewing. 

Underside more weakly marked, the hindwing paler. 

Colombia : Yuntas, near Cali, type in coll. Dognin. 

A rubbed $ from Salidero, N.W. Ecuador, 350 feet, March 1901, agreeing 
accurately in venation and apparently in markings, has stood unnamed in the 
Tring Museum ; hindtibia with the outer proximal spur vestigial. 

12. Sterrha recrinita sp. n, 

(J, 18 mm. Head brown. Antenna with rather long fascicles of cilia (It 
or over). Thorax and abdomen drab, beneath slightly paler and more brownish. 
Midleg long, the tibia throughout with a fringe of long, buff-tinted hair. Hindleg 
short, the tibia with a pale pencil, the tarsus greatly aborted. Abdomen beneath 
with a rather long, pale pencil from near base. 

Forewing with termen long, strongly oblique, tornal region rather ample ; 
areole moderate, SC 1 from its apex or shortly stalked, SC' stalked a little beyond 
SC 1 ; costal region beneath (to beyond middle) with a fringe of rather long hair ; 
glossy drab, with a slight shade of olive-brown ; the gloss shown, with a strong 
lens, to be produced by a sprinkling of glistening leaden scales ; costal margin 

more buff ; cell-dot weak ; lines obsolete. Hindwing somewhat distorted, 

irregularly amygdaloid, its greatest length at M l , apex and tornus scarcely 
indicated, termen extremely convex ; cell apparently extremely short and not 
or scarcely closed, SC 2 and R 1 long, medians stalked ; mostly concolorous with 
forewing, in the abdominal region more tinged with buff. 

Underside almost uniform drab, the hindwing mostly hairy, costa at base 
with a strong tuft, succeeded by a more ochreous patch of bristly scaling. 

S.E. Peru: Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, dry season, 3,100 feet, June 1904 
(G. Ockenden), type and another <J in coll. Tring Museum. Bolivia : Rio Songo, 
750 m. (Fassl), a rather rubbed $ in coll. Dognin ; Buenavista (E. Bolivia), 
750 m. (J. Steinbach), a damaged $ in coll. Tring Museum. 

Rather near S. prolixa Schaus (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist (8) xi. 353, as 
Euacidalia), the forewing more acute, the leg-tufts (not mentioned in original 
description) less red, etc. 

13. Sterrha (Pogonogya) scholaea sp. n, 
3, 23 mm. Head orange-cinnamon. Body concolorous with wings. 
Forewing with costal margin only curved near apex, termen scarcely curved, 
long ; SC 1 free ; pinkish buff, suffused — except near costal margin — with fawn ; 
costal edge orange-cinnamon ; cell-mark blackish ; lines fine, somewhat as in 
jugaria Schaus (TV. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxvii. 259), etc., the antemedian being 
indistinct, little curved, chiefly indicated by slight dark proximal shading, the 
postmedian vertical from costa about 3 mm. from apex, bent at R l , slightly 
incurved between this and R 1 , approximated to termen at medians, markedly 
inbent behind M-, then slightly thickened, closely approaching termen at SM ! . 
— — Hindwing with abdominal margin long, folded, with hair-pencil, termen 


moderately curved ; SC : rather shortly, M 1 very shortly stalked ; concolorous 
with forewing, abdominal area rather more ochreous ; cell-dot weaker ; an 
indistinct, sinuous postmedian line (incurved between the radials, excurved 
before and behind), about twice as near to cell-dot as to termen ; fringe more 
strongly irrorated towards tornus. 

Underside less — that of hindwing scarcely — suffused with fawn ; the cell- 
marks and on forewing the postmedian line indicated. 

Colombia : Pacho, E. Cordillera, 2,200 m. (A. H. Fassl), type in coll. Dognin ; 
Muzo, 400-800 m. (A. H. Fassl), paratypes in coll. Tring Museum, coll. Joicey, 
coll. L. B. Prout. 

Larger than rufulata Warr. (1900). anal tufts apparently less developed, 
abdominal pencil long (from near base), pale ; forewing with termen relatively 
longer, rather redder, cell-dot distincter, etc. 

14. Anisodes pauper celsa subsp. n. 

<J, 45-48 mm. Distinguished principally from the name-typical race 
(pauper Butl. 1887, Solomons) by its large size ; further by a more rufescent tinge, 
rather dense dark irroration. appreciably darkened costal edge of forewing and 
more extended fleshy suffusion of forewing beneath, here leaving only a narrow 
distal border and rather broader posterior area pale. Varies extremely, like 
p. pauper, in the expanse of the black bordering of the cell-mark of hindwing. 

New Britain : Talasea, March-April 1925 (A. F. Eichhorn). 2 <$$ in coll. 
Tring Museum. 


15. Eois leueampyx sp. a. 

tj$, 19-22 mm. Close to amydroscia Prout (1922), possibly a subspecies, 
though the <J antenna looks rather more compressed laterally. Face reddish 
merely shading off gradually to yellowish below. Fillet and scaling of antennal 
shaft pure white. Tone slightly less yellow than in amydroscia (excepting a 
Pulo Laut race ?) ; forewing with the proximal subterminal marks less equally 
developed, only with the one behind R 2 strong, the one in front smaller (in 
amydroscia this pair are approximately equal). 

New Britain: Talasea, March-April 1925 (A. F. Eichhorn), 3 <JcJ, 1 ?, in 
coll. Tring Museum. 

A $ from Stephansort, N.E. New Guinea, seems to agree accurately, and 
single specimens from British New Guinea and Bougainville are probably 
aberrations or kindred races. From sanguilineata Warr. (1901), leueampyx 
differs in the possession of an areole, in having the forewing slightly broader, 
yet with sharper apex, the hindwing slightly more elongate to tornus, and in the 
less bright colouring, the purple markings being less strong and somewhat mixed 
with blackish. 

10. Xanthorhoe euthytoma sp. n. 

(J, 30 mm. Palpus nearly H, broadly scaled. Antennal pectinations 
rudimentary (materially shorter than diameter of shaft), two pairs to each joint, 
surmounted by fascicles of cilia exceeding their own length. Head and body 
concolorous with wings. 


Foreiving rather broad, costa in distal half gently arched, apex not acute, 
termen almost smooth, curved chiefly about middle, not very oblique ; brownish 
fuscous, slightly rippled with whitish and darker fuscous ; basal patch strongly, 
the rest of the wing more slightly mixed with neutral red ; cell-dot black : 
basal patch not quite 2 mm., bounded by a slightly curved line ; succeeding 
area scarcely paler than central band ; central band moderately broad, with 
a pale tint in front of cell-dot, otherwise pretty uniform, its proximal edge waved, 
nearly vertical (slightly oblique inward) from costa to M close to base of M ! , 
where it bends weakly, thence running very slightly oblique inward to hindmargin ; 
its distal edge almost straight, from costa at nearly 11 mm. to hindmargin at 
nearly 7 mm., succeeded by a triple white line ; subterminal line white, very 
fine, very slightly interrupted, deeply but not qtiite regularly dentate, with some 
slight dark shading proximally, especially between the radials ; terminal line 
more or less interrupted at and midway between the veins (in places forming 
paired black spots) ; fringe dark, especially proximally, with a whitish line at 
base, another at tips, and a third intermediate (slightly nearer to the latter). 

Hindwing a little paler and greyer ; cell-dot black ; basal and central areas 

not differentiated ; postmedian line rather more excurved in middle than on 
forewing, the succeeding white lines rather less distinct ; subterminal vaguer 
than on forewing. especially anteriorly ; terminal line and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside pale tilleul-buff with some grey suffusion, between cell-dots 
and postmedian with some wavy dark lines ; cell-dots large, black ; forewing 
with a black antemedian costal spot ; both wings with postmedian line and indis- 
tinct whitish lines beyond ; subterminal line ill-developed, but on both wings 
with dark proximal shades, a strong one anteriorly (almost black between 
the radials) and a rather less strong posteriorly, leaving cellule 3 pale ; terminal 
line and fringe less sharply marked than above. 

Nigeria : near Bamenda, 5,000-6,000 feet, August 1922, type in coll. L. B. 

Near ansorgei Warr. (Nov. Zool. vi. 299), but with the subterminal line quite 
different, etc. 

17. Euphyia goniodes sp. n. 

(J, 32-34 mm. Intermediate between subangulata Koll. (1848) and medio- 
vittaria Moore (1867). Fore- and midlegs above slightly darker (less white- 
irrorated) than in mediovittaria, the rings at ends of joints consequently more 

conspicuous. Forewing with termen at least as oblique, apex very slightly 

more produced ; proximal and distal areas rather less tinged with ochreous ; 
markings of proximal area similar, the narrow brown band between basal patch 
and median fascia less bright brown ; median fascia as broad as in subangulata, 
at costa broader, its distal edge being more oblique outward anteriorly to the 
radial concavity, its form otherwise similar to that of subangulata, its paler 
central part broad, its dark boundaries slightly less reddish than in the allies ; 
subterminal line somewhat interrupted, slightly more lunulate than in medio- 
vittaria. Hindwing similar to that of mediovittaria, but with the termen 

rather straighter between C and R\ the fringe less tinged with yellowish, rather 
more mottled with grey opposite the veins. 

Underside much like that of subangulata. 

Tibet : Chumbi Valley, 4 $$ in coll. Tring Museum, the type and another 


bearing the more exact locality Dopenri. Also from Kashmir Valley, 7,000 feet, 
1 S m coll. L. B. Prout. 

18. Atopophysa indistincta proximifascia subsp. n. 

?, 35-38 mm. On an average larger than the corresponding sex of i. 

indistincta Butl. (1889). Foreiving slightly less dusky ; subbasal line (narrow 

band) strongly blackened, almost straight ; markings on median area quite 
as weak as in the name-typical race, but with the boundary-lines tending to 
blacken at costa and especially at hindmargin, the antemedian at hindmargin 
oblique outward. Hindwing, except in distal area, paler than in i. i)idisti?icta. 

Assam : Khasia Hills, February 1896, 9 $$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

19. Coenotephria championi sp. n. 

<3\ 34 mm. Head and body dark fuscous sprinkled with white ; the white 
more dominant beneath. Face with developed cone. Palpus over 1 i ; deep 
fuscous (almost black), beneath whitish. Antenna with joints projecting, ciliation 
almost 1. Anal tuft whitish drab. 

Forewing with margins little curved, termen markedly oblique ; general 
coloration as in Enphyia variegata Moore (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, p. 653), 
the median band being predominantly blackish (rather less sharply than in that 
species), the areas on either side of it suffused with olive-green (fading to 
yellowish) ; basal area as dark as median, its whitish boundary-line slightly 
indented at both folds ; intermediate band broad but very vague ; median 
band much as in E. variegata, but with its distal edge indented rather than incurved 
on R ! , little lobed behind this, running inward rather strongly to M 1 , so that the 
anterior half of the band looks more markedly broader than the posterior than 
in that species ; a similarly large cell-spot ; subterminal and terminal lines also 
similar, but the former scarcely filled in with dark shading except between the 

radials. Hindwing dark grey, with weak white-grey lines (subterminal and 

double postmedian) as in E. variegata. 

Underside rather less brown than in E. variegata with rather less sharp 
contrasts, the whitish apical and midterminal spots of forewing being absent, the 
anterior band distally to the postmedian narrowed to a line ; postmedian of 
both wings less strongly lobed behind middle. 

India: Nainital, S.W. of Almora, at light, September 22, 1921 (H. G. 
Champion), type in coll. Oxford Museum. 

20. Eupithecia robiginascens sp. n. 

cJ$, 26-27 mm. Head and body above blackish fuscous, in places tinged 
with red-brown ; beneath pale drab. Face with well-developed cone. Palpus 
rather short (little over 1). heavily scaled. 3rd joint quite short, concealed. 
Antennal ciliation in $ rather less than 1, in $ nearly i. Legs (especially fore- 
leg) darkened, with pale rings at ends of joints. 

Forewing rather elongate, costa rather straight to well beyond middle, then 
gently curved ; cinnamon (or, when quite fresh, inclining to tawny ochraceous), 
finely but densely irrorated with dark fuscous, except in the bands which bound 
the median area ; cell-spot large, raised, long-oval, deep black ; costal margin 
blackish fuscous, cut by a few pale dashes ; blackish dashes on M and M ! as 

10 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. lH2r>. 

far as the postmedian. also on all the veins just proximally to the postmedian. 
elsewhere slighter ; basal patch ill-defined, strongly angled outward in middle of 
cell, then strongly oblique inward ; the cinnamon band beyond it narrow ; 
median area over 4 mm. wide at costa. about 3-5 mm. at hindmargin, rippled 
with about 6 fine, ill-defined lines of dark irroration, the proximal ones parallel 
with subbasal. the distal angled about R 1 ; postmedian bounded by a faintly 
hoary line, which is oblique inward from costal (angled at SC S ), excurved at R 1 
weak posteriorly ; a fine dark line (obsolete posteriorly) separates this from the 
outer cinnamon or ochraceous band, which is rather broad at R\ then gradually 
tapers posteriorly ; terminal area slightly darker than median ; subterminal 
line in anterior half very fine, dentate, pale hoary greyish, posteriorly whiter. 
more lunulate, interrupted in cellule 2. conspicuous behind M ! ; terminal line 

black, with slight hoary dots ; fringe chequered. Hindwing whitish drab 

anteriorly and apically. concolorous with forewing posteriori}' ; cell-dot moderate ; 
M and M ! dotted with blackish and whitish ; postmedian vein-dashes, cinnamon 
outer band and whitish subterminal line developed in posterior part only, the 
band narrow ; terminal line and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside glossy pale drab ; the veins with brownish dashes ; cell-spots 
elongate ; forewing (and hindwing more slightly) with black costal spots — 
subbasal, antemedian. postmedian. and one or two others in median area ; the 
principal lines fairly well developed, except on forewing posteriorly. 

Bhutan: Buxa (type in coll. Tring Museum) ; Sikkim ; Khasia Hills ; N.E. 

21. Chloroclystis (Gymnodisca) isophrica sp. n. 

<J9, 22 mm. Head and thorax pale olive ; two black dots between antennae 
and another on crown. Palpus in $ over 2i, in $ 3A ; marked with dark fuscous 
on outerside. Abdomen above in £ reddish, with narrow blackish-fuscous 
belts at ends of segments ; in $ more broadly blackish-fuscous. 

Forewing pale olive-green, in places irrorated with blackish-fuscous ; markings 
mostly blackish-fuscous ; costa with spots or dashes ; an extremely fine, curved 
subbasal line ; a narrow, somewhat interrupted, straightei band between this and 
median band, widest anteriorly ; median band about 4 mm. wide, formed of 
partly confluent, rippled lines, leaving interruptions of the ground-colour, 
especially in a longitudinal direction in and outside cell (rather recalling C. 
ruptiscripta Warr.. 1903 — " Rhinoprora"); cell-dot almost lost in the band; 
the very fine, rippled white lines which bound the median band very gently 
curved throughout, otherwise unusually regular (only approached in the group 
by those of rvbrifusa Warr.. 1895); subterminal line fine, lunulate-dentate. slightly 
interrupted, accompanied proximally by a brown-red band, which is only black 
mixed between costa and SO and at its extreme proximal edge and distal inter- 
neural teeth ; a fine black terminal line ; fringe with triangular blackish spots. 

which project their apices across the terminal line on to the veins. Hind- 

wing pale glossy drab, with feeble indications of the markings of underside ; 
terminal line and fringe-spots as on forewing but weaker. 

Underside glossy drab, costal margins slightly spotted or clouded ; fore- 
wing with darker, gently curved, distally pale-edged postmedian line, proximally 
to which the ground-colour is slightly darkened ; hindwing with small dark 
cell-dot, curved (and at R 1 very bluntly bent) postmedian line, weaker median 


just outside the cell-dot and indistinct praesubterminal shade ; terminal line 
and fringe-spots present. 

Central Dutch New Guinea: Mt. Goliath. 5,000-7,000 feet, January 1911 
(A. S. Meek), 1 <J, 1 $, in coll. Tring Museum. 

22. Chloroclystis (Gymnodisca) hypodela sp. n. 

<J, 21 mm. At first sight very similar to the preceding, the shape and general 
coloration of forewing being nearly the same ; evidently in reality nearer to 
viridescens Warr. (1895). Chiefly distinguished from isophrica as follows : 

Tace with a longer cone. Palpus stouter ; not dark-mixed on outerside, 

Abdomen dorsally more irrorated with black. Forewing with cell-dot large. 

conspicuous ; median band more broken, strongest in costal and hindmarginal 
spots at its proximal and distal extremities ; postmedian line and pale band 
beyond much less regular, forming, in particular, an outward projection behind 
R 1 , the pale band finely bisected ; subterminal line much less deeply dentate, 
its red proximal band obsolete, replaced by dark patches at costa and radials. 

and a much smaller one on M- ; fringe-spots not extending on to the wing. 

Hindiving and underside paler, more strongly marked (the markings beneath 
mostly brown), postmedian line of hindwing more angulated on R\ 

Central Dutch New Guinea: Mt. Goliath, January and February 1911 
(A. S. Meek), 2 $<$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

23. Chrysoclystis perornata morbosa aubsp. n. 

tJ9, 26-28 mm. Smaller than p. perornata Warr. (1896), the general colora- 
tion decidedly paler, the parts which in the New Guinea race are deep brownish 
vinaceous becoming here cinnamon-buff, the buff parts correspondingly paler ; 
the strongly bent outer line of the forewing is continued further proximad in 
cellule 6, almost meeting the inner line. 

Penang : Waterfall Valley, March 14— April 18, 1898 (Curtis), type in coll. 
Tring Museum. Also from Padang Rengas, Malay Peninsula, in the same col- 
lection (noted by Warren, Nov. Zool. iv. 228, as the corresponding $ to his 
original $$) and from Bidi, Sarawak (C. J. Brooks) in coll. Joicey. 

24. Heterophleps bicommata (Warr.). 

Dysethia bicommata Warr., Proc. Zool. Soc. Land. 1893, p. 348 t. 32, f. 1. (Sikkira). 

Mr. Warren founded this on two species and both his generic and his specific 
diagnosis give generally the $ characters first. Nevertheless, the generic con- 
ception — like most of Warren's — was based on the <J structure, as is shown 
especially by his later erection of Dysethiodes (Nov. Zool. ii. 106) and is supported 
by Hamjjson's sectionizing (Faun. Iud. Moths, iii. 335). Moreover, his $ was 
a specimen of ocyptaria Swinh. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xii 157), while his <J 
has never received any other specific name. This d, too, is the specimen figured ; 
although the figure looks $, a comparison with the two originals shows, even to 
the damaged abdomen, that it was taken from the $. I have therefore had no 
hesitation whatever in making the J the holotype and transferring the ostensible 
allotype to ocyptaria. Both are in poor condition. The Naga specimens which 
Mr. Elwes (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893, p. 349) took to be the same species are 
again different and are described below. 

12 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIU. 1926. 

25. Heterophleps acineta sp. n. 

<J, 32 mm. Very much like small ocyptaria Swinh., but belonging to a dif- 
ferent section in that the <J antenna is not pectinate, but bears on each segment 
two pairs of fascicles of slender cilia, which except at the distal end of the antenna 
are long and arise from rudimentary processes. Palpus short and rather slender. 

Forewing shaped about as in ocyptaria. the termen perhaps slightly more 
sinuous than in the <J of that species ; coloration the same ; costal spots smaller 
and browner (less blackened) ; lines equally fine, antemedian fully as oblique 
to SM>, postmedian much straighter. scarcely at all sinuous, reaching hindmargin 

near tornus. Hindwing with costa rather less long than in ocyptaria. angles 

rather more rounded ; abdominal area beneath less clothed with hair. 

Assam : Naga Hills, 5,500-7,000 feet. August-October 18S9 (W. Doherty), 
2 $$ in coll. Tring Museum. 

Agrees with bicommata Warr. (vide supra) in the antenna] structure, but that 
species is longer-winged, with larger and darker cell-spot and costal patches, 
much less oblique antemedian line, sinuous postmedian, lighter and more sharply 
marked hindwing, etc. I have made the first comparison with the less closely 
related ocyptaria as being the better-known species and, moreover, occurring also 
in the Nagas. 

26. Syzeuxis (0 tessellifimbria sp. a. 

$. 46 mm. At first glance suggestive of an overgrown trinotaria Moore, 
and so determined by Elwes (with query). Hampson (Faun. Ind.. Moths, iii. 339). 
and Warren. Distinct in a considerable number of points. Palpus less long- 
scaled above. Foreiving with termen more regularly curved ; a small proximal 

areole present ; colour appreciably greener ; costal edge less sharply marked with 
black and white ; the two principal costal spots less triangular, more elongate, 
the first fines which run from them more excurved in cell and at radials, partly 
marked with darker brown ; a small brown subterminal spot between R 1 and 
R ! ; fringe in proximal half continuously olive-grey, in distal pure white, dark- 
spotted opposite the veins. Hindwing more elongate than in trinotaria ; 

discocellulars biangulate ; cell-dot present above ; outer line fairly strong, curved 

rather than bent in middle ; fringe without the blackish patches. Underside 

with the postmedian line of forewing reaching hindmargin ; fringes as above. 

Sikkim: Tonglo, 10,000 feet, July 1886 (H. J. Elwes), type in coll. Tring 

Should probably form a separate genus, but, as the areole certainly varies 
in the group. 1 it can remain here pending systematic revision. 

27. Syzeuxis magnidica sp. n. 

"Aphantoloba nigrinotata f " Warr.. Nov. Zool. iii. 117 (18516) (nee <J). 

o. 22-26 mm. ; $, 25-30 mm. Less small than nigrinotata Warr.— 
Foreiving with SC 1 well away from C (in nigrinotata touching or anastomosing 
slightly) ; ground-colour more uniformly buff, less mixed with whitish, the 
irroration more strigiform ; costal spots larger, the antemedian developed into 

1 In Cryptoloba minor Warr. (figured by Hampson, Faun. Ind.'Moths. iii, 336, fig. 166, as aerata) 
tlie areole is double ; in the closely allied aerata Moore it is single, 


a half-band, always crossing M, generally reaching or crossing M-, the shadowy 
brown antemedian line (band) behind it obsolete ; postmedian crossing R 1 , 
often almost reaching R-, the shadowy band behind it straight and grey, not 

sinuous and brown, ending in a dark-fuscous dot on hindmargin. Hindwing 

with C less closely approximated to cell than in nigrinotata ; ground-colour 
rather less white ; postmedian band not reaching costa ; fringe infuscated 

between tornus and M 1 . Underside also less whitish, the cell of the fore wing 

with heavy smoky suffusion. 

Assam : Khasia Hills. 2 £3, 3 $$, in coll. Tring Museum. 

Warren had only his " $ type " to represent nigrinotata, but mixed with it 
examples of the present species and of the following. The only other specimen 
of nigrinotata yet known to me is a $ from Loeboe Rajah, Sumatra. April-May 
1897 (Ericsson), possibly a separable race. 

28. Syzeuxis seminanis sp. n. 

(J, 19-20 mm. In appearance intermediate between nigrinotata Warr. 
and mag it til tea Prout (supra), but differing from both in the presence of a small 

areole in the forewing. Forewing less whitish-mixed than in nigrinotata, 

the irroration similarly fine, the bands similarly brownish, but rather finer and 
only a little sinuous, the postmedian at hindmargin with a few dark scales on 
each side ; antemedian costal triangle shorter than in either of the closest allies, 
more as in trinotaria Moore ; postmedian triangle narrow, but rather long, just 

crossing R 1 ; cell-dot wanting. Hindwing coloured almost as in magnidica ■ 

cell-dot weaker ; postmedian band reduced to a thick line, nearer to termen than 

to cell, reaching costa. Underside coloured as in magnidica, on both wings 

with the postmedian thin ; smoky suffusion in cell scarcely so strong as in mag- 

Assam: Khasia Hills, March 1894 (type) and April 1894 (paratype), in coll. 
Tring Museum. 

The presence of an areole in this species (though proportionally smaller than 
that of trinotaria) suggests that Hampson (Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xii. 75) 
was right in sinking Aphantoloba to Syzeuxis. though he was seriously wrong in 
making nigrinotata a form of trinotaria. 

29. Dyspteris crispisulcans sp. n. 

J, 35-38 mm. ; $, 38-42 mm. Head green. Palpus in $ 1£, in $ 2, 2nd 
joint above and beneath with rather long-projecting hair-scales. Antenna in 
cj with the pectinations rather short, in $ with the projections beneath not deep. 
Thorax and abdomen green, the latter with narrow whitish belts at ends of seg- 
ments. Fore- and midlegs blackish on upperside. 

Forewing moderately broad, though less so than in breviataria Hb. (Zutr. 
i. 29), the tornus being less square ; bluish green, in places mixed with white, 
which becomes the predominant tone in the median area, except towards costa ; 
a small white cell-spot ; lines deeper green, edged with white on their reverse 
sides ; antemedian acutely angled outward in cell, thickened at the angle so as 
to touch cell-spots ; postmedian markedly irregular, rather sharply dentate 
outward on the veins, incurved between the radials and more slightly behind 
middle, anteriorly slightly more oblique than termen ; subterminal line white 

14 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1026. 

irregularly dentate ; conspicuous white vein-spots between this and termen ; 

fringe green proximally. white distallv. Hindwing in both sexes narrow, 

the apex slightly more rounded than in breviataria ■ DC in § biangulate ; first 
line wanting ; the rest nearly as on forewing. 

Underside similar ; median area of forewing less white ; white markings of 
hindwing more or less widened. 

E. Peru : Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco (E. Boettger). type and another 
cJ; Cushi, Prov. Huanuco, 1,900 m. (W. Hoffmanns), 1 <J,.l ?. S.E. Peru: 
Chirimayo. 1.000 feet. July 1901 (G. Ockenden), 1 $. All in coll. Tring Museum. 

30. Trichopterigia sphenorrhyma sp. n. 

5, 39 mm. Face whitish. Palpus If ; 2nd joint blackened on outerside. 
Vertex whitish, with some black scales in centre. Thorax and abdomen whitish, 
irrorated and spotted with black, the abdomen dorsally with longitudinal black 
marks, subdorsally with some darkening at ends of segments. 

Forewing white, irregularly irrorated with pale brownish buff (perhaps 
more olive-buff in bred specimens), the basal area more deeply soiled with this 
colour ; markings black ; a small cell-mark ; subbasal line sharp, very oblique 
outward to an acute tooth on SC, thence nearly vertical to hindmargin but 
with a tooth outward at M and a faint inward curve behind it ; two ill-defined 
(only in part black-irrorated) lines between this and median area, gently excurved 
anteriorly, the outer one strengthened with short wedges on the veins ; antemedian 
line from about \ costa to middle of hindmargin. lunulate-dentate and double 
from costa to base of M>, thence single, thicker, dentate, the tooth inward at 
fold rather long, the outward tooth on SM-' deeper black ; postmedian fine, 
from a costa, vertical to C or SC, excurved outside cell-dot, with a blacker mark 
about DC*, than more blurred by accompanying black irroration, posteriorly 
becoming again deep black, with an angle inward at SM ! , then very oblique 
outward to hindmargin ; indications of a duplicating line outside the postmedian, 
then a characteristic series of dashes or wedges on the veins ; proximal sub- 
terminal interrupted, notably in cellule 6, most distinct as a streak from costa 
to SC° and some marks between the radials, in both these places irregularly 
duplicated distallv ; a faint brownish-grey shade close to termen (strongest 
anteriorly), crossed by fine black dashes on the veins ; termen with paired black 
dots at the veins ; fringe white, marked, especially opposite the veins, with 
blackish. Hindiving white, but thinly scaled, the distal half with some brown- 
grey irroration, which tends to form a rather distally r>laced postmedian line 
(strongest on veins) and still weaker subterminal shades ; terminal dots weaker 
than on forewing. 

Forewing beneath more smoky, indefinitely marked ; a white band proximally 
to the subterminal shades. Hindwing more nearly as above or slightly cleaner 

Kashmir Valley, 7,000 feet, June 1903 (Col. Ward). Type in coll. Tring 
Museum, paratype in coll. L. B. Prout. 

31. Pachrophylla aorops sp. n. 

<J, 31-33 mm. Face with rough projecting hair-scales. Palpus 2, 2nd 
joint heavily scaled above and beneath, 3rd joint small, concealed. Antenna 


pubescent. Thorax with slight posterior crests. Abdomen slender, slightly 
elongate. Head and body concolorous with wings ; foreleg above banded, 
blackish and pale. 

Wings not narrowed, being slightly broader than in the group of minor 

Butl. (1882). Forewing with costa markedly shouldered at base, then 

straightish almost to apex, apex squared, termen bowed, scarcely oblique 
anteriorly, moderately so posteriorly ; brown, closely irrorated in different 
shades, the prevailing impression being of Verona brown, clouded — especially 
in median area — with -dark grey ; costal margin, especially in median area, some- 
what paler, cut by dark dashes ; a small but slightly elongate dark cell-mark, 
set in an elongate, narrow pale ocellus, which extends for the length of DC 2 " 1 
and is continued narrowly on DC 4 ; slighter pale vein-dots elsewhere ; dark 
markings scarcely developed ; a thick, outwardly oblique subbasal indicated 
from costa to M ; boundaries of the median area still more vague, the jsostmedian 
rendered more traceable by indications of a duplicated interrupted pale line 
beyond, which is more or less incurved at the radials and at fold ; subterminal 
line distinct, whitish, consisting of interneural dashes or shallow lunules accom- 
panied by slight dark shading ; termen with paired blackish dots ; fringe rather 

pale distally. Hindwing with the lobe reaching to slightly beyond middle of 

abdominal margin, divided from the rest of the wing by a small rounded bay 
much as in minor ; C anastomosing with SO to near end of cell, SO rather long- 
stalked, DO oblique and somewhat incurved, considerably longer than DO, 
an appreciable angle at origin of R 2 , M 1 widely separate, M 2 wanting ; light 
drab, somewhat whiter at base and costally. 

Underside glossy drab, the hindwing a little lighter. 

Chili (V. Izquierdo), type in coll. L. B. Prout ; (W. B. Calvert) a worn $ 
in coll. Tring Museum ; Mulchen, January 1902 (H. J. Elwes). a $ in coll. British 

Differs from true Pachrophylla in having C of hindwing anastomosing 
instead of connected with SO 

32. Hoplosauris analogica sp. n. 

(J, 37 mm. Face whitish, narrowly mixed above with black, lower extremity 
wholly black. Palpus 1£, with very small terminal joint ; 2nd joint blackened 
on outerside. Head and body predominantly drab, the head and front of thorax 
mixed with grey ; thorax with rather strong dark posterior crest ; abdomen 
slender and rather elongate, rather pale beneath. 

Foreiving elongate but rather broad, the termen being long, obliquely 
curved, apex fairly sharp ; light brown, somewhat variegated, most tinged with 
cinnamon-drab or fawn in median area and with a slight flush in the pale area 
beyond ; a conspicuous black streak from apex to the subterminal line at R 1 , 
constricted at apex and in middle, rather more steep then the streak of typical 
Anaitis ; pattern consisting of a large number (about 16) of somewhat sinuous 
dark-brown lines, a few of them — notably two at proximal side of median area 
and the middle two of the four at its distal side — fused into extremely narrow 
bands ; subbasal line from costa at 4 mm. to hindmargin at nearly 3, slightly 
excurved in cell, indented on M ; median band about 6 mm. wide at costa, 3 5 
mm. at hindmargin, its distal side only very feebly outbent near costa and behind 
R J ; subterminal whitish line and the dark ones proximal to it somewhat more 


lunulate, rather irregular, the proximal two rather strong, filled up between the 
radials so as to suggest the common *' twin spots " of the Larentiinae ; terminal 
line blackish, at intervals curving inward so as to enclose pale terminal spots ; 
fringe with a pale basal line and pale tips, a thick dark central fine intervening. 

Hindwing quite small, but relatively elongate ; cell little over £, DC almost 

vertical ; C rather widely separate from SC, the usual connecting bar obsolete 
or quite slender, rather proximal, SC 2 long-stalked, R ! central, M l stalked, M 1 
wanting ; abdominal margin with basal lobe vestigial ; dirty white, slightly 
more drab distally, 

Forewing beneath glossy drab, with indications of the median band, especially 
its distal edge. Hindwing dirty whitish. 

Patagonia : Valley del Lago Blanco, Chubut (Thursby), type in coll. Tring 
Museum, together with a second $ and a $ with the median band rather more 
darkened. The $ with C of the hindwing anastomosing, DC biangulate, M 1 

The shape and pattern of the forewing superficially recall an Ana'itis. 
Butler's worn type of heliconoides (1882) seems so similar, except in its much 
paler colour, that, allowance being made for the great variability of many 
Chilian species, I would have treated this as an aberration or local modification 
but for the appreciably shorter palpus and the stalking of M 1 of the $ hindwing. 

33. Graphidipus clavistignia sp. n. 

(J, 37-39 mm. Smaller than graphidiparia Oberth. (1883) ; body and 
wings darker, approaching the coloration of subpisciata Dogn. (1903) ; collar, 
as in the latter, orange. 

Forewing with the black costal spots rather regular ; antemedian band 
blurred, but nearly uniform in development throughout, not (as in graphidiparia) 
thickened and strengthened anteriorly ; median shade single, or only faintly 
duplicated proximally, passing quite near the cell-mark, curved rather than angled 
about R 1 ; the double postmedian line less macular than in graphidiparia ; 
a thick mark on fold in median area, recalling the claviform stigma of the Noc- 

tuids. Hindwing rather more noticeably produced at tornus than in the allies ; 

thinly scaled, less pure white than in graphidiparia, the border narrowly smoky, 
extending somewhat inward on the veins ; obscurely darker terminal vein-spots, 
extending on to proximal part of fringe. 

E. Bolivia : Buenavista, July-October 1906 (J. Steinbach), 5 ^JJ in coll. 
Tring Museum. 

34. Graphidipus mediata sp. n. 

<£$, 38-41 mm. Intermediate in colour between clavistigma (supra) and 
graphidiparia. Collar pale. 

Foreiving with a drab tinge ; costal maculation nearly as in graphidiparia ; 
markings linear rather than macular, mostly thin and rather indistinct, the ante- 
median band and median line much as in clavistigma ; median mark on fold not 

developed. Hindwing in ^ intermediate between those of the species named ; 

in $ more smoky, with the dark border broadened. 

Ecuador: Quito (W. Goodfellow), 3 <J<J in coll. Tring Museum. 


35. Graphidipus altemans sp. n. 

$, 40 mm. Close to pisciata Guen. (1858), from Brazil, perhaps a race. 
Forewing with the ground-colour slightly darker and more slaty ; black 

wedge-spots on veins as strong as in pisciata ; the intermediate areas (between 
basal spots and first band, on each side of median area and in costal half between 
median and postmedian) strongly spotted with orange at veins and costa ; first 
band (between basal and median areas) broader than in pisciata ; the curved 

median line only developed between costa and M. Hindwing also slightly 

darker and more slaty than in pisciata. 

E. Peru : Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco (E. Boettger), type in coll. Tring 

36. Graphidipus subpisciata flavirivulata eubsp. n. 

<J. Forewing rather darker than in s. subpisciata Dogn. (1903), from 

Bolivia, the pale parts more tinged with orange. Hindwing considerably 

darker than in that race. 

Argentina : Tucuman (type and others) ; Salta (J. Steinbach) ; La Rioja 
(E. Giacomelli). Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

I have adopted a manuscript name of Warren's for this race. 

37. Crocypus perlucidaria macroleuca subsp. n. 

cJ$. Forewing in proximal part less white-mixed than in p. perlucidaria 
H.-Sch. (1855), almost concolorous with the distal part ; the white subapical 
band broader and longer, extending from the costa (though usually leaving the 

extreme costal edges black) to about 1 mm. from termen. Hindwing with 

the proximal part similarly less white-mixed. 

Costa Rica to Panama, the type from Sitio, Costa Rica, June (W. Schaus) 
in coll. Tring Museum. 

38. Steirophora acrolophites sp. n. 

cJ, 40 mm. Head olive-greenish. Palpus If, 1st and 2nd joints slightly 
dark-marked on outerside, the 2nd with projecting scales above, 3rd joint 
elongate. Thorax above olive-greenish, the posterior crests blackened ; abdomen, 
body beneath and legs browner and paler. Foretibia and tarsus darkened, with 
pale segmental rings ; mid- and hindtibia with the spurs present, though minute ; 
a very long and strong pencil from femoro-tibial joint ; basal abdominal plate 

Forewing rather pale green, copiously marked with dusky brown ; basal 
area spotted and bordered (more broadly anteriorly than posteriorly) with this 
colour, edged by a whitish-green line which is angled outward in base of cell ; 
succeeding area rippled with darker and lighter lines, the former (especially 
at costa and about the veins) mixed with dusky brown ; median band just over 
7 mm. wide at costa, 4 mm. at hindmargin, somewhat rippled with ground- 
colour, bordered by crenulate white-mixed lines, the antemedian very gently 
curved, the postmedian gently incurved between costa and R 1 , where it projects 
slightly, thence approximately parallel with termen, only slightly curved near 
hindmargin ; an ill-defined anterior patch of the ground-colour in centre of band, 


18 N'l.VITATES Zoologicae XXXUI. 1926. 

broadest in middle ; a crescentic black cell-mark at distal edge of pale patch, 
constricted or almost interrupted in middle ; distal area with irregular, partly 
interrupted lines of brown and green, the brown strengthened proximally to the 
subterminal line, especially in a quadrate radial blotch ; subterminal line white- 
mixed, somewhat excurved between SC 1 and R\ slightly lunulate-dentate behind, 
running to tornus ; a rather dark admixture outside it between the radials ; 

terminal dark vein-spots rather large ; fringe weakly chequered. Hindwing 

light drab, decidedly tinged with cinnamon ; an indistinct pale curved post- 
median line or narrow band, still less clearly defined distally than proximally. 

Both wings beneath more nearly as hindwing above, but warmer in colour, 
more approaching tawny-olive, the forewing in addition with distinct traces of 
the markings of the upperside and with the costal edge on proximal half alter- 
nately pale and dark in short streaks. 

Java: Gedeh, 7,500 feet. 25 June 1010 (E. A. Cockayne), type in coll. 
L. B. Prout. kindly presented by the discoverer. 

Near punctatissima Warr. (1897). from Celebes; termen of forewing not 
quite so straight and oblique, antemedian line less direct, spurs of hindtibia 
not so completely atrophied, etc. 

39. Megaloba melanconia sp. n. 

(J, 34 mm. Head and body green, the body beneath pale. Palpus over 
3. the exposed terminal joint about half as long as diameter of eye. Hindtibia 
rather more swollen than in typical Megaloba. 

Forewing with termen rather more oblique posteriorly than in typical 
Megaloba, tornus more rounded ; prevailing tone glossy yellowish olive, the 
markings formed of condensed black irroration. in places with an admixture 
of red ; the pale bands bounding the median area more glossy, mostly olive- 
yellow, in places suffused with the more olive shade ; basal patch ill-defined, 
marked with red at hindmargin ; a narrow, somewhat sinuous band between 
this and median fascia, strongest between cell and SM ! ; median fascia about 
mm. wide at costa, 3 mm. at hindmargin, relieved with the ground-colour 
anteriorly and round the rather elongate black cell-mark, its proximal edge 
moderately sinuous, its distal very gently curved — outward in anterior part and 
inward in posterior ; some ill-defined dark markings on the narrow praesubter- 
minal band, especially in cellules 7, 5. and 4 ; subterminal line weakly defined 
distally by some interneural olive lunules, the terminal area mostly as pale as 
the subterminal ; dark marks at termen in the form of flattened V's, their apices 

on the extremities of the veins (fringe mostly wanting), Hindwing nacreous 

white-grey, feebly dark-shaded at the borders ; the proximal fold of the lobe 
blackish on upperside ; a large oval blackish patch of specialised scaling, proximally 
entering the cell (but narrowing), anteriorly crossing the stalk of SC ; -R\ distally 
about 2 mm. from the termen, posteriorly reaching R J . 

Underside glossy greyish, the forewing with an elongate pear-shaped patch 
of black-brown, densely packed androconial scaling behind and just entering 
the cell, obviously correlated with the blackish patch of hindwing above ; ground- 
colour whiter around this patch. 

British New Guinea : Hydrographer Mountains, 2,500 feet, May 1916 
(Kichhorn Bros.), type in coll. Tring Museum. 


40. Asthena aurantiaca sp. n. 

^, 27 mm. In shape and structure akin to argentipuncta Warr. (1906). 
Head and body orange, body beneath and at anal tuft paler ; abdomen with 
the dorsal spots tinged with grey, but quite inconspicuous, not metallic. 

Forewing witli the pale yellow ground-colour almost entirely obscured by 
band-like orange-buff clouding, only remaining visible in a series of about 7 
irregular lines ; the proximal 3 only slightly wavy ; the 4th (apparently bounding 
proximally the rather narrow medium area) rather more inbent anteriorly and 
posteriorly ; indications of additional lines or spots in median area ; 5th line 
(postmedian) highly sinuous, being markedly incurved between the radials and 
still more deeply inbent between M 1 and SM S ; the 6th approximately parallel 
with the 5th, but more dentate and interrupted ; the subterminal more weakly 
lunulate-dentate, close to termen at SM : and at M 1 , slightly receding between 
them and again anteriorly ; only a few scattered silvery scales ; fringe yellow, 

mixed with orange. Hindwing concolorous ; antemedian line rather thick, 

angled outward at M ; postmedian at least as zigzag as on forewing, more 
proximal ; outer lines rather interrupted and indefinite. 

Underside duller, more weakly marked with orange, especially so the hind- 

Central Dutch New Guinea : Mount Goliath, about 139° longitude, 5,000- 
7,000 feet, February 1911, type <J in coll. Tring Museum. 

41. Bihastina mera sp. n. 

,^5, 20-23 mm. Quite near the other species (albolucens Prout 1916, 
subviridata B.-Bak. 1915, and viridata Warr. 1906). Upper part of face less 
olive than in albolucens and viridata, purer red-brown. Thorax and abdomen 
white, only quite weakly dotted and spotted above with olive-grey. 

Forewing fully as short and broad as in viridata, termen from apex to R 1 
even less oblique, excision between the radials shallower ; purer white than in 
albolucens, the markings similarly olive-grey ; some dark spots or longitudinal 
dashes on costa ; a weak subbasal line ; a stronger, thicker line at about £, 
excurved to base of M : , and slightly exangled at SM ! ; a weaker duplicating line 
proximally ; some slight irroration in proximal area ; a narrow band just beyond 
middle, rather better defined than that of the allies, but traversed by white 
dots and more or less interrupted in cellule 2 ; the white bands on either side 
of it broad and clean, the distal unmarked, the proximal with an excessively 
fine intersecting line, which is angled outward at SM- so as to join the median 
band ; subterminal and terminal markings much as in albolucens ; fringe white, 

only very feebly mottled. Hindwing with the terminal tooth less extremely 

long than in the allies ; proximal part clean white ; median band continued in 
middle of wing, consisting posteriorly of three lines (only the proximal one strong), 
which anteriorly fuse together, more or less ; subterminal and terminal markings 
much as in albolucens, but rather stronger. 

Underside white, with the principal markings more or less strongly repro- 
duced, often weakening posteriorly. 

British New Guinea : Hydrographer Mountains, 2,500 feet, April-May 
1918 (Eichhorn Bros.), 4 $<$, 2 $$, in coll. Tring Museum. 


42. Poecilasthena limnaea sp. n. 

cJ$, 23-26 mm. Related to thdUtssias Meyr. (1S91). Forewi?ig whiter, 

the lines olive-grey, not green, all more or less strengthened at costa, in part 
dark-dotted on the veins ; postmedian group rather sharply angled outward 
in front of R 1 ; fringe clouded with olive-grey, with rather large clean white 

interneural spots in proximal part. Hindwing with termen appreciably more 

crenulate than in thalassias, the tooth at R 1 longer ; coloration as on forewing ; 
postmedian (median) group of lines appreciably angled outward about R 1 and 
between R 1 and M 1 . 

Dutch New Guinea : Mount Goliath, about 139° longitude, 5,000-7,000 
feet (A. S. Meek), 2 <?<?, 2 $$ in coll. Tring Museum ; Mt. Kunupi. Weyland 
Mountains, 0.000 feet (Pratt Bros), a larger form in coll. Joieey. 

43. Asthenotricha tripogonias sp. n. 

(J, 34 mm. Antenna simple. Head and body light brown, mixed with 
red ; abdomen irrorated with black, a white dorsal mark at end of each segment. 

Forewing with termen slightly waved ; long dense masses of suberect red 
hair from costa, overhanging cell above and beneath ; pale wood-brown, beyond 
the postmedian scarcely, proximally thereto densely, irrorated with red ; post- 
median at about ?, crenulate, gently curved, rather less oblique than termen ; 
distal area with minute grey dashes on veins ; terminal line red ; fringe dark 
grey, with a pale line at base. Hindwing with termen subcrenulate ; the hair- 
pencil rather large, red ; postmedian line nearly central, darker grey posteriorly ; 
the red flush chiefly behind cell, but continued appreciably to termen ; distal 
area and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside, excepting the posterior part of forewing, heavily irrorated with 
black, the proximal area still more heavily than the distal. 

Reunion, May 28, 1922 (G. F. Leigh), type in coll. Tring Museum. 
A most striking species, on account of the additional hair-tufts. 3 $$ which 
probably belong to it (April 25, April 30, and May 28, 1922. G. F. Leigh) are darker 
and more uniformly rufous, with black irroration, more conspicuous black cell- 
dots above and beneath, a bent antemedian line, traces of other lines proximally. 
the postmedian triple ; veins distally more strongly light- and dark-dotted than 
in the <$. 

44. Cosmethis teleleuca sp. n. 

(J, 42 mm. ; $, 46-48 mm. Head and thorax, with 1st segment of abdomen, 
blackish ; abdomen otherwise cadmium yellow, the extreme tip in <$ mixed with 

Forewing with costal margin in q markedly convex opposite outer part of 
cell, then faintly concave for a short distance, the upperside between the con- 
vexity and the cell and distally for some distance clothed with coarse hair, the 
underside from the concavity to near apex fringed costally with closely-laid 
hair ; in $ only a little sinuous ; SC 1 ! coincident and (as usual in the group) 
nearer to SO than to C, sometimes connected with the former between SO 
and SC by a short bar ; dark neutral grey, heavily clouded with black, in the 
darkest examples almost unicolorous, in the less dark showing a lightening of 


the veins, of parts of the proximal area and of a narrow band edging the post- 
median distally ; cell-spot rather large round, deep-black ; lines black, the 
subbasal acutely angled in cell, the antemedian rather less acutely, the post- 
median excurved a little beyond the cell-spot, gently incurved posteriorly ; a 
roundish white subapical spot between SO and R-, slightly flattened at its 

posterior side distally only about 1-5-2-5 mm. from termen. Hindwing with 

termen slightly prominent at SO, not convex (but slightly sinuous) to R J , then 
more rounded ; concolorous with forewing the paler specimens showing a thin 
antemedian and thicker, more sinuous postmedian, the latter accompanied 
distally by a pale band ; in addition, a vague series of blackish spots beyond, 
separated by the paler veins and edged distally by a somewhat dentate grey 
line, proximally by a finer, less dentate one. 

Underside blackish, with only the subapical white spot of forewing present. 

New Britain : Talasea (A. F. Eichhorn), 3 $$, 2 $? ; also 1 <J from New 
Ireland. All in Coll. Tring Museum. 

45. Craspedosis gyroleuca brachytona subsp. n. 

cJ$. Forewing with the oval white patch reduced, anteriorly not crossing 

R 1 . posteriorly as a rule terminating at M 2 . occasionally with a very short and 

narrow extension behind that vein, in any case not reaching nearly to the fold. 

— Hindwing also with the white patch slightly reduced, separated from the 

abdominal margin by a broader and more solid black area. 

New Britain : Talasea, January-April 1925 (A. F. Eichhorn), 14 $$, 4 ??. 
Type in coll. Tring Museum. 

46. Buzura recursaria debrunnescens subsp. n. 

<$, 68-74 mm. Abdomen rather whiter than in r. recursaria Walk., from 

India. Forewing with ground-colour much whiter than in r. recursaria, 

almost without brown suffusion, the warm brown basal and subapical-costal 
patches in consequence much more sharply differentiated ; antemedian line 
rather more oblique inward from costal margin and again from SM : to hindmargin ; 
postmedian (except costally and at hindmargin) and subterminal very weakly 
expressed. Hindwing with cell-spot smaller than in r. recursaria. Under- 
side with only the (sharply blackish) cell-spots, the (small) subapical spot and 
slight costal commencement of postmedian line of forewing present. 

British New Guinea : Kumusi River, low elevation, May 1907 (type). 
Dutch New Guinea : Ninay Valley, Central Arfak Mountains, 3,500 feet, 
November 1908 — January 1909, 1 $. Both in coll. Tring Museum. 

47. Xandrames cnecozona sp. a. 

<J, 74 mm. Near latiferaria Walk. (List. Lej). Ins. xxi. 445). Forewing 
with the median shade rather broader ; the outer pale band more tinged with 

brown, with a dark spot in its proximal part on R J . Hindwing slightly more 

elongate in middle, the termen being more strongly rounded ; the white sub- 
terminal line anteriorly a little farther from termen, the terminal space beyond 
it — especially in anterior half — rather lighter and more ochreous brown. 

Underside very distinct from that of latiferaria in that the white band is 
replaced by a buff-yellow one. as bright as in albofasciata Moore (Proc. Zool. 

22 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

Soc. Loud., 1867. p. 635. t. xxxii. f. 5) and continued narrowly at termen of hind- 
wing — anteriorly circ. 4 mm. wide and clean, posteriorly to R 1 rather narrower 
and much blurred with the ground-colour. 

Borneo : Kina Balu (J. Waterstradt), 1 j in coll. Tring Museum. 

Possibly a race of latiferaria. though the antennal pectinations look scarcely 
so long. 

48. Ectropis repleta sp. n. 
$. 32-34 mm. Close to duplexa Moore, 1888 (Nepal to N. Burma).— 

Foreiving more densely irrorated with black, which in the median area tends to 
condense into a longitudinal streak in front of M ; no enlarged costal spots at 
origin of lines ; antemedian line sharply expressed, regularly and rather strongly 
curved, the dark shade which in duplexa generally accompanies it proximally 
reduced to a single spot between M and fold ; postmedian rather less deeply 
incurved behind R 1 than in duplexa, the dark shading beyond mostly suppressed, 
on the other hand forming between R 1 and M 1 a conspicuous blackish spot 
which reaches the subterminal ; subterminal and its proximal dark shading well 
developed, also with small distal spots between the radials. these, however, not 

extending to termen as in duplexa. Hindwing with termen slightly more 

crenulate than in duplexa ; irroration. except at costal margin, much stronger ; 
a subconcave median shade developed in posterior half of wing, somewhat 
recalling that of ochrifasciata Moore. 

Underside greyer than in duplexa, more strongly marked, at least on hind- 
wing, where the median line is complete. 

N.W. India : Murree, type in coll. British Museum (ex Harford coll.), 
paratype, 7,500 feet, June 1918 in coll. Agric. Res. Inst. Pusa (ex Dutt coll.) ; 
Dalhousie. in coll. British Museum (ex Harford coll.) ; Simla. July 1909. in coll. 
L. B. Prout (per favour of Prof. T. B. Fletcher). 

49. Cleora polymiges sp. n. 

cJ, 27-32 mm. ; <j>, 33 mm. Face with appressed scales ; blackish fuscous. 
Palpus fully 1J; 2nd joint with dense appressed scaling, 3rd joint minute; 
blackish fuscous, paler at tip and in a stripe on innerside. Tongue short and 
extremely slender. Antenna in both sexes bipectinate nearly to apex, the 
branches in the <J very long, in the $ about 3. Head and body concolorous with 
wings, fillet paler. Hindtibia not dilated, the spurs long. 

Foreiving rather broad, eosta arched near base and distally, apex rounded, 
termen nearly smooth, little oblique and little curved anteriorly, much more so 
in posterior half ; SC 1 ' 2 stalked, their stalk connected or anastomosing at a 
point with C. R 1 well separate, R 2 rather before middle. M 1 well separate ; fovea 
in J rather strong ; ground-colour pale, almost entirely clouded with olive 
(sometimes rather greyer) and pale cinnamon-rufous or vinaceous-rufous, the 
rufous shades appearing chiefly along the principal veins, about the middle of 
R 1 and between R J and M 2 as far as the postmedian. but not sharply defined nc 
very constant ; irroration blackish ; a black hindmarginal spot close to base : 
cell-mark elongate, but weak or obsolescent ; lines black, lunulate-dentate ; 
antemedian rarely well defined, strongly excurved anteriorly, then oblique inward, 
almost touching fovea ; an ill-defined shade or duplicating line proximally to 


it ; median rather thick and about vertical from midcosta. weaker and sharply 
outbent between the radials. then oblique inward ; postmedian finer and stronger, 
less strongly outbent at radials than the median, further from the latter anteriorly 
than posteriorly, behind M 2 slightly incurved ; subterminal formed of small 
-white or whitish teeth, rather irregularly developed, proximally filled-in with 
dark dots, the tooth in cellule 3 replaced by a small but fairly conspicuous white 
spot ; terminal black spots fairly strong, somewhat elongate ; fringe with blackish 

dots opposite the veins. Hindwing rather ample, apex well expressed, termen 

rather full, strongly rounded, slightly waved ; concolorous with forewing. markings 
similar, the cell-mark rather larger, the median proximal to it. slender, the sub- 
terminal generally rather more uniform. 

Forewing beneath drab-grey, inclining to ecru-drab or with a tinge of 
vinaceous ; costal edge buff, with dark dots : black spots at origin of median 
and postmedian lines ; these (especially the median) more direct than above. 
the median sometimes weak ; a pale line outside the postmedian ; antemedian 
obsolete, subterminal faint ; terminal spots and fringe nearly as above. Hind- 
wing slightly paler, with cell-dot and lines well developed (more or less) ; the 
postmedian generally rather thick, more distal than above. 

The single § is rubbed, especially on forewing. but evidently much darker, 
the olive being replaced by dark slate-grey. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez. March, April, July, August, September 9 a 
short series, the type dated July 24. In coll. Tring Museum, collected by 
G. Melou. 

This seems to be a third species of the group of proemia Prout (1917) and 
euplates Prout (1925), nearer to the latter in shape, but with the rounded apex 
of the forewing giving it an even stumpier appearance. The termen " suberect " 
(Hampson, Faun. Ind, Moths, iii. 144) and the mottled wings rather recall Orophos. 
" Hypochrosis " stiff usata Pagenst. (Voeltzkow's Reise, ii (2), 64, t. ix. f. 7) may 
be related. 

50. Medasina firrnilinea sp. n. 

(J : 52-56 mm. ; $, 54-61 mm. Near mucidaria Walk. (1866), perhaps a 
form, though intermediates are not yet known. Ground-colour slightly paler 

or less brown, mixed with whitish, less coarsely irrorated. Forewing with 

cell-spot narrower or less diffused ; lines stronger ; postmedian not or hardly 
incurved between M 2 and SM ! ; median shade strighter behind the anterior angle, 
in general less approximated to the antemedian. Hindwing with the post- 
median line similarly strengthened. Underside with the lines also present, 

the dark subterminal band (variable in mucidaria) always strongly developed on 
both wings. 

Assam : Shillong. September-November 1893, 5 <J(J, 3 ?$ in coll. Tring 
Museum, the type dated November ; also a J from the same locality, October 7, 
1924 (T. B. Fletcher), in coll. Agric. Res. Inst.. Pusa. 

51. Semiothisa khasiana vehemens subsp, n. 

(J. Ground-colour above warmer than in k. khasiana Moore (1888), from 
N. India, more as in elvirata Guen. ; distal area clouded with more or less deep 
violet-grey, also much as in the latter species ; double postmedian line of hind- 


wing rather less curved, consequently reaching abdominal margin rather nearer 
to tornus. Underside yellow ochre, clouded with ochraceous orange, as in elvirata ; 
distal cloudings more blackish than in that species, variable in strength. 

Perak : Jor Camp, 2,000 feet, at light. August 24, 1922 (E. Seimund), type 
in coll. British Museum, presented by the Federated Malay States Museum. 
Mount Tahan, Malay Peninsula, 1 $ in coll. Tring Museum. Sumatra : Lebong 
Tandai, Benkoelen (C. J. Brooks), 1 <$ in coll. Joicey. 

The less crenulate hindwing, without prominent tooth at SC ; . as well as the 
development of the characteristic white spots of the forewing above and beneath, 
shows that this is not a race of elvirata, with which its colouring would have 
associated it. but of khasiana. 

52. Nadagarodes subpulchrata Warr. and purpuraria Warr. 

The genus Nadagarodes, so common on New Guinea and its satellite islands, 
seems to have reached on the Solomons its extreme limit of distribution and to 
maintain itself with difficulty. At any rate the two indigenous species are at 
present very rare ; indeed, the fine Meek collections from the group have produced 
only six specimens in all. As Mr. Warren failed to get a grasp of them, some 
rectification is necessary. 

The smaller species (42-45 mm.) evidently represents dupUcipuncta Warr. 
(1899), though I do not think it will prove a mere subspecies. It can be dis- 
tinguished at a glance, apart from its size, by its crenulate and curved postmedian 
line. In the large species (54-56 mm.) this line is virtually straight on both 
wings. The $ of the former was named subpulchrata in 1902 (Nov. Zool. ix. 
369, Guadalcanar) ; the <$ of the latter purpuraria in 1905 (Nov. Zool. xii. 
436, Choiseul). A third name, pulverata (Nov. Zool. xii. 435, Choiseul), was 
founded on a confusion of the two, namely a <J of subpulchrata wrongly associated 
with a $ of purpuraria, and must be dropped altogether. Its description is 
badly arranged inasmuch as the <J is described first while the ? was intended to 
be the type, as is shown by the order "1 $, 1 <J " at the bottom of the page and 
confirmed by the type label. There is a further error as regards the measurement 
of the <J, which is first correctly given as 44 mm., but subsequently as 40 mm. 
Any supposed virtue that might reside in page-priority is therefore more than 
counterbalanced by the desirability of founding a species not only on the J 
but still more on a definite zoological conception ; moreover, in this instance a 
rigid application of page-priority would bring about a like result, for the first 
" pulverata " described (i.e. the <$) would sink to subpulchrata and the name would 
not be available for a second. I subjoin the correct synonymy and list of 

(1) N. subpulchrata Warr. 1902 (?) = "pulverata £ " Warr. 1905 (nee typ). 
N. Choiseul, 1 (J ; S. Choiseul. 2 $<$ \ Guadalcanar, 1 ? (type). 

(2) N. purpuraria Warr. 1905 (<$) — pulverata Warr. 1905, sens. str. ($). 
S. Choiseul. 1 $ (type) ; N. Choiseul, 1 $ (type of pulverata). 

53. Nadagarodes tentilinea sp. n. 
cJ$, 40-43 mm. Near mysolata Walk. (1866). Head and body coloured 
about as in the darkest $$ of that species, the <$ abdomen above being mixed 
with ochraceous posteriorly. 


Forewing pale violet-grey (whitest between median and postmedian lines), 
with dark-grey irroration ; costal edge ochre, with scattered black dots : lines 
bright ochraceous ; antemedian curved anteriorly ; median straight ; post- 
median much less curved anteriorly than in myaolata, accompanied proximally 
by a heavy black line, which only weakens at costa ; subterminal pale line accom- 
panied proximally by a moderate shade (grey mixed with ochreous) ; apex 

slightly lightened ; fringe orange-ochraceous. Hindwing with termen little 

waved, the angle at R 1 more pronounced than in mysolata ; as forewing, without 
first line. 

Underside as in mysolata, probably equally variable in details. 

New Hanover, April 1923, type <J, and March 1923, 1 $ (A. F. Eichhorn). 
February-March 1897, 2 $? (Webster). All in coll. Tring Museum. 

Distinguished by the straight lines and the sharply denned black of the post- 
median, as well as by the almost complete lack of sexual dimorphism. 

54. Euippe undulataria plumbocaerulea subsp. n. 

cj$. Both wings above strongly glossed with bright plumbeous (almost 
blue) ; the white parts of central area rather clean in the ^ and well indicated 
even in the $, that of the forewing, however, in both sexes generally only well 
expressed from R ! to M 2 or at farthest to the fold. Basal area of hindwing, on the 
other hand, rather darker than in the New Guinea forms, especially beneath. 

Bismarck Archipelago : New Ireland, November 1923, 5 $£ (with type), 
2 $$ ; New Hanover, February-March 1923: 2 <J<J, 6 ?$ ; Rook Island 4 JJ, 
2 $? ; 1 Dampier Island. 1 $ (worn). All in coll. Tring Museum, collected by 
A. F. Eichhorn. 

Euippe undulataria was founded by Pagenstecher (Jahrb. Nass. Ver. Nat. 
xxxix, 160, t. x, f. 1) on $$ from Aru (loc. typ.) and Amboina, and is widely 
distributed from the Moluccas to Goodenough Island. I believe it may be 
separable into two races, but I have seen very few examples from the Moluccas 
and none from Aru, so cannot pursue the question further ; in any case the above 
differentiation separates u. plumbocaerulea from both. 

55. Euippe fictaria sp. n. 

Luxiaria fictaria Walk. MS., in coll. Oxford Museum. 

" Euippe phalarota Meyr." Swinh., Cat. Lep. Het. Oxf. Mus. ii. 266 (1900) indescr. (nee Meyr.). 

cJ9, 34-37 mm. Near undulataria Pagenst., but scarcely a race. Termen 
of forewing in £ strongly, in $ appreciably concave ; in the <$ this concavity 
reaches from close to apex to M\ in the $ it fades out about R\ £ with the white 
median patch of forewing wanting, the white band of hindwing irrorated with 
dark scales. $ more uniformly black-grey than that of undulataria. Both 
sexes beneath with the white apical patch reduced to a subapical dash, running 
in from termen behind SC 5 , at its proximal end confluent with a remnant of the 
white subterminal. so as to form a posteriorly directed crook. 

Borneo : Sarawak, the type <J and a $ in coll. Tring Museum ; Labuan. 
Natuna Islands : Bunguran. Malay Peninsula : Gunong Ijau. Singapore, a 
good series in coll. British Museum. 

If it be held that Swinhoe's citation of fictaria as a Euippe from Borneo 
and Singapore is sufficient indication to establish the species, he can be cited as 

26 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

author and the date given as 1900. Personally I hold that some attempt at 
diagnosis is requisite but I admit that there is no other known Malayan species 
which an entomologist of Swinhoe's capabilities could well have confounded 
with phalarota. As to the genus Euippe Meyr. (1886), I am not sure that it is 
more than a section of Luxiaria Walk. The features which characterise phalarota 
— second joint of palpus slender, with small terminal tuft on upperside directed 
obliquely forward. M 1 of hindwing stalked or connate, hindtibia of $ without 
hair-pencil, its terminal spurs obsolete, first tarsal joint with long spinules — are 
indeed marked enough, but they all tend to become less pronounced as one 
proceeds westward in the study of the group. How similar the two genera can be 
in facies is shown by the fact that Warren (1903) has described a true Luxiaria as 
" Euippe " inferna. 

It is necessary to add that Merrick's genotype is a (J, not a " ? " as indicated. 
The species is only known from the Solomons and (in a perhaps separable race) 
from Rossel Island. 

56. Luxiaria subrasata rescripta subsp. a. 

<J. Forewing on an average not quite so narrow as in s. subrasata Walk., 
from Borneo. Both wings above less suffused with slaty grey, generally less 
weakly marked Underside much less dark than in s. subrasata. cinnamon or 
ochreous-tawny (in s, subrasata deep orange-cinnamon to Mikado brown, with 
greyer suffusions), tending to become paler outside the subterminal band. 

$. Subterminal band above more fawn, less smoky, beneath less broad 
and dark than in s. subrasata. 

Throughout New Guinea and the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, the type J 
from Upper Aroa River. British New Guinea, end of January 1903 (A. S. Meek). 
in coll. Tring Museum. 

.57. Eutoea heteroneurata bisinarckensis subsp. n. 

$. More tinged with brown, especially on forewing beneath, than typical 
heteroneurata Guen. (= tephrosiata Guen., vide Prout Nov. Zool. xxxii. 62), 
the area outside the oblique line on forewing conspicuously browner, the oblique 
line itself on both wings thickened. 

$. Slightly less yellow than in the $ of typical heteroneurata ; distal area 
of botli wings with broad suffusions nearly reaching termen, on the upperside 
smoky (mixed brownish and grey), on the underside more vinaceous-cinnamon 
or hazel, though sometimes with grey admixture ; the characteristic pair of dark 
subterminal spots at R ! of forewing obsolete on upperside, rather weak on 

Bismarck Archipelago : New Hanover. February-March 1923, 5 J (J, 
3 $? (he. tup.) ; New Ireland, January 1924, 1 J ; New Britain. January 1925, 
3 (JcJ, 2 ?? ; Rook Island. August 1913. 1 <J. 

58. Syrrhodia campylogTamma sp. n. 

<J$. Intermediate between lutea Stoll and rubricata Warr. (vera), the black- 
tipped costal hair-pencil of hindwing being as strongly developed as in the former, 
while the reduction in size, the almost smooth (scarcely waved) termen of the 

Novitates ZoOI.OGICAE XXXIII. 1020. 27 

<J hindwing, strongly curved median line of forewing, and anteriorly strongly 
bent postmedian point to a clear affinity with the latter. I recognise two races : 

S. c. campylogramma, <-J9, 34-37 mm. In size and general tone of colouring 
closely like rubricata. Distinguishable, apart from the rj hair-pencil, by the more 
truncate apex of the hindwing of the <J and by the still more strongly curved 
median shade of the forewing. The markings on an average stronger, median 
shade of forewing commonly thickened, dark costal shade outside the postmedian 
generally well developed, especially in a blackish spot behind SO, postmedian of 
hindwing generally rather more distally place than in rubricata. 

Dammer, December 1898 (H. Kiihn), a good series. Wetter. May 1892 
(W. Doherty), 2 cJ<J, May 20, 1900 (H. Kiihn). 1 $. Dutch Timor : Oinanisa. 
November- December 1891 (W. Doherty), 1 £. Portuguese Timor : Suai. 
January 15-21, 1923 (E. Wahr). 1 <J. Teoor, November 5. 1899 (H. Kiihn). 
1 $. Little Key, November 21. 1897 (K. Kiihn). 1 J, January-March 1895 
(H. C. Webster), 1 ?. Type $ (Dammer), in coll. Tring Museum. 

The $ is dimorphic in colour, like that of rubricata. 

S. c. sumbensis subsp. n. (J$. 38-41 mm. Markings as in the preceding 
subspecies. <$ above more mixed with yellow, often quite like a small lutea ; 
beneath predominantly yellow, as in lutea. $ apparently always yellow, resemb- 
ling a small strongly marked lutea except in the shape of the lines. 

Sumba (W. Doherty and Everett), a good series in coll. Tring Museum. 

8. rubricata Warr. vera (Nov. Zool. v. 35), referred to above, cannot be 
regarded as a race of lutea Stoll, but rather as a representative species, having 
the hair-pencil of hindwing considerably reduced, predominantly pale ochreous, 
only black-mixed at the tips ; the series in coll. Tring Museum is from Cedar 
Bay, Geraldton, and "N. Queensland." Later (Nov. Zool. xi. 491, September 
1904), Warren confounded with it a smoother, less densely irrorated species, 
without the hair-pencil, which species has been bred in numbers by Mr. F. P. 
Dodd at Townsville, and named an aberration of it " ab. decolor." A little later 
in the same year Turner (Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austral, xxviii. 236) validly named 
the same species metabolis. As aberrations have no necessary status in scientific 
nomenclature and decolor was associated with a misidentified species, I am not 
prepared to sink metabolis to it. 

59. Syrrhodia lysima sp. n. 

cJ, 35 mm. ; $, 41 mm. Closely similar to campylogramma sumbensis 
Prout (supra) or the yellowest aberrations of rubricata Warr., but without the 
(J hair-pencil ; postmedian line of forewing not quite so markedly bent as in 
the two species named, inclining to revert to the form of that of lutea Stoll, the 
maculation outside it very weak, in the $ almost entirely obsolete ; postmedian 
of hindwing rather more bent about R'-M 1 than in the allies ; underside with 
cell-dots generally weak or obsolete. 

Sudest Island, January-May 1916 (Eichhorn Bros), type <J and allotype 
? ; Woodlark, March-April 1897 (A. S. Meek), 2 $? ; Dampier Island. February- 
March 1914, 1 (J; Manus, Admiralty Islands. September-October 1913. 1 <J 
(ab. or race, rather larger and redder) : New Hanover, February-March 1897 
(Webster), 1 ? ; Feni Island, E. of New Ireland. May 1924 (A F. Eichhorn), 1 ?. 

The few specimens yet known to me from the Solomons are not enumerated 


above, as they will probably prove racially separable, but are mostly 99 (Bougain- 
ville. 2 cJcJ. 1 9 ; Choiseul 1 9 ; Guizo, 2 99 ; Rendova. 1 9). 

60. Zeheba respectabilis sp. n. 

(J, 46 mm. ; 9, 42 mm. Close to spectahilis Butl. (Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 

1877, p. 474). perhaps a race. Forewing in $ rather less fleshy tinged ; in 

both sexes with the tooth at R 1 rather longer ; cell-mark broader ; lines less 
sinuous, notably the postmedian. which in the <J forms an extremely gentle, 
almost regular curve between SC and the hindmarginal spot, while even in the 

$ the outward sinus behind R 1 is quite weak. H inditing with the terminal. 

teeth stronger than in spectabilis ; cell-dot sharply black ; postmedian line 

corresponding to that of forewing. 9 beneath with the broad outer band much 


Solomons: Vella Lavella, March 1908 (A. S. Meek). 2 (J^, 1 9. in coll. 
Tring Museum. 

61. Krananda extranotata sp. n. 

cJ9, 50-59 mm. Near vitraria Feld. (Reise Novara, Lep. Het. t. cxxviii, f. 32) 
Larger. General tone paler, the semihyaline areas being less tinged with cream- 
colour, the distal area greyer, less tinged with buff-pink, especially on the hind- 
wing. — ■ — Forewing with the termen slightly more oblique, apex rather more 
produced, at least as extreme as in semihyalina Walk., from India ; postmedian 
Une at least as straight as in vitraria, the outward bend behind R 1 being very 
slight or almost wanting ; anterior subterminal spots enlarged, but indistinct, 
the area outside the subterminal being almost equally pale ; a blackish shade 
proximal to the subterminal from middle of cellule 2 to tornus (only weakly 
suggested in the allies), particularly strong at Mr, on which it forms an acute 

proximal projection. Hindwing with postmedian line almost straight from 

costa to fold, wanting the proximal bend at SG-R 1 ; subterminal spots enlarged, 
notably those in cellules 6 and 3. 

Dutch New Guinea : Ninay Valley, Central Arfak Mountains, 3,500 feet. 
November 1908 — January 1909 (loc. typ.). British New Guinea: Biagi, 1 J: 
Hydrographer Mountains, 299 ; Mt. Kebea. 1 $ ; Dinawa, 1 <J. Type in coll. 
Tring Museum. 

62. Anonychia strebla sp. n. 

"Anonychia violacea Moore" Hmpsn., Faun. Ind. Mollis, iii. 178 (1895) (ex err.). 

c?9, 31-38 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings. 

Forewing coloured nearly as in violacea Moore (1888), but with slightly less 
of the purplish suffusion ; some vague dark basal and subbasal shading or irrora- 
tion ; antemedian line pale-edged proximally, formed much as in lativitta 
Moore (1888) — almost at right-angles from costa to fold, here strongly bent or 
curved, to run obliquely inward — but with a very slight additional tooth outward 
at cell-fold, superficially accentuated by a thickening of the line ; cell-dot rather 
large ; median line generally weak ; postmedian with a long prong outward on 
R ! , often as acute as in rostrifera Warr. (1888), sometimes slightly blunter at 
extremity, deeply incurved between this and a second, blunter projection at 


fold ; subterminal shades much as in violacea. Hindwing paler than in 

violacea, with indications of small cell-dot and irregular postmedian. 

Forewing beneath, as in the allies, paler, greyer, and very weakly marked, 
only at apex concolorous with hindwing. Hindwing brownish, irrorated, with 
large cell-dot and rather strong, thick postmedian line, slightly outbent in 
middle, then slightly incurved, on the veins accentuated, between them slightly 

Sikkim : Tonglo, 10000 feet, July 1886 (H. J. Elwes), 4 ??, including the 
type; Jongri, 11,000 feet, 1 ?; Bhutan, August 1888 (0. Moller), 2 £<$ ™ 
inferior condition ; Buxa (?), 1 $ also defective and rather aberrant. 

63. Scardamia aetha sp. n. 

<J, 28 mm. Face and palpus rather dark red-orange (" English red "). 
Vertex, upperside of thorax and base of abdomen above brighter (flame-scarlet) ; 
abdomen posteriorly fading out through duller, more vinaceous red to whitish. 
The glossy crests normal. Body beneath cream-colour, the foreleg mostly 

Forewing salmon-orange or orange chrome, with very dense, largely con- 
fluent dull-red strigulation and in places (chiefly about the posterior half of 
distal area) with faint suffusion of grey or drab ; proximal part of costal region 
brighter, flame-scarlet ; cell-mark and lines indistinct, greyish ; antemedian 
dentate outward on M and SM J and more weakly on SC, little sprinkled with 
silvery scales ; postmedian fine, almost straight, 3-5 mm. from termen, its 

proximal silvery scaling rather incomplete ; fringe dull red. Hindwing 

concolorous ; abdominal edge and fringe cream-colour ; cell-dot minute, blackish ; 
antemedian line wanting ; postmedian slightly more proximal than on forewing, 
very little curved, reaching abdominal margin 2 mm. from tornus ; fringe as on 

Underside cream-colour, the forewing mostly flushed with pink except 
behind fold, the hindwing faintly irrorated with pink, at least anteriorly ; post- 
median line pink, not very sharp ; fringes flushed with pink. 

$, 27-35 mm. Proximal costal region of forewing as in <J, the upperside 
otherwise largely suffused with purple-drab ; lines darker than in <$, the post- 
median accompanied distally by a narrow plumbeous or violet-grey band. Under- 
side entirely suffused with dull pink (orange-vinaceous to Congo pink). 

British New Guinea : Biagi, 5,000 feet, March 1906 (A. S. Meek), type $ 
and 5 $$ ; Angabunga River. 1 ?. Dutch New Guinea : near Oetakwa River. 
3,500 feet, 1 $ (all the foregoing in coll. Tring Museum) ; Mt. Kunupi, Weyland 
Mountains, 6,000 feet, November 1920— January 1921 (Pratt Bros.) : 4 $? in 
coll. Joicey. 

64. Plutodes philornis sp. n. 

cJ, 33 mm. Closely akin to flavescens Butl. (Hampson, Faun. Ind. Moths, 

iii. 162, fig. 89, as discigera form). Forewing with SC 1 from cell ; basal patch 

shorter (about as in exquisita Butl.) ; distal patch rather smaller, not extending 
behind M ! , the line on it quite differently formed, showing a single outward 
angle on R ! , with a bold inward curve before and behind, the figure forming — 
when viewed from the distal margin — the conventional " flying bird." Hind- 

30 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1920. 

iving with the silvery line which bounds the basal and abdominal patch not 
straight, but running rather obliquely towards the abdominal margin as far as 
submedian fold, then bending so as to become exceedingly oblique (almost 
parallel with that margin), until its termination near tornus ; the abdominal 
marginal patch consequently extremely narrow except basally ; distal patch 
smaller than in flave.scens, anteriorly not reaching SC 2 ; the line on it formed 
essentially as on fore wing, but looking much more asymmetrical, on account 
of the proximity of R ! (the radial fold) to anterior margin of patch. 

Assam : Khasia Hills. Type in coll. L. B. Prout. two paratypes in coll. Joicey. 

05. Plutodes chlidana sp. n. 

q, 26-27 mm. Face orange. Palpus yellow, mixed — especially at extremity 
with orange. Vertex and front of thorax pale yellow. Meso- and metanotum 
cinnamon-rufous suffused with plumbeous ; abdomen above cinnamon-rufous ; 
anal tuft yellow ; body beneath yellow. 

Wings Naples yellow, mixed with brighter yellow, which becomes deep 
chrome costally ; the patches cinnamon-rufous to orange-rufous, edged with 
metallic plumbeous, the distal ones somewhat shaded with lilac-grey in the 

middle. Forewing with basal patch 2 mm., bounded anteriorly by M ; distal 

patch broad egg-shape, its narrower end close to apex, its greatest length 6 mm., 
its anterior side following SO, then curving away to DC, its posterior almost 
reaching fold then curving so that its plumbeous ring touches termen in cellule ; 

the dark traversing line nearly central, only once outbent. Hindwing with 

the proximal patch extending along abdominal margin for 6 mm., not quite 
regularly tapering, being a little constricted at about 5 ; distal patch mid- 
terminal, its greatest length 4 mm. (from near SO to M 2 ), its proximal side gently 
convex, its distal gibbous. 

Underside pale, more primrose-yellow ; costal margin of forewing nearly 
as above ; proximal patch of forewing greyish, of liindwing mostly buff- yellow ; 
distal blotches largely slate-colour, with a proximal crescent of pale grey mixed 
with buff-yellow. 

$ similar, but with the thorax, abdomen, and blotches above purple-grey, 
almost heliotrope-purple. 

Rossel Island: Mt. Rossel. November-December 1015, 2 dJ. 6 ?? (A. S. 
Meek), in coll. Tring Museum. 

The $is very like that of signifera Warr. (1896), which reaches Sudest Island 
without appreciable modification ; smaller, the distal blotches smaller, especially 
that of hindwing. The q is very different from that of signifera. 

•id. Plutodes polygnampta sp. a. 

(J$, 24-30 mm. General coloration nearly as in the preceding and with 
similarly slight sexual dimorphism in colouring ; the blotches in both sexes 
a little lighter and brighter. Very distinct in having the proximal patch enlarged 
into a highly irregular figure which reaches the proximal plumbeous ring of the 
outer patch at M*-M 2 ; on the forewing, the posterior edge of the enlarged patch 
follows the hindmargin for about 4 mm., then bends obliquely forward and subse- 
quently runs parallel with M at about 1"5 mm. distant, the anterior edge throws 
out a large central lobe much as in drepunephora Prout (1915) and connexa Warr. 


(1906) ; on the hindwing, the connective portion is 1 or 2 mm. wide and runs in 
virtually from the end of the abdominal streak. Further, the distal patch is 
rather different from that of chlidana, its proximal edge on forewing having a 
small excavation, its anterior edge on hindwing a small projection. 

Rossel Island : Mt. Rossel. 5 $,$, 5 22, with the preceding, of which it seems 
scarcely possible it can be a remarkably stable dimorph. 

67. Plutodes separata epiphora subsp. n. 

cj, 30 mm. ; 2, 34-38 mm. Generally larger than s. separata Warr. (1907), 
the blotches relatively larger (especially the distal), more definitely edged with 
blackish-leaden ; distal blotch of forewing nearly always with a nipple at its 
posterior end (behind fold), that of hindwing not (as in s. separata) straightish 
proximally, but convex, though with a slight indentation at radial fold. 

Dutch New Guinea : Mt. Goliath, January-February 1911, 1 <$, 7 22. 

The 22 are dichromatic. 3 being coloured about as in s. separata 2, the other 
4 as in s. s. ab. pallidior $. 

68. Zamarada calypso sp. n. 

cJ2. 24-28 mm. Head, with palpus, bright ochreous, irrorated or spotted 
(the vertex sparingly or scarcely) with walnut-brown. Antennal shaft ochreous ; 
pectinations in £ long, in 2 moderately so (about 5), the inner series (as usual in 
the group) sharply dark-spotted. Thorax above heliotrope-purple, abdomen 
a little duller and with a posterior ochraceous-buff spot or dot on each segment ; 
anal extremity and underside of body buff or somewhat ochreous. Hindtibia 
of <J not dilated. 

Forewing with termen straightish anteriorly, curved in middle, moderately 
oblique ; translucent yellow-green (almost sulphur-yellow), with sparse, irregular, 
minute purplish strigulae, which become dense in abdominal region except 
near base and near the postmedian line ; costal margin deep chrome, scarcely 
dark-spotted ; . a small, ill-defined basal patch of heliotrope-purple ; a small 
black cell-dot ; distal border mostly dark (a blend of pinkish flesh-colour and 
purple in varying intensity), bordered proximally by a black line (or brown 
densely dusted with black) ; width of border anteriorly 3 or 35 mm., posteriorly 
scarcely less, in middle not quite I mm., the bay of the ground-colour between 
R 3 and M- therefore rather deep, its angles proximally on these veins rather sharp, 
its distal end little narrower than its proximal, the angles here more rounded off. 
especially the anterior one ; the subterminal wedge-marks brown, black-mixed, 
rarely very sharp, their pale distal edging slight ; an ill-defined blackish cloud along 
R* in distal area ; terminal brown line overlaid (with only slight interruptions) 

with black ; fringe spotted. Hindwing similar (except costa), the basal patch 

very small, the postmedian line with an appreciable sinus outward in cellule 6. 
in addition to the large central one. 

Underside with the borders darker and more uniform. 

Madagascar: Diego Suarez, February-May 2, 1917, June-August 1917 
(G. Melou). a short series in coll. Tring Museum. 

The July-August specimens, to some extent also the June ones, are of an 
aberration with the purple colour in the border duller, darker, and heavier. I 
have seen a large form of this species from Central Madagascar in coll. Kenrick. 


69. Lomographa (Heterostegane) contessellata sp. n. 

?. 21-27 mm. Smaller than subtessdlata Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxvi. 1648). 
Body and wings more deeply coloured (tawny-ochraceous), the front of thorax 
and base of costal margin of forewing suffused with blackish. 

Forewing with median line thicker (especially at costa) and slightly less 
straight than in subtesseUata. more noticeably bent at the bifurcation of R J -M' ; 
postmedian slightly outbent at R 1 , thence straightish or faintly concave, less 
oblique than termen, at hindmargin definitely oblique outward ; subterminal 

without the posterior blotch of Walker's species. Hindwing with costal margin 

not whitened ; postmedian quite different from that of subtesseUata, lacking the 
subcostal blotch and the deep radial bay ; subterminal much nearer the termen 
than in subtesseUata, its dark radial spot replaced by a slight distal streak running 
to the termen, as in urbica Swinh. and lala Swinh. 

Underside with the subterminal developed into a dark band, which is faintly 
indicated also on upperside as a dusky shade proximal to the line. 

Borneo : Penungah, December 20, 1893, and January 1894 (type) ; Tenom 
(E. Wahr). Penang, 1897 (Curtis). W. Sumatra: Benkoelen (Ericsson). 
All in coll. Tring Museum. Singapore and Baram (N. Borneo) in coll. British 
Museum. Benkoelen in coll. Joicey. 

It is strange that neither Hampson nor Warren should have noticed the very 
considerable differences between this species and the Indian subtesseUata, which 
varies very little except in size (24-32 mm., generally 28-29). Hampson (Faun. 
Ind. Moths, iii. 165) merely remarks that " the Bornean form is darker." 

70. Leucetaera lucifera mixoleuca subsp. n. 

$, 33-35 mm. Differs from L. I. lucifera Warr. (Nov. Zool. x. 385), from 
Dutch New Guinea to Goodenough Island, in having the ground-colour white, 
without the pearl-grey and lavender-grey reflections, the irroration less dense 
than in normal I. lucifera, the markings slightly browner. 

New Britain : Talasea, January-February 1925 (A. F. Eichhorn), 3 ?? 
in coll. Tring Museum. 





I/'ENI is really composed of several smaller islands, also called Anir Islands, 
-*- the single islets being Ambitle. Wonneram, St. Jan, St. John or Bournand, 
and Babase. They are, according to Wilh. Sievers, wooded, under 4° S. lat., 
152° 45' E. long. They consist of andesite, basalt, and coralline chalk, and 
on Ambitle Isle is a geyser. The inhabitants are Melanesians with some 
Polynesian blood. 

I am not aware of any birds ever having been collected on Feni. 

As Feni is a small outlying island, the ornis is not very rich, though there 
are, as is characteristic for these island groups. 8 different pigeons, also 3 parrots 
and 4 kingfishers, but only 7 Passeres. Of the latter two have been described 
as new, i.e. Monarcha cinerascens impediens and Cinnyris sericeus eichhorni, 
and of the greatest interest is the new hawk Accipiter eichhorni. 

The affinities of the birds are with New Ireland, most of the forms being 
the same as those on that island, but the presence of the true Ducula pistrinaria, 
of Eos cardinalis, Hemiprocne nystacea woodfordiana, and Eurystornus orientalis 
solomonensis show Solomon Islands influx. 

l. Megapodius duperreyi eremita Haiti. 
Full series from about the middle of May. Three eggs from May 14 measure 
80 X 49, 77 X 46, and 80 X 47 mm. 

2. Anous (Megalopterus) minutus minutus Boie. 

Anous minutus Boie, Isis 1844, p. 188 (" Nova Hollandia "). 

<J immature, Feni Island, 5,vii.l924. "Bill black, feet blackish." 
These Noddies are apparently only stragglers in the Papuan seas, and those 
occurring there must belong to the form nesting in the Australian seas, which 
must be called minutus. In this I agree with Mr. Mathews, who first pointed 
this out, and if the slender-billed group, with its somewhat differently shaped 
tails, is separated from Anous, it must be called Megalopterus. (For me it is 
a subgenus.) Cf. Mathews, Nov. Zool. 1911, p. 4. B. Australia, ii, pp. 412, 
417, 420. 

3. Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scop.). 

S Feni Island, 16. v. 1924. 

This date is very late, and probably the specimen would have remained in 
the tropics throughout the summer. It is in much worn plumage. 

4. Tringa hypoleucos L. 
Specimens from July 4th, 9th, and 15th, in worn summer plumage. 


5. Tringa incana brevipes (Vieill.). 
Specimens shot 31. v.,, and 2.vii.l924. All four specimens in 
moult ! 

6. Charadrius dominicus fulvus Gm. 
Common from June 5 to July. All June (and July) specimens are moulting 
body plumage and tails, but not yet the remiges. 

7. Ptilinopus superbus superbus (Temm.). 

7 specimens were obtained on Feni Island in June. 

8. Ptilinopus insolitus insolitus Schleg. 

4 adult males were obtained on Feni Island in May, June, and Jul}'. 

Known to be found on New Britain, New Ireland, Duke of York group, 
and New Hanover. The Feni Island specimens agree with those from these 
islands, while on St. Mathias a smaller subspecies, P. insolitus inferior, occurs. 
The iris of the Feni specimens is described by Eichhorn as white or creamy white, 
the bill as pale greenish yellow, feet purplish red. Two May specimens show 
moult on body and tail, a July one on body. 

9. Ducula (Globicera) rubricera iBp.). 

Evidently common on Feni Island in May and June. All specimens in moult 
from end of May to end of June. 

10. Ducula pistrinaria pistrinaria (Bp.). 

Carpophaga pistrinaria Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. At\ ii, p. 36 (1855 — Solomon Islands). 

8 cJ? ad., Feni Island, 5. v. to 14. vi. 1924. "Iris dark red. Bill slaty 
blue. Feet cherry- red or plum-red." Nearly all specimens moult on body and 
tails, two also on the wings. 

D. p. pistrinaria has hitherto onty been recorded from the Solomon Islands, 
though there is a specimen from Nissan in the Berlin Museum. I was surprised 
to get it from Feni Island, where I should have rather expected D. p. van-wyckii. 

The specimens from Feni agree quite with typical Solomon Islands series, 
though a few are a little more greenish than the rest, thus indicating an approach 
to van-wyckii. The latter is restricted to New Ireland and the neighbouring 
small islands, and New Britain. Dr. Dahl's theory, that van-wyckii was restricted 
to the small outlying islands, while rhodinolaema inhabited New Ireland, is a 
myth. It was discovered at Praslin Harbour, South New Ireland, and has been 
collected there by others (Finsch, Curtis), also on New Britain, even by Dahl ; 
the error, on which the theory was built, arose from Reichenow naming a specimen 
from New Britain (Dahl coll.) rhodinolaema — it in fact very closely approaches 
rhodinolaema, but is all the same a brightly coloured van-wyckii (Stresemann in 
litt., and examined by myself). Dahl's theory was already attacked by Father 
Meyer (Natur und Offenbarung, 1906, p. 601). There is no doubt that they form 
a group of subspecies as follows : 

1. Ducula pistrinaria pistrinaria (Bp.) : Solomon Islands : Guadalcanar, 


Isabel, Treasury Island, San Christoval, Vella Lavella, Choiseul, Bougainville, 
Nissan, and Feni Island. 

This is the most greyish form, with the least amount of metallic green. 

2. Ducula pistrinaria van-wyckii (Cass.) : New Britain, Duke of York group, 
New Ireland (terra typica), Credner Islands, Massawa, Nusa. 

This form is more metallic, but less so than rhodinolaema, somewhat variable ; 
one might call it intermediate between pistrinaria and rhodinolaema. 

As I said above, the idea that it was restricted to the small islands and 
represented by rhodinolaema is quite wrong. It seemed to me, however, somewhat 
doubtful, if Cassin's description actually referred to this form, as he describes 
the feathers of the upperside as " metallic golden green with violet and ferruginous 
shades," though the greyish ashy tinge is described on the quills. Kind informa- 
tion (and a feather from the back) from Dr. Richmond about the type of van- 
wyckii in the U.S. National Museum, Washington, however, set me at ease, and 
there can be no doubt whatever that it is what we now call van-tvyckii, though 
some of the feathers are more metallic than in the majority of specimens. 

3. Ducula pistrinaria rhodinolaema (Scl.) : Manus (Admiralty Islands), 
New Hanover, Rook, Vulcan, and Dampier Islands, and shores of Astrolabe Bay. 
(A skin said to have come from Massawa must be from the Astrolabe Bay.) 

Darkest, brightest, with much bronzy green, and even with purplish 
reflections. Wings in a large series generally 245-255, once 258, sometimes 
(one $) 235 mm. 

4. Ducula pistrinaria postrema subsp. nov. 

In colour quite like D. p. rhodinolaema, but wings shorter. Two Egum 
specimens 222 and about 240 (tip damaged), one male from St. Aignan 224, one 
with doubtful locality 224 mm. Type : <J Egum, June 1895, A. S. Meek coll. 

Hob. Egum group (east of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands) and St. Aignan 
(Louisiade group) ; probably other islands as well. Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 197. 
The specimen in the British Museum labelled " Port Moresby " probably came 
from the D'Entrecasteaux group. (This form was formerly erroneously called 
van-ivyckii in Nov. Zool. 1896, p. 248, and 1899, p. 213.) 

11. Gallicolumba beccarii nodifica Hart. 

See Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 118 ! 

1 cJ ad., Feni Island, 26. vi. 1924. 

12. Macropygia amboinensis carteretia Bp. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 119. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 119. 

A full series from Feni, all collected in May. A very young female from 
20. v. 1924. Most specimens show some moult on body, tail, or wings. 

13. Chalcophaps stephani stephani Rchb. 
8 skins from Feni Island, August 1924, more or less in moult. 

14. Caloenas nicobarica nicobarica (L.). 

2 <J, Feni Island, 10. vi. and 12. vi. 1924, both moulting parts of body 


15. Anas superciliosa pelewensis Hartl. & Finsch. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 283. 

This smaller subspecies of Anas superciliosa was found not rare on Feni 
Island, seven adults being sent shot May and July. Both May and July 
specimens show moult on tail and body. 

16. Nycticorax caledonicus mandibularis Grant. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, pp. 199, 200. 

4 (J$ ad. et fere ad.. 1 med., 3 juv. Feni Island end of May and June 
1924. The iris of adults is described as bright or golden yellow, of the young 
as yellow or lemon yellow. Only two have one ornamental nuptial nuchal 
plume each. In one it is rufous, whitish in the middle, and black at base and tip ; 
in the other the greater part of the right-hand web is brown and rufous, the left- 
hand web white with brown smudge. 

17. Dupetor flavicollis nesophilus (Sharpe). 
(J ad., 24. vi. 1924. "Iris brownish yellow. Upper bill black, lower light 
horn. Feet black." 

<3 juv., 24. v. 1924. " Iris yellow. Feet greenish black " 

18. Accipiter eichhorni spec. nov. 

Accipiter pedibus satis brcvibus, cera schistacea, colore superue schistaceo, torque cervicali lato rufo- 
castaneo ; subtus albus, pectore fasciolis plus minusve Claris pallide griseis-brunneis transversis 
notato. interdum unicolore. Alis ? 233-245, <? 203-208, cauda $ 184-190, <J 154-158, tarsia 
°. 58-61, (J 51-52 mm. 

Typus ? ad., Feni Island, 1924. A. F. Eichhorn coll., No. 9366. 

This new Accipiter belongs to the short-footed group, now usually placed in 
the genus Astur, which is, however, not well-defined. In coloration it closely 
resembles A. albigularis from the Solomon Islands, but the upperside is less 
blackish, more schistaceous, and there is a wide chestnut-rufous nuchal band, 
which in A. albigularis is usually absent, sometimes indicated, and in one male from 
Choiseul it is distinct, though darker, more dark chestnut, than in A. eichhorni. 
The middle toe without claw in females is 35-37 mm., in A. albigularis 42-44 
mm. long. In males 28-30, as against 34-36 mm. The tarsus is also about 
8-12 mm. shorter in A. eichhorni. We received only normal specimens, while 
of A. albigularis we know one from Guadalcanal' with the entire underside 
slaty-black. The iris of A. eichhorni is described as deep yellow, the cere as 
slaty-blue, bill black, feet yellow. 

This species is of the greatest interest. It has of course nothing to do with 
A. rubricollis brachyurus from New Britain, which I have carefully examined in 
the Liverpool Museum. It differs from albigularis by its shorter feet, and while 
it is a typical "Astur " as erroneously separated by many authors, A. albigularis, 
which has been placed in "Astur," should be an Accipiter. The two genera are 
bridged over and should not be recognised. 

One might ask if A. eichhorni could not be a subspecies of A. albigularis, 
but we meet with the extraordinary fact that on Choiseul both albigularis, 
apparently absolutely the same as Guadalcanal specimens, and a form with 
shorter feet, like A. eichhorni. are found, but with the upperside at least as blackish 

Novitates Zooi.oqicae XXXIII. 1926. 


as in albigularis ! They have no rufous collar. They were formerly united 
by us with albigularis ! Of this new bird we have two adults, one quite white 
underneath, the other with the throat, chest, and breast blackish slate more or 
less mottled with greyish white. As they agree in size with males of albigularis, 
we thought they were the latter, but they are labelled as females, as are also 
two young ; we thought at first this was an error, but there is also a young male 
from Choiseul, with a wing only 182, while the wings of the two young females 
measure nearly 200 and 215 mm. The wings of the two adult birds measure 
198 and probably 200 — still moulting ! Moreover, the three young birds have 
the underside cross-barred up to the throat, while in the young of both A. albigularis 
and A. eichhorni eichhorni from Feni Island there are wider bars on the flanks, 
and more or less drop-shaped or longitudinal marks on the chest, though the 
former van' very much. The upperside of the short-toed Choiseul form is also 

more reddish and shows more white bases to the feathers of the crown than the 
regularly coloured young of albigularis. The bill of the Choiseul females is 
smaller, less thick than in females, larger, longer, than in males of A. eichhorni 
eichhomi. Probably Choiseul, one of the two great northern islands of the 
Solomon group, has been populated by long-toed hawks from the central group 
(albigularis, unless larger series should enable us to split them up in more than 
one form !), and by short-toed ones from Feni Island in the north (eichhorni) ; 
unfortunately we have no such hawks from Bougainville, where the Feni form 
might occur. As, however, the short-toed birds from Choiseul differ from the 
Feni Island form, I propose to call them : 

Accipiter eichhorni imitator subsp. nov. 

Type in Tring Museum, ? Choiseul Island, 6. i. 1904. No. A 1105. 
Meek coll. This is the specimen with the throat and chest slaty. 
The photographs will show the difference in the feet. 

A. S. 

38 Novitates Zoologicai: XXXIII. 1926. 

19. Haliastur indus girrenera (Vicill.). 
4 (3$ ad., Feni Island, May 1925. Two specimens moulting body-plumage, 
two show traces of black shafts on a few feathers, but all appear snow-white 
on head, nape, and breast. 

20. Eos cardinalis (Gray) (or grayi Math. & Iredale). 1 
10 (J? from Feni Island, during May. Most specimens have an indication 
of a yellow patch on the lower ear-coverts, like all Solomon Islands specimens, 
a feature not mentioned in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xx, p. 23. A male shot 
21 .v. 1924 has a broad rich yellow stripe along the breast ; its bill being partially 
brown indicates juvenility, but other specimens with even darker bills do not 
exhibit this yellow colour ; it seems to me to be individual variation. The iris 
is. described as red, reddish brown, and brown. Bill reddish yellow or yellowish 
red, with base of upper mandible black. Feet black The bare skin encircling 
the face is black but on the chin more or less irregularly whitish (or flesh-colour), 
very rarely quite black, in specimens from all localities. 

The occurrence of this species, peculiar to the Solomon Islands, on Feni 
is against the general rule that Feni has New Ireland affinities. Nissan Solomon 
Islands forms. 

Most May specimens moult on body and tail. 

21. Trichoglossus haematodes aberrans Rchw. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, pp. 123, 124, where, however, I omitted to state that this form also extends 
to the Solomon Islands. 
6 J$. A $ shot 23. vi. 1924 has a yellow bar to the breast feathers, between 
the grey base and the red. 

22. Lorius roratus solomonensis (>goodsoni). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1901, p. 82, 1924, pp. 123, 203, 1925 p. 125 ! 

3 cj, 5 $, Feni Island, May and June. These specimens are like those from 
New Ireland ; they agree well with L. r. solomonensis. but the males have bills 
as large as L. r. goodsoni from Manus ! Most specimens are moulting. 

23. Halcyon albicilla saurophaga Gould. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 277. 

A series from Feni, May to July. Some moulting. Longest wing barely 
132 mm., often far under 130. Some Moluccan specimens are larger (to 135), 
others even smaller, but only a few specimens are available. One specimen has 
whitish edges to some of the upper wing-coverts, which is apparently a sign of 
young age. The colour of the back and wings varies a good deal, being sometimes 
more greenish, sometimes deep blue, almost purplish. Sometimes there is a 
trace of a collar of black spots at the black of the neck. 

24. Halcyon tristrami nusae Heinr. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 205. 

2 (J, 2 $, ad., Feni Island, end June and July, all moulting. One has the 
sides of the body rich yellowish-brown, two a faint tinge of that colour, one is 

1 See footnote in list of Nissan birds ! 


white ; all four have some yellowish-brown on the sides of the chest, and the neck- 
band is more or less brownish-yellow. One male has buff edges to the upper 
wing-coverts, and this is the one with the greatest amount of yellowish-brown 
on the underside. 

I should rather have expected H. t. novaehibemiae (Nov. Zool. 1925, 
p. 125) than nusae on Feni ! 

25. Halcyon sancta sancta Vig. & Horsf. 

Halcyon sanclus Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xv. p. 206 (1827 — " Australia." 
Apparently N.S. Wales). 

9 skins from Feni, May. Mostly in old plumage, but partially already 
moulting. Only two without dusky edges to the breast-feathers. Wings 
90-93 mm. Migrant from Tasmania or Australia. 

26. Alcedo atthis pelagica Stres. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, pp. 203, 268, 277. 
4 <J, 4 ? ad., Feni Island. 

27. Merops ornatus Lath. 

a. Nov. Zool. 1924, pp. 205, 268, 277. 
A series from May to July 1. 
Moulting, but a male from July 1 only, still in body-moult. 

28. Eurystomus orientalis solomonensis Sharpe. 

Eurystomus solomonensis Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1890, p. 552 (Solomon Islands, type Ugi). 
To my surprise this is the form from Feni Island, not E. o. neohanoveranus. 
Specimens were shot 20. v., 16. vi., and 9.vii.l924, all three in moult. The 
colour of the bill is variable ; one of our adult females from Feni has the bill 
entirely red, the other has a black tip, the third, which is not fully adult, has still 
most of the upper bill blackish. The white spot on the chin is well developed in 
one of our specimens, 'in the other two only indicated by one or two white feathers ; 
one of the latter has also a snow-white feather on the side of the lower throat. 

29. Chalcites lucidus lucidus (Gm.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 159. 

° Feni Island, 26. vi. 1923. "Iris dark brown. Bill black. Feet slaty 

A migrant from New Zealand. 

30. Hemiprocne mystacea woodfordiana (Hart.). 

Macropteryx mystacea woodfordiana Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1896, p. 19 (Guadalcanar). 

10 specimens from Feni Island, May, June, and July, agree with our series 
from the Solomon Islands. Their wings measure <$, 203-208 ; ?, 199-210 mm. 
The males have the rufous spot behind the ear-coverts, the females not. Some 
May and June specimens show wing-moult. Some specimens have the under 
tail-coverts mixed with whitish, less uniform grey than in typical woodfordiana, 
but we have a Bougainville specimen which has quite as much whitish on the 
under tail-coverts as our Feni examples. In H. m. aeroplanes, which may be 


said to be intermediate between H. in. mystacea and rvoodfordiana, the under 
tail-coverts are darker than H. m. mystacea. 

31. Monarcha cinerascens impediens subsp. nov. 

8 (J?, Feni Island, May and June 1924. half of them immature. 

It is not without a careful comparison of all our material that I name the 
form of Feni (and Nissan). But, taking Mafor specimens as typical (since we 
have none from the Berau Peninsula), I find that the latter have larger (thicker 
and longer) bills, and to this larger-billed form seem to belong also the birds from 
Vulcan and Dampier Islands on the coast of North- East Papua. 1 Generally 
the abdomen in the Feni and Nissan birds is also darker, but this is not a constant 
character. To the form from these islands belong also those from Choiseul and 
the Credner Islands. 

Type of M. c. impediens: <J ad., Feni Island, 19. v. 1924. A. F. Eichhorn 
coll. No. 9275. 

Evidently common on Feni Island, as 8 specimens were sent. 

The distribution of the forms of Monarcha cinerascens is peculiar, as they 
inhabit chiefly small islands and coastal districts of larger ones only. 

In the Berau Peninsula (Dorey, Mansinam) and along the northern coast 
(apparently with wide interruptions) to Huon Gulf (very rare), Vulcan and Dampier 
Islands. Then we find it again common on Feni and Nissan, and scarce on 
Choiseul, Credner, and Duke of York Islands ; we also have two bad skins collected 
by Curtis, and said to be from New Ireland — but as these birds were not labelled, 
it is not improbable that they came from the Credner or Duke of York Islands. 
Farther south we found, on some of the Louisiade Islands the broad-billed 
M. c. rosselianus. to which seem to belong those of Trobriand and Goodenough 
Islands ; northwards occurs the very distinct M. cinerascens perpallidus Neum. 
which we received from St. Matthias, Storm Island, and New Hanover, while 
according to Neumann it is found on the Portland Islands and in North New 
Ireland ! Cf. Nov. Zool. 1915, p. 34 1918, p. 314, 1924, pp. 207, 270, Stresemann 
(Sepik paper), p. 95. 

32. Monarcha alecto chalybeocephalus (Gamot). 

A series of males and females from Feni Island shot in May. They are 
quite typical, though the bills of some of the males are rather small. Some 
of the specimens moult wings, tails, and body feathers, others not. 

33. Edolisoma morio remotum Sharpe. 

Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 209. 

4 <J ad., 2 2 from Feni, May. June, and July 1924. These specimens seem 
to be inseparable from those of New Hanover and New Ireland. A specimen from 
May and one from June are moulting. 

34. Pachycepha pectoralis finschi Rchw. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 209, 1925, p. 132. 

4 (J, 3 ?, Feni Island, May 1924. These birds agree with those from New 
Britain, New Ireland, and New Hanover. The width of the black pectoral 

1 Papua is the name of New Guinea and is used in this sense only ; to restrict this name for the 
British Colony in south-east New Guinea is illogical. 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 41 

crescent varies very much, but not according to locality, though in the Feni 
Island specimens it is in all four very wide. 

35. Cinnyris jugularis flavigastra (Gould). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 134. 

A series of both sexes, all brilliantly coloured, from Feni, May 1924. Some 
moulting body plumage. 

36. Cinnyris sericeus eichhorni Rothsch. & Hart., subspecies nova. 

This Cinnyris differs from its nearest geographical ally C. sericeus corinna 
of New Ireland, by the colour of the throat, which is not steel-blue, but bluish 
purple, or "royal purple" of Ridgway, Nomenclature of Colors, 1886, pi. viii, 
with, of course, a metallic gloss. The crown also differs, not being glossy moss- 
green, but more greyish or graphite-green, and the rump is more blue, and so 
are the upper wing-coverts. The females are not appreciably different from those 
of G s. corinna. The wings measure £ 60-61-5, $ 54, 54-5 mm. 

C. sericeus sericeus <J is also very much like C. s. eichhorni, but the throat 
is much more reddish purple, the crown slightly more greenish, rump greener, 
bill larger, wing longer, tail longer. The other forms differ still more, as can be 
seen from their descriptions. 

Type of C. s. eichhorni Rothsch. & Hart. : <$ ad., Feni Island, 10. v. 1924. 
A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 9221 of the Eichhorn-Meek collections. 

8 specimens of both sexes were collected in May 1924 on Feni Island. 

As soon as these birds were unpacked Lord Rothschild and I noticed the 
difference in the colour of the throat from specimens of C. s. corinna which we 
had shortly before received from New Ireland. No Cinnyris was received from 

A nest with two eggs was found May 24. It is 16 cm. long, somewhat 
drop-shaped and fastened to the end of a bough. In one side in the upper half 
is a perpendicular longitudinal (not round) entrance hole, 4 cm. long and 2 wide. 
Over it is a protecting porch. The nest is neat, composed of fibres and bast. 
One of two eggs is smashed, the other is 16 X 12-5 mm. Colour white with a 
creamy tinge, all over with small brown spots and dots, and with a wide deep 
brown ring round the thicker end. 

37. Aplonis cantoroides cantoroides (Gray). 

Calornis cantorides Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1861, p. 341 (Misol). 

8 <J?, Feni Island, 31. v. to "Iris bright red. Bill and feet 

A few show single feathers on the back moulting. Wings $ 100-102, 
$ 98-5-100 mm. 


Nissan is a coral island, of typical horse-shoe shape. It has consequently 
no mountains, not rising above 60 m. (Cf. Willi. Sievers in Meyer's Das Deutsche 
Kolonialreich, ii. p. 451.) It is also called Green Island, Sir Charles Hardy 
Island, or Los Caimanes, and is situated under 4J° S. lat. and 154° 20' E. long. 
Like Feni, it lies east of southern New Ireland, but about 50 km. to the 

42 Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

south-east of Feni, and in a line with the chain of the great Solomon Islands. 
Being only about 27 km. long and 21 wide, its fauna is not rich, especially as it 
has apparently no primeval mixed forests, but is planted with Fictis, Anona, 
coco-nut palms, areca palms, bananas, etc. Moreover, pigs have run wild, and rats 
are numerous. So it is not astonishing that Eichhorn could only collect 20 or 
21 resident species, all of purely Solomonian character, with a very few peculiar 
forms : Ptilinopus solomonensis neumanni, Aplonis cantaroides longipennis, and 
Zosterops eichhorni. 

1. Megapodius duperreyi eremita Hartl. 
A series from July and August. No difference from the birds of New Ireland, 
New Britain, etc. An egg from August 4 is of a rather rich colour and measures 
74-5 X 44-6 mm. 

2. Tringa hypoleucos L. 
Common August 11—21. While some are in full worn breeding plumage, 
others are in partial winter garb and moulting. The spotting on the breast is 
variable individually. 

3. Tringa incana brevipes (Vieill.). 
A female shot 20. viii. 1924, plumage somewhat worn, moult only on rectrices. 

4. Charadrius dominicus fulvus Gm. 
6 (J$ from August, and September 8 and 14. The August specimens are 
moulting (body, tails, wings), but the two from September, which have more 
black feathers on the underside, do not moult ; I should have expected the 

5. Ptilinopus solomonensis neumanni subsp. nov. 

Ptilinopus subspeciei P. solomonensis solomonensis dictae simUlimus, sed major, colore purpurascente 
frontis magis extenso. 

This new form is nearest to P. sol. solomonensis, but larger, bill and feet larger, 
wings of males 130-134, in P. sol. solomonensis 118-123 mm. The purple on 
the forehead is of the same colour as in solomonensis. not of the pale colour of 
P. s. johannis, and it extends further ; in solomonensis it reaches to very little 
beyond the middle of the eye and is almost V-shaped, the purple on the crown 
extending only about as far as the front edge of the eye, while in neumanni the 
posterior margin is a straight line from the posterior edge of the one eye to the other. 
The iris is described by Eichhorn as yellow and dark yellow, the bill as slate, 
slaty blue, and greenish slate-colour, the feet as dark purplish red. 

I name this interesting subspecies after Professor Oscar Neumann, who first 
called our attention to the almost unknown fauna of Nissan Island. 

Type: <J ad.. Nissan. 1. viii. 1924. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 9485. 
Evidently not rare, as a series was collected. 

Eight nests were found between August 5 and IS. They are flimsy 
structures of tendrils with a slight depression in the middle, and contain one 
egg each. The eggs are white with hardly any gloss, and measure 30 X 22-2, 
30 X 22-5, 31 X 22-6, 32-5 X 24, 32-5 X 24, 32-7 X 22-2, 33 X 23-5, and 
33-5 22-6 mm. 


6. Ducula pistrinaria pistrinaria (Bp.). 

See antea, p. 34. 

8 J$ ad. from Nissan, shot end July and August. In fine plumage, no moult, 
but one female from August 1 is somewhat worn and dirty and shows moult on 
back. Local native name : Balus. 

Many nests were found in the middle of August, each containing one egg 
only. The eggs are smooth with hardly any or little gloss, shining through 
yellowish white. 19 eggs measure from 45 X 32-5, 44-5 X 32, 45-2 X 34-7, to 
47 X 34-5, 47-5 X 32, 48 X 34, 48-5 X 32-6, 49 X 33-5, and 50 X 34. 50 X 
36-5 mm. 

7. Gallicolumba beccarii nodifica Hart. 

Oallicolumha beccarii nodifica Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 118 (New Ireland) ; antea, p. 35. 

9 cJ$ ad. and juv., Nissan, August and September. " Iris dark brown, bill 
black, feet blood-red or cherry-red." Juveniles moulting into adult plumage, 
adults not moulting. Wings of adult males 107-110 mm. The metallic patch 
on the nape is sometimes obsolete or absent. The adult female is like the male, 
but lacks the purple patch on the wing-coverts, the throat and chest are ashy 
grey, without the white lower edge and without the purplish band separating the 
grey from the brown abdomen. Wing 107 mm. The female from New Ireland 
described Nov. Zool. p. 118 is perhaps not adult. Quite young birds have dull 
cherry-red feet and rust-coloured tips to the feathers, or the feathers quite rust- 
coloured (on head and chest). 

Seven nests with one egg each were found from August 12 to 18. They 
are flimsy small platforms of about 4x5 inches across, composed of tough 
tendrils with more or less decayed leaves and a slight de])ression in the middle. 
The eggs are white with moderate gloss, and measure 23-5 x 21-4, 26-5 X 20-5, 
27 X 21, 27-5 X 20-5, 27-8 X 21-1, 29 X 20-5, and 29-5 X 21-5 mm. 

8. Macropygia rata rufocastanea Rams. 

Macropygia rufo-castanea Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, iv. p. 314 (1879 — Guadalcanal^ 
Solomon Islands). 

4 $ ad., 1 $ ad., 3 juv., Nissan, August and end of July. Some specimens 
badly in moult. 

I cannot separate these birds from typical rufocastanea. When I described 
M. r. goodsoni (Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 266) I compared it with M. r. krakari from 
Dam pier Island (Nov. Zool. 1915, p. 28), but I have to admit that there is hardly 
a difference in the general coloration between rufocastanea and goodsoni ; 
I am afraid M. r. goodsoni is a rather poor subspecies, differing from M . r. rufo- 
castanea merely in the generally smaller bill, and sometimes darker colour of the 
slate-coloured spots on the lateral rectrices. 

I cannot help thinking that M. rufa rufocastanea must also occur on New 
Ireland and New Britain, since a closely allied form (M. r. krakari) inhabits 
Dampier Island, since two specimens from Rook Island (Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 208) 
seemed to us indistinguishable (?) from rufocastanea, and the closely allied 
goodsoni lives on St. Matthias and Squally Islands. On the trees, from a distance, 
M. r. rufocastanea and nigrirostris must look alike. 


9. Chalcophaps stephani mortoni Rams. 

Chalcophaps mortoni Ramsay, Proc. Linn. .Soc. N.8. Wales, vi. p. 725 (1881 — Guadalcanal*). 

<J$ ad., moulting, Nissan, 29. viii. 1925. 

Here again we find on Nissan the form of the Solomon Islands, while on Feni 
lives C. s. stephani, the subspecies of New Ireland ! 

10. Caloenas nicobarica nicobarica (L.). 

A series from August, all showing more or less moult on body, wings, or 
tail. The iris is generally marked as creamy white, but in young birds with 
blackish green tail and in two adults as dull grey and dark grey. 

11. Nycticorax caledonicus mandibularis Grant. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, pp. 199, 200, and antea, p. 36. 

4 (J$ ad., Nissan, 30. viii. and September 1924. more or less in moult. One 
has the worn remains of a long ornamental plume, which is entirely black ; in 
two others they begin to grow and are entirely black as far as they are visible, 
about one inch long. 

12. Haliastur indus girrenera (Vieill.). 
O ad., Nissan, 23. viii. 1924. 

13. Tyto alba delicatula Gould. 

Strix delkahdus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. " Part iv. 1836," p. 140 (1837— New S. Wales). 

An adult male of a Barn-Owl was shot on Nissan ll.ix.1924. It seems 
to agree perfectly with some specimens of T. a. delicatula from Australia. 

The occurrence is extraordinary, as we do not know Barn-Owls from the 
Solomon Islands, nor from New Ireland, and " Strix aurantia " from New 
Britain is very different. Possibly Barn-Owls have been overlooked on the 
Solomon Islands. A series from Nissan should be examined to confirm its being 
like typical delicatula ! 

14. Eos cardinalis (Gray). 1 

Lorius cardinalis Gray, Qenera B, Appendix, p. 20 (1849 — name for Hombron & Jacquinot's Lari 

10 (3$ Nissan, August and September. Exactly like the Feni islanders. 
A few moult on body. 

15. Trichoglossus haematodes aberrans Rchw. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, pp. 123, 124, where, however, I omitted to add that aberrans is also found 
on the Solomon Islands : Choiseul, Bougainville, San Christoval, Vella Lavella, New Georgia, 
Gizo, Guadalcanar, and on St. Aignan. 

8 ,-J ad. from Nissan Island. Specimens agree with those from S.E. Papuan 
and New Ireland ones. 

1 According to Mathews & Iredale, "Austral. Avian Record," iii, p. 46, 1915, this bird must be 
called Eos grayi Math. & Ired., because " Lorius cardinalis " had been usod by Gray, Qcn. B, 
where a " Lorius cardinalis (Bodd.) " was mentioned, but Boddaert's Psittacus cardinalis was an 
Eclectus ! It seems to me difficult to decide if this preoccupies Gray's name. The authors funnily 
call their change of names a " specific alteration." 

Novttates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 45 

16. Charmosynopsis placentis pallidior R. & H. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 201, 1925, p. 122. 

2 <$ ad., Nissan, September and August. One has the feathers of the forehead 
with red near the base, the other not ; these red spots are more or less obvious 
in most pallidior, but hardly or not at all indicated in subplacens. 

These two specimens do not moult. 

17. Halcyon albicilla saurophaga Gould. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 277, and antea, p. 38. 

A series from Nissan, July and August. Three specimens have a few 
blackish spots in the middle of the crown ; as these specimens have no whitish 
edges to the upper wing-coverts (which are supposed to be a sign of being young), 
I don't think these black spots are due to these birds being less adult than others, 
but it must be an individual character. 

18. Halcyon sancta sancta Vig. & Horsf. 

Halcyon sanctus Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xv, p. 206 (1827 — "Australia." 
Apparently N.S. Wales ; cf. Mathews, List B. Australia, p. 149). 

9 cJ$ July and August, hot one quite without dusky edges to the breast- 
feathers. Size somewhat variable, wings 91-96, once (a female) 101 mm. H. 
sancta is a migrant from Tasmania and Australia in New Guinea and the Papuan 
Islands. Mostly in fine plumage, but partially still moulting. 

19. Chalcites lucidus lucidus (Gm.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 159. 

(J ad., Nissam, 4.ix.l924. 

Migrant from New Zealand or neighbouring islands. 

20. Urodynamis taitensis (Sparrm.). 

Cucvlus taitensis Sparrman, Mus. Carlson., fase. ii, No. xxxii (1787 — Tahiti). 

Three specimens, all three marked as females, Nissan, September 2, 9, and 
15, 1924. 

It is difficult or impossible to say from where these birds (which appear to 
be migrants, i.e. winter visitors, to the Solomon Islands) have come, and to which 
subspecies they belong if any can be recognized. Mathews recognizes (Bull. 
B.O. Club, xxxix, p. 24) U. t. philetos and U. t. belli, but they require confirmation. 
One from Nissan (No. 9644) is evidently fully adult ; it is very heavily striped 
on the underside, upperside barred with rufous. No. 961 is in moult, the old 
feathers on the upperside have roundish white spots, the fresh ones rufous bars. 
No. 9647 is above like No. 9644, but the throat is fulvous, and the stripes on the 
underside are narrower. Why are some juvenile birds above spotted with 
fulvous, others with white ? Do the fulvous spots fade into white, or are there 
two varieties ? 

21. Collocalia esculenta esculenta (L). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 206, 1925, p. 128. 

8 (J? ad., from Nissan, July, August, September 1924. 

These birds seem to agree with typical esculenta. They show no white on 


the rump; for showing white in different degrees C. e. tamelamela (1921) from 
New Britain, and C. e. stresemanni (1914} from Maims were described. Cf. Nov. 
Zool. 1924, p. 206. The specimens from Nissan have wings of 97-100 mm. 
In specimens from eastern New Guinea I have measured up to 110. while Grant's 
C. e. maxima has a wing of 115 mm. It is perhaps an exceptionally long-winged 
specimen, or is there a larger subspecies in East and Central New Guinea ? The 
amount of white on the lateral rectrices is variable and sometimes absent. 

22. Monarcha cinerascens impediens Hart. 

Antea, p. 40. 

S specimens, July and August 1924. Two adult August skins moult tail 
and wings. 

23. Zosterops spec. 1 (See p. 48 ! ) 

Among a few other birds received from Dr. Thilenius at the Berlin Museum 
from Nissan was also one of this Zosterops. Reichenow believed that the type of 
Zosterops longirostris Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, iii, p. 288, 
1879, came from Heath Island close to North New Britain (just south of the 
western Gazelle Peninsula), and as the description agreed fairly well, did not 
hesitate in registering the bird as Z. longirostris, with the distribution Heath 
and Nissan Islands. The type of Z. longirostris, however, was collected by 
Broadbent on Heath Island near the South Cape of New Guinea, between 
Brumer Island and the China Strait, in quite a different zoogeographical region. 

As, however, the description of Z. longirostris fits also the Nissan Island birds, 
I wrote to Sydney to lend me the type. Unfortunately the rules of the Sydney 
Museum did not allow to send abroad a unique type, so that I could not see the 
specimen ! I then sent one of our skins to Sydney to compare with the type, 
but the answer has not yet reached me ! 

Eichhorn collected 8 specimens in August on Nissan. 

Four nests, each with two eggs, were found on August 12th. They are 
suspended somewhat Uke the nests of the European Oriole, by the rim, usually 
in a fork formed by two twigs, cup-shaped, and composed of fine grasses, and 
sometimes a bit of moss or wool, lined with still finer grass. The eggs are very 
pale blue and measure 19 X 14 and 18-6 X 14, 20 X 14-6 and 20 X 14-5, 19-5 X 
14-1 and 19-1 X 14. 18 X 14-1 mm. 

24. Pachycephala pectoralis dahli Rchw. 

Pachycephala melanura dahli Reichenow. Orn. Monatsber. 1897, p. 178 (Credner Island). 

4 cJ, 4 ?, Nissan Island, August 1925. 

There is, in my opinion, no doubt that P. p. dahli and P. p. finschi are 
subspecies, P. p. finschi inhabiting the larger islands. New Britain, New Ireland, 
and New Hanover, while P. p. dahli is found on the small islands ; Credner, 
Palikuru, Nissan (while curiously enough on Feni Mr. Eichhorn found P. p. 
finschi !), and we also had, as recorded elsewhere, a specimen from Munia 
(Shortland group) in the Solomon Islands. P. p. dahli has the upperside lighter 
(more yellowish, less olive), the bill somewhat thicker, and is as a rule larger 
than P. p. finschi. The female of P. p. dahli has the throat white (generally with 
a slight greyish tinge), with short brownish grey cross-bars, a more or less distinct 
brownish pectoral band with dusky shaft-stripes and the abdomen and under 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1920. 47 

tail-coverts yellow. Upperside greenish olive, crown dark greyish. The female 
of P. p. finschi has the throat light brownish buff without distinct cross-bars, 
only more or less distinct distal dark fringes to the feathers, the breast-band 
darker, more rufous-brown, the abdomen brownish yellow, upperside much more 
brownish olive, crown brownish grey. Wings of P. p. finschi $ 86-90, excep- 
tionally over 90, once 95, wings of P. p. dahli <$ 91-95, once 90 mm. 

The males of P. p. finschi have, as a rule, olivaceous edges to the quills, as 
stated in the original description, but there are specimens that have greyish edges to 
the outer primaries, thus at a first glance resembling males of P. p. dahli ! 

25. Aplonis cantoroides longipennis Neum. 

Aplonis cantoroides longipennis Neumann, Om. Monatsber. 1917, p. 155 (Nissan !). 

Eichhorn found this bird not rare on Nissan. 

This subspecies, hitherto only known from one male in Berlin, is at once 
recognizable by its larger size, especially larger, more massive bill and longer 
wings ; moreover, the iris is yellow, not red ! Wings <$ 120-122 (in the 
type 123), $ 121, in otherwise adult specimens with juvenile wing only about 
110 mm. " Iris yellow, bill and feet black." 

Two young birds are glossless dusky black ; in one the feathers of breast, 
abdomen, and back have subterminal dull brown cross-bars ; the iris of these 
young birds are dull yellowish green. In young A. c. cantoroides the iris is also 
dull yellow, yellowish, cadmium, but the underside is dull white with black 
stripes ! 

Neumann mentions a specimen from Matty Island, over 400 km. west of 
Admiralty Island, with a wing of 1 18 mm., as possibly belonging to this subspecies, 
and Stresemann says that the form from Ninigo and Matty Islands is longi- 
pennis ! Considering that on all the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, 
including the Admiralty Islands, this form is not known, this cannot be accepted 
as a fact, until we know also the young, colour of iris, and more specimens from 
Ninigo (Echiquier group) and Matty Islands. 

It is very peculiar that this large form has developed on the small island of 
Nissan, while the Solomon Islands birds from Guadalcanar, Gizo, Choiseul, and 
Bougainville are smaller again and seem to be indistinguishable from cantoroides ! 
The iris in one of our specimens is marked as " bright red," and most of them 
" yellowish red." Solomon birds (presumably from Guadalcanar) were called 
Calornis solomonensis by Ramsay in Nature, xx, p. 125 (1879), after comparison 
with " Calornis cantor," which is the bird now called Aplonis (Calornis) 
chalybea chalybea, but probably A. cantoroides was meant. 

26. Aplonis metallica nitida (Gray). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 212 ; 1925, p. 135. 

Common on Nissan in August 1924. Colonies of nests were found August 
12 to 15. The nests hang down from the ends of boughs and are huge 
structures; one sent is about 14 inches long and 9 to 10 wide. From Australia 
Campbell describes a nest two feet long. The nest from Nissan is composed of 
wire-like tendrils, bast, twigs, and dry leaves. The entrance is in the lower 
half of the side and leads to a cup lined with pieces of dry palm-leaves. The 
clutches consist of 2 or 3, rarely 4 eggs. The latter are pale blue with dark 


rufous and deeper-hying pale greyish mauve spots, patches, and sometimes very 
large splashes. Sometimes the spots are only a very few, often almost forming 
a ring, sometimes all over the egg. One egg is nearly white. They measure 
from 21 X 27, 20-5 X 28. 20 X 29, 21-7 X 28-5 to 22 X 29 mm. 
The native name on Nissan is Bu-rum. 


23. Zosterops eichhorni subsp. (spec. ?) nov. 

Zosterops rostro pallide stramineo, annulo periophthalmico albo. Superne 
flavo-viridis, loris flavis ; subtus flavida, lateribus virescentibus ; remigibus 
nigro-fuscis, intus albo-flavo exterius flavo-virescente marginatis, secondariis 
internis flavovirescentibus ; rectricibus viridi-briinneis. exterius flavescente 
marginatis; pedibus flavescenti-schistaceis. Alis <J 63-65, $615-62, rostro 13, 
a basi 17 '5 mm. 

Type: <J ad. Nissan 16.viii. 1924, No. 9577, Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 

See antea, p. 46 ! 

Kind information from Mr. W. T. Wells, Australian Museum, Sydney, 
N.S. Wales, reached me while the above was in print. It confirms my idea 
that the birds from the two Heath Islands could not very well be the same. 
In Z. longirostris the bill is much longer, measuring 175 mm. from the end 
of the feathering — in Z. eichhorni only 13. The breast in longirostris is more 
yellow, not so greenish, the rectrices have deep brown inner webs, in sharp 
contrast to the outer webs, without a green tinge, the inner secondaries have a 
ress greenish tinge ; perhaps the feet are also darker in longirostris. Eichhorn 
records : " Iris greyish brown. Bill dark yellow or pale straw colour, mostly 
nearer towards the tip, feet dull slate, tinged with yellow." 

I have at present not the time to review this group, so cannot definitely 
say where eichhorni should be placed. It seems to be a subspecies of Z. longi- 
rostris and so do aignani and pallidipes as well as one or two others with which 
I am not acquainted. 



By N. D. Riley 

INFORMATION concerning the Lepidoptera of the Ivory Coast is so scanty 
that the following brief list, although it enumerates only 51 species, all 
belonging to the Hesperiidae, may not be without interest. The collection 
was made during parts of the years 1913-1915, entirely in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Bingerville, and is now in the possession of Lord Rothschild, through 
whose kindness I am enabled to publish this brief account. Exact details as 
to dates of capture are unfortunately missing in a large number of instances, 
but whenever the month is recorded this is noted below. It does not follow 
that the specimens listed were all taken, or only taken, in the months indicated, 
One new species is included in the collection, and such synonymy as is given is 
new. The arrangement follows that of Aurivillius, in Seitz, Macrolep. vol. xiii, 
but the sequence is inverted to bring it into line with general practice. 


1. Tagiades flesus F. 5 £$, ?$. June, October, and November. 

2. Eagris denuba Plotz. 2 <3<3, 2 $$. March and June. 

3. Hyda grisea Mab. 1 $. November. 

4. Sarangese thecla Plotz. l $. June. 

5. Trichosemeia hereus Druce. 

Ceratrichia quaterna Mab. OR. Ent. Soc. France, p. clvi, 1889. 
Trichoseineia quaterna -f- Sarangesa hereus Auriv. in Seitz, xiii, 
p. 579, 1925. 

1 $. November. 

6. Trichosemeia tetrastigma Mab. 

T. tetrastigma -\- tristi/ica Auriv., Auriv. in Seitz (I.e.). 

The figure of tristifica (I.e. pi. 766) shows an absolutely typical 
upperside of tetrastigma. No details are added in the text, as Aurivillius 
had no other information than that contained in the figure. 

1 <?. March. 

7. Celaenorrhinus proximus Mab. 1 $. January. 

8. Celaenorrhinus galenus F. l £, l $. 


9. Gastrochaeta meza Hew. 7 £<$, 11 $$. March, May, June, July, and 

10. Gorgyra johnstoni Butler. 2 <$$, 4 $$. March, June, and November. 

1 1 . Gorgyra aburae Plotz. 1 $. June. 

12. Gorgyra mocquerysii Holl. 1 <J, 3 $$. June. 







Gorgyra subfacata Mab. 1 <j. November. 
Gorgyra indusiata Mab. 1 $. 

Aurivillius' statement that the hindwing in this species has no 
translucent spots is misleading. They are absent in the <J, but present 
in the $. 

Hypoleucis tripunctata Mab. 1$. 
Hypoleucis ophiusa Hew. 1 $, 2 $£. June. 
Acleros plotzi Mab. 1^,1$. June and October. 
Heteropterus abjectus Snell. l <$, 1 ?. June. 

April, June, and July. 

France (6) x, p. 31, 1890. 


N.H. (8), iii, p. 90, 1909. 


19. Rhabdomantis galatia Hew. l <$. 

20. Osmodes laronia Hew. l <J. 

21. Osmodes thops Holl. 6 $<$, 1 $. March and June. 

22. Osmodes costatus Auriv. 1 <J. March. 

23. Gegenes niso L. 4 <$$. 

24. Gegenes hottentotta Latr. 16 <?<?, 8 $?. 

25. Parnara fatuella Hopff. 4 $<j>. June. 

26. Parnara xylos Mab. 

Pamphila xylos Mab., Ann. Soc. Ent. 
Parnara alberti Holl., P.Z.S., p. 67, 
Parnara entebbea Swinh., Ann. Mag. 
1 (J. June. 

27. Parnara mathias F. 6 ££, 2 $$. May, June, and September. 

28. Parnara fallax Gaede. 1 <J. March. 

29. Parnara perobscura H. H. Druce. 

Parnara gemina Gaede, Int. Ent. Zs. 1916, p. 126. 
9 c?cJ, 6 ?$. June and July. 

30. Parnara holtzii Plotz. l $. June. 

31. Parnara flavifasciola H. H. Druce. 1 $. 

32. Pardaleodes edipus (ram. 18^, 8 ??. 
and November. 

33. Pardaleodes sator DM. & Hew. 1^,1$. 

34. Pardaleodes reichenowi P16tz. 3 $$. 

35. Ceratrichia phocion F. 7 tftf, l $. March. 

36. Andronymus philander Hopff. 1 J. 

37. Andronymus leander Plotz. 1 $, 1 $. 

38. Semalea nox Mab. 1 ?. March. 

39. Coenides dacela Hew. 2 $$. June. 

40. Coenides cylinda Hew. 1 $. 

41. Coenides meloui sp. nov. 

$. Upperside ground-colour deep brown. Forewing : cilia distally 
tipped with ochreous ; basal third washed with warm reddish brown ; 
translucent yellowish spots present as follows : (i) a large subquadrate 
spot in cell extending barely beyond origin of vein 3, (ii) a larger rectan- 
gular spot based on centre of vein 2, its inner edge in line with centre 
of cell-spot, from which it is only separated by the median vein, 
(iii) adjoining this last spot a small triangular spot occupying the base 

March, June. July, August, 



of area 3, (iv) a semilunar spot resting centrally on vein 1, (v) a series of 
three subapical spots, in areas 6-8, that in 6 twice the size of either of 
the others and extending twice as far towards the margin, (vi) a minute 
point in area 9 just above inner edge of spot in 8. Hindioing : cilia 
bright ochreous ; area 8 entirely pale ochreous, darker distally ; an 
obscure ochreous spot in cell, and a crescent of four similar discal spots 
in areas 2-5, that in 5 by far the largest and least obscured, the horns 
of the crescent directed outward. Underside ground-colour reddish 
brown with bright orange-ochreous markings. Forewing inner margin 
(area la) pale ochreous ; central portion of 16 similar, but only reaching 
vein 2 at a point ; above and surrounding this pale area and also the 
translucent spots in 2 and 3, extending halfway across cell and reaching 
anal angle, is a large blackish patch ; translucent spots as above ; 
the bright ochreous markings consist of a streak along anterior margin 
of cell followed by a series of costal spots, and of marginal spots in areas 
7-3, that in area 7 the smallest, separate, the remainder progressively 
larger and joined together. Hindwing basal area mainly bright ochreous, 
forming a diamond-shaped patch one point of which is at cell-end ; 
discal spots as above, with additions to the series in areas lc, 6, and 7 ; 
large diffuse submarginal ochreous spots in areas lc-6 (4 -f- 5 fused). 
Thorax and head above reddish brown ; abdomen appears to have 
been dark brown, but is coated with a white fungoid substance in the 
only available specimen. Beneath, the thorax, legs, and palpi are 
rich reddish brown, the palpi ochreous at base. Antennae dark brown 
with the club and shaft outwardly, and the club dorsally, ochreous. 
Length of forewing 25-5 mm. 

This species belongs to the stoehri-luehderi-umbrina section of 
Coenides, but is decidedly larger than any of these. From luehderi 
and umbrina, which appear to be at most races of one species, it can be 
separated at once by the lack of the curious lilac-grey spot (or spots) 
on the underside of the hindwing in area lc ; by the absence of any 
tendency of the translucent cell-spot of the forewing to be produced 
basad along the median vein ; and by the possession of conspicuous 
ochreous submarginal spots on the undersides of both wings. In 
this last feature it resembles stoehri, but in that species the ochreous 
underside spots are very much paler in colour, and much sharper in 
outline, and the discal spots in area 2-5, instead of forming a crescent, 
are arranged on a straight line, which, produced, passes through the 
spot in area 6 ; in meloui this spot in area 6 is greatly displaced basad 
in comparison ; stoehri has only two subapical spots, meloui three and 
an additional minute point. 

1 ?. Type : Bingerville, Ivory Coast (G. Melon), 1915. 

42. Coenides proxima P16tz. 

Hypoleucis arela Mab., C.R. Soc. Ent. Belg. p. lxix, 1891 ($). 
The receipt by the British Museum of several pairs of this species 
taken in cop. necessitates the above synonymy. 

2 S<$. 

43. Coenides malthina Hew. l <$. 

44. Coenides caenira Hew. 2 $<$, 1 $. June. 


•45. Pteroteiuon lautella Hew. 6 $$. January, March, and July. 
40. Zophopetes cerymica Hew. 3 $9- February. 


47. Rhopalocampta forestan Cram. 1 <$, 3 ??. February. 

48. Rhopalocampta pisistratus F. 21 ,$$ and $$. May, June, July, 
August, and November. 

49. Rhopalocampta hanno P16tz. 

Ismene hanno Plotz, Stell. Ent. Zeit. xl. p. 363, 1879 ($). 
Ismcne necho Plotz, Slett. Ent. Zeit. xlv, p. 63, 1884 (<$). 

1 <?• 

50. Rhopalocampta chalybe Westw. 1 q. 1 ?. March and December. 

51. Pyrrhochalcia iphis Drury. 1 cj, 2 $$. June. 





ON p. 164 of Vol. XXXII of this journal Dr. Hartert says, " The genus Caco- 
manlis . . . has received rather harsh treatment in the Cat. B. Brit. Mm., 
and more recently by Mathews, who went entirely wrong about the nomen- 
clature " ; and finishes the paragraph by saying " much time had to be wasted in 
clearing up the nomenclature." 

In my opinion Dr. Hartert's treatment is the harshest of all, and his nomen- 
clature wrong ; especially as on p. 174 he makes pyrrhophanus 1817 a subspecies 
of cineraceus 1827. 

On p. 172, under Cuculns rubricates, Hartert says that I told him that I no 
longer used this name. That is quite true, but I had already pointed this out 
in my Birds of Australia, vol. ix. p. 400 (May 22), 1922, well over three years ago. 

I also drew his attention to Lichtenstein's name Cuculus prionurus 1823, 
which I had published in the Austral. Av. Rec. vol. iv, p. 138, 1921 (Aug. 1), 
well over four years ago. 

On p. 174 Hartert says that " Vieillot's description . . . would have suited 
cineraceus or castaneiventris much better." 

With this I entirely disagree. Vieillot's description of Cuculus pyrrophanus 
reads : "Ha toutes les parties inferieures rousses : la tete d'un eendre bleuatre : 
le manteau, les ailes et les pennes de la queue de couleur brune . . . 

Cacomantis castaneiventris I described as " General colour above dark bluish 
slate colour, including the head, back, wings and tail . . . " ; and the bird 
Dr. Hartert calls cineraceus as " General colour above slate-grey, including the 
crown of the head, ear-coverts, cheeks, back, scapulars and upper tail coverts." 

Now I consider that Viellot's description fits the bird that I figured and 
described in my Birds of Australia, vol. vii, p. 322, pi. 352, from Australia, and 
no other form. 

As Vieillot describes the head as grey, the back and wings as brown, and the 
undersurface as russet, the description cannot be ignored, because he says " all " 
the undersurface russet, but the head to most people could easily include the 
whole head. 

Dr. Hartert tells us (p. 174) that he had the type of pyrrhophanus sent over 
from Paris, and that it was the New Caledonian form of Fan-tailed Cuckoo. 
I wrote and told him that this was impossible, as the description did not agree. 
I then went to Paris and found that the bird sent to Tring was not now claimed 
as the type, according to the most recent books of the Museum. I then found 
that according to the Paris Museum authorities the type of pyrrophanus was 
lost. The so-called type, according to their books at the Museum, is No. 1964 
(old number) and in red 98 (new number), and the original entry reads " C. 
sepulchralis Mull. Java." This is scratched out, and " Cacomantis pyrrhophanus 
Type N. Caledonie Labillardier," written by some one after the books had been 
made up. Who wrote the statement that this bird was the type of pyrrophanus 


I do not know, but it is in my opinion not true, nor does the bird agree with the 
original description. 

In the new Catalogue in Paris this bird is not called the type of pyrrhophanus. 
but on the base of the stand on which the mounted bird is placed is written 
" pyrrhophanus V. type," also " pyrrholophus V." However, it is in my opinion 
not the type of either name. 

I believe my nomenclature of Cacomantis pyrrhophanus to be correct as well 
as that of C. castaneiventris. Now let us look at the Fan-tailed Cuckoo. 

I have already dropped the name rubricates for some years ; the next name 
is nifulus. I am not satisfied that this does not fit the immature of the Fan- 
tailed Cuckoo only, and it cannot be mixed up with the Square-tailed Cuckoo, 
The immatures are so different, and as the type came from New South Wales 
we know to what form to look. Granted that there is some doubt, then the 
next name that I pointed out over four years ago must be used. viz. prionurus 

We get thus my nomenclature, as used in my Birds of Australia, and 
corrected by me afterwards, a-; follows: 

Cacomantis pyrrophanus (Vieillot 1817). Sydney, New South Wales, and its 

Cacomantis castaneiventris (Gould 1867), Cape York, Queensland, and its 

Cacomantis prionurus (Lichtenstein 1823), Sydney, New South Wales, and 
subspecies (if Cacomantis rufulus (Vieillot 1817) be not admitted). 

I cannot do better than end in the same way that my old friend did in the 
Ibis 1925, p. 749 : 

" It is true that I am busy enough with my own work, but I am always ready, 
if possible, to help a brother ornithologist." 

Pucheran's action in 1852 cannot, in my opinion, alter the original description 
of Vieillot. I do not consider that Pucheran was handling the same bird that 
Vieillot had. Vieillot's original description fits the Australian bird. 





WITH regard to Mr. Mathew's remarks on my criticisms I have the following 
to say : 

It was of course a silly mistake to enumerate pyrrophanus as a subspecies 
of cineraceus, as pyrrhophanus was the older name ! 

What I said on p. 172 about Mathews using rubricatus as the specific name of 
what I called Cacomantis cineraceus was of course perfectly correct. I referred 
to and quoted B. of Australia vii, 1918, but overlooked that four years later, 
B. of Australia ix, 1922, he had corrected and altered the name, and I also over- 
looked that he had called attention to the existence of Lichtenstein's name 
Cuculus prionurus of 1823, in the following words : 

" List p. 155, and Check List p. 103. 

Add to synonymy : 

Cuculus prionurus Lichtenstein, Verzeichn. Doubl. Mus. Berlin, p. 9 (pref. 
Sept.) 1823 : New South Wales." 

But this was done in August 1921, about three years after the publication 
of the volume on the Cuculidae of the Birds of Australia ! I will of course not 
make excuses for overlooking his statement, but I might be allowed to say that 
it is a hard task to look up in such cases several lists in order to find out what 
genus and species is referred to. It would have been much easier for ornithologists 
who have to do with the nomenclature of Australian Birds, if Mathews had said : 

" Cacomantis rubricatus : To the synonymy must be added : Cuculus prionurus, 
etc., etc." 

I have since seen the type of Cuculus prionurus in the Berlin Museum, and 
there is no doubt that it is the bird which for many years was erroneously called 
G. flabelliformis, and in 1912 by Mathews C. rubricatus. As prionurus is earlier 
than cineraceus, I must of course adopt it, and the species I called C. cineraceus 
in Nov. Zool. 1925. pp. 172-4 will be : 

Cacomantis prionurus (Licht.) 

Mr. Mathews disagrees with me in adopting the name pyrrhophanus of 
Vieillot, 1817, for the New Caledonian subspecies, but I cannot approve of his 
reasons. As to the description, Vieillot says : " II a toutes les parties inferieures 
rousses." This clearly means that the whole underside is rufous, and I do not agree 
that we should take it for a bird which has the throat ashy grey. Mathews 
argues that the underside in this case does not include the throat, because Vieillot 
says afterwards that the head is grey, and that the head includes the throat as 
well. This of course might have been argued, but I had good reason to take my 
point of view, as the description agreed with the type, and moreover, it seems to 
be obvious that Vieillot first described the underside, and then the upperside, the 
" head " meaning the head from above. In fact, in the very next description on 
the same page he said, in describing Cuculus solitarius, that the head is greyish 


("la tete glace de gris "), the throat and fore-part of the neck rufescent (" la 
gorge d'un roux foible, le devant du cou roussatre et onde de brun "), and so in 
other cases ; this shows how Vieillot's diagnosis must be understood. 

Mathews further says that the bird which was kindly sent me as the type 
of Vieillot's G. pyrrhophanus could not be the type, as it " was not now claimed 
as the type," and the real type was " lost." I naturally took the bird sent to 
me as the type, and the label on it seemed to prove this, saying that it is " Caco- 
mantis pyrrhophanus. Type N elle Caledonie, Labillardier." I therefore wrote 
to the Paris Museum again, asking for explanation, and Monsieur Berlioz kindly 
informed me that nothing was known of a " lost type." that the specimen in 
question was undoubtdly the one of which Pucheran speaks as the type in 1852, 
that the specimen in their register is given as " Cacomantis pyrrholophus (V.) 
C. bronzinus (Gr.), N elle Caledonie. Labillardiere." There can be no doubt that 
pyrrholophus is merely a mistake for pyrrhophanus, as no bird has been described 
under the name pyrrholophus, and there is no Cacomantis with a red crest ! 
Though the new register does not particularly " claim " the bird as the type, 
it by no means disclaims it, and both at the Paris Museum and in my opinion 
Mathew's theory of the " lost type " is not confirmed any more than that it is 
the real type, which there is no good reason to doubt. I may add that " types " 
were seldom, if ever, marked as such in olden times, and that it was left to later 
research to find out which the type-specimens were, and Pucheran doubtless 
knew more about the old specimens than we do now ! 

I may also repeat that the description of the upperside by Vieillot was bad, 
but was corrected by Pucheran ! Also that Labillardiere. the collector, was a 
long time in New Caledonia, and that such a mistake as " Nouvelle Hollande " 
for '" Nouvelle Caledonie " could easily be made by Vieillot, while " Java " 
(or " Timor," as Mathews suggests, without obvious reason) could not likely 
be made for New Caledonia ! Monsieur Berlioz tells me that a second specimen, 
received from a dealer in London, Leadbeater. was erroneously labelled as coming 
from Java, and that this must have been the reason for believing the type came 
from there by Pucheran, The localities were evidently put on the labels later, 
but as the specimen belongs to the New Caledonian form, and no such bird 
occurs on Java, the locality New Caledonia must be correct, while there is no 
thought of Java (or " Timor " !). 

The chief aim of my article in Nov. Zool. 1925, pp. 164-74, was to show 
the relationship of the various forms of Cacomantis to each other, and my arrange- 
ment remains so far unaltered and is so far not doubted by any critic. With 
the discovery (by Mathews) of the name prionurus the subspecies which I called 
C. cineraceus becomes 

Cacomantis pyrrhaphanus prionurus 

and the other subspecies should be called : Cacomantis pyrrhophanus prionurus, 
C. pyrrhophanus excitus, C. pyrrhophanus meeki, C. pyrrhophanus pyrrhophanus, 
C. pyrrhophanus simus, and C. pyrrhophanus schistaceigidaris. 

The name of rufulus is in my opinion most certainly too uncertain to adopt 
it for any form with absolute certainty. 



British Ornithologists' Union and Wollaston Expeditions in 
the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 




PRICE : £1 5s. (less 20% to Booksellers). 





PRICE: £5 (less 20% to Booksellers). 

cxxxv and U72 pages, with f>7 Plates. 

Annual Subscription to " Xovitates Zoologicae," £1 5s. 

Price of completed Volumes, £1 10s. Volume XXV and following issues, £1 16s. 
(Commission fur Booksellers on completed volumes only.) 

Communications, etc., may be addressed to 




Subscribers should 'give notice of the non-arrival of any numbers immediately upon receipt 
of the succeeding part, otherwise the missing numbers cannot be replaced free. 



H- Journal of Zoolocj\>- 




No. 2. 

Paoeb 57—188 

Plates I— XII 

Isscbd October 20th, 1926, at the Zoological Museum, Twng. 









1. A REVIEW OF THE GENUS CORY US (PI. I-XII) . R. Meinertzhagen 57-121 


IN NEW BRITAIN Ernst Hartert 122-145 


MUSEUM .... .... KarlJordan 146-154 


MUSEUM KarlJordan 155-170 


OF NEW BRITAIN Ernst Hartert 171-178 





Vol. XXXIU. OCTOBER 1926. No. 2. 



Plates I to XII. 


QINCE Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iii) in 1877 reviewed the genus Corvus, no 
^ attempt has been made to revise or bring up to date his work in the light 
of a more extensive knowledge of the group and a far more comprehensive 
material for study. 

I have included in the genus Corvus all forms which appear to be " crows." 
Sharpe divided what I call Corvus into 12 genera, based mainly on shape and 
development of the nasal bristles, the development of the nostrils and wing 
formula. In his sub-family " Corvinae " he included Nucifraga, Garrulus, Cissa, 
etc., giving to each genus the same taxonomic status as his genera Corone, 
Coloeus, Trypanocorax, etc. This seems to me to be wrong, Sharpe using mainly 
specific characters to define his genera, and on such meagre differences giving the 
same status to separate for instance Corone from Corax, as he separates such 
obviously different genera as Pica and Garrulus. My ideas of generic differences 
are extremely wide. Structural differences which do not intergrade to a perfect 
degree, a great difference in colour pattern, habits, nidification, or colour of eggs 
would in my opinion justify generic separation, but the main point is the dividing 
up of birds into natural groups in as convenient form as possible. To arrive 
at a correct conclusion it is not sufficient to study birds from one geographic 
area alone, even should that area be a continent. Within the Palaearctic Region 
it would not be difficult to divide up the Corvidae into several recognisable genera 
but if all forms from all over the world are studied, it will be seen that there 
is no hard and fast line by which one genus can be separated from another. 
Students of any area may well stand aghast at including Corvus- crassirostris in 
the same genus as Corvus monedula, but if they examine all the intermediate 
forms they will find it difficult to disagree. 

Genus-splitting has of late become a source of confusion to students. 
Mathews has made many species unrecognisable in a perfect torrent of new 
genera, and more recently Roberts (Annals of the Transvaal Museum, viii, part iv, 
11)22) has given us a most remarkable essay on genus-splitting. It ill becomes 
anyone to sit down and subject to severe criticism such hard-thought-out and 

5 57 


Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 192G. 

excellent work as Roberts has done in South Africa, but the system on which 
he is working must naturally give rise to misgiving among those of us who 
struggle to compete with modern nomenclature and classification. He admits 
that his work must appear to many as a " terrible upheaval." He also admits 
that though we can hardly find our way through the maze of modern nomen- 
clature, he intends to still further confuse the issue by creating not a little more 
confusion, in what I can only describe as hopeless and final abandonment of 
the principle of applying to nature classical names so that the world can under- 
stand what we are all talking about. The application of latinised names to nature 
in order to standardise the taking of an inventory of life in all its forms was 
initiated as a convenience to students to enable them to classify nature into 
convenient groups whereby they can be recognised. We are rapidly approaching 
a condition where it is more convenient to call, at any rate birds, by their trivial 
popular names, than to use their scientific names. This is partly due to the well- 
meant energies of those who are constantly striving to change a bird's name by 
excavating a still older name from some obscure work, and partly to the ever- 
growing desire to give each species generic status, using for the purpose what 
I maintain are specific characters. A difference in the number of tail feathers, 
smaller size and bill, the fact that in one species the sexes are alike and in another 
they are different, larger size and slightly different colour pattern, colour of 
bill, length of wing, more rounded wing, slight differences in the length of the 
first primary, etc., are all actual characters given by Roberts (op. cit.) for the 
separation of new genera. Every single one of these differences are in general 
use as separating, not species, but sub-species, and in some cases such differences 
occur as individual variation. To put such characters to such an improper 
use as generic characters is to my mind a prostitution of science. 
The following genera have been ajjplied to the genus C'orvus : 

Corvus . . Linnaeus 1766 . . Type : G. corax 

Lyons . . Boie 1822 (nee Fabr. 1787) . . C. monedula 

Moneduhi . Brehm 1828 (nee Coquebert 1798) . C. monedula 

Coloeus . . Kaup 1829 . . . . . C. monedula 

Corone . . Kaup 1829 . . . . . C. corone 

Gymnocorvus . Lesson 1831 . . . . C. tristis 

Corvultur . Lesson 1831 . . . C. albicollis 

Frugilegus . Selys Longchamps 1842 . . C.frugilegus 

Archicorax . Gloger 1842 .... C.frugilegus 

Amblycorax . Bonaparte 1853 . . . C. violaceus 

Gazzola . . Bonaparte 1854 .... C. t y pica 

Trypanocorax . Kaup 1854 . .... C.frugilegus 

Pterocorax' . Kaup 1854 . . . . . C. scapula lit* 

Physocorax . Bonaparte 1855 . . . . C. moneduloides 

Anomalocorax . Fitz 1863 . . . . . C. splendens 

Gymnocorax . Sundevall 1872 . . . C. tristis 

Heterocorax . Sharpe 1877 . . . C. capensis 

Rhinocorax . Sharpe 1877 .... ('. rhipidurus 

Microcorax . Sharpe 1877 .... C. jamaicensis 

Macrocorax . Sharpe 1877 .... G . fuscicapillus 

novitates zoologicae xxxiii. 1926. 59 


There is little to be said under this head. A southward movement in winter 
occurs among those forms which breed in northern climes and appears to be 
actuated entirely by food motives. The strongest migrants are the Hooded 
Crow (Corvus comix) and the Rook {Corvus frugilegus), but even here the more 
southerly races of the Hooded Crow are absolute residents (capellanus and 
sardonius). The Jackdaws and Corvus torquatus are both migrants to a somewhat 
lesser degree. Migratory movement is fully discussed under those forms to 
which it applies. 

There is no evidence of anything but local movement among those forms 
inhabiting Africa, Australia, and Southern Asia. In North America migratory 
movement appears to be ill-defined, but entirely dependent on food. 

The " Herd " Instinct. 

The " herd " or " flock " instinct is only fully developed in the Rook (C. 
frugilegus) and the Jackdaws (C. monedula and dauuricus), the former almost 
invariably feeding and breeding in company. The Jackdaws do so less fre- 
quently, but as a rule breed in colonies. The partiality of jackdaws for the 
company of rooks is notorious both in the breeding season, when feeding and 
on migration. Entire flocks of jackdaws on migration is the exception in Corvus 
monedula, but the rule in Corvus dauuricus. 

Other forms congregate for food or migration, but very rarely for breeding. 
Purely resident forms show less inclination to flock than migratory forms. 

Nearly all forms about which there is evidence flock for roosting, usually 
preferring a long journey to some neighbouring hills or clump of trees, and this 
applies equally to resident and migratory forms. In winter in Iraq countless 
thousands of rooks have been observed roosting on the ground, and many 
hundreds of Hooded Crows (C. comix sharpii) have been observed collecting to 
roost in palm-trees at dusk, though the resident form in Iraq (C. comix capellanus) 
prefers to roost in pairs. In many parts of India both Corvus corax laurencei 
and Corvus splendens perform long journeys to hills where they roost in flocks. 
Corvus corax tibetanus roost in large flocks at Leh in Ladak in the poplars of the 
Residency garden. The same applies to the African members of the genus. 


Environmental influences seem to be mainly, if not entirely, responsible 
for geograjmic differences in the genus Corvus. The corax-group is the most 
widely distributed, forming an excellent example. The desert and dry-climate 
forms (edithae and ruficollis) show a perfect intergradation through Corvus 
corax laurencei to the larger and more brilliant Corvus c. corax and Corvus c. 
tibetanus. In all groups subspecific differences are traceable solely to environ- 
ment, the more brilliant sheen of humid-tropical birds contrasting with the 
duller sheen of those inhabiting more temperate climates. In the corax-, brachy- 
rhynchos-, coronoides-, comix-, monedula-, and splendens-groups, variation strictly 
conforms to the normal laws of environmental influence. Though no Mendelian 
influence is traceable in the ganus, some doubt must remain on two points — the 
colour of the iris and the shade of white or grey at the bases of the feathers. 


In the coronoides-growp we find that those forms living in the hottest and 
dampest climates incline to the palest irides, those living in more temperate 
climates having hazel or dark brown irides. In the same group strictly tropical 
forms have whiter feather bases than those inhabiting more temperate climes. 
Similar differences in the shade of the feather bases is noticeable in the corax- 
group. On the other hand we find Gorvus cryptoleucus with snow-white feather 
bases living alongside the corax- and brachyrhynchos-groups in North America. 
In the East and West Indies we also find white and grey feather-based species 
in the same region. In tropical Africa all members of the genus have grey 
feather bases. Regarding the influence of environment on the colour of the 
iris, it must be remembered that the jackdaw (Corvus monedula) breeding from 
the north of Europe to Algeria and Palestine, has a whitish iris. It is possible 
that in the one case the cause is environmental and in the other it is Mendelian, 
or that in the case of the iris of the jackdaw and the feather base of Corvus crypto- 
leucus an environmental influence has become stabilised, and if one believes, 
as the writer does, that environmental influences can impress the germ plasm 
and under certain circumstances evolve a true species, the latter explanation 
appears to be the more satisfactory. 

To revert to the colour of the base of the feathers it is noticed that in nearly 
every group within the genus the shade of colour at the base of the nape feathers 
is paler or whiter than the shade of colour at the bases of the feathers on any other 
part of the body. It must also be remembered that a white nuchal collar or 
patch is a characteristic tendency among crows. In some forms it is well- 
developed and obvious, whilst in others a white nuchal patch is ill-concealed or 
entirely concealed by the narrow darker fringes to the feathers. With a pair 
of scissors it would be an easy matter to give to any specimen of Corvus crypto- 
leucus, leucogna phalus , and others a quite natural snow-white nuchal patch or 

On external characters Corvus trisiis appears to be the oldest member of 
the genus, and probably the nearest living representative of the original Corvus, 
the plumage more closely resembling in its adult stage that of the juveniles of 
other forms. 

External Characters. 

General Colour. — The general colour of the genus is some shade of black 
with or without a variable amount of purple, violet, blue, or green iridescence. 
Those species lacking all trace of iridescence are confined to hot climates. On 
the other hand, within any species of the genus, those inhabiting tropical areas 
tend to have more iridescence than those in more temperate climates. 

Copper or umber-brown, especially on the nape and neck, are rare variants, 
and confined to hot climates. When such colours occur, iridescence is reduced. 
No yellows, reds, or greens occur in the colour pigment of feathers, though such 
shades show in iridescence. 

Large areas of various shades of grey or white are common variants, especially 
on the nape, hind-neck, mantle, breast, or abdomen. That this variant has a 
direct connection with the colour of the bases of the feathers is probable, and is 
more fully dealt with under the heading Evolution. Except in Corvus tristis, 
no grey or white occurs on the forehead, wings, or tail of any member of the 


Dimorphism. — Fully developed dimorphism occurs only in Corviis dauuricus. 
It is interesting that the nearest form to G. dauuricus, namely, Corvus monedula, 
also shows a tendency to dimorphism, especially in its eastern range where the 
nape and cheeks show any colour from milky-white to grey. 

Wing Formula. — The first primary is usually between the seventh and 
eighth, rarely as short as the tenth. The fourth is usually the longest. Complete 
detail of wing formulae is given in Appendix B. 

Soft Parts. — Legs and feet always black. 

Bill always black except for the ivory-tipped bills of Corvus albicollis and 
Corvus crassirostris, the bluish-white bill of Corvus woodfordi, and the fleshy-white 
bill of Corvus tristis. 

Iris hazel or brown, except in certain tropical forms of Corvus coronoides, 
where it varies from pale grey to pure white (but always brown in immature 
birds), in Corvus fuscicapillus, where the iris is pale blue, in Corvus monedula and 
dauuricus-, where it is bluish white and greyish brown respectively (but always 
brown in immature birds), in Corvus leucognaphalus, where the iris is reddish 
brown to orange-red, in Corvus woodfordi, where the iris is dirty white, and in 
Corvus tristis, where the iris is blue or bluish white. No record has been found 
of the irides of Corvus enca, typicus, forensis, hubaryi, validus, or hawaiensis. 
The evolutionary aspect of the colour of the irides is discussed under the heading 

Face and. Post-orbital Patch. — In all members of the genus the face and post- 
orbital patch or triangle is fully feathered with the following exceptions : 

Corvus enca. — Face feathered, but with a bare post-orbital patch. 

Corvus unicolor. — As in the e»ca-group. 

Corvus typica. — As in the eraca-group. 

Corvus florensis. — As in the ereca-group. 

Corvus nasicus. — Post-orbital patch, gape and chin naked. 

Corvus frugilegus. — Face bare, post-orbital patch feathered. In C. f. pas- 
tinator the extent of bare face is not so large. 

Corvus tristis. — Face, chin and entire circum-orbital region bare, except 
for bristles. 

Bill ; General Structure and Nasal Groove. — The bill in both shape and size 
displays every variety and intermediate gradation from the massive bill of Corvus 
crassirostris, Corvus tristis, Corvus corax tibetanus down to the minute stumpy 
bill of Corvus monedula and dauuricus. 

The upper mandible is arched in Corvi crassirostris, albicollis, tristis, frequently 
in the coronoides-groujt, validus, unicolor, woodfordi, meelci, and very slightly so 
in the ereca-group. 

The nasal groove in which lies the nostril also shows extreme variation, 
from the deep-cut groove of Corvus crassirostris to no groove at all. 

An examination of the 40 plates shows better than any description the 
various forms of mandible and nasal grooving. 

Nasal Bristles. — The nasal bristles of the group show every gradation 
between none at all and bristles reaching to well beyond the proximal half of 
the culmen. In shape they are from pure fan-shaped to straight or even deflected. 
In many cases the nostrils are exposed, in some only partially exposed, but in 
most they are completely covered. Here again, the plates exemplify the 


Distribution . 

No member of the genus inhabits New Zealand, South America, Madeira, 
the Azores, and the Mascarene islands or the islands of the South Atlantic and 
South Pacific. With these exceptions the genus is world-wide in its distribution, 
ranging as far north as lat. 80 north. 

Distribution is fairly evenly spread out. for there are few places in the world, 
mainly islands and Australia, where only one form exists. In north-east Africa. 
Europe, Palaearctic Asia, and Palestine it would be possible to see during the 
course of a day 5 different species of crow. Elsewhere and in America only 
4 species could be seen at one time. Taking into consideration the fact that there 
are 18 continental species of the genus, this is rather remarkable and demonstrates 
that dispersal took place in very early times, and that the genus is very old- 
established. Further confirmation of this theory is obtained from the fact that 
forms occur in Hawaii and other island groups where isolation has had time to 
evolve a separate species. 


The members of the genus construct a compact and fairly solid nest, nearly 
always in a tree or bush, but most of the cora.r-group usually build in cliffs or 
among rocks, only occasionally in trees or on human habitations. In central 
Russia the raven often nests on the church towers. Corvus comix also nests 
in trees or cliffs or even in heather close to the ground. Corvus corone nearly 
always in trees, and but rarely elsewhere. The African members of the group 
usually nest in trees though occasionally in cliffs, but never close to the ground. 
Corvus albicollis breed in cliffs in South Africa, but in trees in Kenya Colony. 
The American members of the group usually nest in trees, though often among 
rocks. The monedula- and da uuricus -groups almost invariably nest in holes in 
trees or in rock crevices or holes in human habitations. Corvus frugilegus breeds 
very rarely in buildings. 

The clutch varies from 4 to 7 in colder climates, but rarely exceeds 5 in 
warmer climates or in the tropics. In fact 3 eggs seems to be the normal clutch 
of purely tropical species. 

The egg typical of the genus has a ground colour varying from pure pale 
greenish blue to a dirty olive-green. A fair amount of gloss is apparent. Un- 
marked eggs are very rare, the whole surface being usually spotted, blotched or 
streaked with greenish brown, blackish brown, or olive-brown, with often under- 
lying lavender markings. Increased pigmentation at the larger half of the egg 
is rare but occurs. Variation is great even in the same clutch. 

Erythristic eggs are rare, but occasionally occur in the corax-, cornix-, 
frugilegus-, and brachyrhynchos-groujis. Corvus capensis invariably lays eggs 
of a red type. 

Variants from the above occur as follows : 

Corvus capensis. — Ground colour salmon-pink to pale creamy pink blotched 
and spotted with terra-cotta, showing great variation from overall speckling to 
large occasional blotches ; 23 clutches examined. 

Corvus cryptoleucus. — Paler than type, though they can be matched. More 
sparingly marked. 8 eggs seen. 


Gorvus torquatus. — Very heavily marked, but occasionally typical. So 
heavily marked are some eggs that they present a uniform greenish-olive appear- 
ance. 14 clutches examined. 

Corvxis coronoides philippinus. — One clutch very pale and sparingly marked. 
The other densely marked. 

Corvus enca pusillus. — One examined from oviduct is of the Corvus monedula 
type, but considering its origin must be an unreliable guide. 

Corvus monedula and dauuricus. — Ground colour bluer than type and less 
densely marked. These being the only members of the group which almost 
invariably nest in holes or crevices, it is not surprising to find their eggs paler 
and more conspicuous than those whose eggs are exposed to sunlight. 

Eggs of the following species have not been examined : 

Corvus crassirostris. Corvus typicus. 

Corvus tristis. Corvus nasicus. 

Corvus fuscicapillus. Corvus woodfordi. 

Corvus hawaiensis. Corvus meeki. 

Corvus jamaicensis. Corvus kubaryi. 

Corvus leucognaphalus. Corvus validus. 
Corvus florensis. 


The Corvidae have one annual moult which occurs in late summer and 
autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. The earliest moult occurs in Corvus mone- 
dula, which commences moulting in June. Other palaearctic crows rarely show 
signs of moult until August, though some, such as Corvus corax tibetanus, appear 
to have completed their moult by late July or early August. Eight specimens 
shot in Ladak between April 17 and May 7 had 5, 6, and 7 primaries in sheath, 
and were commencing body moult. Central rectrices in sheath. Corvus corax 
ruficollis varies much in the date of moult in the different parts of its range. 
In Somaliland moult is complete by early November, though in Palestine it is 
complete by late September. In the Corvus comix group, birds from northern 
Europe have completed their moult before migration, sometime in September, 
but in Crete and Egypt moult is complete by late August. 

There is very little material on which to base any useful note on the moult 
of tropical members of the group. In South Africa Corvus capensis shows ex- 
amples of primary moult in March and of the initial stages of body moult in May. 
I have seen specimens of Corvus albus showing signs of moult in every month of 
the year. In the Corvus coronoides-group moult seems to occur in late autumn 
(October) in the northern forms, and almost throughout the year in tropical forms. 




Corvus tristis 



Corvus hawaiensis 



( 'orv us fuscicapillus 



Corvus validus 

5. Corvus enca pusillus 

New Guinea (B.M. 1916.5.30.1404) 
Hawaii (B.M. 
Aru (B.M. 
Batchian (B.M. 
Mindoro (B.M. 96.0.6. 15) 




(J Corvus enca compilator . 


$ Corvus typicus 


o Corvus unicolor 


$ Corvus florensis 


$ Corvus kubaryi 


<J Corvus meeki 


$ Corvus w. woodfordi 


$ Corvus moneduloides 


^ Corvus monedula spermologus . 


o Corvus coronoides japonensis . 


$ Corvtos coronoides intermedius . 


$ Corvus mexicanus ossifragus . 


o Corvus b. brachyrhynchos 


(J Corvus brachyrhynchos caurinus 


9 Corvus brachyrhynchos palmarum 


ij Corvus capensis capensis 


^ Corvus f. frugilegus 


Corvus frugilegus past Inator 


o Corvus leucognaphalus . 


$ Corvus nasicus 


Corvus jamaicensis 


$ Corvus rhipidurus 


(J Corvus crassirostris 


Corvus albicollis 


o Corvus cryptoleucus 


$ Corvus corax corax 


5 Corvus corax tingitanus . 


(J Corvus corax laurencei 


Corvus corax ruficollis 


^ Corvus corax edithae 


$ Corvus splendens splendens 


(J Corvus comix comix 


(J Corvus corone orientalis . 


o Corvus torquatus . 


$ Corvus albus. 

Mindoro (B.M. 
Macassar (B.M. 

Banggai Islands (Tring) 

Florcs (Tring) 

Guam (B.M. 

Bougainville (B.M. 1909 .2.18.8) 

Guadalcanal- (B.M. 

New Caledonia (B.M. 97.6. 1 .73) 

Scotland (B.M. 1912.4.7.1) 

Nagasaki (B.M. 87 . 1 1 . 20 . 78) 

Simla (B.M. 

Washington (B.M. 88. 10. 10.637) 

Nova Scotia (B.M. 86.9. 15.444) 

Vancouver (B.M. 

San Domingo (B.M. 1923 . 10 . 24 . 1 ) 

Klipfontein (B.M. 1905. 12.29.550) 

Rome (B.M. 1905.6.28.872) 

Yakutsch (B.M. 75 . 3 . 15 . 4) 

Porto Rico (B.M. 1905.6.28.873) 

Cuba (Meinertzhagen coll.) 

Jamaica (B.M. 42. 12.29.48) 

Suakin (B.M. 1915.12.24.520) 

Abyssinia (B.M. 61 . 5 . 8 . 55) 

Orange River Colony (B.M. 1904.4. 1 .2) 

Mexico (B.M. 

Trcbizond, Black Sea 

(B.M. 1909.11.18.34) 
Tangier (B.M. 1905.6.28.857) 
Sambhur, India (B.M. 
Jerusalem (B.M- 1905.6.28.860) 
Sheikh, Somaliland (B.M. 1918.6.6.20) 
India (B.M. 
England (B.M. 1916.9.20.99) 
N.W. India (B.M. 1908 . 1 1 . 10 . 24) 
Foochow, China (B.M. 1902.8.5.72) 
Manda I., Kenya Colony 


In the following review of the genus, 33 species, comprising 86 geographical 
forms, are recognised. These are : 


Corvus tristis . . . . . . . . . ■ .68 

Corvus hawaiensis . 
Corvus fuscicapillus . 
Corpus validus 
Corvus enca compilator 
Corvus enca enca 
Corvus enca subsp. . 
Corvus enca violaceus 





Corvus enca pusillus 
Corvus enca subsp. . 
Corvus enca samarensis 
Corvus typicus 
Corvus unicolor 
Corvus ftorensis 
Corvus hvbaryi 
Corvus meeki . 
Corvus woodfordi vegetus 
Corvus woodfordi woodfordi 
Corvus moneduloides 
Corvus monedula monedula 
Corvus monedula spermologus . 
Corvus nwneduia, soemmeringii . 
Corvus monedula cirtensis . 
Corvus dauuricus dauuricus 
Corvus dauuricus khamensis 
Corvus coronoides (general remarks) 
Corvus coronoides japonensis 
Corvus coronoides colonorum 
Corvus coronoides connectens 
Corvus coronoides osai 
Corvus coronoides intermedins . 
Corvus coronoides levaillantii 
Corvus coronoides andamanensis 
Corvus coronoides anthracinus . 
Corvus coronoides hainanus 
Corvus coronoides macrorhynchus 
Corvus coronoides orru 
Corvus coronoides insularis 
Corvus coronoides philippinus . 
Corvus coronoides latirostris 
Corvus coronoides bennetti 
Corvus coronoides coronoides 
Corvus mexicanus mexicanus 
Corvus mexicanus ossifragus 
Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos 
Corvus brachyrhynchos paulus . 
Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus 
Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis 
Corvus brachyrhynchos caurinus 
Corvus brachyrhynchos palmarum 
Corvus brachyrhynchos minutus 
Corvus capensis capensis 
Corvus capensis kordofanicus 
Corvus frugilegus frugilegus 
Corvus frugilegus pastinator 
Corvus leucognaphalus , , 




Corvus nasicus 

Corvus jamiiirtiisi* 
Corvus rhipidurus 
Corvus albicollis 
< 'orvus crassirostris 
Corvus cryptoleucus 
Corvus corax tibrtmius 
Corvus corax varius 
( 'nrrus corax corax 
Corvus corax hispanus 
Corvus corax tingitanus 
Corvus corax sinuatus 
Corvus corax laurencei 
Corvus corax ruficollis 
Corvus corax edithae 
Corvus splendens zugmeyeri 
Corvus splendens splendens 
Corvus splendens protegatus 
Corvus splendens maledivicus 
Corvus splendens insolens . 
Corvus comix comix 
Corvus comix sardonius 
Corvus comix sharpii 
Corvus comix initios 
Corvus comix pallescens 
Corvus comix capellanus 
Corvus corone corone 
Corvus corone orientalis 
Corvus lirri/mitus 
Corvus albus . 


. 94 

. 95 

. 95 

. 96 

. 97 

. 97 

. 98 

. 100 

. 101 

. lol 

. 102 

. 102 

. 104 

. 105 

. 106 

. 106 

. 107 

. 107 

. 107 

. 107 

. 108 

. 108 

. 109 

. 109 

. 109 

. 109 

. Ill 

. Ill 

. 112 

. 112 

A complete list of synonyms which have been applied to species and races 
is given in Appendix A. 


1. Surface of plumage without any distinct pure white area ' 
Surface of plumage with a distinct pure white area . 

2. Wing iivcr 385 mm. Bill very deep and tipped with white 
Bill slenderer and not white-tipped. Wing under 385 mm 

3. Nape white ........ 

Nape not white ....... 

4. Wing over 300 mm. ...... 

Wing under 300 mm. ...... 







Worn examples of C. cornix capellanus are whitish, but never pure white. 




5. Breast white, abdomen black ....... alhus 

Breast and abdomen black, with a broad white horseshoe band across 

the former. ......... torqvutus 

6. Culmen under 35 mm. ........ dauuricus 1 

Culmen over 35 mm. ........ typicue 

7. Plumage with grey, greyish white, or pale brown areas ... 8 
Plumage dull black, or lead-black, or black glossed with some metallic 

sheen of blue, violet, green, or purple or copper. Never with grey, 
greyish white, or jiale brown areas 

8. Crown glossy blue-black 
Crown glossless and never black 

9. Culmen under 40 mm. . 
Culmen over 40 mm. 

10. Abdomen lead-grey or lead-black 
Abdomen dirty ash-grey or dirty black 

11. Mantle glossy blue-black 
Mantle grey or whitish . 

12. Nasal bristles fan-shaped 
Nasal bristles not fan-shaped 

13. First or outside primary shorter than the eighth 
First or outside primary equal to or longer than the eighth 






mono I <il a 

dauuricus ! 







14. Base of feathers snow-white 
Base of feathers grey to 

Throat, feathers not elongated or 

whitish. Throat, feathers elongated and 


15. Nostrils entirely uncovered by bristles . . . . . .16 

Nostrils concealed or nearly so by bristles . . . . .17 

16. Under-parts violet-purple. Post-ocular region feathered. Larger frvgilegus 3 
Under-parts black glossed with deep violet. Post-ocular region naked. 

Smaller .......... nasicus 

17. Head and neck copper brown ...... fuscicapillus 

Head and neck not copper-brown . . . . . . .18 

18. Culmen at its frontal base not covered by bristles, though edged by short 

tufty feathers . . . . . . . . . .19 

Culmen at its frontal base covered by nasal or frontal bristles . . 21 

19. Bill black .......... enca 

Bill not black ........ woodfordi 

20. Mantle glossed with some shade of green, violet, or blue . . .22 
Mantle glossless . . . . . . . . . .21 

21. Wing over 280 mm. ....... hawaiensis 

Wing under 250 mm. ....... jumaicensis 

22. Cutting edges of both mandibles in a straight line from gape to tips of 

mandibles ......... moned uloides 

Cutting edges of mandibles never in a straight line from gape to tip . 23 

23. Mantle with a distinct blue, purple, or violet gloss .... 24 

1 Pied phase. 

2 Dark phase. 

3 In the immature of Comma frvgilegus the nostrils are covered. The violet-purple plumage, 
wing formula and locality will then form easy distinguishing features. 


Mantle blackish with a mere trace of a purplish sheen which is very 

indistinct .......... hubaryi 

24. Nasal bristles about one-third of the whole length of the culmen . . 25 
Nasal bristles about one-half the total length of the culmen . . 26 

25. Base of nape feathers dark grey ...... capensis 

Base of nape feathers white ...... levcognaphahts 

26. Head and nape bright metallic blue-green in marked contrast to a 

violet mantle ......... meeki 

Head and nape never bright metallic blue-green, though sometimes 
dull oily green and not in marked contrast to the colour of the mantle 27 

27. Base of feathers snow-white. Culmen over 70 mm. and strongly arched. 

Nape, neck and mantle uniform violet ..... valid us 
Base of feathers seldom snow-white, or when they are, as in some races 
or C. coronoides, the culmen is then well under 70 mm. long. Culmen 
not strongly arched, or more frequently not arched ... 28 

28. Throat feathers elongated and showing distinct signs of lanceolation, 

sometimes but slightly so . . . . . . .29 

Throat feathers not elongated and without lanceolation ... 30 

29. Culmen usually and slightly arched in its centre. Nasal bristles usually 

not directed up so as to cover the basal half of the culmen. Base of 
nape feathers from dark grey to snow-white. All races of Corvus 
coronoides which occur on the Asiastic Mainland show a distinct 
greenish tinge on the head, nape and under-parts . . . coronoides 

Culmen never arched. Nasal bristles usually directed up to cover the 
basal half of the culmen. Base of nape feathers always dark grey. 
Never any greenish tinge on the plumage which is purplish on the 
head, nape and under-parts ...... corone 

30. 2nd primary shorter than the 8th ...... florensis 

2nd primary longer than the 8th . . . . . . .31 

31. Under-parts distinctly glossed with greenish. 1 Forehead more violet 

than the blue of the back ...... mexicanus 

Never any trace of green on the under-parts. Forehead and back 

strictly uniform ........ brachyrhynchus 

Corvus tristis. 

Corvus tristis Lesson and Garnot, Bull. Sci. Nat. Ferussac, x, p. 291, 1827 (cf. Mathews, Iliis, 1916, 

p. 295). 
Corvus senex Lesson, Voy. Coquille Ois, p. 650, 1828 (not 1826), teste Mathews Auslr. Av. Record, ii, 

p. 52. Dorey, New Guinea. 

47 examined. 

Adults. — From my examination of the above series I am convinced that the 
pale birds are the adults and the darker birds are the young, though I admit 
this is by no means certain. 

1 This greenish tinge is not always apparent in Corvus mexicanus ossijragus unless specimens are 
compared. Even then the differences between, C. m. ossijragus and Corvus brachyrhynchus palmarum 
are not always apparent. 


A most untidy and variable bird. In freshly-moulted plumage they vary 
from dull purplish and slightly glossy violet above to pale brown with a whitish 
head. Under-parts vary from dull brownish black to pale hair-brown. In 
all cases the bases of the nape feathers are white. Lanceolation of throat feathers 
absent. Nasal bristles scant leaving nostrils uncovered. Face almost bare. 
Culmen strong and highly arched. 

Immature. — Dull violet-brown, duller and paler on the head and neck. 
Under-parts hair-brown. Nasal bristles well developed and almost covering 
nostrils. Face covered with bristle-like feathers. 

Soft Parts. — Iris blue or whitish blue. Bill fleshy white with or without a 
blackish tip. Feet flesh to pale horn. 

Measurements. — Wing 306-350, culmen length 61-75, height 26-29 mm. 

Distribution. — Apparently the whole of New Guinea, both on the coast and 
in the hills. Birds examined from Konstantinhafen, Owen Stanley Range, 
Snow Mountains, Sattelberg, Dorey, Astrolabe River, Port Moresby, and Hum- 
boldt's Bay. Also Salwatti, Waigiu, Goodenough, Fergusson, and Jobi Islands. 

Corvus hawaiensis. 

Corvus tropicus Bloxham in Byron's Voy., p. 250, 1826. Sandwich Islands. Nomen nudum. 
Corvus hatvaiensis Peale, U.S. Explor. Exped. Orn., p. 106, 1848. Karakakna Bay, Hawaii. 

18 examined. 

Adults. — General colour of jjlumage dull lead colour without gloss, but 
with traces of a violet tinge, especially on the head. Primaries dark hair-brown. 
Base of nape feathers dove-grey. Throat feathers hair-like with stiff shafts. 
No trace of lanceolation. Nasal bristles cover the nostrils and are inclined to 
be fan-shaped. They extend to half-way along the culmen barely covering its 
frontal base. Bill strong and stumpy. 

Soft Parts. — No record. 

Measurements. — Wing 286-321, culmen length 54-63, height 26-28 mm. 

Distribution. — Sandwich Islands. 

Corvus iuscicapillus. 

Corvus fuscicapillus G. R. Gray, P.Z.S., 1859, p. 157. Dorey, New Guinea. 

8 examined. 

Adults. — Whole head and neck brownish, slightly tinged with violet. 
Remainder of upper-parts glossy violet-blue. Under-parts dark violet. Bill 
massive with strongly curved maxilla. Nostril groove ill-developed, the nasal 
bristles barely covering the nostrils and scarcely reaching to half-way along the 
culmen. Ridge of culmen at base covered by minute bristles. Bases of nape 
feathers snow-white. Lanceolation of throat feathers absent. 

Immature. — None examined. Described by Hartert as " whitish, then 
more or less dusky." 

Soft Parts. — Iris pale to ultramarine blue. Bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing 328-344, culmen length 78-79, height 27 mm. 

Distribution. — Waigiu, Am Islands, and extreme west of Dutch New Guinea. 


Corvus validus. 

i 'arms nil fins Bonaparte (ex Temm. MS.), Consp. Av.. p. 385, 1850. Oram. Gilolo. Salvadori 
(Omith. Papuasia, ii, p. 493) states there is no such specimen in the Leyden Museum, whence 
Bonaparte described the bird, from Gilolo or Ceram, but that ' '. ralidns inhabits Sumatra, Java, 
and perhaps Timor. On this account authors have usually accepted this name as a synonym 
of one of the ew«z-group. 

But Biittikofer (Notes Leyden Mus., 1897, p. 185) definitely states that the type is in the Leyden 
Museum and that it came from Halmahera (Gilolo). He also states that the types of validus 
and validissimus are one and the same bird, "validus" having been erased by Temminck 
himself, and the name " validissimus " substituted in its stead. If this is correct — and I think 
we must accept it — validus must take priority over validissimus. As there is but one member 
of the Crow family in Halmahera, there can be no confusion as to which is intended. 

( 'arms validissimus Schlegel, Bijdr. Dierk. Amsterdam, pt. 8, p. 12, 1859. Dodingo, Gilolo, Molucca 

13 examined. 

Adults. — Upper-parts range from greenish steel-blue on the forehead to 
violet on the nape and neck, and violet-purple on the wings, back and tail. 
Lower parts suffused with violet. Throat and chin greenish steel-blue. Bases 
of nape feathers snow-white. Bill strong and well arched. Nasal bristles well 
developed, covering the frontal base of the culmen as in the coronoides-group, 
straight and reaching to half -way along culmen. Nostrils in ill-developed groove. 

Soft Parts. — No record. 

Measurements.— Wing 330-362, culmen length 72-83, height 25-28. 

Distribution. — Halmahera (Gilolo). Also Obi, Batchian, and Morty Is. 
C. validus is closely allied to the e«ca-group, but its massive and differently-shaped 
bill seems to give it specific rank. 

Corvus enca. 

This group differs from the coronoides-gvowp in having a distinct violet 
tinge on the under-parts, which is invariably absent in the coronoides-growp . 
The bases of the nape feathers are invariably white. The bird is usually smaller 
with a slenderer bill. The throat feathers are less laneeolated. The frontal 
base of the culmen is invariably bare, whereas in the coron ow/es-group it is in- 
variably concealed by nasal bristles. 

Post-ocular region usually bare. 

This group is restricted in distribution to an area bounded on the west by 
the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, to Java, Celebes, Ceram, Palawan, and the 
Philippine Group. Except in Celebes, Palawan, and Ceram, members of the 
group live alongside one or other of the forms of the coro7wides-group. It 
seems possible that in Java and Sumatra a certain amount of hybridisation 
occurs between these two groups. 

Corvus enca compilator. 

Corvus lenuirostris Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E. Ind. Comp., ii, p. 558, 1858 (nee Brchm 1855). Type 
examined. The bird was collected by Kittoe and the locality on the label is " Bombay." 
Wing 312, culmen length 65, height 23 mm. There is no doubt about the bird belonging to 
this race of enca. Blyth (Ibis, 1863, p. 368) gives the locality as Malacca. 



? Corpus fallax Briiggemann, Abhandl. Ver. Bremen, v, p. 76, 1878. Species indeterminable. De- 
scribed from a Rosenberg skin without locality. Wing 335-340. culmen length 65, height 
22 mm. Base of feathers whitish grey. 

Corvus compilalor nom. nov. Richmond, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxvi, p. 518, 1903. 

31 examined. 

Adults. — Above glossy violet purple. 
Base of nape feathers white. 
Soft Parts. — No record. 

Below a paler and duller violet-black. 




Straits Settlements 







Wing. » 












297, 312 



The following measurements are given by Kloss : 

Specimens. Locality. Wing. Height of Oilmen. 

6 Perak, Pahang, and Selangor 304-324 20-22-7 

9 Sumatra .... 298-322 20-5-23 

2 Borneo .... 308-315 22. 23 

Distribution. — Malay Peninsula (Johore, Selangor, Penang, Pahang), where 
they are less common than the coronoides representative. Sumatra, Borneo, 
and Labuan. Also Simalur and Nias Islands, west of Sumatra. 

Corvus enca enca. 

Fregilus enca Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc , xiii, p. 164, 1822. Java. 

8 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — Smaller than compilator, otherwise identical. 

Soft Parts. — " Iris dark, bill and feet black " (Kloss). 

Measurements. — Wing 270-299, culmen length 55-59, height 20-22. 

Kloss gives the wings of 4 Javan specimens as 272-282, and height of culmen 
as 16-5 to 19 mm. 

There is a bird in the British Museum, which is possibly a hybrid with 
C. coronoides macrorhynchus , having a wing 342, culmen length 60 and height 
26 mm. 

Distribution. — Java. Mentawi Islands, west of Sumatra (Kloss, Ibis, 1926, 
p. 293). 

Corvus enca subsp. 

32 examined. 

Adults. — Near C. e. enca, but even smaller, and generally darker. Bases of 
nape feathers white. Differences not sufficiently constant to warrant separation. 

Measurements. — Wing 259-296, but mainly between 259 and 284. Culmen 
length 50-56.57, height 19-22 mm. 

Distribution. — Birds examined from Celebes (27), Bah (1), and Sula 
Islands (4). 

72 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

Corvus enca violaceus. 

' 'orvus violaceus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, p. 384, 1850. Oram. 

Corvus modestus Briigg., Abhandl. Natur. Verein Bremen, v, p. 77, fig. iii, 1876, no locality. Type 
in the Darmstadt Museum. A young bird (teste Stresemann, Nov. Zool. xxi, p. 153). 

14 examined. 

Adults. — Duller and less glossy violet-blue on the upper and under-parts 
than either C. e. enca or compilator. There are traces only of gloss on the fore- 
head and crown. Bases of nape feathers white. No lanceolation of throat 

Measurements. — Wing 233-250, culmen length 45-50, height 19-21 mm. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to Ceram. 

Corvus enca pusillus. 

Corvus pusillus Tweeddale, P.Z.S., 1878, p. 622. Puerto Princeza, Palawan. 

8 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — Similar to violaceus, but a paler and greyer violet below, and an 
intenser violet above. A slight sheen on plumage. 

Measurements. — Wing 225-251, culmen length 48-52, height 19-20 mm. 
Distribution. — Palawan and Balabac Islands. 

Corvus enca subsp. 

5 examined. 

Adults. — Generally glossier than either •pusillus, violaceus or subsp. ?, especi- 
ally on the crown and forehead. 

Measurements. — Wing 231-250, culmen length 49-52, height 20-22 mm. 
Distribution. — Apparently confined to Mindoro. 

Corvus enca samarensis. 

Corvus samarensis Steere, List Birds and Mammals, Sleere Exped., p. 23, 1890. Samar, Philippines. 

2 examined, including the type. 

Adult. — General plumage a deep violet-blue with a strong sheen. 

Measurements. — 1 from Samar (type) wing 225, culmen length 52, height 
22 mm. 1 from S. Mindanao, wing 214, culmen length 47, height 22 mm. 

Corvus typicus. 

Gazzola lypica Bonaparte, Compt. Rend, xxxvii, p. 828, 1853. The type undoubtedly came from 

Celebes. See Meyer and Wiglesw. B. Celebes, ii, p. 584. 
Corvus advena Sehlegel (nee Brehm), Bijdr. Dierk. Amsterdam fol. sp. Corvus, p. 3, pi. ii, 1848-54. 

Sumatra (in error). 

9 examined. 

Adults. — Head glossy deep blue-black, inclining to brownish on the throat. 
A broad collar and under-parts to vent, white. Remainder of upper-parts, 
wings, vent and tail, dull glossy blue or purplish black. No lanceolation on 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 73 

throat feathers. Nasal bristles ill-developed and not completely covering nostrils. 
Post-ocular triangle bare. 

Soft Parts. — No record. 

Measurements. — Wing 199-217, culmen length 42-45. height 19-20 mm. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to the South-east Peninsula of Celebes. 
Birds examined from Macassar, Indrulaman, and Bonthain Peak, 6,000 ft. 

Corvus unicolor. 

Oazzola unicolor Rothschild and Hartert, Bull. B.O.C. xi, p. 29, Nov. 1900. Banggai, Sula Islands, 
east of Celebes. 

2 examined, including the t3 T pe. Both these specimens are in the Tring 
Museum and appear to be " trade " skins prepared by natives, neither having any 
reliable data attached. There are no specimens in the British Museum. Perhaps 
a race of Corvus enca. 

Adult. — Whole plumage glossy deep blue-black, intenser on the forehead 
and duller on the under-parts. Nasal bristles ill-developed, and only just covering 
nostrils. Ridge of culmen bare at base. Tail very short (104-109) and falling 
far short of tips of wings. 

Measurements. — Wing 205.208, culmen length 45.43, height 21.19 mm. 

Distribution. — Banggai ? 

Corvus florensis. 

Corvus florensis Biittikofer in Max Weber's Raise Nederl. Intl., p. 304, 1894. Flores. 

1 examined, collected by A. Everett, at Tring. The specimen is a female 
with wing 227, culmen length 45.5, height 20 mm. Similar to the enco-group, 
but the nasal bristles are better developed and completely cover the frontal base 
of the culmen. Nostrils in a deep groove. General j>luniage a clearer and purer 
violet than any of the ewca-group, and lacking the bluish tinge of the latter. 
Post-ocular region bare. Probably a race of the emca-group. 

Distribution. — Only 2 specimens known from Flores. 

Corvus kubaryi. 

Corpus kubaryi Reichenow, J. f. 0., 1885, p. 110. Type at Berlin with a wing of 225 ram. It is 
said to have been collected by Kubary at Pelew Island, but as this bird has not since been 
obtained on the island, it seems more likely that it came from the neighbouring Caroline or 
Marianne Groups, whence birds prove to be identical with Reichenow's type (cf. Hartert, Novit. 
Zool. v, p. 59). 

15 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — All specimens which I have examined are in such a poor state 
that an accurate description would be impossible. They are possibly all in 
immature plumage. General plumage dull and almost without gloss. Head 
dull greenish-black, back dull purplish blue-black. Under-parts dull greenish 
black. Base of nape feathers white. No lanceolation to throat feathers. Nasal 
bristles short, but covering nostrils and the base of ridge of the culmen. Bill 
slender, as in the e»ca-group. 

Soft Parts.— 

Measurements. — Wing 217-243, culmen length 47-55, height 19-23 mm. 

Distribution. — Birds examined from Guam (Marianne Group) and the 
Caroline Islands. Probably does not occur on Pelew I. 



Corvus meeki. 

Corvus meeki RothschUd, Bull. B.O.C. xv, p. 21, 1904. Bougainville, Solomon Islands. 

9 examined, including the type. 

At! tilts. — Similar to the woodfordi -group, but with very intense gloss, the 
greenish blue of the head being replaced by greenish purple. Under-parts glossy 
purple. Bases of nape feathers whitish. Culmen heavy and strongly curved. 
Nasal bristles, unlike the woodfordi-group, meet over the ridge of the culmen. 

Soft Parts. — Iris brown, bill and feet black. 

M<ft«>m>iir>its.— Wing 265-300, culmen length 04-72, height 25-28 mm. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to Bougainville of the Solomon Group. 
Though at first sight this species seems a geographical race of the woodfordi- 
group, the different colour of the head, glossy under-parts, colour of iris, and the 
meeting of the nasal bristles over the culmen would seem to give it specific rank. 

Corvus woodfordi vegetus. 

Macrocorax vegetus, Tristram, Ibis, 1894, p. 30. Bugotu, Solomon Islands. 

8 examined. 

Adults. — Head and neck glossy greenish blue, the rest of the upper-parts 
purplish blue. Under-parts almost glossless greenish blue. Bases of nape 
feathers whitish. Culmen massive and strongly curved. Nasal bristles reach 
to half-way along culmen, but do not cover the vertex. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dirty white, feet black, bill milky-white with pinkish tint 
and a black tip. 

Measurements.— Wing 280-299, culmen length 63-70, height 27-30 mm. 

Distribution. — Isabel Island, Solomon Group. 

Corvus woodfordi woodfordi. 

Macrocorax woodfordi Ogilvie Grant, P.Z.S., 1887, p. 332. Guadalcanar, Solomon Islands. 

15 examined. 

Adults. — Similar to vegetus, but with an intenser sheen and generally more 
brilliantly coloured. Occasional traces of purplish on the crown. Under-parts 
as in vegetus. Bases of nape feathers whitish. Nasal bristles as in vegetus. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dirty white to grey, feet black, bill bluish white with a 
pinkish tint and a black tip. 

Measurements. — Wing 265-290, culmen length 59-65, height 25-27. 

Distribution. — Guadalcanar and Choiseul, Solomon Islands. 

Corvus moneduloides. 

Corvus moneduloides Lesson, Traite, p. 329, 1831, no locality. I cite New Caledonia as type locality. 

12 examined. 

Adults. — Whole plumage glossy violet-blue, inclining to a deeper and more 
purplish tint on the head. Bases of nape feathers dark grey. Bill stumpy and 
not unlike that of the jackdaw {€'. momduhi), the lower mandible curving up 
sharply towards the tip. Nasal bristles straight and completely covering the 
nostrils, winch lie in a groove. Ridge at base of culmen covered. No lanceolation 
of throat feathers. Upper mandible straight and with but slight curve. 


Soft Paiis. — No record. 

Measurements. — Wing 238-260, culmen length 39-50, height 19-22 mm. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to New Caledonia. 

Corvus monedula monedula. 

Corvus monedula Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 106, 1758. Sweden. 

Adults. — Plumage generally black glossed with deep purplish blue on the 
crown. Ear coverts, nape, hind-neck, and sides of face pale lead-grey. Mantle 
lead-black glossed with blue. Secondaries and wing-coverts with a purple 
gloss. Under-parts dark ash-grey. Base of nape feathers grey. Bill short 
and stumpy, with but little curve on the cutting edges of the mandibles. Nostrils 
in a pit, not in a groove. Nasal bristles well developed and reaching to beyond 
proximal half of culmen. 

Immature. — Generally a browner bird with less gloss. 

Soft Parts. — Iris in adults bluish white, in immature birds brown. Bill of 
adults black in immature birds brown. Feet black in both adults and immature 

Measurements. — Wing of 9 birds 230-252 mm., culmen 31-38 mm. 

Distribution. — Scandinavia south of lat. 63| North. Believed to be resident. 
Is said to be the breeding bird in Lithuania (Sachtleben). 

Corvus monedula spermologus. 

Corvus spermologus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. viii, p. 40, 1817. Southern France. 
Monedula turrium Brehm, 1831. Central Germany. 
Monedula ar'iorea Brehm, 1831. Renthendorf, Germany. 

Monedula vulgaris alticeps, planiceps, crassirostris, occidentalis, Brehm 1S66. Nomina nuda. 
For details of above see Hartert, Vog. Pal. i, p. 16. 

Monedula seplenlrionalis , Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vog. Deutschl., p. 173, 1831. Elsinore (Helsingor), 

Adults. — Very near the typical race, but under-parts darker, which is dis- 
tinct only in a series. The grey on the neck is usually also darker. Immature 
birds and soft parts as in Corvus m. monedula. 

Measurements. — Wings of 54 birds vary from 224 in females to 248 in males. 
Culmen 31-38 mm. 

Distribution. — Generally western Europe from Denmark and East Prussia, 
the United Kingdom and south to Gibraltar and Italy. Eastern limits as yet 
undefined. Formerly a common resident in Malta, now scarce. 

Migration. — Usually moves with rooks, but sometimes in large flocks of its 
own species. Appears to be a regular migrant from the northern parts of its 
range, moving from the end of September to early November. Passage to or 
from Ireland has not been recorded. Has straggled to the Canary Islands, 
Algeria, and is a scarce winter visitor to Corsica. 

Corvus monedula soemmeringii. 

Corvus soemmeringii Fischer, Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, i, p. 3, 1811. Moscow. 
Corvus collaris Drummond, Ann. <£- Mag. Nat. Hist, xviii, p. 11, 1846. Macedonia. 
Corvus ultracollaris Kleinschmidt, Falco, xiv, p. 16. Naryn in Turkestan. Wing of type 255 mm., 
an abnormal giant. 

Adults. — Paler under-parts than G. m. spermologus and nearer C. m. mone- 
dula, but differs from the latter in having a more distinct, larger and whiter neck 
and spot at sides of neck. The race is very variable and individuals occur in 

76 Novitates Zoolooicaje XXXIII. 1926. 

western Europe and Scandinavia which cannot be distinguished from this race. 
Similarly from the same breeding colony of C. m. collaris, both in Kashmir and 
Palestine, examples cannot be distinguished from Swedish or British examples. 

Soft parts as in other races. 

Distribution. — Finland, the whole of Russia, Macedonia, and the Balkan. 
Peninsula south to Greece, Cyprus, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Kurdistan, Pales- 
tine, Persia, Turkestan, and Kashmir. 1 East in Siberia to the Yenesey Valley. 
Perhaps breeds on the Suez Canal near Suez (Nicoll MSS.). 

Migration. — Occurs in winter in East Prussia. Large flocks visit Palestine 
and Iraq in winter. Also a winter visitor to southern Afghanistan, northern 
Baluchistan, and the Punjab. 

Tahle nf Measurements of Corvus m. soemmeringii. 







. 235-246 




. 246 



Petehora R. 

. 245 



Central Russia . 

. 233-244 




. 244 




. 223-242 



Constantinople . 

. 224-239 




. 227.241 




. 229-240 



Palestine . 

. 228-234 





. 225-242 



Southern Afghanistan . 

. 229-239 




. 219-241 



Yarkand and Kashgar. 

. 222-230 




. 233-243 



Western Tibet . 

. 226 




. 223-252 



Migrants to N.W. 


. 228-236 




. 230 


Corvus monedula cirtensis. 

Coloeus monedula cirtensis Rothsch. & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1912, p. 471. Northern Algeria. 

Adults. — They differ from C. m. spermologus in having a paler pure slate 
under-surface. The hind-neck is duller grey and the crown not quite so purplish. 
As birds become worn the primaries become brown, which has the effect of a 
golden-brown tinge to the wings when birds are in flight in the sun. Soft parts 
as in other races. 

Measurements. — Wings of 23 birds 225-244 mm. 

Distribution. — Confined to northern Algeria. 

Corvus dauuricus dauuricus. - 

Corvus dauuricus, Pall., Seise Russ. R., iii, Anhang., p. 694, 1776. Lake Baikal Region. 
Corpus fuscicollis, Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. el Meth. Orn., ii, 1823. Baikal. 
Corvus capitalis Wagler, Syst. Av. " Corvus," sp. 19, 1827 (ex Pallas). 

I 'amis in glirtus Schlegel, Bijdr. Dicrk. Amsterdam, p. 16, 1859. Japan. Based on Corvus dauuricus 
juv. Faun. Jap., pi. 40. 

68 examined. 

Adults. — Crown black glossed with purplish, mantle glossy blue-black, 
wing-coverts with a purple gloss. Tail black with blue and green sheen. Sides 

1 Is a permanent resident in prodigious numbers in the Vale of Kashmir, hundreds of thousands 
roosting in winter in the poplar-trees near Srinagar. A straggler to Ladak. 

2 Since writing the above I am inclined to consider 0, dauuricus a race of C. monedula. 

Notitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 77 

of face and ear-coverts greyish white. Chin and throat black. Rest of under- 
parts and a broad collar white or brownish white. Base of feathers grey. 

Kleinschmidt and Weigold (Falco, 1921, xvii, p. 2) and Kleinschmidt (Abh. 
u. Ber. Mus. Dresd., xv, 1922, No. 3) consider the dark form of this species (neg- 
lectus) to be the second normal plumage. Nestlings apparently resemble adults, 
being white below but moult into their first plumage by assuming the dark 
phase (neglectus). An examination of the specimens in the British Museum neither 
proves nor disproves this assertion, as there are no certain birds in nestling 
plumage nor in moult. 

La Touche (Ibis, 1923, p. 308) found both the pied and black forms breeding 
in the same colony in Yunnan, and obtained young of both forms. The young 
of the black form has a dirty grey hind neck which is moulting into black, whilst 
the young of the pied form is yellowish white which changes after the first moult 
into white with a grey tinge. This does not confirm Kleinschmidt's contention. 

The dark phase has no white collar which is replaced by deep grey, the under- 
parts being ashy or dirty grey or brownish, showing much variation. 

Soft Parts. — Iris greyish brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wings of 68 vary from 220 in females to 243 in males. 
Oilmen 29-35 mm. All birds measured are from Manchuria, Mongolia, Corea, 
Japan, and western China. La Touche (Ibis, 1923, p. 308) gives the wings of 
13 S.E. Yunnan birds as from 216 in females to 241 in males. 

Distribution. — 

Summer quarters. — Breeds from Irkutsk on Lake Baikal to the junction of 
the Ussuri and Amur Rivers and thence to the Sea of Japan, but not reaching 
to the mouth of the Amur or Sea of Okhotsk. Breeds commonly in Manchuria, 
but not so far south as Corea or Pekin. Colonies occur in the south-east Altai 
and throughout Mongolia, Kansu, Szechwan, and eastern Yunnan. 

Migration. — Most birds move south in winter, but some remain in or near 
their breeding haunts. They have been noted in winter at Urga and at Saissansk 
on the Upper Irtysh, the latter locality being the most westerly point from which 
the species has been recorded. In Yunnan birds do not appear to leave their 
breeding stations except to wander locally. 

Summer visitors to Manchuria leave in September and arrive in southern 
China in October and November, passing through Corea in large numbers, and 
on autumn passage they are abundant at Pekin. 

In winter they are common as far south as the Yangtse and have straggled 
to Formosa. A rare winter visitor to Japan, mainly in the south. 

On spring passage birds appear to move north in late February, passage 
continuing throughout March, and occasionally extending to early and even the 
third week in May. In North China and Manchuria birds arrive at their breeding 
stations in early March. 

After the severe winter of 1856, the first spring migrant to arrive in Trans- 
Baikal was a bird of this species on 6.iii. 

Corvus dauuricus khamensis. 

Coloeus danricus major Bianehi, Ann. Mus. St. Petersburg, viii, p. 11, 1903. Nomen nudum. 
Coloeus danricus khamensis Bianehi, Bull. B.O.C. xvi, p. 68, 1906. Kham in S.E. Tibet. 

1 examined, an adult female, dark phase, collected by Bailey 150 miles N.E. 
of Sadiya (Assam) on 25. vi. 1911, and now in the British Museum. 


Adults. — Said to be larger only than the typical form. Wings vary from 
248-251. Weigold, who collected 10 specimens, gives wings as from 230-24K. 
It seems likely that the form may prove to be sound, but it requires confirmation. 

Bailey's specimen, mentioned above, should belong to this form, but has 
a wing of 236 mm. 

Distribution . — South-east Tibet. 

Corvus coronoides. 

Stresemann (Verh. d. Orn. Ges. Bayern, May 1916) reviewed this group, and 
with slight modification I am inclined to agree with the placing of all these crows 
under one group, the oldest name for which is Corvus coronoides. From the huge 
Corvus c. japoni mis to the smaller races from Ceylon and Australia there is perfect 
intergradation in both colour, size and shape of bill, whilst they all agree in such 
essential characters as nasal bristles, wing formula and general structure. 

The great interest in the corunoides-group is the fact that the surface colour 
of the plumage, the tint of white or grey at the base of the plumage and the 
colour of the iris, varying as it does from dark brown to white, do not constitute 
specific characters, the most perfect intergradation existing within the group. 
None of these characters appear to be stimulated by environment. 

The distribution of the group is also instructive. Borneo and Celebes contain 
no representative. Otherwise, with the exception of a few small islands, the 
group extends through south-eastern Asia from the mouth of the Amur to Tur- 
kestan, south to Ceylon and Tasmania and east to New Britain. In the Malay 
Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, and the Philippines, the group lives alongside members 
of the smaller enca-group. A study of the group and its distribution throws 
little light on the lines of dispersion or origin, except that it is probable that 
dispersion has taken place from the East Indian Archipelago or Australia, assum- 
ing a northerly and north-westerly direction. Thus only can the avoidance of 
Borneo and Celebes be accounted for. The group is tree and jungle-loving, 
and the deserts of Rajputana, Sind, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and the Gobi Desert 
appear to have offered an effective barrier to further dispersion. 

Whilst agreeing with Stresemann in uniting all these crows within one 
group, I am unable to recognise certain of his races, namely " hassi," " mand- 
shuricus," " perplexus " and " ceciliae," whilst the name " madaraszi " must be 
replaced by an older name of Madarasz — " anthracina." 

The group is not difficult except for its Australian representatives, which 
have received the most confusing treatment at the hands of Australian Orni- 

Gmelin was probably (Syst. Nat., i, p. 365, 1788) the first to name the 
Australian bird — Corvus australis — but the description and locality are so vague 
as to defy identification and the name has been rightly rejected by recent authors. 
Then in 1826 Vigors and Horsfield described a crow from near Sydney as Corvus 
coronoides. ' The type is in the British Museum and has the grey bases to the 
nape feathers. Then in 1901 North described a crow from Moolah in western 
New South Wales as Corvus bennetti, the main distinctions being the smaller size, 
white bases to the feathers and less lanceolated throat feathers. So far, so good. 
That gave us a large bird with grey feather bases and strongly lanceolated throat 
feathers and a smaller bird with white feather bases and a less lanceolated throat. 


The former inhabited roughly a line south of the Dawson River to Central 
South Australia and thence to about Perth, the latter living north of 
that area. 

In April 1911 Mathews turned his attention to Australian Crows, confusing 
the issue and creating nomenclatural havoc. In a brief note in the Emu of 1911, 
p. 326, Mathews replaces the preoccupied name " australis " by " mariannae," 
using as a type a bird from Gosford near Sydney. In January 1912 the crows 
of Australia received a stimulating upheaval at the hands of Mathews. He 
apparently decided that there were three species of crows in Australia, one of 
which he calls a raven, the other two remaining crows. The so-called raven 
became "mariannae " and the two crows received the names " coronoides " and 
" bennetti." The raven was divided into four races and the crows each into three 
races. Thus Mathews gave us ten forms of Corvus in Australia. The list of 
types of Australian Corvidae should now be consulted in Appendix C. 

With the fever of new races upon him, only three months later, Mathews 
describes yet another form from Western Australia under the name Corvus ceciliae 
marngli, thus creating a fourth species and the eleventh subspecies of Crow in 

But all this was altered in 1913 when Mathews in his List of the Birds of 
Australia, p. 313, used the name "coronoides" for the so-called ravens, and 
divided them into three races, namely, Corvus c. coronoides from New South Wales, 
Corvus c. perplexus from Victoria, South Australia, and South-West Australia, and 
Corvus c. tasmanicus from Tasmania. He still recognises two species of so-called 
crows, the smaller being divided up into Corvus bennetti bennetti from the interior 
of New South Wales and South Australia, and Corvus bennetti bonhoti from North- 
ern Territory and interior of Western Australia. The larger crow he retains in 
three races, namely Corvus ceciliae ceciliae from N.W. Australia and Northern 
Territory, Corvus c. marngli from Western Australia, and Corvus c. queenslandicus 
from Queensland and northern New South Wales. It is obvious that during 
1912 and 1913 Mathews' mind was not crystallised on the subject of crows, but 
when in 1920 Mathews describes yet another race as Corvus ceciliae hartogi 
from Western Australia because many of the feathers are brown and not black, 
one is compelled to treat the author with but scant seriousness. I have not 
examined the type of this last race, but it probably is a young or very worn adult 
in full moult, hence the parti-coloured plumage. 

Stresemann rightly ignored most of Mathews' races, recognising but one 
species of crow in Australia which he divides into four races — Corvus coronoides 
coronoides, -perplexus, bennetti, and ceciliae, whilst admitting that the Tasmanian 
bird may be distinct. He also admits that a field study of Australian Crows 
might induce him to revise his conclusions. 

So here we have great diversity of expert opinion, Mathews with his 3 species 
and S subspecies, and Stresemann with his 4 subspecies, all forms of a single 

Having examined over 220 crows from Australia it is clear that birds from 
any one locality show great individual variation, a common phenomenon not 
only among the crows of the world but among many other birds. But in only 
one case does a bird with grey feather bases occur where the predominant type 
have white feather bases. This is a bird shot at Normanton in Queensland which 
is of the type called " ravens " by Mathews, the predominant type being birds 


with smaller wing measurement and white feather bases. This is the only really 
puzzling specimen of the whole series examined. But it would be unreasonable 
to allow one bird out of over 220 to influence a general deduction based on such 
a large series. 

Mathews based his contention that there are both "' ravens " and " crows " 
in Australia on an assertion that those who know them well in the field can recog- 
nise the two birds by their call, and seldom make an error when shooting them. 
I am unable to accept this statement on the evidence of specimens. In the 
Mathews' Collection collectors have sometimes differentiated between " crows " 
and " ravens " on the labels, asserting in some cases that the note is different. In 
all such cases the " ravens " have been fully adult birds, whilst the " crows " 
have been immature or not fully adult birds. We all know that young rooks 
and young ravens have calls distinctive from adults. Further comment appears 
to be unnecessary. Moreover, I am told by Mathews that he himself is unable to 
distinguish between the call of a " raven " and " crow." So it seems that the 
distinction is not very apparent. 

The original error on which all Mathews 1 work in this respect is based was 
failure to recognise that the colour of the base of the feathers is a sub-specific 
guide and not a specific character. I know of no species of crow which covers 
a large area, where the bases of the feathers do not show variation, in some cases 
slight, in others considerable. The second error into which Mathews fell was 
failure to recognise that there is great individual variation in size among crows 
from the same area. The third error was that he did not realise that in adults 
the throat feathers are more lanceolated and elongated than in birds not so adult. 
And the final error was the faulty application of misleading field work to scientific 
ornithology. Of the perpetuation of such errors by the inflation of an already 
congested synonymy, I have nothing to say. 

In examining the series of skins at Tring and in the British Museum, nearly 
all the birds with dark feather bases have well-developed throat hackles, whilst 
birds with white feather bases have poorly developed throat hackles. Moreover, 
except for the one Normanton specimen mentioned above the distribution of 
birds with snow-white feather bases is very marked as against the distribution 
of others with feather bases varying from greyish white to dark grey. Some- 
where about Gawler Ranges the two forms meet and both occur. Also among 
the larger birds without snow-white feather bases, occur every gradation 
of colour of the feather bases from greyish-white to dark grey, and every 
gradation of throat hackles from huge pointed elongated feathers to rounded 
short feathers. 

On colour of feather bases I therefore divide the Australian Crows into two 
forms, those with snow-white bases living in an area north of a line from just 
north of Perth in the west, thence to about Gawler Ranges and east to the extreme 
northern coast of New South Wales, and birds without snow-white feather bases 
living south of that line and in Tasmania. 

Stresemann appears to have come to an identical conclusion, but further 
divides the birds with white feather bases into a smaller eastern race (C. c. beiiudli) 
and a larger western race (C. c. ceciliae), and he divides the birds with grey or 
greyish-white feather bases into a smaller western race (C. c. perplexws) and a 
larger eastern race (C. c. coronoides). Let us see if this can be justified. For 
detailed measurements see Appendix D. 

novitates zoologicae xxxiii. 1926. 81 

Measurement of Birds with Snow-white Feather Bases. 

Oulmon : 
Specimens. Ideality. Wing. Length. Height. 

mm. ram. mm. 

64 Queensland and the extreme north of New South Wales 288-354 46-61 19-26 

11 Northern Territory 285-357 47-62 18-27 

11 North-Western Australia 296-361 47-62 19-26 

9 Northern Western Australia 298-345 47-63 19-25 

It is true that an average measurement gives one a considerable difference, 

but on the above measurements, I doubt whether separation can be justified in 

a genus which shows such remarkable individual diversity in size throughout the 


Measurement of Birds without Snow-white Feather Bases. 

Culmeu : 



:. Locality. 

New South Wales. 


. 302-379 







. 305-360 





. 336-357 




Southern South Australia 

. 295-351 




South-Western Australia 

. 298-347 



The smallness of western birds is here more marked, but with an overlap 
of 45 mm. separation cannot be justified. 

I am therefore unable to admit that there are more than two races of 
Australian crows, a northern form with snow-white feather bases and a southern 
form with grey or whitish-grey feather bases. 

Corvus coronoides japonensis. 

Corvns japonensis Bonaparte, Consp. Av. i, p. 386, 1850. Japan. Type locality designated by 

Stresemann as Yesso. 
Cormis macrorhynchus mandschuricus Buturlin, Mess. Orn. iv, No. 1, p. 40. March 1913. Ussuriland. 

30 examined from Japan and 11 from N.E. Asia. 

Adults. — The largest of the group approaching in size the smaller forms of 
Corvus corax. Forehead, crown, and nape dull black with a slight oil-green tinge 
and inclined to steel-blue on the forehead. Remainder of upper parts violet 
purple paler on the wings. Primary coverts inclined to greenish. Throat feathers 
purplish steel-blue with a suggestion of green. Remainder of under-parts dull 
steel-blue with a purplish tinge. Base of nape feathers dark grey. Throat 
feathers distinctly lanceolated. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Birds from Japan have wings 325-388, length of culmen 
07-70, and height 28-34. Birds from Corea, Ussuri, and Amurland have wings 
337-364, culmen length 60-75, height 26-31. The supposed differences between 
this race and mandschuricus is only apparent in the size of the culmen. Some 
Japanese birds run very large, but by far the majority are similar to Manchurian 
specimens. Doubtless in a large series the Japanese birds will average larger, 
but I do not consider the differences warrant separation. 

Distribution. — Japan. Birds seen from Yesso, Hondo, Kiushiu, Tanega, 
Yakushima, Hakodate, Southern Kurile Islands and Saghalien. Mainland 
specimens examined from Corea, Amur Bay, Amur- and Ussuriland. Also 
Tsushima (?). 

82 Novitates Zoologicae XXXTII. 1926. 

Birds from Bon in Island. — There are two birds from Bonin Island in the 
British Museum which are slightly less purplish (more violet) on the upper-parts, 
and with a more deeply curved culmen. These probably constitute a new form. 

Corvus coronoides colonorum. 

Corvus sinensis Moore ex Gould M.SS. (nee Gmelin. 1788), ( 'at. Birds East Ind. ' '«;/. ii. p. 550, 1858. 

Shanghai. Type examined. Specimen in full moult and labelled Pootoo (near Shanghai). 

$ 12.viii.1850. Wing 337, culmen 67 mm. 
('onus colonorum Swinhoe, Ibis, 1864. p. 427, Sawo Harbour, north-east Formosa. 
Corvus liassi Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb., 1907, p. 51. Taingtan, 

IS examined from northern China and southern Manchuria. 

21 examined from southern China and Formosa. 

Adults. — Similar in colour of plumage to japoiir >/ sis with a slightly more blue 
mantle, not so purplish. Under-parts not so dark as in either andamiiuensis or 
levaillaiitii. Base of nape feathers dark grey, and darker than in any of the 
Indian or Melanesian forms. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown. Legs, feet and bill black. 









N. China and S. Manchuria 





Mainland S. China 

. 310-350 




Formosa . 

, 320-350 



Distribution. — Birds examined from Pekin, southern Manchuria, Chiukiang 
(Kiangsu), Foochow, Fohkien, Lower Yangtse, Yangtse Big Bend, Shanghai, 
Swatow, and Formosa. 

Corvus coronoides connectens. 

Corvus coronoides connectens Stresemann, Verh. dm. (Irs. Bayern, xii, p. 281. 1916. Miyakoshima, 
Riu Kiu Islands. Type in the Tring Museum. 

15 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — An unsatisfactory race. Plumage similar to jcvponensis and 
colonorum, but culmen usually longer and slenderer, though of similar height. 
Wing averaging smaller. Base of nape feathers dark grey. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements.— Wing 310. 318-337. Culmen length 55-68, height 21-24. 

Distribution. — Birds examined from Miyakoshima and Okinawa in the Riu 
Kiu Islands. 

Corvus coronoides osai. 

Corvus macrorhynchus osai Ogawa, Annot. Zool. Japon. v, pt. 4, p. 196, 1905. Kohamashima, in 
the southernmost Riu Kiu Islands. Type at Tring. 

12 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — Merely a dwarf form of colonorum, which it resembles in every 
respect except size. 

Measurements. — Wing 270-295, culmen length 51-55, height 19-21 mm. 

Distribution. — The most southerly Riu Kiu Islands or Yayeyama Group, 
namely Isliigaki, Kuro, Koharua, and Aragusuku. 


Corvus coronoides intermedius. 

Corvus intermedius Adams, P.Z.S., 1859, p. 121, Kashmir, Dagshai, and Simla. Kashmir apud 

Corvus coronoides iibelosinensis Kleinschra. & Weigold, Abh. und Ber. Zool. Mus. Dresd. xv, 1922, 
No. 3, p. 2. S.E. Tibet and Sifan Region, in the aubalpine forests. Based on two specimens, 
cj wing 375, $ wing 348 mm. A race of Corvus based on the size of two specimens only can 
scarcely be accepted without further confirmation. Possibly synonymous with 0, c. japonensis. 

Over 50 examined. 

Adults. — Similar in plumage to japonensis, but with paler grey or even whitish 
bases to the nape feathers, which are, however never snow-white. Birds from 
the central and eastern Himalayas tend to have whiter bases to the nape feathers 
than others from Gilgit and Kashmir. Smaller than japonensis. Throat feathers 
lanceolated, though not so much as in japonensis or colonorum. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown. Bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing 301-365, usually between 318 and 345. Culmen 
length 54-62, height 23-25 mm. 

Distribution. — Chinese Turkestan (rare), Gilgit, Baltistan, south to Kashmir 1 
and Attock on the Indus, thence east along the Himalayas through Simla (com- 
mon), Nepal and Sikkim. Eastern Tibet, ascending to over 12,000 feet. 

Corvus coronoides levaillantii. 

Corvus levaillantii Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 328, circa 1831. Bengal. 

Corvus culminatus Sykes, P.Z.S., 1832, p. 98. Deccan. A very small specimen which I cannot 
accept as pre-occupying madaraszi, as all other birds from the Deccan are of the type levaillantii, 
culminatus being an aberrant specimen and not typical. Similar dwarf examples occur at 
Simla, Etawah, Ahmednuggar, etc., but are exceptional. 

Over 50 examined. 

Adults. — Upper-parts as in intermedius, but the under-parts an intenser and 
blacker blue. Base of nape feathers never so pale as in intermedius, but rarely 
so dark as in japonensis or colonorum. Bases usually darker than in andamanensis. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing 280-315, culmen length 55-62, height 21-25 mm. 

Distribution. — The whole of India east of the Sutlej Valley, east to Bengal, 
north to the base of the Himalayas, Rajputana (central and eastern), and south 
at least to Madras and the Nilgiri Hills. The border-line between this race and 
madaraszi is indefinite, the two races interlapping over a wide area. 

Corvus coronoides andamanensis. 

Corvus andamanensis Beavan ex Tytler MS., Ibis, 1866, p. 420. Andamans. Nomen nudum. 

Idem, Ibis, 1867, p. 328. Andamans, first description. 
Corvus coronoides mengtszensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. xliii, 1922, p. 80. Mengtsz. A name given 

to the intermediate form where C. c. andamanensis and colonorum meet. 

47 examined. 

Adults. — Upper-rjarts as in intermedius, levillantii, and colonorum. Under- 
parts dark and intense as in levaillantii. Bases of nape feathers medium grey, 
never so dark as in colonorum and never so pale as in intermedius, but usually 
paler than in levaillantii. This character is very variable in this race and many 

1 Apparently absent from Ladak. 

84 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

specimens are indistinguishable from lewiUantii. Throat feathers poorly lanceo- 

Soft Part*. — Iris dark brown, legs, feet, and bill black. 

Immature. — Xo throat lanceolation and with dark grey bases to feathers 
of nape. 

Measurement* and Distribution. 



;. Locality. 




Bases of nape feathers. 









Whitish grey. 






.Medium grey. 


Naga Hills 

300 . 309 



1 whitish. 1 medium grey. 


Mt. Victoria 




Almost white. 


Manipur . 




Whitish grey. 


Lower Pegu 

300 . 330 

61 .67 


Dark grey and closely resembling 






Whitish grey. 


Malay Peninsula 




Whitish grey. 






Whitish grey. 


Bangkok . 




Whitish grey. 

Two birds from Yunnan are intermediate between this race and colonorum 
in every respect. In the Malay Peninsula this race seems to extend south to 
lat. 11° South, where macrorhynchu.s commences. 

Robinson and Kloss (Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vi, 1923) consider the 
Bangkok Crow to be intermediate between andamanensis and macrorhynchu.s. 

Corvus coronoides anthracinus. 

Corone anthracina Madarasz, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hungar. 8, 1911, p. 420. Ceylon. 
Corvus coronoides madaraszi Stresemann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern., xii, p. 285, 1916. Colombo, 
Ceylon. Type examined. 

8 examined from Ceylon and others from S. India (see below). 

Adults. — Resembles levaillantii, but the lower parts are even more intense 
and with a distinct violet tinge. Bases of nape feathers dirty white or pale grey. 
Hackles poorly lanceolated. Smaller. 

Measurements. — Wing 283-304, culmen length 52-5S, height 20-25 mm. 

Distribution. — Ceylon and extreme Southern India. A bird from the 
Wynaad is intermediate with levaillantii with wing 274, culmen length 56 and 
height 22. Three birds from Belgaum and near Belgaum approach this race with 
wings 275-285, culmen length 51-54, height 21-22, but in colour they more nearly 
approach h vaillantii. Similar birds occur rarely in the Nilgiris and are probably 
wanderers from the surrounding plains. 

? Corvus coronoides hainanus. 

Corvus coronoides liainanus .Stresemann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern., xii, p. 286, 1916. Hoihow, Hainan. 

17 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — Of doubtful distinction from colonorum. Bases of nape feathers 
dark grey as in colonorum. Perhaps a larger bird. 

Measurements— Wing 327-365, culmen length 58-72, height 22-29. 
Distribution. — Confined to Hainan. 


Corvus coronoides macrorhynchus. 

Corvus macrorhynchus Wagler ex Temm. MS. Syst. Av. Corvus sp. 3, 1827. Java. Type in the 

Munich Museum. 
Comix timorensis Bonaparte, Compl. Bend., 37, p. 829, 1853. Timor. 

19 examined. 

Adults. — Very near andamanensis, but with slightly more violet on the upper 
parts and with the bases of the nape feathers whiter, occasionally snow-white. 
Birds from Sumatra have the bases as a rule whiter than others from Java, 
Timor, etc. 

Soft Parte. — Iris brown, bill, feet and legs black. 

Measurements. — Wing 322-364, culmen length 62-71, height 23-27 mm. 

Distribution. — From south of lat. 11 in the Malay Peninsula, throughout 
Sumatra (very rare), Java, Flores, Lombok, Timor, Bah, Sumba. One obtained 
Labuan (Stresemann). 

Birds from Wetter Island. — Two birds from Wetter Island have wings 322 
and culmens measuring 65 long and 24 high. The bases of the nape feathers are 
almost snow-white. The mantle is markedly less violet and more blue than 
either macrorhynchus or philippinus. Possibly an undeseribed race. 

Corvus coronoides orru. 

Corvus orru Bonaparte, ex Mueller MS. Consp. i, p. 385, 1850. Lobo Bay, New Guinea. 

Corvus annectens Brueggemann, Abh. Ver. Bremen v, p. 76, 1876. No locality. Type in Darmstadt 
Museum, wing 326 mm. Obtained at Gorontalo (Schneider), in Celebes (Sharpe, Cat. B.M. 
iii, p. 43). But does this race really occur in Celebes ? 

Corvus salvadorii Finsch, Mitt. Orn. Vereins, Wien, July 1884, p. 109. Port Moresby. Founded on 
Corvus sp. ? of Salvadori, Annali Mus. Civico Oenova, xvi, p. 198, note. Said to be like 
orru but larger and darker with more steel-blue above, tail and primaries with green metallic 
sheen. I have seen 2 birds from Port Moresby and they agree with typical orru. 

41 examined. 

Adults. — Differs from macrorhynchus in having little or no green or bluish- 
green sheen on the upper parts, this being replaced by violet. The colour of the 
iris in adults is also never brown, but alwa^'s blue or whitish-blue or greyish blue. 
Bases of nape feathers invariably snow-white in adults. Differs from bennetti 
in having an intenser gloss on the upper-parts and in being not so blue underneath. 

Soft Parts. — Iris of adults blue or whitish blue, and in immature birds 
brownish grey. Feet and bill black. 

Measurements. — Wing 293-349, culmen length 55-64, height 20-26 mm. 

Distribution. — New Guinea. Also Goodenough, Waigiou, Salwattee, Ter- 
nate, Misol, Obi and Morty Islands, and the West Papuan Islands. The record 
from Celebes is probably an error. 

Corvus coronoides insularis. 

Corvus insularis Heinroth, J. f. 0., 1903, p. 69. Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain. 

11 examined. 

Adults. — Similar to orru, but smaller. 

Soft Parts. — Iris pale blue or bluish white in adults, and according to Heinroth 
even in the young bird the iris is pale blue. Legs and bill black. 

Measurements. — Wing 282-310, culmen length 52-63, height 21-24 mm. 

Distribution. — New Britain and New Ireland, but I have not examined 
any specimens from the latter place. 


Corvus coronoides philippinus. 

i ii.i philippinus Bonaparte Compt. Html, xxxvii, p. 830, 1853. Philippines. 
Corvus solitarius Kittlitz, n. d. Rvssisch. A mt rika, ii. p. 431, 1858. Manila. Xomen nudum. 
Corpus brevipennis Schlegel, Bijtlr. Dierk. Genus Corvus, p. 9, 1859. Philippines. 

31 examined. 

Adults. — Smaller than macrorhynchus or orru. Upper-parts more violet 
than in levaillantii or colonorum, but not so violet as in macrorhynchus. Bases 
of nape feathers snow-white or nearly so. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown. Feet and bill black. 

Measurements. — Wing 285-333, eulrnen length 58-69, height 21-25 mm. 

Distribution. — Birds examined from Manila, Mindanao, Luzon, Negros, 
Zebu, Leyte, Bohol, Panay, and Sibutu. Apparently inhabits all the Philippine 
Islands except Palawan. Also the Sulu Archipelago. 

Corvus coronoides latirostris. 

Corvus latirostris A. B. Meyer, Zeitschr. Ges. Orn., i, p. 199, 1884. Timorlaut. 

9 examined. 

Adults. — Slightly darker and bluer than macrorhynchus, and very near 
I/iii in Hi in colour, but the base of the bill is usually somewhat broader than in 
the latter race. Stresemann's contention that the throat hackles are longer 
does not hold good in the series I have examined. Bases of nape feathers almost 

Soft Parts. — Iris blue, bluish white, or white. Feet and bill black. 





len : 


5 from Tenimber Island . 

. 305-328 



4 from Baba Island 

. 316-343 



Corvus coronoides bennetti. 

Corvus bennetti North., Vict. Nat., xvii, p. 170, 1901. Moolah. Western New South Wales. 
Corvus coronoides ceciliae Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 442, 1912. Napier Broome Bay, N.W. 

Corvus bennetti bonhoti Mathews, idem, p. 442. Murchison, Western Australia. 
Corvus bennetti queenslandicus Mathews, idem, p. 443. Dawson River, Southern Queensland. 
Corvus ceciliae marngli Mathews, Austr. Avian Record, i, p. 52, April 1912. Marngle Creek. West 

Kimberley, North- West Australia. 
Corvus ceciliae hartoai Mathews, Bull. B.O.C. xl, p. 76, Jan. 1920. Dirk Hartog I., W. Austr. 

Adults. — Very near C. c. orru, but apparently even darker and bluer. Base 
of nape feathers snow-white. Throat hackles sharp and pointed, but not so 
fully developed as in C. c. coronoides. 

Immature. — As the adult, but bases of feathers not quite so white. 

Soft Parts. — Bill and feet black. Iris white, white and blue, or blue. 


Culmen : 
Locality. Wing. Length. Height. 

nun. mm. mm. 

Queensland, extreme north of New South Wales and 

Northern Territory 285-357 46-62 18-27 

North- Western Australia and Northern Western Australia 296-361 47-63 19-26 

For detailed measurements see Appendix D. 


Distribution. — Generally north of a line running from lat. 30 S. in New South 
Wales, through Southern Australia near the Gawler Ranges, and thence west to 
the coast immediately north of Perth. 

Corvus coronoides coronoides. 

'! ( 'orriin ii ustralis Gmclin, Si/st. Nat. 8, p. 365, 1788, " habitat ill insulis maris australis " ex Latham 

Species indeterminable. 
Corvus coronoides Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. xv, p. 261, 1826. No locality. Parra- 

matta, New South Wales (Stresemann). Type examined. 
Corvus affiuis Brelim, Isis, 1845, p. 357. New South Wales (nee Shaw 1809, and Rueppell 1835). 
Corvus mariannae Mathews, Emu x, p. 326, 1911. Gosford, near Sydney. New name for Corvus. 

australis of Gould. 
Corvus coronoides perplexus Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, 1912, p. 442. Perth, S.W. Australia. 
Corvus mariannae mellori Mathews, idem, p. 443, 1912. Angus Plains, South Australia. 
Corvus mariannae halmaturinus Mathews, idem, p. 443, 1912. Kangaroo Islands, South Australia. 
Corvus mariannae lasmanicus Mathews, idem, p. 443. Tasmania. 

Adults. — Outwardly similar to C. c. bennetti, but with usually larger and better 
developed hackles and never with snow-white feather bases on the nape. The 
former and latter are subject to great individual variation and every gradation 
can be found from long lanceolated throat feathers to others showing scarcely 
any sign of lanceolation. The bases of the feathers vary from whitish-grey to 
dark grey. Birds with the darkest grey feather bases usually have the most 
developed throat hackles. 

Immature. — Hackles less developed and feather bases usually darker. 

Juvenile. — No hackles and with dark feather bases. General plumage soft 
and brown. 

Soft Parts. — Bill and feet black, iris white to brownish white. 



Birds from New South Wales, Victoria 
Tasmania ..... 
Southern South Australia 
South-Western Australia 

For detailed measurements see Appendix D. 

Distribution. — Generally south of a line running from lat. 30 South in New 
South Wales, through Southern Australia to a point on the coast of Western 
Australia just north of Perth. A specimen of this race has occurred at 
Normanton in North Queensland. Tasmania. 

Corvus mexicanus mexicanus. 

Corvus mexicanus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 1788, p. 375. Mexico. 

33 examined from Northern Mexico. 

Adults. — Forehead, crown, and nape a deep glossy violet, the rest of the 
upper-parts bluer violet, blending into jmrple on the wings. Under-parts a deep 
glossy greenish indigo blue. Bases of feathers of the nape a medium grey. 

















Measurement*. — Wing 230-270, culmen length 36-44, height 15-17 mm. 
Wing 231-259, culmen 37.5 42 (Ridgway). 

Distribution. — Birds examined from Sonora, Presidio, Mazatlan, and Tepic 
in north-western Mexico, and from Nuevo Leon, Tamanlipas, and Tampico in 
north-eastern Mexico. 

Corvus mexicanus ossifragus. 

Corvus ossifragus Wilson. Amer. Orn. v, p. 27, 1812. Great Egg Harbour, New Jersey, U.S.A. 
Corvus maritimus " Bartrain " Coues, Chech List, 2nd ed., 1882, No. 343. Nonien nudum. 

17 examined. 

Adults. — Similar to C. m. mexicanus, but much duller and slightly larger. 
Nasal bristles better developed. General plumage glossy blue-black, more violet 
at the forehead, and with sometimes a violet gloss on the crown. Under-parts 
deep glossy indigo blue with a distinct greenish tinge. This is very apparent if 
compared to any of the continental races of Corvus brachyrhynchos. This form 
is very near Corvus brachyrhynchos palmarum from the West Indies and is some- 
times almost impossible to distinguish. The latter is, however, usually smaller 
and the mandibles are slightly more pinched, giving a slenderer appearance. 

Soft Parts. — Iris brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements— Wing 265-290, 264-300 (Ridgway). Culmen length 41-46, 
39-45 (Ridgway). Culmen height 17-18. 

Distribution. — Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the United States, including 
Florida. North to the Lower Hudson Valley and shores of Long Island 
Sound. Casual to Massachusetts : west along the Gulf Coast to Louisiana. The 
range extends inland to the Blue Ridge Mountains. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos. 

This species is tentatively divided into seven forms, two insular and five 
continental. Of the latter Corvus b. caurinus is easily recognisable, but the 
remainder are not so distinct. They are separated on an average measurement. 
If localities were erased from the labels it would, in the majority of cases, be 
quite impossible to determine to which form they belong. But as the material 
examined has not been very large, the forms have been accepted with a query. 

Regarding the insular forms " minutus " and " palmarum" they have 
hitherto been regarded as two species. When specimens were first examined 
from Cuba, Haiti, and San Domingo, not the slightest difference was apparent, 
but the material being scanty, reference was made to American Museums, this 
view being confirmed. But it has since been pointed out that in a large series 
a slight difference does in fact exist ; the two forms are therefore retained, but as 
races of the same species. These insular forms appear to fit in well with the 
" brachyrhynchos " group, and are treated as geographical forms of that species. 

The interesting fact about this group is that they do not entirely conform 
to the usual principle that more northerly forms are larger than those from 
more southerly regions. " Caurinus " from the north-west is the smallest of the 
continental forms, and yet occurs in higher latitudes and colder climates than 
the larger forms. 


Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynchos. 

Corviis brachyrhynchos Brehm, Beitr. V< gelk. ii, 1822, p. 56, " North America." Restricted locality 

Boston, Mass. (Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxvi, p. 200). 
Corvus americanus Aud., Orn. Biogr. ii, p. 317, 1834. " Common throughout the U.S.A." 
Corvus frugivorus Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1875, p. 346. Pennsylvania. 

27 examined. 

Adults. — Upper and lower parts glossed with deep violet blue. Primary 
coverts with traces of green. Bases of nape feathers medium to dark grey. 
Feathers of throat short, hairy, and not lanceolated. Nostrils in deep pit, not 
in a groove. Nasal bristles cover nostrils and basal vertex of culmen. 1st 
primary about equal to longest secondary, sometimes very slightly longer 
or shorter. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing 302-335, culmen 48-54 in length and 21-22 in depth. 
Wing 282-337, culmen 45-53 (Ridgway). 

Distribution. — Eastern North America. Breeds from south-western 
Mackenzie, central Keewatin, central, Quebec, and Newfoundland. 

Winters from near the northern boundary of the United States southwards. 

It would appear that some specimens from Colorado can be referred to this 
race, or ? C. b. paulus. 

? Corvus brachyrhynchos paulus. 

Corvus b. paulus Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash, xxvi, p. 199, Oct. 1913. Alabama. 

9 examined. 

Smaller than the typical form and with a slenderer bill. Nearest to G. b. 
hesperis, but with a shorter wing and slightly larger bill. Wing of four males 
285-300. A doubtful race. 

Soft Parts. — As in C. b. brachyrhynchos. 

Distribution. — South-eastern United States except Florida, north to the 
District of Columbia and South Illinois, and west to Eastern Texas. ? Bermuda. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus. 

Corvus americanus var. floridanus Baird, Birds N. Amer. p. 568, 1858. Southern Peninsula of 

Florida (nee Bonaparte 1828). 
Corvus americanus pascuus Coues, Auk, xvi, 1899, p. 44, Southern Florida. 

26 examined. 

Adults. — Wing shorter than in C. b. brachyrhynchos, but bill and feet stouter. 1 
Soft Parts. — As in C. b. brachyrhynchos. 

Measurements. — Wing 295-325, culmen length 49-59, depth 22-23. Wing 
279-324, culmen 48-55 (Ridgway). 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to Southern Florida. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis. 

Corvus americanus hesperis Ridgw., Man. N. Amer. Birds, p. 362, 1887. Fort Klamath, Oregon. 

22 examined. 

Adults. — Similar to Corvus b. brachyrhynchos, but averaging smaller and 
with a slenderer bill. 

1 Perhaps inseparable from Corvus b. brachyrhynchos (cf. Bailey-Wilson, Bull.xxxv, No. 3, 1923, 
pp. 148-9). 


90 Novitatks XXX1I1. 1926. 

Soft Part's. — As in C. b. brachyrhynchos. 

Measurements. — Wing 284-325, culmen 43 ."> ] and once 54. Wing 278-325, 
culmen 43-50 (Ridgwav). 

Distribution. — Western United States generally from Puget Sound, Idaho, 
and Montana, east to the Rockies and south to northern Mexico, Arizona, and 
Colorado. In the latter place birds inseparable from the typical form occur. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos caurinus. 

Corvus caurinus Baird, Rep. Expl. and Sun-. R.R. Pur. ix, 1858, p. 569. Fort Steilacoom .Washington. 

1 1 examined. 

Adults. — Under-parts dead black or with very slight purplish gloss. Upper- 
parts glossed with dull purplish or violet. Base of nuchal feathers dull grey. 
1st primary about equal to or slightly shorter than the longest secondary. Nasal 
bristles straight and reaching to about half the culmen, and covering the frontal 
base. Throat feathers with a slight indication of lanceolation. 

Soft Parts. — As in Corvus b. brachyrhynchos. 

Measurements. — Wing 208-282 (256-292 of Ridgwav). eulmen 42-48 in 
length and 18-19 in depth. 

Distribution. — Pacific coast of X. America from Kodiak Island and Kukak 
Bay in Alaska south through British Columbia to Vancouver and Washington 

Corvus brachyrhynchos palmarum. 

Cortnis palmarum Paul von Wiirttemberg, Erste Reise N. Amer., p. 68, 1835 (footnote). C'iban Mts., 

San Domingo. 
Corvus solitarius Wurttemberg, Naumaiinia ii, 2nd part, p. 55, 1852. Haiti. 

18 examined. 

Adults. — General coloration deep violet blue-black, as in Corvus ossifragus, 
with purplish on the wings. Base of nape feathers dark grey. Throat feathers 
not elongated or lanceolated. Nasal bristles well developed, covering the nostrils 
and frontal base of culmen. Under-parts almost identical with Corvus ossifragus. 
Though so near Corvus ossifragus, this form and Corvus b. minutus are better 
placed as races of Corvus brachyrhynchos, as the bill is slightly more pinched at 
its tip, thereby agreeing more with that group. 

More brilliant in colour than " minutus," the reflections of the upper-parts 
and wings — especially the latter — being more bluish and purplish and less greenish. 
The under-parts are more glossy and more purplish, being less of a dead black. 
But all these differences are very slight and rarely apparent in single specimens. 

Ridgway (Birds N. and Mid. Amer., iii, pp. 258 and 276) states that " pal- 
marum " is larger, wing 261, culmen 51, bill narrower and less high at base, basal 
bristles reaching far in advance of the nostrils. Of '" minutus " he says — smaller, 
wing 233, culmen 43.5, bill more conical and higher at base. Nasal plumes 
reaching a little in advance of the nostrils. The first primary is also said to be 
relatively longer than that of " minutus." I am unable to confirm any of these 

Soft Parts. — Iris brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Through the great kindness of Mr. On tram Bangs, I am 
able to give the measurements of 31 specimens. Wing 232-260, culmen length 
46-53, depth 17-19. 

Distribution. — Haiti and San Domingo. 


Corvus brachyrhynchos minutus. 

Corpus minutus Gundlach, J. f. 0., 1856, p. 97. Cienfuegos on the south coast of Cuba. 

1 examined, and through the kindness of Mr. Outram Bangs the detail of 
13 others obtained. 

Adults. — Identical to Corvus b. palmarum in size and proportion. Also 
similar in plumage, but less glossed, the gloss less purplish, and with the under- 
parts more dead black. 

See also under Corvus b. palmarum. 

Soft Parts. — Iris brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing 233-260, culmen length 44-51, depth 15-19. 

Distribution. — Cuba and the Isle of Pines. Now very scarce. Both this 
form and C. b. palmarum are forest birds, as are all other West Indian Crows. 
This form and " palmarum " are the only West Indian Crows which " caw " ; all 
others, " leucognaphalus, nasicus, and jamaicensis" babbling and chattering. 

Corvus capensis capensis. 

Corvus capensis Licht., Verz. Douhl., p. 20, 1823. Cape of Good Hope. 
Corvus segetum Temui., PI. col. genus Corvus, p. 70, 1826. South Africa. 
Corvus macropterus Wagler, Syst. Av. sp. Corvus, 1827. Cape. 

Adults. — Whole plumage glossy blue-black with a slight purplish tinge, but 
never so purple as in Corvus frugilegus. In worn plumage the bluish sheen almost 
disappears, leaving a dark coppery oily appearance. First primary about equal 
to or slightly shorter than the longest secondary. Base of nape feathers dark 
grey. Throat and chin feathers of adults lanceolate. Culmen long and even 
slenderer than in C. frugilegus. 

Immature. — Dull dark brown above and below. Tail and wings glossy as 
in adults. 


Specimens. Locality. Wing. Culmen. 

mm. mm. 

19 South Africa, Zululand . . 318, 330-365, 380 57-73 

3 Angola 321, 325, 355 62-65 

12 Abyssinia 330-378 57-69 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown to almost black. Bill and legs black. 
Distribution. — South Africa south of Rhodesia and the Congo. Also the 
highlands of Abyssinia. 

Corvus capensis kordofanensis. 

Corvus levaillanti Des Murs in Lefebre, Voyage en Ahyssinie, Zool., p. 104, 1845. Abyssinia (nee 

Lesson 1831). 
Corvus capensis minor 1 Schlegel, Cat. Mus. Pays-Bas, Coraces, 1867, p. 7, terra incog, (nee C. corax 

minor Brehm. 1860). 
Corvus capensis kordofanensis Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xiv, p. 103, 1919. Nom. nov. 

for C. c. minor. 

Adults. — Similar in every respect to C. c. capensis, but smaller. This is an 
unsatisfactory race and probably should not be recognised. Birds from low- 

1 Type in Leyden Museum. Wing 290 ram. No locality. 


318, 340 









92 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

lying tropical districts are, however, on the average smaller than others from 
South Africa and the highlands of Abyssinia. 

Specimens. Locality. 

2 Rhodesia ..... 

3 Kenya Colony .... 

9 Sudan ...... 

3 Somaliland ..... 

Distribution. — I have not been able to examine specimens from the Congo 
or West Africa, where the bird probably does not exist. Fairly common in the 
more open country of Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Portuguese East Africa, Tanganyika 
Territory, Kenya Colony (but not reaching to the coast), Tropical Sudan (but not 
west of Lado), the shores of the Victoria Nyanza, and British Somaliland. 

Corvus frugilegus frugilegus. 

Corvus frugilegus Linn., Sysl. Nat. ed. x, p. 105, 1758. Sweden. 

Corvus prulatorius Rennie in Montague's Orn. Diet. Brit. Birds, 1831. Substitute name. 

Corvus agrorum Brehm, 1831. North end Central Germany. 

Corvus granorum Brehm, 1831, on migration in Central Germany. 

Corvus advena Brehm, 1831. Germany. 

Corvus agrieola Tristram, P.Z.S., 1864, p. 444. Nablus, Palestine. 

Corvus f. major, gregarius, longi-, angusti-, tenui-, crassirostris, planiceps Brehm, 1866. Nomina nud. 

For full detail of above synonymy see Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, i, p. 13. 
Corvus frugilegus tsehusii Hartert, Vog. Pal. Fauna, i, p. 14, 1910. Gilgit. Type at Tring. 
? Trijpanocorax frugilegus ultimus Sushkin, List and distr. birds R. Altai and N.W. Mongolia, 

p. 65 (1925, "Borderland of Russian Altai, Bukhtarma, Tarbagatai"). 

Adults. — Plumage black with violet-purple sheen. Face, lores, and chin 
bare. Bill slenderer and more elongated than in Corvus corone. 3rd primary 
equals or is slightly shorter than the fourth, whereas in the co/wie-group the 3rd 
primary equals the 5th or is between the 5th and 6th. 

Immature. — Plumage a duller black with less sheen. Base of bill, lores, and 
chin feathered, and nostrils covered with bristles. 

Soft Parts. — Adults, iris hazel, bill and feet black. Immature : Iris grey- 
grown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing of 100 birds from Europe and Asia, 297 to 332 mm. 
Culmen 54 to 63 mm. Females run slightly smaller than males. I cannot recog- 
nise the differences ascribed to " tschusi," having examined 38 Indian and 
Mesopotamian specimens. The further east one goes the fewer adults have 
bare faces, probably because adults are later in assuming bare faces in the east 
than they are in Western Europe. In Palestine and Mesopotamia one often sees 
large flocks of birds with feathered faces, and in Persia the majority of breeding 
birds have their faces feathered. 

Distribution. — Summer quarters. Generally Europe with exception of the 
Mediterranean Region and northern Scandinavia and Russia. Has straggled to 
Greenland and possibly to Spitsbergen in summer. Breeds east to the Irtysh 
River and the Bukhtarma Valley in N.W. Mongolia. Bred formerly in Palestine 
at Jerusalem and Nablus, but no longer does so. Also breeds in the Orkneys. 

Autumn migration. — Rooks move in winter from all countries where the 
ground is habitually frozen, such as Scandinavia, Northern and Eastern Europe, 


and Eastern Siberia. The east coast of England is invaded by large flocks from 
Central Europe from the latter half of September to the middle of November. 
Large flocks from Northern Europe reach Scotland during October. Autumn 
emigration has been observed in the Straits of Dover in September, these probably 
being British-bred birds. 

Records of autumn passage in Southern Europe are fragmentary. Birds 
arrive in Cyprus about 18 . xi, they leave their breeding stations in Armenia during 
the first week in October and arrive in Palestine from early to mid-November. 
Birds arrive in Iraq from the third week in Oct. till mid-November from a N.E. 
direction. At Gilgit they arrive during the third week in October, first arrivals 
being noted on 19 . x. In the Punjab they arrive during the third week in October 
and are abundant by the end of the month. At Quetta they arrive in large 
flocks about the middle of November. 

Winter Quarters. — British Islands, Western Europe south of Denmark and 
south to Spain (rare in western and south-western parts), and Northern Algeria. 
Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Egypt. Almost 
absent in winter from Northern Germany and Prussia, rare in Poland. Southern 
Russia roughly south of lat. 50. Caucasia, Armenia, Iraq, south to Fao. 
North-Western Persia, Trans-Caucasia, shores of Caspian, Russian and Chinese 
Turkestan, Afghanistan, the Punjab, and Beluchistan. Northern Sind. Rare 
straggler to Malta and the Azores. Large flocks nearly every year wander 
far out into the West Atlantic, many perishing or eventually returning to land 
in an exhausted condition. 

Spring Migration. — Birds commence arriving in Ireland from 18.iii to 22.iii. 
Birds move east from Eastern England from the second week in February to the 
third week in April. Northern European birds leave Scotland from the end of 
March to the first half of May, occurring in the Faroes and arriving in Scandinavia 
in late March or early April. 

In Heligoland passage has been observed from 4.ii to the middle of April. 
Winter visitors leave Corsica in early March and Cyprus in the middle of March. 
The flocks which visit the Egyptian Delta in winter have not been observed after 
the end of March. Spring emigration from Palestine occurs from 5.ii, the last 
record being on 21.iii. Breeding birds commence arriving in Armenia during 
the last third of March and in Southern Russia in mid-March. Birds leave 
Gilgit in the third week in April, Quetta during March, and the latest record for 
Southern Afghanistan is on 24. iv. Winter visitors leave the Punjab from the 
second week in February to the end of March, the latest record being on 15. iv. 

Birds leave Eastern Turkestan in early April. 

Birds leave Iraq from mid-February and continue doing so till the end of 

Winter visitors leave the south coast of the Caspian in the second half of 

Corvus frugilegus pastinator. 

Corvus iiaslinator Gould, P.Z.S., 1845, p. 1. Chusan, China. 

Adults. — Differ from C. f. frugilegus in always having the lores and chin 
feathered, shorter bill, tail and wing, and plumage of head and neck not so blue, 
but blacker. Soft parts as in C. f. frugilegus. 

Measurements. — Wing of 47 birds 294-318, culmen 48-59 mm. 


Distribution. — Summer Quarters. Generally N.E. Siberia, Manchuria, and 
China, west to Lake Baikal, Kansu, and the China Plains in N.W. Mongolia. 
On passage only in Japan and Corea. 

Migration. — A migrant from north of the Gulf of Pechili and Russia in Asia. 
No records of autumn migration. In spring they pass to their breeding grounds 
from the end of February to early April. 

Winter Quarters. — Japan south of lat. 40. Corea, Southern Manchuria, 
Province of Chili, west to Szechuan and south to Canton. Formosa. There 
appear to be no records from south of Formosa. Very few appear to winter 
north of lat. 40. 

Winter visitors arrive near Hongkong as early as 27.vii, and have been seen 
as late as 2 . v. 

Corvus leucognaphalus. 

Corvus leucognaphalus Daud. in Traite, ii, p. 231, 1808. Porto Rico. Type in the Paris Museum. 
Corvus erylhrophlhalmus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend, xxxvii, p. 829 (ex Wurt. MSS.), 1853. San 

(Corvus) dominicensis Cory, Auk, iii, No. 2, 1886, p. 228. San Domingo. 

10 examined from Haiti and 6 from Porto Rico. 

Adults. — General plumage black with dull steel-blue gloss with traces of 
purplish or violet on the wings and mantle. Throat feathers slightly elongated. 
Bases of nape feathers in adults pure white and in immature birds dull white. 
Nasal bristles fall far short of the basal half of the culmen and barely cover the 
nostrils, though they incline up to cover the frontal base. I am unable to detect 
the slightest difference between birds from Haiti and Porto Rico. 

Ridgway (B. North and Middle Amer., iii, p. 258) says that Haiti birds are 
smaller with larger feet and that the plumage is more glossy. 

Soft Parts. — Irides reddish-brown to bright orange-red. Bill and feet black. 
Measurements. — Wing of 10 from Haiti 283-310, culmens 55-64 in length 
and 22-23 in depth. 

Wings of 6 from Porto Rico 281-309, culmens 58-62 in length and 22-23 in 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to Porto Rico and Haiti, having become 
very scarce in the former locality. 

It is interesting that Wetmore has recently identified bones from the Island 
of St. Croix as belonging to this species (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., liv, 1918, p. 521). 
Also a small extinct Crow named Corvus pumilis (Wetmore, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., xxxiii, 1920, p. 81, and Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., xlvi, 1.922, pp. 327-328) 
has been described from Porto Rico, which is intermediate in size between 
C. leucognaphalus and Corvus brachyrhynchos palmar inn. So in Cuba, Haiti, 
and Porto Rico we have two forms of Crow, the one large and the other small. 

Corvus nasicus. 

' 'onus nasicus Temminok, PI. col. ii, pi. 413, 1838. Cuba. Type in Leyden Museum. 

3 examined. 

Adults. — Entire plumage black glossed with dull violet, more purplish on 
head and wings : under-parts duller. Bases of nape feathers grey. Rectal and 
post-ocular regions naked. Nasal bristles inclined upwards, but short and scanty, 



the nostrils being exposed. Nostrils in a cavity, and not in a groove. 1st primary 
slightly shorter than longest secondary. 

Measurements. — Wings of 10, 262-301, culmen 44-58 mm. (Phillipps). 

Soft Parts. — Iris brown, bill and feet black. 

Distribution — Cuba and Isle of Pines. 

Corvus jamaicensis. 

Gorvus jamaicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, p. 367, 1878. Hills of Jamaica. 

9 examined. 

Adult. — General colour of plumage dull glossless lead-black with a faint 
greenish wash. Crown and wings with a bluish sheen. Bases of nape feathers 
dark grey. No lanceolation on throat. Nasal bristles incline to be fan-shaped 
and meet over the base of the ridge of the culmen, barely covering nostrils. 

Soft Parts. — Iris greyish brown. Bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing 213-240, culmen length 44-49, height 18-21 mm. 

Distribution.-r-Con&D.ed. to Jamaica. 

Corvus rhipidurus. 

Corvus affinis Riippell, Netie Wirh. Fauna Abyssin. Vigel, p. 20, 1835. Massowah and Shendi (nee 

C. affinis, Shaw 1809). 
Corvus brachyurus Brehm, J. f. 0., 1854, p. 75. Luxor, Egypt. Type at Tring. Nomen nudum 

(neo C. brachyurus, L., 1766). 
Corvus brachyrhynchos (errore) Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 414, 1855. Nomen nudum (nee C. brachyrhynckos 

Brehm, 1822). 
Corvus brevicaudalus Mijller, J.f. 0., 1855, p. 456. Nomen nudum. 
Corvus rhipidurus Hartert, Bull. B.O.C. xxix, p. 21. 1918. New name for Corvus affinis. 
Corvus brachycercus Hellmayr, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xiv, p. 131, June 1919. New name for Corvus 


39 examined. 

Adults. — In freshly moulted plumage the bird is black with a steel-blue 
sheen, more purplish on the scapulars and wing. As the plumage wears the 
plumage assumes an oily-blue or oily-purple or even a copper tinge, especially 
about the head, nape, chin, and throat. 

Nasal bristles well developed, covering the nostrils and shaped like a fan. 
Bill short and strong. The tail is very short, falling well below the tips of the 
wings when closed. This gives the bird a curious bat-like appearance in flight. 

Base of nape feathers white, base of mantle feathers dark grey. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 








Somaliland . 

. 361-402 




Sinai to Baringo (Zedl.) 

. 340^00 




(Hartert, Vig. Pal., p. 8) 

. 340-370 




Aden Protectorate 

. 349-370 





. 375-402 





. 382 




Near Suakim 

. 376-388 





. 396 




Dead Sea Depression 

. 340-378 




Upper Egypt 

. 350 




Distribution. — Local in the Dead Sea Depression, but not further north than 
Jericho. Abundant at Petra and towards Akaba. The hills of Central Sinai 
and the hills in the Aden Hinterland. Throughout British Somaliland. Abyssinia, 
parts of Upper Egypt and the Sudan, the western Red Sea Littoral and east to 
Lake Baringo and Mount Elgon. Recorded from Kavirondo in error. The Suk 
and Turkhana country in the Lake Rudolph Basin, and again in the Southern 
Sahara at Asben, but not south of Agades. 

No migration recorded. 

Though superficially this form looks very different to the group usually placed 
under the genus Corvultur (crassirostris and albicollis) there is in reality a marked 
affinity. In both, the wings project beyond the tail, the fan-shaped nasal bristles 
are common to both forms, the nasal grooving is similar, and it is not uncommon 
in rhipidurus to find traces of white fringes to the feathers on the hind neck and 
sides of the neck. Rhipidurus seems to connect crassirostris and albicollis with 
the forms usually placed within the genus Corvus. If it had not been for this it 
might have been necessary to keep Corvultur as a separate genus. 

Corvultur albicollis. 

Corvus albicollis Latham, Iiid. Orn. i, p. 151, 1790. Africa. I cite Capetown as terra typica. 
Corvus cafer Lichtenstein, Cat. Rerum Natur. Hamburg., p. 9, 1793. " Terra Cafrorum." 
Cormis rnltnrinus Shaw, Gen. Zool. vii, p. 343, 1809. Africa. 

42 examined. 

Adults. — Whole head deep bronze. A broad white nuchal patch which 
reaches to the upper back. Rest of upper and under-parts a fairly glossy blue- 
black. Frequently a few white fringes to the feathers of the upper breast which 
form an ill-defined and narrow necklace. Bill very strong and heavily curved. 
Both mandibles are tipped ivory-white. Nasal bristles fan-shaped as in C 
rhipidurus. Throat strongly lanceolate. 


Culmen : 
Specimens. Locality. Wing. Length. Height. 

min. mm. mm. 

11 South Africa 392-420 58-66 31-36 

13 Zambesi Basin 390-435 60-68 31-36 

12 Kenya Colony, Uganda, and Kilimanjaro . 400—447 59-73 33-37 

Distribution.— South-West Africa around Windhoek and neighbouring 
coastline. Cape Colony except the extreme west, Orange River Colony, Natal, 
Transvaal, Rhodesia, Nyasaland (perhaps Portuguese East Africa), Tanganyika 
Territory, Kenya Colony, Uganda, and north to the southern border of Abyssinia. 
Absent from Somaliland, Congo, and Sudan, except in the very extreme south. 

Birds examined from : 

South Africa: Cape Town, Dielfontein, Knysna, Transvaal, Bloemfoncein, 
and Zululand. 

Nyasaland, Rhodesia, and Mashonaland. 


Kenya Colony : Athi River, Mount Kenya, Lamu, Machakos, and Fort Hall. 

Uganda : Ruwenzori, Kampala, Toro, and Lake Kivu. 

In addition Reichenow (Vog. Afr., ii, p. 040) records birds from Damaraland, 
Great Namaqualand, Natal, and Tanganyika Territory. 


Corvultur crassirostris. 

Conns crassirostris Ruppell, N. Wirb. Vug., p. 19, pi. viii, 1835^0. Abyssinia. 

16 examined. 

Adults. — Whole head and neck bronze, darker on the ear coverts, forehead, 
and front part of crown. A large white patch on the hind-crown and nape, 
frequently extending to a smaller patch on the back of the neck. Rest of upper- 
parts deep violet-blue, glossed and washed with copper. Under-parts less 
glossed and more coppery. Throat feathers strongly lanceolated. Bill even 
stronger than in G. albicollis. Nostrils in deep groove. Nasal bristles fan- 

Measurements. — Wing 432-475, culrnen length '81-91, height 49-47 mm. 

Distribution. — The hills of southern Abyssinia, becoming rare away from hills 
but straggling to the neighbouring parts of British Somaliland, and the Sudan 
having been reported near Roseires (Haitmann, J. f. O., 1854, p. 232) and from 
Galabat by Heuglin (Orri. N.O. Afr., ii, p. 507). 

Corvus cryptoleucus. 

Corvus cryptoleucus Couch. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. vii, No. 2, p. 66, 1854. Tamanlipas, Mexico. 

9 examined from Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. 

Adults. — Whole plumage glossy blue-black with a purplish sheen on the 
upper-parts. Base of nape feathers snow-white. Nasal bristles well-developed 
and reaching well on to distal half of culmen and covering the proximal half of 
the vertex. First primary considerably longer than the longest secondaries. 
Feathers of throat short and not lanceolate. Wing 328.340-375, culmen 
54-59 mm. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown. Bill and feet black. 

Distribution. — The great Plains of North America from south-eastern 
Wyoming and Western Nebraska, south to Central Mexico : West through New 
Mexico and Arizonia to the coast (Los Angeles) of southern California (Ridgway). 

Corvus corax. 

This group, inhabiting in various forms nearly the whole of the Northern 
Hemisphere, is instructive in conforming to two great principles. The first of 
these is that birds with a wide distribution show great variation, but that when 
that range is circum-polar the variation is not constant in any single locality. 
The second is that the group conforms absolutely with the environmental factor 
which induces variation, namely, birds from the high north or high altitudes are 
larger heavier-built birds than those from further south or lower altitudes, and 
also that birds from dry hot regions tend to assume the pale desert coloration. 

Variation in the ravens seems to be due solely to environment, and this makes 
their distribution and classification a matter of great difficulty. Though the 
extremes are, of course, easy to identify it would be a brave man who attempted 
to define the demarcation between Corvus tibetanus, stretching, as I hope to show, 
from the Western Himalayas, through Central Asia, to North-East Siberia, 
Arctic America, and Iceland, and the true Corvus corax of Europe. Also the 
intergradation between Corvus corax lawrencei and Corvus corax ruficoUis is so 
perfect in Persia and N.W. India that some specimens are impossible to identify 


with certainty, whilst in south-eastern Europe and south-western Asia it is im- 
possible to say where " hturencei " begins and Corvus c. corax ends. 

Crows, more than any other bird with which I am acquainted, show variation 
in size from the same locality far in excess of what is usual. A difference of 
80 mm. or over 3 inches in the length of the wing is by no means rare in birds 
from the same place, whilst a difference of over 10 mm. or nearly half an inch in 
the length of the culmen is found among birds from precisely the same locality. 

With such differences it is not surprising that authors have unduly separated 
the species into too many geographical races, sometimes on single specimens, and 
all too frequently on too small series. 

Over 630 ravens from the Northern Hemisphere have been examined ami 
measurements of many others have been obtained from American and Continental 
Museums and reliable literature. The detail of these birds, obtained from all . 
sources, have produced the following conclusions, which should be confirmed by 
more material as it becomes available. 

Corvus corax tibetanus. 

Corvus corax littoralis (nee C. littoralis Brehm, 1831) Holboell in Kroyer's Tidskrifl, iv, 1843, p. 390. 

Greenland, Labrador. 
Corvus lugubris Agassiz, Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist. i. p. 188, 1846. Nomen nudum. 
Corvus tibetanus Hodgson, Ann. and Han. Sal. Hist. (2), iii, p. 203, 1849. Native Sikkini. 
Corvus carnivorus " Bartram " Baird, Rep. Pacific R.R. Survey, ix, 1858, p. 560, partim. Coast 

of New Jersey. 
Corvus corax kamischatkvs Dybowski. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, pp. 362-3. Kamtsehatka. 
Corvus corax behringianus Dybowski, op. cit., p. 363. Behring Island. 
Corvus grebnitskii Stejneger, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, p. 97, 1884. Commander Islands. 
Corvus corax principalis Ridgway, Man. N. Amer. Birds, 1887, p. 361. St. Michael, Alaska. 
Corvus corax ussurianus Tacz., Faune orn. Sib. Orient., i, p. 527, 1891. Russian Manchuria. 
Corvus corax sibiricus Tacz., op. cit., p. 526, 1891. East .Siberia (nee C. sibiricus Gm.). 
Corvus corax islandicus Hantzsch, Orn. Monatsb., p. 130, 1906. Iceland. 
Corvus corax europhilus Oberh., Ohio Jovrn. Sri. xviii (6), p. 215, 1918. Alabama, Eastern United 

States. Partim. 
Corvus corax tschuiensis Sushkin, List and distr. birds Russian Altai and Mongolia, p, 64 (1925, 
C. & S.E. Altai, N.W. Mongolia). 

Adults. — Whole plumage black. Crown glossed greenish or purplish, nape 
greenish glack. Back glossed blue or slightly violet, chin glossed green, throat 
hackles more reddish-violet. Under-parts glossed green or indigo-blue. Tail 
glossed green or reddish violet. Secondaries and all wing-coverts glossed reddish 

Throat feathers much elongated and strongly lanceolated. Nasal bristles 
well developed and reaching to or beyond the basal half of culmen. Base of nape 
feathers dark to medium grey. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Ravens from North-East Asia, Arctic America, and Iceland 
have been named without reference to birds from the Himalayas. Iceland birds 
were separated from Greenland birds, on account of their smaller size. Greenland 
and Alaska birds have been separated as being larger than specimens from the 
United States. Birds from north-eastern Asia have been separated on very 
small series and without reference to birds from Central Asia. I can find no 
trace of any attempt to treat the group as a whole based on a large series. 
Hartert (Vog. Pal., i, pp. 3-6) had very little material and had not seen either 


" ussurianus " or " Jcamtschaticus." Hartert now is convinced that he must 
unite all the East Siberian ravens, but still has not critically compared them 
with either Arctic American or Tibetan birds. 

An examination of the table of measurements given below exemplifies the 
wide range in size of topotypical " tibetanus," -"principalis," " islandicus," 
" ussurianus," and " behringianus ." Both giant and dwarf examples occur 
throughout Arctic America, North-East Asia, and Tibet, but the general size of 
wing and culmen agrees. No doubt if an average was struck in each locality 
differences would become more apparent, but no average is of any use unless a 
huge series is examined. On size alone some 90 per cent, of specimens would be 
indeterminable, and for this reason I am compelled to unite all these ravens under 
the oldest name " tibetanus." 



Tibet, Himalayas, Pamirs 


, 455-493 





5 l 

N. Western Himalayas 
Ladak .... 

. 447-477 
. 442-505 2 




North Sikkim 

. 467 2 





. 451 





Mongolia .... 
Northern Japan ... 
North-East Siberia : Manchuria 

. 432 

. 420, 450 

, 410-451 




Kurile Islands 

. 430, 447 




Kamtschatka (none examined) 
Commander Islands 

, to 492 (teste Hart.) 
405-460 67-89 



Alaska . 

418. 431-455 




Brit. Columbia, Vancouver . 

, 427-449 




Greenland, Ungava, Mackenzie 





Iceland . . . . . 




Apart from size, efforts have been made to separate and name examples on 
the wing formula. Taczanowski's " ussurianus " was based on a bird with the 
1st primary longer than the 7th. Hartert (Vog. Pal., i, p. 5) mentions a bird 
from the Kuriles with a similar long 1st primary. Of the 160 specimens examined 
of this large form, all have the first primary between the 7th and 8th, and the 
2nd primary between the 5th and 6th, except in 4 cases as follows : 

Amur Bay. — 1st primary very slightly shorter then 8th. 

Behring Island. — 1st primary between 8th and 9th. 

Kurile Islands. — 1st primary between 8th and 9th. 

Tibet. — 1st primary equals the 8th. 

Allowing, therefore, for an occasional aberrant specimen, I am unable to 
recognise separation on wing formula. 

The strength and size of legs and feet have also been called in to help separa- 
tion. Here again I find that the differences are individual, birds from Tibet 
exactly matching others from Iceland, Greenland, and Commander Island birds. 

The breadth of the 1st primary near its tip is a purely imaginary difference, 
and is not constant in any area from which I have examined a series of over 10 

There is no difference in colour in birds from Iceland, Arctic America, North - 

1 Specimens from Lahul and Spiti, measurements supplied by Mr. Whistler. 

2 Measured in the flesh. About 8 mm. must be deducted to synchronise these measurements 
with those of a dried skin. 


East Siberia, and the Himalayas. The under-parts are sometimes greenish and 
sometimes bluish. The difference appears to have nothing to do with locality. 
Buturlin (Mesa. Om. 1915, p. 107) thought Pamir birds had greener under-parts 
than Siberian specimens. The only Pamir bird I have seen has blue under-parts. 

It is true I have seen no birds from Kamtschatka, but Buturlin, who com- 
pared a large series of Siberian birds, found that there was no difference (Mess. 
Om.. 1915, p. 107). 

I am therefore compelled to unite all the larger ravens under the oldest name 
— tibetanus, though I admit that it is unfortunate that the type locality of Iceland 
birds should be Sikkim. Such a paradox is inevitable. 

Having reached this conclusion, the distribution of Corvus corax tibetanus 
still remains largely a matter of opinion. Being founded on size alone the race 
has a huge overlap with the typical form. Indeed, some specimens from the 
British Islands could easily have come from Tibet or Greenland. There is no 
hard and fast line demarcating their distribution. 

Quite generally the distribution of Corvus corax tibetanus is Iceland, Green- 
land, Arctic America, Canada, and extreme north of the United States, Alaska, 
North-Eastern Asia south to northern Japan, Mongolia, and the Himalayas west 
to the Pamirs. 

As far as is known there is only local movement in winter ; others annually 
remain in the breeding quarters well north of the Arctic Circle throughout the 
winter. Breeds in the Himalayas up to at least 19,000 ft. 

Suschkin (Om. Monatsb., 1915) refers birds from the northern and central 
Altai to the large race, but says birds from north-western Mongolia are quite 
different. The one specimen I have examined cannot be separated from Tibetan 
or Siberian birds. Scarce in Saghalien and northern Japan. 1 Very common in 
Kamtschatka. The furthest north-breeding locality seems to be in lat. 81° 44' at 
Cape Lupton (Nares, Polar Seas). Apparently absent from the Pribilov Islands. 
Is nearing extinction in the Northern United States. 

Poljakow reports Corvus corax kamtschaticus from the Tarbagatai Range on 
the Upper Irtysh. 

(?) Corvus corax varius. 

Corvus varius Briinn., Om. Bor., p. 8, 1764. Faroes. 

( 'orvus It ucophaeus Vieill., Nouv. Diet, d' Hist. Nat., viii, p. 27, 1817. Faroes. 
Con-its Iitirnmrtas Waaler, St/st. Av. Genus Corvus, sp. 4, 1827. Faroes. 
Corvus ferroensis Schlegel. Bijdr. tot de Dierk. Genus Corvus, p. 6, 1858. Faroes. 

6 examined (3 showing partial albinism). 

Precisely similar to Corvus c. tibetanus, and with a whitish base to the feathers. 
Some specimens show partial albinism. I am unable with material available 
to confirm Hartert's contention that the body plumage is softer and without 
so much purple gloss. 

Wing of 6, 405-434 mm. Hartert (Vog. Pal. Fauna, i, p. 4) records one of 
440 mm. Culmen 82-87 in length and depth 29-31 mm. 

Confined to the Faroe Islands. Albinistic varieties no longer occur. 

1 In the Journal Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Japan, xxiii, p. 60, Lonnberg includes Corvus corax in 
his list of birds known from Saghalien on the authority of Nikolski, who reported them as scarce. 
Professor Ijima • 1 i • L not record it. Kuroda {Handlist of Japanese Birds, 1922, p. 162) gives the 
habitat of C. c. kamtschaticus as Saghalin, Kurile Islands, and Hokkaido. 



It seems very doubtful whether a race which shows an albinistic tendency 
should be recognised on that character alone. If it is not recognised Corvus 
varius takes precedence of Corvus tibetanus, for the Faroe Raven is nearer the 
latter than to Corvus c. corax. 

Corvus corax corax. 

Corvus corax Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 105, 1758. Sweden. 

Corvus maximus Scopoli, 1769. Linnaeus 1 Corvus corax. 

Corvus clericus Sparrm., 1876. Variety with white chin. 

Corvus sylvestris Brehm, 1831. Renthendorf, Germany. 

Corvus pererjrinus Brehin, 1831. Renthendorf, Germany. 

Corvus HUoralis Brehm., 1831. Riigen. 

Corvus montanus Brehm., 1831. Tyrol. 

Corax nohilis, piiyocorax, planiceps, minor Brehm., nomina nuda. 

Corax sylvestris minor Brehm, J. f. 0., 1860, p. 233. Switzerland. 

Corvus corax dardaniensis Gengler, Orn. Monatsb., 1918, p. 110. Servia. 

Adults. — Precisely similar to Corvus corax tibetanus, but generally smaller, 
some specimens being indeterminable. 



i Vi M.llJ.-.i . 



British Islands 


Outer Hebrides 










Macedonia (Stres.) 


Crete . 


Trebizond, Asia Minor 




Yenesay Valley . 







387, 390 












415, 452 















Distribution. — Europe except Spain, Crete, north coast Asia Minor, and 
western Siberia as far as the Yenesay Valley. 

No migration recorded, though birds occasionally wander in winter. 

Corvus corax hispanus. 

Corvus corax hispanus Hart. & Kleinschm., Nov. Zool., 1901, p. 45. Aguilas, Murcia, Spain. 
Corvus sardus Kleinschm., Orn. Monatsb., 1903, p. 92. Sardinia. 

Adults. — Similar to Corvus c. corax, but smaller. Bill strong and deep as in 
C. c. corax and markedly thicker than the bill of Corvus c. tingitanus. I am unable 
to distinguish from this race birds from Sardinia and Cyprus. 



5. Spain .... 
3. Sardinia .... 
8. Cyprus .... 

■ Distribution. — Generally distributed in Spain and Portugal, Sardinia and 
Cyprus, and Balearic Islands. Corsican birds are also said to belong to this 
race. ? Sicily and southern Italy. 















Corvus corax tingitanus. 

Corvus leptonyx Peale, U.S. Expl, Exped., p. 105, 1848. Madeira. Identity uncertain. No raven 

occurs on Madeira. 
Corvus tingitanus Irby, Ibis, 1874, p. 264. Tangier, Marocco. • 
Corvus corax canariensis Hart. & Kleinschm., Nov. Zool., 1901, p. 45. Palma, Canary Islands. 

Adults. — Differs from Corvus corax corax and hispanus in its shorter stumpier 
bill. Throat hackles less elongated and lanceolated. Plumage of upper-parts 
more inclined to a dark oily blue. Bases of feathers grey and usually darker 
than in C. c. lawrencei and ruficollis. 

Smaller wing than is usual in C. c. corax. 

I am unable to distinguish from this race birds from the Canary Islands, 
which are said to have a slenderer though higher culmen and stronger feet, and 
less pointed throat hackles. 





Culmen : 



Canary Islands 

. 355-428 




Marocco and Algeria 

. 364-430 




Solium, Western Egypt 

. 362 



Distribution. — Canary Islands, Marocco, Algeria, Tunis, Cyrenaica, and to 
Mersah Matruh in western Egypt. 

Corvus corax sinuatus. 

Corvus sinuatus Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 748. Mexico (ex Licht. MSS.). 

Corvus cacalotl Wagler, Isis, 1831, p. 527. Mexico. 

Corvus major Paul v. Wiirt., Ersle Beise Nord. Amer., 1835, p. 294. Nebraska. Nomen nudum. 

Corvus nobilis .Could, P.Z.S., 1837, p. 79. Mexico. Type in the British Museum. 

Corvus corax clarionensis Rothsch. & Hart., iVor. Zool., is., 1902, p. 381. Clarion Island, Re villagigedo 

Group, Pacific Coast of the United States. Type in the Tring Museum. 
Corvus c. europhilus Oberh., Ohio Journ. Sci. xviii (6), p. 215, 1918. Alabama, Eastern United 

States. Partim. 
Corvus corax rickardsoni Miller and Griscom, Atner. Mus. Novit., No. 184, p. 5, 1925. Nicaragua. 

32 examined in the British Museum and the type of " clarionensis " at Tring. 

Adults. — Similar to Corvus c. tibetanus from Canada, but smaller and more 
of the size of Corvus c. corax, but with a distinctly slenderer and proportionately 
longer bill. 






nen : 



Guatemala . 

. 441 





. 409^60 




New Mexico 

. 395, 440 





. 418 





. 426-432 




British Columbia . 

. 399-410 




New York . 

. 425 





. 418, 420 



Oberholser's "europhilus'''' was claimed to be smaller than "principalis" 
and with a relatively longer bill. 41 birds had wings 380-450 and exposed 


culmens of 64-76. Such a description exactly fits birds from Mexico and the 
southern United States. Ridgway's measurements of specimens from Mexico 
and the Western States are 386-459, culmen length 64-72, almost identical with 
Oberholser's measurements of " europhilus." 

Rothschild and Hartert's " clarionensis " was based on a single worn speci- 
men from Clarion Island, wing 395, culmen length 64, depth 23. To separate 
a race on size alone when only one specimen is available is always a risky under- 
taking, but to do so with a Crow is almost certain failure of having one's race 
substantiated. As can be seen from the above table, the specimen can be 
matched from New Mexico or nearly so. " Clarionensis " may or may not be 
a good race, but with the present material available it seems that it is not so. 
Hartert (" Types in the Tring Museum," Nov. Zool., xxvi, 1919, p. 125) upholds 
the race, supporting his claim with a bird from San Benedicte Island with a wing 
of 390 mm. But Ridgway (B. North and Mid. Amer., hi, p. 265) cites a Benedicte 
bird with a wing of 400, culmen length 69 and dej>th 25, and a Santa Catalina bird 
with wing 412, and culmen length 71, depth 24. ' 

With regard to the Nicaraguan bird recently described as Corvus c. richtml- 
soni, I have examined one bird from this country (at Tring). It has an intenser 
violet tinge than any of the large series of Corvus c. sinuaius which I have 
examined. Mexican birds from the same locality show sometimes a violet tinge 
and sometimes a steel blue tinge, this depending to some degree on how the 
bird is held when under examination. 

I am unable to follow Miller and Griscom in their remarks on the colour of 
American Ravens (ibid., pp. 4, 5). An examination of the large series available 
in the British Museum and at Tring do indeed show that there is considerable 
variation in the iridescence of the plumage of Alaska and Greenland birds, 
many having the violet and many the steel-blue sheen, but no particular irides- 
cence is constant in either the east or west of North America. Such differences in 
iridescence occur equally throughout the Himalayas in Corvus corax tibetanus. 
The " heavy, powerful feet " of the Greenland bird can be matched exactly by 
Tibetan and Alaskan birds, whilst several Greenland birds I have examined have 
legs no larger than " sinuatus " or the British Raven. 

On the evidence before me I am unable to accept (even after examining over 
600 Ravens) Messrs. Miller and Griscom's deductions. 

Distribution. — N. Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Lower California, and 
generally the more arid regions of the United States south of lat. 45. North of 
this line birds rapidly tend towards the larger form — tibetanus, and no definite 
boundary can be given. Even within the area given for this form, birds occur 
which are inseparable from others from Alaska. 

The area over which birds which are indeterminable or intermediate are 
found is immense. To promote such birds to subspecific rank is to my mind a 
wrong interpretation of the facts. They had better be shown as G. c. tibetanus 
> sinuatus or C. c. sinuatus > tibetanus, or C. c. tibetanus X sinuatus. But 
should there be any area where specimens are found to be constant and almost 
invariably determinable, then by all means name them. Such has not been 
the case, and I very much doubt whether further research will help us much. 

1 Ridgway (B. North tfc Mid. Amer. hi, p. 2G5), recognising " clarionensis" gives its range as 
Clarion and San Benedicte Islands, San Clement© and Santa Catalina Islands, and the Santa Barbara 
Group. Oberholser extends " clarionensis " over parts of south-western United States. 


The danger of an average measurement among such birds as Crows must 
be apparent. A few dwarfs or giants in a series would appreciably alter 
an average figure and give misleading results. I would guarantee that 
the average figure of European Ravens' wings in American Museums, in the 
British Museum, and at Tring, would give three remarkable results, and the 
"average splitter" might with equal reason give these three series three 
different names. 

Further, it cannot be right or scientific to give birds from any area a name 
when the majority of individuals cannot be identified with certainty if the 
locality were erased from the label. This applies to " europhilus," " clarionensis, , ' 
and all the synonyms of " tibetanus." 

Corvus corax laurencei. 

Con-us laurencei Hume, Lahore to Yarkand, p. 335, 1873. Punjab. 

Corvus subcorax Sewertzoff, Turkesl. Jevotn., p. 63, 115, 1873. North-west and south-east parts of 

79 examined. 

Adults. — In fresh plumage they are scarcely separable from Corvus c. corax 
and small examples of Corvus c. tibetanus, but the feather bases are usually whiter, 
the throat hackles shorter, and the upper parts with more of an oily wash. Birds 
soon change, assuming more or less copper colour on the nape, mantle, and throat. 
In worn plumage birds, especially from N.W. India, Beluchistan, and Persia, are 
sometimes indistinguishable from examples of Corvus c. ruficollis. In Palestine, 
however, where birds do not wear to such an extent, there can be no confusing 
the two races, which occur together at Jerusalem throughout the year except for 
a month or so when they are nesting. 






. 396-446 






Southern Kurdestan 

. 419-440 
. 434 






South-east Persia . 
Northern Beluchistan 

. 420-449 
. 400-450 




Southern Afghanistan 
Chinese Turcestan 

. 407-462 
. 430 





Teheran (Blanford) 
Sind . 

. 455 

. 389-430 




Punjab . 

. 398-137 




Rajputana . 

. 390-434 



Birds from the last three localities average considerably smaller in wing and 
bill than more westerly birds. 

Distribution. — Generally N.W. India from Rajputana to Sind and the Punjab, 
Beluchistan, East Persia, Iraq, Syria, and Palestine. Perhaps Asia Minor. 
Cyprus birds are nearer " hispanus" than "laurencei." Birds from East Greece 
are said to belong to " laurencei " (Reiser, Orn. Bale., iii), but I have not seen 
specimens. Festa and Salvadori record this race from Rhodes Island. 



Corvus corax ruflcollis. 

Corvus ruficollia Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 329, 1831. No locality. The type is in the Paris Museum 

and probably came from the Cape Verde Islands. Pucherans' citation of " Cape " is an obvious 

Corvus umbrinus Sundevall. Oef. k. Vet. Akad. Fork. Slock., 1838, p. 199. Sennar (ex Hedenborg 

Corvus infumatus Wagner, Munch, gel. Anz. viii, 1839, No. 37, p. 301. " Egypt," but according to 

Parrot from El Tor in Sinai. 
Corvus fuscicollis, niqricollis. crassirostris, minor Brehm., Vcrz. Sanitnl., p. 3, 1866. Nomina nuda. 
Corvus corax krausei Zedlitz, Orn. Monatsb., 1908, p. 178. El Tor in Sinai. 

109 examined. 

Adults. — Usually a slenderer bill than in " laurencei " and in fresh plumage 
with a copper tinge over the whole head and body plumage. Bases of feathers 
light grey to whitish or even paler than in " laurencei." As plumage becomes 
worn the copper tinge becomes accentuated. Nasal plumes often shorter than 
in " laurencei." 

Immature. — As the adult, but with very small trace of a copper tinge, which 
is only assumed after the first autumn moult. 

The wing of this form shows a slightly different structure to that of other 
forms. The 1st and 6th primaries are relatively shorter which gives a narrower, 
more pointed outline to the outstretched wing. This difference, though usual is 
by no means constant. The eggs of this race are also remarkable for their small 
size, being scarcely larger than those of Corvus cornix or corone. These and the 
fact that this form and " laurencei " are frequently found together has induced 
ornithologists to keep " ruficollis " as a separate species. But the two forms are 
not known to breed in the same area and they intergrade so perfectly that some 
individuals are indeterminable. 






Cape Verde Islands 
Algerian Sahara . 



Culmen : 

Length. Depth. 

mm. mm. 

61-64 20-24 
63-68 21-24-5 



South Algeria (Geyr) 
Asben, South Sahara 





Northern Nigeria . 






Siwa Oasis, W. Egypt . 
Lower Egypt and Suez . 
Upper Egypt 
Khartoum . . . . 

. 395, 406 

. 365-418 

66, 70 

23, 24-5 


Soeotra . 





South Arabia, Muscat . 





South Palestine . 





East Persia and India . 





Sinai Peninsula, Nekhl, Tor , 




On these measurements I am unable to substantiate " infumatus." See 
also Ibis, October 1921, p. 623, where the question is further discussed in greater 

This race shows great variation, not only in size, but in the density of the 
copper tinge of the plumage, but such variation is not constant in any one area. 

Distribution. — Generally from the Cape Verde Islands, throughout the 



Sahara Desert to the Nile, but always in desert areas, and south to N. Nigeria 
at Sokoto to Sinai and the Dead Sea Depression. Absent from Petra, but 
present at Jerusalem, breeding in the vicinity. Not observed much north of 
Jericho. The east and south coast of Arabia, Sudan (desert only) to Muscat. 
Of doubtful occurrence in Iraq, though there is a worn specimen labelled " Meso- 
potamia " in the British Museum. Socotra. East Persia (Seistan), Persian and 
British Beluchistan, and occasional to Sind. In East Africa Van Someren (Nov. 
Zool., 1922, p. 125) reported it from the Suk and Kavirondo country as un- 
common, and Reichenow (Yog. Afr., ii, p. 633) records birds from Shoa, Kavanga 
in Kavirondo. and Barawa at lat. 4 North on the Juba River. 

Common in southern Afghanistan, at least in winter, and is reported to 
breed in the Aral-Caspian region (Suschkin, J. f. O., 1914). Zarudny obtained 
one in the Ilezk District, Orenburg (Grote, J.f. 0. 1919). 

In Central Asia Loudon reports them as resident in the Kara Kum between 
Merv and the Oxus and on the Murghab River. Zarudny reports them as 
breeding in the Kizil Kum, south-east of Aral. 

Corvus corax edithae. 

Con-us edithae Phill., Bull B.O.C. iv. p. 36, 1895. Haimva na Plain, Somaliland (Lort Phillips). 
Type in the British Museum. 

8 examined, including the type. 

Adults. — Similar to G. r. ruficollis, but smaller. Wing 321-356, culmcn 
50-52. There is a bird in the British Museum from Barawa in Italian Somaliland 
collected in November 1881 by Dr. Fischer, with a wing of 361 and culmen of 
56 which is well within the size of typical C. r. ruficollis. It is one of those birds 
which might be referred to either race. 

Distribution. — Common throughout British Somaliland and extending in 
small numbers to Ogaden (Reichenow) and Lake Rudolph. 

Corvus splendens zugmeyeri. 

Corvus splendens zugmeyeri Laubmaim, Orn. Monalsb. xxi, p. 93, 1913. Las Bela, Baluchistan. 

10 examined. 

Adults. — Forehead and crown metallic blue, throat and chin well lanceolated 
and of a metallic greenish blue colour. Nape, ear-coverts, and sides of the neck 
pale grey, gradually merging into metallic purplish blue on the mantle and to 
dull blackish grey on the abdomen. Tail purplish blue. Primary coverts 
metallic green. Bases of nape feathers white, not only in this race but in all 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and legs black. 

Measurements. — Wing 257-284, culmen 43-53. 

Distribution. — The whole of Sind, east to the western Punjab, north to 
Kashmir and south to Karachi and along the Mekran Coast. Absent from the 
hills of Northern Baluchistan. 

Specimens closely resembling this race occur at Muscat, and it is not clear 
whether they have been introduced or not. 


Corvus splendens splendens. 

Corvus splendens Vicillot, Now. Diet. a" Hist. Nat. viii, 1817, p. 44. Bengal. 

Corvus splendens var. impudiens Hodgson in Gray's Zool. Misc., p. 84. Nomen nudum. No locality. 

Anomalocorax impudicus Hodgson, in Gray's Handlist, ii, p. 14, 1870. Nomen nudum. 

58 examined. 

Adults. — Markedly paler in its grey pattern than either protegatus or insolens. 
Darker and browner on nape, neck, ear-coverts," and upper breast than zugmeyeri. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, legs and bill black. 

Measurements. — Wing 253-284, culmen 45-52 mm. Some birds from 
Khatmandu in Nepal run up to 300 on the wing, but such huge birds are excep- 
tional in that area. Perhaps in a large series from Nepal the average wing 
measurement would be greater than that of others from India. 

Distribution. — The whole of India south of the Himalayas, west to the eastern 
Punjab, Rajputana. and Baroda. East to Nepal, Darjeeling and Gangtok in 
Sikkim, and Assam. South to Travancore, Mysore, and the Nilgiri Hills. 

Whilst most birds from Assam are typical of this race, others show a distinct 
tendency towards insolens. 

Birds occur in parts of the Himalayas at medium elevations, but very locally, 
but in Sikkim they occur sparingly to almost 8,000 ft. 

Introduced to Zanzibar, Mauritius, and Aden. 

Corvus splendens protegatus. 

Corvus splendens protegatus Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb. xii, p. 195, 1904. Colombo, Ceylon. 

5 examined. 

Adults. — Differs from insolens in being a paler bird, and from C. s. splendens 
in having the grey portion of the plumage darker. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, feet and bill black. 

Measurements. — Wing 217-275, culmen 44—48. 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to Ceylon. 

Corvus splendens maledivicus. 

Corvus splendens maledivicus Reichenow, Deutsch. Tief-See Exped. Vogel, p. 356, 1904. Southern 

None examined. This race was described apparently from a single specimen. 
Is said to be near G. s. splendens, but the neck, sides of head and breast are almost 
pure slate grey with scarcely any brown. Also greyer and darker than the typical 
form, but paler than insolens. Lower parts somewhat darker than C. s. splendens. 
Wing 283 mm. 

There are in the British Museum three males from the Laccadive Islands with 
wings 232-200 and culmens 43-50 mm. Two of these are slightly darker than 
C. s. splendens, whilst a third is as dark as insolens. It seems likely that these 
birds belong to maledivicus. 

Corvus splendens insolens. 

Corvus insolens Hume, Stray Feathers, ii, 1874, p. 480. Tenasserim. 

33 examined. 

Adults. — The darkest of the group, the grey on the nape, sides of the neck, 
and upper breast being replaced by dull lead colour. 

108 Novitates Zoologicae XXX1I1. 1926. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown. Bill and legs black. 
Measurements. — Wing 230—278 mm., culmen length 42-50. 
Distribution. — From Tenasserim north to Moulmein, Rangoon, Mandalay, 
but not extending into the hills of the Shan States. Also Siam. 

Corvus cornix cornix. 

Corvus cornix, Linn.. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 105, 1758. Sweden. 

Corvus cinereus Leach, 1816. Nomen nudum. 

Cornix sulieornix Brehm. 1831. Germany. 

Corvus cinereus Brehm, 1831. Central Germany. 

Corvus tenuirostris Brehm, Vogelfang., p. 57, 1855. Germany. 

Corvus cornix vulgaris, planiceps Brehm., 1866. Nomina nuda. For detail of above see Hartcrt, 

Vog. Pal., i, p. 9. 
Corvus bacmeisteri Kleinschmidt., Falro, xiv, p. 8, 1919. Germany. Variety with grey primary 


Adults. — Head, neck, throat, wings, and tail black glossed with purple. 
Rest of plumage ash-grey, the feathers with darker shaft stripes. According to 
the locality and the bleaching properties of the climate, the grey quickly fades to 
a dirty brownish or whitish grey. 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wings of over 100, from 305 in females to 340 in males. 
Culmens length 49-60, height at base 19-22 mm. 

Summer range. — The typical race breeds in Ireland, Scotland, the Outer 
Hebrides, rarely in Holland, in Denmark, the whole of Scandinavia, Finland, 
Russia, in Germany east of the Elbe, Balearic Islands, Central and Southern 
Italy, Sicily, Hungary, Poland, Monte Negro, and east probably to the Urals, 
though the exact boundary between this race and C. cornix sharpii is not yet 
known. Birds from the Caucasus are probably " sharpii." Resident in the 
southern part of its range. 

Migration. — Birds from Northern and Central Europe move south-west and 
west respectively in the autumn. Passage occurs from the end of September 
(rarely from late August) to November when birds spread over the British Islands, 
Northern France, and to Belgium and western Germany. Has straggled to Malta, 
Egypt, Iceland, Greenland, and Spitsbergen. 

Spring passage commences in early March, birds being rarely seen out of 
their breeding haunts after the first week in April, though spring passage has 
been noted in the British Islands as late as 12. v. 

Corvus cornix sardonius. 

Corvus aegyptiaca Brehm, J. f. 0., Extraheft. p. 8, 1853. Nomen nudum. 

Corvus sardonius Kleinschmidt, Orn. Monatsb. 19(13, p. 92. Sardinia. 

Corvus cornix vallachus Tschusi, Orn. Jahrh. 1904, p. 121. Rumania. 

Corvus cornix balcanicus Rzehak, Orn, Monatsb, 1906, p. 189. Servia. 

Corvus cornix syriacus Gengler, J.J. 0. 1919, p. 221. Jerusalem. 

Corvus cornix judaeus Meinertz., Bull. B.O.C. xxxix, p. 85, June 1919. Palestine. 

Adults. — In fresh autumn plumage, precisely similar to Corvus c. cornix, but 
generally smaller. For detailed measurements see Ibis, October 1921, p. 625. 
Owing to a hotter and drier climate birds bleach quicker. 

Measurements. — Wings of 11 Balkan birds, 280-333. 

Wings of 22 Palestine birds, 278-324 mm. 


Wings of 41 Egyptian birds, 286-332 mm. 

Wings of 18 Sardinian and Corsican birds, 301-329 mm. 

Culmens vary from 42-59 in length and from 16-22 in depth. 

Range. — Perhaps Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balkans, from 
Rumania and Servia south to Greece, where they are rare, probably Asia Minor, 
Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. Probably also the Crimea. No migration has been 

Corvus cornix sharpii. 

Corvus sharpii Oates, Fauna Brit. India, Birds, i, p. 20, 1889. Siberia. 

Corvus cornix var. christophi Alpheraky, Mess. Orn. i, p. 164, 1910. Sea of Azov. Erythristic 

? Corvus cornix kaukasicus Gengler, J.f. 0., Apr. 1919, p. 221. Caucasus. Based on 1 specimen. 

Adults. — As Corvus c. cornix, but the grey is slightly paler and slightly more 

Measurements. — Wings of 47 birds from 314 in females to 345 in males. 
Culmen length 49-59, height 19-23. 

Distribution. — Probably east of a line from the Ural Mountains to east of the 
Caspian and Persia. Breeds in Russian but not Chinese Turkestan. East to 
the Yenesay River and becoming scarcer towards Lake Baikal but not further 
east. North to the Arctic Circle. Also breeds on the western Altai Mountains. 
Birds from the Caucasus probably belong to this race. 

Migration. — A considerable south and south-west movement in autumn 
when they become abundant in Trans-Caspia, throughout Persia, Mesopotamia, 
Kurdestan, Afghanistan, and extreme N.W. India. Passage has been noted 
across the Pamirs in October, and migrants arrive at Samarkhand from the north 
at the end of October. In Iraq birds begin to arrive near Baghdad in early 

Spring passage has been noted in Trans-Caspia from 23. ii, but not after 
10. iv. Birds leave Iraq during March, few being seen after that month. 

Corvus cornix minos. 

Corvus cornix minos Meinertz., Bull. B.O.C., p. 19, Nov. 1920. Crete. 

Adults. — A much paler bird than even C. c. sharpii and nearest to C. c. 
pallescens from Cyprus, but larger than the latter. Wings of 5 from 313 in females 
to 327 in males. Culmen length 55-61, height 20-22 mm. 

Distribution. — Confined to Crete where they are resident. 

Corvus cornix pallescens. 

Corvus cornix pallescens Madarasz, Orn. Monatsb., 1906, p. 528. Cyprus. 

Adults. — Similar to Corvus c. minos, but smaller. Wings of 7, 285-314 mm., 
culmens length 47-53, height 17-20 mm. 

Distribution. — Resident in Cyprus. 

Corvus cornix capellanus. 

Corvus capellanus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 694. Fao, Persian Gulf. 

Adults. — The grey of preceding races is replaced by very pale almost milky 
grey in fresh plumage, which soon fades to almost white. Living birds sometimes 
have a slight pink blush on the white plumage, 


Measurements. — A much heavier bird than any of the other forms. Wings 
of 24 vary from 329 to 358, culmens length 50- 62 mm. 

Distribution. — Mesopotamia and the extreme south-west of Persia, north to 
Ramadi on the Euphrates, Samaria on the Tigris, and to Khanikin and Kirkuk 
in southern Kurdestan. Also up the Karun River to Ahwaz and along the Gulf 
Littoral towards Bushire. Where this race meets Corvus c. sharpii in Smith-west 
Persia they inter-breed and a slight overlap occurs. Resident. 

Relationship between Corvus corone ami Corvus comix. 

In examining the distribution of these two forms it is remarkable how in 
nearly every case the one displaces the other throughout their ranges, and it is 
rare that the two forms should breed in the same area. The few areas where 
they interbreed are Scotland, Denmark, roughly the Elbe Valley as far as 
Bohemia, in parts of the Western Altai Mountains, in the valley of the 
Yenesay, and between Tomsk and Lake Baical. Elsewhere throughout their 
combined ranges, there is a clear-cut line between their respective breeding 

Wherever the two forms breed in the same area they inter-breed and hybrids 
occur. Such hybrids have been examined from many parts of Scotland, from 
Yarkand (doubtless a migrant, as C. comix does not hived in Chinese Turkestan), 
from the Yenesay, from the Elbe Valley, Denmark, and Bohemia. These hybrids 
are fertile and bring up offspring as was proved by Seebohm in the Yenesay 
Valley, and recently in Scotland a breeding pair were shot, one of which was 
pure Corvus corone and the other a hybrid. In Argyllshire the majority of breed- 
ing crows are not pure. 

The simplest explanation of a problem is usually the correct one, and in 
this instance I am inclined to think that where the two forms meet they inter- 
breed. I regard the two forms as well-defined species or units and not as races 
of the same species. This latter view is largely held on the Continent, and 
appears to be based on the fact that the one form displaces the other almost 
throughout their respective ranges. I should sooner explain this by the fact 
that Corvus comix is a plain species, whereas Corvus corone is a hill, forest- 
loving species. Corvus comix is looked upon in Western Europe as a shy bird 
confined to wild moorland. Continual persecution has compelled him to adopt 
this role. But where the Hooded Crow is found and is not persecuted we see 
him as he really is, as a village crow, scavenging round towns, breeding in towns, 
and with quite different habits to Corvus corone. Corvus corone is not a " village 
crow " anywhere throughout its range. It is true that it has established itself 
in the heart of London, but even there he is wild. 

It is a more reasonable explanation that the two species do not 
associate amicably and that the Hooded Crow, being the stronger bird, makes 
himself objectionable to Corvus corone. Similar instances are known among 
Passer domesticus and montanus and among Corvus monedula and Pyrrhocorax 

For the Continental views on this subject see also J.f. 0., 1887, pp. 619-648, 
and Geyr, Falco, 1020, pp. 17-26.' 

1 Sinco writing above I am inclined (192(5) more to the view that C. corone and ('. comix must 
be treated as one and the same species. 


Corvus corone corone. 

Corvus corone Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 105, 1758, England. 
Corpus subcorone Brehm., 1831. Central Germany. 
Corims hyemalis Brehm., 1831. Central Germany. 
' 'orrus assimilis Brehm., 1855. Germany. 
Corone andayensis, Olphe-Galliard, variety. 

Corvus corone helveticus Brehm, J.f. O., 1860, p. 233. Freiburg. 

Corciis corone major, minor, longirostris, brevirostris, intercedens, and montanns Brehm, 1866. Nomina 
nuda. For detail of above see Hartert, Yog. Pal. Fauna, i, p. 11, 

Adults. — Whole plumage black with purple sheen on upper-parts. Nasal 
plumes well developed, and completely covering nostrils. Base of feathers dark 

Soft Parts. — Iris dark brown, bill and feet black. 

Measurements. — Wing of 64, 304 to 334, culmen 47-59 mm. 

Distribution. — England, Wales, Scotland though rare in the north, France, 
Spain (rare in the south), Northern Italy, Switzerland, Tyrol and western Europe 
west of the Elbe, Holstein, and Denmark. Very local in Russia. The Caucasus. 

Migration. — Has straggled to the Azores. A considerable southern move- 
ment takes place in autumn when large flocks have been reported from Scotland 
in November, January, and March. Flocks have also been reported from south- 
west France on 24. ii. A scarce winter visitor to Corsica, and a common winter 
visitor to Sicily. Witherby reported them as common in the Cantabrian Moun- 
tains in October. 

Corvus corone orientalis. 

Corvus orientalis Eversmann, Add. Pall. Zoogr. fasc. ii, p. 7, 1841. Naryn lliver, Central Asia. 
Corvus corone interpositus Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay. xiii, 2, p. 201, 1917. Hondo, Japan. 

Smaller wings, 305-341 mm. 
Corvus corone yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C, xliii, 1922, p. 43. Mengtz, S.E. Yunnan, 

Adults. — In all respects a larger bird than Corvus c. corone and frequently 
not so intensely coloured. I am unable to separate birds from Japan on 
measurement, though a few small individuals do occur there. On the other 
hand most Japanese birds are as large as Central Asiatic examples. 

Two topo-typical examples have been examined of La Touche's " yunna- 
nensis." Their bills are not less convex nor more slender than others from 
Japan, Gilgit, and Turkestan, neither can I trace any green on the mantle. It is 
true that lanceolation on the throat is well marked, but not more so than in fully 
adult specimens from Central Asia. The under-parts do not differ from examples 
in similar plumage from other parts of Asia. 

Measurements. — Wing of 44 examples 314 to 362, culmen length 49-64, 
height 20-23 mm. 

Distribution. — Probably the whole of northern Asia east of the Yenesay River 
and the Upper Oxus. South to North Kashmir, 1 Gilgit, Ladak, Szechwan, and 
S.E. Yunnan. Has bred (?) in the Kurram Valley (Whitehead). 

Migration. — Considerable southward movement in winter when birds occur 
in N.W. India. They remain north of the Arctic Circle till late October. On 
the Sea of Japan passage has been noted in October, and in the Gulf of Pechili 
an east to west migration has been noted in late October and November, 

1 Breeding doubtful, 

112 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

Spring passage has been noted in Corea and in the Gulf of Liautung on 
20 . iii. In Dauria and Northern Manchuria they commence arriving from the 
end of March. 

In China birds occur in winter south to Foochow. 

Corvus torquatus. 

Corvua torquatus Lesson, Traiti, p. 328, 1831. " New Holland" in error. China apud Schlegel. 
Corvus pecloralis Gould, P.Z.S., 1836, p. 18. China. Type examined in British Museum. 

Over 50 examined. 

Adults. — Whole plumage glossy purplish black. Nape, upper back, sides 
of the neck, and a horse-shoe shaped band across the breast, white, the feathers 
frequently with black or darker markings. Base of nape feathers pale grey. 
Nasal bristles straight and reaching to about the centre of the culmen and covering 
the frontal base of the culmen. 1st primary about equal to the longest secon- 
daries, though frequently slightly shorter. Throat feathers well lanceolated. 

Immature. — What I take to be an immature bird is a specimen in the British 
Museum from the Tsing Ling Mountains. It almost lacks the white band under- 
neath, and the white collar above is replaced by grey feathers with black tips, 
which gives a heavily streaked appearance to the back of the neck and upper 

Soft Parts. — No record. 

Measurements. — Wing 283-355, but usually between 320 and 350. Culmen 
56-62 mm. Depth of culmen 19-23 mm. 

Distribution. — China. Birds examined from the Tsinling Mountains, 
Kiukiang, Amoy, Hunan, Canton, Kiang-su, Fohkien, Foochow, Kwantung, 
Tonking, Lower Yangtse, and Hainan. 

A migrant from the northern part of its range, and has been observed on 
passage in south-west Manchuria, and in Chili Province near Pekin. 


Corvus albus. 

( 'orvus alhii.s Miiller, Syst. Nat. Snppl., p. 85, 1776. Senegal. 

Corvus scapulalus Daud., Traite, ii, p. 232, 1800. No locality. 

Corvus scapularis Leach in Tuckey, Exped. to Congo, p. 407, 1818. River Congo in Central Congo. 

Corvus scapularis var. o< (hiops. Hemp. & Ehr., Symb. Phys. I cones Avium, 1828. Xubia and Dongola. 

Corvus curvirostris Gould, P.Z.S.. 1S36, p. 18. East Africa. Founded on a small specimen. 

Corvus leuconotus Swainson, B. of West Afr. i, p. 133, pi. v, 1837. Senegal. 

Corvus phaeocephalus Cabanis, Mus. Han. Th. i, p. 232, 1851. Abyssinia. Founded on two large 

Corrus madagascariensis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend, xxxvii, p. 829, 1853. Madagascar. Said to be 

smaller and with a stronger bill. 

132 examined. 

Adults. — Breast white and with a broad white collar passing from the upper 
breast over the back. Abdomen, head, throat, and rest of plumage glossy steel- 
black. Feathers of throat strongly lanceolated. Base of feathers white. Nasal 
bristles well-developed and reaching to or slightly beyond proximal half of culmen, 
covering frontal base of culmen for from 10 to 20 mm. 

Soft Parts. — Iris brown. Bill and feet black. 

Immature.— As adult, but the white of the upper parts is mottled with 



brown, and the white of the under-parts is dirty. 
brown-black. No gloss on head. 

Rest of under parts dirty 









South Africa S. of the Zambesi . 

325, 345- 





Lower Zambesi and Mozambique 





Rhodesia .... 

330, 348 

56, 58 



Angola ..... 





Nyasaland .... 





Madagascar .... 

321, 341- 





Aldabra ..... 





Comoro Isles .... 





Assumption Island . 





Zanzibar .... 





Kenya Colony, Uganda, and Kilimanjaro 





Northern and Southern Nigeria, Sierra Leon 

Liberia, Gambia, and Congo . 





Fernando Po . 





British Somaliland . 





Abyssinia .... 

330, 354- 





Sudan ..... 

314, 315, 




Distribution. — Occurs in South Africa from the south coast to Natal and the 
Transvaal, but apparently not in the western portions of Cape Colony. Thence 
throughout Africa to Angola in the west and Abyssinia in the east, though not 
in the Somali desert. Throughout the Congo to West Africa north to the 
Southern Sahara at Asben and on the coast at least to the Gambia. Common 
throughout Kenya Colony and Uganda and north to the Sudan at least to Shendi. 
Occurs in Abyssinia at least to Addis Abeba. Also Madagascar, Aldabra, Comoro, 
Assumption, Zanzibar, and Fernando Po. 

Note. — Are C. torquatus and C. albus but races of C. corone 1 



ml mia — frugilegus. 
adve net — typica. 
aegyptiaca — com ix. 
aethiops — albus. 
affin is — coronoides. 
affin is — rJiipidurus. 
agricola — fruyilegus. 

agrorum — frugilegus. 
albicollis — albicollis. 

albus — albus. 

alliceps — moned u la . 

mm i tni mis britcliyrhynrhos. 

andamanensis — coronoides. 

a ndayens is — corone. 



angustirostris — frugilegus. 

iiiim ctt ns — coronoides. 
anthracinu — coronoides. 
arborea — monedida. 
assimilis — corone. 
australis — coronoides. 

bacrm istt ri —comix. 
balca n ic us — corn i.e. 
hen netti — coronoides. 
bonhoti — coronoides. 
brachycereus — rhipidurus. 
brachyrhynchos — brachyrhynchos 
brachyrhynchos -rhipidurus. 
brachyurus — rhipidurus. 
brevicaudatus — rhipidurus. 
I) n uipennis — coronoides. 
brevirostris — corone. 

cacalotl — corax. 
cafer — albicollis. 
canariensis — cora.r. 
capella n us — comix. 
capensis — capensis. 
capital is — da n uricus. 
carnivorus — corax. 
caurinus — brachyrhynchos. 
ceciliae — coronoides. 
christophi — cornix. 
cinereus — cornix. 
cirtensis — mon ed it la . 
clarionensis — corax. 
clericus — corax. 
collaris — monedula . 
colonorum — coronoides. 
compilator — enca. 
connectens — coronoides. 
corax — corax. 
cornix — cornix. 
corone — corone. 
coronoides — coronoides. 
crassirostris — corn i.e. 
crassirostris — fr ugilt gus . 
crassirostris — crassirostris. 
crassirostris — mon ed u la . 
cryptoleucus — cryptoleucus. 
culminatits — coronoides. 
curvirostris — a lb us. 

dardaniensis — corax. 
dauuricus- dauuricus. 

dam in ic( usis — leueognapliithis. 

edithae — corax. 

enca — enca. 

erythrophthalmus- It ucognaphalus. 

e it roph il us — corax. 

fallax — enca. 
ferroensis — cora.r. 
florensis fiort nsis. 
floridanus - brachyrhynchus. 
frugilegus — frugilegus. 
frugivorus — brachyrhynchos. 
fuscicapillus — fuscicapillus. 
fuscicollis — corax. 
fuscicollis — dauuricus. 

gran or um — frttgilegtis. 
grebn itzkii — corax. 
gregarius — frugilegus. 

Int ina it us — coronoides. 
hassi — coronoides. 
ha irii iensis — ha wa iensis. 
helmatitrinus — coronoides. 
In Iveticus — corone. 
hertogi — coronoides. 
hesperis — brachyrhynchos. 
hispanus — corax. 
hyi malis — corone. 

impudicus — splendens. 
impudiens — splendens. 
infitmatus — corax. 
insolens — spit ndt ns. 
i a 8 it laris — coronoides. 
intercedens — corone. 
inti rmedius — coronoides. 
intcrposittis — corone. 
islandicus — corax. 

jamaicensis — jama icen sis. 
japonensis — coronoides. 
judaeus — cornix. 

kamtschaticus — cora.r. 
kattkasicus — cornix. 



khamensis — danuricus. 
kordofanensis — capensis. 
kra usei — corax. 
hvbaryi — kubaryi. 

latirostris — coronoides. 
laurencei — corax. 
leptonyx — corax. 
leucognaphalus — leucognaphalus. 

leucomelas — corax. 
leuconotus — albus. 
leucophaeus — corax. 
levaillantii — capensis. 

1 1 rail lint li i — coronoides. 
littoralis — corax. 
longiroslris — corone. 
longiroslris — frugilegus. 
lugubris — corax. 

mi inopterus — capensis. 
macrorhynchus — coronoides. 

madagascariensis — albus. 
m adaraszi — coronoides. 
major — corax. 
major — corone. 
major — da uuricus. 
major — frugilegus. 
maledivicus — splendens. 
mandschuricus — coronoides. 
mariannae — coronoides. 
maritimus — mexicanus. 
marngli — coronoides. 
maximus — corax. 
meeki — meeki. 
mellori — coronoides. 
mengtszensis — coronoides . 
mexicanus — mexicanus. 
minor — corax. 
minor — corone. 
minor — capensis. 
minos — cornix. 
minutus — braclujrhynehos. 
modestus — erica. 
monedula — monedula. 
moneduloides — rnoneduloides. 
mon tanus — corax. 
m onta nus — corone . 

nasicus — nasicus. 

neglectus — dauuricv s . 
nigricollis — corax. 
nobilis — corax. 

occidentalis — monedula. 
orientalis — corone. 
orru — coronoides. 
osai — coronoides. 

ossifragus — mexicanus. 

pa llescens — cornix. 
pa Im arum — bra c hyrhynchos . 
pascuus — brachyrhynchos. 
paslinator — frugilegus. 
pa u hi s — bra ch yrhy n c It os . 
pectoralis — torquatus. 
peregrinus — corax. 
perplexus — coronoides. 
phaeocephalus — albus. 
philippiniis — coronoides. 
pityocorax — corax. 
pla niceps — corax. 
pla niceps — frugilegus. 
planiceps — monedula. 
predatorius — frugilegus. 
principalis — corax. 
protegatiis — splendens. 
pusillus — enca . 

queenslandiciis — coronoides. 

rhipidurus — rhipidurus. 
richardsoni — corax. 
ruficollis — corax. 

salvadorii — coronoides. 
samarensis — enca. 
sa rdonius — cornix. 
sardus — corax. 
scapularis — albus. 
scapulatus — albus. 
segetum — capensis. 
senex — tristis. 
septentrionalis — monedula. 
sharpii — cornix. 
sibiricus — corax. 
si nensis — coro noides. 
sinuatus — corax. 
soemmeringii — monedula. 



solitarius — brachyrhynchos. 
solitariua — coronoides. 
spermolog us — m on ed ula . 
splendent — splendt ns. 
subcorax — corax. 
subcornix — comix. 
subcorone — corone. 
sylvestris — corax. 
sy i incus — comix. 

tasmanicus — coronoides. 
tenuirostris —comix. 

ten n irostris — erica. 

1 1 a n irostris — frugilegus. 

tibetanus — corax. 

til a tosinensis — coronoides. 

timorcnsis — coronoides. 

tingitan us — corax. 

torquatus — torquatus. 

tristis — tristis. 

tropicus — hawaiensis. 

tschuiensis — corax. 

tschusii — frugilegus. 

turrium — monedula. 

typica — ///pica. 

ultimas -frugilegus. 
vUracollaris — monedula. 
umbrinus — corax. 
u ni color — it n i color. 
ussurianus — corax. 

validissimus — validus. 
vallachus — comix. 

rutins — corax. 
vegetus — woodfordi. 
violaceus — enca. 
vulgaris — comix, 
vulgaris - main dula. 
nil/ u rin us — alhicollis. 

woodfordi — woodfordi. 

y u n it a n e it s is — coron e . 
zm/mi i/i ri—sjileiidvns. 



Species are arranged alphabetically. Plus and minus signs are used to denote lonu'er than or 
shorter than. v. si. = very slightly, si. = slightly, nr. = nearer. 7-8 means between the 7th 
and 8th primaries. 


1st primary. 

Sod primary. 

3rd primary. 

Iili primary. 

,"it h primary. 

6th primary. 



5-6, nr. 5 

4 5 ■ >r = 4 


si. - 3 

1-2, nr. 2 



5-6, nr. 5 

longest or 
= 4 

= longest 
or si. — 3 

si. + -1 

1-2, nr. 2 


<"itliil' iltnl . 

!l lo or = 
or - 10 

6-7, nr. 6 

v. si. 5 or 
= 5 


v. si. - 3 
or = 3 


palmarum . 

- 9 


= 4 anil ."> 

= 3 and 5 

= 3 and 4 



= 9 

= 6 or 6-7 

= longest 


v. si. — 4 

= 2 


Arctic Anh ri i 

7-8 or = 8 

5-6. nr. 5 

= 5 or 4-5 


si. — or 

1-2, nr. 2 

' '• nada 

= 3 


7-8 or si. 


4-5 or = 5 


= or v. si. 

1-2. nr. 2 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIIT. 1926. 



1st primary. 

2nd primary. 

3rd primary. 

4th primary. 

Stb primary. 

6th primary. 

United States 

7-8 or = S 


= 5 

= 3 and 5 
or rarely 
si. longer 

= 3 

1-2, nr. 2 

East Asia 

7-8 or v. 
rarely — 8 


= or si. 
- 4 

longest or 
= 3 

2-3. nr. 3 

1-2, nr. 2 

Himalayas . 

7-8 or = 8 

5-6, nr. 5 

4-5 or = 4 


v. si. - 3 

1-2, nr. 2 

" lawrencei " 

= or si. 

5-6, but 

longest or 

longest or 


1-2, rarely 

- 7 

usually v. 
si. - 5 

- 4 or v. 
si. - 4 

= 3 or v. 
si. - 3 

nr. 2 

" ruficoUis " . 

7-8 or = 8 

5-6, nr. 5 

= longest 

= longest 



" edithae " . 


5-6, nr. 5 

sl. + or — 4 

sl.+or- 3 


1-2, nr. 2 

" tin/jitanus " 

7-8 or = 8 

5-6. nr. 5 

4-5 or = 4 


v. si. - 3 

1-2. nr. 2 

Canary Isles 

usually 7-8 
or — 8 


4-5 or = 4 


= or v. si. 
- 3 

1-2, nr. 2 


7-8 or = 8 


4-5 or = 5 


= or v. si. 

- 3 
= or si. — 

1-2, nr. 2 



6-7. nr. 6 

= or v. si. 

longest or 


- 4 

= 3 or 5 

3 or 4 




5-6 or = 5 

longest or 
= 5 

= or si. 
- 4 



Australian . 



4-5 or = 4 

longest or 

= 3 
longest or 

si. - 3 

si. - 2 


- 9 


4-5 or = 

= 3 or 4 


4 or 5 

= 4 or 5 


- 9 

6-7. rarely 

= 4 or 5 

longest or 
= 3 or 5 

= 3 or si. 

- 4 

2-3 or = 2 


- 9 

6-7 or si. 
- 6 

= or v. si. 

longest or 
= 5 

= 3 or 4 


Philippine . 

- 10 


si. - 4 

— 5 or = 

longest or 
= 4 

si. -3 

Jura. Sumatra 

or si. 

= 6 

= or si. 

longest or 

si. - 3 

= 2 

- 9 

- 4 

= 3 

and 4 


- 8 or 9 

6-7 or si 
- 6 

= or v. si. 
- 5 

longest or 
= 5 

= 3 or 4 


New Guinea 

- 8 

6-7, nr. 6 

5-6 or = 5 

longest or 

= or si. 

- 4 
= or si. 


New Britain 


6-7, nr. 6 


= 5 
longest or 

2-3 or = 3 

= 5 

- 4 


7-S or 
rarely — 8 


= longest 

= longest 

si. - 3 

and 4 

1-2, nr. 2 



5-6, nr. 5 

4-5 or = 4 

longest or 

= 3 
si. - 3 


1-2, nr. 2 


'8-9 or 

= or si. 


= or si. -f-2 


rarely — 9 

- 5 



- 9 



longest or 
= 5 

= or si. 
- 4 

2-3, nr. 3 


- 9 


= 5 or 5-6 

longest or 
= 5 

= or v. si. 
- 4 

2-3, nr. 3 


- 9 

= 7 

= 6 or 5-6 

longest or 
= 5 

= or v. si. 

= or si. 
- 3 

\uman nsis . 

- 9 

= 7 


longest or 

= or v. si. 

- 4 
= longest 



- 10 

= 7 


= 5 
= longest 

si. - 3 


- 10 

= 9 




= or si. 

- 4 



8-9, but 
rarely — 9 


= or si. 
- 4 

longest or 
= 3 


si. - 2 


- 9 or 

= or v. si. 

= or si. 


= or v. si. 

si. - 2 

nearly so 

+ 6 

- 4 


- 3 


- 10 ' 


= 6 or very 
nearly so 

v. si. — 5 


= 3 or very 
nearly so. 


Xuvitates Zoological XXXIII. 1026. 


1st IV i 

2nd i'rimary. 

3rd Drinuuy. 

4th Primary. 

5th Primary. 

6th Pru 


- 10 

si. - 7 

= or si. 

= 5 or 6, 

longest or 

= or si. 


rarely si. 

= 4 

- 4 


- 10 

= 7 

= 5 or 5-6 

longest or 
= 5 

3-5 or = 5 

= or v. si. 
- 3 


- 10 

si. - 7 

= 6 

— longest 

= longest 

= 3 


= or — 10 

6-7, nr. 

= 5 


= 3 



- 10 


= 6 

= longest 

= longest 

= 3 


mexicanus . 

- 10 

6-7, but 
usually v. 
si. - 6 

= 5 


= 3 




5-6 or = 6 

si. 4- or 

longest or 

si. - 4 or 

1 - 2 or 

- 4 

si. - 3 

= 3 

= 2 


= 9 

= or v. si. 
- 5 


si. - 3 

= or v. si. 

+ 2 



- 10 

7-8 or = 8 


almost — 
5 and 6 

usually = 
4 and 6 

almost = 
4 and B 


- 10 


= 5 or 

nearly so 


= 3 or 

nearly so 





= 4 and 5 
or very 
nearly so 

= 3 and 5 
or nearly 

= 3 and 4 
or very 

nearly so 

1-2. nr. 2 


= or — 10 

= or si. 



si. - 4 

usually v. 

- 6 

4-5 or = 5 


si. - 2, 
rarely + 2 


- 9 or = 


usually 4- 
5. but 
rarely — 5 


si. - 3 



- 10 

6-7 or = 7 

v. si. + or 

longest or 

— longest 

v. si. or 

- 6 

nearly so 

or very 

nearly so 

- 3 


- 10 


= or si. 
- 5 

longest or 
= 5 

= or si. 
- 4 



= or - 10 

v. si. + or 

5-6 or si. 

si. + or 


si. + or 

- 7 

- 6 

- 5 

longest or 
v. si. - 4 

- 3 


- 10 

0-7 or = 7 

5-6 or = 6 

= longest 

= longest 

= or si. 
- 3 


Name of t\ pe. 


Length. 1 Depth. 

Base of nape feathers. 

Tj]>.' locality. 

Corvus coronoides Vig. and 




Paramatta. X.S.W. 

Horsf., 1827. 

Corvus oennetti North, 1901 

type nt 

>t examined. 


Moolah, Western 


Corvus mariannae Mathews, 




dark grey. 

Gosford, N.S.W. 


Corvus coronoides ceriliae Ma- 




almost pure 

Napier Broome Bay, 

thews, 1912. 


N.W. Australia. 

" Smaller than Corvus c. 

coronoides, wing 355-350." 



Name of type. 


1 uln 




Ilase of nape feathers. 

Type locality. 

Corvus bermetti bonhoti Mathews, 




almost pure 

Murchison, West 


white. An 


" Smaller than Corvus b. 


bennetti. Wing 295." 


Corvus coron. perplexus Ma- 





Perth, Western 

thews, 1912. 


" Much smaller than Corvus 

c. coronoides, wing 314-327." 

Corvus benn. queenslandicus 




almost pure 

Dawson River, 

Mathews, 1912. 



" Differs from Corvus b. 

bennetti in having a deeper and 

stouter bill and thicker tarsi." 

Corvus mariannae mellori 




dark grey. 

Angus Plains, South 

Mathews, 1912. 


" Differs from Corvus m. 

mariannae in being smaller. 

wing 326-330, and from ( '. b. 

bennetti in having grey bases to 

the feathers." 

Corvus mariannae helinaturinus 




very dark grey. 

Kangaroo Island, 

Mathews, 1912. 

S. Australia. 

" Differs from Corvus m. 

mellori by being smaller, wing 


Corvus mariannae tasmatiicus 






Mathews, 1912. 

" Differs from Corvus m. 

mariannae in its longer bill — 

67 mm. — typical ('. in. mari- 

annae having a bill 56-60." 

Corvus ceciliae marngli Mathews. 





Marngle < 'reek, 


West Kimberley, 

" Shorter wing — 312 — and 

Western Australia. 

bill than ' 'orvus r. ceciliae" 

Corvus ceciliae hartogi Mathews, 

Type n 

ot exam 


Dirk Hartog I., 


Western Australia. 

" Differs from Corvus c. 

marngli in having many of the 

feathers brown and not shining 



Novitates ZooLoaiOAE XXXIII. 1928. 







Culmeu : 

: i ol Ee ithcrs. 



Queensland . 


( ape York Pen. . 






Coo kt own 









20 25 









Shadbroke Isles 


56, 57 

22, 23 



Dawson River . 

32 1 -354 


22 24 


Northern Territory 


Daly River 






South Alligator R. 






Melville Isle 












Brunette Downs 














Admiralty Gulf . 






Forrest River 

330. 346 


24. 26 



Napier Broome Hay . 

3511. 30(1 

60, 62 

24. 26 









Obogama, nr. Derby . 






West Kimberley 





Western Australia . 










55 r,:; 




Carnarvon . 






Port Cloates 

305, 328 

50. 63 




Dirk Hartog I. . 












Augusta . 




dark grey 


Warren River 











South Australia . 








Horse-shoe Bend 






Wilgena . 






Wantna Pilla Swamp, 
north of Spencer Gulf 






Gawler Ranges . 






Gawler Ranges . 




grey to dark 




305 351 

51 59 


grey to dark 


Angus Plains (Adelaide) 

315, 327 


21. 22 

white and dark 


Kangaroo Isle . 





New South Wales . 








Clarence Bay 



23 25 



Lithgow . 










whitish grey 


VPalgett . 



21! 25 

grey and whit- 
ish grey 


Bundarra . 













2? umber. 




Base of Feathers. 



New South Wales 


Belltrees (Scone) 

355, 360 


•i:\. 24 

whitish grey 







grey to dark 






dark grey 






grey to dark 






grey to dark 






grey to dark 


Broken Hill 

315, 325 

50. 53 




Delegate . 







Burrumbert, near 




2 dark grey, 1 
whitish grey 


Wandella . 




grey to dark 


Sandhill Lake, near 




grey to dark 








Lake Charm 




4 dark grey, 1 


Wonga Park, near 




dark grey 






dark grey 






whitish grey 


Budgerum (near) 




8 grey, 2 whit- 
ish grey, I 
dark grey 






grey to dark 


Bael Bael (near) 







Tasmania . 




grey to dark 





rTiHE large island of New Britain (Neu Pommern), the largest of the 
■*• Bismarck Archipelago, east of New Guinea, is, zoologically, the best-known 
island of the group ; quite a number of good collectors and ornithologists 
have been there, and yet it remained almost unknown with the exception of 
the northernmost peninsula, called Gazelle Halbinsel. It was therefore that 
Lord Rothschild induced Mr. Albert F. Eichhorn to go to the western parts to 
collect. As he had no vessel of his own, he was obliged to go where ships could 
take him, and decided to go to Talasea. Of this district he writes as follows : 
" Our camp was pitched at 1,200 feet, the place being chosen for the water found 
there. The mountains above reach an elevation of 3,400 feet, and up to that 
altitude my men and myself have collected. The surrounding country is dotted 
with geysers and hot mud springs, and sometimes their sickening sulphur fumes 
drifted up to and across the camp. The scrub is virgin, huge fieus trees towering 
above the others. The soil is very loose volcanic young formation. No natural 
grass patches are within sight, except a little one made around the Government 
station, hence the absence of birds inhabiting grass-land. The native population 
inland is very sparse, so it is mostly impossible to get carriers and food." 

The collection made by Mr. Eichhorn is a very interesting one. It contains 
specimens of the very interesting and (in collections) rare Henieophaps fo(r<t< * i 
(only known since 20 years), the rare Henicopernis longicauda inf meatus, Halcyon 
albonotata !, Monarcha hebetior !, Rhipidura dahli dahli !, and many other fine 
New Britain birds in beautiful series, as well as two unexpected novelties : 
Accipiter luteoschistaceus and Turdus talasea. The absence of the much desired 
Tyto aurantia (Salvad.), E.rcalfactoria lepida, Rallidae, Merops salvadorii, and of 
Munia is regrettable, but these forms, or at least some of them, do not seem to 
exist where Eichhorn collected, or may be are extremely rare there. 

With the help of Reichenow's " Vogel der Bismarckinseln " in Mitt. Zool. 
Samml. Berlin, i. 3 (1899) it is now comparatively easy to work out a collection 
from New Britain. Since then, however, several articles on the birds of that 
island have appeared : 

Heinkoth, Ornithologische Ergebnisse der " I. Deutschen Siidsee Expedi- 
tion von Br. Mencke " in Joum.f. Om., 1902 and 1903. 

Otto Meyer, " Die Vogel der Insel Vuatom," in Natur und Offenbariing, 
vol. 52, 1906. 

Vuatom, Watom, or Uatom is a small island just north of the Gazelle Penin- 
sula. Meyer observed there not less than 87 different species, which is a con- 
siderable number for such a small island. His article contains many valuable 
biological notes. Most of the specimens which he collected are preserved 
(mounted) in the convent of the fathers of the Heart of Jesus in/Hiltrup near 
Minister i. Westf., where I had the pleasure, together with Professor Reichling, 
to look over the collection. 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 123 

W. Meyer, " Zur Vogelfauna des Bismarck-Archipels," in Ornith. Monatsber. 
1909, pp. 33-38. 

This article contains interesting notes on birds from New Britain, among 
others the description of plumage, nest, and eggs of an apparently undescribed 
Reed-Warbler. It contains further the description of two supposed new birds : 

Halcyon toriu, a Kingfisher hitherto unknown to occur in New Britain or 
anywhere else in the Bismarck Archipelago. The description, however, agrees 
in every way with that of the male of Halcyon macleayi, under which name 
Father Meyer has sent specimens to Berlin and Hiltrup ; the latter has been sent 
to Rome, and already 0. Meyer knew that it was not a new species, but hitherto 
the mistaken descrijjtion of it as H. toriu has not been corrected, as far as I am 
aware (cf. Stresemann, Sepik-Vogel, p. 38). H. macleayi is an inhabitant of 
Queensland, " Northern Territory," and parts of New South Wales. Mathews 
recognises several subspecies, which will be discussed elsewhere. As this species 
occurs also in the Louisiade and D'Entrecasteaux Islands, and on the south coast 
of British Papua northwards to Astrolabe Bay, there is no reason why it should 
not occur in New Britain ; Stresemann suggests that all H. macleayi occurring 
out of Australia and its islands (Melville) might be migrants only, and this is 
probably the case. 

The second bird described as new is Reinwardtoenas bleyi. This striking 
new bird was unfortunately already described as Henicophaps foersteri by 
Rothschild & Hartert three years previously. 

Probably new forms can still be discovered on the mountains and in the 
western parts of New Britain, though, of course, little can now remain unknown. 
Nests, eggs, and habits require still further investigation. 

l . Tringa hypoleucos L. 

Common in March and April. Mostly moulting body plumage on underside. 

2. Tringa incana brevipes (Vieill.). 
<$ ad. Talasea, 5.iii. 1925. Body plumage moulting. 

3. Numenius phaeopus variegatus (Scop.). 
3 <J<j>. March and April. Moult on body plumage. 

4. Megapodius duperreyi eremita Hartl. 
Evidently common at Talasea, a series sent. 

5. Caloenas nicobarica nicobarica (L.). 

Eichhorn found this species common near Talasea and sent a series from 
January. Females, besides being smaller, with shorter neck-hackles, have the 
rump and upper tail-coverts more golden green. Dahl, who only found it on 
Credner Island, was wrong in saying it did not occur on New Britain, though it 
may now be absent from the inhabited parts of the Gazelle Peninsula, where 
he made his observations. A nest consisting of a few twigs was found on 
the butt of a fallen tree, 2 ft. from the ground, apparently empty. Another, 
containing one egg, on March 5, on the ground, about 1,500 ft. above sea-level. 

124 Xmvitatis Zooi.oqicai: XXXIII. L926 

The egg is white with a faint creamy tinge without gloss and measures 
42 x 32 mm. Lives, according to Eichhorn, mostly on the ground and is 
very shj . 

6. Ptilinopus superbus superbus (Temm.). 

Eichhorn did not find this species common at Talasea and sent only two 
males shot in January. 

7. Ptilinopus rivolii rivolii (Prevost & Knip). 

See Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 198, 1925, p. 111'.. 

As I said before, it was to be expected that this Pigeon occurred somewhere 
in New Britain, and this expectation has been fulfilled. Eichhorn found it 
common at Talasea and sent a series collected in January and February. The 
wings of the males measure 128-132 mm. The iris is described as yellow, in one 
case reddish yellow, and once " dark," the latter possibly by an error or abnormal. 

8. Myristicivora bicolor subflavescens (Finsch). 

Eichhorn found this Pigeon apparently common in Talasea, for he sent 8 
beautiful skins shot in February and March. The entire plumage to the base 
of the feathers is creamy yellow, deepest on head, neck, and underside ; the 
shafts and outer webs of the lateral rectrices are quite bright chrome yellow. 
" White plumage tinged with yellowish " and " weiss, leicht gelblich getont " are 
too mild expressions for these birds in fresh plumage, though it suits perfectly 
old specimens of ours collected by Webster and Curtis which were probably 
exposed to light when being dried, or are in old worn plumage. The freshly 
moulted bird collected by Eichhorn on Manus (Admiralty Is.) is like the New 
Britain ones. The Talasea birds are freshly moulted, some still in moult. The 
iris is described as brown, bill dull yellow, base and cere slaty blue, feet lead-blue. 

I have no doubt that nowhere two forms of Myristicivora will be found 
breeding in the same area, and therefore believe that the above nomenclature will 
be correct, and that all Mi/ristirivorae must be named trinomially, as subspecies 
of bicolor. 

9. Ducula (Globicera) rubricera (Bp.). 

Common at Talasea. Series from January and February. Some moulting 
on wings and tails, also a few feathers of the body plumage. 

10. Ducula finschii (Rams.). 

I o, j,nj,li,i(/ii Fins, in, I!. unsay. Joiir/l. Linn. Sor.. London. Zool. xvi, p. 12'J (1SS1- -locality not stated, 
but from New Ireland, teste Sharpe in Gould's B. New Guinea, pt. xviii. 

Eichhorn found this species rare at Talasea, and sent only one pair shot 
January 30 and February 2. Both are moulting (body, wings, tail). 

li. Ducula melanochroa (Scl.). 
Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 117. 

Eichhorn says these Pigeons are common whin the figs are ripe, otherwise 
one does not see them, and that they do not occur below 1,500 ft. He sent 
3 adults from Talasea, shot in January, which show moult on body plumage. 


12. Gallicolumba beccarii johannae (Scl.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 198 (also Nov. Zool. 1925, pp. 118, 119). 

Phlinjovnu* jtihiniiitii Sclater, 1'rnr. Zool. Sor. London. 1877, p. 112, pi. xvi (exact loc. doubtful, but 

in all probability Duke of York Island, which I designate as typical locality). 
Gallicolumba beccarii nodifica Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 118 (New Ireland). 

In 1925 (p. 119) I said already that I believed this species " must and will 
be found in New Britain," where all the collecting had hitherto been done only 
in the Gazelle Peninsula. Now Eichhorn sent a fine series of 5 adult males and 
a female, shot in Talasea in March and April. The males vary in the colour of 
the chest, which in some is as dark as in our darkest specimens from New Ireland 
and Nissan and Feni Islands, in one as light as in a New Hanover bird, which 
agrees with the types in the British Museum. I therefore conclude that all the 
specimens from Dampier, New Britain, Duke of York, New Ireland, Feni, Nissan, 
and New Hanover are the same, and that my supposed nodifica (I.e.) cannot be 
separated ; this also does away with the curious interrupted distribution which 
would result if nodifica was separable. From our examples from New Ireland 
it certainly seemed that they differed from the types, which have very white 
chests, nor did the Feni and Nissan series contradict this. The wings of the 
Talasea males measure 111-118 mm. 

13. Gallicolumba jobiensis (Meyer). 

Pldegoenas jobiensis A. B. Meyer, Milth. Mas. Dresden, i. p. 10 (1875 — Jobi). 

Chalcophaps margariihae Salvadori & Albertis, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, vii, p. 836 (1875 — no exact 
locality given, but type from the coast near Hall Bay, S.E. New Guinea). 

(Evidently Meyer's description of P. jobiensis appeared before that of 
C. margariihae, which came out in November, and therefore Salvadori adopted, 
in his great work, Orn. Pap., iii, p. 165, and elsewhere, Meyer's name, and it is 
strange that in the Cat. B. xxi he reverted to margariihae, which, in its first 
description, he spelt correctly with an h, while later on he used the Italian way of 
eliminating the h. Meyer's type was a young bird, but it has been carefully 
examined, and Salvadori himself said that there could be no doubt whatever 
that the name jobiensis referred to the same bird which he later on called 

Eichhorn calls this species " comparatively rare and shy " near Talasea, 
but he sent 2 <J ad., 1 $ ad., and 2 juv., shot in January, February, March, and 
April. " Iris dark brown, bill black, feet purplish red." Wings $ 148, 152, 
$ 140 mm. Young shot February and March badly moulting body plumage, 
wings, and tail. 

14. Henicophaps foersteri R. & H. 

Henicoplmps foerslen Rothschild & Hartert, Bidl. B.O. Club, xix, p. 28 (1906 — Massawa, New Britain), 

Nov. Zool. 1911, p. 168, pi. i. 
Reinwardtoenas bleyi W. Meyer. Orn. Monatsber. 1909, p. 36 (Toriu and Kambair, New Britain). 

It is strange that this striking bird with its glossy wings was not discovered 
before 1905, as a good deal of collecting had been done in New Britain. Probably 
its real home is not in the Gazelle Peninsula, but in the main portion of the island. 
It seems that no specimens are known except the type in Tring, one in the Munich 
Museum, and the types of Father Meyer. Now Albert Eichhorn sent 2 males 


and 1 female, from Talasea, shot February, March, and April. He found it rare 
mostly living on the ground. " Iris dark brown, bill blackish, distal part of lower 
light horn-colour, feet dull purplish red." The males have larger bills and are 
underneath nearly white, with a reddish-brown tinge on the crop. The female 
has a smaller bill, and the whole underside tinged with rusty brown. This 
shows that the type was also a female. Wings of the Talasea males 202, 203, of 
the female 197 mm. 

15. Chalcophaps stephani stephani Rchb. 

Eichhorn found this Pigeon common, feeding on seeds off the ground. He 
sent a series shot from January to March. A young female in first plumage was 
shot January 21. Mostly in good plumage, but some February and March 
specimens moult on body, wings, or tail. 

16. Macropygia amboinensis carteretia Bp. 

Terra typiea : New Ireland. Of. Nov. Zool. 192"). p. 119. 

Common near Talasea, fruit-eating (Eichhorn). Young and old from 
January to March, some moulting. 

17. Macropygia rufa rufocastanea Rams. 

Cf. antea, p. 43. 

Eichhorn found this species rare at Talasea and sent only one female shot 
May 1, 1925. My surmise that this species must occur on New Britain (antea 
p. 43) has been fulfilled, though only one was obtained. 

18. Dupetor flavicollis nesophilus (Sharpe). 
Two beautiful males, March and April. 

19. Nycticorax caledonicus mandibularis Grant (?). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 285, 1924, p. 199. 

Rare at Talasea, feeding at night, according to Eichhorn. One adult female 
shot 7 . iii. 1925. Iris yellow. Wing 286, of a male shot on New Britain by 
Kleinschmidt 277, of one from New Hanover (Webster coll., not sexed) 283 mm. 
As specimens from the Solomon Islands have wings of 250 ($), 257 (cj), 268 (<J), 
269 ($), and 255 ($), it seems that the Night Herons from the Bismarck Archi- 
pelago are a longer winged subspecies, but more measurements are required to 
confirm this ! The long ornamental occipital plumes are white with a rufous 
tinge at base, tip, and outer webs, in the Talasea specimen. 

20. Henicopernis longicauda inhiscatus Gurney. 

Henicopemix infuscata Gurney, Ibis, 1882, p. 128 (Blanche Bay, New Britain, type in Liverpool 
Museum, ex coll. Tristram). 

Two specimens of this very rare bird were shot in January and February. 
Eichhorn says it was rare, only one other having been seen ; one sees it among 
the tree tops and it feeds on tree-lizards, etc. Other birds take no notice of it, 
except the Drongos. 

Novitates Zoolootcae XXXIII. 1926. 127 

I treat infuscatus as a subspecies of longicauda, because it has the essential 
features of the latter, the same markings of the head, the same markings of the 
wing-quills and rectrices ; but it is a much smaller and blacker, somewhat 
" melanistic " form ; the back and rump are black, but the scapulars show the 
same concealed greyish-brown bars as longicauda ; the underside, which is 
creamy white, striped with black in longicauda, is black with white bases and 
whitish spots and edges to some of the feathers ; under wing-coverts like the 
breast ; thighs pale brownish yellowish with blackish central longitudinal marks 
and a few whitish patches. " Iris bright yellow ; bill pale slate, or light horn, 
tip blackish ; feet dull bluish white." 

Wings $ 340, <$ 355, tail 255 mm. 

Stresemann has suggested that Henicopernis should not be separated from 
Pernis. Being a confirmed genus-lumper I should like to agree with him, but 
cannot go as far as that. The nostril in Pernis is an oblique slit, almost closed 
by an operculum, while in Henicopernis it is an almost perpendicular oval hole, 
the lores in Pernis are covered with the often described scale-like feathers — the 
most characteristic peculiarity of the Honey Buzzards — while in Henicopernis 
the lores are bare with a few isolated tiny apologies for feathers, nothing like 
the scaly feathers of Pernis. 

Unfortunately — as of many Papuan birds — we know next to nothing of the 
habits and food of this, but Eichhorn says that H. I. infuscatus feeds on tree- 
lizards, which may, of course, be only one of its prey. 

Hitherto this bird has always been called Henicopernis infuscata, but Pernis 
admittedly being masculine, Henicopernis must follow suit. 

21. Accipiter luteoschistaceus Rothsch. & Hart. 

Accipiter luteoschistaceus Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 53 (Jan. 1926 — Talasea, 
New Britain). 

This new Accipiter has the upperside dark slate-colour, the underside buff, 
on the chest, especially the sides, narrowly cross-barred, in one with brown, in 
the other with grey bars. Under wing-coverts uniform buff, primaries pale 
buff towards the base on the inner webs which have slaty-blackish cross-markings. 
Inner secondaries and scapulars towards the base chiefly white. Wings and tail 
outwardly like the back ; rectrices on the inner webs towards the base buffish 
with slaty cross-bars. Wings 187 and 190, tail 130, 143, middle toe 28 mm. 
" Bill black, feet dark or orange yellow." Cere not described on labels, but 
bright orange in the skins. Two males were shot at Talasea on March 12 and 
April 21, 1925. 

This interesting new Accipiter is nearest allied to A. soloensis ; in the latter, 
however, I have not seen such cross-barring on the chest ; the tarsus in A. 
soloensis (in males) measures about 40, in luteoschistaceus quite 50 mm. The 
second primary in soloensis equals the fifth, in luteoschistaceus the seventh ; the 
tip of the wing is much larger in soloensis, shorter in luteoschistaceus, in which the 
fourth and fifth (not the third and fourth) primaries are longest, the third and 
sixth only about 4 mm. shorter — not 15 to 20 mm. as in soloensis. The bill is 
much larger in luteoschistaceus. Notwithstanding great similarity between the 
two birds (especially in the markings of the inner secondaries) it would be 

Ills Novitates Zoolooii AS XXX11I. 1926. 

unjustifiable and rash to treat them as subspecies. Eichhorn says it was rare 
and not easily stalked. 

22. Accipiter novaehollandiae dampieri (Guru.).' 

Urospiziae dampieri Gurney, Ibis, lssi. p. 4">:i (New Britain). 

Accipiter hiogaster roohi Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1914 p. 288 (Rook Island). 

In Mil 4 we had no good material from New Britain, while now we have 
received a wonderful series, 8 adult males and females from that island. This 
clearly proves that we were wrong in our conclusions in 1914, when we believed 
that the New Britain form was larger than the Rook Island birds. The males 
from New Britain have wings of 189-200, females of 219-232 mm., and the wings 
of the Rook males measure 192 and 195 mm. (no females available). Thus 
Reichenow's of $ 185-195, $ 215-225 agree also quite well, but Gurney's of 
<J 209, $ 232-240 surpass our measurements. 

It seems that a slightly larger (longer-winged) form is found on Manus and 
St. Matthias Island, as we measure males 200, 204, 212, and one female 237 mm., 
but these differences are so variable and surpass ours from New Britain birds in 
the extremes only, that we (Lord Rothschild fully agrees with me in this case) 
do not venture to separate the birds from Manus and St. Matthias Island, unless 
at any future time larger series should show that the birds from these northern 
islands really reach larger measurements. The females from New Britain show 
all more or less obvious traces of whitish bars on the underside : the female from 
Manus is uniform, except for one white bar on one feather. 

The iris is described by Eichhorn as dark brown, bill black, feet cadmium ; 
the cere has obviously been yellow, and on one of the labels on a Rook Island 
bird it is described as yellow. 

Eichhorn says it is common and lives on " birds, lizards, etc." 

23. Haliastur indus girrenera (Vieill). 
Fairly common. One adult female and one juv. shot in March, both in 
partial moult. 

24. Baza subcristata bismarckii Sharpe. 

Three adults shot in February and March. The one from 10. ii and one of 
the March specimens moult wings, tail, and body plumage. 

25. Falco severus severus Horsf. 

An adult female Talasea 31. i. 1925. "Iris dark brown. Bill black and 
slaty blue. Feet lemon yellow." 

I am unable to separate this bird from typical severus. Cf. Nov. Zool. 
1915, pp. 49, 50. 

Eichhorn says it was " very rare." This Falcon seems to be rare on all 

1 I fully accept, as far as it noes, for the present the classification "f the species Accipiter 
fasciatns ami Accipiter novaehollandiae, as proposed by Stresemann, Journ. f. tlrn. 1925. ]>. 323. 
At. first glance it seems very strange, hut astudy of these birds reveals the sense of this grouping. 
There are thus subspecies of A. novaehollandiae the following forms : nil,!, mar. pulchellus, rufo- 
schiataceus, bovgainvilUi, dampieri t mieorieneia, leucosamus, cooktoirni, iaa-a. Itolla/aliar, <jr/*ra<jul<in«, 
obiensi*. tnarhji. /lallidirc/).-: liioaaxtrr. alhircntris. palinmitus, sylrcstris, suntbaensia. 

Nov]T\tes Zoological XXXII], 1926. 1--' 

islands where it occurs. This is the first we receive from the islands of the 
Bismarck Archipelago, where it has been recorded from New Britain and the 
Duke of York group only. Dahl only saw it once on New Britain, Heinroth did 
not come across it. In all the collections from the Solomon Islands we received 
it only once ; even on the Sunda Islands it seems to be rare. It is a true 
" Hobby." The food consists chiefly or entirely of insects. 

26. Ninox odiosa Scl. 

Ninox odiosa Selater, Proc. Zool. Sac. London, 1877. p. 108 (New Britain, Brown coll., type in 
Brit, itfus.). 

This Owl is only known from New Britain, where it does not seem to be 
rare, having been collected on the Gazelle Peninsula by Brown, Kleinschmidt, 
Finsch, Kubary, Dahl, and Heinroth. 

Eichhorn found it at Talasea and sent 4 adults from February, March, and 
April. He says they have a long continuous call, sometimes lasting three 
minutes. He found the iris bright yellow, bill slaty, tip and culmen greenish 
yellow. Wing <? 178, 183, 187, ? 171, 174 mm. 

There is no known ally of N. odiosa in the Papuan fauna but the Celebes 
N. punctulata ; the latter, however, differs in having on the abdomen cross-bars 
or spots, instead of shaft-lines or sagittate markings, in having the tarsus feathered 
a little more down to the toes, no large white spots on the wing-coverts and 
scapulars, and in having the iris dark chestnut or chocolate brown, instead of 
bright yellow. 

27. Cacatoes galerita ophthalmica (Scl.). 

Cacatua ophthalmica Selater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864. pp. 188, 189 ('" Solomon Islands." errore ! 
Terra typica New Britain !). 

Only known from New Britain ! Differs from C. g. triton in the shorter 
crest, composed of wider and not upturned (convex), but slightly concave feathers, 
if viewed from above ; in both forms the colour of the naked ring around the 
eyes is described as blue, but in all our skins of " triton " it is dried yellowish, 
while in the ophthalmica it appears slate, more or less spotted with yellowish. 
Iris brown. Bill and feet slaty black. Wings rj 283-300, $ 273-289 mm. 
Eichhorn found it rather common and sent a fine series. It is one of the most 
interesting birds of New Britain, showing that this island, by far the richest in 
species in the Bismarck Archipelago, has more Papuan elements than the other 
islands, and the farther the latter are removed from New Guinea the poorer they 
are in species. 

28. Micropsitta pusio pusio (Scl.). 

Nasitema pusio Selater. Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1865. p. 620. pi. 35 (substituted type locality: 
Duke of York Is. The originally given locality " Solomon Islands " of cpurse incorrect I. 

For a long time I have wished for fresh material of typical pusio, and at last 
have received 4 New Britain specimens, 3 males and 1 female. These clearly 
show that our M. p. salvadorii is well distinguishable by its more or less yellow 
superciliary stripe, but I now consider that this form ranges from the Weylandt 
Mountains and the Mamberano River along the north coast of Papua, including 
the Vulcan and Dampier Islands, and extends southwards to S.E. New Guinea : 


Milne Bay, Aroa River, Kumusi River. Three rather poor specimens, one quite 
young, from Fergusson Island, D'Entrecasteaux group, may belong to a different 
subspecies, more like .1/. pusio pusio, but perhaps darker green on the underside. 

Unfortunately I have not seen the type of M. beccarii. It is from Wairor 
on the west coast of Geelvink Bay, almost opposite Ron Island, but a little 
farther north ; another specimen from Wandammen was considered the same 
by Salvadori : we have three, unfortunately very bad specimens, a male and 
2 females, from the little island of Ron in Geelvink Bay, close to Wandammen 
and not far from Wairor, which, one should think, would be beccarii, but the 
description (and the figure in Gould's Birds of New Guinea) does not agree ; our 
Ron specimens, collected by William Doherty, have the sides of the occiput 
3'ellowish, like salvadorii, and certainly not " brunneo-olivaceis " as described by 

A specimen (not sexed), collected by A. S. Anthony in the Owen Stanley 
Mts. (•• Kotoi district"), already mentioned, Nov. Zool., 1901, p. 81, under 
" Nasitema pusio," is so brightly coloured, that it is not impossible that it forms 
a separate mountain subspecies, and future collectors in that district should try 
to obtain a series. 

The Micropsitta from St. Aignan and Sudest Island in the Louisiade group, 
which we formerly united with M . pusio pusio (of which we had no adequate 
material), are almost exactly like the birds from S.E. New Guinea which we now 
consider to belong to salvadorii, but have much longer wings. 

Wings from New Guinea measure 60 (?) to 65 (<J), rarely 66, once 68. 
Twenty-five measured. 

Wings in the Sudest and St. Aignan specimens from 64 and 65 (?) to 69-70 
((J). Eighteen measured. 

I therefore propose to call the long-winged Louisiade subspecies 

Micropsitta pusio stresemanni subsp. no v. 

Type: $ ad. Mt. Riu or Rattlesnake, Sudest I., 8.iv.l916. No. 7343, 
A. S. Meek coll. 

Eichhorn found this little Parrot somewhat rare at Talasea. Three of the 
specimens were shot in February, one in April. Wings 59-61 mm. Two February 
specimens moult on the tail. These birds, according to Eichhorn, build their 
nests in white ants' nests ; on St. Matthias Island a nest with young of Microp- 
halli meeki proximo was found not more than !» inches from the ground. 

My friend Stresemann described the pusio from Finschhafen (Kai Peninsula) 
as Micropsitta pusio rothschildi (Archiv f. Naturg., 89a, Heft 7 & S, 1923), 
correctly stating how it differs from M. p. pusio, except that he did not mention 
the yellowish colour on the supereiliurn and sides of the occiput, which is the 
characteristic difference of M. p. salvadorii. He kindly sent me the type-speci- 
mens, and I am *orry to say I cannot separate these birds from our series from 
S.E. New Guinea which in my opinion should be united with our M. pusio salva- 
dorii. If the series is laid out it seems as if the specimens from the Ambernoh 
River and Humboldt Bay, together with those from the Kai Peninsula (Finsch- 
hafen and Bassa Bay), have the underside more yellowish, but this is a rather 
variable character, some from S.E. Papua being equally yellow, while the Vulcan 
Island ones are greener again than the Finschhafen and other north coast examples. 


I am therefore afraid that all the birds from the Ambernoh River and Takar and 
Weylandt Mountains to S.E. Papua, including Stresemann's rothschildi, must 
be united — and it remains to be confirmed if they differ well from beccarii. 

29. Charmosynopsis placentis pallidior R. & H. 

Cf. Nor. Zool. 1924. p. 201. 

Common at Talasea. February and March specimens sent. 
30. Lorius roratus goodsoni Hart. 

Loriua roratus goodsoni Hartert, Nor. Zool. 1924, p. 123 (Manns) ; cf. t.c. p. 203, 1925, p. 125, and 

The series of 4 £ and 5 $ from Talasea is not distinguishable from Manus 
specimens, except that the bills of several of the females and one male are smaller, 
thus showing a tendency towards L. r. solomonensis. 

The wings of the males measure 240-255 mm , exactly as our Manus speci- 
mens, while the females have wings of 222 to 241 mm. (230-240 on Manus). 

Eichhorn found this Parrot very common and a pest of the gardens ; he says 
they even attack the taro in the ground ; nests in hollow trees. 

31. Domicella hypoinochroa devittata (Hart.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1898, p. 530, 1924, p. 201, 1925. p. 122. 

This common Parrot was frequent at Talasea. A series sent from January : 
half of them moult the wing-feathers, a few the tails and their coverts. Two 
specimens have the black bars on the under wing, which are as a rule absent in 
D. h. devittata ; one of them is quite young, the other is older, but also juvenile ; 
apparently the black bar is an ancestral character, still present in young and very 
exceptionally indicated in old birds. 

32. Geoffroyus heteroclitus (Hombron et Jacq.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 201. 

Eichhorn found this species common at Talasea. He says "' that their call, 
while in flight, has an aeolian sound," and that, like other Parrots, they live on 
fruit and make their nest-holes in rotten trees. He sent a series, shot in January, 
February, and April. They are mostly in good fresh plumage. A juvenile male, 
shot January 26, moults wings and body plumage ; the crown is blue-grey 
mixed with yellow, the coming feathers being yellow. 

33. Trichoglossus haematodes aberrans Rohw. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 123. 

Two from February, one April. One female has much narrower dark edges 
to the feathers of the breast than the other female and a male ; the narrow 
edges, however, are worn off. The two February specimens moult wings, tail, 
and body plumage, the April one tail and breast. 

Eichhorn found it not rare, and says it eats " honey," by which evidently 
nectar is meant. 


34. Halcyon chloris tristrami Layard. 

Halcyon tristrami Layard, IhU, 1880, p. 460, pi. xv (" Makira harbour, we believe." Evidently the 
belief thai tbis biril came from Makira harbour, on the island of San Christoval. was erroneous, 
as the description and figure are certainly not taken from San Christoval specimens, but autre 
best with New Britain ones, and the types in the Tristram collection, now in Liverpool, are 
marked as coming from Blanche Bay. New Britain. Therefore Blanche Bay. New Britain, 
should be regarded as the typical locality of //. tristrami. See Nov. Zool. 1905. p. 256 !). 

We have at last received a scries of eight real tristrami from New Britain ; 
these, in connection with the fine material of other forms of the tristrami group 
of these Kingfishers, enable me to review the various forms profitably. In opposi- 
tion to my former views I now treat them as subspecies of Halcyon chloris. The 
belief that two forms of H. tristrami and chloris were found in one and the same 
locality was evidently due to the insufficient material formerly available, and 
the misleading conception of these birds in the Cat. B. Brit. Mus.. xvii. Cf. 
Nov. Zool., 1925, pp. 125-127. 

(1) Halcyon chloris tristrami Layard. 

Terra typica Xew Britain. See above ! 

Abdomen bright rufous, gradually paling off to almost white on the throat, 
sometimes paler from having a white patch in the middle of the abdomen, but 
flanks and under wing-coverts remain always rufous. Possibly the birds from 
the Gazelle Peninsula have longer wings, measuring 106-111, once 116 mm., 
while those from Ta'asea are all 105-107 mm. long. (Two specimens from 
Fauro in the Solomon group, with wings of 105 and 107 mm., are indistinguishable 
from tristrami. but must belong to alberti. All statements of occurrences else- 
where than on New Britain will be wrong ; in the Solomon Islands represented 
by alberti — if separable — and solomonis.) 

(2) Halcyon chloris alberti Pv. & H. 

Halcyon tristrami alberti Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1905, p. 256 (type: Kulambangra !). 

Inhabits Kulambangra, Rendova. Vella Lavella, Guadalcanar, Isabel, Gizo, 
Bougainville — and must also be the Fauro form. Twenty-nine specimens 
before me. 

This form is a very close ally of H. c. tristrami ; when it was described we 
did not understand its variability and how close it is to tristrami. It might by 
some ornithologists be united with tristrami, but crown and wings are deeper 
blackish and blue, and the rump is deeper blue than in any tristrami we have, 
i.e. our 8 from Talasea and 2 from the Gazelle Peninsula received in exchange 
from Berlin ; strange to say the two Fauro specimens have the rump as pale 
as in the New Britain tristrami. 

Wings 102-111, mostly 104-108 mm. 

(3) Halcyon chloris solomonis Rams. 

Halcyon solomonis Ramsay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vi, p. s:!.'l (1SS2 — no locality stated, but in 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vii, p. 21. Ugi and St. Christoval are said to be the localities, and 
the distinctive characters are very well stated). Nov. Zool. \'.r2.~>. p. 126. 

Halcyon perplexa Rothschild & Hartert. Nov. Zool. 1008, p. 361 (San Christoval). 

Seems to be restricted to the island of San Christoval, Solomon group, and 
its satellites (Ugi, and perhaps others). 


Very easily distinguished from the forms mentioned above. Very much 
smaller, wings 93-95 mm. No concealed white patch on the nape ! Upperside 
of a different, somewhat lighter blue. Underside white, but sides of body and 
a large patch on sides of breast cinnamon, nearly forming a band across the 
breast. Lores, small patch behind eye (which is not found in tristrami and 
alberti !), and nuchal collar cinnamon, but in some specimens white, also without 
cinnamon on underside. 

Though this form is sc very different I have no doubt that it is a subspecies 
of chloris. I explained before that this form was already described in vol. vi of 
the Proc. Linn. Soc. N.8. Wales, and that perplexa is a synonym ! 

(4) Halcyon chloris nusae Heinr. 

Halcyon nusae. Heinroth. Joum.f. Orn. 1902, p. 437, pi. viii. fig. 2 and other small islands and 
New Hanover, and near north coast of New Hanover) ; Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 205, 1926, p. 38. 

Common on New Hanover and Feni Island, the small islands between New 
Hanover and New Ireland — probably also parts of New Ireland, but in the 
S.W. part it is represented by H. c. novaehibemiae. 

The white patch on the occiput is present again and often more developed 
and less concealed ; differs from tristrami chiefly in the blackish and sometimes 
dull greenish (less bluish) black crown. Upper back, scapulars, and upper wing- 
coverts darker, more greenish ; underside and nuchal collar white, the latter 
sometimes buff or light cinnamon, in which cases there is also a pale cinnamon 
patch on the sides of the chest. 

Wings 105-110, once (a Feni specimen) 115 mm. 

(5) Halcyon chloris novaehibemiae Hart. 

Halcyon tristrami novaehiberniat Sartert, Nov. Zool. xxxii, p. 125 (1925 — S.W. New Ireland). 

Only known from south-western New Ireland. 

Differs from tristrami in having shorter wings, 102-107 mm., underside, 
lores, and collar white, with or without a faint buff tinge, bill shorter : 35-39 mm. 
from end of frontal feathering. 

Differs from nusae in having the wing shorter, the nuchal white patch 
apparently not larger than in tristrami, the scapular bluer, rump of a somewhat 
deeper blue. 

(6) Halcyon chloris stresemanni Laubm. 

Halcyon chloris stresemanni Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xv, p. 391 (1923 — " Franzosische 
Inseln im Bismarck-Archipel "). 

Very near to novaehibemiae, but wings 107-110, bill larger ! Crown of head 
not so black as is freshly plumaged adult nusae, wings, rump, outside of quills 
and tail deeper blue ! Underside white, but lower abdomen light cinnamon, 
gradually whitening towards the breast ; nuchal band white or white. So far 
only known from the French Islands (Witu), but a specimen from Rook Island, 
which Rothschild and I, Nov. Zool., 1914, p. 212, called " Halcyon tristrami 
tristrami," is indistinguishable from our series from Witu. 

Eichhorn found the H. c. tristrami common at Talasea and says that it 
makes a nest hole high up in rotten tree trunks. The specimens he sent were 
shot in February and March. Some March specimens are in badly worn 


plumages and moult body plumage, 2 also tails and 1 primaries ; on the breasl 
fresh-coming feathers are considerably darker cinnamon than the old faded 
worn ones. 

Halcyon pachyrhynchus Rchw., Orn. Monatsber. 1898, p. 48. from New Britain. 
is, of course, the young trietrami. This was known to Reichenow in 1899, as he 
placed the name correctly in the synonymy of II. c. tristrami, and it would perhaps 
not have been necessary to repeat it here, if in the description it had not been 
compared with H. vagans, or more correctly Halcyon chloris sanctus from far-away 
New Zealand. 

35. Halcyon albonotata Rams. 

Halcyon al " nnolata Ramsay. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1884, p. 863 (New Britain), 

This very rare bird was found by no means common, but Eichhorn managed 
to get 7 specimens at Talasea, in February, March, and April ; he says it makes 
its nests in white ants' nests on trunks of trees. The iris is dark brown, bill black, 
feet black ; one female has some whitish colour on the under mandible. 

The male has the back white from the upper back to the tail-coverts in- 
clusive ; in the female only the upper back is white, the lower back and rump 
are purplish blue, these purplish blue feathers reaching over the short white upper 
tail-coverts. Under surface entirely white in both sexes. Wings <J 82-85, 
$ 82-82-5 mm. On both sides of the forehead, just behind the nostrils, is a 
white spot. The crown is rich blue, on the sides lighter and more ultramarine ; 
a black (not blue !) band from the lores over the ear-coverts and narrowly en- 
circling the blue crown. Scapulars and wing-coverts deep purplish blue, rather 
different from the crown. A more or less concealed white patch on the nape. 
Under wing-coverts white, on the under primary coverts a small dusky patch, 
varying in size. 

The nearest ally is Halcyon leucopygia from the Solomon Islands, in which 
the sexes differ in the same way. In the latter, however, the crown is of the 
same colour as the scapulars, there are no white spots on the forehead, and there 
is on each side of the rump a reddish-lilac patch ; this colour also covers the 
under tail-coverts, which are white in H. albonotata ; H. leucopygia is also some- 
what larger. 

(Halycon toriu Meyer, Orn. Monatsber. 1909, p. 34, from the Toriu River in the 
Gazelle Halbinser, New Britain, is H. macleayi.) 

3C Halcyon sancta sancta Vig. & Horsf. 
This winter-visitor from Australia was found common in April and May. 
Most of the specimens sent are moulting, some in April already in beautiful 
fresh plumage, others in quite worn old garb, some juvenile. 

37. Tanysiptera sylvia nigriceps Sol. 

(Tanysiptera sylvia sylvia from Australia and 7'. Sylvia salvadorina from New Guinea are closely 
allied ; if only subspecies the New Britain form must be called T . sylvia nigriceps ; the latter 
has the crown black, the other two blue : sylvia lias the upperside blue, while in nigriceps and 
salvadorina only the wings are blue, and in salvadorina the patch on the interscapulium is 
brownish buff, but fades considerably in worn plumage.) 

Tanysiptera nigriceps Sclatcr, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877. p. 105 (Duke of York Is.). 

Eichhorn sent a fine series of 11 of this species, shot from January to March. 
February 18 and March 23, young birds were shot. The sexes are perfectly 


similar ; the tails vary in length, but not according to sex. The longest middle 
rectrices I measure 175 ; the shortest, in a full-grown male, 145 mm. The iris is 
marked as dark brown, bill deep red, feet dull yellowish, dull greenish yellow, 
one dull reddish yellow. In the young the bill is brown, the under mandible 
only yellowish. In the young the feathers of the crown are black as in the 
adult, but those of the nape and a line from above the eyes have blue tips. The 
patch on the interscapular region is buff, or pale rufous brown ; in the adults 
this patch is white, but generally with a faint buff tinge in front. The outer 
webs of the elongated rectrices are blue, the inner ones white, while in T. sylvia 
leucura Neum., from Rook Island, all rectrices are perfectly white in fully adult 

Eichhorn found this Tanysiptera fairly common at Talasea. 

(With other birds supposed to have been collected on New Ireland we 
received many years ago a T. s. nigriceps, but as nobody else has found it there, 
and it was not labelled, this locality cannot be credited ; while in that collection 
were mostly undoubted New Ireland specimens, a few others in it were obviously 
not from there.) 

38. Ceyx lepida sacerdotis Rams. 

Ceyx sacerdotis Ramsay, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Zool. xvi. p. 128 (1822 — New Britain). 

Eichhorn sent a very welcome series of 10 specimens from the Talasea dis- 
trict. We possess'ed only a bad skin collected by Heinroth and 7 from Rook 
Island. The latter, shot in July and August, are in magnificent fresh plumage, 
while the Talasea ones, collected from January to April, are more or less 
worn and some begin to moult. It seems for this reason that the shining ultra- 
marine spots to the tips of the feathers of the crown are larger in the Rook 
examples, smaller in the Talasea ones, in which they are worn down. The 
Talasea birds range not quite so large as the Rook examples ; while on Rook 
Island the wings measure 60-65 (the latter only once), in the Talasea ones they 
are 60-61, in the one from Ralum 61 mm. Also the bills on Rook Island range 
from 32-35 (measured from the nostril), on New Britain 30-32-5 mm. I do not 
venture to separate the Rook form for this reason, as larger series might show 
that these differences are not constant. 

I have already (Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 213) shown that only the lower mandible 
can be described as " red," the upper being brown or blackish ; in the Cat. B., 
xvii, p. 184, Sharpe described the Solomon Islands form which Rothschild & 
Hartert named Ceyx lepida collectoris. 

Eichhorn says these birds were not common and made their nests in the 
form of holes in a bank, also that they lived in the scrub, not on water. 

39. Alcedo atthis pelagica Stres. 

One pair sent. 

Eichhorn found them inhabiting rivers, creeks, or mangrove swamps, 
and says they tunnel a hole, about 15 inches deep, in a bank, and that they 
five on fish. 

136 Novitates Zoologicae XXX1I1. 1926 

40. Scythrops novaehollandiae Lath. 

Scythropa novaehdttandiat Latham, Index Orn, i, p. 141 (1790- near Sydney, N.S. Wales). 

Eichhorn sent 2 males, one with a much smaller bill than the other. He 
saw very few, generally with 2 crows in hot pursuit. It is known (Otto Meyer, 
P. Schumm) that the crow is the foster-parent in New Britain — as it is in 
Australia. Mathews separated a western subspecies, but it does not seem to be 
tenable. Eichhorn marked the eye as dark red. 

41. Cuculus optatus Gould. 
Cuculns optatus Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. London, 1845, p. 18 (" Port Essington, Australia"). 

Three adults, all three marked as males, 12. i. 1925 and 10. ii. 1925. The 
two February specimens moult their body plumage. Of course migrants from 
Siberia or North China, etc. 

42. Eudynamis scolopacea salvadorii Hart. 

Eiidynamis orit ntalis salvadorii Hartert. Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 232 (" New Britain and New Ireland "). 

(A specimen said to be from New Ireland, which came with many other 
New Ireland birds, was made the type ; as, however, nobody else seems to have 
got this bird from New Ireland, it is possible that the type had come from Duke 
of York Is., or New Britain.) 

Three males from March, one female from April ; they are quite typical. The 
wings of the males measure 207 and 217, one is moulting, $ 214 mm. Iris males 
bright red, $ dark reddish brown ; bill males slaty blue, female dull bluish grey 
and black ; feet slate. 

Eichhorn says it is " common." 

43. Cacomantis variolosus macrocercus Stres. 

Nov. Zool. 1925, pp. 127, 168. 

Eichhorn sent a fine series of 8 adult and 1 juv., all marked as males. Their 
wings measure 119, 125, 126 (three times), and 130 (twice) mm. One is moulting 
on the outer primaries. Under tail-coverts chestnut-rufous in all, under-surface 
grey, belly more or less rufous, abdomen grey, inmost specimens with a varying 
amount of rufous tinge. Under wing-coverts light chestnut-rufous to pale rufous, 
" Iris brown ; bill black, base of mandible brown, feet dull yellow and brown, or 
brownish yellow." 

A young in first plumage was shot April 27. 

Eichhorn says it is common and feeds on caterpillars. 

44. Chalcites lucidus lucidus (Gm.). 

<f. Nov. Zool. 1925. p. 159. 

1 $, 2 $$. Talasea 28, 29. iv. 1925. 

Eichhorn says it seems to be migratory. It is indeed a winter visitor from 
New Zealand. 


45. Centropus ateralbus Less. 

Nov. Zool, 1925. p. 127 ; Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 50 (January 1926). 

Eichhorn sent a remarkable series of 19 skins in many different colorations. 
Lord Rothschild has described these variations in Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, and I 
have mentioned some in Nov. Zool. xxxii. 

The " normal " plumage is undoubtedly blue-black, throat, chest, and a 
wide ring round the neck buffy white — also most of the primary coverts white, 
and tins white patch occurs in all varieties, even if the white on throat, chest, 
and neck is replaced by black, though in that case single whitish feathers are 
usually seen irregularly here and there. In the series from New Britain are a 
number of brownish white and pearl-grey specimens, described by Lord Roth- 
schild, I.e. Among the whitish-grey specimens is a young in first plumage. The 
iris of adults is dark red (in one case marked as dark brown), in young birds 
brown or bluish grey. The bill is black in adults, under mandible and tip of 
upper light horn-brown in young birds. 

Eichhorn found the species common, living, as described by Dahl, from the 
ground to the highest trees, from which they " plane " down. 

46. Centropus violaceus Quoy et Gaim. 

Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 127. 

Eichhorn sent a series of 8 adults, mostly males. The females don't appear 
to differ from the males. The iris is red (" dark red," " bright red "), bill black, 
feet " dull white, whitish slate, slaty bluish." The tails of all these are shorter 
than in the one we had from New Ireland (typical locality), which has a tail of 
410 mm., while the tails of the Talasea birds measure (full-grown ones only 
measured) 320, 330, 325, 350, 350, 365 mm., females not smaller ; wings 253, 
253, 256, 275, 285 mm. It is therefore possible that the New Ireland form has 
a longer tail, in which case the one from New Britain must receive a new name. 

Eichhorn calls it " uncommon but not rare," and says that it frequents 
places thick with vines or twining ferns, and that they " work up to the top of 
the trees, and then plane down," exactly as it is described of Centropus ateralbus. 
Mostly seen in pairs, timid, loud booming call, bad fliers. 

The specimens were shot January to April ; most of them show moulting 
feathers in tail and wings. 

47. Eurystomus orien talis crassirostris Scl. 

Euri/slomns crassirostris Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1869, p. 121 (Solomon Is,, errore, terra typica 
New Britain— ef. Nov. Zool. 1903, p. 197). 

Five specimens, January, February, and April. 

So far, I have found the differences between crassirostris neohanoveranus 
(sic) and solomonensis quite good, but an adult female (No. 9675) from Talasea, 
shot January 12, has an (? abnormally) large bill, with a very small black tip 
and the purplish-blue forehead of neohanoveranus. As 3 of the others have 
the upper bill (maxilla) mostly blackish, we cannot say that we have an adequate 
series from New Britain. If No. 9675 is a normal adult, the New Britain form 
(crassirostris) would not differ from neohanoveranus, except by the black tips to 
the maxilla, which is, however, sometimes found in New Hanover ! In our large 


13S \..\1TATKS Zoological XXXIIt. 1926. 

series of supposed crassirostris from New Guinea 1 have not found one with a 

bill so large as in No. 9675, nor one with a purplish forehead. The other speci- 
mens from Xiu Britain can, however, not be satisfactorily separated from the 
Papuan series. Is now the No. 9675 a stray bird from New Hanover ? Hardly 
possible, as from the French Islands we received what we call typical crassiroatria, 
like the Papuan birds. 

48. Merops ornatus Lath. 

A series from end of March and April, some in juvenile plumage. 

Eichhorn finds this Australian bee-eater common on the coast. He says they 
arrive end of March and in April, and leave New Britain in September and October, 
that is, at the end of the north-west and by the end of the south-east monsoon 
respectively ; they have special roosting-trees. — There is no proof whatever 
that they ever nest on these islands ! April specimens begin to moult, but an 
adult male from March 31 has already fully moulted middle rectrices. 

49. Caprirnulgus macrurus alholaxatus R. & H. 

Caprimulgus macrurus alholaxatus Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1918, p. 323 (Xcw Britain to 
Vulcan Island, type Vulcan Island); Stiesemmm, Archivf. Naturg. 89, Abt. A, 7. and 8. Heft, 1923. 

Two males from Talasea, May 1925. The white on the inner web of the first 
primary keeps about 2 to 2-5 mm. away from the shaft, the white on the outer 
tail-feathers is 55 and 60 mm. long. This subspecies is, I am afraid, only 
recognisable in series; single specimens are apparently not always very distinct. 

Eichhorn says he found it in the low countrj' on the coast. 

50. Hemiprocne mystacea aeroplanes Stres. 

Hemiprocne mystacea aeroplanes Stresemann, Anzeiger Orn. Ges. Baijern, Xo. 5, p. 38 (1921 — Xew 
Britain, type Blanche Bay). 

A series from January and February, when they were not rare. Wing 
<J 209-215, $ 210-217, but once 225 mm. ! 

51. Collocalia francica reichenowi Stres. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 128. 

1 $ad. Talasea 28. iv. 1925. 

This specimen agrees with our 3 skins from New Ireland, and I think now 
that it is the same as the Guadalcanal- (Solomon Is.) one. These birds are very 
much like Cf. eichhorni from St. Matthias Island (Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 269), but 
in the series the back is slightly darker, less brownish, while the bar across the 
rump is more brownish in reichenouri, somewhat whiter in eichhorni. 

Eichhorn says it was common, but sent only one female. 


52. Pitta macklotii gazellae Neum. 

[Pitta Macklotii 'Temminok, l'l. Col. 537 (1834 — type from Lobo, New Guinea, Salomon Midler coll.).] 
Pitta mackloti gazeUai Neumann, Orn. Monateber. 1908, p. 27 (" (Jazi-llc-Halbiosel Xeu Poramern," 

i.e. N.E. New Britain). 
( f . Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 213. 

A very fine series of 7 adults and 1 jun., with throat still partly whitish, 
lower abdomen brown. " Iris brown, light brown, or dark brown. Bill black. 

Novitates Zoological XXXITT. 192G. 139 

Feet pale slaty blue." In the young bird the mandible is brownish-horn colour. 
All collected January to March. 

Eichhorn says that one seldom sees these birds unless one whistles them up. 
Nest a ball of leaves on the ground. The native name is Ruk. It lives entirely 
on the ground, feeding on insects, larvae, etc , but ants are not recorded by any 
observer. Otto Meyer found eggs in June, September, December, and February. 

53. Hirundo tahitica frontalis Quoy et Gaim. 

Hirundo frontalis Quoy et Gaimard, Voij. Astrolabe, Zool. i, p. 204, pi. xii, fig. 1 (1830 — Dorey, New 
Guinea) ; ef. Oberholser, Bull. 86, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1917, p. 33, Stresemami. Sepik article, p. 25. 

It seems to me certain that a Papuan race, extending from New Guinea to 
New Britain and the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, must be distinguished from 
H . tahitica javanica, the red on face and throat being slightly paler, underside 
as a rule less dark, wing generally longer. It is strange that both frontalis 
(recorded as javanica.) and tahitica have been obtained in New Britain, but prob- 
ably only the former is breeding there, and H. tahitica tahitica is a visitor. I 
therefore follow provisionally the arrangement proposed by Stresemann. 

Only a single male was sent from Talasea, where Eichhorn found the species 
rare ; shot March 6, 1925. It has just completed its moult, outermost primary 
still growing. 

54. Monarcha alecto chalybeocephalus (Garnot). 

[Drymopliila alecto Tcmminek. PI. Col. 430, fig. 1 (1827 — ■" Celebes," errore ! Terra typica Ternate, 

cf. Nov. Zool. 1918, p. 315.] 
Mwscicapa chalybeocephalus Garnot, Yoy. Coquille, i. 2, p. 589, pi. 15 (1829 — Port Praslin, South 

New Ireland). 

Adult males, adult females, and 2 9 juv., January to March. The females 
of course have the npjserside of the head glossy green-black, the underside white 
with a faint rusty tinge on the belly, mandible and maxilla dark. The younger 
female has a certain amount of rust-colour on the breast, sides, and abdomen 
and part of the mandible bluish. 

Eichhorn found this species common on the coast, and saw it at 1,200 ft. 

55. Monarcha hebetior eichhorni Hart. 

Monarcha hebetior eichhorni Hartert, Nor. Zool. 1924, p. 271, 1925, p. 129 (New Ireland). 

4 $ ad., 3 ? ad., Talasea, January and February 1925. 

" Iris dark brown, bill black and chalky blue, feet black." The bill seems 
to be blue, with tip and lower mandible black. Wings ^ 81-86, $ 77-77-5 mm. 

Eichhorn says that in New Britain this is a mountain species, not occurring 
on the coast, and that the call is the same as that of M. a. chalybeocephalus. 

The various forms of blue-black Monarcha from these islands may be 
described as follows : 

Monarcha alecto chalybeocephalus. — <$ ad. Steel-blue, feathers of crown 
longer. $ ad. Top of head greenish steel-blue, underside pure white. 

Monarcha hebetior hebetior. — (J ad. Darker, more blue-black, feathers of 
crown shorter. Wings G0-62 mm. $ ad. Top of head blue-black, underside 

140 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 192B. 

white with a greyish tinge, the black liases of the feathers extending further. 
Wings 57. 60 mm. 

Monarcha hebetior eichhorni. — <J ad. Still darker, more deep blue-black, 
feathers of crown slightly longer than in hebetior, shorter than in chalybeocephalus. 
Wings 81-86. $ ad. Top of head dark ashy grey, underside ashy grey, middle 
of abdomen whitish. Wing 75-77-5 mm. 

50. Monarcha verticalis Scl. 
Cf. Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 214, 1924, p. 207, 1925, p. 120. 

Eichhorn sent a series of adult males and females and one yonng, all shot 
in February. 

It seems as if the white of the rump is more extended in the specimens from 
New Ireland and New Hanover, but as this is also the case in the birds from 
Rook Island, and as it is rather variable, I am of opinion that it is not a local 
character. One of the two females sent from Talasea has no pure white on the 
rump, and the other not very much. Females from other islands, however, are 
not distinguishable from males, and they must be correctly sexed, as it is not 
conceivable that we should never have received a female before. One female 
has small white spots to the tips of 3 of the throat feathers. Two perfectly 
adult males from New Hanover, one from Rook Island, and one from Talasea 
have small white spots to the outer or inner webs of the lateral rectrices. 

57. Rhipidura tricolor melaleuca (Quoy et Gaimard). 

Cf. Nov. Zoul. L914, p. 215, 1925, p. 130. 

Eichhorn found this flycatcher common on coastal flats and sent a series 
collected in February, March, and April, mostly moulting primaries. 

58. Rhipidura rufiventris finschii Salvad. 

Rhipidura finschii Salvador!, On. Pap. iii, p. 532 (New Britain). 
(Cf. Rhipidura rufiventris setosa, etc., Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 130.) 

Eichhorn found this bird common at Talasea and sent a series, all shot in 
January. This is a very distinct subspecies. Wings <J 84-90, $ 78-5-79 mm. 

59. Rhipidura dahli dahli Rchw. 

Rhipidura dahli Reichenow, Orn. MonatsWr. 1897, p. 7 (Ralura, New Britain); id. Mitteil. Zool. 
Samml. Berlin, i, p. 88. pi. ii, fig. 2 (1899— Ralum) ; Hartert, Nor. Zoul. 1925. p. 130. 

It is strange that this bird was not discovered before by Kleinschmidt, 
Finsch, and other collectors, and that it was left to Dahl to make it known for 
the first time. It does not seem to be particularly rare and Rhipidurce are 
somewhat conspicuous birds. Eichhorn found it fairly common at Talasea and 
sent 8 skins, one shot January 27, the others in February and March. 

These specimens agree very well with each other. All the tail-feathers have 
a large black patch before the tip ; these black patches are largest on the middle 
pair of rectrices where they vary in length from 30 to 38 mm., and they are slaty 
black and clearly visible both above and below. The top of the head, lores, and 
far-coverts are dusky brown, or a sort of umber brown. The wings measure 
^ 67-68, 9 apparently much shorter, but both moulting ! 


In Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 131, I said already that a series of males from New 
Ireland and New Britain might show differences ; this is indeed the case, and I 
am obliged to name the subspecies from New Ireland, and propose for it the 

Rhipidura, dahli antonii subsp. nov. 

in honour of Anton Reichenow, whose work on the birds of the Bismarckinseln is 
of the utmost value and usefulness to me during my studies of the birds of these 
islands ; as there is already a Rhipidura reichenowi Finsch from Babber (a very 
distinct subspecies of rufifrons), I name it by Reichenow's Christian name. 
Rhipidura dahli antonii differs from R. dahli dahli as follows : 
The blackish patches on the rectrices are less in extent, in none of our 
specimens more than 19 mm. long. ; they get much smaller and disappear 
entirely on the lateral pairs, and are not visible from underneath, also they are 
more greyish, not so dark. The lores and ear-coverts are darker. In the New 
Ireland form the tip of the middle rectrices is at least a centimetre wide, in 
R. dahli dahli only a few mm., and sometimes the black extends quite to the tip. 
Type of R. dahli antonii : $ ad. New Ireland, lS.i. 1924. No. 8975 A. F. Eich- 
horn coll., in the Tring Museum. 

60. Lalage karu falsa Hart. 

Lalage karu fah-a Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 131 (Duke of York I. New Britain, Hook I., type 
Duke of York Island). 

5 (J, 3 $ ad., collected in January. In Nov. Zool. 1925 I have stated the 
differences between L. k. karu from New Ireland, L. k. albidior from New Han- 
over, and L. k. falsa from New Britain, Duke of York, and Rook Island. The 
series from Talasea fully confirms these differences. Wings <J 95-99, $ 95, 96 mm. 

61. Turdus talasea R. & H. 

Turdiis talasea Rothschild & Hartert. Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 53 (January 1926 — Talasea. New Bril ain ). 

This fine new Thrush has the upperside greyish slate-colour, darkest on the 
head, lighter on the rump, and upper tail-coverts, the edges of the feathers with 
glossless black borders, which get narrower on the rump and disappear on the 
tail-coverts. Sides of head slaty black with white spots. Underside white, 
sides lunulated with black edges to the feathers, under tail-coverts white. Quills 
blackish brown, bases of inner webs from the third white, causing a " Geociehline 
pattern," the antepenultimate secondary with white edge to the inner web ; 
upper wing-coverts dull black, middle and largest series with big white tips, 
producing two oblique bars across the wings ; outer webs of primaries with 
greyish-brown edges ; under wing-coverts brownish black, the longest with wide 
white tips, auxiliaries about basal half white, distal half black. Rectrices slaty 
black, lateral pair with triangular white tip, occupying about half the feather, 
second pair with triangular white tip about 11 mm. long. " Iris dark brown, 
bill black, feet light horn-colour." Wing 107, tail 80 mm. 

Only a single female was obtained by Mr. Eiehhorn on February 12, 1925, 
at an altitude of 1,900 ft. It was shot off the nest, which is an oblong cone 
about 20 cm. long, built of moss, here and there interwoven with rootlets, the 
neat cup consisting entirely of fine rootlets. The 2 eggs look like small Black- 

142 Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

birds' eggs with fine rufous spots, more numerous towards the thick end. They 
are elongated and measure 2S l<)-2 and 29 L9-5 mm. 

The discovery of this new species suggests that more unknown birds might 
yet be found on New Britain. It was shot at 1,900 ft. high, while the mountains 
south-west of the Gazelle Peninsula are said to be up to 1,600 and even 2,300 m. 
high, and some near the south coasts seem still to be unexplored. 

62. Dicaeum eximium layardorum Salvad. 

Dicaeum layardorum Salvadori. Ann. Mux. Civ. Genova, xvi, p. 67 (1880 — Blanche Bay. New Britain). 

A series Talasea January to March. Eichhorn says he found it common, 
and that it " lives on the local mistletoe (parasite) berries." It seems strange 
that Dicaeum should live largely on berries, and I do not know which plant is the 
" mistletoe " of New Britain. 

The differences of the two forms, D. e. eximium of New Ireland and New 
Hanover, and D. e. layardorum of New Britain and Vuatom (teste O. Meyer) 
have been explained Nov. Zool., 1924, p. 211. The iris of D. e. layardorum is 
brownish red or reddish brown, that of D. e. eximium dark brown. 

63. Cinnyris seri3ea corinna (Salvad.). 

Hermotimia corinna Salvadori, AtH B. Accad. Set., Torino, xiii, p. 532 (1878 — Duke of York Island). 
Eichhorn found this Sunbird common in Talasea and sent a series shot from 
January to March. 

64. Cinnyris jugularis flavigastra (Gould). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 192r>. p. 134. 

A series of beautiful adults of both sexes collected March to beginning of 
May. Eichhorn says it was found " common on coastal flats." They are very 
bright, almost orange-yellow underneath. 

65. Myzomela cineracea cineracea Scl. 

My-.omela cineracea Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1879, p. 448. pi. 37 (Xew Britain) ; ef. Roth- 
schild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1914. p. 217 (Rook Island). 

Eichhorn sent 8 (only one female) shot in February, March, and April. " Iris 
dark brown. Bill black, feet slaty blue." 

As we have said in 1914, not only the young but also the adult females 
have a rosy-red chin and dark patch on the middle of the throat. 

As in other cases this topotypical series is of importance and shows that 
the birds we mentioned from Rook Island (I.e.) differ somewhat. The colour 
is the same, but in the series the bill is slightly larger, thicker, the wing, on the 
other hand, as a rule, a little shorter in the New Britain form, the bill somewhat 
weaker and the wing longer in the Rook Island form. Wing q Talasea 74-75-5, 
once 70, (>.'!. in one from the Gazelle Peninsula 65 mm. — The wings of the Rook 
(J 76-78, $ 65 mm. I therefore name the latter form 

Myzomela cineracea rooki subsp. nov. 
Type: S ad. Rook Island 24. vii. 1913. No. 5810. A. S. Meek coll. 

One is tempted, and it may perhaps be done in future, to make M . cineracea 
a subspecies of M . obscura Gould 1842, but at present it seems to me not advisable, 


because the female of M. obscura and its subspecies is like the male, only smaller, 
not showing red on the chin. 

66. Myzomela erythromelas Salvad. 

Myzomela erythromelas Salvadori, Atti R. Accad. Sc. Torino, xvi, p. 624 (1881 — Xevv Britain, dis- 
covered by Th. Kleinschmidt) : Iteichenow, Vog. d. Bismarckinseln, p. 102. 
Myzomela gueniheri, Gadow, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. p. 129, pi. iii (1884). 

Eichhorn sent 6 beautiful adult males, shot by the end of April on the 
" coastal flats '.' ; he describes the female, but did not send any. It is a somewhat 
rare bird, and is only known from New Britain. " Iris dark brown. Bill black. 
Feet slaty blue." Wings 54—56-5 mm. Some are in moult (tail and back), one 
showing some olive feathers, proving that the juvenile plumage resembles that 
of the adult female. 

07. Philemon novaeguineae cockerelli Scl. 

Philemon cockerelli Sclater, Pror. Zool. Hoc. London, 1877, p. 104 (Xew Britain) (nut " U.S. Nat. 
Mus." as given Nov. Zool. xxi. 1914, p. 216 !). 

Eight shot in January, one in April. The January specimens have a rather 
dark upperside, being in perfectly fresh plumage, the April one is a shade paler, 
while others killed in July and October are much paler, more brown, on the 
upperside. " Iris dark brown, bill black, feet slaty blue." In one specimen the 
iris is marked as "grey." Eichhorn found them common. Wings J 156-160, 
$ 155-160 mm. 

In Nov. Zool., 1914, p. 216, we have already stated that males from Rook 
Island have wings of 167-168, females of 159-163 mm. Also that they have 
rather powerful lulls. They are therefore a larger race. We said that " we 
should not be astonished to find this confirmed by comparison with a larger 
series from New Britain." As this is now the case I name the subspecies from 
Rook Island : 

Philemon novaeguineae umboi, subsp. nov. 
" Umboi " being the native name of Rook Island. 

Type : $ Rook Island, 21 . vii. 1913. No. 5763. A. S. Meek coll., collected 
by A. F. Eichhorn, in the Tring Museum. 

68. Pachycephala pectoralis fmschi Rchw. 

Of. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 132. 

Eichhorn found this species common at Talasea and sent a series from 
January and February. Two of the females show faint crossbars on the throat, 
thus reminding one superficially of the females of P. p. dahli. The crown is 
darker (more rufous) brown, or somewhat paler, more olivaceous, in a younger 
specimen (with horn-brown bill) it is more greenish. 

Wings <S 87-91, ? 85 mm. 

69. Megalurus macrurus interscapularis Scl. 

Ci. Nov. Zool. 192;",. p. 134. 

Half a dozen specimens were collected at Talasea on May 2 to 9, all in moult. 
Eichhorn calls it somewhat rare and saw the nest, " a matted ball of grass 
in tussock of grass," but he had to leave before eggs were laid. 


70. Edolisoma morio heinrothi Strea. 

Edolisoma morio heinrothi Stresemann, Orn. Monatsber. 1922, ]». 7 (Blanche Bay and Ralum in New 

5 (J, 4 $, Talasea, January to April. " Iris dark brown " in both sexes. 
Of the females only one is very old, it has a blue-grey crown, olive-brown back, 
edges to quills and upper wing-coverts chestnut, underside chestnut-rusty-buff 
with slaty-black wavy cross-bars to every feather, under tail-coverts uniform 
rusty. Of the others 3 have black bills and cannot, therefore, be exactly young, 
but they show a few juvenile wing-coverts and pointed lateral rectrices, which 
prove that they are only just out of the juvenile dress, and the crowns are still 
more or less brownish, the underside more or less paler than that of the very 
adult male. The adult males are very nearly exactly the same as the E. TO. 
remoHim, but in the series the crown is a shade darker, the bills slightly less 

E. m.remotum, rooki, and heinrothi are closely allied, and may be characterised, 
as follows : 

E. m. remolum. — <3, bill averaging slightly larger, wing 125-127 mm. 
9, underside unbarred ! Sometimes indications of bars. Habitat : New Ireland, 
New Hanover, and Feni. 

E. to. heinrothi. — £, wing 125-130, bill averaging slightly smaller. $, under- 
side heavily barred. Habitat : New Britain. 

E. to. roolci. — (J, wing 121, 122 ; 9, as heavily barred as that of heinrothi, 
but not so rufous (not darker, as Stresemann thought). Habitat : Rook Island. 

71. Graucalus lineatus sublineatus Scl. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 132. 

One female, 27. i. 1925. "Iris bright yellow, bill and feet black." Wing 
136 mm. 

Eichhorn found it rare and says it " lives among the highest tree tops." 
This may be the reason why the native " boys " who do most of the collecting 
in these parts may find it difficult to shoot them, which may account for the 
great rarity in collections. 

72. Graucalus papuensis sclateri Salvad. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 132. 

Not rare at Talasea, series sent from January to March, many moulting 
wings, tail, body. 

73. Artamus insignis Scl. 

This species, originally described from New Ireland (Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 136), 
was common at Talasea. A series was collected in January and February. 
All specimens showed moult on body, wing, or tail. 

74. Aplonis metallica nitida (Gray). 

Eichhorn observed this starling very common in Talasea. He found it nesting 
in large trees, the nests often touching each other. The nesting has been well 
described by Friedrich Dahl and Otto Meyer. A series sent from January to 


March, many moulting. This subspecies extends from St. Matthias Island and 
from Rook Island over the islands of the Bismarck archipelago to Nissan and 
Feni, and to the Solomon Islands. (On Vulcan and Dampier Islands A. metallica 
metallica.) Eats fruit. 

75. Aplonis cantoroides cantoroides (Gray). 

Common at Talasea, fruit-eating, in the coastal districts only. Nests, 
according to Eichhorn, at the base of the coconut leaves, and in all sorts of holes 
in trees. Two eggs in the clutch. Half a dozen were shot in April, one on May 8. 
The May specimen moults some rectrices, the others don't moult. A widespread 
form, from Mysol to the Bismarck Archipelago and Louisiades ; on Nissan repre- 
sented by A. c. longipennis Neum. Possibly western birds average a little longer 
in the wing. 

70. Dicrurus bract eatus laemostictus Scl. 

THcrurus laemostictus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Hoc. London, 1S77, p. I * » 1 (New Britain) ; Nov. Zool. 1914, 
p. 218 (Rook [.). 

Eichhorn sent a series from January which is very valuable to us, being from 
the original locality, New Britain. Comparing them with the Rook Island 
specimens it is obvious that the Rook birds are finer-looking, the glossy feathers 
of the crown of the head and on the chest being a shade more purplish (more 
greenish in the New Britain ones), the back and abdomen appearing deeper 
black in the Rook ones. These differences, however, do not seem to be due to 
locality, as they are not quite constant, and moreover the Rook examples are in 
finer plumage, having been shot in August, ours from New Britain in January. 

77. Mine- dumontii giliau Str. 

Mino dumontii giliau Stresemann, Journ.f. Orn. 1922, p. 406 (Ralura, New Britain). 

Stresemann separated this subspecies on account of its smaller white alar 
speculum and shorter tail from M . d. kreffti (terra typica " Solomons Is.") from 
the Solomons, New Hanover, and New Ireland. The white alar speculum is 
indeed generally much smaller in giliau, though very variable indeed. I cannot 
appreciate the supposed shorter tail, as I find specimens with tails 102 and 103 
mm., while according to Stresemann they measure only 86-98 mm. 

Eichhorn found Mino common at Talasea and collected a series in January 
and February ; all have the body plumage in moult, many also the rectrices. 
Some have the base of the feathers of the hindneck white, others grey, some have 
the plumage much more purplish, others more greenish. Such variation is not 
geographical (it mislead Berlepsch into describing " Mino dumonti violaceus "), 
and does not seem to be sexual (cf. Nov. Zool., 1925, p. 135). 

78. Corvus coronoides insularis Heinr. 

Common. Series from January to March. A young bird from March 7. 
Some February specimens moult body plumage. The sexes differ in size, males 
having a more powerful bill and longer wings. Wings $ 310-319, 5 283-290 mm, 




The types of the new forms here described are in the British Museum, with 
the exception of that of No. 7. 

l. Acorynus wallacei spec. nov. 

cJ. Robustus, brunneo-niger, luteo-griseo-pubescens, supra nigro-maculatus, 
elytris fascia transversa nigra postmediana ad latus abbreviata, ad suturam 
antrorsum producta. Rostrum longitudine vix latius, quinque-carinatum, 
carina media multo minus quam secunda elevata, tertia utriusque lateris tenuis- 
sima. Antennarum segmenta 6.-8. aequalia, 10. quadratum. Pronotum absque 
sulco transverso antemediano, dimidio basali sparsim punctato. Segmentum 
anale ventrale truncatum ((J), macula mediana parum elevata villosa notatum. 
Tibia antica apice bidentata, media mucronata. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 13 mm., lat. 5-7 mm. 

Hub. Borneo : Sarawak (Wallace), 1 $ ex coll. W. W. Saunders. 

Rostrum depressed in centre, median carina low, but distinct, its apical 
fourth broadened and flattened, second carina much higher, extending to about 
two-thirds, outside it and starting from before the end of the second a short third 
carina which does not reach apex, the lateral carina distinct only above antennal 
groove, converging with the cariniform edge of the groove. Frons narrower 
than apex of antennal segment 2 ; occiput brown in centre, impunctate. 
Antenna rufous, segment 2 shorter than 3, this as long as 4, 5 to 8 nearly equal 
in length, 8 one-sixth shorter than 3, 9 nearly half as long again as 3, 11 one-third 
longer than 9, about twice as long as 3, 10 less than half the length of 8. 
Pronotum one-fifth broader than long, half as broad again at carina as at apex, 
pubescence not well preserved, there are evidently the following brown markings 
on each side : dorsally a large apical spot, behind it two spots which unite at 
the carina and form a large patch behind the carina, at the side an angle- 
shaped spot, one arm running beneath the lateral carina and the other above 
it ; carina dorsally somewhat concave, straightening close to side and then 
gradually curving forward-downward, transverse cannula halfway to centre as 
near to dorsal carina as to basal edge. Elytra not quite twice as long as broad 
(30 : 17), pubescence smooth, lines of punctures very distinct, shoulder, three 
spots at lateral margin and one at apex, a rounded spot on subbasal swelling, 
produced forward, an oblong dorsal spot behind shoulder, some lines before 
middle, a spot in middle from third to sixth interspaces with a short linear spot 
laterally attached to it, a transverse postmedian band between interspaces 7 
produced forward and less strongly backward at suture and enclosing a small 
luteous sutural spot, the band somewhat sinuate, over 3 mm. broad at suture 
and about 1-3 laterally. Pygidium slightly incised in middle of apical margin, 
which is strongly rounded each side from this point. 

Anterior half of side of presternum impunctate, posterior half and centre 


with some punctures. Abdomen ($) not distinctly flattened. Hypopygidium 
divided by a deep, broad, rounded sinus into two horns, which are fringed with 
long hair. 

Near A. biguttatus Jord. (1895) and allies ; the bidentate foretibia and the 
peculiar shape of the hypopygidium together with the markings will render its 
recognition easy. 

2. Acorynus callistus sp. no v. 

cj$. Niger, griseo-pubescens, capite cum rostro et pronoto atque elvtrorum 
apice cum pygidio ochraceis. Pronotum irregulariter nigro-quadrivittatum. 
Elytra a basi ad fasciam transversani postmedianam diffuse griseo- et nigro- 
striata, ante fasciam in utroque elytro macula grisea. Antennarum segmentum 
10. sexto fere aequilongum. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 11-5-13 mm., lat. 4-5-5 mm. 

Hab. Perak (W. Doherty), 1 <J, type. Also from Gunong Tahan, Pahang, 
2,500-3,000 ft. (H. C. Robinson), 1 $. 

Rostrum not quite one-third ($) or one-fifth (?) broader than long, median 
carina extending to apex, but apical third more (?) or less (<J) flattened, second 
carina curved at both ends towards middle, reaching to the postmedian depres- 
sion, outside second carina on apical third of rostrum a cariniform swelling, 
lateral carina thin, converging with cariniform edge of antennal groove, this 
edge not continued as a carina to apex of rostrum. Antenna rufescent, segment 
2 as long as 3, this a little shorter than 9, 6 to 8 almost alike, 10 a little 
shorter (<$) or longer ($) than 8. Pronotum somewhat flattened, with 
transverse groove, markings nearly as in A. biguttatus Jord. (1895); at each 
side of middle a black irregular stripe partly enclosing an ochraceous spot 
behind the end of the transverse groove, laterally an elongate apical black 
patch which sends out backwards two lines, one above the lateral carina, 
the other across the end of the carina, at base a lateral black dot. Elytra 
flattened above, basal half diffusely striped and spotted with grey and blackish 
brown, in middle from third to sixth interspace a square grey spot which is 
obliquely prolonged forward to suture ; behind this spot a broad black transverse 
band which extends forward at suture ; on ochraceous apical area a black dot 
and indications of others. Pygidium completely rounded at apex, as long as 
broad in <£, a very little broader in 9- Presternum (like the lateral area of the 
pronotum) with few shallow punctures ; abdomen on each side with a double 
row of brown spots ; in $ apex of foretibia rounded-dilated on inner side, mid- 
tibia without mucro, abdominal segments 1-4 slightly flattened, last segment 
similar to that of $, but broader, shorter, and more evenly rounded. 

Near A. biguttatus, but in colour close to A. picturatus Jord. (1895), described 
as Litocerus on account of segment 10 of antenna, though shorter than 9, being 
almost as long as 3. 

3. Acorynus alboguttatus velatus subsp. nov. 

(J$. Pronotum cinnamon, at each side of middle a black stripe from near 
apical margin to below centre, in front of carina a round black spot halfway 
between middle and side, three spots behind carina greyish white, this colouring 
often extending a little beyond the carina. Greyish-white spots of elytra smaller 

1 t s Noyitvji:s Z jiuiiak XXXIII. 1926. 

than in A. a. albogvMatiis, especially the dorsal (median) one. Underside blackish, 
with well-defined greyish-white spots. 

Sumatra : Merang (W. Doherty), ex coll. Fry, a series. 

4. Acorynus peosinus sp. nov. 

$. .4. anchis .lord. (1!)12) dicto similis, sed pronoto tribus vittis completis 

Long. (cap. excl.) 7-(i mm. 

Hab. Siam (Mouhot) ; 1 ? ex coll. Fry ex coll. W. W. Saunders. 

Frons very broad even for a $, broader than the interspace between the 
median and the second carina, with dispersed deep punctures as on occiput, 
proboscis, and pronotum. Rostrum rather deeply impressed before apex, the 
carinae stopping short at this depression. Median stripe of pronotum narrow 
at apex, somewhat constricted before middle and at carina, lateral vitta broader, 
not sharply defined laterally, invaded by brown from the side, in between the 
two vittae a triangular spot ; lateral carina oblique, less curved frontad than 
in A. anchis. Elytra almost spotted as in .4. salvazai .lord. (11)23), subbasal 
callosity less prominent than in that species, around it some luteous spots, 
other small spots disjsersed in between the larger ones, these large spots are : one 
behind shoulder, a smaller one dorsally behind middle, continued obliquely 
forward to lateral margin by two spots, a transverse band of three spots at 
the beginning of the apical declivity. 

Underside uniformly silky grey, the dark derm shining through, there being 
no spots. Tibiae with a rather ill-defined brown patch from near base to beyond 
middle, extreme apex of tibiae also brown ; upperside of tarsal segment 1 grey 
except at base, 2 grey at apex. 

5. Acorynus xanthurus dnps subsp. nov. 

cj. Ab A. x. xanthuro differt maculis nigris dorsalibus pronoti multo 
minoribus, elytrorumque macula grisea dorsali mediana rotunda et majore. 

Hab. Perak (W. Doherty), 3 $$ ex coll. Fry. 

The four dorsal brown spots of the pronotum are small, narrow, and corre- 
spond to the four sections of the large central area of A. x. xanthurus, the second 
spot of each side is long, extending across carina to basal margin. 

In <J the midtibia mucronate and the abdomen flattened along centre. 

6. Acorynus retusus sp. nov. 

<£$. Rufo-brunneus, subtus griseus, supra griseo-maculatus, carina dorsali 
pronoti in medio fortiter angulata. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-6-6 mm. 

Hab. Borneo: no special loc, 1 <J, type; Martapoera (W. Doherty), 
1 $. Perak (Doherty), 2 $$. All in Mus. Brit. 

Proboscis grey, one-fourth broader at apex than long, depressed before apex, 
the dorsal carinae stopping short at this depression, all five carinae well developed. 
Frons in $ nearly as broad as segment 2 of antenna, in $ somewhat broader. 
Segment 3 of antenna equals 4 in length, 8 a little shorter than 7, in $ a little 
longer than 1(1 and in $ as long as 10, 9 slightly longer than 3 and a little shorter 


than 11. Pronotum impunctate, sides grey, separated from grey underside by 
a brown patch placed before the lateral carina and continued beneath it to base 
as a thin line ; on disc a subapical elliptical median spot, a median spot from 
transverse groove to base, widened at carina, and at each end of transverse groove 
a transverse dot, all grey, forming a cross ; transverse groove deep ; dorsal 
carina with sharp median angle pointing backwards, laterally the carina flexed 
back and then in a wide curve forward, subbasal transverse cannula almost 
parallel with dorsal carina, the interspace being but little wider laterally than 
halfway to middle, longitudinal lateral cannula indicated. Subbasal swelling 
of elytrum dark brown, encircled by grey markings, namely, a large basal spot, a 
line each in sutura] and fifth stripe of punctures, and three short lines behind, 
another ring of spots submedian, composed of a line each in stripes 2 to 6, one 
or two lateral spots and posteriorly a transverse, rather conspicuous bar from 
stripe 2 to beyond 5, a third ring at apex composed of five spots, three in front and 
two at apical margin, obliquely in front of this ring a largish spot at outer margin. 
Derm of underside and legs pale rufous, apex of femora and tibiae usually 
more or less brown ; upperside of segments 1 and 2 of tarsi sparsely pubescent 
grey. In £ tibiae simple, proximal abdominal segments slightly flattened, last 
segment neither flattened nor impressed. 

7. Acorynus bothrinus sp. nov. 

<$$. A.gitono Jord. (1911) similis ; minor, pronoto fortius punctato utrimque 
ochraceo-maculata, elytrorum maculis lateralibus prima et secunda confluis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 6-7 mm. 

Hab. Perak (W. Doherty), 1 <J in Mus. Tring, type; Sumatra: Merang 
(W. Doherty), 2 £$, 2 $$ ex coll. Fry in Mus. Brit. 

Pronotum more coarsely punctate than in A . gitonus, segment 8 of antenna 
at most as long as 10 ; in $ the rather high tubercle an anal sternite of A. gitonus 
replaced in the new species by a low short ridge, and the apex of the foretibia 
somewhat dilated. 

There are usually 6 pale ochraceous spots each side on the pronotum. The 
pale ochraceous spots in front of the apical declivity of the elytra have the same 
position as in A. gitonus, the lateral one being the largest and placed a little farther 
forward than the others. 

8. Acorynus bothrinus molitor subsp. nov. 

cj$. The light-coloured pubescence white, above and below ; lateral sjiots of 
pronotum more or less confluent ; white ring of tibiae narrow. 
Hab. Java, 1 3, 2 $$ ex coll. Bowring. 

9. Acorynus lineolatus coalitus subsp. nov. 

cJ$. The slaty grey markings more extended than in the specimens from 
Perak and Sumatra ; on the pronotum the short intermediate stripe more 
strongly curved and broadly connected with the median vitta at the carina ; on 
the elytra the grey lines merged together, isolating most of the black patches 
from one another. Median carina of rostrum not interrupted, higher than in 
A. I. lineolatus from base to two-thirds. Pronotum less coarsely punctate than in 
A. I. lineolatus from Perak. 

Hab. Engano (W. Doherty), 3 cJ<J, -2 $$, ex coll. Fry. 

l"nl Novitatkx 7. .OQIOAE XXXIII. lfll'li. 

In. Acorynus lineolatus siarnensis subsp. nov. 

(J. Pronotum as coarsely 'punctate as in .4. /. lineolatus, from Perak, with 
the same markings. Pubescence of elytra fawn-colour, more extended than in 
A. I. lineolatus, joined together as in A. 1. coalitus, the black markings being 
nearly all isolated from one another. Median carina of rostrum as in A. I. lineo- 
latus thin and low from base to two-thirds. 

Hab. Siam (Mouhot), 1 Jex coll. Fry ex coll. W. W. Saunders. 

1 1 . Acorynus dohertyi sp. nov. 

$. Statura .1. bimnculati Kirsch (1877), sed pronotum fortiter punctatum. 
Niger, griseo-pubescens, brunneo-suffusus ; pronoto sulco arcuato antemediano 
instructo ; elytris singulis macula magna postmediana parum obliqua nigro- 
velutina ornatis. 

Hab. Burma : Manipur (W. Doherty), 1 $ ex coll. Fry. 
Pubescence dense. Proboscis thick, dorsal surface convex in lateral aspect, 
apical margin somewhat incurved, the three dorsal carinae strongly developed, 
parallel, the median one extending to apex, with an indication of an interruption 
at apical fourth, the second carinae reaching as far as this point, dorso-lateral 
carina thin, distant from antennal groove, oblique, being divergent with the 
dorsal carinae. Frons rather narrower than the interspace between median 
and second carinae. Antenna rather short, segment 3 a little broader than 4 
as well as 2, 8 short, triangular, 9 not quite as long as 2 and 3 together, 10 as 
long as broad. 

Pronotum regularly conical from carina, half as broad again as long, coarsely 
punctate, diffusely variegated with greyish cinnamon, brownish black and whitish 
grey, a broad, diffuse, median vitta whitish grey like head and proboscis, 
each side of disc blackish, with indefinite dots and spots, a subapical lateral 
greyish cinnamom spot larger and better defined, below it a subapical blackish 
spot, behind carina on each side of median vitta a broad blackish area ; dorsal 
carina slightly angulate in centre, then slightly and gradually flexed forward, 
the lateral portion evenly curved, short, oblique. Elytra depressed along suture, 
subbasal swelling rather prominent, interspaces slightly uneven, with indications 
of grey and brown dots, shoulder-angle blackish, behind shoulder a diffuse grey 
spot, the velvety patch extending from second to eighth row of punctures diffusely 
bounded with grey. Pygidium grey, eveidy rounded, nearly one -third broader 
than long. Segments 2 to 4 of abdomen each with two small linear brown spots 
on each side, presternum and sides of metasternum with dispersed large deep 
punctures ; apex of tibiae, segments 2 to 4 of tarsi and extreme base of 1 
brownish black. 

12. Acorynus validus sp. nov. 

(J$. A. bigutlato Jord. (1895) similis ; rostro longiore, carina mediana ad 
apicem continuata ; elytris absque macula rotunda postmediana ; fascia trans- 
versa nigra elytrorum angustiore, ad suturam et ad latus antrorsum producta. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 12 mm. 

Hab. Sumatra : Merang (W. Doherty), one pair ex coll. Fry. 

Rostrum one-sixth broader than long, median carina continued to apex, 


but apically flattened. Frons distinctly broader than in A. biguttatus, without 
brown spot, occiput likewise without. Transverse groove of pronotum less 
sharply marked than in A. biguttatus, subapical black dorsal spots narrower and 
much farther apart, as are also the posterior black spots. Black transverse 
band of elytra anteriorly sinuate between second and sixth lines of punctures, 
this sinus corresponding to the white spot of A. biguttatus, before the sinus a 
black dot and black square patch, shoulder, a rounded patch on subbasal swelling 
and several lines and spots in basal half and at apex black. Foretibia of $ 
distinctly rounded-dilated at apex on inner side, midtibia simple, abdomen very 
slightly flattened. 

13. Acorynus latens sp. nov. 

(J$. A. gitoni vicinus ; minor, fortius punctatus, rostra inter carinas minus 
depresso, segmento anali ventrali ^ris leviter carinato, $nae tuberculo acuto 
parvo apicak' mediano subcariniformi, hypopygidio ($) emarginato, angulis 

Long. (cap. excl.) 5-6 mm. 

Hab. Perak (W. Doherty), 1 $, 2 $? ex coll. Fry. 

The lateral spots of the pronotum more or less confluent ; lateral spot 
behind shoulder of elytra large, second lateral spot smaller, standing separate, 
in fourth interspace a conspicuous dot just behind middle, extending on to 
interspaces 3 and 5. Angles of hypopygidium (<$) produced, this projection 
narrow and short, its pointed apex curved downwards. The apical tubercle of 
the anal sternite of the $ extends on to the surface of the segment as a low carina. 
In the ^ the frons is broader than in the $ ; it is nearly as broad as the interspace 
between the median and second carinae of the proboscis, being much wider than 
in the <$£ of the allied species, with the exception of A. punctatus Jord. (1894), 
in which the abdomen is flattened along middle and the hypopygidium truncate- 
emarginate with the angles broadly rounded. 

14. Litocerus glebula sp. nov. 

(J$. L. toroso Pasc. (1860) similis, rostro subtilius rugato-punctato, pronoto 
et elytrorum dimidio apicali rnaculis minoribus, macula mediana ante carinam 
sita simplice, parva, pygidio longiore. 

Hab. Siam (Mouhot), 2 <?<?, 1 $. 

In size and shape like L. torosus. The carinae of the rostrum less elevate 
the median one quite thin and low except at base, and not extended to apex. 
The pronotum of L. torosus bears in front of the carina and joined to the round 
median basal spot a tripartite mark consisting of a median spot to which is 
joined on each side an oblique spot, these oblique spots absent in L. glebula, 
and the median one reduced, as are the other spots of the pronotum. The 
yellowish basal area of the elytra better defined than in L. torosus, enclosing 
a more or less rounded brown spot on the subbasal swelling, posteriorly in 
punctate stripe 2 the area is produced into a narrow tooth ; on posterior half of 
elytra a conspicuous dot ; some small variable spots at margin, apex, and suture. 
Pygidium in $ as long as broad, in (J a little longer. Abdomen of <$ very slightly 
flattened, first segment apically with indication of a median carina, tibiae without 
niuero or tooth. The jj -antenna thickened, flattened from segment 5, the see- 


mints not claviform, 3 to 5 gradually decreasing in length, to S a very little 
longer than 5, 9 and 10 each slightly longer than 3, 11 one-half longer than 10. 

15. Litocerus alternus sp. nov. 

$$. Rufo-brunneus, griseo-pubescens, pronoto vitta lata mediana nigra, 
carina lateribus rectangulata, elytris griseo- et brunneo-Uncatis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 5 mm. 

Hab. Perak (Dohcrty), 1 $, 3 $$ ex coll. Fry, and Singapore, 1 $. 

The long brown lines in the interspaces of the elytra recall L. miles * but 
the brown sutural patch is absent and the lateral angle of the pronotal carina 
is rounded only at its apex, the lateral carina being straight, the angle being a 
little over 90°. The black-brown median stripe of the pronotum about as broad 
as the grey lateral area or somewhat narrower, more or less sinuous, well-defined 
and sharply contrasting ; in grey lateral area two blackish dots, one postmedian, 
at about equal distances from the dorsal and lateral carinae, the other subapical 
and farther down the side ; transverse discal groove not very sharply impressed. 
Seutellum brown. The extent of grey variable on the elytra, the brown lines here 
and there interrupted, no conspicuous brown spots. Pygidium grey, with broad 
brown diffuse stripe ; as long as broad in $, slightly longer in £. Legs pale rufous- 
like the shaft of the antennae, without definite grey rings, a brownish diffuse 
spot on widened portion of femora. In <J first abdominal segment with tubercle, 
last somewhat flattened ; tibiae simple ; shaft of antenna not flattened and 
widened, the segments of normal shape, 3 to 8 almost alike in size, 9 and 10 
somewhat shorter. 

16. Litocerus fraternus sp. nov. 

(J$. L. humerali Jord. (1S!)4) similis ; pronotum absque macula admediana 
ante carinam, tarsorum segmentum primum basi hand densiter griseo-pubescens, 
segmentum primum ventrale ( q ) tuberculo instructum. 

Hab. Borneo : Sarawak (Wallace), 3 <$$, 2 $$ in Mus. Brit. ; Kina Balu, 
1 $ in Mus. Tring ; type <J. 

In L. tin mi rails there is at each side of the basal median spot of the pronotum 
an oblique spot in front of the carina, this spot is missing in fraternus ; the three 
grey spots at and before the transverse sulcus widely separated from one another 
in fraternus, the posterior brown spot in the grey lateral area joined to the brown 
discal area. 

In L. humeralis the first tarsal segment densely pubescent grey from base 
to about two-thirds, apex black ; in L. fraternus the first and second segments 
sparsely grey, the base of the first rather less distinctly grey than the apex. First 
abdominal segment of humeralis- $ without tubercle, in <J of fraternus a very 
distinct tubercle. 

17. Sympaector decorus sp. nov. 

§. Pallide rufus, pronoto duabus vittis latis elytrisque serie sublaterali 
macularum conjunctarum brunneo-nigris, antennarum segmento 8° septimo 

Long. (cap. excl.) 7-7 mm. 

Hab. Celebes : Menado (Wallace), 1 $ ex coll. Fry ex coll. W. W. Saunders. 

*C£. p. 163. 


Similar in colour to S. nigromaculatus .lord. (1894), but paler, strongly 
flattened above, eye much more rounded, cheek (lateral aspect) much wider, 
pronotum shorter, the lateral carina less convex. Segment 8 of antenna very 
little shorter than 7, in S. nigromaculatus 7 nearly one-half longer than 8. 
Median carina on underside of rostrum very thin and low. Black vittae of pro- 
notum of even breadth, converging, the yellowish median stripe posteriorly 
broader than the black vitta, but anteriorly less than half as broad. The seven 
dorsal and lateral spots of the elytra connected with one another, forming a 
longitudinal zigzag band beginning on the subbasal swelling and ending at a 
short distance from the apical margin, spots 3, 5, and 7 being marginal or 
nearly, behind subbasal swelling a small, inconspicuous spot near suture, sutural 
interspace brownish on apical declivity. Pygidium somewhat shorter than in 
8. nigromaculatus, with a very broad black-brown median stripe, which slightly 
narrows basally. On underside the gula and the centre of the anterior margin 
of the presternum, a spot above forecoxa, another below carina, a lateral spot 
on metasternum, basal margin of first abdominal segment behind coxa, a basal 
spot in middle and another spot halfway to side-margin of segments 2 to 5 blackish 
brown or brown. 

18. Sympaector ludius sp. nov. 

$. Pallide rufus, S. nigromaculato structura simillimus, brevior, elytris 
aliter nigro maculatis, absque macula rotunda suturali antemediana, macula 
antemediana magna a limbo ad striam tertiam extensa, pone hane maculam 
gutta alba. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 6-3 mm. 

Hob. Singapore (Wallace), 1 $ ex coll. Fry ex coll. W. W. Saunders. 

Black patch on pronotum each side of the diffuse greyish median stripe 
broadest behind carina, constricted before carina, extended a little beyond the 
transverse sulcus, the portion from the carina forward almost elliptical. Suture 
of elytra brownish, spot on subbasal swelling small and j>ale, a spot immediately 
behind shoulder a parallelogram (this spot absent from S. nigromaculatus), a 
little farther back a large spot extending from lateral margin obliquely dorsad 
to third stripe, curved, evidently the result of the fusion of two spots, in the 
bay behind this spot a whitish dot followed by a small longitudinal brown spot, 
halfway to apex a trapeziform spot from margin to third interspace, dorsally 
inclining basad. Presternum with a blackish brown dot below apex of lateral 

19. Mecocerina dux spec. nov. 

<J$. Rufa, nigro-maculata, M. rhanis Jord. (1911) simillima, multo major, 
rostro longiore et magis porrecto, carinis dorsalibus magis elevatis, interspatio 
mediano angustiore et magis impresso, vittis brunneis pronoti rectis parallelis 
distantibus completis, elytrorum maculis brunneo-nigris minoribus, fascia 
anteapicali postice in utroque elytro concava, pedibus pallide rufis pube 
flavescente tectis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 9-5-10 mm. 

Hab. Borneo : Sarawak (Wallace), one pair ex coll. Fry ex coll. W. W. 



The median, depressed, interspace between the high, curved, carinae of the 
proboscis is about as broad as the interspace between this carina and the sulcus 
accompanying the dorso-lateral carina, whereas in M . rhanis the median inter- 
space is less impressed and nearly twice as wide as the dorso-lateral interspace 
between the carinae. The angle formed by the rostrum and gula is much more 
obtuse than in M . rhanis, the intercoxal process of the mesosternum more convex 
in centre of apex. Tibiae and first tarsal segment pale silky yellow. Apex of 
elytra slightly yellowish. 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 155 


1. Acorynus mundellus sp. nov. 

cJ. Statura .4. leptis Jord. (1903). Rufo-brunneus, supra pallide ochraceo- 
notatus, pronoto utrinque vittato, elytris dispersim guttatis. 

Rostrum longitudine latius, post medium fortiter impressum, quinque- 
carinatum, carinis abbreviatis. Antennarum segmentum 3 lum quarto triente 
longius, 9 um tertio et quarto simul sumptis paululo longius. Pronotum fortiter 
punctatum. Pygidium semicirculare. Tibia antiea apice incrassata, media 
apice mucronata. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 7 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak : Lundu, October, 1 <$. 

In colouring not unlike A. sporadis Jord. (1903), but much smaller and 
different in structure. Rostrum coarsely punctate, one-third broader at apex 
than long, deeply and broadly depressed beyond middle, the carinae prominent, 
the second stopping short at the depression, the middle one continued into the 
depression, but here very low, not extending on to the convex apical margin. 
Frons about as wide as the second segment of antenna. Occiput punctate. 
Pronotum one-third broader than long, puncturation coarse, before centre a 
depression, but no transverse groove, carina very evenly curved downward at 
side ; a twice interrupted median stripe much narrower than the lateral vitta, 
which is about as broad in middle as the antennal segment 5 is long, being 
broader and straighter than in A. sporadis. Elytra nearly spotted as in 
A. sporadis : the largest spot at shoulder-angle, a largish spot at margin before 
middle with a smaller spot obliquely above and behind it, another largish 
marginal spot behind middle and a third, somewhat smaller, at outer apical 
angle, before apical declivity a dot each on interspaces 3 and 5, behind middle 
a dot in 4, and between middle and base a number of small dots, a short line 
before sutural apical angle. Pygidium semicircular, grey at the sides. 

Underside grey, not spotted, abdomen ( <J) very slightly flattened proximally. 
Tibiae rufous, apex of mid- and hindtibiae brownish like tarsi, basal two-thirds 
of first tarsal segment rufous ; upper/side of tibiae diffusely grey beyond middle. 
Hypopygidium very narrow, truncate, the angles projecting laterad and each 
bearing above a pencil of hairs, medianly the segment divided by a deep broad 

2. Acorynus triplaris sp. nov. 

(J$. A. sporadi Jord. (1903) sirnilis, pronoto tribus vittis completis ochraceis 

Hab. Borneo : Doesonlanden (Wahnes), 1 <J (type) in Mus. Tring ; Pen- 
garon (W. Doherty), 1 <£, 2 $$ ex coll. Fry in Mus. Brit. 

Markings of upperside ochraceous ; median vitta of pronotum narrowing 
frontad, without indication of constriction ; dots of elytra in the same position 

J5(| Novitates Zooloqicae XXXIII. 1926. 

as in A. sporadis, but slightly larger. Median carina of rostrum somewhat higher 
from base to the sharply marked postmedian interruption, without distinct short 
spur each side proximally of middle. Dorsal carina of pronotum slightly less 
concave in middle than in A. sporadis. 

3. Acorynus saxidius sp. nov. 

$. A. biguttati Jord. (1895) vicinus, sed elytris absque macula rotunda post 
mediana alba. 

Hab. Borneo : Kina Balu, 2,700 to 3,000 ft., iii. 1913, 1 ?, type. Another 
$ from the Kina Balu (Whitehead) ex coll. Fry in Mus. Brit. 

Frons without brown spot, and occiput with a small narrow median one. 
Markings of pronotum more diffuse and olivaceous than in A. biguttatus, as are 
also those in basal half and at apex of elytra ; black postmedian band of elytra 
sinuous on both sides, produced forward at suture and very narrowly so in sixth 
line of punctures, posteriorly with a small sinus each on interspaces 2, 3, 5, 7 ; 
pygidium uniformly grey ; tibiae with a grey subbasal and subapical ring. 

4. Acorynus bicornis sp. nov. 

cj$. A. bothrinus molitor Jord. (1926) simillimus, maculis pronoti parvia 
valde separatis, elytris macula magna laterali posthumerali, gutta dorsali rotun- 
data postmediana sat conspicua, caeteris maculis parvis. Pygidium breve ; 
segmentum ventrale anale <Jris tuberculo cariniformi acuto, $nae margine 
apicale sinu rotundo parvo sed prof undo mediano. 

Hab. Malay Pen. : type ($) without more precise locality in Mus. Tring ; 
also from Perak (W. Doherty), 2 <?£, 1 ? ex coll. Fry in Mus. Brit. 

Proboscis and head as in A . bothrinus ; segment 8 of antenna in $ distinctly 
longer than 10. Spots of pronotum small ; the subbasal lateral spot on elytra 
as in A . bothrinus, but the second lateral patch replaced by small spots, and the 
spots before apical declivity also small. Pygidium in $ nearly one-half broader 
than long, in $ twice as broad as long. Abdomen of £ with indication of median 
carina on 2 to 4, 1 with a swelling each side ventrally, carina of 5 gradually 
elevate, ending abruptly, behind it a pencil of hair ; in $ the apical margin ex- 
cised, the sinus almost circular, i.e. the angles projecting a little over the sinus. 
Hypopygidium of $ with a broad, almost semicircular excision, the apical area 
being reduced to two narrow horns, which are curved towards each other. 

5. Acorynus apatenioides aemulus subsp. nov. 

$$. The black spots at each side of middle of pronotum merged together 
to a large patch which bears a small luteous spot. Subbasal lateral spot of elytra 
almost square, reaching up to seventh interspace. 

Hab. Sumatra : Si-Rambe (Modigliani), one pair. 

6. Acorynus similis bacillosus si i lisp. nov. 

<J$. Pronotum longer, with three grey vittae, the lateral one slightly curved, 
convex above, bounded below by a broad brown vitta which reaches subdorsally 
from apical margin to carina and ventrally to base. Elytra with numerous 

Novitates Zooloqicae XXXIII. 1926. 157 

whitish grey short lines which are nearly all separate from one another. Grey 
antemedian spot on upj)erside of tibiae small. Apex of tarsal segment 1 grey 
above like upperside of 2. In <J pygidium broader, incision of internal supra- 
anal tergite (hypopygidium) somewhat deeper. 
Hab. Perak ; a series. 

7. Acorynus ypsilon sp. nov. 

cJ?. A. cludo Jord. (1895) affinis. Brunneo-niger, pronoto fortiter punctato, 
tiivittato, elytris sparsim ochraeeo-maculatis, hnea suturali a medio ad apicem 
extensa antice divisa. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 5-3-5-7 mm. 

Hab. Sarawak : Kuching (J. Hewitt) and Matang Road, 2 <J(J, 1 $. 

Proboscis as long as apically broad, broadly but not very deeply impresse 
beyond middle, the depression extending farther apicad laterally than medianly, 
the apical median area convex, rounded, median carina very thin and low, 
second carina much higher, stopping short at the depression, lateral carina the 
longest, well marked, almost continuous with the apical lateral carina. Frons 
in <$ as narrow as the fifth segment of the antenna is broad, in ? not quite so broad 
as the second segment. Occiput coarsely punctate. Segment 3 of antenna in 
tj as long as 4, in $ longer than 4, 8 in both sexes shorter than 10, 9 in $ as long 
as 3 and 4 together, in ^ shorter. 

Pronotum coarsely punctate ; carina dorsally straight, gradually curved 
obliquely downwards at sides, lateral portion quite short, not reaching meral 
suture ; three sharply defined ochraceous vittae, the middle one slightly broaden- 
ing behind, but not forming a round antescutellar spot as is usual in this genus ; 
lateral vitta broad from base to before middle, enclosing a brown spot which is 
anteriorly connected with the brown lateral area. Pubescence of elytra thin, the 
minute granulation of the derm being very distinct ; around subbasal swelling 
some linear spots, a largish spot behind shoulder, not extending to margin, a 
smaller lateral one at two-thirds, a long line in sutural stripe of punctures from 
about middle to near apex anteriorly connected (or nearly so) with a short spot 
directed obliquely forward to third stripe of punctures, at the side of this spot, 
almost as a continuation of it, a small spot in fifth interspace ; besides these 
markings a few minute ochraceous dots and lines. Pygidium brown, in 
$ rounded-triangular, one-fifth broader than long, in 9 twice as broad as long, 
evenly rounded. 

Underside with a short silky pubescence ; sides of pro- and metasterna and 
middle of prosternum with large punctures. In $ the apex of foretibia, on 
inside, somewhat impressed longitudinally, the apical angles of the depression 
forming each a very short projection ; midtibia mucronate ; abdomen proximally 
flattened, apical sternite simple ; hypopygidium narrowed at apex, the apex 
truncate-emarginate, whereas in A. cludus the centre of the apical margin is 
somewhat produced. 

8. Acorynus lineolatus musivus subsp. nov. 

cJ$. Median carina of rostrum higher than in A. I. lineolatus, from Perak, 
continuous to ajiex, the apical third broader and higher than the basal two- 

158 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1920. 

thirds. Pronotum less strongly punctate. Markings essentially as in A. 1. 
lineolatus, ('(insisting on the elytra of more or less isolated short lines. 
Hub. Sumatra : Si-Rambe (Modigliani), a series. 

!). Acorynus cingalus Bp. nov. 

<J. A. ceylonico Jord. (1894) affinis. Robustus. brunneo-niger, luteo 
pubescens ; rostro tricarinato ; antennarum segmento 8° decimo dimidio lon- 
giore, 10° subquadrata ; pronoto sulco transverso instructo, lateribus sparsim 
punctatis, nigro-maculato ; elytris sat longis pone basim gibbosis nigro-marmoratis, 
fascia transversa mediana nigra ; pygidio nigro luteo-circumcincto. 
Long. (cap. excl.) 8 mm., lat. 3-5 mm. 
Hab. Ceylon : Kandy, vi.08 (G. E. Bryant), 1 (J. 

Rostrum one-third broader than long, with three broad carinae, apical 
fourth of the middle one flattened out into a but slightly elevate triangular area, 
the second carina, situated in a blackish stripe, extends to apex, but is more or 
less broken up by large punctures, especially in apical half, no carina between 
the second and the cariniform margin of the antennal groove, this margin 
continued as a carina to apex, apical margin of rostrum medianlv somewhat 
depressed, appearing incurved. Frons half the width of the interspace between 
the central and second carinae. Segment 3 of antenna very little longer than 
4, 8 a little longer and slightly broader than 7, 9 a little shorter than 3 and 4 
together, and 11a little longer. 

Pronotum barely one-third buoader than long, impunctate except for some 
scattered punctures in the lateral area, a median stripe slightly paler than the 
rest of the surface, at each side of this vitta a large patch from apex to transverse 
groove, almost square, behind the groove and in a line with the dorsal margin 
of the square patch an irregularly elongate-ovate spot, and from basal margin 
across carina a triangular patch in a line with the outer margin of the apical 
patch, all three black, laterally a row of three smaller black spots, one behind 
apex, the second elongate, at some distance from carina, and the third rounded 
and basal ; carina straight dorsallv, evenly flexed forward at side ; transverse 
cannula strongly elevate, halfway to side much nearer to base than to dorsal 
carina. Elytra almost twice as long as broad, depressed at suture, particularly 
in basal half, the subbasal swelling being high, interspaces somewhat convex, 
bearing blackish lines of variable length, many diffuse, subbasal swelling pos- 
teriorly with a black half-circle, in middle a broadish black band from side to side, 
sinuous in front and behind, inclining backwards at side, widened frontad on third 
and fourth interspaces and backward at suture, on apical declivity of each 
elytrum a sinuous patch, shoulder-angle black, behind it a uniformly luteous 
patch. Pygidium one-tenth broader than long, evenly rounded, apical margin 
swollen in centre. 

Presternum and sides of metasternum with scattered large punctures ; 
mesosternal process truncate, the angles rounded and somewhat elevate, met- 
episternum with two blackish dots ; abdomen flattened along centre, last segment 
with large sublateral blackish patch ; femora with a median patch and the apex, 
tibiae almost entirely or (hindtibia) at base and apex, and the entire tarsi blackish, 
slightly rufous ; apex of foretibia not distinctly widened, midtibia mucronate. 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 159 

10. Acorynus mentawensis niasicus subsp. nov. 

$. Markings of pronotum and elytra smaller than in A. in. mentawensis. 
Differs from A. punctatus Jord. (1894), especially in the pronotum being much 
less strongly punctate. 

Hab. Nias : Hili Madjedje (Mitschke), 1 $. 

11. Acorynus subdolus sp. nov. 

<J. Niger, supra albo-maculatus ; rostro fortiter rugato-punctato, carinis 
abbreviatis ; antennarum segmento 3'° quarto longiore ; pronoto fortiter 
punctato, vitta dorso-laterali alba ornato ; tibia antica apice dilatata, media 
mucronata ; hypopygidio ante apicem constricto, parte apicali angustiore, apice 
emarginato, angulis productis bifurcatis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 7 mm. 

Hab. Borneo : Pengaron, 1 <J. 

In colour and markings similar to A. sporadis ; pubescence greyish white ; 
puncturation coarse ; on pronotum a narrow median line at apex and at base, 
dorso-lateral vitta complete, straight, above lateral carina a diffuse spot ; the 
basal spot below shoulder-angle dilated upwards behind shoulder to seventh 
interspace, about 16 small spots on each elytrum, of which two at commencement 
of apical declivity, rounded, one in third interspace, the other in seventh ; under- 
side almost uniformly greyish white. 

Proboscis shorter than in A. sporadis, median carina rather broad and high, 
from two-thirds widening out, forming a triangular, somewhat convex, coarsely 
punctate apical area, second carina also broad, irregular on account of the coarse 
puncturation, curved inward at base and less so beyond middle of rostrum, here 
joining an irregular rugate -punctate elevation which runs obliquely outward- 
apicad ; lateral dorsal carina higher than in ^4. sporadis. Frons as broad as 
first segment of antenna ; median carina extending on to the punctate occiput. 
Antennal segment 3 nearly half as long again as 4, 4 to 7 equal in lengths, 8 very 
slightly shorter, 10 as long as 8, 9 shorter than 11, and as long as 3 plus 4. Pro- 
notum coarsely punctate, disc depressed before middle, but without transverse 
sulcus. Pygidium grey, except along middle, as long as broad. Pro- and 
mesosternum punctate inclusive of intercoxal process ; abdomen not flattened, 
last sternite simple ; hypopygidium very different from that of the allied species 
constricted near apex, the angle proximal of the constriction rounded, the portion 
divided off by the constriction narrower than the proximal portion, emarginate 
at apex, its dorsal surface broadly concave, the apical angles divided into a 
narrow dorsal process and a triangular ventral projection. 

12. Acorynus sinuatus sp. nov. 

(J$. A. trivittato Jord. (1897) similis ; vitta mediana pronoti angustiore 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-8-5-4 mm. 

Hab. Sumatra : Medan (J. B. Corporaal), a pair. 

On each side of the pronotum, at the end of the transverse groove, a luteous 
or grey spot joined to the lateral area, in this area a round brown spot a short 

160 Novitates Zoolookae XXXIII. 1926. 

distance from the dorsal and lateral carinae ; the median stripe is very narrow 
from the transverse sulcus forward and does not reach apical margin, triangular 
behind sulcus, and constricted or interrupted halfway to carina. Luteous or grey 
markings of elytra smaller than in A. trivittatus. Hypopygidium of <J incurved 
at the sides, apical margin straight, the angles rounded, projecting sidewards and 
a very little distad ; in A. trivittatus the sides are not incurved, the apex is 
emarginate and the angles broadly rounded. Possibly the Sumatran equivalent 
of A. trivittatus. 

13. Acorynus scitinus sp. nov. 

<J. A. ligati Jord. (1903) vicinus ; rostro fortius impresso, fronte multo 
angustiore, elytrorum fascia obliqua grisea lateribus haud apicem versus continuata. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-6 mm. 

Hub. Sumatra, 1 £. 

Segment 9 of antenna longer than 3 plus 4, pronotum with transverse sulcus. 
Postmedian impression of rostrum rather deep, extending obliquely apicad, 
almost forming a semicircle around the median convex portion of the apex, 
carinae abbreviated, median one somewhat dilated at depression, second con- 
verging with median carina distallv. Frons barely as broad as second segment 
of antenna. Sides of pronotum marked with grey, invaded by brown, not with 
a sharply defined broad stripe of uniform width as in A. ligatus. Antemedian 
lateral spot of elytra small ; oblique band narrow, transverse from stripe 7 to 
margin, not continued sublaterally by a streak or spots, at the beginning of the 
apical declivity several grey linear spots and at apex other grey spots. Pygidium 
as long as broad. Hypopygidium narrower than in A. ligatus, sides somewhat 
incurved, apex emarginate. 

14. Acorynus neuricus sp. nov. 

<J$. A. brevis Jord. (1911) vicinus, antennarum segmento quarto tertio 
aequilongo, pronoti maculis griseis lateralibus confluis, elytrorum dimidio basali 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-5-5 mm. 

Hab. East Sumatra : Deli, 1 <$, type ; Medan (J. B. Corporaal), 3 ??. 

As in A. brevis Jord. (1911), A. luzonicus Jord. (1895) and a few others, the 
cariniform edge of the antennal groove is directed towards the side of the pro- 
sternum and not curved down to the underside of the rostrum. Segment 9 of 
antenna as long as 1 1 . On pronotum a grey lateral patch from base across carina 
divided into two, forming an anteriorly open half-ring, in front of it a subapical 
patch, sometimes the whole lateral area luteous, bearing two brown spots. On 
elytra the basal half with grey lines in the stripes of punctures, the shoulder angle 
and the subbasal swelling remaining brown, a large lateral spot behind shoulder, 
a largish square postmedian spot between third and sixth rows of punctures, the 
anterior dorsal angle of this spot almost contiguous with the grey line in stripe 2, 
and the posterior lateral angle continuous with a grey line in stripe 6, a brown 
area before and behind the postmedian spot and at the sides of it ; before apical 
declivity a transverse band of grey lines, of which those in stripes 3 and 4 are 
short, whereas the lateral ones are merged together to form a patch, apical area 


grey from apical margin about halfway up the declivity. Pygidium in <$ one- 
fourth, in $ nearly one-half broader than long. Tarsi grey above, the pubescence 
not dense, segment 1 not contrasting in colour with 2 to 4. In <J midtibia with 
an apical projection on inside, abdomen flattened, hypopygidium broad, evenly 

15. Acorynus luzonicus nigrinus subsp. nov. 

$. Niger, sparsissime griseo-pubescens, elytris griseo-guttulatis, absque 
maculis majoribus. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 8-3 mm. 

Hab. S. Celebes : Tjamba (W. Doherty), 1 ?. 

Sides of pronotum distinctly punctulate. The only conspicuous marking is 
the luteous elongate-triangular spot in front of the scutellum and the grey first 
tarsal segment. The discal spots of the pronotum smaller than in A. I. luzonicxis, 
the lateral ones more or less separate and much obscured. Elytra with numerous 
grey dots ; in oblique aspect some black markings appear which correspond to 
the non-dotted dark-brown patches of A. I. luzonicus. Grey pubescence of 
underside sparse, somewhat condensed on metepimerum ; grey antemedian ring 
of tibiae inconspicuous ; base of first tarsal segment more extended black than 
in A. I. luzonicus. 

16. Acorynus luteago sp. nov. 

cj$. A. luzonico Jord. (1895) structure similis ; rostro fortius carinato, pro- 
noto lateribus evidenter punctato, maculis luteis multo magis extensis. 

Hab. S. Celebes : Tjamba (W. Doherty), 3 <$$ ; without locality 1 $. 

The markings of pronotum as in A. luzonicus, but larger ; elytra pubescent- 
luteous, with the following brown markings : a round spot on subbasal callosity, 
a double spot on shoulder, a transverse, narrow, zigzag band from suture to 
margin, dividing at eighth stripe, the two branches enclosing a luteous marginal 
spot, a transverse median band from suture to interspace 6, almost intercepted in 
row 2, from its lateral posterior angle an oblique zigzag band to margin, before 
apical declivity a zigzag band from suture to margin, the dorsal portion broader, 
but the lateral portion widened backwards at margin, on apical declivity a trans- 
verse row of three spots, separated or more or less connected, the one nearest 
suture the largest, between it and postmedian band a sutural streak, at apical 
angle of suture a smaller spot ; all these markings variable in size. Pygidium 
luteous grey, diffusely brown along middle and basally at sides. Metasternite 
with three brown lateral patches. Segments 1 and 2 of tarsi grey above. 

17. Acorynus vergens sp. nov. 

$. Structura A. luzonici ; rostri carina secunda medium versus inclinans ; 
pronotum utrinque vitta obliqua luteo-grisea trans occiput prolongata notatum. 

Hab. Luzon : Prov. Zambales, 1 $. 

The second dorsal carinae straight, basally nearly twice as far apart as distally. 
The dorso-lateral stripe of the pronotum also straight, strongly oblique, well- 
defined, of even width except in front of carina, where it is dilated laterad, 
median stripe vestigial. Elytra dotted with luteous grey, the dots partly merged 


together, forming short lines as in A . luzonicus luzonicus, in middle a grey dorsal 
spot, another farther back close to lateral margin, and a third, less distinct, 
behind shoulder, almost as in luzonicus. Underside as in A. luzonicus; grey 
pubescence of tibiae much more restricted, first segment of tarsi less densely 
pubescent grey, second also with some grey pubescence and therefore not so much 
contrasting with first as in A. luzonicus. 

Recalls A. disroidalis Jord. (1894), but segment 9 of antenna much shorter 
than 3 and 4 together and the cariniform edge of the antennal groove directed 
backwards as in A. luzonicus. 

18. Acorynus anacis sp. nov. 

<J. rl. passerine Pasc. (1860) et A. labido Jord. (1924) subsimilis, pronoto 
fortiter punctato facile distinguendus. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-8 mm. 

Hub. Assam : Khasia Hills, 1 <J. 

Rufous brown, base of antenna, basal half of femora and the derm under the 
grey markings rufous. Rostrum nearly as broad at base as at apex, being but 
little dilated at apex, lateral carina straight, joining the cariniform edge of the 
antennal groove, forming a projecting angle above the groove and then continuing 
straight to apex ; median carina reaching to postmedian depression, very thin 
at base,. Byes less rounded than in A. labidus, not quite so close together, the 
triangular area from occiput forward broader and somewhat depressed. Antenna 
as in A. passerinus, a little longer than in A. labidus, segment 8 distinctly longer 
than 9, this a little longer than apicaily broad, 9 to 11 together not quite so long 
as :j plus 4. Pronotum broader than in .4. passerinus, coarsely punctate except 
the area from depression of disc to apical margin ; anterior half of presternum 
similarly punctate ; grey lateral markings of pronotum smaller than in A. passe- 
rinus, the median stripe broader behind carina and in front of and behind the 
discal depression. Elytra more square than in A. passerinus, striped with grey 
and brown, the angle-shaped brown subbasal mark of A. passerinus replaced by 
a brown patch, apical half of elytra more extended grey. Pygidium shorter than 
in $ of A. passerinus, more rounded, not curved up at apex; hvpopygidium 
broad, rounded, middle of apex produced as a short obtuse lobe. Abdomen 
flattened from segment 1 to 4, 5 much shorter than in .4 . passerinus, convex 
in middle and here the pubescence silky as in A. passerinus. Apical two-fifths 
of foretibia somewhat incrassate on inner side, without tooth, midtibia 
without mucro. 

19. Acorynus cordiger zonatus subsp. nov. 

$. Fascia elytrorum postmediana brunneo-nigra multo angustior, antice 
bene definita, postice ad suturam sinuata. 

Hob. IViak (W. Doherty), 2 ?$, a third in Mus. Brit. 

The black-brown spots of the pronotum and elytra deeper in colour than in 
Java specimens. The anterior boundary of the transverse band of the elytra 
is diffuse in A. c. cordiger and sharply defined in A. r. zonatus. 

The median carina of the proboscis is broadly interrupted in all three 


20. Acorynus stramineus sp. nov. 

$. Speciei A. caffer Jord. (1911) dicto simillimus, griseo-ochraceo-variegatus, 
carina dorsali pronoti medio hand angulata. 

Hab. Tanganyika Territory : Magila (Legros), 1 $, type ; also Nyasa, 1 $ 
ex coll. Fry in Mus. Brit. 

Median carina of proboscis abbreviated as in A . caffer. Markings as in that 
species, but more ochraceous. 

Note. — Acorynus silvanus Jord., Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 290, No. 2 (1925), is 
the $ of Cedus valens Jord., I.e. p. 239, No. 3 (1925) ; the species is best placed 
in Cedus. 

21. Litocerus miles sp. nov. 

cj$. L. histrionis vicimis ; rostro breviore, antennis maris multo tenui- 
oribus, elytris griseis brunneo-lineatis macula mediana suturali sat magna 
subcruciformi notatis. 

Hab. Perak (rec. from Standinger, probably collected by Waterstradt), 
type, and Perak (W. Doherty), also from Sumatra and Borneo ; a series. 

Frons a little broader than in L. histrio Gylh. (1833). The pronotum bears 
anteriorly four brown spots, the upper ones larger, apical, the lateral ones sub- 
apical, before the carina six spots, the two lateral ones connected with the anterior 
spots, whereas the two upper ones are isolated, behind the carina four brown 
spots, pubescence in between the brown marking luteous grey. Elytra luteous 
grey, the interspaces for the greater part brown, forming long lines, but the 
grey pubescence partially confluent, particularly dorsally in basal half, in middle 
of suture a brown elliptical patch usually extending sidewards to fourth, fifth, 
or sixth row of punctures, widened anteriorly and posteriorly at the suture, 
somewhat resembling the cross of a medal ; a triangular apical space luteous 
grey, in front of it a brown patch, ^- antenna flattened from segment 5, 5 to 
8 somewhat narrower than 9, none dilated at apex, 9 as long as 3, a little longer 
than 10, 10 as long as 11. 

22. Litocerus leucomelas sp. nov. 

?. Brunneo-niger, subtus albo-pubescens, supra albo-maculatus ; pronoto 
lato macula magna basali laterali, altera parva laterali apicali, atque gutta 
minuta ad apicem sidci transversi ; elytris macula basali fere semicirculari sat 
magna dorsali, altera parva supra humerum, tertia elliptica suturali antemediana 
atque parvis maculis dispersis modice numerosis ; angulo carinae prothoracis 
fortissime rotundato. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 6-8 mm., rat. 3 mm. 

Hab. Borneo : Matang Road, Sarawak, 1 $. 

Carinae of proboscis low, reaching about to middle, the middle one con- 
tinued to apex by an elevation which is distinct only on account of the surface 
of the rostrum being depressed at each side of it, side of rostrum not cariniform 
between antenna and mandible. Frons a very little broader than segment 2 of 
antenna. Segment 3 of antenna as long as 9, 9 =11, one-third longer than 
10, 8 a little over one-half of 9. Cheek white. Pronotum very feebly punctate 

Ki4 Novitatbs Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

at the sides, not quite twice as broad as long (19 : 11), strongly rounded, widest 
in middle, carina almost straight dorsallv, nearly evenly curved forward at sides, 
the lateral longitudinal cannula forming an acute angle with it. Scutellum 
brown-black. Elytra broadest at base, posteriorly rather strongly depressed 
at suture, the elliptical sutural spot reaches to the middle of second interspace, 
at the beginning of apical declivity an inverted white comma in third interspace. 
Pygidium as long as broad, with a small basal lateral spot. Upperside of tibiae 
except base black, as is also the base of segment 1 of tarsi, rest of 1 and the whole 
of 2 white above. 

23. Litocerus figuratus chorispilus subsp. nov. 

(J$. Vitta mediana pronoti angusta, late interrupta. 

Hab. Sumatra : Sibolangit (Corporaal), type, and Si-Rambe (Modigliani) 
a series. 

In L. f. figuratus the median stripe of the pronotum is broad, complete, while 
in chorispilus it is broken up into two or three spots. 

24. Litocerus stichoderes sp. nov. 

c?$. L. dorsali Jord. (1S94) simillimus, pronoto atque lateribus pro-etmeso- 
sterni sat fortiter punctatis distinguendus. 

Hab. S. Celebes : Tjamba and Macassar (Doherty), a series. 

The transverse sulcus of the pronotum is very distinct, being deeper than 
in L. dorsalis and better defined. The constriction of the luteous grey area of the 
elytra extends to the first line of punctures, sometimes to the suture, in which 
case the area is divided into an anterior and a posterior patch. 

25. Sympaector tenus sp. nov. 

$. Rufus, nigro-signatus, capite, tarsis atque tibiarum apice nigro-brunneis, 
pronoto duabus vittis latis rectis nigris notato, antennis ante rostri medium 
insertis, segmentis 7° et 8° aequilongis, pygidio longitudine fere dimidio latiore. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 5-8 mm. 

Hab. S.E. Borneo : Pengaron (W. Doherty), 1 $. 

The short pygidium distinguishes this species sharply from the other rufous 
Sum pace/or with black spots. In structure nearest to S. pagis Jord. (1911) and 

Antenna inserted at two-fifths from apex. Cheek bounded by a deep 
groove. The median stripe of pronotum about half as wide as a blackish stripe, 
narrowed at apical margin, lateral carina slightly concave above, basal longitu- 
dinal carinula oblique, curved down posteriorly. Elytra much less flattened and 
less narrowing anad than in S. nigromaculatus, subcylindrical, with the following 
black-brown markings : a small dot on subbasal swelling, another a little further 
back in sixth line of punctures, a third behind subbasal swelling on second inter- 
space, a fourth at margin behind shoulder, a larger spot at one-fourth of margin 
extending up to interspace 8, a still larger one before middle, subrotundate, from 
interspaces 3 to 7, incised behind in seventh stripe, a small marginal spot in 
middle, a broad subapical band, anteriorly rounded at the sides and less so at the 


suture on each elytrum, separated from pygidium on each elytrum by a circular 
yellowish grey spot about as large as the largish antemedian lateral spot, the band 
dorsally about as wide as the space separating it from the antemedian dorsal 
spot. Pygidium slightly brownish, pale at apex. 

26. Hucus pallidus sp. nov. 

tj$. H. striati affinis, pallide rufus, pube griseo-flava tectus ; pronoto 
macula apicali magna et altera basali nigris divisis, duabus macuhs minoribus 
lateraUbus subapicalibus separatis aut coniunctis eodem colore ; elytris nigro- 
brunneis lineis palhdis striatis, sutura, basi atque macula communi transversa 
postmediana pallidis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 3-3-4-3 mm. 

Hab. Java : 1 $ without more precise locality in Mus. Tring (type) ; 
Lembang, ix. 1924 (L. G. E. Kalshoven), 2 $$ in Mus. Buitenzorg. 

A very pale species with cream-coloured pubescence. The blackish apical 
basal median patches of pronotum square or oblong, divided by a more or less 
complete cream-coloured median line ; the extent of the light colouring of the 
elytra somewhat variable, a patch on subbasal swelling, a median patch not 
reaching suture, a transverse area or a band at the beginning of the apical declivity, 
and the liinbal area blackish brown and more or less broken up by pale lines ; 
apex of tibiae and tarsi and base of hindtibia (in type also apex of hindfemur) 
blackish ; a diffuse lateral spot on prosternum and usually a spot on metepister- 
num brownish. Rostrum with 5 distinct carinae. Frons about as wide as the 
interspace between central and second carinae. Antenna : in $ reaching beyond 
middle of elytra, segment 1 not nearly extending to eye, 3 as long 1 + 2 and one- 
fourth longer than 8, this one-third longer than 9, club rather narrow, but quite 
distinct, 10 twice as long as broad, 1 1 a little longer than 9 ; in $ 3 one-third longer 
than 4, one-half longer than 8, 9 very little shorter than 8, one-fourth shorter 
than 11, and nearly one-third longer than 10. Angle of carina less than 90°, 
the lateral carina somewhat convex. Pygidium one-fifth broader than long 
in <$. 

27. Hucus sulcicollis sp. nov. 

<J. Rufo-brunneus, pronoto luteo-griseo macuhs brunneis variegato, elytris 
dorso plus minus luteo-griseis, lateribus brunneis griseo-lineolatis ; dimidio 
basali rostri leviter tricarinato ; pronoto sulco lineari transverso antemediano 
instructo, angulo carinae acuto ; antenna longitudine corporis, segmento 9° 
tribus primis simul sumptis paululo longiore. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-7 mm. 

Hab. Banguey I. (J. Waterstradt) , 1 (J. 

Marking of pronotum diffuse : median vitta grey, disc on each side of it 
cinnamon, sides grey, on each side six blackish brown markings, one extending 
from the sulcus forward, a second being placed at the end of the sulcus, the third 
obliquely above the end of the lateral carina and three before the dorsal carina, 
of which the one in the angle is the largest ; elytra grey shaded with cinnamon, 
sides and apex brown with short grey linear spots, in middle of suture a small 
cinnamom spot. 

166 Novitatks ZOOLOGIOAE XXXIII. 192lj. 

Dilated apical portion of rostrum as long as narrow basal portion, inter- 
mediate carina absent, median and lateral ones present, but not very prominent, 
in front of eye laterally a groove bounding the grey cheek. Antenna very pale 
rufous like the legs, darker distally, segment 1 not nearly reaching to eye, 3 little 
longer than 1, 4 to 8 equal in lengths, slightly shorter than 3, 9 a very little longer 
than 1 to 3 together, 10 about three times as long as broad (11 missing). Frons 
a little broader than the second segment of antenna. Pronotum with some large 
shallow punctures laterally, transverse sulcus sharpl.y marked, almost interrupted 
in centre, dorsal carina convex, angle acute, but its apex rounded off, lateral 
car na reaching to middle, very slightly flexuose, lateral longitudinal cannula 
oblique. Sutural area of elytra somewhat flattened. Tip of tibiae and apical 
half of tarsi brownish. Underside of body grey. 

28. Hucus argutus sp. no v. 

$. Compactus, nigro-brunneus, infra griseus, supra griseo-guttatus, pronoti 
vltta mediana et elytrorum fascia transversa mediana griseo-luteis. Rostrum 
gradatim dilatatum, fere sine carinis. Pronotum conicum, angulo carinae acuto 
retrorsum producto, carina laterali obsolescente. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4 mm., lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Philippines : Calapan, Mindoro, 1 $. 

Median stripe of pronotum narrowed at apex, in depression of disc and at 
the carina, on each side of disc a spot in depression and laterally a series of three, 
connected with the grey underside, in front of lateral carina the usual brown 
ventral spot, sides of pronotum punctate, dorsal carina slightly convex, laterally 
more strongly convex, the angle of the pronotum, and with it the angle of the 
carina, produced backwards, acute, the carina here almost touching the margin 
of the elytrum, the lateral carina extending to meral suture, but very feeble, 
almost obsolete. Suture and alternate interspaces of elytra dotted with grey, 
base of suture extended grey, in middle a yellowish grey band from second to 
sixth interspace, the dots near sutural interspace behind this band yellowish and 
partly confluent. 

Proboscis almost gradually widened, but the upper margin of the antennal 
groove distinctly widened, projecting, centre of proboscis somewhat depressed, 
carinae slightly indicated, only the lateral one distinct, but very short. Frons 
broader than the third segment of the antenna is long. Pubescence not denser 
on cheeks than on rostrum. Antenna reaching to base of pronotum, segment 1 
a little longer than 2, 3 scarcely longer than 2, 3 to 7 equal in length, 8 shorter, 
club a little longer than 3 to 6 together, 9 half as long again as 10 and about as 
long as 11. Pygidium brown, with a slight indication of grey at apical margin. 

Near H. crassus Jord. (1897) and H. inclinans Jord. (1895), both described 
as Litocerus ; easily distinguished by the dorsal carinae of the rostrum and the 
lateral one of the prothorax being obsolete or nearly. 

29. Hucus dives sp. nov. 

9. Praecedenti similis, pronoti carina lateralis hand obsolescente, elytris 
seriatim guttatis. 

Hab. Borneo : Kuching (J. Hewitt), 1 $. 

The second carina of the rostrum a little more distinct than in H. argutus 


curved sidewards at both ends, median carina traceable at base, middle of 
rostrum impressed. Frons a little narrower than in H. arguius. Antenna as 
short as in that species, but segment 3 to 5 slightly decreasing in length, 6 = 7 
shorter than 5, 8 less than half 3, club nearly as long as 3 to 8 together, 9 one-half 
longer than 10, a very little longer than 11. Markings of upperside yellowish, 
pubescence of rostrum and cheek grey, not condensed on cheek. Basal angle of 
prothorax and carina as acute as in H. argutus, the median vitta of pronoturn 
narrower and the lateral spots smaller than in that species ; lateral carina dis- 
tinct, somewhat flexuose. Elytra as in H. argutus not depressed at suture from 
near base to beyond middle ; sutural and alternate interspaces almost regularly 
dotted with yellowish grey, the dots along suture partly confluent. Sides of 
sterna for the greater part rufous brown, abdomen with diffuse lateral patches 
of the same colour. 

30. Hucus cherulus sp. nov. 

<J. Speciei praecedenti structura persimihs, rostro longiore, elytrorum 
striis punctatis luteis. 

Hab. Sumatra: Lau Rakit, East Coast, 29.viii. 1921, 300 m. (J. B. Cor- 
poraal), 1 $. 

Spots on pronoturn smaller than in H. dives, the median vitta broken up 
into three spots ; suture and alternate interspaces of elytra dotted with 
ochraceous and all the stripes of punctures also ochraceous. Rostrum one- 
fourth longer than broad (in H. dives as long as broad), sides rather strongly 
angulate above antennal groove, carinae as in H. dives. Antenna essentially as 
in that species, but segment 8 only a little shorter than 7, and 9 as long as 11. 
Lateral carina of pronoturn straight, not flexuose. 

The short antenna point to a $, but on opening the last abdominal segment 
I found the specimen to be a <J. 

31. Basitropis euris sp. nov. 

<J9- Statura et color B. rolundaiae Jord. (1903), antennarum clava tri- 
articulata multo tenuiore, pronoti lateribus minus rotundatis ; $ tibiis anticis 
mediisque modice hamatis, posticis intus a medio ad apicem planato-impressis 
atque villosis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4-3-5-7 mm. 

Hab. Menado, Celebes, vi.1924 (Leefmans), several examples in Mus. 
Tring and Mus. Buitenzorg. 

A short species, 2i times as long as broad ; tibiae and abdomen immaculate. 
Rostrum shorter than in B. rotundata, three times as broad as long, in middle 
slightly depressed basally and subcarinate apically. Frons less than half as broad 
as the rostrum. Club of antenna narrower than in any other known species, 
consisting of three segments in both sexes, broader in $ than in <J, in <$ 9 and 
10 conical, 9 a little longer than broad, 10 as long as broad, in $ 9 as lone: as 
broad, 10 about one-third broader than long. Sides of pronoturn straight in 
posterior half. Abdominal segments 1 to 4 punctate centrally from base to 
apex, laterally at base only, segment 1 with a few punctures laterally halfway 
between base and apex. In <$ fore- and midtibiae somewhat curved, slightly 
dilated at apex on inside, midtibia with distinct tooth ; hindtibia, on underside 

lt>S Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

from middle to apex, flattened and somewhat impressed, this area villose and 
bounded on outerside by an obtuse carina, which ends at apex with a small tooth. 

32. Basitropis suavis sp. nov. 

tJ. Supra sat dense ochraceo-pubescens, nigro-maculata, capite cum rostro 
et pronoto fortiter punctatis ; antennarum clava triarticulata ; pronoto evidenter 
inaequali, tibiis anticis et mediis simplicibus, posticis inucronatis. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 6 mm., lat. 2-4 mm. 

Hub. Borneo : Kinabalu, 1 <J. 

On pronotum four apical and two larger basal spots, on each clytrum a 
roundish lateral spot before middle and an irregular dorsal one in middle, as 
well as traces of other spots black. Rostrum rounded at sides, appearing con- 
stricted at base, not quite twice as broad as long, apical sinus triangular, base 
slightly depressed, no distinct median carina at apex. Frons as broad as the 
rostrum is long (measured from the eye straight to apex). Club of antenna broad- 
ish, segment 9 a little broader than long, 10 one-half broader than long, 7 and 8 
slightly broadened, with some long hairs beneath. 

Surface of pronotum somewhat uneven, depressed at the base, basal angle 
sharper than usual, sides incurved basally and gradually rounded medianly ; 
puncturation much coarser than for instance in B. nitulicutis. 

Pubescence on underside of femora and on coxa somewhat longer ; bases 
of tibiae brown ; apex of fore- and midtibiae simple, of hindtibia armed with 
a sharp tooth which stands at right angles to the tibia ; first segment of foretarsus 
with a strong spike-like tooth on underside, projecting distad, second segment 
dorsally very short, not being longer in the median line than the claw-segment 
is broad near its base. Abdomen medianly with dispersed small punctures, 
laterally without punctures, except segment 1, which bears some punctures in 
the basal groove, and segment 5, which is coarsely punctured all over, 5 not 
impressed, convex. 

Nearest to B. maculata Jord. (1903), from Java, of which only the $ is known. 

33. Basitropis concolor sp. nov. 

g. Lata ; rostro carina mediana ad apicem continuata instructo ; anten- 
narum clava quadriarticulata ; pronoto laeviter punctato, lateribus fere im- 
punctatis, maculis luteo-griseis parvis ; elytris fascia basali et altera anteapicali 
irregularibus luteo-griseis ornatis ; tibiis macula mediana magna brunnea notatis, 
anticis apice intus obtuse dilatatis, intermediis et posticis simplicibus. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 10 mm., lat. 4 mm. 

Hab. Adonara (W. Doherty), 1 <J. 

Proboscis and antenna almost as in B. hamata Jord. (1903) ; apical sinus of 
the former small, sharp. Pronotum rounded at sides, incurved before base, punc- 
tures shallow and dispersed, absent from lateral area ; yellowish grey markings 
small : at apex a thin median line, behind it an antemedian double spot, this 
spot and two spots behind it on each side form a circle, in between the two pos- 
terior spots of this circle some small dot -s which connect them with an indefinite 
posterior median stripe, outside the circle 4 or 5 spots. Basal band of elytra 
rather well-defined, enclosing an irregular sutural patch, a sharply marked, 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. I(j9 

oblong, basal spot halfway to side, and a triangular shoulder spot ; at beginning 
of apical declivity a much more irregular band, much invaded by the brown 
ground, produced forward in fifth interspace, interrupted at suture ; between 
the two bands a small number of dots, other dots, more or less confluent, at apex. 
Presternum swollen before each coxa, anterior intercoxal process pointed, a 
little curved up (i.e. ventrad), posterior process forming a transverse ridge behind 
the coxae which is longer than in any of the allied species and highest behind 
each coxa. Abdominal segment 1-4 almost impunctate, anal segment with 
dispersed shallow punctures, its apical margin broadly convex in middle. Apex 
of foretibia dilated on inner side, the dilatation short, broad, quite rounded off. 
The extreme base and the middle of the tibiae brown, the median patch occupying 
from one-third to one-half of the tibia. 

34. Basitropis tersa sp. nov. 

(J. Parva, B. lutoso colore simillima ; rostro medio fortiter carinato, anten- 
narum clava sat tenui triarticulata, pygidio convexo, segmento anali ventrali 
et tibiis simplicibus. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 4 mm. 

Hab. Philippines : Imugan, Luzon (Boettcher), 1 (J. 

Upperside pubescent yellowish grey, variegated with brown, four brown 
patches on pronotum particularly conspicuous, two each side, one subapical, 
diffuse, the other larger, oblong, before the carina. 

Proboscis a little over twice as broad as long, with strong median carina, 
which extends far on to frons, apical sinus very shallow and broad, evenly con- 
cave, not anguliform. Segment 3 of antenna longer than 4, 8 as long as 7 and 
not appreciably broader, the club consisting of three segments, being similar to 
the club of B. lutosus Jord. (1895), lengths of the three segments: 9, 7, 11, 
breadths 7-5, 8, 8. Prothorax shorter than in B. hdosus, one-fourth broader 
than long, more rounded, but not so much as in B. rotundata, puncturation some- 
what coarser than in B. lutosus. Pygidium convex, scarcely one-fourth broader 
than long. Abdominal segments 1 to 4 with a few large punctures at the base, 
5 simply convex, not impressed as in B. lutosus, with very few large shallow 
punctures. All the tibiae simple, without the long hairs present in the <$ of 
B. lutosus, and the foretibia without hook at apex. 

35. Basitropis illustris spec. nov. 

<J. Caput cum pronoto luteo-griseo-trivittatum ; elytrum linea luteo-grisea 
a basi supra humerum ad medium suturae et rotundatim ad limbum continuata 
atque deinde in forma laquei ad basin recurrente ornatum. Antennae a seg- 
mento 5° gradatim dilatatae. Pygidium valde convexum. Tibiae simplices. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 9 mm., lat. 3-7 mm. 

Hab. Philippines : Surigao, Mindanao (Boettcher), 2 <$$. 

In markings unlike any other species of the genus. The median stripe of 
the pronotum sharply defined, about as broad as a tibia, slightly widened at the 
base, lateral stripe interrupted or irregular, a few luteous speckles above and 
below it. The luteous line of each elytrum forms a tear-shaped loop, round 
behind (in front of apical declivity) and pointed basally, forming a small blotch 
at base, basal margin and the area immediately behind it more or less luteous, 




apex of elytra also marked with luteous. Underside luteous, abdomen with 
lateral marginal brown spots. 

Proboscis coarsely punctate as usual, with a fairly distinct median carina. 
Antenna long-hairy beneath from segment 4, gradually increasing in width, 8 
a little broader than long, larger than 7, 9 almost one-half broader than long. 10 
twice as broad as long, 1 1 subovate, a little longer than broad. Pronotum coarsely 
but not densely punctate, very slightly shorter than broad, sides almost straight 
in posterior half, angle of carina obtuse and rounded off. Pygidium very strongly 
convex near apex, tuberculiform, brown at base. Coxae with a tuft of longer 
pubescence. Anal sternite simple, with dispersed large punctures. Tibiae 





THE group of French or Witu Islands lies north of the western part of 
New Britain, about 80 km. from the latter. It consists of two larger 
and some smaller islands forming a northern group, and a southern island called 
Unia or Merite Island. The group was discovered by D'Entrecasteaux, during 
his last voyage, on which he contracted the illness of which he died at sea, in 
1793. He called the group lies Francaises ; hence they are called French Islands 
and Franzosische Inseln. Eichhorn collected on the largest of the northern 
group, called at first by D'Entrecasteaux lies des Lacs, now Garowe or Witu 
Island, from Witu Harbour on its western side, and also visited Unia, the southern 
island. The highest point on Garowe Island is 300 m., that of Unia 587 m. 
The German New Guinea Company had on Witu a trading station and a 
plantation of over 40,000 coconut palms. Copra and cocoa are exported. 
There is said to be more rain than on the Gazelle Peninsula, New Britain. 

Eichhorn writes : " The highest point of Witu is about 1,100 feet ; the island 
is planted with much coconut and cocoa (cacao). The soil seems to be extra- 
ordinarily rich, hence the great output of copra and cocoa. There is a good deal 
of secondary growth, but a very small proportion of virgin scrub ; there is very 
little flat ground and fresh water is scarce, some villages using only coconut in 
place of water. Insect life seems to be very scarce. I have a rejjresentative of 
all birds seen or heard, except the osprey (Pandion ludiaeios leucoceplialus) and 
the sea-eagle (Cuncuma leitcogaster) ; there was no sign of any night bird. I 
spent four days on Unia Island, which is some 1,900 feet high ; it was hardly 
time to make a representative collection, but it seems that quite a number of 
birds and insects occur there that are not found on Witu, and vice versa." 

The ornis of the French Islands is that of New Britain, but Ptilinopus 
solomonensis meyeri and Halcyon chloris stresemanni are peculiar to the Witu 
group. The ornis is poor compared with that of the larger islands, as is always 
the case. 

Specimens from the French Islands have reached the collections in Berlin 
and Munich, but no good collection has ever been made there, according to my 
knowledge, and no list of their birds has been published. 

1. Megapodius duperreyi eremita Hartl. 

Eichhorn found this species common on Witu, but did not see any nest 

2. Anous stolidus. 
A worn and faded specimen was taken on May 30th. These birds are often 
seen out at sea, but, according to Father Meyer, only ill and tired-out specimens 
are found on shore. There is evidently no breeding-place anywhere near New 


The specimen sent is insufficient to determine the subspecies to which it 
may belong, but I am inclined to think that only one form inhabits these seas, 
which should be called A. stolidus pileatiis. 

3. Tringa hypoleucos L. 

It is interesting to find these birds already common in July ; one was shot 
July 8th, one 17th, one 18th, and by the end of the month it was common. 
Father Meyer also says that it arrives on Vuatom in July. 

4. Hypotaenidia philippensis lesouefi (Math.) (?). 

Eulabeornis philippensis lesouefi Mathews, B. Australia, i, p. 198 (" New Hanover," also New Britain). 

Eichhorn found this bird not rare on Witu Island, and sent a series of eight 
adults, three young, and two eggs, which were found in a nest on the ground 
on July 20th, 1925. The eggs are typical ralline eggs ; they are glossless rich- 
cream colour with reddish-chestnut and deeper 13'ing greyish-mauve spots, largest 
and more frequent on the thick end. They are rather roundish and measure 
37 x 28-7 and 36 X 28-2 mm. 

The naming of the subspecies of Witu Island is not so simple. Comparing 
a series from New Hanover with that from Witu Island, one is struck by the 
different appearance of the two lots. Those from New Hanover appear more 
blackish on the back, the white markings on the lower hind-neck and upper part 
of the back are more distinct bars, the olive-brown edges to the scapulars and 
rump less developed, the white spots more frequent and extending over the 
rump to the tail. 

The Witu specimens, on the other hand, have the white markings behind the 
chestnut nuchal band more in the shape of spots, the olivaceous-brown edges to 
the feathers of the upperside very wide and obvious, and there are, as a rule, 
no, or very few, white spots on the lower back, rump, tail-coverts, and rectrices. 

Nevertheless, I do not propose to separate the Witu form, for the following 
reasons : These rails vary a good deal individually, and are not quite so constant, 
as Mathews' statements in vol. i of the Birds of Australia might make one 
believe. Two of our Witu birds are quite like one of our New Hanover specimens. 
Two specimens from Eastern New Guinea seem to agree well with the New 
Hanover ones, while one in moult from the south of Geelvink Bay (Pratt Bros, 
coll.) seems to agree with the Australian form (there may be only one subspecies 
in Australia), which is supposed to visit New Guinea on migration. Our examples 
from New Hanover are from February to April, those from Witu from June 
and July. 

5. Gallinula (Amaurornis) olivacea nigrifrons subsp. nov. 

Differs from its allies, G. (A.) olivacea moluccana (Moluccas, New Guinea) 
and G. (A.) olivacea ruficrissa (Australia), by the absence of the orange-coloured 
small frontal shield, this shield being less developed, with a ridge in the middle, 
and of black or olivaceous-black colour. The upperside is darker, more brownish 
ohve, and the vent and under tail-coverts a shade darker. Wings £ 140-145, 
§ 133-135 mm., culmen from end of feathering on forehead <J about 36-38, 
$ 34-35, tarsus 57-59 mm. 


Habitat : Witu Islands, New Britain, Duke of York Islands, New Hanover, 
and probably also New Ireland, also Solomon Islands. Type : $ ad. Witu I., 
24. vi. 1925. Eichhorn leg., No. 10,328. 

This Gallinule was found fairly common on Witu Island by Eichhorn. A 
nest was found in the grass on the ground on July 8th, with one egg. It resembles 
the eggs of Hypotaenidia philippensis lesouefi, but is a little more glossy, the 
surface has numerous fine dots, and looks less clean ; the markings are all over 
the egg. Measures : 38 X 27-7 mm. 

The subspecies of this rail have been considered by Mathews and by Strese- 
mann. Mathews calls the species moluccanus, but we must follow Stresemann, 
who recognized that moluccana is a subspecies of olivacea (Philippine Is.). 
Stresemann united the Papuan and Bismarck Archipelago specimens with moluc- 
cana, but they differ widely. Schlegel (Notes Leyden Museum, i, p. 163, 1879) 
described a single immature specimen as " Oallinula Franhii." It was brought 
to Holland by a missionary stationed on the Berau Peninsula. Though the 
exact village or place whence it came is not known, it is quite certain that it 
cannot have come from New Britain, as was once suggested by Mathews. The 
name can therefore under no circumstances be used for the New Britain form. 
Our specimens are slate-grey underneath, and the throat paler just towards the 
bill, but in one female from Witu the whole throat is whitish. 

6. Ptilinopus solomonensis meyeri subsp. nov. 

Subspeciei P. solomonensis neumanni dictae simillimus, sed rostro longiore, 
gutture virescentiore distinguendus. 

Though very closely allied to P. solomensis neumanni from Nissan Island 
(cf. Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 42), the birds from Witu have longer bills, and the 
throat is green, only lighter than the crop, but without the greyish tinge which 
is more or less obvious in both sexes of P. s. neumanni. Culmen <$ 17-18-5, 
against 15-16 mm. in P. s. neumanni. Wings $ ad. 122-128 mm. Type : <J ad. 
No. 10.263, Witu Island, 11 .vi. 1925. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 

The occurrence of a yellow-chested form of P. solomonensis on the Witu 
group is of great interest. Until I described P. s. neumanni from Nissan, we 
only knew a yellow-chested form on Manus (Admiralty Is.), St. Matthias, 
Storm Island, and New Hanover, except that Father Otto Meyer had, in 1906, 
stated that he found " P. johannis " on Vuatom, and that P. Schumm had also 
found it on New Britain ! This shows once more that New Britain is not so well 
known as one is inclined to think, since so many collectors and even ornithologists 
have been there. I have the pleasure to name the Witu race in honour of 
Father Otto Meyer, who wrote the interesting article, full of biological notes, 
on the birds of Vuatom. Of course it is not at all certain that the Vuatom 
birds are exactly the same as the Witu ones, but they are yellow-chested 

In the Witu form the chest-band is deep yellow. 

Possibly the colour of the iris is different ; in the specimens from Nissan 
(P. s. neumanni) Eichhorn marked the iris as " yellow," in one case " deep 
yellow," and in all the Witu ones as " dull greenish yellow " or " pale greenish 
yellow," and Father Meyer said of the Vuatom birds that the iris was " grungelb," 

Eichhorn found this Pigeon common on Witu. 

174 Novitates Zoolocicae XXXIII. ll)26. 

7. Ducula pistrinaria van-wyckii (Cass.). 

Carpophaga van-wyckii Cassin, Proc. Philadelphia Acad. 1862, p. 320 (New Ireland). 
Cf. Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 35. 

One male was obtained on Witu July 1st, 1925. " Iris dark red, bill lead 
blue, feet plum-red." Eiehhorn says he found it " rare on this island." 

Lord Rothschild called my attention to the fact that the best distinguishing 
character of this form seems to be the pale, whitish throat with hardly any pinkish 
tinge, and the greyer breast, and in fact entire underside, the breast being 
quite vinaceous pink in D. p. pistrinaria. 

8. Gallicolumba beccarii johannae (Scl.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 

This little Pigeon was also found on Witu Island, but Eiehhorn calls it 
" comparatively rare." A quite young bird was shot July 14th. I have already 
stated that " G. b. nodifica " is a synonym, the coloration of the chest varying 
to a certain degree. 

9. Macropygia ruia rufocastanea Rams. 
Common, series from June and July. 

10. Chalcophaps stephani stephani Rchb. 
Also common on Witu. 

11. Caloenas nicobarica nicobarica (L.). 

Eiehhorn says it is rare on Unia, from where he sent one $ shot 4. viii. 1925. 
It was not noticed on the great Witu Islands. 

12. Dupetor flavicollis gouldi (Bp.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1908, p. 354. 

In my recent articles on the birds of islands in the Bismarck Archipelago, 
I have called this heron Dupetor flavicollis nesophilus, but I now revert to our 
idea of 1908, that only one subspecies should be recognised from Australia to 
New Guinea, the Aru Islands and Moluccas, and the Bismarck Archipelago. 
The form from the Solomon Islands is D.f. woodfordi with a very different female. 
Sharpe placed it in a separate genus, Eryth/ro'phoyx, because the tarsus is distinctly 
longer, but tins is a good specific or subspecific, not a generic, character (cf. Nov. 
Zool. 1908, p. 353). The male of D. f. woodfordi is not separable in colour 
from most of the adult males from the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, etc., 
the differences which we stated I.e. not being constant. It is true that Bismarck 
Archipelago birds are generally very deeply coloured and rather bluish black 
on the head, but then ours are very fresh and freshly moulted, beautiful clean 
skins, while in all the number from Australia before me there is not one really 
beautiful skin. 

It is also remarkable that the uniform slaty black variety is not, as far as 


I know, found in Australia, 1 while it occurs on the Moluccas and Aru Islands, 
and is not at all rare in the Bismarck Archipelago, in fact all adult males we 
received from Witu are slate-black ; it is of course certain that '.' D. melas " 
(Ardetta Melaena, Salvadori, 1878) is not a different species, as we still thought 
in 1908 ; it is a melanism, or " mutation," as it is now usual to call it. 

There appears to be only one form in Australia. Mathews named three 
supposed subspecies in 1912, but in 1913 already reduced them to one, which, 
it seems to me, is also synonymous with gouldi, first described from Australia. 

Dv/petor flavicollis gouldi is evidently common on Witu, as Eichhorn sent ten 
specimens. The young of the black form is already blackish brown underneath, 
brownish black above, with pale brownish fringes to the feathers. The iris of 
adults and young is brownish yellow to dark brownish golden yellow. The bill 
in the black form is quite black, in the others the under mandible is more or 
less light horn colour. The females are underneath more brownish, the upperside 
brown, but sometimes rather slaty and then very little different from adult 
males ; Mathews was wrong in saying, in his book on the Birds of Australia, 
that the female is like the male. 

It has often been queried if " Dupetor melas " was really a different species 
(cf., among others, Otto Meyer in Natur und Offenbarung, 1906, p. 649), but 
Stresemann (Orn. Monatsber. 1926, p. 118) clearly said that it was a melanistic 
form, and this is undoubtedly correct, and he also called attention to Meyer's 
discovery of an albinistic specimen on New Britain. 

13. Demigretta sacra. 
Was found rare on Garowe (Witu) ; one shot on the last day could not be 
packed, so it did not yet reach Tring. 

14. Geoffroyus heteroclitus (Hombr. & Jacq.). 
Rare, one female sent. 

15. Lorius roratus goodsoni Hart. 

Common on Witu, but much persecuted by the planters, on account of the 
damage they do, chiefly to the cocoa pods. 
Also common on Unia Island. 

16. Domicella hypoinochroa devittata (Hart.). 

Eichhorn found this parrot rather rare. A nest was seen in a huge tree, 
but could not be reached. Some of the skins moult primaries. 

17. Trichoglossus haematodes aberrans Rchw. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 123. 

Pound moderately common on Witu. 

1 It is true that Diggles, in the Transactions of the Philosophical Society of Queensland, 1874, 
article 2, p. 6, described an Ardetta nigra, which is probably what Sharpe called Dupetor melas ; 
this is said to have come from about thirty miles from Cape York, and had been collected (or sent) 
by Cockerell. Mathews says " presumably " this blackish heron, which apparently was Sharpe's 
Dupetor melas, came from the Aru Islands, but of course it might really be from the Cape York 
Peninsula, though known to have been shot on Aru, and not in Australia. We only know of Diggles' 
article through Mathews, Austral Avian Record, i, pp. 68-72, and ii, pp. 144-153, where the dates of 
publication are also discussed. 


18. Charmosynopsis placentis pallidior K. & H. 

" Common on Witu. Nesting in growth of crows-nest fern." A series 
from June shows no moult. Two eggs were found in a nest on July 27th. One 
egg sent is quite brownish, evidently stained from the nest. It is without 
gloss and measures 19 X 16-5 mm. 

19. Micropsitta pusio pusio (Scl.). 

Antea, p. 129. 

Eiehhorn found this little parrot rare on Witu and a little commoner on 
Unia Island. He sent two skins from each of the two islands. One of the Witu 
specimens is as highly coloured as the one from the Kotoi district in the 
Owen Stanley Mountains mentioned p. 130, so that the latter obviously does 
not belong to a separable mountain form ; the yellow superciliary stripe is of 
course clearly visible in the Kotoi district specimen {aalvadorii), but not in the 
pusio from Witu. 

20. Halcyon albicilla saurophaga Gould. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 277 ; 1926, p. 38. 

Found somewhat rare on Witu. Five adults sent. Specimens from June 
1 1th and 26th and July 27th are in moult (twice wings, all tail and body plumage) . 

21. Halcyon chloris stresemanni Laubm. 

Halcyon chloris stresemanni Laubmann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xv, p. 391 (1923— French Islands); 
antea, p. 133. 

This interesting form was found common on Witu in June and July. About 
half the specimens sent are in moult. Iris dark brown. Bill black and white. 
" Feet blackish." 

In the article on " Talasea " in New Britain I have described the differences 
of this subspecies, which is only known, so far, from Witu and Rook Islands. 

22. Halcyon sancta sancta Vig. & Horsf. 

Common on Witu in June and July. All showed tail and body moult, but 
very few on the wings, which are mostly freshly moulted. 

23. Chalcites lucidus lucidus (Cm). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 169. 

A female from Witu Island shot 23.vii. 1925 and a male shot on Unia Island 
4.viii.l925 seem to belong to the true lucidus, which is a winter visitor from 
New Zealand. 

These birds seem to be true lucidus, though the Unia Island one has dis- 
tinctly some rufous on the second rectrix ; this, however, is sometimes seen in 
lurid us, though, curious to say, in our series mostly in specimens from Australia ! 
As a rule lucidus has a narrower bill than plagosus, but this character is also 
not absolutely constant, though obvious in series. 


24. Chalcites lucidus plagosus (Lath.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1925. p. 159. 

Two females were shot on Unia Island August 3rd and 4th. These 
birds are obviously C. I. plagosus. Both forms of Chalcites were rare during 
Eichhorn's stay ; he remarks that they are migrants and that they seldom if 
ever call. 

25. Eurystomus orientalis crassirostris Scl. 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 000. 

Four from Witu and two from Unia, where Eichhorn thought they were 
more numerous than on Witu. Four show moult. 

26. Eurystomus orientalis pacificus (Lath.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 213. 

A single male of this Australian form, which winters in New Guinea and 
adjacent islands, was shot on Unia Island l.viii.1925. 

27. Merops ornatus Lath. 

A few were found on Witu in July, while it was common on Unia Island in 
August. All show some moulting feathers in various places, only a male from 
July 1st is in badly worn plumage and does not yet moult. 

There is evidently only one form in Australia. 

28. Collocalia esculenta esculenta (L.). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 206 ; 1925, p. 128. 

Common on Witu Island in June and July. One June 24th moulting wings, 
tail, body. 

29. Monarcha alecto chalybeocephalus (Garnot). 

Eichhorn sent 3 $ and 3 $ shot August 1st and 2nd on Unia Island, and 
says that they were common, but did not occur on Witu Island. 

30. Monarcha cinerascens impediens Hart. 

Monarcha cinerascens impediens Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 40 (Feni and Nissan Is.). 

Common on Witu Island. A series of ten quite agree with the Feni and 
Nissan birds. The darker colour of the abdomen is not constant. Wings 
<J 82-86, $ 87-89 mm. 

Seems to be common on all the lesser islands, but to be absent from the 
large islands of the Bismarck Archipelago. On Vuatom it was found frequently 
by O. Meyer. 

31. Rhipidura tricolor melaleuca (Quoy et Gaim.). 
Common on Witu Island. 

32. Graucalus novaehollandiae melanops (Lath.). 

Conns melanops Latham, Index Orn. Suppl. p. xxiv (1801 — Australia! Mathews concludes that 
the type came from N.S. Wales). 

A female was shot on Witu Island June 4th, 1925. Eichhorn noticed that 
it was migratory and rare. In New Britain (Talasea) it arrived in April, when 


he was leaving. It is not at all numerous in the Bismarck Archipelago. Reiche- 
now only mentioned it from Duke of York Island and Ralum. 

33. Myzomela sclateri Forbes. 

Myzomda sclateri Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1879, p. 265, pi. xxv, 2 (Palakuru, Credner Islands) ; 
Nov. Zool. 1915, p. 35. 

Eichhom found ths beautiful Myzomela very common on Witu Island, and 
sent a fine series. He also says that it is rare on Unia Island, but sent no speci- 
mens from there. The female has the throat dark grey, irregularly striped or 
spotted with pale yellow. Wings J ad. 63-67, $ ad. 59-62 mm. 

This like Pachycephala peetoralis dahli, is a bird of the small islands : Credner 
group (or southern Duke of York group), Dampier Island (Nov. Zool. 1915, 
p 35), Vuatom, and Witu. Nanuka or Nanuk is also one of the Credner Islands. 
The freshly moulted adult male has the throat brilliant red and is a very 

beautiful bird. 

Nest, eggs, and habits have only been described by Father Otto Meyer. 

34. Cinnyris jugularis fiavigastra (Gould). 

<£$ ad. Unia Island, August 4th, 1925. 

Eichhom says it was not rare on Unia, but does not occur on Witu Islands. 

35. Cinnyris sericea corinna (Salvad.). 
Eichhom found it fairly common on Unia Island, but says that it does not 
occur on Witu Island. 

36. Pachycephala peetoralis dahli Rchw. 

Of. Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 46. 

Common on Witu Island. It is remarkable to find dahli again on Witu, 
as well as on Credner, Nissan, Palikuru, while finschi is the form of the larger 
islands : New Britain, New Ireland, New Hanover. 

37. Aplonis inetallica nitida (Gray). 
Very common on Witu Island. 

35. Aplonis cantoroides cantoroides (Gray). 
Also common on Witu Island. " Iris bright yellowish red." 

39. Corvus coronoides insularis Heinr. 
Eichhom found it common on Witu and says that it does not occur on 
Unia Island. 

40. Pandion haliaetos leucocephalus. 
Observed by Eichhom, in litt. 

41. Cuncuma leucogaster. 
Observed by Eichhom, in litt. 





l. Eumelea rosalia ditona subsp.n. 

<J$. When I dealt with the genus Eumelea in Seitz' " Macrolepidoptera " 
(xii. 30-34), I had to write : " From the Solomon Islands I have seen too few 
examples [of rosalia Cram.] to be able to discuss the variation. As a matter 
of fact, the Tring Museum only contained 3 (JtJ from Arawa, Bougainville, and 
1 c? from Florida Island. A. F. Eichhorn has since sent 3 <$$ and 2 $$ from 
Nissan Island, winch fully confirm the suggestion given by the Arawa examples 
of a separable race. Both wings at base almost clear yellow, thence as far aa 
the rosy border very heavily irrorated with yellow, the apex of the forewing again 
mixed with yellow ; borders about 4-6 m. broad, more sharply defined than in 
the other races. 

Type : a <$ from Arawa, Bougainville, December 1907 (A. S. Meek). 

The single example from Florida is still more extreme and may possibly 
indicate another race. Specimens from the Bismarck Archipelago are somewhat 
intermediate between r. attenuata Warr. and r. ditona, and stray aberrations 
from quite remote localities (notably a $ from Sula Besi in coll. Tring Mus.) 
can closely approach the latter. It should be added that marginata Prout 
(1920), from Sula Mangoli, seems to be a distinct species or a race of semirosea 
Warr., as it shows no trace of the dense hairy clothing of the J hindtibia which 
— though in rather variable degree — characterises all the races of rosalia. 

2. Brachytrita cervinaria amara subsp.n. 

cJ, 41 mm. The " red-fawn colour " (properly cinnamon to sayal-brown) 
of c. cervinaria Swinh. (1904) replaced by a dull fawn-colour, verging on 
avellaneous or wood-brown, with almost the entire areas outside the oblique 
line suffused with cinnamon-drab to benzo-brown. Underside similarly very 
much less " ochreous " than in c. cervinaria, the line of the hindwing obtusely 
angled at R 3 (in c. cervinaria scarcely bent, in W. African examples evenly 
curved). The additional markings described in Bastelbergers excellent supple- 
mentary account of c. cervinaria (Jahrb. Nass. Ver. Nat. lx. 82-83) traceable, 
but weaker than in the continental forms ; the hindmarginal area of forewing 
beneath whitish, without the " sulphur-yellow " tone. In addition, the termen 
of the hindwing is somewhat fuller in the middle. 

E. Madagascar : Imerimandrosa, Lake Aloatra. 


3. Eois nigricosta sp.n. 

cJ$, 24-28 mm. Larger than coslalaria Schaus (Tr. Amer. Ent. Soc. xxvii. 
262). Vertex more extended yellow, only with a very narrow white fillet in 

180 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

front. Abdomen with some black dorsal dots. Fore/wing with costal border 
more broadly and deeply black, crossing SC, the yellow spots almost invisible, 
being reduced to very minute dots ; longitudinal black streak of outer area 
likewise thickened. — ■ — -Hindwing with postmedian line angled outward in middle 
instead of regularly curved. 

Peru : Carabaya, S.E. Peru, the type <J and 3 others from Oconeque, 7,000 
feet, July 1904 (G. Ockenden) ; E. Peru, 2 $<$ from Cushi and 4 from Huanca- 
bamba, Cerro del Pasco. E. Ecuador : La Victoria, Rio Pastaza, 1 (J in coll. 

The only 2 known $? (Santo Domingo, Carabaya, coll. Tring Mus., coll. 
Joicey) are rather small (24 mm.) and a little lighter than the <$<$. Two cJ(J, 
at least as small and almost as light, from Chulumani, Bolivia, possibly represent 
a local modification, but this is scarcely probable. They were collected in 
December and January (wet season), the Santo Domingo $ at the end of the 
wet season (April), the Oconeque £$ in the dry season. 

4. Eupithecia niveivena sp.n. 

Tephroclystia atrisignis ab. niveivena Warr., MS. 

$, 18-20 mm. Head concolorous with wings. Palpus If, stout, at extreme 
base and on the small terminal joint predominantly white. Antenna minutely 
ciliated. Thorax above chocolate-drab in front, largely white in middle and 
on tegulae. Abdomen above concolorous with wings, on sides with black spots, 
beneath whitish. Foreleg darkened above, with white rings at ends of tarsal 

Forewing with costa gently arched in distal half, termen slightly curved ; 
areole single ; chocolate-drab, very finely irrorated with white and more sparingly 
with blackish fuscous ; subcostal vein partly whitened ; cell-mark deep black, 
slightly raised, almost as long as DC 2 " 1 , slightly widened in middle, edged 
proximally by a very fine, slightly curved whitish line ; the dark transverse 
lines subobsolete, the postmedian least indistinct, somewhat thickened at costal 
margin at f , indented subcostally, excurved radially ; proximal to it a character- 
istic line or bar of whitish, touching the cell-spot at its anterior and posterior 
extremities, bending sharply out away from it between, posteriorly broadened 
and indistinctly bisected, reaching the junction of M with M 1 , then becoming 
obsolete or nearly so ; subterminal line whitish, rather fine, but distinct, more 
or less dentate inward on the veins and outward between, most sharply so 
anteriorly (where it recedes a little from termen), least so about R--R J , a little 
thickened behind M% then running to tornus ; terminal line not intense, inter- 
rupted by white dots at vein-ends ; fringe a little paler than ground-colour, 

broadly but weakly dark-spotted in proximal half opposite the veins. Hindwing 

almost concolorous, very slightly greyer ; rather uniform, only with traces of 
slightly darker markings at abdominal margin (a subbasal patch, tornal spot 
and beginnings of postmedian lines) and of whitish subterminal — with its subtornal 
spot more distinct, though small ; termen and fringe as on forewing. 

Forewing beneath slightly paler and smoother ; cell-mark moderately 
strong ; indications of transverse markings, especially a postmedian band. 
Hindwing still a trifle paler, with elongate, oblique cell-mark (faintly discernible 
above when looked for) and shadowy postmedian band just beyond. 

Notitates ZooLoaiCAE XXXIII. 1926. 181 

Ceylon : Pundaloya, March 1899 (E. E. Green), type and another in coll. 
Tring Mus., one from the same source in coll. Brit. Mus., found among the 
very mixed series of " rajata Guen." (!) ; Haputale in February, Petipola in 
March-April Maskehya in May, a few in coll. Joicey ex coll. G. C. Alston. 

5. Asthenotricha tripogonias sp.n. 

3, 34 mm. Antenna simple. Head and body brown mixed with red ; 
abdomen irrorated with black ; a white dorsal mark at end of each segment. 

Forewing with termen slightly waved ; long dense masses of suberect red 
hair from costa, overhanging cell above and beneath ; pale wood-brown, beyond 
the postmedian scarcely, proximally thereto densely, irrorated with red ; post- 
median at about %, crenulate, gently curved, rather less oblique than termen ; 
distal area with minute grey dashes on veins ; terminal line red ; fringe dark 
grey, with a pale line at base. Hindwing with termen subcrenulate ; the hair- 
pencil rather large, red ; postmedian hue nearly central, darker grey posteriorly ; 
the red flush chiefly behind cell, but continued appreciably to termen ; distal 
area and fringes as on forewing. 

Underside, excepting posterior part of forewing, densely irrorated with 
black, the proximal area more heavily than the distal. 

Reunion, May 28, 1922 (G. F. Leigh), 1 $. 

A most striking species, on account of the additional hair-tufts. 3 $$ 
which probably belong to it (April 25, April 30, and May 28, 1922, G. F. Leigh) 
are darker and more uniformly rufous, with black irroration, more conspicuous 
black cell-dots above and beneath, a bent antemedian line, faint traces of other 
lines proxiinally, the postmedian triple, the veins distally more strongly light- 
and dark-dotted than in the <J. 

6. Narthecusa perplexata ugandensis subsp.n. 

(J$, 44-52 mm. On an average larger than p. perplexata Walk. (1862), 
from West Africa. Ground-colour lighter, but at the same time rather brighter 
yellowish (less buff) ; irroration coarser, generally more extended ; cell-dots 
and especially (on forewing) costal spots larger ; the subtornal black spots which 
are generally present or at least indicated on the forewing of p. perplexata seem 
never developed, but on the contrary some aberrations show an amorphous 
spot on R 3 of that wing just outside the postmedian. 

Uganda, apparently common, the type from Toro, January 1902 (F. J. 

Walker's genera Negla and Narthecusa were published simultaneously and 
were first merged by Butler (TV. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1882, p. 390), who selected the 
name of Narthecusa and must unfortunately be followed as the " first reviser." 

7. Aspilatopsis somereni sp.n. 

<J, 34 mm. Near rufaria Warr. (Nov. Zool. xvi. 120, Angola), possibly 
a race. Both wings slightly less broad, hindwing with costal margin relatively 
longer, termen rather more sinuous. Colour purple-red instead of orange-red. 
Forewing with black irroration rather stronger, inchning to form additional 


182 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

fragmentary lines in median area ; antemedian line more blurred, less oblique 
inward posteriorly, apparently with an angle outward at fold ; postmedian 
slightly less straight, being very faintly incurved between R- and hindmargin ; 
apex more whitened, especially beneath. 

Kenya Colon}' : Nairobi, August 2, 1918 (Dr. van Someren), type. Also 
a slightly larger, slightly darker <J from the Kikuyu Escarpment, 6,500-9,000 feet, 
March-April 1901 (W. Doherty) in coll. Tring Mus. and a g from Lumbwa, 
April 17, 1923 (G. W. Jeffery) in coll. Brit. Mus. 

8. Xylopteryx sima sp.n. 

" Scotopteryx emunctaria (Guen.) " Warr., Nov. Zool. ix. 526 (1902) (ex err. ; nee Boarmia emvvc- 
taria Guen., Spec. Gen. Lep. ix. 244). 

^9) 41-45 mm. Recognizable from Warren's differential notes under the 
above heading and on the following page under [" <SY"J Xylopteryx versicolor 

Forewi/tg with the postmedian line more strongly projecting at the radials 
than in versicolor, the blackish proximal-subterminal shade more strongly deve- 
loped, more dentate, in both these respects more resembling the true X. emunctaria 
( = interposita Warr., Nov. Zool. ix. 526), though rather more extreme ; ante- 
median, on the other hand, though slightly more oblique than in versicolor, 
without the acute outward angle at fold which in emunctaria is almost as strongly 

developed as in prasinaria Hmpsn. (1909). Hindwing variable in the amount 

of brown suffusion, but always whiter — especially anteriorly — than in the two 

Kenya Colony : Kikuyu Escarpment, 9 <$$, 6 $$. 

The species which is evidently the true emunctaria is represented in Tring 
Museum by 2 qc? an d 3 $? from Eritrea, the (J (J agreeing with Warren's inter- 
posita (1902), the ?$ with Guenee's type $ as figured by Oberthiir, Et. Lip. 
ix (1) 28, t. ccxxxiv, f. 1906. 

9. Xylopteryx aucilla sp.n. 

<J, 27-28 mm. ; $, 32 mm. Smaller than arcuata Walk. (1862). Face 
whitish. Antenna of $ with the joints more triangularly projecting. Thorax 
with the posterior crest very strong ; abdominal crests, on the other hand, 

Wings rather narrower than in arcuata. Forewing with costal margin 

less arched ; antemedian lines approximated and parallel, merely obliquely 
curved ; postmedian with the prong at R 2 less long and acute than in arcuata ; 
dark area proximally to the subterminal more restricted and incomplete ; area 
distally to the subterminal mostly pale, with dark patches at R 1 " 2 and at tornus. 

Hindwing with cell-spot rather strong, subterminal band in the J^ narrower 

than in average arcuata. 

Both wings beneath with dark subterminal shades correspondingly reduced. 

A fine aberration, to which belong one of the <$<$ and the only $, has the 
median area of the forewing much darkened, against the two lines and in a central 
shade deep black, the proximal and distal areas mostly whitish. 

Kenya Colony : Kibwezi, April 23, 1919, type <J, May 9, 1918, <J ab., July 28, 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 183 

1917, § (W. Feather) ; also a <J from Masongoleni, June 21, 191 1, ex coll. Fawcett, 
determined by h m as arcuata. 

10. Cleora athola sp.n. 

<J$, 43-45 mm. Close to rufomarginata Moore (1867), but larger, slightly 

broader winged. Forewing much more uniformly coloured, the median area 

scarcely lightened except in the radial lobe of the postmedian and at hindmargin 
between median and postrnedian, the black cloudings proximally and distally to 
this area wanting or extremely weak ; antemedian line less regularly curved, 
having a proximal indentation at C ; median area less narrowed ; subterminal 
line and shades chiefly developed from costa to middle of cellule 6 and again 
near tornus, the pale midterminal patch weakly differentiated from the ground- 
colour, consequently quite inconspicuous. Hindvring whitish, with more or 

less dense black-grey irroration, but with very little of the yellow or reddish 
suffusions of semiclarata Walk, and rufomarginata. 

Underside much paler and less variegated than in rufomarginata. 

Sikkim, 4,000-7,000 feet, 5 $$, 1 $, the type from Darjiling, February 25, 
1889 (Pilcher). 

In addition, a dwarfed $ from a higher altitude (Tonglo, 10,000 feet, July 
1886, H. J. Elwes), which is no larger than rufomarginata, but otherwise a 
perfectly typical athola. 

11. Cleora tora sp.n. 

cj, 21-28 mm. ; $, 31 mm. Nearest to proemia Prout (1917), agreeing 
therewith in some details of structure which were not brought out in the original 
description : palpus with the same close scaling, tongue rudimentary, antenna 

of $ bipectinate. Antennal pectinations of <J slightly longer still. Forewing 

with stalk of SC 1 " 2 connected with C ; coloration variable, but nearly always of 
a brighter (more yellowish or reddish) brown than that of proemia, always more 
sharply black-marked, with a strong tendency to develop longitudinal clouding 
about R : , sometimes also with most of proximal and median areas blackened 
posteriorly ; postmedian line better expressed than in proemia, much more 

sharply angled outward at R ! . Hindwing with proximal line sharply black, 

usually thick ; postmedian finer but rather sharp, not obsolete at costa. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, March-September (G. Melou), 19 $<$, 1 ?. 

12. Cleora atriclava sp.n. 

cj$, 34-40 mm. Face dull dark brown, overhung with fringe of pale buff 
and with the pointed cone of lower extremity mixed with the same colour. 
Palpus Ih ; dark brown, tipped with whitish buff. Tongue fully developed. 
Antenna in <J bipectinate to about f, the branches very long, decreasing very 
rapidly, on the 28th joint rudimentary, thence minutely ciliated and with short 
fine bristles ; in $ shortly ciliated. Vertex dark brown, occiput paler. Thorax 
and abdomen not very robust ; concolorous with wings. (Abdomen not hairy 
beneath.) Fore- and midleg infuscated on upper- and innerside, the tips of the 
joints remaining pale. Hindtibia of <$ dilated with pencil ; abdominal spine long. 

Forewing fairly broad, terrnen moderately oblique, faintly waved, gently 
curved behind middle ; fovea strong ; base of SC 1 nearly always obsolete, leaving 


184 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

it to arise out of C, vestiges in a few examples showing it short-stalked with 
SC ! ; pale brown, predominantly of an ochreous tone, which becomes brighter 
just proximally to the antemedian and distally to the postmedian line ; very heavy, 
though slightly irregular fuscous and blackish irroration or strigulation ; cell-spot 
moderate, generally with minute pale pupil ; lines blackish, strongest at costa 
and liindmargin, often obscured in middle of wing by the heavy irroration ; 
antemedian sinuous, markedly outbent in cell, somewhat angled outward at 
fold, vertical to hindmargin ; median shade weak, excurved outside the cell- 
spot, posteriorly near the postmedian ; postmedian dentate, inbent between 
SC S and R 1 ; slightly incurved in posterior half, intensified from fold to hind- 
margin ; a broad longitudinal black mark, 2 or 3 mm. in length, running from 
the postmedian outward at R'-M 1 ; subterminal more or less interrupted at 
the veins, anteriorly macular, posteriorly finer and more lunulate. between R : 
and M 1 intensified, in places (especially between the radials) filled in with dark 
spots proximally ; terminal line more or less interrupted, with distincter inter- 
neural spots ; fringe with pale line at base and pale spots at veins. Hindwing 

with termen rounded, weakly subcrenulate ; as forewing, excepting the ante- 
median ; the black mark outside the postmedian shorter, sometimes rather less 

Both wings beneath rather more ochreous, though rather pale, to beyond 
the postmedian line, thence infuscated, especially on forewing, where there is 
formed an almost solid, though not sharply defined, dark border, containing a 
pale spot between R J and M 1 ; markings much as above, but without the median 
shade and with the subterminal vestigial. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, March-September 1917 (G. Melou), 14 <3<3, 9 ?$. 

Related to the group of brunneata Warr. (Nov. Zool. ix. 523), but not 
closely ; palpus less long, forewing broader, hindwing less crenate, etc. Perhaps 
also related, in spite of the long pectinations, to the " Racotis " squalida (Butl.) 

13. Boarmia renimacula sp.n. 

$, 24-27 mm. Closely like octomaculata Wllgrn. (1872), perhaps a sub- 
species. Forewing with cell appreciably shorter, the cell-spot consequently 
central ; this spot on both wings more black-grey, less round, more oval or 
reniform ; postmedian line on forewing less sharply outbent at R 1 , on hindwing 
farther from cell-spot ; both wings beneath with a more strongly developed 
blackish border, about 1 mm. in width, little wider anteriorly than posteriorly, 
reaching hindmargins. 

Senegal : Sedhiou, January and March 1917 (H. Castell), 3 $$, including 
the type ; Tliies, February and December 1907 (Riggenbach), 2 $$. Gambia : 
Bathurst, 1 $. Also a considerably larger $ (? race) from Ganale River, April 17, 
1901 (C. von Erlanger). 

14. Paralcidia colpochlaena sp.n. 

<J, 32 mm. ; $, 35 mm. Face with rather sharp cone of scales below. 
Palpus in q 1}, in 9 slightly larger ; pale buff, dark-mixed on outerside. Vertex, 
front of thorax and wing-tegulae predominantly dark brown ; middle and 
underside of thorax, with abdomen, paler. 


Forewing slightly more elongate than in errabunda Warr. and marginata 
Warr. (1906), but scarcely so narrow as in subvinosa Prout (1916) ; costal edge 
vinaceous buff, dotted with blackish ; ground-colour pretty uniform, glossy 
brown from base to postmedian, only with the lens resolvable into a more fawn 
and a more olive-brown blend ; antemedian line faintly traceable by some pale 
scaling, somewhat sinuous, oblique outward from J costa to an acute angle 
close to end of cell, then very oblique inward and lost, reappearing as a white, 
distally dark-edged dot at about J hindmargin ; a fine whitish postmedian from 
| costa, or beyond to hindmargin near tornus, incurved between the radials, 
and more slightly at fold, gently excurved about SM 2 , very oblique inward to 
hindmargin ; distal area pale grey to whitish, with some cinnamon-buff admixture, 
especially on the veins ; terminal dots small, fucsous ; fringe proximally light 

brown, inclining to buff, distally more dark-mixed. Hindwing greyish at and 

towards the postmedian line, becoming paler basewards ; an ill-defined grey 
cell-spot ; postmedian line crenulate, incurved between the radials ; area beyond 
pale, with a slight vinaceous tinge ; terminal dots elongate, very weak, brownish ; 
fringe tinged with buff. 

Both wings beneath predominantly pale, the forewing with slight greyish 
suffusion as far as the postmedian, hindwing with dark irroration ; postmedian 
on forewing anteriorly, on hindwing throughout, sharply fuscous ; hindwing 
with cell-spot fuscous. 

Dutch New Guinea: Mt. Goliath, 5,000-7,000 feet, February 1911 (A. S. 
Meek), 1 & 1 $. 

Perhaps nearest to marginata Warr., but larger, much less dark, the distal 
borders less narrow, differently shaped, etc. 

15. Geolyces jocata sp.n. 

<J, 44—52 mm. Generally smaller than attesaria Walk. (List Lep. Ins. 
xx. 249). Termen of forewing less strongly protuberant at R 1 , that of hindwing 
scarcely bent at R J ; colour much warmer, ochreous instead of pale buff ; forewing 
with the oblique outer line always strong, tawny-ochraceous or mixed with 
grey, subapical white mark narrowed, median line beneath at hindmargin rather 
more divergent from postmedian (oblique rather than vertical), strong to M 2 or 
just across it, then obsolete. 

Ivory Coast : Bingerville, December 1913, June and August 1915 (G. Melou), 
9 ^ J, including the type. Gold Coast : Sekondi, 1 $. Nigeria : 2 3$ 
(1 Degama, April 23, 1902, Ansorge). Gaboon : Lake Asebbe, Fernan Vaz, 
February 1908 (Ansorge), 1 $. 

As I can find no structural difference except in shape, I should have regarded 
this as a race of attesaria (Congo to S. Nigeria) but for the overlapping of their 
range. The Tring Museum has a <J attesaria taken at Degama on May 24, 1902, 
only a month after the jocata. 

16. Mesothisa ozola sp.n. 

cj, 26-28 mm. ; $> 32 mm. Head and body whitish, clouded in places with 
light brown. Face light brown, except at edges. Palpus over 1£, second joint 
rather stout, with compact scaling, third joint moderate, distinct. Antennal 
pectinations very long, especially in the <J ; only a few joints at apex not pectinate. 


Forewing markedly narrower than in typical Mesothisa, the termen with a 
rounded prominence in middle in place of the small but definite tooth at R s , 
in shape recalling a rather broad Ozola, the colouring and markings accentuating 
the suggestion ; £ with a well-developed circular fovea ; cell over i ; subcostal 
venation variable in detail, the long stalk of CS L * either connate with SC 3 ' 5 or 
stalked, often long-stalked, the stalk generally anastomosing with C, but some- 
times connected ; whitish, irrorated with light brown ; a light brown, distally 
fuscous-mixed cloud between R J and M- from their base to well beyond the 
postmedian ; a weaker cloud at terminal concavity, accompanied proximally 
by a more or less developed pah- of small spots between the radials ; antemedian 
line straightish, oblique inward ; median shade generally rather strong, slightly 
excurved about the cell-mark, more or less coalescing with it, slightly incurved 
just behind middle ; postmedian moderately excurved anteriorly, very faintly 
incurved between this and hindmargin ; fringe rather darker and with still darker 

dots at vein-ends. Hind icing correspondingly narrowed, the tooth at R : 

short ; concolorous with forewing ; first line wanting ; median and postmedian 
continued, more proximal, straighter, the postmedian with a second (often 
weaker) line distally, arising with it at costa, gradually diverging, bent at R ; , 
thence approximately parallel with it, the interspace clouded with brown ; a 
sinuous subterminal line, dark-marked at radial fold ; ill-defined terminal clouding. 

Underside similarly marked, generally rather more ochreous, with less 
pronounced cloudings ; hindwing with the outer postmedian line stronger than 
the inner. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, June, 1 <$, July-September, many $3 and 
2 ?2 (G. Melou). 

As Warren indicates (Nov. Zool. xh. 404), there is no defined fovea in his 
type species, but gracililinea Warr. (loc. cit.) shows a rudimentary one. 

17. Tephrina triseriata sp.n. 

<J, 27-32 mm. ; 2, 33 mm. Face rather smooth ; brown, narrowly whitish 
on lower edge. Palpus H; light brown, mixed on outerside with fuscous. 
Fillet whitish ; crown brown. Antenna! shaft moderately stout, pale brown ; 
pectinations scarcely over 1. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings, 
the thorax above with the violet-grey shade preponderating. Hindtibia in J 
rather stout, with all the spurs more or less long ; apparently without hair- 
pencil. No abdominal spine. 

Forewing moderately broad, apex rather rounded, termen faintly sinuous, 
little oblique anteriorly, more so behind the faintly prominent curve about R 1 ; 
SC 1 - 2 coincident ; mottled pale violet-grey and whitish buff, with sparse brown 
irroration ; cell-dot slightly elongate, black mixed with brown ; fines light 
brown, rather bright ; antemedian very oblique outward from costa, sharply 
outbent in cell, slightly incurved between M and SM> ; median right-angled 
before R' a little beyond cell-dot, then straightish to about middle of hind- 
margin ; postmedian subparallel, rather more bluntly bent before R 1 , becoming 
thinner and weaker, but marked with elongate black spots across R\ M 1 , M : , 
and SM ! ; a second series of black spots outside these, cut by pale buff veins ; 
a third series beyond these latter, interneural, mixed with pale-buff ; termen 
with interneural black dots or dashes. — —~Hindwing with termen rather full, 


appreciably (though very slightly) bent in middle, making a transition to the 
section Peridela Warr. ; cell-mark rounder than on forewing, first line wanting ; 
median weak at costa, then rather thick, straightish, crossing or touching the 
cell-spot ; outer markings as on forewing. 

Underside pale, very densely suffused with partly confluent dark-grey 
strigulation ; veins, and on forewing costal margin, more buff or ochreous ; 
cell-spot on both wings round ; median and postmedian lines generally traceable, 
at least on hind wing, where they are separated by an ill-defined paler area ; 
terminal line ochreous-brown. 

Tanganyika Territory : Lindi, 11 <J<J, 1 §. 

Nearly all the specimens are rubbed and were apparently badly handled 
in collecting, as very few legs remain. But the species is very distinct and is 
recognizable at once by the postmedian and succeeding markings. 

18. Tephrina perviaria delostina subsp.n. 

cj$, 28-31 mm. Generally larger than p. perviaria Led. (= albofascia 
Swinh.), rather fuller-winged, the apex of the forewing appreciably more rounded. 
Coloration darker and more uniform, the proximal area of both wings being so 
strongly irrorated as to be often scarcely differentiable from the median shade 
and the distal area ; median shade heavy, on forewing not appreciably broader 
posteriorly than anteriorly ; cell-ring of forewing not or scarcely pale-centred, 
generally much obscured by the median shade on which it stands ; white band 
between median and postmedian always sharply expressed ; subterminal spot 
between R 3 and M 1 on both wings more or less reduced. 

Sumba, below 2,000 feet, February 1896 (W. Doherty), 10 <J<J, 4 $$. 4 cJ<J 
collected on the same island in October 1891 (W. Doherty), the altitude not 
indicated, show some local or seasonal differentiation from the above, being 
smaller (24-27 mm.) and in all respects less extreme — intermediate towards the 
Indian forms, but still distinguishable by their darker coloration. The February 
series is very constant. 

The ascertained range of this species is very extraordinary — Syria and 
Palestine, India and Ceylon, Sumba — and there must surely be many localities 
in which it has hitherto been overlooked. The Indian form (albofascia Swinh.) 
is very variable and has not yet been distinguished racially from the Syrian ; 
but I have only seen 1 <J and 1 $ of the latter. 

19. Discalma subcurvaria araps subsp.n. 

Forewing with the brown shades rather deeper than in s. subcurvaria Mab. 
(Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. lxvi. 228, Upper Congo to E. Africa) ; median black shade 
essentially different, forming a half-moon from hindmargin to hind angle of cell, 
its strongly rounded proximal side almost touching the antemedian, its distal 
side almost straight, very faintly curved in the same direction as its proximal ; 
postmedian rather thick, slightly more curved than in s. subcurvaria. 

S. Arabia (G. W. Bury), type $ in coll. Tring Mus. S. W. Arabia : El 
Kabar, Amiri Country (G. W. Bury), 1 $ in coll. Brit. Mus. A very similar but 
slightly intermediate form (? race) from Ketchiba, Arussi, Abyssinia, September 
26, 1905 (Ph. C. Zaphiro, Lake Rudolph Expedition), 1 $, is also in coll. Brit. Mus. 


20. Heterodisca flammea chionosticta subsp.n. 

(J?, 37-40 mm. On an average larger than the /. flammea Warr. (1907). ' 

Wings slightly narrower. Forewing with antemedian line straight, its snowy 

proximal dot on SM- enlarged. Hindwing, especially in the <J, much paler 

than in /. flammea, the cell-dot much reduced, the postmedian line on the 
upperside slight, subpunctiform, on the underside also slenderer than in the 
name-typical race. 

Dutch New Guinea : Mt. Goliath, 5,000-7,000 feet, January and February 
1911 (A. S. Meek), 9 $<$, 1 §. Two of the cJcJ are of an aberration (also known 
in /. flammea, 1 (J, Biagi) with a conspicuous snowy line outside the postmedian 
of the forewing instead of the usual minute vein-dots. 

21. Casbia isogramma sp.n. 

(J$, 26-29 mm. Face with rough projecting scales, which lengthen below ; 
brown. Palpus more buff, at least proximally. Crown grey. Antennal pectina- 
tions of <$ long. Thorax and abdomen above violet-grey, more or less mixed 
with bright brown ; beneath more buff. 

Forewing with SC 1 anastomosing with C ; pale grey, with a slight tinge of 
blue or violet ; some scattered black strigulae, in part rather long ; lines bright 
tawny ochraceous, almost straight and equidistant, obsolete at costa, the median 
and postmedian broadened into bands, the postmedian slightly curved inward 
anteriorly ; a broader subterminal band of the same colour, with irregular 
projections on its distal side, at SC S — R 2 rather pronounced ; a slender, irregular 
terminal band, widening a little at apex ; terminal line double, the proximal 
whitish, the distal deep black, both fine ; fringe pinkish brown, with a very fine 
white fine at base. Hindwing with the markings continued, except the ante- 

Underside buff, with fuscous cell-dots, postmedian (slightly curved) band 
and broader terminal band, on forewing not reaching hindmargin. 

New Hanover, February 1923, 2 <$$, 3 $$, loc. typ. New Ireland, 
December 1923, 1 $ (A. F. Eichhom). 

1 Mr. Warren chose the only large $ and $ for his types, and even these do not measure 
" 40 mm." but 38-39. 

27 OCT 1926 

Novitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. I. 


Fig. 1. 
Cciuvrs TEISTIS. 
d Borey, British Museum. 

Fig. 2. 


9 From a specimen in the 
British Museum. 

Fig. 3. 

d From il Specimen j „ f/ le 

British Museum. 


Pl. II. 

Fig. 4. 
Coitvrs VAI.IDUS. 
C ? ian. 
B.M. Keg. -Vo. 76.1. 7. 100, 

Fig. 5. 


o Mindoro. 

B.M. llerj. No. 96.6 0.1.-.. 

Fig. 6. 

• ■' Fit, i, i ,, specimen n, the 
British Museum. 

r\SH M 

Ncvitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. III. 

F.g 7. 

Cobvus TYPICUS. 
9 Macassar. 
II. M Reg. No. 

Fig. 8. 


cJ ? Sula Islands. 
Tring Museum. 

Fig. 9. 


9 Flores. Tring Museum. 

Fig. 10. 


9 Guam. 

B.M. Reg. No. 

Novitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. IV. 

Fig. 11. 


cf Bougainville. 

B.M. Reg. No. 1909.2.18.8. 

Fig. 12. 


9 Guadalcanar. 
B.M. Reg. No. 

Fig. 13. 


d New Caledonia. 
BM. Reg. No. 


Pl. V. 

Fig. 11. 


cf Aiimi, Scotland. 

11. M. Tteg. No. L912.4.7.1. 

Fig. 15. 


J Nagasaki, Japan. 
B.M Seg. No. 

l-'.ii. 16. 


Simla, Himalayas. 
B.M. Tteg. No. 

Fig. 17. 


Washington, U.S.A. 
B.M Reg. No. 

Novitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII 1926. 

Pl. VI. 

Fig. 18. 
Corvus i(. unuiivniivM iins 
cf Nova Scotia. 
H.M. Beg. .V... 

Fig. 19. 
Corvus brachyrhynchos caurinus. 

(3 Vancouver Island. 
B.M. Beg. No. 

Fig. 20. 
Corvus brachyrhynchos palmarum. 
, San Domingo. 
B.M. lira. No. L923.10.24.1. 

Fig. 21. 
Corvus i i iri\.i.. 
• <S EUpfonti a, . ( ■,)/,. i 'olonyy. 
B.M. Ih,,. \„. 1905.12.29.550. 

Ncvitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. VII. 

Fig. 22. 


Rome, Italy 
B.M. Beg. No. 1905 6 23 372 

Fig. 2.'!, 


o ' Irkutsk, Sibi i ia. 
ISM Beg No. 75.3 L5.4. 

Fig 2 1 


o .' Porto Rii o. 

/i..l/ Beg. .V". 1905 6 28 373 

Fig 25. 


. Cuba 

Mi n>> rtzhagt u Cull. 

Iovitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. VIII. 

fig. 26. 


o / Jtimaica. 

It.M. Iieg. No. 

Fig. 27. 


o Krkowit, Suakin. 

ISM. Beg. No. 1915.12.24.520. 

Fin. 28. 


II. M. Beg. No. 61 5.8.55 

Novitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. IX. 

Fig. 29. 

("I'.VVS AI.KK (II. I. IS. 

o ? Orange Eivi r Colony. 
B.M. Beg. No. 1904.4.1.2. 

Fig. 30. 


o ? Mexico. 

It. M Keg. No. 

Fig. 31. 


Trebizond, Asia Minor. 
It. M. lteg. No. 1909 11.18.34. 


Pl. X. 

Fig. 32. 


H.M. Reg. No. 1905.6 28.857 

Fig. 33. 


c? Sambhvr, Rajputana 
It.M Keg. No. 

Fig. 34. 

CORVTJS niHAX HI I Kill. I is. 

q Jerusalem. 

IS.M. Itr, i No 1905.6.28.860. 


Jovitates Zoologicae. Vol. XXXIII. 1926. 

Pl. XI. 

Fig. 35 


Sheik, Somaliland 
11. M. Reg. No. 1918.6.6.20. 

Fig. 36. 


5 Hajputana, India. 
Meinertzhagen ' 'oil . 

Fig. 37. 
Suffolk, England. 
1IM. Beg. No. 1916.9.20.99 


Pl. XII. 

Fig. 38. 


d Kurram Vail,,/, AMI'. Imlin. 
KM. Beg. No. 1908.11.10.24. 

Fig. 39. 
Woochow, rli ina. 
II. M. Iteg. No. 1902.8.5.72. 

Fig. 40. 
Counts alius. 
Manda Island, Kenya Colony. Iteg. No. 



British Ornithologists' Union and Woilaston Expeditions In 
the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 




PRICE : £1 5s. (less 20% to Booksellers). 






PRICE: £5 (less 20% to Booksellers). 

cxxxt and 972 pages, with 67 Plates. 

Annual Subscription to " Novitates Zoologicae," £1 5s. 

Price of completed Volumes, £1 10s. Volume XXV and following issues, £1 16*. 
(Commitrion for Booksellers on completed volumes only.) 

Communication*, etc., may be addressed to 




Subscribers should give notice of the non-arrival of any numbers immediately upon receipt 
of the succeeding part, otherwise the missing numbers cannot be replaced free. 



H Journal of Zoology. 




No. 3. 

Pages 189—394 
Isspbd December 8th, 1926, at the Zoological Museum, Thing. 










Lord Rothschild 189—343 


Ernst Hartert . 344—357 



Karl Jordan . 358—366 




NOMENCLATURE Karl Jordan . 371—378 


Karl Jordan . 379—384 


Karl Jordan . 385—394 

S3 Q 


Vol. XXXIU. DECEMBER 1926. No. 3. 



'"PHIS is my fifth and concluding article on Yunnan birds, and I include in 
it not only the list of Forrest's 1925 collection, but also all the records 
I have been able to find in the literature and the unlisted specimens in the British 
Museum. The records from the literature have been taken from the following 
books and periodicals : 

(1) Anatomical and Zoological Researches, comprising the results of the two 
expeditions to Western Yunnan, 1868 and 1875 (published 1878), by Dr. John 

(2) " Note sur les Oiseaux recueillis dans le Yunnan jsar le Prince Henri 
d'Orleans," par M. E. Oustalet, in Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
vol. ii, 1896, Paris. 

(3) " Description de deux especes nouvelles d'Oiseaux du Yunnan," par 
M. E. Oustalet, in Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. hi, 1897, Paris. 

(4) " Notes sur quelques Oiseaux de la Chine occidentale," par M. E. Oustalet, 
in Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. iv, 1898, Paris. 

(5) " Revision de quelques Especes d'Oiseaux de la Chine Occidentale et 
Meridionale," par M. E. Oustalet, in Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Quatrieme Serie, Tome Troisieme, 1901, Paris. 

(6) " On the Birds collected by Captain A. W. S. Wingate in South China," 
by W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, in the Ibis, vol. vi, seventh series, 1900. 

(7) " The Birds of Yunnan," by Collingwood Ingram, in Novitates Zoo- 
logicae, vol. xix, 1912. 

(8) " Notes on a collection of Birds from Yunnan," by Outram Bangs and 
John C. Phillips, in Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard Col- 
lege, vol. Iviii, 1914, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

(9) " Some New Additions to the Avifauna of Yunnan," by Seinosuke 
Uchida and Nagamichi Kuroda, in Annotationes Zoologicae Japonensis, vol. ix, 
pt. ii, 1916. 

(10) " A collection of Birds from Tonkin," by Nagamichi Kuroda, in Annota- 
tiones Zoologicae Japonensis, vol. ix, pt. hi, 1917. 

(11) " Etude d'une collection d'Oiseaux recueilh par M. Albert Pichon au 
Yunnan Occidental," par A. Menegaux & R. Didier, in Revue Franchise d'Orni- 
thologie, vol. hi, 1913 and 1914. 

(12) " Etude d'une collection d'Oiseaux montes et en peau faite par 
14 189 

190 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

M. & Mine. Comby au Yunnan," par MM. A. Menegaux & R. Diclier, in Bulletin 
du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. xix, 1913. 

(13) " On a collection of Birds from West -Central and North-Western 
Yunnan," by Lord Rothschild, in Novitates Zoologicae, vol. xxviii, 1921. 

(14) " On a second collection of Birds sent by Mr. George Forrest from N.W. 
Yunnan," by Lord Rothschild, in Novitates Zoologicae, vol. xxx, 1923. 

(15) " On a third collection of Birds made by Mr. George Forrest in N.W. 
Yunnan," by Lord Rothschild, in Novitates Zoologicae, vol. xxx, 1923». 

(16) " The Birds of the American Museum of Natural History's Asiatic 
Zoological Expedition of 1916-1917," by Outram Bangs, in Bulletin of the American 
Museum of Natural History, vol. xliv, 1921. 

(17) "On the Buds of South-East Yunnan, S.W. China," by J. D. 
La Touche, in the Ibis, vols, v and vi of the 11th series, 1923 and 1924. 

(18) '' On a fourth collection made by Mr. George Forrest in N.W. Yunnan," 
by Lord Rothschild, in Novitates Zoologicae, vol. xxxii, 1925. 

In addition to these special articles, a number of records have been ex- 
tracted from A Monograph of the Pheasants, by William Beebe, The Bulletin of 
the British Ornithologists Club, and other ornithological works. The Avifauna 
of Yunnan is a decided mixture of palsearctic and tropical forms, and the 
tropical forms again consist of a mixture of Chinese, Himalayan, and Indo- 
Malayan species. This was to be expected, for Yunnan lies in the direct line 
of migration of those birds from Siberia, Turkestan, and N. China, which winter 
in the Indo-Chinese and Indo-Malayan Region ; on the other hand there is such 
a varied range of country and climate in our area that in the high mountains 
of the Nbrth-West we encounter a mixture of breeding birds consisting both of 
Himalayan forms and some of a more decided Palaearctic character. Among 
the tropical residents we find Indian, Chinese, Burmese, and Malayan forms, 
while it is certain that the mountain-breeding species wander in winter into 
the lower valleys and plains. In the open plains or lower hilly areas of South- 
East Yunnan there are a large number of forms, both resident and migratory, 
which are not found in the West and N.W. of Yunnan, and vice versa. As 
a rule, where more than two subspecies of one species occur together in Yunnan, 
it is mostly in the Eastern portion, the Tengyueh-Lichiang area only having one 
subspecies. In the West we again find a number of forms closely allied to, or 
identical with, species occurring in Burma and Indo-China, but taking Yunnan 
as a whole, after eliminating the migrants, the avifauna is much more decidedly 
Himalayan in its character than Burmese or Indo-Malayan. In many cases, 
where one form only of a bird with several geographical races occurs in Yunnan, 
it is the Himalayan and not the Burmese or Indo-Malayan form we find, viz. 
in the case of Ianthocincla leucolophus we have in Yunnan the Himalayan leuco- 
lophus leucolophus, NOT the Burmese leucolophua belangeri or the (Shan States - 
Malayan leucolophus diardi. Again, we find of the little yellow Babbler-Shrikes 
Pteruthius melanotis and aenobarbus that melanotis melanotia of the Himalayas 
occurs in Yunnan, and not either melanotis taharn nsis of the Malay Peninsula or 
aenobarbus intermedins of the Shan States. A large part of Central and N.E. 
Yunnan is quite unexplored, and I believe a good many more birds remain to be 
found, but those from the N.E. are more likely to be purely Chinese forms, while 
those from Central Yunnan will most likely be either Tonkinese or else the same 
as those of S. East Yunnan. 


I have been unable in several instances to give the full number of species 
and specimens because the authors have not recorded them ; the following are 
the principal omissions : Oustalet gives the number of species collected in Yunnan 
by Prince Henri d'Orleans as 121, but only enumerates the 90 not recorded by 
Anderson. Again, Uchida & Kuroda state that the collection they examined 
contained 146 species, but only enumerate 46 which had not been recorded by 
Ingram. Lastly, Riley has described 2 birds (8 specimens) out of a collection of 
many hundreds (the collector's label number of the type of Ithaginis rocki is 
1351), made by Dr. J. F. Rock in North-West Yunnan. 

At the end of my list I am adding a list of 17 species and subspecies recorded 
by Kuroda, from Lao-kay in Tonkin, on the banks of Red River, only separated 
from Hokow Yunnan by the breadth of the river, and which must sooner or 
later be found in Yunnan proper. 

The two collections from Mengtsz, Loukouchai, etc., enumerated respectively 
by Bangs & Phillips, and Uchida & Kuroda, formed part of one large collection 
with those enumerated by Collingwood Ingram, made by a Japanese collector 
for the late Alan Owston of Yokohama. 

Here follow the lists of the species and subspecies added to the Yunnan 
avifauna by the principal explorers. 

Dr. John Anderson obtained the following birds : 

Psittacula cyanocephala (Linn.). 

Falco subbuteo streichi Hart. & Neum. 

Falco tinnunculus interstinctus (McClell.). 

Elanus caeruleus caeruleus (Desf.). 

Circus melanoleucus (Forst.). 

Milvus migrans govinda Sykes. 

Bubo bubo jarlandi La Touche. 

Alcedo atthis bengalensis Gm. 

Coracias indicus affinis McClell. 

Merops orienlalis orientalis Lath. 

Cyanops asiatica asiatica (Lath.). 

Picus carvus sordidior (Ripp.). 

Picas vittatus myrmecophoneus Stresem. 

Dryobates semicoronatus obscurus La Touche. 

Cuculus canorus telephonus Heine. 

Cacomanlis merulinus qnerulus Heine. 

Surnicidus lugubris dicruroides (Hodgs.). 

Caprimulgus indicus jotaka Temm. & Schleg. 

Corvus macrorhynchus levaillantei Less. 

Pica pica serica Gould. 

Urocissa erythrorhynclta magnirostris Blyth. 

Aethiopsar grandis (Moore). 

Oracupica nigricollis (Payk). 

Sturnia malabarica (Gm.). 

Munia atricapilla atricapilla (Vieill.). 

Munia pwnctulata topela Swinh. 

Sporaeginthus amandava flavidiveniris (Wall.). 

Passer montanus montanus (Linn.). 

192 Xmyit.vtes Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

Passer rutilans intensior Rothsch. 

Ember iza ' fucata arcuata Sharpe. 

Emberiza pusilla Pall. 

Melophus mvhtnicterus (Gm.|. 

Alauda arvensis coelivox Swinh. 

Anthus richardi richardi Vieill. 

Antltiix richardi rufvlus Vieill. 

Anthus hodgsoni yunnanensis Uch. & Kur. 

Motacilla flava thunbergi Billb. 

MotaciUa alba maderaspatensis Gm. 

Copsychus saularis saularis (Linn.). 

Luscinia pectoralis pectoralis (Gould). 

Oreicola ferrea haringtoni Hart. 

Saxicola caprata caprata (Linn.). 

Saxicola torquata indica (Blyth). 

Muscicapa saphira (Blyth). 

Muscicapa banyumas dialilaema (Salvad.). 

Muscicapa tickelliae whitei (Har.). 

Muscicapa strophiala (Hodgs.). 

Muscicapa thalassina thalassina (Swains.). 

Turdinulus brevicaudatiis brevicaudatus (Blyth). 

Phylloscopus juscatus (Blyth). 

Phylloscopus affinis (Tick.). 

Phylloscopus inornatus inornatus (Blyth). 

Phylloscopus lugubris (Blyth). 

Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides (Sundev.). 

Abrornis superciliaris Tick. 

lantliocincla sannio (Swinh.). 

Ixops nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

Actinodura egertoni ripponi 0. -Grant. 

Pteruthius aeralatus ricketti 0. -Grant. 

Leiothrix luteus yunnanensis Rothsch. 
Mesia argentauris Hodgs. 

Siva cyanuroptera tvingatei 0. -Grant. 

Erporuis xantholeuca xantholeuca Hodgs. 

Zosterops pulpebrosa ehvesi Baker. 

Zosterops simplex simplex Swinh. 

Par its major commixtus Swinh. 

Sitta frontalis comllina (Hodgs.). 

Pomalorhinus ruficollis similis Rothsch. 

Pomatorhinus erythrogcnis ferriigilatus Hodgs. 

Stachyris nigriceps nigriceps Hodgs. 

Stachyris chrysaea Hodgs. 

Paradoxornis ruficeps atrosuperciliosus Godw.-Anst. 

Paradoxornis brunnea (Anders.). 

Prinia inornata exter Thay. & Bangs. 

Franklinia gracilis (Frankl.). 

C'isticola exilis lytleri Blyth. 

Suya crinigera yunnanensis Har. 


Suya swperciliaris Anders. 

Lanius nigriceps nigriceps (Frankl.). 

Lanius cristatus cristatus Linn. 

Hemipus picatus capitalis (McClell.). 

Pericrocotus elegant? (McClell.). 

Pericrocotus brevirostris affinis (McClell.). 

Pericrocotus rosetts (Vieill.). 

Hirundo rustica tytleri Jerd. 

Bhringa remifer (Tenira.). 

Chaptia aenea (Vieill.). 

Dicrurus ater cathaecus Swinh. 

Dicrurus leucophaeus longicaudatus A. Hay. 

Rhipidura albifrontata Frankl. 

Rhipidura albicollis albicollis (Vieill.). 

Microscelis leucoce phala form, dimorph. yunnanensis (Anders.). 

Hemixus flavala Hodgs. 

Otocompsa emeria emeria (Linn.). 

Molpastes nigripileus (BIyth). 

Pycnonotus xanthomas xanthorous Anders. 

Xanthixus flavescens (BIyth). 

Aeihopyga dabryi ddbryi (Verr.). 

Streptopelia chinensis forresti Rothsch. 

Streptopelia orientalis orientalis (Lath.). 

Streptopelia orientalis agricola (Tick.). 

Gallus gallus robinsoni Rothsch. 

Thaumalea amhersliae (Leadb.). 

Phasianus colchicus elegans Elliot. 

Bambusicola fytchii fytchii Anders. 

Turnix pugnax taigoor Sykes. 

Hoplopterus ventralis (Wagl.). 

C'haradrius dubius dubius Scop. 

Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis (Linn.). 

Ixobrychus cinnamomeus (Gm.). 

Bubidcus ibis coromandus (Bodd.). 

Porzana fusca erythrothorax (Teinm. & Schleg.). 

Hypotaenidia striata jouyi Stejn. 

Gallinula chloropus parvifrons BIyth. 

Antigone antigone antigone (Linn.). 

Sterna melanogaster Temm. 

Phalacrocorax javanicus Steph. 

Podiceps rnficollis poggei (Reichvv.). 

From this it is seen that Dr. Anderson, who made the first ornithological 
collections in Yunnan, obtained 120 species and subspecies. 

The following were added to the Yunnan list by Professor Oustalet from the 
collections of Prince Henri d'Orleans and M. Bonvalot : 

Psittacula derbyana (Fraser). 

Aceipiter nisus melanoschistvs Hume. 

Falco tinnunculus japonic us (Temm. & Schleg.). 


Glaucidium brodiei (Burton). 
< uanops asiatica davisoni (Hume). 
Picus canus guerini (Malh.). 
Dryobate* hyperythrus hyperythrus (Vig.). 
lynx torquilla japonica (Teuim. & Schleg.). 
Cuculus poliocephalus poliocephalus Lath. 
Upupa epops orientalis Baker. 
Atthopyga siparaja viridicauda Rothsch. 
Dicaeum ignipectus ignipectus (Blyth). 
( 'hloropsis aurifrons (Temm.). 
Tardus castaneus gouldi (Verr.). 
Tardus ruficollis ruficollis Pall. 
Tardus pallidas (Gm.). 
Monticola solitarius pandoo (Sykes). 
Phoenicurus auroreus leucopterus Blyth. 
Phoenicurus frontalis frontalis Vig. 
Chainiarroniis fuliginosa fuliginosa Vig. 
Tarsiger rufUatus practicus Bangs & Phill. 
Orthotomus sutorius longicaudus (Gm.). 
Heteroxenicus cruralis cruralis (Blyth). 
Notodela leucura leucura (Hodgs.). 
Franlclinia gracilis (Frankl.). 
Phylloscopus lugubris (Blyth). 
Phylloscopus proregulus forresti (Rothsch.). 
Abromis albogalaris falvifascies Swinh. 
Myophoneus temmincki eugeniae Hume. 
Ianthocincla albogularis albogularis Gould. 
Ianthocincla pecloralis pectoralis Gould. 
Ianthocincla lanceolain lanceolata (Verr.). 
Ianthocincla ellioti ellioti (Verr.). 
Ianthocincla squamata Gould. 
Pomatorhinus macclellandi odicus Bangs & Phill. 
Conostoma aemodium bambuseti Stresem. 
Otocompsa flaviventris flaviventris (Tick.). 
Criniger gularis henrici Oust. 
Leioptila pulchella coeruleotincta Rothsch. 
Leioptila desgodinsi (Dav. & Oust.). 
Pyctorhis sinensis sinensis (Gm.). 
Mixornis rubricapilla rubricapilla (Tick.). 
Y ithina flavicollis rouxi (Oust.). 
Yuhina diademata ampelina Ripp. 
Yuhina gularis griseotincta Rothsch. 
Staphidia torqueola (Swinh.). 
Fulvetta vinipectus bieti (Oust.). 
Alcippe poiocephubt phayrei Blyth. 
Siva strigula yunnant nsis Rothsch. 
Leiothrix luteus yunmuinisis Rothsch. 
Cutia nipalensis nipalensis Hodgs. 
Troglodytes troglodytes talifuensis Sharpe. 


Sitta europaea nebulosa La Touche. 

Sitta canadensis villosa Verr. 

C'erthia himalayensis yunnanensis Sharpe. 

Parus major commixtus Swinh. 

Parus monticolus yunnanensis La Touche. 

Parus dichrotts wellsi Baker. 

Parus ater aemodius Hodgs. 

Parus rex (Dav.). 

Aegithaliscus concinnus talifuensis Rijjp. 

Aegithaliscus bonvaloti (Oust.). 

Pterutlnus rufiventris Blyth. 

Oriolus trailli (Vig.). 

Graucalus macei siamensis Baker. 

Muscicapa, latirostris (Raffl.). 

Muscicapa blyihi blythi Rothsch. 

Ghelidorynx hypoxatitha (Blyth). 

Culicicapa ceylonensis (Swains.). 

Cryptolopha burkei tephrocephalus (Anders.). 

Niltava sundara sundara Hodgs. 

Motacilla alba hodgsoni Blyth. 

Microcichla scouleri (Vig.). 

Emberiza spodocephala spodocephala Fall. 

Perissospiza icteroides affinis (Blyth). 

Carduelis ambiguus (Oust.). 

Passer rutilans intt asior Rothsch. 

Munia striata acuticauda Hodgs. 

Deudrocitta formosae himalayensis Blyth. 

Columba leuconota Vig. 

Columba hodgsoni Vig. 

Sphenocercus sphemirus yunnanensis La Touche. 

Ithaginis cruentus kuseri Beebe. 

Tragopan temmincki (Gray). 

Pucrasia meyeri Mad. 

Gennaeus andersoni Elliot. 

Amauroruis phoenicura chinensis (Bodd.). 

Tringa hypoleucvfi Linn. 

Charadrius dominicus futvus (6m.). 

Of these 90 species and subspecies Professor Oustalet described the following 
three for the first time : 

Criniger tephrogenys henrici Oust. 
Y uhina flavicollis rouxi (Oust.). 
Carduelis ambiguus (Oust.). 

Oustalet added besides this list the following 8 species to the Yunnan avi- 
fauna, from the collections of the Rev. Father Soulie : 

Spelaeornis souliei Oust. 
lanthocincla cineracea styani Oust. 
Ianthocincla bieti Oust. 

19g Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

Actinodura souliei Oust. 
Fulvetta genestieri Oust. 
Ynlti/'ii nigrimentum intermedia Rothsch. 
Parus palustris dejeani Oust. 
( 'i phalopyrus flamia ps olivaceus Rothsch. 

The first 7 of these were described for the first time by Professor Oustalet. 

Captain Wingate's collection, which was made in 1899 on his journey from 
Shanghai to Bhamo, and was described by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant in the Ibis for 1900, 
contained 110 specimens collected in Yunnan, of 87 species, of which the following 
46 species were new to the Yunnan list : 

( 'hibia hottentotta hottentotta (Linn.). 
Dicrurus leucophaeus nigrescens Oates. 
Acridotheres tristis (Linn.). 
Oriolus indicus tenuirostris Blyth. 

Sjiurnttji nthiix amandava (Linn.). 

Eophona migratoria harterti La Touche. 

Emberiza elegans Temm. 

Melaphus melanicterus (Gin.). 

Motacilla boarula melanope Pall. 

Sitta yunnanensis O. -Grant. 

Sitta magna Wardl.-Rams. 

Aethopyga sanguinipectus Wald. 

Partis major minor Temm. & Schleg. 

Lanius scltach tephronottts (Vig.). 

Lanitis collyrioides siamensis Gyldenst. 

Megalurtis palustris andrewsi Thay. & Bangs. 

Franklinia gracilis (Frankl.). 

Monticola solitarius pandoo (Sykes). 

Enicurus sinensis Gould. 

lanthocincla leucolophtts leticolophus (Hardw.). 

Paradoxornis webbiana styani Ripp. 

Fulvetta vinipectus bieti (Oust.). 

Siva strigula yunnanensis (Rothsch.). 

Chloropsis hardwichii Jard. & Selby. 

Molpastes atricapilltis (Vieill.). 

Muscicapa blythi blythi Rothsch. 

Riparia rupestris (Scop.). 

Dryobates major stresemanni Rensch. 

Dryobates alratus (Blyth). 

Chalcococcyx maculatus Gm. 

Cenlropus sinensis sinensis (Steph.). 

Melittophagtts leschenaulli swinhoii (Hume). 

Psittacula fasciata (P. L. S. Mull.). 

Circus cyaneus (Linn.). 

Bitteo plitmipes (Hodgs.). 

Falco linn tine id 'its i nti rsti net lis (McClell.). 
Griijitoeephitlits darisoni (Hume). 
Ciconia nigra (Linn.). 


Megalornis grus (Linn.). 

Megalornis nigricollis (Prjev.). 

Ardeola bncchus (Bp.). 

Microsarcops cinereus (Blyth). 

Capella gallinago gallinago (Linn.). 

Ducula badia (Raffl.). 

Francolinus pintadeanus phayrei Blyth. 

Gennaeus nycthemerus nycthemerus (Linn.). 

Mr. Ogilvie-Grant described the form of Siva cyanuroptera from Yunnan as 
new out of Captain Wingate"s collection as Siva wingatei, and it must stand as 
Siva cyanuroptera wingatei 0. -Grant, but Captain Wingate was not the first to 
collect Siva cyanuroptera in Yunnan. 

Colonel Rippon, among his large collections, had the following 65 species 
■ new to the Yunnan list : 

Porzana bicolor Wald. 

Larus gelastes Thienem. 

Sarcogrammus indicus atronuchalis (Blyth). 

Tringa ochropus Linn. 

Capella solitaria (Hodgs.). 

Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha Linn. 

Mergus merganser merganser Linn. 

Glaucidium brodiei (Burton). 

Etidynamis scolopaceus malayana Cab. & Heine. 
*Picus canus sordidior (Ripp.). 

Dryobates pernyi pernyi (Verr.). 

Muscicapa tricolor tricolor Hodgs. 

Culicicapa ceylonensis (Swains.). 
*Abrornis schisticeps ripponi Sharpe. 

lanihocincla affinis oustaleti Hart. 

Ianthocincla maxima (Verr.). 

Alcippe nipalensis yunnanensis Har. 
*Fulvetta ruficapillus sordidior (Ripp.). 

Stachyridopsis ruficeps bhamoensis Har. 
*Yuhina gularis yangpiensis Sharpe. 

Pteruthius xanthochloris pallidus Dav. 
*Suihora webbiana styani (Ripp.). 

C'inclus pallasi souliei Oust. 

Turdus mollissimus mollissimus Blyth. 

Turdus dauma aureus Hoi. 

Turdus eunomus Temm. 

Monticola erythrogaster (Vig.). 

Iole macclellandi similis Rothsch. 

Prunella immaculata (Hodgs.). 
*Prunella collaris ripponi Hart. 

Prunella strophiata multistriata (Dav.). 

Chaimarrornis leucocephala (Vig.). 

Phoenicurus ochrurus rufiventris (Vieill.) 

Phoenicurus auroreus leucopterus (Blyth). 

1<JS Xovitatf.s Zoologu'ai: XXXIII. 1926. 

PAoenicvrus hodgsoni (.Moure). 

Phoenicurus schisticeps (Gray). 

Taraiger cyanurus (Pall.). 

Herbivocvla schwarzi (Radde). 

PhyUoscopus pvlcher Blyth. 

PhyUoscopus maculipennis debilis (Thay. & Bangs). 
*Parus riifonvchalis poecilopsis Sharpe. 

Aegithalua cavdatus glaucogularis Gould. 
*Begulus rggulus yunnanensis (Ripp.). 
*Certhia familiaris khamensis Sharpe. 

Tichodroma muraria (Linn.). 

Zosterops erythropleura erythropleura Swinh. 

Aethopyga ignicauda exultans Baker. 

Motacilla alba leucopsis Gould. 

Atauda arvensis japonica Terom. & Schleg. 

Mycerobas carnipes (Hodgs.). 

Erythrina pvlcherrima (Moore). 
*Erythrina ripponi (Sharpe). 

Erythrina vinacea (Verr.). 

Erythrina erythrina roseatus (Hodgs.). 
*Erythrina thura feminima (Ripp.). 

Pyrrhuta erithaca altera Ripp. 

Propyrrhnla subhimachala intensior Rothsch. 

Emberiza fucata arcuata Sharpe. 
*Emberiza cia yunnanensis Sharpe. 

Coloeus dauricus Pall. (form, dimorph. neglectus (Schleg.)). 

*Nucifraga caryocatactes yunnanensis Ingr. 

Urocissa erythroryncha occipitalis (Blyth). 

Garrulus bispecularis sinensis Swinh. 

Pyrrhocorax gracvlus (Linn.). 

Of the above 64 species and subspecies the 13 marked with an * were 
described from Colonel Rippon's collections for the first time by him, Dr. Sharpe, 
Dr. Hartert, and Mr. C. Ingram. 

Mr. Collingwood Ingram records the following 31 species and subspecies for 
the first time for the Yunnan avifauna : 

Onopopelia tranquebarica humilis (Temni.). 

Turtur chinensis vacillans Hart. 

Porzana pusilla auricularis (Reichw.). 

Tringa erythropus (Pall.). 

Butorides striatus javanica (Horsf.). 

Ixobrychus sinensis (Gm.). 

Otus bakhamoena glcibripes (Swinh.). 

Upupa epops saturata Lonnb. 

Caprimulgus monticola Frankl. 

Micropus affinis subfurcatus (Blyth). 

( 'm- id us optatus Gould. 

Picumnus innominatus chinensis (Hargitt.). 

Hirundo rustica gutturalis Scop. 


Muscicapa narcissina xanthopygia (Hay). 
Terpsiphone paradisi affiiiis (Blyth). 
Lalage melaschistos arvensis (Blyth). 
Spizixus canifrons Blyth. 
Ianthocincla canora namtiensis La Touche. 
Tardus dissimilis yunnanensis La Touche. 
Tardus merula mandarinus (Bp.). 
Copsychas savlaris saularis (Linn.). 
Phragmaticola aedon (Pall.). 
PAylloscopus borealis borealis (Bias.). 
Phyllergates coronatus (Jerd. & Blyth). 
Dendronanthus indicus (6m,). 
Alaitda arvensis coelivox Swinh. 
Emberiza aureola Pall. 
Sturnia nemoricola Jerd. 
Aethiopsar cristatellus (Gin.). 
Oriolus indicus indicus Jerd. 

Dr. Hartert subsequently described the Streptopelia chinensis recorded by 
Ingram as S. c. vacillans. 

Messrs. Outram Bangs & J. C. Phillips gave an account of the larger portion 
of the collection, of which the smallest part was worked out by Ingram, and 
they add to the Yunnan list as follows : 

*Arbor ophila rufogularis euroa Bangs & Phillips. 
Hydrochelidon leucopareia swinhoii Math. 
Tringa nebularia (Gunn). 
Cfuzradrius dtibius jerdoni (Legge). 
Terekia cinerea (Giild.). 
Erolia subminuta (Midd.). 
Limosa limosa melanuroides Gould. 
Capella gallinago raddei (But.). 
Capella strenua (Bp.). 
Olareola maldivarum (Forst.). 
Ibis melaiiocephalus (Lath.). 
Pseudotantalus leucocephalus (Gm.). 
Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (Linn.). 
Circus aeruginosas aeruginosas (Linn.). 
Circus spilonotus Kaup. 
Accipiter trivirgatus rufitinctus (McClell.). 
Otus malayana (Hay). 
Ninox scutulata burmanica Hume. 
Anas crecca crecca (Linn.). 
Eurystomus orientalis calonyx Sharpe. 
Halcyon pileatus (Bodd.). 
Caprimulgus macrurus ambiguus Hart. 
Cucnlus sparverioides Vig. 
Cuculvs canorus baker i Hart. 
Cyanops frankliui (Blyth). 
Sasia ochracea Hodgs. 

200 Novitates ZOOLOQICAE XXXIII. 1926. 

Hir initio tin iirira striolata. 

Muscicapa rubcculoides glaucicomans Thay. & Bangs. 
Niltava davidi La Touche. 
*NUtava sundara denotata Bangs & Phill. 
Muscicapa mutui Lay. 

Muscicapa cyanomelaena cyanomelaena Temm. 
Muscicapa parva albicilla (Pall.). 
Muscicapa mugimaki Temm. 
Muscicapa cyanomelaena cyanomelaena Temm. 
Hypothemis azurea styani (Hartl.). 
Terpsiphone incei (Gould). 
Phylloscopus trivirgata ricketti Slat. 
*Pericrocotus breviroslris ethelogus Bangs <fe Phill. 
Pericrocotus cantonensis Swinh. 
Alcurus striatus Blyth. 
Spizixos semitorqucs Swinh. 
Ianthocincla milnei sharpei (Ripp.). 
Alcippe nipalensis schaefferi La Touche. 
Myiophoneus coeruleus coeruleus (Scop.). 
Heteroxenicus cruralis sinensis (Rick.). 
*Actinodura ramsayi yunnanensis Bangs & Phill. 
Pteruthius melanotis melanotis Hodgs. 
Minla ignotinca mariae La Touche. 
Paradoxornis guttaticoUis Dav. 
Paradoxornis webbiana webbiana (Gray). 

Pnoepyga pusilla pusilla Hodgs. 

Turdus obscurus Gm. 

Acrocephalus arundinaceus orientalis Temm. & Schleg. 
Enicurus schistaceus Hodgs. 

Enicurus maculatus guttatus Gould. 

Luscinia calliope calliope (Pall.). 

Cisticola cisticola tintinnabulans (Swinh.). 

Phylloscopus coronata (Temm.). 

Horeites cantans canturians Swinh. 

Horeites fortipes davidianus (Verr.). 

Lanius schach schach (Linn.). 

Lanius fuscatus Less. 

Lanius cristatus superciliosus Lath. 

Dicaeum mimdlum. olivaceum Wald. 

Arachnothera magna magna (Hodgs.). 

Motacilla alba ocularis Swinh. 

Motacilla citreola citreoloides Gould. 

Oreocorys sylvanus Hodgs. 

Loxia curvirostra himalayensis Blyth. 

Emberiza rutila Pall. 

Sturnia sericea (Gm.). 

Dicrurus leucogenys leucogenys Wald. 

Lalage melaschislos melaschistos (Hodgs.). 
Those marked with an * are described for the first time ; total additions, 74. 


Messrs. Uchida & Kuroda have expanded the Yunnan list by the following 

forms : i ,1 ■ , D ,, , 

Antnus cervinus (Fail.). 

Anthua striolatus BIyth. 

Ianthocincla phoenicea ivellsi La Touche. 

Paradoxornis alphonsiana yunnanensis La Touche. 

Criniger gularis pallidum Swinh. 

Phylloscopus subviridis (Brooks). 

Suya atrigularis Hodgs. 

Hirundo daurica striolata (Temm. & Sehleg.). 
The total of Uchida & Kuroda 's additions is 8. 
Andrews & Heller contributed the following species and subspecies for the first 

Gennaeus nychthemerus ripponi Sharpe. 
Pavo muticus Linn. 

Arborophila brunneipectus brunneipectus (Tick.). 
Arborophila torqueola (Valenc). 
Turnix pugnax rostrata Swinh. 
Spilornis cheela ricketti Sclat. 
Glaucidium cuculoides cuculoides Gould. 
Rhopodytes tristis (Less.). 
Centropus sinensis intermedins (Hume). 
Dryocopus javensis feddeni (Blanf .). 
Chrysocolaptes gutticristatus sultaneus Hodgs. 
Serilophus lunatus elizabethae La Touche. 
Pyrotrogon erythrocephahts erythrocephalus Gould. 
Oreicola jerdoni BIyth. 
Saxicola torquata prjevalskii (Pleske). 
T urdus dissimilis BIyth. 
*T } Urdus mupinensis conquisitus Bangs. 
Ianthocincla chinensis chinensis (Scop.). 
Ianthocincla erythrocephula ivoodi (Baker). 
Yuhina occipitalis obscurior Rothsch. 
Alcippe phaeocephala magnirostris Wald. 
Pellorneum ruficeps minus Hume. 
Leioptila annectens annectens BIyth. 
Staphidia striata BIyth. 
Muscicapa banymnas whitei Har. 
Pericrocotus speciosus speciosus (Lath.). 
Pericrocotus yvettae Bangs. 
Aegithina tiphia tiphia (Linn.). 
Chloropsis icterocephala chlorocephala (Wald.). 
Certhia discolor manipurensis Hume. 
Aethopyga ignicauda exultans Baker. 
Aethopyga nipalensis (Hodgs.). 
Erythrina edwardsi edwardsi Verr. 
Garrulus leucotis leucotis Hume. 
Corvus splendens insolens Hume. 
The total of this fist is 35 ; the subspecies with an * is described for the 
first time. 


M. Pichon increased the Yunnan list, with the following 15 species : 

Microptern us fokiensis S« inh . 
Merops oriental is birmanus Neum. 
Ardea cinerea jouyi ('lark. 
Pernis ellioti Jerd. 
Milvus migrans govinda Sykes. 
Accipiter badius poliopsis (Hume). 
Aquila chrysaetus daphanen (Menzb.). 
Torgos calvus (Scop.). 
Falco naumanni (Fleisch.). 
Glaucidium cuculoides whiteleyi (Blyth). 
Asio flammeus flammeus (Pontopp.). 
Hirundo daurica nipalensis Hodgs. 
Myiophoneus coerulens temmincki Vig. 
Criniger gidaris griseiceps Hume. 
AnthoxrnjiKS /tend >di mis eimsobriniis Swinh. 
Aethiopsar albocinctus Godw.-Aust. & Wald. 

M. and Mme. Comby added 3 species to the Avifauna of Yunnan : 

Lanius collurio kobylini (Buturl.). 
Sitta europaea sinensis Verr. 
Sttirnia sinensis (Gm.). 

Mr. William Beebe was the first to record for Yunnan : 

Lophophorus sclateri Jerd. and 
Ithaginis cnientiis kttseri Beebe. 

George Forrest has added to the Yunnan list in the collections made during 
1918-1924, the following species and subspecies : 

Crossoptilon crossoptilon crossoptilon (Hodgs.). 
*Ithaginis geoffroyi clarkei Rothseh. 

Tetraophasis szechenyii, Mad. 

Himantopus Mmantopus himantopus (Linn.). 

Charadrius placidus Gray. 

Pkalacrocorax carbo sinensis Shaw & Nodd. 

Nyroca fuligula (Linn.). 

Butorides striatus amurensis Shrenck. 

Pernis apivorus orientalis Tacz. 

Accipiter gentilis schvedowi (Menzb.). 

Accipiter gentilis khamensis (Bianchi). 

Bnteo buteo japonicus Temm. & Schleg. 

Aquila nipalensis ni/mlensis Hodgs. 

Strix allien iiivieola Blyth. 

Centropus bengalensis bengalensis (Gm.). 

Ciieiilns intermedins intenned : lis Vahl. 
*Dryocopus forresti Rothseh. 

Dryocopus martins khamensis (Butur.). 
*Dn/obates semicoroneitus omissus Rothseh. 

Dryobatcs darjel/r/isis drsmursi Verr. 


*Dryobates obscurior Rothseh. 

C'eryle rudis leucomelanura Reichenb. 

Ceryle lugubris guttidata Stejn. 

Psiltacula schisticeps finschi (Hume). 

Lyncornis cerviniceps Gould. 

Collocalia fucifuga brevirostris (McClell.). 

Pitta (Hydrornis) nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

Testa cyaniventer Hodgs. 

Oligura castaneo-coronata (Burton). 

fipelaeornis kauriensis (Har.). 
*Pnoepyga squamata magnirostris Rothseh. 

Hodgsonius phoenicuroides (Gray). 

Luscinia brunnea (Hodgs.). 

Luscinia davidi (Oust.). 

Tarsiger chrysaeus Hodgs. 
*Tarsiger indicus yunnanensis Rothseh. 

Dendrobiastes hyperethra hyperethra (Blyth). 

Moniicola solitaria philippensis (P. L. S. Mull.). 

Turdus naumanni Temm. 

Tardus dauma dauma Lath. 

Cochoa purpurea Hodgs. 

Pomntorhinus erythrogenis imberbis Salvad. 
*Ianthocincla subunicolor griseata Rothseh. 
*Ianthocincla forresti Rothseh. 
*Ianihocincla ocellata similis Rothseh. 

Stactocichla merulina merulina (Blyth). 
*Fulvella chrysotis forresti Rothseh. 
*Moupinia poecilotis sordidior Rothseh. 

Pseudominla castaniceps castaniceps (Hodgs.). 

Suya parvirostris La Touehe. 

Lusciniola thoracica (Blyth). 

Horeites flavolivacea intricatus Hart. 

Horeites acanthizoides acanthizoides (Verr.). 

Horeites brunneifro/is (Hodgs.). 

Horeites major Moore. 

Phylloscopus armandii (Milne-Edw.). 

Pltylloscopus occipitalis coronal us Tcmm. & Schleg. 

Phylloscopus magnirostris (Blyth). 

C'ryptolopha castaneiceps castaneiceps (Gray). 

Leioptila gracilis (McClell.). 
*Ixops waldeni saturatior Rothseh. 

Franklinia rufescens rufescens Blyth. 

Muscicapa hodgsonii (Verr.). 

Muscicapa vivida oatesi Salvad. 

Muscicapa cinereiceps (Sharpe). 

Niltava grandis grandis (Blyth). 

Pericrocotus Solaris Solaris (Blyth). 

I'inadoxornis poliotis poliotis Blyth. 
*Parado.vornis webbiana rickelli Rothseh. 


Paradoxornis unicolor canaster Thay. & Bangs. 
Paws spilonotus svbviridis (Tick.). 
Parus rufonuehalis beaveni (Jerd.). 
Funis major tibetanus Hart. 
Sitba himalayensis Jard. & Selby. 
Pacltyglossa melanozautlia Blyth. 
Aethopyga saturata Hodgs. 
Motacilla alba baicalensis Swinh. 
Motacilla flava simillima Hart. 
Alauda arvensis intt rmedia Swinh. 
Emberiza fucata fucata Pall. 
Montifringilla nemoricola nemoricola (Hodgs.). 
Fringilla montifringilla Linn. 
Procarduelis nipalensis intensicolor Baker. 
*Procardudis rubescens saturatior Rothsch. 
Haematospiza sipahi (Hodgs.). 
Erythrina trifaeciata (Verr.). 
Erythrina rubicilloides Przew. 
Pyrrhula nipalensis ricketti La Touche. 
Pyrrhoplectes epauletta (Hodgs.). 
Uragus sibiricus lepidus Dav. & Oust. 
Carduelis thibetanus (Hume). 
Mycerobas melanozanthus (Hodgs.). 
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linn.). 
Corvus coronoides intermedins Adams. 

Considering all the previous collecting in Yunnan the addition by Forrest 
of the above 94 new forms is a very fine achievement. Those marked with an * 
were described for the first time. Mr. La Touche has increased the Yunnan list 
by the following : 

Turnix maculatus maculatus Vieill. 

Megalornis japonensis (Miill.). 

Ckaradrius dubius cnronicus Gm. 

Pelecanus philippensis Gm. 

Phalacrocorax capillatus Teinni. 

Anas acuta acuta Linn. 

Anas formosa Georg. 

Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (Linn.). 

Ketupa zeylonensis (Gm.). 
*Picus canus yunnanensis La Touche. 

Pitta cucullata Hartl. 

l/uscinia cyane (Pall.). 

Saxicola caprata burmanica Baker. 

Saxicola torquata stejnegeri (Parrot). 

*Horeites pallipcs laurentei La Touche. 

Phylloscopii.s yunnanensis La Touche. 

*Phylloscopus trochiloides distwrbans (La Touche). 

Phylloscopus tcnellipes (Swinh.). 

*Cryptolop)ui burkii distincta La Touche. 


*Cryptolopha btirkii intermedia La Touche. 
*Cry ptolopha castaneiceps laurentei La Touche. 

Orthotonus sutoria macidicollis Moore. 

Turdus boulboul (Lath.). 

Turdus cordis lateus Thay. & Bangs. 

Turdus citrina innotata Blyth. 
*Pomatorhinus ruficollis laurentii La Touche. 
*Ianthocincla chinensis lowei (La Touche). 

Timelia pileata intermedia Kirm. 
*Pellorneum manddlii vividum La Touche. 
*Hemixenicus joJuinnae La Touche. 
*Hemixenicus cruralis laurentei La Touche. 
*Stachyridopsis ruficeps bangsi La Touche. 

Mixornis rubricapilla minor Gyldenst. 

Muscicapa hyperythrus Blyth. 

Miiscicapa pallidipes hainana O. -Grant. 

Muscicapa ferruginea (Hodgs.). 
*Niltava grandis griseiventris La Touche. 

Niltava macgrigoriae Burton. 
*Pericrocotus speciosus bakeri La Touche. 

Pericrocotus cinereus Lafresn. 
*Pericrocotus montpelieri La Touche. 

Paradoxornis webbiana elizabethae La Touche. 
*Zosterops erythro pleura melanorhynclui La Touche. 
*Zosterops palpebrosa joannae La Touche. 
*Aethopyga siparaja tonkinensis Hart. 
* Arachnoihera longirostris sordida La Touche. 

Emberiza tristrami Swinh. 
*Corvus corone yunnanensis La Touche. 

The total added by Mr. La Touche to the Yunnan Avifauna is 48, of which 
20 marked with an * were described for the first time. 

Forrest's 1925 collection, besides several not sent in former collections, 
contains the following 8 species new to Yunnan : 

Hoplopterus ventralis (Wagl.). 
*Xiphorhynchus superciiiaris forresti Rothsch. 
*Ianthocincla coerulata latirostris Rothsch. 

Megalaema virens Hume. 
*Dryobates cathpharius tenebrosus Rothsch. 

Anas querqitedula Linn. 

Porphyria poliocephalus polioce phalus (Lath.). 

Urocissa flavirostris flavirostris (Blyth). 

The 3 marked with an * are new to science. 
Mr. H. C. Riley has added to our list : 

Ithaginis emeritus rocki Riley. 

My readers will doubtless find a number of discrepancies between the 
foregoing lists and the complete list of Yunnan birds which follows. This is 

20(j Novitates Zoologicai: XXXIII. 1926. 

due to the fact that the names in the foregoing lists have not everywhere been 
revised, whereas the list which follows here has been carefully revised and 
brought up to date. 

1. Gallus gallus robinsoni nom. now 

Qallus tjalliis O. Grant (nee Linn.), ('al. Birds Brit. Mils., vol. xxii, p. 344 (1893) (ex Raffl., Trans. 
Linn. Soc, xiii, p. 319 (1822) (Sumatra). 

The first scientific name was bestowed on the Red Jungle Fowl by Linne 
in 1758 ; considering the enormous literature it has provoked, it has had very 
few names bestowed upon it, and, owing to the fact that its three races (sub- 
species) were mostly mixed up till 1917, the only name of the older ones which 
refers to a wild bird which can stand is bankiva Temm., which applies to the 
Java race. The Indian race must bear the name of murghi Robinson & Kloss. 
There remains the question of the Chinese race ; this has hitherto been united 
with the Indian one under the name either of gallus Linn, or ferrugineus Gm. 
until Messrs. Robinson & Kloss in 1920 separated it off asferrugint usferrugint its. 
In 1917 Mr. Stuart Baker had, it is true, separated it from the Indian race, but 
had united it with the Java race as Gallus bankiva bankiva, while he called the 
Indian race bankiva ferrugineus, a nomenclature wholly inadmissible, as his 
sjjecific name dates from 1813, while his subspecific name dates from 1788. Now 
two questions arise in the nomenclature of the Red Jungle Fowl : first as to the 
specific name applicable to the three races, and secondly as to the subspecific 
name of the Chino-Burmese-Malayan race. If we follow the course of the 
mammalogists, who maintain that the Wild Horse of Kobdo must stand as 
Kquus caballus przewalskyi because, although Linnaeus' name caballus applied 
only to the domestic horse, the wild horse is the same species ; then we must 
employ Linnaeus' name gallus (1758) for the Red Jungle Fowl, and its domestic 
descendants. If, however, we consider that the origin of any domestic race or 
races is too problematical, then another name must be used for the " Formen- 
kreis " of the Red Jungle Fowl. What this must be, depends on the name to 
be used for the Chino-Burmese-Malayan race. This further depends on the 
question of the validity or otherwise of the name ferrugineus Gm. Ginelin 
founded his Tetrao ferrugineus on a combination of Sonnerat's " Grande Caille 
de la Chine " and Latham's " Hackled Partridge." Now apparently no one 
seems to have carefully read Sonnerat's description, for if they had it would 
have at once been evident that a bird having upper tail-coverts longer than the 
tail, a whitish, line above the eye, and black spotted wings could not possibly 
be a Jungle Fowl ; and this description evidently referred to some species of 
Francolin or Partridge. Latham's figure of his " Hackled Partridge " is 
certainly that of a $ Jungle Fowl ; but in view of the fact that Ginelin places 
Sonnerat's " Grand Caille dc la Chine " first, the name ferrugineus must apply 
to that bird and cannot be used for a " Jungle Fowl." 

Therefore those who object to using the name gallus Linn, as having been 
given to a domestic bird must use the name bankiva Temm. as the name for the 
" Formenkreis " of the Red Jungle Fowl. We next come to the name for our 
particular Eastern race ; the name ferrugineus being inadmissible, it appears 
that this, the oldest known of the three races of the Red Jungle Fowl, is 
without a name. I myself here propose to follow the nomenclature adopted 


by the mamnialogists, and name the Eastern race after the senior of the 
two latest revisors, calling Gallus gallus robinsoni Rothsch. But those who 
refuse to recognize names applied to domestic races must call this form 
Gallus bankiva robinsoni Rothsch. The first to record this bird from Yunnan 
was Anderson, who mentions one <J from Ponsee and says that Blyth already 
noticed that the Eastern examples of the Red Jungle Fowl were darker than 
Indian ones. Captain A. W. S. Wingate was the next to collect this bird in 
our district ; he records an adult <J from Wei- Yuan, South Yunnan, 1899. 
Mr. Styan obtained a <$ at Yuan Chang (29.iii.1903) (British Museum). Outram 
Bangs is the next to list the Eastern Red Jungle Fowl from Yunnan, Andrews 
and Heller having obtained it on the Salwtn and Namtung Rivers. 

Lastly, Mr. La Touche says in his " Birds of S.E. Yunnan " in the Ibis that 
" Jungle Fowl are common at Hokow." Forrest did not send this bird. 

2. Phasianus colchicus decollatus Swinh. 

Phasianus decollatus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 135 (Market Tschungking, Szetschuan) 

Messrs. Menegaux & Didier, in their list of M. Albert Pichon's birds collected 
at Tengyueh-ting, S.W. Yunnan, record one specimen and remark that this fine 
pheasant was " special au Yunnan, ou il est assez abondant." This can hardly 
be the case, as M. Pichon's example is the only one from Yunnan on record, and 
the bird is not once mentioned elsewhere from Yunnan between the years 1868 
and 1925, during which all the collecting in Yunnan has gone on. As, however, 
the locality is the same as that given by Anderson for P. c. elegans, it is quite 
possible that M. Pichon's bird is a very worn example of Stone's Pheasant ; in 
which case the statement quoted in parenthesis would be correct. Anderson, 
however, quotes a $ obtained by him, which from the description might be the 
$ of P. c. decollatus. 

3. Phasianus colchicus elegans Ell. 

Phasianus elegans Elliot, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vi, p. 312 (1870) (Yun-ling Mts., W. Szetschuan). 
Phasianus sladeni Elliot, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, pp. 404, 408 (nom. nud.) (ex And. MS.) 

(border of Yunnan). 
Phasianus colchicus rothschildi La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 54 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

The first to record Stone's Pheasant from Yunnan was Anderson, who 
obtained 2 $<$, 2 $$ at Momien, S.W. Yunnan, 5,000 feet. Bangs & Phillips 
quote 1 (J from Mengtsz as being identical with Zappey's Szetchuan birds. Bangs, 
in recording 3 ^ of Andrews & Heller from Lichiang-Fu, says that he has 
compared 4 adult Yunnan <J<J with 4 adult $ J from Szetchuan, and that there 
is no constant difference. Mr. La Touche described his P. c. rothschildi from 
Mengtsz from 11 $ J obtained between March 20 and April 13, when the feathers 
of the hindneck, interscapulium, and flanks are exceedingly worn, whereas For- 
rest's specimens are winter birds with fresh feathers. An examjjle from Szetchuan 
from Dr. Weigold (Stoetzner Expedition) collected in April, is exactly inter- 
mediate, owing to the feathers being less worn than those of the Mengtsz birds. 
Lastly I have at Tring a bird collected by the late Colonel H. H. Harington in 
Ta-Shin-Tang State, E. Salwin (0,000 feet), which is dated in his own hand- 
writing " April/99." This bird, however, is in absolutely freshly moulted plumage 
identical with Forrest's December bird ; I am therefore quite sure that the date 

20S Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

of Colonel Harington's bird is wrong ; probably labelled in England from manu- 
script notes and not in the field. 

Forrest got on Ids first expedition only a chick in down ; in his second 
collection there were 2 (J(J, 1 $ from the Lichiang Range, and in the third lot 
1 cj, 2 $$ and 5 eggs, also from the Lichiang Range. In the British Museum 
are the following examples : 2 £<$ Yungchang, Salwin River Road, April 1906, 

1 (J E. of Mekong-Chutung- Yungchang Road, April 1900, 1 q Shayang (Shar- 
jang ?), 1 (J Shayang-Chutung Road, March L 902, Colonel Rippon, 1 q Yunnan 
Styan collection, 1 3 Mung-lang, W. Yunnan, W. A. Watts Jones. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection there is 1 $ ad., hills round Tengyueh, 0,000 feet, 
September 1925. Open meadows. Bill, base of upper mandible brownish, rest 
yellowish grey ; iris pale yellow ; legs and feet dull fleshy brown. 

4. Synnaticus humiae humianicus (Oates). 

Calophasis Imrmanicus Oates, Ibis, 1898, pp. 124-125 (Ruby Jlines and 8. Shan States). 

Colonel Rippon obtained a $ of this pheasant on the Chutung-Yangpi Road 
March 21, 1902, which was erroneously identified by Dr. Sharpe as $ dlioti. 
An adult $, curiously enough, was obtained by Forrest in almost the identical 
locality, viz. the Yungping-Yangpi Divide in 1921 at 7,000-8,000 feet. Andrews 
and Heller obtained a $ at Tengyueh-Ting. 

5. Chrysolophus amherstiae (Leadb.). 

Phasianus amherstiae Leadbeater, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lund, xvi, p. 129, pi. xv (1828) (said to have 
been from the Mts. of Cochinchina). 

The first to obtain this magnificent pheasant in Yunnan was Anderson, 
near Momien. Captain Wingate collected an adult $ at Ching-tung, Yunnan, 
March 1899. 

The next examples were obtained in 1917 by Andrews & Heller at Wan- 
tien, Pei-ti-Ping, and Li-chiang-Fu (4 adult c?c?)- Forrest collected a mar- 
vellous series of this bird ; he sent in his second, third, and fourth collections, 
altogether 10 adult <?<?, 7 $$ juv., 7 adult $?, 3 $? juv., 1 $ fledgling, and 

2 chicks in down from the Lichiang Range ; Mekong-Salwin Divide ; Mekong 
Valley ; and the hills N.W. of Tengyueh. 

There are in the British Museum of the Lady Amherst's Pheasant the follow- 
ing examples from Yunnan unrecorded : 1 q Youngpi-Cantung Road, 1 <$ Yangpi 
Valley, 1 <J Talifi-Yang Road, Salwin-Shweli Divide, April and May 1906, 4 ?? 
Giji-dzin-Shan, E. of Talifu, March and April 1902, Colonel Rippon ; 1 o Teng- 
yueh, E. B. Howell ; 1 o, 1 ? Yanpi-Chutung-Road, 1 $ Yuan Chang Yunnan, 
March 1906, Styan collection ; 1 <J Shil-kuh nr. Lichiang, 1 (J Mahlung-Chon, 
E. Yunnan, W. A. Watts Jones. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection there are 2 <J<J juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, Sep- 
tember 1925. Forests, 10,000 feet. Bill, upper mandible dark, under mandible 
light brown ; feet and legs dark fleshy brown ; iris pale yellow. 

0. Pucrasia meyeri Mad. 

Purrasia meyeri Madarasz, Ibis, 1886, p. 145 (Central Thibet). 

The first record we have of this species for Yunnan is by Oustalet, who 
enumerates some specimens collected by Prince Henri d'Orleans & Monsieur 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1U26. 209 

The only other collector who obtained this bird was Forrest, who sent home 
13 cJcJ ad., 4 $$ ad., and 2 gg juv., all from the Lichiang Range. In the British 
Museum is 1 $ Yunnan, Styan collection. (Original label, " Pucraaia meyeri, 
Property of S.W. Styan " ; and a printed label 2350, " R. P. Soulie, Tsekou C.G., 
1896 N.") 

In Forrest's 1925 collection there is 1 ^ juv., Shweli-Salwin Divide, 12,000 
feet ; Campfer Forests, September 1925. 

In the British Museum there is a $ from the Styan collection labelled 
R. P. Soulie, Tsekou, G.G. 1896, No. 2356," in print. 

7. Gennaeus nycthemerus nycthemerus (Linn.). 

Phasiarms nydhi merus Linnaeus, Sijst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 172, No. 6 (1758) (China ex Albin). 

In his lecture before the B.O.C. in 1915, Mr. Stuart Baker expressed the 
opinion that Gennaeus horsfieldi, G. lineatus, and G. nycthemerus were all sub- 
species of one very variable species ; in 1917 in the Bombay Journal he quotes 
the three above-mentioned Kalege pheasants as three species. I think it more 
consistent with my general views on subspecies to adopt his former attitude, as 
we have no proof as yet of the permanent habitat of any one of the numerous 
named forms of Kalege being in the same area or on the same level as that of 
any other. 

But now arises a very important question ; 3 silver pheasants have been 
recorded from Yunnan. In the case of Oustalet, who records G. n. andersoni 
brought Iiome by Prince H. d'Orleans, it is probably an error in labelling, as the 
expedition also passed through the typical locality for andersoni, but it is not 
difficult to explain Mr. Outram Bangs, quoting both n. nycthemerus and n. 
ripponi. His Mengtsz birds were $ ad. and 2 immature, whereas his Ho-mu-Shu 
Pass bird was an adult <J. 

Forrest's birds from Tengyueh I had listed in 1925 as n. nycthemerus ; but 
on comparison with Chinese examples of that form the $ certainly shows much 
broader black markings on the wings and wing-coverts than wild shot Chinese 
examples, and especially so when compared with aviary-bred silver pheasants. 
I have come to the conclusion that I cannot separate N.W. Yunnanese birds from 
Chinese ones, but will deal further with this under the next heading. 

Forrest only sent 1 <$, 1 $. 

In the 1925 collection Forrest sent 2 magnificent old $3; these exhibit 
everywhere heavier black markings than Chinese and aviary-bred n. nychthemerus, 
but differ considerably inter se. In spite of the considerable series in the 
British Museum and at Tring, I still think we know too little about the pheasants 
of the genus Gennaeus to finally decide how many local forms = subspecies 
there are among the birds nearest in appearance to typical Chinese nycthemerus. 
Oates has certainly allowed too many and others too few. 

2 (J (J ad., hills N.W. of Tengyueb, 7,000-9,000 feet, May and December 1925. 
Forests. Bill dark fleshy brown, tip greenish ; legs and feet scarlet crimson, 
claws brown ; naked skin round eyes and face crimson ; iris honey yellow. 

8. Gennaeus nycthemerus ripponi Sharpe. 

Gennaeus ripponi Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. xiii. p. 29 (1902) (Southern Shan Hills). 

Mr. Stuart Baker, in his revision of the genus Gennaeus, Bombay Natural 
History Society's Journal, xxiii, states that of the 11 specimens seen by him 

210 Novitatks Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

only 2 were from Yunnan. The only other record we have is Andrews & Heller's 
example from the Ho-mu-Shu Pass, near the Burmese frontier. Now although I 
consider n. ripponi very close to n. nychthemerus, it is, in my opinion, premature to 
sink it as a pure synonym of the latter. I therefore think the proper course to 
adopt for the present is to retain it as a subspecies, and thus having G. n. ripponi 
Sharpe, Shan States and S.W. borders of Yunnan. 

G. n. nycthemerus (Linn.), China proper and N.E. Yunnan. 

I do not see how we can separate the N. and E. Yunnan examples from the 
main lot of Chinese specimens, although some of them may exhibit heavier black 
wing pattern. 

9. Gennaeus andersoni (Elliot). 

Euplocamus andersoni Elliot, Monogr. Phasianidae, vol. ii, pi. and text xxii (1872) (Kakhycn Hills). 

Mr. Baker, op. cit., says andersoni is a hybrid between G. n. horsfieldi and 
G. n. rubripes, and I have little doubt but what he is right. On this assumption 
there are three alternatives in connection with Prince H. d'Orleans' specimen of 
so-called andersoni : first, it may have been an accidentals tray bird ex Burma ; 
secondly, it may be that an error of labelling occurred at the Paris Museum ; 
thirdly and lastly, it may be a hybrid between horsfieldi and ripponi from the 
extreme border country. In either case it does not effect the status of the 
Yunnan forms of Gennaeus. 

In the British Museum there are 1 q, S.W. Yunnan, April 1899,, Captain 
A. M. S. Wingate ; 1 $ Tengyueh, E. B. Howell. These apparently are in addition 
to those mentioned by Mr. Stuart Baker. 


In my article on Forrest's first collection, I already made some remarks on 
Mr. Beebe's treatment of the five recognized forms of Crossoptilon (see Nov. 
Zool., vol. xxviii, pp. 15, 16, 1921). In the first place, Beebe says the number 
of tail-feathers is variable and therefore negligible as a diagnostic character ; 
this is wrong because not only are these numbers in themselves diagnostic, but 
the type of tail-feather is quite different in those having more than 20 tail-feathers 
from what it is in those with only 20 tail-feathers. In the birds with normally 
24 tail-feathers C. auritum and mandschuricum, the tail-feathers have the plumules 
much disconnected and loose, also the branches mostly widely separated ; 
whereas those with 20 feathers only have the plumules and branches normal 
and connected. That the former group occasionally produces examples with 
only 22 tad-feathers is accidental. Of the second group we have two forms 
crossoptilon and drouynii = leucurum with normally white on creamy white 
coloration, and 1 form hannani with slaty blue coloration, but among series of 
drouynii examples occur with grey or blue patches, and also with grey suffusion. 
Beebe dismisses all the difficulties of the case by saying that drouynii and hannani 
are hybrids between crossoptilon and auritum, quite ignoring the fact that no- 
where are any two forms of Crossoptilon found in the same area, or in the one 
case trying to get out of this difficulty by saying one of the parent forms had 
died out. In my opinion the case is much more simple ; there being three 
distinct species of Crossoptilon mandschuricum, and auritum with 24 or occasionally 

Notitates Zoological XXXIII. 11126. 211 

22 disintegrated tail-feathers, and very long ear-tufts, and one species C. crosso- 
philon with 20 normally formed tail-feathers and shorter ear-tufts. This latter 
species has three subspecies, viz. C. crossoptilon crossoptilon, C. crossoptilon 
drouynii, and C. crossoptilon harmani ; the former two normally more or less 
white, the latter always slaty blue. 

10. Crossoptilon crossoptilon crossoptilon (Hodgs.). 

P/uisiunus crossoptilon Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vii, p. 864 (1838) (?). 

Forrest is the only collector who met with this fine bird. He sent home 
from his first, second, third trips 8 $<$ ad., 7 $$ ad., 1 $ juv., 1 fledgling ; 3 
chicks in down ; and 2 eggs. 

In spite of the considerable numbers of C. crossoptilon in our museums the 
series are not yet of a nature to enable us to decide whether there are only two 
white subspecies C. c. crossoptilon and C. c. drouynii, or if there are more, 
but the evidence leans mostly to there being only the two. 

11. Lophophorus sclateri Jerd. 

Lophophorus sclateri Jerdon, Ibis, 1870, p. 148 (Mishmi Hills). 

It was only in his last collection made in 1925 that Forrest sent home skins 
of this magnificent pheasant. The first record for Western Yunnan was the 
adult <$ obtained by Beebe in the mountains near the source of the Salwin River 
in 1910. After this no example from Yunnan has come to hand till the 8 now 
sent by Forrest. The adult £3 sent by Forrest exhibit slight differences from a 
Mishmi Hill J at Tring, viz. the white terminal bar of the tail is much narrower, 
and the crown of the head has the feathers much less curled and less glittering 
green, but as they are slightly worn I do not venture to separate them on this 

5 $$, 2 $? ad., 1 <$ juv., Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000-12,000 feet, August 
1925. Ravines and rocky slopes. Naked skin round eye peacock green ; bill 
bone-yellow, slightly flushed with pink ; claws, feet, and legs greyish brown ; 
iris dark purplish blue. In a letter to Colonel Stephenson Clarke, Forrest men- 
tions that on a former expedition in Yunnan before he began to collect birds, he 
had killed and eaten an entirely blue pheasant ; this must undoubtedly have 
been Sclater's monaul. This monaul was originally described from a single $ 
brought alive by natives from the Mishmi Hills and afterwards sent to the London 
Zoological Gardens. From 1870 onwards a few skins were traded out of the 
Mishmi Hills and a few, both $$ and $$ probably obtained in that way from 
natives were brought home by Prince H. d'Orleans. The first lot of skins to 
come direct to England were those obtained by Captain Bailey, the Resident at 
Gyangtze, of which one £ is a * Tring. Forrest's §§ are the first to come to 
England and his young $ is so far unique. 

12. Pavo muticus Linn. 

Pavo muticus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, p. 268 (1766) (habitat in Japonia ! !). 

The only record for Yunnan is the $ obtained by Andrews & Heller at Chang- 
lung, Salwin River, Yunnan, 2,000 feet, March 1917. 

212 NoviTATES Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

13. Tragopan temmincki (Gray). 

Satijra temmincki Gray in Hardwicke, III. hid. Z»o\. i, pi. i (1830-2) (no locality (type marked China 
in British Museum)). 

Oustalet's record ex Prince H. d'Orleans' collection is the first for Yunnan ; 
then Andrews & Heller obtained a $ adult in the Ho-mu-shu Pass. Forrest 
sent in his second and third collections 12 $ o a( 4-. 6 ?? acl > an( i 2 33 j uv - 

In the 1 925 collection Forrest sent 2 $3,\ ?ad.,l chick. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
11,000-12,000 feet, Compter Forests, September 1925. Skin round eyes, wattles, 
and horns bright azure blue ; bill fleshy brown ; legs and feet brownish flesh- 
colour, claws brown ; iris brown. 

On the genus Ithaginis. 
Hartert in his book on the Palaearctic Birds acknowledges five species : 
and three subspecies of sinensis and two of geoffroyi. Since then geoffroyi 
ivilsoni has been proved untenable by Weigold, and I in my former papers have 
reduced my clarkei to a subspecies of geoffroyi. I have lately received on loan 
two specimens of rocki Riley from the Mekong River area, and in consequence 
have carefully examined all my series of Ithaginis, the only form that is not 
available being michaelis. Although typical geoffroyi and the sinensis group are 
at first sight very different in appearance from the critentus-thibetanus-kuseri 
group, clarkei and rocki form an unbroken chain between geoffroyi and thibetanus, 
and I feel sure that similar intermediate forms will yet be discovered between 
sinensis and geoffroyi. Moreover, no two forms have been found inhabiting the 
same area, for although clarkei, kuseri, and rocki are all found in Western Yunnan, 
kuseri inhabits the Shweli River area, rocki is found in the Mekong River area, 
and clarkei only occurs on the actual Lichiang Range ; sinensis inhabits Kansu 
and Shensi, N. of the Tsinling Mts., while berezowskii is found in the Tsinling 
Mts. and N. Szechuan, and michaelis on the N. slopes of the Nanschan Mts. ; 
geoffroyi occurs in S.E. Thibet, and the Moupin District ; cruentus inhabits Nepal, 
Sikkim, and as far as the Chumbi Valley ; and thibetanus Jsamba Valley, Bhutan. 
I therefore feel sure that there is only one widely spread species of Blood Pheasant 
Ithaginis, and that all these named forms are subspecies of crnentus.] 

14. Ithaginis cruentus kuseri Beebe. 

Ithaginis kiiseri Beebe, Zoologica, i, p. 190 (1012) (Yunnan). 

The type-specimen of this excellent subspecies is the specimen recorded 
by Oustalet as /. cruentus cruentus in his list of Prince H. d'Orleans' birds. 
Beebe's piece of skin also came from Yunnan, and then' are Yunnan examples 
in the British Museum. Lastly, there is in the Paris Museum a young bird of 
this species collected by M. R. P. Soulie at Tsekou, Yunnan, in 1S97. The 
British Museum specimens mentioned above are 1 3 Tengyueh, E. B. Howell ; 
and 1 3 vix ad. Tsekou, Yunnan, R. P. Soulie (ex Paris Museum). 

In the final collection made by Forrest in 1925 are 7 examples of this bird, 
all from the Shweli-Salwin Divide, whereas the entire series of 48 examples of 
I. geoffroyi clarkt i were collected in the Lichiang Range. 

3 33, 4 $$ ad., Shweli-Sal win Divide, 12,000 feet, Bamboo thickets and 
alpine meadows, August 1925. Skin round eye rich ruddy orange; bill dark 
brown ; legs and feet bright crimson, claws brown ; iris crimson. 


15. Ithaginis cruentus rocki Riley. 

Ithaginis rocki Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxxviii, p. 9 (1925) (Hofuping Mts., Mekong 

Dr. Richmond has most kindly lent me two paratypes of this new form, 
and from them it is apparent that the original description is a little misleading 
owing to Mr. Riley having been only able to compare it with c. kuseri and not 
with c. clarkei and c. thibetanus. I. c. rocki, as I have said a few pages back, 
is exactly intermediate between thibetanus and clarkei ; it differs from clarkei 
and agrees with thibetanus in the red, not black forehead, it agrees with clarkei 
and differs from thibetanus in the long uniform grey crest which has the feathers 
longer than in thibetanus, but less so, and less disintegrated than in clarkei, with- 
out a trace of the white shaft lines so conspicuous in thibetanus ; the buff on the 
crown is present, but less extended than in thibetanus ; the ear-coverts are shorter 
than in clarkei, and more of the feathers are normal wide feathers, the lower 
half has larger white patches than in thibetanus, while the upper half is black 
like neither ; the upper surface and tail agree exactly with clarkei, while the 
throat and upper two-thirds of breast agree with thibetanus, the disintegrated 
and semi-disintegrated feathers of the abdomen and flanks are grey, as in clarkei, 
not bright buff as in thibetanus ; the green feathers of the lower breast are inter- 
mediate between the two. Dr. F. Rock collected 3 cJcJ, 3 $$ in the Hofuping 
Mts., November 1923. 

16. Ithaginis cruentus clarkei Rothsch. 

Ithaginis clarkei Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. xl, p. 67 (1920) (Lichiang Range, Yunnan). 

This most interesting discovery of Forrest was not recorded by any other 
collector. The series sent in the first three collections consists of 37 c?d\ H ??. 
all from the Lichiang Range. 

17. Arborophila torqueola torqueola (Valenc.). 

Perdix torqueola Valenciennes, Did. Scien. Nat. vol. xxxviii, p. 435 (1825) (Bengal). 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ No-mu-shu Pass, 8,000 feet, April 7, 1917, 
and there are 1 <J, 1 $ in Forrest's fourth collection from near Tengyueh. No 
other records for Yunnan have been given. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection is 1 <J juv., hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, 
October 1925. Forests. Skin round eyes crimson ; bill, feet, and iris dark 

18. Arborophila rufigularis euroa (Bangs & Phill). 

Arboricola rufigularis euroa Bangs & Phillips, Bull. Mils. Comp. Zool. vol. lvi ii, p. 268 (1913-1914 

This bird was described from 2 S6> an d * ne chief character was that the 
white shaft stripes on the flanks were reduced to narrow lines. La Touche's 
bird is a $, and though he states on the authority of M. Laurente that the bird 
is common it will require a good series to prove either that A. r. euroa is a good 
subspecies, differing only in the $ sex, or whether at Mengtsz occasional mutations 
occur, but yet the bulk of the birds are A. r. intermedia. 


I!>. Arborophila brunneipectus brunneipectus (Tick.). 

Arboricola lirunneipeclus Tickell in Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xxiv, p. 276 (1855) (Tenasscritn 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 adult cj near the Burmese frontier. 
20. Bambusicola fytcbii fytchii Anders. 

Bambusicola fytchii Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. 214, pi. xi (Ponsee). 

Bangs & Phillips described an adult cj as Bambusicola oleaginia from Alan 
Owston's Mengtsz collections ; the principal differences cited are the black, not ■ 
red, post-orbital region, ground colour darker, more olivaceous, black central 
stripes of back feathers black, not red, wing-coverts uniform and darker, chest 
almost minus white spots, black on flanks more extensive, and rump and upper 
tail-coverts uniform. Now I have seen quite a number since I wrote on Forrest's 
first collection, for Forrest has sent altogether 6 <$$, 1 $, and La Touche has 
obtained 2. The first observation arising out of these is that they vary much 
inter se, though none show the same amount of red as in B. f. hopkinsoni. One 
specimen (No. 5087 G. Forrest 5/24) almost agrees with the diagnosis of oleaginia, 
but has a little more vermiculation, whereas another agrees in having no ver- 
miculation, but a little red edging to the black spots. In view of the great 
differences between La Touche's 2 from S.E. Yunnan, I think there is no 
doubt that all B. fytchii from Yunnan are B. fytchii fytchii Anders., and that 
oleaginia Bangs & Phillips is only an extreme mutation. 

There are on record, in addition to Forrest's 7 from Tengyueh, 3 from 
Mengtsz (including type of oleaginia) ; Anderson obtained 1 (J, 1 $ (type) at 
Ponsee ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 $?, Mucheng, Salwin, and Tengyueh ; 
and lastly, M. Pichon obtained an example also at Tengyueh. 

In the British Museum are 1 $, Yangpi Valley, 1 ? Shayang, March and April 
1906, 1 ? Gyi-dzin-Shan, March 1902, Colonel Rippon ; 1 ? Yunnan, Captain 
H. R. Davies. 

Forrest's 1925 collection is now in my hands, and the 11 examples of 
B. fytchii therein more than confirm my idea that oleaginia is only an individual 
aberration ; some of these having very few and small black or black and red 
dorsal spots, while 2 have them very large, numerous, and very black reaching 
on to the hindneck, some have few spots below, others very many and close 
together, and these markings below are not on the birds which should have small 
or large markings above, if oleaginia were a good form. 1 $ hills N.W. of Teng- 
yueh, 7,000 feet, August 1925 ; 5 <5<5, 5 $$ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 6,000- 
10,000 feet, June- August 1925, Forests and thickets. 

21. Coturnix coturnix japonica Temm. & Schleg. 

Coturnix vulgaris japonica Tcmminck & Schlegel, Siebold's Faun. Jap. Avcs. p. 103, pi. lxi (lS4'.t) 

Forrest only sent 1 quail in his first collection, and M. Pichon obtained 
1 <J, 1 $. La Touche obtained also 2 $$ ad. Mengtsz. 1 <J Yunnan, Captain 
H. R. Davies, is in the British Museum. 

M. & Mine. Comby obtained between Yunnanfu and Seifu an example in 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1920. 215 

22. Francolinus pintadeanus phayrei (Blyth). 

Perdix phayrei Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xii, p. 1011 (1843) (Arakan). 

The Burmese, Annam, Siamese, and Yunnan birds are all considerably smaller 
than Chinese and Madagascar examples, and so I agree with Mr. Outram Bangs 
that Blyth's name of phayrei must be used to denote the subspecies ; no difference 
in plumage can be found. 

The name of chinensis Forster in Osbeck 1771 is preoccuj>ied by Linnaeus' 
chinensis of 1766, as both are placed in the genus Tetrao, as has been pointed out 
by Mr. C. D. Sherbom. 

Forrest only obtained a single example ; Colonel Rippon obtained it in the 
Salwin Valley and Captain Wingate sent home an adult <J from Ching-tung, 
March 1899. Alan Owston's collections contained 1 $ from Mengtsz ; and 
Andrews & Heller 1 ^ on the Namting River ; M. Piehon obtained 1 (J, 1 $ ; 
and though La Touche only brought back 1 (J, 1 $from Mengtsz, he states it 
was exceedingly common from Hokow to Posi. 

23. Tetraophasis szechenyii Mad. 

Tetraophasis szechenyii Madarasz, Zeitschr. f. ges. Om. vol. ii, p. 50, pi. ii (1885) (East Thibet). 

Forrest so far is the only collector who has obtained this very rare bird in 
Yunnan. He sent altogether in his second and third collections 5 $<$ ad., 7 $$ 
ad., 6 ? ad., and 2 juv. just fledged. All were obtained on the Lichiang Range. 
With the exception of 1 $, from the Mekong- Yangtze Divide, 1 cJ, 1 $ Yung- 
ning April and May 1922 (Picea and Rhododendron Forest) collected by Kingdon 
Ward are in the British Museum. 

24. Turnix pugnax rostrata Swinh. 

Turnix rostrata Swinhoe, Ibis, 1865, p. 543 (Formosa). 

Andrews & Heller got 1 $ ad. at Chu-tung, Yungping Ho, 5,000 feet, January 
1917. Mr. La Touche enumerates 2 $$ from Mengtsz and 1 $ from Lotukow. 
He says it is not uncommon. 

In the British Museum is 1 o, Yunnan, Captain H. R. Davies. 

25. Turnix pugnax taigoor (Sykes). 

Hemipodius taigoor Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1832, p. 155 (Deccan). 

This form is recorded by Menegaux & Didier from M. Pichon's collection 
under the name of pugnax. 

26. Turnix pugnax plumbipes (Hodgs.). 

Turnix plumbipes Hodgson, Bengal. Sport. Mag. 1837, p. 346 (Nepal). 

Anderson obtained an example of an Hemipode at Muangla, July 1868, and 
remarks, " This is the larger Himalayan race which appears to be distinct from 
T. taigoor (Sykes)." 

27. Turnix maculatus maculatus Vieill. 

Turnix maculatus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xxxv, p. 47 (1819) (?). 

The late Mr. Ogilvie Grant in vol. xxii of the Catalogue of Birds adopted for 
this Hemipode the name of blanfordi Blyth, as he considered the name maculatus 


preoccupied by Temminck's maculosus of 1815. This name has also been used 
by Dr. Hartert in his book on Palaearctic Birds, by an oversight. I do not 
consider macidatua and maculosus the same words, though the meaning is some- 
what similar ; therefore I adopt as the valid name for this Hemipode the oldest 
one of rnaculatus Vieill. Mr. La Touche obtained 3 live birds from near Posi. 

28. Porphyrio poliocephalus poliocephalus (Lath.). 

Gallinula poliocephala Latham, Ind. Orn. Suppl. p. lxviii (1802). 

In the 1925 collection is 1 $ (sexed ?), Tengyueh Valley, 5,300 feet, December 
1925. Rice fields and marshes. Bill dull dark red, base and crown of head 
shield dark crimson ; feet deep dull crimson, claws brown ; iris purplish crimson. 

29. Gallinula chloropus parvifrons Blyth. 

Gallinula parvifrons Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 180 (1843) (Calcutta), 

All those recording Yunnan Moorhens as distinct from 0. c. chloropus, 
except Mr. La Touche, have wrongly referred them to G. c. orieiiltdis Horsf., but 
they all belong to parvifrons. 

Anderson unites Burmese and West Yunnan birds under G. c. chloroptis. 
Ingram records 2 Mengtsz examples as G. c. orientalis, Bangs & Phillips list 10 
Mengtsz specimens also as orientalis, and M. Pichon's 2 skins are recorded under 
this name by Menegaux & Didier. 

30. Porzana fusca erythrothorax (Temm. & Schleg.). 

Gallinula erythrothorax Temminok & Schlegel in Siebold's Faun. Jap. Ares, p. 121, pi. lxxviii (1849) 

Here again Ingram and Bangs & Phillips have wrongly enumerated Alan 
Owston's 16 Mengtsz examples as P. f. fusca ; they are P. fusca erythrothorax. 
The only others listed are Forrest's 2 sent in his fourth collection. 

Mr. Kinnear suggested to me after above was written that this was not 
P. f. erythrothorax, but was P. fusca bakeri Hart. I have in consequence carefully 
compared and measured my series of 51 examples of the 4 described races of 
Porzana (Limnoboenus) fusca, viz. P. fusca fusca (Linn.), P. fusca erythrothorax 
(Temm. & Schleg.), P. fusca phaeopygia Stejn., and P. fusca bakeri Hart. 

I find first that/, fusca is ruled out by its small size and p. phaeopygia by its 
large wing and very large bill. This leaves only/, erythrothorax and/, bakeri to 
be considered. The first question to arise is sexing ; in 3 examples from Siam 
apparently properly sexed, the 2 <$<3 measure wing 102 and 111 mm., and the 
$ 104 ; but the 2 Mengtsz birds marked <J? and the 2 from Tengyueh Valley 
also marked <J$, run from 103-105 mm. Chinese and Japanese birds run as 
high as 118 mm., and not lower than 105 mm. I have compared the Yunnan 
birds and the Bangkok birds with the type and two paratopes of /. bakeri, and 
find that the upperside of bakeri is more reddish or brownish olive, not so greenish 
as in the Yunnan, Bangkok, Chinese, and Japanese birds. As one Siamese (J 
exceeds 110 mm., I do not venture to name the Yunnan bird ; so unless future 
collectors confirm the small size of Yunnan fusca, it must be called P. fusca 


31. Porzana pusilla pusilla (Pall.). 

Rallus pusiUus PalJas, Reise d. Versch. Prov. Russ. Reich, iii, p. 700 (1776) (Dauria). 

Ingram is the only author to record this little rail ; he lists 4 <$,$, 1 § Mengtsz, 
May 1910, Alan Owston. 

32. Porzana bicolor VVald. 

Porzana bicolor Walden, Ann. Marj. Nat. Hist. (4), ix, p. 47 (1872) (Darjccling). 

An example was obtained by Colonel Rippon in the Lichiang Valley, April 

33. Amaurornis phoenicura chinensis (Bodd.). 

Fulica chinensis Boddaert, Tab. PI. Enl. p. 54 (1785) (China restr. Hongkong). 

Oustalet records this bird as obtained by Prince H. d'Orleans ; Rippon 
obtained 1 at Shayang, Yangchang Road, April 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips give 
2 cJcJ Mengtsz, Alan Owston ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 on the Nam ting 
River, and at Mengpeng Salwin, in March 1917 ; Forrest sent 1 $, Lichiang 
Valley, June 1918 ; and Mr. La Touche records a <$ Mengtsz, April 1921. 

34. Hypotaenidia striata jouyi Stejn. 

Hypotaenidia jouyi Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. ix, p. 302 (1886) (Shanghai). 

Ingram records 1 <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; and Bangs & Phillips 1 $ 
from the same place, August 1910. 

35. Megalornis grus lilfordi (Sharpe). 

Orns lilfordi Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vol. xxiii, p. 252 (1894) (Eastern Siberia). 

Mr. Ogilvie Grant listed an adult <$ of this bird, obtained by Captain Win- 
gate near Yunnan City, February 1899, under the name of Grus grus ; Bangs & 
Phillips record an adult from Mengtsz ; Monsieur Pichon obtained one adult 
bird ; and Mr. La Touche records it as abundant round Mengtsz, and the neigh- 
bourhood during winter, arriving the latter part of September. 

36. Megalornis nigricollis (Prjev.). 

Grus nigricollis Prjevalsky in Rowley's Om. Misc. vol. ii, p. 436, pi. ix (1877) (Kokonoor). 

Captain Wingatc obtained an adult ^ near Yunnan City, February 1899 , 
and Mr. La Touche mentions having seen 2 living examples in the Governor's 
garden at Yunnanfu. 

37. Megalornis japonensis (Mull.). 

Ardea (Grus) japonensis P. L. S. Miiller, Natur. Syst. Suppl. p. 110(1776) (Japan) (?ex Boddaert MS.). 
Mr. La Touche records seeing on the Mengtsz plains white or very pale 
cranes with black wings, and suggests that they were Sarus Cranes ; but I con- 
sider that they were undoubtedly the Japanese Crane. 

38. Antigone antigone antigone (Linn.). 

Ardea antigone Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i. p. 142 (1758) (habitat in Asia). 

Anderson obtained 2 at Tsitkaw, March 1868 and 1875, and saw flocks up 
to 600 strong at Ponsee, 3,300 feet. 

218 Novitates Zoolocicae XXXIII. 1826. 

39. Larus gelastes Keys. & Bias. 

Larus gelastes Keysorling & Blasius, Wirbelt. Eur. p. xcv, 242 (184U) (South of France, Arabia). 

One specimen was obtained in the Talifu Valley, February 1906, and 1 on 
the Tali Lake, 6,700 feet, March 1902, by Colonel Rippon. 

40. Sterna melanogaster Temm. 

Sterna melanogaster Temminck, PI. Col. livr. lxxii, pi. 434 (1827) (?). 

Anderson records an example obtained at Muangla, May 1868, under the 
name of Sterna javanica ; Monsieur Pichon brought home 2 examples killed in 
the Salwin Valley, and said he often observed this bird in small Hocks in company 
with Hoplopterus ventralis. 

41. Hydrochelidon leucopareia swinhoei Math. 

Hydrochelidon leucopareia swinhoei Mathews, Birds Australia, p. 320 (1912) (Foochow). 
Bangs & Phillips record from Mengtsz, June 1911, 4 immature birds. 

42. Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis (Linn.). 

Rallus benghalensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 153 (1758) (Asia, ex Albin). 

Anderson obtained 1 $ Momien, June 1868 ; Ingram records 3 <J(J, 1 ? 
Mengtsz, May 1910 ; and Bangs & Phillips list 3 examples from the same place, 
all ex Alan Owston ; Forrest sent 1 (J October 1919, and 1 $ aberr. December 
1924, both from Tengyueh. 

43. Capella solitaria (Hodgs.). 

Gallinago solitaria Hodgson, Gleanings in Science, vol. iii, p. 238 (1831) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 2 examples in the Lichiang Valley and Yangtse 
Big Bend, March and April 1906 ; M. Pichon collected 1 specimen and Forrest 
sent home 1 in his fourth collection obtained to the north of Tengyueh. Bona- 
parte's name of japonica is a nomen 7iudum and moreover Japanese examples 
are only known on migration (fide Hartert). M. & Mine. Comby obtained 1 
specimen in 1909. 

The status of solitaria japonica Bpt. is still too uncertain, but if it has any 
justification it will apply here (see above). 

44. Capella stenura (Bp.). 

Scolopax stemira " Kuhl " Bonaparte, Ann. Stor. Xat. Bologna, vol. iv, p. 335 (1830) (Sunda Islands). 

Bangs & Phillips record 6 specimens from Mengtsz ; and La Touche says it 
appears in August on the plain of Mengtsz. 

45. Capella gallinago raddei (But.). 

Scolopax (Gallinago) gallinago raddei Buturlin, Kuliki Rossieskoi lmptrit-Trem\yu-lt- Journal in J'so- 
veia i Ruzheinaia Ukhotu, 1912, p. 54 (of separate) (Siberia). 

This eastern race of our Common Snipe is not very well known, ami requires 
further study. 


Anderson records 1 $ from Kabynet, January 1875, and says abundant in 
suitable localities ; Captain Wingate collected 2 near Yunnan City, February 
1899 ; Bangs & Phillips record 1 from Mengtsz as g. gattinago, and 4 as g. uniclavus 
Hodgs. La Touche, under the heading of g. gallinago, says plentiful in autumn. 

46. Capella nemoricola (Hodgs.). 

Gallinago nemoricola Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1836, p. 8 (Nepal). 

There are two examples of this Snipe in the British Museum from Yunnan ; 
1 in immature plumage has a very short bill. 

47. Scolopax rusticola rusticola Linn. 

Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, i, p. 146 (1758) (Europe — Sweden). 

Major Davies, in his work on Yunnan, mentions that he shot a Woodcock 
in the extreme north of the Province. Bangs & Phillips record 2 examples from 
Mengtsz, and Andrews & Heller obtained 1 (Jon the Namting River, March 1917. 
Forrest sent 1 $ from Tengyueh and 1 sex ? from the Lichiang Range. 

48. Limosa liniosa melanuroides Gould. 

Limosa melanuroides Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 84 (1846) (Port Essington). 

Bangs & Phillips report 1 $ Mengtsz, September 1910, and Forrest sent 
1 $ in his first collection from Tengyueh. 

49. Himantopus himantopus himantopus (Linn.). 

Cluiradrius himantopus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 151 (1758) (S. Europe). 

Forrest was the only collector who obtained this bird in Yunnan ; 1 worn 
example was in his fourth collection from Tengyueh. 

50. Terekia cinerea (Giild.). 

Scolopax cinerea Giildenstadt, Nov. Comm. Petrop. vol. xix, p. 473, pi. xix(1774) (coast of the 
Caspian Sea). 

Bangs & Phillips record the only Yunnan example, 1 <$, Mengtsz, September 

51. Tringa hypoleucos Linn. 

Tringa hypoleucos Linnaeus, Sysi. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 149 (1758) (Europe — Sweden). 

Oustalet enumerates this bird among those obtained by Prince H. d'Orleans. 
Colonel Rippon collected 2 Chutung Valley and Talifu Valley March and April 
1902 ; and Forrest sent in his first collection 2 $$, 4 ?$ from Tengyueh, and 1 $, 
Lichiang Range, 1918-1919. In the collection for 1925, Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 <j>, 
Shweli Valley, 6,000 feet, rice fields, July- August 1925, and 1 <f>, Tengyueh Valley, 
5,300 feet, rice fields, December 1925. 

52. Tringa glareola Linn. 

Tringa glareola Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 149 (1758) (Europe — Sweden). 

Messrs Menegaux & Didier record this among M. Pichon's collection ; 
La Touche says this bird occurs in late summer and autumn on the plains near 
Mengtsz ; and Bangs & Phillips list 11 examples- from Mengtsz (Alan Owstou). 


53. Tringa ochropus Linn. 

Tringa ochropus (ocrophus) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat, "lit. x. pt. i. p. 149 (175S) (Europe). 

The characters given by Mathews for his T. o. assami are not constant. 
Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 $ Mengtsz, September 1910 ; Colonel Rippon 
obtained 1 in the Lichiang Valley ; La Touche records it as common round 
Mengtsz in winter ; Forrest sent 2 c$c5, 4 $$ Tengyueh ; 1 $, Mekong River ; 
1 <$, Tangtze Valley ; 1 $, Shweli Valley. 

In his 1925 collection Forrest sent 1 <£, 2 $$, Shweli Valley, 7,000 feet, 
streams, August-October 1925. 

54. Tringa nebularia (Gunn.). 

Scolopax nebularia Gunnerus in Lecm, Beskr. Fitntt. Lapp. p. 251 (1767) (Norway). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 8 examples from Mengtsz, 1910, under the 
heading of Tringa nebularia glottoides (Vig.). The eastern birds were separated 
by Vigors only because he compared 2 birds in different plumages ; the above- 
mentioned writers are perfectly right in doubting Mathews' recognition of 
glottoides, which is a pure synonym. La Touche says a greenshank was brought 
to him on December 7, and he believes it is a common bird round Mengtsz in 

55. Tringa totanus eurhinus (Oberh.). 

Totanus totanus eurhinus Oberholser, Proc. U.S. Xat. Mus. vol. xxii, p. 207 (Central and Eastern 

This race is rather variable and requires further study. 

Bangs and Phillips record 4 examples, Mengtsz, September 1910. 
M. Pichon obtained 1 example recorded under the name of Totanus calidris. 
M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 specimen in 1909. 

56. Tringa erythropus (Pall.). 

Scolopax erythropus Pallas, Vroeg's Cat. Coll. Adiimhraliuncula, p. 6 (1704) (Holland). 
Ingram records 2 $3, Mengtsz, May 1910. 

57. Erolia ruficollis (Pall.). 

Tryncja ruficollis Pallas, Reise d. Versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs. vol. ii, p. 700 (177) (Salt Lake in Dauria). 
Bangs & Phillips record a <J, Mengtsz, April 1911, under the name of Pisobia 
damascensis (Horsf.). (This may be really E. subminuta (Midd.) as though 
Horsfield's bird is undoubtedly E. ruficollis, damascenus auct. is nearly always 

58. Hoplopterus ventralis (Wagl.). 

Charadrius ventralis Wagler, Syst. Av. Cliaradrius, p. 59, sp. 11 (1827 " Senegal," err.). 

Anderson records a single specimen from Muangla, May 1868 ; Andrews & 
Heller obtained 2 $? at Meng-ting, February 1917; M. Pichon sent home 3 
examples from the Salwin River. The 1925 collection of Forrest contained one 
example of this bird, which is new to the Yunnan list. 

1 $, Shweli Valley, 6,000 feet, rice fields, swamps, July 1925. 


59. Sarcogrammus indicus atronuchalis (Blyth). 

Lobivanellus atronuchalis Blyth in Jerdon, Birds India, vol. iii, p. 648 (1864) (Burma). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example in the Talifu Valley ; Forrest obtained 
1 <?, 1 9, Tengyueh. 

Forrest sent in his 1925 collection 1 <J, 1 9 ad-, 1 <? juv., Shweli Valley, 
6,000 feet, rice fields and marshes, June and October 1925. 

60. Microsarcops cinereus (Blyth). 

Pluvianus cinereus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 587 (1842) (Calcutta). 

Captain Wingate collected an adult (J, near Yunnan City, February 1899 ; 
Forrest sent home 3 c?c?, 1 ? from Tengyueh ; M. Pichon obtained 1 example, 
and says " common everywhere." Mr. La Touche enumerates 1 9 Mengtsz, 
December 1920, and says it is fairly common in winter on the Mengtsz plateau. 
M. & Mme. Comby got 1 between Yunnanfu and Seifu in 1909. Forrest's 1925 
collection contained 1 <J, Tengyueh Valley, 5,300 feet, December 1925, 1 9> 
Shweli Valley, 7,000 feet, October 1925, rice fields. 

61. Charadrius dominicus fulvus Gm. 

Charadrius fulvus Gmelin. Si/sl. Xal. vol. i, pt. 2, p. 687 (1789) (Tahiti). 

Oustalet enumerates this bird among the 90 species obtained by Prince H. 
d'Orleans, which are not quoted by Anderson. Bangs & Phillips record 1 (J, 1 9, 
Mengtsz, April-November. M. Piehon's collection contains 3 examples, and he 
says " common everywhere, lives in large flocks." 

62. Charadrius dubius dubius Scop. 

Charadrius dubius Scopoli, Del. Faun, et Flor. Insubr. vol. ii, p. 93 (1786) (Luzon). 

Anderson collected 3 examples at Muangla, May 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips 
list 4 from Mengtsz, March and September ; Forrest sent 1 9. Tengyueh, 1 $, 
Teng Chuan Valley. 

63. Charadrius dubius jerdoni (Legge). 

Aegialilis jerdoni Legge, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S80, p. 39 (Ceylon and Central India). 

Bangs & Phillips attribute a very small example from Mengtsz, March 5, 
to this race on account of the small size ; certainly the wing of 101-5 is even 
smaller than Hartert gives in his Birds of the Palaearctic Fauna. 

64. Charadrius dubius curonicus 6m. 

Charadrius curonicus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, pt. ii, p. 692 (1789) (habitat in Curonia). 

La Touche is the only one who has recorded this form for Yunnan, 1 rj imm. 
Mengtsz, August 1920. 

65. Charadrius placidus Gray. 

Charadrius placidus Gray, Cat. Mamm. Birds, etc., of Nepal and Thibet in Brit. Mns. (1863) (Nepal), 

La Touche records 1 <£, Kopaotsun, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 4 99 from 
Shweli Valley, and 4 $$ from the Tengyueh Valley. In Forrest's 1925 collection 
are 1 (J, 1 9 J uv -> Shweli Valley, 6,000 feet, August 1925, rice fields 


222 Novitates X toon us XXXIII. 1926. 

66. Glareola inaldivarum Forst. 

Glariola (Pratincola) maldivarum Forster, Faunula Indica, p. 11 (1795) (Maldives, ex Latham Gen. 
Syn. iii, i, p. 224). 

Bangs & Phillips record 6 examples from Mengtsz, July 1910. 
67. Sphenocercus sphenurus yunnanensis La Touche. 

Sphenocercus sphenurus yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 13 (1921) (Lotukow). 

Oustalet records this pigeon from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 ^, 1 $, Mengtsz, July ; Forrest sent 3 <$<S, 2 $?, 
Lichiang Range, 1 <j\ Tengyueh, 2 $$, Shweli Valley, 2 $$, Mekong-Salwin 
Divide, 3 $$, Shweli-Salwin Divide ; 1 (J, 1 $, Mekong Valley ; La Touche only 
records his <J type from Lotukow. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 2 ? juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, 
July 1925. 

68. Onopopelia tranquebarica humilis (Temm.). 

' 'olumba humilis Temminck, PI. ( 'ol. livr. xliv, pi. 2.39 ( 1S24) (Bengal, Luzon). 

Ingram enumerates 1 ^, 1 $ Mengtsz, April 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 15 
examples also Mengtsz, various months ; Forrest sent 7 (JcJ, 6 $$ Tali Valley, 
1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 1 $ Yangtze Valley, and 2 $$ Teng Chuan ; Mr. La Touche 
records 1 $ cage bird, and says he heard this species also cooing in his garden 
in May ! 

69. Streptopelia chinensis vacillans Hart. 

Streptopelia chinensis vacillans Hartert, Nov. Zool. vol. xxiii, p. 83 (1916) (Yunnan, Mengtsz). 

The bird of the plains alone is this subspecies, and apparently is only known 
from Mengtsz. Ingram records 1 (J, 1 $ Mengtsz, and Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
6 specimens also from there ; La Touche obtained 1 £ ad., 1 juv., and says 
" extremely common at Mengtsz and in the vicinity." Anderson records birds 
obtained in W. Yunnan under the head of tigrinus, but both these records 
refer to the next race.) Bangs & Phillips record 6 examples from Mengtsz ; 
La Touche records 1 <$ ad., 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, Aug. 1920, and says very common 
round Mengtsz. 

70. Streptopelia chinensis forresti Pvothsch. 

Streptopelia chinensis forresti Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxxii, p. 293, No. 16 (1925) (hills round 

Anderson was the first collector to obtain this bird ; he records 4 examples 
from Tapeng, Ponsee, and Momien in Yunnan ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $> 
Namting River, and Forrest sent 2 (Jg 1 Tengyueh, 1 (J hills round Tengyueh 
(type), and 2 <$<$ ad., 1 <$ juv. Tengyueh Valley. This is the bird from Western 
Yunnan, whereas S. c. vacillans Hart, has hitherto only been obtained around 
Mengtsz, S.E. Yunnan. I erroneously identified Forrest's first specimen as 
vacillans. Colonel Rippon obtained this bird at Lichiang ; Anderson records 
1 from Katha, 1 from Tapeng, 3 from Ponsee, 1 from Momien, together with 
17 Burmese examples under the name tigrinus; Andrews & Heller obtained 
1 (J ad. Namting River, Feb. 1917, also recorded as tigrina. In Forrest's 1925 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 223 

collection are 3 <$$ ad., 2 3<3, 2 $$, ] i juv. Tengyueh Valley, C,000 feet, 
December 1925 ; 2 <J<J hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000-8,000 feet, August 1925. 

Streptopelia orien talis (Lath.) and its subspecies. 

Dr. Hartert was the first to try and throw light on the confusion surrounding 
St. orientalis (see Nov. Zool. vol. xxih, 1916), and it was not his fault that the 
existing data had been misused to such an extent that he was misled into new 
errors. Both Hartert and most of the other writers were thus misled because 
they had only consulted the original printed descriptions and not the other docu- 
ments, viz. a list of the birds brought home by Sykes, and Sykes' own notes 
sent from India in which it is made clear that Sykes' name meena applies to the 
bird with pale grey under tail-coverts = streptopelia orientalis agricola (Tickell), 
and that he only brought home 2 birds, both $$, and both in the British Museum 
still. The original description (P.Z.S. 1832, p. 149) appears to have been drawn 
up for Sykes by some other person who misunderstood Sykes. For in his manu- 
script notes Sykes distinctly states that there is not the slightest difference 
between $ and $. As therefore the birds from which this erroneous and mixed 
description was made are undoubtedly grey vented, we must adopt the following 
nomenclature : 

Streptopelia orientalis orientalis (Lath.). 

Columba orientalis Latham, Irul. Orn. vol. ii, p. 606, No. 48 (1790). 

Streptopelia orientalis meena (Sykes). 

Columba meena Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 149 (Dukhiin). 

Streptopelia orientalis ferrago (Eversm.). 

Columba ferrago Eversmann, Add. ad. Zoog. Ross. As.fasc. iii, p. 17 (1842) (Songaria). 

There will, however, always be some obstinate people to whom the letter 
of the description means more than the type-specimen from which it is taken, 
and these will continue to call ferrago meena and meena agricola.] 

71. Streptopelia orientalis orientalis (Lath.). 

Columba orientalis Latham, Ind. Orn. vol. ii, p. 606 (1790) (China). 

Anderson enumerates 8 birds, 4 under Turtar meena and 4 under Titrtur 
orientalis, of these birds in the register of Anderson's collections (second set), 
received by the British Museum ; there are 3 entered under the name Turlur 
gelasles. Of these 2 only can now be found, and both are examples enumerated 
in Anderson's book under the name Turlur meena, viz. 1 <J Ponsee, March 1868, 
and 1 $ Tsitkaw, Feb. 1875 ; of these the one from Ponsee is o. orientalis, and the 
Tsitkaw 5 is o. meena. As we have Anderson enumerating 4 birds under the 
name of Titrtur orientalis, and specially mentioning the differences of these 
birds from his meena, I think we can accept it as quite established that 5 out of 
the 8 mentioned by Anderson were orientalis orientalis. Therefore we have the 
following : Anderson enumerates 1^2? Ponsee, March- April 1868 and 1878, 
1 ? Tsitkaw, Feb. 1875, 1 $ Katha, Jan. 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 3 ? imm. 
Mengtsz ; Andrews & Heller record 2 birds from Malipa, March 1917, as not 

224 x.,vitates Zoological XXXIII. L926. 

quite typical ; M. Pichon sent 1 specimen and remarks " common everywhere " ; 
Forrest collected 1 $ Lichiang Range, 2 $$ vicinity of Tengyueh. In his 1925 
collection he sent 2 rfg Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 11125 ; 1 <J, 1 $ ad., 
1 (J juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 6,000-7,000 feet, Aug. 1925 ; La Touche enu- 
merates 2 <J Mengtsz, Sept. 1920 and April 1921. 

72. Streptopelia orientalis meena (Sykes). 

Columba meena. Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832. p. 149 (Dukhiin). 

Anderson records 1 $ Tsitkaw, Feb. 1875, and 1 $ Katha, Jan. 1868; 
Andrews & Heller record a specimen from Ho-mu-shu Pass, April 1917. 

73. Columba leuconota gradaria Hart. 

Columha leuconota gradaria Hartert, Nov. Zool. vol. xxiii, p. 85 (1916) (Szetschuan). 

This bird is only recorded by Oustalet from Prince H. d'Orleans' collection. 

74. Columba hodgsoni Vig. 

' 'olumba hodgsoni Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832. p. 10 (Nepal). 

Oustalet enumerates this bird as having been obtained by Prince H. d'Or- 
leans ; Bangs & Phillips mention 3 from Loukouchai ; and Andrews & Heller 
obtained it at Chang-lung, 2,000 feet. Forrest sent 3 33, 2 <j>§ ad. Lichiang 
Range ; 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh Valley ; 1 (J, 1 $ ad. imm. Shweli-Salwin 
Divide ; 1 $ Tali Valley. 

75. Ducula badia (Ram.). 

Columba badia Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xiii, p. 317 (1822) (Sumatra). 

A <J ad. was obtained in S.W. Yunnan, by Captain A. W. S. Wingate. 

76. Podiceps ruficollis poggei (Reichw.). 

Cohjmbus nigricans poggei Reichenow, Journ.f. Ornith. p. 125 (1902) (Tschili, China). 

Anderson reports this bird as being common at the foot of the Kakhyen Hills, 
and at Momien (W. Yunnan) ; Bangs & Phillips record 1 adult and 1 immature 
from Mengtsz; Forrest obtained 2 <$<$, 2 $$ in the Tengyueh Valley, August 
1919 ; and Mr. La Touche brought home 1 young in down from Mengtsz, and 
says it is common and resident. Forrest's 1925 collection contains 4 $$, 3 $$ 
Tengyueh Valley, 5,500 feet, December 1925. 

77. Pelecanus philippensis Gm. 

Pelecanus philippensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, pt. ii, p. 571 (1788) (Philippine Islands). 

Mr. La Touche obtained 1 $ immature at Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, and says the 
species is resident on Lake Tahung at the north end of the Mengtsz plateau. 

78. Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Shaw & Nodder). 

Pelecanus sinensis Shaw & Nodder, Nat. Misc. vol. xiii, pi. 529 and text (1801) (China). 
Forrest obtained a young $ on the Lichiang Range, Oct. 1922. 


79. Phalacrocorax filaraentosus (Temm. & Schleg.). 

Carbo filaraentosus Teraminck & Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Ares, p. 129 (1850) (Japan). 

Carlo capillatus Temrainck & Schlegel, Faun. Jap. Aves, pis. lxxxiii and lxxxiii?) (1850) (Japan). 

La Touche records an example of this species from Mengtsz, Dec. 1920, 
and states he saw, while travelling by train to Yuiinanfu, a number of cormorants, 
including white-headed ones, sitting on the river banks or fishing. 

80. Phalacrocorax javanicus (Horsf.). 

Carbo javanicus Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xiii, p. 197 (1822) (Java). 

Anderson records this bird under the name of Ph. pygmaeus, and obtained 
1 example at Tapeng, March, and 2 at Muangla, May 1868, and said it was very 
common in the Sanda Valley. Major Davies publishes a picture of Cormorant 
Fishers in the Chien-Ch'ang Valley, thus proving that these birds are also used 
to catch fish by the Yunnanese. They were probably one of or both the 
preceding larger species. Forrest obtained 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. of javanicus in 
the Tengyueh Valley in 1924. 

La Touche observed 2 examples of this bird in or around his compound. 
Forrest's 1925 collection contains 1 <J, 1 $ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh Valley, 5,500 feet, 
Dec. 1925. 

81. Mergus merganser merganser Linn. 

Mertjus merganser Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 129 (1758) (Europe). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 at Talifu, Feb. 1906; Mr. La Touche brought 
home 1 $ Mengtsz-Manhao Road, Dec. 1920, and saw a ^ on the journey to 
Yunnanfu. (As Captain Wingate obtained Mergus squamatus in S.W. Honan, 
and M. merganser orientalis is said to breed in Thibet, I have no doubt these 
birds also occur in Yunnan.) 1 $ Yunnan, 1901, collected by Captain H. R. 
Davies, is in the British Museum. 

82. Nyroca fuligula (Linn.). 

Anas fuligula Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 128, No. 39 (1758) (European seas). 

Forrest sent 1 $ Shweli Valley, June 1924 ; La Touche says this species 
winters on the Mengtsz Plain. 

There are in the British Museum 2 unsexed examples, collected by Captain 
H. R. Davies in Yunnan, 1899. 

83. Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha Linn. 

Anas platyrhyncha Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 125 (1758) (Europe). 

Colonel Rippon's collection contains 1 $ Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906. 

84. Anas acuta acuta Linn. 

Anas acuta Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 126 (1758) (European seas). 

One example was shot at Mengtsz, Dec. 1920, according to Mr. La Touche. 

85. Anas penelope Linn. 

Anas penelope Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 126 (1758) (Europe). 
One was shot at Mengtsz in 1921, writes La Touche. 

220 Xovitatks Zoolouicae XXXIII. 1926. 

86. Anas formosa Georgi. 

Anas formosa Georgi, Bemerk. Reise. Ross. Reich., p. 168 (1775) (Lake Baikal). 

Mr. La Touche says this bird was shot at Mengtsz in winter by Captain de 

87. Anas crecca crecca Linn. 

Anas crecca Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. pt. i, p. 125 (1758) (Europe on fresh water). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct. ; M. Pichon also obtained 
1 $, but says the Teal was abundant in the Tengyueh Valley ; La Touche says 
it is common on the lakes near Mengtsz. 

88. Anas querquedula Linn. 

Anas querquedula Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 126 (1758) (Europe). 

Forrest sent in his 1925 collection 1 3 juv. Tengyueh Valley, 5,500 feet, 
Dec. 1925. 

89. Casarca ferruginea (Pall.). 

Anas ferruginea. Pallas, Vroeg's Cat. Adumbratiuncula, p. 5 (1764) (Tartary). 

Anderson obtained 1 <J, 1 ? on the sandbanks of the Tapeng River, Feb. 
1875, and says they were common in the Sanda Valley ; M. Pichon collected 
1 $ at Tengyueh, and says that the neighbouring lakes and watercourses in 
winter are covered with immense masses of the Ruddy Sheldrake ; La Touche 
says abundant on the Mengtsz plain in winter ; Colonel Rippon obtained an 
example W. Yxinnan, 1906. 

90. Nettapus coroniandelianus (Gm.). 

An H ••oromandeliana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. i, pt. ii, p. 556 (1788) (Coast of Coromandel). 
Ingram enumerates 1 cj, May 1910, Mengtsz. 

91. Ixobrychus cinnamomeus (Gm.). 

Anita cinnamomea Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, pt. 2, p. 643 (1789) (China). 

Anderson collected an example at Sanda, July 1808, and Ingram records 
1 (J Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs and Phillips list 7 specimens Mengtsz, April- 
June ; M. Pichon sent home 3 examples and says it was very common everywhere ; 
Forrest obtained 1 £, 1 $ in the Shweli Valley, June 1919 ; La Touche obtained 

1 cJ ad., 1 $ imm. Mengtsz, July-Oct. 1920 ; M. & Mme. Comby obtained 2 
examples and state it is common everywhere. In Forrest's 1925 collection are 

2 (JtJ, 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, April'1925 ; 1 <J, 2 $? Tengyueh 
Valley, 6,000 feet, April 1925. 

92. Ixobrychus sinensis (Gm.). 

Ardea sinensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i. pt. 2. p. 642 (1789) (China ex Latham). 
Bangs & Phillips record 1 <$, 1 $ Mengtsz, June 1911. 

Novitatks Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 227 

93. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax (Linn.). 

Ardea nycticorax Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 142 (1758) (S. Europe). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, Sejst. ; Forrest sent 1 cj ad. 
Lichiang Range, 1 ? juv. N.W. of Tengyueh, Oct. 1918-1919 ; La Touche 
obtained 2 adults, 2 young Mengtsz, Aug. -Nov. 1920, and said they bred in the 
Commissioner of Customs' garden and in the Railway Compound. 

Forrest's 1925 collection contains 6 <$S, 1 ? ad. Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, 
Nov.-Dec. 1925. 

94. Butorides striatus javanicus (Horsf.). 

Ardea javanica Hursfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xiii, p. 190 (1821) (Java). 

Ingram records 1 <$ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 3 examples from 
the same place, Aug. 1910 ; Forrest sent 1 $ Tengyueh Plain, 1 J Lichiang 
Range, 1 <J, 1 $ Tali Valley ; Mr. La Touche obtained 2 ad., 1 imm. Mengtsz, 
1920 ; M. & Mine. Comby collected 2 specimens in 1909. 

95. Butorides striatus amurensis Schrenck. 

Ardea (Butorides) virascens var. amurensis Schrenck, Reise Amur-Lande, vol. i, pt. ii, p. 441 (1860) 

Forrest collected an immature $ in the hills N.W. of Tengyueh, Aug. 1924. 
96. Ardeola bacchus (Bp.). 

Biiphus bacchus Bonaparte, C'onsp. gen. Av. vol. ii (1855) (Malay Peninsula). 

Captain Wingate's collection includes a <J imm. Yunnan City, Feb. 1898 ; 
Forrest sent 1 $ Hsia Kuon Valley, 1 $ Lichiang Range, 1 ? Tengyueh Plain, 

1 $ Shweli Valley, and 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide ; Mr. La Touche says common 
in winter on the Mengtsz plateau ; M. & Mine. Comby procured 1 example in 
1909 ; Forrest sent in his 1925 collection 1 ? Tengyueh Valley, 5,300 feet, Dec. 
1925, rice fields and marshes. 

97. Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Bodd.). 

Cancroina coromanda Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 54 (1783) (Coromandel). 

Anderson records 3 examples Muangla, May 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips list 

2 specimens Mengtsz, Aug. 1910 ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 immature $ 
Lung-ling, March 1917 ; M. Pichon collected 1 <J, 2 $$, and says it is common 
everywhere in Yunnan ; Forrest sent 2 $$ Tengyueh Valley ; Mr. La Touche 
obtained 3 juv. Mengtsz, July-Aug. 1920 ; M. & Mme. Comby collected 1 speci- 
men in 1909. 2 $$ Shweli Valley, 6,000 feet, June 1925, are in Forrest's 1925 

98. Egretta garzetta garzetta (Linn.). 

Ardea garzetta Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, pt. i, p. 237, No. 13 (1766) (habitat in Oriente). 

Anderson observed this bird near Muangla ; Captain Wingate collected 
1 (J ad. Yuan-chu-Wu-ho River ; Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, June 
1924 ; Mr. La Touche says plumes of this bird he saw at Mengtsz were said to 
come from Linanfu. 

228 NoviTATES Zoological XXXIII. 1920. 

99. Egretta intermedia intermedia (Wagl.). 

Anita intermedin Waaler. Iris, 1829, p. (i.">9 (Java). 

Anderson mentions having observed this bird at Muangla ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 6 specimens Mengtsz, July-Aug. ; La Toiiche obtained 2 young birds 
Mengtsz, 1920. 

100. Ardea cinerea jouyi Clark. 

Ardea cinerea jouyi dork, Proc. U.S. Nat. Hits, vol. xxxii, p. 4B8 (19(17) (Seoul, Corea). 

M. Pichon collected a young example at Patikai, and says it was common 

101. Graptocephalus davisoni (Hume). 

GeronHcus davisoni Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. iii. p. 300 (1875) (Pakchan, Tenasserim). 

1 (J ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899, was collected by Captain Wingate. 

102. Ibis melanocephalus (Lath.). 

Tantalus melanocephalus Latham, Ind, Orn. vol. ii, p. 709 (1790). 
Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 ad. $ Mengtsz. 

103. Pseudotantalus leucocephalus (Foist.). 

Tantalus leurorejihaltts Forster, Ind. Zool. p. 20, pi. x (1781). 
Bangs & Phillips record 5 examples Mengtsz. 

104. Ciconia nigra (Linn.). 

Ardea nigra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 142 (1758) (North Europe). 

Captain Wingate procured a $ near Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Mr. La Touche 
says it is common in winter on the Mengtsz plain. 

105. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus (Linn.). 

Faleo haliaetus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 91 (1758) (Europe). 

Mr. La Touche states that he observed an Osprey in 1920-21 all through 
the winter round Mengtsz, and another one in April 1921 beyond Amichow. 

106. Elanus caeruleus caeruleus (Desf.). 

Fatco caeruleus Desfontaines, Hist. {Mem.) Acad. Paris annee 1787, p. 503, pi. xv (1789) (Algiers). 
Anderson collected a ^ at Moruien, June 1868 ; Captain Wingate obtained 
an adult cJ near Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; M. Pichon collected a single specimen 
in the Salwin Valley ; and La Touche records 1 (J Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; 
M. & Mine. Comby collected 1 example in 1!")!) ; Colonel Rippon obtained 1 5 
Tali Hills, 6,450 feet, March 1902 ; 1 <J Yunnan, Styan coll., is in the British 

107. Pernis apivoras orientalis Tacz. 

Pernis apivorus orientalis Taczanowski, Faun. Orn. Sib. Orient, vol. i, p. 50 (1891) (East Siberia). 

Forrest collected 1 (J. 1 $ Lichiang Range, Oct. 1922 ; La Touche obtained 
1 $ Mengtsz, Nov. 1920, and saw a second on the same day. 


108. Pernis ellioti Jerd. 

Pernis ellio/i Jerdon, Madras Journ. Lit. Scien. vol. x, p. 74, 1839 (Mahratta, India). 

M. Pichon obtained an example in the Tengyueh Valley, of which Menegaux 
states that it is in a very exceptional plumage. 

109. Haliastur indus indus (Bodd.). 

Falco indus Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enh p. 25 (1783) (Pondichery). 

Forrest sent among his 1925 collection 1 $ ad. Tengyueh Valley, 7,000, 
Dec. 1925. Bill black, tipped with horn yellow ; feet greyish green, claws 
black ; iris brown. 

110. Milvus lineatus (Gray). 

Haliactus lineatus Gray in Hardwicke's ///. Intl. Zoul., vol. i, p. 1, pi. xviii (1832) (China). 

Anderson collected 1 <J, 1 $ juv. at Momien, June-July 1868 ; Forrest sent 
1 specimen Lichiang Range, Sept. 1922 ; M. Pichon collected 2 examples near 
Tengyueh ; Mr. La Touche brought home L <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, Dec. 1920, and re- 
marks he only observed Kites there in the winter. 

111. Milvus migrans govinda Sykes. 

Milvus govinda Sykes, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, pt. ii, p. 81 (1832) (Dekkan). 
M. Pichon sent 1 $ of this bird. 

112. Accipiter trivirgatus rufitinctus (McClell.). 

Astur rtifotinctus McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. vii, p. 153 (1840) (Assam). 

Bangs & Phillips list 1 <J Mengtsz, Sept. 1910 ; Andrews & Heller obtained 
1 (J Namting River, Feb. 1917 (wing 230 mm.) ; Forrest sent 1 <$ Mekong-Salwin 
Divide Sept. 1921 (wing 333 mm.) ; La Touche says that what he took to be 
this bird was very common round Mengtsz, but he could not obtain a specimen. 

113. Accipiter affinis Gurney. 

Accipiter rirgatus subsp. affinis Gurney, List Diurn Birds Prey, pp. 39 and 168-173 (1884) (Himalayas 
and Formosa). 

Forrest sent 1 $ ad. Mekong Valley, and 1 $ juv., 1 $ ad. from the vicinity 
of Teng3 r ueh ; M. Pichon collected one also near Tengyueh ; La Touche obtained 
an immature $. According to Menegaux, it has been recorded for Yunnan by 
David & Oustalet. 

Forrest sent in the 1925 collection 1 $ juv. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 
feet, October 1925. Bill dark blackish grey ; feet and iris pale yellow. 

114. Accipiter nisus nisosimilis Tick. 

Falco nisosimilis Tiokell, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. ii, p. 571 (1833 or 1834) (Borabhum, India). 

Ingram enumerates 1 <J Mengtsz, April 1910 ; Captain Wingate sent home 
1 $ S.W. Yunnan ; La Touche obtained 1 <$, 4 $$ at and near Mengtsz, and says 
it is very common ; M. & Mme. Comby sent home 1 example in 1909. 

230 X.iYITATES Zoological XXXlll. 1926. 

115. Accipiter nisus melanoschistus Hume. 

Accipiter melanoschistus Hume, Ihis 1869, p. 356 (Simla). 

Oustalet quotes this under the name nisus from the collection of Prince H. 
d'Orleans ; M. Pichon obtained a large 2 near Tengyueh ; Forrest sent 1 (J, 2 22 
ad. from the Lichiang Range. In the 1925 collection is 1 2 (sexed <J errore). 
N. of Tengyueh, Oct. 1925. 

116. Accipiter badius poliopsis (Hume). 

Micronisus poliopsis Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. ii, p. 325 (1874) (North Pegu). 

M. Pichon obtained 1 example ; Menegaux in recording it says it has been 
already detailed by previous authors from Yunnan, but I have failed to find any 
previous record. 

117. Accipiter gentilis schvedowi (Menzb.). 

Astiir palumharius schvedowi Menzbier, Orn. Geoyr. Eur. Rassl. in Mem. sc. Univers. Imp. Moec. 
Hist. Nat. 1882, p. 439 (Transbaicalia). 

Forrest sent a young 2 Lichiang Range ; La Touche also got a 2 juv. at 

118. Accipiter gentilis khaniensis (Bianchi). 

Astur palumbaritus khamensis Bianchi, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xvi, p. 70 (1906) (Kliam, S.E. Thibet). 

Dr. Hartert in his handbook of Palaearctic Birds has united A. g. khamensis 
and A. g. schvedowi, but I consider this in the light of later investigations not to 
be the case. 

Forrest obtained an adult 2 of this race in the Lichiang Range. 

119. Circus cyaneus cyaneus (Linn.). 

Falco cyaneiis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, pt. i, p. 126 (neighbourhood of London). 

Captain Wingate got 1 cJ ad., 1 <J imm. in S.W. Yunnan ; Forrest collected 
2 cJcJ north of Tengyueh ; M. Pichon sent home 1 c?, 5 22 from around Tengyueh ; 
M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 <$ in 1909. In Forrest's 1925, collection are 1 <J, 1 2 
(sexed <$ errore) Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925. 

120. Circus melanoleucus (Foist.). 

Falco melanoleucus Forster, Inil. Zool. p. 12, pi. ii (1781) (Ceylon). 

Anderson obtained an immature example at Muangla, May L868 ; Bangs 
and Phillips record 4 JJ and 22 from Mengtsz ; Forrest sent 1 S, 1 2 N.E. of 
Tengyueh, 1 2 Tengyueh Valley, 1 <$ Shvveli Valley ; La Touche records 1 seen 
at Mengtsz in early autumn 1920. In Forrest's 1925 collection 1 S Tengyueh 
Valley, 6,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 J Yunnan, F. \V. Styan, is in the British 

121. Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus (Linn.). 

Falco aeruginosus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, pt. i, p. 91 (1758) (Europe). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 example from Mengtsz, May 1910 ; La Touche 
says " common on the plains during winter." 


122. Circus spilonotus Kaup. 

Cirrus spilonotus Kaup in Jardine's Contr. Orn. for 1850, p. 59 (Asia). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 $ Mengtsz, March ; La Touche obtained 
1 c? Mengtsz, Dec. 1920. 

123. Spilornis cheela ricketti Sclat. 

Spilornia cheela ricketti Sclater, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xl, p. 37 (1919) (Yamakan). 
Andrews & Heller obtained 1 (J ad. at Malipa, March 1917. 

124. Buteo buteo japonicus (Temm. & Schleg.). 

Falco buteo japonicus Temminck & Schlegel in Siebold's Faun. Japan. Avcs, p. 16, pis. vi and vib 
(1844-1845) (Japan). 

Captain Wingate collected 1 <J ad. near Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Forrest 
sent 1 $ from the Lichiang Range. 

125. Aquila chrysaetus daphanea Menzb. 

Aquila daphanea Menzbier, Orn. Turkestan, vol. i, p. 75 (1888) (Central Asia). 

M. Pichon collected 3 semi-adult specimens, and states that they frequented 
the neighbourhood of Tengyueh in considerable numbers. 

126. Aquila nipalensis nipalensis Hodgs. 

Aquila nipalensis Hodgson, Asiatic Res. vol. xviii, pt. 2, pi. i, pp. 13-16 (1833) (Plain of Nepal). 

Forrest collected a $ juv. in the Lichiang Range, Aug. 1918 ; La Touche 
records a very dark eagle observed on the Mengtsz plain, which I suspect was 
this species. 

127. Torgos calvus (Scop.). 

Vultur calvus Scopoli, Del. Faun, and Flor. Insubr. vol. ii, p. 85 (1786) (Pondiehery (ex Sonnerat)). 
M. Pichon sent 3 examples, 1 juv., 2 semi-adult ; he says this vulture frequents 
the plains round Tengyueh in summer and is sporadically found throughout 

On the Asiatic forms of Falco tinnunculus. 

Hartert in vol. ii of his Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna has made 3 geographical 
races occur in Asia : viz. F. tinnunculus tinnunculus Linn., F. t. japonicus Temm. & 
Schleg., and F. t. saturatus Blyth. In his appendix, vol. iii, p. 2201, he adopts 
for saturatus Blyth on the authority of Mr. W. L. Sclater the name interstinctus 
McClell., which in his vol. ii he had placed as a synonym of t. tinnunculus. In 
1920 (Syn. list Accip., p. 146 (Siberia)), the late H. Kirke Swann separated the 
extreme East Asiatic birds as dorriesi ; on the same page, 2201, Hartert relegates 
this name to the synonyms of t. tinnunculus. Swarm's type is in the Tring 
Museum, and after carefully going through the distinguishing characters given 
by Swann I came to the conclusion that the only one which could be considered 
at all was the greater length of the tail. On further investigation I find that it 
is quite true that some Siberian birds have long tails, but Kestrels with equally 
long tails are found in England and Central Europe. When I was studying 

232 Xovitatks Zoological XXXIII. IHL'ii. 

the Yunnan Kestrels Mr. Kinnear and Colonel Meinertzhagen pointed out 
that certain examples were excessively dark, and had a strong bluish wash. 
Mr. Kinnear and I then began to examine the British Museum series of Kestrels, 
including McClelland's type of interstinctus, and we were at once convinced that 
there were numerous points to clear up, viz. were the darkest Yunnan birds 
really interstinctus ? ; were the pale Yunnan birds found in winter /. tinnunculus ? 
were they japonicus, or what were they ? finally what were the continental 
Indian breeding birds, and was sat ur/it us = to interstinctus ? Colonel Meinertz- 
hagen, Mr. Kinnear, and I have now examined an enormous series of the former's 
birds, including the Tring and British Museum series, and we have come to 
the following conclusions : (1) McClelland's interstinctus is not the same as 
saturatus Blyth, but is identical with japonicus Temm. & Schleg. (2) The 
very dark Yunnan bird is sat unit us Blyth, and is the breeding bird of S. China, 
Yunnan, and Tenasserim, whereas interstinctus = japonicus and tinnunculus 
are only winter visitors. (3) The breeding bird of N.E. China and Japan is 
interstinctus = japonicus. (4) The breeding birds of the Himalayan Region, 
Central Asia, and Siberia are tinnunculus, of which dorriesi is a synonym. 
(5) The breeding bird of Peninsular continental India is distinct, and has no 

128. Falco tinnunculus interstinctus (McClell.). 

Tinnunculus interstinctm McClelland, Pror. Zool. Soc. London, Part vii, p. 154 (1840) (Assam). 
Falcol innunculus japonicus Temininck & Schlegel in Siebold's Faun. Jap. Arcs. p. 2, pi. i and Vi 
(1844) (Japan). 

Ingram records 1 $ Mengtsz, April 1910. Forrest sent 1 <$ ad., 1 $ in moult, 
1 c? juv. Lichiang Range, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide. In 
his 1925 collection is 1 $ hills round Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. In the 
British Museum is 1 $ Gyi-dzin-Shan, March 1902, Colonel Rippon ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 1 <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. ; M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 <S, 
1 $ ; Monsieur Pichon sent 1 <$, 2 $$. 

129. Falco tinnunculus saturatus (Blyth). 

Falco saturatus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxviii, p. 277 (1859) (Tenasserim). 

Ingram records 1 £ in moult, 1 S J uv - Mentgsz, July 1910, and Momien, 
June 1868, Anderson coll. ; Forrest sent 1 tS Mekong-Salwin Divide, 3 $$ Li- 
chiang Range, 1 $ Shweli Valley. In the British Museum are 1 <$, 3 $$ Mekong- 
Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 2 $$ Lichiang Range, Forrest coll. ; 1 3 Talifu Valley, July 
1900; 1 ^ Yunnan City, Feb. 1899, Captain Wingate ; 3 (?<?, 1 $ Yunnan, 
F. W. Styan coll. The one $ in the Styan collection is very remarkable, the 
slaty blue wash on the back and wings is strongly developed, and the same 
colour of the head and rump has spread so that the chestnut colour is almost 
obsolete ; Bangs & Phillips record 6 specimens Mengtsz, March-Nov. ; Andrews 
and Heller obtained 1 J 1 ? Hung-chang, Jan. 1917 ; La Touche obtained 1 $ 
Mengtsz, Nov. 1920. 

130. Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus Linn. 

Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus. Si/sl. S'at. edit, x, vol. i, p. 90 (1758) (Europe — Sweden). 

Pichon obtained 2 examples of this form ; Forrest sent 1 <J, 2 $$ Shweli 
Valley, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Tengyueh. In his 1925 collection are 


4 (J^ hills round Tengyueh, 7,000-8,000 feet, Dec. 1925. Open country. 
Oustalet lists this bird among those of Prince H. d'Orleans. In my first article 
and the subsequent ones I recorded all the dark birds both breeding and migrant 
as interstinctus, not having realised that there were two races. 

131. Falco naumanni pekinensis Swinh. 

Ftib-o cenchris var. 2>eHnensis Swinhoe, Pror. Zool. Hue. London, 1870, p. 442 (neighbourhood of 

Pichon collected 1 specimen. 

132. Falco subbuteo streichi Hart. & Neum. 

Falco subbuteo streichi Hartert & Neumann, Journ. f. Orn. 1908, pp. 283, 287, 289 (Tschuktschen 
Land, East Siberia). 

Anderson collected a young bird at Momien in June referred to this form 
by Collingwood Ingram, but it was probably subbuteo centralasiae. But Forrest 
sent an undoubted $ of this bird from S.W. of Tengyueh, Oct. 1919. 

133. Glaucidium brodiei (Burton). 

Xnrlna brodiei Burton, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1835, p. 152 (Himalayas). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; and 
Oustalet enumerates the species from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans. 

134. Glaucidium cuculoides cuculoides (Gould). 

Noclna cuculoides Gould, Cent. Hiinul. Birds, pi. and text 4 (1832) (Himalayas). 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. on the Namting River. 
135. Glaucidium cuculoides whitelyi (Blyth). 

Athene whitelyi Blyth. Ibis, 1867, p. 313 (China). 

Forrest sent 1 <$ from the Lichiang Range, and 1 $ from the Yangtze Valley ; 
Pichon sent one Salwin Valley, Feb. 1910. 

136. Strix aluco nivicola (Blyth). 

Syrnium nivicolum Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 185 (1845) (Himalayas). 

Although in my second article on Forrest's birds I used the name harterti, 
La Touche, I here call the Yunnan birds nivicola as the material available is not 
at all sufficient to decide whether they belong to the Himalayan nivicola Blyth 
or the Chinese harterti La Touche. 

Forrest has sent 1 cj ad., 1 $ ad., 2 $$ juv. Lichiang Range, 1 $ N.W. of 
Tengyueh ; La Touche records a living adult Woodowl from Posi, and also a 
young one from near Yunnanfu. Forrest's £ from Lichiang is exactly similar 
to the type of harterti, but as Woodowls are extremely variable individually it 
will require a large series to decide if harterti and nivicola are separable, and if so 
whether all Yunnan examples are one or the other, or if both occur. 

There is an example of this form in the British Museum from Yunnan 
Styan collection. 

In the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington , vol. xxxviii, p. 10, 
1925, J. H. Riley has described 2 birds collected by Dr. J. F. R. Rock, in the 

034 Novitates ZoOLOQIOAE XXXIII. 1926. 

Lichiang Mts., as new under the name of Strix aluco nivipetens, and his description 
fits Forrest's birds exactly. But I cannot yet decide from the material extant 
whether this name is a synonym of harterti or both synonyms of nivicola. 

137. Asio flammeus flammeus (Pontopp.). 

Slru flammea Pontoppidan, Danske Atlas, vol. i, p. 617, pi. xxv (1763) (Denmark). 
Pichon obtained 2 examples in the plain of Tengyueh. 

138. Otus bakhamoena glabripes (Swinh.). 

Ephialtes glabripes Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vi, p. 152 (1870) (South China). 

Ingram records a specimen, under the name of O. lempiji erythrocampe 
(Swinh.), from Mengtsz, but it is really an example of the above ; Forrest sent 
2 cJc? near Tengyueh, 1 ? Tengyueh Valley, 1 <$, 1 $ ad., 1 cJ 1, $ J uv - Shweli- 
Salwin Divide ; La Touche obtained 1 <J Kopaotsun, May 1921. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 3 ? juv. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, 
April 1925. 

139. Otus malayana (Hay). 

Scops malayana Hay, Madr. Journ. vol. xiii, pt. 2, p. 147. 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 $, 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct. 1910. 

140. Ninox scutulata burmanica Hume. 

Ninox burmanica Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. iv, p. 285 (1876) (Pegu and Tenasserim). 

Bangs & Phillips list 2 adults Mengtsz, Oct. and July, 1910 ; La Touche 
collected 1 <$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920. 

In the 1925 collection of Forrest is 1 ? juv. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 
feet, Oct. 1925. 

141. Ketupa ceylonensis (Gm.). 

Strix ceylonensis Gmelin, Sysl. Nat. vol. i, p. 287 (1788) (Ceylou). 
La Touche collected 1 $ near Mengtsz, Oct. 1920. 

142. Bubo bubo jarlandi La Touche. 
Bubo bubo jarlandi La Touche, Bull. B.O.t '. vol. xlii. p. 14 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

Anderson obtained a $ at Momien, July 1868 ; and La Touche obtained 
1 (J, 1 $ alive at Mengtsz ; the $ died, and is the type of the description. 

143. Rhopodytes tristis tristis (Less.). 

Melias tristis Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 132 (1831) (? Sumatra). 

Forrest collected 2 $$ in the Salwin Valley, April 1921 ; Andrews & Heller 
obtained 1 cj Chang-lung, Salwin River. March 1917 ; La Touche got 1 <$ Hokow, 
Jan. 1921. In the British Museum are 1 (J, 1 1 ad. Yuen Chang, Styan coll. In 
Forrest's 1925 collection he sent 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. l'J2U. 235 

144. Centropus bengalensis bengalensis (Gm.). 

' 'iiriilus bengalensis Graelin, Sysl. Nat. vol. i, p. 214 (1788) (Bengal). 

Forrest collected 1 <J ad. near Tengyueh, Aug. 1924, and 1 ? juv. Lichiang 

145. Centropus sinensis sinensis (Stepb..). 

Polophilus sinensis Stephens, Gen. Zool. vol. ix, p. 51 (1815) (China). 

Captain Wingate collected 1 o at Mongkow, April 1899 ; Mr. La Touche 
says he heard this bird at Hokow. 

146. Centropus sinensis intermedius (Hume). 

( 'enirococcyz intermedius Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. i, p. 454 (1873) (Dacca, The Doon, Thayetmyo). 

Andrews & Heller collected 5 examples at Changlung, Salwin River, Meng- 
ting, and on the Namting River. 

147. Eudynamis scolopaceus enigmaticus subsp. nov. 

This bird is a puzzle ; it has the typically coloured $ of the Indian bird, 
but the large size of sc. malayana Cab. & Hein. The latter, however, has a very 
different $. Average length of <J whig in sc. scolopaceus 194 mm., of sc. enig- 
maticus 205 mm. Type $ ad. from the hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, 
April 1925, No. 6201. 

Ingram enumerates 3 (JcJ, 4 $$ from Mengtsz, May-June 1910 ; Colonel 
Rippon obtained it at Yungchang, April 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips list 17 examples 
Mengtsz, April-Oct. ; M. Pichon sent 2 adult <$-<$ ; M. & Mme. Comby obtained 
1 <J, 1 ?, ad. 1 cj juv. ; Forrest collected 1 $ near Tengyueh, 1 J 1 Tengyueh Valley, 
1 $ Tali Valley, and 1 $ Mekong-Salwm Divide ; La Touche lists 1 example 
Yunnanfu, 8 from Mengtsz, July-Oct. 1920. In the 1925 collection Forrest 
sent 1 cJ ad., 1 <$ jun. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 $Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, Aug. 1925. Pine forests. 

148. Sumiculus lugubris dicruroides (Hodgs.). 

Pseudornis dicruroides Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 1839, p. 136 (Nepal). 

Anderson records 1 example Ponsee, April 1868 ; La Touche records a 
young bird and an adult as seen at close quarters; Forrest sent in his 1925 
collection 1 <J, 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, May 1925. Forests. 

149. Cacomantis merulinus querulus Heine. 

Cacomantis querulus Heine, Journ. f. Orn. 1863, p. 352 (India, Nepal, Burma). 

Forrest obtained 1 <J Mekong Valley, 2 <J<J ad., 1 $ juv. environment of 
Tengyueh, 1 (J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 o J uv - Shweli ; Anderson records under 
the name of rufiventris a specimen from Ponsee, April 1868 ; Ingram enumerates 
5 c?c?> 1 ? Mengtsz, April-July 1910; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 11 specimens 
Mengtsz, May-Sept. ; M. Pichon sent 1 example ; La Touche collected 1 $ ad., 
5 (JcJ, 1 ? imm. Mengtsz, Feb.-Oct. 1920-1921. In the 1925 collection Forrest 
sent 2 (JcJ, 2 $? ad., 1 $ juv. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, April and Oct. 


150. Chalcitis raaculatus (Gm.). 

Troyon maculatus Gmelin, Syst. Jfat. vol. i. p. 404 (1788) (Ceylon, ex Brown Illustr.) (errore say Pegu). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 <$ S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; M. & Mme. 
Comby collected 1 example ; La. Touche collected 1 specimen Hokow, April 
1921. Forrest sent in his 1925 collection 1 £, 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 
feet, April 1925 ; 2 $$ (sexed J) ad.. 1 ? juv. hills W. of Tengyueh, 0,000 feet, 
Oct. 1925. 

151. Cuculus canorus telephonus Heine. 

Cuculus telephonus Heine, Joiim. f. Orn. p. 352 (1863) (Japan). 

Anderson records a ^ Ponsee, April 1868 ; Captain Wingate collected 

1 <J ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; M. Pichon sent home 3 ad. and 1 $ juv. ; 
Bangs & Phillips record 3 specimens Mengtsz, May 1911; Forrest sent 2 (JcJ, 
3 $? ad., 3 c?cJ juv. Lichiang Range, 1 ? juv. Talifu, 2 <$<$ ad., 2 $$, 2 $<$ juv. 
round Tengyueh ; La Touche got 1 J Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

152. Cuculus canorus bakeri Hart. 

( '■aBidin canorus Ixikeri Hartert, Vog. palaark. Faun. pt. vii, vol. ii, p. 948, No. 1390 (1912) (Shillong). 

Bangs & Phillips list 6 examples Mengtsz ; Andrews & Heller obtained 

2 cJcJ ad. Tengyueh, Ting, and Wa-hui ; La Touche collected 1 9 Mengtsz, April 
1921. In Forrest's 1925 collection are 4 d<$, 1 $ ad., 1 J juv. hills N.W. of 
Tengyueh, 6,000-8,000 feet, April 1925. Thickets and forests. 

153. Cuculus optatus Gould. 

( 'uculus optatus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. xiii, p. 18 (1845) (Port Essington). 

Ingram records 2 $$ Mengtsz, May 1910; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 <$ 
Mengtsz, April 1911 ; Forrest sent 2 <J<J ad., 1 $ juv., Lichiang Range. 

154. Cuculus intermedius intermedius Vahl. 

Cuculus intermedius Vahl., Skriv. af Nat. Selskabet Kjohenhavn, vol. iv, p. 58 (1789) (Tranquebar). 

Oustalet records this Cuckoo from Prince H. d'Orleans collection ; Forrest 
sent 2 (J (J, 2 $$, 1 ? Lichiang Range, 1 $, 1 ? (red phase) N.W. of Tengyueh, 1 $ 
(grey phase), Tengyueh Valley, 1 $ Shweli. In the 1925 collection are 2 <$$, 1 $ 
hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, May 1925 ; 1 $ N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, 
April 1925. Forests. 

155. Cuculus sparverioides Vig. 

Cuculus sparverioides Vigors, Pror. Coram. Zool. Sor. London, pt. i, p. 173 (1832) (Himalaya). 

Bangs & Phillips quote 1 example minus precise data ; Forrest collected 
1 cj, 1 $ juv. T'ong Shan, 1 J juv. Shweli, 1 3 juv. Mekong Valley, 3 <$<$ ad. 
Lichiang Range ; 1 cJ, 3 $? ad., 1 <J juv. Tengyueh and vicinity. 

In his 1925 collection are 1 (J, 2 ?? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, April 
and Oct. 1925 ; 1 $ hills N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 J, 1 ? hills 
round Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925. Forests. 


156. Yynx torquilla japonica Bp. 

Yunx japonica Bonaparte, Consp. avium, vol. i, p. 112 (1S50) (Japan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird, hills N.E. of Talifu, March 1902 ; Captain 
Wingate collected 1 <J ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Oustalet enumerates it 
from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 10 
examples from Mengtsz, Loukouchai, and Shi-ping ; Andrews & Heller got 
1 $ ad. at Yung-chung-fu, Jan. 1917 ; M. & Mme. Comby collected 1 specimen 
recorded by Menegaux as torquilla torquilla ; Forrest sent 1 <J Lichiang Range ; 
La Touche records 1 <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct.-Dec. 1920, 1 $ Milati, Feb. 1921. 

157. Picumnus innominatus chinensis (Harg.). 

Vivia chinensis Hargitt, Ibis, 1881, p. 288, pi. vii (May-chee, China). 

Ingram records 1 <£ Mengtsz, July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 3 £3 
Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Forrest collected 1 <$ Yangtze Valley, Sept. 1918 ; 
La Touche obtained 2 <$<$, 1 ? Milati, Feb. 1921. 

158. Dryocopus forresti Rothsch. 

Dryocopus forresti Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 9 (1922) (Mekong Valley). 

Forrest is the only one of the explorers in Yunnan who has obtained this 
fine bird. As M. javensis feddeni has also only been got once in Yunnan it is 
impossible at present to define their relationship ; I prefer for this reason therefore 
to still treat D. forresti as a distinct species, and not as a subspecies of javensis. 
Forrest collected 1 <$, 1 $ Mekong Valley, Aug. 1921, 1 ^ juv. Lichiang Range. 
The young $ has the red head of the adult $, but not the red moustachial band. 

159. Dryocopus javensis feddeni (Blanf.). 

31 ulleripicus feddeni Blanford, Journ. As. Soc, Bengal, 1S63, p. 75 (Pegu). 

Andrews & Heller obtained an adult <$ Malipa, March 1917. 

160. Dryocopus martius khamensis (But.). 

Picus martius khamensis Buturlin, Ann. JIus. Zool. Acad. Imp. St. Petersburg, vol. xiii, p. 229 (1908) 
(Eastern Slopes Thibet Plateau). 

Forrest also was the only collector to obtain the " Great Black Woodpecker " 
in Yunnan ; he sent 2 $6, 3 ?$ Mekong-Salwin Divide, Sept. 1921. 

161. Picoides tridactylus funebris Verr. 

Picoides funebris Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. vol. vi, Bull. p. 33 (1870) (Mta. of Chinese Tln'bet). 

Forrest also was the only collector to obtain this well-marked and very rare 
race of tridactylus. He sent 2 JJ from the Mekong-Salwin Divide, and 1 £ 
Lichiang Range. 

Note on Dryobates semicoronatus and races. 

A great deal of confusion appears to exist as to the status of and number 
of the subspecies of Dryobates semicoronatus (Malh.). The following names have 
been applied to these birds within our liniits : scinlilliceps Swinh. ; kaleensis 
Swinh. ; omissus Rothsch. ; permixtu.s La Touche ; and obscurus La Touche. 


238 Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

Of these names kaleensis Swinh. is at once ruled out, as it was applied to the 
race confined to Formosa ; obscurus La Touche stands for the smaller race from 
S.E. Yunnan, and the rest of S. and SAY. Yunnan ; the birds named by Mr. La 
Touche kaleensis from Milati as being the same as the Fokhien race I refer pro- 
visionally to scintilliceps Swinh., though it is possible that the Pelting birds will 
prove to be separable from the more southern examples. There remain the 
names permixtus, given by La Touche to the larger Milati and Yunnanfu examples, 
and my omissus given to the larger birds from the Lichiang Range ; these birds 
are the same and both were described in 1922 in the Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, but 
as omissus appears on p. 10 and permixtus on p. 44 my name has priority. 

162. Dryobates semicoronatus scintilliceps (Swinh.). 

Picus scintilliceps Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 96 (Peking). 

Anderson records a bird from Sanda under the name of rubricatus, which 
until the type is compared I can only record under this heading ; Captain Wingate 
obtained this bird at Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Ingram records 1 $ Mengtsz ; 
Bangs & Phillips 10 examples from Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; La Touche <J? 
Milati under the name of kaleensis. 

163. Dryobates semicoronatus obscurus La Touche. 

Dryobates pygmaeus obscurus La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 14 (1921) (Hokow). 

This bird has, it appears, only been got in Yunnan by Forrest, Wingate, 
La Touche, and Col. Rippon. Forrest sent 1 <$, 2 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
1 <J, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 1 $ Yangtze Valley, 1 ? Tsong-Shan, 1 £ Tengyueh 
Valley, 1 <J, 6 ?$ vicinity of Tengyueh, 5 $? N.W. of Tengyueh. 

<J wing measurement, 93 mm. 

In my articles on Forrest's collections all the examples of semieoromitus 
are quoted under scintilliceps or omissus, and not separated into their races.) 
Captain Wingate sent 1 example S.W. Yunnan, April 1899. In his 1925 collection 
Forrest sent 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000 feet, July 1925 ; 1 <J, 1 $ hills 
N. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, Oct.-Nov. 1925 ; 4 <$<$ (1 sexed $), 4 $$ Tengyueh 
Valley, 6,000 feet, Nov.-Dec. 1925 ; Colonel Rippon obtained 2 $? Yangpi- 
Chutung Road, April 1906, 1 $ Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906. 

164. Dryobates semicoronatus omissus Rothsch. 

Dryobates pygmaeus omissus Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 10 (1922) (Lichiang Range). 

I must amend the description of this form. I had distinguished it as being 
darker below and with heavier stripes ; but after comparing larger series I 
find it only differs from D. s. obscurus in its much larger size. £ wing measure- 
ment, 108 mm. 

Forrest sent 3 <JcJ. 8 $$ Lichiang Range ; La Touche recqrds under the 
name of permixtus 1 <J Milati, 1 o, 1 ? Yunnanfu, and 1 $ ad., 1 <J, 2 $$ juv. 


165. Dryobates obscurior Rothseh. 

Dryobales obscurior Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 10 (1922) (Lichiang Range). 

Closely allied to the forms of semicoronatus, but the head is almost entirely 
black and the bill is different. 

The $ sent by Forrest from the Lichiang Range remains unique. 

166. Dryobates hyperethrus hyperethrus (Vigors). 

Picus hyperethrus Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, pt. i, p. 23 (1831) (Himalayan Mts.). 

Ingram, Outram Bangs, La Touche, and I myself have erroneously identified 
the Yunnan examples of this species with the Chinese D. h. subrufinus (Cab. & 
Hein.), whereas they agree with Himalayan and Shan States specimens. Hitherto 
up to 1924 the East Himalayan birds have been acknowledged as the typical race, 
and this led to Dr. Hartert in his second volume on Palaearctic Birds describing 
the West Himalayan and Cashmere birds as a new race under the name of 
D. h. marshalli. In 1924 in the Ibis, pp. 468-473, Messrs. Ticehurst & Whistler 
proceed to show that the hitherto accepted restricted " Type Localities " of 
Vigors' Himalayan birds could not be accepted, and that in view of the facts they 
bring the Type Locality of the collection could only be a district they propose 
to define as the Simla-Almora district. If this is admitted Dr. Hartert's D. h. 
marshalli, becomes a synonym of D. h. hyperethrus, and the East Himalayan bird 
must get a name which they proceed to give as Dryobates hyperethrus sikkimensis 
nom. nov. However, the figure in Gould's Century of Birds of the Himalayas 
does not agree with West Himalayan examples, and as it was taken from Vigors's 
type I do not consider the case proved satisfactorily, and therefore retain here 
the name of hyperethrus as hitherto for the East Himalayan bird. Colonel 
Rippon collected an example at the Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; Cajitain 
Wingate got a $ ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Oustalet enumerated it among 
the birds collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs & Phillips record 1 9 Mengtsz, 
March ; Andrews & Heller obtained 2 $3 ad. Lichiang Fu, Nov. 1916 ; Forrest 
sent 5 (J (J, 3 $? from the Lichiang Range ; La Touche enumerates 1 $ from 
Milati. In Forrest's 1925 collection is 1 $ juv. hills N. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, 
Oct. 1925. 

There is also in the British Museum a § Yunnan, Styan coll. 

167. Dryobates pernyi pemyi (Verr.). 

Picus pernyii Verreaux, Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1867, p. 271, pi. xvi (North China). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird at the Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; 
Andrews & Heller got 1 cJ ad. Lichiang Fu, Nov. 1916. 

168. Dryobates atratus (Blyth). 

Picus atratus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 1849, p. 803 (Tanasserim). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 $ ad. in S.W. Yunnan, April 1899. 

169. Dryobates darjellensis desmursi (Verr.). 

Picus desmursi Verreaux, Xoin: Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, Bull. p. 33 (1S70) (Jits, of Chinese Thibet). 

In my former articles I recorded these birds simply as darjellensis, but 
Dr. Rensch has pointed out (Zool. Erg. W. Stotz. Exp. in Abh. and Ber. M us. Dresd. 

240 Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

vol. xvi, No. 2, pt. iii, p. 38) that the Chinese examples have smaller bills ; viz., 
d. darjellensis 33-30 mm., d. desmursi 20-30 mm. 

Forrest -sent 1 $ Tengyueh District; 1 ? juv. Mekong Valley; 1 <S, 3 $$ 
Shweli-Salwin Divide ; 1 $ jim. Shweli Valley. In the 1925 collection are 1 <J, 1 ? 
N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, 
July 1925. 

170. Dryobates cathpharius tenebrosus subsp. no v. 

<J. Differs from c. cathpharius in the less yellow, more greyish underside, 
which is much more heavily spotted with black. 

In the 1925 collection Forrest sent 1 <J apparently ad. (type) Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 7,000 feet, July 1925. 

171. Dryobates major stresemanni Rensch. 

Dryobates major stresemanni Rensch., Zool. Erg. II'. Stotz. Exp. in Ahh. and Ber. Hits. Dresd. vol. xvi, 
No. 2, pt. iii, p. 38 (1924) (Tsalila). 

On p. 37 of above work Dr. Rensch gives his reasons for not retaining 
cabanisi Malh. as a species as Hartert does, and I am bound to say he appears to 
be correct. He says that the facts that induced Hartert to place cabanisi in a 
separate " Formenkreis," viz. the black scapulars and the narrower white wing- 
spots in view of the large series collected by Weigold during the above expedition, 
lose their value, as there are several with brown and white scapulars and larger 
spots. Moreover, the " Formenkreis " cabanisi and the forms placed under the 
" Formenkreis " major by Hartert exclude one another geographically. 

Now as to cabanisi and the allied forms ; Hartert retains them all under 
cabanisi, but Dr. Rensch has separated the extreme forms as cabanisi from 
N. China and stresemanni from Thibet and S.W. China, and says there inay yet be 
some further recognisable races. I have examined our large series from Eastern 
and South Central China, etc., and certainly find that they stand intermediate 
between my Yunnan and Thibet birds, and true cabanisi from N. China. These 
for the present must stand as Dryobates major mandarinus Malh. At the B.O.C. 
meeting on Feb. 10, 1926, Mr. Stuart Baker described the birds collected by 
Forrest in Yunnan under the name of cabanisi st&phensoni ; as, however, 
Dr. Rensch's name has 14 months' priority, Mr. Baker's name cannot stand. 

Colonel Rippon obtained 3 $$ Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, 1 $ Yangpi 
Valley, April 1906, and 1 <$ Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1902 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 5 specimens Mengtsz, Shi-ping, and Linan Fu ; Captain Wingate 
collected 2 {$<$ ad. near Yunnan City ; Forrest sent home 1 $, 3 $$ Tengyueh 
District, 2 $3 ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 (J, 4 $ ad., 1 <§ juv. Lichiang Range; 
M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 example. In Forrest's 1925 collection are 2 $$ 
(sexed $£) Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, July 1925 ; 1 <J juv. N. of Tengyueh, 
7,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 <?, 1 $ (sexed <J) Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925. 

172. Picus canus guerini (Malh.). 

Chloropicos guerini Malherbe, Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 539 (China). 

Oustalet enumerates this subspecies among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds, and 
Menegaux identified 1 § collected by M. Pichon as also belonging to this form. 


As, however, there are several Chinese races of canus, and the material in Paris 
from elsewhere is not in my opinion sufficient for accurate comparison, it is quite 
possible that in both these records the examples have been wrongly identified. 
Mr. La Touche also mentions a bird, under the name of P. canus subsp., as possibly 
this form. 

173. Picus canus sordidior (Rippon). 

Oecinus sordidior Rippon, Bull. B.O.O. vol. xix, p. 32 (1906) (W. Yunnan). 

Colonel Rippon first described this bird from the Yangtze Big Bend, March 
1906 and Lichiang, April 1906 ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 <$$, 1 ? ad. at Hui- 
yao and Malipa ; Forrest sent 5 <$$, 2 $9 a( i-, 5 <$$, 6 $$ juv. Lichiang Range, 
2 dd ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District, 2 $$ ad. Tengyueh Valley, 2 $$ juv. Mekong 
Valley, 2 $<$, 2 ?? ad. Shweli Valley, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 <J Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925 ; 
1 <J juv. N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 3, 1 $ N.W. of Tengyueh, 
9,000 feet, April 1925. Anderson enumerates 1 $ juv. under the name of Picus 
striolatus Blyth, June 1868, Momien. Hargitt identified this as occipitalis 
(nom. prseocc.) = barbatus Gray & Hardwicke, but Mr. Kinnear is now convinced, 
and I am too, that it is really canus sordidior (see further sub No. 166). Colonel 
Rippon's specimens in the British Museum consist of 1 (J Gyi-dzin-shan, E. of 
Talifu, March 1902 ; 2 <$<$, 2 $$ Lichiang Valley, March and April 1906 ; 1 $ 
(type) Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906. 

174. Picus canus yunnanensis La Touche. 

Picns canus yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 44 (1922) (Milati (J type), Kopaotsun, 

Mr. La Touche lays great stress on the much brighter coloration than in 
c. sordidior, and the larger size and brighter coloration than in c. jacobsi and 
c. rickelti. 

Bangs & Phillips record 8 examjsles from Mengtsz and Shi-ping under the 
name of canus sordidior Ripp. ; La Touche lists 1 (J, 1 $ Milati, Jan. 1921, 4 $$, 
5 $$ Kopaotsum and Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

175. Picus vittatus niyrmecophoneus Stresem. 

Picus niyrmecophoneus Stresemann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay. vol. xiv, pt. iv, p. 289 (1920) (nom. nov. for 
P. slriolalus Blyth). 

Anderson records under the name of Picus striolatus 1 (J ad. and 1 $ juv. 
(a, b, <$), Momien, June 1808. Hargitt says (in Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xviii, p. 56 
footnote) that the young bird of Anderson's was wrongly identified, and that 
it is gecinus occipitalis, Vig. = canus sanguiniceps Stuart Baker. Mr. Kinnear, 
when kindly helping me with this paper, has, on re-examination of Anderson's 
bird, come to the conclusion that this young bird is neither niyrmecophoneus nor 
c. barbatus, but is only a young canus sordidior. He also considers niyrmeco- 
phoneus a subspecies of vittatus. Dr. Stresemann, however, when he replaced 
the preoccupied names striolatus Blyth and xanthopygius Bp. by the new name 
mynnecophoneus, treats this form as a species — I only pro vision ally, however, 
treat it as a race of vittatus, as the whole of the exotic " Green Woodpeckers " 


Picus want thoroughly revising, and until then T do not wish to express a final 
opinion on this bird. 

There remains as the only record for Yunnan Anderson's <£ ad. Momien. 
June 186S ; but until this is properly compared the right of this bird to a place 
in the avifauna of Yunnan is not definitely established. 

17(3. Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus guttacristatus (Tick.). 

Picas guttacristatus Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 1S33, p. 578 ( ). 

Andrews & Heller collected 2 <J<J ad. Malipa, Feb. 1917. 

177. Micropternus fokiensis (Swinh.). 

Brachyplermis fokiensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 87 (Fokien). 
M. Pichon collected 1 $. 

178. Sasia ochracea Hodgs. 

Sasia ochracea Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v, p. 778 (1836) (Nepal). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <J ad. Loukouchai, Jan. 1911 ; La Touche obtained 
1 ^Hokow, April 1921. 

179. Halcyon smyrnensis fusca (Bodd.). 

Alcedo fv^ca Boddaert. Tahl. PI. Enl. p. 54 (1783) (Malabar Coast). 

Anderson collected this Kingfisher at Mengoon, Jan. 1868 ; Ingram records 
5 <S3 ad., 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, May-July 1910 ; Captain Wingate obtained 1 <J 
ad. at Mong-Kon, April 1899 ; Colonel Rippon also got this bird ; Bangs & 
Phillips enumerate 24 specimens from Mengtsz ; M. Pichon sent home 1 example ; 
Forrest got 2 <$<3 Tengyueh District, 1 <$ N. of Tengyueh, 1 <J Shweli Valley ; 
La Touche brought back 8 examples Mengtsz, July 1920-March 1921, 1 <J 
Hokow, March 1921 ; 1 J, 1 $ Yuen Chang, Styan coll., are in the British Museum. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 2 $$ Tengyueh Valley, 5,300 feet, Dec. 
1925, 1 cJ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925. Streams. Bill deep 
crimson ; feet scarlet ; iris brown. 

180. Halcyon pileatus (Bodd.). 

Alcedo pileata Boddaert, Tahl. PI. Enl. p. 41 (1783) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 5 specimens Mengtsz ; La Touche 1 $ Mengtsz, 
Sept. 1920. 

Forrest's 1925 collection contains 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, 
June 1925. Streams. Bill deep crimson ; feet scarlet ; iris brown. 

181. Alcedo atthis bengalensis Gm. 

Alcedo bengalensis Gmelin, Si/st. Nat. vol. i, pt. 1, p. 450 (1788) (Bengal). 

Anderson obtained a single specimen at Muangla, May 1868 ; Colonel 
Rippon collected an example east of Talifu, March 1902 ; Ingram records 2 $3 
Mengtsz, April-May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 8 specimens from 
Mengtsz ; M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 example ; M. Pichon also sent 1 speci- 
men ; Forrest collected 1 <J Lichiang Range ; 1 £ ad., 1 <J, 2 <j>$ juv. Tengyueh 


Valley, 1 3 vicinity of Tengyueh ; La Touche records 6 examples from Mengtsz 
Aug. 1920-1021, and says it occurs all over S.E. plateau and at Hokow. In 
Forrest's 1925 collection are 7 33, 3 $? ad., 1 3 juv. Tengyueh. Valley, 5,300- 
5,600 feet, Sept. -Dec. 1925. Streams. Bill black with some red on under- 
mandible ; legs and feet crimson, claws black ; iris dark brown. In the British 
Museum is also 1 example Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, Colonel Rippon. 

182. Ceryle rudis leucomelanura Reichenb. 

Ceryle leucomelanura Reichenbach, Handb. Alced. p. 21, pi. 4096, f. 3488 (1851) (Ceylon). 

Forrest sent 4 33, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, April 1919. In his 1925 collection 
Forrest sent 3 33, 3 $$ Tengyueh Valley, 5,300-5,500 feet, Dec. 1925. Streams. 
Bill and feet black ; iris brown. 

183. Ceryle Iugubris guttulata Stejn. 

Ceryle guttulata Stejneger, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xv, pp. 294, 295 (1S93) (India and China). 

Forrest collected 1 $ jun. Tung Chuan Valley, May 1921, and 1 3 jun. Ma- 
Chang Valley, Feb. 1922. 

184. Eurystomus orientalis calonyx Sharpe. 

Eurystomus calonyx Bowdler Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1890, p. 551 (Nepal). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 3 Mengtsz, Oct. 1910 ; Forrest sent 1 3 ad., 
2 $$ juv. N.W. of Tengyueh, July 1924 ; La Touche records 1 3 imm. Mengtsz, 
Oct. 1920. In Forrest's 1925 collection were sent 2 33, 1 $ hills N.W. of 
Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Sept. 1925. Forests. 

185. Coracias benghalensis affinis McClell. 

Coracias affinis McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 164 (1839) (Assam). 

Some of Forrest's birds show traces of benghalensis. 

Anderson records 3 examples from the Sanda Valley, May 1868 ; Captain 
Wingate obtained 1 <J ad. Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Andrews & Heller got 3 
specimens at Hsiao, Mengting, and Cheng-kang, Salwin Divide, and Shuichai, 
Mekong River, Jan. and Feb. 1917 ; M. Pichon collected 1 specimen ; Forrest 
sent 1 3 ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli Valley, 1 3, 1 $ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 3 33 
Tengyueh District, 4 33, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 1 $ Lichiang Range ; La Touche 
has 1 example Yuangchiang, Nov. 1920. In Forrest's 1925 collection he sent 

1 3 Shweli Valley, 6,000 feet, July 1925, 1 3, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 5,300-6,000 
feet, Oct.-Dec. 1925, 3 $$, north of Tengyueh, 5,000-6,000 feet, April 1925, 1 $ 
vicinity of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, Aug. 1925. Open country. 

186. Serilophus lunatus elizabethae La Touche. 

'Serilophus lunatus elizabethae La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 14 (1921) (Hokow). 

This beautiful bird was described by Mr. La Touche, who obtained 2 3S> 

2 $$ Hokow, March 1921 ; Mr. Kuroda records it from Laokay on the opposite 
bank of the Red River to Hokow ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 ^ at Mengting, 
Feb. 1917. (This may be the typical form or else M. Delacourt's recently 
described Annam race : Bangs identified it as the typical lunatus lunatus.) 

244 Novitatis Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

187. Upupa epops saturate, Lonnb. 

Upupa epops saturata Lonnberg, Arkiv. for. Zoologi, vol. v, Xo. 9, p. 29 (1909) (Kjachta). 

Ingram records 4 ££, 1 $ Mengtsz, April-June 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 10 examples from Mengtsz : Andrews & Heller got 1 <J ad. Yung- 
chang-Fu, Jan. 1917 ; in the British Museum is an example from Yunnan, Styan 
coll. In Forrest's 1925 collection is 1 cJ, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 5,300 feet, Dec. 

188. Upupa epops orientalis Baker. 

Upupa epops orientalis Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 29 (1921) (new name for Upupa indica 
Reichenb. nee Latham). 

Bangs & Phillips record 14 specimens from Mengtsz under the name Upupa 
epops subsp. ? ; Oustalet records it from Prince H.' d'Orleans' collection simply 
as Upupa epops ; Forrest sent 1 ^ Lichiang Valley ; La Touche obtained 1 <$, 
1 $ imm. 

189. Melittophagus leschenaulti swinhoei (Hume). 

Merops swinhoei Hume, Nests and Eggs Ind. Birds, I, p. 102 (1873) (India). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 ^ at Mong-sen, April 1899 ; Andrews & Heller 
1 <$, 2 $$ ad. Chang-lung, Salwin River, March 1917. 

190. Merops philippinus Linn. 

Merops philippinus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. 13 (Vindob.), vol. i. p. 183 (1787) (Philippine Islands). 

Ingram records 11 examples from Mengtsz, March-May 1910 ; Bangs & 
Phillips' 13 specimens also from Mengtsz, April-Sept. ; La Touche got 13 speci- 
mens Mengtsz, July-Sept. 1920 ; M. & Mme. Comby collected 1 example. 

191. Merops orientalis ferrugiceps Anders. 

Merops viridis var. ferrugiceps Anderson, Anat. and Zool. Res. p. 5S2, No. 25 (in text) (1878) (Burma ; 
and Sanda, Yunnan). 

The name ferrugiceps was given to this race of orientalis [viridis auct.) 
already in 1844 by Hodgson, but it remained a nomen nudum until Anderson 
stated in the above-quoted work that all his Burmese and Yunnan birds belonged 
to the variety ferrugiceps, and stated the differences from the Indian typical 
subspecies. Anderson got one bird at Sanda Valley, May 1868 ; Captain Wingate 
collected 1 (J ad. Ching-tung, March 1899 ; M. Pichon sent 1 example. 

192. Cyanops franklinii franklinii (Blyth). 

Bucco franklinii Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 167 (1842) (Darjiling). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 6 examples from Loukouchai, Jan. -Feb. 1911 ; 
Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. Tai-ping-pu, April 1917 ; Forrest sent 2 <£,£, 
1 $ Shweli Valley, 1 <$ Tengyueh District. In the 1925 collection are 3 Jd 
hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, April 1925 ; 2 <S<3 h ills N - o f Tengyueh, 
7,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Forests. 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 245 

193. Cyanops asiatica asiatica (Lath.). 

Trogon asiatica Latham, Ind. Orn. vol. i, p. 201 (1790) (India) 

Captain Wingate collected 2 33 ad. Wei-yuan, Upp. Mekong River, March 
1899 ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 o, 1 $ Chang -lung Salwin River, March 
1917 ; M. Pichon sent 2 examples from the Salwin Valley ; Forrest obtained 1 cj 
Shweli Valley, 1 cJ Tali Valley, and 1 $ vicinity of Tengyueh ; Anderson obtained 
3 examples at Ponsee and the neighbourhood ; in the British Museum is an 
example Tengyueh, Howell coll., and 1 Yunnan, Styan coll. 

194. Cyanops asiatica davisoni (Hume). 

Menalaima davisoni Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. v, p. 108 (1877) (Central Tenasserim). 

In my first Yunnan article I threw doubt on Oustalet's record, as does Ingram ; 
but now Bangs & Phillips record 1 <J and $ from Loukouchai, and MM. Menegaux 
and Didier in their list of M. Pichon' s collection under G. asiatica asiatica say they 
have re-examined the bird got by Prince H. d' Orleans which came from Man-hao, 
Yunnan-Tonkin frontier, and it really is davisoni ; 2 $$ Yuen Chang, Styan 
coll., are in the British Museum. 

195. Megalaema virens virens (Bodd.). 

Bucco virens Boddaert, Tall. PL Enl. p. 53 (1783) (China !). 

Forrest's 1925 collection contains 2 examples of this bird, new to the 
Yunnan list. 

2 <$<$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-10,000 feet, Aug.-Oct. 1925. Forests. 
Bill, upper mandible slaty black, base yellow, lower mandible base yellow, 
remainder horn-grey ; feet grey-black ; iris brown. 

196. Psittacula cyanocephala (Linn.). 

Psittacus cyanocephalus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, p. 141, No. 10 (1766) (East Indies). 

Anderson records 2 c? c? j uv - Momien, July 1868. (It is quite possible that 
Anderson wrongly identified these young birds and that they are young finschi.) 

197. Psittacula schisticeps finschi (Hume). 

Palaeornis finschi Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. ii, p. 509 (1874) (Kollidoo, Salwin River). 

Forrest collected 2 <J<J, 1 $ ad. Yangtze Valley, 2 tfd ad., 2 $? juv. Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 4 <$<$, 1 $ ad., 2 $$, 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 5 ^^, 1 ? ad., 3 $? juv. 
N.W. of Tengyueh. In the 1925 collection are 3 <$<$ ad. (1 sexed ? errore), 
2 cJ<J, 2 ?$ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Forests. 

198. Psittacula derbyana (Fraser). 

Palaeornis derbyanus Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1850, p. 245, pi. xxv (no locality), cage bird. 

Oustalet separated the Upper Yangtze birds under the name of P. salvadorii, 
but I can find no constant difference in size or colour of under wing-coverts. 

Oustalet records this bird from Prince H. d'Orleans' collection under the 
name salvadorii ; Ogilvie Grant records a £ ad. Ching-tung, March 1899, obtained 
by Captain Wingate as salvadorii, saying it was quite different from derbyana, 


but the differences he cites are those of the sexes. Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $ ad., 
1 (J juv. Lichiang Range, Sept. 1922 ; in the British Museum there are 1 <J 
Kung-Tung, Aug. 1899, Styan coll., and 1 ? Tengyueh, E. B. Howell coll. 

199. Psittacula fasciata (P. L. S. MM.). 

Psittacusfasciatus P. L. S. Midler. Natursyst. Suppl. p. 74, 6 f. (1776) (Pondichery). 
Captain Wingate collected 1 <J ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899. 

200. Pyrotrogon erythrocephalus erythrocephalus (Gould). 

Trogon erythrocephalus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Part II. 1S34, p. 25 (Rangoon). 

1 (J ad. was obtained at Namting River, March 1917, by Andrews & Heller, 
which Bangs emphasizes strongly to be the typical subspecies. 

201. Pyrotrogon erythrocephalus yamakensis (Rick.). 

Harpactes yamakensis Rickett, Bull. B.O.C. vol. viii, p. xlviii (1899) (Fokien). 

Forrest sent 1 <J, 2 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 1 $ vicinity of Tengyueh. 

The 1925 collection contains 1 <J, 1 ? ad., 1 <$ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
9,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Forests. Bill black ; feet pale brown ; iris pale yellow. 

202. Anthracaceros malabaricus affinis (Blyth). 

Buceros affinis Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xviii, p. 803 (1849) (" Deyra Doon "). 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 ad., $ 1 ? imm. on the Namting River, March 

203. Caprimulgus macrourus ambiguus Hart. 

Caprimulgus macrourus amnguus Hartert, Ibis, p. 373 (1896) (Malay Peninsula, Burma, etc.). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 $ Mengtsz, Dec. 1910 ; Forrest collected 1 <$ 
T'ong Shan, 1 <J Lichiang Range. 

204. Caprimulgus indica jotaka Temm. & Schleg. 
Caprimulgus jotaka Temminck & Schlegel, SieboWs Fauna Japonica Ares. p. 37. pi. xii (1847) (Japan). 
Anderson records an example of this species from Ponsee, April 1868 ; Forrest 
sent 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide ; 2 $$ Lichiang Range. 

205. Caprimulgus monticola Frankl. 

Caprimulgus monticolus Franklin, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 116 (Vindhyian Hills). 

Ingram records 1 <J Mengtsz, July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 1 <? Mengtsz, 
Aug. 1910. 

206. Lyncornis cerviniceps Gould. 

Lyncornis cerviniceps Gould. Icones Avium, pt. ii. pi. and text (1838) ("said to be from China or 
adjacent islands"). 

Forrest sent 1 $ Tengyueh District. 

207. Collocallia fucifuga brevirostris (McClell.). 

Hirundo bri virostris McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. Land. pt. vii, p. 155 (1840) (Assam). 
Forrest collected 1 ? juv. on the Mekong-Salwin Divide. 


208. Chaetura caudacuta nudipes Hodgs. 

Chaetura nudipes Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v, p. 779 (1836) (Nepal). 

Forrest sent 1 <J Mekong-Salwin Divide Aug. 1921. In his 1925 collection 
is 1 J hills N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Open country. 

209. Micropus affinis subfurcatus (Blyth). 

Cypselus subfurcatus Blyth, Journ. As. Sue. Bengal, vol. xviii. p. 807 (1849) (Penang and Malay 

Ingram records 4 $3, 2 §§ Mengtsz, May-June 1910; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 7 examples Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; La Touche says " exceedingly 
abundant at Mengtsz." 

210. Pitta cucullata Hartl. 

Pitta cucullata Hartlaub, Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 65 (Malacca). 
La Touche records 1 $ Mengtsz, April 1921. 

211. Pitta (Hydrornis) nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

Palndicola nipalensis Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. vi, p. 103 (1837) (Nepal). 
Baker enumerates this bird as from Yunnan. 

212. Hirundo rustica gutturalis Scop. 

Hirundo gutturalis Scopoli, Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. vol. ii, p. 96 (1786) (Antigua Panay). 

Ingram enumerates 3 $<$, 1 ? Mengtsz, June-July 1910; Bangs & Phillips 
record 8 specimens from Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Andrews & Heller collected 
1 (J Meng-ting, Feb. 1917 ; M. Pichon sent 1 example ; M. & Mme. Comby got 
1 specimen ; Messrs. Uchida & Kuroda record 3 <$<$, 2 $$ from Mengtsz, Dec. 
1910-1911, but erroneously identified them as the American subspecies rustica 
erythrogastra Bodd. ; Forrest sent 1 $ juv., 2 $$ Tengyueh Valley, 1 $ Tengyueh, 
1 <J ad. Tali Valley, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range ; La Touche collected 1 $ ad., 1 ? 
imm. Mengtsz, 1 <J ad. Tachouang, 1 $, 2 $$ juv. Yurmanfu. In Forrest's 1925 
collection he sent 2 ?$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925. In the 
British Museum is an example Talifu Plain, March 1902, Colonel Rippon. 

213. Hirundo rustica tytleri Jerd. 

Hirundo tytleri Jerdon, B. Ind. vol. iii, p. 870 (1864) (India). 

Ingram records 1 £ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 4 
examples, Mengtsz, Dec. 1910. Forrest sent in his 1924 collection 2 $$ hills 
N.W. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925. 

214. Hirundo daurica nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

Hirundo nipalensis Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v. p. 780 (1837) (Central Nepal). 

Andrews & Heller record 1 ? adult, Meng-ting, Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917 ; 
M. Pichon sent 1 example from Tengyueh and says common everywhere in 
Yunnan ; Forrest collected 1 <J, 1 9 Tali Valley, 1 ^ Mekong- Yangtze Divide. 


215. Hirundo daurica striolata Temm. & Schleg. 

Hirundo striolata Temminck & Schlegel, Siebold's Faun. Jap. Arcs. p. 33 (1847) (Java). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 examples Mengtsz, June 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 4 ^^ from Loukouchai ; La Touche has 1 <J imm. Mengtsz. Sept. 
1920; Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example Talifu Valley, March 1902, and 1 
Yangpi-Chutung Road, March 1906. 

216. Riparia rupestris (Scop.). 

Hirundo rupestris Scopoli, Annus Historico-Nat. p. 167 (1769) (Tyrol). 

Captain Wingate collected 2 o $ ad. near Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Andrews 
and Heller got 1 $ Chen-kang Salwin, Drainage, Feb. 1917 ; M. Pichon sent 2 

217. Cinclus pallasii souliei Oust. 

Oinclus pallasii var. souliei Oustalet, Ann. Scien. Nat. Zool. scr. 7, vol. xii, p. 299 (1892) (Ta-tsicn-lu 
and Moupin). 

Colonel Rippon obtained an adult example of this bird in the Tali River 
Valley April 1906 ; La Touche says he saw a Dipper doubtless of this form 
on the Pataho below Kopaotsun ; Colonel Rippon also collected an immature 
example in the Tali River Valley, April 1906. 

218. Tesia cyaniventer Hodgs. 

Tesia cyaniventer Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. vi, p. 101 (1837) (Nepal). 

Forrest collected 1 $ Salwin Valley, 1 $ Scheli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ ad., 2 <?<?, 
1 $ juv. Tengyueh District. 

219. Oligura castaneo-coronata (Burton). 

Sylvia! castaneo-coronata Burton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. iii, p. 52 (1836) (Himalaya). 

Although Dr. Hartert in his Palaearctic Birds unites cyaniventer and castaneo- 
coronata in the genus Tesia, and I am generally of his opinion that we should 
strive rather to reduce than to increase the number of genera, I feel in this 
case that Outram Bangs has good reasons for re-separating these birds into 
two genera. 

Forrest collected 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 6 <Jc?, 1 ?, 1 ? Lichiang Range. 

220. Spelaeornis kauriensis (Har.). 

rocichla kauriensis Harington, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), ii, p. 246 (1908) (Watan Bhamo District). 
Forrest is the only collector to get this bird in Yunnan ; he sent 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, Dec. 1919, and 1 $ Tengyueh District, Nov. 1924. 

221. Spelaeornis souliei Oust. 

Spelaeornis souliei Oustalet, Bull. Mas. d'Hisl. Nat. Paris, p. 257, No. 6 (1898) (Tsekou). 

Andrews & Heller got 1 c? caught in a small mammal trap at Tai-ping-pu, 
April 1917 ; Pere Soulie collected the type at Tsekou in Yunnan, and the only 
other known examples of this very rare bird up to 1920 are the cJ9 an <l j uv - sent 


by Forrest. In his 1925 collection he sent 1 cJ hills N. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, 
July 1925. Thickets. Bill, upper mandible brown, lower mandible bone-grey ; 
feet dark olive ; iris brown. 

222. Pnoepyga albiventer magnirostris Rothsch. 

Pnoepyga squamata magnirostris Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxxii, p. 297, No. 51 (1925) (Shweli 

So far the type $ is the only known example of this bird ; 1 $ ad. (rufous 
form) Shweli Valley, Nov. 1924; Forrest fourth collection. 

223. Pnoepyga pusilla pusilla Hodgs. 

Pnoepyga pusilla Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. xiii, p. 25 (1845) (Nepal). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 $ ad. Mengtsz, March 1911 ; Andrews & Heller 
obtained 1 <J, 1 ? Ho-mo-shu Pass and Namting River, April 1917. 

224. Troglodytes troglodytes talifuensis (Sharpe). 

Anorlhura talifuensis Sharpe. Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiii, p. 11 (1902) (Gyi-dzin-shan). 

Colonel Rippon collected this species in the Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, in the 
Lichiang Valley, March 1906, and on the Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; 
Oustalet records this bird in the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans under the 
name of Troglodytes nipalensis ; Forrest collected 1 cj, 2 $$ Mekong-Salwin 
Divide ; 4 <$$, 2 ?$, 2 ? Lichiang Range. 

225. Prunella immaculata (Hodgs.). 

Accentor immaculata Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. xiii, p. 34 (1845) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon brought home examples from the Chutung-Yangpi Road 
and Yangtze big bend, Feb.-March 1906, and 5 examples Gyi-dzin-shan, E. of 
Talifu, March 1902; Forrest collected 2 cJ<J ad., 2? ad., 1 fledgling, Lichiang 
Range, 1 $ Tengyueh District, 1 <J, 1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

226. Prunella strophiata multistriata (David). 

Accentor multistrialus David, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4). vii, p. 256 (1871) (Moupin). 

Colonel Rippon obtained examples in the Lichiang Valley, at Lichiang and 
on the Yangpi Chutung Road, March-April 1906 ; and 3 examples Gyi-dzin-shan 
E. of Talifu, April 1902 ; Forrest sent 12 <3<3, 5 $?, 7 ? Lichiang Range, 1 <J, 2 $? 
Mekong-Salwin Divide. In the British Museum there is also an example in the 
Styan collection, Tsekou Soulie 1897. 

227. Prunella collaris ripponi Hart. 

Prunella collaris rippokni Hartert, Viig. paladrkl. Faun. vol. i, p. 766 (1910) (Gyi-dzin-shan). 

Colonel Rippon collected a series at Gyi-dzin-shan, April 1902 ; Forrest 
sent 6 c?<J Lichiang Range, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, Oct. 1918. 

In the British Museum is an example from Tsekou coll. by Soulie, 1897. 

228. Microcichla scouleri (Vig.). 

Bnicurus scouleri Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, pt. i, p. 174 (1832) (Himalaya). 
Oustalet records this bird in the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans. 


229. Enicurus sinensis Gould. 

Emcurus aim nsu Gould. Proe. Zool. Soc. London, p. 6(55 (1865) (Shanghai). 

Colonel Rippon collected this bird in the Lichiang Valley, the Tali Valley, 
and on the Yangpi-Chutung Road, March 1906 ; Captain Wingate reports a 
<J ad. Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Forrest sent 1 cJ, 1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 
2 (J (J, 2 $$ ad. Lichiang Range ; La Touche records 1 <J Yunnanfu, and says 
he observed an example on the edge of the Mengtsz Plateau. 

230. Enicurus maculatus guttatus Could. 

Enicurus guttatus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 18(if>, p. 664 (.Sikkiin). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 (J, 1 $ Loukouchai, Feb., under the name E. 
guttatus bacatus, as a new subspecies, but the size of the spots varies individually 
and I cannot recognize this new form ; Uchida & Kuroda record 1 ^, 1 $ from 
Loukouchai under the name maculatus ; Forrest collected 1 $ Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 1 <$, 1 $ ad., 1 <J juv. Tengyueh District. 

231. Enicurus schistaceus Hodgs. 

Enicurus schistaceus Hodgson, Asiat. Res. vol. xix. p. 189 (1836) (Nepal). 

Bangs & Phillips record 7 examples from Loukouchai, Feb., Dec. ; Andrews 
and Heller obtained 1 $ on the Namting River, Feb. 1917 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 2 <$<$> 2 ?$ from Loukouchai ; Forrest sent 2 <$<$ Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 2 $$ ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District ; La Touche obtained 1 <J, 1 $ 
Loukouchai, Feb. 1921. In the British Museum are 2 examples, Yunnan, Styan 

232. Hodgsonius phoenicuroides (Gray). 

Bradypterus phoenicuroides Gray, Cat. Mamm., etc., Nepal Pres. Hodgs. p. 70, No. 153 (Nepal). 
Forrest collected 7 c$S< 6 $$ ad. Lichiang Range. 

233. Luscinia brunnea (Hodgs.). 

Larvivora brunnea Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. vi, p. 102 (1837) (Nepal) $>. 

Forrest collected 1 ? Tengyueh District, 1 <J ad. Yangtze Valley, 1 $ ad. 
T'ong-Shan, 2 $$, 2 $?, ad., 1 \ juv. Lichiang Range. 

234. Luscinia cyane (Pall.). 

Motacilla cyane Pallas, Reise d. versch. Prov. Rues. Reichs. vol. iii, p. 697 (1776) (Dauria). 

La Touche collected 6 Jd, 8 $?, 1 ? Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920 and April- 
May 1921. 

230. Luscinia davidi (Oust.). 

Calliope davidi Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1892, p. 222 (Ta-tsien-lu). 

Forrest alone of the explorers of Yunnan obtained this beautiful species ; he 
sent 4 c$<3> 2 $9 ad. Lichiang Range. Since Forrest obtained the above 6 examples 
Dr. F. H. Rock has sent to the United States National Museum a very large 
collection of birds from the Lichiang Range, and neighbouring Mountain Ranges 
in N.W. Yunnan. Prof. Sushkin exchanged a <$ ad. of this bird from Dr. Rock's 


series of 5 £<$ ad. and 99 and juv., and on comparing it in the Paris Museum 
he found Dr. Rock's bird different in having a more brilliant breast and the 
white in the tail was more extended. Prof. Sushkin at once described it under 
the name of Luscinia davidi gloriosa (Auk, vol. xliii, No. 2, p. 181 (1926)). On 
reading this description I was struck by the fact that our Lichiang birds did 
not all show these differences, and so I comjjared the British Museum birds and 
those at Tring consisting of 1 ^ (topotype) Ta-tsien-lu, 1 (J Tain-Ling Mts., and 
1 cJ, 1 9 Lichiang (Tring Museum) ; 3 $<$, 1 9 Lichiang Range, 2 $3 Chumbi 
Valley (British Museum). I find that the 3 British Museum Lichiang <$$ and 
the Tring Tsin-Ling and Ta-tsien-lu $S agree exactly in colour of throat and 
breast, while the Tring Lichiang <J is brighter orange ; the 1 British Museum 
Chumbi $ is as pale as the topotypical Ta-tsien-lu bird, while the other, instead 
of having the throat and breast golden orange, has it bright orange-scarlet. As 
regards the white in the tail the Ta-tsien-lu bird at Tring has more white than 
the 4 Lichiang birds, while the Chumbi $ with the scarlet breast has much less 
white, in fact hardly any, while the paler Chumbi bird has as much white as the 
whitest Lichiang <J. Now in addition to these facts, I find that of. the 8 <Jc? 
examined the only one that has the upper wing-coverts and outer webs of the 
quills blackish slate-blue like the upper surface is the Chumbi bird with scarlet 
breast ; the other 7 have these feathers more or less umber-brown. It is there- 
fore clear that the blue coverts and quill vanes and the more brilliant breast- 
colour are entirely questions of age, while the white in the tail is variable, and 
that Sushkin's gloriosa is a pure synonym of davidi. 

236. Luscinia pectoralis peetoralis (Gould). 

Calliope pectoralis Gould, Icones Avium, pt. ii, pi. and text 1 (183S) (Himalaya). 
Anderson records 1 9 from Ponsee, March 1868. 

237. Luscinia calliope calliope (Pall.). 

Molacilla calliope Pallas, Reise d. versch. Pror. Buss. Reichs. vol. iii, p. 697 (1776) (Yenisei-Lena 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 1 specimens Mengtsz, April and May ; Andrews & 
Heller obtained 1 £, 1 9 a d. Namting River, and Chang-lung, March 1917 ; 
Uchida and Kuroda record 5 t$$, 1 9 Mengtsz ; Forrest collected 1 $ Lichiang 
Range ; La Touche mentions 1 $ Hokow, April 1921. 

238. Luscinia sibilans (Swinh.). 

Larvivora sibilans Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 292 (Macao, China). 

Mr. La Touche collected 2 cjcj, 1 9 Mengtsz, Jan.-Feb. 1920-21, 1 <J Milati, 
March 1921. 

239. Phoenicurus schisticeps (Gray). 

Rulicilla schisticeps Gray, Cat. Milium. B. Nepal Coll. Hodgson, p. 69, No. 153 (1846) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 4 examples Lichiang, March 1906, and 1 Yangtze 
Big Bend, March 1906 ; Forrest collected 8 $$, 9 99 ad., 1 <J, 4 ? juv. Lichiang 
Range, 1 9 Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 9, 2 ? Yangtsz Valley. 


24ii. Phoenicurus frontalis frontalis Vig. 

Phoenicura frontalis Vigors, Proc. C'omm. Zool. Soc. London, pt. i, p. 172 (1832) (Himalaya). 

Dr. Hartert, in the Bull. B.O.C. for 1918, separated the Chinese frontalis 
as a new subspecies under the name of frontalis sinae, and La Touche and I have 
recorded his and Forrest's Yunnan examples under that name. Mr. Kinnear, 
however, drew my attention to the fact that the birds in the British Museum 
share of Forrest's collections could not be distinguished from typical frontalis. 
I have now compared Forrest's birds at Tring, 18<Jc?, 9 $$, 3 juv., with my typical 
Himalayan series, and I also cannot separate them. Therefore, if frontalis sinae 
can be maintained at all, this name must apply to birds from the more northern 
parts of China, and the Yunnan birds must be called frontalis frontalis. 

Colonel Rippon obtained examples on the Chung-tung-Yangpi Road, in 
the Talifu Valley, at Lichiang, at the Yangtze Big Bend, and in the Lichiang 
Valley, Feb.-April 1906 ; Oustalet records it from Prince H. d'Orleans' collec- 
tion ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 2 specimens Mengtsz, March ; M. Pichon 
sent 1 $ ; Forrest collected 5 33 Shweli Valley, 1 $ Salwin Valley, 2 $? Yangtze 
Valley, 1 3 ad. Tengyueh Valley, 4 33, 3 ?? Tengyueh District, 1 3 ad., 1 $ juv. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide, 20 c?o, 10 $? ad., 2 33, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range ; 
La Touche obtained 1 ? Milati, March 1921. 

241. Phoenicurus auroreus leucopterus Blyth. 

Phoenicura leucoptera Blyth, Joiirn. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, pi. i, p. 962 (1843) (Malacca). 

Colonel Rippon obtained examples on the Yangtze Big Bend, and in the 
Lichiang Valley, April 1906 ; also 2 ?$ Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1902 ; 
Oustalet records it among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
IS specimens from Mengtsz ; F >rrest sent 7 33> 1 ? a( l-> * ? J uv - Lichiang Range, 

1 3 ad. Yangtze Valley, 1 3 a <3- T'ong Shan, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 5 33, 

2 ?? ad. Tengyueh District, 2 33, 2 $? ad. Tengyueh Valley ; La Touche col- 
lected 7 33, 3 $$ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920, 1 cj Loshuitang, Feb. 1921. 

242. Phoenicurus hodgsoni (Moore). 

Ruticilla hodgsoni Moore. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. xxii, p. 26, pi. Aves 58 (1854) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon records examples from Chutung-Yangpi Road, Talifu Valley, 
and Lichiang, Feb. -March 1906 ; Andrews & Heller secured 1 (J, 1 $ at Yung- 
chiang-chou, Jan. 1917 ; Forrest collected 1 3> 2 $$ Lichiang Range, 1 3 
Tengyueh District, 4 ? Yangtze Valley. 

243. Phoenicurus ochrurus rufiventris (Vieill.). 

Oenanlhe rufiventris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet, d' Hist. Xat. Nouv. Ed. vol. xxi, p. 431 (1818) (India). 
Colonel Rippon collected this bird on the Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906. 

244. Chaimarrornis fuliginosa hiliginosa (Vig.). 

Phoenicura fuliginosa Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc. London, pt. i, p. 35 (1831) (Himalaya). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this species in the Lichiang Valley, April 1906 ; 
at Talifu, March 1902 and Feb. 1906, and on the Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 
1906 ; Oustalet records it from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs & 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 253 

Phillips enumerate 14 examples from Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Forrest sent 
5 cJcJ Tengyueh District, 1 $ ad. Tengyueh Valley, 2 $$ ad. Shweli Valley, 
3 ? juv. Mekong Valley, 4 2 juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 5 <$$ ad., 1 nestling 
Lichiang Range; La Touche records 1 q, 2 ?$ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920, 6 <J <$, 
3 $$ Loukouchai, Dec. 1920, 1 $ Milati, Jan. 1921. 

245. Chainiarrornis leucocephala (Vig.). 

Phoenicura leucocepliala Vigors, Proc. Comm. Zool. Roc. London, pt. i, p. 35 (1831) (Himalaya). 

Colonel Rippon collected this bird in the Chutung Valley, March 1902, 
and in Lichiang Valley and in the Tali River Valley, April 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 14 examples from Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Andrews and Heller obtained 
1 cj, 1 $ at Mu-cheng, Salwin Drainage, and Yuan-chiang-Chou, Jan.-Feb. 1917 ; 
M. Pichon sent 1 example ; Forrest collected 1 (J Salwin Valley, 1 (J ad. Tengyueh 
District, 2 $$ ad. Shweli Valley, 1 £, 4 $$ ad., 1 (J, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range ; La 
Touche records 1 (J, 1 $ Mengtsz, 1 ? Milati, 3 <$<$, 1 $ Loukouchai, 1 9 
Loshuitang, and 1 specimen Poutoutsing. 

246. Notodela leucura leucura (Hodgs.). 

Muscisyh'ia leucura Hodgson, Proc. Zool. .S'oc. London, 1845, p. 27 (Nepal). 

Ingram records 2 $$ Mengtsz, June-July 1910 ; Oustalet enumerates it 
among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Bangs & Phillips list 2 cJc? Mengtsz, July- 
Aug. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 2 33 ad. Namting River, Feb. 1917 ; Forrest 
collected 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range ; 3 ? juv. Tengyueh District ; La Touche 
records 1 3 Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, 1 3 Loukouchai, April 1921, 1 $ Lotukow, May 
1921. In the British Museum are 1 example Yunnan, Styan coll., and 1 Yung 
Chang, Salwin Road, April 1906, Colonel Rippon. 

247. Tarsiger chrysaeus Hodgs. 

Tarsiger chrysaeus Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1845, p. 28 (Nepal). 

Forrest collected 1 <J ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District, 1 3, 8 $? ad., 1 $ juv. 
Lichiang Range, 5 $$ ad., 1 (J, 1 $ juv. Mekong-Sal win Divide. 

248. Tarsiger indicus yunnanensis Rothsch. 

Tarsiger indicus yunnanensis Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 10 (1922) (Lichiang Range). 

Forrest collected 1 £ ad. (type), 1 <J juv. Lichiang Range, 1 ? Mekong- 
Salwin Divide. 

249. Tarsiger rufilatus practicus (Bangs & Phillips). 

Ianthia praclica Bangs & Phillips, Bull. JIus. Comp. Zool. vol. lviii, p. 292 (1914) (Loukouchai). 

Colonel Rippon records this bird from the Chutung- Yangpi Road and the 
Yangtze Big Bend, Feb.-March 1906 ; Oustalet enumerates the species among 
Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Bangs & Phillips list 1 cj, 1 $ Mengtsz, April, Lou- 
kouchai, Feb. ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 (J, 1 $ ad. Mu-cheng, Feb. 1917 ; 
M. Pichon sent 1 example ; Forrest collected 1 $ Tengyueh District, 1 <3 Shweli 
Valley, 2 ?$ Mekong Valley, 1 <J, 1 $ ad., 1 $, 2 $$ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 
4 <?(?. 11 99 a( i., 2 ^ (J, 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range ; La Touche obtained 1 <J Mengtsz, 


254 XilVITATES Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

1 <?, 1 $ Milati, 1 (J Loshuitang 1920-1921. There are also in the British Museum 
1 (J Meechu ; 1 $ Tsekou Soulie, Styan coll., and 4 J, 5 ?? Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 
19U2, Colonel Rippon. 

250. Tarsiger cyanurus (Pall.). 

Motucilla njannrus Pallas, Reise Versch. Prov. Russ. Reicks. vol. ii, p. V09 (1773) (Yenissci). 

Colonel Rippon got this bird at Lichiang, March 1906 ; Bangs & Philhps 
record 11 examples from Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Forrest sent in his second 
collection 1 $ ad., 3 cJtJ juv., 4 ? Lichiang Range, and he sent also some in his 
first collection, but I have unaccountably failed to record them. La Touche 
records 9 $$, 3 $$ Mengtsz, 17 <$$, 1 $ Milati, Nov. 1920 -Feb. 1921. 

251. Dendrobiastes hyperythra hyperythra (Blyth). 

Mvacicapa hyperythra Blyth. Jorum. As. Sor. Bengal, vol. xi. p. 885 (1842) (India). 
Forrest collected 1 <$ ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District. 

252. Copsychus saularis saularis (Linn.). 

Gracula saularis Linnaeus. Syst. Nat. edit, x, p. 109, Xo. 5 (1758) (Asia). 

Ingram records 3 ejej, 1 $ Mengtsz, April-July 1910; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 20 examples from Mengtsz, Loukouchai, Linan Fu, and Shi-ping ; 
Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ Mengting, Feb. 1917 ; M. Pichon sent 1 specimen 
and remarked "fairly common"; Forrest collected 3 (J (J, 1 $ ad. Tengyueh 
District, 7 (J (J, 2 $? ad., 1 cJ, 1 ? juv. Tengyueh Valley, 1(J,2?? ad., 2 $? juv. 
Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2(J(J,5$? Shweli Valley ; La Touche 2 cJcJ, 2 ?? Mengtsz, 
Aug.-Oct. 1920, 1 (J, 1 $ Hokow, March 1921 ; Colonel Rippon collected 1 <J, 2 $$ 
Talifu Valley, Feb. and April 1906, 2 $3 Chutung-Yangpi Road, April 1902. 

253. Oreicola jerdoni Blyth. 

Oreicola jerdoni Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 14 (Upper India) 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. at Namting River, Feb. 1917. 

254. Oreicola ferrea haringtoni Hart. 

Oreicola J errea haringtoni Hartert, Vog. paldark. Faun. vol. i, p. 711, No. 1080 (1910) (Lien-kiang, 

Anderson records 1 ^, 3 $$ Ponsee, May 1868; Captain Wingate collected 
1 <J Yunnan City Feb. 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 11 examples Mengtsz 
Jan.-Dec. ; Andrews & Heller procured 1 <J, 2 $$ at Malipa and Wan-tien ; 
Forrest sent 1 <$, 1 $ad. Tengyueh Valley, 12 <?<?, 5 $$ ad., 1 $, 3 ? juv. Tengyueh 
District, 2 $<$ ad. Salwin Valley, 7 $<$ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 <£, 1 $ ad., 
1 % juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 4 <j>? ad. Tali Valley, 1 <$ ad. Mekong Valley, 

1 ^ juv. T'ong Shan, 7 <£<£, 3 $$ ad., 1 J5! juv. Lichiang Range ; La Touche 
collected 6 <$<$, 4 $$ ad. Mengtsz, 2 cj<y Loukouchai, 1 ? Milati, 1 <J> 1 ? Tachuang, 
and 2 <£<}, 1 $ Lotukow ; M. & Mme. Comb}- obtained 3 examples. 

In the British Museum are 1 <J Yung Mo Chang, March 1903, Styan coll. ; 

2 examples Yangpi Valley, April 1902, 3 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 Yangpi- 
Chutung Road, March 1902, 1 <J, 1 ? Shayang-Chutung Road, March 1902, 1 
Lichiang Range, April 1906, Colonel Rippon. 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 255 

255. Saxicola caprata burmanica Baker. 

Saxicola caprata burmanica Baker, Bull. B.O.C. xliii, p. 9 (1923) (Pegu). 

Captain Wingate collected (J$ at Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Anderson 
obtained the $ at Moniien, June 1868 ; M. Pichon sent home 1 example. 

256. Saxicola caprata bicolor Sykes. 

Saxicola bicolor, Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1832, p. 92 (Deccan). 
Bangs & Phillips record 2 <$$ Mengtsz, Feb.-March. 

257. Saxicola caprata burmanica Baker. 

Saxicola caprata burmanica Stuart Baker, Bull, B.O.C. xliii, p. 9 (1923) (Pegu). 

La Touche records 2 <$($ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920, and says not uncommon 
in winter near Mengtsz. 

In the British Museum are 1 (J Ching Tung, April 1899, Captain Wingate ; 
1 cj Yuen Chang, Styan coll. 

258. Saxicola torquata przewalskii (Pleske). 

Pratincola maura var. przewalskii Pleske, Wigs. Res. Przetcalski's Reisen, Vogel, vol. i, p. 46, pi. iv. 
ff. 1, 2, 3 (1889) (Gansu and East Turkestan). 

Andrews & Heller obtained 2 $$, 1 $ Yung-Chang-Fu, Jan. 1917; Forrest 
collected 2 $$, 1 $ Lichiang Range; La Touche records 7 $$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, 
Sept.-Nov. 1920, 3 $$ Milati, Sept. 1920. 

259. Saxicola torquata indica (Blyth). 

Pratincola indica Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 129 (1847) (India). 

Anderson collected tins bird, 1 $ Ponsee, March, and 3 examples, Momien, 
May 1868 ; Colonel Rippon obtained examples in the Talifu and Lichiang Valleys, 
Feb.-March, and on the Yungchang-Chutung Road, Jan. 1906 ; Ingram records 
1 (J Mengtsz, July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 8 specimens from Mengtsz 
and Loukouchai ; M. Pichon sent home 4 rfd, 1 $; Forrest collected 1 $ ad. 
Mekong Valley, 4 <$$, 3 ?? ad., 1 ? Tengyueh District, 1 (J, 2 ?$ ad., 1 $ juv. 
Lichiang Range. 

260. Saxicola torquata stejnegeri (Parrot). 

Pratincola rubecula stejnegeri Parrot, Verh. orn. Ges. Baijern, vol. viii, p. 124 (1908) (Iterup and 
Yesso, Japan). 

La Touche obtained 1 <J, 1 $ Hokow, March 1921. 

261. Saxicola torquata yunnanensis (La Touche). 

Pratincola torquata yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 134 (1923) (Mengtsz, etc.). 

La Touche enumerates 1 (J, 3 ?? Mengtsz, 1 $ Milati, 1 $, 1 ? juv. Shuitang, 
1 ? Poutoutsing, 1 ? juv. Kopaotsing, 1 ? Lotukow ; and says he suspects 
Bangs & Phillips' indica, which I have quoted antea under indica, rightly 
belong here. 

262. Myiophoneus caeruleus (Scop.). 

Qracula caerulea Seopoli, Del. Fl. el Faun. Insubr. vol. ii, p. 88 (1786) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 $ ad. Mengtsz, May 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 2 £3 March and April, from Mengtsz. 

250 X.iVITATES Zoological XXXII [. 1926. 

263. Myiophoneus eugeniae (Hume). 

Myiophoneus eugeniae Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. i, p. 475 (1873) (Thayetmyo). 

The status of tcmiiihieki , eugeiiiiir, and rmruleus is a very puzzling one; 
in the light of our present knowledge, I do not think it would be wise to treat 
them all as subspecies of caeruleus because in certain areas caeruleus and eugeniae 
or temmincki and eugeniae are found together in the same area ; but again in 
certain areas undoubted crosses occur either between eugeniae and temmincki 
or caeruleus and temmincki; this fact is proved by the long series collected by 
Dr. Weigold on the Stoetzner expedition. At Tring we have an intermediate 
between caeruleus and eugeniae collected by Weigold, and one between eugeniat 
and temmincki obtained by Forrest. For the present I am therefore treating 
these 3 birds as species, and the intermediates as hybrids. 

Colonel Rippon records examples from the Talifu Valley, Talifu River 
Valley, and the Yangpi Valley, Feb. and April 1900 ; Oustalet enumerates this 
species among the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs and Phillips list 
8 specimens Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Andrews & Heller record 4 examples 
from the Namting River and Yung-chang, Jan.-March 1917 ; M. Piehon col- 
lected 1 young bird ; M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 example ; Forrest collected, 
including the " hybrid," 2 Jo, 2 22 ad., 1 f juv. Lichiang Range, 1 $, 2 22 
Tengyueh District, 2 ($<$ ad., 1 <J juv. Mekong Valley, 1 2 ad. Salwin Valley, 
1 cJ, 1 2 ad. Shweli Valley, 3 $<$ ad., 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide; La Touche 
obtained 1 2 Mengtsz, Nov. 1920, 1 $ Loukouchai, March 1921. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 2 $$ hills N.W. of Teng}aieh, 8,000 feet, 
April 1925 ; 1 2 N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, April 1925 ; 1 $ Schweli-Salwin 
Divide, 8,000 feet, July 1925. Shady Ravines. Bill orange ; feet and legs 
black ; iris brown. 

In the British Museum are 2 <§<§ Meechu, Styan coll. 

204. Myiophoneus temmincki temmincki Vig. 

Myophoru \u d mminclri Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 171 (Himalaya). 

M. Piehon sent home 1 specimen, and says " these birds live in flocks in the 
hot valleys and perch on the trees in great numbers." 

205. Cochoa purpurea Hodgs. 

t'nrlrui purpurea Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v, p. 359 (1836) (Nepal). 
Forrest collected 1 q ad. Lichiang Range. 

200 Monticola erythrogastra (Vig.). 

Tardus erythrogaster Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 171 (Himalayas). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 1 £ ad. Loukouchai, Dec. 1910 ; Andrews & Heller collected 
1 (J ad. Ho-mu-shu Pass, April 1917 ; M. Piehon got 1 specimen and records it 
as very common ; Forrest sent 2 <3<S ad. Lichiang Range, 1 2 juv. T'ong-Shan, 
1 2 juv. Shweli Valley. 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 257 

[Monticola solitarius and its forms. 
In the articles on the former collections of Forrest I treated the red-bellied 
forms of the solitarius group as a separate species from solitarius, giving as my 
reason that according to La Touche they breed side by side over large areas in 
S. and S.E. China. Hartert and Stuart Baker do not consider this to be correct, 
because of the even larger area in which intermediate birds of all intergradations 
are found breeding. Stuart Baker separates these intermediate birds as a dis- 
tinct subspecies, under the name of M. solitaria affinis Blyth ; I cannot at present 
agree with this, for the following reason : as in the cases of the two Rollers Coracias 
indicus indicus and C. indicus affinis, the two Birds of Paradise Paradisea apoda 
novaeguineae and P. apoda raggiana, and the two Crows Gorans corone corone and 
C. corone comix, in the territory between the two breeding areas, we certainly 
rind a large area inhabited by an intermediate form, but instead of being a more 
or less constant intermediate form we cannot find 2 examples exactly alike and 
we get every intergradation of coloration between the blue M . s. pandoo and the 
red-bellied philippensis. I have certainly come round to Hartert's view that 
we must treat philippensis as a subspecies of solitarius in the same way as we 
do pandoo, but I prefer for the present to treat the mixed intermediates as 
" Racial Hybrids," and consider that in those districts where at present only 
such intermediates occur the parent subspecies have died out and the intermediate 
" Racial Hybrids " are in the process of becoming a valid " subspecies," but 
that the form is not sufficiently fixed yet to be treated as such.] 

267. Monticola solitarius philippensis (P. L. S. MM.). 

Turdiis 'philippensis P. L. S. Miiller, Xatursystem Anhang, p. 145 (1776) (Philippine Islands). 

Forrest obtained 1 <J T'ong Shan. 

268. Monticola solitarius pandoo (Sykes). 

Petrocincla pandoo Sykes, Proc. Zool. Roc. London, 1832, p. 87 (Ghats, India). 

Colonel Rippon records this thrush from Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, and 
Lichiang, April 1906 ; Captain Wingate obtained 1 $ ad. Yunnan City, Feb. 
1S99, 1 $ ad. Mong-sen, March 1899 ; Ingram enumerates immature examples, 
Mengtsz ; Bangs & Phillips list 19 specimens Mengtsz, Loukouchai, Shi-ping, 
and Linan Fu ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 ^ ad. Tung-chang-Fu, Jan. 1917 ; 
M. Pichon sent home 3 specimens and states they were winter migrants ; Forrest 
collected 1 $ ad., 4 ? juv. Shweli Valley, 1 $ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ ad., 
4 ? juv. Mekong Valley, 2 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 1 <$, 1 $ ad. Tengyueh VaLtey, 
2 (J (J ad. Lang Bong Valley, 1 ? juv. vicinity of Tengyueh; La Touche records 
2 <?c?= 3 ?$ ad., 1 <J juv. Mengtsz, Oct. and Dec. 1920, 2 <$£ ad. Loukouchai, 
Dec. 1920, 1 ^Milati, Jan. 1921, 1 <J Tachouang, March 1921, 2 ?$ Poutontsing, 
April 1921. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection there are 1 $ (sexed J) Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 
feet, Dec. 1925 ; 1 £ juv. hills N. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925 ; 2 cJ^ juv. 
Shweli-Salwin Divide, 6,000 feet, July 1925. 

269. Monticola solitarius pandoo solitarius philippensis. 
Forrest collected 1 £ Lichiang Range, 1 <J Mekong Valley. 


270. Turdus merala mandarinus Bp. 

Turdus mandarinus Bonaparte. ' 'onsp. Av. vol. i, p. 275 (1850) (S. China). 

Ingram records 1 £ Mengtsz, April L910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 11 
examples from Shi-ping and Linan Fu ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 <J, 1 $ 
ad. Yung-chang, Jan. 1917 ; La Touche obtained 1 (J, 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, Oct. and 
Dec. 1920, 1 <J juv. Yunnan Fu, May 1921. 

271. Turdus castaneus gouldi (Verr.). 

Merula gouldi Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mil*. d'Hisl. Nat. Paris, vol. vi.Sull. p. ;S4 (1871) (W. Szets- 

Colonel Rippon obtained examples Yangpi Valley, Feb. 1906, and Liehiang 
Valley, April 1906 ; Oustalet records the species in the collection of Prince H. 
d'Orleans ; Andrews & Heller record 3 ad. and 1 imm. <J and $ Liehiang Range, 
Yoa-kuan, and Taiping-pu, Nov. 1916 and Jan. and April 1917 ; Forrest collected 
22 (J (J, 13 $$ ad., 8 ? juv. Liehiang Range, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 ? juv. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide. In the British Museum are 1 <J Chu-men-chin-tra 
Tsekou Soulie, 1 $ Yuen Chang, Styan coll. 

272. Turdus eunomus Temm. 

Turdus eunomus Temminck, PI. Col. pi. 514 (1830) (Japan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird on the Chutung- Yangpi Road, Feb. 1906 ; 
Bangs & Phillips record 12 examples Mengtsz, Shi-ping, Linan Fu, and Loukouchai, 
Forrest collected 4 <J<J ad., 2 ? Liehiang Range, 3 S3, 1 9 ad. Shweli Valley. 
5 cJcJ ad. vicinity of Tengyueh, 1 $ ad. Salwin Valley ; La Touche records 1 <J 
1 ? Milati, Jan. 1921. In Forrest's 1925 collection are 2 <?<?, 2 $$ hills N.W. of 
Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, April 1925. 

273. Turdus naumanni Temm. 

Turdus naumanni Temminck, Man. d'Orn. vol. i, p. 170 (1820) (Eastern Europe). 
Forrest obtained 1 <J Tengyueh Valley, 5,500 feet, March 1919. 

274. Turdus eunomus naumanni. 
Forrest obtained 1 $ Shweli Valley, 1 3, 1 $, 1 ? Liehiang Range. 
Forrest's 1925 collection contains 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, April 1925. 

275. Turdus obscurus Gm. 

Turdus obscurus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, pt. ii, p. 816 (1789) (east of Lake Baikal). 

Bangs & Phillips record 6 examples Mengtsz, Oct. -Nov. ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 5 £<$, 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. ; Forrest collected 1 <$, 3 ?? Liehiang 
Range, 2 <$£, 6 $? Shweli Valley, 2 $$ Tengyueh District ; La Touche collected 
2 (J (J, 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920 ; Forrest's 1925 collection contains 1 $ ad., 
1 S juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, Oct. 1925. 

All the birds Forrest collected are darker above, dark olive, not rufous-olive, 
and the ($<$ have the head less grey, not so distinct from the back, but breeding 
birds from N. China are required before we can safely separate this form. 


276. Turdus dissimilis dissimilis Blyth. 

Tuning dissimilis Blyth, Journ. As. Hoc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 144 (1844) ($ nee $) (Lower Bengal). 

Andrews & Heller record 1 <$, 1 $ ad. Chang-lung, Salwin River, March 1917 ; 
Forrest collected 2 £ £, 1 $ ad. Tengyueh Valley, 5 <?(?, 1 $ ad., 2 <$<$ juv- 
Tengyueh District, 1 ? ad., 1 <$ juv. Shweli Valley, 3 $$, 1 $ ad. 1 ? juv. 
Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range. In Forrest's 1925 collection 
are 1 £, 2 $$ ad., 1 <J juv. hills S. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, May 1925 ; 1 $ juv. 
hills N. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Oct. 1925. 

277. Turdus dissimilis yunnanensis (La Touche). 

Mcrula prolonwmelaena yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.I', vol. xlii, p. 30 (1921) (Milati). 

Ingram records 1 $ Mengtsz, July 1910 ; La Touche collected 5 3$, 2 ?? 
ad. Milati, Jan., Feb. 1921, 1 $ juv. Mengtsz, Feb. 1921. This race is very 
doubtfully distinct from d. dissimilis, and it requires a series from S.E. Yunnan 
from different seasons of the year to decide this point definitely. 

278. Turdus boulboul (Lath.). 

Lanius boulboul Latham, Ind. Orn. vol. i, p. 80 (1790) (India). 

Mr. La Touche collected 1 $ ad. Mengtsz, Jan. 1921. 

279. Turdus cardis lateus (Thay. & Bangs). 

Merula cardis lateus Thayer & Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. Hi, p. 140 (1909). 
1 (J juv. was obtained by La Touche, Mengtsz, Nov. 1920. 

280. Turdus mupinensis conquisitus Bangs. 

Turdus auritus conquisitus Bangs, Bull. Amer. Mus. Xat. Hist. vol. xliv, p. 591 (1921) (Lichiang 

[The typical race from Moupin Szetchuan has been renamed mupinensis by 
Laubmann, as Turdus auritus Verr. is preoccupied by Turdus auritus Gin.] 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ Lichiang Range, Nov. 1916 (type of Turdus 
auritus conquisitus) ; Forrest collected 3 <$$, 1 $ ad., 2 £<$< 3 ? jun. Lichiang 
Range. 1 $ Yunnan, Styan coll., is in the British Museum. 

281. Turdus pallidus Gm. 

Turdus pallidus Gmelin, Hysl. Nat. vol. i, p. 815 (1789) (Lake Baikal). 

Oustalet records this bird from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans. 

282. Turdus ruficollis ruficollis Pall. 

Turdus ru/icollis Pallas, Keise versch. Prov. Russ. Meiclis. vol. iii, p. 694 (1776) (Dauria). 

Colonel Rippon collected this bird in the Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, at Lichiang 
March 1906, at the Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, and in the Lichiang Valley, 
April 1906 ; Oustalet received it in the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans. Forrest 
sent 1 ^ Tengyueh Valley, 2 $$ juv. Yengyueh District. 

2(i() Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

283. Turdus mollissimus Blyth. 
Turdus mollissimus Blyth, Jmirn. As. Soc. Bengal, vo\. xi, p. 188 (1842) (Darjeeling). 

Colonel Rippon obtained an example on the Chutung-Yangpi Road, Feb. 
L906 ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 ? ad. Lichiang Range, Nov. 1916 : Forrest 
collected 1 j\ 1 ?, 3 ? ad., 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 1 <J ad., 2 <?<?, 1 $ juv. 
Meki >ng-SaIwin Divide. 

284. Turdus dauma socius (Thay. & Bangs). 

Oreocinda dauma socio Thayer & Bangs, .)/> m. Mue. ' 'omp. Zool. Harv. vol. xl (some ( Ihinese Verte- 
brates), No. 4. Ave*, p. 174 (1912) (Tatsienlu). 

Forrest was the only collector in Yunnan to obtain this race of dauma ; he 
collected 2 $$, 1 ? Lichiang Range. 

In my second and third articles I recorded the above birds as dauma dauma, 
but the deeper olive-ground colour and the heavier black markings especially 
on the head distinguish the Indo-Chinese form easily from the Continental Indian 

285. Turdus dauma aureus Hoi. 

Turdus aureus Holandre, Faune Dip. Moselle in Ann. dt la Mas. 1925, p. 60 (Metz). 

Colonel Rippon collected an example at Shan Kuan, March 1902 ; Bangs 
and Phillips record 5 examples, Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. ; La Touche collected 1 £ 
Mengtsz, Nov. 1920, 1 $ Milati, Jan. 1921. 

Mr. Stuart Baker upholds aureus as a species on account of its 14 tail- 
feathers, a character it shares with major of Amomioshima ; until, however, 
someone has found aureus and dauma breeding in the same area, I prefer to 
treat them as subspecies. 

[Note on some of the Chinese races of Pomatorhinus ruficollis. 

In his Handbook of the Birds of Eastern < 'hina, pt. i, pp. 06-69, Mr. La Touche 
goes fully into two races, viz. P. ruficollis stridulus Swinh., and P. r. styani Seeb., 
but gives a synopsis of the five Chinese races, to which I now add a sixth, three of 
which, r. reconditus Bangs & Phillips, r. laurentei La Touche, and r. albipectus La 
Touche, are given as occurring in Yunnan. In my first article (Nov. Zool. xxviii, 
pp. 32-33, 1921), I referred the 9 examples collected by Forrest in the Lichiang 
Range, 1918, and Tengyueh District, 1919, to P. r. stridulus, and in the second 
article I also referred Forrest's 9 birds collected in 1921 to stridulus ; this was 
entirely wrong, as stridulus has the streaks on the breast, and the flanks chestnut, 
whereas the W. and N. West Yunnan birds have them olive-grey or olive-brown. 
In my third article (Nov. Zool. xxx, p. 256) on the birds collected in 1922, I 
corrected this error, but fell into one just as bad by naming these 14 birds and 
the previous ones P. ruficollis bah r'i Har. This error I continued by enumerating 
Forrest's 16 birds collected in 1924 (Nov. Zool. xxxii, p. 299, 1925) as r. bakeri. 
Mr. Kinnear, however in going through the present manuscript pointed out to 
me that all these birds from ^Y. Yunnan were of a more or less uniform coloration 
much more so than the other races of ruficollis, and had no red or almost none 
below, whereas ruficollis bakeri always has some and often a good deal. He 
suggested that the bird from Tengyueh and Lichiang and the intervening portions 


of W. Yunnan was a new race. I have gone carefully through my considerable 
series at Tring and find they are indistinguishable, except for having the upper 
mandible black at base only, from 1 $ from Kansu and 1 ? Szechuan Berezowsky 
coll., 1 (J, 1 ? Kuikiang ex coll. F. W. Styan, and 1 <J, 2 $$ E. China, Captain 
(Admiral) Hubert Lynes, and all 7 of which are undoubtedly ruficollis styani. 
Therefore we have 4 forms of ruficollis occurring in Yunnan, viz. similis Rothsch. 
in W. and N.W. Yunnan ; reconditus in S.E. Yunnan ; albipectus La Touche in 
South Yunnan, and laurentei La Touche from East Central Yunnan. In addition 
there are two single specimens about which some doubt exists, viz. 1 <J Milati, 
La Touche coll. and 1 Howlik, West River, Captain Vaughan coll. This latter 
has the upperside of stridulus, but the underside of reconditus, and has a remarkably 
short bill. Of the Milati bird La Touche says that it resembles styani, but lacks 
the black on the upper mandible, except at the base ; this is precisely the differ- 
ence shown between my W. Yunnan birds and my series of styani.] 

286. Pomatorhinus ruficollis similis subsp. nov. 

Differs from r. styani in having the upper mandible never more than two- 
thirds black, and mostly all yellow, only the base being black ; whereas in 
r. styani the whole upper mandible is black. It also averages slightly larger <$<$ 
of styani, having a wing of 75-78 mm. ; similis a wing of 77-83. (Type <J hills 
round Tengyueh, March 1922, No. 1301.) 

Anderson obtained 1 example at Momien ; Oustalet records specimens from 
Tsekou collected by Rev. Father Soulie ; Forrest collected 8 (J (J,. 4 $<j>, 1 ? 
Tengyueh District, 1 <$ E. of Lichiang Plain, 7 c?c?> 5 $?> 2 ? Lichiang Range, 
1 <J Tali Valley, 1 $ Mekong Valley, 1 <?, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 3 <3<3 Shweli-Salwin 
Divide. In his 1925 collection Forrest sent 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000 
feet, Oct. 1925. M. Pichon collected 1 example. La Touche records 1 $ Milati, 
Jan. 14, 1921, as Pomatorhinus ruficollis subsp. ? but his description leaves no 
doubt that it is a stray bird of the W. Yunnan race. 

287. Pomatorhinus ruficollis reconditus Bangs & Phillips. 

Pomatorhinus ruficollis reconditus Bangs & P hilli ps Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Cainb. vol. lviii, 
p. 286 (1914) (Mengtsz). 

Bangs & Phillips record 9 examples from Mengtsz, Shi-ping, and Loukouchai ; 
La Touche collected 4 <$$, 3 ?$ Hokow, March 1921, 2 £$ Loukouchai, Feb. 
1921, 1 $ Lotukow, May 1921, 2 examples Loshuitang, Feb. 1921. 

This bird has the deepest rufous breast stripes of any of the races of ruficollis. 

288. Pomatorhinus ruficollis albipectus La Touche. 

Pomatorhinus ruficollis albij>ectus La Touche, Handb. Birds East China, pt. i, p. 69 (1925) (Szemao, 
S. Yunnan). 

The birds on which this form was based were obtained at Szemao by 
M. Laurente, 2 specimens Szemao. 

289. Pomatorhinus ruficollis laurentii La Touche. 

Pomatorhinus ruficollis laurentei La Touche, Ibis, 1923, p. 318, No. 20 (Kopaotsun). 

The characters of a pink bill and obsoletely barred tail appear to distinguish 
this race from all the other ruficollis forms. 

1 cJ, 1 ?, 1 ? juv. Kopaotsun, Yunnan-fu, May 1921. 

262 Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

Pomatorhinus ruflcollis subsp. ? 

There is a specimen in the British Museum collected by Captain Vaughan 
at Howlik, West River. This bird was recorded by La Touche as reconditua. 
Mr. Kinnear thinks it is an example of stridulus. I have examined the bird, and 
I consider it is an abnormal specimen ; it has a very short bill, the back is coloured 
like the majority of stridulus, but the breast has the deep maroon rufous stripes 
of reconditua, not the chestnut rufous ones of stridulus. Therefore I personally 
think it is an abnormal reconditua. 

290. Pomatorhinus erythrogenis imberbis Salvad. 

Pomatorhinus imberbis Salvadori, Ann. Hits. Genov. (2), vii, p. 410 (1889) (Yado Karen Hills). 

Anderson's localit3 7 Momien is the same as Tengyueh, whence one of Forrest's 
young birds was procured ; it is therefore clear that the W. Yunnan bird is the 
same as the Burmese one. 

Anderson collected 1 example Momien, June 1868 ; Forrest sent 1 fledgling 
from Lichiang Range, and 1 from Tengyueh. 

291. Pomatorhinus macclellandi odicus Bangs & Phillips. 

Pomatorhinus macclellandi odicus Bangs & Phillips, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Catnb. vol. lviii, 
p. 286 (1914) (Mengtsz). 

Captain Wingate collected 1 <$ ad. Yunnan City, Feb. 1899, 1 $ ad. S.W. 
Yunnan, April 1899 ; Oustalet records this bird among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds 
under the name of ■macclellandi var. armandi ? Ingram lists 1 worn $ Mengtsz, 
July 1910, under the name of in. gravivox ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 9 
examples Mengtsz, Shi-ping, Loukouchai ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 3, 
1 $ ad. Mucheng, Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917 ; Forrest sent 16 <$$, 16 $?, 
3 ? Lichiang Range, 2 <$<$, 2 $$ Tengyueh and vicinity, 2 <$$, 1 $ ad. Mekong 
Valley, 1 (J, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 3 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 1 <J, 1 $ hills of N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, 
June 1925. M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 example recorded by Menegaux & 
Didier as Pomatorhinus gravivox. 

Besides those listed above, there are in the British Museum 3 <$ (J, 3 $$, 3 ? 
Yunnan, Styan collection ; 3 (J (J, Jan. 1903, Styan coll. ; 1 example Chutung- 
Yangpi Road, March 1902, 2 Gyi-Dzin-Shan, Feb.-March 1902, 1 example 
hills N. of Talifu, March 1902, 1 Lichiang Valley, April 1906, and 1 Shunpi Valley, 
March 1906. 

292. Xiphirhynchus superciliaris forresti subsp. nov. 

cJ?. Differ from s. superciliaris Blyth in having a much shorter bill, and in 
the paler more cinnamon underside. 

Bill along exposed culmen, s. superciliaris, $ 50 mm. 

Bill along exposed culmen, s. forresti, $ 30 mm. 

Type $, Forrest coll. 1925, No. 6000, Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000-11,000 
feet, July 1925. 

Forrest sent 2 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000-11,000 feet, July 1925, 
1 J (bill damaged) hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Forests. 


Bill black, tip brown ; feet dark brownish olive ; iris greyish yellow. 
This was a very great surprise. 

There is a Bharno example in the British Museum with the breast as pale 
a,aforresti, but the bill is as long as in the longest Sikkim bird. 

293. Ianthocincla albogularis albogularis Gould. 

Ianthocincla albogularis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 187 (Nepal). 

Oustalet records this among the birds collected by Prince H. d'Orleans. 

294. Ianthocincla phoenicea wellsi (La Touche). 

Trochalopteron phoeniceum wellsi La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xJii, p. 15 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

Uchida & Kuroda record 1 £ juv. Mengtsz, July, and 1 <J ad. Loukouchai, 
Feb., under the name of Trochalopteron ripponi ; Forrest collected 2 q*^, 3 $? 
vicinity of Tengyueh, July-Aug. 1924. I have retained Forrest's birds under 
La Touche's name for the present, as there is not sufficient material to warrant 
my separating a fifth race of phoenicea (for further details cf. Nov. Zool. 
xxxii, p. 299, 1925). 

La Touche records 1 $ Mengtsz, Feb. 1921 (type). It is very daring to found 
a subspecies on a single $. 

In the 1925 collection is 1 <$ hills N. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, July 1925. 
Bill dark brown, feet brown, iris crimson. 

295. Ianthocincla milnei sharpei (Ripp.). 

Trochalopteron sharpei Rippon, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xii, p. 13 (1901) (Kengtung State). 

Forrest collected 2 3$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, Dec. 1924 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
record 1 <J, 1 $ Loukouchai, Feb. under the name milnei ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 1 example 1 <$ ad. Loukouchai, Feb. 1911, and describe it 
under the name of lanthocincla iustrabila, having overlooked Colonel Rippon's 

296. Ianthocincla subunicolor griseata Rothsch. 

lanthocincla subunicolor griseata Rotlischild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 33, No. 110 (1921) (Shweli- 
Salwin Divide). 

Forrest sent in his first collection 3 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 <?, 1 $ 
Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 <$<$, 3 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000-9,000 feet, 
June-July and Oct. 1925. Bill and feet black ; iris brown. 

The characters given as distinguishing this race from s. subunicolor are more 
than confirmed in this series, which also shows it to be larger. 

Wing, s. subunicolor, 87-88 mm. 

Wing, s. griseata, 92-93 mm. 

297. Ianthocincla affinis oustaleti Hart. 

Ianthocincla affinis oustaleti Hartert, Vug. palaark. Fauna, vol. i, p, 633, No. 970 (1909) (TatMcou, 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird in the Lichiang Valley, April 1906 ; 
Forrest collected 20 <?<?, 6 $$, 3 2 Lichiang Range, 3 $ cJ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
2 (JcJ, 1 $ ad., 1 ? juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

264 Novitates Zooloqii m: XXXIII. 1926. 

In the 1925 collection arc 11 (J (J, 5 ?? ad., 2 ? juv.. 2 fledglings Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 8,000-9,000 feet, July-Sept. 1925. Plumage of the fledglings differs from 
adults by the brown, not black crown, the absence of grey patch at side of neck, 
and the uniform brown upper- and underside. 

298. Ianthocincla ellioti ellioti (Verr.). 

Trochaloplemn ellioti Verreaux. ffouv. Arch. Jftta. Paris, vol. vi, Bull. p. 36 (1870) (Mts. of Chinese 

Oustalet records this species among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Andrews & 
Heller obtained 1 <J ad. Lichiang Range, Nov. 1916; Forrest collected 12 <$$ 
T'ong Shan, 20 <J<J 15, $$ ad., 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 6 J<J, 2 ?? ad., 1 $ juv. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

Colonel Rippon's 8 Lichiang examples in the British Museum and Forrest's 
from Lichiang Range and T'ong-Shan above appear intermediate between 
e. ellioti and e. yunnanensis ; the latter appears to be a very poor subspecies. 

299. Ianthocincla ellioti yunnanensis (Ripp.). 

Trochalopteron yunnanensis Rippon, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xix, p. 32 (1906) (Yangtze River. Yunnan). 
Trochaloptercm bonvaloti Oustalet. Ann. Sci. Nat. (7). xii. p. 275. 276 (1892) (Tioungen, Thibet). 
Ianthocincla elliotii honoripeta Hartert, Vog. palaark. Fauna, vol. i, p. xliv (1910) (nom. now for 
bonvalnti Oust, preoce.). 

Colonel Rippon records this bird from Yangtze Big Bend, Talifu Valley, 
Shayang-Chutung Road, all Feb., March 1906 ; Forrest sent 13 $$, 8 $?, 7 ? ad. 
Lichiang Range. 

300. Ianthocincla cineracea cinereiceps (Styan). 

Trochalopteron cinereiceps Styan, Ibis, 1887, p. 167, pi. vi (?). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 £ Loukouchai, Feb., under the name c. styani, 
afterwards corrected ; Uchida & Kuroda also record 1 3 from Loukouchai. 

In his Handbook of the. Birds of Eastern China, pt. i, pp. 62, 63, La Touche 
has written exhaustively of the three races of Ianthocincla cineracea (Godw.-Aust.). 
He there makes a statement that styani Oust, (partim) is a synonym of cinereiceps 
Styan. This is entirely due to the type of Styan (a cage bird without exact 
locality) being stated by his informant to be identical with Yunnan birds as a 
whole, whereas if any bird from Yunnan is identical with Styan's cinereiceps it 
can only be South-East Yunnan birds. If La Touche had compared the 
plate in the Ibis of cinereiceps he could not have made the error he did, as the 
ear-coverts and superciliary line are there shown of a brilliant chestnut, whereas 
in N.W. Yunnan birds {styani Oust.) and true Manipur cineraria the ear-coverts 
and superciliary line are olive-grey or pale olive-brown. David & Oustalet's 
description of their ningpoensis makes special mention of the chestnut ear-coverts 
and superciliary line, so that it is identical with Styan's cinereiceps, but as Styan's 
name has three years priority it must stand for the S. and S.E. Chinese and 
S. Yunnan bird, and styani Oust, for the \V. and N.W. Yunnan bird. The 
key to the forms will be as follows : 

(1) Cheeks, ear-coverts, and superciliary line olive-grey. 2 
Ear-coverts and superciliary line chestnut. 

Ianthocincla cineracea cinereict ps, 

(2) Back more olive-grey. Ianthocincla cineracea cineracea. 
Back more olive-brown. Ianthocincla cineracea \ styani . 


La Touche records 2 examples collected by M. Laurente at Szemao, 
S. Yunnan. 

301. Ianthocincla cineracea styani (Oust.). 

Trochalopleron styani Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Paris, p. 226 (1898) (Ta-Tsien-Lu). 

Colonel Rippon collected this bird at Gzi-dzin Shan, April 1902, and in the 
Lichiang Valley in April 1906 ; Oustalet records 7 examples sent from Tsekou 
by the Rev. Father Soulie ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Malipa, March 
1917 ; Forrest collected 1 J, 1 ? Mekong Valley, 4 <$<$, 1 $ Lichiang Range, 1 <J, 
2 $$ ad., 1 ? juv. vicinity of Tengyueh. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 <$<3, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-9,000 feet, 
Oct. 1925. 

302. Ianthocincla bieti Oust. 

Ianthocincla bieti Oustalet, Bull. Mus. Paris, p. 163 (1897) (Upper Mekong River). 

Oustalet records a single unsexed example (the type) from Tsekou sent home 
by the Rev. Father Soulie. 

Forrest collected 1 <$, 1 $ Lichiang Range, 1 <J, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

303. Ianthocincla lanceolata lanceolata (Von.). 

Plerorhinus lanceolatus Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, Bull. p. 36 (1871) (Mts. of Chinese 

In my articles on Forrest's first three collections I kept /. lanceolata and 
1. bonvaloti separate on account of differences in size, viz. I. lanceolata was supposed 
to have a wing-measurement of 91-98 mm. and /. bonvaloti of 106-113. In my 
account of Forrest's 1924 collection I state that Dr. Hartert and I, after carefully 
measuring our considerable series at Tring, have come to the conclusion that these 
differences in size are sexual and not racial. This proportionate sexual difference 
is most certainly a fact in the case of the Formosan taiwanus and the gigantic 
Tyangtze waddelli, and there appears to be no reason to suppose that the case of 
lanceolata is different. The type of yunnanensis Sharpe has a wing of 94 mm., 
and a Ta-Tsien-Lu one has it 100 mm. In the Styan coll. is a (J of 96 and $ of 
105, and in fact all measurements run into one another. I therefore, after con- 
siderable hesitation, must differ from Outram Bangs and others, and finally say 
that I consider /. lanceolata and I. bonvaloti one and the same bird. 

In view of these extraordinary intergradations of the measurements, I 
think it is very possible that a number of the specimens quoted have been wrongly 
sexed ; if this is not so, lanceolata is a species varying greatly in size. Colonel 
Rippon collected 1 example hills east of Tengyueh, W. Yunnan, 7,000 feet, 1902 
(type of his yunnanensis wing, 94 mm.), 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, Feb. 1906 
(wing 97 mm.), 1 example Lichiang Valley, April 1906 (wing 103 mm.) ; 1 Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, May 1906 (wing 95 mm.) ; M. Pichon sent home 1 example ; 
Andrews & Heller got 1 (J ad. Lichiang Range, Nov. 1916, 1 $ ad. Mucheng, 
Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917; Forrest obtained 8 <J $, 6 $$ Lichiang Range, 1 <$ 
Salwin Valley, 3 cjcj, 4 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 ?? Shweli Valley. 

In his 1925 collection there are 1 (J, 2 $5 hills round Tengyueh Valley, 
7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. In the British Museum are 3 Yunnan, 1 Ta-tsien-lu ? 
Styan collection. 

The red or black moustachial line is purely an individual variation, as we 
find examples with the hue of mixed coloration. 


304. Ianthocincla chinensis leucogenys (Blyth). 

' 'rateropus leucogenys Blyth. Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 180 (1842) (Upper Bengal err.). 

Forrest obtained 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide in his first collection which I 
inadvertently recorded under the name of chinensis chinensis ; Andrews & Heller 
collected 1 (J, 1 $ ad. at Chang-lung, Salwin River, also recorded as chinensis 

305. Ianthocincla chinensis lowei (La Touche). 

Dryonastes chinensis Iowa La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 52 (1921) (Hokow). 

La Touche records 1 cJ, 2 $$ Hokow, March 1921 (<J type), and remarks 
that his collectors had seen the bird also at Loukouchai. 

306. Ianthocincla leucolophus leucolophus (Hardw.). 

1 tonus h ucolophus Hardwicke, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xi, p. 208 (1815) (Mt. above Hard-war). 

One would have expected either /. diardi or /. belangeri to be the form 
from Yunnan, but apparently the three records I have are all I. leucolophus. 
Mr. Stuart Baker records both the former from Yunnan, but unfortunately gives 
no particulars, as Yunnan is outside his range. 

Captain Wingate obtained the bird at Mong-Kou 1 $ ad. April 1899. 
Andrews & Heller record 2 <Jo Malipa, March 1917, and state they are absolutely 
typical ; M. Pichon sent 1 from Taiping Valley, Kanai. On his way home in 
1926, Forrest obtained 3 examples near Man-Hsien, West Yunnan, and these 
are most valuable, for they confirm absolutely that the Yunnan bird is typical 
leucolophus leucolophus and not either of the Burmese-Tenasserim races I. belangeri 
or I. diardi. 

" 3 ? Thickets on hills around Man-Hsien, 3,500 feet, lat. 24° 40' N., long. 
97°40'E., 16. i. 1926." 

307. Ianthocincla pectoralis pectoralis Gould. 

Janthocinrhi pectoralis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1835. p. 186 (Nepal). 

Oustalet records this species from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Malipa, March 1917. 

308. Ianthocincla canora namtiensis (La Touche). 

Trochalopterum canorum namtiense La Touche, Ihis, 1923, p. 317, X. 17 (Hokow). 

Ingram records 1 c? Mengtsz, April 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 o 
Loukouchai, June 1911 (both these records under canora) ; La Touche collected 

2 <$<$ Hokow, Feb.-March 1921 ; M. & Mme. Comby obtained 1 example. 

309. Ianthocincla caerulata latifrons subsp. nov. 

The two examples sent by Forrest in his 1925 collection have unfortunately 
very defective tails ; in both the two pair of outer tail-feathers are missing, but 
in each there is present one of the third outer pair, and this has the tip pale 
cinnamon, not cinnamon, and white as in c. kaurensis. Upperside bright rufous 
as in c. caerulatus ear-coverts in <$ black, in $ almost white. Is at once dis- 
tinguished from the other three races by the very broad black frontal band. 

1 tJ, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, July 1925. Bill black ; feet 
pale brown ; iris brown. 


310. Ianthocincla erythrocephala woodi (Baker). 

Trocholopterum erythrocephalum woodi Stuart Baker. Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxv, p. 17 (1914) (Loi-Sing, 
N. Shan States). 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 <J ad. Mu-cheng, Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917. 

311. Ianthocincla squamata Gould. 

Ianthocincla squamata Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 48 (Himalaya). 

Oustalet enumerates this bird among Prince H. d'Orleans' collection ; Forrest 
collected 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, Dec. 1924. 

312. Ianthocincla forresti Rothsch. 

Ianthocincla forresti Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 35, No. 116 (1921) (Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

This very distinct species has so far only been found by Forrest, and in view 
of the series in the 1925 collection it does not seem to be rare in its breeding area. 

In the 1919 and 1924 collections there are 3 <£$, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
and 1 <J, 1 $, 3 ? Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 7 ^ J, 4 $$, 1 ? ad., 2 juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
7,000-10,000 feet, June, July, and Oct. 1925. Bill black-brown ; feet and legs 
dark brown ; iris pale yellow. Young in first plumage, head and throat black, 
occiput and hind neck chestnut whole body above and below sooty brown-black, 
washed with olive ; outer web of remiges and upper coverts yellowish olive-green. 

313. Ianthocincla ocellata similis Rothsch. 

Ianthocincla ocellata .similis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 34, N. 114 (1921) (Shweli-Salwin 

Forrest collected 1 single (J (the type) in 1919. In his 1925 collection he 
has sent 3 rj r?, 2 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Bill, upper 
mandible black-brown, lower greyish ; feet brown ; iris yellow. 

These extra examples confirm all the differences I gave except size ; the 
measurements are as follows : wing $$, No. 6361, 128 mm. ; No. 6362, 139 mm. 
No. 6363, 133 mm. ; $$ No. 6364, 132 mm. ; No. 6365, 125 mm. 

314. Ianthocincla maxima (Verr.). 

Pierorhinus maximiis Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, Bull. p. 36, pi. iii, f. 1 (1870) 
(Mts. of Thibet), 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird at Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; 
Forrest collected 18 cJ^J, 16 $$, 9 ? Lichiang Range; 2 <$$, 3 ?$ Mekong-Salwin 

315. Ianthocincla sannio (Swinh.). 

Garrulax sannio Swinhoe, Ibis, p. 403 (1867) (Amoy). 

Garrulax albosuperciliaris Godwin-Austen, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 45. 

Outram Bangs (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xliv, p. 588, declares that 
Swinhoe's sannio sannio from Central and S.E. China is distinct from Yunnan 
and Indo-Chinese birds, the latter being more olive above and on the tail. 

Anderson records this bird 2 ad. Muangla, July 1868 ; Ingram enumerates 
8 <$<$, $$ Mengtsz, March, April and July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips list 23 speci- 


mens Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 $$ ad. Wan-tien 
and Mu-cheng, Feb. and May 1917 ; M. & Mine. Coniby collected 1 example ; 
M. Pichon sent home 2 specimens ; Forrest collected $3$, 3 $$, 3 ? Lichiang Range, 

2 'cJtJ, 1 ? Yangtze Valley, 5 <?<?, 5 ?$ Tengyueh Valley, 3 <S<S Tengyueh Dis- 
trict, 1 (J, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 1 <$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 ?? Mekong-Salwin 
Divide, 1 <?, 1 <j> Tali Valley, La Touche records 1 £, 1 $ Mengtsz, July 1920, 
1 <J Milati, Feb. 1921, 1 $ Hokow, 1 ? Loukouchai, March 1921. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 1 J, 1 $ Teligyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 
1925. In the British Museum are 2 <$<3 Mee Chee, Jan. 1903, Styan coll. ; Colonel 
Rippon coll. 4 examples Talifu Valley, Feb. 1900, 3 Gyi-Dzin-Shan, April 1902, 
1 Lichiang Valley, April 1902, 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1902. Mr. 
Kinnear and I have been quite unable, in the large series in the British Museum 
from China and Assam, and in the large series at Tring from the same areas, to 
find any differences at all ; I therefore treat of the Yunnan examples under 
sannio Swinh. relegating albosuperciliaris Godw.-Aust. to a synonym as had 
been done hitherto till Outram Bangs dug it up again. 

310. Stactocichla merulina merulina (Blyth). 

Garrulax merulina Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xx, p. 521 (1851) (Manipur). 
Forrest collected 1 $ hilLs N.W. of Tengyueh, Nov. 1924. 

317 Leiothrix lutea lutea (Scop.). 

Si/lria hiha Scopoli, Del. Flor. el Faun. Insii'.r. vol. ii, p. 96 (1786) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 examples from Mengtsz, Feb. ; La Touche col- 
lected 1 o> 1 ? Loukouchai, Feb. and April 1921. 

318. Leiothrix lutea yunnanensis Rothschild. 

Leiothrix luteins yunnanensis Rothscliild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 36, No. 119 (1921) (Shweli-Salwin 

Anderson collected 6 examples of this bird at Ponsee, March 1868 (of which 
1 (J, 1 $ are in the British Museum) ; Oustalet enumerates it under Prince H. 
d'Orleans' birds (both these are quoted under the name luteus) ; Forrest collected 
13 c?c?> 3 $? ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide. In his 1925 collection there are 

3 c?(J, 2 $$ ad., 1 ? juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000 feet, July and Oct. 1925. 
Bill orange -scarlet ; feet pale brown ; iris crimson. 1 ex. Tsekou (Soulie), 
Styan coll., is in the British Museum. 

319. Timelia pileata intermedia Kinnear. 

Timelia pileata intermedia Kinnear, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlv, p. 9 (1924) (Ton^hoo). 
La Touche records 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. Hokow, March 1921. 

320. Pyctorhis sinensis sinensis (6m.). 

Varus sinensis Ginelin. .S';/.s7. Nat. vol. i, p. 1012 (1788) (Sina = China). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 $ ad. Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Ingram records 

8 examples, Mengtsz, April- June 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 22 specimens 
Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Forrest sent 1 <$ Salwin Valley ; La Touche collected 

9 (JcJ, 5 ??, 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, July-Dec. 1920 and Feb. 1921, 1 $ Milati, Dec. 
1920, 1 cS Hokow, April 1921. 


321. Turdinulus brevicaudatus venningi Har. 

Turdinulus brevicaudatus venningi Harington, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxix, p. 269 (1870) (Shan States). 

Anderson obtained 1 3 Ponsee, April 1868 ; Colonel Rippon collected 1 <J 
ad. Salwin Valley, May 1906. 

322. Fulvetta chrysotis forresti Rothsch. 

Fulvetta chrysotis forresti Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlvi, p. 64 (1926) (Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

Both in 1921 and 1923 I enumerated this bird (Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, 
p. 37, and vol. xxx, p. 45) as Proparus swinhoei, but I have since received the 
true swinhoei from Kwantsien, Minho River, China ; I find that there have never 
been any examples of this extremely rare bird in England before, and Forrest's 
17 examples belong to an undescribed race (see as above for full particulars). 
Proparus was first applied to a species of Minla, and is a pure synonym of that 
genus. As the next in priority therefore we must use Fulvetta David & Oustalet. 
Forrest sent 2 (J,J, 3 ?? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Tengyueh District, 1 $ 
Lichiang Range. 

323. Fulvetta ruficapillus sordidior (Ripp.). 

Proparus sordidior Rippon. Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiii, p. 60 (1903) (Gyi-dzin-Shan). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 Yangtze Big Bend, April 1906, 13 examples 
Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 Talifu Valley, March 1902, 1 Ranges E. of Talifu, 
April 1902, 6 Lichiang Valley, March- April 1906, 1 Shayang-Chutung Road, 
March 1902 ; in the British Museum are 3 <$,$ Meechu, Jan. 1902, and 5 Yunnan, 
Styan coll. ; Forrest sent 3 gd T'ong-Shan, 2 $<$ Yangtze Valley, 2 33, 2 $$ 
Tengyueh District, 9 33, 5 $$, 8 ? ad. Lichiang Valley, 5 33, 5 $$ Mekong Valley 
and Mekong-Salwin Divide ; La Touche enumerates 1 3 Yunnanfu, May 1922, 
and 2 ? Kopaotsun, June 1921. 

324. Fulvetta striaticollis yunnanensis (Rothsch.). 

Proparus striaticollis Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 11 (1922) (Mekong Valley). 

Oustalet records 3 examples from Tsekou, collected by the Rev. Father Soulie ; 
Forrest sent 1 $ Mekong Valley, 1 3 Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

325. Fulvetta vinipectus bieti (Oust.). 

Alcippe {Proparus) bieti Oustalet, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 7, vol. xii, pp. 283. 304, pi. ix, f. 2 (1892) (Ta- 

Colonel Rippon collected 7 examples Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, 5 Yangtze 
Big Bend, March 1906, 3 Lichiang Valley, April 1906 ; Captain Wingate obtained 
1 specimen 3 a d. at Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Oustalet says it is common at 
Tsekou, and probably breeds there ; Forrest sent 19 33> 16 $$, 9 ? ad. Lichiang 
Range, 1 $ hills near Lichiang Valley, 3 (J (J Tengyueh District, 3 oc?, 1 $ ad. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide, 2 33 Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In his 1925 collection are 2 33, 2 $>? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, July- 
Aug. 1925. In the British Museum in addition are 4 examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, 
March and April, 1902, Colonel Rippon ; 1 Tsekou Soulie ; and 1 Hoa-tron 



326. Moupinia poecilotis sordidior Rothsch. 

Movpinia poecilolis sordidior Rothschild, Not: Zool. vol. xxviii. p :>(), Xu, 12(1 ( 1!I2I ) ( Lnhnmj llan^c). 

Forrest collected 23 (JcJ, 4 ??, 6 ? ad. Lichiang Range ; 1 g ad. hills E. of 
Lichiang Valley. 

327. Schoeniparus dubius genestieri (Oust.). 

Alcippe genestieri Oustalet, Bull. Mm. d'Hist. Nat. Pari.* vol. iii, p. 210 (1897) (Tsekou). 

In the first article on Forrest's collections (Nov. Zool. xxviii, 1921), I sank 
intermedins Ripp. as a synonym ; in the two subsequent articles (Nov. Zool. 
xxx, 1923) I left the matter doubtful, but the large series (23) sent in the L924 
collection finally enabled Dr. Hartert and myself to come to the firm opinion 
that intermedins is nothing but an immature stage of plumage of genestieri. 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird as follows : 1 example hills E. of Yung- 
chang, Jan. 1906, 2 Lichiang, March 1900, 4 Lichiang Valley, April 1906, 1 
Yungchang-Salvvin Road, April 1906 ; Ingram records 3 $3, 2 $$ Mengtsz, 
June-July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 13 examples Mengtsz and Loukou- 
chai ; Andrews & Heller obtained 2 <J <$, 1 $ Ho-mu-shu Pass, and Mucheng, 
Salwin Drainage, Feb. and April 1917 ; M. Pichon sent 1 specimen ; Forrest 
collected 1 <J, 2 $? T'ong-Shan, 1 <J Yangtze Valley, 4 $$, 1 ?, 3 ? ad., 1 ? juv. 
Tengyueh District, 3 <J<J, 5 ? ad., 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 2 <J<J, 3 $$, 1 ? jun. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide, 8 <J<J, 6 ??, 1 ? ad., 2 cJ<J, 1 ? juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

Uchida & Kuroda record 3 (JcJ, 2 $$ Mengtsz, 1 $ Loukouchai under the 
name of variegatus Styan. In addition there are in the British Museum 1 example 
Shan-Kwun Tali Valley, March 1902, 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, Jan. 1902, 8 
Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, Colonel Rippon ; 3 examples Yunnan, and 4 <£<?, 2 $$ 
Mee chu, Jan. 1903, Styan coll. 

328. Pseudominla castaneiceps castaneiceps (Hodgs.). 

Minla castaneiceps Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 38 (Xepal). 

Forrest was the only collector to find this bird in Yunnan ; he sent home 
3 cJcJ Shweli-Salwin Divide ; 3 J<$, 2 ?? Tengyueh District. 

[On the genera Brachypteryx and Heteroxenicus. 

Mr. Stuart Baker has kept the above genera separate, and gives as distinctive 
characters that Brachypteryx has shorter and thicker tarsi and a longer tail than 
Heteroxenicus. On comparing the £3 of montana and cruralis, the respective 
genotypes, I fail to see any but specific differences in these characters, whereas 
the concealed or partially concealed white eyebrow and general coloration 
shows that they are very closely allied. I therefore consider that Heteroxenicus 
is a synonym of Brachypteryx. Mr. Kinnear pointed out to me that, as shown 
by the British Museum series of Brachypteryx nipalensis, the $<$ in some areas 
of its range are blue, while in others they are like the 9?- According to the 
above-mentioned series, the <3<3 are brown in Assam and Yunnan, in China and 
in Java, whereas they are blue in Nepal and Sikkini, and the Malay Peninsula. 
The number of subspecies are as follows : 

Brachypteryx nipalensis nipalensis. Nepal-Tenasserim. 

B. n. carolinae. Fokhien. 

B. n. harterti (2 $9 only known). Szechuan and Yunnan. 


B. n. wrayi. Malay Peninsula. 

B. n. leucophrys. Java. 

The Tring Museum series does not entirely confirm this, as we have a $ 
from Margherita, Assam, showing blue feathers. It is therefore only safe to say 
that the $<$ a re never blue in Java, and very seldom in Assam. 

Mr. Kinnear suggested that I had mistaken Yunnan nipalensis for cruralis, 
owing to blue gg occurring in both, but my 2 adult <$$ and 2 adult $$ at Tring 
are undoubtedly cruralis and the 1 $ nipalensis is Weigold's n. harterti.] 

329. Brachypteryx cruralis cruralis Blyth. 

Brachypteryx cruralis Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 136 (1847) (Nepal). 

Oustalet records this bird from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; Forrest 
sent 8 <$<3 ad., 1 $, 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 1 $ Tengyueh District, 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide. In the 1925 collection are 1 $ ad. (sexed $) Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 9,000 feet, July 1925, 1 ? juv. Tengyueh District, 7,000 feet, Aug. 1925. 

330. Brachypteryx cruralis laurentei (LaTouche). 

Heteroxenicus cruralis laurentei La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 29 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

This form is said by its author to differ from c. cruralis in its " conspicuously 
heavier " bill, " much larger " wing, and " almost uniform belly." I have not 
examined the type, but can quite well believe that Mengtsz birds should be 
different from West Yunnan examples ; but it was very bold indeed to describe 
this as distinct from 1 example. 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct. 31, 1920 (Laurente coll.). 

331. Brachypteryx nipalensis harterti Weig. 

Brachypteryx nipalensis harterti Weigold, Ornith. Monatsb. vol. xxx, p. 63 (1922) (Onieischan). 

Forrest sent 1 $ hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, July 1925, Thickets. 
" Bill dark brown ; feet olive-brown ; iris brown." This is the first record for 
Yunnan, and the second specimen known. 

332. Brachypteryx joannae (La Touche). 

Heteroxenicus joannae La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. xliii, p. 21 (1922) (Mengtsz). 

La Touche's type remains unique. 1 $ ad. Mengtsz, May 3, 1921. 
333. Leioptila desgodinsi (Dav. & Oust.). 

Sibia desgodinsi David & Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris (7). 1, p. 139 (1877) (Yer-ka-lo). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example Yungchang-Chutung Road, Jan. 1906, 
6 Lichiang Valley, March- April 1906, 2 Yungchang-Salwin Road, Jan. and April 
1906 ; Captain Wingate collected 1 $ ad. S. Yunnan, March 1899, 1 $ ad. Mong- 
sen, March 1899 ; Oustalet records it among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; the 
Rev. Father Soulie sent 10 specimens from Tsekou, where it was very common ; 
Bangs & Phillips record 4 examples from Loukouchai, Feb. ; Andrews & Heller 
collected 1 (J, 1 $ ad. Tai-ping-pu and Yao-kuan, Jan. and April 1917 ; Forrest 
sent 21 <$<$, 11 $?> 11 ? Lichiang Range, 1 ? Tali Valley, 1 <?, 2 $$ Tengyueh 
District, 1 (J, 2 $$ Shweli Valley, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin 

In his 1925 collection are 2 <$<$, 2 $$ Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925, 


2 3$, 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, May 1925, 1 <J, 1 $ Shweli-Sahvin 
Divide, July-Aug. 1925, 9,000 feet. 

Colonel Rippon also got 9 examples at Gyi-dzin-Shan, March, April, and 
Sept. 1902, and 3 examples Ta-lau-pa, Chutung-Yangpi Road. March 1902. In 
the British Museum are specimens from Tsekou collected by Soulie, Styan coll., 
and 1 Yunnan, Styan coll. 

334. Leioptila pulchella coemleotincta Rothsch. 

Leioptila pulchella coeraleotincta Rothschild, Nov, Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 38, No. 128 (1921) (Shweli- 
Sahvin Divide). 

Oustalet records this bird, among those obtained by Prince H. d'Orleans, 
under the name of pulchella Godw.-Aust. 

Forrest collected 2 <J<J Tali Valley, 1 $, 3 ?$, 1 ? Tengyueh District, 3 <J<J, 
2 $$ Shweli-Sahvin Divide. In his 1925 collection are 4 <$$, 5 ?$ Shweli-Sahvin 
Divide, 9,000 feet, June-Oct. 1925. 

335. Leioptila gracilis (McClell.). 

Hypsipetes gracilis McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 159 (Assam). 

Forrest secured 1 $ hills N. of Tengyueh in 1924, which is the only Yunnan 

336. Staphidea striata striata (Blyth). 

I. cuius striata* Blyth. Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxviii. p. 413 (1S59). 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 <J ad. Chang-lung, Salwin River, 2,000 feet, 
March 1917. 

337. Staphidea torquola (Swinh.). 

Siva torquola Swinhoe, Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist. (4) v, p. 174 (1870) (Tingchow). 

Oustalet records this bird among Prince H. d'Orleans' collection, but there 
appears to be some doubt as to whether it was got on the Yunnan side or the 
Tonkin side of the Tonkin- Yunnan Boundary. 

338. Stachyris nigriceps coltarti Har. 

Stachyris nigriceps coltarti Harington, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxiii, p. 61 (1913) (Margherita). 
Anderson records 2 (JtJ, 1 ? Ponsee, March- April 1868. 

339. Stachyris nigriceps yunnanensis La Touche. 

Stachyris nigriceps yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii. p. 18 (1921) (Hokow). 

La Touche records 1 $ Hokow, April 2, 1921 (the type) ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 1 c? Loukouchai, Feb. 1911. 

340. Stachyris chrysoea subsp, 2 

Anderson collected 1 example Ponsee, April 1868, but whether it is chrysoea 
binghami Ripp., c. assimilis Wald., or c. chrysops Richm. it is imjjossible to say 
without a comparison of the Ponsee specimen which was in the Calcutta Museum. 


341. Stachyridopsis ruficeps bhamoensis Har. 

Stachyridopsis bhamoensis Harington, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), ii, p. 245 (Bharao). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example at Shayang, March 1902 ; 1 example 
Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, and 1 example Salwin-Shweli Divide, May 190G ; 
Forrest collected 4 $$, 3 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 <J J, 3 $$, 1 ? Mekong- 
Salwin Divide, 1 ? Lichiang Range, 3 3$, 2 $$, 1 ? Tengyueh District. 

342. Stachyridopsis ruficeps bangsi La Touche. 

Stachyridopsis ruficeps bangsi La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliv, p. 32 (1323) (Milati). 

Bangs & Phillips record 4 specimens Mengtsz, Feb. and Dec, under the name 
of ruficeps ; La Touche records (Ibis, 1923) 1 <$ Milati (type), Feb. 1921, 2 <J(J, 

1 $ Loukouchai, April 1921, under the name of ruficeps davidi Oust, (altered later 
as above). Mr. La Touche in the above Bulletin also mentions an example sent 
him in 1923 from Yunnanfu, which he says is nearer to r. davidi than to his 
r. bangsi, but is too worn to decide upon. 

343. Actinodura egertoni ripponi O. -Grant. 

Actinodura ripponi Ogilvie-Grant. Ibis, 1907, p. 166 (Mount Victoria). 

Anderson obtained 1 example Ponsee, March 1868 ; Oustalet records a speci- 
men collected in N. Yunnan in 1896 by Prince H. d'Orleans (both these are 
recorded under the name egertoni) ; Forrest collected 6 $<$, 5 ?? a d., 2 $$, 1 ? 
juv. Tengyueh District, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 4 $<$, 3 $?, 1 ? ad. Shweli-Salwin 
Divide. (I identified the 4 £3, 2 §§ of the 1919 collection wrongly as egertoni 
egertoni Gould.) 

In the 1925 collection are 1 ^ hills N. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Oct. 1925 ; 
3 cJcJ, 2 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000-10,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925. Bill 
bone yellow, upper mandible darker : feet brown ; iris pale grey. 

344. Actinodura ramsayi yunnanensis Bangs & Phillips. 

Actinodura ramsayi yunnanensis Bangs & Phillips, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Cambr. vol. lviii, 
p. 288 (1914) (Loukouchai). 

Bangs & Phillips record 18 examples Mengtsz, May, Loukouchai, Jan., 
Feb., Dec. (type <J, Jan. 29, 1911, Loukouchai) ; La Touche collected 8 $<$, 

2 ??, 1 ? ad. Loukouchai, Dec. 1920, and Jan.-April 1921. 

345. Actinodura souliei Oust. 

Actinodura souliei Oustalet, Bull. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. iii, p. 164, No. 2 (1897) (Tsekou). 

Oustalet described this still unique species from a bird sent him from Tsekou 
by the Rev. Father Soulie. 

[Ixops nipalensis (Hodgs.) and I. waldeni (Godw.-Aust.). 

Mr. Kinnear is of opinion that the barred feathers in the crest of the 3 birds 

I place under waldeni and the rufous of their breast feathering are not sufficient 

to be of specific importance ; and that the traces of dark markings on the breast 

of dafiaensis prove that the 2 birds I place under nipalensis and the 3 mentioned 


above are all 5 subspecies of nipalensis, as Baker has said. I am still not yet 
convinced, especially in view of the poor and scanty material known of daflat nsis. 
I therefore prefer for the present to uphold both nipalensis and waldeni as two 

346. Ixops waldeni saturatior Rothsch. 

Ixops poliotis saiuratior Rothschild, Nov. Zmil. vol. xxviii, p. 38, No. 130 (1921) (Shweli-Salwin 

Forrest collected 4 <$<$, 2 $$ of this bird in 1919, 2 $<$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
June and Dec, 2 $<$, 2 $$ Tengyueh District, and these were all known of this 
bird till his 1 92."> collection, which includes a large series, 9 $$, 6 $$, ad. 2 $$ juv. 
Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-10,000 feet, June-Oct. 1925. Bill dark brown; 
feet brown ; iris creamy grey. The adult $$ appear to have the edges of the 
elongated feathers on the crown pale or greyish brown, not clear grey as in the 
$ <$. The crown feathers in the youngest $ are less elongated and uniform 
umber-brown ; in the next youngest $ the crown feathers dark slate uniform 
without trace of barring and edged with paler slate. 

This form is at once distinguished from w. poliotis by the deep chestnut, 
not cinnamon, breast, each feather edged with cinnamon buff ; 1 £ No. 6401, 
however, has the edgings of the feathers so wide that the breast appears much 
paler, but still not at all uniform. 

347. Ixops nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

< 'indosoma nipalensis Hodgson, .4s. Res. vol. xix, p. 145 (1836) (Xcpal). 

Mr. Stuart Baker makes waldeni and poliotis subspecies of nipalensis, but 
I cannot agree to this. I consider there are two species nipalensis and waldeni, 
and they stand as follows : 

Ixops nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgs.). Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and W. 

Ixops nipalensis daflaensis (Godw.-Aust.). Dana and Miri Hills. 

Ixops waldeni waldeni (Godw.-Aust.). Naga Hills and Manipur. 

Ixops waldeni poliotis Hipp. Chin Hills and Mt. Victoria. 

Ixops waldeni saturatior Rothsch. N.W. Yunnan. 

Anderson secured 1 example at Ponsee, March 1868. (Anderson's specimen 
is or was in Calcutta, and therefore I cannot be absolutely sure of the identi- 

348. Minla ignotinca ignotinca Hodgs. 

Minla ignotinca Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 33 (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example, Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1902. 
1 Ta-lau-pa Chutung, March 1902 ; Forrest collected 3 J <J, 1 $ ad. Salwin 
Valley, 10 $$, 4 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 6 ££, 6 9? Tengyueh District. In 
my account of the 1918-1919 and 1921 collections I treated jerdon i and ignotinca 
as the same ; while in my account of the 1924 collection I recognised three local 
races : ignotinca ignotinca Hodgs. from Himalayas, Assam, etc., to Western 
Yunnan ; i.jerdoni Verr. Szechuan ; and i. marine La Touche, S.E. and S. Yunnan 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 275 

and Tonkin (fide Charles Oberthiir). This I feel sure is correct, and the key to 
the subsp. is as follows : 

fBack olive. 2. 

| Back dark vinaceous chestnut. ignotinca ignotinca 

J Breast white or cream. ignotinca jerdoni 

(Breast yellow. ignotinca mariae 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 2 <$<$ (1 sexed $), 5 $$ (1 sexed $) Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 9,000-10,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925 ; 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 
8,000 feet, Nov. 1925. 

349. Minla ignotinca mariae La Touche. 

Minla ignotincta mariae La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 30 (1921) (Milati). 

Bangs & Phillips record 8 examples from Mengtsz. Jan., Feb., and Sept., 
under the name of jerdoni ; La Touche enumerates 2 <J(J, 1 $ Milati, Jan. 1921, 
2 ^ (J 1 $ Loukouchai, Feb., March, April 1921. 

350. Mixomis rubricapilla rubricapilla (Tick.). 

Molacilla rubricapilla Tickell, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. ii, p. 576 (1833) (Maunbhum). 

Oustalet records this species among the birds of Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Andrews & Heller collected 1 ^, 1 $ ad. Namting River, and Chang-lung, Salwin 
Drainage, Feb.-March 1917. 

351. Mixornis rubricapilla minor Gyldst. 

Myxornis gularis minor Gyldenstolpe Kungl. Sven. Vet. Hand. vol. 1, No. 8 (Birds Swedish Zoo], 
Exp. Siam, 1911-1912, p. 60, No. 105 (1913) (Pak Koh, N. Siam). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <$ Mengtsz, June 1911, under the name of rubri- 
capilla ; La Touche collected 3 <$<$, 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. Hokow, March-April 1921. 

352. Siva cyanuroptera wingatei O. -Grant. 

Siva wingatei Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. B.O.C. vol. x, p. 38 (190O) (Yunnan City). 

Anderson obtained 1 9 Ponsee, March 1868 ; 1 <J ad. Yunnan City, Feb. 
1899, was collected by Captain Wingate (type of the subspecies) ; Ingram 
enumerates 4 $$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, June-July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips record 19 
examples from Mengtsz, March-Dec. 1910 ; Andrews & Heller got 1 <$, 1 $ ad. 
Hui-yao and My-cheng, Feb. and May 1917 ; Forrest collected 1 $ Shweli Valley, 

10 (J (J, 7 ?? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 5 $$, 3 $$ Tengyueh District, 4 J J, 4 $ 
Lichiang Range ; La Touche records 1 <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, July and Oct. 1920, 

11 $<$, 5 $$ Milati, Dec. 1920, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 1 $ Loukouchai, Feb. 1921, 1 $ 
Lotukow, May 1921. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 1 ^, 2 $$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 6,000- 
7,000 feet, July 1925, 2 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000-9,000 feet, July 1925. 
Bill dark brown, base of lower mandible orange-brown ; feet greyish olive ; 
iris yellowish grey. 

In the British Museum are 2 examples from Yangpi-Talifu Road, March 
1902 and April 1906 ; 1 Gyi-dzin-Shan, March 1902 ; hills E. of Talifu, March 
1902 ; 4 $3, 2 ?? Mu-chu, Jan. 1903, all from Colonel Rippon. 


353. Siva strigula yunnanensis Rothsch.. 

Siva singula yunnanensis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxvii. p. 411. No. 134 (1921) (Lichinn^ Umih.'c). 

In the freshly moulted birds the dark olivaceous orange head easily dis- 
tinguishes the Yunnan birds from castam icavda and malayana. Oustalet records 
this species among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds under the name of strigula : Colonel 
Rippon obtained 3 examples Lichiang, March 1906, 1 Lichiang Valley, April 
1906, 1 Yangpi Chutung, April 1906 ; Captain Wingate collected 1 <J ad. Ching- 
tung, March 1899 (both Colonel Rippon's birds and Captain Wingate's 1 £ are 
recorded under the name cu staneicauda) ; Bangs & Phillips record 1 <J, 1 $Mengtsz, 
Jan.-Feb., under the name of castaneicavda ; Forrest sent 42 S3, 25 $$, 12 ? 
Lichiang Range, 2 <$<$, 5 $$ Tengyueh District, 1 <J T'ong-Shan, 7 <?<£, 5 ?$ 
Shweli Valley, 4 $$, 2 $$ ad., 1 ? juv. ShweU-Salwin Divide. In the 1925 collec- 
tion are 7 $$, 4 ?$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000-10,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925. 

[On the genera Yuhina and Ixulus. 

In my former four articles on Forrest's birds, I united the genera Yuhina 
and Ixulus. Mr. Stuart Baker, in his new edition of the birds in the Fauna of 
British India, however, keeps them separate. I do not consider his differentiating 
characters of " shorter, deeper, and more curved at the tip " for the bill, and 
for the rictal bristles and hairs over bill of " weaker and less developed," of any 
diagnostic value at all ; the only point of difference I find in the 3 species placed 
in Ixulus, viz. occipitalis, fiavicollis, and humilis, as opposed to the 4 species 
gularis, diademata, occipitalis, and nigrimentum which are placed in Yuhina, is 
that the feathers of the crest are much broader, and almost truncated at the 
ends, while those of the Yuhina group are narrow and more or less sharply pointed. 
If we consider the shape of the crests in other groups of birds, such as the Pea- 
cocks, Monaul Pheasants, Cockatoos, etc., I think the majority of ornithologists 
will agree with me that this alone is not sufficient reason for keeping Ixulus and 
Yuhina separate. I therefore consider that Ixulus is a synonym of Yuhina. 
This brings about that two occipitalis occur in the same genus, neither of which 
has any synonyms. The bird included by Mr. Baker under Ixulus, i.e. described 
by Blyth, is not so old as Hodgson's, so I herewith name Mr. Baker's " Chestnut- 
headed Ixulus " Yuhina bakeri nom. nov.] 

354. Yuhina gularis yangpiensis Sharpe. 

Yuhina yangpiensis Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiii, p. 12 (19(10) (Yangpi). 

Colonel Rippon obtained the type-specimen at Yangpi, March 22, 1902. 
He afterwards collected a large series on Mt. Victoria in April 1904. 
The type and the series from Mt. Victoria are darker on the back and much 
more strongly washed with rufous below than </. gularis. 

355. Yuhina gularis griseotincta Rothsch. 

Yuhina gularis griseotincta Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 42, No. 141 (1921) (Shweli-Salwin 

This form differs from both </. gularis and g. yangpiensis in having the sides 
of the head and neck much greyer and the throat and chest more vinaceous ; 


it apparently is a mountain form occurring at higher elevations and more in 
N.W. Yunnan. 

Oustalet records this bird among those of Prince H. d'Orleans, under the 
name of gularis ; he also records it as procured at Tsekou by the Rev. Father 
Soulie ; Forrest collected 1 $ Salwin Valley, 4 <$<$, 5 22 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 

2 (J ^, 1 $ Tengyueh District, 14 £S, 11 22, 5 ? ad. Lichiang Range. 

In his 1925 collection are 1 <J Hills N. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, Oct. 1925 ; 

3 <$<$, 1 2 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-9,000 feet, Aug. 1925. 

356. Yuhina bakeri Rothsch. 

Yuhina bakeri Rothschild antea p. 276 (nom. now for occipitalis Blyth) (1926) (Nepal). 

Oustalet records under the name of occipitalis 3 specimens from Tsekou 
sent by Rev. Father Soulie. Oustalet points out some slight differences between 
these Yunnan birds and some Indian examples in the Paris Museum, collected 
by Hodgson. It must remain for the future, however, by means of comparing 
fresh Indian and Yunnan material, for ornithologists to decide if the Yunnan 
birds are really distinct. 

357. Yuhina flavicollis rouxi (Oust.). 

Ixulns rouxi Oustalet, Bull. Mm. d'Hist. Nat. vol. ii, pp. 184 and 186 (1896) (Ly-Sien-Kiang or 
Black River). 

Oustalet records only the type 2 as above, but in 1901 (Nouv. Arch. Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat. Paris (4) 3, he enumerates a second specimen also obtained by 
Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs & Phillips record 10 examples from Mengtsz, Jan- 
March ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Tai-ping-pu, April 1917 ; Forrest 
collected 2 $$, 2 22, 1 ? ad. Tengyueh District, 8 <$$, 1 2 Shweli-Salwin Divide ; 
La Touche records 3 cJcJ, 2 22 Loukouchai, April 1921. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection are 5 <?(?, 3 ?2 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000- 
11,000 feet, July-Aug. 1925. 

358. Yuhina diademata ampelina Ripp. 

Yuhina ampelina Rippon, Bull. B.O.C. vol. si, p. 12 (1900) (WararBum, 6,000 feet, E. of Bhamo). 

Hitherto, in my first two articles on Forrest's collections, I maintained the 
subspecies ampelina, whereas in my third article I sank it as a synonym of 
diademata diademata after Mr. Kinnear, and I had compared a very large series 
from both areas of distribution. This view I kept up in my article on Forrest's 
1924 collection. But now I have been able to examine freshly moulted birds 
from the same month of the year and from localities from which d. diademata 
and d. ampelina resjsectively are supposed to come. At the same time I have 
examined absolutely worn birds of both just before the moult, and I state frankly 
in this stage they are indistinguishable. The freshly moulted birds, however, 
can easily be distinguished as d. diademata is much more rufous in tone than 
d. ampelina, some of which are almost sooty black. As our knowledge of the 
distribution of the two forms in China is still very imperfect, I shall assume for 
the present that all Yunnan birds are ampelina. Oustalet records it as diademata 
from Tsekou from Rev. Father Soulie, and Captain Wingate collected 1 <$ ad. 
Yunnan City, Feb. 1899; Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Talifu Valley, 


Feb. 1906, 8 Lichiang, March-April 1906 ; Bangs and Phillips record 4 examples 
under the name of diademata from Mengtsz and Loukouchai ; Andrews & Heller 
got 1 (J, 1 $ ad. Lichiang SnowMts., Nov. 1917 ; Forrest collected 18 $$, 20 92. 
12 ? ad. Lichiang Range, 2 $$, 1 2 hills E. of Lichiang Plain, 2 $ $ ad., 1 ? juv. 
Tengyueh District, 1 £ Salwin Valley, 1 £, 2 22 Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 4 <J<J, 2 $5 ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
7,000-9,000 feet, July-Aug. 1925, 1 (J, 1 2 Tengyueh Valley. 7.1 feet, Dec. 1925. 

Colonel Rippon also collected 4 Shan-Kwan Tali Valley, March 1902, 1 
Mekong-Yuchang Divide, March 1906, 4 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1902, 
12 Gyi-dzin-Shan, March-April 1902, 1 Ta-lan-pa, March 1902, 1 <J Yungchang, 
Styan coll., is in the British Museum. 

359. Yuhina occipitalis obscurior Rothschild. 

Yukina occipitalis obscurior Rothschild, Xov. Zool. vol. xxviii. p. 42. Xo. 144 (1921) (Lichiang Range). 

Some Sikkim examples have the crest feathers and hindneck almost as grey 
as in Yunnan birds, but they can easily be distinguished as the Sikkim o. occipi- 
talis always has the throat, foreneek and breast washed or suffused with rusty 
brown, whereas o. obscurior from Yunnan has these parts suffused with a strong 
vinaceous shade. Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example on the Chutung-Yangpi 
Road, Feb. 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips record 2 specimens Mengtsz, Jan. ; Andrews & 
Heller collected 1 <J, 1 $ ad. Lung-ling March 1917; Forrest sent 3 $2 Tengyueh 
District, 2 <J<J, 1 9 Mekong-Salwin Divide, 29 $$, 30 22. 12 ? ad. Lichiang Range. 
In the 1925 collection are 1 <J, 2 22 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000-11,000 feet, 
June-July 1925. 

(The ear-coverts of o. obscurior are grey, not brown, as in o. occipitalis.) 

360. Yuhina nigrimentum intermedia Rothsch. 

Yuhina nigrimentum inti rmaliii Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxx, p. 46, No. 93 (1923) (Mekong- 
Salwin Divide). 

Forrest only obtained this bird in 1921. Oustalet records this bird under 
the name of nigrimentum from Tsekou, collected by the Rev. Father Soulie ; 
Forrest sent 1 <$ ad. Mekong Valley, 2 ($$, 2 92. 1 ? ad - Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

361. Erpornis xantholeuca xantholeuca Hodgs. 

Erpornis xantholeuca Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiii, p. 380 (1844) (Nepal). 

Mr. La Touche is the only collector who procured this bird in Yunnan, 2 22 
Loukouchai, Feb. and April 1921. 

362. Myzornis pyrrhoura Hodgs. 

Myzornis pyrrhoura Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 984. (1843) (Xepal). 

Oustalet records an example sent by the Rev. Father Soulie in 1900 from 
Tsekou ; Forrest collected 2 cJcJ, 2 22 Mekong-Salwin Divide in 1921. 

In his 1925 collection he sent 3 <JcJ, 3 22 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000- 
12,000 feet, July-Aug. 1915. Bill black ; feet brownish olive ; iris dark brown. 


363. Cutia nipalensis nipalensis Hodgs. 

Cutia nipalensis Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v, p. 774 (1836) (Nepal). 

Oustalet records this bird among those obtained by Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Andrews & Heller record 1 J a d. Ho-mu-shu Pass April 1917 ; Forrest obtained 
it for the first time in 1925. There are 3 cScS (1 sexed $) Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
9,000-10,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Forests. Bill black ; feet orange to brownish 
yellow ; iris brown. Here again the Yunnan bird is the Himalayan race and 
not the Malayan one. 

364. Pteruthius rufiventer Blyth. 

l'h rnlhiiis ni/iniiter Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 18 (1843) (Darjeeling). 

Mr. Stuart Baker has adopted Oates' generic name of HilarocicMa for this 
species, as he considers the longer and more graduated tail a sufficient generic 
distinction. I cannot see the slightest difference in this case from that of Para- 
digalla carunculata and P. brevicauda and Parotia helenae and P. wahnesi in the 
Birds of Paradise, where in Paradigalla carunculata and Parotia wahnesi the tail 
is long and graduated, while in Paradigalla brevicauda and Parotia helenae it is 
quite short and square. If we were to acknowledge genera based entirely on 
such characters as length and graduation of tail, we should end up by having a 
genus for almost every species, and entirely lose the object of genera, viz. to help 
the worker in demonstrating relationship. 

Oustalet records this species among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Forrest 
collected 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide in 1919. 

In his 1925 collection he sent 1 <J, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, Oct. 
1925. Bill black ; feet dark brown ; iris purplish black. 

365. Pteruthius aeralatus ricketti O. -Grant. 

Pteruthius ricketti Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxi, p. 110 (1904) (S. China, etc.). 

Anderson obtained 1 $ Ponsee, March 1868, 1 $ Sanda, July 1868 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 1 <J Loukouchai, Feb. 1911 ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. 
Ho-mu-shu Pass, April 1917 ; Forrest sent 1 (J, 1 ? Shweli Valley, 2 $$, 2 $? 
Shweli-Salwin Divide, 3 SS Yangtze Valley, 2 $? Lichiang Range, 2 £<$, 2 ?$ 
Tengyueh District. 

In his 1925 collection 2 $$ (1 sexed $), 3 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000- 
10,000 feet, Aug. and Oct. 1925. La Touche collected 1 ? Milati, Jan. 1921, 
1 <J, 1 9 Loukouchai, Feb. 1921. 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902. 

366. Pteruthius melanotis melanotis Hodgs. 

Pteruthius melanotis Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxiv, p. 267 (1855) (Terai, Eastern Hima- 

Mr. Kinnear has suggested to me that both melanotis Hodgs. and talianensis 
Hart, are subspecies of aenobarbus. I should at once have agreed with this view 
if it had not been for Hume's intermedins, which undoubtedly is the representative 
of aenobarbus on the mainland. Now intermedins goes north over East Burma, 
while talianensis is found far south in the Malay Peninsula on Mt. Tahan (Gunong 
Tahan). Thus we have a bird with red forehead and no black subauricular patch 

280 NnvITATF.S Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

in between two birds with no red forehead and black subaurieular patches. I 
therefore think it quite possible that somewhere between the Himalayas and 
the southern part of the Malay Peninsula the two forms will be found together. 
I therefore for the present treat them as two species with two subspecies each, 
thus : 

| No chestnut band on forehead 3. 

I Chestnut band on forehead 2. 

f With no grey nuchal band, red on throat only aenobarbus aenobarbus. 
2. -, With partial grey nuchal band, red extending on to breast aenobarbus 

{ intermedins. 

| Chestnut throat paler, less extended melanotic tahanensis. 

I Chestnut throat darker, more extended melanotis melanotic. 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <J, 1 § Loukouchai, Feb. ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 1 <J, 1 $ Feb., also from Loukouchai ; Forrest collected 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 1 $ Tengyueh District. 

367. Pteruthius xanthochloris pallidus (Dav.). 

Allotrius xanthochloris var. pallidus Armand David. Xouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii, Bull. p. 14 
(1871) (frontiers of Kookonor). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 2 examples at Gyi-dzin-Shan, March 1902 ; Forrest 
collected 1 J Lichiang Range, 1 ? T'ong-Shan, 1 ?, Mekong Valley, 2 SS 3 ??, 
Mekong-Salwin Divide ; La Touche records 1 <J, 1 $ Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 1 $ 
Lotukow, May 1921. 

368. Mesia argentauris argentauris Hodgs. 

Mesia argentauris Hodgson. Ind. Rev. 1838, p. 88 (Nepal). 

Anderson collected 1 example Ponsee, April 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 

1 o Loukouchai, Feb. ; Andrews & Heller got 1 <$ ad., 20 miles S. of Chen-kang, 
Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917. 

369. Cisticola cisticola tintinnabulans (Swinh.). 

' 'alamaniheila tintinnabulans Swinhoe, Journ. As. Soc. X. China Branch, vol. ii (1859) (Amoy. etc.). 
Bangs & Phillips record 10 examples Mengtsz, March-July ; Uchida & 
Kuroda record 3 <$<$, 3 <j>$, Mengtsz, March-April and July ; Forrest collected 

2 <$$ Tali Valley, 1 $, 1 ? ad., 2 ? juv. Tengyueh District, 3 J J, 2 $$ ad. ; 
La Touche obtained 1 (J, 1 $ juv. Mengtsz, Sept.-Dec. 1920. 

370. Cisticola exilis tytleri Jerd. 

Cisticola tytleri Jerdon, Birds I ml. vol. ii, p. 176 (1S63) (Assam). 

Anderson obtained 2 examples in the Sanda Valley, July 1868 ; La Touche 
records 1 jj Hokow, March 1921. 

371. Suya crinigera bangsi La Touche. 

Suya crinigera bangsi La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 53 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 examples from Mengtsz, March-May (under the 
name of Sni/a crinigera yunnanensis) ; La Touche enumerates 3 qq ad., 2 ($<$ 
juv. Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. and Feb. 1920-1921. 


372. Suya crinigera yunnanensis Har. 

Suya crinigera yunnanensis Harington, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxi, p. 110 (1913) (Yunnan) Momien. 

Anderson obtained 1 <J, 3 $$ Momien, June-July 1868 ; Forrest collected 

2 $$ juv. Mekong Valley, 4 <$<$ ad. Yangpi Valley, 6 <$<$ Tengyueh District. 
In his 1925 collection is 1 <$ ad. hills around Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, July 1925. 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Yangpi Valley, April 1906, 3 Chutung- 
Yangpi Road, March 1902 and April 1906, 1 Tali .Valley, April 1906. 

373. Suya parvirostris La Touche. 

Suya crinigera parvirostris La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 53 (1921) (Shuitang). 

La Touche described parvirostris as a subspecies of crinigera, because he 
only found it at Milati and Shuitang, whereas he only got bangsi on the Mengtsz 
plateau. As bangsi has the larger bill of crinigera this must stand as crinigera 
bangsi ; but it is otherwise with parvirostris. Mr. La Touche found parvirostris, 
it is true, the only form occurring at Milati, but Forrest collected it together 
with crinigera yunnanensis in the Mekong Valley and the Tengyueh District, 
therefore it must stand as a distinct species. Forrest collected 1 $ Mekong 
Valley, 1 $ Tali Valley, 1 $ Lichiang Range, 3 ? Tengyueh District ; La Touche 
enumerates 2 <£<?, 1 ?ad., 1 <£ juv. Milati Sept.-Dec. 1920, Feb. 1921, 1 <J (type) 
Shuitang May 1921. 

374. Suya atrogularis khasiana Godw.-Aust. 

Suya khasiana Godwin-Austen, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xviii, p. 412 (1876) (Shillong). 
Uchida & Kuroda record 5 £$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, Jan. -Aug. 

375. Suya superciliaris superciliaris Anders. 

Suya superciliaris Anderson, Zool. Res. Two Exp. W. Yunnan, p. 642, pi. li, f. 1 (1878) (Momien). 

Anderson collected 2 $<$ Momien, June 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 7 
examples Mengtsz, April-Aug. ; Forrest sent 2 <$$ Tali Valley, 1 $ N. of Tali, 
7 <?c?> 9 ??• 4 ? aa - Tengyueh District ; La Touche enumerates 1 <$, 2 $$ Lou- 
kouchai, Dec. 1920, April 1921, 1 <J, 1 $ Milati, Sept. & Dec. 1920, 2 examples 
Mengtsz, Aug.-Sept. 1920, 2 <$<$ Yunnanfu, May 1921. Colonel Rippon obtained 
1 example Talifu VaUey, Feb. 1906. 

376. Prinia inomata exter Thay. & Bangs. 

Prinia inomata exter Thayer & Bangs, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. xl, p. 182, pi. v, fit. 4-5 (1912) 
(W. Szechuan). 

Anderson procured 1 $ Momien, May 1868 ; Ingram records 8 <£<£, 1 $ 
Mengtsz, April-July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 12 examples from 
Mengtsz, Jan.-Sept. ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 $$ Yung-chang-Fu, Jan. 
1917 ; Forrest sent 1 $, 2 $$ Lichiang Range, 1 $ Teng-Chuan Valley, 3 £$, 

3 $<j>, 8 ? ad., 3 ? juv. Tengyueh District ; La Touche obtained 11 <J<J, 2 ?$ ad., 
10 ? juv. Mengtsz, Aug.-Dec. 1920, Jan.-March 1921, 3 <$<$, 1 ? Milati, Dec. 1920^ 
Feb.-Mareh 1921 ; Colonel Rippon procured 1 example on the Yangpi-Talifu 
Road, March 1902, and 1 example is in the British Museum from Meechu, Jan. 
1903, Styan coll. 

282 Novitates ZOOLOGIOAB XXX I II. 1926. 

377. Alcippe poioicephala magnirostris Wald. 

Alci/if" nuigiiirostris Walden in Blyth's Birds of Burin, p. 115 (1875) (Kurenner). 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Namting River, Feb. 1917. 

378. Alcippe poioicephala phayrei Blyth. 

Alcippe phayrei Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal , vol. xiv, p. 601 (1845) (Arrakan). 

Oustalet rocords this bhd among those collected by Prince H. d'Orleans. 

379. Alcippe nipalensis yunnanensis Har. 

Alcippe fralfrrula yunnanensis Harington, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxiii. p. 63 (1913) (Uyi-dzin-Shan). 

Colonel Rippon collected this bird at Talifu, Shweli Divide, May 1900, and 
12 examples at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, and recorded it as Alcippe fratercula : 
M. Pichon obtained 1 specimen and Menegaux and Didier recorded it as A. 
nipalensis fratercula ; Forrest sent 2 $ <J Shweli-Sahvin Divide, 1 £ Salwin Valley, 
1 (J, 1 $, 1 ? ad. Lichiang Range, 22 cjcj, 23 $$, 1 ? ad. Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 o hills round Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, July 1925, 
4 cJ $ Shweh-Salwin Divide 7,000-10,000 feet, July-Aug. 1925. 

Colonel Rippon also collected an example on the Talifu -Tengyueh Road, 
May 1900 ; and in the Styan collection are 2 $$, 1 $ Yunnan. 

380. Alcippe nipalensis schaefferi La Touche. 

Alcippe nipalensis schaefferi La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 81 (1922) (South-East Yunnan). 

Bangs & Phillips record 11 examples Mengtsz, Jan. -Feb., under the name of 
.4. x. hueti ; Uchida & Kuroda enumerate 3 <3o, 3 $9 Loukouchai, Jan., Feb., 
and Sept. ; La Touche collected 8 3<$, 1 $ Milati, Jan.-March 1921, 4 £<$, 2 $$ 
Loukouchai, Feb.-April 1921, 2 examples, Lotukow, May 1921. 

381. Megalurus palustris andrewsi Bangs. 

Megalurus palustris andrewsi Bangs, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xliv, p. 592 (1921) (Malipa and 

Captain Wingate collected 1 $ Ching-tung, 1 £ Mting-sen March 1899; 
Andrews & Heller obtained 1 <$ ad. Malipa, 1 $ ad. Meng-ting, Feb.-March 1917 ; 
Forrest collected 1 $ Tengyueh Plain. *In the British Museum is one example 
King-Tung-Ting, March 1 899, Styan coll. Mr. Kinnear after careful comparison 
of the large series of Megalurus in the British Museum declares he is unable to 
separate birds from Java, Burma, Assam, and India ; though the Yunnan birds 
are larger, therefore if valid Bang's name only applies to Yunnan examples. 

382. Phyllergates coronatus coronatus (Jerd. & Blyth). 

Orthotonus coronatus Jerdon & Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 200 (1861) (Darjeeling). 

Ingram records 1 <J Mengtsz, June 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 <J 
Mengtsz, July 1911 ; Forrest collected 1 $ Tengyueh Valley ; La Touche collected 
1 (J Tengyueh Valley ; La Touche collected 1 <£, 1 $ ad., 1 $ imm. Mengtsz, 
Sept. and Dec. 1920, Feb. 1921, 1 (J Tachouang, March 1921, 1 $ Loukouchai, 
April 1921. 


383. Orthotomus sutorius inexpectatus La Touche. 

Orthotomus sutorius inexpectatus La Touche. Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 42 (1922) (Mengtsz). 

Colonel Rippon obtained a bird of this species, Salwin Valley, May, 1906, 
and Ingram records 1 <J, 1 ? Mengtsz, May and July 1910 (both under the name 
O. s. phyllorrhaphaea) ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate under the same name 8 
examples from Mengtsz, April-Aug. ; La Touche collected 10 $<$, 4 $$ Mengtsz, 
July-Dec. 1920, Feb. 1921, 1 9 Tachouang, March 1921. Colonel Rippon's 
bird, however, has striated ear-coverts like macvlicollis, but is as large as sutoria 
sutoria and phyllorrhaphia, so I think it does not belong here, but under longicaudus. 

384. Orthotomus sutoria maculicollis Moore. 

Orthotomus maculicollis Moore. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1854, p. 309 (Malay Peninsula). 

When a series is procured it is most likely that this race will require a new 
name, as it has either no white streaks at all or only a few faint ones on the ear- 
coverts, but at present the available material (3 examples) is too scanty to decide 

La Touche records 2 <J(J Hokow, March 1921, under his s. inexpectatus, 
but states they are much smaller. 

385. Orthotomus sutorius longicaudus (Gm.). 

Motacilla longicauda Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 954 (1788) (China). 

Stuart Baker has failed to differentiate the birds described by La Touche 
as s. inexpectatus from Mengtsz from Fokhien longicaudatus, but I think this will 
prove wrong, and I am therefore using the name for the W. Yunnan form, and 
the name of La Touche for the S.E. Yunnan bird. 

Oustalet records this bird among the birds collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Colonel Rippon collected 1 example in the Salwin Valley, May 1906. 1 $, 1 $ 
Styan coll. are in the British Museum. 

386. Acrocephalus stentoreus orientalis (Temm. & Schleg.). 

Salicaria turdina orientalis Temminck & Schlegel in Siebold'a Faun. Jap>. Aves, p. 50, pi. xxb (1847) 
(Japan, etc.). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 2 3$ Mengtsz, April and Aug. ; La Touche 
records 1 $ Nov. 1920, Mengtsz (M. Laurente) ; Uchida & Kuroda record 2 $<$ 
Mengtsz, April and Aug., under the name of stentoreus stentoreus, having rightly 
concluded that their birds had a wing formula of stentoreus, but they failed to 
connect them with orientalis. 

387. Phragamaticola aedon (Pall.). 

Muxcicapa action Pallas, Reise versch. Prov. Russ. Reichs. vol. iii, p. 695 (1776) (Dauria). 

Ingram records 1 (J Mengtsz, May 19J0 ; Forrest collected 3 3S Tengyueh 
District ; La Touche obtained 1 <J Yunnanfu, May 1921, 1 <$ Lotukow, May 1921. 

388. Lusciniola thoracica (Blyth). 

Dumeticola thoracica Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 584 (1845) (Nepal). 

Forrest appears to be the only collector to get this little brown bird, 1 <$ 
Yangtze Valley, 1 <J juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 9 (Jc?, 4 $$ Lichiang Range. 


389. Horeites cantans canturians (Swinh.). 
Arundinax canturians Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 52 (Amoy, Shanghai). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <J Mengtsz, Nov. 1910 ; La Touche enumerates 

2 (JcJ Mengtsz, Dec. 1920 and March 1921, 1 <$ Tachouang, March 1921. 

390. Horeites fortipes davidiana (Verr.). 

Arundinax davidiana Verreaux, Xouv. Arrli. Mus. Paris Butt. vol. vi, p. 37 (1870) (Moupin). 

Bangs & Phillips record 2 <$3 Mengtsz, May-June ; La Touche enumerates 

3 <J<J, 4 $?, 1 ? ad. Mengtsz, Nov.-Dec. 1920, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 3 <J(J. 1 $ Milati, 
Dec. 1920, Feb.-March 1921. 

391. Horeites flavolivacea intricatus Hart. 

Horeites jlaroliraeea iiilrinitus Hartert. Y;ij. Palaark. Fauna, vol. i. p. 533, No. 828 (1909) (Tai-pai- 

Forrest collected 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District. 
392. Horeites acanthizoides acanthizoides (Verr.). 

A'irornis acanthi-aides Verreaux, None. Arch. Mus. Paris Hull. vol. vi. p. 37 (1871) (YV. Szetschuan). 

Forrest collected 1 $ Tengyueh District. 

393. Horeites pallidipes laurentei (La Touche). 

Urosphena laurentei La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 30 (1921) (Poutoutsing). 

La Touche records 1 $ (type) Poutoutsing, April 1921 (Laurente). 

394. Horeites brunneifrons umbraticus Baker. 

Horeites brunneifrons umbraticus Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliv, p. 63 (1924) (Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

Forrest collected 1 $ ad. Teng Chuan Valley ; 1 £ juv. Mekong-Salwin 
Divide ; 1 cJ, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 4 gg, 4 $$ ad., 1 q J uv - Lichiang Range. 

395. Horeites major Moore. 

Horeites major Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1854, p. 105 (Nepal). 

Forrest collected 1 <$ Lichiang Range, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

396. Urosphena squameiceps (Swinh.). 

iii'iura squamiceps Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 292 (Canton). 

La Touche procured 2 gj Mengtsz, March 1921. 

397. Herbivocula schwarzi (Radde). 

Sylvia (Phyllopneuete) schwarzi Radde, Reise Suden Ost-Sib. vol. ii, p. 260, pi. ix (1863) (Tarei-Nor 
and Bureja Mts.). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example of this bird at C'hutung, March 1902, 
and 2 Yangpi Valley, April 1902 ; La Touche collected 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920. 


398. Phylloscopus armandii (Milne-Edw.). 

Abrornis armandii Milne-Edwards, Now. Arch. Mils. Paris Bull. vol. i, p. 22, pi. ii, f. 1 (1865) 
(N. China). 

Forrest sent 1 (J, 1 5 Lichiang Range, 1 $ Chien Chuan Valley. 
399. Phylloscopus subaffinis (Grant). 

Oreopneuste subaffinis Grant, Bull. B.O.C. vol. x, p. 37 (1900) (Pu-an-ting, S.W. Kweichu). 

Colonel Rippon collected examples of this species at Gyi-dzin-Shan, March 
1902, at Shan Kwan, Tali Valley, April 1902, in the Nechong Valley, and on the 
Chutung-Yangpi and Chutung-Shayang Roads, March- April 1902 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 1 (J Mengtsz, July 1910 ; M. Pichon obtained 1 example ; Forrest 
sent 5 (J J, 6 $$ Lichiang Range, 1 ? Tengyueh District, 1 $ Shweli Valley ; La 
Touche enumerates 2 gg Mengtsz, Oct. and Dec. 1920, 1 $ Milati, Dec. 1920, 

1 9 Lankouchai, Dec. 1920. 

In the British Museum are also from Colonel Rippon 1 example Yangpi 
Valley, April 1906, 2 Lichiang Valley, April 1906. 1 Meechu, Jan. 1903, 1 
Shayang-Yang Chang Road, April 1906. 

400. Phylloscopus humei praemium Math. & Ired. 

Phylloscopus humei praemium Mathews & Iredale, Austral Av. Rec. vol. iii, pt. ii, p. 45 (1915) 

(nom. nov.). 
Motacilla superciliosa Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 975 (1789) (Russia). 

Anderson obtained 1 example Ponsee, April 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 
4 specimens Mengtsz, April, July, Sept., Oct. ; Andrews & Heller procured 1 £ 
Chang-Lung, Salwin River ; Forrest collected 1 $ Tengyueh District, 1 $ Lichiang 
Range ; M. Pichon sent 1 example. There is 1 example in the British Museum 
collected by Colonel Rippon, Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902. 

401. Phylloscopus fuscatus Blyth. 

Phyllopneuste fuscata Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 113 (1842) (Calcutta). 

Anderson obtained 1 $ Ponsee, April 1868 ; Ingram records 1 <J Mengtsz, 
April 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 5 examples Mengtsz, April-May ; 
Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ Yuan-chiang-Chow, Jan. 1917 ; Forrest collected 

2 <J<5 Yangtze Valley, 1 <$ Tali Valley, 1 <£, 1 $ Mekong Valley and Salwin Divide, 

1 <J Lichiang Range, 1 (J, 1 $ Tengyueh District ; La Touche procured 5 J <J, 

2 ?$, 2 ? ad. Mengtsz. Oct. and Dec. 1920, Jan.-April, 1921, 1 ? Tachouang, March 
1921, 1 <$, 2 $$ Yunnanfu, May, 1921, 1 ? Kopaotsun, May 1921. 

402. Phylloscopus maculipennis debilis (Thay. & Bangs). 

Reguloides maculipennis de'jilis Thayer & Bangs, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. xl, No. 4, 
p. 180 (1912) (Kiating, W. Szechuan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained examples at Gyi-dzin-Shan and Chutung, April 
and May, 1902 ; Forrest collected 1 $ Tengyueh District, 1 ^ Mekong Valley, 
1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 <$ Shweli-Salwin Divide ; La Touche records 3 $$ 
Mengtsz, March 1921. Colonel Rippon also collected an example Shayang, March 


286 Novitates Zoolooioae XXXIII. 1926. 

403. Phylloscopus subviridis (Brooks). 

Reguloides suhviridis Brooks, Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 1872, p. 148 (N.W. Provinces, especially near 
Etawah. India). 

Uchida & Kuroda record 1 <J Mengtsz, Sept., but the record requires con- 

404. Phylloscopus occipitalis coronatus (Temm. & Schleg.). 

Ficedula coronata Temminck & Schlegel in .Siebold's Faun, Jap. Arcs, p. 48, pi. xviii (1847) (Japan). 
Bangs & Phillips record 4 examples Mengtsz, Aug. ; Forrest collected 1 ? 
Lichiang Range ; La Touche obtained 20 specimens Mengtsz, July-Sept. 1920 
and March 1921. 

405. Phylloscopus trochiloides (Sund.). 

Acanlhiza trochiloides Sundeval, Physiogr. Sottslcap. Tidshr. vol. i. 1838 (1846) (Calcutta). 

Anderson collected 1 example Ponsee, April 1868 ; Colonel Rippon obtained 
21 specimens Gyi-dzin-Shan, March and April 1902, 1 example Yangi, March 
1902, 1 Yuchangfu, May 1902, 1 Yangpi-Chutung Road, March 1906, 2 Yangtze 
Big Bend, March 1906, and 1 Lichiang Valley, April 1906. 

406. Phylloscopus trochiloides davisoni (Oates). 
Acanthopneustt davisoni Oates, Faun. Brit. Intl. Birds, vol. i. p. 420 (1889) (Muleyit). 

Colonel Rippon obtained examples at Yangtze Big Bend, Lichiang Valley, 
Yungchang, and the Yangpi-Chutung Road, March-April 1906 ; Oustalet 
records it among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Bangs & Phillips record 1 J Mengtsz, 
Oct. 1910 ; Andrews & Heller procured 1 $ Wan-tien, May 1917 ; Forrest col- 
lected 2 ^ (J, 3 $$ Tengyueh District, 1 <$ Lichiang Range, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin 
Divide ; La Touche records 4 $<$, 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, March 1921, 1 <J Lou- 
kouchai, April 1921, 2 examples, Lotukow, May 1921. 

407. Phylloscopus trochiloides disturbans (La Touche). 

Aatntht>iniensti trnchiloidis dislurbans La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 22 (1922) (Mengtsz). 

La Touche records 2 <$<$, 3 ?? of this bird Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920. 
408. Phylloscopus trochiloides claudiae (La Touche). 

Phylloscopus trochiloides claudiae La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 22 (1922) (Mengtsz). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 ^, 1 $ Mengtsz, June & Oct. ; La Touche collected 
31 cJc?, 20 $$ Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920, March-April 1921. 

409. Phylloscopus yunnanensis La Touche. 

Pliylloscopus proregulus yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii. p. 21 (1922) (Mengstz). 

La Touche collected 5 <$<$ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, April 1921. 
4lo. Phylloscopus proregulus proregulus (Pall.). 

Motacilla proregulus Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiai. vol. i, p. 499 (1827) (Ingoda River, Dauria). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 (J, 1 $ Mengtsz, June, Loukouchai, Dec. 1910 ; 
La Touche collected 5 examples Mengtsz, Nov.-Dec. 1920, March 1921, 1 ex- 
ample Milati, Feb. 1921, 1 $ Tachouang, March 1921. 


411. Phylloscopus proregulus newtoni Gatke. 

Phylloscopus newtoni Gatke, Ibis, 1889, p. 579 (Darjeeling). 

1 enumerate the 3 Mengtsz birds recorded by Ingram under this heading, as 
they are certainly not typical proregulus, and have been doubted even by Ingram 
when he identified them as proregulus. 

2 $<$, 1 $ Mengtsz, July 1910. 

412. Phylloscopus proregulus forresti Rothsch. 

Phylloscopus proregulus forresti Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 45, No. 161 (1921) 
(Lichiang Range). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 $ Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Oustalet enumerates 
it among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ Yung- 
chang-Fu, Jan. 1917 ; Forrest sent 6 (J (J, 2 $$ Lichiang Range, 2 <$$ ad. Salwin 
Valley, 1 $ Tengyueh District ; Colonel Rippon collected 3 Lichiang, March 
and April 1900, 1 Shayang-Chutung Road, March 1902, 7 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 
1902, 1 hills E. of Yung Chang, Jan. 1900, 1 hills N.E. of Talifu, March 1902, 
2 Yung Chan-Salwin Road, April 1902, 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1906, 
1 Shan Kwan, March 1902. 

413. Phylloscopus borealis borealis (Bias.). 

Phyllopneuste borealis Blasius, Naumannia 1858, p. 313 (Sea of Ochotsk). 

Ingram records 2 <$<$, 1 $ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
1 $ March 1911 ; Forrest collected 1 <£, 4 $$ Lichiang Range ; La Touche obtained 
1 <?, 1 $ Mengtsz, Aug.-Sept. 1920, 1 <?, 1 ? Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

414. Phylloscopus nitidus saturatus (Baker). 

Acanthopneusle nitidus saturatus Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlir, p. 62 (1924) (Dalan, S. Annam). 
Colonel Rippon obtained 4 examples at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902. 

415. Phylloscopus nitidus plumbeitarsus (Swinh.). 

Acanthopneusle plumheitarsus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 330 (Taku and Peking). 

La Touche records 3 examples, Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; 1 <J, 1 ? Kopaotsun, 
May 1921. 

416. Phylloscopus trivirgatus ricketti (Slater). 

Cryptolopha ricketti Slater, Ibis, 1897, p. 174, pi. iv, f. 2 (Kuatun). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate and describe 1 <$ Mengstz, Sept. 1910, under 
the name of Cryptolopha trivirgatus eiuncidas subsp. nov. ; La Touche records 
5 (J (J, 6 $$, 3 ? ad. Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920 and March 1921. 

417. Phylloscopus tenellipes Swinh. 

Phylloscopus tenellipes Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 53 (Amoy). 

La Touche collected 2 £<$ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920. 

288 Novitatks Zoolooicab XXXIII. 1926. 

4is. Phylloscopus affinis (Tick.). 
MolaciUa aj/inis Tiokell, Journ, As. Soc. Bengal, vol ii. p. 576 (1833) (Borabhum). 

Anderson got 1 $ Momien, June 1868 ; Forrest obtained 1 $ Mekong-Salwin 
Divide, 1 ? Mekong Valley, 1 ? Lichiang Range. 

In the British Museum collected by Colonel Rippon are 1 Lichiang Valley, 
April 1906, 3 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March and April 1902, 1 Mekong Valley, 
April 1902, 2 Gzi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, and 1 Chutung-Shayan Road, April 

419. Phylloscopus lugubris (Blyth). 

Plii/llopnnisl, lugubris Birth. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xii. p. 98 (1843) (Calcutta). 

Oustalet records this species among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Bangs & 
Phillips enumerate 2 <$£ Mengtsz, April-May ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ 
Wan-tien, May 1917 ; Forrest sent 1 $ Mekong Valley, 1 (J, 2 $$ Tengyueh Valley ; 
La Touche collected 1 c?> 1 ? Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920, 1 $ Milati, Sept. 1920, 
2 (JcJ Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

420. Phylloscopus magnirostris (Blyth). 

Phyllopneustt magnirostris Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 966 (1843) (Calcutta). 

Forrest collected 2 $$ Mekong Valley ; La Touche got 1 <J Mengtsz, 
April 1921. 

421. Phylloscopus pulcher pulcher Blyth. 

Phylloscopus pulcher Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 592 (1845) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon procured 1 example of this bird at Shan Kwan, Tali Valley, 
March 1902, and 11 at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1904; Forrest sent 1 $ Lichiang 

422. Abrornis superciliaris salwinensis Baker. 

Ahrornis superciliaris sahoinensis Baker, Bud. B.O.C. vol. xliv, p. 62 (1924) (Salwin). 

The type was obtained by W. Davison, Jan. 1886, 1 <J Salwin ; Anderson 
obtained 1 example Ponsee, April 1868. 

423. Abrornis albigularis fulvifascies Swinh. 

Abrornis puhrifoxies Swinhop, Proe. Zool. Soc. London, 1870. p. 132 (Szechuan). 

Oustalet records this laird among Prince H. d'Orleans' collections. 

424. Abrornis schisticeps ripponi Sharpe. 

Abrornis ripponi Sharpe. Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiii, p. 11 (19H2) (Gyi-dzin-Shin). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 4 examples of this bird at Gzi-dzin-Shan, April 
1902, 1 Talaupa Chutung, March 1902, and on the Chutung-Yangpi Road, 
March 1902. 

425. Seicercus burkei tephrocephalus (And.). 

Culicepeta lephrocephala Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 213 (1871) (Bharao). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Yangpi Valley, March 1906 ; Oustalet 
records it from the collection of Prince H d'Orleans ; Bangs & Plullips enumerate 


7 examples Mengtsz, March-Oct. ; La Touche collected 2S specimens Mengtsz, 
Sept.-Nov. 1020 and March-April 1021, 1 Loukouchai, Feb. 1921, 1 Tachouang 
March 1921 ; Forrest sent 8 $$, 7 $$ Lichiang Range, 1 ? Yangtze Valley, 3 $$, 
2 $$, 1 ? ad., 1 $ juv.Tengyueh District, 1 <$ Mekong Valley, 1 (J Mekong-Salwin 
Divide. In the 1925 collection are 2 <$£ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 0,000-10,000 
feet, July 1025, 1 ? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, June 1925. Bill dark 
brown, lower mandible bone-yellow ; feet pale olive brown ; iris dark brown. 
[Seicercits Swainson, p. 84, antedates Cryptolopha Swainson, p. 259.] 

426. Seicercus burkii distincta (La Touche). 

Cryptolopha burkii distincta La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 41 (1922) (Mengtsz). 

La Touche collected 4 $$, 1 $ Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920, March- April 
1021, 1 <J, 1 $ Hokow, March 1921. 

427. Seicercus burkii intermedia (La Touche). 

Cryptolopha intermedia La Touche. Bull. B.O.V. vol. vii, p. xxxvii (1898) (Fokhien). 
La Touche obtained 1 $ Mengtsz, Nov. 1920. 

428. Seicercus burkii valentini (Hartert). 

Cryptolopha burkii valentini Hartert, Vbg. paUiarkt. Fauna, vol. i, p. 497, No. 773 (1907) (S. Kansu). 
The $ type of La Touche's intermedia turns out to be a $ of the above. 

429. Seicercus castaneiceps castaneiceps (Gray). 

Abrornis castaneiceps Gray, Cat. Mamms., fir., Nepal, p. 66, et App. p. 152 (1846) (Nepal). 
Forrest only got 1 example Shweli-Salwin Divide in his first collection. 

430. Seicercus castaneiceps laurentei (La Touche). 

Cryptolopha castaneiceps laurentei La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii. p. 53 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

La Touche obtained 4 <$<$, 1 $, 1? Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, and March-April 

431. Seicercus poliogenys (Blyth). 

Culicipeta poliogenys Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 441 (1847) (Darjeeling). 

La Touche records 1 (J Tachouang, March 1921, 1 $ Loukouchai, April 1921. 

432. Seicercus ripponi (Sharpe). 

Abrornis ripponi Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xii, p. 11 (1902) (Gyi-dzin-Shan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained an example of this bird at Talaupa Chutung, March 
1902, 1 Chutung- Yangpi Road, March 1902, and 4 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902. 

433. Franklinia gracilis (Frankl.). 

Prinia gracilis Franklin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 119 (Y'indhyian Hills). 

Captain Wingate sent 1 $ ad. Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Ingram records 
2 tJcJ. 2 $9 Mengtsz, May-July 1010 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 8 specimens 
Mengtsz, Jan.-Sept. ; La Touche collected 9 $$, 2 $$, 2 ? ad., 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, 


July-Dec. 1920 and Feb. 1921, 1 <?, 1 ? Tachouang, March 1921, 1 <J Hokow, 
March 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 c? Lichiang Range, 1 (J, 1 ?, 1 ? Tengyueh District. 
In the British Museum are also 2 examples Yangpi Talifu Road, March- 
April 1902, 1 Shayang-Pingpo Road, April 1902, from Colonel Rippon ; 1 Yung 
Mochenj, March 1903, Styan coll., and 1 <J Muangla, May 1868 Anderson. 

434. Franklinia rufescens rufescens (Blyth). 

Prinia rufescens Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi. p. 456 (1847) (Arrakan). 

La Touche collected 1 <J Hokow, March 1921. 

435. Culicicapa ceylonensis orientalis Baker. 

Culicicapa ceylonensis orientalis Baker. Bvtt. B.O.C. vol. xliv, p. 11 (1923) (Kzechuan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 8 examples at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 2 specimens Mengtsz, Oct. ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 (J <J, 

1 $ ad. Namting River, Malipa, and Tai-ping-pu, Feb.-April 1917 ; Pichon 
obtained this bird ; La Touche collected 10 <$<$, 4 $$, 2 ? Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 
1920, 1 3 Tachouang, March 1921, 1 ?, 2 ? Loukouchai, March 1921, 1 <J 
Hokow, March 1921, 1 ? Lotukow, May 1921 ; Forrest obtained 2 <J<J, 7 $$, 2 ? 
Lichiang Range, 1 <J, 1 $ Yangtze Valley, 5 <$<$, 4 ?$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 

2 $$ Salwin Valley, 1<J, 4 ??, 1 ? Mekong-Salwin Divide, 4 $$ Mekong Valley, 
1 <J, 4 $$, 1 ? Tengyueh District. In the 1925 collection there are 1 <J, 2 ?? Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 9,000-10,000 feet, Aug. 1925, 2 $<$, 2 $? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 
6,000-8,000 feet, July 1925. Forests. Bill black-brown, lower mandible pale 
brown, feet olive, iris brown. 

In addition there are in the British Museum from Colonel Rippon 5 examples 
Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1902 and 1906, and 1 Lichiang Valley, April 1906. 

436. Chelidorynx hypoxantha (Blyth). 

Rhipidura hypoxantha Blyth, Journ As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 935 (1843) (Darjeeling). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 2 examples Chutung- Yangpi Road, March 1902, 
and 6 at Gyi-dzin-Shan, March-April 1902 ; Oustalet records it among Prince H. 
d'Orleans collections ; Bangs and Phillips enumerate 4 examples Mengtsz, Feb- 
March and Dec. ; La Touche collected 1 £, 3 $$ Mengtsz, Oct.-Dec. 1920, 1 $ 
Loukouchai, March 1921 ; Forrest sent 10 <J(J, 5 ?? Lichiang Range, 3 <$<$, 1 ? 
Tengyueh District, 2 cJcJ Salwin Valley, 3 £3 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 c?c?. 1 ? 
ad., 1 <J, 1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide. In the 1925 collection are 2 c?c?» 2 ?? 
hills N.W. of ^Tengyueh, 6,000-7,000 feet, June 1925, 1 jj Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
9,000 feet, July 1925. Bill black, lower mandible yellow ; feet blackish olive ; 
iris brown. Forests. 

437. Anthipes laurentii La Touche. 

Anthipes laurentii La Touche. Bull B.O.I', vol. xlii (1921) (Loukouchai). 

La Touche collected 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, 1 <J Loukouchai, April 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 1 (J Tengyueh District. 


438. Terpsiphone paradisi affinis (" Hay " Blyth). 

Tchitrea a/finis " Hay " Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. sv, p. 292 (1846) (Malay Peninsula and 

Ingram records 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Forrest sent 1 $ juv. Tengyueh 
District ; Uchida & Kuroda record 3 (JcJ. 2 $$ Mengtsz, April and Sept. 

439. Terpsiphone incii (Gould). 

Muscipela incei Gould, Birds of Asia, vol. iv, p. 19 (1852) (Shanghai). 

In my article on Forrest's fourth collection I stated (Nov. Zool. vol. xxxii, 
p. 305, 1925) on the evidence of Forrest's and Ingram's 2 birds, that the Mengtsz 
Paradise Flycatchers mentioned by La Touche and Bangs & Phillips were wrongly 
named, and that incii Gould was a purple-backed species " never white." I 
much regret having made this statement, as I now find that adult <J incii are 
white. Consequently I am quoting these birds under incii now, though I am 
not sure in my own mind, not having seen them, whether some of the immature 
examples may not also be paradisi affinis. 

Bangs & Phillips record 11 examples Mengtsz, April and Oct. ; La Touche 
collected 3 <$<$ ad., 6 <$$, 3 ?? juv. Mengtsz, Aug.-Oct. 1920, 1 $ ad. Amichow, 

440. Muscicapa thalassina thalassina (Swains.). 

Muscicapa llmlassina Swainson, in Jardine & Selby's Nat. Lihr. vol. xvii (Flycatchers), Appendix 
p. 252, No. 2 (1838) (India). 

Oberholser (Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxxii, p. 240) points out that 
Muscicapa melanops Vig. is antedated by Muscicapa melanops Vieill. (Now. 
Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xxi, p. 452, 1818), and therefore the next available name 
is thalassina Swains. Oberholser also points out that the correct spelling of 
the generic name Stoparola auct. plur is Stoporala, but as I unite these birds 
with Muscicapa the correction of the genus does not alter my views. Captain 
Wingate obtained 2 <$$ Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Ingram records 3 c?c?> 1 ? 
Mengtsz, May-June 1910 ; Anderson obtained 1 £, 1 ? Ponsee, March 1868, 

1 $ juv. Sanda, July 1868, 1 $, 1 ? juv. Momien, June 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 13 examples Mengtsz and Loukouchai, March-Oct. ; Andrews & 
Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Mucheng, Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917 ; Pichon sent 
home 1 specimen ; La Touche collected 5 <£$, 2 $? Mengtsz, Sept.-Nov. 1920, 
and March-April 1921, 6^, 2 ?$ Milati, Sept. 1920 and Jan. 1921, 1 cJ, 1 $ 
Loukouchai, March-April 1921, 2 £<$, 1 $ Lotukow, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 

2 <?<? Shweli Valley, 1 <J, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 $$ T'ong Shan, 2 SS 
Chutong Valley, 1 $ Yangtze Valley, 12 <3<S, 3 ?$ ad., 2 <$$, 1 ? juv. Tengyueh 
District; 5c$<$, 4 $$ ad., 1 ^, 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range. The 1925 collection 
contains 2 tftf hills around and N. of Tengyueh, 6,000-9,000 feet, July and 
Nov. 1925. 

In the British Museum are further 5 examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 
2 Lichiang Valley, April 1906, 1 Yangpi Valley, March 1906, and 1 Chutung- 
Yangshan Road, April 1906, from Colonel Rippon, and 3 $$ Yunnan, Styan 

292 Novitatks ZooLor.irAE XXXIII. 1926. 

441. Muscicapa tricolor tricolor (Hodgs.). 
Digenea tricolor Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Is4.">. ]>. 2(i (Nepal). 

The first actual descriptions of this Flycatcher appeared at the place quoted 
where Hodgson described the J as leucomdanura and the 9 as tricolor. Nearly 
all subsequent writers have employed the name leucomdanura for this bird, 
because it applied to the (J, but they quite ignored the fact that tricolor appears 
first on the page, and therefore must be used under the laws of priority. 

Colonel Rippon collected an example in the Lichiang Valley, April 1906 ; 
La Touche obtained 5 <$£, 2 $$ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920 and March-April 1921. 
Forrest sent lO^cJ, 3 ?? ad., 1 <J imm., 3 $3 juv. Lichiang Range, 1 <$, 1 ? ad., 
1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 ? juv. Shweli Valley, 1 $ ad. Salwin Valley. 
La Touche records 5 <$<$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920 and March-April 1921, under 
the name of leucomdanura cerviniventris. I also in the beginning identified 
Yunnan examples as I. cerviniventris, but on careful re-examination I believe all 
Yunnan birds are I. leucomdanura, i.e. tricolor tricolor, after all. 

[On the Muscicapae of the banyumas-rubeculoides-tickellii group. 
This group of Flycatchers is very puzzling, and I fear Mr. Stuart Baker has 
failed to unravel the confused mass at all satisfactorily. Count Salvadori des- 
cribed a bird under the name of dialilaema and Colonel Harington published and 
described whitei, while Thayer & Bangs applied the name of glaucicomans to a 
tickellii form. All these according to Baker are one and the same. I cannot 
subscribe to this, as from my examination we have three distinct forms in Yunnan 
of apparently three species. Mr. Baker has admitted three species of this group, 
each with several subspecies, viz. rubeculoides and banyumas with brown $$ and 
tickellii with sexes alike. If Mr. Baker had looked up glaiicicomans of Thayer & 
Bangs he would have perceived that it was a form of tickellii, whereas dialilaema 
is a form of rubeculoides in which a narrow median band of rufous runs up into 
the blue throat from the breast ; whitei is a form of banyumas, and as far as 
I can see = caerulifrons Baker. I therefore recognise the following Yunnan 
forms : rubeculoides dialilaema Salvad., banyumas whitei Har., and tickellii glaiici- 
comans Thay. & Bangs. La Touche has followed Baker's classification and calls 
all three forms caerulifrons Baker, but lays great stress on there being many 
males with blue sides of the neck and throat ; these of course are rubeculoides 
dialilaema. It is possible that when we have larger series, it will be found that 
both the birds I call banyumas whitei and rubeculoides dialilaema will have to be 
separated, as special subspecies as well as the third form tickellii glaucicomans, 
on account of their larger size.] 

442. Muscicapa tickellii glaucicomans (Thay. & Bangs). 

Cyornis tickdliae glaucicomans Thayer & Bangs, Bull. Hue. Camp. Zool. vol. lii, p. 141 (1909) 
(Tanahuiya Hupeh). 

Only Bangs & Phillips of recent authors appear to have recorded this bird 
from Yunnan ; 6 examples Mengtsz, Oct. -Dec. 

443. Muscicapa banyumas whitei (Har.). 

Cyornis whitei Harington, Ann. Mug. Xul. Ilixt. (S), ii. p. 245 (1808) (Wntan, Bhamo Distr.). 

Anderson obtained 2 <$<$ March and April, 1868, Ponsee ; Andrews & Heller 
collected 1 $ ad. at Chang-lung, Salwin River, March 1917; Forrest sent 2 $$, 


2 99 Tengyueh District. In the 1925 collection are 3 $<S hills N.W. and N. of 
Tengvueh, July and Nov. 1925, 8,000-9,000 feet. La Touche records all his 
examples of M . b. whitei and M. dialilaema under the head of caerulifrons Baker, 
though pointing out the differences ; he obtained of the two species, in all 10 $, 
13 99 ad., 3 <$<$ juv., 10 <$$ juv. from Mengtsz, July and Sept.-Oct. and March, 
Milati, Sept. and March, Loukouchai, April, Lotukow, May, and Hokow, March. 

444. Muscicapa rubeeuloides dialilaema (Salvad.). 

Cyornis dialilaema Salvadori. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2), vii, p. 387 (1889) (Taho, Karen Hills). 

When we can examine a large series of Chinese examples, I expect this 
form will have to be separated on account of its larger size. 

La Touche obtained a number of exarnjjfes (for details see under previous 
No. (230)). Forrest sent 3 rfd Yangtze Valley, 4 <$<$ Lichiang Range ; Anderson 
collected 3 99 a* Ponsee, March-May 1868, and 1 <$ Tapeng River, 1868. 

445. Muscicapa saphira (Blyth). 

Muscicapula -saphira Blyth, Journ. As. Soc, Bengal, vol. xii, p. 939 (1843) (Sikkim). 

Anderson records 1 <$ example Ponsee, April 1868 ; Forrest sent 2 <$<$ 
Salwin Valley. 

446. Muscicapa hyperythra hyperythra Blyth. 

Muscicapa hyperythra Blyth. Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 885 (1842) (India). 

La Touche records 7 £<$, 9 99 Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920 and March 1921. 
447. Muscicapa hodgsonii (Verr.). 

Siphia hodgsonii Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi. Bull. p. 34 (1870) (Moupin). 

Forrest sent 1 £, 2 99 ad. Tengyueh District, 4 <$<$, 3 99 ad. 1 <$, 1 ? juv. 
Lichiang Range. 

In the 1925 collection were 1 $ ad., 1 (J juv. (sexed 9) bills N.W. of Tengyueh, 
6,000-8,000 feet, July 1925. 

448. Muscicapa cyanomelana cyanomelana Temm. 

Muscicapa cyanomelana Temminck, PI. Col. vol. iii, pi. 470 (1835) (Japan). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <$ imm. Mengtsz, Oct. 1911 ; La Touche collected 
1 c?> 2 99 Mengtsz, Oct. 1920. La Touche identified his examples as cyanomelana 
cumatilis Thayer & Bangs, but states his adult $ has not the breast pattern of 
Hupeh examples. I therefore treat all Yunnan birds as C. cyanomelana. 

449. Muscicapa mugimaki Temm. 

Muscicapa mugimaki Temminck, PI. Col. pi. 577. f. 2 (1835) (Japan). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 £ Mengtsz, April 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda record 
also 1 cJ Mengtsz, April ; La Touche obtained 1 <J Loukouchai, April 1921. 

450. Muscicapa pallipes hainana (O. -Grant). 

Siphia hainana Osilvie-Grant, Bull. B.O.C, vol. x, p. 36 (1899) (Hainan). 

La Touche enumerates 1 (J, 2 99 Mengtsz, April and Sept. 1921, 1 <J Milati, 
Sept. 1920. 


451. Muscicapa collini Rothsch. 

Muscicapa collini Rothschild, Bull B.O.C. vol. xlv. p. 90 (1925) (nom. nov. mdanoleiica). 

Mr. Albert Collin of Kotka, Finland, pointed out to me that my new name 
of blythi for melanoleuca Blvth was also preoccupied by blythi of Giebel (see above 
quotation), so I had much pleasure in naming it after my informant. Captain 
Wingate obtained 1 $ ad. Ching-tung. March 1899; Colonel Rippon procured 
one on the Chutung-Yungchang Road, April 1906 ; Oustalet enumerated it in 
his list of Prince H. d'Orleans birds ; Bangs & Phillips record 3 examples Mengtsz, 
March and Oct. ; Andrews & Heller got 4 specimens Tai-ping-pu, April 1917 ; 
La Touche collected 6 $<$, 2 99 Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920 and March 1921, 1 <J, 

2 99 Milati, March 1921, 3 <J<J Loukouchai, March-April 1921, 1 <J Lotukow, 
May 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 <$ ad. Salwin Valley, 3 <J(J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
5 (Jc? ad., 1 cJjiin. l C J, 1 ? juv. Tengyueh District. In the 1925 collection were 

3 cJ(J ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide. 9,000 feet, Aug. 1925. 

In addition there are in the British Museum 1 example Gyi-dzin-Shan from 
Colonel Rippon, March 1902 ; and 1 <$, 1 $ Yunnan, Styan collection. 

452. Muscicapa muttui (Lay.). 

Bululis muttui, Layard, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2), xiii, p. 127 (1854) (Ceylon). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <J Mengtsz, April 1911 ; La Touche obtained 
4 2? Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920 and April 1921. 

453. Muscicapa vivida oatesi (Salvad.). 

Niltava oatesi Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova (2), v, p. 514 (1887) (Pegu). 

La Touche records 1 9 Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, but says it is doubtful owing to 
being more rufous than oatesi 99 in the British Museum ; Forrest sent 1 ^ ad., 
1 ^ juv., 1 $ jun. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 $ ad. Mekong Valley, 2 <$<$ ad. 
Mekong- Yangtze Divide. 

454. Muscicapa parva albicilla Pall. 

Muscicapa albicilla Pall., Zooyr. Rosso-Asiat. vol. i, p. 462 (1827) (Dauria). 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 4 specimens Mengtsz, April and Oct. ; Pichon 
Bent 1 example; La Touche obtained 1 (J, 2 99 Mengtsz, Sept. 1920 and 
April 1921, 1 9 Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 2 $<$, 7 99 ad., 1 $ juv. 
Tengyueh District, 2 $<$ juv. Lichiang Range, 1 (J, 1 $ Yangtze Valley, 1 <J 
T'ong Shan, 2 <J(J Salwin Valley. 

455. Muscicapa sibirica rothschildi (Baker) 

Hemichelidon sibirica rothschildi Baker, Tiidl. B.O.C. vol. xliii. p. 15(5 (1923) (Yunnan;. 

La Touche collected 2 ad., 4 juv. Mengtsz, Aug.-Oct. 1920 ; Forrest sent 
5 (?c?> 9 99 ad -> V c?c? juv. Lichiang Range, 2 9? ad., 4 £ J 1 juv. Tengyueh District. 


456. Muscicapa cinereiceps (Sharpe). 

Hemichelidon cinereiceps Sharpe, Ibis, 1887, p. 441, No. 10 (Kina Balu). 

Hodgson's name ferruginea dates from 1845, but there is a Muscicapa ferru- 
ginea Gnielin of 1789, so that if, as I do, we retain it in Muscicapa cinereiceps 
Sharpe must be used. 

Forrest sent 1 $ ad. Salwin Valley, 2 <$$ juv. Mekong Valley, 1 <J ad. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

457. Muscicapa strophiata strophiata (Hodgs.). 

Siphia strophiata Hodgson, Ind. Review, vol. i, p. 651 (1837) (Nepal). 

Anderson records 1 _J Ponsee, March 186S ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
1 <?, 1 ? Mengtsz, Nov. 1910 and April 1911 ; La Touche collected 12 $$, 10 $? 
Mengtsz, Oct.-Dec. 1920 and March-April 1921, 1 $ Loukouchai, March 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 2 $$ ad., 4 $$ juv. Tengyueh District, 1 <J ad. Mekong Valley, 2 ?$ 
ad., 1 cj juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 9 $$, 2 $$ ad., 2 $$, 3 ?$ juv. Lichiang 

In the British Museum are 1 example Yangtze Big Bend and 1 Gyi-dzin- 
Shan, March 1902, Colonel Rippon. 

458. Muscicapa latirostris Raffl. 

Muscicapa latirostris Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. xiii, pt. ii, p. 312 (1821) (.Sumatra). 

Ingram records 1 £ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Oustalet catalogues this species 
from the collection of Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 5 
specimens Mengtsz, Feb., May, and Sept. ; La Touche collected 17 examples of 
both sexes Mengtsz, Aug.-Oct. 1920 and April 1921, 2 £$ Lotukow, May 1921, 
1 § Kopaotsun May 1921. Forrest sent 4 $$ Lichiang Range. 

1 <J Yunnan, Styan collection, is in the British Museum. 

459. Muscicapa narcissina zanthopygia Hay. 

Muscicapa zanthopygia Hay, Madras Journal, vol. xiii, pt. ii, p. 162 (1845) (Malacca). 

Ingram records 1 $ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Uchida & Kuroda enumerate 1 <J, 
1 $ Mengtsz, Aug. ; La Touche collected 1 $ ad., 4 $$, 1 $ imm. Mengtsz, 
Aug.-Sept. 1922. 

400. Hypothymis azurea styani (Haiti.). 

Siphia styani Hartlaub, Abh. X<it. Ver. Bremen, vol. xvi. pt. ii, p. 248 (1898). 

Bangs & Phillips record tinder the name of a. azurea 1 cJ, 1 $ Mengtsz, Sept.- 
Oct. ; Uchida & Kuroda also record 1 <J, 1 $ Sept.-Oct. Mengtsz under the same 
name ; La Touche collected 1 (J, 2 $$ ad., 1 <J imm. Mengtsz, Oct. 1920 and March- 
April 1921, 1 ? Milati, Sept. 1920 ; Forrest sent 1 (J Tengyueh District. 

461. Niltava sundara sundara Hodgs. 

Niltava sundara Hodgson, Ind. Rev. vol. i. p. 650 (1837) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 $ example on the Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 
1906 ; Oustalet enumerates the species among the birds collected by Prince H. 

296 XmiTVTES ZOOLOQH w: XXXIII. 1926. 

d'Orleans ; Forrest .sent 1 $ Shweli Valley, 1 <?, 1 ? ad., 1 <J, 1 ? juv. Shweli 
Sahvin Divide, 1 Q * ad., 1 3 juv. Tengyueh District, 10 <?<?, 3 $? ad., 3 ^cJ, 4 $$ 
juv. Lichiang Range. 

462. Niltava sundara denotata Bangs & Phillips. 

Niltava sundara denotata Bangs & Phillip-;. Hull. Mils. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. Iviii, p. 2so (l'.H4) 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 cj, 1 $ ad. Mengtsz, Oct. -Dec. 1910 ; Andrews & 
Heller record 3 rfS ad. Chang-lung, Sahvin River and Tai-ping-pu, March and 
April 1917 ; La Touche collected 4 gg Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920 and March 1921, 
1 cj Loukouchai, April 1921. 

I have come to the conclusion that in Yunnan sundara sundara is only found 
in the West and N.W. at considerable elevation, whereas sundara denotata is a 
slightly different subspecies inhabiting the plains and lower elevations, its 
headquarters being more to the east but going round to the S.W. I think Colonel 
Rippon's bird listed under sundara sundara will probably prove to be s. denotata. 

463. Niltava grandis grandis (Blyth). 

Chaitaris grandis Bryth, Journ, As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 189 (1842) (Darjecling). 

Forrest sent 2 $$ ad., 1 <J, 1 ? juv. Tengyueh District, 1 q ad. Shweli- 
Salwin Divide. 

464. Niltava grandis griseiventris La Touche. 

Niltava grandis griseiventris La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 14 (1921) (Loukouchai). 

La Touche records 1 <J ad., 1 <J juv. Loukouchai, March-April 1921. 
This is evidently a slightly differentiated eastern race. 

465. Niltava macgrigoriae (Burton). 

Phoenicura macgrigoriae Burton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 152 (Himalayas). 

La Touche obtained 3 cjcj, 3 $$ Loukouchai, April 1921. 

466. Niltava davidi lychnis Thay. & Bangs. 

Niltava lychnis Thayer & Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. Hi, p. 141 (1909) (Hupeh & 

La Touche says Yunnan and Hupeh examples differ from Fohkien birds in 
being much brighter blue and the (JcJ are without the conspicuous black streaks 
of the Fohkien birds ; it may possibly turn out later that Yunnan birds form 
a third race. 

Bangs & Phillips enumerate 3 examples Mengtsz, April and Oct. ; La Touche 
collected 5 <$<$ ad., 4 $$ jun., 1 $ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 1920. 

467. Rhipidura albicollis albicollis (Vieill.). 

Platyrhynchus albicollis Vieillot, Nouv. Did. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xxvii, p. 13 (1818) (Bengal). 

Anderson collected 2 $<$, 1 ? Ponsee, March-May 1868 ; Ingram records 
4 <J(J Mengtsz, June-July 1910; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 11 examples 
Mengtsz, Feb.-July, Loukouchai, Jan. ; Andrews &■ Heller obtained 2 £<$> 1 ? 
ad. Namting River and Mucheng, Sahvin Drainage, Feb.-March 1917 ; M. 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 297 

Pichon sent 1 example ; La Touche collected 2 (JcJ. 4 $$ Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 
1920; Forrest sent 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 <$ juv. Mekong Valley, 2 <$<$, 
3 $$ ad., 1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 7 <?<?, 5 $$ ad. Tengyueh District, 
2 (JtJ, 1 $ ad. Yangtze Valley, 3 3$, 4 ?$ad., 1 (J, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range. In 
the 1925 collection there are 1 ? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Nov. 1925 ; 
1 ? Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. In the British Museum are 1 <J 
example Yungchang, 2 Lichiang, March 1900, 1 Shangyang, March 1900, Colonel 

468. Rhipidura aureola burmanica (Hume). 

Leucocerca burmanica Hume, Stray Feathers, vol. ix, p. 175 (1881) (Thoungyan). 
Anderson records 1 <$ Ponsee, March 1868. 

469. Pericrocotus speciosus speciosus (Lath.). 

Tardus speciosus Latham, Ind. Orn. vol. i, p. 363 (1790) (Darjeeling). 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Ta-shui-tang, Salwin Drainage, Feb. 
1917; Forrest sent 5 ££, 11 ?? ad., 5 <$<$ jun. Tengyueh District; La Touche 
obtained 1 $ at Loukouchai, Feb. 1921, 1 9 Mengtsz, Nov. 1920. In my fourth 
article (Nov. Zool. vol. xxxii, p. 305, No. 116, 1925) I have explained that La 
Touche's P. sp. bakeri in my opinion is nothing but a synonym of sp. speciosus, 
and I have therefore listed his types under this form. In Forrest's 1925 collection 
are the following examples : 2 $<$, 4 $$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, 
Sept. 1925, 2 cJcJ hills north of Tengyueh, 7,000-8,000 feet, Sept. 1925, 1 <$, 1 $ 
hills around Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925. Forests. Bill and feet black, 
iris brown. 

470. Pericrocotus speciosus fraterculus Swinh. 

Pericrocotus fraterculus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 244 (Hainan). 

Anderson collected 3 cJ<J Ponsee, April 1868. 

[On Pericrocotus brevirostris and its races. 

In the Catalogue of Birds, vol. iv, pp. 79-80, Dr. Sharpe unites affinis McClell. 
and brevirostris Vig. as synonyms and upholds neglectus Hume as a good species ; 
Bangs & Phillips (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. lviii, pp. 282-283) describe 
a new subspecies as br. ethelogus from China (type Hsienshan, Hupeh), stating 
Yunnan birds are not typical, and then proceed to divide brevirostris up into 
three subspecies, renaming and describing the race from the Western Himalayas 
and Plains of India as new under the name of flavillaceus, quite ignoring that 
Vigors' type of brevirostris came from Mussoorie, and they treat McClelland's 
affinis from Eastern Sikkim, Assam, etc., as typical brevirostris, again ignoring 
that McClelland's type came from Assam. Stuart Baker has, I think correctly, 
separated the Indian forms of brevirostris into three races — b. brevirostris Con- 
tinental India and W. Himalayas, affinis E. Himalayas, Assam, and Burma, and 
neglectus Tenasserim. There remain only the Chinese birds ; Bangs & Phillips, 
as mentioned above, declare that the Mengtsz birds do not agree absolutely with 
typical Hupeh birds (their ethelogus) ; I cannot decide this, as I have no Hupeh 
examples to compare. La Touche in his S.E. Yunnan articles in the Ibis 
makes affinis McClell. and ethelogus Bangs & Phillips both occur in Yunnan, and 

298 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

says they both must breed hi S.E. Yunnan, but in his Handbook of the- Birds of 
Eastern China he correctly states that he has only found the two forms together 
during migration. La Touche further places Baker's brevirostris styani as a 
synonym of b. ethelogus, without comment, whereas my Szechuan and Pekin 
birds are decidedly paler than any Yunnan ones (see infra). All my Western 
Yunnan and Mengtsz birds are affinis. The Kwangtung $, according to Strese- 
mann's description, is exactly like a $ I have from Mengtsz, but I have 3 similar 
ones of affinis from Cachar, while the fourth Cachar $ is exactly like my second 
Mengtsz $, and all the N.W. and W. Yunnan $$ sent by Forrest. I have at 
Tring besides the 2 cJcJ, 2 ??of Owston's from Mengtsz, and 14 <?<?, 8 ?? adult, 
and 2 juveniles of Forrest's from N.W. Yunnan, the following Indo-Burmese 
examples of P. brevirostris affinis, 5 <$,$ Bhamo (Harington), 1 (J, 1 $ Chin 
Hills (Venning), 1 <J, 2 $$ Shan States (Harington & Bingham), 1 <J, 1 $ 
Kauri Kachin tract (Colonel Rippon) ; 1 $ Pegu (?) ; 1 (J, 4 $ Cachar (Stuart 
Baker) ; 2 <$£ Margherita, Assam (Stuart Baker) ; 2 <J<J, 1 $ Sikkim (H. Y. 
Elwes). After careful comparison of this material I have come to the following 
conclusions: (1) that most likely ethelogus Bangs & Phillips from Mengtsz, which 
they acknowledge to be different from their Hupeh type, are affinis McClell. ; 
(2) that La Touche's Mengtsz birds named by him ethelogus are Baker's styani 
from Szechuan ; and (3) I cannot yet treat styani as a synonym of ethelogus, 
as it does not agree with the original description ; to decide finally I must compare 
Hupeh series.] 

471. Pericrocotus brevirostris affinis McClell. 

Pericrocolus affinis McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. lo6 (Assam). 

Stresemann has described a single $ ! ! ! obtained by R. Mell at Kwangtung 
as brevirostris anthoides, and I have a $ from Mengtsz exactly fitting the 
description ; but alas, my second $ from Mengtsz differs entirely and agrees 
with typical $ birds of b. affinis ; also of the 4 $$ of Mr. Stuart Baker's from 
Cachar 3 are like anthoides and 1 like affinis, finally the 5 from the Chin Hills 
(Colonel Rippon) has the yellow frons described by Stresemann, but is bright 
golden orange below. This I think proves that the $$ of b. affinis are somewhat 
variable in colour, and that Dr. Stresemann ought never to have described a new 
subspecies from a single $. 

Anderson obtained 1 (J Ponsee, April 1868 ; Colonel Rippon got 1 example 
at Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, 1 Lichiang, March 1906, 2 at Yangtze Big Bend, March 
1906, 1 Chutung-Yungchung Road, April 1906 ; 3 examples were got by Captain 
Wingate E. Yunnan, Feb. 1S99 ; Ingram records 2 <?<?, 1 $ (rectius 2 <$<$, 2 $$) 
Mengtsz, June-July 1910 : Andrews & Heller collected 1 <J ad. Tai-ping-pu, 
April 1917. M. Pichon sent 3 <J<J, 2 $$ from Lung-ling ; M. & Mme. Comby 
obtained 1 $ ; La Touche collected 3 cJcJ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, 3 $£, 1 ? Loukouchai 
April 1921, 1 <J Lotukow, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 2 <?<?, 3 $$ ad., 1 ? juv. 
Tengyueh District, 12 (J (J, 6 $$ ad., 2 $3, 1 ? juv., 2 nestlings Lichiang Range. 
In my articles on the first four collections of Forrest I used the name brevirostris 
ethelogus for these birds, but they are undoubtedly b. affinis. The 1925 collection 
contains 1 cj hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925 ; 5 $<£, 2 $$ Tengyueh 
Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. Bill and feet black ; iris brown. In addition 
there are in the British Museum 2 Gyi-dzin-Shan, March-April 1902, 2 Shayang- 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 290 

Chutung Road, March 1902, 1 Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1902, all from Colonel 
Rippon ; 1 J Mu-chu, Jan. 1903, Styan coll., 2 <$<$ Yunnan City, Feb. 1899. 

472. Pericrocotus brevirostris styani Baker. 

Pericrocotus brevirostris styani Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xl, p. 117, No. 4 (1920) (Szechuan). 

I have a <J ad. from Mua-Kua-Chi, Lung-an Szechuan, Oct. 21, 1893 (Bere- 
zowsky coll.), 2 <J ad. Taipaishan Tsin-ling Mts., Oct. -Dec. 1905 (Alan Owston 
coll.), 2 $$ Peking (H. H. Slater coll.), which agree with Mr. Baker's descriptions, 
i.e. the $$ are paler below than affinis, and the $$ below pale lemon-yellow. If 
these birds, and those listed by Bangs & Phillips are different from the Hupeh 
examples, then b. styani must be employed as a name for them ; as I have not 
been able to compare typical Hupeh material with these birds, I shall keep them 
separate till I am able to do so. 

Bangs & Phillips record 17 examples of both sexes from Mengtsz, Feb.- 
Sept., Shi-ping, Feb., and Loukouchai, Dec. (There may very likely be some 
b. affinis among these.) La Touche collected 1 <J, 2 $$ ad., 2 $$ imm. Mengtsz, 
Aug. and Nov. 1920 and Jan.-March 1921, 1 <$ Milati, Feb. 1921, 1 $ Hokow, 
April 1921. 

473. Pericrocotus cinereus Lafresn. 

Pericrocotus cinereus Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool. vol. viii, p. 94 (1845) (Luzon). 

La Touche collected 1 <$ ad., 1 imm. Mengtsz, Oct. 1920. 
474. Pericrocotus cantonensis Swinh. 

Pericrocotus cantonensis Swinhoe, Ibi8 t 1861, p. 42 (Canton). 

Bangs & Phillips record 6 examples Mengtsz, April & Oct. ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 4 gg, 2 $$ Mengtsz, April and Oct. ; La Touche collected 3 $$ juv. 
Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, 2 <$£ ad. Hokow, April 1921. 

475. Pericrocotus roseus (Vieill.). 

Mnscicapa rosea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xxi, p. 486 (1818) (Bengal). 

Anderson procured 2 $$ Muangla, May 1868; Ingram records 6 $<$, 2 $$ 
Mengtsz, April- July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 2 $S Mengtsz, March 
and Oct. ; La Touche collected 7 <$<$, 9 ?$ ad., 1 <J juv. Mengtsz, June-Oct. 
1920 and March-April 1921, 4 ejej Milati, Sept. 1920 and March 1921, 1 (J, 1 $ 
Loukouchai, April 1921, 2 (J (J, 1 $ Lotukow, May 1921, 1 ^, 1 $ Yunnanfu, May 
1921, 8 <$<$, 3 $$ Hokow, March-April 1921 ; Forrest sent 4 <$$, 1 $ ad., 1 <$ juv. 
Tengyueh District, 3 £<$, 2 ?? ad. Lichiang Range, 2 $$ Yangtze. Valley, 1 <J 
ad., 1 J juv. Salwin Valley. In the 1925 collection are 3 <J(J ad. hills round 
Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925. In the British Museum are 1 $ Mu-chu, Styan ; 
2 Lichiang, March 1906, Colonel Rippon. 

476. Pericrocotus Solaris mandarinus Stresem. 

Pericrocotus Solaris nmndarinus Stresemann, Journ.f. Orn. vol. lxxi, p. 363 (1923) (Luug-tau-Shan)- 

In my article on Forrest's fourth collection (Nov. Zool. vol. xxxii, p. 307, 

1925) I unfortunately used the name Solaris Solaris through too hasty comparison ; 

300 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

the 2 examples he sent (9$) have no trace of yellow on the pure white throat. 
Dr. Stresemann has separated the Continental Chinese birds from the Formosan 
griseig ularis Swinh., and although the differences are very slight I feel obliged to 
adopt the name as valid. Forrest's birds undoubtedly belong to the Chinese 
race of Solaris, and not to the Indian race, which has the throat strongly suffused 
with yellow in both sexes, of which there is no trace either in the Chinese or 
Formosan specimens. 

Forrest sent 1 $ Shweli Valley, and I found a second § Tengyueh District 
which had been mislaid. 

476a. Pericrocotus sp. ? 

This is a young bird resembling a $ juv. of solan's, but has a gigantic bill. 
In this it agrees with yvettae Bangs, but has a much shorter wing. 
Forrest sent 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District. 

477. Pericrocotus yvettae Bangs. 

Pericrocotus yvettae Bangs, Bull. Amer. Mux. Nat. But. vol. xliv, p. 583 (1921) (Malipa and 

Andrews & Heller obtained 1 (J, 1 $ ad. Malipa, March, and Taiping-pu, 
April 1917. 

478. Pericrocotus montpellieri La Touche. 

Pericrocotus montpellieri La Touche, Butt. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 125 (1922) (Yangtze Big Bend). 

Colonel Rippon obtained the type $ at Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, 
and 1 $ Chukung-Yangpi Road, March 1906. In the British Museum are also 

1 $ Mu-chu, Yunnan, Jan. 1903, Styan coll. ; also from Colonel Rippon further 

2 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, 1 Lichiang Valley, April 
1906, and 1 Yunnan City, Feb. 1899, Captain Wingate. 

479. Lalage melaschistos melaschistos (Hodgs.). 

Volvocivora melaschistos Hodgson, Ind. Bee. vol. i, p. 328 (1837) (Nepal). 

Mr. Stuart Baker has placed melaschistos and avensis Blyth as subspecies 
of melaschistos ; I prefer, however, to keep them separate as I have received both 
forms from the Tengyueh District from Forrest, and the dates and examples 
are so few that I find it impossible to definitely say if either or both forms were 
on migration. 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 specimens from Mengtsz (under the name of 
lugubris Sundeval), March and Oct. ; Uchida & Kuroda enumerate 2 $$ Mengtsz, 
Oct. ; La Touche collected 1 <J ad., 1 $ juv. Mengtsz, Sept. 1920 and March 
1921, 2 cJ(J, 1 $ Hokow, March-April 1921, 1 J Lotukow, May 1921 ; Forrest 
sent 1 cj, 1 $ Tengyueh District. In the 1925 collection there are 1 J, 2 $$ ad., 
1 ? juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000-9,000 feet, July-Oct. 1925, 1 $ ad. 
Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Oct. 1925. Forests. Bill and feet black, iris 


480. Lalage melanoptera (Riipp.). 

C'eblepyris melanoptera Riippell, Mus. Senckenb. vol. iii, p. 25, pi. ii, f. 1 (New Holland ! !). 
Campephaga avensis Blyth, Cut. Birds Mus. As. Soc. Bengal, p. 327 (Arakan) (1847). 

Blyth first called this bird melanoptera and later changed the name to 
avensis because he said melanoptera had been previously used by Riippell. Blyth 
was misled by RiippelTs bird having been said to come from New Holland ; this 
is rather queer because Riipj)ell says " waescheinlich," i.e. "probably" or 
" presumably " from New Holland, and as the bird according to Hartert 
(Cat. Vogels. Senck. Mus.) is evidently the Burmese Lalage, Rtippell's name has 
priority over avensis. 

Ingram records 2 $3 Mengtsz, April and July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 8 examples, Mengtsz, March-Oct. ; La Touche collected 5 $,$ Mengtsz, 
Sept.-Oct. 1920 and April 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 ^ Shweli Valley, 1 <$ Tengyueh 
District, 1 $ Salwin Valley, 1 $ Lichiang Range. 

481. Graucalus macei siamensis Baker. 

Graucalus macei siamensis Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxvii, p. 69 (1918) (Minam-Kraben, 

Uchida & Kuroda record 1 $ Chili Ping, March ; Oustalet enumerates it 
among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Forrest sent 1 cj juv., 1 $ ad. Tengyueh 

In the 1925 collection are 1 <$, 1 ? hills round Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, Dec. 
1925. Forests. Bill and feet black, iris brown. 

[On the Indo-Chinese forms of Microscelis = Hypsipetes auct. plur. 

Mr. Stuart Baker allows only one species psaroides of Microscelis to occur 
in British India, Burmah and Ceylon, divided into the four subspecies psar. 
psaroides, psar. nigrescens, psar. geneesa, and psar. concolor, and ajiparently no 
white-headed examples occur there. In my articles on Forrest's birds I recorded 
them as two species leucocephalus 6m. and concolor Blyth in the first article, and 
in the second article I recorded as a third form perniger sinensis La Touche. 
Dr. Stresemann in his article (Ornith. Monatsb. 1923, pp. 83-85) declares as a 
result of examination of large Chinese material that leucocephalus, concolor, and 
sinensis are all colour variants of one species, and admits as races perniger of 
Hainan and nigerrimus of Formosa. This would give us a species consisting of 
seven subspecies, one of which is polychromatic, while the other six are not. 
Mi'. La Touche is very much opposed to Dr. Streseniann's ideas, and maintains 
stoutly that sinensis and leucocephalus are distinct species ; the glossy sinensis 
being a tropical bird while the leucocephalus-concolor birds are winter migrants 
from the north. I cannot confirm this, as Forrest got them both high up at 
such varying dates that they were most unlikely to be migrants. Therefore 
I conceive the leucocephalus " Formenkreis " as follows : 

Microscelis leucocephalus leucocephalus (Gm.) with phase sinensis La Touche. 
Chinese mainland. 

M. leucocephalus perniger. Hainan. 

M. leucocephalus nigerrimus. Formosa. 

M. leucocephalus concolor Blyth. East Burmah Shan States, Yunnan, etc. 



Microscelis leucoeephalus ganeesa Sykes. South India and Ceylon. 

M. leucoeephalus nigrescens Baker. Assam, Manipur, Arakan, Chin Hills. 

M. leucoeephalus psaroides Vig. West Himalayas-Bhutan. 

Of these leucoeephalus leucoeephalus alone is polychromatic. It is quite 
possible that younger birds both of the letucoc&pkalns and sinensis phases of 
I. leucoeephalus are identical sometimes with non-Chinese concolor and change, as 
they grow older, but this is not always the case, as I have among Forrest's birds 
quite old birds indistinguishable from Burmese coucolor and also quite young 
birds with full white heads and 1 adult of the sinensis phase with breast similar 
to or rather approaching coucolor. Young birds of both sexes have black bills 
which gradually take on the red of the adult birds.] 

482. Microscelis leucoeephalus leucoeephalus (Gin.). 

Tttnlus leucoeephalus Gmclin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 826 (829 rect.), Xo. 104 (1789) (China). 

1. Phase leucoeephalus. 

In Szechuan and some other parts of China only whiteheaded birds have 
been obtained ; but in Yunnan all three phases have been collected. 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 J Mong-sen, March 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 16 specimens Mengtsz, March-April and Nov. ; Andrews & Heller col- 
lected 1 ^ ad. Namting River, Jan. 1917 ; La louche enumerates 5 $$, 1 9 
Mengtsz, Nov.-Dec. 1920 and Feb.-March 1921 ; Forrest sent 5 £<$ Lichiang 
Range, 1 q fere ad. 1 $ juv. T'ong Shan, 1 cj ad., 1 <J fere ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 1 £, 2 $$ ad. Mekong Valley, 2 <J<J, 2 ?$ ad., 1 9 juv. Yangtze 
Valley. In the 1925 collection are 1 £ ad. with white head, 1 J 1 juv. with 
partial white crown Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, Oct. 1925. 

2. Phase coucolor. 

These birds have grey breasts and under parts and resemble Burmese con- 
color. Anderson got 1 (J Ponsee, March 1868 ; Captain Wingate procured 1 $ 
Wei-Yuan, April 1899 ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ Yoakuan, Feb. 1917 ; 
La Touche does not allude to this in his " Birds of S.E. Yunnan " (Ibis, 1923), 
but in his criticism of Stresemann's paper he alludes to them ; Forrest sent 
1 $ ad., 1 ? juv. Tengyueh District, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 9 ad. Salwin 
Valley, 1 cJ, 1 9 ad., 1 9 juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 9 juv. Lichiang Range, 
1 $ ad. Chien Chuan Valley. 

In the 1925 collection are 4 (J (J, 5 99 hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000-9,000 
feet, May- Aug. 1925, 1 <J, 3 99 ad., 1 9 juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-9,000 
feet, Sept.-Oct. 1925. 

3. Phase intermediate between concolor and sinensis. 

In Forrest's 1925 collection is 1 ^ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, 
Sept. 1925. (This bird has upper breast black running on to lower breast in 

4. Phase sinensis. 

Forrest and La Touche appear to be the only collectors to obtain this phase 
in Yunnan. 

La Touche obtained 1 $ (type) Hokow, March 1921, 1 (J Loukouchai, April 
1921 ; Forrest sent 1 J, 1 9 Yangtze Valley, 2 3$ Mekong-Yangtze Divide, 
3 cJ<J, 2 99 Mekong-Salwin Divide, 2 99 ad., 1 9 juv. Lichiang Range. 

In addition there are in the British Museum of phase concolor 2 examples 


Yangpi-Chutung Road, March-April 1902, 1 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 2 
Lichiang Valley, April 1902, Colonel Rippon ; 1 g Chu-mu and 2 gg, 1 § Yunnan, 
March 1903, Styan coll. 

483. Spizixus semitorques Swinh. 

Spizixus semitorques Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 266 (Pehling plateau near Amoy). 

Bangs & Phillips record 5 examples Loukouchai, Jan.-Feb. and Dec. ; 
Uchida & Kuroda record 1 g Loukouchai Feb. 

484. Spizixus canifrons canifrons Blyth. 

Spizixus canifrons Blyth, Journ. As. Soc, Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 571 (1845) (Khasia Hills). 

Ingram records 2 gg, 1 $ Mengtsz, July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips record, under 
the name of Sp. canifrons ingrami, 6 examples Mengtsz, March, Aug., and Sept., 
Loukouchai, Dec; Andrews & Heller procured 5 gg, $$ ad. Tai-ping-pu and 
Chen-kang, Feb. and April 1917 ; M. Pichon sent 1 example ; M. & Mdme. 
Comby obtained 1 young specimen ; Uchida & Kuroda mention 1 $ Mengtsz, 
Dec; La Touche collected 5 gg, 3 $$ Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 2 examples 
Loukouchai, April 1921, 1 Lotukow, May 1921, 1 $ juv. Mengtsz, Aug. 1920 ; 
Forrest sent 2 gg, 2 ?$ Tengyueh District, 1 g juv. Salwin Valley, 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 2 ?? ad., 1 g juv. Yangtze Valley, 18 gg, 10 $$ ad. Lichiang 
Range. In the 1925 collection are 3 gg, 3 ?? Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, 
Dec. 1925, 1 g, 4 $$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000-8,000 feet, April and Oct. 
1925, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, Aug. 1925. In the British Museum 
are 3 gg, 2 $$ Yuen Chung, Styan coll. ; 6 examples Lichiang, March 1906, 

1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, April 1906, 3 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, Colonel 

485. Alcurus striatals (Blyth). 

Trichophorus strialus Blyth, Journ, As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 184 (1842) (Nepal). 

Bangs & Phillips record under the name of ^4. s. paulus 1 g, 1 $ Loukouchai, 
Feb. 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda enumerate 1 g, 1 $ Loukouchai, Feb. 1911 ; 
Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. at Tai-ping-pu, April 1917 ; Forrest sent 
5 gg, 5 $$ Tengyueh District, 2 get Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 $<$, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-9,000 feet, 
June 1925, 1 <$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Oct. 1925. 

486. Iole macclellandi similis Rothsch. 

Idle macclellandi similis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 51, No. 191 (1921) (Shweli-Salwin 

Ingram records, under the name of Iole holti, 1 g Mengtsz, June 1910 ; 
Bangs & Phillips enumerate, under the same name, 16 examples Mengtsz, 
March- April and Nov. ; Uchida & Kuroda list 4 get Loukouchai, Feb. and Dec. ; 
Andrews and Heller obtained 1 g Tashintang, Salwin Drainage, Feb. 1917 ; 
La Touche collected 3 gg, 1 $ Loukouchai, April 1921, 1 $ Loshuitang, 
Feb. 1921 ; Forrest sent 9 gg, 8 ??, 1 ? Tengyueh District, 1 g, 1 ? Shweli Valley, 

2 gg, 1 $ Salwin Valley, 3 gg, 2 $$ ad., 1 g jun. Shweli Salwin Divide. In the 
1925 collection there are 5 gg, 5 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000-9,000 feet, 


July-Sept. 1925, 3 JcS, 4 $$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925, 
1 ? Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. 

In the British Museum are in addition from Colonel Rippon 1 example 
Shayang-Chutung Road, March 1902, 2 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 3 Yangpi- 
Chutung Road, March 1902 and April 1906 ; and 1 <J Yung-we-cheng, Styan coll. 

487. Pycnonotus aurigaster xanthorrous And. 

Pycnonotus xanlhcn-rous Anderson, Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, p. 265 (Kakhycn Hills). 

Anderson obtained 3 <$<$ Sanda Valley and Momien, May-June 1868 ; 
Ingram records 3 c?c?> 3 $$ Mengtsz, May and July 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 5 examples Mengtsz, Jan. 1911, Loukouchai, Feb. ; Andrews & 
Heller obtained 4 £<$, $$ ad. Wan-tien, Lichiangfu, Chang-lung, and Yui-yao, 
Nov. 1916 and March-May 1917 ; M. Pichon sent 2 examples ; La Touche col- 
lected 8 $$, $$ ad. Loukouchai, Milati, Mengtsz, Sept.-Dec. 1920, 1 $ Lotukow, 
May 1921, 1 ? juv. Milati 1920 ; Forrest sent 1 $, 6 $? Lichiang Range, 1 <J, 1 $ 
Tali Valley, 1 £, 4 $$, 2 ? Tengyueh District, 1 ? Shweli Valley. 

In the 1925 collection are 3 c?c?, 7 ?? Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Sept.- 
Dec. 1925, 1 <J, 1 $ round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925. 

In the British Museum are 4 <$<$, 2 ?? Yunnan, Feb. 1903, Styan coll. ; 
1 $, 2 ? Feb. 1906, 1 Shunpi Valley, Feb. 1906, 4 Lichiang, March 1906, 3 Gzi- 
dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 hills E. of Yungchang, Jan. 1906, 2 Chutung-Yangpi 
Road, March 1902, 1 Chutung Valley, March 1902, Colonel Rippon. 

488. Xanthixus flavescens flavescens (Blyth). 

Pycnonotus flavescens Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 5GS (1845) (Arrakan). 

Anderson collected 1 example Ponsee, March 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 
1 [J Loukouchai, Feb. 1911. 

489. Aegithina tiphia tiphia (Linn.). 

Nolacilla tiphia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 186 (1758) (Bengal). 
1 <J Chang-lung, March 1917 (in green plumage). 

490. Molpastes haemorrhous chrysorrhoides (Lafresn.). 

Haenuitornis chrysorrhoides Lafresnaye. Rev. Zool. p. 367 (1845) (China). 

Mr. Baker in commenting on Oates under M . h. nigripilt us remarks that only 
one form of Red-vented Bulbul occurs in a given area ; but this can only apply 
to Indo-Burmese countries as we find three of the forms, placed by Mr. Baker as 
subspecies of haemorrhous in Yunnan. Probably, however, only the present form 
is resident, and the other two migrants. 

Ingram records 3 (JcJ Mengtsz, April-May 1910 ; Captain Wingate 1 <J 
Ching-tung-ting, March 1899, 2 J 1 ^ ad. Mong Mon and Mon Koo, March 1899 ; 
Bangs & Phillips enumerate 2 examples Mengtsz, March-April ; La Touche 
collected 6 £<$, 2 ?? ad., 4 ? juv. Mengtsz, July-Nov. 1920 ; Forrest sent 2 <$<$ 
1 § Lichiang Range. 

In the British Museum from Colonel Rippon are 1 example Shayang-Pingpo 
Road, April 1902, 2 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; and 3 $$ 2 ?? Yunnan, 1 J, 
Yung-Mo-chung, Feb. 1903, 1 $ Mu-chu, Jan. 1903, Styan coll. 


491. Molpastes haemorrhous nigripileus (Blyth). 

Pyrnonotus nigripileus Blyth, Jmtrn. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 472 (1847) (Tenasserim). 

Forrest sent 1 <J Tali Valley, 1 $ Lichiang Range. 
These were probably stragglers, not even migrants. 

492. Molpastes haemorrhous burmanicus (Sharpe). 

Pycnonolus burmanicus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. vol. vi, p. 125 (1881) (Burmah). 

Anderson collected 1 £, 1 $ Ponsee, March 1868, 1 $ Muangla, July 1868 ; 
Captain Wingate obtained 1 ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Colonel Rippon 
procured 1 Talifu, May 1906 ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 <$<$, 1 ? ad. Yung- 
chang Fu, Jan. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 4 examples ; Forrest collected 1 (J 
Lichiang Range, 13 ,$<$, 8 ?$, 2 ? Tengyueh District. 

The 1925 collection contains 5 $$, 2 $? ad. Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, 
Dec. 1925, 2 ?$ ad. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, June 1925, 2 £<$ ad., 
1 ? juv. hills N. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, Sept.-Oct. 1925. 

493. Chloropsis icterocephala chlorocephala (Wald.). 

Phyllornis chlorocephala Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vii, p. 241 (1871) (Tounghoo). 

Andrews & Heller collected 2 tfg Namting River, Feb. 1917 ; La Touche 
obtained 1 ? Hokow, March 1921. 

494. Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii Jard. & Selby. 

Chloropsis hardwickii Jardine & Selby, III. Orn. Add. p. 1 (1829) (Nepal). 

Captain Wingate collected 1 <$ Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 5 examples from Loukouchai, Jan.-Feb. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 
4 <?c??¥ Chang-lung and Mu-cheng, Feb.-March 1917 ; Forrest sent 2 <$<$, 1 ? 
Tengyueh District, 1 jj Lichiang Range, 1 J, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 $ Shweh-Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, July 1925, 
1 $ hills round Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Aug. 1925 ; 1 (J, 2 $$ Yunnan, Styan coll., 
are in the British Museum. 

495. Chloropsis aurifrons aurifrons (Temm.). 

Phyllornis aurifrons Teraminck, PI. Col. 484 (1829) (Caehar). 

Oustalet enumerates this species among the birds collected by Prince H. 

496. Hemipus picatus capitalis (McClell.). 

Muscicapa capitalis McClelland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1839, p. 157 (Assam). 

Anderson collected 2 $<$ Ponsee, March-May 1868 ; Andrews & Heller 
obtained 1 J Chang-lung, March 1917 ; Forrest sent 1 $ Shweli Valley ; 1 example 
Yuen-chen, March 1903, is in the British Museum, Styan coll. 

497. Hemixus flavala flavala Hodgs. 

Hemixus flavala Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 572 (1845) (Nepal). 

Anderson obtained 2 ^J Ponsee, April 1868 ; Captain Wingate procured 
1 (J ad. Mong-kou, April 1899 ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 £ Chang-lung, 
March 1917. 

2 (J (J, 2 $? March 1903, Styan coll., are in the British Museum. 


498. Otocompsa flaviventris flaviventris (Tick.). 

Vanga flavivi ntris Tickell, Jaiarn. As. Soc. IU ngal, vol. ii. p. 573 (1833) (Dholbhum). 

Among the birds collected by Prince H. d'Orleans Oustalet enumerates this 
species ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad. Chang-lung, March 1917. 

499. Otocompsa emeria erneria (Linn.). 

Lanius emeria Linnaeus. Sysi. Nat. vol. i, p. 137 (1766) (Bengal). 

Anderson collected 1 <J Ponsee, March 186S, 1 <$, 1 $ Bhamo, Feb. 1808 ; 
Andrews & Heller obtained 6 <$<$, $$ Malipa, Chang -lung, and Meng-ting, Feb.- 
March 1917. 

500. Otocompsa emeria jocosa (Linn.). 

Lanius jocosus Linnaeus, Amoen. Acad. vol. iv, p. 238 (China) (1759). 

La Touche collected 1 £, 1 $ Loukouchai, Jan. and April 1921, 2 $<$, 1 $ 
Hokow, Feb.-March 1921. 

In the British Museum are 4 <$d, 1 $ Yunnan, 2 (J, 1 $ April 1903, Styan coll. 

[On the Shan States, Yunnan, and Tonkin forms of Criniger tephrogenys. 

In 1896 (Bull. Mas. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. ii, pp. 185-186) Oustalet described 
Criniger henrici from 4 birds collected by Prince H. d'Orleans, 1 in Yunnan and 
3 in Tonkin. He compared it with C. gutturalis lumping under that name both 
true teph. gutturalis of Borneo and ? Sumatra, teph. tephrogenys of Tenasserim, 
Siam, etc., and teph. griseiceps of N. Tenasserim and gave as his differences 
the larger size and yellower undersurface. He gives the wing-measurement as 
100 mm. -114 mm. Mr. Stuart Baker describes in his new edition of the Birds, 
Fauna of British India, a < '. tephrogenys grandis which he compares with C. teph. 
pallid us of Hainan ; he gives the wing-measurement of his bird as 114 mm.- 
119 mm. as opposed to 98 mm.— 105 mm. in pallidus ; he considers the Annam- 
Tonkin birds intermediate and restricts the name henrici to them, while lie 
includes the larger Yunnan birds (115 mm. wing-measurement) under his 

501. Criniger tephrogenys griseiceps Hume. 

Crinit/, r grist ia ps Hume. Stray Feath. vol. i, p. 478 (1873) (Upper Pegu). 

Menegaux & Didier identify a specimen obtained by Pichon as this bird. 

502. Criniger tephrogenys grandis Baker. 

Criniger pallida grandis, Stuart Baker. Butt. B.O.C. vol. xxxvii, p. 15 (1917) (Yunnan). 

Oustalet included in his description of Criniger henrici a specimen of this 
bird collected by Prince H. d'Orleans between Manhao and Semao, South Yunnan ; 
Bangs & Phillips record 5 examples Loukouchai, Feb. ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 3 <J(J, 2 $$ Loukouchai Feb., 3 <SS Yuen-chung, Styan coll., are 
in the British Museum. 

[On the status of Lanius schach Linn, and L. tephronotus Vig. 
Stuart Baker says that he keeps tephronotus as a separate species from 
schach and its several subspecies on account of its want of the ivhite wing 


speculum and the brown tail. In my series at Tring I have a number of 
(J tephronotus with absolutely black tails, and if Mr. Baker had only examined 
the wings of $ tephronotus more carefully, he would have found out that the 
white speculum is present but somewhat reduced in size, so that it is covered 
by the wing-coverts. Moreover, I have at least 1 male of scharh schach with 
the white speculum as completely concealed by the coverts as in the most 
extreme tephronotus. Therefore I maintain that tephronotus does belong to the 
" Formenkreis " of schach, and must be called Lanius schach tephronotus.'] 

503. Lanius shach schach Linn. 

Lanius schach Linnaeus. Syst. Nat. ed. x, vol. i, p. 94 (1758) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 14 examples from Shi-ping, Loukouchai, and Mengtsz, 
Jan.-Sept. and Dec. ; La Touche collected 1 $, 7 $$, 2 ? Mengtsz, Aug. -Dec. 
1920 and Jan. 1921, 1 ? Milati, Jan. 1921, 1 $ Hokow, Feb. 1921 ; Monsieur & 
Madame Comby obtained 1 example. 

503a. Lanius fuscatus Less. 

Lanius fuscatus Lesson. Trade SOrn. p. 373, Xo. 7 (1831). 

Dr. Stresemann has declared that this bird is a melanistic mutant of schach 
schach, and from examination of our large series from Hainan, Tonkin, and 
Eastern China I believe he is right. La Touche is still very doubtful about 
the matter, and says the only proof can be taking the two from one nest. This 
I consider may be difficult because as it is a common phase it probably breeds 
true. I think, however, we shall eventually get the proof that schach and fuscatus 
are one and the same bird. La Touche throws doubt on Bangs & Phillips' 
record, but Uchida & Kuroda's $ out of the same collection is properly dated. 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 example without exact data ; Uchida & Kuroda 
record 1 $ Dec. 1, 1910, Mengtsz. 

504. Lanius schach tephronotus (Vig.). 

Collurio tephronotus Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 43 (Himalayas, Gyantse Thibet). 

Ingram records an example Mengtsz, April 1910 ; Captain Wingate collected 

1 (Jinim. Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 1 <^ Loukouchai, 
Dec. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ ad., 1 $ imm. Yung-chang-fu, Jan. 1917 ; 
La Touche collected 1 $, 1 ? Mengtsz, March 1921 ; Forrest sent 3 <J<J, 2 $? juv. 
Tengyueh District, 9 gj, 6 ?? ad., 6 <JcJ, 2 $$, 2 ? juv. Lichiang Range, 

2 ?? Shweli Valley, 1 ? Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 (J J imm. hills round Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Oct. 
1925, 1 $ imm. Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925; Monsieur and Madame 
Comby secured 1 example. There are in the British Museum 1 example Gyi- 
dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 valley E. of Talifu, March 1902, 6 Talifu Valley, Feb.- 
April, 1902, 1 Tali Valley, March 1902, 1 Lichiang-Talifu Valley, March 1902, all 
from Colonel Rippon. 

505. Lanius cristatus cristatus Linn. 

Lanius cristatus Linnaeus. Syst. Xat. edit. x. p. 93 (1758) (Bengal). 

Anderson collected 1 $ Ponsee, May 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 4 ex- 
amples Mengtsz and Loukouchai, May and Sept.-Oct. and Dec. ; La Touche 


obtained 1 <J, 2 ??imm. Mengtsz, Nov.-Dec. 1920 and Feb. L921, 3 ad. Yunnanfu, 
.May 1921, 1 $ Lotukow. May L921 ; Forrest scut 2 j J juv. Tengyueh District, 
2 ? Shweli Valley, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range. In the 1925 collection there are 
1 cJ ad. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, June 1925, 1 <J ad. vicinity of 
Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, June 1925, 1 cJinim. Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 192.5. 

506. Lanius cristatus superciliosus Lath. 
Lanius supercilumis Latham. Ind. <>rn. Suppl. p. xx (1801) (Batavia, .lava). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 $ Mengtsz (identification M) ; Menegaux and 
Didier identify an example sent by M. Pichon as this form (also ? identification) ; 
La Touche collected 1 £ vix ad. 1 ^ imm. Mengtsz, Dec. L920 and Feb. 1921. 

507. Lanius collurioides siamensis Gyldenst. 

Lanius hypoleucus siamensis Gyldenstolpe, Orn. Monatsb. vol. xxiv, p. 28 (1916) (Koh Lak in 
Siamese Malay Peninsula). 

Captain Wingate obtained a $ ad. Mong-Kou, April 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 3 examples Mengtsz, Aug., under the name hypoleucus Blyth ; Andrews & 
Heller collected 2 $$ ad. Chang-lung and Yung-Chang Fu, Jan. and March 
1917 ; Forrest sent 1 ? juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ ad. Shweli Valley, 1 <J ad., 
1 ? juv. Teng\-ueh District, Monsieur et Madame Comby collected 1 example. 

508. Lanius collurio kobylini (Buturl.). 

Enneoctonus collurio kobylini Buturlin. Ibis, 1906, p. 416 (Kuteis and Ssuram). 

Monsieur and Madame Comby secured an example of this bird. 

509. Lanius nigriceps nigriceps (Frahkl.). 

' 'olluria nigriceps Franklin. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p. 117 (Ganges, Calcutta, Benares). 

Anderson procured 4 specimens at Ponsee and Sanda, March-July 1868 ; 
Captain Wingate obtained 1 £, 1 $, Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 1 <J Linan Fu, Feb. ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. Meng-Ting, 
Feb. 1917 ; La Touche obtained 4 $ Mengtsz, Dec. 1920 and Feb. 1921, 2 $$ 
Tachouang, March 1921, 1 <J Milati, Jan. 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $ Lichiang 
Range, 3 <?<?, 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District, 6 cjcjad., 1 c? juv. Shweli Valley. 
In the 1925 collection is 1 £ ad. hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, July 1925. 
There are in the British Museum 2 $<$, 1 ? Yunnan, 1 example Ye-Chan, Feb. 
1899, Styan coll. ; 1 J Ching-tung, March 1899, 1 ? Nan-an-chou, Feb. 1899, 
Captain Wingate. 

510. Lanius tigrinus Drap. 

Lanius tigrinus Drapiez, Diet. < lass. Hist. Nat. vol. xii. p. . r >23 (1828) (Java). 

Ingram records 1 <$ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & P hillip s record 3 examples 
Mengtsz, April and Aug. ; La Touche collected 1 ? ad., 1 $ imm. Mengtsz, Aug. 

511. Conostoma aemodium aemodiuni Hodgs. 

Oonostoma aemodium Hodgson, J own. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, p. 857, pi. (1841) (Xepal). 

Dr. Stresemann (Journ. f. Orn. (v), 71, p. 363) has separated the Szetchuan 
birds from the Nepal birds, giving as the differences the higher bill and shorter 


wing. I cannot see these differences ; my 3 Indian birds have wing-measurements 
118, 121, 132 mm., whereas the Washan $ has only a wing of 114 mm., but one 
of the 3 Washan birds has a wing of 125 mm. and Forrest's Lichiang example 
has the wing 130 mm. 

In colour Forrest's bird is decidedly greyer, but the Washan bird is inter- 
mediate ; I therefore reluctantly have to declare that I cannot agree in separating 
the Chinese birds as distinct. 

Oustalet records several examples of this species as being among Prince H. 
d'Orleans' birds ; Forrest sent 1 $ Lichiang Range. 

[On the genera Cholornis, Psittiparus, Suthora, Paradoxornis, and Heteromorpha 


I still maintain the same opinion I expressed in 1921, when I recorded and 
worked out George Forrest's first collection, namely that the above five genera 
are so interlinked that they cannot be maintained, and that all these highly 
interesting oriental allies of our Panurus biarmicus (the Bearded Tit) belong to 
a single genus. 

Dr. Hartert, while maintaining the generic distinction of Cholornis, 
Suthora, and Paradoxornis, points out that the only distinction between Cholornis 
and Suthora. is that Cholornis has the outer toe abortive and minus the claw, 
whereas Suthora has both inner and outer toes and claws about equal in size and 
complete. Dr. Hartert, however, had failed to consider that in Suthora (Hetero- 
morpha) unicolor we have the connecting link, because in this species the outer 
toe is very much smaller than the inner toe and the claw is only one-third the 
size of that of the inner toe. Apart from the difference in the outer toe Suthora 
unicolor (Hodgs.) and Cholornis paradoxa Verr. are exactly alike in appearance.] 

512. Paradoxornis guttaticollis A. Dav. 

Paradoxornis guttaticollis Armand David, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii. Bull. p. 14 (1871) (no 
precise locality, but Western Szechuan). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 $3 Mengtsz and Loukouchai, Feb.-March and 
Dec. ; Uchida & Kuroda list 3 cS<3 Loukouchai, Jan.-Feb. and Dec. ; Forrest 
sent 1 cJ, 3 ?? T'ong Shan, 2 $$, 2 $? Lichiang Range, 4 £$, 2 ?? Tengyueh 
District, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Shweli Valley 

In the 1925 collection are 2 rfd, 2 $$ hills south of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, 
May 1925. 

513. Paradoxornis unicolor canaster (Thay. & Bangs). 

Suthora unicolor canaster, Thayer & Bangs, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. xl, No. 4, p. 171 
(1912) (Washan). 

Paradoxornis unicolor saturatior Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 54, No. 202 (1921) (Shweli- 
Salwin Divide). 

When I described un. saturatior I had no Szechuan examples for comparison, 
and the description of un. canaster did not seem to fit Forrest's birds. I have, 
however, now exchanged a Szetchuan bird collected by Dr. Weigold, and find 
it indistinguishable from Forrest's fine series. 

Forrest sent 3 <$<$, 2 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9 $$, 9 ?$, 1 ? Lichiang Range. 
In the 1925 collection there are 4 ££, 6 $$, 2 nestlings Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
9,000-11,000 feet, June, Aug.-Oct. 1925. 


514. Paradoxornis alphonsiana yunnanensis (LaTouche). 
Suthora webbiana yunnanensis La Touche, Butt. B.O.C. vol. xlii. p. 31 (11121) (Kopaotsun). 

Uchida & Kuroda record 1 example (under the Dame alphonsiana) Loukouchai 
Dec. ; La Touche collected 4 <$<$, 1 $ Kopaotsun, May 1921, 2 $$ Yunnanfu ; 
in the British Museum are 2 <$q examples Yunnan, Feb. L903, and 3 $$ Mu-chu 
.Fan. 1903 (Styan coll.). 

515. Paradoxornis fulvifrons cyanophrys (A. Dav.). 

Suthora cyanophrys Armand David, Journ. trois Voy. Chine, vol. i, p. 345 (1875) (Shensi merid.). 

Oustalet records several examples collected at Tsekou by Pere Soulie ; 
Forrest sent 2 $$, 2 ?$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 tf, 1 $ Tengyueh District, 5 <J<J, 
2 $$ Lichiang Range. In the 1925 collection is 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
10,000 feet, July 1925. 

516. Paradoxornis poliotis poliotis (Blyth). 

Suthora poliotis Blyth, Journ. As. 8oc. B< ngal, vol. xx, p. 522 (1851) (Cherrapunji). 

Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $ Tengyueh District in his 1924 collection. In the 1925 
collection there is 1 <J hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, July 1925. 


Paradoxornis ruficeps atrosuperciliaris (Godw.-Aust. 

Ghleuasieus ruficeps var. atrosuperciliaris Godwin-Austen, Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 1877, p. 147 (Sadiya 


Anderson obtained 1 example Ponsee, April 1868. 

[On the webbiana group of Paradoxornis. 

The webbiana group is a very complicated lot of forms, which I fear will not 
be properly straightened out until much more is known of their breeding habits 
and localities, and also a specially important point, whether the bulk of the 
forms are regular migrants or not. Of webbiana proper at least three races occur 
in Yunnan together with brunnea And. 

Of described forms of webbiana we have the following, as far as I have been 
able to find out, and they all show an appreciable amount of striping on the 
throat, whereas brunnea has none or hardly any. 

Dr. Hartert has recently reviewed these difficult birds in his Nachtrag I to 
his Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna, pp. 44-45, but has erroneously included 
La Touche's yunnanensis, which is an alphonsiana race and has no relationship 
to webbiana. 

Paradoxornis webbiana webbiana (Gray). Shanghai to Tschekiang Coast 

Paradoxornis webbiana suffusa i Swinh.). Yuangtze Valley, Tsinling Mts., 
and S.E. China. 

Paradoxornis webbiana fulvicauda (Campbell). Tschili and Corea. 

Paradoxornis webbiana mantschuricaiTacz.). Ussuriland and Mantschuria. 

Paradoxornis webbiana styani i Ripp.). Shan States and Tali Valley, Yunnan. 

Paradoxornis webbiana ricketti Bothsch. Yangtze Valley, Yunnan. 


Paradoxornis webbiana elizabethae La Touche. Loukouchai. 
(This ought never to have been described from a single moulting cage bird.) 
Paradoxornis webbiana bulomachus (Swinh.). Formosa. 
I think we can safely treat brunnea And. as a distinct species, as it occurs 
together with ricketti Rothsch.] 

518. Paradoxornis webbiana styani (Ripp.). 

Suthora styani Rippon, Butt. B.O.C. vol. xiii, p. 54 (1903) (Tali Valley). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird in the Tali Valley, Yunnan. 
519. Paradoxornis webbiana ricketti Rothschild. 

Paradoxornis webbiana ricketti Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxx, p. 51, No. 136 (1923) (Yangtze Valley). 
Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 ? Yangtze Valley, 1 <$, 4 $$ Lichiang Range. 

520. Paradoxornis webbiana elizabethae La Touche. 

Suthora alphonsiana elizabethae La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 52 (1921) (Loukouchai). 

La Touche obtained a single $ alive in a cage at Loukouchai in the 
spring of 1921 ; it died in England in full moult. (A single moulting cage bird 
ought never to be described.) 

521. Paradoxornis webbiana webbiana (Gray). 

Suthora webbiana Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1852, p. 70, pi. xlix (Shanghai). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 <^$ Loukouchai, Jan.-Feb. 1911. 

I feel almost convinced that there is an error of determination and that these 
3 birds belong to Paradoxornis brunnea And. Of course birds wander in an 
often unaccountable manner, and they may be really stray w. webbiana, but I 
can hardly believe it. 

522. Paradoxornis brunnea (Anders.). 

Suthora brunnea Anderson, Anat. Zool. Reser. West Yunnan, 1868 and 1875, p. 638, No. 127 (1878) 

Anderson collected 4 examples Momien, June 1868 ; Oustalet enumerates 
this bird among Prince Henri d'Orleans' collections from N. Yunnan ; Monsieur 
Pichon sent 2 specimens ; Forrest sent 1 ? Lichiang Range, 2 $$, 2 $$ Tali 
Valley, 16 cJcJ, 13 ??, 1 ? Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 $ hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, Aug. 1925, 

1 ? hills N. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, Nov. 1925. Colonel Rippon collected 1 
Yung-Chang-Chutung Road, Jan. 1906, 1 hills E. of Yung-Chang, Jan. 1902. 

523. Paradoxornis brunnea brunnea P. webbiana ricketti. 

Mr. Kinnear considers the following series collected by Colonel Rippon to 
be intermediate between the above 2 birds. I am unable to confirm or deny 
this with the material up to now available, so I leave it as he proposes for the 
present. Eight examples Talifu Valley, Feb.-April 1902 and Feb.-April 1906, 

2 Mekong-Yung-Chang Road, April 1906, 2 Valley E. of Talifu, March 1902, 
1 Shan-Kwan, March 1902, 2 Yangpi-Chutung Road, April-May 1906. 1 hills 
N.E. of Talifu, March 1902. 

312 Novttates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 

524. Cephalopyrus flammiceps olivaceus Rothsch. 

Cephalopyrua flammiceps olivaceus Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. -xxx. p. 263. Xo. 143 (1923) (vicinity 
of Tengyueh). 

Oustalet records this bird among those collected by Pere Soulie at Tsekou ; 
La Touche collected 1 <J imm. Loukouchai, Feb. 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 <J 
Tengyueh District (type). 

525. Regulus regulus yunnanensis Ripp. 

Regulus yunnanensia Rippon, Bull. B.o.C. vol. xix, p. 19 (1906) (W. Yunnan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 13 examples at Yangtze Big Bend, Feb. -March 
1906, 3 Yangpi Valley, Feb. 1906, 3 Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, 2 Lichiang, March 
and April 1906, 1 <J, 2 $? Gyi-dzin-Shan, March-April 1902 ; Forrest sent 10 (J<J, 

2 $$ Lichiang Range. 

526. Anthoscopus pendulinus consobrinus (Swinh.). 

Aegithatus consdbrinus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 133 (Scha-schi Yangtze-kiang). 

M. Piehon sent 2 examples and Menegaux & Didier say that Oustalet has 
also recorded this bird, but I have failed to find his reference. 

527. Aegithaliscus concinnus talifuensis Ripp. 

Aegithaliscus talifuensis Rippon, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiv, p. 18 (1903) (Gyi-dzin-Shan). 

Oustalet records this bird collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; Ingram records 
1 (J Mengtsz, June 1910 ; Colonel Rippon obtained 5 examples Lichiang, March 
1906, 1 Talifu, May 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips list 9 specimens Mengtsz, Jan.-Dec. ; 
Monsieur & Madame Comby collected 1 example ; Monsieur Piehon sent 2 speci- 
mens ; La Touche obtained 2 ?$, 1 ? Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 2 <J<J Loukouchai, 
March-April 1921, 1 <J Lotukow, May 1921, 2 ad., 2 juv. Kopaotsun, May 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 2 $$, 1 $ T'ong Shan, 2 $£ Chien Chuan Valley, 2 <$<5 Yangtze 
Valley, 1 ? Shweli Valley, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Mekong VaUey, 2 $<$, 
1 ? Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 1$ Tali Range, 4 $<$, 3 ?$, 1 ? Tengyueh District, 
10 (?c?, 6 $?, 1 >. Lichiang Range. 

In the 1925 collection are 3 £<$, 2 $$ ad., 2 nestlings Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
9,000-11,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925, 3 £<$, 3 $$, 1 ? ad., 3 nestlings, hills N.W. 
of Tengyueh, 7,000-8,000 feet, July 1925. In the British Museum there are 
also from Colonel Rij)pon 2 examples Shayang-Chutung Road, March 1902, 

3 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, and 2 Chutung- Yangpi Road, March- April 1902. 

528. Aegithaliscus bonvaloti (Oust.). 

Ar mini, i bonvaloti < lust aid, Arm. Scien. Nat. Zool. (7), xii, p. 286, pi. ix, f. 1 (1891) (Ta-tsien-lu and 

Colonel Rippon obtained 2 examples Lichiang, March 1906, 20 Yangtze 
Big Bend, March 1906 ; Oustalet records it as collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Forrest sent 19 3<3, 9 $$, 14 ? Lichiang Range, 1 $ Mekong Valley, 1 J, 1 $ad., 
1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide. Also there are in the British Museum from 
Colonel Rippon 1 each from Gyi-dzin-Shan, Chutung-Yangpi Road, and Ta- 
laupa -Chutung- Yangpi Road, all March 1902. 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 313 

529. Aegithalus caudatus glaucogularis (Moore). 

Orites glaucogularis F. Moore, Proc. Zuol. Soc. London, 1854, p. 140 (China). 
Colonel Rippon collected 1 example, Lichiang March 1906. 

530. Paras modestus saturatior (Ripp.). 

Sylmparus saturatior Rippon, Bull. B.O.O. vol. xvi, p. 87 (1900) (Mt. Victoria). 

Colonel Rippon obtained this bird from Yunnan \ (no example in British 
Museum) ; Forrest sent 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, Sept. 1921. 

I believe the record for Yunnan attributed to Colonel Rippon rests on an 
error, and that Forrest's $ is the only Yunnan record, but I cannot trace the error 
or the record. 

531. Paras spilonotus subviridis Tick. 

Paras subviridis Tickell (Blyth). Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxiv, p. 265 (1855) (Tenasserim). 

Mr. Baker includes spilonotus in MacMolophus, but I consider the crest is 
not a sufficient character to found a genus on. 

Forrest sent 4 $<$ ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 <J hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, Nov. 
1925, 2 <J<J imm. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000 feet, Aug. 1925. 

532. Paras spilonotus evanescens subsp. nov. 

This is a very remarkable bird, and apparently goes a long way towards 
linking up rex Dav. with spilonotus Blyth as subspecies of one " Formenkreis." 
Differs from sp. subviridis in having still less olive-green above the back, being 
almost and the rump quite grey, the olive-yellow being only present on the hind- 
neck and front portion of interscapular region. Below the sides of the breast 
and flanks are much less bright yellow, more yellowish or whitish olive. Forrest 
sent 3 3(5 ad., 2 $$ juv. Shweh Valley. In the 1925 collection is 1 $ ad. Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 10,000 feet, Aug. 1925 (type). 

533. Paras rex Dav. 

Pants rex Armand David, Ann. Scien. Nat. (5), xix, art. 9 (1874). 

Oustalet records this species from Yunnan ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
4 specimens Loukouchai, Feb.-March ; La Touche collected 7 tfd, 1 $ Milati, 
Jan. 1921, 3 <$<S, 1 ? Loukouchai, March and April 1921. 

534. Paras dichrous wellsi Baker. 

Parus dichrous toellsi Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxviii, p. 8 (1917) (Yangtze Big Bend). 

Forrest sent 13 $6, 5 $$, 4 ? Lichiang Range, 2 <3$, 2 ?$ ad., 1 <J juv. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 1 ? Mekong- Yangtze Divide. 

Oustalet records dichrous from Prince Henri d'Orleans' collection, and 
Ingram remarks it must surely be dichrous dichroides, but this is evidently not 
the case as the Yunnan birds are all wellsi. In the British Museum from Colonel 
Rippon are 7 Yangtze Big Bend, March 1900, and 1 Lichiang Valley, April 1900. 

314 Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

535. Paras ruionuchalis beavani (Jerd.). 

Lophophanes beumiii Jerdon, Birds o] India, vol. n. p. i'T.'. ( lsii.'il (Mt. Tonjdoo Sikkim). 

Colonel Rippon and Forrest appear to be the only collectors to obtain this 
bird ; Forrest sent 1 <J Mekong Valley, 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 
7 $$, 2 ?? 1, ? Lichiang Range. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 $, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000 feet, Aug. 

Colonel Rippon obtained 4 examples Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906. 

530. Paras ater aemodius Hodgs. 

Paras aemodius Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiii, pt. ii, p. 943 (1844) (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon got 1 example Lichiang, March 1906 ; Oustalet enumerates 
this species among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Forrest sent 3 c?<? 1 $ ad., 1 ? 
juv. Lichiang Range. 

537. Paras monticolus yurmanensis La Touche. 

Pa/rue monticolus yunnanensis La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii. )). 51 (1921) (S.E. Yunnan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 5 examples Talifu Valley, March 1926 ; Oustalet 
records it among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; La Touche collected 4 <$<$, 3 $$ 
Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 1 ? Loukouchai, Jan. 1921, 2? Lotukow, May 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 2 <$<$ Tengyueh District, 5 £&, 1 $ Lichiang Range. 

In my article on Forrest's first collection I unfortunately named this bird 
monticolus insperatus Swinh., a local race confined to the island of Formosa : 
I corrected this in my second article, but again erred by identifying it with 
monticolus monticolus ; it was only in my third article (Nov. Zool. vol. xxx, 
p. 262, No. 141, 1923) that I correctly identified this bird. In the British Museum 
from Colonel Rippon are also 4 examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, March-April 1902, 
1 Yangpi Valley, April 1902, 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1902, 2 Lichiang 
Valley, April 1906, and 1 hills west of Talifu, March 1902. 

538. Paras palustris dejeani Oust. 

Parus dejeani Oustalet, Bull. Mux. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. iii. p. 209 (1897) (Ta-tsien-lu). 
Lophophanes pueribipsis Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiii, p. 11 (1902) (Chutung). 

This bird was redescribed by Dr. Sharpe and placed by him in the genus 
Lopho phones : he compared it with beavani. This is quite incomprehensible, 
as the bird is certainly not a " Crested Tit." Dr. Hartert, in the third volume 
of his Palaearctic Birds, says his attention was drawn to this bird by Dr. Lowe 
and Mi 1 . Kinnear, and that it was a " Willow Tit," and must stand as /'urns 
atricapillus poecilopsis (Sharpe). In his supplement I, however, he has care- 
fully compared a further series and finds it is really a " Marsh Tit," i.e. a bird 
with a glossy head, as opposed to the dull black heads of the " Willow Tits." 
He also discovered that Szechuan dejeani were identical in every respect, so 
that at last we have brought this bird to rest under the title of Parus palustris 

Colonel Rippon collected this bird at Chutung-Yangpi Road (type of poeci- 
lopsis), and 8 examples at Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906. Oustalet records 
this bird from Tsekou Pere Soulie ; Forrest sent 2 $$, 2 ? Lichiang Range. 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 315 

539. Parus major comrnixtus Swinh. 

Parus comrnixtus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1868, p. 63 (Amoy China). 

Anderson obtained 1 adult Ponsee, May 1868, 3 juv. Muangla, Jan. and 
March 1868 ; Colonel Rippon 1 example Yungchang, Jan. 1906, 5 Talifu Valley, 
Feb. 1906, 3 Lichiang, March-April 1906, 3 Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, 

1 Tali Valley, April 1906 ; Oustalet enumerates this species among Prince H. 
d'Orleans' birds ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 $<$ Yung-chang-Fu, Jan. 1917. 
In the British Museum from Colonel Rippon are 9 examples Talifu Valley, Feb.- 
April 1906, 4 Yangtze Big Bend, March-April 1906, and 2 Lichiang, March 1906, 

2 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1906, and 1 hills E. of Yung-chang, Jan. 1906. 

540. Parus major minor Temm. & Schleg. 

Parus minor Temminck & Schlegel in Siebold's Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 70, pi. xxiii (1848) (Japan). 

Captain Wingate collected 1 $ ad. Nan-an-chow, Feb. 1899 ; Uchida & 
Kuroda record 3 c?c?> 2 $$ Mengtsz, March- April and Sept. -Nov. ; Monsieur 
Pichon sent 1 example ; Monsieur et Madame Comby got 1 example ; Uchida & 
Kuroda's birds are possibly altarum La Touche. 

541. Parus major altarum La Touche. 

Parus major altarum La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii. p. 43 ( 1922) (Mengtsz). 

Mr. La Touche has placed Bangs & Phillips' m. comrnixtus under this heading, 
and I have also put Ingram's Mengtsz birds here, but it is not at all certain that 
the facts bear this out, as both minor and comrnixtus could occur together with 
altarum at Mengtsz during the migration periods. 

Ingram records 5 examples Mengtsz, May- June 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 14 specimens, Mengtsz, March-Dec, Loukouchai, Dec, Linan Fu, 
Feb. ; La Touche collected 11 rf<S, 5 ?$, 5 ? ad., 1 ? juv.. Mengtsz, July-Dec. 1920 
and March-April 1921, 4^, 1 $Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 1 ? ad., 2 ? juv. Yunnanfu, 
May 1921, 1 ? juv. Lotukow, May 1921. 

542. Paras major thibetanus Hart. 

Parus major thi'irlunus Hartert, Yog. Pol. Faun. vol. i, p. 346, No. 544 (1905) (Chaksam). 
Parus major longipcnnis Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 11 (1922) (Lichiang Range). 

When I described this form I did not compare it with Hartert's thibetanus, 
as the habitat appeared to bar this, but I have since found them to be one and 
the same bird. Forrest sent 3 (JcJ, 1 $ Tengyueh District, 8 <$$, 1 $, 8 ? ad., 
2 ? juv. Lichiang Range. 

543. Sitta himalayensis Jard. & Selby. 

Sitta himalayensis Jardine & Selby. lllust. (>rn. vol. iii, pi. 144 (1835) (Himalayas). 

Forrest sent 1 <J Shweli-Salwin Divide. In the 1925 collection are 1 $, 2 $$ 
Shweh-Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925. 

544. Sitta yunnanensis 0. -Grant. 

Sitta yunnanensis Ogilvie-Oant, Bull. B.O.C. vol. x, p. 37 (1900) (Wei-Yuan). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 J ad. (type) Wei- Yuan, March 1899, Colonel 
Rippon collected 2 examples Lichiang, March 1906, 2 Yangtze Big Bend, March- 


April 1906, 1 Lichiang Valley, April 1906, 1 Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1906 ; 
Forrest sent 1 <J Tali Range, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 $<$, 1 $, 4 ? Lichiang 

In the 1925 collection are 1 ? hills north of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, Nov. 1925, 
1 (J, 3 $? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000-10,000 feet, July-Aug. 1925. In the 
British Museum are 2 <J(J Yung-Chang. Styan coll., and lo examples Yangpi- 
Chutung Road, March-April 1902, 1 Yung-chang fu-Lenshawi-chi, May 1902, 
5 Yangtze Big Bend, March-April 1906, 3 Lichiang, March- April 1906, and 1 
Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, all from Colonel Rippon. 

545. Sitta europaea nebulosa: La Touche. 
Sitta europaea nebulosa La Touche, Bull. B.O.O. vol. xlii. p. 55 (1921) (S.E. Yunnan). 

La Touche first described this as Sitta europaea obscura, but renamed it 
nebulosa as obscura was praeoccupied in the genus. 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example, Lichiang, March 1906, 1 Lichiang Valley, 
April 1906, and several Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 1 <J Loukouchai, Jan. ; Oustalet enumerates this bird under the name of 
Sitta caesia ! ! among those collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; Andrews & Heller 
record under the name of Sitta nagaensis 1 § ad. Ho-mu-shu Pass April, 1917 ; 
La Touche collected 7 <$<$, 4 $? Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921, 1 J, 1 $ Loshintang, Feb. 
1921, 1 S Lotukow, May 1921, 1 <$, 2 $? ad., 1 <Jjuv. Kopaotsun, May 1921, 1 ? 
Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 ? Shweli Valley ; 2 $$, 2 $$ Tengyueh 
District, 8 $$, 2 $$, 6 ? Lichiang Valley ; Monsieur & Madame Comby collected 

1 example. In the British Museum are 1 <J Mon Mum, March 1899, 1 9 Yunnan, 
Styan coll., and from Colonel Rippon 2 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March-April 
1902, 4 Lichiang Valley, March-April 1926, 6 Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, 
and 10 Gyi-dzin-Shan, March-April 1902. 

In my first two articles on Forrest's birds I named this bird Sitta europaea 
montium La Touche, but in the two last I recorded it as S. e. nebulosa La Touche, 
as he points out the Yunnan birds are distinct from those from Fokien. 

546. Sitta magna Wardl.-Rams. 

Sitta magna Wardl.-Ramsay, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876, p. 677 (Karenaee). 

Captain Wingate secured 1 <J Wei-Yuan. March 1899 ; Colonel Rippon 
collected 2 examples Yangpi-Chutung Road, March 1906, and 1 £ Gyi-dzin-Shan, 
April 1902. In the British Museum there are also from the Styan collection 

2 cJ<J> * ? Yuen-chang. 

547. Sitta canadensis villosa Verr. 

Sitta villosa Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. i, Bull. p. 78, pi. v, f. 1 (1860) (north of Peking). 
Oustalet records this species among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds. 

548. Sitta frontalis frontalis Horsf. 

Sitta frontalis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol xiii, p. 162 (Java), 

Anderson collected 1 <J Ponsee, April 1868 ; Ingram records 1 Mengtsz, 
June 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips record 4 examples Loukouchai, Feb. and June- 
July ; La Touche enumerates 1 $ Loukouchai, March 1921, under the name 

Novitates Zooloqicae XXXIII. 1926. 317 

frontalis corallina Hodgs. ; Andrews & Heller record under the same name 3 $? 
ad. Malipa, Namting River, and Chang-lung, Feb.-March 1917. 

Horsfield's type (now in the British Museum) came from Java, and an old 
Java specimen is at Tring out of the Riacour collection. Hartert has separated 
the Malay Peninsula birds under the name of frontalis intensior, and Dr. Sharpe 
described the Bornean race as corallipes. Should it turn out, as I think most 
likely, that the Java bird is not like the Ceylon, Indian, and Burmese examples, 
then the bird found in Ceylon, most of Continental India, Assam, and Burma, 
together with Yunnan, must bear the name of frontalis corallina Hodgs., but this 
can only be decided by the examination of good series of fresh Java birds. 

549. Tichodroma muraria (Linn.). 

Certhia muraria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, p. 184 (1766) (South Europe). 

Colonel Rippon got 1 example Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906 ; Forrest sent 1 ? 
Lichiang Range. 

550. Certhia himalayensis yunnanensis Sharpe. 

Certhia yunnanensis Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xiii (1902) (Shayang). 

Oustalet records this species among the birds collected by Prince H. 
d'Orleans ; Colonel Rippon obtained 2 examples Lichiang Valley, March-April 
1906, and 8 examples Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; Forrest sent 1 <J 1 ? 
ad., 3 (JcJ juv. Lichiang Range. Colonel Rippon also got 1 Shayang-Chuting 
Road, March 1902, 1 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 Yung-kuoresu, March 1902. 

551. Certhia farniliaris khamensis Bianchi. 

Certhia khamensis Bianchi in Sharpe, Handlist Birds, vol. iv, pp. 355 and 360 (1903) (Kham). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Lichiang, March 1906, 2 Yangtze Big 
Bend, March 1906 ; Forrest sent 1 (J, 3 $$, 3 ? Lichiang R., 1 $, 1 $ ad., 1 $ 
juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

552. Certhia discolor fuliginosa Baker. 

Certhia discolor fuliginosa Stuart Baker, Faun. Brit. Ind. 2nd edit. Aves, vol. i, p. 438, No. 454 (1922) 
(Loi-pang Nan Mekong). 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 <J ad. Tai-ping-pu, April 1917 ; Forrest sent 
1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

Both Bangs, when recording Andrews & Heller's example, and I, when 
recording Forrest's in my first paper, have called this bird erroneously discolor 

553. Zosterops erythropleura erythropleura Swinh. 

Zosterops erythropUnrus Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 294 (N. China). 

Colonel Rippon obtained an example at Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; La 
Touche collected 1 <J, 2 $? Mengtsz, Oct. 1920 ; Forrest sent 9 <$<$, 3 ?$ Lichiang 



554. Zosterops erythropleura melanorhyncha La Touche. 

Zosierops erythropleura meUinorhynrha' ha Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, i>. 32 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

This bird is either a freak or else a stray wanderer from a different breeding 
area than that of the typical race. La Touche collected 1 $ (type) Mengtsz, 
Oct. 1920. 

[On the Zosterops of the palpebrosa and simplex groups. 

These birds have until recently been completely misunderstood. It has 
been the practice of recent authors to treat all these birds as forms of palpebrosa. 
Thus simplex Swinh. was always treated as a form of ■palpebrosa and Oustalet, 
under the name of mussoti, mixed up both the palpebrosa and simplex races 
of Szechuan. The truth is that wherever there is a simplex form resident we 
also find a palpebrosa form at home, and the younger birds of both forms have 
been mixed up. Some of the older records will be difficult to disentangle, but 
later ones, when the actual specimens can be compared, will not be so difficult. 
In working out the following Yunnan forms I have not touched the Sunda 
Island races, but I am sure there also palpebrosa forms and simplex will be 
found to occur side by side.] 

555. Zosterops palpebrosa elwesi Baker. 

ZoMerops palpebrosa elwesi Stuart Baker, Ibis, 1922, p. 145 (Sikkim). 

Anderson records 1 ^ Momien, July 1868 ; Forrest sent 1 $, 3 $$, 1 ? 
Tengyueh District ; 2 $$, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 3, 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, 
July 1925. 

In the British Museum from Colonel Rippon are 2 examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, 
April 1902, 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, March 1902, 1 Yangpi-Talifu Road, March 
1902, 1 Shayang-Pingpo Road, April 1902, 1 Lichiang Valley, March 1906, 
1 hills N.E. of Talifu, March 1902. 

556. Zosterops palpebrosa williamsoni Rob. & Kloss. 

Zosterops palpefjrosa williamsoni Robinson & Boden Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Sac. Siam. vol. iii, 

p. 445 (1919) (West Coast Siam and Selangor). 
Zosterops iiiminiittr jnhamiav La Touche, Bull. B.<>.'\ vol. xlii, p. 31 (1921) (Mengtsz). 

Ingram records 5 examples Mengtsz under the name of palpebrosa palpebrosa. 
Bangs & Phillips record 10 examples Mengtsz, Jan.-Sept., under the name of 
•palpebrosa mussoti; La Touche collected 7 c?c?» 9 ??. 2? Mengtsz, Aug.-Dec. 
192(1 and Feb. 1921, 1 cj Milati, Sept. 1920, 1 $ Tachouang, March 1921. 

The description of williamsoni agrees perfectly with that of johainiae, and 
moreover Stuart Baker who has compared them has said they are the same. 

557. Zosterops simplex simplex Swinh. 

Zosterops simplex Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. .S'oc. London. 1863, p. 203 (S.E. China). 

Anderson records 1 example Ponsee, May 1868 ; Andrews & Heller collected 
1 cj, 1 $ ad. Chang-lung and Malipa, March 1917 ; Uehida & Kuroda record 3 (J<J. 
3 $$ Jan.-Sept. ; Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $, 1 ? Mekong Valley, 2 <J<J, 1 $, Mekong- 
Salwin Divide, 1 <J, 1 $ Salwin Valley, 1 ,j Tengyueh District, 2 ,$<$, 1 $, 1 ? 

Novitates Zoological XXXIII. 192B. 319 

Lichiang Range. In the British Museum from Colonel Rippon are 2 examples 
Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 hills N. of Talifu, April 1902, 1 Talifu Valley, April 
1902, 1 Lichiang, May 1906. In the British Museum from Colonel Rippon 2 
examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902, 1 Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1900, 

1 Lichiang, May 1906, and 1 Talifu Valley, April 1902. 

558. Dicaeum ignipectus ignipectus (Blyth). 

Myzanthe ignipectus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii. p. 983 (1843) (Nepal and Bhutan). 

Captain Wingate procured 1 <J ad. Chung-tung, March 1899 ; Colonel Rippon 
secured an example on the Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1900 ; Oustalet enumer- 
ates it among the birds collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs & Phillips list 
4 examples Mengtsz, Jan. and March, and Loukouchai, Feb. ; La Touche col- 
lected 6 ^ (J, 3 ?? Mengtsz, Nov. 1920 and Jan. -March 1921, 1 <J, 1 $ Loukouchai, 
March 1921, 3 $<$ Tachouang, Feb.-March 1921, 2 $$, 1 $ Lotukow, May 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 1 <J ad. Shweli Valley, 1 cj ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 £, 

2 $$ ad., 1 ? juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 2 <$<$ Tengyueh District, 3 £3, 1 $ 
Lichiang Range. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 c?c?> 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000 feet, 
July-Aug. 1925, 1 <J hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 10,000 feet, Nov. 1925. In the 
British Museum from the Styan collection are 4 $£, 1 $ Yung Mochung, March 

559. Dicaeum chrysorrhoeum chrysochlore Blyth. 

Dicaeum chrysochlore Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 1009 (1843) (Arrakan). 

La Touche records 1 $ Tachouang, Feb. 1921, 1 (J, 1 $ Hokow, April 1921, 
under the name of Dicaeum chrysorrheum. 

560. Dicaeum minullum olivaceum Wald. 

Dicaeum olivaceum Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xv, p. 401 (1875) (Tounghoo). 

Bangs & Phillips record 7 examples Mengtsz and Loukouchai, April-Oct. ; 
Uchida & Kuroda list 3 <$$ Mengtsz, Oct. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ 
Chang-lung, March 1917 ; La Touche collected 3 cJcJ, 4 $$ Mengtsz, July and 
Oct. 1920 and March 1921, 2 $<$ Hokow, March-April 1921, 1 $ Loukouchai 
April 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 ? Mekong-Salwin Divide, 3 ??, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 2 <$<$ Lichiang Range, 4 <$$, 3 ?$, 2 ? Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000 feet, July 1925, 
1 ? juv. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 10,000 feet, Nov. 1925. 

561. Pachyglossa melanozantha (Hodgs.). 

Pachyglossa melanozantha Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 1010 (1843) (Nepal). 

La Touche collected 1 <J, 1 ? Milati, Jan. 1921, 1 <$, 1 $ Tachouang, Feb. 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 2 cS<3 Mekong- Yangtze Divide, 1 ? Mekong-Salwin Divide, 3 <$<$ 
Shweli-Salwin Divide, 5 $<$, 1 ? Lichiang Range. 

562. Aethopyga ignicauda exultans Baker. 

Aethojiyga ignicauda exultans Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol.xlvi.p. 13 (1925) (Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 (J imm. Yoakuan, Jan. 1917 ; Forrest sent 

1 $ Tengyueh District, 3 3(5 Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 ,$<$, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin 


Divide, 1 <J Lichiang Range. Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example Chutung, 
March 1902. 

563. Aethopyga siparaja viridicauda Rothsch. 

Aethopyga seheriae viridicauda Rothschild, Nov. Zool. vol. xxviii, p. 58 (1921) (Tengyueh). 

Colonel Rippon obtained an example Salwin Valley, May 1906 ; Oustalet 
records this bird under the name of seheriae lubecula from Prince H. d'Orleans' 
collection ; Forrest sent 5 cjc? Tengyueh District. In the British Museum also 
are 1 example Mongren, March 1899, Captain Wingate ; and 1 Yangpi-Talifu 
Road, March 1902, Colonel Rippon. 

564. Aethopyga siparaja tonkinensis Hart. 

Aethopyga seheriae tonkinensis Hartert, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxxviii, p. 7 (1917) (Yen Bai). 

La Touche collected 14 £<$, 2 $? Hokow, March-April 1921. 
565. Aethopyga dabryii (Verr.). 

Nectarinia dabryii Verreaux, Rev. and Mag. Zool. p. 173. pi. xv (1867) (" Xord de la Chine ! "). 

Anderson procured 1 c? Ponsee, March 1868 ; Captain Wingate obtained 
1 <J Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips record 28 examples Mengtsz, 
Feb. -Aug. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 4 (J (J ad. Wan-tien, Ta-shui-tang, and 
Mucheng, Feb. and May 1917 ; La Touche collected 1 <J Tachouang, March 
1921, 10 c?c?. 6 ?? Mengtsz, March-April 1921, 2 £<$ Loukouchai, April 1921, 

3 (JcJ Lotukow, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 24 J^, 5 $? ad., 4 <$<$ juv. Lichiang 
Range, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 4 $<$ Salwin Valley, 5 tfg, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 

4 c?c?» 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 2 <$$, 2 $$ ad. Tengyueh District. In the 
1925 collection are 2 £<$ ad. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 10,000 feet, Nov. 1925, 

5 <J<J ad., 1 c? ad., 1 $ juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000 feet, June-July 1925. 

566. Aethopyga saturata saturata (Hodgs.). 

' 'innyris saturata Hodgson, Ind. Rev. vol. ii, p. 273 (1837) (Nepal). 
Forrest collected 1 cj, 2 $$ Tengyueh District. 

567. Aethopyga nipalensis nipalensis (Hodgs.). 

Cinnyris nipalensis Hodgson, Ind. Rev. vol. ii, p. 273 (1837) (Nepal). 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 (J, 1 $ ad. Mu-cheng and Chang-Lung Feb.- 
March 1917; Forrest sent 6 <?<?, 4 $$ Shweh-Salwin Divide, 6 <JcJ, 4 $$ ad., 
3 6<S J uv - Tengyueh District. In the 1925 collection are 8 $$ ad. Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 11,000 feet, July 1925. 

568. Aethopyga sanguinipectus sanguinipectus Wald. 

Aethopyga aanguinipecta Walden, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xv, p. 400 (1875) (Tounghoo). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 <J Mong-sen, March 1899 ; Colonel Rippon 
collected one example Yangpi-Talifu Road, March 1902 ; Bangs & Phillips record 
13 specimens Loukouchai, Feb., and Asanzi, April ; La Touche collected 1 <J 
Milati, Jan. 1921, 8 cJ(J, 3 $$ Loukouchai, Jan. March-April 1921. In the British 
Museum are 4 JcJ Yung-Mo-Chung, Feb. 1903, Styan coll. 


569. Arachnothera magna aurata Blyth. 

Arachnothera aurata Blyth, Joiirn. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxiv, p. 478 (1855) (Pegu). 

In my second and fourth articles I listed this bird under magna magna, not 
having carefully measured the bill and because Forrest's 2 examples appeared 
to have rather well-defined black streaks on the upper side. In his 1925 collection 
he sent 2 more, which now have convinced me that Yunnan examples belong to 
the race aurata, which has the bill much larger. 

Bangs & Phillips record 4 specimens Loukouchai, Feb. ; Uchida & Kuroda 
list 3 dd, 2 ?$ Loukouchai, Jan.-Feb. ; La Touche collected 1 <J, 2 $$ Hokow, 
March 1921, 1 <J Loukouchai, April 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 $ Salween Valley, 1 <$ 
Tangyueh District. In the 1925 collection are 1 (J, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 
7,000 feet, Oct. 1924. Bill dark brown, feet orange-yellow, iris dark brown. 

570. Arachnothera longirostris sordida La Touche. 

Arachnothera longirostris sordida La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 32 (1921) (Hokow). 
La Touche collected 1 <J Hokow, March 1921 (type). 

571. Dendronanthus indicus (Gmel.). 

Motacilla indica Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 962 (1789) (India). 

Ingram records 2 $<§ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
3 examples Mengtsz, May 1910 ; La Touche collected 1 <J, 2 <j>$ Mengtsz, Sept- 
Oct. 1920; 1 <$ Kopaotsun, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 $ Tengyueh Valley; 
M. & Madame Comby obtained 1 example. 

[On the Pied Wagtails of the alba-lugubris group. 

Stuart Baker tells us that Messrs. Lowe & Kinnear have come to the 
conclusion that Hartert was wrong in placing all the " Pied " and " White " 
Wagtails as subspecies of alba, and that there are two groups or " Formenkreise " : 
(1) alba, which never gets a black back in the breeding season, and (2) lugvbris, 
which does acquire the black back. Mr. Baker remarks that this will clear up 
certain difficulties where two local races of these birds appear to overlap ; and 
moreover he thinks alba ocularis will have to be separated as a third species. I 
feel that there is much still to be cleared up in the history and geographical dis- 
tribution of these birds ; but I certainly think the apparent overlapping of 2 
forms in certain localities is by no means an infallible sign of specific as opposed 
to subspecific distinction, and to my mind, at present at; all events, the weight 
of evidence is much more in favour of one " Formenkreis " (that of alba, only), 
and not two or more. I shall therefore continue to treat them in this paper as 
all subspecies of alba.] 

572. Motacilla alba alboides Hodgs. 

Motacilla alboides Hodgson, As. Ree. vol. xix, p. 191 (1836) (Nepal). 
Motacilla liodijsoni Blyth, Ibis, p. 49 (1865) (Nepal). 

Oustalet records this among Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 3 examples Mengtsz, Sept. -Oct. ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. 
Yung-chang Fu, Jan. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon obtained 3 specimens ; M. & 
Madame Comby collected 2 examples; La Touche collected 4 tfcS, 3 $$ ad., 

322 Novitates Zoological XXXI11. 1926. 

1 $ juv. Mengtsz, Aug. and Oct. Nov. 1020, 1 $ Loukouchai, April 1921, 1 $ 
Lotukow, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 4 <$<$, 1 $ Lichiang Range, 2 JcJ ad., 1 $ juv. 
Tengyueh District, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

573. Motacilla alba leucopsis Gould. 

Motacilla It ucopsit Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1837, p. 78 (India). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, 1 Yangtze 
Valley, March 1906, 1 Lichiang, April 1906; La Touche collected 2 <$<J, 1 $ 
Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920 ; Forrest sent 1 ? Lichiang Range, 3 <?<?, 2 $$ Tengyueh 

574. Motacilla alba baicalensis Nwinh. 

Motacilla baicalensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zoo]. Soc. London, 1871, p. 363 (Eastern Asia). 
Forrest collected 1 <$ Lichiang Range. 

575. Motacilla alba maderaspatensis Gmel. 

Motacilla maderaspatensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i. p. 961 (1789) (India). 

Anderson collected 1 example Tapeng, Feb. 1868, 1 Sanda, May 1868, 1 <J, 
1 $ Momien, May 1868. 

576. Motacilla alba ocularis Swinh. 

Motacilla ocularis Swinhoe. Ibis, 1860, p. 55 (Araoy). 

Bangs & Phillips record 7 examples Mengtsz, Feb.-June ; Uchida &. Kuroda 
enumerate 5 £$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, Feb.-July ; Andrews & Heller collected 
1 S ad - Yung-chang Fu, Jan. 1917 ; La Touche procured 2 <$<$ ad., 1 o juv. 
Mengtsz, Sept.-Nov. 1920, 1 £ Tachouang, March 1921. 

577. Motacilla cinerea caspica (Gmel.). 

Partis caspicus Gmelin, Reise d. Russl. vol. iii, p. 104, pi. xx. f. 2 (1774) (Caspian Sea). 

Captain Wingate secured 1 rj ad. Yunnan City, Feb. 1899 ; Colonel Rippon 
collected 1 example Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906, 1 Lichiang, Sept. 1906 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 6 examples Mengtsz, April-Nov. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 
1 <J imm. Yung-chang Fu, Jan. 1917 ; La Touche collected 2 <$<$, 4 ??, 1 ? Mengtsz, 
Sept.-Nov. 1920, 1 cj Hokow, Jan. 1921 ; Forrest sent 3 ScS. 3 $$ ad., 1 $ juv. 
Lichiang Range, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley. 

578. Motacilla flava simillima Hart. 

Motacilla flava simiUima Hartert, Vdg. palaark: Faun. vol. i, p. 289, No. 454 (1905) (Kamtschatka). 
La Touche collected 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct. 1920 ; Forrest sent 2 <$£ Tengyueh 

579. Motacilla flava thunbergi Billb. 

Mular, II,: thunbergi Billb. Syn. Finn,. Scand. vol. i. pt. ii. Arcs, p. 50 (1828) (Lapland). 

Anderson records 1 example Ponsee, March 1868 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 
1 specimen. 

Novitates Zoologiuak XXXIU. 1926. 323 

580. Motacilla citreola citreola Pall. 

Motacilla citreola Pallas, Reise Prov. Rush. Reich, vol. iii, p. 696 (1776) (East Siboria). 

Captain Wingate procured 1 3 ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 4 examples Mengtsz, April; La Touche collected 4 33, 1 $ 
Mengtsz, Oct.-Dec. 1920 and March-April 1921 ; Forrest sent 2 33 Tengyueh 
District, 2 $$ Lichiang Range. 

581. Motacilla citreola calcarata (Hodgs.). 

liudylis ralrtiralii.i Hodgson, As. Res. vol. xix, p. 198 (1836) (Nepal). 
Budytes citreoloides Gould, Birds Asia, vol. iv, pi. lxiv (1865) (Nepal). 

Hartert in his Vog. paladrk. Faun, only mentioned calcaratus Brehm of I860, 
which is a synonym of M . flam flava and moreover a nomen nudum. Stuart 
Baker, as far as I can find out, was the first to point out that calcaratus Hodgs. 
was the correct name for citreoloides Gould by reason of 29 years' priority. 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 3 Mengtsz, March 1911 ; La Touche obtained 
1 3 Mengtsz, Feb. 1921, 1 $ Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

582. Anthus hodgsoni yunnanensis Uch. & Kur. 

Anthus maculatus yunnanensis Uchida & Kuroda, Annol. Zool. Jap. vol. ii, p. 134, No. 2 (1916) 

Stuart Baker separates the three pipits hodgsoni Richm., berezowslcii Saruduy, 
and yunnanensis Uch. & Kur. from the " Formenkreis " trivialis and unites them 
to form a separate " Formenkreis " hodgsoni, on the ground that at least one of 
them is found breeding alongside a trivialis form. As we have not yet sufficiently 
cleared up the Central Asian and Chinese breeding birds, I shall for the time 
being adopt this nomenclature ; always reserving the difficult question of how 
far overlapping between two birds in certain areas justifies them to be considered 
as species or still retained as subspecies. 

Bangs & Phillips record 5 examples Mengtsz, Jan.-Nov. ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 6 33, 2 $$ Mengtsz, Jan.-Nov. ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 3, 1 ? 
Yung-chang, Fu Jan. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 1 example ; La Touche col- 
lected 5 33, 2 ? Mengtsz, Oct.-Dec. 1920 and Feb. 1921, 1 3 Milati, Jan. 1921, 
1 3 Hokow, March 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 3 Salwin Valley, 2 33, 4 $$ Tengyueh 
District, 9 33, H ¥9 Lichiang Range. In the 1925 collection there is 1 3 
Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925. 

I consider the shorter bill of this race a somewhat doubtful distinction. 

583. Anthus richardi richardi Vieill. 

Anthus richardi Vieillot, Nouv. Did. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xxvi, p. 491 (1818) (France). 

Anderson procured an example at Muangla, May 1868, and 1 $ Momien, 
June 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 3 examples Mengtsz, March and Oct. ; 
La Touche collected 3 33, 1 $ Mengtsz, Sept.-Nov. 1920, 1 3 Milati, Sept. 1920, 
1 $ Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 2 33, 4 ?$ Tengyueh District ; M. & 
Madame Comby sent 1 specimen. 

584. Anthus richardi striolatus Blyth. 

Anthus striolatus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 435 (1847) (Darjeeling). 
Uchida & Kuroda record 2 33, 4 $$ Mengtsz, March-Oct. 


585. Anthus cervinus (Pall.). 

Motacilla cervine Pallas. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiut. vol. i, p. 511 (1827) (Siberia). 
Uchida & Kuroda record 1 <$, 1 $ Mengtsz, April. 

586. Anthus roseatus Blyth. 

Anthus roseatus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Banjul, vol. xvi. p. 437 (1847) (Xcpal). 

Colonel Rippon secured 1 example Lichiang Valley, March 1906 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 1 ^, 1 $ Mengtsz, April ; La Touche collected 3 (J, 4 $? Mengtsz, 
Nov.-Dec. 1920 and Jan.-April 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 $ Salwin Valley, 1 <$ 
Mekong Valley, 1 <J, 1 ? Lichiang Range, 3 <J(J, 2 $$ Tengyueh District. In 
the 1925 collection are 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925, 1 <J Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet, Aug. 1925. In addition there are in the British 
Museum from Colonel Rippon 3 examples Talifu Valley, April 1902, 1 Chutung- 
Yangpi Road, March 1902, and 1 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902. 

587. Anthus rufulus nifulus Vieill. 

Anthus rufulus Vieillot, Nour. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xxvi, p. 494 (1818) (Bengal). 

Ingram records 1 <J, 2 $$ Mengtsz, March-May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 5 specimens Mengtsz, March-Oct. ; Anderson collected 1 example 
Muangla, May 1868 ; La Touche secured 4 <$c5, 1 ? 3 ? ad., 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, 
July-Oct. 1920 and March 1921, 1 $ Milati, Sept. 1920, 1 $ Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $ Tengyueh District. Colonel Rippon obtained 3 examples 
Talifu Valley, April 1902. 

588. Anthus spinoletta blakistoni Swinh. 

Anthus blakistoni Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 90 (Yangtze River). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906 ; Forrest sent 
1 $ Lichiang Range. 

589. Oreocorys sylvanus (Blyth). 

Heterura sylvana (Hodgson) Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 556 (1845) (Nepal). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 c? ad. Mengtsz, June 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 1 (J, 1 $ Mengtsz, June and Sept. ; La Touche collected 2 <$<$, 1 $ 
Mengtsz, July-Sept. 1920, 1 3 Shuitang, May 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 c? Mekong 
Valley, 1 <$ Lichiang Range. 

59o. Alauda arvensis coelivox Swinh. 

Alauda coelivox Swinhoe, Zoologist, p. 6724 (1859) (Amoy). 

Ingram records 1 <J juv. Mengtsz ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 3 examples 
Mengtsz, April and Oct. ; Monsieur Pichon sent 1 specimen ; La Touche obtained 
1 cJ Milati, Sept. 1920, 1 <J Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

In the British Museum are the following examples said by Stuart Baker to 
have been collected by Colonel Rippon : 5 Lichiang, April 1902, and March and 
April 1900. 4 Talifu Valley, April 1902, 1 hills nr. Chutung Valley, March 1902. 


591. Alauda arvensis intermedia Swinh. 

Alauda intermedia Swinhoe, Pror. Zool. tioc. London, 1863, p. 89 (Shanghai). 

Forrest sent 1 ? Lichiang Range. In his 1925 collection is 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, Aug. 1925. 

592. Alauda arvensis japonica Teinm. & Schleg. 

Alauda japonica Temminck & Schlegel in Siebold, Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 87, pi. lvii (1848) (Japan). 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 example Talifu, Feb. 1906, 1 Lichiang Valley, 
April 1906 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 3 examples ; Forrest sent 5 <$£, 6 $$ Lichiang 

593. Melophus melanicterus (Gmel.). 

Fnin/illn melanictera Gmelin, Sijst. Nat. vol. i, pt. ii, p. 910 (1789) (Macao). 

Ingram records 4 <$<$, 2 $$ ad., 4 $<§ juv. Mengtsz, April-July 1910 ; Captain 
Wingate obtained 1 <$ imm. King Tung Ting, Upper Mekong River, March 1899, 

1 $ M6ng-sen, March 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips record 25 specimens, Mengtsz, 
March-Aug., Loukouchai, Dec, Linan Fu, Feb., Shi-ping, Feb., Andrews & 
Heller procured 1 <J imm. Namting River, Feb. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 
3 cJ<J ; La Touche collected 11 $$ $$ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, Milati, Sept. and Dec. 
1920 and Jan.-Feb. 1921, Tachouang, March 1921, Loukouchai, April 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 2 $$ hills north of Tali, 1 $ Lichiang Range, 1 $ ad., 1 $ juv. 
Salwin Valley, 6 $$ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 <J<J, 2 $$ ad., 1 c?. 1 $ juv. 
Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 4 $$, 1 $ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, 
May 1925. 

Anderson collected 3 examples Ponsee, April 1868, 1 Sanda, July 1868. 

Colonel Rippon collected 3 examples Chutung-Shayang Road, March 1902 and 
1906 ; 2 Yangpi Valley, April 1906 ; 1 Shayang-Yungchang Road, March 1906 ; 

2 Yungchang-Salwin Road, March 1906 ; 1 Yangpi -Talifu Road, March 1902. 

594. Emberiza pusilla Pall. 

Emheriza pusilla Pallas, Reise Prov. Russ. Reichs. vol. iii, p. 697 (1776) (Daurian Alps). 

Anderson records 2 examples Ponsee, March- April 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 10 examples Mengtsz, Jan.-Dec. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 2 <$<$, 
1 ? Malipa and Yung-chang Fu, Jan. and March 1917 ; La Touche collected 
7 (J cJ?? Mengtsz, Nov.-Dec. 1920 and Feb. 1921, 1 (J, 2 $$ Milati, Jan.-Feb. 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 7 ^ (J, 9 ?$ Tengyueh District, 2 $?, 1 ? Lichiang Range, 1 <J Tali 
Valley, 2 $$ Shweli Valley. 

In the 1925 collection is 1 <J hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, July 1925. 
There are in the British Museum collected by Colonel Rippon 3 examples Chutung- 
Shayang Road, March and April 1902 ; 1 Lichiang, March 1906 ; 1 Gyi-dzin- 
Shan, March 1902 ; 1 Valley E. of Talifu, April 1902 ; 1 Shayang-Chutung Road, 
March 1902 ; 2 Talifu Valley, Feb. 1906 ; 1 Yangpi-Chutung Road, April 1902. 

595. Emberiza fucata fucata Pall. 

Emberiza fucata Pallas, Reise Prov. Brass, Reichs. vol. iii. p. 698 (1776) (Ouon and Ingoda Rivers). 

Forrest sent 2 c$c$ Tengyueh District, 1 ^ Shweli Valley. 

.'!2(i XnviTATKs Zoological XXX11I. 1926. 

59G. Emberiza fucata arcuata Sharpe. 

Emberiza arcuata Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. ilus. vol. xii, p. 494 (1888) (Himalayas). 

Anderson obtained 2 <$<$ Momien, June 1868 ; Ingram enumerates 1 $ 
Mengtsz, June 1910 ; Colonel Rippon collected an example Yangpi-Chutung 
Road, April 1906 ; Bangs & Phillips record 2 examples Mengtsz, March-April ; 
Monsieur Piehon obtained 2 specimens ; M. & Madame Comby got 1 example ; 
La Touche collected 1 <J, 1 $ Mengtsz, Nov. 1920, 3 <?<?, 1 ? Milati, Sept.-Dec. 
1920 and Feb. 1921, 1 <$ Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

597. Emberiza cia yunnanensis Sharpe. 

Emberiza yunnanensis Sharpe, Bull. B.O.i'. vol. xiii. p. 12 (1902) (Gyi-dzin-Shan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 5 examples Talipu Valley, Feb. 1906, 4 Yangpi 
Valley, Feb. 1906, 2 Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, 3 Lichiang Valley, March- 
April 1906 ; La Touche collected 1 <J Kopaotsun, May 1921, 6 <J<J, 1 $ Lotukow, 
May 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 3 Mekong Valley, 1 $ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 
22 (JcJ, 4 $$, 1 ? ad., 2 <J<J, 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range. Colonel Rippon also obtained 
6 examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; 3 Chutung- Yangpi Valley, March 1902. 

598. Emberiza spodocephala spodocephala Pall. 

Emberiza spnhcephala Pallas, Reise Prov. Rust. Reichs. vol. iii. p. 698 (1776) (Daurian Alps). 

Oustalet records this species in his list of Prince H. d'Orleans' birds ; La 
Touche collected 2 £<$ ad., 1 £ juv. Mengtsz, Nov. 1920. 

In my first article I said Oustalet's record was an evident error and referred 
to the next form, but I have since had reason to believe that view to be erroneous. 

599. Emberiza spodocephala melanops Blyth. 

Emberiza melanops Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv, p. 54 (1845) (Tippera). 

Ingram records 1 <$ juv., 1 $ ad. Mengtsz, April 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 5 specimens Mengtsz, Jan.-Dec. ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 3S 
Chang-lung, March 1917 ; La Touche obtained 3 33, 1 ?, 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct.-Nov. 
1920 and Jan.-Feb. 1921, 1 3 Milati, Jan 1921, 1 3 Yunnanfu, May 1921 ; 
Forrest sent 1 <J Tali Range, 5 <J(J Lichiang Range. Colonel Rippon collected 
4 examples Talipu Valley, April 1902 ; 1 Shayang-Chutung Road, March 1902 ; 
1 Lichiang, April 1904. 

600. Emberiza elegans Temm. 

Emberiza elegant Temminck, I'l. Col. pi. 5811 (1835) (Japan). 

Captain Wingate procured 1 cJ Ching-tung, March 1899; Colonel Rippon 
obtained 2 examples Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906, 4 Lichiang Valley, April 
1906 ; Forrest sent 19 33, 3 $$ Lichiang Range. 

Colonel Rippon also collected 2 Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; 1 Chutung- 
Yangpi Road, April 1902. 

Novitates Zoolugicae XXXUI. 1926. 327 

001. Emberiza aureola Pall. 

Emberiza aureola Pallas, Reise Prov. Russ. Raichs, vol. ii. p. 711 (1773) (Irtysk). 

Ingram records 1 $ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 3 
examples Mengtsz, April-May ; La Touche collected 2 $<$ Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, 
1 $ Yunnanfu, May 1921. 

In Forrest's 1921 collection is 1 <J hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, June 
1925. Bill bone-brown, basal half of upper-mandible darker ; feet dark olive ; 
iris brown. 

602. Emberiza rutila Pall. 

Emberiza rutila Pallas, Reise Prov. Riiss. Reiclvs. vol. iii, p. 698 (1776) (Mongolia). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 examples Mengtsz, April, Loukouchai, Jan. ; 
Uchida & Kuroda enumerate 1 (J, 1 $ Mengtsz, April, 1 <J Louchouchai, Jan. ; 
La Touche collected 2 (J (J, 1 ? Mengtsz, Oct. 1920 and Jan.-April 1921, 1 $ 
Milati, Feb. 1921, 1 <J Poutontsing, April 1921. 

603. Emberiza tristrami Swinh. 

Emberiza tristrami Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, p. 441 (Amoy). 
Laurente shot an example at Loukouchai, April 1921. 

[Mr. Kinnear has very carefully examined the series of 194 examples in the 
Tring and British Museums of Passer rutilans cinnamomeus Gould, P. r. debilis 
Hart., and P. r. intensior Rothsch., and has come to the conclusion that r. debilis 
is indistinguishable from cinnamomeus, but that my r. intensior has darker $$. 
I must say that with my few $$ of both I am unable to follow this, but I find on 
the whole that fresh moulted <J(J examples of r. intensior are less yellow below 
than those of r. cinnamomeus. La Touche has gone further and described 
certain examples from S.E. Yunnan as r. yunnanensis, but gives as the distinguish- 
ing character the same as I gave for r. intensior ; moreover, he makes both r. 
intensior and r. yunnanensis breed near Yunnanfu ; this is quite impossible if the 
two aee distinct. I believe that they are the same, and that this form which 
I named r. intensior is very slightly different, if at all, from r. cinnamomeus. 
As, however, in spite of the large number examined, I consider the series available 
is not sufficient for a final decision, I shall for the present enumerate all the 
Yunnan examples except 1 under the heading of r. intensior.'] 

604. Passer rutilans rutilans (Temm.). 

Frimjilla rutilans Teraminck, PL Col. vol. iii, p. 488 (1829) (Japan). 
Monsieur Pichon sent 1 example (fide Menegaux). 

605. Passer rutilans intensior Rothsch. 

Passer rutilans intensior Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 11 (1922) (Mekong Valley). 

Anderson collected 4 go, 2 ? Momien, May-June 1868 (recorded as cinna- 
momeus) ; Bangs & Philup 8 record 3 examples (as cinnamomeus) Mengtsz, April, 
Linan Fu, Feb. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 <J ad. Lung-ling, March 1917 (as 
cinnamomeus) ; Monsieur Pichon sent 2 specimens (recorded s cinnamomeus) ; 
La Touche collected 1 <J, 1 $ Yunnanfu, May 1921, 1 $, 1 ? Kopaotsun, June 1921 

328 Xnvii aids Z .OOICAB XXXIU. 1926. 

(recorded as intensior), 2 J J Mengtsz, Oct. 1920, 1 $ Milati, Feb. 1921, 2 <J<£ 1 $ 
Lotukow, May 1921, 1 $ Yunnanfu, May 1921 (recorded as yunnanensis) ; Forrest 
sent 1 (J, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 <$ Mekong Valley, 1 ? Mekong-Salwin 
Divide, 5 $$, 2 $$ Lichiang Range, 5 <$£, 3 $$ Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 3 cJc? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, July 1925. 

Colonel Rippon collected 6 examples Chutung-Yangpi Road, March and 
April 1902; 1 Mekong- Yangchang Road, April 1906; 2 Gyi-dzin-Shan, Feb. 
and April 1902 ; 1 Yangpi Valley, Feb. 1906. 

600. Passer montanus malaccensis Dubois. 

Passer malaccensis Dubois, Faun. III. Vert. Beige Ois. vol. i, p. 572 (1885) (Malacca). 

Dr. Hartert, as well as Stuart Baker, have pointed out that Indo-Malayan 
Peninsula Tree Sparrows must bear the name malaccensis Dubois ; but I had not 
received any from Forrest, and so had no occasion to examine into this question. 
It now becomes evident that this is one of the few cases where Yunnan has 
received an emigrant from the South-West, whereas the bulk of the species have 
come in from the North- West. Anderson, Bangs, Menegaux, and La Touche, 
when recording Yunnan examples, have all attributed them to m. montanm, 
not being properly acquainted with this extremely difficult " Formenkreis." 

Anderson obtained 3 examples Ponsee, May 1868, 4 examples Momien, July 
1868 ; Bangs & Phillips record 11 examples Mengtsz, April-Nov. ; Andrews & 
Heller collected 1 J ad. Yung-chang Fu, Jan. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 3 
examples ; La Touche collected 6 ad. and imm. (Jc??$ Mengtsz, July-Oct. 

607. Montifringilla nemoricola nemoricola (Hodgs.). 

Fringillauda nemoricola Hodgson, As. Res. vol. xix, p. 158 (1836) (Nepal). 

Forrest sent 6 $$ ! ! (sexed ?) Lichiang Range. 

608. Fringilla montifringilla Linn. 

Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus. Syst. Nat. edit, x, p. 179 (1758) (Europe). 
Forrest sent 9 <J<J, 5 ?? ad., 2 <?<? juv. 

609. Loxia curvirostra himalayensis Blyth. 

Loxia himalayensis Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiii. p. 952 (1844) (Xepal). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 <$ ad. Mengtsz, March 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 1 cj Mengtsz, March 1911 ; Forrest sent 6 <?<£, 5 $$ ad., 1 <J, 1 $ juv. 
Lichiang Range. 

610. Procarduelis nipalensis intensicolor Baker. 

Procarduelis nipalensis intensicolor Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C vol. xlv. p. 92 (1925) (Mekong-Salwin 

Forrest sent 2 ejej, 2 ?$ ad. Mekong-Salwin Divide (1 <J type), 2 ??, 4' $? 
Lichiang Range. 

611. Procarduelis rubescens saturatior Rothsch. 

Procarduelis mbeseene saturatior Rothschild, Butt. B.O.C. vol. xliii. p. 12 (1922) (LichiaiiL- Range). 
Forrest sent 2 (J<J Shweli-Salwin Divide, 3 c?c?. 5 ?? ad., 1 <J juv. Lichiang 

Novitates Zoolooicae XXXIII. 1926. 329 

612. Propyrrhula subhimachala intensior Rothsch. 

Propyrrhula subhimachala intensior Rothschild, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 12 (1922) (Lichiang Range). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 $ Lichiang Valley, April 1906, and 5 examples 
Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; Forrest sent 2 $$ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 2 $3 ad., 
2 c?c? jun., 1 o juv., 1 $ ad. Lichiang Range (1 rf type). 

613. Haematospiza sipahi (Hodgs.). 

Corythvs sipahi Hodgson, As. Res. vol. xix, p. 151 (1836) (Nepal). 

Hartert adopted Gnielin's name of indica for this bird ; but as the figure on 
which that name is founded shows a crest resembling that of a " Cardinal," 
he has now come round to the feeling shared by Stuart Baker and others that it 
is too doubtful and therefore sipahi Hodgs. should be used. In my article (Nov. 
Zool. vol. xxviii, 1921) on Forrest's first collection I followed Hartert and used 
indica Gmel. for the " Scarlet Finch," but in the fourth article (Nov. Zool. 
vol. xxxii, 1925) I have used Hodgson's name of sipahi. Forrest sent the following 
examples, 4 (J (J Shweli-Salwin Divide. In Forrest 1925 collection there are 
4 $S, 2 $$ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000-10,000 feet, June-Aug. 1925. Bill 
bone-brown, feet dark brown, iris brown. 

The 2 $$ appear to be greyer on the breast and more heavily marked, but 
they are worn summer birds, and my material all round of sipahi is too scanty to 
venture on separating a Chinese and an Indian race. 

614. Erythrina erythrina roseata (Hodgs.). 

Pyrrhulinota roseola Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1845, p. 36 (Nepal). 

Colonel Rippon collected 2 examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; Bangs & 
Phillips record 7 specimens Mengtsz, Feb. -April and Dec. ; Monsieur Pichon 
obtained 1 (J ; La Touche collected 3 <^cJ Milati, Dec. 1920 and Jan.-Feb. 1921, 
4 <$$ ad., 1 <J imm., 1 <J var. Mengtsz. Feb.-March 1921 ; Forrest sent 3 $<$, 
14 $$ ad., 1 ^ in <j> plumage, 3 £<$ juv. Lichiang Range, 1 <J Shweli-Salwin 

In the 1925 collection are 1 J hills N. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, Nov. 1925, 

1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000 feet; Aug. 1925. Colonel Rippon also collected 

2 examples Shayang-Yungchang Road, April 1902; 1 Chutung-Yangpi Road, 
April 1906. In the British Museum are 11 <J (J, 1 $ Yunnan, Styan coll. 

615. Erythrina vinacea (Verr.). 

CarpoJarus vinacea Verreaux. Nouv. Arch. Mns. Paris, vol. vi, Bull. p. 39 (1870) (Mts. of Chinese 

Colonel Rippon obtained 3 <$$ on the Chutung-Yungchang Road, April 
1902 and 1906 ; Forrest sent 1 (J, 5 $$ ad., 2 (J<J in $ plumage, Lichiang Range, 
1 <J, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide. Colonel. Rippon also 
collected 3 <JcJ Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902. 

616. Erythrina ripponi (Sharpe). 

Propasser ripponi Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xix, p. 11 (1902) (Gyi-dzin-Sh4n). 

Colonel Rippon obtained several examples Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; 
Forrest sent 13 $$, 8 ??, 2 ? ad., 1 cJ. 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range. 


617. Erythrina thura feminina (Ripp.). 

Pro/paster thura Jemininiis Rippon, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xix, p. 31 (1906) (Yangtze River). 

Colonel Rippon collected 3 examples (including the type) Yangtze Big Bend, 
March 1900, 1 Talifu, May 1906, 1 Shayang-Yungchang Road, April 1006 ; Forrest 
sent 17 (JcJ, 21 $$, S <$<$ juv. Lichiang Range. 

618. Erythrina ti'ifasciata (Verr.). 
( 'arpodaeus Irifasciatus Verreaux, Nouv. Arch. Mas. Paris, vol. vi. Hull. p. 39 (1870) (Mts. of I Ihinese 

Forrest sent 2 <$<$, 1 $ ad., 3 $$ juv. Lichiang Range. 

619. Erythrina pulcherrima davidiana (Milne-Edw.). 

Carpodaeus davidiamu Milne-Edwards. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. i, Hull. p. 19 (1864) (N.E. 

In my account of Forrest's second collection (Nov. Zool. vol. xxx, 1923), 
I recorded his birds as pulcherrima pulcherrima Moore, but on very carefully 
comparing them I have come to the conclusion they are nearest to p. davidiana, 
though not quite identical with northern birds. Now, however, another point 
has to be considered : Mr. Baker, in his new edition of the birds in the Fauna of 
India series, declares he finds it impossible to separate Dr. Sharpe's Propasser 
waltoni from p. davidianus : this to me is quite incredible. I have in the Tring 
Museum 3 <^c? anc l 1 9 of waltoni, and they are very much more different from 
p. davidianus than that bird is from p. pulcherrima. In the c?c? 0I both p. pul- 
cherrima and p. davidiana the chin, throat, and underside are a livid pink washed 
with silver, whereas in waltoni the breast and abdomen are bright rose-colour, 
and the chin and throat deep salmon-rose almost as bright as in erythrinus ; 
the $ of waltoni is much paler than either of the other forms. Dr. Hartert has 
declared that he cannot separate p. pulcherrima and p. davidiana, and I should 
feel inclined to agree with him, but undoubtedly specimens from China and the 
north have the outer edges of the inner secondaries much more whitish than in 
my 2 Sikkim birds ; and this is most prominent in the $$. Therefore for the 
present, while considering davidiana barely separable, I acknowledge three 
subspecies as follows : 

Erythrina pulcherrima pulcherrima (Moore). More Western Himalayas. 

Erythrina pulcherrima davidiana (Milne-Edw.). China and Mongolia. 

Erythrina pulcherrima waltoni (Sharpe). Gyangtse and probably whole of 

Colonel Rippon obtained 2 $$ examples Lichiang Valley, March 1906, 
1 Chutung-Yungchang Road, April 1906; Forrest sent 4 (J J, 7 $?, 1 ? Lichiang 

Mr. Kinnear remarks that " in the British Museum series the forms are not 
so easily distinguished as I make out." I can only say that I have recorded 
above what my series at Tring reveals. 

[On the Rose Finches hitherto included in the " Formenkreis " of rubicilla. 

Dr. Hartert in his Voy. paldark. Faun, has united as subspecies of rubicilla 

the following forms : rubicilla Giildenst. ; severtzovi Sharpe ; and rubicilloides 

Przev. In the Ibis for 1922 Mr. Kinnear in his paper on the birds collected on 


the first Mr. Everest expedition treats severtzovi and rubicilloides as two species, 
saying under severtzovi that, as the two occur in the same areas during the breeding 
season, they cannot be subspecies, but he does not mention the Caucasus rubicilla 
at all. In March 1926 appeared Mr. Baker's third volume, in which he treats 
rubicilloides as a subspecies of rubicilla and severtzovi as a distinct species. He 
remarks that in Ladak all the eggs actually taken have been rubicilloides, while 
from Tibet he had received eggs accompanied by the skins of both taken on 
the same date. In the Everest account Mr. Kinnear states that Colonels Bailey 
and Steen obtained nests of severtzovi near Gyantse, and Colonel Walton obtained 
specimens of rubicilloides in S. Tibet in December, April, and May, and said its 
distribution coincided with that of severtzovi. In March 1926 also Colonel and 
Mrs. Meinertzhagen published in the Bull. B.O.C. descriptions of two new forms 
of these Rose Finches, naming the South Tibetan bird lucifer and the Ladak and 
Gyantse bird lapersonnei. Now these Rose Finches fall into two sections : (1) 
with abnost unstriped upperside, rubicilla and severtzovi, and (2) with heavily 
striped upperside, rubicilloides, lucifer, and lapersonuei. Therefore Mr. Baker's 
treatment of the group is at once ruled out, for if we divide these 5 forms into 
two species rubicilla and severtzovi must form one species and the remaining three 
the second, not rubicilla and the three eastern birds one and severtzovi the other • 
this appears from the above quoted articles to be the view taken by Col. and Mrs. 
Meinertzhagen and Mr. Kinnear. I must here draw attention to the fact that 
most of the Rose Finches breed in June and July, so that the fact that Colonels 
Walton, Bailey, and Steen met with both severtzovi and lapersonnei in April 
and May near Gyantze is not a valid proof of their both breeding there, as one 
of them might well still be on migration ; so that there only remains of the 
older records that of Stuart Baker, who states that he received eggs and skins 
of both, taken on the same day. Now, since this statement of Mr. Baker's 
Mr. Hartert received a letter from Colonel Meinertzhagen dated August 22 1926 
with the following information : 

" I think Carpodacus rubicilla and rubicilloides must be treated as separate 
species, at any rate for the present. They both breed in Ladak, but never occur 
together. Rubicilla occurs only in very desolate places, and is in fact a desert 
bird. Rubicilloides always occurs where there is a certain amount of cultivation 
or bushes. Their relation to each other is much the same as Corvus corax laurencei 
and ruficollis in Palestine, and I expect when more is known it will be found the 
two rose-finches are but one species, as they are typical of geographical variation." 

I do not agree with Colonel Meinertzhagen that the fact that both breed in 
Ladak necessitates us treating them as two species for the present ; but I shall 
do so in this paper for the reason that before definitely uniting the two as one 
species with five or more subspecies, we must consider a new category of sub- 
species in addition to the one at present in use, viz. Geographical Subspecies, and 
that is the one in use in Botany, namely, " Standortsrasse oder Variation " = 
Topographical Subspecies. Therefore we have at present the following forms : 

Erythrina rubicilla rubicilla. 

Erythrina rubicilla severtzovi. 

Erythrina rubicilloides rubicilloides. 

Erythrina rubicilloides lucifer. 

Erythrina rubicilloides lapersonnei. 

If my view were adopted, however, they would all be subspecies of 


rubicilla, and while r. severtzovi and r. lapersonnei would be considered Topo- 
graphical Subspecies, the other three races would be ordinary Subspecies = 
Geographical Races.] 

620. Erythrina rubicilloides rubicilloides (Przev.). 

Carpodacus rubicilloides Przevalsky, Mongoli Stroma Tangut, vol. ii, p. 90, pi. xii (1876) (Kansu). 

The 2 $9 obtained by Forrest are darker above than Kansu $$ and therefore 
may prove to belong to a sixth rubicilla form, but until a series of both 3<S anc l 
$$ can be compared it would be unwise to describe them as new. Forrest sent 
2 $$ Lichiang Range. 

621. Erythrina edwardsi saturatus (Blanf.). 

Carpodacus saturatus Blanford, Journ. Ax. Soc. Bengal, vol. xli, pt. ii, p. 168, pi. viii (1872) (Tonglu). 

The adult o is much darker than any of my Chinese birds, and is even darker 
than any from Nepal and Sikkim I possess, so it may prove to be a third race 
when more Yunnan material comes to hand. 

Forrest sent 1 3 ad. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 ^ (in $ plumage) Lichiang 
Range ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ (in $ plumage) Tai-ping-pu, April 1917. 

622. Pyrrhula erythaca altera Ripp. 

Pyrrhula altera Rippon, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xix, p. 19 (19(16) (Shayang). 

Colonel Rippon collected 2 c5<3, 1 $ Shayang-Chutung Road, Jan. 1906, 
1 $ Yangpi-Chutung Road, March 1906 ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 <J ad. 
Lichiang Mts., Nov. 1916 ; Forrest sent 1 (J, 1 $ Mekong-Salwin Divide, 14 Jrf, 
17 $$ ad., 5 (J ^ juv. Lichiang Range. 

623. Pyrrhula nipalensis ricketti La Touche. 

Pyrrhula ricketti La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xvi, p. 21 (1905) (Mts. of N.W. Fokien). 

Forrest sent 1 (J, 1 $ Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 rftf, 2 $$ (1 <J and 1 $ have the sex reversed on 
label) Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000-11,000 feet, June-July 1925. 

624. Pyrrhoplectes epauletta (Hodgs.). 

Pyrrhula 1 epaiileita Hodgson, As. Res. vol. xix, p. 156 (1836) (X. and C. Nepaul). 

Forrest sent 2 33 Shweli-Salwin Divide. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 <J, 1 $ Shweli-Salwin Divide, 9,000-10,000 feet, 
Aug. 1925. 

625. Uragus sibiricus lepidus Dav. & Oust. 

Uragus lepidus David & Oustalet, Ois. Chine, p. 359, pi. xcviii (1877) (Tsinling Shenai). 
Forrest sent 1 $ Mekong Valley. 

626. Carduelis thibetanus (Hume). 

Chrysomilris thibetana Hume. Ibis, p. 107 (1872) (Borders of Sikkim and Thibet). 
Forrest sent 1 3 Lichiang Range. 


627. Carduelis ambiguus (Oust.). 

Chryaomitris ambiguus Oustalet, Bull. Mus. a" Hist. Nut. Paris, p. 186 (1896) Yunnan). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 5 $$, 4 $$ Lichiang, March 1906, 1 $ Chutung- 
Yungchang Road, April 1906, 1 Lichiang Valley, April 1906; Oustalet records 

1 $ Menning, May 1895, from the collections of Prince H. d'Orleans ; Bangs and 
Phillips record 10 examples Mengtsz, Jan. -March and Dec. under the genus 
Spinas ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 $<$ Yung-chang Fu, Jan. 1917 ; La Touche 
procured 5 <$£ Mengtsz, Sept.-Nov. 1920, 7 <$£> 8 ?? Milati, Dec. 1920 and Jan- 
March 1921, 1 <$ Loshuitang, Feb. 1921, 1 <J Lotukow, May 1921, 1 $ Yunnanfu, 
May 1921 ; Forrest sent 7 $<$, 1 ? Shweli Valley, 5 cJcJ Shweh-Salwin Divide, 
14 <?(?. 6 $$ ad., 1 $ juv. Lichiang Range, 1 <$ ad. Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are contained 3 $<$ hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, 
June 1925. Bill bone-grey, feet light brown, iris brown. 

Colonel Rippon also collected 4 (J (J, 3 $$ Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; 2 $<$. 

2 $$ Yangpi-Chutung Road, March-April 1902 ; 4 $$ Shayang-Chutung Road, 
April-May, 1902 ; 1 $ Yongchangpi Lenshwayi, May 1902 ; 1 <J Tungchang- 
Perpeas Road, Feb. 1902. 

[On the genus Eophona. 

The genus Eophona appears in literature for the first time in 1851 in The 
Birds of Asia, part iii, by John Gould, but he gives no description of the genus, 
or generic characters. He figures the two species personatus Temm. & Schleg., 
and melanura Gin., and as personatus is pi. 18 and melanura pi. 19 we must accept 
personatus as the type. From 1851 to 1896 there was no question as to the two 
birds, and in the various publications concerning them the only point was that 
some authors treated of them under Coccothraustes, while others emrjloyed Gould's 
Eophona. In 1903 Dr. E. Hartert in his Vogel der paldarktischeit Fauna gave 
the following diagnosis of the genus Eophona : " Very close to the genus Cocco- 
thraustes, the bill being almost similarly constructed, but the ends of the inner 
primaries normal, the tail much longer and deeply forked, and the sexes more 

In 1896 Hartert separated the large heavy-billed East Siberian breeding 
race of personatus under the name of personatus magnirostris (Bull. B.O.C. vol. v, 
p. xxxviii, Amur Bay) ; in 1903, in his above-mentioned book, he further separated 
the East Siberian breeding race of melanura Gm. as melanura migratoria (vol. i, 
p. 59, Sidemi). Since then J. H. Riley has separated an Eophona melanura 
sowerbyi (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. vol. xxxviii, p. 163, 1915, Chang Kow Hsien), 
and gives as distinguishing characters from m. melanura the much paler grey 
colour of the body, less intense black of wings, tail, and head and larger size 
(wing 107 as against 102 $$ and 104 against 101 $$), the bill being intermediate 
between melanura and migratoria. In 1919 Thomas Edward Penard (Proc. 
New Engl. Zool. Club, vol. vii, p. 22) points out that the name Eophona melanura 
melanura, based on Gmelin's Loxia melanura of 1789, is invalidated by P. L. S. 
Muller's Loxia melanura of 1776, and that therefore the name of the species 
automatically became Eophona migratoria migratoria Hart., and Gmelin's 
melanura required a new name ; he therefore erected for Eophona melanura 
melanura (Gm.) the name Eophona 'migratoria pulla nom. nov. Finally, in 1923, 
La Touche separated the Yunnan bird as Eophona migratoria harterti (Bull. 


33-t Xmyitatks Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 150, Mengtz and Milati). He gave as difference the smaller 
bill and darker upper-surface. Thus at present we have the following status of 
the genus Eophona, its species and subspecies : 

Eophona personata personata (Temm. & Schleg.). 

E. personata magnirostris Hart. 

Eophona migratoria migratoria Hart. 

E. migratoria sowerbyi Riley. 

E. migratoria harterti La Touche. 

E. migratoria pulla Pen. 

Of the two personata races nothing is to be said ; they are well differentiated, 
and there are no complications. But in regard to the four races separated of 
migratoria matters are less easy to define. First of all we will consider Riley's 
sowerbyi ; he gives the wing of his $ as 107-5, and of his $ 104. Among my 
cJcJ are 2 of m. pulla with wings 108 from Shanghai, one of which is pale above 
and below, and has the lower fourth of the rump white, while the other is dark 
above and below, and has the rump uniform grey ; then I have a £ from Hupeh, 
with a wing measure of 107-5, and this bird is very dark all over. The culmen 
of the 2 Shanghai $3 is 23-5 and 24, while that of the Hupeh bird is 22-5 ; I 
therefore think it very doubtful if this form can be separated from E. m. pulla ; 
only very large fresh series of breeding birds from Hupeh and the rest of the 
ranges of both forms can finally settle the question. In regard to La Touche's 
E. m. harterti the case is analogous ; the size of the bill in my 2 Yunnan birds is 
quite similar to the type of m. migratoria, viz. culmen type of migratoria and 4 
other o $ I 8 ' 5 - 20, 21, 21-5 ; and the $ and § from Yunnan 21-5, 21-5. In colour 
the 2 Yunnan birds are slightly darker, but here again series and breeding series 
are required. I shall for the present treat all the records for Yunnan under the 
heading of Eophona migratoria harterti La Touche, and await further fresh 

628. Eophona migratoria harterti La Touche. 

Eophona migratoria harterti La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 150 (1923) (Mengtsz and Milati). 

Captain Wingate got 1 $ ad. E. Yunnan, Feb. 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips record 
5 specimens Linan Fu, Feb. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 1 $ Yung-chang Fu, 
Jan. 1917 ; Forrest collected 1 <J, 1 $ ad., 1 <J juv. Tengyueh District ; M. & Mine. 
Comby procured an Eophona recorded by Menegaux & Didier under the name 
dejeani Oust. ! 

Mr. Berlioz of the Paris Museum tells me it is this species 1 $ imm. Yunnan, 
July 1910. 

629. Perissospiza icteroides affinis (Blyth). 

Hespirophona affinis Blyth, Joiini. As. Sue. Bengal, vol. xxiv. p. IT'.I (1855) (Sikkiru). 

Forrest sent 11 <J(J, 3 $$ Lichiang Range ; Oustalet records this bird under 
the genus Pycnorhamphus among Prince H. d'Orleans' collections. 

630. Mycerobas camipes camipes (Hodgs.). 

Coccothraustes camipes Hodgson, .4s. Res. vol. xix. p. 151 (1836) (Nepal). 

Among the birds from Sikkim are a large number with very small bills ; in 
fact, there is as much variation in the size of the bill in camipes as between Eophona 

Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 335 

personata personata (Temrn. & Schleg.) and E. personala magnirostris Hart., but 
hitherto it has been impossible to tie down those with small or large bills to any 
given locality ; and so we cannot separate them into subspecies as yet. 

Colonel Rippon collected 1 $ example at Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; 
Forrest sent 1 <J, 8 $? ad., 2 <$£ juv., 4 $$, 2 ?$ juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide. 

631. Mycerobas melanozanthus (Hodgs.). 

CoccothrauMes melanozanthus Hodgson, As. Res. vol. xix, p. 150 (1836) (Himalayas). 

Forrest sent 5 $£, 2 $$ ad., 1 <J juv. Lichiang Range, 1 $ juv. Tengyueh 

In the 1925 collection is 1 £ ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 11,000 feet, June 1925. 

632. Munia atricapilla rabronigra Hodgs. 

Munia mbronigra Hodgson, As. Res. vol. xix, p. 153 (1836) (Nepal). 

In my former articles I recorded this bird as atricapilla atricapilla, and I am 
not yet certain if an examination of very large material may not prove a. atricapilla 
and a. mbronigra. to be inseparable. Meanwhile I shall follow Mr. Baker and 
keep them separate. 

Anderson records 5 examples Muangla, July 1868 ; Forrest sent 6 ($<$ 
Shweli Valley, 2 <J<J Shweli-Salwin Divide. In the 1925 collection is 1 $ Shweli- 
Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, Aug. 1925. 

633. Munia punctulata topela Swinh. 

Munia topela Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 380 (1863) (Amoy). 

In my article on Forrest's first collection I inadvertently stated Swinhoe's 
type locality to be Formosa, while it really is Amoy. Ingram records 2 (Jc?> 1 ? 
ad., 1 $ juv. Mengtsz, April-May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerated 14 specimens 
Mengtsz, Jan. -Nov. Loukouchai, Dec. ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ imm. 
Namting River, Feb. 1917 ; Anderson obtained 1 <J Momien, June 1808 ; 
La Touche procured 15 examples Mengtsz, Aug.-Oct. 1920 ; Forrest sent 
8 (J (J ad., 1 <J juv. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 2 <$<$ juv. Nantien Valley, 4 £<$, 
14 $$, 5 ? ad., 4 cJcJ, 1 $ juv. Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 $, 1 $ (sexed <J) ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 10,000 
feet, Aug. 1925, 1 <$ ad. hills round Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, July 1925. 

634. Munia striata subsquamicollis (Baker). 

Uroloncha striata subsquamicollis Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlv, p. 59 (1925) (Bankasoor). 

As Oustalet, Menegaux & Didier, and La Touche had identified their birds 
as acvticauda I was about to do so also, but as Mr. Baker has come to the con- 
clusion that Yunnan birds are his subsquamicollis I must also record them under 
that name till I can get a series of fresh Yunnan examples to compare for myself. 

Oustalet records this bird among those collected by Prince H. d'Orleans ; 
Monsieur Pichon sent 1 example ; La Touche collected 2 <JcJ. 1 9 Hokow, March 

33G Xovitates Zoological XXXIII. 1926. 

635. Amandava ainandava amandava (Linn.). 

Fringilla amandava Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. xii. vol. i. p. 319 (1766) (Calcutta). 

When recording the following form in my former articles I used the genus 
Sporaeginthiis in the belief that Amandava was first erected by Reichenbach in 
1861, but Stuart Baker points out that Blyth was its real author in 1836, so 
that it antedates Sporaeginthiis (of L850) by 14 years. 

Captain Wingate obtained an example S.W. Yunnan, and a second Mong- 
kou, both April 1899. 

636. Amandava amandava flavidiventris (Wall.) 

Estrelda flavidiventris Wallace, Proc. Zoo}. Soc. London. 1863. p. 495 (Timor and Flores). 

Stuart Baker declares that as there are no connecting links known between 
this and the previous form he considers them two distinct species ; but till I get 
evidence that their breeding ranges overlap I prefer to treat them as two sub- 
species of amandava . 

Ingram records 1 <J ad. Mengtsz, July 1910 ; Anderson obtained 1 example 
Muangla, May 1868, 2 (JcJMomien, June-July 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips ennumerate 
10 specimens Mengtsz, March-July, Loukouchai June ; La Touche says a flock 
was seen at Milati Sept. 1920 ; Forrest sent 1 q Tengyueh District, 1 $ Tab. 

637. Ploceus manyar peguensis Baker. 

Ploceus manyar peguensis Stuart Baker, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlv, p. 58 (1925) (Pegu). 

Stuart Baker in his original description says this bird occurs in Yunnan. 
There is no example in the British Museum labelled Yunnan. 

638. Oriolus chinensis indicus Jerd. 

Oriolus indicus Jerdon, ///. Ind. Orn. pi. xv (1847) (Malabar). 

Ingram records 1 <J, 1 ? Mengtsz, April-May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
enumerate 7 examples Mengtsz, April-May and Sept.-Oct. ; La Touche collected 
1 J, 2 $? ad., 1,J, 2 $$ juv. Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920 and April-May 1921. 

639. Oriolus chinensis tenuirostris Blyth. 

Oriolus temarostris Blyth. Journ. As. Soc. Bi ngal, vol. xv. p. 48 (1846) (Central India). 

Captain Wingate obtained 1 example near Yunnan City, East Yunnan, Jan. 
1899 ; Colonel Rippon collected 2 specimens Lichiang Valley, April 1906 ; 
Andrews & Heller procured 1 example (^ in $ plumage) Yung-chang, Jan. 1917 ; 
Forrest sent 1 (J ad. Shweli-Salwin Divide, 1 $ juv. T'ong Shan, 3 cjcj, 1 ? ad. 
Tengyueh District, 4 (J (J, 2 $$ ad., 7 <$$ juv., 1 pull. Lichiang Range. In the 
1925 collection is 1 $ ad. Tengyueh Valley, 7,000 feet, Dec. 1925. Bill flesh- 
brown, feet black, iris crimson. 

640. Oriolus traillii (Vig.). 

Pastor traillii Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1S3, p. 175 (Darjeeling). 

Oustalet records the Maroon Oriole among Prince H. d' Orleans' collections ; 
Forrest sent 1 (J juv. Lichiang Range, 1 $ Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection is 1 cJ juv. hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 9,000 feet, 
Oct. 1925. 


641. Chibia hottentotta hottentotta (Linn.). 

Corpus hottentottus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, p. 155 (1766) (Sikkim). 

Ingram records 2 ^o Mengtsz, July 1910 ; Captain Wingate obtained 
1 ? ad. Mansee, Ajiril 1899 ; Andrews & Heller collected 1 <J ad. Chang-lung, 
March 1917 ; La Touche collected 1 <J ad. Mengtsz, April 1921 ; Forrest sent 
1 (J Yangtze Valley, 2 $<$ Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection are 2^,1 $ hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, Oct. 
1925, 1 ? Shweli-Salwin Divide, 7,000 feet, July 1925. 

642. Chibia hottentotta brevirostris Cab. & Heine. 

Chibia brevirostris Cabanis and Heine. Mils, Hein. vol. i, p. 112 (1850) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 3 specimens Mengtsz, Sept. -Oct. ; La Touche col- 
lected 1 <$ ad., 4 cJcJ, 1 ? juv. Mengtsz, Oct. 1920. 

643. Chaptia aenea aenea (Vieill.). 

Dicurus aeneus Vieillot, Noitv. Did. d'Hist. Nat. vol. ix, p. 586 (1917) (Bengal). 

Anderson collected 1 example Ponsee, March 1868 ; Forrest sent 2 <$<$, 2 $$, 
1 ? Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 coUection are 4 <J<J, 2 $? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 8,000 feet, 
Sept. 1925. 

644. Bhi'inga remifer tectirostris Hodgs. 

Bhringa tectirostris Hodgson, Ind. Rev. vol. i, p. 325 (1837) (E. Nepal). 

Anderson collected 1 <J Ponsee, April 1868 ; Captain Wingate obtained 1 ? 
ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Forrest sent 1 <£ Tengyueh District. 

645". Dicrurus macrocercus cathoecus Swinh. 

Dicrurus cathoecus Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, p. 377 (China). 

Anderson collected 1 <J Sanda, 1 $ Muangla, May 1868 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 21 examples Mengtsz, April-Oct. ; Monsieur Pichon sent 2 specimens ; 
La Touche collected 2 <$<$, 2 $$ ad., 6 <?(??? juv. Mengtsz, July-Dec. 1920 and 
April 1921 ; Forrest sent 2 <$<$, 1 ¥ ad., 1 <$, 1 $, 2 ? juv. Tengyueh District ; 
Captain Wingate collected 1 <$ ad. Ching-tung, March 1899. 

In the 1925 collection are 1 (J, 1 $ ad. hills S. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, May 
1925, 1 $ juv. hills round Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, Oct. 1925. 

646. Dicrurus leucophaeus nigrescens Oates. 

Dicrurus nigrescens Oates, Hume's Nests and Eggs I ml. Bird*. 2nd edit. vol. i, p. 208 (1889) (Rangoon). 

Ingram records 4 £$ Mengtsz, May-June 1910 ; Captain Wingate secured 
1 ^ ad. Ching-tung, March 1899 ; Bangs & Phillips record 12 examples Mengtsz, 
Jan.-March, Shi-ping, Feb.-March ; Andrews & Heller collected 3 3d «!• 
Yung-Chang and Chang-lung, Jan. & March 1917 ; La Touche secured 5 <J<J, 4 $? 
Mengtsz, Oct.-March, 1 $ Hokow, Jan. 1921 ; Forrest sent 1 <$ Tali Valley, 
4 cS<S, 1 $ Shweli Valley, 2 <JcJ, 2 $$, 1 ? Lichiang Range, 3 S<3, 2 $9, 1 ? Tengyueh 
District. In the 1925 collection there are 1 <J, 1 $ hills S. of Tengyueh, 5,000- 
7,000 feet, May-June 1925, 1 $ Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Oct. 1925. 


647. Dicrarus leucophaeus hopwoodi Baker. 

Dicrnrus leucophaeug hopwoodi Stuart Baker. Nor. Zool. vol. xxv. p. 294 (1918) (Dacca). 

Anderson records under the name of Buchanga longicaitdata Hay, 2 $$ 
Muangla and 2 <$<$ Momien, May 1868. 

648. Dicrurus leucogenys leucogenys (Wald.). 

Buchanga leucogenys Walden. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), v, p. 219 (1870) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 4 examples Mengtsz, Oct. 1910 ; Uchida & Kuroda 
enumerate 1 <J, 1 9 Mengtsz, Oct. ; La Touche collected 1 <? ad., 3 <J<J, 1 ?imm. 
Mengtsz, Sept.-Oct. 1920. 

649. Stumia sinensis (Gmel.). 

Oridlus sinensis Gmelin. Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 394, Xo. 50 (1788) (China). 

La Touche collected 2 So Mengtsz, July- Aug. 1920, 1 $ Hokow, April 1921 ; 
M. & Madame Comby obtained 1 <J. 

Apparently Stuart Baker rejects the name si?iensis Gmel. because of 
chinensis Linn, (both described in the genus Oriolus), but although they have 
undoubtedly the same meaning I do not consider them homonyms and therefore 
retain sinensis. 

650. Sturnia sericea (Gmel.). 

Sturnus sericeus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 805 (1788) (China). 

Bangs & Phillips record 1 $ Linan Fu, Feb. 1911 ; Uchida & Kuroda enu- 
merate 1 <J Linan Fu, Feb. 1911. 

651. Sturnia malabarica malabarica (Gmei.). 

Tardus malal.urirns Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 816 (1789) (Malabar). 

Anderson collected 2 $<$ Muangla, May 1868 ; Captain Wingate obtained 
1 c?> 1 9 ad. Wei-yuan, March 1899, 1 <J, 1 $ ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Mon- 
sieur Pichon sent 1 specimen Salwin Valley. 

652. Sturnia malabarica nemoricola Jerd. 

Sturnia nemoricola Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 22 (Thayetmyo). 

Ingram records 3 $<$ Mengtsz, April-June 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 
12 examples Mengtsz, April-Oct. 1910 ; Andrews & Heller collected 2 $? 
Namting and Chang-lung Feb.-March 1917 ; Forrest sent 1 9 Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 1 9 Tali Valley, 2 J 6*, 1 9 Lichiang Range. 

653. Acridotheres tristis tristis (Linn.). 

Paradisea tristis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, p. 167 (1766) (Philippines ! ! loc. emend. Calcutta). 

Anderson obtained 1 example Manwyne, May 1868 ; Captain Wingate col- 
lected 1 $ ad. Mong-sen, March 1899 ; Andrews & Heller procured 1 $, 1 9 ad. 
Shih-tien, Jan. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 2 specimens ; Forrest collected 1 9 
Tengyueh District, 1 ? Lichiang Range. 


654. Acridotheres grandis grandis Moore. 

Acridotheres grandis Moore in Horsfield and Moore's Cat. Birds E. Ind. Co.'s Mus. vol. ii, p. 537 (1856) 
(Sumatra Raffles ! ! err.). 

Anderson records 2 examples Muangla, May 1S68 ; Forrest sent 1 <J, 1 $, 1 ? 
Tengyueh District. 

In the 1925 collection is 1 ? hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, May 1925. 
Bill and feet orange ; iris pale yellow. 

655. Acridotheres cristatellus cristatellus (Gmel.). 

Gracula. cristatella Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i. p. 397, Xo. 5 (1788) (China). 

Ingram records 1 £ Mengtsz, May 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips enumerate 23 
examples Mengtsz, Jan. -Dec. ; Andrews & Heller obtained 7 $$, ?? ad. Malipa, 
Yoa-kuan, and Hsiao, Jan. -March 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 3 examples. 

La Touche collected 5 examples Mengtsz Aug. and Nov. 1920 and March 
1921 ; Forrest sent 1 ? Lichiang Range, 1 (J, 1 ? Shweli Valley. 

In the 1925 collection are 3 cJ<J, 2 $$ Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Sept. and 
Dec. 1925, 1 <J hills N.W. of Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, May 1925. M. & Mme. 
Comby obtained 1 example. 

656. Acridotheres albocinctus Godw.-Aust. & Wald. 

Acridotheres albocinctus Godwin-Austen & Walden, Ibis, 1875, p. 251 (Manipur). 

Andrews & Heller collected 1 $ ad. Malipa, March 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon 
sent 3 examples ; Forrest obtained 1 ? Lichiang Range. 

In the 1925 collection are 2 $$, 4 $? Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, Dec. 1925. 

657. Gracupica nigricollis (Payk.). 

Gracula nigricollis Paykull, Nov. Ada Stockh. vol. xxviii, p. 291, pi. ix (1766) (China). 

Anderson obtained 1 $ Tsitkow, Feb. 1875, 1 example Manwyne, May 1868, 
1 cj Muangla, May 1868, 1 <J Momien, June 1868 ; Captain Wingate collected 

1 $ ad. S.W. Yunnan, April 1899 ; Andrews & Heller secured 2 cJcJ, 1 $ ad. 
Meng-ting, Feb. 1917 ; Monsieur Pichon sent 2 examples ; Forrest collected 

2 (J<J, 2 ? Tengyueh Valley. 

658. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Linn.). 

Upupa pyrrhocorax lArmaeiw, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 118 (1758) (England). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 1 example Lichiang Valley, April 1906 (this bird is 
wrongly recorded as Pyrrhocorax graculus (Linn.) by Ingram) ; Forrest sent 

3 <$ <?, 5 $? ad., 1 <J, 1 $, 1 ? juv. Lichiang Range. 

659. Garrulus glandarius sinensis Swinh. 

Garrulus sinensis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Sue. London. 1863, p. 304 (Canton to Ningpo). 

Colonel Rippon obtained 5 examples at Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; 
Andrews & Heller secured 1 ^ ad. Lichiang Range, Nov. 1916 ; Monsieur Pichon 

340 Novitates Zoologicae XXXIII. 1926. 

sent 1 specimen ; Forrest sent 1 $ Mekong Valley, 1 q Mekong-Salwin Divide, 
5 <J<J, 4 $$ 1 ? Lichiang Range. 

660. Garrulus leucotis leucotis Hume. 

Garrulus leucotis Hume. Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 1874. p. 106 (Kaukaryit). 
Andrews & Heller collected 1 <J ad. Malipa, March 1917. 

661. Nucifraga caryocatactes yunnanensis Ingr. 

Nucifraga yunnanensis, [ngram, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xxv, p. S6 (191D) (Mis. of Vunnnn). 

Colonel Rippon obtained several examples Talifu Valley, Feb. and May 
1906 ; and Gyi-dzin-Shan, April 1902 ; 1 Yangtze Big Bend, March 1906 ; 
Andrews & Heller procured 1 <J ad. Meng-ting, Feb. 1917 ; Forrest collected 
2 cJcJ, 2 $$ Shweli Valley, 1 J ShweU-Salwin Divide, 2 <J<J, 4 ?$ ad., 1 <$ juv. 
Mekong-Salwin Divide, 11 <J<J, 13 ?$, 2 ? ad., 2 ? juv. Lichiang Range. 

In the 1925 collection is 1 <J N. of Tengyueh, 6,000 feet, April 1925. 

662. Urocissa erythrorhyncha erythrorhyncha (Bodd.). 

Corvus erythrorhynchus Boddaert, Table PI. Enl. D'Aub. p. 38 (1783) (China). 
Corvus erythrorhynchus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 372 (1788) (China). 
Coradas melanocephalus Latham. 1ml. Orn. vol. i, p. 170 (1790) (China). 

Hartert has already pointed out (Suppl. I, Vog. paldark. Fauna, p. 14 (P. 
2027)) that the first author of Urocissa erythrorhyncha was Boddaert, and that his 
and Gmelin's name were both founded on Daubenton's plate 622, as was Latham's 
Red-billed Jay. They are therefore one and the same, and Stuart Baker is 
quite wrong when he says that melanocephalus Latham must be used for this 
bird, as erythrorhynchus Gmel. is preoccupied by erythrorhynchue Bodd. 

Ingram records 3 £<$, 2 $$ Mengtsz, May-June, 1910 ; Bangs & Phillips 
record 10 specimens Mengtsz, Feb. -April and Oct. -Dec. ; Andrews & Heller 
obtained 4 c?c?¥? Hui-yao and Lichiang Range, Nov. 1916 and May 1917; 
La Touche collected 1 ? juv. Posi, Sept. 1920, 1 ? ad. Yuanchiang, Oct. 1920, 
1 $ ad. Mengtsz, Jan. 1921 ; Forrest sent 5 (J^, 3 $$, 1 ? ad., 5 ? juv. Lichiang 
Range, 2 $$ Shweli Valley,2 £<$ ad. Mekong Valley, 1 <J, 1 $ ad. Shweli-Salwin 
Divide, 1 <J juv. Mekong-Salwin Divide, 1 cj, 1 $ Yangtze Valley, 1 J Tengyueh 
Valley. The 1925 collection contains 1 cj, 2 ?$ Tengyueh Valley, 6,000 feet, June 
and Sept. 1925. 

663. Urocissa erythrorhycha magnirostris (Blyth). 
Psilorhinus magnirostris Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv. p. 27 (1846) (Mt. Ya Ma Ding). 

Anderson collected 1 example Hotha Valley, Aug. 1868. 

664. Urocissa erythrorhyncha occipitalis (Blyth). 

Psilorhinus occipitalis Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv. p. 27 (1846) (X.W.