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Full text of "Novitates Zoologicae"

31. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 

Vol. XXXIV, 1927-28. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



?3 S H 3ouvnal of Zooloo^ 

?5 CO 

^ X /iV CONNECTION WITH THE TRTNG MUSEUM. 

■ZL O 






EDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dr. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXIV, 1927-28; 



(WITH ELEVEN PLATES.) 



Issued at the Zoological Museum, Trinq, 



nUNTEU By HA/.ELL, WATSON Sc VINEY, Ld., I.ONPON ANP AVLESUUHV, 

J927-1928 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXIV (1927-28) 



GENERAL SUBJECTS 

PAGES 

1. A rush tliroiigh Tiuiisia, Algeria, and Marocco ...... 337 — 352 

AVES. 

1. Types of Birds in tlie Tring Museum. Ernst Habtert .... 1 — 38 

2. Supplement to the Avifauna of Yunnan (Novitates Zoologicae, XXXIII, 

pp. 189—343). Lord Rothschild 39—45 

3. On some birds from the Muluya Valley, East Marocco. Ernst Hartert 46 — 49 

4. Nomina Mutanda. Albert Collin and Ernst Hartert . . . 50 — 52 

5. Some observations on a pair of Sarus Cranes at Tring. Ernst H.^rtert 

and F. Young 75—76 

6. Some Corrections. Ernst Hartert ....... 129 — 131 

7. Types of birds in the Tring Museum. C. Additional and overlooked Types. 

Ernst Hartert 189—230 

8. Notes on the Genus Cyornis Blyth. H. C. Robinson and N. B. Kinnear . 231 — 261 

9. Die Ergebnisse meiner dritten Reise nach den Balearen. A. v. Jordans . 262 — 336 

10. A rush through Tunisia, Algeria, and Marocco and collecting in the Maroccan 

Atlas, in 1927. (Plates VIII and IX.) Ernst Hartert . . . 337—371 

11. Bird Notes. G. M. Mathews 372—373 

12. A Correction. Ernst Hartert ........ 395 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

1. New Geometridae. L. B. Prout ........ 53 — 70 

2. Descriptions of some new Hesperiidae from the Australian region in the Tring 

Museum. W. H. Evans ......... 71 — 74 

3. On some Lepidoptera of special interest with remarks on Morphology and 

Nomenclature. (Plates 1 — III.) Karl Jordan ..... 132 — 146 

4. On Plates IV and V, rej^resenting Oriental Epiplemidae. Karl Jordan . 147 — 150 

5. On the Latreillei-Group of Eastern Papilios. (Plates VI and VII.) Karl 

Jordan 159—172 

6. Notes on lolaus, Argiolaus and related genera, with descriptions of new 

species, subspecies and a new genus (Lep. Lycacnidae). (Plates X and XI.) 

N. D. Riley 374—394 



COLEOPTERA 

PAGES 

1. Further records of Anthribiclae from French Iiulo-Cluna, witli tlie addition 

of the descriptions of two new species from other countries. Kari, 

JORDAM ............ 77 — 94 

2. Anthribidae from t!ie JIalay Peninsida. Kari, Jordan .... 95 — 104 

3. New Anthribidae from the Old World. Karl Jord.an .... 105 — 128 

i. Some Anthribidae collected by R. E. Turner in South Africa. Karl 

Jordan 151 — 158 

SIPHONAPTERA 

1. Siphonaptera collected in the Dolomites. Karl Jordan .... 17.3 — 177 

2. Siphonaptera collected during a visit to the Eastern United States of North 

America in 1927. K.arl Jord.an ....... 178 — 188 



INDEX 397—414 



PLATES IN VOLUME XXXIV. 

PLATES I— III. Structure of Lepidoptera. 

PLATES IV— V. Types of Epiplemidae. 

PLATE VI. Structure of Papilios. 

PLATE VII. Papilios. 

PLATES VIII — IX. Views from the Great Atlas, Marocco, and aspects of the rocks on 
which Comatibis eremita nests near El-Hajeb, Marocco. 

PLATES X— XI. lolaus and Argiolaus. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



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/<^^- .. ,. . ^^\ 

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o 



H Journal of Zoology. 



KDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, P.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dr. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXIV. 



No. 1. 

Pages 1—52. 

Issued August 10th, 1927, at the Zuolooical Museum, Tmno. 



PKINTED BY HAZBLL, WATSON & VINEY, Ld., IXJNDON AND AYLKSBDUY. 

1927. 



Vol. XXXIV. 

NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 

IDITEO BT 

LORD BOTHSCHILS, EBNST HAHTERT. and KARL JORDAH. 



CONTEXTS OF NO. I. 



r^an 



1. TYPES OF BIRDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM . Ernst llarten 1-38 

2. SUPPLEMENT TO THE AVIFAUNA OF YUNNAN 

(NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE, XXXIII, pp. 189-343) Lord Rothschild 39-45 

3. ON SOME BIRDS FROM THE MULUYA VALLEY, 

EAST MAROCCO Ernst llartert 46-49 

4. NOMINA MUTANDA Albert CoUin and 60-62 

Ernst llartert 



Si! LU 

C5 < 

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1 DC 

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a. 




NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 



VoL XXXIV. AUGUST 1927. No. 1. 

TYPES OF BIRDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM. 

By ERNST HARTERT, Ph.D. 
B. Types in the General Collection. VIII. 

Continued from Novitates Zoologicae, vol. xxiii, 1926, p. 357. See also Novitates 
ZOOLOGICAE, 1918, pp. 4-B3 ; 1919, pp. 124-178 ; 1920, pp. 425-505 ; 1922, pp. 365-412 ; 1924, 
pp. 112-134 ; 1925, pp. 138-157, 259-276 ; 1926, pp. 344-357. 

GOLUMBAE. 

1539. Treron calva poensis Hart. & Goods. = Treron calva poensis. 

Treron calva poensis Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool, 1918, p. 350 (Island of Fernando Po, 5 examined). 
Type : Adult (marked 5, but probably ^J), Banterbare, Fernando Po, 
12. ii. 1904. E. Seimund coll. 

1540. Treron calva ansorgei Hart. & Goods. = Treron calva ansorgei. 

Treron calva ansorgei Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool. 1918, p. 352 (Benguella, Mossamedes). 

Tyjse : (J ad. Huilla, Mossamedes, 21 .ii. 1906. W. J. Ansorge coll. No. 298 
(16 examined). 

1541. Treron calva brevicera Hart. & Goods. = Treron calva brevicera. 

Treron calva brevicera Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool. 1918, p. 353 (Kilimanjaro, Escarpment, Atlii 
River, Kikuyu, Machakos). 

Type : ^ ad., Moschi, foot of Kilimanjaro, 1.3.iv.l91G. Angus Buchanan 
coll. 

t 1542. Vinago waalia cinereiceps Neum.= Vinago waalia. 

Vinago waalia cinereiceps Neumann, Joiirn.f. Oni. 19(14, p. 341 (" Am mittleren Gclo "). 

Type: (J Gelo River, not far from Lake Tata, Jamboland, 1 7. v. 1901. 
Oscar Neumann coll. No. 1216. 

1543. Treron curvirostra hainana Hart. & Goods. = Treron curvirosira hainana. 

Treron curvirosira hainana Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool. 1918, p. 356 (Hainan). 

Type: ^ ad., Mt. Wuchi, Hainan, 5.iv.l903. Katsumata coll., 11 males 
and 5 females examined. 

1544. Osmotreron wallacei paUidior Hart. = Treron pompadora palUdior. 

Osmolreron wallacei paUidior Hartert, Nov. Zool. iii, p. 178 (189G — Djampea and Kalao). 

Type : ^ ad., Djampea Island, south of Salcyer and Celebes, December 
1895. " Alfred Everett coll. 

1 1 



2 XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1545. Osmotreron everetti R. = Treron pompadom everetti. 

Osmolreron everetti Rothschild, Xov. Zool. i, p. 41 (1894 — Sulu Islands, type Bongao). 
Type : cj ^d- Bongao Island, July 1893. Alfred Everett coll. 

1546. Treron pompadora goodsoni sultsji. nov. 

Easih' separable from T. p. iciiUacei by its paler cok)ratioii on the upperside, 
and in that respect nearest to T. p. paUidior, from which it differs in having a less 
high bill, the grey on the head not extended so far back, the throat being 3cllowish, 
not pale grey, and the underside is more greenish. 

Type: c? ad., Tomia, Tukang Besi Islands, S.E. of Celebes, 24..\ii. 1901. 
Heinrich Kiihn coll. No. 4337. 

" Iris dull yellowish brown or dark burnt sienna red. Feet dark red. Bill 
pale yeUow, base greenish." Named after Arthur Goodson, who assisted me 
a good deal m my studies on jjigeons. 

In my article on the birds of the Tukang Besi Islands in Nov. Zool. 1903, 
the only information on the bu-ds of that group that I am aware of, I called these 
pigeons " Treron griseicauda wallacei," but that was not quite correct. This 
adds another to the specialised forms of the Tukang Besi group ; the others are : 
Otus vianadensis kalidupae, Tany(jnathus meyalorhynchus viridipennis, Dicaeum 
kilhni, Cinnyris iiifrenata, Zosterops flavissima, Oriolus chinensis oscillans, and 
Hypotaenidia lorquata kuehni. 

As the males of T. p. goodsoni are moulting or worn I cannot give 
measurements. We had it from Tomia, Kalidupa, Binongka, and Wantjee 
Islands. 

[Except by Goodson and myseK very little has so far been done to group 
the various green pigeons of this group in a natural way. One is tempted to 
unite the curviroslra and pompadora forms as subspecies of one species, as the 
character of the obvious bare " cere " between the hard rhamphotheca and the 
feathering on the forehead is bridged over by forms with a very short " cere " 
to those with a very long cere ; thus this character might as well be subspecific, 
but there are vast areas where forms of both groujjs occur together : T. curvi- 
roslra nipalensis and T. pompadora phayrei in India, etc., T. curviroslra curvi- 
roslra (or near subspecies), and T. pompadora axillaris hi the PhiUppines. In 
the various forms of T. pompadora the various colorations of the under tail- 
coverts, head, and breast are clearly connected and only subspecific characters. 
The generic separation of Treron and Osmotreron cannot, however, be possibly 
admitted.] 

[I now recognise the following forms of Treron pompadora : 

Treron pompadora pompadora (Gni.) 1789. Ce3ion. 

Treron pompadora chloroptera Blyth, 1845. Nicobars. 

Treron pompadora andamanicaHichiaond, 1903. Andamans. (A somewhat 
poor form ; the supposed smaller size is by no means constant, the colour is not 
darker, but the green more yellowish, except in one specimen from Port Blaii', 
also on South Andaman, whence the tyjie came.) 

Treron pompadora axillaris Bp. 1854. Philippine Island.s. 

Treron pompadora everetti (R.) 1894. Sulu Islands (Bongao typical locality). 

Treron pompadora affinis (Jerd.) 1840. Indian Peninsula. (There is no 
reason to reject the name affinis of 1840, because in 1845 the same author described 
the male as rnalaharica !) 



NoviTATES ZooLoaiCAE XXXIV. 1927. 3 

Treroii po)iipadora (jriseicaiida Gray (ex Bonaparte), 1856. Java. 

Treron. pompadora samjirensis Briigg. 1876. Sanghir Islands. 

Treron pompadora waUacei Salvad. 1893. Celebes. 

Treron pompadora pallidior Hart. 1896. Djampea and Kalao. 

Treron pompadora goodsoni Hart. Antea, Tukang Besi Islands. 

Treron pompadora vordermani Finsch. 1900. Kangean Islands, north of Bali. 

Treron pompadora teysmuni Schleg. 1879. Sumba Island. 

Treron pompadora aromatica (Gm.) 1788. Burn. 

Treron pompadora phayrei (Blyth). Assam to Burma to Tavoy, and Cochin 
China. 

Apparently also Treron psittacea (Temm.) from Timor, and Treron forii 
Wall, from Floras, Solor, Lomblen, and Alor, and according to Schlegel, also 
Sumbawa, should be regarded as subspecies of pompadora, although they do 
not have the chestnut purjjle mantle, etc.] 

1547. Treron bicincta leggei Hart. = Treron bicincta hggei. 

Treron bicincta leggei Hartert, Nov. Zool. I'JIO, p. 193 (Ceylon). 

Type : c? ad., Ceylon, 9.vi.l889. Bruno & H. Geisler coll. No. 7069. 

(The Ceylon form is distinctly smaller than the one inhabiting the mainland 
of India, and it must therefore be separated as above. 

E. C. Stuart Baker, both in his lovely monograph of the Indian Pigeons, 1913, 
and in his somewhat hastily jDublished Hand-list of the Birds of the Indian Empire, 
1923, calls the birds from Ceylon and the Indian Peninsula " Treron hkincta 
bisincta " (sic), those from Orissa and Bengal to Burma and Hainan " Treron 
bisincta domvillii." Apart from the repeated erroneous spelling {T. bicincta 
was correctly spelt with a c by Jerdon, and Swinhoe called the Hainan form 
domvilii, in honour of Lieutenant Domvile), this is not correct. Ceylon birds 
are smaller than Jerdon's types, and the latter agree with the birds from Bengal, 
Assam, etc. Wings of Ceylon males 142-152, once 153, types of Jerdon <J 162, 
9 158-5 mm., males of other Continental birds 157 to 163 and even 165. Hainan 
birds agree in size with T. bicincta bicincta, but in Nov. Zool. 1910, jj. 193, I 
stated colour differences, which cannot be overlooked, especially the pale under 
tail-coverts of the males ; the Hainan form appears also to occur in Tonkin. 
Count Gyldenstoljje is possibly right when he calls the Siamese specimens 
domvilii, but this cannot be luiown without a careful re-examination of his 
specimens, as lie only states that they are larger than his bicincta, probably 
having in mind Ce3'lon specimens.) 

1548. Ptiliiiopus cincta ottonis Hart. = Ptilinopus cinctus ottonis. 

PtiUnopus cincta ottonis Hartert, Nov. Zool. 190-1. p. 178 (Dammar and Babber Islands). 

Type: ^ ad., Wulur, Dammar Island, 4.xi.l898. Heinrich Kiihn coll. 
No. 953. 

Named after Dr. Otto Finsch. 

1549. Ptilinopus albocinctus baliensis Hart. = Ptilinopus cinctus baliensis. 

Ptilinopus alhocinclm baliensis Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1896, p. 553 (Bali), 

Type : $ ad., Bali, 2,000 to 3,000 feet, April 1896. William Doherty coll. 



4 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

15j(). Ptilinopiis everetti Rothsch. = Ptilinojms cinctus everetti. 

Ptilinopus everetti Rothscbild, Bull. B.O. Club, vii, p. xxsiv (Feb. 1898 — Alor Islaud). 
Type : cJ ad. Alor, April 1897, Alfred Everett coll. 
Also found on the island of Pantar. 

1551. Ptilinopus mangoliensis R. = Ptilinopus gularis mangoliensis. 

Ptilinopus mangoliensis Rothschild, Bull. B.O, Club, vii, p. xxxiv (Feb. 1898 — Sula MangoU). 
Type : ^ ad., Sula MangoU, October IS*)?. William Doherty coU. 

1552. Ptilinopus dohertyi R. = Ptilinopus dohertyi. 

Ptilinopus dohertyi Rotlischild, Bull. B.O. i 'lub, v, p. xlvi (June 1896 — Sumba or Sandalwood Island). 
Type : cJ Taimanu, Sumba Island, February 1896. William Doherty coll. 
Figured Nov. Zool. 1896, pi. xii (see also pages 579, 589). 

1553. PtiUnopus xanthogaster roseipileum Hart. = Ptilinopus xanthogaster 

roseipilewm. 

Ptilinopus xanthogaster roseipileum Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1904, p. 179 (" Roma, Moa, Kisser, Lctti, 
and Wetter "). 

Type : Adult, Roma, 11 .viii. 1902. Heinrich Kiihn coll. No. 5384. 

1554. PtUinopus chrysorrhous pelingensis Hart. = Ptilinopus melanocephalus 

pelingensis. 

Ptilinopus chrysorrhous pelingensis Hartert, Nov. Zool. v, p. 135 (1898 — Peling Island, between Sula 
Mangoli and East Celebes). 

Type : Adult, Peling Island, between May and August 1895. Cursham coll. 

1555. Ptilinopus granulifrons Hart. = Ptilinopus grunuUfrom. 
Ptilinopus granulifrons Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, vii, p. xxxv (1898 — Obi Major, Central Moluccas). 
Type : c? a-d., Obi Major, September 1897. William Doherty coll. 
It has been suggested that a special genus should be created for this form, 
but there is equally much reason to consider it a subspecies of Ptilinopus liyo- 
gaster. 

1556. Ptilopus lewisii vicinus Hart. = Ptilinopus viridis vicinus. 

Ptilopus lewisii vicinus Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1895, p. 62 (Fergusson, d'Entrecasteaux group). 
Type : cj ad., Fergusson Island, September 20, 1894. 

1557. Ptilinopus solomonensis neumamii Hart. = Ptilinopus solomonensis 

neumanni. 
Ptilinopus solomonensis neumanni Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 46 (Xissan Island). 

Type : cj ad., Nissan, 1. viii. 1924. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. No. 9485. 
Named after Professor Oscar Neumann. 

1558. Ptilinopus solomonensis meyeri Hart. — Ptilinopus solomonensis meyeri. 

Ptilinopus solomonensis meyeri Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 173 (Witu Island north of New Britain). 

Type : c? ad., Witu, French Islands, 11 .vi. 1925. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 102G3. 

Named after the Rev. Father Otto Meyer. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 5 

1659. PtUinopus melanocephala aurescentior Hart. = Ptilinopm mekinocephalus 

aurescentior. 
Plilinopns melanocephala aurescentior Hartert, Nov. Zool. x, p. 33 (1903 — Tukang Besi Islands south 
of Celebes). 

Type: Kalidupa I., Tukang Besi group, 7. i. 1902. Heinrich Kiihn coll, 
No. 4567. 

1560. Ptilinopus melanocephala talautensis Hart. = PtUinopus mclanoceplialus 

talautensis. 
PtUinopus melanocephala talautensis Hartert. Nov. Zool. x, p. 34 (1903 — Talaut Islands, north of 
Celebes). 

Type : Lirung, Talaut group, May 1897. John Waterstradt coU. 
t 1561. PtUinopus gestroi kaporensis R. & H. = PtUinopus ornatus gestroi. 

PtUinopus gestroi kaporensis Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. viii, p. 105 (1897 — Kapaur, Western 
New Guinea). 

Type : " $ " ad., Kapaur, February 1897. William Doherty coll. 
Cf. Nov. Zool. 1913, p. 478. 

1562. Ptilinopus insolitus inferior Hart. = Ptilinopus insolitus inferior. 

Ptilinopus insolitus inferior Hartert, Nor. Zool. 1924, p. 265 (St. Matthias Island). 

Type : ^ ad. St. Matthias Island, 28. viii. 1923. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 8688. 

1563. Ptilinopus rivolii buruanus Hart. & Goods. = Ptilinopus rivolii huruanus. 

Ptilinopus rivolii buruanus Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool. xxv, p. 347 (1918 — Buru). 

Type : (J ad., Gunong Fogha, Buru, 4,000 feet, 24. ii. 1912. Erwin Strese- 
mann coll. No. 1111. 

1564. Ptilopus salvadorii R. = Ptilinopus pectoralis salvadorii. 

Ptilopws salvadorii Kothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, iii, p. x (1892 — Jubi Island in Geelviiik Bay). 

Type : cj ad., Surui, Jobi I., I.i.l883. Ex coll. A. A. Bruijn. 

(Doherty collected on Jobi (near Marai) Ptilinopus viridis miisschenbroeki ; 
P. pectoralis and P. viridis therefore seem to be two separate species occurring 
in the same places.) 

1565. Ducula pistrinaria postrema Hart. = Ducula pistrinaria postrema. 

Ducvla pistrinaria postrema Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 35 (Eguni, east of the D'Entrecasteaux 
group, and St. Aignan). 

Type : rj ad., Egum group, June 1895. A. S. Meek coll. 

1566. Carpophaga concinna separata Hart. = Ducula concinna separata. 

C'arpophaga concinna separata Hartert, A'ov. Zool. iii, p. 180 (1896 — Key Islands). 

Tyjae : $ ad., Key Weri, 9.ix. 1873. Beccari coU. Specimen G of Salvadori's 
list in Orn. Papuasia iii of ('. roncinva. 

1567. Carpophaga williami Hart. = Ducula lacernulata wUliami. 

Carpophaga tvilliaini Hartert, Nov. Zool, iii, p. 552 (1896 — Bali). 

Type : ^ ad., Bali, 2,000-3,000 ft., April 1896. W. Doherty coll. 



6 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1568. Carpophaga sasakensis Hart. = Ducula lacemulata sasaJcensis. 

Carpophaga sasakensis Hartert, Xov. Zool. iii, p. 564 {1896 — Lombok). 

Type : Lombok, 3,000 feet, June 1896. William Doherty coll. 

1569. Carpophaga mindorensis Whitehead = Ducula radiata windorensis. 

Carpophaga mindorensis Whitehead, Ann. tfc Mag. Nat. Hist. scr. 6, vol. xviii, p. 189 (1896 — Miudoro). 

Cotype : $ Highlands of Mindoro, 8.xii.l895. John Whitehead coll. 

Marked as " $ type of species." This form bears a striking resemblance to 
Ducula radinta from Celebes, and I think it should be looked upon as a subspecies 
of the latter. It differs from D. radiata in its much larger size, pinkish throat 
and cheeks, grey lower abdomen and grey (not chestnut !) under tail-coverts, also 
the grey band across the rectrices is situated more towards the tip. The grey 
under taU-coverts, however, are tinged with chestnut in the " t3'pe of the female," 
which is not fully adult, as shown by the pointed taU-feathers ! 

1570. Ptilocolpa nigronun Whiteh. = Dticula carola nigrorum. 

Ptilocolpa nigrorum Whitehead, Bull. B.O. Club, vi, p. xxxiv (1897 — Negros Island, Philippines). 
Type : ^ ad., Canloan Volcano, Negros, 10. iv. 1896. John Whitehead coU. 

1571. Carpophaga obiensis Hart. = Ducula rufigaster obiensis. 

Carpophaga ohiensis Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, vii, p. 35 (1898 — Obi Major). 

Type : S ad.. Obi Major, September 1897. 

In Nov. ZooL. 1903, p. 15, I correctly called this very striking new form 
Carpophaga hasilica obiensis, but — notwithstanding the great differences — I must 
now agree with Stresemami, who in 1923 called these birds Ducula rufigaster 
rufigaster (New Guinea, Jobi, Misol, Salwatti, Waigiu, and Batanta), D. ruf. 
basilica (Hahnahera, Ternate, Batjan, Morty), and D. ruf. obiensis, from Obi 
Major only, where it must be quite common, having been collected by Bernstein 
(teste Salvadori), Doherty, Lucas, and Waterstradt. The Obi Island form is 
rmdoubtedly the representative of rufigaster, but much closer to basilica. 

1572. Carpophaga chathamensis R. = Carpophaga novae-seelandiae chathamensis. 

Carpophaga chathamensis EotlischUd, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1891, p. 312, pi. xxviii (Chatham 
Islands). 

Type : Adult : Main Island, Chatham group, 1. v. 1890. 
(This fine pigeon is incidentally the first new bird described by Lord 
Rothschild.) 

1573. Coluinba albertisii exsul Hart. = Columba albertisii exsul. 
Columba albertisii exsul Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1903, p. 60 (Batjan). 

Type : ? Batjan, 3,000 feet, June 1902. -John Waterstradt coU. 

1574. Columba mada Hart. = Columba mada mada. 
Columba mada Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, viii, p. 32 (1S99— Mt. .Mada, Bvini) ; Fig. Xov. Zool. 1900, 
p. 241. Cf. also Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 241, 1914, p. 377. 

Type: cj ad., Mt. Mada, 3,000 feet, August 1898. J. Dumas coll. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOIOAE XXXIV. 1027. 7 

1575. Columba palumbus azorica Hart. = Columba palumbus azorica. 

Columla palumbus azorica Hartert, Nov. Zool. xii, p. 93 (1905 — Azores). 

Type: cJ ad., Terceira, 1,200 feet, 7.iv.l903. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant coll. 
No. 330. 

The Azores Island form occurs on the eastern and middle Azores, but has 
not been found on Flores and Corvo. It is very similar to C. palumbus maderensis 
Tsch., but see Vog. -pal. Fauna, ii, p. 1479. 

1576. Columba junoniae Hart. = Columba junoniae. 

Columba junoniae Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1916, p. 86 (Palina and Goraera). 

Type : ? ad.. La Galga, Palma, 20. iv. 1889. Canon Tristram coll. 

t 1577. Columba rupestris pallida R. & H. = Cohimba mpestris turkestanica. 

Columba rvjic.stris jmllida Rothschild & Hartert, Orn. Monatsber. 1893, p. 41 (Altai). 

(The name is preoccupied by Columba pallida Latham, which, however, was 
not a pigeon, but a young Cuculide.) 

Tjqse : 9 Katon Karagai, Altai, mid November 1881. Bought from R, 
Tancre. 

1578. Columba leuconota gradaria Hart. = Columba leuconota gradaria. 

Columba leuconota gradaria Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1916, p. 85 (Sechuan, W. China). 

Type : ^ ad., Sungpan, Sueshan, Sechuan, 16. iv. 1894. Berezowsky coll. 

1579. Columba picazuro venturiana Hart. = Columba picazuro venturiana. 

Columbia picazuro venturiana Hartert, Nov. Zool. xvi, p. 260 (1909 — Argentina and South Bolivia). 
Type: (J ad., Mocove, Chaco, 24.ix. 1903. S. Venturi coU. 

1580. Columba plumbea baeri Hellm. = Columba phmbea baeri. 

Columba jilumhca hacri Hellmayr, Not'. Zool. xv, p. 91 (1908 — State of Goyaz, Brazil). 
Type : ^ ad., Goyaz, 650 m., April 1906. G. A. Baer coll. 

1581. Columba goodsoni Hart. = Columba goodsoni. 

Columba goodsoni Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xii, p. 42 (1902— N.W. Ecuador). 

Type: ^ ad., Pambilar, N.W. Ecuador, 31 . viii. 1900. Flemming and 
Miketta coll. 

1582. Columba subvinacea berlepschi Hart. = Columba subvinacea berlepschi. 

Columba subvinacea hcrlepsclii Hartert, Nor. Zool. 1898, p. 504 (Paramba, N.W. Ecuador). 

Type : $ ad., Paramba, N.W. Ecuador, 3,500 ft., 13.vii. 1897. R. Miketta 
coU. 

Also received from Pambilar, S. Javier, and S. Domingo, W. Ecuador. Cf. 
Chapman, Distr. Birdlife Colombia, p. 206. 

1583. Macropygia doreya cunctata Hart. = Macropygia amboinensis cunctata. 

Macr'ipygia doreya cunctata Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1899, p. 214 (Rossel Island, Louisiade group, S.E. of 
New Guinea). 

Type: cJ ad., Rossel Island, 4. iii. 1898. A. S. Meek coll. No. 1533. 



8 XoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1584. Macropygia amboinensis meeki R. & H. = Macropygia amboinensis meeki. 

Macropijrjia anifioincnais meeki Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxii, p. 39 (1915 — Vulcan Island, 
north of Kaiser WUhelm Land). 

Type : <J ad., Vulcan Island, 28. xi. 1913. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. No. 6308. 
1585. Macropygia raficeps orien talis Hart. = Macropygia ruficeps orientalis. 

Macropygia ruficeps orientalis Hartert, Nov. Zool. iii, p. 573 (1896 — .Suinbawa Island). 

Type: $ Tambora, Sumbawa, 3,000 feet, April or May 1896. WiUiam 
Doherty coll. 

1586. Macropygia ruficeps nana Stres. = Macropygia ruficeps nana. 

Macropygia ruficeps nana Stresemann, Nov. Zool. I9I3, p. 311 (" Borneo, Malacca, Sumatra," but 
apparently restricted to Borneo). 

Type : cj Kina Balu, N. Borneo, 3,000 feet, 22. iii. 1888. John Whitehead 
coll. No. 2276. 

1587. Macropygia rafa krakari R. & H. = Macropygia rufa krakari. 

Macropygia rvfa krakari Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxii, p. 28 (1915 — Dampier Island or 
Krakar, north of Astrolabe Bay). 

Type : c? ad., 4.ii.l914. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. No. 6565. 
1588. Macropygia rufa goodsoni Hart. = Macropygia rufa goodsoni. 

Macropygia rvfa goodsoni Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 266 (St. Matthias Island, N. of New Hanover). 

Type: ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, 5.vii.l923. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 8636. 

(A very closely aUied form.) 

1589. Reinwardtoenas reinwardti griseotincta Hart. = Reinwardtoena reinwardtsi 

griseotincta. 
Reinwardtoenas reimcardii griseotincta Hartert, Nov. Zool. iii, p. 18 (1896 — New Guinea). 

Type : " $ " MaUu district, British New Guinea, July- August 1895. 
Anthony coU. 

1590. Reinwardtoenas reinwardti albida Hart. = Reinwardtoena reinwardtsi 

albida. 
Reimvardloenas reinwardti albida Hartert, Nov. Zool. vi\, p. 240 (1900 — Burn). 

Type : ^ ad., Mt. Madang, Burn, 3,000 feet, September 1898. J. Dumas 
coll. 

? t 1591. Reinwardtoena reinwardtsi obiensis Hart. = ? Reinwardtoena rein- 
wardtsi reinwardtsi. 

Reinwardtoena reinwardtsi obiensis Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, vii, p. xxxv (1898 — Obi Major, Central 
Moluccas). 

Type : ? ad., Obi Major, September 1897. William Doherty coll. 

When I first described this form, it seemed to me that it differed by a 
yellowish buff wash on the chin and cheeks, but Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 241, and 
1 903, p. 16.1 have shown that I was in error, the yellowish wash not being natural, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 9 

but due to staining, and I thus united it witli R. r. reinmtrdsi (type Amboina !), 
which I accepted as inhabiting the southern and northern Moluccas. With this 
Stresemann (Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 51) disagrees, stating that birds from the North 
Mohiccas, Batjan, Halmahera, Morotai, and Obi are paler on the upperside. 
This statement is wrong, the coloration being the same in the birds from the 
northern and southern Moluccas, and from Obi. Arthur Goodson, however, 
calls my attention to the fact that birds from the North Moluccas have strikingly 
larger bills than those from Obi and Amboina in the Tring Museum. This is 
correct, and one is tempted to give a name to the North Moluccan form. I refrain 
from doing this, because our Obi birds are all females, while the North Moluccan 
ones are all unsexed or males, and I therefore prefer to await more material. 
If this, i.e. the separation of the North Moluccan form, was accepted, we would 
have forms from the North and South Moluccas differing (which is usually the 
case), and the Obi ones agreeing with the South Moluccan form ; this is never 
the case, the Obi forms being either the same as the North Moluccan ones, or 
specialized, but never the same as the South Moluccan and differing from the 
North Moluccan. 

Another very peculiar fact is the status of the Waigiu birds ; our specimens 
agree with the North Moluccan ones and not with the New Guinea ones, as is 
usual ! In Nov. Zool. 1896, p. 18, I said that Waigiu specimens were somewhat 
intermediate between Moluccan and New Guinea ones, but I had then very little 
material, and now cannot see how they differ from North Moluccan ones ! 

? 1592. Turturoena iriditorques rothschildi Neum. = ? Tnrturoena irid. iridi- 

torqu&s. 

Turturoena iriditorques rothschildi Neumann, Bull. B.O. C^uh, xxi, p. 42 (1907 — Ituri Forest, eastern 
Congo Free State). 

Type : $ ad., Ituri Forest, 24. vii. (not viii) 1906, altitude 3,600 feet. C. F. 
Camburn coll. 

Dr. Sassi, Amuilen, k.k. Hofm.usenm, xxvi (not xvi, as quoted by W. L. 
Sclater), p. 352, explains that T. i. rothschildi must be the same as iriditorques ; 
considering the individual variation of another species, T. sharpei, from East 
Africa, this view is perhaps correct, but the type of rothschildi differs from speci- 
men from Kamerun and the Lower Congo, therefore the question cannot be 
said to be settled, and I think that rothschildi is more likely to be a slightly 
different subspecies of iriditorques. 

1593. Turacoena manadensis sulaensis Hart. = Turacoeim manadensis sulaensis. 

Turacoena manadensis sxdaensis Hartcrt, Xoi: Zool. 190:!, p. 35 (Sula and Poling Islands). 

Type : Sula Islands, A. R. Wallace coll. No. 9307a of the Bartlett collection, 
from which it came to Tring. 

1594. Nesopelia galapagoensis exsul R. & H. = Nesopelia galajMgoensis ezsul. 

Nesopelia galapagoensis exsul Rothschild & Hartert, Noi: Zool. vi, p. 184 (1899 — Culpepper & Wen- 
man Islands, Galapagos Archipelago). 

Type : (J ad., Culijeppcr Island, 27 .vii. 1897. F. P. Drowne, Webster-Harris 
Expedition, No. 180. 



10 XoviTATES Zoological XXXIV. 1927. 

15'J.j. Turtur turtur arenicola Hart. = Streplopelia lurtur arenicola. 

Turliir lurlur arenicola Hartert, Nov. Zool. i, p. 42 (1894 — Fao). 

T3rpe : Fao on Persian Gulf, 27.xii. 1893. Cuming coU. 

1596. Stigmatopelia lugens funebrea Som. = Streptopelia lugens funebrea. 

Sligmalopelia lugens Junehrea (sic ! fiinci.ris oi fimerea would have been correct) van Someren, Bull. 
B.O. Cluh, xl, p. 21 (1919—" Elgon south to KUimanjaro "). 

Type : c? ^(^^ Nairobi, 7.iv. 1918. V. G. van Someren coll. 

Compared with specimens from northern Abyssinia (one from the High- 
lands, collected by Schimper, three from Eritrea collected by Schrader) van 
Someren's subspecies is quite distinct, while those from southern Abyssinia, 
the Hawash valley and Arussi GaUaland, are like fii/iebrea, or intermediate. Cf. 
Someren's note in Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 38, No. 220 ; this note has not been con- 
sidered by Sclater, whose distribution in Systema Avium Ethiopiatriim, i, p. 164, 
requires further investigation ! (" Ethiopia " is in my opinion incorrect and 
should be Aethiopia.) 

1597. Turtur vinaceus schoanus Neum. = Slreptopelia vinacea schoana. 

Turlur vinacen^ schoanus Neumann, Orn. Monatsher. 1904, p. 81 (Shoa). 

Type : $ ad., Upper Bussigo, Shoa, 25. ix. 1900. Oscar Neumann coll. 
No. 79. 

1598. Streptopelia chinensis vacillans Hart. = Streptopelia chinensis vacillans. 

Streptopelia chinensis vacillans Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1916, p. S3 (Yunnan). 

Tj'pe : cJ Mengtsz, South Yunnan, 30. vi. 1910, collected by Owston's 
Japanese collectors. 

See Vog. pal. Fauna, ii, p. 1491. 

1599. Turtur chinensis hainanus Hart. = Streptopelia chinensis Jiainana. 

Turtur cidnensis hainanus Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1910, p. 195 (Hainan). 

Tj'pe : rj Hoihow, Hainan, 4. iii. 1902. Katsumata coll. 

1600. Streptopelia chinensis forresti R. = Strepitopelia chinensis forresti. 

Streptopelia chinensis forresti Rotlischild, A' or. Zool. 1925, p. 293 (N.W. Yunnan, mountain form). 

Type: ^ Hill forests around Tengyeh, vii.1924, 5,000-7,000 feet. 
G. Forrest coll. 

1001. Streptopelia senegalensis phoenicophila Hart. = Slreptojielia senegalensis 

phoenicopihila. 

Streptopelia senegalensis phoenicophila Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1916, p. 82 (Africa Minor). 

Type: ^ ad. Oumash near Biskra, South Algeria, 5.iii.l911. W. Roth- 
schild, E. Hartert, & C. Hilgert coll. 

1602. Geopelia maugeus audacis Hart. & Goods. = Geopelia mangens audacis. 

Geopelia niainjeus audacis Hartert & C!«od.son, Nov. Zool. 1918, p. 358 (Tenimlicr, Little Key, Taani, 
and Kilsuin). 

Type : J ad., Larat, Tcnimber Is., 17.1.1901. Heinrich Kiihn coll. 



NOVITATES ZCOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 11 

I 1603. Turtur afer sclateri R. = Twlur ajer kilimensis. 

Turlur afer sclateri Roth.schild, Bull. B.O. Clwh, xxxviii, p. 26 (1917 — " Sierra Ijcone to the Xiyer and 
Angola, and eastwards to Uganda and the Tanganyika district and Nyasaland, also the Zam- 
besi"). 

Type : $ ad., Entebbe, Uganda. RudoK Grauer coll. 

Tiirtiir afer kilimensis (Mearns), P70C. U.S. A^at. Mus. xlviii, p. 383 (191.3 — 
Kilimanjaro), antedates the name sclateri, for this distinct form. Cf. Sclater, 
null. B.O. Club, xhi, p. 118, 1922. 

t Columbigallina passerina perpallida Hart. = Chaemepelia passerina albivitta. 

Culiim'ngallina jmsserina pcrpidlida Hartert, Ibis, 1893, p. 304 (Curasao, Aruba, Bonaire). 
Chamaepelia albivitta, Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. ii, p. 77 (1854 — Carthagena). 

Type : ^ ad., Bonaire Island, ll.vii.l892. Ernst &. Claudia Hartert coll. 
No. 169. 

It is, as Todd, in his Revision of the genus CJuiemepelia, in the Annals 
Carnegie Museum, viii, p. .5.5.5, 1912, ju.stly said, " contrary to what might be 
expected," that the pretty little Ground Dove of the Dutch Islands on the coast 
of Venezuela should be exactly the .same as the one from Carthagena and Santa 
Marta, and ranging along the north coast of Venezuela. We must, however, 
foUow Mr. Todd, who has examined series from Carthagena and Santa Marta, 
and found them to be exactly the same as specimens from the Cura9ao group of 
islands. 

1604. Henicophaps foersteri R. & H. = Henicophaps foersteri. 

Henicophaps foersleri Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xix, p. 28 (1906 — Massawa, New Britain). 

Type : $ adult, Massawa, Gazelle Peninsula, October 1905. C. Wahnes coll. 
See Nov. Zool. 1911, p. 168, pi. i, 1926, p. 125. 

1605. Leptoptila battyi R. = Leptotila batlyi. 

Leploptila hattiji RotlischUd, Bull. B.O. Club, xii, p. 33 (1901 — Coiba Island, off Panama, Pacific 
Ocean). 

Type : $ ad., Coiba Island, 20. iv. 1901. J. H. Batty coll. 
This pigeon seems to be a species by itself. 

1606. Leptoptila decolor Salv. = Leptotila verreauxi decolor, 

Leptoptila decolor Salvin, Nov. Zool. ii, p. 21 (1895 — Cajabamba and Huamachuco, N. Peru). 
Type : cJ ad. Cajabamba, 9,000 feet, January 1894. O. T. Baron coll. 

t 1607. Geotrygon veraguensis cachaviensis Hart. = Geotrygon veraguensis. 

Geotrygoii veraguensis cacltaviensis Hartert, Nov. Zool. v, p. 504 (1898 — Cachave, N.W. Ecuador). 

Type : ^ ad. Cachave, 500 feet, 3.ii. 1897. W. F. H. Rosenberg coU. 
Cf. Chapman, Distr. Birdlife Colombia, p. 214, Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1898, 
p. 603. 



1608. Phlegoenas beecarii intermedia R. & H. = Gallicohimba beccarii intermedia. 

Phlegoenns beccarii inlermctUa Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1005, p. 246 (Bougainville^ 
Solomon Is.). 

Type : ,^ ad., Bougainville, 17. iv. 1904. A. S. Meek coll. No. A. 1569. 



12 XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1609. Phlegoenas beccarii admiralitatis R. & H. = GalUcolumba beccarii admirali- 

iatis. 

Phlegoenas beccarii admiralitatis Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1914, p. 287 (Manas, Admiralty 
Islands). 

Type : ^ ad., Manus, 11.x. 1913. Albert F. Eichhorn coll., No. 6243. 

161(1. Gallicolumba beccarii eichhomi Hart. = GalUcolumba beccarii 

eichhorni. 
Gallicoluin'ia beccarii eiclihorni Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 266 (St. Matthias and Storm Islands). 

Type: ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, 7.vu.l923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 8644. 

t 1611. Gallicolumba beccarii nodifica Hart. = GalUcolumba beccarii 

johannae. 
GalUcolumba beccarii nodifica Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 118 (New Ireland). 

Type : ^J ad., New Ireland, 28.. \i. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8823. 

Thi.s form cannot be upheld. It is not separable from johannae. Cf. Nov. 
Zool. 1926, p. 125 ! 

t 1612. Goura cinerea Hart. = Goura coronata. 

Goura cinerea Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1895, p. 67 (Arfak region). 

Tjrpe : Not fully adult, Arfak region. New Guinea ; bought from Renesse 
van Duivenbode. 

" Goura cinerea " is a pecuUar aberration, but certainly not a different 
species ! 

1613. Microgoura meeki R. = Microgoura meeki. 

Microgoura meeki Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xiv, p. 78 (1904 — Choiseiil, Solomon Islands). 

Type : ^ ad., Choiseul Island, 7 . i . 1904. A. S. Meek coll. No. A. 1 1 10. 
Figured : Nov. Zool. 1904, pi. xxi. 

PTEROGLETES. 
1014. Pterocles bicinctus multicolor Hart. = Pterocles bkinctwi multicolor. 

Plerocles bicinctus multicolor Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxi, p. 53 (1908 — Transvaal). 

Type : (J Rustenburg, Transvaal, September 1893. W. Ayres coll. 

1615. Pterocles gutturalis saturatior Hart. = Pterocles gutturalis saturatior. 

Pterocles gutturalis saturatior Hartert, Nov. Zool. vii, p. 29 (1900 — Campi ya Simba, Ukamba district, 
Kenya colony). 

Type : jj ad., Campi ya Simba (Lion Camp), 23. iv. 1898. \V. J. Ansorge 
coll. No. 372. 

1610. Pterocles coronatus atratus Hart. = Pterocles coroimtus atratus. 

Pterocles coronatus atratus Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xii, p. 48 (1902— East Persia). 

Type: ^ ad., East Persia, 6. vii. 1898 (Russian date). N. Zarudny coll. 
No. 5087. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1927. 13 

1617. Pteroclurus exustus olivascens Hart. = Plerocles senegalensis olivascens. 

Pterocluriis exustus olivascens Hartcrt, Orn. MoTuitsher. 1909, p. 183 (Massailand). 

Type: (J ad., Campi ya Simba, Ukamba district, 14. i. 1899. W. J. Ansorge 
coll. No. 9. 

1618. Pterocles exustus somalicus Hart. = Plerocles senegalensis somalicus. 

Plerocles exustus somalicus Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 28 (Somaliland). 

Type: tS Milmil, Somaliland, 30.vii.l894. Dr. A. Donaldson Smith coll. 
No. 106. 

This form is hardly separable from P. s. senegalensis, i.e. exustus auctorum. 

1619. Pterocles senegalensis floweri Nic. = Plerocles senegalensis floweri. 

Pterocles senegalensis floweri NiooU, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 128 {1921 — Fayum, Egypt). 
Type: ^J ad. Fayum, 2. iii. 1918. W. Raw coll. 

t 1620. Pterocles exustus orientalis Hart. = Plerocles senegalensis Mndustan. 

Pterocles exustus orientalis (nee Telrao orientalis L. = Pterocles orientalis, formerly P. arenarius) 

Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 28 (India). 
Pterocles senegalensis hindustan Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 158 (1923 — India). 

Type : (J ad., '' India," exact locality miknown. 

I had already pointed out (Voy. pal. Fauna, ii, pp. 1511, 1512) that the name 
orientalis cannot be used, but, for want of adequate material, thought that the 
form from South Arabia was the same as that from India, but Meinertzhagen 
has explained that they differ. 

LIMICOLAE. 
1621. Burhinus oedicnemus astutus Hart. = Burhinus ocdicnemus astutus. 

Burhinus oedicnemus astutus Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1916, p. 93 (Fao, Persian Gulf). 
Type : Adult, Fao, 1893. W. D. Gumming coll. 

1622. Cursorius gallicus exsul Hart. = Cursorins cursor exsul. 

Cursorius gallicus exsul Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, ii, p. 1526 (1920 — Cape Verd Islands, apparently 
also Canaries). 

Type : ? ad., Boavista, Cape Verd Is., May 1897. Boyd Alexander coll. 
? 1623. Cursorius cursor bannermani R. = ? Cursorius cursor bannermani. 

Cursorius cursor bannermani Eothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 166 (1923 — Canary Islands). 

Type : ? ad., Fuertaventura, 7.vi.l902. Polatzek coll. 

It stands to reason to suspect that the Cursorius of the Eastern Canaries 
should be different from that of the far distant Cape Verd Islands, but only a 
few of the specimens in London and Tring show the diiierences noticed by Lord 
Rothschild ; probably the subspecies may have to be separated, but a larger 
series from the Cape Verd Islands might contain specimens like bannernmni, in 
which case the latter might only refer to individual variations. 

1624. Charadrius varius allenbyi Nic. = Charadrius varius ullenbyi. 

Charadrius varius allenbyi Nicoll, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 7 (1921— Egypt), 

Type : ^ Lake Karun, Fayum, Egypt, lO.iii. 1917. D. Paton coll. 



14 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

162."). Charadrius alexandrinus seebohmi Hart. & Jack.s. = Charadrius alexan- 

drinu'i seebohmi. 
Charadrius alexandrinus see'iohmi Hartcrt & Jackson, Ibis 1915, p. 529 {Ceylon, KcdSea, Soraaliland), 
Type : cj ad., Aiipo, N.W. Ceylon, 4.iii.l8Gi). E. Holdsworth coll. 

102G. Thiiioconis ruinicivorus venturii R. = Thinocorus rwmicivorus venturii. 

Thinocorus ruinicivorus venturii Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Clu'i, xli. p. Ill (1921 — " Barracas al Sud, 
Buenos Aires "). 

Type: ^ Barracas al Sud, near Buenos Aires, Ai-gentina, 4.vi.l901. S. 
Venturi coll. 

1627. Lobivanellus senegallus major Neum. = Lobivanellus (or Afribyx) senegallus 

major. 
Lobivanellus senegallus nmjor Neumann, Orn. Monatsher. 1914, p. 8 (" Gebirge Nordo.st-Afrika3 "). 

Type : (J ad., Chadi-Saati, Mareb River, Eritrea, 30.1.1903. G. Schrader 
coll. 

This subspecies inhabits the mountains of Abyssinia, and is much larger, 
usually also somewhat darker on the upperside, than L. s. senegallus. In Sclater's 
Systetna Avium Aethiopicarum, p. 125, it has been omitted. 

1628. Rhinoptilus chalcopterus obscurus Neum. = Rhinoptilus chalcopterus 

obscurus, 

Rhinoptilus chalcopterus obscurus Neumann, Orn. Monatsber. 1910, p. 11 (" Afrika siidlich des 
Aquators vom Kapland nordwarts bis Mombassa und bis zur Loanga Kiisto"). 

Type: $ ad., Fort Quijjungo, Mossamedes, 12.vii.l906. W. J. Ansorge 
coU. No. 690. 

1629. Erolia maritima quarta Hart. = Calidris maritima quarla. 

Erolia maritima quarta Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1920, p. 137 (Commander Islands). 
Type: (J ad., Bering Island, 11. v. 1912. N. Sokohiikoff leg. 

1630. Scolopax rusticola mira Hart. = Scohpax ruslicola mira. 

Scolopax rusticola iiiim titxitcTt.BuU. Ii.<>. ' 'luh. .xxxvi.p. 64(1916 — Amami Oshima, Riii Kiu Islands). 
Type: $ ad., Amami Oshima, 10.xii.l904, from Alan Owston's Japanese 
coUectors. 

1631. Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei R. = Coenocorypha aucMandica iredalei. 

Coenncorijphit nurHandira iredalei Rotliscliild, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 63 (1921 — .lack Lees Island). 

Type : cj Jack Lees Island, Southland, New Zealand, June 1898. Received 
from H. H. Travers. 
Five examined. 

f 1632. Gallinago tristrami R. = Coenocorypha aticklandica aucMandica. 

Gallinago tristrami Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, iii, p. xii (1893 — " Antipodes Islands "). 

Type : Adult (probably ?), said to have been caught on the Antipodes 
Islands, but as the specimen is, as Sharpc remarked already in 1896, the Auckland 
Is. form, its stated locality cannot be trusted, and it must have come from the 
Auckland I.^land? ! 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 15 

Not one of the 100 skins of the genus Coenocorijphi in the Tring Museum 
has been jHOf)eil}' labelled on the spot, with precise locality, date, etc., none 
having been collected by sufficiently skilled scientific collectors. There is thus 
no authority for the localities, which were apparently put on the luggage labels, 
attached to the skins, when shipped to Europe. 

It is regrettable that Mrs. Meinertzhagen, in her up-to-date Review of the 
Scolopacinae, Ibis, 1926, has jjublished these wrong localities ; she says of C. auckl. 
aucklandica, that there is one from the Snares in Tring, where huegeli nests, of 
" C. a. tristrami" meaning the Antipodes form, that there are Snares I. specimens, 
of huegeli (the Snares subspecies), that there are three from the Auckland Islands ! 

As the name tristrami cannot be used for the Antipodes I. form, Lord 
Rothschild has supplied the following note and description : 

[In 1893 I described a single specimen of a snipe, said to be from the Anti- 
podes Islands, as Gallinago tristrami. A couple of years after, when Sharpe 
pointed out to me that it hardly differed from a series of Auckland Is. skins, I 
agreed that it was not separable. Sharpe then wrote : " I find that the type of 
O. tristrami is a rufous specimen of the true Auckland Island form, though at 
first sight it looks very distinct," and "... Mr. Rothschild now agrees with me 
that G. tristrami cannot be separated specifically from G. aucklandica." Later 
on, when more than a dozen Antipodes Is. sj^ecimens had been received, it became 
evidently that nearly all were nevertheless different, and both Mathews & Iredale 
{Ihis, 1913) and Mrs. Meinertzhagen (Ibis, 1926) have separated them, calling 
them tristrami, but they overlooked the fact that the type-specimen does not 
agree with the other Antipodes I. examples. This being the fact, we must 
conclude that the type of G. tristrami did not come from the Antipodes Islands, 
though labelled so by a dealer. As thus the real Antipodes snipe has no available 
name, I propose to call it Coenocorypha aucklandica meinertzhagenae Rothsch., 
subsp. nov., in honour of Mi's. Meinertzhagen, as the author of the excellent review 
of the subfamily Scolopacinae commenced in the Ibis, 1926. 

C. a. meinertzhagenae differs from C. a. aucklandica in the much darker 
ujiperside, the centres of the feathers of the back being more extensively and 
intensively black, and the rufous edges narrower and more orange, less fulvous, 
and somewhat brighter. Size about the same, but difficult to determine, as 
hardly any of either form are reliably sexed. Type of C. a. meinertzhagenae 
5 ad. Antipodes Island 1898 purchased from H. H. Travers. In 1893-1895 there 
were in Great Britain hardly any examples of the snipe (" Semi-woodcocks ") 
of the genus Coenocorypha, and so there was no reason to doubt the labelling of 
the few we had. Some years later, however, I received from Henry Palmer 
a large series from the Chatham Islands and from H. H. Travers & Dannefaerd 
numbers from the Chatham, Auckland, Snares, and Jack Lees Islands, and it is 
quite clear that a number of examples have been wrongly labelled. It is quite 
impossible for these birds with their heavy bodies and soft plumaged, rounded 
wings to fly more than short distances, and if driven out to sea by gales 
they would inevitably be drowned ; therefore we cannot suppose that these 
odd birds labelled from different islands to their home can have been strays ; 
this supposed drowning at sea is doubtless the explanation of the finding of the 
skuUs of the long-billed aucklandica or huegeli among the aggregations of bird 
bones on the shores of the Chatham Islands, where now only the very short- 
billed C. a. pusilla Uves. 



16 NOVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

Dr. H. O. Forbes records under the name of chathamica an extinct Pleistocene 
Coenocorypha from the fossil beds of the Chatham Islands with a biU over 3 inclies 
long, that is over J- an inch longer than any hving Coenocoryplta known, but 
among the large mass of bones I have from the shores of those islands are also 
recent skuUs of an existing form or forms. 

Rothschild.] 

1633. Coenocorypha aucklandica meinertzhagenae R. = Coenocorpha aucklandica 

meinertzhagenae, 

Coenocorypha aiwklandica meinertzhagenae Rothschild, anteu, p. 

Type : ? ad., Antipodes Islands 1898. Purchased from H. H. Travers. 

1634. Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei R. = Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei. 

Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cliih, xU. p. 63 (1921 — Jack Lees Island, 
near S. New Zealand). 

Type : (^ Jack Lees Island, June 1898. H. H. Travers coU. 

(The genus Coenocorypha is now generally admitted, and, as I said already, 
Vog. d. pal. Fauna, ii, p. 1655, 1921, one of its characteristics is the peculiar 
musky smell, which is even noticeable in weU-naphthalined birds kept in the 
Museum for over 25 years.) 

? f 1635. Haematopus reischeki R. = ? Haematopus ostralegus unicolor (var.) or 
Haematopiis ostralegus finschi (var.). 

Haematopus reischeki Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, x, p. iv (1899 — Kaiparu, New Zealand). 

Type : " (J " Kaipara, North New Zealand, June 1885. A. Reischek coll. 

The greater amount of black on the back and rump, as well as on the breast, 
may be either (if two species are recognized) an approach to " Haematopus niger 
unicolor," or a hybrid between H. o. finschi and " H. n. unicolor." It does not 
only differ from finschi in the greater extent of black, but also in the greater 
length of the bill, wings, tarsi, and toes. 

There is a somewhat similar specimen in the British Museum, and in Tring 
there are two black Oyster-catchers with white feathers, in one all over the head, 
neck, body, and wing-coverts, in the other on the breast, abdomen, under tail- and 
under wing-coverts. This opens up the question, if these black " unicolor " are 
not aberrations or mutants of the white-backed, white-bellied finschi ? Ecologi- 
cal or biological differences have not been recorded, and Sir Walter BuUer 
informed us that the black and white forms were not infrequently seen in the 
same Bock. The eggs of the two forms are jjrobably not distinguishable, though 
of the Australian black form Campbell says the eggs he saw are darker — they are, 
however, not larger. In Austraha, too, the black birds are intermingling with 
the white-beUied ones, and, according to Campbell, " hybrids " are recorded ; 
Campbell also found the black form more on rocky ground, which, however, 
might have been accidental. 

If it is confirmed, that in New Zealand the black and white-beUied Oyster- 
catchers are only mutants of one and the same subspecies, this is, however, not 
the fact in all localities, for examjjie, the two forms have different bills in the 
Falkland Islands ! 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 17 

A curious fact is the occurrence of a peculiar subspecies with a naked ring 
round the eye in North Queensland and N.W.Australia, " H. niger ophtJmlmicus." 
Mathews correctly kept it separate, though he had only seen two specimens. 
In Tring he could have seen others from Mackay (Queensland), Broome and Lewis 
Island (N.W. Australia) ; on the other hand, examples from Point Cloates (Tom 
Carter coll.) in W. Australia are no longer ophthalmicus ! The white-bellied 
birds from the same localities do )iol show the character of ophthalmicus ! 

Mathews' H. iii'jer beriiieri is only the Black Oyster-catcher in strongly worn 
plumage. 

1636. Haematopus ostralegus chathamensis subsp. nov. 

Tjrpe : Adult, Chatham Islands, 1890, collected by Henry Palmer. 

Differs from H. ostralegus finschi of New Zealand (both islands) in having a 
shorter bUl. 

Bill from end of frontal feathering 64-78, mostly 67-70 mm. In H. o. 
finschi the bill, measured in the same way, is 82-89, mostly 85-87 mm. Wing 
as in finschi, not as in longirostris from AustraUa. 

Habitat ; Chatham Islands, east of New Zealand. 

It is curious that this locality has, as far as I can see, never been mentioned. 
Forbes, in his list of the birds of the Chatham Islands, did not mention it as 
hving there, nor did Buller in his works on New Zealand, nor do Mathews & Iredale 
in the Ihis, 1913, in the Reference list of the birds of New Zealand make mention 
of it. Hemy Palmer, however, sent us 8 si^ecimens from the Chatham Islands, 
and we got 2 from Damiefaerd. Therefore it is necessary to separate this form. 

We also received from the late Sir Walter Buller a black Oyster-catcher, 
with a biU only 65 mm. long. The shortest bill of adult unicolor from New Zea- 
land measures 80 mm. Unfortunately the locaUty is not known, but it might be 
from the Chatham Islands and in that case the black mutant of H. o. chathamensis 
(? ?). This short-bUled black specimen has one white feather behind the right eye. 

1637. Sterna sumatrana mathewsi Stres. = Sterna sumatrana matheiosi. 

Sterna sumalrana mathewsi Stresemaiin, Nov. Zool. xxi, p. 60 {1914 — " Aldabra-Iiiseln. Amiranten, 
Tschagos-Archipel "). 

Type : ? ad.. He Piquart, Aldabra, 5.x. 1904. P. R. Mortimer coll. 

This form has a shorter wing and generally a longer bill, and wing-coverts 
and back are more whitish than typical sumatrana, which extends to the Torres 
Straits and the smaU islands of Bushy and Sir Charles Hardy, east of the Cajie 
York Peninsula, Sterna sumatrana kempi Mathews, 1912, being quite typical 
sumatrana. When fresh (at least in breeding i)lumage), the breast has a dehcate 
pink or salmon-pink tmge. 

We received S. s. ■mathewsi from Aldabra from Mortimer and Thibault, 
altogether eleven skins. 

1638. Sterna repressa Hart. = Sterna repressa. 

Sterna repressa Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxiii, p. 28S (1916 — new name ioi Sterna albiijena, a name which 
could unfortunately not be used). 

Type : Adult, Fao, Persian Gulf. Cumming coll. 
2 



18 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

t 1639. Anous hawaiiensis R. = Anoiis minutus melanogenys. 

[Anoxts melanogenys Gray, Gen. B. iii, p. 661, pi. 182 (1846 — figure of the Hawaiian form).] 
Anaiis hatcaiiensis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, i, p. Ivii (1923 — Hawaiian Islamls). 

Type : <J ad. Kauai, 24. iv. 1891. H. C. Palmer coll. No. 1007. 

Lord Rothschild, following Saunders {Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxv, pp. 145-149), 
took the name of melanogenys to refer to the Australian form, and, comparing 
Hawaiian examples with the latter, found the Kauai birds dififerent. Mathews, 
however, went over the synonymy of these birds (B. Anstr. ii, pp. 420-424), and 
we must agree with his results. The name minutus Boie was rejected as uncertain 
by Saunders, but it will be better to follow Mathews, who adopts the name, 
which was given to an Australian bird, for the Australian subspecies. Thus the 
Hawaiian form becomes A. minutus melanogenys. 

No mention is made in Boie's description in so many words of the whitish 
crown, but this is clearly inferred by the words " von dem typischen Colorit," 
which means, of the usual coloration of an Anons. 

t 1640. Sterna dougalli arideensis Math. = Sterna clougalli bangsi. 

Sterna dougalli arideensis Mathews, B. Au.slr. u, p. 364 (1912 — He Aride, Seychelles). 

Type: c? He Aride, 1 .ii. 1908. Thibault coll. 

It seems very pecuHar that S. d. bangsi should extend from the Seychelles, 
Rodriguez, Malacca to South China, New Guinea, Solomon Is., etc., while a 
distinct form {Sterna dougalli koriistes Hume) inhabits the Andaman Islands, 
and strays occasionally to Ceylon and Tenasserim. I cannot, however, come to 
any other conclusion, and we must accept this, until someone proves that it is 
otherwise. 

1641. Sterna maxima albididorsalis Hart. = Sterna maxima albididorsalis. 

Sterna maxima albididorsalis Hartert, Vog. pal. Faurui, ii, p. 1698 (1921 — coast of W. Africa from 
Straits of Gibraltar to Angola). 

Type : (J ad.. Bale du Levrier, Cap Blanco south of Rio de Oro, 8. v. 1895. 
Comte de Daimas coU. 

1642. Gygis alba royana Math. = Gygis alba royana. 

Gygis alba royana Mathews, B. Australia, ii, p. 443 (1912 — Kerraadec Islands). 

Type : " cJ " (no original label left, but Mathews says " cj "), collected on 
the Kermadec Islands. 

1643. Gygis alba monte Math. = Gygis alba monte. 

Gygis alba monte Mathews, B. Australia, ii, p. 443 (1912 — Seychelles). 

Type: ? ad., Praslin, Seychelles, 5. vii. 1904. Thibault coll. 

1644. Gygis alba rothsehildi suljsp. nov. 

Type : $ ad., Laysan Island, Pacific Ocean, N.W. of the Sandwich Islands, 
3.ix. 1896. Dr. & Frau Schauinsland coll. 

This new subspecies differs from G. a. royaiui, pacifica, and Candida {kittlilzi) 
by its smaller size and shorter bill. The bill is fairly thick at base, its length not 
more than 38 mm. from the end of the feathering, generally less, wings not more 
than 245 mm. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 19 

I name this bird after Lord Rothschild, who has done so much for the know- 
ledge of the birds of Laysan, and who has also a set of the birds collected by 
Professor Schauinsland and his brave wife, their collection being the finest ever 
made on Laysan, before its avifauna was so terribly diminished by a party of 
Japanese feather-hunters. 

The Laysan Gygis is surprisingly near the Seychelle Islands " monte," in 
which, however, the wing does not seem to exceed 235 mm. in length, as a rule, 
while the bill is in the series not quite so thick at base, and generally a little 
more depressed along the basal half of the culmen. 

Mathews, in his B. Australui, ii, has for the first time given a review of all 
the forms of the genus Gygis. He agrees with me (Nov. Zool. 1898, p. 67) that 
the name alba was rejected by Saunders without reason. He further designated 
Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean as the type locahty of Sterna alba Sjsarrm. 
This must be accepted, as the birds seen in the Cape Seas are probably Atlantic 
breeders, and the figure and description of Sparrman agree best with the Atlantic 
form, which has, when adult, white or very pale brownish white shafts to the 
primaries, and the biU entirely black — on the other hand, these peculiarities of 
the figure of Sparrman count for nothing, as the biU is always black in skins, 
only in freshly killed birds blue on the basal haK, and the figm'e (biU without a 
nostril !) is not exact enough to lay stress on the colour of the shafts of the 
primaries ! If alba is the name of the South Atlantic form, crawfordi of NicoU is, 
of course, a synonym. 

The Seychelle bird is distinct, though extremely close to the Laysan form. 
We have it from the Seychelles and Aldabra. 

The Laysan form is quite distinct from the other Pacific Gygis, though very 
little different from the Seychelles-Aldabra subspecies (see above). It is quite 
unreasonable to think that the form from Christmas Island, 24° south of Laysan 
and nearly as far N.W. of the Marquesas, is the same as the Laysan form 
(Laysan is not in the Sandwich or Hawaiian group, but N.W. of the latter). 
Unfortunately we have no specimens from Christmas Island, the terra typica 
of Candida, but, judging from a few skins from Huahine and Samoa (ex Mus. 
Godeffroy) and two from Nine or Savage Island in the eastern Tonga group 
(ex H. H. Travers), these birds are the same as the Carohne and Mariamie 
ones — therefore it seems probable that the Christmas Island form is also the 
same — and there are many islands dotted in the sea between Christmas Island 
and the southern PoljTiesian groups, while the sea between Laysan and Sandwich 
Islands and Christmas is almost without any. If these birds are all alike, they 
would have to be called Candida, and pacifica Lesson (terra typica Society 
group), ninea Bennett 1840 (terra typica Caroline Island north of the Society 
group — not the CaroUnes !), and kittliizi Hartert 1891 (terra typica the Caroline 
Islands) would be synonyms. 

G. a. royana is larger than all these, i.e. wings and bill as a rule longer, bill 
slenderer, not so deep as in rothschildi. It inhabits Kermadec and Norfolk 
Islands. 

A form of Gygis alba occurs also in the Japanese waters, chiefly on the shores 
of the Riu-Kiu group, but according to the Handlist of Japanese Birds it has also 
been foxmd on the Kuriles (!), Hondo, Hokkaido, Bonin Island, Sulphur Island, 
Marcus Island, Kiushiu, and Riu-Kiu Islands ! These birds have the shafts of 
the quills not clay-coloured or pale brown, but dark brown, on the iirst outer 



20 NoCTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

primary almost black ; the bills are less high than in rothschildi, the wings measure 
about 230 mm. (worn in one). This seems to me an minamed subspecies, but 
having only two specimens at hand, and knowing that the colour of the shafts 
varies to some extent, I do not bestow a name on these birds ; their breeding- 
place is probablv somewhere on or near the Bonin (?!), Volcano, or Marcus Is. 
and doubtless Japanese Ornithologists will soon inform us about this. 

The rare Gygis microrhyncha is only known — so far — from the Marquesas 
Islands. Mathews created for it a new genus " Leucanous " ; rather than doing 
this I would consider it as another subspecies of alba ; Saunders said that both 
G. alba and microrhyncha were found on the Marquesas, evidently because 
Tristram had received a Gygis alba Candida and a Gygis microrhyncha from the 
Marquesas ; these birds he received without detailed labels, and in fact without 
any individual labels, in spirits, from J. Green. 

We hope to hear more about this form from Mr. Murphy, but I believe tlie 
New York Museum has received only microrhyncha from the Marquesas. I 
would therefore so far recognise the following forms : 

Gygis alba alba (Sparrm.), 1786. 
South Atlantic Ocean (Ascension, St. Helena, S. Trinidad). Differs from all 
the other subspecies in having the bill entirely black in life, the nostril is situated 
aiuch nearer the base of the biU, only about 4-5 mm. from the feathering, while in 
the others it is nearly or quite double the distance from the feathering ; the shafts 
of the primaries are very pale brown, sometimes quite white. 

Gygis alba inonte Math., 1912. 
Seychelle Islands and Aldabra — probably also other islands. 

Gygis alba royana Math., 1912. 
South Pacific : Kermadec, Norfolk, and probably other islands. 

Gygis alba Candida Gm., 1788. 
Middle Pacific (see above). 

Gygis alba rothschildi Hart., 1927. 
Northern Pacific : Laysan, Lisiansky, Krusenstern, and probably other small 
islands ; not with certainty known from the Hawaiian Islands. 

Gygis alba subspecies ? 
Occurring (rarely) on coasts of Japanese Islands, ? breeding on Marcus 
Island, Bonin (?) or Sulphur Islands. 

Gygis alba microrhyncha Saund., 1876. 
Marquesas. 

1645. Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi Math. = Slercorarius skua lonnbergi. 

Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi (sic, should have been lonnbergi) Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 212 
(1912 — New Zealand seas). 

Type : " (J " ad., New Zealand seas. Ex coll. Sir Walter BuUer. No 
exact locality. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGK'AE XXXIV. l'J27. 21 

I consider all southern Great Skuas to be subspecies of Stercorurius ukua ; 
Mathews first did the same, when he described hnnhenji, but afterwards grouped 
them into three species. I do not agree, but am pleased that Mathews dis- 
covered C. a. lonnbergi, and I wonder that Saunders and others, who studied 
Skuas, did not find out that there were more forms in the southern seas than 
they admitted. 

OTIDIDAE. 
1646. Houbara fuertaventurae R. & H. = Chlamydotis urululata fuertaventurae. 

Houbara fuertaventurae Rothschild & Hartert. A'ov. Zool. ISOi, p. 689 (Fuertavcntura, Eastern 
Canary Islands). 

Type: (J ad., Oliva, Fuertaventura, 20.iii.l889. From Ramon Gomez. 
1047. Otis tetrax orientalis Hart. = Otis tetrax orienlalis. 

Otis tetrax orientalis Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1916, p. 339 (West Siberia to E. Germany). 

Type : ^ &A., Sarepta in Russia, May 1889. Bought from dealer. 

RALLI. 

1648. Hypotaenidia brachypus exsul Hart. = Rallus { Hypotaenidia) • striatus 

exsul. 
HypotaeniiKa hrachypus ex.<;ul Hartert, Xon. Zool. v, p. 50 (1898 — Flores). 

Type : (J Mangarai district, S. Flores, November 1896. Alfred Everett coU. 

It is perhaps daring to treat E. pectoralis, exsid, and alberti as subspecies of 
striatus, but I think it will be accepted ; the higher biU of these forms cannot be 
more than a subspecific character. 

1649. Hypotaenidia brachypus alberti R. & H. = Rallus (Hypotaenidia) striatus 

alberti. 

Hypotaenidia hrachypvs alberti Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. xiv, p. 4.51 (1907 — Angabunga 
River, Mts. of British Papua). 

Type: (J ad., Owgarra, Angabunga River, 6.ii.l905, about 6,000 feet. 
A. S. Meek coll. No. A. 2051. 

1650. Eulabeomis philippensis lesouefi Math. = Rallus {Hypotaenidia) pMUppensis 

lesouefi. 
Eulabeornis philippensis lesotiefi Mathews, B. Ausir. i, p. 198 (1911 — New Hanover). 

Type: Adult, New Hanover, 19. ii. 1897. Cayley Webster coll. No. 413. 

1651. Eulabeomis philippensis goodsoni Math. = Rallus (Hypotaenidia) philip- 

pensis goodsoni. 
Eulabeomis philippensis goodsoni Mathews, B. Austr. i, p. 197 (1911 — Samoa). 

Type : <5 Upolu, Samoa Islands, 28.iii. 1895. C. M. Woodford coll. No. 101. 

• Tlie forms of Ballus pectoralis Temm. occupy a somewhat intermediate position between 
Rallus and Hypotaemdift, having the bill less elongated and nearly as slender as in Rallus. and the 
nostril as in tlie latter, while the markings are more as in Hypotaenidia. Mathews unites them with 
Rallus, recognising the forms of philippensis, and a few others as Hypotaenidia. In my mind the 
latter should only be treated ns a subgenus of Rallus, and pectoralis might still bo included in the 
Hypotaenidia group. 



22 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. Iy27. 

1G52. Eulabeorais philippensis wilkinsoni Matli. = Eallus { Hypotaenidia) philip- 

pens is wilkinso n i . 
Eulahcornis philippensis wilkinsoni Mathews, B. Amtr. i, p. 198 (1911 — South Mores). 

Type : " S" South Flores, about 3,000 feet, November 1896. Alfred 
Everett coll. 

1653. Hypotaenidia kuehni R. = RuUm {Hypotuciddid) lorquatti--^ kuelmi 

Hypotaenidia kuehni Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xii, p. 75 (1902 — Tukang — Besi Islands). 

TvTe : c? ad., Binongka, Tukang Besi group, 12. xii. 1901. Hciiu-ich Kiihn 
coll. No. 4288. 

There can be no doubt, that R. (//.) kuehni, celebensis, saturatus, and sidciros- 
Iris are subspecies of lorquatus, though they lack the rufous chest-band of the 
true torquatus. R. (//.) owstoni, though it represents, so to s&y, the torqiiatus 
groujj on Guam, cannot be treated as a sub.species of the latter. All the torquatus 
forms have a white line under the eye from the base of the bill to the sides of the 
neck, throat and foreneck black, and the xmderside l^lack with narro^\- white bars. 
R. (H.) oirstoni, on the other hand, has a grey superciliary line, has tlie throat and 
foreneck pale grey, much wider bars to the underside, and very much shorter and 
weaker, softer wings, so that it can only flutter, while the forms of torquatus have 
wings of nearly twice the length and are good fliers. 

1654. Hypotaenidia owstoni R. = RaUus (Hypotaenidia) oivstoni. 

Htjpoiaenidia owstoni Rothschild, A'oj'. Zool. ii, p. 481 (1895 — Guam, Marianne Islands). Sec also 
Hartert, Nov. Zool. v. 

Type : $ Agafia, Guam, 1. v. 1895. Collected by Alan Owston's Japanese 
hunters. No. A. 34. 



1655. Hypotaenidia wakensis R. = Rallus (Hypotaenidia) wakensis. 

Hypotaenidia wakensis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xiii, p. 78 (190.3— Wake Island, lat. 19' N., long 
167° E., north of the MarshaU Islands). 

Type : Wake Island, 1892, collected by Japanese bird hunters for the late 
Alan Owston. 

To the original description of this remarkable species may be added, from 
further skins received, all from 1892 : There are a number of narrow white bars, 
both on the sides of and across the jugulum, and the sides of breast and abdomen, 
also on the under tail-coverts. There is a pale rufous band across the chest, 
indistinct in some specimens. Chin and upjier throat white, middle of abdomen 
whitish. Wings 95-100, in two specimens (none are sexed !) only about 85 mm. 

1656. Eulabeomis castaneiventris sharpei R. = Eulaheornis castaneoventris sharpei. 

Eulaheornis castaneiventris sharpei Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Clu'i, xvi, p. 81 (1906 — Wokan, Aru 
Islands). 

Type : $ ad. Wokan, Aru Islands, 6.x. 1900. Heinrich Kiihn coll. No. 2734. 

This is the form described by Sharpe, Cat. B. xxiii, p. 49, as Eulabeomis 
castaneiventris, with the ochraccous rufous brown back, while E. c. mstaneoventris 
of Northern Australia has the upperside somewhat pale olive. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 23 

1657. Rallina tricolor Gray = Eulaheornis tricolor tricolor. 

RaUina tricolor Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858, p. 188 (Aru Islands). 

Type : $ (teste Gray) Aru Islands. R. Wallace coll. Bought from the late 
H. Whitely, dealer of natural history specimens in Woolwich, for two shillings. 

As I explained, Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 262, there can hardly be any doubt 
that this is the type, which, by error, passed with duplicates in the hands of 
Whitely, for sale. On the present evidence it is very doubtful if New Guinea 
specimens can be separated. They do not have the bars on the abdomen white, 
instead of buff, but the bills seem to be larger, and the upjjer throat as a rule 
more pronounced whitish, but this is only by comparison with the one example 
from Aru, i.e. the probable t3^e. The other race, victa from Tenimber, Koer, 
and Dammar Islands, is much smaller and has the upper throat as dark as in 
our Aru skin. E. t. convicta Stres., from the Bismarck Archipelago (St. Matthias 
Island, New Hanover, and New Ireland), is in coloration like the Papuan race, 
but smaller. 

1658. Eulabeomis tricolor grayi Math. = Eulabeornis tricolor grayi (?). 

Evlaheomis tricolor grayi Mathews, B. Austr. i, p. 205 (1911 — New Guinea). 

Type : Adult, Dutch New Guinea, native preparation, bought from Boucard. 

1659. Rallina triolor victa Hart. = Eulabeomis tricolor victa. 

Rallina tricolor victa Hartert, Xov. Zool. viii, p. 175 (1901 — Tenimber). 

Type : ^ ad., Larat, Tenimber, IS. ii. 1901. Heinrich Kiihn coll. No. 3173. 

1660. Sarothrura pulchra centralis Neum. = Sarothrura pulchra centralis. 

Sarothrura pulchra centralis Neumann, Bull. B.O. Club, xxi, p. 45 (1908 — " Lake Region of Central 
Africa "). 

Type : $ Msva, on west shore of Lake Albert, 8.ii. 1889. Emin Pasha coll. 
No. 32. 

1661. Sarothrura rufa ansorgei Som. = Sarothrura rufa ansorgei. 

Sarothrura rufa ansorgei van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 20 (1919 — Duque de Braganza, Angola), 
Type: ? Duque de Braganza, 8. viii. 1903. W\ J. Ansorge coU. 

1662. Sarothrura rufa elizabethae Som. = Sarothrura rufa elizabethae. 

Sarothrura rufa elizabethae van 8omercn, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 20 (1919 — " Uganda, from Entebbe 
east to Elgon and Kisumu "). 

Type : $ Kisumu, 10.iii.l917. Dr. van Someren coU. 

1663. Porzanula pakneri Frohawk = Porzanula palmeri. 

PorzanuUi palmeri Frohawk, Ami. <t- Mag. Nat. Hist., sixth series, vol. ix, p. 247. 

Type : Adult, unsexed, sent aUve from Laysan by its discoverer, H. C. 
Palmer, died at Cambridge. This most interesting species is figured in Avifauna 
of Laysan, i, pi. xii. 

1664. Porzana cinerea meeki Hart. = Porzana cinerea meeki. 

Porzana cinerea meeki Hnrtert, Xot: Zool. xxxl, p. 263 (1924 — St. Matthias Island, N. Bismarck 
Archipelago). 

Type: ^ ad., St. Matthias; Island, 30. vi. 1923. A. F. Eichhom coll. 
No. 8619. 



24 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. lOliT. 

1665. Poliolimnas cinereus moluccanus Matli. = Porzana cinerea moluccana. 

Poliolimnas cinereus moluccanus Mathews, Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 60 (192B — "Moluccas to Key 
Islands and Lesser Sunda Islands "). 

Type: ? ad., Mt. Fogi, Biiru Island, 18. ii. 1902. Heinrich Kiihii coll. 
No. 4955. 

1666. Porzana fusca bakeri Hart. = Porzana fusca bakeri. 

Porzana fusca bakeri Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 272 (North India). 

Type : $ Bhim-Tal, Kumaon, 20. vi. (" Ovary well develoiied.") 

1667. Creciscus sharpei R. & H. = Creciscus spilonotus sharpei. 

Crecisctis sliarjm Rothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. vi, p. 185 (1899 — Indefatigable Island). 

T3T)e : (J Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Islands, 9.11.1897. Hall coU. 
No. 942. 

1668. Gallinula chloropus guami Hart. = GalHmda chloropus gtiami. 

Gallinvla chloropus Quami Hartert, Nov. Zool. xsiv, p. 268 (1917 — Guam, Marianne Islands). 

Type: ^ ad., Guam, ll.xii.l894. Collected by Alan Owston's Japanese 
hiinters, No. A. 22. 

1669. Gallinula chloropus seychellarum Hart. = OalUnula chloropus seychellarum. 

Gallinvla chloropus .seychellarum Hartert, Vog. 2Xil. Faumi, iii, p. 1843 (1921 — Seychelle Islands : 
lie Aride, lie aux Fous, Praslin, St. Digue). 

Type : " S" He Aride, 21 . viii. 1905. Thibault coU. 
1 1670. Porphyrio poliocephalus caspius Tisitt.=Por2}hyrio poliocephalus seistanicus. 

Porphyria poliocephahis caspius Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 266 (Caspian Sea, Persia). 
Porphyrio poliocephalus seistanicus Sarudny & Harms, Journ. fiir Orn. 1911, p. 240 (Seistan in 
E. Persia). 

Type : J ad., Lenkoran (Purchased). 
1671. Gallinula (Amauromis) coecineipes Slater = Gallinula akool coccineipes. 

Gallinula {Amauromis) coccineipes Slater, Ibis, 1891, p. 44 (near Swatow). 

Type : ^ Tai-Yang, Swatow, April 1880. Ex J. D. La Touche, per H. H. 
Slater Collection. 

Differences from Gallimda nkool akool (India) require confirmation ! 

t 1672. Neocrex uniformis Hart. = Neocrex columbianus. 

Neocrex uniformis Hartert, Nov. Zool. viii, p. 369 (1901 — N.W. Ecuador). 

Neocrex columbianus Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 1898, p. 171 (Santa Marta). 

Type : ^ Pambilar, N.W. Ecuador, 60 feet, 19. ix. 1900. G. Fleming coll. 
No. 689! 

This is not likely to be a subspecies of N. erijthrops which occurs in Peru 
(terra typica Lima), and again in Merida, Venezuela, also in the mountains of 
Tucuman, and according to Pelzeln, in Matto Grosso, and according to Hudson 
at Buenos Aires — but in the Venturi collection it was not represented from 
there. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 25 

HEMIPODII (Turnices). 
1673. Tumix olivii Robinson = Turnix castanotus olivii. 
Tmnix olivii Robinson, Bull. B.O. Cliih, x, p. 43 (1900— Cooktow-n, Queensland) ; Mathews, B. Aiislr 
i.pl. 

Type : ? Cooktown, 25. vi. 1899. E. Olive coll. 

This form is a subsi^ecies of T. castanotus from the " Northern Territory of 
South AustraUa.' It differs from the latter in the absence of white spots on the 
forehead and neck, as well as on the throat and chest, and its wing is much longer. 

T. c. olivii is a very rare bird. I only know of the type, and of one collected 
at Coen, north of Cooktown, by W. R. Maclennan l.ii.l922, and described by 
Mathews as " Austroturnix olivii coenensis " (Bull. B.O. Club, xUii, p. 14, 1922), 
but now admitted to be a synonym. 

There is a third subspecies, Turnix mslanotus magnifica Mathews 1912, 
from N.W. Australia, in which the back and rump are brighter rufous, lacking 
the slaty or olivaceous tinge found in T. cast, castanotus, and it seems that the 
spots on the throat and chest are larger ; of this there are five skins in the 
Mathews' collection. The size of the black spots on the back varies very 
much, and sometimes they are absent ! 

1674. Tumix powelli Guillemard = Turnix javanica powelli. 

Turnix powelli Guillemard, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1885, p. 511 (Gunong Api Island, near Sumbawa). 

Type : " $ " Gunong Api Island, near Sumbawa, 19. viii. 1883. H. Guille- 
mard coU. 

This specimen, if a female, is hardly adult ? I think there can be no doubt 
that Turnix javanica javanica, rufilata, taigoor, leggei, plmnbipes, roslrata, powelli, 
hlakistoni, and also fasciatn belong to the same species. T. javanica powelli is 
very variable, a specimen from Alor being quite slaty grey on the upperside. It 
is now known from Gunong Api, Sumbawa, Satonda, South Flores, Alor, Am- 
penan near Lombok, Lombok. 

1675. Tumix everetti Hart. = Tumix everetti. 

Turnix everetti Hartert, Nov. Zool. v, p. 476 (1898 — Sumba). 

Type : " ? " ad., Waingapo, Sumba, December 1896. 

Very small, wing only 70 mm., but sexed by Everett himself. This curious 
form, of which only the type is on record, resembles in colour very much the rare 
Turnix saturata, from New Britain, but the biU is quite different, short, high, and 
thick, while that of saturata is thin and slender ; it is also still smaller. 

I cannot see that it can be connected as a subspecies with any of the forms 
known to me. 

GALLI. 
1676. Lagopus mutus pyrenaicus Hart. = Lagopus mutus pyrenaicus. 

Lagopus mutus pyrenaicus Hartert, Vorj. pal. Fauna, iii, p. 1809 (1921—" Pyrenacn "). 

Type : ? Pic de Barbat, val de Cambasque, 2,600 m. altitude, June 1906. 
J. Mousques coU. 

1677. Alectoris graeca kleini Hart. = Alectoris graeca Ideini. 

Alecloris graeca lUini Hartert, Xiw. Zool. 1925, p. 137 (Skyros.Dede Agaoh, Harmanli, " Bosphorus "). 

Type : ($ ad.) Island of Skyros, 14.x. 1894. C'hr. Strimeneas coll. 



26 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1678. Alectoris graeca kurdestanicus Meinertzh. = Alectoris grueca kurdestanica. 

Alectoris graeca ttirdeslanicus Mcinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. Cluh, xliii, p. 158 {1923 — " Dohuk, southern 
Kurdestan "). 

Type: (J Dohuk, north of Mosul in N. Mesopotamia, 12.xii.l922. R. 
Meinertzhagen coU. 

1679. Alectoris graeca faiki Hart. = Alectoris graeca falki. 

Alectoris graeca falki Hartcrt, Xov. Zoul. 1917, p. 280 (Russian Turkestan, Buc-liara, Transcaspia). 

Type : S November 26 (Russian date), 1901, near Prshewalsk (= Karakol), 
east of Issik Kul. Kutzenko coll. 

1680. Alectoris graeca Cypriotes Hart. = Alectoris graeca Cypriotes. 

Alectoris graeca Cypriotes Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 278 (Cyprus;. 
Type: ^ Galata, 21.iii.l906. Ch. Glaszner coll. 

1681. Anunoperdix heyi nicolli Hart. = Ammoperdix heyi nicolli. 

Ammoperdix heyi nicolli Hartert, Bull. B.O. ('luh, xl, p. 4 (1919 — Wadi Hof near Cairo). 
Type : ^ ad., Wadi Hof near Cairo, 26. xi. 1909. M. J. Nicoll coll. 

1682. Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus Hart. = Francolinu-s pondicerianus 

inter positiis. 
Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 288 (Western India). 
Type : ^ Oudh, India, vi, 1870. 

1683. Francolinus coqui angolensis Rothsch. = Francolinus coqui angolensis. 

Francolinus coqui angolensis Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Cluh, xii, p. 76 (1902 — Bailundu, Angola). 
Type: (J Bailundu, Angola, l.ix.l901. Hubert C. Pemberton coll. 

1684. Francolinus levaillantii benguellensis Neum. = Francolinus levaillantii 

bengudlensiti. 
Francolinus levaillantii benguellensis Neumann, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xxi, p. 44 (1908 — Benguella). 
Type : c? Cuima, Benguella, 13. ix. 1904. W. J. Ansorge coll. No. 950. 

1685. Francolinus nigrosquamatus Neum. = Francolinus nigrosquamatus. 

Francolinus nigrosquamatus Neumann, Orn. Monatsher. 1902, p. 8 (Middle Omo River). 

Type: ? juv.. Middle Omo, ford between Malo and Koscha, 21. ii. 1901. 
Oscar Neumann coU. 

This peculiar distinct bird has never been found again. I do not know if 
it could not after aU be a subspecies of F. sharpii Grant (subspecies of clnpperloni 
according to W. L. Sclater), though the primaries and rectrices lack the well- 
defined bars of sharpii. , 

1686. Francolinus gariepensis pallidior Neum. = FrancoUncus gariepensis 

pallidior, 
Francolinus gariepensis pallidior Neumann, Bull. 0. Cluh, xxi, p. 4.5 (1908 — North Damaraland). 
Type : Cunene River. A. W. Eriksson coU. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 27 

1687. Francolinus ugandensis Neum. = Francolinus iclerorhynchus ugandensis. 

Francolinus vyandensis Neumann, Om. Monatsber. 1907, p. 199 (Mondo in Uganda). 

Tjrpe : (J ad., Mondo in Uganda proper, 24.. xii. 1896. W. J. Ansorge coll. 

If F. vgandensis is distinct at all, it can only be a subspecies of iclerorhynchus. 
According to Dr. van Someren (Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 28), einini (F. iclerorhynchus 
emini Neum.) occur together, and certainly a skin from Kyanja in Uganda does 
not look like ugandensis, but like emini. This would make it probable that 
ugandensis is not separable from emini, and van Someren thinks it is also the same 
as iclerorhynchus from the Bahr-el-Ghazal, but that I doubt, and probably van 
Someren did not examine Bahr-el-Ghazal specimens. 

The idea that the type of F. ugandensis might be a hybrid between iclero- 
rhynchus and clappertoni is mifounded ; if ugandensi.f is not a variety of emini it 
is another subspecies of iclerorhynchus, but neither a hybrid nor a third species. 

(?) 1688. Francolinus castaneicollis gofanus Neum. = Francolinus castaneicollis 

gofanus ? 
Francolinus castaneicollis gofaniis Neumann, Jouni.f. Om. 1904. p. 353 (Gadat in Gofa). 

Type: cJ ad., 8.ii. 1901. Oscar Neumann coll. 

The tj'pe shows the differences described by Neumann very well, but the 
other specimens not, nor is hollegi very constant ; further material must therefore 
decide if gofanus can be separated. 

1689. Perdix perdix armoricana Hart. = Perdix perdix armoricana. 

Perdiz perdix armoricana Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 284 (Bretagne). 

Type : ^ ad. after first moult. RiaiUe, Loire Inferieure, end of October 
1900. Present from Dr. Louis Bureau. 

The type is very small and very rufous ; I have examined a fine series from 
Calvados, kindly lent me by Monsieur R. le Dart ; most of these are also quite 
typical, but a number are not quite typical, apjsroaching P. p. perdix from Central 
Europe. 

1690. Perdix perdix italica Hart. = Perdix perdix italica. 

Perdix perdix italica Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 283 (Italy). 

Type : ^ ad., Badia di Passignano (Chianti), 20. i. 1905. Ex Squilloni. 

1691. Cotumix cotumix confisa Hart. = Cotumix coturnix confisa. 
t 

Cotumix coturnix confisa Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 423 (Madeira and Canary Islands). 

Type : ^ ad., Ponta do Pargo, Madeira, 12. ix. 1903. Ex Padre Schmitz. 

1692 Cotumix cotumix conturbans Hart. = Coturnix coturnix conturbans. 

Coturnix coturnix conturbans Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917, p. 423 (Azores). 

Type : ^ ad., San Pedro, Sta. Maria, 400 feet, 3.iii.l903. W. R. Ogilvie- 
Grant coU. 

1693. Cotumix cotumix inopinata Hart. = Coturnix colurnix inopinata. 

Coturnix coturnix inopinala Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1917. p. 422 (Cape Verd Islands). 

Type : jj ad., Sao Nicolau, Cape Verd Islands, 7.xi. 1897. Boyd Alexander 
eoU. 



2g NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

l&M. Synoicus raalteni pallidior Hart. = Synoicus raalteni palliclior. 

Synoicusraaltenipallidior Hartert , ^Voi-. Zool. 1897, p. 271 (Savu Island, between Timor and Sumba). 
Type : o i^*'^" Island, August 1896. Alfred Everett coll. Also found on 
Sumba ! 

1C95. Arboricola rolli Rothsch. = Arboricola rolli. 

Arboricola rolli RothschUd, Bull. B. (). Club, xxv, p. 7 (1909— Mt. Si Bajak, Upper DeU, Sumatra). 

Type : Adult (sex not ascertained), Mt. Si Bajak, in the district of Batu 
Bara, Upper Deli. Procured by von Roll, ex Gustav Schneider. 

1696. Bambusicola erythrophrys Sharpe = Arboricola erythrophrys. 

Bamhusirola eri/lhrojihri/s Sliarpc, Ihis, 1890, p. 189 (Kina Balu, N. Borneo). 

Type : ^ ad., Kina Balu, 3,000 feet, 3.iii. 1887. John Whitehead coll. 
1697. Odontophoras parambae R. = Odontophortis parambae parambae. 

Odontophorus parambae KothschUd, Bull. B.O. Club, vu, p. vi (1897— Paramba, N.W. Ecuador); 
Nov. Zool. 1898, pi. 111. 
Type : ? ad., Paramba, 3,500 feet, 17. iv. 1897. W. F. H. Rosenberg coll. 

t 1698. Phasianus berezowskyi R. = Phaskums cokMcus sirauchi. 

Phasianus berezowskyi Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xu, p. 20 (1901— Hui-Tsian or Hoi-Sian in S.E. 
Kansu). 

Type : S Hui-Tsian, 1. v. 1892 (Russian date), Berezowsky coll. 

Since we received a large series of P. c. straxichi from the Tsin-ling Mountains, 
which shows the individual variation of these birds. Lord Rothschild agrees with 
me that berezowskyi is only an extreme of the same form. 

1699. Phasianus hagenbecki R. = Phasianus colcUcus hagenbecki. 

Phasianu.s hagenbecki Rotliscliild, Bull. B.O. Club, xii, p. 20 (1901— Kobdo valley, N.W. MongoUa). 
Type: c? Kobdo River near Kobdo, May 1901. Wilhelm Grieger coU. 
Bought from Carl Hagenbeck. 

1700. Phasianus ijimae Dress. = Syrmaticm soemmeriugii ijimae. 
Phasianus ijimae Dresser, Ibis, 1902, p. 656 (Province of Hinga on Kiu-siu- Island, Japan). 
Type : S ad., S.E. Kiu-siu, 1902. Ex H. E. Dresser. 

17(11. Chalcuras inopinatus R. = Pohjphciron inopinatum. 

Chalcurns inopinatus Rothschild, BM. B.O. Club, xii, p. 42 (1903-Ulu Pahang, central Malay 
Peninsula). 
Type : ^ ad., Ulu Pahang, January 1902. Obtained by John Waterstradt's 

native hunters. 

This wonderful species is in some ways so intermediate between typical 
Poh/pleclroii and Chakiirus that it is advisable to suppress the latter genus. 
The number of tail-feathers in P. iLopinotum is 20. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 29 

1702. Rheinardius ocellatus nigrescens R. = Rheinardms oceUatus nigrescens. 

Rheinardius ocellatus niijrcsoens Kotlisohild, Bull. B.O. Cltih, xii, p. 55 (1902 — UIu Pahang, eastern 
Malay Peninsula). 

Type : cj ad., Ulu Pahang, caught by John Waterstradt's native hunters. 

1703. Polyplectron katsumatae R. = Polyplectron bicalcaratum katsumatae. 

Polyplectron kaUumatae Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xvi, p. HI (1906 — Mt. Wuchi, Hainan). 

Type : ^ ad., Mt. Wuchi, 18.x. 1905. Katsumata (a Japanese collector of 
Alan Owston) coll. 

1704. Melanoperdix nigra bomeensis R. = Melanoperdix nigra borneensis. 

Melanoperdix nigra borneensis Rothschild, Bidl. B.O. Club, xxxviii, p. 3 (1917 — Borneo). 

Tjrpe : (J ad., Balingean, Sarawak, Borneo, 4.iv.l903. W. Brooks coll. 

1705. Ptilopachus fuscus major Neum. = Ptilopachus petrosus major. 

Ptilopachvs fuscns major Xeumann, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xxi, p. 68 (1908 — " North Abyssinia "). 

Type : ^J ad., Arba Shiko, Erythrea, 5,850 feet, on the Anseba River, 
IC.iii. 1903. G. Schrader coll. 

1706. Ptilopachus fuscus brehmi Neum. = Ptilopachus petrosus brehmi. 

Ptilopachus fnscus brehmi Xeumann, Bull. B.O. Club, xxi, p. 68 (1908 — Kordofan). 

Type : " ? med." Melpes, East Kordofan, 4. v. 1848. Alfred Brehm coll., 
von MiiUer's expedition. 

1707. Perdix hodgsoniae caraganae Meinertzh. = Perdix hodgsoniae caraganae. 

Perdix hodgsoniae caraganae Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xlvi, p. 86 (1926 — Eastern Ladak). 
Type : (J ad., near Shushal, E. Ladak, IS.vi. 1925. R. Meinertzhagen coU. 

1708. Eupsychortyx mocquerysi Hart. = Eupsychortyx sonnini mocquerysi, ? or 

more correctly : Eupsyortyx crisMus mocquerysi. 
Eupsychortyx mocquerysi Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, iii, p. 37 (1894 — Cumana, N. Venezuela). 

Type : (J ad., " Cumana," January 1894. Albert Mocquerys coll. 

I cannot help feeling unhappy at some of the localities given on labels of 
Albert Mocquerys. It is not impossible that the sisecimens got mixed, only 
the month and year when collected being marked. It is also possible that 
some specimens were bought aUve or had been escaped, as in Curagao and Puerto 
CabeUo Eupsychortyx are sold in cages, alive, for food and for aviaries. Moc- 
querys sent us several sonnini and two mocquerysi, all labelled " Cumana." 

There is an excellent review of the genus Eupsychortyx by Clyde Todd in 
the A^lk, 1920, pp. 189-220, but I am sorry to say I cannot agree with him in 
all points. 

First of all I consider the grouping into three species quite arbitrary, and in 
my opinion they are best all treated as subsiDeoies of one species. I do not believe 
that two forms are actually at home in Cumana proper, as I have already explained. 
The two different forms, leucotis and parvicristatus, which used to come among 
the Bogota trade skins, do not, as far as we can deduct at present, occur together. 
Chapman only came across leucotis, which is found on the western slopes of the 



30 NOVITATES ZOOLOCICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

Western Andes, in the Canca valley as far south as La Sierra south of Popayan. 
" In the upper Magdalena valley it is abundant," saj-s Chapman, who also had 
it from the eastern Andes, from El Carmen and El Alto de la Paz, north of 
Bogota. C. cristatus parvicristatus, on the other hand, he only had from Fomeque 
on the eastern slopes of the Bogota Andes, towards the Rio Meta plains. Also, 
Todd allows what he calls sonnini only east of the Andes, while his leucotis is 
obviously only known to him from the Andes and west of the Andes. 

Todd united ixirvicristatus described from Bogota trade skins with sonnini 
from the Guianas. 

Thus sonnini would extend throughout Guiana to East Colombia. Thi.s, 
however, is in my opinion not correct. It is true that we have not seen specimens 
from Cayenne, nor seem they to have been recorded recently from the French 
Colony, but they have been observed and collected in Surinam by Penard, and 
I have examined a good series from British Guiana, in Tring and London, which 
I presume to be the same as the Cayenne form. These latter differ from the 
specimens from the Bogota collections and from a series from the Caura River, 
a southern tributary of the Orinoco, and those from Altagracia, about 150 miles 
west of Ciudad Bolivar (Angostura), in the Tring Museum in being generally less 
brightly coloured, and chiefly by the chest not being reddish chestnut, but reddish 
grey, in both cases very finely sprinkled, as if powdered, with blackish. 

The series from the Caura and Orinoco basins are very much hke parvicristatus 
from the eastern side of the Colombian Andes, and I caimot venture to separate 
them, though probably the ear-coverts are as a rule darker chocolate in Bogota 
specimens, and possibly, if better series were available, the measures would differ 
somewhat. 

In any case, the Guiana E. cristatus sonnini is not the same as E. c. parvi- 
cristatus and as the Orinoco skins. 

1709. Numida sabyi Hart. = Numida meleagris sabyi. 
Numida sabyi Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxix, p. 69 (1919 — West Marocco) ; cf . Bull. Soc. Sciences Nat, 
Maroc, v, p. 302 (1926 '). 

Type : Ad., shot by Monsieur Paul Saby near Oulmes, Zemmour district, 
West Marocco, February 1919. 

t 1710. Numida ptilorhyncha omoensis Neum. = Numida meleagris macroceras. 

Numida ptilorhtjnclia omoensis Neumann, Journ. f. Oni. 1904, p. 407 (" Taler des Omo und seiner 
Xebenflusse "). 

Type : Koscha, N. of Omo River, 21. ii. 1901. Oscar Neumann coll. 

I cannot separate omoensis from the specimens from the South-Ethiopian 
lakes and neighbouring countries. N. m. macroceras (= omoensis) differs, how- 
ever, from the Guinea-fowl of Northern Abyssinia (Erythrea), which seems to be 
the same as the one from Nubia (Naikhala, N. C. Rothschild coll.). 

1711. Numida ptilorhyncha toruensis Neum. = Numida meleagris toruensis. 

Numida ptilorhynclia toruensis Xenmaiin, Journ. f. Orn. 1904, p. 410 ("' Toru "). 

Type : c? ad., Mokia River, Toru (Uganda Protectorate), 24. iv . 1899. W. J. 
Ansorge coll. 

' The part is dated " 31 aout 1925," but did not appear before July 1926. 



NOVITATKS ZoOLOCilCAE XXXIV. 1927. 31 

This form has only an apology of bristles and connects the bristly subspecies 
with those without bristles on the forehead. It differs in several ways (besides 
being blacker, there are not the white vermiculations surrounding the round 
white spots on the breast whieli nialie the northern meleagris {ptilorhynchns auct.) 
look so much less blackish) from the other forms. 

(? f) 1712 Numida transvaalensis Neum. = ? Numida meleagrii coronatn. 

Numida transvaalensis Neumann, Orn. Monatsher. 1899, p. 26 (Transvaal). 

Type : ^ ad., Rustenburg in Transvaal, 9.vii. 1893. W. Ayres coll. 
I have not sufficient material at my disposal at Tring at present to decide 
about this form ; Sclater is of opinion that it cannot be separated from coronata. 

(?) t 1713. Numida ansorgei Hart. = probably Numida meleagris reichenowi. 

Numida ansorgei Hartert, in Ansorgc's Under the African Sun, p. 331 (Lake Nakuni, Uganda 
Protectorate). 

Type: <J ad., Lake Nakuru, Kenya Colony, 28.iii.1898. W. J. Ansorge 
coll. No. 357. 

Though the differences stated in my original description exist, they are 
probably individual. The type looks more like N. m. intermedia Neum., the 
distribution and distinguishing characters of which require further confirmation, 
but geographically it can hardly be different from the Lake Elmenteita and 
Kikuyu Escarpment examples. 

1714. Guttera cristata seth-smithi Neum. = Oxdtera edouardi selh-smifhi. 

Guttera crislata seth-smithi Neumann, Ball. B.O. Club, xxiii, p. 13 (1908 — Budongo forest, Unyoro), 
Type : ^ ad., Budongo forest, 19.iii. 1907. L. M. Seth-Smith coll. 
A very distinct subspecies. 

1715. Megapodius duperreyii buruensis Stres. = Megapodius duperreyii buruensis. 

Megapodius duperreyii buruensis Streseraann, Nor. Zool. 1914, p. 41 (Burn). 

Type : S ad.. Mount Mada (Gunung Fogha), Burn, 3,000 feet, August 1898. 
A. Dumas coll. 

1716. Talegallus purpureicoUis Le Souef = Alectura lathami purpureicollis. 

faUgallus purpureic.ollis Le Souef, Ihis, 1898, p. 51 (Cape York). 

Type : ^ Somerset, Cape York, 20.x. 1896. H. G. Barnard coll. 



APTERYGES. 
(?) 1717. Apteryx occidentalis R. = Apteryx oivenii occidentalis (?). 

Apteryx occidentalis Rothsoliild, Bull. B.O. Club, i, p. Ixi (1893 — " On the west coast of the South 
and North Islands." " I propose to call this Apteryx occidentalis, a subspecies of A. oweni "), 

Type : A live male obtained by a Mr. Bills at Dusky Sound, southern west 
coast of the South Island of New Zealand. (Cf. BuUer, Suppl. B. Xew Zealand, 
p. 23.) The specimen was described from the live bird, which afterwards died. 
It certainly looked somewhat different from other specimens, kept alive at the 
same time, but if there is a second subspecies of Owen's Kiwi, it can onl^^ be the 



32 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

western form, from the western side of the South Island, and it differs in no way 
whatever from other specimens, except perliaps by larger size, including a larger 
bill. We have specimens from Dusky Sound, the Upper BuUer district, the 
Heaphy River, GiUespie Beach, Cook's Glacier, Martin's Bay, and Nelson, all 
localities on the west side. Our other specimens are all from " New Zealand " ; 
they are smaller, but at least some of them are not adult. Until a series from 
the eastern side of New Zealand is available, it is not possible to settle the question 
whether there is a larger western and a smaller eastern form of Owen's Kiwi. 

It must be repeated that, as far as we are aware, only one specimen is 
known from the North Island (cf. Nov. Zool. 1899, p. 385), which does not 
differ from west coast examples. There is, therefore no question of a different 
North Island form. 

Apteryx mollis Potts, 1873, given to an albino Kiwi from the west coast, 
should apparently be the name, if the larger subspecies is recognised. 

(Apteryx Icncryi Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, i, p. Ixi, 1893, was a new name 
for BuUer's A. maximus, which was not Verreaux's ^4. maximus (cf. Bull. B.O. 
Club, I.e.). It was not accepted as different by the author — Nov. Zool. 1899, 
p. 363. Here again a very fine series from Stewart Island, the terra typica of 
lauryi, is available, but very few others with definite locaUty. There is no 
difference in colour between any of these, except individually darker and lighter 
plumage. Though the largest specimens known are from Stewart Island, we 
do not know if equally large ones are not found on South Island.) 



GRYPTURI. 

1718. Crypturus berlepschi R. = Crypturus berlepschi berlepschi. 

Crypturus berlepschi Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, vii, p. .5 (1897 — Cachabe, N. Ecuador) ; fig. Nov. 
Zool. V. 

Type: ? ad., Cachavi, N.W. Ecuador, about 500 feet, 3. xi. 1896. W. F. H. 
Rosenberg coU. 

1719. Crypturus soui harterti Brab. & Chubb = Crypturus soui liarterli. 

Cryplurtis soui harlerii Brabouriie & Chubb, Ann. cfc Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xiv, p. 321 (1914 — " Va- 
queria, N. Ecuador "). 

Type: ? Vaqueria, N. Ecuador, 4. iii. 1902. R. Miketta coll. 

This form seems to me quite distinct. We had three skins, not only from 
Vaqueria, but also from Bulun and Rio Tapayo in N. Ecuador. Chapman 
mentions it from various localities in the trojjical zone in N. Ecuador and north- 
wards to " north-western Colombia." 



1720. Crypturus soui hofftnannsi Brab. & Chubb = Crypturus soui hoffmannsi. 

Crypturus soui hoffmnntisi Brabourne & Chubb, Ann. i- Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xiv, p. 321 (1914 — ■ 
" Humaytha, Rio Madeira "). 

Type: $ Humaytha, Rio Madeira, 19. viii. 1900. W. Hoffmanns coll. 
No. 1115. 

Judging from our material this form seems to be separable, but it requires 
confirmation. We have a little series from various places on the Rio Madeira. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 33 

1721. Crypturus soui andrei Brab. & Chubb = Cr upturns soui andrei 1 

Crypturus soui andrei Brabourne & Chubb, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xiv, p. 321 (1914 — Trinidad). 

Type : " ? " Caparo, Trinidad, 16. iv. 1902. Andre coll. 

Chubb saw six specimens from Trinidad in the Tring Museum, but he men- 
tions only one female. This form requires further confirmation ; specimens 
from northern Venezuela seem to be the same, but they differ much from each 
other. 

1722. Crypturus undulatus confusus Brab. & Chubb = Crypluriis adspersus 

confusus. 

Crypturus nndnlatus confiistis Brabourne k Chubb, Ann. db Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xiv, p. 321 (1914 — 
" Humaytha, Rio Madeira, Brazil "). 

Type : ? Humaytha, 29. ix. 1900. W. Hoffmanns coll. No. 1301. 



1723. Crypturus hellmayri Brab. & Chubb = Crypturus hellmayri. 

Crypturus hellmayri Brabourne & Chubb, Ann. cfc Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xiv, p. 322 (1914 — " Humaytha, 
Rio Madeira "). 

Type : " cj " Humaytha, IS.viii. 1906. W. Hoffmanns coll. No. 1107. 

This is a single specimen and apparently not fully adult (see the wing-coverts). 
Hellmayr called it strigidosus, a species we do not possess. The grouping into 
species and subspecies of these Tinamous requires some study. 



1724. Crypturus bartletti caroli Brab. & Chubb = Crypturus brevirostris caroli ? 

Crypturus bartletti caroli Brabourne & Chubb, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xiv, p. 321 (1914 — " Rio 
Madeira "). 

Type: "?" Humaytha, Rio Madeira, Brazil, l.viii.l90G. W. Hoff- 
manns coll. 

I find we have 3 adults and 2 young (supposed to belong to this form), not 
only one. I doubt if this form will be upheld, and I think bartletti and brevirostris 
are subspecies of one species, but our material is insufficient to come to a definite 
conclusion. 

1725. Nothura salvadorii Hart. = Nothura boraquira (?) salvadorii. 
Nothura salvadorii Hartert, Nov. Zool. xvi, p. 266 (1909 — Salt a, N.W. Argentina). 

Type : $ ad., Arenal, province dc Salta, 750 m., 6.xi. 1903. L. Dinelli coll. 

I thmk boraquira, vmrmorata, darwini, and salvadorii must be subspecies of 
one species, but our material of these birds is scanty, so I cannot form a definite 
opinion. 



1726. Tinamus tao septentrionalis Chubb & Brabourne = Tinamus tao septen- 

trionalis. 

Tinamus tao septentrionalis Chubb & Brabourne, Ann. it Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), xii, p. 578 (1913 — 
Plains of Cuniana in North Venezuela). 

Type : il ad., Plain of Cumana, 21 .iv.lS98. Caracciolo co)l. 
3 



34 NoVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

CASUARII. 

(All the notes signed " R." are supplied by Lord Rothschild, on whose 
authority the division in species and subspecies is also made. As so many of the 
Cassowaries came alive without any notion of their habitat, the accepted species 
and subspecies of course require coniirmation. Collectors in New Guinea and 
neighbouring islands should particularly look out for Cassowaries, and if they 
collect specimens a sketch and description of shape and colours of the head and 
neck should be made. Only by much more faithful labour in many places can 
our knowledge of these birds be considerably advanced.) 

1727. Casuarius casuarius violicoUis R. = Casuarius casuarius violicollis. 

Casuarius casuariv^ violicollis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. CUih, viii, p. xxvli (1899 — " Aru Islands, 
? Trangan Island "). Fig. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, xv, pi. 26. 

Type : Mounted by Doggett, sex not stated. Bought alive from a sailor in 
Liverpool, who said it came from the Aru Islands. Therefore Trangan was sug- 
gested, as beccarii was known from another island. As Heinrich Kiihn later on 
collected a specimen on Trangan, that suggestion must have been correct. 

1728. Casuarius casuarius lateralis R. = Casuarius casuarius lateralis. 

Casuarius casuarius lateralis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 30 (1925 — " North coast to North- 
East New Guinea "). 

Type : cj ^<i., bought from the late William Jamrach, who said it came 
from the " north coast of Dutch New Guinea," " near the frontier of the former 
German colony." 

" The locality given by Jamrach is probably correct, as I have now in my 
possession a wUd shot specimen from the former German colony. This form is 
nearest to C. c. altijugus Scl. but differs by the small amount of orange-red on 
the lower hind-neck, by the entirely blue lower sides of the neck, and the red 
colour along the muscles which run up to each side of the gape only extends 
about half-way uji towards the gajse." (R.) 

1729. Casuarius casuarius intensus R. = Casuarius bicarunculatus inlensus. 

Casuarius casuariu,s intensus Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cliih, viii, p. xxi (1898 — " Hab. unknown"). 
Fig. Trans. Zool. iioc. London, xv, pi. xxvii. 

Type : cJ mounted, bought alive from Jamrach in London. 

" When I wrote the monograph of the Cassowaries I considered all two- 
wattled Cassowaries as subspecies of Casuarius casuarius. Dr. WoUaston, how- 
ever, found intensus and sclateri on the foothills of the Snow Mountains, and 
both snlvadorii and altijugus were found on the north coast of New Guinea by 
Laglaize. I therefore concluded that bicarunculatus and casuarius are two dis- 
tinct species." (R.) 

1730. Casuarius casuarius chimaera R. = Casuarius bicarunculatus chimaera. 

Casuarius casuarius chimaera Rothscliild, Bull. B.O, Clu'j, xiv, p. 39 (1904 — " Habitat unknown "). 

Type : Mounted, bought aUve from Carl Hagenbeck in Hamburg. 

" This most extraordinary of all Cassowaries shows the nearest approach in 
the wattles to C. bicarunculatus bicarunculatus of Kabroor (Aru). It is the 
smallest known Cassowary." (R.) 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 35 

t 1731. Casuarius unappendiculatus suffusus R. = Casuarius unappendiculatus 

rufotinctus. 

Casvarin^ unappendicvlalus sufftisus Rothschild, Bvll. B.O. Club, xv, p. 39 (1904 — " Habitat un- 
known " ). 

Type : Mounted. Bought alive from W. Jamrach in London. 

" Since describing .siiffusus and rufotinctus I have had aUve two fine adult 
specimens, one of each of the two supposed forms. The result of my examination 
of these two birds convinced vaeih&isujfusus is oi\\y a, rufotinctus with the wattle 
partially or wholly destroyed." (R.) 



1732. Casuarius unappendiculatus rufotinctus R. = Casuarius unappendiculatus 

rufotinctus. 

Casuarius unapperulicukiliis rufotincttis Rothschild, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, xv, pt. v, p. 137 (1900 — 
" Hab. unknown ") ; also Bull. B.O. Club, xlvii, p. 26 (October 1926). 

Type : ? ad., mounted. Bought as a brown striped chick from Cross 
in Liverpool, and was reared in Tring, later on deposited in the Zoological 
Gardens in London, where it grew up and was described when about three 
years old. 

" In his account of the birds from the Sepik River Dr. Stresemann said that 
he recognised only two certain races of unappendiculatus, viz. uruippendiculatus 
unappe/idiculatus from Salwatty and unappendiculatus occipitalis from Jobi and 
the mainland of New Guinea. In vol. xlvii, p. 26, 1926, of Bull. B.O. Club, 
I explained that I did not agree with this view. Stresemann's view was evidently 
founded on the differences between the two specimens found by Dr. Biirgers. 
But the birds from various places show great differences in the helmets as well 
as in the colours of the bare parts. Moreover, the exact coloration of Jobi 
specimens is not known, as nobody in Europe has examined living Jobi 
examples. Now both Laglaize's specimens in Paris have the three-cornered 
helmet of unappendiculatus unappendiculatus, though of an exaggerated size. 
They can therefore not be identical with rufotinctus, which has the upright 
helmet of casuarius. The type of rufotinctus is a variety with much blue on 
the foreneck, and so is a second specimen now in the Tring Museum, but fully 
adult normal examples have the whole foreneck and sides of neck crimson, only 
the wattle being blue." (R.) 



1733. Casuarius unappendiculatus mitratus R. = Casiiarius mitrattis. 

Casuarius tinapperuliculatns milraliis Rothschild, Bull, B.O. Cluh, xiv, p. 38 (1904 — " Habitat un- 
known"). Fig. Nov. Zool. 1907, p!. vi. 

Type : Adult, mounted, bought alive from A. E. Jamrach. 

" I think it is advisable, from the large size of this bird, the purity of the 
turquoise blue head and its great disparity from -unappendiculatus unappendicu- 
latus, to keep this form as a species, though, when we know the distribution of 
all Cassowaries it may possibly prove to be after aU an extreme race of unappen- 
diculatus. C. mitratus differs at first sight from rufotinctus by lacking the orange 
occipital patch, but it has the intensely crimson lower sides of the neck, hke 
unajtpendiculatus rufotinctus." (R.) 



36 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1734. Casuarius doggetti R. = Casiiarms doggetti. 

Casiiaritis doggetti Rothschild, BuU. B.O. Club, xiv, p. 39 (1904 — Habitat unknown). 

Type : Mounted, bought alive from Carl Hagenbeck. 

" Differs from all the one-wattled Cassowaries by having two short wattles, 
but unlike the forms of C. bicariincidatiis and C crisiiariuf: these wattles are 
placed above each other. In coloration it differs from all one-wattled Cassowaries 
by the very large yeUow occipital patch, and from rujotinctus by the pale yellow 
border to the crimson lower sides of the neck, the yellow, not crimson foreneck, 
and the three-cornered helmet." (R.) 

1735. Casuarius philipi R. = Casuarius philipi. 

Casuarius philipi RothschUd, Nov. Zool. v, p. 418 ( 1898 — " Probably Eastern German New Guinea " ). 
Figured Trans. Zool. Soc. London, xv, pt. v. The real habitat is still unknown. 

Type : Mounted, purchased ahve. 

" At first sight it might appear that C. philipi was an extreme melanistic 
example of unappendiculatus rothsckildi, but the much deeper blue of the foreneck 
than that of the hindneck, as well as the very short and very stout leg.s, serve to 
distinguish it at once." (R.) 

1736. Casuarius hagenbecki R. = Casuarius hagenbechi. 

Casuarius ImgenhecU Rothschild, Bidl. B.O. Clii'i, xiv. p. 40 (1904 — No locality). 

Type : Mounted, purchased from Carl Hagenbeck. 

" Casuarius liagenhecki and jamrachi differ from all other Cassowaries by 
having five wattles. They differ from each other in the coloration of the head 
and neck." (R.) 

When this bird was described it was quite young, and at the time of its death 
the colours of the naked parts had changed considerably. The head and foreneck 
had become blue, the hind-neck and sides of the neck had become orange-yellow, 
striped with scarlet-red. As the bird has still a lot of its juvenile brown plumage 
it is quite possible that when perfectly adult it woidd have proved to be identical 
with jamrachi, but this is impossible to confirm at present. Nothing whatever 
is known about its habitat. 

1737. Casuarius jamrachi R. = Casuarius jamrachi. 

Casuarius jamrachi Rothschild, BuU. B.O. C'luh, xiv, p. 40 (1904 — No locality known). 

Type : Mounted, purchased when by no means adult from WiUiam Jamrach. 

This bird also changed very much, and a better description as well as a really 
good plate is published in Nov. Zool. 1907, p. 504, and plate v. Nothing is 
known about its habitat ; the suggestion that it might have come from the 
Admiralty Islands is unfounded. 

1738. Casuarius papuanus goodfellowi R. = Casvxirius pajmanus goodfellowi. 

Casuarius papuunus ijoodjdluu-i Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxv, p. 7 (1914 — Jobi Island). 

Type : Mounted in the Tring Museum. It was originall}' bought by A. E. 
Pratt on Jobi Island, and brought to London in 1914. It died in the Zoological 
Gardens in January 1917, and is beautifully mounted by Rowland Ward's taxi- 
dermist. The se.x is not stated. 

" This form is distinguished by the purple patch on the sides of the head, 
imder the ear, and the lower part of the sides of the neck is deep violet." (R.) 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 37 

1739. Casuarius keysseri R. = Casuarius keysseri. 

Casuarius keysseri Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xxix, p. .50 {1912 — " Rawlinson Mts., German New 
Guinea "). 

Type : Adult, brought alive from the Rawlinson Mts. (Saruwaged group), 
by the Rev. Keysser. Died in the London Zoological Gardens. 

" This bird seems to represent C. loriae R., nsfoersteri does picticollis." (R.) 

1740. Casuarius foersteri R. = Casvarius foersteri. 

Castiarius foersleri Rothschild, Bull. B.U. l.'luh, xxxiii, p. 66 (1913 — "Two days inland of Huon 
Gulf"). 

Type ; Collected one day's journey from the Sattelberg, Huon Gulf region, 
by the Rev. Keysser. The description of the colours of the bare j)arts and the 
coloration of the mounted specimen are taken from a sketch by Mr. Keysser. 

1741. Casuarius loriae R. = Casuarius loriae. 

Casuarius loriae Rothschild, Nov. Zool. v, p. .'JlS (1898 — Owen Stanley Mts,, Upper Brown River, etc.). 
Type : Aroa River, British New Guinea, Emil Weiske coll. 

1742. Casuarius roseigularis R. = Casuarius roseigularis. 

Casuarius roseigularis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xv, p. 32 (1905 — " Habitat unknown "). 

TyjDe : A yoinig female in brown plumage, which unfortunately died (at the 
Zoological Gardens) three days after its arrival in England. Bought from Easton, 
a dealer. 

" This is inifortunately quite a young brown bird. From observations made 
on other Cassowaries in respect to changes of colour of the naked parts of the 
head and neck it is probable that the pink foreneck would have become crimson, 
and the occiput pale greenish blue, while the hindneck and sides of neck would 
have remained yellow. I never saw any other young Cassowary like it." (R.) 



RHEIDAE. 
1743. Pterocnemia tarapacensis garleppi Chubb = Rhea 'penjiata garUppi. 

Pierocnemia tarapacensis garlijypi Cliubb, Btill. B.O. Cluh, xxxiii, p. 79 (1913 — Bolivia). 

Type : (J ad. Esperanza, Bohvia, over 4,000 m., 9.x. 1890. Gustav GarlejDp, 
No. 1683. 

When the late Count Berlepsch received Garlejiji's specimens he said at 
once that they should be different from those of the Argentine jjlains, but having 
none of the latter to compare he refrained from describing it. For me Rhea 
pennata pennata (= darwini), tarapacensis, a,nd garleppi me doubtless subspecies. 

STRUTHIONIDAE. 
1744. Struthio camelus syriacus R. = SlrutMo camelus syriacus. 

Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xxxix, p. 83 (1919 — Syrian Desert). 

Type : cj ad., received as a chick from the Syrian Desert and reared by 
J. Aharoni in Rehobot near Jaffa, killed in 1918. 



38 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

1745. Psaimnomis rothschildi Andrews = Psammornis roikschildi. 

Psammornis rothschildi Andrews, Verh. V. Internal. Ornith. Kongr. p. 173 (1912 ' — " Twenty miles 
east o£ Touggourt, S. Algeria," cf. p. 169). 

Types : Two pieces of egg-shell found on the surface in the sand region east 
of Touggourt, in the Sahara. Similar pieces, quite different from pieces of eggs 
of Stritthio camelus (which are commonly found in the northern Sahara), but 
apparently belonging to another species of " Psammornis," were found by Hilgert 
and myself 20 mUes south of Biskra, and in various places between Ouargla and 
El-Golea, also by Dr. Fromholz near Temassinine, and by Erlanger and Hilgert 
in the Tunisian Sahara. Most of these pieces are thinner than the types of 
P. rothschildi, but havmg been subjected to the action of drifting sand, they must 
be worn down considerably. The pieces found 20 miles south of Biskra were 
put together in a playful way, obviously by children, but it is not probable that 
they were brought there from far away. (Cf. Nov. Zool. xx, 1913, p. 71.) 

1 The volume, tliough dated 1911, did not appear before January or February 1912, 

(ADDITIONS TO FOLLOW.) 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 39 



SUPPLEMENT TO THE AVIFAUNA OF YUNNAN (NOVITATES 
ZOOLOGICAE, XXXIII, pp. 189-343). 

By lord ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S. 

TFrHILE the above-mentioned article was in the press, Mr. La Touche sent 
*' to Tring a list and notes on a number of birds sent him by Mr. E. P. 
Laurente from time to time ; principally collected at Szemao in S. Yunnan. 

The list enumerates 73 species and subspecies, of which 22 are not included 
in my Avifauna of Yunnan. The following is the complete list. I have put 
in particulars where examples have not already been given. 

1. Bambusicola fytchii fytchii Anders. 
1 (J Szemao, Oct. 10, 1922. 

2. Porzana fusca erythrothorax (Temm. & Schl.). 

3. Sphenocercus sphenuras yunnanensis La Touche. 
1 cJ Hokow, Sept. 16, 1921 (cage bird). 

4. Falco columbarius insignis (Clark). 

1 c? ? Yunnanfu, Feb. 4, 1922 (wing 216 mm.). The length of wing points 
to an error in sexing, as 4 other Chinese birds have a wing-measurement of 200, 
206, 207, 207 mm. Type locaUty Corea. 

5. Glaucidium cuculoides cuculoides (Gould). 
1 ? ad., 2 (JcJ imm., Szemao, Sept. 10 and Oct. 10, 1922. 

6. Otus bakkamoena glabripes (Swinh.). 
1 cJ Szemao, Nov. 10, 1922. 

7. Otus japonicus (Temm. & Schl.). 
I cJ Szemao, June 10, 1922. 

8. Centropus bengalensis bengalensis (Gm.). 
1 cj Szemao, July 6, 1922. 

9. Centropus sinensis intemiedius (Hume). 
I cJ imm., Szemao, Aug. 4, 1922. 

10. Chalcites maculatus (Gm.). 
1 c? imm., Hokow, July 1, 1921. 

11. Dryobates semicoronatus subsp. ? (most likely omissus). 
1 (J Yunnanfu, Feb. 12, 1922 ; 1 ? 1 



40 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

12. Ceryle rudis iiisignis Hartert. 
2 cJcJ Szeniao, July 1 and Sept. 10, 1922. 
C. r. insignia difiers from leucomelanura in the much larger bill. 

13. Ceyx tridactyla (Pall.). 
1 ? Hokow, July 10, 1921 (only Chinese record). 

14. Merops orientalis ferragiceps Anders. 
1 (J Szemao, Oct. 1, 1922. 

lo. Cyanops asiatica laurentii Wells. 
1 cJ Tsing Lung Chang, 5,500 feet, May 8, 1922. 

16. Xantholaema haematocephala indica (Latham). 
1 (J Szemao, Nov. 10, 1922. 

17. Megalaema virens virens (Bodd.). 
1 cJ Szemao, March 2, 1923. 

18. Lyncomis cerviniceps Gould. 
1 J Mengtsz, Nov. 16, 1921. 

19. Riparia paludicola chinensis (Gray). 

1 (J Szemao, Jan. 26, 1923 (said to be found all over China, but this is the 
ONLY ONE ever received by La Touche). 

20. Oligura castaneocoronata dejeani (Oust.). 
1 o Szemao, Jan. 1, 1923 (I had identified Forrest's specimens as 0. c. 
castaneocoronata, but they really are also dejeani). 

21. Elachura laurentei La Touche. 

1 ? Mahuangpo, July 13, 1921 (nearest to Elachura formosa, but much 
darker). 

22. Prunella inunaculata (Hodgs.). 
1 c?, 1 ? Yunnanfu, Jan. 12, Feb. 10, 1922. 

23. Myiophoneus eugeniae (Hume). 

1 $ Milati, Dec. 1, 1921 ; 1 ^ Szemao, Sept. 10, 1922. (^ 190, $ 160 mm. 
fide La Touche. There is some error here apparently, as all my eugeniae i^i^ 
have wings from 163-170 mm. and $9 160-165 mm., those of coeruleus 105-170, 
while cJ(J of temmincki run from 165-180.) 

24. Monticola erythrogastra (Vig.). 
1 ? ad., 1 o" imni., Milati, Dec. 6, 1921, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 41 

25. Turdus mupinensis conquisitus Bangs. 
1 (J June 1923, loc. ? 

26. Turdus marginatus (Blyth). 
1 (J Szemao, Dec. 31, 1922 (1st record for Yunnan). 

27. Pomatorhinus ruflcoUis albipectus La Touche. 

Already mentioned in my article (2 Szemao), but here add 1 no label. 

28. Pomatorhinus macclellandi odicus Bangs & Phill. 

1 cJ, 1 ? Szemao, Sept. 5, 1923 ; and June 6, 1922. 

29. Garrulax cineracea styani (Oust.). 

2 (J (J Szemao, Feb. 28, 1923. (La Touche enumerates these under cinereiceps, 
and Kinnear in a note agrees with him ; but I cannot accept this identification, 
for La Touche expressly says these 2 birds lack the chestnut sides of the head 
of Fokien examples, whereas cinereiceps has these chestnut patches. Therefore 
I cannot designate these Szemao specimens otherwise than as styani. The whole 
question will have to be carefuUy re-examined when more material is available.) 

30. Garrulax lanceolata lanceolata (Verr.). 
1 cJ, 1 ? Szemao, June 10, 1923. 

31. Garrulax chinensis lowei (La Touche). 
1 cJHokow, July 30, 1921. 

32. Garrulax chinensis leucogenys (Blyth). 
1 (J Szemao, June 8, 1923. 

33. Garrulax leucolophus diardi (Less.). 

1 (J Szemao, Dec. 31, 1922. (It is most strange that this bird, which one 
would expect to find in Yunnan, has only been obtained at Szemao ; while the 
other seven specimens recorded from Yunnan are aU G. I. leucolophus.) 

34. Garrulax canora namtiensis (La Touche). 

1 (J Hokow, July 30, 1921 ; 1 q Szemao. (La Touche separates this latter 
as a doubtful subspecies, but I believe the differences are due to wear.) 

35. Timelia pUeata jerdoni Walden. 

1 cJ, 1 ? Szemao, May 10, 1923 ; Dec. 21, 1922. (This is piohahly intertnedia 
Kimiear.) 

36. Pellomeum ruficeps minus Hume. 
1 cJ Szemao. 

37. Pellomeum ruficeps vividum La Touche. 
1 o. 1 ? Hokow, March 31, 1921. (Omitted by accident from my Avifauna.) 



42 NoviTATES ZuOLouicAi: XXXIV. 1927. 

38. Fulvetta ruficapilla sordidior (Ripp.). 

1 s3 Szemao, Aug. 10, 1922 ; 1 cJ, 2 $$ Yunnanfu, June 12, 1921 ; 2 ? no 
locality. 

39. Lioptila desgodinsi (Dav. & Oust.). 

1 cJ Tsing Lung Chang, 5,300 feet, Yunnanfu-Szemao Route. 

40. Brachypteryx cruralis formaster {Th. & Bangs). 

1 J Alushinching, April 24, 1922 (both C. cruralis and C. sinensis are very 
similar, but smaller). 

41. Stachyridopsis ruficeps bhamoensis Har. 

I 1 Yunnanfu, June 6, 1921. (La Touche has identified the above Yunnanfu 
example with bhamoensis.) 

42. Minla ignotinca mariae La Touche. 

1 <J, 2 ?? Milati, Dec. 1, 1921. 

43. Siva cyanuroptera wingatei 0. Grant. 
1 cJ, 2 $? Szemao, May 6, Dec. 6, 1922. 

44. Mesia argentauris ricketti La Touche. 

1 c? Szemao, May 23, 1923 ; 1 ^ Alushinching, 6,000 ft., Yunnanfu-Szemao 
Route, May 8, 1922 (wing 78 and 79 mm.). (Possibly all Mesia argentauris 
recorded from Yunnan belong to this subspecies.) 

45. Prinia inornata exter Thay. & Bangs. 
1 $, 1 ? Szemao, June 5 and Aug. 5, 1922. 

46. Phylloscopus ftiscatus Blyth. 

1 ? Mengtsz, Nov. 23, 1921 ; 1 ^ Hokow, Oct. 10, 1921 ; 1 $ Szemao, Dec. 18, 
1922 (wmgs 62, 63, 55 mm.). 

47. Franklinia gracilis (Frankhn). 
1 (J Szemao, Jan. 1, 1923. 

48. Muscicapa thalassina thalassina (Swains.). 
1 (J juv. Yunnanfu, Jmie 1921. 

49. Graucalus macei siamensis Baker. 
1 cJ imm. Szemao, Nov. 10, 1922. 

50. Artamus fuscus \'ieill, 
1 ? vix ad. Hokow, Aug. 29, 1921, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1027. 43 

51. Chloropsis hardwickii melliana vStresem. 

1 $ Alushinching, April 24, 1922. (Bangs and Phillips's examples from 
Loiikouchai are probably this subspecies, but Forrest's birds are undoubtedly 
typical h. hardwickii.) 

52. Microscelis leucocephalus leucocephalus (Gmel.). 

2 cJ^J, 1 $ Szemao, Dec. 10 and 20, 1922. (Mi-. La Touche appUes the name 
psaroides concolor to these birds, but as I have explained in my Avifauna 
concolor is the Burmese subspecies, whereas in Yunnan leucocephalus leucocephalus 
only occurs with 3 colour phases ; the above 3 birds belong to the concolor phase, 
i.e. resemble closely typical Burmese concolor.) 

53. lole virescens Ibnnbergi (Gyldenst.). 
1 9 Szemao, Dec. 31, 1922. 

54. Aegithina tiphia styani La Touche. 
1 (^ Szemao, Dec. 18, 1922 ; 1 no data. 

55. Otocompsa flaviventris flaviventris (Tick.). 
1 (J, 1 ? Szemao, Nov. 1922. 

56. Otocompsa emeria jocosa (Lirm.). 
1 (J imm. Szemao, Sept. 6, 1922 (very much browner than adult examples). 

57. Lanius collurioides siamensis Gyldenst. 

58. Paradoxomis guttaticollis A. Dav. 

3 cJcJ Szemao, Nov. 27, Dec. 16, 1922. 

69. Regulus regulus yuiinanensis Ripp. 
1 c?, 1 ? Yunnanfu, Feb. 12, 1922. 

60. Sitta yunnanensis 0. -Grant. 

1 ? juv. Molangpo, 8,000 ft., Yunnanfu-Szemao Route, May 3, 1922. 

61. Tichodroma muraria (Linn.). 
1 (S Yunnanfu, Jan. 1, 1922. 

62. Arachnothera magna aurata Blyth. 

1 $ (juv. ?) Mahuangpu, no date. 

63. Emberiza cia yimnanensis Sharpe. 
1 c? Yunnanfu, June 12, 1921 ; 1 $ Kopaotsun, June 19, 1921. 

64. Erythrina erythrina roseata (Hodgs.). 
1 cj juv. Yunnanfu, June 8, 1921. (La I'ouche is doubtful if this is rosmta, 
but immature birds of all the species of Erythrina vary considerably.) 



44 NoviTATES ZooLoaiCiUS XXXIV. 1927. 

65. Pyrrhula erythaca altera Ripp. 
1 ? (? ?) Malaupo, May 3, 1922. 

C6. Fringilla montifringilla Linn. 
3 cJjjMilati, Dec. 1, 1921. 

67. Munia atricapilla atricapilla (Vieill.). 

1 (J Szemao May 12, 1923. (La Touche is responsible for identifying this as 
a. atricapiUa, and I keep it so as all my a. rubronigra are from the west of 
Yunnan.) 

68. Amandava amandava flavidiventris (Wall.). 
1 (J Szemao, Aug. 25, 1923. 

69. Ploceus passerinus infortunatus Hartert. 

1 (^ (summer plumage), no data. (A new record for China.) 

70. Spodiopsar cineraceus (Temm. & Schl.). 

2 cJcJ Yunnanfu, Feb. 12, April 10, 1922. 

71. Acridotheres cristatellus cristatellus (Gmel.). 
1 ? juv. Hokow, Aug. 15, 1921. 

72. Cissa chinensis chinensis (Bodd.). 

1 5 Putung, nr. Szemao, Sept. 3, 1924. (This example differs from normal 
c. chinensis in having grej^ bands inside the black subterminal bars of the ter- 
tiaries, instead of chestnut ones ; but this is due either to fading or is a casual 
aberration.) 

73. Dendrocitta formosae himalayensis Blyth. 

1 (J ad., 1 imm. Szemao, June 5 and 8, 1922. 

The following are the forms not enumerated in my Avifauna of Yunnan : 
1. Falco coluinbarius insignis (Clark). 

Aesalon regulus insignis Clark, Proc. U.S. Xat. Mus. vol. xxxii, p. 470 (1907) (Fusan, Corea). 

2. Otus japonicus Temm. & Schl. 
Otiis scops japonicus Temmiuck & Sohlegel in Siebold's Fauna Jap., Aves, p. 27, pi. 9 (1850) (Japan). 

3. Centropus sinensis interinedius (Hume). 

Centrococcyx intermedius Hume, Stray F., vol. i, p. 454 (1873) (Thayetmyo). 

4. Ceryle rudis insignis Hart. 

Ceryle rudis insignis Hartert, Xov. Zool. vol. xvil, p. 210 (1910) (Hainan). 

5. Ceyx tridactyla tridactyla (Pall.). 

Alcedo tridactyla PaUas, Spic. Zool. vol. vii, p. 10, pi. 2, f. 1 (1709) (India, ex Seba, etc., erroneously 
believed to be from America). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1027. 45 

(i. Cyanops asiatica laurentii Wells. 

Cyanops davisoni laurentii Well;, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 17-t (1923) (Yuen Chang). 

7. Xantholaema haematocephala indica (Lath.). 

Biirco indicus Latham, Iitd. Orn. vol. i, p. 205 (1790) (India). 

s. Riparia paludicola chinensis (Gray). 

Hirundo chinensis J. E. Gray in Hardwicke, Ulw.tr. hid, Zool. vol. i, pi. 35, f. 3 (1830-1832) (Nepal). 

0. Elachura laurentei La Touche. 

Elachnra laurentei La Toiiehe, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xliii, p. 172 (1923) (Mahuangpu). 

10. Turdus marginatus (Blyth). 

Zoothera marginata Blyth, Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi, p. 141 (1847) (Arracan). 

11. Garrulax leucolophus diardi {Les.s.). 

Tvrdiw diardi Lesson, Traite d'Orn., p. 408 (1831) (Coohinchina). 

12. Timelia pileata jerdoni Walden. 

Timelia jerdoni Walden, .4?!)(. Mag. Xal. Hist. (4), x, p. 61 (1872) (Kha.sia Hills). 

13. Pellomeum iiificeps vividum La Touche. 

Pellorneum nipalense viridum La Touche, Bull. B.O.C. vol. xlii, p. 17 (1921) (Hokow). 

14. Pellomeum raficeps minus Hume. 

Pellome^im minor Hume, Stray Feath., vol. i, p. 298 (1873) (Thayetmyo). 

15. Brachypteryx cruralis formaster (Th. &. Bangs). 

Heteroxenicjis cruralis formaster Thayer & Bangs, Some Chin. Vert. Aves Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
vol. xl. No. 4, p. 169 (1912) (Washan Mts.). 

16. Mesia argentauris ricketti La Touche. 

Mesia argentauris ricketti La Touche, Bull. B.O.C'. vol. xliii, p. 173 (1923) (Szcraao). 

17. Artamus fuscus Vieill. 

Artamus fuscus Vieillofc, A^ouv. Dirt. d'Hist. Xat. vol. xvii, p. 297 (1817) (Macao). 

18. Chloropsis hardwickii melliana Strcsem. 

Chloropsis harduicHi melliana Strcscinann, .Jmirn. f. Orn. 1923, p. 363 (Kwangtung). 

19. lole vireseens lonnbergi (Gyklenst.). 

Criniger lonnhergi Gyldenstolpe, Kung. Sven. Veten. Hamll. vol.1, No. 8, p. 24 (1913) (Bang-hue- 
hom, 8iam). 

20. Aegithina tiphia styani La Touche. 

Aegithina tiphia styani La Touche, Bull. B.O.i '. vol. xliii. p. 174 (1923) (South Yunnan). 

21. Munia atiicapilla atricapilla (Vieill.). 

Lo.tia atricapilla Vicillot, Ois. Chant, p. 84 (1805) (India), 

22. Cissa chinensis chinensis (Botkl.). 

Coracias chinensis Boddaert, Tahl. PI. Enl. p. 38 (1783) (China). 



46 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXTV. 1927. 



ON SOME BIRDS FROM THE MULUYA VALLEY, EAST 

MAROCCO. 

By ERNST HARTERT. 

WHILE considerable attention has been paid to the birds of western and 
north-western Marocco and the Sous (see list of literature, Nov. ZooL. 
1923, pp. 147-52, further Nov. ZooL. 1924, p. 49, Mem. Soc. Sc. Nat. du Maroc, 
xiii, p. 1, and Bull. Soc. Sc. Nat. du Maroc, v, 6, p. 271), the eastern portion has 
so far remained unknown. 

When looking down from the heights of the eastern slopes of the Middle 
Atlas, towards the Muluya Valley — the still snow-covered summits of the Great 
Atlas grandly showing further south — in June 1925, I remarked to my com- 
panion, Frederick Young, how different that valley looked, and what there 
might be. At that time my friend Admiral Lynes had already been there ; 
he reached Missour, a little north of 33° lat., on the Muluya River, coming from 
Taourirt, and collected there for a few days. Unfortunately the death of his 
mother caused him to abandon his exploration of East Marocco suddenly, and 
he brought home only 35 beautiful bird skins, which he handed over to me for 
study, as he was himself fidly occupied with his work on the genus Cist kola. 
This collection, though the smallest we have ever received from Marocco, is one 
of the most interesting ones. It adds several forms new to the avifauna of 
Marocco and proves (what good maps suggested) that the eastern plain or stony 
plateau of Marocco is very different from western Marocco, which zoologically 
ranges from the Atlantic to the Great and Middle Atlas ; on the other hand, a 
wedge of hammada-like stony desert extends from the foot of the eastern Atlas 
slopes to the Algerian frontier, and its fauna, judging from Lynes's little collection, 
is that of the stony Sahara and the Algerian plateau Ijang between the northern 
and southern Atlas ranges. Thus such absolutely Saharan forms as Ammotnanes 
deserti, Eremophila alpestris bilopha, and Oenanthe deserti homochroa occur at 
Missour, while Galerida cristata randonii is an Algerian Haut Plateau form ; the 
westerly extension of the large and rare Galerida cristata randonii is particularly 
interesting. It is regrettable that Admiral Lynes could not continue the explora- 
tion of the eastern Maroccan wedge, which is dreary stony desert, but very 
interesting all the same. 

Passer domesticus tingitanus Loche. 

Four males and 2 females were shot out of flocks feeding at the camp at 
Missour. The sexual organs were small or only slightly enlarged, but one male 
(apparently shot by itself) had them enlarged to the fullest nesting size. 

All grey-headed, without traces of hispaniolensis, which is very local in 
Marocco. 

Eremophila alpestris bilopha (Temm.). 
A pair, the male with testicles 5 and 6 mm., the female with ovary winter 
size, wag collected at Missour 20.iii. 1926. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 47 

The desert Eremophila is new to the Maroccan list, though probably common 

south of the Anti-Atlas. In the stomach Lynes found grains. 

Ammomanes deserti payni Hart. 

Ammomanes deserli payni, Hartcrt, Bull. B.O. Club, xW, p. 36 (1924) (Figuig, East Morocco). 

Admiral Lynes collected 3 males and 2 females at Missour, 3,000 feet eleva- 
tion, on March 20th and 21st. The sexual organs were whiter size, not yet in 
the least enlarged. 

This form, which is even more reddish than A. deserti algeriensis, is now 
known from Ain-Sefra in West Algeria, Figuig, and the Muluya Valley, at Missour. 

It is interesting to see how this species increases in redness towards the 
west. A. d. algeriensis, intermedia, and mya are redder than deserti and isahellina, 
the greyest forms occur in Western Asia, the palest in eastern Central Arabia, 
the darkest in the Soda Mountains of Trij)olitania and near the shores of the 
Red Sea, in North Arabia, and South Arabia. 

Galerida cristata randonii Loche. 

Admiral Lynes discovered this large Galerida near Missour, on the Muluya. 
On March 21st and 22nd he shot 2 males and 4 females. These specimens I 
cannot distinguish from the two males which I collected in 1914 at Ain Oussera, 
on the Algerian Haut Plateau, nearly half-way between Alger and Laghouat. 
The first description of Galerida randonii ajjpeared in the Rev. et Mag. de ZooL, 
1860, p. 150, but the locality was not stated, only the more than vague state- 
ment was made " dans le Sahara algerien." The exact locality was, however, 
stated in Loche's Cat. Matmn. et Ois., p. 84, two years before : Ain Oussera. 
For this reason I went to Ain Oussera in 1914, with Carl Hilgert, and we obtained 
2 males. So far, Ain Oussera is the only exact locality known. We have, 
at Tring, an adult male from the Riocour collection labelled " Sahara algerien, 
M. Drevou, 1864," the " Sahara algerien " probably meaning the Haut Plateau. 
Admiral Lynes's specimens had the sexual organs winter size or beginning to 
enlarge, in one male testes 5J mm. The stomachs contained grains. 

Galerida cristata rayidonii is therefore apparently only an inhabitant of the 
Haut Plateau from the Muluya in East Marocco to Ain Oussera, and jjrobably 
further eastwards. In the south it is replaced by G. c. macrorhyncha and 
arenicola. It is one of the rarest forms of G. cristata in collections. 

The wings of the males measure 114 and 115, of the females 107-110-5 mm. 

Galerida theklae ruficolor Whit. 

A female was shot 5,000 feet high in the eastern Maroccan Great Atlas, on 
the northern slopes, between Missour and Talsint, on the journey to Bu-Denib, 
March 24th, 1926. 

This bird agrees with Whitaker's G. I. ruficolor, which is widely spread 
from the Oum-er-Rebbia to Marrakesh and the Sous Valley, and in the north 
to Lalla Marnia in N.W. Algeria ; in the eastern wedge of Marocco, Muluya 
Valley, etc., it is replaced by G. t. carolinae, or possibly a sUghtly more long- 
winged form, in colour quite like carolinae. 

The wing of the female shot March 24th measures 101 mm., a rather large 
measurement for ruficolor. 

Monsieur Bede has shot it at Outat-el-Hadj. 



48 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 

Galerida theklae carolinae Eil. 

At Missour, March 20th and 22nd, Admiral Lynes collected 4 Galerida theklae, 
which agree with carolinae (Tunisia and Algeria) in coloration. One, a female, 
i.s as reddish as the reddest type in Algeria and Tunisia, and one of the males 
is similar, while tlie other two males are more greyish, (jne about as grey as the 
greyest Algerian birds. The spots on the chest are large in all four specimens, 
but equally large-spotted examples are not rare in Algeria and Tunesia. In 
measurements West-Algerian and East-Maroccan specimens are somewhat large. 

50 Algerian-Tunisian skins have wings : 

cJ 103-107, twice 108, ? 97-100, once 95, rarely 101 mm. 

8 West Algerian (Ai'n-Sefra and Djebel Aissa) have wngs : 

cJ 105-109, ? 99-102 mm. 

4 East Maroccan (Missour) measure : 

3 106, 108, 110, ? 100 mm. 

If a larger series from the western habitats should show stiU greater dimen- 
sions, it would perhaps be desirable to separate them — G. crisUtla macrorhyitcha 
and arenicola are not more different from each other, but their measurements 
are confirmed by large series. 

Oenanthe moesta moesta (Licht.). 

The Mourning W'heatear, which is so common in the northern Sahara south 
of the Atlas Mountains in Algeria, was discovered fairly common in the Sous by 
Lynes. He also shot a male at Missour 21 .iii. 1926. The testes had just " started 
up," measuring almost 5 mm. across ; as 0. moesta nests (in South Algeria) early 
in March, the lajing period of the females was probably already over. 

Oenanthe leucura syenitica (Heugl.). 

Two (J were collected at Missour, 3,000 feet altitude, 21. iii. 1926. The 
testes were already somewhat enlarged, about 4-5 mm. diameter. 

Oenanthe deserti homochroa (Tristr.). 

3cJ, 2$ Missour in the Muluya Valley, 3,000 feet, 20-22. iii. 1926. Two 
pairs, sexual organs winter size. 

These specimens agree with Algerian ones. The occurrence in the Muluya 
Valley is of great interest. While the form ranging over Nubia and the Egyptian 
Sudan to North SomaHland is on the upperside, and especially on the crown, 
of a colder, somewhat more greyish colour, the bird.s from the Algerian and 
Tunisian Sahara have a warmer, more reddish hue. But it is not a fact (as we 
used to think) that O. deserti deserti and homochroa are eastern and western forms ; 
they are rather southern and northern forms, because Oe. d. deserti inhabits 
Nubia to North Somaliland and is also found in Air (Asben), while specimens 
from Suez and the desert near Cairo, etc., are not separable from Oe. deserti 
homochroa of Algeria. 

The late M. J. Nicoll had already noticed these differences, but lie called 
the Nubian and Sudan bird " atrogularis " (Handl. B. Egypt, 1919, p. 3). 

Temminck, PL Col. 359, text, ex Riippell, MS. ! says that he had Riippell's 
specimens from Egypt. I quoted this correctly, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 683, but 
for some reason unknown in the Zitsdtze, p. 2161, I said it was described from 
Nubia, not from Egypt ! The fact is that RiippeU's specimens in Frankfurt 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 49 

and Leyden were from both Nubia and Egypt. As no type-specimen was marked 
I designate Nubia as the typical locality ; thus the nomenclature of the two 
forms remains undisturbed. 

Oe. deserti atrogularis occurs rarely as a migrant in N.E. Africa, but has 
not been obtained in Egypt. It is a still greyer, and usually larger, form. 

This species is new to the Maroccan fauna. Lynes found beetles and other 
insect remains in the stomachs. One of the females has a few pure-black feathers 
on the throat ! 

Sylvia conspicillata conspicillata Temm. 

A female, one of a paired pair, was shot at Missour 22.iii. 1926. The ovary 
had begun to enlarge. 

Luscinia svecica cyanecula (Wolf). 

A female Talsint, southern easternmost slopes of Maroccan Great Atlas, 
4,000 feet, March 24th, 1926 ; flushed in evening at side of seggia. 

Erithacus rabecula atlas Lynes. 
5 Missour, Muluya, 23.iii.1926. Ovaries winter size. 

P.S. — Since writing the above notes I have received for study from Monsieur 
Paul Bede in Sfax 4 males and 4 females of Galerida theklae carolinae, shot by 
him at Outat-el-Hadj on the Muluya River, north of Missour, between the 4th 
and the 12th of May, 1926. They have the reddish colour characteristic for 
G. t. carolinae, but some are more greyish — -a similar variation as among series 
from Tunisia and Algeria, which has puzzled many collectors, even Erlanger 
himself, who discovered and described carolinae, without grasping that also the 
greyish-coloured specimens belong to the same subspecies. 

On the whole, the Outat-el-Hadj examples are long-winged, the 4 male 
having wings of 105-109, the 4 females wings of 98-101 mm. Perhaps some 
ornithologist who is " rerum no varum cupidus " will already bestow a name on 
this possibly larger western form of G. t. carolinae, but it is sufficient to me to 
record these measurements and to await further material. I am obliged to 
Monsieur Bede for letting me compare his specimens. 



50 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV, 1927. 



NOMINA MUTANDA. 

By albert COLLIN & E. HARTERT. 

1. Alcippe poioicephala blythi nom. nov. -versus A. p. magnirostris Walden. 

Alcippe magniroslris Walden, Blytlis Cat. Mamm. d- B. Biinna. p, 11,5 (1875 — Karennee Hills), nee 
Moore, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1854, p, 277 (Malacca). 

(Specimens from Bandon in the Northern, Siamese, part of the Malay Penin- 
sula show onlj' partially indications of the blackish side-stripes on the crown ; 
a larger series might serve to separate them again,) 

2. Astur fasciatus vigilax versus A. f. insularis Sarasin. 

Asttir fasciatiis insularis Sarasin, Nova Caledonia, Zool., Av. p, 8 (1913), nee Astur instilaris Madarasz, 

Orn. Monatsber. xviii, p, 65 (1910 — Ceylon), 
Astur fasciatus vigilax Wetmore, Condor xxviii, p, 46 (1926), 

3. Anas leucophrys \'ieill, versus A. torquata Vieill, 
Aruis torquata Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Xat. v, p. Ill) (1816 — Paraguay), nee S, G, GraeUn. Reise 

d, Russl, ii, p, 179, pi, xiv (1774), 
Anas leucophrys Vieillot, Xcnip. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. v, p. 156 (1816 — Paraguay), 

4. Anthus nicholsoni neumannianus nom, nov, versus A. n. longirostris Neum. 

Anthus nicholsoni longirostris Neumann, Orn. Monatsber. xiii, p, 77 (1905 — " Gardulla am 
GandjuU See "), nee Anthus ohscurus longirostris Brehra. Naumannia, v i, p, 342 (1856), 

5. Collocalia esculenta erwini nom, nov, versus C. e. maxima Grant. 

Bidl. B.O. Club, XXV, p. 35 (1914 — Utakwa River), nee C. tnaxiina Hume, Stray Feath. iv, p. 223 
(nomen nudum), vi, p, 49 (1878 — Mergui, Not nomen nudum but synonym of innominata). 

6, Otus hartlaubi (Gieb,) versus Otus leucopsis (Hartl,), 

Athene leucopsis Hartlaub. Rer. Zool. 1849, p, 496 (St, Thome), nee CJould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 

1837, p. 99 (van Diemen's Land), 
Noctua hartlaubi Giebel, Thes. Orn. ii, p, 717, nom, nov, (1875), 

7. Carduelis ictericus bavarici nom, nov. versus Carduelis ictericus campestris 

(Spix), 

Fringilla campestris Spix, Av. Bras, ii, p. 48, pi, Ixi, fig, 3 (1825), nee Schrank, Fauna Boica. p. 181 
(1789 — Bei Neuburg. Bayern). 

8. Eopsaltria australis griseogularis Gould versus E. a. gularis (Quoy et Gaim.). 

Muscicapa gularis Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. de V Astrolabe, Zool. i, p. 176 (1830 — King George Sound, 

W, Austr.), nee Temminck, PI, Col, 167, fig, 1 (1823— BrazU). 
Eopsaltria griseogularis Gould, Synops. B. Austr. iv, app„ p. 2 (1838 — ^Swan River, W. Australia), 

9. Stoparola thalassina thalassina (Swains.) versus S. melanops melanops (Vig.). 

Miuscicapa melano-ps Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831, p, 171 (Himalaya), neo Vieillot, Nouv, 

Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxi, p, 452 (1818— Paraguay), 
Mu$cicapa thalassina Swainson, Nalur. Lihr. x. Flycatchers, p, 252 (1838 — India), 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1927. 51 

10. Faroaria rubrifacies nom. nov. versus F. cucidlata (Lath.). 

Loxia cuctdlata Latliam. Intl. Orn. i, p. 378 (1790— Brazil), nee Boddaert. Tabl. PL Eiil. p. 24 (1783— 
Ex Buffon). 

11. Spemaospiza haematina pustulata (Voigt) versus S. h. guttata (Vieill.). 

Loxia guttata Vieillot, Ois. Chant, p. 103, pi. 68 (1856 — Congo), nee Shaw, 3hi,s. Lerer. ii, p. 47 

(1796— " Australia "). 
Fringilla pustulata Voigt, Cuvier's Thierreich, i, p. 581 (1831 — Congo). 

12. Monasa atra (Bodd.) versus M. nigra (P. L. S. MiilL). 

Cuculus niger P. L. S. Miiller, Xatursi/st. Suppl. p. 90(1776 — C'ayenne), nee Linnaeus, <S'(/s(. A'o(. 

ed. X, p. HI (1758— Bengal). 
Cuculus ater Boddaert, Table PI. Enl. p. 30 (1783 — Cayenne). 

13. Cyanoderma labuanensis nom. nov. versus C bicolor (Blyth). 

Timalia bicolor Blyth, Ibit 1865, p. 46 (" Prepared like the Malaocan specimens," locality therefore 
unknown, but certainly not from Malacca), nee Lafresnaye, Mag. de Zool. 1835, pi. xxxix text. 

This form is not rare in Labuan, North Borneo, and restricted to the island 
of Borneo. 

14. Buteo buteo biinnanicus Gates versus B. b. japonicus (Temm. & Schleg.). 

Falco buteo japonicus Temrainck & Schlegel, Siebold's Fauna Japon., Aves, p. 16, Tab. vi (1844 — 

Japan), nee Falco tinnimculus japonicus, t.c. p. 2, Tab. i (1844). 
Buteo bvrnuinicns Oates, fitray Feath. iii. p. 30 (1875 — Upper Pegu). 

15. Criniger balicus bartelsi nom. nov. versus G. gularis gularis (Horsf.). 

Turdus gularis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Kiii, p. 150 (1822 — Java), nee Latham, Ind. Orn. 
Suppl. p. xl (1801 — Cumberland). 

16. Centropus superciliosus intermedius Someren. 

Bvll. B.O. Club, xli, p. 125 (1921 — Mombasa) is preoccupied by Cenlrococctjx intermedius Hume 1873 
= Centropus sinensis intermedius. 

If confirmed as different, a new name must be invented for van Someren 's 
intermedius ; cf. Nov. Zool. 1925, p. 153. 

17. Monticola semicastanea nom. nov. versus M. erythrogaster (Vig.). 

Turdus erythrogaster Vigors. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1831. p. 171 (Himalaya), nee Boddaert, Table 
PI. Enl. p. 22 (1783), quid est Spreo pulcher (P. L. S. MiiU.). 

18. Tyto alba tuidara (Griff. & Pidgeon) versus T. a. perlata (Licht.). 

Sirix perlata Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. p. 59 (1823), nee Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vii, p. 26 

(1817). 
Strix tuidara Griffith & Pidgeon, Cumer's Anim. Kingd., Aves i, p. 74 (1829 — Brazil). 

19. Uroleuca cristatella (Temm.) versus U. cyanoleuca (Wied). 

Corvus cyanoleucus Wied, Reise Brasil. ii, p, 190 (1821 — Brazil), nee Latham. Ind. Orn. Suppl. 

p. XXV (1801— N.S. Wales). 
Corvus cristatellus Temminck, PI. Ctol. 193 (1822— Brazil). 

20. Gerygone neglecta dohertyi R. & H. versus O. n. virescens (Blyth). 

Sylvia virescens (Miiller MS.) Blyth, //«>, 1870, p. 169 (New Guinea), nee Vieillot, Ois. Am. Sept. il, 

p. 42 (1807). 
Gerygone neglecta dohertyi Pvothschild & Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1903, p. 473 (Kapaur, New Guinea). 



62 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1"J27. 

21. Mimus plunibeus nom. nov. versus Ilimus lividus (Licht.). 

Turdtis lividus Lichtenstein, Verz. Douhl. p. .39 (1823), nee Wilson, Am, Orn. ii, p. 90, pi. siv, fig. 3 

(1810). 
Turdm cinereus Voigt, Cuvier's Thierreich, i, p. 483 (1831). nee Gmelin, Syst. Xal. i, 2, p. 810 (1789). 

22. Bradomis pallida bowdleri nom. nov. versus B. p. sharpei R. 

Bradyornis pallidus sharpei Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cliih, xxxiii, p. 66 (1913 — Abyssinia), ueo 
Bradyomis sharpei Bocage, Bull. B.O. Club, iii, p. xliii (1894 — Galanga in Angola). 

23. Anthus spinoletta reuteri Munst. versus A. s. borealis Hesse. 

Anthu-s borealis Hesse, Jonru. f. Orn. 1915, p. .'5S6 (Sachalin), neo A. pralensis var. borealis (ex E. v. 

Horaeyer MS.) Blasius. " Nauraann, Xatiirij. Vog. Mitleleuropis" (sic!) iii, p. 58 (1900 — 

Anklam in Ponimern). 
Anthus spinoletta reuteri Munsterhjelra, Xyt. Mag. for Xaturiidensk. 1916, p. 165 (Sachalin). 

24. Anthus rufogularis Brehm versus A. cervinus Pall. 
Anthus rufogularis Brehm, Lehrb. Xat. eur. Vog. ii, p. 963 (1824 — Nubien und Deutschland). 
Motadlla cervina Pallas. Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. i, p. 511 (1827). 

25. ? Fringilla coelebs beUicosa Floer. versus F. c. iHstis Floer. ? 

Fringilla coelebs trislis Floericke, Mitt. Osterr. Reichsh.f. Vogelk. u. Vogelschutz, iii, p. 21 (1901 — " im 
Winter auf der kurischen Nehrung "), nee Fringilla trislis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 181. 
(1758 — " Habitat in America septentrionali "'). 

Fringilla coelebs hellicosus Floericke, Mitt. Vogelwelt, xix, p. 105 (1921 — WoUiynien). 

Fringilla coelebs karelica Rasiinen, Luonnon Ystciva (Naturfreund), xxviii, p. 21 (1924 — Karelisohe 
Halbinsel). 
If a north-eastern subspecies of F. coelebs can be distinguished, all three above 

names may perhaps refer to the same form. The descriptions of " bellicosus" 

and " tristis," however, do not agree ! 

26. Falco peregrinus perconJusus nom. nov. versus Falco peregrinus minor Schleg. 

Falco minor Sohlegel, Abh. Geb. Zool. <fe vergl. Anat. (2), iii, p. 20 (1844 — Kap der Giiten Hoffnung), 
nee Falco nisus minor Bekker, Borkhausen & Lichthammer, in Bekker &. Lembke, Teutsche 
Cm., iii, pi. 1-5 (1800-1811, Deutschland). 

Falco peregrinus var. capensis Grill, iS'i;. vel. ak. handl. ii, 10, p. AS (185S), nee F.capensis Shaw, Gen. 
Zool. vu, p. 192 (1809). 

27. Prunella fulvescens sushkini nom. nov. versus P. fulvescens tibetana Sushk. 

Prunella fiilvescens tibetana Sushkin, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat, Hist, xxxviii, i, p. 53 (1925), nee Accentor 
collaris tibelanus Bianohi, Ann. Mus. Zool. Petersburg, ix, p. 128 (1924) = Prunella collaris tibe- 
tana (Bianchi). 

28. Lanius collurioides delacouri nom. nov. versus L. c. melanocephalus Delacour. 

Bull. B.O. Clu'i, xlvii, p. 13 (1926 — Annam), neo Lanius melanocephalus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 1, p. 309 
(178S). 

29. Tardus torquatus caucasicus nom. nov. versus T. torquatus orientalis Seebohm. 

Ibis, 1S8S, p. .'ill ("Caucasus and Persia"), neo Turdus orientalis Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 2, p. S21 
(1789— India). 

30. Tardus gouldi cinereiceps nom. nov. versus T. castuneus castaneus (Gould). 

Merula raslanea Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1835, p. 185 (Himalaya), nee Tnrdu.i castaneus 
P. L. S. MiiUer, Natursyst. Suppl. p. 143 (1776). 

31. Alseonax cinereus nigrorum nom. nov. versus A. cinereus cinerascens (Sharpe). 

Musriaipa cim rasrciis .Sharpe. ''at. II. Brit. Mus. iv, p. 155 (1879 — Gold Coast), neo 8pix, Aves Bras. 
ii, p. 16, pi. xii (1825). Cf. Bates, Ibis, 1926, p. 584. 




LEPIDOPTERA 

COLLECTED BY THE 

British Ornithoipsists' Union and Woilaston Expeditions in 
the Snow IVIountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 

WITH TWO COLOURED PLATES 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D. 

(LORD ROTHSCHILD) 

PRICE : £1 5s. (less 20% to Booksellers). 



A REVISION OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY 

SPHINGIDAE 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D., 

AND 

KARL JORDAN, M.A.L., Ph.D. 

PKICE: £5 (less 20% to Booksellers). 



cxixT and 972 pages, with 67 Plates. 



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Communications, ate, may be addreoaad to 

THE EDITORS OF "NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE," 

ZOOLOaiCAL MUSEUM, 

TRINO. 

Subscribers should give notice of the non-arrival of any numbers immediately upon receipt 
of the succeeding part, otherwise the missing numbers cannot be replaced free. 

PRlimD BY BAZBU., WATSON AND VUfEV, LD. , LONDOI* AND ATLBSBUUV. 



NOYITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



H journal of ZooIog^. 



KUITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Db. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXIV. 



No. 2. 

Pages 53—188. 

Plates I — VII. 

JssDKD Febbuaet J9th, 1928, at the Zoological Musevh, Tioko. 



PIUNTKD BY HAZKLL, WATSON k VTOKY. Ld., IXJNDON AND AYLKSBOBY. 

1928. 



Vol. XXXIV. 

NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 

EDITBD BT 

LOBD ROTHSCHILI), ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAN. 



CONTENTS OF NO. II. 



1. NEW GEOMETRIDAE 



L. B. Prout 



2. DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW HESPERIIDAE 
FROM THE AUSTRALIAN REGION IN THE 
TRING MUSEUM 



W. H. Evans 



3. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON A PAIR OF SARUS 
CRANES AT TRING 

i. FURTHER RECORDS OF ANTHRIBIDAE FROM 
FRENCH INDO-CHINA, WITH THE ADDITION OF 
THE DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES 
FROM OTHER COUNTRIES 

5. ANTHRIBIDAE FROM THE MALAY PENINSULA 

6. NEW ANTHRIBIDAE FROM THE OLD WORLD . 

7. SOME CORRECTIONS 

8. ON SOME LBPIDOPTERA OF SPECIAL INTEREST, 

WITH REMARKS ON MORPHOLOGY AND NOMEN- 
CLATURE (PI. I— ni) 

9. ON PLATES IV. AND V., REPRESENTING ORIENTAL 

EPIPLBMIDAE 

10. SOME ANTHRIBIDAE COLLECTED BY R. E. 

TURNER IN SOUTH AFRICA .... 

11. ON THE LATREILLEI-GROVP OF EASTERN PA- 

PILIOS (PL VI AND VII) 

12. SIPHONAPTERA COLLECTED IN THE DOLOMITES 

13. SIPHONAPTERA COLLECTED DURING A VISIT 

TO THE EASTERN UNITED STATES OF NORTH 
AMERICA IN 1927 



Ernst Hartert 
and F. Ycmng 



p&oas 

53-70 



71—74 



75—76 



Karl Jordan . 


77—94 


Karl Jordan . 


95—104 


Karl Jordan . 


105—128 


Ernst Hartert . 


129—131 


Karl Jordan . 


1.32—146 


Karl Jordan . 


147—150 


Karl Jordan . 


151—158 


Karl Jordan . 


159—172 


Karl Jordan . 


173—177 


Karl Jordan . 


17&-188 



CO 

< 
a. 




NoviTATES Zoological 

Vol. XXXIV. FEBRUARY 1928. No. 2. 

NEW GEOMETRIDAE 

By LOUIS B. PROUT 

SuBFAM. HEMITHEINAE 

1. Gelasma insignipecten sp.n. 

(J ?, 39-43 mm. Face dirty olive, with slight (very rarely strong) admixture 
of blacliish. Paliaus dark above, whitish beneath ; 3rd joint in $ distinct, 
rather over i. Antemia in (J with 36 joints pectinate, tlie pectmations mostly 
very long, rapidly shortening distally. Vertex in front whitish. Thorax and 
abdomen concolorous with wings. 

Forewing with apex acute, slightly produced, especially in the $ ; pale dull 
greenish (almost olive-bufE), smoothly scaled ; lines, as in the allies {dissimulata 
Walk., illiturata Walk., etc.), lunulate-dentate, whitish, bounded in median area 
by iU-defined deeper green shades ; cell-spot moderately strong, rather elongate ; 
no terminal line ; fringe grey, becoming pale greenish at tips and with a fine 
pale line at base. Hindwing with the tail moderately long (about as m dis- 
simulata) ; similar to forewing, 1st line wanting. 

Underside whitish with an olivaceous tinge and with faint indications of 
the olive shades which accomiDany the lines of upper sittface ; costal edge of 
forewing bright ochreous ; fringes rather dark grey, jjale at tips. 

Khasia Hills, the type (May 1896) in coll. Trmg Mus. 

Readily distinguished from dissimulata Walk, by the very long and lax 
antennal pectinations. 

SuBFAM. STERRHINAE 
2. Scopula smipliflcata sp.n. 

9, 27 mm. Face brown. Vertex whitish. Thorax and abdomen concolorous 
with wings. 

Forewing moderately broad, apex round-pointed, termen somewhat oblique 
and scarcely convex anteriorly, roundly bent behind R' to become more oblique ; 
whitish, suffused with pinkish buff, copiously irrorated with oUve-buff and more 
sparingly with black-grey ; cell-dot black ; antemedian line slender, rather weak, 
from costa at 4 mm., excurved but not perfectly regularly between SC and fold, 
then curving to become rather less oblique inward ; median line twice as broad, 
but also weak, very gently excurved anteriorly and incurved post*iorly, nearly 
1 mm. beyond the ceU-dot ; postmedian stronger, black-grey, from costa 3 mm. 

S 63 



64 NOVITATES ZoOLOCICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

before apex, faintly denticulate (a little more sharply on SC and R'), but scarcely 
blackened on the veins, slightly excurved near costa, then approximately parallel 
with termen, very faintly incurved between M- and SM- ; distal area very 
slightly more shaded with grey, leaving traces of a moderate, somewhat waved, 
pale subterminal ; terminal line black, only slightly interrupted at the veins ; 
frmge concolorous to §, then paler, the black irroration sUghtly strengthened 

so as to suggest a dividing Une between the two coloiu's. Hindwing with 

termen rounded ; SC- well separate from R' at origin ; antemedian Une wanting ; 
median crossing the cell ; postmedian correspondingly rather further from 
termen ; otherwise as forewing. 

Underside with the cell-dots and postmedian, the latter on hind\\ mg nearer 
to termen than above ; faint traces of the median ; forewing sUghtly suffused 
proximally ; terminal line grey, with blacker interneural dots. 

N.E. Africa: Ganale River, 11 April 1901 (C. von Erlanger). Type in 
coll. Tring Mus. 

Akui to fulvicolor Hmpsn. {Nat. Hist. Socotra, p. 331), scarcely so broad- 
winged, much paler, postmedian not appreciably smuate inward nor so punctuated 
on the veins. 

3. Scopula erymna sp.n. 

5, 22 mm. Face and part of palpus Ijrown mixed with black ; first joint 
of palpus and imderside of second wliitish. ^'ertex and patagia white ; collar 
Ught buff-brown. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. 

Forewing with costa gently arched in distal one-third, apex moderate, termen 
smooth, sUghtly bowed, moderately oblique ; SC' from areole close to its apex, 
SC* and stalk of SC-"' connate from its apex ; whitish vinaceous-pink, with 
rather copious wood-brown and sparse fuscous irroration ; antemedian line 
fine and faint, brown, obUque outward from one-third costa, acutely angled on 
cell-fold, then oblique inward to scarcelj- one-third hindmargin ; cell-dot minute, 
blackish ; median Une blackish fuscous, rather weak and outbent close to costa, 
otherwise strong and with a duplicatmg fuscescent shade distally, sUghtly 
incurved between the radials, here little beyond the cell-dot, between M' and 
SM- very gently incurved, its general course parallel with termen ; postmedian 
blackish fuscous, crenate, not quite paraUel with median, receding sUghtly from 
it at its subcostal bend ; a wood-brown or somewhat cinnamon shade in distal 
area except anteriorly to SC*, reaching tornus but posteriorly somewhat mixed 
with the ground-colom- ; a rather thick dark-browii terminal line, scarcely 
interrupted at the vems ; fringe with a rather strong, though sliglitly inter- 
rupted, blackish-fuscous dividing line, proximally and distally hereto whitish 
mottled with grey and (at least proximaUy) with some sparse brown irroration. 

Hindwing with termen not bent at R', only made prominent here by an 

extremely sUght reduction of convexity between R' and R' ; concolorous with 
forewing ; no antemedian Une ; median almost straight, more proximal than 
on forewing, its outer shade narrow, forming a rather diffuse second line, which 
continues the true median of forewing ; postmedian much as on forewing, but 
scarcely oblique from costa to R' ; distal clouding scarcely developed, but 
reaching costa ; termen and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside uniform light brown (under the lens whitish suffused with brown), 
with fine fuscous irroration ; both wings with minute black ceU-dot and with 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 55 

median and postmedian lines, the former on hindwing crossing the cell-dot ; 
forewing also with a vague diffuse subbasal band ; terminal line rather lighter 
brown than above ; fringes nearlj' as above. 

Gurra : Dagaje, 4-5 April 1901 (C. von Erlanger). TyjDe in coll. Tring 
Mus., together with a dwarf (second-brood ?) $ from Woreda, Ganale River, 
10-11 June 1901 (collected on the same expedition). 

Probably near higeminala Warr. (Nov. Zool. iv. 50), in spite of the very 
different course of the lines. 

4. Scopula intemataria eucentra subsp.n. 

^ $, 20-23 mm. Somewhat variable in colour, but always with an appreci- 
able tinge of vinaceous or flesh-colour. Markings in general more sharply 
expressed than in name-typical intemataria Walk., particularly the vein-dots or 
minute teeth on the postmedian Une, that of the forewing on R- rather markedly 
proximal. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, January-September 1917 (G. Melou), a long 
series in coU. Trmg Mus. Also a few from Kulau and Sakaramy, in the same 
district. 

I regard as intemataria Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxii. 746) the African species 
of the nesciaria group in which the hindtarsus of the o is rather less than one- 
quarter tibia, with rather dense whitish pencil. But it is possible in this extensive 
and extremely difficult group that more minute anatomical research may show 
more than one species to possess this character. 

5. Scopula empera sp.n. 

(J $, 14-18 mm. Like the 2Heceding but smaller, with termen of forewing 
(at least in the cJ) appreciably straighter, causing the apex to appear more 
pointed, the lines in general weaker (sometimes a good deal suffused), the post- 
median more excurved subcostally, not or scarcely black-marked on the veins, 
the tarsus of the cj shorter still (I). 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, January-August 1917 (G. Melou), a good series 
in coll. Tring Mus. 

6. Scopula gaudialis sp.n. 

(J $, 18-23 mm. Face black. Palpus black, beneath pale. Vertex whitish 
buff. Collar ochreous. Antennal shaft tinged with ochreous, proximally with 
blackish dots above ; ciUation in (J over 1. Head and body concolorous with 
wings. Hindtibia of (J strongly dilated, with dense hair-pencil, the tarsus fully 
as short as in the preceding species. 

Forewing with ajjex moderate, termen very gently curved ; ochreous, 
densely irrorated with rufous, producing generally a similar tone to some Sterrha 
{ochrata Scop., etc.), slightly variable ; the small cell-dot and terminal dots 
black ; lines more greyish rufous, fine, the median variable, generally more 
diffuse, sometimes weak, always well beyond the cell-dot and a little incurved 
in posterior part ; antemedian proximal to one-third, somewhat excurved 
anteriorly, generally slightly incurved posteriorly ; postmedian about 2 mm. 
from termen, not or scarcely punctuated on the veins, weakly sinuous, the inward 
ciu-ves in the usual positions ; sub terminals scarcely developed, the subterminal 
itself faintly pale ; fringe proximally concolorous or more ochreous, distally 



56 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

paler, sometimes tinged with vinaceous, centrally with some minute black dots. 

Hindwing with termen not or scarcely bent in middle ; first line wanting ; 

median incurved round the cell-dot, angled outward on base of R' ; the rest as 
on fore wing. 

Underside paler, more weakly marked ; the cell-dots and (especially on 
forewing) the lines beyond more or less developed. 

Comoro Islands, May-September 1911 (G. F. Leigh) : Anjouan (loc. typ.), 
Grande Comoro, and Mayotte, a good series in coll. Tring Mus. 

SuBFAM. LARENTIINAE 
7. Lobogonia ambusta salvata subsp.n. 

" Lobogonia ambusta Warr.' Prout in Seitz, JIacrolep. iv. 191, t. lid 
(W. China). 

Less warm in tint than name-typical ambusta Warr. (1893, Khasis), more 
as in the differently shaped formosana Bastelb. (1909) ; dark maculation in 
general less developed than in the Khasi examples, postmedian line inme curved 
before middle, on underside of forewing generally double. 

W. China : Kankala-shan, Szechwan, type in coU. Tring Mus. ; Pu-tsu-fong, 
etc., 8<J(J in coll. Brit. Mus. 

8. Sauris curvicosta sp.n. 

?, 29 mm. Differs from elaiai Meyr. (7V. Enf. Soc. Lond. 1886, p. 193, 
Fiji), to which Warren referred it, as follows : 

Second joint of palpus less long, its length less than li times the diameter 
of the large eye (in elaica fuUy twice). Wings rather shorter. Forewing with 
more rounded costa, more proximal subbasal line, two or three well-developed 
dark lines from M to SM* between subbasal and antemedian. Hindwing and 
underside darker. 

Loyalty Islands : Lifu, 2 $$ in coll. Tring Mus. 

SuBFAM. GEOMETRINAE 

9. Ischnopterix xylinata ockendeni subsp.n. 

(J. Forewing appreciably darker than in .r. xylinata Guen., from S.E. 

Brazil, with more of a purplish tinge. Hindwing with the distal border similarly 

darkened and almost or quite solid as far as the termen, whereas in x. xylinata 

it is subterminal, the termen being almost of the ground-colour. 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya : Oconeque, 7,000 ft., type and another in coll. Tring 
Mus., 1 c? in coll. Brit. Mus., 1 c? in coll. L. B. Prout ; Tinguri, 3,400 ft., 1 cJ in 
coll. Trmg. Mus. 

As the antemial pectinations appear slightly more rudimentary still than 
those of .r. xylinata, it is possible that this form will have to rank as a species ; 
but the rest of the structure and the entire pattern seem exactly as in that 
species. 

10. Ischnopterix callistrepta sp.n. 

" Ischnopterix discolor WatT. q." Warr. Nov. Zool. xiv. 287 (1907) (nee 
Warr. Nov. Zool. xi. 557). 

(J, 52-56 mm. The upperside of the type form well described by Warren 
(Nov. Zool. xiv. 287), except that the basal area of the forewing is in reality 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 57 

much clouded with the same " dark purplish fuscous " as the central area and 
that the hindwing, except proximally, is more fleshy than " ochreous." Under- 
side not " exactly like that of the $ " of discolor : the fore wing in the darkest 
(the type) form fairly similar to that of the species named, but with a distinct 
black cell-dot and with the pale outer area broader, more fleshy, less clouded 
with dark-gre}' in the middle, the terminal black dots sharper ; hindwing likewise 
more fleshy, the median and postmedian lines (especially the former) better 
expressed, more parallel, the subterminal dark shade subobsolete, chiefly indicated 
between R- and M'. 

Variable, like most Ischnopterix, the 3 cJ^J from the rather less extreme 
altitude averaging larger, the forewing beneath less suffused with grey, one 
example also lighter (more reddish) above, with broadened green sinuous band 
outside the postmedian, etc. 

9, 62 mm. Slightly narrower-winged than the (^. Forewing with the 
" purplish fuscous " and " purplish red " parts fleshy brown, almost concolorous 
with the distal part of the hindwing, the broad dark median line in consequence 
showing up strongly, acutely bent outward behind cell-fold and still more 
strongly, though roundly, at SM'. 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya : Limbani, 9,500 ft., April 1904, type o, May 1904, 
allotype $ ; Agualani, 9,000 ft., April 1905, 1 ^, December 1905, 2 ^^. All in 
coll. Tring. Mus., collected by G. Ockenden. 

I am at a loss to conceive how Warren confounded this fine species with 
the much smaller, duller, relatively shorter-winged discolor, of which the true 
o is clearly coiijungens Warr., Nov. Zool. xii. 59. As regards structure, discolor 
belongs to the group in which the long stalk of SC'"- of the forewing is free from 
C, callisirepta to that in which it is connected by a bar. 

11. Ischnopterix obtortionis sp.n. 

^, 42-43 mm. Hindtibia with moderate pencil. Abdomen long and 
slender, but less extremely elongate than in the (J of chlorata Hb. Head and 
body above dull olive-green, somewhat mixed with brown, white and black, 
the abdomen with a pair of black spots on first tergite, then with single black 
spots ; body beneath whitish buff. 

Foreiriiiff shaped about as in the chlorata group, but with an appreciable 
prominence just proximal to the middle of the hindmargin and with a tuft of 
dark-grey hair projecting hindward from this prominence ; the long stalk of 
SC'"- connected by a bar with C ; olive green, in places more glaucous green, 
mostly much mixed with red-brown and sprinkled with dark scales, the ground- 
colour remaining clearest in basal area, in costal region, narrowly along termen 
and more broadly in a posterior postmedian patch ; fines very vaguely indicated 
in red-brown ; antemedian zigzag and very oblique ; median inbent just behind 
SC, then straight and very oblique outward to base of R', this tract alone clear, 
being margined distally by a greenish patch ; a dentate pale, in places white, 
subterminal, with the deepest indentation at SC^ ; some black marks proximally 
to it, at least anteriorly ; terminal line sinuous, thickened into black dots between 
the veins, almost interrupted at the veins. — Hindwing narrow, with costal 
margin long, termen waved, between M' and tornus subconcave, abdominal 
region much as in muUistrigata Warr. (Nov. Zool. xvi. 103) but rolled into a 
more definite pale pocket above at the abdominal margin ; pinkish buff", suffused 



58 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

with grej', leaving a clearer region between postmedian line and distal band 
anteriorly ; specialized scaling of abdominal region black, the long overlapping 
hair from M somewhat buff ; postmedian line dark grey, straight from costa to 
R', here bent ; a dark distal band, enclosing ill-defined pale spots at termen. 

Underside cream-colour to Naples yellow, both wings sharply marked with 
blackish except posteriorly ; forewiug with thick obhque median line and a 
shorter one (SC to M') outside the cell, hindwing with postmedian nearly as 
above ; both wings with irregular subterminal band and whitish midterminal 
patch. 

E. Bolivia : Buena vista, 750 m., August 1906— AprU 1907 (Steinbach), 
2 (J (J in coll. Trmg Mus. A rather smaller $ from La Union, Carabaya, S.E. 
Peru, in poor condition, seems to agree essentially except in the sexual characters. 

12. Pero longisecta spn. 

^ 9, 42-45 mm. Probably nearest to fortunata Dogn. (Le Nat. xiv. 186) = 
moUonaria Oberth. (Et. Lip. vi. fig. 1554), but very distinct. Palpus with third 
joint rather shorter, mostly concealed by the rough hair of second jouit. Antenna 
of (5 (as in fortunata) simple. 

Foreicing narrower than in fortunata, with the termen decidedly more obhque ; 
shaduigs, as in fortunata, in the ^ ochreous, in the $ more rosy, but in both 
sexes weaker, the grey irroration bemg very strong, laid on in close transverse 
strigulse ; a very conspicuous pale longitudinal streak in front of M from near 
base to beyond postmedian, recalling that of Meticulodes spongiata Guen. or 
even of Pero nlgerna Schaus, broadest and clearest in cell ; cell-spot black, single, 
with a patch of raised grey scales at its distal side ; antemedian line strongly 
obhque outward to the pale streak, inward behind it, rather uniformly thick 
except for its central interruption ; postmedian obhque outward ; thi-ee white 
dots near termen between costa and R=, almost equal in development, posterior 
ones obsolete. Hindwing with the suffusions in both sexes ochreous ; post- 
median line rather more strongly bent behind than in fort uiiatn and here rather 
more closely approximated to termen. 

S.E. Brazil : Ypiranga, Sao Paulo, September 1922 (R. Spitz), type ^ and 
3 ?? in coll. Truig. Mus. ; Castro. Parana (E. D. Jones), 2 (JcJ in coll. Brit. Mus. 

13. Pero obtusaria sp.n. 

(J, 36 mm. Head and body greyish, inchning to light drab, face and the 
thorax above darker, collar slightly more buff. Antenna simple. Abdomen 
not robust. 

Foreioing relatively rather short, apex rather blunt, termen waved, from 
apex to R' hardly oblique, here curved, becoming moderately oblique ; greyish, 
inclining to light drab, with vague darker strigulation and scattered fuscous 
scales ; basal region slightly clouded ; a whitish cell-mark, with a black dot on 
DC= ; antemedian hne from costa at 5 mm., oblique outward, forming a very 
strong outward curve in cell, the retracted along M, with a strong dark spot 
between this and a second, shghter, posterior curve outward ; a smaller dark 
spot close outside the antemedian just behind SC ; a fine whitish postmedian 
from costa 3-5 mm. from apex, somewhat obhque inward (very slightly more so 
at costa than subsequently), straightish to fold, then obtusely bent (curved) 
to run strongly obhque inward to hindmargin ; a dark shade accompanying this 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 59 

line jiroxiniallj', narrow at its ends but broadening between SC° and hindmargin, 
reaching its maximum width (fully 2 mm.) about M= ; a weaker and more slender 
dark shade distally to the postmedian from costa about R- ; subterminal shade 
suggested by absence of strigulation, broad behind R', weak at hindmargin and 
especially at costa ; whitish, proximaUy dark-edged dots close to termen in 

cellules 7, 6, 5, 3, and 2, the last two the strongest. Himlwing with costa 

moderately long, termen gently waved ; pale at costa ; mostly overlaid with 
drab ; cell-dot weakly indicated ; a whitish postmedian line, weak anteriorly, 
strong posteriorly, placed near termen at abdominal margin and especially 
about M-, strongly curved, receding rapidly from termen anteriorly ; some 
dots close to termen, much as on forewing. 

Both wings beneath paler and weaker-marked posteriorly than anteriorly ; 
principal markings of forewing indicated, though shadowy ; hindwing with 
twin cell-dot and with postmedian line developed from costa to radials, wavy, 
dark-edged proximally ; dots near termen developed. 

Peru : Lima-Matucana districts (A. M. Moss), type in coU. Tring Mus. ; 
Callao, 1 o m coll. Brit. Mus., named " ohtufciria Warr." (MS.) over 30 years ago. 

In shape perhaps nearest to a rather hroad-winged jonegaria Schaus (1897), 
from which the straighter postmedian will at once distinguish it. 

14. Pero alticola sp.n. 

(J, 44-49 mm. Intermediate between scitaria Oberth. and variaria Walk. 
( = jamaicensis Schaus). In shape and colour nearer to the latter, the teeth in 
the fringes being well appreciable and the ground-colour warmer brown than in 

scitaria. Foreicitig much less variegated than in variaria, the median area 

having less black admixture and the pale band between it and the subterminal 
being less clear, more suffused, especially anteriorly ; distinct from both in 
having the double black cell-mark liighly developed, more as m mathilda Butl., 
semiustu Butl., etc., the anterior mark generally thicker than the posterior and 
extremelj' oblique, the two sometimes coimected ; a bright orange-brown or 
yellow-brown patch always conspicuous between it and the postmedian, rarely 
so conspicuous proximally to it ; a straightish postmedian line or shade proximally 
to the true postmedian always more or less distinct, cutting the orange patch ; 

the true postmedian appreciably less sinuous than even in scitaria. Hindwing 

with the characteristic admarginal dots of variaria above and beneath poorly 
or not developed. 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya : Agualani, 9,000 ft., common, including the type ; 
Limbani, 9,500 ft. ; Oconeque, 7,000 ft., 2 (J J' ; La Union, 2,000 ft., 1 (J. 

I do not think this can be dmo^jensis Dogn. (Ann. Soc. Ent. Bdg. xUv. 232), 
as its author emphasizes the projecting postmedian Une. 

15. Pero scitaria crepera subsp.n. 

cj. Appreciably broader-winged than typical scitaria Oberth. (Et. Ent. 
vii. 27, t. iii, f. 10). Coloration darker both above and beneath, notably on the 
hindwing, which has the pale areas beneath more restricted, and in particular 
the apical region remaining dark, so as to bring into strong relief the subapical 
white dot or dots, which in s. scitaria are generally scarcely noticeable. 

Colombia : Monte Tohma, 2,700-3,200 m. (A. H. Fassl), a short series in coll. 
Tring. Mus. 



60 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

16. Pero cinnamomina sp.n. 

(J, 40 mm. Antenna simple, rather long. Thorax above cinnamon, body 
otherwise pinkish buff to light pinkish cinnamon, anterior abdominal tergites 
marked with cinnamon and blackish. Abdomen slenderer than in jonesaria 
Schaus. 

Foreicing scarcely so broad as m jonesaria, with termen shghtly less convex, 
slightly more waved and appearing still more so by reason of the presence of 
conspicuous dark spots on the fringe at the ends of the veins ; pale buff, clouded 
with pinkish cinnamon ; markings nearly as in minopenaria Oberth. (Et. Lep. 
vi. 297, f. 1547) ; cell-dots small, equal, well separated ; shades accompanying 
the lines cinnamon, not conspicuous ; postmedian line .still straighter from 
costa to M- ; proximal subterminal shade more parallel with termen than in 
minopenaria, terminal shade almost ob.solete, replaced by stronger interneural 

dots than in jonesaria. Hindwing at abdominal margin above more cumamon 

than in minopenaria, the postmedian line above and beneath more curved, com- 
plete (though very weak above) ; interneural dots near termen almost as on 
fore wing. 

Lima^Matucana districts, type (^ ; Lima^Chanchamayo, 3 o ^J, 2 $$ of a 
larger form or very close ally, none in such fresh condition as the type. All 
in coll. Tring Mus., collected by Rev. A. M. Moss. 

Both cinnamomina and minopenaria (= "jonesaria Schaus " of Prout, 
Tr. Ent. Sc. Lond. 1910, p. 313, and Dognin, Ann. Soc. Ent. Bdg. Ivii. 69, pr. p.) 
differ from jonesaria in their rather less broad fore wing, less dark colouring, 
absence of the characteristic acute inward tooth of the postmedian of the forewing 
on SM-. From ohtusaria Prout {supra), from the same district, cinnamomina 
differs in shape, coloration, etc., though the two show considerable resemblance 
in the form of the postmedian line of the forewing, 

17. Pero kayei sp.n. 

(J, 48-51 mm. ; $, 53 mm. In its size and general coloration — particularly 
of the $ beneath and the $ above — reminiscent of bicolor Warr. (Nov. Zool. ii. 
137). Antenna of (J simple, as in that species. Termen of forewing rather less 

oblique, of both wings with the teeth less strong. Foreicing of q above rather 

dark cinnamon, the median area shghtly shaded with purple and somewhat 
darkened distaUy, but without the rich varied shades of bicolor ; of $ more 
suffused with purple ; the angular wliite cell-mark very slender ; antemedian 
line with the out'nard curves much more equal in development than in bicolor, 
more as in asterodia Druce ; postmedian at R^ not angled, at fold with lobe 
almost as strong as in asterodia ; no purple-grey bandlike shade outside it between 
R' and M= ; subtermiiial white dot before R' minute, not noticeable. Hind- 
wing with postmedian line almost straight across the wing, posteriorly accom- 
panied by some ochreous tornal shadmg ; subterminal dot between SC- and R' 

white. Underside of $ greyer than in bicolor ; both sexes beneath with more 

nearly the markings of asterodia, the orange-brown subterminal patch of the 
forewing, however, faint in the <J, moderate in the $. Hindwing beneath with 
the 230stmedian line as strongly bent as in bicolor, but not posteriorly so near 
tornus, the cell-mark rather large and strong, the buff and ochreous tornal shade 
strong ; no pale terminal band. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 61 

Jamaica : Newcastle, type ^J and allotj'pe ? in coll. Tring Mus. ; 1 cJ 
without exact locality in the same collection ; Cinchona, 6 December 1898 
(W. J. Kaye), 1 ^ in coll. L. B. Prout. 

Certainly nearer to asterodia than to hicolor, possibly even a highly differenti- 
ated island race. The few specimens which passed through Mr. Warren's hands 
evidently baffied him, as the type is. labelled by him " incompta Warr.," the 
aUotj'pe " hicolor Warr., ? = asterodia Druce " and the paratype " behrensaria 
Pack." (!). 

18. Pero albiorbis sp.n. 

cj, 41-42 mm. Near aistanea Warr. {Nov. Zool. xi. 570) = mipleseiharia 
Oberth. {Et. Lej). vi, fig. 1549). Wings appreciably broader and more rounded. 

Coloration paler, about as in aeniasaria Walk. Forewing with the roundish 

white cell-spot large, absolutely without the pupil which is indicated or well- 
developed in castaiiea, the median area between this spot and the antemedian Line 
scarcely differentiated in colour from the rest ; the characteristic olive-grey 
spots at costa and hindmargin also less sharply defined ; antemedian line less 
deeply projecting in cell ; postmedian dark, less oblique but sUghtly more 

sinuous ; a broad, but incomplete, sinuous pale subterminal present. Hind- 

iving with cell-spot smaller and weaker than in castanea. Underside with 

postmedian of forewing blackish and nearly reaching hindmargin ; cell-spot of 
hindwing fairly large, but less dark-marked within than in castanea. 

E. Peru : Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco, 6,000-10,000 ft. (E. Boettger), 
3 <^(J in coll. Tring. Mus. 

I suppose Eusenea Walk, to be nothing more than a smooth-margined 
group of the great genus Pero. 

19. Pero leptoina sp.n. 

(J, 44-48 mm. Near mathanaria Oberth. [Et. Ent. vii. 25, t. i, f. 4). • 



Foreiving with excision behind apex slightly less deep ; proximal area less 
differentiated (less mi.xed with dark grey), median area less bright, posteriorly 
more inclining to chestnut-brown ; cell-spot commonly without posterior exten- 
sion or duplication ; postmedian with central concavity generally slighter, 
sometimes scarcely noticeable ; distal area rather paler, the colouring quite 
differently laid on, forming a multitude of extremely fine, long transverse stria- 
tions, the dark presubmarginal spot between M- and SM= weak or obsolescent ; 

darkened apical patch narrowed, straighter-edged proximally. Hindwing 

with tornal patch paler than in mathanaria ; fringe less bright. Underside 

correspondingly less bright (greyer) and with the cell-spot of forewing simple, 
as above. 

S.E. Peru : La Union, Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, 2,000 ft., November 
1904, wet season (G. Ockenden), type and another ^ in coll. Tring Mus. ; Yahuar- 
mayo, 1 ^ in coll. Brit. Mus., 1 $ in coll. L. B. Prout. Also single cj^ from 
Nouveau Chantier (French Guiana), Sarayacu (Ecuador), and San Gaban (Peru) 
in coll. Joicey, and Codajas (Upper Amazon) and Allianca (below S. Antonio, 
Rio Madeira) in coll. Tring Mus. 

This must be near to — possibly even a form of — the species which Dognin 
described [Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg. xviii. 186) from St. Jean du Maroni as semi- 
brunnea. As, however, some pomts in the descrijitions do not tally and he does 



62 No^jT^^j.g ZooLoaicAE XXXIV. 1928. 

not mention any close resemblance in his species to mathanaria, I can not yet 
assume them to be identical ; if they are not, Dognin's species will need a new 
name, as semibrunnea is preoccupied by Pero semihrannm. (Warr.) = Eusenea 
semibrunnea Warr., Proc. U.S. Nat. Miis. xxs. 541. 

20. Pero teleclyta sp.n. 

(J, 43-48 mm. Similar to the brightest forms of anceia Cram. (J (jimenezaria 
Dogn.) but much more gay. Thorax with the narrow central crests brighter 
ochre. Abdomen above with an ochreous patch on the first two or three seg- 
ments. 

Forewiiig buff, shaded (especially in proximal area) with ochraceous ; a 
very small jjurple-grey basal patch, generally also some cloudings in the middle 
of proximal area, though rarely strong ; proximal edge of median band dentate, 
but entirely or almost entirely without the distal projection in cell ; colour of 
the band light purplish grey with some ochrous scales, becoming narrowly bright 
brown at distal side ; postmedian line more deeply incurved between R' and the 
posterior prong than in anceia, the form consequently begimiing to suggest that 
of constrictifascia Warr. (1897) ; an olivaceous shade suffusing the distal area 
in the excavation, bounded distally by a nearly straight ochreous-brown line 

(this line, though often present in anceta, is there olivaceous). Hindwing 

with the postmedian hne not, or inappreciably, bent at M-. 

Forewing beneath with a subterminal whitish patch between R' and M', 
forming an anterior prolongation of the whitish posterior terminal area which 
is common to the two species. 

Venezuela : San Esteban, June- August 1909 (S. M. Klages), a long series 
in coll. Tring Mus., commonest in June ; also 1 cJ from Las Quiguas, in the 
same district. 

21. Pero rapta sp.n. 

cj, 38 mm. Remarkably like rapinaria Guen., from S.E. BrazU, but with 

the antenna dentate-fasciculate instead of pectinate. Forewing with a slightly 

stronger tooth at the end of R' ; coloration perhaps slightly darker ; postmedian 

line more sharply angled at R-, the succeeding excavation slightly deeper. 

Hindwing with the ochreous tornal patch rather smaller and less bright, some 
greyish Unes which traverse it giving it a slightly more olivaceous tinge. 

E. Peru : Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco (E. Boettger), type in coll. Tring 
Mus., together with a second (J, probably from the same district, merely labelled 
" Peru " ; Chanchamayo, 1 c? in coll. L. B. Prout, 1 cJ in U.S. Nat. Mus. 

The impossibility of maintaining the separation of the supposed genus 
Azelina Guen. on (J antennal characters is well illustrated by this species and 
rapinaria, as well as by the stuposaria-trailii group, the mathilda group, and 
others. 

22. Pero caustomeris sp.n. 

cj, 43-49 mm. Very similar to odonaria Oberth. (Et. Ent. vii. 26, t. i, f. 5), 

which it appears very largely to replace in Peru.' Forewing broader, altogether 

brighter, the brighter hazel median area becoming broadly bright ochraceous-buflf 
anteriorly, the pale band outside the subterminal line generally broader and 

' The Tring Museum has from Carabaya (Ockenden's collecting) 39 c<iustomcns and 7 odonaria ; 
the two were taken together at La Oroya and .Santo Domingo. 



NOVITATES ZOOI-OGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 63 

whiter ; antemedian line ending in a small white spot at hindmargin ; postmedian 
straighter at costal end than in odonaria, subterminal thicker, notably from M' 

to tornus. Hindiving with the teeth at M' and M- more pronounced ; veins 

(and posteriorly the entire distal area) more suffused with hazel ; tornal part of 
subterminal line (to M-) thick. 

Underside of forewing, and of hindwing anteriorly, in general more tinged 
with chocolate than in odonarm ; forewing with white patch from tornus con- 
siderably larger. 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya : La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 3,100 ft., common, includ- 
mg the type in coll. TrLng Mus. ; La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 2,000 ft. ; Tinguri, 
3,400 ft. ; Santo Dommgo, 6,500 ft. ; Oconeque, 7,000 ft. E. Peru : Cushi, 
1,900 m. ; Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco, 6,000-10,000 ft. ; Marcapata, 4,000- 
4,500 ft. Colombia : Monte ToUma 2,700-3,200 m. A fine series in the Tring 
Museum and other collections. 

P. odonaria (Oberth.) is known from Costa Rica, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, 
BoUvia, and Brazil and shows some slight racial variation, but nothing that can 
be confounded with caustomeris. 

23. Pero ogmopoea sp.n. 

(J 9, 46-48 mm. Like odonaria Oberth. but with the median area of the 
forewing from R' to hindmargin darker, especially from M and R' hindward — 
between auburn and chestnut-brown of Ridgway (" Color Standards and Nomen- 
clature ") ; postmedian line of hindwing less sinuous, on the underside almost 
straight, only with the slightest outward curve, entirely without the bold sinuosi- 
ties which are a feature in all the forms of odonaria. The forewing has the white 
cell-mark almost as long as DC-"^ well angled at R- (occasionally broken into 
two dots) ; the white patch from tornus of forewing beneath is narrow, but 
reaches R'. 

S.E. Peru : Carabaya, La Union, Rio Huacamayo, 2,000 ft., December 
1904, wet .season, type cJ ; Santo Dommgo, 6,500 ft., November 1904, wet .season, 
allotype $ ; both in coll. Tring Mus. N.E. Peru : Oxapampa, 6,400 ft., 1 cj in 
coll. L. B. Prout. N. Peru : Rentema Falls, Upper Maranon, 1,000 ft. (A. and E. 
Pratt), 1 (J in coll. Joicey. Colombia : Pacho (A. H. Fassl), 1 $ in coll. Joicey. 

24. Pero arnica fructuosa subsp.n. 

(J, 38-44 mm. ; $, 43-47 mm. On an average larger and ampler-winged 
than a. arnica Butl. 1881 (S.E. Brazil) ; darker (notably on the hindwing and 
underside) and with the prevaiUng grey tone of that race changed to brown, 
more or less strongly inclinuig to reddish. Moderately variable, but always 
strikingly distinct. 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya, chiefly at high altitudes : Agualani (loc. typ.) and 
Limbani, 9,000-9,500 ft., abundant ; Oconeque, 7,000 ft., a few ; Rio Huaca- 
mayo, 3,100 ft., 2 i^(^. A fine series in various collections (G. Ockenden), the 
type in coll. Tring Mus. 

25. Pero spitzi sp.n. 
(J, 41-42 mm. In structure and shape close to arnica Butl., the hindwing 
slightly less elongate costally and more fully rounded apicall}'. Antennal 
pectinations, as in arnica, very short (scarcely 1). Thorax above predominantly 



64 NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

quaker-drab, abdomen (especially anteriorly) somewhat suffused with that 
colour. 

Forewing with proximal and median area quaker-drab irrorated with black, 
darkening towards the postniedian line ; antemedian rather more blackish, 
thrice excurved, but v\ith the curves — notal^le the one in cell — conspicuously 
shallower than in arnica ; some vinaceous suffusion towards the base ; post- 
median line shaped as in siolidata Guen. (= adrastaria Oberth. 1883) ; distal 
area pallid quaker-drab with the veirs more whitish-buff and with a cloud of 
pinkish and cinnamon suffusion outside the postmedian line, almost obsolete 
costally, narrowing about the radials, broadening behind, at hindmargin reaching 
tornus ; slighter, more olive-grey terminal suffusions anteriorly ; some small 

black, distaUy white-edged interneural dots at termen. Hindwing more drab 

or hair-brown, the costal and distal areas a little paler, the postmedian obsolete 
at costa, weakly bent at R', then straightish, the brown clouding beyond it weak, 
except at posterior end ; terminal dots not white-tipped. 

Underside somewhat as in well-coloured examples of arnica, but the hind- 
wing with the cell-sjaot very small or obsolescent, the characteristic white terminal 
dot of cellule 6 wanting, the postmedian line more proximal, the brown shades 
brighter, more chocolate, developed into ill-defined subterminal bands, that of 
the forewing only reaching from apex to R-, that of the hindwing broad anteriorly, 
narrowing to tornus. 

$ larger, rather less bright. 

S.E. Brazil: Alto de Serra, Sao Paulo, September 1922— January 1923 
(R. Spitz), 6 oo in coll. Tring Mus., including the type; 13 December 1912 
(E. D. Jones), $ allotype in coll. Brit. Mus. ; Castro, Parana (E. D. Jones), 1 (J 
in coll. Brii;. Mus. 

26. Pero homodoxa sp.n. 

cj. Marvellously like semiusta Butl. (1881), with which it has always been 
mixed. Structurally distinct in having the lamellae of the antenna developed 
into projecting teeth or rudimentary pectinations, the longest of which are 
nearly as long as the diameter of the shaft. Forewing on an average less bluish 
grey, more sharply variegated, but with the ferruginous shade proximally to the 
postmedian often more restricted, or at the costa subobsolete, the grey band 
beyond the postmedian, on the contrary, often reaching the costa ; more con- 
stantly distinguishable by having in the cell — sometimes reaching the cell-spot, 
sometimes shorter — a diffuse blackish extension of the prong of the antemedian 
line. Forewing beneath often with a more or less definite dark-grey cloud in 
base of cellules 2 and 3. 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya : Santo Domingo, fi,.500 ft., a long series, including 
the type, in coll. Tring Mus. ; La Oroya, Rio Inambari, 3,100 ft. ; Rio Inambari, 
6,000 ft. ; Rio Huacamayo, 1,000 ft. Also from Loja, from some localities in 
E. Peru, particularly Huancabamba, Cerro de Pasco, 6,000-10,000 ft., and from 
Bolivia, Yungas de la Paz. 

In a series of 37 homodoxa and 56 semiunta in the Tring Museum, which 
were sorted by the cj antenna, every specimen conforms to the test of the dark 
suffusion in the cell, but as it is short in a few cases in homodoxa, while a very 
few of the semiusta from La Oroya show a slight thickerdng of the postmedian 
prong in the cell, it is not impossible that it may be found to break down in 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 65 

rare aberrations, as is so frequently the case with individual characters derived 
from wing-markings in the closest allies. 

27. Pero brynhilda sp.n. 

(J 9, 46-50 mm. Larger than mathilda Butl. (1881), rather ampler-winged. 
Antennal pectinations of the J" still shorter (even the outer series not exceeding 
1). GenitaUa of the (J without the remarkably long, projecting, spiked valves 
which are characteristic of mathilda. 

Forewing of J with the ground-colour in basal area and especially between 
the postmedian line and the subterminal pale grey, as in semiiista, not brown, 
as in mathilda ; the composite black ceU-mark with its posterior spot usually 
enlarged, oftenest extended longitudinally, tapering proximal ; the yellow spot 
outside it lighter and nearly always broader than in mathilda, the incomplete 
grey streak distal to it obsolete or extremely weak, except in the forms from 
Cushi and Huancabamba (in mathilda black-grey, strong from near costa at 
least to M-') ; the zigzag subterminal line generally weaker and rather more 

pinkish than in mathilda. Hindwing with the line — at least posteriorly — rather 

more proximally placed than in mathilda. 

Underside of a slightly different brown from that of mathilda (more inclining 
to purplish in homodoxa, to orange in miithilda) and with the colour-blends rather 
softer. 

The only $ yet known (Limbani, 9,500 ft.) is brown, but of a more purplish 
shade than that of mathilda and easy to place on account of its large size, the 
shape of the markings and the weakness of the subordinate ones, apart altogether 
from the fact that mathilda is not yet known from a higher altitude in Carabaya 
than 7,000 feet (one $ from Oconeque). 

S.E. Peru, Carabaya : Agualani, 9,000-9,500 ft., IQ 3S in coll. Tring Mus., 
including the type ; Oconeque, 7,000 ft., 4 ^^ ; Limbani, 9,500 ft., 2 ^^, 1 $. 

A race (?) from E. Peru (Cushi and Huancabamba) is slightly intermediate 
in coloration towards mathilda, especially so in the five Cushi examples before me. 

28. Pero circumflexata sp.n. 

(J, 44-45 mm. Similar to a dark dysiaria Feld. (Reise Novara, Lep. Het. 
t. cxxiii, f. 12) — colouring of coracina Warr. (Nov. Zool. xiv. 318). Distinct 
from the (Jo of both in having the termen> of the forewing more strongly 
toothed at R' and M', that of the hindwing rather more curved from apex to 
the tooth at R', which is directed less distad, more towards the tornus ; mid- 
termmal suffusion of both wings cinnamon, not grey ; the white cell-mark of 
the forewing an obtuse V or circumflex accent, that of the hindwing very small, 
drop-shaped, almost punctiform. 

Peru : Huancabamba, Juiun, 3,000 ft., February 1905 (Boettger), type (J ; 
Chanchamayo (Schimcke), 2 ^J^J ; Santo Domingo, Carabaya, 6,000 ft., November 
1902 (Ockenden), 1 cj ; all in coll. Tring. Mus. 

29. Pero steinbachi sp.n. 
(J, 35 mm. Similar to vetustaria Walk. (1866), from the West Lidies. 

Antennal pectinations slightly shorter. Forewing with the teeth of the termen 

still slighter, little noticeable, a black dot present though very small, postmedian 
line straight from costa to R', the mvvard curve between this and the lobe at fold 



66 NOVITATES ZOOLOCICAE XXXIV. 192S. 

thus reduced in length, and depth, the dots close to ternien obsolete ; coloration 
variable as in vetustaria, in the type huffy brown with a sufiEusion of oUve, in 

the paratype nearly cinnamon in proximal and median areas. Hindiring 

with the postmedian line straighter and less oblique (more proximal at costa) 
than in velastaria, the dots close to termen obsolete, excepting the last one or 

two. Underside much more weakly marked than in vetustaria, the dots close 

to termen wanting, the wliite postmedian Ihie not or scarcely dark-edged 
proximaUy, the cell-mark of the huadwing vestigial. 

$, 37-40 mm. With the usual sexual distinctions of the group, the distal 
margins being highly dentate (much as ia astapa Druce $), the coloration richer 
or warmer, though equally variable. Hindwing beneath with the cell-mark 
shghtly less obsolete than in the (J. 

E. Bolivia: Buenavista, July-October 1906 (J. Steinbach), 2 (J^J, 3 $$, 
in coll. Tring Mus. 

30. Pero isotenes sp.n. 

(J, 42 mm. l^ea.T xylinaria Guen. (Oberth., Et. Lep. vi, fig. 1563). Antennal 

joints more serrate, with fascicles of short cilia. Forewing with R= more 

forward (from one-third DC) ; in general slightly paler, in particular without 
the dark longitudinal streak in front of R' ; antemedian line distinct from all 
the allies {xylinaria Guen., cydodaria Feld., alhiditata Prout) in that its anterior 
tooth (in cell) is at least as long as its posterior one, though without the heavy 
black shading of the latter ; cell-spot white, but much smaller and narrower 
than in cydodaria and alhiditata, weakly margmed with brown and with a blackish 
dot at its hinder extremity ; subterminal striae between hindmargin and M' 
more nearly parallel with termen than in xylinaria, midway between postmedian 

and termen condensed into a thick dark line or streak. Hindwing with the 

postmedian line rather proximaUy placed, on the underside with a very pro- 
nounced indentation between the radials. 

Colombia : Torne, Cauca Valley, type (J and another in coU. L. B. Prout ; 
Canon de ToHma, 1 $ (worn) in coll. Tring Mus. Venezuela : 1 (J in coll. Brit. 
Mus. ; Merida, 2 ^^ (worn) in coll. Tring Mus. 

This species was unfortunately misidentifled in the British Museum and 
(consequently) in my collection as cydodaria Feld. and is referred to under that 
name in Nov. Zool. xxiii. 189, under " Meticulodes " albiditata Prout. Felder's 
figure is practically unrecognizable and the mistake was only discovered on a 
study of his rather poor type, likewise from Venezuela. I now beheve that my 
albiditata is merely a large, broad-winged race of true cydodaria ; the Peruvian 
forms are rather intermediate between the W. Colombian and Felder's type, 
though nearer to the former, while i ^^^ and 2 $$ from Baeza, E. Ecuador, 
recently acquired by Lord Rothschild, seem to forge a further link. Confirmatory 
material from Venezuela, however, is still wanting. 

I thmk the generic name Meticulodes Guen., if conserved at all, should be 
restricted to spongiata Guen. (= triplilunata Prout) and bcatricfiria Oberth. 
(1883), in which SC- of the forewing arises from the stalk of SC'~^ 

31. Pero crepusculascens sp.n. 
^, 44-45 mm. Antenna, as in the nearly allied mitraria Oberth. (Et. Lep. 
vi, fig. 1552), with projecting teeth, nearly as long as diameter of shaft. Both 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 67 

wings with termen and fringe appreciably more crenulate. Forewing less 

bright — very little browner than in obfuscaia Warr. (1895) and amniculata Warr. 
(1907) ; antemedian more strongly projecting in cell, though not quite so acutely 

angled as in amniculata. Hindwii,g less blackened than in mitraria, the costal 

and apical regions rather broadly white-mixed. Underside siniilarlj' more 

pale-irrorated than in mitraria, the forewing more broadly whitish posteriorly, 
the hindwing with the postmedian line more distally placed, the area outside it 
less bright brown and with indications of whitish subterminal line, outside 
which the colour becomes paler. 

E. Ecuador : Baeza, March 1915, 2 (JcJ in coll. Tring Mus. 

The type form has apparently slightly less broad forewing than mitraria, 
but two worn ,^q from Monte Tolima, Colombia, which seem clearly consj)eeific, 
are at least as ample-winged as Oberthiir's species. 

From amniculata, wherewith it might easily be confused at first glance, 
crepusculascens differs in the antenna and in the larger cell-spots, with that of 
the hindwing conspicuous beneath. 

32. Gonodontis justa sp.n. 

(J, 55 mm. Nearest to bilinearia Swinh. (1889). Antenna rather slenderer, 

with the pectinations shorter — little over 1 in justa, about 2 in biiineMria. 

Forewing with the tooth at end of R' stronger, the excavation behind it 
deeper, approaching the shape of similaria Moore ; rather bright cinnamon-buff, 
the grey irroration being quite weak ; discal ocellus rather more elongate (trans- 
versely) than in bilinearia, with its darli proximal edging twice as broad as its 
distal ; postmedian line rather straighter and not nearer to the termen at costa 

than at hindmargin. Hindwing with the discal ocellus rather larger than in 

hilinearia, but less black. 

Khasis, November 1894, 2 ^^ in coll. Tring Mus. (including the type), 1 (J 
in coll. L. B. Prout. 

33. Gonodontis nubigosa sp.n. 

(J, 49 mm. Structure and general facies of imitata Warr. (Nov. Zool. iv. 115), 
the type of Warren's genus Cenoctenncha, only with SC' of forewing arising more 
proximally and with the terminal teeth considerably stronger, though less 
extreme than in similaria Moore. Body and wings darker, the forewing, excepting 
the pale termen, varied with cinnamon and russet, the median area towards 
postmedian line more snuff-brown ; median area of forewing broad, at costa 
13 mm., at hindmargin about 6 ; antemedian sharply angled at both folds, 

postmedian nearly straight, both with the whitish vein-dots sharp. Hindwing 

with cell-spot and postmedian stronger than in imitata, the latter beneath not 
dentate. 

Szechwan ; Kunkala-Shan, type ^ in coll. Tring Mus. 

34. Aspitates gonarcha sp.n. 

(J, 43-44 mm. Near acuminaria Eversm. Forewing with termen slightlj' 

more waved, at least anteriorly, between apex and R' appreciably concave, 
at R' distinctly bent ; antemedian Une not bent at fold, on the other hand 
slightly ciu'ved or bent at SM- ; postmedian distinct to costa, which it reaches 
at 5 mm. from apex, slightlj' obhque inward to just behind SC', then suddenly 



68 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

excurved, the hinder side of the excurved portion returning more gradually ; 
the band-like shade outside moderately broad in all the examples, reaching the 

costa, posteriorly widening from M- to hmdmargin. Hiiidwing with termen 

anteriorly much more dentate than in acuminaria, the tooth at R' made particu- 
larly prominent by a noticeable sinus between this and R' ; postmedian straightish, 
the shading outside it broad, subtriangiUar between costa and M-, with the apex 
of the triangle at radial fold quite near termen. 

Underside with the dark cloudmg only strong on forewing jjroximally and 
in a rather broad subterminal Ijand which narrows and weakens posteriorly. 

Afghanistan : Prov. Kuliab, 3 o ^ in coll. Tring Mus. 

35. Nothofidonia xenoleuca sp.n. 

(J, 34-38 mm. Near ansorgei Warr. (Nov. Zool. viii. 16), possibly a sub- 
species. Head and body nearly as in that species. Wings white, only becoming 
bufi at the extreme base and costal edge of forewing and on the hindwing fringes, 

which are not chequered with black as in ansorgei. Forewing with the central 

longitudinal band narrower and more sharply defined, less ragged at its edges 
and continued to the termen, though sometimes containing a small terminal 
black spot ; anterior longitudinal band variable, generally broader and shorter 

than in ansorgei, more sharply defined, generally more distal. Hindwing 

with the abdominal border more broadh^ blackened or black-irrorated than in 
ansorgei, the costal border also broadly black or black-irrorated. 

Abyssinia : Wolisso, between Hauash and Omo, 3-4 June 1925, 10 cJ^J, 
including the type ; N. bend of Omo, 1 June 1925, 1 (J ; all in coll. Tring Mus., 
collected by O. Neumann. 

36. Myrioblephara finitima sp.n. 

cj, 24-27 mm. ; $, 27-28 mm. Close to minima Warr. (Nov. Zool. x. 393) 
but less small (expanse of minima 21-22 mm.). Hindtarsus of ^ less short 
(2 mm. against 1-5), the tibial hair-pencil perhaps less thick, the abdominal 
spine shorter. Abdomen with the white basal belt generally more restricted. 

Forewing with postmedian line less inbent at fold, the narrow shade outside 

it generally marked with distinct dark dashes on the veins. Hindwing with 

the median area, instead of being brown as in minima, almost as white as basal, 
traversed (at least posteriorly) by a somewhat sinuous median line, which is as 
distinct as the antemedian and nearer to it than to the postmedian ; postmedian 
less outbent at R'-M' than in minima. 

Dutch New Guinea : Mount Goliath, 5,000-7,000 ft., January and February 
1911 (A. S. Meek), 5 ^^, 4 $?, including the type cJ- British New Gumea : 
Angabunga River, 1 cJ, 3 ??, misidentified by Warren as confusa Warr. 

37. Tephrina benguellae sp.n. 
(J $, 28-35 mm. Close to pimctilinea Prout {Ann. S. Afr. Mus. xvii. 69, 
xix. t. xvi. f. 26, Peridda). Antennal pectinations of (J slightly less short and 
thick (about 2). Wings not noticeably tinged with ochreous on the veins or 
about the lines ; median line strong throughout, often thickened, on hindwing 
always proximal to the cell ; postmedian line strong, thickened (or, in the less 
strongly-marked specimens, marked with two large dots) at R'-M' ; distal area 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXTV. 1928. 69 

wholly or largely dark-shaded, bearing a double or confluent dark mark between 
R' and M' near the postmedian and a fainter one between M- and SM=, at least 
on forewing. Underside likewise more sharply marked, the antemedian line of 
the forewing generally distinct, the distal dark shade very strong, on forewing 
reaching termen in anterior half or nearly throughout, a pale spot, however, 
always developed or indicated between R" and M^ 

Benguella : Talala, 1 December 1905, type and two other cJ(J ; Batt, 
29 November 1905, 6 ^^, 1 $; Fort Quilenges, 7 January 1905, 1 ?; all in 
coll. Tring Mus., collected by Dr. Ansorge. 

As Perideln only differs constantly from Tephrina in the (often only very 
slightly) irregular termen of the liindwing, I have sunk it to Guenee's genus 
(cf. Nov. ZooL. xxxiii.. 186-7). The present species, crassata Warr. (1897) and 
puiiclilinea Prout, form a very natural group and are perhaps subspecies of a 
single unit, in spite of the (very slightly) shorter pectinations of punctilinea. 
All have the face slightly protuberant, somewhat chitinised above and a 
very small, easily abraded, projecting cone of scales below (lost in the originals), 
transitional towards Hyostomodes Warr. T. crassata is rather large, long-winged 
and dusky brown, the forewing with a rather distinct white subapical dot, and 
is the only form knowii from N.E. Rhodesia ; punctilinea, from Bechuanaland 
and S.W. Africa, is the palest and most uniformly small, with punctiform post- 
median line, median of hindwing crossing the cell-dot, etc. Except in a few 
specimens of punctilinea, SC'"- of the forewing is free in all the material yet 
known. 

38. Tolmera eulminata sp.n. 

(J, 51-52 mm. Larger than albibasis Warr. (1903). Forewing with the 

pure white basal spot reduced to a few inconspicuous whitish scales ; lines less 
mixed with brown ; antemedian almost straight from costa to SM^ here dentate 
outward, thence oblique inward to hindmargin ; a conspicuous black sjiot between 
this and fovea, some black dashes at costa and a slight black admixture behind 
SMS the basal area otherwise clear ; proximal subterminal shades broad, especi- 
ally between M' and SM= ; apical patch more conspicuously pale than in albibasis. 

Hindwing and underside rather darker than in albibasis, the forewing beneath 

rather uniformly so, almost obliterating the markings and bringing into strong 
relief the pale apical patch. 

Dutch New Guinea : Mount Goliath, 5,000-7,000 ft., January (type) and 
February (paratype) 1911 (A. S. Meek), both in coll. Tring Mus. 

39. Zamarada euerces sp.n. 

S ?, 29-34 mm. Near phrontisaria Swinh. (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1904, p. 517), 

especially in the distal borders. Forewing slightly shorter (termen less oblique 

anteriorly) ; translucent green instead of bronzy ; ' transverse pinkish-grey 
strigulation rather well developed ; cell-spot larger, in both species a rhombus, 
in phrontisaria slightly, in euerces broadly pale within ; distal area scarcely so 
white proximally, the angular dark markings (" sinuous thin band " of Swinhoe) 
more proximally placed. Hindwing with cell-mark rather larger and darker 

' Swinhoe has omitted to mention the colour, whicli is a very cliaracteristic feature of his 
species ; it varies according to the incidence of the light, so that it may appear more ochreous or 
pink, but never green. 

6 



70 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

than in phrontisaria ; angular markings of distal area narrowed or obsolete 
outside the broad central bay of the ground-colour. 

Sierra Leone, tj'pe ^ in coU. Tring Mus. Ivory Coast ; BingerviUe (G. 
Melon), a $ m the same coUection. Cameroons, interior : Satschi, 21-25 May 
1909 (Riggenbach) in coll. Zool. Mus. Berlin. S. Cameroons : Epulan, 30 March 
1926 (G. Schwab), a (^ m coll. Joicey. 

Z. euerces phygas subsp.n. ?, 29-30 mm. Cell-mark of forewing less 
large (about as in phrontisaria) ; borders on an average narrower. 

Tanganyika Territory : Mikindani (Reimer), type in coU. Zool. Mus. Berlin ; 
Tendaguru, Lindi dist. (Janisch), paratype in coU. Joicey. 

40. Zamarada acrochra sp.n. 

cJ $, 31-35 mm. Head, antennal shaft, and costal margin of forewing bright 
orange (capucine yellow), dark-spotted. Collar nearly as bright. Antenna in 
(J pectinate to fully three-fifths, the branches long. Hindtibia of ^ rather 
strongly dilated, with hair-pencil. Thorax and abdomen above of the usual 
pale violet-plumbeous, the abdomen more mixed with light browiaish vinaceous 
and with small yellow crests. 

Forewing pale translucent green, with the strigulation moderate ; extreme 
base concolorous with thorax ; cell-mark narrow, elongate, generally weak, 
never intense ; postmedian black line somewhat crenulate, from costa at beyond 
two-thirds in (J, about two-thirds in $, to hindmargin at about the same, the 
bay between R' and M- moderate or rather shallow (generally well under one-half 
breadth of distal area), its proximal angle at R' rather rounded off, that at M= 
squarer, its distal end rarely indented on M^ ; distal area vinaceous brown or 
somewhat lighter and more reddish ; the subterminal triangles darker brown, 
acute except opposite the bay, the dentate subterminal line pale buff ; fringe 

chequered, orange-bro\vn and blackish. Hindwing with cell-mark still weaker 

or obsolete ; distal markings as on forewing, or with the bay deeper. 

Forewing beneath with costal margin duller, cell-mark rather stronger, 
border very dark proximaUy (blackish bone-brown), fading off towards fawn- 
colour distaUy, with the apex conspicuously paler, recalling that of exxavata 
B.-Bak. Border of hindwing similarly coloured, without broadened pale apex. 

Senegal : Sedhiou (H. Castell), 2 cJcJ- 3 ?? in coll. Tring Mus., the type c? 
dated 17-25 July 1917. Also from Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Cameroons. 
and Congo. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXIV. 1928. 71 



DESCEIPTIONS OF SOME NEW HESPEEIIDAE FROM THE 
AUSTRALIAN REGION IN THE TRING MUSEUM 

By colonel W. H. EVANS, C.I.E., D.S.O., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

1. Hasora buina n.sij. 

Male — ^Above velvet black, bases clothed with grey-green hairs : head and 
thorax clothed pale blue-green hairs : abdomen black. No secondary sexual 
characters. Wings rounded. Cilia dark brown. 

Below dark chocolate with a purple flush : outer fifth of forewing and third 
of hindwing paler. Thorax and palpi clothed blue-grey hairs : abdomen with 
grey hairs. Forewing dorsum below vein 1 yellow and a small diffuse yellow 
patch in the centre of the outer third of the cell. On the hindwing there is a 
narrow yellow streak below and along vein 1 from the base to rather beyond the 
middle of the wing : a sharply defined small double yellow spot in the centre 
of the outer third of cell 1 and a similar single spot just before the end of the cell. 

Expanse (2 x distance from centre of thorax to apex of forewing) 54 mm. 

Female similar to the male ; generally paler and rather larger. 

Described from 2 males and 1 female obtained by A. S. Meek in January 
1908 at " Buin, Bougainville, Solomon Islands." 

The nearest ally is H. unihrina Mab. (= nahroa Swinh.) from the Celebes, 
which it resembles on the upperside, in size and wing contour, but the underside 
of buina is very distinct and quite diff^erent from any other Hasora. There is a 
female of umbrina in the R. Oberthiir collection at Remies : the forewing bears 
large pale yellow hyaline spots as in anura Den. 

2. Hasora lavella n.sp. 

Male — Above dark chocolate brown, paler basally. Head clothed dark 
olive green hairs : thorax of same colouring as base of wings. No secondary 
sexual characters. Wings jjroduced as in most Hasora, viz. ahxis. Cilia dark 
brown. 

Below chocolate brown with a purple gloss. Clothing of palpi with the 
long scales yellow, the sides and short scales brown. Thorax brown : abdomen 
alternately brown and pale yellow. Forewing tornally yellow-brown : costa 
to just beyond end cell dark olive green : a narrow crescent (convex to apex) 
of bluish white scales, sharply defined, midway between the end of the cell and 
the apex, extending from vein 4 to vein 9. Hindwing crossed by a straight 
broad (4 mm.), pure white, sharply defined, discal band from the costa (where it 
is narrowed considerably) well before the apex, across the end of the cell (not 
entering the cell) to vein 1a well before the tornus, whence it curves to meet the 
dorsum at the end of vein 1b, narrowing and becoming bluish : the basal area 
up to the discal band is dark, non-iridescent green, of a rather unusual shade. 

Expanse 60 mm. 

Female as male : generally paler and rather larger. 

Described from .3 males from Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, and 1 female 
from Florida Island, obtained by A. S. Meek in March 1908. 



72 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAIS XXXIV. 1928. 

The nearest allies are proxissima Ehv. & Edw. from the Philippines, Siani, 
and Borneo, and latifascia Joic. and Talb. from New CJuinea, but the peculiarly 
coloured underside and the apical band on the forewing below readily distinguish 
lavdla. 

3. Notocrypta caerulea n.sp. 

Male — Above black with a deep but brilliant steely blue glaze. Head and 
thorax white spotted. Forewing crossed by a compact broad hj'aline band as in 
the majority of Notocrypta, but instead of being white the band is pale shining 
blue : it extends from vein 1, through spaces 1, 2, base of 3, end of cell to the 
subcostal vein and there is a narrow white dash on the costa above the band : 
there is a small white dot on the disc in space 4, another in 7, and another in 8. 
Hindwing unmarked. Wings rounded, but the apex of the hindwing is somewhat 
produced and the termen is convex between veins 1b and 3. The cilia of the hind- 
wing are narrowly white from the tornus to vein 6 and at the end of the dorsum, 
darkened at the end of each vein. 

Below generally paler and considerably so at the apex of the forewing and 
on the outer third of the hindwing and along the dorsum : on the pale areas of 
both wings the veins are overlaid with sparse white scales. Markings of forewing 
and cUia of hindwing as above, but the streak on the costa of the forewing is 
broader. Palpi white spotted and broadly white at the sides. 

Expanse 52 mm. 

Female as male. 

Described from 3 males and 2 females in the Tring Museum and a pair in the 
British Museum obtained by A. S. Meek between November 1905 and February 
1905 at "Angabunga River, affluent of the St. Joseph River, British New Guinea, 
above 6,000 feet " (locality of type) and " Biagi, Mambare River, British New 
Guinea," obtained in April 1906. 

N. caerulea generally resembles the ordinary species of Notocrypta, but is 
readily distinguished by the blue glaze, the white spotted head, and the striping 
below. The antennae are as in Notocrypta, there being a few white scales below 
the club. The palpi are more pronounced and the third joint is more porrect, 
rather as in Udaspes. 

4. Plastingia rothschildi n.sp. 

Male — Above black with a deep blue glaze. Forewing with the base below 
the subcostal vein broadly bright iridescent blue, extending to the middle of 
the wing. Hindwing with the basal third below the cell iridescent blue, clothed 
with bluish white hairs. Head and thorax prominently white spotted : upper 
part of abdomen clothed bluish white hairs. Secondary sexual characters as 
follows : dorsum of forewing strongly bowed : on the hindwing a large suboval 
patch of specialized yellow scales lying behind the origin of vein 7 and extending 
from mid cell to vein 8, overlying which area there is an erectile tuft of long yellow 
hairs springing from near the base of the cell. 

Below black with a dark purple glaze and a very characteristic wing pattern. 
Palpi bright orange, also the centre of the abdomen : thorax white spotted. 
Forewing with a short orange streak at the base of the costa : a patch of pale 
bluish green scales near the end of the cell, continued somewhat obscurely as a 
streak towards the base of the cell : a rather broad crescentic (convex to apex) 



NOTTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 73 

band of similar scales from vein 2 near the termen to vein 9 just beyond the end 
of the cell : dorsum below vein 2 for a distance of two-thirds from the base 
denuded of scales (a secondary sexual character) leaving only a large dark central 
suboval patch of the ground colour. Hindwing with a short broad orange streak 
at the base of the costa : a very large sharply defined pale bluish white apical 
oval area extending from just beyond the yellow basal streak very nearly to the 
apex and from the lower edge of the cell very nearly to the costa : a pale bluish 
green submarginal band, widening dorsally, from vein 4 to the dorsum : centrally 
between this band and the base there is a pale bluish white spot on the dorsum. 

Expanse 44 mm. Apex of forewing produced, hindwing rounded. Antennae 
as in Plastingia generally, but the apiculus is longer than usual and tends to twist 
round the shaft. Palpi with the third joint prominent, stout and porrect. 

Female as male : with rounder wings and no secondary sexual characters. 

Described from 2 males and a female obtained at Milne Bay, British New 
Gumea, in February 1899 by A. S. Meek. 

This beautiful little species on the upperside generally resembles P. extrusus 
Hew., of which there are several specimens at Tring and in the British Museum. 
The underside of P. rothschildi is very remarkable and the secondary sexual 
characters are unique as far as the genus Plastingia is concerned. P. extrusus 
is a very variable species in respect of the hyale spotting on the forewing and the 
pale markings on the hmdwing below : it was redescribed by Joicey and Talbot 
as " Mimene hasalis " in A.M.N. H. 1916 and 1917. 

5. Plastingia papua n.sp. 

Male — Above dark brown with a strong purple gloss. Base of hindwing 
and body sparsely clothed golden yellow hairs and some similar hairs on the palpi. 
Forewing with a golden yellow band composed of four conjoined spots, arranged 
thus : across space 1 from mid vein 1 to base vein 2, in space 2 very nearly to 
the base, at the extreme base of space 3 and in the lower part of the cell behind 
the origin of vein 3 : some obscure yellow scales towards the apex in spaces 6 
and 7. Hindwmg with the basal half of the costa yellow : a large circular golden 
yellow discal spot in spaces 4-5 and a smaller similar spot further from the 
margin in space 1b. Cilia dark brown. No secondary sexual characters. 

Below — Forewing brown with a deep purple gloss : a yellow costal streak 
extending half-way along the costa from the base : a discal yellow band as above 
and a yellow patch in spaces 6 to 8, also some scattered yellow scales towards the 
termen in spaces 3, 4, and 5. Hindwing brilliant shining purple : a large suboval 
yellow area at the base of the costa, extending to half-way along the costa and 
just reaching the cell : golden yellow discal spots as above : small submarginal 
yellow spots from space 1a to 6 and a dash of yellow towards the base in space 1 . 
Palpi and legs golden yellow : abdomen narrowly banded dull yellow. 

Expanse 36 mm. The antennae are plain dark brown with a long apiculus 
as in all Plastingia. The third joint of the palpi is short, stout, and porrect : 
the palpi are very variable in this genus. The venation of the hindwing is some- 
what aberrant in that the cell is very long, more than three-quarters the width 
of the wing. Forewing somewhat produced : hindwing rounded. 

Described from 2 males from New Guinea. The type is marked " Hydro- 
grapher Mts., British N.G., 2,500 feet, Eichhorn Bros., February 1918." 

The markings of the forewing resemble P. telesinus Mab., from the Philippines, 



74 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

but the large spots on the hmdwing and the brilliant purple and gold underside 
distinguish P. papiin from any other species. 

6. Pirdana cyanea, n.sp. 

Male — Above dark brown, basally clothed with dark orange brown hairs. 
On the forewing there is a narrow, irregular, and interrupted dark brown brand 
from two-thirds along vein 1 to vein 4 and just beyond the cell. Cilia dark 
brown. 

Below dark brown with a strong purple gloss. Forewing apex paler. Hind- 
wing crossed by a broad (4 mm.) dull yellow band from the costa behind the apex 
to vein 1b : a diffuse and rather obscure j^atch of scattered pale bluish scales 
along the tornus in 1b. Palpi with white scales freely intermixed with the 
ordinary brown scales and broadly white at the sides. Thorax and abdomen with 
some white scaling : abdomen orange at the sides for a distance of two-thirds 
along from the thorax (a very unusual feature). 

Expanse 48 mm. Wings produced and of the usual Pirdana shape, e.g. 
hyela. Antennae plain and as in Pirdana. Palpi with the third joint stout, 
rather short and erect. 

Female above generally as the male, but without the brand, paler, slightly 
larger and wings more rounded. Below the glaze is dark indigo and on the hind- 
wing the band is paler, wider (6 mm.), extending full width to the dorsum turning 
pale bluish white beyond vein iB. Forewing with a rather broad bluish white 
discal band from vein 1 to vein 4 in continuation of the hindwing band : a 
similar irregular patch in the centre of the cell above the origin of vein 3, also a 
few similar scales beyond the upper apex of the cell. 

The type-specimen is marked " Kapaur, low country, February 1897, 
W. Doherty." There are 3 more pairs from New Guinea at Tring and a few 
specimens in the British Museum. 

P. cyanea generally resembles P. tiacellia Hew. from Aru and New Guinea, 
and has doubtless been confused with that rare species, of which there are a 
few specimens of both sexes at Tring and a pair (including the type) at the 
British Museum. P. tiacellia differs in having no brand, a yellow costa to the 
hindwing above, orange palpi below, while the band on the hindwing below 
turns orange at the upper end. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 75 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON A PAIR OF SARUS CRANES 

AT TRING 

By ERNST HARTERT AND FREDERICK YOUNG 

LORD ROTHSCHILD is keeping a pair of Sams Cranes, Grus antigone antigone, 
in a paddock opposite tlie Museum. Tiie female is about twelve years old, 
whUe the male was only received in 1924, being a juvenile bird, probably not two 
years old. As is well known, all Cranes are very interesting and gentle birds in 
captivity, and we always enjoy to observe them. 

Blauuw noticed in Grus japonensis, St. Quintin in several other species of 
Cranes, that moult did not take place every year, and it is obvious that our Grus 
antigone do not moult every year, but only every second and apparently even 
sometimes every third year, though they seem oftener to renew the down covering 
part of their body under the feathers. 

Our cranes are rather noisy birds, uttering, chiefly in the pairing season or 
when otherwise excited, their loud trumpet calls. These calls are not so deep 
as those of Grus grus, but higher, shriller. As a rule the male begins with a loud 
kruiii ; immediately the female answers with a stUl shriller, more prolonged, 
drawn-out, and somewhat rolling shriek ; when uttering these trumpet blasts 
they usually face each other, and sometimes bow to each other. They are 
chiefly fed on dog biscuits and get from time to time some meat and vegetables ; 
they also catch insects, worms, etc., in their paddock. If they are given dead 
birds (mostly sparrows), rats or mice, in nine times out of ten they wash' them 
in water, especially when bigger, while sparrows and mice are often swallowed 
at once entire. Rats and moles they crush and shake until the skin comes off, 
or at least most of it ; of birds they tear and shake tails and wings off. 

Very amusing are their dances. They are rightly called dances. The birds 
run round the paddock, then strut about with stiff legs, bow to each other, hop 
into the air, tear out pieces of turf, throw them into the air, and sometimes catch 
them up again, and this performance is often accompanied by trumpet blasts. 

In 102.5 they began to pair. A nest was commenced on July 17, and the 
first egg laid July 20, a second on the 22. The female then began to incubate 
at once. The eggs were taken away on September 8 ; they had been unfertile. 

Another nest was built from September 22, and finished the next day. 
The nests consisted of dry grass, dr\- nettle stalks, and small pieces of wood. 
On September 2.3 the first egg was laid, the second on the 27th. Again the eggs 
were not fertile. The male has never been sitting and the female, who seems alone 
to incubate, is a somewhat poor sitter, often leaving the eggs for short periods. 

In 1926 a nest was hurriedly constructed on June 28, and an egg laid ; the 
second the 30th, between eight and nine m the morning. Again the female 
incubated alone, and the eggs, after being incubated for forty-seven days, were 
taken up and found to be infertile. 

' Tliis "washing" is done quite deliberately, and sometimes also pieces of liver or meat are 
washed ; it is of course impossible to say whether this is actually done in order to clean the food, 
or to wet it for the purpose of swallowing it more easily. 



76 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXTV. 1928. 

On August 29 and 30 two eggs were laid again, in a very small and carelessly 
constructed nest, and the female sat more irregularly and badly than before. 
Eggs not fertile. 

In 1927, on July 8, an egg was laid on the bare ground and immediately 
broken and eaten by the male. A slight nest was made on the following day, 
and an egg laid on the 10th, a third on July 13. The female made no attempt to 
sit, but broke and ate both eggs. Further eggs were laid, either on the bare 
ground or in an apology for a nest, some outside in the paddock, some in the 
sleepmg shelter, but all were eaten by the female, unless at once taken away. 

On the day of writing, August 22, an eighth egg was laid in the sleeping- 
house and not eaten by the birds. 

The eggs differ widely from the brown eggs of European and most other 
Cranes, in being white, more or less glossy, with rugous or yellowish brown, 
and some deeper-lying mauve or dull violet spots, mostly small and often sparse. 
Against the light the shell looks green. The eggs laid in Tring, as far as they 
could be saved, measure : 108 x 66, 107 x 67, 106 x 66, 105 x 66, 104 x 65-5. 
103-5 X 63-5, 102-5 X 61, 99-5 x 62-5, and 99 x 66-5 mm. These eggs closely 
resemble those of the Australian Crane Grus rubicunda, but the latter are less 
elongated, thicker and rounder. 

After writing this a ninth egg was laid on August 24 in the sleeping-house. 
The birds did not attempt to break these eggs and two days later the female 
began to incubate and set well, but the eggs were unfertile ; the male never 
assisted and showed no desire to do so. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 77 



FURTHEE RECOEDS OF ANTHEIBIDAE FEOM FEENCH INDO- 
CHINA, WITH THE ADDITION OF THE DESCRIPTIONS OF 
TWO NEW SPECIES FROM OTHER COUNTRIES 

By dr. KARL JORDAN 

'T'HE list of Anthribidae from Indochina which I published in Opusc. Inst. 
■*• Scienl. Indochina, i, 1923, pp. 3-41, enumerates 86 .species, which were 
mostly collected by Monsieur R. Vitalis de Salvaza. That paper, the proofs of 
which unfortunately were not submitted to me for correction, contains many 
misprints, for which I should like to apologize. 

Through the kind service of Monsieur J. Clermont, of Paris, who has become 
the successor of Blonsieur H. Donckier, I have lately received the Anthribidae 
collected in Tonkin by the R. Pere de Cooman, and additional material collected 
by Monsieur Jeanvome. Among these specimens I found a surprisingly large 
number of sjiecies which are either new or not yet recorded from Tonkin ; these 
form the chief subject of the present article. I am very grateful to Father de 
Cooman for having devoted some of his time to the procurmg of Antlirihidae 
and congratulate him on the great success with which his energies in this direction 
have been crowned. I trust that fiu'ther collections will make the list of Indo- 
chinese Anthribidae stUl more complete. Besides the species recorded in the 
present paper, I have about 10 others mostly represented by single specimens 
not well enough preserved for description ; these must wait tUl further material 
comes to hand. 

The 36 species and subspecies marked with an asterisk are new for Indochina. 

*l. Mecoceras principalis sp. nov. 

(J$. Prothorace tuberculo lateral! acuto armato valde distuactus. 

Long. 18 mm., lat. 8-8-5 mm. 

Tonkin: Chapa, vi.l918 (Jeanvoine), one pair. 

A robust species. Dark ohve, with definite ochraceous and velvety black 
markuigs nearly as in M. asmenus Jord. (1913) : anteriorly on each side of 
frons a velvety black spot bounded on outer side along eye by a narrow irregular 
line which extends forwards to the apex of the rostrum as a broader stripe ; 
lower border of eye and an elongate spot behind eye ochraceous ; on each side 
of disc of pronotum a broadish irregular black stripe from near apex to base, 
bounded on dorsal side by a thin irregular ochraceous line and on outer side by 
a short streak from carma to middle, within the black stripe a small ochraceous 
dot, farther towards side from base to near apex a narrow ochraceous line twice 
interrupted, above lateral tubercle a spot of the same colour ; alternate inter- 
spaces of elytra, beginning with the sutural interspace, spotted with black and 
ochraceous, on subbasal swelling and at sides before and behind middle a larger 
black spot, subapical dots of interspaces 3 and 9 also somewhat enlarged, in 
middle of each elytrum a large irregularlj' rounded black spot between second 
and sixth interspaces ; underside spotted with ochraceous on side, a spot of the 
same colour on mesosternal intercoxal process, on coxae, and in middle of 



78 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

first abdommal sternite, two spots each on femora and tibiae ; upperside 
of tarsal segment 1, except base and apex, and basal half of 4 greyish 
ochraceoiis. 

Eyes farther apart than in iM. allectiis Pasc. (1860) ; at base of proboscis a 
very narrow median sulcus which extends a httle on to the frons, sides of proboscis 
smooth in basal half. Antenna of (J a little surpassing the elj-tra, segment 1 
not reaching to the eye. Dorsal carina of pronotum interrupted in middle and 
near side ; the lateral carina ending with a high tubercle, which is somewhat 
curved backwards in cJ. On miderside of prothorax no tubercle, but in both 
sexes a sharply marked straight transverse groove. 

2. Mecoceras asmenus hedybius subsp. nov. 

M. a. Jord. (nee id. 1913), in Vitahs, Opusc. Inst. Scient. Indochiiie, Faune 
Entom. i, p. 8, no. 9 (1923). 

Differs from the two North Indian examples I have seen in the black discal 
spots of the pronotum not being boimded by orange on the outer side. 

Type from Chapa (Jeanvome). 

3. Mecoceras callosus Jord. (1904). 

il/. mamillatus Jord. (err. cal.), I.e. p. 8, no. 10 (1923). 

In addition to the specimens mentioned. I.e., we now have a small series of 
both sexes from Tonkin : Hoa Binh and Lactho (de Cooman) ; Than Mei, vi . 1917, 
and Lang Wak, ix.l917 (Jeanvoine). 

4. Physopteras aspersus Jord. (1923). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), several specimens. The ij is similar to 

the 9, except that the antenna is a little longer. 

5. Acorynus salvazai Jord. (1923). 

Tonkin : Chapa, v. 1918 (Jeanvoine), 1 ?. Described from a ^. In 

the ? the frons is not quite so broad as the interspace between the median and 
next carinae of the rostrum. 

*C. Acorynus confinis sp. nov. 

$. Statura .4. .sa/mzoi Jord. (1923); rostri carinae breviores ; segmentum 
Sum antennae septimo fere aequilongum ; pygidium longitudine multo latins ; 
tibiae antica et intermedia apice simpUces. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 ^. 

On the elytra the ochraceons dorsal median spot smaller than in A . salvazai 
and the black subapical spot connected laterally with the postmedian one ; other- 
wise the markings and colour almost the same. Frons about half as broad again 
as the first segment of the antenna ; segment 8 one-third shorter than 7, being 
a little longer than 10. Dorsal carma of pronotum strongly and evenly concave 
in middle, much more so than towards the sides. Pygidium nearly one-third 
broader than long, in A. salvazai a little longer than broad. Apex of fore- and 
midtibiae neither dUated nor mucronate. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 79 

*7. Acorynus anchis expansus subsp. nov. 

(J. Elytrorum colore ochraceo niulto inagis extenso. 

Tonldn : Tien Yen, viii.1917 (Jeanvoine), ] (J. 

Pronotum not depressed before middle. Elytra ochraceous, before apical 
declivity a black transverse band which is convex in front and concave behind 
on each elytrum, narrows laterally and does not quite reach the lateral edge ; 
between this band and the base a number of more or less confluent irregular short 
black streaks and transverse lines, a spot on shoulder and another on subbasal 
swelling larger, in centre of ochraceous apical declivity a small black mark on 
each elytrum. 

*s. Acorynus brevis Jord. (1911). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 $. Described from a $ from " Malacca." 

The present specimen differs a little in the markings, particularly in the apex of 
the elytra being occupied by a white patch which is rounded anteriorly and in 
front of which there is a transverse curved row of small whitish dots. 

*9. Acorynus altilis sp. nov. 

$. Statura .4. hrevis Jord. (1911), sed elytris angustioribus. Niger, tomento 
luteo-griseo et olivaceo obtectus. Pronotum medio impunctatum. Eljrtra 
oUvacea, luteo-griseo suffusa, macula nigra dorsali antemediana notata, area 
apicaU communi antice rotundata luteo-grisea. 

Long. 5-6 mm. 
• Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 $. 

Frons and rostrum luteous grey, the former as broad as the interspace 
between the dorsal carinae of the proboscis ; these carmae short, the central 
one reaching to middle of rostrum, the lateral dorsal one shghtly curved and 
extending beyond middle, cariniform edge of antennal groove directed towards 
side of pronotum, not bemg strongly curved. Antenna blackish throughout, 
rufescent at the joints, 10 less than one-half longer than broad. Eye very Uttle 
longer than broad. Pronotum (pubescence not well preserved) with three yellow- 
ish spots at the base and several others apically and laterally, sides slightly 
punctate and rugate, the pimctures larger on the prosternum ; dorsal carina almost 
straight, very feebly angulate in middle, flexed forward at sides in an even curve. 
Elytra depressed along suture, subbasal swelling distinct, pubescence olive 
suffused with luteous and variegated with minute, rather diffuse, luteous grey 
dots, a large spot of this coloiu- behind black shoulder, in front of middle between 
interspaces 2 and 4 a velvety black spot about as broad as long, behind it the 
luteous pubescence somewhat condensed, on subbasal swelling and at margin 
behind shoulder as well as behind middle near margin a black spot, luteous grey 
anal area well defined, bounded by a diffuse black band, on the slightly elevate 
interspace 3 a small blackish subapical spot. Pygidium luteous grey. Under- 
side and legs grey, side of metasternum sparsely punctate, base and apex of tibiae, 
apex of first tarsal segment and the whole segments 2 to 4 blackish brown. 

*10. Acorynus coomani sp. nov. 
?. Rufo-brunneus, supra luteo-griseo pubescens, subtus griseus. Carinae 
rostri obsolescentes. Oculi circulares. Pronotum conicum, multo latius quam 
longius, punctatum, nigro-maeulatum. Elytra brevia fortiter convexa, nigro 
notata, macula magna lateraU nigra. 



80 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Long. 4 mm., lat. 2-3 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 $. 

Distantly related to A. aspersus Jord. (1925) from Assam. 

Proboscis one-fourth longer than apicallj- broad, narrowest in middle, rather 
strongly widened at apex, flattened, with slight indications of three carinae proxi- 
mally to middle. Frons about one-fourth the width of the apex of the rostrum ; 
no groove below eye ; occiput brown. Segments 1 and 2 of antemia pale rufous, 
the others rufous brown, club short, but longer than in true Tropideres, a little 
looser, 10 a little longer than broad. Pronotum punctate, three-fourths broader 
than long, conical, an almost hexagonal difiuse luteous grey central area bounded 
by blackish diffuse confluent markings which converge towards occiput, a difiuse 
median stripe more densely pubescent luteous, at each side of this stripe in front 
of the carina a blackish dot, on the lateral area of the disc a longish spot before 
the carina and a smaller one farther forward also blackish ; dorsal carma some- 
what convex from side to side, faintly concave in middle, curved forward at side 
in a semicircle. On elytra a shoulder-spot, a transverse line on subbasal sweUing, 
a small angle-shaped spot before apical declivity on interspace 3, a longish sub- 
apical transverse spot which is dentate and irregular and reaches neither the 
suture nor the lateral margin, and a very large submedian patch black, this patch 
broadest at the lateral margin, irregularly rounded above, extending upwards to 
punctate line 2 and including some minute luteous grey dots towards the side. 
Pygidium semicircular, slightly brownish in centre. Pro- and metasternum 
pmictate. Base and apex of tibiae and the entire segments 2 to 4 of tarsi more 
or less brown. 

*ll. Acorynus manifestus sp. nov. 

cj. Brunneo-niger, griseo pubescens, pronoto et elytris olivaceo-brunneis 
ochraceo guttatis. Rostrum planatum, impressum, utrinque caruiatum. An- 
temiarum segmenta sum-ipui compressa linearia, 8° albo tribus sequentibus paulo 
breviore. Pronotum impunctatum, carina in semicirculo antrorsum flexa. Elytra 
fascia postmediana nigra ad suturam interrupta sat diffusa notata. Tibiae et 
tarsorum segmentum basale griseum apice extremo nigro, tibia media fortiter 
mucronata. 

Long. 7 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa BLnh (de Cooman), 1 (J. 

Antenna reaching beyond middle of elytra, black, 3 to 7 sjDarsely pubescent 
grey, 8 white, basal segment pyriform, not quite reaching the eye, 2 a little longer 
than broad, 3 to 11 flattened, with dispersed bans on imderside, 3 one-third 
longer than 4, 4 to 8 nearly equal in lengths and widths, Imear, 9-11 together 
about as long as 3, very little broader than 8, 9 triangular, less than twice as long 
as broad, 10 nearly square, 11 broadest at base, pointed at apex, a little longer 
than 9. Proboscis greyish white, nearly vertical, somewhat longer than broad, 
broadest at apex, dorsal surface shallowly depressed, slightly convex between the 
antennae, on each side of the depression a thin carina which extends from near 
the eye to above the antennal groove, not quite touching the carinitorm edge of 
this groove, being here broken and continued to near apex, a thin median carina 
does not reach the apex of the rostrum, but is continued over the frons on to the 
occiput ; below eye a thin curved sulcus. Eye almost circular. Frons about 
one-third as wide as the base of the proboscis between the lateral carinae. Occiput 



NoviTATES Zoological XXXIV. 1928. 81 

olive brown, this colour extending on to frons, eye slightly edged above with 
ochraceous. Pronotum with indications of shallow punctures, practically im- 
punctate, without transverse discal groove, a little more than half as broad again 
as long, three antemedian spots m a transverse row, the middle one of which is 
elongate, an indistinct spot behind lateral one, a diffuse mark at apex of lateral 
carina and a spot before scutellum ochraceous. On each elytrum 14 ochraceous 
spots (the number jirobably variable), all small, 3 of them before and 3 behind the 
black postmedian band, 3 subbasal, a double one before subbasal swelling, 3 on 
apical area, and one at side behind posthumeral lateral spot ; the black band 
reaches neither suture nor margin, about | nnn. broad in thii-d interspace, narrow- 
ing laterally and becommg still more diffuse than it is dorsally. Pygidium 
olive-grey, rounded, broader than long. 

Underside and legs ashy grey ; a dot at apex of metepistemum ochraceous ; 
a central patch on metasternum, continued on to midcosae, covered mth longish 
yellowish grey hair ; setiferous haii's on ventral sm-face of foretarsal segment 1 
longer than on the other tarsi. 

In the absence of a $ it is not advisable to erect a new genus for this peculiar 
species. 

*12. Litocerus alternans sp. nov. 

$. Statura L. Tchasiani Jord. (1903), rostro unicarinato et elytris nigro et 
luteo tessellatis distinctus. 

Long. 9 mm. 

Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1$. 

Proboscis densely rugate, with a very thin median carina which does not 
reach apex, no other carinae, no groove below eye. Frons a little broader than 
the first foretarsal segment. Antenna as long and slender as in L. khasianus, 
but 9 much longer than 11, which is a little longer than 10. Pronotum with 
dispersed shallow punctures in posterior half of disc and on sides, dorsal and 
lateral carinae nearly straight, angle strongly rounded off, a complete broadish 
median stripe, a small basal lateral spot and another small spot at apex of lateral 
carina ochraceous, at each side of median stripe a black subapical spot, rest of disc 
olive, mdistiuctly broken uj) into three spots by blackish interspaces. Elytra 
oUve, with three rows of ochraceous spots separated by velvety black spots, the 
latter somewhat longer than the former, four bemg black and five ochraceous in 
thii-d interspace, at side of first ochraceous spot of foiu'th interspace a black spot 
m second. 

Underside pale ochraceous marked with black ; a large submedian ring on 
tibiae creamy buff, as is also the first tarsal segment with the exception of apex 
and extreme base. 

13. Litocerus sticticus Jord. (1904). 

L. siricticus ! Jord., in Vitalis, Opusc. i, p. 14, no. 21 (1923). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 $. Described from a (J. The species 

has a purpUsh sheen in certain asi^ects. 

14. Ti'opideres japonicus Roel. (1S79). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 S- This is the second specimen 

recorded from Indochina. 



82 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

*15. Tropideres notabilis sp. nov. 

$. Statura et colore T. japonico simillimus, antennarum clava laxa longiore 
atque elytro absque macula griseo-alba disttnguendus. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 2 $$. 

Antenna longer than in T. japonicus, segment 8 about three times as long as 
broad, 10 one-third longer than broad. Eye nearly circular. Pronotum less 
mieven than in T. japonicus and less coarsely punctate, dorsal carina not curved 
back in centre. None of the markings of the elytra greyish white, all luteous. 

16. Tropideres securus Boh. (1839). 

Tonkin : Lactho and Hoa Binh (de Cooman), a series. Common and 

widely distributed in Indo-Malayan countries ; but this is the first record of the 
species from Tonkin. 

17. Tropideres paviei Lesne (1891). 

Tonkin : Lactho and Hoa Binh (de Cooman), a series. Not recorded from 
Tonkin before. I now place this species in Tropideres instead of Litocerus. 

18. Tropideres calliergus Jord. (1923). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), a pair. Described from a single $ from 

Tonkin. In the o the eyes are contiguous and the foretibia bears a postmedian 
tubercle on the iimer side. 

*19. Hucus limbatus sp. nov. 

(J. Niger, supra cervino pubescens, pronoto utrinque bivittato, elytris nigro 
limbatis dorso transversim nigro notatis, angulo carinae prothoracicalis acuto. 

Long. 4-5 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 ^. 

Upperside of rostrum sparsely pubescent, appearing black, sides and cheek 
white, this area sharply defined, being bounded by the dorso-lateral groove of 
the proboscis, five carinae, which do not enter upon the dilated apical area, median 
carina thin, extending on to frons, which is about as broad as the interspace 
between the median carina and the next. Antenna sparsely pubescent grey, 
&st and second segments rufous, the others black, 3 one-fourth longer than 4, 
4 to 7 nearly equal, 8 a little shorter, 9 to 11 together as long as 3, 9 not quite 
twice as long as broad, 10 nearly square, 11 conical, a little longer than 9. Pro- 
notum granulose, each side with two complete narrow black vittae, parallel with 
lateral margin and placed a short distance from the lateral carina ; dorsal carina 
somewhat convex. Elytra flattened dorsally, sutural space impressed apicaUy 
onl}', a lateral black stripe from base to near curve of margin, the wmg-edge itself 
not covered by this stripe in basal half, two dots side by side on subbasal swelling, 
an anteriorly convex row of spots in middle, consisting on each elytrum of a large 
dot at suture and two small ones farther back at side, before apical declivity a 
row of four small dots (two on each elHrum), and on apical declivity one dot on 
each elytrum, all black. Pygidium semicircular. 

Underside whitish grey, femora and tibiae rufous, tips of tibiae and the 
tarsi black, first segment of midtarsus nearly aU grey, first of foretarsus with small 
grey spot. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 83 

*20. Cedus diversus Jord. (1911). 
Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 2 (J (J. New for Indochina. 

*21. Mecocerina coomani sp. nov. 

(J$. Color M. rhanis Jord. (1911), pronoto duabus vittis utraque e tribus 
maculis composita notato, segmento anali ventrali feminae fortiter sinuato. 

Long. 2-8-7 mm. 

Tonkui : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), a series. 

Close to 31. rhanis ; pronotum rather more distinctly punctulate at sides, 
and the stripes of the elytra a little deeper. The three black spots on each side 
of the disc of the pronotum often merged together into a broadish stripe. The 
lateral posthumeral spot of the elytra excised in front, between it and the ante- 
apical transverse band two or three small spots, the antemedian spot in third 
interspace very much smaller than the one on subbasal swelling, the latter spot 
often enlarged sidewards, the contour of the black band more irregular than in 
J/, rhanis. In $ the pygidium broader than long and the anal sternite excised, 
this sinus round, the angles of the segment well projecting. 

Androceras gen. nov. 

(J$. Generi Mucroniamis Jord. (1894) dicto similis ; rostro utrinque sub 
oculum sulco brevi instructo, antenna maris compressa, segmento 8° plus minus 
longitudine clavae, jsronoti margine antico recto, elytrorum basi singulatim rotun- 
data, pygidio utriusque sexus simplice, abdomme maris haud deplanato. 

Genotypus : ^4. khasianus Jord. (1903), as Mucronianus. 

The short longitudinal basal cannula of the pronotum more or less oblique, 
descendmg posteriorly, forming a more or less acute angle with the small adbasal 
transverse carmula. 

The number of species alUed to Mucronianus Jord. (1894) probably is large 
and wUl, possibly, require the erection of several additional genera. However, 
it appears to me advisable for the present to place the known species into thi-ee 
genera : 

(a) Mucronianus Jord. (1894). Basal margm of elytra straight. ^J- 

antenna normal, with a club of three segments ; ^J-pygidium produced into a 
conical projection. 

(h) Androceras gen. nov. Basal margin of each elytrum rounded, ^- 

antenna compressed, segment 8 about as long as 9 to 11 together, cJ-pygidium 
without projection. 

(c) Nes.siodocus Heller (1925). Basal margin of each elytrum rounded, 

cj-antenna and jj-pygidium normal. 

*22. Andi'oceras khasianus Jord. (1903). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 o , 6 $$. New for Indochina. SUghtly 

variable in pattern. Pronotum punctate. Proboscis with a carma from near 
inner margin of eye obUquely apicad, this ridge forming the inner boundary of 
the dorsal groove, the second groove laterally at eye. Antenna of cj much 
broadened and flattened from third segment, the segments triangular, half as 
long again as broad, each nearly as long as and broader than 9 to 11 together, 
9 a little longer than broad, 10 much broader than long, 11 triangular, pointed. 



°* Novn-ATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

*23. Androceras lepidus Jord. (loil). 

Toiikin : Hoa Binh and Lactho (de Cooman), a series. New for Indo- 
china. Pronotum punctate. Probosci.s with oblique doreo-lateral carina. 
Antenna of ^ very little flattened, about tlie same in width from the third segment 
to the apex, segment 8 Unear hke 3 to 7, as long as 9 to 11 together and the same 
in v^•idth, narrower than in $, 9 somewhat longer than 10, which is a little longer 
than broad, 11 as long as 9, triangular, pointed. Pygidium almost semicircular m 
cJ, shorter than in ?. Longitudinal basal carinula of pronotum horizontal, less 
obhque than in .-l. khasiamis. One of the ^^ only 3 mm. long (from anterior 
margin of pronotum in a straight line to apex of pygidium). 

Origmally described from Perak. We have the species also from Sumatra 
(J. B. Corporaal). 

*24. Androceras stratus sp. nov. 

<?. A. gerrlio Jord. (1911) similhmus, sed antenna fortius dilatata, angulo 
carinae prothoracis magis acuto. 

Long. 6-5 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 $. 

Larger than the only known specimen of A. gerrhus Jord. (1923, from the 
Khasia Hills, Assam), the black sutural patch of the elj-tra more regularly 
rounded. Segments 1 and 2 and bases of 3 to 9 of antenna rufous, 3 and following 
compressed, 3 to 8 elongate-triangular, 8 a Uttle longer than 7 and as long as 
9 to 11 together, a little over twice as long as broad, 9 and 10 transverse, 11 
subcorneal, pointed, a Uttle longer than broad. Angle of carina less than 90°. 
the longitudinal basal carmula behmd it distinctly descending posteriorly. 
Rostrum without carinae, below eye a small groove. Pronotum granulose. 

*2.j. Androceras laticomis sp. nov. 

cJ. Niger, supra oUvaceo pubescens, capite cum rostro, angulo antico pro- 
thoracis elytrorumque macula magna basali et altera apicaH albo-griseis fulvo 
mixtis ; subtus albo-griseus, tibiarum apicibus atque tarsis nigris, his albo notatis. 
Rostrum utrinque fortiter bicarinatum. Antenna valde compressa, segmentis 
S'^-S" fere aequilongis, 8° triangulari, 9° longitudme parum latiore, 10° transverso, 
11° latitudme breviore. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Tonkin : Chapa, vii.1919 (Jeanvoine), 1 ^J. 

Recalls Anthrihus alhinus L. (1758) by its size and colouring. Proboscis 
rugate, longer than broad, uneven, depressed along middle and transversely at 
apex, angulate above antennal groove, a dorso-lateral curved carina from eye to 
beyond middle, concave on outside, where there is a groove along it, a smooth, 
flattened, curved, lateral carina from below eye to antennal groove. Frons 
about as broad as segment 4 of antenna, moderately concave longitudinally. Eye 
longer than broad. Segment 2 of antenna almost globular, 3 to 7 flattened, 
about twice as long as broad, not much widened towards apex, 8 regularly tri- 
angular, somewhat longer than broad and very little narrower than 9, which is 
also triangular, but broader than long, 10 twice and 11 less than twice as broad 
as long. Occiput black behmd eye. Pronotum uneven, pitted with large shallow 
punctures, except centrally at apex, sides nearly straight from base to middle, 
dorsal carma straight, sUghtly cm-ved back at side and then flexed forward, angle 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 85 

rounded off, larger than 90°, the lateral carina being oblique and nearly straight, 
longitudinal basal carinula slightly descending posteriorly, formmg a very acute 
angle with the lateral carina. Elytra cylindrical, a little depressed dorsally, 
subbasal swelhng distinct, grey basal area jjosteriorly edged with black, bounded 
by the fourth line of punctures, reaching to one-third, posteriorly incised on suture 
and in third interspace, composed of more or less alternately grey and tawny 
intersjjaces and bearing two black spots on subbasal swelling, a grey patch mixed 
with tawny occupies more than the apical declivous area and is anteriorly 
regularly excised on suture, being rounded on each elytrum, within it a round black 
dot in third interspace. P3'gidium regularly rounded, a little broader than long, 
grey mixed with tawny. 

On basal abdominal segment a small central patch of erect blackish pubes- 
cence. Tibiae more or less mixed with tawny, on mid- and hmdtibiae particularly 
on imier side, apex of tibiae black, this colour restricted to inner side on hind- 
tibia. 

*26. Nessiodocus egenus sp. nov. 

$. A. lepido Jord. (1911) colore simiUs, oculis subcontiguis, rostro absque 
carina dorso-laterali, pronoto granuloso, pygidio longiore. 

Long. 3 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 $. 

In structure nearest to the species described as Mucronianus triodes Jord. 
(1912) from Formosa, now provisionally placed into Nessiodocus. Black, legs 
and base of antenna slightly rufescent ; pubescence ashy grey. On disc of 
pronotum a large blackish area divided by a grey cross into four spots. On 
elytra the following black markings : a roimd spot each on subbasal swelling 
and shoulder, an elongate one in between the two, before middle a transverse 
band, widest on suture, between it and lateral margin a spot farther forward 
and another farther back, behind the band in front of apical declivity a round 
sjjot and another on apical decUvity. Legs grey, apex of tarsi brownish. 

Proboscis without distinct carinae, except a very short one near antennal 
groove ; no sulcus below eye, which is almost circular. Frons slightly narrower 
than first segment of antenna. Antennal segments 3 to 7 gradually decreasing 
in lengths, 8 as long as 7, but more triangular, forming part of the club, which 
gradually and slightly increases in width, 9 less than twice as long as broad, 10 
transverse, 11 ovate, as long as 9 and like this not constricted at base. Pygidium 
strongly narrowmg, apex eveidy roimded. 

*27. Nessiodocus angulatus sp. nov. 

cJ9- Colore praecedenti similis, pallide cmereus nigro maculatus, carina 
prothoracis flexuosa m medio acutim angulata. 

Long. 3-5-4-6 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 S, 2 ??. 

Legs and antenna rufous, club black. On disc of pronotum two small spots 
in c5 and four large ones in $ black, on side another black spot. On elytra an 
eUiptical spot on suture a very little before middle, one or two smaller spots placed 
farther laterad joined to the sutural spot, a black mark resembling a cross being 
formed, a spot each on subbasal swelling and shoulder, one before and another 
in middle of side, an irregular narrow band before apical declivity reaching 

7 



gg NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

neither sutui-e nor margin, and on each elytrum a small round subapical spot 
also black. 

Proboscis as long as broad, flat, with a thm carina from e_ye to above edge 
of anteimal scrobe, at side of this ridge a groove. Eyes slightly longer than broad, 
in ^ almost contiguous, in $ about as far apart as segment 1 of antenna is broad. 
In o segment 3 of anteima one-fourth longer than 4, 4 to 8 slightly decreasing in 
lengths, 8 a little thicker than 7, longer than 9, this triangular, somewhat longer 
than broad, 10 almost square, broader than long, 11 ovate-triangular, a little 
longer than 9 ; in $ the proportions about the same, but the antenna shorter and 
11 not longer than 9. 

Pronotum densely studded with shallow punctures ; carina sharply angulate 
in centre, from this point towards side first convex and then concave, the lateral 
angle very broadly romided, the lateral carma oblique and nearl}' straight, longi- 
tudinal basal carinula obhquely ascending posteriorly, forming a very acute 
angle with the dorsal carina. Elytra cylindi-ical, not depressed at suture, inter- 
spaces not raised. Pygidium of o as long as broad, of $ shorter, rather strongly 
narrowing, apex evenly rounded. 

Derisemias gen. nov. 

c?$. Generis Tophoderes Schoenh. (1839) dicti afiinis. Brevis. Rostrum 
planum, crassum, porrectum, longitudine midto latius. Antennarum brevium 
fossa magna, triangularis. Oculi grosse granulosi, laterales, antice subtruncati. 
Prothorax antrorsum fortissime angustatus, in disco bituberculatus, angulo 
basaH acuto, producto, carina dorsali ad latus convexa et basali, in medio ante- 
basali, carina latcrali a basi ad apicem contmuata. Elytra brevia, pustulata, 
margine antico smgulo rotundato. Pars antecoxalis prosterni brevissima, coxis 
bene separatis ; processus intercoxaUs mesosternalis latus, subdu-ectus, trun- 
catus, angulis distinctis ; metasternum inter coxas medias et posticas breve ; 
tarsi breves, jj : pygidium et segmentum ventrale anale truncata. 

Genotypus : D. picticollis sp. nov. 

The species here described bear all a peculiar mark of white lines in the 
anterior haU of the pronotum, the lines forming a sort of low tent with three poles 
projecting from the top. As we have no (J of this new genus from Tonkin, we 
select as genotype a new species from Natal. 

Derisemias picticollis sp. nov. 

(J. Brumieo-niger, tomento olivaceo-cervmo obtectus, luteo et griseo guttatus 
et pustulatus. Rostrum rugatum, longitudine baud duple latius, carina mediana 
antice abbreviata instructum. Antemia rufa, clava brunnea, segmento ultimo 
apice pallido. Pronotum medio late depressum, utrmque fortiter elevatum. 
Scutellum elongatum album. Elytra lateribus leviter rotundata, basi depressa, 
gibbositate subbasali distincta bipenicillata, pustulis luteo-griseis magis minusve 
transversis, ante margmem apicalem pustula vel plica transversa iJalhdiore. 

Long. 6-5 mm. 

Natal : Merebank, Durban, xi.l904 (G. F. Leigh), 1 S- 

Head, proboscis, and pronotum coarsely rugate longitudinally. Apex of 
rostrum truncate, with a shallow median sinus, median carina not extendmg on 
to frons and stoppmg abruptly between the antennae, in centre a minute white 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 87 

dot, several others at side of rostrum and on head. Antennal sorobe large, 
triangular, interspace Ijetween it and eye about as broad as segment 2 of antenna. 
Ej-e longer than broad, its upiser anterior angle a little farther forward than the 
lower angle. Antenna ((^) reaching to base of pronotum, segment 3 about as 
long as 2, 4 and followmg shorter, 6 = 7 = 8 a little longer than broad, 9 tri- 
angular, longer than 3, about half as long again as broad, 10 as long as broad, 11 
subelliptical, shorter and narrower than 9, a little longer than 10. 

Pronotum nearly one-half broader than long, centrally broadly depressed 
from base to beyond middle, the depression flanked by a large swelling which bears 
a tuft, in front of the two tufts a transverse line, from each end of which a similar 
line runs obliquely forward to the other side of the disc without reaching apical 
margin, a median line from occiput to beyond transverse Ime, all four lines white 
and sharply marked, the posterior half of each oblique Una curved and forming 
with the transverse line a transverse half -moon ; in addition, on each side of the 
pronotum a small white dot ; dorsal carina broadly incurved medianh*, then 
convex, angle very sharp. 

Elytra half as long again as broad, subbasal callositj' high, the dorsal sm'faee 
of the elytra slanting from this swelling to near apex, sutural interspace tessellated 
with oblique brown spots which are directed forward-sideward, between subbasal 
swelling and declivous apex there are obliquely transverse short folds and pustules, 
three dorsal rows of which are very distinct in certain lights, in apical half the 
pustules higher, the middle one on apical declivity the highest, close before 
apical margin a pale luteous elevated triangle. Pygidium much broader than 
long, truncate, with the angles rounded, the centre black. 

Underside coarsely punctate, metasternite and abdomen mottled with grey ; 
abdomen ( (J) flattened in middle, last segment truncate and bearing two grooves 
filled with grey pubescence, apex swollen outside these grooves. Tibiae with 
grey antemedian ring, a subapical ring on foretibia and the apex of mid- and 
hindtibiae as well as nearly the whole tarsi likewise grey. 

*28. Derisemias omatus sp. nov. 

$. Brunneus et rufus, elji;rorum dorso, sternis atque pedibus ochreis, tibiis 
annulatis. Rostrum longitudiiie dujjlo latius, cum cajiite et pronoto longitu- 
dinaliter rugatum. Prothorax longitudine plus duplo latior, dorso ante carinam 
paululo planatus, baud impressus, duobus tuberculis parvis instructus, lateribus 
ante angulum basalem emarginatis et ante hunc sinum subangulatis ; carina 
dorsali fere recta, latus versus gradatim convexa. Elytra latitudine vix duplo 
longiora, convexa, pustulosa, tribus pustulis dorsalibus aurantiacis, subbasaU 
magna. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 $. 

Head, pronotum, basal margm, apex and sides of elytra, abdomen, tarsi 
and two rings on tibiae blackish brown, femora rufous brown, rest of body and 
elytra more or less bright ochre. 

At base of proboscis a white linear dot, apical margin slightly sinuate in 
middle, median carina vestigial. Eye longer than broad, obliquely truncate, 
interspace between it and antennal groove narrower than the second antennal 
segment. Antenna rufous, proportions as in genot3'pe, but the club narrower, 
11 as long as 9. On occiput a white median liueola, before which there is an 



88 KOVITATES ZOOLOGICAJS XXXIV. 1928. 

orange spot. Pronotum sparsely shaded with orange, the two tufts brown, 
towards side an antemedian white dot, a thin white median line from apex to 
scutellum, interrupted behind middle, crossed before middle bj- a transverse 
line and two oblique lines (none of which are very distinct in the only specimen we 
have). Suture of elytra with about ten black dots from before middle to apex, 
and before apex a whitish hnear spot, subbasal swelling well raised, covered with 
longish orange pubescence, at the outer side of this tuft a patch of equally long 
pubescence partly mixed with grey, m middle of third intersjjace a rounded orange 
pustule, another behind middle, on the outside of these pustules, but a little 
more forward, another pair-, less bright in colour, smaller pustules also in the 
blackish central and apical areas. Pygidium coarsely and densely punctate, 
broader than long, truncate-rotundate. Underside coarsely punctate. 

Deriseinias decoratus sp. no v. 

$. Speciei praecedenti similis ; rostro parum longiore, margine apicali 
leviter bismuato medio incrassato-rotundato ; tuberculis pronoti penicillatis 
multo altioribus ; eljiirorum pustula subbasali multo majore, caeteris pustulis 
mmutis. 

Phihppines : N. Luzon (J. Whitehead), 1 ?. 

A little smaller than the above Tonkinese species and sUghtly more rounded. 

Elytra orange-bufiE at base from side to side, this bright-coloured area ex- 
tended to beyond middle, but of a huffish grey colour from the subbasal tubercles 
backwards and gradually narrowed ; these tubercles and their tufts very large 
as comjDared with the previous species and dark ferruginous, there are no other 
tufts on the elytra, and the pustules are very small. Pubescence of underside 
and legs yellowish grey, with an orange tmt here and there. The mark of white 
lines on anterior half of jironotum very definite, consisting of bow and string, 
from the centre of the bow three lines project forward. 

*29. Sintor biplaga Jord. (1903). 

Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 cJ. Described from a $ from Assam ; 

the present S is the second specimen known to me. 

30. Cleorisintor glaucus Jord. (1923). 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh and Lactho (de Cooman), 2 (J (J. Described from a 

single $ from Hoa Bmh. The (J agrees with the 9, except that there is in the (J 
a conspicuous median ridge on segments 1 to 4 of the abdomen. 

*31. Plintheria sparsus Boh. (1832). 

To nkin : Hoa Binh and Lactho (de Cooman). Possibly a subspecies ; 

the grey markings almost evenly distributed over the el3rtra, occupying much 
more space than the brown markings, the grey pubescence forming grey lines of 
various lengths. 

32. Straboscopus sanguinipes fulvaster Jord. (1923). 
Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 cJ. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 89 

*33. Apatenia dimissa sp. nov. 

$. Speciei A. viduata Pasc. (1860) dictae subsimilis, rostro atque antennaruin 
clava miilto brevioribus, cajjite inter oculos non-carinato, elj^ris sine macula 
magna nigra mediana. 

Long. S mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh, type, and Lactho (de Cooman), 3 $$. 

Nearest to A. variegata Jord. (1895), from the Philippines and Moluccas. 

Black, pubescent olive-grey, dotted with black and ochraceous. Proboscis 
in front of eyes half as broad again as long, coar.sely punctate-rugate, as is also 
the head, median carina obsolete in apical third, apical margin thrice feebly 
incurved, not subangulate in centre, on underside the lateral margins of the raised 
median area of the rostrum cariniform. Frons a little more than one-fourth the 
width of the proboscis, \\ithout median carina, concave between the strongly 
converging eyes except close to rostrum. Antenna dark brown, segment 3 longer 
than 4, segments of club almost equal in lengths, very little longer than broad, 
11 elliptical, 9 and 10 rounded at sides and truncate at apex. 

Pronotum coarsely punctate, with depressions, dorsal carina faintly convex, 
lateral angle obtuse and rounded off, lateral carina less curved than in ^4. viduata, 
longitudinal basal cannula horizontal, forming an acute angle with the lateral 
carina, before scutellum a creamy spot, in front of which there is a smaller 
ochraceous one, at sides two ochraceous spots, of which one is placed at the apex 
of the lateral carina and extends on to the underside, some black markmgs on 
disc and behind carina, the ochraceous spots surrounded with black. Alternate 
interspaces of elytra tessellated with russet and black, the black spots somewhat 
convex. Underside grey, coarsely punctate, also the abdomen, but the punctures 
less numerous on side of segments 1 to 3, segment 2 medianly at apex rather 
strongly convex. Tibiae with two grey spots on upperside and extendedly grey 
on underside ; tarsal segments grey at base and apex, 4 rufous, almost entirely 
covered with grey pubescence. 

*34. Ulorhinus germanus sp. nov. 

$. V. bilineato Germ. (1818) jjorsimilis, rostro absque carina mediana, 
pronoto minus grosse punctato, angulo carinae minus rotundato. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 $. 

Size and markings as in U. hilineatus Germ. (1818), darker, the light-coloured 
markmgs more conspicuous. Proboscis somewhat concave in middle of base, 
without carina. Club of antenna distinctly broader than in U . bilinealus. Pro- 
notum less convex and less coarsely punctate, the lateral carina oblique and 
nearly straight, as in U. bilinentiis, but the angle less strongly roimded, dorsal 
carina very feebly convex. 

*35. Hypseus eclipsis sp. nov. 

(J. Rufo-brunneus, griseo pubescens, supra luteo-griseo guttulatus, elytris 
macula magna communi elliptica antemediana nigro-velutina griseo cincta ornatis. 

Long. 4 mm. 

Tonkin : Than Moi, iii.l91S (.leanvoine), 1 cj. 

In colour similar to Phaulimia .schaumi Pasc. (1871), but the basal angle of 
the pronotum quite acute. Proboscis twice as broad as long, slightly concave 



90 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

in middle of base, without distinct carina, apical margin a little elevate in centre. 
Head and proboscis coarsely rugate. Eyes approximated, the frons being about 
as broad as the foretibia. Pronotum very densely punctate-reticulate, evenly 
convex, before scutellum a grey spot which extends beyond carina as a thin short 
yellowLsh line, a small subapical median dot and some lateral ones also yellowish, 
dorsal carma somewhat convex, lateral angle smaller than 90°, basal longitudinal 
carmula oblique, descending to the sharp basal angle of pronotum. Elytra 
coarsely punctate-striate, the black ellipse bounded by the fourth row of punctiu-es 
and extended from basal fourth to a little behind middle, being longer than its 
distance from basal margin, alternate intersiiaces inconspicuously dotted with 
grey and brown. Pygidium longer than broad, rounded at apex. Prosternum 
coarsely punctate. 

*36. Phaulimia tonsor sp. nov. 

c?. Nigro-brunnea, griseo pubescens, pronoto area mediana nigro-brunnea 
a basi ad apicem extensa atque linea tenui ineompleta grisea notato, elytris 
nigro-brunneo guttatis, area mediana dorso-laterali diffusa nigro-brunnea. Ros- 
trum longitudine plus duplo latius, medio subcarinatmn, marguie apicali medio 
levissime sinuate. Antennae rufescentes, clava pallidiore. Oculi laterales 
dorsales. Frons latissima. Prothorax conicus, ab angulo rotundato carLnae 
gradatim angustior, dorso aequaliter convexus, carina dorsali leviter undulata, 
in semicirculo antrorsum flexa. ^ : pygidium directum ; segmentum anale 
ventrale carmatum penicillo truncato fulvo instructum. 

Long. 4-8 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 (^. 

Differs from true Phaulimia Pasc. (1859) in the tarsi being shorter and in 
the prothoracical carina being curved forward at sides in a semicircle. 

The brown median area of the pronotum is trapeziform, its sides being 
slanting and nearly straight ; it occupies more than one-third of the surface of 
the pronotum and is continued forward to near the apex of tlie proboscis. Elytra 
dotted with grey and brown, the spots irregular, somewhat diffuse and several of 
them confluent, a fairly large median area which reaches neither suture nor 
margin almost devoid of grey pubescence. Pygidium, legs and underside grey, 
unspotted, apart from a brown shadow on metepisternum. Proboscis and 
head rugate-punctate, a slightly raised smooth median space in apical half. Frons 
more than half as broad as the rostrum, practically in a plane with it ; occiput and 
frons very feebly convex in lateral aspect. Eye one-fourth longer than broad. 
Antenna brownish rufous, club paler, segment 3 a little longer than 2, 3 to 8 
gradually decreasing, 8 little longer than broad, 9 triangular, somewhat longer 
than broad, 10 broader than long, its sides rounded, 11 ovate-elUptical. 

Prothorax widest near base at the bent of the dorsal carina, gradually narrow- 
ing from this point, one-half broader than long, coriaceous ; dorsal carina broadly 
but feebly concave in middle, convex halfway to side, then concave and gradually 
curved forward, longitudinal basal carinula horizontal, formmg a very acute 
angle with the lateral carina. Elytra widest near base, slightly depressed at 
base, almost evenly convex apart from the sutural area, which is somewhat 
flattened. Pygidium semicii-cular, convex at base and then inelinmg forward. 

Prosternum a little longer in front of coxa than the forecoxa is broad. Legs 
shorter and stouter than is usual in this genus, tarsal segment 2 broader than long. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 91 

Anal sternite of (J ijeciiliar : a median carina bears a truncate tuft of iiaii's which 
recalls a shaving brush, the tuft yellowish grey at sides and tawny brown on the 
end-surface (changing in depth of tint according to light), apical margin of anal 
sternite slanting dorsad on each side and forming a sharply marked angle in 
centre. 

*37. Zygaenodes leucopis sp. nov. 

$. Statura Z. vigeiitis, sed oculis sessilibus, vultu albo, pronoto gutta central! 
nigra notato, elytrorum tuberculo subbasali multo minus elevato distmguendus. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh {de Cooman), 1 $. 

In general appearance similar to Z. vigens Jord. (192.5), from Sumatra. 

Dark brown, rufescent in places, upperside pubescent ochraceous buff, 
mixed with grey and dotted with black. Proboscis and frons white ; the former 
one-half broader at base below eye than at apex, and practically as long as the 
apex is broad (base 30, apex 20, length 21), centre impressed below middle, 
median sinus of apical margin shallow, projection at antennal groove obtuse, 
short. Eye not stalked in frontal aspect, but placed on an elevation posteriorly, 
outlme straightened on side towards frons. Occiput nearly horizontal, frons 
with rostrum vertical, but the angle between frons and occiput rounded off, 
without tubercle. Antenna rufous at base, segment 3 as long as 4 and 5 together, 
8 a little shorter than 7, but broader and more hahy, club slightly broader than 
in Z. vigens Jord. (1925), proportions of club 9:6:9, breadth 5. 

Pronotum slightly uneven, there being a transverse depression behind the 
apical margin, a whitish median stripe interrupted by a triangular black central 
spot, on side of disc some indefinite dark brown spots, behind carma at each side 
of whitish median line a brown spot ; carina broadly and moderately concave m 
middle, more strongly convex towards sides, placed medianly at three-tenths of 
the length of the pronotum. Scutellum white. Elytra very little longer than 
broad (10 : 9), basal area and interspaces 3 and 5 more ochraceous buff than the 
rest, suture and alternate interspaces dotted with black, the spots particularly 
conspicuous in interspaces 3 and 5, subbasal swelUng not prominent, forming a 
very low ridge which bears a black spot in front. Pygidium one-fifth longer 
than broad, gradually angustate-rotundate. 

Underside grey, slightly mottled with brown on the sides ; tips of tibiae 
brown. 

*38. Zygaenodes antiallus Jord. (1911). 

Toiikin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 2 $$. -The two specimens are more 

strongly variegated than the unique type-specimen from Assam. No species 

of Zygaenodes has previously been recorded from Indochina. 

*39. Zygaenodes coomani sp. nov. 

$. Rostro parum porrecto, occipite cum fronte gradatim convexo, oculis 
sessilibus, carina prothoracicali dorsali fere recta. 

Long. 3-7 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Bmh (de Cooman), 1 $, type ; another, smaller, $ from 
Lactho (de Cooman). 

Occiput, frons, and base of rostrum almost evenly convex, which is best seen 
in lateral aspect ; apical half of rostrum impressed and flattened, truncate, not 



92 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

much narrowed, upper edge of antennal scrobe widened into a tooth as usual. 
Face hiteous grey, variegated with white, on head a white median line, which is 
continued across pronotum. Eye moderately convex, emarginate anteriorly. 

Pronotum densely reticulate-punctate, convex behind, depressed before 
middle, carina nearly straight, slightly convex towards sides, before and behind 
carina two black spots on each side, the iimer anterior one the largest and oblique, 
farther forward on each side a small black dot at white median Une, two others 
towards side and two indistinct ones at apex, rest of pronotum like elytra clay- 
colour shaded with grey. Scutellum white. Elj-tra convex, almost gradually 
rounded-slanting from subbasal swelling, somewhat depres.sed in posterior half 
at suture, on subbasal swelling a black line ending at a white dot, farther back 
in third interspace a black spot followed by a long white line, both together 
forming a low ridge, suture and mterspaoes 5, 7, and 9 dotted with black and grey. 
Legs rufous, tips of tibiae black, first tarsal segment nnich longer than the other 
three together. 

*40. Zygaenodes clivinus sp. nov. 

$. Niger, pube ochracea tectus, rostro pallidiore, sparsim nigro guttatus, 
elytrorum sutura tessellata, anteimis pedibusque fuscis, his nigro annulatis. 
Rostrum cum fronte directum, latitudine baseos parum brevius, aj)icem versus 
angustius, margine apicali leviter trisinuato. Oculi sessiles. Caput mter oculos 
tuberculo bifido supra cum occipite brmineo instructum.. Pronotum inaequale, 
trituberculatum. Elji^ra subplanata, apice truncato-rotundata, tribus tuberculis 
notata : uno subbasali, altero mediano, tertio magno anteapicali. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Tonkin : 1 $ received from M. E. le Moult, without special locality. 

Pubescence dull ochraceous, dense, on pronotum indications of black and 
dark brown dots, sutiu-e of elytra conspicuously and lateral interspaces less 
distinctly tessellated with blackish brown, base of pygidium black, this colour 
extending distad in centre, a spot on metepisternum, a thin lateral line on abdomen, 
a spot on femora and three on tibiae (at base, in middle, and at apex), and the tip 
of first tarsal segment blacldsh brown. 

Rostrum creamy buff, a transverse band between antennae extending up- 
wards in centre dull ochraceous, apical half of rostrum flattened. In centre of 
angle between occiput and frons a double tubercle which is blackish above ; 
between it and ej'e the head concave. Eye posteriorly on a low elevation, but 
not stalked. Anterior margin of pronotum raised into two tuljercles, one at each 
side of middle, the two tubercles being wider apart than the tips of the double 
tubercle of the head ; behind them in centre of pronotum a third tubercle, before 
and behind which the pronotum is depressed ; dorsal carina concave, angulate 
sublaterally. Elytra oblong, one-fifth longer than broad, sides nearly parallel, 
apex subtruncate in dorsal aspect, dorsum flattened, with three prominent 
tubercles in a longitudinal row, the third in front of apical declivity very large 
and directed backwards. Metasternum strongly convex between mid- and hind- 
coxae, flat in centre. 

*41. Rhaphitropis elusus sp. nov. 

(J?. Niger, siipra pube grisea paulo sulfureo tincta obtectus, nigro marmora- 
tus vel maculatus, antennis pedibusque rufis, pronoto confertissime ruguloso- 
granuloso, elytris basi truncatis. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 93 

Long. 3-4 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binli (de Cooman), 1 S, 2 ??. 

Near Rh. oxyacanthae Bris. (1863). The grey pubescence of the npperside 
with a sulphur yellow tint. Head and proboscis uniformly grey ; pronotum with 
a fairly large black .spot in front of the carina at each side of the middle, and some 
less distinct ones on the sides of the disc and behind the carina ; elytra irregularly 
marmorated with black, in one specimen the black colouring reduced to more or 
less isolated small spots. Rostrum twice as broad as long. Frons half the width 
of the rostrum. Eye longer than broad, its outline straightened beneath. Seg- 
ment 3 of antenna of (J one-half longer than 4, this a little longer than 5, 6 to 8 
almost alike in lengths, each very little shorter than 5, club very slender, scarcely 
broader than 8, loose, 9 somewhat shorter than 8, a little longer than 10, both 9 
and 10 slightly conical, 11 irregularly elongate-ovate, nearly as long as 9 ; in $ 
the antenna shorter, jJroportions as in ^J, but 8 shorter and the club much broader 
and more compact. 

Pronotum in shape and structure nearly as in Rh. oxyacanthae Bris. (1863), 
but less convex, the carina more broadly concave in middle. Scutelhim trans- 
verse, semicircular. Elytra truncate at base as in Rh. o.ryacanthae, also otherwise 
similar in shape and structure. Pygidium as long as broad. 

*42. Rhaphitropis vittatus Jord. (1925). 
Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 ^J. Originally described from Perak. 

*43. Nerthomma aplota Jord. (1912). 
Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 ^J. Only known from Formasa. 

44. Rawasia annulipes Jord. (1895). 
Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 ^. 

45. Basitropis hamata Jord. (1903). 
Tonkin : Hoa Binh and Lactko (de Cooman), 1 (J, 1 5- 

46. Basitropis rotundata Jord. (1903). 
Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 ,^. 

*47. Autotropis modesta conspersa subsp. nov. 

(5$. The black colouring of the pronotum more restricted, the basal area 
being more or less extended clay-colour ; on the elytra the black subbasal mark 
longer and the dark lateral area more or less dotted with clay-colour. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 2 (J^J, 1 $. 

*48. Phloeobius lepticeras Jord. (1911). 

Tonkin: Chapa, vi.l91S, vii,1919 (Jeanvoine), 2 ^$, 1 $. So far 

known only from Java. 

The species is easily recognised by the deep incision in the side of the pro- 
notum in front of the lateral carina. 



94 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

40. Phloeobius pilipes Jord. (1895). 
Toiikiii : Hoa Binh and Lactho (de Cooman), 1 (J, 1 $. 

*50. Misthosima virilis sp.nov. 

cJ. Bruniieo-rufa, elongata, ciiiereo pubescens, antennis pedibusque rufis, 
tibiis apice brunneis. Oculus rotundus emarginatus. Caput cum rostro rugu- 
losum. Antenna longa, sed corpore niulto brevior, parum compressa, .segmento 
3'° sequentibus singulis longiore, 9° longitudine tertii sed multo latiore, ad basin 
et apicem angustato. Pronotum confertissime reticulatim punctatum, area 
mediana magna brunnea sLnuata irregulari, angulo carinae recto apice rotundato, 
lateribus ante hunc angulum paululo sinuatis, carina laterali a latere visa recta. 
Elytra fortiter punctato-striata, interspatiis granulosis, convexis, brunneo varie- 
gata, sutura magis minusve brunnea. Pygidium griseum latitudine longius, 
gradatim angustatum, apice truncato-sinuatum, angulis rotundatis. Segmentum 
anale ventrale (J) medio impressum, bicarinatum, apice sinuatum. Tibia antica 
{(J) intus planata, villosa, margine apicali jiarum rotundato-dilatato. 

Long. 3 mm. 

Tonkin : Hoa Binh (de Cooman), 1 (J. 

This species connects to some extent Misthosima Paso. (1859) with Araecerus 
Schoenh. (1826), the eye being sinuate as in Araecerus, and the angle of the pro- 
notal carina 90°, with only the extreme tip rounded off, whereas in Misthosinui 
the angle is obtuse and strongly rounded. The pubescence of the specimen is 
not well preserved ; the elytra are variegated with brown, but the exact size 
of the spots and jDatches cannot well be made out. 

*5l. Araecerus crassicornis F. (18ol). 
Tonkin : Lactho (de Cooman), 1 fj?. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 95 



ANTHRIBIDAE FROM THE MALAY PENINSULA 

By dr. KARL JORDAN 

'T'HE specimens which form the subject of this paper were submitted to me 
■*■ for identification by Mr. H. M. Pendlebury, of the Federated Malay 
States Museum at Selangor, and have been returned to that institute with the 
exception of the types of the new forms and some duplicate specimens. As a 
large number of species are already known from the Malay Peninsula, particularly 
from Perak, I was surprised to find some large and conspicuous new forms in the 
collection. The material collected by Mr. Pendlebury is very carefully labelled, 
and, since we know so very little about the time of appearance, altitude, etc., 
of exotic Anlhrihidae, the data given on the labels are well worth publishing. 
Besides the species mentioned in this paper there are a few others in the collection 
which it is advisable to omit, as the identifications are not beyond doubt or too 
difficult to attempt with single specimens of obscure species. 

1. Eugigas goliathus Thorns. (1857). 

Perak: Batang Pedang, 1,800ft., vi.l923 (H. M. Pendlebury), 1 ?. 

We have this species from Java, Nias, Sumatra, and Borneo. 



2. Meganthribus atopus stellatus subsp. nov. 

$. Niger, supra et infra manifestis guttis albis notatus. 

Long. 25 mm. (cap. excL). 

Selangor: Gombak valley, viii. 1922 (H.P.M.), 1 ?, type. 

Black, covered with a very short olivaceous pubescence, pronotum with 
shallow punctures at the sides of which there is a small granule. The white spots 
correspond to those of M. atopus atopus Jord. (1913) from Menado. On pro- 
notum two at apex, an elongate one in middle, two on each side and a minute 
one on each side a little before the central spot, a white basal marginal border 
broken up into four transverse spots ; scutellum also white ; on elytra a sutural 
spot at scutellum, sutural and alternate interspaces with black and white spots, 
the black spots inconspicuous ; on underside an elongate spot anteriorly above 
forecoxa and three small spots at carina, on mesosternum a lateral spot on neck 
of segment and a border along hindside of mesepimerum, two spots on meta- 
sternum and a dash on metepisternum, intercoxal process of metasternum and 
partially also all coxae white ; on abdomen a limbal and a submedian row on 
segments 1 to 4. Indications of other spots here and there above and below. 
Antenna, tibiae, and tarsi black. Pygidiuni a little shorter than basally broad. 

In a second specimen ($), from Perak, Taiping, the pronotum has no punc- 
tures, only small granules, the pygidium is as long as broad, and the tarsal 
segments 1 and 2 are white proximally, in hindtarsus the first segment to 
near apex. 

3. Meganthribus nubilus Jord. (1898). 

Selangor, vii.1914, viii. 1915, 2 $$. Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tama- 

rat, Khao Ram, 750 ft., ii. 1922 (H. M. Pendlebury), 1 S- 



9t) NOVITATES ZOOLOGIOAE XXXIV. 1928. 

4. Mecotropis marmoreus Joid. (1895). 

Selatigor, vii.1914, 1 $. Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao 

Luang, 2,000 ft., iii.iv.l922 (H.M.P.), 3 S^, 2 ??. Known to me also from 

Perak, Sumatra and Borneo. 

5. Mecotropis pardalis .lord. (1913). 

Pahang: Lubok Tamang, 3,500 ft., vi.l923 (H.M.P.), 1 ?. Described 

from a single ^ labelled Tondano, Jlinahassa, 7-9, 1899 (collector C), from coll. 
van de Poll. I do not find any difference between the Pahang $ and this (J, 
apart from sexual distinctions. 

C. Mecoceras pendleburyi sp. nov. 

$. Niger, sparsim griseo-olivaceo tomentosus, manifestissime albo guttatus, 
f rente capitis carinata. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 15-17 mm. 

Selangor: The Gap, 2,700 ft., i.l915, 2 ?$, type. Pahang: Lubok 

Tamang, 3,500 ft., vi. 1923 (H.M.P.), 1 ? ; Sungai Renglet, iii. 1925 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

The species bears a very close resemblance to M eganthribus atopus stellatus 
subsp. nov., the white spots standing out very conspicuously on the dark ground. 
The olivaceous pubescence lost in one of the specimens. The number of the 
white spots fairly constant : on pronotum one in middle and a longitudinal 
row of three towards side, sometimes an additional basal spot at each side of 
middle ; on elj-tra those in third interspace elongate, three to five in fifth, some 
minute ones in seventh, and three or four along margin, one on suture at base. 
On underside three spots laterally on prosternum and one between coxae ; on 
mesosternum a spot on central process, another each side anteriorly on neck 
and an elongate bipartite one on epimerum ; on metasternum a central spot 
and two or three on side, of wliich one on epimerum ; abdominal segments 1-4 
with a lateral spot and a transverse apical median spot more or less divided. 
Femora with white subapical spot. Segment 7 of antenna white at apex. 

This species is a mimetic development of M. assimilis Jord. (1895), and 
comes nearest in appearance to M. assimilis lituratiis Jord. (1913) from Tondano, 
N. Celebes, but is much larger and has entirely black tibiae and tarsi. 

7. Mecocerus aUectus allectus Pasc. (i860). 

Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Ram, 750-1,200 ft., iii. 1922 
(H.M.P.), 1 ?. 

8. Mecoceras gazella guttatus Jord. (1895). 

A series from Salangor, Perak, and Peninsular Siam ; evidently a common 
insect. 

9. Mecoceras brevipennis Jord. (1895). 
Originally described from Borneo ; occurs also on the Malay Peninsida and 
Sumatra. 

10. Physopteras hedistus sp. nov. 
(J. Niger, tomcnto chocolatino obtectus, parum griseo variegatus, interspatiis 
alternis elytrorum inconspicue nigro et griseo tessellatis. Frons capitis carinata. 
Pronotum ante medium atque ante carinam paululo depressum, m medio leviter 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV'. 192S. 97 

bigibbosum. Elytra breviter oblonga, absque tuberculis et penicillis altis, 
guttis nigris autem paulum convexis. 

Long. 8-6 mm. 

Pahang : Fraser's Hill, 4,000 ft., ix.l923 (M. R. Henderson), 1 ^. 

Of nearly the same shape as Ph. tuherculatus Jord. (1894), from Ceylon, 
but the antemia and tarsi much slenderer, the median sulcus of the proboscis 
much broader, the pronotum and elytra without high tubercles, etc. 

Antenna black, the apices of segments 3 to 7, the whole of 8 and the proximal 
half of 9 white, 3 a very little shorter than 4. Proboscis rather abruptly convex 
between the antenna, from this elevated portion a broadish groove extends 
obUquely apicad and laterad on each side. Carina of head shaip and rather 
high between the eyes. 

Pronotum one-third broader than long ; antemedian transverse depression 
very distinct, behind it two transverse swellings, but neither tubercles nor tufts 
present. 

Basal margin of elytra more strongly rounded than in Ph. tuherculatus. 
Tibiae with a broad basal and a narrower postmedian ring of chocolate and 
grey pubescence ; tarsal segment 1 about as long as 4, basal two-thirds of 1, 
extreme base of 2 and middle of 4 white, 2 and 3 much narrower than in Ph. 
tuherculatus and 1 longer. Prosternum flattened in middle, the coxae more 
widely apart than is usual, the anterior intercoxal process obtuse, on a level 
with the posterior one, with which it is united. 

11. Acorynus msticus Pasc. (1859). 

Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, 2,000 ft., iii.1922 (H.M.P.), a pair. 

12. Acorynus frontalis Jord. (1895). 

Same locality, 300-750 ft., ii.l922 (H.M.P.), 1 ^. Perak : Batang 

Padang, ii.iii.l915, 1 $. Selangor : Sungai Buloh, ix.l922 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

13. Anthribus slmilis bacillosns Jord. (1926). 
Selangor : SinUngBidai (C. B. Kloss), 1 $ ; Gombak Valley, x. 1921 (H.M.P.), 
1$. 

14. Antliribus punctipennis Jord. (1895). 

Selangor: Gombak Valley, x.1921, and Peninsular Siam: Nakon Sri 
Tamarat, Khao Ram, 300-750 ft., ii. 1922 (H.M.P.), 1 c?, 1 ?• 

15. Acorynus coenonus Jord. (1911). 

Perak: Batang Padang, 1800 and 2500 ft., viii.1922, vi.l923 (H.M.P.), 
and Selangor : Gombak Valley, x. 1921 (H.M.P.), 4 S^. 

16. Acorynus bicomis Jord. (1826). 
Perak: Batang Padang, 1800 ft., vi.l923 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

17. Acorynus cludus Jord. (1895). 
Selangor : Kuala Lumpur, i. 1922 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 



98 NoviTATES ZooLoa:cAE XXXIV. 192S. 

18. Acorynus bimaculatus Kinsch (1875). 
Selangor : Gombak Valley, x.1921 (H.M.P.), 1 J. 

lit. Acorynus phelus Joid. (1020). 

Pahang : Lubok Tamang, 3,500 ft., vi. 192.3 (H.M.P.), a pair. In the <S 

the midtibia bears a tooth at the apex, the pygidiiim is truncate, with the angles 
rounded, and the anal sternite broadly flattened in middle. 

20. Acorynus pictus Pasc. (1860). 
A common species, in the F.M.S. Museum from Selangor and Perak. 

21. Acorynus scobis sp. nov. 

(J$. Speciminibus parvis A. passerini similis, carinis rostri multo minus 
manifestis, antennis brevioribus clava compacta, elytris luteo-griseis annulo 
parvo subbasali, fascia lata deutata mediana, area apicali apguloque humerali 
brunneis, tibia intermedia maris inermi. 

Long. 2-3-3-2 mm. 

Selangor : Kuala Lumpur, ix. 1922, on bamboo hedge, and iii. 1923 (H.M.P.), 
2 <?<?, 1 ?. 

Rufous brown, antenna and legs more or less pale rufous. Proboscis shorter 
than in Acorynus passerinus Pasc. (1859), the lateral carinae less straight and 
lower, apical margm slightly sinuate in middle. Frons as broad as fii'st segment 
of antenna in $, narrower in <J. Antenna of (J : 3 a little longer than 2, 4 to 8 
decreasing in length, 8 less than twice as long as broad, much shorter than 9, 
club gradually widening to middle of 11, 9 conical, somewhat longer than broad, 
10 broader than long, 11 longer than 9, narrowuig to an obtuse point from 
middle ; in $ proportions the same. Pronotum as in A. passerinus, but the 
grey lateral markings smaller and the median markings miited into a complete, 
broadish, median stripe. On elytra an anteriorly open rmg, a spot on shoulder 
angle (m one specimen also an angle-shaped spot obliquely above shoulder), a 
broad median band, anteriorly tridentate and laterally accompanied by some 
streaks, and a large apical area enclosing some grey spots brown. Pygidium and 
anal sternite a little longer in ^ than m $. First tarsal segment about as long 
as 2 to 4 together, not longer. Underside of body and the legs uniformly grey, 
sides of prothorax with a difiuse brown spot, grey pubescence more concentrated 
on sides of meso- and metasternum. Hypop3'gidium (^) bisinuate, the three 
lobes short and rounded. 

22. Litocerus plagifer Jord. (1897). 
Perak : Batang Padang, 1,800 ft., vii.1923 (H.M.P.), 1 ^. 

23. LitoceiTis miles Jord. (1925). 
Selangor : Bukit Kutu, 500-1000 ft., iv.l926 (H.M.P.), 1 ?. 

24. Litoceras virgulatus Jord. (1914). 
Perak : Batang Padang, 2,500 ft., vi.l923 (H.M.I'.), a pair. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 99 

25. Litocerus inflrmus sp. nov. 

(J$. Similis L. mileti Jord. (1925), parvus, pallidus ; pronoto griseo-luteo 
utrinqiie duabus vittis approximatis bruiiiiois notato ; elytris griseo-luteis area 
magna lateral! in medio ad striam tertiam usque extensa brurmea. 

Long. 4-5 mm. 

(Knching, Borneo, ] c?- type.) Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, 
Khao Ram, 1,200 ft., ii.lfl22 (H.M.P.), 1 ?. 

Anterma of $ nearly as in L. histrio Gylh. (1833), broadened from segment 
5, and these compressed segments nearly alike, 2 short, 3 slightly longer than 4 ; 
in $ 3 one-third longer than 4, 8 less than two-thirds 9, 9 to II decreasing in 
length. Of the two brown stripes on each side of the jsronotum the inner one 
reaches from base to apex, the outer one is shortened anteriorly and here some- 
what dOated sidewards, the two stripes touch each other (or nearly) behind 
middle. The brown lateral area of the elytrum is widest at side, narrowing 
dorsad and reaching to the third interspace, there being a small dash between 
it and suture, at lateral margin the area extends along margin to shoulder and 
is posteriorly broadly connected with a transverse anteapical brown band ; in 
front of this band a narrow zigzag band in type, whereas in $ the zigzag band 
is merged together with the subapical band, forming a large patch ; in the 
brown lateral area some grey spots ; near base in grey area a few brown markings, 
the most conspicuous ones being a dot on subbasal swelUng and a line in fourth 
interspace. 

Underside unspotted. Legs very pale rufous, incrassate portion of femora 
partly blackish. 

26. Tropideres paviei Lesne (1891). 
Pahang : Kuala Tahan. 300 ft., xi. 1921 (H.M.P.), 1 ?. 

27. Tropideres securas Boh. (1839). 
As before, 1 ^ ; another from Kuala Lumpur. 

28. Cedus camelinus Jord. (1915). 
Pahang : Kuala Tembeling, at light, ii.l923 (H.M.P.), 1 ^. 

29. Sympaector vittifrons Kirsch (1875). 

Pahan : Kuala Teku, 300 ft., xii.1921 (H.M.P.), 1 ^ ; and Peninsular 
Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Luang, 2,000 ft., iii. 1922 (H.M.P.), 1 ^. 

30. Sympaector pagis ligyrus Jord. (1911). 

Perak: Maxwell's Hill, 3,000 ft., vi. vii.1916, 1 ?. Described from a 

single (J from "Malacca." The 2 agrees with the cJ apart from the sexual 
distinctions. 

Xenognathus gen. nov. 

(J. Generis Cedus Pasc. (1860) dicti affinis, mandibulis longis angustis 
porrectis facile distinguendus. 

Genotype : X. pellitus sp. nov. 

The long and narrow mandibles, with two minute teeth on inner margin 
and curving towards each other at apex, recall those of the larva of an ant-lion. 



100 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 

Upperlip longer than broad, truncate, bismuate, the hiteral angles pointed, the 
median one very short, obtuse. Sinus of labiophore broadly triangular ; the 
imderlip divided to near insertion of palpi into two very narrow pointed lobes ; 
the labial palpus long and very slender. Rostrum truncate, the angles rounded 
off and distinctly receding, in basal half traces of three carinae. The lateral 
curve of the prothoracic carina less wide than in Csdus, the longitudmal basal 
carinula descending. Otherwise the new genus similar to Cedus, apart from 
colour, in which the only known specimen agrees better with some small rufous 
species of Mecoceriiia Jord. (1894). 

31. Xenognathus pellitus sp. nov. 

<^. Brimneus, supra cruce prothoracicali atque vitta suturali utrimque 
trilobata luteo-griseis ornatus, subtus pallide rufus, griseo pubescens. 

Long. 4-3 mm. 

Pahang : Sungai Takar, ix.l922 (H.M.P.), 1 S. 

Proboscis one-fifth broader at apex than long, with a slight swelling each 
side between the antennae, apical half flat. Mandibles, measured from middle 
of apex of rostrum, a little over two-thirds the length of the rostrum. Frons 
slightly narrower than fiirst segment of antenna. Occiput brown in middle. 
Antenna more than twice as long as the body, segments 3 to 11 long, 8 to 11 
decreasing in lengths, 11 being shorter than 10, as m C. guttatiis Pasc. (1860). 

Pronotum one-half broader than long, with a broadish median stripe, to 
which is jomed each side a spot placed in the transverse sulcus, the grey pubescence 
extendmg along carina as a narrow border, towards side a subapical, a median, 
and a basal spot, the lateral carina broadly bordered with grey, the transverse 
antemedian furrow angulate in middle, each half anteriorly convex ; dorsal 
carina nearly straight, slightly convex ; sides and posterior brown discal area 
punctate. Scutellum subcircular, luteous grey. 

Elytra half as long again as broad, subcylindrical, somewhat impressed 
behind the feebly elevate subbasal swelling, strongly punctate-striate, the 
sutural luteous grey markmg (on a rufous ground) somewhat resembles the 
flattened out skin of a mammal, the stripe covers about two and one half inter- 
spaces, but widens out three times : once at basal margin, extending here half- 
way to shoulder, then again in antemedian depression, this branch reachmg to 
interspace 7, the postmedian branch nearly extends to margin, the " tail " almost 
separated from " body-skm," longitudinally divided, curving sideways, a small 
spot above shoulder at base, another behmd shoulder, a longer diffuse limbal 
one at shoulder, an antemedian limbal spot and another obliquely above and 
behind it also grey ; sutm-e slightly brown behind middle. Pygidium some- 
what broader than long, rounded. 

Middle of presternum densely, sides of pro- and mesosterna dispersedly 
punctate, abdomen impunctate. Legs long, pale rufous, upperside of tibiae 
and tarsi slightly brownish, first tarsal segment two to three times as long as 
the other segments together. 

32. Habrissus heros Pasc. (1871). 

Gunong Tahan, 3,300 ft., xi.l920 (J. Bragga), 1 ?. The first specimen I 

have seen from the Malay Peninsula. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. lOl 

33. Nessiara longicollis Joid. (1911). 

Selangor : Kuala Kubu, Bukit Kutu, 3,400 ft., viii. 1915, 1 $. Penmsular 

Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Luang, 2000-2500 ft., iii. 1922 (H.M.P.), 3 ??. 

34. Sintor bicallosus Lac. (186G). 

Pahang: Cameron's Highlands, 4800 ft., Oct. 1923, at light (H.M.P.),and 
Lubok Tamang, 3,500 ft., vi.l923 (H.M.P.), 2 J^J. 

35. Sintor quadi'ilineatus Fahrs. (1839). 
Perak : Jor Camp, 2,000 ft., viii. 1922 (E. Seimund), 1 $. 

36. Sintor guttatus Kirsch (1875). 

Pahang : Cameron's Highlands, 4,800 ft., vi.l923 (H.M.P.), 1 ^. 

37. Sintor rhabdohis Jord. (1923). 

Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Ram, 1500-3000 ft., iii. 1922 
(H.M.P.), 1 <J, 1 ?. 

38. Cleorisintor glaucus Jord. (1923). 
Selangor: Kuala Lumpur, vi.l921 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

39. Xenocerus deletus Pasc. (1860). 

Perak (C. Wray), 2 ??. Pahang: Sungai Renglet, 3,500 ft., iii. 1925 

(H.M.P.), 1 (J. Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Luang, 2,000 ft., 

iii. 1922 (H.M.P.), 1 ^, 3 $?. 

40. Xenocerus variabilis Pasc. (1860). 

Perak: Maxwell's Hill, 3,000 ft., vi.vii. 1916, 1 ^. Selangor: Kuala 

Lumpur, 1 ^J ; Rawang, vu. 1914, 2 ^^■, Bukit Kutu, 3,000 ft., iv. 1926 (H.M.P. ), 
1?. 

41. Xenocerus fiinbriatus Pasc. (1860). 
Pahang : Kuala Teku, 550 ft., x.1921 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

42. Xenocerus pictus Kirsch (1875). 

Selangor: Kuala Lumpur, 2 $$ ; Bukit Kutu, v. 1909, 1 $; The Gap, 
2,700 ft., i. 1915, 2 S^. Kedah Peak, 4,000 ft., x.1915, 1 ?. 

43. Xenocerus saperdoides Gylh. (1839). 

Selangor: Kuala Kubu, Bukit Kutu, 3,400 ft., viii. 1915, 1 $. Kedah 

Peak, x.1915, 1 ?. 

44. Xenocerus tephrus Jord. (1913). 

Perak (C. Wray), 1 3, 2 $?. Selangor : Kuala Lumpui-, 2 $? ; The Gap, 

2,700 ft., i. 1915, 1 $ ; Kuala Kubu, Bukit Kutu, 3,400 ft., viii. 1915, 1 $. 

Pahang: Cameron's Highlands, Tanah Ratu, 4,800 ft., i. 1924, at light (M. R. 
Henderson), and in same district, 4,800 ft., x . 1923 (H.M.P.), 1 (^9 > Sungai Renglet, 

8 



102 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

3,500 ft., iii. 1915 (H.M.P.), 4 $$, some at light : Gunong Padang, 5,500 ft., xii. 
1923 (H.M.P.), 1 ?; Lubok Tamang, 3,500 ft., vi. 1923, at light {H.M.P.), 1 3. 

The species was described from a single (J from Perak, and no further 

specimens had come to hand until Mr. Pendlebury sent the above series. The 
pronotum and elytra are uniformly grey {apart from dark spots due to abrasion), 
but in one $ there is a remnant of the ancestral pattern, the elytra bearing in this 
example a minute brown postmedian dot on second line of punctures and farther 
back in sutural interspace a short thin brown line. The head has usually a 
brown median stripe and varies from yelkn^- to nearly white. The antenna 
of the $ varies much in colour, the principal varieties being : [a] segments 
1 to 8 yellowish grey ; (6) segments 5 and bluish black ; and (c) all segments 
bluish black. Similar colour-variations occur in other species with hairy $- 
antennae, for instance X. saperdoides and X. pictus. 

45. Stiboderes cavifer Jord. (1925). 

Selangor : The Gap, 2,700 ft., i.l915, 1 (J. Known to me from Java, 

Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon, and North Celebes. 

46. Stiboderes chevrolati Bits. (1883). 
Perak : Batang Padang, 1,800 ft., i. 1925 (H.M.P.), 1 ?. 

47. Taphrodes marmoratus Roel. (I88O). 

Pahang : Sungai Renglet, 3,500 ft., iii. 1925 (H.M. P.), 1 $. Peninsular 

Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Luang, 2,000 ft., iii. iv. 1922 (H.M.P.), 1 ^ at 
Ught, 1 ?. 

48. Xylinades ragosus carbo subsp. nov. 

cJ$. Capitis carina media angustior. 

Pahang: Cameron's Highlands, 4,800 ft., x. 1923 (H.M.P.), 2 ^S, type; 
ibid., i. 1924 (M. R. Henderson), 1 cJ ; Sungai Renglet. 3,500 ft., iii. 1925 at light 
(H.M.P.), 1 S- Perak : Batang Padang, 1,800 ft., vi. 1923, at light (H.M.P.), 

1?. 

In X. r. rugostis Gylh. (1833), from Java, the median carina of the head is 

broadish and therefore appears less convex than in X. r. carbo ; it is also longer 

in the specimens from the Malay Peninsula. 

49. Xylinades amensis Jord. (1895). 
Selangor: Gombak Valley, x.1921 (H.M.P.), 1 (J; and Pahang: Sungai 
Renglet, 3,500 ft., iii. 1925, at light (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

50. Xylinades nodicomis Weber (1801). 
Perak : Batang Padang, L800 ft., i.l925, at light (H.M.P.), 1 cJ. 

51. Dendrotrogus perfolicornis F. (isoi). 
Pahang: Lubok Tamang, 3,500 ft., vi. 1923 (H.M. P.), 1 $, and Peninsular 
Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Khao Luang, 2,000 ft., iii. 1922 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 103 

52. DendrotrogTis hypocrita Jekel (185.5). 
A common species, widely distriljuted. 

53. Eucorynus crassicomis F. (1801). 
Evidently everywhere in Indo -Malajan countries. 

54. Rawasia ritsemae Reel. (l88o). 
Perak : Batang Padang, 1,800 ft., iii.1924 (H.M.P.), 1 cj. 

55. Rawasia annulipes Jord. (1895). 

Perak: as above, v. 1923 (H.M.P.), 1 ^, and Selangor : Gombak Valley, 
viii.1822 (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

56. Rawasia communis robusta subsp. nov. 

cj. Major, pronoto lateribus minus rotundato, elytris brevioribus, tibiis 
apice nigris. 

Long. 12-14 mm., lat. 5-6 mm. 

Selangor : The Gap, 2,700 ft., i.l915, S^JJ, and Kuala Lumpur, 1 ^. 

Elytra with black postmedian tuft as in R. c. communis Jord. (1895), from 
Assam. Prothorax more conical than in the Assamese subsjDecies, the elytra 
shorter, less cylindrical. Apex of mid- and hindtibiae more extended black 
(in foretibia the apex black on underside only). 

57. Caccorhinus obscmnis Jord. (1904). 
Lobok Kedondong, N.W. of Mt. Ophir, 200 ft., xi. 1920 (H. C. Abraham), 1 $. 

58. Basitropis rotmidata Jord. 
Tamarat, Khao Luang, 2,000 ft., iii.1922 (H.M.P.), 1 ?. 

59. Basitropis platypus Jord. (1903). 

Selangor ; Gombak Valley, x. Iit21 (H.M.P.), 1 $. Only a few specimens 

of thi.s broad-footed species are linown to me. 

60. Phloeobius altemans Wied. (1819). 

Perak : Batang Padang, 1,800 ft., v. 1923 (H.M.P.), 1 (J, 1 $ ; same place, 
vi. 1924, at light (H. R. Henderson), 1 $. • 

61. Ozotomerus rugicoUis Jord. (1895). 

Selangor: Kuala Lumpur, vi.l916, 1 cj. Pahang : Kuala Tahan, 

xi.l921 (H.M.P.), 1 (J. Peninsular Siam : Nakon Sri Tamarat, Kliao Ram, 

750 ft., ii.l922, at light (H.M.P.), 1 $. 

62. Apolecta aspericoUis Kir.sch (1875). 

Pahang (W. H. D. Edwards), 1 ^ ; Pahang : Senyum, Kotu Tongkat, 
vi.vii.l917, 1 ?. 



104 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 

63. Apolecta latipennis Jord. (1916). 
Pahang: Sungai Renglet, 3800 ft., iii.1925, at light (H.M.P.), 1 (J, and 

Fraser's Hill, 3500-4500 ft., viii.1923 (H.M.P.), 1 cj- These c?c? are less 

broad in the elytra than the $ from which the species was described, but agree 
otherwise very well with it. 

64. Apolecta puncticollis Joixi. (1895). 

Perak (C. Wray), 1 3. Pahang: Kuala Tahan, 300ft., xi.l921 (H.M.P.), 

!?• 

65. Araecerus fasciculatus Deg. (1775). 

Selangor : Kuala Lumpur, i., iv., vi., x., a series, one (j* at light. 

66. Araecerus corporaali Jord. (1924). 
Selangor : Kuala Lumpur, viii.1922 (H.M.P.). 1 ?. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 105 



NEW ANTHRIBIDAE FROM THE OLD WORLD 
By dr. KARL JORDAN 

1. Meganthribus pupa Jord. (1895). 

T^HE receipt of additional specimens from the Philippines and elsewhere 
■'■ enables me to supplement my remarks on this species published in 
Nov. ZooL. XX, p. 265, no. 6 (191.3). As stated. I.e., the metasternum of M. pupa 
has no groove at the apex between the midcoxae, i.e. the groove which runs 
along the anterior margin of the metasternum behind the cavity of the midcoxa 
is shallow and does not extend across the median process. In M. sulphureus 
Waterh. (1876), M.harmayuli Lesne (1891), M. childreni Gray (18.32), and allied 
species, the groove is very deep and is continued across the intercoxal jirocess, 
whereas M. nubilus Jord. (1898) takes a somewhat intermediate position, the 
groove of this species being more or less indicated in the centre, not entirely 
absent in this place. 

The specimens we now have of M. pupa afford sufficient evidence for the 
following arrangement of the subspecies : 

A. Intercoxal process of mesosternura more convex than the anterior 
median process of the metasternum which meets it, its apex being more ventral 
than the metasternal process (in the inverted specimen the mesosternal process 
above the metasternal one) ; on the mesosternal process along its side a groove 
or depression : 

a. M. pupa whiteheadi Jord. (1895). 

Elytra tessellated with black. — Luzon. 

The pair from North Luzon (type cJ) more whitish grey than our two (J,^ from 
Mt. Banahao and Imugan, and the dark markings of the underside smaller 
and less extended black. 

h. M. pupa bakeri Heller (1925). 
The dark tessellation of the tipperside much reduced, but on each elytrum 

a large black postmedian patch nearly as in M. sulphureus Waterh. (1876). 

Sibuyan. Not known to me. 

c. M. pupa mindorensis subsp. nov. 
(J. Narrower than the two previous subspecies ; dorsal depressions of 
pronotum deeper. General colouring less white than in the typical pair of 
M. pupa whiteheadi (probably somewhat darkened by discoloration) ; black 
markings as in M. p. whiteheadi, but the large spots of the elytra rather shorter. 
Length of elytra 20 mm., breadth 10-5 mm. Mlndoro, 1 (J. 

B. Intercoxal process of mesosternum flattened, its apex on a level with 
the metasternal process. 



106 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

d. M. pupa pupa Jord. (1898). 

Meganthribus pupa ab. confluens Heller, ^mY. Mitteil., p. SS, tab. 3, fig. 6, $ 
(1925) (Mindanao). 

I have as yet found no geographical difference between the specimens from 

the localities represented in our series of 9 cJ(J and 6 $$. Phihppines : Panao 

and Mindanao ; Talaut Is. ; Buru ; Ceram. 

e. M. pupa papuanus subsp. nov. 

cJ$. Like M. p. pupa, but the transverse carina of the pronotum less 
curved and interrupted not only in centre but also before joining the lateral 

carina. Might be mistaken for Eugigas scJioenJierri Thorns. (1857). One 

pair from Korrido, Geelvink Bay, New Guinea (0. Beccari). 

2. Meganthribus harmandi schanus subsp. nov. 

?. Upper surface much more extended black than yellowish grey, imder- 
side yellowish grey marked with black. The following markings of upperside 
yellowish grey : an interrupted median stripe on head and pronotum, dilated 
in middle of disc and agam before carina, the sinus between the two projections 
rounded, at side of pronotum a narrow stripe from near apical margin to near 
carina, sinuate on dorsal side, the posterior end of this band curving forward, 
behind carina a small lateral spot ; on elji;ra a short broadish basal sutural streak 
posteriorly more or less connected with an antemedian discal patch which is 
composed of several spots, above shoulder a longish basal spot and behind 
shoulder a lateral one, in seventh and ninth interspaces a row of spots, behind 
middle a transverse patch composed of two or three spots, several small spots 
on apical declivity, and mmute spots at lateral margin ; a streak at each side 
of pygidium. 

On underside two lateral spots on metepisternum, two rows on abdomen, 
and middle of pro- and metasterna behind pro- and midcoxae black, centre of 
metasternum and of abdominal segments 2 to 4 also black, probably because 
denuded. Legs more extended black than in M. h. harmandi Lesne (1891). 

Dawnat Range, Tenasserim, xii.1893, 1 $. 

3. Mecotropis whitehead! retipennis subsp. nov. 

(J?. Elytra densely marmorated with grey from base to apex. 

Philippines : Musbate (type), Aroroy. 

The eye sinuate and the median groove of the proboscis continued on to 
the frons. Black markings of underside somewhat larger than ui M. whiteheadi 
whiteheadi Jord. (1898). 

4. Mecotropis caelestis catoxanthus subsp. nov. 

Mecotropis caelestis Jord. (nee id. 1898), Nov. Zool. xx. p. 266, no. 60 (1913) 
(Palawan). 

cj. Sides of sterna ochraceous instead of bluish grey. 

Palawan, 2 (J^J. 

We now have M. c. caelestis Jord. (1898) also from Mindanao. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 107 

5. Mecotropis pantherinus philippus subsp. nov. 

$. Light pubescence ashy grey, slightly bluish ; the black spots of the 
elytra on the whole somewhat smaller than in specimens from Aru and New 
Guinea, the largish round spot on the subbasal swelling of M. p. pantherinus 
Thorns. (1857) replaced in the new subspecies by some smaller irregular spots. 
Recalls M. caelestis, but the frons has a median carina. 

Philippines : Aroroy, 2 $$. 

6. Xenocerus suturalis tombarus subsp. nov. 

(J$. The lateral stripe of the pronotum complete, the median one broad 
and somewhat diffuse ; the basal humeral spot of the elytra larger and con- 
nected along basal margin with the sutural stripe, which is more strongly 
widened behind base than in X. s. suturalis Jord. (1904) from Ron and Jobi, 
Geelvink Bay. 

Bismarck Archipelago: New Ireland, xi. 1923-iii. 1924 (A. F. Eichhorn), 
a pair. 

7. Xenocerus olivaceus ancorinus subsp. nov. 

(J$. Like X. olivaceus australicus Jord. (1895), but the transverse band of 
the elytra not nearly reaching lateral margin, usually attaining 7th or 6th stripe 
of punctures, the sublateral line of basal half absent, the thin apical sutural 
line and the transverse subapical dash at the most indicated. 

Bismarck Archipelago : New Hanover, ii.iii.l897 (Webster), 4 (^(J, 2 $$. 

8. Xenoceras olivaceus suadus subsp. nov. 

(J$. X. olivaceus equestris Pasc. (1860) affinis, vitta elytrorum subhumerali 
basi breviore, fascia transversa tenuiore. 

Ron I., type, and Waigeu I., 2 (J, 7 $$. 

The transverse, oblique, band of the elytra thinner than the sutural vitta ; 
the dorsal stripe reaching only halfway from base to transverse band, no sublateral 
and subapical markings. 

9. Xenocerus timorensis sp. nov. 

^J. X. olivaceo Motsch. (1874) similis, elytrorum virgis griseis latioribus, 
vitta dorsali basah magis arcuata, antennarum segmento 3'° breviore. 

Long. 13 mm. 

Dutch Timor: Gunong Leo, 2,000-4,000 feet, xi.xii (W. Doherty), 1 <S 
ex coll. van de Poll. 

The specimen is somewhat discoloured, the pubescence of the underside 
and the lines of the upperside being buff instead of greyish white. Third segment 
of antenna a little shorter than the proboscis is wide at the narrowest point 
between the antennae. The three thoracic stripes complete. The sutural 
stripe of the elytra occupies a little more than the sutural interspace, its transverse 
postmedian branch elbowed (nearly at a right angle) and reaching to seventh 
line of punctures ; the dorsal, basal, stripe strongly curved inward, its posterior 
end not far from the sutural stripe, and its base partly surroiuiding the shoulder 
angle, but not connected with the sutural stripe ; no sublateral and apical lines. 



108 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

10. Epitaphius albopictus sp. nov. 

(J$. Niger, supra luteo-oehraceo et nigro-brunneo tomentosus, albo varie- 
gatus, elytris duabus maculis communibus albis, una ante-, altera postmediana , 
notatis ; subtus luteo-griseus, pro parte nigro-brunneus, tibiis albis basi apiceque 
nigris, tarsorum segmento 1° albo basi nigra. 

Long. 9-11 mm. 

Madagascar : Diego Suarez, 2 (J (J in Mus. Tring, type ; 2 pairs in Mus. 
Prague from " Madagascar." 

The pubescence coarse, almost squamiform. Head and rostrum rugate, 
but not densely, white mixed with luteous. Antenna white at the apices of 
segments 1 to 7, 8 entirely white, at lea.st on upperside, club black-brown, hairy 
beneath as in the other species known to me, 9 triangular, not quite twice as 
long as broad, 10 as broad as long, II abruptly narrowing from middle to the 
pointed apex, 9 to 11 decreasing in width, particularly in (J. Pronotum very 
densely rugate-reticulate, pubescence sparse on the greater jjortion of the surface, 
middle somewhat dejjressed, particularly before the carina, apex luteous mixed 
with white, a white median stripe from apex to middle, somewhat arrow-head 
shaped, continued to base by bufi o'chraceous pubescence, at each side of it a 
small white subapical spot and a postmedian one, and another spot farther towards 
side at apical third, behind carina a white spot on each side, all these white 
markings surrounded with luteous-ochraceous, this latter colouring diffuse ; 
dorsal carina straight, slightly convex laterally. 

Scutellum white. Elytra nearly twice as long as broad, suture and alternate 
interspaces rather indefinitely spotted with blackish brown, on posterior slant 
of subbasal callosity, and extending into the depression, a transverse white patch 
across suture composed of confluent dots, mixed with luteous-ochraceous and 
blackish brown and extendmg to third or fourth line of punctures, at the side 
of it one or two white dots, a second transverse white macula before apical 
declivity, narrow, somewhat irregular, and extendmg to fourth line of punctures, 
a basal spot above shoulder, two limbal dots behind shoulder, another behind 
middle, a subapical spot on each elj'trum, and here and there indications of 
small spots white. Pygidium white, nearly semicircular. 

Presternum very densely rugate-punctate, the interspaces granulate ; 
metepisternum and sides of metasternum (except anterior lateral portion) pitted 
with large punctures ; abdomen without large punctures. Femora greyish white 
with brown dorsal patch ; segments 2 to 4 of tarsi brown as in allied species, 
strongly contrasting with the first segment. 

11. Phloeobius notius sp. nov. 

(J9- P^i- pvstnlosi Gerst. (1871) affinis, fronte capitis carina mediana 
praedita, angulo antico prothoracis prominente, segmento tertio antennae 
duobus primis simul sumptis ((J$) longiore. Pronotum medio depressum 
singulo penicillo minuto atro mediano notatum. Elytra postice haud pustulosa, 
linea suturali subapicali atra. 

Long. 6-10 mm. 

Natal : Durban (G. F. Leigh), a series. 

The median depression of the pronotum, which bears a minute black tuft 
in centre, is flanked by a longitudinal swelling, in front of which there is a white 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 109 

spot, between this swelling and the lateral margin no second swelling. The 
subbasal callosity of the elytra without the ochraceous tufts of Ph. pustulosus 
Gerst. (1871) ; suture and alternate interspaces dotted with black, these spots 
slightly raised ; apical declivity greyish white with a sharply marked black line 
on the suture. In Ph. 'pustulosus the underside of the first and second tarsal 
segments a beautiful orange, which colour extends a very little on to the tibiae ; 
in Ph. notius the iniderside of the tarsi at the most faintly yellowish. 

Alloplius gen. nov. 

<;J. Rostrum breve, a basi gradatim angustius. Oculus transversus, 
lateralis, sinuatus, scrobi antennae fere contiguus, lobo dorsali obliquo. Antenna 
brevis, segmento 10° transverse. Carina prothoracis mox ante basin sita, in 
angulo recto antrorsum ad medium usque flexa. Elytra basi truncata, 
cylindrica. Ungues tarsorum inaequales. 

Genotypus : A. calix sp. nov. 

In appearance like a short Easitropis Jek. (1855), but the prothoracic carina 
distinctly antebasal and reaching only to the middle of the side. Proboscis twice 
as broad as long, widest at base, truncate, its lateral margin cariniform, extending 
from apex into the sinus of the eye, completely covering the transversely 
triangular antennal groove. Dorsal lobes of eyes large, strongly converging, 
the frons a little more than one-third the width of the base of the proboscis (cj). 
Forecoxae not quite contiguous, antecoxal portion of prosternum somewhat 
longer than the coxa is broad. Mesosternal process rounded, narrower than the 
midcoxa. Tarsi as long as tibiae, first segment short, especially in fore- and 
midtarsi ; claw asymmetrical, the posterior (in foretarsus = outer) claw being 
much the larger. 

To be placed near Tropidobasis Jord. (1923). 

12. Alloplius calix sp. nov. 

(J. Brunneus, albo-griseo tomentosus, brunneo variegatus, elytris macula 
magna basali comminii, altera mediana in utroque elytro sita, lateraliter cum 
tertia anteapicali conivmcta. Abdomen medio planato-depressum. 

Long. 4 mm. 

Natal : Umhlali Beach (type) and Malvern, 3 ,^,^, type in the Durban 
Museum. 

Cylindrical, about two and a half times as long as broad. Proboscis 
and head greyish white, the former with a median carina which does not reach 
apex ; the occiput rugate-reticulate. Antenna not reaching to base of prothorax, 
segment 2 elliptical, truncate, 3 as long as 2, but much thinner, one-fourth 
longer than 4, 4 to 8 gradually decreasing in length, club short, but the segments 
well separated, 9 a little broader than long, 10 much broader than long, 11 short- 
ovate. 

Prothorax one-fifth broader than long, nearly evenly convex, broadest 
before base, slightly constricted before angle of carina, irregularly reticulate- 
rugate-punctate, the meshes of unequal size and the interstices more or less 
forming longitudinal ridges ; the greyish white pubescence rather more in 
evidence at apex than on disc, in front of carina half-way to side a brown space 
more or less far extended forward. Elytra not depressed along suture, the 



110 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

stripes of punctures not impressed, the interspaces not conve.x, subbasal callosity 
and the depression behind it hardly at all indicated ; the blackish brown patch 
around the greyish white scutellum rotundate ; the suture and interspace 9 
dotted with brown, the median brown patch does not extend to suture and is 
laterally connected with a transverse anteapical transverse band, which is more 
or less interrupted at the suture. Pygidium greyish white like the whole under- 
side and the legs, evenly rounded, but a little longer than half its width. In 
fore- and midtarsi segment 4 much longer than 1,2, and 3 together. 

13. Nessiara stomphax sp. nov. 

cJ. N. longicolli Jord. (1911) similis, latere ro.stri ad basin mandibulae 
fortiter bilobato. 

Long. 9-lC mm. 

The lateral and apical margins of the proboscis are not on a continuous 
level : the lateral margin ends with a more or less prominent lobe, and above 
this the lateral portion of the apical margin forms another lobe or a ridge, with 
a gap in between the two lobes. The frons is less concave than in N. longicollis 
Jord. (1911), and the pronotum shorter. I am as j-et uncertain as to whether 
any of the $? which we have belong to this species. 

The (Jc? vary according to locality, the species being represented in our 
collection by three subspecies : 

a. N. stomphax stomphax subsp. nov. 

(J. The lateral margin of the proboscis deeply curved down behind antennal 
groove, the apical, horizontal, portion of this margin prominent, forming an 
elbow with the proximal portion and being much longer than the third segment 
of the antenna. Suture of elytra and alternate interspaces dotted with black, 
the two dorsal spots placed in front of apical declivity separated, the light- 
coloured patch before these two black spots buff, the same colour as the head. 

Long. 16 mm. 

Java : Senggoro, Zuider Mts., Passoeroean (A. Koller), 1 (J, type, and 
S. Java, 1,500 feet (H. Fruhstorfer), 1 $. 

b. N. stomphax hians subsp. nov. 

(J. The lateral margin of the proboscis less deeply curved down behind 
antennal groove and its apical horizontal portion quite short, the gap between 
it and the dorsal lobe broader. Suture of elytra with an antemedian spot, 
otherwise unspotted, the black spot before apical declivity undivided, occupj'ing 
interspaces 3, 4, and 5, the light-coloured patch placed in front of it nearly white. 

Long. 13 mm. 

Batoe Is. : Tana Masa, ix. 1896 (Kannegieter), 1 <J, ex coll. van de Poll. 

c. N. stomphax megastomis subsp. nov. 

Nessiara didyma Paso., Jordan (err. determinationis), Nov. ZooL. xviii, 
p. 601, sub no. 2 (1911). 

(J. The lateral margin of the rostrum nearly straight to apex, being but 
slightly curved in S-shape ; frons narrower than in the previous two subspecies. 
Markings of elytra as in N. st. Mans. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. Ill 

Long. 9-14 mm. 

Borneo : Brunei (Waterstradt), type ; Pontianak ; Tameang Lajang, 
S.E. Borneo ; a series. 

When I began to identify the Anthribidae of the Tring Museum in 1893 
I mistook Nessiara didyma Pasc. (1859) to be the $ of the present subspecies. 
I had no specimen of Pascoe's species at that time. N. didyma is a much shorter 
species with the elytra more evenly convex, the sides of the proboscis of both 
sexes more or less rounded and notched in middle, not dilated at apex, the frons 
narrow and not concave anteriorly, etc. 

14. Nessiara longicollis hortulana subsp. nov. 
<J. Rostrum a little shorter in comparison with its width, the margin from 
the lateral angle apicad less rounded and (in lateral aspect) less curved upwards. 
Sumatra : Marang, Res. Benkoelen (W. Doherty), type ; also from Java. 

15. Nessiara illaxa sp. nov. 

?. Speciminibus parvis N. longicollis subsimilis, rostro lateribus simplice, 
apice non ampliato, antennae clava multo minus laxa, segmento 10° valde 
trans verso. 

Long. 9 mm. 

Sumatra (A. Kollar), 1 ?. 

Proboscis without a lateral notch, sides slightly rounded, less explanate 
than in $ of N. longicollis Jord. (1911) ; frons wider and less concave anteriorly 
than in that species, a little more than one-third the width of the base of the 
proboscis. Club of antenna shorter than in N. longicollis $, dark brown, segment 
9 asymmetrically triangular, somewhat longer than broad, 10 nearly twice as 
broad as long, rounded at sides, 1 1 irregularly circular, a little broader than 
long, the narrow bases of 10 and 11 being very short the club is much more 
compact than in the preceding species and N. didyma Pasc. (1859), N. lineola 
Kirsch. (1875), and N. optica Jord. (1904). 

Pronotum as in N. longicollis, somewhat shorter, with two interrupted 
brown vittae, of which the posterior portion is shorter than in N. longicollis. 
Elytra a little less flattened dorsally, in basal half a number of brown spots, of 
which the one in third interspace is longest, a black oblong spot occupying 
interspaces 3, 4, and 5, not separated into spots, and larger than the black spot 
placed in front of apical declivity, the pubescence between the two patches of 
each elytrum greyish, much less conspicuous than in the alUed species. Pygidium 
shorter than in N. longicollis, almost semicircular. 

16. Nessiara gulosa sp. nov. 

(J. N. opticae Jord. (1894) similis, pronoto elytrisque longiore, ocuUs antice 
haud contiguis. 

Long. 8-3 mm. 

Sumatra : Marang, Benkoelen (W. Doherty), 1 cJ- 

Proboscis more than twice as broad as long, not widened at apex, flat, 
shghtly convex, black in middle, especially at apex. Club of antenna loose, 
the three segments nearly equal in length, 11 elongate-elliptical. Frons as broad 
as segment 5 of the antenna is long, concave, without carma. Pronotum very 



112 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

little broader than long (less than one-tenth), widest at tlic angle of the carina, 
densel}' punctate, brown markings inconspicuous, dorsal vittae interrupted, 
narrow, not reaching apical margin, much wider behind carina, here a rounded 
yellowish grey spot between them, a lateral brown spot at some distance above 
the apex of the lateral carina. 

Elytra cylindrical, slightly flattened at suture, one-third longer than broad, 
an elongate spot on outer side of subbasal swelling, a short, oblique, median 
spot longest at second line of punctures and extending into fourth interspace, 
a larger spot at beginning of apical declivity, longer than broad, more or less 
truncate in front and rounded behind, all brownish black and sharply defined, 
at lateral margin two brown spots in anterior half, widely separated, another 
at apical third less distinct and followed at some distance by a minute diffuse 
spot, in between the last two the pubescence slightly yellowish, the space between 
the two conspicuous dorsal spots occupied by a pale yellowish grey one, which 
is as long as the black spot behind it, but narrower. Pygidium as long as broad, 
rounded, slightly depressed transversely in middle, and medianly somewhat 
convex at apex. Hypopygidium nearly as in N. optica Jord. (1894), the pro- 
cesses long and broad and apically nearly symmetrically rounded, in N. optica 
the apex of the processes dorsally much more rounded than ventrally. 

17. Nessiara munda sp. nov. 

(J$. Brevis, compacta, rufo-brunnea, supra luteo-griseo pubescens, pronoto 
brunneo maculato, elytris interstitiis alternis brunneo et griseo tessellatis. 
Rostrum cum capite reticulatim rugoso-punctatum, medio macula nuda nitida 
parum elevata notatuni. Frons capitis lata. Antenna brevis, clava compacta, 
segmento 10° longitudine duplo latiore. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Sarawak : Matang Rd., 2,800-3,000 feet, ii.l902, a pair. 

Rostnmi nearly twice as broad as long, truncate, slightly trisinuate at 
apex, from inner margin of eye a cariniform swelling extends about to middle 
of proboscis, curving laterad and gradually disappearing, base flattened in front 
of eye, a glossy median swelling reaches neither base nor apical margin. Frons 
more than one-third the width of the rostrum, with a brown stripe on each side, 
the stripes united on occiput. On underside the median portion of proboscis 
between the antennal grooves with two longitudinal channels. Antenna rufous, 
not reaching middle of prothorax, segment 8 a little longer than broad, 9 as 
long as broad, )0 twice as broad as long, 1 1 broader than long, the three segments 
close together. Pronotum almost evenly convex from side to side, widest at 
curve of carina, nearly one-third broader than long, coriaceous, somewhat 
transversely rugulose on disc, marmorated with luteous grey ; a median stripe 
pointed anteriorly, twice constricted, widened along carina, at the side of it a 
round median spot which is joined to a second vitta, in curve of carina a ring 
joined to the second vitta and to an apical spot ; lateral curve of carina very even. 

Elytra cylindrical, broadest behind shoulder, not quite one-half longer 
than broad, granidose, the suture and alternate interspaces tessellated with 
brown and greyish white, whereas the other interspaces are luteous grey, the 
brown spots on the whole larger than the whitish ones, giving the elytra the 
appearance of being reticulated, the spots on suture smaller and more numerous, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 113 

a median brown spot each in third and fifth interspaces and another in third 
at the beginning of the apical slant larger, al)out twice as long as broad. Pygidium 
granulose, a little shorter than broad, in (J less narrowing apically than in $. 

Sides of pro- and metasternum with largish punctures, which are dense 
on metepisternum ; middle of prosternum coarsely punctate, swollen before 
the coxae. Intercoxal process of mesosternum truncate, twice as broad as 
long, somewhat convex in middle. Abdomen punctulate ; last segment in c? 
with a thin median carina which ends with a minute marginal tooth, margin 
shallowly bi-emarginate, with the lateral angles rounded, in $ armed half-way 
between middle and side with a sharj) tubercle placed near margin. First tarsal 
segment about as long as fourth. 

Nearest to N. albicera Jord. (1911), but easily recognized by the structure 
of the proboscis, antennae and last abdominal segment, and by the colouring 
of the upperside. 

18. Nessiara bidens sp. nov. 

(J. N. sellalae affinis, fronte capitis simplice et metasterno bituberciilato 
praecipue distincta. 

Long. 8 mm. 

Northern Nias : Hili Madjedja, x-xii.l895 (Mitschke), 2 (J (J) ex coll. van 
de Poll. 

Colouring essentially as in N. sellata Jord. (1894). Rostrum a little longer, 
with a median carina, which is not continued on to the frons. Head rather 
strongly rugate. End-segment of antenna regularlj' elliptical, slightlj' longer 
than 10. Lateral carina of pronotum more evenly curved, its apex not flexed 
down. Pygidium very strongly convex in apical half. Mesosternal intercoxal 
process strongly rounded. At each side of median furrow of metasternum a 
transverse tubercle. Tooth at apex of midtibia very small. 

19. Nessiara sellata niasica subsp. nov. 

(J$. Maculis brunneis 2>i'onoti majoribus, carina mediana capitis sub- 
obsolescente, dente apicali tibiae intermediae sat magno et lato. 

Northern Nias: HiU Madjedja, x-xii.l895 (Mitschke, Kannegieter), a 
small series, ex coll. van de Poll. 

The apical tooth of the midtibia is much larger than in N. sellata sellata 
Jord. (1895) and very broad. The median carina of the head is present, but 
is more or less spUt up by longitudinal grooves, bemg fiarticularly low anteriorly 
on the frons. 

Dinomelaena gen. nov. 

(J$. Margines apicalis et lateralis rostri ad angulum apicalem separati ; 
margo apicalis medio convexus, hand sinuatus. Clava antennae valde com- 
pressa, segmento 10° latitudine longiore. Carina antebasaHs pronoti ad latus in 
arcu lato antrorsum flexa, paulo undulata. 

Genotypus : D. scelesta Pasc. (1860, as Apatenia). 

Here also belong D. baijanensis Jord. (1897), D. ivimacidata Jord. (1894), 
and D. tuberculosa 3orA. (1894), all described as Apatenia , Siud D. quadritubercu- 
lata Montr., described as a Stenocerus. They are all fairly large, short, black 
species. 



114 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXlV. 1928. 

Pronotum uneven, somewhat constricted before the dorsal carina, so that 
the lateral carina is curved in S-shape, its apex being curved forward and some- 
what raised ; longitudinal carinula horizontal, forming with dorsal carina an 
acute angle. El\'tra tuberculated. 

Club of antenna as in Apatenia viduala Pasc. (185!)), 11 usually narrower 
and shorter than 10. The mesosternal intercoxal process truncate, angulate, 
the midcoxa being indented as in Ajjatenia and allied genera. 

20. Dinomelaena remota sp. nov. 

^. D. scelestae similis, rostro subtus sine fossa longitudinaU mediana, 
el}i:roruui tuberculis par vis. 

Long. 7-9 mm. 

Solomon Is. : Kulambangra, iii.1901 (A. S. Meek), 1 cj, type ; Florida, 
i.l901 (A. S. Meek), 1 ^. 

Whereas in D. quadrituberculatus Montrouz. (1855), from Woodlark, the 
d'Entrecasteaux, Egum, and Lousiade Is., Trobriand, and the eastern districts 
of the mainland of New C4uinea, the underside of the proboscis bears only 
an indication of a median groove, this groove is long and sharply defined 
in D. impunctata Jord. (1894), D. scelesta Pasc. (1860), and D. batjaneiisis 
Jord. (1897). 

In the above specimens from the Solomons the underside of the proboscis 
is convex between the antennal grooves, flattened anteriorly, where there is a 
small impression. The carina of the pronotum is more evenly curved at the 
sides than in the allied species. The subbasal swelling of the elytrum low, hardly 
tuberculiform, postmedian tubercle not much higher, the raised pustules in 
interspaces 5 and 7 distinct, on apical declivity one pustule in interspace 5 and, 
farther forward, two in 7 buff, in front of postmedian tubercle a triangular 
velvety black sutural spot. 

Oxyderes gen. nov. 

(J$. Apateniae affinis, angulis prothorcis atque carmae acutis, singuU 
elytri basi fortiter rotundato-producta medio baud marginata. 

Genotypus : O. frenaUis Jord. (1897, as Hypseus). 

The basal margin of the elytra is distinctly " marginate " in the allied 
genera, i.e. the channel which rmis from the sides across the shoulder-angle is 
continued to the scutellum ; in the species I separate here as a new genus the 
channel is obsolete on the dilated portion of the base. Besides the genotype 
here belong Hypseus cyrtu-s Jord. (1912), which probably is the same as Stenocerus 
collaris Gylh. (1833), Apatenia tessellata Kirsch. (1875), Apalenia fastigata Jord. 
(1924), and the following new species : 

21. Oxyderes strigatus sp. nov. 

cJ$. Carina rostri antice obsoleta, sterna et abdomen luteo-albo vittata. 

Borneo : Brunei (Waterstradt), 1 (J, type ; Kuching, xii. 1899, 1 $ ; Kobele, 
ii.l893, 1 $ ; and 1 cj, " Borneo (Wahnes)." 

Similar to 0. tessellata Kirsch (1875), of which it may be a co-subspecies ; 
it has like that species a submedian tubercle in front of the hindcoxa. Carina 
of proboscis obsolete from middle to apex, being broken up into a number of 



NOVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 115 

wrinkles ; it extends on to frons, but soon disappears as a carina, there being 
no high carina on posterior portion of frons as there is in O. tesseUata. Marlvings 
of pronotum variable : they are either similar (type) to those of O. tesseUata 
or are united into four dorsal vittae. Elytra tessellated (type) as in 0. tesseUata, 
or the black spots more or less united into stripes. 

Underside marked with yellowish white : on prosternum a median and a 
sublateral stripe and a patch below carina, on mesosternum a lateial stripe and 
the median process, on metanotum a sublateral and a lateral stripe and on 
abdomen a continuous lateral one. 

22. Hypseus fumatus sp. nov. 

(J$. Niger, macula antescutellari lutea notatus, subtus griseo pubescens. 
Rostrum longitudine plus duplo latius, apice medio leviter emarginato. Clava 
antennae laxa. Pronotum inaequale, longitudine triente latius. Elytra basi 
fortiter producta, a basi ad apicem subgradatim angustiora, nigro-pustulata, 
gibbositate subbasali pustulis multo latiore altioreque. 

Long. 5-3 mm. 

Borneo, 1 cj, type ; " Malaisie," 1 $. 

Upperside with a short, stiff brown pubescence which is somewhat silky 
and assumes in certain aspects a greyish tint ; besides the yellow spot in front 
of the scutellum no conspicuous markings. Proboscis coarsely rugate-punctate, 
slightly convex from side to side, without carina, somewhat depressed in middle 
of base, lateral margin rounded, separated from apical margin by a slight incision, 
middle of apical margin straight, faintly incurved. Head coarsely rugate, frons 
narrower ((J) or broader (?) than one-third of the rostrum. Segment 3 of the 
antenna as long as 2, not distinctly longer than 4, 5 to 8 gradually decreasing 
in length, 8 not quite twice as long as broad, club longer than 3 to 8 together, 
as strongly compressed as in A'patenia viduata Pasc. (1859), the edges very 
thin, all three segments longer than broad, of the same lengths, 9 and 10 truncate, 
recalling the seed-pod of some Crucifer, such as CapseUa. 

Pronotum a third broader than long, with a shallow depression in middle, 
two farther forward, connected with median one, and indications of depressions 
before carina, punctate-rugulate, somewhat gramilate at sides, in a view from 
front about nine very hazy blackish spots appear ; dorsal carina convex. 

Elytra one-half longer than broad, broadest at base, hardly at all flattened, 
alternate interspaces with inconspicuous black jiustules which are very little 
raised except a median one in third interspace, subbasal callosity broad and 
very distinct, the elytrum being depressed in front of and behind it, basal margin 
strongly romided, behind shoulder and at apex an impression close to lateral 
edge. Pygidium one-third broader than long, evenly rounded. Grey jjubescence 
of underside rather long and dense. On labiophore a transverse ridge which 
joins the ends of the longitudinal carinae, forming a posteriorly open square. 
Tibiae with two grey rings. 

23. Hypseus scapularis sp. nov. 
(J. Niger, parum griseo-brunnescens, elytris nigro tessellatis macula 
rotunda flava humerali ornatis, pronoto longitudine jjaululo latiore. 
Long. 6- 7-7 '3 mm. 



116 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Philippines : Leite, 1 cj, type ; Surigao, Mindanao, 1 $. 

Near H. axillaris Jord. (1895), but the prothorax and elytra longer, the 
dorsal carma incurved in middle, the subbasal swelling of the elytra very low, etc. 

Proboscis one-half longer than broad, emarginate in middle, coarsely rugate- 
punctate, with a median carma in basal half. Frons narrower (cj) or some- 
what broader ($) than segment of antenna, without carina, coarsely punctate- 
rugate like occiput. Segment 3 of antenna longer than 2 (which is rufous), 
3 to 8 gradually decreasmg in lengths, 8 little longer than broad, triangular in 
$, club less compressed and less loose than in AiMtenia viduata Pasc. (1859), 
particularly in $, 9 = 10, 11 ovate, shorter and narrower than 10. 

Pronotum one-ninth broader than long, depressed in middle from carina 
to before centre, here the depression dividing, running obliquely forward to behind 
eye, in the depression a longitudinal low elevation from centre to near carina, 
puncturation dense and deep, densest and roughest at side, minute on middle 
apical portion ; dorsal carina distinctly curved back in middle, lateral carina 
extending beyond middle ; in front of scutellum a narrow ochraceous spot, in 
oblique aspect nine diffuse black patches become visible, separated by short 
scanty pubescence. Scutellum slightly ochraceous. 

Elytra nearly double as long as broad, almost gradually narrowing from 
shoulders, flattened above, but not impressed, stripes of pmictures distinct, 
interspaces flat, except apex of ninth, subbasal swelling present, but low, not 
tufted, suture and alternate interspaces with long and short black spots, yellow 
shoulder spot circular. Pygidium one-fifth broader than long, rather strongly 
narrowed apicad, but rounded. 

Underside grey, the pubescence long on prosternum. Tips of lobes of 
labiophore rather pointed, not rounded off, along apical margin of labiophore 
a groove curved like the margin. Forecoxae widely separated, the anterior 
intercoxal process depressed. Mesosternal intercoxal process twice as broad as 
the coxa. Anal sternite apically somewhat compressed, the apical margin 
appearing angulate in anal aspect. 

24. Hypseus mollis sp. nov. 

(J. Rufo-brunneus, griseo pubescens, sericeus. Rostrum longitudine duplo 
latius, medio carina brevi planata instructum. Frons latitudine dimidii rostri. 
Pronotum longitudine paululo latius, fere aequaliter sed leviter convexum, 
coriaceum, utrinque gutta alba notatum, carina dorsah medio levissime angulata 
utruique paulo convexa. Elji;ra ab callositate subbasali declivia, seriatim 
punctata, interspatiis planis, macula posthumerali alba, stria dorsali a medio 
ad apicem declivem ubi trans suturam cum stria alterius elytri unita. 

Long. 4-3 mm. 

Borneo : Matang Road, Sarawak, i.1910, 1 ^. 

Grey pubescence of upperside thin, not concealing the ground. Labiophore 
with a median carina which reaches to the apical margin, apex of lobes rounded 
off. Upperside of rostrum rugate-punctate, base somewhat impressed in middle 
(the impression extending on to frons), and in this depression a flat, glossy, 
median carina, from margin of eye a cariniform wrinkle extends on to proboscis ; 
a slight transverse carinula from lateral margin ; apical margin with a very small 
median sinus. Segment 3 of antenna as long as 2, one-third longer than 4, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 117 

5 to 8 decreasing, S being less than twice as long as broad, club not very strongly 
compressed, loose, 9 a little longer than 10 and more evenly narrowed to base, 
11 as long as 10, very slightly narrower, elliptical. 

Pronotuui one-fifth broader than long, not strongly narrowed to apex, 
slightly but distinctly incurved at sides in posterior third, coriaceous, without 
distinct puncturation, without distinct impression, the antemedian depression 
being but vestigial, at apex of lateral carina a white mark projecting from 
underside, above and somewhat in front of this bar a round dot of the same 
colour, a very thin median Ime indicated anteriorly and posteriorly ; angle of 
carina a little smaller than 90°, longitudinal cannula descending. Scutellum 
greyish white. 

Elytra depressed above, but not at all impressed along suture, subbasal 
swelling broad but not high, there being no distinct depression behind it, a 
linear spot each at base of interspaces 2 and 4, shoulder-angle, lateral margin 
from behind shoulder to base of abdomen, a line in interspace 3 from before 
middle to apical delivity black-brown, the line widening to interspaces 4 and 5 
before declivity, then curving towards suture where it meets the line of the other 
elytra, the figure of the letter U being formed ; within this line a minute white 
median spot, and traces of several others before declivity, behind shoulder-angle 
a large white spot. Pygidium nearly as long as broad, rounded. 

Pubescence of underside much longer than on upper ; prosternum and 
sides of metasternum with dispersed large punctures. Forecoxae well separated ; 
median process of mesosternum as broad as the coxa, truncate, sides angulate 
before apex ; abdomen with lateral marginal grey spots. Base and apex of 
femora and tibiae grey, midfemur almost entii'ely grey. 

In lateral aspect the specimen decreases rather strongly in thickness 
towards apex of elytra. 

25. Hypseus branneus sp. nov. 

cj$. Rufo-brunneus, supra griseo marmoratus, pronoto figura centrali 
transverso-rhombiformi vittaque mediana abbreviata, et elytris singulis macula 
postmediana magis conspicua notatis. Oculi maris subcontigui. Rostrum 
latum, breve, apice leviter trisinuatum. Antennarum segmentum 10'"" aut 
latitudine parum longius (^) aut subquadratum ($). Pronotum punctatum. 
Elytra cyUndrica, subtessellata. Dens onychiorum posticorum obsolescens ((^). 

Long. 3-3-6 mm. 

Singapore (J. C. Saunders), type, 3 (J(;J, 1 $. Sumatra : Siak, Patran Baroe, 

xii.1919 (J. B. Corporaal), a pair. Perak (W. Doherty), 1 ?. 

Proboscis twice as broad as long, with a short basal median carina, which 
is sometimes obsolete, coarsely rugate-punctate, apical margin slightly undulate, 
almost truncate, the median sinus vestigial ; on underside the labiophore rough 
along anterior margin, somewhat swollen, smooth and glossy at buccal sinus. 
Frons as broad as segment 2 of antenna ( ^J) or one-fourth as wide as the rostrum 
($), punctate -rugate. Club of antenna rather shorter than usually, 10 shorter 
than 9 and 11, in $ as long as broad, not triangular, 11 pale at tip. Pronotum 
conical, transversely convex, without distinct impressions, one-sixth broader 
than long, punctate, coriaceous, markings luteous grey as on elytra : a broadish 
median stripe from scutellum to middle, reappearing at apex as a thin line, in 
centre a transverse rhomboid of thin lines, at apex on each side of middle a 

9 



llg NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

diffuse triangle the apex of which nearly reaches the lateral angle of the rhomboid, 
tioni near this point a line which is first oblique and then runs straight to base, 
another linear spot farther towards side, lateral carina bordered with luteous 
grey, the lateral markings somewhat variable ; dorsal carina slightly convex, 
not angulate in middle, lateral carina extending half-way to apex, angle 90°, 
basal carinula descendmg. 

Elytra not depressed, cylindrical, subbasal swelling low, the rows of punctures 
rather deep, interspaces slightly convex, diffusely spotted with luteous grey, 
alternate interspaces irregularly tessellated with brown, the brown spots larger 
in third interspace, in this space a largish luteous grey postmedian spot extending 
on to the neighbouring interspaces, a smaller sublateral spot behind shoulder 
and one or two lateral ones before apex. Pygidium rounded as usual, a little 
broader than long, grey in middle. 

Grey pubescence of underside not dense, somewhat denser on metepimerum, 
which is brown in middle. Prosternum and sides of metasternum punctate. 
Median process of mesosternum narrower than coxa, angulate near apex. Knees 
and tarsi paler rufous than rest of legs. In (J the tooth of the hindtarsal claw 
vestigial. 

26. Hypseus vaiius sp. nov. 

$. Praecedenti simillimus, rostro basi depresso, fronte capitis triente rostri 
paulo latiore, clava antennae breviore, segmento 10" transverso. 

Philippines : Surigao, Mindanao (Bottcher), 1 $. 

Luteous grey markings of pronotum more numerous at sides, there being 
a sublateral median sjjot from which extend one line forward and two lines 
obliquely back- and sidewards, between this sjiot and the central rhomboid a 
longitudinal stripe which does not reach carina, between it and median stripe 
an oblique spot at carina, in apical area the markings more or less connected 
with one another, median stripe much widened behind carina. On proboscis 
a central half-moon, the margin of the ej^es and a spot at apical angles, on head 
a spot in centre of frons and the greater part of the anterior portion of the 
occiput luteous grey ; base of rostrum impressed, the impression flanked by a 
vestigial carina which is the prolongation of the rim of the eye ; median carina 
vestigial, reappearmg at apex as a slight swelling. Club of antenna not quite 
equal in length to segments 3 to together, 9 not strongly narrowed to base, 
very little longer than broad, 10 broader than long, 11 round, nearly circular 
in outline. Elytra much more conspicuouslj- tessellated, the grey dorsal post- 
median sj)ot narrow, being restricted to intersjiace 3. 

27. Hypseus arboreus sp. nov. 

(J. Niger, supra tomcnto olivaceo-brunneo vestitus, ochraceo variegatus, 
elytris nigro tessellatis gutta alba postmediana in interspatio tertio. Proboscis 
longitudine duplo latius, margine apicali leviter trisinuato, basi impressa. Frons 
tam lata quam quarta pars rostri. Clava antennarum sat compacta, segmento 
10° subquadrato. Pronotum grosse punctatum, longitudine fere dimidio latius, 
angulo carinae acuto. Pj'gidium macula mediana magna pallide flava ornatum. 

Long. .5-3 mm. 

S. Celebes : Lompa-Battan, 3,000 feet, iii.1896 (H. Fruhstorfer), 2 (J^J- 

Rostrum coarsely rugate-punctate, impressed in middle of base and flattened, 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 119 

before the eyes ; on underside the greater portion of the lobes of the labiophore 
punctate ; lobes of labium bioad. Head coarsely rugate longitudinally, in 
middle of frons a small spot and behind eye a large one ochraceous. Antennae 
pitchy, the first two segments rufous as usual, 3 as long as 2, 8 about twice as 
long as broad, club not quite as long as 3 to 6 together, not strongly compressed, 
9 triangular in outline, longer than broad, 10 as long as broad, 11 as long as 9, 
elongate -ovate, subtruncate at base. 

Pronotum slightly depressed before middle and along carina, markings 
similar to those of H. varius sp. nov., but greyish ochraceous and more diffuse, 
a median vitta interrupted by the transverse central rhombiform and an ante- 
median dot more conspicuous than the other markings, a spur extends upwards 
from grey underside in front of lateral carina ; dorsal carina straight in middle, 
slightly convex laterally, lateral carina a little convex dorsally. Elytra half as 
long again as broad, depressed at base and behind subbasal callosity, which is 
broad, I'ound, not tuberculiform ; alternate interspaces dotted with black spots 
of semi-erect pubescence, third interspace with a black raised line from middle 
to apical decUvity, in this line a conspicuous white postmedian spot and an 
anteapical ochraceous dot. Pygidium nearly as long as broad, rather strongly 
narrowing apicad. 

Prosternum and sides of metasternum as well as the neck of the mesosternum 
pimctate, abdomen also with large punctures on sides, more or less in two rows ; 
middle of abdomen strongly flattened except last segment, sides of segments 
2 to 5 with broad brown diffuse stripe, on side of metasternum a large brown 
patch. Tooth of claw of hindtarsus present, but reduced in length. 

28. Hypseus rufitarsis sp. nov. 

$. Niger, rostro, macula mediana ante carinam pronoti sita atque 
scutello albis, macula lata antescutellari fiavescenti-alba. Rostrum longitudine 
plus duplo latius, margine apicali medio producto. Clava antennae longa, 
segmento 9° latitudine triplo longiore. Pronotum inaequale, carina sat fortiter 
convexa medio subangulata, carina laterali recta trans medium continuata, 
angulo lateraU acuto. Elytra tuberculata. Tarsi pallide rufi. 

Long. 6 mm. 

Sumatra : Palembang, 1 5- 

Rostrum entirely silky white, this pubescence also occupying the anterior 
portion of frons, ajiical margin bisinuate, the middle distinctly projecting forward, 
inner margin of eye extending on to rostrum as a sort of caruia, median carina 
short, vestigial. Frons two-fifths the width of the rostrum, slightly raised 
anteriorly in middle, occiput brown, with sparse white scale-hairs, rugate like 
frons. Antenna blackish, segment 3 a very little shorter than 2, 8 twice as 
broad as long, club loose, strongly compressed, but the margins not sharp, 9 
nearly linear, thrice as long as broad, slightly and not quite gradually narrowing 
to base, 10 almost exactly like 9, 11 broken. 

Pronotum nearly one-third broader at base than long, coarsely punctate, 
in middle a depression the sides of which extend laterad-forward, in front of 
carina at each side of white spot a groove, before these grooves a rounded hump, 
not a tubercle. Elytra slightly flattened at suture, depressed before and behind 
the round subbasal swelling, strongly punctate-striate, in intersjjace 3 three 



120 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

rounded tubercles, the largest median, the next before apical declivity, the third 
subapical, in apical fourth of 5 one distinct tubercle and an indistinct one, in 7 
two small tubercles near the two of 5. Pygidium brownish black, a little broader 
than long. 

Prosternum coarsely punctate, the punctures on metasternum dispersed, 
abdomen with some shallow punctures. Mesosternal process about as broad 
as coxa, truncate, angulate. 

29. Hypseus argutus sp. nov. 

cj. Rufo-brunneus, supra griseo marmoratus et guttatus, elytris nigro- 
brunneo tessellatis, antennarum segmento ultimo longo, angusto, latitudine 
plus duplo longiore, segmento primo abdominis tuberculo mediano acuto armato. 

Long. 4-3 mm. 

Sumatra: Liberia, v. 1921 (J. B. Corporaal), 1 cj. 

Proboscis grey at eyes and in middle, sparsely pubescent elsewhere, half 
as broad again as long, depressed in centre of base, emarginate in middle of 
apex, transversely convex in apical half, with a slight transverse swelling from 
lateral margin ; on underside the labiophore punctate except at buccal sinus, 
where it is glossy and convex, cariniform margins of interantennal area curved 
sideways, not parallel. Frons a very little broader than one-third of the rostrum. 
Occiput with two brown patches from eyes obliquely backwards to middle. 
Antenna rufous at base, segment 3 as long as 2, a little longer than 4, 5 to 8 
decreasing in length, 8 twice as long as broad, club as long as 3 to 8 together, 
9 and 10 triangular, 9 twice as long as broad, 10 a little shorter and narrower, 
1 1 longer and narrower than 9, more than twice as long as broad, almost linear, 
but rounded-narrowed at both ends. 

Pronotum only one-ninth broader than long, not uneven, the antemedian 
depression vestigial, finely coriaceous, with shallow punctures at sides, markings 
of a type found in many species : in centre a transverse rhombiform, from the 
anterior and posterior angles of which the interrupted median vitta extends 
forward and backward, the posterior median line broad, white, widened behind 
carina, anterior median line widening out behind apical margin, contmuous 
with the lateral grey markings ; these consist of a longitudinal line across lateral 
angle of rhomboid, stopping below this angle and being continuous with (or nearly) 
two oblique spots which run from near this point to carina, one inwards and the 
other outwards, the latter continued across carina, at lateral carina an elongate 
spot continuous with a broad sublateral line which runs from before middle to 
apex and anteriorly is connected with the subapical transverse extension of the 
semilateral grey stripe ; dorsal carina feebly straightened in middle, convex 
laterally, lateral angle less than 90°, basal carinula strongly slanting down. 
Scutellum white. 

Elytra cylindrical, without tubercles, rather strongly punctate-striate, 
subbasal swelling distinct on account of a depression before and behind it, not 
tuberculiform, alternate interspaces spotted with black-brown, in third inter- 
space a median and a postmedian linear black-brown spot between which there 
is a whitish spot, behind shoulder and at sides before apex a whitish spot more 
conspicuous than the other grey markings, the elytra being nearly spotted as in 
H. varivs sp. nov. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 121 

Underside grey, the pubescence densest on mesepimerum ; punctures of 
prosternuni and sides of metasternum shallow ; abdomen without large punc- 
tures, near base of first segment a very sharp tubercle, which recalls certain 
species of Litocerus Schoenh. (1833). Legs uniformly rufous. 

Ulorhinus Sharp (1891). 

Near Phaidimia Pasc. (1859), Init the prothorax strongly punctate above 
and below. The basal longitudinal carinula of the pronotum horizontal, forming 
an acute angle with the dorsal carina, or obsolete. Club of antenna compact 
or nearly, 10 not being longer than broad. Proboscis about twice as long as 
broad, its apical margin slightly incurved in middle or here straight. In many 

species the third interspace of the elytra convex or pustulate. Besides the 

genotype, U.funebris Sharp (1891), here also belong the Japanese Anthribidae 
described by Sharp in 1891 (Trans. Ent. Soc. Land. pp. 297-328) as Tropideres 
aberrans and T. confinis ; further, the Palaearctic Anthribus bilineatus Germ. 
(1818), the African Hyjiseus elongatus Jord. (1901), Apatenia analis Jord. (1901), 
Apatenia benina Jord. (1920), and the Eastern Apatenia parvula Jord. (1912). 

30. Ulorhinus australiacus sp. nov. 

<J$. Nigro-brunneus, ex parte rufus, albo et nigro variegatus, rostro 
luteo-griseo, pronoto ante medium transversim paulo depresso, ante scutellum 
luteo-albo, vitta media abbreviata luteo-alba notato, elytrorum interspatiis 
3'°, 5°, 7° nigro pustulatis, tibiarum annulo subbasali atque apice rufis albo 
pubescentibus. 

Long. 5 mm. 

Australia : Victoria, 1 <J, type ; Queensland, 2 $$. 

Proboscis yellowish grey, twice as broad as long, somewhat depressed 
laterally, in centre an indication of a short carina, apical margin feebly sinuate 
in middle ; on underside the central area flat, slightly depressed, with the edges 
cariniform. Mandible with a tooth in middle and another near base. Antenna 
rufous brown, short, segment 3 a little shorter than 2 and much thiimer, 3 longer 
than 4 = 5, 5 longer than 6 = 7, 8 not quite twice as long as broad, club rather 
compact, not strongly compressed, 9 triangular in outline, gradually narrowing 
basad, 10 as broad as long, 1 1 ovate, the club as long as 3 to 6 together. Frons 
and a spot behind eye luteous grey, the former a very little over one-third the 
width of the proboscis ; occiput brown, coarsely punctate-rugate like frons. 

Pronotum one-tenth broader than long, coarsely punctate, convex, before 
middle a shallow depression disappearing laterally behind eye, behind it in 
centre a small tubercle bearing black pubescence, from this point backwards a 
conspicuous luteous white stripe, in middle behind apical margin a small white 
dash, a grey dot before middle nearer side than centre, an indistinct sublateral 
spot at base, sides and middle very slightly shaded with white, apex russet, before 
depression an indistinct dark brown arc, convex in front, interrupted by the 
subapical median dash ; carina interrupted in middle, curved forward down- 
ward at side in a broad arc ; basal longitudinal carinula obsolescent on account 
of the rough surface. 

Elytra somewhat flattened, widest at shoulders, one-sixth broader than 
pronotum, nearly half as long again as broad (10 : 7), almost truncate at base, 



122 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

the basal margins being but slightly rounded, rather strongly punctate-striate, 
suture and apex slightly russet, bases of interspaces 3 and a grej-, behind shoulder 
a rufous patch covered with grey pubescence, 3, 5, and 7 with four or five small 
black pustules set off with grey on their posterior sides, the pustule in 3 at the 
beginning of apical slant the largest, interspace 9 tessellated with black and 
grey, especially behind middle, rest of elytra sparingly shaded with grey. Pygi- 
dium semicircular, russet-grey. 

Underside grey, the entire prosternum, which is long-hairy in middle, and 
the sides of meso-metasternum and of abdomen, in $ the whole abdomen, coarsely 
punctate ; metasternum strongly convex each side of middle before coxae. 
Abdomen broadly flattened in cJ, less broadly in $. On tibiae a broad ante- 
median ring and the apex rufous covered with luteous grey pubescence. Tarsi 
brownish rufous, apices of segments more or less grey. In q the claws of the 
hindtarsus simple, the tooth being practicaOy absent. 

31. Ulorhinus distichus sp. nov. 

(J$. Brunneus, ochraceo variegatus, elytris nigro-pustulatis lineola post- 
mediana nivea in interspatio 3'° sita notatis, tibiis griseo biannulatis. Rostrum 
longitudine duplo latins, medio carina abbreviata convexa instructum. Frons 
capitis tam lata quam quarta pars ((J) aut triens (?) rostri. Clava antennarum 
compacta. Pronotum punctatum, angulo carinae obtuso. Sterna et abdomen 
punctata. ^ segmento anali alveolo rotundo mstructo et onychio postico 
edentato. 

Long. 3-8-6 mm. 

Ceylon, a series. 

Labiophore punctate as in Hypseus, but the basal longitudinal carinula of 
the pronotum has the same direction as in Ulorhinti-i ; segment 10 of anteiuia 
as long as broad. Pronotum one-half broader than long, without distinct depres- 
sions, but rather roughly coriaceous-punctate, particularly at sides, behind 
apical margin two blackish arches, one each side of middle, convex in front, 
farther back a single larger arch, at the side of which there is a minute white 
dot, at sides an antemedian white dot in an irregular blackish patch, the dark 
markings not very definite ; dorsal carina nearly straight, shghtly incurved iu 
centre. Elytra with a depression before and behind the subbasal callosity, 
otherwise convex, the pubescence of the black dots in the alternate interspaces 3, 
5 (etc.) erect, the dots looking like pustules ; the white spot in third interspace 
very conspicuous. 

Underside punctate, inclusive of abdomen, sides spotted with rufous, the 
apices of the femora, the grey rings of the tibiae and the greater part of the 
tarsi also with a rufous ground. 

32. Phaulimia augur sp. nov. 

(J. Ph. ejjhippiatae simiUs, angustior, oculis multo majoribus fere coutiguis, 
carina dorsali prothoracis medio angulata. 

Long. 3-3 mm. 

Perak (W. Doherty), 1 (^. 

In colour close to Ph. ephipjnata Pasc. (18o9), but the rufous brown patches 
which arc devoid of grey pubescence more extended : on pronotum the two 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 123 

apical and, on each side, the two discal brown patches larger ; on elytra the 
blackish brown basal patch as in Ph. ephippiata, but "behind it and connected 
with it a squarish median patch on each elytrum between first line of punctures 
and fourth interspace, at the beginning of apical slant a similar patch but of 
the general brown tint of the ground-colour of the elytra, at the sides numerous 
brown spots. 

Proboscis nearly twice as broad as long. Frons not wider than segment 3 
of the antenna is broad, carinate. Antenna nearly reaching to base of pronotum, 
segment 10 as long as broad, 11a little longer than 9. Dorsal carina of pro- 
notum distinctly convex right and left, with a sharp angle in middle. Pygidium 
longer than in Ph. ephippiata ; hypopygidium more deeply divided, the lobes 
broad, rounded laterally. 

33. Phaulimia persiba sp. nov. 

(J$. Ph. privae persimilis, antennae clava breviore, segmento 10° trans- 
verso, elytris tessellatis. 

Mentawei Is. : Si Oban, iv-viti. 1894 (Modigliani), a small series. 

Frons rather broader than in Ph. priva Jord. (1895). Apical margin of 
rostrum medianly a httle more distinctly sinuate. Segment 10 of antenna 
broader than long, 9 and 11 also shorter than in Ph. priva. Markings of pro- 
notum as in that species, except that the median stripe is broader from middle 
to carina. Alternate interspaces of elytra distinctly tessellated, but some of 
the spots diffxise, in third interspace before and again behind middle a more 
conspicuous luteous spot, and between these two a brown linear spot. Lobes 
of hypopygidium broader than in Ph. pifiva. 



34. Phaulimia forficula sp. nov. 

(J. Ph. ejyhippiatae A ffinifi, elj'tris basi usque ad humeros griseis macula 
nigro-brunnea ad gibbositatem subbasalem sita notatis, singulo elytro macula 
mediana cum altera postniediana arcuatim coniuncta ornato, sutura inter has 
maculas atque gutta anteapicali albo-griseis ; hypopygidio in duos processus 
longos arcuatos diviso. 

Long. 3-3 mm. 

Perak (ex coll. Vogel), 1 (^. 

Proboscis not quite twice as broad as long, and a little more than three 
times as broad as the frons, grey like a broad stripe along eye and an anteriorly 
forked occipital median line. Antenna short, segment 8 scarcely longer than 
broad, 10 a little longer than broad, 1 1 longer than 9. Pronotum marked with 
grey, as follows : a central, sparsely pubescent, transverse rhomboid with a 
brown spot in middle, this spot interrupting a median stripe which extends 
from apex (being vestigial at margin) to base and is widened into a broadish 
spot behind carina, as usual, a stripe from carina obhquely forward towards 
lateral angle of rhomboid, which it does not reach, from before this angle straight 
forward another stripe which does not reach apical margin, but widens out 
anteriorly dorsad and laterad, the lateral portion extending along apical margin, 
from angle of rhombiform backwards a thin line which does not quite reach 
carina and is slightly oblique, further lateral a round median spot, above 



124 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

lateral carina an interrupted anguliforiii line ; angle of carina rather strongly 
rounded. 

Elytra grey from shoulder to shoulder, with a blackish brown spot on the 
inner portion of the subbasal swelling, this grey area extending along suture, 
widening behind middle to third line of punctures, then reduced again to 
first and second interspaces and disappearing on apical slant, the median bay 
filled in b}- a blackish brown patch which is continued around the grey sutural 
patch and widens behind it into another brown patch, behind which there is a 
grey spot at a short distance from suture, rest of elytra rufous brown, dotted 
with grey in the lines of punctures, in apical half three grey marginal spots, 
apical margin less densely pubescent grey than these spots. Pj'gidium evenly 
rounded, longer than half its basal width, brown in middle. 

Underside grey ; on metepisternum a brown spot. Legs pale rufous, 
brownish at the knees, particularly the apex of the hindfemur. Anal sternite 
without special structure. Hypopygidium divided into two narrow arms, 
which are about as long as the pygidium, spatulate, narrowest beyond middle, 
and bent inward from this narrow point. 

Liniiophaula gen. nov. 

(J. PhauUmiae simillima, sed labiophoro trituberculato, processu meso- 
sternali intercoxali angusto rotundato. 

Genotypus : L. corporaali sp. nov. 

The labium is divided by a shallow sinus into two short lobes. The labio- 
phore bears a median carina which ends in a pointed tubercle in the middle 
of the apical margin, and the centre of each lobe is raised into a somewhat 
transverse tubercle hollowed out in front. The mesosternal process is longer 
than broad, rounded, the midcoxae not being indented. Elytra longer than in 
Phaulimia, less convex in middle. Tarsi longer. 

35. Limiophaula corporaali sp. nov. 

Q. Color Phaulimiae alternatae Jord. (1895). Rostrum inter antennas 
utrinque carinula nigra transversa notatum. Pronotum longitudine triente 
latius, signaturis Phaulimiae privae, sed macula centrali rhombiformi magis 
transversa, linea mediana parum latiore. Elytra latitudine dimidio longiora, 
interspatiis alternis tessellatis, tertio duabus lineolis nigris conspicuis et inter has 
lineolas griseo-albo notato. Abdomen medio deplanatum ((J). 

Long. 4-3 mm. 

Sumatra : Bah Lias, xi.I919 (J. B. Corporaal), 1 (J. 

Easily confounded with Phaulimia alternata Jord. (1895) or Ph. prim Jord. 
(1895), the colour and markings being almost exactly the same as in the former 
except that the discal lines of the pronotum are somewhat thinner and the 
rhombiform central mark is narrower in apici-basal direction. Rostrum a little 
over one-half broader than long, apical margin sinuate in centre, black like 
the transverse, slightly cariniform, line which runs from the lateral edge 
above the antenna on to the proboscis. Interspace between antennal groove 
and buccal sinus broader than this sinus. Frons one-third the width of the 
rostrum. Antenna : segment 3 longer than 4, 8° nearly as broad as long, about 
half the length of 7, club not much flattened, 9 triangular in outline, longer 



XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 125 

than broad, 10 less triangular, a little longer than broad, 11 ovate, as long as 9. 
Pronotum coriaceous, a little rougher at the sides, carina as in Phaulimia, very- 
slightly convex each side of middle, lateral angle rounded off. Elytra half as 
long again as broad, slightly narrowing from near base, in the tessellated inter- 
spaces the grey pubescence on the whole more extended than the dark brown 
spots, behind middle of third interspace a grey linear spot preceded and followed 
by a similar dark brown spot. Pygidium nearly as long as broad. Hypop\'gidium 
deeply divided into two broadish lobes, which are apically rounded on outer side. 



36. Disphaerona cyrta sp. nov. 

<^$. D. verrucosa Karsch (1882) simillima, carina prothoracis dorsah medio 
antrorsum angulata. 

Long. 4-7-7-5 mm. 

South India : Madura, a series. 

Proboscis with an apically abbreviated median carina. End segment of 
antemia very pale. Pronotum uneven, across middle several swellings, of 
which the median one is the broadest. Tubercles of elytra on the whole higher 
than in D. verrucosus Karsch (1882) from Ceylon, described as Tropi{do)deres 
verrucosus in Berl. Ent. Zeits. 1882, p. 388, the subbasal and the postmedian 
tubercle in third interspace especially larger. Lobes of hypopygidium of q 
narrower. 

37. Disphaerona picta sp. nov. 

(J. D. verrucellae Jord. (1912) affinis, fronte cum rostri basi profunde 
concava, carina dorsali pronoti medio antrorsum. arcuata atque mterrupta. 

Long. 4-3-5-0 mm. 

Ceylon : Dikoya, 3,800-4,200 feet, xii.1881-i.1882, 2 (J^J, 1 $, in Mus. 
Brit, ex coll. G. Lewis. 

The broad impression at base of rostrum flanked by the cariniform pro- 
longation of the edge of the eye, no median carina, before the impression the 
rostrum strongly convex. Pronotum with a transverse row of five tubercles, 
the median one being the largest, dorsal carina undulate, being convex in middle 
and again half-way to side, the lateral carina on an explanate hump ; a dark 
brown stripe runs from base across second tubercle to near apical margin, turning 
here dorsad and joining the stripe of the other side, this stripe boiuided with 
some whitish grey scaling here and there, such light scaling also at and between 
the tubercles and laterally at base. On elj-tra whitish grey scales at base near 
shoulder, forming a diffuse line which turns towards suture behind the first row 
of tubercles, in middle a whitish grey lateral patch and before apex a brown- 
black patch, suture dotted with brown-black, from inner subbasal tubercle a 
brown-black stripe to base, at some distance from base a transverse row of 
four tubercles on each elytrum, then follow some small tubercles or pustules, 
behind middle a very high conical tubercle, at the outer side of which there is 
a small one, behmd the large one some pustules and a transverse subapical 
tubercle, sutural angle tuberculiform. Pygidium twice as broad as long, with 
obtuse median carina. 

Abdominal segments 2 to 4 with an apical median tubercle in (J, o simple 
in both sexes. Tibiae with a subbasal and an apical grey ring. 



126 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Pantorhaenas gen. nov. 

(J$. Rostrum breve, crassum, basi concavum, oculorum margiiiibu.s ut 
carinis in rostrum continuatis. Oculi subdorsales remoti. Carina prothoracis 
lateribus in arcu lato antrorsum flexa. Elvtra basi truncata. 

Genotypus : P. conspersvs sp. nov. 

Distantly allied to Apalenia Pasc. (1859), Platyrhinvs Clairv. (1798), and 
Disphaerona Jord. (1902). The cariniform margin of the rostrum which covers 
the antennal scrobe is short, not nearly reaching to apical angle. Labium 
deeply divided. The base of the prothorax is laterally rounded in a transverse 
sense, the longitudinal carinula, which is horizontal, being reduced to a short 
spur from the tubercle into which the carina is raised at the side. Intercoxal 
process of mesosternum broad, subvertical to middle, then sharply turned anad. 
The midcoxa not distinctly indented. Abdomen flattened medianly m q. 

38. Pantorhaenas conspersus sp. nov. 

cJ$. Niger, supra ochraceo, subtus griseo irroratus. Pronotum longi- 
tudinaliter biimpressum, medio gibbosum. Elytra subquadrata, singulo duobus 
tuberculis altis formam coni habentibus armato. 

Long. 7-8 mm. 

Borneo : Matang Road, Sarawak, xii. & i. 1 o, 2 $$. 

Proboscis twice as broad as long, coarsely rugate-punctate above and below, 
the median impression large, reaching to near apex, flanked by the cariniform 
continuation of the rim of the eye, within the impression, which extends on to 
the head, but gradually becomes shallower, a short median channel, apical margin 
indistinctly trisinuate. Frons a little over half the width of the rostrum. Eye 
elliptical in both sexes. Antenna pitchy, reaching to base of prothorax, segment 
1 longer than 2, 3 half as long again as 2, 4 to 8 gradually decreasing in length, 
8 about twice as long as broad, club not strongly compressed, 9 longer than broad, 
triangular, 10 as broad as long, 11 ovate. 

Pronotum coarsely punctate, imeven, one-foui-th broader than long, the 
two longitudinal depressions imited behind and before median swelling and 
anteriorly continued towards eyes, at side of the depression a small swelling ; 
dorsal carina distant from basal margin, broadly concave, slightly convex at 
sides before joining a lateral tubercle, continued horizontally from the tubercle 
a short distance forward. 

El3i:ra distinctly punctate-striate to apex, aboiit one-half longer than 
broad, broadest at base, sides nearly parallel from base to middle, a subbasal 
and a postmedian tubercle high, pointed, tipped with black pubescence. 
Pygidium truncate-rotundate, much broader than long. 

Prosternum coarsely punctate, inclusive of area below carina, metasternum 
and abdomen likewise punctate. 

39. Pantorhaenas xylinus sp. nov. 
$. Rufo-brunneus, supra griseo nigro pallide cinnamomeo variegatus. 
Rostrum basi impressum, longitudine duplo latius. Frons dimidio rostri. ('lava 
antennae laxa, segmento 10° tarn longo quam lato. Pronotum longitudine 
triente latius, tuberculo mediano alto rotundato instructimi et utrinque sub- 
gibbosum. Elytra latitudine dimidio longiora, tuberculo subbasali altera post- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. . 127 

inediano in interspatio tertio sitis altis rotundatis paulo comprcssis instructa. 
Pygidium rotundato-truncatum. 

Long. 5-4 mm. 

Banguey I. (Waterstradt), 1 $. 

Proboscis very slightly emarginate in middle, inner edge of eye extending 
on to rostrum as a kind of carina, the median depression broad and nearly con- 
tinued to apex ; the dorsal edge of the antennal groove short, not continued 
to apex of rostrum ; interspace between antennal scrobe and eye as wide as 
first antennal segment. Head longitudinally rugate. On underside, the labio- 
phore punctate except posteriorly at buccal sinus, transversely somewhat swollen, 
its posterior portion flat and slanting. Labium divided down to palpiger. Seg- 
ment 2 of antenna shorter than 1, about one-half longer than broad, 3 half as 
long again as 2, 4 to 8 decreasing in length, 8 about twice as long as broad, 
club as long as 3 to 5 together, 9 a little longer than broad, 10 as long as broad, 
both narrowing from apex to base, 1 1 elliptical, pale, as long as 9. 

Pronotum coarsely and laterally densely punctate, uneven, irrorated with 
greyish cinnamon pubescence (not scales), which forms a median stripe from 
tubercle to base ; dorsal carina laterally oblique and slightly convex, ending 
with a short forward hook, no longitudinal basal carinula. Scutellum whitish 

grey. 

Elytra parallel from shoulder to beyond middle, flattened in sutural area, 
particularly on apical slant, 10 very distinct punctate stripes, alternate inter- 
spaces convex and a little uneven, here and there dotted with brown and grey, 
especially the suture and interspace 5, apical slant from posterior tubercle almost 
entirely pale, greyish cinnamon, with a transverse brown line half-way to apex, 
the two tubercles of each elytrum somewhat longer than broad, rounded in 
lateral aspect. Apical margin of pygidium double. 

Sterna and abdomen punctate ; mesosternal process turned backwards at 
apex, as broad as the coxa, truncate-rotundate. Tibiae with a subbasal and 
apical grey ring (on rufous ground), segments 3 and 4 of tarsi paler than 1 and 2, 
1 of foretarsus twice as long as the tibia is broad at apex. 

Botriessa gen. no v. 

(J$. Rostrum brevissimum, cum capite crassissimum, apice sinuatum, 
sulco mediano profundo brevi. Ocidi parvi, subcirculares, grosse granulosi, 
laterales, sub planum frontis siti. Antennae gradatim incrassatae, clava angusta. 
Pronotum fortiter convexum, tuberculatum, lateribus rotundatum, carina medio 
interrupta undulata lateribus hand antrorsum contmuata, carinula basali longi- 
tudinaU magis ventrali separata. Elytra ovata, valde convexa, tuberculosa, 
basi truncata, absque margine incrassato, tredecim striis punctatis. Processus 
mesosternalis coxis angustior. Tarsi breves. 

Genotypus : B. sejndiopsis sp. nov. 

Distantly related to Disphaerona Jord. (1902) and Phaenotherion Friv. 
(1878). The small, coarsely granulated eye being situated below the level of 
the frons, the antennae being slender and gradually increasing to the width of 
the triarticulate club, the cask-shaped tuberculated pronotum and very strongly 
convex elytra, of which the base is straight and lacks the incrassate margin, 
distinguish this genus from all others known to me. I expect that intergradations 
between the new genus and Disphaerona will be discovered. 



128 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

40. Botriessa sepidiopsis sp. nov. 

(J9- Nigra, pube cinnainoniea et griseo-brunnea tecta, pronoto qiiinque- 
tuberculato, elytris ovatis quatuor seriebus tuberculorum instructis. 

Long. 6-6-9 mm. 

Burma : Ruby Mines (W. Doherty), a small series in Mus. Brit, ex coll. Fry. 

(J$. Black, covered with a pubescence which changes from wood-brown 
to cinnamon and is paler beneath than above. Head and rostrum irregularly 
and slightl}' convex together, somewhat swollen in places, especially the sides 
of the frons, the ej'e being placed in a hollow, large dispersed punctures on the 
whole upper surface ; rostrum not quite twice as broad as long, at base a broad 
short groove, ajjical margin sinuate, cariniform in centre, a thin carina running 
from apex of sinus to near median groove ; upper margin of antennal groove 
less explanate than in Apatenia Pasc. (1859) and allies, short, not reaching to 
the apical lateral cariniform margin of the proboscis ; on underside the area 
below eye and the labiophore rugate-punctate, labiophore short, transversely 
convex, slightly humjied at ajjex of sinus, separated from head ; labium divided 
down to near base. Eye a Uttle larger than its distance from antennal groove, 
nearly circular, quite lateral. Anteima not reaching base of prothorax, rufous- 
brown, neither the first two segments nor the club much thickened, not twice 
as wide as the other segments, 3 a little longer than 2 and 4, 4 to 8 decreasing 
in length, 8 twice as long as broad, conical, club not much compressed, a trifle 
longer than 6 to 8 together, 9 twice as long as broad, slightly narrowed to base, 
10 one-fourth shorter than 9, but the same in width, 11 as long as 9, elUptical. 

Prothorax a very little broader than long, and slightly broader at apex 
than at extreme base, with the sides rounded, the transverse carina projecting 
at sides as a tubercle ; pronotum pitted with large punctures which are not 
very close together, a longitudinal median depression deepened in centre, at each 
side of it two large rounded humps, the anterior ones smaller, a small hump 
further lateral ; dorsal carina undulate, interrupted in middle, ending with 
a lateral tuberculiform ridge, below this tubercle and quite separate from it a 
longitudinal cariniform swelling which extends from near the basal edge to 
beyond middle of side, being accompanied on its upjjer side by a groove. 
Scutellum punctiform. 

Elytra ovate, half as long again as broad, with four longitudinal rows 
of tubercles and 13 rows of punctures, interspace 11 cariniform, forming the 
contour of the elytra in a dorsal view, projecting farther laterad than the limbal 
area which lies between it and the lateral margm of the elytra. Pygidium 
broader than long, rounded-truncate, somewhat swollen in (J, the apical margin 
divided in $ by a transverse channel into an upper edge and a lower one. 

Prosternum coarsely punctate, antecoxal area about half as long again as 
the coxa is wide. Intercoxal process of mesosternite much narrower than coxa, 
rounded-widened at apex. Metasternite punctate at sides. Intercoxal process 
of abdomen very broad, as in Di.sphaerona verrucosus Karsch (1882) and allies ; 
abdomen somewhat imeven, in ^J flattened, with the intercoxal process rough 
with silk}' hair, last segment much shorter in q than in 5- Tibiae with a grey 
subbasal and apical ring ; segment 1 of foretarsus not much longer than the 
tibia is broad. 



NOVITATES ZoOLOOICiE XXXIV. 1928. 129 



SOME CORKECTIONS 

By ERNST HARTERT 

TDOTH Messrs. H. C. Robinson and C. Boden KIoss call my attention to 
the fact that the name A. p. hlythi is antedated by a name given by them 
in 1922 : 

" Alcippe poioicepJmla bhjthi Collin and Hartert, Nov. Zool. x.xxiv, 1927, 
p. 50, a new name proposed for Alcippe magnirostris Walden, 1875, preoccuijied 
by Alcippe magnirostris Moore, 1874, is antedated by Alcijipe poioicephala 
karenni Robinson & Kloss, 1922 {Alcippe plmeocepliala karenni R. & K., nom. 
nov. Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, xviii, 1922, p. 563)." 

Mr. W. B. Alexander writes to me as follows with regard to some state- 
ments in Nov. Zool., 1926, p. 352 : 

" In speaking of Puffinus pacificus you say that the Australian birds are 
always dark-breasted. This is not quite correct. Though the overwhelming 
majority are dark-breasted, a few white-breasted specimens are known, as I 
pointed out in the Emu, vol. xx, p. 19. The only one I have seen myself was 
one collected by T. Carter at Sharks Baj', which is now in the Museum at Perth. 
It is specially interesting as coming from the type locality of P. p. cJilororhynchus. 
I think you will be interested in this, as it strengthens your contention that 
P. cuneatus is a colour phase of P. pacificus. 

" In writing of Puffinus buUeri j'ou say that the nesting-place is unknown. 
In the Emu, vol. xxiv, p. 37, R. A. Falla gives an account of a breeding colony 
on the Poor Knights Island off the North Island of New Zealand. In a letter 
which I received from him recently Mr. Falla tells me that he has since found it 
breeding on several other islands off the east coast of the North Island. There 
is now a good series of this species in the American Museum collected off New 
Zealand by R. H. Beck in 1925-6. In fact, P. bulleri is a common species in 
New Zealand. I saw large numbers in the Hauraki Gulf in February 1926. 
The pale grey area on the back contrasting with the dark wings makes the species 
quite unmistakable." 

The Correct Name of the Lord Howe Island Petrel 

In B. Australia, ii, p. 141, Mathews adopted the name Pterodroma melanopus 
(Gmelin), Syst. Av. i, 2, p. 562 (1789 — ex Latham, Synopsis, iii, 2, p. 408, ubi 
" Said to inhabit North America ") for the large Lord Howe Island Petrel, called 
Oestrelata solandri by Salvin, in the Catalogue of Birds, xv. He did this because 
the description " all round the base of the bill, the chhi and throat pale silvery 
grey, marked with minute dusky specks," fits the bird called solandri, from Lord 
Howe Islaxid, well, but he disregarded the description of the feet : '" legs very 
pale, the webs for one-third the same, the rest to the end black." This descrip- 
tion of the legs and feet were the reason why Salvin and others rejected the 
name, as it did not suit the Lord Howe Island Petrel. Mathews lightly set this 
aside, because in the Kermadec Petrel, Pterodroma neglecta, the coloration of 



130 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

the feet varies, from being particoloured, as described l)y Latham and others, 
to entirely blackish ; this had already been stated by Buller, but more correctly 
by Iredale in B. AiiMr. ii. p. 149. This interesting fact, that in Oe. neglecta 
(which has also " dimorphism " of plumage, the underside being white or sooty 
brown, witii intermediates) the colour of the feet varies, does, however, not 
mean that the same variation occurs in Oe. solandri (the Oe. melanojnis of 
Mathews, not of Gnielin), in fact among the eighty .specimens from Lord Howe 
Island, collected in 1914, not one has " particoloured " feet, the tarsus and 
base of toes and webs being uniform, at least never sharply particoloured, 
as in neglecta, and as described by Latham. Although the description of 
Latham and the markings in the figure in Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay on 
the head agree better with the Lord Howe Island Petrel, the exact description 
and figure of the feet (" the legs are pale yeUow, the outer toe black the whole 
length, the middle one half-way from the tip, the webs also correspond, the 
outer one being black, except just at the base ; and the inner one black for 
about one-third from the end ") is not that of a Lord Howe Island Petrel. 
There is therefore no proof whatever that the Lord Howe Island Petrel ever 
occurred on Norfolk Island, and it is not justified to designate Norfolk Island 
as the type locality for Gmelin's (or rather Latham's) Procellaria melanopus. 
Unfortunately the nomenclature of Mathews' Birds of Australia has also been 
adopted in the Manual of the Birds of Australia, i, p. 34 (I regret that no more 
parts of this handy book have appeared), and in the Systema Avium Australasi- 
anarum, i, p. 118. The sooner such nomenclature is cleared up, the better, 
therefore I have reluctantly ventured to do so. Mathews relies entirely on the 
description of the colour of the head, but this is not so characteristic as that of 
the feet. The feathers round the bill " and throat " are white, not silvery grey, 
and in phillijni " waved brown and dusky white," a coloration which is not 
infrequently found in P. neglecta. 

The Petrel, which breeds in large numbers on Mt. Gower, on Lord Howe 
Island, must be called Pterodroma solandri (Gould). 

There is no doubt that Oesirelata montanxi Hull, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 
XXXV, p. 785, described from Mt. Gower, Lord Howe Island, is a synonym of 
solandri, though " the tarsus and first joint of imier toe horn-colour '' is suspicious, 
but they are not described as " very light " or yellow, which they are in P. 
neglecta. Mathews' plate, taken from the type of solaiulri, shows a slight yellowish 
tinge at the base, not a totally different sharply divided area ; in the type-speci- 
men this yellowish tinge is barely visible. Procellaria phillipii Gray, Ibis, 1862, 
p. 24G, described from Norfolk Island, is, however, a synonym of P. neglecta, 
and not of solandri. 

Gmelin's name melanopus must either be taken as the oldest name of neglecta, 
or better quotetl with a query. 

Since the " Norfolk Petrel " (Procellaria phillipii Gray) of Governor PhilHp's 
Voyage to Botany Bay is not P. solandri, but P. neglecta, there is no proof what- 
ever that P. solandri ever occurred on Norfolk Island, and Mathews' designation 
of Norfolk Island as the t\-pe locaUty for GmeUn's P. melanopus cannot be 
accepted. The eggs of P. solandri are much larger than those of P. neglecta. 
The measurements of the eggs of O. montana Hull, from Mt. Gower, Lord Howe 
Island, agree with those collected on that island by Roy Bell, but those of 
Dr. Metcalfe's egg from Norfolk Island are, of course, far too small for the Lord 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 131 

Howe bii'd, P. solandri, and are even smaller than those of all eggs of P. neglecta 
from the Kermadec Islands, as Mr. Hull already mentioned. It seems to me 
that it must have been the egg of Puffinus pacificus chlororhynchus, which 
breeds in great numbers on Norfolk Island, and which lays its egg in a deep 
burrow, while Oe. neglecta lays the egg in the open, not in burrows. If this is 
so, the discrepancies which puzzled Hull disappeai- ; probably the birds and the 
egg were brought to Dr. Metcalfe and the latter were wrongly identified. Probably 
Dr. Metcalfe did not catch the bird with his own hands, or did not take the 
eggs personally, and a mistake is easily made on breeding-places of sea birds, 
where several species nest on similar ground. 



132 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



ON SOME LEPIDOPTEKA OF SPECIAL INTEKEST, WITH 
EEMARKS ON MORPHOLOGY AND NOMENCLATURE 

By dr. KARL JORDAN 

(With Plates I-III.) 

I. What is Perrotia tamatavana Oberth. (1922) ? 

'T'HE genus Somabrachys Kirby (1892) is restricted to a South Mediterranean 

belt extending from Morocco to Palestine. Its relationship is with the 
Megalopygidae, a family not foimd outside the Western Hemisphere. Soma- 
brachys with its peculiar head and forelegs and wingle.ss $, therefore, stands 
quite isolated in the fauna of the Old World,' and it is very natural to ask as to 
whether there really are no forms allied to that genus among the great mass of 
Old World Lepidoptera. Charles Oberthiir (1922) believed that lie had indeed 
found such a species among the Malagassic material of his collection. He said 
of the (J of a moth obtained by Mons. Perrot at Tamatave that it seemed 
to him to be a Megalopygid related to Somabrachys, and he erected for 
its reception the genus Perrotia with P. tamatavana sp. nov. as genotype, 
differentiating the new genus from Somabrachys by the (J-antenna ($ unknown) 
being much less strongly pectinated and the abdomen more robust and distinctly 
longer : Perrotia tamatavana Oberth., Et. Lip. Comp. xix, p. 153, tab. 545, 
fig. 4587 (1922). 

Being interested in Somabrachys, I asked Herr C. Heifer, who was in charge 
of the collection after Charles Oberthiir's death, to lend me the specimen for 
examination, which he very kindly did. From a scrutiny of the figure, especially 
of the neuration of the hindwing, I expected the species to belong to the Syn- 
tomidae or perhaps Arcliidae, and was much surprised that this surmise was quite 
WTong. 

Perrotia belongs to the Zygaenidae, and, in spite of the strong body, is 
closely related to the continental African genus Anomoeotes Feld. (1874, indescr.) 
of the subfamily Phaudinae. It shares with Anomoeotes and allies the hairiness 
of the body, the almost complete absence of the mouth-parts, the absence of 
tibial spurs, the development of the chaetosema behind the antennae into an 
uninterrupted transverse bar, and the absence of the ocelli and retmaculum. 
On the other hand, the stout and comparatively short branches of the antenna, 
the stout body, and the neuration abundantly differentiate Perrotia from all the 
other Phaudinae. 

The stoutness of the body, and to some extent also the shape of the wings 
of P. tamatavana, recall the Amurian Pseudopsyche Oberth. (1879) ; but in that 
genus the palpus, retinaculum, and mid- and hindtibial spurs are present, and 
the neuration also is quite different. 

The antenna of Perrotia-^ is bipectinate to the apex, the longest branches 
being less than twice the length of a segment of the shaft ; both the branches 

' For Psychariiim pelluceiis H.-S. (18.55), which AurivilHus has placed among the Megalopygidae, 
cf. p. 135. 



NOVITATES ZoOLOaiCAE XXXIV. 1928. l.'?3 

and the shaft are scaled on the upperside (but most of the scales are fallen off 
in the unique specimen), the sensory cilia being restricted to the under surface ; 
dor.sally at the apex of the branches there is a stiff bristle, which is most distinct 
on the distal segments. The frons is not quite twice as wide as the eye is high 
(measured horizontally in frontal aspect). The eye is large, being strongly convex 
from the head and extending close to the antenna. The chaetosema is of even 
width from side to side, being slightly narrowed at the ends. Below the long 
hairs of the abdomen there are short hairs, but no spine.5 (in some spscies of 
Anomoeotes, for in.stance in A. nigrovenosus Butl. (1893) the abdominal tergites 
are covered with long strong spines, as in many Megalopygidae). The soles of 
the tarsi bear some weak spines ; the pulvillus of the claw-segment is large 
and the paronychial lobe broad. 

Neuration (PI. I, fig. 1) : forewing with 3 subcostals, of which SO' originates 
close to the apex of the cell, the other two are on a long stalk, the anterior branch, 
SC, ending in the costal margin and the lower branch, SC\ in the distal margin ; 
the upper cell-angle acute ; the vein in the cell quite distinct, being forked at 
the apex, the upper branch of the fork running straight to the angle of the 
discocellular D- and the lower branch ending above middle of D' ; R' on a short 
stalk with the subcostals, and R' near to but separate from R' : M' nearer to 
R" than to M-, which branches off at two-thirds of the cell ; lower cell-angle 
(at base of R') obtuse ; cross-vein D- very obtusely angulate, about as long as 

D', thrice as long as D'. In the hindwing C and SC are coincident to 

beyond three-fourths, the anterior cell-angle a very little beyond middle of 
wing, SC- therefore on a long stalk with C ; R' indicated as an undulate 
fold near cell, emanating from the angle of the cross-vein ; R' and R' near 
together but separate, cross-vein D' transverse, not oblique, M' nearer to R' 
than to M=. 

Scales of wings nearly all bidentate, some tridentate, especially at distal 
margin and in fringe of distal margin, most of the upper scales long, many 
hair-like. 

As only two species of Zygaenidae were known from Madagascar, we are 
grateful to Ch. Oberthiir for having drawn attention to this third species. The 
three Malagassic species represent three very different genera, and we may 
therefore be fairly sure that more will be discovered on that island. The types 
of " Syntoviis " culicidina Mabilie (1 878) and of Sthenoprorris vialagassica Hamps. 
(1919) being in the collection of the Tring Museum, I take this opportunity to 
correct some slight errors in Hampson's generic diagnosis, and to propose a new 
genus for the reception of Mabille's species. 

Sthenoprocris Hamps., Nov. Zool. xxvi, p. 27.5 (1919). 

The only known specimen has no proboscis, there being a hole in its place, 
the palpus is reduced to a prominent tubercle, at the base of which there is a 
small one, and the oral margin of the head is rather sharp, the buccal organs 
agreeing best with those of the Phaudinae. Ocellus well developed. Chaetosema 
triangular, swollen, not reaching forward beyond the ocellus and transversely 
extending nearly to middle of neck, the two chaetosemes almost touching 
each other. Antenna well separated from eye, the space in between being 
covered with broadish scales which lie flat. Legs long and slender, without 

10 



134 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

tibial spurs, foretibia as long as forefemm-, proximal half or two-thirds 
of first tarsal segment and base of the following two or three segments 
white. 

Ischnusia gen. nov. 

(J$ Scaling smooth. Proboscis long ; palpus short, porrect, pointed. 
Frons convex. Eye a little longer than broad. Antennae well separated 
from eye, bipectinate, shaft and branches scaled above, in c? tlie longest 
branches nearly equalling in length three segments of the shaft, and all the 
branches basal, in $ the branches apical or subapical and the longest a little 
longer than one segment ; branches of distal segments gradually shorter, those 
of end-segment more or less imited, the tip of the antenna appearing truncate, 
shaft not narrowing to apex, in $ shghtly broader at apex than in middle. 
Chaetosema triangular, lateral, extending in between the ocellus and eye. Fore- 
tibia without epiphysis, much shorter than forefemur, mid- and hindtibiae with 
an apical pair of short spurs and with very few spines ; in (J a tuft of white 
hairs at apex of {srosternum hi between forecoxae. 

Neiu-ation : fore wing with .5 subcostals, SC from long before apex of cell. 
SC- from stalk of SC* atone- to two-eighths, SC'' forking at three-eighths, SC' 
from cell well below upper angle, upper three cross-veins obsolescent, upper 
radial R' from middle of cell-apex, R= above lower cell-angle, R' and M' more 

or less close together from angle of cell, M' more distal in origin than SC. 

In hindwing C and SC coincident, upper angle of cell very much more projecting 
than lower, R' from below angle, cross-vein D' inclinuig costad-basad, D- very 
long and strongly oblique, lower angle of cell very oblique, R' to M- from cell, 
R= and M' more or less close together, partition M'-M- shorter than the cell is 
broad at M% SM' obsolete ; from upper cross-vein a short spur extends into 

cell, above R' the long cross-vein angulate. In both wings the position of 

the branches variable. 

Easily recognised by the absence of the foretibial epiphysis, the short tibial 
spurs, and the venation. 

In the only species known to me, /. culiculina Mab. (1879), the proboscis 
is orange and the base of the abdominal margin of the hindwing white. The 
specimens from the collection of Ch. Oberthiir comprise two ?? (and some wings) 
from coll. MabLlle, one of which I have selected as type, two ?$ from Tamatave, 
and a series from Fenerive, among them two ^^ ; there are also several ?? and 
one (J from South Madagaucar. 

The small black moth described by Mabille from coll. H. Grose-Smith, in 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1879, p. 348, as Aglaope ? perpusilla, was certauily not an 
Aglaope Latr. (1809). The description being very superficial, and the author 
himself confessing that the position of the " elegant species " was uncertain, 
we can as yet do nothing with the name. The specimens of njoths described by 
Mabille from H G. -Smith's collection seem to have disappeared. When we 
wrote the " Revision of Sphingidae " we asked Grose-Smith whether he knew 
where they had gone, but ne could not give us any information. In the descrip- 
tion of the hindwing of ^. ? perpusilla there is evidently a sUp ; it reads : " Alae 
posticae marguie antico usque ad medium alae nigro ; caetera pars nigra est, 
fimbriaque nigra." I think " pars nigra " perhaps should read " pars vitrea." 
The specimen is said to be a (J with simple antenna. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 192.S. 135 

II. On Psychaeium pellucens H.-S. (1855). 

The genus Psycharium H.-S. (1855 and 1858, indescr.) wa,s left lianging in 
the air by it.s author, who had no specimen when he wrote the short notes to his 
plates and did not know where to place the genus. Aurivillius referred to it in 
Iris, vii, p. 189 (1894) as belonging to the Megcdojjygidae. This casual remark 
evidently was overlooked by Hampson, who described and figured Psycharium 
j)elhtcens from the Cape Colony as an Arctiid in Lep. Phnl. iii, p. 451, no. 2045, 
text-fig. 190 (1901), being misled by his erroneous figure in which vein SM' = Ic 
is omitted in both wings. He again mentioned the species as being an Arctiid 
in Ann. Smith Afric. Mus. ii, p. 63 (1902). In Wagner's Lepid. Catnlogus an 
attitude of absolute impartiality or neutrality is adopted, Dyar and Strand 
(1913) following Aurivillius in placing the genus with the Meyalopygidae with 
the remark ' Kapland [sec. Spec. (Strand)],"' and later on Strand (1919), faith- 
fully copying Hampson, even as to the erroneous date of Herrich-Schaflfer's 
figure, enumerating Psycharium. among the Arctiidae. Why Dyar and Strand 
(1913) date the genus from 1855 and the species from 1856 is a puzzle, if the 
difference in date is not due to a mere pen-slip. Since 1919 nobody seems to 
have referred to Psycharium ; its position, therefore, must be considered to have 
remained uncertain. We have at Tring only four females, from Cape Colony 
and Natal. A comparison of these specimens with the American Megalopygidae 
has convinced me that Psycharium is neither a Megalopygid nor an Arctiid. 
The absence of the basal tympanal organ of the abdomen and the presence of 
a chaetosema and of vein SM' = Ic are sufficient evidence that Psycharium is 
not related to the Arctiidae. If Hampson had noticed that vein Ic was present, 
he would have placed the genus among the Megalopygids, as did Aurivillius ; 
his latest key to the families, in Nov. Zool. 1918, proves that. The combina- 
tion of characters observed in Psycharium seems at first sight to support the 
Aurivillian opinion : Proboscis absent, palpus reduced, ocelli absent, antenna 
($) setiform, slightly bidentate, chaetosema present, tegula short, no tympanal 
organ at base of abdomen, no epiphysis on foretibia, mid- and hindtibial spurs 
short, one pair on hindtibia, claw-segment with paronychium and pulvillus, 
claw without tooth, both wings with vein SM' = Ic present and the cell-vein 
distinct, C of hindwing coincident with cell to near apex of cell ; body and 
wings hairy. This diagnosis fits the Megalopygids very well ; but it applies 
equally well to a number of Zygaenidae in which C of the hindwing is coincident 
with the cell. Hampson knew this fact, but neglected to take cognizance of it 
in his key. The similarity in structure between certain Zygaenidae and the 
Megalopygidae is so close that one might very easily mistake one for the other 
if there did not exist certain differences in details which separate the African 
Zygaenids from the American Megalopygids : The frons of Psycharium is as broad 
as in Anomoeotes and allies, being broader than the eye, and not narrower than 
it, as it is in the Megalopygidae ; the antenna ($) is flattened beneath and broader 
than high instead of being compressed distally as in the Megalopygids, and 
each segment is ventrally sinuate at the apex, the angles projecting distad ; the 
chaetosema, which is small and lateral in the Megalopygids,' is in PsycJmrium a 
belt extending from side to side, similar to, but not identical with, that of Anomoe- 
otes \ the mesonotum is anteriorly depressed in the middle as in Zygaenidae, 

' Aidoa Hiibn. (1822 ?) has a chaetosema like tliat of the Megalopygidae. 



136 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXFV. 1928 

whereas in the 3Ie(jalop>/gidae it is anteriorly subcarinate in the middle, with a 
depression at each side of the caruia ; and in the forewing the cell- vein is apically 
forked as in Zygaenidae, whereas in the Megalopygidae it is simple, the cell-apex 
being very deeply inangulate in that family. 

For these reasons I regard Psi/charium to be a Zygaenid allied to Anotnoeotes 
of the subfamily Phaudinae. This subfamily being well represented in Africa, 
there is nothing anomalous in the occurrence of P/ii/duirium on that continent. 
The abdominal tergites are spinose under the long hair, as is the case in Megalo- 
pygidae and many Phaudinae. 

III. On CoSSUS (?) MULTIPUNCTATA DrUCE (1887) AND SOME OTHER EPIPYROPIDAE. 

The inducement for the writing of the present article on Epipyropidae was 
the receipt of a peculiar species of this family from Eastern Bolivia, where Jose 
Steinbach had bred a series of sjsecimens from larvae living on a lantern-fly. 
The species is evidently identical with the one described by Druce from a single 
female as Cossus (?) multidentata in Biol. Centr.-Amer., Het. ii, p. 230, tab. xxiv, 
fig. 9 (1887), from Chiriqui, now in the Berlin Museum, and placed by Dyar 
and Strand, in Wagner, Lep. Cat., 16, p. 34 (1913), with a question-mark under 
Epipomponia. The position of Cossus (?) multidentata has remained doubtful. 
In order to ascertain, if possible with our present very limited knowledge, to 
which of the various genera of Epipyropidae the species should be referred, I 
have compared the material of this family contained in the British Museum and 
in our own collection at Tring. The result is not satisfactory, (1) because many 
of the species described are not available, and (2) because the differences on 
which the genera hitherto proposed for species of Epipyropidae are chiefly founded 
are not reliable. The diagnoses of the genera are almost exclusively taken from 
the neuration, which a closer examination proves often to be so different in 
individuals of the same species and even in the right and left wings of the same 
specimen that accordmg to the generic diagnoses sometimes one specimen of a 
species, or the left wings, would belong to one genus and another specimen, or 
the right wings, to a second genus. The genera, therefore, require revision ; 
but for that task a much larger material would have to be compared than I 
have seen. The definition of genera is rendered particularly difficult in this 
family on account of the great simplification and the resulting uniformity in 
structure due to the loss or reduction of certain organs in all the species known 
to me. 

Before proceeding to describe the new forms contained in the Tring Museum 
and to comment on some others a few words on the general characterisation of 
the family and on the affinities of these interesting moths with semi-parasitic 
larvae will not be out of place. The family may be defined as follows : 

Mouth-parts reduced to a median projection consistmg of a short basal 
segment and a longer, conical, apical segment which bears a tuft of scales (PI. II, 
fig. 23) and shows a slight indication of a longitudinal median groove or division ; 
above this buccal tuft a transverse naked swelling as remnant of the labrum. 
Ventral margin of frons sinuate. Ocelli absent. No chaetosema. Antennae 
bipectinate in both sexes, branches apical, shorter in $ than in (J, scaled on the 
dorsal side, as is the shaft. No epiphysis on foretibia, no spurs on mid- and hind- 
tibiae ; no pulvillus and paronychium on claw-segment, claw without tooth. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 137 

sole of tarsi with verj- few weak bristles, but with pale (sensory) hairs, particularly 
numerous in $. In cJ the last abdominal tergite (PI. II, figs. 18-22, x.t.) not 
modified into an uncus, being similar to an ordinary tergite, but with the margin 
speciaUsed. 

Wings : retinaculum absent in both sexes, frenulum present, similar in the 

sexes, simple, spiniform. In forewing the veins from the cell, or one or two 

from beyond cell or absent ; in cell two veins, both simple at apex (not forked), 
sometimes vestigial, the anterior one proximally joining the subcostal ; SM' 
present, SM" vestigial or absent. In hindwing SC free from base, or con- 
nected with C by a bar, this bar subbasal and directed distad. or placed at the 
apex of the cell and either directed basad or transverse ; one thin cell-vein, 
which is not forked distally ; SM' present, but thin and usuallj- partially vestigial, 
SM' varying from being distinct to being absent. 

This description does not fit any other Lepidopteron. If we take the 
neuration of the hindwing as a guide in ascertaining the relationship of the 
Ejnpyrojndae, the full complement of veins of fig. 17 with a subbasal bar between 
cell and costa points to the Oelechiinae amongst the Tineidae (s.l.) as well as to 
the Cossidae and Dalceridae among the " Macros." The structure of the antennae, 
however, and the reduction of the mouth-parts, tibial spurs, etc.. remove the 
Epipyropidae from the Tineidae and place them near the Dalceridue. I look 
upon them as an early branch of this family. In the reduction of the mouth- 
parts and in the absence of the retinaculum and tibial spurs the Epipyropidae 
are more advanced than the Dalceridae, the reduction probably being due to 
the semi-parasitic life of the larvae ; on the other hand, in the anal tergite of the 
[J and in the neuration the Epipyropidae represent a more generalised type, but 
with a strong tendency towards the loss of veins. 

Some stages in the process of the reduction of the number of veins in the 
foiev^ing are illustrated by figs. 2 to 6 on Plate I, taken from Epipomponia 
muUipunctata. In fig. 2 ($) the full number of veins is present, and all the 
subcostal (SC), radial (R), and median (M) branches arise independently from 
the cell. Fig. 3 ((J, left wing, apex missing) differs in SC being stalked with 
SC ; in the right wing of the same specimen, fig. 4, the basis of both SC and 
SC° are shifted distad and are obsolescent. In a second ^J, fig. 5, SC' is absent 
from the left wing and SC* stalked with R\ while in the right wing, fig. 6, both 
SC' and SC° are lost. In the hindwing of E. muUipunctata it is particularly the 
instability of the bar connecting SC with C which is interesting. This bar 
may be complete, fig. 7, or partially obsolete, fig. 8, or entirely absent, fig. 9. 
Stages figs. 7 and 9 occur even in the same specimen, fig. 1 1 representing part 
of the venation of the left hindwing of a $ with B well developed, and fig. 12 
the right wing of the sjJecimen with the bar absent. In fig. 12 the costa bears 
a small spur on the costal side ; this spur occurs rarely, but is sometimes longer 
than in fig. 12. One of our $ shows an additional vein on the forewing between 
R' and M', fig. 10. 

A further reduction in the venation of the hindwing is illustrated by 
figs. 13, 14, and 15, taken from three species of Epipyrops. In fig. 14, 
E. atra Pagenst. (1900), SC is complete to base and connected with R' by 
a cross-vein ; in E. malagassica sp. nov., fig. 15, SC is entirely free, but 
proximally obsolete; and in E. doddi Roths. (1906), fig. 13, SC is entirely 
absent. 



138 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 102S. 

1. Epipyrops paUidipuncta Hamps. (1896). 

Q. Microlimn.r jKilUiliptnirln Hampson, Fninui Brit. Ind., Moths, iv, p. 484, fig. 256 (1896) 
(Ceylon). 

W. H. T. Tam.s has correctly removed this species from the Limacodidae 
and placed it with the E pipyropidae in the collection of the British Museum. 
The venation of the hindwing is quite incorrect in Hampson's figure, and his 
description of it is evidently taken from that figure. 

2. Epipyrops doddi Roths. (1906). 

This species from Queensland may be identical with one of the seven species 
described by Perkins from Queensland and New South Wales. The forewlng 
has only 4 subcostals, and in the hindwing, fig. 13, SC is missing. The last 
abdominal segments of the (J, fig. 21, will probably suffice for the correct deter- 
mination of the species ; the clasper, CI, has a convex ventral surface and is 
distally gradually produced into a strong, conical, pointed tooth ; above the 
clasper a broadish lobe of the anal segment (x.t.) is visible, the outline of the 
apical margin of this segment being more or less reversed lyriform. 

3. Epipyrops atra Pagenst. (1900). 

(J. Orgijia aim Pagenstecher. Lep. Bismarck-Arch, ii, p. 41, no. .56 (1900) (Xeu Pommern). 

The unique specimen on which this species was based is in the Trtng Museum. 
It agrees closely with E. doddi in colour, size, and shape, but the forewing has 
5 subcostals, the subcostal SC- of the hindwing is present, fig. 14, and the posterior 
abdominal segments of the o, fig. 20, are different ; the clasper CI is bulbous 
and bears on the inner side a short process, which is denticulate at the apex ; 
the anal tergite (x.t.) has, on each side, a deep sinus, which separates a narrow 
lobe from the main portion of the segment. Frons much narrower than in E. 
doddi and the eye correspondingly larger, being broader (measured transversely 
in frontal aspect) than the frons. 

4. Epipyrops malagassica sp. nov. 

<J. Similar to the previous species, but the outer and posterior portions of 
the forewing clayish ochraceous. Frons as broad as the two eyes together 
(measured transversely in frontal aspect). Antenna with 11 bipectinated 
segments inclusive of apical one, the longest pectinations as long as three segments 
of the shaft. Forewing, fig. 15, somewhat narrower than in the two previous 
species, with a full complement of veins from the cell, both cell-veins obsolete ; 
fringe of distal margin dark brown, contrasting with the paler-coloured upper 
surface of the wing. Hindwing narrow. SC- entirely free, being connected 
neither with (' nor with R'. proximally obsolete ; D' comparatively longer than 
in E. doddi and E. atra, and D* shorter. Abdomen missing. 

Length of forewing : 6 mm., breadth 2-7 mm. 

Madagascar: Diego Suarez, 12.vii.l917 (G. Melou), 1 cj. 

5. Epipomponia multipimctata Druce (1887). (PI. Ill, figs. 25-27.) 
As this species has the same style of colouring as Epipomponia navxii 
Dyar (1904), which is known to me only from the figures in Nawa's Insect World, 
\ve may assume that it belongs to the same genus, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 139 

cJ. Dull greenish black above, with hardly any gloss, the veins black ; 
on underside the posterior area of the forewing and the entire hmdwing except 
the costal area grey, faintly metallic. In $ the forewing above glossy metallic 
greenish blue, the veins and numerous, variable, transverse bars black ; hind- 
wing above and the whole underside almost iniiformly greenish blue black, with 
much less gloss than the upperside of the forewing. Body a little more glossy 
than the hindwing. 

Frons not quite as broad as the two eyes together (measured horizontally 
in frontal aspect). Antenna with more than 20 bipectinated segments, in (J 
probably 22 (tip broken), the longest branches about equalling four segments 
of the shaft, in 9 22 to 24 segments, the branches somewhat shorter and thicker 
than in (J ; scaling of distal portion of shaft erect, compressed. For neuration 
cf. figs. 2 to 12 : forewing with 3 to 5 subcostals, SC' from cell or from SC' or 
absent, SC from cell, or from R', or absent ; in hindwing SC' always present 
and connected with R' by an angulate cross-vein D', usually also connected 
with C by a bar which is directed costad-basad, occasionally a spur of variable 
length from C costad-distad. 

cj. Apical margins of anal segment (x.t.) approximated as in fig. 19, there 
bemg a widening of the slit above and below a short median nose (fig. 18). 
Clasper (CI) with broad base, distally produced medianwards into a long, sharply 
pointed, process. 

The larva lives on Laternaria ignifera Germ. (1821) and is entirely covered 
with the waxy exudation of the host. It does not essentially differ from that 
of Epipyrojjs anomala Westw. (1876), except in the mandible being simple 
instead of bifid. The cocoon (fig. 27) is dense but soft, and is fastened on to 
the bark of the Chiriguano tree (Simarouba glaucaDC. 1811), on which the lantern- 
fly lives. 

Bolivia : Santa Cruz (Jose Steinbach). The moth is on the wing in February. 

Mr. Steinbach is to be heartily congratulated on having succeeded in breeding 

this species. 



0. Epipomponia elongata sp. nov. (PL III, fig. 28.) 

$. Oily bluish green ; along costal margin of forewing, above, and near 
base glossy metallic bluish-green scaling forming indefinite spots, a thin marginal 
line and a portion of the fringe likewise glossy metallic, but more golden green. 
Underside of buccal tuft and the throat more or less white. 

Frons as broad as the two eyes together (PI. II, fig. 23), somewhat concave 
medianly in front of the antennae. These more roughly scaled than in E. multi- 
punctata both on the shaft and the branches, the distal portion of the shaft 
bearing a high crest of scales, 12 segments bipectinate, the longest branches 
aljout as long as three segments of the shaft. 

Forewing (PI. II, fig. 24) nearly three times as long as broad ; 10 veins 
from the cell, R' and R* farther apart than in E. multipunctata, the angulate 
cross-vein D= being longer than in that species. Hindwing likewise elongate, 
more than twice as long as broad, subcostal SC present, not connected with C. 

Length of forewing : 14-6 mm., breadth 5-5 mm. 

One 9 without locality, presumably from South America. The specimen 
has been in the collection fo;- more than thirty years and was put aside in the 



140 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

hope that aiiotlier with locaUty would come to liand. But the specimen un- 
fortunately has remained unique. 

Anopyrops gen. nov. 
(J9- Frons one-third as broad in middle than the two eyes together (in 
frontal aspect). In proximal half of hindwing of $ C connected with cell by a 
bar which is directed from cell distad, in ^^ this bar vestigial (figs. 16, 17). 

7. Anopyrops corticina sp. nov. (PI. Ill, figs. 29, 30.) 

(J. Antenna with twelve .segments bipectinate, the longest branches as 
long as six segments of the shaft. Body and wings dark drab brown, frons, 
antenna, underside of head and body, abdominal margin of hindwing above, 
base and hind margin of forewing beneath and the underside of the hindwing 
except costal area white. Thorax, above, mixed with grey. Forewing (PI. II, 
fig. 16) very broad, strongly rounded-expanded behind, a full complement of 
veins, SC' of forewing nearer to SC than to SC ; in hindwing a feeble subbasal 
fold connecting C with cell. 

$. Much larger than (J, distal margm of forewing more convex, hindwing 
more strongly rounded, bar between C and cell of hindwing well developed, 
either subbasal as in fig. 17. or much nearer middle of cell. Longest branches 
of antenna about as long as three segments of the shaft. Drab brown ; forewing 
above with numerous small white dots ; on underside both wings paler than 
above, with diffuse whitish dots, abdominal margin of both wings washed with 
white. SC- of forewing nearer to SC' than to SC 

Length of forewing : (J 8-5 mm. ; $ 13-5 mm. 

French Gujana : St. Jean de Maroni, 1 (J, type. Surinam : Aroewarwa 

Greek, Maroewym valley, v. 1905 (S. M. Klages), 2 ??. 

IV. On Arctiocossus antaegybeus Feld. (1867). 

As Felder left the generic name Arctiocossus without a definition in words 
and as his figure on PI. 82 of the Reise Novara is scarcely sufficiently accurate 
for the recognition of the species, the position of this apparently rare South 
African Cossid has remained somewhat doubtful. The type is in the Tring 
Museum. The figures in our two copies of the Rei.se Novara do not exactly 
agree with each other or with the specimen. The whole centre of the mesonotum 
of the type is black mixed with grey, the hair-scales forming a tirft at the end 
of the mesonotum. The cell of the forewing, on the upperside, is white, this 
stripe basally gradually extending to the costal margin, which it reaches at 
base, where it expands to the second submedian vein : there are thin black 
streaks on the submedian veuis, three broader streaks between R' and M', and 
a number of small black spots and specklets at and near the apex ; the specimen 
being somewhat worn it is possible that it originally had a greater amount of 
black than it shows in its present condition. 

Palpus slightly ascending, reaching to near middle of frons. Between the 
antennae a long tuft. Antemia bipectinate to apex, the branches scaled above, 
rather thin, but regularly curved, the longest as long as seven segments of the 
shaft. Epiphysis of foretibia spiniform. very sharply pointed. Hindtibia 
with two pairs of spurs. Glaw-segment without paronyohium and pulvillus. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 141 

No retinaculum on coistal vein. For neuration compare Fl. Ill, tigs. 40. 41 : 8C' 
of forewing from about middle of cell, SC from areole, SC a little beyond areola 
and SC' and SC' stalked, R' from areole, R- and R' close together but separate, 
cell-vein forked, but upper branch vestigial. In hindwing C free from base, not 
connected with cell by a bar, SC* and R' on a long stalk, R- and R' close together 
from lower cell-angle, M' near cell-angle, apex of cell deeply angulate, cell-vein 
forked. 

In the Erkldrung der Tafeln, p. 2, Felder misspelt the specific name antagyreus. 

V. On Eume.sia semiaegkntba Feld. (1867), with Remarks on the Nomen- 

CLATORIAL StATUTS OF ARTEFACTS AND ON THE WiNG-BASES AND TeGULAE 

OF Lepidopteea (PI. Ill, figs. 31-9). 

At the meeting of the Entomological Society of London on 2ncl June 1!»26 
I exhibited the type of Eumesia semiargentea described and figured by Felder in 
Reise Novam, Zool. ii. p. 507, no. 875, tab. Ixix, figs. 17, 18 (1867). My remarks 
made on that occasion and published in Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1926, p. 18, require 
amplification. 

In the opinion of Felder, E. semiargentea was an uncommonly strange 
Lepidopteron, combining the characters of Satyrids with those of Hesperids. 
He considered it to be the long-looked-for missing link between those two families 
and erected for it a new family Eumesiidae. Subsequent authors have taken 
no notice of the characters described at length by Felder. Butler, Ent. Mo. 
Mag. vii. p. 96 (1870), says : " I do not see that this genus differs much from 
Cydopides and Carterocephalus ; it certainly does not link the Satyrinae and 
Hesperidae." Butler speaks as if he had Felder 's species before him ; in reality 
he had a specimen in the British Museum which he identified as being Felder's 
species. I should like to emphasize the fact that in using a name we employ 
it for the specimens before us if we have any ; that seems to be self-evident, 
but there are nevertheless systematists who maintain on the contrary that a 
name employed at any time always includes the original specimens on which that 
name was based. As misidentifications are very frequent and lead sometimes 
to great confusion it would be advisable if biologists in employing for non-typical 
specimens a name previously published, X-us albus Smith (1900), should use 
some such saving clause as " identified as " X-us albus Smith (1900). 

Watson (1893), as well as Mabille (1903), gives a diagnosis of Eumesia. 
The former states ' that his work is based on the specimens in the British Museum. 
That is to say, the name Eumesia Felder quoted by him does not include Felder's 
specimen or Felder's concept of Eumesia. Mabille's diagnosis is evidence to 
the same effect.- Neither Watson nor Mabille refer to the Satyrine characters of 
Eumesia described by Felder, nor to the fourteen veins in the forewing of the 
type, and yet Felder's specimen as I find it in the collection agrees with the 
original diagnoses of the family, genus, and species apart from minor errors of 
observation. The siiecimen presents, indeed, a combination of Satyrine and 
Hesperid characters as stated by Felder, but it is a combination far different 
from what the author of Eumesia supposed it to be. 

1 In Watson's diagnosis a misprint occurs ; vein 3 in line 7 of the description and the second 
vein 3 in line 10 should read vein 2. 

2 Mabille states that the hindtibia has two pairs of spurs ; there is only one pair in tho type 
and in the British Museum specimen. 



142 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXX.IV 1928. 

When speaking of the creation of a new genus by an author, we mean to 
say that he has described a generic concept and given a name to it, not that 
he is the creator of the specimen or specimens on which the concept is based, 
unless it is a case of hypothetical specimens the names of which have no standing 
in Nomenclature. The Felderian concept of Eumesia was taken from a specimen, 
but I think Felder should not be held responsible for the specimen. He believed 
it to be the product of Nature, while in reality it was a creation of man. It is 
an artifact : the head and abdomen belong to a small Satyrine butterfly and 
are glued on to the thorax, as is plainly visible under the binocular. Such things 
will happen as long as outward appearance is one of the main considerations of 
the lover of Lepidoptera. We cannot attach much blame to the author of 
Eumesia for the mistake ; his means of detecting the fraud were much inferior 
to ours, and at that time scientists might very well have expected intermediates 
to exist between the Satyrines and Hesperids, whereas for us such an assumption 
is utterly impossible. 

As the specimen bearing the name Eumesia semiargentea Feld. (1867) consists 
of two species the questions arise : (a) W^hat is the status of Artifacts in Nomen- 
clature ? and (6) how do we know that the thorax and wings of the Felderian 
specimen belong to the Hesperiidae 1 

a. Artifacts. 

Dealing with nature, not with fiction, naturalists base new species on speci- 
mens, or on previous descriptions of specimens, or on previous figures of speci- 
mens, or on a combination of the three. Descriptions and figures, although 
meant truly to represent the subject the author or artist had before him, always 
suffer from a personal human element, the potentiality of error of observation 
and of inadequacy of expression. The descriptions and figures are full of errors 
of commission : author and artist deceived by appearances, by light, by a 
passing or permanent defect of their senses or mmd, have agam and again seen 
something which is not as they see it or which is not what they believe to see, 
and thus have added to the specimen described or depicted something which is 
foreign to the specimen. 

All of us know, further, that the descriptions and figures, even if approach- 
ing perfection, are not sufficient. We require as an essential part of diagnostic 
work a statement of the locality where the specimen was obtained, and many 
of us, deceived by a wrong label, or misinterpreting inadequate labels, have 
given a locality foreign to the new species and thus have added something to 
the specimen whicli did not belong to it. 

In such cases of incorrect description, faulty figure, wi-ong locality, the 
error of commission does not invalidate the name. For instance, if an author 
diagnoses a new genus X-iis of Lepidoptera as being distinguished by spinose 
tibiae and it is subsequently discovered thftt the tibiae are spineless, the name 
X-us does not sink on that accoimt, although the author has added spines to 
the specimen and thus turned it into an artefact, something which does not 
exist in nature. It cannot be otherwise, for if the names of such artefacts of 
descriptions and illustrations — artificial concepts — were to be treated as invalid, 
rigorously considered a very large proportion of the names would have to be 
rejected. We must be clear on this point that diagnoses and figures must be 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 143 

taken as approximately and not as absolutely correct and, therefore, as requiring 
interpretation. 

If we now turn to specimens of which missing portions have been replaced 
so that the specimens deviate in essentials from the products of nature, what 
is the status of the name given to such an artefact ? The ' ' mermaid ' ' one used 
to see exhibited at fairs and which consisted of a small seal with the head replaced 
by that of a monkey may be taken as an example. As the Rules of Nomen- 
clature say that in the case of a composite generic or specific concept the name 
must be retained for one of the comisonents, we might infer that the name given 
to an artefact of the mermaid type must be retained for one of the component 
parts of the artificial specimen. It will not be possible, I think, for the 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to issue a ruling applying to all the 
varied cases of artefacts, and in my opinion each case will have to be Judged on 
its own merits. A few examples will show how I personally am inclined to 
deal with artefacts of a flagrant type in Lepidoptera : 

Perhaps the best-known case of a " mermaid "' Lepidopteron is that of 
Chrysiridia rhipheus Drury (1773). The figure represents an undoubted Uranid 
with the head and body of a butterfly, presumably a Papilio. The wings agree 
remotely with the specimens of the brilliant species of Chrysiridia common in 
Madagascar. The hindwings evidently were mutilated with a pair- of scissors, 
which mutilation Drury unfortunately did not detect. The right and left wings 
being drawn alike shows that the artist was not very observant, as in Chrysiridia 
and near allies the right and left sides are not known to be ever alike in the 
detail of the pattern. In short, the figure of Chr. riphens Drury (1773) is so 
different from any known specimen that even allowing for mutilation and for 
the mistakes of the artist, the identification of the figure with the Malagassic 
Chrysiridia is rendered very doubtful. We have (a.) a head and body not identi- 
fiable with any degree of certainty, and (b) wings which approach those of the 
Malagassic Chrysiridia, but are very different in essentials. In such circum- 
stances the name given to the mutilated specimen should not supersede a non- 
preoccupied later name given to the real Malagassic insect. The name Chrysiridia 
rhipheus should either be kept sei^arate as belonging to an unknown and doubtful 
species, or be placed with a question mark under the later name of the Malagassic 
Chrysiridia. 

A different kind of artefact is represented by Papilio antilochus L. (1758). 
This name is mainly based on a figure of a yellow Papilio glaucus with black 
bands which the artist has adorned with long white tails. Here we have again 
(a) a tail foreign to any Papilio of this group of species, the product of the brush 
of the artist, and (6) a butterfly minus tail perfectly recognisable as P. glaucus, 
from Carolina. The southern form of P. glaucus was in 1S91 named australis by 
Maynard, and if a name is required for it australis should be used and antilochus be 
placed as a s3nionym under australis with the qualification " fig. fict." 

Eumesia semiargentea Feld. (1867) may be taken as an illustration of a 
third modification of fictiousness. The composite specimen consists of (a) head 
and abdomen, and (b) thorax and wings. Rigorously considered it is as 
correct to say that (b) is glued on to (a) as that (a) is added to (6). But in the 
case of Lepidoptera it is quite obvious that the wings are the main portion, 
and that foreign parts are added to a defective specimen merely to make it 
look complete, as is the bad habit of collectors and dealers of an obsolescent 



144 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

type. It is possible to ascertain to which Satyrine the added parts belong, biit 
it is hardly worth while. There is no second name involved, and Butler's, 
Watson's, and Mabille's actions above mentioned restrict the name Eumesia 
semiargentea to the thorax and wings of Felder's specimen.' 

b. On the Terjulae ami Wing-bases of Hesperiidae. 

Specimens are generally recognized as belonging to the Hesperiidae by the 
head, antennae, and the wing-neuration. As only the wings and thorax are 
available in the case of the type-specimen of Eumesia semiargentea I took the 
opportunity at the meeting of the Ent. Soc, mentioned at the beginning of this 
article on Eumesia, of demonstrating with the help of a lantern-slide some 
hitherto unknown morphological peculiarities in which the Hesperids differ from 
the butterflies and which link them with the Heterocera. I did not publish 
the figures shown on that occasion, and they are therefore available for the 
illustration of the present note. 

The tegulae of the mesothorax which protect the joint between the forewing 
and thorax vary very much in size and proportions in the various groups of 
Lepidoptera. They are attached to the thorax by means of a membrane. If 
one imagines a sclerite, connected with the neighbouring sclerites by membranes, 
was pushed a short distance away from the body and widened out, the connecting 
membranes would form a sort of cylinder attached to the under surface of the 
sclerite. Something of this kind has happened in the evolution of the tegula. 
If the tegula is removed, a hole on the underside gives the position of the con- 
necting membrane. 

When many years ago I began to study these sclerites for the purpose of 
ascertaining as to whether they gave any hints about the relationship of families 
or lower systematic categories, or could be used in the definition of species and 
higher concepts, it soon became evident that there was an interesting difference 
in the attachment of the tegula in the Rhopalocera on the one hand and the 
Heterocera on the other. In the Butterflies the connecting membrane is attached 
close to the ventral margin of the tegula (PI. Ill, figs. 34, 35, 36). I have not 
come across any exception. If the tegula is swollen, as in Danainae (fig. 36), 
there is a narrow ventral surface between the inner and outer sides, and the 
hole of the connecting membrane appears moved upwards ; in reality it remains 
at the ventral margin of the inner surface, the most ventral outline seen in our 
figure being that of the outer surface. In the Heterocera, on the contrary, the 
edge of the cavity is always separate from the ventral margin of the tegula, the 
hole frequently being central (figs. 32, 33). It is a curious bit of well-concealed 
evidence that the Rhopalocera really are a branch separate from all the other 
Lepidoptera ; I mean with Rhopalocera the four large famiUes : Lycaenidae 
(plus Riodinidae = Erycinidae olim), Pieridae, Papilionidae, and Nymphalidae 
( = Danainae, Nymphalinae, Libytheinae , Satyrinae, etc.). 

It is very significant that the Hesperiidae (fig. 31) agree with the Heterocera 
in the attachment of the tegula, and not with the Rhopalocera. 

Some other characteristics of Hesperiidae are found in the wing-bases. A 
good deal of valuable work has been published on the wing-bases of insects by 
Crampton, Snodgrass, and others. I have studied the ossicles connecting the 

' The eyes of the specimen, wliicli are .stated by Felder to be naked, are hairy. 



XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 145 

wings with the thorax in Lepidoptera on an! oft' tor more than a dozen years ; 
notes and sketches have accumulated, but other work has prevented me from 
making the manuscript ready for the printer, and I do not know whether I 
shall be able to attend to the subject in the near future. The following remarks 
may serve as a preliminary notice. The number of sclerites or ossicles is large, 
and in order to be able to point out the differences obtaining in this or that 
family or genus of Lepidoptera it is necessary to have a convenient nomenclature 
of the ossicles. As the nomenclature proposed by various authors does not 
sufficiently go into detail, I have, after long hesitation, adopted one of my own 
for descriptive purposes in Lepidoptera. The uniformity in the number and 
position of these sclerites in Lepidoptera is surprising, the Hepialidae standing 
out more than any other family ; in detail, however, the ossicles present much 
variety, often showing differences in families and lower categories. These 
axillaries are not alike in the fore- and hindwings, but can be homologised in the 
two wings without very great difficulty ; in the hindwing they are exteriorly 
divided into an anterior and a posterior set, while in the forewing the central 
ossicles of both sets are united into a median sclerite (figs. 38, 39, Ms), the 
composite nature of which is indicated by lines or sutures. I group the dorsal 
axillaries as follows ; 

r Anterobasale (Ab) 
Basalia - Mediobasale (= Condylophore, Cp) 
\ Posterobasale (Pb) 



Ossicula axillaria 
(PI. Ill, figs. 38, 
39) 



f 



Anterocentrale ( = Claviform, Cf) 



. I Mediocentrale ( = Mesum, Ms, and Tylophore, Ty) 
I Submediocentrale ( = Acetabular, Ac) 
I Posterocentrale (Pc) 
( Anteroneurale (An) 
1^ ]■ 1 Medioneurale (Mn) 

I Posteroneurale (Pn, of which the large sclerite is 
I the Zygellum, Zy). 

In Butterflies the costal margin of the forewing (fig. 38, CM) is broad at 
the base, the portion in front of the claviform (Cf) being more or less parallel 
with the thorax, only in some weak- and narrow- winged species (Li plena) the 
marginal area is less expanded. In the Hesperids (fig. 39) and Heterocera the 
base of the costal margin is nearly at right angles to the body, being not, or not 
much, expanded in front of the axillaries. The Uranids and Geometers approach 
the Rhopalocera. The claviform (Cf), which varies very much according to 
species and groups of species, has a basi-distal direction in the Rhopalocera, 
while in the Heterocera it is as a rule more or less parallel with the thorax, 
the Hesperids agreeing better with the moths than with the Butterflies. Some 
conspicuous characteristics of the Hesperids are found in the neurals and the 
zygellum. The anteroneural (An) consists of two ossicles which comiect vein 
SC with the mesum (Ms) ; the distal ossicle is short in butterflies and fused with 
SC, only in some Papilionidae {e.g. Doriiis F. 1807) it is long, which is also the 
case in a large number of families of Heterocera and in the Hesperids (fig. 39). 
The condylophore (Cp) is always very conspicuous and easily recognised. It is 
the well-known shoulder-spine of Saturnians, but occurs in all Lepidoptera, 
varying in size and often being rounded at the apex instead of pointed. The 



146 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. l92,S. 

main sclerite (Zy) of the posteroneiirals is more or less parallel with the body 
and is anteriorly connected with the acetabular (Ac, into whicli fits the condylus 
of Cp) and posteriorly with the posterobasal by means of the narrow postero- 
central ossicle (Pc). This zygellum (Zy) being easily visible in set specimens 
and often being different in detail in species or genera will prove to be useful in 
diagnostic work. In Hesperiidae it is anteriorly either bifurcate, as in fig. 39, 
or truncate, the posterior lobe being the larger and partially lying on the extreme 
base of vein SM= = lb. 

The wings of the Felderian specimen of Eumesia semiargentea agree in the 
axillaries with the Hesperiidae. 

I mentioned above that Felder described the forewing of E. semiargentea as 
having 14 instead of 12 veins. A reference to our PI. Ill, fig. 37, explains 
the statement. The neuration of the specimen is anomalous in both fore- 
wings : our figure represents the left wing from above, in the right wing 
R^ is divided into two veins to near the cell and SC* is forked, as in the left wing, 
but is not split proximally of the fork. In the British Museum specimen the 
neuration is normal. Butler, Watson, and Mabille did not comment on Felder's 
description of the neuration. The species agrees closely with the golden- winged 
Argopteron Wats. (1893) from Chile, near which Watson placed it. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



147 



ON PLATES IV. AND V., EEPRESENTING ORIENTAL 
EPIPLEMIDAE. 

By dr. KARL JORDAN. 

'T'HE majority of Epiplemidae being of small size and their colouring frequently 
dingy, it is, as a rule, very difficult to draw up description sufficiently 
precise for the identification of the species. The two plates we are here issuing 
are intended to be an aid to the identification of these insects and have no other 
purpose. The specimens figured are all types and paratypes, most of them 
being described by W. Warren. I have not studied the species and therefore 
abstain from making any remarks as to their classification and synonymy. 



PLATE IV. 

(Enlargement Hijx) 

Fig. 1. Type, $ : Epiplema fuscifronii Warren, Nov. Zool. iii. p. .'J48. no. 33 
(1896). Sikkim. 

2. Type, $ : E. lituralis Warren, Ann. Mag. N.H. (6). xvii. p. 214 (1890). 
Khasis (Khasia Hills = Khasias). 

3. Type, $ : E.facilis Warren, Nov. Zool. xiv. p. 115. no. 47 (1907). Biagi, 
Mambare R., British New Guinea. 

4. Type, c? : E. signifera Warren, I.e. ix. p. 347. no. 20 (1902). Florida I., 
Solomon Is. 

5. Type, $ : E. lacteata Warren, I.e. iii. p. 270. no. 14 (1890). Fergusson I. 

6. Type, ^ : E.foedicosta Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 115. no. 48 (1907). Biagi, 
Mambare R. 

7. Type, (J: E. lignicolor Warren, I.e. xii. p. 413. no. 10 (1905). North 
side of Choiseul I., Solomon Is. 

Warren erroneously gave Bougainville as the locality of this species. 

8. Type, $ : E. paradeicfa Warren, I.e. iv. p. 26. no. 41 (1897). S. Celebes. 

9. Type, ? : E. 7mdulataW Riren, I.e. iii. p. 278. no. 18 (1890). Fergusson I. 

10. Type, $ : E. rufimargo Warren, I.e. iii. p. 349. no. 37 (1890). Sikkim. 

11. Type, (J: Platerosia rotundipennis Warren, I.e. iii. p. 280. no. 21 
(1890). Fergusson I. 

12. Type, cj : P- albipennis Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 118. no. 54 (1907). Biagi, 
Mambare R. 

13. Type, (J: Epiplema particolor Warren, I.e. iii. p. 277. no. 15 (1890). 
Fergusson I. 

14. Type, <5 : E.fulvata Warren, I.e. iii. p. 307. no. 2 (1896). Khasis. 

15. Type, (J: E. nigropustulata Warren, I.e. xii. p. 414. no. 11 (1905). 
Obi Major. 

10. Type, cJ : E. alabastraria Warren, I.e. x. p. 259. no. 8 (1903). Isabel I., 
Solomon Is. 



148 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Fio;. 17. Type, q : E. ivarreni Rothschild. Lepid. Brit. Ornith. ct- WoUast. Exp. 
p. 104. no. 574 (1915). Base Camp, Utakwa R., iJiitch S. New- 
Guinea. 

18. Type, ^ : E. taminafa Warren, Nov. Zool. xiii. p. 74. no. 32 (190(1). 
Angabunga R., British New Guinea. 

19. Type, cJ : E. dathrata Warren, I.e. iii. p. 347. no. 30 (189(1). Kha.sis. 

20. Type, ^ : E. ruptifascia Warren, I.e. iv. p. 204. no. 24 (1897). Bali. 

21. Type, ^ : E. perpolita Warren, I.e. iii. p. 349. no. 36 (189(j). Banda. 

22. Type, jj : Chaetoceras sulphurata Wa.rren, I.e. .xiv. p. 111. no. 39 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

23. Paratype, $: C. sulphurata Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 111. no. 39 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

24. T3pe, o • Epiplema catenigera Warren. I.e. xii. p. 412. no. G (1905). 
Bougainville I., Solomon Is. 

25. Type, $: E. inqninata Warren, I.e. x. p. 344. no. 2 (1903). Upper 
Aroa R., British New Guinea. 

2G. Type, o • ^- edentata Hampson, in Blanf.. Fauna Brit, hid., Moths, 
iii. p. 125. no. 3042 (1895). Sikkim. 

27. Type, (J : E. restricta Hampson, I.e. iii. p. 130. no. 3059 (1895). Sikkim. 

28. Type, 5 : E. instabilata semifulva Warren, Nov. Zool . iv. p. 25. no. 39 
(1897). Khasis. 

29. Type. S ■ E. 6oarmiata Rothschild, I.e. p. 104. no. 57(3 (1915). Utakwa 
R., Dutch S. New Guinea. 

30. Type, ^: Chaetoceras transnigrata Warren, Nov. Zool. xiv. p. 111. 
no. 40 (1907). Biagi, Mambare R. 

31. Paratype, $: C. transnigrata Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 111. no. 40 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

32. Type, o • Epiplema usianalis Warren, I.e. xii. p. 415. no. 13 (1905). 
North side of Choiseul I. 

33. Type, (J : Chaetoceras strigulosata Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 1 10. no. 37 
(1907). Biagi, Mambare R. 

34. Type, o '■ Chaetopyga horrida Warren. I.e. iii. p. 345. no. 24 (1896). 
Mackay, Queensland. 

35. Type, o ■ Clmetoceras striolata Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 110. no. 38 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

30. Q : Epiplema flavisiriga Warren, I.e. viii. p. 21. no. 2 (1901). Khasis. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 149 

PLATE V. 

(Enlargement l^X) 

Fig. I. lype, o • Epiplema castanea Warren, Ann. Mag. N.H. ((i). xviii. 
p. 231 (1896). Khasis. 
„ 2. Type, ^ : E. arcuaia Warren, Nov. Zool. iii. p. 307. no. 1 (189(i). 
Khasis. 

3. Paratype, $ '■ E. arcuata Warren, I.e. iii. p. 307. no. 1 (1896). Khasis. 

4. Type, (J : Gathynia pernigrata Warren, I.e. iii! p. 350. no. 40 (1896). 
Khasis. 

5. Type, $ : Epiplema adornata Warren. I.e. xiv. p. 113. no. 43 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

6. Type, (J: Dirades onusta Warren, he. ix. p. 346. no. is (1902). 
Batchian. 

7. Type, $ : Epiplema bicolor Warren, I.e. vi. p. 10. no. 24 (1899). Ron I., 
Dutch S. New Guinea. 

8. Type, $: E. vialaetea Warren, I.e. xiii. p. 7.5. no. 33 (1906). Anga- 
bunga R., British New Guinea. 

9. Type, cJ : E. atrifasciata Warren, I.e. vi. p. 9. no. 22 (1899). Khasis. 

10. Type, c? : E. dealhata Warren, I.e. xiii. p. 71. no. 24 (1906). Anga- 
bunga R., British New Guinea. 

11. Type, (J; E. oclweofumosa Warren, Ann. Mag. N.H. (6). xvii. p. 215 
(1896). Khasis. 

12. Type, cJ ; Gathynia albihasis Warren, Nov. Zool. iii. p. 278. no. 19 
(1896). Fergusson I. 

13. Type, ^J : Dirades decorala hrunnea Rothschild, I.e. p. 105. no. 579 
(1915). Utakwa R., Dutch New Guinea. 

14. Type, q: £*. «ww?//?/er Warren, /.c. .xii. p. 274. no. 8 (1905). Kiriwini, 
Trobriand Is. 

15. Type, $: Monobolodes ustimacula Warren, I.e. x. p. 344. no. 3 (1903). 
Upper Area R., British New Guinea. 

16. Type, <J : Einplema aequisecta Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 113. no. 44 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

17. Type, (J: Paroecia acupicta Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 118. no. 53 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

18. Type, <^ : Epiplema .sordida Warren, I.e. iii. p. 278. no. 17 (1896). 
Fergusson I. 

19. Type, q : Gathynia nigella Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 117. no. 51 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

20. Type, o : Epiplema eoneinnida Warren, I.e. vi. p. 321. no. 24 (1899). 
"Woodlark I. 

21. Type, ^ : E. umhrimargo Warren, I.e. xii. p. 414. no. 12 (1905). South 
side of Choiseul I. 

22. Type, ^ : E. despecta Warren, I.e. xiii. p. 71. no. 12 (1906). Anga- 
bunga R., British New Guinea. 

23. Type, cj : Gaihynia fumicosta Warren, Ann. Mag. N.H. (6). xvii. p. 215 
(189 ). Khasis. 

11 



150 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



Pig. 24. Type, (J : Paradirades maculata Warren, Nov. Zool. iv. p. 205. no. 28 
(1897). Bali. 
25. Type, q : Epiplema triangulifera Warren, I.e. xii. p. 8. no. 7 (1905). 

Guizo I., Solomon Is. 
20. Type, c? : Plerotosoma bilineata Warren. I.e. x. p. :}4(i. no. 5 (li)0:i). 
Upper Aroa R., British New Guinea. 

27. Type, <J : Epiplema fle.rifascia Warren, I.e. xiii. ]). 73. no. 29 (litotj). 
Angabunga R., British New Guinea. 

28. Type, $: Cirrhtira eometifern Warren. I.e. x. p. 343. no. 1 (UHJ3). 
Upper Aroa R., British New Guinea. 

29. Type, (J ; Epiplema uraptenjgia Rothschild, I.e. p. 105. no. 577 (1915). 
Base Camp, Utakwa R. 

The specimen is a (J, not a 9 as stated, I.e. 

30. Paratype, $ : E. castanea Warren, ef. fig. 1. Khasis. 

31. Type, $ : E. eupeplodes Wurren, Nov. Zoot. xiii. p. 72. no. 27 (1906). 
Angabunga R.. British New Guinea. 

32. Type, cj : Mesoglypta fleximargo Warren, I.e. iv. p. 205. no. 27 (1897). 
Lombok. 

33. Type, (J: Dirades semicarnea Warren, I.e. xiv. p. 112. no. 42 (1907). 
Biagi, Mambare R. 

34. Type, ^: Diradopsis alberta Warren, I.e. xiii. p. 09. no. 19 (1900). 
Angabunga R., British New Guinea. 

35. Type, o ■ Diradopsis perfallax Warren, I.e. v. p. 425 (1898). Key. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAB XXXIV. 192S. 



FOR EXPLANATIONS OF PLATES IV-V SEE PAGES 147- 150. 



NoviTATES ZooLOcicfl;. Vol. XXXIV. 1927-28. 



PI. IV. 




Enlargei i^ .-, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOCIC/E. VoL. XXXIV. 1927-28. 



PI. V. 




Enlarged i ? 



^f^SHT.!. 




NoviTATES ZooLOGicAE XXXIV. 1928. lul 



SOME ANTHRIBIDAE COLLECTED BY R. E. TURNER IN 

SOUTH AFRICA. 

By dr. KARL JORDAN. 

TN Bovie's Catalogue des Anthribides (1905) two dozen species are enumerated 
as being known from Africa south of the Zambesi. I have added to this 
small number now and again a few species, mostly collected by G. F. Leigh at 
and near Durban. Among the Insects which R. E. Turner collected during his 
travels in South Africa from 1923 to 1926 the Anthribidae are well represented, 
particularly by small forms, many of which were obtained by sweeping in the 
forest. The percentage of new species is large ; but as the small specimens 
mounted on cardboard present great difficulties and require remounting before 
they can be adequately studied, it will take some time before the whole series of 
species will be identified or described. The present paper is a first instalment, 
dealing with 10 of the species collected. The specimens belong to the British 
Museum. 

Holophloeus gen. nov. 

cj$. Rostrum crassum subcylindricum apice parum dilatatum. Oculi 
laterales, integri. Scrobes antennarum foveiformes, laterales, subdorsales, 
apicales. Carina dorsalis prothoracis a basi longe reniota, ad latera paululum 
antrorsum continuata. Elytrorum margo basalis truncatus. Processus meso- 
stemalis intercoxalis angustus. (J: antenna elongata, segment is 10" et 11" 
brevibus. — Genotypus : H. irrasus sp. nov. 

Here also belongs Anthribus nujellus Sparm. (1785). The new genus should 
provisionally be placed near Lschnocerns Schoenh. (1839). In the shape and 
position of the antennal groove similar to Phloeotragus Schoenh. (1826) and 
Becatajjhanes Imh. (1842), but in general appearance more like a tuberculated 
Tojilioderes Schoenh. (1839). On pronotum two tufts or one ; on elytra numerous 
tufts. Antenna of o longer than the body ; in both sexes the proximal two 
segments short, 3 long. Basal longitudinal carinula of pronotum oblique, forming 
a very sharp angle with the lateral carina, the carinula sometimes absent. Tooth 
of claw large. 

1. Holophloeus irrasus sp. nov. 
(J$. Niger, aenescens, pube luteo-grisea vestitus, luteo et nigro variegatus. 
Rostrum ab basi ad apicem late sed non profunde impressum, cum capite supra 
et subtus dense rugulosum. Antennae graciles, in c? corpore dimidio longiores, 
segmentis 3'°-8° fere aequiparibus, 9° elongato-triangulari, latitudine triplo 
longiore, 10° parum longiore quam latiore, 11" latitudine fere duplo longiore. 
sublineari, 10° et 11° simul sumptis nono parum brevioribus ; in 2 3'" longiore 
quam quarto, 4°-8° fere aequalibus, 9° triangulari fere aequilateraJi. Prothorax 
longitudine parum latior, lateribus rotundatus, maxima latitudine mox pone 
medium, supra confertissime rugulosus, valde convexus, in disco duobus penicillis 
subapproximatis nigris instructus ; carina dorsali recta versus latera retrorsum, 
deinde antrorsum, flexa. Elytra grosse striato-punctata, inaequaUa, sex penicillis 



152 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

nigris notata : uno niagno subbasali, duobus medianis, tribus ante apicem 
declivem griseum sitis. Pygidium longitudine latins. Sterna fortiter et dense 
punctata. Tibiae nigrae, pone basim et ad apicem griseae ; tarsi grisei. 

Long. 6-8 mm. 

Pondoland : xi. and xii.1923, 4 ^^, 2 ??. 

Derm slightly metallic, in one specimen purplish. The luteous grey pubes- 
cence forms three lines on frons and occiput, the median one more or less con- 
tinued to base of pronotum. On labiophore a patch of luteous pubescence 
bounded posteriorly by a transverse curved low ridge. Alternate interspaces 
of elytra somewhat elevate, suture and interspace 7 dotted with black ; besides 
the conspicuous 6 dark tufts mentioned above there are several small ones ; the 
black colour of the large subbasal tuft extends forward to basal margin. Anal 
sternite subtruncate. 

2. Holophloeus longipes sp. nov. 

(J. Major, antenna corpore plus duplo longiore, segmento 9° longissimo, 
prothorace latitudine et longitudine aequalibus unipenicillato, rostro subtus 
pone labium tuberculo alto acuto arcuato instructo valde diversus. 

Long. 12 mm. 

Pondoland : Port St. John, xii.1923, 1 (J. 

Black, covered with an ochreous pubescence which does not conceal the 
derm. Proboscis rugate-punctate, impressed along middle, the sunk portion 
flanked by a carina, in the depression a raised median Ime, the ochraceous surface 
of head gradually narrowing from occiput to antennal grooves. Below eye a 
long oblique longitudinal channel. Antennal segments 3 to 8 rather abruptly 
incrassate at tip (as in the previous species), apex of 6 beyond end of elytra, 
5 to 9 increasing in length, 9 more than twice as long as 3, triangularly dilated 
at apex, 10 about as long as broad, 11 a little over double the length of 10, con- 
stricted in middle, gradually narrowed from this point to apex. Pronotum 
rugate-punctate, as long as broad, about as broad at base as at apex, the ochreous 
pubescence forming indefinite stripes, dorsal carina at one-third from base on 
side, at one-fourth in middle, being strongly and evenly concave in median 
three-fifth (and interrupted in centre), and then curved forward in a semicircle ; 
sides of pronotum rounded. Elytra longer than in the previous species, dorsaUy 
flatter, interspace 3 with four tufts, 5 with three, 7 with two and 9 with one, 
the tufts blackish brown, assuming a chestnut tint in certain aspects, the posterior 
ones ochreous frontally. Pygidium semicircular. 

Presternum granulose. Legs long, particularly the foreleg, foretarsus much 
longer than tibia, nearly as long as the elytra, segment 2 more than twice as 
long as broad, apex of tibiae and of first tarsal segment and the entire segments 
2 and 3 black. 

3. Zygaenodes monstrosus Pasc. (1860). 

Pondoland: Port St. John, xi.l923, I ^. Natal: Kloof, 1,500 feet, 

viii. and ix.l926, a series. Zululand : Eshowe and Empangeni, iv.l926; 

Gingindhlovu, v. 1926, two pairs. 

In this species the sinus of the eye is very shallow ; the posterior angle of 
the sinus being almost effaced and the anterior one produced downward, the 
eye appears pointed-ovate in a view from the side, particularly in the ^. The 
series varies in size from 2-3 to 3-8 mm. 



NoviTATEs ZooLoaicAE XXXIV. 1928. 15.3 

4. Zygaenodes quadrituberculatus Fahrs. (1871). 

Pondoland : Port St. John, iv. and ix. 1923, 2 ^JJ, 1 9. Natal : Kloof. 

1,500 feet, viii.1926. 1 (J. 

The eye of this species is regularly sinuate. The face is longer than in 
Z. monstrosus, particularly in the $, the third segment of the antenna of the (J 
is broader, the elytra are less coarsely striated and their subapical ridges less 
prominent. I am grateful to Professor Y. Sjostedt for having lent me the ty^ie. 



5. Zygaenodes capensis sp. nov. 

(J$. Oculi sinuati, aut subsessiles ((J) aut sessiles (9)- Elytra dorso albo 
suffusa, tuberculis parvis, interspatio tertio a tuberculo mediano ad apicem 
albo brunneo-binotato. Abdomen maris contractum, segmento anali brevissimo. 

Long. 2-8-3-3 mm. 

Pondoland: Port St. John, ii.iv. vii. viii.x. 1923, a small series of both 
sexes. 

Face shorter than in Z. quadrituberculatus Fahrs. (1871), in (^ (type) all 
white. Eye sinuate ; the stalk quite short, but distinct in a view from behind ; 
in the ^ the frontal lobe of the eye a little broader than the lateral lobe. Antenna 
of cJ short, third segment widened and flattened at apex, but not in basal half, 
being much less broadened than in the preceding insect, and distinctly longer 
than segment 4. Pronotum with a diffuse white median line and at each side 
a white spot before carina and dift'use white pubescence behind eye. Elytral 
tubercles smaller than in both previous species ; sutural area suffused with 
white, this colouring rather more condensed in third interspace from the median 
tubercle backwards. Last segment of abdomen of ^ medianly shorter than the 
previous, the margin somewhat turned down, the pygidium inclining slightly 
frontad. 

Alloschema gen nov. 

(J9. Brevis, lata, statura Coccinellae, elytris rotundatis basi truncatis. 
Rostrum breve, sat crassum, cum capitis fronte lata planum, apice leviter 
emarginatum. Oculi elliptici, integri, laterales, antice paululo in dorsum 
vergentes, ab fossis antennarum foveiformibus separati. Antenna elytrorum 
basim superans ((J), vel attingens (9). segmento 3'° duobus basalibus simul 
sumptis longitudine aequali, 4°-8'' gradatim brevioribus, clava triarticulata lata 
hirsuta, 9° triangulari, latitudine paululo longiore (cJ), 10° latitudine breviore, 
11° ovato. Pronotum breve, modice ac aequabiliter convexum. carina snbbasali 
in arco antrorsuni flexa. medium lateris attingente, hae parte laterali pronoti 
parum explanata. Elytra aequabiliter convexa, 14 striis punctorum instructa. 
Pygidium latum truncato-rotundatum. Pedes lireves fortes, femore postico 
abdominis apicem attingente. — Genotypus ; A. tumeri sp. nov. 

Distantly related to the Malagassic genus Diastatotropiii Lac. (IStiti). The 
genus is unique in bearing 14 lines of large punctures on the elytra, instead 
of 10. The eye is separated from the antennal groove by an interspace 
which is somewhat wider than the first segment of the antenna ; though placed 
at the side of the liead tiie eye is more dorsal in a lateral view than trulv 
lateral, 



154 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 

<i. Alloschema tui-neri sp. nov. 

cJ9. Nigra, capitc emu rostio, pronoto. flytioium liuiWo et apice aurantiacis 
nigro-guttatis. 

Long. 5-3 mm., lat. :! mm. 

Fondoland : Port St. •John, ii. 1924, a small series. 

Scutellum, a spot above shoulder, another at apex of femora and a subbasal 
ring on tibiae orange. At base of rostrum a median spot, two spots on occiput, 
seven on pronotum : two at ape.x. two at base, one (round) in centre and one 
subapical on each .side, and before ape.x; of elytra one or two (round) black ; 
the orange lateral border of elytra irregular, restricted to the margin in anterior 
half, widened into a spot in middle, apical orange area invaded by black, some- 
times bearing an anterior black dot besides the one near apical margin, there 
Ijeing also a small lateral black dot present in two specimens. 

Proboscis nearly twice as broad as long, slightly dilated at apex, rugulose. 
Labium incised, this sinus not extending nearly down to the insertion of the 
palpi. Anterior lower maigin of eye nearly straight, the naked narrow ventral 
rim of the eye forming a small angle anteriorly-. Shaft of antenna rufescent. 
Frons two-thirds as broad as the rostrum, occiput, frons and rostrum gradually 
merging into one another, the convexity of the head being slight ; on underside 
a transverse depression separates the labiophore from the gula. 

Pronotum half as broad again as long, broadest about middle ; dorsal 
carina concave in middle, then convex, broadly flexed forward, the lateral carina 
being oblique and slightly curved ; lateral margm from carina to apex faintly 
cariniform ; pubescence so dense that the structure of the derm is concealed ; 
basal longitudinal carina forming a very acute angle with lateral carina. Scutel- 
lum longer than broad, narrow. 

Elytra parallel from basse to below middle, then evenly rounded, smface 
regularly convex, subbasal swelling not distinct, the interspaces of the 14 lines 
of coarse punctures flat. 

Pro- and mesosternum and side of metasternum densely, side of abdomen 
more sparsely punctate, anal sternite centrally flattened in q. 

Tapinidius gen. nov. 

0$. Rostrum breve, apice dilatatum, planum, cum capite punctato-reticu- 
latum. Oculus circularis, antice truncatus, lateralis. Antennarum scrobes 
aperti. Carina pronoti antebasalis, ad latera paululum antrorsum flexa. Scutellum 
subcirculare. Elytra basi truncata, cyhndrica, fortiter punctato-striata, minutis- 
sime granulosa. — Genotypus : T. humilis sp. nov. 

Near Hadromerina Jord. (1914), but the proboscis shorter, flatter, more 
strongly dilated at apex, without median carina, and like the head very regularly 
punctate-reticulate. Club of antenna loose, the three segments nearly equal 
in length, longer than broad. 

7. Tapinidius humilis sp. nov. 
cJ?. Rufo-brunneus, griseo notatus, antennis rufis clava brunnea, pronoto 
rugato-punctato haud plicato. carina concava, prosterno fortissime punctato. 
abdomine impunctato, levissime coriaceo, segmento primo .serie basali punctorum 
instructo, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 155 

Long. 18-21 mm. 

Pondoland : Port St. John, xii.1923, ii. and iii.1924. 2 ^^, 1 ?. 

Pubescence coarse and not dense, the whitish grey colouring occupying less 
than half the upper surface, more or less concentrated in spots which vary in size 
and number and are not very definite : on pronotum a spot on each side of 
disc, a border along carina and sometimes an indication of a median stripe 
whitish grey ; scutellum whitish grey : on elytra this pubescence usually more 
extended before and behind middle than elsewhere ; on underside the grey 
colouring almost confined to the sides of meso-metasternum, where it is fairly 
conspicuous. 

Proboscis one-half broader than long ; the median sinus of the apical margin 
shallow, occupying a little over one-third, sides of margin smooth, glossy. 
Frons much more than one-half the width of the occiput. Upper margin of 
antennal groove regularly incurved, the groove not being covered by it. Antenna 
reaching base of elytra, segment 3 a little shorter than 2. but longer than 4, 5 to 8 
slightly thicker than 3, about twice as long as broad, club as long as 3 to 8 together, 
9 and 10 almost alike, conical, longer than broad, 11 the same in length, but 
elliptical, pointed, pubescence of club white, not dense. Distance of antennal 
groove from eye a little less than the widtli of segment 2 of antenna. 

Pronotum one-fifth broader than long, rounded at sides, widest behind 
middle, moderately convex, coarsely and deeply punctate, the punctures close 
together, somewhat irregular, their interstices granulose, centre of apical margin 
smooth. Elytra almost twice as long as broad (25 : 14), cylindrical, very deeply 
striate-punctate, the interspaces convex, subbasal swelling hardly indicated. 
Pygidium semicircular. Prosternum very coarsely punctate inclusive of middle, 
there being some large punctures also on posterior half of side ; anteco.xal portion 
somewhat shorter than the coxa is wide ; metasternum punctate at sides, convex 
between mid and hind coxae. Anal segment of abdomen rather strongly convex 
in (J. Hind femur of (J reaching to apex of abdominal segment 4, shorter in $ ; 
first tarsal segment longer than 4, 3 pale. 

Astianus gen. nov. 

(J$. Praecedentis vicinus, antennarum segmento 10" longitudine latiore, 
carina pronoti ad latera baud antrorsum flexa, elytrorum interspatiis nitidis 
baud granulosis, sternis et abdomtne grosse punctatis facile distinguendus. — 
Genotypus : A. cinctus sp. nov. 

The proboscis and head regularly punctate-reticulate. Eyes elliptical, 
oblique, not truncate in front, lateral, the frons being much broader than half 
the occiput. Upper margin of antennal scrobe not incurved, the scrobe being 
more or less covered by it. Pronotum reticulate-punctate, with the longitudinal 
interspaces somewhat convex, or punctate with all the interspaces flat, the sides 
of pronotum somewhat expanded, rounded-convex. Base of elytra truncate, the 
raised margin very sharp also across shoulder ; interspaces of rows of punctures 
not convex and quite smooth, without the minute granulation of the allied 
genera : Enedreytes Schoenh. (1839), Autotropis Jord. (1924), Tapinidius 
gen. nov. 

In general appearance very similar to Cleranthribus Jord. (1913), from the 
Seychelles, but in that genus the antennal groove is open, clorsal and close to the 



156 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

eye. The resemblance probably is due to an association of these Anthribids w ith 
some kinds of Cleridae, Anthicidae, or Colydiidae, and ants. 

8. Astianus cinctus sp. nov. 

(J9- Aut rufus aut nigro-brunneus : pronoto capite cum oculis multo latiore, 
lateribus rotuiidatim dilatatis ; elytris nigris, fortiter convexis, basi contracta 
rufa albo bifasciata. 

Long. 1-8-2-5 mm. 

Pondoland : Port St. John, ix., x., xi., xii.l!l23, i. and ii.l924, a small 
series. 

Whereas the general colouration of the derm varies individually from 
rufous to blackish brown, the basal fifth of the elytra and their apical margin 
remain rufous. Pubescence consisting of scattered darkish stiff hairs and 
broader white scale-hairs, the white pubescence conspicuous where it is con- 
centrated, but evidently easily rubbed off : on pronotum a subapical spot on 
each side and three basal ones which extend across carina, on elytra a transverse 
band at base and another behind it at the beginning of the dark swollen portion, 
these bands continued on the metasternum by one broad band, liefore aj)ical 
declivity of elytra one or two spots, sometimes nearly forming a transverse 
band, on presternum a lateral spot, and on other parts of the body and on the 
legs some scattered white pubescence. 

Proboscis not quite one-half broader (at apex) than long (14 : 10), medianly 
impressed. Upper edge of antennal groove nearly straight, very little curved 
downwards posteriorly, the groove not sharply defined towards eye. Antenna 
rufous, reaching base of elytra, segment 2 elongate-pyriform, 3 as long as 2 (q) 
or a little shorter, slightly longer than 4 ( ^) or equalling it in length, 4 to 7 
gradually decreasing in lengths, 8 = 7 a little more than half as long as 3. club 
brown, with a fauly dense covering of thin white hairs, the segments well sepa- 
rated, together not quite so long as 4 to 8 together, 9 conical, longer than broad, 
10 broader than long, 11 ovate, as long as 9. 

Pronotum as broad as the elytra at their widest point, swollen sidewards 
from close to apical margin, cushion-shaped, moderately convex, about one- 
seventh broader than long, densely covered with large punctures, of which the 
interstices form irregular longitudinal ridges. 

Elytra a little over one-half longer than broad, not depressed at suture, 
without subbasal callosity. strongl\- swollen in middle, in the manner of Physo- 
ptertis gibboaus Guer. (1843), gradually declivous towards base and more strongly 
towards apex, base narrower than middle, punctures large, smaller at apex, 
forming conspicuous rows from base to apex, but the lows not distinctly im- 
pressed. Pygidium rounded, shoiter than a semicircle, the median groove 
extending to near apex. 

Underside of head pitted with large punctures up to the eye. Sides of 
pronotum inclusive of posterior half ver\' coarsely punctate, the antecoxal jjortion 
bearing few punctures anrl being shorter than the coxa is wide. Metasternum 
also punctate. Abdomen convex, segments 1 to 4 with two rows of large punc- 
tures and usually some pinictures in between, on 4 the posterior row medianly 
obsolete, 5 with one incomplete row, 5 a Little longer in middle than 4, not swollen 
in either sex. First segment of tarsi a little longer than 4, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. lo/ 

9. Astianus tricolor sp. nov. 

Cylindricus, supra niger, sparsim albo notatus, capite cum medio pronoti 
plus minusve rufo, elytris singulis vitta rufa dorsali a basi ad apicem extensa 
ornatis ; subtus aut niger aut rufus. Pronotum densissime grosse reticulato- 
punctatum. Elytra usque ad apicem fortissime striato-punctata, cylindrica, 
baud tumida. 

Long. 2 ram. 

Fondoland : Port St. John, xii.1923, ii.l924, 2 ?$, type, also a broken c5, 
ix.l923. 

The previous, "'mimetic," species probably is derived from some species 
like A . tricolor which is normal in shape. 

The pubescence consists of scattered darkish hairs and long white scales, 
the latter concentrated here and there into more or less definite markings : on 
pronotum a thin median stripe interrupted in middle, a lateral apical spot and 
dorso-lateral postmedian one ; on elytra a line in fifth interspace from base to 
near one-third, a lateral patch of scattered scales behind shoulder, a few scales 
near base of suture and a small spot (rubbed away in type) on apical declivity ; 
scutellum likewise white, as is also the metepisternum and a diffuse subapical 
subventral spot on the femora. 

Upper edge of antennal groove curved down posteriorly, sharply bounding 
the groove. Antenna not reaching to elytra, pale rufous, club brown, segment 
3 slightly shorter than 2, 3, 4 and 5 nearly equal in length, 7 and 8 shorter and 
a little thicker, club almost compact, 9 as long as broad, 10 broader than long, 
II rotundate, longer than 9. its apex pointed. Pronotum one-third broader 
than long, much broader than the head plus eyes, the sides being rounded-dilated, 
upper surface densely punctate, the punctures more or less hexagonal, some of 
them longer than broad, the interstices narrow, but not forming longitudinal 
ridges as in A. cinctus. Scutellum longer than broad. 

Elytra one-half longer than broad, cylindrical, not swollen, not dilated, 
subbasal dorsal swelling faintly indicated, suture not depressed, the punctures 
large and deep and the interspaces between the rows very slightly convex. 
Pygidiura transverse, rounded. 

Underside punctate, two rows on abdominal segments 1-3. Legs brownish 
black, claws rufescent. 

Panastius gen. nov. 

Q. Rostrum apice paululo dilatatum, cum capite reticulato-punctatum. 
Oculus elUpticus, lateralis, grosse granulosus. Pronotum punctatum, baud 
plicatum, interspatiis nitidis, carina antebasali ad latera haud antrosum fiexa. 
Elytra tumida. antice eontracta et depressa. im]3unctata, parte basali excepta. 
Prosternum ante coxas latitudine coxarum duplo longius. Abdomen fere 
impunctatum. Tarsorum segmentum iirimum quarto brevius. unguis dente 
brevi. — Genotypus : P. tumeri sp. nov. 

In general appearance similar to Astianus cinctus sp. nov., but very different 
in detail. The interspaces of the punctures of the pronotum arc fiat instead of 
forming longitudinal ridges, and the punctures of the elytra are confined to the 
depressed basal area, the rows only extending farther back at suture and side- 
snargin. 



1.58 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

10. Panastius tumeri sp. nov. 

(J. Rufus. hie ct iiule albo signatus, clytiis basi et inarginibus exceptis 
uigris. Pionotum convexum, longitudine paululuin latins, punctis grossis 
(lispeisis notatnni. Elytra basi contracta, gibbositate subbasali alta instructa. 
Pygidium truncatum. 

Long. 2-8 mm. 

Pondoland : Port St. John, xii. 1923, 1 ^. 

Proboscis nearly twice as broad as long (22 ; 12), less strongly widened 
apically than in A. cinctus. Cariniform edge of antennal groove posteriorly 
extending downward. Antenna entirely pale rufous, proportions essentially as 
in A. cmctus. Prothorax practically as long as broad (43 : 44), rounded at sides 
not swollen, evenly convex dorsally and laterally, the upper- and undersides 
not separated, the punctures deep and evenly distributed, their interspaces flat, 
somewhat narrower than the punctures ; along carina some white pubescence 
(probably forming 3 spots in well-preserved specimens), a median spot at apex 
and a diffuse patch on underside also white, inconspicuous. Scutellum white. 

Elytra one-fourth longer than broad, impunctate except on basal fourth, 
the sutural and lateral rows of punctures extending farther back than one- 
fourth ; behind the round high subbasal callosity a transverse depression bearing 
some white pubescence, which is concentrated into a dot near lateral margin, 
behind middle a dorsal white spot (the white pubescence partially rubbed off in 
this specimen). Pygidium transverse, slightly narrowing apicad, truncate, with 
the angles rounded. 

Underside of thorax coarsely punctate ; mesepisternum white. Abdomen 
with a few shallow punctures, practically impunctate, flattened, last segment 
truncate. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 159 



ON THE LAT RE I LLEI -GROW OF EASTERN PAPILIOS 
By dr. KARL JORDAN 
(With Plates VI and VII.) 

SINCE tlie account on the Eastern Swallowtails was published in Seitz, 
Macrolep. ix, in 1908 and 1909, many new forms of Papilio have been 
discovered, and the material in British collections has much increased. The 
acquisition, moreover, of the bulk of the Papilios of the Oberthiir collection, 
inclusive of the types, by Mr. John Levick, of Birmingham, has added con- 
siderably to the scientific value of collections in Great Britain, greatly facilitating 
research on the Chinese and Himalayan Pajjilios, in which that collection was 
particularly rich. This influx of material is an inducement to revise what has 
been written on the systematics of the Oriental Papilios. 

As on the occasion of a meeting of the Entomological Club held at the Tring 
Museum we were asked to exhibit the difficult latreillei-gvoup of Pajjilios. the 
species belonging thereto have been re-studied by us, and we now offer a recast 
of the systematics of this group based on the collections of John Levick, the 
British Museum, and the Tring Museum. There are still several points on 
which we are uncertain on account of lack of specimens or of sufficiently accurate 
data of distribution, North-Eastern Burma, Yunnan, and the mountains of Laos 
and Tonkin especially being inadequately known as regards the Papilios (and 
other insects). We have indicated these doubtful points, and it is to be hoped 
that explorers of these countries interested in Lepidoptera will, in the near 
future, clear up what is obscure to us. 

These Papilios are evidently derived from an ancestral form in which the 
light-coloured hindwing was ornamented with a discal and a submarginal row of 
black spots. The enlargement of the black spots restricted the light colouring 
until a discal band, a series of submarginal light spots between the veins and 
marginal spots at the ends of the veins was all that was left of the light ground. 
The red spot at the end of the tail observed in several species of this group 
corresponds to the red spots at the ends of the veins, and the submarginal lunules 
are the remnants of the interspaces between round black spots, which explains 
their frequent resemblance to an hour-glass. From this latreillei-like form the 
philoxenus-])eittern was derived by the suppression of the posterior discal light- 
coloured spots in consequence of the further advance of black, and the fusion 
of the anterior discal spots of the original ground of the wing with the sidjmarginal 
spots to form large submarginal patches. The last but one stage is a hindwing 
with all the submarginal spots small, and the final stage, not yet reached, would 
be a hindwing without any spots of the original ground left. 

There are apparently two lines of species in the lafreillei-gTOup. The one 
series, with red tail-spot, begins with a latreillei-pattem and divides up into the 
philoxenus-hreinch. ending with almost entirely black specimens of P. philoxenus 
lama, and the dasarada-hTanch, the youngest development of which are the 
black-tailed P. dasarada melanurus and P. hedistus. The second series begins 
with P. adamsi and ends with P. alcinous alcinous, the red tail-spot never being 



160 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

present in aii\' of the various forms. P. crassipes is a peculiar offshoot of the 
first series, and P. daemoniiis belongs to the second. They disturb the sequence 
of species in the linear arrangement and, for that reason only, have here been 
placed between the two main branches of the latreillei-gTonp. 

In the figures on Plate VI the hairs in the marginal area of the clasper are 
diagrammatica 1 . 

1. Papilio polla Nicev. (1897). 

o. Papilio (Byasa) polla Niceville, Joum. Bombay XM. Soc. x. p. 633. no. 2 (1897) (N. Shan States ; 

X. Chin Hills) ; Watson, ibid. I.e.. p. 671 no. 23.5 (1897) (N. Chin HiUs) ; Nicev., Joum. 

As. Soc. Bengal, Ixvi. p. 565. tab. 4. fig. 28 (1897) (N. Shan States, east of Bhamo). 
(J$. Byam polla, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 166. tab. 429. fig. 2. o (1902) (descr. of ^2 ; N- Shan States ; 

N. Chin HiUs). 
Papilio polla. Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind., Butler/!, ii. p. 30. no. 499 (1907) (X. Shan States; 

N. Chin Hills). 
Papilio lafreillei polla. Jordan, in Seitz, Gros.s-Schmett. ix. p. 31 (1908). 

Papilio polla, Tytler, Joum. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxiii. p. 513 (1915) (Naga Hills and Manipur). 
Byasa polla, Evans, ibid. xxix. p. 233 (1924) (" Assam — N. Burma "). 

When I placed this insect as a subspecies of P. latreillei, in Seitz ix., I had 
only seen a damaged $. Though P. polla is closely related to P. latreillei it is 
distinct and occurs in a region where P. latreillei also is represented. 

Hindwing with 4 white discal spots of which the anterior one is much the 
largest ; distal margin of (J edged with red from scent-fold to tail, the latter 
broadly tipped with red : in $ this red colouring reduced to spots at apices of 
tail and marginal lobes. Armature of clasper (PI. VI, fig. 1) nearly as in 
P. latreillei, but the ventral margin of the harpe distally enlarged into a fairly 
prominent dentate lobe ; penis and anal segment as in P. latreillei. 

Hob. Naga Hills, Manipur, N. Chin Hills, and N. Shan States, in May 
and June. 

2. Papilio latreillei Don. (1826). 

Papilio latreillei Donovan, Nat. Repos. ii. tab. 140 (1826) (Nepal). 
Papilio minereus Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 32 (1831) (Nepal). 

The range of this species extends much farther east and north-east than 
was known in 1908, three new subspecies having been discovered since the pubhoa- 
tion of Seitz ix. 

n. P. latreillei genestieri Oberth. (1918) (PI. VII. fig. 6). 

Papilio latreillei, Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Enl. France, p. 137 (1908) (Thibet). 

(J?. Papilio latreillei genestieri id.. I.e., p. 187 (1918) (Sii-tchouen : Siao-loii, Tchang-chau-pin, 
haut Lou-tse-kiang). 

Paler than the other three known subspecies, being of a peculiar slate colo\ir ; 
hindwing with four large white patches from R' to M-, the anterior patch very 
much larger than in any specimen of P. I. latreillei. Genitalia of (J as in P. I. 
latreillei : armature of clasper (PI. VI. fig. 2) a broadly rounded ridge which is 
strongly dentate distally and bears one or more teeth along the ventral side, 
the ridge not being different from that of P. I. latreillei : the number and size 
of the teeth variable ; apical process of penis slightly curved towards the 
left side. 

Hab. Szechuen ; type in coU. John Levick, , 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 161 

p. latreillei must be expected to occur in Yunnan as well ; we have not 
seen specimens from that country. 

b. P. latreillei robus subsp. nov. 
^?. Larger and darker than the jjrevious subspecies, agreeing more closely 
with the following one, from which it dift'ers in the white patches of the hindwing 
being longer, their distance from the submarginal spots being smaller than in 

P. I. kahrua. The teeth of the harpe are confined to the ape.x in the only 

clasper examined (PI. VI, fig. 3). 

Hab. Tonkin: Ngai Tio, 4,800 feet, iv.l924 (H. Stevens), 2 ^S, (3 9? in 
Mus. Brit. 

c. P. latreillei kabraa Tytler (1915). 

Papilio kabrtta Tytler, Journ. Bomhaij N.H. Soc. xxxiii. p. 513 (1915) (Naga Hills and Manipur, 

V. vi.). 
Byasa UtreillM (!) kahrna, Evans, ibid. xxix. p. 233 (1923) (Assam to N. Burma). 

In general colouring like fresh P. I. latreillei and P. I. robus. The anterior 
discal spot of the hindwing large, but shorter than in P. I. robus. 

Hab. Naga Hills and Manipur ; probably more widely distributed in the 
mountains of Burma. 

d. P. latreiUei latreillei Don. (1826). 

Cf. Noi'. Zool. ii. p. 261. no. 56 (1895) (literature). 

Papilio (Byasa) latreillei, Mackin. & Nicev., Journ. Bombay y.H. Soc. xi. p. 592. no. 250 (1898). 
(Mussoorie). 

Byasa latreillei, Moore, Lep. Inrl. v. p. 165. tab. 430. fig. 1. la. lb. J, Ic. ? (1902) (X.W. & E. Hima- 
layas). 

Papilio latreillei, Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind., Biitterfl. ii. p. 29. no. 497. fig. 5 (1907) (Xepal, Sikkim. 
Assam). 

Papilio latreillei latreillei, .Jordan, in Seitz, Gross-Schmell. ix. p. 31 (1908) (X.W. India. Xepal, 
Sikkim). 

Papilio latreillei, Hannyngton, .Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xx. p. 361. no. 159 (1910) (Kumaon. 
V. & viii.) ; Oberth., Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 186 (1918) (Sikkim). 

Byasa latreillei latreillei, Evans, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxix. p. 233 (1923) (Garhwal to Sikkim). 

The discal spot between R' and R' of hindwing (veins 5 and 6) is either 
small or absent. As in the other three subspecies, the scales under the white 
wool of the scent-organ of the cJ entire, narrow, lanceolate ; mid- and hind- 
tibiae not swollen in S, tJie spines of the upperside not so numerous and not so 
short as in swollen tibiae, along the outside from base to apex a stripe bare of 
spines. The dentition of the harpe of the clasper variable, sometimes the ventral 
margin with several teeth, sometimes without. 

Hab. N.W. India to Sikkim, at higher elevation ; may be expected to occur 
in Bhutan. 

3. Papilio philoxenus Gray (1831). 

Papilio philo.vem(s Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 32 (1831) (Xepal) ; Jord., in Seitz, Gross-Schmell. ix. p. 31 

(1908). 

For descriptions of the subspecies cf. Jordan, I.e., where we mentioned 
that P. philoxenus differs from all its allies in the anal tergite of the o bearing a 
dorsal process. We take this opportunity to figure this segment, as well as 
the clasper. The dorsal process (PI. VI. figs. 4, 5) inclines distad and varies 



162 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

somewhat in length ; occasionally there is a small tubercle at each side of it. 
Where the anal sternite (scaphium) touches the tergite the latter bears a small 
longitudinal ridge on each side. The anal sternite is proximally strongly 
conve.K on the dorsal side. The setiferous ventral area of the innerside of the 
clasper is distallj- much broader than in the proximal half, the ventral margin 
of the harpe slanting upwards ; the harpe is roughly triangular, with the 
basal ventral angle produced into a large conical process, the distal angle is 
pomted or more or less obtuse, usually bearing one or more small teeth, the proximal 
process and the ventral margin dentate, the teeth small and sharp and very 
variable in number (PI. VI, figs. 6, 7). Penis-sheath pale to the apex, not sharply 
pointed. The wool of the scent-organ sepia with a slight tint of grey ; the 
scales under the wool in the middle of the fold lanceolate, entire. 

'I. P. philoxenus lama Oberth. 

Papilio Ifinm Obcrthiir. 6l d'Ent. ii. p. 1.5. tab. 3. fig. 1. ? (1876) (Moupin) ; id.. I.e. iv. p. 43, no. 50 

(1879). 
Papilio philoxenus, Oberthiir. I.e. xii. p. 14 (1886) (Tse-Kou) ; Leech. Bull. Cliiiui. p. 537 (1893). 
Papilio philoxenus lama. Rothschild. Xov. Zool. ii. p. 266. no. 61. h (1895). 
Bijasa lama, Moore, Lep. Ind, v. p. 172 (1902). 
Papilio lama, Seitz. Gross -Schmelt. i. p. 8. tab. 2a. S (1907). 
Papilio philoxenus lama, Jordan, ibid, ix. p. 32 (1908). 

Papilio philoxenus v. poli/eucles, Draeseke, Iris, xxxvii. p. 55 (1923) (Wa;Ssekou & Tatsienlu). 
Papilio philoxenus v. roseus Draeseke. I.e. (ibid. ; white spots suffused with red). 
Papilio latna. Draeseke, l.c, (ibid.). 

The darkest specimens are very similai' to P. nlcinous confusus, but the 
tail has always a trace of the red spot, at least on the underside. The other 
extreme is almost indistinguishable from N.W. Indian P. ph, philoxenus. In 
all specimens the red of the head is much mixed \\ith black hairs. 

Hdh. AVestern China ; Northern Kashmir. 

''. P. philoxenus philoxenus (iray (l.ssi). 

For literature cf. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 264 (1895). 

Byasa philoxenus, Moore. Lep. Ind. v. p. 1.59. tab. 426. fis;. 1. 1. & p.. U. \b. S. Ic Id. $ (1902) 

(partim). 
Papilio philoxenus, Bingham, in Blanf., Fauna Bril. Ind., Butterfl. ii. p. 31 (1907) (partim) ; Han- 

nyngt., Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xx. p. 361. no. 160 (1910) (Kumaon, v., viii. ix.). 
Papilio philoxenus philoxenus, Jordan, in Seitz, Gross-Schmelt. ix. p. 32. tab. 19a. o (1908). 
Bijasa philoxenus philoxenus, Evans, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxix. p. 233 (1923). 
Papilio philoxenus lelinrius, Fruhstorfer. Ent. Zcits. (Stuttgart) xxii. p. 72 (1908) (N.W. India). 

There is no sharp line of demarcation between this subspecies and the next 
one, neither geographically nor morphologically. 
Hah. 8. Kashmir to Nepal. 

r. P. philoxenus polyeuctes Doubl. (1842). 

For literature cf. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 265 (1895). 

Papilio (Byasa) philoxenus, Watson. -lotirn. Bombay N.H. Snc. x. \i. 671. no. 276 (1S97) (X. Chin 

HUls) 
Byasa philoxenus, Moore, l.c. (1902) (partim). 
Papilio philo.venns, Fruhstorfer, Berlin. Enl. Zeits. xlvii. p. 171 (1902) (S. Annam) ; Bingham, l.c. 

(1907) (partim). 
Papilio philo.venus hoslilius Fruhstorfer, Enl. Zeil.s. (Stuttgart) xxii. p. 72 (1908) (S, Annam). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 16.3 

Papilio philnxemiK polyeucles, Jordan, in Seitz. Gross-SchmeU. ix. p. 32 (1908). 

Papilio philoxeniis, Tytler, Journ. Bomhay N.H. Soc. xxi. p. .589. no. 197 (1912) (^'aga Hills) ; 

South, ibid. xxU. p. 364. no. 117 (1913) (Mishrai). 
Papilio philoxenus var. poUjmitis Tytler, I.e. sub no. 197 (1912) (laps. cal. ?). 
Papilio nepenthes Ehrraan, Bull. Brookli/n En!. Soc. xv. p. 22 (1920) (A.ssam) ; Holland, .Inn. 

Carnegie Hits. xvii. p. 323 (1924) {=P. philoxenus). 
Papilio philoxenus polyeucles, Evans, Journ. Bombay X.H. Soc. xxix. p. 233 (1923). 

This subspecies is loiown as far east as Tonkin. As it descends to low 
altitudes in the hills one would e.xpect it (or a closely allied form) to occur in 
S.E. China ; but no representative of P.philoxenv.s is known from that district, 
though the species recurs on Formosa. 

Hab. Sikkim to Yunnan, Tonkin, S. Annam and Tenasserim. 

d. P. philoxenus termessus Fruhst. (1908). 

Papilio philo.venus lerinessws Frulistorfer. Ent. Zcils. (Stuttgart) xxii. p. 46 (190S) (Formosa) ; Jord., 

in Seitz, Gross.Schmell. ix. p. 32 (1908). 
Papilio philoxenus, Matsumura, Ent. Zeits. (Stuttgart) xxii. p. 54 (1908) (Formosa). 
Papilio philoxenus rar. termessus, Heyne, Stipplem. Ent. ii. p. 68. no. 3 (1913). 

The island of Formosa being so far away from the continental range of the 
species, one should have expected this subspecies to show some constant differences 
in the genital armature ; but all I can find is that the distal angle of the harpe 
is more often produced into a short-pointed process than in continental specimens. 

Hah. Formosa. 

4. Papilio dasarada Moore (1857). 

For literature up to 1894 of. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 266, sub ab. dasarada (1895). 

Byasa dasarada, Moore, Lep. Ind, v. p. 161. tab. 427. fig. 1. (J, la. b. '^ (1902) (Sikkim; Assam; 

Burma; Tenasserim ; " Malacca & Tonkin " probably = P. philoxenus). 
Papilio philoxenus var. dasarada, Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind., Btitterfl. ii. p. 31 (1907). 
Papilio dasarada, Jordan, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. ix. p. 32 (1908). 

For description cf. Jordan, I.e., where some structural differences between 
P. dasarada and P. philoxenus are mentioned. The anal tergite of the o lacks 
the dorsal process always found in P. philoxenus ; the penis-sheath ends with a 
gradually narrowed, sharply pointe^l, well-chitinised, straight process ; harpe 
of clasper longer than in P. philoxenus, its teeth are larger and more numerous. 
The scales under the dark wool of the scent-fold broad, entire. 

P. dasarada is not yet known from China proper, its range being much 
more restricted than that of P. philoxenus. The two species are usually described 
as differing in size, P. dasarada being said to be larger than P. philoxenus ; but 
that is only partially true. No specimen of P. philoxenus attains the size of 
the largest P. da.sarada, but among the North Indian P. dasarada there are many 
specimens which are smaller than the average P. philoxenus, our smallest Assamese 
P. dasarada- Q having the forewing 50 mm. long, whereas this wing measures 
65 mm. in our largest P. philoxenus from the same district. In diagnostic work 
on Lepidoptera size, as a rule, is of no great account. 

Hab. N.W. India to Yunnan, Tenasserim, and Tonkin; also .said to occur 
on the Malay Peninsula, which is probably a mistake, the specimens belonging 
most likely to P. philoxemis. In 1902 (Berl. Ent. Zeits. xlvh. p. 171) Fruhstorfer 
stated that dasarada was the dry season form of P. philoxenus, which is quite 
erroneous ; Fruhstorfer had a weakness for statements of this kind. 



164 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

n. p. dasarada ravana Moore (1857). 

For literature up to 1904 of. Xor. Zool. il. p. 262. no. 59 (1895). 
Papilio ravana, Rothschild, Nov. Zool. ii. p. 262. no. 59 (1895). 
Papilio (Byasa) ravana. Mackin. & Nic^v.. Journ. Bom'iai/ X.H. Sor. xi. p. 592. no. 251 (1898) 

(Tehri Garhwal, common, iv. v.). 
Byasa ravana, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 163. tab. 428. fig. 1. In. cJ, 16. c. ? (1902) (Western Himalayas). 
Papilio ravana, Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind., Bvltcr/l. ii. p. 33. no. 501 (1907) (Kashmir; Kulu ; 

Mussuri ; Kuraaon) ; Seitz, Gross-Schmell. i. p. 8. tab. 1. '). rj? (1907). 
Papilio dasarada ravana, Jordan, ibid. ix. p. 32 (1908). 

Papilio ravana, Hannyngton, Journ. Bom'jay N.H. Soc. xx. p. 875 (1911) (life hist.). 
Byasa dasarada ravana. Evans, ibid. xxix. p. 233 (1923) (Kashmir to Kumaon). 

Teeth of harijs of o smaller than in P. d. dasarada, the proximal process 
shorter and often broader (PI. VI, fig. 8), and the ventral margin more or less 
dilated distally of the basal process. The apical process of the penis-sheath 
long, and usually narrower than in P. d. dasarada. 

Hah. Kashmir to Western Nepal. 

b. P. dasarada dasarada Moore (1857). 

For literature up to 1894 of. Xov. Zool. ii. p. 266, sub ab. dasarada. 

Byasa dasarada, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 161. tab. 427. fig. 1. (J, la. '4 (1902). 

Papilio philoxenus var. dasarada. Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind., Butter/I. ii. p. 31. sub no. .500 (1907). 

Papilio philoxenus dasarada, Jordan, in Seitz. Groas-Schmett. ix. p. 32. tab. 19. h. (1908). 

Papilio dasarada. Tytler, Journ. Bomhay N.H. Soc. xxi. p. 589. no. 198 (1912) (Naga Hills). 

Papilio philo.cenns form dasarada. South, Journ. Bom'iay N.H. .S'oc. xxii. p. 365, sub no. 117 (1913) 

(Panye, S.E. Tibet, vu.). 
Byasa dasarada dasarada, Evans, ibid, x.xix. p. 233 (1923) (Sikkim to Assam). 

The pro.ximal process of the liarpe long, dentate or .simply conical ; the 
dentition variable, most of the teeth of the ventral margin long, the distal end 
of the harpe more or less broadly rounded, dentate, the teeth pointing downward 
(PI. VI, fig. 9). 

In one of om- ^ (^ from Cherrapunji, Assam, the genital armature is abnormal : 
the hook of the anal segment is shortened and broadened, being shorter than 
the sternite (scaphium) ; the pro.ximal process of the left harpe is short, flat, 
apically divided into two teeth, the teeth of the ventral margin of the harpe 
quite small ; apical process of penis-sheath broad and the lateral flap very 
larce. A small specimen : length of forewing 52 mm. Right clasper not 
properlv developed. Other specimens, small and large, from the same place 
have the armature normal. That aberrations in the genital armature are not 
often found is very natural, as only a small proportion of the specimens in collec- 
tions are examined as to their genital structures. 

Hub. Sikkim, Assam, Burma ; no doubt also in Eastern Nepal. 

c. P. dasarada barata Roths. (1908). 

Papilio philoxenus & P. dasarada, auct., partim (Tenasserim. Tonkin). 

Q. Papilio dasarada haratu Rothschild. Nov. Zool. xv. p. 168. no. 18 (1908) (Shan States and Tenas- 
serim ; P. dasaraiUi a species distinct from P. philoxenus) ; Jord., in Seitz, Gross-Schinelt. 
ix. p. 32 (1908); Stockley, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxx. p. 418 (1925) (west of Raheng, 
Western Siam). 

Byasa dasarada harata, Evans, Journ. Bom'iay N.H. Soc. xxix. p. 233 (1923) (" Burma "). 

The proximal process of the harpe of the clasper flatter than in P. d. dasarada, 
the angle between it and the ventral margin smaller, the apex of the clasper 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 165 

more produced distad, the teeth more numerous than in the preceding race, 
frequently arranged in two irregular rows, the apical teeth directed distad or 
upward rather than downward (PI. VI, fig. 10). 
Hdh. Tenasserini. Shan States, and Tonkin. 



d. P. dasarada melanurus Roths. (1905). 

(JJ. Papilio philoxenus melanurvs Rothschild, Nov. Zonl. .xii. p. 78. no. I (19(15) (Hainan, o, v.) 
Joic. & Talb.. Bull. Hill Mus. i. p. 167. no. 1. tab. 19. fig. 1. $ (1921) (Hainan, vui. ; distal half 
of both hindwings missing) ; iid.. I.e. p. 517. no. 5 (1924) (Hainan, vii. & ix., ocJS). 

Harpe similar to that of P. d. barata, proximal process longer, apex less 
produced and its teeth more or less directed downwards (PI. VI. fig. 11). 
Hub. Hainan. 

e. P. dasarada ouvrardi Oberth. (1920). 

Papilio ramnu oiiirardi Oberthiir. Btdl. Soc. Enl. France, p. 202 (1920) (Yunnan). 

The name ouvrardi is based on a single female, which Oberthiir described 
as a male, comparing it with P. d. ravana. The specimen is now in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Levick, where I have examined it (externally) without discovering 
any difference from P. dasarada. We have, from Tali, Yunnan, a $ in which 
the markings of the hindwing are much larger than in the type of ouvrardi, 
there being in this $ a complete row of markings between the large white patch 
and the anal spot, and two large spots between the patch and the costal margin, 
as is sometimes the case in Indian $$ ; the outer half of the cell is white on the 
underside, on the upperside this cell-patch is reduced ; the underside of the 
forewing has a large diffuse whitish patch, which frequently occurs in Indian 
specimens with extended white markings on the hindwing. It is possible that 
this Tali $ represents P. dasarada in Yunnan, and that the ? ouvrardi is that 
se.x of the cj described below as a new sj)ecies. The arrival of more material will 
settle the question. 

Hnh. Yunnan. 

5. Papilio hedistus sp. nov. (PI. VII. fig. 5 ^). 

cJ. Like P. dasarada ; the tail in length and colour as in P. d. melanurus, 
i.e. longer than in Indian specimens of P. dasarada and without a trace of a red 
spot ; the wing slightly less wide between the lobe in front of the tail and the 
second lobe behind the tail ; in front of the large white patch a large rounded 
spot, the last three submarginal spots red, the one in front of the tail paler red 
than the posterior two ; on underside these three spots and the anal one bright 
red, and below apex of costal vein a small white spot. Head and body deeper 
red than in P. dasarada. Scent-organ as in P. dasarada. The main difference 
is in the harpe, of which the anterior process is short and the apex much pro- 
longed obliquely downward (PI. VI. fig. 12). As in P. d. melanurus from 
Hainan the harpe is decidedly of the dasarada-type, it would be very singular 
if in Yunnan dasarada it deviated very considerably. For that reason I 
regard the single specimen here figured as representing a species distinct from 
P. dasarada. 

Hab. Yunnan : Tali, 1 cJ in Mus. Tring. 

12 



l(l(i NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

The specimen bears a close resemblance in shape and markings to two of 
the Papilios which are figured on the same plate and also occur in Yunnan. 

6. Papilio crassipes 01)erth. (1893). 

Papilio crassipes Oberthiir. £l. cTEnt. xvii. p. 2. tab. 4. fig. 38. 38a. j (1893) (Tonkin); Roths., 

Nov. Zool. ii. p. 262. no. 57 (1895) ; Fruhst., Soc. Enl. xvi. p. 113 (1901) (dcscript. of $) ; id., 

Berlin. Ent. Zeits. xlvii. p. 170 (1902) (Than-Moi. Tonkin, 1,000 feet). 
Bi/asa crassipes, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 171. tab. 434. fig. 2. o (1902) (Tonkin ; S. Shan States). 
Papilio crassipes. Bingh., Fauna Bril. Ind.. Bullerfl. ii. p. 34. no. 503 (1907) ; .lord., in Seitz, Gross- 

Sckmell. ix. p. 31 (1908) (Tonkin; Shan States): Tvtler, Joiirn. Bom'.ay X.H. Soc. xxiii. 

p. 513 (1915) (Manipur, cJ(J$). 
Byasa cra-isipe-s. Evans, ibid., xxix. p. 233 (1923) (Manipur to Shan States). 

A remarkable species, recalling in the shape of the hindwing to some extent 
the Chinese P. elwesi Leech (1880). The hindtibia of the q is broader than in 
any other Papilio. At the base of the anal tergite of the o there is a short 
process at each side ; clasper (PI. VI. fig. 13) with an apical sinus, below which 
there is a short sharp process not foinid in any other species of this groujj ; 
harpe with a proximal, triangular, denticulate i)rocess, above which there is a 
short dentate ridge, ventral margin of harpe incrassate, gradually rounded, 
bearing a few small teeth, apex conical, sharply pointed, curved mesad, i.e. 
away from the clasper, lying above the anal tergite ^hen the claspers are closed. 

The claws of the mid- and hindtarsi of our only specimen ((^) are more 
strongly asymmetrical than in the other species of this group. 

Hah. Manipur, Shan States, and Tonkin ; type in coll. John Levick. 



7. Papilio daemonius Alpher. (1895). 

(J$. Papilio daemonius Alpheraky, Iris, viii. p. ISO (1895) (Khain near Batong, iv., vii.) ; Roths., 
Nov. Zool. ii. p. 503 (1895) ( = fatuus, a distinct species, not var. of phttonius) ; Jonl., in Seitz, 
Gross-Schmett. ix. p. 32 (1908). 

Not very nearly related to any of the other known species of this group : 
cell of hindwing much broader than in the other species. (J : The white wool in 
the scent-fold of the cj long, the scales under the wool deeply divided into two 
or three teeth ; anal sternite (= scaphium) broad, its apex truncate-sinuate, 
the upper lobe pointed, the lower one rounded ; harpe resembling a short 
triangular shovel with the sides dentate and bent upwards, the ventral margin 
deeply sinuate near base, and proximally of this sinus a conical denticulate 
process (PI. VI. fig. 14) ; tibiae not swollen, spines on upperside of mid- and 
hindtibiae not much more numerous than on foretibia. $ as pale as that sex 
of P. alcinous alcinous, with a black border to the hindwing bearing pale reddish 
submarginal spots. 

In both sexes the anal spot of the underside is double, consisting of a spot 
near the margin and a smaller one above the lower median vein, which is black. 
Tail without trace of a red spot. 

The " seal " of our single $ is very long and narrow and directed straight 
forward ; a deep median slit divides it into two prongs, of which the left one 
is not developed in our specimen. The shape of the seal, probably, is 
variable. 

Hab. Tibet and Yunnan. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 1 67 

ff. p. daemonius daemonius Alpher. (1895). 

P. d. Alpheraky, I.e. (1895). 

Papilio alcinovs plutonins ab. fatiiii-^ llothschild. Nor. Zuol. ii. p. 272. tab. 6. Hg. 31. 42. genit. 

(1895) (Ta-tsien-lu). 
Papilio alcinous daenwniita, Seitz, GrossSchmett. i. p. 33 (1907). 
Papilio daemonius, Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 137. no. 2 ( 1908) (Bathong, not Ta-tsien-lou) : 

Jord., in Seitz, OrossSchmett. ix. p. 32 (1908). 
Papilio plutonius var. daemonius, Draeseke, Iris, xxxvii. p. 56 (1923) (Batong). 

According to Oberthiir, thi.s Papilio does not occur at Ta-tsien-lu. We 
are responsible for the record from that place, the only specimen we had when 
we published, in 1895, the Revision of the Papilios of the Eastern Hemisphere 
exclusive of Africa bears the printed label : Thibet, Tatsienlou, Mgr. F. Biet. We 
had no reason to doubt the locality. But as Oberthiir received the species only 
from Bathong it is highly probable that a wrong label was put on the specimen 
before it came to the Tring Museum. 

Hab. Bathong, Tibet. 

b. P. daemonius yunnana Oberth. (1908). 

Papilio daemonius var. yunnana Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Eni. France, p. 137, sub no. 2 (1908) (Tapintze, 

Yunnan, 3 (JcJ), 
Papilio daemonius yunnana, Jordan, in Seitz, GrossSchmett. ix. p. 32 (1908). 

One (J in coll. John Levick is all I have seen of P. daemonius from Yunnan ; 
in this specimen the submarginal spots are larger than in P. d. daemonius. 
Oberthiir says of yunnana that '" les taches carminees des ailes inferieures tendent 
a blanchir " ; in the above specimen the spots, on the contrary, are a little 
deeper red than in P. d. daemonius, at least on the underside. Further material 
is necessary before one can arrive at a definite opinion as to whether yunnana 
is more or less constantly distinguishable from Tibetan specimens. 

The head and antennae do not belong to the above specimen of yunnana. 

Hab. Tajiintze, Yunnan. 



8. PapUio adamsoni Grose Smith (188G). 

o. Papilio adamsoni Grose Smith, Ann. Mag. X.H. (5), xviii. p. 149 (1886) (Salween R.) ; id. & 
Kirby, Rhop. Exol. i. Papilio p. 11. tab. 5. fig. 3, 4 (1888). 

(J$ Papilio (Byasa) minereoides, Elwes & Xicev., Journ. As. Soc. Beng. Iv. p. 435. no. 133. tab. 20. 
fig. 2. 26 (S). 3 (?) (1887) (Sinbyoodine and Ponsekai). 

Papilio adamsoni, Rothschild, Nov. Zool. ii. p. 262. no. 58 (1895) ; Nicev., Journ. Bom'iay N.H. 
Soc. xii. p. 334. no. 40 (1899) (Tenasserini, i. iii.j. 

Byasa adamsoni, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 167. tab. 431. fig. 1. la ((J), 14 (V) (1902). 

Papilio adamJioni, Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind., Butterfl. ii. p. 30. no. 498 (1907) (Shan States, Tenas- 
serini) ; .lord., in Seitz, GrossSchmett. ix. p. 31. tab. 19c. (1908). 

Byasa adamsoni, Evans, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxix. p. 232 (1923). 

Tail without trace of a red spot. 

Scales under the white wool of the scent-organ of the cj entire, irregularly 
elliptical. Armature of clasper (PI. VI. fig. 15) a non-dentate ridge which 
ends basally and distally in a pointed process, the distal one being the 
longer. 

Hab. Shan States and Tenasserini. 



168 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

9. Papilio nevilli Wood-Mas. (1882) (PI. VII. figs l^, 2 $). 

For literature up to 1894 c£. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 263. no. 60 (1895). 

Bi/asa nevilli, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 164. tab. 429. fig. 1. S (1902) (Cachar ; W. China). 

Papilio nevilli, Bingham, Fauna Brit. Ind.. Butterfl. ii. p. 33. no. 502 (1907) ; Seitz. Gnu.'i-Schmetl. 

i. p. 8. tab. \c (1907) ; Jonl.. ibid. ix. p. 31 (1908). 
Papilio chentsonij^lur.tus Oberthiir, Bt. Lip. (\>mp. ix. i. p. 45. tab. 252. fig. 2133. J (1913) (Ta- 

tsien-Iou). 
Byasa nevilli, Evans. Joiirn. Bomhay N.H. Soc. xxix. p. 233 (1923) (Assam). 
Papilio nivelli (!). Draeseke, Iris, xxxvii. p. 55 (1923) (Wassekou). 

The specimens from N.E. Assam, West China, and Yunnan are alike 
in structure. The harpe of the (J is very characteristic (PI. VI. fig. 16), bearing 
proximally a knob-like process ; the teeth are restricted to the obtuse apex or 
to the apical third. The scales beneath the creamy white wool of the scent- 
fold are nearly all bi- or tridentate. Mid- and hindtihiae thinner than in 
P. hedistus, P. dasarada, etc., the spines of the upperside less numerous. 

Tail always without red spot. Sometimes the markings of the hindwing 
almost entirely suppressed, = ab. Indus Oberth. (1913). Intergradations also 
are known. 

In the c? specimen figured on our Plate VII the left forewing is abnormal, 
there being a cross- vein between R' and M' and between M' and M-. 

Hab. N.E. Assam, Yunnan ; Western China. 

10. Papilio laos Riley & Godf. (1927). 

o. Papilio laos Riley and Godfrey, Joiirn. Xal. Hisl. Soc. Siain. iv. p. 168. no. 1. tab. 4. fig. 1 (1927) 
(Ban Xa Sao, French Laos, ii.). 

No spot on tail ; on upperside of hindwing 4 submarginal transverse red 
bars ; on underside 5 such spots and an anal one, and in addition three small 
discal spots. Scent-wool nearly white. Harpe (PI. VI. fig. 17) with three 
ventral teeth of which the proximal one is the largest, apex produced into a 
pointed process the sides of which are rounded. 

Hab. French Laos, 1 cj (type) in Mus. Brit. 

11. Papilio mencius Feld. (1862). 

(J$. Papilio mencius Felder, Wien. Ent. Mnn. vi. p. 22. no. 1 (1862) (Xingpo) ; Jord., in .Seitz, 
Gross-Schmett. Ix. p. 33 (1908). 

The four Chinese Swallowtails with black tails and red submarginal lunules 
on the hindwing are easily distinguished in the cj-sex by the scent-fold and the 
armature of the claspers. To facilitate identification it is advisable to open 
the scent-folds when setting specimens. The light colour of the wool separates 
P. impediens and P. mencius readily from P. alcinous confusus and P. plutonius. 
In all these sjsecies the hindtibia is distinctly swollen and bears very numerous 
spines on the upperside, there being, on the outer surface, no spineless stripe 
above the ventral spines. 

In P. mencius the harpe always bears two proximal processes (PI. VI. fig. 18), 
of which the distal one is sometimes dentate ; the harpe narrows to apex, the 
tip being curved upwards ; the ventral margin without distinct teeth. 

Hab. China and Yunnan. 



NOVITATES ZooLoaicAE XXXIV. 1928. 169 

ft. p. mencius rhadinus subsp. nov. (PI. VII. fig. :5 cJ, 4 $). 

cj?. In appearance almost identical with P. nevilli ; the three posterior 
spots of the upperside deeper red, tail longer, lobe behind tail less projecting, 
in anterior half the hindwing somewhat narrower, the anterior veins arising 
from cell shorter, therefore the white patch also shorter, SC- (= 7) more curved 
upwards, on underside the cell of the hindwing with the two lines which are so 
distinct in P. nevilli barely indicated. 

In (J the hindtibia distinctly swollen, with the spines more numerous than 
in P. nevilli ; the wool of the scent-fold a little darker, the scales under the 
wool nearly all entire ; the harpe of the clasper (PI. VI. fig. 18) quite different, 
agreeing with that of P. m. menciun. 

Length of forewing : 40-49 mm. 

Hab. Yunnan : Tapintze (Rev. P. Delaway), 2 pairs in coll. John Levick, 
ex coll. Oberthiir ; also in Mus. Brit. 

b. P. mencius mencius Feld. (1862). 

The older references might with advantage be discarded, it being very doubtful as to whether this 

or some other species was meant. 
Papilio alcinous mencius, Rothschild. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 268 (partim), tab. 1. fig. 21-25. 39. genit. (1895) ; 

Seitz, Gros.i-Schmeit. i. p. 9 (1907) (nee fig.). 
Papilio mencius, Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 136, 138 (1907) ; Roths., Nov. Zool. xv. p. 168, 

sub no. 19 (1908) ; Jord., in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. ix. p. 33 (1908). 

Submarginal spots of hindwing small. For short description cf. Seitz, ix. 
Hab. Eastern, Central, and Western China. 



12. Papilio impediens Roths. (1895). 

<J. Papilio alcinous mencius ab. impediens Rothschild, Nov. Zool. ii. p. 270. tab. 1. fig. 26, 40. genit. 
(1895) (Ta-tsien-lu). 

The harpe of the (J is very distinctive : subtriangular, densely dentate along 
ventral margin, the base produced into a short, triangular, pointed process, the 
apex rounded (PI. VI. fig. 19). 

Hab. China and Formosa. 



a. P. impediens impediens Roths. (1895). 

p. alcinous mencius ab. impediens Rothschild, I.e. 

Papilio alcinous impediens, Seitz, Gross-Sclimell. i. p. 9 (1907) (nee fig.). 

Papilio mencius var. impediens, Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 138 (1907) (descr. of 9). 

Papilio impediens, Rothschild, I.e. xv. p. 168, sub no. 19 (1908) : Jord., in Seitz, I.e. ix. p. 33 (1908). 

It is hardly possible to distinguish the (J from P. mencius ^ without an 
examination of the tail-end. The scent-fold is appreciably shorter, not being 
quite so long as its distance from the postcaudal marginal lobe. The two (Jc? 
from which this species was originally described as a probable aberration of 
P. menci^is have the hindwings exceptionally narrow. 

The very pale $ described by Oberthiir as that sex of P. impediens is in 
coll. John Levick ; I have seen no other Chinese specimen like it. 

Hab. Western China. 



170 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 

b. P. impediens febanus Fruhst. (1908). 

Papilio plulonins, Miya,ke. Ann. Zool. Japan, vi. p. 55. no. 4 (1907) (Formosa; err. determma- 

tionis). 
$. Papilio alcinowi fehanu.i Fruhstorfer. Ent. Zeits. (Stuttgart) xxii. p. 46 (19(18) (Formosa). 
(J. Papilio felanvs id.. I.e. p. 102 (1908) .^. 
(J$. Papilio jonasi Rothschild, Xov. Zool. xv. p. 168.no. 19 (1908) (Formosa) ; Wilem., Ann. Zool. 

Japan, vii. p. 99. no. 42 (1909). 
^2. Papilio [Pharmacophagns) koannania Matsumura, Ent. ZeiU. (Stuttgart) xxii. p. 54 (1908). 

The submarginal spots large in both sexes. In structure the same as 
Continental impediens except that the scent-fold of the (^ is a little longer. 
Hah. Formosa. 

13. Papilio plutonius Oberth. (1876). 

Papilio pliitonin.i Oberthiir, tit. d'Enl. ii. p. 16. no. 3. tab. 3. fig. 2. ^ (1876) (Moupin) ; .lord., in 
Seitz, Gross-Schmelt. ix. p. 32 (1908). 

The pale underside of the hindwing. with the cell-lines distinct, and the 
deep scalloping of the hindwing readily distinguish this .species from its allies. 
Palpus black mixed with red. 

Wool of scent-fold darker than in P. mencius and P. impediens, but some- 
what paler than in P. alcinous. Clasper large, recalling P. dasarada, as does 
also the harpe, which is proximally dilated into a j)rocess of variable size, the 
ventral margin usually dentate, sometimes simple, with a large tooth in or near 
middle (PI. VI. figs. 20-24). 

Hab. Bhutan, Naga Hills, to West China. 

a. P. plutonius pembertoni Moore (1902). 

Papilio alcinous var., Moore. Cat. Lep. Mus. E.I. Comp. i, p. 95 (1857) (partim). 

Papilio CiByasa) plutonius, Elwes, Tr. Ent. Sac. Land. p. 424. no. 398 (1888) (Bhutan ?) ; Niceville, 

Gazetteer of Sikkim, p. 171. no. 463 (1894) (Bhutan ?). 
Papilio (? Byasa) alcinous, NiceviUe, I.e. p. 171. no. 464 (1894) (Bhutan 2). 
Papilio alcinous pbitonius. Rothschild, Xov. Zool. ii. p. 271. no. 62c (1895) (partim ; Bhutan). 
Byasa pembertoni Moore, Lep. hut. v. p. 170. tab. 434. fig. 1. o, 14. ? (1902) (Bhutan). 
Papilio pluto)iiu,s var. pembertoni, Oberthiir, Bull. .Soc. Ent. France, p. 137 (1907) (Haut Sikkim: 

Lachin-Lachoong, 8,000-16,000 feet). 
Papilio alcinous race pembertoni, Bmgham, Fa una Brit. Ind.. Butter/l. ii. p. .34. no. 504 ( 1907 ) ( Bhutan). 
Papilio plutonius pembertoni, Jordan, in Seitz. ix. p. 33 (1908) (Sikkim. Bhutan, at high elevations). 
Byasa alcinous pembertoni, Evans, Joum. Bombay N.H. Sac. xxix. p. 233 (1923) (Sikkim — Bhutan). 

The submarginal spots larger and paler than in the other subspecies, both 
above and below, there being five well-marked spots on the upperside of the 
hindwing in both sexes. 

Harpe nearly as in West Chinese specimens, strongly dentate (PI. VI. fig. 2:i). 

Hab. At high elevations in Sikkim and Bhutan. 

h. P. plutonius tytleri Evans (1923). 

(J?. Papilio alcinous impediens, Tytler (err. deterniinationis). Journ. Bombay X.H. Sac. xxiii. p. 513 

(1915) (Naga Hills, 7,000 feet). 
Byasa alcinous tytleri Evans, ibid. xxix. pp. 233, 245 (1923) (" Manipur " err. loci). 

Similar to Chinese specimens, but the submarginal spots smaller. The 
harpe without the numerous teeth of the two other species, the two specimens 
examined both with a simple triangular median tooth (PL VI, fig. 24). 

Hab. Naga Hills, Assam. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1028. . 171 

f. P. plutonius plutonius Oberth. (1876). 

(??. Papilio plutonius Oberthiir. St. d'Enl. ii, p. 16. no. 3. tab. 3. fig. 2. ^ (1876) (Moupin) : id., 

I.e. iv. p. 42, no. 9(1879). 
Papilio alcinous. Leech, Trans. Enl. Soc. Lond. p. 115. no. 68 (1889) (partim). 
Papilio plutonius, Leech. Butterfl. China, etc. ii. p. 541. no. 398 (1893). 
Papilio alcinous plutonitis, Rothschild, Nov. Zool. ii. p. 27. no. 62c. tab. 1. fig. 27-30, 41. genit. (1895) 

(partim). 
Bijasa plutonius, Moore, Lep. Ind. v. p. 172 (1902). 

Papilio alcinous plutonius, Seitz, Gross-Schmett. i. p. 9. tab. 2c. 5 (1907) (nee ,J = P. a. confusus). 
Papilio plutonius Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 137 (1907) (correction of Seitz's figs.). 
Papilio plutoniui plutonius, Jordan, in Seitz. I.e. ix, p. 32 (1908). 
Papilio plutonius, «outh, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxii. p. 364. no. 118 (1913) (Gcra, S.W. China) ; 

Draesekc, Iris, xxxvii. p. 56 (1923). 

Occurs together with P. mencius mencius, P. impediens impediens, and 
P. alcinous confusus, but cannot easily be mistaken for any one of these species 
if the underside of the hindwing, the claspers, and the scent-wool are compared. 
Figs. 20-23 represent the range of variation in the harpe of Western Chinese 
specimens examined by me. 

Hab. Western China and Northern Yunnan. 

14. Papilio alcinous Klug (1836). 

<J$. Papilio alcinous Klug, Neue Schmett. Ins.-Samml. Berlin, p. 1. no. 1. tab. 1. <?$ { 1836) (Japan). 
Papilio astenous id. (de Haan in. litt.). I.e. 

For short diagnosis cf. Jordan, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. ix. p. 33 (1908). We 
do not yet know how far north the species occurs in China ; it is quite probable 
that specimens from the most northern continental districts of the species closely 
approach the Japanese subspecies. 

a. P. alcinous confusus Roths. (1895). 

Papilio alcinous auct. partim. 

Papilio alcinous mencius ab. confusus Rothschild, Noi\ Zool. ii. p. 269. tab. i. fig. 13-20, 37. 38. 

genit. (1895) (partim). 
Papilio alcinous confusus, Seitz, Oross-Schmett. i. p. 9. tab. 2c. o'i (1907) (partim). 
Papilio alcinous vienciiis, id.. I.e. tab. 2lt. ^ (1907). 
Papilio alcinous plutonius, id., I.e. tab. 2c. cj (1907). 

Papilio confusus " Felder," Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 138. no. 4 (1907). 
Papilio alcinous confusus, .Jordan, in Seitz, I.e. ix. p. 33 (1908). 
Papilio confusus var. 5 decora Oberthiir, I.e. 

Papilio alcinous. South, Journ. Bombay N.H. Soc. xxii. p. 365. no. 123 (1913) (W. China). 
Papilio confusus -decora Oberthiir, St. Lep. Comp. ix. 2. p. 45. tab. 252. fig. 2134. $ (1914). 
Papilio confusus, Draeseke, Iris, xxxvii. p. 56 (1923). 
Papilio confusus v. n. parrtimmaculalus id.. I.e. (Wassekou), 

Hab. Western China. 

b. P. alcinous mansonensis Fruhst. (1901). 

Papilio alcinous ni'insonensis Friilistorfcr, Soc. Ent. xvi. p. 113 (1901) (Tonkin). 
Papilio alcinous miusonensis id., Berlin Ent. Zeits. xlvii, p. 171 (1903). 
Papilio alcinous mansonensis. Jord., in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. ix. p. 33 (1908). 
Papilio alcinous, Wileman, Annot. Zool. Japan, vii. p. 95. no. 42 (1909) (Formo.sa). 
Papilio alcionus (!) v. n. nana '! Draeseke, Iris, xxxvii. p. 56 (1923) (lehang). 

In this and the preceding subspecies the harpe is produced at both ends into 
a sharp point ; the dentition is usually quite absent (PI. VI. fig. 25). 



172 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXfV'. 1928. 

The o of this .subspecies, as a rule, is paler than that of the previous race, 
but there is no strict line of demarcation between the two subspecies. 
Hab. Central and Eastern China, Formosa. 

c. P. alcinous loochooanus Roths. (1S96). 

Papilio alcinuus. Leech, Bulltr/I. < hina. elc. ii. p. 537 (1893) (partim ; Loo Choo Is.). 

Papilio alcinous mencius, Rotlisthikl. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 268. no. 62, h. tab. 1. fig. 12,36. genit. (1895) 

(partim; Loo Choc Is.). 
Pnpilio alcinous loochooanus Rothschild. I.e. iii. p. 421. no. 1 (ISiMi) (Loo Choo, ^ ^) ; Seitz, Gross- 

Schmelt. i. p. 9. tab. U. J (1907) : Jord.. ibid. ix. p. 33. tab. 19c. J (1908). 
Byasa loochooana, Moore. Lap. Intl. v. p. 172 (1902). 
Papilio alcinous loochnanus (!), Fruhstorfer. Soc. Ent. xxi. p. 74 (1906), 
Papilio alcinous var. loochooanus, Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Evl. France, p. 138. snb no. 5 (1907) (Liu- 

Kiu ; Naze-()shinia). 
Papilio alcinous var. intcrmaliu < Iberthiir. Bull. Soc. Enl. France, p. 1 38, sul) no. .') ( 1907) (indescript ; 

Ishigaki-sima). 
$. Papilio alcinous bradanus Fruhstorfer. Ent. Zeits. (.Stuttgart) xxii. p. 46 (1908) (Ishigaki) ; Jord., 

in Seitz, Gross-Schmeti. ix. p. 33 (1908). 

Head more or less red. as in the previous subspecies. Harpe multidentate, 
on the whole the teeth more numerous than in specimens from Japan proper, 
and the apex broader (PI. VI. figs. 26, 27). 

Specimens from Ishigaki-sima (2 (J (J and several $$ hi coll. Levick) do not 
differ from those obtained in the Riu Kiu Islands. I am much indebted to 
Mr. Levick for sending me for comparison the clasper of one of his males. 

Hab. Riu Kiu and Ishigaki Islands. 

d. P. alcinous alcinous Klug (1836). 

For literature up to 1895 cf. Nov. Zool. ii. p. 267 (1895). 

Byasa alcinou,i, Moore. Lep. Ind. v. p. 172 (1902). 

Papilio alcinous nagasakii Frulistorfer, .Soc. Ent. xxi. p. 73 (1906) (Kiu-Shiu). 

Papilio alcinous alcinous, Seitz, Gross-Schmett. i. p. 9. tab. 2. a. b. <J$ (1907). 

Papilio alcinous, Oberthiir, Bull. Soc. Ent. France, p. 138. no. 5 (1907) (Yokohanui ; Sikoku). 

Papilio alcinous alcinous. .Jordan, in Seitz, I.e. ix. p. 33 (1908). 

Papilio ikujm Ehrnian. Canarl. Ent. xli. p. 85 (1909) (Simoda, .Japan). 

Papilio (Pliarmacophagus) alcinous m. v. veris Sheljuzhko. Iris, xxvii. p. 13 (1913) (Shizuoka and 

Yokohama ; spring form smaller than summer form). 
Papilio alcinous var. paci/ica Martin, Iris, xxxv, p. 8 (1921) (.Shikoku, 1 9). 

Head black. 

Fruhstorfer, I.e., maintained that the specimens from Hokkaido, Honshiu, 
and Kiushiu represented three subspecies. Though one expects specimens from 
different localities to be different, this theoretical consideration does not prove 
that they are different in every species, nor does it absolve the author of a new 
name from finding and describing differences which are really there. Fruhstorfer 
was easily carried away by enthusiasm. His statement that the spots on the 
underside of the hindwing are always yellow instead of red in P. alcinous from 
Nagasaki is not confirmed by our specimens fiom that place. Moreover, yellow- 
spotted (J (J and ?? are the rule on the main island. 

The proximal process of the harpe usually rather well defined ; dentition 

very variable (PI. VI. figs. 28, 29). Fig. ] 1 on pi. iv of Nov. Zool. ii. was 

taken from a Japanese specimen (cf. p. 270, I.e.) ; it agrees so well with the harpe 
of P. a. conju.ni.s that 1 am inclined to suspect a mistake to have occurred. The 
specimen is no longer in the collection. 

Hab. Japan : Hokkaido to Kiushiu. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928 173 



SIPHONAPTERA COLLECTED IN THE DOLOMITES. 
By dr. KARL JORDAN. 

(With 6 text-figures.) 
RIOR to mv visits to the Dolomites in 1922 and 1926 our collection 



P 



contained no specimens of Siphonaptera from that district. For this 
reason I took advantage of every opportunity that offered itself during these 
holidays to collect small mammals and thus to obtain at least some of the fleas 
which occur in South Tirol. The list here published is a very short one, but it 
gives nevertheless an idea of what is found on the usual kinds of small mammals 
one meets with in the mountains. All the species collected, or closely alUed 
forms, occur also in Switzerland. In the Southern ranges of the Dolomites 
and in the valleys one may expect to encounter Italian species. Mice and shrews 
were not very plentiful in the places at which we stayed long enough to make 
trapping feasible, and on the meadows above the tree-line only one mouse was 
common : Microtus incerlus. The nests of this species are not difficult to dig 
out, but usually they are disappointing, as they generally yield only the common 
Ceratophyllus penicilliger. At Cortina d'Ampezzo I trapped a number of moles, 
but the weather was so rainy that there was nothing on them when I inspected 
the trajjs. Evotomys nageri is a woodland species, being fairly common in the 
wood on the eastern side of Lake Misurma, and Microtus nivalis occurs high up 
in rocky places where it is not too dry and in alpine huts. 

1. Ceratophyllus penicilliger Grube (1852). 

Common at higher elevations ; its normal host in the Dolomites evidently is 
Microtus incertus. 

Below Fedaja Pass, 1,900 m., and Schlern, 2400 m., vi.vii. 1922, in nests of 

Microtus incertus. Above Campo di Sotto, Cortina, 1,200 m., vi.l926, on 

Evotomys nageri. Below Croda da Lago, vii. 1926, 1,700 m., in nest of Microtus 

incertus. Misurina, 1,750 m., vii. 1926, off Microtus agrestis. Monte Piano, 

2,300 m., and Platzwiese, 1,950 m., vii. 1926, in nests of M. incertus. Below 

Drei Zinnen Hiitte, 2,350 m., vii. 1926, off Microtus nivalis. 

2. Ceratophyllus gallinulae gallinulae Dale (1878). 
I (J from : Faloria Alp, above Cortma, 1,300 m., vi. 1926, in nest of Emberiza 
citrinella. 

3. Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803). 

A series bred in viii. 1922 from nest of Parus alpestris found in vi. in the wood 
on the east side of the Sellajoch, approximately at 1,800 m. 

This flea is a Pala^arctio species occurring on various birds, being particularly 
plentiful in the nest of Parus ; the domestic fowl I consider to be a secondary' 
host. It is now common in the Eastern States of North America, but in the West 
the fowl has picked up another flea : C. niger Fox (1908). 



174 



NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



4. Ceratophyllus borealis Roths. (1907). 
A pair from : Drei Zinnen Hiitte, 2,400 m.. vii . 1 02G, in ne.st of Montifringilla 
nivalis. 

'). Ainphipsylla sepifera J. & R. (1020). 
One ? from : Monte Cadini, above Misurina, 2,200 m., vii. 192G, off Microlus 
nivalis. 

6. Ctenophthalmus agyrtes impavidus subp. nov. (text-fig. 1). 
cJ. The bay above the manubrium of the clasper wider than in Ct. agyrtes 
agyrtes Heller (1896) ; the ventral margin of the clasper less rounded ; and 




the apex of the exopodite narrower. We figure for comparison the manubrium 
and adjacent portions of the clasper of Ct. a. agyrtes (text-fig. 2). 

$. Apparently not different from Ci. a. agyrtes. 

A large series from : Vols a. Schlern and Volser Weiher, 900-1,000 m., 

vi. vii. 1922, on Microtus and Talpa europaea : type. Schlern, 2,400 m., 

vii. 1922, in nest of Microtus incertus. Below Fedaja Pass, 1,600 m., vii. 1922, 

in nest of M. incertus. Faloria Alp, above Cortina d'Ampezzo, 1,300 m., 

vi.l926, on M. incertus and Ajmdemus sylvaficus. Above Campo di Sotto, 

Cortina, vi.l92G, on Evotomys nageri. Mi.<iurinn, 1,750 m., on Evotomys 

nageri and M. agrestis, vi. vii. 1926. ^Montc Cadini, above Misurina, 2,200 

m., vii. 1926, on Microtus nivalis. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 



175 



We do not yet know which subspecies of Ct. agyrtes occurs in North Tirol 
and Vorarlberg, South Bavaria and the Northern Cantons of Switzerland. Ct. 
agyrtes oreadis J. & R. (1920) extends at least as far north as Zurich, where 
N. C. Rothschild in 1920 and myself in 1925 obtained it in some numbers on the 
Dolder. 

7. Ctenophthalmus congener Roths. (1907). 
5(?c?. 1''?? from: below Croda da Lago, 1,700 m., vii.1926, in nest of 

Microtus incertus. Misurina, 1,750 m., vi. vii.1926, on Evotomys nageri and 

Talpa europaea. Monte Cadini, 2,200 m., vii.1926, on Microtus nivalis. 

Platzwiese, 1,950 m., vii. 1926, in nests of Microtus incertus. 

s. Ctenopthalmus nivalis dolomiticus subsp. nov. (text-fig. 3). 

$. Lobe of sternite VII less produced than in the more western races, the 
apical margin from this lobe downwards more 
oblique and distinctly incurved twice (fig. 3) ; 
the number of bristles in the row on this 
sternite varying from 4 to 7, one or two of 
them marginal. On ventral portion of tergite 
VIII from 13 to 17 bristles, the last bristle 
short and stout and placed above the last long 
one, sometimes two such short stout bristles 
instead of one. 

3$? from : Monte Cadini, above Misurina, 
2,200 m., and below Drei Zinnen Hiitte, 2,300 m., 
vii. 1926, off Microtus nivalis. 

This may turn out to be the $ of Ct. orphilus 
J. & R. (1923), from the Engadine, of which only 
the <J is known. I made a special effort at 
collecting M. nivalis ; but as I found it only 
among the rocks at and above the tree-line, the 

inspection of the traps meant a stiff walk uphill of an hour and a half, which 
was apt to interfere with other excursions. I only obtained five specimens of the 
snow-mouse at the Monte Cadini ; a sixth specimen I caught near the pass leading 
from the Drei Zinnen hut to Fischleinboden. 




9. Ctenophthahnus bisoctodentatus Kolen. (1863). 

•'<?(?. 2?? from : Vols a. Schlern, 950 m., vii. 1922 and Misurina, 1,750 m., 
vii.1926, off Talpa europaea. 

The $$ have sternite VII divided by a sinus into a large upper lobe and a 
smaller lower one. 

10. Rhadinopsylla casta sp. nov. (text-figs. 4, 5). 
Rlmdinoj)sylla spec, Jordan & Roths., Ectoparasites i. \). 109. sub. no. 34 

(1920) (Zermatt). 

When describing Rh. mesa J. & R. (1920), I.e., we said that we had two $$ 
which showed certain differences from the ? of Rh. mesa, which we mentioned, 
and we added that we did not think it " advisable to give a name to the two 
examples in the absence of the other .sex.'' 



176 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXR'. 1928. 



We now have, from the Dolomites, both sexes of this species and also an 
additional ? of Rh. mesa from Switzerland. These specimens leave no doubt 
that they are specifically distinct from Rh. mesa. 

Genal corn!) with five spines. Prothoracie comb of Hi to 22 spines. Apical 
spines on abdomen more numerous than iii Rh. mega : 29 in both cJ^J of the new 
species, and 15 in the only (J of Rh. mesa we have, in the $ of Rh. mesa 15 in one 
specimen and 22 in the other, in the $ of Rh. casta 27. The bristles on abdominal 
sternites III to VII less numerous than in Rh. mesa : in the $ of Rh. mesa 30, 
in the (J (J of Rh. casta 20 and 26 respectively, in the $$ of Rh. mesa 46 and 50, 
and in the $ Rh. casta 31, 32 and 36. 

Modified Segments : — q • clasper broader than in Rh. mesa, less narrowed 
towards apex and the ventral margin more rounded, ventricose ; manubrium 




shorter. Sternite IX apicaUy broader. $ : sinus of sternite VII smaller 

and less deep, the angle above the apical sinus of tergite VIII less projecting ; 
the stylet shorter. Body of spermatheca less narrowing towards tail than in 
Rh. mesa, and the tail broader near apex than at base, the apex being swollen 
and rounded (text-fig. 5). For comparison we figure the spermatheca of Rh. 
mesa (text-fig. 6), which has not been figured before. 

2cJcJ, 1$ from : Monte Cadini, above Misurini, 2,200 m., vii. 1926, off 
Microtiis nivalis. 

The above-mentioned two Swiss $$ and the one recorded I.e. p. 288 also 
belong here. 



11. Palaeopsylla kohauti Dampf (1910). 

Vols a. Schlern, 950 m., vii. 1922, and Misurina, 1,750 m. 
Talpa europaea. evidently common. 



vii. 1926, off 



NoviTATES ZooLoaiCAE XXXIV. 192S. 177 

12. Palaeopsylla sorecis Dale (1878). 
Vols a. Schlern. 950 m., vii.1922, on Microtus caught in a mole run. 

13. Doratopsylla cuspis J. & R. (1915). 

A small series of both sexes from: Vols a. Schlern, vii.1922, off Talpn 

europaea, and Misurina, 1,750 m., 30. vi. 1926, off Sorex araneus. Above 

Canipo di Sotto, Cortina, 1,200 m., 22. vi. 1926, on Evotomys nageri, one $. 

The seventh abdominal sternite of the $ sometimes has a distinct apical 
sinus. 

14. Hystrichopsylla talpae Curtis (1826). 

A pair from : Misurina, 1,750 m., vii. 1926, on Microtus agrestis. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAK XXXIV. 1928. 



SIPHONAPTERA COLLECTED DURING A VISIT TO THE 
EASTERN UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA IN 1927. 

By dr. KARL JORDAN. 

(With 4 text-figures.) 

IVyf Y visit to the United States had a threefold object : to attend a meeting 
of the Organising Committee of the Fourth International Congress 
of Entomology, to study Fleas in Museums and at large, and to see a little of 
•■ Land and Leute " in that renowned countrj-. The visit has been satisfactory 
in every way, at least to myself, and this could not be otherwise, since I met 
with the greatest assistance and kindest hospitality everywhere. 

My studies in the systematics of the American Siphonaptera had advanced 
to a pomt where it became necessary to consult the material of this order of 
insects contained in American Museums, particularly the L'nited States National 
Museum at Washington, D.C., where most of the types of the species described 
by Carl F. Baker are preserved. Some questions of identification and sjTionymy 
could not be answered without comparison of the types to which the names 
concerned applied, and several species not contained in. the British Museum 
collection (inclusive of the collection of N. C. Rothschild) could not be placed 
correctly in our scheme of classification before we had seen a specimen of each 
of these species which were knowTi to us only from the descriptions. I spent 
nearly four weeks at the \J. H. Nat. Mus., where I was given every facility to 
study the numerous types in the flea-collection, my special thanks being due 
to Dr. Aldrich and Dr. Ewing for the great courtesy and help extended to me. 
The result of this laboratory work will be published in due time. Besides com- 
paring specimens and drawing details of structure there were several other 
points of interest for my researches in SiiJhonaptera. The collection of N. C. 
Rothschild is fairly rich in species and specimens from the western side of the 
North American Continent and the Rocky Mountains, while the Eastern States 
are comparatively jjoorly represented, even as regards some of the commoner 
species. Moreover, the records of hosts sometimes left me in doubt as to which 
species of mammal was the normal host of a particular «pecies of flea. And, 
further, the distribution of some of the species was likewise puzzling to me. 
All these points, important for my researches, were ample reason for wishing to 
collect material of fleas during my stay in the country. My colleagues at Washing- 
ton to whom I mentioned my desire did not confine themselves to giving me good 
advice, but took me on excursions into the woods of the Potomac R., where I had 
a most enjoyable and profitable time. I am particularly grateful to Mr. A. S. 
Barber, whom I accompanied several times to Plummer's Island, and to 
Mr. E. A. Preble for giving me hospitality in his cabin below Black Pond on the 
Virginia side of the Potomac. I do not think I shall ever forget the two nights 
I spent in the woods of the Potomac where every call of Boast, Bird and Amphi- 
bian was strange to me and the flash-lights of the Lampyrids were a most attractive 
sight. Here 1 made the acquaintance " in the flesh " of a number of fleas which 
I knew only from specimens jJreservcd in alcohol or perpetuated in balsam. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 170 

The first live example of a species of animal or plant one has studied from dead 
specimens is always verj' interesting ; it impresses the mind as being much more 
real than the preserved material of the laboratory, possessing an additional 
reality in being alive. Mr. A. Howell told me that I would have to clear the place 
oi Peromyscus leucopus before I could expect to get much else in my traps, meaning 
that the White-footed Mouse was very abundant and easily trapped. In a way 
I was glad that he was right ; for I soon got this mouse and its nest, and the 
fleas obtained proved to answer two questions. At home I had not been able to 
identify from the description a species named by Baker in 1905 Ceratojihyllus 
leucopus from a single female taken off Peromyscus leucopus ; and here was this 
identical flea, abundant on the White-footed Mouse. Moreover, an examination 
of it under the microscope in the Museum proved it to be the same as Ceratophyllus 
aeger Roths. (190.5), described from Alberta and since received now and again in a 
few specimens from various Eastern States. The interest in C. leucopus soon 
flagged, as it is the flea most commonly obtained wherever I trapped for mice 
during my visit. The first specimen of the Short-tailed Shrew {Blarina brevicauda) , 
which I caught in a mole-trap under herbage on the bank of the brook which 
runs through Mr. E. A. Preble's property, yielded a small series of a flea of which 
our collection only contained two specimens ; and on Neotomapennsylvanica, which 
Mr. Preble showed me where to trap, I found, in numbers, an undescribed flea 
which is of interest as being the Eastern representative of a series of forms known 
to occur from Colorado west- and northward. Some Pine Mice (Pitymys 
pinetorum) caught on Plummer's Island provided me with a series of specimens 
of a flea {Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker 1895) which is usually found on 
moles, the Pine Mouse being new to me as a host of this flea. That a couple of 
days more or less haphazard collecting within easy reach from Washington, 
D.C., should add this much to my knowledge of the Siphonaptera was most 
encouraging ; but collecting had to remain a very secondary matter during my 
staj' m this city, the visits to the woods being but pleasant incidents interrupting 
the work at the Museum. 

When at Philadelphia, where I enjoyed the hospitality of Professor and Mrs. 
P. P. Calvert at Cheyney, about an hour's journey from the city, I might have 
continued the collection if I had known what an ideal place for my purpose 
Cheyney was. But there was so much on my programme that I had left the 
traps at Philadelphia, and therefore the only addition to the bag were the fleas 
of a mole which my hosts caught for me in the garden, the first American Mole 
{Scalops aquaficus) I had seen. There are three species of moles in the Eastern 
United State.s, all of which I caught later on in other places. What flea occurs 
on the most peculiar species of the three, the star-nosed mole, is not linown ; 
the pair I caught at Mt. Kisco, N.Y., had no Ectoparasites. The species lives 
in swampy ground and possibly has no flea of its own, but much depends on the 
place where the nest is made, about which I know nothing. The other two species, 
the Common Mole with naked tail and Brewer's Mole with hairy tail, have the 
same flea and only this one species. In Europe any locality has only one species 
of mole, but at least four species of fleas may be expected to occur on it. That 
is a singular contrast, which justifies the conclusion that the American moles 
originally had no flea, and that the single species of flea now occurring on them 
in abundance is a later acquirement. This conclusion is borne out by another 
consideration ; I mentioned above that on the Potomac I obtained the mole- 



180 NoVITATEa ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1028. 

flea from the Pine Mouse and only this species : at Braewold, Mt. Kisco. N.Y., 
where I stayed as the guest of Miss Carolena Wood, it was again this mole-flea 
that I found on the specimens of the Meadow Mouse (Microtu-s pennsylvanicus). 
We may take it as certain that this American mole-flea has, as normal hosts, 
several species of mice besides the moles, and as the flea belongs to a genus 
which is represented by an abundance of species in Africa, Europe and Palae- 
arctic Asia, only one of which occurs on the European mole, all the others being 
fleas of rodents, the conclusion is not far-fetched that the American moles 
received their one species of flea from the mice, not the other way about. Mice 
frequent the runs of moles ; in Europe one of the commonest mouse-fleas 
(Ctenophthahnus agyrtes Heller 1896) is often found on the mole and in its nest, 
and the frequency of such an association may easily lead to an adaptation of the 
mouse-flea to the mole, the deciding step in this evolution would be. on the part 
of the flea, the loss of the aversion to suck the blood of the mole. 

The surroundings of Braewold, Mt. Kisco, with its fields, meadows, woods, 
brooks and vistas of forest-clad hills invite dreams of the time when industry had 
not yet been introduced, and people were industrious in tilling the soil. The 
place creates a deep feelmg of peace after the bustle of the city. I spent several 
days under Miss Carolena Wood's most hospitable roof and employed the time 
in sampUng the fauna in the neighbourhood of the house and farm. The English 
sparrow was very much in evidence, as nearly everywhere in the Eastern States 
of the North American continent. The bird reminded me of my youth when 
Reiche, in Alfeld (Hannover), bought up sparrows for shipment to the United 
States, where they now flourish to such an extent that they are a nuisance in 
many places. I was interested to know what flea occurred in its nest, hoping 
that the sparrow either had picked up an American bird-flea, or had brought its 
own flea over from Europe. But in the nests I took at Braewold I found only 
the hen-flea and this in numbers. The occurrence of the Old World hen-flea in 
the Atlantic States and its absence from the Pacific side of the Continent, where 
fowls are infested with another flea, is one of the puzzles we cannot as yet explain. 
The distribution of the human flea in the States is somewhat similar, Pulex 
irritans being practically unknown in the Eastern States and common in the 
south and west. 

The experience gained on the Potomac and at Mt. Kisco stood me in good 
stead when I arrived, towards the end of June, at the Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, 
Pa., where my kind and most helpful friend Dr. W. J. Holland introduced me 
after I had finished studying, in the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh, some special 
questions of taxonomy in the large collection of Lepidoptera for which that 
Museum is renowned among Entomologists. I stayed at the Rolling Rock 
Club for nearly a fortnight ; it is a delightfid place where I could devote all my 
time to rambles in the extensive woods and to trapping and insect-collecting. I 
shall always be grateful to my host, Mr. R. B. Mellon, for giving me this oppor- 
tunity to study life in the Alleghany Mountains under the most comfortable 
and favourable conditions imaginable. The woods run right up to the house 
and teem with small mammals, birds and insects. Here the Red and Grey- 
Squirrels, the Opossum, Brewer's Mole, the Short-tailed Shrew, Chipmunk, 
Woodchuck and Cotton-tail Rabbit, and the White-footed Mouse can be en- 
countered a few yards from the door, and farther afield the Packrat occurs under 
disused barns and among rocks, the Skunk and Red-backed Woodmouse are in 



NOVITATKS ZOOI-OGICAE XXX [V. 1928. 181 

evidence, and, if one is lucky, even a Rattlesnake may be met with in the open 
places in the woods. I am certain that more species of mice occur in this 
district of the Alleghanies than 1 obtained during my stay ; but the discovery 
of the whereabouts of small mammals with a restricted distribution requires a 
longer time than was at my disposal. The staff of the house and estate gave me 
much help in my pursuits, and particular thanks are due from me to the game- 
warden, who was imtiring in assisting me. 

As is so often the case with good things, there was one flaw inimical to making 
a collection of the fleas occurring on the bigger mammals : it was evidently 
not the right season for certain species, for there were but two squirrel-fleas on 
the half-dozen Marmota monax I examined ; the raccoon, caught in a trap, searched 
under chloroform and then liberated, only yielded the same common squirrel 
flea, and the foxes which were kept in an enclosure had no fleas on them, only 
one larva being the result of the hunt, this larva being found in sacking on which 
a young fox had been sleeping. The kennels, where I hoped to find either the 
Dog- or the Cat-flea, were very disappointing : they were kept so clean and well 
disinfected that fleas had no chance whatever, and even a tame barn-cat was 
found to be devoid of the usual live-stock. Two Opossums caught in the wood 
near the house aroused great expectations in me : no Opossum-flea being known 
from North America I hoped to make a good find. The Opossum offers no 
opposition to scientific investigations, even if they tend to support the theory of 
Evolution ; but it puts out its tongue at you. The animal can be handled as 
if it were a dead specimen. I searched the two Opossums carefully again and 
again and only had six fleas as a reward of this labour ; one specimen was 
the Woodchuck-flea, the only example I obtained of this common species 
during my visit, two were the common >Squirrel-flea, two others the flea of the 
White-footed Mouse, and the sixth example was a new Mouse-flea which the 
Opossum probably had picked up when eating a mouse or grubbing for insects. 
I think the fall would be a better season for some of the mammal-fleas than 
the summer. A number of abandoned bird-nests examined at the Rolling Rock 
Club proved a failure, whereas fleas were fairly plentiful on mice and shrews ; 
the best species among them was a small series of Leptopsylla hesperomys, which 
was but poorly represented in the collection at home. The Blarina-iiea was 
not rare, and as I had already obtained a series of it on the Potomac and at 
Mt. Kisco its capture was apt to leave me cold. The Blarina is a carnivorous, 
fierce little beast ; I was shown a quite young rabbit whose ears had been 
partially eaten, and on putting a trap in the nest I caught a Blarina, which 
had evidently been the culprit. 

It was no merit of my own that I was luckier with bird-fleas at Cohasset, 
Boston, Mass., where I stayed with my friend Mr. B. Preston Clark in his beautiful 
home, situated on the rocky shore of the Atlantic. Mr. Clark's daughter and 
her husband are much interested in birds, and when I mentioned that we knew 
very few bird-fleas from North America, Mrs. K. C. Harding suggested that we 
might find something 1 wanted in the old nests contained in the nesting boxes 
set up in the garden. And here indeed we obtained the nest of the White-footed 
Mouse, full of fleas, cocoons and larvae, and in another box a quantity of a bird- 
flea onh' known from far-away British Columbia. Soon after my arrival in 
England Mrs. Harding sent me several tubes with fleas, one tube containing a 
species which I at first took to be new, but afterwards found to be described 

13 



l82 NOVFTATES ZoOLOr.lCAE XXXIV. 1928. 

from <i single specimen, and this again from British Columbia. This specie.s is a 
very interesting find, and as there are nearly fifty specimens, there are enough 
for a number of laboratories where Ectoparasites are being studied. The 
material of bird-fleas which we owe to Mrs. K. C. Harding is a most successful 
and welcome contribution to our knowledge of these blood-sucking insects, for 
which all who are interested in this particular line of research, a branch of Medical 
Entomology, will be grateful. In Mrs. Preston Clark's garden we also found 
the Meadow Mouse and the Short-tailed Shrew, and one of the species of flea 
(No. 11) obtained I had not previously collected. 

And now a few days in New York and then back to England. 

The number of species of fleas I found is small, as is natural on a rapid 
visit during which one is bound to collect the same species over and over again. 
But 1 had nevertheless accomplished what I wanted : to become familiar with 
the commoner species, their hosts and haunts, and thus to shed to some extent 
the dry shell of the laboratory entomologist. 



1. Cediopsylla simplex Baker (1895). 

East Falls Church, Va., bred in numbers in June from a newly abandoned 
nest of Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus which Dr. E. A. Chapin kindly obtained 
for me. 

2. Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803). 

Mt. Kisko, N.Y., June, in nests of Passer domesticus L. (1758), 
35 specimens. 

Babson's Park, Mass., July, in nests of Sialia sialis sialis and Iridiprocne 
bicolor, 16 specimens collected by L. W. Smith, communicated by Mrs. K. C. 
Harding. 

Probably a flea introduced from Europe with Domestic Fowl, but we cannot 
yet be sure. It is possible that the species is an indigenous one on some wild 
birds, such as Parus. Further investigation is necessary, in Europe as well as 
America, and above all in India. 



:i. Ceratophyllus difflnis Jord. (lf)25) (te.xt-fig. 7). 

Cohasset, Boston, Mass., August, in nest of Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 47 
specimens, Mrs. K. C. Harding coll. 

I described this species in Nov. Zool. xxxii, p. 1 U (1925) from a single male 
obtained by Mr. Garrett at Okanagan Falls, British Columbia, on Colymbus 
holboelli. The present long series confirms my statement that the species is 
closely related to C. garei Roths. (1902). The hitherto unknown female is easily 
recognised by the seventh abdominal sternite and the spermatheca, which we 
figure. The apical margin of the seventh sternite (VII. st.) is more or less evenly 
incurved, the upper and lower lobes being about equal in size in lateral aspect. 
The spermatheca (R.s.) is similar to that of C garei, but its tail is longer. In 
C. diffinis, C. garei and some other bird-fleas the proximal portion of the duct of 
the spermatheca is not strongly chitinised as it is in the species with a long 
spermatheca of the C. galli7iae-type. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



183 



4. Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. (1920). 

Cbhasset, Boston, Mass., July-August, in nest of Troglodytes aedon aedon ; 
41 specimens. 

Rock, Mass., July, in nest of Sialia sialis sialis, A. W. Higgins coll. 

Babson's Park, Mass., in nest of Iridiprocne bicolor, L. W. Smith coll. 

These three lots I owe to Mrs. K. C. Harding's kind collaboration. Origin- 
ally described from a small series oflF Iridiprocne bicolor obtained at Okanagan 
Landing, British Columbia, by J. A. Munro. The seventh sternite is deeply 
sinuate, the lobe above the sinus being more or less pointed, but variable in 
length. 

I expected to find some subspecitic difference between the specimens from 
Massachusetts and British Columbia, but the examples from these widely 
separated countries are alike, apart from individual variability. 




5. Ceratophyllus fasciatus Bosc (1801). 

Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, Pa., 2!) June, on Neotonia pennsylvanica, one (J. 

Cohasset, Boston, Mass., 4 July, off Peromyscus leucopus, one $. 

This cosmopolitan rat-flea occurs sparsely in the Eastern States ; it is 
commoner in California. It has received several names, as will be pointed out 
another time when dealing with the synonymy of the American fleas. 

<). Ceratophyllus arctomys Baker (1904). 
Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, Pa., 28 June, on Opossum ; one o- 



7. Ceratophyllus wickhami Baker (1895). 

Rolling Rock Club, 25 June, on Mtirmota monax, 2$$ ; 2G June, on Procyon 
lotor, one (J ; 1 July, on Sciurus hudmnius loquax, 12 specimens ; 2 July, on 
Tarnias striatus, one c?, and on Opossum, 2 j";^. 

A very common Squirrel-flea, which has been introduced into England with 



184 NOVITATES ZOOLOt;ICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

the Gray Squirrel. There is a very interesting pathological specimen among the 
series taken oil the Red Squirrel. The mesonotuni of this specimen bears on 
the left side at the lower angle two broad spines recalling the spines of the pro- 
thoracic comb, but narrower and shorter, and below these spines a longer bristle- 
like spine ; the longitudinal ventral incrassation of the mesonotum extends to 
the base of these abnormal spines, while on the other side of the body the 
incrassation fades away in the middle of the segment as in normal specimens. 
What is the meaning of these spines ? Nearly all fleas, with the exception of the 
family Pulicidae (cf. Verhandl. III. Internat. Ent.-Kongress. p. (501, 1926) bear, 
on the under surface of the apical mesonotal area which overlaps the metanotum, 
a row of bristle-like projections, variable in number and distant from the apical 
margin of the segment. These false bristles I consider to be homologous to the 
spines of the combs. In the specimen under discussion two of these " false 
bristles " have not been arrested in their development when they reached the 
normal size, but have gone on beyond that stage, a mechanical interference 
with the normal process of growth probably being the cause of this abnormal 
development. The apical margin of the segment turns frontal above the spines. 
as if the lower portion of the apical area were used up in the development of 
the spines. We find this phenomenon similarly illustrated in a large number 
of species which bear apical spines on the tergites, the marginal area of the 
segments being reduced in length (excised) wherever there is a spine. 

s. Ceratophyllus sexdentatus pennsylvanicus sp. nov. (text-figs, s, 9). 

Represents C. sexdentatus Baker (1904) in the Atlantic States. Chaetotaxy 
similar. Occiput with the median bristle not accompanied by a smaller bristle, 
in which character the new species agrees with all the subspecies of C sexdentatus 
Baker (1904). 

(J. Manubrium (M) of clasper shorter than in C. sexdentatus agilis Roths. 
(1905) ; process P long, symmetrically rounded at apex : exopodite F usually 
with 5 spines, sometimes with 4, the distance of the lowest spine from the extreme 
base of F much longer than its distance from the apical angle of F. The proximal 
lobe of sternite IX. which bears a short spine, nnich less expanded in a longi- 
tudinal direction than in C. sexdentatus agilis ; the apical lobe of IX st. is stronglv 
curved down, much more so than in C. sexdentatus agilis, but not subtruncate, 
as it is in C. sexdentatus sexdentatus. 

$. Sternite VII (text-fig. 9) deeply divided into two lobes, the upper one 
always long and apically enlarged, but variable in outline. On the wide ventral 
portion of tergite VIII 11 or 12 bristles on the outer surface inclusive of the 
marginal ones, no bristles along the internal incrassation which extends obliquely 
dorsad-frontad from the median ventral bristles. 

Below Black Pool. Potomac R.. Va., May, on Xeotoma pennsi/lvanica, 22 
specimens. 

Rolling Rock Club. Ligonier, Pa., end of June, on the same host, 46 specimens, 
incl. of type. 

This subspecies probably occurs wheiever jV. pennsi/lranica is found. The 
true hosts of the various other subspecies of C. .sexdentatus. which are known to 
occur from Colorado north- and westward, are also forms of Xeotoma, though 
the flea has been found on other mammals as well, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGK'AE XXXIV. 1028. 



185 



it. Ceratophyllus leucopus Baker (l!t()4). 

The commonest mouse-flea in the Atlantic States. Its true host is Peromysctis 
feuc.opu.'^. 

Phimmer's Island, Md., and below Black Pond, Potomac R., Va., May, on 
Peromyscns leHCopus and in its nest, 45 specimens and some larvae. 

Braewold, Mt. Kisco, N.Y., Jmie, on the same host, 6 specimens. 




.VII. St. 



Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier. Pa., June and -luly, on the same host, 17 
specimens, and on Opossum, 2 July, 2 99- 

Cohasset, Boston. Mass., July, on P. leucopiw and in it.** nest, 51 specimens 
and larvae. 

10. Odontopsyllus multispinosus Baker (1898). 
East Falls Church, Va., May, in a recently abandoned nest of Si/lmlagus 
fioridanun rnaUurus given to me by Dr. E. A. Chapin, one 9! which I put into the 
nest, optimistically hoping that it would produce a good crop of offspring ; 
the specimen died and got lost in the nest. 



ISfi NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1SI28. 

11. Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker (lfi04). 

rommon on Moles and Arvicolid Mice, accidentally on other mammals. 

Phimmer's Island, Potomac R., Md., May, on Pitymys pinetorum and in its 
nest, 28 specimens. 

Below Black Pond, Potomac R., Va., May, in nest of Peromysciis leucopus, 
one $. 

C'hey^ley, Philadelphia, Pa., June, on Scalop.s aqunticus, 14. 

Braewold, Mt. Kisco, N.Y., June on Microtus pennsylvanims, 13 specimens, 
and on Blarina brevicauda, 2$$. 

Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, Pa., end of June and early July, on Parascalops 
breweri, 16 specimens ; on J/«^ musculus, one $ ; on Evotomy.s rjnpperi, one $ ; 
on Blarina brevicavda, 13 specimens ; on Neotoma pennsylvanica, one cJ. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, June, on Scalops aquaticus, 11 specimens. 

Cohasset, Boston, Mass, July, on Blarina brevicauda, 5 specimens, and on 
Microtus pennsylvanicus, one $. 



12. Neopsylla wenmanni Roths. (1904). 
Cohasset, Boston, Mass., July, on Peromyscus leucopus, 2?$. 

13. Doratopsylla blarinae Fox (1914). 

The species is nearest to the European D. cuspis Roths. (1915). Evidently 
common. 

Below Black Pond, Potomac R.. Va., May, on Blarina brevicauda, 8 specimens. 

Braewold, Mt. Kisco, June, on the same host, 15 specimens. 

Rolling Rock Club. Ligonier, Pa., on the same host, 15 specimens : on 
Mtis muscidus, one tS '• on Peromyscus leucopus, one ^J. 

Cohasset, Boston, Mass., July, on Blarina. brevicauda, one (J. 

14. Leptopsylla hesperomys Baker (1904). 

RoUmg Rock Club, Ligonier. Pa., 2.S June and 2 July, on Peromyscus leucopus, 
2cJc? and 49?. 

This small series is most welcome, as we have only two s])ecimens in the 
collection. 

15. Leptopsylla catatina sp. nov. (text-fig. 10). 

$. Near L. selenis Roths. (1906). Two genal spines, of which the upper 
extends further distad than the lower. Pronotal comb with 27 spines. On 
metanotum and abdominal tergites I to VI the following spines on the two sides 
together : 5, 7, 8, 8, 6, 5, 4. Four antepygidial bristles. Sternite VII (text- 
fig. 10) truncate, with a small sinus below the upper angle, the angle projecting 
as a short lobe, which is more rounded on one side than on the other, as indicated 
in the figure ; the margin below the sinus slightly convex. Stylet as in L. selenis. 
Head of spermatheca (R.s.) less elliptical than in L. selenis. 

Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, 28 June, on Didelphis virijiniaiui, one $. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



1S7 



Hi. Myodopsylla insignis Roths. (lf)0:5). 

Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, E*a., end of June, on Myotic lucifngus, 18 
specimens. 

I. MAMMALS. 

1. Didelphis. virginiana Kerr (1792). 

Ceratojihylhiti leucopus HiikeT {1904:) 
Ceratojjhyllu.s arcfomys Baker {1904) 
Ceratophyllns wickkami. Baker (I Sit.')) 
LeiJtopsylla caUitina n.sp. .... 

2. Sylvilagus floridanus malluras Thomas (1898). 

Cediop.syJIa simplex Baker (1895), in nest 
Odontopsyllufi iiinUispinosus Baker (1898), in nest 

3. Evotomys gapperi Vigors (1830). 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker ( 1 904) 

4. Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord (181, 5). 

Ctevophtludmiis pseudagyrtes Baker (1904) 

5. Pitymys pinetorum Le Conte (1829). 

Clenoplithabniis pseudagyrtes Baker (1904) 
0. Neotoma pennsylvannica Stone (1893). 

CeratophyUus sexdentatus pennsylvanicus n.subsp. 

Ceratophyllus fasciatus Bosc (1801) 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker (1904) 
7. Peromyscus leucopus Rafin. (1818). 

Ceratopfi yll us fasciatus Hose {IH0\) 

Ceratophyllus leucopus Baker (1904), also in nests 

Ctenophthalmus j^seudagyrtes Baker (1904) 

Neopsylla wenmanni Roths. (1904) 

Doratopsylla hlarinae Fox {19\ 4) . 

Leptopsylla. hesperomys Baker (1904) 
S. Mus musculus L. (1758). 

Ctenophthabnus pseiulagyrtes Baker (1904) 

Doratopsylla blarinae Fox {19\4) . 
9. Marmota monax L. (1758). 

Ceratophyllus wickhami Baker (1895) . 

10. Tamias striatus L. (1758). 

Ceratophyllus irickhawi Baker (1895) 

11. Sciurus hudsonius loquax Bangs (1890). 

Ceratophyllus wickhami Baker (1895) . 

12. Blarina brevicauda Say (1823). 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker (1904) 
Doratopsylla blarinae Fox {\9\4) . 

13. Scalops aquaticus L. (1758). 

Ctenophthalmus piseudagyrtes Baker (1904) 

14. Parascalops breweri Bachm. (1842). 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker (1904) 

15. Condylura cristata L. (1758). 

No fleas found 



No. of 
Pleas. 



2 

1 

2 
1 

223 
1 

1 

14 

28 

68 
1 
1 

1 
119 
1 
2 
1 
G 

1 



1 

12 

20 
39 

25 

16 



188 



NOVITATKS ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



Hi. Myotis lucifugus Le Conte (1831). 

3Iijo(lopsi/ll/i insignis Roths. (190:{) 
17. Vespertilio fuscus Beam-. (1796). 

No rteas found 
IS. Mephitis putida C'uvier (1798). 

No Ht'a.s found 

19. Procyon lotor L. (1766). 

C'eratophi/lhi.'i irirUiami Baker (1895) 

20. Vulpes fulva Desm. (1820). 

No fleas found 

21. Urocyon cinereoargenteus Mill. (1776). 

No flea.s found 



Xo. oi 
Flpas. 



18 



II. BIRDS' NESTS. 

Troglodytes aedon aedon Vieill. (1807). 

Cenitop/ii/llii.s idiii.s .]. & R. (1920) 
Iridiprocne bicolor Vieill. (1807). 

Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. (1920) 

Ceraiophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803) 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis I^. (1766). 

Ceralophi/lhi.f flijfinis Jord. (1925) 
Sialia sialis sialis L. (1758). 

GeratophyllKn gallinae Schrank (1803) 

CeratophyUv.'^ idius J. & R. (1920) 
Passer domesticus L. (1758). 

Ceratophyllus gaUi7iae Schrank (1803) . 



41 

2 
2 

47 

14 
20 

35 



00 


1 1 f 


I 


o 


c^ 


2 




NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1028. 



Fig. 1. 

„ 3. 

,. 4. 

„ 5. 

:, 6. 

:. 7. 

„ 8. 

., 9. 

„ 10. 

., 11. 

., 12. 

„ 13. 

„ 14. 

„ 15. 

„ ir,. 

M 17. 

„ 18. 

„ 19. 

„ 20. 

„ 21. 
22. 

.. 23. 

„ 24. 

„ 25. 

„ 26. 

., 27. 

„ 28. 

.: 29. 

,, 30. 

., 31. 

.. 32. 

„ 33. 

„ 34. 

=. 35. 

„ 36. 

„ 37. 

„ 38. 

„ 39. 

., 40. 

„ 41. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 1, II, AND 111 

Perrotia taniatavana ^, fore- and hindwing 
Epipomponia mnltipunctata $, fore- and hindwing 
,, .. (J, left forewing . 



of 



of 



the 






(J', right forewing 

specimen 
cJ, left forewing . 
(J, right forewing 

specimen 
$, hindwing 
$, hindwing 
$, hindwing 
forewing 
left hindwing . 
right hindwing of the 
specimen 
Epipyrops doddi ,^, left hindwing 
atra ^J, left hindwing . 
., malagassica ^, fore- and hindwing 

Anopyrops corticiria ^J .... 

„ $, left hindwing 
Epipomponia multipunctata, apex of abdomen, lateral aspect 
,, ,, apex of abdomen, ventral aspect 

Epipyrops atra q, apex of abdomen, ventral aspect 

., doddi o . apex of abdomen, ventral aspect 

Anopyrops corticina q, apex of abdomen, ventral aspect 
Epipomponia elongata $, head, ventral aspect 



the 



,, $, fore- and hind 
multipunctata (J 

? ■ 



,, ,, cocoon 

,, elongata $ 

Anopyrops corticina $ 

., ? . ■ 

Tegiila of Diphoridas (Hesperiidae) 
Xofodonta . 
Xanthospilopteryx 
,, Anthocharis 

Chrysophmus 
,, Euploea 
Forewing of Eumesia semiargentea 
Base of forewing of Chrysophamis dispar 

■A Hesperid 

Forewing of Arctiocossus antargyreus Feld. (1867) . 
Hindwing of Arctiocossus antargyreius Feld. (1867) . 



wmg . 



NOVITATES ZOOLOCIC/E. VoL. XXXIV. 1927-28. 



PI. 1. 




NoviTATES ZooLocic^. VoL. XXXIV. 1927-28. 



PL II. 




NOVITATES ZOULOGIC/E. VoL. XXXIV. 1927-28. 



25 



PI. III. 






26 



.301 







HI 



sa:oj 



NOTITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 



ig. 1. 


Clasper of Papilio polla ...... 


P- 


160 


2_ 


„ ,, latreillei geneslieri .... 


P- 


160 


,, 3. 


,. ,, „ robus ..... 


P- 


161 


4. 


Anal segment of P. philoxenus polyeuctes, dorsal aspect 


P- 


162 


., 5. 


The same, lateral aspect ....... 


P- 


jj 


6. 


Clasper of P. philoxenus philoxenus .... 


P- 


162 


,, 7. 


,, ,, polyeuctes . . . . . 


P. 


162 


„ 8. 


„ P. dasarada ravana ...... 


P- 


164 


„ 9. 


,, „ dasarada . . . . . 


P- 


164 


„ 10. 


„ ,, barata ...... 


P- 


164 


„ 11. 


„ „ melanurus . . . . . 


P- 


165 


„ 12. 


„ P. hedisius ...... 


P- 


165 


„ 13. 


P. crassipes ...... 


P- 


166 


„ 14. 


,, P. daemonius daemonius .... 


P- 


166 


„ 15. 


,, P. adamsoni ...... 


P- 


167 


„ 16. 


,, P. nevilli ...... 


P- 


168 


., 17. 


P. laos 


P- 


168 


„ 18. 


,, P. rnencius rhadinus ..... 


P- 


169 


„ 19. 


,, P. impediens impediens .... 


P- 


169 


„ 20. 
„ 21. 
„ 22. 


,, P. plutonius plutoniiis .... 


P- 


171 


71 J, ,,...... 


P- 
P- 


;; 


„ 23. 


,, ., pembertoni .... 


• P- 


170 


:, 24. 


„ tytleri ..... 


• P- 


170 


:, 25. 


,, P. alcinov.s mansonensis .... 


• P- 


171 


„ 26. 


,, ,, loochooanus .... 


• P- 


172 


„ 27. 


.» )> J) .... 


P- 


,, 


„ 28. 


., ,, alcinous ..... 


■ P- 


172 


„ 29. 





P- 


,. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 



Fig. 



1. 


Papilio 


nevilli ^, Yunnan . 


2. 


J, 


,, $, Yunnan . 


3. 


,, 


rnencius rhadinv.'^ ^J, Yunnan 


4. 




$, Yunnan 


5. 


»j 


hedisius ^, Yunnan 


6. 


)? 


latreillei genestieri q, Tibet 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGIC/E. VoL. XXXiV. 



PI. VI. 




iTES ZooLocic/E. Vol. XXXIV. 1927-28. 



PI. VII 




?ziM^ 



LEPIDOPTERA 

COLLECTED BY THE 

British Ornithoioffists' Union and Woiiaston Expeditions in 
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WITH TWO COLOURED PLATES 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D. 

(LORD ROTHSCHILD) 

PRICE: £1 5s. (lees 20% to Booksellers). 



A REVISION OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY 

SPHINGIDAE 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D., 

AND 

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NOVITATES ZflOLOGlCAE. 



03 O 



H Journal of Zooloo^. 



< c 

■^■<' , /%♦/ EDITED BY 



,^.':^?^n^^, 



LORD EOTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Db. EENST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXIV. 



No. 3. 

Pages 189—395. 

Plates VIII-XI. 

Issued July SIst, 1928, at the Zooloqioal Museum, Tmno. 



PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON & VINEY, Ld., LONDON AND AYLESBDUY. 

1928. 



Vol. XXXIV. 

NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAK 

BDITBD BT 

LORD ROTHSCEILI), ERNST EARTERT, and K&RL JORDAN. 



CONTENTS OF NO. III. 

PAQSS 

1. TYPES OF BIRDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM. 

C. ADDITIONAL AND OVERLOOKED TYPES Ernst Hartert . 189—230 

2. NOTES ON THE GENUS CYORNIS, BLYTH . H. C. Robinson and 

N. B. Kinnear . 231—261 

3. DIE ERGEBNISSE MEINER DRITTEN REISE 

NACH DEN BALEAREN A. v. Jordans . 262—336 

4. A RUSH THROUGH TUNISLl, ALGERIA, AND 

MAROCCO AND COLLECTING IN THE 
MAROCCAN ATLAS, IN 1927. (PLS. VIII 
AND IX.) Ernst Hartert . 337—371 

5. BIRD NOTES G. M. Mathews . 372—373 

6. NOTES ON lOLA US, ARGIOLA US AND RELATED 

GENERA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW 
SPECIES, SUBSPECIES AND A NEW GENUS 
(LEP. LYCAENIDAE). (PLS. X AND XI.) . N. D. Riley . . 374—394 

7. A CORRECTION Ernst Hartert . 395 



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NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 



Vol. XXXIV. JULY 1928. No. 3. 

TYPES OF BIEDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM. 

By ERNST HARTERT, Ph.D. 
G. Additional and overlooked Types. 

Continued from Novitates Zoologicae vol. xxiv, 1927, p. 38. See also Novttates Zoo- 
LOGICAE, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1926. 

IX. 
QINCE 1918, when I began to catalogue the types of birds in the Tring 
^ Museum, Lord Rothschild and I and other author.s, chiefly Dr. van Someren, 
Colonel Meinertzhagen, and others, have described new forms, the types of which 
are now in this Museum, while I also overlooked a few types. All these I am 
now trying to enumerate. I am thus bringing the number of type specimens 
to 2005, excepting the types in the Brehm collection (already catalogued) and 
those of Australian birds in the Mathews collection. 

It is satisfactory to see that other museums are pubhshing lists of their 
types, following my plan — for example, the Stockholm Museum, which published 
a list of their types written by Count Gyldenstolpe. 

It is to be hoped that all museums do the same, the most necessary being 
the Paris Museum, the British Museum, the Leiden Museum, the Senckenbei-g 
Museum in Frankfurt, Miinchen, Vienna, the American Museum, and others. 
There is, however, at present very httle hope that the bigger museums 
do this. 

CORVIDAE. 
t 1746. Corvus comix judaeus Meinertzh. = Corvus comix sardonius. 

Corvus cornis jiidaetis Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xxzix, p. 85 (1919 — Paleatine). 

Type: (J Bir Salem near Ludd, Palestine, 17.xii.l918. R. Meinertz- 
hagen coll. 

(Cf. Meinertzh., Nov. Zool., 1926, p. 108.) 

1747. Corvus comix minos Meinertzh. = Corvus comix minos. 

Corvus cornis minos, Meinertzhagen, BiiU. B.O. Club, xU, p. 19 (1920 — Crete). 

Type: ^ Candia district, 2,000 feet, 13. vi. 1920. R. Meinertzhagen coll. 
(Upperside much worn.) 

14 189 



190 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1748. Gamdus glandarius cretorum Meinertzh. = Garrulus glandarius cretorum. 

Garrulus yhmdaiiiis rrcluniin MciniTlzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 19 (1920 — Ilex forests on hiUs 
of Crete). 

Type : $ ad. Mt. Ida, Crete, 4,500 feet, 1.5. vi. 1920. R. Meinertzhagen coll. 



PARADISAEIDAE. 
1749. Paradisea mixta R. 

Paradism mixta Eothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 127 (1921—" Habitat ? The bird may be a 
hybrid between minor and novaeguineae, but is not probable "). 

Type : (J ad., tradeskin that came to London soon after the war, no indica- 
tion of locality. At that time Birds of Paradise came in lots from various parts 
of New Guinea, some evidently from the basins of the Digul or Fly River, con- 
taining lots of raggiana, novaeguineae, and hybrids between the two ; others 
apparently from the systems of the Markham and (or) Waria Rivers, in East 
New Guinea, or further south, containing many iniermedia, some grand and one 
niaria. The exact localities of these birds would be very interesting indeed, 
but those of the second category must have come from somewhere in the hinter- 
land of the great Huon Gulf. The exact locaUty of P. maria was somewhat 
uncertain, until Stresemami, Orn. Monatsber. 1925, p. 128, made it known that 
it occurred on the southern slopes of the Herzog Mountains. Whether P. mixta 
is a subspecies or a result of hybridization, cannot at present be decided. 

f 1750. Paradisea apoda subintennedia R. = Paradisaea apoda intermedia. 

Paradisea apoda subintermedia Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 138 (1921 — " Inland from Huon 
Guli"). 

Type : c? ad., tradeskin without locality, said to have come from inland 
of Huon Gulf, but there is no authority for this statement, no collector being 
known. The skins now known of intermedia came from the north-eastern part 
of the former " British New Guinea," from the Kumusi River (type locality) to 
Colhngwood Bay. The consignment, out of which Lord Rothschild had the 
type of subintermedia, contained specimens with duller nuptial side-plumes, 
and others as brilliant as in intermedia, and intermediates. As there are also 
specimens to all intents and purposes indistinguishable from the type of subinter- 
media, I regard the latter name as a pure synonym of intermedia, and I think 
they were collected near Holnicote Bay, where the type of intermedia was obtained, 
on the Kumusi River. 

1751. Amblyomis subalaris gennanus R. = Amblyornis inornattis germanus. 

Amhlyornis su'ialari.s germanus Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xxvii, p. 13 (1910 — " Rawlinson Mts., 
German New Guinea "). 

Type : $ Rawlinson Mts. Bought from the late Professor Foerster, who 
had it no doubt from Rev. Keysser. 

Since describmg this subspecies Lord Rothschild has received an adult male 
from the Rawlinson Mts. Amblyornis germanus is a small and dark very 
distinct form, not of subalaris, but of inornalus. Wing of adult male 129 mm. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXIV. 1928. 191 

DIGRURIDAE. 
1752. Dicrurus leucophaeus stevensi Baker = D. leiicophaeus sfevensi. 

Dicrurus leucophaeus stevensi Baker, Nov. Zool. xxv, p. 295 (not 294 !) (1918 — Darjiling). 

Type : $ ad. Rungarum, Darjiling, 5,700 feet, 25. iv. 1900. C. T. Bingham coll. 

This group of Drongos is rather comisUcated, and I could not criticize 
Baker's treatment without a thorough study of the Drongos, for which the 
material in the Tring Museum is not sufficient, but it seems to me that the 
author was justified in naming this form. 

1753. Dicrurus leucophaeus minimus Baker = D. leucophaeiis minimus. 

Dicrurus leucophaeus minimus Baker, Nov. Zool. xxv, p. 296 (1918 — Ceylon). 

Type: S Trincomali, Ceylon, 22. xu. 1874 (not 23.xii!). Coll. W. V. 
Legge. 

As usual in Ceylon birds, specimens from that island are much smaller 
than the allied forms. 

1754. Dicraras modestus ugandensis van Som. = Dicrurus modestus ugandensis. 

Dicrurus modestus ugandensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, p. 102 (1921 — " Bugoma, Budongo, 
Lugalambo, Mabira, Elgon in Uganda ; and Kavirondo in East Africa "). 

Type : (J Budongo, lO.xii. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
(?) 1755. Dicrurus elgonensis van Someren = Dicrurus ludwigi elgonensis. 

Dicrurus elgonensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 95 (1920 — " Elgon and North Kavirondo "). 

Type : Lerundo (Nyarondo of some maps), c? ad., 21.iii.l917. H. J. Allen 
Turner coll. for Col. Meinertzhagen. 

(We have no series to confirm the differences of this form, Ijut in any case 
they must be very slight.) 

1756. Dicrurus ater harterti Baker = Dicrurus macrocercus harterti. 

Dicrurus aler harterti Baker, Nui\ Zool. xxv, p. 299 (1918 — Formosa). 

Type: (J Tai-peh, Formosa, 6.iv.l896. Collected by Alan Owston's 
Japanese hunters. 

This form seems to me to be fairly distinct. 

ORIOLIDAE. 

1757. Oriolus luteolus thaiacous Hart. = Oriolus xanthomus thaiacous. 

Oriolus luteolus Ihaiarous Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxviii, p. 63 (1918 — Koh Lak in Peninsular 
Siam). 

Type : cJ ad., Koh Lak, Siamese portion of Malay Peninsula, almost latitude 
of town of Tenasserim, 17 .xi. 1913. W. J. F. Williamson coll. 

Meinertzhagen, in his review of the genus Oriolus, Ibis, 1923, p. 75, keeps 
this subspecies separate (though misspelUng its name thaiocous), adding that 
" some specimens of the typical race from southern India are indistinguishable 
from this race." Baker, B. India, iii, p. 12 (1926), says it is impossible to keep 
it separate, as " many " birds from India, especially from the " South- West," 
are indistinguishable. Judging from the material in Tring, however, such 



192 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXXV. 1928. 

specimens must be exceedingly rare, and can hardly be " many." If single 
specimens are allowed to upset a subspecies, the Ceylonese ceylonensis should 
also be united, as we have a male from Ceylon with a wing of 135 mm. 

STURNIDAE. 
1758. Aplonis fuscus huUianus Math. = Aplonis fuscus hullianus. 

Aplonia fiiscus hnllianus Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 451 (Lord Howe Island). 

TyiJB : An unsexed specimen without date, collected by (or for) Travers on 
Lord Howe Island. 

This form differs from A. fuscus fuscus of Norfolk Island by its larger (stouter) 
bill, and old males are on the upperside more greyish and much less metallic 
green, especially on the head. Mathews' diagnosis does only partially hold 
good, but hullianus is a very distinct form. 

1759. Amydrus montanus Som. = Onychognathus morio montanus. 

Amydnts montanus van Someren, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xl, p. 52 (1919 — Mt. Elgon). Cf. Nov. Zool. 
1922, p. 132. 

Type: $ ad., Mt. Elgon, 9,000-10,000 feet, 15.iii.l916. Dr. van 
Someren coll. 

t 1760. Cosmopsarus regius donaldsoni Som. = Cosmopsarus regius regius. 

Cosmopsarus regius donaltlsoni van Someren, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xl, p. 52 (1919 — " Somaliland, 
S. Ethiopia, and northern frontier district in East Africa "). 

Type : cj ad., Marsabit, A. Blayney Percival coll. 

In Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, pp. 70, 71, Dr. van Someren has explained that 
he redescribed the C. regius regius again, when he named donaldsoni, wliile the 
birds which he took for typical regius required a name, and he named them 

C regius magnificus. 

1701. Lamprocolius sycobius pestis Som. = LamprocoUus sycohius pestis. 

Lamprocolius sycohius peslis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xli. p. 124 (1921 — " Mombasa, Samburu, 
Maungu, N'di "). (Cf . also Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 131.) 

Type : (J ad., Samburu, 18.x. 1917. Dr. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

Dr. van Someren's " pestis " .seems to be a form found in the thorn-bush 
country from Mombasa northwards. It seems to differ from true sycobius 
merely by its larger bill, and I think it was an error that in 1922 its distribution 
was extended to " Lake Kivu and Tanganyika." 

ICTERIDAE. 
1762. Molothrus occidentalis Berl. & Stolzm. = MoloUirus bonariensis occidentalis. 

Mololhrus nccidtnUilis Berlepsch & .Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1892, p. 378 (" Hab. in 
Peru occ, Lima, etc."). 

Types : S, Lima, 10. xi. 1889, ?, Lima, 18.x. 1889. Jean Kalinowski coll. 

Both (J and $ are marked " typus " by Stolzmann. They are therefore as 
much types as any other specimens. The female is much more distinct than 
the male ! 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 193 

PLOGEIDAE.' 
1763. Erythrura trichroa eichhomi Hart. = Erythrura trichroa eichhorni. 

Erythrura trichroa eichhorni Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 274 (St. Matthias Island, north of New 
Hanover). 
Type : ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, S.vii. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 

1764. Amblyospiza albifrons inontana 8om. = Amblyospiza albifrons montana.' 

Amblyospiza alhifrons montana van Somcrcn, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 122 (1921— " Kenia, Kukuyu, 
Nairobi, Kisumu, etc." ). 

Type : (?, Fort Hall, Kikuyu Mts., 25. iv. 1918. Dr. van Someren coll. 
In my opinion, the status and distribution requires further investigation. 

1765. Anaplectes jubaensis Som. = Anaplectes jubaensis. 

Anaplectes jubaensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 94 (1920 — " South-west of Juba River "). 
Type : (^ ad., " Juba river," December 1912. A. Blayney Percival coll. 

1766. Otyphantes emini budongoensis Som. = Ploceus (Otypliantes) emini 

biidongoensis. 

Otyphante-s emini budongoensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 123 (1921 — " Budongo, Masindi, 
Bugoma "). 

Type : cjad., Busindi, 7.vi.l919. Collected by Dr. van Someren 's collectors. 

t 1767. Heteryphantes nigricollis vacillans Som. = Phceiis (Heteryphantes) 

nigricollis nigricollis. 

Heteryphantes nigricollis vacillans van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 123 (1921 — " S. Ankole, 
Bugoma, Budongo, Mabendi, Mabira, Elgon, Entebbe, N. Kavirondo, Taveta, Bukoba"). 

Type: <J ad., Budongo, 17.xii.l918. Collected by Dr. van Someren 's 
excellently instructed native collectors. 

t 1768. Hyphantornis intermedius littoralis Som. = H. intermedins intermedins. 

Hyphantornis intermedins littoralis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Chib, xU, p. 123 (1921 — " Limited to the 
coast-belt and Taru district, Changamwe and Malindi"). 

Type: c? ad., Changamwe, 14. iv. 1919. Collected by Dr. van Someren's 
well-trained collectors. 

t 1769. Hyphantorius intermedius kisumui Som. = H. intermedins intermedins. 

Hyphnntornis intermedius kisumui van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 122 (1921 — " Kisumu, 
Kano district, Kendu Bay, Simba, Kitui "). 

Type : ^ ad., Kisumu, 10. v. 1918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's well- 
trained collectors. 

The individual variation of this species, specially as regards size, is great, 
and larger series from southern Abyssinia seem to prove the instability of these 
supposed subspecies. 

* According to recent investigations the genus Passer sliould be included in the Ploceidae. 
2 In the recognition of African Ploceidae and some other African Passeres I liave largely followed 
W. L. Sclater, wlio allowed me to consult tlie MS. of his Syst. Av. Aethiopicarvm, 



194 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1770. Ploceus melanocephalus usumburae Neum. = Ploceus { Hyphaniornis) 
melanocepluilus usumburae (?). 

Ploceus melanocephalus usumburae Neumann, Joum. /. Om. 1920, p. 82 (" Uaumbura, Nordspitze 
des Tanganyka "). 

Type : c? ad., Usumbura, 17.iv.l908. Rudolf Grauer coll. 

No series is to hand, and this form requires further investigation. Two 
specimens from the same place obviously belong to Hartlaub's duboisi and are 
considered to be a different species by Neumann. I cannot help suggesting that 
they might possibly be the same as usumburae — these birds vary in the length 
of the wing to some extent, and the development of rufous-brown on the sides 
of the throat may also vary. 



1771. Sitagra luteola kavirondensis Som. = Ploceus (Sitagra) luteolus kaviron- 

densis. 

Sitagra luteola kavirondensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 123 (1921 — " .Soronko River, 
S. Kerio, Kacheliba, Kisumu, Kibigori, also Entebbe "). 

Type : (J ad., Soronko River, 28. iv. 1916. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
1772. Quelea sanguinirosiris centralis Som. = Quelea quelea centralis. 

Qttelea sanguinirosiris centralis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 122 (1921 — " Lake districts of 
Central Africa, Uganda, Kivu, N. Tanganyika, Tore, Lake Albert Edward, Bukoba ") ; Nov. 
Zool. 1922, p. 147. 

Type : ?, Lake Albert Edward, 28. xi. 1910. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
While this form is usually well marked, some specimens cannot be distin- 
guished, it seems to me. 

(?) 1773. Pyromelana nigroventris rufigula Som. = Pyromelana rufigula (?). 

Pyromelana nigroventris rufigula van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 122 (1921 — " Bura, Teita 
Voi, and Kitui in Ukamba "). 

Type : (J ad., Nziu River, 14.xii.l918. G. V. L. van Someren coll. 

This bird occurs together with black-throated males and cannot very well 
be a subspecies. Mr. Sclater is inclined to accept it as a species, but I suggest 
that it may be a mutant of nigroventris ; the extent of the red throat-patch 
varies somewhat. 

1774. Penthetria ardens teitensis Som. = Penthetria ardens teitensis. 

Pentheiria ardens teitensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 122 (1921 — "East of Kilimanjaro 
and Teita, Bura Hills ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 151. 

Type : S ad., Bura Hills, 21 .iii. 1919. Dr. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
1775. Penthetria laticauda suahelica Som. = Penthetria ardens suahelica. 

Penthetria laticauda suahelica van Someren, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xli. p. 121 (1921 — "East Africa"); 
Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 151. 

Type : (J ad., Nairobi, 4.iv. 1917. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
Sclater (in lift.) considers this form to be a subspecies of ardens, and I think 
he is right. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. ■ 195 

t 1776. Uraeginthus bengalus littoralis Som. = Uraeginthus bengalm ugogensis. 

Uraeginlhus benrjaliis littomlis van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix, p. 160 (1922—" Coast of South Somali- 
land to Mombasa "). 

Type : ?, Mombasa, 10. v. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

I think Sclater must be right in supposing (m litt.) that littoralis is the 
same as ugogensis Rchw. (Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, v, 2, 1911, p. 228, in the text, 
as " var." of U. bengalu.s). An undoubted s>iionym of littoralis is U. tjengalus 
loveni Granvik (Journ. f. Orn., 1923, Sonderheft, p. 181). Dr. Granvik evidently 
did not read the original description, but quoted the one in the Journ. E. Africa 
and Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc, vi, p. 258, which was not published in " 1911 " but 
in 1918. The description there is somewhat contradictory to that of 1922, but 
the latter only is of importance, as it is the diagnosis of the new subspecies. 

? t 1777. Aidemosyne cantans tavetensis Som. = Aidemosyne cantans 

meridionalis (1). 
Aidemosyne cantans tavetensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli. p. 121 (1921—" South Ukambani 
to Kilimanjaro (Simba, Tsavo, N'buyumi. Taveta) "). 
Type : ? ad., Simba, 17.x. 1917. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
I doubt if it will be possible to maintain the distmctness of the subspecies 
tavetensis, and believe Sclater 's suggestion {in litt.) that they are not separable 
from A . cantans meridionalis will be found to be correct. 

1778. Ortygospiza atricoUis dorsostriata Som. = Ortygospiza atricollis dorsostriata. 

Ortygospiza atricollis dorsostriata van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 11.5 (1921 — " Butiti, Tore, 
and South Ankole, Western Uganda "). 

Type: ^ ad., South Ankole, Uganda, 8.x. 1919. Dr. V. G. L. van 
Someren coll. 

1779. Hypargus monteiri ugandensis Som. = Hypargus monteiri ugandensis. 

Hypargus monteiri ugaiulensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 115 (1921 — " Masindi, Mubango, 
Kyetume, Entebbe, Buzileranjoon in Uganda, north to Lado, Langomeri") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, 
p. 162. 
Type: ^ ad., Masindi, 15.xii.l918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's 

trained men. 

1780. Granatina ianthogaster rothschildi Som. = Granatina ianthinogaster roth- 

schildi. • 
Granatina ianthogaster rothschildi van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 53 (1919 — " North and South 
Kavirondo "). 

Types : cJ?. Kisumu, 22. and 23. v. 1916. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

This form seems to be distinct but nearest to roosevelti Mearns (Smithson. 
Misc. Coll., Ixi, 9, p. 3, 1913), but the spots round the eyes are darker blue and 
the abdomen is much darker. 

?t 1781. Granatina ianthogaster montana Som. = Granatina ianthinogaster 

ianthinogaster (?). 
Granatina ianthogaster montana van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 53 (1919 — " The mountainous 
plateau in the region of Lakes Naivasha and Nakuru "). 
Type : (J, Naivasha, 20. ii. 1919. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
I have hardly any doubt that montana is the same as typical ianthinogaster, 
but we are in want of a good series of adult females. 



196 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIX. 1928. 

1782. Granatina ianthogaster ugandae Som. = Granatina ianthinogaster 

wjandae (?). 

Qranatina ianthogaster ugandae van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 53 (1919 — " The desert country 
in western Uganda south to South Rudolf and Suk " ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 159. " S. Ethiopia 
to Lake Rudolf and Turkana." The first statement in 1919 was erroneous ; it never occurs in 
western Uganda). 

Type : S, Mt. Moroto, N.E. Uganda, 30. xi. 1917. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
I have no material (no females !) to discuss this form. 

(?) 1783. Pytelia percivali Som. = Pytelia melba percivali (?). 

Pytelia percivali van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 56 (1919 — " Loita Plains south to Nguruman 
Hills " ) ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 161. 

Type : $, Loita, 9.vii.l918. A. Blayney Percival coll. 

This form — judging from the well-preserved type-specimen, which is all 
we have — is nearest to P. m. belli Ogilvie-Grant, but is darker on neck and neck, 
has a darker back, and larger white spots on the breast. Mr. Sclater, however, 
tells me that a series from the Loita plains appears to be inseparable from the 
specimens from Ruwenzori, Lake Albert, etc. 

t 1784. Pytelia melba mosambica Som. = Pytelia melba grotei. 

Pytelia melba nwsambica van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 55 (1919 — " North Mozambique "). 

Type : (J ad., Lumbo, G.viii. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

There seems to be no doubt that this is Reichenow's P. melba grotei from the 
coast districts of southern Tanganyika Territory. (Teste Sclater in Hit. and 
my conclusion.) Reichenow's name was published in April, van Someren's 
December 31, 1919. 

1785. Lagonosticta jamesoni taniensis Som. = Lagonosticta rubricata taruensis. 

Lagonoslicta jamesoni taruensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 54 (1919 — "Coast of British 
East Africa from Lamu to Mombasa and inland to the Taru and South Ukamba") ; Nov. 
Zool. 1922, p. 164. 

Type : ^ ad., Tsavo, 14.iii. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

1786. Lagonosticta rhodopareia umbriventer Som. = Lagonosticta rubricata 

vmbriventer. 

Lagonosticta rhodopareia umbriventer van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 54 (1919 — "East 
Mt. Kenia and the Northern Guasso N'yiro ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 163. 

Type: <^, Embu, Kenia, 9. iv. 1913. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
This form seems to be nearest to hildebrandti Neum. but paler. 

1787. Lagonosticta senegalla kikuyensis Som. = Lagonosticta rubricate kikuyensis. 

Lagiinoslirtn senegalla kikiiijensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 55 (1919 — "British East 
Africa from Kavirondo to the coast and East Kilimanjaro ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 164. 

Type : ?, Nairobi, 17.ii.l917. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

This form, especially the female, is darker than brunneiceps and sotnaliensis. 
It is closest to rxiberrima, the males of which are hardly distinguishable, while 
the females of kikuyensis are greyer, less rufous on the underside. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 197 

1788. Estrilda charmosyna kivanukae Som. = Estrilda charmosyna Jcivanukae. 

Bstrilda charmosyna kivanukae van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 55 (1919 — " South Ukamba to 
Loita and the country east of Kilimanjaro ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 165. 

Type: (J, Mbuyuni, 26.vii. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

FRINGILLIDAE. 
t 1789. Eiuberiza Forbesi Haiti. = Emberiza affinis affinis. 

Eiriberiza Forbesi Hartlaub, Journ.f. Orn. 1882, p. 324 (Langomeri). 

Type : ^ ad., Langomeri, IS.viii. 1881. Emin Pasha coll. 

E. forbesi is certainly the same as E. affinis Heuglin, Journ. f. Orn., 18C7. 
(Clearly described as having ?;o white bars on the wing, name ex Paul Wilhelm 
von Wiirttemberg's MS., characterization of Heughn.) 

1790. Emberiza cia omissa R. = Emberiza cia omissa. 

Emberiza cia omissa Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxviii, p. 60 (1921 — Tsin-ling Mts., China). 

Type : ? ad.. Si, Taipaishang, Tsin-Hng Mts. China, 2.xi.l905. Collected 
by Alan Owston's Japanese collectors. 

Sushkin spHts the Meadow Buntings into two species, E. cia, the western 
group, E. godlewskii, the eastern group, and therefore calls this form E. godlewslcii 
omissa. He does this apparently, because both the western group with a more 
grejash and black crown, and the eastern group with more rufous or chestnut 
crown, are separable into various races, but not because he finds that they 
inhabit similar areas anywhere. He thus explains by his nomenclature that 
there are two small divisions of Meadow Buntings, while my nomenclature shows 
the relationship and supposed common origin of all these forms, which to me seems 
to be much more important. It is impossible to explain the relationship and 
origin of all forms by our nomenclature, and I am content if I can express whether 
forms are subspecies or not ; in entomology we often have seasonal forms, in 
birds of course not, and I do not endeavour to name varieties, aberrations, 
mutations, for which descriptions suffice for me. If Hachisuka, Stresemann, 
and others begin to give names to supposed mutations they will burden nomen- 
clature greatly, while descriptions would advance science equally, but enthusiasts 
of the study of individual variation may think differently. 

t 1791. Pyrrhula erythaca taipaishanensis R. = Pyrrhula erytlmca u'ilderi. 

Pyrrhnla erythaca taipaishanensis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. 1921, p. 63 (Taipaishang, Tsin-lin Mts.). 

Type : c?. Taipaishang, 17.vi.l905. Collected by Alan Owston's Japanese 
collectors. 

Cf. Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 2057 ; La Touche, Handb. B. Eastern China, 
part iv, pp. 307-309. 

1792. Propyrrhula subhimachala intensior R. = Prop, subhimachala intensior. 

Propyrrhula siilihiimchala intensior lvoth.schild, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, [). 12 (1922 — " Lichiang 
Range "). 

Type : (J ad., Lichiang Range, Yunnan. G. Forrest coll. 
This race follows the general tendency of developing deeper-coloured forms 
in Yunnan, but the material at hand is rather insufficient, and the series from 



198 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Sikkim at hand is poor ; this form therefore requires confirmation. The species 
varies considerably, and one of Forrest's examples hardly differs from a Sikkim 
skin. 

1793. Carpodacus nibicilloides lapersonnei Meinertzh. = Eryihrina rubicilloides 

lapersonnei. 
Carpodacus ruhicilloides lapersonnei Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xlvi, p. 83 (1926 — Shushal, 
Eastern Ladak). 

Type: (J ad., Shushal, eastern Ladak, 14,500 feet, II. vi. 1925. R. 
Meinertzhagen coll. 

The distribution of the various forms of E. nibicilloides (which is better 
separated specifically from rubicilla) is not yet quite clear, and requires confirma- 
tion. Meinertzhagen says he examined specimens from Ladak, Gyangtse, Kansu, 
and Koko Nor, while his C. r. lucifer is to inhabit southern Tibet north to 
Mt. Everest and Kansu ! 

1794. Sorella emini guasso Som. = Sorelh emini giMsso. 

Sorella emini guasso van Somereu, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 38 {" The more open bush and thorn 
country of the country round the N. Guasso Nyiro River and Northern Frontier "). 

Type : o ad., N. Guasso Nj-iro, N.E. Kenya, April 1919, collected by 
Dr. van Someren's native collectors. 

t 1795. Passer domesticus halfae Meinertzh. = Passer domesticus niloticus. 

Passer domesticus halfae Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 67 (1920 — Wadi Haifa, Egypt). 

Type : cJ ad., Wadi Haifa, 21 .ii. 1904. Presented by R. Meinertzhagen. 
1796. Passer rutilans intensior R. = Passer rulilans intensior. 

Passer rutilans intensior Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 11 (1922 — " Mekong valley "). 

Type : <S ad.. Upper Mekong Valley, N.W. Yunnan, 7,000-9,000 feet. 
6.vii.l921. G. Forrest coll. 

1797. Passer griseus mosambicus Som. = Passer griseus mosambicus. 

Passer griseus mosambicus van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 114 (1921 — "North Mozambique 
and East Nyassaland "). 

Type: $ Lumbo, Portuguese East Africa, 13.vii.l918. Collected by 
Dr. van Someren's native collectors. 

179S. Petronia dentata buchanani Hart. = Petronia dentata buchanani. 

Petronia dentata buchanani Hartcrt, Xoi\ Zoul. 1921, p. 134 (Zinder, south of Air). 

Type : cJ ad., Zinder, 19. ii. 1920, 1,500 feet, Angus Buchanan coll. 
A series of this pale semi-desert form is still wanting. 

1799. Passer griseus abyssinicus Neum. = Passer griseus abyssinicus. 

Passer griseus abyssinicus Neumann, Bull. B.O. Club, xxi, p. 70 (1908 — " Abyssinia and the Galla 
country southwards to Lake Rudolf "). 

Type: (J, Ghadi-Saati, Mareb River, Erythrea, 4,675 feet, 10. ii. 1903. 
G. Schrader coll. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 199 

Perhaps Neumann's distribution is given too wide, as birds from the southern 
Galla country seem to be a little paler (?). 

1800. Poliospiza striolata ugandae Som. = Serinus striolatiis ugandae. 

Poliospiza striolata ugandae van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 114 (1921 — " Mt. Elgon up to the 
heath zone, and South Ankole "). 

Type: ?, Mt. Elgon, lS.vii.l916. Coll. by Dr. van Someren's native 
collector. 

(?) 1801. Serinus maculicollis taraensis Som. =8erinus maculicollis taruensis (?). 

Serinus marulimllis taruensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. C'lut), xli, p. 114 (1921 — " Mbuyuni, Maungu, 
Maktau, Tsavo "). 

Type: ^ ad., M'buyuni, 27. vi. 1918. Collected by Dr. van 8omeren's 
collectors. 

While this form is quite different from dorsostriatus, the description of 
harterti (Zedlitz, Journ. f. Orn., 1916, p. 50, South Somaliland) agrees very well 
with taruensis, nor can I state, for want of material, how it differs from " inter- 
stinctus." 

(?) 1802. Serinus (? flaviventris) loveridgei Som. =Seriimsflaviventris loveridgei (?). 

Serinus {1 flaviventris) loveridgei van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 114 (1921 — " Lumbo, North 
Mozambique "). 

Type : (J, Lumbo, 10.vu.l918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's collectors. 
This may be a good subspecies, but the differences from shelleyi and some 
southern flaviventris require confirmation and have not been stated. 

1803. Serinus buchanani Hart. = Serinus donaMsoni buchanani. 
Serinus buchanani Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxix, p. .50 (1919 — " Maktau, British East Africa "). 

Type: o ad., Maktau, east of Kihmanjaro, 18. ix. 1915. Angus Bu- 
chanan coll. 

Differs from S. donaldsoni donaldsoni chiefly in entire absence of white on 
the vent, wider bill, chiefly noticeable at base of lower bill, and entire or almost 
entire absence of the yellow superciliary line and the whitish spots on the feathers 
of the back. Dr. van Someren received sjjecimens from Voi, Maungu, Maktau, 
Campi-ya-bibi. Cf. Bull. B.O. Club, xxxix, p. 59 ; Mayr, Orn. Monatsber. 
XXXV, p. 48, 181, 1927. Sir Geoffrey Archer collected a series m SomaUland of 
S. d. donaldsoni. 

1804. Serinus pseudobarbatus Som. = Serinus mozambicus pseudobarbatus. 

Serinus pseudoharliatus van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. .56 (1919 — " South and North Kavirondo 
toN.E. Elgon"). 

Type: (3', Fort Fernan, 24.viii. 1918. Dr. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
1805. Linurgus elgonensis Som. = Linurgus olivaceus elgonensis. 

Linurgus elgonensis van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxv, p. 283 (1918 — Forests of Elgon, West Elgon, 
Kakamega Forest, in North Kavirondo). 

Type: ^ ad., Mt. Elgon, 16. xi. 1916. Collected by Dr. van Someren's 
hunters. 



200 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

(In Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 154, 1923, Dr. van Someren described " Linurgus 
keniensis " from the Meru forest, Mt. Kenia, but I am afraid this is not separable 
from dgonensis. The specimens we have from the Meru forest, Mt. Kenia, 
collected by Noel van Someren, are not all darker than some from Mt. Elgon, 
some of which are even darker than some Kenia examples, nor is the yellow 
" collar " between the black of the head and the mantle absent (in fact, it is 
sometimes more promment). I think, therefore, that L. o. elgonensis is distri- 
buted from Mt. Elgon to Kenia, wliile L. o. kilimensis from Mt. Kilimanjaro is 
quite different). 

ALAUDIDAE. 

1806. Melanocorypha bimaculata gaza Meinertzh. = Melon, calandra gam. 

Mdanocorijpha himarukitn gaza Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxix, p. 84 (1919 — From a large 
flock watering every evening on the Wadi Gaza, at Shellal, near Beersheba, South Palestine). 

Type : c?> Shellal, 10. ix. 1917. R. Meinertzhagen coll. 

In 1923, Nachtrag I, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 26, and Ibis, 1925, p. 309, myself 
and Meinertzhagen corrected the above name, gaza not being a form of M. bi- 
maculata but of calandra. Its reddish colour alone separates it from M. c. 
calandra. It is true that I have collected strongly reddish calandra in Cyrenaica, 
but they are tainted from the red soil of that country, while Meinertzhagen's 
gaza are freshly moulted autumn birds, which are not at all tainted. Except 
the specimens described in 1919, also those (at least three now before me, kindly 
presented to the Truig Museum) collected by the author at Amman in Trans- 
jordania in October and end September, belong to this race, and not to hebraica, 
if the latter is distinct. 

1807. Melanocorypha calandra hebraica Meinertzh. = Melan. calandra hebraica. 

Melanocorypha calandra hebraica Meinertzhagen, BvU. B.O. Club, xli. p. 21 (1920 — " Acre, Damascus, 
and in the Coastal Plain of Palestine south to Ludd from October to May "). 

Type : (J, Jenin, N. Palestine, 1 .v. 1920. R. Meinertzhagen coU. 

As originally described, these birds seem to be intermediate between M. c. 
calandra and psammochroa, but they are not reddish like gaza. I attach no import- 
ance at all to the supposed smaller size, as all calandra vary strikingly in size, 
and some psammochroa are as large as some hebraica. The difference of hebraica 
from psammochroa requires further confirmation, but I consider them different 
from gaza. According to Meinertzhagen, hebraica breeds in Palestine. 

f 1808. Calendula dunni pallidior Hart. = Calendula dunni. 

Calendula dunni pallidior Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1921, p. 130 (Damergu). 

Type : ? 1 ad., Takakut, Damergu, 1,550 feet, S.iii. 1920. Angus Buchanan 
coll. No. 430. 

Cf. Nov. Zool., 1924, p. 42 ! 

1809. Eremophila alpestris deosai Meinertzh. = Eremophila alpestris deosai. 

Bremophila alpestris deosai Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 84 (1926— " Deosai plateau 
between Baltistan and Kashmir"). 

Type: J ad., Deosai plateau, 13,200 feet, 24. viii. 1925. R. Meinertz- 
hagen coll. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 201 

(?) t 1810. Mirafra fischeri kawirondensis Som. = Mirafra fischeri fischeri (?). 

Mirafra fischeri kaivirondensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 125 (1921 — " Kisiirau, Karungu, 
Kendu Bay, Kibigori, also Sovoti and Entebbe "). 

Type: (J, Kisumu, 9.xii. 1917. Dr. van Someren coll. 
The type is a specimen of the blackish variety. I am not sure if one can 
separate kawirondensis from typical fischeri. 

(?) 1811. Mirafra longonotensis Som. = Mirafra africanoides longonotensis. 

Mirafra longonotensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 57 (1919 — "Apparently limited to the 
Loita Plains and the open plateau in Naivasha and Nakuru districts "). 

Type : ^J ad., Loita, lO.vii. 1918. A. Blayney Percival coll. 

The description as a dark form fits the seven worn specimens collected by 
Doherty (cf. Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 178), but the bird marked as the type, from 
Loita, is very much lighter, and agrees with one from Somaliland, collected by 
Archer. This form requires further study, also its relationship to the very 
reddish alopex ! 

1812. Ammomanes deserti geyri Hart. = Ammomanes deserti geyri. 

Ammonmnes deserti geyri Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 41 (1924 — Damergu). 

Type: cJ. Farak, Damergu, 29. vi. 1922. Angus Buchanan coll. No. 148. 

1813. Ammomanes deserti payni Hart. = Ammomanes deserti payni. 

Ammomanes deserti payni Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlv. p. 36 (1924 — Figuig, E. Marocco). 

Type : ^ ad., Figuig, 19.iii. 1924. W. A. Pajoi coll. 

I have now examined specimens from Ain-Sefra, Beni-Omiif, Figuig, and 
Missour on the Muluya River. 

1814. Ammomanes deserti amiae Meinertzh. = Ammomanes deserti ajinae. 

Ammomanes deserti annae Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii,p. 147 (1923 — " North Arabia from 
about 20 miles west o£ Azraq to the lava-hills 90 miles east of that place "). 

Type: (J ad., 30 miles east of Azraq in North Arabia, 27.x. 1922. R. 
Meinertzhagen coll. 

1815. Alauda arvensis weigoldi Hart. = Alauda arvensis iceigoldi. 

Alaitda arvensis weigoldi Hartert, Abh. d: Ber. Zool. Mus. Dresden, xv, 3, p. 20 (1922 — Middle China, 
Yantsekjang and south to Foochow). 

Type : c? ad., Hankow in China, 18.iii.l912. Admiral Hubert Lynes coll. 

1816. Alauda arvensis hainana Hart. = Alauda arvensis hainana. 

Alauda arvensis hainana Hartert, Abh. d: Bur. Zool. Mus. Dresden, xv, 3, p. 21 (1922— Hainan). 
Type : cj ad., Kiangchau, Hainan, 24. ii. 1902. Katsumata coll. 

1817. Alauda arvensis herberti Hart. = Alauda arvensis herberti. 

Alauda arvensis herberti Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 149 (1923— Round Bangkok in Siam). 
Type : ^ ad., Bangkok, Siam, 31 .iii. 1915. W. J. F. Williamson coll. 



202 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1818. Galerida cristata zion Meinertz. = Galerida crisiata zion. 

Galerida cristata zion MeLnertzliagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 21 (1920 — "Jerusalem, Beisan, Lake 
Galilee, Jeniu, Damascus, Syrian Desert, Baalbek '" ; Ibis, 1921, p. 037, also Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, p. 2088). 

Type: (J ad., Jerusalem, 20. xi. 1919. R. Meinertzhagen coll. 
1819. Galerida cristata iaiami Meinertz. = Galerida cristata imami. 

Oalerida cristata imami Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv. p. 16 ( 1923 — " Sok-al-Khamis.Menakha, 
Sanaa in Yemen, El-Kubar and Gerba in the Amiri country "). 

Type: $, S6k-al-Khamis, 8,000 feet, in Yemen, 11 .viii. 1913. G. W. 
Bury coll. 

This subspecies is recognizable, though some specimens are very close to 
tardinata. The bill of G. c. imami is (barring exceptional individuals) distinctly 
larger than that of tardinata. 

1820. Galerida cristata halfae Nicoll = Galerida cristata lialfae. 

Oalerida cristata halfae Nicoll, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii. p. 7 (1921— Wadi Haifa in Egypt). 

Type: Wadi Haifa, 2. ii. 1921. S. S. Flower coll. 

It seems, indeed, that the Crested Larks from Wadi Haifa are neither 
maculata, wliich lives north of it, nor altirostris, which lives south of it, but a 
more greyish form, not darker than maculata, but more grey. For notes on the 
distribution of Crested Larks in Egyjjt, see Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1921, pp. 634-639. 

G. cristata caroli is apparently not distinguishable from brachyura of southern 
Palestine. 

1821. Galerida cristata festae Hart. = Galerida cristata festae. 

Oalerida cristata festae Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 12 (1922— Cyrenaica) ; Nov. Zool. 1923 
p. 10 ! 

Type : cj ad., Bengasi, Cyrenaica, 27.ui.1922. Hartert and Hilgert coll. 

MOTACILLIDAE. 
1822. Motacilla flava iberiae Hart. = Motacilla flava iberiae. 

Motacilla flava iberiae Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, p. 2097 (1921 — " Spanien, Portugal, Balearen 
Siidfrankreich, Nordalgerien, vielleicht aueh Marokko nistend "). 

Type : (J ad., Mirandra on Ebro, North Spain, 18. vi. 1919. Ernst Hartert 
coll. 

1823. Anthus blayneyi Som. = Antlius brachyurus blayneyi. 

Anthus blayneyi van Somcren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 56 (1919 — " South Ukamba north and west to 
Loita and Olgerei "). 

Type : ^, Olgerei, 1 .vii.1917. A. Blayney Percival coll. 

1824. Anthus sokokensis Som. = Anthus sokokensis. 

Anthus sokoketisis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 124 (1921 — " Sokoke Forest on coast of 
B.E. Africa. In forest, keeping to the more open areas of undergrowth "). 

Type : (J, Sokoke, 14.1.1921. Coll. by Dr. van Someren's trauied natives. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 203 

1825. Anthus leucophrys goodsoni Meinertzh. = Anthus leucophrys goodsoni. 

Anthus leucophrys goodsoni Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 23 (1920 — 'Distribution not 
indicated, but type from Nakuru in Kenya Colony fixed). 

Type : $, Nakuru, 2. i. 1917. Collected for Colonel Meinertzhagen by Alan 
Turner. 

1826. Anthus leucophrys neumanni Meinertzh. = Anthus leucophrys neumanni. 

Anthus leucophri/s neumanni Meinertzliagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 23 (1920 — New name for A. I. 
anrjolensis Neumann 1906, which is preoccupied by Anthus angolen.sis Socage 1870). 

Type the same as that of Neumann's angolensis, i.e. ^, Ambava, Angola, 
13. V. 1903. W. J. Ansorge coll. No. 158. 

1827. Anthus campestris griseus NicoU = Anthus campe.stris griseus. 

Anthus campestris griseus NicoU, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 25 (1920 — " Egypt, Turkestan, Persia"). 

Type: (^, Tischkan River, Turkestan, 22. v. 1900. N. Zarudny coll. 
1828. Anthus richardi lacuum Meinertzh. = Anthus richardi lacuum. 

Anthus richardi lacuum Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 22 (1920 — " British East Africa and 
Uganda"). 

Type: cJ, Naivasha, 9.xi. 1916. R. Meinertzhagen coll. No. 87. 

1829. Anthus gouldi tumeri Meinertzh. = Anthtis gouldi turneri. 

Anthus gouldi turneri Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 24 (1920 — " Kituni in the N.W. part 
of Kenya Colony "). 

Type : ? ad., Kituni, 19. ii. 1917. H. J. Alan Turner coll. 
The description of the upperside as " uniformly dark hair-brown " is not 
quite correct, as dark centres to the feathers are clearly visible. 

1830. Anthus gouldi pmnus Meinertzh. = Anthus gouldi prunus. 

Anthus gouldi prunus Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 24 (1920 — BengueUa). 

Type : cJ, Catatu River, Benguella, 29. ix. 1904. W. J. Ansorge coll. 

1831. Anthus sordidus asbenaicus R. = Anthus sordidus asbenaicus. 

Anthus sordidus asbenaicus Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 33 (1920 — Mt. Baguezan, Asben) ; 
see also Nov. Zool. 1921, p. 127. 

Type : cj ad., Mt. Baguezan, Asben, Central Sahara, 5,200 feet, 25. v. 1920. 
Angus Buchanan coll. No. 632. 

1832. Anthus sordidus decaptus Meinertzh. = Anthus sordidus decaptns. 

Anthus sordidus decaptus Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 23 (1920 — " East Persia and Balu- 
chistan "). 

Type: $, Rud-i-Taman River, East Persia, 23.viii.1898 (Russian date). 
N. Zarudny coU. 

When I described A. sordidus captus from Palestine in 1905 I united with 
it specimens from Persia and Baluchistan. Meinertzhagen has now collected 
an instructive series from Palestine, which shows that captus is a much smaller 
subspecies than decaptus. 



204 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

MELIPHAGIDAE. 

1833. Prosthemadera novae-seelandiae phoebe Kemp. = P. novae-seelandiae 

phoebe. 

Prosthemadera novae-seelandiae phoebe Kemp, Austral Avian Record, i, 5, p. 124 (1912 — North Island 
of New Zealand). 

Type : S-> Umawera, Hokianga, North Island, October 1907. 

Only two specimens came to the Tring Museum, the type-specimen and 
one without original label, but marked " North Island, N.Z.," by Mathews. 
The wings measure cj 151 (type), and (unsexed) 142 mm. This is only a very 
sUght difference from South Island specimens, in which the males have wings of 
154-160 mm. There is no difference in colour at all, those stated by Kemp do 
not exist. The subspecies phoebe therefore requires confirmation by more 
material ! 

(P. novae-seelandiae kwini Kemp (I.e.) from the Auckland Islands, which is 
unknown to me, is perhaps a female, the shorter wing and smaller white throat- 
frill being characteristic of the females.) 

1834. Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae kermadecensis Math. & Ired. = P. novae- 

seelandiae kerrnadecensis. 

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae kermadecensis Mathews & Iredale, Austral Avian Rec. ii, 5, p. 113 
(1914 — Sunday Island, Kermadeo group). 

Type : o, Sunday Island, 19.vii. 1913. (Collector's name not stated.) 
Specimens from the Kermadec Islands differ from P. n. novaeseelandiae 
(South Island, New Zealand) in having stronger legs and feet, especially a larger 
hmd-toe and claw. This is not quite so obvious in the type-specimen, as in 
most other males, but it is remarkable in a series. The differences in colour 
described by the authors were due to the specimen (they had apparently only 
that one before them when describmg it) bemg strongly powdered with plaster. 
Since it has been dusted the colour-differences have disappeared. GeneraUy 
the bills are larger. We have only males in the collection. The wings are 
by no means longer, the wings of 154 and 155 of the type being not imusually 
long for novaeseelandiae (see above). 

When describing P. n. kermadecensis the authors compared it with P. n. 
phoebe Kemp, of which they had only two specimens before them, and which 
was not represented in most collections anywhere. That, of course, made 
comparison of the supposed new form almost impossible to everybody else. 
Such action should be condemned, as the object of separatmg new forms is to 
elucidate problems, thus helping fellow-workers, and not to put unsolvable 
enigmas before the ornithological public. 

1835. Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae chathamensis subsp. nov. 

Type: [S ad.) (probablj^ Little Mangare) Chatham Islands, east of New 
Zealand. H. C. Palmer coll. 

The form from the Chatham Islands is much larger, having longer wings 
and tails than New Zealand specimens. The white tufts on the foreneck are 
considerably larger, those of the female being as large as or larger than in the 
male of P. n. novaeseelandiae. We have eleven specimens coUected by H. C. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 205 

Palmer ; dates and sexes cannot now be found out, as Palmer's diary referring 
to the Chatham Islands was burnt. The sexes, however, differ so much in size, 
that we can make them out from the skins before us. The wings of the males 
measure 160-169, those of the females 142-150 mm. ; once 135, if that specimen 
is from the Chatham group. 

This, the most distinct of the subspecies of the Prosthemadera, has so far 
remained unnamed, though Lord Rothschild verbally mentioned its great size 
long ago. 

1830. Melirrhophetes belfordi joiceyi R. = Melidectes {Melirrhophetes) belfordi 

joiceyi. 

Melirrhophetes belfordi joiceyi Rothschild, Xov. Zool. xxviii, p. 285 (1921 — Mt. Kunupi, Weyland 
Mts.). 

Type : cj ad., Mt. Kunupi, 6,000 feet, November-December 1920. Pratt 
Bros. coll. 

I agree with Stresemann that Melirrhophetes must either be suppressed 
(as he did) or can only be upheld as a subgenus of Melidectes. M. rufocrissalis 
somewhat connects the two supposed genera, but is it not a bit keen to treat it 
as a subspecies of belfordi 1 M. b. joiceyi is a very distinct form, being distin- 
guished by its small size and the greenish (not grey) edges to the feathers of the 
back in the adult birds, while in M . b. belfordi only young birds have these edges 
greenish. 

1837. Philemon eichhomi R. & H. = Philemon eichhorni. 

Philemon eichhorni Rothschild & Hartert. Bull. B.O. Club, xlv, p. 8 (1924 — New Ireland); Nov. 
Zool. 1925, p. 133. 

Type: (J ad., S.W. New Ireland, 22. i. 1924. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 
1838. Ptilotis finschi R. & H. = Ptilotis ixoides finschi. 

Ptilotis finschi Rothschild & Hartcrt, Xov. Zool. x, p. 448 (1903 — " Mts. of British New Guinea "). 

Type : Mts. British New Guinea. Weiske coll. (Bought from dealer, but 
preparation unmistakably of Emil Weiske.) 

1839. Myzomela cineracea rooki Hart. = Myzomela cineracea rooki. 

Myzomela cineracea rooki Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 142 (1926 — Rook Island). 

Type : S ad., Rook (or Rooke) Island, west of New Britain, 24.vii.1913. 
A. S. Meek coll. No. 5810. 

NECTARINIIDAE. 
1840. Cinnyris loveridgei Hart. = Ginnyris loveridgei. 

Cinnyris loveriihjei Hartcrt, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 49 (1922 — Uhiguru Mt.s.. Tanganyka Territory). 

Type : cJ ad., Uluguru Mts., 24. v. 1921. Arthur Loveridge coll. 
1841. Cinnyris bifasciatus tsavoensis Som. = Cinnyris bifasciatus tsavoensis. 

Cinnyris bijasciiitus tsavoensis van Sonicreii, Nov. Zool. xxix, p. 196 (1922 — " Teita, Sagala, Maungu, 
Tsavo, Upper Tana, and Simba "). 

Type : cJ ad., Tsavo, 3.iv. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
It is mteresting that the smaller tsavoensis occurs together with the larger 
chalcomelas Rchw. (shephardi Jacks.). 
15 



206 NOVITATES ZOOLOCICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1842. CinnsTis angolensis kakamegae Som. = Cinnyris angolensis kakamegae. 

Cinnyrin ungoJtnsis kakammjut van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 113 (1921 — " North Kavirondo 
and Nandi, Yala River, Kaimosi, and Nandi Escarpment "). 

Type: (J, Kakamegoes, 15. ii. 1917. J. J. Allen Turner coll. for Col. R. 
Meinertzhagen, No. 1208. 

1843. Cinnyris habessinicus turkanae Som. = Cinnyris habessinicus turlcanae. 

Cinnyris luihessiuicus tiirhntnr van Somcren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 94 (1920 — '* East Uganda and 
W. Rudolf to Suk country "). 

Type: J ad-, Kobua River, Lake Rudolf, March 1918. V. G. L. van 
Someren coll. 

This form is " very close " but just recognizable. 

t 1844. Cinnyris leucogaster lunibo Som. = Cinnyris leucogaster leucogaster. 

Cinnyris Uumgaster lumbo van Someren. Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 113 (1021 — " Lumbo in North 
Mozambique "). 

Type: (J ad., Lumbo 12. vii. 1918. 

1845. Cinnyris sericeus eichhomi Hart. = Cinnyris sericen-s eichhorni. 

Cinnyris sericeus eichhorni Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 41 (1926 — Feni Island, east of New Ireland). 
Type : S ad., Feni Island, 10. v. 1924. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 

1846. Anthreptes longuemarei neglectus Neum. = Anthreptes longuemarei 

neglectus. 

Anthreptes longuemarei neglectus Neumann, Om. Monatsber. 1922, p. 13 (" Rufu und Uluguru- 
Gebirge, vielleicht Ukami, Usaromo, Usagara "). 

Type : cj, Uluguru Mts., Tanganyika Territory, 19. v. 1921. Arthur Love- 
ridge coll. 

There is a series of this form in the Berlin Museum. 

1847. Anthreptes yokanae Som. = Anthreptes yohanae. 

Anthreptes yokanae van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 63 (1921 — " Rabai Hills north of Mom- 
basa "). 

Type : S ad., Rabai, 10. xi. 1920. V. G. L. Someren coll. 
There is now in the Tring Museum quite a series from Rabai and Sokoko, 
collected by Dr. van Someren and hi.s trained collectors. 

1848. Anthreptes collaris ugandae Som. = Anthreptes collaris vgandae. 

Anthreptes collaris ugandae van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 113 (1921 — " Uganda to Kivu and 
east to Mt. Elgon, south to highlands of British East Africa ") ; Xov. Zool. 1922, pp. 202, 203. 

Type: ^, Maraquet, 10.x. 1918. Collected by Dr .van Someren's trained 
collectors. 

t 1849. Anthreptes collaris teitensis Som. = Anthrejiles collaris elacMor Menrns. 

Anthreptes collaris teitensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 113 (1921 — " South Ukambani to 
Teita and East Kilimanjaro ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 202. 

Type : (J, Teita, IS.viii. 1918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's collectors. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 207 

1850. Anthreptes tephrolaema elgonensis Horn. = Anthreptes tephrolaema elgonensis. 

Anthreptes tephrokienw clrjonensis van Soineren. BiiU. B.O, Club, xli. p. 112 (1921 — " Nandi Escarp- 
ment to Mt. Elgon and Mablra in Uganda "). 

Type : cJ, Kaimosi, 22.1.1917. J. Allen Turner coll. for Colonel Meinertz- 
hagen. 

t 18.51. Hedydipna platura karamojoensis Som. = Hedydiptia platura platura. 

HechjfJipna platura ka m mojocnsis van Sonieren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 93 (1920 — " East Uganda and 
VV. Rudolf to Silk"). 

Type : (J ad., Kamalinga, Karamojo, 23. xi. 1917. Dr. van Someren coll. 
1852. Nectarinia pulchella aegra Hart. = Nectarinia pulchella aegra. 

Nectariiiia pulchella aeijni Hartert, Nor. Zool. xxviii. p. 122 (1921 — Asben, Zinder, and Kano). 

Type: <i, Timia, Asben, 3,800 feet, 21. vi. 1920. Angus Buchanan coll. 
No. 688. 

1853. Nectarinia pulchella lucidipectus Hart. = Nectarinia pulchella lucidipectus. 

Nectarinia pulchella lucidipectus Hartert, Nor. Zool. xxviii, p. 123 (1921 — N.E. Africa). 

Type: S, Wad Medani, Blue Nile, 25.vii.1909. Stanley S. Flower coll. 
No. 856. 

DICAEIDAE. 

t 1854. Dicaeum van heysti Rob. & Kloss = Dicaeum beccarii. 

Dicaeum beccarii Robinson & Klo.ss, Journ. Fed. Malay States Mu.s. viii. 2. p. 247, pi. vii, fig. 1 (1918 
— Korinibi, Sumatra) ; Journ. Straits Branch R. As. Soc. No. 80, 1919, p. 132. 

Dicaeum ran hey.sti Robinson & Kloss, op. cil. vii, p. 239 (1919 — Beras tagi, Laoe Goemba, Tengkeh, 
Upper Deli, .Sumatra). 

Type: cJ, Brastagi (Beras tagi), Sumatra, 19. vi. 1917 (not 10. vi), A. D. 
van Heyst coll. No. 517. 

ZOSTEROPIDAE. 
1855. Zosterops yalensis Som. = Zosterops virens yalensis. 

Zosterops yalensis van Someren, Nor. Zool. xxLx, p. 191 (1922 — " Yala Mumices, Nyarondo, 
Kaimosi "). 

Type: ^ ad., Kaimosi, 22.1.1917. H. J. Allen Turner coll. for Colonel 
Meinertzhagen. 

Both Z. V. yalensis and elgonensis are paler on the upper.?ide than Z. v. 
kikuyensis. 

1856. Zosterops elgonensis Som. = Zosterops virens elgonensis. 

Zosterops elrjoneiisis van Someren, Nor. Zool. xxix, p. 191 ( 1922 — " Limited to Mt. Elgon. particularly 
on the Bukedi side, and in the Bumasifa forest, up to 10,000 feet "). 

Type: (J ad., Bukedi, Mt. Elgon, 13. i. 1916. Collectedby Dr. vanSomeren's 
admirably trained collectors. 

This subspecies is very closely allied. 

1857. Zosterops virens somereni subsp. nov. 
Nearest to Z. v. kikuyensis from the Kikuyu Mountains (escarpment), the 
Aberdare range, Kyambu, and Nairobi, but the bill is larger, throat, forehead, and 



208 NOVITATES ZOOLOCICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

abdomen are of a brighter j-ellow, while there is a darker greenish zone across 
the chest, the white ring of feathers round the eye is still wider, especially above 
the eye. Wing 58-63 mm. 

Type : o ad., Mt. Kenya, above Chuka, 15. i. 1921. Noel van Someren coll. 

Named in remembrance of Noel van Someren, who was killed some months 
later by a buffalo. He sent us twelve skins from Mt. Kenya, and we also have 
a pair collected there by J. Makinder. 

t 1858. Zosterops massaica Som. = Zosterops senegalensis fricki. 

Zoslerops senegaUnsis j'ricki Mearus, S mithsonisan Miscelt. Colh. vol. Ixi, no. 20, p. 6 (1913—" Upper 

Thika and Tana rivers, north to Endoto Mountain, British East Africa "). 
Zosterops massaica van Someren, Xov. Zool. xxix, p. 192 {1922 — " Sagala, Teita, Tsavo, Loita "). 

Type: (J, Sagala, 8. viii. 1918. L. G. van Someren coll. 

1859. Zosterops eichhomi Hart. = Zosterops (longirostris ?) eichhorni. 
Zosterops eichhorni Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1926. vol. xxxiii, p. 48 (Nissan Island, E. of S. New Ireland). 

Type : S ad., Nissan, 16.viii. 1924. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. No. 9577. 

Z. eichhorni, aignani, and 'pallicUpes are probably subspecies of longirostris, 
but a review of the whole genus is required, before this can be finally settled. 

1860. Zosterops ceylonensis Holdsw. = Zosterops ceylonensis. 

Zosterops ceylonensis Holdsworth, Proc. Zool: Soc. London, 1872, p. 459, pi. xx (Ceylon). 
Type : S- N. Eliya, Ceylon, 28.1.1871. E. Holdsworth coll. 

t 1861. Zosterops palpebrosa elwesi Baker = Zosterops palpebrosa cacharensis or 

jxtljjebrosa. 
Zosterops palpebrosa elwesi Baker, Ibis, 1922, p. 145 (Sikkim). 

Type : (J, Sikkim, 1876, no date. Ex Mus. H. J. Elwes. 

Z. p. elwesi is not separable from the Cachar form, called by Baker cacharensis. 
Whether the latter name should be used for this form, or whether this is the 
typical palpebrosa, is difficult to decide. An examination of the type specimen, 
now mounted over a hundred years, would not help us either ' 



. I 



(?) 1862. Zosterops palpebrosa cacharensis Baker = Zosterops palpebrosa cacharensis 

or palpebrosa. 

Zosterops palpebrosa cacharensis Baker, Ibis, 1922, p. 144 (Cachar). 

Type : (J, Gunjong, N. Cachar Hills, 7.xii. 1895. E. C. Stuart Baker coll. 

According to Ticehurst, the Bengal birds are the same as those from Cachar. 
If Temminck's plate of palpebrosa represents the dark form, this would be the 
typical palpebrosa, but the copy in the Tring Museum seems to us to represent 
the paler form, and the expression " jaune jonqiiille " means a bright but not 
very bright yellow. Though it is probable that Dussumier's birds came from 
the Bengal plains, this is not absolutely certain. 

1863. Madanga ruficoUis R. & H. = Madanga ruficollis. 

Madanga ruficollis Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xliii, p. 118 (1923— Bum) ; also Not: 
Zool. 1924, p. HI. 

Type : • S, Wa Fehat in the Fogha or Madang range in N.W. Burn, 2,700 feet, 
14. iv. 1922. Pratt Bros. coll. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 209 

(The systematic position of tliis bird among the Zosteropidae requires con- 
firmation.) 

PARIDAE. 

1864. Anthoscopus rothschildi Neum. = Anthoscopus roth.scJiikli. 

Anlhoscopus rothschildi Xeumami, Jotini.f. Urn. 1907, p. 597 (Simba, British East Africa) ; Nov. 
Zool. 1922, p. 203. 

Type : ?, Simba, 18. i. 1906. F. C. Coburn coll. 
186.5. Anthoscopus rocatti taruensis Som. = Anthoscopus roccatii taruensis. 

Anthoscopus roctilli taruensis van h<omcren, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xli. p. 112 (1921 — "Coast of British 
East Africa to Taru desert "). 

Type : ?, Samburu, 25.vii. 1918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's admirably 
trained collectors. 

1866. Parus niger purpurascens Som. = Pants niger piirpiirascens. 

Panis niger purpiiruscens van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 112 (1921 — "Entebbe, Bukedi, 
Mabendi, Soronko, Elgon "). 

Type : (J ad., Entebbe, February 1919. Collected by Dr. van Someren's 
collectors. 

To me there seems to be nothing in the supposed more purplish colour, but 
this form is larger than P. n. leucomelas and lacuum. 

f 1867. Parus major longipennis R. = Parus viajor tibetanus. 

Parus major longipennis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cluh. xliii, p. 11 (1922 — Lichiang Range, N. Yunnan). 
Parus major tibetanus Hartcrt, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 346 (Tsangpo valley in E. Tibet). 

Type : Lichiang range in thickets and forests, 9,000-12,000 feet, lO.xii. 1921. 
G. Forrest coll. No. 921. 

1868. Parus major lynesi Hart. = Parus major lynesi. 

Parus major lynesi Hartert, Bull. Soc. iScience-s Natur. Maroc. v. No. 6, p. 287 (Publ. July 1926 — 
Middle and Great Atlas). 

Type: (J ad.. Oak forest above Azru, Middle Atlas, 22. v. 1924. Ernst 
Hartert coll. 

1869. Parus monticolus lepcharum Meinertzh. = Parus monticolus lepcluirum. 

Parus monticolus lepcharum Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 97 (1926 — " Common throughout 
Sikkim and Eastern Nepal, between 4.000 and 8,800 feet "). 

Type: c? ad., Gangtok, Sikkim, 5,600 feet, 15.xii.l925. R. Meinertz- 
hagen coll. 

t (?) 1870. Parus spilonotus evanescens R. = ? Parus spilonotus subviridis. 

Parus spilonotus evanescens Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 313 (1926 — Sliweli V'alley and Shweli- 
Salwin Divide). 

Type : cJ in forest Shweli-Salwin divide, 10,000 feet, August 1925. George 
Forrest coll. No. 6137. 

Lord Rothschild records both P. spilonotus subviridis Tick, and P. s. evane- 
scens from the same places and time of the year, in fact he has received both 



210 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1028. 

forms also from the Shweli Valley. These two supposed subspecies cannot occur 
together, and it seems to me that they are only variations of one and the same 
form. It is, however, possible that they differ in other ways from topotypical 
subviridis, of which there are none in the Tring Museum. 

1871. Parus caeruleus cyrenaicae Hart. = Parus caeruleus cyrenaicae. 

Parus caeruleus cyrenaicae Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 140 (1922 — " Woods of the mountains 
and plateau of north-western Cyrenaica, or Barka "') ; Nov. Zool. 1923, p. 15. 

Type : o ^d., jimiper woods near Merg, Cyrenaica, 4. v. 1922. Hartert & 
Hilgert coll. 

PARADOXORNITHIDAE. 

1872. Scaeorhynchus gularis transfluvialis Hart. = Psittiparus gularis 

tnin>:Jluviali.'!. 

Scaeorhynchus gularis transfluvialis Hartert, Nov. Zool. vii, p. 548 (1900 — Khasia Hills) ; Baker, 
B. India, i.^. 118, 1922. 

Type : (J, Guilang, North Cachar, 21 .iv. 1895. E. C. Stuart Baker coll. 

1873. Psittiparus gularis hainanus R. = Psittiparus gularis Jiainanus. 

Psittiparus gularis hainanus Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xiv, p. 7 (1903 — Mt. Wuchi, Hainan); 
Nor. Zool. 1900, p. 241. 

Type : (J, Mt. Wuchi, March 1903. Katsumata coll. 

1874. Scaeorhynchus ruficeps bakeri Hart. = Psittiparus ruficeps hakeri. 

Scaeorhynchi(s ruficeps bakeri Hartert. Nov, Zool. vii, p. 548 (1900 — " Cachar, Assam, to Karennee 
and Tenasserim ") ; Baker, B, India, i, p. 117. 1922. 

Type : cj, Hungrum, North Cachar, 3. v. 1895. E. C. Stuart Baker coll. 



LANIIDAE. 

t 1875. Chlorophoneus elgeyuensis Som. = variety (mutation) of CJil. nigrifrons 

nigrifrons. 

Chlorophoneus elgeyuensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 23 ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 115 (1919 — 
" Known only from the Elgeyu-Sheringani Hills and Kenia, 8,000-10,000 feet "). 

Type : $, Marakwct, Elgeyu, 5.x. 1918. Dr. van Someren coll. 

When Dr. van Someren described this most interesting mutation, he had 
very few specimens only available. We have now in the Tring Museum 42 
skins : 21 from Mt. Kenya, collected by the late Noel van Someren, 14 from 
Kyambu, collected by V. G. L. van Someren and J. P. Cook, 4 from Kilimanjaro, 
coll. by Noel van Someren, 1 female from Marak\\et, 1 female from Morshi, 
Angus Buchanan coll., 1 male from Fort Smith, Kikuyu, coll. by W. J. Ansorge. 
While there is some variation in the series from Kyambu, the breast varjdng from 
yellow with only an orange tinge, to orange yellow, there are among the 
Kenya specimens some with the breast and foreneck flame-scarlet or orange 
scarlet, and intergradations from thi.s to bright yellow with hardly an orange 
tinge. It is to be expected that the flame-scarlet breasted males also occur 
in the Kyambu and Kilimanjaro districts, if sufficiently large series were 
collected. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 211 

1876. Chlorophoneus nigrifrons conceptus Hart. = Chlorophoneus nigrifrons 

conceptus. 

Chlorophoneus niijrijrons concejHiis Hartcrt, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii. p. 79 (1923 — " Forest west of Lake 
Tanganyika "). 

Type: ^ ad., 120 km. west of Lake Tanganyika, 2,300 m., 22.vu.1908. 
Rudolf Grauer coll. 

Differs from CM. nigrifrons nigrifrons in having the tips of the inner primaries 
and secondaries yellow, and the tips to the rectrices wider and also — though small 
— visible on the central pair. We have now two males and one female, all alike, 
except that the female has no black on the forehead. 

(In Nov. ZooL., 1922, p. 451, I said that I was convinced that Chlorophoneus 
graueri (Hart.) was the same as reichenowi, but this can hardly be the case, as 
the white line over the forehead and the sujjerciliary line are so much narrower 
than in Kamerun specimens, which must be reichenowi, whether that is separable 
from melamprosopus or not.) 

t 1877. Laniarius mficeps cooki Som. = Laniarius ruficeps rufimichalis. 

Laniarius mficeps cooki van Sonieren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 23 (1919 — " Taru desert country and 
S. Ukambani") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 118. 

Type : (J, Tsavo, IS.iii. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

L. ruficeps kismayensis Erl., Dm. Monatsber., 1901, p. 182, is not separable 
from L. r. rufinuchalis Sharpe. Cf. Zedlitz, Journ. f. Orn., 1915, p. 60. L. r. 
rufimichalis is the southern form, ranging from GarduUa (N.E. of Lake Stefanie) 
to Gurra-Land, Kismayu, and the Tsavo district, Taru and Maungu, etc., in 
East Africa. L. r. ruficeps inhabits N.E. Somaliland (the Haud). 

The males have a much longer wing than the females, and more black on 
the forehead, but L. r. rufinuchalis has more black on the forehead and conse- 
quently less red on the crown in both sexes, which is easily seen if series of both 
forms are compared. 

1878. Harpolestes senegalus mozambicus Som. = Tchagra ' senegalus mozamhicus. 

Harpolestes senegalus niozaiiihicus van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xK, p. 103 (1921 — " Lumbo, Northern 
Mozambique ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 112. 

Type : o Lumbo, lO.vii. 1918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's experienced 
collectors. 

1879. Harpolestes australis littoralis Som. = Tchagra australis littoralis. 

Harpolestes australis littunilis vmh .Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xLi. p. 102 (1921 — "Coastal scrub 
region of British and German East Africa : Changamwe, Mombasa ") ; Nov. Zool. W22,^. Ill 

Type: ? ad., Changamwe, 18.vii.l918. Collected by van Someren's 
collectors. 

? 1880. Harpolestes senegalus confusus Som. = Tchagra senegalus confusus (?). 

Harpolestes seneijalus cunfusus van Someren. Nov. Zool. xxix, p. 113 (1922 — ZuUiland). 

Type: cJ, Umfalosi, Zululand, 2. viii. 1904. C. B. Grant coll. 

' The oldest correct name for this genus seems after all to be Tchagra, as adopted by Sclater 
in vol, V. of Shelley's unfinished B. oj Africa ! 



212 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1881. Prionops plumatus haussarum Hart. = Prionops plumatus haussarum. 

Prionops plumatus liaussarum Hartert, Xof. Zool. xxviii, p. 126 (1921 — Kano) ; Nov. Zool. xxxi, 
p. 37 (1924). 

Type : (J ad., Farniso near Kano, 1,700 feet, IS.xii. 1919. Angus Buchanan 
coll. No. 44. 

1882. Sigmodus scopifrons keniensis Som. = Sigmodus scopifrons keniensis. 

Sigmodus smpifrons keniensis van 8omeren, Bull. B.O. Cluli, xliii, p. 80 (1923 — " The country east 
and north of Kenia to Marsabit, and west to the Karoli Mts., going east to the upper waters of 
the Juba River "). 

Type : $ ad., Meru, N.E. Mt. Kcnia, 3. i. 1921. Noel van Someren coll. 

The description of this form is not very enlightening, as Dr. van Someren 
compared it with the coastal form ranging " from the Tana river south to Vanga," 
which he took for the typical scopifrons. The latter, however, is <S'. scopifrons 
kirki, Sclater, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 92 (1924); neither kirki nor keniensis 
are identical with Peters' S. scopifrons scopifrons from Mozambique, which is 
much paler, like kirki, but lacks the pale grey patch on the pileum of the latter. 

1883. Pinarolestes megarhynchus superfluus H. & H. = Pinarolesies megarh. 

svperflims. 

Pinarolestes megarh ijnrh us superfluus Rothschild & Hartert. Nor. Zool. xix. p. 20.5 (1912 — Kumusi 
River). 

Type : o ^-d., Kumusi River, north side of Owen Stanley Mts., British 
New Guinea, 17. v. 1907. A. S. Meek coll. No. 2962. 

1 884. Pachycephala pectoralis sexuvaria R. & H. = Pachycephala pectoralis 

se.xuvaria. 

Pachycephala peetoralis sexuvaria Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 50 (1924 — 
St. Matthias Island) ; Nov. Zool. xxxi. p. 274 (1924). 

Type: ?, St. Matthias Island, 9. vi. 1923. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8527. 

MUSCICAPIDAE. 

(Including " 8ylviidae," " Tinicliidae," " Turdidae " ; cf. Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 469.) 

1885. Prinia mistacea immutabilis Som. = Prima mistacea imimdabilis. 

Prinia mistacea immutabilis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 93 (1920 — " East Africa from 
Ukambani to Uganda, not including the S. Ankole river district ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 218 ! 

Type : c? ad., Nakuru plains, 15. v. 1918. Dr. van Someren coll. 
1886. Prinia gracilis irakensis Meinertzh. = Prinia gracilis irakensis. 

Prinia gracilis irakensis Meincrtzhagen. Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 147 (1923 — Mesopotamia). 

Type : $, Baghdad, 9.1.1923. Colonel R. Meincrtzhagen coll. 
1887. Prinia gracilis stevensi Hart. = Prinia gracilis stevensi. 

Prinia gracilis stevensi Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 132 (1923 — "Ganges and Brahmaputra 
regions ") ; Baker,- B. India, ii, p. .527. 

Type: (J, He-ssamara, North Lakhimpur, Upper Assam, 28.xii.1905. H. 
Stevens coll. No. 345. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 213 

t(?) 1888. Sylvietta isabellina macrorhyncha fiom.=Sylvietta isabellina gaekwari (?). 

Sylvietta isabellina macrorhynclia van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 92 (1920 — "E. Kilimanjaro 
thorn-bush country to South Ukambani ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 226. 

Type : cJ. Tsavo, 30.iii.l918. Dr. van Someren coll. 

I cannot see that this supposed subspecies differs from a series of birds 
collected by Sir Geoffrey Archer at Hahi, 3,500 feet, Hargeisa, and Burao, 3,000 
feet, in Somaliland, which I think must be gaekwari, if that is different from 
isabellina. 

1889. Eremomela badiceps turner! Som. = Eremomela badiceps turneri. 

Eremomela badiceps turneri van Someren, Bull. O.B. Club, xl, p. 92 (1920 — "North Kavirondo and 
South Elgon ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 224. 

Type : (^, Yala River, 7 . xii . 1 915. H.J. Turner coll. 

1890. Eremomela elegans elgonensis Som. = Eremomela ehgans elgonetisis. 

Eremomelti clegrnis dijoncn.sU van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl. p. 92 (1920 — " Elgon south to Nandi "), 
Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 223. 

Type : (J ad., Kibingei River, S. Elgon, 21 .iv. 1917. Dr. van Someren coll. 

1891. Dryodromus ruflfrons turkanae Som. = Dryodromus rufifrons turkanae. 

Dryodromim rufifrons iiirkunae van Someren. Bull. B.O. Club. xl. p. 93 (1920 — "East Uganda to 
Lake Rudolf"). 

Type : $ ad., Meuressi, Turkwell River, January 1918. Dr. van Someren coll. 

This form seems to be distinguishable from all others, but requires con- 
firmation with a series ! 

(We have a single specimen from Suakin which seems to differ from all 
others, but nearest to D. r. smithi Sharpe. It requires more specimens to name 
this form !) 

1892. Eremomela flaviventris tardinata Hart. = Eremomela flaviventris tardinata. 

Eremomdii /larinutris hirdiuiihi Hnrtert. Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 149 (1923 — " Sagayo, Mwanza; 
Tanganyika Territory "). 

Type: $, Sagayo, Mwanza, 2. xi. 1922. Arthur Loveridge coll. 

This specimen is mucli darker on the upperside and sides of body, and 
smaller than E. f. crawfordi, of which we have only one skin from Loita, collected 
by A. Blayiiey Percival. I doubt that these differences are merely individual, 
and rather think that tardinata is a good subspecies, but it requires further 
confirmation. 

1893. Eremomela flaviventris saharae Stoneham = Eremomela flaviventris saharae. 

Eremomela flaviventris saharae Stoneham, Bull. B.O. Club, xlv, p. 77 ( 1925 — " Sahara desert " (sic !)). 

Type: Zinder, between Air and Hausaland, 4.ii.l920. Angus Buchanan 
coll. No. 311. 

The eleven skins mentioned by Stoneham are from Air, Damergu, and 
Zinder. I have called them ale.vanderi, which is hardly separable, but admit 
that they really are still a bit paler. 



214 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1894. Phylloscopus trivirgatus matthiae R. & H. = Phylloscopus trivirgatvs 

matthiae. 

Phylloscopus Irivirijatiis matihiae RothschUd & Hartert, Bvll. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 52 (1924 — St. Matthias 
Island) ; Nov. Zool. xxxi, 1924, p. 272. 

Type: ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, north of New Hanover, 15.vi.l923. 
A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8557. 

t 1895. Argya aylnieri loveridgei Hart. = Crateropus (Argya) aylmeri heniana. 

Argya keniana .Iaek.soii. Bull. B.O. C'liih. xxvii, p. 7 (1910 — " Emberre, Kenya district "). 
Argya aylmeri loveridgei Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 118 (1923— " Southern part of Kenya 
Colony and Kilimanjaro district : Tsavo, Campi-ya-biln, Taveta, Kitui, Moschi "). 

Type : (J ad., Campi-ya-bibi, 27. vi. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

1896. Crateropus melanops clamosus Som. = Crateropus melanops damosus. 

Crateropus melanops clamosus van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 95 (1920 — "Highlands of 
British East Africa ") ; Nov. Zool. xxix, p. 234 (1922—" Rift valley from Nakuru south to 
Naivasha and the Kikuyu Mts."). 

Type : ^ ad., Naivasha, 16. ii. 1919. Dr. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

1897. Acrocephalus stentoreus lentecaptus Hart. = Acrocephalus stentoreus 

lentecaptus. 
Acrocephalus stentoreus lentecaptus Hartert, Treuhia, vi, p. 21 (1925 — Lombok). 

Type : (J, Ampernan, North Lombok, June 1896. Alfred Everett coll. 

1898. Acrocephalus stentoreus sumbae Hart. = Acrocephalus stentoreus sumbae. 

Acrocephalus stentoreus suinhav Hartert, Treuhia, vi, p. 21 (192.5 — Sumba). 

Type : $, near Waingapo, Sumba, February 1896. WilHam Doherty coll. 

1899. Acanthopneuste trochiloides ogilvie-granti La Touche = Phylloscopus 

trochiloides ogilvie-granti. 
Acanthopneuste trochiloides ogilvie-granti La Touche, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 55 (1922 — Kuatun, 
N.W. Fohkien). 

Type : S ad., Kuatun, Fohkien, 11 .iv. 1897. J. D. La Touche coll. 
1900. Neomixis flavoviridis Hart. = Hartertula flavoviridis. 

Neomixis flavoviridis Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlv, p. 35 (1924 — " Analamazastra, Madagascar"). 

Type : " o." Anamalazastra, November 1922. Bought from Rosenberg, 
collected by a French collector. 

t 1901. Acrocephalus albotorquatus Hartl. = Acrocephalus baeticatus aberr. 

Acrocephalus at'mtnrguatu.s Hartlaub. Journ. f. (Irn. 1880, p. 212 (Lado). 

Type ; o, Lado, 2S.vii.l879. Emin Pasha coll. No. 401. 

The white band round the back of the head is obviously aberrant albinism, 
and not a specific character ! Hartlaub had in fact originally put the name 
baeticatus on the label, but when describing the supposed species gave a beautiful 
Latin description without referring to baeticatus. 



NoyiTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 215 

1902. Cisticola terrestris mauensis Som. = Cisticola ayresii mauensis} 

Cisticola terrestris mauensis van Someren, Noi'. Zool. xxix, p. 207 (1922 — "High belt of the Mau 
and Elgeyu, and again on Kenia and Aberdare Mts."). 

Type : ^, Mau, 18.1.1917. Dr. van Someren coll. 
1903. Cisticola terrestris nakuruensis Som. = C. brunnescens nakuruensis. 

Cisticola terrestris nakuruensis van Someren, A'ur. Zonl. xxix, p. 207 (1922 — " Escarpment, Naivasha, 
Nakuru, and South Kavirondo "). 

Type : ^, Nakuru plains, 16. v. 1918. Dr. van Someren coll. 
1904. Cisticola tinniens oreophila Som. = Cisticola tinniens oreophila. 

Cisticola tinniens oreophila van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix, p. 214 (1922 — " Mt. Kenia, along the 
Aberdare Mountains to the Mau and Elgeyu Escarpments, and Elgon "). 

Type : ^, Mt. Kenia, 7,000 feet, 12. ii. 1919. Dr. van Someren coll. 
t 1905. Cisticola carruthersi kavirondensis Som. = C. txirruthersi carruthersi. 

Cisticola carruthersi kavirondensis van Someren, Xov. Zool. xxix. p. 214 (1922 " East shore of 
Victoria Nyanza at the Kavirondo Gulf "). 

Type : ^J, Kisumu Swamp, 2.vii. 1912. Dr. van Someren coll. 

This bird, Admiral Lynes tells me, inhabits the Papyrus swamps of Uganda. 

1906. Bowdleria punctata vealeae Kemp = Botvdleria punctata vealeae. 

Bowdleria jninctulu imhuc Kemp, Austral Arian Rec. i. p. 124 (1912 — North Island of New Zealand). 

Type : Not sexed adult, Umawera, Hokianga, North Island, August 1907. 
Robin Kemp coll. 

The tail of this form is more disintegrated than in the South Island 
B. punctata punctata. 

1907. Saxicola torquata promiscua Hart. = Saxicola torquata proyniscua. 

Saxicola torijualu promiscua Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 51 (1924 — " Uluguru Mts. to Lake 



Type: S ad., Uluguru Mts., Tanganyka Territory, 3. v. 1921. Arthur 
Loveridge coll. No. 16. 

1908. Cercomela turkana Som. = Cercamela fuscicatulata turkana. 

Cercomela turkana van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 91 (1920 — " Turkana country, west of Lake 
■ Rudolf ") ; cf. Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 243. 

Type : (^, in very worn plumage, " Kobua River, Rudolph," February 1918. 
Ex coll. van. Someren. 

We have a series collected by the late Noel van Someren on Mt. Kenya 
and on the banlcs of the Uaso-Nyiro, which seem to be darker, but being all in 
worn plumage, and having only the type from the Turkana country, it is not 
safe to say whether they actually differ from C. f. turkana. 

* I am obliged to Admiral Hubert Lynes for kimlly giving me his judgment and nomenclature 
of the Cislicolae, on which I absolutely rely at present. 



216 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

1909. Cercomela melanura airensis Hart. = Cercomela melanura airensis. 

Cercomela melanura airtnxif Hartert, Xuv. Zool. xxviii. p. 114 (1921 — Mountains of Air) ; Nov. Zool. 
xxxi, p. 30, 1924. 

Type: ^ ad., Mt. Baguezan, Asben (Air), 5,200 feet, 14. v. 1920. Angus 
Buchanan coll. No. 594. 



1910. Myrmecocichla buchanani R. = Myrmecocichla aethiops buchanani. 

M yrmccocichla buchanani Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, p. .33 (1920 — " Damergu and Zinder south to 
Kano ■') ; Nov. Zool. xxviii, 1921, p. 115 ; xxxi, 1024, p. 31. 

Type : <^ ad., Takukut, Damergu, 1,550 feet, IS.iii. 1920. Angus Buchanan 
coll. No. 441. 

1911. Oenanthe moesta brooksbauki Meinertzh. = 0ena7ithe moesta brooksbanki. 

Oenanthe moesta brooksbanki Meinertzhagen . Bull. B.O. Club, xliii. ]>. 147 (1923 — El Jid. Northern 
Arabian desert) ; Ibis. 1924, p. 616. 

Type : J, El Jid, east of Rutbah Wells, N. Arabia, " within political Iraq," 
30.x. 1922. R. Meinertzhagen coll. Presented by the collector. 

This form requires more confirmation ! The specimens are in fresh plumage, 
and the rump is very pale, and, apart from worn breeding specimens, we have a 
Tunisian example with equallj' pale rump. We also have a male shot on the 
road from Biskra to Tolga 16.ui.l909, with the bill exactly as long as that of 
the type, and the wing is not longer than in a number of Algerian males. A 
male from "El Buhea, 28.iii.1910 " — probably in Eastern Palestine or Trans- 
jordania, received from Aharoni, would belong to this form, also a young male 
from Rheme, Palestine. 

[Spring specimens have a browner, less greyish tinge on the dark portions of 
the plumage. — R.] 

1912. Callene sokokensis Som. = Vibrissosylvia sokoken.sis. 

Callene sokokensis van Soraeren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 125 (1921 — " Sokoke Forest, coast of 
B. E. A."). 

Type: 0, Sokoke Forest, 21.i.l921. Collected by Dr. van Someren's 
collectors. 

I follow W. L. Sclater in placing this species into the genus Vibrissosylvia. 

1913. EnicuTus maculatus omissus R. = Enicurus tnaculatus otnissus. 

Enicurvs maculatus omissus Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxviii, p. 26 (1921 — Fohkien, East China). 
Type : Fohkien. Tang Wangwang coll. 

1914. Turdus milanjensis uluguru Hart. = Tunius olivaceus uluguru. 

Turdus milanjensis uluguru Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 6 (1923 — Bagito, Uluguru Mts., Tangan- 
yika Territory). 

Type : o ^d., Bagito, Uluguru Mts., 4. v. 1922. Arthur Loveridge coll. 
I follow W. L. Sclater in regarding this subspecies as a form of T. olivaceus 
— together with milanjensis, nyikae. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 217 

1915. Tardus melanarius heinrothi R. & H. = Turdu^ melanarius heinroihi. 

Turdus melanariiis heinrothi Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 53 (1924 — St. Matthias 
Island) ; Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 273. 

Type : cJ, St. Matthias Island, 9.vii. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8647. 
Still the only known specimen of this subspecies. 

1910. Turdus talasea R. & H. = Turdus talasea. 

Turdus talasea Rothschild & Hartert. Bull. B.O. Club, xlvi, p. 53 (1926— Talasea, New Britain) ; 
Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 141. 

Type : ?, Talasea, 12. ii. 1925. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 9920. 
Also still the only known specimen. 

1917. Turdus dauma eichhomi R. & H. = Turdus dauma eichhorni. 

Turdus damna eichhorni Rotliscliild &■ Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 52 (1924— St. Matthias 
Island) ; Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 273. 

Type : $ ad., St. Matthias Island, 31 .v. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No, 8480. 

1918. Turdus dauma choiseuli Hart. = Turdus dauma choiseuli. 

Turdus dauma choiseuli Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1924, p. 273 (Choiseul Island, northern Solomon Islands). 
Type : ?, Choiseul, 13.1.1904. 

1919. Turdus joiceyi R. & H. = Turdus dumasi joiceyi. 

Turdus joiceyi Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p, 74 (1921— Ceram). 

Type : Adult, Mts. of Ceram. Collected by Pratt brothers. 

I have no doubt whatever that Turdus joiceyi must be treated as a subspecies 
of T. dumasi, though the upjjerside is much darker, the tail brownish black 
instead of chestnut-brown, the legs (in skin) dark brown, and there is only one 
row of white spots on the upper wing-coverts. In shape, size, and style of 
coloration the two forms, however, agree entirelj^. 

1920. Yuhina nigrimentum intermedia R. = Yuhina nigrimentum intermedia. 

Yiihina nigrimentum intermedia liuthschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 11 (1922 — Mekong valley and 
Mekong-Salwin Divide). 

Type : cj, Mekong-Salwin Divide, lat. 28° 10 N., 10,000-11,000 feet, 27.vii. 

1921. G. Forrest coll. No. 574. 

This subspecies is very close to Y . n. nigrimentum from Sikkim ; its upperside 
is not greyer, but darker, more olivaceous. 

1921. Proparus striaticollis yunnanensis R. = Fulvelta striaticollis yunnanensis. 

Proparus striaticollis yunnanensis Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 11 (1922 — Mekong-Salwin 
Divide, N,W, Yunnan). 

Type: ^, Mekong-Salwm Divide, lat. 28° 55' N., 26.viii. 1921, in mixed 
forest, 10,000 feet. G. Forrest coll. 



218 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1028. 

1922. Fulvetta chrysotis forresti R. = Fulvetta chrysotis forresli. 

Fulvella chrysotis foirv^li llotlistluld. Bull. B.O. Ctuh, xlvi, p. 64 (1926 — Shweli-Salwiii Divide); 
Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 269. 

Type : Shweli-Salwin Divide, Yunnan, December 1919. George Forrest coll. 
Seven specimens were sent in all, not seventeen, as stated in Nov. Zool. 
1926, p. 269. 

1923. Siva strigula omissa R. = Siva strigula omissa. 

Siva singula omissa Rothscliild, Xov. Zool. xxviii, p. 40 (1921 — Perak). 

Type: ?, Gunong Kerbau, Perak, 5,000 feet, 18.iii.1913. Collected by 
Herbert C. Robinson's trained natives. 

In the Journ. Fed. Malay States Museums, xiii, 4, p. 216 (1927) Robinson 
says that S. s. omissa R. is indistinguishable from S. s. malayana Hart. He points 
out only that the coloration of the yellow underside fades very much and that 
therefore the colour of the under surface cannot be made a distinguishing character 
of a subspecies ; he might have added that also the colour of the upperside 
changes from yellowish brown to gi'ey. Therefore the colour differences described 
by Lord Rothschild do not really serve to distinguish his omissa, but the latter 
is smaller than malayana and has a smaller bill. Wings of our seven malayana 
67-09, of our two omissa about 63-65 mm. S. s. malayana is much nearer to 
S. s. yunnanensis in size, but the yellow tips on the lateral rectrices are less 
wide in malayana. 

S. s. yunnanensis is very near to castaneicaiida from the Chin Hills. 

1924. Lioptila robinsoni R. = Leioptila desgodinsi rohinsoni. 

Lioptila robinsoni RothscliUd. Xov. Zool. xxviii, p. 38 (1921 — South Annam). 

Type : <?, Dalat, South Annam, 5,000 feet, 4 . iv . 1 91 8. C. Boden Kloss coll. 

1925. Lioptilus stierlingi uluguru Hart. = Lioptilus stierlingi uluguru. 

Lioplilus stierlingi uluguru Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 50 (1921 — Uluguru Mts., Tanganyika 
Territory). 

Type : ? ad., Uluguru Mts., S.vi. 1921. Arthur Loveridge coll. No. 7284. 
1926. Lioptilus abyssinicus ansorgei R. = Lioptilus abyssinicus ansorgei. 

Lioptilus abyssitiicus ansorgei Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Cliih, xxxviii, p. 78 (1918 — " Mucuio, Cuvali 
river, BengueUa "). 

Type : $, Mucuio, Cuvali River, 14.viii-1904. J. Ansorge coll. 
1927. Crateropus fulvus buchanani Hart. = Turdoides ( Argija) fulvus buchanani. 

Crateropus fulvus buchanani Hartert, A'ov. Zool, xxviii, p. 11,5 (1921 — Air). 

Type: ^ ad., Mt. Baguezan, Air (Asben), 4.vi.l920. Angus Buchanan 
coll. No. 675. 

f 1928. Crateropus plebejus anoinalus Hart. = Turdoides plebejus gularis. 

Crateropus ple'>ejus anomalus Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxviii, p. 116 (1921 — near Kano) ; Nov. Zool. 

xxxi, 1924, p. 32. 
Crateropus plebeius gularis Reichenow, Orn. Monatsher. 1910. p. 7 (Mba, .southern Adamana). 

Type: c? ^d., Farniso near Kano, 27.xii. 1919. Angus Buchanan coll. 
No. 100. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 219 

Originally described from one specimen, afterwards, in 1924, admitted after 
receiving six more. Lynes, however, thinks that it is not separable from 
C. plebejus 2^lebeJ2is. I follow W. L. Sclater (in litt.) in uniting this form with 
Reichenow's gularis, but it is indeed very close to T. p. plebejus. 

1929. Turdoides fulvus maroccanus Lynes = Turdoides fulvus maroccanvs. 

Turdoides fulvus maroccanus Lynes, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nal. Maroc, No. xiii, part 1, p. 49 (1925 — 
Taroudant, Sous). 

Type: $ ad., near Taroudant, 25. vi. 1924. Admiral Hubert Lynes coll. 
No. 628. 

1930. lanthocincla caerulata latifrons R. = lanthodncla caerulata latifrons. 

lanthocincla caerulata latifrons Rothschikl, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 266 (1926 — Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

Type: 3, forests of Shweli-Salwin Divide, 8,000 feet, July 1925. G. 
Forrest coll. No. 5982. 

Only a pair with imperfect tails known, more material therefore desirable. 

1931. Pomatorhinus ruficollis similis R. = Pomatorhinus mficollis similis. 

Pomatorhinus rttficollis similis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 261 ( 1926 — N.W. Yunnan : Tengyueh, 
Liohiang Range, Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

Type: (J, thickets on hills around Tengyueh, 7,000 feet, iii.1922. G. 
Forrest coll. No. 1391. 

This seems to be quite a recognizable subspecies nearest to baheri and 
perhaps albipectus from Szemao in South Yunnan, of which we have no specimens. 

1932. Xiphirhynchus superciliaris forresti R. = Xiphorhamphus superciliaris 

forresti. 

Xiphirhynchus superciliaris forresti Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 262 (1926 — Shweli-Salwin 
Divide and hills N.W. of Tengyueh). 

Type : ?, Shweli-Salwin Divide, W. Yunnan, vii. 1925, in forest 10,000- 
11,000 feet. G. Forrest coll. 

1933. Melaenomis lugubris ugandae Som. = Melaenomis lugubris ugandae. 

Melaenornis lugubris ugandae van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 104 (1921 — Uganda and Kavi- 
rondo) ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 93. 

Type : cj ad., Sezibwa River, 16.x. 1915. Van Someren coll. 
The distribution of the Melaenornis forms as accepted by Dr. van Someren 
requires further confirmation. 

1934. Empidomis semipartitus orleansi R. = Empidomis semipartitus orleansi. 

Empidornis semipartitus orleansi Rothschild, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 45 (1922 — " Upper Nile : 
Rejaf, Gondokoro, Nimule "). 

Type: cj ad., Rejaf, 20. ii. 1922. Due d'Orleans coll. 

This subspecies is obviously smaller than E. s. semipartitus, the wing of the 
type being 94 mm., and that of another Rejaf example (also marked (J) only 
85 mm., while other Upper Nile examples have wings of 88-95 mm. E. semi- 
partitus semipartitus have wings of 85-89 mm. — thus not really smaller than 



220 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

orlennsi — but the underside is paler. More material is desirable of E. s. semi- 
partitus to confirm its constancy. We had only four from southern Abyssinia 
collected by 0. Kovacz. 

1935. Bradornis taraensis Som. = Bradornis griseus taruensis. 

Bradomis taruensis van Somcrcn, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 104 (1921 — " The thorn-bush country o{ 
the Taru : Maungu, Samburu, 8agala, Taveta, M'buyuni. Campi-ya-bibi "). 

Type: (J, Campi-ya-bibi, 3. vii. 1918. Van Someren coll. 

In Ibis, 1918, Sclater & Praed summarily dismissed the various races of 
B. griseus, a view to which they will hardly adhere. B. g. taruensis has a much 
smaller bill than the southern B. g. griseus, besides having a darker upperside ; 
B. g. jnimilus of Somaliland is much smaller than even taruensis and very pale. 

1930. Bradornis murinus suahelicus Som. = Bradornis tnurinus suahelicus. 

Bradornis murinus suahelicus van Somcrcn, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 104 {1921 — " Masindi, Entebbe, 
Kyetume, Elgon, and also Londiani, Kakamegoes, Nairobi, Kitai, and Sagala "). 

Type: $, Londiani, 12. xii. 1912. Van Someren coll. 

Although very much like B. m. murinus, it seems to me that Dr. van Someren's 
differences hold good. 

1937. Alseonax caerulescens kikuyensis Som. = Alseonax caerulescens kilcuyensis. 

Alseonax caerulescens kikuyensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Vluh, xli, p. 102 (1921 — " Nairobi, Kyambu, 
in the Kikuyu Mountains ") ; Nov. Zool. 1922. p. 96. 

Type : ?, Kyambu Forest, 19.iii. 1916. Van Someren coll. 
1938. Bias musicus changamwensis Som. = Bias nmsicus changamwensis. 

Bias musicals changamwensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 24 (1919 — " C'oast-lands of British 
and German East Africa "). 
Types : (J$, Changamwe, near Mombasa, 21 .vii.1918. Van Someren coll. 

1939. Bias musicus pallidiventris Som. = Bias musicus pallidiventris. 

Bias musicus jiallidiveniris van Someren, Bull. B.O. ( 'luh, xli, p. 102 (1921 — Angola to Tanganyika). 
Type : $, Cahoca in Angola, 23. xi. 1903. W. J. Ansorge coll. 

1940. Diaphorophyia graueri silvae Hart. & Som. = Diaphorophyia graueri silvae. 

Diaphorophijia yraueri silvae Hartert & van Somcrcn, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 79 (1923 — Silwa, 
Kaimosi). 

Type : c? ^id., Silwa, Kaimosi, East Africa, 25. v. 1922. Collected by Dr. van 
Someren's native collector. 

1941. Rhipidura dahli antonii Hart. = RMpidura dahli antonii. 

Rhipidura dahli antonii Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 141 (1926 — New Ireland). 

Type : c? ad.. New Ireland, 18. 1 . 1924. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8975. 
1942. Rhipidura rufifrons granti Hart. = R. rufifrons granti. 

Rhipidura ru/ifrons ijranii Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxviii. p. 60 (191S — Hendova, Gizo, Vclla 
Lavella, and Kulambangra Islands, central group of Solomon Islands). 

Type : <S, Rendova, 27.11.1904. No. A 1381, A. S. Meek coll. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 221 

1943. Rhipidura rufifrons commoda Hart. = R. rufifrons commoda. 

Rhipidura rufijrons commoda Hartert, Bull. B.O. Clvh, xxxviii, p. 60 {1918 — Bougainville I.). 
Type : ^ ad., Bougainville, 26.xii. 1907. No. 3669, A. S. Meek coll. 

1944. Rhipidura raflventris mussaui Hart. = Rhipidura rufiventris mussaui. 

Rhipidura rufiventris mussaui Hartert, Xur. Zool. xxxi, p. 271 (1924 — St. Matthias Island). 

Type: S ad., St. Matthias Island, ll.vi.l923. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 8540. 

t 1945. Rhipidura rufiventris albertorum Hart. = Rh. rufiventris setosa. 

Rhipidura rufiventris albertorum Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxi. p. 271 (1924 — New Hanover) ; cf. Hart., 

Nov. Zool. xxxii, p. 130, 1925 ! ! 
Muscipeta setosa Quoy et Gaimard, Voy. Astrolahe, Zool. i, p. 181, pi. iv, fig. 4 (1830 — Carteret 

Harbour, South New Ireland). 

Type: cJ ad.. New Hanover, 23. ii. 1923. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8212. 
1946. Rhipidura rufiventris pemeglecta Hart. = Rh. rufiventris pemeglecta. 

Rhipidura rufiventris pernerjlecta Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxviii, p. 59 (1918 — Taam, Kilsoein, and 
Koer in the Tiandu group). 

Type : S ad., Taam Island, 22.vii. 1899. Heinr. Kiihn coll. No. 1352. 
This subspecies was unfortunately described again by myself in Nov. Zool., 
1920, p. 497, mider No. 817, as Rhipidura rufiventris tiandu ! ! 

1947. Rhipidura rufiventris finitima Hart. = Rh. rufiventris finitima. 

Rhipidura rufiventris finitiiiui Hartert, Bull. B.U. Club, xxxviii, p. 59 (1918 — Tevor and Kisoei in 
the Watubela group). 

Type: ^ ad., Kisoei, 13.iii.l900. Heinr. Kiihn coll. No. 2084. 
1948. Rhipidura squamata henrici Hart. = Rh. squamata henrici. 

Rhipidura sqwimata henrici Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xxxviii, p. 59 (1918 — Outlying small islands 
of the Key group). 

Type: ?, Kilsoein in the Koer group, 2.vii.l899 (not 1892!). Heinr. 
Kiihn coll. No. 1287. 

1949. Monarcha hebetior Hart. = Monarcha hebetior hebetior. 

Monarcha hebetior Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxi, pp. 270. 271 (1924 — St. Matthias Island). 

Type: ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, 30. v. 1923. Albert F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 8479. 

1950. Monarcha hebetior eichhomi Hart. = Monarcha hebetior eichhorni. 

Monarcha hebetior eichhorni Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxi, p. 271 (1924 — New Hanover). 

Type: (^ ad.. New Hanover, 3. iii. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8256. 

Monarcha hebetior is one of the most interesting birds I had the opportunity 
to describe. While its males must resemble those of M. alecto chalybeocephalus 
from a distance, the females are quite different. They were collected many 
years ago by Th. Kleinschmidt and Kubary in New Britain, but were thought 
to be a stage of plumage of chalybeocephalus, which was, of course, impossible, 

16 



222 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

as these birds moult direct from the juvenile to the adult plumage. While in 
St. Matthias only M. hebetior is known so far, on New Britain and New Ireland 
both species are found. Cf. Nov. Zool., 1925, p. 129 ; 1926, p. 139 ! 

1951. Batis soror pallidigTila Som. = Batis soror pallidigula. 

Batis soror pallidigula van Somercn, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 103 (1921 — Lumbo in North Mozam- 
bique) ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 101. 

Type : $, Lumbo, 17.vii.l918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's collectors. 
Requires further confirmation, I think, but other specimens from northern 
Mozambique, collected by H. C. Miiller, are like van Someren's pallidigula. 

1952. Batis molitor taruensis Som. = Batis violitor taruensis. 

Bads molitor taruensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 103 (1921 — Taru desert, Samburu, 
Maungu, and Changamwe) ; Nov. Zool. 1922, p. 100. 

Type: c? ad., Maungu, 4.viii.I918. Collected by Dr. van Someren's 
collectors. 

The crown of the head of the type is almost pure black, merging into grey 
on the nape. 

1953. Tchitrea viridis harterti Meinertzh. = Tchitrea viridis harterti. 

Tchitrea viridis harterti Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xliii, p. 158 (1923 — Aden and Lahej. Yemen) 
Cf. also Nero. Zool. 1917, p. 462. 

Type : $ ad., Wasil, Yemen, 4,000 feet. G. W. Bury coll. 

CAMPEPHAGID AE . 
1954. Lalage conjuncta R. & H. = Lalage conjuncta. 

Lalage conjuncta Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 51 (1924 — St. Matthias Island). 
Nov. Zool. xxxi, p. 272, 1924. 

Type: ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, 30.vii.l923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 

No. 8691. 

1955. Lalage karu falsa Hart. = Lalage karu falsa. 

Lalage karu falsa Hartert. Nov. Zool. xxxii. p. 131 (1925 — "New Britain, Duke of York Islands, 
Hook Island "). 

Type : S ad., Duke of York Is., 4.xi. 1880. Th. Kleinschmidt coll., No. 9857 
of the Godeffroy Museum in Hamburg. 

1950. Lalage karu albidior Hart. = Lalage karu albidior. 

Lalage karu al'ndior Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxi, p. 208 (1924 — New Hanover). 

Type : <J ad.. New Hanover, 21 .ii. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8203. 

PYCNONOTIDAE. 
t 1957. Pycnonotus dodsoni teitensis Som. = Pycnonotus dodsoni dodsoni. 

Pycnonotus dodsoni teitensis van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix, p. 190 (1922 — "South Ukamba to 
Kilimanjaro "). 

Type : cj, Tsavo, 26.iii. 1918. Dr. van Someren coll. 

Mr. Sclater kindly tells me that he considers teitensis not to be separable 

from dodsoni, nor would he separate peasei of Mearns and littoralis van Someren. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 223 

1958. Pycnonotus barbatus nigeriae Hart. = Pycnonolus harbatus nigeriae. 

Pycnotioiiis harhatus nirjeriae Hartcrt, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 126 (1921 — " Southern Nifcria"). 

Type : ? ad. (not 3), Degama, 23. v. 1902. W. J. Ansorge coll. No. 478. 
1959. Arizelocichla neumanni Hart. = Arizelocichla nigriceps neumanni. 

Arizelocichla tieiimaimi Hartert. Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 50 (1922 — " Uluguru Mts. in western part of 
Tanganyika Territory "). 

Type : cj. Uluguru Mts., 18. v. 1921. Arthur Loveridge coll. 
W. L. Sclater (in litt.) says this is a subspecies of A. nigriceps. 

1960. Arizelocichla nigriceps percivali Hart. = A. nigriceps percivali. 

Arizelocichla nigriceps percivali Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 50(1922 — "Usambara Mts., Tangan- 
yika Territory "). 

Type : Ad., Usambara Mts. A. Blainey Percival coll. 

1961. Eurillas virens holochlorus Som. = Eurillas virens holochlorus. 

Eurillas virens liulocldorus van Someren. Sue. Zool. xxis, p. 189 (1922 — " Budongo, Bugoma, 
Lugalamba, Sezibwa, Kyetume, Elgon "). 

Type : o, Sezibwa R., Chagwe, Uganda, November 1914. 
This form is, according to our material, much larger in both sexes, the 
females being in these forms very much smaller than the males. 

1962. Phyllastrephus rabai Hart. & Som. = Phyllastrephus dehilis rabai. 

Phyllastrephus rahai Hartert & van Soineren. Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 64 (1921 — " Rabai Hills north 
of Mombasa ''). 

Type : o ad., Rabai, 18.x. 1920. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 
Mr. Sclater (in litt.) thinks that rabai is a subspecies of debilis from Inham- 
bane in South Mozambique. 

t 1963. PhyUastrephus placidus sokokensis Som. = Phyllastrephus fischeri fischeri. 

Phyllustrephus jdncidu.'i sok'okensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 7 (1923 — "The forests 
along the coast of Kenya Colony, from north of the Tana River, south to Shimoni and Gazi "). 

Type : (^ ad., Sokoke Forest, 16. i. 1921. From Dr. van Someren's collectors. 
According to Mr. Sclater, this is the same as Ph. fischeri fischeri. 

TROGLODYTIDAE. 
1964. Troglodytes troglodytes juniperi Hart. = T. troglodytes juniperi. 

Troglmlytes troijlodyles juniperi Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlii, p. 140 (1922 — "Juniper woods on 
mountains and plateau of north-western Cyrenaica, or Barka ") ; Nov. Zool. xxx, p. 21, 1923. 

Type : S ad-, juniper woods near Merg, 9. v. 1922. Hartert and Hilgert coll. 
(?) 1965. Pneopyga squamata magnirostris R. = \ P. sqiiamata magnirostris. 

Pnoepyga squanmta nmgniroslris Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxxii, p. 297 (1925 — Sliweli Vallev). 

Type : $, shot 7,000 feet high in dense thicket in the Shweli valley, 
N.W. Yunnan, November 1923. George Forrest coll. No. 5819. 

It is impossible, from comparison with two males of P. s. mutica, to say 
whether the single specimen, which has — as stated by Lord Rothschild — the bill 



224 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

longer (but only a tiny bit), and the upperside a little more olivaceous, is really 
a different subspecies. 

HIRUNDINIDAE. 
1966. Hirundo senegalensis hybrida Som. = Hirundo senegalensis hybrida. 

Hirundo senegalensis hybrida van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 104 (1921 — " East Africa : Mom- 
basa, Changamwe, Tsavo, M'buyuni, Samburu, Nairobi '") ; Not: Zool. xxLx, p. 91, 1922. 

Type : S, Tsavo, 29.iii. 1918. V. G. L. van Someren coll. 

EURYLAEMIDAE. 

1967. Smithomis capensis meinertzhageni Som. = Smithomis capensis meinertz- 

hageni. 

Smithomis capensis meinertzliageni van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xl, p. 24 (1919 — "Foothills of 
Elgou and North Kavirondo, and probably Nandi "). 

Type: (^ ad., Lerundo, Nyarondo, ll.iii.l917. H. J. Allen Turner coll. 
for R. Meinertzhagen. 

1968. Smithomis rufolateralis budongoensis Som. = Smithomis rufolatemlis 

budongoensis. 
Smithomis rufolaleralis budongoensis van Someren, Bull. B.O. Club, xli, p. 103 (1921 — " Budongo 
Forest and Bugoma "). 

Type : $, Budongo Forest, 17 .ii. 1907. L. M. Seth-Smith coll. 

CYPSELI. 

1969. Collocalia francica eichhomi Hart. = Collocalia francica eichhomi. 

Collocalia francica eichhomi Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxi, p. 269 (1924 — St. Matthias Island). 

Type : S, St. Matthias Island, 10. vi. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8532. 

CAPRIMULGI. 

1970. Chordeiles virginianus aserriensis Cherrie = Chordeiles virginianus aserriensis. 

Chordeiles i-irginianu.i nserrien.<:is Cherrie, Auk, xiii. p. 136 (1896 — Valley of River Aserri, San Jose, 
Costa Rica, 2.xi.l893). 

Geo. K. Cherrie coll. No. 4261. 

1971. Naimochordeiles pusillus septentrionalis Hellm. = Nannochordeiles pusillus 

septentrionalis. 
Nannochordeiles pusillus septentrionalis Hellmayr, Nor. Zool. xv, p. 78 (1908 — "Northern Brazil, 
British Guiana, Venezuela"). 

Type : S ad., Maipures, on the Orinoco, 22.1.1889. Geo. K. & Stella M. 
Cherrie coll. No. 11714. 

BUCEROTES. 
1972. Rhyticeros plicatus mendanae Hart. = Rhyticeros pUcatus mendanae. 

Rhyticeros plicatus mendanae Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlv, p. 46 (1924— Solomon Islands). 

Type: cJ ad., Guadalcanar, Solomon Islands, 1. v. 1901. A. S. Meek coll. 
No. 3065. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 225 

PSITTACI. 

1973. Micropsitta bmijnii necopinata Hart. = Micropsiita bruijnii necopinata. 

Micropsitta bruijnii necopinata Hartert, Sov, Zool. xxxii. p. 124 (1925 — S.W. New Ireland). 

Type: <J ad., S.W. New Ireland, 19.xii.l923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 

No. 8885. 

1974. Micropsitta pusio stresemaimi Hart. = Micropsitta pnsio stresemanni. 

Micropsitta pusio stresemanni Hartert, Nor. Zool. xxxiii, p. 130 (1926 — Sudest and St. Aignan Islands, 
Louisiade group). 

Type: ^ ad., Mt. Riu or Rattlesnake, Sudest Island, 8.iv.l9I6. A. S. 
Meek coll. No. 7343. 

1975. Micropsitta meeki proxima R. & H. = Micropsitta meeki proxima. 

Micropsitta meeki proxima Roth.schild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xliv, p. 50 (1924 — St. Matthias 
and Squally Islands). 

Type : ^ ad., St. Matthias Island, 30 . v . 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8475. 
1976. Domicella albidinucha R. & H. = Domicella albidinucha. 

Domicella albidinucha Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O. Club, xlv, p. 7 (1924 — New Ireland) ; Nov. 
Zool. xxxii, 1925, p. 121, pi. i. 

Type : ^ ad., S.W. New Ireland, 16. xi. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8777. 

HALCYONES. 
1977. Halcyon tristrami novaehibemiae Hart. = Halcyon chloris novaehibemiae. 

Halcyon tristrami novaehibemiae Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxii, p. 125 (1925 — S.W. New Ireland); 
of. Nov. Zool. xxxiti, pp. 132, 133, 1926. 

Type : ^ ad., S.W. New Ireland, 24.xii. 1923. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 8906. 

CAPITONIDAE. 
1978. Cyanops monticola Sharpe = Cholorhea monticola. 

Cyanops monticola Sharpe, Ann. <f- Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. iii, p. 424 (1889 — Kina Balu, Borneo). 
Type : (J, Kina Balu, 3,000 feet, 6. iii. 1887. John Whitehead coll. No. 1071. 

1979. Cyanops henricii brachyrhynchus Neum. = C. henrici brachyrhynchus. 

Cyanops henrici brachyrhynchus Neumann, Bull. B.O. Club, xxii, p. 000 (1908 — North Borneo). 
Type : cJ ad., Batu Song, 2,000 feet, January 1892. Charles Hose coll. 

t 1980. Capito Shelleyi Dalmas = Capita bourcierii aequatorialis. 

Capita Shelleyi Dalmas, Bull. Soc. zool. France, xxv, p. 179 (November 1900 — Rio Napo — errore .') ; 

cf. Hellmayr, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1911, p. 1200. 
Capito aequitorialis Salvadori & Festa, Boll. Mm. Zool. Torino, xv. No. 368, p. 22 (February 1900^ 

Intai, W. Ecuador). 

Type : <^ ad., Ecuador, of the well-known Quito form and make, without 
exact locality, certainly not from Rio Napo (ex coll. Dalmas). 



226 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

PICI. 
1981. Dryobates catphaxius tenebrosus R. = Dnjobates catpharius tenehrosus. 

Dryohates catpharius lenehrosiis Rothschild, Xov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 240 (1926 — Shweli-Salwin Divide). 

Type: cj juv. ! shot in forest on the Shweli-Salwin Divide, vii.1925, 
7,000 feet high, by G. Forrest, No. 6121. 

This peculiar Woodpecker seems to replace D. catpharius in Yunnan, but 
unfortunate!}' no adult specimen has been obtained. The bill is described as 
black with bluish base. The throat is dull brownish buff. 

1982. Dendrocopus cabanisi hainanus Hart. & Hesse = Dryobates major hainanus. 

Dendrocopus cabanisi hainanus Hartert & Hesse, Oni. Monataher. 1911, p. 192 (Hainan). 
Type: (J ad., Cheteriang, Hainan, 5.i. 1894. Katsumata coll. 

1983. lyngipicus grandis excelsior Hart. = Dryobates grandis excelsior. 

Iyngipicu,3 grandis excelsior HartiTt, Nov. Zool. v, p. 461 (1898 — Alor Island). 

Type : c? ad., Alor, March 1897. Alfred Everett coll. 

? t 1984. Dendromus niger Neum. = Campethera nubica nubica (?). 

Dendromus niger Xeumann, Vrii. Monalsber. 1902, p. 9 (Biika Mts. southern Kaffa, and Anderatscha, 
the capital of Kaffa). 

Type : (J juv., Buka Mts., 4.iii. 1901. Oscar Neumann coll. No. 974. 

Arthur Goodson called my attention to the underside of the birds from 
southern Abyssinia being heavier spotted than in the specimens from the Sudan 
and North Abyssinia. I find, however, that our Sudan (Witherby) and North 
Abyssinian (Schrader) specimens have the underside beautifully prepared, while 
in those from southern Abj'ssinia (Neumann, Sapphiro, Kovacz, Trofimoff) 
the underside is not well prepared, roughly cut open and not nicely closed, some- 
times dirty and defective, so that the differences require confirmation. It may 
be, however, that all the South Abyssinian birds should be called nigra, and 
thus differentiated from the typical nubica of Nubia and Erythrea. 

GUCULI. 
t 1985. Eudynamis scolopaceus enigmaticus R. = E. scolopaceus chinensis. 

Eudynamis scolopaceus enignuilicus Rothschild, Noi: Zool. xxxiii. p. 235 (1926 — W. Yunnan). 
Eudynamis chinensis Cabanis & Heine, J/jts. Hein. iv, p. 52 (1862 — Canton, China). 

Type : ^ ad., shot in forests on hills N.W. of Tengyueh, W. Yunnan, 7,000 
feet high, April 1925. G. Forrest coll. No. 6201. 

Cf. Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 398, 1927 ! 

t 1986. Urodynamis taitensis belli Math. = Urodynamis taitensis iaitensis. 

Urodynamis taitensis belli Mathews, Bull, Brit. Orn. Club, xxix, p. 24 (1918— Norfolk Island). 

It is true that the type specimen is rather dark (not lighter !), but the series 
does not confirm this, and Mathews, in 1927, admitted belli to be a s^^^onym. 
Cf. Syslema Av. Ausiralas. i, p. 419. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 227 

1987. Chalcites malayanus salvadorii Hart. & Stres. = Chalcites malayanus 

salvadorii. 
Chalcites nmlayanus mlmdorii Hartert & Stre.semann, Noi\ Zool. xxxii, p. 162 (1925 — Babber). 
Type : S, Tepa, Babber, IS.ix. 1905. Heinr. Kiihii coll. No. 6939. 

t 1988. Cuculus optatus belli Math. = Cuculus optatus. 

Cuctilus optatus tielli Mathews, Bull. B.O. Cluh, xxxvi, p. 83 (1916 — Lord Howe Island). 

Type : ^ ad., Lord Howe Island, 17. ii. 1915. Roy Bell coll. No. 37. 
Already recognized as synonym by Mathews. 

STRIGES. 
1989. Ninox variegata superior Hart. = Ninox variegata superior. 

Ninox vnriegnta superior Hartert, Xor. /Cool, xxxii. p. 121 (192.5 — New Hanover). 

Type: Ad. New Hanover, 21 .ii. 1897. Cayley Webster coll. No. 435. 

AGCIPITRES. 
1990. Accipiter fasciatus tjendanae Stres. = Accipiter fasciatus tjemlanae. 

Accipiter fascial If s tjendanae Stroseniann, Joifrn.f. Orn. 1925, p. 323 (Sumba). 

Type : $ ad., Sumba, Waingapo, September 1896. A. Everett coll. 
So far only this female and two adult males are recorded ! 

1991. Accipiter eichhomi Hart. = Accipiter eichhorni eichhorni. 

Accipiter eichhorni Hartert, A'yr. Zool. xxxiii, p. 36 (1926 — Feni Island, east of South New Ireland). 

Type: ? ad., Feni Island, 2. vi. 1924. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 9366. 
1992. Accipiter eichhomi imitator Hart. = Accipiter eichlmrni imitator. 

Accipiter eichhorni imitator Hartert — Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 37 (1926 — Choiseid, northern Solomon 
Islands). 

Type : $ ad., Choiseul, 6. i. 1904. A. S. Meek coll. No. A 1105. 

1993. Accipiter luteoschistaceus R. & H. = Accipiter luteoschistaceus. 

Accipiter luteoschistaceus Rothschild & Hartert, Bull. B.O.Chib,xlvi, p. 53 (1926 — New Britain) ; 
Nov. Zool. 1926, p. 127. 

Type: <^, Talasea, New Britain, 21 .iv. 1925. A. F. Eichhorn coll. No. 10129. 

t 1994. Circus approximans druininondi Math. = Circus juxta (or approximans) 

gouldi. 
Circus approximans drummondi Mathews & Iredale, Ibis, 1913, p. 419 (New Zealand). 

Type : An unsexed bird without original label, said by Mathews to come 
from North Island, New Zealand. 

I cannot recognize this subspecies, which is merely said to be darker and 
smaller, wing less than 398 mm. These statements I cannot endorse, as in 
C. a. gouldi from Australia many specimens are as dark or darker than New 
Zealand ones, and many of the latter have wings longer than 398 mm. and so 
had the type, as its wings are strongly worn off ! 



228 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

The distribution in the Syst. Av. Australasian, pp. 237, 238, is rather general- 
ized, Norfolk Island, Chatham and New Hebrides Islands, Kermadecs, and the 
two occurrences in New Guinea not being given. 

The treatment of this group in Swaim's Monograph of Birds of Prey is 
regrettably bad. The description of the plumages is not good, no notice 
being taken of the usual variations in both old and young. The subspecies 
have apparently not been studied, but mentioned from short preliminary notes 
by Mathews and Iredale. No judgment has been attempted, for example, in 
the case of C. o. drummondi, though a series was available at Trmg. Swann 
only repeated Mathews and Iredale's statement in other words : " Rather 
smaller and darker than C. a. gouldi ; wing cJ 398 mm." But the two authors 
did not say this, but that the wing was " less than 398 mm.," and the sex of 
the type is not stated. Nor does this one measurement refer to the subspecies, 
but merely to the type, as I have said above. 



f 1995. Gymnogenys typicus graueri Swann = Gymnogenys radiatus typicus. 

Oymnogenys typicus graueri Swann, Synops, Accip. p. 17 (1922 — " E. Africa ") ; Monogr. B. Prey, 
part u, p. 101, 1925. 

Type : " ?," not quite adult, Kissenjd, shore of Lake Kivu, 26.xu.1907. 
Rudolf Grauer coll. No. 1746. 

I am sorry to say that I cannot confirm the supposed differences of this sub- 
species. The width of the black and white bars on the abdomen varies much, 
and there are specimens from N.E. Africa that have them as in the type of 
" gra^ieri." Some adult specimens of typictis have the under surface uniform 
grey, with only some bars on the vent and under tail-coverts, or even without 
any. We have such specimens not only from the Lake Kivu region (Grauer coll.), 
but also from Senegambia and from Farniso near Kano (Buchanan coll.). The 
extraordinary variations of the young birds of typicus — one from South Nigeria, 
collected by Ansorge, has the greater part of the upperside black ! — are not 
described in Swann's Monograph. So far I can only distinguish three subspecies : 

G. radiatus radiatus (Scopoli) from Madagascar. 

G. radiatus typicus (Smith) from South Africa through East and Central 
Africa to Abyssinia and White Nile. 

G. radiatus pectoralis (Sharpe) from West Africa. The most typical specimen 
I saw from Benguella. To this form seems also to belong the one from Hausaland 
which I have from Zaria and Kano. 



ARDEAE. 
1996. Hydranassa tricolor rufimentum Hellm. = Hydranassa tricolor rujinientum. 

Hydranunsa triralnr ru/imcnliiiu Hi-llniivyr. Nor. Zool. xiii. p. 50 (1906 — Trinidad). 

Type : ^ ad., Caroni Swamp, Trinidad, 22.iii. 1902. E. Andre coll. 

This appears to be a very distinct subspecies, but as far as I know is still 
unique. More material from Trinidad should therefore be obtained and 
examined. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 229 

TUBINARES. 
1997. Cjonochorea owstoni Math. = Oceanodroma oivstoni. 

Cymochorea owstoni Mathews & Iretlale, Ihis, 1915, p. 581 (sea near Japan). Cf . Hartert, Vdg. pal. 
Fauna, p. 1416 ! 

Type : (J ad., Okino.se, Sagaini Sea, Hondo, 1 .v. 1902. From Alan Owston's 
collectors, ex coll. Mathews. 

(0. markhami and owstoni must be subspecies, but a final grouping of these 
birds remains to be done.) 

COLUMBAE. 

1908. Phleg'oenas crinigera leytensis Hart. = GalUcolumba crinigera leytensis. 

Phlegoenas crinigera leytensis Hartert, Now Zool. 1918, p. 434 (Leyte, Philippine Is.). 

Type : o ad., Mts. of northern Leyte or Leite, 3 . viii . 1896. John Whitehead 
coll. No. B 834. 

1999. Phlegoenas crinigera basilanica Hart. = GalUcolumba crinigera 

basilanica. 

Phlegoenas crinigera hasilanirn Hartert, Xov. Zool. xxv, p. 434 (1918 — BasUan). 

Type : (J ad., Basilan, February 1898. WilUam Doherty coll. 

PYGOPODES. 
2000. Podiceps ruficollis japonicus Hart. = Podiceps ruficolUs japonicus. 

Podiceps ruficollis japonicus Hartert. Vdg. pal. Fauna, ii, p. 1455 (1920 — Japan). 

Type: c? ad., near Tokio, Japan, 13. iv. 1894. Apparently collected by a 
Mr. Kaitsumwic. 

LIMICOLAE. 

2001. Pluvianus aegyptius angolae Meinertzh. = Pluvianus aegyptius angolae. 

Pluvianus aegyptius angolae Annie C. Meinertzhagen, Bull. B.O. Club, xlvii, p. 100 (1927 — " Angola 
and Belgian Congo "). 

Type: S ad., Cunga, Quanza River, Angola, 19. v. 1901. C. Hubert 
Pemberton coll. 

RALLI. 

2002. Gallinula olivacea nigrifrons Hart. = GalUnuIa ( Amauromis) olivacea 

nigrifrons. 

Gallinula (Amaurorni.$) olivacea nigrifrons Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, p. 172(1926 — " Witu Islands, 
New Britain, Duke of York Islands, New Hanover, and probably also New Ireland, and also 
Solomon Islands "). 

Type: ^ ad., Witu (French) Islands, 24. vi. 1925. A. F. Eichhorn coll. 
No. 10328. 

SPHENISCIDAE. 
? 2003. Eudyptula minor iredalei Math. = Eudyptula minor iredalei (?). 

Eudyptula minor iredalei Mathews, B. Austr. i, p. 286, pi. 67 (1911— Chatham Islands). 

Type : c?. An unsexed bird somewhere from the New Zealand seas, but 
not from the Chatham Islands ! Received by Mathews in exchange from the 
Tring Museum. 



230 No\TTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Mathews said that the Chatham Islands form had a " shorter, thicker bill " 
and a darker coloration. The specimen marked by the author as the " type " 
and erroneously supposed to have come from the Chatham Islands, is not 
separable from other New Zealand examples, while most Chatham birds have a 
longer (not shorter !) and higher bill. The coloration is the same. 

Two more recent types are to be added : 

2004. Microscelis madagascariensis albiventris Neum. = Microscelis madagas- 

carien.si/i albiventris. 

Microscelis madagascariensis albiventris Neumann, Orn. Monalshcr. 1926, p. 110 (Joanna 
Island = Anjouan). 

Type: Ad. Anjouan ,23. ix. 1906. Krishnasamy Naidoo coll. 
t (0 2005. Milvus milvus harterti Bede = Milvus milvus milvus. 

Mih'tis 7Hili'us liarlerii Becle, Mem. Woe. Sci. Nat. Maroc, No. xvi, p. 36, dated on cover 31. xii. 
1926, but not distributed before July 1927 (on p. 150 it says " Acheve d'imprimer le 
25. Mai 1927 "). 

Type: $, nearly ad., Ain-Leuh, Middle Atlas, Marocco, 20. iv. 1925. Paul 
Bede coll. Presented by the author. 

This bird seemed not to be breeding ; the tail is very much, the wings are 
much, worn. The wing measures 443 mm., but being worn must be at least 
450 mm., if in fresh and unworn plumage. There is obviously no sound reason 
for naming this form ! It is just possible that North African Red Kites are 
somewhat smaller, but it is not a scientific proceeding to name them from the 
insufficient material so far available ; we require more evidence for creating new 
subspecies. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 231 



NOTES ON THE GENUS CYORNIS, BLYTH. 
By HERBERT C. ROBINSON and NORMAN B. KINNEAR. 

TT may be well to explain at the outset that in the main we have followed 

the late Dr. R. B. Sharpe (Handl. Birds, iii, 1901, pp. 214-17) in his con- 
ception of the species that should be included in this extensive genus, except 
that we have excluded therefrom Cyornis rufigula and C. bonthaina. which belong 
to Dendrobiasies, C. erythaea whose position is doubtful, and C. elopurensis, which 
is almost certainly an immature bird of the genus Erythromyias Sharpe, or 
more properly Oreicola Bp. 

On the other hand, we have reinstated in the genus, poliogeny-s Brooks, 
and its allied races which many authors have included in Anfhipes, Blyth, from 
which genus it is in our opinion widely divorced. 

Even with these emendations the genus is an extremely composite one 
and presents many difficulties. If colour pattern is to be regarded as important 
there are at least three distinct sections which are as markedly different from 
each other as many avian genera. In so-called structural characters there is 
also marked divergence in the species, especially in the bill and the relative 
length of the tail. Many species, too, inosculate with other accepted genera, 
such as Nillava and CyanoptUa, in some of their characters. Were it not for 
considerations of convenience there are very many arguments for the course 
adopted by Dr. Hartert in including the majority of these nomenclatorial genera 
in the comprehensive genus Muscicapa Linn. To do so, however, makes that 
genus inordinately large, and involves numerous changes in the accepted nomen- 
clature. We have, therefore, for the present retained all the species currently 
accepted as Cyornis under that heading, which is, we admit, illogical, as unless 
they are all placed under Muscicapa they are by no means strictly congeneric in 
other than the broadest sense. 

The series of birds on which these remarks are based is very considerable ; 
it includes all those in the British Museum and in the Tring Museum, and selected 
specimens from the collections in Washington, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A., Berlin, 
Stockholm, and Paris. In addition, we have had before us at one time and 
another the whole of the series in the Federated Malay States, Singapore, and 
Sarawak Museums, and many from Sumatra collected by Mr. E. Jacobson, and 
now in Leyden, as well as from Siam in the private collection of Sir W. F. William- 
son. To the authorities of all these museums, and more especially to Lord 
Rothschild for the loan of his unrivalled collection of the genus, and for the 
hospitality of Novitates Zoologicae for the publication of these remarks, our 
most cordial thanks are tendered. 

Of recent literature on the genus we must make special reference to 
the article by Dr. Stresemann (Uniith. Monatsb. xxxiii, 1925, pp. 45-53), 
with which we are in substantial agreement, differing only in matters of 
detail. 

Measurements given in millimetres are those of the wing, pressed flat 
against the rule. 



232 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



Genus CYORNIS Blyth 1843. 

Journ. Asiai. Soc. Bengal, xii, pt. 2, 1843, p. 949. 

Type : Phoenicura rubeculoides Vig. 

Section I. 

In this, the typical section of the genus, the sexes are different, but some- 
times not markedljf so ; the 7nales are shining bright blue above, lighter on the 
forehead, superciliaries, and rump, but without a specially noticeable bright 
patch on the angle of the wing ; sides of the head and throat blue or blackish 
blue ; breast rufous ; belly and under tail-coverts white or nearly so. Females 
either blue or brown above. 

Species 1. 

Males bright blue above with blue chin and throat ; females brown, breast 
rufous buff, lores whitish. 

Cyomis rubeculoides rubeculoides (Vig.). 

Phoenicura rubeculoides Vigors, P.Z.S. 1831, p. 25 (North-West Himalayas). 

Muscicapa ruhecola Swains., Jard. Nal. Library, x, 1838, p. 221, tab. xxvii ($) (Pondicherry). 

Xiltara hrevipes Hodgson, Indian Review, i, 1839, p. 650 (type in British Museum examined). 

Male : The blue of the throat separated from the rusty red of the breast 
by an even line ; belly and under tail-coverts pure white, flanks rarely much 

infuscated. Female: Pale clay brown above, greyer on the head, more 

rusty on the rump, the edges of the primaries and the tail feathers ; lores whitish. 
Beneath rufous buff, more yellowish on the throat ; middle of beUy and under 
tail-coverts white. 

Range : From the N.W. Himalayas to the Eastern Assam Hill tracts. 
Continental India and Ceylon (winter). Manipur, the Chin Hills, and the 
Chindwin ; not apparently far east of the Irawadi. 

N.W. Himalayas (Simla, Mussorie, etc.) . 

Kashmir . . 

Nepal ...... 

Sikkim and Darjeeling .... 

Northern India (plains and Central Provinces) . 

Southern India (Kandesh, Coorg, Belgaum, 

Madras) 
Ceylon ...... 

North Cachar ..... 

Assam Hill Tracts, Garo, Naga, and Miri Hills 

Manipur ....... 

Ruby Mines, Upper Burma .... 
North Chin Hills 



9 cJ 


: 71-73 


, mean 72-1 mm 


1 ? 


71 




1 6 


: 72 ; 1 


$: 71 


5 6 


69-72 


mean 70-8 mm 


3 $ 


67-70 




27 S 


68-73 


mean 71-3 mm 


12 ? 


67-69 


mean 68 mm. 


7 6 


70-74 


mean 71-4 mm 


4 9 


68-70 


mean 69 mm. 


6(? 


70-73 


mean 72-0 mm 


2 ? 


69, 71 




2 c? 


70, 71 




8c? 


69-72 


mean 70-4 mm 


1 ? 


68 




14 S 


68-73 


mean 69-6 mm 


2 ? 


66, 67 




11 s 


68-72 , 


mean 70-5 mm 


2 ? 


68, 68 




•S 


71 




?: 


66 





NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAK XXXIV. 1928. 233 

Mt. Victoria, S. Chin Hills . . . . ^ : 11 

Upper Chindwin . . . . . . (J : 71 

Lower Chindwin ?, cJ : 72, 66 

Kauri Kachin Tracts . . . . . (J : 69 

The whole of the series detailed above must, we think, be regarded as sub- 
specifically identical, though, as is always the case, there is a small decrease in 
size and increase in brightness in the more southern birds. The subspecific 
characters are not absolutely constant, but only a very small proportion have 
the rusty red of the breast intruding on the blue of the throat. Cases that do 
occur are sporadic and often in birds remote from the range of dialilaema from 
such localities as Dharmsala. 

Cyomis rubeculoides rogersi, subsp. nov. 
Male : Not separable with any certainty from Pegu and North Tenasserim 

birds. Female : Differs from all others examined in the rich cinnamon chestnut 

tint and the brighter earthy brown tint of the whole of the upper surface. Breast 
richer ferruginous than others of the group, this colour extending on to the 
flanks. Middle of belly and under tail-coverts pure white, under wing-coverts 
tinged with buff. 

Type: Adult female. Aracan. Lat. 18°-19°.N. Long. 95° E. Rogers 
coll. in Tring Museum. 

Range : Apparently localized in the Aracan Yomas. 
Aracan Yomas, lat. 18°-19°. Altitude, 500-1,000 feet. September, 2 (J : 68, 71 

October, November 1906. Rogers coll. (Tring Mus.) . 3 $ : 67, 68, 69 
Segyi, Lower Chindwin. December 1905. Mears [C] (Brit. 

Mus.) 1 $ : 68 [<J] 

This last specimen appears to be referable to this race, though others from the 
Upper Chindwin are nearer true rubeculoides. 

Cyomis rubeculoides dialilaema Salvad. 

Cyomis dialilaema Salvad., Ann. Mus. Civ. Cen. (2«), vii. 1SS9, p. 387 (Taho Plateau, North Tenas- 

serim : type in Genoa Museum). 
Cyomis rubeculoides chersoniles Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxiii, 1920, p. 85 (Trang, 

Peninsular Siam : type in United States National Museum). 

Very close to C. rubeculoides rubeculoides and only separable in series, but 
perhaps slightly smaller. Male : Rather brighter above than the typical race, 
rufous of breast deeper and encroaching on the blue of the throat in a A-shaped 
line. Blue of throat also darker and sides, of the head blacker ; flanks more 

iiofuscated and under tail-coverts often tinged with buff. Female : Browner 

above, the rump and edges of tail-feathers more chestnut, beneath, with the 
throat and breast, darker yellowish rufous. 

Range : From the Southern Shan States to central and southern Burma 
and east to northern and western Siam and ranging far south into Tenasserim, 
and possibly to Peninsular Siam. 

South Shan States. May . . . . cj : 69 

Thyetmyo, Central Burma. February, April, 2 § juv. : 67, 68 
August, October (breeding) . . . cJ : 69 



234 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



Tonghoo Hills. October, March, May 

Karen Hills and Karen-ni. January-March 

Koon Tan, N. Siam. April, May, September . 

Lower Pegu. September, October, November, 
February ...... 

Rangoon. October, December 

KolUdoo, N. Tenasserim. January 

Pahpoon, N. Tenasserim. December, January 

Lower Salwin. November-February, August 

(breeding) 
Moulmein . . 

Ye, Tenasserim. March (breeding). 
Muleyit and Taho Plateau (topotypes). 

February, April 
Neding, Tenasserim. December 

The very considerable series detailed above is on the whole very uniform, 
though the birds from Koon Tan, northern Siam, collected by Count Gylden- 
stolpe, which, through the kindness of Prof. Lonnberg, we have been enabled 
to examine, appear rather brighter. As regards the distribution of the race, 
we do not think that it occurs farther east than western Siam. Birds recorded 
as such from French Indo-China belong in part to C. whitei and in part to forms 
of C. tickelliae. Those from Yuiman are largely the bird described from Hupeh 
as C. tickelli glaucicomans (q.v.). 



V c? 


67-73 


mean 69-3 mm. 


1 ? 


66 




5cJ 


67-73 


mean 690 mm. 


3 $ 


67, 68, 


71 


li<? 


66-71 


mean 68-8 mm. 


8 ? 


64-69 


mean 66-9 mm. 


8 S 


66-70 


mean 67-4 mm. 


5 ? 


66-70 


mean 67 mm. 


3 S 


68, 68, 


68 


1 ? 


68 




2 S 


68, 70 




5 ? 


65-68 


mean 660 mm. 


8 o" 


67-72 


mean 69'3 mm. 


6 ? 






S 


68 ; $ 


: 66 


3 


69 




2 S: 


68, 69 




? 


65 




3 o" 


69, 70, 


70 



Cyomis rubeculoides klossi Robinson. 

Cyornis rubeculoides klossi Robiiison, Ball. Brit. Orn. Club, xlii, 1921, p. 12 (South .Annam : type 
examined). 

About the same size as the three preceding races. Male : Above distinctly 

darker and blue, beneath with the breast a much paler rufous. Female : 

Also paler below and less brown above ; with difficulty separated from the female 
of C. pallipes haijiana. 

Range : South China to South Annam. 

. 4 ?: 

. 5 ,?: 

3 ?: 



Kuantung, South China 
South Annam 



67, 67, 68, 69 

70-72 ; mean 71 ram. 

66, 67, 69 



Cyomis rubeculoides glaucicomans Thayer & Bangs. 

Cyomis tickelliae glaucicomans Thayer & Bangs, Bull. Mus. Coinp. Zool. lii, 1909. p. 141 (Tanshuiya, 

Hupeh: type in Museum Comp. Zool. Harvard examined). 
Cyomis anak Robinson & Kloss, Journ. Fed. Mai. States Mus. x, 1922, p. 261 (Trang, Peninsular 

Siam: type examined). 
Muscicapa banymnas whitei, Rothschild, loc, cit. infra, p. 292 (partim). 
Muscicapa rubeculoides dialilaema Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, 1926, p. 293 (Yunnan). 

Size large, viz. not less than 75 mm. on wing. Males : Not quite so shining 
above as dialilaema, breast as in that species, the rufous spreading far up the 



Nov:tate8 Zoolooioae XXXIV. 1928. 



235 



throat. Females : Rather paler both above and below than dialilaema ; the 

throat white ; tail and upper tail-coverts with less rufous ; belly broadly white ; 
under tail-coverts pure white. 

Range : Hupeh, Szechuan, and Yunnan in China, apparently wintering in 
Peninsular Siam. 



Tsitunshuya, Hupeh. July (type) 

Hsin Shen, Hupeh. April 

Mt. Omei, Szechuan. May 

Ta-tsien lu ling, Szechuan 

Hu-pa-chun. May . 

Yangstze Valley. September 

Lotukow, Yunnan. May . 

Milate, Yunnan. March . 

Tsi tsouen, Yunnan. September 

Mengtz, Yunnan. March, October, September, June 



1 ^ 

1 s 

3 (? 

6 
S 

3 S 

2 S 

1 S 

1 s 

2 $ 
Lichiang Ranges, Yumian, 9,000-11,000 feet. June, 

July, September, October . . . . . 4 i^ 

Ponsee, Kakhyen, Upper Burma. March ... J 
Ayuthia, Central Siam. February .... (J 
Koh Lak, Peninsular Siam ..... cJ 

Trang, Peninsular Siam. November, January, February 2 ^ 

? 
Malewun, South Tenasserim. February, December . 2 ^ 



80-5 
imm. : 76 
76, 76, 78 

78 
78 

75, 76, 78 

76 (worn), 79 

78 

78 

76, 76, 77, 77, 77 
70, 72 



75, 76, 77, 
75 

78 
76 

77 
77 
77, 78 



78 



78 



It is perhaps rather problematical whether these series represent one species 
in summer and winter quarters respectively; but allowing for the known variation, 
we can find no character whatever to separate them. 

As the above list shows, we have examined very considerable series of this 
form from Yunnan, where it appears to occur together with C. ivhitei whitei. 
The two forms are somewhat difficult to separate, but the present bird is 
larger with a more shining upper surface and always with more or less black 
on the chin and upper throat. Females, as always in this group, are variable 
in tint above, and are only separable from those of allied forms with great 
difficulty and some uncertainty, but we have seen very few females of 
this race. 

As in other species, there is great variation, as the brightness of the super- 
ciliary stripe which in one bird from Mengtz is extremely pale and conspicuous 
with the bases of the feathers white {Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, No. 61, 912). 
Other birds have the dark blue-black patches on the sides of the breast highly 
developed, in one bird, also from Mengtz, almost meeting. 



Species 2. 

Male brighter blue above and on throat ; female blue, not brown, 
above. 



236 



NOVITAXES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



Cyomis turcosa Brugg. 

Muscicapa elegans Temm., PI. Col. 1836, pi. 596, fig. 2 (Sumatra), nee M. elegans Less., Truile Urn. 

1831, p. 391 (type in Leyden Museum). 
Muscicapa turcosa Briigg., Abhandl. Xat. Ver. Bremen, v, 1877, p. 457 (Borneo: type in Bremen 

Museum). 
Cyornis elegans rupatensis Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxiii, 1920, p. 87 (Rupat .Strait, 

South-East Sumatra : type in United States National Museum : topotypc examined). 
Cyornis elegans antelia Oberholser, loc. cit. (Long Irani, North-East Borneo: type in United States 

National Museum : topotype examined). 

Male : Much like that of C. rubeculoides, but blue of upper surface and 

throat much brighter, breast less orange, more buffy. Female : Bright blue 

above ; throat and breast rufous buff with no blue. Very different from the 
female of rubeculoides. 

Range : The southern part of the Malay Peninsula. Sumatra, generally 
distributed. Borneo, the whole island. 



West Sumatra ...... 

South Sumatra ...... 

East Sumatra ...... 

Malay Peninsula ...... 

North- West Borneo ..... 

North-East Borneo ..... 

Eastern Borneo, including precise topotypes of 
C e. antelia ...... 

Sarawak ....... 

Central Borneo (Niewenhuis and Mjoberg) 

South Central Borneo (precise topotypes of C. 
turcosa Briigg). 

With this considerable series before us, which includes exact topotypes of 
all the named forms, we find it quite impossible to maintain any subspecies. 
The characters relied on by Dr. Oberholser to separate East Sumatran and 
Bornean birds from West Sumatran ones can be found in birds from all the areas. 
In any event, C. turcosa Briigg. is the name for the Bornean bird, those from 
North, North-East, North-West, South-West, and South Borneo being quite 
inseparable. 

Stone (Proc. Philad Acad. 54, 1902, p. 681) considers that the " <;J " figure 
of Muscicapa cantatrix (Temm., PI. Col. pi. 226, 1823 (Java)) represented the 
$ of this species, in which case that name would have priority. The female 
bird figured is certainly that of G. hanyumas (Horsf.), but the male, though 
unlike that species, is equally unlike the present bird, and pending the e.xamination 
of the type, may be left in the synonymy of C. banyumas. Moreover, C. elegans 
(turcosa) is not known to occur in Java, whence C. cantatrix is stated to come. 

The name Muscicapa elegans Temminck, 1836, is antedated by Muscicapa 



3 c? 


72, 73, 76 




1 ? 


: 73 




1 


76 




3 S 


73, 75, 75 




^6 


72, 73, 76, 77 




3 ? 


68-5, 70, 71 




3 c? 


73, 75, 75 




2 ? 


69, 69-5 




1 6 


75 




3 ? 


70, 72, 73 




2 S 


73, 75 




4 ? 


69, 69-5, 70 




6 c?- 


73-78 ; mean 


75-3 mm 


8 ?: 


70-74 ; mean 


71-7 mm 


4 c?: 


74, 75, 76, 77 




2 ?: 


73, 73 




1 (?: 


77 




1 ?: 


69 





NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 237 

elegans Lesson, 1831, which is a crested species of the South American family 
Tyrannidae. Briiggeman's C turcosa, 1877, founded on a Bornean bird, is 
therefore the earliest available name for this species. 

Were it not for the fact that the female of this species is blue and not brown 
we should regard C. turcosa as the Malaysian representative of C. rubeculoides, 
the more so as the ranges of the two forms do not overlap. 

Section II. 

The birds which we have assigned to this group appear to be all subspecifi- 
cally related, while the section as a whole is not very clearly defined from the 
" rufigaster " forms. The species as a whole, however, differs in having the 
females all with more or less bluish upper surface with little or no tinge of brown ; 
with the lores whitish, but not so conspicuously as in the rufigaster {beccariana 
section), and the breast paler rusty than in the males. The size is moderate, 
the maximum wing length being 77 mm. 

A single species only. 

Species 3. 
(a) Cyomis tickelliae tickelliae Blyth. 

Cyornis tickelliae Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Sor. Bengal, xii, 1843, p. 941 (Borabhum, Central India: 
type in Indian Museum, Calcutta). 

Male : Blue of the upper surface somewhat tinged with green, sides of the 
face, malar region, and extreme point of chin blackish ; belly and flanks often 

suffused with the rufous of the breast, but under tail-coverts always white. 

Female : Very distinctly blue above, but of a greyer or more glaucous tint than 
in the male. Lores and region of the eye whitish, often tinged with pale rusty ; 
rufous rusty of the throat and breast paler than in the male with no black point 
at the chin. 

Range : Practically the whole of India west of Calcutta, but not in Sind, 
and rare in the sub -Himalayan tracts. 

As is usual, southern birds tend to be slightly smaller than those from 
the north ; those from Madras and the Malabar coast show an approach to the 
bluer and darker bird from Ceylon, but can always be distinguished from these. 

The differences in size are not sufficient to make it necessary to particularize 
the birds from all localities. 

50 (?: 71-77 ; mean 74-2 
39 9 : 69-74 ; mean 70-2 

(b) Cyomis tickelliae jerdoni Holdsworth. 

Cyornis jerdoni Blyth, Ibis, 1860, p. 371 (nomcn nudum) ; Holdsworth, P.Z.S. 1872, p. 442 (South 

Ceylon : type in British Museum examined). 
Cyornis tickelliae nesaea, Oberholscr, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washinijlun, xxxiii, 1920, p 86 (Ceylon). 

Male : Somewhat darker, more ultramarine blue above, with the forehead 
and superciliaries more purplish than in the typical race. Beneath with the 
rusty rufous of the breast, throat, and flanks deeper, more sharply defined from 

the white of the belly. Female : Brighter than the corresponding sex of 

C. t. tickelliae. 

17 



238 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



Range : The whole of Ceylon from the low country to the higher hills. 

16 S ■ 69-76 ; mean 73-0 mm. 

17 $ : 67-71 ; mean 69-4 mm. 

A pair from Newara Elliya are rather larger and distinctly richer coloured 
than the rest of the series examined ; possibly they represent a montane race. 

The correct naming of this form presents certain difficulties. As originally 
proposed by Blyth, jerdoni is a nomen nudum, but a description by Holdsworth, 
loc. cit., albeit very inadequate and non-differential, appears to validate it for 
the Ceylon form. C. t. nesaea Oberholser must, therefore, be replaced by 
C. tickelliae jerdoni Holdsworth. 

The race on average is quite recognizable, though, as noted above, some 
birds from Madras and the Malabar coast approach it very closely. 



(c) Cyomis tickelliae siunatrensis (Sharpe). 

Siphia sumatrensis Sharpe, ('ul. Birds Bril. Miis. iv, 1S7!I, p. 4.')1 (Sumatra: but Malacca make : 

type in British Museum examined). 
? Cyornis ru/igaxim indochina, Chasen & Kloss. Bull. Bril. Oni. Club, xlviii, 1928, p. 000 (Daban, 

South Annam). 

Rather smaller than C. t. tickelliae. 

Male : Darker blue above, with forehead and superciliaries brighter deeper 
blue ; belly pure white, sharply defined from the breast ; sides not at all or 

only very slightly infuscated, under tail-coverts white. Female : a much 

greyer blue than the typical female, the blue tint almost absent in very worn 
specimens, but still quite perceptible. 

Range : The greater part of Siam and Southern French Laos. Cambodia, 
Cochin-China, and South Aiuiam, north of which it grades into a larger, paler 
form. The Malay Peninsula, south to Malacca. Sumatra. 

French Laos ..... 

North Siam ..... 

East Siam ..... 

Koh Rang Island ' (off Cambodian coast) 

Cochin-China ..... 
Southern and Central Annam 

Peninsular Siam (Koh Lak to Trang) . 

Koh Samui and Koh Pennan 

Perils .---•• 

' Paratype of C. rufigasira indochina Chasen & Kloss. 

2 These birds are large and possibly represent an insular race ; at one time we referred them 
to C. tickelliae (Ibis, 1915, p. 743), but they are not that form. 



1 6 


70 


1 S 


68 


3(? 


67, 68, 68 


1 ? 


63 


7 (? 


64 (worn), 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 70 


2 ? 


65, 66 


1 S 


72 


1 ? 


68 


1 S 


68 


3(? 


66, 66, 68 


2 ? 


65, 65 ' 


1 6 


67-71 ; mean 68-8 mm. 


5 ? 


65-67 ; mean 65-8 mm. 


3 c? 


68, 69, 70 


5 ? 


66, 66, 67, 67, 67 


1 ? 


69 



3 3 


68, 69, 70 


2 ? 


69, 70 


1 <S 


69 


1 <3 


68 


1 ? 


64 


1 <? 


69 


1$: 


66 


2(? 


68, 66 


1 c? 


: 68 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 239 

Pulan Terutau .... 

Kelantan .... 

Patani ..... 
Pahang ..... 
Perak ..... 

Selangor ..... 
[Sumatra] Malacca ? Type. 

This race has been recorded by Messns. Beaufort and de Bussy from the 
east coast of Sumatra. We have examined their specimen, and there is no 
doubt as to the identification, so that there is a possibility that the locality 
ascribed to the type is after all correct, the more so as the form has not otherwise 
been obtained in the settlement of Malacca. 

It is curious that though this form is very common on the east side of 
Peninsular Siam (Koh Lak and Hat Sanuk) we can find no specimens in the 
British Museum from any part of Tenasserim that can be referred to it. Those 
from '■ Southern and Central Burma to Tounghoo and Karenni " referred to by 
Baker (Faun. Brit. Ind. Birds (2nd ed.), ii, 1924, p. 236) belong to C. whitei or 
other species. 

This subspecies, and the manner in which it has been dealt with by ourselves 
and by Messrs. Chasen and Kloss, aifords an admirable illustration of the diffi- 
culties in which the continuous sub-division of species of wide range, however 
well justified by the facts, is involving the sytematist and the science of Ornitho- 
logy in general. The material worked on in both cases has been very extensive, 
both in quantity and in geographical range, so that errors due to these causes 
may be considered as eliminated, the only factors remaining being the personal 
equation, which in birds like the present species is small, and the inherent 
difficulties now to be mentioned. 

C. sumalrensis , as originally described from the extreme south of its range, 
is a quite clearly defined race, which by many would be accorded full specific 
rank, the more so as any direct physical connection with C. tickelliae does not 
appear to exist. 

The form from Tonkin, at the extreme north-east of the range of C. suma- 
trensis, which we have indicated later, is likewise equally far removed from 
typical C. sumatrensis and is showing evidence of a return towards C. tickelliae 
so far as the male is concerned, but is very different when females are compared. 
It is the extreme form of the race described by Chasen and Kloss from Daban in 
South Annam, some hundreds of miles further south, and though deserving of a 
name when compared with C. tickelliae and true C. sumatrensis, does not merit 
still further subdivision if C. r. indochina is admitted. 

At the same time, as shown in our lists, we do not consider the birds from 
the specified type locality of C. r. indochina sufficiently distinct to be separated 
from Malayan C. sumatrensis, but are logically unable to name the Tonkin race, 
which possesses no greater distinctive characters from the Annam birds than 
they do from the Malayan ones ; — that is to say, expressed in symbols, the 
amounts A - B and B - C are not sufficient to constitute two subspecies, 
though (A - B) + (B - C) would be sufficient for one. 



240 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

The difficulty is one of perpetual occurrence, which is bound to increase 
largely in the futuie with more intensive investigation of wide-ranging species. 
At present it is largely burked, either by the creation of an excessive number of 
poor subspecies or by the ignoring of ones that are quite justified. How the 
dilemma may be avoided is hard to see, unless by mathematical treatment and 
the specification of a standard deviation, though many of the factors concerned 
in bird variation do not admit of quantitative expression. 

In species of wide range, especially those existing under natural conditions 
that do not vary greatly, if we postulate a geographical centre, it is usual to find 
that both as regards area and numbers a very large proportion of the species 
can be enclosed within the ring fence of one of the subspecies, within which the 
mdividuals composing it are very constant to one type. On the other hand, 
there is great variation in several directions on the periphery, though this variation 
affects but a small proportion of the whole species. 

The tendencies of the various subspecies may be compared to that of bodies 
on the surface of a revolving wheel ; those near the hub possess little kinetic 
energy, which increases regularly towards the circumference ; i.e. in order to 
maintain existence at all, members of a species residing in an area where the 
conditions of life are departing from the optimum must possess for that species 
continuously greater powers of variability, those not possessing those powers or 
varying in an unfavourable direction being rajsidly eliminated. This theory 
perhaps explains the undoubted fact that forms far removed in space from the 
centre of the species and from each other may nevertheless so closely resemble 
each other as to be practically indistinguishable. Further, let some cause remove 
the central connecting links and we have the phenomenon of discontinuous 
distribution, a stumbling-block to many, simply accounted for. 



((/) Cyomis tickelliae lampra Oberholser. 

Cyornis banyurtms lampra, Oberholser, Bull. U.S. Nal. Miis. xcviil, 1917, p. 35 (Anamba 
Islands : type In United States National Museum). 

Male : Resembling C. t. sumatrensis, but larger, with more black on the 

chin. Female : Rather lighter on the breast. 

Range : Anamba Islands, South China Sea, where it is apparently very 
common. 

4 (J: 73, 74, 75, 79 
3 ?: 69, 71, 72 

From the characters of the female, this race must certainly be regarded as a 
development of the continental form G. tickelliae. It does not, in our opinion, 
belong to the rufigastra " formen kreis " with which Dr. Stresemann has 
associated it and the parent form, nor for the same reason do we consider 
it at all closely related to C. jMlippinensis with which it has been compared 
by its describer. 

We owe the opportunity of examining the above birds, a part of the topo- 
typical series, to the kindness of the authorities of the United States National 
Museum. One of us has also seen a small series collected by Mr. F. N. Chasen 
of the Raffles Museum, Singapore, in the same islands. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 241 

(e) Cyomis tickelliae subsp. 

Male : Dull blue above, beneath with the throat and breast very pale rusty 
buff, paler than in the typical race or in the southern form, t. sumatrensis Sharpe. 
Line of division between the buff of the breast and white of the belly less defined 
than in the latter race. Size perhaps rather larger than sunuitrensis, smaller than 

tickelliae. Female : Much as in sumatrensis, but breast very much paler ; less 

blue above than tickelliae. 

Specimens examined : Seven, 4 ,^, 3 $ from Kon-tan and Dak-to, Tonkin, 
and Lao Bao, North Annam. 

4 cJ : 70, 70, 69, 66 
3 ? : 66, 66, 68 

There is not the slightest doubt that these birds represent a race of tickelliae, 
quite distinct from the more southern form sumatrensis, but closer to the con- 
tinental Indian bird C. t. tickelliae Blyth. The (^ bird from Lao Bao in Annam 
is, as might be expected, sometimes intermediate between this form and C. t. 
sumatrensis, it is also the smallest (wing 66 mm.). For the reasons given above, 
it is, however, inadvisable to name the race. Should this, however, be done, 
the Tonkin birds will have to be regarded as an extreme form of C. r. indochina 
Chasen. & Kloss, which will have to be reinstated and whose range will cover 
the whole of Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula north of about 9° N. 

Section III. 
Small birds, with the wing under 76 mm., sexes alike without any blue and 
closely resembling the females of C. rubeculoides. Plumage unusually soft and 
silky. 

Species 4. 
(a) Cyomis poliogenys poliogenys Brooks. 

Cyornis poliogenys Brooks, Stray Feath. viii, 1879, p. 469 (Sikhim Terai: type missing). 
Siptiia cachariensis, Madarasz, Zeilsch. fur Gesaint. Orn. i, 1884, p. 51 (pi. i, fig. 2) (Dilkousha, 
Cachar). 

Sexes alike : With the head greyer than the back, which is duller olive 
brown ; rump and edges of the tail feathers brighter ; throat whitish, distinct 
from the rusty buff breast ; lores and patch in front of eye whitish. 

Range : Along the base of the Himalayas from Nepal eastwards, at low 
elevations. Khasis, Cachar, Tipperah, and Manipur. 

There are few reliably sexed specimens available, but the large series examined 
have a wing of from 70-76 mm., the largest being males and the smallest females. 

The bird described by Madarasz, from Cachar, of which there are exact 
topotypes in the British Museum, shows an approach to the next subspecies, but 
is very much closer to the typical form with which we have retained it. Madarasz' 
figure, as noted by Sharpe, is quite unrecognizable (P.Z.S. 1886, p. 354). 

(b) Cyomis poliogenys saturatior Rob. & Kinnear. 

Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928. p. 4.3 (Dibrughar, Upper Assam : type in British Museum). 

Sexes alike : Darker than the typical race and differing in having the orange 
buff of the breast carried up almost to the chin so that there is no perceptible 



242 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

pale throat. L'oloiu' above browner, less greyish, the cap not differentiated 
from the rest of the upper parts. Edges of the tail feathers and the greater 
upper tail-coverts rather more chestnut. 

Range : Miri and Naga Hills. Dibrughar and Sibsaghar, Upper Assam. 

1(?:V4 
4 ? : 68-73 
imsexed (5 : 66-72 ram. 

Cyornis olivaceus Hume {Stray Feath. v, 1877, p. 333), from South Tenasserim, 
which occurs also in the Northern Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, East and 
West Java, appears to us certainly to be specifically and possibly generically 
different from C. poliogenys. It has been placed in the genus Anthipes, both by 
Oates and by Baker, the latter of whom regards it as a subspecies of the present 
bird. We do not discuss it here. 

Section IV. 

Small birds with wing never exceeding 75 mm. Bill rather large. Sexes 
markedly different. Male : With shining blue band across forehead ; chin 

with no or very little black ; middle of belly and under tail-coverts white. 

Female : Brownish above, lores dusky white, upper tail-coverts and base of tail- 
feathers edged with rufous chestnut. Throat and breast rufous, more so than 
in the corresponding sex of rubeculoides races. 

A single species only. 

Species 5. 
(a) Cyornis whitei whitei Harington. 

Cyornis whitei Harington. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), ii, 1908, p. 245 (Watau, Bhamo district : typo 

in British Museum examined). 
Muscicapa banyumas whitei Rothschild, Not'. Zool. xxxiii, 1926, p. 292. 

Male : Very bright above, but not shining blue ; sides not much infuscated. 
Female : Rather greyish brown above ; throat and breast paler rufous buff. 

Range : Upper Assam, Upper Burmah to French Laos, Yunnan, and Tonkin, 
and through the Shan States south to Karen-nee and North Tenasserim. 

Vicinity of Bhamo. February and April 

Ponsee, Kahkien Hills, and Upper Burma (Ander- 
son coll.). Januarj' and April 

Margherita, Upper Assam. December 

Kauri Kachin Districts. June 

Hokow, Yunnan. March .... 

Tengyueh, West Central Yunnan. April, July, 
November ...... 

Loukauchai, Yunnan. April, March, April, July 

Mengtsz, South Yunnan. September, October 
Tche Tsouen, Yunnan. September 



2 c? 


72,72 


(type) 


4 ? 


68, 69, 


71 


1 o" 


72 




1 ? 


69 




2 6 


72, 73 




1 6 


73 




2 3 


71, 72 




5 6 


71, 71, 


73, 73, 73 


2 ? 


70, 72 




1 6 


73 




1 ? 


71 




11 S 


70-74 


mean 72-2 mm 


11 ? 


69-71 


mean 70-0 mm 


3 S 


71, 72, 


74 


? 


71 





NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



243 



French Laos. January, February . 
Tonkin. March, May .... 
South Shan States. April, May, July 

Karen-nee. January, March 

Taho Plateau, North Tenasserim. January 



2 3 


72, 70 


2^ 


71, 70 


4 S 


71, 73, 73, 73 


6 <? 


: 68, 69, 69, 69, 71, 72 


3 c? 


71, 72, 72 


2cJ 


72, 72 



The type is in rather worn plumage, and the pale bright forehead is therefore 
in more striking contrast to the rest of the plumage, but the whole series listed 
above must, we think, be considered to belong to a single subspecies, though 
there is variation in the amount of white on the under-surface and the tint of 
blue above. 

Many authors have considered birds from Karen-nee and the South Shan 
States to be referable to C. tickelliae, an identification that is negatived by the 
colour of the female, which does not resemble the male. In our view the typical 
C. tickelliae does not occur east of the Irawadi, though it is replaced in Malaya 
and southern Siam and Indo-China by the alUed S. t. suinairensis, and S. t. subsp., 
so that the range is discontmuous, though there is a connecting insular link in 
S. t. lampra from the Anambas. 



(b) Cyomis white! caeruleifrons Baker. 

Cyornis inarjniroslris caeruleifrons Baker, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xxxix, 1918, p. 8 {Peninsular Siam: 
type in British Museum examined). 

MaJe : Much as in C. w. whitei, but the back darker, sides as a rule much 

infuscated and rusty colour of breast deeper. Female : More brownish above 

and deeper coloured beneath than in the typical race. 

Range : Tenasserim, south through Peninsular Siam to the mountauis of the 
Malay Peninsula. 

Tounghya, Tenasserim 
Weppitan, Tenasserim 
Choringthanung, South Tenasserim 
Pakchan, Peninsular Siam 
Klong Ban Lai, Peninsular Siam 

Khao Luang, Peninsular Siam, 3,300 feet 
Batang Padang, South Perak, 1,500 feet 

Semangko Pass, Selangor, 2,700 feet . 

Ginting Bidei, Selangor, 2,300 feet 



4(J 


: ? 75, 74, 72, 72 


1 ? 


70 


1 ? 


67 


1 <? 


71 


3 (? 


72 (type), 68, 69 


1 ? 


70 


1 <s 


71 


2 S 


70, 71 


3 ?• 


68, 69, 70 


1 c?: 


70 


2 ? 


69-5, 69 


5 c? 


70-72 


5 $: 


67-70 



After much consideration and comparison of the large series indicated 
above we are forced to consider that both this form and that from Borneo described 
below stand merely in subspecific relation to C. whitei, and that there is no other 
older species to which the group can be attached. They cannot, we think, be 
referred to C. banyumas, which ha.s a totally different female. 



244 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

(c) Cyomis whitei montana subsp. nov. 

Siphia caeruleata Biittikofer (nee Bp.), Notes Leyden Mas. xxi, 1900, p. 000 (Liang Koebang Moun- 
tains, Central Borneo). 

Male : Much darker blue above than C. ic. caeruleifrons. Baker, the bright 
forehead and superciliaries not so conspicuous. Rump not brighter than back. 

Below almost uniform ferruginous, including the under tail-coverts. Female : 

Distinctly darker above, with less rusty chestnut on the rump and base of tail- 
feathers. 

Type : Adult male. Mt. Liang Koebang, 2,000 feet, Central Borneo. 
Biittikofer coll. In Tring Museum. 

Range : Mountains of Borneo at moderate elevations. 

DuUt 1 cJ: 73 

Kinabalu 1 $ : 67, 70 

Liang Koebang (Central Borneo) . . . 1 (^ : 72 (type in Tring Mus.) 

1 9 : 60 

The Bornean race is evidently closely allied to that from the Malay Peninsula. 
It is apparently a submontane form, widely distributed in the island, but not 
common. 

Section V. 

Rather small birds, wing never exceeding 80 mm., rarely so much. Sexes 
nearly alike. Dark blue above, bright forehead and superciliaries not con- 
spicuous ; beneath rusty, belly sometimes whitish. Male with the extreme point 

of chin black. Feviale with the rufous of the under surface rather paler, 

reaching the point of the chin, with a clear or rusty white loral spot. 

A single species with many local races. 

Cyomis rufigaster (RafHes). 

? Muscicapa rufigastra RafSes, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, 1822, p. 312 (Sumatra). 

This name, which is the oldest available for the section, rests solely on 
Raffles' brief description and on his coloured drawing preserved in the India 
Ofi&ce Library which we have examined. As Hartert has pointed out (but 
cf. postea, p. 250), no actual specimens from Sumatra, referable with certainty to 
the group, is extant in any museum, nor do we think it probable that on the 
west coast of Sumatra, Sir Stamford Raffles would have been likely to have 
obtamed examples of this group which, over the whole of its very extensive range, 
is an inhabitant of mangrove swamps and the banks of tidal rivers. Raffles' 
figure, though good, does not enable us to identify the bird so exactly as to 
differentiate it from the somewhat similar male of C. caerulata, a form that we 
know to exist in Sumatra and to occur at low elevations on the west coast. 

We have, therefore, pending the receipt of actual specimens from Sumatra,' 
abandoned the use of Raffles' name and adopted that of Salvador!, which Strese- 
mann has shown to be applicable to the Bornean form of this bird. 

^ Since the above was written we owe to the kindness of the authorities of the United States 
National Museum the loan of an adult male specimen of a Cyomis collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott 
on the Yhoteman River, South-East Sumatra. This locality is in the immediate vicinity of tlie 
Rhio Archipelago and far removed from the presumed locality of Raffles' bird. We think it best 
to regard it as belonging to C. r. calocephala with which, allowing for the known variation in blue 
tint of specimens of the genus within the subspecies, it sufficiently agrees. We, therefore, continue 
to abandon the use of the name rufigastra for any form of this species. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



245 



We have, as the attached list shows, examined very considerable series of 
this bird from the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and neighbouring islands, and with 
the exception of those inhabiting a small enclave in the neighbourhood of the 
Rhio Archipelago are unable to recognize with certainty any local races. Birds 
from the North-East of Borneo and from Palawan show, it is true, an approach 
to C. philippensis, itself by no means a strongly marked form, but unless con- 
firmed by very much larger material than is at present available, we do not think 
it advisable to maintain either C. b. litoralis or C. b. rhizophorae. 



Species 6. 
(a) Cyomis beccariana beccariana (Salvad.). 

Siphia beccariana Salvad. (nee auct.), Atti R. Acad. Torino, iii, 1868, p. 533 (Sarawak: type in 

Turin). 
Cyomis frenatus Hume, Stray Feath. ix, 1880, p. 114 (Jeram, Selangor: type in British Museum 

examined). 
Cyomis hosei Finsch, Nolu Leyden 31 us. 23. 1901, p. 48 (Borneo). 
Cyomis litoralis Stresemann, Ornith. Monatsh. xxxiii. 1925, p. 50 (Palawan : type in British Museum 

examined). 
Cyomis rhizophorae Stresemann, loc. cit. supra (North-West Java coast : type in coil. Bartels 

Amsterdam). 

Bange : From Penang to the South of Malay Peninsula : Singapore Island, 
Labuan. The whole of Borneo, Palawan, western Java. 

Penang Island ..... 
Perak coast ..... 

Selangor coast ..... 

Singapore Island ..... 
Java (ex Leiden Mus.) .... 
Labuan ...... 



North-West Borneo 

North-East Borneo 
Sarawak 

Southern Borneo . 
Palawan 



1 6 


72 




3 6 


71, 71, 


72 


1 ? 


72 




2 S 


72, 73 




4 ? 


68, 68, 


69, 70 


1 (? 


73 




1 ? 


69 




2 c? 


12-11 


mean 74-2 mm. 


6 ? 


68-73 


mean 70-0 mm. 


4 S 


73, 73, 


7.5, 76 


1 ? 


70 




1 ¥ 


67 




4 c? 


. 71, 71, 


75, 75 


1 ? 


70 




4 S 


. 72, 73, 


74, 74 


3 S 


• 71, 72, 


73 



In this very considerable series it is seen that Malay Peninsula birds are, 
on the whole, rather smaller. Mainland Bornean birds are rather more rufoua 
beneath. The majority of Labuan birds are whiter on the middle of the belly 
and have a tendency to a lighter throat. The single bird from Sandakan is 
very pale below both on throat and belly. The three specimens from Pahiwan 
(litoralis, Stresemann) are certainly paler above with a brighter front and super- 
ciliaries. Possibly they are distinct, and may not even belong to the group, 
but the point cannot be decided, until a larger series, including females, is 
available. 



246 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

(fc) Cyomis beccariana karimatensis Oberholser. 

Cyornis hanyumas karimatensis Oberliolser, Proc. t'..S'. Xal. Miis. 64, 1924, Art. 22, p. 3 (Karimata 
Islands, Smitli Borneo : type in United States National Museum). 

Described from a single male specimen of a very deep colour below with a 
wing of 78 mm., which measured by Mr. Oberholser's method is probably equiva- 
lent to 80 mm. by ours, which is larger than any specimen of the group that we 
have seen. 

Range : Karimata Islands (off S.W. Bornean coast). 

(c) Cyomis beccariana calocephala Oberholser. 

Cyornis hanyu/nas calorephaln Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, Xi. 1920, p. 86 (Banka : type 
in United States National Museum). 

A very saturate form, deeper coloured below than any other race, except 
jserhaps the above C. b. karimatensis. Female rather darker above than in the 
aUied races. 

Range : Banka, Rhio-Lingga Archipelage, and the adjacent coast of Sumatra. 

Lingga Island . . . . .1^:15 mm. 

Bintang Island . . . . 1 ^ : 74-5 mm. 

Kateman River, South-East Sumatra. 1 cJ : 74 mm. 

Tanjong Bakong, Banka . . 1 ? : 68 mm. (U.S. Nat. Mus. 180607). 

Though more or less surrounded by beccariana' this form, if we have correctly 
associated the Rhio-Lingga birds with the Banka race described by Mr. Ober- 
holser, seems sufficiently distinct. The differences have long been noted by 
Dr. Hartert and others. Dr. Oberholser does not mention the female in his 
description of calocephala. The above bird, compared with the type of C. frenatus 
Hume, is very slightly darker above with the bill a little shorter. 

{(l) Cyomis beccariana simplex Blyth. 

Cyomis simplex Blyth, Ihis, 1870, p. 165 (Borneo errore : substitute Luzon. Philippines: type in 

Leyden Museum). 
Muscicajm hlythi Giebel (nee Rothschild), Thesaurus Orn. Li, 1875, p. 631. 
Cyomis philippinensis, auct. (partim). 

Distinctly paler blue above in both sexes, generally with the forehead and 
superciliaries brighter blue than in C. b. philippinensis from the southern islands. 
Beneath with practically no indication of white on the chin and upper throat 
in the male. Amount of white on belly varial)le ; under tail-coverts nearly 
always pure white. 

Range : Northern I'hilippine Islands ; Luzon and Marinduque. 

Luzon . . . . . . . . 16 (J : 72-77 ; mean 74-8 mm. 

13 $ : 69-72 ; mean 70-7 mm. 

Marinduque 3 cJ : 73, 74, 78 

2 ?: 72, 73 

This form which, as in all the other races, varies much in the intensity of 
the blue colour of the upper parts, has a very wide range in Luzon and shows 
considerable general variation. A pair from the Taal Volcano in the United 
States National Museum, collected by Dr. Paul Bartsch, are very richly coloured 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 247 

below, with the rufous of the breast, extending strongly over the flanks ; the 
male is also extremely bright blue above. They are, however, nearly matched 
by other specimens. The Marinduque birds are deeper coloured below and 
show, as might be expected, gradation towards C. b. mindorensis. On the 
whole, however, they are best placed with this form. 

(e) Cyomis beccariana philippinensis Sharpe. 

Cyornis philippitietisis Sharpe. Tran.s. Linn. Soc. {new series), i, 1877, p. 325 {Panay : type in the 
British Museum examined). 

Rather darker above in both sexes, with only slight indications of bright 
forehead and superciliaries. Rusty rufous of under surface usually rather pale. 
Throat below the chin with a distinct whitish area ; middle of abdomen and under 
tail-coverts white. 

Range : The whole of the Philippine group, except Mindoro, Luzon, and 
Marinduque. 

Panay . . . . . . . 1 (J : 74 mm. 

1 $ : 73 mm. 

The female collected by Prof. J. B. Steere is one of the types of the species. 



Leyte 1 cJ 

Negros . . . . . . . 1 ^ 

1 ? 
Samar . . . . . . . . 1 ^ 

2 ? 
Siquijor . . . . . . . 1 ^ 

Dinagat . . . . . . . I ^ 

Mindanao . . . . . . . 8 (J 

6 ? 
Basilan . . . . . . . . 3 (J 

2 ? 
Sulu Islands, Sibutu, Siassi, Sulu, Bongao . . '2 ^ 

5 ? 



78 

76 

75 

76 

68 (moult), 73 

77 

78 

71-76 mm. ; mean 74-0 

70-74 ; mean 72-1 

76, 72, 76 
70, 72 

77, 73 

70, 71, 71, 72, 73 



Though in the aggregate this series is considerable, there are not very many 
specimens available from any one island, with the exception of Mindanao. At 
first sight a series from Davao, in the south of that island, collected by Mr. Walter 
Goodfellow, would appear separable by their rather paler colour below, the 
greater extent of the white on the belly, the more distinct whitish area on the 
upper throat in both sexes. In some specimens from this island, however, this 
is reduced in extent, and is matched by birds from the other islands. On the 
whole, therefore, we consider it safer to maintain the whole of the birds from 
the southern and central Philippines under C. h. philippinensis Sharpe. 

It should be observed that Finsch {Notes Leyden Mus. xxiii) states that 
the type of C. simplex Blyth (Ibis, 1870, p. 165), which is in Leyden, can be 
exactly matched by a bird from lolo, Sulu Islands, from which locality we have 
specimens before us. Blyth 's bird was erroneously ascribed to Borneo, and if 
the name is to be used at all for a Philippine bird, we think that it is better 
attached to the northern Philippine bird which has no name. Luzon is a much 



248 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

more likely island, for Fraiili the dealer, from whom the Leyden Museum pur- 
chased the bird, to have obtained specimens from in the sixties, than anj' of the 
southern or central Philippines. 

(/) Cyomis beccariana mindorensis Meams. 

Cyomis mindorensis Mearns, PhiUitp. Journ. Sri. ii. A, I'JUT, p. 350 (Mindoro; type in Philippine 
Acad. Sci. Manilla). 

Above, without marked pale forehead or superciliaries, dark blue, some- 
what brighter on the rump and the angle of the wing. Beneath, without white 
below the black of the throat, flanks strongly infuscated with the colour of the 

breast, under tail-coverts generally, but not always tinged with pale buff. 

Female as the male, but rather paler above, lores rusty white. 
Range : Mindoro Island. 

5 (5 : 74, 73, 73, 73, 73 
4 $ : 69, 70, 71, 72 

This form, which seems distinct from the other Philippine races, is an 
extension northwards of the Bornean race, from which, however, it can be regarded 
as distinct. It is certainly different from that inhabiting either Luzon or Mindanao. 

Section VI. 
With large coarse bills. Males blue above, beneath throat and breast 
rufous, belly and under tail-coverts white ; black chin spot absent or very 
inconspicuous. Females brownish above with pale lores and a more or less con- 
spicuous eye-ring ; beneath much as in the male, but duller. 

Species 7. 

Hale : Dark blue above with paler forehead and superciliaries, shoulder 

patch and rump not conspicuously brighter. Beneath with no or hardly any 

black on chin ; throat and breast rusty, not paler in the former, a patch of dark 

blue on each side of the breast, flanks distinctly infuscated. Middle of the 

belly and under tail-coverts white. Female : Greyish brown above, more 

ferruginous on the wing-coverts ; rump, edges of primaries and tail-feathers 
dark chestnut. An indistinct ferruginous ring round the eye, pale lores, not 
very noticeable ; beneath as in the male. 

Cyomis magnirostris Blyth. 

Cyomis magnirostris Bl34h, Jovrn. Asiat. Soc. Benijal, xviii, 1849, p. 814 (Darjeeling : type in Indian 
Museum, Calcutta). 

Range : Nepal, Sikhim, and along the base of the Himalayas to Eastern 
Assam. The Taho Plateau in North Tenasserim, the extreme south of that 
province. Peninsular Siam, and the island of Junk Zeylon in northern Malaya. 

? Nepal ' 2 J : 

Sikhim 10 cJ •■ 79-82 ; mean 80-3 

3 ? : 77-80 ; mean 78-0 
Cachar, Assam, etc 3 (J : 79, 81, 82 

3 $: 77, 78, 78 

' These specimens are in the Brian Hodgson collection in tlie British Museum in extremely 
bad condition and possibly not from Nepal. 



NOVITATES ZooLoaicAE XXXIV. 1928. 249 

Tahol Plateau, North Tenasserim . 

Extreme South Tenasserim .... 



1 ? 


75 


4 (J 


78, 79, 80, 80 


3 ? 


76, 76, 77 


1 <? 


76 


1 S 


78 



Trang, Peninsular Siam .... 

Junk Zeylon ...... 

A bird from Laynah, Central Tenasserim, not quite adult, and in poor 
condition appears to be this species, but is exceptionally small. Wing 70 mm. 

This species, which appears to be very constant over the whole of its range 
and not divisible into local races, can generally be recognized by the pale patch 
on the lower surface of the mandible in both sexes. The specimens from South 
Tenasserim and Peninsular Siam were all taken between December and March, 
and are possibly winter visitors only. 

Species 8. 

Bill like that of C. magnirostris, but rather more compressed. Male : 

Above rather vivid blue, but not shining ; pale forehead and supercihary stripes 

well marked. Below with little or no black on chin, which is slightly paler 

than the throat and breast. Belly pure white, sharply defined from the breast, 

under tail-coverts also white. Female : Very different from the male. Head 

greyish, lores dark, a narrow rusty white stripe on forehead, running over the 
lores and expanding into a broad whitish ring round the eye, incomplete in 
front and behind. Upper surface greyish brown, upper tail-coverts and edges 
of the tail feathers cinnamon chestnut. Throat and breast deep rusty rufous, 
rather brighter than in the male. Rest of under parts pure white, sharply 
defined. 

Cyomis lemprieri (Sharpe). 

Siphia lemprieri Sharpe, Ibis, 1884, p. 319 (Palawan: type in British Museum examined). 
Cyomis ramsayi. Bias, Ornis, iy, 1888, p. 308 (Palawan : type in Brunswick Museum). 

Range : South Philippine Islands (Palawan, Balabac, and Calamianes). 
Palawan ....... 

Balabac ....... 

Calamianes ....... 

Balabac birds, as the measurements show, are slightly larger, are a little 
paler above, with the angle of the wing brighter blue ; the throat also is slightly 
paler, but the differences are not sufficient to merit a name. 

The species has no near allies, and for the present must be recorded under 
a binomial appellation. It is not really related to G. magnirostris, nor is it at 
all allied to C. philippinensis, as surmised by Dr. Sharpe. 

Section VII. 

Moderate-sized species with the wing not exceeding 80 mm. Bill rather 
broad and depressed, sUghtly hooked. Feet rather strong for the genus. Females 
variable, on some forms approaching the males in coloration, but always with 
rather pale lores and periocular ring. 



7 


c? 


73-79 ; 


mean 76-1 





? 


71-74 ; 


mean 72-2 


7 


c? 


76-80 ; 


mean 77-9 


4 


? 


72-73 ; 


mean 72-5 


1 


<s 


76 





250 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Species 9. 

We consider that on account of the characters of the females it is best to 
keep the Javan birds as a distinct species, separate both from the birds inhabiting 
Borneo and the Asiatic mainland on the one hand, and from the Celebesian forms 
on the other. 

The species varies over the whole length of the island birds from the extreme 
east and extreme west, being certainly subspecifically distinct. Unfortmiately 
the province of Banyiimas, from which Horsfield obtained his type, harbours 
birds which are somewhat intermediate. 

It would, of course, be feasible to regard the birds from the greater part of 
the island west from Banyumas, to the east of the Preanger Regencies as belonging 
to the typical form, those west thereof being separated as C. banyiimas cantatrix 
(Temm.), while we have recently named the extreme eastern bird, C banyumas 
limitans. The figures and descriptions of C. b. cantatrix are so bad and have 
been the cause of so much ambiguity that for the present at any rate we prefer 
to recognize only two forms as occvirring in Java. 



(a) Cyorais banyumas banyumas (Horsf.). 

Miiscicapa banyumas Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, 1821, p. 1U6 (Province of Banyumas: type in 

British Museum examined) ; fig. id. Zool. Res. Java. 
Siphia banyumas banyumas Hartert, Nov. Zool. viii, 1901, p. 53, pi. vi, fig. 3. 

Male : Bright blue above, with a shining pale blue forehead, and super- 
ciliaries ; chin and fore-throat black, rest of under surface deep rufous, only 

slightly paler on the middle of the belly ; under tail-coverts rusty. Female : 

Lores and periocular region pale buSy white, the feathers of the lores with 
darker tips. Upper surface greyish brown, the wings more fulvous brown 
with pale edges to the primaries. Tail dull rusty brown ; under surface deep 
rufous. 

Range : Java, from Banyumas, westwards to the shores of the Sunda 
Straits, usually on the hills at moderate elevations up to 5,000 feet. Among 
the mangroves of the flat north-west coast, replaced by a form of C. beccariana 
(q.v.). 

West Java : 

Tjiomas ....... 

Wjmkoops Bay ...... 

Buitenzorg ....... 

Gedeh Volcano ...... 

Near Garoet ....... 

Central Java : 

Karang Boelang ...... 

East Java : 

Banyumas (type of species) .... 
" Java "....•••• 



1 c? 


74 








1 c? 


78 








2 3 


78, 


76 






1 ? 


74 








2 S 


74, 


75 






2 ? 


70, 


73 






3 c? 


72, 


74, 


77 




4^ 


73, 


73, 


75, 


75 


2 ? 


72, 


72 






1 S 


75 








4(? 


75, 


76, 


77, 


79 


2 $ 


72, 


72 







NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 251 

(6) Cyomis banyumas limitans Rob. 

Robinson, BiiU. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 11127, ]). 44 (Taniansari, East Java). 

Male : With the light tint on the forehead and superciliaries far less pro- 
nounced than in the typical foim, rufous of the under surface paler, the middle 

of the belly white, under tail-coverts also pure white. Female : Above paler 

and greyer than the typical female. Below lighter and more rufous, less rusty 
red. Middle of the abdomen and under tail-coverts white. 

Range : Extreme Eastern Java. 

Ardjoeno Volcano, 3,000 feet . . . . 1 $: 71 

Tamansari, 1,400 feet 2^: 75 (type), 74 

1 ?: 71 
Badjoelmati . . . . . . . 1 $ : 72 

It is extremely probable that this form will also be found to occur in Bali. 
The Bali Straits do not in very many cases appear to be a faunal barrier. 

Sjiecies 10. 

Cyomis omissa. 

In view of the fact that the females of the two forms are so widely different, 
we do not think it desirable to regard this Celebes bird as a subspecies of the 
Javan G. banyumas, though admittedly the males are very similar. 

(a) Cyomis omissa omissa (Hartert). 

Siphia omissa Hartert, Nov. Zool. iii, I8!t6, p. 171 (Indrulaman, South Celebes: type in Tring 

Museum examined). 
Siphia banyumas Meyer & Wiglesw. (nee Horsf.), B. Celebes, i, 1898, p. 368, pi. xiv, fig. 1. 

Male : Darker and duller above than C. banyumas, especially on the crown. 
Beneath deep rusty rufous, richer on the breast, under tail-coverts rufous buff. 

Female : Very different from that of C. banyumas, somewhat pale blue 

above ; loral streak pale rusty white ; beneath paler than in the male. 

Range : Throughout Celebes, almost entirely on the hills. South Celebes. 

Indrulaman (including the type) .... 

Bonthain Peak, 4,000-6,000 feet .... 
Central Celebes ....... 

North Celebes 

There seems to be much variation in size in this species, those from high 
elevations in the south of the island having a longer wing, but we cannot discern 
any other differences. 

(6) Cyomis omissa peromissa Hartert. 

Cy&mis banyumas peromissa Hartert, Nov. Zool. xxviii, 1920, p. 491 (Saleyer Island : type in Tring 
Museum examined). 

Like C. o. omissa, but slightly smaller and distinctly paler, above and below 
in both sexes. Loral streak in the female, rather more rufous and carried 
further back over the eye. 



3 <3 


75, 77, 


79 




? 


72, 73 






3 (? 


77, 78, 


81 




1 (? 


75 






? 


72, 74 






4 <? 


72, 73, 


73, 


75 


2 Q 


71, 71 







252 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Bange : Saleyer Island, south of Celebes. 

3 (J : 72, 72, 73 
$ : 68, 69 

(c) Cyomis omissa djampeana (Hartert). 

Siphia djampeana Hartert, Xoi: Zool. iii, 1896, p. 172 (Djampea Island: type in Tring Museum 
examined) ; Meyer & Wiglesw., B. Celebes, i, 1898, p. 371, pi. xir, fig. 3. 
Male : Like that of C. o. omissa, but with the sides of the head and neck 
very black, this colour much developed on chin, which is bordered below by 

white, broader on the middle of the throat. Female : Like the male, but the 

rufous colour beneath apparently rather deeper, the black on the chin present, 
but not bordered by white. 

Range : Djampea Island, south and east of Celebes. 

6 cJ : 77-81 ; mean 79-3 
4 $ : 74-75 ; mean 74-5 

One male has the white on the throat rather more extensive than in the 
rest of the series. Immature birds are paler beneath with black edges to the 
feathers, above mottled with buffy spots ; lores pale ; wings and tail blue. 

(d) Cyomis omissa kalaoensis (Hartert). 

Siphia kalaoensis Hartert, Nov. Zool. ui, 1896, p. 172 (Kalao Island: type in Tring Museum ex- 
amined) ; Meyer & Wiglesw., B. Celebes, i, 1898, p. 371, pi. xiv, fig. 3. 

Male : Like that of C. o. djampeana, but with the rufous beneath very 
much paler and the white on the throat very much more extensive, spreading 

well over the breast. Female : With the black on chin bordered by white, 

almost exactly resembling the male of C. o. djampeana. 

Range : Kalao Island, south-east of Celebes, between that island and 
Flores. 

6 t?: 76-78; mean 76-7 
2 ?: 71, 72 

The last two forms would by many ornithologists be accorded full specific 
rank, but they are obviously derived from C. o. omissa, though variation from 
the parent form has been in the opposite direction from that in the Saleyer bird. 
The fact that the females have the chin markedly black like the male is miique 
in the genus. The first primary is longer than in most forms. 

Section VIII 

Sexes very different. Males : Shining blue above with or without much 
black on throat. Females : Mostly rich brown, rufous chestnut in parts. 

The two species of this group, which is confined to Borneo, seem quite 
distinct from each other and show no signs of intergradation. 

Species 11. 
Cyomis superba Stresemann. 

Cyornis superba Stresemann, Ornith. Monatsb. xxxiii, 192.5, p. .52 (Penrisen. Sarawak; type in 

Dresden Museum). 
Cyornis beccariana auct. (nee Salvadori). 

Male : Upper surface shining cobalt blue, middle of the crown and sides 
of the head black ; primaries and outer tail-feathers black, the outer webs edged 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



253 



with blue. Beneath rufous up to the extreme point of chin. Female : Above 

brown, slightly greyer on the head ; rump, tail-coverts and tail rich rufous 
chestnut. Beneath rufous buff, middle of the belly whitish. 

Rmige : Borneo, except apparently the eastern side, generally at moderate 
elevations (2,000-5,000 feet). 



Lawas River, North-West Borneo 


1 


s 


72 


"Borneo" 


. 1 


6 


71 


Sarawak ....... 


. 1 


6 


73 


Tagora, Sarawak ..... 


1 
. 2 




70 
73-5, 74 


Batu Song, Baram, Sarawak 


. 2 


s 


72, 75 




2 


? 


68, 70 


Mt. Dulit, Baram, Sarawak. 


. . .3 


(? 


71, 72, 76 




2 


? 


69, 72 


Gunung Trahu, Sarawak .... 


. 1 


(? 


70 


Peniisen, Sarawak ..... 


. 2 


c? 


72, 72 




2 


? 


69, 74 


Mt. Kalulong, Sarawak .... 


. 1 


s 


73 


1 ?: 70 

Beyalong, Sarawak 1 tJ : 72 

15 males : 71-76 ; mean 72-6 mm. 8 females : 68-74 ; mean 70-3 mm. 



The series is very uniform, but the blue of the head and rump in the males 
varies somewhat, some being almost turquoise. 

It is curious, as Stresemann points out, that all authors have referred this 
handsome species to C beccariana Salvad., whose description clearly refers to a 
form of what has hitherto been known as C. riifigaster. 



Species 12. 
Cyomis caerulata (Bp.). 

Schivaneria caerulata Bp., Rev. et Mag. de Zool. (2), ix, 1857, p. 54 (Sambarajan, South Borneo: 
type in Leyden Museum). 

Cyornis rufifrons Wallace, P.Z.S. 1865, p. 476 (Sarawak: type (vix ad.) in British Museum ex- 
amined). 

Cyomis nigngiilaris Everett, Ihis, 1891, p. 45 (Penrisen, Sarawak: type in British Museum 
examined). 

Male : Rather duller and darker above than C. superba ; the forehead and 
superciliary stripes not so bright ; below with the chin and upper throat broadly 

black ; black or bluish black patches on the sides of the breast. Female : 

Like that of C. superba, but the upper tail-coverts and the tail blue, rusty rufous 
colour below, distinctly deeper. 

Range : Low country of Borneo and ^ Sumatra. 



Sungei Rotan and Sungei Segar, North-East Borneo 3 cJ 



Lawas River, North-West Borneo 
Tutong River, North-West Borneo 
Sepitang, North-West Borneo . 
Sapargaya River, Borneo 
Mt. Mulu, Sarawak. 
18 



73-5, 
69-5 

72 
72 
74 
68 



74-5, 75 



254 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928- 









1 ? 


70 












2 c? 


Tfi, 


78 










1 c? 


76 












1 3 


75 












1 cJ, 


?: 


74, 69 










4c? 


76, 


75, 74, 74 




2 ? 


69, 


77 
Females. 




7 $ 


: 68 


-72 ; mean 


69-1 


ra 


. 


. 


• 1 S 


: 72 







Batu Song, Sarawak 
Baram, Sarawak 
Kalulong, Sarawak 
Penrisen, Sarawak . 
Balingean, Sarawak 
" Sarawak " . 



Males. 
14 cJ : 72-78 ; mean 74-8. 
Palembang, South-East Sumatra 

We have seen three specimens in all from Sumatra, all males, which certainly 
belong to this species, though whether strictly identical, subspecifically, the 
material is not sufficient to state. As noted above, it is quite possible that this 
is the bird described by Raffles as Muscicapa rufigaster. 

The birds from North-East Borneo collected by H. C. Raven and now in 
the United States National Museum are rather less black on the throat, while 
the patches on the sides of the breast are not so black. The rufous on the lower 
throat and belly is deeper than in the type. They can, however, be matchd in 
this respect by other birds from North-West Borneo and Sarawak. The type 
of G. nigrigularis is not altogether normal, and possibly was selected on this 
account. 

Section IX. 

Large birds, wing over 80 mm. Sexes very different. Males : Blue and 

white with no rufous. Females : Somewhat variable, ferrugmous brown, or 

greyish brown, often with a white patch on breast. 



Species 13. 

Males : Dark blue above, greyish white on belly.- 
white patch on breast, tail-feathers always with a white base. 



-Females : With a 



(a) Cyomis concreta concreta (S. Muell.). 

MuscicajM concreta Sal. Miicll., Nat. Gcuch. iind Phys. ii, 1S3.5, p. .'i51 (mountains of West Sumatra) 

Male : Blue, brighter above, belly, flanks, and imder tail-coverts, whitish ; 

inner margin of tail feathers broadly white, almost to the tips. Female : 

Blue replaced by ferruginous ; a large triangular white gorget. 

Range : The mountains of Sumatra. Malay Peninsula from Kedah to 
Negri Sembilan, occasionally as low as .500 feet. 

Sumatra ...... 



Malay Peninsula 



1 o^ 


89 mm. 


1 ? 


87 


1 i 


88-93 ; mean 89-8 mm. 


3 ? 


86, 88, 89 



{b) Cyomis concreta everetti (Sharpe). 

Siphia everetti Sharpe, Ibis, 189U, p. .'{(jo (Jit. Penrisen, Saravak, Borneo : type in British Museum 
examined). 

Male : Smaller than C. c. concreta and with no white on the tail-feathers. 
— Female : Rather dvdler ferruginous than the female of C. c. concreta and 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGIOAE XXXlV. 1928. 255 

with the white margins to the inner webs of the tail-feathers narrower and 
restricted to the base. 

Eange : Probably throughout Borneo at moderate elevations, but some- 
times at quite low levels. 

North- West Borneo 

Sarawak ..... 



1 3 


86 




10 s 


80-84 (type 81) ; 


mean 81-9. 


3 ? 


79, 82, 83 




1 <S 


84 





89-91 ; 


mean 90-0 mm. 


86-90 ; 


mean 87-7 mm. 


90-92 ; 


mean 91-5 mm. 


90 





South Central Borneo (Liang Koebang) 

(c) Cyomis concreta cyanea (Hume). 

Muscitrea njuiiea Hume, Strai/ Feath. v, 1877. p. lUl (Meetan, Muleyit, North Teuasserim : type 

in British Museum examined). 
Niltara leucura Tweedd., Ann, d: Mag. Nat. Hist, .xx, 1877, p. 95 (Taho Plateau, North Tenasserim : 

type in British Museum examined). 
Trichostoma leucoproctum Tweedd., P.Z.S. 1877, p. .366 (base of Mulej'it : type in British Museum 

examined). 

Male : Head brighter blue than in the other two races. Female : Very 

much less ferruginous both above and below ; head with a greyish tinge forming 
a distinct cap. Lores much more whitish and point of chin also white. 

Range : Hills of Upper Assam and North Tenasserim ; French Indo-China 
(Tonkin). 

Margharita, Upper Assam . . . . 5 (J 

7 ? 
Tenasserim . . . . . . . 6 ^J : 

1 ?: 

In this species the bill is more hooked and less flat than in other species 
of the genus. It has been placed in various genera, but the plumage of the 
young, which is striped or spotted, show that it is a typical Flycatcher and 
certainly not a Pachycephala, with which genus it was associated by Gadow. 

Species 14. 

Male : Uniform, pale blue above and below. Female : Dull brown 

above and below, not parti-coloured below. 

(a) Cyomis unicolor unicolor Blyth. 

Cyomis unicolor Blyth, Journ. Asial. Sor. Bengal, xii, 184.'?, p. 1007 (Darjeeling: type in Indian 
Museum). 

Range : From Darjeeling along the Himalayas to Eastern Assam. Manipur 
and South Shan States. We have not seen specimens from the Chin Hills. 

Darjeeling ..... 
Sikhim ..... 

Assam (Naga Hills) 

Manipur ..... 

South Shan States 



2(? 


83, 83 mm. 


1 ? 


79 


17 S 


80-85 ; mean 82-0 mm. 


13 ? 


79-83 ; mean 80-5 mm. 


14 J 


81-84 ; mean 81-9 mm. 


1 ? 


82 


1 s 


81 


1 ? 


79-5-82 


1 ? 


82 



76-80 ; mean 77-6 mm. 

76, 77 
78, 78, 79 

74, 79 

77, 80 

75, 76 
77 



256 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

(6) Cyomis unicolor haxterti nom. nov. 

Cyornis unicolor infuscala Hartcrt (nee Blj-th), Xov. Zool. ix, 1902, p. 550 (type locality fixed Java) 

Rather smaller than the typical race. Male : Rather brighter blue above, 
the under wing-coverts and under tail-coverts darker grey with a tinge of fuscous 

brown. Female : With a greyish cap, tail and upper tail-coverts much 

brighter rufous brown than in the typical race ; below rather darker, flanks and 
under tail-coverts bufly. 

Range : Pemnsular Siam, Malay Peninsula, chiefly in the mountains, 
Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. 

Peninsular Siam . . . . . .15:75 mm. 

Malay Peninsula . . . . . . 7 (J 

2 $; 
Borneo . . . . . . . . 3 cj ; 

2 ?; 
Sumatra . . . . . . . 2 ^ : 

2 ?: 
East Java . . . . . . . 1 ^ 

The fact that, as stated by Finsch {Notes Leyden Mus. 22, 1901, p. 202 ; 
op. cit. 23, 1902, p. 50), the types of Muscicapa infiiscafa Blyth described Ibis, 
1870, p. 165, are really what has hitherto been known as Rhinomyias pectoralis 
Salvad., render it necessary to provide this Flycatcher with a new name. 

In the British Museum, moreover, there is a specimen collected by Horner 
about 1834 in West Sumatra and labelled Muscicapa infuscala, which was 
obtained from the Leyden Museum in exchange in 1877, and which is certainly 
one of the typical series of M. infuscala Blyth. It proves to be a specimen of a 
form of Cyornis olivacea Hume. 

Species 15. 

Male : Deep azure blue, brighter on the rump, greyer on the belly and 

under -tail coverts, lores to eye black. Female : Chestnut brown above rump 

and tail bright rufous chestnut ; beneath rusty buff ; paler on the throat ; 
whitish on the middle of the belly. 

Cyomis ruecki Oust. 

Cyornis ruecki Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philomath. (7), v, 1881, p. 78 (Malacca: tyix" in Paris Museum 

examined). 
Cyornis vanheysti, Robinson & Kloss, Journ. Straits Branch Roy. A.sial. Soc. No. 80, 1919. p. 104 

(Xorth-East Sumatra : type examined) ; id. Journ. Fed. Mai. States ihis. xi. 1924, p, 269, pi. ix. 

Range : Territory of Malacca, Malay Peninsula, and low country of North- 
East Sumatra. 

Malacca 1 cJ : 81 

1 ?: 78 
North-East Sumatra 1 ^ : 18 

1 $ : 79 (juv.) 

We owe to the kindness of M. Berlioz the opportvinity of examining the 
unique types of this species with which, as we suspected, C. vanheysti proves 
to be identical, though the Malaccan bird is perhaps a slightly darker blue, 
above and below. 

The type has the appearance of a Malacca trade skin, though the female 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 257 

has not. Both are stated to have come from Kessang on the coast of Malacca, 
from which locality the same dealer forwarded specimens of Cyornis unicolor 
harterfi. Though very carefully searched for, the species has never been recovered 
in the Malay Peninsula, and the four specimens recorded above are the only 
ones known. Were it not for the very different female and the rather robust 
bill, we should consider the species as an aberration of C. unicolor. As it is, we 
must regard it as a distinct species with a restricted or peculiar habitat, such as 
dense mangroves to which the Malayan form of C beccariana (G. frenatus Hume) 
is confined. 

Section X. 

A single species only. 

With no rufous on the breast of the males and no white on the tail, blue 
above and on breast ; belly and under tail-coverts white, sharply divided from 
the blue of the breast. Female brownish above, tail and rump more or less 
chestnut, beneath with the breast rufous or orange ; belly white. 

Specie.'^ 16. 
{a) Cyornis pallipes pallipes (Jerd.). 

Mttscicapa pallipes Jerd., Madras Joiirn. Lit. dk Sci. xi, 1840, p. 39 (Coonoor : type not in existence). 

Male : Rather dull blue above and on the breast, the flanks not infuscated. 

Feinale : With the loral spot very white, the throat and chest deep rust 

red ; the base of the tail and the upper tail-coverts rusty chestnut like the breast. 

Range : South- Western and Southern India specimens in the British Museum 
from Kanara, Coorg, Wynaad, Kotagiri, Coonoor, Goodalore, and Travancore. 

17 (5 : 74-79 ; mean 75-7 mm. 
5 $ : 71-74 ; mean 72-6 mm. 

(b) Cyornis pallipes hainana (Ogilvie-Grant). 

SipUa hainana O. -Grant, Bull. Brit. Oni. Club, x, 1899, p. 000 ; id. P.Z.S. 1900, p. 480 (Hainan : 

type in British Museum examined). 
Siphia pallidipes hainana Hartert, Nov. Zool. xvii. 1910, p. 225. 
Cyornis pallipes bannermani Delacour & Jabouille, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlv, 1924, p. 32 ; id. Ibis, 

1925, p. 243 ; id. Arcli, d'Hist. Nat. Res. Ornith. i, 1925, p. 109, pi. xxii (Khesang, Annam: 

type in Paris Museum examined). 

Male : Rather brighter blue above than the typical form, throat and breast 

darker, flanks with a tendency to a brownish olive infuscation. Female : 

With the lores less clear than in j). jMllipes, throat and breast very much paler, 
yellowish buff with hardly any rusty tinge. 

Range : South China : Kuantung and Kuangsi, January and April (breedmg), 
Hainan breeding. Tonkin and Laos. Cambodia. Siam, north, east, and 
south-east. Northern Tenasserim (Thoungyeen Valley, April). 

Haman ...... 

South China ..... 

Tonkin 

Siam and Laos ..... 

Tenasserim ...... 



12 cJ 


68-72 


mean 69-7 


16 $ 


64r-68 


mean 67-3 


6 ? 


68-72 




3 $ 


67, 67, 


68 


2 ? 


68 




5c? 


68, 68, 


69-5, 70, 70 


3 ? 


67, 70, 


70 


1 6 


71 





258 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

The Siamese females seem to have larger bills, and can only doubtfully be 
referred to this species, but we are unable to separate continental birds from 
those from Hainan. The females are very variable, some birds, especially from 
Hainan, having the throat and breast much deeper coloured, with the belly clearer 
white, but both forms occur in the same localities and on the same dates. Chinese 
males show a tendency for the white of the lower chest to invade the blue of 
the throat in a V-shaped wedge, but this character also occurs in a lesser degree 
in some Hainan birds. 

The type of C. p. bannermanni exhibits this to an extreme degree, but seeing 
that it is more or less surrounded by the normal form we can only regard it as 
an individual aberration. 

It is perhaps somewhat open to question whether this form should be 
regarded as a subspecies of pallipes or a distinct species in view of the very marked 
differences between the females, and the widely discontinuous distribution. 



Cyomis pallipes herioti Wardl. Rams. 

Cyornis herioti Wardl. Rams., Ibis, ISSG, p. 159 (Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands : type in British 

Museum examined). 
Siphia enganensis, OgUvie-Grant, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, iv, 1895, p. ii (Cape Engano, North Luzon : 

type in British Museum examined). 

As large as, or slightly larger than, C. p. pallipes. Male : With the blue 

tmts darker and duller and the flanks strongly infuscated with brownish. 

Female : With the breast deeper coloured than C. p. hainana, less rusty than 
C. p. pallipes ; tail darker and less chestnut than in that race. 

Range : The island of Luzon, Philippine Islands, where it seems to be 
extremely rare. 

Luzon . 3 cj : 78, 78, 79 

2 $ : 72, 73 mm. 

The allocation of the female type of C. herioti to the male of C, enganejisis 
as made by the late Dr. Sharpe, though probably correct, has not been absolutely 
proved. The specimen from Manilla is in indifferent condition and by no means 
fully adult ; the bill has been distorted and flattened in preparation. 

The bird described by Grant as the female of enganensis has a considerably 
darker chest and tail than herioti. The blue on the head and also on the base 
of the tail-feathers is probably not normal, but evidence of senihty as has been 
suggested by Lord Rothschild. Such cases are by no means rare in other species 
of the genus. 

Section XL 
Large birds, wing always over 80 mm. Sexes very different. Males with 
no white on plumage, more or less brilliant blue above, ochreous below, with a 
black or blue throat. Females ochreous or greyish below, brownish above. 

Sjjecies 18. 

Male : Above brilliant blue ; below rich orange. Female : With a pale 

throat spot. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



259 



Cyomis vivida vivida Swinh. 

Cyornis vivida Swinhoe, Ibis, 1864. p. .'!().'! (Formosa: type in British Mui5eum examined). 

Male : With the orange rufous of the breast always more or less intruding 

on the blue black of the throat. Female : With the crown tinged with dull 

blue, forming an ill-defined cap. Below yellowish brown ; throat spot pale creamy 
yellow ; under tail coverts with large greyish brown centres and buflfy edges. 

Bange : Formosa only, usually at high elevations. 



18 cJ : 87-91 
12 ?: 84-88 



mean 88-8 mm. 
mean 86-2 mm. 



Males seem to moult direct from the very juvenile plumage into the brilliant 
garb of the adult. One specimen, dated November 1866, collected by R. Swinhoe, 
still has a few dull black feathers with guttate white spots on the tips, on the 
crown. 

Cyomis vivida oatesi (Salvad.). 

Nillava oaiem iSalvail., Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2), v. 1S87, p. .514 (Muleyit, North Tenasserim : type 
In Genoa Mu.seum). 

Much larger than C. v. vivida. Male : With the orange of the breast in the 

larger majority of specimens carried far up the median line of the throat. 

Female : Averaging slightly paler than that sex in C. v. vivida. Cap and tinge 
of blue on the crown almost imperceptible. 

Range : Assam, Manipur ; the Chin Hills (Mt. Victoria). Southern Shan 
States, Toninghoo, and North Tenasserim. Yunnan (the Mekong Salwin and 
Mekong Yangtze Divides and Mengtsz (?) ). 

Manipur 

Mt. Victoria, Chin Hills . 

Southern Shan States 

Tonghoo 

Muleyit, North Tenasserim 

Mekong Salwin Divide 

Mekong Yangtze Divide . 
Mengtsz, Yunnan . 
Szechuan 

The Yuiman female is browner above and has the pale spot on the throat 
rather yellowish. It is also rather small, and as De la Touche has already noted, 
is rather doubtfully assignable to this form. 

Cyomis vivida sumatrana (Salvad.). 

Nillava sumatrana Salvad., Ann. ilns. Civ. Ocn. (1), xiv, 1879. p. 201 (Mt. Singalan, West 

Sumatra: type in Genoa Museum). 
Cyorm.'i nmhijensis Robinson, Joiim. Fed. Malay States Museum, ii, 1909, p. 164 (Teloni, Perak, 

Malay Peninsula : types examined). 

Very much smaller than the other forms. Male : Throat darker, the black 
more restricted and with the rufous of the chest not invading it, the line of 



■ 1 c? 


96 


1 ? 


94 


. 2 S 


100, 103 


3 ? 


94, 97, 99 


■ 2 S 


98, 102 


3 ? 


94, 95, 97 


■ 1 3 


97 


■ 7 S 


94-102; mean 99-6 mm 


2 ? 


94, 98 


• 1 s 


101 


1 $ 


97 


■ 2 S 


98, 99 


■ 1 ? 


92 


• 1 s 


(imm.) : 95 



260 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

division being straight. Female : Very different. Back and tail richer brown, 

throat brownish, tlie spot in the middle white ; rest of the under surface greyish, 
except the under tail-coverts, which are rich ochreous brown. 

Range : West Sumatra at high elevations. Mountains of Perak, Malay 
Peninsula. 

Sumatra 5 (J : 81-83 ; mean 81-6 mm. 

4 ? : 78-82 ; mean 80-5 mm. 

Malay Peninsula 2 ^ : 79-82 

1 ?: 75 

This species presents an extremely close resemblance to Niltam sundara, 
from which it can be distinguished by the character of the frontal plumes, which 
are longer and more developed in Nillava, and by the absence of the bright 
bluish-mauve patches on the sides of the neck in the female. 

It is a question whether the specific title sumairana is or is not invalidated 
by sumatrensis, Sharpe, which has slight priority. 

Species 19. 

Wing over 85 mm. 

31ale : Dull blue above, brighter on forehead and superciliaries ; throat 

blackish blue, rest of under surface orange. Female : Above olivaceous brown, 

rump and tail tinged with blue, beneath orange rufous. 

(a) Cyomis hyacinthina hyacinthina (Temm.). 

3Iuscicapa hyacinthina Temm., Fl. Col. 30 (1824 — Timor: tvpo in Leyden Museum). 

Range : Timor only. 

Timor 9 cj : 87-92 ; mean 89-9 mm. 

8 $ : 86-87 ; mean 86-4 mm. 

(b) Cyomis hyacinthina kiihni Hartert. 

Cyomis hyacinthina kiihni Hartert, Nov. Zool. xi, 1904, p. 204 (Wetter Islands: type in Tring 
Museum examined). 

Male : Much brighter blue than the typical form with a marked pale blue 
frontal band and superciliary stripe. Below with the blue on the breast more 

extensive and the ochreous rufous of the belly, etc., richer. Female : Ochreous 

of the lower surface richer, a frontal band of the same colour, and the upper 
surface with a distinct bluish glaze, absent in the typical form. 

Range : Wetter Island (Lesser Sunda Group only). 

7 (J : 88-94 ; mean 90-3 mm. 
6 $ : 87-88 ; mean 87-9 mm. 

Species 20. 

Male : Beneath as in C. hyacinthina. kiihni, but the blue restricted to the 
throat, above head only blue, the remaining parts fuscous brown. The tail 

and upper tail-coverts dark rusty chestnut. Female : Above a.s in the male, 

but the l)lue cap barely distinct. Below as in the other forms of the group, 
but the throat greyish brown, distinct from the rusty rufous of the chest and 
abdomen. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 261 

Cyomis hoevelli (Meyer). 

Siphia hoevelli Meyer, Noles Leijden Museum, xxiii, 190.3, p. 186 (Tahala Mountains, Central 

Celebes : type in Leyden Museum). 
Cyomis hoevelli Riley. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. Ixiv, 1924. p. 66. 

Range : North Central and Central Celebes. 

5 (J : 88-89 ; mean 88-2 mm. 
1 ?: 87 

This bird seems sufficiently distinct from the other two forms of the group 
to be accorded specific rank. Mr. G. M. Mathews has recently made it the 
type of a genus Rihyornis (Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1927, p. 48), with the 
sole diagnosis ; " Differs from Cyornis Blyth in having a distinctly hooked bill." 
While we admit that this species, with G. hyacinthina and C. h. kuhni, has claims 
to generic separation by those who regard fine distinctions as sufficient, we must 
protest against the growing tendency among many authors to create new generic 
names by merely citing a type species, with no or very inadequate diagnosis 
attached and with no attempt to indicate what species are to be referred to the 
newly proposed genus. In the present instance Mr. Mathews' diagnosis would 
admit to Rileyornis certain species of Cyornis whose connection with C. hoevelli 
he would be the first to admit was very remote. 



262 NOVITATES ZooLOniCAE XXXIV. 1928. 



DIE ERGEBNISSE MEINER DRITTEN REISE NACH DEN 

BALEAREN 

NEBST EINER UBERSICHT ALLER BISHER VON DER INSELGRUPPE DER 
BALEAREN UND PITYUSEN BEKANNTEN VOGELARTEN. 

Von Dr. A. v. JORDANS. 
{Abgeschlossen am 1. Mdrz 1928.) 

T^RST iin Fiuhjahr .1927 konnte ich meinen nach meiuer zweiten 1921 untcr- 
■*-' nommenen Reise gefassten Entschluss, noch ein weiteres Mai die Insel- 
gruppe der Balearen aufzusuchen, ziir Tat werden lassen. Die Ausfiihrung 
wurde mir finanziell ermoglicht durch das Entgegenkoinmen der " Notgemein!<chaft 
der Deutschen Wissensuhaft "' und der Unterstiitzuiig durch Harm Geheimrat 
Prof. Dr. Koenig, denen ich hierfUr auch an dieser Stelle meinen verbindlichen 
Dank ausspreche. — Auf dieser Reise begleitete mich Frhr. Nikolaus von und zu 
Bodman, dein ich fiir seine Hilfe und Uberlassung von crbeutetem Material 
herzlich danke. Ferner schulde ich Dank neben den Behorden vor allem dem 
Deutschen Botschafter in Madrid, Herrn Graf von VVelczeck, dem Deutschen 
Consul in Palnia, Herrn Alfred Miiller, der mir mit gewohnter Liebenswiirdigkeit 
in alien Schwierigkeiten mit Rat und Tat zur Seite stand, den Grundbesitzern 
in Mallorca, die mir wie friiher bereitwilligst jede erbetene Jagderlaubnis in 
ihren Revieren gaben, und ferner alien jenen Herren Collegen, die mir spater 
zu Hause durch Uberlassung von Vergleichsmaterial bei der wissenschaftlichen 
Bearbeitung der Ausbeute halfen. 

Wir fuhren diesmal erst am 3. April von Bonn ab ; die Reiseroute ging 
dank dem Entgegenkommen des belgischen und franzosischen Ministeriums 
iiber Paris — Port Bou — Barcelona, von hier mit dem Dampfer nach Palma. Bis 
zur spanischen Grenze verlief die Fahrt ohne jede Schwierigkeit, aber hier wurden 
uns trotz aller auf Grund unserer Papiere erhobenen Einspriiche von der spanischen 
Zolldirektion unsere Gewehre beschlagnahmt, die mitgenommene Munition 
dagegen durchgelassen. Das Deutsche Generalconsulat in Barcelona wandte 
sich sofort telegraphisch nach Madrid, ich selbst an den Deutschen Botschafter, 
dem unser freies Passieren der Grenze voni spanischen Ministerium zugesagt 
war, zunachst aber ohne jeden Erfolg. Trotzdem Graf Welczeck auf unsere 
wiederholten Tclegramme alle Schritte unternahm, war es ihm erst nach fast 
14 Tagen auf (irund mehrmaliger personlicher Vorstellungen im Ministerium 
moglich, die Freigabe zu erwirken, nachdem die Generalzolldirektion die Gewehre 
zwar schon etliche Tage vorher freigegeben, sie dann aber sofort der Zivilgouver- 
neur beschlagnahmt hatte ! Am 17. April erhielten wir sie endlich, nachdem 
10 fiir luis kostbare Tage nutzlos verstrichen waren. Icli berichte hieriiber 
eingehender zur Warnung fiir solche, die mit Gewehren nacli Spanien wollen 
und nicht vorher im Besitz einer beglaubigten Absclirift der Ministerialerlaubnis 
sind — trotz aller sonstiger Liebenswiirdigkeit der spanischen Behorden. Erneute 
Schwierigkeiten hatten wir, als wir die offizielle Erlaubnis zur Jagd auch auf 
solche Vogel erbaten, die durch die neuen Jagd- und Vogelschutzgesetze in Spanien 
geschiitzt sind, Gesetze, die sonst erfreulicherweise scharf durchgefiihrt werden ; 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 263 

auch diese Erlaubnis erwirkte uns erst die personliche Vorstellung des Botschafters, 
woraufhin der Iiinenniiiiister den Gouverneur der Balearen anwies, uns alle 
gewiinschte Erlaubnis sofort auszustellen. Wir sind den vielen Bemiihungen 
unseres Botschafters daher zu grosstem Dank verpflichtet. Wie wir spiiter 
feststellten, hatte der Zivilgouverneur samtlichen Posten der Guardia Civil und 
der Carabineris auf alien Inseln — was etwas heissen will, da jeder kleinste 
bewohnte Ort und ausserdem viele Kiistenpunkte solche Kommandos besitzen 
— alle erforderlichen Instruktionen gegeben, uns keine Schwierigkeiten zu 
machen, sodass jene uns, wo sie konnten, halfen. Ausserdem war zum Betreten 
der Festungsinsel Cabrera mit Waffen eine besondere Erlaubnis vonseiten des 
Chefs der obersten Militarbehorde der Balearen erforderlich, die uns dieser nach 
Erledigung der notwendigen Fornialitaten auch ausstellte. 

Wie streng die Schutzgesetze gehandliabt werden, mag aus folgender Episode 
hervorgehen : Auf einer Tour veranlasste ich den weiter unten genannten 
tiichtigen Schiitzen und Vogelkenner Cosmer, uns mit seinem Gewehre zu be- 
gleiten, worauf dieser mit Freuden einging, da fiir ihn in dieser Zeit sonst die 
Ausiibung seiner Jagdpassion unmoglich war. Bei unserer Riickkehr von dieser 
Tour wurde er im Orte von zwei Gendarmen erwartet, die ein guter Freund 
benachrichtigt hatte, und nur meinen erst liebenswiirdigen Uberredungskiinsten 
dann aber energischem Dazwischentreten gelang es, ihn vor sehr unangenehmen 
Weiterungen zu schiitzen. Da ich seine Hiilfe nicht gerne entbehren woUte, 
bat ich den mir sehr gewogenen obersten Chef in Palma, jenem Manne doch die 
Erlaubnis auszustellen, sowohl wahrend meiner Anwesenheit in jener Gegend 
mit mir jagen wie auch wahrend meines weiteren Aufenthaltes auf der Insel 
allein fiir mich Raubvogel und einige andere Arten schiessen zu diirfen, und ich 
verbiirgte mich fiir ihn, dass er diese Erlaubnis keinesfalls zur Befriedigung 
weiterer eigener Jagdgeliiste missbrauchen wiirde. Der Deutsche Consul unter- 
stiitzte mich bei diesen Gesuche. Die Vorweisung aller meiner hochsten Erlaub- 
nisscheine fruchtete aber gar nichts, da der Oberst unter lebhaftem und offen- 
siohtlich echtem Bedauern darauf hinwies, dass ihm hierzu ohne ausdriickliche 
Anweisung vom Ministerium in Madrid keine Moglichkeit gegeben sei ; er stellte 
uns aber schmunzelnd anheim, den Mann als Gewehrtrager mitzunehmen, er 
wolle dann miindlich die entsprechenden Posten instruieren. Und tatsachlich 
liess er deren Chef anderntags nur zu diesem Zwecke aus der entfernten Gegend 
der Insel zu sich nach Palma rufen. — Als wir nach zwei Tagen den Schauplatz 
unserer Tiitigkeit verlegten, wurde Cosmer zu dem Chef gerufen und unter 
Androhung strenger Strafen — Haft und dauernde Entziehung des Gewehres — 
verwarnt, sich in der geschlossenen Zeit mit dem Gewehr sehen zu lassen ! 

Am 18. April begannen wir unsere Tatigkeit, nachdem wir schon bis dahin 
einige Beobachtungsausfliige gemacht hatten, Ende Juni beendeten wir sie und 
trafen auf dem gleichen Wege am 9. Juli wieder in Bonn ein. Im Gegensatz 
zum vorigen Mai konnten wir diesmal Gewehre und Ausbeute selbst mit uns 
nehmen. — Wie 1921 hatte ich auch jetzt keinen Praparator mit und sammelte 
neben Vogeln auch Eier, Reptilien, Amphibien und Insekten. Die Eier wird 
Geheimrat Koenig bearbeiten und in eiacm fSonderartikel besprechen. Die 
iibrige Ausbeute wird von Spezialisten bearbeitet, die das Ergebnis in ihren 
Fachzeitschriften veroffentlichen werden (vergl. auch Vogelf. II, Schluss Kapitel). 
Wir brachten im ganze 210 Vogelbalge heim. 

Ich probierte zum ersten Male, frischgeschossene Kleinvogel — darunter als 



264 NoviTATEs ZooLonirAE XXXIV. 1028. 

grosste Wachteln — mit einer Fonnalinlosung zu injicieren, iim -sie in Deutsehland 
zu Balgen verarbeiten zu la.ssen. Die Moglichkeit, solche injicierte Vogel noch 
nach laiigcrer Zeit zu guten Balgeu j)rapariercii zu konnen, hiiiigt vor allem davon 
ab, dass man die Injection baldigst nach der Erbeutung vornimmt, dass die Losung 
nicht zu stark aber auch nicht zu schwach ist, da in ersterem Falle eine zu starke 
Verhartung namentlieh am Kopf eintritt, im letzteren zumal bei starker Hitze 
luid langerem Transport doch Faulnisherde entstehen konnen, ferner dass man 
die Federn vor Beriihrung mit der Formalinlosung hiitet und dass man moglichst 
Verunreinigung der Federn durch ausgetretenenes Blut vermeidet, da dieses 
sich mit Formalin vermisclit kaum mehr entfernen lasst, und schliesslich dass 
beim Verpacken das Gefieder moglichst glatt anliegt. Nach kurzer Zeit hat 
man darin einige tJbung, und solcherart behandelte Vogel kommen auch bei 
starker Hitze und langerer Transportzeit unversehrt iiber, und man erhalt 
noch gute Balge und spart ausserordentlich viel Zeit. Meine so priiparierten 
Kleinvogel zu schonen Balgen umzuarbeiten, hatte Herr A. Fischer in Augsburg 
die grosse Liebenswiirdigkeit, wofiir ich ihm hier nochmals meinen besten Dank 
sagen mochte. 

Wir besuchten diesmal z.T. andere Orte als 1921, waren auch einige Tage 
auf der Insel Cabrera, und vor allem lernte ich zum ersten Male die Pitjaisen 
(Ibiza und Formentera) kennen, wo wir uns vom 20. bis 26. Juni aufhielten. 
Auf Formentera fiel das ganzliche Fehlen — wenigstens soweit wir feststellen 
konnten — von Kohl- und Blaumeisen, von Grau- und Zaunammem und sogar 
des Buchfinken, dieses sonst so haufigen Vogels, auf. 

Die Wasserverhaltnisse in der Albufera und Albufereta waren wieder nicht 
sehr giinstige. Die Jagd dort ist iiberhaupt, wie ich schon schilderte, ausserst 
schwierig und miihselig, und ich bin iiberzeugt, dass in dem grossen Sumpfgebiet 
noch manche Vogelarten briiten, die bisher noch von keinem Beobachter zur 
Feststellung gelangten. Grosse und fiir die Vogelwelt giinstigste Gebiete sind 
absolut unbetretbar, da der Sumpf stellenweise bedenklich ist und das meterhohe 
Rohr ein tieferes Eindringen verhindert und jede Orientierung unmoglich macht ; 
trotz wiederholter Versuche gelang ein welters Eindringen in diese Gegenden 
auch weder Herrn Munn noch seinem jungen eifrigen mallorquinischen Sammler, 
wie diese mir erzahlten. 

Im Siiden der Insel Mallorca gibt es noch drei weitere Sumpfgebiete (ich 
verweise auf meine 1. Arbeit, p. 15) : nordwestlich von dem Orte Salinas die 
Laguna de Salobra, siidlich Salinas die Laguna de Tamarells und der Estanque 
de ses Gambas. Diese Gebiete lernten wir durch diesmaligen langeren Aufen- 
thalt genauer kennen, als es mir auf meiner 1. Reise raoglich war. Gambas ist 
ein ovaler, flacher, offener See mit schmalem Sandstrand, der teilweise von 
Tamarisken, teilweise von Kiefern eingesaumt wird. Zur Zugzeit und im Winter 
soil hier reichstes Vogelleben herrschen ; wir trafen nur viele Regenpfeifer briitend 
und einige durchziehende Strand vogel, sonst ist diese Gegend ebenso vogelarm 
wie der klcine, im Sommer wohl fast ganz austroeknende Sumpf von Tamarells, 
der ein kleines von Tamariskengestriipp, Riedgras und verstreuten Wasserlachen 
bedecktes Terrain einnimmt. Ganz anders der weitausgedehnte Sumpf Salobra : 
ein sich ca 3 km. hinziehendes etwa IJ km. breites echtes Sumpfgeliinde mit 
weiten offenen mit kleinen Pflanzeninseln durchsetzten Wasserflachen, stellen- 
weise unterbrochen durch ausgedehnte Tamariskenwaldchen. Rohrbestiinde und 
dichter Sum jif vegetation — eine ganz andere Landschaft als die der eintonigeren 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 265 

Albufera. Hier nisteten viele Rohrweihen, cinzeliie Stockenten, Wasseirallen 
u.s.w. ; Fliige von Strandvogeln hielten sich noch auf, Regenpfeifer briiteten, 
Seeschwalben unci Moven zeigten sich, und manche Sumpfvogel werden hier 
sicherlioh noch leben, die nicht zur Beobachtung kamen ; dagegen fehlten alle 
Rohrsiinger mid andere Arten, die man hatte erwarten konnen. Ringsheium 
und auch zwischendurch das fiir den Sardensanger typische niedrige, dichte 
Buschgelande, wo wir ihn allenthalben haufig antrafen. Auch in diesem Sumpf- 
bezirk soil im Winter, Herb.st und Friihjahr ein ausserordentlich reiches 
Vogelleben herrschen. 

Dann besuchten wir einigemale von Palma aus den Sumpf La Porrassa, 
wo 1913 noch reges Sumpf vogelleben herrschte, wo ich den Stelzenlaufer zur 
Brutzeit beobachtete. Heute ist er nahezu trocken gelegt, nur wenige ganz 
seichte Wasserflachen und drei kleine Rohrbezirke sind iibrig geblieben, wo 
noch wenige Stockenten und etliche Paare Rohrweihen briiten, das Ubrige 
sind Sandflachen, auf denen sich Regenpfeifer tummeln, oder wo dichtes niedriges 
Gestriipp den Boden bedeckt. Das in der Nahe liegende mustergiiltig bewirt- 
schaftete Gut kultiviert immermehr ehemaliges Sumpfgelande, das in einigen 
Jahren ganz verschwunden sein wird. — Hier erlebte mein Reisegefahrte eine 
recht unangenehme Situation : Der Besitzer des Gutes hatte entgegen der 
Verabredung vergessen, seine Jagdhiiter von unserer Jagerei dort zu benach- 
richtigen, und als wir uns mal kurz getrennt hatten, um eher an die recht scheuen 
Weihen heranzukommen, hatte sich einer der Forster nach langem vergeblichem 
Naohlaufen, ohne dass wir ihn bemerkt hatten, an Baron Bodman herange- 
piirscht, ihn auf geringe Entfernung plotzlich angerufen und energisch die Ablage 
seines Gewehres verlangt, was dieser aber, der Sprache nicht kundig, nicht sofort 
verstanden hatte, worauf der Hiiter seine alte Biichse schussbereit auf ihn 
anlegte ; mein noch rechtzeitiges Dazwischentreten klarte den Sachverhalt 
schnell auf, und das erhitzte Gemiit des braven diensteifrigen Burschen schlug 
in ausserste Verlegenheit um, bis ihn eine angebotene Zigarette dariiber beru- 
higte, dass wir uns nicht iiber sein — iibrigens korrektes — Verhalten bei seinem 
gestrengen Dienstherrn beschweren wiirden. Diese Situation war eben so 
komisch wie die vorhergehende unangenehm gewesen war. 

Auch dieses Mal gelang es uns trotz aller Miihe zu meinem Leidwesen 
nicht, alle mir noch fehlenden Brutvogel, die als solche sicher festgestellt sind, 
zu erbeuten, einmal da wir sie nicht vor die Flinte oder Biichse bekamen oder 
auch weil wir verschiedene Male halt nicht Alles bekamen, worauf wir schossen ! 
Was nun noch an Brutvogeln fehlt, muss wohl ein Anderer zu holen und auch 
noch Manches festzustellen versuchen, was uns nicht mit Sicherheit gelang. 
Ausserdem diirften zur Zugzeit und im Winter noch manche Arten vorkommen, 
die bisher von dort noch nicht bekannt geworden sind. Jedenfalls konnte ich 
namentlich dieses Mal feststellen oder auch zuverlassigen Mitteilungen der 
Einwohner entnehmen, dass im Herbst wie besonders im Friihjahr ein s e h r 
starker Vogelzug iiber die Inseln weggeht, woriiber sich einige Angaben im Text 
finden. Den starksten Zug beobachteten wir am 11. Mai auf der Cabrera : Es 
war bewolkter Himmel und es regnete hin und wieder etwas bei geringem N. 
Winde. Grosse Fliige Hausschwalben, sehr viele Gartenrotschwanze viele 
Trauerfliegenfanger, etliche Steinschmatzer, hunderte von Laubsangern viele 
Turteltauben, ein Pirol, wenige Wachteln, Pieper, Dorngrasmiicken etc. kamen 
zm' Beobachtung. Ich bin iiberzeugt, dass das Mittelmeer, wenigstens fiir die 



266 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

meisten Aiten kein ernstes Zughindermis bedeutet und dass dasselbe — wenigstens 
sein westlicher Teil — in seiner ganzen Breite von Massen von Vogeln iiberflogen 
wird (vergl. auch meine vorige Arbeit, p. 202). Mallorca ware sicherlich ein 
herrliches Gebiet fiir eine Vogelzugstation, aber meine Erkundigungen in dieser 
Richtung sowohl .bei Privatpersonen wie bei Behorden nahmen mir den Mut, 
mich ernstlich mit einem solchen Plane zu befassen ! 

Auch meine diesjahrige Keise zwingt mich durch ihre Resultate zu einigen 
Berichtigungen und Erganzungen — und steigert dadurch das Ergebnis. Auch 
jetzt habe ich mich viel und immer wieder an unseren verschiedenen Aufen- 
thaltsorten mit den Bewohnern iiber die Fauna unterhalten und manches Interesse 
bei ihneii gefunden. — Hier moclite ich vor allem Herrn Garcias Font, Apotheker 
in Arta, nennen, der wohl der beste Kenner der Fauna und besonders der Flora 
Mallorcas ist, eifrig sammelt, eine sehr umfangreiche Kollektion von Kafern u.a. 
und in.sbesondere ein sehr reiches Herbarium besitzt, auch Manches in spanischen 
Zeitschriften veroffentlicht hat und uns in geradezu riihi'ender Weise is Allem 
unterstiitzte, mir auch wertvoUes Material iiberliess, fiir das Alles ich ihm meinen 
besonders herzlichen Dank auch hier sagen mochte. Er brachte mich auch zusam- 
men mit einem eingesessenen Vogelschiesser und Fanger mit Namen Cosmer, 
der fast so beriihmt wie sein Vater in der ganzen Gegend wegen dieser seiner 
Kiinste ist und der allerdings wirkhch ein ganz erstaunliches Wissen nicht nur 
in Bezug auf die vorkommenden Arten sondern auch von der Lebensweise der 
Vogel und Saugetiere mir bewies. Uber seine Fangkiinste werde ich ein Beispiel 
im speziellen Teil aiifiihren ! Nach seinen mir bewiesenen Beispielen bin ich 
iiberzeugt, was von ihm gesagt wurde, dass er j e d e n Vogel bezw. jede Vogel- 
art in kiirzester Zeit beschafft, auch die scheueste und seltenste. Leider lernten 
wir ihn erst in den letzten Tagen kennen, trotzdem verdanke ich ihm einige 
wichtige Stiicke. — Ferner lernte ich den Pater Rotger in Espanolet bei Palma 
kennen, einen tiichtigen Entomologen, dessen Liebenswiirdigkeit ich ebenso wie 
der seines Lehrers, des Paters Jorda, eine ganze Anzahl Kafer und Schmetterlinge 
aus ihrer reichen Sammlung, wohl der voUstandigsten Insektenkollektion Mallor- 
cas, verdanke. — Wenn man sich mit den Leuten auf dem Lande, den Bauern, 
Hirten und Fischern unterhalt, um sich von ihnen Angaben iiber das Vorkommen 
von Tiern machen zu lassen, so muss man diesen Aussagen gegeniiber ausserst 
vorsichtig und kritisch sein, einmal weil der Mann in seiner Liebenswiirdigkeit 
und angeborenen grosen Hoflichkeit immer allzu leicht Dinge sagt, von denen er 
annimmt, dass man sie gerne hort — nicht um sich wichtig zu tun ! — auch 
solche Leute Auskiinfte geben, die gar nichts kennen, oder aber man verwendet 
auch die von ihnen genannten Namen leicht verkehrt, weil vielfach an verschie- 
denen Orten der Insel derselbe mallorquinische Name fiir verschiedene Arten 
gebraucht wird. Ich habe nur wenige Manner getroffen, auf deren Angaben ich 
mich wirklich verlassen konnte. 

Hier mochte ich noch eine kleine Geschichte erzahlen, die einem passieren 
kann, wenn man auf seinem Reisepass vor seinem Namen ein " Dr." stehen hat : 
Da kamen wir eines Tages in ein einsam gelegenes Fischerdorf, wo uns ein mir 
von 1921 her bekannter Fischer gastfreundlieh 2 Stuben einriiumte. Am 2. 
Abend waren wir bei Kerzenlicht mit Praeparieren beschiiftigt, als es zaghaft 
klopfte und unser Wirt fragte, ob er wohl mit seiner Frau mal unserer Arbeit 
zuschauen diirfe, was ich natiirlich gern erlaubte. Nach einigen Minuten merkte 
ich, dass er mich gerne etwas fragen woUte, dabei aber genierte Blicke auf Baron 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 267 

Bodman warf . Ich bat diesen daher, iinter irgend einem Vorwand herauszugehen, 
und kauni hatte er die Tiire hinter sicli zugemacht, begann die Frau — sich 
auszuziehen, und der Fischer bat mich dringend, doch mal nach seiner Frau zu 
sehen, da ich ja, wie er gehort hatte, Doktor sei. Ich versuchte ihn auf alle 
Weise zu iiberzeugen, dass das zwar stimme, dass ich aber leider kein Arzt sei, 
was bei uns nicht dasselbe ware. Dies aber ging Uber seinen Horizont und — die 
Frau zog sich seelenruhig weiter aus, obendrein mit der Erkliirung, sie erwarte 
im 6. Monat, und alles mogliclie Andere. Ich fiigte mich in mein Sehicksal und 
iiberlegte, wie ich mich aus der heiklen Situation ziehen sollte ! G.D. sah ich, 
dass die Frau Krampfadern hatte, und nun sagte ich ihr, sie soUe schleunigst 
mit ihrem Manne nach der Hauptstadt fahren, sich dort einen Gummistrumpf 
kaufen, was unbedingt notig sei, vorher sich aber von einem Arzt zu dieseni 
Zweck ein Rezept geben lassen etc. Hocherfreut liber meine " Untersuchung " und 
der Versicherung, gleich meinen Rat auszufiihren, der sie ohne Zweifel von alien 
Ubeln befreien wiirde, da sie viel von den Kiinsten deutscher Arzte gehort hatte, 
und der bangen Frage " was bin ich Herrn Doktor nun schuldig " und voller 
Riihrung, dass ein deutscher Arzt fiir seine Miihe nichts annehme, zogen die 
Beiden seelenvergniigt ab — ich war es sicherlich nicht weniger. Der Erfolg aber 
war, dass ich anderntags bei alien moglichen Kinderkrankheiten helfen sollte, 
deren Namen ich nicht mal verstand, welchen Zumutungen wir uns durch 
moglichste Unsichtbarkeit entzogen und dadurch dass wir 2 Tage darauf die 
gastliche Statte verliessen, fiir die wir eine Zeche bezahlen mussten, gegen die 
ich nun sehr gerne ein Dr.-Honorar in Anrechnung gebracht hatte ! ! Dieses 
und ein noch unangenehmeres Erlebnis auf der Riickreise im franzosischen 
Siidexpress sind mir eine Lehre fiir die Zukunft, meinen Dr. nicht mehr auf dem 
Pass anzugeben. 

In der Aufzahlung der Arten wende ich dieselbe Reihenfolge an, wie in 
meinen beiden friiheren Arbeiten. — Ein paar Worte iiber die Nomenklatur : In 
dieser Arbeit gebrauche ich der Einheitlichkeit wegen die gleichen Namen wie 
vordem, was aber nicht heisst, dass ich mich mit alien prinzipiell einverstanden 
erklare. Selbstredend erkenne ich das Prioritatsprinzip durchaus an, was 
aber keineswegs ausschliesst, dass ich seine ins Absurde gehende Konsequenzen 
iiberall mitmache. In der Wissenschaft kann es Gottlob keine parlamentarischen 
Majoritatsbeschliisse geben ; daher lasse ich mich nicht zwingen, durch eine 
Majoritiit auf einem Kongresse zur Annahme gebrachte Beschliisse auch da zur 
Ausfiihrung zu bringen, wo ich sie als sinnlos ansehe. Ich rechne hierzu u.a. 
die Ablosung eines alt eingebiirgerten, vielleicht mehr als hundert Jahren allge- 
mein angewandten Namens, durch irgend einen neu ausgegrabenen iilteren 
Namen, Vertauschung alteingebiirgerter Art-oder Gattungsnamen (Saxicola — 
Pratincola ; Tringa — Erolia und nun gar Calidris !), ferner Beibehaltung solcher 
verkehrt geschriebener Namen, die, sei es irrtiimlich vom Autor oder gar infolge 
Fehlers des Setzters, erstmalig falsch gedruckt wurden, die man jetzt beizubehalten 
sich erdreistet selbst dann, wenn der Autor sie in spaterer Zeit selbst korrigierte ! 
Was wiirde man denn eigentlich von einem Menschen halten, der obendrein noch 
betont, dass er andere spatere inhaltliche Berichtigungen eines Autors einfach 
konsequent ignoriere, well die betretfende falsche Angabe nun einmal in dessen 
erster Veroffentlichung gestanden hatte I Ich glaube, ein Jeder wiirde solches 
Verhalten entweder verriickt oder unanstandig nennen. Und bei einem wissen- 
schaftlichen Namen soil das korrekt sein, weil es eine Majoritat bestimmt hat, 



268 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

obendrein dann, wenn der Name zu Ehren eines anderen Forschers gegeben 
wurde ! ! Ich habe hier, wie gesagt, nur einige Punkte herausgegriffen. 

Seit 1921 ist eine Reihe ornithologischer Arbeiten iiber das Gebiet, erschienen, 
die ich nun zunachst chronologisch anfiihren werde niit kurzen kritischen Bemer- 
kungen ; im einzelnen verweise ich auf den speziellen Teil. Meine Aufzahlung 
der ornithologischen Literatur iiber die Inselgruppen diirfte dann bis heute wohl 
liickenlos sein. 

Im Text werde ich meine erste und zweite Arbeit iiber die Vogelfauna der 
Balearen anfiihren unter der Abkiirzung : Vogelf. I bezw. Vogelf. II. 

P. W. M u n n , der weiterhin auf Mallorca lebt und den ich diesmal auch 
personlich kennen lernte, erganzte seine friihere Arbeit (Vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 149) 
durch weitere Veroflfentlichungen. Er besuchte nun auch verschiedene Male 
die Insel Menorca — die einzige der grossen Baleareninseln, die ich personlich 
leider nicht kenne, von deren Besuch ich mir aber auch ornithologisch nichts 
Besonderes verspreche — und stellte im Ibis, 1924, pp. 446-67, die bisher bekannten 
ornithologischen Daten von dieser Insel unter dem Titel " Notes on the Birds 
of Minorca " zusammen. Es gelang ihm, das Vorkommen euiiger bisher von 
Menorca nicht bekannter Arten nachzuweisen. Unter dem Titel " Additional 
Notes on the Birds of Alcudia, Mallorca," in der gleichen Zeitschrift im Jahre 

1925, pp. 39-47, und " Additional Notes on the Birds of the Balearic Islands," 

1926, pp. 467-77, erschienen weitere Aufsatze von ihm. Er wird auch hinfort, 
Erganzungen folgen lassen. Die von ihm gesammelten Vogel bearbeitete 
Witherby, die Eier Jourdain. — In der Hauptsache widmet er sich dem Sammeln 
von Eiern, daneben beobachtet er fleissig und saiumelt nur soweit Vogel, als 
es sich ihm um wichtigere Belegstiicke zu handeln scheint. So weit nur Beobach- 
tungen vorliegen, scheint mir — nicht nur in diesem speziellen Falle — eine gewisse 
Skepsis notwendig zu sein, namentlich bei in der Freiheit schwierig anzuspre- 
chenden Arten — vergl. z.B. Larus glaiicoides. — Die Seiten 474-77 der letztge- 
nannten Arbeit enthalten noch " Additional Notes on the Birds of Mmorca," 
die wie die oben genannten z.T. auf Angaben von Ponseti in Menorca fussen. — 
Kvirz bevor ich meuie Arbeit abschloss, sandte mir Munn ein Separat seiner 
" Further Notes on the Birds of the Balearic Islands" aus dem Ibis, 1928, 
pp. 17-22, sodass ich diese Notizen noch nachtraglich meiner Arbeit einfiigen 
konnte. — Da der Autor nun schon lange Jahre auf Mallorca lebt, bedauere 
ich es, dass er nicht mehr Gewicht auf das Sammeln namentlich solcher 
Vogelarten legt, von denen noch ein grosseres Material wiinschenswert ware, 
oder solcher, deren Briiten zwar angegeben aber noch nicht durch am Neste 
geschossene Belegstiicke einwandfrei nachgewiesen ist. Nichtsdestoweniger 
sind aber seine VeroSentlichungen von grossem Werte fiir die faunistische 
Kenntnis. 

Im Jahre 1926 besuchte der Amerikaner R. P. M u r p ii y mit der Yacht 
Wawaloan auf einer wissenschaftlichen Mittelmeerreise die Balearen und gab 
iiber die Fahrt eine kleine Arbeit heraus " A Cruise to Majorca " (mit einigen 
typischen Landschaftsbildern), von der ich ein Separat der Liebenswiirdigkeit 
von Herrn Munn danke. Die Arbeit erschien in Natural History, Vol. XXVI, 
Nr. 6, 1926, pp. 552-69 (Museum of Natural Historj', New York). Der Verfasser 
erwahnt u.a. auf p. 562 einige Vogelbeobachtungen. 

In der Zeitschrift " Beitrage zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie der Vogel mit 
Berucksichtigung der Oologie," 1926, pp. 13-17, erschien ein Artikel "Am 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 269 

Biutplatz von Sylvia sarda Temm." von Dr. Paul Henrici mit 3 Abbildungen. 
Der Alitor besuchte ira Friihjahr 1923 die Balearen und schildert in diesen Notizen 
eingeliend das Brutgeschiift de.s Sardensangers auf Mallorca. — In der gleichen 
Zeitschiift (1926 Nr. 5 bis 1927 Nr. 3) bericiitete derselbe Alitor dann iiber 
" Ornitliologische Ergebnisse zweier kurzer Reisen nach den Balearen und 
Pityusen," wo er ini Friihjahr 1924 und 1925 einige Wochen zubrachte. Er 
beschaftigte sich vornehinlich rait dem Sammeln von Eiern und erzielte in 
Anbetracht seines kurzen Aufenthaltes recht gute Resultate. — Wie Henrici 
feststellte — ich machte auf meinen drei Reisen ahnliche Erfahrungen — bestehen 
auf den Inseln infolge der jahrweise wechselnden Teniperaturverhaltnis.se nicht 
unbetrachtliche Schwankungen in Bezug auf das Einsetzen des Brutgeschaftes 
mancher, besonders der kleineren Vogelarten. 1924 traf Hetu'ici am 3. Mai auf 
Mallorca ein, er kam " etwas spat fiir die Brutj)eriode," 1925 Mitte April " kamen 
wir entschieden zu friih." Der starke Unterschied im Klima der beiden Jahre 
erhellt anschaulich aus seiner Schilderung der Hinreisen. Gerade infolge dieser 
Verhiiltnisse ist grosse Vorsicht geboten bei der Beurteilung der Beobachtungen 
hinsichtlich der Frage nach dem Briiten oder Nichtbriiten einzelner Arten, da 
man bei nur kurzem Aufenthalt nicht in der Lage ist, aus einzelnen draussen 
gemachten vielleicht spaten Beobachtungen sichere Schliisse auf das Sommer- 
Verweilen und Briiten von Arten zu ziehen, so lange letzteres selbst nicht zur 
Feststellung kam. Trotzdem ich selbst jedesmal wenigstens 3 Monate verweilte, 
liess ich mich ein paarmal tauschen. Dass das Brutgeschaft im hoheren Gebirge 
etwas spater einsetzt als in der warmeren Ebene, ist nicht zu verwundern, doch 
diirfte die Zeitdift'erenz recht gering sein. — Ich werde an vielen Stellen auf die 
wichtige Arbeit Henricis zuriickkommen, muss aber leider in einige wenige seiner 
Beobachtungen Zweifel setzen. 

In der gleichen Zeitschrift (1927 Heft 2 u. 3) veroffentlichte ferner 
Mr. F. C. R. J o u r d a i n eine Arbeit iiber " Die Eier der Vogel von Mallorca 
(Balearen)." Das vom Autor bearbeitete Material entstammt zuni grossten Teil 
der 7jiihrigen Sammeltatigkeit des Mr. Munn, das dieser auf Mallorca, zu geringem 
Teil audi auf Menorca zusammengebracht hat, rund 800 Eier von 35 Arten ; 
ferner konnte der Autor " ca. 350 Eier durchsehen, die Mr. F. R. Ratcliff ira 
April und Mai 1909 " saminelte. Auch diese Arbeit werde ich unten des ijfteren 
zu erwiihnen haben. 

Schliesslich erschien noch 1927 (London u. New York) ein schones Werk 
des Ainerikaners Frederick C h a in b e r 1 i n, The Balearics and their Peoples, 
mit einer Reihe guter Abbildungen, hauptsiichlich geographischen, historischen, 
prahistorisclien, folkloristischen Inhalts. Daneben behandelt ein Kapitel die 
Flora der Balearen und ein weiteres (pp. 147-73) " The Birds of Majorca and 
Minorca," welches der Feder Munn's entstammt. — Es gibt eine allgemeiiie IJber 
sicht iiber iinsere bisherige Kenntnis der Vogel der Inselgruppe. Neiies bringt 
die Arbeit kaum ; die Nomenklatur, vor allem deren Schreibweise ist wenig 
wissenschaftlich, und manohe Angaben sind auch zu allgemein oder auch wenig 
genau und kritisch. Fiir ein solches Werk diirfte aber doch dieses eben allge- 
meiner gehaltene Kapitel voUauf geniigen. 

Hiermit ist die Liste der neuesten Litteratur erschopft und ich beginne nun 
den speziellen Teil, dem ein kurzes Schlusskapitel angefiigt wird. — Uni einen 
Gesamtiiberblick zu erleichteren, werde ich siimtliche Arten anfiihren, deren 
Vorkommen bisher fiir das Gebiet angegeben worden ist ; wenn nichts Neues 

19 



270 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

zu berichten ist, verweise ich mit kurzen Stichworten auf die betr. Litteratur- 
stellen. Wen die castilianischen und niallorquinischen Vogelnamen intere.ssiereii. 
der mag sie in Vogelf. I nachschlagen, da ich sie aus Platzersparnis nicht 
nochmals nennen will. Ich beabsichtigte erst, ein grosseres VVerk mit Vogel- 
und Landschaftsabbildungen herauszugeben, und zu diesem Zwecke hatten wir 
diesmal eine grosse Anzahl photographischer Aufnamen gemacht ; ich entschloss 
mich aber, vorlaufig wenigstens, davon Abstand zu nehmen, da demnachst ein 
Buch iiber die Vogelwelt der Balearen von Munn erscheinen wird, und ausserdem 
fehlen doch immer noch einige, wenn auch nicht sehr viele Festellungen, die 
zu machen vielleicht in den nachsten Jahren gelingen wird, sodass dann ein 
wirklich abschliessendes Werk grosseren Wert haben diirfte. 

Lanius senator badius Haiti. 

Diese Form des Rotkopfwiirgers ist auf alien grosseren Inseln der Balearen 
— Pityusengruppe ein haufiger Brutvogel (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 151), der in der 
letzten Dekade des Marz eintrifft. Die ersten Gelege findet man Ende April. 
Sein Bestand ist anscheinend jahrweise ziemlich wechselnd. Das hohere Gebirge 
nieidet er. Uber seine Nistweise und Eier vergl. Henrici, 1926, pp. 122-24, und 
Jourdain, 1927, p. 37. 

Reiches Balgmaterial an alten und jungen Vogeln liegt vor. 

Lanius senator senator L. 
Der nordische Rotkopfwiirger zieht Mitte April nicht zahlreich durch. — 
Einige Belegexemplare. 

Lanius excubitor meridionalis Temm. 
Sehr seltener Durchziigler auf Mallorca (ein Exemplar aus dem Jahre 1889, 
vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 37) und Menorca (vergl. Munn, Ibis, 1924, p. 452). 

Muscicapa striata balearica Jordans. 
Der graue Fliegenfanger in dieser auffallenden hellen Form ' ist einer der 
gemeinsten Brutvogel auf alien Inseln, in der Ebene wie im Gebirge. Er trifl't 
erst Mitte April ein. — Mehr als 40 Balge vorliegend. 

Muscicapa striata striata (Pall). 
Der nordische graue Fliegenfanger ist Durchziigler. Ich beobachtete u.a. 
am 5. Mai 1927 einige ; vier Belegstiicke von Mallorca in meiner Sammlung. 

Muscicapa hypoleuca hypoleuca Pall. 
1913 glaubte ich an ein Briiten des Trauerfliegenfangers auf Mallorca, da ich 
ihn noch am 12. Mai beobachtet hatte, 1921 (Vogelf. II, p. 151) fand ich meine 

• Anmerkung : Floericke beschrieb in den Mitteilungen iiber die Vogelwelt, 1926, p. 74, den 
Fliegenfanger von Portugal unter dem Namen Muscicajya grisola papamoscas. Er hat diesen 
Namen offenbar meiner Vogelf. I entnommen, in der ich den rnallorquinischen Nan^en irrtiimlich in 
dieser falschen Schreibweise angab, wahrend ich ihn in Vogelf. II richtigstellte ; er heisst namlich 
cabamoscas (caber — fangen, mosca = FIiege) ! Ich verstehe allerdings, von diesem Schnitzer abgesehen, 
nicht, was der mallorquinische Name mit dem portugiesischen Vogel zu tun hat, aber dor Autor 
scheint ja solche mit den Hnaren herbeigezogene Namen besonders zu lieben. Dann sollten sie aber 
wenigstens richtig geschriebeu sein ! 



, NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 271 

Annahme nicht bestatigt. Diesmal beobachteten wir eiiizelne vom 26. iv. bis 
1 1 . V. an welchem Tage ein starker Durchzug auf der Insel Cabrera stattfand. — 
Henrici (p. 124) sah ein Parchen am 5. v. bei Alcudia, " das augenscheinlich hier 
an seinem Brutplatz sich befand ; das Nest fanden wir nicht " ; hatte er sich 
langer dort aufgehalten, so wiirde er oline Zweifel die Vogel spater nicht melir 
dort zu Gesicht bekommen haben. Er sah am 27. iv. auch mehrere Vogel auf 
Formentera. — Munn, der die Art auch jedes Friihjahr festellte, auch einen Vogel 
auf dem Riickzug im September, hielt auch erst ein Briiten fiir wahrscheinlich, 
wiihrend er nun anderer Ansicht geworden ist (1925, pp. 41-42). Auf Menorca 
" plentiful on migration in spring " (1924, p. 455). — Der Trauerfliegenfanger 
ist ein regelmassiger Zugvogel, im Friihjahr bedeutend haufiger als im Herbst. 
Er briitet im Gebiete n i c h t. — Ich sammelte eine Reihe Belegexemplare. 

Muscicapa albicollis Temm. 

Der Halsbandfliegenfanger wird von Barcelo als seltener Durchzugsvogel 
auf Mallorca, von Ponseti von Menorca genannt ; beide Angaben diirften sicher- 
lich auf Verwechselung beruhen (vergl. Mumi, der dasselbe annimmt). 

Phylloscopus collybita collybita (Vieill.). 

Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus (L.). 

Phylloscopus bonelli (Vieill.). 

Phylloscopus sibilatrix sibilatrix (Bechst.). 

Es briitet merkwiirdigerweise kein Laubsanger auf den Balearen — bonelli 
ist bisher nicht sicher nachgewiesen, denn Homeyers Angabe (auf dieser fussend 
Barcelo vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 40) seiner Beobachtung halte ich fiir irrtiimlich. 
Dir iibrigen Arten Ziehen in Mengen von Ende Marz bis erste Halfte Mai durch, 
wo es tagweise von ilinen allenthalben wimmelt ; so beobachteten wir diesmal 
einen iiusserst starken Zug am 1 1 . Mai auf der Cabrera. Die hiiufigste Art ist 
nach Munn collybita. Nah diesem Autor sollen auch viele auf Mallorca wie 
Menorca iiberwintern ; da wir die ersten Ende Marz beobachteten, diirften 
sich doch wohl nur wenige den Winter iiber auf den lusehi aufhalten. — Wir 
schossen von den drei Arten eine Anzahl Belegstiicke. 

Cettia cetti salvatoris Jordans. 

Der Cettisanger ist auf alien grosseren Insel verbreitet. Er briitet Ende 
April, Anfang Mai. Munn, Heru-ici nnd RatcUff fanden Nester. — Ich sammelte 
13 Exemplare dieses schwer zu schiessenden Vogels. 

Acrocephalus arandinaceus arundinaceus (L.). 
Erst 1921 gelang es mir, den Drosselrohrsanger in der Albufera nachzuweisen, 
denn A. v. Homeyers Angaben seines Vorkommens beruhten sicherlich auf 
Verwechslung (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 15.3). — Henrici kam er merkwiirdigerwiese 
auch nicht zu Gesicht. Am auffallendsten aber ist es, dass auch Munn ihn 
bisher nicht sah, wahrend die Albufera gerade sein nachstes Beobachtungsgebiet 
ist. Er schreibt noch 1026 (p. 470), er habe sein besonderes Augenmerk auf 
diese Art gerichtet, ohne sie aber je angetroffen zu haben. Das ist mir ganz 



272 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

unverstandlich, da niir auch diesmal wieder sofort beim Betreteii der Alb\ifera 
sein schmetterndes Lied entgegenschallte und zwar sowohl an der gleichen 
Stelle wie damals als auch an verschiedenen weiteren Orten des grossen Sumpfes. 
Er ist allerdings nicht zahlreich, aber doch iiberall anzutreffen, wo grSssere 
Fliichen von hoheiu Rohr bedeckt sind. loh kanii mir nur denken, dass Munn die 
Art nicht kennt und sie bisher verwechselt hat ; anderseit fallt dieser Rohrsanger 
sowohl dvirch seinen Gesang wie seine Grosse so auf, dass man ihn eigentlich 
nicht iibersehen kami. — Es gelang mir leider nicht, sein Nest zu tinden, doch hatte 
ein Vogel am 8.vi. Futter im Schnabel und trugen an einer anderen Stelle 
am 17. vi. 2 Vogel eifrig Nistmaterial ins dichte unzugiingliche Rohr. 
Ausserdem beobachtete ich ein singendes o f^^u 9.vi.27 zum ersten Male in der 
Albufereta. In den andern Siimpfen Mallorcas kommt er nicht vor. — Ich 
sammelte einige Belegstiicke. 

Acrocephalus scirpaceus scii-paceus (Herm.). 

Der Teichrohrsanger ist ein hiiufiger Brutvogel der Albufera und Albufereta, 
wo er Ende April, Anfang Mai eintrifit. Im Juni fanden Ratcliff und Munn 
Gelege (Jourdain, p. 80). In den anderen Siimpfen kommt er nicht vor, doch 
halt Munn es fiir wahrscheinlich, dass er auch auf Menorca briiten wird (Munn 
in Ghamberlin, p. 155, und 1928, p. 22). — Ich sammelte 10 Exemplare. 

Acrocephalus aquaticus (Gm.). 

Munn erhielt einen Vogel dieser Art am 20.iv.26 m der Albufera und schoss 
hier einen weiteren am 22. v. 25 {Ibis, 26, p. 470) ; er schreibt in Ghamberlin, 
1927, p. 155 : " Occurs rarely in Majorca, where it is probably resident." Nach 
ihni soil er sich auch wahrend des Winters in der Albufera aufhalten (1921, p. 689). 
— Ich habe den Binsenrohrsanger nie gesehen und sein Briiten scheint mir recht 
fraglich. 

Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (L.). 

Munn nennt den Schilf rohrsanger zum 1. Male fiir das Gebiet (Ibis, 1921) : 
" er komme nicht vor Mitte Marz in der Albufera an," und in Ghamberlin schreibt 
er : " Has occurred in Majorca, but is not common." — Ich sah die Art auch nie 
und glaube nicht an ihr Briiten. 

Lusciniola melanopogon (Temm.) subsp. ? 

Den Tamariskensiinger wies Munn 1921 zum 1. Male fiir die Balearen 
nach. Im gleichen Jahre stellte ich ihn in der Albufera wie Albufereta — vor 
allem in ersterem Sumpfe — als haufigen Brutvogel fest. Ich sammelte eine 
grossere Serie. Diesmal fand ich am 16. vi. ein Nest mit 3 wenig bebriiteten 
Eiern. — Munn fand seine Nester von Mitte Mai bis Ende Juni und gibt eine 
nahere Beschreibung desselben und der Eier (1928, pp. 19-20) ; er hatte die 
Ereundlichkeit, mir ein Nest mit Gelege zu schenken. — An anderen Orten des 
Gebietes kommt er nicht vor. 

Damals schrieb ich, dass es die Nominatform sein diirfte, weim die Vogel 
auch sehr hell und oberseits wenig briiunlich seien, was aber vielleicht nur eine 
Folge der starken Abreibung und Ausbleichung der spat gesammelten Stiicke 
sein konne ; ausserdem seien sie allerdings sehr kurzfliiglig. Ich konnte 
nun mehr Material aus derselben Jahreszeit, also in gleichem Gefiederzustand, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 273 

vergleichen, unci dabei ergab sich folgendes : Die Vogel aus dem ostl. Verbreitungs- 
gebiet (Balkan) scheinen oberseits etwas braunlicher, .spanische und balearische 
grauer, die schwarzen Federmitten des Riickens breiter und reiner schwarz, 
die Unterseite reiner weiss, die Seiten weniger briiunlich zu sein, Merkniale, die 
alle typisch fiir balearische Endemismen sind ; die Unterschiede sind jedoch 
gering und ich wiirde darauf allein die Vogel Mallorcas nicht nomenklatorisch 
trennen. Dagegen bestehen deutliche Grossendiflferenzen in den Fliigelliingen ; 
Hartert gibt fiir melanopogon 58 bis 60 mm. an, ich mass 1 1 ostliche mit 58 bis 
61, dagegen (mit Beriicksichtigung der z.T. nur geringen Abnutzung) 11 mallor- 
quinische mit 55 bis 58, zwei siidspanische 54, 56. — Die Nominatform stammt 
aus der Campagna bei Rom ; italienische Stiicke konnte ich leider nicht bekom- 
men, daher ist nicht zvi sagen, ob diese zur ostlichen oder zur westlichen Form 
gehoren und welche dieser beiden daher einen neuen Namen erhalten muss. 

Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla (L.). 
Ich schrieb 1921 : " Die Nominatform der Monchsgrasmiicke zieht auf 
den Balearen durch, wie zwei am ll.iii. erlegte Weibchen beweisen." — Wenn 
Munn und Henrici schreiben, dass S. atricapilla L. Brutvogel sei, so stimmt das 
natiirlich nur insoweit, als es die endemische Form ist : 

Sylvia atricapilla koenigi Jordans. 

Auf alien Inseln verbreiteter Brutvogel. Gelege wurden von Anfang Mai 
an gefunden. — Ich brachte von den 3 Reisen eine grosse Balgserie mit und die 
jetzt hinzugekommenen Stiicke bestatigen aufs neue die von mir zuerst in Falco 
1923, p. 3, und dann ausfiihrlicher m meiner zweiten Arbeit angegeben Unter- 
schiede. — Nach Munn sollen einige auch iiberwintern, doch diirfte es sich hier 
wohl um nordische Vogel handeln. 

Sylvia hortensis hortensis (Gm.). 
Homeyer schoss ein singendes Mannchen (vergl. Vogelf. I). Barcelo nennt 
den Orpheussanger " seiten auf Mallorca " ; nach Ponseti ist er ein seltener 
Durchziigler Menorcas. Munn sagt 1921 (p. 688), dieser Sanger sei ein Sommer- 
besucher, komme Ende Marz oder Anfang April auf Mallorca an, sei nicht hjiuflg ; 
er habe alte Nester in Kiefern gefunden. Letztere Angabe scheint mir, da immerhin 
eine Verwechselung vorliegen kann, so lange nicht ein Brutbeweis zu sein, bis 
man diesen durch gefundene Eier oder am Nest geschossene Vogel einwandfrei 
erbracht hat. Ich habe mir besondere Miihe auf meinen Reisen gegeben, den 
Orpheussanger festzustellen, habe aber nie auch nur einen Vogel gesehen, was, 
wenn er wirklich, wenn auch '' nicht haufig," zur Brutzeit vorkommeu sollte, 
nicht schwer sein konnte. 

Sylvia communis communis Lath. 
Auch von der Dorngrasmiicke Ijehauptet Munn, dass er ein im April ankom- 
mender, nicht haufiger Sommerbewohner sei. Ich beobachtete sie ausschliesslich 
zur Zugzeit, regelmiissig aber nicht haufig, von Mitte April bis Mitte Mai, so am 
1 1 . V. etliche auf der Cabrera und brachte euiige Belegexemplare mit. Mmin 
beobachtete einen besonders starken Zug am 18.iv. 23, wo sie sich 2bis 3 Tage 
aufhielten {Ibis, 1925, p. 41) und gibt ihn fiir Menorca (1924, p. 452) als einen 



274 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

iiicht sehr haufigen Durchziigler an. Ich glaube be.stimmt nicht, dass die Art 
auf den Balearen briitet. 

Sylvia melanocephala melanocephala (Gm.). 

Die schwarzkopfige Grasmiicke ist einer der haufigsten Brutvogel auf alien 
Inseln in der Ebene wie im Gebirge. Ich brachte eine Serie Balge und eine 
Reihe Gelege mit. — Von den ersten Tagen April ab findet man ihre Eier. Uber 
ihre Biologie und die ausserordentliche Variabilitat der Eier vergl. Munn (1921, 
pp. 687-88) und Henrici (1926, pp. 125-27). 

Sylvia cantillans cantillans Pall. 

Ich schoss am 28. iv. 1913 einen Vogel der Art auf Mallorca, Gosse am 
19. iv. ein ^ auf Formentera ; 1921 u. 27 sah ich sie nicht. Sie briitet auf den 
Balearen nicht. 

Sylvia undata undata Bodd. 

Am 20.iu. 13 schoss ich eine Provence-Grasmiicke im Gebirge Mallorcas. 
Henrici (1926, p. 165) beobachtete ein q am 4. v. ostlich der Albufera. Munn 
erwahnt in seinen Arbeiten keui weiteres Vorkommen, nur gibt er (in Chamberlin, 
1927, p. 154) sie als selten im Winter in Mallorca vorkommend an ; dagegen 
schreibt Jourdain 1927 (p. 81), dass sie in meiner Liste nicht aufgefiihrt sei (!), 
sie aber nach Munn " zweifellos Bewohner ist und von ilim im Sommer wie im 
Winter beobachtet worden ist." Worauf sich diese Angabe stiitzt, weiss ich 
nicht, doch ist die Art bisher nicht als Brutvogel nachgewiesen und ich glaube 
auch nicht, dass sie es hier ist. 

Sylvia conspicillata Temm. 

Munn gibt das elnmalige Erbeuten dieser Grasmiicke aus dem Dezember 
1913 auf Menorca auf Grund einer Nachricht Ponsetis an {Ibis, 1926, p. 475), 
und ausserdem hielt sich ein Vogel der Art Anfang Oktober 26 mehrere Tage 
im Garten Munns bei Alcudia auf (1928, p. 19). 

Sylvia sarda balearica Jordans. 

Nachdem ich diese auffallende Zwergform des Sardensangers 1913 auf den 
Balearen gefunden hatte — Homej'er hatte die Art 1861 zuerst festgestellt — , 
haben alle Autoren, die die Inseln besuchten, ihr ihr besonderes Interesse zuge- 
wandt. — Henrici widmete ihr emen Artikel mit hiibschen Abbildungen in den 
Beitraegen zur Fortpjianzungsgeschichte der Vogel, 1926, pp. 13-17: "Am Brut- 
platz von Sylvia sarda " ; der Autor gibt darin eine eingehende Beschreibung 
der Lebensweise und Brutbiologie. Er fand mehrere Nester und 4 Gelege. — 
Jourdain, der die von Munn gesammelten Eier, oologische Kostbarkeiten, 
bearbeitete (iibrigens hatte Polatzek bereits 1910 Eier auf Formentera gefunden) 
schreibt daruber 1927, p. 81, sie wichen von denen der Nominatform betrachlich 
ab. — Munn fand ihn hiiufig auf Menorca (1924, p. 453), berichtet Weiteres von 
ihm, 1926, p. 469. — Ich selbst fand den Sardensanger diesmal wieder ausge- 
sprochen haufig in jedem ihm zusagenden und fiir ihn so typischen Gelande auf 
alien Inseln. — Am 5. Mai beobachteten wir bei Campos bereits fliigge Junge, von 
denen ich 2 schoss. Das Brutgeschaft beginnt also recht friih, Anfang April, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 275 

und erstreckt sioh wohl bis in den Juli — am 21.vi. fiitterte ein Weibchen auf 
Formentera — , .so dass er 3 Bruten zu machen scheint. Da wir nicht allzuviel 
Zeit auf das Suchen seiner versteckt stehenden und in dem sehr gleichmassigen 
Geliiiide nicht leicht zu findenden Nester verwenden konnten, gelang es uns 
niciit, mehr als ein Gelege zu .sanmieln. Am 9. Mai erhielten wir ein Nest mit 
drei frischen Eiern, das in einem Asparagus — Strauch ca. im. iiber dem Boden 
stand. Mir war es nicht ganz klar, von welcher Art es stammte, und die Eier 
kamen mir. fremd vor, vor allem aber war die Nestmulde sehr tief , der iibrige 
Bau des Ncstes aber ganz typisch fiir sarda. Da Henrici mehr dieser Nester 
gesehen hatte, als ich, zeigte ich es ihm spater zu Hause, und er erklarte es auch 
als unzweifelhaft von sarda stammend. Wir fanden dann nooh am 10. v. ein 
Nest von ihm mit einem Ei erst in der Umgebung von Campos, doch als wir das 
voile Gelege nach etlichen Tagen holen wollten-wir hatten nur dieserhalb noch 
einmal eine Tour in die Gegend gemacht — war das Nest zerrissen ! Hat man 
geniigend Zeit, diirfte es nicht allzuschwer fallen, in den vielen giinstigen Gelanden 
eine ganze Anzahl Gelege zusammenzubringen. Herr Munn hatte die grosse 
Liebenswiirdigkeit, mir ein Nest mit einem schonen Gelege zu schenken, wofiir 
ich ihm nochmals besonders danken mochte. — Weitere Schilderungen iiber 
Vorkommen und Lebensweise — der Sardensanger ist Standvogel auf den Inseln — 
will ich mir sparen und auf die anderen Autoren verweisen (vergl. auch Koenig, 
Avifauna von Tunis, 1888, pp. 201-02). — Der Sardensanger heisst auf malfor- 
quinisch — was vielleicht in Erganzung meiner anderen Angaben zu wissen, wiin- 
schenswert ist — " Buscaret de Pi." — Ich sammelte eine grosse Serie ; 
Nominatform auf Corsica, Sardinien und vielleicht Sizilien ; balearica auf den 
Balearen und Pityusen ; ob eine und welche Form S.O. Spanien bewohnt, ist 
unbekannt. 

Sylvia curruca curruca (L.). 

Die Zaungrasmiicke will Gosse am 7 . iv. bei Alcudia in einem Exemplar 
gesehen haben, dann ebenso Munn ihren Durchzug am 18.iv.23, wohl auch bei 
Alcudia (1925, p. 41). Sonst wird ihr Vorkommen nicht angegeben. 

Sylvia borin borin (Bodd.). 

Munn nennt die Gartengrasmiicke " a summer visitor, but not common," 
er habe die erste am 19.iii.20 gesehen (vergl. Vogelf. I) ; 1924, p. 452, schreibt 
er, dass sie angeblich selten auf dem Zuge im Friihjahr und Herbst auf Menorca 
vorkommen solle, aber er habe kein Stiick im Museum in Mahon gesehen ; 1925, 
p. 41, er habe ein Nest mit 4 Jungen in einem Busch in den Fichten — muss 
heissen Kiefern — waldern bei Alcudia gefunden (ob er die Alten sah, erwahnt 
er nicht) und Jourdain (p. 80) nennt sie dieserhalb einen " anscheinend sparlichen 
Brutvogel." Dann heisst es bei Munn in Chamberlin, 1927, p. 154, von dieser 
Art : " Occurs most frequently on migration, and nests but rarely in Majorca " (!). 
— Ich habe nie eine Gartengrasmiicke auf den Inseln gesehen, und bevor nicht 
ein Belegstiick oder Eier vorliegen, rechne ich sie nicht zu den Brutvogeln. 

Cisticola juncidis intermedia Jordans. 

Der Cistensanger ist ein hiiufiger Brutvogel aller Inseln. Anfang Mai 
sahen wir fliigge Junge. Uber Brutgeschaft und Eier vergl. Koenig (Vogelf. II, 



276 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Anhang), Henrici, 1926, pp. 165-6, und Jourdain, 1927, p. 81 ; es wird als 
auffallend bezeichnet, dass bisher von den Balearen nur ungezeichnete Eier 
bekannt geworden sind. — Ich fand die von mir fiir diese Form angegebenen 
Unterschiede (S. Falco, 1923, p. 3, und Vogelf. II) an noch weiter gesammelten 
Balgen voll bestatigt. 

Turdus pilaris L. 

Turdus viscivorus L. 

Turdus philomelos Br. 

Turdus musicus L. 

Turdus torquatiis L. 

Man vergleiche in meiner Vogelf. I und II, was ich dort iiber da.s Durch- 
ziehen obiger Drosselarten schi-eibe, ebenso Munn 1924 und in Chamberlin 1927. 
— In welchen Massen die Drosseln hier iiberhinziehen (und auch z.T. im Winter 
bleiben) mag man daraus ersehen, dass der in der Einleitung genannte Vogelfanger 
Cosmer mir erzahlte, allein er liabe schon an einem Tage an 800 Stiick gefangen ! 
Er zeigte mir an verschiedenen Berghiingen bei Arta Drosselfallen, die dort 
wie allenthalben im Gebirge Mallorcas in Massen aufgestellt werden ; es ist ein 
flacher Stein auf der Erde, der mit drei Sperrholzern hoch gestellt wird, darunter 
Futter gestreut, und sobald der Vogel auf die Holzer springt, um das etwas 
tiefer liegende Futter aufzupicken, erschlagt ihn der fallende Stein. Ausserdem 
werden Netze aller Art verwandt, die Vogel werden in Massen nach dem Festland 
verkauft. Der Fang und Verkauf anderer Singvogel ist nach der neuen spaniechen 
Gesetzgebung endlich verboten. 

Turdus merula hispaniae Kleinsehm. 
Die Amsel ist sehr liiiutig auf aUen Insehi. Niiheres vergl. in meinen beiden 
Arbeiten und in denen der anderen Autoren. Die Brut beginnt im Marz. Sie 
ist natiirlich Standvogel. 

Turdus dauma aureus Hoi. 

Ponseti teilte Munn mit, dass ein Exemplar dieser sibiri-ichen Drossel im 
Januar 1912 auf Menorca erbeutet wurde, was wohl der erste Nachweis des 
Vorkommens fiir Spanien bedeute (Munn, Ibis, 1926, p. 475). — Aus Italien ist 
sie nach Hartert bekannt. 

Monticola saxatilis (L.). 

Uber die friiheren Beobachtungen der Steindrossel lese man in Vogelf. I und 
II nach. — Diesmal sah ich sie wieder ofters im Nordgebirge, zuerst am 26. April 
2 Paare bei Valldemosa ; in den nachsten Tagen vollfiihrten hier 2 Mannchen 
ihren herrlichen Balzflug. Da ich 2 Belegexemplare von friiher hatte, schoss 
ich keuien dieser schonen Vogel mehr. Die Steindrossel ist zweifellos ein seltener 
Brutvogel Mallorcas. — Munn sagt von ihr, sie sei ein seltener Friihjahrsbesucher 
Menorcas ; ich mochte annehmen, dass sie auch hier vereinzelt briitet. 

Monticola solitaria solitaria (L.). 
Die Blaudrossel ist ein auf alien Inseln verbreiteter Brutvogel (Naheres 
Vogelf. I und II, und bei anderen Autoren). — Munn fand am 24. iv. und 19. v. 
Gelege (Jourdain, p. 81). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 277 

Oenanthe oenanthe leucorrhoa (Gm.). 

Dieseii nordisohen Steinsclimatzer schoss Polatzek am 20. und 27. April 
1910 auf Ibiza, ich zwei Vogel am 29.iii. und o.iv. 1913 auf Mallorca (Vogelf. I, 
p. 53). 

Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (L.). 

Die Nominatform des graueii Steinschmatzers beobachtete ich 1913 vom 
28.iii.-8.v. (Naheres Vogelf. I, p. 52). Wider alles Erwarten konnte ich 
ebensowenig wie vordem Homeyer sein Briiten feststellen. Nach dem 8. v. war 
kein Vogel mehr zu sehen. 1921 sahen wir den ersten am 2.iv., den letzten am 
6. Mai ; 1927 eine grosse Anzahl am 22. April — sie waren sicher schon friiher 
angekommen — bei Valldemosa, die nach 2 Tagen verschwunden waren, am 26. 
wieder einige, die nachsten Tage ebenso, dann am 9. v. an der Siidkiiste bei 
Salinas, am 11. v. ziemlich staiker Zug anf der Cabrera, spater in giinstigstem 
Gelande, trotz alien Ausschauens nach ihm nicht einen Vogel mehr. — Ich schoss 
auf den drei Reisen eine Serie. — Munn will ein alte.s Nest dieser Art bei Alcudia 
gefunden haben ; ich bezweifele die Richtigkeit (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 161) ; er 
halt es fiir moglich, dass einige Vogel zur Brut zuriickbleiben. Auf Menorca ist 
er ein nicht (?) hiiufiger Zug vogel. Er soli auch im Winter auf Mallorca gesehen 
sein (Munn in Chamberlin, p. 157). — Henrici (1926, pp. 166-7) meint, die Frage 
seines Briitens auf den Balearen sei sicher zu bejahen, schon well er ein einzelnes 
Stiick am 14. v. heobachtet habe, " das Nest stand ohne Zweifel im Mauerwerk 
der Mauern." Ich glaube mit Bestimmtheit sagen zu konnen, dass die Aunahme 
falsch ist ; am gleichen Orte beobachtete ich auch und noch spater, und auch 
die Leute dort, die den Vogel gut kennen, sagten mir, dass er nur durchziehe. 
Wenn Henrici langer auf Mallorca verweilt hatte, wiirde er sicher dasselbe festge- 
stellt haben. So aber kann er unmoglich Bestimmtes sagen. Seine anderen 
Beobachtungen auf den Pityusen, wo der Steinsohmatzer ein sehr haufiger Brut- 
vogel ist (vergl. unten) mogen ilin bei deiser Annahme wesentlich beeinflusst 
haben. — Die Angaben Jourdains (pjj. 81-2) sind daher auch irrtiimlich. — Da das 
Fehlen des Vogels in dem allenthalben fiir ihn wie geschaffenen Gelande mir 
ganz unerklarUch ist — zumal er auf den benachbarten Pityusen so haufig ist — 
veranlasste raich natiirlich, besonders iiberall und immer wieder zur Brutzeit 
nach ihm zu fahnden, aber ohne jeden Erfolg. Auch bekam ich von den Einhei- 
mischen, die den " Col blanc " so gut wegen seiner Hiiufigkeit auf dem Zuge 
kennen, die bestimmte Versicherung, dass sie ihn nie zur Brutzeit oder gar ein 
Nest von ihm gefunden hiitten. 

Das Briiten des grauen Steinschmatzers auf Mallorca, Menorca und den 
umliegenden Inseln ist somit nicht nachgewiesen, ich halte es nach dreimaligem 
dreimonatlichen Aufenthalt dort auch fiir hochst unwahrscheinlich — es sei denn, 
dass einmal ein einzelnes Parchen zuriickbliebe und zur Brut schritte. Das 
Fehlen ist, wie gesagt, umso uncrklarlicher, als die Art auf den Pityusen ebenso 
haufig ist, als es das Gelande — ganz ahnlich dem auf den Balearen — wahrschein- 
lich macht, allerdings in einer anderen Form : 

Oenanthe oenanthe nivea (Weigold). 
Als wir am 21. Juni 27 nach der Pityuseninsel Formentera kamen, war ich 
nicht wenig iiberrascht, als wir iiberall gleich auf der Fahrt zu unserem Quartier 
auf Steinschmatzer stiessen. Auf der ganzen Insel, soweit wir sie kennen lernten, 



278 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

i.st er liiiufiger Brutvogel. Da.s Weibchen wie vor alleni das alte Mannchen fiel 
mil- schoii ini Freilebeii durcli die Helligkeit auf. Icli schoss eine schone Serie, 
Alte und mehrere Junge. Leider waren die Vogel iiifolge der spaten Jahre.szeit 
schon arg abgerieben. — Auf Ibiza schien er mir nicht grade so haufig zu sein, 
man sieht ihn aber auch da allenthalben. — Es ist wirklich ein Ratsel, dass diese 
Art auf den Pityusen so verbreitet ist, wahrend man sie auf den Balearen 
verge bens sucht. — Polatzek und Gosse stellten ihn auch auf den Insehi fest und 
sammelten einige Belegstiicke (vergl.Vogelf. I und II) ; Henrici erhielt am 22 . v . 24 
ein Ei auf Formentera und beobachtete ihn natiirlich auch (p. 167). Nun zur 
Frage der Formzugehorigkeit : Ich untersuchte ein grosses Material nordischer 
Steinschmiitzer und solcher aus dem Mittelmeergebiet. Die Unterseite der 
Pityusenvogel ist sehr hell, fast reinweiss, nur die Vorderbrust etwas gelblich, 
etwas starker bei den $$ ; die Oberseite der (J (J ist etwas heller und reiner grau 
als bei deutschen, schwach oder kaum dunkler als bei virago von Greta, vielleicht 
etwas heller als bei sardinischen. Die Oberseite der $$ ist viel reiner grau, 
nie annahernd so briiunlieh wie bei der Nominatform, sehr ahnlich der der o(J, 
ein Merkmal, das Hartert fiir virago besonders betont, hierin auch von den sonst 
ahnlichen Sardiniern deutlich verschieden. Die Ausdehnung der weissen Stirn 
ist sehr variabel — worauf Kleinschmidt schon in Berajah 1905 hinwei.st — sowohl 
bei topotypischen nivea aus Spanien wie den Pit3'usenv6geln wie bei der Nominat- 
form wie bei virago ; ich kann darin keinerlei typische Unterschiede finden, 
Stiicke mit ausgedehntem Weiss wie solche mit geringem kommen iiberall vor. — 
Bereits die iuvenes sind ober-wie unterseits heller und graulicher als bei der 
Nominatform, was Hartert auch fiir virago angibt. Hartert betont, dass beim 
$ von virago die Ohrdecken dunkelbraun seien, was ich aber bei einem Stiick 
aus dem BerUner Museum in aufiallendem Maasse nicht bestatigt finde, indem 
bier die Ohrdecken genau die gleiche lichte Farbung zeigen wie die angrenzenden 
Federpartieen, von denen sie sich iiberhaupt nicht abheben (2 Brutvogel aus dem 
Taurus kann ich nicht von virago unterscheiden). — Nun die Grossenverhaltnisse : 
Fliigellange maass ich bei deutschen, genau wie Kleinschmidt, mit 90-98, bei 7 
spanischen Brutvogeln mit 92-100 (Weigold sagt " Die Fliigel sind kurz, durch- 
schnittlich 95, meist weniger," was ich gar nicht bestatigt finde), 8 Pityusenvogel 
92-98 (diese aber alle mehr oder weniger stark abgerieben, sodass diese Maasse 
in frischem Gefiederzustand einige mm. grosser sind), 5 virago mit 90-93, aber 
aus diesem geringen Material lasst sich nichts Sicheres sagen, ich mochte aber 
annehmen, dass sich kaum Difierenzen ergeben werden. — Anders ist es mit den 
Schnabehi : Obschon ich nach Harterts Methode messe d.h. vom Federansatz 
bis zur Spitze, fand ich andere Grossen : bei 40 Vogeln aus Deutschland und 
einigen aus Schweden 12, 5-15 (Maximum 2 x), bei sardinischen 13-14 (kleines 
Material), bei virago 13-15, bei siidspanischen 15-17 und bei denen von den 
Pityusen 14-16. Die grosseren Schnabel der beiden Letztgenannten fallen bei 
Augenschein viel starker auf als es nach den Zahlen scheint, auch dadurch, dass 
die Schnabel bei diesen an der Wurzel bedeutend breiter sind. 

Es ist kein Zweifel, dass nivea aus Spanien identisch ist mit dem Stein- 
schmatzer der Pityusen, welche Form der virago von Greta sehr nahe steht, von 
den Vogeln von Sardinien aber sowohl durch die Farbung wie die Schnabelgrosse 
deutlich verschieden ist. — Alle auf Mallorca gesammelten (und auch gesehenen) 
sind typische oenanthe und daher schon allein sicherlich alle Zugvogel. 

Ich sammelte 6 (J^J, 2 $$, 3 iuvenes. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 279 

Oenanthe hispanica hispanica (L.). 

1913 erlegte ich 3 Mittelmeereteinschmatzer am 4. unci 5. April an der 
Ostkiiste Mallorcas (Vogelf. I, p. 63), 1921 ebenso einen am 4.iv. (Vogelf. II, 
p. 161) unci cliesmal am 27. iv. von 2 Vogeln ein jiingeres $ im Gebirge bei 
Valldemosa. — Ich schrieb 1921 : " Noch merkwiirdiger ist das Fehlen dieses 
Steinschmatzers als Brutvogel auf den Balearen, da er auf dem spanischen 
Festland weit verbreitet ist." — Auch auf den Pityusen briitet er nicht. — Munn 
gibt ihn als seltenen Friihjahrszugvogel auf Mallorca und Menorca an. 

Saxicola rubetra rubetra (L.) 

Man sehe bitte nach, was ich iiber das Vorkommen des Braunkehlchens in 
Vogelf. I und II (pp. 161-2) sage. — 1913 hielt ich sein Briiten dort fiir sieher, 
1921 dagegen hatte ich mich vom Gegenteil ziemlich sieher iiberzeugt, und auf 
der letzten Reise ist mir dies zur Gewissheit geworden, so merkwiirdig auch sein 
Fehlen soheinen mag ; er briitet ja allerdings auch auf dem spanischen Festland 
siidlich der cantabrischen Kette anscheinend nicht. — Munn sagt 1921 (p. 693) 
VQn dieser Art : " A summer visitor, arriving at the beginning of April, not 
very common " ; in seiner Liste der Vogel von Menorca (1924) erwahnt er sie 
gar nicht, schreibt aber in seinen Erganzungen (1926, p. 475), dass Ponseti ein 
Exemplar im Mai 1912 von Menorca erhielt und in Chamberlin (1927, p. 157), 
class das Braunkehlchen im Friihjahr auf Mallorca sehr haufig auf dem Durchzuge 
sei und dass einige jeden Sommer iiber dortblieben, in Menorca sei nur ein Stiick 
erbeutet worden im Mai. — Henrici (1926, p. 167, und auf diesen sich berufend 
Jourdain, 1927, p. 82) behauptet ebenfalls sein Briiten, indem er schreibt : 
" Oefters beobachtet und zwar augenscheinlich Brutvogel. Zwar fanden wir 
das Nest nicht, doch war das Benehmen der Vogel, wenn sie sich beobachtet 
glaubten, . . . genau wie bei ims in Nestnahe. So am 5. und 7. v. bei Alcudia 
und am ii.v.l924 bei Valldemosa. — Auf dem Zuge sahen wir Braunkehlchen 

am 17.iv. auf Menorca und am 27.iv.25 auf Formentera." Es gilt hier 

dasselbe, was ich bezgl. der Auslassungen des Autors iiber das Briiten des Stein- 
schmatzers sagte ; ware er langer in derselben Gegend geblieben, so wiirde er ohne 
Zweifel gesehen haben, dass sie nach einigen Tagen verschwunden waren und 
durchaus nicht briiteten. Ich sah diese und andere Zugvogel sowohl in Gesell- 
schaften wie in einzelnen Paaren wie in einzelnen Exemplaren oft mehrere Tage 
an der gleichen Ortlichkeit, und ich war auch ofters geneigt — vor allem, wenn 
die Vogel noch bis in den Mai hinein gesehen wurden — , hieraus wie auch aus 
ihrem Benehmen auf ein Bleiben und Briiten zu schliessen, zu Unrecht, wie es 
sich dann aber stets herausstellte. — Es ist schon deshalb falsch aus dem Verhalten 
eines Vogels wahrend der noch im Gange befindlichen Zugzeit solche Schliisse 
zu Ziehen, da der Zugtrieb wohl z.T. eine Folge einsetzenden Bruttriebes ist, 
und wiihrend der Vogel an ihin zusagender Ortlickheit eine Zugpause eintreten 
lasst, auch seine ganze Haltung bereits unter diesem Bruttrieb steht ; man 
denke nur einmal an den Friihjahrs-Schnepfenzug bei uns. — Meine letzte Reise 
gait ja in der Hauptsache der Nachpriifung grade solcher bisher fraglicher 
Beobachtungen und Vermutungen, und daiier glaube ich, wirklich ein objecktives 
Urteil jetzt abgeben zu konnen. Ich bin iiberzeugt, dass auch Munn insofern 
Unrecht hat, dass er entweder falsch beobachtete oder aber, dass ein Vogel viel- 
leicht wirklich einmal zuriickbleibt ohne deshalb zu briiten ; jedenfalls ist bisher 



280 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

kein Beweis fiir das Gegenteil erbracht und m.E. wird er auch nicht erbracht 
werden. — Auf alien drei Reisen sahen wir das Braunkehlchen haufig auf dem Zuge 
von Ende Marz bis Mitte Mai (ausserstes Datum 1(3. v.) ; in der Mitte des April 
schien der Hauptzug stattzufinden, der dann bis in den Mai hinein — in einzelnen 
Exemplaren an vereinzelten Tagen — zu Ende ging. — Auch meine Gewahrsleute 
dort sagten mit aller Bestinimtheit iibereinstimmend, dass die Art nie auf der 
Insel zur Brut schreite. 

Saxicola torquata rubicola (L.). 

Saxicola torquata insularis (Parrot). 

1 Saxicola torquata desfontainesi Blanchet. 

>. Saxicola torquata graecorum Laubmann. 

Das Schvvarzkchlclien ist ein sehr haufiger Standvogel auf alien Inseln. 
in der Ebene wic ira Gebirge. Die Brut beginnt bereits im Marz (vergl a. die 
anderen Autoren). 

Ich muss hier auf einige beschriebene Fornien der Art etvvas ausfiihrlicher 
eingehen. Dass insularis Parrot von den tyrrhenischen Inseln sich weder in 
der Farbung noch in den Maassen von der Nominatform unterscheiden lasst, 
daher als .Sj-nonii m zu gelten hat, diirfte jetzt wohl von alien Autoren anerkannt 
werden. — Nun wurden neuerdings zwei weitere Formen beschrieben : Blanchet 
trennte das Schwarzkehlchen von Tunesien unter dem Namen Saxicola torquata 
desfontainesi in der Revue Frunr^aise (fOrnithologie. ix, pp. 277-8, 1925, ab auf 
Grund abweichender Farbung in alien Kleidern (Niiheres s. Originalbeschreibung) 
und grosserer Maasse : Fliigellange 66-9, Schnabel 12-13 mm. ; iu letzterem 
Merkmal bestehe ein durchschnittlicher Unterschied von 1 mm. Zu dieser 
Subspecies gehorten nach ihm wahrscheinlich alle Schwarzkehlchen von N.W. 
Afrika, vielleicht bis Marrocco. Sie gliche der insularis, sei aber grosser. — 
Kartert {Mem. Soc.Sc. Nat. duMaroc, 1926, p. 18) bezweifelt einen Farbungsunter- 
schied, erkennt die Form aber wegen um i mm langeren Schnabel an, wahrend 
er eine Differenz der Fliigellange (65-9, sogar bis 70) auch nicht sehen kann- 
Er rechnet dazu die Vogel von Tunesien, Nordalgerien und Marocco, vielleicht 
gehorten dazu aber auch die der Pityusen, die auch den langeren Schnabel besas- 
sen. — Kleinschmidt schreibt in Falco, 1927, p. 7, dass desfontainesi auch auf 
Sardien vorkomme, man miisse einheimische Vogel und VVintergaste natiirlich 
auseinanderhalten, desf. habe auch im Winter langeren Schnabel. 

Ferner beschrieb Laubmami (Verhdlgn. Ornith. Oes. Bayern, 1927, p. 351) 
das griechische Schwarzkehlchen unter dem Namen Saxicola torquata graecorum 
subsp. nov. (Typus : Korfu, (J 5.x. 25) wegen geringerer Fliigellange; ihm 
vorliegendes Material aus Griechenland messe 63, 64 und 64,5 mm., ein Unter- 
schied, auf den schon Reiser, Parrot und Stresemann aufmerksam gemacht 
haben. 

Ich habe auf diese Beschreibungen hin nun mein grosses Material balearischer 
Brutvogel (27 nebst 2 von Ibiza) genauest an Hand grosser Serien verglichen : 
Es ergaben sich k e i n e r 1 e i Farbungsdifferenzen zwischen vergleichbaren 
Individucn, die individuelle Variation der Tonung und der Ausdehnung der 
verschiedenen Farbungscentren ist betrachUch aber bei alien Populationen 
gleich. Mir schien dies erst bei den n.w. afrikanischen anders und der Beschrei- 
bung von Blanchet entsprechend zu sein, doch besteht hier die Differenz lediglich 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 281 

darin, dass die Exemplare aus dieser Gegend friiher abgerieben und daher schon 
im Marz z.B. oberseits fast einfarbig schwarz sind, wahreiid dieser Abreibungs- 
proce.ss entsprechend den spateren Brutzeiten je nordliclier desto spater dieses 
Ausmass erreicht ; nordeuropiiische Vogel sehen erst im Juni so aus, aber dann 
schwindet jeder Unterschied aller Federpartieen der Ober- wie Unterseite ; 
natiirlicli darf man nur gleichaltrige Exemplare vergleichen und solche gleicher 
Punkte der Variationsreihe. 

Nun die Maasse ; Nordeuropaische maas ich mit 64-70 mm. Fliigellange 
und 10-12 mm. Schnabellange ; solche aus Slavonien, Dalmatian, Hercegovina, 
Rumaenien, Italien (diese ohne Differenzen untereinander) mit 64-68 bezw. 10-12. 
Bei dem Typus von graecortim (VVintervogel !) 65, bei einem Brutvogel von Korfu 
66, bei weiteren drei Griechen 65-67 bezw. 10-11. Stresemann gibt in seiner 
Avifauna Macedonica die Maasse von 53 macedonischen Stiicken mit cJ 62-69, 
$ 62-66 an. — Ich habe bei dem ausserordentlich umfangreichen Material, das 
ich untersuchen konnte, niemals eine Fliigellange mit weniger als 64 mm. gemessen ; 
ol) die geringer angegebenen Maasse wiiklich von ausgemauserten Exemplaren 
stammen ? ! Wenn Letzteres nicht der Fall sein soUte, konnte ich die Form 
graecorum nicht anerkennen, ich mochte deren Berechtigung zwar so nicht in 
Abrede stellen aber sie wohl fraglich oder unentschieden lassen. — Ich mass ferner 
eine Serie von 14 Corsikanern mit 65-68 bezw. 10-1 1'S, zehn Sardinier mit 64-67 
(vergl. graecorum \) bezw. 10-12 (also nicht '' desfontainesi"), 27 Balearen mit 
66-70 bezw. 10-125, die 2 Ibizaner, 66, 67 bezw. 11, 12. Nun noch die N.W. 
Afrikaner : C'otypus von desfontainesi und 7 weitere 65-70 bezw. 10-12'5 Algerier 
(Brutzeit) 68-70 bezw. 11-13 (i x), ferner 3 Maroccaner 65-67 bezw. 11-12; 
ausserdem eine Anzahl Wintervogel mit 65-69, bezw. 10-12. — In den Fliigel- 
maassen vermag ich mit Hartert keinen konstanten Unterschied festzustellen ; 
was die Schnabelliingen angeht, so muss ich zunachst darauf hinweisen, dass 
hier sehr ungleich grosses Material gegeniibersteht ; wahrend bei alien iibrigen 
das Extrem von 12 mm. verhaltnismassig selten ist, komnit es bei sicheren 
Brutvogeln aus Tunesien und Algerien verhaltnismassig (geringes Material !) 
oft vor, und ich fand hier nur einmal 10 aber dafiir auch einmal 13 mm. — Es 
ist unbedingt grosseres Brutmaterial aus N.W. Afrika notig, um sagen zu konnen, 
ob tatsachlich hier der um J-l mm (!) liingere Schnabel typisch ist und, wenn 
das der Fall sein soUte, so mag es dem Einzelnen iiberlassen bleiben, ob er 
glaubt, dass deswegen eine Population einen eigenen Namen bekommen soil, 
oder, was dasselbe heisst, ob diese Feststellung unsere Erkenntnis irgendwie 
fordert. 

Phoenicurus phoenicuras phoenicurus (L.). 

In meiner ersten Arbeit schrieb ich vom Gartenrotschwanz : " Er briitet 
wohl iiberall in den Olivenhainen, aber nur vereinzelt ; auf Menorca ist er gleich- 
falls Brutvogel (Ponseti),'" 1921 dagegen liielt ich die Brutangabe fiir einen Irrtum, 
wenn auch " vielleicht ganz vereinzelt ein Paar zur Brut schreiten mag, aber 
weder Munn noch ich konnten dies feststellen " ; auch 1927 sagt Munn (Cham- 
berlin, p. 156), er habe zur Brutzeit nie ein Exemplar gesehen, wahrend er zur 
Zugzeit haufig sei. In der letzten Dekade Marz beginnt der Zug langsam und 
die letzten sah ich am 2. bezw. 4., bezw. 11. bezw. 20. Mai, der Hauptdurclizug 
ist in der ersten Halfte des April, zuerst fast nur Mannchen, dann beide Gesch- 
lechter und zuletzt nur oder doch fast nur mehr Weibchen. — Wahrend ich die 
beiden anderen Male, wie gesagt, die letzten in den ersten Tagen des Mai beo- 



282 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



bachtete, war diesmal noch am 11. auf der Cabrera ein recht starker Zug, aber 
auch niir an dieseni eii en Tage. Ferner sah ich am 20. v. 27 und tagsdarauf 
an derselben Stelle in altem Laubwald ein (J, das sich ganz wie ein Brutvogel 
benahm, ohne dass ich aber damit in denselben Fehler fallen, und sein tatsach- 
liche.s Briiten damit als erwiesen ansehen will, zumal ich spiiter nicht mehr in 
diese Gegend kam. — Ein Brutnachweis ist nicht erbracht, doch halte ich ein 
ganz vereinzeltes Briiten fiir nicht unwahrscheinlich. 

Phoenicuras ochruros ater (Br.). 
Der Hausrotschwanz ist auf alien Inseln ein sehr haufiger Durchziigler und 
soil sich auch den Winter iiber hier aufhalten, jedoch briitet er nicht im Gebiete. 

Luscinia megarhynchos luscinioides Jordans. 
Die Nachtigall ist in der von mir beschriebenen Form (vergl. Falco, 1923, 

p. 3, und Vogelf. II) ein ungemein verbreiteter Brutvogel aller Inseln ein- 

schliesslich der Pityusen — wenig- 
stens Ibizas, wilhrend wir auf 
Formentera nur wenige sahen. — 
Ich sammelte noch einige weitere 
Exemplare, so dass mir jetzt iiber 
30 vorliegen. Die Fliigellange geht 
von 80-S7 mm. beim ^J. Die 
Nachtigall trifft Anfang April em. — 
Die Nominatform wird zweifellos 
auch hier durchziehen, dooh liegen 
keine Belegstiicke vor. — Ponseti 
behauptet, dass auch der Sprosser 
{L^tscinia luscinia L.) in Menorca 
durchziehe, doch wird er von 
niemand sonst erwahnt und ich 
bezweifle die Richtigkeit der 
Angabe. 

Die beigefiigten Zeichnungen, 
die mir liebenswiirdigerweise Herr 

Pastor Dr. Kleinschmidt anfertigte, zeigen die merkwiirdigen Schwingenver- 

haltnisse der balearischen Nachtigall gegeniiber denen der Nominatform und 

des Sprossers (vergl. hierzu Vogelf. II, p. 163). 





M 



12 3 4 

1. Luscinia luscinia (L.) ^ 30.5. Oland. 

2. 13.6.1908. Oland. Maximum. 

3. Luscinia megarhynchos megarhynchos, 

<J 9.6.1908. Saclisen. 

4. L. megarh. luscinioides, Mallorca. (J 9.5.1913. 

Minimum. 

5. L.ni.l2iscini(ndes, MaWorca, t^ 16.5.1921, Maximum. 



immum. 



normal, 



Luscinia svecica cyanecula (Wolf). 

Das Blaukehlchen ist ein nicht haufiger, eher seltener Zugvogel im Friihjahr, 
nach Barcelo auch im Herbst (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 57). Ich sah die Art am 27. 
bezw. SO.iii. und 3.iv. — Herr Mumi hatte die grosse Freundlichkeit, mir jetzt 
ein von ihm am 22.iii.27 geschossenes Belegstiick ((^) zu schenken, wo er 
ausserdem noch ein zeites cj schoss und weitere sah (1928, p. 30). 

Erithacus rubeculus rubeculus (L.). 

Das Rothkehlchen ist auf den Inseln hiiufig zur Zugzeit und den Winter 
iiber, es briitet nicht hier (vergl. Vogelf. I und II). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 283 

Pranella modularis modularis (L.). 

" Die Heckenbraunelle briitet ebensowenig auf der Inselgiuppe, die gegen- 
teiligen Angaben Barcelos und Ponsetis beruhen auf Irrtum. Auch nach Munn 
nur Wiiitervogel und nicht haufig " (Vogelf. II, p. 164, vergl. auch I, p. 58). 



Troglodytes troglodytes miilleri subsp.n. 

Ich bitte das in Vogelf. II, pp. 164-65, Geschriebene nachzulesen, um hier 
nicht zu viel wiederholen zu miissen. Diesmal verdanke ich der Liebenswiirdig- 
keit Harm Dr. Harterts, dass ich endlich meine Zaunkonige mit geniigendem 
Material n.w. afrikanischer kabylorum vergleichen konnte ; das Resultat ergab 
ihre Verschiedenheit. Unterschiede in den Maassen weder der Schnabel noch 
der Fliigel zwischen der Nominatform, kabylorum und der balearischen vermochte 
ich doch nicht festzustellen. Die Ausdehnung und Starke der Banderung 
variiert bei alien Formen sehr stark, ich vermag da keinerlei Differenzen in der 
Variationsbreite zu sehen. Ich untersuchte 27 Mallorcaner, 11 kabylorum 
und eine grosse Anzahl der Nominat- und anderer Formen. Die Unterschiede 
liegen in der Farbung : Mallorcaner oberseits heller, fabler, graubrauner als 
kabylorum, ebenso die Farbung der Schwingen ; unterseits ahnlich wie kabylorum, 
viel heller und grauer als bei troglodytes. Die Oberseite fast so hell wie bei dem 
asiatischen pallidus, dessen Unterseite aber etwas reiner grau weniger rotlich 
ist. Die n.w. afrikanische Subspezies steht somit in der Farbung zwischen der 
balearischen und der nordlichen Nominatform. Die siidspanischen scheinen 
mir sicher zu kabylorum zu gehoren (vergl. meine diesbeziigl. friihere Bemerkung), 
was auch schon Hartert wahrscheinlich schien (Nachtrag I, pp. 62-63). 

Typus : (^ 12. iv. 1913, Valldemosa, Mallorca. Coll. v. Jordans. 

Ich benenne die Form zu Ehren des Deutschen Consuls in Palma Herrn Alfred 
Miiller, der uns — worauf ich in den Einleitungen besonders hinwies — auf alien 
3 Reisen in entgegenkommendster und tatkriiftigster Weise unterstiitzte, welcher 
Hiilfe ich zum grossen Telle meine Erfolge an Ort und Stelle zu danken habe. 

Der Zaunkonig lebt auf alien Inseln der Gruppe. " Er ist auf Mallorca 
ein echter Gebirgsvogel und wir trafen ihn iiberall vom Fusse der Berge bis hooh 
hinauf, jedoch meistens die obere Waldgrenze nicht iiberschreitend ; dort fehlt 
er nirgends, ist aber auch nirgends haufig. Ein scheuer Geselle, der sich nicht 
leicht erwischen lasst " (Vogelf. I, p. 59). Dort, wo es in der Ebene ihm zusa- 
gendes dicht bewachsenes Gelande gibt, sieht man ihn aber auch hin und wieder. 
— Die Brutzeit fallt in den April und Mai. 



Parus major mallorcae Jordans. 

Weitere 6 Exemplare stimmen ganz in die friihere Serie von 18 Stiicken 
dieser deutlichen Rasse, zu der auch die Kohlmeise der Pityusen gehort (auf 
Formentera sahen wir keine Meise). Durch das neue Material verschieben sich 
die friiher angegebenen Fliigelmaasse etwas ; es diirfte nunmehr die Variations- 
breite vorliegen : ^J 70-75, $ 69-74. Uber die Verbreitung vergl. Vogelf. I und 
die anderen Autoren. Wir beobachteten sie jetzt doch auch verschiedentlich 
in der Ebene, wenn auch nicht weit ab vom Fusse der Berge. Die Brutzeit 
beginnt Ende April. 



284 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Paras coeraleus balearicus Jordan.s. 

Das Gleiche gilt von der Blaumeise (ich sammelte noch 3 Vogel). Sie ist 
bedeutend seltener als die vorige, und es kaiiii vorkommeii, dass man tagelang 
kein Stiick zu Gesicht bekommt. Der Ebene scheint sie zu fehlen. 

Paras ater L. 

Nur Barcelo behauptet ihr Vorkommen (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 62) — eine 
Angabe, die oflfenbar jeder Grundlage entbehit ; die Tannenmeise ist daniit 
aus der Liste der Balearenvogel zu streichen. Ebenso auffallend ist das Fehlen 
anderer Meisenarten. 

Regulus ignicapillus balearicus Jordans. 

Ich besitze jetzt 18 Goldhahnchen von Mallorca und verweise auf die 
Beschreibung der Form in Fcilco, 1923, p. 23, Vogelf. II, pp. 16.5-GO, und betr. 
seiner Verbreitung auf Vogelf. I, pp. 62-03. — Auf den Pityusen sah ich es nicht, 
und ob es auf Menorca briitet, ist fraglich ; hier wurde ein Vogel im Oktober 
1916 erbeutet (Munn, 1926, p. 475). 

Regulus regulus (L.). 

Die Brutangabe Barcelos beruht auf Irrtum ; das WLntergoldhahnchen ist 
aber ein nicht haufiger Winterbesucher (Munn). 

Sitta europaea L. 

Certhia brachydactyla Br. 

Weder die Spechtmeise noch der Baumlaufer kommen merkwiirdigerweise 
im Gebiete vor. — Barcelos gegenteilige Angaben sind falsch und Homeyers 
Meinimg, einnial eine Sitta gehort zu haben, sicherlich irrtiimlich (vergl. Vogelf. I, 
pp. 63 u. 64). 

Tichodroma muraria (L.). 

Ein Mauerlaufer wurde nach Ponseti im November 1920 auf Menorca 
erbeutet (Munn, Ibis, 1926, p. 475). 

Alauda arvensis L. 

Dass die Behauptung Barcelos und Ponsetis vom Briiten der Feldlerche 
zweifellos auf Irrtum beruht, sagte ich schon in meiner 1. Arbeit. Als Zugvogel 
ist sie haufig und nach Munn audi wahrend des Winters gemein. 

Lullula arborea (L.). 

Ich sah die Heidelerche nie, wahrend sie nach Munn im April auf Mallorca 
durchzieht — von Menorca ist sie nicht nachgewiesen — , und wohl auch einzelne 
Vogel zur Brut zuriickblieben, was ich bestimmt nicht glaube. — Mitte Januar 1926 
hielt sich eine grosse Menge Heidelerchen einige Zeit im Gebiete um Alcudia auf 
(Munn, 1928, pp. 18-19), wahrend der Autor sie vordem nie im Winter, sondern 
nur im Friihjahr gesehen hat. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 285 

Calandrella brachydactyla brachydactyla (Leisl.). 

Die Kurzzehenlerche ist ein gemeiner Brutvogel im ganzen Gebiete. Die 
Brutzeit begiiint ini April. Uber Eier vergl. Heiirici, Jourdain und Koenig, 
iiber Maasse der Vogel und Nomenclatur Vogelf. II, p. 167 ; audi diesmal konnte 
ich keine Balge aus der typischen Lokalitat der Nominatform (Siidfrankreich) 
vergleichen. 

Ich .schrieb 1921, dass Calandrella minor (Cab.) erstaunlicherweise den 
Balearen fehle. Henrici erhielt nun auf Fornientera ein Nest niit 2 Eiern, deren 
sichere Be.stimmung trotz vielen Vergleichens nicht gelingen wollte. Er schreibt 
1926, p. 169 : " Bis heute ist die Diagnose nicht ganz sicher, trotzdem die beiden 
Stiicke inzwischen den verschiedensten Begutachtern vorgelegen haben," und 
er " neigt nun nach den mannigfachsten Vergleichen und Studien dazu, Herrn 
Schonwetter — Gotha recht zu geben, der diese beiden Eier obiger Art zuschreibt." 
— Begreiflicherweise setzte ich nun Alles daran, auf Fornientera C. minor 
zu finden ; dabei stiess ich auf mir auffallende, recht scheue kleine Lerchen, 
die niir durch ihre grosse Helligkeit fremd schienen, bis ich durch Schiessen 
einiger Stiicke feststellte, dass dies in kleineren und grosseren Trupps verge- 
sellschaftete junge Stummellerchen wareii. Nirgends audi nur eine Spur der 
anderen Art, und ich halte es fiir ausgeschlossen, dass sie mir hier oder auf Ibiza 
entgangen sein sollte ; iiber die obengen. Eier lese man bitte in der demnachst 
erscheinenden oologischen Arbeit Koenigs nach. — Herr Dr. Henrici sagte mir 
jetzt, dass er inzwischen Gelege von C. minor erhalten und anhand derer 
festgestellt habe, dass das von ihm von Fornientera mitgebrachte, fraglich dieser 
Art zugeschriebene zweifelsohne nicht von dieser stamme, und Geh. Rat 
Koenig, der ein Ei des Geleges nochmals untersuchte, wird sicherlich recht 
haben, wenn er es fiir ein abnorm gefarbtes Gelege der Theklalerche halt. 
C. minor kommt im Gebiete nicht vor. 

Galerida theklae polatzeki Hart. 

Meinen eingehenden Ausfiihrungen iiber die Theklalerche in meinen beiden 
friiheren Arbeiten habe ich nichts hinzuzufiigen. Sie ist ein gemeiner Standvogel 
aller Inseln. — Uber die Oologie vergl. Koenig, Henrici und Jourdain. — Eine 
Beobachtung diirfte noch von Interesse sein : Am 27. April 27 liorte ich im 
Gebirge bei Valldemosa von derselben Stelle her den Gesang eines Rotkopfwiirgers, 
wechselnd mit dem mehrerer anderer Arten wie Sammtkopfchen, Kohlmeise, 
einigen Tonen einer Steindrossel, dann wieder die Anfangsstrophe des Buchfinken, 
dazwisdien Haubenlerchentone und schliesslich stiimperhaft den Gesang des 
Sardensangers, der mir in dieser Gegend — zwischen freistehenden alten Oliven- 
baumen — hochst merkwiirdig vorkaui. Als ich vorsichtig naher ging, sah ich 
zu meineni Erstaunen auf einem Steinhaufen eine Haubenlerche sitzeii, die alle 
diese Gesange stark wechselnd in rascher Reihenfolge zum besten gab ; ich 
habe selten ein so starkes und verschiedenartiges Spotten gehort. Nur hier 
auch hatte ich den von ihr imitierten Gesang einer Steindrossel gehort. Lange 
habe ich ihr aus niichster Nahe gelauscht, bis sie von ihrem Steinhaufen zur Erde 
flog, Nahrung suchte und dazwisdien nur mehr ihr eigenes Lied singend und 
ihre langgezogenen Rufe horen lassend.' 

1 Anmerkung Wegen der angeblich von den Balearen stanunenden Balge von Chersophilua 
duponti vergl. Vogelf. I und II, p. 166 ; dieselben trugen oftensichtlich falsche Etiketten. 

20 



2gg NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Budytes flavus fasciatus Zander. 

Diese Form der Schafstelze briitet auf Mallorca in dem ihr zusagenden 
Sumpfgelande allerorts in grosser Anzahl. Sie trifft im Marz ein und beginnt 
das Brutgeschaft in der 1. Halfte April. Audi Menorca und den Pityusen fehlt 
sie nicht. — Betr. Nester und Eier vergl. Koenig, Henriei und Jourdain, betr. 
Nomenclatm- Vogelf. I und II. 

Budytes flavus borealis Sund. 

" Die nordische Schafstelze beobacMeten wir auf dem Zuge Mitte Mai . . . 
und schossen elnige Belegexemplare " (Vogelf. I, p. 71), 1921 " sah ich am 8. v. 
eine auf dem Zuge " (Vogelf. II, p. 169), diesmal sahen wir einen kleinen Flug 
am 12. V. auf der Cabrera niedrig von S. nach N. ziehend. 

Budytes flavus flavus (L.). 

Munn erwahnt als einziger Autor die Nominatform, von der er (1920, p. 468), 
am 27 . iv . 25 einen kleinen Flug beobachtete und 2 Vogel schoss ; er schreibt 
(Chamberlin, p. 152) : " Only occurs on migration in spring in Majorca." — Sie 
wird sicher auf den Inseln regelmassig durchziehen. 

Motacilla alba alba L. 

Die weisse Bachstelze briitet nach meinen Beobachtungen und den iiberein- 
stimmenden Aussagen der Einwohner nicht auf den Balearen. Dagegen ist sie 
als Durchzugsvogel nicht selten, nach Munn sogar im Winter gemein. — Munn 
meint (Vergl. Vogelf. II), ein oder zwei Paare blieljen iibcr den Sommer dort und 
briiteten auch vielleicht, was sicherhch aber nicht der Fall ist, und was er 1927 
auch selbst nicht mehr erwahnt. — Barcelos Brutangaben (vergl. Vogelf. I) sind 
irrig. — Wir sahen die Ait in den ersten Tagen April und schossen Belegstiicke. 

Motacilla alba yarellii Gould. 

Munn schreibt im Ibis, 1925, p. 40 : "A rare straggler to Majorca. The 
male of a pair was shot at Puerto Alcudia on 5. March 1923." — Es ist dies der 
erste und einzige Nachweis des Durehzugs der dunklen (englischen) Form der 
weissen Bachstelze fiir unser Gebiet. Ihr Zugweg geht durch Spanien und 
Portugal. 

Motacilla cinerea Tunst. 

Die Gebirgsbachstelze, die in Erniangelung im Sommer nicht austrocknender 
Bache auf den Inseln nicht briitet, hiilt sich im Winter auf. Wir sahen sie im 
Marz bis in die ersten Tage April, und ich schoss ein Belegstiick. 

Anthus campestris campestris (L.). 
Wir schossen eine grossere Serie Brachpieper. Er ist auf alien Inseln ein 
verbreiteter Brutvogel, der in den letzten Tagen des Marz eintrifit. Gelege 
findet man ab Anfang Mai ; iiber Brutgeschaft und Eier vergl. Munn, 1925, 
pp. 40-41. — Henriei schreibt (1927), dass er die Art nur zweimal gehort habe, 
was ich angesichts der allgemeinen Verbreitung niclit verstehe. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 287 

Anthus trivialis trivialis (L.). 

Der Baumpieper zieht im Friihjahr (Mitte bis Elide April) und im Herbst 
(nach Munn im September) auf den Inselii in kleineren und grosseren Fliigen 
durcli. Ich schoss einige. 

Anthus pratensis pratensis (L.). 

Auch der Wiesenpieper ist ein liiiufiger Durchziigler, und besonders im 
Winter (nach Munn) auf Mallorca und Menorca gemein. — 1913 sah ich noch am 
13. Mai auf der Cabrera einige Pieper, deren Artzugehorigkeit ich nicht feststellen 
konnte, aber, da ich nun dieses Mai auf der gleichen Insel am 1 1 . v. wieder einige 
Pieper dort auf dem Zuge beobachtete, welche Wiesenpieper waren, so werden 
auch die damaligen zu dieser Art gehort haben. — Ich schoss Belegexemplare. 

Anthus spinoletta spinoletta (L.). 

AIs einziger Autor gibt Ponseti — dessen Aussage darm auch Munn erwahnt 
— das Durchziehen des Wasserpiepers von Menorca an ; ob die Bestimmung 
richtig ist, ist nicht festzustellen. Nicht viel anders verhalt es sich mit der 
englischen Form dieser Art : 

Anthus spinoletta obscura (Lath.) 

dem Strandpieper ; vergl. hierzu Vogelf. I, p. 73 : " Fraipont schreibt in 
seinen Oiseaux Colecc. zool. du Baron E. de Selys Longchamps, Catal. syst. 
Fasc. 31, Bruxxelles, 1910, auf Seite 54 : " Anthus ohscurus. Baleares." 
Wenn ich auch die Riohtigkeit in Zweifel Ziehen mochte, so muss ich doch in 
dieser Zusammenstelhmg die Angabe selb.st erwahnen. 

Coccothi'austes coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.). 

Der Kernbeisser zieht vereinzelt durch — ich schoss einen Vogel auf Mallorca, 
Gosse sah ilin Mitte IV. auf Ibiza (vergl. Vogelf. II) — und soil sich nach Munn 
in strengen Wintern auf Mallorca und Menorca zeigen (1924, p. 450, 1925, p. 40). 

Chloris chloris mallorcae Jordans. 

1913 zog ich den auf alien Inseln der Balearengruppe so haufigen Griinfinken 
noch zu der Form aiirantiiventris, trennte ihn dann aber an Hand grossen 
gesammelten Materials — mir liegen nun 36 Stiicke vor — nach eingehendem 
Vergleiche mit umfangreichen Serien der iibrigen Formen als eigene Subspecies 
ab. (Ich verweise dazu auf Falco, 1923, pp. 3-4, imd Vogelf. II, pp. 382-S4.) — 
Wenn Munn den Griinfinken Menorcas aurantiiventris nennt (1924, p. 449), so 
zweifle ich nicht, dass dieser auch zu malloixae gehort. — Die Brutzeit beginnt 
Ende April ; betr. Eier vergl. Koenig, Jourdain und Henrici. 

Chloris chloris aurantiiventris Cab. 

Auffallenderweise scheint mir der Griinfink der Pityusen nach 10 unter- 
suchten (allerdings zum grossen Telle stark abgeriebenen) Exemplaren zu dieser 
Form zu gehoren. 



288 XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Carduelis carduelis propepai-va Jordans. 

Der Distelfink ist eiii verbreiteter Staiidvogel aller Inseln, der nur das 
liohere Gebirge meidet. Die Brutzeit beginiit Ende April (vergl. Koenig, 
Jourdain, Henrici). — Hinsichtlich der subspecifischen Unterschiede der hier 
iiibetrachtkommendeii Formen verweise ich aid Falco, 1923, p. 4, und auf meine 
auf selir grossem Material fussenden — alleiii 44 Voegel von den Balearen- 
Pityusen — eingehenden Vergleichsergebnissen in meiner 2. Arbeit, pp. 384-89. 

Acanthis spinus (L.). 

Der Zeisig wird von Barcelo ein haufiger Zugvogel Mallorcas, von Ponseti 
als soldier Menorcas bezeichnet, und Munn (1924, p. 450) schi-eibt, dass er Menorca 
im Winter in geringer Anzahl besuche. 

Acanthis citrinella (L.). 

" Der Citronenzeisig soil nach Barcelo als sehr seltener Gast auf Mallorca 
vorkommen," schrieb ich in meiner 1. Arbeit. Dieser Angabe ist kein Oewicht 
beizulegen, ich bezweifle, ob der Autor die Art iiberhaupt kannte. — Dann aber 
gelang es angeblich Henrici 1924 und 1925, ihn sogar als Brutvogel fe.stzustellen ; 
er iiberschreibt seinen Artikel (1927, pp. 9-10) " Zweimal mit Sicherheit als 
Brutvogel beobachtet " (Dies von Jourdain 27, p. 35 citiert) und zwar beide 
Male auf Mallorca, wahrend er " in den oden steinigen Hangen der Westkiiste 
von Formentera wieder die Art am 20. v. 24 horte, in diesem sehr schwierigen 
Terrain aber vom Nest nichts fand ; es schien sich audi um ein Piirchen mit 
ausgeflogenen Jungen zu handeln " (!). Auf Mallorca horte er am 7. v. 24 auf 
dem Cap del Pinar ostHch Alcudia " den charakteristischen Lockton eines 
Zeisigs " und fand das Nest in einer Kiefer ; es " enthielt 4 einige Tage alte 
Junge." Uber eine Beobachtung der Alten sagt er weiter nichts. — Dann fand 
er am 2. v. 25 in den Vorbergen des Monte San Salvador etwa 10 m hoch auf 
dem Seitenast einer Kiefer ein Nest mit drei Eiern, nachdem er vorher den 
" hiiak " Ruf des alten Vogels gehort und "' an dem charakteristischen Lockruf 
und dem ganzen Benehmen des Vogels sofort erkannt hatte, dass es sich um 
den im vorigen Jahre . . . beobachteten Zitronenzeisig handelte." " Wir 
haben nun geniigend Zeit und Gelegenheit, das Parchen zu beobachten und 
erkennen deutlich die griingelbe Fiirbung der Unterseite " (!). — Henrici beschreibt 
dann das Nest und die Eier. 

Diese bestimmten Angaben veranlassten mieh natiirlich, die erdenklidiste 
Miihe aufzuwenden, diese interessante Art nun auch selbst zu finden, was inan- 
betracht der genauen, auch miindlich niir wiederholten Fundortsbeschreibung 
nicht allzu schwer fallen konnte. Obschon ich das nur einige hundert Quadrat- 
meter grosse Gelande des Cabo Pinar und ahnliche, diesem ganz entsprechende 
Lokalitaten auf das genaueste kannte — das Gelande entspricht audi ganz jenem 
genannten auf Formentera — , hatte ich den Vogel nie bemerkt, was mich einesteils 
argerte aber anderseits auch skeptisch machte. Immerhin war es moglich, 
dass mir ein so kleiner und ev. auch hier nur seltener Vogel hatte entgehen 
komien. Auf dieser letzten Reise machte ich daher eigens zu cUesem Zweck eine 
Tour in jenen Kiefernwald bei San Salvador, den ich bis dahin noch nicht kannte. 
Es ist ein mit kleineren und grosseren, alten und jungen Kiefernbestanden, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 289 

stellenweise mit dichtem Unterholz durchsetztes Hiigelgelande. Vergebens 
hatten wir dieses schon an 2 Tagen nach alien Richtungen durchstreift, als ich 
plotzlich einen mir fremd vorkommenden, zeisigahnlichen Ruf vernahm und 
einen kleinen Vogel eilig voriiberfliegen sah, der dann im Kiefernwald verschwand 
und bald vvieder ziemlich entfernt seinen Ruf horen liess. Ich sah ihn schliesslich, 
nachdem er wiederholt abgeflogen war, auf dem Seitenast einer alten Kiefer 
sitzen und in kurzen Abstanden " hiiiik " rufen, auch mit dem Glase deutlich 
seme " griingelbe Farbung der Unterseite." Endlich holte ihn mein Schuss 
herunter und hocherfreut, in der Uberzeugung den gesuchten Vogel erwischt 
zu haben, hob ich einen — Girlitz auf ! ! Spater horte ich hier und noch zweimal 
an anderer Stelle — auch an der W. Kiiste Formenteras — den gleichen Ruf und 
erkannte wieder einwandfrei einen Girlitz. Dieser ist ausserordentlich haufig 
auf den Balearen, jenen Ruf scheint er aber nur verhaltnismassig selten von 
sich zu geben. — Herr Munn, den ich dann spater in Alcudia aufsuchte und mit 
dem ich auch iiber den Zitronenzeisig sprach, war bereits zu wiederholten Malen 
seinetwegen zum Cabo Pinar gefahren, hatte aber auch nie ihn sondern nur den 
Girlitz dort gefunden, inid so sah ich, da ich das Cap schon genau kannte, hier 
auch sonst nichts zu holen war, von einer Tour dahin, die einen Tag in Anspruch 
nimmt, ab, da es fiir mich ausser Zweifel steht, dass Henrici, der den Citronen- 
zeisig auch aus der Natur sonst nicht kennt, sich geirrt hat (vergl. Munn, 1928, 
p. 18). — Die Beschreibung des Nestes und sein Standort stimmt ganz mit Serinus 
iiberein — wie ich es dort auch fand — , iiber seinen Ruf schrieb ich oben und die 
Eier sind auch kein Beweis. Solange kein Vogel vorliegt, glaube ich nicht an 
ein Briiten des Zitronenzeisigs auf den Balearen, nicht einmal ein gelegentliches 
Vorkommen ist bis heute nachgewiesen. Ich bedauere auf Grund meiner 
Beobachtungen die Richtigkeit von Hem'icis Angaben in Abrede stellen zu 
miissen, obschon er bei einem spateren Besuch bei mir zu Hause dieselben 
ganz unbedingt airfrecht erhielt und die Miiglichkeit eines Irrtums entschieden 
bestreitet. Es wiirde mich freuen, wenn ihm ein nachstes Mai bei erneuter 
Reise dorthin der Nachweis gelange, dass ich der bin, der sich geiirt hat ! 



Acanthis cannabina mediterranea Tsch. 

Der Hanfling ist einer der gemeinsten Standvogel aller Inseln der beiden 
Gruppen. Er briitet ab Anfang April (vergl. Koenig, Jourdain, Henrici). — Im 
Ubrigen verweise ich auf die ausfiihrliche Behandlung der siidlichen Hiinflings- 
formen in meiner 2. Arbeit, pp. 389-94. — Eine grosse Serie liegt vor.' 



Serinus canaria serinus (L.). 

Der Girlitz ist ein verbreiteter Standvogel des ganzen Gebietes, ohne Fragc 
auch Menorcas, wenn Ponseti ihn auch nur als Zugvogel aufEiihrt. Er beginnt 
seine Brut im April, briitet sicher 2 mal, wenn nicht dreimal, denn wir fanden 
noch ein Gelege am 2.5. Juni (vergl. Koenig, Joiu'dain, Hem-ici). Die Nester 
stehen mit Vorliebe in Kiefern, auch sahen wir eins in einer alten Steineiche. — 
Grossere Serie von uns gesammelt. Fliigellange nach jetzigem Material : 
? 65-69 mm. 

^ Anmerfcuug : Die Angabe Barcelt'is vtnn Vorkoninien von Acanthis Ibuiria cabaret (P. L. S. 
Miill.) auf Mallorca (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 80) beruht zweifellos auf Irrtum. 



290 NOVITATKS ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Loxia curvirostra balearica Horn. 

Dem, was ich in meinen beiden friiheren Arheiten iibcr den Kreuzschnabel 
der Balearen sagte, habe ich kaum etwas hinzuzufiigen und verweise daher auf 
diese eingehenderen Schilderungen. Munn und nach ihm Jourdain geben nahere 
Daten uber sein Brutgeschaft. Bisher liegen nur einige Gelege vor aus deni 
Miirz und April (vielleicht noch eins aus dena Mai, vergl. Jourdain, 1927, p. 35), 
mil- selbst gelang es nicht, eins zu iinden. — Am 23.iv.27 horte ich bei Valldemosa 
ein altes rotes cJ eifrig singen. Auf Mallorca ist er hiiufig, auf Menorca seltener, 
und von Ibiza erwahnt sein Vorkommen der Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator (Vogelf . I, 
p. 84). — Ich schoss eine grosse Serie in alien Kleidern. 

Fringilla coelebs balearica Joidans. 

Die Form des Balearen-Buchfinken vvurde von mir im Falco, 1923, p. 4, 
beschrieben unci genauere Vergleichsdaten in meiner 2. Arbeit gegeben. Er 
ist ein ausserordentlich haufiger Standvogel aller Inseln, nur auf Formentera 
sahen wir nierkwiirdigerweise kein Stiick. — Ciesammtes Material 48 Stiick. — 
Anfang April beginnt er seine Brut (iiber die Eier vergl. Koenig, Jourdain und 
Henrici ; der blaue Typ scheint vorzuherrschen). 

Fringilla montifringilla L. 

Der Bergfink kommt in strengen Wintern auf Mallorca und Menorca vor 
vergl. Vogelf. I, pp. 84-85, und Minin, 1924, p. 450). 

Petronia petronia balearica Jordans. 

Vier weitere jetzt gesammelte Steinsperlinge bestatigen die von niir auf 
Grund von 10 Exemplaren angegebenen Unterschiede {Falco, 1923, p. 4, und 
Vogelf. II, p. 396) ; die genannte Fliigellangengrosse verschiebt sich durcli die 
neuen Stiicke nicht). — Der Steinsjserling ist auf Mallorca nur sehr lokal verbreitet, 
doch nicht so selten, wie ich bisher amiahm, da wir ihn diesmal erneut an einigen 
weiteren Stellen in alten Olivenbestanden und an der zerkliifteten Felsenkiiste 
fanden. Ein Nest ist weder von mir noch von Henrici oder Munn gefunden 
worden. — Munn irrt, wenn er in Chamberlin den Steinsperling mit dem mallor- 
quinischen Namen " Gorrion berberisco " belegt, denn dies ist — Barcelo machte 
dieselbe falsche Angabe (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 85) — das ,^ des Haussperlings, 
wahrend ersterer " Gorrion de la Mar " (-Meeressperling) heisst. Ich erwaluie 
dies hier, damit sich nicht spatere Besucher irrefiihren lassen. 

Passer domesticus balearoibericus Jordans. 

Den Haussperling beschrieb ich m Falco, 1923, p. 4, luid ausfiihrlicher in 
Vogelf. II, pp. 396-98. Uber seine Verbreitung etc. siehe dort und in I. — Wir 
fanden ihn auch diesmal wieder an anderen Stellen in Felsen und alten Oliven 
weit von menschlichen Siedlungen entfernt nistend. Er ist auf alien Inseln 
der Balearen und Pityusen gemein. Ich sammelte im ganzen nunmehr 41 
Haussperlinge. Uber Brut und Eier vergl. die anderen Autoren. — Floericke 
trennt in seinen " Mitteilungen iiber portug. Vogel " (1926, p. 16) den Sperling 
Portugals unter dem Namen Passer domesticus diniz ab wegen seiner Kurzfliiglig- 
keit und abwcichender Farbung. Wie es mit ersterer aussieht, ergibt sich 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 291 

schon daraus, dass er alte Mannchen aus Nordportugal mit 73-75 mm. maass ; 
offensichtlich hat er nur (wohl infolge geringen Materials) einen kleinen Ausschnitt 
aus der Variationsbreite, da er schreibt, dass ein mittelportugiesisches von 
Weigold gcsamineltes nach diesem 80 messe, aber dies bedeute wohl " einen 
seltenen Ausnahmefall oder die Vogel aus Mitteliiortugal und Nordportugal 
gehoren verschiedenen Rassen an, oder es liegt ein Schreib-bezw. Druckfehler 
vor " ! ! Damit nicht genug behauptet der Autor, der so vorsichtig mit neuen 
Namen sein will (!), mitteleuropaische Mannchen setzten erst mit 76 mm. ein, 
und damitstimme ganz iiberein, dass Hartert fiir gewohnliche Spatzen 76-82A mm. 
angabe, wiihrend dieser aber in Wirklichkeit den Anfangspunkt mit 74,5 
nennt ! ! Ich gab fiir balearoibericus ^^^ 73-81 an und fiir $$ 71-76 (78) fiir 
die Nominatform 75-84 bezw. 74-80 mm. Was also von Floerickes Maassan- 
gaben zu halten ist, mag man aus Obigem ersehen. Mit den von ihm behaupteten 
Farbungsunterschieden ists nicht viel anders, und der schone portugiesische 
Dichtername diniz diirfte wohl unter die Synonyraa fallen, wenn sich nicht an 
grosserem Material von zuverliissigem Untersucher andere Merkmale feststellen 
lassen, was ich aber nicht fiir wahrscheinlich halte. 

Passer domesticus italiae Vieill. 

Die Beahuptung Homeyers vom gleich hiiufigen Vorkommen des rotkopfigen 
Haussperlings auf Mallorca und wohl nach ihm die gleichlautende An ;abe 
Barcelos ist ganz unbegreiflich, da diese Form keinesfalls auf den Balearen briitet 
und bisher auch noch nicht einmal als Gast festgestellt worden ist (vergl. Vogelf . I 
und II). Er ist daher aus der Liste der Vogel der Balearen zu streichen. 

Passer montanus L. 

Der Feldsperling soil als seltener Gast auf Menoi'ca und Mallorca vorkommen, 
doch fehlt bisher ein Belegstiick (vergl. Vogelf. I, II und Mumi, 1924 und 1927). 

Emberiza calandra calandra L. 

Der Grauammer ist auf alien Inseln — vielleicht mit Ausnahme von Formen- 
tera, wo weder Henrici noch ich ihn sahen — ein verbreiteter, aber nur stellenweise 
haufiger Brutvogel ; die Brutzeit beginnt Ende April (vergl. Koenig, Jourdain, 
Henrici). 

Emberiza citrinella L. 

Wenn der Goldammer auch nach Oleo und Ramis (Vogelf. I, p. 90) auf 
den Balearen vorkommen soil, so hat ihn doch als erster Ponseti nachgewiesen, 
indem er (Munn, 1926, p. 475) einen Vogel dieser Art im Januar 1914 auf Menorca 
erbeutete. — Nun ist dies auch Munn fiir Mallorca gelungen, der am 14.iv.26 
einen Goldammer in einem Kafig in Lluch sah, der im Januar ds. Js. dort in einem 
Netz gefangen war (Munn, 1928). 

Emberiza cia L. 

Auch den Zippammer nennen Oleo und Ramis von den Balearen (Vogelf. I, 
p. 90), ohne dass bisher ein Beweis dafiir erbracht wurde. 



292 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIX. 1928. 

Eniberiza cirlus cirlus L. 

Der Zaunammer ist auf Mallorca iiicht selten, auf Menorca scheiiit er 
ebenfalls zu briiten, da Ponseti einen Vogel im Juni 1918 erbeutete (erstmalige 
Angabe von Munn, 1926, p. 475), wahrend er bisher von den Pitvusen nicht 
nachgewiesen wurde, wenn ich auch sein Vorkoinmen auf Ibiza annehmen 
mochte. — Ich fand ein Gelege am 9 . vii . 2 1 und Henrici eins am 4 . v . 24. 

Emberiza hortulana L. 

Der Gartenammer brutet im Gebiete nicht. Ich schoss 3 Belegexemplares 
am 16. iv. 1913 und 29. iv. 1921 auf Mallorca ; am 28.iv.21 sah ich ein weiteres 
Parchen und wiederum ein solches am 26. April 1927, alle an der Nordkiiste 
der Insel (vergl. Munn, 1928, p. 18). Ponseti nimmt sein Briiten auf Menorca 
an, doch bezweifelt Munn, sicher wohl mit Recht, dass dies .stimmt. Gosse sah 
einen Vogel auf Ibiza (Vogelf. II, p. 401). 

Emberiza schoeniclus schoeniclus (L.). 

Barcelos Angabe vom Briiten dieser Ait im Prat und in der Albufera (Vogelf. I, 
p. 91) bezieht sich, wenn man ihr Glauben schenken will, auf die folgende ; 
Ponseti nennt sie einen seltenen Zugvogel Menorcas, doch als Erstem gelang 
Munn der sichere Nachweis ihres Vorkommens auf Mallorca, indem er Belegexem- 
plare wahrend der Wintermonate schoss (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 403, Anmerkung 
und Munn, 192.5, p. 40) ; Herr Munn hatte die Liebenswiirdigkeit, mir jetzt 
einen Vogel zu schenken, den er am 20.i.27 in der Albufera geschossen hatte, 
wofiir ich ihm hier nochmals herzlich danke. Es ist die Noniinatform des 
Rohrammers, die also wahrend des Winters anscheinend regelmassig auf der 
Insel lebt (Chamberlin, p. 151). Munn meint, es blieben vielleicht einige auch 
zum Biiiten zuriick, was ich fiir ausgeschlossen halte. Als Brutvogel wird nur 
die folgende Art (?) hier leben : 

Emberiza tschusii witherbyi Jordans. 

Ich beschrieb diesen Rohrammer im Falco, 1923, p. 4, und dann genauer 
in meiner 2. Arbeit, pp. 401-3, mit einer ausfiihrlichen Schilderung seines Vorkom- 
mens in der Albufera, dem einzigen Brutplatz, wahrend er der Albufereta und 
den anderen Sumpfgebieten fehlt. — Wir sahen ihn diesmal haufiger in fast dem 
ganzen Gebiet d.h. wenigstens iiberaU da, wo grossere Rohrbestande vorhanden 
sind. Ich sammelte mit Miihe Mitte Juni noch drei Vogel zu den 15 Alten und 
4 Jungen von 1921 — -2 weitere geschossene waren im Rohr leider nicht zu linden. 
Sie sind recht scheu, und es halt nicht leicht.sie aus grosserer Entfernung gliicklich 
erlegt in dem Rohrdieldcht zu entdecken. Meiner Beschreibung kann ich nichts 
Weiteres hinzufiigen, da auch diese neuen ein der spaten Jahreszeit entsprechend 
abgenutztes Gefieder tragen ; doch verschieben sich die Fliigellangengrossen 
etwas, die bei frischen Stiicken etwa betragen werden : ^ 78-82, 9 70-74. — 
Henrici (1927, p. 13) sah die Art an gleicher Stclle Anfang Mai ; Munn fand am 
22 . V. ein Nest mit 4 Jungen imd einem faulen Ei, Ratcliff am 9 . v. ein Dreiergelege 
und am ii.v. ein Gelege von 5 Eiern (Jourdain, 1927, p. 36). Munn gibt eine 
pingehende Beschreibung de.s Nestes und des aufgefundenen Eies (1926, p. 468 ; 
vergl. auch Munn in Chamberlin, p. 151). — Ich zweiHe jetzt noch starker daran, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 293 

dass es wirklich drei verschiedene Rohrammer-Formenkreise gibt, vorciner Bear- 
beitung der ganzen Gruppe wende ich aber die erstgebrauchte Nomenclatur 
hier weiter an. 

Oriolus oriolus (L.). 

Ich beobachtete den Pirol auf alien drei Reisen Mitte Mai (Vogelf. I, II), 
Wilford sah einen am 20. iv auf Formenteia (Vogelf. II), ich den letzten am 
21 .V. 21 in der Albufera, spater jedoch nicht mehrundMunn gibt ihn f iir Mallorca 
und Menorca als nicht haufigen Durchziigler an. — Jetzt kam der erste am 26. iv. 
zur Beobachtimg, dann am 30. iv. ein Vogel, am 11. v. ein sicherer Durchziigler 
auf der Cabrera ; dann aber horten wir ein Mannchen am 30. Mai in einem Pappel- 
und Platanenwaldchen unweit Arta eifrig rufen, schossen hier ein altes Mannchen 
(wohl das gleiche) am 31 .v. und ein jiingeres rufendes (J am 2.vi. — Nach Aussage 
des Besitzers diese.s Gelandes .soil der Pirol sich hier dan ganzen Sommer iiber 
aufhalten und auch briiten, was ich auch fiir wahrscheinlich lialten miichte. 
Die Testes waren voU entwickelt. Munn meint auch, dass wohl einige Vogel zur 
Brut ziu-iickbleiben. Ein einwandfreier Brutnachweis ist damit allerdings leider 
noch nicht erbracht. 

Stumus vulgaris L. 

Der Star briitet auf den Balearen nicht, ist aber nach Munn und Anderen 
ein gemeiner VVintervogel (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 403). 

Stumus unicolor Temm. 

Auch der Einfarbstar briitet nicht im Gebiete und ist nur ein verhiiltnis- 
massig recht seltener Gast (vergl. Vogelf. I und Munn in ChamberUn). 

Corvus corax hispanus Hart. & Kleinschm. 

Der Kolkrabe ist in den gebirgigen Teilen der Inseln allenthalben verbreitet, 
von wo cr seine Streifziige iiber das ganze Gebiet ausdehnt. Er ist ausserordent- 
lich scheu, wir brachten nur 3 Exemplare heim. (Vergl. Niiheres in meinen 
beiden friiheren Arbeiten und bei den anderen Autoren.). Wir sahen mehere 
uncrreichbare Horste in hohen Felsen, ebenso Munn einen Horst, auf dem der 
alte Vogel am 23.iii. briitete und einen zweiten am gleichen Tage mit Jungen, 
wahrend Henrici ein Rabenpaar noch am 1 7 . iv. auf Ibiza beim Bau des Horstes 
beobachtete (1927, pp. 48-49). Auf Baumen scheint er — auch nach Aussage der 
Einwohner — auf den Balearen nie zu nisten. 

Corvus corone L. 

Die Rabenki-ahe briitet auf den Balearen bestimmt nicht, trotz Homeyers 
Angabe (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 94) und Anderer (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 404). Ein 
sicherer Nachweis ist bisher nicht einmal aus der Zugzeit erbracht (vergl. auch 
Munn in ChamberUn, p. 149). 

Corvus comix I.. 

Die Nebelkrahe war bisher aus dcm Ciebiete nicht ein einziges Mai nachge- 
wiesen, geschweige deim ihr Briiten. Harterts entgegenstehende Angabe beruht 
auf einem Irrtum, den ich in meiner ersten Arbeit bereits richtigstellte. — Jetzt 



294 NOVTTATES ZOOLOOICAB XXXIV. 192S. 

aber hat Munn (1928, p. 17) am IS.iv. 26 eine einzelne Nebelkrahe in der Albufera 
gesehen, die von NO kam, kurz auf einem Baum ruhte und dann in Richtung 
SW fliegend bald ausser Sicht war ; sie war zweifcllos trotz der Jahreszeit auf 
der Wanderung, was der Autor hervorhebt. 

Corvus frugilegus L. 

Die Saatkrahe scheint sehr selten auf Mallorca und Menorca auf dem Zuge 
vorzukomraen, aber ein sicherer Nachweis liegt nicht vor. da cs fraglich ist, ob 
das im Institute Balear in Palma stehende Exemplar von dor Insel stammt 
(vergl. meine Arbeiten und die Munns).' 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (L.). 

Die Al]5enkrahe besucht sehr .selten das Gebiet ; Barcelo und Ponseti 
erwahneii ihr Vorkommen. Sicher nachgewiesen hat sie Munn, der am lO.viii. 
1922 ein Paar und am 28.iv.23 einen einzelnen Vogel an der Kiiste Mallorcas 
sah (1925, pp. 39-40). 

Pyrrhocorax graculus (L.). 

Oleo und Barcelo geben an, dass die Alpendohle sich sehr selten auf Menorca 
zeige, da sie aber weder von Ponseti noch von irgend einem anderen Autor 
genannt wird, ist diesen vagen Behauptimgen keinerlei Wert beizumessen, und 
die Art ist daher aus der Liste der von den Balearen nachgewiesenen Vogeln 
zu streichen (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 95). 

Hirundo rustica rustica L. 

Die Rauchschwalbe ist ein allgemein haufiger Brutvogel, der in der Hauptzahl 
Ende Marz ankommt mid nach Munn aueh vereinzelt iiberwintert. Ich sammelte 
eine Serie. 

Delichon urbica meridionalis (Hart.). 

Es ist die n.w. afrikanische Form der Mehlschwalbe, die nicht grade haufjg 
briitet und anscheinend vorwiegend nur im Gebirge an Felsen. Sie scheint 
Anfangs April anzukommen. — Die Nominatform wird sicher durchziehen, 
doch liegt kein Belegstiick vor, wahrend ich von der ersteren eine kleine Serie 
mitbrachte. 

Riparia riparia (L.). 

Die Uferschwalbe briitet vereinzelt auf den Inseln ; ich schoss drei Vogel. 

Riparia rupesti'is rupestris (Scop.). 

Die Felsenschwalbe ist auf alien Inseln in kleineren und grosseren Kolonieen 
im Gebirge fast iiberall an ihr zusagenden steilen Felshangen anzutreffen ; sie 
ist Standvogel. Nester sahen wir verschiedentlich, doch immcr unerreichbar. — 
Ich sammelte eine Serie. 

Apus melba melba L. 

Wahrend es bisher nicht bekannt war, dass der Alpensegler im Gebiete 
brtite — wenn man von Barcelos vager Behauptung absieht (Vogelf. I, p. 98) — 

' Anmerkung : Es ist sehr raerkwurdig, dass kein Oarrulus und keine Pica im Gebiete briitet, 
und sogar nie beobachtet wurde, wahrend beide an der nahe liegenden spanischen Kuste so haiifig sind. 



NOVITATKS ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 295 

er im Gegenteil sogar nur verhaltnisinassig selten zur Zugzeit Zur Beobachtung 
gckomnien war, fand ich diesinal eine kleine Kolonie am Gipfel des Monte Farruch 
bei Arta an einer sehr hohen Felswand mit dem Nestbau beschaftigt. — Wir sassen 
in der Luderhiitte unterhalb des Gipfels auf Adler wartend, als ich einen mir bis 
dahin unbekannten Ruf horte, bi.s ich nach einiger Miihe in grosser Hohe einige 
Alpensegler wahrnahm. Es gelang mir schhesshch am 23. v. einen Vogel — der 
Nominatform angehorend — zu schiessen, der mit Nistmaterial im Schnabel auf 
einem Felsenvorsprung iiber dem ca. 500 m senkrecht abfallenden Abgrund hiingen 
blieb ; es war kein reines Vergniigen, ihn dort aufziiheben ! Ebenso strichen 
am 23. vi. einige Exemplare an der westlichen Steilkiiste von Formentera am 
unzuganglichen Felsen vorbei und verschwanden immer wieder in einer kleinen 
Hohle iiber dem Meere, wo sie anscheinend Junge fiitterten. Von Menorca 
wurde die Art bisher nicht genannt. 

Apus apus apus (L.). 

Der Mauer.segler ist ein haufiger Brutvogel auf alien Inseln, sowohl in den 
Dorfern und Stadten an den Hausern wie im Gebirge an den Felsen. Er kommt 
in den letzten Tagen Marz und den ersten Tagen April an. In der ersten Halfte 
April sahen wir noch grosse Fliige nordwiirts Ziehen. Im Juni und den Sommer 
iiber versammeln sich allabendlich riesige Schaaren iiber der Haufitstadt. — Ich 
schoss eine Serie. 

Apus pallidus illyricus (Tsch.). 

Der Fahlsegler ist ein nicht haufiger Bewohner des hohen Gebirges, am 
haufigsten anscheinend auf der Cabrera, auch auf Formentera, von wo Hartert 
ihn bereits erwahnt. — Munn schreibt, dass er im Gegensatz zu Mallorca auf 
Menorca ebenso haufig sei wie der Mauer.segler, und gegeniiber seiner Angabe, 
dass er dort vor allem an den Hausern briite, bin ich sehr skeptisch ; dies sah 
ich n i e, im Gegenteil mochte ich hier die Siitze aus meiner letzten Arbeit wieder- 
holen : " Wahrend am Fusse der Berge in den Ortschaften nur A. apus lebt, 
sieht man beide Arten gelegentUch zusammenfliegen, nie dagegen zusammen 
briiten. Auch dort, wo apus kleine Brutkolonieen fern von menschlichen Ansied- 
lungen im Gebirge bewohnt, sahen wir murinus {pallidus) stets getrennt und 
meist hoher oben nisten." — Ich schoss nur wenige Belegstiicke. 

Merops apiaster L. 

Barcelo und Ponseti gaben das Briiten des Bienenfressers fiir Mallorca bezw. 
Menorca an, ebenso Homeyer auf die Aussage eines Mallorcaners, aber erst 1923 
gelang Munn der Brutnachweis fiir Menorca, indem er eine kleine Kolonie in 
der Nahe der Nordkiiste Menorcas entdeckte (1924, p. 457, 1928, p. 22). Die 
Einflugslocher der Nester waren im ebenen Boden. — Ich selbst erhielt zwar 
1913 (Vogelf. I, p. 101) einen ausgestopften Vogel geschenkt, der im Friilijahr 
1912 bei Artii geschossen war, hatte er.stmalig am 14. v. 21 acht Bienenfresser 
unweit der Albufera hoch iiber mich hinziehend gesehen, Munn dortselbst auch 
etliche am 26.iv.20 (Vogelf. II, p. 406) und endhch Henrici (1927, p. 50) am 
5.V.24 und 8. v. 25 einen Schwarm in dersolben Gegend, wie auch am 26. iv. 
zehn bis zwolf Stiick auf Formentera, aber stets ohne feststellen zu kcinnen, ob 
die Vogel auch hier nisteten. Am 19. v. 2 7 kam uns dann wieder nordlich Arta 



296 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

ein Flug von ca. 10 Stiick zii Gcsicht, deren weithinvernehmbarer, charakte- 
ristischer Ruf iins auf die nicht hoch nach Siiden streichenden Vogel aufmerksam 
machte. Diese Beobachtung erzahlte ich zufallig den Abend dem Eingangs 
erwahnten Herrn Garcias Font in Arta, und anderen Tags kam dieser mit einem 
einge-sessenen Jager zu uns, der versprach, iins an eine Brutkolonie zu fiihren. 
Meine Skepsis war unangebracht, denn wirklich kaum waren wir nach kurzer 
Autofahrt luid einem kleinen Spaziergang in die angegcbene Gegend unweit 
Capdepera an der SO Kiiste der Insel angelangt. als wir aiich schon den Ruf 
horten, und einige der herrlichen Tiere, bei strahlender Sonne wie Edelsteinc 
glitzernd, iiber die Kiefern strichen. Es ist ein unvergesslicher Anblick, zum 
ersten Male diese wundervollen Vogel mit ihrem so fremdartig anmutenden 
Benehmen aus der Nahe zu schauen ! — Seit Jahren befindet sieh hier an den 
Wiinden einigcr flachausgeworfener nur ca. J m tiefer Sandgruben eine Brut- 
kolonie von etwa 15 Paaren, deren Grosse aber jahrweise stark wechseln soil. 
Zwei aufgegrabene Rohren enthielten noch keine Eier. Die Vogel waren reclit 
scheu. Wir schossen ein paar Belegexemplare und besuchten die Gegend noch 
einige Male, um uns an dem Balzfluge zu erfreuen und ihr Benehmen etwas 
naher kennen zu lernen. Nach Aussage des Jagers komnien sie erst spat im 
Jahre, Mitte Mai etwa, an, um friih im September wieder fortzuziehen. Ende 
Mai scheinen sie mit dem Legen zu beginnen ; ein am 25. v. geschossenes Weilschen 
hatte ein fast fertig entwickeltes Ei. Sie sollen ihre Fliige ziemlich weit ausdehnen, 
und alle die Vogel, die Munn, Henrici und ich in der Umgebung Alcudias und 
dann nordlich Arta gesehen haben, diirften sicherUch von dieser Kolonie bier 
stammen. — Wir freuten uns, diesen schonen Vogel nun doch als Brutvogel Mallor- 
cas festgestellt zu haben, wie es Munn vordem fiir Menorca gelungen war. 

Upupa epops L. 

Der Wiedehopf ist ein auf Mallorca unter dem Namen " Puput " allgemein 
bekannter Durchzugs- und Brutvogel, von dem wir diesmal 7 weitere Exemplare 
(vordem 5) mitbrachten. Er kommt Anfangs Marz an und briitet in hohlen 
Oliven und Mauerspalten ; wir fanden Anfang Juni ein Nest in einer alten 
Kanalmauer in der Albufera, das tief im Inneren derselben sass, und auf das 
uns das laute Gepiepse der Jungen aufmerksam gemacht hatte. Ich wunderte 
mich sehr, dass die dort gradezu massenhaft lebenden Vipernnattern, die in den 
unmittelbar nebenan liegenden Lochern verschwanden, wenn ich sie nicht 
vorher gegriffen hatte, ihnen anscheinend nichts taten. — Nach Munn bleiben 
wenige das ganze Jahr iiber. — Ich habe nun nochmals an Hand grosseren Materials 
genaue Messungen vorgenommen, die ergaben, dass meine friiheren Angaben 
iiber die Fliigellange der MaUorcaner nicht ganz stimmten — vergl. Vogelf. I, II — 
insofern nicht, als die geringen Langen in noch nicht volliger Ausmauserung 
begriindet waren ; es besteht kein Unterschied. 



Coracias garrulus L. 

Barcelo erwahnt die Blauracke als seltenen Zugvogel Mallorcas und Ponseti 
als solchen Menorcas (Vogelf. I, p. 102). Zwei Viigel von Mallorca stehen in 
der Sammlung des Seminars in Palma, davon wurde einer im September 1909 
erlegt. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 297 

Alcedo atthis L. 

Ich sah den Eisvogel kein Mai. — Barcelos und Ponsetis Angabe, er sei Stand- 
vogel, entbehit siclier der Giundlage. — Nach Munn ist er ein nicht seltener 
Wiiitergast, luid Herr Gaieia.s Font sagte niir, dass er regeliuassig voni Herbst 
bis ins friihe Friihjahr an mehreren VVasserlaufen bei Arta anzutreffen sei. Der 
Erzherzog sah ihn ofters auf Ibiza. Brutvogel ist er im Gebiete nicht. 

lynx torquilla L. 

Auch der Wendehals, den icli wiederholt ini Friihjahr sah — den letzten am 
19. V. — und von dem ich auch Belegstiicke schoss, scheint mir jetzt mm doch 
nicht auf der Insel zu briiten, jedenfalls sah ich zu spaterer Zeit nie mehr einen 
Vogel ; daher kann ich auf Aussagen einiger Leute dort wenig geben, und, wenn 
auch Munn zwar sagt, dass er sicli das ganze Jahr iiber, wenn auch nur sehr 
vereinzelt, zeige, und Ponseti ihn sogar als hiiuiigen Bewohner Menorcas angibt, 
so ist jedenfalls bisher kein Brutnachweis erbracht. Auf den Pityusen schoss 
Gosse 2 Wendehalse Mitte April (Vogelf. I und II). 

Cuculus canorus bangsi Oberh. 

Zur Zugzeit ist der Kuckuck hautig — dies wird die Nominatform sein — 
dagegen zm- Brutzeit sparlich. Leider schossen wir diesmal keinen Vogel — einen 
fehlte ich — so dass nur 2 Stiicke von meiner ersten Reise vorliegen, von denen 
einer aber wohl eher ein Cuculus canorus canorus L. ist. — Henrici fand ein 
Kuckucksei am 30. v. 25 in einem Sylvia melanocephala Nest (1927, p. 50) und 
Munn einen jungen Vogel am 30. v. 23 im Nest des gleichen Wirtes. — Er kommt 
Ende Marz, Anfang April an. 

Clamator glandarius (L.). 

Ein Haherkuckuck wm-de nach Ponseti 1912 auf Menorca erbeutet (Munn, 
1926, p. 475), der einzigste Nachweis aus dem Gebiete. 

Caprimulgus europaeus meridionalis Hart. 

Die siidhche Nachtschwalbe kommt Anfang Mai an. Wir trafen sie zur 
Brutzeit in nicht germger Anzahl bei Alcudia und schossen einige Vogel (vergl. 
Vogelf. II, p. 407), doch ist sie nur ganz sporadisch verbreitet, wohl auf alien 
Inseln (vergl. Poaseti, Munn, 1924, p. 456, 1925, p. 42).' 

Otus scops mallorcae Jordans. 

Die reizende Zwergohreule ist ein auf alien Inseln allgemein verbreiteter, 
haufiger Standvogel, der im Mai briitet. Wir schossen jetzt zu der friJheren 
Serie von 11 Exemplaren noch ein gepaartes Paar, das die fiir die Form von 
mir angegebenen Unterschiede sehr deutlich zeigt. Naheres siehe Falco, 1923, 
p. 5, und Vogelf. I und besonders II. 

^ Anmerkung : Ausserordentlich auffallend ist das ganziiche Fehien irgend eines Spechtes. — 
Rainis uiid Weyler behaupten zwar das Vorkommen von Picus minor^ aber oline Zvveifel ohne jeden 
Grund ; vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 103, Anmerkung. 



298 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Asio otus (L.). 

Wenn Barcelo die Waldohreule als " hiiufig " in den Waldem Mallorcas und 
Menorcas und Ponseti sie als Standvogel letzterer Insel bezeiclmet, so kenne ich 
nur die in meiner ersten Arbeit genannten 2 Vogel, die angeblich von Mallorca 
stammen sollen ; sonst ist sie nie von irgend einem Beobachter festgestellt worden. 
Standvogel ist sie sicher nicht, dass sie sich selten einiual als Gast dort zeigt, ist 
natiirlich niclit ausgeschlossen. 

Asio flammeus Pontopp. 

Die Sumpfohreule ist dagegen sicher von Mallorca nachgewiesen, sie briitet 
jedoch nicht hier. Miinn erwahnt einige Daten ihres Vorkommens (1925, p. 42, 
1926, p. 470) aus November, April und sogar ein Stiick vom 18. v. und erhielt 
auch Belegexemplare. Ich sah ein ausgestopftes Stiick bei Herrn Garcias Font 
in Arta, das dort erlegt war. — Von Menorca ist sie noch nicht sicher bekannt. 

Athene noctua (Scop.). 

Homeyers Angaben vom haufigen Vorkommeii des Steinkauzes auf Mallorca 
beruhen ohiie jeden Zweifel auf Irrtum (Vogelf. I, p. 107). Es ist merkwiirdig, 
dass dieser Autor verschiedene Dinge bestimmt behauptet — vergl. z.B. Rotkopf- 
sperling u.A. ! — , die unfraglich falsch sind. Ich selbst — und auch Munn — 
glaubte, die Art sowohl 1913 wie auch 21 em paar Male gehcirt zu haben (vergl. 
diese Notizen), jetzt stehe ich jedoch nicht an, zu .sagen, dass dies sicherlich auch 
ein Irrtum war, denn der Steinkauz kommt als Brutvogel nach iibereinstimmender 
Aussage zuverlassiger Leute dort nicht vor. — Munn hat nun (1924, pp. 457-58) 
zu seinem eigenen Erstaunen am 7. Mai 1923 auf Menorca aus niichster Nahe 
einen Steinkauz beobachtet, so nahe, dass cr ihn mit seinem Stock beriihrte, 
woraufhin er erst aufflog, um sich gleich wieder zu setzen, so dass man kaum 
an der Richtigkeit der Bestimniung zweifeln kann. Ponseti sah ihn hier auch 
nie. Ob er also selten auf dieser Insel briitet, und dann welche Form das ist, 
entzieht sich liisher unserer Kenntnis. — Das Fehlen dieser Eule in dcm fiir sie 
allenthalben so iiberaus giinstigen Terrain ist hochst sonderbar. 

Strix alueo L. 

Der Waldkauz ist bisher nicht mit Sicherheit von den Balearen nachge- 
wiesen (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 107, und Munn, 1927, p. 160). Er briitet jedenfalls 
nicht im Gebiete. 

Tyto alba kleinschmidti Jordans. 

Ich beschrieb die Schleiereule Mallorcas in Falco, 1923, p. 5, und dann 
ausfiihrlich in Vogelf. II, pp. 409-10. — Ich schoss jetzt noch 3 Vogel, sodass mir 
12 vorliegen. Diese neuen Exemplare bestatigen aufs Schonste meine friiheren 
Ausfiihrungen ; die Fliigellange geht allerdings etwas welter : 278-98. Von 
den drei jetzt raitgebrachten ist das eine Mannchen unterseits ganz ungcfleckt, 
das andere zeigt einige wenige kleine Flecken in den Flankcn und das Weibchen 
diese etwas mehr und starker. — Die Art ist ein auf alien Inseln lebender Stand- 
vogel, der keincr Ortschaft fehlt. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 299 

Falco peregrinus (subsp?) 

Der Waiiderfalke ist auf alien Inselii eiii durchaus haufiger Brutvogel, der 
vornehmlich an den Steilkiisten liorstet. — Am 14. April 27 versuchte ein solcher 
fiber der Stadt Palma aiis einem grossen Taubenschwan, immer wieder erneut 
stossend, eine Taube zu schlagen ; hunderte Menschen sahen dieseiu schonen 
Schauspiel voll spanischem Enthusiasmus zu ; die Aufregung und die Anteilanhme 
erinnerte stark an die in einem Stierkampf ! Der Falke zog aber .schliesslich 
unverrichteter Dinge, nachdem er sich immer hoher geschraubt hatte, fast nvir 
mehr als Punkt sichtbar, dem Gebirge zu ab. — 1913 batten wir niu' 4 Junge, 
dem Horst entnommene, bekommen, 1921 schoss ioh einen jiingeren Vogel und 
ein alter ging mir im Rohr der Albufera verloren (Vogelf. I und II). Diesmal 
hatte ich nun Alles darauf abgelegt, wenigstens einige alte Vogel zu bekommen. 
Horste, in die wir eine mitgenommene Falle legen wollten, waren unerreichbar, 
auf angebundene lebende Tauben stiessen sie nicht, ebensowenig auf die hoch 
im Gebirge aufgestellte und mit einer ausgestopften Taube bekoderte Falle. 
Als wir ins Gebirge kamen, war es schon zu spat in der Jahreszeit, um sie am 
Horste zu schiessen. An der Steilkiiste bei Arta fanden wir endlich am .30. Mai 
4 Junge ausgeflogene Wanderfalken auf den schroff zum Meere abfallenden 
Felsen sitzen und sahen die Alten stets in der Nahe kreisen und bei unserem 
Nahen aufgeregt rufend umherjagen. Hier hofEten wir nun endlich auf Erfolg, 
erkletterten mit grosser Miihe und Schwierigkeit bei bewegter See vom Nachen 
aus die unbetretbar scheinende Felskiiste ; Baron Bodman stellte sich, gut 
gedeekt, unterhalb der Jungen an, die ab und zu auiflogen, um bald wieder an 
der gleichen Stelle aufzuhaken, und ich erkletterte den Gipfel, mich dort gut 
zwischen Felsen versteckend. Alles Warten niitzte aber nichts, die Alten karaen 
nicht in Schussnahe heran, und, da das Meer immer imruhiger wurde, mussten 
wir sehleunigst in das Boot zuriick, hierbei eine Welle abpassend, die das Boot 
so hoch und so nahe an die Klippe heraufhob, dass wir es im Sprunge erreichen 
konnten ! Bodman schoss dann vorher noch einen der jungen Vogel. Ein 
andermal liatten wir noch griisseres Pecli : Auch bei Arta, an anderer Kiiste, 
der wildesten Felslandschaft, die ich je sah, sass unerwartet, als ich mit dem 
eingangs erwahnten glanzenden Jager Cosmer und einem weiteren Schiitzen 
.jagte, auf steiler Klippe hoch iiber dem Meere ein junger Wanderfalke, iiber 
dem die beiden alten Vogel kreisten. Wir piirschten uns in schwieriger Kletterei 
nahe heran und versteckten uns zwischen den Felsen an zwei auseinanderliegenden 
Punkten. Es dauerte gar nicht lange, als ein Vogel in rasendem Fluge, laut 
schreiend, iiber mich weg schoss, den mein Schuss aber fehlte, da er doch noch 
reichlich hoch war. Nach kurzer Weile kamen die beiden Alten uns zwei Schiitzen 
in eben fiir die FlLnte erreichbare Nahe, wir schossen fast gleichzeitig, und beide 
fielen mit gebrochenem Fliigel herab. Meine Freude, ein herrUches altes Paar 
endlich zu haben, kann man sich denken — nicht aber meine Wut, als es uns in 
dem uniibersehbaren Felsgeroll und den schroffen Abstiirzen trotz stundenlangen 
Herumkletterns nicht gelang, auch niu- einen der Beiden zu finden ! ! Wir 
hatten von unseren Verstecken aus nicht die genaue Stelle des Aufschlagens sehen 
konnen, trotzdem bin ich iiberzeugt, dass wir sie gefunden hatten, aber ich niusste 
schliesslich amiehmen, dass sie sich noch in irgend eine Felsspalte verkrochen 
hatten. Jedenfalls blieb alle Miihe vergebens. — An der schroffen Kiiste der 
Cabrera versuchten wir es vom Lande und vom Nachen aus, aber auch ohne 



300 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 192S. 

Erfolg. — Cosmer, der mm Alles daransetzte — ich hatte ihm ausserdem eine 
tiichtige Belohiiung versprochen— biachte schliesslieh eines Tages freudestralilend 
einen Wanderfalken an, den er nacli stundenlangem Ansitz am 28. v. geschossen 
hatte, aber leider war es audi wieder ein jiingeier Vogel. 

Dass ich scliliesslicli iibeihaupt alte Vogel niitbiingen konnte, verdanke icli 
der Liebenswiirdigkeit zweier Herrn in Palnia— und der des Deutschen Consuls, 
der uns bei der Suche unterstiitzte — , die mir, wie Herr Garcias Font ein Mann- 
chen aus dem November des gleichen Jahres, 2 ausgestopfte (,^ $) von ihnen 
friiher geschossene Exemplare schenkten. 

Uber die Maasse lasst sich infolge des geringen Materials nicht viel sagen : 
Fliigellange (J ad. 28,0 ; ein ausgewachsenes junges ^ 28,8 ; das $ ad. misst 
33,0, ein ausgewachsenes junges 31,3. Die iibrigen 5 Jungen sind nocli nicht 
messbar. 

Hartert gibt fijr brookei an : q" 280 (einnial 275)— 300, $ 320-40, aber 
er rechnet zu dieser Form alle Wanderfalken des Mittelmeergebietes, was 
nach Kleinschmidt nicht angangig ist. Dieser gibt in seiner prachtvoUen 
Peregrinus Monographie fiir den echten hroolei als mannliches Maximum 29,9 
(das Minimum ist noch nicht genau bekannt), fiir das $ 32,8-34,8 ; fiir seinen 
pitnicus ^ 27,4-(29,0), 9 (32,5)-33,9 an. Ich maass brookei ^ mit 28,8-29,3 
und ? ad. bis 34,5. — Meine Balearenstiicke sind also jedenfalls klein. 

Nun die Fiirbung : Die alten wie die jungen Vogel sind heller als brookei, 
unter- wie oberseits, stark rotHch und stehen Vogeln aus N. Marokko (punicus) 
viel naher. Im Einzelnen : (J ad. Oberseite hell, Riicken und Biirzel mit 
geringer Banderung ; rothche Nackenfiecke, die bis in die Augengegend 
ausklingen : Backen stark rotlich iiberflogen. Unterseite ganz licht, Kehle 
und Vorderbrust ganz ohne jede Fleckung, erstere weissUch, letztere stark 
rotlich wie die iibrige Unterseite, die auch nur ganz geringe Flecken zeigt, die 
Banderung ist stark reduciert, wie bei einem ad. ^ von pelegrinoides. — Ein 
junges aus dem November auch sehr hoht. — $ ad. : Oberseite hell, Nacken- 
flecken rotlich ; Backen stark rot. Ganze Unterseite ausserordentlich rot, wie 
ich es nie bei einem anderen Stiick aus der Freiheit sah. Vorderbrust mit 
schmalen Tropfenfiecken, die Banderung der iibrigen Unterseite schmal. 

Die beiden ausgewachsenen Jungvogel (^ $) auch sehr rot {vergl. Vogelf. I, 
p. 109). Das 1^ ist sehr ahnlich einem gleichaltrigen punicus aus Constantine. 
Die Unterseite bei alien Jungvogeln roter als bei brookei. 

Die Oberseite der alten Vogel ist heller als bei Vogeln aus N. Marokko und 
dem Algerier, sie haben aber geringeren roten Nackenfleck ; die Unterseite ist 
fast so hell wie bei jielegrinoides. Der Baleare ist in alien Stiioken ini ganzen 
heller als brookei und steht dem nordafrikanischen Wanderfalken nahe. 

Weitere adulte Vogel, die ich bald zu erhalten hofie, konnen erst die Frage 
der Formziigehorigkeit oder der Notwendigkeit nomenclatorischer Trennung des 
balearischen Wanderfalken klaren. Stiicke aus S. Spanien, die ich im Tringer 
und Britischen Museum sah, scheinen mit dem Balearen ubereinzustimmen. 

Falco eleonorae Gene. 

Am 8. Juni 27 sahen wir diesmal den ersten Eleonorenfalken bei Alcudia 
und die naehsten Tage immer einzelne oder mehrere Vogel. Am 10., als wir 
Abends km-z vor Eintritt der Diimmerung aus der Albufera heimkehi-ten, iiber- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 301 

flogen uns 5-6, dann dauenid einzelne oder etliche Exemplare erst hoch kreisend, 
dann immer tiefer herabkoinmend, bis wir schlies.slich etwa 40 die.ser eleganten 
Flieger zalilen konnten, die in Baiimhohe oder noch niedriger den iiber dem 
Sumpfe in Massen fliegenden Insekten, namentlich Libellen, nachjagten — ein 
prachtvolles Bild. — Wir schossen noch 2 der hellen Phase ; unter der Menge 
der Vogel konnten wir nur verhaltnissmassig wenige — vielleicht etwa 1/5 — der 
dunklen Phase angehorige Stiicko unterscheiden. In den letzten Tagen Juni 
sahen wir dann auch wenige Eleonorenfalken bei Sta. Ponsa an der S.W. Kiiste 
Mallorcas. — Wenn Munn am 22. vi. viele (22) " Falco peregrimis " iiber der 
Albufera sah {1925, p. 43), so waren dies zweifellos nicht Wander- sondern 
Eleonorenfalken, den er " anscheinend nicht sehr selten " nennt und den er 
damals draussen wohl noch nicht unterscheiden konnte. — Murphy (Jourdain, 
1927, p. 83) traf ihn 1926 an der Dragonera. Er briitet hier wie auch an anderen 
Klippen der Inseln, sicherlich auch auf Menorca, woher er bisher nicht genannt 
ist. — Man vergleiche, was ich iiber die Art in meinen beiden friiheren Arbeiten 
schreibe. 

Falco subbuteo L. 

Nach Barcelo und Ponseti zieht der Baumfalke selten ini Friihjahr und 
Herbst auf Mallorca und Menorca durch. Ich sah zwei ausgestopfte in Palma, 
1914 auf Mallorca erbeutet (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 520). — Munn sah einen am 
19.iv.24 und einen weiteren am 27.iv.25 (1926, p. 471). 

Falco columbarius aesalon Tunst. 

Der Zwergfalke ist ein seltener Passant der Inseln im Winter. Munn sah 
einen am 28.xii. 1919 bei Alcudia. 

Falco vespertinus L. 

Der Abendfalke wurde sehr selten auf den Balearen nachgewiesen (vergl. 
Vogelf. I und II). 

Falco naumanni Fleisch. 

Homeyer gibt zwar an, ein Nest des Rotelfalken in der Grotte bei Arta 
gefunden zu haben, und ich selbst (Vogelf. I, p. Ill), dass ich ihn dreimal sah, 
aber im ersteren Falle scheint mir eine Verwechselung mit dem Turmfalken 
wahrscheinlich zu sein, der immer einen Horst in jener Hohle hatte und noch 
hat, und im 2. Falle halte ich jetzt bestimmt fiir sicher, dass ich ihn auch 
verwechselte. Weitere Angaben iiber sein Vorkoramen liegen nicht vor, denn 
die Munns in Chamberhn (vergl. Jourdain, 1927, p. 83) beziehen sich fraglos auf 
die obigen. Ich glaube mit Sicherheit annehmen zu diirfen, dass der Rotelfalke 
bisher nicht aus dem Gebiete nachgewiesen ist, was in anbetracht seiner Ver- 
breitung im Nachbargebiet merkwiirdig ist. 

Falco tinnunculus L. 

(Falco tinnunculus intercedens Br.) 

Der Turmfalke ist ein hiiufiger Standvogel aller Inseln der Balearen — 
Pityusengruppe. — Er briitet hier nicht auf Baumen sondern nur in den Felsen 
21 



302 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

oder in altem Gemauer (vergl. Munn unci Heniici). Brutzeit April-Mai. Am 
18.V. fanden wir bei Arta in einem veilassenyu und verfalleuen Hause einen 
Horst mit 5 Eiern, die aber bereits piepende Junge enthielten, weshalb wir sie 
nicht mitnahmen. Andeie Horste waren niclit eneiehbar. — Wir scho.ssen noch 
3 Vogel, so dass jetzt 8 vorliegen (6oo. 2$5). — " Bestimmt ist es nicht die 
Nominatforni ; die Fornizugehorigkeit ist nach diesen (5) Stiicken noch nicht 
zu entscheiden. ... Ob er mit deni N.W. Afrikaner zu identificieren ist, der 
eine gute Form ist, . . . ," so schrieb ich in meiner letzten Arbeit. — Ich habe 
nun ein grosses Material genau verglichen und l)in zu anderen Resultaten 
gekommen. Auf die lichte, mehr sandfarbene Farbung ist nichts zti geben, 
denn ein friiheres Stiick sieht so aus wie andere Stiicke aus dem Mittelmeer- 
gebiet und auch aus Deutschland (bezgl. dieser Farbung). Auch die damals 
vermeintlichen Unterschiede des n.w. afrikanischen Turinfalken diirften nicht 
bestehen. Der tyrrhenische Vogel ist nicht dunkler als andere aus deni Medi- 
terrangebiet. Die Maasse sind wohl gleich. 

Kleinschmidt wies mich nun darauf hin, dass die Turmfalken des Mittel- 
meergebietes kleinere Fleckung zeigen als die Nominatform — was mir 1921 
(Vogelf. II, p. 520) auch schon aufgefallen war bei den Mallorcanern — und dass 
Brehm in der Naumannia I, p. 75, 1851, solche wenig gefleckten Vogel intercedens 
genannt hat, die " von Pommern bis Sardinian " vorkamen ; Brehm nennt 2 
Stiicke aus Sardinien, die ihm vorlagen. Will man also die Turmfalken des 
Mittehueergebietes abtrennen, so miisste wohl dieser Name Verwendung finden. 
— Mir lag em recht umfangreiches Vergleichsmaterial aus diesen Gegenden vor, 
und tatsachUch zeigt bei diesen die Oberseite der Mannchen (auch bei Beriick- 
sichtigung gleichaltriger Stiicke, was wichtig ist) eine etwas geringere Grosse 
der Flecken, die auf der Unter.seite aber nicht deutlich ist, wenn auch solche 
Extreme bei nordlicheren nicht vorzukommen scheinen. Dagegen diirfte bei 
den Weibchen kaum oder nur ein sehr geringfiigiger Unterschied festzustellen 
sein. — Hierauf eine Form nomenclatoriseh abzutrennen, wiirde ich kaum fiir 
notwendig erachten ; da einmal ein Name existiert, mag, wer Wert darauf legt, 
den Turmfalken des Mittelmeergebietes Falco tinnuncidus intercedens Brehm 
nennen. 

Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri (Sev.). 

Hartert schreibt in " Beitrage zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie der Vogel," 
1927, p. 194 : " Der sehr kenntliche Steinadler Spaniens und Kleinafrikas . . . 
muss statt occidentalis in Zukunft wohl homeyeri heissen. . . . Die Art wurde 
nach Homeyers Mitteilungen im Journal f. Ornith. 1862, p. 248, iiber balearische 
und algerische Steinadler benannt, der Autor hat augenscheinlich gar kein 
Stiick gesehen ! " — Man moge nachlesen, was ich in meinen friiheren Arbeiten 
iiber das Vorkommen dieses Adlers auf Mallorca schrieb. Ich habe leider nichts 
Neues hinzuzufiigen, denn auch auf der letzten Reise gelang trotz erdenklicher 
Miihe nicht die Erlegung eines Vogels. Wir hatten uns eines Tages an dem Gipfel 
einer hohen Felswand im Nordgebirge bei Valldemosa, auf ausserstem Vorsprung 
gut versteckt, angesetzt, da nach Aussage eines zuverlassigen Burschen hier fast 
taglich Adler vorbeistreichen sollten. Stvmdenlang sass ich in enger Felsspalte 
iiber gahnendem Abgrund eingeklemmt, ohne dass sich ein Adler blicken liess, 
nur einige Male horte ich seiuen Schrei. Schliesslich war ich so lahm, dass ich 



NOVITATES ZOOLOCICAE XXXIV. 1928. 303 

fiirchten musste, sollte docli noch eiii Vogel erscheinen, nicht schuell schiessen 
zu konnen ; daher stand ich — soweit das moglich war — aid', sah die herrliche 
Landschaft unter mir, mid da sich nichts blickeii liess, nahm ich mcineii Photo- 
apparat aus dem Rucksack, um eine Aufnahme zu machen. Grade hatte ich 
geknipst — da kommt lautlosen Fhiges ein Steinadler in kaum 10 m Entfernung 
am mil- vorbeigeghtten, aber ehe ich die FUnte hochgerissen, den Apparat fallen 
gelassen hatte, war er um die nachste Felsennase verschwunden ! ! AUe spateren 
Versuche blieben erfolglos, dooh schoss mein Reisegefahrte hier eine Doublette auf 
ein Zwergadlerpaar. — Wir sahen Steinadler diesmal aber nicht haufig. — Henrici 
beobachtete ihn auch iai Nordgebirge. — Munn sah ihn mehr im Winter und meint, 
es sei nicht ganz sicher, ob er hier auch briite ; da wir ihn aber jederzeit von 
Marz bis Juli sahen, diirfte dies doch ohne Frage der Fall sein. — Die Einwohner 
unterscheiden merkwiirdigerweise nicht zwischen Adler und Geier und nennen 
alle diese grossen Raubvogel " buitre " oder " volto," daher ist auf deren Angaben 
liber gefundene Horste kein Verlass, welcher Art diese zugehoren. 

Aquila heliaca adalberti Br. 

Wcnn kein Intum vorliegt, beobachtete Munn (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 521) 
am 20.xi. 19 und ich Anfangs Mai bei Valldemosa je einen Adalbertsadler. 

Hieraaetus pennatus (Gm.). 

Wir sahen den Zwergadler sowohl im Norden wie fast noch haufiger im 
Gebirge bei Arta. Ich muss ihn gradezu einen gemeinen Brutvogel der Insel 
nennen. Auch auf Menorca soil er haufig sein, und sicherlich fehlt er auch den 
Pityusen nicht. Wir sahen eine gauze Anzahl Horste, ausschliesslich an hohen 
unerreichbaren Felsen, inimer an der Siidseite der Berge und brachten jetzt 7 
alte Vogel heim. Es sind 2 ^^ und 5 $$, die beiden ersteren der dunklen, von 
den Weibchen 3 der hellen, 2 der dunklen Phase angehorend. Sie stimmen mit 
Exemplaren aus anderen Gegenden in Farbung und Grosse vollig iiberein. Der 
Zwergadler ist auf dem Lande ein gefiirchteter Hiihner- und Taubendieb ; so 
wurde uns auch einer gebracht, der sich in einem iiber einem Hiihnerhof aufge- 
stellten Schlagnetz gefangen hatte. Er scheint im Mai und Juni zu briiten. 

Hieraaetus faseiatus (VieilL). 

Leider gelang es nicht, einen Habichtsadler zu schiessen. Meine Angabe 
in der letzten Arbeit, dass auch diese Art haufig sei, stimmt nicht. Sie ist bedeu- 
tend seltener als die vorige, und wir beobachteten sie diesmal nur wenige Male. 
Henrici (1927, p. 51) sah sie auf Mallorca wie auf Menorca ; ebenso beobachtete 
Munn den Habichtsadler ab und zu auf Mallorca. 

Buteo buteo (L.). 
Munn sah den Mausebussard selten im Winter und er halt — mit mir — die 
Behauptung Ponsetis, dass er Standvogel auf Menorca sei, fiir einen Irrtum. 

Accipiter nisus (L.). 
Der Sperber briitet auf den Balearen nicht — trotz Barcelo und Ponseti — 
ist aber ein nicht sehr seltener Wintervogel ; ich sah ihn zweimal (Vogelf. 1, II, 
und Munn). 



304 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Circus pygargus (L.). 

Am 2. Mai 1913 schoss ich eine iiielanistische Wiesenweihe auf Mallorca 
(Vogelf. I, pp. 112-13), der einzige Nachweis ihres Vorkommens. 

Circus macrourus (Gm.). 

Ponseti erwahnt die Steppenweihe als wahrscheinlicli auf dem Zuge vorkom- 
mend auf Menorca. Henrici sandte iiiir die Reste einer weiblichen Weilie (Fliigel, 
Schwanz, Fang), die ein Bauer am 25.iv.25 auf Formentera geschossen hatte 
und die ich als Stejipenweihe diagnosticierte ; er sah dann die nachsten Tage 
noch mehrere Exemplare derselben Art (1927, pp. 51-2). — Muiin beobachtete 
einen Vogel der Art am 8.iv.24 auf Mallorca (1926, p. 471). 

Circus cyaneus (L.). 

Homeyer behauptet, die Kornweihe sei eiii nicht seltener Brutvogel Mallorcas, 
und dasselbe sagen Barcelo und Ponseti, letzterer fiir Menorca. — Ich sah eine 
alte Weihe der Art am 2.iv.21 bei Arta (Vogelf. II, p. 524). Munn schreibt 
auch, sie sei ein nicht haufiger Stand vogel Menorcas (1924, p. 458) und er habe 
sie auch beobachtet, ebenso ein Paar am 24.iv.25 bei Alcudia auf Mallorca 
" offensichtlich auf dem Zuge und im August 25 ein $ an derselben Stelle "' 
(1926, p. 471), imd in Chamberlin (p. ICl) schreibt derselbe Autor, die Kornweihe 
ziehe auf Mallorca nur durch, sei aber seltener Standvogel auf Menorca. Beleg- 
exemplare liegen nicht vor. — In der Albufera ging am 17.vi.27 auf wenige 
Schritte vor uns vom Ufer einer der schmalen Kanale eine ziemlich helle Weihe 
auf, die einen weissen Biirzel hatte ; leider war ich im Augenblick nicht schuss- 
bereit, so dass sie, als ich die Flinte fertig hatte, ausser Schussweite war, und 
so kann ich die Art nicht sicher angeben, aber es diirfte wohl diese gewesen sein. 
Ein Brutnachvveis ist also bisher nicht erbracht. 

Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus (L.). 

Die Rohrweihe ist in den Sumpfgebieten Mallorcas ein ausserordentlich 
zahlreicher Brutvogel, den wir namentlich in der Porrassa, der Albufera und in 
dem grossen Sumpfe bei Salinas in vielen Paaren und in alien ihren so stark 
differierenden Kleidern beobachteten. Der Vogel ist hier sehr scheu und einmal 
dadurch schwer zu schiessen aber auch, wenn geschossen, schwer in dem hohen 
Rohr zu linden. Wir brachten so leider nur 2 alte Weibchen (1921 ein junges 
Mannchen) mit. Es ist die Nominatform und nicht die n.w. afrikanische harterii. 
— Wir fanden 2 Gelege, eins am 9. v. bei Salinas mit 4 frischen Eiern und ems 
mit 3 stark bebriiteten Eiern am 30 . iv. in der Porrassa, hierzu die beiden oben- 
genannten Weibchen. Die Horste standen im Rohr auf alten Gestriippwurzeln. 
— Auf Menorca ist die Art nicht so hiiufig (Ponseti und Munn). 

Milvus milvus (L.). 

Diesen schonen Raubvogel sahen wir allenthalben auf Mallorca wie auf den 
Pityusen. Wir schossen 2 weitere ( (J $) zu den beiden von der ersten Reise. Sie 
sind sehr vorsichtig und scheu, aber von der Luderhiitte aus konnten wir ihnen 
standig aus nachster Nahe immer wieder beim Verzehren des Aases zuschauen ; 
sie waren uns die sicheren Anmelder nahender Geier, die sich nur von den 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 305 

Aasgeiern nicht bei ihrer Mahlzeit storen liessen, dagegen sich stets in respectvoUe 
Entfernimg zuriickzogen, blockte einer der rie.sigeii Kuttengeier in ihrer Nahe 
auf. Die Gabelweihe briitet hier im Mai, horstet ausschlie-sslich in den Felsen, 
nicht auf Baumen, an unzuganglichen Abstiirzen. — Auf Menorca ist sie ebenso 
verbreitet. 

Milvus migrans migrans (Bodd.). 

Homeyer gibt an, ein Parchen des schwarzen Milans beobachtet zu haben, 
und ich glaube, ein Stiick 1913 bei Arta und ein weiteres auf der letzten Raise 
ebenfalls da gesehen zu haben ; Barcelos Angaben beruhen auf irgend einer 
Verwechslung, da er ihn auf beiden Inseln als haufigen Standvogel angibt. 
Nach Ponseti wurde ein Vogel auf Menorca erbeutet. — Wir sahen jetzt einen 
schwarzen MUan ausgestopft im Besitze des Herrn Garcias Font in Arta, der in 
der Nahe erlegt war. Er kommt also wohl selten im Gebiete vor, doch ist sein 
Briiten zweifelhaft. — Wenn Barcelo schreibt, dass " Milvus aegyptius " sich 
selten auf Mallorca zeige, so entbehrt dies wohl jeder Grundlage. 

Pemis apivoras (L.). 

Nach Ponseti wurde im September 1902 em Wespenbussard auf Menorca 
geschossen (Vogelf. I, p. 115). 

Pandion haliaetus (L.). 

Der Fischadler ist ein nicht seltener Brutvogel der Inselgruppen, der seine 
Horste an der Steilkiiste baut, so auf der Foradada, der Dragonera, Cabrera, 
an mehreren Punkten bei Arta, etc., etc. — Wir sahen ihn oft und ich schoss 1913 
ein Belegstiick (vergl. Munn, Henrioi, etc.). 

Haliaetus albicilla (L.) 

In meiner ersten Arbeit erwahnte ich, dass Homeyer am 9. v. 1861 drei 
junge Seeadler bei der Dragonera gesehen haben will, und dass Saunders' Angabe 
vom Vorhandensein mindestenes zweier Horste auf dieser Insel ohne Zweifel 
auf Verwechslung mit der vorigen Art beruhe. Auch die Richtigkeit von 
Homeyers Angabe mochte ich in Zweifel ziehen, wenn es auch nicht ausgeschlossen 
sein mag, dass sich wirklich einmal die Art an den Kiisten der Inseln zeigt. 

Neophron percnopterus (L.). 

Der Aasgeier briitet in wenigen Paaren auf MaUorca und Menorca, wir 
schossen 1921 einen adulten und diesmal (24. v.) einen jungen Vogel ; wir sahen 
ihn sowohl einzeln wie mehrere gleichzeitig im West-, Nord- und Siidostgebirge 
(vergl. Munn, Henrici, etc.). 

Aegypius monachus (L.). 

Taglich kreisen diese grossen Vogel hoch in den Liiften iiber Gebirge 
und Ebene. Der Kuttengeier ist nooh ein haufiger Standvogel Mallorcas. Von 
Menorca und den Pityusen wird er nicht erwahnt, doch wird er auch hier sicherlich 
sich zeigen, wenn auch vielleicht nicht briiten. Am Aase ist er im Gegensatz 
zu anderen Gegenden hier ausserst vorsichtig, imd wenn er auch einzeln oder 



306 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

zu mehreren in tier Nahe aufblockt, so dauert es doch meist sehr lange, bis er 
sich heranwagt, und hat er einen selbst in gut abgedeckter Hiitte erst eriiugt, 
so wird man vergebliche Stunden warten, dass er das Aas wieder anfallt. Sie 
kreisten oft immer wieder ganz dicht iiber unserer Hiitte, dass der Schatten 
dieser Riesenvogel auf Sekunden unser Versteck verdunkelte oder man den 
Luftzug der Schwingen zu spiiren vermeinte. — Einmal kamen wir unerwartet 
in uniibersichtlichem, felsbrockeniibersiitem Bergabhang in der Mittagsglut in 
eine Schar solcher Vogel hinein, die sich, 16 an der Zahl, miihsam vom Boden 
losten und um uns herumschwebten, aber einige Schiisse mit diokem Schrot 
klatschten wie trockene Erbsen wirkungslos auf Fliigel, Korper und Kopf ! 
Ich schoss 1921 (Vogelf. I und II, auoh Munn) ein Belegstiick. — Wie mir Leute 
versicherten, sammeln sich zuweilen an bestimmten Stellen, wohin man regel- 
massig von den Hofen eingegangene Kiihe, Pferde, oder was es sonst gibt, schafft, 
30, ja iiber 40 dieser machtigen Kerle, um im Verein mit Aasgeiern, Raben und 
Gabelweihen in kurzer Zeit tabula rasa zu schaffen. Sie fressen sich dann 
haufig so voll, dass man hin und wieder einen solchen, der sich infolge seiner 
Fiille nicht mehr vom Boden zu erheben vermag, totschlagt, wahrend man ihnen 
sonst im allgemeineu nicht nachstellt. — Die Horste stehen an den schroffsten, 
hochsten Felswanden. 

Gyps fulvus (Hablizl.). 

Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator sah einmal, wie er mir 1913 erzahlte, wahrend 
eines Menschenalters, das er auf Mallorca zubrachte, im Nordgebirge einen 
Vogel dieser Art. Barcelos Angaben, dass sie haufiger Standvogel sei, ist Unsmn 
(vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 116). — Herr Garcias Font erhielt einen Gansegeier, der auf 
oben geschilderte Weise nicht weit von Arta totgeschlagen war, wie er mir 
berichtete ; aber da die Uberbringer bereits die meisten grossen Schwungfedern 
ausgerissen hatten, liess er ihn nicht praparieren. — Ich selbst glaube bestimmt, 
jetzt von der Luderhiitte aus, die wir uns im Gebirge bei Arta eingerichtet hatten, 
langere Zeit einen Gansegeier gesehen zu haben, aber die Entfernung bis zu dem 
Felsen auf den er mit Kuttengeiern zusammen aufgeblockt war, war so gross, 
dass ich die Art trotz meines ausgezeichneten Zeissglases nicht mit Sicherheit 
ansprechen konnte. Er war grosser und heller als die nahe neben ihm sitzenden 
Geier ; leider kam er nicht ans Aas, und da wir hofften, er wiirde es doch noch an- 
fallen, Uessen wir mehrere in guter Schussnahe sitzende Kuttengeier unbeheUigt. 

Alectoris rufa laubmanni subsp.nov. 

Hartert sagt (Vogel d. pal. F. p. 1914), dass das auf den Balearen lebende 
Rothuhn nach einem Paar in Witherbys Sammlung und einem $ in Tring in 
der Farbung nicht von der Nominatform zu unterscheiden sei, dagegen sei es 
vielleicht kleiner (157, 146, 148, 152 mm.). Die Eier schienen (nach Jourdain) 
auch kleiner. — Von corm (das Parrot auch nur wegen geringerer Maasse abtrennte) 
schreibt er Ahnliches, in der Farbung gleich, aber " vielleicht in der Regel etwas 
kleiner " ; (J 158, 158, $ 142, 148, 155 (vergl. Vogelf. II, pp. 525-26). Diese 
Angaben iiber die Farbung der beiden Formen sind nach meinem Material nicht 
zutreffend : corsa hat bedeutend dunklore (tiefolivgriine) Ober.seite als rufn und 
gleicht darin der nordspanischen hi.spnnica. 

Wir schosscn noch weitere 5 Exemplars. Maine 7 Rothiihner von Mallorca 
zeigen einen auffallend hellen, mehr grau-sandfarbenen, weniger griinlich- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 307 

braunlichen Riicken, viel heller al.s rufa, erst recht als corsa und hispanica, heller 
noch als die siidspanische interredens ; ebenso ist da.s Braun des Oberkopfes, des 
Nackens und Vorderriickens lichter und weniger rotlich, melir gelblich. Unter- 
fiiigeldecken sehr hell. Das Braun des Bauches ist ebenfalls heller, gelblicher, 
ahnlich dem einiger italienischer Vogel. 
Die Maasse : 

nifa nach Hartert : rj 157-68, $ 150-62 (ich maass 1 $ aus Italien mit 
146, andere wie Hartert). 

corsa nach Hartert : S 2 nial 158, 9 142, 148, 155 (ich maass— vergl. 
Vogelf. II ! ! $ 149, 2 mal 157, ? 142, 146, 148, 150, 2 mal 153, also : S 
149-58, 9 142-49, wohl noch keine Maxima u. Minima). 

Mallorcaner : ^ 150, 2 mal 151, 159, ? 143, 144, 149 (kerne Maxima 
u. Minima). 

Die bisherigen Messungen ergaben also fiir rufa : ,^ 157-68, $ 146- 
62 mm. ; corsa : ^ 149-58, $ 142-55 mm. ; Baleare : ^ 150-59, ? 143- 
49 mm. 

Demnach sind ccrrsa und der Baleare kleiner als rufa ; ob erstere gleiche 
Maasse haben, kann erst grosseres Material entscheiden. 

Der Baleare ist aber von corsa deutlich durch die obenangegebenen 
Farbungsmerkmale unterschieden. 

Ich bennene die Form zu Ehren von Herrn Prof. Dr. Laubniann in 
Miinchen, der meinen Arbeiten stets Interesse entgegenbrachte vmd mich 
jederzeit mit Rat und Tat unterstiitzte, schon als ich als junger Student in 
der Miinohener Sammlung arbeiten durfte. 

Typus : ^ 3.iv. 1921, Arta, Mallorca, Nr. 2918. 
Am 23. Mai 27 griff ich in der hohen Sierra bei Arta ein wohl erst ca. einen 
Tag altes Junges aus einer Kette von etwa 15 Stiick, das ich praparierte. — Ich 
brachte 2 Gelege heim, ems von 15 Eiern (von denen leider 2 zerbrachen) und 
eins von 12 Eiern, die ich beide bei Salmas am 4. bezw. 6. v. nahm (iiber Eier- 
maasse vergl. Jourdain imd Henrici, 1927, pp. 87 u. 98). 

Das Rothuhn ist aiif den Inseln noch sehr haufig ; Naheres lese man in 
meiner ersten Arbeit nach. — In einsamer Sierra bei Salinas stiessen wir jetzt 
auf eine grosse Felsplatte, die eine Inschrift trug des Inhalts, dass hier vor 
etlichen Jahren (es mogen 20 gewesen sein, ich verlor meine genaue Notiz dariiber) 
ein eifriger Jager starb, nachdem er sem 1000. Rothuhn auf Mallorca geschossen 
hatte. 

Betr. Angaben vom Vorkommen des Steinhuhns und des Klippenhuhns 
vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 118 ; beide Arten kommen nicht im Gebiete vor. 

Fiancolinus francolinus (L.). 
Munn schreibt (1924, p. 467), dass ein einziges imbezeichnetes Frankolin 
im Museum m Blahon steht, das aber Ponseti nicht erwahnt und von deni man 
nichts in Erfahrung bringen konnte, ausser dass es angeblich von der Insel 
stammt. 

Cotumix cotumix (L.). 

Die VVachtel ist ein gemeiner Herbst- und Friihjahrsdurchziigler auf alien 
Inseln und ein verbreiteter, wenn auch nicht grade haufiger Brutvogel. Wir 
schossen 8 Vogel. Einzelne sollen nach Barcelo und Munn das ganze Jahr 



308 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

iiber bleiben. — Wenn wir sie nicht grade haufig horten, so muss sie doch in 
grosserer Zahl briiten, als man annehmen mochte, denn der mehrfach genannte 
Vogelfanger Cosmer brachte mir am 25. Mai 27 elf Mannchen, die er alle dicht 
bei Arta in einer knappen Stunde lebend mit dem Schlagnetz gefangen hatte, 
nachdem er sie mit einem selbstgefertigten Lockinstrument angelockt hatte ; 
hier batten wir in den Tagen hochstens 3-4 gehort ! 

Columba palumbus L. 

Die Ringeltaube ist ein sehr sporadisch vorkommender Vogel in den Kiefern- 
bestanden Mallorcas, namentlich der Siid- und Siidostkiiste ; hier ist sie dann 
ziemlich zahlreich. Sie scheint in der Hauptsache ein Sommervogel zu sein, 
Munn meint (vergl. Vogelf. I nnd II), dass sie vereinzelt auch das ganze Jahr 
iiber bleibe. Er fand ein Gelege am 4. April und noch Anfang August Junge ; 
sie kommt Mitte Marz im Gebiete an. — Ich sammelte im C4aiizen 4 Exemplare ; 
e.s ist die Nominatform, allerdings zeigen alle vier sehr lichte Unterseite, nament- 
lich die Weibchen. 

Columba oenas L. 

Die Hohltaube soil nach Barcelo und Ponseti ein seltener Herbst- und 
Wintervogel Mallorcas und Menorcas sein (vergl. Vogelf. I und auch Munn). 

Columba livia subsp. ? 

Auf alien Inseln namentlich an den Steilkiisten, aber auch im felsigen Gebirge 
sonst, ist die Felsentaube ein iiberaus haufiger Standvogel, auf den die Einwohner 
eifrige Jagd machen. Vom schwankenden Boot die pfeilschnell an den Felsen 
vorbeieilenden Vogel zu treffen, erfordert viel Ubung, und im Gebirge halt es 
auch nicht viel leichter, da sie namentlich zur Brutzeit besonders scheu sind 
und vielfach in unerreichbaren Hohlen nisten. So brachte ich nur ein Stiiek mit 
(Arta, l.vi.27), das ganz auflfallend verschieden von der Nominatform ist, noch 
heller als schimperi aber mit reinweissem Biirzel, und mit 225 mm Fliigellange 
auch grosser als diese aber gleich der Nominatform. Da es sich immerhin urn 
ein aberrantes Exemplar handeln kann, ist eine Benennung nur nach dem einen 
Vogel nicht angangig, doch hoffe ich, einige weitere Felsentauben von dort zur 
Klarung dieser Frage zu bekommen. 

Streptopelia turtur loei Jordans. 

Diese interessante Form der Turteltaube beschrieb ich auf Gnnid von 4 
Exemplaren in Falco, 1923, p. 5, und machte ausfiihlichere Bemerkungen iiber 
sie in Vogelf. II, p. 527. Jetzt schossen wir wieder 4 Stiicke, die iibereinstimmend 
jene Charakteristica zeigen. Besonders fallt die sehr geringe Ausdehnung und 
die Helligkeit der weinriitlichen Fiirbung des Kropfes und der Vorderbrust auf. 
Fliigellange betragt nunmehr 1(),5-17,8 cm, wahrend Hartert fiir turtur 17,3-18,2, 
fiir arenicola 16,3-17,7, angibt. — Sie ist ein haufiger Brutvogel allerorts ; Gelege 
ab Ende Mai (vergl. Munn, Jourdain, Henrici). — Die vielen im Herbst imd 
Friihjahr durchziehenden Turteltauben (einen besonders starken Zug beobach- 
teten wir am ii.v.27 auf der Cabrera wo uns ein Junge eine frisch geschossene 
zeigte) gehoren zur Nominatform Streptopelia turtur turtur (L.). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 309 

Nycticorax nycticorax (L.). 

Meine Worte : " Im Gebiete um Alcudia, namentlich der Albufera, ist er 
ein sehr haufiger Brutvogel " (Vogelf. II, p. 527) diirften, worauf aiich Munn 
hinweist, doch nicht richtig sein. Wir sahen 1921 den Naclitieiher bis Mitte 
Mai dort haufig in Scharen bis zu 30 Stiick, Anfang Juni waren es nur mehr 
meist einzelne Paare oder 4-8 Vogel zusammen. Diesmal horte ich sie Abends 
am 8. Juni zwischen Alcudia und der Albufera eifrig rufen. Munn schreibt 
(1925, p. 44), dass der Nachtreiher in geringer Zahl alljahrlich die Kiefernwalder 
an der Bucht von Alcudia — wo ich ihn audi am meisten sah — besuche und 
den grossten Teil des Sommers auch hierbliebe, aber der Vogel scheine hier 
nicht, zu briiten. Er fand am 20.vi.23 ein unfertiges Nest von ihm " which was 
later forsaken," am 15.iv.22 wurde ein 9 mit sehr kleinem Eierstock erbeutet 
und im December 22 ein Vogel am Cabo del Pinar beobachtet, weshalb er gele- 
gentHch auch im Gebiete zu iiberwintern scheine. Er betont 1926 (p. 472), 
dass bisher keine Eier gefunden seien, dass offenbar die Mehrzahl nur durchziehe ; 
dasselbe schreibt er in C'hamberlin, 1927. — Auf Menorca kommt er nur selten 
auf dem Zuge zor. — Homeyer (Vogelf. I, p. 120) halt ihn fiir einen ebenso haufigen 
Brutvogel wie den Fischreiher ; es ist ihm wohl ebenso ergangen, wie mir, dass 
er aus seiner spaten Beobachtung auf sein ebenso haufiges Briiten schloss. Dies 
scheint nun also nicht der Fall zu sein — iibrigens auch Henrici sah Anfang Mai 14 
Vogel, auch ohne ein Nest zu linden — , auch alles Nachfragen bei den Leuten 
der Gegend zeitigte kein sicheres Resultat, trotzdem mochte ich ein wenn auch 
nur vereinzeltes Briiten und zwar wohl nicht in Kolonieen sondern an unzugang- 
lichen Stellen der Albufera in einzelnen Paaren annehmen, wie es auch Henrici 
tun mochte, zumal ich die Art bis in den Juni hinein sah und allabendUch horte. 
Da aber ein sioherer Brutnachweis bisher durch Auffinden eines Geleges noch 
nicht erbracht ist, muss ich den Nachtreiher unter die fraglichen Brutvogel 
Mallorcas rechnen. — 1921 schoss ich am 17. Mai ein Belegexemplar. 

Botaurus stellaris (L). 

Die grosse Rohrdommel diirfte heute nur in der Albufera und Albufereta, 
aber hier in ziemlicher Anzahl, briiten. Ihr Rufen hort man allabendlich aber 
auch tagsiiber. Wir sahen sie oft niedrig iiber das Rohr streichen, und 1913 schoss 
ich einen Vogel. — Lord Lilford fand Eier (vergl. Vogelf. I, II, Munn, Jourdain 
und Henrici). — Auf Menorca scheint sie nm- auf dem Zuge vorzukommen, doch 
halt Munn auch hier an einigen Stellen ihr Briiten fiir nicht unwahrscheinlich. 

Ixobrychus minutus (L.). 

Das Vorkommen der Zwergrohrdommel, und zwar als Brutvogel wies ich 
zum ersten Male fiir Mallorca nach, indem ich 1921 ein Nest mit 5 Eiern in der 
Albufera fand und sowohl damals wie auch jetzt einige Male einen Vogel sah, 
leider ohne einen Schuss auf ihn abgeben zu konnen. — Munn sah ein Exemplar 
am 28.iv.25 ebendort, und nach Ponseti zieht die Art selten auf Menorca durch. 

Ardeola ralloides (Scop.). 

Am 25. v. und 20.vi.21 sah ich in der Albufera je einen Schopfreiher, 
wodurch sein Briiten wahrscheinlich aber nicht sicher anzunehmen ist — der 



310 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV 1928. 

einzige Nachweis ; denn aiif Barcelos Behauptung, er sei haufiger Standvogel 
Mallorcas, ist nichts zu geben, wenn man bei vielea seiner Angaben iiiclit anneh- 
men will, dass sich die Fauna seit seiner Zeit so wesgntlich geandert hat, was 
sicherlich in den meisten Fallen nicht infragekommen kann. — Nach Ponseti 
wurde der Schopfreiher selten auf Menorca gesehen (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 528). 

Ardea cinerea L. 
Der Fischreiher ist in der Albufera ein zienilicli zahlreicher Brutvogel ; auch 
in der Albufereta sieht man standig einzelne odcr mehrere zusammen, aber hier 
diirfte er wohl kaum zur Brut schreiten oder doch nur in wenigen Paaren. Er 
horstet im Gebiet offenbar nicht auf Baumen sondern in den mehr oder weniger 
unzuganglichen grossen Rohrbestanden auf dem Boden. Wenn Munn (nach 
Jourdain) meint, er briite an den Klippen des Cabo del Pinar, wo er ihn oft sah, 
so ist das doch wohl sicherlich eine irrtiimliche Vermutung. — Auch im Winter 
im Gebiete. — Auf Menorca soil er nach Ponseti nur durchziehen oder sich gelegent- 
lich aufhalten, doch Munn glaubt auch an sein Briiten hier. 

Ardea purpurea L. 
Der Purpurreiher scheint an Zahl den Fischreiher zu iiberwiegen. Im 
Ubrigen gilt von ihm das Gleiche wie von der vorigen Art. Er ist ein Sommer- 
vogel, der im Herbst fortrfeht, um im April zuriickzukommen. — Diesmal brachten 
wir 2 Belegstiicke mit, ein Weibchen ad. und einen jungen Vogel, beide vom 
1. Juli. — Ratcliff sammelte Mitte Mai Gelege (Jourdain, 1927, p. 84). Auf 
Menorca zieht er durch. 

Egretta alba (L.) 
Barcelo behauptet, der Silberreiher sei " ein haufiger Brutvogel Mallorcas," 
sicherlich ohne Grund. Munn sah einen einzelnen Vogel am 28. v. 23 bei Alcudia 
ostwarts fliegend (1925, p. 44) 

Egretta garzetta (L.) 
Homeyer sah den Seidenreiher zur Brutzeit im Prat und in der Albufera, 
ich einen Vogel am 2. v. 1913 bei Salinas. Barcelo nennt ihn ebenso liaufig wie 
die vorige Art. Ob er je gebriitet hat, ist nicht erwiesen, heute jedenfalls tut 
er es nicht mehr. — Munn beobachtete einen einzelnen Seidenreiher am 19.iv.26 
in der Albufera und wohl den gleichen im Juni an derselben Stelle, aber nur 
diesen einzelnen (1928, p. 20). 

Bubulcus ibis (L.). 

Munn sah einen Kuhreiher am 12.i.20 (Vogelf. II, p. 528) und je einen 
weiteren am 24.iv.22 und lO.i.23, die sich etliche Tage in der Albufera aufhielten. 
Vorher hatte ihn nur Ponseti als seltenen Durchziigler auf Menorca bezeichnet. 

Ciconia ciconia (L.). 
Wahrend bisher nur Barcelo den Storch als seltenen Zugvogel Mallorcas 
angegeben, und Saunders einen grossen Flug bei Menorca gesehen hatte (Vogelf. 
I, p. 122), schreibt Munn (1926, p. 475), dass nach Ponseti ein Storch im Mai 1919 
auf Menorca erbeutet worden sei. 



NoviTATES Zoological XXXIV. 1028. 311 

Phoenicopterus raber antictuorum Temm. 

Homeyer sah noch ein Paar Flamingos am 28. v. in der Albufera wo er 
sein Briiten annimmt. Nach mir von Kundigen gemachten Aussagen (vergl. 
Vogelf. I, p. 122) soil er tatsachlich friiher hier und in der Albufereta gebriitet 
haben. Heute ist das nicht mehr der Fall, doch soil er sich im Friihjahr regel- 
massig in den verschiedenen Sumpfgebieten, so namentUch in grosserer Anzahl 
in dem grossen Sumpfe bei Salinas zeigen. Audi auf Menorca und den Pityusen 
ist er beobachtet worden. Munn sah einen Flamingo Anfang Mai 1924 bei 
Alcudia (1926, p. 472). 

Plegadis falcinellus (L,). 

Homeyer sah im Prat Mitte Mai eine Anzahl braune Sichler ; ich ein ausge- 
stopftes Exemplar, angeblich von der Insel stammend, in Palma, und Ponseti 
nennt ihn einen seltenen Besucher Menorcas (vergl. Vogelf. I, pp. 122-23) ; der 
Name " igneus " war ein Irrtum Ponsetis (vergl. Munn, 1924, p. 461). Ein 
Paar steht im Museum in Mahon. — Munn sah einen einzelnen am 12.vi.26 in 
der Albufera (1928, p. 20) ; er war der Uberlebende von dreien, wahrend 2 voher 
geschossen waren. 

Platalea leucorodia L. 

Nach Barcelo kame der Loffelreiher sehr selten im Herbst auf Mallorca vor, 
aber kein anderer Alitor erwahnt ihn. Barcelos Angabe ist zummindesten mit 
einem Fragezeichen zu versehen. 

Rallus aquaticus L. 

Die Wasserralle ist in den Sumpfgebieten der Inseln nach alien Autoren 
ein haufiger Standvogel. Ich schoss ein $ ad. 1913, und wir horten sie oftmals. 

Crex crex (L.). 

Der Wachtelkonig ist ein nicht haufiger Herbst- und Wintervogel im 
Gebiete. 

Porzana porzana (L.). 

Nach Barcelo, Homeyer, Ponseti und Munn ist auch das Tiipfelsumpfhuhn 
ein nicht seltener .Brutvogel Mallorcas und Menorcas. Ich bin der Art nicht 
begegnet. 

Porzana pusilla intermedia (Herm.). 

Angeblich ist auch das Zwergsumpfhuhn Standvogel (vergl. Vogelf. I, 
p. 124, und Munn, 1924, p. 466, wie in Chamberlin, p. 172), und ein ebensolcher : 

Porzana parva (Scop.) 
ohne dass Belegstiicke bekannt sind. 

Gallinula chloropus (L.). 

Das Teichhuhn sahen wir diesmal in etlichen Paaren und einzelnen Stiicken 
in der Albufera ; es war aber ausserordentlich scheu, und nur mit Miihe geiang 
uns am 10. vi. die Erlegung eines Vogels, als wir mit dem Nachen einen der 



312 NOVITATES ZoOLOOICiE XXXIV. 1928. 

schmalen Kanale befuhren. Ich musste auf weite Entfernung schiessen, sodass 
es, nur geiliigelt, sofort untertauchte und vvir schliesslich schon das Nachsuchen 
drangeben wollten, als es dicht iieben dem Nachen den Kopf zwischen den 
Sumpfpflanzen herau.sstreckte und ich es mit schnellem Griff fas-sen konnte. — 
Wir sahen die Art aiieh auf dem kleinen Gewasser Ijei der Hohle von Arta und 
einraal im Sumpfe bei Salinas, sonst nirgends. Sie ist Standvogel auf Mallorca 
und Menorca (vcrgl. Munn, Ponseti). — Am 20. v. 27 fuhren wir im Wagen an 
dem grossen Sumpfe nordlich Salinas vorbei, als ein Teichhuhn den Weg kreuzte 
und sich im Graben versteckte. Wir griffen es ; es ist ein vorjahriges, oflensicht- 
lich verkiimmertes Weibchen mit ausserordentlich geringen Maassen (Fliigel 
nur 15,0, Schwanz 7,4 cm.). 

Fulica atra L. 

Nicht minder scheu ist das Wasserhuhn, dem wir in der Albufera ziemlieh 
oft begegneten und das wir noch ofter im Rohr horteii. Baron Bodman schoss 
schliesslich, nachdem wir oft vergeblich Jagd darauf genacht hatten, am 13. vi. 
ein altes Mannchen. Um seiner aber habhaft werden zu konnen, mussten wir 
einen schweren Nachen bei starker Hitze von einem Kanal herausheben, ihn 
iiber eine ziemlieh breite morastige Stelle tragen, auf der anderen Seite ihn 
wieder herablassen, da hier der Sumpf zum Durchwaten zu tief war ; als wir den 
Vogel dann gliicklich hatten, dieselbe Procedur wieder zuriick — aber wir wollten 
das einzige Belegstiick nicht verkommen lassen. Dort sahen wir in den Tagen 
auch einige Dunenjunge. Das Wasserhuhn ist hier ziemlieh haufig, halt sich 
aber sehr versteckt wahrend der Sommermonate. Im Winter sollen grosse 
Mengen nordischer Zuwanderer sich in den Sumpfgebiten aufhalten. Im Sumpf- 
tale bei Arta sahen wir auch einige. Es ist Standvogel auf Mallorca wie Menorca. 

Fulica cristata Lath. 

Wenn Homeyer schreibt, er habe diese Art briitend im Part angetroffen und 
am 15. Mai ein Weibchen mit Jungen gesehen, so muss man dieser Angabe 
schliesslich Glauben schenken, wenn der Autor auch hervorhebt, dass er die 
vorige nicht beobachtet habe. Ausser ihm behauptet nur Barcelo, dass der 
Vogel ein nicht haufiger Bewohner Mallorcas sei. Jourdain mochte daher anneh- 
men, dass die Art durch atra verdrangt bezw. ersetzt worden ist (1927, p. 87 ; 
vergl. Vogelf. I). 

Porphyrio caeruleus (Vand.). 

Homeyer sah das Sultanshuhn zweimal im Prat imd in der Albufera, Saunders 
gibt sein Vorkommen noch fiir das Jahr 1871 an, Ponseti nennt es durchaus 
nicht selten auf Menorca und der Erzherzog Lugwig Salvator erwiihnt es von 
Ibiza. Wir haben es weder gesehen, noch kannte es irgend einer der Einwohner, 
und aus neuerer Zeit liegt keine Notiz mehr vor. Ich glaube jedenfalls (mit 
Munn), dass es jetzt nicht mehr, auch nicht in den abgelegenen Teilen der Albu- 
fera, ira Gebiete lebt (vergl. Vogelf. I). 

Grus grus (L.). 

Der Kranich wurde selten im Friihjahr durchziehend beobachtet auf Mallorca 
(Barcelo) wie Menorca (Ponseti). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 313 

Anthropoides virgo (L.). 

Im Jahre 1718 wurde ein Jungfernkranioh in der Porrassa geschossen, 1782 
am 2.x. einer in der Albufera lebend erbeutet ; zu gleicher Zeit befand sich ein 
ausgestopftes Exemplar in Palma (Barcelo, vergl. Vogelf. I, pp. 125-26). — Die 
Angabe eines Vorkommens von Balearica pavonina aus derselben Zeit beruht 
zweifellos auf Verwechslung (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 126). 

Otis tetrax L. 

Die Zwergtrappe ist nacli Ponseti sehr selten auf Menorca gesehen worden. 
Ein ausgestopftes Weibchen steht im Museum in Mahon (Mumi, 1924, p. 462). 

Scolopax rasticola L. 

Die Schnepfe ist ein haufiger Zugvogel im ganzen Gebiete, der im Oktober- 
November ankommt, den Winter iiber z.T. verbleibt und Ende Marz wieder 
verschwindet. Ich sah eine Schnepfe am 21 .iii.21. 

Capella gallinago (L.). 

Die Art ist ein sehr gemeiner Zugvogel, der in betrachtlioher Anzahl den 
Winter iiber bleibt. Ich sah ihn bis zum 15. Mai. 

Capella media (Lath.). 

Wahrend bisher nur Barcelo das seltene Durchziehen dieser Bekassine 
behauptet hatte, scheuchte Munn am 29.iv.27 im Sumpfe Gambas bei Salinas 
einen Vogel mehrere Male auf (1928, p. 21). 

Lymnocryptes minimus (Brunn.). 
Zugvogel auf alien Inseln, aber weniger liautig als die erstgenannte Art. 

Numenius arquatus (L.). 

Der grosse Brachvogel zeigt sich vereinzelt wohl alljahrlich im Friihjahr 
und Winter, auch soil er bisweilen das ganze Jahr iiber bleiben, ohne aber zu 
briiten (vergl. Munn). — Wir sahen ihn diesmal verschiedentlioh, so Ende April 
in der Porrassa (wo Baron Bodman ein $ am 29. iv. schoss), am 10. v. an der 
Kiiste bei Puerto de Campos und am 10. vi. in der Albufera, jedesmal einen 
einzelnen Vogel. 

Numenius phaeopus (L.). 

Der Regenbrachvogel soil ein seltener Zugvogel auf Mallorca und Menorca 
sein. Munn sah ein Paar am 19.ix.22 und einen einzelnen Vogel am 17.ix.23 
bei Alcudia (1925, p. 46). 

Numenius tenuirostris Vieill. 

Homeyers (und Barcelos) Angaben vom Briiten des diinnschnabligen Brach- 
vogels im Prat, wo Ersterer ihn wiihrend des Soramers beobachtete, — ob es wirk- 



314 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

lich diese Art war ? — beruhen auf Irrtum, ebenso die meinigen, die sich auf diese 
bezogen (vergl. Vogelf. I und II), nachdem man weiss, dass seine Brutheimat 
Asien ist. Nach Ponseti zeigt er sich selten im Winter auf Menorca ; ein Stiick 
steht im Museum in Mahon (Munn, 1924. p. 463). 



Liinosa limosa (L.). 

Die Uferschnepfe wurde selten auf dem Zuge auf Mallorca wie Menorca 
festgestellt. Homeyer schloss irrtiimlich aiis der Beobachtung einiger Paare im 
Prat auf ihr dortiges Briiten. Ich selbst sah am 13.vi.27 einen Vogel in der 
Albufera zwischen Stelzenlaufern herumspazieren ; leider fehlte ihn mein Schuss. 

Limosa lapponica (L). 

Munn stellte als erster diese Art auf Mallorca fest, indem er am 5 . ix . 22 und 
24 . viii . 25 drei Vogel bei Alcudia sah (1925, p. 45, 1926, p. 473). 

Tringa glareola L. 

Wir beobachteten den Bruchwasserliiufer verschiedentlich in der Albufera, 
im Sumpfe Gambas und bei Arta 1913 und 1921 zwischen dem 27.iii. und 2. v. 
und schossen 2 Belegstiicke. 

Tringa nebularia (Gunner). 

Homeyer sah den hellen Wasserlaufer im Prat, Barcelo nennt ihn wenig 
haufig im Winter und Friihjahr. Wir salien 4 Vogel der Art am 5. und 9. v. 27 
in den Siimpfeni bei Salinas. 

Tringa erythropus (Pall.). 

Homeyer sah den dunkeln Wasserlaufer bis Ende Mai im Prat, Munn einen 
einzelnen am 24. v. 22 bei Alcudia (1925, p. 45) und wir drei am 5. v. 27 bei 
Sahnas. 

Tringa totanus (L.). 

Wir beobachteten einzelne und kleine Fliige des Rotschenkels in der Albu- 
fera, Albufereta, Porrassa und bei Salinas auf alien drei Reisen vom 9. April 
bis 15. Mai. Auch Munn, der auch einen Vogel auf Menorca sah, schreibt, dass 
immer einige das ganze Jahr anzutreffen seien, dass die Art aber nicht auf der 
Insel briite, wahrend Homeyer und Barcelo — offenbar aus spaten Beobachtungen 
wie auch Munn anfiinglich — irrtiimlich auf vereinzeltes Briiten schlossen. Gosse 
sah ein Exemplar auf Formentera. — Icli schoss ein Belegstiick am 9. Mai. 

Tringa ochropus L. 

Munn beobachtete als erster den Waldwasserlaufer vereinzelt im Winter 
und noch bis Ende Mai auf Mallorca und schreibt, dass er selten auch auf Menorca 
vorkomme. Gosse erwahnt ihn von Alcudia und Ibiza (vergl. Vogelf. II, p. 530, 
und Munn, 1924, p. 463). 



NOVITATES ZooLoaicAE XXXIV. 1928. 315 

Tringa hypoleucos L. 

Ich zweifle nicht an dem sporadischeii Briiten des Flus.suferlaufers auf 
den Balearen, da wir ihn des ofteren einzeln oder in Paaren wahiend des Friihjahrs 
und .spater zur Brutzeit sahen imnier wieder an derselben Stella, so oft wir dahin- 
kamen. Nester fand man allerdings von ihm bisher nicht. Munn sah ihn audi 
das ganze Jahr, im Winter haufiger. — Ich schoss 2 Paare. 

Philomachus pugnax (L.). 

Homeyer beobachtete den Kanipflaufer bis Ende Mai im Prat, nach ihm 
und Barcelo .soil er im Winter und Friihjahr haufig sein, nach Ponseti dagegen 
nur selten auf dem Zuge auf Menorca. — Mumi sah ihn audi bis Anfang April 
und nennt ihn selten. Wir begegneten ihm nur einmal am 4. und 5. Mai 27, 
wo sich drei Kampflaufer im Sumpfe Gambas bei Salinas herumtrieben. 

Erolia alpina (L.). 

Der Alpenstrandlaufer wurde von Homeyer nicht selten gesehen, ich 
beobachtete ca. 15 Vogel am 15. v. 13 in der Porrassa und etlidie Anfang Mai 27 
bei Salinas ; auch Munn stellte ihn verschiedentlich fest. Nach Ponseti wurde 
einer im April 21 auf Menorca erbeutet (Munn, 1926, p. 475). 

Erolia minuta (Leisl.). 

Am 2 . v. schoss ich in der Porrassa einen Zwergstrandlaufer aus einer Schar 
von 20-30 und sah ebensoviele Anfang Mai 27 bei Salinas, wo wir wieder 2 erlegten. 
— Munn sah ihn nocli am 26. Mai. Audi auf Menorca ist er auf dem Zuge nicht 
selten. Nach Munn bleiben einige den Sonimer iiber (1925, p. 45). 

Erolia temmincki ( Leisl. ). 

Am 15.V.24 hielt sich eine kleine Schar einige Zeit bei Alcudia auf (Munn, 
1926, p. 473). 

Erolia ferruginea (Briinn.). 

Der bogensdinablige Strandlaufer ist ein haufiger Durchzugsvogel im Friih- 
jahr (Mai), weniger zahlreich — wie der Alpenstrandlaufer — im Herbst (September). 
Einige bleiben nach Munn den Sommer iiber zuriick, um sich im Herbst ihren 
nordwarts kommenden Vettern auf ihrem Zuge nach dem Siiden anzuschliessen. 
Wir sahen ilin diesmal bei Salinas und schossen Anfang Mai 4 Vogel, von denen 
drei im roten Ubergangskleid waren ; Homeyer hatte auch 2 mitgebracht. 

Erolia canutus (L.). 

Der islandische Strandlaufer wurde erstmalig von Munn im Oktober und 
November 1920 in einigen Exemplaren bei Alcudia fiir die Balearen nachgewiesen 
(Vogelf. II, p. 530). 

Crocethia alba (Pall.). 

Nach Muim sah Witherby einen Sanderling im Juli 1919 bei Alcudia (Vogelf . 
II, p. 530) und Munn selbst einige in der Albufera Anfang Mai 22 (1925, p. 45). 



316 NoVITATES ZoOLOGtCAE XXXIV. 192S. 

Himantopus himantopus (L.). 

Der Stelzenlaufer war 1913 noch ein zieinlich haufiger Brutvogel in der 
Porrassa, wo ich 6 Vogel schoss ; heute hat er hier infolge der weitvorgeschrittenen 
Troekenlegung keine geeigneten Brutplatze mehr, und wir sahen jetzt auch 
nicht eiii Stiick mehr dort. Dagegen fanden wir ihn diesmal noch haufiger 
ill der Albufera, wo wir ihn damals nicht antrafen, und wo er nun zahlreich 
briitet. Allentlialben, wenn wir mit dem Nachen die Kanale des grossen Sumpfes 
befuhren, begleiteten uns mit lautem Geschrei Fliige dieses sonderbaren Vogels. 
— Mitte Mai 25 fand Munn in den Kolonieen alle Nester mit Eiern belegt und 
am 10. vi. viele ausgebriitete Eier (Jourdain, 1927, p. 86). Der Stelzenlaufer 
tritft nach Munn im April ein und zieht Ende August fort (vergl. auch Munn, 
1926, p. 473). — Homeyer sah einzelne im Prat, lasst aber die Frage ihres Briitens 
offen. Wir sahen einen einzelnen am 23. vi. auf Formentera und 2 Paare am 
9.V. im Sumpfe Gambas bei Salinas. Menorca beriihrt er nur auf dem Zuge 
(Ponseti). — Diese Art scheint in den letzten Jahren entschieden an Haufigkeit 
zuzunehmen. 

Recurvirostra avosetta L. 

Die Avosette i.st nach Barcelo und Ponseti ein seltener Gast Mallorcas und 
Menorcas. 

Haematopus ostralegus L. 

Nach Barcelo ein seltener Besucher Mallorcas. — Mumi sah emige Austern- 
fischer bei Alcudia vom ii . iv. bis 3 . v . 20. — Einer wurde im April 1 92 1 auf Menorca 
geschossen (Munn, 1926, p. 476). 

Arenaria interpres (L.). 

Homeyer sah den Steinwalzer einige Male unweit Palma am Strande ; nach 
Barcelo selten im Friihjahre und nach dem Erzlierzog ebenso auf Ibiza (Vogelf . I, 
p. 131). Beobachtungen aus neuerer Zeit liegen nicht vor. 

Cursorius cursor (Lath.). 

Nach Ponseti i.st der Rennvogel ein sehr seltener Gast Menorcas (Vogelf. I, 
p. 131). 

Glareola pratincola (L.). 

Homeyer schoss ein Paar Braclischwalben am 13. Mai 1861 auf Mallorca ; 
Barcelos Angabe die Art betreffend ist kein Glaube zu schenken. Ponseti nennt 
sie einen seltenen Zugvogel Menorcas (Vogelf. I, pp. 131-32). Am ii.v.2o 
scheuchte Henrici bei Salinas ein Piirchen auf, konnte aber kein Nest finden 
(1927, p. 100). Munn sah einen einzelnen Vogel am 31. Mai 27 bei Alcudia, 
" evidently on migration " (1928, p. 21). — Ob die Brachschwalbe ein sehr seltener 
Brutvogel oder nur ein Zugvogel ist, ist somit bisher nicht zu entscheiden, ich 
mochte aber Ersteres eher nicht glauben. 

Charadrius apricarius L. 

Munn sah Goldregenpfeifer im Winter und im friihen Friihjahr auf Mallorca 
(meine Angaben iiber Munns Beobachtungen in Vogelf. II, p. 591, dieser Art 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 317 

sind leider ein Versehen, diese beziehen sich auf die folgende Art). Nach Ponseti 
kommt dieser Regenpfeifer iin Winter auch auf Menorca vor. Ich sah einen 
ausgestopften in Palma, der von der Insel stammen soil. 

Squatarola squatarola (L.). 

Am 17. Mai 1921 schoss ich einen Kiebitzregenpfeifer bei der Albufera : 
Munn sah dort am 14.xi.l9 sieben und am 18.xi.20 einen Vogel (Vogelf. II). 
Nach Ponseti ein nicht hiiufiger Wintergast Menorcas, wo Munn am 21. v. 24 
drei feststellte. 

Charadrius hiaticula L. 

Homeyer beobachtete den Sandregenpfeifer und sagte, er briite auf Malloica. 
Ich sah ihn auch am 15. v. 13 in der Porrassa, wo er " augenscheinlich briitete " 
(Vogelf. I, p. 132). In meiner 2. Arbeit (p. 531) schrieb ich dann, dass ich an 
seinem Briiten doch zweifle, denn es waren uns 21 keine Vogel zu Gesicht gekom- 
men, ebensowenig auf der letzten Reise. Es ist nun zweifellos, dass er tatsachlich 
im Gebiete nicht briitet, sondern vielmehr ein nicht zahlreicher Durchziigler im 
Mai auf den Inseln ist (vergl. Munn). — Homeyer schoss ein $ (Berliner Museum). 

Charadrius dubius curonicus Gm. 

" Der seltenste Regenpfeifer " schieibt Homeyer (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 132). — 
Ich sah ihn 1913 gar nicht, 1921 wenige Male in der Albufera und schoss einen 
Jungen am 21. vi. — Munn fand Gelege am 10. iv. 4 und 21. v. ; er gab in seiner 
ersten Arbeit eine eingehende Beschreibung des Nestes und der Eier (Vogelf. II). 
Dann fand er ein Gelege am 12. v. 23 auf Menorca, der erste Brutnachweis von 
dieser Insel (1924, p. 464). Henrici nahm 2 Gelege in der Albufera (1927, p. 100). 
— Ich selbst sah wenige Paare in der Porrassa, in den Siimpfen bei Salinas und 
schoss ein $ am 24. v. 27 an der Ostkiiste bei Arta, wo er offensichtlich briitete. 
— In Chamberlin schreibt Munn, dass diese Art friiher auf Mallorca sehr selten 
gewesen sei und von Menorca erst kiirzlich nachgewiesen wurde, und glaubt, 
dass sie den viel haufigeren Seeregenpfeifer langsam verdrange. Diese Meinung 
kann ich nicht ganz teilen, ich mochte eher annehmen, dass ersterer, der auch 
heute nur sehr wenig verbreitet ist, friiher nicht erkannt oder nicht unterschieden 
worden ist von den wenigen inbetracht kommenden Beobachtern. 

Charadrius alexandrinus L. 

Der Seeregenpfeifer ist ein sehr haufiger Brutvogel an alien ihm zusagenden 
Platzen. Ich sammelte einige Vogel, darunter ein $ am 26.iii. mit bereits 
grossem Brutfleck. Jetzt fand ich am 4. v. bei Salinas ein Nest mit 2 frischen 
Eiern, am 6. v. ein stark bebriitetes und am 23. vi. auf Formentera ein frisches 
Gelege ; die Art scheint also mindestens zweimal zu briiten. Das erstgenannte 
Gelege von SaHnas hielt ich fiir eins der vorigen Art, da auch in seiner unmittel- 
baren Nahe dauernd aufgeregt ein Paar solcher alten Vogel herumlief, kein 
anderes Nest in der Nahe war und etliche alexandrinus sich erst in weiterer 
Entfernung herumtrieben ; es scheint sich aber doch um kleine Eier letzterer 
Art zu handeln (Naheres hierzu vergl. in Koenigs demniichst erscheinender 
Arbeit iiber meine Eierausbeute). — Munn sammelte eine ganze Reihe Gelege 
und gibt eine eingehende Schilderung des Brutgeschiifts (vergl. auch Vogelf. II, 

22 



318 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

pp. 531-32, Jourdain, 1927, p. 86, besonders Henrici, 1927, pp. 100-(n).— Auf 
Menorca war er bisher nicht gefunden, doch gelang dies Munn, der am 21. v. 24 
ein Nest mit drei Eiern faiid ; er ist hier aber bedeutend seltener al.s auf Mallorca. 
Eine Anzahl iiberwintert im Gebiete. 

Vanellus vanellus (L.). 

Den Winter iiber bis Anfang Marz ist der Kiebitz ein sehr haufiger Gast der 
Inseln. — Ein ausgestopfter Vogel von Mallorca steht in der Sammlung des 
Seminars in Palma. 

Burhinus oedicnemus saharae (Rchw.). 

Wir trafen den Triel an alien, den vielen ilim zusagenden Platzen auf alien 
Inseln recht haufig an (vergl. Vogelf. I, II) und schossen noch vier weitere, im 
ganzen liegen also jetzt von dort 8 Stiicke vor. Er briitet vom April an ; n-ir 
fanden bei Arta ein frisches Gelege noch am 31. v. 27. — Henrici sah am 11. v. zwei 
Junge in Starengrosse (1927, p. 101). — Vergleicht man grosses Material, so 
findet man bei der Nominatform und bei saharae wechelseitig wohl einzelne 
angleichende Exemplare (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 133), saharae ist aber vor allem 
durch die bedeutend hellere, mehr sandfarbene Oberseite im allgemeinen sehr 
gut unterschieden. Die Breite der Schaft.striche der Oberkopffedern schwankt 
iibrigens auch bei saharae betrachtlich, wenn auch bei den Extremen ein Unter- 
schied besteht. Die 3 Vogel, von denen ich 1913 schrieb, dass sie mit der nord- 
lichen Form iibereinstimmten, sind doch auch noch heller aLs diese, alle iibrigen 
aber sind sofort aus einer Serie der Nominatform herauszugreifen durch ihren 
viel helleren Riicken, weiui der Baleare auch anscheinend nicht so hell wird wie 
typische saharae. Ich habe geschwankt, ob ich den Balearen nomenolatorisch 
trennen soUte, da er eigentlich zwischen beiden steht, wenn auch der n. afrikani- 
schen Form viel naher ; ich tat es nicht, da grosseres Material doch vielleicht 
die voUige Gleichheit zeigen wird und der jetzt anscheinend bestehende Unter- 
schied sehr klein ist ; keinesfalls aber ist er mit der Nominatform zu identificieren. 
Auch lag der Gedanke nahe, den balearischen Triel mit einer Mischformcl 
{oedicnemus x saharae oder oedicnemus < saharae) zu bezeichnen. Dies ist 
aber m.E. nur zulassig bei Individuen, die tatsachlich aus einer Mischung hervor- 
gegangen sind oder sein konnen, nicht dagegen bei Individuen einer Population, 
die als Standvogel eine Insel bewohnt. 

Nach den von mir gemessenen Vogeln ist saharae deutlich kurzfliigliger als 
die Nominatform, und der Baleare schien mir noch kleiner. Ich maass : oedic- 
nemus 238-52, Schwanz 11,8-12,9; Hartert 240-55 bezw. 12,0-13,2; Mss. 
Memerzhagen (in ihrer Monographic, Ibis, 1924) dagegen 228(!)-53. Ich maass 
saharae (10 Stiicke): 233-39; 11,5-12,6; Hartert (30 Stiicke) 233-45 (keine 
Schwanzmaasse angegeben) ; Meinerzhagen dagegen 233 (1 x 224 !)-52. Die 
Balearenvogel messen ; 230-35; 11,2-12,4. 

Nach Hartert begimit also oedicnemus (ich maass Minimum 238) mit 240, 
nach Meinerzhagen mit 228 ! Diese und die anderen Differenzen sind auffallend, 
da wir wohl nach gleicher Methode messen. Nacii Meinerzhagen bestanden also 
iiberhaupt keine Grossenunterschiede. Vielleicht ist geographisch ungleiches 
Material gemessen worden und bestehen auch geographisch noch andere Grossen- 
(lifferenzen. Vorlaufig lasst sich also jedenfalls nichts Weiteres sagen. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 319 

Mergus merganser L. 

Mergus serrator L. 

Mergus albellus L. 

" Die drei Sagerarten zeigen sich selten in kalten WLntern nach Barcelo 
und Ponseti auf dem Meere bei Mallorca und Menorca, am seltensten der Ganse- 
sager " (Vogelf. I, p. 134). — Nach Munn hielt sich eine Anzahl der beiden ersten 
Arten im Winter 1920-21 an der Kiiste bei Alcudia auf (Vogelf. II, p. 532). — Ein 
Paar serrator wurde nach Ponseti im Oktober 1907 bei Mahon getotet ; eine 
grossere Zahl derselben Art zeigte sich im November und December in der Bucht 
von Alcudia, wo auch ein Erpel geschossen wurde (Munn, 1924, p. 461, 1925, 
p. 44). 

Oxyura leucocephala (Scop.). 

Barcelo behauptet, dass die Ruderente im Winter und Friihjahr sehr selten 
bei Mallorca vorkomme (Vogelf. I, p. 134), die einzige Angabe iiber diese Art. 

Nyroca hiligula (L.). 

Die Reiherente halt sich wohl regelmassig zur Zugzeit auf und bei den 
Inseln auf (vergl. Vogelf. I, II, Mumi u.A.). 

Nyroca nyroca (L.). 

Nach Barcelo soil die Moorente im Winter haufig sein ; Munn beobachtete 
(1925, p. 43) die Art am 23.x. 1921. 

Nyroca ferina (L.). 

Die Tafelente ist ein haufiger Wintervogel des Gebietes (Barcelo, Ponseti). — 
Munn beobachtete sie u.a.am 23.x. 21, im Februar 23 und ein Paar Ende Mai 23 
bei Alcudia und vermutet ihr Nisten (1925, p. 44). — Am 13. Juni 27 machten 
wir in einem der Kanale der Albufera vergebliche Jagd von Naclien aus auf 
einen Erpel der Art, der infolge Mauserung flugunfahig war, aber immer in solcher 
Entfernung vor dem Boote tauchte, dass einige Versuchsschiisse ihn nicht 
todlich trafen ; schliesslich gegen Ende des Kanals tauchte er wieder, und wir 
sahen ihn plotzlich im klaren Wasser dicht vor dem Nachen, aber so tief, dass 
ich ihn nicht fassen konnte, erst weit hinter dem Boote kam er wieder an die 
Oberfiache. — Nach Aussage der Fischer briiten immer einige Paare in der Albufera. 

Nyroca marila (L.). 

Am 5 . xi . 24 sah Munn eine Bergente an der Kiiste bei Alcudia, der erste 
Nachweis. 

Netta rufina (Pall.). 

Homeyer hatte die Kolbente briitend im Prat festgestellt und ein jungea 
Stiick erbeutet (vergl. Vogelf. I, p. 135), ich selkst sah ein ad. Miinnchen am 
11.V.21 in der Albufera, wo .sie nach Aussage der Fischer auch jetzt noch verein- 
zelt briiten soil. 



320 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Spatula clypeata (L.). 

Bisher hatte nur Barcelo angegeben, dass sich die Loffelente haufig im 
Winter bei den Insein aufhalte ; nun sagt auch Munn (1925, p. 43), dass sie nicht 
haufig im Gebiete vorkomme. 

Anas platyrhyncha L. 

Die Stockente ist ein verbreiteter Biutvogel der Siiinpfgebiete Mallorcas, 
namentlich der Albufera, soil aber auch aiif Menorca und Ibiza leben. Ich 
fand Nester und sah Junge ; Munn nahm Gelege im Marz und April, Henrici 
fand solche am 4. und 5. Mai (vergl. Vogelf. 1, II). Sie iiberwintert in grossen 
Schaaren. 

Anas strepera L. 

Nur Barcelo behauptet, die Schnatterente zeige sich im Winter bei Mallorca 
— was natiirlich keinen Nachweis bedeutet. 

Anas penelope L. 
Die Pfeifente ist nach Barcelo, Ponseti und Munn ein gemeiner Wintervogel. 

Anas querquedula L. 

Nach Munn in geringer Anzahl im Friihjahr im Gebiete ; Gosse sah sie auf 
Ibiza. 

Anas crecca L. 

Gemeiner Herbst-, Winter- und Friihjahrsvogel, der aber nicht hier briitet. 

Anas acuta L. 

Haufig im Winter, doch bleibt sie nach Munn bis Mitte April, wenn alle 
anderen Entenarten schon fortgezogen sind. — Wir fanden jetzt Anfang Mai in 
der Porrassa vertrocknete tjberreste emer Spiessente, die oflfenbar von einem 
Raubvogel geschlagen war. 

Tadoma tadorna (L.). 

Murm (1926, p. 471) beobachtete eine mannliche Brandente bei Alcudia, die 
sich hier bei kaltem, stiirmischem Schneewetter im Februar 1924 einige Zeit 
aufhielt — der erste Nachweis dieser Art fiir das Gebiet. 

Anser anser (L.). 

Wir sahen eine auf Mallorca erlegte ausge.stopfte Graugans, die nach Barcelo 
haufig durchziehen soil, in Palma (Vogelf. I, p. 137). Munn (Vogelf. II, p. 533) 
stellte sie zuweilen fast. 

Anser fabalis (Lath.). 
Die Saatgaus soil nach Barcelo und Ponseti selten durchziehen. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 321 

Anser albifrons (Scop.). 
Die Blassgans sah Munii einmal in einem Exemplar am 19.ix.21 bei Alcudia 
— der erste und einzige Nachweis. 

Cygnus cygnus (L.). 

Nach Barcelo hielten sich im April 1864 eine ganze Anzahl Schwane in 
der Albufera auf (Vogelf. I, p. 137).— Munn sagt (1924, p. 460), der Schwan 
komme in kalten Wintern selten auf beiden Inseln vor, ein ausgestopfter von 
Menorca stehe im Museum in Mahon. 

Pelecanus onocrotalus L. 
Im Jahre 1773 wurde ein Pelikan in der Albufera gefangen (Vogelf. I, p. 137). 

Sula bassana (L.). 
Ein Tolpel wurde an der Kiiste Menorcas gefangen (Ponseti, Vogelf. I). 

Phalacrocorax carbo subcormoranus (Br.). 
Der grosse Kormoran ist ein liaufiger Bewohner der Felsenkiisten aller 
Inseln. Ich brachte ein Belegexemplar mit. 

Phalacrocorax graculus desmarestii Payr. 

Auch diese Form der Krahenscharbe ist ein sehr haufiger Brutvogel ; wir 
trafen sie allenthalben an den Kiisten der verschiedenen Inseln, sowohl auf den 
Felsen sitzend wie auf dem Meere. Ich schoss einen Vogel. — Nach Munn briitet 
sie zu ganz verschiedenen Zeiten, er traf im December Junge und sah aber auch 
Alte im Mai auf dem Neste in kleinen Felsenhohlen der Kiiste (1925, p. 43, 
Henrici, 1927, pp. 101-02). 

Stercorarius skua (Briinn.). 

Homeyer sah eine grosse Raubinove auf der See zwischen Barcelona mid 
Mallorca und Munn eine am 29.iii.20 zwischen Mallorca und Menorca (Vogelf. 
I, II). 

Larus argentatus michahellesii Bruch. 

Diese westmittelmeerlandische Silbermove ist ein verbreiteter Brutvogel 
der Kiisten der In.selgruppen, imd taglich sieht man sie auch iiber den Siimpfen 
fliegen oder in kleineren und grosseren Schaaren auf deren Sandflachen Nahrung 
suchend. Wir schossen einige. — Auf der kleinen Felseninsel Conejera fanden 
wir in der ersten Halfte Mai eine Brutkolonie von ca. 30 Paaren. Die Nester 
standen in grosseren Abstanden zwischen den Felsblocken der Hochflache. 
Am 4.V.27 brachte uns ein Fischerjunge von dort ein frisches Dreiergelege, 
und am 12. v. entnahmen wir einem Nest 2 Eier, in dem schon grosse Junge 
waren und in anderen Nestern befanden sich bereits einige Tage alte Junge. 
Einen PuUus balgte ich. — Am 25. vi. schoss Baron Bodman am Strande von 
Ibiza mit einem Schuss 2 Juvenes, von denen ich einen praparierte, der andere 



322 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

war stark defekt, hatte aber sehr merkwiirdige Ruder (die ich abtrennte und 
mitnahni) : An beiden Fiissen fehlten die Schwimmhaute fast volLstiindig, nur 
bei genauem Zusehen finden sich ganz schmale, knapp 1 mm breite Saume ; 
die Niigel der 3 grossen Zehen sind verkriippelt, die Schilderung ist fleckig d.h. 
teilweise ohne Pigment, an den Zehen fehlen die Schilder mit Ausnahme der 
Mittelzehe, wo sie teilweise vorhanden aber auch verkiimmert sind. 

Laras marinus L. 

Nach Barcelo und Munn zeigt sich die Mantelmove selten im Winter. 

Lams hiscus L. 

Nach Barcelo im Winter haufig, nach Munn selten. 

Lams canus L. 

Nach Barcelo und Ponseti soil die Sturmmove im Herbst und Winter haufig 
sein, Munn sah sie nicht. 

Laras melanocephalus Temm. 

W'enn Ponseti behauptet, diese Art sei gemein auf Menorca, so hat sicherlich 
Munn recht, der glaubt, dass sie hochstens als seltener Gast die Inseln besuche ; 
er sah einen Vogel am ll.iv.21 (Vogelf. I, II). 

Lams genei Breme. 

Munn schreibt 1921, dass er am 21. v. 21 eine Move dieser Art beim Hafen 
von Alcudia gesehen habe, und nach Ponseti kommt sie selten auf Menorca vor. 

Lams ridibundus L. 

Lachmoven sahen wir des ofteren, inid am 31.iii.l3 schoss ich ein Beleg- 
stiick. Sie ist im Winter haufig und verlasst das Gebiet im April. 

Lams audouini Payr. 

Homeyer will diese '' wohl eigentlich nordamerikanische " (!) Move dreimal 
an der Kiiste Mallorcas gesehen haben ; Barcelos und Saunders' Angaben fussen 
wohl auf dieser (vergl. Vogelf. I, pp. 139-40). Ihr Vorkommen ist daher nur 
mit einem Fragezeichen versehen anzuf iihren, auch wenn sie als Erster Bonaparte 
1857 von den Balearen nennt (Vogelf. II, p. .534). 

Lams minutus Pall. 

Muiui sail zum ersten Male die Zwergmove und zwar von Ende Marz bis 
Anfang April 21 im Hafen von Alcudia (Vogelf. II, p. 543). Dann schreibt er 
(1925, p. 46), dass sich ein weiterer Vogel am 27.x. 21 im gleichen Hafen aufhielt, 
und dass nach Ponseti im April 21 ein Stiick in Menorca erbeutet wurde (1926, 
p. 476). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 323 

Laras glaucoides Meyer. 

Munn gibt an, dass er im Marz 22 mehrere Tage disss seltene Move zwischen 
Hsringsmoven im Hafen von Palma gssehsn habe. " It must be of vsry unusual 
occurrence in the Mediterranean "' (1925, p. 46). — Nach Hartert streicht die 
Polarmove (Heimat : arktische.s Nordamerika, Gronland, Jan Mayen ; Munn 
nennt sie " Iceland Gull '') vereinzelt bis zur Westkiiste Frankreichs und soil 
einmal auf Madeira vorgekommen sein ; dagegsn geht die Eismove (circumpolar. 
Island), Larus hyperborens vereinzelt bis zum Mittelmeer ; sie ist der Polarmove 
sehr ahnlich, und ob Munn sie wirklich im Freien sicher unterscheiden konnts ? 
— Ich sprach Uim schriftlich nieine Bedenken aus, er antwortete mir aber, dass 
er die Art sicher angesisrochen habe (" it is a white-winged gull ") und dass 
keine Verwechslung mit der Eismove oder siner anderen Art vorliege. — Trotzdem 
kann ich meine Bedenken nicht ganz unterdriicken. 

Rissa tridactyla (L.). 

Die Angabe Weylers (1864) vom Vorkommen der Stummelmove auf den 
Balearen, welche Notiz auch Barcelo erwahnt, ist die einzigs und daher nur als 
fraglich zu bezeichnen. 

Gelochelidon nilotica (Gm.). 

Barcelo gibt an, die Lachseeschwalbe komme selten im Friihjahr und 
Sommer auf Mallorca vor ; spatere Daten Hegen nicht vor (Vogelf. I, p. 140). 

Sterna sandvicensis Lath. 

Die Brandseeschwalbe soil nach Barcelo ein seltener Gast Mallorcas sein 
(Vogelf. I, p. 140). 

Sterna hirundo L. 

Barcelo nennt die Flussessohwalbe einen haufigen Standvogel Mallorcas 
(Vogelf. I). Sie briitet heute keinesfalls mehr im Gebiete. Mumi beobachtete 
die Art am ll.iv.21 bei Alcudia (Vogelf. II), ferner am 17. v. 22 und 13.iv.25 
(1926, p. 473). 

Sterna albifrons Pall. 

Nach Homsyer und Barcelo ist die Zwergsseschwalbe ein nicht haufiger 
Brutvogel Mallorcas (Vogelf. I, p. 141) ; heute briitet auch sie nicht mehr hier. 
Munn schreibt (in Chamberlin, p. 171), sie sei jetzt ein sehr seltener Zugvogel 
im Friihjahr, dagegen 1928, p. 21, er habe am 30.iv.26 drei Vogel im Hafen von 
Alcudia gesehen bei stiirmischem Wetter und dies sei die erste Beobachtung der 
Art seit der Homeyers im Jahre 1861. 

Sterna dougallii Mont. 

Nach Saunders war eine Paradiesseeschwalbe in der Sammlung Tristrams, 
die aus der Gegend von Menorca stammte (Vogelf. II, p. 534, und Munn, 1926, 
p. 476). Ob die Angabe stimmt ? 



324 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Hydroprogne tschegrava (Lop.). 

Muiin sail eine Raiibseeschwalbe am 28.iv.20 iiber die Albiifera nordwarts 
fliegen (Vogelf. II) uiid ein Paar am 14.vi.22 (1925, p. 46). 



Chlidonias nigra Raf. 

Homeyer naimte die Trauerseesehwalbe einen haufigeii Brutvogel des 
Prat iind der Albufera. Nacli Barcelo war sie das ganze Jahr iiber auf Mallorca 
und Menorca, nach Poiiseti auf letzterer Insel aber iiur ein seltener Gast (Vogelf. I, 
p. 141). Heute briitet sie jedenfalls nicht mehr auf der Insel. Munn sah am 
10.ix.23 einen jungen Vogel bei Alcudia (1925, p. 47). einige Tage spater ^\-ieder ; 
dann einen Flug Ende August 25, und am 24.viii.25 fand er ein junges Stiick, 
das wohl gegen einen elektrischen Draht geflogcn war. Hciu'ici beobachtete am 
9.V.24 ein Exemplar iiber der Albufereta (1927, p. 102). 



Chlidonias leucoptera (Temm.). 

Diese Seeschwalbe briitete nach Homeyer imd Barcelo gleichfaUs auf 
Mallorca ; Saunders erlegte einen Vogel hier im Mai (Vogelf. I, p. 141). — Nach 
Munn ist sie ein seltener Durchziigler ; er sah einige am 7 . v . 24 in der Albufera 
(1926, p. 474). 

Chlidonias leucopareia (Temm.). 

Die weissbartige Seeschwalbe beobachteten wir an mehreren Tagen hintcr- 
einander, Anfang Mai 27, in 3-7 Exemplaren iiber deiu Sumpfe Gainbas, leider 
immer grade ausser Schussweite. — Munn sah ethche iiber der Albufera am 
9.ix.24 und einen einzehien Vogel ebendort am 19. v. 25 und wieder einen Flug 
an der Siidkiiste am 26. v. 25 (1926, p. 474). — Ein Exemplar wurde nach Ponseti 
im April 1912 auf Menorca erbeutet (Munn, 1926, p. 476). — Munn schreibt, dass 
die letztgenamiten drei Arten Seeschwalben in den letzten Jahren haufiger 
beobachtet werden und meint, dass sie vielleicht demnachst ^^ieder ihre alten 
Brutplatze beziehen werden, wemi man ihnen, was kaum der Fall seiu wiirde, 
nicht nachsteUt (Chamberlin, p. 171). 



PufSnus kuhUi (Boie). 

Diesen Stiu-mtaucher sieht man aUenthalben in kleineron mid grosseren 
Fliigen auf dem Meere in nicht allzugrosser Entfernung von der Kiiste ; auf 
oSener See z.B.auf der Fahrt von Mallorca nach Ibiza trifft man ihn nur verein- 
zelt. Er briitet in grosserer Zahl an den Felskiisten der kleinen und der grossen 
Inseln, namenthch an der Cabrera, Conejera, etc. — Ausser dem 1913 erhaltenen 
Vogel schossen wir jetzt zwei weitere vom Nachen aus am 11. v. in der Nahe 
der Cabrera. Munn fand im 19. v. 24 eine grosse Kolonie an der Kiiste von 
Menorca, zu welcher Zeit erst wcnige Eier gelegt waren. wahrend am 27. v. 27 
die meisten Nester Eier enthielten (Mumi, 1926, pp. 476-77, 1928, p. 22). Am 
20.V.24 fand Henrici am Strande von Formentera eine zerbrochene Eischale 
(1927, p. 102). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 325 

Pufl&nus pufiBnus mauretanicus Lowe. 

Auch diese Art sieht man allenthalben, aber doch nicht so haufig wie die 
vorige. Sie briitet an den gleichen Ortlichkeiten. Am selben Tage 1927 
schossen wir aiif der gleichen Fahrt auch 2 Exemplare und erhielten von den 
Fischerjungen am 4 . v. einen Pnllus, den er auf der Conejera gegrififen hatte. 

Hydrobates pelagicus (L.). 

Sowohl auf der Fahrt nach der Cabrera wie nach Ibiza sahen wir etliche 
Sturmschwalben am ii.v. und 20.vi.27, leider aber bogen sie in ihrem sohnellen 
Fluge immer ausserhalb der Schussweite ab. Wie die Fischer uns sagten, sollen 
auch sie auf den kleinen Felseneilanden briiten. Munn schreibt (1925, p. 47), 
dass ein Vogel im Museum in Mahon stehe, der von Menorca stammen soli, 
wiihrend Ponseti die Art nicht auffiihrt ; er beobachteto die Sturmschwalbe im 
Sommer 21 und April 22 bei Mallorca. — Murpliy begegnete der Art oft auf der 
See in der Nahe der Balearen zwischen dem 16. und 30. Juli 26 und schoss einige 
fiir sein amerikanisehes Museum. 

Oceanodroma leucorrhoa (Vieill.). 

Murphy schoss einen jungen gabelschwanzigen Sturmvogel am 16.vii.l926 
etwa 53 Seemeilen n.westl. Menorca (1926, p. 554). — Munn sah einen einzelnen 
Vogel am ll.vi.24 und einen anderen am 28.viii.25 in der Bucht von Alcudia 
(1928, p. 21). 

Colymbus stellatus (Pontopp.). 

Nach Ponseti ist der Nordseetaucher ein seltener Gast auf dem Meere bei 
Menorca in strengen Wintern (Vogelf. I, p. 142). 

Colymbus arcticus L. 

Henrici gibt an, dass am 20 . v . 24 im Hafen von Formentera ein Polar- 
taucher dicht neben seinem Boote auftauchte " von Riidiger bestimmt diagno- 
sticiert." 

Colymbus immer Briinn. 

Nach Ponseti wurde ein Eisseetaucher im Januar 1917 bei Menorca erbeutet 
(Munn, 1926, p. 477). 

Podiceps cristatus (L). 

Die Behauptung Barcelos, der Haubentaucher briite vereinzelt in der 
Albufera, lasst sich nicht nachpriifen, heute jedenfalls ist er nur ein seltener 
Besucher, als welchen ihn auch Ponseti fiir Menorca bezeichnet (Vogelf. I, p. 142) j 
Munn sah einige Haubentaucher im Winter 20-21 bei Alcudia (Vogelf. II, p. 535). 

Podiceps nigricollis Br. 

Munn vermutet das Briiten des Schwarzhalstauchers in der Albufera wo ich 
am ii.v. 21 auch einen sah, den ich — ohne Sicherheit — fiir diese Art hielt (Vogelf. 
II) ; im Winter halt er sich nach Munn in geringer Zahl an der Kiiste bei Alcudia 
aiif. Nach Ponseti ein seltener Gast Menorcas. ' 



326 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Podiceps ruficollis (Pall.). 

Nach Barcelo, Ponseti und Munn ist der Zwergsteissfuss ein nicht grade 
seltener Standvogel beider Inseln. Wir sahen ihn diesmal ofters aiif den Kanalen 
der Albufera, wo ich am 1 3 . vi. einen jimgen Vogel schoss. Am 1 6 . v. beobachtete 
ich ein (J im Prachtkleid in dem kleinen Sumpfe bei den Hohlen von Arta, wo 
er aiich briitet. 

Podiceps griseigena (Bodil.). 

Mumi .sah ini November 1921 einige RothaLstaucher bei Alcudia (Vogelf. II, 
p. 535). 

Was das angebliche Vorkommen (nach Barcelo) des Ohrensteissfusses, 
Podiceps auritus (L.), angeht, verweise ich auf Vogelf. I, p. 143 ; ein Nachweis 
ist nich erbracht. 

Alca torda L. 

Wir sahen 1913 einige ausgestopfte, von Mallorca stammende Tordalke 
(Vogelf. I, p. 143) und ich beobachtete einen Vogel am 16. v. in der See bei 
der Porrassa, der wohl diese Art war. — Nach Barcelo und Ponseti seltene Gaste 
an den Kiisten beider Inseln. — Munn beobachtete im Juli 21 mehrere Male 5 
Stiicke am Cabo del Pinar, und nach ihm wurde am 10. i. 23 ein Vogel im Hafen 
von Alcudia gefangen. Er halt sein Briiten im Gebiet nicht fiir unmoglich, eine 
Meinung, die er auch in Chamberlin, p. 171, wiederholt ; das ist natiirlich 
ausgeschlossen. 

Uria aalge (Pont.). 

Die Trottellumme soil nach Barcelo und Ponseti sehr selten bei Mallorca 
und Menorca gesehen sein (Vogelf. I, p. 144), eine Angabe, die Mumi wiederholt ; 
ein Beweis ist nicht erbracht, und ich glaube eher an eine Verwechselung. 

Fratercula arctica meridionalis (Jordans). 

Wir kamen auch dieses Jahr wieder zu spat, um noch Papageitautaucher 
anzutreffen ; allerdings waren sie nach Mitteilung der Fischer noch bis Mitte 
April in einzelnen Fliigen vor der Ostkiiste Mallorcas. Im Spatherbst kommen 
sie an, und den Winter iiber sind sie alljahrlich in grossen Mengen — die Fischer 
sagten mir, in Schwarmen von hunderten und aberhunderten — vor alien Kiisten 
der Inseln, aber selten nahe dem Lande. Wie mir immer wieder versichert 
wurde, sollen aber einzelne Paare und kleinere Fliige auch den Sommer iiber auf 
der See anzutreffen sein. Verschiedene Angaben vom Briiten und bestimmten 
Brutplatzen erwiesen sich als falsch, wahrscheinlich — wenigstens in 2 Fallen 
konnte ich das zieralich sicher feststellen — wurde uns das nur berichtet in der 
Annahme, uns damit einen Gefallen zu tun ! Woher diese Mengen kommen, 
ist immer noch ein Ratsel. — Wir fanden verschiedentlich an der Kiiste im Suden 
Mallorcas und auf Ibiza am Strande angetriebene mehr oder weniger vollstandige, 
vertrocknete Reste des Vogels. — Eingehendere Ausfiihrungen findet man in 
meinen beiden ersten Arbeiten. 

Ein alter Fischer erzahlte uns folgende Mar, als ich ihn nach seinen jahr- 
zehntelangen Beobachtungen des " Que de fet "' ausfragte : Im spaten Friihjahr, 
wenn die Brutzeit beginne, zogen die Scharen langsam immer weiter von den 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 327 

Kiisten fort aufs offene Meer oder in ganz einsame Buchten, woliiu nie ein 
Mensch, nicht einmal der Fischer kame. Daher sahe man sie dann nie mehr in 
der Nahe der Inseln, wo man ihnen die ganze iibrige Jahreszeit allenthalben 
begegne. Hier teilten sie sich in kleine Gesellschaften oder auch in einzelne 
Paare, und nun beganne die Brut. Einzelne Vogel trefle man aber auch zu dieser 
Zeit weit draussen, und das seien Vogel, die entweder noch nicht fortpflanzugsfahig 
waren oder beschadigte Fliigel hatten oder aber solche, deren Mannchen bezw. 

Weibchen unigekommen seien. Eier konne man niemals finden, denn der 

Vogel briite auf dem Boden des Meeres ! — Ich stellte aus weiteren Fragen fest, 
dass der Mann mir dies nicht etwa erzahlte, uni zu horen, was ich eigentlich in 
Wirklichkeit von der Vogelwelt verstehe, oder um mich zum Besten zu halten, 
sondern dass dies seine wirkliche Meinung war, die ich auch von anderen so alten 
und erfahrenen FLschern, wie er einer sei, bestatigt horen wiirde. — Man mag aus 
dieser Erzahlung ersehen, wie vorsichtig man mit Angaben sein muss, die einem 
von anscheinend glaubwiirdigen Leuten dort berichtet werden ; glauben kann 
man nur solchen, die man wirklich kennt und deren Zuverlassigkeit man bei 
anderen Gelegenheiten selbst nachprtifen konnte. 

Hier mochte ich zum Schlusse noch eine andere, schone Sage erzahlen, die 
mir ein durchaus zuverlassiger Mann, ein eifriger Jager und guter Vogelkenner, 
in ehrlicher Uberzeugung Oirer Wahrheit berichtete, als icli ihn nach dem 
Briiten oder Nichtbriiten einiger Sumpfvogel auf den Balearen fragte : 

" Die Bekassine briitet hier nicht, es wurde nie ein Nest von ihr gefunden. 
Aber auch Sie aus dem Norden, wo viele andere Vogel briiten, die sich bei uns 
nur auf dem Zuge aiifhalten, werden ebensowenig wie ein anderer Mensch je ein 
Nest von ihr gefunden oder ihre Eier gesehen haben ; denn diese gibt es auch 
in keiner Sammlung der Welt." Auf meine Entgegnung, dass ich allerdings 
selbst noch kein Nest gefunden habe, da sie noch waiter im Norden briite, als wo 
ich lebte, dass ich aber wohl schon viele Eier von ihr gesehen hatte, ich auch 
selbst solche besasse, wurde der alte Mann emst und sagte : " Glauben Sie das 
nicht ! Die Eier, die man Ihnen als solche angab und vielleicht zu hohem Preis 
wegen ihrer Seltenheit verkaufte, stammen von irgend einem anderen Vogel, 
dessen Eier Sie nicht kennen, und weshalb Sie dann glaubten, dass sie von unseren 
Vogel, der Bekassine — er meinte aber sicher den dort auf dem Zuge so haufigen 
bogenschnabligen Strandlaufer in seinem blutroten Ubergangs kleid — stammten. 
Denn: " Als Christus sein Kreuz trug und seine Blutstropfen auf die Erde fielen, 
liefen zwei Bekassinen hinter ihm her und wischten mit ihrer Brust das Blut 
vom Boden, um die Schmach zu tilgen, die die Menschen ihrem Gotte antaten. 
Da wandte sich Christus um, blieb stehen und sagte ergriffen zu diesen Tieren : 
" Dafiir, dass Ihr Tiere die Schmach Eures Gottes nicht sehen mochtet und ihre 
Spuren zu tilgen versucht, dafiir soil nie ein Mensch Euer Nest finden, um Euch 
Leid's anzutun." — Sehen Sie, daher weiss ich, dass man Sie betrog ! " — Ich 
hiitete mich, an solchen, schonen Glauben zu riihren. 

Daher, so schloss der Erzahler, der alte mallorquinische Spruch, der sagen 
will, dass kein Sterblicher trotz alien Suchens je das Nest der Bekassine finden 
wird : 

" Ni qui es nat. 
Ni qui nechera 
Niu de Sequ© 
No trobera." 



328 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Hiermit schliesse ich den speciellen Teil und fiige noch einige Ubersichten 
an in Erganzung und teilweiser Berichtigung der in Vogelf. II, gegebenen. 

Verzeichnis der bisher aus detti Gebiete beschriebenen endemischen Vogelformen : 

1. Muscicapa striata balearica Jordans. 

2. Cettia cetti salvatoris Jordans. 

3. Sylvia atricapilla koenigi Jordans. 

4. Sylvia sarda balearica Jordans. 

5. Cisiicola juncidis intermedia Jordans. 

6. Liiscinia megarhynchos luscinioides Jordans. 

7. Parus maior tnallorcae Jordans. 

8. Partis coeruleus balearicus Jordans. 

0. Regulus ignicapillus balearicus Jordans. 

10. Galerida theklae polatzeki Hartert. 

1 1 . Troglodytes troglodytes miilleri Jordans. 

12. Chloris chloris mallorcae Jordans. 

13. Carduelis carduelis propeparm Jordans. 

14. Loxia curvirostra balearica Homeyer. 

15. Fringilla coelebs balearica Jordans. 

16. Petronia petronia balearica Jordans. 

17. Passer domesticus balearoibericus Jordans. 
IS. Emberiza tschusii ivitherbyi Jordans. 

19. Otus scops mallorcae Jordans. 

20. Tyto alba kleinschmidti Jordans. 

21. Alectoris rufa laubmanni Jordans. 

22. Streptopelia turtur loei Jordans. 

Nicht endemisch : 

23. Frutercida arctica meridionalis Jordans. 

Die endemischen Formen der Balearen — Pityusen zeichnen sich aiis z.T. 
durch ihre Kleinheit, wie es bei Inselrassen ja meist der Fall ist, ausserdem aber 
durch Helligkeit und Verdrangung brauner Farbungen durch g r a u e , wahrend 
sonst Inselformen meist dunkler sind als ihre Festlandsvertreter. — Die Fauna 
des Gebietes — nicht nur die Vogelfaima — steht der siidostspanischen und n.w. 
afrikanischen bedeutend naher, als der nordspanischen und vor allem der 
tyrrhenischen. Schwierige Emzelfragen der Verbreitung mancher Vogelarten 
barren noch der Losung. 

Verzeichnis der bisher als sicker briiterwl auf den Balearen-Pityusen festgestelUen 

Vogelarten und = formen : 

1. Lanius senator badius Hartl. 

2. Muscicapa striata balearica Jordans. 

3. Cettia cetti salvatoris Jordans. 

4. Acrocephalus arurulinaceus arundinaceus (L.). 

5. Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus (Herm.). 

6. Lusciniola melanopogon (Temm.) subsp. ? 

7. Sylvia atricapilla koenigi Jordans. 

8. Sylvia melanocephala melanocephala (Gm.). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGIOAE XXXIV. 1928. 329 

9. Sylvia sarda balearica Jordans. 

10. Cisticola juncidis intermedia Jordans. 

11. Turdus merula hispaniae Kleinschm. 

12. Monticola saxatilis (L.). 

13. Monticola solitaria solitaria (L.). 

14. Oenanthe oetvinthe nivea (Weigold). 

15. Saxicola torquata rubicola (L.). 

16. Luscinia megarhynchos luscinioides Jordans. 

17. Troglodytes troglodytes miilleri Jordans. 

18. Par us maior tnallorcae Jordans. 

19. Par us coer ulcus balea.ricus Jordans. 

20. Regulus ignicapillus balearicus Jordans. 

21. Calandrella brachydactyla brachydactyla (LeisL). 

22. Galerida theklae polatzehi Hart. 

23. Budytes flavus fasciatus Zander. 

24. Anthus campestris campestris (L.). 

25. Chloris clitoris mallorcae Jordans (Balearen). 

26. Chloris chloris aurantiiventris Cab. (Pityusen). 

27. Carduelis carduelis propeparva Jordans. 

28. Acanthis cannabina mediterranea Tsch. 

29. Serinus canaria serinus (L.). 

30. Loxia curvirostra balearica Horn. 

31. Fringilla coelebs balearica Jordans. 

32. Petronia petronia balearica Jordans. 

33. Passer domesticus balearoibericus Jordans. 

34. Emberiza calandra calandra L. 

35. Emberiza cirlus cirlus L. 

36. Emberiza tschusii witherbyi Jordans. 

37. Corvus corax hispanus Hart. & Kleinschm. 

38. Hirundo rustica riistica L. 

39. Delichon urbica meridionalis (Hart.). 

40. Riparia riparia (L.). 

41. Riparia rupestris rupestris (Scop.). 

42. Apus apus (L.). 

43. Apus 'pallidus illyricus (Tsch.). 

44. Apus melba L. 

45. Merops apiaster L. 

46. Upupa epops L. 

47. Cuculus canorus bangsi Oberh. 

48. Caprimulgus europaeus meridionalis Hart. 

49. Otus scopis mallorcae Jordans. 

50. Tyto alba kleinschmidti Jordans. 

51. Falco peregrinus (suhsp. i). 

52. Falco eleonorae Gene. 

53. Falco tinnunculus L. [Falco tinnunculus intercedens Br.). 
*54. Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri (Sev.). 

55. H ieraaetus pennatus {Gm.). 
*56. H ieraaetus fasciatus (Vieill.). 
57. Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus (L.). 



330 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

58. Milvus milvus (L.). 

59. Pandion haliaetus (L.). 

60. Neophron pemiopterus (L.). 

61. Aegypius monachus (L.). 

62. Alectoris rufa laubmanni Jordans. 

63. Coturnix coturnix (L.). 

64. Columba palumbits L. 

65. Columba livia subsp. ? 

66. Streptopelia turtur loei Jordans. 

67. Botaurus stellaris (L.). 
*68. Ixobrychus minutus (L.). 
*69. Ardea cinerea L. 

70. Ardea purpurea L. 

71. Ballus aquaticus Li. 
*72. Porzana porzana (L.). 

73. Gallinula chloropus (L.). 

74. Fidica atra L. 

75. Himantopus himantopus (L.). 

76. Charadrius dubiiis curonicus Gm. 

77. Charadrius alexandrinus L. 

78. Burhinus oedicnemus saharae (Rchw.). 
*79. Anas platyrhyncha h. 

80. Phalacrocorax carbo suhcormoranus (Br.). 

81. Phalacrocorax graculus desmarestii Payr. 

82. Larus argentatus michahellesii Bruch. 

83. Puffinus knhlii (Boie). 

84. Puffinus puffinus mauretanicus Lowe. 

85. Podiceps ruficollis (Pall.). 

* Kein Belegexemplar in meiner Sammlung. 

Verzeichnis der bisher als briitend im Gebiete angegebenen, aber nicht sicher als 

solcher festgestelUer Arten und solcher, die friiher anscheinend gebriUet haben, dies 

aber heute nicht mehr tun ' .• 

*1. Acrocephalus aquaticus (Gm.). 

*2. Sylvia, hoiien.ns hortensis (Gm.). 

3. Sylvia communis communis Lath. 

*4. Sylvia borin borin (Bodd.). 

5. Oenanthe oenanthe {nivea Weigold) (Balearen). 

6. Phoenicurus phoenicurus (L.). 
*7. Acanthis citrinella (L.). 

8. Oriolus oriolus (L.). 

9. lynx torquilla L. 
*10. Athene noctua (Scop.). 

? f*ll. Falco naumanni Fleisch. 

*12. Circus cyaneus (L.) 

13. Nycticorax nycticorax (L.). 

*14. Ardeola ralloides (Scop.). 

' Diese durcli t kenntlich gemacht. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 331 

f *15. Egretta garzetta (L.). 

f *16. Phoenicopterus ruber antiquorum Br. 

*17. Porzana jntsilla intermedia (Herm.). 

*18. Porzana parva (Scop.), 

f *19. Fulica cristata Lath, 

f *20. Porj)hyrio caeruleus (Vand.). 

21. Tringa hypoleucos L. 

*22. Glareola pratincola (L.). 

*23. Nyroca ferina (L.). 

*24. Netta rufina (Pall.). 

*25. Larua melanocepJialus Temm. (Menorca). 

f *26. Sterna hirundo L. 

f *27. Sterna albifrons Pall. 

■|"*28. Chlidonias nigra Raff. 

f*29. Chlidonias leucoptera (Temm.). 

*30. Hydrobates pelagicus [L..). 

f *31. Podiceps cristatus (L.). 

32. Podiceps nigricollis Br. 

Verzeichnis der als mehr oder weniger regelmdssige Durchziigler festgestellten Arten 

und Formen : 

1. Lanius senator senator \j. 

2. Muscicapa striata striata (Pall.) 

3. Muscicapa hypoleuca hypoleuca Pall. 

4. Phylloscojyus coUybita collybita (VieilL). 

5. Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus (L.). 
*6. Phylloscopus bonelli (Vieill.). 

7. Phylloscopms sibilatrix sibilatrix (Bechst.). 

8. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla (L.). 

9. Sylvia communis communis Lath. 

10. Sylvia cantillans cantillans Pall. 

11. Sylvia undala undata Bodd. 
*12. T Urdus pilaris h. 

*13. Turdus viscivorv^ L. 

*14. Turdus philomelos Br. 

*15. Turdus musicus L. 

*16. Turdus torquatus L. 

17. Oenanthe oenanthe (L.). 

18. Oenanthe hispanica hispanica (L.). 

19. Saxicola rubetra rubetra (L.). 

20. Phoenicurus phoenicurus (L.). 

21. Phoenicurus ochruros ater (Br.). 

22. Luscinia svecica cyanecula (Wolf). 
? *23. Luscinia luscinia L. 

24. Erithacus rubecuUi rubecula (L.). 

25. Prunella modularis modular is (L.). 
*26. Regulus regulus (L.). 

*27. Alauda arvensis L. 



332 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

*28. Lullula arborea (L.). 

29. Budytes flavus borealis Sund. 

*30. Budytes flavus flavun (L.). 

31. Motacilla alba alba L. 

32. Motacilla cinerea Tunst. 

33. Anthtts trivialis irivialis (L.). 

34. Anihus pratensis praten^is (L.). 

35. Coccothraustes coccothraustes (L.). 
*36. Acanthis spinas (L.). 

*37. Fringilla montifrinfjilla L. 

38. Emberiza hoHulana L. 

*39. Emberiza schoeniclus schoeniclus (L.). 

40. Oriolus oriolus (L.). 

*41. Sturnus vulgaris L. 

42. A pus melba L. 

43. Upujja ep)ops L. 
*44. Alcedo atthis L. 

45. lynx torquilla L. 

46. Cuctdus canorus canorus L. 
*47. Asia flammeus Pontopp. 
*48. Falco subbuteo L. 

*49. Falco columbarius aesalon Tunst. 

*50. Buteo buteo (L.). 

*51. Accipiter nisiis (L.). 

*52. Circus cyaneus (L.). 

53. Coturnix coturnix (L.). 

*64. Streptopelia turtur turtur (L.). 

55. Nycticorax nycticorax (L.). 

*56. Phoenicopterus ruber antiquorum Temm. 

*57. Crex crex (L.). 

58. Fulica atra L. 

*59. Scolopax ruMicola L. 

*60. Capella gallinago (L.). 

*61. Lymnocryptes minimus (Briinn.). 

62. Numenius arquatus (L.). 

*63. Limosa limosa (L.). 

64. Tringa glareola L. 

*65. Tringa nebularia (Gunner). 

*66. Tringa erythropus (Pall.). 

67. Tringa totanus (L.). 

*68. Tringa ochropus L. 

69. Tringa hypoleucos L. 

*70. PhiloTnachus pugnax (L.). 

71. Erolia alpina (L.). 

72. Erolia minuta (Leisl.). 

73. Erolia ferruginea (Briinn.). 
*74. Glareola pratincola (L.). 
*75. Charadrius apricarius L. 

76. Squatarola squatarola (L.). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV'. 1928. 333 

*77. Charadrius hiaticula L. 

*78. Vanellus vanellus (L.). 

*79. Mergus merganser L. 

*80. Mergus serrator L. 

*81. Mergus albellus L. 

*82. Nyroca fuligula (L.). 

*83. Nyroca nyroca (L.). 

*84. Nyroca ferina (L.). 

*85. Spatula clypeata (L.). 

*86. Anas platyrhyncha L. 

*87. Anas penelope L. 

*88. Anxis querquedula L. 

*89. Alias crecca L. 

*90. Anas acuta L. 

*91. .4wser ow«er (L.). 

*92. Larus marinus L. 

*93. Larus fusciis L. 

*94. Larus canus L. 

95. Larus ridibundus L. 

*96. Larus minutus Pall. 

*97. Sterna hirundo L. 

*98. Chlidonias nigra Raff. 

*99. Chlidonias leucoptera (Temm.). 

*100. Chlidonias leucopareia (Temm.). 

*101. Podicejis cristatus (L.). 

102. Mormon arcticus meridionalis Jordans. 



Verzeichnis irreguldrer Gdste : 

*1. Lanius excubitor meridionalis Temm. 

? *2. Muscicapa ulbicollis Temm. 

*3. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (L.). 

*4. Sylvia conspicillata Temm. 

*5. Sylvia curruca curruca (L.). 

*6. Turdus dauma aureus Hoi. 

7. Oenanthe oenanthe leucorrhoa (Gm.). 

*8. Tichodroma muraria (L.). 

*9. Motacilla alba yarellii Gould. 

? *10. Anthus spinolella spinoletta (L.). 

? *I1. Anthus spinoletta obscura (Lath.). 

? *12. Passer montanus L. 

*13. Emberiza citrinella L. 

? *14. Emberiza cia L. 

*15. Sturnus unicolor Temm. 

1 *16. Corvus corone L. 

*17. Corvus comix L. 

? *18. Corvus frugileg us L. 

*19. Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (h.). 

*20. Coracias garrulus L. 



23 



334 



NOVITATES 2oOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



*21. Claynator glandarius (L.). 
? *22. Asia otus (L.). 
1 *23. Strix aluco L. 

*24. Falco vespertinus L. 
? *25. J^aZco naumanni Fleisch. 
? *26. Aquila heliaca adalberti Br. 

27. Circus pygargus (L.). 

28. Circus macrourus (Gm.). 

*29. Milvus migrans migrans (Bodd.). 
*30. Pernis apivorus (L.). 
1 *31. Haliaetus alhicilla (L.). 
*32. Qyps fulvus {\i&h\\tz\.]. 
? *33. Francolinus francolinus (L.). 
*34. Columba oenas L. 
*35. Ardeola ralloides (Scop.). 
*36. Egretta alba L. 
*37. Egretta garzetta (L.). 
*38. Bubulcus ibis (L.). 
*39. Ciconia ciconia (L.). 
*40. Plegadis falcinellus (L.). 
*41. Platalea leucorodia L. 
*42. Megalornis grus (L.). 
*43. Anthropoides virgo (L.) (im 18. Jahrhdt.). 
*44. oris <e(ro.r L. 
*45. Numenius phaeopus (L.). 
? *46. Numenius tenuirostris Vieill. 
*47. Limosa lapponica (L.). 
*48. Erolia temmincki (Leisl.). 

*49. Erolia canutus (L.). 

*50. Crocethia alba (Pall.). 
? *51. Recurvirostra avosetta L. 

*52. Haematopus ostragelus L. 

*53. Arenaria inter pres (L.). 
? *54. Cursorius cursor (Lath.). 
? *55. Oxyura leucocephala (Scop.). 

*56. Nyroca marila (L.). 
? *57. Anas strepera L. 

*58. Tadorna tadorna (L.). 
? *59. Anser fabalis (Lath.). 

*60. Anser albifrons (Scop.). 

*61. Cygnus cygnus (L.). 

*62. Pelecanus onocrotabis L. (einmal 1773). 

*63. Sula bassana (L.). 

*64. Stercorarius skua (Briinn.). 

*65. Larus melanocephalus Temm. 

*66. Larus genei Breme. 
? *67. Larus audouini Payr. 
? *68. Larus glaucoides Mayer 
? *69. Rissa tridactyla (L.). 



NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 335 

1 *70. Gelochelidon nilotica (Gm.). 

? *71. Sterna sandvicensis Lath. 

*72. Sterna albifrons Pall. 

? *73. Sterna dougallii Mont. 

1 *74. Hydroprogne tschegrava (Lep.). 

*75. Oceanodroma leucorrhoa (Vieill.). 

*76. Colymbus stellatus (Pontopp.). 

*77. Colymbus arcticus L. 

*78. Colymbus immer Briinn. 

*79. Podiceps griseigena (Bodd.). 

*80. Aha tarda L. 

? *81. Uria aalge (Pont.). 

Verzeichnis einiger Arten, die zwar fiir das Oebiet angegeben wurden, tatsdchlich 
aber nie vorgekommen sind : 

Parus ater L. 

Sitta evropaea L. 

Certhia braehydactyla Br. 

Calandrella minor (Cab.). 

Chersophilus duponti Vieill. 

Acanthis linaria cabaret (P. L. S. Miill.). 

Passer domesticus italiae Vieill. 

Pyrrhocorax graculus (L.). 

Dryobates minor (L.). 

Alecioris graeca (Meyer). 

Alectoris barbara (Bonn.). 

Balearica pavonina (L.). 

Die in Vogelf. II, pp. 197 und 200, auf Giund der dort vorangestellten Listen 
angegebenen Gesammtzahlen sind entsprechend den jetztigen Ubersichten zu 
andern, dabei ist aber zu beriicksichtigen, dass icli diesmal infolge ander.s 
formulierter Uberschriften einige wenige Arten doppelt einfiigen musste. 

Zum Schlusse dieser Arbeit gebe ich eine Zusammenstellung (vergl. Vogelf. I 
und II) aller bisher iiber das Gebiet veroffentlichten ornithologischen Arbeiten 
und Notizen : 

CHRONOLOGISCHES LITTERATURVERZEICHNIS. 

1. D. FoRTTJNY, Historia de Mallorca, 1653. 

2. Armstrong und Cleghorn, Beschreibung der Insel Menorca, 1754. 

3. D. Buenaventura Serra (Manuscript iiber Vogel), Mitte 18. Jahrdt. 

4. Vargas Ponce, Deskribtlon de las Islas Baleares y Pitiusas, Madrid, 1787. 

5. Ramis, Specimen animalio vegetabilium et mineralium in insula Minorca 

ftecuentiorum, ad normam Linneani systematis exaratum, Mahon, 1814. 

6. BovER, Noticias historico-topographicas de Mallorca, Palma, 1836. 

7. Weyler und Lavina, To])ographia fisico-medica de las Islas Baleres, 1854. 

8. Al. von Hombyer, Die Balearen, Journ.f. Ornith. 1862. 

9. Al. von Homeyer, Balearen und Algier, Nachtrage, ibid. 1 864. 
10. Lord Lilford, Ibis, 1865, II. Ser. Vol. I (Kurze Notiz). 



330 NoviTATEs Zoological XXXIV. 1928. 

11. Bakcelo y Combis, Catalogo methodico de las aves observadas en las islas 

Baleares, Madrid und Palma, 1866. 

12. Baecelo y Combis, Apuntes para la Fauna Balear, Madrid, 187.5. 

13. K. K. H. Erzherzog Ludwig Salvator, Die Balearen in Wort und Bild, 

7 Bde. 1869-91 ; Ausgabe in 2 Bnd. Wiirzburg, 1897. 

14. Howard Saunders, A List of the Birds of Southern Spain, Ibis, 1871. 

15. Howard Saunders, Catalogue des Oiseaux du midi de I'Espagne, Paris, 

1876-77. 

16. D. Ventura de los Reyes y Prosper, Catalogo de las aves de Espana, 

Portugal y Islas Baleares, Madrid, 1886. 

17. M. H. PoNSETi, Catalogo de las aves observadas en la Isla de Menorca, 

Mahon, 1911. 

18. E. Haetert, XJber die Haubenlerche der Balearen und Pityusen, Ornith. 

Monatsher. xx. 1912. 

19. A. V. Jordans, Die Vogelfauna Mallorcas mit Beriicksichtigung Menorcas 

imd der Pityusen, Diss. Bonn und Falco, 1914. 

20. GossE, Notes on the Birds of the Balearic Islands, Av. Mag. 1920. 

21. P. W. MuNN, Notes on the Birds of Alcudia Mallorca, Ibis, 1921. 

22. A. V. Jordans, Neue Vogelrassen von den Balearen, Falco, 1923. 

23. A. V. Jordans, Die Ergebnisse meiner zweiten Reise nach Mallorca. 

Erganzungen zu meiner Vogelfauna Mallorcas, Journ. f. Ornith. 
1924-25.' 

24. P. W. MuNN, Notes on the Birds of Minorca, Ibis, 1924 

25. P. W. MuNN, Additional Notes on the Birds of Alcudia, Mallorca, Ibis, 

1925. 

26. P. W. McNN, Additional Notes on the Birds of the Balearic Islands, nebst 

Additional Notes on the Birds of Minorca, Ibis, 1926. 

27. R. P. Murphy, A Cruise to Majorca, Nat. Hist. XXVI, New York, 1926. 

28. P. Henrici, Am Brutplatz von Sylvia sarda, Beitr. Fortpfl. Biol. Vog. 1926. 

29. P. Henrici, Ornithologische Ergebnisse zweier kurzer Reisen nach den 

Balearen und Pityu.sen, ibid. 1926-27. 

30. F. C. R. Jourdain, Die Eier der Vogel von Mallorca (Balearen), ibid. 1927. 

31. P. W. MuNN, in F. Chamberlin, The Balearics and their Peoples, London 

and New York, 1927. (Kap. The Birds of Majorca and Minorca.) 

32. P. W. MuNN, Further Notes on the Birds of the Balearic Islands, Ibis, 

1928. 

1 Nebst Anhang von A. Koenig uber die Ergebnisse seiner Untersuclmngen der vom Autor 
mitgebrachten Eier. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 337 



A RUSH THROUGH TUNISIA, ALGERIA, AND MAROCCO, 

AND COLLECTING IN THE MAROCCAN ATLAS, IN 1927. 

By ERNST HARTERT. 

(Plates VIII-IX) 

r^N March 14, 1927, I left London with Mr. Lancelot Turtle. Though the 
^"^ train was very late at the Gare de Lyon in Paris, we had time to dine 
in the excellent restaurant at the station in the company of Monsieur Heim de 
Balsac. Next morning we were most kindly received at Marseille by Dr. Fromols- 
Rakowski and, according to plan, met the Hon. Masauji Hachisuka. Together 
we all visited the beautifully situated Museum, where Professor Vayssiere most 
obligingly showed us what we wanted to see and discuss, chiefly the Falcons. 
VVe had a wonderfully quiet crossing over to Tunis on the comfortable S.S. 
Gouverneur General Grevy, but arrived in Tunis in a cold rain. On the " canal " 
Flamingoes were seen close by, which are as common as they used to be in olden 
times. Messrs. Lavauden and Blanchet kindly awaited us on the pier, not- 
withstanding the early hour of our arrival, and helijed us through the custom 
house with our guns and cartridges. With these two ornithologists we visited 
the neighbourhood of Tunis, especially the ruins of Carthage — i.e. what little is 
left of them — and saw their collections. While Monsieur Lavauden 's birds are 
nearly all (mounted !) in the Museum of Grenoble, Monsieur Blanchet has in his 
house in Hammam Lif a beautiful and rich collection, partly mounted, partly 
in skins, of Tunisian (and Algerian) birds, all most conscientiously labelled and 
named. 

Near Carthage we visited the very interesting " Station oceanographique 
de Salammbo," where we, among others, were shown two live young Mediter- 
ranean Shags, Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmaresti, which were taken from a 
nest on the islet of Chickli in the Lake of Tunis as early as March 12, 1927, so 
that the eggs must have been laid in February. On the Lake of Tunis we saw, 
among other birds, fine adult Larus melanocephalus. 

In Tunis Mr. Hachisuka bought an excellent Citroen car, and on the 
20th we left Tunis for Sfax. We passed the beautiful ruins of El-Djem, and at 
Sousse, in the outskirts of the town, we saw a pair of Streptopelia senegalensis 
phoenicophila, which now ranges along the coastal region to Sousse and even to 
Cape Bon. Grey Shrikes we found strikingly more numerous than in most 
parts of Algeria, all Lanius excubitor dodsoni, but north of Sfax already typical 
L. e. elegans occurs. 

In Sfax we were most kindly received by Monsieur Paul Bede, and looked 
over his collection of skins, and his zoological garden of birds and animals, 
chiefly of Africa Minor. With Monsieur Bede we made an excursion south- 
westwards of Sfax, far out into the semi-desert. Lanius excubitor elegans was 
common, also Crested Larks, but bird life was not very rich. Oenanthe moesta 
was once met with, one pair, but I tried in vain to find the nest. From Sfax 
we went northwards again to Sousse, where we met Monsieur Lavauden, 
and saw the beautiful collection of Messrs. Gouttenoire, very well mounted, 
all from the neighbourhood. Much of the country is taken up by olive-trees, 




338 



NOVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



339 



in which Fringilla c. spodiogenys is common, and several times we saw Falco 
biarmicus erlaiigeri, a female being shot from the car by Turtle. 

The night we spent in a sufficiently comfortable hotel in Kairouan — once 
a forbidden town for infidels — and next day made a delightful excursion to the 
Djebel Cherichera, with Monsieur and Madame Blanchet, Lavauden of Tunis, 
and Alfred Vaucher from Switzerland, my correspondent of many years, whom 
I had never met in person. The Djebel Cherichera is a very interesting locality 
and a beautiful mountain stock. Monsieur Blanchet, who knows it well, called 
our attention to the fact, that there one could on a single day come across forms 
peculiar (in Tunisia) to the north and to the south of the country. For example. 




Via. 1.— NEST OF UULDK.N' EAIILE ui ilT. CilEllIOHERA. 



one could find the northern Pycnonolus barbatus barbatus and the southern 
Ammomanes deserti algeriensis, Emberiza striolata saJmri, and Turdoides fulvus 
fulvus. Though it was a beautiful day, when we were there, we found the ornis 
rather poor, but observed Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri {occidentalis), flying about 
near an empty nest. Bubo (bubo) ascalaphics, Crested Larks (theklae), and the 
Ammomanes. The scarcity of birds, our kind guides think, must be due to the 
unusual dryness of the locality. 

From Kairouan we returned, via Sousse, to Timis ; after a couple of days 
we said au revoir to our friends and motored to the Kroumirie, the forested 
mountain district, with extensive woods, chiefly of oaks {Quercus suber and 
Q. mirbeckii), Arbutus, Ash, Erica arborea. Ivy, and a rich undergrowth, where 
the North African forest birds abound. Unfortunately cold and steady rain set 



340 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



in and we stayed only one day. We found Woodpeckers, Titmice, Wrens, Jays, 
and the Robins quite common near the little hotel " Les Sources " and the 
larger one (full as usual) of " Les Chenes." The drive over the Medjerda Moun- 
tains down to the frontier station of Ghardimaou and the town of Souk-Ahras 
in East Algeria was very cold. In Souk-Ahras the hotel was full, but we found 
clean bedrooms near by ; at the frontier there was of course delay and formaUties 
about the car as well as about the guns and cartridges, but fortunately I had 
corresponded and arranged about the latter through the kind help of H.M. 
British Consulate in Alger. The road over the high mountain range between 
Souk-Ahras and Ghardimaou was for a long way above the forest zone, covered 




Fig. 2.— gorge of EUMilEL WITH SUSPENSION BBIDGE. 



with halfa, and snow patches were still seen on a slope close to the road, which 
was none of the best, though the scenery is grand. Of birds only Crested Larks 
(theklae). Ravens, and Diplootocus moussieri were observed. 

From Souk-Ahras we went to Constantine, where we again admired the 
stupendous gorge of the Rummel, in which Jackdaws, Kestrels, Storks, and 
Egyptian Vultures were observed. 

From Constantine we had a delightful day going to El-Kantara, seeing on 
the way a big flock of Grus grus south of Constantine, also Buzzards (Buieo 
rnfimis cirtensis). Black Kites, and other common l)irds. In picturesque El- 
Kantara we spent two days, but we did not see any unusual birds. 

On April 3 we went to Biskra, seeing a fine adult Lammergeyer (Gypaetos) 
on the Col de Sfa, from where one descends down into the Biskra plain. In 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



341 



Biskra we .stopped a few days, going over the ground so familiar to me. It was 
drier than I had seen it before, and there seemed to be less birds, the result of 
several dry years. In the Mouleina, near the river, a few Merojis jiersicus chryso- 
cercus were seen, Oenanthe moesta was in its accustomed haunts, also Alaemon 
alaudipes alaudipes and others of our old friends. We did not see StreptojJelia 
senegalensis phoenicophila, but did not go about very much in the oasis, and 
this beautiful Dove has become scarcer than it used to be, though it still inhabits 
the Biskra jjalm groves. In Biskra we found comfortable quarters again in the 
Hotel du Sahara. 

On April 6 we travelled over the mountains to Bou Saada, the finest day's 
journey so far, though actually hot. We passed the big oasis of Zaatcha and 
Tolga, coming across Ttirdoides (Crateropus, Argi/a) fulnis fidriis among the 
same Zizyphits-hush.es before Zaatcha, where Lord Rothschild and I saw it for 





1 

! 


•>"' ^SS'K^Sx'J^m^ ^^^^BmSS^Sf^^^^L^w^^^^ ' ^ 






- 1 it!''-'. lb. 



FIG. 3.— (J IIOUBARA BU.STARD SHOT OX WAT TO BOU-SAADA. 



the first time in 1909. Not very far from Zaatcha the road — which is rather 
bad in places — ascends the mountains and affords beautiful views. From the 
summit of the pass towards Bou Saada one passes over a treeless plateau on 
which Bustards (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) and Dorcas Gazelles are found. 
It would have been interesting to explore this plateau, but our time was too 
short. As it was, we reached Bou Saada in the dark, but found quite com- 
fortable rooms in one of the less pretentious hotels, avoiding as usual the large 
and splendid but expensive hotel Transatlantique. Bou Saada is picturesquely 
situated on terraces above the Oued Bou Saada, which runs into the Chott-el- 
Hodna. with fine palm gardens, and not far from an extended group of high sand 
dunes which, so far away from the real Sahara, have, of course, some of the 
desert plants and creatures, but not all. In fact, in the one day we were able to 
spend at Bou Saada we saw none of the real desert birds peculiar to the Saharan 
dunes ; we shot a pale form of the theklae group of Crested Larks (see list). In 
the river-bed were numerous House Martins, but probably still on migration. 



342 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

On April 8 we left Bou Saada with regrets. The good road passes over 
the most tj'pical Algerian Haut Plateau, with much Artemisia herba-alba. Birds 
were fau'ly numerous. Except Crested Larks — no cristaia observed — we saw 
numerous Melanocorypha calandra rnlandra, Ammomanes deserti algerien^is, 
I heard and Turtle shot Chersophilus dujjonti duponti, Diplootocus moiissieri were 
not rare in places, Oenanthe hispanica hispanica were seen, a flock of Black-bellied 
Sandgrouse (Pt erodes orienfalis L.), and the usual Waders on a little swamp, 
including Himantopiis. Somewhere along this road Monsieur d'Abadie (whom 
we had met already in Tunisia, and whom we saw again en passant at luncheon 
in Djelfa) had shot Eremophila alpestris bilopha, which we did not observe. 

In Djelfa we stopped for luncheon in the old hotel, and then proceeded to 
Berrouaghia, where we arrived rather late in the dark. We were warned that 
Boghari was rather full of bugs, and so did not stop there as we had intended, 
and also because we did not care to arrive too late at Alger the next day, as the 
continually winding road up to the nearly 1,000 m. takes a rather long time and 
is tiring for the driver. We passed the cliffs south of Boghari, where in Loche's 
time and recently Comatibis eremita nested, but apparently the little colony was 
not frequented in 1927. We could not devote much time to the exploration 
of these rocks, but Mr. Jourdain visited them also a bit later and found not a 
single bird there, though he explored them well. 

In Alger we visited our old friend Dr. Nissen, and witnessed the tail-end 
of the violent gale which did so much damage along the western part of the 
north coast of Africa Minor, especially at Melilla, where quite a number of ships 
were lost. Here Mr. Turtle left us, to our regret, as he had to go back to Cam- 
bridge. 

April 12 Hachisuka and I left Alger by the western road, which runs close 
to the sea-shore as far as Tenes and offers many beautiful views. The gale had 
abated and it was a magnificent day. The country contains vineyards, fields 
and woods of Aleppo pines, which were full of Fringilla coelebs africana Lev., 
but no specially remarkable birds were observed. 

In Orleansville House Martins nested in numbers, all on one building opposite 
the hotel in which we passed the night. They were already building their nests, 
of which I counted between thirty and forty. Sparrows took possession of barely 
finished nests. Black Swifts only were seen, as before in Alger — where in 1908 
and 1909 Pallid Swifts nested also, though in smaller numbers — and later on in 
Mascara. 

April 14 we had an easy run over good roads to Mascara, over Haut Plateau 
country, though not steppe, but fertile, mostly cultivated land with many vine- 
yards and olive gardens, especially in the plain of Egris, where the beautiful 
Mascara wines come from, which are perhaps the best of Algeria. As no train 
was running next day we had to stay the whole of it in Mascara, which, not- 
withstanding a comfortable hotel, was somewhat wasted, as the agricultural 
plain did not contain many desirable birds. Chaffinches, Goldfinches, Green- 
finches, and Passer domesticus (P. hispaniolensis was not observed) were common, 
Stonechats and Red-headed Shrikes were seen, Oenanthe hispanica rather frequent 
in the vineyards (? nesting there), and in a small gorge Athene noctua glaux was 
shot by Hachisuka. 

We went by the slow but fairly comfortable train down to Colomb Bechar, 
as we were strongly advised not to risk the car on the bad and sandy roads. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



343 



Leaving Ain-Sefra the railway goes round the Djebel Mekter, in a semi- 
circle, through fine scenery, and then enters a seemingly endless plain. The vege- 
tation gets poorer and poorer, the aspect more and more desert-like. Near 
Beni-Ounif, the Algerian settlement south of Figuig in Marocco, the peculiar 
little hillocks of Anabasis aretioides become visible, and farther south are some- 
times almost the only plants seen from the train for long distances ; they vary 
in size from small bolsters of the size of a fist to others of three and even sometimes 
four feet across. Even small plants are almost impossible to pull up, as the 
roots extend very deep. In other places Artemisia herba-alba abounds, but the 
monotony is often relieved by river-valleys, in which grow the fresh-looking 
green " Harmal," Peganum haniialn L., Zizyphus bushes, and now and then an 




Pig. 4.— LAKGE PLAXT of anabasis aretioides, SlIALLEE OSES D." THE DISTANCE. 



isolated Terebinth tree, or an oasis with date-palms. On the whole the farther 
south the more bare and dry, desert-like the country became. 

Colomb Bechar, in the south-westernmost comer of Algeria, but more 
Maroccan than Algerian, is quite a desert town. The surroundings are bare and 
desert-like, the native villages, mostly in date-palm groves along the river-bed, 
are picturesque, and fine sand dunes extend some distance to the south. The 
surroimding mountains are bare and rocky. The resident bird population is 
not rich. In the town were a few, in the palm groves plenty, of House Sparrows, 
but no sign of any hispaniolensis, a few House Martins were seen, probably 
nesting, but no nests found. Sand Martins in the river-bed — possibly nesting 
somewhere on the river bank, but more likely stUl on migration. The testes 
were still small. Corvus corax once seen, probably ruficollis. Upupa epops 
several. Emberiza striolata saliari in the town. Carduelis carduelis africana 
and Erythrospiza githaginea (once) seen in gardens and on the river. Hachisuka 
shot one Crested Lark, Qalerida cristata macrorhyncha, but no others were 
observed. Alaemon alaudipes was once seen south of the town, but not obtained. 
Oenanthe deserti was not rare in the desert, Oenanthe leucopyga inhabits the bare 



"''** NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

rocks. Falco biarmicus erlangeri, Fako tinnuncuhis. Gyps fnlvn^, and Neophron 
percnopterun near the towii. Ammomanes phoenicurus arenicolor were seen 
commonly, but still in llock.s, testes and ovaries still small, in plain and on 
sand-covered rocks. Ammomanes deserti payni, judging from size of sexual 
organs, already nesting, or short time before laying. Hachisuka saw Cursorius, 
in the river-bed a pair of Storks. Swallows were numerous. 

In spite of the late date (April 17 and 18) migrants were still numerous, 
flocks of 20-30 of CalandreUa hrachydactyla, quite a number of Oenanthe oenanthe 
oenanthe, flocks of Motacilla flava flavn on and among the sheep in the river-bed, 
several Motacilla alba alba. Phylloscopiis trochihis in the gardens of the oasis, 
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus common in the gardens. Sand Martins in 
the river-bed, Hachisuka saw two species of waders, which, however, were not 
identified. 

The stay in C'olomb Bechar was not over pleasant, the hotel being not very 
good, tlie rooms smelly of leaking acetylene-gas pipes (fortimately the weather 
was hot and one could open windows and doors), the service — during the Easter 
holidays — poor. Nevertheless, we regretted that we could not stay longer, as 
longer excursions, with the help of cars or horses even, might have been very 
interesting. 

On April 19 we took the train ])ack northwards as far as Beni-Ounif. This 
we found a pleasant place, there being the choice of the excellent but expensive 
Hotel Transatlantique and two other, less pretentious, but comfortable and 
quiet hotels. The ornis was, however, hardly any less poor than at Colomb 
Bechar. On the way there, north of Colomb Bechar, I observed from the train 
flocks of Merops persicus chrysocercus, Emberiza striolata sahari, and twice 
Houbara Bustards (Chlamydotis undulafa undulata). French officers in the 
train told us that the " Poule de Carthage," Otis tetrax tetrax L., was not at all 
rare east of Colomb Bechar, along the Oued Sousfana and in the steppes there- 
abouts. As they gave a recognisable description and said they knew the Houbara 
as well, there must be some truth in this, but it seems strange that this Bustard 
should occur so far south, though it is well known in West Marocco. 

At Beni-Omiif House Sparrows, Swallows, and a few Martins were seen in 
the place, Corvus corax (apparently ruficollis) in the distance, Neojihron percnop- 
terus, Ammomanes deserti payni, Ammonmnes plwen. arenicolor, where there were 
Zizyphus a few Grey Shrikes {Lanius e. elegant), a flock of Cursorius cursor cursor. 
There were still a good many migrants : Phylloscopi (mostly trochilus), ^^ Musci- 
capa luctuosa luctuosa, CalandreUa brachydactyla, Oenayithe oenanthe oenanthe, 
Phoenicurus j^hoenicurus phoenictirus. 

A delightful excursion is to the Berber town of Figuig in Marocco. This 
is a large oasis of over 15,000 inhabitants, and beautifully situated on a steep 
hill, the whole place surrounded by crenellated walls and full of fine gardens 
with tall date-palms and other fruit-trees. The houses are often built in two 
stories, as I have only seen them in the villages of the Great Atlas in Marocco, 
but not usually in the more northern parts of Marocco. In the palm gardens 
we looked in vain for Streptopelia senegalensis plwenicophila, the palm Dove so 
well known from the northern Algerian Sahara, while Turtle Doves were com- 
mon. The people in the oasis were very friendly though not at all cheeky. In 
one of the gardens we saw a Great Tit, but could not shoot it. On a building 
in the outskirts I saw an Oenanthe leucura .syenitica at close quarters and we 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



345 



observed Merops apiaster and several Merops persicus chrysocercus, of which I 
had never seen a specimen in West Algeria or from Marocco. 

Passer dome-sticus tingitanus and Emberiza striolata sahari were common. 

Near Beni-Ounif migrants were still observed : Phoenicurus phoenicurus 
phoenicurus, Phylloscopus, Pied Flycatchers, as late as April 22. 

From Beni-Ounif we continued our journey northwards to Ain-Sefra. We 
foimd hotel accommodation worse than in 1913. Birds were less numerous, 
probably on account of the drought. Two days diligent search in the well-known 
localities did not reveal Rhamphocorys clot-bey, nor did the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain 




Flu. 5.— STORKS UN OLD WALL OF EL-HAJEB. 



find it there ! Oenanthe deserti and Erythrospiza githaginea were present, but 
less numerous, both species of Arnmomanes, Scotocerca, Oeiianthe rnoesta were 
found. Of the latter Hachisuka shot a male, while I have neither note nor 
recollection of having seen it in 1913 at Am-Sefra. Also Ravens, obviously 
C. c. tingitanus, were seen several times, though in 1913 we never observed a 
single one. 

From Ain-Sefra we returned to Mascara, thence we motored to Sidi-bel- 
Abbes, where we passed a comfortable night. Sidi-bel-Abbes, known as the 
headquarters of a regiment of the Foreign Legion, is a town of about 38,000 
inhabitants, and is situated in one of the most fertile plains of Algeria. For an 



346 



NOVITATES ZoOLOGtCAE XXXIV. 1928. 



ornithologist the surroundings are even less interesting than those of Mascara, 
as they are mostly fields of wheat, also fruit-gardens and vineyards. From this 
town we motored to Oudjda crossing the Maroccan frontier soon after Lalla 
Manila, where there was the usual dela}' at the customs house, though we were 
very considerately treated. At Tlemcen we enjoyed the beautiful scenery 
and had luncheon in the excellently situated Transatlantique Hotel outside the 
town. West of Oudjda the country became drier — we entered what I called 
(cf. Nov. ZooL. xxxiv, 1927, p. 4G) the " Desert Wedge," i.e. hammada-like 
eomitry with very few trees. The end of this '' wedge " reaches right up to 
north of Guercif, and a little west of Guercif occurs Oenanthe moesta moesta, of 
which Hachisuka shot a young of the year. West of Oujda I shot two Galerida 
cristata of very different aspect, one being much darker than the other (see list). 




FIO. 6.— OLD WALL OF EL-HAJEB WITH HOLES IN WHICH NEST FALCO -VJ CJ/J.V.Y/ 

AND HOLLERS. 



The Angad plain I fomid more cultivated, with more corn growing, than in 1913, 
when we visited the eastern parts of it. 

After passing the Moulouya at Guersif and two little affluents to the latter, 
a change was very obvious, as we entered more fertile country again, when we 
saw the first river flowing westwards, a tributary of the Oued Sebou, which 
enters the Atlantic Ocean near Mehedia — we had entered the West Maroccan 
zone ! After a number of mishaps to the car we reached the wonderful city of 
Fez (Fes) after eight o'clock in the evening and found comfortable quarters in 
the Hotel Transatlantique. It is not here the place to describe this most interest- 
ing and peculiar Maroccan town of far over 100,000 inhabitants. Of birds we 
observed great numbers of Alpine Swifts — of the dark form (see list), only Black 
Common Swifts, and a few Lesser Kestrels. On April 29 we went to Meknes, 
visited General Freydenberg, and proceeded to El-Hajeb, on the north-western 
slopes of the Middle Atlas. Besides the small colony of Cornatibis eremiia, dis- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



347 



covered by Bede near this picturesque little place, there is a bigger one near 
by. We could not reach the nests, nor could we get any boy to climb up, because 
everybody attended the great " fantasia," in the plains ; great numbers of 
natives assembled there, thousands of shots were fired for several days, singing 
and furious riding, feasting, etc., so no native help could be obtained. On the 
old walls of El-Hajeb Storks nested in numbers, and in the holes numerous 
Lesser Kestrels and Rollers. 

From El-Hajeb we returned after a couple of days to Meknes and thence to 
Rabat, where we saw our old friends again, and fetched Frederick Young from 
Casablanca on May 4. 

On May 5 we visited again the swamp at the mouth of the Bou Reg-reg, 
where Circus pygargus nest, and again I found Asia capensis tingitanus and 



f" 7Bff 

Tizj ; 

OUJDII '" 

ULCER 118Q 



.lilt » 



Oil. 




Fin. 7.— SIGNPOST ON KOADS IN WKSTKllN I'HENCII MAIMIC'L'O, VISIBLE FROM FAR. 



Cisticola and saw half a dozen Numenius arquatus arqiiatus. On May 6 we 
travelled down to Marrakesh. In the Rehamna, not very far north of Marrakesh, 
we saw some Cursorius, but more were observed m June, when returning for 
the second time from Marrakesh. The Short-toed Larks in the Rehamna plain, 
which we formerly thought were CalandreUa rnfescens minor, seemed all to be 
C. brachydactyla hermonensis, at least those we shot belonged to the latter. We 
had some delay at Casablanca, an iminteresting city for a naturalist, where, 
however, the excellent restaurant called " Le Roi des Bieres " is a redeeming 
factor. The main roads (not of course the side-tracks or " pistes ") are very 
good in Marocco, even better than most of them in Algeria, and they are marked 
with very practical and conspicuous " signposts." 

At Marrakesh the weather was glorious and not yet too hot. We spent 
three days there and collected in the immediate neighbourhood and on the 
Tensift River. The birds were of course the same as in 1925 (see Mem. Soc. 
8c. Nat. Maroc, No. XVL p- 4, 1927), but quite a number of Miiscicapa striata 



348 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

and Sylvia borin were apparently still on migration. On the Tensift River 
several Kingfishers were seen. Near Marrakesh the rare Polyommatus phoebus, 
of which we saw onlj' a few in 1925, was common in certain places, and for the 
first time I observed and caught Euchloe cJuirlonia in this part of Marocco. 

Via Rabat we went to Ouldjet-es-Soltane on the Upper Oued Beth, where we 
were kindly put up by the garde forestier, Monsieur Azam. I had been told that 
Guinea-fowls were common, but they were far away, and in spite of several long 
rides on excellent horses we did not see a single one, though I heard one from 
a distance, and Berbers brought in two damaged specimens, and I got a beautiful 
clutch of eggs. The omis of this part is rather rich. The first evening a heavy 
thunderstorm raged, so that for several days we could not cross the river. 
Circaetus and Neophron were seen every day, Alectoris barbara and Turtle-doves 
were common, Hachisuka shot in the twilight both Caprimulgus ruficoliis ruficollis 
and europaeus meridionalis, Cuckoos were present, and lots of common birds. 
There were not so many Butterflies as I would liave expected, but both species 
of Gonejiteryx were seen. 

There was only observed one species of Parus, i.e. major ; the woods consisted 
mostly of Callitris articulaia (Vahl.) Murb. (so named by Professor Maire),' and 
there were neither Cedars nor Oaks. The valley where Ouldjet-es-Soltane lies 
is very fertile, the com was just being cut. A nasty kind of burr penetrated 
trousers and irritated legs. Of remarkable plants Ephedra altissima Desf. and 
Asparagus altissimus may be mentioned. 

The migratory European birds had passed through, but Oenanihe oenanthe 
oenanthe was still obtained. One day we had dinner, lasting about two hours 
and a half, in a Berber tent, consisting of a number of dishes of mutton, the 
usual euscus, and a kuid of pancake, all very fat, and we had to drink seven 
glasses of very sweet mint-tea and dirty river water. 

On May 18 we returned to Rabat, having luncheon with our friends the 
Poussiers in Khemisset, and enjoying their beautifully laid-out gardens with a 
wealth of flowers, vegetables, and fruit. 

While the mam road from Meknes to Rabat, and most main roads in Marocco 
are excellent, the " piste '" to Ouldjet-es-Soltane was bad and often dangerous, 
but our friend Hachisuka managed it with the greatest skill and sang froid. 

Mr. Hachisuka was obliged to return to Europe and left us, via Tanger. 

In Rabat were this year several pairs of Hirundo daurica riifida, but the 
old nest I saw in 1925 was forsaken, though much enlarged again, having been 
used for three years. 

May 23 Young and I went up again to El-Hajeb. Between Khemisset and 
the Oued Beth both of us clearly saw (not very far from the Oued Beth Valley) 
a Merops persicus chrysocercus sitting on a telegraph wire. 

On the wonderful cliffs near El-Hajeb, where the Comatibis nest. Blue Rook 
Thrushes were not rare, there were also several pairs of Oenanthe leucura syeni- 
tica, and on the plains theklae Crested Larks. On May 23 I saw an Aquila 
chrysaetos, but on May 24 a pair of Eagles were observed, which, judging from 
the rich, almost orange-coloured underside, seemed to be Aquila heliaca adalberti ! 
At least, I do not know what else they were ; they could certainly not have 
been Aquila rapax ! Unfortunately they were flying far and high, and on all the 

1 The plants of which I brought liorae samples were kindly named by Professor Maire in 
Alger, to whom my sincerest thanks are due. 



NoviTATEs Zoological XXXIV. 1928. 



349 



subsequent days I did not see them again. On the 28th two Anthropoides virgo 
flew past El-Hajeb, calling loudly, in the direction of Meknes. I also saw a skin 
of ^4. virgo shot near Ain-Leuh by the Commandant, Monsieur Ayard. 

The weather was fine ; the abundance of water caused this part of the 
country to look much fresher than the plains, and it was less hot than, for 
example, at Meknes ; the nights, in fact, were sometimes quite cool, and there 
was heavy dew in the mornings. Many flowers adorned the rocks, among 
which Bellardia trixago var. flaviflora (Rouy) Maire, Spergularia longipes Lange 
and others seemed to me peculiar. 

On the 30th we returned once more to Rabat. Passing through the forest 
of Mamora, we were pleased to see it nearly all green, only here and there, and 




FIG. 8.— ROCKS WHBBB COMATIBIS NEST PROM DISTANCE. 



in one limited place many oak-trees being defoliated by the caterpillars of 
Porthetria dispar, while in 1924, at the same time of the year, nearly every oak- 
tree I saw was bare. 

On June 2 we rode down again to Marrakesh in a C.T.M. car. We left 
Rabat at 10, arrived Casablanca at 12, left Casablanca at 1.30, and arrived in 
Marrakesh at 7.15 in the evening. North of Marrakesh we saw a number of 
Cursorius. I wanted to visit Telouet, the Pasha of the Glaoui's place, but did 
not get permission to do so, because smallpox and typhoid had broken out there. 
I went, however, into the Great Atlas, south-east of Marrakesh, up the valley 
of the Oued Rdat. Passing the (then) highest mihtary poste of Areg-n-Anon 
(or simply called Areg), we met Lieutenant Olive, who most kindly assisted us 
by sending a bed, blankets, and sheets, so that we could stay in a large tent 
with a wooden floor by the river under the village of Taddert, 1,650 m. high. 
We got good food in the " cantine " at Taddert, only about ten minutes away, 
though we had to cross the river on not too convenient stepping-stones, and to 
climb up or slide down a steep stony slope with loose slabs of stone. 

24 



350 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Monsieur Dereims, the cantinier, cooked as well for us as it could be possible 
in this isolated spot, but unfortunately our tent was alive ^^■itll many hundreds 
of fleas, not to mention an occasional, nasty, but quite rare flat and smelly insect, 
to relieve the monotony of the coimtless " fathers of the jump," which seem to 
swarm all over the Great Atlas in the summer months. This part of the Atlas 
is not wooded, only in one spot farther down we passed a thin wood of Oaks. 
The road in the valley of the Rdat runs with the river and the slopes on both 
sides are usually steep and bare, only in some side valleys were little tributaries 
come down, but are mostly dry in summer, one sees some junipers. The wild 
vegetation was fairly rich, high bushes of Retama dasycarpa Coss. em. Maire 
being very numerous, also Adenocarp'tis anagyrijolius var. leiocarpiis R. Lit. et 




FlO. 9.— ON SIDK OF ROAD IN THE liUAT VALLEY, TO .SHOW STEEP SIDE;?, 

Maire, which from a distance reminds one of the Cytisiis ballamlieri of the Middle 
Atlas. The villages have many old Walnut trees of often enormous size and 
stems sometimes several metres thick. Many are damaged by wind or lightning 
and have grown in strange shapes. Unfortunately at Taddert there would be 
no Walnut this year, as a late frost had destroyed all young fruit, but at Areg, 
220 m. deeper down, they were not touched. The scenery is l)eautiful, mountains 
towering high on either side, and the weather was perfect. There were, however, 
not very many birds, and no rare species. Though the river seemed to be ideal 
for them, there are no Cinclus in the valley, but one saw now and then a Grey 
Wagtail or two (MotaciUa cinerea (boarula)). There were no Sparrows and no 
Sahara- (or House-) Buntings (Emberiza slriolaUt sahari) in the villages. Among 
the Walnut trees lived a few Fringilla coelebs ajricana. Goldfinches, very few 
Parus major lynesi, some Muscicapa striata, and one pair of Serinus, a few Coracias 
garrulus. Once in the evening a Caprimulgus europaeus meridionalis flew along 
the village road, and sometimes Kestrels were seen. On the mountains one saw 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 



351 



Buteo rufinus cirtensis, Milvus migrans, Neojihron and Ravens, by the river a 
few Nightingales and Blackbirds. On the roclcs above the road nested Diplootocus 
moussieri and Oenanthe leucura, while a dog that used to accompany us put up 
several times some Alectoris barbara barbara. 

On June 10 I accompanied Lieutenant Olive on a ride to the Tizi N' Tichka, 
2,425 m. high, often along steejj mountain-sides with wonderful scenery. We 
passed a very high waterfall with very little water, which earlier in the year 
must be a magnificent sight. The Tizi N' Tichka is a pass over a pleasant 
grass-covered plateau with a splendid view all round, but specially of the 
3,575 m. high Djebel Aouldjidit or Bou Ourioul, still with extensive patches of 
snow. The Tizi N' Tichka is on the watershed between the streams flowing 




FIO. 10.— TIZI K'TICHKA PASS AND DJEBEL EOU OUEIOUL. 



northwards towards the Rdat, and those running southwards to the upper 
reaches of the almost unknowai and legendary Oued Dra ! The Tizi is only 
12 km. in a straight line, and 26 km. by the road, from Telouet, the mediaeval 
castle of the powerful Pasha of the Glaoui. Over the Tizi I saw a large flock of 
Red-billed Chough, Pyrrhocorax pijrrJiocarax, but no other remarkable birds. 
The vegetation differed a great deal from that of Taddert, which is about 770 m. 
lower. Instead of the Retatna dasycarpa Coss. em. Maire, common near Taddert, 
I found golden yellow bushes of Genista florida var. vmroccana Ball, and, to my 
great surprise, Artemisia herba-alba, a plant of the Haut Plateaux of Algeria, 
but not of the mountains above 2,000 m., I thought. Other plants of the Tizi 
N' Tichka were Olaucium corniculatum Curt., Campanula filicaulis Dur. = 
C. maroccana Ball, Papaver atlanticum, (Ball), Orchis data Poiret, Helianthemum 
glaucum Pers., Dianthus caryophyllus virgineus R. et F. var. godronianus Briq., 
Armeria allioides Boiss., the very pretty Mentha gattefossei Maire, Pterocephalus 
depressus Coss., Thymus satureioides var. j)s&^'do'niastictina Ball, but my time — 



S52 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

a few hours ! — \va.s too short to make any adequate collection ! It is strange 
that the number of Lepidoptera was not greater ! There were some species in 
fair numbers in the valley of the Rdat, but nothing very wonderful. On the 
Tizi N' Tichka it was probably too early ; I caught, of course, what I could, 
and obtained one single Zygaena, while there were none found at Taddert, not- 
withstanding most diligent search. I saw also a form of Satyrus uhdelkader — 
a single individual — but could not catch it as it flew dowii an awe-inspiring 
steep cliff of several himdred metres. 

Also near Taddert, i 1,700 m., the Butterflies were not remarkable for 
the number of .species, and apparently some of the rarest forms were not yet 
out — in fact Lieut. OUve wrote me that in August they were much more 
numerous. On the Reiama dasycarpa the caterpillars of Apopestes spectrum Esp. 
were exceedingly common, in all sizes, also a large species of a Cicada, very 
very numerous, and when one touched a bush they flew off with a loud lattling 
noise. Several species of large Buprestidae occurred, one of them a rare one, 
restricted, my friend Thery tells me, to the Great Atlas. 

On June 12 we returned to Marrakesh and spent the 13th catching butter- 
flies. Palyommatus phoebus was still in existence, but specimens were getting 
worn. Though I measured at 6 p.m. only 30° C. it was very close, the sun not 
appearing before 10 a.m. The vegetation in the open was fast drying up, but 
in the new gardens many flowers were in bloom, among which I particularly 
admired the introduced foreign Jacaranda m.imosijolia and Parkinsonia aculeata. 
On June 14 motored again into the Great Atlas, through a fine river-valley to 
Tagadirt-N' Bour. This valley too had very steep sides, hardly any butterflies 
were seen, and bird-life consisted only of the forms known to me. Over the 
village (kasbah) we saw a Oypaetos, apparently two years old, and near by some 
Blue Rock Thrushes. The room we were told we could get at the Sheik's place 
was occupied by a French painter, and no other decent place was available. 
While we had tea with the son of the Sheik, in a hole not fit for human beings, 
fleas ran up our legs and the smell of goats and worse things was abommable. 
So we returned to the region of Asni, almost opposite, on the other side of the 
river, to Asselda, where we stayed in 1925, and found rooms in a new, very 
modest, but decent hotel, the " Asni Hotel." 

The Berbers were just cutting their corn, and the population was mostly 
out in the fields. Great flocks of Wood Pigeons, Rock Doves, and Stock Doves 
fell into the fields to eat the corn — as there were no woods with suitable nesting- 
places, the Stock Doves must have come from far away. Also Buhulcus ibis 
came to the river, a big flock, but they are said to occur there only rarely. Young 
of the year of Muscicapa striata, Motacilla alba subpersonata, Oenanthe hispanica, 
Diplootocus moussieri, Stonechats, and other common birds were observed, 
but nothing very remarkable, nor anything wonderful in butterflies, while no 
moths came to the light. 

June 17 returned to Marrakesh, where we found it rather hot. I don't 
think the thermometer went above 33° C, but we missed the fresh momitain air 
of the Atlas. The drive to the coast, to Casablanca and Rabat was also hot, 
and so was Rabat. 

From Rabat we returned to Gibraltar, and from there to England. Thus 
ended another most interesting and pleasant tour in Africa Minor, the land 
which I love. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 353 

NOTES ON CERTAIN BIRDS COLLECTED AND OBSERVED. 

Corvus corax tingitanus Irby. 

At Ain-Sefra in West Algeria Ravens were not rare, while in 1913 we never 
saw one there. 

Ravens observed at Colomb Bechar and Beni Oimif were probably C. c. 
ruficollis. 

Pica pica mauritanica Malh. 
Not rare on the Upper Oued Beth, near Ouldjet-es-Soltane. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pontifex Stres. (?). 

It is strange that the Chough has not been recorded from Tunisia since 
Salwin's visit there, but Monsieur Blanchet has recently had information about 
the prolsable occurrence in North-West Tunisia, near the Algerian frontier. 

In the Great Atlas I have only once seen a flock, and that was on June 10, 
at 2,400 m. on the Tizi-N-Tichka, when a large flock was seen high overhead. 

The subspecies of the Chough have not been worked out satisfactorily. 
In Vog. pal. Fauna, i, p. 36, 1903, I had insufficient material, and refrained 
from seriously discussing them. Everybody, myself included, has so far shirked 
the study of their forms, but P. p. himalayanus and P. p. brachypus have recently 
been recognised as distinct (Kleinschniidt, Meinertzhagen, La Touche, Strese- 
mann). In fact, the latter two subspecies are the most distinct ones, the others 
being more difficult to distinguish. Recently Stresemann separated two more 
subspecies, P. p. j307itifex from North Persia, and P. p. centralis from the Tian- 
Shan Mountains. 

In naming P. p. pontifex he has not helped his brother ornithologists much, 
as he does not say how far he thinks that this subspecies extends ! It seems 
to me that it is the widest spread and thus " commonest " form of the Chough. 

Stresemann 's P. p. centralis is a very well-marked subspecies, but it is 
rather misleading to compare it with the large himalayanus, as one of its most 
striking peculiarities are the small feet ; therefore it should have been com- 
pared with brachypus, which, however, has a thicker bill and less pointed wing. 
As far as I can at present con.struct the subspecies of the Chough — though I do 
not say that this review is final ! — I think the following forms can be distm- 
guished : 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (L.). 

Described by Linnaeus as coming from England and Egypt ; the latter 
locaUty being doubtful, I have in 1903 restricted the terra typica to England. 

This is the smallest form, bill 50-58, wing 253-260 and 276 mm. maximum. 

I know this form only from Great Britain (where it has become rare and is 
now restricted to a few localities in the south and west) and Ireland, where it is 
still fairly common. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax erythrorhamphus (Vieill.). 

This name refers to the Alpine form and must be accepted, if this form 
is separated from the British one. Unfortunately this species is now so very 



354 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

rare in the Alps (apparentlj^ it was formerly more numerous), that specimens 
are rare in collections ; I could therefore measure only 5 good specimens. Their 
bills measure 51-57, wings 278, 287, 288, 291 mm., a maximum which is not 
reached in the British Isles. I believe the Spanish form is the same as the 
Alpine form, but about this I am doubtful. Certainly Pyrenean specimens agree. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pontifex Stres. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax ponlifex- Stresemami, Juiirn. f. Urn. 1928. p. 343 (Elburs Mountains, North 
Persia). 

It seems to me impossible that this is an isolated Elburs form. In fact, 
it seems to be widely spread, possibly from Palma (Canary Islands) through 
Marocco, Algeria, Palestine, Crete, Asia Minor, Palestine to Persia. I measured 
as follows : 

Palma 290, 291, 295 mm. (Eight.) 

Marocco 280-313 mm., bill 54-69. (Series.) 

Algeria 288-307 mm., bill 59-64, 66. (Series.) 

Crete c? 311, ? 293 mm. 

Asia Minor (Taurus) 304, 323 mm. 

Luristan ^J 305, 308 mm. 

Persia (East Persia) ? 290, 294, ^ 310, 320 mm. 

Persia (Shiraz, East Persia) 288, 314, 316 mm. 

Persia (Elburs) 305, 317 ; 293, 305, 318, 320, 327 mm. 

Palestine 290-313, 326 mm., bill 52-59. 

Simien, Abj-ssinia, 308 mm. 

It wiU be seen that the specimens from nearly all countries mentioned 
come very close to the Elburs ones, of which only one surpasses them. But 
we must remember that, except from the British Isles (Ireland), Algeria and 
Marocco, anj-thing like a sufficient series is available from nowhere, and that 
therefore we do not know the maxima, which by accident might have been 
found among the few from the Elburs, and possibly the large bird from there 
was an exceptional giant. 

The small size of the Palma birds might, if confirmed by a larger series, 
force us to recognise the Palma form as a special subspecies, but I had formerly 
a very large measure of a Palma specimen — unfortimately I have no note how 
I got that measure, but I believe from Sharpe, in litt. 

Abyssinian specimens I have not examined, except the one in the British 
Museum, that came from Petherick ; that skin passed through Gould's hands, 
and it surely never came, as Sharpe said (p. 148, Cat. B. Brit. Aim. iii), from 
the Kitch country " west of the Nile." " Lemien " means doubtless Semien, 
where alone in East Africa the species is found, and it was possibly given to 
Petherick by Heuglin, who collected specimens in Semien. 

All these birds have more or less greenish wing-coverts, but a purplish tinge 
is sometimes discernible in Persian examples. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax himalayanus (Goidd.). 
This race has a somewhat bluisli or purjjlish gloss on the wings, more distinct 
than in Persian ones, and is large, wings 305-327 mm., sometimes smaller, 
according to Kleinschmidt down to 278 mm., and has generally a large bill. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 355 

On an average it surpasses topotypical pontifex in size of wings and bill, but 
some specimens are not distinguishable, except by the generally more bluish 
wing-coverts. Bill 59-65 mm. 

Himalaya, at great elevations, eastwards to Yunnan and Setchuan. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax centralis Stres. 

Pyrrhocomx pyrrhocorax centralis Stresemann, Joiirii. f. Orii. 1928, p. 344 (Tian-shan). 

These birds are on an average smaller than most pontifex and Mmalayanus, 
but many do not differ in length of wing. They have the greenish outer aspect 
of the wings, but their feet are as small as those of brachypus, from which, how- 
ever, they differ by the more {jointed wing, the distances between the tips of the 
fifth and sixth primaries being greater ! They are apparently common in parts 
of Turkestan, near Djarkent, mountains near Lake Issik Kul, Karakol, and 
doubtless many other places. Wings of the specimens in Tring 278-313 (once), 
according to Stresemann 276 (5) to 319 (^J, once) mm. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax brachypus (Swinh.). 

North-East Chinese Choughs are very much like P. p. centralis, but the tip 
of the wing is shorter (distance between tips of fifth and sixth primaries smaller), 
and the bill is generally thicker. Wings 273-305 (twice) mm. Feet smaller 
than all except centralis. 

North-East China, apparently north to Transbaicalia, Shansi, Shensi. 

Swuihoe gave this form 1871 the name var. brachypus. Sharpe {Cat. B. iii) 
quotes the name " var. orientalis," as of Dybowski, Journ. f. Orn. 1868, p. 332, 
but this is incorrect ; Dybowski there described the small feet, but does not 
give a name ! The name " var. orientalis " is given by Taczanowski, Journ. f. 
Orn. 1872, p. 454 (not by Dybowski, p. 445 as Taczanowski quoted in his 
posthumous great work, p. 539), but without any kind of characterisation or 
reference, and is therefore a nomen nudum. 

It inhabits the mountains of Chihli, and Weigold brought one home that 
was collected in Shansi, where Swinhoe had formerly also found it. 

I have not examined Mongolian specimens. 

Stumus vulgaris vulgaris L. 

Still seen in small flocks on the Algerian Plateau between Constantine and 
les Lacs on April 1 . 

Bucanetes githaginea zedlitzi Neum. 
As already pointed out by Lavauden {Voy. Babault, Ois, p. 50), this species 
ranges in Tunisia north to the Djebel Cherichera, north-west of Kairouan. We 
did not find it during the hours we were there, probably because of the drought 
at the time, but both Lavauden and Blanchet have collected it there, and 
the latter presented me with a skin from there. This pretty Finch seems to 
need water, for it visits wells and cisterns, as observed by Lynes and myself. 
The flocking together m sprmg is probably done for going to places where they 
can drink — apparently these flocks go for miles to water. 



356 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

I think we must agree with Lynes, who said that the specimens he collected 
in the stony plain near Tiznit — and the one I mentioned before as doubtful from 
Tizi in the Great Atlas — belong to B. g. amanium (Hart.) which inhabits the 
Canary Islands. In shortness of wing and thickness of bill they are amantum, 
but their back is (in worn plumage) lighter ! On the other hand, those collected 
near Ain-Sefra in West Algeria are B. g. zedlitzi, which is a very distinct sub- 
species. 

In Marocco this bird seems also to be restricted to the south of the Great 
Atlas ; I never came across it in the Great Atlas, but two oflficers described it 
to me as having been seen on the south slopes of the Atlas. 

As I have said, zedlitzi is a quite distinct subspecies, but the specimen said 
to be from " Constantine," in the Berlin Museum, most certainly never came 
from the neighbourhood of Constantine town, though from the province of 
Constantine. What I said about the length of the wings is perfectly correct, 
that of the female being about 5 mm. shorter, and if there are supposed pairs 
shot by Zedlitz with wings equal in the sexes, there must be some error 
about this. 

Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis Temm. 

When formerly writing about the Sparrows of Africa Minor I had not 
realised the fact that in Eastern Tunisia no domesticus tingitanus occurs, while 
hispaniolensis is very common in the towns (where, as a rule, they roost) and in 
the agricultural parts of the coimtry. Only in the south of Tunisia we find that 
these Sparrows lose the stripes, which are the most characteristic feature of 
hispaniolensis, to a great extent, and in places entirely. Among these red- 
headed sparrows without stripes on the sides, there are, however, some that 
have stripes, so that this race is not absolutely fixed {Ibis Suppl. 1927, pp. 60-66). 
In none of those from South Tunisia is there an obvious admixture of domesticus ! 

How do these facts now agree with our theory that the fliickigeri-type is 
the result of hybridisation of hispaniolensis and domesticus, established on obser- 
vations and collections made in Algeria 1 

That hybridisation takes place is, in my opinion, not doubtful ; not only 
do we — except in South Tunisia — never find these varieties (red-headed without 
stripes and males with crowns partially grey, partially red) in places where only 
either hispaniolensis or domesticus is foxmd, but we also find man}' intermediate 
specimens (cf. Nov. Zool. xviii, 1912, and xx, 1913). How can it be explained, 
then, that in El-Oued only the fliickigeri-type was found, and this is also the 
case in most of the South Timisian oases ? I think we can assume, that in 
El-Oued, as well as (more or less) in Ouargla and nearly so in Tonggourt, the 
parents have died out, and that this bastard-race, which breeds true, or nearly 
so, became established, and that this bastard-race has spread eastwards through 
South Tunisia. There can hardly be any doubt that in the course of time this 
race will become exclusive in these southern regions ; I do not see how we can 
avoid recognising it in that case, by a name, the oldest of which is fliickigeri ! 
It will then perhaps be treated as a subspecies of hispaniolensis, though it is 
not, strictly speaking, of the same footing as other subspecies, which we regard 
as geographical forms, the results of surroundings, climate, and other local 
conditions. 

Some modern ornithologists look upon Passer hispaniolensis and domesticus 



NoviTATEs Zoological XXXIV. 1928. 357 

as subspecies. This is, in my opinion, most misleading. Subspecies are geo- 
graphical forms representing each other. 

These two Sparrows, however, do not do this. Except on a few small 
islands and along the coast-stripe of eastern Tunisia hispaniolensis does not 
represent domesticiis anywhere ; in the range of Passer domesticim it inhabits 
similar geographical areas from the utmost west eastwards to Turkestan, Afghani- 
stan, and Kashmir, but in northern regions and in tropical India domesticus 
becomes the exclusive form ! 

How did it happen that in Algeria such broadcast hybridisation took place ? 
We cannot definitely say this, but it seems to me that it originated in their 
living together in the same conditions. In other countries this is apparently 
not the case. In Spain, Palestine, etc., P. hispaniolensis breeds chiefly in bushes 
and trees, gardens, and Eucalyptus growths, away from the towns, making the 
free nests which we know so well in our countries as those of P. domesticus, 
which is, however, more or less a frequenter of towns and nests to a large extent 
on buildings, also usurping swallows and martins' nests, nesting-boxes, water- 
pipes, and other unwelcome sites. Now where these two species live together, 
I would be more astonished if they never hybridised. They have females so 
much alike that one can hardly distinguish them, they have the same notes, 
except that that of hispaniolensis is a little higher, mellower, and they have the 
same dimensions. 

In spite of continual attention I have never seen Passer hispaniolensis in 
Marocco, except in April 1901 in the Mehuila, the extended orange wood on the 
banks of the Oum-er-Rebbia east of Mazagan, where it is common. Riggenbach 
sent it from Bou Laouane on the Oum-er-Rebbia south-east of Mazagan, Djebel 
Chedar, and Mogador, also from the Mehuila. Bede records it from Oudjda in 
North-East Marocco, near the Maroccan boundary. 

Emberiza striolata sahari Lev. 

Nests in Figuig and Beni-Omaif, as well as in Ain-Sefra. While it is so 
common and tame in Marrakesh, where it sometimes enters restaurants, pecking 
up crumbs, and sitting on the tables, or bedrooms, nesting chiefly in native 
houses, and is found at Asselda in the Great Atlas, it was not observed at or 
near Taddert in the valley of the R'dat. 

Calandrella brachydactyla hermonensis Tristr. 

The specimens of Calandrella, we shot in the Rehamna north of Marrakesh 
were this and not rufescens minor. Possibly the birds seen there by Lynes 
and myself and which we thought might have been rufescens minor were all 
brachydactyla ! 

Amniomanes phoenicurus arenicolor (Sund.). 

Common near Colomb Bechar on April 17 and 18, but still in flocks : testes 
and ovaries winter size or very very little enlarged. 

A few were also seen at Beni-Ounif, where it has also been recorded by 
Messrs. Foley and Geard, under the name of " cinctura," a name referring to 
the subspecies from the Cape Verde Islands ! 



358 ■ NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

Aimnomanes deserti payni Hart. 

We found this bird at Ain-Sefra and Beni-Ounif. Monsieur Bede {3Iein. 
Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc, No. xvi, p. 67, 1927) saj's that Admiral Ljiies informed 
him that he had collected A. phoenicurus arenicolor at Misour on the Muluya 
River, but this was a slip of the pen of the Admiral, the birds he saw and collected 
being A. deserti payni. The birds mentioned by Bede (I.e.) as A. deserti algeriensis 
from Outat-el-Hadj on the Muluya were also payni, as our friend would see, if 
he again compared them with Tunisian specimens. 

Messrs. Foley and Geard {Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique du Nord, xviii, p. ISl) 
recorded from Beni-Ounif both ^4. deserti algeriensis and A. deserti intermedia 
Heim de Balsac, both from other parts of Algeria, neither of them being foimd 
at Beni-Ounif. 

Galerida cristata. 

The knowledge of the forms of C'rested Larks grows gradually, if slowly. 
In 1903-4 when I wrote about the Galeridae in my Vog. pal. Fauna, I still united 
North Tunisian long-billed Galeridae with macrorhyncha. These were after- 
wards, 1905, separated as G. c. carthaginis by Kleinschmidt & Hilgert, though 
the type was not shot near Carthage, but was a specimen from the neighbourhood 
of Tunis, bought from Monsieur Blanc — a very dangerous and censurable pro- 
ceeding. This form was, as far as I am aware, never found outside of Tunisia. 
It is common along the Sahel and south to the plain of Achichina south of Sfax, 
being replaced by the so-called G. c. gafsae Kleinschm. & Hilg. farther south- 
wards. Here, too, the two authors called the type of the subspecies from 
the Seggi gafsae, not a specimen shot at Gafsa ! In this case this has caused 
much misunderstanding, as the form from Gafsa is arenicola ! 

Erlanger had carthaginis from Tunis, Kairouan, and west of Souk-el-Arba. 
I also shot it on the slopes west of Souk-el-Arba, close to the Algerian frontier. 
Further west it was not known ! In spite of diligent search Lord Rothschild, 
Hilgert, and myself have never turned up a Long-billed Crested Lark, G. cristata, 
in North Algeria proper, i.e. in the Tell-region. Yet I have no doubt that it 
will be found sparingly along the Tell from Tunisia to Marocco, because I have 
last year shot an adult male, April 14, west of Orleansville, and another adult 
male on April 27 west of Oudjda, west of the plain of Angad, in North- West 
Marocco. In each case two were seen, evidently pairs, but only one could be 
obtained. It is not astonishing that the occurrence of cristata in the coastal 
plains and hills has been overlooked. It is probably only a bird of the plains, 
not of the hills, it is obviously rare, and at a distance it is difficult or impossible 
to distinguish it from the common theklae forms foimd in the same places. And, 
worst of all, very little collecting has been done in these northern regions — most 
modern collectors, from Koenig to the present day, have been attracted by the 
southern desert-countries and neglected the northern belt as well as the highest 
mountains ! 

After shooting the specimens of G. c. carthaginis west of Oudjda Hachisuka 
and I were on the look out for more Long-billed Crested Larks, but, unfortunately 
that day, April 27, we made by far the longest journey, from Oudjda to Fez, in 
one day ! Therefore we could not delay for hours, where it would have been 
desirable, and we had to go too fast for careful observation. Nevertheless, we 
looked at every Crested Lark, but all seemed, and doubtless most of them were. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 359 

short-billed theklae, not cristala. But a little west of the Muluya River, not 
far from Guercif, we saw again two long-billed cristata and shot one of them. 
This, however, is much darker than the one from west of Oudjda, and it is in 
fact Galeridn cristata kleinschmidti Erl., hitherto known from the Tanger region, 
near the forest of Mamora, and in the upper reaches of the Bou-regreg River. 

While we saw no Long-billed Oaleridae near Ain-Sefra and near Beni-Ounif, 
Hachisuka shot a male (breeding condition) among the sand dunes and date- 
palms at Colomb Bechar on April IS. This is the only Crested Lark seen there 
by us with certainty, and it belongs to the southern subspecies, G. cristata 
macrorhyncha Tristr. (represented farther eastwards by the very closely allied 
arenicola). 

It seems therefore that the distribution of the forms of G. cristata in Africa 
Minor is as follows : 

O. cristata deprimozi Lavaud. : Kerkennah Islands. 

(We have a few specimens from Monsieur Bede, but unfortunately they are 
either bad skins or collected end of June, when in horrible condition). 

G. cristata gafsae Kleinschm. & Hilg. : From the island of Djerba to the 
eastern Bled Seggi. 

G. cristata carthaginis Kleinschm. & Hilg. : Northern Tunisia to North- West 
Marocco — probably sparingly all along the Tell. 

G. cristata randonii Loche : Hauts Plateaux of Algeria (so far only known 
from Ain-Oussera between Alger and Laghouat) to Missour on the Muluya. 

G. cristata arenicola Tristr. : From Gafsa in Timisia to about N'goussa north 
of Ouargla and the plain of El-Outaya south of El-Kantara. 

G. cristata macrorhyncha Tristr. : This very closely allied form replaces 
arenicola farther west, in the Mzab country, and is common in and about Ghardaia, 
Laghouat, etc. It evidently extends westwards into Marocco, as we got one 
at Colomb Bechar, near the Maroccan boundary. 

G. cristata kleinschmidti Erl. : North Marocco eastwards to the watershed 
between Muluya and Sebou (waters running to Mediterranean and Atlantic 
respectively), south to upper reaches of Oued Beth and Bou-Regreg, Mamora, 
and probably farther southwards. 

G. cristata riggenbachi Hart. : Replaces the former from the valley of the 
Oum-er-Rebbia southwards to the Sous (Lynes), but absent from high altitudes. 

Galerida theklae. 

Generally the Short-billed theklae vary more individually than the fairly 
constant cristata and they are therefore somewhat difficult to limit. The 
" dusting " in sand and soil colours the plumage in the same way as the cristata 
forms. 

Galerida theklae harterti Erl. : In North Tunisia G. theklae harterti Erl. is 
common. It extends over North Algeria, i.e. the coastal plain and Atlas Moun- 
tains (Tell), westwards to the neighbourhood of Oran and Tlemcen, south to 
the northern Atlas range, as far as Berrouaghia (at least) and Mascara. 

Galerida theklae erlangeri Hart. : Replaces G. t. Imrterti further westwards, 
in North Marocco (Tanger, Yebala), south to the region of Azrou (Middle Atlas), 
Upper Oued Beth, Upper Bou-Regreg, Tafoudait, Mamora, and probably farther 
southwards. 



360 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 

This form is very closely allied to G. t. harterti of North Tunisia and North 
Algeria, but has a much smaller and finer bill. 

Galerida theklae mficolor Whit. : Replaces 0. t. crlangeri from the Oum-er- 
Rebbia south to the Sous, but does not ascend, in the Great Atlas, over 4,600 
feet, in the narrow valleys south of Marrakesh not 1,000 metres. It extends 
north-eastwards by Meknes, Fez (Fes), to Lalla Marnia in North-West Algeria. 

Alauda arvensis harterti Whit. 

An adult male in nesting condition was shot 26. iv. 1927 west of Tlemcen, 
near Oudjda. Several were singing, and these Skylarks were doubtless breeding 
on the plain of Angad. It seems to me that the same subspecies breeds there 
as well as on the Hauts Plateaux of the Middle Atla.s, the plains of Tunisia, and 
the Algerian Plateau, and that it is more the condition of wide plains than the 
elevation they care for. 

ChersophUus duponti duponti (Vieill.). 

On the plateau between Bou Saada and Djelfa I heard the peculiar song 
and Mr. Turtle shot a specimen. This is the same plateau, with much Artemisia 
and Thymus, on which we found this bird not rare farther north, near Ain- 
Oussera, in 1914. In Tunisia we were not far enough south to come across 
C. d. margaritae. 

Mr. Bannerman's notes in Ibis. 1927, Suppl. pp. 108-111, require some 
comment. It is valuable to have specimens in spirits, though there could never 
be any doubt that ChersophUus is a Lark ! I cannot find the plate in ^Vhitaker's 
B. of Tunisia at all good, but I would not call it too yellow. The district where 
Bannerman shot two specimens was about the same in which Koenig discovered 
this subspecies, and the skins from there are somewhat intermediate, not as 
bright as those from Medenine, Tatahouine, Cyrenaica, and Solium. Bannerman 
deplored that no one had a sufficient series to discuss the subspecies of this bird. 
It is true that the British Museum had only a very small series and he obtained 
two, one of which was skinned. But had he seen the series of 44 skins of the 
two subspecies in the Tring Museum, he would perhaps not have said so. The 
species is entirely a bird of North Africa, and the few specimens known from 
Portugal, Spain, and the Provence must have been astraj', for it does apparently 
not breed there. Bannerman again mentions specimens from the " Balearic 
Islands," but it is known that no ChersophUus occurs there. The supposed 
Balearic specimens were bought on the market by one of the Brothers Gal (Gal 
Freres) in Nice and labelled " lies Baleares." They were not " collected by 
Schutter," but liought from the German dealer Wilh. Schliiter, who had received 
them from Gal Freres. The birds came from North Algeria or Tunisia. Gals' 
wrong locality has disturbed many ornithologists. I thought we had published 
the facts, but this does not seem to be the case. All we find about it is in Jordans' 
Vogelfauna Mallorcas, pp. 64, 65, 1914. 

Rhamphocorys clot-bey (Bp.). 

Hachlsuka, myself, and Jourdain have, in 1927, in vain searched for it near 
Ain-Sefra, in the places where it was fairly common in 1913. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXIV. 1928. 361 

The species, however, has recently been recorded (Foley & Ceard, Bull. 
Hist. Nat. Afrique Nord, xviii, 1927, p. 180) from Beni-Ounif and Colomb Bechar, 
and Heim de Balsac found it 50 km. north of Ain-Sefra in Marocco (H. de B. 
in litt.). 

Motacilla flava iberiae Hart. 

I foimd this, the Spanish, subspecies again, evidently on the breeding- 
ground, on a wet meadow with tamarisk bushes on the Oued Tensift near Marra- 
kesh on May 8. A male with the white superciliary line narrower and shorter 
was shot at Biskra on April 3. 

Motacilla alba s