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NOYITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 

Vol. XXXV, 1929-30. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



H Journal of Zooloo\> 

IN CONNECTION WITH THE TRING MUSEUM. 






EDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dr. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXV, 1929-30. 



(WITH TEN PLATES.) 



Issued at the Zoological Museum, Trino. 



PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON k VINEY, LTD., LONDON AND AYLESBURY 

1929-1930 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXV (1929-30). 



AVES. 

PAGES 

1. Types of Birds in the Triiig Museum. Ernst Harteet .... 42 — 58 

2. Ailuroedus buccoides and its subspecies. Lord Rothschild and Ernst 

Hartert ........... 59 

3. A further note on the Genus Lampribis (Plates IV and V). David 

Bannerman .......... 78 — 81 

4. On the type of Larus affinis Reinhardt (Plate VI). F. C. R. Joukdain . 82 — 84 

5. On various forms of the Genus Tylo. Ernst Hartert .... 93 — 104 

6. Fossile Vogelei-Schalen. M. Schonwetter ...... 192 — 203 

7. Ueber die Eier der Paradiesvogel. M. Schonwetter .... 204 — 211 

8. Ueber den Formenkreis des Charadrius alexandrinus. Oscar Neumann . 212 — 216 

9. Ueber die Formenkreise von Pyrrhura perlata und Pyrrhura leucotis. Oscar 

Neumann 217—219 

10. On two undescribed neotropical birds. C. E. Hellmayr . . . 265 — 267 

11. Bird-types in the Royal Scottish Museum. J. H. Stenhouse . . . 270 — 276 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

1. Descriptions of new species of Noctuidae. A. E. Wileman and R. J. West 1 — 27 

2. On Oxyambulyx substrigilis and some allied Sphingidae (Plate III). Karl 

Jordan ........... 60 — 62 

3. New species and sub-species of Geometridae. Louis B. Prout . . . 63 — 77 

4. On some Oriental Sphingidae. Karl Jordan ..... 85 — 88 

5. Descriptions of new species of Japanese Formosan and Philippine 

Geometridae. R. J. West ........ 105 — 131 

6. On the Geometrid Genus Catoria Moore. L. B. Prout .... 132 — 141 

7. New Palaearctic Geometridae. L. B. Prout ...... 142 — 149 

8. On some Geometrid types from the Stauder Collection. L. B. Prout . 150 — 154 

9. On Polyptychus pyrjarga and some allied species (Lep. Sphingidae). Karl 

Jordan 187—191 

10. List of Lepidoptera collected in Morocco in 1927 by Ernst Hartert and 

Frederick Young. Lord Rothschild ...... 220— 234 

1 1. On the Lepidoptera collected in Morocco by Dr. E. Hartert in 1929. Lord 

Rothschild. .......... 235 — 243 

12. Some new Butterflies and Moths from Eastern New Guinea. Karl Jordan 277 — 287 

13. On the Japanese Geometridae of the Aigner Collection. Louis B. Prout . 289 — 337 



vi CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXV (1929-30). 

COLEOPTERA 
1. Some new Anthribidae from tropical Africa. Karl Jordan 



tages 
244—249 



SIPHONAPTERA 

1. Notes on North American Fleas (Plates I and II). Kakl Jordan . . 28 — 39 

2. Some Old-World Siphonaptera. Karl Jordan ..... 40 — 41 

3. Further records of North- American Bird-Fleas. Karl Jordan . . 89 — 92 

4. On Fleas collected by Dr. H. M. Jettmar in Mongolia and Manchuria in 

1927 and 1928 (Plates VII-X). Karl Jordan .... 155—164 

5. Two new African species of Ctenophthahnus (Siphonaptera). Karl Jordan 165 — 167 

6. On a small collection of Siphonaptera from the Adirondacks with a list of 

the species known from the State of New York. Karl Jordan . 168 — 177 

7. .Some new Palaearctic Fleas. Karl Jordan 178 — 186 

8. New Fleas from South Africa. Botha De Meillon .... 250 — 253 

9. Two new American Fleas. Karl Jordan 268—269 



INDEX 339—354 



PLATES IN VOLUME XXXV. 

PLATES I-II. Structure of Siphonaptera. 
PLATE III. Structure of Lepidoptera. 
PLATES IV and V. Heads of Lampribis. 
PLATE VI. Primaries of Larus Affinis Rhdt. 
PLATES VII-X. Structure of Siphonaptera. 



vu 



U| 



NOYITATES ZOOLOG1CAE. 



H Journal of Zooloo\>. 






KDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
De. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXV. 



No. 1. 

Plates I-VI. 

Pages 1-92. 

Issued January 25th, 1929, at the Zoological Museum, Trinq. 



PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON & VWEY, LJ>., LONDON AND AYLE8B0UY. 

1929. 



Vol. XXXV. 

NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAL 

EDITED BY 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAN. 
CONTENTS OF NO. I. 

MOM 

1. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF A E. Wileman and 

NOCTUIDAE R.J. West . . 1—27 

2. NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN FLEAS. (Plates 

I and II.) Karl Jordan . 28—39 

3. SOME OLD-WORLD SIPHON APTERA . . Karl Jordan . . 40^41 

4. TYPES OF BIRDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM Ernst Hartert . . 42—58 

5. AILUROEDUS BUCCOIDES AND ITS SUB- Lord Rothschild and 

SPECIES Ernst Hartert . . 59 

6. ON OXYAMBULYX SUBSTRIGILIS AND 

SOME ALLIED SPHINGIDAE. (Plate III.) . Karl Jordan . . 60—62 

7. NEW SPECIES AND SUB-SPECIES OF 

GEOMETRIDAE Louis B. Prout . . 63—77 

8. A FURTHER NOTE ON THE GENUS LAM- 

PRIBIS. (Plates IV and V.) . . . . David Bannerman . 78 — 81 

9. ON THE TYPE OF LARUS AFFINIS REIN- 

HARDT. (Plate VI.) F. C. R. Jourdain . 82—84 

10. ON SOME ORIENTAL SPHINGIDAE . . Karl Jordan . . 85—88 

11. FURTHER RECORDS OF NORTH- AMERICAN 

BIRD-FLEAS Karl Jordan . . 89—92 



05 Q 

£ J Ul 

GO 




NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 

Vol. XXXV. JANUARY 1929. No. 1. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF NOCTUIDAE. 

By A. E. WILEMAN, F.E.S., and R. J. WEST. 

HPHE specimens were collected by A. E. Wileinan in Japan, Formosa and the 
Philippine Islands. All types are in the Wileman Collection. Ridgway 
has been used as the standard for colours. Colour terms in italics are not Ridg- 
way 's. Patagium = collar-tippet. Tegula = wing-base-cover. 

Subfamily AGROTINAE. 
1. Agrotis tamsi sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus russet mixed with fuscous black, third segment drab. 
Antenna with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex russet and fuscous black 
mixed. Thorax with hair-scales of piale drab grey and fuscous, patagium russet 
anteriorly, warm velvety blackish brown posteriorly, divided by a drab grey 
line, tegula russet tinged with blackish brown. Abdomen fuscous above and 
beneath with some drab grey on side, anal tuft warm buff tinged with fuscous. 
Pectus warm buff tinged with fuscous. Legs : foreleg drab grey outwardly, 
fuscous inwardly, tarsus tinged with fuscous ; mid- and hindlegs fuscous with 

drab grey marks on tibiae, tibiae spined. Forewing : a band of warm buff tinged 

with russet on costa ; orbicular pale drab grey tinged with russet, reniform two 
bars of russet tinged with fuscous, outlined with pale drab grey ; a large patch 
of warm velvety blackish brown in and below cell, fuscous tinged with russet 
along inner margin ; an oblique drab grey fascia from subcosta antemedially 
to anal vein subbasally ; antemedial fascia and claviform faintly marked ; 
postmedial fascia blackish brown and pale drab grey, crenulate (points distad) ; 
subterminal area warm buff tinged with fuscous, subterminal fascia wavy, russet, 
commencing with a blackish brown patch on costa, termen russet ; hindwing 

fuscous. Underside : forewing drab grey suffused with fuscous, postmedial 

fascia faintly marked ; hindwing drab grey suffused with fuscous, postmedial 
and subterminal fasciae faintly marked. 

Expanse 42 mm. (Tip to tip 40 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Arizan, Formosa, 7,300 ft., 23.iii.1908. 

Nearest ally. — A. mandarina Leech (West China). 

We have much pleasure in dedicating this species to Mr. W. H. T. Tains, 
of the Entomological Department, British Museum (Natural History), from 
whom we have received great assistance in determining and naming new species 
from Formosa, Japan and the Philippine Islands. 

1 



2 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

■ 

Subfamily CUCULLUNAE. 
2. Cosmia citrago Linn, subsp. japonago subsp.n. 

Male. — Palpus buff-yellow. Antenna dentate fasciculate. Head : frons 
and vertex buff-yellow. Thorax, patagium and tegula buff-yellow tinged with 
orange posteriorly. Abdomen buff-yellow above and beneath, anal tuft buff- 
yellow tinged with orange. Pectus light buff. Legs buff-yellow. Forewiog 

buff-yellow irrorated with orange ; subbasal fascia wavy, orange ; antemedial 
fascia orange, oblique to subcosta, sharply angled outwardly and oblique to inner 
margin ; orbicular and reniform faintly outlined with orange ; an oblique fuscous 
fascia slightly excurved, from costa medially to inner margin antemedially ; 
postmedial fascia a thin fuscous line excurved to vein 2, then incurved to inner 
margin ; fringe on inner margin and termen fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff 

tinged with buff-yellow on veins and inner margin. Underside : fore- and 

hind-wings cartridge-buff tinged with buff-yellow. 

Expanse 36 mm. (Tip to tip 35 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Junsai Numa, prov. Oshima, Hokkaido I. (Yezo), Japan 
(plains), 13.viii.1903. 

The antenna of subspecies G. citrago citrago Linnaeus from Europe is 
bifasciculate, whilst that of subspecies G. citrago japonago is biserrate-fasciculate 
with sessile fascicles of cilia. Mr. W. H. T. Tarns has been kind enough to 
examine the genitalia of the two subspecies and has discovered that they differ. 
The harpe in G. citrago citrago is club-shaped, but that of G . citrago japonago 
is acuminate. 

This seems to be the first subspecies of C. citrago so far discovered out of 
Europe, and is quite new to Japan. 

Subfamily ACRONYCTINAE. 

3. Trachea lucipara sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus upturned, smoothly scaled with fuscous black and russet, 
tinged with dark perilla purple. Antenna finely ciliated, with paired setae. 
Head : frons and vertex russet tinged with dark perilla purple. Thorax russet. 
patagium and tegula russet mixed with fuscous black tinged with dark perilla 
purple. Abdomen russet tinged with dark perilla purple, with warm buff hair- 
scales faintly tinged with purple covering the basal segments, venter russet tinged 
with dark perilla purple, anal tuft light buff tinged with light salmon-orange. 
Pectus russet tinged with dark perilla purple. Legs : tibiae fuscous black mixed 
with cartridge buff tinged with dark perilla purple, tarsal segments fuscous black, 
light salmon-orange at joints. Forewing hessian brown ; subbasal fascia con- 
sisting of two wavy fuscous black lines to median fold : antemedial fascia two 
faintly marked fuscous black excurved lines ; claviform faintly marked with 
fuscous black, orbicular outlined with fuscous black and warm buff, reniform 
outlined with fuscous black on basal side, and a warm buff patch on distal side ; 
postmedial fascia faintly outlined with fuscous, excurved to vein 4, then slightly 
incurved to inner margin ; three warm buff spots on costa near apex, and a 
warm buff patch suffused with hessian brown at apex ; subterminal fascia sagit- 
tate (points basad) ; cilia a mixture of hessian brown and fuscous; underside 
light buff suffused with hessian brown on upper half, two fuscous patches, one 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 3 

on costa near base, the other occupying cell ; postmedial and subterminal fasciae 
fuscous, and a triangular fuscous patch at the commencement of subterminal 
near apex, this patch is outlined with light buff and has in it two light buff points 

on costa. Hindwing light buff suffused with hessian brown, faint postmedial 

and subterminal fasciae ; underside light buff tinged with hessian brown on 
upper half, postmedial and subterminal fasciae fuscous, fuscous spot on 
discocellulars. 

Expanse 36 mm. (Tip to tip 32 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000 ft., 
2.vi.l913. 

Nearest ally. — T. consummata Wlk. (type from Ceylon). 



4. Trachea securifera sp.n. 

Hale. — Palpus wood-brown mixed with fuscous. Antenna ciliated, with 
paired setae, shaft fuscous, at basal third each segment ringed with wood-brown. 
Head : frons warm buff with dark perilla purple band just below the bases of 
antennae, vertex wood-brown. Thorax covered with wood-brown scales tipped 
with pale olive-buff, patagium natal brown anteriorly, bordered with wood-brown 
posteriorly, tegula brownish drab. Abdomen brownish drab above and beneath, 
and clothed with hairs on sides, anal tuft brownish drab. Pectus light buff 
tinged with purple drab. Legs brownish drab, tarsal segments fuscous, tarsal 

joints vinaceous buff. Forewing verona-brown, all fasciae wavy, and outlined 

with fuscous black, orbicular and claviform incompletely outlined with fuscous 
black ; reniform bordered by triangular fuscous black patch basad, and pale 
gull-grey patch distad, extending to costa ; three drab grey spots on costa between 
postmedial and apex ; pale gull-grey points on veins postmedially, and a sprinkling 
of pale gull-grey scales on anal vein between antemedial and postmedial fasciae, 
a fuscous black streak from postmedial to termen between veins 2 and 3, with 
a brownish drab dot in its centre ; underside light buff tinged with purple, 
slightly opalescent near inner margin, fuscous postmedial and subterminal fasciae, 
with light buff between at costa, two light buff spots on costa near apex. — — 
Hind-wing light buff suffused with fuscous ; underside light buff suffused with 
purple on upper half, fuscous on discocellulars, and fuscous postmedial and 
subterminal fasciae. 

Expanse 34 mm. (Tip to tip 33 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Haights' Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippines, 7,000 ft., 9.xi.l912. 

Paratype. Male. — Haights' Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
7,000 ft., 8.xi.l912. 

Nearest ally. — T. consummata Wlk. (type from Ceylon). 

5. Trachea peridela sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus wood-brown mixed with warm sepia. Antenna ciliated, 
with paired setae. Head : frons warm buff with natal brown just below bases 
of antennae, vertex warm buff and natal brown mixed. Thorax natal brown 
tipped with warm buff, patagium natal brown with a line of light buff across the 
centre, tegula natal brown mixed with a few light buff scales. Abdomen warm 



4 Xci\ ITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

buff tinged with brownish drab, brownish drab dorsal crest, venter brownish drab. 
Pectus light buff tinged with natal brown ; legs brownish drab mixed with warm 

sepia, tarsi ringed at the joints with vinaceous buff. Forewing natal brown 

to warm sepia, subbasal fascia warm buff edged with velvety blackish brown, 
antemedia] fascia wavy, ill-defined warm buff outwardly edged with velvety 
blackish brown ; orbicular outlined with velvety blackish brown, a small pearl 
grey spot at basal edge ; reniform outlined with velvety blackish brown, bordered 
by pearl-grey patch distallv. with smaller spots above and below this patch ; 
claviform outlined with velvety blackish brown ; postmedial fascia warm buff 
edged with velvety blackish brown (the distal edge having some small pearl-grey 
spots), excurved from veins 5 to 2, slightly incurved to inner margin ; a sprinkling 
of pearl-grey scales on anal vein between antemedia] and postmedial fasciae, 
four velvety blackish brown streaks from postmedial to termen, between veins 
2 and 6, through which a broken warm buff subterminal line passes, breaking up 
the streaks into sagittate marks ; underside light buff tinged with vinaceous russet, 
glossy, a fuscous spot on discocellulars, a straight (except at costa) fuscous post- 
medial band, and a faintly marked subterminal band. Hindwing light buff 

suffused with fuscous ; underside light buff, upper third irrorated, outer third 
suffused, with warm sepia to fuscous, and tinged with vinaceous russet, with a 
fuscous spot on discocellulars, a wavy fuscous postmedial band, and a diffuse 
fuscous subterminal band. 

Expanse 42 mm. (Tip to tip 39 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Haights' Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippines, 7,000 ft., 20. xi. 1912. 

Paratype. Female. — Haights' Place. Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon L, 
Philippines, 7,000 ft., 12. i. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — T. consummata Wlk. (type from Ceylon). 

6. Trachea discisignata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus light buff mixed with wood-brown and fuscous. Antenna 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex warm buff tinged with 
wood-brown. Thorax warm buff, patagium warm buff tinged with wood-brown, 
a fuscous line across the middle, tegula warm buff tinged with wood-brown 
posteriorly, with a few fuscous black hair-scales at middle. Abdomen warm 
buff tinged with wood-brown, venter warm buff, anal tuft light ochraceous buff. 
Pectus warm buff. Legs warm buff tinged with wood-brown, tarsal segments 

fuscous, joints warm buff. Forewing warm buff shaded with wood-brown, all 

fasciae wavy, faintly outlined with fuscous, orbicular finely outlined with fuscous 
black, reniform outlined with fuscous black, filled with white and fuscous to fus- 
cous black, claviform wide, filled with fuscous and outlined with fuscous black ; 
an oblique fuscous band from costa medially, to termen near tornus, slightly 
down-curved and broken in middle below cell, cilia warm buff with fuscous inter- 
neurally : underside cartridge buff tinged with cinnamon drab, slightly opalescent 
along inner margin, fuscous on discocellulars, postmedial and subterminal fasciae 
faintly marked with fuscous, cartridge buff between at costa, faint triangular 
fuscous patch in which are two cartridge spots on costa at commencement of 

subterminal. Hindwing cartridge buff, veins fuscous, fuscous irroration in 

subterminal area, cilia cartridge buff; underside cartridge buff, wood-brown 



NoVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 5 

on discocellulars, postmcclial and subterminal fasciae faintly indicated in wood- 
brown. 

Expanse 38 mm. (Tip to tip 36 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Haights' Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippines, 7,000 ft., 12. i. 1912 ; and three paratypes, all males. 

Nearest ally. — T. consummata Wlk. (type from Ceylon). 

7. Data rhabdochlaena sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus cartridge-buff, chocolate above. Antenna minutely ciliated, 
with paired setae, the latter hardly longer than the cilia. Head : frons and 
vertex covered with a mixture of cartridge-buff and chocolate. Thorax with 
patagium and tegula, wood-brown mixed with chocolate. Abdomen cinnamon 
buff, with chocolate dorsal crests on basal segments, venter shell-pink streaked 
with wood-brown and chocolate, anal tuft wood-brown tinged with chocolate. 

Pectus cinnamon-buff. Legs wood-brown tinged with chocolate. Forewing 

wood-brown overlaid with velvety warm blackish brown to velvety blackish brown, 
the veins streaked with drab grey ; subbasal fascia white, in two outward 
curves to median fold ; antemedial fascia white edged with fuscous black, ex- 
curved to vein 1, then sharjily curved back to inner margin ; postmedial fascia 
white inwardly edged with fuscous black, wavy, excurved to vein 4, then slightly 
oblique to inner margin ; subterminal a white zigzag line bordered by fuscous 
black to vein 5, sharply dentate to termen at veins 4 and 3, then wavy to inner 
margin ; orbicular marked by a down-curved white line tinged with shell-pink, 
the area inside the curve filled with fuscous black, reniform marked by oblique 
white bars tinged with shell-pink, fuscous between ; a white spot in angle formed 
by veins 4 and 5, with a smaller white spot below, between veins 3 and 4 ; under- 
side warm buff suffused with wood-brown, postmedial band narrow, fuscous, 
crenulate ; a subterminal line of pale drab-grey dashes. Hindwing cinnamon- 
buff, with wide border of army-brown on termen ; underside warm buff, bordered 
along costa and termen with a mixture of wood-brown and shell-pink with choco- 
late irroration, fuscous on discocellulars, postmedial line crenulate, fuscous. 

Expanse 38 mm. (Tip to tip 35 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male. 

Expanse 38 mm. (Tip to tip 36 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 7.iv.l912. 

Allotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 8.iv.l912. 

Paratype. Two Males. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 22.iii and 7.iv.l912. 

Nearest ally. — D. callopistrioides Moore (India). 

8. Callopistria tytha sp.n. 
Female. — Palpus wood-brown mixed with pale drab-grey. Antenna 
minutely ciliated, with very short paired setae. Head : frons and vertex choco- 
late and pale drab-grey mixed, occiput warm buff. Thorax : patagium drab grey 
anteriorly, chocolate posteriorly, tegula warm buff tinged with wood-brown. 
Abdomen drab grey, venter pale drab-grey with chocolate irrorations and streaks, 



(5 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

anal tuft warm buff tinged with ochraceous orange. Pectus pale drab-grey. 
Legs : pale drab-grey, foreleg pale drab-grey streaked with chocolate, tarsi 

wood-brown. Forewing basal area chocolate, medial area russet shaded with 

chocolate, subterminal area chocolate, veins light drab ; an oblique pale drab- 
grey fascia from costa at one-third, to median nervine subbasally ; an oblique 
fascia of two white lines with chocolate between, from costa slightly beyond 
middle to inner margin at one-third a shorter oblique fascia of two white lines 
with chocolate between from costa at a third, joining the previous fascia at 
right angles, on median nervure ; orbicular irregular, outlined with white, filled 
with chocolate ; reniform : oblique white bars, between which is a small elongate 
patch of cameo pink ; a faint pale drab-grey postmedial fascia excurved to vein 
2, then incurved to inner margin ; a narrow subterminal zigzag white fascia 
from costa to vein 5, then pronounced and oblique to termen at vein 4, incurved 
to inner margin ; a fine white fascia near termen, termen light drab, cilia fuscous ; 
underside drab, drab-grey along costa, subterminal fascia of pale drab-grey dashes, 
drab-grey on inner margin, a pale drab-grey patch on costa postmedially, and 

two pale drab-grey points on costa near apex. Hindwing upperside drab-grey 

suffused with fuscous, fringe cartridge buff with a fuscous line running through 
it ; underside pale drab-grey with scattered fuscous scales below costa, a fuscous 
lunule on discocellulars, fuscous postmedial and subterminal fasciae, marked 
strongly at costa, the remainder faint. 

Expanse 24 mm. (Tip to tip 23 mm.) 

Hololype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft,, 17. iv. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — E. aethiops Butl. (type from Japan). 

9. Chytonix olethria sp.n. 

Male. — Head and antennae missing (in type). Thorax, patagium and 
tegula drab mixed with fuscous black. Abdomen drab mixed with fuscous 

black above and beneath, anal tuft drab. Pectus and legs drab. Forewing 

drab, a large patch of fuscous black at base of wing, as far as antemedial on costa, 
and postmedial on inner margin, the distal edge oblique from costa to median 
fold, parallel with inner margin to postmedial ; a white quadrate spot at inter- 
section of postmedial and median fold ; orbicular and reniform lightly outlined 
with fuscous black ; a triangular fuscous black patch on costa at middle, the 
point touching orbicular ; postmedial a thin fuscous black excurved line, sub- 
terminal area suffused with fuscous black ; underside drab.— — Hindwing : 
upperside fuscous, underside drab. 

Expanse 24 mm. (Tip to tip 22 mm.) 

Hololype. Male. — Samaji, prov. Awa, Shikoku I., Japan, 22. ix. 1890. 

Nearest ally. — C. albipuncta Hmpsn. (China). 

10. Athetis implacata sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus light buff, natal brown outwardly and above. Head : 
frons and vertex light buff tinged with natal brown. Thorax, patagium and 
tegula light buff tinged with natal brown. Abdomen natal brown above and 
below, anal tuft warm buff tinged with natal brown. Pectus light buff tinged 
with natal brown. Legs : foreleg natal brown, joints of tarsal segments light 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. L929. ' 

buff ; other legs light buff tinged with natal brown, tarsal segments natal brown, 

joints light buff. Forewing : ground-colour natal brown, basal part of wing up 

to orbicular suffused with vinaceous buff ; subbasal, antemedial and postmedial 
fasciae indicated by a sprinkling of bone-brown scales ; orbicular circular, reni- 
form oval, both large, outlined with light buff edged with snuff-brown ; a suffusion 
of vinaceous buff extending on each side of postmedial fascia ; subterminal fascia 
a light buff line edged with snuff-brown, slightly excurved ; interneural bone- 
brown spots on termen. Hindwing light buff tinged with natal brown, fringe light 

buff with natal brown line through centre. Underside : forewing light buff 

tinged with natal brown, postmedial and subterminal fasciae natal brown ; hind- 
wing cartridge-buff irrorated with natal brown on upper half, a natal brown spot 
on discocellulars, postmedial fascia natal brown. 

Expanse 38 mm. (Tip to tip 37 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Arizan, Formosa, 7,500 ft., 23.viii. 1908. 

Nearest ally. — A. placata Leech (China). 

11. Athetis multilinea sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus thickly scaled, second segment fuscous black, distal third 
pale drab-grey, third segment pale drab-grey mixed with fuscous black. Antenna, 
minutely ciliated. Head : frons and vertex pale drab-grey mixed with fuscous. 
Thorax, patagium and tegula pale drab-grey mixed with fuscous. Abdomen 
pale drab-grey tinged with fuscous above and beneath, anal tuft drab-grey tinged 
with warm buff. Pectus pale drab-grey. Legs : foreleg coxa and femur pale drab- 
grey, fuscous above, tibia pale drab-grey speckled with fuscous, tarsal segments 
fuscous, joints pale drab-grey ; other legs pale drab-grey speckled with fuscous, 

tarsal segments fuscous, joints pale drab-grey. Forewing : ground-colour 

pale drab-grey, subbasal fascia fuscous, excurved to median nervine, antemedial 
fascia wavy, consisting of two fuscous lines separated by ground-colour ; irregu- 
larly crenate fuscous medial shade, orbicular indicated by a fuscous dot, reniform 
a small warm buff patch outlined with fuscous and fuscous black ; postmedial 
fascia fuscous, crenulate, excurved ; subterminal area suffused with fuscous in 
which the fascia is indicated by a wavy shade, interneural spots of fuscous black 
on termen, fringe pale drab-grey suffused with fuscous ; underside drab, mixed 
with pale drab-grey along costa, a faint fuscous lunule on discocellulars, and faint 

postmedial fascia. Hindwing pale drab-grey, tinged with fuscous on termen 

and inner margin ; underside pale drab-grey, speckled with fuscous below costa, 
a fuscous spot on discocellulars and fuscous fascia from vein 6. 

Expanse 32 mm. (Tip to tip 30 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, .5,000 ft., 
28. hi. 1912. 

Paratypes. Two Males. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
5,000 ft., 9.viiand 16.xii.1912. 

Nearest ally. — A. bremusa Swinh. (India, Ceylon, Formosa). 

12. Athetis punctirena sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus army-brown. Antenna with paired setae. Head : frons 
and vertex army-brown. Thorax, patagium and tegula army-brown. Abdomen 
fuscous, venter light buff tinged with fuscous. Pectus light buff tinged with 



8 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

fuscous. Legs : foreleg light buff, fuscous above, tarsal segments fuscous, 
joints light buff ; other legs light buff speckled with fuscous, tarsal segments 

fuscous, joints light buff. Forewing army-brown, basal half tinged with vina- 

ceous brown ; subbasal fascia faintly marked, excurved to median fold ; ante- 
medial fascia a narrow slightly excurved fuscous line ; orbicular indicated 
by a fuscous dot, reniform indicated by a broken outline of white dots, and a 
warm buff spot on distal side ; a fuscous shade medially, postmedial fascia a 
narrow wavy fuscous line ; subterminal fascia a wavy fuscous shade, terminal 
line light buff with white dots on veins, fringe fuscous. Hindwing cartridge buff 
tinged with fuscous on veins, subterminal area and along inner margin, fringe 

light buff. Underside : forewing light buff irrorated with fuscous below costa, 

remainder tinged with fuscous, fuscous lunule on discocellulars ; hindwing 
cartridge-buff irrorated with fuscous below costa, on postmedial fascia and termen, 
fuscous lunule on discocellulars. 

Expanse 30 mm. (Tip to tip 28 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Rantaizan, Formosa, 7,500 ft., 9. v. 1909. 

Nearest ally. — A. placida Moore (India, Ceylon, Formosa). 

13. Athetis triangulata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus pale drab-grey, hair-brown outwardly on basal half of second 
segment. Antenna minutely ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and 
vertex pale drab grey. Thorax drab, patagium and tegula drab-grey tinged with 
drab. Abdomen drab-grey tinged with fuscous above and beneath, anal tuft 
pinkish buff. Pectus pale drab-grey. Legs drab-grey. Forewing drab-grey 
irrorated with fuscous, fuscous spots on eosta subbasally and antemedially ; 
fuscous spot at base of cell, orbicular indicated by a fuscous black dot, reniform 
by a faint warm buff spot preceded by a few fuscous black scales ; a faint fuscous 
medial shade, a postmedial series of fuscous dots ; subterminal broken row of 
fuscous spots, those between veins 4 and 5, 5 and 6, are larger and merged to- 
gether forming a conspicuous triangular patch (point basad) ; underside drab- 
grey. Hindwing : upperside and underside ivhitish, underside with a fuscous 

lunule, fuscous irroration at apex. 

Expanse 28 mm. (Tip to tip 26 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male. 

Expanse 28 mm. (Tip to tip 27 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Palali, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 2,000 ft., 
24.xii.1912. 

Allotype. Female. — Sapiangao, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines 
5,500 ft., 15.3rii.1912. 

Nearest ally. — A. bimacula Wlk. (type from Borneo). 

14. Athetis plumbescens sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus deep mouse-grey, a little pale drab-grey beneath and at 
junction of second and third segments. Antenna serrate fasciculate, with paired 
setae. Head : frons fuscous and drab-grey mixed, with a warm buff patch on 
lower half, vertex fuscous and drab-grey mixed. Thorax drab-grey, patagium 
fuscous and drab-grey mixed. Abdomen hair-brown, venter drab-grey, anal 
tuft light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs pale drab-grey and fuscous mixed. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1 f12!». 

Forewing : ground-colour drab-grey, all fascia faintly marked in fuscous and 
accentuated with fuscous black, subbasal wavy, apparently not extending beyond 
median nervure, antemedial wavy, medial shade excurved at median nervure, 
postmedial crenulate, excurved to vein 2, incurved to inner margin, subterminal 
wavy with broken line of dots, two spots between veins 4 and 5, 5 and G, being 
much larger than the dots ; orbicular indicated by a fuscous dot, reniform by a 
small light buff patch, a few fuscous scales, and a whitish dot at upper angle and 
another at lower angle of cell ; underside drab-grey, pale drab-grey and irrorated 
with fuscous along costa, paler along inner margin, an indistinct lunula on disci i- 
cellulars, postmedial and subterminal fasciae faintly indicated in fuscous. — 
Hindwing semi-hyaline pale drab-grey, veins, termen and inner margin tinged 
with fuscous ; underside pale drab-grey with scattered fuscous scales below eosta, 
a faint lunule on discocellulars, subterminal fascia indicated by faint fuscous 
streaks on veins. 

Expanse 37 mm. (Tip to tip 35 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Haights' Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippines, 7,000 ft., 30. xi. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — A. bimacula Wlk. (type from Borneo). 

15. Elydna sparna sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus sepia basally, pale drab-grey at extremity and inwardly. 
Antenna with paired setae. Head : frons pale drab-grey, tinged with sepia on 
upper half, vertex pale drab-grey tinged with sepia. Thorax, patagium and tegula 
drab-grey tinged with sepia. Abdomen drab above, venter pale drab-grey, anal 
tuft drab. Pectus pale drab-grey. Legs drab-grey mixed with sepia, tarsal 
segments sepia. Forewing pale drab-grey suffused with sepia, the sepia pre- 
dominating in the distal half of wing ; orbicular faintly marked by pale drab-grey 
and sepia spot, reniform indicated by ill-defined broken outline of pale drab-grey, 
antemedial fascia a pale drab-grey shade, excurved, outwardly edged with 
sepia ; medial shade angled outwardly to upper edge of cell, then excurved to 
inner margin, a pale drab-grey postmedial fascia, slightly sinuous, inwardly 
edged with fuscous ; fringe pale drab-grey and sepia mixed, with a narrow edge 
of pale drab-grey ; underside light drab, irrorated with sepia below costa, faint 

sepia lunule on discocellulars, and postmedial fascia. Hindwing cartridge-buff 

with veins streaked with light drab ; underside cartridge-buff irrorated with 
scattered sepia scales below costa, sepia lunule on discocellulars, postmedial 
fascia indicated by sepia marks on veins. 

Expanse 24 mm. (Tip to tip 23 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon L, Philippines, 
800 ft., l.iv.1912. 

Nearest ally. — E. bipuncta Snell. (India, New Guinea). 

10. Phragmatiphila agrapta sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus pinkish buff, bone-brown above. Antenna minutely 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons with rounded prominence, pinkish 
buff and bone-brown mixed, vertex pinkish buff and bone-brown mixed. Thorax 
pinkish buff, patagium pinkish buff, tegula pinkish buff with a few bone-brown 
scales. Abdomen drab-grey above and beneath, anal tuft wood-brown. Pectus 



1<> Novitates Zoolooioae XXXV. 1929. 

pinkish buff. Legs pinkish buff, foreleg, tarsal segments bone brown, joints 

pinkish buff. Forewing pinkish buff tinged with wood-brown, lightly irrorated 

with scattered bone-brown scales in cell ; postmedial faintly marked crenulate 
bone-brown line, excurved to vein 2, then slightly incurved to inner margin, 
termen bone-brown ; underside pinkish buff, glossy, a faint spot on discocellulars 

and a faint postmedial fascia. Hindwing : upperside cartridge-buff ; underside 

cartridge-buff, glossy, a faint spot on discocellulars and a very faint postmedial 
fascia. 

Expanse 30 mm. (Tip to tip 28 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Montalban, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippines. 151. i. 
1914. 

Nearest ally. — P. grisescens Hmpsn. (India). 

17. Phragmatiphila hemicelaena sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus fuscous outwardly, pinkish buff inwardly. Antenna 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex pinkish buff tinged with 
wood-brown. Thorax, patagium and tegula pinkish buff tinged with wood-brown 
posteriorly. Abdomen pinkish buff, some wood-brown dorsally at base, venter 
pinkish buff tinged with wood-brown. Pectus pinkish buff tinged with wood- 
brown. Legs avellaneous speckled with fuscous, fuscous on tarsal segments. 

Forewing pinkish buff, lightly irrorated with wood-brown along and below costa, 
and between veins 6 to 12 ; a cartridge-buff, wedge-shaped patch (apex basad) 
at base of cell up to a third, where it breaks into three lines, the upper one as far 
as two-thirds, the middle one a little longer, and the lower one along the median 
nervure to just beyond lower angle, remainder of cell filled with avellaneous 
tinged with wood-brown ; a pinkish buff patch tinged with avellaneous near its 
upper edge, from just beyond cell to subterminal fascia, where it turns obliquely 
to apex ; below median nervure fuscous, from base gradually widening and curv- 
ing upward towards end of vein 7 to termen, the area between this and inner 
margin pinkish buff tinged with avellaneous ; antemedial fascia faintly marked, 
wavy, fuscous ; postmedial fascia fuscous black, crenulate, excurved to vein 3, 
then slightly incurved to inner margin ; a subterminal series of fuscous dashes, 
from vein 6 to inner margin, towards which they become obsolescent ; interneural 
fuscous black spots on termen ; underside pinkish buff suffused with fuscous in 
cell, and half-way along veins 2 to 5 ; fuscous lunule on discocellulars, and fuscous 

postmedial fascia. Hindwing pinkish buff tinged with fuscous on veins, on 

which there is a postmedial series of dashes ; underside pinkish buff, fuscous 
spot on discocellulars, and fuscous postmedial fascia most strongly marked from 
vein 5 to inner margin, with fuscous on termen interneurally from vein 5 to inner 
margin. 

Expanse 35 mm. (Tip to tip 33 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male, but is paler in colouring, and cilia of antennae 
shorter. 

Expanse 42 mm. (Tip to tip 40 mm.) 

Holotype. Male.— Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000 ft., 
23. vi. 1913. 

Allotype. Female. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
5,000 ft., 3.vi.l912. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 192(1. 11 

Paratype. Male. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 800 ft., 1 <i . iii . 1912. 
Nearest ally. — P. nigropuncfata Wileman (Formosa). 

There is one specimen of this species in the Hill Museum, Witley, Surrey, 
which was taken in Mindanao Island, Philippine Islands. 

18. Sesamia hemisparacta sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus light buff tinged with fuscous outwardly. Antenna pec- 
tinated, pectinations ciliated. Head : frons, lower half light buff, upper half 
light buff tinged with wood-brown, vertex light buff tinged with wood-brown. 
Thorax light buff, patagium and tegula light buff with avellaneous. Abdomen 
light buff mixed with hair-brown, venter light buff, anal tuft pinkish buff. Pectus 

and legs light buff. Forewing light buff broadly streaked with avellaneous 

along and below costa, on median nervure, along inner margin and all the 
veins ; sparsely irrorated with fuscous in cell and distal half of wing ; with 
faint traces of a fuscous postmedial fascia parallel with termen ; underside light 

buff, streaked as above, but more faintly. Hindwing light buff tinged with 

avellaneous, postmedial fascia indicated by scattered fuscous scales, underside 
light buff. 

Expanse 35 mm. (Tip to tip 33 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000 ft., 
16. vi. 1913. 

Nearest ally. — 8. punetilinea Wileni. (Formosa). 



Sub-family ERASTRHNAE. 
19. Eublemma niarmorata sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus cartridge -buff tinged with drab outwardly. Antenna 
minutely ciliated. Head : frons and vertex cartridge-buff. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula cartridge-buff tinged with drab. Abdomen cartridge-buff suffused 
with fuscous, venter cartridge-buff, anal tuft warm buff. Pectus and legs cart- 
ridge-buff. Forewing drab, antemedially a wavy band of cartridge-buff, post- 
medial fascia cartridge-buff, commencing at costa as a wide band to lower angle 
of cell, then continuing as three incurved lines to inner margin ; subterminal 
fascia wavy, cartridge-buff, with a series of fuscous black spots on distal edge at 
irregular intervals; three fuscous black spots on distal third of costa, and a larger 
one at apex, a few fuscous black scales on discocellulars ; at middle of inner 
margin a fan of hair-scales. Hindwing cartridge-buff, veins and subterminal 
area tinged with fuscous, fringe cartridge-buff. Underside : forewing cartridge- 
buff irrorated with fuscous on upper half, costa and subterminal area tinged with 
fuscous black ; hindwing cartridge buff irrorated with fuscous below costa and 
on postmedial and subterminal fasciae. 

Expanse, 16 mm. (Tip to tip, 15 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Montalban, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippines, 14. i. 
1914. 

Allotype. Female. — Palali, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 2,000 ft., 
v.1913. 

Nearest ally. — E. trifasciata Moore (Bengal, India, Borneo). 



12 Novitates Zoologioaz XXXV. 10211. 

20. Eublemrna albostriata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna ciliated. Head : frons and vertex 
hazel. Thorax : patagium and tegula hazel tinged with liver-brown. Abdomen 
light drab, venter light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs light buff tinged with 

hazel. Forewing hazel, antemedial fascia white, oblique to subcosta, where it 

is sharply angled, continuing obliquely back to inner margin ; a white patch 
from angle of antemedial to costa joining commencement of postmedial fascia, 
postmedial fascia white, oblique to vein 5, where it is angled, then incurved to 
inner margin ; a white patch irrorated with hazel at the angle of postmedial 
between veins 5 and 6, reaching subterminal ; subterminal fascia zigzag, white, 
distally bordered with fuscous black as far as vein 5, then faintly fuscous, wavy 
to inner margin, a white dash from subterminal at vein G to apex ; hindwing : 
basal third cartridge buff, distal two-thirds hazel, a slightly waved white post- 
medial fascia from vein 6 to near tornus, a very faintly marked fuscous subter- 
minal fascia. Underside : forewing light buff suffused with hazel on upper 

half ; hindwing light buff tinged with hazel. 

Expanse 18 mm. (Tip to tip 16 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 13.iii. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — E. rubra Hmpsn. (India, Malay, Australia). 

21. Cerynea melanocephala sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus fuscous black. Antenna ciliated, with paired setae a little 
longer than the cilia. Head : frons and vertex fuscous black. Thorax avel- 
laneous, with fuscous black spot on metathorax, patagium and tegula avellaneous. 
Abdomen avellaneous, with a dorsal series of fuscous black spots, venter pinkish 
buff, anal tuft avellaneous mixed with fuscous black. Pectus pinkish buff. 
Legs : foreleg, coxa, femur and tibia pinkish buff with fuscous black above, tarsi 

pinkish buff, other legs pinkish buff. Forewing avellaneous, lightly irrorated 

with fuscous black, costa warm buff, antemedially two fuscous black spots, 
one on costa, the other in cell ; medially three fuscous black spots, one on costa, 
the other two in cell ; postmedial and subterminal fasciae wavy, faintly marked 
in a slightly paler shade than ground-colour ; a fuscous black spot postmediallv 
between veins 5 and 6, another fuscous black spot subterminalby between veins 
and 7 ; terminal line crenulate, fuscous black, with spot at points. Hindwing 
avellaneous, distal half cinnamon drab, postmedial fascia wavy, white, from 
vein 6 to inner margin, bordered proximally with cinnamon-drab, distally with 
warm buff, with fuscous black at each end ; terminal line crenulate, fuscous 

black, with spots at points, a small fuscous black spot below middle of cell. 

Underside : forewing pinkish buff tinged with fuscous black in subterminal area, 
a fuscous shade along and below basal half of costa, then curving and crossing 
wing to inner margin, distal edge crenulate ; terminal line crenulate, fuscous 
black, with spots at points ; hindwing pinkish buff, subterminal area tinged with 
fuscous black, fuscous lunule on discocellulars, postmedial fascia wavy, fuscous, 
terminal line crenulate, fuscous black, with spots at points. 

Expanse 22 mm. (Tip to tip 20 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Montalban, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippines, 19. i. 1914. 

Nearest ally. — G. omphisalis Wlk. (Borneo). 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 13 

22. Oraza sordida sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna minutely 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : irons and vertex cartridge-buff tinged with 
fuscous, occiput fuscous. Thorax : patagium and tegula cartridge-buff suffused 
with fuscous. Abdomen cartridge-buff suffused with fuscous above and beneath. 
Pectus cartridge-buff . Forewing cartridge-buff suffused with fuscous, cartridge- 
buff and fuscous marks alternately on distal half of costa, postmedial and 
subterminal fasciae wavy, faintly marked, proximal edge fuscous, distal edge 

cartridge-buff, fringe fuscous. Hindwing cartridge-buff suffused with fuscous. 

Underside : forewing cartridge-buff suffused with fuscous on upper hall ; 
hindwing cartridge-buff irrorated with fuscous below costa and on subterminal 
area, fuscous lunule on discocellulars. 

Expanse 21 mm. (Tip to tip 19 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Manila, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philipjjines (plains), 
7.vii.l912. 

Nearest ally. — O. atriapicata Hmpsn. (Borneo). 

23. Trogatha adusta sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus warm buff tinged with russet. Antenna ciliated. Head : 
frons light buff tinged with russet, vertex light buff. Thorax : patagium and 
tegula light buff. Pectus warm buff. Legs : coxae, femora and tibiae warm 

buff mixed with russet, tarsi fuscous. Forewing, termen excised from apex to 

vein 4, oblique to tornus ; warm buff tinged with fuscous below costa and sub- 
terminal area, irrorated with scattered fuscous black scales, lightly tinged with 
russet on lower half of cell ; antemedial fascia a short, excurved, fuscous streak 
from costa to subcosta, and four fuscous tinged russet spots ; on discocellulars 
a faint fuscous-tinged patch with a velvety fuscous black spot at each angle of 
the cell, edged with fuscous proximally and distally ; postmedial fascia fuscous, 
oblique to vein 7, straight to vein 3, then slightly incurved to inner margin ; 
subterminal fascia a broken, wavy row of fuscous spots ; termen fuscous with 
a small patch of russet at veins 5 and 6. Hindwing light buff, basal half lightly 
tinged with russet and irrorated with fuscous black below cell, postmedial fascia 
a wavy light buff line ; distal half suffused with fuscous, russet subterminally and 

on termen, a light buff fringe on inner margin. Underside : forewing warm 

buff suffused with russet, a suffusion of fuscous along and below costa, a drab-grey 
lunule outlined with fuscous black on discocellulars, a warm buff patch between 
the upper angle of cell and postmedial, another smaller patch between lower 
angle of cell and postmedial ; postmedial fascia russet from veins 8 to 5 where it is 
suffused with drab-grey to inner margin, a warm buff patch near apex, a border 
of drab-grey at termen. Hindwing warm buff, basal half tinged with russet, distal 
half suffused with russet, drab-grey lunule outlined with russet on discocellular, 
postmedial fascia russet, a border of drab-grey from postmedial to apex and 
along termen to tornus, light buff on inner margin, a light buff fringe on 
inner margin. 

Expanse 23 mm. (Tip to tip 21 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Manila, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippines (plains), 
28.vii.1912. 

Nearest ally. — T. poecilota Turner (Australia, New Guinea). 



14 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

24. Corgatha costalba sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus warm buff inwardly, wood-brown outwardly. Antenna 
ciliated, shaft wood-brown, white on basal third. Head : frons warm buff, 
vertex white. Thorax wood-brown, patagium warm buff anteriorly, wood-brown 
posteriorly, tegula wood-brown. Abdomen wood-brown, venter light buff, anal 
tuft warm buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : foreleg warm buff tinged with tawny 

above, other legs light buff. Forewing wood-brown, three white spots outlined 

with fuscous black on costa, subbasally, medially and postmedially ; hindwing 

wood-brown. Underside : fore- and hindwings light buff, lightly tinged with 

wood-brown, fuscous on discocellulars. 

Expanse 18 mm. (Tip to tip 17 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Montalban, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippines, 24 . iii . 1914. 

Nearest ally. — C. jnisilla Swinh. (Siam). 

25. Protarache annulata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus fuscous, light buff beneath. Antenna serrate-ciliate. 
Head : frons light buff tinged with fuscous, and a round corneous plate, vertex 
light buff tinged with fuscous. Thorax : patagium and tegula light buff tinged 
with fuscous. Abdomen light buff suffused with fuscous above and beneath, anal 
tuft light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs light buff, mixed with fuscous above, 

tarsal segments fuscous, joints light buff. Forewing, pale drab-grey irrorated 

with buffy brown from base to antemedial ; antemedial fascia excurved to 
median nervure, oblique to inner margin, pale drab-grey edged distally with buffy 
brown and blackish brown ; area between ante- and postmedial fasciae tinged 
with blackish brown, a large circular patch faintly outlined with blackish brown, 
the proximal edge forming a prominent streak on the discocellulars ; postmedial 
fascia pale drab-grey excurved to vein 2, laterally to anal vein medially, then 
incurved to inner margin ; subterminal area light buff suffused with buffy brown, 
and a blackish brown streak bordering the postmedial fascia from vein 8 to 3 ; 
terminal line blackish brown, fringe drab grey with a fuscous line through centre ; 

hindwing fuscous. Underside : forewing fuscous with some light buff on costa 

near apex, termen fuscous black ; hindwing cartridge-buff irrorated with fuscous, 
termen fuscous black. 

Expanse 20 mm. (Tip to tip 18 mm.) 

Female. — Antenna ciliated, similar to male in colouring, but markings are 
more suffused, the outline of large circular patch not complete. 

Expanse 24 mm. (Tip to tip 22 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 20. iv. 1912. 

Allotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 8. v. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — P. eulepida Hmpsn. (Ceylon). 

26. Trilophonota tegulata sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus fuscous, light buff inwardly. Antenna ciliated. Head : 
frons and vertex fuscous. Thorax : patagium and tegula fuscous. Abdomen 
fuscous, venter light buff, anal tuft warm buff. Pectus light buff. Legs light 
buff tinged with fuscous, tarsal segments fuscous, joints light buff. Forewing 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 15 

pale drab-grey dusted over with fuscous, all fasciae wavy, fuscous ; a fuscous 
shade medially, fringe drab-grey tinged with fuscous ; orbicular and reniform 
faintly outlined with fuscous ; hindwing fuscous, fuscous black termen, and some 

fuscous black at tornus, fringe drab-grey tinged with fuscous. Underside, fore- 

and hindwings pale drab-grey suffused with fuscous. 

Expanse 18 mm. (Tip to tip 17 mm.) 

Male. — Similar to female, but paler in colouring. 

Expanse 18 mm. (Tip to tip 17 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
800 ft., 8. v. 1914. 

Allotype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon, 5,000 ft., 30. v. 1913. 

The female is selected for the holotype, the male being imperfect, as the 
head is missing. 

Nearest ally. — T. lamia Swinh. (Burma). 

27. Hyperstrotia variata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus light buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna ciliated. Head : 
frons light buff with a band of fuscous just below the bases of antennae, vertex 
light buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula light buff tinged with warm sepia, tuft 
of fuscous black on metathorax. Abdomen light buff suffused with fuscous 
above and beneath, anal tuft warm buff. Pectus light buff tinged with fuscous. 
Legs : fore- and midlegs light buff suffused with fuscous, tarsal segments fuscous, 

joints light buff, hindleg light buff lightly tinged with fuscous. Forewing : light 

buff patch at base, its distal edge oblique from costa subbasally to median ner- 
vure antemedially, here shaip>ly angled, then oblique to inner margin subbasally, 
at this point a scale-tooth on inner margin ; area from this patch to postmedial 
light buff suffused with warm sepia, in which is the antemedial fascia, wavy, 
light buff and fuscous black faintly marked, also a light buff dash on anal vein 
from antemedial ; postmedial fascia oblique to inner margin near tornus. light 
buff at ends, white in middle, from the white part of postmedial there is a white 
streak to apex ; area below this streak light buff tinged with warm sepia, above 
light buff tinged with warm sepia in streaks ; hindwing cartridge-buff. Under- 
side : forewing cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff 
irrorated with fuscous below costa, fuscous spot on discocellulars. 

Expanse 20 mm. (Tip to tip 19 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male. 

Expanse 21 mm. (Tip to tip 20 mm.) 

This species appears to be extremely variable : of the nine specimens before 
us five are typical, the other four not having the white streak at apex ; some 
do not have the dark patch across the middle of wing, some have it only on 
upper half of wing, in one case the forewing is plain with fuscous black dashes. 
Paratypes marked thus (*) are typical. 

Holotype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000 ft., 
24. iv. 1912. 

Allotype. Female. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000 ft., 
28. v. 1913. 

*Paratype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
5,000 ft,, 20. v. 1913. 



16 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

*Paratype. Male. — Baguio, siibprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
5,000 ft., 27. iv. 1912. 

*Paratype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
5,000 ft., 22. iv. 1912. 

Paratype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet,Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000ft., 
v. 11)13. 

Paratype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines. 5,000 ft., 
26. iv. 1912. 

Paratype. Male. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 5,000 ft., 
2.vi.l913. 

Paratype. Female. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippines, 
.-..000 ft., 26. v. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — H. macroplaga Hiupsn. (Ceylon). 

Subfamily SARROTHRIPINAE. 
28. Characoma casuaria sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus : second segment pale drab-grey, basal half fuscous, third 
segment pale drab-grey speckled with fuscous. Antenna (description impossible 
as both are missing in the type). Head : frons pale drab-grey, vertex pale 
drab-grey tinged with blackish brown. Thorax : patagium and tegula pale 
drab-grey suffused with blackish brown. Abdomen pale drab-grey tinged with 
fuscous, venter and anal tuft pale drab-grey. Pectus pale drab-grey. Legs : 
foreleg pale drab-grey tinged with warm sepia above on tibia and on tarsal 

segments, other legs pale drab-grey. Forewing : pale drab-grey tinged dark 

greyish brown, subbasal fascia, fuscous black, wavy to median fold : antemedial 
fascia consisting of two, wavy, fuscous black lines, bordered by a shading of 
warm sepia to just below cell ; medially a wide band tinged with dark greyish 
brown, edged with fuscous black, the proximal edge wavy, bordered by pale 
drab-grey, the distal edge oblique to vein 6, outwardly angled, then inwardly 
angled, oblique to vein 4, sharply excurved and oblique to vein 2, excurved to 
inner margin, a shading of warm sepia beyond ; subterminal fascia wavy, dark 
greyish brown, bordered with pale drab-grey, termen fuscous black, fringe pale 
drab-grey tinged with fuscous. Hindwing pale drab-grey tinged with fuscous 

on termen, fringe pale drab-grey. Underside : forewing fuscous, with three 

pale drab-grey points on costa near apex, fringe pale drab-grey ; hindwing 
pale drab-grey tinged with fuscous below costa and on termen. 

Expanse 22 mm. (Tip to tip 21 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I. 
Philippine Is., 7,000ft., l.xii.1912. 

Nearest ally. — C. vallata Meyr. (Australia). 

The medial band resembles somewhat the head of a cassowary. 

29. Characoma latifascia sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus pinkish buff tinged with fuscous above. Antenna minutely 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex pinkish buff tinged with 
fuscous. Thorax : patagium and tegula fuscous. Abdomen pinkish buff 
suffused with fuscous, venter and anal tuft pinkish buff. Pectus light buff. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 17 
Legs : foreleg pinkish buff tinged with fuscous, other legs pinkish buff. 



Forewing fuscous with a purple tinge ; anteniedial fascia a fine mars-brown line, 
oblique to subcosta, slightly incurved to median fold, oblique to inner margin ; 
a triangular pale drab-grey patch on costa, the base of triangle touching the 
anteniedial and the apex touching the postmedial on costa, orbicular a small pale 
drab-grey spot, reniform indicated by two fuscous black dots ; postmedial fascia 
consisting of two fine mars-brown lines, excurved to vein 2, then slightly incurved 
to inner margin : a pale drab-grey dash at apex, subterminal fascia a shading of 

mars-brown. Hindwing cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous. Underside : 

fore- and hindwings cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous, glossy. 

Expanse 20 mm. (Tip to tip 19 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine 
Is., 800 ft., 10.iii.1912. 

Nearest ally. — C. vallata Meyr. (Australia). 

30. Sarrothripus glaucus sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus white, lightly tinged with fuscous. Antenna minutely 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons cartridge-buff, vertex olive buff. 
Thorax : patagium olive-buff with a fuscous black line through centre, tegula 
olive-buff. Abdomen (description impossible as it is missing from the type). 
Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs : fore- and midlegs cartridge-buff, with olive-buff 
above, hindleg cartridge-buff. Forewing : cartridge-buff, suffused with olive- 
buff, all fasciae and markings fuscous black, subbasal fascia wavy, anteniedial 
fascia consisting of two broken, wavy lines ; a patch in distal half of cell ; post- 
medial fascia a broken line, oblique to vein 6, outwardly angled and oblique to 
vein 2, incurved to inner margin ; a small patch on costa beyond postmedial ; 
subterminal fascia a wavy line of dots, interneural spots on termen. Hindwing 

cartridge-buff, lightly tinged with fuscous in subterminal area and on veins. 

Underside : forewing cartridge-buff, tinged with fuscous ; hindwing cartridge- 
buff, tinged with fuscous below costa and on veins. 

Expanse 22 mm. (Tip to tip 21 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 12. iv. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — 8. indica Feld. (Ceylon, Singapore, Australia). 

31. Sarrothripus albescens sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus white, with a little fuscous above. Antenna ciliated, with 
paired setae. Head : frons and vertex white. Thorax : patagium and tegula 
fuscous. Abdomen fuscous, venter pale drab-grey. Pectus white. Legs : 
foreleg white with fuscous above, other legs white. Forewing : white ; sub- 
basal fascia fuscous black, wavy, to median nervure ; medially a wide fascia 
outlined with fuscous, bordered distally with a narrow white line, commencing 
with a triangular, fuscous patch on costa (apex distad), the remainder of fascia 
lightly tinged with fuscous, the proximal edge wavy, the distal edge inwardly 
oblique to vein 7, excurved to vein 5, again excurved to vein 2, then incurved 
to inner margin, where the fascia is half the width it is at costa ; area beyond 
tinged with fuscous, in which is a wavy, white, subterminal fascia, termen fuscous 
black with interneural points, fringe white. Hindwing white, tinged with fuscous 

2 



18 Novitates Zooloc.icae XXXV. 1929. 

on termen. Underside : fore- and hind wings glossy, pale drab-grey tinged with 

fuscous, fringe pale drab-grey. 

Expanse 18 mm. (Tip to tip 17 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 6.iv.l912. 

Nearest ally. — 8. exophila Meyr. (Australia). 

32. Barasa nigrilineata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus cartridge-buff mixed with vinaceous on first segment, 
cartridge-buff with fuscous at base of second and third segments. Antenna 
minutely ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons white mixed with vinaceous, 
a lateral, fuscous black spot, vertex white mixed with vinaceous. Thorax : 
patagium and tegula white speckled with fuscous. Abdomen fuscous with 
white at junction of segments, a fuscous and white tuft at base dorsally, venter 
white. Pectus white. Legs : foreleg, coxa white tinged with vinaceous, femora 
and tibia white tinged with vinaceous, fuscous above, tarsus fuscous ; midleg 
white speckled with vinaceous on tibia, fuscous on basal segment of tarsus ; 

hindleg white, fuscous on tarsus beneath. Forewing white, a fuscous patch on 

costa at base, outlined with fuscous black, basal third of wing irrorated with fus- 
cous ; medially a wide fascia tinged with fuscous bordered by a narrow white line, 
proximal edge outwardly oblique to subcosta, incurved to median fold, incurved 
to inner margin, distal edge incurved to vein 7, excurved to vein 5, excurved to 
vein 2, excurved to inner margin, with a fuscous black spot where it crosses 
vein 2 ; reniform indicated by a very small warm sepia spot ; subterminal area 
tinged with fuscous in which there is an almost straight, fuscous black fascia, 
edged with warm sepia, and a small fuscous spot tinged with warm sepia at apex. 
Hindwing white, slightly opalescent, with fuscous on costa and termen, gradually 

decreasing in width toward tornus. Underside : forewing fuscous ; hindwing 

same as upperside. 

Expanse 26 mm. (Tip to tip 24 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Montalban, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
21. i. 1914. 

Nearest ally. — B. tetragramma Hmpsn. (Fiji). 

33. Risoba ornata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus pinkish buff with livid brown outwardly. Antenna fascicu- 
late. Head : frons pinkish buff, a lateral livid brown spot, vertex pinkish buff. 
Thorax : patagium pinkish buff mixed with tawny, tegula pinkish buff. Abdo- 
men pinkish buff above and beneath, a small tuft at base dorsally tipped with 
tawny, anal tuft pinkish buff tinged with tawny. Pectus pinkish buff. Legs : 
foreleg pinkish buff with blackish brown above, tarsal segments blackish brown, 
pinkish buff at joints, other legs pinkish buff, tarsal segments blackish brown, 

pinkish buff at joints. Forewing cartridge-buff, tinged with dark olive-buff 

along costa, tinged with pinkish cinnamon in and below cell, a bone-brown 
patch subbasally from costa to subcosta where it is bent outwardly ; medially 
a shaded bone-brown mark outwardly oblique, from apex to inner margin ; an 
oblique white streak, wide at commencement, gradually narrowing and becoming 
tinged with pinkish cinnamon near inner margin ; area beyond olive-buff tinged 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 19 

with bone-brown near apex, suffused with pinkish cinnamon between veins 
3 and 6, below vein 3 tinged with bone-brown, in which is a white patch on inner 
margin near tomus ; postmedial fascia bone-brown, crenulate, incomplete (points 
distad), a white spot on each point on veins 2 to 6, interneural bone-brown spots 
on termen. Hindwing light-buff, with a tinge of livid brown in subterminal 

area, fringe light buff. Underside : forewing light buff on costa, termen and 

inner margin, remainder tinged with livid brown ; hindwing light buff irrorated 
with livid brown below costa and on subterminal area. 

Expanse 32 mm. (Tip to tip 31 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Sapiangao, subprov. Benguet, Luzon 1., Philippine Is., 
5,600 ft., 16.xii.1918. 

Paratype. Male. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 8.xi.l912. 

Nearest ally. — R. basalis Moore (India, Ceylon, Singapore, Formosa). 

Subfamily WESTERMANNIINAE. 

34. Aiteta olivana sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus brownish olive, light buff beneath at base. Antenna ciliated, 
with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex brownish olive. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula brownish olive. Abdomen fuscous, venter and anal tuft cartridge- 
buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs light-buff speckled with fuscous above, 

tarsal segments fuscous above, cartridge-buff at joints. Forewing : upper 

half light buff tinged with avellaneous, lower half blackish brown tinged with 
brownish olive ; a large brownish olive, almost semicircular patch, edged with 
a narrow line of cartridge-buff, occupying the central third of costa, and extending 
downward to the anal vein, in the centre of patch the reniform is indicated by 
a blackish brown spot ; subterminal area tinged with blackish brown, in which 
is a fascia of brownish olive, outwardly oblique to vein 6, then wavy to termen. 
Hindwing cartridge-buff, blackish brown below costa, on subterminal area and 

on veins. Underside : forewing fuscous, avellaneous on costa, cartridge-buff 

at base, tinged with brownish olive in cell, avellaneous near apex ; hindwing 
cartridge-buff, blackish brown below costa, on subterminal area, and on veins. 

Expanse 38 mm. (Tip to tip 30 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male, but paler in colouring. 

Expanse 38 mm. (Tip to tip 36 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 12. i. 1912. 

Allotype. Female. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
5,000 ft., 10. vi. 1913. 

Nearest ally. — A. trigoniphora Hmpsn. (Assam). 

35. Carea subvia sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus cinnamon-brown, tinged with vinaceous russet. Antenna 
bifasciculate. Head : frons and vertex cinnamon-brown. Thorax : patagium 
cinnamon-brown, tegula cinnamon-brown tinged with vinaceous russet. Abdo- 
men vinaceous russet above and beneath, with a patch of fuscous at base dorsally, 
bordered laterally with cartridge-buff, anal tuft warm buff. Pectus cartridge- 



20 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

buff tinged with vinaceous russet. Legs : foreleg vinaceous russet, with cartridge- 
buff above on tibia and tarsus, midleg inwardly cartridge-buff, outwardly 
vinaceous russet, mixed with fuscous on tibia, hindleg cartridge-buff tinged with 
vinaceous russet, a long tuft of warm-buff and cartridge-buff hairs from the inside 

of tibia, just below femur. Forewing cinnamon-brown with a shading of 

pale drab-grey medially ; an outwardly oblique cinnamon-brown fascia, bordered 
by pale drab-grey proximally, from costa antemedially to inner margin medially : 
postmedial fascia cinnamon-brown, bordered distally by pale drab-grey, outwardly 
oblique to vein 6, where it is bent, and only slightly oblique to inner margin ; 
subterminal fascia a series of fuscous black dots, a shading of fuscous black at 
apex, fringe fuscous black edged with vinaceous russet. Hindwing vinaceous 

russet with fuscous hair-scales along inner margin. Underside : forewing 

vinaceous russet, a fuscous black patch at apex ; hindwing cartridge-buff, 
vinaceous russet on upper half, irrorated with fuscous black near apex. 

Expanse 40 mm. (Tip to tip 38 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male, but deeper in colouring, the forewing almost a 
blackish brown. 

Expanse 40 mm. (Tip to tip 38 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 30. vi. 1913. 

Allotype. Female. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 26.vii.1913. 

Paratype. Female. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 27.vii.1913. 

Nearest ally. — C. obvia Hmpsn. (Philippines). 

36. Carea carissima sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus liver-brown. Antenna minutely biciliated. Head : Irons 
with a smooth corneous plate, bone-brown above, vertex bone-brown. Thorax : 
patagium bone-brown, tegula pallid vinaceous drab, a patch of warm buff edged 
with bone-brown and a small tuft of white each side on metathorax. Abdomen 
pallid vinaceous drab tinged with liver-brown, a white tuft at base dorsally, 
venter and anal tuft white. Pectus white. Legs white inwardly, liver-brown 
outwardly, an oblique band of white round centre of tibiae, and at junction 

with tarsi, all tarsal segments liver-brown, white at joints. Forewing pallid 

vinaceous drab ; subbasal fascia a wide shade of vinaceous brown, slightly 
excurved from costa to median fold ; area below cell, between subbasal and 
antemedial fasciae vinaceous brown ; antemedial fascia vinaceous brown, bordered 
by pallid vinaceous drab, incurved to subcosta, incurved to median nervure, 
excurved to anal vein, excurved to inner margin ; orbicular a blackish brown 
spot, reniform a blackish brown lunule, surrounded by a tinge of warm buff ; 
area from antemedial to just beyond postmedial fasciae vinaceous brown ; 
postmedial fascia blackish brown, bordered distally by pale drab-grey the same 
width as fascia, straight to subcosta, excurved to vein 5, incurved to vein 4, two 
small incurves to vein 2, angled and longitudinal, again angled and outwardly 
oblique to inner margin ; subterminal area pallid vinaceous drab, subterminal 
fascia blackish brown, in two short excurves, then straight to tornus, bordered 
proximally with white, termen blackish brown. Hindwing : cartridge-buff 
tinged with liver-brown near apex, on veins and termen. Underside : fore- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV ■ 192ft. 21 

wing white tinged with liver-brown, two white patches on costa ; hindwing 
white in-orated with liver-brown below costa on basal half, ternien liver-brown. 

Expanse 32 mm. (Tip to tip 30 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Kolambugan, subprov. Lanao, Mindanao I., Philippine 
Is. (plains), 21. vi. 1914. 

Nearest ally. — C. albopurpurea Hmpsn. (Assam). 

37. Orthocraspis rectitermen sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna minutely 
biciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex light buff, with a fuscous 
black tuft projecting forward between the bases of antennae. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula light buff, with a few fuscous black specks. Abdomen light buff, 
venter cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs : foreleg cartridge-buff 

with fuscous above and outwardly, other legs cartridge-buff. Forewing : 

light buff tinged with fuscous, with a few scattered fuscous black specks ; three 
light buff longitudinal stripes, occupying the width of the wing, the upper one, 
from costa just before middle, slightly down-curved to near termen ; the middle 
one, from costa at base, not curved as much as the upper one, to near middle of 
termen ; the lower one straight from base to near tornus. Hindwing cartridge- 
buff, tinged fuscous along termen and inne margin. Underside : forewing 

cartridge-buff, with a fuscous streak below costa, and a fuscous spot on disco- 
cellulars, another near apex ; hindwing cartridge-buff, irrorated with fuscous, 
a fuscous spot on discocellulars, another near apex. 

Expanse 34 mm. (Tip to tip 32 mm.) 

The paratype is larger and has, in addition to other markings, a prominent 
fuscous-black spot on discocellulars of fore wing. 

Expanse 36 mm. (Tip to tip 35 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is.. 
5,000 ft., 18.iii.1912. 

Paratype. Female. — Baguio, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I.. Philippine Is., 
5,000 ft., 3.xi.l912. 

Nearest ally. — O. acypera Hmpsn. (Bali, Phili2>pines). 

Subfamily CATOCALINAE. 

38. Anophiodes pulchrilinea sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus mars-brown, fuscous at base of second segment Antenna 
minutely ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex mars-brown. 
Thorax : patagium blackish brown edged with mars-brown, tegula blackish 
brown mixed with mars-brown. Abdomen light buff, lightly tinged with fuscous 
above and beneath, anal tuft warm buff. Pectus fuscous. Legs : foreleg fuscous, 
tibia mars-brown, other legs fuscous, all tarsal segments blackish brown, light 
buff at joints. Forewing : mars-brown, overlaid with blackish-brown, sub- 
basal fascia blackish brown, bordered with russet, wavy to median fold ; ante- 
medial fascia blackish brown, bordered with russet, outwardly oblique to sub- 
costa, inwardly oblique to median nervure, excurved to anal vein, again excurved 
to inner margin ; orbicular indicated by a blackish brown spot surrounded by 
russet, reniform stigma russet, surrounded by a narrow blackish brown line, 



22 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

outlined with light buff, two blackish brown rings below reniform, the one 
between median nervure and vein 2, the other between vein 2 and anal vein ; 
j lost medial fascia consisting of two blackish brown lines, in a large excurve to 
anal vein, then excurved to inner margin, where there is a speck of white ; sub- 
terminal fascia light buff bordered proximally by a band of russet, which com- 
mences below apex, crosses fascia at vein 7, touching fascia to just below vein 2, 
where it separates and is slightly curved inwards ; a longitudinal streak of russet 
from reniform to subterminal fascia, two patches of russet and light buff on 
termen, the one near apex, the other between veins 3 and 4. Hindwing white, 
tinged with fuscous at base and on inner margin, fuscous on subterminal area, 
a white patch in centre, white on termen near apex and near tornus. Under- 
side : forewing white, suffused with fuscous, a band of white across the middle 
of wing edged with fuscous proximalh', a cartridge-buff subterminal fascia and 
two patches of cartridge-buff on termen ; hindwing : basal half white, tinged 
with fuscous below costa, distal half fuscous, white in centre, and on termen near 
apex and tornus. 

Expanse. 44. (Tip to tip 42 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., l.xii.1912. 

Paratypes. Female. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 29. xi. and 8.xii. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — A. meeki Beth. -Baker (New Guinea). 

Subfamily DIPHTHERINAE. 

39. Elydnodes ornata sp.n. 

Male. — Palpus light-buff, with blackish brown above. Antenna bifasciculate. 
Head : frons and vertex light buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula light buff, ' 
tinged with sepia. Abdomen light-buff above and beneath. Pectus light buff. 
Legs : foreleg light buff, tinged with dark greyish olive, other legs light buff, 
with hairs on tibiae tinged with dark greyish olive. Forewing : cartridge- 
buff at base, subbasal fascia blackish brown, proximal edge straight, sharply 
defined, distal edge suffused into ground-colour, from the upper half a streak to 
costa antemedially, from the lower half a wide shade of dark greyish olive on 
inner margin to about one half ; antemedial fascia a narrow blackish brown line, 
bordered proximally by cartridge-buff, distally by a suffusion of greyish olive 
and dark greyish olive, inwardly oblique from subcosta to median nervure, angled 
and outwardly oblique to inner margin ; orbicular sepia stigma outlined with 
cartridge-buff and blackish brown, reniform a sepia lunule outlined proximally 
with cartridge-buff and blackish brown touching orbicular, distally by light 
buff ; medially a blackish brown shade ; from apex an oblique line to inner 
margin at about a third, the first half a clearly defined division between two 
colours, the second half a fuscous shade, above this line a long cartridge-buff 
patch from reniform to apex, the upper edge suffused with greyish olive, below 
this line the postmedial fascia commences, a blackish brown, crenulate, excurved 
line (points distad), joining antemedial fascia on inner margin ; at commence- 
ment of postmedial fascia two sepia dashes tinged with blackish brown to near 
termen bordered distally with light buff ; a suffusion of sepia on termen just 
below apex, cartridge-buff on veins 3 to 0. Hindwing light-buff suffused with 



NoVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 



23 



warm buff, tinged with fuscous in subterminal area. Underside : forewing 

light buff, a blackish brown patch in distal half of cell, surrounded by a tinge of 
sepia, postmedial fascia faintly marked, termen tinged with sepia, with white 
points at ends of veins ; hindwing light buff, a blackish brown patch on disco- 
cellulars, postmedial fascia blackish brown faintly marked. 

Expanse 36 mm. (Tip to tip 34 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 17. iv. 1912. 

Paratype. Male.— Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 6.iv.l912. 

Nearest ally. — E. variegata Leech (China). 

Subfamily PHYTOMETRINAE. 
40. Phytometra luzonensis sp.n. 

Female.— Palpus light buff tinged with warm sepia. Antenna minutely 
ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex light buff tinged with warm 
sepia, with a small white tuft at base of each antenna, occiput light buff. Thorax : 
patagium warm sepia, with a band of blackish brown across centre, narrowly 
edged with white posteriorly, tegula warm sepia. Abdomen warm sepia, with 
a fuscous tuft at base dorsally, venter light buff mixed with warm sepia. Pectus 
warm buff. Legs clothed with blackish brown scales and hair-scales tipped with 

white, tarsal segments fuscous, white at joints. Forewing warm sepia tinged 

with blackish brown, which in certain lights has a metallic bronze sheen ; sub- 
basal fascia a wavy, brassy-metallic line, antemedial fascia consisting of two 
wavy, brassy-metallic lines ; below distal half of cell two silver spots with a 
brassy-metallic edge, the proximal one nearly U-shaped, the distal one circular ; 
a suffusion of blackish brown beyond cell ; postmedially a wavy sepia shade 
followed by a long white patch reaching from costa to vein 3, in which is a wavy, 
warm sepia line nearest the proximal edge ; subterminal fascia wavy, blackish 
brown defined by white, which, between veins 5 and 6, forms a wedge of white in 
fascia ; terminal line sepia, interneural blackish-brown spots on termen, fringe 

white and blackish brown mixed. Hindwing fuscous. Underside : fore- 

and hindwings cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous on basal half, suffused with 
fuscous on distal half. 

Expanse 36 mm. (Tip to tip 34 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Haight's Place, Pauai, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., 
Philippine Is., 7,000 ft., 25. vi. 1913. 

Nearest ally. — P. chalcytes Esper (Europe, Asia, Australia, Polynesia). 

Subfamily OPHIDERINAE. 1 

41. Belciana bicolor sp.n. 

Male.— Palpus fuscous. Antenna minutely ciliated. Head : frons upper 
half mytho-green, lower half fuscous, vertex fuscous, occiput whitish. Thorax : 
patagium fuscous, edged with mytho-green posteriorly, tegula mytho-green, 
fuscous anteriorly. Abdomen cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous above and 
beneath, a patch of mytho-green at base dorsally, anal tuft fuscous. Pectus 

1 Formerly Noctuinae. 



24 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

cartridge-buff. Legs cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous, mytho-green on fore- 
tibia, tarsal segments fuscous, cartridge-buff at joints. Forewing whitish, 

overlaid with mytho-green, subbasally a fuscous patch on costa, narrowing and 
angled at median nervure, inwardly oblique to anal vein ; antemedial fascia a 
wavy fuscous line ; medially, on costa a triangular fuscous patch, the point 
just below subcosta, from which is a fascia, excurved to vein 2, excurved to anal 
vein, excurved to inner margin ; postmedial fascia fuscous, wavy to vein 3, 
inwardly oblique to vein 2, slightly excurved to inner margin ; a large fuscous 
patch at apex, and a small one at tornus, interneural fuscous spots on termen. 
Hindwing cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous at base, suffused with fuscous on 

distal half. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous on upper 

half, postmedial fascia fuscous, ill-defined, subterminal area suffused with 
fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous, postmedial and subterminal 
fasciae fuscous, fuscous lunule on discocellulars. 

Expanse 34 mm. (Tip to tip 33 mm.) 

Female. — Similar to male. 

Expanse 43 mm. (Tip to tip 41 mm.) 

Holotype. Male. — Kolambugan, subprov. Lanao, Mindanao I., Philippine 
Is. (plains), 25. v. 1914. 

Allotype. Female. — Kolambugan, subprov. Lanao, Mindanao I., Philippine 
Is. (plains), 29. v. 1914. 

Nearest ally. — B. biformis Wlk. (Singapore, Borneo). 

42. Catephia philippinensis sp.n. 
Female. — Palpus fuscous-black, cartridge-buff below and at joints. Antenna 
minutely ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex cartridge-buff 
tinged with fuscous, a fuscous band below the bases of antennae. Thorax : 
patagium and tegula cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous, a large tuft of fuscous 
on metathorax. Abdomen fuscous with dorsal crests, venter light buff, anal 
tuft light buff tinged with fuscous. Pectus light-buff. Legs : fore- and mid- 
legs light buff mixed with fuscous, tarsal segments fuscous black, light buff at 

joints ; hindleg light buff, tarsal segments fuscous black, light buff at joints. 

Forewing fuscous, subbasal fascia blackish brown, wavy to anal vein ; antemedial 
fascia blackish brown, wavy, ill-defined ; orbicular a small light buff spot outlined 
with blackish brown ; reniform a white oblique stigma tinged with fuscous on 
proximal edge, a suffusion of white, forming a band from costa medially, down- 
curved, passing reniform, to termen at veins 3 and 4 ; postmedial fascia an ill- 
defined, excurved, crenulate, blackish brown line ; subterminal fascia a cartridge- 
buff, wavy line, a small white spot near tornus, interneural blackish brown spots 
on termen. Hindwing : basal half white, distal half fuscous, white on fringe 

just below apex and near tornus. Underside : forewing, basal third white 

tinged with fuscous, a white band across centre, distal third fuscous, white on 
termen ; hindwing similar. 

Expanse 26 mm. (Tip to tip 25 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 11. hi. 1912. 

Paratypes. Females. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 15. and 22.iii.1912. 

Nearest ally. — C. sciachroa Hmpsn. (Ceylon, Philippines). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1029. 25 

This species appears to be variable, the area below the cell, between the 
ante- and postmedial fasciae in one instance, is much darker than in the others, 
forming a blackish brown patch. 

Neogabara gen. nov. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpus obliquely upturned, the second segment 
not reaching vertex of head, thickly scaled and dilated at extremity, third 
segment short and thickly scaled ; frons smooth ; eye large, round ; antenna 
of female ciliated, with paired setae ; thorax clothed almost entirely with scales 
and without crests ; the tibiae smoothly scaled ; abdomen with a dorsal crest 
at base only. Forewing with the termen evenly curved and not crenulate ; a 
series of scale-teeth on inner margin ; vein 3 from near angle of cell ; 4, 5 from 
angle ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 
7 from beyond the areole : 11 from cell. Hindwing with the cell two-thirds the 
length of wing ; veins 3, 4 from angle ; 5 fully developed from well above angle ; 
6, 7 shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

Genotype : Neogabara plagiola sp.n. 

Having found it impossible to fit this species into any of the existing genera, 
we have erected the genus Neogabara. It is closely allied to Paragabara Hmpsn., 
which, however, has the palpus reaching the vertex of head, the forefemora of 
male with a tuft of curved hair at extremity, the midtibia dilated with a fold 
containing a tuft of long hair, veins 3 and 5 of forewing near angle of cell, 6 and 7 
of hindwing from upper angle. 

43. Neogabara plagiola sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus cartridge-buff inwardly, wood-brown outwardly. Antenna 
minutely ciliated, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex wood-brown. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula wood-brown. Abdomen wood-brown, venter 
cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs cartridge-buff, wood-brown out- 
wardly, fuscous on tarsal segments. Forewing wood-brown irrorated with 

blackish brown and dark purple-drab, giving the wing a purple sheen in certain 
lights ; antemedial fascia russet, slightly wavy, with a white spot on proximal 
edge below median nervure ; postmedial fascia a russet line edged distally with 
blackish brown, slightly excurved to vein 6, oblique to inner margin, with two 
white spots on distal edge, a small one above vein 2, a larger, triangular one, 
below vein 2 ; termen russet with interneural blackish brown spots. Hindwing 
fuscous. Underside : fore- and hindwings cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous. 

Expanse 26 mm. (Tip to tip 24 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Kolambugan, subprov. Lanao, Mindanao I., Philippine 
Is. (plains), 21. vi. 1914. 

44. Oglasa incurvata sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus fuscous, drab-grey at tip. Antenna minutely ciliated. 
Head : frons drab-grey and bone-brown mixed, vertex drab-grey speckled with 
bone-brown. Thorax : patagium drab-grey speckled with bone-brown, edged 
inwardly with bone-brown forming a median line, tegula drab-grey. Abdomen 
drab-grey tinged with fuscous above and beneath. Pectus drab-grey. Legs 
drab-grey tinged with fuscous. Forewing drab-grey irrorated with bone- 



26 X..V1TATES Zoolockae XXXV. 1929. 

brown, antemedial fascia a fine bone-brown line, commencing with a small patch 
on costa, incurved to subcosta, excurved to anal vein, excurved to inner margin ; 
medially on costa a triangular bone-brown patch, the point touching an elongate 
blackish brown patch in distal half of cell, from the distal edge of triangular 
patch, a fine bone-brown line, excurved round the distal end of blackish brown 
patch, then incurved to inner margin ; postmedial fascia a fine bone-brown line, 
outwardly oblique to vein 6, angled and inwardly oblique to vein 5, excurved 
to vein 2, incurved to inner margin ; beyond postmedial on costa, a semicircular 
bone-brown patch, with three drab-grey points on costa, a small bone-brown 
spot near costa, a suffusion of fuscous in subterminal area, interneural bone-brown 

spots on termen. Hindwing drab-grey, suffused with fuscous. Underside : 

forewing drab-grey, suffused with fuscous, with drab-grey on costa near apex, 
antemedial and postmedial fasciae faintly marked ; hindwing drab-grey, irrorated 
with fuscous below costa and on subterminal area, antemedial and postmedial 
fasciae faintly marked. 

Expanse 26 mm. (Tip to tip 25 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Klondyke, subprov. Benguct, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
800 ft., 16. v. 1912. 

Nearest ally. — O. captata Butl. (India). 

45. Oglasa contigua sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus cartridge-buff, fuscous black on second segment out- 
wardly and above. Antenna minutely ciliated, with paired setae. Head : 
frons and vertex cartridge-buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula light buff 
tinged with pale ochraceous buff. Abdomen pale ochraceous buff above and 
beneath, anal tuft warm buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs : fore and midlegs 
cartridge-buff, with fuscous on tibiae outwardly, hindleg cartridge-buff, tinged 
with pale ochraceous buff, all tarsal segments fuscous, cartridge-buff at joints. 

Forewing : pale ochraceous buff, two small fuscous black spots on costa, 

one at base, the other antemedially ; two triangular fuscous black patches on 
costa, with the apex produced and bent outwardly, one medially, the other sub- 
terminally ; a patch of fuscous and fuscous black on the middle third of inner 
margin followed by white, the upper edge being just above the anal vein ; 
reniform faintly outlined with fuscous and defined by cartridge-buff ; from the 
apex of subterminal patch on eosta, a wavy fascia of fuscous bordered by white ; 
interneural spots of fuscous preceded by white on termen. Hindwing cartridge- 
buff tinged with fuscous near apex. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff, 

tinged with fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff, irrorated with fuscous below 
costa and at apex. 

Expanse 31 mm. (Tip to tip 30 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. — Montalban, prov. Rizal, Luzon I., Philippine Is., 
14. iv. 1914. 

Nearest ally. — O. separata Wlk. (India). 

46. Plecoptera costinotata sp.n. 

Female. — Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna minutely ciliated, with paired 
setae. Head : frons and vertex pinkish buff, tinged with ochraceous orange. 
Thorax : patagium pinkish buff, tinged with ochraceous orange, tegula pinkish- 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 27 

buff. Abdomen light buff above and beneath, anal tuft pinkish buff. Pectus 

light-buff. Legs pinkish buff. Forewing pinkish buff, a fuscous patch in cell 

at distal end, with a fuscous suffusion above reaching to costa, increasing to twice 
the width of patch at costa, the suffusion more strongly marked on the edges. 
Hindwing cartridge-buff, postmedial fascia a fine, faintly marked, fuscous line ; 

a faint fuscous border subterminally. Underside : forewing light buff, a 

faint fuscous spot on discocellulars, and a fuscous fascia subterminally from vein 
6 to near tornus ; hindwing light buff, a faint fuscous spot on discocellulars, 
a faintly marked postmedial fascia. 

Expanse 26 mm. (Tip to tip 25 mm.) 

Holotype. Female. Klondyke, subprov, Benguet, Luzon I., Philippine 

Is., 1,300 ft., 23.xii.1911. 

Nearest ally. — P. flava Brem. (China, Assam, India). 



28 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



NOTES ON NOKTH AMERICAN FLEAS. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With Plates I and II.) 

THE types of the species of fleas described by Baker being nearly all in the 
*■ United States National Museum at Washington, D.C., I went in 1927 to 
that institute for the purpose of comparing the types and making drawings of 
such detail as is necessary for the recognition of the species. The following 
notes and descriptions embody some of the results of that visit. 

l. Ceratophyllus pseudarctomys Baker (1904). 

0. pseudarctomys Baker. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvii. pp. 387, 399. tab. 24, figs. 1-7 (1904) (New 

Port, Herkimer Co., N.Y., <J <?? off Arctomys monax). 
C. acasti Rothschild, Nov. F /.>»il. xii. p. 168. tab. 7. figs. 19. 20 (1905) (" Quesnel, B.C.", ? off Sciuro- 

pterus sahrinus). 

The single $ from which C. acasti was described agrees with that sex of 
C. pseudarctomys. The locality of C. acasti was said to be Quesnel ; but as all 
our other specimens from British Columbia belong to the next species, while 
those from Alberta and New York State are G. pseudarctomys, there is every reason 
to suspect an error in locality. The normal hosts of C. pseudarctomys seem to 
be Flying Squirrels. 

2. Ceratophyllus vesperalis spec. nov. (PI. I, figs. 1, 2). 

Close to C. pseudarctomys, but easily distinguished by the tail-ends : 

cJ\ On sternite VII the dense bunch of long bristles found in C. pseudarctomys 
is represented in the new species by a much smaller number of bristles, the seg- 
ment bearing on each side about 8 to 10 ventral and subventral bristles. Sternite 
VIII claviform, with some long bristles at the apex. The projection of the clasper 
which bears the two long acetabular bristles quite short (fig. 1). Exopodite F 
almost straight, with the anterior and posterior sides nearly parallel from the 
lower spiniform bristle to the apex ; lower spiniform straight, longer than F is 
broad, above it a short, pointed, spiniform, and at apex a large, almost sabre- 
shaped spiniform which ends with a thin point. Segments I and II of hind 
tarsus with some very long and thin apical bristles. 

$. Dorsal portion of apical margin of sternite VII (figs. 2, a, b) produced 
as a rounded lobe of variable dimensions, the lobe projecting beyond the rest 
of the margin. Spermatheca longer than in C. pseudarctomys. 

Hab. British Columbia : Okanagan and Okanagan Landing, off Sciuropterus 
alpinus ; a series collected by J. A. Munro. 

:*. Ceratophyllus leucopus Baker (1904). 

$. C. leucopus Baker, I.e. pp. 387, 401 (1904) (Peterborough. N.Y., 1 $ off Peromyscus leucopus). 
(J?. C. aeger Rothschild, I.e. xii. p. 166, no. 10. tab. 6. figs. 5, 7, 9 (1905) (Red Deer, Alberta, <?<?$? 
on Peromyscus arclicus and Evolomys saturatus) ; Jord., ibid, xxxiv. p. 179 (1928) (C. aeger = 
C. leucopus). 

Identified from the types of C. leucopus and C. aeger. 
Near C. wickliami Baker (1895). In both sexes the first segment of the 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 29 

maxillary palpus is a little longer than the second, and the proboscis does not 
reach to the apex of the forecoxa. 

Sternite VIII of $ distally smooth, gradually pointed and curved upwards, 
without the apical filamentiferous flap which is present in all the allied species. 
Common and of wide distribution, from Alberta and Arizona eastward to the 
Atlantic, probably everywhere in the Middle and Eastern States, on Peromyscus 
leucopus, its normal host. 

4. Ceratophyllus labiatus Baker (1904). 

$. C. labiatus Baker, I.e. pp. 387, 402. tab. 19, figs. 6-9 (1904) (Moscow, Idaho, 1 $ on Lynx canadensis). 

I was not able to identify this flea from the original description and figures. 
Some of the details given pointed to the neighbourhood of C. wicklmmi, where 
Baker placed it, but the statement that there were two rows of bristles on the 
pronotum was against such a position in the genus. I was inclined to assume 
that Baker made a mistake in assigning two rows to the pronotum, and the type- 
specimen at Washington shows indeed the pronotum pushed so far into the 
head that the subapical row of bristles of the head looks as if it belonged to 
the thorax. The pronotum bears only one row, as in the allied species. 

Baker lays some stress on the presence of spiniform bristles on tergite VIII. 
He says that " the lower lateral portion of the eighth segment bears a number 
of normal bristles and also about seven short, stout, dark-coloured bristles which 
are almost spines, in this latter respect differing widely from any nearly related 
species." The spiniform bristles thus described are placed on the inner surface 
of the segment, there being 4 on one side of the body and 5 on the other. Such 
bristles are present in all sjjecies of Ceratophyllus, and they will be found to be 
as variable in G. labiatus as they are elsewhere. 

The relationship of G. labiatus is with G. caedens Jord. (1925) on the one hand, 
and G. nepos Roths. (1905) on the other. The lobes of sternite VII are nearly 
as long as in C. nepos, and the lower lobe bears a brownish ridge on the inside 
as in C. caedens caedens. As only a single $ of G. labiatus is known, it is advisable 
to assume for the present that it represents a species distinct from the others of 
the wickhami-group. 

4. Ceratophyllus caedens durus subsp. nov. (fig. 3, a-g). 

Differs particularly in the $. Whereas in C. caedens caedens Jord. (1925), 
described from Alberta specimens, sternite VII of the $ is divided into a short 
upper lobe and a broader and somewhat longer lower one, the latter bearing a 
conspicuous longitudinal, curved ridge on the inner side, the segment is devoid 
of this ridge in C. c. durus and varies from being entire to being divided into two 
long lobes as illustrated by figs. Sa-g (fig. 3c from type of durus). 

In the rj the exopodite usually bears 4 spiniforms, rarely 5 on one exopodite 
and 4 on the other ; in C. c. caedens there are usually 5 spiniforms, rarely 4 on 
both exopodites and equally rarely 4 on one and 5 on the other. 

Hab. British Columbia: type ($) from Okanagan, 16. ii. 1917. mi 1'nlorius 
arizonensis ; Blucher Hall, viii.1910, on Sciurus richardsoni ; Mara Lake, 
xi.1902, on Sciurus hudsonius ; Kelowna, viii.1919, on Mustela; and from 
some other localities in British Columbia ; all collected by Messrs. Brooks, 



30 NOVITATES ZoOLOtJICAE XXXV. 1929. 

Frazer, Gregson, Garrett and Tate. All our British Columbian specimens belong 
here, and all our numerous Albertan examples are C. c. caedens. 

5. Ceratophyllus sexdentatus Baker (1904). 
All the various fleas which I unite here as subspecies of C. sexdentatus differ 
from C. imckhami Baker (1895), C. leucopus Baker (1904), C. nepos Roths. (1905), 
C. labiatus Baker (1904), C. caedens Jord. (1925) and C. Mens Jord. (1925) in 
the end-segment of the proboscis being shorter than the two preceding segments 
together, in the median bristle of the occiput being reduced in size and not accom- 
panied by a small bristle (which, in the allied species, is placed obliquely above it), 
in the hindcoxa bearing 1 to 3 bristles on the inner surface towards the apex, 
and in the spiniforms of the exopodite being drawn out into a shorter point 
than in the cJc? of the allied species. Normal host : Neotoma, but often found 
on Carnivora preying on Neotoma. 

(a) C. sexdentatus sexdentatus Baker (1904). 

C, sexdentatus Baker, I.e. xxvii. pp. 387, 403. tab. 24, figs. 8-14 (1904) (Boulder Creek, Cal., on 
Neotoma). 

In the o the proximal angle of the anterior lobe of sternite IX is strongly 
rounded, and the apex of this sternite rotundate-truncate. The exopodite 
bears from 5 to 7 spiniforms. 

In the $ sternite VII divided by a deep sinus into a long and narrow upper 
lobe and a broader lower one, the latter being triangular in lateral aspect. 

Hab. Coast Range of California ; on Neotoma. 

(b) C. sexdentatus nevadensis subsp. nov. (PI. I, fig. 4). 

The c? close to C. s. agilis, the $ not constantly different from G. s. sexdentatus. 

(J. Anterior lobe of sternite IX ventrally straight, longer than in G. s. 
sexdentatus, the spiniform placed beyond the middle of this lobe and the distal 
bristle at the curve of the distal margin ; the apical lobe of sternite IX nearly 
evenly rounded at the apex, not rotundate-truncate. Exopodite with 5 spini- 
forms, sometimes four on one side. 

$. Sinus of sternite VII deep, as a rule extending nearer to the row of bristles 
than in C. s. sexdentatus ; upper lobe narrow, sometimes widened at apex. 

Hab. California : Pine City, Mono Co., vii. 1922, 3 S6 and 5 $? on Mustela 
arizonensis, collected by A. B. Howell. 

(c) C. sexdentatus agilis Roths. (1905). 

C. agilis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xii. p. 167. no. 11. tab. 7. figs. 16-18 (1905) (Alberta ; Brit. Columbia). 

<J. Anterior lobe of sternite IX as in C. s. nevadensis, but the spiniform 
more or less median, and the distal bristle at some distance from the curve of the 
margin. Exopodite with 5 to 7 spiniforms. 

$. Sinus of sternite VII very variable, but rarely as deep as in the two 
previous subspecies, the lobes variable in width and length, both present in all 
our specimens. 

Hab. British Columbia and Alberta, probably also farther south, on Neotoma, 
accidentally on Sciurus, Ochotona and Putorius. The type-specimen from Banff, 
off Neotoma cinerea. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 31 

{d) C. sexdentatus schisintus subsp. nov. (PI. I, fig. 5). 
Apparently differs in the $ only : the upper lobe of sternite VII broad and 
short, the lower one absent or quite short. Exopodite of $ with 5 or 6 spiniforms. 
Hab. Arizona, a series off Neotoma, collected by 0. C. Duffner ; type $. 

(e) C. sexdentatus pennsylvanicus Jord. (1928). 

Cf. Nov. Zool. xxxiv. p. 184. no. 8. text-figs. 8, 9 (1928) (Rolling Rock, Pa., and Potomac, Va.). 
Hab. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, on Neotoma pennsylvanica. 

6. Ceratophyllus petiolatus Baker (1904). 

<?. C. petiolatus Baker, I.e. pp. 388, 415. tab. 18, figs. 8-11 (1904) (Moscow, Idaho, 1 <J off Lynx 
canadensis ; not fig. 7, which belongs to C. idahoensis). 

<J. Sternite VIII differs from that segment of all other species. It is about 
three times as long as broad, apically rounded (in lateral aspect) and here mem- 
braneous, this apical portion being densely studded with minute spicules which 
point downward ; proximally of this membraneous area there is a bristle on 
each side. 

$. Sternite VII of the $ dimorphic ; it is either strongly rounded and broad, 
or is reduced in width from above, the dorsal margin, in the latter case, being 
almost parallel with the ventral margin, and the apex truncate-subsinuate. 

Hab. Idaho and British Columbia ; on Tliomomys and accidentally on Lynx 
canadensis. 

7. Ceratophyllus arizonensis Baker (1898). 

(J. Pulex arizonensis Baker, Journ. N. York Enl. Soc. vi. p. 55 (1898) (Tucson, Arizona, 1 * off 

" Silvery Mouse "). 
?. Ceratophyllus proximus Baker, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvii. pp. 388, 412. tab. 19. figs. 1-5 (1904) 

(Palm Springs, " S. Calif." error). 
(J. Ceratophyllus arizonensis Baker, ibid. pp. 388, 415. tab. 23, fig. 6. tab. 24. figs. 8-12 (1904) (Tucson, 

on Neotoma albigula). 

The two names refer to the sexes of the same species. Types compared in 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 

8. Ceratophyllus arizonensis littoris subsp. nov. (PI. I, fig. 6). 

$. Like G. a. arizonensis, but the ventral, widened, area of tergite VIII with 
21 bristles on one side and 20 on the other, instead of from 14 to 16 as in G. a. 
arizonensis. Sternite VII essentially as in C. a. arizonensis, its upper angle a 
little more turned up, but this difference probably not constant. 

Hab. California: S. Diego, 1 $ off Gitellus turdicaudatus, 12 . iii . 1914, col- 
lected by F. Stevens. 

9. Ceratophyllus montanus Baker (1895). 

Pulex montanus Baker, Canad. Entom. xxvii. p. 132 (1895) (Colorado, on Sciurus aberti). 
cJ$. Ceratophyllus acutus Baker, Inverlelirata Pacifica, i. p. 40 (1904) (Stanford University, on 
Sperinophilus). 

When describing C. acutus, Baker compared it with C. arizonensis Baker 
(189S) and G. idahoensis Baker (1904), instead of C. montanus. The species is 
widely distributed in the West and individually very variable. 



32 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

10. Ceratophyllus labis J. & R. (1922) (PI. I, fig. 7). 

j.l'. labia Jordan & Roths., Ectoparasites, i. p. 275. no. 7. text-fig. 267 (1922) (,^, nee $ ; Calgary, 
off Pulorius " longicaudatiis "). 

The $ described by us as that sex of C. labis belongs to the new species 
here following. In the true $ of C. labis sternite VII is truncate and bears a 
small, variable, sinus below the upper angle, the chitin being incrassate around 
the base of the sinus ; the segment recalls that of C. arizonensis, but in that 
species the bursa copulatrix is short and upright, whereas in 0. labis it is long, 
with the apex curved down. There is, moreover, in C. labis and allies (C. hirsutus, 
G. bruneri. C. tuberculatus, all Baker 1905) at the base of the blind duct of the 
bursa a sclerification which somewhat resembles the figure 3. 

11. Ceratophyllus rupestris spec. nov. (PI. I, figs. 8, 9). 

$. 0. lahis Jord. & Roths., I.e. p. 275. no. 7. text-fig. 268 (1922) (nee <J ; Calgary, from Pulorius 
" longicaudatiis "). 

Similar to C. arctomys Baker (1905), smaller, the bristles on the whole less 
numerous, the lowest bristle of the posterior row of the abdominal tergite II 
posterior to the stigma, not directly below it. 

o . Process P. of clasper broader than in C. arctomys, the exopodite F broader 
in upper half, more evenly rounded on the anterior side, the notch of the anterior 
margin farther upwards than in C. arctomys. 

$. Sternite VII slightly and almost evenly incurved, the upper angle often 
much less rounded than in our figure. Spermatheca much smaller than in 
C. arctomys. 

Hub. Alberta : Calgary (type), a large series off Pulorius longicauda and 
Spermophilus richardsoni, collected by Messrs. G. F. Dippie and C. Garnett ; also 
from Blackfalls, off Thomomys and Cams (A. D. Gregson), and Dorothy, off 
Thomomys (W. G. Hodgson). Spermophilus probably the true host. C. arctomys 
also occurs in Alberta, on Marmota. 

12. Ceratophyllus idahoensis Baker (1904). 

<J$. C. idahoensis Baker, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvii. pp. 388, 413, tab. 18, figs. 1-7 (1904) (Moscow, 

Idaho, on Citellus columbianus ; figs. " 1-6 " laps. cal.). 
<J?. C. poeanlis Rothschild, Nov. Zool. xii. p. 155. no. 2. tab. 8, figs. 22, 23 (1905) (Alberta, British 

Columbia and Arizona, off Tamias, Spermophilus, Sciurus, Putorius and Marmota ; " PI. VII " 

laps. cal.). 

Some statements in Baker's description misled N. C. Rothschild to create a 
synonym. The frontal tubercle is said to be absent in C. idahoensis, which is 
erroneous, and it is stated of the abdomen that the first two tergites bear small 
apical teeth, while in reality tergites I to IV, sometimes even I to V bear such 
teeth. 

13. Ceratophyllus ignotus ignotus Baker (1895). 

$. Pulex ignotus Baker, Canad. Entom. xxvii. pp. 110. 112 (1895) (Ames, Iowa, host not given). 
q. TyphlopsyUa americana Baker. I.e. pp. 189. 199 (1895) (partim ; Ames, Iowa, on Geonnjs bitrsarins). 

In the N. C. Rothschild collection there is from the Baker collection a £ 
which bears the note on Baker's label : " This was the type of P. ignotus." The 
statement is erroneous, the species having been described by Baker from 2 §$. 
I have examined these two specimens in the U.S. Nat. Mus. ; both slides bear 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1(129. 33 

the remark : " This was the type of P. ignotus." One of them I have selected 
as type and labelled it as such, the second specimen, the paratype, has been 
transferred to Tring. As regards TypMopsylla americana, the above-mentioned 
3 in coll. N. C. R. was selected by us as type in Ectoparasites, i, p. 55 (1915). 
There is in the U.S. Nat. Mus. a second Iowa £, likewise labelled type by Baker. 
This specimen is in good order ; its clasper and exopodite are nearly the same 
as in C. ignotus franciscanus Roths. (1910) and the eighth abdominal sternite 
agrees with our figure in Ectoparasites, text-fig. 57. The seventh sternite of the 
$ is deeply incurved, not truncate. These details will be figured in the Mono- 
graph. A $ in the coll. of the Agricultural Dept. at Cornell is named americana 
by Baker and also labelled type by him ; it came Ames, Iowa, off Geomys 
bursarius, ix. 88. 

14. Ceratophyllus fasciatus Bosc (isol). 

Pulex fasciatus Bosc, Bull. Soc. Philom. iii. 44, p. 156 (1801) (Myoxus nilela). 

$. Ceratophyllus californicus Baker, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvii. pp. 387, 395, tab. 17. figs. 5-8 (1904) 

(Mountain View, Calif., 1 $ on Microtus californicus). 
cj. Ceratophyllus oculatus Baker, 1.0. pp. 387, 396, tab. 19. figs. 10-14 (1904) (Washington, D.O., 

1 $ on Putorius vison). 
?. Ceratophijllus canadensis Baker, I.e. pp. 388, 407. tab. 20. figs. 1-4 (1904) (Ottawa, Canada, 1 $, 

host not known). 

The types of the three Bakerian names are in U.S. Nat. Mus., where I have 
compared them. The specimens undoubtedly belong to C. fasciatus. 

15. Ceratophyllus asio Baker (1904) (PI. I, figs. 10, 11). 

$. C. asio Baker, I.e. xxvii. pp. 388, 406 (1904) (Wellesley, Mass., 1 £ on Megascops asio). 

This is a mouse-flea. Besides the type there is a second specimen in the 
U.S. Nat. Mus., also a $, and the collection of the Entomological Department of 
Cornell University contains a <$ and several $$ obtained on a field-mouse at 
Ithaca. 

The species is allied to C. querini Roths. (1905), C. ivalkeri Roths. (1903), 
C. acerbus Jord. (1925), etc. We figure the exopodite of <J and the outline of 
VII. st. of $. 

16. Ceratophyllus megacolpus spec. nov. (PI. I, fig. 12). 

$. Similar to C. asio Baker (1904), but VII. st. so deeply sinuate that 
the row of long bristles is nearer the apex of the sinus than in C. asio. Pronotum 
as in C. asio with two rows of bristles. Bursa copulatrix with a long glandular 
continuation from which emanates the duct of the spermatheca. 

Hab. British Columbia : Okanagan Landing, 1 $ off Microtus drummondi, 
ix.1912 (E. A. Chapin), in U.S. Nat. Mus. 

17. Ceratophyllus immitis spec. nov. (PI. I, fig. 13). 

$. Nearest to C. acerbus Jord. (1925) ; the end-segment of the proboscis as 
in that species a little longer than the end-segment of the maxillary palpus. 
Sinus of VII. st. much shallower, the lower lobe hardly at all projecting. Below 
the stigma of VIILt. 5 to 8 bristles, of which 3 are long ; farther down 
21 to 24. Duct of spermatheca for the greater part rather strongly chitinised 
and therefore conspicuous, being similar to the duct of *S. abantis Roths. (1905) 

3 



34 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

and S. querini Roths. (1905). In all these species as well as No. 14 and a number 
of others, the stigma-cavity of VIII. t. is very large. 

Hab. Canada: lat. 48045, vi.1846, from Lemming, probably Dicrostonyx 
hudsonius. 

18. Ceratophyllus eumolpi cyrturus subsp. nov. (PI. I, fig. 14). 

(3$. As in G. e. eumolpi Roths. (1905), segments I and II of the (J-midtarsus 
with long thin bristles and the exopodite with three blunt spiniforms, of which 
the upper two are short, the lowest long ; in $ the bursa copulatrix broad and 
spirally rolled up. 

q. Process P of clasper and exopodite broader than in C. e. eumolpi, the 
second spiniform much nearer to the long one than to the short subapical spini- 
form ; apical margin of exopodite much less slanting. Apex of ventral arm of 
IX. st. (fig. 12) produced into a long nose, which is curved down. 

$. The lobe of VII. st less rounded than in C. e. eumolpi, its lower angle 
usually distinct ; spermatheca longer. 

Hab. Arizona : Paradise, 1 <J and 5 ?$ off Mephitis, x. 1913 (O. C. Duffner). 

19. Ceratophyllus ciliatus Baker (1904). 

The exopodite of this species is long, apically dilated posticad and bears on 
this apical projection two short obtuse spiniforms ; the ventral arm of IX. st 
has no membraneous apical flap. Head of spermatheca almost globular, much 
shorter than the tail. VII. st. of $ deeply sinuate, incrassate around the 
apex of the sinus. The surface ridges of the basal abdominal sternite of the $ 
are much more strongly curved backwards in the middle of the segment than in 
any other allied species. 

Three subspecies are known to me : 

(a) C. ciliatus ciliatus Baker (1904). 

<J$. C. ciliatus Baker, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvii. pp. 387, 397, tab. 16, fig. 1-6 (1904) (Mountain 
View, Calif., on Chipmunk). 

I have seen only the pair from which the species was described by Baker. 
In the (J process P of the clasper is broader than in the other two subspecies, and 
the apex of the exopodite less dilated posticad. In this <$ the lower subapical 
spiniform of the left exopodite is prolonged, being about thrice as long as the 
upper spiniform, and its extreme tip is bent down, forming a short hook ; the 
spiniforms of the right exopodite are normal. 

The upper lobe of VII. st. of the $ is evenly rounded and broad, but less 
broad than the lower lobe, which is truncate with the upper angle rounded off ; 
the sinus a narrow sharp incision. 

Hab. California : Mountain View, Santa Cruz Co., on Eutamias townsendi; 
one pair in U.S. Nat. Mus., type o, paratype $, by my selection. 

(6) C. ciliatus protinus subsp. nov. (PI. I, figs. 15, 16). 

(J. The process P of the clasper narrower than in G. c. ciliatus, and the apex 
of the exopodite, though variable, always strongly dilated posticad. 

$. Upper lobe of VII. st. more or less triangular and pointed. 

Hab. British Columbia : a series from various places, type from Sumas, off 
Eutamias townsendi, collected by Allan Brooks ; occurs also on Sciurus hudsonius. 



NOVITATES ZoOLOGIOAE XXXV. l!ll!9. 35 

(c) C. c. mononis subsp. nov. (PI. I, figs. 17, 18). 

cJ. Process P of clasper shorter and narrower than in both previous sub- 
species ; exopodite as much widened at apex as in C. c. protinus, but the angle 
of the anterior margin lower down, being placed below the middle. 

$. Upper lobe of VII. st. very much broader than the lower lobe, its 
apex rounded and the oblique lower margin once feebly incurved ; the lower 
lobe subtriangular in lateral aspect, its dorsal margin rounded. 

Hab. California : Pine City, Mono Co., 1 $ and 2 $$ off Mustela arizonensis 
and Eutamias frater, vii.1922 (A. B. Howell). 

20. Ceratophyllus vison Baker (1904). 

<J$. C. vison Baker, I.e. pp. 388, 408 (1904) (Peterborough, N.Y., on Pulorius vison). 
cJ?. C. lucidus Baker, I.e. pp. 388, 410, tab. 20. figs. 5-9 (1904) (Pagosa Park, Colorado, on Sciurus 
fremonti). 

Baker mentions, in his keys and descriptions, certain differences between 
C. vison and C. lucidus ; but an examination of the types and a series of paratypes 
proves the differences partly to be unreliable and partly to be due to errors of 
observation. We have the species also from Alberta and British Columbia. 

21. Ceratophyllus wagneri Baker (1904). 

A most interesting object for the study of geographical variation. In some 
of the various subspecies the $$ exhibit greater differences than do the 3$. 
The spermatheca is unique in its long subcylindrical head being narrower than 
the tail, the organ recalling a snake or certain Sipunculid worms, such as Aspido- 
siphora and Phascolosoma. The species is restricted to the west of the Continent, 
not being known farther east than New Mexico, Wyoming and Alberta. 

(«) C. wagneri wagneri Baker (1905). 

(J. C. ivagneri Baker, I.e. pp. 387, 405, tab. 15, figs. 3-7 (1905) (Moscow, Idaho, 2 S3 °n Peromyscus 
leucopus and Mus musculus). 

The specimens from British Columbia, Idaho and Wyoming belong to one 
subspecies. The spermatheca is vermiform, the aj>ex of its head not being 
swollen. The duct of the bursa copulatrix is distinctly sclerified for a considerable 
distance ; this conspicuous portion of the duct, which resembles a capital S, is 
about as long as the swollen tail of the spermatheca, being longer than the non- 
sclerified lower portion of the duct of the bursa. VII. st. of $ often with 
small sinus. 

Hab. British Columbia ; Idaho ; Wyoming ; Western Montana ; on 
Peromyscus, accidentally on other mice. 

(6) C. wagneri systaltus subsp. nov. (PI. II, fig. 19). 

(J. Exopodite somewhat narrower than in the previous subspecies, and its 
anterior margin more incurved. 

$. Duct of bursa copulatrix much shorter than in C. w. wagneri, the sclerified 
portion of it about as long as the tail of the spermatheca is broad. Head of 
spermatheca vermiform as in the previous subspecies. 

Hab. Alberta : Blackfalls, on mouse (probably Peromyscus). type (A. D. 
Gregson) ; Red Deer, on Peromyscus arcticus, v. 1901 (F. G. Dippie) ; a series. 



36 NciVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

(c) C. wagneri ophidius subsp. nov. (PI. II, fig. 20). 

cJ. Exopodite on the whole broader than in the two previous subspecies, 
and reaching well above process P of the clasper. 

$. Apex of head of spermatheca swollen, the organ recalling a snake. The 
sclerified portion of the bursa copulatrix about as long as in C. w. wagneri. 

Hab. California, coast district : S. Francisco, type (Carroll Fox) ; San Mateo 
(M. B. Mitzmain) ; a series from Putorius xanthogenys (probably accidental host). 

22. Ceratophyllus thambus spec. nov. (PI. II, fig. 21). 

$. Closely allied to C. wagneri Baker (1904), but the levers of the genital 
armature not rolled up in a spiral, being very much shorter than in C. wagneri, 
the longest lever only forming half a convolution, and the lamina of the penis 
being without a long wire-like lever. Sternite VIII about half as long as in 
C. wagneri, without apical membraneous flap. Process P of clasper much longer 
and extending a little above the exopodite. The latter less dilated below middle 
and gradually rounded-oblique at apex on posterior side, gradually narrowing) 
forming a sharp apical angle on anterior side ; three spiniforms as in C. wagneri, 
but the lowest longer and thinner than in C. wagneri, and the other two ending 
with a very thin point. Distal lobe of ventral arm of IX. st. pointed, with 
the apex curved upwards, not downwards (fig. 21). Apex of paramere obtuse, 
thumb-like, its ventral apical margin being rounded and its dorsal apical margin 
slightly incurved. 

Hab. Alberta : Red Deer (A. D. Gregson), 1 <$ off Lynx ; the true host prob- 
ably a mouse. 

23. Ceratophyllus bitterootensis Dunn & Parker (1923). 

(J. C. bitterootensis Dunn & Parker, Public Health Reports, xxxviii. p. 2771 (Reprint p. 11) (1923) 

(W. of Darby, Montana, on Xeotoma). 
(J?. C. isus Jordan, Nov. Zool. xxxii. p. 110. no. 34. text-figs. 39, 40 (1925) (Red Deer R., Canad. 

Rocky Mts., on Mus). 

The description of C. bitterootensis was taken from 2 <$,$, one of which, the 
paratype, I have had an opportunity to compare with C. isus, with which it 
agrees. 

24. Ceratophyllus penicilliger Grube (1852). 

Two $<$ obtained by A. H. Twitchell at Flat, Alaska, on Microtus in March 
1925, are the first Nearctic specimens I have seen of this widely distributed 
Palaearctic species. The specimens are badly preserved, having been treated 
with too strong a dose of KOH, but the characteristic genital armature renders 
the identification certain. The better specimen in U.S. Nat. Mus., the second 
at Tring. 

25. Ceratophyllus stejnegeri spec. nov. (PL II, figs. 22, 23). 

<J$. Related to C. araucanus J. & R. (1920) from Chile. The proboscis 
shorter, the pronotum with a comb of 40 spines (<J) or 36 ($), which are narrower 
than in C. araucanus ; the small bristles on meso- and metanotum and on the 
first abdominal tergite more numerous, there being two complete rows in front 
of the postmedian row of long ones, besides some additional dorsal bristles. 

cJ. Process P of clasper broad and apically round ; three acetabular bristles. 
Exopodite straight from near base, subcorneal, with two stout pointed spiniforms 
at lower angle and another below middle, all three somewhat longer than the 



Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 37 

exopodite is broad in middle. Ventral arm of IX. st. with a rounded proximal 
lobe, which bears a marginal row of 6 or 7 rather strong pale bristles and on the 
distal portion of inner side a stouter submarginal one ; apical lobe of ventral 
arm gradually dilated, the apex dorsally and distally rounded, ventrally incurved, 
the ventral apical angle somewhat projecting downward. Sternite VIII narrow, 
without long bristles or spiniforms, but on each side with an irregular row of 
minute hairs ; at apex of sternite VIII a large flap directed obliquely distad, the 
proximal portion of its anterior margin smooth and rather strongly chitinised, 
the rest of the flap being membraneous and bearing numerous filaments. 

$. Upper and lower antepygidial bristles about as long as the bristles of the 
posterior row of tergite VII ; sternite VII sinuate below upper margin, the upper 
lobe short, sharply pointed, the lower lobe broad and long. Head of spermatheca 
little longer than broad, almost globular (dorsally split across in the only $ seen), 
similar to that of G. araucanus, as is also the bursa copulatrix. Anal sternite 
longer, and its ventral margin straighter than in G. araucanus, with a larger 
number of small short bristles. 

Hab. Bering I., Commander Is., 1882-3 (L. Stejneger), one pair, host not 
mentioned ; in U.S. Nat. Mus. Named in honour of the collector. This northern 
bird-flea is a most interesting discovery, as the affinities of the species are with 
species known from Chile, Argentina and Brazil. 

26. Ceratophyllus celsus apricus subsp. nov. (PI. II, fig. 24). 

$. Process P of clasper subacuminate, not truncate, the posterior margin 
of the clasper between the acetabular bristles and base of P distinctly convex ; 
(left exopodite with three long bristles, right clasper with two) ; vertical arm of 
sternite IX more strongly dilated below middle, but its apical nose shorter, than 
in G. c. celsus Jord. (1926). Sternite VIII with a sharply pointed apical trans- 
parent process which points upwards (the position of this projection proves that 
in the type of C. c. celsus both the right and left projections are accidentally twisted 
at the base and in consequence of this twist directed distad instead of upward) ; 
a bunch of 6 apical bristles as in G. c. celsus, but 2 of them slightly shorter and 
a little more spiniform than the others (all broken away in the paratype). 

$. Apparently not different from G. c. celsus. 

Hab. Cuba : Soledad, in nests of Petrochelidon fulva, collected by J. Be- 
quaert ; 2 pairs, more or less strongly damaged, type (cJ) and paratype ($) in 
U.S. Nat. Mus., the second pair in coll. N.C.R. 

27. Ceratophyllus niger inflexus subsp. nov. (PI. II, fig. 25). 

$. Only two specimens known. Both have the apical margin of sternite VII 
incurved above middle. 

Hab. Colorado : Custer Co. (T. D. A. Cockerell), no host mentioned, 1 ?, 
type, in U.S. Nat. Mus. ; Colorado Springs, 1 $ on Eutamias, xi.1909 (E. R. 
Warren), in coll. N. C. R. 

Dactylopsylla gen. nov. 

cJ?. Similar to the ignot us-group of Ceratophyllus, but more specialised. 
Eye vestigial. Hindtibia with about 20 dorsal bristles. Hindtarsal segment V 
shorter than III. 

<J. Exopodite very long and slender, curved backwards at apex. Proximal 
setiferous lobe of sternite IX separated by a broad sinus from the distal lobe, 



38 NnVITATES ZoOLOGIl'AE XXXV. U>29. 

no hinge between the two lobes, ventral angle of distal lobe hook-shaped, not 
rounded. Dorsal portion of outer sheath of penis modified into a long, narrow, 
finger-like process which is curved down and is not pointed, and the lateral 
portion of the sheath ending with a sharp hook directed down and placed above 
a sinus of the sheath. 

$. Below eye a long marginal bristles, in addition to the usual eye-row of 
three. Stylet at least thrice as long as broad. Head of spermatheca longer than 
broad, orifice subventral or ventral. 

Genotype : Odontopsylla bluei Fox (1909). 

28. Dactylopsylla comis spec. nov. (PL II, fig. 26). 

§. Apical margin of sternite VII rounded, not produced into a narrow 
triangular lateral lobe as in D. bluei. 

On mesopleura 13 or 14 long bristles and anteriorly nearly 30 small ones. 
On metanotum about 33 bristles in front of the postmedian row, on the two sides 
together. Bristles on abdominal tergites also more numerous than in D. bluei : 
tergites II 38, 33 ; III 39, 35 ; VI 27, 29 ; VII, 24, 24 ; on the two sides together. 
On sternite II 22 on the right side and 24 on the left (long and short), on 
sternite VII 54 on both sides together. Anterior coxa with more than 80 bristles. 
On outside of hindtibia 23 or 24 lateral ones. The longest ajiical bristle of 
hindtarsal segment II reaches to apex of IV, not beyond it. Sternite VII 
broadly rounded. Stylet more than four times as long as broad. Head of 
spermatheca shorter than in D. bluei. 

Hab. British Columbia : Okanagan Landing, 1 $ off Thomomys fuscus, 
collected by J. A. Muro. 

29. Phalacropsylla arachis spec. nov. (PI. II, fig. 27). 

<J$. Proboscis reaching to two-thirds of forecoxa. Abdomen without apical 
spines. Pygidium not convex behind. Hindcoxa with one row of short, but rather 
stout, spiniforms. Hindtarsal segment III shorter than V, and IV at most one- 
third longer than broad. Chaetotaxy essentially as in Ph. cummingi, but the 
bristles of the hindleg on the whole a little shorter. 

cJ. Genital armature similar to that of Ph. cummingi Fox (1926), but the 
bristles of sternite VIII more distal ; clasper with fewer bristles ; exopodite 
narrower, without any bristles in lower two-fifths ; apex of sternite IX more 
pointed and the two spiniforms nearer the point. 

$. Apical margin of sternite VII slanting, somewhat undulate, with a shallow 
bay at some distance above the ventral angle, which is rounded off ; apex of 
tergite VIII pointed. Head of spermatheca as broad anteriorly as posteriorly, 
but thinner in middle. Ventral margin of anal sternite subangulate. 

Hab. Arizona: McCleary's Ranch, 30 miles S.E. of Tucson, 30. i. 1921 (V. 
Bailey), on Dipodomys spectabilis, 1 <J and 4 $$, and 1 $ on D. merriami ex coll. 
Chapin in U.S. Nat. Mus. (2 $$ transferred to the N. C. R. collection) ; type <$. 

30. Phalacropsylla shannoni spec. nov. (PI. II, figs. 28, 29). 

(J$. Agrees with Ph. arachis in the shortness of the proboscis, the absence 

of apical spines from the abdominal tergites, the flatness of the pygidiuni and 

the row of spiniforms on the inside of the hindcoxa ; but segments II of midtarsus 

and III of hindtarsus a little longer than V, and IV of hindtarsus nearly twice 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 39 

as long as broad. Bristles of hindtibia and bindtarsus very long. Only 2 ante- 
pygidial bristles, one long, the other nearly as stout, but only one-fourth as long. 

cJ. Sternite VIII with a curved subapical row of bristles nearly parallel to 
the rounded apical margin. Clasper almost gradually narrowed into a conical 
process, with two very long and numerous shorter bristles. Exopodite nearly 
as in Ph. cummingi Fox (1926), but somewhat shorter, with the bristles in lower 
half more numerous. Sternite IX quite different : ventral arm divided into four 
processes (two on each side), the outer process of each side is without bristles 
and recalls a hoe ; the inner process also is widened downward at the apex ; 
its upper angle slightly acute, bearing a pale bristle, below which, at the vertical 
apical margin, a small, pale, curved spiniform ; the ventral nose of the inner 
process rounded, bearing a short, stout, obtuse spiniform at the apex and proxi- 
mally to this two short stout bristles. 

$. Apical margin of sternite VII nearly vertical, its upper angle rounded 
and slightly projecting. Apex of tergite VIII rounded off. Head of spermatheca 
inverted pyriform, broadest towards tail. Ventral margin of sternite X straight, 
the bristles thinner than in Ph. cummingi. 

Hah. Washington: Ritzville, vi.1920, on fieldmice (R. C. Shannon), 3 $$ 
and 1 $, type^ in U.S. Nat. Mus., one paratype $ transferred to coll. N. C. R. ; 
Lind, viii. 1920, off fieldmouse (R. C. Shannon), 3 <$$ ,\ $ ; from same place, off 
Perognathus, and " Big-eared mice," x. 1920 (M. C. Lane), a small series in coll. 
of Ent. Department, Cornell, Ithaca. 

31. Nycteridopsylla chapini spec. nov. (PL II, figs. 30, 31). 
cj$. The apical spines of abdominal tergites I and II as short as those of the 
metathoracic comb, and there are at most 5 spines in these combs, whereas the 
pronotal comb contains from 29 to 32 spines. Segment II of maxillary palpus 
twice, in J less than twice, the length of segment I. The four subdorsal bristles 
on the frons of the 5 very stout, almost spiniform, much stouter than any bristles 
of the abdomen ; in £ 3 bristles, which are not enlarged, being about as thick 
as the lateral bristles placed below the row of three. The bristles of the occiput 
as stout in $ as the subdorsal ones of the frons, in $ on the whole slightly stouter 
than the bristles of the pronotum. 

cJ. Clasper almost equally divided by a broad apical sinus into a dorsal and 
a ventral process, the ventral process bearing a long stout bristle. The exopodite 
similarly forked, but the processes longer than those of the clasper, the dorsal 
one narrow, subcylindrical, truncate, and the ventral process, which is the longer 
of the two, slightly widened towards apex and bearing a marginal, apical row 
of 5 or 6 long bristles, besides a few small marginal and lateral ones. The distal 
lobe of sternite IX very long, curved upwards from close to its origin, widest in 
middle, rounded at apex, nearly five times as long as broad (the length measured 
in a straight line). 

?. Apical margin of sternite VII rounded, without a distinct lateral sinus ; 
the segment bears a row of 9 bristles, in front of which there are 7 small bristles, 
on the two sides together. Stylet slender, as long as the third hindtarsal segment. 

Length (approximately), £ 1-7 mm., $2-6 mm. ; hindfemur (J0-38, $0-43 mm. 

Hab. Maryland : Glen Echo, on Ejrfesicus fuscus, iii. 1916 (R. O. Shannon), 
2 pairs ex coll. E. A. Chapin, in whose honour the interesting species is named ; 
one pair transferred to coll. N. C. R. ; type $ in U.S. Nat. Mus. 



40 



Novitates Zooloc.icae XXXV. 192S 



SOME OLD-WOKLD SIPHONAPTERA. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With 3 text-figures.) 

1. Rhadinopsylla jaonis spec. nov. (text-fig. l). 

$. Near to Rh. dahurica J. & R. (1920), but the labial palpi secondarily 

divided into more than the usual number of segments, the divisions not quite 

complete, the one palpus consisting of 8, the other of 7 segments. Frontal tubercle 

small, nearer to the oral angle than in Rh. dahurica. Four genal spines, of which 






the upper one is the shortest. Apical margin of Vll.st. strongly slanting, 
slightly incurved, the segment being longest close to the ventral margin ; there 
is neither a lateral sinus nor a lateral incrassation, both of which are present 
in Rh. dahurica. Head of spermathca less claviform than in Rh. dahurica, its 
tail as in that species, not being caved in on the posterior side ; the head of 
spermatheca longitudinally split for some distance, which may account to some 
extent for its dorsal surface being less incurved than in Rh. dahurica. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 41 

Length (approximately) 2-1 mm. Hindfemur : 0-31 mm. 

Hab. China : Wu-Yasi, Shansi, on Scaptochirus gillie-si, one badly preserved 
$ in U.S. Nat. Mus. 

2. Palaeopsylla remota spec. nov. (text-fig. 2). 

$. Dark portion of short upper genal spine narrower than in the other 
species of this genus, second spine broader, third pointed as in P. minor Dale 
(1878). Head similar in proportions to that of P. sorecis Dale (1878). Proboscis 
nearly reaching to apex of forecoxa. Pronotum short, with 15 spines in the 
comb, the spines long and narrow, the longest as long as hindtarsal segment II. 
Abdominal sternite VII with a broad upper lobe and a triangular subventral 
lower one, the latter projecting more than the former (fig. 2). On the ventral 
portion of tergite VIII a vertical row of three bristles about halfway to apex ; 
apical margin with shallow sinus, and below it with a row of three bristles, between 
which there are two small bristles, on one side of body an additional marginal 
bristle above the row. Sternite VIII (which is much broader in P. sorecis than 
in P. minor and P. kohcmti Dampf (1910)) longer than in P. sorecis ; the bristles 
at its apex long, whereas in all the other species these bristles are minute. 

Long. 2-3 mm. 

Hab. China : Chungking, on Mole (W. R. Brown), 1 $ ; at Tring. 

3. Ctenophthalmus russulae ducis subsp. nov. (text-fig. 3). 

<$. Process P 1 of clasper longer than in Gt. r. russulae J. & R. (1912) from 
Algeria, its long bristles farther away from the bottom of the sinus. Sternite 
VIII. only with three long bristles in the posterior row. 

Hab. Sardinia : Assuni, 1 <J off Sorex spec. (Dr. A. H. Krausse) ; at Tring. 



42 X..YITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXV. 1929. 



TYPES OF BIRDS IN THE TRING MUSEUM. 

By ERNST HARTERT, Ph.D. 
D. Gregory M. Mathews' Types of Australian Birds. 1 

DROMIGEIIDAE. 
1. Dromiceius novaehollandiae woodwardi Math. = Dromiceius novaeholl. 

woodwardi. 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae woodwardi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 175 (1912 — Strelley River, 
N.W. Australia). 

Type : $ StrelJey River, 4.ix. 1901. J. W. Tunney coll. No. R. 2:52. 

2. Dromiceius novaehollandiae rothschildi Math. = Dromiceius novaehollandiae 

rothschildi. 

Dromiceius novaehollandiae rothschildi Mathews, A'oc. Zool. xviii, p. 175 (1912 — Gracefield, S.W. 
Australia). 

Type : $ Gracefield, Kojonup district, S.W. Australia, 22. ix. 1912. J. W. 
Tunney coll. 

While D. n. woodwardi is a lighter bird, D. n. rothschildi seems to be a 
darker form. 

SPHENISGIDAE. 

(?) 3. Aptenodytes patagonica halli Math. = Aptenodytes patagonica halli (? ?). 

Aptenodytes patagonica halli Mathews, B. Australia, i, p. 272 (1911— Macquarie Islands). 
Type : " <$ ad., Macquarie Islands, British Antarctic Exp., 1907." 
I doubt if it will be possible to distinguish several forms of King Penguins. 
The extent of the bluish-grey colour on the inside of the flippers varies a great 
deal individually, and so, it seems to me, does the colour of the upperside. I do 
not understand the description of the " inside of the tarsus,"' which is supposed 
to be white in A. p. halli and longirostris (Kerguelen and Crozet Is.), but " blue 
all round, forming a collar " in A. p. patagonica from South Georgia and Falkland 
Islands. The tarsi of our 2 Falkland and South Georgia specimens are as in 
the series from the Macquaries, and this is the same in the British Museum. 

4. Eudyptula minor iredalei Math. = Eudyptula minor iredalei. 

Eudyplula minor iredalei Mathews, B. Australia, i, p. 286 (1911— Chatham Islands). 

Type : An adult specimen from the New Zealand seas, bought from a New 
Zealand dealer, possibly from the Chatham Islands. 

The Chatham Islands specimens have as a rule a larger, stronger bill than 
those from New Zealand. The bill of the type is stronger than in most New 
Zealand specimens, but not so strong as in the biggest Chatham Is. examples, 
and it would have been better to select as type a skin with a more pronounced 
big bill, and with a certain locality. 

1 For former lists of types see Novitates Zoolooicae, vols. 1918, 1919, 192(1, 1922 1924 1925 
192li, 1927, 1928. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 43 

f 5. Eudyptula minor woodwardi Math. = Eudyptula minor novaehollandiae. 

Eudyptula minor woodwardi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 199 (1912 — "West Australia"). 

Type : <$ Sandy Hook Island, south-east coast of West Australia, 1 5 . xi . 1 904. 
Caught on nest on young, by J. Tunney. No. 7090 (239 of Mathews). 

Mathews was, I believe, the first recent author who pointed out the striking 
difference of the Australian form, which has white rectrices, mostly with blue- 
black shaft-streaks towards bases of feathers, sometimes without. In his Birds 
of Australia, i, p. 285 (1912) he gave a good review of the forms of Eudyptula 
minor, as follows : 

Eudyptula minor minor Forst., New Zealand. 

Eudyptula minor albosignata Finsch, " Akaroa, New Zealand." 

Eudyptula minor iredalei Math., Chatham Islands. 

Eudyptula minor novaehollandiae Steph., Australia. 

In 1912 (just after this was published) he spoiled his good work by describing 
E. minor woodwardi. saying that it was " grey-blue " above, which all Eudyptula 
are, and that the '" flipper is grey and not blue " ; this, however, is due to the 
flippers being covered with dirt. 

On the other hand, in 1927, in the Syst. Av. Australasian., p. 12, he more 
logically recognized E. albosignata as a species, while unfortunately still retaining 
woodwardi. 



MEGAPODIIDAE. 

t C. Megapodius duperreyi melvillensis Math. = Megapodius reinwardt tumulus. 

Megapodius duperreyi melvillensis Mathews, Austral Avian Record, i, p. 26 (1912 — Melville Island). 

Type: $ in partially worn plumage, Melville Island, 1 . xii . 1911. J. R. 
Rogers coll. No. 2555. 

Already placed as synonym by Mathews 1927, and there can be no doubt 
that this is correct. On the other hand, it seems to me certain that the specimens 
from Cape York and North Queensland (Cairns) are on the crown of the head 
and on the back more rufous, somewhat brighter and lighter than in M. r. tumulus. 
They are smaller. This form should be separated as another good subspecies. 
Mathews does not separate it, but suggests (B. Austr. i, p. 37) that it might be 
separated as 

Megaqwdius reinwardt assimilis Masters. 

It is, however, very doubtful if the name assimilis can be adopted for these 
birds, as assimilis was described from skins from Dungeness and Bet Islands in 
the Torres Straits, nearer to New Guinea than to Australia. Masters, Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S. Wales, i, p. 59, 1876, says that this bird is found on " many of the low- 
lying islands in Torres Straits." A skin from Cairncross Island in the British 
Museum has the upperside much redder than any other. 

Mathews places assimilis, in 1927, as a synonym of tumulus, but gives as 
distribution of the latter only " Northern Territory and North Queensland," 
while assimilis was named from an island in the Torres Straits. These latter 
islands have unfortunately been neglected recently, Mathews never sent 
collectors there, and in this case and others does not mention them in the dis- 
tribution of species and subspecies. 



44 XnvITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

t 7. Leipoa ocellata rosinae Math. = Leipoa ocellata (ocellata). 

Leipoa ocellata rosinae Mathews, Xoo. Zool. xviii, p. 177 (1912 — "South Australia, Victoria, Xew 
South Wales "). 

Type : " South Australia. Dec. 1875," no exact locality. 
It seems to me that there is no constant difference between eastern and 
western specimens, neither in the Mathews collection nor in the British Museum. 

t 8. Alectura lathami robinsoni Math. = Alectura laihami lathami. 

Alectura lathami robinsoni Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 177 (1912 — " Mid Queensland "). 

Type : $ Mt. Sapphire, Cairns, Northern Queensland, 16.x. 1899. E. Olivecoll. 
Already recognized as synonym by Mathews, 1927. 

TURNIGIDAE. 
9. Turnix maculosa pseutes Math. = Turnix maculosa pseutes. 

Turnix maculosa pseutes Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 180 (1912 — " North West Australia "). 

Types : " <J$ " Parry's Creek, East Kimberley, N.W. Australia, lo.xii. 1908, 
26. i. 1909. J. P. Rogers coll. — both, however, are females ; the supposed male 
was left unsexed (queried) by Rogers, but Mathews thought it was a male. 

This form is different from T. m. maculosa of New South Wales and Victoria 
in being darker on the underside, having a distinct, unspotted rufous superciliary 
line, and in being somewhat smaller ; only in one of the three dozen specimens 
from New South Wales, said to be from the Botany Swamps, do I find the same 
unspotted rufous superciliary line. 

Though different from T. m. maculosa this form is very closely allied to the 
Timor form T. m. rufescens, which, however, in adult females, often has the whole 
underside deeper rufous still, leaving no white patch on the abdomen ($ ad. !). 
Formerly I took the view expressed by Hellmayr in the Avifauna von Timor, 
p. 95, viz. that the variation in these birds was so great that rufescens could not 
be separated. Now, however, with three dozen typical maculosa before me, it 
is evident that a darker island form is easily separable, though only adult females 
can be recognized at first glance. Of what I call rufescens we have at Tring now : 
5 from Wetter, 4 from Moa, 1 from Alor, 1 1 $ from Babber, 3 from South Flores, 2 
2 from Timor, 5 from Savu,' 1 from Kisser, 3 from Tomia, 1 from Little Key. Of 
all these localities Mathews only mentions Timor, having apparently only been 
interested in the type locality. 

We also have a female, but possibly not quite adult, from Cape York, which 
probably served Mathews for his description of T. maculosa yorki, which is 
not different from rufescens and pseutes. 

From the Aroa River in New Guinea we have one female and one young. 
These were united with yorki by Mathews, but if the latter is not different from 
rufescens it would fall under that form. 

From Celebes we have only one adult female, and a young bird. This 
material is insufficient, but the upperside of the adult female is very light, 
and it seems to be a smaller bird than mitrulosa and its other allies ; it is 

1 Underneath deeper brown than any others, wing-coverts almost uniform rufous, hind-neck 
very wide chestnut-red. 

2 One with the back blacker than in any others. 

3 All very light above, but one from Queensland is indistinguishable. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 45 

therefore possible — judging from our two birds — that Salvadori's beccarii is a 
distinct subspecies. 

[There is also an error in the " distribution " of Turnix powelli Guill. in 
Mathews' Syst. Av. p. 21. He gives as the locality Gunong Api " north of Wetter 
Island," while the type was shot on Gunong Api near Sumbawa ! The name 
Gunong Api, meaning fire-mountain, is of course variously applied to active 
volcanoes in Malay-speaking countries. In the distribution only " Gunong 
Api " is given, while the species has now been recorded by me from Lombok, 
Sitonda Island near Sumbawa, Lomblen, Alor and Flores.] 

t Hi. Turnix varia stir lingi Math. = Turnix varia varia . 

Turnix varia stirlingi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 181 (1912 — " West Australia "). 

Type : $ ad., Stirling Range, W. Australia, 2.x. 1910. L. White coll. 

Already made a synonym by Mathews, of Turnix varia scintillans, a name 
which he now uses for the West Australian birds ; in the B. Australia he made 
scintillans a synonym of varia, and later on separated it without any explanation. 
Gould described scintillans from the Houtman's Abrolhos Islands ; from there 
I have not been able to see specimens, but if it is to be the West Australian form 
I cannot separate it ; fresh specimens are finer and brighter than old dusty skins 
from New South Wales and Victoria, but fresh ones from the latter countries 
seem to be indistinguishable. When Gould described it, he evidently did not 
know that the females are larger, and his saying that scintillans was not much 
more than half the size of varia was an exaggeration. 

f 11. Turnix varia subminuta Math. = Turnix varia varia. 

Turnix varia subminuta Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 181 (1912 — " North Queensland "). 

Type: ^ Cooktown, 18.iii.1900. Olive coll. Mathews says: "Differs 
from T. v. varia in its smaller size. Wing 100, in typical birds 107-112 mm." 
But this is the difference of the sexes, wings of males measuring 100 or less, of 
females about 107-112 mm. 

t 12. Turnix castanota melvillensis Math. = Turnix castanota castanota. 

Turnix castanota melvillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec. i, p. 27 (1912 — Melville Island). 

Type : $ Cooper's Camp, Apsley Straits, Melville Island, 27.x. 1911. J. P. 
Rogers coll. 

Already recognized as synonym by the author. 

f 13. Turnix castanota alligator Math. = Turnix castanota castanota. 

Turnix castanota alligator Mathews, Austral. Avian Record, i, p. 27 (1912 — " West Northern Terri- 
tory "). 

Type : $ South Alligator River, 28. vi. 1903. J. Tunney coll. 
Already recognized a synonym by the author. 

14. Turnix castanota magnifica Math. = Turnix castanota magnified. 

Turnix castanota magnifica Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 181 (1912 — " North West Australia "). 

Type: North- West Kimberley, 18.vii.1901. 
Of. Nov. Zool. xxxiv. 1927, p. 25. 



46 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

(? f) 15. Turnix velox vinotincta Math. = Turnix velox vinotincta (?). 

Turnix velox vinotincta Mathews, Xov. Zool. xviii, p. 1S2 (1912 — " Interior North West Australia, 
Mungi"). 

Type : $ ad., Mungi Rockhole, 8 miles S.E. of Mount Alexander, West 
Kimberley, N.W. Australia, 19. vi. 1911. J. P. Rogers coll. 

It is possible that the western form is separable from the typical one from 
South Australia, Victoria and N.S. Wales to Queensland, but the material in the 
Mathews collection from these countries is so poor, and the variability in the 
series from North- West Australia (from the same localities) so great, that it was 
very bold and hazardous to separate this form, and final judgment cannot be 
passed at present from the material at hand. 

f 16. Turnix velox picturata Math. = Turnix velox (?) vinotincta. 

Turnix velox picturata Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 182 (1912 — " North West Australia, Derby "). 

Type : ? Derby, 1 8 . ii . 1 902. 

Mathews, B. Austr. i, admitted no subspecies of T. velox, but some months 
afterwards (Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 182) he separated velox leucogaster of North 
without any explanation whatever, and separated velox vinotincta and picturata 
with quite short diagnosis and without saying what material he had. In 1927 
he placed vinotincta as a synonym of velox leucogaster, while keeping picturata 
separate. I can only repeat that I cannot decide about the subspecies, but 
picturata and vinotincta from Derby and West Kimberley should geographically 
be the same, and not the former the same as the Davenport Creek bird (West 
Queensland), if that is different. 

t 1". Colcloughia melanogaster goweri Math. = Turnix melanogaster. 

Colcloughia melanogaster goweri Mathews, Austral Avian Rec. iii, p. 53 (1916 — Gowrie, Queensland). 

Type : $ ad., Gowrie Scrub, December 1889, no original label. 

Mathews has recognized his error and placed " goweri " as a synonym, p. 23, 
Syst. Av. Australasianarum. 

18. Turnix pyrrothorax berneyi Math. = Turnix pyrrhotTtorax berneyi. 

Turnix pyrrothorax berneyi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 182 (1912 — " North West Australia "). 

Type: ? Parry's Creek, East Kimberley, N.W. Austr., 4.ii. 1909. J. P. 
Rogers coll. 

f 19. Austroturnix pyrrothorax intermedia Math. = Turnix pyrrhothorax berneyi. 

Auslroturnix pyrrothorax intermedia Mathews, Austral Avian Record, iii, p. 53 (1916 — " Wyangarie, 
Queensland "). 

Type : $ Wyangarie, Flinders River, Northern Queensland, north of the 
Dividing Range, April 1908. F. Berney coll. 

This specimen, though a bad skin, belongs clearly to the darker form, berneyi, 
inhabiting N.W. Australia and Northern Territory, which is a good subspecies. 

f 2o. Pedionomus torquatus goulburni Math. = Pidionomus torquatus. 

Pedionomui torquatus goulburni Mathews, Austral Avian Rec. iii, p. 53 (1916 — " Goulburne, New 
South Wales "). 

Type : $ Goulburn plains, no date. 

Error already recognized by Mathews. Syst, Av. Austral, p. 25. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 47 

PHASIANIDAE. 
t 21. Coturnix pectoralis praetermissa Math. = Coturnix pectoralis. 

Coturnix pectoralis praetermissa Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 178 (January 1912 — " West Australia"). 

Type : $ Broome Hill, South- West Australia, 28. xi. 1908. Tom Carter coll. 

When Mathews described this bird in 1911 he had no others from that 
locality, and did not notice that it was a soiled bird, possibly from the ashes 
from a bush fire. Later on he received a series of females and young from Carter, 
from the same locality, and a fine adult from " Wilson's Inlet," S.W. Australia, 
which are clean and do not differ from G. pectoralis from other parts of Australia. 
Unfortunately these were not thought of when Mathews wrote the Syst. Avium 
Austral., where on p. 18 praetermissa is still admitted. 

(Three skins from the Gawler Ranges in South Australia are very sandy 
reddish, but in varying degrees, and I think they are soiled by some reddish earth, 
and that therefore they do not constitute a different subspecies as it would seem 
at first glance.) 

f 22. Coturnix australis melvillensis Math. = Synoicus ypsilophorus cervinus. 

Coturnix australis melvillensis Mathews, Austral Av. Rec. i, p. 26 (1912 — Melville Island). 

Type: ■$ Cooper's Camp, Apsley Straits, Melville Island, (5.x. 1911. 
No. 2128, J. P. Rogers coll. 

Already placed as synonym by the author in Syst. Av. Austr. Mathews 
now adopts the name ypsilophorus, which is older than australis. 

f 23. Coturnix australis rogersi Math. = Synoicus ypsilophorus cervinus. 

Coturnix australis rogersi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 179 (1912 — " North West Australia, Parry's 
Creek "). 

Type: $ Parry's Creek, East Kimberley, N.W. Australia, 10. xi. 1908. 
No. 322, J. P. Rogers coll. 

t 24. Coturnix australis mungi Math. = Synoicus ypsilophorus cervinus. 

Coturnix australis mungi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 179 (1912 — " North West Australia, Mungi "). 

Type : $ Mungi Rock Hole, 8 miles S.E. of Mt. Alexander, West Kimberley, 
N.W. Australia, 2.vii. 1911. No. 1854 of P. Rogers coll. 

Already synonymized by Mathews, 1927. 

25. Coturnix australis queenslandicus Math. = Synoicus ypsilophorus queens- 
landicus. 

Coturnix australis queenslandicus Mathews, Austral Avian Rec. i, p. 26 (1912 — " Cape York, North 
Queensland"). 

Type : $ Cape York, 30.viii. 1911. No. 1894, J. P. Rogers coll. 
This seems to be a more reddish form. 

t 26. Excalfactoria chinensis cairnsae Math. = Excalfaetoria chinensis australis. 

Excnljacloria chinensis cairnsae Mathews, Austral Avian Rec. i, p. 83 (1912 — " North Queensland "). 

Type : ■$ Cairns, North Queensland, October 1911. Schrader coll. Already 
placed as synonym by Mathews 1927. I agree. 



4g N'ovitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

j 27. Excalfactoria chinensis victoriae Math. = Excalfactoria chinensis australis. 

Excalfactoria chinensis victoriat Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 179 (1912 — " Victoria, South Aus- 
tralia ? "). 

Type : <J Koo Wee Rup, Victoria, December 1892. 
The supposed differences do not hold good. 

28. Excalfactoria chinensis colletti Math. = Excalfactoria chinensis colletti. 

Excalfactoria chinensis colletti Mathews, Austral Avian Bee. i, p. 73 (1912 — " Northern Territory "). 

Type : <J Glencoe, Northern Territory, 28. ii. 1895. Dahl coll. 

This form — judging from our small series of two males and one female, 
collected at Glencoe and the Adelaide River by Dahl — seems to be separable, 
the males being on the upperside somewhat pale, the female on the other hand 
nearly as dark as lepicla, and somewhat small. 

(In the Systema Av. Austral. 1927. Mathews says of E. c. lineata that it 
inhabits the " Philippines to New Guinea and Marianne Islands." This seems 
to require correction ; the New Guinea specimens that I have seen, a male from 
the Kurnusi River, a female from Boboli, China Straits, S.E. New Guinea, are 
different from lineata and obviously are lepida. In Nov. Zool. 1898, p. 49, 
I quoted E. chinensis lepida from Flores, but omitted to say that the male has 
more chestnut-red on the wing than any other specimen I have seen ; it may 
possibly be another subspecies, but this can only be made certain by more material. 
On the Marianne Islands it must have been introduced.) 

CORVIDAE. 

The Australian Corvi have recently enjoyed (or suffered ?) a great deal of 
attention. Mathews has treated them in various different ways in his somewhat 
hurried lists, and finally in his Birds of Australia, in the two last parts, which 
appeared early in 1927. 

Stresemann has reviewed them in 1914 in Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xii, and 
Meinertzhagen in Nov. Zool. xxxiii, 1926. 

After comparing our wonderful series of Australian Corvi, I was formerly, 
in 1921 to 1923, inclined to agree with Stresemann. who considered all Corvi 
of a somewhat similar appearance from Australia to Japan, Manchuria, and 
India, as forms of coronoides, recognizing four subspecies in Australia : coronoides, 
per plexus, bennetti, and cecilae. 

Meinertzhagen severely criticized Mathews' changing divisions, and accepted 
only two subspecies in Australia, i.e. coronoides and bennetti. I am sorry to say 
that, after spreading out on the long tables in the Tring Museum the 200 Australian 
Corvi, and comparing them, not a few specimens at the time, but series with series, 
I have been obliged to alter my opinion considerably. First of all it is certainly 
an error to consider the forms with the large raven-like hackles on the throat 
and the dark brownish bases to the feathers of the neck and breast, and the forms 
with smaller throat feathers and snow-white bases to the feathers of breast and 
neck, as subspecies of one another. In fact coronoides differs from bennetti and 
cecilae as much as a European Raven (corax) and a Carrion Crow (corone) ; the 
hackles of coronoides are at least twice as large as those of cecilae and bennetti, 
and there are no intermediates, neither in the hackles nor in the colour of the 
feather-hases. In fact Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iii, placed coronoides in the 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 49 

genus Corvus, bennetti, sub nomine austral is, into Corone. Though I, of course, 
most strongly disagree with this genus-splitting, there was some sense in it, in 
so far as the two groups are very different, and there is also some sense in the 
popular Australian distinction of coronoides as " Raven " and bennetti as " Crows." 

It is true that the distribution of the " Raven " and the " Crows " seems 
to be exclusive, but this is not absolutely the case, as both occur in the Gawler 
Range in South Australia, and, as mentioned by Meinertzhagen, one " Raven " 
was shot at Normanton in Queensland, where only " Crows " are otherwise 
known ; Meinertzhagen says it " would be unreasonable to allow one bird out of 
over 220 to influence a general deduction based on such a large series." I cannot 
so lightly do away with this " puzzling " specimen, as Normanton is rather far 
away from the known habitat of " coronoides," and I would first want to know 
if there is not a population of this bird at Normanton. In life all black Ravens 
and Crows must look much alike, it is therefore possible that many coronoides 
occurred, though only one was shot at Normanton. Moreover, geographical 
separation alone cannot decide about two forms being species or subspecies, for 
they must agree in their main features to be regarded as the latter. I do not 
find that there are intermediates between the two species ! 

Now with regard to the two forms with white feather-bases. Though I 
cannot accept any subspecies, there are in my mind obviously two species. Several 
good observers, especially Tom Carter, also Robert Kemp, have definitely stated 
that a large and a small " Crow " are found in the same places, and we have some 
from the same localities and dates : from N. W. Australia (collected by Tom Carter), 
from Normanton in Queensland (collected by R. Kemp), from Cape York and 
from Central Australia. The two forms differ only in size, but adults do not 
overlap, though there is a considerable individual variation. The small bird is 
everywhere much rarer, according to a number of statements in the field ; notes 
about different calls lack precision, but a larger and a smaller form usually have 
different notes in other birds, the same might therefore be expected in these. 
A good deal of attention has been given to the colour of the iris, but field ornitho- 
logists in Australia have formerly overlooked the fact that old birds of all Corvi 
in Australia have as a rule a white iris, while the iris is brown in young birds — 
though it seems that the brown iris is also sometimes found in adults, at least 
of coronoides. 

Of the authors mentioned who wrote recently about the species of the Crows 
and Ravens of Australia, Mathews therefore came nearest the truth — or let us 
say the only logical conclusion I could arrive at. I agree with him that there 
are apparently three different species : coronoides, cecilae, and bennetti ; on the 
other hand, I cannot accept any of his subspecies of either of them. 

Though the species with brown feather-bases is quite distinct from those 
with white feather-bases, it must be made clear that young birds of cecilae do not 
have snow-white bases, but have them pale grey or brownish grey ! This is 
proved by specimens from Normanton in Queensland,' most strikingly in 
No. 4565, shot by Kemp 20 .v. 1914. Of bennetti we have no birds young enough 
to show this change. 

Stresemann also separated cecilae and bennetti, but as subspecies — with the 
caution that further researches in a wild state might possibly alter his conclusion. 
Mathews wrongly accused him of thinking that " Moolah " was near Cape York, 
while he distinctly said that it was in western New South Wales. 

4 



50 Novitates Zoological XXXV. HI29. 

Unfortunately, the separation into species of the Australian Corvi affects 
the nomenclature of many other forms, and the large structure of Stresemann and 
Meinertzhagen — largely followed by myself. Baker, and others — having several 
weak points, invited attacks, and falls at the first assault. 

The separation into a species with white feather-bases and another with 
grey bases is more or less tenable, not only in Australia, but all over the range of 
all forms of " coronoides " admitted by Stresemann, Meinertzhagen, and Baker. 

Snow-white bases are found in cecilae and bennetti. Of these two cecilae is 
similar to many other geographical forms, in fact latirostris from Timorlaut is 
only separable from cecilae by its wider bill, at the base ! G. bennetti is a form 
of smaller dimensions, which developed apparently, not from a geographical 
subspecies (like so many other species have undoubtedly done), but from other 
reasons unknown at present, and we must use for it a binomial appellation. 

Into the group of latirostris fall naturally macrorhynchus, orru, insular is, 
philippinus, and macrorhynchus : macrorhynchus being the oldest name, they 
all become subspecies of the latter. 

These birds agree not only in the pure white feather-bases but have glossy 
under-surfaces, and the hind-neck is not strikingly different from the rest of the 
upper surface, in fact in most cases equally glossy, and the feathers of the hind- 
neck are practically of the same structure. 

On the other hand, the more northern group of forms, inhabiting the Japanese 
and Chinese islands, China, and India, all agree in having the feather-bases brown- 
grey to whitish-grey, not snow-white, the most northern and high mountain forms 
having generally the darkest bases. Also the continental birds have generally 
an almost glossless underside, and the feathers of the hindneck are less glossy 
and somewhat less compact at the edges. 

Typical for this group are japonensis, mandschuricus (synonymized with 
japonensis by Meinertzhagen), hassi (synonymized with colonorum by Meinertz- 
hagen), hainanus, connectens. To this group might be connected also intermedins 
(in which the bases are usually whitish grey to light grey, often also white, though 
not of the snowy whiteness of the macrorhynchus group), levaillantii, culminatus 
(not separated from levaillantii by Stresemann). Levaillantii being the oldest 
name, this becomes the specific name of the group. 

The Ceylon form differs in my opinion more strikingly than most of the 
others. It is the smallest form, and is more glossy on the underside and nape. 
The bases of the nape-feathers are grey or whitish grey, but never pure white. 
Stresemann and Meinertzhagen keep the Ceylon form (anthracinus Mad. 1911, 
madaraszi Stres. 1916) quite distinct, while Baker unites the Deccan and Ceylon 
form as culminatus. 

I would thus tentatively acknowledge : 

Corvus macrorhynchos macrorhynchos Wagl. 

Corms macrorhynchos Wagler, Syst. Av., Corvus sp. 3 (1827 — Java, type in Miinchen Museum). 

Southern part of Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Kangean Is., Bali, Lombok, 
Sumbawa, Flores, Lomblen, Alor, Wetter, Kisser, Sumba, Timor, and Savu.' 

1 Since this was written Rensch separated the Flores form as " Corvus coronoides inoptatus," 
Orn. Monntsber. 1928, p. 7, because neck, back, and rectrices were blue-green, against " violet " in 
the Java-form. If this is correct the birds from all the Lesser Sunda Islands from Lombok east- 
wards will probably be inoptatus. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 51 

Corvus macrorhynchns philippinus Bp. 

Corvus philippinus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend, Acad. Paris, xxxvii, p. 830 (1853 — Philippines, doubtless 
Luzon). 

Philippine Is., including Sulu Is. 

Corvus macrorhynchos mengtszensis La Touche. 

Corvus coronoides mengtszensis La Touche, Bull. B.C. Club, xliii, p. 80 (1922 — Mengtsz). 

Yunnan, S.W. China, perhaps exclusive of the highest mountains in the 
north. 

Corvus macrorhynchus orra Bp. 

Corvus orru Bonaparte, Consp. Oen. Av. i, p. 385 (1850 — New Guinea, terra typica Lobo Bay, ex 
Sal. Miiller MS.). 

New Guinea, Western Papuan Is., west to northern Moluccas and Obi, east 
to D'Entrecasteaux and Louisiade Is. 

Corvus macrorhynchos insularis Heinr. 

Corvus insularis Heinroth, Journ.f. Orn. 1903, p. 69 (New Britain). 

New Britain, Witu Is., New Ireland, New Hanover, Rooke Island. (A 
wonderful series now at Tring, collected by Albert F. Eichhorn.) 

Corvus macrorhynchos cecilae Math. 

Corvus coronoides cecilae Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 442 (1912 — N.W. Australia, terra typica 
Broome Bay). 

Tropical Australia, generally (North Queensland, Northern Territory, N.W. 
Australia), West Australia, south at least as far as Dirk Hartog Island. 

Corvus macrorhynchus latirostris Mey. 

Corvus latirostris A. B. Meyer, Zeitschr. ges. Orn. i, p. 199 (1884 — Timorlaut). 
Timorlaut or Tenimber Is. and Babber. 

Corvus bennetti North. 

Corvus bennetti North, Victorian Naturalist, xvii, p. 170 (1901 — Moolah in western N.S. Wales). 

South and West Australia, apparently through Central Australia to northern 
and north-western N.S. Wales, Queensland to Cape York. Rarer than cecilae 
and in many places in the same area. 

Corvus validus Bp. 

Corvus validus Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av. i, p. 385 (1850 — Ceram and Halmahera. Ex Temminck 
MS. in Leyden Museum. Cf . Meinertzhagen, Nov. Zool. xxxiii, 1926, p. 70). 

Halmahera, Batjan, Obi, and Morty Islands. 

This long-billed Raven, with pure white feather-bases, is rather puzzling. 
In spite of its greyish (not glossy black) underside, it might be united — and should 
have been united, as long as the birds with dull and glossy undersides were 
united — with the macrorhynchus group, if it was not that C. m. orru occurred on 
the same islands ! The bill is not so very strikingly different from some cov- 
nectens, though usually much longer. 



52 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Corvus levaillantii japonensis Bp. 

Corvus japonensis Bonaparte, Camp. Gen. Av. i, p. 386 (1850 — Japan. Stresemann "accepted" 
Yesso as typical locality, but in former times nearly all Japanese birds came from Hondo or 
Kiusiu Island, therefore Hondo should be fixed as terra typiea !). 

From Sachalin (teste Lonnberg) and Southern Kurile Is. (if locality on 
label correct !), over Japanese Islands to Tanega and Yaku. From Yesso an 
enormous example in Tring Museum with wing 385, but others from there only 
348, 330 mm. ! 

? ! Corvus levaillantii mandschuricus But. 

Corvus macrorhynchus mandschuricus Buturlin, Mess. Orn. iv, 1, p. 40 (1913 — Ussuriland). 

Supposed to be the representative of japonensis in E. Amurland, Ussuriland, 
Corea, but differences doubtful. Not recognized by Meinertzhagen, and probably 
not separable. 

Corvus levaillantii hassi Rchw. 

Corvus liassi Reichenow, Orn. Monatsber. 1907, p. 51 (Tsingtau). 

S. Manchuria, Chihli. Shantung, south to the Tsinling Mts. in Shensi. Not 
recognized by Meinertzhagen, but seems recognizable. 

Corvus levaillantii colonorum Swinh. 

Corvus colonorum Swinhoe, Ibis, 1864, p. 427 (N.E. Formosa). 
Formosa to the Lower Yangtse Valley. 

Corvus levaillantii hainanus Stres. 

Corvus coronoides hainanus Stresemann, Verh. Orn. Ces. Bayern, xii, p. 286 (1916 — Hainan), 
Hainan. 

Corvus levaillantii connectens Stres. 

Corvus coronoides connectens Stresemann, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xii, p. 281 (1916 — Myiako- and 
Okinawa-shima, Riu Kiu group, south of Japan). 

Only known to me from these two islands. 

Corvus levaillantii intermedius Adams. 

Corvus intermedins Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, p. 121 (Kashmir, Dagshai, Simla). 

Himalayas from Chinese Turkestan and Kashmir to Bhutan, and possibly 
to S.E. Tibet and Sifan. Kleinschmidt described from the latter places a Corvus 
macrorhynchos tibetosinensis from two skins only ! From his comparing it with 
mandschuricus and japonensis we must conclude that it belongs to the levail- 
lantii group. More material is required to confirm this form. 

Corvus levaillantii levaillantii Less. 

Corvus Levaillantii Lesson, Traite d'Orn. p. 328 (December 1830 — Bengale). 

India south of the Himalayas east of the Sutlej valley and south to the 
Deccan, and to Madras and Nilgiri hills. 

Corvus levaillantii andamanensis Beavan. 

Corvus andamanensis Beavan, Ibis, 1866, p. 420 (Andamans) ; id. Ibis 1867, p. 328 (Andamans). 
Assam, Burma, N. and W. Siam, south to Malay Peninsula and Penang. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 53 

Corvus coronoides coronoides Vig. & Horsf. 

Corvus coronoides Vigors & Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xv, p. 261 (1827 — Australia ! Sub- 
stituted locality New South Wales). 

" Generally south of a line running from lat. 30 south in New South Wales " 
through southern Australia to about N. of Perth. In N.S. Wales more or less 
coastal. One shot in Queensland. (Tasmania — or closely allied form.) 
The following types are in the Mathews collection : 

t 29. Corvus marianae Mathews = Corvus coronoides coronoides. 

Corvus marianae Mathews, Emu, x,p. 326(1911 — " Replaces C.australis Gould, preoccupied") ; Nov 
Zool. xviii, p. 443 (1912— Gosford, N.S. Wales). 

Type (as quoted in 1912) : Ad., Gosford, N.S. Wales, Sept. 1892. No. 7084, 
Mathews coll. Originally this specimen was not sexed, but someone put sub- 
sequently " £ " on the label. 

f 30. Corvus marianae mellori Math. = Corvus coronoides coronoides. 

Corvus marianae mellori Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 443 (1912 — Angas Plains, South Australia. 
In the original diagnosis the range was given as Victoria, South Australia, S.W. Australia, 
but No. 5724 is quoted as the type, so that the type locality is that of No. 5724). 

Type: " <J " (?), Angas Plain, 31.xu.1901. Ex. coll. Edwin Ashby. 
t 31. Corvus coronoides perplexus Math. = Corvus coronoides coronoides. 

Corvus coronoides perplexus Mathews, Nov, Zool. xviii, p. 442 (1912 — " S.W. Australia, type Perth "). 

Type : " Perth, West Australia." No. 3721. 

Though Stresemann in his review of the forms of Corvus coronoides, in Verh. 
Orn. Ces. Bayern, xii, p. 277 (May 1916), recognized perplexxis as a distinct sub- 
species, with halmaturinus and ? tasmanicus as synonyms, I must agree with 
Meinertzhagen that perplexus cannot be separated. I cannot agree that it is 
correct to say perplexus is on an average smaller ; the measurements of Stresemann 
and Meinertzhagen (Nov. Zool. 1926) do not show this, and I object to judging 
by average measurements in such a small series ; moreover, an average is spoilt 
if in either of the series occurs a giant, a dwarf, or in error of measuring. Thus 
the measure 380 mm. for a specimen without exact locality and data in the 
British Museum stands quite alone, and only very few of Stresemann's ''perplexus" 
are smaller than the smallest " coronoides." The Kangaroo Island form is no 
longer recognized by Mathews himself, while I have not seen enough skins from 
Tasmania to form an opinion. 

I therefore treat without hesitation perplexus mellori and halmaturinus 
as synonyms of coronoides, leaving tasmanicus doubtful, as was done by 
Stresemann, I.e. 

(In measuring Ravens it is important to consider the sexes, as the females 
are as a rule smaller (shorter wings and chiefly smaller bills).) 

t 32. Corvus marianae halmaturinus Math. = Corvus coronoides coronoides. 

Corvus marianae Imlmaturinus Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 443 (1912 — Kangaroo Island). 

T yP e : <S juv. ! Middle R., Kangaroo Island, 20.x. 1905, ex coll. Edwin 
Ashby. No. 3725. Wing-feathers not fully grown. 



54 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

(?) 33. Corvus marianae tasmanicus Math. = Corvus marianae tasmanicus (?). 

Oorvus marianae tasmanicus Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 443 (1912 — Tasmania). 

Type : Ad. (obviously o), Tasmania, 1876. Ex coll. Walter Chamberlain. 
No. 3719 of the Mathews coll. 

This specimen is very large, but another '" q " from Hobart, Tasmania, 
6.iv.l914, is much smaller. I would require more material to decide whether 
I should keep this form as a separate subspecies from coronoides. 

34. Corvus coronoides cecilae Math. = Corvus macrorhynchus cecilae. 

Corvus coronoides cecilae Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 442 (1912 — " North West Australia "). 

Type : S Napier, Broome Bay, N.W. Australia, 30.vii. 1910. G. F. Hill coll. 

t 35. Corvus bennetti queenslandicus Math. = Corvus macrorhynchus cecilae. 

Corvus bennetti queenslandicus Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 443 (1912 — " Queensland "). 

Type: o j un -i Coomooboolaroo, Dawson R., Queensland, 27. xi. 1909. 
Henry Barnard coll. No. 4724 of Mathews coll. 

f 36. Corvus cecilae marngli Math. = Corvus bennetti. 

Corvus cecilae marngli Mathews, Austral. Av. Rec. i, p. 52 (1912 — " Marngle Creek, West Kimberley, 
West Australia "). 

Type : £ ad., Marngle Creek, l.vi. 1911. J. C. Rogers coll. 

t 37. Corvus bennetti bonhoti Math. = Corvus bennetti. 

Corvus bennetti bonhoti Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 442 (1912 — " West Australia ''). 

Type : " $ " Yaudan garra, Murchison, West Australia. G. T. Tunney coll. 
No. 5176 Mathews coll. 



f 38. Corcorax melanorhaniphos subniger Math. = Corcorax melanorhamphos. 

Corcorax melanorhamphos subniger Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 446 (1912 — " Victoria"). 

Type: $ ad., Ringwood, Victoria, 25. iii. 1910. No. 54. " C. m. subniger " 
is not now admitted as different by Mathews, nor can I distinguish it. 

f 39. Corcorax melanorhamphos whiteae Math. = Corcorax melanorhamphos. 

Corcorax melanorhamphos whiteae Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 446 (1912 — " Eyre's Pe n in s ula, South 
Australia "). 

Type: $ W. coast near Lake Greenly, Eyre's Peninsula, 29.viii. 1911. 
No. 58. 

The bill of this specimen is very short, but it is closely approached by several 
other females. There are, however, no other specimens from the same locality, 
though several from the Gawler Ranges, just to the north. I have no doubt 
that there is only one form of C. melanorhamphos ; in any case no theory should 
have been built on that one skin. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 55 

PARADISAEIDAE. 

t 40. Ptilonorhynchus violaceus dulciae Math. = Ptilonorhynchus violaceus 

violaceus. 
Ptilonorhynchus violaceus dulciae Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 438 (1912 — " South Queensland, North 
New South Wales "). 

Type : <$ ad., bought from the dealer Boncard, labelled " Cockerell, Queens- 
land."' 

There is no certainty about the locality of this specimen ; Mathews in 1912 
thought the northern birds were smaller, but the wing of the type does not measure 
166, but 172 mm., and specimens from New South Wales are equally large, but 
not larger. 

The only recognizable subspecies is P. violaceus minor Campbell from the 
Bellenden Ker range, which is considerably smaller. Mathews now only admits 
the latter. 

t 41. Scenopocetes dentirostris minor Math. = Scenopocetes dentirostris. 

Scenopocetes dentirostris minor Mathews, Austral Avian Rec. ii, p. 132 (1915 — "Johnstone River, 
Queensland "). 

Type : " <J " Johnstone River, 23. vi. 1900. E. Olive coll. 

The description of this supposed subspecies is laconically : " Differs from 
8. d. dentirostris in being smaller." Measurements are not given The specimen 
marked as " type " is small, its wing measuring 140 mm., but it is juvenile, as 
shown by narrow rufous edges to the upper wing-coverts, and the tips of wings 
and tail are worn. Moreover, there are three other specimens, from the Johnstone 
River, also collected in June by E. Olive. Their wings measure 147 ($), 146 ($), 
149 ((J). Other specimens have wings of 144-152 mm., and Mathews gives the 
wing as 150 mm. 

t 42. Ailuroedus melanotus fairfaxi Math. = Ailuroedus melanotis maculosus. 

Ailuroedus melanotus fairfaxi Mathews, Austral Avian Record, ii, p. 132 (1915 — " Bellenden Ker, 
Queensland "). 

Type : $ Bellenden Ker, 1 6 . xi . 1 899. 

The only difference said to exist in the diagnosis is " general lighter colora- 
tion, especially noticeable in the under-surface." A series from Bellenden Ker, 
however, does not look paler. In the great work on the Birds of Australia 
Mathews only says that two subspecies can be admitted, but does not state 
the supposed differences. Though correctly quoting melanotis he afterwards 
spells the name throughout melanotus. 

t 43. Ailuroedus crassirostris blaauwi Math. = Ailur. crassir. crassirostris. 

Ailuroedus crassirostris blaauici Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 439 (1912 — Richmond River, N.S. Wales). 
Type : $ ad., Rous, Richmond River, October 1905, Schrader coll. 

44. Chlamydera nuchalis melvillensis Math. = Ghlamydera nuchalis melvillensis. 

Chlamydera nuchalis melvillensis Mathews, Austral Avian Rec. i, p. 52 (1912 — " Melville Island, 
Northern Territory ") ; B. Austr. xii, pp. 349, 350. 

Type : $ (not in full plumage), Coopers Camp, Apsley Straits, Melville 
Islands, 11. xi. 1911. P. Rogers coll. No. 2172. 



56 Novitates Zoolocicae XXXV. 1929. 

45. Chlamydera nuchalis oweni Math. = Chlamydera nuchal is oiceni. 

Chlamydera nuchalis oweni Mathews, A'ov. Zool. xviii, p. 440 (1912 — " North- West Australia, Northern 
Territory ") ; B. Austr. xii, pp. 341, 350. 

Type : cj a d-, Point Torment, King Sound, West Kimberley, N.W. Australia, 
14.iii.1911. J. P. Rogers coll. No. 1407. 

Formerly it was supposed that the type of C. nuchalis had come from North- 
West Australia, and consequently Gould separated as G. orientalis the eastern 
form from North Queensland. This contention was upset by Mathews " by 
examination of the coloured figure (i.e. of C. nuchalis) and comparison with 
specimens." Reasons are not given by Matthews. The original figure is, how- 
ever, so crude, that no conslusions can be drawn from it, but the description of 
the crown as having " a shining or satiny lustre " may be taken as applying to 
the form from North Queensland, as in that form only are the tips of the 
feathers somewhat shining and very obvious. This is best accepted, so as not 
to upset again the latest adopted nomenclature, though it may be somewhat 
arbitrary. 

We have then the following forms : 

1. C. nuchalis nuchalis (Jard. & Selby) from North Queensland. This 
subspecies is the smallest and slightly darker, and has conspicuous light tips to 
the feathers of the crown. 

2. C. nuchalis melvillensis Math, from Melville Island and adjacent parts of 
" Northern Territory." This form is intermediate in size, wings of fully plumaged 
adult males measuring 173-175 mm., once 180 (Melville Island), and once 185, 
specimens from Point Keats to Burrundie (along the Daly River valley) somewhat 
merging towards oweni, having wings of 183-186 (once) About the distribution 
of this form and oweni, Mathews changed his mind. At first it was described from 
" Melville Island, Northern Territory," meaning obviously Melville Island, 
belonging to " Northern Territory " ; then he named oweni from N.W. Australia 
and Northern Territory, but in his latest list (B. Austr. xii, p. 350) he restricts 
oweni to N.W. Australia (which seems to be correct), and melvillensis to the 
Northern Territory, meaning of course including Melville Island. 

3. C. nuchalis oweni Math. " N.W. Australia," that is to say, the " Kimberley 
Division," just west of the habitat of melvillensis. 

There is no difference in coloration, but the wings are longer, measuring 
(fully plumaged adult males) 186-193 mm. 

t 46. Chlamydera maculata clelandi Math. = Chlamydera maculata maculata. 

Chlamydera maculata clelandi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 439 (1912 — " Range : South Australia "). 

Type : An unsexed specimen labelled by Mathews " Chlamydera maculata 
South Australia ? Dr. Clelland." Evidently the exact locality of this specimen 
is not known, but it was supposed to come from " South Australia," and even this 
was at first doubtful. It was obtained from some Dr. Clelland, after whom it 
was presumably named, dropping one of his Vs. It is said to " differ from C. m. 
maculata in its smaller bill, which is light-coloured, its paler nuchal crest and its 
redder abdomen." The fact, however, is that the outer covering of the upper 
bill is gone, which accounts for the smaller size and light colour, a fact obvious 
at a glance, the upper bill being shorter than the lower. After soaking the bill 
of one of our other skins in water for a day I produced a similar example. The 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 192ft. 57 

nuchal crest is partially discoloured, the skin being old and dirty, which also 
accounts for the different colour of the abdomen. The specimen is figured in 
vol. xii, pi. 584 of the B. of Australia (lower figure), where a cleaner specimen 
would have been selected with more advantage. 

f 47. Chlamydera maculata sedani Math. = Chlamydera maculaia maculata. 

Chlamydera maculata sedani Mathews, Austr. Av. Record, ii, p. 78 (1913 — " Gloncurry River, Queens- 
land "). 

Type : § Sedan, Gloncurry (not Gloncurry !) River in N.W. Queensland 
(Burke), 25. ii. 1010. Name of collector not given on label. In full moult. This 
specimen is supposed to be figured in B. Australia, presumably vol. xii, pi. 585, 
upper figure, but the figure seems to be of a finer specimen not in moult. 

(Mathews, B. Austr. xii, admitted not less than 8 subspecies. From the 
material available I can only admit two, i.e. C. maculata maculata and C. maculata 
guttata. We do not have at Tring the type of C. maculata nova, but one of the 
females of this supposed subspecies shot by Tom Carter, 6.viii.l916, near the 
N.W. Cape in N.W. Australia, from where the type of guttata came. It is in 
my opinion just a fine, freshly moulted guttata. The figure of this " nova," Ibis, 
1920, pi. xiv, is rather too foxy, perhaps as a result of the printing process.) 

f 48. Chlamydera maculata subguttata Math. = Chlamydera maculata guttata. 

Chlamydera maculata subguttata Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 440 (1912 — " Mid Westralia "). 

Type : £ East Murchison, l.xi.1909. F. L. Whitlock coll. Described as 
being paler than guttata, which I cannot see, and the head is not " grey," though 
it appeared to be so when covered with plaster of Paris. 

t 49. Chlamydera maculata macdonaldi Math. = Chlamydera maculata guttata. 

Chlamydera maculata. macdonaldi (sic !) Mathews, Austral Avian Record, ii, p. 78 (1913 — " Macdonald 
Ranges, Central Australia "). 

Type : Adult, MacDonnell (not " Macdonald ") Range, Central Australia. 
Bad specimen, bill half decayed, therefore appearing small. 

t 50. Sericulus chrysocephalus rothschildi Math. = S. chrysocephalus. 

Sericulus chrysocephalus rothschildi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii, p. 441 (1912 — Blackall Range, South 
Queensland). 

Type: $ ad., Blackall Range, 28. ix. 1903. Ex coll. Edwin Ashby. 
t 51. Prionodura newtoniana fairfaxi Math. = Prionodura newtoniana. 

Prionodura newtoniana fairfaxi Mathews, Austral Av. Rec. ii, No. 7, p. 133 (1915 — Bartle Frere Mts., 
N. Queensland). 

Type : <J ad. Bartle Frere, 1 4 . viii . 1 909. 

Mathews, though no longer admitting his name fairfaxi, still recognized 
(September 1926) two subspecies, P. n. newtoniana and P. n. mestoni (de Vis), the 
latter from the Bellenden Ker. but these two forms are not separable. 



58 Novitates Zoolocicae XXXV. 1929. 

f 52. Craspedophora magnifica Claudia Math. = PMloria magnified aXberti. 

Craspedophom magnified Claudia Mathews, Auslr. Av. Record, iii, p. 72 (1917 — Claudie River, Xortli 
Queensland). 

Type : $ ad., Claudie River, 8.x. 1913 (No. 36 of some collection). 

Full length of wing, 181 nun. 

I still accept the name alberti, and the reasons will be explained elsewhere. 

f 53. Phonygammus yorki Math. = Phonygammus keranihenii gouldi. 

Phonygammus yorki Mathews, Bull. B.O. Club, xlv, p. 17 (1924 — " Black Gin Creek, Cape York"). 

Type : $ Black Jin Creek (spelt thus by Kemp), Cape York, 23.xii. 1912. 
Robin Kemp coll. 

This is a specimen with an exceptional large purple patch on the back and 
some purple on the wings. It is a variety of P. k. gouldi, which was also described 
from Cape York. P. k. gouldi is a very distinct subspecies. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 59 



AILUROEDUS BUCCOIDES AND ITS SUBSPECIES. 

By LORD ROTHSCHILD and ERNST HARTERT. 

TNTIL 1891 all Ail. buccoides were united under the name buccoides. In 

1891 A. B. Meyer separated Ai. geislerorum, based on specimens from the 

Astrolabe Bay and from Huongulf. With these we have hitherto united the 

birds from British New Guinea south of Huongulf, viz. from Aicora, Collingwood 

Bay, and the Hydrographer Mountains, west of Dyke Acland Bay. 

The birds from Astrolabe Bay, however, are not like those from the Huongulf 
region, which agree exactly with those from Aicora, Collingwood Bay, and the 
Hydrographer Mts. We therefore restrict the terra typica of geislerorum to the 
Astrolabe Bay region. 

The other form from north of the Huongulf and south to Collingwood and 
Hydrographer Mts. has the crown lighter than in geislerorum, more reddish, say, 
a somewhat tawny clay colour, instead of the darker, somewhat liver-brown 
crown of geislerorum. Other constant characters do not seem to exist. We 
name this south-eastern subspecies : 

Ailuroedus buccoides molestus, subsp. nov. 
Type: <J ad., Haidana, Collingwood Bay, 17. iv. 1907. A. S. Meek coll. 
No. 2858. 

We can thus distinguish : 

Ailuroedus buccoides buccoides (Ternm.). 
Foot of Snow Mountain Range, Alkmaar, Sahang, Noord River to Lobo Bay. 

Ai. buccoides oorti R. & H. 

This form is probably restricted to Waigiu, but may occur also in the Berau 
Peninsula and neighbourhood ? 

Ai. buccoides geislerorum A. B. Meyer. 

North coast of New Guinea from Astrolabe Bay to Takar and Mamberano 
River. 

Ai. buccoides molestus R. & H., antea. 

From the Huongulf in the Mandated Territory to Collingwood Bay and 
Hydrographer Mts. 



60 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1020. 



ON OXYAMBULYX SUBSTRIGILIS AND SOME ALLIED 

SPHINGIDAE. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With Plate III.) 

T^HE various Indo-Malayasian forms of Oxyambulyx R. & J. (1903) which have 
a large black basal patch on the upperside of the hindvving were treated 
by us in the Revision of the Sphingidae (1903) as subspecies of 0. substrigilis 
Westw. (1848), at that time only one form being known to us to occur in each 
locality. Twenty years later, in Entom. Mitte.il. xii. p. 51 (1923), I said that 
three distinct species with black base to the hindwing instead of one were found 
on the Sunda Islands. This statement requires amplification, and the nomen- 
clature used correction inasmuch as I referred the name O. pryeri Dist. (1887) 
to the wrong species, although in the Revision the species described by Distant 
had been correctly identified. 

The specimens from the Philippine Islands, which are remarkably different 
from the Sundanese and Malayan ones in the <J-genital armature, stand apart, 
and as we shall soon have additional specimens for comparison, I abstain from 
dealing with them in the present paper. 

The numerous specimens of this group of Oxyambulyx obtained by Messrs. 
Pratt on Sumatra (some of which have generously been placed at my disposal 
by my friend Dr. B. Preston Clark) render it certain that there are four different 
species on Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula — and presumably also on Borneo, 
whence we have so far only three. 

l. Oxyambulyx pryeri Dist. (1878). 

A large species, corresponding to 0. staudingeri Roths. (1894) from the 
Philippines. The type-specimen of 0. pryeri, which came from Sandakan, North 
Borneo, seems to have disappeared. According to the description it was certainly 
a $, though the sex was not stated by the author of the name. Having compared 
the tail-ends of several J (J from each of the islands of Borneo, Sumatra and 
Java, I confess to have failed in finding any fairly constant differences between 
the specimens from these places. I therefore must regard the names eteocles 
Huwe (1895, Java) and sumatranus Roths. (1920, Sumatra) as synonyms of 
O. pryeri. 

q. Sternite VII is produced into a median lobe which is about as long as it 
is apically broad ; its apical margin (fig. 4) is turned upward ( = inward), and each 
angle produced into a conical projection which is directed more or less upwards. 
The ventral process of the harpe tapers towards the end, the apex being very 
much narrower than in 0. substrigilis, almost pointed ; the dorsal, sharply 
pointed, process of the harpe is strongly curved and nearly as long as the ventral 
process. The dorsal longitudinal rib of the penis-sheath ends with a process 
which, though very variable in length individually, is always longer than in any 
of the other species here dealt with, and is always curved more or less dorsad, 
i.e. awav from the mouth of the sheath ; the inner sclerite of the sheath is drawn 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 61 

out into a long, rod-like, process, which is non-serrate (fig. 10, dorsal aspect, 
fig. 11, lateral aspect, taken from two specimens, both from Java). 
Hab. Malay Peninsula ; Borneo ; Sumatra ; Java. 



2. Oxyambulyx clavata spec, no v. 

Oxyambulyx pryeri Jordan (nee Distant, err. determination^), Ent. Mitteil. xii. p. 51 (1923). 

We know only <JcJ. In colour not distinguishable with certainty from the 
next species. On the whole smaller than 0. pryeri. The median lobe of sternite 
VII individually variable in width, similar to that of 0. pryeri, but the apical 
margin not turned inward, and the projecting angles turned sidewards and re- 
maining more or less on a level with the median portion of the apical lobe (fig. 5, 
Sarawak ; fig. 6, Kina Balu, type). The median rib of the penis-sheath 
(fig. 12) projects beyond both lateral serrate ridges ; its apex is swollen and then 
narrowed into a point which is directed dorsad-laterad. The inner sclerite 
(fig. 13, from type) of the sheath appears in two forms as figured, the denticulate 
ridge of this sclerite being dorsal ; the difference in width is partly due to the 
sclerite as shown in fig. 14 being flattened ; further material must be examined 
before this apparent dimorphism can be looked upon as established. The ventral 
process of the harpe (fig. 3) is gradually narrowed to a point, nearly as in 
O. pryeri ; the subventral, irregularly dentate, ridge on the proximal half of 
the harpe is variable in height, as it is in 0. pryeri. 

Hab. Borneo : Kina Balu, type ; Sarawak ; Limbang River. Sumatra 

(in coll. Preston Clark). Malay Peninsula. 

3. Oxyambulyx substrigilis Westw. (1848). 

In this species the median lobe of sternite VII of rj is quite short, with the 
apical margin turned dorsad ( = inward) ; the angles of the lobe are usually 
drawn out into a short projection each (as in fig. 8), which is directed dorsad. 
The ventral process of the harpe (fig. 1) is broad, spatulate, its apex being more 
strongly rounded dorsally than ventrally, so that it projects somewhat ventrad. 
The midrib of the penis-sheath is very little longer than the serrate right-side 
ridge ' ; the apical portion of this ridge lies close along the midrib, and both are 
curved ventrad-laterad ; the left dentate ridge is widened apically and is either 
shorter or longer than the midrib. The inner sclerite of the sheath is without 
serration ; its apex is bifurcate as in fig. 16, with the right projection sharply 
pointed and strongly chitinised, the left projection being short and obtuse, 
sometimes barely indicated. 

(») 0. substrigilis brooksi (lark (1923). 

The left dentate ridge of the penis-sheath projects beyond the apex of the 
midrib (the ridge is often elbowed, its apical portion then lying more or less 
horizontally across the opening of the sheath). Figs. 7, 8, both taken from 
Sumatran specimens, represent extremes in the development of sternite Yll. 
Fig. 1 gives a view of the harpe taken from vertically above the broad ventral 
process. 

Hab. Sumatra, Borneo and Malay Peninsula. 

1 " Right "-side in figure, the apex of the sheath turned away from the eye. 



62 Xiiyltates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

4. Oxyambulyx tattina .lord. (1919). 

At the time when I described this Oxyambulyx we had no other species 
from Sumatra with a blackish basal patch on the hindwing, and I therefore regarded 
tattina as representing 0. substrigilis on the island. The discovery on Sumatra 
of O. substrigilis brooksi by Messrs. Pratt, who also obtained a series of both sexes 
of 0. tattina, leaves no doubt that we have in 0. tattina a fourth Malay-Sundanese 
species, which occurs side by side with 0. substrigilis brooksi, 0. clavata and 
0. pryeri. 

In colour both sexes are recognisable by the forewing being strongly washed 
with raw umber from the tornus forward to vein R' and along distal margin ; 
the species further differs from the previous ones in the subbasal, olive-black, 
rounded posterior spot of the forewing being either small or replaced by a greyish 
spot (similar in colour to the pale portions of the disc of the wing), in the outer 
area of the forewing beneath being so deep tawny that the submarginal line, 
which borders the grey marginal band, is hardly visible (except in a worn speci- 
men, in which the dark markings are more prominent than in fresh specimens). 

Sternite VII has the median lobe very broad and very short, the apical 
margin of the lobe is not distinctly incrassate, and the angles are not produced 
(fig. 9). The ventral process of the harpe (fig. 2) is nearly as in 0. substrigilis, 
but the apex is dorsally as well as ventrally subangulate, being more symmetrical 
than in 0. substrigilis. The midrib of the penis-sheath (fig. 17) is nearly as in 
O. substrigilis, but longer than both dentate ridges, and the right-side dentate ridge 
is separated from the midrib by a broad interspace ; the internal sclerite, fig. 18, 
is flat, obtuse and on one side minutely denticulate. 

Hab. Sumatra, and in coll. Preston Clark one worn $ from the Malay 
Peninsula. 

Opistoclanis gen. nov. 

Near C'lanis, but the tibiae without spines. 

The pattern of the forewing of the only known species consists in the main 
of bands which run from the costal margin obliquely back and outwards, being 
costally nearer the base than posteriorly. This peculiar design, as well as the red 
colouring of the hindwing and of the underside, recalls the African genus Libyo- 
clanis, from which Opistoclanis differs, however, in the tibiae being non-spinose 
and in the cross-veins of the hindwing being much more oblique and consequently 
the lower cell-angle much more acute. 

Genotype : Clanis hawkeri Joicey & Talbot (1921), from French Indo- 
China. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 63 



NEW SPECIES AND SUB-SPECIES OF GEOMETRIDAE. 
By LOUIS B. PROUT. 

Sxjbfam. STERRHINAE. 
1. Anisodes (Perixera) pictimaculis sp.n. 

<J$, 28 mm. Face brown above, whitish below. Palpus with third joint 
in <J rather long, in $ longer, almost as long as diameter of eye ; pale, marked 
on upperside with dull red. Head, body and legs concolorous with wings, a red 
line on occiput, the foreleg reddened on upper- and innerside. Hindfemur with 
the (J sexual tufting predominantly dark purple-red. 

Forewing not broad, apex moderate, termen waved ; areole small, far 
proximal to end of cell ; whitish, with irregular fleshy suffusions and scattered, 
somewhat darker irroration ; cell-spot small, but more than a point, orange- 
buff (or perhaps I4d in Ridgway's scheme, Color Standards, pi. iii) ; antemedian 
line weak, indicated by vein-dots ; median shade rather weak, fleshy, anteriorly 
far beyond the cell-spot, with outward angles at R 1 and R :l and inbent between 
them, behind R J strongly oblique inward, slightly incurved and sinuous, reaching 
hindmargin about middle ; postmedian formed of conspicuous vein-dots, deep 
fleshy, touched with black, the dot on R ! markedly displaced proximally (2-5 
or 3 mm. from termen), the rest of the series describing a gentle curve, the dot 
at R 1 nearest to the termen ; subterminal shades rather indefinite ; terminal 

dots rather sharp, deep fleshy touched with black. Hindwing with termen 

rather strongly crenulate ; concolorous with forewing and similarly marked, 
the cell-spot slightly larger, of the same bright colour, the median shade nearer 
beyond it. 

Underside whitish, the forewing with an ample pink shade occupying the 
cell and extending in front of it (to costa), outside it (to position of median shade) 
and a little behind it ; both wings with zigzag pink postmedian line (finer and 
weaker on hindwing), which is anteriorly faintly double or at least forms two 
elongate spots at costa ; terminal dots small and pink, on hindwing ill-developed. 

Java : Pengalengan, Preanger, type <J in coll. Tring Mus. Also known to 
me, chiefly in the $ sex, from Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. 

The colours are almost those of A. flavispila (Warr., Nov. Zool. iii. 312), 
which is a larger, broad-winged species, with the cell-spot orange-buff on the 
hindwing only, there larger. 

Subfam. LARENTHNAE. 
2. Orthonama dicymanta sp.n. 

<J$, 22-26 mm. Palpus at least as heavily scaled as in vinosata Prout (1910). 

Forewing shaped nearly as in the $ of vinosata Prout or of corteza Dogn. 
(1896), the distal margin being straightish and rather strongly oblique ; apex, 
in the 3, slightly more acute still than in the species cited ; general coloration 
approximately as in the reddest-banded forms of olivacea Warr. (1900) = cincta 
Sckaus (1901), but considerably more uniform, the more orange-brown proximal 



64 XuVlTATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

area and costal streak not very sharply differentiated, a narrow distal border 
whitish mixed ; sub-basal, antemedian and postmedian lines very weak, not edged 
with white, except perhaps at costal margin : two extremely slender, deeply 
lunulate-dentate whitish subterminal lines, very conspicuous under the lens 
(similar to the single line of olivacea but with profounder teeth, directed proximad 
on the veins), parallel except anteriorly, where the proximal one curves slightly 
inward ; terminal black line slender, broken into short dashes which are separated 

by, and very narrowly bordered with, white scaling : fringe as in olivacea. 

Hindwing a little broader than in most of the group, the sinuosities of the termen 
extremely weak ; both sexes broadly whitish costally and apically, much as 
in the J 1 of olivacea : posterior part nearly as in olivacea, but a little more blurred. 

Underside, especially in the ?, more reddish and weakly marked than in 
olivacea. 

E. Ecuador : Baeza, March 1915, a pair in coll. Tring Mus., type. Colombia : 
Pacho, E. Cordillera, 2,200 m. (A. H. FassI), 1 $ in coll. Joicey. 

3. Erebochlora orbisticta cacotrocha subsp.n. 

C J, (52 mm. Nearest to O. subtermaculata Dogn. (1911, Cerro de Pasco dist. : 
Huancabamba and Oxapampa) in size ' and markings. Distinguished from both 
the hitherto known races by the reduction of the whitish costal patch of the 
hindwing, which occupies much less than one-third of the wing-length, its greatest 
length being 6-5 mm. (in O. subtermaculata 8 to 10 mm.), and is moreover irregu- 
larly rotund instead of regularly oval, its contour indented at several points, 
especially at R 2 , R 3 and M 1 distally. The pale markings of 0. subtermaculata 
on fore wing beneath present, but narrowed. 

S.E. Peru : Oconeque, Carabaya, 7,000 ft., dry season, July 1904 (G. Ocken- 
den), type in coll. Tring Museum, February 1905, paratype in coll. Joicey. 

4. Eudule pyristacta sp.n. 

<J, 22 mm. Head and thorax black, patagia and tegulae marked with 
orange. (Abdomen lost.) Legs dark, marked with whitish. 

Forewing broad, about as in E. phlaearia (Stgr., 1894, Polyomma), to which 
it is probably related ; opaque, bright deep rufous, with black markings ; short 
basal streaks at both margins ; antemedian, median and postmedian rows of 
rather large spots, confluent and somewhat oblique outward anteriorly, well 
separate posteriorly, the isolated antemedian and median ones of submedian 
area (between M and SM 2 ) about as far from termen as those in cell, the first 
two postmedian (in cellules 3 and 2) elongate, especially the second, reaching 
almost to the base of their respective cellules and ending about as near the termen 
as the last of the confluent ones and the small one in cellule 16, which touches 
the distal end of a narrow, somewhat interrupted hind-marginal streak ; terminal 
band much narrower than that of phlaearia. at apex about 2 mm., enclosing a 
spot of the ground-colour, mostly about 1 mm., cut nearly to the termen by 
broad projections of the ground-colour on the veins ; fringe black, in part slightly 

greyer. Hindwing concolorous, the black border narrow and fairly regular, 

but broadening along distal part of eosta and joining the postmedian ; a black 
spot at base ; a longitudinal streak occupying most of cell ; a second along fold, 

1 Dognin's measurements are always from tip to tip in a well-set specimen. 



NovitaTes Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 65 

reaching the postmedian ; a narrow one along abdominal margin ; postmedian, 
as far as M = analogous to that of forewing, its constituents rather narrower. 

Underside slightly more orange, with the same markings. 

Peru : ( )xapampa, type in coll. Tring Mus. 

•"). Psaliodes vernifera sp.n. 

cJ$, 17-19 mm. Head green, the palpus with a broad, tapering red-brown 
stripe on outerside. Thorax above predominantly green, abdomen (except at 
base) deep vinaceous grey ; body beneath, with coxae and femora, mottled with 
these two colours and whitish ; abdomen without pencils. 

Forewing with apex minutely produced, termen sinuous, subcrenulate, 
strongly oblique : areole double ; glossy green (lime green of Ridgway), the 
markings deep vinaceous grey and pure white, their edging finely red-brown ; 
basal patch irregular, chiefly costal ; antemedian band slender, wavy-margined, 
a little broadened at ends, very strongly excurved in cell ; median band mostly 
narrow, especially in $, at costa broadened and enclosing some green dots, 
between the radials throwing out a strong projection distally (which in the $ 
reaches the outer white lunule), just outside DC (which is close to its proximal 
edge) enclosing a green spot ; ill-defined apical and tornal spots, the former 
enclosing some green scaling, the white markings indicate the boundaries of the 
true median area (as shown in the picta and miniata groups and many other 
Psaliodes) and are placed and formed nearly as in electa Schaus (1912), or — in 
the more distal position of the outer radial lunule — in fuscata Warr. (1904) = 
cupreipennis Dogn. (1914), the antemedian ones rather broad and well isolated, 
the postmedian ones shallowly lunulate, their slender dark edgings confined to 
the median area ; terminal line fine, developing on the teeth at vein-ends into 

blackish spots which extend on to the green fringe. Hindwing with termen 

sinuous and subcrenulate ; DC 1 vertical or slightly oblique inward, R s scarcely 
behind middle ; whitish at base, otherwise suffused with pale vinaceous drab ; 
a minute dark cell-dot and a faint pale crenulate postmedian line ; terminal line 
browner ; fringe pale yellowish green. 

Forewing beneath reproducing the pattern of upperside but much more 
blurred. Hindwing green, partly suffused with reddish brown and with a post- 
median band of that tone and a fainter (more vinaceous grey) terminal one ; 
cell-dot blackish. 

Jamaica : Newcastle, a pair, the type J dated September 1893 ; also a $ 
without more exact location. All in coll. Tring Mus. 

Mr. Warren labelled the <J " detractata Walk.," the $$ " ? effrenata Walk." ; 
I cannot find that it has ever been named. 

0. Collix praetenta sp.n. 

cJ$, 32-40 mm. Larger and rather paler than ghosha Walk. (List Lep. Ins. 
xxiv. 1249), antenna of ^ less laterally compressed. Wings with the wood-brown 
ground-colour slightly tinged with fawn or purplish and with the dark irroration 
extremely fine, the darkest specimens extremely similar on the upperside to 
average hypospilata Guen. (1858). 

Forewing sharply marked ; cell-spot large and nearly round (as in hypospilaki); 
costal spots at origin of lines always more or less large, notably the distal post- 

5 



i;i; NoviTATES ZoOLOQIGAE XXXV. 1929. 

median. Hindu-lug with little to distinguish it from the allies ; the subterminal 

line less interrupted, generally lunalate-dentate rather than broken into short 
dashes, never punetiform. 

Underside intermediate between those of ghosha and hypospilata, almost 
exactly as in the African foraminata Guen., the strong longitudinal streaking of 
ghosha faintly or scarcely indicated, the postmedian and subterminal lines or 
bands both macular, with the spots large and subconfluent, the postmedian 
series not so elongate as in ghosha. 

Assam, E. Pegu, the Malay Peninsula and Formosa, the type <J from Cherra- 
punji, February 1894, in coll. Tring Mus. 

Mr. Warren generally determined this as hypospilata, on one occasion as 
foraminata. 1 have remarked on it in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xxxi. 313, 
no. 103. 

7. Collix leuciota sp.n. 

c j5 ; 36-40 mm. Nearest to praetenta [supra) but darker and much more 
weakly marked, with a gloss that somewhat*ecalls that of stellata Warr. (Nov. Zool. 
i. 679), though less pronounced. 

Forewing with cell-spot generally a little less rounded than in praetenta, with 
a slight and narrow projection on its anterior side ; markings not noticeably 

strengthened at costa. Hinthving differing chiefly from those of praetenta, 

ghosha and hypospilata in that the cell-dot, instead of being very faintly and 
narrowly surrounded with whitish, has some snow-white scaling at its outer and 
posterior edges only. 

Underside pale, with the postmedian line almost as in hypospilata, i.e. 
continuous and not broad, the subterminal, as in praetenta, macular, subconfluent 
and blackish, very different from that of hypospilata, in which it is deeper black, 
with its component spots or dots well separated. 

Sikkim : the type ? from Darjiling (Pilcher) in coll. Tring Mus. ; a pair ex 
coll. Elwes in the same collection ; also a $ from Gunong Ijau, Malay Peninsula 
(coll. Tring Mus.) and a worn one " Perak, 2,000-2,500 [feet], W. Doherty " 
(coll. Joicey). 

As the cj from Elwes has lost its locality label, though it will certainly be 
from Sikkim, and the Malayan examples may represent a separable race, I have 
chosen as type the § with the most exact data. 

s. Collix rufidorsata sp.n. 

cJ<j>, 28-32 mm. Size of large ghosha Walk. Antenna of £ lamellate with 
long teeth beneath. Abdomen in both sexes with orange-brown subdorsal 
streak scarcely so bright as that of the stellata group (stellata Warr. 1 894, grisei- 
palpis Wileman 1916, rufipaVpis Hmpsn. 1907, purpurilita Prout 1925), but 
longer, in addition with a similar tinge on the mediodorsal ridge, the intervening 
stripe blackish, generally more or less macular. 

Upperside coloured and marked nearly as in jiriictenta Prout (supra), though 
with the cell-spot scarcely so large and round. Underside with the longitudinal 
streaks on M and its branches and on SM- almost as strongly developed as in 
ghosha. 

W. .lava : 1892, type ;. Siikabumi. 2.000 ft., 1893 (H. Fruhstorfer), allotype 
9, both in coll. Tring .Mus. Assam ; Sarawak ; Sola Islands ; New Guinea, 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 19211. 0/ 

coastal regions ; probably some separable races, but mostly single specimens. 
The species was formerly confounded with ghosha, but Warren furnished it with 
the manuscript name which I have adopted. 

9. Collix rufidorsata promulgata subsp.n. 

cJ$, 25-32 mm. Darker and more tinged above with reddish or purplish 
than in the name-typical form (supra), in aspect somewhat less banded, on 
account of the more equal expression of the lines, in particular the good develop- 
ment of the punctiform one which bisects the pale postmedian band ; basal 
region of forewing anteriorly nearly always well reddened. 

Manus, Admiralty Islands, September-October 1913 (Meek's Expedition), 
4 (J J, 3 $$ in coll. Tring Mus. Similar forms are distributed in the Bismarck 
Archipelago. 

10. Collix stenoplia sp.n. 

(J§, 38-40 mm. Palpus elongate, bright ochreous. Antenna in <j pectinate 
to near apex, the branches moderate (3 or 4). Head and body concolorous with 
wings, or the body somewhat paler beneath ; abdomen on first three segments 
with a bright ochreous lateral stripe (near the lower edge of the dark dorsal area). 
Midtibia of £ not dilated. Abdomen of q rather long. 

Forewing brown, with strong purple-drab reflections ; cell-mark large, 
finely white bounded, its proximal edge indented near the anterior, narrower 
end ; dark lines rather thick, but very weak, normal for the genus ; subterminal 
while, punctiform. Hindwing concolorous, rather more noticeably white- 
dotted on the veins, especially at the postmedian line ; cell-dot white ; subter- 
minal dots as on forewing. 

Underside weakly marked for a Collix, without longitudinal dark streaks ; 
cell-spot of forewing smaller than above, of hindwing here similar to that of 
forewing ; postmedian and subterminal bands present, the postmedian not 
macular, nearly as in hypospilata Guen. or with a slightly stronger and more 
regular outward curve, the subterminal still weaker, but continuous, not definitely 
macular, with a slight suggestion of pale interneural spots or lunules at its outer 
side. 

Selangor : Bukit Kutu, 3,450 ft., at light, 13 and 14 April 1926 (H. M. Pendle- 
bury), type £ in coll. Brit. Mus., presented by the Federated Malay States 
Museums, allotype $ in their collection. 

Forms a new section of the genus by the £ characters, otherwise very similar 
to ruji palpis Hmpsn., rather smaller, purpler, postmedian of both wings rather 
less bulged. 

li. Sauris septa sp.n. 

c3$, 26-30 mm. Structure group of proboscidaria Walk. 1862 (Holorista 
Warr.). Palpus not quite so long as in that species, the concavity on upperside 
of antenna at about one-third slightly more noticeable. Hindtibia of £ with 
fringing of hair on underside triangular as in proboscidaria, but rather stronger, 
continuing to end. 

Forewing superficially like that of abnormis Moore (1S88) rather than probos- 
cidaria, the purple-grey distal border being strong, the olive-fuscous line which 
bounds it proximally complete and preceded proximally by a second, more 
macular line of the same fuscous colour from R 1 to near tornus ; ground-colour 



68 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

grape-green, generally a little duller (more suggesting deep grape-green) proxi- 
mally to the postmedian band than distally ; sub-basal line slender ; antemedian 
rather more oblique than in proboscidaria, less zigzag, its indentation at fold shal- 
low instead of V-shaped ; the triple postmedian less equally developed than in 
proboscidaria ; the other lines only indicated in slightly deepened grape-green ; 
cell-dot obsolete. Hindwing and underside nearly as in proboscidaria, the hind- 
wing beneath with rather more copious specialized scaling in posterior half. 

New Ireland, November-December 1923 (A. F. Eichhorn), 5 <$<$, 1 $, in 
coll. Tring Mus. The $, but for its more complete postmedian band, might easily 
be confused with that of S. abnormis nilidula Warr. ( 1 899), which has been received 
from the Bismarcks. 

12. Hydrelia candace sp.n. 

<J$, 26-29 mm. Near to H. argyridia (Butl. 1894), especially to the $, 
even the freshest (J $ being considerably less dark than the $ of argyridia. 

Forewing in both sexes at least as broad as in the $ of argyridia, perhaps 
.slightly broader, the apex minutely produced, the termen, except near apex, 
rather markedly convex ; median band (as also in argyridia) variably shaped 
distally, but in general with much less pronounced lobe or prong at R ! -M>, the 
white band beyond it always narrow ; lunulate or submacular whitish subterminal 
line always developed (as only in occasional $ aberrations of argyridia). Hind- 
wing with the median band broader and less sharply angulated than that of 
argyridia, generally less conspicuous, the ground-colour being less pure white ; 
white bands beyond narrower than in argyridia (generally twice as narrow), 
distal area broader, with suggestion of two macular subterminal pale lines, the 
proximal the stronger ; this wing altogether more reminiscent of some pale 
forms of inutilis Warr. (1901) than of argyridia. 

Abyssinia : Adis Abeba, June and July 1926 (Gajdacs), 9 c?c?> 1 $> in coll. 
Tring Mus., the $ and some of the o <3 very worn. A <j>, equally worn, was taken 
at the same place by 0. Neumann on March 22, 1925, and is also in Mus. Tring. 

Subfam. GEOMETRINAE. 
13. Ischnopterix choritis sp.n. 

<J, 49 mm. Near fabiana Stoll (Uitl. Raped, iv. 227, t. cccxcvii, f. H), 

perhaps a race. Wings slightly less narrow. Forewing with termen more 

strongly convex ; the whitish parts more mixed with green, hence less outstanding; 
median band appreciably more proximal than in the specimen of fabiana before 
me (in which latter it touches the cell-mark), at fold markedly indented, a black 

mark which accompanies it proximally forming a pronounced V. Hindwing 

with the median line more sinuous than in fabiana. 

S.E. Peru : Rio Huacamayo, Carabaya, 3,100 feet, June 1904 (G. Ockenden), 
type in coll. Tring Mus. 

Stoll's figure of fabiana is rather crude, much too broad-winged, not green 
enough, nor with the reddish shade proximally to the posterior half of the sub- 
terminal .sufficiently brought out, but with the rest of the markings pretty correct, 
except that the costal white mark which adjoins the pale apical patch is in reality 
acutely angled outward in front of SC 6 . That species seems rare ; the Tring 
Museum has a single cj from St. Jean de Maroni. 



XOYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1029. 69 

14. Ischnopterix ochroprosthia sp.n. 

(J, 42-48 mm. Frons with the prominence long, a blackish stripe down the 
sloping upperside, the rest pale. Palpus rather under 2, heavily scaled, mostly 
pale. Vertex blackish except at sides. Antenna not extremely long. Body 
very pale wood-colour, copiously mixed with fuscous above, producing a some- 
what olivaceous tone, the first few segments of abdomen warmer brown ; abdomen 
extremely long and slender, about as in chryses Druce (1892). Legs, especially 
the foreleg, dark mixed ; hindtibia not extremely dilated, the hair-pencil present. 

Forewing long and narrow, slightly more so than in chryses ; retinaculum some- 
what enlarged ; stalk of SO' well separated from C ; predominant colour a blend 
of dark purple-grey and red-brown ; a broad (circ. 1-5 mm.) costal streak cream- 
buff, only dark-dotted at costal edge, finely underlined with black ; a narrower 
and less well defined streak of the same colour from termen at R*, running proxi- 
mad and slightly forward for a length of 4 or 5 mm. ; a still less well defined, 
quadrate pale patch from about middle of hindmargin to beyond a, 
separated from an incomplete pale subterminal by a narrow band of the red- 
brown colour ; cell-mark black, slightly elongate ; a very narrow black mark 
from base of costal streak to hindmargin at \ or | ; faint indications of dark 
median shade and zigzag line beyond it, but proximal to the cell-mark ; 

termen with blackish lunules ; fringe pale-mixed. Hindwing rather pale, 

with fleshy suffusion, about as in the $ of rostellaria Feld. or both sexes of 
callistrepta Prout (1928) ; cell-spot dark grey, moderately large ; postmedian 
line slightly darkened on the veins, between R s and fold incurved, behind the fold 
faint : a faint, dusky, macular subterminal band ; terminal lunules constricted 
in middle, slightly suggesting paired dots. 

Forewing beneath less contrasted, the pale parts nearly as above, the rest 
less dark ; cell-spot and terminal markings fairly strong. Hindwing more 
ivory-yellow than above, only fleshy mixed about the subterminal band ; 
moderate grey irroration ; cell-spot strong, blackish, other markings slight. 

Iguassu, Parana, 2 rfrf, the type dated October 26, 1921 ; both in coll. Tring 
Mus. ; also a damaged o lrom Buenavista, E. Bolivia, July-October 1906 
(J. Steinbach), in the same collection. 

105. Biston regalis pelidna subsp.n. 

rj, 63 mm. Black lines thinner than in r. regalis Moore (1888) from N. India, 
the brown band proximally to the antemedian narrow, the median shade broad 
and strong (rather dark grey), more distally placed, postmedian line of forewing 
also rather distal, terminal area of both wings more clouded with brown, the 
white midterminal spot wanting. 

W. Java : Mt. Cede, 4,000 ft., 1896 (H. Fruhstorfer), type in coll. Tring Mus. 

16. Epimecis amianta sp.n. 
(J, 56-64 mm. Very near subalbida Warr. (1900), both in appearance and 
structure. Termen of hindwing less deeply crenulate. Ground-colour clearer 

white, the dark irroration much less dense. Forewing with antemedian line 

rather more distal, close to the base of M s , much straighter except for the anterior 
angulations ; cell-mark generally more elongate ; postmedian thicker, distinct 
throughout, less oblique anteriorly, scarcely oblique between the radials, with a 



70 Novitatks Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

supplementary tooth on R ! , rather less oblique inward behind R 1 ; subterminal 
less regular, the lunule behind R* developed into an oval white spot, that behind 

M 1 with a sharper blackish spot proximally. Hihdwing with median shade 

less incurved anteriorly than in subalbida, postmedian thicker, subterminal 

lunules shallower. Underside with borders as in subalbida, the lines showing 

the same distinctions as above. 

Amazons : Calama, Rio Madeira, below Rio Machados, August-October 1907 
(W. Hoffmanns), type ; Fonte Boa, May 1906 (S. M. Klages), a small $ taken 
together with subalbida. British Guiana : Potaro, February 1908 (S. M. Klages), 
1 q. All in coll. Tring Mus. Also known to me from Matto Grosso and Bolivia. 

17. Cleora alienaria fumipennis subsp.n. 

" Boarmia acaciaria Bdv. form carnaria Guen." Hmpsn. in Monorjr. Chris/mas Island, p. 70 (1900). 
Chogada fumipennis Warr. MS. in coll. Tring Mus. 

<J$, 30-38 mm. Smaller than a. alienaria Walk. (= gelidaria Walk.). 
Antenna of J pectinated appreciably further. Hindtibia of ,3 almost 7 mm. long, 

tarsus less than 3 mm. Forewing rather more pointed than in a. alienaria, 

the white parts always with a definite suffusion of yellow or brown, the dark 

markings heavy. Hindwing with the white cell-dot generally rounded, without 

the posterior extension ; pale band between postmedian and subterminal generally 

strongly developed. Underside suffused with glossy brown, postmedian line 

rather strong, on hindwing sharply angled in middle ; dark borders heavy. 

Christmas Island : Ross Hill ; Murray Hill ; Flying-Fish Cove ; N. part 
of Island ; E. coast ; type from Ross Hill in coll. Brit. Mus. 

18. Cleora pendleburyi sp.n. 

(J, 46-50 mm. Closely similar to determinata Walk. (I860), with which I 
formerly confused it. On an average less large. Abundantly distinct in the 
genitalia : valve broader in centre, the armature (including the harpe of Pierce) 
quite different, the strong spine (which is common to both) much more strongly 
curved, etc.. the whole structure indicating a possible race of Ulustraria Walk. 
(1862), though pendleburyi is longer- winged, less sharply marked, with abdominal 
belt weaker, underside more blurred. 

Forewing with the markings appreciably less heavy and coarse than those 
of determinata, more recalling fraterna Moore (1888) ; cell-mark narrowed, nearly 
as in the latter, without such a large proximal projection or accessory spot as in 
determinata ; median line generally weak or obsolete ; brown band outside the 

postmedian less developed or narrower. Hindwing with similar toning down 

of the markings, the band outside the postmedian narrowed and not spotted with 
blackish. 

Underside with the dark borders less extremely broad and heavy than in 
determinata, particularly on the hindwing, where in determinata it absorbs and 
obliterates the postmedian line and commonly even the cell-spot, whereas in 
pendleburyi it begins to pale before reaching the postmedian, which stands out 
thick and strong in an appreciably more blackish brown. 

Selangor : Bukit Kutu, circ. 3,500 ft., a good series ; the type, taken at light, 
April 16, 1926 (H. M. Pendlebury) presented to the British Museum. Also from 
Kedah Peak, 3,200 ft. and (lunong Angsi, Negri Sembilan, 2,000-2,700 ft. (Raffles 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 71 

Museum). Except on Kedah Peak it was accompanied by determinata. Perak. 
Borneo and S.W. Sumatra also yield this species ; from the slopes of Korintji 
the Pratt brothers sent a fine series. 

The $ apparently differs from that of determinata in similar ways as regards 
reduction of cell-spot on forewing above and of both borders beneath, but, curi- 
ously, the median line is well developed in pendleburgi, nearly obsolete in deter- 
minata. 

19. Cleora illustraria aequivoca subsp.n. 

o$, 42-48 mm. Structure of illustraria Walk. (1862) and anestiaria Swinh. 
( 1915) including the genitalia, so that it is safe to assume that all three are races 
ul' a single species. Very distinct in showing the dusky coloration of injectaria 
Walk. (1860), only in one 9 with some white admixture remaining in the basal 
and median areas, the incomplete line between postmedian and subterminal ami 
small apical and midterminal spots beneath, besides the base of abdomen above. 

Forewing dark greyish brown, with a slaty tinge and with some black irrora- 

tion ; the brown bands which bound the median area indicated, with some 
ochreous scaling on the veins. — Hindiving similarly darkened, proximal area 
scarcely paler than median, cell-dot small or subobsolete, its black circum- 
scription strong. Underside also darkened, especially in the q. 

Vulcan Island, November 1913-January 1914 (Meek's Expedition), 2 $£, 
2 $$ in coll. Tring Mus. (types), further examples in the Oberthur and Joicey 
collections. 

Other races of illustraria, closely similar to i. anestiaria, but apparently 
separable, occur on New Ireland and New Britain, but I have seen too few 
examples to be able to differentiate them with confidence ; the New Guinea race 
anestiaria is very variable, but regularly more sharply variegated than the name- 
typical illustraria of Queensland. 

20. Cleora injectaria dobboensis subsp.n. 

<J, 44-46 mm. Rather larger and fuller- winged than the J ] of the other 
races. Abdomen and median area of both wings above and beneath a good 
deal marked with white or whitish, as in some (J examples of the small, narrow, 
blackish Rossel Island race vittata Warr. (1899) ; cell-marks with the black circum- 
scription strong ; median line not very black, the streak which in many of the 
forms runs from it to or towards midtermen not developed ; postmedian of 
forewing as strongly dentate posteriorly as in ;'. vittata. 

Aru Islands : Dobbo, March 1897 (Doherty), 3 ^3 in coll. Tring Mus. 

C. injectaria Walk. (I860.) = compactaria Walk (1862) is one of the most 
widely distributed species of the group ; a melanic race from Engano has been 
named fuliginosa Warr. (1894) ; some interesting island forms are — as with 
illustraria — still insufficiently known. 

21. Cleora munditibia sp.n. 
cJ$, 40-44 mm. Very similar to nausori B.-Bak. (1905). Hindtibia in both 
sexes pale, without the smoky mottlings which are always conspicuous on its 
outerside in that species. Colouring less tinged with ochreous than in nausori ; 
the white cell-marks, especially on forewing, more diffuse, less clearly expressed, 
without such sharp blackish dashes distally ; the lines not accompanied by 



72 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

conspicuous band-like shades. — Forewing with antemedian more strongly ex- 
curved in cell, postmedian generally more inbent in front of the outward bend 
at R 1 ; subterminal with similar proximal dark maculation at the radials, but 
with the distal maculation at the same position weaker, not (as in nausori) spread- 
ing forward to SC 5 . Underside with less cloudings than in nausori but — at 

least on hindwing — with more definite demarcation between the dusky sub- 
marginal shading and the nearly clear marginal band. 

Fiji: Obalau I. (R. Baxendale), 4 £<$, 5 $? in coll. Brit. Mus., ex coll. 
Bethune-Baker, including ,_J type and $ allotype ; Nasoua. 1 -j. 1 $, from the 
same source ; Viti Levu (Woodford), '-i o o m C °U- Joicey ; Ba River (Woodford), 
1 cJ in coll. Tring Mus. ; Labasa, dwarfed 9? bred from larvae found feeding on 
leaves of Murium aterrima Holland (W. Greenwood). 

Bethune-Baker (Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1905, p. 94) mentions this species 
as an ab., " uniformly paler." of vitensis B.-Bak., but the genitalia are of a quite 
different type and that species has the underside much more as in the ittustraria 
group, besides several other differences. The valve of munditibia is furnished 
with short curved proximal spines instead of a single long spine as in nausori. 

Zeuctocleora gen.n. 

Face slightly rounded, with appressed scales. Palpus rather short ; second 
joint with close, compact scaling, third joint short, concealed. Tongue short. 
Antenna in q pectinate, in $ subpectinate, in both sexes with apical part merely 
ciliated. Pectus slightly hairy. Femora not hairy. Hindtibia in o dilated, 
with hair-pencil ; abdominal spine vestigial or wanting. Frenulum fully 

developed. Forewing in q rather narrow, in $ broader, termen oblique, 

gently curved, scarcely waved ; fovea in j large ; cell half ; SC 1 free or 
anastomosing slightly with C, SC from stalk of SC' 3 " 5 , R 2 slightly before middle 

of DC, M l well separate. Hindwing with costa slightly elongate, termen 

moderately rounded, waved, scarcely crenulate ; cell nearly half, DC slender ; 
C curving, appressed to cell — commonly even anastomosing — towards middle, 
then rapidly diverging, R l separate, R 2 wanting, M 1 separate. 

Type of the genus : Zeuctocleora una sp.n. 

Probably a development of the proemia group of Cleora. but distinct in the 
stalking of SC 2 of the forewing. the peculiar curve of C of the hindwing, etc. 

22. Zeuctocleora una sp.n. 

<J, 25-28 mm. ; $, 29-31 mm. Face blackish, narrowly pale below ; palpus 
black. Head and body brown, much clouded with black. Legs, especially the 
foreleg, black mixed, leaving the ends of the tibial and tarsal joints conspicuously 
pale. 

Forewing bright brown, mottled of two or three shades (more yellowish. 
reddish and purplish) and irrorated with black, in a few ] ? and most $? heavily 
clouded with black, in which case the costal area generally remains conspicuously 
less blackened ; cell-dot indistinct ; lines black, rarely very distinct throughout ; 
antemedian acutely angled outward in cell, accentuated on M (just proximal to 
M 2 ), excurved between this and SM 2 ; median thickened at costa, considerably 
nearer to post- than to antemedian, zigzag, rather variable, sometimes blurred ; 
postmedian nearly parallel with termen in anterior half, then slightly incurved, 



XoYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 73 

with a slight tooth outward at SM 2 ; deeper black marks on this line at R 1 , R : ' 
and M 1 , pointing inward, developed in the rj ; a fine pale distal edging to the line 
noticeable, at least at costa ; subterminal line weak to nearly obsolete, but always 
developing a whitish spot (variable in size) at and behind R\ often succeeded by 
a pale mark along R 3 to termen ; terminal line crenulate, enclosing small whitish 

vein-dots ; fringe marked with blackish opposite the veins. Hindwing with a 

straightish median shade and a minutely crenulate postmedian line, the latter 
angled at R 3 and slightly sinuate inward between M 2 and SM 2 , the two somewhat 
convergent posteriorly ; a fine pale distal edging to the postmedian ; subterminal 
chiefly indicated by a dusky proximal shade, no enlarged pale spot at R 3 ; ter- 
minal line and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside pale, with strong dark-grey irroration and clouding ; costal 
margins more buff, on forewing with fine blackish strigulae ; no distinct markings, 
the postmedian generally indicated, at least costally ; fringe spotted opposite 
the veins. 

N.E. Madagascar : Diego Suarez, February-September 1917 ; Sakaramv, 
February 1917 (G. Melou), a long series in coll. Tring Mus. 

23. Catoria tamsi sp.n. 

<J, 45 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings, the face and upperside 
of palpus blackish, abdomen with some dark subdorsal spots. Hindtibial dilation 
not extreme. 

Forewing with the long stalk of SO ■ generally arising from the stalk of 
SC 1 " 5 near its base (as in normal sublavaria Guen.) and anastomosing with C ; 
white with rather strong brown irroration, nearest in effect to strongly dusted 
camelaria Guen., but a little darker, the irroration having a slightly more olive- 
tinged setting ; markings as in camelaria, slightly heavier than in any but extreme 
aberrations of that species ; costal spot at commencement of postmedian line 
subquadrate, about 1 mm. in diameter, succeeded by a second slightly less broad. 

rather nearer to it than to the subterminal. Hindwing with markings similarly 

heavier than in normal camelaria, the median line somewhat thickened in the 
cell, the outer postmedian, thick between SC 2 and R 3 ; cell-mark long-oval, filled 
in with black, as in rare aberrations of camelaria. 

Underside almost exactly as in rather strongly suffused examples of sub- 
lavaria Guen. ; forewing with two subquadrate dark costal postmedian spots, 
corresponding to those of upperside ; terminal white spot behind R' smaller than 
white apical patch. 

Perak : Batang Padang, Jor Camp, 1,800 ft., May 31, 1923 (H. M. Pendle- 
bury), type in coll. Brit. Mus., presented by the Federated Malay States Museum ; 
Mt. Tahan (Waterstradt), a $ in coll. Tring Mus. Sumatra : Lebong Tandai 
(C. J. Brooks), a $ in coll. Joicey, with stalk of SC 1 ' 2 arising from the cell. 

I am indebted to Mr. W. H. T. Tarns for kindly investigating, on British 
Museum material, the $ genitalia of the representatives of the principal Catoria 
forms belonging to the present group, including a Singapore specimen of the new 
species. The results are very interesting, as the shape and especially the armature 
of the valves show very wide differences as between species and species. 
C. olivescens Moore (which Hampson, Faun. Ind., Moths iii. 370, made a " form " 
of xtiblavaria, though he has never been followed in this) is so similar in structure 



74 XnviTATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXV. l\*'2'l. 

to camelaria that Mr. Tarns would regard it as a race thereof in spite of the wide 
superficial divergence: sublavaria Guen., hemiprosopa Turn, (with subspecies 
affinis Prout) and the new species are all totally different from camelaria and from 
one another. 

24. Diplurodes inundata sp.n. 

cj$, 28-30 mm. Face white, mixed with brown. Palpus with second 
joint very broadly scaled, third joint very small ; predominantly brown. Vertex 
whitish. Antenna of q with the ciliation over 2. Thorax and abdomen whitish, 
mixed — especially above — with brown or fuscous ; lateral tufts of ,$ moderately 
strung. Hindtibia of j not dilated. 

Forewing broad, apex appreciably more rounded than in the nearest allies 
(decursaria Walk. 1862, vestita Wan-. L896, etc); fovea strong; median area 
white, with little irroration ; cell-mark black, narrow, a little elongate ; proximal 
and distal areas pale quaker-drab or mouse-grey, clouded with brown ; lines 
blackish ; antemedian from costa just beyond 3 mm., excurved, but with a slight 
inward sinus behind ; postmedian arising about 5 mm. from apex, slightly intensi- 
fied at costa and on veins, with moderate projections outward behind R l and behind 
M 1 (slightly variable) ; a brown median line, arising from a blacker costal spot 
near the cell-mark, oblique outward from R l , describing an irregular outward 
sinus, slightly angled inward between bases of R 3 and M l , a second sinus touching 
the postmedian at M 2 ; markings of distal area much as in indentata Warr. (1897) 
or weakly marked vestita, but with longitudinal blackish clouding between R J 
and M 1 from postmedian to subterminal rather strongly developed, pale mid- 
terminal patch indicated. Hindwing much as in decursaria, but without such 

sharply blackish shading proximally to the subterminal. 

Underside distinctive, esjiecially in the (J, the dark borders being exception- 
ally broad ; in the q they nearly reach the cell-mark and do not enclose pale 
terminal spots or band, only narrowing and weakening towards abdominal 
margin of hindwing, and the space between cell-mark and border on the forewing 
is more or less suffused (in all the allies clear whitish), in the $ it is only slightly 
less extreme ; median line on forewing and antemedian line or band on hindwing 
also present. 

Penang (loc. typ.), April, May, June and November (Curtis), 3 <JcJ and 1 $ 
in coll. Tring Mus. ; Singapore, 4 ^ J in coll. Brit. Mus. ; Selangor : Bukit Kutu 
(H. M. Pendlebury), 1 3 and 1 ? in coll. Federated Malay States Museum ; 
Negri Sembilan : Gunong Angsi, in coll. Raffles Mus. & coll. L. B. Prout ; S.W. 
Sumatra: Barisan Range (Pratt brothers), 2 JJ, Lebong Tandai, 1 $ in coll. 
Joicey. 

25. Diplurodes semijubata sp.n. 

J, 29-33 mm. Antenna! ciliation at least twice as long as broadest diameter 
of shaft. Abdomen with the lateral pencils well developed, fuscescent. 

Larger than fimbripedata Wan-. (Nov. Zool. vii. 113), hindtibia simple, mid- 
fcibia very strongly fringed, the fringe short at distal end, steadily lengthening 

to become very long at proximal end. Forewing with DC similarly formed but 

less extreme ; markings stronger and more variegated, a strong dark shade 
proximal to the subterminal nearly always conspicuous ; apex pale ; a mid- 
terminal pale patch as in exprvmata Walk. (List Lep. Ins. xxiii. 764) or usually 
connected with a tornal one. Hindwing with abdominal flap nearly as in 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 75 

fimbripedata, termen more regularly shaped ; median shade very rarely suffusing 
with postmedian, the rather large black cell-dot being usually placed on an almost 

white area ; subterminal shading and midterminal pale patch as on forewing. 

Underside with the outer dark band not reaching termen, but well developed on 
both wings. 

Malay Peninsula : Bukit Kutu, Selangor, 2,500 ft. (H. M. Pendlebury), the 
type at light, April 13, 1920, presented to the British Museum, other examples 
in different collections from the type locality and from Gunong Angsi, Kedah 
Peak, Taiping, etc. 

26. Synegia (Eugnesia) liparampyx sp.n. 

<$, 33-34 mm. ; $, 33-38 mm. Head orange, tip of palpus yellow ; vertex 
predominantly bright yellow. Body above orange, clouded with purple-grey, 
collar-tippets and second segment of abdomen purple-grey ; beneath paler. 
Antenna of <$ simple, not serrate as in albibasis Warr. (1906). 

Wings orange, nearly as in fulvata Warr. (1906) but with a pale yellow admix- 
ture, especially in the median area of the forewing behind the cell-dot, and with 
grey cloudings recalling those of commaculata Warr. (1907) and correspondens 
ab. concurrens Warr. (1897) though not quite so solid. Forewing with trans- 
verse shades formed nearly as in fulvata, the lines themselves, however, somewhat 
more blackened ; a pale spot outside the postmedian between SC S and R :1 ; a 

rather pale apical spot, bounded behind by an oblique dark dash. Hindwing 

with the antemedian shade indistinct, the macular subterminal rather strong, 
followed towards termen by a second, irregular series. 

Underside paler, with similar markings. 

Dutch New Guinea: Mt. Goliath, 5,000-7,000 ft., February 1911 (A. S. 
Meek), 2 ^J, 2 ?$, in coll. Tring Mus. 

The larger $ is of a brighter red, with the dark cloudings intensified and 
extended, occupying nearly the whole distal area except for the radial and apical 
spots of the forewing, which are both mixed with reddish. A rather extreme $ 
of this aberration, from Mt. Kunupi, Weyland Mountains, 6,000 ft., November- 
December 1 920, is in the Joieey collection. The aberration may be distinguished 
as intensicolor ab. n. 

27. Synegia (Syntaracta) eehmatica sp.n. 

J, 34-37 mm. In structure similar to albibasis Warr. (1906), which it perhaps 
represents in the Snow Mountains. Abdomen with the same snow-white spot 
on second tergite, the succeeding tergites with elongate pale-yellow spots, much 
as in camptogrammaria Guen. Colouring about as in nigrellata Warr. (1906), 
but with the orange irroration rather stronger and coarser, the lines a little stronger, 

less strongly grey-mixed. Forewing with costal edge dark, rather closely 

spotted with black ; cell-dot sharp, not minute ; lines widely (5-7 mm.) apart, 
the accompanying shades rather narrow, postmedian almost direct . finely lunulate- 
dcntate, a conspicuous narrow, very pale yellow band outside it : subterminal 
about as in albibasis, but strongly darkened ; terminal line black, interrupted . 

fringe sharply spotted. Hindwiny with antemedian only strong behind the 

cell ; postmedian more distally placed and rather more bent in the middle than 
in albibasis, with blackish spots at the outward angles at radial fold and submedian 



76 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929 

interspace ; longitudinal shade not broad, a little curved and oblique, starting 
close to the postmedian at M 1 and ending at terrnen about R 1 ; termen and fringe 

as on forewing. Underside rather paler, the markings greyer. 

Snow Mountains, Dutch New Guinea : Upper Setekwa River, 2,000-3,000 ft., 
September 1910 (A. S. Meek), type ; Utakwa River, 3,000 ft., January 1913 
(A. F. R. Wollaston) ; both in coll. Tring Mus. The second specimen must 
evidently be the one recorded by Rothschild (Lep. Br. Orn. Un. Exp. p. 81) as 
" Syntaracta clathrata Warr.," but is quite different in colour from any form of 
that variable species, has non-pectinate J antenna and is smaller, with several 
minor distinctions. 

28. Nadagara cryptospila sp.n. 

$, 39 nun. Head and body pale purplish grey, the head and thorax more 
or less mixed with cinnamon, the palpus with some dark irroration. 

Forewing rather more elongate than in the genotype, the termen rather 
strongly oblique, scarcely curved, not appreciably waved anteriorly ; pale pur- 
plish grey, with a vinaceous tinge and with a slight irroration of cinnamon, which 
becomes strong enough proximally to the postmedian to produce a proximally 
ill-defined band of that colour ; a few scattered dark scales ; lines very weak ; 
antemedian a little thickened at an outward angle near costa, otherwise scarcely 
traceable ; postmedian very fine, slightly pale-edged distally, especially at the 
veins, at first 3 mm. from termen, about R 1 curving to become slightly 
more oblique than termen, running almost straight to i hindmargin ; some 
slight clouding outside the postmedian, developing two dark spots between R 1 

and SC S and a weaker, more cinnamon one behind R 3 ; fringe concolorous. 

Hindwing rather elongate costally, apex nearly square, termen almost smooth, 
very gently rounded ; postmedian line continued, little beyond middle of wing, 
strongest anteriorly, bent close to costa, otherwise almost straight ; no other 
distinct markings. 

Underside similarly or rather more brightly coloured, the dark irroration 
rather stronger ; both wings with large black, faintly pale-pupilled cell-dot : 
forewing in anterior part with a faint line indicating the position of the sub- 
terminal maculation of upperside, in posterior part with weak indication of the 
postmedian line ; hindwing with a fairly strong postmedian, curved parallel 
with and about 4 mm. distant from the termen, black-dotted on the veins. 

Federated Malay States: Pahang, "Cameron's Highlands," Tanah Ratu, 
4,800 ft., October 26, 1923 (H. M. Pendlebury). Type in coll. Brit. Mus., pre- 
sented by the Federated Malay States Museum. 

A damaged pair from Gunong Ijau, Perak. in coll. Tring Mus., the <$ with 
only three wings, show that sex to have the hindtibia dilated, with hair-pencil. 
In that specimen the cinnamon — or even an almost brighter — colour suffuses 
nearly the whole of the upperside, while the Perak $ is intermediate in colouring 
and has the line rather strongly expressed ; both, but notably the $, have the 
cell-marks above rather less weak than in the type. 

I have published a survey of this genus in Insects of Samoa, iii. (3), 164-7. 
in the key (pp. 164-5) cryptospila can be separated at No. 9 by having the ante- 
median line obsolescent posteriorly and the cell-dots enlarged beneath. In 
colouring it is nearer to juventinaria Guen., but it is much longer winged, with 
the postmedian fully as oblique as in epopsioneura Prout. 



NOVITATES ZoOLOOICAE XXXV. 1929. 7 7 

29. Luxiaria submonstrata celebensis subsp.n. 

cj$, 34-37 mm. Forewing of £ shorter anteriorly and relatively broader 
than in «. submonstrata Walk. (1861), termen appreciably less concave. Hindwing 
with termen not extremely scalloped, SC : in the only known q separate (in s. 
submonstrata commonly connate). The pale parts appreciably whiter, particu- 
larly in the <J beneath ; the distal white markings on the $ underside extended. 

Celebes : Ramboekers, Tondano (Weigall), type <$ and 2 $$ ; Bonthain, 
5,000-7,000 ft., August 1896 (Doherty), 1 $ ; all in coll. Tring Mus. 

As Mubrasata is represented in New Guinea by the still more extreme-shaped 
and darker inferna (Warr., 1903, described as Euippe), it is possible that all three 
should be regarded as separate species. 

30. Luxiaria despicata sp.n. 

<J, 28-37 mm. Antenna simple. Hindtibia moderately dilated, the hair- 
pencil pale. 

Wings formed as in the species which passes as acutaria Snell. (vide Nov. 
Zool. xxxii. 63 ] ) ; considerably smaller ; colour light drab or drab grey rather 
than brown (i.e. coloured like rather weakly-marked submonstrata), the greyer 
band outside the postmedian present or (almost) wanting ; cell-mark not or 
scarcely ocellated ; postmedian punctiform, even less curved than in the species 

named ; markings otherwise similar. Hindwing with cell-dot very small, but 

sharply expressed ; postmedian as on forewing. 

Underside pale or whitish, with the lines slender, often weak, only exception- 
ally with a well-developed band outside the postmedian. 

$ similar to the banded (J {J, or to a washed-out $ of submonstrata. 

Khasis, not uncommon in various collections, the type from Cherrapunji, 
November 1893, in coll. Tring Mus. Rarer in Sikkim. 

Like most of the group, this little species has suffered from misidentifications. 
Warren called in hypaphanes Hmpsn. or turpisaria Walk. ; in Swinhoe's collection 
it stood as submonstrata. 

1 Snellen's type, from N. Sumatra, which should be in the collection of the Natura Artis Magistra, 
is unfortunately mislaid, as I am informed by Mr. J. B. Corporaal, who kindly made search for it 
on my behalf. In Snellen's own collection various species of the group were mixed. 



78 NnVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXV. 1920. 



A FURTHER NOTE ON THE GENUS LAMPRIBIS. 

By DAVID BANNERMAN, M.A., F.R.S.E. 

Plates IV and V. 

TX the American Museum Novitates, No. 84, 1923, pp. 1-9, Dr. J. P. Chapin 
returns to the vexed question of the Olive Ibis of Du Bus and its repre- 
sentatives on the African mainland and the islands of the Gulf of ( iuinea. 

In previous reviews ' of the genus Lampribis I had expressed the opinion 
that Du Bus's " Ibis olivacea " (type locality unknown) had been obtained on the 
West African coast rather than in one of the islands ; moreover, I had formed 
the opinion (from literature) that the type-specimen, mounted in the Brussels 
Museum, probably came from Lower Guinea : thus I sank Reichenow's Lampribis 
ciipreipennis, described from Bipindi in Cameroon, into the synonymy of 
Lampribis olivacea olivacea. At the time of writing I had only seen a young 
bird from Efulen in Cameroon and the fine representative in the island of Principe 
which I named Lampribis rothschildi. 

Following this statement Dr. Chapin, of the American Museum of Natural 
History, took the opportunity when in Brussels of examining Du Bus's type in 
the Royal Museum of Natural History, and after taking measurements of that 
specimen, and comparing it with the description and measurements of Lampribis 
splendida Salvadori, expressed the opinion that they would prove to be one and 
the same bird, although he never had an opportunity of comparing the one with 
the other. Dr. Chapin gives additional- reasons for believing that Du Bus's 
type came from Upper rather than Lower Guinea — reasons which must 
undoubtedly be taken into account. Having set out his conjectures commendably 
clearly, he states, " A comparison of Biittikofer's specimen " [L. splendida 
Salvad.] " with the type of olivacea in Brussels and specimens of ciipreipennis 
in London, Tervueren, and Berlin, is to be hoped for." 

As these specimens are of great value — not to be measured in pounds sterling 
— and moreover were widely scattered in the principal museums of Europe, the 
accomplishment of Dr. Chapin s wish presented exceptional difficulties. 

A comparison of the "types" became still more imperative when the 
Si/^lciiiii. A rium Ethiopicarum was published in 1924, for in that important publica- 
tion the author had accepted the views of the present writer published previous 
t<> the appearance of Dr. Chapin's paper. 

Thanks to the kind offices of Dr. Percy Lowe and the far-sighted policy of 
Dr. Van Straelen of Brussels, Dr. Van Oort of Leyden.Dr. Stresemann of Berlin, 
and Dr. Gestro of Genoa, the types of Lampribis olivacea, Lampribis splendida, 
L. ciipreipennis. and L. rothschildi have been most generously forwarded by their 
respective custodians to the British Museum, while Lord Rothschild has been 
good enough to send me the only example - (a fine {'.) male) of Lampribis akleyorum 
in Europe, the unique opportunity is given, therefore, of comparing these types 
with one another. 

i Bull. B.O.C., L919, pp. 5- 7 and Ibis 1921, pp. 108-110. 

-' Sunt- writing the above another example of this rare Ibis from Mount Kenya has been sent 

to t In' British Museum. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 79 

Unfortunately M. Berlioz of the Paris Museum could not eomjjly with our 
request to send to London the type of Lampribis bocagei, but thanks to Dr. Frade 
of the Lisbon Museum we have examined two specimens of this race described 
from Sao Thome, which were forwarded from Lisbon for the purpose. 

This contribution is not intended to supercede Dr. Chapin's more exhaustive 
paper but merely to support the main conclusions at which he arrived, for until 
all the types were compared we were working on supposition alone. 

In his review Dr. Chapin treated L. o. cupreipennis as a subspecies of 
L. olivacea olivacea, but he kept akleyorum from Kenya and both the island birds, 
rothschildi and bocagei, as distinct species. It seems to the writer that all these 
birds are best treated as sw&species of L. olivacea, and as such I shall consider 
them in future. 

A comparative examination of Du Bus's type of L. olivacea with Salvadori's 
L. splendida proves that, as Chapin surmised, splendida must be considered a 
synonym of olivacea ; allowing for wear and fading in a specimen described in 
1838 (!) — which is still in a wonderful state of preservation — there is no difference 
between them which cannot be ascribed to the causes mentioned. The bare 
skin of the face in L. splendida certainly covers a larger area than in the type of 
L. olivacea, but this may be owing to the skin being stretched in the former 
specimen and rather drawn in the latter. 

In the all-important measurements the two specimens agree very closely — ■ 
much more closely than would appear from Dr. Chapin's comparative table of 
measurements on p. 9, where he gives the length of the culmen of L. splendida 
from rear of nostril as about 100 (on Salvadori's authority apparently), whereas 
it is in reality when measured exactly 95 mm., within one millimetre of the 
length of the culmen in L. olivacea. 

In the measurements which I have taken of the four tyj>e-specimens before 
me I find that I differ very little from Dr. Chapin's own measurements, but I do 
differ in an infinitesimal degree, so that I append herewith the measurements 
I have arrived at myself. In the type of L. olivacea, for instance, I find that my 
measurements of the wing, tail, and tarsus are in each case 1 mm. longer than 
those given by Dr. Chapin, though we get the same measurements for the culmen. 
My measurements are appended : — 



- 


Wing. 


Tail. 


< lulmen 

from 
nostril. 


Bill from 

teal tu i s. 


Tarsus. 


Tyrit; in. 


L. o. olivacea (type) 


334 


147 


m 


_ 


68 


Brussels (mounted) 


L. splendida (type) 


330 

(broken) 
at tip) 


150 


95 




73 


Leiden 


/.. cupreipennis (type) 


312 


1 33 


83 


— 


58 


I terlirj 


/,. rothschildi (type) . 


328 

(damaged) 


132 
(worn) 


95 




7H 


1 IniMU 


L. bocagei 


259 


11 13 


— 


82 


51-5 


Paris (mounted) 




(imm) $ 237 


105 


69 


74 


511 


Lisbon 




J 251 


99 


rir-cj). t.t 


circa 85 
(broken) 


54 


Lisl 


L. akleyorum 


; :;:,., 


154 


— 


125 


?:t 


Tring 




; :;i,s 


159 




124 


66 


Bril ish Museum 



As regards the range of the various forms, it certainly appears probable, 
taking everything into consideration that Du Bus's type — -the mounted specimen 



SO Novitates ZooLoiarAE XXXV. 1929. 

in the Brussels Museum — came from Liberia. Satvadori's splendida obtained 
by Buttikofer in Liberia consequently becomes a synonym of the former species. 

L. olivacea olivacea therefore becomes the name for the Olive Ibis inhabiting 
Upper Guinea and L. cupreipennis Reichenow for that inhabiting Lower Guinea, 
as Dr. Chapin suggested as the most probable solution. 

Comparing the type of splendida (which must now be called olivacea olivacea) 
with cii/iri i pi nuts, both adults (though q and $ respectively) in beautiful fresh 
plumage., we find that splendida. has the upper parts more brownish-olive 
which in cupreipennis are of an oily bottle-green (or a dark olive without any 
brown). 

The metallic gloss on the lesser wing coverts is definitely more copper-coloured 
in splendida, decidedly greener in cupreipennis. 

The rump, upper tail-coverts, and rectrices are principally green in splendida, 
principally blue in cupreipennis. 

On the undersurface splendida is lighter and browner in colour — cupreipennis 
darker with the brown lower chest and belly strongly glossed with dark olive. 

In size the bill is noticeably longer in splendida than in cupreipennis and the 
amount of bare skin on the forehead is greater. 

The dimensions of the two types and the type of L. olivacea olivacea can be 
best seen by referring to the comparative table on p. 79. 

Thanks to the generosity of Lord Rothschild, who has most kindly invited 
me to publish these notes in his journal, the heads of all the known races of 
Lampribis olivacea are now beautifully figured by Mr. Gronvold, for although 
certain sketches appeared with Dr. Chapin's article neither Lord Rothschild nor 
myself considered them satisfactory. 

I cannot close this article without expressing my very deep appreciation of 
the manner in which those responsible for the care of these valuable specimens 
responded to Dr. Lowe's request to send them to the British Museum. In no 
other way could this question have been settled v\ ith any degree of finality, for 
it will be many years before the types of L. olivacea, L. splendida, L. cupreipennis, 
and L. rothschildi can be examined under the same roof. 

The writer is more particularly gratified as it has enabled him to deal with 
these Ibises in his forthcoming work on the Birds of West Africa in a manner 
which could not have been otherwise accomplished. 

Distribution of the Genus Lampribis. 1 

Lampribis olivacea olivacea (Du Bus). 

Synonym Lampribis splendidus Salvad. 

Range : Liberia and perhaps the adjacent " Coast of Guinea." 

Lampribis olivacea cupreipennis (Reichw.). 

Range : Cameroon and Gaboon, extending eastwards across the Belgian 
Congo. 

Lampribis olivacea rothschildi Bannerman. 

Range : Principe (or Prince's Island), Gulf of Guinea. 

1 Space does not admit here of entering into tile detailed distribution or the life-histories, in 
so far as they are known, of these rare Ibises. The subject will be dealt with at length \>y t he present 
author in his forthcoming volumes on the Birds of Western Africa, vol. i. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 11129. 81 

Lampribis olivacea bocagei Chapin. 

Range : Sao Thome (or St. Thomas Island), Gulf of Guinea. 

Lampribis olivacea akleyorum (Chapman). 

Range : Southern slopes of Mount Kenya, 6000-1200 ft., 1 Kenya Colony. 

(Said to have been observed in the Aberdare Mountains 9000 ft. and 
on Mt. Elgon 8000-10,000 ft. These last require verification.) 

Lampribis rara Rothsch., Hart., and Kleinschm. 

Range : Liberia to Angola, extending eastwards across the Belgian Congo 
to Avakubi and Bomakandi. 

Note by Lord Rothschild. 

When Messrs. E. Hartert, 0. Kleinschmidt, and I, in Nov. Zool. vol. iv, 
pp. 376, 377, applied the new name of Lampribis rara to Ussher's Denkera bird 
figured by Elliot, P.Z.S., 1877, pi. 51, we merely stated that it was quite different 
from Lampribis olivacea Du Bus and made no further remarks. I cannot, however, 
refrain from expressing astonishment that two such eminent ornithologists as 
D. G. Elliot and R. Bowdler Sharpe could have for a single moment conceived 
that the Denkera birds with the orange-buff variegated undersides could be the 
same as the bird figured with a plain grey breast as " Ibis olivacea " by Du Bus. 
If they had said they were the young birds it would have been quite excusable, 
but as they treated the one most distinct as the adult it can only be explained 
by thinking that they considered the plate made from the original type as wholly 
unreliable and misleading. I have added the figure of L. rara to those of the 
five subspecies of L. olivacea to illustrate fully the genus Lampribis. This figure 
will at once show how different L. rara, with its heavily spotted underside and 
wedge-shaped crest, is from the second and genotypical species Lampribis olivacea 
Du Bus. I can only conclude by saying that although we have now received 
a considerable increase in recorded specimens of this genus, it still remains one 
of the rarest of genera in the museums of the world. 

1 According to Mr. Akeley. 



82 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



ON THE TYPE OF LARUS AFFINIS REINHARDT. 

By the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain, M.A., H.F.A.O.U., H.M.O.S. France and 

Germany, etc. 

Plate VI. 

TN 1853 Dr. J. Reinhardt published a paper on the Birds of Greenland in the 

Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjobnhavn, in which (p. 78) he described 
a Gull in winter plumage obtained at Nanortalik in 1851 as possibly a new species, 
under the name of Larus affinis. Further notes by the same writer will be found 
in the " List of the Birds hitherto observed in Greenland," in the Ibis, 1861, 
13. 17. In separating this straggler from Larus argentatus the main characters 
relied on by Reinhardt were the darker colour of the mantle, which he describes 
as " many shades darker" and the smaller size. 

In 1S78 Howard Saunders published his paper, " On the Larinae or Gulls," 
in the P.Z.S., pp. 155-212, and upheld Reinhardt 's new species, of which he 
examined the type in the Royal Museum at Copenhagen. He identified it with 
the breeding Gulls from the Petchora Delta brought back by Seebohm and Harvie- 
Brown ; but it is interesting to note that while Hartert and Dwight are agreed 
in regarding the Petchora birds as a race of Larus fuscus (L. f. taimyrensis But.), 
Saunders (t.c, p. 172) says " The present species is in fact a Herring Gull, which 
passes the whole of the year in a brilliant atmosphere." 

It will be noticed that Saunders, like Reinhardt, regarded the type of 
L. affiyvis as belonging to the argentatus group, though he also points out that it is 
rather closely connected with L.fuscus" (although quite distinct) in the length of 
its foot as compared with that of the tarsus, it having a proportionately smaller 
foot than either L. argentatus, L. cachinnans or L. occidentalis, but larger than 
L. fuscus." 

When writing on the Gaviae in vol. xxv of the Catalogue of the Birds in the 
Brit. M us. in 1896, he seems to have modified his views on this point and in the 
Key (p. 172) and also on p. 255 clearly admits that the nearest ally of L. affinis 
(= tainujrensis) is L. fuscus. 

In 1898 HerrH. Winge (Meddelelser <f>m Grtj>nland, xxi, pp. 176-8) pointed out 
that Reinhardt 's bird was smaller than the normal Siberian breeding bird, which 
like his predecessors he regarded as a dark race of L. argentatus, but in spite of this 
discrepancy he. referred both to the same form. 

In 1913 Mr. T. Iredale obtained the loan of the type from the Copenhagen 
Museum, and at once recognized its distinctness from L. f. taimyrensis. After 
a close examination, in which he was assisted by Mr. W. R. O. Grant, he came 
to the conclusion that it was a specimen of the pale-backed British race of Larus 
fuscus, which had recently been separated by Dr. P. Lowe under the name of 
L.fuscus britannicus. The type-specimen, which was set up in 1851 was exhibited 
in its case at a meeting of the Brit. Ornith. Club on March 19, 1913, and 
Mr. Iredale subsequently published in Brit. Birds, vi, pp. 360-364, a paper dealing 
with the question, pointing out that Lowe's name of britannicus must give way 
to Reinhardt 's affinis for the British race of L. fuscus. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 83 

Herr Winge, however, dissented from this on the ground that the type of 
affinis lacked the long slender tarsus and short toe of fuscus, but in spite of this 
Iredale's conclusions have been generally adopted and the name affinis applied 
generally to the British Lesser Black-backed Gull. At the International 
Ornith. Congress at Copenhagen in 1926 the question was re-opened, when 
Dr. Wesenburg Lund and Mr. E. Lehn Schiller exhibited the type to the members 
of the Congress on May 27, and expressed their conviction that the bird was 
L. argentatus and not L. fuscus. The specimen was, of course, in its case, and could 
not be handled or measured, but as most of the measurements were already known 
this was less essential. The most striking points of difference between the two 
species are the colour of the mantle and feet. In argentatus the mantle is very 
pale-blue grey ; in fuscus it varies from slate-grey in the British race to slaty 
black in Scandinavian birds : while the feet are yellow in fuscus and flesh-coloured 
in argentatus. In most other respects they agree closely and measurements over- 
lap, but the bill of argentatus is heavier and deeper, the tarsus of fuscus is more 
slender and the middle toe shorter, while there are also differences in the colouring 
of the primaries. 

In the present case it is not possible to ascertain the original colour of the 
feet. The colour of the mantle is that of L. argentatus, but the specimen is over 
seventy years old, and though not exposed to direct sunlight has been set up and 
shown in a gallery of the museum for many years. Reinhardt described the 
mantle as " many shades darker " than that of argentatus, which is certainly not 
the case at present. Iredale's photograph (1913) also shows a strikingly pale 
mantle, but in his article he does not refer to this point and presumably regards 
it as the result of fading. 

The Copenhagen bird seems to have stouter, clumsier-looking feet, and a 
more massive bill than L. fuscus. This latter characteristic is very conspicuous 
in Iredale's photograph, but is explained as being the result of the bird's head 
being slightly turned towards the photographer. Reinhardt measured the tarsus 
and middle toe with claw as 56, 56 mm., Winge more recently gave them as 
59, 57 mm. from the stuffed bird. The small tarsus suggests a female, but might 
apply to either species : the middle toe is, however, long for fuscus and strongly 
suggests argentatus. There is no allusion to the colouring of the primaries in 
Iredale's paper. 

Even with the advantage of fresh skins with notes on the coloration of the 
soft parts, it has been shown that the older writers regarded taimyrensis as a 
Herring Cull, while modern workers class it as a form of fuscus : atlantis is treated 
by Dwight as a subspecies of fuscus, yet Hartert places it under argentatus, while 
cachinnans is by some held to be merely a race of argentatus, while others treat 
it as a distinct species. It is therefore not surprising that there should be differ- 
ences of opinion with regard to a seventy-year-old skin, lacking data as to the 
colour of the soft parts and presumably faded. To all appearance it is only a 
rather small but otherwise normal, Herring Gull (L. argentatus), but in order to 
put the identification beyond doubt Dr. Hartert has communicated with Mr. R. 
Herring of the University Museum at Copenhagen, who has made a close inspect i< m 
of the primaries and very kindly supplied carefully drawn diagrams, showing the 
distribution of colour. Unfortunately Nos. 1 to 3 are unmoulted juvenile feathers, 
but there can hardly be any doubt from the conspicuous white tips and grey 
bases of 4 and 5 that the bird belongs to the argentatus group. This can best be 



84 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1!I20. 

appreciated from a study of Mr. Herring's diagrams, but taken in conjunction 
with the heavy bill, stout tarsi and long middle toe, as well as the pale mantle, 
these characters support the general consensus of those present at the Congress 
that Larus affinis Reinhardt must be relegated to the synonymy of L. argentatus. 

The question now arises as to what is the proper name for the British race 
of Larus fuse us. A. E. Brehm (Naturhist. Zeitung, Neue Folge, hi, 1857, p. 483) 
described a winter bird from Malaga under the name of Larus graellsii. His 
description, as pointed out by Lowe, is in some respects defective, as he describes 
it as " multo major, rostro multo crassiori et colore valde clariori." The type, 
however, is still in existence in the Brehm collection at Tring Museum. It was 
shot at Malaga, 21.x. 1856, and Dr. Hartert states that it is undoubtedly of the 
British race. Dr. Lowe's statement in British Birds, vi, p. 3, that " the type, too, 
is missing " was evidently made under a misapprehension, and as Brehm's name 
has over fifty years' priority over Lowe's name of brilannicus (Brit. Birds, vi, 
p. 2, 1912), it will have to be adopted in future. 

While expressing my thanks to Dr. Hartert and Mr. Herring for their assist- 
ance, I should like to express my regret that Mr. Schiller has been prevented by 
illness from dealing with this subject, on which no one is better qualified to write. 

Note. — On referring to Dr. Dwight's Laridae of the World, I find that an 
unfortunate series of misprints renders the figures of the primaries of L. fuscus 
almost useless. On p. 215 affinis is said to be illustrated by fig. 140, and Lowe's 
type by fig. 141 ; taimyrensis by fig. 141 and 142, but fig. 141 is again said to 
represent britannicus and 142 antelius (= taimyrensis). 

On the plate (p. 360), figs. 141-142 are marked affinis, and 140 as taimy- 
rensis ! Dr. Hartert informs me that he finds that there is more variation in 
the wing pattern and colour of the primaries than most authors realize. 

F. C. R. J. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 85 



ON SOME ORIENTAL SPHINGIDAE. 
By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With five text-figures.) 

1. Oxyambulyx sericeipennis Butl. (1875). 
HPHERE are two subspecies in India, one inhabiting the North-West and the 
■^ other the North and North-East. We had no specimens from North- 
West India when we wrote the account of the species in the Revision. 

a. 0. s. sericeipennis Butl. (1875). 
0. sericeipennis Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 252. no. 34 (1875) (Massuri) ; Roths. & Jord. 
Revision of Sphingidae, p. 195. no. 156 (1903) (partim ; Randakheit). 

Major F. B. Scott has bred a small series of this subspecies. 
Hub. N.W. India. 

b. 0. s. sericeipennis agana subsp. nov. 

0. sericeipennis Bntl., Roths. & Jord., I.e. tab. 9. fig. 2 <?, tab. 22. fig. 27, tab. 23. fig. 9, tab. 30. 
fig 9, tab. 31. fig. 16 (1903) (partim ; Sikkim, Khasia and Jaintia Hills, and Tenasserim). 

cj$. On the whole larger than the N.W. Indian subspecies, but many 
specimens in the series bred by Major F. B. Scott at Shillong small (underfed ?). 
The underside of both wings paler yellow than in 0. s. sericeipennis, less brick- 
red, particularly in the outer half. Process (uncus) of anal tergite narrower, 

its apical portion as seen from the side wider vertically ; the dentate ridge of 
the harpe of the clasper somewhat longer. 

Hab. Sikkim (type figured on tab. 9 of the Revision) ; Assam ; Tenasserim. 

2. Marumba gaschkewitschi fortis subsp. nov. 

(J$. Forewing as long as in M. g. iratu Joicey & Kaye (1917), to which this 
subspecies is nearest in its colouring as well as geographically ; dentition of 
terminal margin more prominent ; on upperside the interspace between the 
two outer antemedian lines and that between the two inner discal lines filled in 
with brown, thus two transverse bands being formed which are more conspicuous 
and deeper in tone than in any specimen we have of other subspecies of 
M . gaschkewitschi ; terminal area deejD brown, extending in costal two-fifths of wing 

to the outermost discal line ; subtornal blackish brown double spot large. 

Hindwing as in M . g. complacens distally much shaded with brown, anal mark 
large. 

On underside the brown disal line of the forewing distinct from costa to 
below middle, separating a narrow grey band from the grey discal area, the 

disc proximally of this line washed with brown, more so in J than in $. On 

the hindwing the interspace between the two proximal median lines filled in 
with brown, this band crossing the tip of the cell ; the brown line placed beyond 
this band very distinct ; terminal area nearly as in M. g. complacens, contrasting 
strongly with the greyish discal band, the discal line which forms the boundary 



86 Novitates Zoolocicae XXXV. 1929. 

of the dark terminal area diffuse. The colouring of the underside on the whole 

brighter in the $ than in the <J. 

Length of forewing : (J 48 mm., $ 54 mm. 

Hab. Yunnan, a pair in the Tring Museum. 

3. Rhodoprasia callantha sp. nov. 

A beautiful sjjecies recently bred by Major F. B. Scott. 

cj$. Whereas in Rh. floralis Butl. (1877), the only other known species of 
the genus, the fcretibia bears a long thorn or claw at the apex, there is no such 
armature in the new species. This difference might be considered to be of 
generic value ; but the new species agrees otherwise so well with Rh. floralis 
that the original diagnosis of Rhodoprasina R. & J. (1003) should be modified 

rather than that a new genus be erected for the reception of Rh. callantha. 

Body and wings deeper-coloured than in Rh. floralis, forewing less dentate, on 
underside the middle line more proximal. 

(J. Antenna thinner than in Rh. floralis, the segments less deeply constricted. 
Body above olive-green, somewhat brighter below, particularly on the abdomen, 
which has a yellowish tint. Tibiae and tarsi more or less blackish, shaded with 
grey on the upperside ; foretibia without terminal claw ; hindtibia with a 
minute anteapical spur and a pair of short apical ones. 

Wings, upperside : Forewing olive-green, partly shaded with white, which 
gives it a sage-green appearance in certain lights ; hindmargin a little more 
deeply sinuate than in Rh. floralis and more convex proximally of the sinus, 
tornal lobe broader, terminal margin more convex in lower half and here hardly 
at all dentate ; three olive-green transverse lines nearly as in Rh. floralis ; the 
first straight, shaded with white on outside, the second slightly convex, the 
third, which crosses R 3 halfway between cell and distal margin, more strongly 
convex in anterior third and here more distal than in Rh. floralis ; between 
second and third lines a narrow band consisting of two rather faint olive-green 
lines which costally are curved basad ; beyond this band a diffuse white costal 
spot ; terminal area a little paler green, shaded with white, the proximal 
margin of this terminal border dentate, the grey shading projecting at R 2 to 

near the discal line ; hindmargin red at base. Hindwing carmine, costal area 

down to R 1 and anal area dull olive-green, the former more sharply defined than 
in Rh. floralis ; the red area extending to termen between R 1 and R\ but washed 
with olive-green at the termen. 

Underside paler green than upper, with a distinct yellowish green tint ; 
forewing as in Rh. floralis with a large carmine patch from near base to just 
beyond apex of cell ; a discal line slightly S-shaped, bounded with white costally 
on the proximal side, the white scaling also forming a diffuse costal spot proximally 
of the white line, but connected with it ; between this line and the termen a 
diffuse dark olive-green dentate line corresponding to the distal boundary of the 

olive-green area of the upperside. Hindwing : costal margin slightly, but 

distinctly concave from near base, convex at three-fourths where the distal 
transverse line reaches the costal margin ; three lines as in Rh, floralis, but the 
second line placed much nearer to the first than to the third, proximally of 
second and third lines conspicuous white shading along the lines, third line 
convex anteriorly, concave posteriorly (the line straight or nearly so in Rh. 
floralis) ; a lighter green terminal band very irregular, widest below costal angle 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAF. XXXV. 1920. 



87 



(about 5 mm. broad at R-), fading away at anal angle, anteriorly within this 
border diffuse olive-green spots close to termen. 

$. The olive-green colour of the o replaced on the upperside by greenish 
tawny-olive, on the underside by brighter tawny-olive ; in a crippled 5 the 
colouring somewhat greener. The white shading on the upperside rather more 

extended than in the £. On the underside a blackish dot close to apex of 

forewing corresponds to an olive-green minute dot of the $ ; centre of base of 
hindwing pale green ; on both wings blackish and grey diffuse submarginal 
scaling which, on forewing, forms an irregular triangular patch from anal angle 
forward, and on hindwing an irregular band which is nearly interrupted before 
middle. 

Genitalia. $ : tenth tergite longer than in Rh. florali.s, 1 particularly the 
narrowed apical portion, at apex a minute median incision, no division into 
two prongs ; margin of tenth sternite faintly incurved in middle. Harpe of 
clasper as in Rh. floralis but the neck of which the pair of prongs are the 
continuation a little shorter, the prongs slightly variable in lengths, either the 
proximal prong the longer or the distal one. Penis-sheath with a large, conical, 

slightly compressed, horizontal tooth. $ : Around orifice a moderately raised 

halfring which is open posteriorly, the segment membranous in front of the half- 
ring and at the sides, and wrinkled. 

Length of forewing : $ 41 mm., $ 46 mm. 

Hab. Shillong, Assam, bred by Major F. B. Scott in August, October, and 
November, 1 <$ and 2 $$, and a pair of cripples. 




4. Gurelca masuriensis Butl. (1875). 
The Indian specimens of Gurelca with the terminal band of the hindwing 
tapering anally were treated by us in the Revision as belonging to one species 
only. Major F. B. Scott, however, has lately obtained specimens of this type 
from two remarkably different larvae (which he will describe and figure), and 
on examining the specimens bred by him we find that (1) they represent two 

1 We have now two <J(J (and one $) of Rh. floralis ; in one of them the tenth tergite is com- 
paratively short and broad and is forked as figured in the !:■ vision (lab. 25, figs. 1 and 24) ; in the 
other it is longer and narrower, and the division into two prongs is only indicated by an incision. 



88 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

species, and (2) that one of them is the true G. masuriensis, of which there are 
no specimens in the Tring Museum. The synonymy as given in the Revision 
must be amended as follows : 

Gurelca himachala himachala Butl. (1875). 

Lophura himachala Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Land. p. 621. no. 1 (1875) (X.E. Himalayas). 
Lophura erebina Butler, I.e. no. 3 (1875) (X.W. India). 

Gurelca masuriensis masuriensis Butl., R. & J., Revision of Sphingidae, p. 589. no. 525a. tab. 49. 
fig. 32, tab. 55. fig. 40 (1903) (partim ; Darjiling ; Buxa, Bhutan ; Khasia Hills ; Cherrapunji). 

A second subspecies is G. himachala sangaica Butl. (1875) from China, 
Formosa, Korea, and Japan. 

Gurelca masuriensis Butl. (1875). 

Lophura masuriensis Butler, I.e. p. 244. no. 16. tab. 36. fig. 3 (1875) (Masuri) 

0. masuriensis masuriensis Bull.. R, & J., I.e. p. 589. no 525a (1903) (partim ; Masuri). 

This species is greyer than G. himachala, the anal lobe of the forewing is 
shorter, the hindmargin of the wing not being quite so deeply excised as in 
G. himachala ; the black terminal band of the hindwing is anteriorly broader 
and here not sharply defined, the blackish brown colouring invading the disc ; 
the yellow area paler, particularly on the underside. 

Type (in B.M.) not dissected. In the two $$ bred by Major F. B. Scott 
the anal tergite more compressed than in G. himachala, the sternite (text-fig. 1) 
less broad and more gradually narrowed to a point. Harpe (text-figs. 2, 3) 
spatulate, concave on the upperside, with the apical margin incised on emarginate 
above middle, proximally of the apical dilated portion a low obliquely transverse 
ridge. The apical armature of the penis-sheath (text-figs. 4, 5) consists of a 
prominent, non-dentate ridge which ends at both sides with a sharp hook 
pointing frontad. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 89 



FURTHER RECORDS OF NORTH-AMERICAN BIRD-FLEAS, WITH 
A LIST OF THE NEARCTIC BIRDS FROM WHICH FLEAS 
ARE KNOWN. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

TN comparison with the large number of species of land and sea birds which 
breed in the United States and Canada the records of the fleas occurring 
on them and in their nests are very scanty. Any addition to our knowledge of 
the distribution of the species of fleas among the North American birds, therefore, 
is most welcome. In Nov. Zool. xxxiv, p. 182 (1928) I had occasion to express 
my gratitude to Mrs. K. C. Harding, of Brooklyne, Boston, Mass., for her assist- 
ance in collecting bird-fleas. Mrs. Harding has continued her examination of 
birds' nests and has again been successful in breeding fleas from nests taken 
after the fledglings had left. Although no new species were found, Mrs. K. C. 
Harding, in obtaining fleas in nests of several birds from which these Ectoparasites 
were not known, has established new host records. Moreover, no bird-fleas 
were previously known from New Hampshire. 

A. Bird-Fleas Collected by Mrs. K. C. Harding at Holderness, N.H., 

in June 1928. 

l. Seiurus aurocapillus L. (1788) ; Ovenbird. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925), a series. 

2. Dumetella carolinensis carolinensis L. (1758) ; Catbird. 
A series of the same flea. 

3. Hylocichla fascescens fuscescens Stephens (1817) ; Wilson's Thrush. 
The same flea. 

4. Planesticus niigratorius migratorius L. (17(56); Robin. 
The same flea. 

5. Sialia sialis sialis L. (1758) ; Bluebird. 
The same species in numbers. 

B. Bird-Fleas Collected by Mrs. K. C. Harding at Cohasset, Boston, 

Mass., in July 1928. 

6. Troglodytes aedon aedon Vieillot (1807 or 09?); House Wren. 
Likewise a series of Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925), which is evidently a 
species occurring on many hosts. 

C. Mrs. K. C. Harding forwarded, in addition, the following Bird-Fleas : 
Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. (1920), collected by Mr. A. W. Higgins at Rock, 

Mass., from the nest of Sialia sialis sialis, in July 1928 ; also by Mr. L. W. 



90 X..V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

Smith at Babson Park, Mass., from the nest of Iridoprocne bicolor Vieillot (1807 
or 180S) in July 1928 ; and by L. Fletcher at Cohasset, Mass., from the nest 
of Sialia sialis sialis. 

Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1S03), collected by Messrs. L. W. and T. D. 
Smith at Babson Park, Mass., in nests of Sialia sialis sialis in June and July 1928. 

I append here a list of the North American birds of which fleas are known, 
hoping to induce thereby one or the other biologist interested in birds to pay 
greater attention to these Ectoparasites than has hitherto been the case. Nesting 

boxes afford a very good opportunity for collecting bird-fleas. The names 

of the birds are taken from the third edition of the Check-List of North American 
Birds (New York, 1910). 

1. Colymbus holboelli Reinh. (1853); • Holboell's Grebe. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (192.5) : Okanagan Falls, B.C., April 1913 
(C. Garrett). 

2. Spatula clypeata L. (1758) ; Shoveller. 
It is uncertain as to whether the fleas were obtained from this bird or from 
Steganopus tricolor; Ceratophyllus garei Roths. (1902): mouth of Bear R., 
Utah (A. Wetmore). 

3. Oidemia deglandi Bonap. (1850) ; White-winged Scoter. 
Ceratophyllus garei Roths. (1902) : Edmonton, Alta (A. Hine). 

4. Steganopus tricolor Vieillot (1819) ; Wilson's Phalarope. 

Cf. No. 2. Ceratophyllus garei Roths. (1902) : mouth of Bear R., Utah 
(A. Wetmore). 

5. Gallus domesticus L. (1758); Domestic Fowl. 

Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803) : Barker, N.Y. (E. P. Felt) ; and Perry, 
N.Y. ; Eliot, Maine, August 1923 (P. R. Lowry). 

Ceratophyllus niger niger Fox (1908) : San Francisco (Carroll Fox) ; Blue 
W 7 ake, Cal. (A. H. Krausse) ; Bridgeport, Cal. (F. C. Bishopp) ; Tacoma, Wash. 
(F. C. Bishopp) ; Essington, B.C. (J. H. Keen). 

Echidnophaga, gallinaceus Westw. (1875) : Southern States, northward to 
New York State and Missouri, an Old World species. 

6. MeleagTis gallopavo L. (1758) ; Turkey. 
Echidnophaga gallinaceus Westw. (1875) : Southern States. 
Ceratophyllus niger niger Fox (1908) : Alberta (A. D. Gregson). 

7. Sphyrapicus ruber ruber Gmel. (1788) ; Red-breasted Sapsucker. 
Ceratophyllus gallhnilae perpinnatus Baker (1904) : Queen Charlotte I., May 
1920 (J. A. Munro). 

1 C. griseigena holboelli. 



Novitates Zoolooicak XXXV. 1929. 91 

8. Cyanocitta stelleri carlottae Osgood (1901) ; Queen Charlotte Jay. 
Geratophyllus gallinulae perpinnalus Baker (1904) : Masset, Queen Charlotte 
I., June 1920 (1920). 

9. Passer domesticus L. (1758) ; English Sparrow. 
Geratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803) : Mount Kisko, N.Y., June 1927 
(K. Jordan). 

10. Melospiza melodia caurina Ridgw. (1899) ; Song Sparrow. 
Ceratophyllus gallinulae perpinnalus Baker (1904) : Masset, Queen Charlotte 

I., June 1920 (J. A. Munro). 

11. Iridoprocne bicolor Vieillot (1807 or 1808); Tree Swallow. 
Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. (1920): Okanagan Landing, B.C., July 1913 

(J. A. Munro) ; also Babson Park, Mass., July 1928 (L. W. Smith). 

Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803) : Babson Park, Mass., July 1927 
(L. W. Smith). 

12. Riparia riparia L. (1758) ; Bank Swallow. 

Ceratophyllus riparius J. & R. (1920) : Rosslyn, Va., June 1916 (F. C. 
Bishopp) ; Ithaca, N.Y., July 1921 (R. C. Shannon) ; Bay View, Milwaukee, 
May 1911 (R. A. Muttkowski) : Okanagan Falls, B.C., April 1913 (C. Garrett). 

Ceratophyllus celsus Jord. (1926) : Okanagan Falls, B.C., April 1913 (C. 
Garrett. 

13. Lanivireo solitarius cassini Xantus (1858) ; Cassin's Vireo. 

Ceratophyllus gallinulae perpinnalus Baker (1904) : Sweet Spring I , B G, 
August 1928 (K. Racey). 

14. Vermivora celata lutescens Ridgw. (1872); Lutescent Warbler. 
Ceratophyllus gallinulae perpinnalus Baker (1904) : Masset, Queen Charlotte 
I., June 1920 (J. A. Munro). 

15. Seiurus aurocapillus L. (1766); Ovenbird. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925) : Holderness, N.H., June 1928 (Mrs. K. C. 
Harding). 

16. Dumetella carolinensis carolinensis L. (1766) ; Catbird. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925) : Cohasset, Mass., August 1927, and 
Holderness, N.H., June 1928 (Mrs. K. C. Harding). 

17. Thryomanes bewicki Audub. (1827) ; Bewick's Wren. 
Ceratophyllus gallinulae perpinnalus Baker (1904) : Sumes, B.C., April 
1905 (A. Brooks). 

The host possibly misidentified for Troglodytes aedon parkmani Audub. 
(1839). 

18. Troglodytes aedon aedon Vieillot (1807 or 1808) ; House Wren. 
Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. (1920) : Cohasset, Mass., July and August 1927 
(Mrs. K. C. Harding and K. Jordan). 



02 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925) : Cohasset, Mass., July 1928 (Mrs. K. C. 
Harding). 

19. Telniatodytes palustris Wilson (1810) ; Marsh Wren. 
Ceratophyllus garei Roths. (1902) : Shoal Lake, Manitoba, May 1917 (Gordon 
Hewitt). 

2(1. Hyolocichla mustellina Gmel. (1788) ; Wood Thrush. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925) : Colpoys Bay, Ontario (A. B. Klugh). 

21. Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens Stephens (1817) ; Veery. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925) : Holderness, N.H., June 1928 (Mrs. 
K. C. Harding). 

22. Hylochichla ustulata ustulata Nuttall (1840) ; Russet-backed Thrush. 
Ceratophyllus gallinulae perpinnatus Baker (1904) : Masset, Queen Charlotte 
I., June 1920 (J. A. Munro). 

23. Planesticus migratorius migratorius L. (1766); Robin. 
Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925): Holderness, N.H., June 1928 (Mrs. 

K. C. Harding). 

24. Planesticus migratorius propinquus Ridgw. (1877) ; Western Robin. 
Ceratophyllus niger Fox (1908) : Okanagan Landing, B.C., June 1917 (J. A. 

Munro). 

25. Sialia sialis sialis L. (1758) ; Bluebird. 

Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803) : Babson Park, Mass., July 1927 and 
June and July 1928 (L. W. and T. D. Smith). 

Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. (1920) : Rock, Mass., July 1927 (A. W. Higgins) ; 
Cohasset, Mass. (L. Fletcher). 

Ceratophyllus diffinis Jord. (1925) : Holderness, N.H., June 1928 (Mrs. 
K. C. Harding). 

26. " Goose," not identified. 
Ceratophyllus garei Roths. (1902) : Edmonton, Alta (A. Hine). 

Accidental occurrence of bird-fleas on mammals : 

Ceratophyllus niger niger Fox (1908) : San Francisco, on Homo (collected 
by Carroll Fox). 

Ceratophyllus niger infiexus Jord. (1929) : Colorado Springs, Colo., on 
Eutamias, xi.1909 (E. R. Warren). 

Accidental occurrence of mammal-fleas on birds : 

Ceratophyllus asio Baker (1904) : Wellesley, Mass., on Otus asio asio L. 
(1758) (A. P. Morse). 

Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank (1803) : Adirondack Lodge, Essex Co., N.Y., 
ix. 1928, on Tamias striatus L. (1758) (K. Jordan). 

O) Q 

LU 

CO 

^V3HM(7§^ ^ X 

fy A A W _ V\ -S rV 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



Fig. 



1. 

2a 

3, 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES I AND II 
PLATE I. 

Ceralophyllus vesperalis q 

b „ 99 . 



a-g „ caedens durus $$ 

sexdendatus nevadensis q 
,, schisintus $ 

arizonensis littoris 9 
labis 9 
rupestris <J 

„ 9 • 

10. asio (J 

ii. „ „ 9 • 

12. „ megacolpus 9 • 

13. ,, immitis 9 

14. „ eumolpi cyrturus <J 

15. ,, cilialus protinus <J 

16. „ „ „ _ 9 

17. ,, „ mononis <J 
18- •• „ „ ? 



PLATE II 

Fig. 19. Ceralophyllus wagneri wagneri 9 

20. „ „ ophidius \ 

21. „ thambus <$ 

22. „ stejnegeri £ 

23. „ „ 9 

24. „ celsus apricus q 

25. „ niger inflexus 9 

26. Dactylopsylla comis 9 • 

27. Phalaaropsylla arachis <$ 

28. „ shannoni cJ 
29 2 

30. Nycteridopsylla chapini £ 

31. „ „ ? 



p. 2S 



p- 


29 


p- 


30 


p- 


31 


p- 


31 


p- 


32 


p- 


32 


p- 


32 


p- 


33 


p- 


33 


p- 


33 


p- 


33 


p- 


34 


p- 


34 


p- 


34 


p- 


35 


p- 


35 


p- 


35 


p- 


36 


p- 


36 


p- 


36 


p 


36 


p- 


37 


p 


37 


p 


38 


p 


38 


p 


38 


p 


38 


p 


39 


p 


39 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGIC.E. VOL. XXXV. I929. 



PL. I. 




I'aws & Crampton, Ltd- 



Novitates ZoologicE. Vol. XXXV. IQ29 

20. 



PL. II. 




aus & Crampton, Ltd 



Novitatks ZooLomcAE XXXV. 1929. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III 



ig. 1. 


Harpe of Oxyambulyx substrigilis brooksi 








. p. 61 


2_ 


„ ,, tattina 








p. 62 


„ 3. 


,, ,, clavata 








p. 61 


„ 4. 


Sternite VII of 0. iiryeri <$ . 








p. 60 


„ 5. 


„ „ 0. clavata <$ 








p. 61 


„ 6. 


)s j) )> 








p. 61 


„ 7- 


,, ,, 0. substrigilis brooksi 








p. 61 


„ 8. 


n >j '? " 








p. 61 


„ 9. 


„ ,, 0. tattina 








p. 62 


„ 10. 
„ 11. 

„ 12. 


Internal armature of penis-sheath of 0. pryeri 








p. 60 


Penis-sheath of 0. clavata 








p. 61 


„ 13. 


Inner armature of same 








p. 61 


„ 14. 


,, ,, „ from another specimen 








p. 61 


„ 15. 


Penis-sheath of 0. substrigilis brooksi 








p. 61 


„ 16. 


Inner armature of same 








p. 61 


„ 17. 


Penis-sheath of 0. tattina 








p. 62 


„ 18. 


Inner armature of same . . . . 








p. 62 



N0V1TATES ZOOLOGIOE. VOL. XXXV. I929. 



PI. III. 




Novitates Zooi ogic/e. Vol. XXXV. 1920. 



IV IV 




L.AMPRIIJIS RARA ROTHSCH. HART. & KlEINSCHM. (British Museum.) 




Lampribis olivacea clpreipennis Rchw. (Type. Berlin Museum.) 




LAMPRIBIS OLIVACEA OLIVACEA (DlBls). (Type. Brussels Museum.) 



ezMAod 



Novitates Zoolocicae. Vol. XXXV. 1929. 



PI. VI. 




FIRST K1GIIT PRIMARIES I IF THE TYPE OF LABUS AFF/.VIX RHDT., NAM iHTALIK, GREENLAND. 
/,'. lL<rrl„.j.] 



LEPIDOPTERA 

COLLECTED BY THE 

British Ornithologists' Union and Wollaston Expeditions in 
the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 

WITH TWO COLOURED PLATES 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D. 

(LORD ROTHSCHILD) 

PRICE : £1 5s. (less 20% to Booksellers). 



A REVISION OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY 

SPHINGIDAE 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D., 

AND 

KARL JORDAN, M.A.L., Ph.D. 

PRICE : £5 (less 20% to Booksellers). 



ciixt and 972 pages, with 67 Plate«. 



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THING. 



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of the succeeding part, otherwise the missing numbers cannot be replaced free. 

PBJMTXC BY BAZELL, WATSOM ASD VUfKT, LD. , LOWDOIf AMD AYLESBURY. 



). .-> <*-y. 



NOYITATES ZOOLOfilCAE. 



I* 



H journal of Zoology 



KDITED BY 



LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dk. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXV. 



No. 2. 

Plates VII-X. 

Pages 93-234. 

Issued September 30th, 1929, at the Zoological Museum, Tring. 



PRINTED BY HAKKLL, WATSON k VLNEr, LTD., LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 

1929. 



Vol. XXXV. 

N0VITATE8 Z00L0GICAE. 

EDITED BY 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAN. 
CONTENTS OF NO. II. 



PAGF.9 



1. ON VARIOUS FORMS OF THE GENUS TYTO . Ernst Hartert . 93—104 

2. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF JAPANESE, 

FORMOSAN AND PHILIPPINE GEOMETRIDAE R. J. West . 105—131 

3. ON THE GEOMETRID GENUS CATORIA MOORE L. B. Prout . 132—141 

4. NEW PALAEARCTIC GEOMETRIDAE . . L. B. Prout . 142—149 

5. ON SOME GEOMETRID TYPES FROM THE STAUDER 

COLLECTION L.B. Prout . 150—154 

6. ON FLEAS COLLECTED BY DR. H. M. JETTMAR IN 

MONGOLIA AND MANCHURIA IN 1927 AND 1928. 

(PLATES VII-X.) Karl Jordan . 155—164 

7. TWO NEW AFRICAN SPECIES OF CTENOPH- 

THALMUS (SIPHONAPTERA) .... Karl Jordan . 165—167 

8. ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF SIPHONAPTERA 

FROM THE ADIRONDACKS WITH A LIST OF 
THE SPECIES KNOWN FROM THE STATE OF 
NEW YORK Karl Jordan . 168—177 

9. SOME NEW 'PALAEARCTIC FLEAS . . . Karl Jordan . 178—186 

10. ON POLYPTYCHUS PYGARGA AND SOME ALLIED 

SPECIES (LEP. SPHINGIDAE) .... Karl Jordan . 187—191 

11. FOSSILE VOGELEI-SCHALEN . . . . M. Schonwetter 192—203 

12. UBER DIE EIER DER PARADIESVOGEL . . M. Schonwetter 204—211 

13. UEBER DEN FORMENKREIS DES CHARADRIUS 

ALEXANDRINUS Oscar Neumann . 212— 216 

14. UEBER DIE FORMENKREISE VON PYRRHURA 

PERLATA UND PYRRHURA LEUCOTIS . . Oscar Neumann 217—219 

15. LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN MOROCCO 

IN 1927 BY ERNST HARTERT AND FREDERICK 

YOUNG Lord Rothschild 220—234 



/» • 



. T ** 






NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 

Vol. XXXV. SEPTEMBER 1929. No. 2. 

ON VARIOUS FORMS OF THE GENUS TYTO. 

By ERNST HARTERT. 

TYTO ALBA AND ITS SUBSPECIES. 

rPHE examination of a Barn-Owl, the first recorded from the Solomon 

Archipelago, which had been collected by R. H. Beck on Vella Lavella 
Island, 11 Nov. 1927, when he was leader of the first Whitney South Sea 
Expedition, led me to revise the Barn-Owls, a genus of birds which contains 
some of the most beautiful birds, and of which I have been always particu- 
larly fond. 

When Sharpe monographed this group in vol. ii of the Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
(1875), he did much the same as we do now, as regards species, distinguishing 
specifically " Strix flammea and allies," Strix novae-hollandiae, tenebricosa, capensis, 
and Candida, but he declared all the various names given to subspsecies of 
" flammea" to be, in his opinion, synonyms, while he separated the closely allied 
castanops as a subspecies of novae-hollandiae. This was not consistent or logical, 
as many of the subspecies of "flammea," which he treated as synonyms, are 
much more different from the first-named, European, form, than castanops is 
from novae-hollandiae. 

Sharpe's volumes of the Catalogue of Birds are immortal, and generally 
the best of that famous series, but it must not be forgotten that the idea 
of subspecies was then very vague, and the following quotation will show how 
little material was expected at the time. Sharpe wrote in 1875, i.e. over half a 
century ago : " It is seldom that an opportunity is afforded to the ornithologist 
of examining such a fine series of birds as has been permitted to use in the case 
of the Barn-Owls ; and it would be difficult to find a more comprehensive 
collection that at present exists in the British Museum." Yet he had only 
116 specimens from all over the world of what he called Strix flammea, while 
the Museum now contains many many more, and there are now before me 
in the Tring Museum no less than 435 skins. Moreover, when Sharpe wrote 
that, there were vast regions of the world unexplored, and especially many 
of the Indo-Malayan and Australian Islands were only touched or entirely 
unexplored. 

While some forms are fairly widely spread, others are more local, and insular 
forms are often very well marked. 

I can now distinguish the following subspecies : 

7 "J3 



94 XoVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXV. 1929. 

Tyto alba alba (Scop.). 

Stri.r alia Scopoli. Annus I, Hist. Nat. i. p. 21 (1769 — " Ex Foro Jnli " = Friaul). 

Tlie above name must be used for the continental Mediterranean Barn- 
Owl, which has the underside as a rule white, with a few blackish or brown-grey 
spots on the sides of the body, which are nearly always present, though often 
very small. Underside rarely suffused with brownish yellow. The tail is pale 
yellowish brown or pale brownish yellow, with the usual cross-bars, sometimes 
wider, sometimes very narrow. The upperside is of course lighter than in the 
usual dark specimens of Tyto alba guttata from ( 'entral Europe, but does not differ 
from the typical British ones or from Spanish ones. It seems that specimens 
with pure white underside, without any spots, are rare, but possibly more fre- 
quent than we know in Greece. Wings, 281-296, once 310; metatarsus, 
56-63 mm. 

This form inhabits Italy, north to southern slopes of the Alps. Sicily, 
apparently also Greece (rare !), Corfu, Crete, and Cyprus, and in the west 
apparently through the Balearic Isles and Spain, westernmost France to the 
Channel Islands to British Isles and Ireland. In France brown and white forms 
occur, but the ones with white underside are more common than in Germany, 
but in westernmost and southernmost France the white underside is apparently 
commoner than in eastern and northern France. Cf. notes in Vog. pal. Fauna, 
pp. 1030 and 1033-1034. 

Kleinschmidt separates the Barn-Owls of the Rhine-valley as T. a. rhenana, 1 
not because he can distinguish any specimens from either the Central European 
ones, or from the Mediterranean form, but because there is a greater percentage 
of underside white specimens than in other parts of Germany, and more brown 
ones than in Southern Europe. This is quite true, of course, but the conclusion 
that they must therefore have a special name is, in my opinion, not correct. 
We cannot explain every phenomenon by our clumsy nomenclature. Nomen- 
clature must be able, and its object is, to distinguish by names forms which can 
be distinguished, but not forms which are not distinguishable, though a certain 
proportion of specimens differ. And it is not possible to say how many differ, 
as we generally can only compare an infinitesimal proportion of the actual 
population. To talk of an " average " (" Durchschnitts ") size or coloration, when 
only a few or a dozen specimens have been examined, is doubtless a great mistake ! 

I consider Tyto alba kleinschmidt i Jordans : an undoubted synonym of 
T. alba alba. The author has been kind enough to send me six beautiful skins 
which he collected in Mallorca. He described the form in 1924 from nine speci- 
mens. He explains (what we all know) that many specimens (" grosses Material ") 
are necessary to see the " Variationsbreiten " — but he did not have large series, 
but only nine specimens ! Judging from these nine specimens he talks of the 
normal type (" Mittelwert "), which, however, he could hardly know. He knew 
well the great variability of Barn-Owls, but did not take the consequences into 
account. Jordans says that such heavily spotted undersides as are common 
in Spain are not found in Mallorca. He could not know this, as he had only 
nine ; moreover, that heavily spotted underside is not, apparently, usual in 
Spain, as I have not seen one that was heavier spotted than the most spotted 

1 Strix flammea rhenana Kleinschmidt, Berajah, Slrix Flammea, p. 20. 

2 Tyto alba kleinschmidti Jordans, Journ. f. Orn. 1924, p. 409 (Balearic Isles, type in Jordans' 
Fpllection from Mallorca). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 95 

Mallorcan. He says that such dark uppersides are not found in Mallorca, but the 
darker Mallorcans are quite as dark as the darker Spaniards. Jordan says that 
the upperside is much heavier spotted in Mallorca than in Spain — this is not 
the case in comparison to our Spanish examples. I cannot at all see that the 
" Variationskurve " is different, but even if it was, that could not suffice in the 
genus Tyto, where often, when one has a good series, other specimens turn up 
which are strikingly different, as for example in a fine series of South-Sea Barn- 
Owls (T. alba lulu), which has usually a white underside, specimens with brown 
breast and abdomen occur. Similar " irregularities " are found among the other 
species, Tyto longimembris (Candida auct.). 

Dr. von Jordans also shot an abnormal specimen with a white upperside. 
It is obviously an aberration and as such can have no importance at all for the 
discussion of the subspecies. The reasoning of Jordans was the same as that of 
the late Carlo von Erlanger, when he described " Phylloscopus sibilatrix flavescens " 
and made an obviously aberrant luteism or albinism the type. I don't see that 
the suggestion is justified that this is an extreme of the subspecies, as the supposed 
differences are not exaggerated — on the contrary, the great amount of grey which 
Jordans mentions, and which is present in some of his specimens, is quite absent. 

Kleinschmidt l separates the British Barn-Owl under the name " Strix 
hostilis." He compared at the time 6 British specimens with 10 from Siena and 
Ravenna " and with many S. ernesti from Sardinia." He says that they differ 
by showing a length of tarsus ranging between lower extremes. No measure- 
ments given. — It is true that I too found lower extremes, but by far the majority 
do not range under the majority of Spanish and Italian specimens. I quite 
agree that variable forms are most interesting, but do not take the consequence 
that populations of which only a minor percentage can be distinguished should 
receive names. My view is that of older ornithologists, but to call it antiquated 
is a presumption. It is surely not antiquated because half a dozen or more 
recent ornithologists have named such forms ? 

The few Barn-Owls I have been able to see from Cyprus are rather uniform, 
with light upperside, underside white with a few blackish spots, one without 
the latter. Wings 290-305 mm. They seem to be the same as Palestine and 
presumably Asia Minor birds, which I have not compared. It is for me impossible 
to say how they vary, and I see no reason to separate them from T. a. alba. 

Tyto alba ernesti (Kleinschm.). 

Strix ernesti Kleinsehniidt, Orn. Monateber. 1901, p. 168 (Sardinia). 

" Strix Flammea ernesti " Kleinschmidt " Berajah," Strix Flammea" p. 20, and instructive photos 

of underside of series on pi. vi (1906). 
Ti/to alba ernesti Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 1036 (1913). 

This island form is recognizable. Its characters are perhaps most compre- 
hensively described in the Vog. pal. Fauna, where measurements are also 
given. The whiter tail and the great amount of white or whitish colour on the 
wings are characteristic. The tail is not rarely white or whitish without bars, 
more often with narrow cross-bars, the underside is very often pure white without 
any spots, and if they occur they are very small. It is true that absolutely 
similar specimens occur in England, but they are very rare. As is the case in 

' Strix hostilis Kleinsclunidt, Faleo, xi. p. 18 (1915 — England), 



96 Xi'yitates Zoological XXXV. lOJO. 

other species, the form from Sardinia and Corsica is well recognizable, while the 
surrounding Mediterranean countries and the Balearic Isles have not developed 
a practically separable form. 

Sardinia and Corsica. 

(Females are often darker than males ; there is in underneath white speci- 
mens often a light but bright huffish band across the breast. In British speci- 
mens all such specimens that were sexed by me or in my presence were females, 
in pairs the males were uniform white, the females had the huffish band. This 
is the rule in Barn-Owls ; even in Javan jaixmica the males are whiter, females 
browner underneath. Some few specimens in collections which do not confirm 
this rule are probably wrongly sexed !) 

This owl is one of the most beautiful of all birds ! 

Tyto alba schmitzi (Hart.). 

Strix flammea schmitzi Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1900, p. 534 (Madeira). 
Madeira. 

Tyto alba gracilirostris (Hart.). 

Strix flammea gracilirostris Hartert, Bull. B.O. ' Ivh, xvi, p. 31 (1905 — Fuertaventura and Lanzarote) 

Eastern Canaries : Fuertaventura and Lanzarote. 

Tyto alba pusilla subsp. ? 

About the North-African Barn-Owls, I mean those from Africa Minor and 
Egypt (I know nothing of the occurrence in Cyrenaica and have not seen any 
from Tripolitania), I have written all I knew in Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 1035. Though 
I have now more specimens, I can say nothing more about them. Many speci- 
mens are indistinguishable from S.W. European ones, but specimens with more 
heavily spotted undersides are more frequent, though they occur with unspotted 
undersurface. The tarsi are often thinner feathered, and sometimes longer. 
The wings range longer, but the majority of specimens are not larger. I measure, 
however, a number of specimens with wings of 300 and exceptionally to 310 mm. 
I never measured even 300 in British ones, but Kleinschmidt, measuring 6 
specimens, mentions a British wing of 308 mm., but among the many measured 
by Witherby and myself is not one with such a long wing. 

If anyone wishes to attach a special name to Barn-Owls from Egypt (and 
Africa Minor) I am afraid he must call it Tyto alba pusilla. This name is mis- 
leading and stupid, when compared with T. a. alba, but it was given ' from 
comparison with the much larger Indian Barn-Owl, which at the time was supposed 
to be the same as " European " Barn-Owls. The name was given to a bird 
without locality, but in Ibis, 1866, p. 250, it was added that it came from 
Egypt. Before the author knew this he gave another name, parva, for the same 
reason, to a still smaller bird from Egypt. Five years after C. L. Brehm gave 
the name spit i«l< ns ' to specimens from N.E. Africa and the Rhine, and in 1885 
he mixed up with this also Sennaar examples, and said he received also one from 
Strassburg. 

1 Strix pusilla Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, xviii, p. 801 (1850 — From a specimen with un- 
known locality, but 76!*, 1866, p. 250, declared to be from Egypt !). 
= Strix parva Blyth, I.e.. p. 801 (Egypt). 
1 Strix splendens Brehm, Vogelfang (partim !), p. 40 (1855). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 97 

Tyto alba guttata (Brehm). 

Strix guttata Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Yog. Deulsclil. p. 107 (1831 — Riigen, in winter in Germany). 

From South Sweden and Denmark throughout Central Europe to Rhineland, 
where it begins to merge into alba, a process which continues through France, also 
the Alps, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, to Bulgaria and Roumania. 

This form is very variable. Specimens with quite white underside, like 
alba, occur exceptionally in most parts of its range, but they become more 
numerous on the Rhine and in Eastern France, also apparently in the Alps. 
In Great Britain this form is an occasional and rare visitor. 

Tyto alba affinis (Blyth). 

? Strix Poensis Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. x. 1842, p. 189 (1843— Island of Fernando Po. 

Specimens from Fernando Po could not be examined). 
Strix maculata nee Vieillot, Brehm, Vogelfang, p. 40 (1855 — Nordost-Afrika) ; Naumannia, 1858, 

p. 220 (" Sennaar." In the collection are now only examples labelled Chartum, which are the 

types). See Nov. Zool. xxv, p. 41, 1918. 
Strix affinis Blyth. Ibis. 1862, p. 388 (Cape of Good Hope). 

Distinguishable from T. alba alba by having stronger toes, and generally 
longer and often thinner feathered tarsi. The underside is usually pale rusty- 
yellow, rarer browner, often more whitish, but not as a rule snow-white, the 
jugulum and sides remaining rusty brownish. Snow-white examples are very 
rare, and even then there are dark brown spots, sometimes almost black and 
more or less angular, frequently arrow-shaped and cross-lines on the sides and 
abdomen. Upperside with fairly large black and white spots, ground-colour 
with much grey. Wings (20) 286-305, tarsi 63-70 mm. 

This form inhabits tropical Africa from Southern Nubia and Khartum to 
Senegambia and South Africa. 

Tyto alba hypennetra Grote. 

Tyto alba liypermetra Grote, Orn. Monatsber. 1928, p. 79 (Madagascar). 

Madagascar and Comoro Islands. 

In Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 1038, I pointed out the specimens from Madagascar 
and the Comoros agreed in coloration with T. a. affinis, but were larger : wings 
300-320 mm. Grote found this confirmed by specimens in the Berlin Museum, 
and I have also received further specimens, which confirm my statement of 
1913. In consequence of this Grote named the larger form, for which no name 
was available. 

Tyto alba detorta Hart. 

Tyto alba detorta Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xxxi. p. 38 (Santiago, Cape Verde Islands). 

This is a darker form, like darkest guttata, but with larger spots on the upper- 
side, rectrices strongly barred. This is the " Strix insularis " of older authors, 
but the name insularis was given to specimens from St. Vincent in the West 
Indies, and not from the Cape Verde Islands ! 

Tyto alba erlangeri Sol. 

Tyto alba erlangeri W. Sclater, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlii, p. 24 (1921 — Lahej in South Arabia). 

South Arabia : Aden, Lahej, Muscat, and " apparently extending to Meso- 
potamia and Palestine," if the latter is true, it would only be South Palestine, 
not the whole ; more Palestine material is however desirable ! 

Sclater found my remarks, Vog. pal. Fauna, p. 1038, confirmed. 



98 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Tyto alba thomensis (Haiti.). 

Slrix thniiiiiisi* Hartlaub. Rer. el Mag. Zool. 1852. p. 3 (Sao Thome Island in the (!nlf of Guinea). 

Only known from this island. 

Very dark form. Upperside dark grey, almost blackish, the black and 
white spots very conspicuous. Face very brown. Underside of the known 
specimens almost golden brown, sometimes with very large black and white, 
sometimes with much smaller spots. Wings of three specimens in the Tring 
Museum, collected by A. Mocquerys in 1901, only 250-260 mm. Feet powerful. 

Tyto alba stertens subsp. nov. 

Slrix indiea Blyth, nee Graelin ! 

The Indian Tyto is a real " Barn-Owl," one hears it snorting (hence stertens) 
round buildings and ruins, in gardens, etc. It has generally been called javanica 
(if not " Strix flammed "), but differs rather from specimens from Java, Kangean, 
and Lombok, specimens in Tring, the British and Berlin Museums having been 
compared. The upperside in the Indian form is lighter, paler grey, and the black 
and white spots are usually smaller, the brownish parts yellower. The underside 
is white or very pale brownish yellow, in parts or throughout, the spots nearly 
always present and smaller, if the underside is brown it is less deep than in 
typical javanica. Dimensions similar. 

Type : <J ad., caught on nest in the roof of the Forest Offices, Silchar, 
Cachar, November 1895, by E. C. Stuart Baker. 

There is not enough material from Ceylon to prove that Ceylonese specimens 
are smaller than continental Indian ones, though some of ours are very short- 
winged. Legge also says they have the same dimensions. 

Tyto alba subsp. ? 

Specimens from French Indo-Ohina (Tonkin, ex Alan Owston, and Delacour's 
in the British Museum) are more like Javanese than like Indian ones, but richer 
on the upperside than the former, the spotting on the underside often very 
heavy. More material, however, is required to prove that they have sufficient 
constancy for a special name. 

Tyto alba javanica (6m.). 

Slrix javanica Gnielin, Syst. Nat. i. p. 295 (1788 — Java). See remarks under T. a. stertens. 

I have seen specimens from Java, Kangean and Lombok (Rensch coll.) 
only, but the form must be wider spread. 

Tyto alba de-roepstorffi (Hume). 

Slrix De-Roepstorfji Hume. Stray-Feathers, iii. p. 390 (1875 — South Andamans). 

This dark form — the darkest are all island birds : thomensis from Sao 
Thome, detorta from the Cape Verde Islands, punctatissima from the 
Galapagos, nigrescens from Dominica — is extremely rare, for it seems that 
only two specimens have ever been recorded : the type, obtained by De 
Roepstorff, and an adult male shot by A. L. Butler at Port Blair, South 
Andamans. This is marked on the label : " Iris brown. Bill whitish. Feet 
whitish. Length 13i, wing 10J, tail 4,\, tarsus 2\. Bill (gape to tip of upper 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 99 

mandible If, expanse 36. Port Blair, January 1898. — A. L. B." The spots 
on the dull chocolate upperside with reddish brown, not white and black spots. 
The usually light ochre portions are replaced by rich rufous. The underside in 
our specimen is much lighter than in the type, ochre with dark brown spots, 
not deep brownish rufous ! Belly in our specimen white. 

Tyto alba kuehni subsp. nov. 

In coloration like T. a. delicatula but larger, wings considerably longer, 
toes much more powerful. Wing : <$ 297, unsexed 288, <J 300 mm. 

Three specimens collected on Kisser in May and June 1901 by Heinrieh 
Kiihn. The subspecies is named in memory of this excellent collector. 

There is also a $ shot at Atapupu, Timor, by Alfred Everett 17. viii. 1897, 
with a wing of 293 mm. which fully resembles the Kisser examples. 

The Indian Barn-Owls. called T. a. javanica, resemble this form, but they 
are usually much more ochraceous on the upperside and have mostly larger black 
and white spots, also the underside is as a rule tinged with buff on ochraceous, 
a character hardly ever seen in T. a. delicatula and its closest allies. 

Type of T. alba kuehni : <J ad. Kisser, 11 .v. 1901, No. 4103, Heinrieh Kiihn 
leg. 

Probably this form is much wider spread, and may occur on Flores, Sumbawa, 
etc., but series from other localities are wanting. 

Tyto alba everetti subsp. nov. 

A series of 9 Barn-Owls from the little island of Savu west of Timor, between 
Timor and Sumba, are in colour inseparable from T. alba kuehni, but differ 
in being smaller ! The wings that are measurable (others too much in moult) 
measure : $ 247, 253, 9 265, 283. The males moult, but have nearly completed 
their moult. Bills and feet much smaller than in kuehni. 

Type : <J Savu, August 1896. Alfred Everett leg. 

Named after the collector, another of the fine collectors of bygone days, when 
not only new subspecies, but fine new species could be discovered in numbers. 

Tyto alba sororcula (ScL). 

Strix sororcula Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, p. 52 (Timorlaut Islands). 

A small form with wing 227 mm., reminding one of the small forms from the 
Galapagos and other islands. 

Timorlaut or Tenimber Islands. 

Tyto alba sumbaensis (Hart.). 

Strix flammea smn'mensis Hartert, Noi>. Zool. iv. p. 270 (1897 — Sumba Island). 

Only known from Sumba or Sandalwood Islands. This as well as meeki 
are characterized by their very pale, almost whitish, tails. 

Tyto alba meeki (R. & H.). 

Strix flammea meeki Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. Zool. 1907, p. 446 (Collingwood Bay, S.E. New 
Guinea). 

We have specimens from Collingwood Bay, Dam pier and Vulcan 
Islands. 



100 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 

Tyto alba delicatula (Gould). 

Strix ddicatulus Could, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1836, p. 140 (1837— New South Wales). 

Australia generally. T. alba alexandrae Mathews 1912 is a synonym and 
admitted as such by the author. 

Tyto alba lulu (Peale). 

Strix lulu Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp. p. 74 (1848 — Upolu, Samoa, " also one {roni Fiji Is." " Lulu " is 
the native name at Upolu, Samoa). 

Samoa, Tonga, Society Islands, perhaps also Fiji Islands. 

The Barn-Owls from the South Sea Islands are comparatively little known 
and generally recorded as Tyto alba delicatula (terra typica, New South Wales), 
or Tyto alba lulu (terra typica Upolu, Samoa). 

They are indeed so similar to the Australian delicatula that they cannot 
be separated without measuring. They are however smaller. While Australians 
have wings generally from 280-290, sometimes to 292 and 293, rarely under 
280, i.e. 278, 27t>, 275. eight Samoan skins, mostly collected by R. H. Beck, have 
wings from 273-278, once 279 ; these are then true T. a. lulu. To this form seem 
also to belong specimens from Tonga (one : 273), Nine (two : 268, 273), New 
Caledonia (two : 265, 273), New Hebrides (two : 265, 280), Sta. Cruz (two : 
275, 270). 

Probably the form from the Fiji Islands (Viti) is smaller, as three specimens 
have wings of 265, 265, 265 mm., 1 sexed r>, 1 + \ and 1 doubtful. Considering, 
however, that on Nine, New Hebrides, and New Caledonia there are differences 
from 5 to 15 mm., this can only be surmised at present. 

That no importance can be attached to colour alone, unless its width of 
variation is known, is beautifully illustrated in two specimens from Yanikoro 
(Santa Cruz), one of which has the upperside much richer, and the underside a 
rich brownish ochre, while that of the other specimen from the same locality 
is white with only a slight buffy tinge. Similar variations are of course well 
known in Central Europe, while in South and West Europe the specimens are 
nearly always white underneath, with a buffy wash in the females only. 
Among all the examples from Australia I have seen there is not one with a 
brownish ochre underside. 

An adult male from Nissan Island, east of South New Ireland, shot by 
Eichhorn 11. ix. 1924, has a wing of 289 mm. and cannot be distinguished from 
Australian delicatula. One from Vella Lavella in the American Museum (R. H. 
Beck coll.) has a wing of 279 and must also be called delicatula. 

A single male from Kalao south of Celebes cannot be discussed without 
more material from these regions. 

Brasil ' states that Tyto alba lulu occurs on New Caledonia, while on Lifu 
another subspecies occurs which he calls T. a. lifuensis, which is to be distin- 
guished by a spotless white underside ; this is, however, a character not to be 
relied on ; I have seen one from Samoa with a spotless white underside, and 
in many subspecies that varies individually. It would also be very peculiar if 
lulu spread as far as New Caledonia, and in between were another form. I, 
therefore, think that lifuensits is not separable. 

1 Rev. Franfaise d'Orn. iv. p. 202 (1915). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 101 

Tyto alba guatemalae (Ridgw.). 

Strix flammea var. guatemalae Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst. v. p. 200(1873 — " Panama to Guatemala"). 
Tyto perlata guatemalae Ridgway, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 50, vi. p. 610 (1914 — Nicaragua is here 
given as the type locality). 

Central America from Guatemala to Panama, and perhaps farther spread. 
Tyto alba pratincola (Bp.). 

Strix pratincola Bonaparte, Oeogr. <fc Comp. List, p. 7 (1838 — based on Audubon, Orn. Biog. ii. 
p. 403, pi. 171, where specimens from the south-eastern U.S.A. are described). 

United States and Mexico — said to go to Nicaragua in winter ! 
Tyto alba furcata (Temm.). 

Strix fttrcata Temminck, PI. Col. 432. livr. 73 (1838— Cuba). 

Remarkable by the white area on the secondaries, which, however, is not 
constant, and the white tail, either barred or unbarred. 
Cuba with Isle of Pines and Jamaica. 

Tyto alba tuidara (Gray). 

Strix tuidara Gray, in Griffith ed. Cuvier, Anhn. Kingil. 6, p. 75 (1829 — Brazil). 
Strix perlata nee Vieillot 1817, Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. Berlin, p. 59 (1823 — Brazil). 

From Argentina throughout Brazil. 

Cory suggested that Patagonian specimens may be smaller ? 

Tyto alba contempta (Hart.). 

Strix flammea contempta Hartert, Nor. Zool. v. p. 500 (1898 — Cayambe. 9,223 feet, N.W. Ecuador). 
Strix sliclica Madarasz. Ann. Mus. Hung. ii. p. 115 (1904 — Description of one female in the 
Hungarian Museum, from Merida, 1,630 m.) 

Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. 

Very variable in coloration of upper- and underside. 

Tyto alba lucayana Riley. 

Tyto perlata lucayanus Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, p. 153 (1913 — New Providence Island, 
Bahamas). 

Bahamas. 

I have not examined specimens from the Bahamas ! 

Tyto alba bargei (Hart.). 

Strix flammea hargei Hartert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, iii. p. xiii (1892 — Curacao). 

Only known from one locality, the rock with the fortifications on Curasao. 

Tyto alba glaucops (Kaup). 

Strix glaucops Kaup, in Jardine's Contr. Orn. 1852, p. 118 (" Jamaica," errore, only found on Haiti 
or San Domingo). 

San Domingo or Haiti Island. 

We have beautiful specimens, collected by Kaempfer. 



102 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Tyto alba insularis (Pelzeln). 

Strix insularis Pelzeln, Jtmrn.f. Orn. 1872, p. 23 (St. Vincent). 

Lesser Antilles : St. Vincent, Grenada, Carriacon, Union and Bequia 
Islands. 

(Hybris nigrescent noctividus Barbour. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxiv. 
p. 57. 1912, Grenada, is a synonym !) 

Tyto alba nigrescens (Lavr.). 

Strix flammea var. nigrescens Lawrence, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mas. i. p. 64 (1878 — Dominica). 

Only known with certainty from Dominica in the West Indies, and very 
much like nigrescens, only larger. 

Tyto alba punctatissima (Gray). 

Strix punctatissima ( iray, in Zool. of the Voyage of the Beagle, Birds, p. .14. pi. iv (1841 — James I., 



Only known from the Galapagos Islands. 

Tyto rosenbergi (Celebes), cayeli (Burn), ine.rpectata (North Celebes), manusi 
(Admiralty Is.), and aurantia (New Britain), seem not to be subspecies of alba, 
and seem to belong to Tyto novae-hollandiae, an Australian species. I hope to 
be able to review the subspecies of T. novae-hollandiae before long. 

Quite different from T.alba, the " Barn-Owls, " are the long-legged "Grass- 
Owls," which live and nest on the ground. 

There is one species in Southern Africa, Tyto capensis (Smith), of which 
cabrae Dubois, from the Congo, and perhaps also damarensis Rob., seem to be 
synonyms. 

Another species inhabits India to the Philippines and Australia, T. longi- 
membris, Candida auctorum. 

TYTO LONGIMEMBRIS AND ITS SUBSPECIES. 

The " Grass-Owls " of the Eastern Continent and Islands down to Australia 
were known as "Strix Candida" Tick., but in 1912 Mathews discovered that 
unfortunately that name was anticipated by Strix Candida of Latham, who used 
it for a " Snowy Owl." Therefore the specific name became Tyto longimembris. 
Mathews then called the Australian form Tyto longimembris waller i, thus suggest- 
ing that it differed from the Indian birds, but he did not enlighten us about the 
differences. In a recent anonymous list of Owls the same is done. This separa- 
tion into two subspecies is correct, but there are more than two forms. I 
think at least the following should be recognized : 

Tyto longimembris longimembris (Jerd.). 

Strix longimembris Jerdon, Madras Jonrn. Lit. Sri. x. p. 86 (1839 — Neilgherrieg, Southern India). 

Upperside dark rich brown, a sort of chocolate-brown, the bases of the 
feathers orange-buff and showing through in many places, on the wings large 
light patches, each feather with a small white spot near the tip. Tails white or 
with a tinge of brownish yellow, and with very dark brown bars and some mottling 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 103 

near the tip. Underside white,, generally suffused with buff on breast and flanks. 
One specimen is underneath rich yellowish brown. 

India generally in suitable places from Dehra Dun to East Assam and south 
to Nellore, the Carnatic, Neilgherries, etc. 

Tyto longimembris walleri (Diggles). 

Strix imlleri Diggles. Ornith. AnMr. pt. vii. (I860 — Queenlsand, Brisbane). 

Tyto longimembris georgiae Mathews, Austral. Avian Sec. i. p. 75 (1912 — Victoria River, Northern 

Territory. The type shows that this supposed subspecies is not separable, and Mathews 

himself admits this in 1927, Syst. Av. p. 2S1). 

Australian specimens differ from Indian ones in being darker on the upperside, 
more blackish, more or less mottled with whitish, and in having larger white 
spots near the tips of the feathers, and there are less light bases of the feathers 
showing through, especially on the wings, also the tails are as a rule much darker, 
light brown ! The underside as a rule much more brownish. 

One skin from Palm Island (Queensland) is almost like Indian birds. In 
the plate (273) in Mathews' B. of Australia, vol. v., the feet are wrongly coloured 
yellow. 

This subspecies is spread over large parts of Australia ; Mathews mentions 
Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, the latter, 
however, not any longer in 1927, p. 281. We also have a § collected by Kiihn 
on Kalidupa, Tukang Besri Island (S.E. of Celebes). 

Tyto longimembris papuensis subsp. nov. 

This form differs at a glance from both T. I. longimembris and walleri, by 
its upperside being more uniform, duller and paler, with only some very small, 
tiny white spots near the tips of the feathers. The tails are yellowish or brownish, 
with the usual dark cross-bars. Underside white to brownish yellow with small 
dark brown spots. 

New Guinea, so far only known from the eastern parts : $ $ Owgarra, 
Angabunga River, 27. xi. 1904 and 29. 1 . 1905, collected by Meek and Eichhorn. 
1 (unsexed) from the mountains west of the Huon Gulf, collected by Herr Keysser. 

Type of Tyto longimembris papuensis : $ ad. Owgarra, Augabunga River, 
British New Guinea, not less than 6,000feet alt., 27. xi. 1904. A. S. Meek coll., 
No. A 1888 (A. F. Eichhorn praep.), in the Tring Museum. 

Tyto longimembris subsp. nov. ? 

1. Hartlaub, Proc.Zool. Soc. London, 1879, p. 295, named a Grass-Owl as 
Strix custaleti, from a pair collected in the island of Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. 
He described it as different, having compared it with various Barn-Owls and 
Strix novae-hollandiae apparently in ignorance of T. longimembris. The types, 
if possible, must be compared, in order to say whether this is a separable 
subspecies or the same as one of the other forms. 

2. R. Swinhoe, Ibis 1866, pp. 396 and 397, described a Grass-Owl under the 
name of Strix pithecops, which is not like the Chinese form but looks like the Indian 
subspecies, and it will be necessary to examine more, in order to see if it differs, 
as one would expect from the different locality. A specimen from Taihaisa, 
Formosa, l.vi.1909, bought from the late 0. E. Janson in London, probably 



104 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

collected by Mr. Wileman, is like Indian specimens, but the ground-colour of 
the upperside is darker, more blackish. Specimens in the British Museum did 
not seem to differ from Indian ones. 

3. Specimens from the Philippines in Tring and London do not seem to 
differ from Australian ones ! In view of the Kalidupa example the question 
may be raised, if the Australian form could not extend over Celebes to the 
Philippines ? A series from the latter islands must be examined. A Luzon 
specimen was described as Strix amauronota by Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 
1872, p. 310, but it was only compared with " Strix flammea," apparently in 
ignorance of longimembris. 

Tyto longimembris chinensis subsp. nov. 

Upperside chiefly huffish ochraceous, the feathers being dark chocolate- 
brown with wide bases and edges being buffy ochraceous, and near the tip is a 
small buff to whitish spot. The tail is a bit lighter, almost orange-buff, with the 
usual blackish cross-bars. Underside paler, ochraceous-buff with a few tiny 
dark brown spots. Facial disk like the ground-colour of the upperside. We 
have a skin, with wing 340 mm., shot at Suey Kow, in South-eastern China, in 
December 1889 by C. B. Rickett, and there are two like it in the British Museum 
from Foochow. This extraordinary coloration seems to be the usual one in 
South China, while it is not, as a rule, found elsewhere, except that there is one 
from Raipur in India like it, if the label has not been exchanged ? 

Type in Tring Museum, Suey Kow, C. B. Rickett coll. 

It will be seen from the foregoing treatise, that material of Grass-Owls is 
wanting from many parts : from Indo-China, from Celebes, and probably the 
species may occur on the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, and on some other islands 
than the Fiji Islands in the South Sea. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 105 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF JAPANESE, FORMOSAN, 
AND PHILIPPINE GEOMETRIDAE. 

By R. J. WEST. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

rPHE descriptions in this paper are based on material in the collection of the 
■*- late A. E. Wileman, which has recently been presented to the British 
Museum (Natural History) by Mrs. Wileman in memory of her husband. 

Subfamily GEOMETRINAE 
Microniodes opalescens sp.n. 

<J : Palpus ochraceous-buff. Antenna bipectinate. Head : frons and 
vertex white, a wide band of burnt sienna below bases of antennae, occiput 
white tinged with burnt sienna. Thorax : patagium white, tinged with burnt 
sienna anteriorly ; tegula white. Abdomen white above and beneath. Pectus 
white. Legs white tinged with drab. Forewing white, slightly opalescent, 
drab irrorated with hair-brown on costa, a drab spot on discocellulars ; an 
inwardly oblique, drab, wavy line, from cell at vein 2, to inner margin subbasally ; 
an inwardly oblique, drab line, diffusely edged distally, from apex to inner 
margin medially ; subterminally a series of drab dots, one on each vein ; termen 
drab. Hindioing white, slightly opalescent ; medially an inwardly oblique, 
drab line diffusely edge distally, in continuation of line from apex on forewing ; 
postmedially an inwardly oblique, drab line ; subterminally a series of inter- 
neural drab clots ; termen drab, angled at vein 4. Underside : fore- and hind- 
wings white, slightly opalescent, drab on costa of forewing. 

Expanse 43 mm. (tip to tip 40 mm.). 

$ : Similar to <$, but antenna ciliate, with paired setae. 

Expanse 46 mm. (tip to tip 42 mm.). 

Holotype £ : l.xii.l!H2; allotype $ : 2.xii.l912; para type $ : 2. i. 1913; 
Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : M . ocernaria Swinh. (Assam). 

Microniodes minor sp.n. 

<^ : Palpus light buff. Antenna finely bipectinate. Head : frons and 
vertex warm buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula white. Abdomen white 
above and beneath, with a narrow amber-yellow band at base dorsally. Pectus 
light buff. Legs light buff. Forewing opalescent sparsely irrorated with 
chestnut-brown, amber-yellow on costa, an amber-yellow spot on median nervure 
at vein 2, another on anal vein subbasally ; postmedially an amber-yellow, 
inwardly oblique, broken line, from vein 6 to inner margin medially ; sub- 
terminally an amber-yellow, broken line from vein 6 to inner margin, beyond 
this a series of chestnut-brown dots on veins, termen amber-yellow. Hindwing 
opalescent, sparsely irrorated with chestnut-brown ; medially an amber-yellow, 
inwardly oblique line, in continuation of postmedial line on forewing ; sub- 



106 Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

terminally an amber-yellow, broken line, in continuation of subterminal line of 
forewing ; beyond, a series of chestnut-brown dots on veins, termen amber- 
yellow, angled at vein 4. Underside : forewing opalescent, amber-yellow on 
costa and termen ; hindwing opalescent, termen amber-yellow. 

Expanse 26 mm. (tip to tip 23 mm.). 

Holotype o : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft., 
29. iv. 1912. 

Nearest ally : M. ocernaria Swinh. (Assam), which is, however, considerably 
larger. 

Plutodes pulcherrinia sp.n. 

$ : Palpus light buff. Antenna bipectinate. Head : frons warm buff, 
vertex cartridge-buff. Thorax : patagium primrose yellow, tegula cinnamon- 
buff. Abdomen cinnamon-buff, venter light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs 
light buff tinged with cinnamon-buff. Forewing cinnamon-buff, primrose- 
yellow along costa ; medially a primrose-yellow band edged with blackish 
brown and metallic scales ; subterminal fascia a fuscous, wavy line ; termen with 
blackish brown and metallic scales, fringe primrose-yellow. Hindwing cinnamon- 
buff ; medially a primrose-yellow band edged with blackish brown and metallic 
scales, forming a continuation of medial band on forewing ; subterminal fascia 
a fuscous, wavy line ; termen with blackish brown and metallic scales, angled at 
vein 4, fringe primrose-yellow. Underside : fore- and hindwings light buff tinged 
with cinnamon-buff, markings showing through from upperside. 

Expanse 32 mm. (tip to tip 28 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft., 
i.iv.1912. 

Nearest ally : P. exiquinota Hmpsn. (Ceylon). 

Cassyma arcuata sp.n. 

$ : Palpus warm buff mixed with hazel. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : 
frons warm buff, vertex warm buff mixed with hazel. Thorax : patagium 
fuscous, tegula warm buff mixed with hazel. Abdomen warm buff mixed with 
hazel, venter warm buff. Pectus warm buff. Legs : foreleg warm buff tinged 
with fuscous above, other legs warm buff. Forewing warm buff densely irrorated 
with hazel, warm blackish brown on costa ; medially a warm blackish brown 
line, slightly incurved to median nervure, where there is a small point, then 
straight to inner margin ; postmedially an ill-defined line ; subterminally a 
warm blackish brown line, incurved to vein 5, where there is a short bar to 
termen, incurved to vein 2, then straight to tornus. Hindwing warm buff 
densely irrorated with hazel ; medially a warm blackish brown line, forming a 
continuation of medial line of forewing ; subterminally a warm blackish brown 
line, forming a continuation of subterminal line of forewing ; excurved to vein 
5, incurved to tornus. Underside : fore- and hindwings, warm buff, markings 
the same as on upperside, but wider and more sharply defined. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 25 mm.). 

Holotype $: 28.xii.1912; paratype $: 26.xii.1912. Philippine Is., 
Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Palali, 2,000 ft.; paratype $ : Luzon I., prov. 
Rizal, Montalban, 24.iii.1914. 

Nearest ally ; C. subtessellala Wlk. (India). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 107 

Cassyma retessellata sp.n. 

<J : Palpus warm buff. Antenna ciliate. Head : frons warm buff, with 
a band of chestnut below bases of antennae, vertex warm buff mixed with 
chestnut. Thorax : patagiuxn warm buff mixed with chestnut, tegula warm 
buff mixed with chestnut with a band of chestnut posteriorly. Abdomen warm 
buff mixed with chestnut, venter light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs warm 
buff. Forewing warm buff irrorated with chestnut, a short longitudinal streak 
of chestnut at base ; antemedially a fine chestnut line, outwardly oblique, 
touching medial line in cell, then inwardly oblique to inner margin ; medially 
a thicker chestnut line, incurved to lower angle of cell, sharply angled and incurved 
to inner margin ; postmedially a fine chestnut line, oblique to vein 6, incurved 
to vein 3, incurved to inner margin ; subterminally a thick chestnut line, incurved 
to vein 5, incurved to vein 2, incurved to inner margin ; termen warm blackish 
brown, with warm blackish brown patch at vein 5 and at tornus. Hind/wing 
concolorous with forewing, the lines forming continuations of lines on forewing ; 
subbasal line inwardly oblique, medial line incurved to upper angle of cell, 
incurved to vein 2, incurved to inner margin ; postmedial line wavy, subterminal 
line, incurved to vein 5, inwardly oblique to vein 4, outwardly oblique to tornus, 
termen blackish brown. Underside : forewing warm buff irrorated with warm 
blackish brown, medial and subterminal lines similar to those on upperside, warm 
blackish brown ; hindwing light buff, medial and subterminal lines similar to 
those on upperside, warm blackish brown. 

Expanse 22 mm. (tip to tip 20 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male, but antenna minutely ciliate. 

Expanse 22 mm. (tip to tip 20 mm.). 

Hololype $: 22. vi. 1914; allotype^: 21. vi. 1914. Philippine Is., Mindanao 
I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan (plains) ; paratype $ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft., 23. hi. 1912. 

Nearest ally : C. insulata Warr. (Ke Island). 

Parasynegia defixaria sp.n. 

^ : Palpus warm buff, a patch of wood-brown on second segment. Antenna 
bipectinate, ciliate on apical sixth. Head : frons warm buff, with a band of 
chestnut across middle, vertex light buff, a small chestnut tuft projecting 
forward. Thorax : patagium wood-brown, tegida light buff. Abdomen warm 
buff suffused with wood-brown, irrorated with ochraceous-orange, venter light 
buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : foreleg light buff, wood-brown on coxa ; other 
legs light buff. Forewing warm buff densely irrorated with ochraceous-orange, 
and sparsely with fuscous-black, wood-brown on costa irrorated with fuscous- 
black ; a fuscous-black cell spot ; postmedial fascia wood-brown, crcnulate, 
incurved to vein 6, inwardly oblique to inner margin ; subterminal fascia broken 
into diffuse fuscous-black spots, in a suffusion of wood-brown ; a fuscous-black 
spot at apex, and interneural fuscous-black spots on termen. Hindwing con- 
colorous with forewing ; postmedial fascia fuscous, excurved ; subterminal 
fascia broken into diffuse fuscous-black spots. Underside : forewing light buff 
lightly irrorated with fuscous-black ; a fuscous-black cell spot ; postmedial 
fascia fuscous ; subterminal fascia fuscous-black as on upperside. 

Expanse 32 mm. (tip to tip 29 mm.). 



108 XoYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1029. 

Holotype q : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Palali, 2,000 ft., 
24.xii.1912. 

Nearest ally : P. infixaria Wlk. (India, Assam). 

Syntaracta saturata sp.n. 

$ : Palpus ochraceous-orange, fuscous on base of second and third segments. 
Antenna minutely ciliate, with paired setae. Head : frons and vertex ochraceous- 
orange. Thorax : patagium ochraceous-orange, a border of ochre-red and 
fuscous posteriorly, tegula ochraceous-orange suffused with ochre-red. Abdomen 
light buff suffused with ochre-red, a few scattered specks of fuscous-black, venter 
light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs light buff, fuscous on tibia of foreleg. Fore- 
wing ochraceous-orange overlaid with ochre-red, irrorated with fuscous-black, 
costa light buff suffused with ochre-red ; two fuscous-black spots at base, one 
on costa, the other on inner margin ; the area between the antemedial and 
postmedial fasciae a little more densely irrorated, giving the appearance of a 
band across the wing, in which is a fuscous-black cell spot ; antemedial fascia 
fuscous, excurved, crenulate (points basad), a fuscous-black spot on each point ; 
postmedial fascia fuscous, inwardly oblique, crenulate (points distad), a fuscous- 
black spot on each point ; subterminal fascia fuscous, ill-defined, wavy ; inter- 
neural fuscous-black spots on termen. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, 
fasciae forming continuations of those on forewing. Urulerside : fore- and 
hindwings light buff irrorated with fuscous-black, fasciae the same as on 
upperside. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to tip 38 mm.). 

Holotype^: 5.xii.l912; paratypeQ: 30. xi. 1912. Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : 5. camptogrammaria Guen. (Assam, Borneo). 

Syntaracta assinrilis sp.n. 

$: Palpus pinkish buff tinged with ochre-red. Antenna minutely ciliate 
Head : frons pinkish buff tinged with ochre-red, ochre-red border on lower edge, 
vertex pinkish buff tinged with ochre-red. Thorax : patagium pinkish buff, a 
transverse dividing line of ochre-red, fuscous posteriorly, tegula pinkish buff tinged 
with ochre-red. Abdomen sepia, with a pinkish buff patch on each segment, venter 
light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs light buff. Forewing pinkish buff irrorated 
with ochraceous-tawny, more densely between the antemedial and postmedial 
fasciae, suggesting a wide band across the wing, in which is a fuscous-black cell 
spot ; costa sepia with a slight purple tinge, irrorated with fuscous ; antemedial 
fascia sepia, inwardly oblique, crenulate (points basad) ; postmedial fascia 
sepia, inwardly oblique, crenulate (points distad) ; subterminal fascia sepia, 
crenulate, wavy ; a fuscous-black spot on termen at end of each vein. Hind- 
wing concolorous with forewing, fasciae forming continuations of those on 
forewing. Underside : fore- and hindwings light buff, fasciae same as on 
upperside. 

Expanse 42 mm. (tip to tip 40 mm.). 

Holotype^: 28. vi. 1913; paratopes: 3 $?, 24. vi., 20. vn. 1913, 17 .xi. 1912, 
Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : »S'. hadassa Butl. (China, Japan). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 109 

Syntaracta tertia sp.n. 

cj : Palpus light buff suffused with buckthorn-brown. Antenna minutely 
ciliate, with paired setae. Head : irons and vertex light buff suffused with 
buckthorn-brown. Thorax : patagium light buff suffused with buckthorn- 
brown, tegula light buff. Abdomen light buff above and beneath, a buckthorn- 
brown V-shaped mark on each segment dorsally. Pectus light buff. Legs 
light buff. Forewing irrorated with buckthorn-brown, on costa with wood- 
brown ; cell spot bone-brown surrounded with buckthorn-brown ; postmedial 
fascia buckthorn-brown, inwardly oblique, wavy, with a streak to termen between 
veins 2 and 3 ; subtcrminal fascia buckthorn-brown parallel to postmedial with 
a short streak to termen between veins and 7. Hindwing concolorous with 
forewing, bone-brown cell spot surrounded with buckthorn-brown, postmedial 
and subterminal fasciae forming continuations of those on forewing. Under- 
side : fore- and hindwings light buff, markings showing through from upperside. 

Expanse 36 mm. (tip to tip 33 mm.). 

Holotype $: Formosa, Suisha, 19.vii.1908. 

Nearest ally. — 8. secunda Swinh. (Sumatra). 

Syntaracta nigritibiata sp.n. 

$ : Palpus : first and second segments light buff, fuscous-black at joints, 
third segment fuscous-black. Antenna minutely ciliate, with paired setae. 
Head : frons warm buff, with a chocolate spot laterally, vertex warm buff. 
Thorax : patagium warm buff, with a patch of fuscous-black posteriorly, tegular. 
warm buff, a patch of fuscous-black near posterior end, two fuscous-black spots 
on metathorax. Abdomen warm buff, a series of fuscous-black spots in pairs, 
widely separated at base, gradually becoming closer and almost touching on anal 
segment, venter light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : foreleg light buff, fuscous- 
black at joints of tibia ; midleg light buff, fuscous-black at upper joint of tibia ; 
hindleg light buff. Forewing warm buff irrorated with Natal brown, with 
fuscous-black on costa ; cell spot fuscous-black ; antemedial fascia Natal brown, 
excurved, crenulate (points basad), a fuscous-black spot on each point ; post- 
medial fascia Natal brown, inwardly oblique, crenulate (points distad), a fuscous- 
black spot on each point ; subterminal fascia Natal brown, crenulate, ill-defined, 
broken ; fuscous-black sjjots on veins at termen. Hindwing concolorous with 
forewing, cell spot fuscous-black, fasciae forming continuations of fasciae on 
forewing, fuscous-black spots on veins at termen. Underside : fore- and hind- 
wings light buff, markings showing through from upperside. 

Expanse 35 mm. (tip to tip 32 mm.). 

Holotype $: Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,000 ft., 8.xi.l912. 

Nearest ally : S. nigrellata Warr. (New Guinea). 

Aplochlora similis sp.n. 

$: Palpus wood-brown. Antenna ciliate. Head: frons and vertex wood- 
brown. Thorax : patagium and tegula mignonette green. Abdomen mignonette 
green above and beneath. Pectus light buff. Legs light buff. Forewing 
mignonette green ; a few scattered spots of wood-brown and fuscous-black ; a 
fuscous-black cell spot surrounded with wood-brown ; a broken, wood-brown line 

8 



1J0 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

from apex, running inwardly for a short distance, bent and turned downward 
to below vein 7. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, cell spot and other 
spots similar, angled at vein 4. Underside : fore- and hindwings pyrite yellow. 

Expanse 32 mm. (tip to tip 30 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft., 
20. iv. 1912. 

Nearest ally : A. vivilaca YVlk. (Ceylon). 

Heterolocha polymorpha sp.n. 

^ : Palpus yellow-ochre suffused with russet. Ante into pectinate. Head : 
irons and vertex dark purple drab. Thorax : patagium and tegula russet. 
Abdomen yellow-ochre, lightly suffused with russet above and beneath, a russet 
stripe laterally. Pectus yellow-ochre. Legs yellow-ochre suffused with russet. 
Forewing yellow-ochre suffused with russet, and tinged with dark purple-drab 
before antemedial, and beyond postmedial fascia? ; antemedial fascia dark-purple- 
drab, wavy, outwardly oblique to middle of cell, angled, then inwardly oblique 
to inner margin ; a cartridge-buff cell spot edged with dark purple-drab ; post- 
medial fascia dark purple-drab, inwardly oblique from cost a near apex to vein 2. 
where it is slightly incurved, then straight to inner margin. Hindwing yellow- 
ochre suffused with russet on lower half, tinged with dark purple-drab basally 
and beyond postmedial fascia; a faint purple-drab cell spot ; postmedial fascia 
dark purple-drab, excurved to vein 6, then straight to inner margin. Underside : 
forewing yellow-ochre irrorated with purple-drab, more densely on basal half ; 
fasciae and cell spot as on upperside ; hindwing yellow-ochre irrorated with 
purple-drab, more densely on basal half ; fascia and cell spot as on upperside. 

Expanse 34 mm. (tip to tip 31 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male, but having antenna ciliate ; in colouring, the yellow 
ochre is more predominant and the markings more sharply defined. 

Expanse 34 mm. (tip to tip 31 mm.). 

Holotype J: 27. vi. 1913; allot ype $ : 3.xii.l912; paratype ,$ : 3.xii.ll)12. 
Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : H. marginata Wileman (Formosa). 

This species appears to be variable, both in depth of colouring and strength 
of markings. 

Luxiaria hapala sp.n. 

<J : Palpus warm buff mixed with army brown. Antenna fasciculate. 
Head : frons army brown, vertex light buff lightly tinged with army brown. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula light buff lightly tinged with army brown. 
Abdomen light buff irrorated with bone-brown above and beneath, a series of 
bone-brown spots dorsally. Pectus light buff. Legs : foreleg, coxa warm buff ; 
femur, tibia and tarsus light buff suffused with army brown above ; other legs 
warm buff. Forewing light buff suffused with army brown, basal half irrorated 
with bone-brown, the distal edge of suffusion being an oblique line from apex 
to inner margin medially ; a short, oblique, bone-brown streak, from median 
nervure medially to inner margin subbasally ; another, faintly marked streak, 
from vein 2 postmedially, to inner margin antemedially ; an oblique, wavy, 
bone-brown line from vein 7 subterminally, to inner margin medially, bordered 
by light buff proximally, by a Natal brown shade distally ; area beyond this 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. Ill 

line Natal brown with a short, oblique, bone-brown streak near tornus. Hind- 
wing basal half light buff irrorated with army brown, distal half Natal brown ; 
medially an inwardly oblique, army brown line ; postmedially an inwardly 
oblique, bone-brown line, bordered by a Natal brown shade distally. Under- 
side : forewing warm buff irrorated with Natal brown ; a Natal brown cell 
spot ; the irrorations forming a line postmedially ; hindwing light buff tinged 
with warm buff and irrorated with Natal brown below costa and on subterminal 
area ; subterminal line Natal brown. 

Expanse 42 mm. {tip to tip 40 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male, but antenna minutely eiliate. 

Expanse 42 mm. (tip to tip 40 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,000 ft., 2.xii.l912; allotype $: subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5000 ft., 
hi. 1913; paratype £: subprov. Benguet, Sapiangao, 5,800 ft., 17 . xii . 1912 ; 
paratype $ : Luzon I., prov. Rizal, Manila (plains), 19.vii.1912. 

Nearest ally: L. amasa Butl. (Japan). 

Acadra nebulosa sp.n. 

(J : Palpus warm buff mixed with Natal brown. Antenna fasciculate. 
Head : frons warm buff, a band of Natal brown connecting the bases of antennae ; 
vertex warm buff with a band of Natal brown. Thorax : patagium warm buff 
bordered with Natal brown posteriorly ; tegula light buff with a Natal brown 
bar near posterior end ; two bone-brown spots on metathorax. Abdomen light 
buff irrorated with Natal brown above and beneath ; a Natal brown patch on 
each segment dorsally ; and a series of bone-brown spots laterally. Pectus 
light buff. Legs light buff mottled with Natal brown outwardly. Forewing 
light buff tinged with Saccardo's umber, sparsely irrorated with bone-brown ; 
antemedial fascia indicated by a few bone-brown spots ; medially a Natal 
brown, outwardly oblique dash on costa ; subterminally a Natal brown, out- 
wardly oblique streak, terminating in a bone-brown spot, two bone-brown 
patches on costa at apex ; from below apex a patch of Saccardo's umber, 
proximal edge inwardly oblique to vein 4, incurved to vein 2, outwardly oblique 
to tornus ; in this patch is a subterminal series of bone-brown spots. Hindwing 
light buff tinged with Saccardo's umber, irrorated with bone brown ; a bone- 
brown cell spot ; a Natal brown, medial fascia from vein 2 to inner margin ; 
postmedial fascia consisting of two Natal brown lines, with a large bone-brown 
patch covering them between veins 2 and 4, excurved above the patch, incurved 
below ; subterminal fascia Natal brown, straight to vein 6, angled, then inwardly 
oblique to inner margin, a suffusion of Saccardo's umber subterminally as far 
as vein 4, where termen is angled. Underside. : forewing basal two-thirds light 
buff irrorated with Natal brown, warm buff on costa ; a bone-brown cell spot ; 
medial fascia Natal brown, wavy ; distal third of wing natal brown suffused 
with bone-brown subterminally, with an oblique light buff patch at apex ; 
hindwing basal two-thirds light buff irrorated with Natal brown ; a bone-brown 
cell spot ; medial fascia Natal brown, wavy ; distal third of wing Natal brown 
suffused with bone-brown subterminally ; a patch of light buff on termen from 
vein 4 to tornus, and on inner margin. 

Expanse 38 mm. {tip to tip 34 mm.). 



112 XiiYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

Holotype $\ Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft. 
1 8-24. iii. 1912. 

Nearest ally : A. aciduria Wlk. (India, Assam). 

Macaria compsa sp.n. 
cJ : Palpus cream-buff mixed with warm sepia. Antenna ciliate. Head : 
frons and vertex cream-buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula hair-brown. 
Abdomen cream-buff lightly suffused with hair-brown. Pectus cream-buff. 
Legs cream-buff speckled with warm sepia. Forewing, basal two-thirds pinkish 
buff irrorated with hair-brown ; distal third benzo-brown ; benzo-brown along 
costa ; a small warm sepia cell spot ; medially a fine, faintly marked, warm 
sepia, wavy line ; postmedial line warm sepia, slightly cxcurved ; a warm 
sepia spot just beyond between veins .'i and 4 ; termen warm sepia. Hindvring 
concolorous with forewing, medial and postmedial lines forming continuations 
of those on forewing ; a small warm sepia cell spot ; a warm sepia spot just 
beyond postmedial line between veins 3 and 4 ; termen warm sepia, crenulate, 
angled at vein 4. Umlerside : fore- and hindwings cream-buff irrorated with 
warm sepia ; markings similar to upperside, but distal third bistre with patch 
of cream-buff irrorated with warm sepia. 

Expanse 27 mm. (tip to tip 25 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft., 
2. iii. 1912. 

Nearest ally : M. luteiceps Warr. (Celebes). 

Macaria oxa sp.n. 

$: Palpus deep chrome. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head: frons and 
vertex deep chrome. Thorax : patagium and tegula deep chrome. Abdomen 
deep chrome ; venter warm buff with a lateral deep chrome stripe. Pectus 
deep chrome. Legs deep chrome, tarsi fuscous. Forewing deep chrome sparsely 
irrorated with bone-brown ; a small fuscous-black patch on costa subbasally ; 
postmedial line bone-brown, commencing with a fuscous-black patch on costa, 
bordered distally by a fuscous shade, slightly cxcurved ; subterminally a bone- 
brown spot between veins 3 and 4. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, 
medial line forming continuation of that on forewing. Underside : fore- and 
hindwings similar to upperside in colour and marking. 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 21 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 1,300 ft., 
19. xii. 1!U1. 

Nearest ally : 31. luteiceps Warr. (Celebes). 

Macaria psilotes sp.n. 
§ : Palpus cartridge-buff, wood-brown above. Antenna minutely ciliate. 
Head : frons wood-brown, vertex cartridge-buff. Thorax : patagium cartridge- 
buff, bordered by wood-brown posteriorly ; tegula cartridge-buff. Abdomen 
cartridge-buff above and beneath, a double row of fuscous spots dorsally. Pectus 
cartridge-buff. Legs cartridge-buff, wood-brown outwardly. Forewing cartridge 
buff lightly suffused with wood-brown and irrorated with fuscous ; subbasally 
a fine wood-brown line, excurved to median nervure, slightly excurved to inner 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 113 

margin ; cell spot fuscous ; medially a faintly marked, fine, wood-brown line, 
outwardly oblique to vein 6, sharply angled, then inwardly oblique and wavy to 
inner margin ; postmedially a fine, wood-brown line, outwardly oblique to 
vein C, sharply angled, then inwardly oblique and waved to inner margin ; 
termen between veins 4 and 7 fuscous and excised. Hindwing concolorous with 
forewing, cell spot fuscous ; lines forming continuations of those on forewing ; 
termen crenulate, angled at vein 4. Underside : fore- and hindwings with basal 
half white irrorated with wood-brown ; distal half wood-brown with a cartridge- 
buff patch on termen from vein 4 to tornus on both wings. 

Expanse 36 mm. (tip to tip 32 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan 
(plains), 17. iv. 1914. 

Nearest ally : M. intersectaria Leech (India, Assam, China, Japan). 

Iridoplecta ochrias sp.n. 

$: Palpus white mixed with bistre. Antenna ciliate. Head: frons and 
vertex white mixed with bistre. Thorax : patagium and tegula white mixed 
with bistre. Abdomen white mixed with bistre, venter white. Pectus white. 
Legs white, tinged with bistre outwardly. Forewing white ; basally a patch 
of bistre irroration ; medially a wavy line of bistre irroration ; subterminally 
a fascia of bistre, broken, excurved, and wavy ; interneural bistre spots on 
termen. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, medial line and subterminal 
fascia forming continuations of those on forewing. Underside : fore- and 
hindwings white ; a faint bistre line on forewing medially. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 25 mm.). 

Holotype^.: 23. iv. 1912; paratype $ : 23. v. 1912. Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft. ; paratype $ : 18.iii.1912, subprov. Benguet, 
Klondyke, 800 ft, 

Nearest ally : /. ferrifera Moore (India, Burma). 

Lithina catapasta sp.n. 

rj : Palpus warm buff mixed with russet. Antenna bipectinate. Head : 
frons warm buff mixed with russet ; vertex warm buff. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula hair-brown. Abdomen cartridge-buff irrorated with drab above and 
beneath. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs light buff, drab outwardly. Forewing 
cartridge-buff densely irrorated with drab ; cell spot drab ; postmedial line 
dial), slightly excurved to vein 3, then straight to inner margin ; interneural 
drab spots on termen. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; cell spot drab ; 
postmedial line forming continuation of line on forewing, excurved, wavy. 
Underside : fore- and hindwings cartridge-buff irrorated with drab. 

Expanse 30 mm. (tip to tip 27 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Sapiangao, 5,800 ft., 
15.xii.1912. 

Nearest ally : L. calalaunaria Guen. 

Sabaria elegans sp.n. 
<$ : Palpus ochraceous-orange. Antenna bipectinate. Head : frons pinkish 
buff, lightly suffused with warm sepia ; vertex pinkish buff, a warm sepia spot 
posteriorly. Thorax : patagium pinkish buff, with a warm sepia spot ; tegula 



114 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

pinkish buff, a warm sepia spot posteriorly. Abdomen pinkish buff irrorated 
with warm sepia, venter ochraceous-buff. Pectus ochraceous-buff. Legs 
ochraceous-buff, warm sepia on tarsi. Forewing pinkish buff striated with warm 
sepia ; a warm sepia spot at base ; antemedially a broken, warm sepia fascia, 
consisting of a spot on costa, followed by two spots, inwardly oblique ; cell 
spot warm sepia ; postmedially a warm sepia spot on costa, followed by a warm 
sepia fascia, obliquely incurved from vein 5 to inner margin ; three burnt umber 
patches on termen, one just below apex, another between veins 4 and 6, the 
third at tornus. Hindwing ochraceous-buff ; cell spot warm sepia ; pinkish 
buff irrorated with warm sepia on inner margin, gradually widening to tornus, 
with a short warm sepia streak postmedially. Underside : forewing ochraceous- 
buff ; cell spot warm sepia ; a fine warm sepia streak from vein 7 to vein 5 ; 
hind-wing ochraceous-buff ; cell spot warm sepia ; a series of warm sepia 
spots postmedially. 

Expanse 26 mm. (tip to tip 24 mm.). 

Holotype o : 12. i. 1914; paratype $ : 27. i. 1914, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
prov. Rizal, Montalban. 

Nearest ally : S. lithosiaria Wlk. 

Hypochrocis prouti sp.n. 

<$ : Palpus : white at base, second and third segments fuscous. Antenna 
bipectinate for two-thirds, apical third setose. Head : frons white suffused 
with fuscous ; vertex white tinged with fuscous. Thorax : patagium and 
tegula white, fuscous anteriorly. Abdomen white, a fuscous band on each 
segment, anal segment fuscous, venter white. Pectus white. Legs white, 
suffused with fuscous. Forewing fuscous ; medially a white, elongate, oval 
patch, lying obliquely across the wing ; subterminally a smaller white patch 
between veins 4 and 6 ; fringe white tinged with fuscous. Hindwing white ; 
bordered with fuscous along costa and termen to near tornus ; a short fuscous 
streak near tornus ; fringe white. Underside : forewing fuscous ; medially 
a white, elongate patch ; white on costa, apical and subterminal areas ; hind- 
wing white ; a group of five fuscous spots, forming a broken U-shaped mark, 
the top touching costa ; a fuscous spot on anal vein antemedially ; an oblique 
fuscous streak near tornus. 

Exjianse 20 mm. (tip to tip 25 mm.). 
§ : Similar to male. 
Expanse 32 mm. (tip to tip 30 mm.). 

Holotype $: 19. iv. 1912; allotype ?: 30. hi. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Bagnio, 5,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : H. albodecorata Swinh. (Borneo). 

This species is dedicated to Mr. Louis B. Prout, F.E.S., in recognition of 
the great assistance he has given me in determining the Philippine and Formosan 
( Jeometridae. 

Hypochrocis zoota sp.n. 

(J : Palpus : capucine yellow at base ; second segment suffused with 

mahogany-red ; third segment fuscous. Antenna bipectinate for five-sixths, 

apical sixth setose. Head : frons mahogany-red ; vertex mouse-grey. Thorax : 

patagium and tegula mouse-grey. Abdomen mouse-grey, mahogany-red on 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1029. 115 

basal segments dorsally ; venter anterior half capucine yellow, posterior 
half mouse-grey suffused with mahogany-red. Pectus capucine yellow. Legs : 
foreleg coxa capucine yellow ; femur capucine yellow, mouse-grey outwardly ; 
tibia and tarsus mouse-grey ; other legs coxae and femora capucine yellow ; 
tibiae and tarsi mouse-grey. Forewing mouse-grey, sparsely irrorated with 
fuscous-black ; a large patch of bistre suffusion in subterminal area ; medially, 
a wide band edged with fuscous-black, filled with a mixture of mahogany-red 
and fuscous-black, the proximal edge from costa medially, obliquely excurved 
to median nervure, angled, along median nervure, angled antemedially, then 
oblique and way to inner margin subbasally, the distal edge from costa subter- 
minally, excurved to vein 5, along vein 5 for a short distance inwardly, angled, 
returning toward costa, sharply recurved at base of vein 6, incurved to base of 
vein 4, straight to below vein 3, inwardly oblique to just below vein 2, angled 
and longitudinal to a point below base of vein 2, curved and then straight to 
inner margin medially. Hindwing upper half light buff, lower half mouse- 
grey ; a fuscous-black line bordered proximally by mahogany-red, from vein 6, 
to base of vein 3, incurved to vein 3, outwardly angled, then incurved to inner 
margin near tornus. Underside : forewing basal half capucine yellow, distal 
half mahogany-red lightly suffused with mouse-grey ; hindwing capucine 
yellow. 

Expanse 48 mm. (tip to tip 42 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan 
(plains), 30. v. 1914. 

Nearest ally : H. binexala Wlk. (Borneo, Penang). 

Hypochrocis flagTans sp.n. 
cJ : Palpus capucine yellow suffused with liver-brown ; third segment 
warm blackish brown. Antenna bipectinate for five-sixths, apical sixth ciliate. 
Head : frons liver-brown ; vertex fawn colour. Thorax : patagium fawn 
colour ; tegula fawn colour edged with warm blackish brown posteriorly. 
Abdomen fuscous ; a warm blackish brown band basally ; a warm blackish 
brown spot on each of the two basal segments ; another on anal segment dorsally ; 
venter capucine yellow. Pectus capucine yellow. Legs : foreleg, coxa capucine 
yellow, femur capucine yellow, fuscous outwardly, tibia and tarsus fuscous ; 
other legs fuscous. Forewing fawn colour irrorated with fuscous ; medially 
two patches, one on upper half, the other on lower half, suggesting a wide band 
broken in centre ; patch on upper half bordered with warm blackish brown, 
liver brown just inside border, remainder filled with ground-colour, upper edge 
along costa, proximal edge from costa medially, inwardly oblique to middle of 
cell, lower edge downcurved, upcurved, angled, distal edge excurved to vein 7, 
then straight to costa subterminally ; patch on lower half, bordered with warm 
blackish brown, filled with a mixture of liver-brown and warm blackish brown, 
proximal edge obliquely excurved from inner margin antemedially, upper edge 
along median nervure to base of vein 4, distal edge deeply incurved to inner 
margin subterminally, lower edge along inner margin ; a small fuscous patch 
near apex, and fuscous shading in subterminal area. Hindwing upper two- 
thirds capucine yellow, lower third fawn colour ; a short warm blackish brown 
incurved line edged proximally with liver-brown, from just above vein 2, to 
inner margin near tornus. Underside : forewing basal two-thirds capucine 



Ill) XoYITATES ZoOLOGIrAE XXXV. 1929. 

yellow, distal third suffused with liver-brown ; hindwing capucine yellow, 
tinged with liver-brown along costa and termen, fuscous on inner margin. 

Expanse 44 mm. (tip to lip 40 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male, but pectinations of antenna much shorter. 

Expanse 45 mm. (tip to tip 41 mm.). 

HolotypeJ: 17. v. 1014; allotype $: 25. v. 1914; paratype^.: 22. v. 1914, 
Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : H. binexata Wlk. (Borneo, Penang). 

Heteromiza noctuoides sp.n. 

(J: Palpus wood-brown. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head: frons and 
vertex wood-brown. Thorax : patagium and tegula wood-brown tinged with 
Natal brown. Abdomen wood-brown, two blackish brown spots on basal segment 
dorsally ; venter pinkish buff ; anal tuft cartridge-buff. Pectus pinkish buff. 
Legs : fore- and midlegs pinkish buff, wood-brown outwardly ; hindleg pinkish 
buff, tibia enlarged. Forewing wood-brown, irrorated with fuscous along costa, 
tinged with Natal brown for two-thirds ; cell spot blackish brown ; antemedially 
an excurved, wavy, deep livid-brown line ; postmedially a deep livid-brown 
line, darker where it crosses the veins, giving the appearance of dots along the 
line, excurved from costa to vein 7, then inwardly oblique to inner margin 
medially ; subterminal area wood-brown ; a deep livid-brown patch near apex ; 
another near tornus. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, the medial line 
forming a continuation of postmedial line on forewing. Underside : fore- and 
hindwings cartridge-buff suffused with wood-brown and irrorated with Natal 
brown ; cell spot fuscous ; postmedial line Natal brown and excurved on both 
wings. 

Expanse 37 mm. (tip to tip 35 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to tip 38 mm.). 

Holotype q : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Bagnio, 5,000 ft., 
18. vi. 1913; allotype $: subprov. Benguet, Sapianago, 5,800 ft., 15.xii.1912; 
paratypes, 2$^: 9 and 14.sdi.1912, subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,000 ft.; puratype $ : 21.xii.1912, Luzon I., prov. Rizal, Manila 
(plains). 

Nearest ally : H. unilinea Warr. 

Ourapteryx rhabdota sp.n. 
(J : Palpus cinnamon. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons cinnamon, 
vertex ivory-yellow. Thorax : patagium and tegula ivory-yellow. Abdomen 
ivory-yellow above and beneath. Pectus ivory-yellow. Legs : fore- and mid- 
legs ivory-yellow suffused with cinnamon, speckled with fuscous-black, hindleg 
ivory-yellow. Forewing ivory-yellow ; a cinnamon line, outwardly oblique, 
from costa antemedially to inner margin medially ; a short cinnamon streak, 
outwardly oblique from costa medially to near median nervure ; a cinnamon 
line, slightly incurved, from costa postmedially to inner margin near tornus, 
fringe cinnamon. Hindwing ivory -yellow tinged with cinnamon near tornus ; 
a cinnamon line, outwardly oblique, from base of vein 7 to near tornus ; anal 
vein cinnamon ; termen produced to a tail at vein 4 ; fringe burnt-sienna ; 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 117 

interrupted at vein 5 by an ivory-yellow spot edge with fuscous-black, which 
continues as a diffuse bar across base of tail to vein 3, with a Brazil red spot at 
each end ; fuscous-black at base of fringe on tail. Underside : fore- and hind- 
wings ivory-yellow ; fringe cinnamon. 

Expanse 54 mm. (tip to tip 50 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male. 

Expanse 56 mm. (tip to tip 50 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 24.vii.1913, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft.; allotype $: 23. v. 1912; paratype $ : 23. iv. 
1912, subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : O. data Butl. (India). 

Niphonissa umbrina sp.n. 

<J : Palpus bistre. Antenna bipectinate. Head : frons and vertex bistre. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula bistre. Abdomen bistre sparsely irrorated with 
fuscous-black, above and beneath. Pechis bistre. Legs light buff suffused 
with bistre. Forewing glossy bistre irrorated with fuscous-black ; a small 
drab-grey cell spot ; antemedial line fuscous-black, faintly marked, outwardly 
oblique to median nervure, slightly incurved to an anal vein, then inwardly oblique 
to inner margin ; postmedial line fuscous-black, faintly marked, inwardly 
oblique and slightly incurved. Hindwing light buff suffused with bistre, irrorated 
with fuscous-black on subterminal area ; fuscous cell spot ; postmedial line 
fuscous, inwardly oblique, faintly marked. Underside : forewing glossy, light 
buff suffused with bistre ; postmedial line faintly marked ; hindwing glossy, 
light buff densely irrorated with fuscous ; cell spot fuscous ; postmedial and 
subterminal lines faintly marked. 

Expanse 48 mm. (tip to tip 44 mm.). 

Holotype $ ; 9.xii.l912; paratypes 2 $ $ : 12. i. 1912, 3. xii. 1912, Philip- 
pine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : N. albiguttulata Bastelb. (Formosa). 

Euchoria pia sp.n. 

cj : Palpus russet. Antenna simple. Head : frons and vertex russet. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula russet. Abdomen : russet ; venter pinkish buff 
tinged with russet. Pectus russet. Legs : foreleg pinkish buff, russet above ; 
mid- and hindlegs pinkish buff. Forewing russet sparsely irrorated with fuscous ; 
costa edged with cartridge-buff ; subbasal line chestnut-brown, wavy ; ante- 
medial line chestnut-brown, wavy ; postmedially two chestnut-brown lines, 
inwardly oblique, crenulate. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; medially 
two chestnut-brown lines forming continuations of postmedial lines on forewing. 
Underside : fore- and hind wings tawny-olive irrorated with bone-brown ; lightly 
suffused with bone brown on subterminal area ; postmedially two bone-brown 
lines, faintly marked on both wings. 

Expanse 46 mm. (tip to tip 42 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,000 ft., 3. xii. 1912. 

Nearest ally : E. oenoptila Prout (New Guinea). 



118 Xovitatks Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Elphos lutulenta sp.n. 

3 : Palpus warm sepia. Antenna bipectinate for seven-eighths, apical 
eighth eiliate. H( ad : irons warm sepia ; vertex clove-brown. Thorax : 
patagium clove-brown ; tegula hair-brown. Abdomen : hair-brown ; venter 
light buff, lightly suffused with hair-brown. Pectus pinkish buff. Legs : foreleg 
pinkish buff, clove-brown above ; tibia with a pencil of hair beneath ; mid- 
and hindlegs pinkish buff : tibia of hindleg thickened by a fold on inner side 
containing hair. Forewing tawny-olive irrorated with clove-brown and overlaid 
with hair-brown ; antemedially a clove-brown, crenulate line (points basad), 
commencing with a small patch on costa ; cell spot elongate, edged with clove- 
brown ; a clove-brown patch on costa just above ; postmedially a clove-brown, 
crenulate line (points distad), commencing with a light buff wedge-shaped dash 
on costa, excurved to vein 4, then inwardly oblique to inner margin medially ; 
subterminally a series of clove-brown spots ; interneural clove-brown spots on 
termen. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; antemedially a clove-brown, 
inwardly oblique line ; a clove-brown cell spot ; medially a clove-brown, crenu- 
late line (points distad), excurved ; postmedially a hair-brown, excurved band ; 
subterminally a wavy, excurved, clove-brown line, bordered by hair-brown 
proximally ; interneural clove-brown spots on termen. Underside : forewing 
cartridge-buff lightly suffused with fuscous for two-thirds ; distal third 
fuscous ; a fuscous cell spot, a cartridge-buff patch irrorated with fuscous 
beyond cell ; another at apex ; a small spot on termen between veins 3 and 
4, and one at tornus ; hindwing concolorous with forewing, five cartridge- 
buff interneural spots in subterminal area, two above vein 6, three below 
vein 4. 

Expanse 76 mm. (tip to tip 68 mm.). 

$ : Differs from the male in the following features : Antenna simple. 
Forewing white ; tawny-olive irrorated with clove-brown at base ; between basal 
patch and antemedial line irrorated with clove-brown ; antemedial line clove- 
brown, crenulate (points basad) ; beyond, irrorated with clove-brown, densely 
below median nervure and mixed with tawny-olive suffusion ; an outwardly 
oblique, clove-brown dash from costa in which is a tawny-olive cell spot ; beyond 
cell white sparsely irrorated with clove-brown, the distal edge of this area out- 
wardly oblique ; a patch near tornus densely irrorated with clove-brown and 
suffused with tawny-olive ; postmedial line clove-brown, crenulate (points 
distad), excurved to vein 4, inwardly oblique to inner margin medially, broken 
where it passes through white area ; apical area tawny-olive irrorated with 
clove-brown, with a white patch at apex ; a small sagittate white mark between 
veins 3 and 4. Hindwing white, irrorated with clove-brown ; densely irrorated 
in a suffusion of tawny-olive, antemedially ; lines forming continuations of 
those on forewing, but not completely crossing the wing ; the suffusion and 
irroration of subterminal area forming streaks at termen. Underside : forewing 
white ; basal third suffused with fuscous ; distal third fuscous, with three white 
patches, one at apex, a small one between veins 3 and 4, another at tornus ; 
hindwing white ; distal third fuscous ; two white patches on termen, one at 
apex, the other between veins 3 and 4. 

Expanse 98 mm. (tip to tip 83 mm.). 

Hohtype J: Philippine Is., Palawan I., Taytay (plains), 26. v. 1913 ; allotype 



Novitates Zoologioae XXXV. 1929. 119 

$: Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan (plains), 22. vi. 
1914 ; paratype $: Palawan I., La Laguna, 12. v. 1913. 
Nearest ally : E. hymenaria Guen. (India, Ceylon). 

Buzura prinodes sp.n. 
cJ : Palpus warm buff, blackish-brown above. Antenna bipectinate for 
two-thirds, apical third ciliate. Head : frons warm buff, a triangular blackish 
brown patch near upper edge ; vertex white suffused with warm buff. Thorax : 
patagium white suffused with warm buff ; tegula white tinged with warm buff. 
Abdomen white tinged with warm buff above and beneath. Pectus warm buff. 
Legs light buff, blackish brown outwardly. Forewing white tinged with warm 
buff irrorated with blackish brown ; antemedial line blackish brown, commencing 
with a spot on costa, wavy to anal vein, then inwardly oblique to inner margin ; 
a blackish brown spot on costa medially ; postmedial line blackish brown, 
commencing with a spot on costa, a downcurved sweep to near termen just 
below vein 6, two small outward curves to vein 4, inwardly alone vein 4, angled 
postmedially, waved to vein 2, excurved to anal vein, excurved to inner margin 
near tornus ; a cluster of scales just beyond points of postmedial between 
veins 4 and 6, a diffused blackish brown patch in angle of postmedial between 
veins 3 and 4. Hindiving white, tinged with warm buff, irrorated with blackish 
brown ; postmedial line blackish brown, wavy, excurved at vein 4, bordered 
distally by a concentration of irroration. Underside : fore- and hindwings 
white tinged with warm buff, irrorated with wood-brown ; a clove-brown cell 
spot on each wing ; postmedial line showing through from upper side. 

Expanse 60 mm. (tip to tip 55 mm.). 

Holotype <$: 5.ix.l912; paratype $ : 5.x. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
prov. Rizal, Manila (plains). 

Nearest ally : B. suppressaria Guen. (China, India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma). 

Boarmia tella sp.n. 
<$ : Palpus bone-brown, white at ends of segments. Antenna minutely 
ciliate, shaft white and bone-brown alternately. Head : frons and vertex white, 
a few bone-brown scales between antennae. Thorax : patagium bone-brown ; 
tegula white, a bone-brown bar posteriorly. Abdomen white mixed with bone- 
brown above and beneath, a bone-brown bar at each joint. Pectus white. 
Legs : fore- and midlegs, alternate patches of white and bone-brown ; hindleg 
white mottled with bone-brown. Forewing white ; basally a patch of bone- 
brown ; subbasal line bone-brown ; area between subbasal and antemedial 
line warm sepia ; antemedial line a bone-brown, excurved to median nervure, 
excurved to anal vein ; medially a bone-brown, wavy line, widened on 
discocellulars, and enclosing an elongate white spot ; area beyond this line, to 
just beyond postmedial, suffused with warm sepia to tawny-olive ; postmedial 
line a bone-brown, edged distally by white, wavy, incurved to vein 6, 
excurved to vein 2, incurved to inner margin ; in subterminal area, a patch of 
bone-brown on costa near apex ; just below apex a patch of bone-brown and 
warm sepia ; another patch of bone-brown and warm sepia near tornus ; through 
these patches passes a wavy, white, subterminal line. Hindwing white sparsely 
irrorated with warm sepia for a third, distal edge of irrorated area straight ; 



120 S..MTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

area beyond this suffused with warm sepia, to just beyond postmedial ; post- 
medial line bone-brown, edge with white distally, crenulate, excurved to vein 
2, incurved to inner margin ; beyond this a narrow band of cartridge-buff, 
followed by a light suffusion of warm sepia and tawny-olive, in which is a wavy, 
white, subterminal line ; interneural bone-brown spots on termen. Underside : 
fore- and hindwings white ; fuscous patches on costa ; fuscous spot on discocellu- 
lars ; postmedial line fuscous, with some diffuse fuscous subterminallv. 

Expanse 42 mm. (tip to tip 38 mm.). 

(J : Similar to female, but having antenna bifasciculate, it is much worn 
and paler in colouring. 

Expanse 42 mm. (tip to tip 38 mm.). 

HolotypeQ: 23. vi. 1913; allotype <$ : 8. hi. 1912; paratopes 2 $? : 9.iii. 
and 17. iv. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : B. alienaria Wlk. (Ceylon). 

Boarmia pissoconeta sp.n. 

cj : Palpus cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous outwardly. Antenna with 
proximal half bipectinate, distal half ciliate. Head : frons and vertex cartridge- 
buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Abdomen 
light buff ; a long tapering fuscous-black patch, almost covering abdomen 
dorsally ; venter and anal tuft light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs light buff 
tinged with fuscous ; tibiae and tarsi with patches of fuscous and cartridge-buff 
alternately. Forewing cartridge-buff, lightly suffused with fuscous on costa ; 
basal third fuscous to army brown, with a well-marked fovea below median 
nervure ; antemedial line fuscous, almost straight across the wing, forming an 
edge to basal third ; medially a fuscous line, beoming almost obsolescent in 
centre, excurved to vein 2, obliquely incurved to inner margin ; postmedial 
line fuscous, slightly incurved to below vein 6, excurved to vein 4, excurved to 
below vein 2, then slightly incurved to inner margin ; area beyond fuscous to 
army brown. Hindwing cartridge-buff sparsely irrorated with fuscous, suffused 
with army brown on distal third ; a faint fuscous cell spot ; postmedial line 
fuscous, somewhat broken, inwardly oblique from about vein 6 to inner margin ; 
subterminal line similar and parallel. Underside : fore- and hindwings light 
buff, suffused with warm buff subterminallv ; with markings corresponding to 
those on upper side. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to tip 37 mm.). 

§ : Similar to male, but antenna simple. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to tip 37 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : l.xii.1912; allotype $ : 30. xi. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : B. variegata Moore (India, Assam, Formosa). 

Boarmia diadela sp.n. 
<J : Palpus blackish brown ; light buff on third segment. Antenna bipecti- 
nate for two-thirds, apical third ciliate. Head : frons and vertex light buff 
mixed with army brown. Thorax : patagium light buff suffused with army 
brown ; tegula light buff mixed with army brown, blackish brown posteriorly ; 
a tuft of army brown mixed with light buff on metathorax. Abdomen basal 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 121 

two-thirds blackish brown, with a light buff band at base ; anal third light 
buff suffused with fawn colour ; venter light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : 
fore- and midlegs with coxae light buff tinged with blackish brown ; femora, 
tibiae and tarsi, with alternate patches of light buff and blackish brown ; hindleg 
light buff with some blackish brown on tibia and tarsus. Forewing light buff ; 
basal and distal thirds blackish brown to army brown ; antemedial fascia con- 
sisting of two blackish brown lines, excurved and wavy ; medial fascia com- 
mencing as a blackish brown patch from costa to median nervure, then army 
brown, not so well defined, inwardly oblique to inner margin ; postmedial 
fascia, a somewhat broken, clotted, blackish brown line, straight to vein 5, 
inwardly oblique and wavy to inner margin ; subterminal fascia, a thick blackish 
brown line, edged with light buff distally, straight to vein 5, inward for a short 
distance, then angled and straight to inner margin ; a light buff patch on termen 
between veins 3 and 4. Uindiving light buff suffused with fuscous basally, 
suffused with fawn colour on distal third, irrorated with blackish brown below 
basal half of cell ; postmedial fascia, a dotted, blackish brown line, excurved to 
vein 2, incurved to inner margin ; subterminal fascia blackish brown, edged 
distally with light buff, from vein 4, to near tornus ; termen blackish brown, 
crenulate. Underside : forewing warm buff with a fuscous patch on costa 
basally ; another medially ; subterminal area fuscous, with a warm buff patch 
on termen between veins 3 and 4 ; postmedial fascia a series of fuscous spots ; 
hindwing warm buff ; a fuscous cell spot ; postmedial fascia a series of fuscous 
dots ; a short fuscous streak near tornus. 

Expanse 38 mm. (tip to tip 35 mm.). 

9 : Similar to male, but antenna ciliate. 

Expanse 38 mm. [tip to tip 35 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : l.xii.1912; allotype $: 8.xi.l912; paratypes <$ : 10. xi. 
1912 ; § 30. xi. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : B. variegata Moore (India, Assam, Formosa). 

Boarmia eupithecioides sp.n. 

^ : Palpus cartridge buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna bipectinate for 
two-thirds, apical third ciliate. Head : frons cartridge-buff, a lateral fuscous- 
black spot, another near base of antenna ; vertex cartridge-buff mixed with 
fuscous. Thorax : patagium and tegula cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. 
Abdomen cartridge-buff suffused with fuscous, a cartridge-buff band at base 
dorsally ; venter and anal tuft light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : fore- and 
midlegs light buff, with alternate patches of light buff and fuscous outwardly ; 
hindleg light buff ; tibia enlarged by a fold on inner side containing hair. Fore- 
icing cartridge-buff, densely irrorated with fuscous ; a well-marked fovea below 
basal half of cell, causing the anal vein to be diverted from its normal position ; 
antemedially a fine fuscous line, faintly marked, excurved ; cell spot fuscous; 
postmedially a fuscous line, wavy, inwardly oblique ; subterminally a wavy, 
cartridge-buff line. Hindioing concolorous with forewing ; cell spot fuscous ; 
postmedially a fuscous line, excurved to vein 4, incurved to inner margin ; 
subterminally a short, wavy, cartridge-buff line, from vein 4 to tornus ; inter- 
neural fuscous spots on termen. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff lightly 



122 Novitates Zooi.ogicae XXXV. 1329. 

suffused with fuscous ; cell spot fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff densely 
irrorated with fuscous ; cell spot fuscous. 

Expanse 26 mm. {tip to lip 25 mm.). 

Holotype £ ; 15.xii.HU2; paratype q : 16.xii.1912, Philippine Is., 
Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Sapiangao, 5.800 ft. 

Nearest ally : B. nubeculosa Bastelb. (Formosa). 

Cleora lipotera sp.n. 

<J : Palpus cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna bipectinate, for 
two-thirds, apical third ciliate. Head : frons and vertex liglit buff mixed with 
fuscous ; a transverse wood-brown bar between bases of antennae ; occiput 
cartridge-buff. Thorax : patagium wood-brown tinged with fuscous ; tegula 
fuscous. Abdomen cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous ; venter cartridge-buff ; anal 
tuft pinkish buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : foreleg light buff mixed with fuscous 
above ; other legs light buff. Forewing wood-brown irrorated with fuscous ; 
antemedial line fuscous, inwardly oblique ; medial line fuscous, excurved to 
median nervure, excurved to inner margin ; a patch of raised scales on disco- 
cellulars ; postmedial line fuscous, crenulate (points distad), slightly excurved 
to vein 4, then inwardly oblique to inner margin ; below apex a patch of fuscous 
suffusion. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; a wide medial band suffused 
with fuscous, proximal edge (near which is a small patch of raised scales on 
discocellulars) inwardly oblique, distal edge crenulate (points distad), excurved 
to vein 3, incurved to inner margin. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff ; a 
fuscous patch on discocellulars ; three fuscous spots on costa antemedially, 
medially, and postmedially ; tinged with fuscous in apical area ; termen fuscous ; 
hindwing cartridge-buff. 

Expanse 38 mm. (tip to lip 35 mm.). 

$>: Palpus benzo-brown mixed with whitish. Antenna minutely ciliate. 
Head : frons and vertex benzo-brown mixed with whitish. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula benzo-brown mixed with whitish. Abdomen benzo-brown ; venter 
light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs benzo-brown mixed with whitish. Forewing 
benzo-brown finely irrorated with fuscous ; with some whitish in subterminal 
area ; antemedial line fuscous, inwardly oblique, bordered by a cinnamon- 
drab shade proximally ; medial line fuscous, wavy, slightly excurved ; post- 
medial line fuscous, crenulate (points distad), bordered by a cinnamon-drab shade 
distally, straight to vein 5, obliquely incurved to inner margin ; a fuscous patch 
on termen below apex ; subterminally a whitish, wavy line, bordered proximally 
by fuscous from costa to vein 5 ; interrieural fuscous spots on termen. Hindwing 
concolorous with forewing ; medial and postmedial lines forming continuations 
of those on forewing ; some white at tornus. I 'ndcrxiilc : forewing white lightly 
suffused with fuscous ; cell spot fuscous ; postmedial line fuscous ; fuscous 
on subterminal area gradually fading toward tornus, with a whitish, patch 
at apex, another on termen at vein 3 ; hindwing white tinged with fuscous ; 
cell spot and subterminal lines fuscous. 

Expanse 45 mm. (tip to tip 43 mm.). 

Holotype J: 7.xi.l912; allotype $: 13.xii.1912; paratypes 4<J<J: 
7, 8, 11. xi, 5.XU.1912. 1 $: 7.xi.l912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. 
Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. leucophaea Butl. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1020. 123 

This species appears to vary from a more or less uniform colour to a very 
pale form with dark markings. 

Abraxas semiusta sp.n. 

3 : Palpus ochraceous-buff, bone-brown on third segment. Antenna 
fasciculate. Head : frons and vertex bone-brown ; with some white glossy 
scales between bases of antennae. Thorax : patagium ochraceous-buff, white 
posteriorly ; tegula ochraceous-buff, bone-brown mixed with white posteriorly ; 
rest of thorax bone-brown mixed with white. Abdomen ochraceous-buff, spotted 
with bone-brown above and beneath ; a Dresden brown band at base dorsallv. 
Pectus ochraceous-buff. Legs coxae ochraceous-buff, rest of legs fuscous. Fore- 
wing white ; a bone-brown to Dresden brown basal patch, in which are some 
white glossy scales, distal edge excurved ; medially a large light mouse-grey 
patch on costa, with a white tooth cutting into the proximal edge ; below, 
an elongate, broken, light mouse-grey patch, from median nervure to inner 
margin : postmedially a light mouse-grey patch on costa, continuing as an 
irregular border round apex and on termen ; from patch on costa, an excurved 
series of light mouse-grey spots, terminating in a large patch of bone-brown to 
Dresden brown on inner margin, with white glossy scales in centre. Hindwing 
white ; two bone-brown bars basally ; medially two light mouse-grey spots, 
one on costa, the other on inner margin ; postmedially a light mouse-grey patch 
on costa, with a small spot each side ; and a large patch on inner margin near 
tornus, bone-brown to Dresden brown, with white glossy scales in centre ; 
an irregular light mouse-grey border at termen. Underside : fore- and hind- 
wings white ; markings hair-brown, similar in shape to upperside. 

Expanse 42 mm. {tip to tip 38 mm.). 

Holotype (J : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Baguio, Trinidad, 
4,000 ft., 30. hi. 1912. 

Nearest ally: A. intermedia Warr. (India, Assam, Burma, S. Shan States). 

Abraxas cyclobalia sp.n. 

$ : Palpus, white suffused with sepia. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : 
frons upper half sepia, lower half white, with a wedge-shaped dash at middle 
extending into upper half ; vertex cinnamon-buff with a lateral sepia spot. 
Thorax : patagium, tegula and rest of thorax cinnamon-buff spotted with sepia. 
Abdomen cinnamon-buff spotted with sepia above and beneath, suffused with 
white at base dorsallv. Pectus cinnamon-buff. Legs : foreleg, coxa cinnamon- 
buff with a sepia spot, rest of leg suffused with sepia outwardly ; midleg, coxa 
and femur cinnamon-buff, tibia and tarsus suffused with sepia ; hindleg, coxa 
and femur cinnamon-buff, tibia cinnamon-buff with two sepia patches, tarsus 
sepia. Foreiving white ; sepia on basal half of costa, some sepia spots basally ; 
antemedial fascia sepia, a series of spots joined together, obliquely incurved ; 
medially a round sepia patch in distal end of cell, connected to costa by a short 
bar ; postmedially a series of sepia spots and patches, excurved to vein 2, then 
inwardly oblicpie and double to inner margin ; subterminally a series of sepia 
spots and patches ; a number of sepia spots merged into one another, forming 
a wide border round apex ; a cluster of sepia spots near tornus. Hindwing 
concolorous with forewing ; a spot on inner margin antemedially ; medially 



124 Novitates Zoolochae XXXV. 1929. 

a series of spots, obliquely across the wing ; postmedially an excurved series of 
spots ; a series of spots subterminally, and another terminally. Underside : 
fore- and hindwings, similar to upperside. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to lip 37 mm.). 

§ : Similar to male. 

Expanse 48 mm. [tip to tip 43 mm.). 

Holotypc j : xii.l'J12; allotype $: 29.iii.1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Baguio, Trinidad, 4,800 ft. 

Nearest ally : A. invasata Water. (Brit. N. Borneo). 

Abraxas gephyra sp.n. 

$ : Palpus cinnamon-buff basallv. olive-brown apically. Antenna minutely 
ciliate. Head: frons eimiamon-buff ; vertex bone-brown, surrounded by 
cinnamon-buff. Thorax : patagium bone-brown ; tegula bone-brown, cinnamon- 
buff in middle ; rest of thorax cinnamon-buff spotted with bone-brown. Abdomen 
cinnamon-buff spotted with bone-brown above and beneath. Pectus cinnamon- 
buff. Legs : foreleg, coxa cinnamon-buff spotted with bone-brown, remainder 
of leg olive-brown ; other legs olive-brown. Forewing white ; an olive-brown 
border extending from base, along costa, round apex, and on termen to tornus ; 
in this border at the base are five spots, four white, and one cinnamon-buff ; 
an olive-brown band, from costa subterminally to tornus, crossed by an olive- 
brown band from costa postmedially, outwardly oblique to base of vein 4, angled, 
and along vein 4 to termen ; two short olive-brown bars, connecting the down- 
ward band with termen, one on vein 3, the other on vein 2. Hindwing white ; 
a terminal olive-brown band, in which is a series of five white spots. Underside : 
fore- and hindwings, similar to upperside. 

Expanse 44 mm. (tip to tip 40 mm.). 

Holotype $: Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft., 
lO.iii. 1912. 

Nearest ally : A. punctifera Wlk. (Burma, Timor). 

Craspedosis picoides sp.n. 

$ : Palpus mouse-grey. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons and 
vertex mouse-grey. Thorax : patagium and tegula mouse-gre}*. Abdomen 
cinnamon-buff above and beneath, basal segment mouse-grey. Pectus cartridge- 
buff tinged with mouse-grey. Legs fuscous. Forewing mouse-grey ; a fovea 
below base of cell ; postmedially a large white patch lying obliquely across 
wing, its upper edge parallel to costa, its proximal edge outwardly oblique to 
below vein 2, angled, and continued outwardly toward tornus, its distal edge 
outwardly oblique to vein 5, then excurved to near tornus, where it joins proximal 
edge forming a blunt point ; subterminally a faint pale mouse-grey line. Hind- 
wing white, mouse-grey at base ; a wide border of mouse-grey subterminally, 
in which is a faint pale mouse-gre}' subterminal line. Underside : fore- and 
hindwings similar to upperside. 

Expanse 54 mm. (tip to tip 50 mm.). 

Holotype $ : Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan 
(plains), 25. v. 1914. 

Nearest ally : C. leucoslicta Warr. (Queensland). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 125 

Subfamily LARENTIINAE 
Poecilasthenia prouti sp.n. 

^ : Palpus wood-brown. Antenna minutely ciliate, white on basal half 
of shaft. Head : frons wood-brown ; vertex white mixed with glaucous-green. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula, white mixed with glaucous-green. Abdomen 
white mixed with glaucous-green ; venter white. Pectus white. Legs : fore- 
and midlegs white, wood-brown outwardly ; hindleg white. Forewing white 
irrorated with glaucous-green, translucent ; antemedially a faintly marked, 
glaucous-green line, inwardly oblique ; postmedially a band of glaucous-green, 
inwardly oblique, slightly wavy ; cell spot glaucous-green ; subterminally three 
fine glaucous-green, wavy lines. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; lines 
and markings forming continuations of those on forewing. Underside : fore- 
and hindwings opalescent, glossy. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 24 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male. 

Expanse 30 mm. (tip to tip 28 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : l.xii.1912 ; allotype ? : 19. xii. 1912 ; paratype $ : 9.xii.l912, 
Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : P. thalassina Meyr. (Australia). 

Hastina plumbipicta sp.n. 

$ : Palpus light buff suffused with ochraceous-orange. Antenna ciliate ; 
shaft, light buff ringed with ochraceous-orange. Head : frons light buff, a 
wide band of ochraceous-orange suffusion across middle ; vertex light buff. 
Thorax : patagium light buff tinged with ochraceous-orange ; tegula light buff 
with a suffusion of fuscous proximally. Abdomen fuscous, light buff mixed 
with ochraceous-orange on basal segment dorsally ; venter light buff. Pectus 
light buff. Legs : foreleg light buff, bone-brown above ; mid- and hindlegs 
light buff. Foreioin-g baryta-yellow ; bone-brown to ochraceous-orange along 
costa, gradually widening from base forming a triangular patch on basal half 
of cell ; again increasing in width medially, where a wide fascia is thrown off, 
well-defined to base of vein 3, then ill-defined and broken ; a large bone-brown 
patch suffused with neutral grey, edged with ochraceous-orange in apical area, 
with three cartridge-buff points on costa ; a small bone-brown patch suffused 
with neutral grey, edged with ochraceous-orange at tornus ; termen ochraceous- 
orange ; fringe baryta-yellow. Hindwing basal third baryta-yellow, distal 
two-thirds bone-brown suffused with neutral grey, the dividing line between 
the two colours, outwardly oblique from costa medially to vein 7, sharply 
excurved, returning along vein 6 to discocellulars, angled and inwardly oblique 
to near median nervure, inwardly, parallel with median nervure, angled sub- 
basally, then oblique to inner margin ; cell spot blackish brown ; medially, 
some baryta-yellow spots surrounded by ochraceous-orange ; subterminal 
line bone-brown ; termen deeply excised between veins 5 and 6. Underside : 
forewing light buff ; wood-brown on costa, a bone-brown patch in apical area ; 
a bone-brown spot at tornus ; termen baryta-yellow ; hindwing basal half light 
buff, distal half bone-brown, termen light buff. 

Expanse 30 mm. (tip to tip 27 mm.). 

9 



126 X<IYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

Holotype }: Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place. 7,000 ft.. 7.xi. L912. 

Nearest ally : H. ornata Moore (Sikhim). 

Sauris nigrilinearia Leech. 
(J : Palpus dusky brown. Head : frons dusky brown ; vertex dark olive- 
buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula dark olive-buff. Abdomen dark olive-buff ; 
venter cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs : foreleg, coxa and femur 
dark olive-buff ; tibia and tarsus tinged with dusky brown ; other legs cartridge- 
buff tinged with dusky brown. Forewing dark olive-buff ; subbasal fascia a 
dusky brown line, outwardly oblique to subcosta, slightly incurved to inner 
margin : medially a dusky brown patch on costa. from which runs an ill-defined 
line, dusky brown to olive-citrine, excurved to lower angle of cell, incurved at 
vein 2, slightly oblique to inner margin ; postmedial fascia consisting of two 
dusky brown to olive-citrine, wavy lines, excurved to vein 2, then straight to 
inner margin ; subterminal fascia a strongly marked dusky brown line, slightly 
excurved to vein 2, incurved to tornus, bordered distally by a fine dusky brown 
line ; terminal line dusky brown ; the space between subterminal and terminal 
lines, below vein 5, suffused with dusky brown ; a dusky brown spot at the end 
of each vein on termen. Hind/wing vinaceous-buff ; a large fovea on lower half 
of wing, extending beyond the end of cell. Underside : fore- and hindwings 
wood brown. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 27 mm.). 

Neallotype $ : 5.vii.l895; paratype £ : 4.vii.l895, Japan, Kyushu I., 
2)rov. Satsuma, Kagoshima. 

Nearest ally : 8. infirma Swinh. (Pulo Laut, Singapore). 

Steirophora dialitha sp.n. 

J : Paljms light yellowish olive. Head : frons and vertex light yellowish 
olive. Thorax : patagium and tegula light yellowish olive ; rest of thorax 
light yellowish olive with sooty black spots laterally. Abdomen light buff 
suffused with olive-brown above and beneath ; olive-ochre on basal and anal 
segments ; anal tuft olive-ochre with two sooty black spots. Pectus olive-ochre. 
Legs : fore- and midlegs, coxae light yellowish olive, femora suffused with sooty 
black, tibiae and tarsi sooty black with light buff patches ; hindleg olive-brown, 
light buff above on tibia, and at joints on tarsus. Forewing light yellowish 
olive ; fasciae broken up by light yellowish-olive streaks radiating from base to 
termen ; a sooty black spot at base ; subbasal fascia sooty black, excurved, 
incurved ; antemedial fascia sooty black, slightly excurved ; postmedial fascia, 
a wide sooty black band edged with a fine white line, another through middle, 
passing close to a sooty black cell spot ; proximal edge slightly waved ; distal 
edge excurved to vein 5, excurved to vein 3, incurved to inner margin ; sub- 
terminal fascia sooty black, edged with white distally. slightly excurved to vein 2, 
incurved to inner margin ; sagittate sooty black marks on termen at ends of 
veins (points distad). Hindwing light buff lightly suffused with olive-brown ; 
olive-brown on discocellulars ; a faint light buff postmedial line. Underside : 
forewing olive-brown ; the white lines showing through from upperside ; hind- 
wing similar to upperside. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 127 

Expanse 52 mm. (tip to tip 50 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male. 

Expanse 49 mm. (tip to tip 45 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,C00 ft., 28.vii.1913 ; allotype $: subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft., 
xii.1914. 

Nearest ally : S. punctatissima Warr. (Bonthain). 

Collix elachista sp.n. 

<$ : Palpus light buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna minutely ciliate. 
Head : frons fuscous ; a wide band of light buff across middle ; vertex light 
buff mixed with fuscous. Thorax : patagium and tegula light buff mixed with 
fuscous. Abdomen light buff suffused with fuscous ; venter light buff. Pectus 
light buff. Legs light buff, fuscous suffusion at joints of tarsus of foreleg. 
Forewing light buff densely irrorated with fuscous ; medially a fuscous line, 
slightly oblique, crossing fuscous cell spot, then obliquely incurved to inner 
margin ; postmedially a crenulate, fuscous line, edged with light buff distally, 
excurved to vein 2, obliquely incurved to inner margin ; subterminally a fascia 
of sagittate fuscous marks (points basad), edged with light buff distally, excurved 
to anal vein, straight to inner margin ; between veins 3 and 4, a wedge-shaped 
fuscous patch, base on subterminal fascia, point cutting through postmedial 
fascia ; subterminal area fuscous, in which is a terminal line of light buff spots. 
Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; lines and fasciae forming continuations 
of those on forewing. Underside : fore- and hindwings white ; veins ochraceous- 
buff as far as subterminal area, where they are fuscous ; a fuscous cell spot ; 
a series of fuscous spots postmedially. 

Expanse 24 mm. (lip to tip 21 mm.). 

$ : similar to male. 

Expanse 25 mm. (tip to tip 22 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 7.U.1914; allotype $: 3. i. 1914, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
prov. Rizal, Montalban. 

Nearest ally : C. flavovenata Leech (China). 

Euphyia litterata sp.n. 

(J : Palpus light buff, some bistre outwardly. Antenna fasciculate. Head : 
frons and vertex light buff mixed with bistre ; a bistre streak from vertex, 
between antennae, and half-way down frons. Thorax : patagium and tegula 
light buff mixed with bistre. Abdomen snuff brown ; laterally, a bistre streak ; 
dorsally, a longitudinal light buff line, and two shorter light buff lines crossing 
it at base ; basal segment bistre ; venter light buff mixed with snuff brown. 
Pectus light buff. Legs bistre, with light buff patches. Forewing bistre ; divided 
into patches by cartridge-buff, in which is a suffusion of snuff-brown ; the lighter 
coloured portion forms a grotesquely shaped letter K ; basal patch edged with 
cartridge-buff, outwardly oblique to middle of cell, angled, then straight to below 
median nervure, angled, and inwardly oblique to inner margin ; antemedially 
three small patches, placed obliquely beyond basal patch, one on costa, another 
on median nervure, the third and larger patch, in which are two small spots, 
on anal vein and touching inner margin medially ; postmedially a large patch, 



128 XnVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1820. 

the upper edge on costa, the lower edge almost reaching vein 2, proximal edge 
from costa medially, outwardly oblique, slightly curved to base of vein 3, down- 
curved, almost touching vein 2, then sharply excurved returning to vein 3 ; 
distal edge straight from costa to vein 7, then widely excurved to vein 3, joining 
proximal edge in an inward point ; a triangular patch on costa near apex, the 
point touching vein 6, divided by a cartridge-buff line : three bistre patches on 
termen, bordered proximally by cartridge-buff, incurved to vein 3, incurved 
to vein 2, again incurved to tornus ; a fine terminal line of cartridge-buff ; and 
a cartridge-buff patch in fringe between veins 3 and 4. Hindwing cartridge- 
buff lightly suffused with snuff-brown ; post-medial line faintly marked ; termen 
bistre. Underside : forewing light buff irrorated with bistre ; a bistre cell 
spot ; postmedially two bistre lines from costa as far as vein 3, with a suffusion 
of bistre between them ; hindwing light buff irrorated with bistre ; cell spot 
bistre ; medial and postmedial lines bistre. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to tip 42 mm.). 

Holotype $: 1 .xii. 1912 ; paratypes 3 <$£ : 1, 2.xii.l()12, 17.vii.1913, 
Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : E. melancholica Butl. (Formosa, Japan). 

Euphyia phrice sp.n. 

(J: Palpus white mixed with sepia. Antenna ciliate. Head: frons and 
vertex white ; a wedge-shaped, sepia patch on vertex, the point between 
antennae. Thorax : patagium sepia, edged with white ; tegula sepia, rest of 
thorax white mixed with sepia. Abdomen sepia ; a cartridge-buff, longitudinal 
stripe dorsally, with a narrow cartridge-buff band crossing it at base ; venter 
cartridge-buff mixed with sepia. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs light buff suffused 
with sepia. Forewing sepia ; subbasal fascia a fine, white, wavy line ; ante- 
medial fascia a white, excurved, wavy line ; an outwardly oblique, white line 
from costa antemedially to inner margin subterminally ; a white line from inner 
margin antemedially, rising to near median nervine, angled, and running longi- 
tudinally to subterminal fascia at vein 2, forming a patch where it crosses the 
oblique line previously mentioned ; subterminal fascia consisting of four white 
lines, the proximal line straight to vein 2, where it is angled, then slightly 
oblique to tornus ; the two inner lines wavy ; the distal line, incurved from 
apex to vein 3, excurved to vein 2. Hindwing white, irrorated with sepia on 
lower half ; postmedial fascia a sepia, crenulate (points basad), excurved line ; 
subterminal area suffused with sepia, in which is a white subterminal line. Under- 
side : fore- and hindwings white, glossy ; markings showing through from 
upperside. 

Expanse 43 mm. (tip to tip 40 mm.). 

Holotype ^ : Formosa, Karapin, x.1908. 

Nearest ally : C. rectilinea Warr. 

Euphyia euchora sp.n. 

fj : Palpus warm sepia. Antenna fasciculate. Head : frons and vertex 

warm sepia mixed with light buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula warm sepia 

mixed with light buff. Abdomen warm sepia above and beneath, light buff 

laterally. Pectus light buff mixed with warm sepia. Legs : coxae and femora 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 129 

light buff speckled with warm sepia ; tibiae and tarsi warm sepia mixed with 
light buff. Foreiving cinnamon-brown ; warm sepia basally, distal edge light 
buff, from costa subbasally, obliquely excurved, wavy ; a wide warm sepia 
medial band, edged with light buff ; antemedial edge, outwardly oblique from 
costa to subcosta, wavy to inner margin ; postmedial edge slightly waved to 
below vein 4, inwardly oblique to vein 2, excurved to anal vein, straight to inner 
margin ; a short cartridge-buff, outwardly oblique dash, from costa near apex ; 
below apex on termen, two blackish brown patches ; a white spot in a suffusion 
of warm sepia at tornus. Hindwing light buff, lightly suffused with warm 
sepia ; a faintly marked, light buff postmedial line. Underside : fore- and 
hindwings cinnamon-brown ; suffused with bone brown on basal two-thirds. 

Expanse 46 mm. (tip to tip 40 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male, but antenna ciliate. 

Expanse 40 mm. (tip to lip 35 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : 26. xi. 1912; paratopes 4^: 13, 14, 22. xi., 3.xii.l912, 
Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. ; 
allotype $: 21. vi. 1913, subprov. Benguet, Baguio. 

Nearest ally : E. propinquata Koll. 

Chloroclystis obscura sp.n. 

§ : Palpus cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Antenna ciliate. Head : 
frons and vertex cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Thorax : patagium and 
tegula cartridge-buff mixed with fuscous. Abdomen cartridge-buff suffused 
with fuscous ; venter cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs cartridge- 
buff, tinged with fuscous outwardly. Foreiving cartridge-buff suffused with 
fuscous ; antemedial fascia, consisting of two cartridge-buff lines, outwardly 
oblique to subcosta, inwardly oblique to inner margin ; medially a faintly 
marked, cartridge-buff line, parallel with antemedial fascia ; cell spot fuscous ; 
postmedial fascia consisting of two cartridge-buff lines, outwardly oblique to 
vein 7, incurved to vein 4, inwardly oblique and wavy to inner margin ; sub- 
terminal area fuscous, in which is a wavy, cartridge-buff line. Hindwing con- 
colorous with forewing, lines and markings forming continuations of those on 
forewing. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff tinged with fuscous ; cell spot 
fuscous ; subbasal, antemedial, and postmedial lines fuscous ; subterminal area 
suffused with fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff, cell spot and postmedial line 
fuscous ; subterminal band fuscous. 

Expanse 25 mm. (tip to tip 22 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 22. v. 1900, Japan, Honshu I., prov. Yamato, Yoshino. 

Nearest ally : C. dentatissima Warr. 

Chloroclystis tortuosa sp.n. 

<J : Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna ciliate. Head : frons and vertex 
pinkish buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula pinkish buff. Abdomen pinkish 
buff ; venter cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs : foreleg pinkish buff, 
suffused with fuscous above ; other legs pinkish buff. Forewing basal half 
cartridge-buff, distal edge commencing with a fuscous spot on costa, obliquely 
excurved from costa antemedially to inner margin medially ; distal half cinna- 
mon-drab medially to fuscous subterminally ; postmedial line cartridge-buff, 



130 Novit.vtes Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

excurved to vein 5, excurved to anal vein ; subterminal line cartridge-buff, 
wavy. Hind/wing cartridge-buff ; postmedially a series of fuscous dots ; ternien 
fuscous ; fringe cartridge-buff. Underside : forewing glossy ; cartridge-buff 
suffused with cinnamon-drab ; fuscous on basal half of costa ; cell spot and 
postmedial line faintly marked ; termen fuscous ; hindwing glossv, cartridge- 
buff ; cell spot and postmedial line faintly marked. 

Expanse 21 mm. (tip to tip 18 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : 15. xi. 1912, Philippine Is.. Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, 
Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. inaequata Warr. 

Chloroclystis mira sp.n. 

§ : Palpvs light yellowish olive. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons 
and vertex light yellowish olive. Thorax : patagium light yellowish olive ; 
tegula light yellowish olive with a blackish brown spot. Abdomen light yellowish 
olive, blackish brown on basal and anal segments, and some blackish brown 
scales at joints between other segments dorsally ; venter cartridge-buff, tinged 
with light yellowish olive. Pectus light yellowish olive. Legs : foreleg, coxa 
and femur light yellowish olive with blackish brown above ; tibia and tarsus 
blackish brown, light yellowish olive at joints ; midleg light yellowish olive 
mixed with blackish brown outwardly ; hindleg cartridge-buff tinged with light 
yellowish olive. Forewing light yellowish olive to yellowish olive, blackish 
brown on costa ; antemedial fascia a band of cartridge-buff straight across 
wing, bordered by a suffusion of blackish brown ; postmedial fascia a cartridge- 
buff band, with blackish brown on veins along each edge, straight to vein 7, 
outwardly angled, then wavy and inwardly oblique to inner margin ; a wide 
suffusion of wood-brown from lower half of antemedial fascia, narrowing to 
space between veins 4 and 6 at discocellulars, continuing to postmedial fascia 
and beyond. Hindwing cartridge-buff. Underside : forewing glossy, cartridge- 
buff lightly suffused with light yellowish olive, more deeply on costa ; fascia 
marked to median nervure by fuscous irroration ; hindwing glossy cartridge- 
buff lightly suffused with light yellowish olive ; fascia marked by fuscous 
irroration. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 26 mm.). 

Holotype 1 }: 12. xi. 1912; paratype $ : 15. xi. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft.; paratype $: 3.vi.l912, 
subprov. Benguet, Baguio, 5,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. blanda Bastelb. 

Chloroclystis hypopyrrha sp.n, 
(J: Palpus cartridge-buff. Antenna ciliate. Head: frons and vertex 
cartridge-buff. Thorax : patagium cartridge-buff ; tegula Lincoln green. 
Abdomen cartridge-buff, warm sepia on two basal segments dorsally ; venter 
cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs cartridge-buff, warm sepia patches 
on tibia and tarsus of foreleg. Forewing Lincoln green ; some warm sepia on 
costa basally ; medially a wide, warm sepia band ; proximal edge, excurved 
to median nervure, inwardly oblique to inner margin ; distal edge wavy and 
excurved ; subterminal line white, crenulate, passing through three patches of 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 131 

warm sepia, one on costa, another between veins 4 and 6, the third at tornus ; 
termen warm sepia ; fringe Lincoln green mixed with warm sepia. Hindwing 
concolorous with forewing ; lines and markings forming continuations of those 
on forewing. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff lightly suffused with warm 
sepia ; cell spot and postmedial fascia warm sepia ; subterminal area suffused 
with warm sepia ; hindwing cartridge-buff ; cell spot and postmedial fascia 
warm sepia. 

Expanse 22 mm. (tip to tip 20 mm.). 

$ : Similar to male. 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 22 mm.). 

Holotype 3: 20. vi. 1901; allotype ?: 16.vii.1901; para types : 1 <$ 
9.vi, 1 <$ 3.vii, 2 S$ l.ix, 1 3 20.x. 1899; 1 <J 27. v. 1900; 1 $ 9.ix, 
1 $ 1.x. 1899; 1 $ 17. vi, 1 $ 19. vi. 1901 ; Japan, Honshu I., prov. Yamato, 
Yoshino. 

Nearest ally : C. rectangulata Linn. 

Eupithecia dolia sp.n. 

<J : Palpus Verona brown. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons white, 
Verona brown on lower half ; vertex white. Thorax : patagium and tegula 
white ; rest of thorax with a white Verona brown spot in middle. Abdomen 
Verona brown, basal segment white ; venter cartridge-buff. Pectus white. 
Legs : Fore- and midlegs cartridge-buff, Verona brown above ; hindleg cartridge- 
buff. Forewing Verona brown ; white at base below median nervure ; sub- 
basal line white, wavy ; antemedial line Verona brown denned by white, wavy 
to median nervure, below, ill-defined and almost obsolescent ; cell spot bone- 
brown in a white patch which reaches costa ; postmedially two white lines, 
the distal one commencing with a patch on costa, excurved and wavy to vein 4, 
below, ill-defined and almost obsolescent ; subterminally a series of bone-brown 
spots, edged distally with white ; a white spot at tornus. Hindwing white ; 
partial fasciae of Verona brown, subbasally, medially and postmedially, from 
median nervure to inner margin. Underside : forewing light buff tinged with 
Verona brown ; markings showing through from upperside ; hindwing cartridge- 
buff ; antemedial, medial and postmedial fasciae faintly marked ; subterminal 
area tinged with Verona brown. 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 23 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 20. xi. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : E . sinicaria Leech. 

(Colours from Ridgway's Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, 1912. 
Colour terms in italics are not Ridgway's.) 



132 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 



ON THE GEOMETRID GENUS C ATOM A MOORE. 
By LOUIS B. PROUT. 

r"PHE genus Catoria was erected by Moore in 1887 [Lep. Ceyl. iii. 414), under 
the "family" heading Boarmiidae, for two species which were said to 
have the q forewing " comparatively shorter and broader than in Cymatophora 
[type roboraria Schiff.], Boarmia [type consonaria Hb., sec. Moore ex err., torn, 
cit. 412] and Aids [type repandata Linn.] ; the apex less produced and somewhat 
rounded ; cell shorter, costal vein bifid near its end ; first subcostal . . . joined 
to middle of the costal branch ; . . . hindwing short ; exterior margin almost 
even, convex ; cell nearly half the length ; first subcostal [St'-] close to end ; 
. . . body short, rather stout ; palpi obliquely projected in front, laxly clothed 
beneath, apex conical ; antennae broadly bipectinate to one-third the tip [sic], 
the branches very long and finely ciliated ; legs long, more slender than in above 
genera, spurs long, slender." He selected for its type Boarmia svblavaria 
Guen. (Spec. Gen. Lep. ix, 256), which — as is shown by his citations and other 
works — embraced both the true svblavaria and its Ceylon representative ; and 
added (p. 415) procursaria Walk. (1860), an outlier with similar venation but 
with different o antenna and smooth face, probably standing on a somewhat 
different line of evolution (Boarmia- Serraca group). 

By later systematists the genus (sens, sir.) has been forced into Boarmia 
sect. Aids (Hmpsn., Faun. Ind. Moths, iii. 270) or divided between Ectropis 
and Diastictis (Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Sth. Wales (2) vi. 333, E. camelaria 
Guen. ; Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, p. 75, D. svblavaria Guen.) or between Ectropis 
and Boarmia (Turn.. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. Sth. Wales, xlii. 333, E. hemiprosopa 
Turn, and camelaria Guen. ; torn. cit. 359, Boarmia viridaria, Pagenst.). Warren 
alone seems to have been conscious of its perfect homogeneity as regards the 
Indo-Australian Region ; but he erred in the opposite direction by including a 
Neotropical group which has only a very general and partly superficial resem- 
blance (the group of Boarmia bipennaria Guen.). 

Apart from the pattern of both upper- and underside, which shows remark- 
ably little deviation throughout, the genus Catoria is characterized absolutely 
by the $ antennal structure, to which Meyrick and Turner have called attention 
(see the references under Ectropis, supra). The pectinations, which are very 
long but leave free the apical one-third or two-fifths of the antenna, arise in 
slender pairs at the extreme ends of each segment and are always in part fused 
into single stouter pectinations, in part free, in part fused for a longer or shorter 
distance proximally but separating apically. The face is more or less rough- 
scaled, generally with a well-defined cone below. The hindtibia of the q is 
dilated, though not extremely, the ensheathed hair-pencil therefore more or 
less slender. The fovea is well developed in the $. The forewing has SC 1,2 
very long-stalked or (in hemiprosopa Turn, and in the $$ of several species) 
coincident, in the $<$ with the stalk connected by a bar (Moore's costal branch) 
with C or very rarely anastomosing slightly, in the $9 nearly always anastomosing 
more or less strongly. The hindwing has the termen somewhat crenulate, but 
more weakly than in the majority of the Boarmia grouji. The coloration is 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



133 



generally white, grey or green, scarcely ever brown ; cell-spots above strongly 
developed, that of the hindwing often ocellated, beneath enlarged on the fore- 
wing, often also on the hindwing, or with the ocellus solidified into a strong 
black spot ; lines of upperside double, excepting the median, and on the hindwing 
generally the antemedian ; proximal postmedian generally and proximal 
subterminal always macular, the latter strong ; underside white or oftener 
more or less suffused with grey or drab, without lines but nearly always with 
complete or incomplete subterminal or terminal dark bands, in which white or 
very pale spots persist at least at apex of fore wing and midtermen of both wings. 

The q genitalia, as noted in Nov. Zool. xxxv, 75, show very good differen- 
tial characters, notably in the armature of the valves, though all have the 
sacculus free and very strong. 

In order to make clear the phylogenetic unity of the group, which has 
spread almost throughout the Indo-Australian Region but is entirely unrepre- 
sented elsewhere, it appears highly desirable to treat it as a genus. I believe 
I have examined all the forms yet known, and as there is little hope of my 
finding an opportunity to monograph them, I have prepared a general survey 
and propose to name the undescribed ones except where the material is at 
present inadequate. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES. 

1 . Colour green ....... 

Colour not green ...... 

2. Hindwing with cell-spot ocellated 
Hindwing with cell-spot not ocellated . 

3. Shape of £ abnormal ; underside bright brown 
Shape of $ normal or nearly so ; underside white, 

grey or drab ....... 

4. Colour dark brown or dark-mottled, beneath with- 

out dark apical or distal band .... 
Colour not so, beneath with dark apical or distal band 

5. Forewing beneath at apex blackish 
Forewing beneath at apex white or whitish . 

G. Face sharply half white and half black ; forewing 
with SC li2 coincident ..... 
Face not so ; forewing with SC 1,2 long-stalked 

7. Face wholly black 

Face partly white ...... 

8. Cell-spot of hindwing large, oblong 
Cell-spot of hindwing small, round or punctiform . 

9. Sacculus strongly dentate on innerside ; wings be- 

neath dark, with white midterminal spot narrow 11. sp.n. (Ceylon) 
Sacculus with only a few irregular teeth ; wings 
beneath generally less dark, with white more 
extended ...... 

10. Cell-spot of hindwing ocellated . 
Cell-spot of hindwing not ocellated 

1 1 . Underside white or whitish proximally 
Underside smoky proximally 

12. Underside predominantly white . 
Underside predominantly drab 



2 

3 
7. parva Butl. 
6. delectaria Walk. 
3. lucidata Warr. 



4. saturata Prout. 
5 
subalbata Warr. 
6 



13 



hemiprosopa Turn. 

7 

8 

10 

9. tamsi Prout. 

9 



12. 



2 
1. 

10. 
5. 



sublavaria Guen. 

11 

12 

camelaria Guen. 

uli reset us Moore. 

sp.n. (Timor). 

sp.n. (Choiseul). 



134 Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

1. Catoria olivescens Moore. 

This species, readily recognizable by its dusky olive-grey tone, the ocellated 
cell-mark, and the broadly darkened borders beneath, evidently represents 
camelaria Guen. in the Indian subregion (cf. Nov. Zool. xxxv. 73-4) ; but a 
careful comparison of the q genitalia shows a sufficiently wide difference in the 
sacculus to call for specific separation. In both, the sacculus arm is nearly as 
long as the valvula and has a prong on the costal side ; but whereas in olivescens 
this is placed beyond the middle and the margin of the sacculus between it and 
the apical prong forms a regularly curved concavity, in camelaria it is more 
proximal and projects more sharply from the arm. Both the species, together 
with some others to be referred to later, have a process (inward) from the " costal 
fold " terminating in two (or sometimes on one of the valves three — i.e. asym- 
metrical) slender spines. The uncus is weak, blunt, with two groups of bristles 
at extremity, the gnathos weak. 

Thus far I have only recognized two races. 

(a) C. olivescens olivescens Moore. 

Catoria olirewns Moore. £171. All,-. 244 (1888) (Darjiling). 

" Boarmia tmblavaria Guen." Butl., 111. Het. vii. 21 (1889) (Dharmsala). 

Fairly common in Sikkim, Bhutan and Assam, apparently rare in N.W. 
India. Also known to me from Perak and Formosa. 

(b) C. olivescens longistigma Prout. 

Catoria olivescens longistigma Prout, Bull. Hill Mils. iii. (1) 38 (1929) (Buru). 

Distinguished by its whiter admixture above, with elongate cell-mark of 
hindwing (more as in tamsi Prout) and dark, broad-bordered underside. 

Buru and Ceram. I now suspect the $ " camelaria " from Buru (loc. cit.) 
is really the $ to this olivescens race, although the double element in the fauna 
of this island renders it by no means impossible that it may provide a meeting- 
place for the two allies. 

2. Catoria camelaria (Guen.). 

This is a widely distributed species, its range extending from Timor and 
perhaps Buru (vide supra) to the Loyalty Islands or probably Fiji. It is character- 
ized by the ocellated cell-spot of the hindwing, the pronounced broadening of 
the black border on the anterior part of the forewing beneath and in most of 
the forms by the strong contrast between the whiteness of the ground-colour 
and the sharpness of the dark markings. The face is never wholly black, as 
in sublavaria Guen. and tamsi Prout, or half white and half black, as in hemi- 
prosopa Turn. Usually it is crossed by a not very sharply defined black band 
about or above the middle. 

In Australia, whence camelaria was first described, it seems strongly variable, 
and this, taken in conjunction with the fact that only scanty and sometimes 
poor material is yet to hand from some of its other localities, renders it difficult 
— or indeed impossible — to give an adequate analysis of its geographical varia- 
tion. The following is the best that I can yet offer. 



Novitates Zooloqicae XXXV. 1929. 135 

(a) C. camelaria camelaria (Guen.). 

Boarmia (?) camelaria Guen., Spec. Gen. Lep. ix. 256 (1858) ; Oberth., El. Lep. vii. fig. 1660 (1913) 

(Australia). 
Cleora velulinaria Walk., List Lep. Ins. xxxv. 1580 (1866) (Moreton Bay [& Swan River, err. loc.]). 

The variation consists chiefly in the ground-colour, which is sometimes 
brownish instead of white (resulting in a marked superficial resemblance to 
hemiprosopa Turn.) and in the extent of the dark submarginal bands beneath, 
which in any case become obsolescent posteriorly on the hindwing but may 
also disappear from the entire hindwing and even, in extreme cases, be reduced 
on the forewing to a small subapical patch. 

General in Queensland and reaching Newcastle, N.S.W. 

(l>) C. camelaria timorensis subsp.n. 

cj$, 39-44 mm. On an average smaller than C. camelaria and with relatively 
shorter forewing, at least in the J. Tone brownish. Cell-dot of forewing 
strong, ocellus of hindwing more perfect than in most c. camelaria. Forewing 
beneath with the cell-spot smaller than in c. camelaria, the distal band generally 
more uniform, with the white apical patch reduced. 

Dutch Timor : Oinanissa (loc. typ.), November-December 1891 (W. 
Doherty), 2 JJ, 2 $$. Portuguese Timor ; Dili, May 1892 (W. Doherty), 2 $$. 
All in coll. Tring Mus. 

(c) C. camelaria baryconia Prout. 

Catoria camelaria baryconia Prout, Bull. Hill Mus. iii. (2) p. ? (in the press) (New Guinea). 

A well-differentiated race, represented in the Tring Museum from the Snow 
Mountains, Sattelberg and Owen Stanley Range. A very similar $ from New 
Ireland cannot be named without further material. 

{(I) C. camelaria carbonata Warr. 

Catoria camelaria carbonata Warr., Nov. Zool. iii. 402 (1896) (Lifu). 

In size and shape agreeing with c. timorensis but white, on the J upperside 
less darkly marked than c. camelaria, in both sexes beneath with the subapical 
patch of the forewing strongly blackened, more roundish, not or scarcely con- 
tinued to the costal margin. 

Only the original series of 3 $ <$, 1 $ from the Loyalty Islands yet known 
to me. 

In addition to the forms detailed above, I have recently seen a $ from 
Fiji which I believe to be referable to this species and, according to a hurried 
note made in Berlin, I suspect that 3 $$ from Palau, in poor condition, recorded 
by Semper (Iris, xviii. 266) as "Boarmia sublavaria Guen.," also belong here; 
his fourth $, mentioned as darker, is a Cleora. 

3. Catoria lucidata Warr. 

Catoria lucidata Warr. Nov. Zool. xii. 15 (1905) (Guizo). 

An interesting species, nearly like camelaria in structure, but with narrower, 
more acute forewing, less regularly rounded hindwing, punctiform cell-dot of 
the latter, browner suffusion above and bright brown underside, inclining 
towards tawny-olive. In the 5 known <$S, the connective bar from C of the 



136 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

forewing reaches the stalk of SC 1 ' 2 very little before bifurcation ; in the one $ 
the bar is lost in a short anastomosis. The <$ genitalia have not been mounted, 
but show the same general scheme as camelaria ; the long sacculus arm is pro- 
duced to a sharp spine, but apparently has not the strong lateral prong of the 
two preceding. 

Solomon Islands: Choiseul (2 (Jc?). Vella Lavella (1 £), Guizo (1 c?), 
Rendova (1 £, 1 $). 

■i. Catoria saturata Prout. 

Catoria saturata Prout, Bull. Hill Mils, iii (1) 39 (1929) (Burn). 

This rather broad-winged species is recognizable at once by its deep olive- 
brown colour, particularly in the (J, the $ being more mottled with white ; it 
further differs from all the other Catoria in wanting the subapical or terminal 
band beneath. The sacculus arm, as in the preceding species, is produced into 
a slender curved spine ; the lateral prong is more distally placed than in them, 
large, directed backward ; the two spines of the costal process are rather strongly 
elongate. 

Confined, so far as known, to Burn and Ceram. 

5. Catoria misticia sp.n. 

3, 37 mm. Face white, the upper | or J black-brown, somewhat encroached 
upon by whitish in the centre. Palpus black, slenderly white beneath. Vertex 
and antennal shaft white ; pectinations (in the type) almost regularly cleft 
near their tips only, except the inner (left-hand) series of right antenna, which 
are mostly cleft to base. Thorax and abdomen above dirty whitish, with brown 
dots ; beneath more smoky. Hindtibia somewhat dilated, with slender pencil. 

Forewing with costa rather straight, termen bowed, strongly oblique, 
moderately long ; SC 1 - 2 very long-stalked, the stalk arising from cell, with the 
usual connecting bar to C short ; pale gull-grey, vaguely dappled with brownish 
and with scattered darker scales ; cell-dot small, sharply blackish, indefinitely 
encircled with rather deep gull-grey ; lines strongly broken into brown vein- 
spots or short dashes, the three principal arising from black costal dots and 
somewhat blackened on the veins ; postmedian rather strongly excurved in its 
anterior part, as in the most curved-lined forms of camelaria Guen. ; its distal 

duplicating line only showing as weak interneural spots. Hindwing similar, 

the cell-dot enlarged, round, black, not surrounded with grey. 

Underside light drab, mixed with drab-grey or pale drab-grey proximally, 
darkening distally ; both wings with black cell-spot, that of hindwing as above, 
that of forewing larger ; forewing with large apical and very small midterminal 
spot clear white, hindwing with the terminal white more extended, but broader 
in cellule 3 than at apex, strongly recalling delectaria plesia Swinh. 

Solomon Islands : Choiseul, N. side, December 1903 (A. S. Meek), type in 
coll. Tring Mus., unique. 

6. Catoria delectaria (Walk.). 

Widely distributed and relatively not very variable, yet probably divisible 

into more races than have yet been differentiated. Unfortunately only Walker's 

poor type, a $, is yet known to me from the Am Islands ; this certainly agrees 

approximately with the Moluccan and Papuan forms, but any attempt to sort 



Novitates ZoOLOGirAE XXXV. 1920. 137 

these further must wait upon the rediscovery of the species in the type locality. 
The only strikingly distinct race is that from Mefor, here described. I have 
found also a difference in Swinhoe's plesia, from Sumatra, which enables me to 
quote it as a provisional race. Specimens from Queensland are small, but are 
closely approached in all respects by those from the Louisiades. 

Except in very faded examples, the bright green colour marks out this 
species very prominently. The only other green one is the following, which, 
besides being of a greyer green, is longer-winged and has the cell-spot of the 
hindwing ocellated. 

The proximal part of the sacculus is broad and strong, with a lateral prong 
(somewhat as in camelaria) before its narrowing form the " sacculus arm," which 
is widened at its curved extremity, in some positions suggesting a golf club. 
The harpe is a 2- or 3-spined process from the costal fold, similar to those of 
the preceding species. The costal region of the valva has a spined field somewhat 
similar to that of svblavaria, but more elongate. The uncus is short, with a 
foreshadowing of the dorsal-lateral spines which develop in svblavaria. 

(a) C. delectaria plesia (Swinh.). 

Ophthalmodes plesia Swinh., Ann. May. Nat. Hist. (7) xx. 80 (1907) (W. Sumatra). 

Swinhoe's unique type q and a fairly similar $ from Nias measure 40 mm., 
have the cell-spots moderately large, the underside not such a dark green-grey 
as in the other forms and with some midterminal white, which they do not 
show, in addition to the apical white spot which is common to all. 

(I>) C. delectaria delectaria (Walk.). 

Ophthalmodes delectaria Walk., List. Lep. Ins. xxxv. 1595 (1866) (Am). 

Boarmia riridaria Pagenst., Jahrb. Nass. Ver. Nat. xli. 168 (sep. p. 84) (1888) (Amboina). 

Selidosema viridis Turn., Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Austral, xxx. 133 (1906) (Queensland) (subsp. ?). 

Known to me from Celebes (one $, probably racially separable), Sula 
Mangoli (one poor $), Halmahera (Pagenstecher, 1897), Burn, Amboina, 
Dammer Island, Misol, Dutch and British New Guinea, Trobriand Islands, 
Goodenough, Louisiades, North Queensland, St. Matthias Island (small form), 
Admiralty, Dampier, New Hanover, New Ireland, Feni Island, New Britain 
and Nissan Island (Solomons). Probably the Bismarck Archipelago provides 
some differentiable races. 

(c) C. delectaria vernans subsp. n. 

<J$, 33-43 mm. Upperside of a smooth, even green (light grape green or 
very slightly bluer), with the irroration and transverse markings reduced, the 
median line of the forewing obsolete or nearly so. Underside of a less greenish 
grey than most of the other forms. 

Mefor (W. Doherty), 6 £<$, 5 $$ in coll. Tring. Mus. Also 1 £, 4 $$ in 
coll. Joicey (Pratt Bros.), besides a couple of the original Doherty series. 

7. Catoria parva (But!.). 

Ophthalmodes parva Butl., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) xx. 242 (1887) (Ulaua. Solomons). 

This species, incorrectly sunk by Swinhoe [Cat. Lep. Het. Oxj. Mus. ii. 294) 
to delectaria Walk., has been sufficiently differentiated in the notes given above. 
In addition, the £ abdomen is distinguished by having a pad of buff-tinged hair 



[no NOVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

on the 6th-7th sternite. The face has the upper part narrowly or interruptedly 
blackish, chiefly at the corners. 

Generally distributed in the Solomon Islands, apparently with but little 
variation. The Tring Museum has it from Bougainville, Treasury, Choiseul, 
Isabel, Tulagi, Florida I., Guadalcanal Vella Lavella, Guizo, Rendova and 
New Georgia. 

8. Catoria subalbata Warr. 

Catoria subalbata Warr., Nov. Zool. xii. 15 (1905) (E. Sumatra). 

Face predominantly pale. Forewing with the stalk of SC 1,2 just stalked 
with that of SC 35 (as in Warren's type) or from the cell (as is usual in all the 
preceding species). Cell-spot of both wings large, fairly equal, not ocellated. 
Underside white, with a characteristic blackish apical patch which does not, 
as in normal Catoria, contain a white spot at the apex itself. Uncus somewhat 
as in camelaria, but with the bristles more definitely divided into a bunch at 
either side ; sacculus arm a good deal shorter than valvula ; harpe with three 
short stout spines. 

Only four specimens, all J, are yet known ; an old and rather worn example, 
merely labelled Sumatra, has stood for many years in the British Museum, where 
it bore — from the early 'nineties until the present year — the manuscript name 
of albida Warr. ; two fine specimens were collected by the Pratt brothers in 
1921 in the Korintji district, S.W. Sumatra, and are now in the Joicey collection. 

9. Catoria tamsi Prout. 

Catoria tamsi Prout, Nov. Zool. xxxv. 73 (1929) (Perak). 

No further material of this recently discovered species has yet come to 
hand. From similar forms of camelaria it is best distinguished by the wholly 
black face and the sublavariaAike underside ; from sublavaria by the strong 
coarse irroration and the large, long-oval cell-mark of the hind wing ; from both 
by the very different genitalia. Sacculus arm rather long, but very strongly 
curved, therefore not approaching the end of the valvula ; process from costal 
fold terminating in a group of short broad spikes ; uncus with two long horns. 
The subcostal venation of the forewing varies in the same way as in subalbata. 

Known from Perak, Singapore and Sumatra. 

io. Catoria cinygma sp.n. 

cJ, 40 mm. Similar to a small, weakly marked sublavaria sublavaria Guen. 
Face with the lower part (less than one-half) whitish, shading through brown to 
blackish above. Uncus long, tapered to a single point, more as in a Chora ; 

valva narrow, with the spinose patch elongate. Forewing rather narrower 

than in typical sublavaria ; stalk of SC 2 from the cell, SC 1 , by loss of its base, 
from C ; ground-colour whiter, with the shadowy light-brown band outside the 
postmedian relatively better developed, scarcely interrupted : cell-dot smaller. 

Hindwing with similar distinctions. Underwide white, the hindwing 

almost unmarked, with a minute black cell-dot, the forewing with a much 
smaller cell-spot than in sublavaria, the dark border subapical only, consisting 
of a narrow band from costa to SC 5 and a weaker terminal patch between the 
radials ; terminal dots distinct anteriorly, becoming obsolescent. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1920. 139 

Dutch Timor : Oinanissa, November-December 1891 (W. Doherty), type 
in coll. Tring Mus. 

The unique type is worn, but easily recognizable. 

11. Catoria halo sp.n. 

<J$, 40-51 mm. Closely like sublavaria Guen. Forewing with the stalk 

of SC 1,2 (the coincident SC 1,2 in the $) arising from the cell (in sublavaria generally 
short-stalked or at least connate with that of SC 3 ' 5 ) ; cell-spot above showing 

as a larger and generally more conspicuous grey halo round the black dot. 

Hindwing with the median line more constantly near the cell-spot than in 
sublavaria, here more or less thickened, sometimes producing together with 

the spot an impression of the ocellus of olivescens Moore. Underside more 

decidedly and evenly brownish drab or cinnamon-drab than in any but the most 
extreme forms of sublavaria, with larger black cell-spots (that of forewing well 
rounded, not oval) and narrower, more wedge-shaped white terminal spot 
behind R 3 . 

Ceylon, fairly common, the type from Pundaloya, April 1897 (E. E. Green) 
in coll. Tring Mus. 

Probably the Ceylon representative of sublavaria, with which it has always 
been united. The uncus, which in that species develops two bunches of broad 
blunt spines (5 or more in each group), here has each bunch fused into a single 
spine, much lengthened ; arm of sacculus differently shaped, strongly dentate 
on its inner (upper) edge as in no other Catoria ; " signum " of $ very differently 
formed, considerably larger, with a much deeper central excavation, etc. In 
order to make more definite the community of origin, Mr. Tams would advocate 
calling halo a subspecies of sublavaria, but the morphological differences are 
pronounced enough to preclude any likelihood of syngamy in the event of their 
meeting again. On the other hand, a veritable race of sublavaria from a much 
more remote locality (New Guinea) has retained the venation and genitalic 
structure of the North Indian name-type. 

12. Catoria sublavaria (Guen.). 

This is one of the most widely distributed of all the Catoria species, reaching 
from N. India to the Bismarck Archipelago, although until recently it had been 
little noticed beyond the confines of British India. Hampson (Faun. Ind., 
Moths, iii. 270) adds only Borneo, Meyrick (Tr. Ent. Soc. Loud. 1897, p. 75) 
Sambawa, Swinhoe (Cat. Lep. Het. Oxf. Mus. ii. 293) Singapore, Semper (Reisen 
Phi/ipp. (2) vi. 614) the Philippines. I suspect that Sambawa and the Philip- 
pines may yield differentiable races but have only seen one example of each, 
the Sambawa <$ rather brown, a Luzon $ large, broad-bordered beneath. In 
any case there is evidently considerable geographical variation and the erection 
of some new races here seems justified. 

Attention has already been drawn to the constancy of the black face and 
the strong tendency of the two subcostal groups to arise from a common stalk. 
In the $$ both of this species and the preceding the 1st and 2nd subcostals seem 
to be invariably coincident instead of long-stalked. The <J valva is characterized 
by the branching of the long, strong sacculus, near its distal end into a broad, 
bluntly pointed outer arm and a long, somewhat curved, tapering inner spike ; 



140 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

also by the structure of the process from the costal fold, which develops a field 
of unequal, rather short but strong spines. The uncus is weak, but furnished 
with dorsal spines (see under halo) which suggest a possible affinity with the 
genus Serraca Moore, including the " Boarmia" punciinalis (Scop.) group, and 
perhaps Pseudoboarmia MeDunnough. 1 

(a) C. sublavaria sublavaria (Guen.). 

Boarmia sublavaria (!urn.. Spec. Gin. Lip. ix. 256 (1858); Oberth., El. Lip. vii. fig. 1659 (1913) 

(" Central Tndia " [? Silhet]) [subflavaria ex err., Oberth., tow. tit. 661). 
Boarmia spilolaria Snell., Tijd. Ent. xxiv. 75, t. viii, f. 5, 5a (1881) (Celebes). 

The name-typical form, beautifully figured by Culot in Oberthiir's Etudes, 
varies little on the upperside, though some examples are whiter ; beneath, the 
deviation is more pronounced, the drab ground-colour sometimes giving place 
to an almost clear white. Both extremes are sometimes found in the same 
locality, e.g. in Assam, but there are as yet no data available for judging whether 
the variation may be individual or seasonal. 

C. sublavaria from Burma, Malaya, Borneo, Java and Formosa have not 
yet been differentiated from the North Indian name-type. Neither does the 
single Celebes example before me — a cJ from Oberthur collection — show any 
tangible distinction, though the name spilolaria Snell. is waiting to be revived 
for it if necessary. 

(b) C. sublavaria tenax subsp.n. 

q, 42 mm. Smaller than name-typical sublavaria Guen. Forewing with 
the stalk of SC 1,2 from the cell. Both wings above more uniformly suffused 
with olive-brownish than in s. sublavaria. Hindwing with the median line 
close to the cell-dot, as in C. halo Prout (supra), Underside as dark as in halo, 
but with nearly the typical maculation of sublavaria. 

S. Andamans, May-June 1927 (Ferrar coll.), type in Mus. Brit., presented 
by the Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa. Great Nicobar, 2 $£ in Mus. 
Tring, still smaller (37 and 39 mm.) but otherwise quite similar. 

This form might, especially on account of the venation, have been taken 
for a race of C. halo rather than of sublavaria, but the genitalia of the type 
have been examined by Mr. W. H. T. Tains and agree with the last-named. 

(c) C. sublavaria psimythota Prout. 

Calorin sublavaria Rothsch., Lep. Brit. Orn. Un. Exp. p. 86 (1915) (Dutch New Guinea). 
Caioria sublavaria (Guen.) psimythota Prout, Bull. Hill Mus, iii. (2) p. 110 (New Guinea). 

A fine and very distinct race, widely distributed in New Guinea, at least 
near the coast. The Tring Museum possesses examples from Kapaur, Base 
Camp (Utakwa River), Humboldt Bay and Kumusi River. 

(d) C. sublavaria subnata subsp.n. 

<$, 46-48 mm. Forewing appreciably more pointed, the tcrmen more 

oblique ; the blue-grey tone predominant, the drab markings, though sharp, 

I icing somewhat less diffused ; cell-dot rather large ; post median not very 

sinuous, the dots large, the band outside them narrow. Hindwing with the 

cell-dot enlarged into a spot. Underside rather dark. 

1 Cf. Pierce, Qenit. Qeom. Brit. p. 16, " Bonmvn consortaria Fb." ; MeDunnough, Studies .V. 
Amer. Cleorini, pp. 21, 22. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 141 

Bismarck Archipelago : Feni Island, E. of New Ireland, July 1924, type ; 
Talasea, New Britain, January 1925, 1 <$. Both in coll. Tring Mus., collected 
by A. F. Eichhorn. 

The shape and tone bring about a superficial resemblance to some forms of 
camelaria camelaria and c. baryconia, from which, apart from the genitalia, the 
black face at once distinguishes it. The stalk of SC 1,2 arises from the base of 
that of SC 3 ' 5 in the type, but is just separate therefrom in the New Britain 
example. 

13. Catoria hemiprosopa (Turn.). 

A rather small species, generally distinguishable, at least in the (J, by the 
appreciably narrower and acuter forewing. Although Dr. Turner, in erecting 
it, only knew two species of the genus, the two differential characters which 
he emphasized hold throughout ; namely, the coincidence (in both sexes) of 
SC 1 and SC 2 of the forewing and the sharply defined coloration of the face, with 
upper half black, lower half white. The genitalia are likewise exceedingly 
distinct : the sacculus arm is short and broad, tapering rather rapidly and with 
only a very small hardened point ; the process from the costal fold terminates 
in a single, elongate spine. Uncus with two long dorsal arms. 

This species has been little noticed, but proves to be extremely widely 
distributed, though never plentiful. The colour variation is considerable, at 
least in the $, and it is possible that even the single race which has been differen- 
tiated will not prove ultimately tenable. 

(a) C. hemiprosopa affinis Prout. 

Boarmia (Catoria) affinis Prout, Nov. Zool. xxxii. 58 (1925) (Malay Peninsula), 
Caloria hemiprosopa affinis Prout, Nov. Zool. xxxv. 74 (1929). 

The £ in general rather more pointed-winged than in the name-type. 
Ground-colour whiter. Described from Penang, Singapore and Engano, few 
examples known. A $ from N. Borneo, in Mus. Tring, and one from Ceylon, 
in Mus. Brit., seem conspecific, judging by the face. 

(b) C. hemiprosopa hemiprosopa (Turn.). 

Ectropis hemiprosopa Turn., Tr. Roy. >S'oc. S. Austral, xxviii. 230 (1904) (Queensland). 

Besides North Queensland and Queensland, Waigeu, New Guinea (Kapaur, 
Upper Setekwa River, Milne Bay), Manus, New Britain and the Solomon Islands 
(Bougainville, Vella Lavella, Rendova, S. Christoval) have yielded a few speci- 
mens — mostly in coll. Tring Mus. 



10 



142 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



NEW PALAEARCTIC GEOMETRIDAE. 
By LOUIS B. PROUT. 

Subfam. STERRHINAE 

1. Sterrha aversata indeviata 8nbsp.n. 

cJ, 29-30 mm. Ground-colour as in the palest forms of a. aversata Linn. 
-Forewing with median line anteriorly straight, almost as oblique as termen, 



crossing the cell-dot ; postmedian much less bent than in a. aversata ; no band 

between median and postmedian. Hindwing with median line straight, or 

almost so, considerably proximal to the cell-dot. In addition, the termen of 

both wings is slightly more sinuous than in most aversata. 

Algeria: Hammam Rirha, 19-23 June 1916 (V. Faroult), type in coll. 
Tring Mus. Tunis : Ain Draham, 6-19 August 1911 (V. Faroult), 2 ^6 m the 
same collection. 

Subfam. LARENTHNAE 
2. Ecliptopera mactata placata subsp.n. 

(J?. Distinguished from m. mactata Feld. (1875, Japan) as follows: 
Forewing with the antemedian white line bilobed rather than biangulate, the 
projections being shorter and blunter, usually well separated from the median ; 
postmedian with the central prong looking broader, being as near the termen 
behind M 1 as before it, faintly incurved at M 1 ; subterminal formed of con- 
spicuous white spots. Hindiving with the postmedian more proximal 

anteriorly, more direct from costa to M 2 , sharply outbent to fold. 

China, very widely distributed, the type ^ from Ningpo, July 1886 (native 
collector) in coll. Tring Mus., together with a specimen from " West China." 
I have it from Wenchow and Kiukiang, the British Museum from Moupin, the 
Hill Museum from Hunan, Central China, 4 examples. 

3. Earophila semna sp.n. 

$, 42 mm. Best comparable with Coenotephria (?) malvata (Ramb.), but 
on the present tentative system of classification an Earophila (vide UAmat. 
Papil. iii. 222, No. 16, where — as is shown by the context — " avant " is a misprint 
for " apres "). Wings even broader than in the species named, the forewing 
having the costal margin more shouldered at the base, the hindwing the termen 
slightly more convex. Face without cone. Palpus nearly 1J. Antenna 
pubescent. Head and body concolorous with wings. 

Forewing with termen markedly crenulate, except between apex and R 1 ; 
glossy russet, somewhat dulled by dark dots on the veins, especially in the 
areas on either side of the central ; basal area slightly more tawny ; apical 
dash short and weak, hardly more oblique than termen ; cell-dot enlarged into 
a small spot, indistinctly ocellated ; lines grey (dark gull-grey to slate-grey), 
with a tinge of blue ; subbasal as in malvata or slightly more excurved ; ante- 
median rather indistinct, about as in malvata ; rounded median spots best 
developed posteriorly ; postmedian proximally very finely white-edged from 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 143 

costa to near R 1 , more broadly dark-edged between the radials (here inbent) 
and again behind M 2 , very weak and not greatly projecting between R 3 and M 2 ; 
subterminal paler from costal margin to SC 4 , then weak, very near termen ; 
terminal line indistinct, interrupted by minute whitish vein-dots ; fringe with 

pale basal line very fine. Hindwing with the tooth at M 1 longest ; DC strongly 

biangulate ; colour as in C. malvata or dark E. badiala (Schiff.) ; a small blackish 
cell-dot ; postmedian line brown, fairly distinct, with a strong outward curve 
culminating at the medians ; terminal line and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside browner than in malvata, more glossy, a great part of the forewing 
(except anteriorly) weakly marked and slightly more vinaceous ; both wings 
with cell-dot, postmedian line (that of forewing weak) and fine terminal line ; 
some other markings indicated, especially — on hindwing and anterior part of 
forewing — a narrow pale band outside the postmedian and double series of dark 
subterminal vein-dots, somewhat recalling a Triphosa. 

Algeria: Hammam-Meskoutine, 2 February 1911 (W. Rothschild and E. 
Hartert), type in coll. Tring Mus. 

4. Carige cruciplaga debrunneata subsp.n. 

<J$. Colour grey, less brown-tinged than name-typical cruciplaga Walk. 
(1861), 1 the wings slightly more angular, the excision in the termen of the hindwing 
generally appreciably deeper ; the black markings which accompany the post- 
median less variable than in C. cruciplaga, more uniform, scarcely ever much 
enlarged. 

W. China, fairly common, the type from Pu-tsu-fu, 8,000-10,000 feet, July 
1890, in coll. Tring Mus. 

Unfortunately the specimen figured in Seitz, Macrolep. iv, t. 7 f., as dupli- 
caria, belongs to this race and not to that of E. China ; it is a ^ from Omei-shan 
in coll. L. B. Prout. 

Subfam. GEOMETRINAE 
5. Erannis miracula sp.n. 

(J, 44 mm. Considerably larger than leucophaearia Schiff. and its Japanese 
race dim Butl. (1878). Palpus scarcely so minute, though shorter than in bajaria 
Schiff. ; tongue slight, as in those species. Antenna similarly pectinate, but 
with only two or three apical segments non-pectinate. 

Forewing much broader than in leucophaearia, with costal margin more 
rounded ; SC 1 short-stalked with SC 2 , anastomosing with C ; DC 2 longer than 
DC 3 , its hinder part (behind the cell-fold) somewhat oblique outward, DC 3 
again vertical ; light brown, with cloud between postmedian and subterminal 
more as in bajaria than in leucophaearia, markings approximately as in leuco- 
phaearia ; median line well developed, nearly straight ; postmedian with its 
sinuses rather shallower than in leucophaearia, the second outward one at or 
behind, not in front of, M ! ; subterminal nowhere enlarged into spots, its anterior 

half strongly dentate, its posterior slightly thicker and less deeply dentate. 

Hindwing ample, recalling that of defoliaria CI. ; C anastomosing with SC for 
a good distance at middle of cell ; cell-dot strong, the vague line from it to 

1 " Penang " must be an erroneous locality ; the type, though in poor condition, seems clearly 
to belong to the collective species duplicaria Walk. (1S62) — mgronotaria Brem. (1S64), apparently 
the Japanese form. No Malayan material is yet known in the group. 



]44 Xovitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

abdominal margin at least as straight as in any leucophaearia, without the 
outward bend and thickening at its posterior end which characterizes I. dim. 

Tokio, 22 February 1801 (Fritee), 2 J $ in coll. Tring. Mus., the paratype 
labelled " Oaji " (?) — somewhat illegible and no such name traceable, but as 
both were taken on the same day it must be in the neighbourhood of Tokio. 

The peculiarities of venation (biangulation of DC of forewing and especially 
anastomosis of C of hindwing) might suggest the need for a new genus, but 
Erannis is notoriously unstable in venation and there can be no doubt whatever 
as to the general affinities of miracula. I have seen E. defoliaria with DC of 
the hindwing biangulate ; the subcostals of the forewing are in both the miracula 
as in the very great majority of E. marginalia Fb. and aurantiaria Hb. 

6. Erannis ectroma sp.n. 

(J, 47 mm. Head and thorax above orange-buff, the rest of the body 
somewhat less bright. Antenna] structure about as in defoliaria CI. or with the 
fascicles scarcely so long. 

Forewing slightly broader than in defoliaria, the termen with a similar, or 
somewhat more pronounced, concavity between R- and fold; SC : out of S( '■ 
near its base, slightly curved at its origin, exactly as in a specimen of E. ankeraria 
(Stgr.) before me ; rather pale orange-yellow, irrorated with brownish drab, 
perhaps least strongly on the median area, or especially between the median 
and the postmedian line ; antemedian line of a similar drab, slightly curved 
anteriorly, then straight, attended by a dusky suffusion proximally ; postmedian 
darker, rather firm, arising from costa 5 mm. from apex, oblique outward to 
C, then oblique inward, though slightly less so than termen, with a similar 
gentle inward curve in its middle part, 4 mm. from termen at SM ! , somewhat 
incurved at hindmargin, a narrow shade outside it indicated by a slight reddening 
of the ground-colour ; a weaker median line, slightly nearer to ante- than to 

postmedian, arising from a costal diffusion ; fringe unspotted. Hindwing as 

in defoliaria. but rather more rounded apically. 

Forewing beneath similar but rather duller ; hindwing more irrorated than 
above and with traces of curved postmedian line. 

S. Ussuri : Anutshino, 100 km. from Nikolsk, June 1908. Type in coll. 
Tring Mus. 

This must be near to jacobsoni Djakonov (Ann. Mus. Zool. Ac. Sci. U.B.S.S. 
xxvii. 223), possibly a local race of it. According to its author's careful descrip- 
tion, jacobsoni must differ in its more produced apex, paler forewing, especially 
at termen, differently formed postmedian line, etc. The genitalia, so far as 
can be made out without dissection, favour jacobsoni ; at least the ventral margin 
of the valva follows a closely similar course. The unique type of ectroma is 
asymmetrical, the right forewing being slightly undersized and with distorted 
venation and lacking the cell-spot both above and beneath. 

7. Cleora aechmeessa sp.n. 

£, 30 mm. ; $, 38 mm. Face and palpus blackish fuscous, the palpus 
little over 1, with second joint moderately rough-scaled, third quite small. 
Antenna in £ shortish, with rather long, moderately stout pectinations, the 
last 7 joints merely ciliate ; in ^ nearly simple. Fillet and crown whitish, with 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 145 

some irroration. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings, the abdomen 
dorsally with traces of paired dark spots. Legs predominantly pale ; hindtibia 
of <J not or scarcely dilated, apparently without hair-pencil. 

Forewing with termen smooth, gently rounded, moderately oblique ; SC 1 
from SC 2 near its base, anastomosing with C ; fovea in £ strong ; dull white, 
copiously irrorated with grey-brown, the $ only slightly whiter than the £ — 
coloration about as in Boarmia punctinalis (Scop.) or Aethalura punetulata 
(Schiff.) $ ; antemedian line sharply angled close to costa, excurved in cell, 
rather oblique inward to hindmargin, with slight indentation on M ; cell-mark 
elongate but weak, especially in the $ ; median shade marked by a heavy 
costal spot opposite the cell-mark and a smaller spot or dot at base of M-, other- 
wise weak, sinuous ; postmedian rather nearer to cell than to termen, nearly 
parallel with the latter except in front of R : , where it recedes slightly ; shallowly 
(at fold deeply) lunulate inward between the veins and with black teeth outward 
on the veins, on SC S rather thick, on R 2 small, on SM ! moderate, on the four 
principal veins sharp ; the succeeding band-like grey-brown shading irregular, 
broadest and strongest between R 3 and M 2 ; the white subterminal dentate, 
not very conspicuous, but with the usual proximal dark shading between the 
radials (here confluent), at costa, and between fold and tornus ; terminal clots 

strong, subtriangular ; fringe pale, weakly marked. Hindwing with termen 

rounded, waved ; cell-mark obsolescent ; a rather weak median line, curved 
outward at abdominal margin ; jjostmedian of forewing continued, strongly 
oblique outward behind the submedian lunule ; markings of distal area rather 
weak but more regular than on forewing ; similar terminal dots and fringe. 

Both wings beneath with cell-mark (on hindwing rather broad), postmedian 
line (less black than above) and traces of the other markings, notably the mid- 
costal spot of forewing. 

Japan : Chusendji Lake, above Nikko, 3 Sejstember 1910 (E. A. Cockayne), 
type and allotype in coll. L. B. Prout, kindly presented by Dr. Cockayne. I 
have discovered 1 9 from Tokio in the British Museum collection mixed with 
leucophaea Butl. (!), but know of no other examples. In structure it is near 
obliquaria (Motsch.) auctt., but in aspect it much more recalls an Ectropis or 
the South African Boarmia ectropodes Prout (1913). Probably nearest to 
Chora simpliciaria (Leech, 1897), palpus shorter, wings slightly broader, forewing 
with anastomosis of SC 1 stronger, postmedian line less bent, etc. 

8. Gnophos variegata rothschildi subsp.n. 

cJ, 24 mm. Distinguished by its small size, typically orange-cinnamon 
ground-colour, and copious blackish strigulation, only leaving the brighter colour 
at all obvious in parts of the median area. Hindwing with the termen only feebly 
erenulate. Underside less sharply marked than in most forms of the species. 

Marocco : Tedders, Upper Bou-Regreg, 19 April-1 May 1924 (E. Hartert & 
F. Young), type in coll. Tring Mus. ; Djebel Chedar, 16 hours S.E. of Mazagan, 
end of February 1902 (W. Riggenbach), 1 $, worn, also in coll. Tring Mus. ; 
Mrassine, March-May 1921 (H. Powell), a good series in coll. Brit. Mus., ex coll. 
Oberthur. 

The Tedders example is recorded by Lord Rothschild (Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. 
Maroc, v. 147, 1925) as Gnophos variegata Dup. It is, as he noticed, extra- 
ordinarily like some dark forms of mucidaria ochracearia Stgr. except in the 



146 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

build of the antenna ; the Mrassine series shows moderate variation, but lacks 
the sharp colour-contrasts of v. variegata. 

Zemyia gen.n. 

Face not protuberant, appressed-scaled. Palpus short, shortly rough- 
scaled beneath. Tongue short. Antenna less than one-half length of forewing, 
in ^ bipectinate to apex or almost, with long branches, in $ sometimes shortly 
bipectinate. Pectus somewhat hairy. Foretibia without claw. Hindtibia not 
dilated, all spurs developed. Abdomen in £ slender, in $ moderately robust. 

Wings in both sexes fully developed ; frenulum and retinaculum normal. 

Forewing with termen moderately oblique, waved, gently curved ; cell \, DC 
normal ; SC and SC ! free, from cell, or occasionally shortty stalked, M 1 well 

separate from R ! . Hindwing with costal margin moderately long, termen 

subcrenulate in anterior half ; cell h or nearly ; C approximated to SC to about 
middle of cell, rapidly diverging, SC ! separate, R ! wanting, M 1 well separate. 

Type of the genus : Zemyia enconistoides (Zerny) = Gnophos enconistoides 
Zerny (1927). 

Differs from Dyscia in the shape, the less aborted tongue and other details, 
from Enconista in the absence of foretibial claw and of fovea, from Selidosema 
in absence of fovea, reduction of tongue and continuation of the antennal pectina- 
tions virtually to the apex, from Gnophos in the stronger pectinations (sometimes 
also transferred to the $), the non-protuberant frons and reduction of tongue. 
The genitalia lack the costal arm of the " Gnophinae " of Pierce (approximately 
equivalent to the genus " Crocota " of Meyrick), but have an extended " costa," 
strongly spined distally, blunt uncus, and stout aedoeagus. 

9. Zemyia selidosema sp.n. 

cJ$, 35-40 mm. Differs from enconistoides Zerny, from Spain, in having 
the pectinations of the $ antenna longer, but with 2 or 3 segments non-pectinate, 

the $ antenna less strongly dentate. Forewing with slight indications of a 

fovea ; ground-colour less pure grey, more drab or tinged with avellaneous ; 
irroration less coarse ; postmedian line (row of dots) rather more distally placed ; 
macular band between postmedian and subterminal less complete, variable, 
in the type $ and the allotype strongest between the radials and posteriorly, 

in the second $ almost obsolete. Hindwing with the postmedian less proximal 

than in enconistoides. 

Algeria: Glaciers de Blida, 12 August 1907, type <J, 15 September 1911, 
1 <J, both in coll. Tring Mus. ex coll. Capt. Holl, together with a $ from the 
same collection, without locality label. 

The genitalia, so far as can be made out without dissection, differ very little 
from those of enconistoides, but apparently the valva has the costal part of the 
costa rather less strong and lacking the first projection, though both agree in 
having a central tooth or small prong. 

10. Zemyia gnophoides sp.n. 

cJ$, 36-40 mm. Pectinations of <J antenna about as long as in Z. selidosema 
(supra) but continued to apex ; $ antenna also pectinated, except apically, 
the longest branches about 2. At least as Enconista-hke as the genotype, but 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 147 

perhaps also comparable, as Oberthur assumed, to Onophos crosi Th.-Mieg 
(= omararia Oberth.) or rather to some forms of Gn. mucidaria ochracearia 
Stgr., the whitish ground-colour being tinged with flesh-colour or vinaceous- 
pink, especially eostally, the grey (in some aspects slightly olivaceous) irroration 
exceedingly dense and interspersed with blackish scales, the cell-spots above 
and beneath enlarged (at least on fore wing ; on hind wing often obsolescent 
above), vaguely ocellated, all three lines arising on the forewing from blackish 
costal spots, the median line very weak, rather variable in position, the post- 
median placed about as in enconistoides, generally rather better developed ; 
distal area without conspicuous darkening, except occasionally on underside. 

Algeria : Aflou, Oran, 3 October 1911, type $ and allotype $ in coll. Tring 
Mus., ex coll. Holl. Also a long series from Aflou, September 1911 (H. Powell) 
from Oberthur in coll. Brit. Mus., labelled " Onophos ? omararia \ (spec. ?)," 
and 1 $ from Geryville, September 1910 (H. Powell). 

In the allotype $ and a few other examples SC 1 and SC 2 of the forewing 
are shortly stalked ; occasionally, also, SC 1 anastomoses at a point with C. 

11. Zernyia annularis sp.n. 

$% 36-40 mm. Structure about as in the preceding, forewing slightly 
longer and narrower, its straightish or subsinuate costa sometimes recalling a 
Dyscia. Ground-colour with similar fleshy tinge to that of gnophoides, irroration 
much less dense, except in the distal area, where the cloudings, in strongly- 
marked specimens, resemble those of enconistoides ; cell-marks further enlarged, 
especially on forewing, where a definite ring is formed (sometimes filled-in on 
the underside) ; costal spots undeveloped, though one strongly-marked $-ab. 
shows a blurred one just proximal to the cell-spot ; apex of forewing pale. 
Underside characteristic, paler than upper, not or scarcely irrorated, lines 
obsolete, cell-spots or rings on both wings strong, subterminal shades strong, 
in places extended to ternien, forewing with a sharply whitish, quadrate apical 
spot, which is usually well isolated from the rest of the pale terminal shading. 

Algeria ; Metlili, N. of Laghouat, 4-6 September 1917 (V. Faroult), 2 3$, 
3 $$ in coll. Tring Mus. 

The subcostal venation of the forewing is somewhat variable ; in 1 £, 
SC 1 and SC 2 are shortly stalked, in 1 $ SC 1 anastomoses with C. 

A slightly shorter-winged form from Batna (A. Nelva) measures 34 mm. 
and has the upper surface rather more uniformly irrorated, the under with the 
subterminal shades less strong, on the hindwing evanescent, and suggests a 
possibility that annularis may prove a local modification of gnophoides. I 
propose for it the name of Zernyia annularis nelvai subsp.n. 3 (JJ in coll. 
Tring Mus. It superficially recalls Enconista amoritaria Piing. (1902). 

12. Siona galactica sp.n. 

cj, 46 mm. Head and front of thorax cream-colour to Naples yellow. 
Palpus more uniformly clothed than in lineata Scop. ; ochraceous tawny, the 
projecting hair of 1st joint paler. Antenna and forecoxa ochraceous tawny. 

Forewing with costa appreciably less arched near base than in lineata ; 
very pale cream-yellow, entirely without markings, only the strongest veins 

(M and the proximal part of its branches) faintly browner. Hindiving white, 

unmarked, at apex and part of termen faintly tinged with cream-yellow. 



14S Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Underside very pale cream-yellow, the forewing becoming white behind 
M and M ! and with a strong suffusion of dirty greyish red-brown in cell and on 
veins R J , M 1 , and M 2 ; traces of a slightly darker cell-dot also discernible on 
forewing. 

Algeria: Souk-Ahras, 13 and 14 April 1914, type and another, both in 
Tring Museum, collected by Lord Rothschild and Dr. K. Jordan. 

13. Angerona prunaria turbata subsp.ii. 

(J, 48-58 mm. ; $, 58-74 mm. On an average larger than p. prunaria 
Linn. Ground-colour similar, or only very slightly less warm ; strigulation 
stronger, with the strigulae in part long ; cell-marks in general narrower, in 
the $ — especially on the hindwing — often shortened or even obsolete ; apical 
or terminal dark streak of forewing nearly always obsolete. 

Japan, from Tesio to Yokohama ; type ,-j from Asamayama, 18 July 1898, 
in coll. Tring Mus. 

14. Deuteronomos fuscantaria algeriensis subsp.n. 

cj, 35-37 mm. Similar to some of the small, pale S. European aberrations 
of /. fuscantaria Haw. with weak distal cloudings and little-darkened hindwing 
beneath, but with the lines of the forewing more widely separated and parallel 
in posterior part, the postmedian only in one example with the posterior curve 
inward of normal fuscantaria, in the other two examples almost meeting the 
first line of the hindwing, which is visible above ; second line of hindwing crossing 
the cell-spot. 

Algeria : N. side of Mt. Zaccar (Miliano), 5 August 1910, the type, and 
3 August 1910 (V. Faroult) ; Sebdou, Oran, 6 July 1918 (P. Rotrou) ; all in 
coll. Tring Mus. 

Although the differences from some forms of this variable species are slight, 
the general impression is so different as to warrant the belief that we are dealing 
with a local race. In any case they are so very distinct from the nanie-typical 
British race that it is impossible to merge them under a common designation. 
The venation is, as usual in Deuteronomos, variable ; in the type, SC l and SC 2 
are very shortly stalked, the former anastomosing strongly with C, the latter 
(which is proximally slender) anastomosing slightly with C before the separation 
of SC l therefrom ; in the others SC 1 and SO arise separately and SO anastomoses 
at a point or minute bar (topotype) or more strongly (Sebdou example) with 
G and with SO. 

15. Deuteronomos infidelis sp.n. 
$, 46-48 mm. Nearest to erosaria Schiff. Larger. Antennal pectinations 

rather less rudimentary. Forewing appreciably narrower, termen excavated 

between apex and R 2 , the prong broadened (embracing R 2 and R 3 ), the excavation 
between R 3 and M 2 deepened ; R'-M 1 well stalked (their stalk about 2 mm. 
long) ; the lines rather heavy, somewhat less approximated than in normal 
erosaria, the antemedian more acutely angled near costa ; an extensive apical 
region suffused with vinaceous-fawn and more or less strongly dark-irrorated. 

Hindwing with the tooth at R 3 rather long ; SO-R 1 stalked (their stalk at 

least 2 mm. long) ; the line (except costally) better expressed than in most 
erosaria, more oblique, well curved behind R 2 ; irroration moderate (type) or 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. KI20. 149 

traceable (paratype). Underside with the irroration coarse or strigulate ; 

lines of forewing rather strong, that of hindwing lost posteriorly but continued 
to costa, oblique inward in front of C. 

Amur : Chabarovsk, 22 July (type) and 14 July (paratype) 1910 (E. Borsow), 
both in coll. Tring Mus. 

16. Deuteronomos lissochila sp.n. 

<$, 35 mm. In essential structure entirely conformable to the already 
known species. In its small size, weak markings, and whitish edging to the 
true lines nearest to quercaria Hb. Termen of both wings almost smooth, only 
with faint sinuosity which results in a scarcely noticeable prominence at R\ 

Forewing with the long stalk of SO' anastomosing slightly with C, DC 

deeply incurved, M 1 connate with R s ; colour nearly as in quercaria, or slightly 
more greyish ; markings much as in the weakest-marked aberrations of that 
species, the lines being scarcely darkened except at costa ; their course scarcely 

so parallel as in most quercaria. Hindwing beneath with the pale line just 

distal to the small cell-dot. 

Cyprus: Platres, 4,000 feet, 30 July 1916 (G. F. Wilson). Type in coll. 
Tring Mus. 

The type is unfortunately worn, but the species is extremely distinct in 
shape and cannot fail to be recognized. I have seen other examples, collected 
on Cyprus by Capt. K. J. Hayward, but they are no longer accessible to me ; 
my note states that they were " very grey," as compared with the ordinary 
coloration of Deuteronomos. 

17. Eumera mulier sp.n. 

§, 49 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings ; the face, except at 
its edges, mixed with a yellowish shade akin to that of the face of regina Stgr. 
(1892). Antennal pectinations about as in regina § or scarcely so long (only a 
short proximal part of each remains intact). 

Forewing broader than in regina, apex similarly produced, termen less 
waved than in even the $ of regina and less oblique behind the slight bulge ; 
SC 1 connate with SC : (probably an individual aberration), connected by a bar 
with C, SC 2 anastomosing at a point with SC and with SC 3,4 ; almost unicolorous 
vinaceous cinnamon, faintly mixed with olive-yellowish at costa ; antemedian 
line faint, apparently as in the most oblique-marked regina ; postmedian olive- 
grey, placed rather nearer the termen than in regina, definitely curved in its 
anterior part (45 mm. from termen at R\ just over 5 mm. at costal margin) ; 
a pale line accompanying the postmedian distally, recalling that of Colotois 
pennaria (Linn.) but rather more buff ; fringe rather deeper red, with a pale 

line proximally and white tips. Hindwing with the terminal teeth slighter 

than in regina, that at R 1 scarcely stronger than the others ; pale anteriorly, 
otherwise concolorous with forewing ; postmedian line indicated in posterior 
half ; fringe nearly as on forewing. 

Underside rather paler, both wings becoming whitish behind fold ; post- 
median line of forewing reproduced, but darker grey, on the veins almost black ; 
that of hindwing scarcely indicated, but closely followed distally by a curved 
series (continued at C) of dark grey vein-dots ; fringes nearly as above. 

Cyprus : Nicosia (J. A. Bucknill), 1 $ in coll. Tring Mus. 



150 Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 



ON SOME GEOMETRID TYPES FROM THE STAUDER 
COLLECTION. 

By LOUI.S B. PROUT. 

TN incorporating into the Tring Museum some interesting material recently 
acquired by Lord Rothschild from that indefatigable collector and student 
of the Lepidoptera of the Adriatic countries, Hermann Stauder, of Castellrotto, 
I have had to face the question of the status of a number of ostensible " types," 
and Dr. Jordan considers it desirable, for the avoidance of possible confusion 
later, to place the results on record. It is evident that Herr Stauder has not 
realised the necessity for a single holotype in the case at least of species and 
subspecies, but has often labelled several specimens, or even an entire series, 
indiscriminately " type," leaving it to others to choose the " lectotvpe." The 
following notes cover the forms with which I have had to deal. 

Aplasia ononaria (Fuessly) f. squamata Stauder, Int. Ent. Zeits. xiv. 35 
(1920). A ^ of the South Tyrol race (?) spinosaria Dannehl (1926) is labelled 
" squamata Stdr.," but the somewhat involved description seems to imply that 
the ab. should lack the transverse lines, which is by no means the case in this 
specimen. I have therefore not labelled it type, but have added the date to 

Stauder's label. f. monotonia Stauder, ibid. Two fine Noghera $$, 15 and 

24 May 1917, bear this name, and in the absence of evidence to the contrary, 

I have assumed the later of them to be holotype. f. trijasciata Stauder, ibid. 

I find no specimen thus labelled, but a 5 from Muggia, near Trieste, has the 
median shade sufficiently well indicated to be referable to this ab. 

Odezia atrata (Linn.) f. (? subsp.) dalmatina Stauder, Int. Ent. Zeits. xiv. 36 
(192o). Founded on one <$ a "d one $ from Dernis, 10 June [1908], both rather 
worn. The $ was merely labelled " dalmatina Stdr.," and I have made it allo- 
type ; the $ has been parted with elsewhere. 

Pseudoterpna pruinata (Hufn.) f. canditata Stauder, ibid. Founded on two 
$$, Trieste district, 6 and 14 June [1911]. The former is in the collection, 
labelled " candidata [sic] Stdr." and has been selected holotype. 

Comibaena pustulala (Hufn.) f. stigmatisata Stauder, ibid. The unique 
type — a small 9 from Trieste, Triestenicco, 4 June — is not in the 
collection. 

Ortholiiha chenopodiata (Linn.) = limitata (Scop.). Of the Salzkammergut 
material discussed by Stauder (Ent. Anz. ii. 81-2, July 1922) there remain in 
the collection a $ and two $? from Hallstadt and three pairs from Wels. Vari- 
able, though much less so than would be inferred from the article cited ; probably 
the best aberrations have been dispersed for exchange purposes. A tendency 
to the development of the sharply marked forms (ab. plurimelineata Stauder, 
loc. cit. 82) is observable, at least in the $$, one of which, from Hallstadt, bears 
a label with that name, but is not outstanding enough to deserve treating as 
" type." 

Ortholiiha moeniata (Scop.) carsicola Stauder, Int. Ent. Zeits. xiv. 36 (1920). 
Founded on two pairs from Rakitovic, interior of Istria, 1000-1200 m., 31 July 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 151 

[1913]. The cJcJ, including, I suppose, the holotype, have been disposed of, 
but one of the $$ (allotype) is labelled " carsicola Stdr." 

Ortholitha bipunctaria (Schiff.) hellwegeri Stauder, Deutsch. Ent. Zeits. 1024, 
p. 29. A fine pair of the original series (dated 25 July [1913]) remain in the 
collection, the J labelled " Hellwegeri Stdr." This has been selected as holotype, 
as the series of five has merely a comprehensive heading " bipunctata ss. hellwegeri 
Stdr. Typen." 

Cidaria designate, (Hufn.) f. [ab.] hafneri Stauder, Int. Ent. Zeits. xvii. 113 
(Nov. 1923). Founded on 1 <J, 1 $ from Crna Prst, Carniola, 17 July, 1910, 
1300 m. (J. Hafner), suspected of being a local race. The (J, which I assume to 

be holotype, has been disposed of ; I have labelled the $ " allotype." f. [ab.] 

binderi Stauder ibid. The unique type, a $ from near Ambras (Innsbruck 
district) remains in the collection. 

" Larentia " veuberata [err. pro verberata (Scop.)] f. bifasciata Stauder, Ent. 
Anz. ii. 93 (Aug. 1922). I have made the labelled specimen holotype, but the 
ab. is scarcely more worthy of serious consideration than the somewhat analogous 
Ortholitha chenopodiata ab. plurimelineafa (supra). 

" Larentia " caesiata (Schiff.) ab. mediodivisa Stauder, Ent. Anz. ii. 83 (July 
1922). Founded on two <$<$. One of them, Dachstein, 1800 m., 23 July, 1917, 

is labelled " type," and I treat this as holotype. ab. hauderi Stauder, ibid. 

The unique type <J has, I suppose, been parted with. A very similar $, Dach- 
stein, 1800 m., 23 July, 1917, labelled " caesiata aber.," has the base not strictly 
concolorous, the median band not materially narrowed, and therefore can only 
be the specimen in question if the description is rather loose ; on the other hand, 
if the series contained two of approximately this form it is curious that Stauder 
did not mention a second one. 

[Larentia bicolorata (Hufn.) = ] Plemyria rubiginata (Schiff.). Stauder has 
analysed the Innsbruck forms in Int. Ent. Zeits. xvii. 92 (Sept. 1923). The 
tendency towards a diminution or loss of the terminal smoky clouding of the. 
hindwing (f. rosarium Stauder) is certainly very general, but I do not think 
we have here a well-defined race. The type is a good <$, so labelled by its author 
and now in coll. Tring Mus. ; it is actually, however, one of the " Kombinations- 
formen " mentioned on p. 93, having on the forewing the dots before and behind 
SM ! on which is founded ab. diadelphata, the type whereof is not found in the 
series, though some half-dozen out of the eleven originals represent it, in more 
or less strong development. Form, peralbata Stauder, founded on 16 examples 
(sex not stated), seems to be the $ corresponding to f. rosarium, though it is 
very rarely, if indeed ever, that the hindwing above is literally without " any " 
trace of the subterminal band ; the type is present, in beautiful condition, and 
is also one of the " Kombinationsformen " — " peralbata + parvula Retz." 

[" Larentia autumnalis " =] Hydriomena coerulata sanfilensis Stauder, 
Zeits. Wiss. Ins.-Biol. xi. 5 (January 1915). Founded on three JJ, near San Fili, 
June [1913]. None of them remain in the collection. 

Schistostege decussata transient Stauder, Soc. Ent. xxxv. 17 (May 1920). 
Founded on ample material from the Trieste district, Altipiano (Opcina — 
Prosecco), early June. A considerable part of the series has been dispersed and 
neither of the remaining <$<$ (two labelled "Opcina — Prosecco, 12. vi. 1914" 
and " Opcina, 8.vi.l911 "—I exclude an Opcina aberration of the latter date 
which bears a label " transiens aberrat.") is specially labelled. The types of 



152 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 

ab. praeclara Stauder. Boll. Soc. Air. Sri. Nat. xxvii. 164 (1913) and ah. marginata 
Stauder, Iris xxix. 32 (1915), both from Opcina, are in the collection. 

Hydrclin tcxtaceata (Don.) f. dcochrata Stauder, Ent. Am. v. 51 (1925). 
Founded on a rather prevalent Innsbruck aberration (not race). A good ?, 
to which was attached a label " testaceata ss. deochrata Stdr. Typen," has been 
selected as holotype. 

Minna murinata ab. lactearia Stauder, Ent. Am. ii. 82 (July 1922). The 
type — a ?, not " 3 " as printed — is in the collection and is in fairly good condi- 
tion, although it may be questioned whether it would have been quite as pure 
white if fresh from the pupa. 

[" Sterrha " =] Rhodometra sacraria (Linn.) var. desertorum Stauder, 
Zeits. Wiss. Ins.-Biol. x. 173 (1914). " Typen (!), 5 33, 6 ??, Biskra, El Kan- 
tara, V [= May] in meiner Sammlung (Fig. 13 3)" Assuming the quoted month 
to apply to all, only two out of the eleven potential " types " remain in the 
collection, both of them $$ of Rh. antophilaria consecraria (Kamb.) Stgr. from 
Biskra, 12 May, 1912. In addition, however, there are two (J (J of a later genera- 
tion of sacraria (El Kantara, beg. September 1912) which must have been in the 
author's possession when he wrote, and therefore probably belonged to the 
original series. One of these latter bears a pencilled label " sacraria desertorum,:' 
There can be little doubt that Stauder confounded the two allies, as they stood 
together in his collection, and there is no mention of antophilaria in his article 
(" Lepidopterologische Ergebnisse zweier Sammelreisen in den algerischen Atlas 
und die nordliche Sahara"). His description in most points speaks for anto- 
philaria consecraria, but his figure seems to represent a summer-brood sacraria 
and apparently has — like the September El Kantara examples — a red base to 
the costa, which the type form lacked. He evidently used the word " varietas " 
in the Staudingerian sense of a local race, as he adds after his diagnoses " Atlas- 
stiicke niihern sich etwas den siideuropaischen." Of these latter, 1 3 an d 1 ?. 
both labelled " Alg. Atlas, Constantine, 7. v. 1912," remain in the collection; 
the 3 is a fairly normal, rather dull-lined sacraria ; the $ an antophilaria con- 
secraria, a trifle larger and brighter than the larger of the Biskra, but quite 
similar. 

It should be added in reference to the antophilaria group of Rhodometra, 
which has never been adequately worked out, that I have followed Culot — 
Staudinger is non-committal — in treating the North African race as identical 
with the Andalusian ; Rambur figures the aberration, which is much the rarer 
in North Africa, with clouded hindwing and reddish admixture in forewing, 
and I have not yet been able to study Andalusian material. 

Eumera regina ab. decoronata Stauder, Boll. Soc. Adriat. xxv. 164, t. 2, 
f. 10 (1913). Zara. The type is not in the collection, though there are three 
typical specimens of more recent date from that locality, besides an undated 
3 from Spalato, which I assume to be transitional — the white spot in cellule 3 
of the forewing reduced, weak, that of cellule 2 wanting. 

[" Scoria " =] Siona lineata oenotriensis Stauder, Zeits. Wiss. Ins.-Biol. 
xi. 6 (Jan. 1915). Founded on a long series (28 33, 16 $$) from chestnut 
woods near San Fili, Calabria, 900 in., collected, according to the handwriting 
on the labels, on "6.6.1913," according to the published article "5.vi" — 
probably in reality some on each of two similar excursions (op. cit. x. 267). In 
conformity with the all too general slipshod method, a comprehensive label 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 153 

" oenotrensis [sic] Stdr. Typen " is attached to one <J, and this not a specially 
characteristic one. The given expanse, "38-46 mm." (Continental measure- 
ment), seems to indicate that the largest specimens were sent away, as the 
9 <$<$ and 1 $ of the original series which have come to Tring run from 38 to 
44 mm. by this system; "26-29 mm." for the length of a forewing is an 
evident lapse or misprint, probably for " 21-24." Assuming that a holotype 
has not yet been selected, I have chosen a good $ with a forewing length of 
22-5 mm. 

" Venilia " macularia aureoadflava Stauder, Zeits. Wiss. Ins.-Biol. xi. 6 
(Jan. 1915). Founded on "6 ^J, 2 9? " from Monte Martinello, Calabria, 
600-1000 m. The Tring series, however, has three males and three females, all 
collected together (6 June, 1913), so that the published figures must be inexact. 
One 9 is labelled " aureoadflava Stdr. typ." and I have treated this as allotype. 

Chiasmia glarearia (Brahm) f. schawerdae Stauder, Int. Ent. Zeits. xiv. 38 
(June 1920). Two $ $ (perhaps the only two — the number is not stated in the 
publication) are in the collection, both labelled "schawerdae Stdr." ; the more 
strongly marked, from Dalmatia (Marjan, 4 June 1908) is in beautiful condition 

and I have labelled it holotype. f. aurearia Stauder, ibid. 39. " Illyro- 

Adriatica," without more exact indication, erected as " f.n. (partim subsp.)," 
is differentiated by its deeper yellow, honey- to light gold-yellow ground-colour. 
Two 3*3 (Salcano and Gorz) and one 9 (sine loc.) are labelled with the name, 
the two latter being of an aberration with only the median line well developed. 
I have not treated the Salcano £ as holotype. 

Chiasmia clathrafa (Linn.). In a first note (Zeits. Wiss. Ins.-Biol. xi. 6, 
Jan. 1915) Stauder refers to a splendid series from the Cocuzzo district and the 
Sorrentine Peninsula (beginning of June), including one 9 Sorrent transitional 
to noclurnata Fnchs, 2 $ $ and 1 9 Sorrent of f. cancellaria Hb. and 2 $ $ Monte 
Martinello of f. aurata Trti., one almost perfectly but with some white remaining 
in the fringes, the other more transitional. In the Int. Ent. Zeits. xiv. 38 (June 
1920) he analyses anew his series of 180, almost all of southern origin, and names 
three smaller Monte Martinello <^<J of a less deep colour than aurata " i.flaveola " 
and four <$ $ (Sorrent 2 July [" 2.6 " on the hand-written labels and see supra], 
Monte Martinello 6 June) with ground-colour deeper honey-yellow than in 
flaveola but not reaching that of aurata, the latticed markings heavy, " f. wehrlii." 
Two of the former and three of the latter remain in the collection, all labelled 
with their varietal names but only a xcehrlii (Sorrentino) with the addition of 
" typ." I select this specimen as holotype. 

Ematurga atomaria (Linn.) 9 — aD - virilis Stauder, Int. Ent. Zeits. ix.16 
(May 1915). Founded on 2 99 from Terlan, South Tyrol, July 1904. One is in 

the collection and I have labelled it paratype. 9~ a b- nocturna Stauder, ibid. 

The unique type 9 is i n the collection. Subsequently (hit. Ent. Zeits. xiv. 

37-38, June 1920), Stauder discussed the Mediterranean race orientaria Stgr. 
and named no less than six " forms " (aberrations) of it. His collection contains 

an extremely fine series. f. dentaria Stauder, founded on 10 ($<$ and 1 9 from 

the Adriatic littoral, is represented by three labelled <$<$ — one Opcina-Prosecco 
and two Wippach — but neither noted as " type," which has probably been dis- 
posed elsewhere. $-f. jiseudoijltircaria Stauder, said to be " not rare in the 

South," is only represented by a somewhat damaged 9 from Noghera, which 
can hardly be claimed as holotype. Q-f. caloraria Stauder, with the ground- 



154 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

colour pale yellow, sometimes almost as in the $, shows 5 c?cj, none labelled 

" type." §-f. faUax Stauder, p. 38, is said to recall Bupuhw pininria Linn. 

in the sharp contrast between the pale ground-colour and the concentrated dark 
scaling about the apex. Of the two examples, the one first mentioned (Gorz, 

10 July [1909]) is present and I have labelled it holotype. f. ophthalmaria 

Stauder, produced by a looping of the median line of the forewing with (outside) 
the cell-spot, is shown by several examples. A <J from Trieste and one " S. 

Tyrol " bear the name, which has no scientific importance. f. melanostigma 

Stauder. The holotype, Trieste [Scorcola], 7 April [1911] is in the collection. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 155 



ON FLEAS COLLECTED BY DR. H. M. JETTMAR IN MONGOLIA 
AND MANCHURIA IN 1927 AND 1928. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With Plates VII to X.) 

rPHE species of Siphonaptera are evidently very numerous in Siberia and 
the adjacent districts of Asia. Although Drs. Wagner and Joff as well 
as ourselves have already described a good many species from that region, the 
collections dealt with in the present paper prove that the flea fauna has as 
yet only been sampled. As Dr. Jettmar, to whom we are much indebted for 
these valuable collections, has formerly sent us material from Transbaicalia, 
we are now in the position to study the geographical variation of at least some 
of the Palaearctic Asiatic species. The study of the transmission of diseases, 
which is so closely linked up with the knowledge of the Ectoparasites which act 
as vectors or which are potential vectors, we find to be of the greatest assistance 
to the systematist by furnishing material, a fact we gratefully acknowledge. 
On the other hand, the collectors of warm-blooded Vertebrates for systematic 
purposes, who should and might be the chief source of increase in our knowledge 
of the species of Ectoparasites, as a rule neglect to collect the Arthropods occurring 
on the mammals and birds obtained, lack of time frequently combined with a 
narrowness of outlook preventing the collector from going beyond the amassing 
of skins. Fortunately, there are pleasing exceptions. 

The descriptions we give of new forms are as much as possible restricted 
to essentials sufficient for the purpose of identification and classification. De- 
tailed descriptions will appear in the monograph. When giving the limits of 
variability, particularly in the case of bristles, it must be understood that the 
bristles have been counted only in a limited number of specimens and that 
therefore the numbers given are approximative. 

I. Manchuria : Excursion to Tungliao in Southern Manchuria, 

November 1928. 

l. Ceratophyllus tesquoruin sungaris subsp. nov. (PI. VIII, figs. 9 & 10, 3d). 

Near to C. t. mongolicus J. & R. 1911 ; differs in the exopodite F being 
more rounded posteriorly, with the apical margin more slanting than in the various 
other known subspecies. Our figures represent extremes ; fig. 10 taken from 
type of sungaris. 

A series from : Sand dunes near Ta-Lin, on Cricetulus arenarius and in its 
burrow ; sand dunes near Chendjatien, in burrows of Spermophilus (probably 
S. mongolicus) ; Tungliao, in abandoned burrow of Spermophilus or Zapus. 

2. Ophthalmopsylla kukuschkini Joff 1927. 
2 3 <$ from sand dunes near Chendjatien, in burrows of Spermophilus (prob- 
ably S. mongolicus) ; and 1 $ from the same place in nest of Cricetulus griseus 
fumatus. 



156 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

The q rj differ a little inter se and from Joff's figure. In one the lower of 
the subapical spiniform bristles is but slightly shorter than the upper, while 
in the second specimen it is nearly as much shorter as in Joff's figure. The 
bristles are more numerous than in the unique specimen described by Joff. On 
tergite VIII several of the long bristles are marginal, which is not the case in 
the nearly related 0. volgensis Wagn. & Joff 1920. 

VII. st. of $ with a broad shallow upper sinus, the angle above which is 
very obtuse and strongly rounded ; the lobe below this sinus projects consider- 
ably, is broad and apically emarginate, with the upper angle strongly rounded, 
but extending as far backwards as the ventral angle, somewhat similar to PI. VII, 
fig. 5. 

3. Ophthalmopsylla jettmari sp. nov. (PI. VII, figs. 3 $, 4 $, 5 $). 

<J$. Agrees in essentials with Ophthalmopsylla Wagn. & Joff 1920, but has 
the frontal tubercle rounded. Differs from all allied genera (or subgenera) in 
the frontal tubercle being close above the oral corner (fig. 4), in the metanotum 
bearing on each side 3 or 4 blackish apical spines, in the first hindtarsal segment 
equalling II to IV together, etc. 

Head. — Bristles on frons 4 to 6, 3 or 4 ; on occiput anteriorly to 2, usually 
1, in middle 2 or 3. Proboscis reaching to middle or apex of trochanter. 

Thorax. — Pronotal comb with 24 or 25 spines. On mesopleura about 20 
exclusive of the rather numerous small ones at and near the upper anterior 
corner ; on metepimerum from 18 to 26 

Abdomen. — On tergites I to VII 3 rows, with additional bristles on the 
anterior segments and on VII ; on III. t. in rj 46 to 57, 26 to 30, in $ 50 to 76, 
26 to 30, on the two sides together ; in $ 1 long and 2 short antepygidial bristles, 
in $ 3 of which the upper is shorter than the bristles of the posterior row of 
VII. t., the lower one being about one-third shorter than the middle bristle ; 
apical margins of tergites I to VII minutely dentate, on I and II, or also on 
III, a blackish spine each side. 

Legs. — On hindfemur about 20 subventral bristles on outer surface, arranged 
anteriorly in 2 or 3 rows. Hindtibia with more than 40 bristles all over the 
outer side. Hindtarsus peculiar in £ : segment I dorsally at apex with about 7 
long thin bristles and in subapical notch 3, the longest apical bristle stout and 
reaching close to apex of II ; in subapical notch of II 5 and at apex 5 to 7 long 
bristles, all much thinner than the ventral apical ones, the longest dorsal bristle 
extending to or beyond apex of V ; in $ the apical bristles of I and II stout, 
the longest of II not quite reaching to apex of IV. 

Modified Segments. — J : VIII. t. from stigma downwards with over 40 
bristles. VIII st. ventrally reduced, extending obliquely upward-anad, ending 
with a broad membranous lobe which bears numerous small hairs, beyond 
middle of posterior margin a short projection bearing a pair of long slender 
bristles. Process P of clasper about ^ shorter than anterior margin of exopodite ; 
acetabular bristle on a short cylindrical projection. Exopodite F a little over 
twice as long as broad, nose of anterior margin above §, apical anterior angle 
90°, hindrnargin somewhat convex to 5, where F widens, from this point to 
anterior apical angle the margin evenly curved, there being no posterior apical 
angle ; just above middle of widened portion a stout, somewhat claviform spine 
of which the apex is curved down ; below the spine about a dozen marginal 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 157 

and a dozen lateral bristles, besides a number of smaller ones on the outer surface, 
2 of the marginal bristles longer than the others. Ventral arm of IX. st. mode- 
rately convex from T a v to ^ bearing here a double row of about 10 long bristles, 
besides small ventral and lateral hairs ; the small apical lobe somewhat resembles 
a dog's head and bears several dorsal and lateral bristles. Paramere with a 

dorsal hood each side which is spiculose apically underneath. 9 : VII. st. 

on the two sides together with 25 to 36 bristles in front of the row of 18 to 21 ; 
apical margin slanting* with a broad shallow oblique sinus, below which the 
segment is subtruncate ; from the stigma down on outer side 34 to 50 bristles 
(inclusive of small ones), on inner side 6 to 8. Spermatheca essentially as in 
0. praefectus J. & R. 1915 ; chitinized portion of bursa copulatrix elbowed. 

Length : ^9 2-9 to 3-3 mm. Hindfemur ^9 0-61 to 0-67 mm. 

A long series from : Sand dunes near Chendjatien, in nests of Cricetulus 
griseus fumatus, also off Cricetulus sp. and from burrows of Spermophilus (perhaps 
S. mongolians) 

4. Rhadinopsylla dives sp. nov. (PL IX, fig. 16 <J, 17 9). 

cJ9- -Not very close to any of the known species : genal comb with 8 spines, 
more rarely 7, pronotal comb with more than 25 spines, on abdominal tergite 
VIII some bristles above stigma, segment V of all tarsi with 5 pairs of plantar 
bristles, manubrium of clasper slender, head of spermatheca slightly narrower 
than midtarsal segment IV is long. 

Head. — Frontal tubercle central. Spines of comb long, upper one shorter 
than the others, but not broader basally than the next, the row gradually slanting 
upwards, being almost horizontal. Labial palpus with 5 segments. 

Thorax. — Pronotal comb with 26 to 28 spines. On mesonotum numerous 
small bristles between the anterior row and the base, the lateral bare space being 
small. On metanotum 3 rows, the anterior row irregular. 

Abdomen. — Two rows on tergites, and on most segments some additional 
bristles ; I to VI with apical spines, sometimes a spine even on VII. 

Legs. — Longest bristle of hindtarsal I not reaching apex of II, and that of 
II not quite extending to apex of IV. 

Modified Segments. — $ : On VIII. st. from 14 to 20 odd bristles, all distant 
from apical margin. Near dorsal margin of clasper one long bristle, and around 
the margins about 10 to 14 small ones of various sizes ; lower margin of clasper 
rather strongly ventricose ; below or just above lowest point of exopodite a 
small bristle on clasper. Notch of anterior margin of exopodite a little below 
middle of margin ; posterior margin of F curved from base to apex, but rather 
more strongly in ventral than in apical half. Upper end of vertical arm of 
IX. st. angulate on anterior and posterior sides ; dorsal margin of ventral arm 
concave in proximal j-, ventral margin rather strongly rounded-explanate in 
apical third, being widest at apex, bristles all thin, a dorsal row anteriorly more 
or less double, distally continued as a subapical and subventral row, of which 
some bristles are rather larger, on outer surface of apical third about 8 to 11 

bristles. 9 : VII. st. with broad, rounded, subventral sinus, above which 

there is a broad round lobe incrassate in centre ; a posterior row of 12 to 14 
bristles preceded by 17 to 24, on the two sides together. On outer surface of 
VIII. t. from above stigma to ventral and apical margins from 36 to 38 brist lis, 
the upper and lower groups not being separated by a bare space ; on inner side 
11 



158 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 192A. 

at and close to apical margin 8 or 9 spiniform bristles, of which one marginal 
one is much longer than the others. Head of spermatheca (R.s.) very slightly 
narrower than midtarsal segment IV is long, tail subcylindrical, its anal side 
not caved in. 

Length : $ 2-3 to 2-5 mm. ; $ 2-8 to 3-3 mm. Hindfemur $ 0-35 to 0-39 

mm. ; $ 0-41 to 0-45 mm. 

A series from : Sand dunes near Chendjatien and near Ta-Lin, off Cricetulus 
sp. and Cricetulus griseus fumatus ; also in abandoned burrow of (?) Spermophihts. 

5. Rhadinopsylla insolita sp. nov. (PI. IX, figs. 18 <J, 19 $). 

(J$. Labial palpus with segments ; genal comb with 7 spines, rarely 6 ; 
frontal tubercle central in $, subcentral in $ ; pronotal comb with about 25 
spines ; longest apical bristle of hindtarsal II reaching beyond IV. <J : bristles 
of VIII. st. at and near apical margin. $ : VII. st. with deep and narrow 
subventral slit ; tail of spermatheca not caved in. 

Head. — Frontal tubercle j>rorninent in both sexes. Genal spines 3 to 7 
about equal in length and width, 7th not shorter than 6th, first the shortest and 
narrowest of all. Proboscis reaching beyond apex of coxa. 

Thorax. — Mesonotum with two rows and at least dorsally with additional 
bristles. 

Abdomen. — Tergites I to VI with apical spines, on the two sides together 
in (J 6 to 8, 8 or 9, 8 or 9, 8, 6, 5, or 6, in $ 8 to 10, 9 to 11, 8 or 9, 6 to 8, 4 
to 6, 3 to 6. 

Legs. — Longest bristles of hindtibia and hindtarsal I reach beyond the 
segment following ; on segment V 4 pairs of plantar bristles in all tarsi. 

Modified Segments. — $ : VIII. st. with 13 to 10 bristles each side placed 
at and near the apical margin. Manubrium (M) strongly broadened towards 
clasper ; the latter with one long subdorsal bristle and about 12 small ones, 
some of them very small ; acetabular bristle proximal of acetabulum. Exo- 
podite feebly curved, except at base ; notch of anterior margin below middle. 
Posterior margin of apical dilatation of vertical arm of IX. st. rounded, variable, 
not distinctly angulate ; ventral arm of nearly even width from point of division 
to apex, much broader than vertical arm, its apex more strongly rounded-slanting 
dorsally than ventrally ; dorsally about middle a double row of short spiniform 

bristles, the other bristles thin, apical ones longest. $ : Apical margin of 

VII. st. strongly slanting dorsally ; ventral portion of segment divided by a 
deep narrow slit, lobe above slit rounded-truncate, with the apex more or less 
emarginate, lobe below slit pointed in lateral view ; on the two sides together 
17 to 19 bristles. On VIII. t. at most one bristle above stigma, below stigma 
a row of 4 or 5, on widened ventral area 13 to 10, and on inside 6 or 7. Sperma- 
theca large, head broader than segment III of midtarsus is long. 

Length: $ 2-1 to 2-3 mm. ; $2-4 to 2-6 mm. Hindfemur: # 0-35 mm. ; 

$ 0-37 to 0-43 nun. 

4 <?c?> 5 ?? from : Sand dunes near Chendjatien and Ta-Lin, in nest of 
Cricetulus sp. 

6. Rhadinopsylla tenella sp. nov. (PL IX, figs. 20 ?, 21 <j). 

A small species, with 5 genal spines, of which the upper one is much broader 
and much more dorsal than the ventral spine. Labial palpus with 5 segments. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 159 

In pronotal comb 16 or 17 spines. Longest apical bristle of hindtarsal II 
extending beyond IV ; in all tarsi V with 4 pairs of plantar bristles. <$ : 
exopodite together with apical portion of clasper almost circular ; ventral 
arm of IX. st. very slender. 2 : tail of spermatheca caved in ; below stigma 

of VIII. t. one bristle, none above stigma. Agrees with Rh. dahurica 

J. & R. 1923 in one apical bristle of hindtarsal II being long ; otherwise very 
different. 

Head. — Frontal tubercle a little more prominent in J than in $, a little 
below centre in 2- 5th genal spine more than twice as broad at base than 1st 
spine and a little longer, being about J shorter than 4th spine. 

Thorax. — Pronotum short (apart from comb), shorter above middle of side 
than midtarsal I. 

Abdomen. — Tergites with 2 rows of bristles, in $ anterior row incomplete 
on II and III and absent from IV to VII, in $ anterior row incomplete on V to 
VII ; apical spines (on the two sides together) in <$ 6, 6, 4, 4, 2, 2, in $ 6, 5, 2 
2, 0. Sternites IV to VII in <$ 4 bristles on the two sides together, in $ 5 or 6 
on III to V, 7 on VI. 

Legs. — Longest ajjical bristle of hindtibia and of hindtarsal I extending 
beyond apex of segment following, that of II well beyond IV. In J V of right 
hindtarsus with 4 plantar bristles on one side and 3 on the other. Length : 
midtarsus $ 9-5, 8-5, 6, 4, 11, 2 11, 9, 6-5, 5, 12-5 ; hindtarsus <$ 21, 13, 8, 6, 
12-5, 2 24, 16, 9-5, 6, 14. 

Modified Segments. — $ : VIII. st. with a row of 3 bristles on each side. 
Manubrium of clasper gradually, but not strongly, widened towards base. Distal 
half of clasper peculiar (fig. 21), being strongly ventricose and dorso-apically 
strongly rounded, with the acetabulum extending close to apex, the nose above 
the acetabulum very prominent and subapical ; one long subdorsal bristle and 
near it 2 much smaller marginal ones, at apex minute pale bristles, each on a 
more or less distinct tooth, on inner side some minute subapical bristles. Exo- 
podite narrow, curved in basal half, almost straight in apical half ; the notch of 
the anterior margin subapical. Upper end of vertical arm of IX. st. rounded- 
angulate on posterior side ; ventral arm, from the point of division, narrower 
than the vertical arm, remaining slender to apex ; at and near dorsal margin 6 
small pale spiniform bristles from middle to near apex, at apex and subventrally 

and ventrally near it about a dozen small pale bristles. 2 : VII. st., on the 

two sides together, with a row of_8 bristles, in front of the row one or no bristle ; 
no sinus, the lateral lobe very broad and rounded (fig. 20). VIII. t. with a 
single bristle below stigma, on widened portion of segment 8 bristles on outside 
and 7 or 8 on the inside. Head of spermatheca as broad as hindtarsal IV is 
long, gradually narrowing into the tail, which is caved in on anal side and 
bears a projection below the cavity. 

Length: 1 l'5 mm. ; 2 I' 8 mm - Hindfemur : $ 0-27 mm. ; 2 °'28 mm. 

One pair from : Sand dunes near Chendjatien, in nest of Cricetulus sp. 

7. Neopsylla bidentatiformis Wagn. 1893. 

A series from : Sand dunes near Chendjatien and Ta-Lin, on and in nests 
of Cricetulus sp., also in burrows of Cricetulus griseus fumatus and Spermophilus 
(probably S. Mongolians). 



100 NllVITATKS Zoologicae XXXV. 1«29. 

II. Fleas collected during an Excursion from Harbin via Sansin, 
Lahassu, Taheiho to Nunkiang ( = Mergen) in Manchuria, May-July 1928. 

1. Ceratophyllus tesquorum sungaris, ef. p. 155. 

A series from Bank of Sungari R. opposite Harbin, on Spermophilus 
(probably S. mongolians), June 1928. 

2. Oropsylla elana sp. nov. (PI. VIII, figs. 7 & 8 ??). 

$. Similar to 0. crassus J. & R. 1911. Proboscis a little shorter. Frontal 
tubercle very small, barely traceable. Apex of genal process evenly rounded, 
dorsally not more projecting than ventrally, a little shorter than in O. crassus. 
Anterior frontal row represented by one bristle or absent. 

Pronotum (from basal margin to base of comb) shorter than spines of 
comb, measurements at 3rd or 4th spine (counted from below) in 0. elanti 13 
to 15, 17 to 19, in O. crassus 20 or 21, 16 In comb 23 to 26 spines inclusive 
of small ventral ones (in type 26). 

VII. st. truncate, upper angle distinct, in one specimen a little more rounded 
than in fig. 7, apical margin slightly variable, sometimes a little convex below 
middle, as in fig. 7, sometimes nearly straight or very slightly incurved. Stylet 
with 3 lateral bristles as in 0. crassus. Below stigma of VIII. t. 2 to 6 bristles. 
on widened portion of this segment 21 to 24 on outside and 3 or 4 on inside, 
one of the latter being marginal. Head of spermatheca larger than in 0. crassus, 
somewhat variable in shape as illustrated by figs. 7 (from type) and 8. 

Length : 3-2 to 3-4 mm. (specimens somewhat distended.) Hindfemur : 

0-56 mm. 

Manchuria : Bank of Sungari R. opposite Harbin ( = Charbin), 2 $$ (type) 
on Spermophilus (probably S. mongolicus), June 1928 ; 2 $$ from Anda Steppe 
near Harbin, on Cricetulus campbelli. 

3. Frontopsylla elatus botis subsp. nov. (PL VIII, figs. 14 3, 15 $). 

cJ?. Very near F. chillis J. & R. 1915, F. elatoides Wagn. 1929 and F. lucu- 
lentus J. & R. 1923 ; but nearest to F. elatus. All these fleas may possibly 
be subspecies of one species. I treat the present form as a subspecies of 
F. chillis in order to draw attention to this suggestion. 

The new form differs from the others especially in the o- cJ : Bristles 

at apical-dorsal margin of VIII. t. as in F. luculentus, long ones more or less 
alternating, or mixed, with shorter and thinner ones. Process P of clasper 
essentially as in F. e. elatus, but shorter, being even a little shorter than in 
F. e. elatoides. Apical margin of exopodite F shorter than in F. e. elatus, its longish 
bristle a little farther away from the stout spine, posterior margin but slightly 
incurved, the row (if bristles below the spine slanting, the most ventral ones 
farther away from dorsal margin than in /«'. e. elatus ; IX. st. as in P. e. elatus 
without an excision beyond the setiferous area, beyond tin' short spine some 

ventral marginal bristles, but not so many as in F. luculentus. $: VII. st. 

similar to that of F. e. elatus as figured by Joff in 1927. Below stigma of VIII. t. 
1 long bristle and from 1 to 3 short ones; on the widened lower and apical 
portion 14 to 19 bristles, there being a wide gap between these bristles and those 
below the stigma. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 161 

2 c?c?» 4 $? from Charithun near Nungkiang off a rat, probably not 
R. norwegicus ; the specimens were presented to Dr. Jettmar. 

4. Amphipsylla vinogradovi -Toff 1927. 

4 $$ from Sansin, off GricetuVus furuncvlus. Identified from Joff's figures. 
The duet of the bursa copulatrix is much shorter and thicker than in the following 
species and its upper half curved anad, not forward. Abdominal sternites V 
and VI with strong vertical median incrassation. 

5. Amphipsylla aspalacis sp. nov. (PI. VIII, figs. 22 $, 24 $). 

<$ : exopodite much slenderer than in A. primaris J. & R. 1915, its upper 
anterior angle very obtuse. $ : duct of bursa copulatrix long and thin, its 
upper half curved forward (or downward). 

<J$. Head. — Proboscis nearly extending to apex of coxa. One anterior 
occipital bristle. 

Thorax. — Three rows on mesonotum with additional dorsal bristles, two 
rows on metanotum. On mesopleura 15 to 20 bristles, on metepisternum 4 or 
5, on metepimerum in $ 10 to 13, in $ 12 to 16. 

Abdomen. — Apical spines : ^ I 4, II 4, III 2 or 3, IV 2, V 1 or 2 ; $ I 4, 
II 3 to 5, III 3 or 4, IV 2, V 0. Bristles on tergites : <J III 21 to 27, 20 to 22, 
IV 20 to 22, 19 to 21, VI 18 to 22, 18 to 21, VII 11 to 21, 19 to 22 ; $ III 23 to 
34, 18 to 21, IV 24 to 30, 18 to 22, VI 21 to 25, 17 or 18, VII 23, 14 or 15. Two 
or three bristles of posterior row below stigma, usually two, occasionally one 
on VII. On sternites : J III 7 to 10, IV, V and VI 10 to 12, VII 9 to 14, occa- 
sionally one small bristle in front of the row ; $ III 1 to 3, 14, IV 3 to 6, 14 to 
10, V 4 to 6, 15 or 16, VI 2 to 5, 15 to 19, VII 5 to 8, 19 to 27. 

Legs. — On outside of hindtibia from 13 to 19 dorso-lateral bristles. 

Modified Segments. — $ : The bristles of VIII. st. are drawn curved as they 
appear, accidentally, in the mounted specimens ; in the unmounted specimens 
they are more or less straight and directed backwards. Exopodite similar to 
that of A. primaris, longer and narrower, with the upper anterior angle, which 
is about 90° in A. primaris, very obtuse ; close below posterior angle a stout 
spiniform, at angle a pale subspiniform bristle, on inside near apical margin an 
oblique row of three, of which the first and third are spiniform, the middle one 
an ordinary pointed bristle ; much above middle of posterior margin a spiniform, 
between the two marginal spiniforms 5 thin marginal bristles. Ventral arm of 
IX. st. distinctly longer than vertical arm, setiferous antemedian area less 

convex than in A. primaris. $ : VIII. t. with one long bristle below stigma 

and 2 to 4 small ones, on widened area 23 to 26 on outside and 3 or 4 on inside, 
of which latter one is marginal. Head of spermatheca a little longer than tail 
(the latter measured in a straight line from ventral margin to tip) and sharply 
separated from it. Duct of bursa copulatrix about as long as first hindtarsal 
segment. Stylet very slightly upcurved. 

Length : <J 2-4 to 2-7 mm. ; ? 2-7 to 3-0 mm. Hindfemur : <J 0-43 mm. ; 

$ 43 to 0-48 mm. 

A series from Sansin, end of May, and one $ from Lahassu, early July, all 
off Myotalpa aspalax ( = Siphneus). 



162 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

6. Neopsylla bidentatiformis Wagn. 1893. 

A small series from Sansin, end of May, off Grecetvlvs furunculus and 
C. triton. 

7. Rhadinopsylla jaonis Jord. 1929. 

One $ from Sansin, end of May, off Myotalpa aspalax. 

Originally described from a damaged $. The present $ is in fairly good 
order. Hindtibia with dorsolateral bristles on outside, none on inside ; tips 
of long bristles of hindtarsus broken off, longest apical of segment I evidently 
reaching beyond III, that of II probably to or beyond apex of V. Spermatheca 
as figured in Nov. Zool. p. 40, but, as was to be expected, the head more strongly 
narrowing towards tail than in the split spermatheca of the type-specimen. 

s. Pectinoctenus adalis sp. nov. (PI. VII, fig. 0). 

q. Chaetotaxy essentially as in P. lauta Roths. 1915 (described as Lepto- 
psylla). Genal comb with 15 spines ; pronotal comb with 32. In front of the 
posterior row 3 rows on mesonotum, 2 on metanotum ; on metepimerum 8 
bristles (4, 3, 1). Abdominal tergites with 2 rows, the posterior one containing 
15 bristles on III, on the two sides together. 

Modified Segments. — J : VIII. t. with 8 bristles on widened area below 
stigma ; VIII. st. shorter and broader than in P. lauta, triangular in lateral 
aspect, with the base widened upwards, apart from this upward extension the 
sclerite, measured from the most proximal bristles to the dorsal margin and 
the apex, a very little more than i as broad as long ; at ventral margin from 
beyond middle a row of bristles, the row proximally more or less irregularly 
double, the 3 distal bristles the longest. C'lasper and exopodite in shape nearly 
as in P. pectiniceps Wagn. 1893, but the exopodite without short stout spiniforrn : 
process of clasper and exopodite claw-like at end, the brown tips curved towards 
each other ; exopodite widest above middle, the posterior margin rounded 
from this point to tip, at this rounded margin 2 long bristles below apex and 
further down about 6, the second (from above) of this row about as thick as 
the long subapical bristles, but very much shorter, being homologous with the 
spiniforrn of P. pectiniceps. 

One ^ from Charithun near Nunkiang ( = Mergen), off a rat (probably not 
R. norwegicus) ; presented to, not collected by, Dr. Jettmar. 

9. Myodopsylla trisellis sp. nov. (PI. IX, figs. 23 <J, 26 ?). 

cJ$. A very interesting discovery. Agrees in all essentials with the American 
genus Myodopsylla, particularly with the North American species. Metanotum 
without apical spine. Abdominal tergites I to III with false comb. 

Meso- and metanotum with 3 rows of bristles ; mesopleura with 10 to 15 
bristles, metepisternum with 2, metepimerum with 7 to 10, usually 8 or 9, 
2 of which are apical. Abdominal tergites I and II with 3 rows, the others 
with 2, but the anterior row with few bristles, particularly on the posterior 
segments. On outer side of hindtibia a subdorsal row of 9 or 10, apical bristle 
included. 

Modified Segments. — rj : VIII. st. with a broad, rounded apical lobe which 
bears numerous moderately small bristles on the outer and inner surfaces, the 
outerside bristles being somewhat stouter than those of the inner side, at dorso- 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 163 

apical margin 3 or 4 long ones. Clasper with an apical sinus which separates 
from the main apical portion a conical process (P) that bears 2 longish bristles. 
Exopodite F less than twice as long as broad, curved near base, bearing at elbow 
of posterior margin a long bristle, from elbow to apex subcorneal. Manubrium 
(M) broad, evenly curved, without projection on upper side. Ventral arm of 
IX. st. with a ventral sinus at §, beyond which there are 2 bristles, further 
distad 2 thin ones and one at apex. Paramere (Par) broad, entire, incurved 
in middle, somewhat sole-shaped (variable in outline according to its position 

on slide). $ : VII. st. on the two sides together with a row of 1 1 to 13 bristles, 

and 4 or 5 in front of the row, apical margin strongly slanting. Spermatheca 
similar to that of M. insignis Roths. 1903 ; bursa copulatrix shorter than in 
that species. On outside of VIII. t. 18 to 23 bristles, on inside 3 to 5, of which 
one is marginal. 

Length : <J 2-0 to 2-5 mm. ; ? 2-5 to 2-7 mm. Hindfemur <J$ 0-40 to 

0-45 mm. 

A series from Charithun near Nunkiang (= Mergen), in temple, off Pipi- 
strellus sp., July 1928. 

III. Mongolia : Sungei Valley near Urga, 1927. 

1. Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank 1803. 

1 $ on table in room, 26 July. 

2. Ceratophyllus runatus J. & R. 1923. 

2 (J (J, 1 $ in burrow of Ochotona dahurica, May. 

3. Oropsylla silantiewi Wagn. 1898. 

A small series, also some larvae, August, from Arctornys bobac. We have 
this Asiatic marmot-flea also from the Himalayas. 

4. Frontopsylla wagneri Joff, 1927. 

This species must not be confused with Ceratophyllus wagneri Baker 1904. 
A series from burrow of Ochotona dahurica, May. 

5. Frontopsylla luculentus parilis subsp. nov. (PI. VIII, fig. 13 cj). 

Apparently differs only in the £ ; process P of clasper reaching a little 
above or to anterior apical angle of exopodite F, being longer than in F. luculentus 
luctdentus J. & R. 1923. 

A large series : from burrows of Ochotona dahurica, from Microtias economus 
and Alactaga mongolica, and single specimens from burrows of Arctomys bobac 
and Spermophilus, May and July. 

6. Ophthalmopsylla praefectus pernix subsp. nov. (PI. VII, figs. 1 cj, 2 $). 

cj$. Differs from 0. p. praefectus J. & R. 1925 more conspicuously in the 

$ than in the <$. $ : Exopodite F broader in proportion to its length ; sub- 

spiniform below apical spiniform nearer to apical angle ; projection bearing 
acetabular bristle a little shorter. 

$ : VII. st. with a rounded, rather deep, sinus. 



164 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

5 cJcJ, 4 $$ from Alactaga mongolian, July, and burrows of Ochotona 
dahurica, May. 

7. Amphipsylla mitis sp. nov. (PI. IX, fig. 25 $). 

$. Similar to A. casis J. & R. 1911. As in that species the margin of VII. t. 
is somewhat dilated at a short distance below the antepygidial bristles, and 
the duct of the bursa copulatrix is very long and slender. 

Bristles on frons 5 or 6, 2, 2, on occiput 1, 3, 7 or 8, on each side. 
Proboscis reaching to or close to apex of forecoxa. Bristles on mesopleura 10 
or 12, on metepisternum 3, more rarely 4, on metepimerum 6, more rarely 7 
(2, 3, 1 or 2, 4, 1). On abdominal tergites two rows, with a few additional 
dorsal bristles, the numbers varying: on II 15 to 18, 16 or 17, III 13 to 21, 
16 ; only one bristle of posterior row below stigma. Sternites IV, V and VI 
with median vertical incrassation, strongest in VI ; on VII 6 or 7, 16 or 17 
bristles, on the two sides together, the anterior series probably varying more 
considerably than in the two specimens available ; posterior margin of VII. t. 
slightly incurved, with the upper angle strongly rounded. On lower, widened, 
area of VIII. t. 18 bristles on outer side, 2 of which are apical. Spermatheca 
(R.s.) rather strongly convex dorsally and concave ventrally. Duct of bursa 
copulatrix slender, as long as first hindtarsal segment, strongly arched. Stylet 
slightly upcurved. 

Length 2-5 mm. 

2 §§ from Microtus economus, May. 

8. Neopsylla bidentatiformis Wagn. 1893. 
Known to occur from the Crimea to Transbaicalia. 
A series on Ochotona dahurica, July. 

IV. Harbin. 

Among the fleas collected by Dr. Jettmar off Rattus norwegicus in the 
laboratory at Harbin there is a series of Ceratophyllus anisus Roths. 1907, which 
was originally described from a single Japanese q. In the mounted type the 
exopodite is in such a position that the apical bristles are covered by the bristles 
of VIII. t., in consequence of which the longish subapical bristle was not noticed. 
We give here a figure taken from another Japanese specimen (PI. VIII, fig. 12). 
The exopodite F varies in the shape of its apical portion, in some specimens 
from Manchuria the apex being much less rounded posteriorly than in our figure. 
We add a figure of VII. st., spermatheca and bursa copulatrix of $ (PI. VIII, 
fig. 11). The spermatheca is similar to that of certain Bird-Ceratophyllus. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 165 



TWO NEW AFRICAN SPECIES OF CTENOPHTHALMUS 
(SIPHONAPTERA). 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With text-figures 1 to 4.) 

1. Ctenophthalmus evidens (text-figs. 1(J, 3$). 

(J$. Close to Ct. atomus J. & R. 1913 from Angola, of which only one § is 
known. The $ of the new species differs from that specimen in the shape of 
sternites VII and VIII. 

Comb of pronotum with 16 spines. On mesonotum (apart from the basal 
bristles) 2 rows, and in front of them some dorsal bristles, in one specimen also 



Par 



a lateral one representing a third row. Mesopleura with 7 long bristles, 
metepimerum with 6 or 7 (3 or 4, 3) ; dorso-ventral ridges on lower area of 
metepimeruni not so numerous as in Ct. atomus. In middle of side of basal 
abdominal sternite the ridges strongly arched backwards, particularly in $, 
recalling Ct. hjcosius J. & R. 1913 and Ct. moratus .lord. 1926. 

$. On VIII. t. a few small bristles above stigma, on VIII. st. S or 9 bristles 
on each side, of which 3 longish ones form a posterior row. Clasper (CI) apieally 
rounded-truncate, feebly incurved, with a row of 6 long bristles along the margin 
and near the upper angle a long and a short marginal bristle. Exopodite F 
dorso-apically strongly rounded, anterior margin nearly straight, posterior 
margin deeply incurved in middle, apical posterior angle slightly projecting, 
more rounded in one exopodite than in the other, at the angle a thin bristle, 
below it 5, of which 4 are long but thin, along dorsal and distal margins a row of 
9 or 10 short pale spiniform bristles. Ventral arm of IX. st. not much shorter 
than vertical arm, slightly turned up, dorsal margin incurved, ventral margin 
excurved, apex rounded, more so ventrally than dorsally, slightly narrower than 
middle, on inner side about 21 small thin bristles, of which 2 are apical and 6 or 



166 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 



7 subventral. Paramere (Par) of penis apically with a dorsal and a ventral 

hook (lateral aspect). $. VIII. St., on the two sides together, with a posterior 

row of 10 to 12 bristles and in front of the row 9 to 12 ; apex deeply sinuate 
below middle, the upper lobe broad, truncate cniarginate, its upper angle more 
rounded than the lower and less strongly projecting ; ventral lobe (lateral aspect) 
triangular, not extending so far distad as lateral lobe. On each side of VIII. t. 
2 or 3 small bristles above stigma, on lower area 10 to 14 bristles, of which 
two are apical and marginal, on inside 5 to 7, of which the lower ones are very 




minute, apex rather deeply incurved, lower angle smaller than 90°, upper angle 
not quite so sharp. Head of spermatheca (R.s.) much longer than tail. Bursa 
copulatrix together with its duct as long hindtarsal segment III. 

Length : g 2-2 mm. ; $ 2-3 to 2-5 mm. Hindfemur : 0-36 mm. 

Hab. Congo Beige : Region Blukwa, Village Tshusa. off Brown Rat 

(Mission Antipesteuse) ; 1 <J, 3 $$ (type in coll. N.C.R.). 1 am much indebted 

to Dr. H. Schouteden, director of the Congo Museum, Tervueren, for sending 
me the specimens for study and description. 

Among the specimens obtained by the Mission are also 3 S3 °f Hypsoph- 
thahnus campeslris J. & R. 1913 from the same place and off " rats," a species 
known only from S.W. Uganda and British East Africa. 

2. Ctenophthalmus acunus sp. nov. (text-fig. 2£, 4$). 
$(J. Nearest to Ct. moratus Jord. 1926. from the Gold Coast ; differing 
in the reproductive organs. 

(J. On each side above stigma of VIII. t. 2 or 3 small bristles, and on 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



167 



VIII. st. 14 to 16, of which the posterior ones are long ; clasper nearly as in 
Ct. moratus, apical margin with a small sinus above middle, at upper angle 5 
bristles, of which one very long, 2 shorter and 2 thin and short, on side one 
long bristle and at ventral margin another, lower apical angle about 90°. Exopo- 
dite F broader than in Ct. moratus, dorsally less rounded, the posterior margin 
from the nose upwards more slanting and less incurved. Ventral arm of IX. st. 
a little longer than in Ct. moratus, with 4 ventral bristles, of which the 3 distal 
ones are long and strong, at apex 2 minute bristles. Apical armature of ejacu- 




latory duct different : dorsal paramere (Par) without hook, apical tube of duct 

(tu) short. 5- VII. st. : on the two sides together, a posterior row of 10 bristles, 

and before the row 15 ; apex bisinuate, dorsal lobe broader than median lobe, 
triangular, angle about 90°, tip rounded off, median lobe rounded, below it the 
margin straight, not excurved, ventral angle (in side-view) slightly obtuse, 
rounded off. On each side of VIII. t. above stigma 2 or 3 small bristles, on 
lower area 10 on left and 14 on right side (we have one specimen !), 5 or 6 of them 
forming a subventral row, the most distal one short, none at apical margin, 
lower angle of apex distinct, but obtuse, upper angle effaced, the apical margin 
being but slightly incurved. Spermatheca of the small type, with the head 
shorter than the tail. Bursa copulatrix inclusive of its duct a little longer than 
hindtarsal segment II. 

Length: ^ 2-5 mm. ; $ 2-4 mm. Hindtibia : 0-39 to 0-40 mm. 

Habi. Nigeria : Lagos, on Bush Rat ; 2 <$$, 1 $, received from Dr. G. A. K. 
Marshall, C.M.G., F.R.S. 



Igg XoVITATES ZoOLOGIC'AE XXXV. 1929. 



ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF SIPHONAPTERA FROM THE 
ADIRONDACKS, WITH A LIST OF THE SPECIES KNOWN 
FROM THE STATE OF NEW YORK. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With text-figures 5 to S.) 

rPHE majority of Fleas known from the Atlantic States of North America 

were collected in Maryland and Virginia at places which are in easy reach 
from Washington, D.C., the centre of taxonomic activities in U.S.A. In com- 
paring specimens of the same species from various eastern localities it struck 
me as peculiar that, in contrast with the Western States, (1) there was no 
geographical variation discernible in the material examined, and (2) that the 
number of species was very small. In order to ascertain to some extent as to 
whether these phenomena were more apparent than real, I seized the opportunity 
which my attendance at the IV. International Congress of Entomology (Ithaca, 
August 1928) offered to go for a short collecting trip to the Adirondacks. I 
selected these mountains in the north of the State of New York, because I could 
expect to meet there northern elements in the fauna and to find species with 
a wide southward distribution which might possibly show some geographical 
modification in this northern district with a severe winter. 

Just as the best collecting-ground for a beginner is the collection of an 
experienced friend, so the easiest way for a biologist of finding a suitable locality 
is to leave the choice to a friend who knows the ground. Dr. S. A. Bishop, 
professor at the University of Rochester, made arrangements for me to stay at 
the Adirondack Lodge of the Lake Placid Club, and, with truly American 
hospitality, even transported me there in his car. I am most grateful to 
Dr. Bishop for thus rendering the journey so easy and for introducing me to a 
place which exactly suited my requirements. I am likewise very much obliged 
to Mr. H. W. Hicks, secretary of the Lake Placid Club, for the great courtesy 
of giving me permission to stay in the camp as long as I liked and for assigning 
to Dr. Bishop and myself a spacious block-house where we could make ourselves 
comfortable, spread out our collecting paraphernalia and work and sleep 
undisturbed. 

With Dr. Bishop as a guide I soon mastered the geography of the place 
and, when to my great regret my friend had to return to Rochester, could find 
my way about the woods, which, however, was not difficult, as the trails are 
all well marked. Adirondack Lodge being situated in the forest at an altitude 
of about 1,200 ft., 5 miles from the nearest farm, at a small lake under 
Mt. Maclntyre, it is an ideal spot for collecting the small mammals which occur 
in such situations. 

The weather continued fine during the end of August and early September, 
with an occasional rainy day and Mts. Marcy and Maclntyre frequently capped 
with clouds. The camp was lively with the coming and going of people who 
hiked in the mountains, carrying a heavy camping outfit like hardy scouts, 
enduring heat and facing rain, slipping in the black mud of the trails and enjo3'ing 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 1(59 

it all in this glorious wooded country. I did not follow the enthusiastic and 
energetic hikers who ate up the miles as fast as feet and breath would permit, 
but strolled about in a more leisurely way, setting traps and becoming acquainted 
with what there was to see and observe for a lover of nature, only occasionally 
taking the traps as far as Indian Pass. Alluring as the heights were, I abstained 
from trapping high up, as I had no outfit for staying with the traps overnight 
far away from the camp, and did not feel inclined to carry the traps a distance 
of three or four hours one day and to walk the same distance the next morning 
with the probable result, the nights being cold, that the mammals caught would 
be dead and abandoned by the parasites which I wanted. My captures, there- 
fore, were made on the slopes of Mt. Jo and Mt. Maclntyre and round about 
the lake. I was equipped for trapping Rodents and Insectivora only and did 
not try to obtain Carnivora and Bats, which were rare anyhow, and it was too 
late in the year for getting bird fleas from abandoned nests. The collection, 
therefore, is limited, but it comes nevertheless up to the result I usually have 
when trapping in a restricted area for a few weeks : round about a dozen species 
of fleas. The mammal most frequently caught in the little box-trap I use was 
the Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda, from which I obtained no less than 
5 different species of fleas, two of them new to science. Brewer's mole, Para- 
scalops breweri, was likewise plentiful. The long-tailed Jumping Mouse, Zapus 
insignis, did not seem to be very rare on the Maclntyre side of the lake, but 
yielded only 2 specimens of one species of flea, which, however, as a compensa- 
tion, turned out to belong to a species hitherto only known from Alberta and 
British Columbia. The Red Squirrel could be heard everywhere in the woods, 
and the merry Chipmunk was most numerous in and near the camp. I had 
especially looked forward to capturing and examining the Porcupine, as no 
flea had been recorded from the American species. But I was doomed to dis- 
appointment when I made the personal acquaintance of the creature in the woods. 
There were quantities of ticks and mites on it, but no flea. This negative result 
agrees with the experience of my friend Dr. Preston Clark, whose guides in 
Maine have examined for me porcupines as well as their winter-nest without 
finding a single flea, and we may take it as almost certain that the Canadian 
Porcupine has no flea of its own. A fact of this kind (provided it is a fact) is 
of great interest in the study of the history of the mammal and flea population. 
The Snowshoe Rabbit (or Varying Hare) seemed to be fairly plentiful in the 
Adirondacks ; I expected to find on it the northern hare flea known to me in 
several geographical forms from Greenland, Baffinsland, New Brunswick, Idaho, 
British Columbia and Central Asia ; but the few hares obtained had, like the 
porcupine, only ticks and mites, the absence of fleas probably being accidental. 
While Brewer's Mole was common, I only trapped one specimen of the Star- 
nosed Mole, on which I found the flea common on moles, shrews and voles ; as 
there was no record of fleas off this host, the find was of some little interest 
to me. 

Though the collection is small, it is nevertheless not unimportant as a con- 
tribution to our knowledge of the distribution of the fleas of North America, 
the discovery of a new species of the North-western genus Catallagia being of 
special interest. Ceratophyllus quirini was known only from Alberta and British 
Columbia, Doratopsylla curvata from Iowa and Alberta, and of Ceratophyllus 
acerbus and Lepiosylla catatina only the females were known, the former being 



170 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 

described from Canada and the latter from the Pennsylvanian Alleghanies. 
From Boston southward the ordinary Blarina flea is Dorakypsylla blarinae Fox 
L914 ; as at Adirondack Lodge I got D. curvata instead, it would be interesting 
to ascertain where in the State of New York the two species meet. The two 
commonest mammal fleas of the Eastern States, Ceratophyllus leucopus and 
Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes remain the same in the Adirondacks as in Virginia 
and further south. 

I. List of Fleas. 
l. Ceratophyllus caedens durus Jord. 1929. 

3 9$ off Sciurus hudsonius. In these specimens, as well as in the $9 

we have from New Brunswick, the abdominal sternite VII has a deep sinus of 
variable width and depth, more or less as in figs. / and g of PI. I of this vol., 
and I cannot find any difference that holds good between the Eastern specimens 
(33 and 99) and the British Columbia ones, although all the examples from 
Alberta are different. There may be a Northern connection between the Western 
and Eastern areas of distribution of C. caedens durus. 

l. Ceratophyllus leucopus Baker 1904. 
A series off Peromyscus leucopus, its true host. 

3. Ceratophyllus vison Baker 1904. 

A series off Sciurus hudsonius, its normal host. 

One ^ off Tn in ins striatus, an accidental occurrence, the Chipmunk being 
common in many places in the woods where the Red Squirrel abounds at Adiron- 
dack Lodge. 

4. Ceratophyllus acerbus Jord. 1925 (text-fig. 5 <$). 

A series of both sexes off Taniias striatus. Originally described from a 

single 9 obtained by Dr. Gordon Hewitt in Canada, without more precise indica- 
tion of locality. 

A second 9 was collected off the same host by Dr. Preston Clark's guides 
at Red River Camp, Aroostock Co., Maine, in August 1927. And there is in 
U.S. Nat. Mus. a $ and a 9 from Chapel Pond, Essex Co., N.Y. The material 
in collections being so scanty, the present series is most welcome. 

(J. Process P of clasper (fig. 5) broad and short, subtriangular, with the 
apex rounded off. Exopodite F three times as long as broad in apical half, 
angle of anterior margin below middle, from this point to apex the exopodite 
of nearly even width, with the apex posteriorly rounded, above and below 
point of strongest curvature of apex a blackish spiniform, more or less pointed, 
the lower one as a rule a little longer and slightly more bristle-like than the 
upper spine ; a little above middle of posterior margin a long strong bristle. 
IX st. rod-like, very slightly curved upwards, very feebly widened distally, 
ending with a very narrow, pointed, membranous flap which has hardly any 
trace of hair-like filaments ; below apex of IX. st. a long bristle on each side 
ami more proximally long ventral margin a variable number of minute hairs. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



171 



5. Ceratophyllus quirini Roths. 1905. 

One pair off Zapus insignis. Known from British Columbia and Alberta ; 

the occurrence in the Adirondacks renders it probable that the species is of wide 
distribution in Canada. 

6. Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank 1803. 
One $ off Tamdas striatus, an accidental occurrence. There were no 
domestic fowl at the camp ; it is therefore probable that the flea lives there on 




wild birds, the Junco, which was ubiquitous on the ground under the bushes at 
and near the camp, being the most likely host. # 

7. Leptopsylla catatina Jord. 1928 (text-fig. 6 <$). 

2 $£ off Parascalops breiveri. 

2 $$ off Blarina brevicauda. 

1 $ off Microtias pennsylvanicus. 

Described from one $ obtained by me in 1927 at Rolling Rock Club, Ligonier, 
Pa. The present 3 $$ agree very well with the type ; two have 4 antepygidial 
bristles on each side, the third 3 on one side and 4 on the other. 

(J. On VIII. st. one minute and three very long bristles. Exopodite 
similar to that of L. selenis Roths. 1906, slightly broader, more rounded on 
anterior side, with 3 long and several small bristles on the posterior side. IX. 
st. (fig. 6) gradually curved on ventral side, with a ventral series of 5 or 6 longish 
bristles and numerous small lateral ones ; apex not truncate as in L. selenis, 
but subacuminate. Paramere (Par) subpyriform, with the apex rounded. 

8. Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker 1904. 

1 (J off Parascalops breiveri; 1 $ off Condylura cristata ; 2 $$, 2 $$ off 
Blarina brevicauda ; 1 $ off Battus norwegicus. 



172 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

9. Doratopsylla curvata Roths. 1915. 

2 (JcJ, 1 $ off Blarina brevicaurla. Only a few specimens are known, 

from Iowa City and Blackfalls, Alberta. 

10. Neopsylla wenmaimi Roths. 1904. 

1 ^ off Parascdlops breweri ; 1 $ off Peromyacus Icucopus. Widely 




distributed, being in collections from British Columbia, Alberta, New Brunswick, 
Massachusetts, New York, Maryland and Arizona. 

11. Neopsylla grandis Roths. 1900. 

1 $ off Tamias striatus. A'eopsylla striata Stewart 1926 is the same 

species according to the type in the collection at Cornell, Ithaca. Baker, in 
1895, identified this flea with Putex gigas Kiiby 1837, in which lie was wrong, 
I think ; cf. No. 13. The species is still very rare in collections ; I have seen 
only 5 specimens, inclusive of the above $. 

12. Catallagia onaga sp. nov. (text-fig. 7 $). 
(J. Chaetotaxy as in the other species, but the lower antepygidial bristle 
nearly as long as the middle one, which will no doubt be found to be the case 



Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 



173 



also in the $. Modified segments very different from those of the other species : 
Manubrium of clasper widened at end, obtuse, slightly turned up. Clasper 
large, strongly rounded-dilated ventrally ; process P very broad, rounded- 
truncate, with a series of thin short bristles at the margins as far down as the 
acetabulum, further down the posterior margin a single, stronger, short bristle. 
Exopodite F very peculiar, large, its upper portion subtriangular, with the 
anterior margin incurved and the apex pointed, this triangle extended down 
into a long broad nose, which, measured from the middle of the acetabulum, 
is about as long as the triangular portion and of nearly even width, being one- 
third as wide as long, with the apex rounded ; posterior margin of F with a row 
of thin short bristles similar to those of P, longest 
on upper portion of nose, where there are also 
lateral bristles ; lower half of nose without bristles. 
Upper end of vertical arm of IX. st. (cf. fig. 7) 
extended backwards into a sharply pointed triangle ; 
ventral arm abruptly narrowed beyond middle ; 
proximally of the sinus a row of thin bristles and 
on the narrow apical portion, which ends with a 
curved claw, a row of 4 or 5 bristles. 

2 $3 off Blarina brevicauda. The other 4 

species of the genus are from Queen Charlotte 
Island, British Columbia, Alberta and California. 

13. Hystrichopsylla gigas tahavuana subsp. nov. 
(text-fig. 8<J). 

cj$. Genal comb with 5 spines ; pronotal comb 
with 30 in ^ and 3 1 or 32 in $. In front of the two 
rows of bristles of pronotum no additional bristles 

or only one ; on mesopleura 28 to 33 bristles and on metepimerum 1(5, more 
rarely 15. Apical spines of abdominal tergites (those of right side in brackets) : 
on II 5 to 7 (7), III 4 (4), IV 1 or 2 (2). In $ two, in <J three rows of bristles ; 
on tergites III to VII, with a few additional dorsal bristles representing another 
row. On outside of mid- and hindfemora a number of lateral bristles at base 
and again at apex, none in between. Hindtibia, on outside, apart from ventral 
marginal ones, with 25 or fewer lateral bristles ; at dorsal margin 8 notches 
inclusive of apical one. Longest apical bristle of hindtarsal segment II reaching 
to apical of III in $, shorter in <J. 

Modified Segments. $ : About middle of clasper an oblique row of 3 

long bristles, in front of them 4 to 6 much smaller ones and a few marginal hairs ; 
near and at posterior margin from 4 to 6 bristles, of which the two upper ones 
are moderately large. Ventral arm of IX. st. characteristic : with 4 spines 
each side and the apex enlarged upwards on (each side) into a compressed cone 

which leans slightly distad. $ : VII. st. with a row of lfi or 17 bristles, in 

front of which there are from 32 to 45 bristles, on the two sides together. The 
bristles on VIII. t. are one long and 7 to 11 short below stigma, further down 
14 to 20, of which to 8 long, two of the long ones subapical ; on inside 10 or 
11, some of them very small. At apex of stylet one long bristle. 

Length: <J 4"0 mm.; $ 4'8 to 5"5 mm, Hindfemur: $ 0'8 mm.; 

$ 0-85 to 0-93 mm, 

12 




174 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

One pair off Blarina brevicauda, and one $ off Microtia pennsylvanicus. 

The flea described anil figured by Kirby in Richardson, Fauna Boreali- 
Americana IV, p. 318, PI. VI. fig. 9 (1837) as Pulex gigas is a Hystrichopsylla : 
the dark colouring of the lower portion of the head of the figure corresponds 
to the genal comb, being well separated from the antenna] groove, as is the 
comb. This little detail in the figure speaks against Neopsylla grandis being 
the species the figure represents. The two specimens on which Kirby based 
the name were obtained at 65° N. Lat., which means, according to the narrative 
of the Franklin expeditions, the Mackenzie River district south of Great Bear 
Lake. It is therefore highly probable that Pulex gigas is the same flea as 
Hystrichopsylla dippiei Roths. 1900 from Calgary, Alberta. However, before 
establishing the synonymy, it would be advisable to wait for material from the 
North of Alberta and to treat H . dippiei and H. gigas for the present as sub- 
species of one sjjecies, of which the name would be H. gigas. 

II. List of Mammals. 

1. Blarina brevicauda Say 1823. Numerous specimens, frequently caught 
in the traps set in mole runs. 

Leptopsylla catatina, 2 $$. 

( 'tt nophthalmus pseudagyrtes, 2 <^(J, 2 §§. 

Doratopsyllu c areata, 2 <Jq, 1 $. 

Catallagia onaga, 2 <$£. 

Hystrichopsylla gigas tahavuana, 1 <J, 1 $ 

2. Parascalops breweri Bachm. 1842. Common in the woods. 

Leptopsylla catatina, 2 <J(J, 
Clenophthalmus pseudagyrtes, 1 <J. 
Neopsylla wenmanni, 1 <J. 

3. Condylura cristata L. 1758. One specimen, a short distance from camp 
on the trail to Indian Pass. 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes, 1 $. 

4. Rattus norwegicus Erxl. 1777. Near the lake. 

Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes, 1 $. 

5. Peromyscus leucopus Rafin. 1818. In and near camp, not common. 

Ceratophyllus leucopus, 4 <Jo, 14 ??• 
Neopsylla wenmanni, 1 $. 

fi. Zapus insignis Mill. 1891. Lake shore in a damp place overgrown with 
rank grass and bushes, 7 specimens, most of them caught alive in box-trap ; 
only 2 fleas on them. 

Ceratophyllus quirini, 1 ", 1 ?, 

7. Zapus hudsonius Zimm. 1780. One specimen together with Z. insignis. 

No flea. 

8. Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord. 1815. Only one specimen, 

Leptopsylla catatina, 1 $. 
Hystrichopsylla gigas tahavuana, 1 <j>. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 175 

9. Sciurus hudsonius Erxl. 1777. Numerous. 

Ceratophyllus caedens durus, 3 $$. 

Ceratophyllus vison, a series, common on this host. 

10. Tamias striatus L. 1758. Many were caught alive, and these were practi- 
cally the only ones from which fleas were obtained. 

Ceratophyllus acerbus, 8 $<$, 11 $$. 
Ceratophyllus vison, 1 $. 
Ceratophyllus gallinae, 1 $. 
Neopsylla grandis, 1 $. 

11. Lepus americanus Erxl. 1777. Two specimens examined, one alive, 
the other dead in a trap. 

No flea. 

12. Erethizon dorsatus L. 1758. One large specimen, examined immedi- 
ately after death. 

No flea. 

III. The Fleas known fkom the State of New York. 

In The List of the Insects of New York, edited by M. D. Leonard (1928), 
M. A. Stewart has enumerated (pp. 868, 869) 26 species of fleas with the localities 
where they have been found in the State of New York, a useful compilation, 
and the first of its kind in U.S.A. Two western species, Ceratophyllus acutus 
and C. niger, were doubtless included in the list by error, in consequence either 
of wrong locality labels or of erroneous identification. Three species of Clen- 
ophthalmus are mentioned ; but the genus is represented in America by one 
species only. The Ctenophthalmus gigas Kirby is probably meant for Ct. gigas, 
Baker nee Kirby, which is a Neopsylla and the same as Neopsylla striata Stew. 
of the list. Ctenophthalmus wenrnanni also is a Neopsylla, N. similis Chapin 
of the list being the same species. These corrections reduce the number of 
species to 22. We can add 9 more (marked with * in the list). This total 
of 31 represents presumably three-fifths of the species actually existing in the 
State of New York. The discovery of the western genus Catallagia in the 
Adirondacks renders it probable that several other western genera will be found 
in the northern districts of New York. Of the known species the following 
may be expected to occur in the State : 

Hoplopsyllus glacialis lynx Baker 1904 ; on Snowshoe Rabbit (Varying 
Hare, Lepus americamis) ; nearest locality : Maine. 

Ceratophyllu-s diffinis Jord. 1925 ; in nests of various birds ; evidently 
common in New England. Nesting-boxes are most useful for obtaining bird 
fleas. 

Ceratophyllus idius J. & R. 1920 ; as previous species. 

Ceratophyllus garei Roths. ; especially in nests on the ground. 

Ceratophyllus gallinulae perpinnatus Baker 1904 ; only known from Western 
States, but must be expected to occur also in the Eastern States, on various 
birds. 

Ceratophyllus immitis Jord. 1929 ; on Lemming. I did not succeed in my 
search for the Lemming which occurs in the Adirondacks. 

Odontopsyllus multispinosus Baker 1904 ; in nest of Cottontail Rabbit. 



170 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Neopsylla faceta J. & R. 1915 ; on Sri urns hudsonius ; only a pair known, 
from Wilbraham, Mass. 

Nearctopsylla hygini Roths. 1004 ; off Mustela and Pulorius ; a subspecies 
known from New Brunswick. 

Stenoponia americana Baker 1899 ; on mice and voles ; nearest place : 
Maine. 

Nycteridopsylla chapini Jord. 1929 ; on Eptesicus fuscus, Large Brown Bat, 
which is common in southern New York. 

Fleas off other Carnivora than those mentioned above, and off shrews, 
voles and sea-birds may bring the number up to 50. A species of Trichopsylla 
should occur on the Bear. 

1. Echidnophaga gallinaceus Westw. 1875; an introduced Old World 
tropical and subtropical species ; New York City ; on rats. 

2. Pulex irritans L. 1758 ; comparatively rare in the North-eastern 
States. 

3. Xenopsylla cheopis Roths. 1903; introduced on ships' rats; an Old 
World tropical species. 

4. Ctenocephalus canis Curtis 1826; Schenectady and New York City; 
on rats, but may be expected to occur on dogs and cats. 

5. Ctenocephalus felis Bouche 1835 ; Ithaca, on cat ; evidently not so 
common as in Europe. 

6. Cediopsylla simplex Baker 1895 ; Ithaca, and Lyons Lake, Rensselaer 
Co. (Schoonmaker) ; on Cottontail Rabbit. This is a flea of the nest rather 
than of the rabbit itself. The European Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale 1878, on the 
contrary, attaches itself to the rabbit, sometimes forming a dense crust on 
the ears. 

7. Trichopsylla lotoris Stew. 1920 ; Olcott ; on Procyon lotor lotor. The 
original pair is all that is known of this interesting species. 

8. Ceratophyllus pseudarctomys Baker 1904 ; Newport, Herkimer Co., 
and Ithaca ; on Woodehuck and Flying Squirrel. 

9. Ceratophyllus wickhami Baker 1895 ; probably everywhere on Grey 
Squirrel, also on other squirrels and accidentally on other mammals ; recorded 
from Ithaca and Halsey Valley. 

*10. Ceratophyllus caedens durus Jord. 1929; Adirondack Lodge, Essex 
Co. ; on Sciurus hudsonius loquax. 

11. Ceratophyllus leucopus Baker 1895; probably everywhere on Pero- 
myscus leucopus ; Peterboro, Adirondack Lodge and Mt. Kisco. 

12. Ceratophyllus arctomys Baker 1904; perhaps everywhere on Wood- 
chuck ; accidentally on other mammals ; recorded from Peterboro, McLean, 
Keeseville, Ithaca and Stamford ; in N.Y. State Museum, Albany, a $ off Odo- 
coileus virginianus from Indian Lake, Hamilton. 

*13. Ceratophyllus asio Baker 1904 ; Ithaca: on "field mice." 

*14. Ceratophyllus acerbus -lord. 1925; Chapel Pond and Adirondack 

Lodge, Essex Co. ; on Tamias striatus. 

*15. Ceratophyllus quirini Roths. 1905 ; Adirondack Lodge ; on Zapus 

insignia. 

10. Ceratophyllus vison Baker 1904 ; Ithaca, Peterboro and Adirondack 
Lodge ; on Sciurvs hudsonius loquax, accidentally on Tamias striatus and 
Putorius, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 177 

17. Ceratophyllus fasciatus Bosc 1801 ; Ithaca ; on rat and Putoriua 
noveboracensis ; a European species. 

18. Ceratophyllus gallinae Schrank 1803 ; Perry, Barker, Adirondack Lodge 
and Mt. Kisco ; in nests of Passer domesticus, in henhouses and, no doubt as 
in Mass., in nests of various other birds ; accidentally on Tamias striatus. 

19. Ceratophyllus riparius J. & R. 1920 ; Ithaca and Olcott ; in nests of 
Riparia riparia and Ceryle alcyon. 

20. Leptopsylla hesperomys Baker 1904 ; Ithaca and Alpine ; on Peromyscus 
leucopus, and accidentally in vacated kingfisher's nest. 

21. Leptopsylla segnisSehoenh. 1816 (=musculi Duges 1832); cosmopolitan, 
New York City ; on rats. 

*22. Leptopsylla catatina Jord. 1928 ; Adirondack Lodge ; on Blarina 
brevicauda, Parascalops breweri and Microtus pennsylvanicus. 

23. Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes Baker 1904; Selkirk, Alpine, Ithaca, 
Adirondack Lodge, Mt. Kisko, Bronxville and Long Lake ; on shrews, moles 
and mice, also obtained off Fiber zibethicus, Battus norwegicus, Tamias striatus, 
Sciurus hiulsonius loquax ; a very common species. 

*24. Doratopsylla curvata Roths. 1915; Adirondack Lodge; on Blarina 
brevicauda. 

*25. Doratopsylla blarinae Fox 1914 ; Mt. Kisko ; on Blarina brevicauda. 

20. Neopsylla wenmanni Roths. 1904 (=similis Chapm.) ; Ithaca and 
Adirondack Lodge ; on Peromyscus leucopus and Parascalops breweri. 

27. Neopsylla testor Roths. 1915 ; Lansingburg ; from a nest (of mouse ?) ; 
only one pair known. 

28. Neopsylla grandis Roths. 1900 (=N. striata Stew. = N. gigas Kirby, 
Baker, error of identification) ; Ithaca and Adirondack Lodge ; on Tamias 
striatus, accidentally on Sciurus hiulsonius loquax. 

*29. Catallagia onaga Jord. 1919 ; Adirondack Lodge ; on Blarina brevi- 
cauda. 

*30. Hystrichopsylla gigas tahavuana Jord. 1929 ; Adirondack Lodge ; on 
Blarina brevicauda and Microtus pennsylvanicus. 

31. Myodopsylla insignis Roths. 1903; Homer and Ithaca; on Myotis 
lucifugus and M. subulatus. 



178 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



SOME NEW PALAEARCTIC FLEAS. 
By DR. KARL JORDAN. 
(With text-figures 9 to 18.) 
1. Ctenophthalmus jeanneli sp. nov. (text-figs. 9 <$, 10 $). 

T^HE discovery of a Spalax flea in Transsylvania different from the Spalax 

flea known from the Deliblat and Croatia is surprising. 

tJ$. Proboscis reaching to or a little beyond apex of forecoxa. Bristles 

of occiput in three rows, on each side in <J 2 (rarely 3), 3 (rarely 2), 6 (rarely 5), 

in $ 2 or 3, 1 (rarely 2), 6. Prothoracic comb longer than, or in $ at least as 




long as, pronotum. On mesopleura 9 or 10 bristles, on metepisternum 4, on 
metepimerum 8 to 14. Meso- and metanotum, and abdominal tergites with 
two rows of bristles, with hardly any additional dorsal bristles, on tergite II 
18 to 22, 21 to 23 ; usually 4, rarely 5 below stigma of II, on III 2 or 3, on VII 
in (J usually 2, in $ 1 ; bristles on VII. t. in $ 8 or 9, 13 to 17, in $ 14 to 16, 
10 to 15. Basal abdominal sternite with some lateral bristles posteriorly, 
besides the ventral ones ; in $ on III to VII to 6, 9 to 11, in $ 8 to 10, 17 or 
18. Hindtarsal segment II in J$with 2 bristles extending beyond apex of III. 
Modified Segments. — $. Sternite VIII with 19 to 24 bristles on the two 
sides together. Apex of clasper divided into an upper and a lower process, the 
former bearing 4 (rarely 3) long submarginal bristles and a variable number of 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 



179 



lateral and apical ones, apex of lower process rounded, at ventral margin a long 
bristle. Exopodite F twice as long as apically broad, apical margin strongly 
rounded, particularly anteriorly, bearing 10 or 11 pale and rather long spiniform 
bristles, posterior apical angle a little smaller than 90°, forming a more strongly 
chitinized nose ; posterior margin convex in middle, between this point and 
apex three long bristles and above these two short thin ones. Ventral arm of 
IX. st. characteristic : not quite so long as vertical arm, dorsal margin slightly 
incurved, apex truncate, upper angle smaller than 90°, but rounded off, lower 
angle prolonged downward into a nose, which is about twice as long as broad 
and rounded at apex ; on side of IX. st. nearly 30 bristles, all pale and thin, 




but several of the subventral ones about twice as long as the sclerite is broad 
in middle. Paramere of penis (Par) apically rounded, its ventral angle about 

90° or a little less. $. VII. st. considerably variable (cf. text-fig. 5a and 5b 

taken from two specimens), bearing on the two sides together a posterior row 
of from 14 to 18 bristles and in front of the row 7 to 12 ; apex sinuate below 
middle, the upper lobe more or less pointed and ventrally rounded, as in text-fig. 
10a, or more rarely broad and rounded as in text-fig. 10b, the sinus rather 
narrow, the margin below it excurved and then slightly incurved. Above stigma 
of VIII. t. 3 to 5 bristles on each side, on lower area 12 to 15, of which the 
most distal one is short and stout and subventral like the preceding long bristles ; 
on inside 8 or 9, small, some minute ; apex of VIII. t. more or less evenly 
rounded. Stylet two and a half times as long as proximally broad. Bursa 
copulatrix plus its duct nearly as long as hindtarsal segment II. Spermatheca 
(R.s.) with head and tail about equal in length, head strongly convex above, 
somewhat variable. 

Length (specimens somewhat extended) : $ 3-0 mm. ; $ 3-2 to 3-5 mm. 

Hindfemur: ^ 0-44 mm. ; $ 0-48 to 0-51 mm. 

Hub. Rumania: Cluj (Klausenburg), 27. v. 1928, off Spalax typhlus 



ISO XOVITATES ZooLOCK'AE XXXV. 1929. 

transsilvanicus, a series collected by Dr. R. Jearmel, to whom the species is 
dedicated. 

i'. Ctenophthalmus mris sp. nov. (text figs. 1 1 #). 

tj. Similar to the specimens from the Deliblat and Croatia identified 
(perhaps erroneously) in the N. C. R. collection as Ct. caucasica Tasch., but 
proboscis reaching to apex of forecoxa and genital armature different. The 
only specimen we have is aberrant in having 2 instead of 3 genal spines on each 
side. Pronotal comb shorter than pronotum. 

Modified Segments. — <J. Sternite VIII with 23 bristles on the two sides 
together. Lower apical angle of clasper less projecting than in Ct. caucasica, 



the apical margin above it being but very slightly incurved. Exopodite F 
shorter and broader, its apex much blunter. Apex of ventral arm of IX. st. 
slightly wider than middle, subtruncate, strongly rounded ventrally, apical 
margin faintly incurved below upper angle ; about 20 thin bristles, 3 of the 
distal ones the longest, the middle one of the 3 being about half the length of 
the ventral arm of the sternite. Ventral angle of paramere (Par) produced 
downward into a sharp hook. 

Hab, Rumania : Dobrogea, May 1913, off Spalax typhlus dolbrogeae, one £ 
(M. Aigner). 

3. Ctenophthalmus phrator sp. nov. (text-figs. 12 <J, 13 ?). 
(J?. Similar to the preceding species. Proboscis not quite reaching to 
apex of forecoxa. Comb longer than pronotum, containing 16 to 19 spines. 
On meso- and metanotum two rows of bristles, on mesonotum additional dorsal 
bristles (and, of course, basal ones). Mesopleura with (i or 7 bristles; met- 
episternum with 3, rarely 2 ; metepimerum with 5 or 0. Abdominal tergites 
with two rows, I with additional dorsal bristles ; bristles in jj on II 7 to 10, 
14 or 15, VII 5 to 9, 10 to 13, and in $ on II 10 to 14, 14 to 16 ; 2 bristles below 
stigma on II, one in front of the other, 1 or 2 on VII. Abdominal sternite II 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



181 



with 2 ventral bristles, no lateral ones, in $ on III to VII a row of 5 to 7, usually 
6, with to 3 bristles in front, usually or 1, and in $ on III to V 3 to 5, 8 




to 11, on VI 6 to 8, 10 to 12. Longest apical bristle of hindtarsal segment II 
reaches to or beyond apex of IV. 




Modified Segments. — <$. On sternite VIII 12 to 17 bristles, on the two 
sides together. Process P of clasper not divided by a sinus, being rounded and 
bearing a row of 4 or 5 long bristles, besides several shorter ones. At ventral 
margin, where P is somewhat dilated, a single long bristle. Exopodite P about 
two and a half times as long as broad, of the long Ct. caucasica type ; above 



182 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 



middle of posterior margin 4 or 5 long thin bristles, posterior apical corner 
somewhat more strongly chitinized, a curved bristle below this angle. Ventral 
arm of IX. st. similar to that of Ct. spalacis J. & R. 1911, with 17 to 19 bristles 
in apical third, which are about as slender as the anterior bristles of VII. t., 
but most of them longer. Paramere with a hook at the side of the apical 
tube of the duct and a ventral flap which is either rounded as in text-fig. 7, or 
subtruncate. Apex of manubrium of clasper sharply pointed and strongly 

curved upwards. $. VII. st., on the two sides together, with a posterior 

row of 10 to 14 bristles, and 7 to 9 bristles further forward ; a subventral sinus 
narrow, below it a rounded lobe bearing 3 stout bristles, of which the ventral 
one is the shortest ; apical area above sinus very broad, the margin incurved, 
upper and lower angle projecting, strongly rounded, slightly variable in outline. 
On each side of VIII. t. above stigma 2 or 3 bristles, rarely 4, on lower area 13, 
to 16, the most distal one as stout as the preceding long bristle and over half 
its length ; on inside 5 to 7. Spermatheca of the slender type ; head nearly 
twice as long as broad, its dorsal margin straight in middle or slightly incurved ; 
tail longer than head. Bursa copulatrix plus its duct as long as hindtarsal 
segment III. Stylet (Styl) slender, more than three times as long as basally broad. 

Length (specimens somewhat distended) : (J 2-3 to 2-6 mm. ; ? 2-9 to 
3-3 mm. Hindfemur : £ 0-36 mm. ; $ 0-37 to 0-43 mm. 

Had. Caucasus : no special locality, on Cricetulus and Prometheomys, 
August 1925 (Montague Clark) ; a series. 

4. Amphipsylla primaris botis suhsp. nov. (text-fig. 14 $). 
<J. Proportions of the exopodite and position of some of its spiniforms 
different : apical margin of F narrower in proportion to length of F ; submedian 




spiniform of hindmargin lower down, placed just above middle ; between it 
and apical spiniform a marginal row of 8 or 9 bristles more or less subspiniform, 
but pale ; lateral spiniform farther away from apical curved spiniform ; inward 
from apical spiniform and obliquely above lateral one two bristles, of which the 
upper is subspiniform. 



Novitates Zooloqicae XXXV. 1929. 183 

Hab. Transbaicalia : Tchita, off Microtus sp., September 1923 (Dr. Jett- 
mar) ; one <J. 

5. Rhadinopsylla bureschi sp. nov. (text-fig. 15 <J). 

(J. Near Rh. casta Jord. 1928 and Rh. integella J. & R. 1921, all three possibly 
being subspecies of one species. Abdominal sternites with more bristles : on 
III 5, IV 5, V 6, VI 6, VII 6, VIII 9 (on the two sides together). Acetabular 
bristle (ac) far up the posterior margin of clasper, being placed midway between 
the most ventral point of the posterior margin of the exopodite and the apex 
of P. Notch of anterior margin of exopodite F at two-thirds. IX. st. distally 
rather more strongly rounded-dilated than in the allied forms mentioned. 

Hab. Bulgaria: Cam-Kuria, Ryla Mts., south of Samokow, 1200 m., 
30 July 1924, off Microtus subterraneus (Dr. Buresch) ; one <J. 

Key to the Species of Rhadinopsylla J. & R. 1912. 

The regular, vertical, very dense striation of the lower part of the mete- 
pimerum observed in a few genera is very conspicuous in Rhadinopsylla. 

A. Frontal tubercle much below middle of frons, its distance from maxillary 

palpus much shorter than first ( = anterior) genal spine. Labial palpus 
with 5 segments. Tarsal segment V with 4 or 5 pairs of plantar 
bristles. 

a. Hindtarsal segment II with long bristle in subapical notch reaching 

in $ beyond III, in $ near to apex of V. Rh. bivirgis Roths. 1913. 

b. Hindtarsal segment II without long subapical bristle (but with long 

apical one). 

a 1 . Pronotal comb with 14 spines. Tarsal segment V with 4 pairs of 
lateral bristles. $ : F evenly rounded ; nose of posterior margin 

of clasper (upper angle of acetabulum) well above middle. 

$ : VII. st. with additional bristles in front of row. 

Rh. mascidana J. & R. 1912. 

b 1 . Pronotal comb with 18 spines (inclusive of small ventral ones). 
Tarsal segment V with 5 pairs of plantar bristles, at least in some 
tarsi. $ : F nearly straight in middle ; nose of posterior margin 

of clasper in middle. $ : No bristles in front of row on sternites 

III to VII Rh. cedeslis Roths. 1913. 

B. Frontal tubercle near middle, its distance from maxillary palpus about as 

long as (or even longer than) ventral ( = first) spine of genal comb. 

c. Labial palpus with 6 to 8 segments. 

c 1 . Genal comb with 6 or 7 spines, upper spine equalling the next. 

Prothoracic comb with 24 or 25 spines. Hindtarsal segment II 

with one long apical bristle. In $ no bristles above stigma of 

VIII. t. or only one .... Rh. insolita, cf. p. 158. 

d'. Genal comb with 4 spines, upper spine shorter than third. 

Rh. jaonis Jord. 1929. 
d. Labial palpus with 5 segments. 

e l . Genal comb with 4 spines ; metepisternum fused with metanotum. 

Rh. sectilis J. & R. 1923. 



184 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

/'. Genal comb with 7 or 8 spines. Pronotal comb with 28. Hind- 
tarsal segment II with one long apical bristle, which, in $, does not 
reach beyond IV. On VIII. t. some bristles above stigma. 

Rh. dives, cf. p. 157. 
(f. Genal comb with 5 (rarely 4 or 6) spines. 

a"-. Hindtarsal segment II with one long apical bristle reaching 
beyond IV. <J : IX. st. broadened. $ : tail of spermatheca 
not caved in ... . Rh. dahurica J. & R. 1923. 
b"-. Longest apical bristle of hindtarsal segment II reaching beyond 
apex of IV. — •<£ : IX. st. very narrow. — $ : tail of spermatheca 
caved in on posterior side . . . Rh. tenella cf. p. 158. 
c°. Longest apical bristle of hindtarsal segment II not reaching 
beyond apex of IV. 
a 1 . Upper genal spine much shorter and much broader than first 
spine. Pronotal comb with 14 spines. Spermatheca large, 
tail not caved in . . Rh. pentacanthus Roths. 1897. 
b*. Upper genal spine not, or not much, shorter than first. Pro- 
notal comb with 20 spines or more. 
« 4 . Upper and lower genal spines practically alike. (J : bristles 
of VIII. st. apical . . Rh. isacanthus Roths. 1907. 
6*. Upper genal pine broader than first and somewhat shorter. 
o 5 . $ : notch of anterior margin of exopodite F much below 
middle ; IX. st. gradually narrowed ; acetabular bristle 
on a level with lowest point of P. $ : tail of sperma- 
theca caved in ; genal comb usually with 6 spines 

Rh. mesa J. & R. 1920. 

b l . (J : notch of anterior margin of P just below middle ; 

IX. st. dilated-rounded at apex ; acetabular bristle on a 

level with lowest point of F. $ : not known 

Rh. integella J. & R. 1921. 
c 5 . <$ : like b'°, acetabular bristle a little above lowest point 

of F. $ : tail of spermatheca somewhat swollen, 

not caved in . . . Rh. casta Jord. 1928. 

rf 5 . $ : notch of anterior margin of F much above middle ; 

acetabular bristle at two-thirds of posterior margin of 

clasper ; IX. st. rounded-dilated apically ; VIII. st. 

with a row of 4 or 5 bristles on each side. $ : not 

known . . . . Rh. burescki, cf. p. 183. 

e 6 . <J : notch of anterior margin of F much above middle ; 

acetabular bristle more or less on a level with lowest 

point of F ; VIII. st. on each side with a row of 6 or 7 

bristles. $ : tail of spermatheca not caved in. 

Rh.fraternus Baker 1895. 

6. Ischnopsyllus teres sp. nov. (text-figs. 16 r> , 17 and 18 $). 

(J9- I n size similar to /. intermedins Roths. 1898, but abdominal combs 
with fewer spines and modified segments very different, particularly in ,$. 

Hearl. — Supra-oral inerassation (text-fig. 17) widest at apex, which is more 
or less curved downward, sometimes rather more so than in our figure ; the 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 



1929 



is:» 



sexes differ in there being in the $ a strongly chitinized dark area behind the 
incrassation, while in the 3 the posterior boundary of this dark area is con- 
tiguous with the apical margin of the incrassation. Spines in metanotal and 
abdominal combs : in $ on met. 22 to 27, I 7 to 9, II IS, III 17 to 22, IV 12 to 
15, V 9 to 12, VI 8 to 10 ; in ? on met. 24 to 26, I 7 to 9, II 16 to 20, III 13 to 
18, IV 10 to 13, V 8 (rarely 9), VI 6 to 11 (usually 7 or 8). One complete row 
on abdominal tergites, containing on II to VII 12 to 14 bristles, in front of the 
row 2 to 6, in $ sometimes 7, small bristles. On the sternites (on the two sides 




together) in <J on III 2 or 3, IV and V 4, VII 9 ; in $ on III 6 to 8, IV and V 
7 to 11. 

Proportional average lengths of tarsal segments : midtarsus in J 33, 21, 
14, 9, 15 ; in $ 32, 19, 14, 9, 15 ; hindtarsus in $ 48, 25, 17, 17 ; in $ 43, 24, 
16, 10, 17. 

Modified Segments. <J. On tergite VIII 12 to 17 bristles. VIII. st. 

club-shaped, upper apical corner drawn out into a small hook curved frontad ; 
on side of dilated apex 5 long bristles, slightly widened-nattened in basal half, 
ventrally 2 long bristles, strongly widened in basal half, from these bristles 
frontad a row of about 6 small ones. Clasper (CI) with a dorsal, subtriangular. 
rounded-off projection, oblique apical margin from this hump to one-half straight, 
the lower half excurved, bearing ventrally 2 large acetabular bristles, of which 
the upper is the thicker, at upper portion of this curved margin 3 small bristles ; 



186 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. [929. 

ventral margin of clasper from base of exopodite rounded-excised, this sinus 
bounded frontally by a projection. Exopodite about twice as long as broad, 
anterior margin almost evenly incurved from above base to apex, which is sharply 
pointed ; disto-apical margin nearly straight, very slightly incurved, ventral 
margin rounded proximallv, incurved beyond middle, rounded distally, merging 
into apical margin in an even curve ; bristles all small, somewhat variable in 
number. Apical armature of penis characteristic : dorsally a ribbon-like 
sclerite which gradually curves downwards, and below it a slipper-like sclerite 

projecting distad. $. Sternite VII with 30 to 35 bristles on the two sides 

together ; apex subtruncates ventrally somewhat incurved. Tergite VIII 
above stigma with 1 to 2 or no bristles, below stigma with 4 or 5 long ones, on 
widened triangular area 19 to 22, and on inside 3 stout apical ones. Stylet short, 
slender in apical half, a little over twice as long as basally broad. Spermatheca 
similar to that of /. simplex Roths. 1906, its head a little longer than broad. 

Length : (J 2-3 to 2-7 mm. ; $ 2-5 to 2-7 mm.— — Hindfemur J 0-39 to 
0-45 mm. ; $ 0-40 to 0-44 mm. 

Hab. Caucasus : no special locality given, August 1925, off Myotis sp. 
(Montague Clark) ; a series. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 187 



ON POLYPTYCHUS PYGARGA AND SOME ALLIED SPECIES 
(LEP., SPHINGIDAE). 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With 12 text-figures.) 

'"THE 6 species dealt with in this paper are all African and resemble each 
other very closely. They are characterized by the head and thorax being 
devoid of a dark dorsal median stripe, the forewing subfalcate, with a discocellular 
ring-mark, the apex produced and the distal margin entire, the hindwing bearing 
two dark spots at anal angle and, between them and base parallel with abdominal 
margin, a dark streak. $ : anal tergite with simple median process, or the 
process bearing on each side a wing-like upward projection ; anal sternite absent ; 
clasper and inside of tergite VIII without friction-scales ; penis-sheath with 
apical or subapical belt, or patch, of teeth, without long process. $ : darker 
than rj, less grey, more clay-colour. Tergite VIII medianly divided, the two 
halves smooth, thin, but well chitinized, the dorsal surface of each evenly or 
irregularly rounded ; postvaginal plate prominent, forming a very distinct 
rounded ridge with smooth edge, antevaginal ridge laterally with a triangular or 
horn-like process, which is sometimes reduced to a mere tubercle in one of the 
species. 

These Hawkmoths are remarkable for three reasons : (1) the marked sexual 
dimorphism, (2) the absence of reliable colour and pattern distinctions between 
the species, and (3) the disturbing fact that in several species the genital armature, 
though distinct in the 3<3, does not exhibit any differences in the $$, so that 
in most species we do not know how to distinguish the $$ and to which $<$ 
to assign them. 

The uncertainty referred to under (3) is most unsatisfactory, as is the 
scantiness of the material in collections. The solution of this feminine question 
must be relegated to the future, and for the present we have to be satisfied 
with conclusions based on the male population. In bringing together some of 
the (JcJ and $$ I am guided more by locality labels than anything else, and I 
only hope that the efforts of the Schadchen will not have to be nullified in the 
divorce court. In these circumstances it is awkward that two of the names have 
been based on single $$ : pygarga Karsch 1891 and convexus R. & J. 1903. 
I hope to have assigned to them their right $$, but there remains still some 
doubt. 

I am very much indebted to my friend Dr. B. Preston Clark for the loan of 
types and other specimens, which have been most valuable for this short survey. 

1. Polyptychus pygarga Karsch 1891 (text-figs. 1 and 2 J). 
Originally described from a single $ bred by Dr. Paul Preuss at Barombi, 
Cameroon. The Berlin Museum contains also a £, collected by Preuss at 
Victoria, Cameroon. This specimen, which agrees with P. spurrdli R. & J. 1912 
in size, colour and markings, I regard as the ^ of P. pygarga. In both this <J 
and that of P. spurrdli tergite X gradually narrows to a point, with the apex 



188 NnVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

curved downwards, the elasper bears a narrow dorsal marginal dentate lobe 
which projects inward (text-fig. 1), the dorso-apical lobe is large and curved 
inward, below it, as in the allied species, a short apical lobe directed distad. 
Penis-sheath (text-fig. 2) with an oblique, somewhat raised, subapical belt 
of numerous teeth, the belt open on the dorsal side. Penis-funnel dorsally 
trisinuate, the lobes bounding the median sinus denticulate and more or less 
triangular. — In $ the lateral process of the antevaginal plate prominent, more or 
less triangular or pointed. 

P. pygarga and /'. spurrelli evidently replace each other, the former pre- 
sumably being confined to the Cameroon-Congo districts, the other to the 
Senegal-Niger countries, and should therefore be treated as subspecies of one 
species : 

(a) P. pygarga pygarga Karseh 1891. 

<$. Anal tergite longer than in P. p. spurrelli, dorso-apical lobe of elasper 
longer and strongly curved frontad, the tip of the lobe being on a level with the 

short dorso-marginal lobe (text-fig. 1). In $ the lateral horn of the antevaginal 

plate drawn out into a spiniform point. 

Cameroon. 

(b) P. pygarga spurrelli R. & J. 1!>12. 

<J. Dorso-apical lobe of elasper not curved frontad, but towards the side 

opposite. A $ in coll. B. Preston Clark from C6te d'lvoire probably belongs 

here. Ground-colour vinaceous cinnamon (Ridgway, Nom. of Colors, 1886, 
pi. 4, no. 15) ; forewing above somewhat shaded with mummy brown, especially 
at distal margin. Antevaginal lateral horn flattened, with the margins somewhat 
irregular, subdentate, the apex not spiniform. Tergite VIII deeply incised in 
middle, the two halves slightly convex, their apices irregularly rounded. 

Gold Coast and Ivory Coast. 

2. Polyptychus serrator sp. nov. (text-figs. 3 and 4 ^). 

(J. Differs from P. pygarga- q only in the genital armature : dorsal margin 
of elasper dentate, not expanded inward into a narrow lobe ; dorso-apical lobe 
very strongly curved frontad, even more strongly so than in P. p. pygarga, and 
its dorsal and ventral margins dentate, on outside of the curved lobe a groove 
along ventral margin separating a narrow strip from the convex portion of the 
lobe (fig. 3 is taken from dorsal side). Penis-sheath (text-fig. 4) with an obliquely 
longitudinal stripe of teeth, the apical teeth the longest. 

One £ in coll. B. Preston Clark from Cameroon. 

3. Polyptychus prionites R. & J. 1916 (text-fig. 9 *). 

Syn. : Polyptychus roseola Clark L917. 

The specimens vary in colouring, some being much more pink than others. 
Genital armature also individually somewhat variable in detail ; the two rftf 
from Bosum Uam, Spanish Guinea, differ in the genitalia inter se rather more 
than from other specimens. /'. roseola was based on a pinkish Congo $. One 
of the Bosum Uam rJo ' 8 nearly as pink, while the second q from that district 
(both collected by Tessmann) is almost as dark grey as the type-specimen from 
Lake Chad district. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 



180 



cj. Tergite X simple as in P. pygarga. Dorsal margin of clasper non-dentate 
(text-fig. 9), dorso-apical lobe long, curved inward and slightly frontad, its ventral 
margin strongly dentate, apex suddenly narrowed and somewhat twisted ; the 
denticulate ventral edge of this twisted apical portion is the continuation of the 




inner edge of the dorsal margin of the clasper, this edge extending obliquely across 
the inner surface of the curved lobe. Penis-sheath with a subapieal belt of 
numerous teeth. Penis-funnel dorsally Insinuate, median sinus the widest. 

$. A specimen from Bosum Uam (Tessmann) in the Berlin Museum is smaller 
than P. pygarga-Q, length of forewing 30 mm. Antevaginal horns with spini- 
form apex ; the halves of tergite VIII strongly convex, rounded, projecting, 

13 



190 Xovitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

the lobes well separated from each other ; postvaginal plate very strongly 
rounded. 

I now place here also the damaged $ from Agberi mentioned in the Revision 
under P. pygarga ; it is much darker than the $ from Bosum Uam (which is 
evidently a bred one). 

Lake Tchad : Ht. Chari, type of P. priorities. Nigeria : Agberi. — Spanish 

Guinea : Bosum Uam. French Congo : Fort Crampel. type of P. roseola. 

4. Polyptychus consimilis R. & J. 1903 (text-figs. 5, 6, 7 <$<$). 

In both sexes the apex of the forewing a little more produced than in 
P. prionifes. 

cJ. Tergite X simple as in the previous species. Dorso-apical lobe of 
clasper spatulate, with obtuse, rounded, non-dentate apex, the lobe bent inward 
(i.e. sagittad). but not frontad. Belt of penis-sheath narrower than in P. priorities 
and apical, not subapical. Penis-funnel with one dorsal sinus, the other two 
excisions at most vestigial. $ (see under b). 

(a) P. consimilis consimilis R. & J. 1903 (text-figs. 5, 6 $g). 

Syn. : P. sudanensis Clark 1927 ; P. consimilis belgica Clark 1926. 

$. Dorsal margin of clasper (text-figs. 5 and 6) not expanded inward ; 
dorso-apical lobe short, quite gradually curved, pointing inward-distad. Penis- 
funnel with one dorsal sinus. 

Sudan : Atbara. Bahr-el-Ghazel. Congo Beige. 

Types of P. c. belgica and P. c. sudanensis compared. 

(b) P. consimilis ancylus R. & J. 1910 (text-fig. 7 J). 

(J. Dorsal margin of clasper expanded inward, dorso-apical lobe long, its 
direction about at right angles to the sagittal plain. Belt of penis-sheath broader 
than in P. c. consimilis. Penis-funnel with indication of dorso-lateral excisions. 

$. Antevaginal lateral process flattened, obtuse ; postvaginal plate more 

broadly rounded than in P. prionites ; halves of tergite VIII strongly convex, 
their apical margins irregular, laterally somewhat produced. Length of fore- 
wing 30 mm. 

Konakry I. Gold Coast : Gambaga. French Guinea : Dingiray, a $ 

in coll. B. Preston Clark. 

5. Polyptychus convexus R. & J. 1903 (text-figs. 10. 11, 12 .; J). 

P. jyygarga convexus R. & J. 1903. 

Originally described from a single $, which we figured. The specimen is now 
in the collection of Dr. B. Preston Clark. Dolman obtained in N.W. Rhodesia 
several <J(J and one $ which 1 believe to be convexus. These specimens represent 
a distinct species externally very similar to P. consimilis and P. com/par. Some 
£ ^ are much more pink than others, as in the case of P. consim His and P. prion i/< s. 

(J. Tergite X simple. Dorsal margin of clasper not expanded and m it den- 
tate ; dorso-apical lobe much broader in a view from inner side (text-fig. 1 1) than 
in P. consimilis, its distal margin very strongly dentate, the upper angle produced 
into a sharp triangular process which projects inward-upward and bears dorsally 
mi the inner side some teeth similar to those of the distal margin of clasper ; 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 191 

ventral apical lobe close to upper, narrow, pale, soft. Apex of penis-sheath 
ventrally soft, somewhat swollen, covered with numerous small teeth, this patch 
transverse, not extending round to the upperside ; within the sheath a flat 
broad sclerite with rounded apex. Penis-funnel broadly unisinuate dorsally 
and roundedly emarginate ventrally. 

$. I cannot distinguish the $ from that of P. compar. Lower half of termer] 
of forewing slightly convex ; lateral horn of antevaginal plate flattened, obtuse, 
shorter than in P. pygarga. 

North-west Rhodesia. North-east Rhodesia : South end of L. Tangan- 
yika, Kalambo R. Congo Beige : M'Pala, shore of L. Tanganyika. 

6. Polyptychus compar R. & J. 1903 (text-fig. 8 <J). 

(J. Anal tergite on each side with a large wing-like flap which is rounded at 
apex and projects distad and upward, the median process being curved down ; 
this peculiar structure of tergite X easily visible under the binocular without 
dissection. Clasper broader than in all previous species, apically feebly chitinized 
and not divided into two lobes, in its deep cavity a conical tooth about vertical 
on the inner surface of clasper. Penis-sheath with an apical (not subapical) 
half-belt of numerous teeth. Penis-funnel ventrally broadly and deeply sinuate, 
the sinus round, dorsally the funnel short, trisinuate. — ■ — $. A series in B.M. 
and at Tring. Colour variable in depth of tone. Lobes of tergite VIII flat, 
feebly convex, rounded at apex. Lateral horn of antevaginal plate variable in 
length, sometimes reduced to a tubercle, always obtuse. Post-vaginal plate 
very broadly rounded. 

South Rhodesia : Salisbury. Nyasaland : Mlanje and Zomba. 

Tanganyika Territory : Kilosa. 



192 Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 



FOSSILE VOGELEI-SCHALEN. 

Vox M. SCHONWETTER. 

yU den schwierigsten unci nur teihveise losbaren Problemcn der Oologie 
*-* gehort die Bestimmung der Artzugehorigkeit fossiler Eischalen, wenn man 
von den freilich sehr einfach liegenden wenigen Fallen absieht, wo die Art allein 
auf das Ei gegriindet ist, wie liei Struthio chersoiirnsi.s Brandt und Pmmmornis 
rothschildi Andr., oder Cotypen in Gestalt von Skeletteilen nebst hochstwahr- 
scheinlich zugehorigem Ei vorliegen, wie bei Aepyomia titan Andr. 

Die bisherigen Versuehe solcher Artbestimmung konnen selbst ihre Autoren 
nicht recht befriedigt haben, da noch immer zu wenig Anhaltepunkte vorhanden 
und die Methoden noch zu primitiv waren, soweit narnlich bloss Fundort und 
Grosse des Eies, letztere durcfa dessen Achsenlangen ausgedriickt, zu Grande 
gelegt wurden. Denn dariiber hinaus miissen beriicksichtigt werden die Schalen- 
dicken oder Schalengewichte, die Oberrlachengestaltung (" Korn "), die Form 
der Poren, der mikroskopische Ban der Kalkschale mit ihren Porenkanalen 
und Mammillen. Weiter kann vielleicht die Untersuehung von iSchalenschliffen 
im polarisierten und im ultravioletten Licht Aufschliisse iiber verwandtschaft- 
liche Beziehungen oder doch Analogien geben. Weniger ist von der chemise hen 
Analyse zu erwarten, da die Eischalen in dieser Hinsicht anscheinend recht 
gleichartig zusammengesetzt sind. 

In Bezug auf Vogeleier sind all diese Methoden iiber die Anfangsstadien ihrer 
Entwicklung noch nicht weit genug hinausgekommen. Nicht einmal Photo- 
graphien iiber die Oberrlachengestaltung Iiegen vor, ja es fehlt sogar an einer 
iibersichtlichen Zusammenstellung iiber die in den Sammlungen vorhandenen 
Objekte nebst dem erforderlichen Zahlenmaterial, ohne welche sachdienliche 
Studien und einigermassen befriedigende Schlussfolgerungen unmoglich 
bleiben. 

Fur 33 Aepyornis-Eier hat Dr. A. B. Meyer in den Abh. u. Ber. des Zoolog. 
Museums in Dresden 1901 eine Zusammenstellung gegeben. Aber darin fehlen 
die Schalendicken, fiir 3 alle naheren Angaben, fiir 21 Eier die Gewichte und fiir 
einige Eier enthalten die gemachten Angaben Widerspriiche, die sich freilich erst 
bei der rechnerischen Nachpriifung zeigen. 

In der sparlichen Literatur finden sich bald nur Langen und Breiten der 
Eier, bald nur Umfange, zuweilen Volumina angegeben, nur ganz vereinzelt 
mehr oder weniger zuverlassige Schalendicken oder Gewichte, sodass eine kritische 
Vergleichung schon aus diesem Grande nicht ohne Weiteres moglich ist. Hier 
muss die Rechnung einsetzen, urn die Angaben nachzuprufen und mit einander 
vergleichbar zu machen. Gleichgrosse Eier z. B. konnen ja kleine Stiicke grosserer 
Arten bezw. grosse Stiicke kleiner Arten sein. 

Unter diesen Umstanden bleibt fast Alles noch der Zukunft vorbehalten, 
und es wird daher selbst ein nur kleiner Beitrag zum Vorwiirtskommen erwiinscht 
sein. Aus diesem Grunde und angeregt durch das kostbare Material in Tring, 
bringe ich eine Beschreibung desselben nebst einer Zusammenstellung mit einigen 
anderen zuverlassig erscheinenden Angaben. 

In dieser angefiigten Tabelle sind die der (rrdsseM vergleichung dicnenden 



NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXV. 1920. 193 

Volumina bestimmt nach der Forrnel Vol. = 0,523 AB 2 . Die Eigewichte sind 

v— 1 
berechnet mittels G = Vol. + 9, wo ( J d as Schaleiigewicht und y das 

y 

spezifische Geivicht der Kalkschale bedeutet. Letzteres fand ich an mehreren 
Scherben von Aepyornis, Dinornis, Psammornis und Struthio ziemlich iibereinstim- 
mend zu 2,50, bei Struthio zum Teil darunter, bei den Fossilien zum Teil ein 
wenig dariiber. 

Kleine Messungswiderspriiche zwischen den Umfdngen (U und u) und den 
Eiachsen (A und B) wurden ausgeglichen mittels der Formeln u = Bit und 

U=2A + iIr B, wobei ilr eine vom Achsenverhaltnis k=- abhangige Grosse 

ist, worauf aber an dieser Stelle nicht naher eingegangen werden kann. Fur 
k = 1,20 bis 1,50 fallt f von 1,063 auf 0,965. 

In den vereinzelten Fallen, wo das Schaleiigewicht nicht direkt gemessen 
wurde, ist es als " ber." (berechnet) bezeichnet, ermittelt aus dem spezifischen 
Gewicht y, der Schalendicke d und der Oberflache 0,„ = (B— d)°-K, wo K=7r + 
2,228 (k — 1), also bloss vom Achsenverhaltnis abhangig. 

Das Schaleiigewicht ist g = 0,„ ■ d • y und die Schalendicke d=-= — j^^f? — 

Das relative Schaleiigewicht Rg = -^ ist der prozentuale Anteil der 

Kalkschale am Eigewicht und dient dem Zweck, in einer einzigen Zahl Eigrosse 
und Schalendicke zugleich zu beriicksichtigen, woraus sich interessante Auf- 
schliisse ergeben haben. Da kleine Eier grosserer Arten regelmiissig dickschaliger 
sind, als gleichgrosse Durchscknittseier verwandter Arten oder grosse Eier ver- 
wandter kleinerer Arten, und das relative Schaleiigewicht diese Verhaltnisse 
beleuchtet, kann es zum Erkennen und zur Trennung solcher Falle dienen. 

Die in vorliegender Arbeit benutzten Formeln habe ich aus dem Rotations- 
Ellipsoid abgeleitet, dem die Gestalt aller behandelter Eier sehr nahe kommt. 
Fiir die verschiedenen anderen Eigestalten, deren Einfluss auf diese Formeln 
ganz bedeutend geringer ist, als Unkundige vermuten, habe ich Korrektionen 
auf empirischem Weg ermittelt, die aber im vorliegenden Fall ohne Bedenken 
ganz unbeachtet bleiben durften. Alle derartigen Rechnungen, die schon allein 
wegen der Fiille von Druckfehlern, Messungsungenauigkeiten und oft zweifel- 
haften Angaben iiber die Masseinheiten in der Literatur notig sind und oft 
mehrmals wiederholt werden miissen, konnen meines Erachtens zweckmassig 
mir mittels logarithmischen Rechenschiebers durchgefiihrt werden, der eine viillig 
ausreichende Genauigkeit gibt. 

Der Einfluss Ag von Schalendefekten auf das Bruttogewicht g u ist leicht zu 
berechnen : 

Ag t = ^a,„ Ag= pr (g + gj, wo o den Flacheninhalt des Defektes bedeutet. 

Unter Beriicksiehtigung der spezifischen Gewichte konnen auch Ergdn- 
zungen xltni; dej'vkter Eier durch Gips und dergleichen Flickmaterial ebenfalls ohne 
Schwierigkeit vollig ausreichend genau beriicksichtigt werden. 

Wie man im Gegensatz zu friiher verschiedene andere Disziplinen der 
Ornithologie nicht mehr ohne Messungen , Wagungen und Rechnurgen betreibt, 
kommt man ebenso in der Oologie ohne solche nicht mehr aus, auch wenn heute 
die Ansicht des grossen Philosophen Kant nicht mehr uncingeschrankt gilt, 



194 Novitates Zooloqicae XXXV. 1929. 

dass in einem Wissen nur soviel Wissenschaft stecke, als Mathematik darin 
enthalten sei. 

Ein Wort noch betreffs Mineralisation und nulilrUcher Abschleifung bei 
fossilen Eischalen. 

Von einer Mineralisation kann meines Erachtens kaum gesprochen werden, 
da die frische Eischale — abgesehen von der bei fossilen Eiern natiirlicb ver- 
schwundenen Eihaut — nur wenige Prozent organischer Substanz enthalt, noch 
dazu eingebettet in Mineralkristalle. Was soil da " mineralisieren " ? 

Eine Abschleifung dagegen ist haufig vorhanden, aber keineswegs immer, 
und oft auch nur minimal. Man erkennt sie leicht unter der Lupe an der Ver- 
flaehung der Porengruben auf der Oberflache, am deutlichsten an der Abflachung 
der Mammillenkopfe. Bei Aepyornis sind diese zuweilen vollstandig erhalten 
und dann etwa 0,1 mm. hoch. Wo also iiberhaupt noch die Mammillenkopfe 
sichtbar sind, kann die Abschleifung kaum mehr als 0,1 mm. auf der Unterseite 
betragen. Auf der Oberseite wird sie nicht grosser, sondern eher geringer sein, 
weil die Oberseite im Allgemeinen glatter ist und daher weniger Reibungswider- 
stand bietet, als die Mammillenseite. Diese Tatsache wird bestatigt durch 
Scherben rezenter Strausseneier, bei denen trotz Rundschleifung der urspriinglich 
scharfrandigen, grossen Reibungswiderstand bietenden Bruchkanten die Ober- 
flache mit ihren pigmentierten feinen Poren sowohl, als auch die Mammillenkopfe 
vollig erhalten blieben. 

Beschreibung der fossilen Eischalen in Tring. 

1 . Struthio-Ei aus einem Grab, zerbrochen gefunden zwischen Assuan und 
Korosko, von Elliot Smith erwahnt im Report of Archaeological Survey of Nubia. 
Die oberflachliehe Glasurschicht der Scherben ist zum grossten Teil zerstort, dem 
Aussehen nach durch im Boden entstandene Saure zerfressen. Einige kleine 
Stellen der Oberflache zeigen aber doch noch unter der Lupe deutlich die urspriing- 
liche glatte, glanzende, braunlich gelbe Glasurschicht mit einzeln stehenden feinen 
Stichpunktporen. Vorwiegend sieht man aber, immer unter der Lupe, grossere 
rundliche Porengruben, die vielleicht nicht urspriinglich sind, sondern vermutlich 
dadurch entstanden, dass atzende Feuchtigkeit an den winzigen Porenlumina 
eindrang und um sich frass, wobei dann auch die widerstandsfahigere Glasur- 
schicht urn die Porenmiindung herum zermiirbte und abfiel. Derartige flach 
eingesenkte grossere Gruben fanden sich auch bei andern alteren fossilen Eischalen 
(Psammornis, Struthio " indicus" und chersonensis), die ich zuvor untersucht 
hatte, und bei denen sie mir ratselhaft blieben. Beim Betrachten des Grabfundes 
aber drangte sich der vorstehende Erklarungsversuch geradezu auf ; bei den 
andern Scherben wohl deshalb nicht gleich, weil bei ihnen der Eindruck einer 
Atzung nicht so unmittelbar erweckt wird, da die ganze Oberflache ein- 
schliesslich der Porengruben gleichmassig poliert erscheint, offenbar verursacht 
durch Sandschlitt'. Daher braucht das Vorhandensein solcher " Atzgruben " 
nicht immer ein Charakteristikum der Schalentextur (sog. Korn der Schale) 
zu sein. 

Das in Rede stehende Ei gehort nach Schalendicke (starkste Stellen 1 ,8 mm. ; 
dunnste, zerfressen 1,2 mm.), Grosse und Porencharakter anscheinend zu Struthio 
camelus. Schade, dass nichts fur Eremopezus eocaenus Andr. spricht, dem fast 
straussengrossen Ratiten aus dem Eocan des Fayum, von dessen Ei nichts bekannt 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 195 

ist. Die Angabe Lord Rothschilds im Berliner Congressbericht 1910 Seite 159, 
dass das Ei von Eremopezus zwischen dem von Struthio und Aepyomis stehe, 
bezieht sieh auf Psammornis rothschildi, wie ein Vergleich mit Seite 150 daselbst 
ergibt. 

2. Struthio chersonensis Brandt. Das Museum besitzt zwei vollstandig 
erhaltene Eier aus einem Flussufer bei Wuan, Provinz Honan, China, welche bis 
auf Weiteres dieser Art zuzuschreiben sind. Hire Schale ist hellbraunlich. Die 
grosstenteils zerstorte, teilweise durch harten, festanhaftenden Boden verkrustete 
Glasurschieht ist griinlichgrau, die Form elliptisch, also an beiden Enden gleich- 
artig abgerundet. Auf den Resten der Glasurschieht sieht man unter der Lupe 
bei Ei I einzeln oder paarweise stehende runde Stiehporen im mittleren Abstand 
vora 2-3 mm. Dieses Stiick ist betrachtlich starker als das andere verkrustet, 
sodass dem tatsachlichen Gewicht von 459 Gramm ein reines Schalengewicht 
von 440 Gramm entsprechen wird. Masse: 176 x 152 mm. Berechnete Schalen- 
dicke 2,30 mm. 

Ei II : Elliptische Form und Grosse fast genau wie beim andern Ei : 178 X 
150 mm. = 442 Gramm. Schalendicke wie bei jenem 2,30 mm. errechnet. Die 
aussere Farbe der Schale ist gleichfalls hellbraun. Nur wenig durch anhaftenden 
Boden inkrustiert. Nur an einzelnen Stellen ist die Glasurschieht noch vorhanden 
und lasst unter der Lupe feine Stichpunktporen in losen Gruppen von 1 bis 3 
Poren erkennen, die nach dem einen Pol hin zu verschwinden scheinen. Mit 
blossem Auge erscheint dieses Ei uberall reichlich besetzt mit 0,7 mm. breiten 
rundlichen Gruben, welche in etwa 2-3 mm. Abstand von einander die Glasur- 
schieht unterbrechen und den Eindruck von geiitzten Stellen machen, wie man 
solche freilich auch bei Struthio molybdophanes zuweilen findet, wo manclie 
Porengruben so aussehen. 

Diese beiden Eier in Tring stimmen nach ihren Dimensionen gut mit dem 
Typus aus Qalinoicska, Gouv. Cherson am schwarzen Meer iiberein ( 180 X 150 mm. ; 
Schalendicke 2,00 mm.). Etwas kleiner sind zwei Eier aus Kalgan unweit 
Peking, mit 1896 und 1829 ccm. Inhalt, was den Dimensionen 170 X 144 und 
172 x 145 mm. entspricht — beschrieben durch B. A. Bensley (University of 
Toronto, Studies Biolog. Series No. 19, 1921). Leider sind die Schalendicken 
und Gewichte nicht angegeben. Wahrscheinlich beziehen sich aber die von 
Dr. Andrews im Berliner Congressbericht 1910 Seite 173 nach Eastmann 
zitierten Schalendicken von 2,2 und 2,6 mm. nordchinesischer Eier auf diese 
Stiicke. 

Vergleichsweise fand ich fiir nordafrikanische Strausseneier die Schalendicke 
zu 1,65 bis 1,95 mm. nur einmal 2,05 mm. (Sammlung Domeier 163 X 140 =340 
Gramm, Agypt. Sudan). Das schwerste und dickste mir iiberhaupt bekannt 
gewordene Straussenei befindet sich im Berliner Museum, gesammelt von Pro- 
fessor 0. Neumann in Irangi Umbugwe August 1893, und zeigt bei 403 Gramm 
Schalengewicht eine Schalendicke von 2,35 mm, als wohl seltenste Ausnahme. 
v. Nathusius fand als Maximum 2,1 mm. 

3. Struthio indicus ? Das Museum Tring besitzt 2 Scherben von Nullas, 
Kain River, Banda, Nordindien, fiber die Dr. Andrews im Berliner Congress- 
bericht 1910, Seite 173, ausfiihrlich spricht. Danach sind sie durch einen Beamten 
des Archaeologischen Dienstes in Indien, Archibald Carlyle gefunden. Dr. 
Andrews halt ihren Porentyp fiir den von Struthio molybdophanes (Porenhaufen 
in fiachen Einsenkungen), findet sie 2,4 mm. dick und lasst Spuren von anhaften- 



196 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

dem Gestein fur ihre fossile Herkunft sprechen, obwohl ihre Provenienz nicht 
zweifelfrei sei. Lord Rothschild verniutet daher (Berlin 1910, Seite 150 und 167), 
dass diese Scherben dem StrutMo molybdophanes angehoren und durch arabisehe 
Handler vor langer Zeit aus Ostafrika importiert sind. 

An den beiden Scherben in Tring sah ich von Spuren anhaftenden Gesteins 
nichts. Sie sind ohne Glanz, aber sonst glatt und von blassbraunlicher Farbung. 
Die Mammillen sind auffallend stark entwickelt und machen etwa ein Fiinftel 
der von mir zu 2,2 bis 2,4 mm. gemessenen Schalendicke aus. Die durch- 
schnittlich 0,8 mm. breiten rundlichen Einsenkungen .stehen in 5-10 mm. Abstand 
von einander und erscheinen dem unbewaft'neten Auge wie hellgraubraune 
Flecken. Spezifisch.es Gewicht 2,45. Die Mammillenkiipfe zeigen sich gut 
erhalten. Unter der Lupe hat man aber nicht den Eindruck von Porenhaufen, 
sondern als wenn die flachen Gruben am Grund durch Saure geatzt waxen, wie 
man das aber bei manchen molybdophanes-Eiern gleichfalls findet. Der Gedanke, 
dass es sich bei den Scherben um Stridhio molybdophanes handeln konnte, liegt 
danach allerdings sehr nahe. Trotzdem mochte ich diese Vermutung fiir nicht 
richtig halten wegen der erheblichen Schalendicke. Schon Dr. Andrews bemerkt, 
dass weder er noch v. Nathusius so dickwandige Eier jetziger Strausse feststellen 
konnte. Porengruben gleicher Art und auch dieselben Schalendicken finden 
sich beim chersonensis Ei II, das man doch nicht deshalb zu molybdophanes 
stellen wird. 

Daher mochte ich diese Scherben als zu einer ausgestorbenen Art gehorig 
ansprechen, mogen sie nun von Banda stammen oder nicht. 

4. Struthio camelus L. Dieser Art gehoren wohl an die durch Dr. Hartert 
bei El-Meksa, Erg bent-Chaouli in der Sahara gefundenen Scherben von gelblicher 
bis dunkellederbrauner Farbe mit einem eigenartigen rosagrauen Hauch, den man 
erkennt, wenn man gelbliche Strausseneier daneben halt. Schalendicke 1,7-1,9 
mm. Mammillenkopfe gut erhalten. Die sehr feinen Poren sind bei schrag 
auffallendem Licht mit blossem Auge eben noch erkennbar ; sie stehen einzeln 
oder in losen, kleinen Gruppen und zeigen die Form von Nadelstichen bis ganz 
kurzen Strichen (kurze Kommaporen). Genau solche Scherben besitzt das Ber- 
liner Museum, gesanmielt durch Baron Geyr von Schweppenburg in den Sand- 
diinen 150 km. siidlich von Ouargla. Schon Dr. Andrews bemerkte (S. 173), 
dass die Poren bei weiss-gelblichen Schalenstiicken, die neben Psammornis 
aufgesammelt wurden, etwas abweichen von denen jetziger cameZw-s-Eier, aber 
man muss ihm beipflichten in der Auffassung, dass diese Abweichung durchaus 
innerhalb der bei camelus zu beobachtenden Variation liegt, sodass es sich hochst- 
wahrscheinlich um sehr alte Scherben von camelus handelt. Spriiche irgend 
etwas fiir das Vorkommen von Eremopezus im nordwestlichen Afrika, so konnte 
man wohl auch an Eier dieser extincten Art denken. 
5. Psammornis rothschildi Andr. 

(a) Uber die beiden durch Lord Rothschild und Dr. Hartert 1909 in der 
Sudalgerisehen Sahara aufgefundenen Scherben, welche den Typus dieser Art 
darstellen, hat Dr. Andrews berichtet (Berlin 1910 S. 169-172). Ich kann seine 
Feststellungcn nur bestatigen. Da die Eischalen eine deutliche Abschleifung 
zeigen, wird die Schalendicke statt 3,3 mm. urspriinglich 3,5 mm. gewesen sein 
und reicht damit zicmlich an den Durchschnitt der Aepyornis-Eiei heran. Ich 
komme zu der Vorstellung einer Grosse von etwa 280 x 210 mm. gegeniiber der 
Annahme Dr. Andrews von etwa 250 x 190 mm. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 197 

Die dussere Farbe ist dunkelgraubraun. Eine solche von mir angeschliffene 
andere Psammornis-Scherbe zeigt innen elfenbeingelbe Farbung. Von den 
Mammillenkopfen ist nur noch wenig zu sehen. Die Poren sind Punkte bis zu 
etwa 0,5 mm. Durchmesser, einzeln oder in losen Gruppen stehend, also camelus- 
Typ, dazwischen stehen vereinzelte flache rundliche Gruben bis zu 2 mm. Durch- 
messer. Durch das lange Liegen im Sand allseitig glanzend poliert. 

(b) Mehrere Scherben, gefunden 20 englische Meilen siidlich von Biskra 
durch Hilgert sind betr. Erhaltungszustand, Schalendicke und Farbe ziemlich 
genau wie die vorigen. Die flachen Porengruben in denen wie zuvor unter der 
Lupe einzelne Stichporen noch eben erkannt werden konnen, sind deutlich auch 
mit blossem Auge zu sehen und neigen etwas zu mehr viereckiger Form. Schalen- 
dicke 3,2 mm., ursprunglich wohl 3,4 mm. 

G. (a) Mehrere Scherben von Ouargla und El Golea, gesammelt durch 
Hartert und Hilgert sind abweichend von vorigen. Die Farbe ist sehr dunkel 
graubraun bis schwarzgrau, noch etwas dunkler als vorige, die Oberflache glatt 
geschliffen, aber netzartig granuliert. Auffallend sind die ganz anderen, ziemlich 
radial verlaufenden Poren, welche die Form kurzer, gerader Striche (Komma- 
poren) haben. Unter der Lupe zeigen sich diese hellsafranrot gefarbt, etwas 
heller und rotlicher gegeniiber den mehr sienna-braunen Poren rezenter Struthio- 
Eier. Glanzend. Innen ist die Schale graugelb. Die Mammillenkopfe sind 
nicht mehr vorhanden, da abgeschliffen. Schalendicke 2,5 mm., ursprunglich 
wohl 2,7 mm. Der Unterschied in der Schalendicke und der ganz andere Poren- 
charakter weist auf das Vorliegen einer besonderen Art hin. 

(b) Mehrere Scherben von Temassin, gesammelt durch Dr. Fromholz, sind 
weniger gut erhalten, stimmen aber soweit zu sehen ist, mit denen unter 6 a 
uberein. 

7. Aepyornis-Eien, von Madagascar. Tring besitzt 5 vollkommen erhaltene, 

tadelfreie Exemplare. Das kleinste misst 285 x 213 mm. = 1560 Gramm, 

das grosste 314 x 242 mm. = 2025 Gramm. Unter Zugrundelegung des durch 

mich an Scherben ermittelten spezifischen Gewichtes von 2,50 ergeben sich die 

Schalendicken der allseitig geschlossenen Eier in Tring zu 3,53 bis 3,72 mm. 

Das sind geringere bis mittlere Dicken. Die Einzelheiten betr. Dimensionen 

sind aus der angefiigten Tabelle ersichtlich. Wie bei fast alien Aepyornis-'Eiern 

ist ihre Grundfarbe (Glasurschicht) hellbriiunlich, teils mit gelblichem teils 

grauem Einschlag. Die Porengruben stehen sehr dichtund erscheinen meist als 

2 bis 4 mm. lange, 0,1 bis 0,3 mm. breite, leicht gebogene, vielfach auch 

spirillenformige, tief eingesenkte Strichel, zuweilen mit kurzen seitlichen 

Abzweigungen. Zwischen ihnen finden sich eine Menge z. T. in kurzen Reihen 

angeordnete feine und auch dicke Punktporen und zarte Komma. Der 

porenfreie Rest der Oberflache ist glatt, meist etwas glanzend. Denselben 

Porencharakter fand ich bei alien durch mich untersuchten Eiern und Scherben 

solcher, mit einziger Ausnahme des Tring-Stuckes No. 15 der Tabelle, wo von 

Strichen und Spirillen nichts zu sehen ist ; dafiir stehen eng aneinander rundliche 

Porengruben, wie sie Struthio molybdophanes zeigt, bei denen sie aber viel 

weniger dicht sind. 

Das Tring-Ei No. 2 zeigt, genau wie eine meiner Scherben, zwar den allge- 
meinen Porencharakter, aber die Komma und Punkte sind soviel zarter. ohne alle 
dickeren Gruben und Punkte, dass sie vielleicht eine Art fur sich begrunden 
konnten. 



Ills NoVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXV. 1929. 

Ich will eineni Berufenern den Versuch iiberlassen, die Eier beatimmten 
Arten zuzuordnen, doch wage ich einige Andeutungen auf Grund meiner Studien 
und eigenen Beobaehtungen iiber fast alle einsehlagigen Bezichungen am Vogelei 
im Allgemeinen und iiber das relative Schalengewicht im Besondern (vergl. 
meinen Aufsatz in Beitrage Fortpfl. Biologie, Berlin 1025, p. 49 f.). 

Daraus sind fiir die aufgeworfene Frage verwendbar folgende Feststellungen, 
immer in Bezug nur auf nahe verwandte Arten : 

(a) Die grossere Art hat regelmiissig das grossere normale Ei. (Auf die 
vereinzelten wirklichen Ausnahmen und die haufigen nur scheinbaren kann und 
braucht an dieser Stelle nicht eingegangen zu werden.) 

(6) Das relative Schalengewicht wachst zwar mit zunehmender Eigrosse 
verschiedener Arten, bleibt aber ziemlich konstant bei verschiedenen Eigrossen 
derselben Art, solange diese nicht als anormal angesprochen werden miissen. 

(c) Abnorm Heine Eier haben ein hoheres, als das normale relative Schalen- 
gewicht, abnorm grosse Eier ein kleineres. (Die Kalkproduktion wild nicht 
proportional der Eigrosse vermindert und vermehrt, sondern nur in einem gerin- 
geren Masse.) 

(d) Korn- und Poren-Gestaltung sind trotz individueller Variation in ihrer 
charakteristischen Erscheinung so konstant, dass betrachtliche Abweiclmngen 
das Vorliegen einer anderen Art wahrscheinlich rnachen. 

Vom ersten fliichtigen Eindruck darf man sich dabei nicht zu einem 
Urteil verfiihren lassen, denn so leicht macht uns die Natur Erkenntnisse 
nicht. 

Danach deute ich die Tabellen-Ergebnisse so : 

Species I : Schalendicke 5,58 u. 5,85 mm. — Ei No. 1 ist ein sehr kleines 
Stuck der grossten Art (No. No. 1 und 18). 

Species II : Schalendicke 4,58 mm. — Nach der Schalendicke einer etwas 
kleineren Art angehorig (No. 14.) 

Species III : Schalendicke 3,30-3,76 mm. — Nach der Schalendicke einer 
noch kleineren Art angehorig (No. 2 bis 13, 16 u. 17). 

Wegen der stark verschiedenen Volumina vielleicht in 2 Arten zu 
trennen. 

Species IV : Schalendicke 3,68 mm., Grosse wie III, aber durch Porencharak- 
ter geschieden (No. 15). 

Dabei halte ich Ei No. 8 fiir ein abnorm diinnschaliges oder zu leicht gewo- 
genes Stuck, und No. 17 fiir ein abnorm grosses Stuck, beide zu Species III 
gehorig. 

Wenn in gleichem Zusammenhang Dr. A. B. Meyer in seiner eingangs 
zitierten Arbeit davon spricht, dass durch Erosion die Strukturunterschiede der 
A epyor wis-Eier bis zur Unerkennbarkeit beseitigt seien, kann er nur die wenigen 
in dieser Hinsicht schlechtest erhaltenen meinen. Alle mir bekannt gewordenen 
Eier zeigen eine charakteristische Oberflachenstruktur erfreulich deutlich, ebenso 
die Scherben, diese ausserdem gut sichtbare aber angeschlift'ene Mammillenkopfe. 
Manchmal hat man sogar den Eindruck, als konnten die Eier erst kiirzlich pro- 
duziert worden scin. 

Ebensowenig kan ich ihm beipflichten in der Behauptung, dass die in wenigen 
Fallen sichtbare Ausfiillung der Porengruben mit einer " harten Masse " sei : 
" der macerierte Eiinhalt, der durch den Gasdruck des Fiiulnisprozesses in die 
Poren drang und so zur besseren Conservierung der Schale beitrug usw." — Solche 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 199 

Porenaufullung und ahnliche Kalkauflagerungen kann man doch (bei manchen 
Arten sogar regelmassig) an Eiern von Francolinen, Wachteln, Pfauen (bes. 
Gefangenschaftsstiicken) als eine alltagliche Erscheinung beobachten. Und der 
Faulnisprozess des organischen Eiinhalts hat doch nicht Halt gemacht an der 
"Eioberniiche ! Kein Aepyornis-'Ei enthalt noch Reste des Eiinhalts, daher 
sind die Schalengewichte auch bei vollig geschlossenen Eiern zuverlassig 
feststellbar. 

Andererseits verw'irft Georg Krause (Ornitholog. Monatsschrift, Gera 1900) 
die Beriicksichtigung der Schalengewichte als unmoglich, weil grosse Eier kleine 
Gewichte und umgekehrt zeigen, " ganz wie es die Verschiedenheit der Einlager- 
ungsverhaltnisse mit sich brachte." Der wahre Grund liegt aber darin, dass 
Krauses Zusammenstellung von 12 Aepyornis-'Eiein Achsenfehler von 20 
und 55 mm. enthalt und sein grosstes Ei leider das allerleichteste ist wegen eines 
2000 Gramm-Fehlers in der Gewichtsangabe ! (meine No. 18). Mit seiner " hochst 
lehrreichen Gewichtsspalte " also ist es nichts, auch nicht mit seiner Abbildung 
No. 8, die langliche Podiceps-Form fiir Aepyomis zeigt ! Dem kreisformigen 
Breitenumfang von 670 mm. entspricht eben nicht eine Querachse von 160 mm., 
die aber Krause uniiberlegt beibehalt, wie Dr. Meyer ebenfalls. Ich will das 
jedoch nur als ein Beispiel fiir die Notwendigkeit iiberschiissiger Masse erwahnen, 
wodurch jeder, der Solches nicht nur fliichtig lesen, sondern damit weiterarbeiten 
will, in die Lage kommt, die Angaben selber rechnerisch nachzupriifen als Schutz 
gegen Messungs- und Druckfehler. 

8. Dinornis spec. — Moa von Neuseeland. Das in Tring befindliche kostbare 
Ei ist ein vollig fehlerfreies Exemplar, wie solche nur noch eins oder zwei bekannt 
sind. Es niisst 198 x 140 mm. = 255 Gramm und ist von blassgraugelber Farbe 
und ohne Glanz. Form ziemlich elliptisch, beide Pole fast gleich gerundet. Die 
Poren bilden 2 bis 4 mm. lange, schmale, wellige und langsgerichtete Linien, die 
etwa 2 mm. von einander abstehen und mit einer schwarzlichen Masse angefiillt 
oder durch Spuren soldier braun gefarbt sind. Unter der Lupe zeigt sich, dass 
immer einige der eigentlichen Porenlumina in einer solchen tief eingesenkten 
Langsrille miinden oder sich diese Linien aus einzelnen dicht neben einander 
stehenden Poren zusammensetzen. 

Der Gesamteindruck dieser Dinornis-~Poren kommt am niichsten dem von 
argentinischen Rhea-Eiem. Von irgend einer Ahnlichkeit der Oberflachen- 
gestaltung (Korn) bei Dinornis und Apteryx kann ich keine Spur entdecken. 

Aus mehreren Z>i»onw'.s-Scherben ergab sich das specifische Gewicht zu 
rand 2,50 und damit rechnerisch die Schalendicke des Tring-Eies zu 1,30 mm. 
Das Volumen betragt 2,03 cbdcm, kommt also dem von Struthio chersonensis 
ziemlich gleich und libertrifft den Rauminhalt eines durchschnittlichen Straussen- 
eies um 35%. Sind die in meine Tabelle iibernommenen Literaturangaben 
richtig, so gehort das Tring-Ei einer der kleineren Dinornis-Arten an. 

Das Museum besitzt ausserdem eine ganze Anzahl matte Scherben von Moa- 
Eiern von blassgelblichrahmfarbenen Ton ; 0,7 bis 1,5 mm. dick, welche vielleicht 
von 2 oder 3 verschiedenen Arten stammen. Anscheinend sind auch diese 
Scherben urspriinglich etwas stiirker gewesen ; um mehr als 0,1 oder 0,2 mm. 
wird es sich im Allgemeinen aber kaum handeln, denn nicht nur die Porenrillen 
und Poren sind meist deutlich erhalten, auch die Mammillen sind unter der Lupe 
zu erkennen, erscheinen aber flach und nicht als einzeln nebeneinanderstehcnde 
Kugelkalotten, sondern zu dunndarmlormigen Gebilden zusammengeniht 



200 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 192ST. 

(Ahnlich wie die Erhohungen bei Szielasko's Korn-Typ 1", Abb. Journal fur 
Ornith. Berlin 1913 Tafel 2). 

Jedenfalls besassen die Dinornis -Arten relativ dunnschalige Eier (Rg = 
11-12%) im Vergleieh mit Struthio (Rg. 18-20%). Vergleichsweise haben 
Dromai >is, Casitaritts unci Rhea Rg. = 12-14% ; Apteryx 7-8% ; Hiihner 10%." 

1m Berliner Museum befindet sieh niir tint beiderseits ganz hell braunliche 
Scherbe von 1.4 mm. Dicke mit Poren wie oben gesehildert : langsgerichtete, 
parallellaufende Kommastriche mit einzelnen Punkten dazwischen, ziemlich 
dicht stehend und wie mit einem kleinen Meisel in die noch weiche Schale einge- 
driickt erscheinend ; bis 2 mm. lang, 0,5 bis 2,0 mm. von einander abstehend. 
Das innere Drittel der Schale ist weiss, der Rest gelblich. 

In die TabeUe iibernahm ich aus der Literatur zum Vergleichen die im Eier- 
katalog des Britischen Museums erwahnten 3 Dinorn is-Eiei : 18,4 X 15,2, 
19,7 x 13,3 und 20,6 X 15,0 mm.; ferner die beiden von George Dawson Rowley 
in Ornithological Miscellany abgebildeten und heschriebenen Stiicke (Ibis 1878) : 
252 x 178 mm. und 190 X 151 mm. ; schliesslich noch die in " Brehms 
Tierleben" (Leipzig 1911) 6. Band S. 81 erwahnten Exemplare 270 X 190 und 
300 x 200 mm., sowie aus Ibis 1903 die von Dr. Meyer aufgefuhrten Stiicke 
233 X 183 (Otago Museum) und 229 x 127 mm. (Awaluai, Nordinsel). 

Danach scheint es sich um etwa 3 Arten zu handeln : 

Species I : 1,83 bis 2,43 cbdcm Volumen. 

Species II : 4,08 bis 5,10 cbdcm Volumen. 

Species III : 6,27 cbdcm Volumen. 

In diesem Zusammenhang mochte ich eine einzelne hellbraunliche Scherbe 
aus der Mongolei nicht unerwahnt lassen, die ich im Britischen Museum sah, als 
ich die voriibergehend dort befindlichen Cotypen von Psammornis aus Tring 
besichtigte. Flacheninhalt 16,8 qcm. Gewicht 11,62 Gramm. Schalendicke 2,7 
mm. Das ergibt ein spezifisches Gewicht von 2,56. Die Mammillenkopfe sind 
ziemlich gut erhalten. Sehr auffallend ist die Form der Poren, kleine Zickzack- 
Kritzel wie sie mir bei keiner andern unter vielen fossilen Eischalen vorkamen. 
Sie stehen am nachsten den bei Struthio camelus spatzi Stres. zwischen den winzi- 
gen Punkt- und Komma-Poren verstreuten grosseren Kritzelporen, von denen 
sich eine Vorstellung ergibt, wenn man das geschlossene Netzwerk der Poren von 
Struthio australis Gurn. in einige Teile zerschnitten und diese weiter auseinander 
gestellt denkt (s. meine Abbildungen in Ornith. Mon. Berichte Berlin 1927 
Seite 15). Wir finden also den Porentyp eines westafrikanischen Straussen in 
Ostasien wieder. Ich erwahne dies im Hinblick auf Dr. Andrews Bemerkung 
betreffend die umstrittenen indischen Scherben : " it seems curious that it should 
be the Somali Ostrich that most nearly resembles the fossil." 

Interessant ware auch, wenn sich iiber ein angeblich im Innern von 
Celebes(\) in 300 m. Hobe gefundenes Ei mit rundlichem Loch an einem Pol et « as 
Zuverlassiges feststellen liesse, von dem ich leidei nur aus unwissenschaftlicher 
Quelle Kenntnis erhielt. (Bildbeilage der Berliner Morgenzeitung vom 15. III. 
1903, wo es kurz beschrieben und zu Handen seines malayischen Besitzers abge- 
bildet ist. Grosse etwa 18 x 14,5 mm., also wie bei chersonensis ; dunkelbraun 
mit schwarzen Punkten.) 

Zum Schluss mochte ich noch kurz eingehen auf die mir gestellte Frage, ob es 
sich bei dicken glatten fossilen Scherben aus der Mongolei vielleicht um Dino- 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1920. 201 

saurier-Eier handeln konne, im Hinblick auf den Fund von 40 Stuck solcher im , 
mongolischen Becken durch die amerikanische dritte sienforschungs-Expedition 
unter Roy Chapman Andrews im Jalire 1923. Im Brit. Museum befindet sich 
nur ein die Oberfliichengestaltung nicht erkennen lassender Gijssabguss, dem ich 
nichts absehen konnte. Im Ubrigen bin ich angewiesen auf den Bericht von 
Dr. Loeser, welchen dieser mit einer photographischen Abbildung eines der Eier 
nach der ersten Abhandlung von R. Ch. Andrews im " Asia Magazine " bringt in 
der naturwissenschaftlichen Wochenschrift " Umschau," Frankfurt am Main 
1924 S. 732. Durch Ausmessung des 1 : 2,15 verkleinerten Bildes und Um- 
rechnung auf die wirkliche Grosse ergeben sich die Eiachsen zu 200 X 80 mm. ; 

Achsenverhaltnis also k = = 2,50 gegeniiber dem iiussersten Maximum von 

is 

Jc = 1,70 bei noch als normal anzusprechenden langstgestreckten Vogeleiern. 
Volumen = 0-69 cbdcm. Schalcndicke 1,4 — 1,5 mm. Die Rechnung ergibt 
bei Annahme eines spezifischen Gewichtes von 2,5 ein Schalengewicht von g = 
145 Gramm. Dam it ein Eigewicht von G = 780 Gramm und das relative Schal- 
engewicht Rg = 18,6%. Letzteresist also wie bei Strausseneiern. Verwendbar 
fiir die Fragebeantwortung ist zunachst nur die Schalendickc. Da diese gegen- 
iiber den mongolischen Eischerben nur sehr gering ist, spricht sie gegen das Vor- 
liegen von Dinosaurier-Eiern, wenn man bedenkt, dass die bis jetzt bekannten 
Stiicke letzterer vermutlich schon einer grossen Art angehoren, im Hinblick auf 
die Grosse von Eiern z. B. des Nilkrokodils (Volumen = 0,17 cbdcm), des schwarzen 
Kaimans (Volumen = 0,10 cbdcm) und des Breitstirn-Krokodils (Volumen = 
0,07 cbdcm). Ich mochte daher im Gegensatz zu Andrews die in der Nahe 
der Dinosaurier-Eier gefundenen Skelette von nur 3 m. Liinge nicht fiir diejenigen 
der Erzeuger halten. Freilich ist man dabei leider auf blosse Analogieschliisse 
angewiesen, die nie Gewissheit verbiirgen. 

Am meisten und deutlichsten spricht aber die kraftige Oberflachen- 
Gramilation der Dinosaurier-Eier gegen das Vorliegen solcher. Die anscheinend 
halbkugeligen Kornel stehen dicht beieinander und haben in natiirlicher Grosse 
etwa 1 mm. Durchmesser. Das ganz gleiche Bild, nur im verkleinerten Masse, 
zeigen in der Gefangenschaft gelegte Eier von grossen CVa.r-Arten. Eier rezenter 
Reptilien weisen solche Kornelung nicht auf. Die vielen Mongolischen Vogel- 
eischerben Lassen keinc Spur davon erkennen. 

Die exakte Untersuchung fossiler Eischalen miisste auch die Priifung von 
Diinnschlitfen im polari.nerten Lichl umfassen, deren ausserordentlichc Wichtig- 
keit fiir die Erkenntnis und fiir das Vcrstandnis der Schalenstruktur besonders 
in der neuesten Arbeit von Professor W. J. Schmidt-Giessen fiber " I )ie Ka Ikschale 
des Sauropsideneies als geformtes Sekret " betont und erwiesen ist (Zeit- 
schrift fiir Morphologie und Okologie der Tiere, Berlin 1929, Seite 400-420), 
und in welcher auch wichtige Arbeiten ancle rer Autoren auf diesem Gebiete 
besprochen sind. Ob es moglich sein wird, Mammillenkopfe bei dem Dinosaurier 
zu untersuchen, entzieht sich meiner Kenntnis. Jedenfalls ist ihre Gruppierung 
schon bei den verschiedenen Vogeln verschieden. 



202 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



MAASS-TABELLE 



, 1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


s. 


•j. 


10. 


11. 


12. 


Me 
Nr. 


in Sammlung. 


r. 

mm. 


u. 
mm. 


A. 
mm. 


B. 
mm. 


Gramm. 


a. 

mm. 


Vol. 
cbdm. 


ii. 

Kgr. 


Re- 
Pro- 
cent. 


Bemerkungen. 




Aepyornis. 






















1 


London, No. 41848 


777 


670 


280 


213 


2296 


5.5* 


6,65 


8,03 


28,6 




2 


Tring . 


785 


670 


285 


213 


1560 


3,64 


0.7:1 


7,66 


20.4 


zarte Poren- 
atrichel, ct- 
was ab- 
weichend 


3 


St. Oraer 


780 


670 


280 


215 


1500 


3,53 


6,75 


7,65 


19,7 




4 


Hamburg 


780 


680 


2SH 


215 


1580 


3,58 


6,75 


7,70 


20,5 




5 


Dresden 


790 


li7.-. 


285 


215 


1580 


3,66 


0,90 


7,85 


20.1 




6 


Tring . 


791) 


682 


2s.-, 


217 


1645 


3,74 


7,03 


S.I 12 


20,5 




7 


Berlin 


MIS 


678 


296 


215 


14911 


3,35 


7,10 


S.I Hi 


18,6 




8 


Athen . 


Sill 


670 


298 


217 


I3f>0 


3.0.5 


7.32 


8.14 


17.0 




9 


Tring 


sis 


699 


297 


222 


1114.". 


3,53 


7.63 


8,62 


19.1 




1(1 


Dresden 


843 


720 


305 


229 


1850 


3,76 


8,35 


9.40 


19.0 




11 


Hildesheim 


850 


727 


306 


231 


1665 


3,38 


8,55 


9,55 


17.4 




12 


St. Omer 


860 


730 


3H9 


230 


1st III 


3.61 


8,55 


9,63 


is, 7 




13 


Paris 


897 


708 


340 


225 


2i 11 10 


3.65 


9.00 


ln.19 


19.5 




14 


Warmbrunn . 


867 


735 


315 


234 


2:iii(i 


4.5.? 


9,03 


10,45 


22,6 




15 


Tring 


S73 


744 


316 


237 


1935 


3,68 


9.30 


10,46 


1S.O 


runde Poren- 
gruben stark 
ubweichend 


lti 


Tring . 


876 


760 


314 


242 


2112.1 


3,72 


9.01 


10,82 


is. 7 




17 


Hamburg 


892 


756 


324 


242 


IsMll 


3,30 


9,90 


11,00 


16,4 




18 


London, No. 41847 


922 


775 


340 


245 


3346 


5.S5 


10,68 


12,69 


26,4 






Psammornis rothschildi 


Andr. 
















19 


Tring . 


2 Scherben (-(250) 
(ostlich 


(190) 


nach 


3,40 


(4,47) 


) 










Andre 


w 






[ 




Typus 






Touggourt) j (280) 


(210) na 


ch 


3,30 


(6,46) 


r 








Schonv 


setter 






i 






20 


Tring . 
Struthio spec, extinct ? 


mehrere Scherben 
(sudlich Biskra) 






3,20 








Hilgert coll. 


21 


Tring 


mehrere 
Scherben 
{Ouargla, 
El Golea) 


(lso?) 


(150?) 




2,50 








Hartert u. 
Hilgert coll. 


22 


Tring . 
Struthio indicus? 


mehrere 
Scherben 
(sudlich 
Biskra) 


(180?) 


(150?) 




2,50 








Hilgert coll. 


23 


Tring . 


2 Scherben 








b,30 
|2,40 














(Kain 
River) 


(isov) 


(150?) 














Struthio camelus L. 


















24 


Tring . 


zerbroch. Ei aus G 
Assuan (Korosko) 


rab 




1,80 










25 


Tring . 


mehrere Scherben ( 
Meksa, Sahara) 


El 




1,80 








Dr. Hartert 
coll. 


26 


Berlin . 
Struthio chersonensis Br 


mehrere Scherben ( 
andt 


Duargla) 




1,90 








Baron Gevr 
coll. 


27a 


Toronto ? 


(494) 


(452) 


(170) 


(144) 


— 


2,20? 


1,83 


— 


—I 


1 Kalgan, 


6 




(600) 


(455) 


(172) 


(145) 


— 


2.60 


1,90 


— 


—J 


I Peking 


28 


Leningrad 


520 


470 


180 


150 


(505) 


2,60 


2,08 






Typus (Gali- 
nowska, 
Cherson) 


29 


Tring . 


515 


470 


178 


150 


442 


2,30 


2,10 


2,36 


18,7 


Provinz Ho- 
nan, China 


30 


Tring 


516 


478 


176 


152 


440 


2,13 


2,39 


ls,4 


Provinz Ho- 
























nan, China 


31 


London 


eine i inzelneScherb 


e, Mongc 


lei 


2,70 


— 


— 


— 


Abweichende 
























Porengruben 
























wie bei Str. 
























,,,,,>> h'* 
























apatzi Strcs. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

MAASS-TABELLE— continued 



203 



lfde 

Nr. 



32 

33 

34 
35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 
43 



44 

45 

46 
47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 



in Sammlung. 



U. 
mm. 



mehrere Scherben 
eine Scherbe 



A. 
mm. 



B. 

mm. 



Dinornis 
Cat. Eggs 197 

Brit. Museum 
Ibis 1903 229 127 

(Dr. A. B. Mever) 
Tring . . 538 439 198 140 

Cat. Eggs, 184 152 

Brit Museum 
G. D. Rowley 

Cat. Eggs, 

Brit. Museum 
Dunedin, N.Z. 233 

(Otago River) 
G. D. Rowley 

Brehm's Tierleben, 

1911 Seite 81 
Brehm's Tierleben, 300 200 

1911 Seite 81 

Tring . 
Berlin . 
Zum Vergleich : 
Dinosaurus aus der Mongolei (Gobi) ; naeh Abbildung " Umsehau " Frankfurt am Main 1924 Seite 733. 



255 



(ber. 
291) 



(ber.) 
508) 



a. 

mm. 



1,30 
1,40 



1,60 



ip.diibi* 
1,50 
1,50 



Vol. 
cbdm. 



(1,83) 
(1,93) 

2,03 

(2,22) 

2,2(1 
(2,43) 
(4,08) 
(4,16) 
(5,10) 
(6,27) 



a. 

Kgr. 



2,1s 
2,44 

(4,46) 



Bg. 
Pro- 
cent. 



11,7 
11,9 

11,4 



Bemerknngen, 



Tadelfreies Ei 

hi nornia 
cra.ssus " 



Ibis 1903, Dr. 

A. B. Meyer. 

/ >( nurnis 

ingens " 

bei Kaikura, 

1860 gef. 
bei Cromwell 
1867 gefun- 
den 



G'rocodilus niloiicus 

Laur. 
C 'miiiiin nii/er Spix 
Osteoltiemus tetraspis 

( 'ope 
Struthio camelus L. 

Struthio camelus 

syriacua Rothsch. 
Struthio r.timelun 

spatzi Stres. 
Struthio molybdo- 

phancs Reichw. 
Struthio massaicuA 

Ni'iiiti. 
St ruth to a u straits 

Gum. 
Rhea am. rothschildi 

Brab. u. Chubb 
Rhea garleppi Chubb 

Casuarius bennetti 

Gould 
Dromaeus nov. hoi- 

landiae Lath. 
Apteryx mantelli 

Bart'l. 
Apteryx oweni Gould 



480 

235 

200 
185 

457 

405 

421 

460 

447 

428 

362 

329 

368 

355 

325 

284 



251 


200 


189 


90 


155 


76 


135 


72,5 


421 


156,5 


362 


142,3 


385 


145 


408 


162 


389 


159 


389 


148 


296 


134,5 


266 


122,5 


283 


143 


290 


132 


249 


125,1 


217 


109,3 



80 

60 

49,5 
43,0 

134 

115,1 

122,3 

130 

124 

124 

94,0 

84,8 

90 

92,5 

79,3 

69,0 



(ber. 
145) 


1,45 


0,69 
0,17 


10,5 
9,0 


0,60 

0,55 


0,10 

0,07 


290,5 


1,85 


1,47 


193 


1,58 


1,00 


246 


1,85 


1.14 


286 


1,85 


1,43 


258 


1,78 


1,28 


250 


1,83 


1,19 


84,4 


0,93 


0,62 


57,5 


0,81 


0,46 


80 


0,89 


0,61 


75 


0,86 


0,60 


2s, 3 


0,35 


0,41 


18,65 


0,35 


0,27 



0,78 

0,11 
0,08 

1.64 

1,11 
1,25 
1,60 
1,43 
1,34 
0,68 
0,50 
0,66 
0,65 
0,42 
0,28 



18,6 

9,6 
11,2 

17,0 

17,5 

19,7 

17,9 

18,0 

18,6 

12,5 

11,6 

12,2 

11,6 

6,8 

6,7 



2 Eier 
lEi 

Mittel aus 5 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 5 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 7 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 4 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 8 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 4 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 4 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 5 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 2 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 5 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 32 

Eiern 
Mittel aus 18 

Eiern 



"04 Xovitates Zoologkae XXXV. L929. 



UBEK DIE EIEE DER PARADIESVOGEL. 

Von M. SCHONWETTER. 

TNTER diesem Titel brachte Dr. Hartert in Novitates Zoologicae, 
Vol. XVII. Dezember 1910 die erste grossere Abhandlung iiber die 
Eier der Paradiesvogel einschliesslich der sogenannten Laubenvogel mit einer 
prachtvollen Bunttafcl. welche alle bekannten Typen von Paradicsvogeleiorn 
darstellt, und damit eine viel bessere Vorstellung ermoglicht, als die umstandliche 
Beschreibung der Farben und Zeichnungscharaktere durch Worte geben konnte. 

Die damaligen Ausfiihrungen betrafen bereits 34 Arten, davon 23 in Lord 
Rothschilds Museum in Tring, in dem sieh seiner Zeit 42 Eier befanden, und das 
wohl fur immer die reichhaltigste Paradiesvogeleier-Sammlung besitzt. 

Inzwischen hat sich die Zahl der hinsiehtlich ihrer Eier bekannt gewordenen 
Arten und Formen auf 47 vermehrt, von denen sich in Tring heute 34 in 96 
Stricken befinden. 

Nachdem ich diese Eier und noch weitere 52 Stuck anderer Sammlungen 
untersuchen konnte, mochten naelistehende Angaben als eine Ergiinzung zu 
Dr. Harterts Arbeit dienen. 

Der Vollstandigkeit wegen notiere ich aueh Massangaben aus der Literatur, 
erkcnntlich am Fehlen der Schalengewichte, 1 wodurch ilie Anzahl der Stiicke, 
fiir welche nachstehend Masszahlen vorliegen, sich auf 222 bclauft. 

Von einigen gelegentlichen Anmerkungen abgesehen, gebe ich Beschrei- 
bungen der Eier nur bei den in Dr. Hartert's Arbeit nicht enthalttnen Arten, 
deren laufende Nummer durch ein * gekennzeicb.net ist. 

Die durch + verbundenen Angaben betreffen Gelege. 

Die Hartert' sche Einteilung in Fdrbungsgruppen (s. Seite 484 seiner Arbeit) 
mochte ich etwas erweitern und wie folgt vorschlagen : 

I. Aeluroedus-Tvp : Aeluroedus, Scenopoeetes, Amblyomis, Prionodura (ein- 
farbig, Farbton wie bei Ammopcrdix, Galliperdix, Odontophorus und 
manchen Fasanen). 
II. Paradisaea-Typ : Paradimea , Ptilorhis, Seleucides, Astrapia, Diphyllodes, 
Falcinellus (charakteristisch sind die sehr lang wie mit dem Pinsel 
ausgezogene Streifenflecken). 
III. Corviden-Typ (erythritisch) : Phony gammus, Parotia, Drepanornis u. 
Lophoriiui (purpurfarbenerTyp) (Phonygammus, Drepanornis u. Lophorina 
erinnern etwas an Heterocorax capen.si-s ; Parotia an Cissolopha beecheyi 
und melcmooyanea). 

1 Eierbeschreibungen ohne Gewichtsangaben sind unvollstandig. dfim die Eischale ist ein 
Korper, hat also 3 Dimensionen. Man soil die dritte, die Sehalendieke. nicht unberiicksichtigt 
lassen, sie gibt oft wertvollste Aufachlusse z. B. iiber die ArtzugehorigUeit, iiber das \'orliegen kleiner 
Eier grosserer Arten oder umgekehrt. Da die Sehalendieke meist nicht ohne Zerstorung dea Eiea 
direkt fe-ststellbar ist, niinnit man als Ersatz das Seholengewicht, avis dem sich die Dieke bereehnen 
lasst. Seit ich so viele unriehtig bestiinmte Eier selbst in den bedeutendsten Sammlungen und 
von sonst zuverlassigsten Sammlern ganz wesentlich durch Wagung fand, und auch andere interes- 
sante Beziehungen beim Wagen erkannte. mochte ich die GewichtS&ngaben nirgends mehr misscit. 
obgleieh sie fiir manche wisscnschaftliche Zwecke nicht notig sind und in \ieleu Fallen als Kriterien 
sogar versagen. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 



205 



IV. Ralliden-Tvp : Ptilonorhynchiis, Manucodia (Anklange an Porphyrio 

poliocephalns und an Rallus crepitans). 

V. Chlamydera-Typ : Chlam.ydera, Sericulus, Lycocorax (einen ahnlichen 

Fleckentyp-Wirrlinien zeigen z. B. Emberiza cia u. Quiscalus major). 

Alle Masse sind in Millimeter)), die Gewichte in Ghramm angegeben. 

Die Mass-Abweichungen in den nachstehenden Nummern 1, 3, 7, 24, 32 
und 39 von den Angaben in Dr. Harterf s Arbeit beruhen auf Druckfehlern 
der letzteren. 





I. Ptilonorhynchus violaceus (Vieill 


)• 




Tring 


. 43,7 X 28,7 = 1,30 gr. 


47,0 x 30,0 = 


= defekt 


Nehrkorn 


. 42,3 X 29,6 = 1,15 gr. 


41,9 X 29, S = 


= 1,31 gr 


Campbell 


. 44,7 X 30,2 


44,2 x 29,8 




North 


. 44,5 X 29,2 


43,2 x 29,4 




(I. Auflage) 


. 46,2 X 30,0 


44,7 X 29,6 





Tring 

Nehrkorn 

Campbell 

Schonwetter 



i. Aeluroedus viridis (Lath.). 

— (siehe unter 4) 
. 42,2 X 31,6 = 1,23 gr. 42,4 x 31,4 X 1,18 gr. 

. 44,7 X 31,5 + 43,7 X 31,2 + 44,5 X 31,2 

43,0 X 30,5 + 42,6 X 30,0 
. 43,4 X 30,7 = 1,33 gr. 
Einfarbig, hellgelbbraunlich. 



3. Aeluroedus maculosus Rams. 



Tring 

Nehrkorn 
Domeier . 
Campbell 

Mus. Berlin 
Schonwetter 
v. Treskow 



+ 41,0 X 27,8 x 1,00 gr. 



42,6 X 27,8 = 1,00 gr 

38.4 X 28,1 = 1,15 gr. 

39.5 X 28,2 = 1,00 gr, 
40,5 X 26,1 = 0,87 gr, 

40.1 X 26,2 + . 

43.2 x 26,9 + 40,0 X 28,9 + 37,3 X 28,6 
39,2 x 27,2 = 0,90 gr. 

38,2 x 28,0 = 0,96 gr. 

37,0 X 28,0 = 0,96 gr. 



39,7 X 29,2 = 0,99 gr. 
39,0 X 26,9 = 0,84 gr. 
...38,0 X 27,9 



4. Aeluroedus buccoides molestus R. & H. 



Tring . 

Nehrkorn 

Schonwetter 



41.3 X 26,5 = 0,81 gr. 

40.4 X 26,5 = 0,83 gr. 

38.5 X 27,4 = 0,84 gr. 



39,8 x 26,0 = 0,82 gr. 
43,7 X 28,0 = 0,90 gr. 



Tring besitzt ausserdem ein durch Nehrkorn dieser Art zugeschriebenes 
grosseres Stiick : 45,0 X 29,1 = 1,25 gr. Stammt dies wirklich vom Sattelberg, 
diirfte es sich um eine noch nicht beschriebene Art handeln. Vermutlich liegt 
aber ein Irrtum Nehrkorns vor, und dieses Ei wird zu Aeluroedus viridis Lath, 
aus Australien gehoren, worauf Grosse und Gewicht der Eischale hindeutet. 

1 S. Nov. Zool. xxxv, j). 59, 1929, wo die Formen von Ae. buccoides miner auseinandergcsetzt 
wurden. 

14 



206 



NnvITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXV. 



1929. 



*5. Aeluroedus stonei Sharpe. 
Brit. Museum . . . 42,0 X 25,4 S.O. Neu Guinea. 

Dieses von Weiske gesammelte Stiick wircl im Katalog des Museums als zu 
stonei gehorig vermutet. — Schmaloval, leicht glanzend, blass gelbbraunlich. 



"6. Aeluroedus melanocephalus (Ramsay). 



Tring 

Brit. Museum Cat. 



. 42,4 x 30,9 = 1,00 gr. 
Einfarbig blass gelbbraunlich. 
. 45,7 X 31,0 
S.O. New Guinea (Weiske). 



42,2 x 31,0 = 1,03 gr. 



7. Scenopoeetes dentirostris (Rams.). 
Tring .... 43,3 X 27,0 = 1,02 gr. + 41,9 x 28,0 x 1,02 gr. 

44,2 X 28,8 = 1,18 gr. + 43,5 x 29,3 = 1,25 gr. 
Diese beiden Eier haben abnorme Kalkkndtchen auf der Schale ; 

40.4 x 29,4 = 1,09 gr. 43,6 X 28,3 = 1,11 gr. 

Alle einfarbig blassgelbbraunlich. 



Tring 

Nehrkorn 

North 



Nehrkorn 
Campbell 



North 

Brit. Mue 

Masse. 



8. Chlamydera cerviniventris Gould. 

. 40,9 X 28,0 = 1,32 gr. 
. 39,8 X 28,1 x 1,07 gr. 
. 35,6 X 26,2 
Wie Sericulus chrysocephalns gefarbt. 

9. Chlamydera maculata (Gould). 

. 38,0 X 26,7 = 1,06 gr. 39,8 X 25,2 = 1,00 gr. 

. 39,8x26,9 + 38,1x27,2 

41,6 X 26,4 + 41,3 X 26,7 + 39,4 X 26,4 

41,9 x 27,4 + 41,6 X 26,9 

41,5 x 27,4 

. 37,3x27,7 + 38,1x27,7 

38,1 x 28,0 + 38,9 X 27,7 

Cat. gibt kleine 

(S. 15.) . . 36,8 X 26,2 35,3 X 25,4 34,3 X 24,9 



10. Chlamydera nuchalis nuchalis (Jard. & Selby). 
Tring .... 43,5 X 30,3 = 1,51 gr. 42,2 x 30.1 = 1,58 gr. 

42.7 X 28,6 = 1,22 gr. 40,7 X 30,0 = 1,38 gr. 

42.8 X 29,7 = 1,29 gr. 39,0 X 28,2 = 1,15 gr. 
Campbell . . . 45,8 x 30,0 43,0 X 28,2 41,2 x 30,5 



*11. Chlamydera nuchalis oweni Mathews. 
Tring: wie nuchalis nuchalis gefarbt. 

47.ll x 28,9 = 1,39 gr. 42,8 X 29,5 = 1,34 gr. 

41,2 X 28,9 = 1,25 gr. 41,0 X 28,2 = 1,24 gr. 

42,1 x 29,6 = 1,50 gr. 41,3 X 28,0 = 1,29 gr. 

Die Fiirbung ist wie bei Chlamydera nuchalis nuchalis. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 207 

12. Chlamydera nuchalis orientalis Gould. 
Nehrkorn . . . 40,6 x 28,1 = 1,20 gr. 

Domeier .... 40,6 X 28,9 = 1,25 gr. 

Campbell . . . 42,7x28,4 + 39,8x29,5 

38,6 X 28,4 -f 39,1 X 27,9 

13: Chlamydera guttata Gould. 
Campbell . . . 39,6 x 2.5,9 

14. Amblyornis inomatus (Schl.). 

Nehrkorn . . . 40,2 x 28,3 = 1,00 gr. 

Schonwetter . . . 43,4 X 29,2 = 0,98 gr. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. . . 42,0 X 27,9 

Alle 3 von Weiske in S.O. Neu Guinea gesammelt. Diese Eier sind rahm- 
weiss, nicht gelblich, gleichen in der Farbe also denen von Prionodura neivtoniana. 

Ieh vermute, dass auch das im Cat. Brit. Museum als Amblyornis subalaris 
Sharpe beschriebene Ei 40,6 x 28,2 S.O. Neu Guinea (Weiske coll.) rahmfarben, 
hierher gehort. 

15. Sericulus chrysocephalus Lewin. 

Nehrkorn . . . 36,8 X 26,0 = 0,85 gr. 38,5 X 26,8 = 0,90 gr. 

Schonwetter . . . 37,6 X 25,4 = 0,83 gr. 

Campbell. . . . 39,8x27,9 + 39,4x27,2 

39,9 X 26,9 + 38,6 X 26,4 

Farbung und Zeichnung genau wie die Hartert'sche Abbildung No. 17 
(Chlamydera cerviniventris) . 

16. Prionodura newtoniana de Vis. 
Tring .... 34,7 x 25,0 = 0,59 gr. 

17. Parotia sexpennis lawesi Rams. 
Tring .... 33,1 X 24,1 = 0,62 gr. 

18. Lophorina superba minor Rams. 

Tring .... 31,6 X 20,7 = 0,44 gr. 32,1 x 22,5 = 0,35 gr. 

*19. Lophorina latipennis Rothsch. 
N.O. New Guinea (Sattelberg). Wahnes coll. 
Nehrkorn . . . 30,1 X 21,5 = 0,45 gr. 27,6 x 22,2 = 0,42 gr. 

Domeier .... 33,8 X 23,8 = 0,55 gr. 32,2 X 23,3 = 0,48 gr. 

Der Farbungscharakter dieser Eier steht in der Mitte zwischen den beiden 
Hartert'schen Abbildungen No. No. 22 und 23 (Lophorina .superba minor). 

20. Ptilorhis magnifica intercedens Sharpe. 
Tring .... 34,8 X 23,6 = 0,60 gr...+ 34,3 X 23,4 = 0,65 gr. 

34,3 X 23,7 = 0,61 gr. + 33,4 X 23,3 = 0,56 gr. 

34,1 X 24,5 = 0,60 gr. + 34,4 X 24,5 = 0,62 gr. 
Brit. Mus. Cat. . . 35,0 X 24,2 34,3 X 23,6 32,0 X 23,6 

35,6 x 24,4 34,8 X 24,1 



- I1S XuVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 

21. Ptilorhis magnifica alberti Elliot. 
Nehrkorn . . . 32,0 x 23,0 = 0,54 gr. 

Campbell . . 32,3 x 22,8 + 33,0 X 22,6 

32,5 X 24,1 + 34,0 X 24,0 

Brit. Mus. Cat. . . 32,7x22,6 32,0x22,9 

22. Ptilorhis victoriae Gould. 
Tring .... 31,2 X 22,3 = 0,50 gr. + 31,0 X 22,4 = 0,48 gr. 

30.3 :•: 22. s = (i,50 gr. + 31,2 x 23,1 = 0,51 gr. 

Grundfarbe ; rosa. 
34,0 x 23,0 = 0,48 gr. + 32,9 X 23,3 = 0,49 gr. 
Grundfarbe : gelblieh. 
Campbell . . . 31,5 x 23,4 31,5 x 22,6 

Le Souef .... 31,2 x 23,4 

23. Ptilorhis paradisea Sw. 

Campbell . . . 32,8 x 24,9 

32,8 X 23,9 + 35,0 x 23,4 

34.5 X 23,4 + 34,5 X 22,8 

24. Seleucides ignotus (Forst.). 
Tring .... 39.1 X 27,1 = 0,66 gr. 

Zeichnungscharakter wie Paradisaea, aber Farben wie Maniicodia. 

25. Astrapia stephaniae (Finsch & Meyer). 

Ogilvie Grant (Ibis 1912) halt das von Dr. Hartert beschriebene und abge- 
bildete Ei (36,5 X 25,4 Tring) fiir Paradisaea ragaiana Scl. 

Ein in Mr. Brooks Vogelhaus gelegtes sicheres Ei von Astrapia stephaniae 
ist grosser und misst 42,5 x 28,0 mm. 

*26. Astrapia rothschildi Foerster. 

Tring .... 35,3 x 26,2 = 0,63 gr. 

33.6 X 27,8 = 0,65 gr. 
36,8 x 28,2 = 0,72 gr. 

Paradisaea-Charakter, Grundfarbe rotlichgrau bis rdtliehbraun, von Lord 
Rothschild (Ibis 1912) beschrieben. Rawlinson Mts., N.O. Neu Guinea ; Keysser 
coll. 

*27. Diphyllodes magnifica hunsteini Finsch & Meyer. 

Tring .... 30,5 x 23,0 = 0,46 gr. + 30,5 x 24,0 = 0,47 gr. 

32,3 x 22,0 = 0,47 gr. + 32,3 X 22,0 = 0,47 gr. 
32,8 x 23,3 = 0.45 gr. 32,5 x 23,3 = defekt 

von Rawlinson Mts. N.O. Neu Guinea ; gelblichrahmfarbener Grund mit 
hellbraunen und grauen Liingswischern, ahnlich Paradisaea minor. 

28. Paradisaea apoda L. 
Tring .... 38,4 x 25,4 = defekt 35,2 x 25,5 = 0,63 gr. 

Trotz der geringen Masse sicher, da von Aru stammend, wo nur apoda 
yorkommt. 



NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 



209 



Ogilvie Grant (Ibis 1912) rneint, dass das von Dr. A. B. Meyer 1884 in 
Madarasz Zeitschr. f. d. ges. Ornith. beschriebene und abgebildete Ei (35 x 25) 
zu Paradisaea raggiana gehoren werde. Da es von Aru stammt, diirfte es aber 
apoda sein. Das Stiick im Brit. Museum von Wokan 1st (Aru) rnisst 39,1 X 27,4 
und diirfte die normale Grosse darstellen. 



*29. Paradisaea guilelmi Cab. 

N.O. Neu Guinea (Sattelberg) 

Tring 36,3 x 25,0 = 0,62 gr. + 36,3 X 26,0 = 0,62 gr. 

36,2 X 26,3 = 0,70 gr. 38,5 X 27,1 = 0,79 gr. 36,3 X 24,5 = 0,57 gr. 

Von Lord Rothschild (Ibis 1912) beschrieben. Grundfarbe gelblichrahm- 
farben bis rosa, Charakter wie die anderen Paradisaea Eier. Dass die braunroten 
und grauen Langswischer bald diinner, bald dicker sind und hier dichter, dort 
weniger dicht stehen, diirfte nur individuell sein, nicht spezifischer Unterschied. 



3o. Paradisaea raggiana Scl. 
Tring .... 38,2 x 24,4 = 0,63 gr. 

36,5 X 25,4 = — 

(s. Bemerkung unter 25, Astrapia stephaniae. 
Ogilvie Grant (Ibis 1912 Abb.) 35,6 X 23,3 36,1 x 25,9 



37,7 X 25,7 = 0,73 gr. 



31. Paradisaea rudolphi (Finsch). 

Tring .... 38,5 X 24,3 = 0,74 gr. 

Rosa Grundfarbe, aber nicht so leuchtend rot, als wie bei Paradisaea 
augustae-victoriae vorkommend. 



Tring 



Tring 



32. Paradisaea minor minor Shaw. 

. 35,3 X 25,9 = 0,61 gr. 36,5 X 26,2 = 0,68 gr. 

Gelblichrahmfarber Grund (ohne rosa Ton). 



33. Paradisaea minor finschi A. B. Meyer. 

. 36,0 X 26,0 = 0,67 gr. 35,2 X 26,2 



0,68 gr. 



34. Paradisaea augustae-victoriae Cab. 

. 35,5 X 24,7 = 0,63 gr. + 35,2 x 24,5 = 0,62 gr. 

34,2 X 24,9 = 0,67 gr. + 35,9 X 24,7 = 0,67 gr. 

36,7 X 25,8 = 0,73 gr. + 35,1 X 25,9 = 0,71 gr. 

39,0 X 25,8 = 0,72 gr. 

38,2 X 26,3 = 0,69 gr. 
. 35,5 x 24,1 = 0,62 gr. 
. 38,0 X 25,5 1 „„ 

36,5 x 25,o) = °' 7 ° gr - 
. 37,0 X 26,2 = — 
. 34,4 x 24,6 = 0,60 gr. 

Nur einzelne Stiicke haben gelblichen Grund mit olivbrauner Fleckung, die 
meisten aber rosa Grund mit leuchtenden purpurroten Flecken, die immer stark 
langgezogen sind. Ganz prachtvolle Eier. 



Tring 



Nehrkorn 
A. B. Meyer 

Domeier . 
Schonwetter 



+ 36,4 X 25,4 = 0,64 gr. 
36,2 X 24,9 = 0,66 gr. 



210 Noyitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 

35. Manucodia ater ater (Less.). 

Tring .... 41,4 x 27,2 = 0,96 gr. 

N.O. New Guinea, Wahnes coll. 

Nehrkorn . . . 39,0 X 26,4 = 0,72 gr. 37,5 x 26,5 = 0,72 gr. 

Diese von " S.W. Neu Guinea " stammenden Stiicke gehoren vielleicht 
einer anderen Form an. 

Schonwetter . . . 37,0 x 27,2 = ca. 0,80 gr. defekt. 

Sattelberg, N.O. Neu Guinea, Wahnes coll. 

36. Manucodia ater subalter Rothsch. & Hart. 

Tring .... 41,1 X 27,5 = 1,04 gr. 42,4 X 29,4 = 0,88 gr. 

Aru Inseln. Das letzte erinnert an ein Rallenei. 

38,0 X 28,1 = 0,85 gr. 38,0 X 27,1 = 0,81 gr. 

Wie ater und chalybaia gefarbt. Sariba Insel, S.O. Neu Guinea. Hierher 
gehort wohl auch das Stuck im Brit. Museum 39,4 x 25,2 von Weiske in S.O. 
Neu Guinea gesammelt. 

37. Manucodia chalybata orientalis Salvad. 
Tring . 35,2x26,8=0,70 gr. 35,0 X 27,0 =0,69 gr. 36,8 x26,8=0,66 gr. 
Nehrkorn. 35,1 X 28,1 =0,72 gr. 36,3 X 27,4 =0,74 gr. 38,3 X 25,6 =0,70 gr. 
Schonwetter 35,8x26,3=0,71 gr. 34,5 X 27,2 =0,70 gr. 
Huhn . 33,6 X 25,6 =0,66 gr. 36,0 X 25,7 =0,69 gr. 
Zum Teil lang gezogene Flecken. 
Domeier . 35,5 X 25,7 =0,71 gr. 35,4 X 26,5 =0,70 gr. 
v. Treskow 35,1 X 25,2 =0,71 gr. 

Oberflecke rundlich, Unterflecken langsstreifig. 
Alle von Wahnes in N.O. Neu Guinea gesammelt. 

38. Manucodia comrii Scl. 
Tring . . 42,6 X 29,5 = ca. 1,10 gr. (defekt) 45,5 X 30,6 = 1,18 gr. 

*39. Manucodia jobiensis Salvad. 
Brit. Mus. . . . 31,8 x 24,2 \ Pariman, Mimikafluss siidliches 

+ 31,8 x 24, 6i Holland. Neu Guinea. 
Gefarbt wie die iibrigen Manucodia Eier. 

40. Phonygammus jamesi Sharpe. 
Tring .... 37,7 x 24,1 = 0,58 gr. + 35,5 x 23,9 = 0,61 gr. 

Owen Stanley Mts., S.O. Neu Guinea (Anthony coll.). 
Nehrkorn . . . 36,8 x 25,9 = 0,68 gr. 

S.O. Neu Guinea (Weiske coll.). 

Schonwetter . . . 36,8 x 25,5 = 0,67 gr.) „ . 

Gelege. 
Huhn .... 36,6 x 25,6 = 0,67 gr./ 

N.O. Neu Guinea (Wahnes coll.). 

41. Phonygammus gouldi (Gray). 

Le Souef (Ibis, 1898), Cap York. Die Eier iihneln Cliihia bracteata, 
schmutzigweiss oder mit rosa Schimmer ; Langsstreifen iiber die ganze Eiflache 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1920. 211 

verteilt in verschieden braunen unci grauen Tonen. Die Oberflecken sincl am 
stumpfen Ende mehr gehauft. 

35,6 x 26,9 35,8 X 26,4 

Campbell's Abbildung und Beschreibung ist aber ganz anders und entspricht 
den Eiern von Phonygammus jamesi : rosa Grund mit dunleren rosaroten, rotlich- 
braunen u, purpurfarbenen, weniger hervortretenden Flecken 36,0 x 24,7 u. 
36,0 x 24,2 N. Queensland. 

*42. Phony gammus keraudreni (Lesson et Gamier). 

Tring .... 32,4 x 23,1 = 0,54 gr.\ Aru Inseln ; Forster coll., 

33,0 x 23,1 = 0,52 gr./ wie Phonygammus jamesi 
gefarbt. 
*43. Phonygammus ? 
Tring .... 39,1 x 26,8 = 0,80 gr. 

Aru Inseln ; Forster coll. : wie Phonygammus jamesi gefarbt, wegen der 
starken Grossen- und Gewichtsunterschiede wohl einer anderen Art angehorig ? 

44. Lycocorax obiensis Bernst. 

Nehrkom . . . 41,0 X 29,0 = 1,04 gr. 

Einziges bekanntes Stiick. Es hat rosagrauen Grund mit einem Kranz 
von purpurschwarzen Wirrlinien nahe dem stumpfen Pol. Die Oberflache ist 
im Ubrigen ohne Zeichnungen. Insel Obi. 

*45. Falcinellus striatus meyeri Finsch. 

Tring .... 36,4 x 25,5 = 0,59 gr. 

S.O. Neu Guinea. Owen Stanley Mts. ; Anthony coll. hellbraun mit recht 
dunklen bis schwarzbraunen Langswischern. 

*4(i. Drepanornis albertisi cervinicauda Sclater. 
Tring .... 31,5 x 24,1 = 0,54 gr. 

Meliphagiden-Charakter ; keine Langswischer. Rosa Grund mit kleinen 
rotbraunen und grauen Piinktehen ; dazwischen einzelne blasse rotbraune 
grossere Fleckchen (etwa 2x3 mm.). S.O. Neu Guinea, Owen Stanley Mts. 
6000 Fuss. Anthony coll. 

*47. Drepanornis albertisi geisleri A. B. Meyer. 
Tring .... 30,6 X 22,5 = 0,48 gr. 32,1 X 22,0 = 0,44 gr. 

Gesamteindruck : rotlichbraun und grau. Uber und iiber lebhaft rotlich- 
braun und grau gefleekt. Die Flecken sind etwas langsgerichtet, aber nicht nach 
Paradisaea-Art lang ausgezogen. 



212 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



UEBER DEN FORMENKREIS DES CHARADRIUS 
ALEXANDRINUS. 

Von OSCAR NEUMANN. 

jPilE SUDKUSTE des Somalilandes zwischen Obbia und Kismayu wird 
von einem kleinen Regenpfeifer bewohnt, den Erlanger, Journal fiir 
Ornithologie 1905, p. 62 als Charadrius marginatus, Hilgert. Katalog der 
Erlanger-Sammlung p. 447 als Ch. marginatus marginatus, Witherby, Ibis 1905, 
p. 524 als Aegialites marginatus und Zedlitz, Journal fiir Ornithologie 1914 p. <>2i> 
als Charadrius marginatus tenellus auffiihren. Er ist von Harnmerton am 
15. Januar bei Obbia, von Miiller am 6. Miirz bei Mogadishu, von Baron Erlanger 
am 10. bis 13. Juli bei Kismayu gesammelt worden. Der direkte Vergleich aller 
dieser Stiicke, fiir deren Zusendung ich den Leitern der Ornithologischen Ab- 
teilungen des British Museums, des Senckenbergischen und des Stockholmer 
Museums hier nochmals danke, zeigt, dass sie einer noch unbenannten Form 
angehoren, die die Kluft zwischen den Formenkreisen Charadrius alexandrinus 
und Charadrius marginatus vollkommen iiberbriickt. Ich nenne sie 

Charadrius alexandrinus pons nov. subsp. 

Oberseite erheblich blasser als sowohl die unter alexandrinus als auch die 
unter marginatus bisher vereinigten Formen. Unterseite in beiden Geschlechtern — 
jedenfalls vom Januar bis Juli — rein weiss ohne Spur eines rbtlichen oder 
gelblichen Tones. Dem Ch. alexandrinus somit ausserlich ahnlicher, aber ohne jede 
Spur des braunen oder schwarzen bandartigen Fleckens jederseits des Kropfes, 
welchen die bisher zu alexandrinus gerechneten Formen so deutlich zeigen. 
Ein helles (weisses oder hellisabellfarbenes) Nackenband meist nur angedeutet. 
Sehr wenig weiss an der Basis der Aussenfahne der innersten Handschwingen. 

Fl. <J 100-4 mm. $ 98-102 mm. 

Verbreitung : Kiiste des Sud-Somalilandcs, zum mindesten von Obbia bis 
Kismayu. 

Untersucht : 3 <$<$ 6 ?$ (Frankfurt a. M., London, Stockholm). 

Typus im Senckenbergischen Museum in Frankfurt a. M. No. 12223, c? 
Kismayu 11. Juli 1901 v. Erlanger leg. 

v. Erlanger vermutet, dass die Rasse im Juli am Strande von Kismayu 
briitet, da die Stiicke piirchenweise zusammenhielten und die Sexualorgane 
stark entwickelt waren. 

Ich gebe hier nunmehr eine Zusammenstellung der in diesen Formenkreis 
gehorigen Formen mit ihren Brutgebieten und einigen kurzen Bemerkungen. 

l. Ch. a. alexandrinus L. 

Von den Azoren iiber das ganze gemassigte Europa und Asien bis Korea. 
In Afrika von Nord-Marokko bis Aegypten und zum Sinai Naheres siehe bei 
Hartert : Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna pp. 1538-9. 

Ich mochte nach eingehender Untersuchung den Charadrius a. elegans 
Rchw. ex. Lcht., Journal fiir Ornithologie 1904 p. 307, der am Sinai briitet, 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 213 

nicht von der Nominatform trennen. Der Typus hat allerdings einen etwas 
langeren Schnabel als die meisten Europaer. Gleichzeitig mit ihm erlegte 
Stiickc sind aber nicht unterscheidbar vom typischen alexandrinus. Vielleicht 
iat die Sinai-Form jedoch auf dem Riicken etwas dunkler als Nordsee-Stiicke. 

2. Ch. a. spatzi no v. subspec. 

Die in Rio de Oro briitende Form ist heller als alle Europaer. Der Fleck 
jederseits des Kropfes tiefschwarz. 

Fl. $ 103-12 $ 112 mm. 

3 Exemplare verglichen, cf. Ornithologische Monatsberichte 1927 p. 138. 

Typus im Berliner Museum : £ Rio de Oro, 15. April 1926. Paul Spatz leg. 

Wie weit das Brutgebiet dieser Form nach Norden und nach Siiden reicht, 
bleibt festzustellen. 

3. Ch. a. alexandrinus $ a. seebohini. 

An der Nordsomalikiiste briitet eine Form, die in den Fliigelmassen ziemlich 
genau in der Mitte steht zwischen dem echten Ch. a. alexandrinus und dem 
kleineren Ch. a. seebohmi Hart, et Jacks, von Ceylon. 

4. Ch. a. seebohini Hart, et Jacks. 

Ceylon. 

5. Ch. a. dealbatus Seeb. 

Sudchina, Hainan, Formosa und Riu Riu Inseln, nach Hartert bis Japan. 

Japanische Brutstiicke sollten mit solchen von Formosa und Hainan 
verglichen werden. 

Diese Form ist nicht nur langschnabeliger, was Hartert als einzigen Unter- 
schied angiebt, sondern, zum mindesten Formosa Exemplare, von denen mir eine 
grosse Serie vorliegt, ganz erheblich dunkler als die vorgenannten Formen. 
Vielleicht ist die sehr dunkle Formosa Rasse von Ch. a. dealbatus (terra typica : 
Siid China) abzutrennen. 

6. Ch. a. pons Neum. (siehe oben). 
Kiiste des Slid Somalilandes. 

7. Ch. alexandrinus subsp. 
Einen merkwiirdigen Vogel sammelte v. Heuglin bei Djeddah an der Westkiiste 
von Arabien und bildete ihn : " Ornithologie Nordost Afrikas " T. XXXIV 
No. 6 als Charadrius marginatum ab. Der Vogel ist viel blasser als alle zu diesem 
Formenkreis gehorenden Rassen der alten Welt und kann im Farbenton nur mit 
dem Ch. a. tenuirostris Lawr. von den Randlandern des Golfes von Mexico 
(Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Ost Mexico und grosse Antillen) verglichen 
werden. Ihm fehlt audi wie den amerikanischen Formen jede Andeutung cincs 
dunklen Ziigels. Sehr wahrscheinlich eine noch zu benennende Form. 

Ehe ich die bisher unter dem Namen Ch. marginatum marginatum und Ch. m. 
tcnclliis icsp. Ch. m. pallidum bekannten Formen bespreche, muss ich bezuglieh der 
Namen marginatum und pallidus ein paar Vorbemerkungen machen. 

Vieillot beschrieb im Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire naturelle, Tome 



214 Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

XXVII (1818), pp. 138-9, den Charadrius marginatus Geoffr. St. Hilaire mit 
folgenden Worten : " Bandelette noire sur le sinciput ; front, gorge et parties 
posterieures blancs, ailes et queue noires ; lorum, reste de la tete et toutes les 
parties superieures grises ; longueur du petit pluvier a collier (Charadrius 
minor Meyer = Ch. dubixis) ; mais taille plus ramassee." Ein Fundort ist nicht 
angegeben. Diese Beschreibung ist natiirlich sehr ungenau. Sie passt auf 
viele Arten ziemlich gut, airf keine vollkommen. 

Valenciennes bezieht im Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, Tome 42 
(1826), p. 25, den gleichen Namen auf den australischen Ch. ruficapillus Pen., gibt 
aber eine abweichende Beschreibung. 

1827 giebt Wagler im " Systema avium " : Charadrius p. 5 die vorziigliche 
Beschreibung des Vogels im Winterkleid, legt als Vaterland das Cap der Guten 
Hoffnung fest, sagt, dass sich Stiicke im Pariser Museum befinden und verbessert 
den Namen gleichzeitig in Ch. leucopolius. Seine Beschreibung ist aber 
augenscheinlich nach einem $ des Berliner Museums genommen, welches auch 
dort seit altersher als Wagler's Typus bezeichnet gewesen ist. Es stimmt Feder 
fill Feder mit Wagler's Beschreibung iiberein. 

Wenn es auch vielleicht richtiger ware, den unsicheren Namen Vieillots durch 
den sicheren Wagler's zu ersetzen, will ich doch keine Aenderung vornehmen. 

8. Ch. a. marginatus Vieill. 

Siid Afrika im Westen bis nach Damaraland, wo er mit der folgenden Rasse 
zusammentrifft, und vielleicht stellenweise noch neben ihr vorkommt, im Osten 
bis Natal. 

9. Ch. a. palhdus Strickl. et Sclt. 

Nach eingehendstem Vergleich aller Stiicke des Berliner Museums, inclusive 
der Typen von Aegialites mechowi Cab. schliesse ich mich der Ansicht W. L. 
Sclater's in " Systema avium Ethiopicarum " an und belasse diesen Namen der 
westafrikanischen Rasse. Die terra typica ist die ausserste Siidgrenze der Rasse, 
Damaraland, wo sie Anderssen neben Ch. nivifrons Less. (= Ch. marginatus Viell.) 
sammelte. Nach Norden mindestens bis zur Goldkiiste. 

10. Ch. a. tenellus Hartl. 

Vielleicht von Ch. a. pallidus nicht verschieden. Ebenso ist es fraglich, ob 
die Exemplare von Ostafrika nicht vielleicht zur vorigen Rasse gehoren oder 
eine weitere Rasse bilden. 

Madagascar (terra typica) und Ostafrika von der Delagoa Bay bis Manda. 
Wenn auch diese 3 Rassen in erster Linie Vogel des Meeresstrandes sind, so 
kommen sie doch auch gelegentlich im Binnenlande vor. Whyte sammelte 
den Ch. a. tenellus am Nyassa See, Hofmann am Fuss des Uluguru Gebirges, 
v. Stegmann und Stein bei Kissenje am Kivu See. 

11. Ch. a. nivosus Cass. 

Westliches Nordamerika von Californien bis Mexico. 

Von der Nordgrenze seines Verbreitungsgebietes im Winter nach Siiden 
ziehend, angeblich bis nach Chile und zur Magellanstrasse. Ich mochte diese 
Angabe stark bczweifeln. Nordamerikanische Vogel diirften im Winter wohl 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 215 

kaum iiber Centralamerika hinausziehen. Die Peruaner unci Chilenen werden 
wohl alle zu der folgenden Form gehoren. 

12. Ch. a. occidentalis Cab. 

Nur langfliigeliger als Ch. a. nivosus. Fl. 108-113 mm. In der Farbung 
ganz gleich. 

Chile, vermutlich nordlich bis Peru und siidlich bis zur Magellan Strasse 
vorkommend. Wahrscheinlich werden die Stiicke aus dem aussersten Siiden 
wahrend des antarktischen Winters nach nordlicheren Gegenden (Peru) Ziehen. 
Sharpe zieht im Catalogue of Birds vol. XXIV, p. 295, zwei Arten zusammen. 
Schon Berlepsch und Stolzmann vermuteten bei der Beschreibung des, einem 
anderen Formenkreise angehorenden, schwarzfiissigen Charadrius alticola, P.Z.S. 
1902, II, p. 51, dass der "occidentalis" des Cat. Birds alticola ist. Wie mir 
Heir Bannerman auf Befragen freundlichst mitteilt, gehoren die Stiicke von 
Taropaca und Sacaya tatsiichlich zu Ch. alticola, wahrend die 2 Exemplare von 
Laraquete griinfiissige Ch. a. occidentalis sind. Zu dieser Subspecies werden 
wahrscheinlich siimtliche I.e. p. 292 als nivosus aufgef iihrten Exemplare von Peru 
und Chile gehoren. 

13. Ch. a. tenuirostris Lawrence. 

Bei weitem die blasseste aller Ch. alexandrinus Formen (neben dem un- 
benannten Stuck, das v. Heuglin bei Djeddah, Westarabien sammelte). 

Lander um den Golf von Mexico von Florida bis Yucatan. Salzsteppen von 
Kansas und Oklahoma, Bahamas, Cuba. Im Winter (nur im Winter?) bis 
Venezuela und Brasilien. Sharpe im Catalogue of Birds zieht tenuirostris als 
Synonym zu nivosus, hat allerdings nur Stiicke von Corpus Christi, Texas, aus 
dem Verbreitungsgebiet der Rasse gesehen. 

14. Ch. a. ruficapillus Temm. 

Siidliches Australien. 

Sehr stark differenzierte Rasse. In den plastischen Verhaltnissen und der 
allgemeinen Farbenverteilung aber doch mit seiner hier folgenden zweilfelhaften 
Rasse als zum Formenkreis alexandrinus gehorend zu erkennen. 

15. Ch. a. tornienti Mathews. 

Jedenfalls ganz zweifelhafte Rasse. Angeblich blasser, auch etwas grosser 
als die vorige Form. Mir unbekannt. Leider gibt Mathews keine Maasse an. 
Wahrend er in der ersten Beschreibung und in den " Birds of Australia " als 
Verbreitung von Ch. r. ruficapillus Siid-Australien und Ost-Australien bis Queens- 
land, fiir C. r. tormenti Nordwest-Australien angibt, ist im " Syst. Av. Austr." 
fiir Ch. r. rufikapillus einfach siidliches Australien, fiir C. r. tormenti 
nordlichest Australien angegeben. 1 

Ich kann mich nicht entschliessen, Ch. peronii Bp. von Malacca und den 
Sunda-Inseln mit seinem breiten schwarzen Nackenband, seiner oft auch beim 
cj geschlossenen schwarzbraunen Kropfbinde (vielleicht zerfallt die Art in 
mehrere Hassen) und besonders wegen der geschlossenen braunen Kropfbinde 

1 Diese vermeintliche Subspecies ist m. E. ganz ununtersuheidbar, die angublichen Unter- 
schiede beruhen auf individueller Variation. — E. Hartkht. 



216 Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1929. 

des $, welches dem Ch. venustus Fschr. et Rckw. von den Salzsiimphen Ost- 
Afrikas ungemein iihnlich ist, in den Formenkreis a/exa/if/mi-Ms mit aufzunehmen. 
wenngleick eine nake Verwandtsckaft mir festzusteken scheint. 



Charadrius alexandrinus ersckeint als eine sekr plastiscke Art. Die Formen 
des palaarktiseken Gebietes ersckeinen unter einander nur sekr wenig versekieden. 
Die Verbindung zu den tropisck-afrikaniscken Formen (marginatus Gruppe) 
wird durck Ch. a. pons in idealer Weise kergestellt. Das Studium der Rassen 
sckeint mir nock nickt abgescklossen zu sein, am wenigsten in Amerika. 

Die palaarktiseken Formen des Charadrius alexandrinus, besonders Ch. a. 
alexandrinus in der westlicken Halfte seines Verbreitungsgebietes, sckeinen mir 
viel weniger Zugvogel zu sein, als man fruiter annakm. Aus dem ganzen tropiscken 
Airika liegt mir kein Winterstiick vor. Im Tring Museum befinden sick 
(Hartert, in litt.), auek keine Winterstiicke aus den Tropen. Die in Damaraland 
im Winter erlegten angeblicken Exemplare von Ch. a. alexandrinus miissen erneut 
untersuckt werden. Im Roten Meer und an der Nord-Somalikiiste leben Rassen 
als Standvogel. 

Wabrsckeinlick werden sick bei eingebender Untersuckung der Vogel der 
Westkiiste Siid-Amerikas analoge Verkaltnisse ergeben. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1929. 217 



UEBER DIE FORMENKREISE VON PYRRHURA PERL AT A 
UND PYRRHURA LEUCOTIS. 

Von OSCAR NEUMANN. 

IN meiner Arbeit: Die Formen von Pyrrhura perlata Spix (Verh. Orn. Ges. 
Bayern, 17 (1927), p. 428-31) habe ich eine "Arfnicht erwalmt,die anscheinend 
gleicbialls in den Formenkreis P. perlata einzureihen ist, namlich Pyrrhura 
molinae Massena et Souance. P. molinae hat eine vollkommen gleiche Struktur der 
Kehl- und Brustfedern und eine sehr ahnliche Farbverteilung wie P. perlata. Sie 
untcrscheidet sich von den anderen vier perlata-Formen in erster Linie dureh 
bedeutendere Grosse,helleres Griin, helleres Blau der Schwingenund dadnrch, dass 
die Schwanzfedern auch von unten kupferrot sind. Sie vertritt die perlata- 
Formen geographisch. 

F. Todd hat (Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. vol. XXVIII (1915) p. 82) die Rasse 
vom Rio Bermejo, Nord Argentinien, als P. m. australis abgetrennt, weil sie 
tieferes Griin, dunkleren Kopf und Nacken, so gut wie kein Blau an den Unter- 
sehwanzdeeken und einen grosseren roten Brustfleck haben soil. 

Ein Vergleich von 4 Exemplaren von S. Cruz und Guarajos, Bolivien, mit 
3 Exemplaren von Jujui, Nordwest-Argentinien, zeigt, dass einige dieser Charak- 
tere recht variabel sind, wenn auch tatsachlich die Oberseite der Bolivianer ein 
wenig heller und gelber ist als die der Jujui-Exemplare, und meist auch bei 
letzteren die Ausdehnung des roten Brustflecks etwas grosser ist. Ein Kemi- 
zeichen scheint aber konstant zu sein, namlich die bei den Bolivianern deutlich 
blaulich verwaschenen, bei den Nordwestargentiniern fast oder ganz griinen 
Unterschwanzdecken. Aus diesem Grunde ist Todd's Subspeciesname anzuer- 
kennen. Ein von Herrmann bei Villa Montes am Pilcomajo in Siidost Bolivien 
gesammeltes $ gehort noch zu P. perlata australis. 

Etwas verschieden sind vielleicht die 2 Rassen, welche Matto Grosse 
bewohnen. 3 von Natterer am 3. Juli 1826 bei Areias nahe Registo do Jaurii 
erlegte Exemplare des Wiener Museums (eines der Stiicke tragt das urspriingliche 
Etikett Natterers) (cf. Schlegel, Museum Pays Bas vol. Ill (Psittaci) (1864) 
p. 26, und Pelzeln, Ornith. Brasil 1871 p. 259) haben die Kehl- und Brustpartie 
etwas rotlich uberflogen. Sonst gleichen sie der Form von Bolivien. Sie 
miissen den Namen : 

Pyrrhura perlata phoenicura Schleg. 
(',' Gonurus pfioe.nicurus Natt." Schleg. I.e.) tragen. Diese Form bildet Miranda 
Ribeiro, Revista Museu Paulista vol. 12 II (1920) Est. VIII. fig. 2 als Rasse von 
Nord Matto Grosso ab. In fig. 1. ist die Rasse von Slid Matto Grosso abgebildet. 
Die Abbildung zeigt ein Exemplar, bei dem Wangen und Mundwinkel grau wie 
die Kehle und nicht griin sind. Diese Rasse soil so gut wie kein Rot auf dem 
Bauch haben. Es ist also sicher nicht P. p. australis Todd. 

Ich habe in einer Fussnote der gleichen Arbeit gesagt, dass vielleicht Pyrrh vara 
pfrimeri Miranda Ribeiro — Revista Museu Paulista 1920 II. p. 30 von Santa Maria 
de Taguatinga im Staate Goyaz, nicht Goyaz und Sante Maria de Taguatinga, 
wie ich I.e. irrtumlich citierte — in den Formenkreis Pyrrhura perlata gehoren 



21S Novitates Zoologicae XXXV, 1929. 

konne. Ich schloss das, ohne mir die Beschreibung naher durchzulesen, aus 
geographischen Griinden, beging aber mit dieser Bemerkung einen grossen Irrtuni. 
Herr Dr. Rudolf Pfrimer, der zur Zeit in Europa weilt, war so freundlich, mir 
ein Exemplar dieser sonst nur im Museum in Rio de Janeiro vertretenen Art 
zukommen zu Lassen, und es zeigte sich, dass P. pfrimeri mit P. perlata nichts 
zu tun hat, sondern eine hoch differenzierte Form des Formenkreises Pyrrhura 
leucotis ist. 

Da die Revista Museu Paulista eine nicht zu sehr verbreitete Zeitschrift ist 
und portugiesisch nicht von jedermann fliessend gelesen wild, gebe icli hier eine 
ausfiihrliche Beschreibung des mir vorliegenden Exemplars : 

Schmaler Stirnstreif, Ziigel und Kopfseiten duster und stumpf kirschrot. 
Das Auge ist oben noch von einem kirschroten Strich umsaumt. Ebenso schliesst 
diese Farbe den nackten Kinnfleck noch gerade ein. Kopfplatte matt und 
stumpf hellblau. Das Hellblau umzieht die kirschroten Kopfseiten bis auf die 
Kehle, deren Federn mattgraue Saume haben, Federn der Oberbrust griin mit 
blasseren gelblichen Saumen, Interscapularregion, Ober- und Unterfliigeldecken, 
Aussenfahnen der Armschwingen, iibrige Unterseite mit Unterschwanzdecken 
dunkel grasgriin. Handschwingen auf der Aussenfahne und dem grossten Teil 
der Innenfahne blau, die Spitzen der Schwingen fein schwarzlich eingesaumt, 
Riicken und Biirzel heller kirschrot. Ein dunkelkirschroter Langsfleck auf der 
Bauchmitte. Mittlere Schwanzfedern im Basalteil, insbesondere auf der Aussen- 
fahne, grasgriin, im Caudalteil heller kirschrot, die ausseren Schwanzfedern ganz 
kirschrot. Unterseite des Schwanzes einfarbig triib kirschrot (kupferrot). Ein 
hellroter Fleck am Fliigelbug. 

Die Kehl- und Brustfedern sind unten horizontal, oder ganz leicht ge- 
schwxmgen und nicht zugespitzt wie bei P. picta. 

Von P. leucotis leucotis unterscheidet sich pfrimeri durch die ganz roten 
Kopfseiten ohne weissen Ohrfleck und durch hellblaue Kopfplatte, Nacken und 

Kehle. 

Noch naher steht P. 1. pfrimeri der P. I. emma von Nord-Venezuela, unter- 
scheidet sich von ihr aber auch durch die scharf nach aussen abgegrenzten tief 
kirschroten Kopfseiten, das bis in den Nacken reichende und die Kopfseiten bis 
zur Kehle umziehende Blau des Oberkopfes, welches nicht wie bei emma 
durch eine graue Mittelzone unterbrochen ist, die blaue, nicht graue Basis der 
Kehlfedern und den Mangel jeden gelben Tones auf der Brust. 

Der Formenkreis Pyrrhura picta unterscheidet sich von dem Formenkreis 
P. leucotis, dem er in der Farbenverteilung, insbesondere durch den dunkel 
kirschroten Riicken und Biirzel gleicht, in erster Linie durch die Form der Kehl- 
und Brustfedern, die nicht wie bei P. perlata und P. leucotis unten horizontal oder 
sanft geschwungen, sondern stumpf zugespitzt (tropfenformig) sind. 

VERBEITUNGSGEBIETE DER DREI FORMENKREISE. 
I. Pyrrhura perlata. 
A. perlata Gruppe (Schwanz oberseits kupferrot, unterseits schwarzlich) : 

1. P. p. perlata Spix. Unbekannt. 

2. P. p- lepida Wagl. Para nach Westen bis Guimaraes, nach Siukn und 

Osten bis Rio Capin, Brasilien. 

3. P. p. coerulescens Neum. Miritiba (Brasilien). 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 219 

4. P. p. anery/hra Neum. Linkes Ufer des unteren Tocantins, Brasilien. 

5. P. p. rhodogaster Scl. Rio Madeira, Brasilien. 

B. molinae Gruppe (Schwanz oberseits und unterseits rot) : 

6. P. p. molinae Massena nnd Souance. Tieflander Ost-Boliviens. 

7. P. p. australis Todd. Nordwest Argentinien (Jujui) und ausserster 
Siidosten Boliviens (Rio Pilcomayo und Rio Bermejo). 

8. P. p. phoenicura Schleg. N6rdlicb.es Matto Grosso, Brasilien. 

9. P. p. subsp. (cf. Rivista Museu Paulista Vol. 12 II, Est VIII, fig. 1). 

Siidliches Matto Grosso, Brasilien, 

II. Pyrrhura leucotis. 

1 . P. I. leucotis Kuhl. Brasilianisches Kiistengebiet von Bahia bis Rio de 

Janeiro. 

2. P. I. griseipeclus Salvad. Ceara, Brasilien. 

3. P. I. pfrimeri Miranda Ribeiro. Santa Maria de Taguatinga in Goyaz, 

Brasilien. 

4. P. 1. emma Salvad. Kiistengebiet von Venezuela von Sucre bis Caracas. 

III. Pyrrhura picta. 

1. P. p. picta Mull. Hollandisch und Britisch Guyana. 

2. P. p. amazona Helhn. Unteres u. mittleres Amazonas Gebiet. 

3. P. p. luciani Deville. Oberes Amazonas Gebiet (Westlichstes Brasilien 

und Ost Peru). 



220 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1929. 



LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN MOROCCO IN 1927 
BY ERNST HARTERT AND FREDERICK YOUNG. 

By LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D. 

r"\R. HARTERT'S first collecting station was at Ouldjet-es-Soltan on the 
Upper Oued Beth, where, however, butterflies were not very numerous 
about the middle of May. He then went south to Marrakesch, where Euchloe 
charlonia, a rare species generally in Morocco, were flying, and where Polyom- 
matus phoebus was quite common in one place. He then returned northwards 
to El Hadjeb on the west slopes of the Middle Atlas, and on 2 June once more 
to Marrakesch. From there a trip was made to the Great Atlas and a stay in the 
Valley of the R'dat and collections were made at elevations of about 1,700 m., 
Dr. Hartert ascending as far as the Tizi NTichka Pass, 2,450 m. high, not far 
from Telouet, where the pacha of the Glaoui has a large castle. Moths could 
be collected with the aid of an acetylene lamp, at El Hadjeb only, where a new 
form of Phragmatobia fuliginosa was discovered. A short stay was also made at 
Asni in the Great Atlas, where several French entomologists had already collected 
before. 

l. Papilio machaon maxima Verity. 

Papilio machaon maxima Verity, Rhopalocera Palaearctica, p. 296, pi. lii, f. 2 (1911) (gen. vern.) 

(Tangier). 
Papilio machaon maxima gen. aest, angnlata Verity, Rhopalocera Palaearctica, p. 296, pi. lx, f. 14 

(1911) (Tangier). 

1 $ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft,, N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927 ; 1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

Both these $? are very worn and broken, but clearly exhibit the characters 
of the subspecies, especially the heavy dark markings. They are of the Spring 
generation. 

2. Papilio podalirius lotteri Aust. 

Papilio podalirius ah. lolleri Austaut. Petites Xouvclb a Enlomologiques, vol. ii, p. 293 (p. 304 nom. 

corr. latleri) (15 Jan. 1879) (Sidi-Bel-Abbes) (gen. aest,). 
Papilio feisthamdi form, maura Verity (gen. vern. ex Africa), Rhojmloccra Palaearctica, p. 293, pi. i. 

ff. 7, 8 (Jan. 1911) (Lanibeze). 

1 cJ, 1 $ Marrakesch, 4 and 6 June 1927; \$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of 
Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

Although these 3 examples are from very late dates, they are undoubtedly 
of the Spring generation, maura, and not of the Summer one, lolleri. 



3. Aporia crataegi mauretanica O berth. 

Aporia crataegi mauretanica Oberthiir, Html. Lipid. Comp. fasc. iii. p. 12t) (1909) (Algeria). 
1 <J Above Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 17 May 1927. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 221 

4. Ganoris brassicae brassicae (Linn.). 

1'npilio brassicae Linnaeus, Syst. Xat. i, p. 467, No. 58 (1758) (Sweden). 

1 (J, 2 9$ Marrakesch, 3-5 June 1927. 

In Mr. Meade- Waldo's article on his collections in Morocco (Trans. Entom. 
Soc. Lond. 1905, p. 371) the late H. J. Elwes says that some of Mr. Meade-Waldo's 
specimens resembled 0. brassicae ivollastoni (Butl.) from Madeira ; this very loose 
statement could not have been made, if Mr. Elwes had not persistently ignored 
modern methods of treatment of local races. The two Atlantic races, cheiranthi 
from the Canary Islands and ivollastoni from Madeira, have the 2 black spots of 
the forewing in the $ joined into a single large patch ; whereas the N.W. African 
examples, as well as individuals of all other brassicae forms in which the 2 spots 
are joined, are casual sporadic aberrations, occurring very rarely among typical 
examples with the spots separate. 

5. Ganoris rapae mauretanica (Verity). 

Pieris rapae mauretanica Verity, Rhopalocera Palaearclica, p. 155, pi. xxxiii, ff. 43, 44 (gen. aest.) ; 

pi. xxxiv, ff. 15, 16 (gen. vern. lencoteroides Rothsch.) (1908) (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) (ff. and 

text Algeria) (xxxiv, 15, 16 as leucotera Stef.l. 
Pieris rapae mauretanicxt gen. vern. leucoteroides Rothsch. Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. du Maroc, vol. v, 

nos. 7 and 8, p. 129 (July 1925) (Rabat, Morocco). 

2 <?<?, 2 ?$ Asni, Great Atlas S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 1 <J Tizi 
N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 13 kilometres W. of Telouet, 2,450 m. = 7,961 ft., 11 June 
1927 ; 5 $$ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft. N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927 ; 1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927 ; 23 cJ^J, 19 ?$ 
Marrakesch, 4 May-5 June 1927. 

These are all gen. aest. mauretanica, but vary much as regards size and size 
of spots, some having the spots and the black of the apex almost absent. (Largest 
cJ 58 mm., smallest 36 mm. in expanse ; large $ 58 mm., smallest 35 mm. in 
expanse.) 

These " whites " were very common in gardens and plantations just outside 
Marrakesch. — E. H. 

6. Leucochloe daplidice albidice (Oberth.). 

Pieris daplidice var. albidice Oberthiir, Stud, d Entom. fasc. vi, p. 47 (1881) (Algerie, Prov. Constantine 
Sud). 

3 <$<$, 1 ? Valley of R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, Morocco, 
7-11 June 1927 ; 2 $$ 4 $? Marrakesch, 4-13 June 1927. 

All these are as heavily marked on the hind wings below as any European 
daplidice daplidice, but the green is strongly suffused with yellow, showing that 
they must be treated as belonging to Oberthiir's albidice. 

7. Euchloe charlonia (Donzel). 

Anlhocharis charlonia Donzel, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. xi, p. 197, pi. viii, f. 1 (1842) (Emsilah, 
Algeria). 

8 $$, 2 °$ Marrakesch, 7-9 May-5 June 1927. 

It is very interesting to find this beautiful little butterfly ranging so far to 
the west. Riggenbach sent me specimens from near Mogador. 

I saw several flying between Fez and Taza on 27 April. — E. H. 
15 



222 Xovitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

8. Euchloe ausonia crameri Butl. 

Euchloc crameri Butler, Entom. Month. Mag. vol. v. p. 271, no. 2 (1S69) (South Europe ! .'I (gen. 

vern.). 
Euchloe ausonia crameri gen. Beet, bltUeri Rothschild. Nov. Zool. vol. xxiv. p. 82 (1917) (Spain and 

N. Africa) (gen. aest.). 

3 <J<J, 2 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas. 23-20 May 1027 ; 3 ££ 
Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 1 £ Fez, 28 April 1927 ; 
4 3J, 4 $$ Marrakesch, 7-9 May-13 June 1927. 

All these 17 specimens belong to the gen. aest. butleri, but 1 from Marrakesch 
and 1 from El Hadjeb are somewhat intermediate between the Spring and 
Summer broods. 1 ^ El Hadjeb has the black markings on the forewings above 
replaced by sooty grey, and 1 $ from Marrakesch has the black cellular stigma 
on the forewings above of gigantic size. 

9. Euchloe belemia (Esp.). 

r<ijiilio belemia Esper. Die Schmett. vol. i. pt. 2. t. 110, f. 2 (1792) (?) (gen. vern.). 
I'apUio glance Hubner. Europ. Schmett. i, ft. 546, 547 (1798-1803) (?). 

2 c?c?, 1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927 ; 1 -J 
Fez, 28 April 1927 ; 3 <$$, 6 ?$ Marrakesch, 7-9 May-6 June 1927. 

All these 13 specimens belong to the gen. aest. glance, though some of them 
appear somewhat intermediate between th? Spring and Summer broods. 

10. Colias electo croceus (Geoff.). 

Papilio croceus Geoffrey, in Fourcroy's Entom. Par. vol. ii, p. 250 (1785) (Paris). 

1 <J Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 12 kilometres W. of Telouet, 2,450 m. = 
7,879 ft., 11 June 1927; 1 <$, 1 $ Asni, Great Atlas S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 
June 1927 ; 2 $? (1 ab. helice) Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of 
Telouet, 7-11 June 1027 ; 1 $ (ab. helice) Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 
15-16 May 1927 ; 3 £6 Marrakesch, 6 June 1927 ; 1 £, 1 $ Rabat, 20 May 1027. 

This series of 6 (JfJ and 6 $$ is extraordinarily variable both as regards 
colour and size. 1 cj, 1 ? are almost as dark fiery orange as the oriental Cohan 
field ii, 2 (J (J, 2 $$ are of the normal yellowish orange colour, while the 3 £ <$, 1 $ 
dwarf examples are much paler, more golden yellow ; the 1 $ ab. helice has a 
pure white ground-colour, while the other has a darker cream buff ground-colour 
(but not so dark as ab. helicina Oberth.). 

The largest male expands 61 mm., the smallest 39 mm. ; the largest $ 
expands 66 mm., the smallest 44 mm. 

11. Gonepteryx cleopatra Cleopatra (Linn.). 

Papilio cleopatra Linnaeus Sysl. Xaf. edit. xii. pt. 2. p. 765. no. 105 (1767) (Barbaria). 

4 (JcJ Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1027 ; 3 o o Ouldjet- 
es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 3 ?? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of 
Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

12. Pyrameis atalanta (Linn.). 

Papilin aUUanta Linnaeus, N;/s7. Xat. edit. x. vol. i, pt. ii, p. 478, no. 119 (1758) (Sweden). 

1 cj, 1 $ Marrakesch, 6 and 13 June 1927. 

This pair of specimens are small and somewhat dull coloured, as most of the 
N.W. African examples are. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 223 

P. aktlanta is in Morocco only seen in gardens, at Rabat. Marrakesch, etc. — 
E. H. 

13. Pyrameis cardui cardui (Linn.). 

Papilio cardui Linnaeus, Syst. Xal. edit, x, pt. i, p. 475, no. 107 (1758) (Europe, Africa). 

1 $ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927 ; 1 (J Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1027. 
The fresh colours of this pair show they had only just emerged. 

14. Argynnis lathonia (Linn.). 

Papilio lathonia Linnaeus Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 481, no. 141 (1758) (Europe). 

7 $3 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927. 

15. Melitaea desfontainii gibrati Oberth. 

Melitaea desfontainii var. gibrati Oberthiir. Etud. Entom. Camp. fasc. xix, pp. 4(3 and 47. pi. dxxxii, 
ff. 418-422 (1922) (Massif de Zehroun). 

1 9 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

This solitary $ in poor condition shows that at El Hadjeb, at least, the 
season for this Melitaea had come to an end. 

16. Melitaea phoebe punica Oberth. 

Melitaea phoehe var. punica Oberthiir, l<!tud. Entom. fasc. i, p. 25, pi. i, f. 3 (1876) (Lambeze). 

2 (JcJ Asni, Great Atlas S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 4 £<$, 2 $$ 
Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927. 

The two Asni q J are considerably smaller and paler than the $ J from the 
R'dat Valley. 

17. Melitaea didyma deserticola Oberth. 

Melitaea didyma ab. deserticola Oberthiir, Etud. Entom. fasc. i, p. 25, pi. iii, f. 1 (1876) (Biskra). 

2 S3 Asni, Great Atlas S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 2 $$, 1 $ 
Areg, Oued R'dat, Great Atlas, 1,470 m. = 4,778 ft., 12 June 1927 ; 2 S<S, 1 ? 
Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 
1 <$ Marrakesch, 7-9 June 1927. 

These 9 examples are somewhat darker than most of the large series in the 
Tring Museum from the Biskra district and farther south, but I cannot separate 
them as one or two of the Algerian specimens agree perfectly. 

18. Satyrus (Eumenis) semele algirica Oberth. 

Satyrus semele var. algirica Oberthiir, ]<}tud. Entom. fasc. i, p. 27 (1876) (Daya, etc.). 

2 <J<J Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927. 

Two very highly coloured examples, but they can be matched with Algerian 
specimens. 

19. Satyrus (Eumenis) atlantis Aust. 

Satyrus atlantis Austaut, Int. Entom. Zeitschr. Ghtben. vol. xix, p. 29 (1905) (Tsauritz Entaaganz, 
Meade-Waldo). 

1 cJ Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2,450 m. = 7,963 ft.. 12 kilometres W. of 
Telouet, 11 June 1927 ; 1 $ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of 
Telouet, 7-11 June 1927. 



224 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

Two very fine examples of this exceedingly rare insect. The Tring Museum 
hadonly2 ^(J taken by Vaucher at the Glaoui's at Telouet and 1<^, 1 ? from Meade- 
Waldo's original Tsauritz Entsaganz series. Dr. Hartert's $ is much lai'ger 
than Mr. Meade-Waldo's and much less like the o o ; it is much paler and more 
resembles the $ of pelopea. The only other examples of this interesting insect 
which have been recorded are 4 taken in 1920 and 1 in 1921 in the Middle Atlas 
by Harold Powell, and 1 rj by M. Alluaud on the Haute Reraza in June 1021. 
These 6 examples and 2 <$<$, 1 $ collected by Vaucher at Glaoui Telouet are in 
the British Museum ex Oberthiir Collection. 

These two were the only specimens seen ; they would be more numerous later 
in the year. — E. H. 

20. Melanargia galathea meade-waldoi Rothsch. 

Melanargia galathea meade-waldoi Rothschild, Xov. Zool. vol. xxiv, p. 110, no. 54a (1917) (Tama- 
routh, Morocco). 

1 cJ, 2 ?$ Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 11 £<$, 
2 $? Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2,450 m. = 7,963 ft., 12 kilometres W. of 
Telouet, 11 June 1927 ; 12 <?<?, 7 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 
23-29 May 1927. 

The examples from the Middle Atlas are decidedly bigger than those from the 
Great Atlas, q expanse 72 mm. as against 58 mm. and $ 82 mm. as against 68 mm. 
The whole series of 35 examples shows the character of the subspecies quite 
clearly. 1 $ El Hadjeb has the black of the left hind wing replaced by grey. 



[Melanargia ines hies (Hoffm.) 

In my article (Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, vol. v, nos. 7-8, Dec. 1925) 
on the collection of Dr. Hartert made 1925 in Morocco, 1 stated that there were 
3 forms of M . ines in Morocco and I put the specimen from the Tarseft Pass down 
as i. jahandiezi, but on receipt of the present series, the Tarseft example appears 
somewhat intermediate between that form and i. ines.] 

21. Melanargia ines jahandiezi Oberth. 

Melanargia ines var. jahandiezi Oberthiir, Stud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xix, 1" partie, pp. 80, 81, 
pi. ilxlv, t. 4594. 

23 <?<?, 9 $$ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 
June 1927. 

This series is apparently jahandiezi, though not quite so dark as the type 
and not nearly as dark as the Cyrenaican ines sublvtescens Turati. 

22. Pararge aegeria meone (Cram.). 
Papilio meant Cramer, /'up. Exot. yol. iv. pt. xxvi. p. 51, pi. cccxiv, ff. E.F. (1780) (Alger). 

1 cJ, 3 $$ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 
June 1927: 1 (J Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927. 

The o from Ouldjet-es-Soltan is much darker than the one from the R'dat 
Valley. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 225 

23. Pararge megera megera (Linn.). 

Papilio megera Linnaeus, Sysl. Nat, edit, xii, pt. ii, p. 771, no. 142 (1767) (Austria, Dania). 

1 t?, 2 99 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 2 S3, 1 $ 
Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 
1 <J Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 1 ^Marrakesch, 7-9 
May 1927 ; 1 9 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 2:5-29 May 1927. 

24. Epinephele lycaon mauretanica (Oberth.). 

Satyrus eudora var. mauretanica Oberthiir, Elud. Entom. vi, p. 58 (1881) (.Sebdou, Lainbeze). 

2 S3 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 2 S3 Valley 
of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 1 S El 
Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

25. Epinephele jurtina hispulla (Hiibn.) 

Papilio hispulla Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmelt. vol. i. Phal. i, Fam. 6, no. 25. p. 27, Taf. 116, ff. 593- 
596 (1805) (Portugal). 

4 S3, 3 99 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 1 3 Tizi 
N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2,450 m. = 7,963 ft., 12 kilometres W. of Telouet, 
11 June 1927 ; 1 ? Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 
7-11 June 1927 ; 2 S3 Marrakesch, 7-9 May 1927 ; 3 S3, 2 ?? El Hadjeb, 
W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

26. Epinephile pasiphae pasiphae (Esp.). 

Papilio pasiphae Espcr, Schmelt. vol. i, pt. ii, Forts, p. 99, no. 135, pi. lxvii (oont. xvii), f. 4 (1777 
(Envs. de Paris). 

24 (J (J, 6 99 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 
7-11 June 1927; 2 S3, 1 9 Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 
1927 ; 3 9$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

All these 36 examples have the transverse band on the hind wings below 
yellowish cream colour and are thus quite typical. 

27. Epinephele ida ida (Esper.). 

Papilio ida Esper. Schmelt. vol. i, pt. ii. Forts, p. 184, no. 176, pi. cxxii (eont. xli) (1777) (Pyrenees). 

17 S3, 2 99 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 15 S3 
Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 
2 S3 Rabat, 11-20 May 1927. 

28. Coenonympha pamphilus lyllus (Esp.) 

Papilio lyllus Esper, Schmelt. vol. i, pt. ii. Forts, pi. cxxii (cont. 77), ff. 1, 2 (1777) (?) 

1 3 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 2 99 Ouldjet-es- 
Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927. 

1 3, 1 9 are typical lyllus with the hind wings below heavily washed 
with yellow, but the 2nd 9 has the underside almost as grey as in typical 
pamphilus. 



220 NoVITATES ZOOLOGH'AE XXXV. 1929. 

29. Chrysophanus phlaeas (Linn.). 

Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. edit. all. p. 285 (1761) (Sweden). 

3 <J <$, 2 99 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 1 $, 1 $ 
Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2,450 m. = 7,963 ft,. 12 kilometres W. of Telouet, 
11 June 1927 ; 8 ^q, 1 9 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of 
Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 1 <J, 1 9 Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 
May 1927 ; 15 $<$, 7 99 Marrakesch, 7-9 May 1927 ; 1 $, 3 99 El Hadjeb, 
W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927 ; 1 $ Rabat, 20 May 1927. 

The larger number (33) of this series of 45 examples belong to the blackish 
form usually associated with the Summer brood, some being very extreme, and 
2 absolute dwarfs (largest dark $ expands 39 mm., and the smallest 26 mm.). 
Among the remaining 12 more brilliantly coloured specimens is one 9 ab. 
coeruleo punctata. 

30. Chrysophanus phoebus Blach. 

Chrysophanus phoebus Blachier, Bull. Soc. Enlom. France, 1905, p. 212 (Moroccan Atlas, Ourika). 

101 3$, 17 $$ Marrakesch, 7-9 May and 3-6 June 1927 (1 J was destroyed) ; 
1 $ Asni, Great Atlas, S.W. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927. 

This wonderful series shows some variation in the number and size of the 
black spots and also in the ground colour, some examples being of a more golden 
less fiery orange. 

The specimen from Asni is the only one we saw in the Atlas, while they were 
common in one place near Marrakesch. — E. H. 

31. Lampides (Polyommatus) boeticus (Linn.) 

Papilio boelicus Linnaeus, Sjst. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, pt. 2, p. 789, no. 226 ( 1767) (Barbaria = Algeria). 

1 $ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927 ; 3 (J<J, 1 $ Marrakesch, 3-13 June 1927. 

32. Tarucus theophrastus (Fabr.). 

Hesperia theophrastus Fabricius, Enlom. >Syst. vol. iii, pt. 1, p. 281, no. 82 (1783) (Morocco). 

3 cJ(J Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 8 £3, 38 99 
Marrakesch, 7-9 May-3-6 June 1927. 

As far as it is possible to tell without dissection of the genitalia, the whole 
of these 49 specimens are T. theophrastus and the Tring Museum only possesses 
T. mediterraneae from Western Morocco (Zoudj-el-Beghal) where the country is 
more desert. It may, however, yet be proved when we get larger series from all 
over Morocco that mediterraneae turns up in more districts than the extreme west. 

33. Lycaena icarus celina Aust. 

Lycaena celina Austaut, Pel. Nouv. Enlom. vol. ii, p. 293, no. 212 (1879) (Sidi-Bel-Abbes). 

10 g<3, 1 ? Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 1 $, 1 9 
Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2.450 m. = 7,963 ft., 12 kilometres W. of Telouet, 
11 June 1927 ; 3 99 Valley of the R'dat 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 
7-11 June 1927 ; 4 tJ<J Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 
5 (J^, 2 99 Marrakesch, 7-9 May-4-13 June 1927. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 227 

34. Lycaena astrarche calida (Bell.). 

Lycaena agestis var. calida Bellier de la Chavignerie, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. 2, ser. iv, p. 615, 
no. 2 (1862) (no locality). 

3 (J J, 1 $ Asm, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 5 <$$, 3 $$ 
Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 
6 SS, 5 $? Marrakesch, 7-20 May-3 June 1927. 

Of this series of 14 3<S> 9 9?> 4 99 only are pronounced calida, the $S and 
4 99 being ornata and 1 9 intermediate. 

35. Lycaena bellargus punctifera Oberth. 

Lycaena hellargus punctifera Oberthiir, Stud. Lipid. Comp. fase. iv, pt. i, pp. 268, 269 (1910) (Algeria). 

2 £$ Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2,450 m. = 7,963 ft., 12 kilometres W. of 
Telouet, 11 June 1927. 

These two examples are in poor condition and show practically no spotting. 

36. Lycaena abencerragus (Pierr.). 

Argus aliencerragus Pierret, Ann. Soc. Entoni. France, vol. vi, p. 21, pi. i, f. 7 (1837) (Oran). 

2 <J<J, 14 99 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 3 <$<$, 
9 99 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927 ; 4 99 Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 1 $ Marra- 
kesch, 3 June 1927 ; 1 <J, 2 99 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 
May 1927. 

The genitalia prove this to be a perfectly distinct species and not a race of 
baton. 

37. Lycaena lysimon (Hiibn.). 

Papilio lysimon Hiibner, Samml. Eur. Schmeit. vol. i, ff. 534, 535 (1799) (!). 

5 <?<?, 4 99 Marrakesch, 7-9 May-3, 4 June 1927. 

In Algeria this species is pronouncedly an inhabitant of the Saharan Oases, 
but apparently in Morocco it is not so strictly a desert species. 

38. Lycaena melanops alluaudi Oberth. 

Lycaena melanops var. alluauili Oberthiir, Stud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xix, p. 113 (1922) (Haut Reraya). 

31 33, 16 99 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 
7-11 June 1927. 

This form appears to be confined to the Great Atlas, but Mr. Meade-Waldo 
does not record it. Riggenbach, however, got 3 examples at Fenson, Truchat, 
and Tamarouth ; and Vaucher obtained 1 at Ourika. 

39. Adopaea thaumas (Hufn.) 

Papilio thaumas Hufnagel, Berl. Mag. vol. ii, p. 62 (1766) (Berlin). 

2 <3<3 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

In 1927 no examples of lineola were obtained, but Dr. Hartert was not in the 
locality late enough for it as it appears only in the latter half of June. In 1925 
I recorded Dr. Hartert as having captured 20 thaumas and 5 lineola : how I came 
to make this extraordinary error I do not know ; all 25 specimens are lineola !!! 



228 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

40. Adopaea acteon (Rott.). 

Papilio acleon Rottenburg, Naturf. vol. vi, p. .10, no. 18 (1775) (Landsberg an der Warthc). 

3 66, 1 9 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 in. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 
June 1927 ; 4 66 Asni, Great Atlas, S. of Marrakesch, 15-17 June 1927 ; 1 $ 
Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 1 <J Marrakesch, 6 June 
1927 ; 1 6 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

41. Adopaea haniza (Oberth.). 

Hesperia haniza < )ln rlliiir, Hind. Entom. fasc. i, p. 28, pi. iii, if. 2 a, b (1876) (Oran). 

5 66, 6 $? Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 rn. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 
June 1927. 

This species is very close to acteon but is at once distinguished by the absence 
of the feathered yellowish streaks in both sexes and the reddish discs of the fore- 
wings in the $$. 

42. Carcharodus alceae (Esp.). 

Papilio alceae Esper, Schmetl. pt. i, Forts, p. 4, pi. li, f. 3 (1780) (Germany ?). 

1 6 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927 ; 11 66 Marrakesch, 7-9 May-3-6 June 1927. 

43. Hesperia ali (Oberth.). 

Syrichthus ali Obertbiir, iSlud. Entom. fasc. vi. p. 61, pi. ii, f. 3 (1881) (Algeria). 

5 66, 1 9 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 rn. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 
June 1927. 

44. Hesperia onopordi Ramb. 

Hesperia onopordi Rarabur, Faune de VAnd. p. 319, no. 4, pi. 8, f. 13 (1842) (Granada). 

7 66 Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927. 

45. Procris orana (Aust.). 

Ino orana Austaut, Le Nat. vol. ii, p. 284 (1880) (Oran). 

4 66, 1 9 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

In my article on Dr. Hartert's 1924 collection (Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, 
vol. v, nos. 4 and 5, July 1925) I enumerated the 41 examples of Procris under 
the 2 headings of Procris geryon and P. orana owing to several showing antennae 
almost inseparable from European P. geryon. The 5 examples taken in 1927 are 
all typical orana ; but the re-examination of the antennae of the 1924 series 
shows some with antennae a good deal intermediate. It is, therefore, quite 
possible that, when a large series from all over Morocco is available, we shall 
have to relegate P. orana to the rank of the N. African subspecies of geryon. 

40. Zygaena favonia borreyi Oberth. 

Zygaena favonia var. borreyi Obertbiir, Slud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. xix, pt. i, p. 157 (1922) (Chabat-el- 
Hamma). 

31 66, 2 99 Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927 ; 36 66, 
4 $$ above Ouldjet-es-Soltan, 17 May 1927 ; 14 66, * 99 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes 
of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927 ; 5 66 East Plateau of Tafoudait, 18 May 
1927 ; 8 S6, * 99 Rabat, 11 May 1927. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 229 

47. Zygaena loyselis ungeniachi Le Cerf. 

Zygaena ungemachi Le Orf, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1923, p. 200 (Oulmes, Leas, Hammam). 

2 $$ Rabat, 20 May 1927. 

These two females are very worn as they were taken some 6 weeks later 
than the 49 examples captured in 1924. They are, however, most interesting as 
they have both complete pink abdominal rings ; thus showing, once again, that 
species or subspecies whose normal coloration includes a uniform dark abdomen 
occasionally appear with an abdominal ring. 

48. Zygaena orana harterti Rothsch. 

Zygaena harterti Rothschild, Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Manx, vol. v, nos. 7-8 (Dec. 1925) (Azrou, Middle 
Atlas). 

1 9 Tizi N'Tichka, Great Atlas, 2,450 m. = 7,963 ft., 12 kilometres W. of 
Telouet, 11 June 1927 ; 1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 
1927. 

These 2 $$ are evidently the same form, but the Tizi N'Tichka one is very 
large, and has much less white surrounding the pink spots of the forewing. 

49. Dysauxes punctata separata Bang-Haas. 

Dysauxes punctata var. separata Bang-Haas, Iris, vol. xix, p. 143, pi. v, f. 15 (1906) (South Oran, 
Algeria). 

1 t? Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 15-16 May 1927. 

This example is somewhat intermediate between true separata and Spanish 
servula as the orange patch on the inner area of the hind wings is decidedly larger 
than in Algerian separata. 

50. Euprepia cribraria chrysocephala (Hiibn.) 

Bombyx chrysocephala Hiibner, Europ. Schmett. vol. ii, Bomb, ii, f. 251 (1876) (Spain ?). 

1 (J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

51. Phragmatobia fuliginosa harterti subsp. nov. 

Differs from P.f. hroumira Oberth. in its larger size ; deeper coloration, the 
forewings brighter more golden cinnamon brown and the hind wings deeper 
salmon crimson ; the black spots on the hind wings are also larger. Expanse 
/. harterti 38-47 mm. ; /. hroumira 30-40 mm. 

16 <JcJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

All these specimens came to the lamp in the early evening. — E. H. 

52. Utetheisa pulchella (Linn.). 

Phalaena pulchella Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit. x. vol. i, p. 534, no. 238 (1758) (South Europe. Maure- 
tania). 

2 Si, 3 $$ Marrakesch, 7-9 May-4 June 1927. 

53. Malacosoma alpicola mixta Rothsch. 

Mulacosoma alpicola mixta Rothschild, Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, vol. v, nos. 7 and 8, p. 340, 
no. 84 (Dec. 1925) (Azrou). 

1 ? (in poor condition) El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 
1927. 

It is a great pity only 4 $$ and no £ 3 0I this race are known. 



230 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 

54. Sterrhopterix ? powelli Oberth. 

Sterrhopterix poioelli Oberthur, Stud. Lipid. < 'amp. fasc. xix, pt. 1. p. 141, pi. dxxxvi, S. 4468-4469 
(1922) (Urassine). 

35 J3 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes Middle Atlas. 23-29 May 1927. 
This interesting Pnychid is apparently near the helix group. 

55. Pyropteron doryliforniis tingitana Le Cerf. 

Pi/ropteron doryliforniis tingitana Le Oeri in Oberthur'a Stud. Entom. Camp. fasc. xi, Expl. pi.. 
p. 13, pi. cccxix, ff. 4644 and 4645 (1916) (Tangier). 

1 $ Rabat, 20 May 1927. 

56. Argyrospila musculosa (Hiibn.). 

ffoctua musculosa Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. Noct. f. 363 (1808) (?). 

1 o El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

57. Cii'phis 1. album (Linn.). 

Phalaena I. allium Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, p. 850 (1767) (Europe). 

1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
This example has very dark forewings. 

58. Athetis clavipalpis (Scop.). 

Phalaena clavipalpis Seopoli Entom. Cam. p. 213 (1763) (Carniolia). 

1 £ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
There is a strong ashy-grey wash over the forewings of this example. 

59. Cucullia scrophulariphila Stdgr. 

' iirullia scrophnlaripliila Staudinger. Steth. Entom. Zeit. vol. xx, p. 215, no. 10 (1859) (Cbiclana). 
1 (J, 1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

60. Metopoceras felicina (Donz.). 

Polia felicina Donzel, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. ii, vol. ii, p. 199, pi. 6, f. 2 (1844) (Marseille). 

1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
oi. Cleophana baetica baetica Ramb. 

Cleopliana laetica Rambur. Faun. Entom. de VAndal. pi. IS, f. 4 (1842) (Andalusia). 

1 cj El Hadjeb, VV. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

On his way to Morocco, Dr. Hartert captured at Bou Saada, Algeria (0 April 
1927), a $ of 0. b. diluta Rothsch. which is almost as dark as this Moroccan 
example. 

62. Amephana aurita (Fain.) 

Noclua aurita Fabricius, Mant. Ins. vol. ii, p. 179, no. 282 (1787) (Spain). 

I ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

63. Synthymia fixa australis (Oberth.). 

Metoptria monogramma australis oberthur, Stud. Lipid. Comp. fasc. in, p. 199, pL xdvii, f. 4137 
(1919) (Geiyville). 

II S3 El Hadjeb, \V. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 231 

64. Phyllophyla numerica disjecta Warr. 

Phyllophyla numerica ab. disjecta Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde, vol. iii, p. 274 (1912) (Spain). 

1 $ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927. 

65. Tarache lucida (Hufn.). 

Xiu-ttta lucida Hufnagel, Bed. Mag. vol. iii, p. 302 (176(5) (Berlin). 

1 (J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
This example is a typical lucida. 

66. Eublemnia albida (Dup.). 

Anthophila albida Dupouchel. Lipid. France, suppl. iv, p. 382. pi. 81, f. 1 (1842) (Marseille). 

1 (J Marrakesch, 7-9 May 1927. 

This example is very large (expanse 36 mm.). 

67. Apopestes spectrum maura Warr. 

Apopesles spectrum maura Warren in Seitz, Grossschmett Erde, p. 370, pi. 68b (1913) (Algeria). 

5 (JcJ (crippled) emerged Tring from larvae collected in Valley of the R'dat, 
1,700 m. = 5,525 ft., N.E. of Telouet, 7-11 June 1927 ; 3 larvae in alcohol 
Taddert Mid-June 1927. 

68. Syneda cailino philippina (Aust.). 

Leucanitis philippina Austaut, Le Nat. vol. ii. p. 237 (1880) (Oran). 

1 £ Above Ouldjet-es-Soltan, Upper Oued Beth, 17 May 1927. 

69. Hypena obsitalis (Hiibn.). 

Pyralis obsitalis Hiibner, Samrnl. Europ. Schmett. Pyr. B. 164, 165, 179 (1827) (Europe). 
1 J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

70. Scopula imitaria (Hiibn.). 

Geometra imitaria Hiibner, Samrnl. Europ. Schmett. Geom. pi. 10, f. 51 (1798) (Europe). 
1 cJ, 2 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

71. Scopula marginepunctata (Goeze). 

Phalaena Geometra marginepunctata Goeze, Entom. Beytr. vol. iii, pt. iii, p. 3S5, no. 85 (1781) (?). 

1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

72. Sterrha litigiosaria (Bdv.). 

Acidalia litigiosaria Boisduval, Gen. el Ind. Meth. Europ. Lipid, p. 226 (1840) (S. France). 

2 <$<$, 3 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlasi 23-29 May 1927. 

73. Sterrha humiliata (Hufn.). 

Geometra humiliata Hufnagel, Bert. Mag. vol. iv, p. 614 (1769) (Berlin). 

6 S<$, 12 ?? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 



232 NOVTTATKS ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1920. 

74. Sterrha dimidiata (Hufn.). 

Geomelra dimidiata Hufnagel, P.nl. Mag. vol. iv. p. 002 (1760) (Berlin). 

1 2 El Hadjcb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

75. Sterrha cervantaria depressaria (Stdgr.). 
Addalia cervantaria v;ir. depressaria Staudinger, Iris, vol. v. p. 289 ( 1 N92) (Tunis. Lambeze, ( Iranada). 
1 o 1 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1!I27. 

76. Sterrha incarnaria (Herr.-Sch.) ab. ruficostata (Zell.). 

Acidalia incarnaria ab. ruficostata Zeller, Stett. Entom. Ze.it. 1849, p. 215 (?). 

1 3 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

77. Orthonama obstipata (Fabr.). 

Phalaena obstipata Fabricius. Entom. Syst. vol. iii. pt. ii, p. 109, no. 257 (1701) (In Barbaria). 

1 cJ, 1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

78. Eupithecia pantellaria illuminata Joan. 

Eupithecia illuminata L. de Joannis, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, p. lxxx (not clxxx as in Staud. Cat. 
1901), no. 4 (1891) (PhUippeville). 

2 33, 3 22 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
Mr. Prout thinks it possible that this series is referable to the form lusitanica 

Dieze, but as the specimens, with the exception of 1 o > ar e rather worn, it is best 
to leave this undecided at present, especially as lusitanica is from N. of the 
Mediterranean. 

79. Eupithecia centaureata (Schiff. and Den.). 

Phalaena Geomelra centaureata Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. 
p. 114, no. 7 (1775) (Vienna). 

1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
80. Eupithecia orana Dietze. 

Eupithecia vnilaria ab. orana (? spec, nov.) Dietze, Biol. Eup. vol. ii, text, p. 101, vol. i, pis. 76, 
f. 589 (1913) (Oran). 

1 ^ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
SI. Gymnoscelis pumilala (Hiilm.). 

Geomelra pumilala IIuIhut. Samml. Europ. Schmett, Oeom. pi. 75, no. :!SS (1793-1827) (Europe). 

82. Aniygdaloptera testaria (Fbr.). 

Phalaena testaria Fabricius, Entom. Syst. vol. iii, pt. 2. p. 143, no. 53 (1794) (In Barbaria). 

5 cJcJ, 5 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
83. Anaitis efformata Guen. 

Anaitis efformata Guenee in Boisduval and lluenee. //;*(. Xai. Ins. Spec. Gen. Lipid, vol. x (vol. ii 
Uran. and Phal.). p. 500. no. 1730 (1857 (iss. 1858)) (Syria). 

1 2 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. • 233 

84. Crarabus craterellus chrysonuchelloides Rothsch. 

Crambus craterellus chrysonuchelloides Rothschild, Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, vol. v, nos. 4 and 5, 
p. 151, no. 104 (1925) (Azrou). 

The o differs from the $ in the more whitish or silvery ground-colour of 
the forewings and in having only two complete black segments of the abdomen 
and 2 black dots on the 2nd segment, whereas the $ has segments 2 to 7 entirely 
black above. 

1 cJ, 1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

85. Eurhodope cruentella (Dup.). 

Ilythia cruentella Duponchel in Godart's Hist. Nat. Lepid. France, suppl. iv, p. 365, no. dx, p. 79, 
f. 5 (1842-1844) (Andalusia). 

5 <$<$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
86. Pyralis farinalis (Linn.). 

Plialaena Pyralis farinalis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 533, no. 22G (1758) (?). 

1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
87. Aglossa pinguinalis asiatica Ersch. 

Aglossa pinguinalis L. var. asiatica Ersch off, Hor. Soc. Entom. Ross. vol. viii, p. 317, no. 8 (1871) 
(nr. Samarkand). 

1 tJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
88. Botys interjunctalis (Guen.). 

Cledeobia interjunctalis Guenee in Lucas, Hist. Nat. Anim. Artie, in Expl. Scient. d'AIg. vol. iii, 
p. 398, no. 150 (1849) (Laoalle). 

25 $S El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
89. Myelois cribrella (Hiibn.). 

Tinea cribrella Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmett. ii Tineae, no. 67 (1793-1827) (Europe). 
1 <$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

90. Nomophila noctuella (Schiff. and Den.). 

Tinea noctuella Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werk. Schmett. Wienergeg. p. 136, no. 35 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

1 J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
91. Uresphita polygonalis (Hiibn.). 

Pyralis polygonalis Hiibner, Samml. Auserl. Yog. and Schmett. pi. 76 (1793) (Augsburg). 

1 cJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

92. Stenia bruguieralis tenebrosa subsp. nov. 

Differs from b. bruguieralis in being much blacker ; forewings strongly 
suffused with black, almost obliterating pattern ; hind wings, basal half almost 
black, outer half entirely black. 

1 cJ Valley of the R'dat, 1,700 m. == 5,525 ft., N.W. of Telouet, 7-11 June 
1927. 



234 NoVlTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 102'.). 

93. Hapalia martialis Guen. 

Scopula martialis Guenee, Hist. Nat. Ins. Spec Gen. Lipid, vol.viii, p. 398.no. 517(1854) (Abyssinia !), 
Pyralis ferrugalis Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmeit. vol. vi, Pyr. i. pi. 23. f. 150 and Pyr. iii. pi. 9. f. 54 
(1793-1827! (Europe). 

1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
The name 'ferrugalis Hbn., though it has the priority, is preoccupied. 

94. Pyrausta limbopunctalis (Herr.-Sch.). 

Hercyna limhopunclalis Herrich-Scbaffer. Syst. Benrb. Schmeit. Europ. suppl. vol. iv, p. 115, no. 102b. 
pi. Pyr. 17. 

No. 117 (1849) (Spain). 

3 <JcJ, 3 $? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

95. Pyrausta cespitalis (Schiff. and Den.) 

Pyralis cespitalis Schiffermiiller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werlr. Srhmf.lt. Wienergfg. p. 123, no. 32 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

1 S El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 
96. Pyrausta sanguinalis (Linn.). 

Phalaena Pyralis sanguinalis Linnaeus. Sys. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, p. 882, no. 339 (1767) (Portugal). 

1 cJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

97. Acompsia formosella (Hiibn.). 

Tinea formosella Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmeit. viii Tineae, v Ignob. B. no. 160 (1793-1827) 
(Europe). 

1 <$, 1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 23-29 May 1927. 

98. Orneodes grammodactyla Zell. 

Alucita grammoiactyli Zeller, Isia of Oken. 1841, pp. 867-9, no. 1 (Frinkfort-on-the-Oiler). 

1 cJ Rabat, 22 June 1927. 

In addition there is 1 q Tortricid from El Hadjeb too worn and rubbed for 
identification. 










Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1929. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES VII TO X. 



Fig. 



1. 


Ophlhalmopsylla praefectus pemix 










p. 1 


63 


2. 


>> 3) 33 « 










p. ] 


63 


3. 


„ jettmari . 










p. ] 


50 


4. 


33 33 












p. 1 


56 


5. 


33 3 3 












p. 1 


56 


6. 


Pectinoctenus adalis . 












p. ] 


62 


7. 


Oropsylla elana 












p. 1 


60 


8. 


)) )> 












p. 1 


60 


9. 


Ceratophyllus tesquorum sungaris 










p. ] 


55 


10. 


)i i) j) 










P- 


55 


11. 


„ anisus 










p. J 


64 


12. 


33 33 












p. ] 


04 


13. 


Frontopsylla luculentus parilis 












P- 


63 


14. 


„ elatus botis ■ . 












P- 


160 


15. 


,, ,, ,, 












p. 1 


160 


Hi. 


Rhadinopsylla dives . 












P- 


57 


17. 


33 33 












P- 


[57 


18. 


„ insolila 












P- 


[58 


19. 


)> »» 












P- 


L58 


20. 


„ tenella 












P- 


L58 


21. 


S3 3! 












P- 


158 


22. 


Amphipsylla aspalacis 












P- 


161 


23. 


Myodopsylla trisellis 












• P- 


162 


24. 


Amphipsylla aspalacis 












• P- 


161 


25. 


„ mitis 












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Myodopsylla trisellis 












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Novitates Zoologioe, Vol. XXXV. 1929. 



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LEPIDOPTERA 

COLLECTED BY THE 

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the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 

WITH TWO COLOURED PLATES 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D. 

(LORD ROTHSCHILD) 

PRICE : £1 5s. (less 20% to Booksellers). 



A REVISION OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY 

SPHINGIDAE 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D., 

AND 

KARL JORDAN, M.A.L., Ph.D. 

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NOYITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



H Journal of Zoology 



EDITED BY 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D., 
Dr. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXV. 



No. 3. 

Pages 235-287. 

Issued April 2nd, 1930, at the Zoological Museum, Trdtq. 



PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON 4c VINEY, Ltd., LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 

1930. 



Vol. XXXV. 

NOVITATES Z00L0GICAE. 

EDITED BT 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAJT. 



CONTENTS OF NO. III. 

PAGES 

1. ON THE LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN 

MOROCCO BY DR. E. HARTERT IN 1929 . Lord Rothschild . 235—243 

2. SOME NEW ANTHRIBIDAE FROM TROPICAL 

AFRICA Karl Jordan . 244—249 

3. NEW FLEAS FROM SOUTH AFRICA . . Botha De Meillon 250—253 

4. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF 

JAPANESE, FORMOSAN AND PHILIPPINE 

GEOMETRIDAE li. J. West . 254—264 

5. ON TWO UNDESCRIBED NEOTROPICAL BIRDS C. E. Hellmayr . 265—267 

6. TWO NEW AMERICAN FLEAS . . . Karl Jordan . 268—269 

7. BIRD-TYPES IN THE ROYAL SCOTTISH 

MUSEUM J. H. Stenhouse . 270—276 

8. SOME NEW BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS FROM 

EASTERN NEW GUINEA .... Karl Jordan . 277—287 



y^' 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 

Vol. XXXV. APRIL 1930. No. 3. 



ON THE LEPIDOPTEKA COLLECTED IN MOROCCO BY 
DR. E. HARTERT IN 1929. 

By LORD ROTHSCHILD, F.R.S., Ph.D. 

T^HE collection of 1929 is much smaller than Dr. Hartert's three previous 
collections from Morocco. The reasons for this are various : he spent 
only about half the time in Morocco, he was without the assistance of our 
caretaker and taxidermist F. Young, who on former occasions did much of the 
collecting of lepidoptera, and during his stay in Azrou thunderstorms and 
heavy rains made collecting most of the time impossible. 

At Agaiouar, in the Great Atlas, 1,800 m. high, Dr. Ungemach, with 
whom Dr. Hartert visited that place, put up an acetylene lamp, but not a 
single moth came to it — apparently because it was too cold, there being hoar-frost 
on the grass in the mornings. 

The forms of the genus Zyqaena from various localities and the moths from 
El-Hadjeb are very interesting. 

1. Papilio machaon maxima Verity. 

Papilio macliaon maxima gen. aest. annulata Verity, Rhopalocera Palaearctica, p. 296, pi. lx, f. 14 
(1911) (Tangier). 

A single large ,$ in fine condition was collected. 
1 <J Marrakesh, 7 May 1929. 

2. Ganoris rapae mauritanica (Verity). 

Pieris rapae mauritanica gen. aest. mauritanica Verity, Rhopalocera Palaearctica, p. 155, pi. xxxiii, 
ff. 43, 44; pi. xxxiv, ff. 15, 16 (1908) (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, ff. Algeria text) (ff. 15, 16, 
pi. xxxiv as leucotera Stef.). 

1 (J, 1 $ are in the collection. 

1 cJ, 1 ? Marrakesh ; £ 16, ? 17 March 1929. 

3. Euchloe charlonia (Donzel). 

Anthocharis charlonia Donzel, Ann. Hoc. Entom. France, vol. xi, p. 197, pi. viii, f. 1 (1842) (Emsilah, 
Algeria). 

Dr. Hartert only obtained 2 examples of this neat little species. 

2 <J(J Marrakesh, 13 May 1929. 

(A few more were seen the same day. — E. H.) 

16 235 



236 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

4. Euchloe belemia (Esp.). 

Papilio belemia Esper, Die Schmelt. vol. i, pt. ii, t. 110. f. 2 (1792) (?) (gen. vern.). 
Papilio glance Hiibner. Europ. Schmelt. i, ft". 546, 547 (1798-1803) (?). 

Only 2 oa were captured which appear intermediate between gen. vern. 
belemia and gen. aest. glauce, but are probably glance. 
2 <$<$ Marrakesh, 13 May 1929. 

5. Colias electo croceus (Geoff, in Fourcr.). 

Papilio croceus Geoffroy, in Fourcroy's Entom. Par. vol. ii, p. 250 (1785) (Paris). 

1 <J, 1 $ were taken ; the (J is a large normally coloured specimen, but the 
$ is a small example of the ab. helice with very white forewings, very grey hind- 
wings. On the forewings the black border is abnormally wide, occupying at 
least I of the wing. 

1 <J Marrakesh, 8 May 1929 ; 1 $ ab. helice, 13 May 1929. 

6. Argynnis lathonia (Linn.). 

Papilio lathonia Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, vol. i, p. 481, no. 141 (1758) (Europe). 
Only one specimen taken. 
1 rS Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 16 April 1929. 

7. Melitaea desfontainii gibratii Oberth. 

Melitaea desfontainii var. gibratii Oberthur, ftlud. Entom. Comp. fasc. xix, pp. 46 and 47, pi. dxxxii, 
ff. 418^22 (1922) (Massif de Zehroum). 

Of this fine insect, the series taken consists of 13 £<$ and 3 $$ ; they are 
very fresh and show clearly the much more brilliant coloration as well as great 
size when compared with desfontainii desfontainii Godart of Algeria and des- 
fontainii boetica Ramb. of Spain and Portugal. 

13 JcJ, 3 $$ Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 24 April 1929. 

(Quite a number were seen, but few in very good condition. — E. H.) 

8. Pararge aegeria rneone (Cram.). 

Papilio meone Cramer, Pap. Exot. vol. iv, pt. xxvi, p. 51, pi. cccxiv, ff. E.F. (1780) (Alger). 
1 S El Hadjeb, West Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

9. Pararge megaera megaera (Linn.). 

Papilio megaera Linnaeus, Sysl. Nat. edit. xii. pt. ii, p. 771, no. 142 (1767) (Austria, Dania). 
1 <J Rabat, 10 April 1929 ; 1 $ Marrakesh, 7 May 1929. 

10. Epinephele pasiphae pasiphae (Esp.). 

Papilio pasiphae Esper, Schmelt. vol. i, pt. ii, Forts, p. 99, no. 135, pi. lxvii (cont. xvii), f. 4 (1777) 
(Envs. de Paris). 

1 cJ Rabat, 10 April 1929. 

11. Epinephele ida ida (Esp.). 

Papilio iila Esper, Schmelt. vol. i. pt. ii. Forts, p. 184, no. 176, pi. cxxii (cont. xli), f. 4 (1777) 
(Pyrenees). 

1 J Marrakesh, 13 May 1929. 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1930. 237 

12. Coenonympha pamphilus lyllus (Esp.). 

Papilio lyllus Esper, Schmett. vol. i, pt. ii, Forts, pi. cxxii (eont. 77), ff. 1, 2 (1777) (?). 

The (J example from El Hadjeb has very heavy dark borders to the wings. 

2 ^^ Agaiouar, Great Atlas. 1,800 m. = 5,850 ft., 11 May 1929 ; 2 $$, 
1 $ Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 24 and 25 May 1929 ; 1 <J, 1 ?. 
El Hadjeb, West Slopes, Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

13. Callophrys rubi (Linn.). 

Papilio rubi Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, x, p. 483, no. 154 (1758) (Sweden by subs, desig.). 
1 $ Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 26 April 1929. 

14. Chrysophanus phlaeas (Linn.). 

Papilio phlaeas Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. edit. all. p. 285 (1761) (Sweden). 
1 $ (very dark, tails long), Marrakesh, 13 May 1929. 

15. Chrysophanus phoebus Blach. 

Chrysophanus phoebus Blacliier, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1905, p. 212 (Ourika, Moroccan Atlas). 

This series is very fine. 1 rj has the ground colour deeper coppery red, 
less coppery orange, and the post-discal black spots run together into 7 large black 
bands. 

(This beautiful little " copper " was quite common on uncultivated ground, 
near Marrakesh. — E. H.) 

27 <$$, 10 $? Marrakesh, 7-13 May 1929. 

16. Lycaena icarus celina Aust. 

Lycaena celina Austaut, Pel. Nouv. Entom. vol. ii, p. 293, no. 212 (1879) (Sidi- Bel-Abbes). 

1 $ Agaiouar, Great Atlas, 1,800 m. = 5,850 ft., 11 May 1929 ; 2 $$ Azrou, 
Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 24 April 1929; El Hadjeb, West Slopes, 
Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

17. Lycaena astrarche calida Bell. 

Lycaena agestis var. calida Bellier de la Chavignerie, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. ii, ser. iv, p. 615, 
no. 2 (1862) (no locality). 

Both the examples are of the spring form gen. vein, ornata Stdgr. 
1 £ Marrakesh, 17 May 1929 ; 1 $ El Hajeb, West Slopes, Middle Atlas, 
17 April 1929. 

18. Lycaena minima (Fuessly). 

Papilio minimus Fuessly, Verz. bek. Schweiz. Ins. p. 31 (1775) (Switzerland). 
The two examples are very large. 
1 <J, 1 $ El Hajeb, West Slopes, Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

19. Adopaea acteon (Rott.). 

Papilio acteon Rottemburg, Natiirf. vol. vi, p. 30, no. 18 (1775) (Lausberg an der Warthe). 
1 $ Marrakesh, 13 May 1929. 



238 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

20. Celerio euphorbiae mauretanica (Stdgr.). 

Deilephila euphorbiae mauretanica Staudinger, Cat. Lep. Europ. Faun. edit, ii, p. 36, no. 466 (1871) 
(Mauretania). 

Again only a single large $ was taken, but it differs from the $ taken at the 
same place in 1924, by the heavier black submarginal band on the hindwings, 
and in having the white inner margin of the tegulae saturated with rose colour, 

1 $ Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., April 26, 1929. 

21. Amorpha populi austauti (Stdgr.). 

Smerinthus populi var. austauti Staudinger, Pet. Noniv. Entom. tome ii, p. 190 (1877) (Mauritania 
occidentalis). 

All 3 specimens are pronounced typical austauti, not the pale aberration 
staudingeri Aust. ; in fact, they are darker purer grey than most Algerian examples. 

1 <$, 1? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929 ; 1 $ Azrou, 
Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 26 April 1929. 

22. Haemorrhagia tityus aksana Le Cerf. 

//«> inorrhagia tityus L. s.sp. aksana Le Cerf, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1923, p. 199 (Azrou). 

A single very poor specimen from the topotypical locality. 
1 ? Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 26 April 1929. 

23. Procris orana (Aust.). 

Ino orana Austaut, Le Xat. vol. ii, p. 284 (1880) (Oran). 

The Mauretanian species of the genus Procris are very puzzling and require 
much more careful study. As the 4 examples enumerated below agree fairly 
well with Austaut 's type, i.e. the example of Dr. Codet's in the Oberthur collec- 
tion, I am quoting them under his name till Dr. Jordan's paper on the genus 
Procris is published, which I hope will clear up this difficult genus. 

3 #<? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929, 1 <J Azrou, 
Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 26 April 1929. 

24. Zygaena loyselis montana Rothsch. 

Zi/ijarna unijinuichi montana Rothschild, Bull. Hoc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, tome v, nos. 4-5, p. 140, 
no. 53 (1925) (Azrou). 

Again only a single example, so that the subspecies is as yet only recorded 
in the 3 examples at Tring. 

1 <J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

The specimen from Azrou taken in 1925 and the present one have the red 
on the tegulae more extended than in the type. 

25. Zygaena zuleima Pierr. 

Zygaena zuleima Pierret, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, vol. vi, p. 22, tab. i, f. 8 (1837) (Bone). 

3 <J<J Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 26 April, 1929. 
It is strange to find this diminutive species occurring at sea-level and then 
again high in the mountains. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1<J30. 239 

26. Zygaena orana media Rothsch. 

Zygaena orana media Rothschild, Bull. Soc. Scien. Ufat. Maroc. tome v, nos. 7-8, p. 338, no. 74 
(31 Deo. 1925) (Azrou). 

A nice series of this interesting form, from a new station. 

22 (JcJ, 3 22 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

27. Zygaena harterti Rothsch. 

Zygaena harterti Rothschild, Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, tome v, nos. 7-8, p. 338, no. 76 (31 Dec. 
1925) (Azrou). 

1 again must treat this binomially for the present till the status of the form 
can be definitely established. 

2 <$<$, 1 2 Agaiouar, Great Atlas, 1,800 m. = 5,850 ft., 11 May, 1929. 

28. Phragmatobia occidentalis (Rothsch.). 

Maenas breveti occidentalis Rothschild, Nouit. Zool. vol. xvii, p. 119 (1910) (Mazagan, Morocco). 

2 ^ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

The late Mr. Charles Oberthur received from Henry Powell a series of this 
insect ; which he renamed Phragmatobia em.manue.lii, as he did not consider my 
description fitted his insect. I have compared this series from Powell, now in 
the British Museum, with my own from Riggenbach and find them to be the 
same insect. 

29. Phragmatobia fuliginosa harterti Rothsch. 

Phragmatobia fuliginosa harterti Rothschild, Novit. Zool. vol. xxxv, no. 2, p. 229, no. 50 (El Hadjeb). 

1 2 El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April, 1929. 
This example agrees with the typical series of males in its distinguishing 
characters, but being a 2 (the only one) is darker on the forewings. 

30. Arctia villica angelicae (Boisd.). 

Chelonia villica var. angelicae Boisduval, Gen. el Ind. Meth. Europ. Lipid, p. 42 (1829) (Spain). 

1 c? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929 ; 12 Azrou, Middle 
Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 24 April 1929. 

31. Ichthyura pigra powelli (Oberth.). 

Pygaera poivelli Oberthur, Etud. Lipid. Gamp. Fasc. xi, pi. cccxxx, ff. 4729^731 (expl. pis. p. 22) 
(Lambessa). In Fasc. vii photograph of larva and imago are published. 

1 cJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

This example is greyer than 2 Alger ones and a series from Batna. 

Oberthur quotes Vaucher and Olchese as the authority for the record of 
Ichthyura pigra (Hufn) from Tangiers. Although I have not seen this form from 
Morocco myself I can quite believe it to be a correct identification, as pigra pigra 
does occur on the opposite Spanish coast and we find many other Spanish forms 
in the northern ports of Morocco. 

32. Axia margarita (Him). 

Noctua margarita Hiibner, Samm. Europ. Schmett. Noctuae, fig. 514 (1805) (Europe). 

It was a great surprise to find Dr. Hartert's two fine 22 from El Hajeb 
belonged to margarita and not to vaulogeri, which is the Algerian species. As 



240 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

these $? are very large it is quite possible when a large series of both sexes 
comes to hand that the Moroccan examples may prove to belong to a separate 
subspecies, but as I have no European $$ and no Moroccan c?cj I cannot yet 
decide this question. 

2 $? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

33. Sideridis albipuncta (Scbiff. and Den.). 

NocUia albipuncta Schifferuriiller and Denis, Ante. Sysl. Werlc. Schmetl. Wienergeg. p. 84 (1775) 
(Vienna). 

2 (J& 1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 
34. Sideridis vitellina (Hbn.). 

Noctua vitellina Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmetl. Noctuae, S. 379, 589 (1805). 

These two specimens are of the more abundant darker form. 
2 ^ ^ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

35. Cirphis loreyi (Dup.). 

Noctua loreyi Duponchel, Lipid. France, vol. vii. p. 81, pi. 105, f. 7 (1827) (France). 

The 6 examples all show the black streaks along median vein very strongly 
marked. 

2 dd, 4?? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

36. Athetis superstes (Traits.). 

Caradrina superstes Treitsclike, Schmetl. Europ. vol. v, pt. 2, p. 260 (1825) (Europe). 
2 cJcJ, 2 $? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

37. Athetis flava (Oberth.). 

Caradrina flava Oberthur, Etud. d' Entom. Fasc. i, p. 45, pi. iv, f. 3 (1876) (Algeria). 

Dr. Hartert caught a single much worn example of this species which is 
peculiar to Mauretania. I believe this is the first record for Morocco. 

1 <? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

3S. Athetis flavirene noctivaga (Bell.). 

Caradrina noctivaga Bollier de la Chavignerie, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1863, p. 420, pi. ix, f. 4 
(Barcelona). 

1 & 1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

39. Athetis clavipalpis (Scop.). 

Phalaena clavipalpis Scopoli, Entom. Cam, p. 213 (1763) (Camiolia). 

2 Jd, 2 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

4i). Euxoa puta puta (Hbn.). 

Noctua puta Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Nrhmctt. Norluae, no. 255 (1802) (Europe). 

There have been many discussions as to the correct name for this species ; 
chiefly owing to the doubts as to what should be considered the correct date for 
the various sections of Hiibner's work. It is now pretty sure that the greater 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1930. 241 

part of the " Noctuae" were issued in 1802 and so Ha worth's name of radius 
dating from 1803 loses priority for the species ; but must be used as the name 
for the form usually considered the typical one ; so that what we usually called 
Euxoa radius radius becomes Euxoa puta radius, and what was called Euxoa 
radius erythroxylea Treits. must now bear the name of Euxoa puta puta. 

While the examples I have from the extreme east of Morocco and also from 
the Atlantic coast of Morocco are all puta radius the 20 specimens Dr. Hartert 
brought back from the Middle Atlas are all puta puta. Of this series of 20, 6 $$ 
are of the black form and 1 <$, 2 $$ intermediate and 11 ^^ normal in colour. 

12 cJc?, 8 $? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1029. 

41. Euxoa segetum (Schiff. and Den.). 

Xmiiiii segetum Schiffermuller and Denis, Ank. Syst. Werh. Schmeit. Wienergeg. pp. 81, 252, fi. 3a, 6 
(1775) (Vienna). 

1 $ Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. =-- 4,225 ft., 20 April 1929 ; 1 $ Casa- 
blanca, 22 May 1929. 

42. Euxoa trax trux (Hbn.). 

Noclita trux Hiibner, Samml. Europ. Schmeit. Noel. ff. 723, 725, 770 (1802) (Europe). 
1 $, 2 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

43. Acronycta rumicis pallida Rothsch. 

Acronycla rumicis pallida Rothschild, Xovit. Zool. vol. xxvii, p. 7, no. 22 (1920) (Algeria). 
1 (J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

44. Polia Corsica Ramb. 

Polia Corsica Rambur, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, torn. i. p. 279, pi. ix, f. 3 (1832) (Ajaccio and Bastia, 
Corsica). 

1 J, 1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 
45. Polia carpophaga (Borkli.). 

Phaluena Noctua carpophaga Borkhausc, Sysl. Beschr. Europ. Schmeit. vol. iv, p. 422, no. 169 (1792) 
(Europe). 

l'cJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 
40. Metapoceras felicina (Douz.). 

Polia felicina Donzel, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, ser. ii, vol. ii, p. 199, pi. vi, f. 2 (1844) (Marseille). 
1 ? El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

47. Cucullia verbasci (Linn.). 

Phalaena Noctva verbasci Linnaeus, Sysl. Xat. edit, x, p. 15, no. 105 (1758). 

The Algerian and Moroccan specimens appear to be very large, but I have 
seen too few to decide if there is a N. African subspecies. 

1 (J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 



242 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

48. Cleophana pectinicornis youngi Rothsoh. 

Cleophana pectinicornis youngi Rothschild Bull. Soc. Scien. Nat. Maroc, tome v, nos. 4-5, p. 143, 
no. 72 (1925) (Tiflet, West Morocco). 

A <$ was taken at El Hadjeb the second only obtained by Dr. Hartert. 
It is rather smaller than the type, but shows the same characters. 
1 <J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

49. Omphalophana serrata (Treits.). 

Cleophana serrata Treitschke, Schmetl. Eur. {Suppl.), vol. x, pt. ii, p. 121 (1835) (Sicily). 
1 cJ, 2 $$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

50. Calophasia almoravida Grasl. 

Calophasia almoravida Graslin, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1863, p. 319, pi. viii, f. 6 (Grenada). 
1 $ Azrou, Middle Atlas, 1,300 m. = 4,225 ft., 26 April 1929. 

51. Acontia luctuosa (Setoff and Den.). 

Phalaena luctuosa Schifferniiiller and Denis, Arik. Syst. Werlc. Schmett. Wienerg. p. 90 (1775) (Vienna). 
1 <J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

52. Phytometra gamma (Linn). 

Phalaena gamma Linnaeus, Syst. A'at. edit, x, p. 513, no. 91 (1758) (Sweden). 

1 <J, 1 $ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

53. Minucia lvmaris maura (Oberth.) 

Pseudophia lunaris ab. maura Oberthur, Etud. Entom. livr. ix, p. 39, pi. iii, f. 13 (1884) (Sebdou in 
Algeria). 

1 S El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

54. Lithostege cinerata Turati. 

Lithostege cinerata Turati, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. lxxxiii, p. 118 f. (1924) (Cyrenaiea). 
1 cJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 

55. Sterrha laevigata (Scop.). 

Phalaena laeiigata Scopoli, Enlom. ('urn. p. 230, no. 575 (1763) (Carniolia). 

1 $Marrakesch, 6 May 1929. 

56. Rhodametra sacraria (Linn.). 

Phalaena sacraria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. edit, xii, vol. i, pt. ii, p. 863 (1767) (Barbaria). 

The oblique discal band is strongly pronounced. 
1 <J Marrakesh, 13 May 1929. 

">7. Eupithecia pantellaria illuminata Joan. 

Eupithecia pantellaria illuminata L. de Joannis, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, p. lxxx (not clxxx as in 
Staud. Cat. 1901), no. 41 (1891) (Philippeville). 

1 cJ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 



NOVITATES ZoOLOC.ICAE XXXV. 1930. 243 

58. Gnophos variegata rothschildi Prout. 

Gnophos variegata rothschildi L. B. Prout, Novit. Zool. vol. xxxv, p. 145, no. 8 (1929) (Jedders, 
Upper Bou Regreg, Morocco). 

1 <J El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 
59. Fidonia plumistraria atlanticaria (D. Luc). 

Eitrrhantis plumistraria atlanticaria Daniel Lucas, Bull. Soc. Entom. France, 1920, p. 254 (Meknes). 

3 <J(J Plateau of Middle Atlas, 27 March 1929. 

60. Aspilates ochrearia (Rossi). 

Phalaena ochrearia Rossi, Mant. Ins. vol. ii, p. 33, pi. vii, f. n. (1794) (Etruria). 
3 ?$ El Hadjeb, W. Slopes of Middle Atlas, 17 April 1929. 
Nos. 33 to 53 are not in strict systematic order. 



244 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1930. 



SOME NEW ANTHRIBIDAE FROM TROPICAL AFRICA. 
By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

1. Litocerus ceriger spec, no v. 

cj$. Speciei L. filkornis dictae simillimus ; sulco pronoti transverso ante- 
mediano minus impresso ; elytro macula sinuata postmediana dorsali eremoris 
colore. 

Long. 6-5-7-5 mm. 

Hab. Congo Beige: Barumbu, vii.1925 (J. Ghasquiere), 1 <S, type; 
Mayumbe: Tshela, ii . 1916 (R. Mayne), 1 3; Mayumbe: Zobe, i.1916 (R. 

Mayne), 1 ? ; Bumbuli, i-iv. 1916 (R. Mayne), 1 ?. $ from Tshela (= Chela) 

and ? from Zobe transferred to Mus. Tring ; the other pair in Musee du Congo 
Beige. 

In structure and colouring close to L. filkornis Thorns. (1858). Head and 
pronotum more uniformly cinnamomeous. Light-coloured markings of upper- 
side and of legs creamy, not white. On pronotum the median stripe vestigial 
in front of carina or at least not so well marked as in L. filkornis ; transverse 
groove less distinct. Elytra without grey markings at base ; behind middle a 
creamy spot from interspaces 3 to 7, somewhat projecting forward in 5 and 
backward in 4 and 7, not broken up. Creamy grey rings of tibiae somewhat 
closer together than in L. filkornis. Possibly a subspecies of L. filkornis. 

2. Litocerus filicornis senniger Bubsp. nov. 

(J9. Differs from L. f. filkornis Thorns. (1858) in the base of elytra being 
more extended whitish grey, and the whitish grey postmedian zigzag spot being 
somewhat larger. 

Hab. Gold Coast : Kumassi (Newbery), 2 <?<?, 1 ?, type 3 ; Aburi (W. H. 
Patterson), 1 <J ; no special locality (A. E. Evans), 1 <J. 

3. Gulamentus picatus spec. nov. 

?. Brunneo-niger, antenna (clava excepta) pedibusque rufis ; infra albo- 
griseus, supra plus minus nigrans, elytris duabus maculis communibus sat 
magnis griseis notatis, una antemediana subcordiformi, altera apicali. Segmen- 
tum 2 antennae tertio parum longius, clava lata, 11 latitudine paululo longius. 
Pygidium triangulare, lateribus apice rotundatis, mucrone apicali truncato. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 5-7 mm., lat. 2-3 mm. 

Hab. Cameroon: Joko, vii.1912, 1 $. 

Greyish white pubescence dense in apical half of rostrum, forming an apical 
half-moon, an elongate spot in middle of head and posterior border of eye greyish 
white, conspicuous, otherwise the pubescence of head scattered. Interspace 
between antennal groove and eye as broad as segment 2 of antenna. Segment 
9 of antenna as long as broad, 10 nearly twice as broad as long, 11 one-tenth 
longer than broad. Pronotum one-third broader than long ; on each side a 
large patch at apex and another before carina, diffuse, whitish grey, not distinctly 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 245 

separated from each other, dorsal and lateral carina bordered with the same grey 
pubescence, a median stripe broadly interrrupted in middle and not quite reaching 
apical margin likewise grey, the anterior portion of this stripe connected before 
middle of pronotum with the lateral apical patch, the brown median area being 
imperfectly broken up into four patches. Scutellum dark brown. Pubescence 
on dark portions of elytra shaded with ochraceous ; behind scutellum the suture 
convex, granulose, black ; grey antemedian patch recalling the apical portion 
of a maple-leaf, being posteriorly produced into a sharp projection on suture 
and excised on each side of the projection ; this patch indistinctly connected 
by scattered grey pubescence with an ill-defined basal spot situated above 
black shoulder ; grey ajrical area well denned, extending laterally to the level 
of apex of abdominal segment 3, anteriorly indistinctly bisinuate on each elytrum. 
Median groove of pygidium not quite extending halfway to apex, apical mucro 
recalling a button, its terminal surface concave. Apical margin of anal ventral 
segment rounded. 

4. Gulamentus guttatus spec, no v. 

$. Niger, pube sub-isabellina tectus, rostro cum capite griseo, pronoto et 
elytris guttis nigris notatis, elytris plaga nigra postmediana coinmuni, sed 
sutura extrema ipsa isabellina. Latitudo frontis longitudine rostri major. 
Pronotum longitudine fere dimidio latins. Pygidium apiee cum segmento 
ventrali truncato emarginato. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 7-4 mm., lat. 3-1 mm. 

Hah. Cameroon (Conradt), 1 $. 

Near G. cylindricus Jord. (1895), but much broader. Frons distinctly 
narrower than the proboscis is long. Interspace between eye and antennal 
groove broader than first antennal segment (?). Segment 9 of antenna a little 
longer than 10, 11 nearly as long as 9 and 10 together. Proboscis more densely 
pubescent grey than head. Centre of pronotum black (partly denuded), with 
some grey isabella pubescence anteriorly, sides grey isabella, with about 6 
irregular, ill-defined,* black spots. Suture and alternate interspaces of elytra 
regularly dotted with black, the dots smaller than the spaces between them, 
dots less numerous and less regular laterally, here an indication of a diffuse, 
interrupted black macula before and behind middle ; dorsal postmedian patch 
extending to interspace 5 (counting sutura] interspace as first), two dots being 
joined to it in 5, and another dot posteriorly at suture, the patch therefore 
being tridentate on each elytrum. Pygidium broader than long ; as in 
G. cylindricus the apex emarginate, pygidium and anal ventral segment forming 
a sort of cone with a hole at the top. Intercoxal process of mesostemum 
triangular, with apex truncate. 

5. Gulamentus virgatus spec. nov. 

cj$. Rufo-brunneus, pronoto elytrisque griseo-luteo vittatis, pedibus rufis. 

Long. 4-5 mm., lat. 2-6 mm. 

Hob. Congo Beige: Haut Uele, Moto (L. Burgeon), 2 $$, 1 $, type in 
Musee du Congo, 1 J paratype at Tring. 

Similar to G. taeniatus Jord. (1924), but rufous brown instead of black, end- 
segment of antenna (£, in our ? of G. taeniatus both antennae broken) longer, 
stripes of pronotum less regular, between lateral stripes a spot from carina 



246 Novitates Zoolocicae XXXV. 1930. 

forward, luteous stripe which runs from base of elytrum above shoulder to 
apical sutural angle interrupted, anal ventral segment of (J with broad, rounded, 
shallow impression. 

Proboscis luteous grey. Eye narrowly bordered with luteous grey, no 
luteous grey median spot on occiput. Antenna rufous, club brown, end-segment 
a little longer than 9 and 10 together. Pronotum with 5 luteous grey streaks 
which are less than half as wide as the brown interspaces, the streaks connected 
at base, admedian brown interspace slightly broader anteriorly than posteriorly, 
in dorso-lateral interspace a luteous grey elongate spot in front of carina, farther 
forward a small dot, lateral streak continued dorsad at apical margin. Scutellum 
brown, at apex luteous gre_y. On elytrum the following luteous grey streaks : 
a broadish one from base, touching scutellum, reaching suture a little distance 
behind scutellum, then running along suture, but separate from it, to beyond 
middle, a similar streak from base above shoulder as long as the sub-sutural 
one or a little longer and in its posterior half incompletely divided longitudinally 
into a double line ; from in between the ends of these streaks to angle of suture 
an oblique streak, which is continued forward by two (or one) very thin lines ; 
from below shoulder to apex a thin line consisting of three separate sections, 
anterior end of second and third sections a little more .dorsal than the posterior 
end of preceding section. Pygidium with a largish brown rounded spot each 
side beyond middle, in J pygidium longer than broad, narrowing apicad, truncate, 
with the angles rounded, in $ not quite semicircular, being less than twice as 
broad as long. In both sexes fore- and hindtarsal segment 1 longer than, in 
midtarsus as long as, claw-segment (in <$ of G. taeniatus Jord. (1924) segment 1 
of fore- and midtarsus shorter than claw-segment, in midtarsus as long as tibia 
is broad). 

0. Aneurhinus breviclava spec. nov. 

cJ$. Antenna clava tri-articulata. Pronotum omnino convexum. Elytra 
luteo-grisea sparsim nigro-guttulata pone medium fascia transversa nigra antice 
gradatim diffusa ornata. Prosternum ante coxas brevissimum utrinque carina 
acuta instructum. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 8-5-9'5 mm. 

Hub. Belgian Congo : Buta, 1 $ (type) in Mus. Tring, received from Messrs. 
Staudinger and Bang-Haas ; Kassai, Kondue (Leohard), 1 <$ in Musee du Congo, 
Tervueren ; 1 $ without locality at Tring. 

Black-brown, pubescent luteous grey (type) or grey, the pubescence sparser 
on pronotum. Antenna uniformly brownish black, in o reaching to base of 
elytra, in $ shorter, segments 7 and 8 very little broader than 6, the club con- 
sisting in both sexes of segments 9 to 11 ; in J 9 a little longer than 11, in $ 
a little shorter, 10 in <J$ transverse, half as broad again as long. Pronotum 
convex, without impression, barely one-tenth broader than long, coarsely 
reticulate-coriaceous, in type a luteous grey median line which fades away 
posteriorly ; anterior angles very distinctly projecting, but rounded off. Elytra 
parallel, convex, somewhat paler grey basally and subapically, suture and alter- 
nate interspaces dotted with black, before apical declivity a black transverse 
band, anteriorly gradually fading away, posteriorly sharply defined, and more 
or less indented on the suture and alternate interspaces, the band narrow at 
the sides and here somewhat curved forward. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 247 

Presternum about one-fifth of a mm. long in front of coxa ; from coxa 
obliquely forward-laterad a sharp carina which rises abruptly at the coxal 
cavity and fades away laterally, not reaching the lobe-like anterior angle of the 
prothorax. Transverse groove in front of triangular intercoxal process of 
mesosternum deej>. In $ pubescence of middle of metasternum and of impressed 
area of abdomen more silky and less luteous than at sides. Tibiae and tarsi 
unicolorous luteous grey. 

7. Cylindroides albocinctus canus subsp. nov. 
$. Markings in depression of pronotum deeper brown than in C. a. albocinctus 
Fahrs. (1839), and dorso-lateral brownish black spots more conspicuous ; on 
elytra, which are much shaded with white between the two band-like transverse 
patches, no ochraceous dots or only a few immediately in front of the black 
dots which form the anterior boundary of the subapical white patch. 

Hab. West Africa : Gaboon (type), 5 $$ ; Buta, Belgian Congo, 1 $ : 
all at Tring. 

8. Anacerastes tenuipilis spec. nov. 

(J$. Speciminibus olivaceo-griseis A. geometrici simillimus, sed squamis 
pallidis multo tenuioribus piliformibus. 

Long. (cap. excl.) 11-17 mm. 

Hab. Congo : Buta (type), at Tring ; Libreville ; in Musee du Congo a 
series from Stanleyville, Yangambi and the Aruwimi. 

Upperside olivaceous grey, behind the middle of the elytrum a triangular, 
brown or blackish, macula reaching neither suture nor lateral margin, narrowest 
at the sutural end, extending from here somewhat obliquely forward, declivous 
apical area usually also of this colour, the grey pubescence in front and behind 
the macula usually condensed, as it is also in the middle line of the pronotum, 
there being in addition on the prothorax (as in A. geometricus Jord. 1894 and 
in A. scriptus Jord. 1910) a grey lateral line from the apex obliquely ventrad 
and backward. While the grey scales of upper and underside in the allied 
species are nearly as broad as the dark scales of the postmedian macula, they 
are reduced in width in the new species, resembling the grey pubescence of 
the tibiae, being more like short hairs than scales. 

9. Anacerastes varius spec. nov. 

cj$. Carinae rostri postice divergentes. Linea mediana pronoti plus minus 
rugulosa. Indumentum variat : specimina similia aut Me.coce.ro barombino, aut 
M. tigrino, aut M . mniszechi. 

Long. 10-16 mm. 

Hab. Cameroon, S])anish Guinea, Gaboon and Belgian Congo, a series of 
all three forms in Mus. Tring ; type from Spanish Guinea : Benito. 

Median stripe of pronotum either totally rugulose or at least in centre of 
pronotum. I think that I am correct in treating the forms here united as 
belonging to one species, as there are no structural differences, as far as I have 
been able to ascertain. The first and second forms described below I have 
hitherto treated as belonging to A. variegatus Kolbe (1895), from Cameroon. 
But in that species the median strij>e of the pronotum is said to be smooth ; 
the elytra of the type (in Mus. Berlin) are buff, tessellated with black. On 



248 NoVITATES ZOOLOCK'AE XXXV. 1030. 

re-examination A. variegatus may prove to be the same as form b. in which case 
the species and form 6 would have to bear the name variegatus. 

a. A. varius i. griseus nov. Resembles Mecocerus barombinus Kolbe 

(1895). Elytra tessellated with grey ; in middle a transverse, more or less 
elliptical, macula without grey (at least so it appears to the naked eye), the grey 
spots more or less rectangular, variable in number, usually more numerous and 
contiguous or confluent in front of and behind the black macula. Pronotum 
at least with an indication of a grey median line ; on sides an oblique stripe 
from apex downward and backward. Light and dark scales of elytra practically 
of the same size, those on underside somewhat narrower, but truncate, not hair- 
like. First tarsal segment black from about middle to apex. Type from 

Benito. A series from Cameroon, Spanish Guinea, and Congo Beige. 

b. A. varius f. varius. Resembles Mecocerus tigrinus Thorns. (1858), 

differing from f. griseus only in the markings above being more or less tawny. 

In a few specimens the black median macula of the elytra is broken up. 

Type from Benito. A series from : Spanish Guinea and Gaboon. 

c. A. varius f. nubilus nov. Resembles Mecocerus mniszechi Thorns. 

(1858). Light-coloured scaling clayish buff, denser than in the two previous 
forms, especially on pronotum, metasternum and abdomen ; on elytra basal 
half or the greater part of it more or less uniformly clayish buff, behind the dark 
median patch a sort of clayish, transverse, somewhat oblique band, declivous 
apical area variegated with this scaling. The scales at the base of the elytra 
and on the sides of the thoracic sterna are larger than in the previous forms. 
Type from Joko, Cameroon. A series from Cameroon and Congo Beige. 

10. Anacerastes pictus spec. nov. 

cJ$. Speciebus huiusque descriptis in toto minor. Carinae rostri postice 
divergentes. Pronotum luteo-griseo maculatim notatum, omnino rugatum. 
Elytra antice grisea, macula nigra irregulari subbasali (in utroque elytro) notata, 
macula vel fascia transversa ad suturarn interrupta nigra, ab hac macula ad 
apicem luteo-grisea nigro variegata. 

Long. 9-11-5 mm. 

Hob. Gold Coast : Kumassi (type ; Newbery) and Abetifi ; 3 <$$, 3 $?, 
at Tring. 

Close to A. varius (of. above), which it possibly represents in the 
countries from the Niger to Senegambia, from which countries little material 
of Anthribidae has as yet come to hand. Pronotum granulate-rugate also in 
middle, a smooth median stripe being at most indicated in front and behind ; 
an apical and a basal spot, both rather broad, the posterior one tripartite in 
front of the carina, from dorsal carina forward a lateral spot, and diffuse scaling 
at sides partly representing the oblique subventral stripe of other species, these 
markings luteous, usually reduced by abrasion, sometimes the whole pronotum 
with dispersed luteous scaling not concentrated into spots. Scutellum and about 
the basal third of elytra grey, on subbasal swelling an irregular olivacous black 
spot variable in size, behind naked shoulder three dots confluent or separate, 
a transverse median band also black, irregular, narrowest at sides, variable 
in size, interrupted at suture by a few grey dots (usually 3 on the two sides 
together) ; from this band to apex luteous grey variegated with black, or black- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1030. 249 

brown spotted with luteous grey, in the latter case a luteous grey band separates 
the dark apical area from the deeper black median band. Size of scales as in 
A. varius f. nubilus. 

Key to the species of Anacerastes : 
I. Pronotum with a smooth, dull (not glossy), median stripe, usually covered 
with pubescence. 

a. Upperside glossy black .... A. ater Jord. (1894). 

b. Upperside dull, pubescent. 

a 1 . Grey pubescence of upper- and underside hair-like, nearly as on 

tibiae A. tenuipilis (cf. p. 247). 

b'. Grey pubescence of elytra consisting of truncate scales as large 
(or very nearly) as the dark scales. 
a". Upperside all grey, with a black median or postmedian 
round sj>ot on each elytrum. 

A. bimaculatus Jord. (1894). 
b'. Elytra each with a median, transverse, black spot, in front 
of it a diffuse, broad, grey band across both elytra. 

A. subfasciatus Jord. (1894). 
c*. An oblique line above shoulder and a median or ante- 
median obliquely transverse line forming a rhomboid 
on the two elytra together, the lines sometimes much 
obscured by extension of grey or clay scaling. 
a*. A transverse line from angle of rhomboid in or before 
middle of metasternum A. scriptus Jord. (1910). 
Rhomboidal area dark brown (blackish) f. scriptus. 
Rhomboidal area grey . f. canescens f. nov. 1 

b'. This line at posterior margin of metasternum. 

A. geometricus Jord. (1894). 

Rhomboidal area dark brown . f. geometricus. 

Elytra grey, with oblique blackish postmedian spot, 

lines obscured f. cinerascens Jord. (1894). 

Elytra fulvous clay, with postmedian spot as 

before . . . . . f. fulvus f. nov. 

d'-. Elytra yellowish grey, slightly greenish, tessellated with 

black ... A. variegatus Kolbe (1895). 

II. Smooth median stripe of pronotum vestigial, the centre of pronotuui being 

rugate-granulate more or less like rest of dorsum. 

c. Elytra with a small number of whitish grey spots behind base and 

behind middle .... A. lepidus Imh (1842). 

d. Elytra densely tessellated with clay-colour or grey, or the markings 

merged together. 
c 1 . A prominent brownish black macula on subbasal swelling of 

elytrum A. pictus (cf. p. 248). 

d 1 . No conspicuous macula on subbasal swelling of elytrum. 

A. varius (cf. p. 247). 

Elytra tessellated with fulvous clay-colour /. varius (cf. p. 248). 

Elytra tessellated with grey . f. griseus (cf. p. 248). 

Elytra with clayish buff clouds . f. nubilus (cf. p. 248). 

1 Type from Buta, Congo Beige. 



250 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 



NEW FLEAS FROM SOUTH AFRICA. 

By BOTHA DE MEILLON, M.Sc, F.E.S., 

South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg. 

(With 9 text-figures.) 

'T'HE following two species were found among some material submitted for 
identification to the Department of Entomology of the Institute for Medical 
Research. 

I am greatly indebted to Dr. K. Jordan for allowing me access to the 
collection at Tring, and for his help during the preparation of this paper. 




1. Xenopsylla trifarius sp. nov. (text-figs. 2-5). 

This species is intermediate between three subgroups of the genus Xenopsylla, 
as follows : 



No bristle behind or above metepisternal stigma ; ante- 
pygidial bristle of the male on a small cone 

Presence of a double, chitinised, sclerite in female behind 
the opening of the bursa copulatrix (fig. 5) reminiscent 
of X. eridos ....... 

Dorsal hump on ejaculatory duct of male (fig. 2) ; lamina 
of male organs narrow, its proximal end acuminate 
and turned up (fig. 3) . 



brasiliensis subgroup 



cheopis subgroup 



niloticus subgroup 



1 Jordan, K. (1925), " On Xenopsylla and Allied Genera of Siphonaptera," in Yerhandl. III. 
International. Entomologen-Kongressee, pp. 593-624 (1926). 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 



251 



According to the male genitalia this flea is very near Xenopsylla niloticus 
J. & R. 1908. The two species are separable as follows : 



Xenopsylla niloticus 

Eye reduced. 

P 1 of the male with two 
bristles of equal length (fig. 1). 

Paramere rounded on its 
ventral margin (fig. 1, par.). 



A bristle above and behind 
spiracle of the metepisternum. 

Sternites III- VI with 12-16 bristles 
in the female. 

Base of the tail of the spermatheca 
hardly swollen at all, much narrower 
than the head. 



Xenopsylla Irijarius sp. nov. 
Eye well developed, 
apical P 1 with one apical bristle longer than 

the other (fig. 2). 
apical Apical margin of paramere straight, 
forming a right angle with the ventral 
margin (fig. 2, par.), 
the No bristle in these places. 

Sternites III- VI with 6-10 bristles. 



Base of the tail swollen and wider 
than the apex (fig. 4). 

Presence of a double chitinised 
sclerite behind the opening of the bursa 
copulatrix (fig. 5). 

Length of X. trifarius : $ 1-6 mm., $ 1-8 mm. 

Klaver, Cape Province, South Africa, in the nest of Tatera lobengulae, 
11 . vii. 28. Collector C. V. Muller. Type in coll. N. C. Rothschild. 

2. Chiastopsylla quadrisetis sp. nov. (text-figs. 6, 7, 8). 
This species belongs to the same group as C. numae Roths, and G. rossi 
Waterst. In this group there is a dorsal incrassation from the base of the antenna 




to the vertex of the head ; the female of C. quadrisetis, resembling C. octavii 
Roths, in having the distal margin of sternite VII evenly rounded (fig. 6), can 
very easily be separated by this means. The male of G. octavii is unknown. 
Another group in which this incrassation is present is C. mulleri Ingram and 
C. pitchfordi Ingram. In these, however, the teeth of the pronotal comb are very 
short, much shorter than the pronotum itself, while in C. quadrisetis these teeth 
are as long or longer than the pronotum (fig. 7). 

The male is easily separated from those of G. rossi and C. numae by the 

17 



252 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

shape of the flattened bristles on sternite IX (fig. 8). In C. rossi and C. numae 
these bristles are fan-shaped and about as broad as the horizontal limb of 
sternite IX. The female can be distinguished from those of C. rossi and 
C. numae by the median row of bristles on the mesonotum not reaching as far 
down as the postmedian row (figs. 6 and 7). It also differs in having about 
6-7 large bristles on each side of tergite VIII (fig. 9) ; in the females of C. rossi 
and G. numae these bristles are much more numerous. 

<J, $. Head (fig. 6) evenly rounded in the female ; in the male there is a 
small notch on the irons near the origin of the maxillary palps. There are two 
spines at the genal angle resembling those of Chiastopsylla rossi. Hairs and 
bristles on the head as in Chiastopsylla rossi. Eye well developed. Relative 
lengths of the segments of the maxillary palpi 15, 15, 12, 22 in q, and 18, 17, 
12, 21 in ?. 

There is a dorsal incrassation from the base of the antenna up to the vertex 
of the head (fig. 6). 

Pronotum short, with a row of 10-11 bristles before the comb, which consists 
of 12-13 teeth. Pronotal teeth longer than the pronotum itself (fig. 6). 

Mesonotum with a row of fine hairs at the base, a median row of about 
9 hairs in £, 8-12 in $, and a postmedian row of 12 bristles (fig. 6). 

Metanotum. — Antemedian row of 8 hairs in $, 10 in $, and a row of 12 
bristles medianly. The posterior edge bears 3-4 short heavy spines. The 
epimeron of the metanotum bears the following bristles : anterior row <$ 3, 
$ 3-5 ; posterior row £ and $ 3. 

Similar spines as on metanotum, one on each side, occur on the posterior 
edge of abdominal tergites I-IV. In one $ there are two such spines on one 
side and one on the other in the first, abdominal segment. 

Legs. — There are six pairs of bristles on the outer side of the hind tibia ; 
there is a single bristle between the second and third pairs and one between the 
fourth and fifth pairs. The relative lengths of the tarsal segments are as follows : 

I II III IV V 

Foreleg 10 11 11 9 20 

Midleg IS 18 12 10 20 

Hindleg 42 28 16 11 22 

Abdomen. — There are two rows of bristles on the tergites of the first seven 
segments, one on the sternites. Bristles and spines on the tergites and sternites 
are as follows : 

Tergites . . .1 II 111 IV V VI VII 









Male. 














Antemedian row 


. 6 


4 


i 


3 




4 


4 




3 


Postmedian row 


. 8 


12 


12 


12 




12 


12 




12 


Teeth 


. 1 


1 


1 


] 




— 


— 




— 


Sternites . 




5 


5 
Female. 


5 




5 


6 




5 


Antemedian row 


. 8 


7-f 


; o 


6 




3-6 


4 




3-6 


Postmedian row- 


. 11 


12 


12-15 


12- 


-14 


12-13 


12 


13 


10-11 


Teeth 


. 1-2 


1 


1 


1 




— 


— 




— 


Sternites . 


. — 


2 


7 !l 


8 




8-9 


9-: 


11 


11 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 



253 



Antepygidial bristle long, accompanied by two very short ones. Stylet 
three times as long as broad at the base. 

Modified segments. — <J : The " finger " (F, text-fig. 8) is nearly four times 
as long as it is broad at the base. The hairs on the " finger " are inconspicuous, 
there being, however, two fairly long ones at the distal margin. The clasper 
is ovoid in shape ; it has a long bristle — with a few shorter ones just before it — 




beyond the middle at the dorsal edge ; a few short bristles on its distal margin 
and some on the lateral surface. Sternite IX is characteristic and enables the 
species to be easily recognised (text-fig. 8) ; the vertical limb is narrow and 
more heavily chitinised than the broader horizontal limb ; the ventro-apical 
margin carries a row of four long narrow leaf-like bristles. 

$ : The distal margin of tergite VIII is sinuous and carries 8-9 bristles ; 
laterally there are 5-6 bristles. The posterior border of sternite VII is evenly 
rounded (text-fig. 9). 

Length : <$ 1-3 mm., $ 1-7 mm. 

One $ (type) and four $$ from the nests of Karroo rats (Parotomys luteolus) 
at Klaver, Capo Province, August 1928. The burrows were stated to be far 

up on the sides of the mountain. Coll, C. V. Muller. Type in coll. 

N. C. Rothschild. 



254 XnYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF JAPANESE, FORMOSA X 
AND PHILIPPINE GEOMETRIDAK. 

By R. J. WEST. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

'T'HE descriptions in this paper are based on material in the collection of the 
late A. E. Wileman, now in the British Museum (Natural History), and 
form a continuation of a previous paper in this journal. 1 

Subfamily STERRHINAE 
Anisodes acritophyrta sp.n. 

cj : Palpus vinaceous-brown above, warm buff beneath. Antenna pectinate. 
Head : irons vinaceous-brown, vertex warm buff, occiput vinaceous-brown. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula warm buff mixed with vinaceous-brown. 
Abdomen warm buff mixed with vinaceous-brown, venter light buff. Pectus 
light buff. Legs : foreleg light buff, vinaceous-brown above ; midleg light 
buff, tinged with vinaceous-brown outwardly ; hindleg light buff. Forewing 
warm buff mottled with vinaceous-brown ; a small cartridge buff spot on 
discocellulars ; a medial share gradually narrowing toward inner margin ; a 
very faintly marked, crenulate, fuscous postmedial line ; fringe light buff with 
interneural vinaceous-brown spots. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; 
markings similar to those of forewing, the cartridge buff spot on discocellulars 
being larger, and surrounded with vinaceous-brown. Underside : forewing light 
buff lightly suffused with vinaceous-brown, medial and postmedial lines faintly 
marked ; hindwing light buff, medial and postmedial lines faintly marked. 

Expanse 36 mm. (tip to tip 33 mm.). 

$ : Similar to $, antenna minutely ciliate, wings more heavily mottled 
with vinaceous-brown, making the space between the medial shade and post- 
medial line appear as a crenulate band. 

Expanse 34 mm. (tip to tip 32 mm.). 

Holotype J: lO.iii. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Baguio, 5,000 ft. ; allotype $: 25.vii.1913, subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's 
Place, 7,000 ft. ; paratype $ : 30. v. 1914, Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolam- 
bugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : A. ceramis Meyr. 

Ptochophyle virgata sp.n. 
cj : Palpus light buff, suffused with Pompeian red. Antenna pectinate 
for three-fourths, apical fourth ciliate. Head : frons light buff, tinged with 
Pompeian red, vertex light orange-yellow, occiput Pompeian red. Thorax: 
patagium light orange-yellow, tegula light orange-yellow, suffused with Pompeian 
red. Abdomen light orange-yellow, Pompeian red at joints of segments, and 
extending along segments laterally, venter light buff. Pectus light buff. Legs : 

i Cf. Nov. Zool., xxxv, pp. 105-131. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 255 

foreleg light buff, tinged with Pompeian red above ; other legs light buff. Fore- 
wing light orange-yellow mottled with Pompeian red ; irrorated with Hessian 
brown on costa ; antemedial fascia light orange-yellow, bordered distally by 
Pompeian red, straight across the wing ; in the cell, a short bar of Hessian brown 
from distal edge of fascia to discocellulars, terminating with slightly raised 
scales ; postmedial fascia consisting of a Hessian brown line, outwardly bowed 
to vein 3, then inwardly oblique to inner margin ; a bar of Hessian brown 
from distal edge of fascia to termen between veins 3 and 4 ; veins in subterminal 
area streaked with Pompeian red. Hindwing concolorous with fore wing ; a 
Hessian brown streak along subcosta from base to termen ; postmedial fascia 
Hessian brown, outwardly oblique to vein 5, angled, then inwardly oblique to 
inner margin ; in angle formed by postmedial fascia and subcostal streak, two 
prominent light orange-yellow patches ; termen Hessian brown, angled at 
vein 4. Underside : forewing glossy, light buff tinged with Pompeian red ; hind- 
wing glossy, light buff. 

Expanse 22 mm. (tip to tip 20 mm.). 

Holotype J: 27.xii.1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Palali, 2,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : P. lineata Warr. 

Problepsis wilemani sp.n. 

$ : Palpus white below, drab-grey above. Antenna with basal three- 
fourths pectinate, apical fourth ciliate. Head : irons white, upper half drab- 
grey, vertex white. Thorax : patagium and tegula white. Abdomen white 
above and beneath. Pectus white. Legs white, foreleg suffused with drab-grey 
above. Forewing white ; light drab on costa ; postmedial fascia consisting of 
an elongate patch defined by light drab, and white metallic scales, proximal 
edge touching discocellulars, the light drab and metallic scaling broken at 
vein 2 ; subterminal fascia consisting of three drab-grey lines, the middle one 
composed of dots, outwardly bowed to vein 2, then straight to inner margin. 
Hindwing concolorous with forewing, fascia forming continuations of those on 
forewing. Underside : fore- and hindwings white, glossy. 

Expanse 32 mm. {tip to tip 28 mm.). 

$ : Similar to S- 

Expanse 38 mm. (tip to tip 34 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 18.vii.1912, allotype $: ll.vii.1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
prov. Rizal, Manila (plains); paratypes 1 <$ : 23.iii.1914, 1 $: 12. xi. 1911, 
prov. Rizal, Montalban ; 1 $ : 2.iv. 1912, Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 
800 ft. 

Nearest ally : P. apollinaria Guen. 

Idaea jordani sp.n. 
$ : Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons pinkish 
buff, suffused with fuscous, vertex pinkish buff, occiput avellaneous. Thorax : 
patagium and tegula pinkish buff. Abdomen pinkish buff above and beneath. 
Pectus light buff. Legs : pinkish buff, foreleg suffused with fuscous above. 
Forewing pinkish buff, sparsely irrorated with fuscous ; fasciae avellaneous, 
antemedial fascia outwardly oblique from costa to middle of cell, angled, then 



256 XnVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1030. 

inwardly oblique to inner margin ; cell spot fuscous ; postmedial fascia inwardly 
oblique, from costa subterminally to inner margin medially ; subterminal fascia, 
a slightly crenulate line with fuscous points on veins ; followed by two wavy 
shades in subterminal area ; interneural fuscous spots on termen. Hindwing 
concolorous with forewing, fasciae forming continuations of those on forewing ; 
cell spot fuscous. Underside : forewing light buff, postmedial fascia fuscous, 
followed by two pinkish buff shades in subterminal area ; cell spot and termen 
fuscous ; hindwing light buff, cell spot, postmedial fascia and termen fuscous. 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 20 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 12. vi. 1906, Formosa, Kanshirei, 1,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : /. hanna Butl. 

Chrysocraspeda rothschildi sp.n. 

<J : Palpus amber-yellow, mineral-red above. Antenna basal three-fourths 
pectinate, apical fourth ciliate ; shaft mineral-red. Head : frons and vertex 
light buff, mineral-red at base of antennae, a fine mineral-red transverse line. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula amber-yellow mixed with mineral-red. Abdomen 
mineral-red with amber-yellow at joints of segments, venter light buff. Pectus 
light buff. Legs light buff tinged with mineral-red. Forewing amber-3'ellow 
irrorated with mineral-red at base ; a wide band medially, densely irrorated 
with mineral-red, proximal edge outwardly oblique from costa subbasally to 
middle of cell antemedially, sharply angled, then inwardly oblique to median 
nervure, then wavy to inner margin, distal edge inwardly oblique from costa 
postmedially to vein 7, excurved to below vein 6, inwardly to discocellulars, 
incurved, then outwardly oblique to vein 3, a sharp outward angle, inwardly 
to just below lower angle of cell, inwardly oblique to anal vein, outwardly 
oblique to inner margin ; subterminal fascia a wide band densely irrorated 
with mineral-red, crenulate, with streaks on veins from distal edge to termen, 
terminal line mineral-red. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, the amber- 
yellow forming an irregular elongate patch through centre of wing from base to 
termen ; subbasal, antemedial and postmedial fasciae, all indicated by a curved 
elongate spot from costa and a patch on inner margin ; subterminal fascia a 
wide band, crenulate, with streaks on veins from distal edge to termen, this 
band being broken at vein 5, giving it the appearance of two patches, one at 
apex, the other at tornus. Underside : fore- and hindwings, similar in pattern 
to upperside but slightly paler in colour. 

Expanse 22 mm. (tip) to tip 20 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 20.xii.1911, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Klondyke, 1,300 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. togata Fabr. 

Chrysocraspeda polycyma sp.n. 
? : Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna minutely ciliate, shaft white at base. 
Head: frons and vertex cinnamon-brown. Thorax: patagium and tegula 
cinnamon-brown. Abdomen cinnamon-brown, venter light buff. Pectus and 
legs light buff. Forewing light drab, covered with a number of wavy, transverse, 
benzo brown lines ; medially these lines are absent, the space being occupied 
by a band of straw yellow suffused with ochraceous-tawny, in which is a straw- 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 257 

yellow cell spot, outwardly oblique from costa to median nervure, outwardly 
angled, then obliquely incurved to inner margin ; a straw-yellow border on 
termen gradually decreasing in width to vein 4, where it is obsolescent, then 
increasing in width to tornus. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, lines 
forming continuations of those on forewing, termen angled at vein 3. Under- 
side : fore- and hindwings glossy, drab. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 25 mm.). 

Holotype $: 17. v. 1914, Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, 
Kolambugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : G. croceimarginata Warr. 

Eois themeropis sp.n. 

$ : Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons fuscous, 
vertex pinkish buff. Thorax : patagium and tegula pinkish buff. Abdomen 
pinkish buff above and beneath. Pectus and legs pinkish buff. Forewing 
pinkish buff tinged with fuscous, fasciae fuscous, antemedial fascia excurved 
to median nervure, inwardly oblique to inner margin ; medial fascia consisting 
of a fine, inwardly oblique, fuscous line, cell spot fuscous ; postmedial fascia 
slightly excurved ; a faint wavy shade in subterminal area. Hindwing con- 
colorous with forewing, fasciae forming continuations of those on forewing. 
Underside : fore- and hindwings similar to upperside. 

Expanse 22 mm. (tip to tip 20 mm.). 

Holotype $: 17. xi. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : E. comparanda Warr. 

Subfamily HEMITHEINAE 
Comostola exaereta sp.n. 

$ : Palpus white beneath, cinnamon above. Head : frons and vertex 
cinnamon. Thorax : patagium and tegula deep glaucous-green. Abdomen 
deep glaucous-green, venter white. Pectus white. Legs pinkish buff, foreleg 
suffused with cinnamon above. Forewing deep glaucous-green, costa pinkish 
buff, cell spot cinnamon surrounded with cartridge-buff, termen cinnamon, 
fringe cartridge-buff. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, termen angled at 
vein 4. Underside : fore- and hindwings pale glaucous-green. 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 22 mm.). 

$ : Similar to $. 

Expanse 26 mm. (tip to tip 23 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : 7.iv.l912, allotype $: 11. iv. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. meritaria Wlk. 

Comostola acteana sp.n. 

cj : Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna pectinate, shaft white. Head : frons 

and vertex bice green, white on lower half and at bases of antennae. Thorax : 

patagium and tegula bice green. Abdomen bice green, venter white. Pectus 

white. Legs white. Foreiving bice green, costa sepia, a small sepia cell spot, 



258 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

fringe cartridge-buff. Hind-wing concolorous with forewing. Underside : fore- 
and hindwings pearl-grey, glossy. 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 22 mm.). 

Holotype S : l.xii.WW, paratypes 3 £<? : 11, 12. xi., 3. xii. 1912, Philippine 
Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. lencomerata Wlk. 

Comostola callista sp.n. 

$ : Palpus light buff. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons and vertex 
burnt lake. Thorax : patagium and tegula calliste green, rest of thorax burnt 
lake. Abdomen calliste green, burnt lake at base, venter white. Pectus white. 
Legs : light buff, foreleg suffused with burnt lake above. Forewing calliste 
green, bordered on costa and termen from base to just beyond toriius with burnt 
lake irrorated with fuscous-black, bordered inwardly by white, and separated 
from the green by a narrow edging of burnt lake, the width of the border irregular, 
being increased at the following points : antemedially and postmedially on 
costa, at apex, between veins 4 and 5 on termen, and at tornus ; fringe warm 
buff. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, the border increased in width 
between veins 4 and 5 on termen, and at tornus. Underside : fore- and liind- 
wings white, glossy ; fringe warm buff. 

Expanse 26 mm. (tip to tip 24 mm.). 

Holotype $: 30. v. 1914, Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, 
Kolambugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : C. dispansa Wlk. 

Prasinocyina peristicta sp.n. 

$ : Palpus dark greenish glaucous above, white beneath. Antenna minutely 
ciliate, with paired setae, white at base of shaft. Head : frons and vertex 
dark greenish glaucous, a white transverse band between antennae. Thorax : 
patagium and tegula dark greenish glaucous. Abdomen dark greenish glaucous, 
venter white. Pectus white. Legs : foreleg, coxa white, rest of leg warm buff ; 
midleg, coxa and femur white, tibia and tarsus warm buff ; hindleg white. 
Foreiving dark greenish glaucous strigulate with white, cartridge-buff on costa. 
Hindwing concolorous with forewing. Underside : fore- and hindwings pale 
glaucous-green. 

Expanse 32 mm. (tip to tip 29 mm.). 

Holotype ?: 13. iv. 1913, paratype $ : 10. iv. 1913, Philippine Is., Palawan I., 
Taytay (plains). 

Nearest ally : P. albicosta Wlk. 

Thalassodes pantascia sp.n. 
$ : Palpus grape-green above, white below. Antenna minutely ciliate, 
with paired setae, shaft white. Head : frons grape-green, vertex pistachio 
green, a white bar between bases of antennae. Thorax : patagium and tegula 
pistachio green. Abdomen pistachio green, venter white. Pectus white. Legs : 
foreleg, coxa white, femur cartridge-buff, warm buff above, tibia and tarsus 
cartridge-buff, avellaneous above ; mid- and hindlegs, coxae white, remainder 
cartridge-buff. Forewing translucent, pistachio green strigulated with white, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 259 

costa pinkish buff ; postmedial fascia faintly marked, defined by a shade 
proximally, slightly waved. Hindwing concolorous with forewing ; postmedial 
fascia outwardly oblique to vein 4, excurved, then inwardly oblique to inner 
margin. Underside : fore- and hindwings greenish glaucous. 

Expanse 38 mm. (tip to tip 35 mm.). 

Holotype $: 28. vi. 1913, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : T. curiosa Swinh. 

Gelasma panterpna sp.n. 

J : Palpus fuscous-black above, honey-yellow beneath. Antenna basal 
four-fifths pectinate, apical fifth ciliate. Head : frons fuscous, vertex deep 
grape-green, white anteriorly. Thorax : patagium and tegula deep grape- 
green. Abdomen deep grape-green, anal tuft honey-yellow, venter pinkish buff. 
Pectus pinkish buff. Legs honey-yellow. Forewing deep grape-green, costa 
cartridge-buff irrorated with warm sepia ; postmedial fascia consisting of a 
fine, white, wavy line ; termen warm sepia, fringe cartridge-buff, with warm 
sepia spots at ends of veins. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, fascia 
forming continuation of that on forewing, termen angled and produced to a 
short tail at vein 4. Underside : fore- and hindwings, honey-yellow for two- 
thirds, postmedially a white band defined by honey-yellow ; beyond, a band 
of fuscous-black, subterminal area grape-green. 

Expanse 35 mm. (Up to tip 31 mm.). 

Holotype cJ : 29. vi. 1913, paratopes: 1 3, 29. vi., 1 <J, 4.vii.l913, Philip- 
pine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Palali, 2,000 ft. ; 1 <$, 20.xii.1911, 1 <J, 
15.iii., 1 <J, 14. iv. 1912, subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft. 

Nearest ally : C. veninotata Warr. 

Rhanidopsis gen. nov. 

cJ : Unknown. £ : Face smooth. Palpus long, slender. Antenna lamel- 
late. Pectus slightly hairy. Hindtibia with one pair of spurs. Abdomen not 
crested. Frenulum, wanting. Wings thickly-scaled. Forewing costa gently 
arched, apex moderate, termen rather straight anteriorly, then curved and 
becoming oblique, cell short, discocellulars incurved ; veins, 2 well before angle, 
3 just before, 4 at angle ; 5 nearer 6 than 4 ; 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 stalked, 10 from 9 
before 8; 11 free. Hindwing apex rounded, termen curved, tornus angled, 
inner margin longer than abdomen, cell short, discocellulars outwardly oblique ; 
veins, 2 before angle, 3 and 4 from angle ; 5 nearer 6 than 4 ; 6 and 7 on long 
stalk ; 8 anastomosing with cell near base. 

Genotype R. neophantes sp.n. 

Rhanidopsis neophantes sp.n. 
$ : Palpus light yellowish olive. Antenna lamellate. Head : frons and 
vertex light yellowish olive, a transverse white bar between bases of antennae. 
Thorax : patagium light yellowish olive, tegula light greyish vinaceous mixed 
with benzo brown, rest of thorax light yellowish olive. Abdomen light greyish 
olive mixed with benzo brown, venter cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. 
Legs light buff. Forewing benzo brown, with a wide border of light yellowish 
olive along costa and termen to tornus ; a small patch of light greyish vinaceous 



260 Novttates Zoolocicae XXXV. 1930. 

at base below median nervure ; postmedial fascia brick-red, wavy, from vein 6 
to inner margin near tornus, with proximally below median nervine, a patch of 
light greyish vinaceous. Hindwing proximal half benzo brown, in which are 
two light vinaceous spots, one at base, the other on inner margin subbasally ; 
followed by a fascia of white, edged distally with benzo brown and brick-red, 
obliquely incurved to vein 3, straight to vein 2, deeply incurved to inner margin ; 
postmedial fascia, a wide band of light greyish vinaceous, bordered distally 
with benzo brown ; a wide border of light yellowish olive on termen. Underside : 
fore- and hindwings glossy, cartridge-buff, markings faintly showing through 
from upperside. 

Expanse 25 mm. (tip to tip 23 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 26.xii.1911, paratope ? : 17. iv. 1912. Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft. 

Superficially this species resembles the American species P. rhanis Cram. 

Colutoceras mianta sp.n. 

<J : Palpus pinkish buff. Antenna pectinate for three-fourths, apical 
fourth ciliate. Head : frons fawn colour, vertex white. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula light cress green, rest of thorax dark vinaceous-brown, a light cress- 
green spot posteriorly. Abdomen fawn colour, with dorsal crests, venter and 
anal tuft cartridge-buff. Pectus cartridge-buff. Legs pinkish buff. Foreioing 
light cress green, costa white ; antemedial fascia an ill-defined, broken, dark 
vinaceous-brown, wavy line ; two dark vinaceous-brown dots on discocellulars, 
an elongate, dark vinaceous-brown patch in subterminal area, reaching from 
vein 5 to inner margin, proximal edge wavy, distal edge outwardly oblique to 
termen at vein 3, then along termen to tornus ; termen fawn colour. Hindwing 
concolorous with forewing, two dots on discocellulars, a dot on each of veins 2, 
3 and 4 postmedially, a patch at apex, fawn colour on inner margin. Underside : 
forewing yellowish glaucous, glossy, patch at tornus fuscous ; hindwing yellowish 
glaucous, glossy, patch at apex fuscous. 

Expanse 34 mm. (tip to tip 31 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 10. v. 1914, Philippine Is., Luzon I., prov. Rizal, Montalban ; 
paratope £ : 22.iii.1912, Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft. 

Nearest ally : G. mariae Lucas. 

Colutoceras dialitha sp.n. 

<J : Palpus white, mixed with light cress green. Antenna pectinate for 
three-fourths, apical fourth ciliate, shaft white at base. Head : frons light 
cress green, white on lower edge, vertex light cress green. Thorax : patagium 
and tegula light cress green. Abdomen light cress green, venter and anal tuft 
white. Pectus and legs white. Forewing light cress green, fuscous on costa, 
a white spot edged with Indian red on costa at base ; antemedialry three white 
spots edged with Indian red, one each on costa, median nervure, and inner 
margin ; a series of white spots edged with Indian red, from costa postmedially 
to tornus, slightly waved ; termen Indian red, with a white spot at end of 
each vein. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, a small fuscous-black spot on 
discocellulars. Underside : forewing pale glaucous-green, suffused with light 
cress green on upper half ; hindwing pale glaucous-green. 



Novitates 2oologicae XXXV. 1930. 261 

Expanse 24 mm. (tip to tip 21 mm.). 

§ : Similar to $. 

Expanse 26 mm. (tip to tip 23 mm.). 

Holotype £ : 29. v. 1914, parafypes 2 <$£ : 15. v., 22. vi. 1914, Philippine Is., 
Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, Kolambugan (plains); allotype $: 3.vii.l913, 
Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, Palali, 2.000 ft. 

Nearest ally : G. inductaria Guen. 

Spaniocentra apatella sp.n. 

<J : Palpus white, wood-brown above. Antenna proximal three-fourths 
pectinate, apical fourth ciliate, shaft white. Head : frons wood-brown, vertex 
white, occiput dark greyish brown. Thorax : patagium and tegula asphodel 
green. Abdomen white, mixed with dark greyish brown, venter white. Pectus 
white. Legs white, wood-brown on tibia and tarsus of foreleg. Forewing 
asphodel green, costa dark greyish brown, outer edge white ; a narrow border 
of dark greyish brown on termen, increased in width from vein 3 to tornus 
forming a patch ; within the border a white spot at apex, another and larger 
one in patch at tornus ; termen slightly angled at vein 4, fringe light buff. 
Hindwing concolorous with forewing, border on termen enlarged at apex to a 
small patch with white centre ; inner margin dark greyish brown. Underside : 
forewing pale glaucous green, glossy, a fuscous-black jjatch near tornus ; hind- 
wing pale glaucous-green, glossy, a fuscous-black spot at apex. 

Expanse 32 mm. (tip to tip 30 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 28.iii.1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Klondyke, 800 ft. 

Nearest ally : S. pannosa Moore, from which it differs in the forewing 
having termen angled and a white spot at apex. 

Lophomaehia lepta sp.n. 

$ Palpus white, suffused with blackish brown above. Antenna serrate. 
Head : frons dark yellowish green, vertex white. Thorax : patagium and 
tegula dark yellowish green. Abdomen white, dark yellowish green at base 
laterally, venter white. Pectus and legs white. Forewing white, blackish 
brown on costa, a blackish brown spot in distal end of cell, touching costa, 
surrounded by a suffusion of blackish brown reaching from wing-base to just 
beyond discocellulars, followed by a grape-green suffusion ; a small dark yellowish 
green patch at base below median nervure ; medially, a dark yellowish green 
patch, proximal edge from median nervure to inner margin, uijper edge along 
median nervure to just beyond base of vein 4, distal edge excurved from vein 4 
to vein 2, wavy to inner margin ; subterminal area dark yellowish green, broken 
by white below apex and at vein 4, and a white wavy fascia. Hindwing white, 
antemedial fascia dark yellowish green, proximal edge slightly excurved, distal 
edge obliquely incurved to vein 7, excurved at vein 5, excurved at base of veins 
3 and 4, incurved to inner margin ; postmedial fascia, a diffused band of dark 
yellowish green, wavy, with a conspicuous patch on distal edge between veins 2 
and 4 ; subterminal fascia a diffused band of dark yellowish green parallel with 
termen, termen angled at vein 4. Underside : forewing white, a blackish brown 
suffusion on upper half from base to subterminal area ; hindwing white. 



262 Notitates Zoological XXXV. 1930. 

Expanse 28 mm. (tip to tip 24 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 16 . iii . 1912, paratype $ : 7.iv.l912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Klondyke, 800 ft.; paratype <$ : 3.vii.l913, subprov. 
Benguet, Palali, 2,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : L. semialba Wlk. 

Terpna eucryphes sp.n. 

$ : Palpus buffy citrine, mixed with warm sepia. Antenna simple. Head : 
frons warm sepia, with a transverse fuscous-black band, vertex buffy citrine. 
Thorax : patagium buffy citrine, tegula buffy citrine, fuscous-black laterally. 
Abdomen buffy citrine, irrorated with fuscous-black, venter pinkish buff. Pectus 
pinkish buff. Legs : foreleg, coxa and femur pinkish buff, warm sepia above 
tibia pinkish buff, warm sepia and fuscous-black above, tarsus fuscous-black ; 
other legs pinkish buff. Forewing buffy citrine, warm sepia striated with fuscous- 
black on costa, warm sepia at base ; antemedial fascia, a fuscous-black, incurved 
line, bordered distally by a suffusion of warm sepia ; area to just beyond post- 
medial fascia, striated with fuscous-black and warm sepia ; postmedial fascia 
crenulate (points distad), fuscous-black defined by warm sepia proximally, and 
some white scaling distally, outwardly oblique from costa to vein 5, straight 
to vein 4, inwardly oblique to inner margin ; subterminally an incurved, warm 
sepia band, from costa to termen at vein 5. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, 
fasciae forming continuations of those on forewing. Underside : forewing 
cartridge-buff, lightly suffused with warm sepia ; a wide subterminal hand of 
warm sepia, edged proximally by fuscous-black ; hindwing cartridge-buff, a 
wide subterminal band of fuscous-black. 

Expanse 50 mm. (tip to tip 43 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 26.xii. 1912, paratype $ : 28.xii. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., 
subprov. Benguet, Palali, 2,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : T. costistrigaria Moore. 

Terpna eupines sp.n. 
cJ : Palpus warm buff mixed with livid brown. Antenna basal half pectinate, 
distal half ciliate. Head : frons livid brown, with a transverse fuscous band, 
vertex buffy citrine. Tliorax : patagium and tegula buffy citrine. Abdomen 
buffy citrine, speckled with fuscous, two dark vinaceous-drab tufts dorsally, 
venter pinkish buff. Pectus warm buff. Legs : foreleg pinkish buff, coxa and 
femur livid brown above, tibia livid brown and fuscous above, tarsus fuscous 
above, pinkish buff at joints of segments ; midleg pinkish buff, femur and tibia 
livid brown outwardly, tarsus fuscous above, pinkish buff at joints of segments ; 
hindleg pinkish buff. Forewing buffy citrine, striated with dark vinaceous- 
drab on costa, irrorated with dark vinaceous-drab at base ; antemedial fascia, 
a dark vinaceous-drab, crenulate (points basad) line, sharply defined proximally, 
diffusely edged distally ; a diffused, dark vinaceous-drab patch on costa 
medially, reaching to middle of discocellulars ; postmedial fascia, a crenulate 
(points distad), dark vinaceous-drab line, inciuved from costa to vein 5, then 
inwardly oblique to inner margin ; subterminal fascia represented by two dark 
vinaceous-drab patches, one from costa to vein 5, the other from vein 3 to near 
tornus. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, fasciae forming continuations 



XuVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 263 

of those on forewing. Underside : forewing cartridge-buff, warm buff at base 
on upper half, lightly suffused with livid brown on lower half, cell spot fuscous ; 
subterminal fascia wide, fuscous ; hindwing cartridge-buff suffused with warm 
buff on basal half, subterminal fascia wide, fuscous. 

Expanse 50 mm. (tip to tip 44 mm.). 

Holotype $ : 22. vi. 1914, Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, 
Kolambugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : T. variocolaria Moore. 



Subfamily OENOCHROMINAE 

Ozola pyraloides sp.n. 

$ : Palpus fuscous. Antenna minutely ciliate. Head : frons warm buff, 
with transverse fuscous bar in middle, vertex warm buff. Thorax : patagium 
warm buff, tegula warm buff, fuscous posteriorly, rest of thorax warm buff, 
with a fuscous spot posteriorly. Abdomen warm buff, banded with fuscous, 
venter warm buff. Pectus warm buff. Legs pinkish buff, lightly suffused with 
fuscous. Forewing white, fuscous on costa ; subbasal fascia an excurved 
fuscous line ; antemedial fascia excurved, fuscous ; medially, a triangular 
fuscous patch on costa, point touching base of vein 4, and a fuscous bar from 
vein 2, to inner margin ; postmedially, a fuscous patch on inner margin reaching 
up to vein 2 ; apical area fuscous, an elongate fuscous patch from vein 3 to 
tornus. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, a spot on inner margin ante- 
medially, a triangular patch on costa medially, the point touching base of 
vein 4, two patches postmedially, one between veins 4 and 6, the other on inner 
margin reaching up to vein 3, a small patch on apex with a spot below, and an 
elongate patch at tornus. Underside similar to upperside. 

Expanse 34 mm. (tip to tip 32 mm.). 

Holotype $: 27.vii.1913, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Pauai, Haight's Place, 7,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : 0. falcipennis Moore. 

Noreia phauda sp.n. 

(J : Palpus warm sepia. Antenna ciliate, with paired setae. Head : frons 
warm sepia, vertex deep brownish drab. Thorax : patagium and tegula deep 
brownish drab. Abdomen deep brownish drab, anal tuft cartridge-buff, venter 
cartridge-buff, suffused with deep brownish drab. Pectus and legs cartridge- 
buff, suffused with deep brownish drab. Forewing deep brownish drab ; a 
warm sepia excurved line antemedially ; cell spot fuscous ; a warm sepia line, 
from costa subterminally, inwardly oblique and slightly curved to inner margin 
postmedially. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, postmedial line forming a 
continuation of that on forewing. Underside : fore- and hindwings slightly 
paler, but similar in colour to upperside ; two tufts of hair on hindwing, one 
at base of vein 2, the other on inner margin. 

Expanse 42 mm. (tip to tip 37 mm.). 

Holotype <$ : 15. v. 1914, Philippine Is., Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, 
Kolambugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : N. unilineata "H'lk. 



264 XOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

Alex nephodes Bp.n 

3 : Palpus russet, suffused with fuscous-black above. Antenna basal 
five-sixths pectinate, apical sixth ciliate. Head : frons and vertex russet suffused 
with fuscous-black. Thorax : patagium russet mixed with fuscous-black, tegula 
and rest of thorax snuff-brown. Abdomen snuff-brown, lightly suffused with 
fuscous-black, venter light buff suffused with russet. Pectus light buff suffused 
with russet. Legs russet, mottled with fuscous-black. Forewing snuff brown, 
sparsely irrorated with fuscous-black, cell spot fuscous-black ; from apex to 
inner margin medially, a warm sepia oblique line, area beyond suffused with 
fuscous-black. Hindiving concolorous with forewing, an oblique line forming 
a continuation of that on forewing. Underside : fore- and hindwings russet 
with fuscous-black markings similar to those on upperside. 

Expanse 42 mm. (tip to tip 46 mm.). 

$ : Larger than $, with fuscous-black dots in subterminal area, in place 
of the fuscous-black suffusion seen in the $. 

Expanse 54 mm. (tip to tip 50 mm.). 

Holotype $ ■ 23.xii.1911, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Kloiufyke, 800 ft.; allotype $: 22. vi. 1914, Mindanao I., subprov. Lanao, 
Kolambugan (plains). 

Nearest ally : A. continuaria Wlk. 

Eumelea lipara sp.n. 

£ : Palpus primuline yellow, grenadine red above. Antenna minutely 
ciliate, with paired setae. Head : frons primuline yellow, grenadine red on 
upper half, vertex primuline yellow, with a grenadine spot behind antenna. 
Thorax : patagium and tegula Kaiser brown. Abdomen Kaiser brown, venter 
dull dark purple, with xanthine orange at joints of segments. Pectus primuline 
yellow. Legs primuline yellow, with patches of grenadine red on coxae, femora 
and tibiae. Forewing Kaiser brown ; antemedial fascia a faintly marked, 
excurved deep dull purple line ; medial fascia a deep dull purple line, faintly 
marked, outwardly oblique from costa to vein (i, excurved, then slightly incurved 
to inner margin ; postmedially, two small patches of primuline yellow, one at 
vein 5, the other below vein 2 ; subterminal fascia a faintly marked, slightlv 
incurved deep dull purple line. Hindwing concolorous with forewing, with a 
purplish tinge, medial fascia a continuation of fascia on forewing, outwardly 
oblique to vein 4, excurved, then inwardly oblique to inner margin. Underside : 
fore- and hindwings xanthine yellow, suffused with deep dull purple, markings 
similar to those on upperside. 

Expanse 52 mm. (tip to tip 4S mm.). 

Holotype £ : 29. iv. 1912, Philippine Is., Luzon I., subprov. Benguet, 
Baguio, 5,000 ft. 

Nearest ally : E. vulpenaria Stoll. 

(Colours, except those in italics, from Ridgway's Color Standards and Color 
Nomenclature, 1912.) 



Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1030. 265 



ON TWO UNDESCRIBED NEOTROPICAL BIRDS. 

By C. E. HELLMAYR (Cmcioo). 

TN the course of studies undertaken during a short visit to England in the 
spring of 1928, two new forms came to light, which are described in the 
succeeding pages. For the use of material, I am indebted to Lord Rothschild, 
the authorities of the British Museum (Natural History), Dr. F. M. Chapman, 
of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and Mons. J. Berlioz, 
of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Definite colour terms are taken 
from Ridgway's Color Standards and Color Nomenclature (1912). 

Cichlopsis leucogenys peruvianus n.subsp. 

Most nearly related to C. I. chubbi Chapm., of western Ecuador, but supraloral 
streak, orbicular ring, throat, and foreneck paler, ochraceous tawny instead 
of chestnut hazel ; auricular likewise paler ; breast bright ochreous brown 
(near antique brown) instead of dull brownish ; upper parts brighter, more 
tinged with ochraceous. Wing 108 ; tail 100 ; bill 13.1 mm. 

Type, in collection of Tring Museum : Male (first annual). Perene, alt. 
1,000 metr., Dept. Junin, Peru. July 1921. C. O. Schunke coll. 

Habitat. — Tropical zone of central Peru (Perene, Dept. Junin). 

Remarks. — The discovery of this form, which adds a genus heretofore un- 
recorded to the fauna of Peru, is of considerable interest. Although represented 
by a single specimen (in first annual plumage, as is shown by the fluffy ochraceous- 
tipped greater upper wing coverts and tertials retained from the juvenile dress), 
there can be no doubt that it constitutes a distinct form, separable from both 
C. I. leucogenys, of eastern Brazil, and C. I. chubbi, of western Ecuador. In colour 
characters it occupies, just as it does geographically, an intermediate position, 
combining the strongly ochraceous underparts of chubbi with the paler throat 
and head markings of the eastern races. Compared with twelve specimens of 
C. I. gularis and three of C. I. leucogenys, the Peruvian bird may be distinguished 
by the greater extent of the ochraceous tawny gular area, which embraces the 
whole of the throat instead of being confined to the middle and leaving the 
lateral portion, especially anteriorly, dark brown like the malar region, and by 
the much more ochraceous lower parts. Foreneck and chest are decidedly 
ochraceous brown (somewhat duller than antique brown), passing into Dresden 
brown on the sides, paling into dull buff in a narrow zone along the abdominal 
line, and deepening again on the under tail coverts to ochraceous tawny (rather 
lighter than the throat). In leucogenys and gularis, on the other hand, only 
a restricted zone across the upper chest is Brussels brown, the remainder being 
pale greyish, tinged with dull brownish along the flanks, while the under tail 
coverts are much paler, warm buff instead of ochraceous tawny. The supraloral 
streak and orbicular ring, in C. I. peruvianus, are as prominent as in gularis, 
though of a lighter tone. The upper parts are Brussels brown, passing into 
Sudan brown on rump and tail coverts, thus not conspicuously different from 
C. I. leucogenys, whereas C. I. gularis generally is of a darker brown (near raw 



266 N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAK XXXV. 1030. 

umber) above. No constant difference in size appears to exist between the 
various members of the genus. 

The ranges of the four races now known are as follows : 

(a) C. leucogenys leucogenys Cab. — Wooded coast region of south-eastern 

Brazil from Espirito Santo to southern Bahia. 1 Three specimens 

(two from Espirito Santo, one from li Brazil ") examined. 

(6) C. leucogenys gularis Salv. & Godm. — British Guiana (Merume Mts., 
Carimang River, Roraima). Twelve specimens examined. 

(c) C. leucogenys peruvianas Hellm. — Central Peru (Perene, Dept. Junin). 

(d) C. leucogenys chubbi Chapm. — Western Ecuador (Mindo, Huila). 

Three specimens (two from Mindo in the American Museum of Natural 
History, one from Huila, coll. Dr. Espinay, in the Paris Museum) 
examined. 

Diglossa glauca tyrianthina n.subsp. 

Adult. — Similar to D. g. glauca, of Bolivia and southern Peru, in texture 
of plumage, violaceous blue edging to wing feathers, and black frontal band, 
but wings rather shorter, coloration duller (less violaceous), varying from Tyrian 

blue to indigo blue, and black forehead distinctly wider (3 to 4 mm. broad). 

Wing 61, (female) 57 ; tail 46, (female) 41-44 ; bill 11 mm.' 

Type in collection of American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
No. 183390. Adult male. Lower Sumaco, eastern Ecuador, January 16, 
1924. Olalla y hijos coll. 

Habitat. — Subtropical zone of eastern Ecudaor (Rio Cyacachi, below Chaco ; 
lower Sumaco ; Mapoto). 

Remarks. — This is the D. indigotica of Chapman, 3 but not of Sclater, as 
careful examination of the type in the British Museum revealed. True 
D. indigotica, which is restricted to the subtropical zone of western Ecuador, is 
quite a different bird, with the plumage of a firmer texture, the nostrils more 
concealed, and the general coloration much more glossy, about cyanine blue or 
Prussian blue, while the edges to the wing and tail feathers, instead of being 
uniform in tone with the back as in D. glauca, are distinctly greenish blue 
(blackish green blue to marine blue). In other words, D. indigotica corresponds 
to the species described by Chapman ' as D. cryptorhis, and a topotype of the 
latter, which Dr. Chapman kindly allowed me to take to Europe, on direct 
comparison proved to be identical with Sclater's type and specimens from 
Mindo. D. indigotica never has any black on the forehead proper, this colour 
being restricted to a loral streak, whereas both D. g. glauca and the form here 
described are provided with a distinct frontal band, more prominent in the 
northern race. 

The East Ecuadorian form is no doubt the northern representative of 
D. glauca Scl. & Salv., 5 originally based on a single specimen from Nairapi, 
Yungas of La Paz, Bolivia. The type in the British Museum is an immature 

1 If. Hillimiyr, Virlt. (Irn. (Ic*. liny., 12, p. 127, 1015; Limn, Rev. Mus. Paul., 12, 2, 
p. 100, 1920. 

2 The dimensions of l>. </. glauca are as follows : Wing (five mules) 03-66, (four females) 00-62 ; 
tail 45-51, (females) 44-47 ; bill 1 1 nun. 

3 Bull. Amer. Mus. N.H., 55, p. 640, 1926. 

< Bull. Aincr. Mus. X.H.. 31, p. 164. 1912— Gallera, Western Andes, Colombia. 
B P.Z.ti. bond., 1S76, p. 253 — Nairapi, Bolivia. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 267 

male with yellow basal half of the lower mandible and retaining both above 
and below a good deal of the sooty juvenile plumage, between which the new 
purplish blue feathers of the adult livery are just appearing. In colour, these 
feathers as well as the edges to the flight quills agree precisely with the corre- 
sponding parts in a series from Santo Domingo, Carabaya, Peru, for which 
Chapman l pro posed the name D. indigotica incae, and I have very little doubt 
that the Bolivian and Peruvian birds are the same. Dr. Chapman was evidently 
misled by Sclater's description 2 of the female of D. glauca, which seemed to 
indicate a bird quite different from the usual style of coloration in this section 
of the genus Diglossa. The specimen in question, however, turns out to be a 
female of D. s. sittoides, its underparts being dingy yellowish, obsoletely streaked 
anteriorly, and by no means " ochraceous." The range of D. g. glauca I can 
trace as far north as Perene, Dept. Junin, whence the British Museum has an 
adult male collected by C. 0. Schunke in May 1921. 

In the adult plumage, D. g. glauca is very similar to D. g. tyrianthina, but 
somewhat larger, and its general coloration is of a brighter purplish blue, nearest 
to dusky blue, with, however, a slight dark dull violet blue hue ; the edges to 
the upper wing coverts and inner remiges have very nearly the same tone as 
the back, while those of the primaries are a little duller than dark dull violet 
blue. The black of the loral region extends up to the forehead, but the frontal 
band is decidedly narrower than in D. g. tyrianthina. The anterior part of the 
nostrils, in both forms, is exposed (instead of being mostly concealed by plumules 
as in D. indigotica), and the female differs from the male merely by slightly 
smaller size and slightly duller colouring. 

Thus, I can recognize the following species : 

(a) D. indigotica Scl. (Syn. D. cryptorhis Chapm.). — Western Ecuador and 

western Andes of Colombia (Gallera ; trail between Novita and 
Cartago). 

Specimens Examined. — Colombia : trail between Novita and 

Cartago 1. Ecuador: Nanegal (Fraser) 1; Rio Blanco, below 

Mindo (Goodfellow) 1 ; Mindo (Ooodfellow) 5 ; above Gualea (Good- 
fellow) 1 ; foot of Pichincha (E. Whymper) 1 ; Paramba, alt. 3,500 ft., 
Prov. Imbabura (R. Micketta) I ; unspecified (the type) 1. 

(b) D. glauca tryianthina Hellm. — Eastern Ecuador (Rio Oyacachi ; lower 

Sumaco ; Mapoto). 

Specimens Examined. — Ecuador : below Chaco, Rio Oyacachi 2 ; 
lower Sumaco 3. 

(c) D. glauca glauca Scl. & Salv. (Syn. D. indigotica incae Chapm.). — 

Southern Peru (north to Junin) and adjoining section of Bolivia 
(Nairapi). 

Specimens Examined. — Peru : Perene, Junin (C. O. Schunke) 1 ; 
Marcapata, alt. 1,000 metr., Cuzco (O. Garlepp) 1 ; Santo Domingo, 
Carabaya (G. Ockenden and H. Watkins) 6; Rio Inambari, Puno 
(H. Watkins) 1. Bolivia: Nairapi (the type) 1. 

1 Amer. Mus. Novil., No. 160, p. 8, Feb. 1925 — Inca Mine, Santo Domingo, Peru. 

2 Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 11, p. 1 1, 1886. 



18 



268 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV*. 1930. 



TWO NEW AMERICAN FLEAS. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With 2 text-figures.) 

1. Cediopsylla spillnianni sp. now (text-fig. 1). 

(f*$. Close to C. simplex Baker 1895, but the upper genal spine separated 
from eye ; angle of irons farther down ; stemite YllI of rj much broader, 

almost devoid of bristles ; head of 
spermatheca larger. 

Frontal angle in j above, at or 
below three-fifths, in $ in or somewhat 
below middle, whereas in G. simplex the 
angle is placed at three-fourths in q all£ l 
at five-eighths in $. Internal incrassa- 
tion at anterior oral angle resembling 
an Indian club (lateral aspect), more 
gradually widening than in G. simplex. 
Genal comb with 7 or 8 spines, interspace 
between eye and upper spine about 
equalling the breadth of this spine, 
much smaller than in C. inaequalis 
Baker 1895. Prontal comb with 13 to 
16 spines, usually 15 or 16. 

Genitalia : similar to those of C. 

simplex. $ differs especially in ster- 

nite VIII (text-fig. 1) being of nearly 
even width to apical third (measured 
along dorsal side), thence strongly but 
gradually narrowing to a point, the apical portion slightly curved downwards ; 
no bristles except 1 to 3 short ones at ventral margin, the distal one being 

slightly spiniform, but very pale. In $ the head of spermatheca one-fourth 

broader than in C. simplex. 

Hub. Ecuador : Piehincha, off Sylvilagm ecaudatus, December 1927 (Pro- 
fessor F. Spillmann), a series. 

The discovery in Ecuador of a species closely agreeing in nearly every 
detail with the rabbit flea of the Eastern United States is most interesting and 
surprising, and may be taken as evidence that Cediopsylla occurs also in Central 
America, whence hardly any fleas (of wild mammals and birds) are known. 




2. Ceratophyllus gladiolis caducus subsp. nov. (text-tig. 2). 

<J. As in C. g. gladioli* .lord. 1925, from California, the hindtarsal segment 
1 has a subapieal and an apical bristle which reach beyond 1 1 : the longer of the 
two bristles in the second notch from apex does not nearly extend to apex of I, 
whereas in C. g. gladiolis £ it reaches to near apex of II. Exopodite F a little 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 269 

broader than in C. g. gladiolis ; anterior angle of paramere slightly less projecting ; 
the pair of sword-like bristles on ventral lobe of sternite IX (text-fig. 2) less 
proximal, their distance from apex shorter than segment IV of hindtarsus, in 
C. g. gladiolis longer than that segment, the lobe also narrower in C. g. caducus 
than in C. g. gladiolis. 

$. Pygidium as long as, or about one-twelfth shorter than its distance from 
stylet ; in C. g. gladiolis about one-twelfth longer than this distance. 

Hab. Utah : Vernal, off Ammospermophilus leucurus cinnamomeus, November 
1927 (A .W. Moore), 3 S6, 8??, type (<$) in U.S. National Museum. 



270 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 



BIRD-TYPES IN THE ROYAL SCOTTISH MUSEUM. 

By SURGEON REAR-ADMIRAL J. H. STENHOUSE. 

PARADISAEIDAE. 

1. Epimachus brisbanii Wilson = Ptilorhis paradisea. 

Epimachus brisbanii J. Wilson, Illuslr. Zoology, pi. 9 (1831). 

Type : no date. No sex (adult J plumage). Port Macquarie, New South 
Wales. " Sent from New Holland by Sir Thomas Brisbane early in the year 
1824." 

Reg. No. 1921. 173. 

Ex Edin. Univ. Museum Register, 1823-24. No. 58. 

(Edin. Univ. Register year began on July 1.) 

STURNIDAE. 

2. Sturnus faroensis Feilden = Sturnus vulgaris faroensis. 

Sturnus faroensis Feilden, Zoologist, p. 3257 (1872). 

Type : <$ May 23, 1872. Skuoe, Faroe. H. W. Feilden Coll. 
Reg. No. 1898. 4. 9. 

FRINGILLDDAE. 

3. Loxia curvirostra scotica Hartert. 

Loxia curvirostra scotica Hartert, Vdgel der Pal. Fauna, i. p. 120 (1904 — Scotland). 

Type : $ ad. December 26, 1870. East Ross. Feilden and Harvie 
Brown Coll. 

Reg. No. 1917. 2. 157. 

4. Loxia curvirostra hispana Hartert. 

Loxia curtsiroslra hispana Hartert, Vdgel der Pal. Fauna, i. p. 119 (1904 — Spain). 
Type : ( j plumage) July 1897. Aguilas, Spain. 
Reg. No. 1897. 91. 14. Purchased from John Gray, Aguilas. 

5. Pyrgita (Pipilo) arctica Sw. & Rich. = Pipilo inaculatus arcticus. 

Pijrgita [Pipilo) arctica Swains. & Itkhardson. fauna Dona/i Americana, vol. ii, p. 2(iO, pi. 51 and 52 
(1831). 

Co-type : $ Saskatchewan. Franklin's Second Overland Expedition (from 
the description probably $ obtained May 29, 1827). 

Reg. No. 1920. 109. 33. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Register 1830-31, No. 2:.. 

6. Nesospiza goughensis Eagle Clarke — Phrygilua (Rowettia) goughensis. 

Xesospir.a goughensis Kanle Clarke. Hull. />'.".''. xv. p. Is (1905). 

Type : no sex. Cough Island, April 22, 1904. Scotia Expedition. 
Reg. No. 1921. 143. 171. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 271 

7. Nesospiza jessiae Eagle Clarke = Phrygilus (Rowettia) goughensis juv. ! 
Nesospiza jessiae Eagle Clarke, Bull, B.O.C.xv. p. 18 (1905). 

Type: no sex. April 22, 1904. Gough Island. " Scotia Expedition." 
Reg. No. 1921. 143. 173. 

MOTACILLIDAE. 

8. Alauda crocea Vieillot = Macronyx croceus. 

Alauda crocea Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. i, p. 365 (1816^Java !). 

Type : no sex or date. " Java." Dufresne Collection. 

Reg. No. 1929. 186. 14. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Register, 1819-20. No. 1. 

Dufresne's Catalogue : L'Alouette jaune — Java. Alauda crocea Vieillot. 
N.D. d'H. n.t. i. p. 365. 

Vieillot did not state where his type was to be found, but his locality was 
Java. He had full access to Dufresne's collection, and in our opinion, an opinion 
shared by the Director of the Paris Museum, Dufresne's specimen (erroneously) 
from Java should be regarded as the bird Vieillot described. 



MNIOTILTIDAE. 
9. Sylvia discolor Vieillot = Dendroica discolor. 

Sylvia discolor Vieillot, Hist. Nat. d'Oiseaux Amerique Sept. vol. ii, p. 37, pi. 98 (1807). 

Type : <$. No date, des Antilles. Dufresne Collection. 
Reg. No. 1929. 186. 15. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1819-20. No. 1. 
Dufresne's Catalogue : Sylvia dicolor. La fauvette dicolor Vt., des Antilles. 
A female and a young bird of this species were also in Dufresne's collection, 
the latter is still in existence. 

10. Sylvia velata Vieillot = Geothlypis aequinoclialis velata. 

Sylvia velata Vieillot, Hist. Nat. d'Oiseaux Amerique Sept. vol. ii, p. 22, pi. 74 (1807) (de la collection 
de M. Dufresne). 

Type : no date or sex. Amerique -Sep/. (North America). 
Reg. No. 1929. 186. 16. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1919-20. No. 1. 
Dufresne Catalogue : " Sylvia velata Vieillot. La fauvette voilee. Ainer. 
Sept." 

VIREONIDAE 

11. Muscicapa altiloqua Vieillot = Vireo calidris. 

Muscicapa altiloqua Vieillot, Hist. Nat. d'Ois. Amerique Sept. vol. i, p. 67, pi. 38 (1807). 

Types: <J and $. No date. Isle St. Thomas (Dufresne Coll.). 
Reg. No. <J 1929. 186. 16«. $ 1929. 186. 166. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg.. 
1819-20. No. 1. 

Dufresne Catalogue : Muscicapa altiloqua. Le moucherolle altiloque. 
M. & F. Isle St. Thomas. Rare. 



972 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

MUSCICAPIDAE. 
12. Rubecola tytleri Jameson = Muscicapa p. parva. 

Rubecola tytleri Jameson, Edin. New Philos. Journal, p. 214 (1835). 

Type (c? plumage) : no date or sex. Himalayas, N. India. Coll. by Lieut. 
Tytler*. 

Reg. No. 1929. 186. 9. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1830-31. No. 14. 

TURDIDAE. 

13. Turdus magellanicus King = Turdus falcklandicus magellanicus. 

Turdus magellanicus King, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 14 (1830). 

Type : no date or sex. " Straits of Magellan." 

Reg. No. 1926. 109. 89. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1831-32. No. 35. "Pre- 
sented by Captain King." 

14. Turdus musicus hebridensis Eagle Clarke. 

Turdus musicus hebridensis Eagle Clarke, Scot. Nat. p. 53 (1913). 

Types : cJ April 24, 1912. Barra. $ April 25, 1912. Barra. Coll. by 
W. L. MacGillivray, Barra. 

Reg. No. <J 1913. 133. 1. ? 1913. 133. 2. 

15. Nesocichla eremita gordoni Stenhouse. 

Nesocichla eremita gordoni Stenhouse, Scott. Nat. p. 94 (1924— Inaccessible I.). 

Type : no sex. April 26, 1923. Inaccessible Island. Collected by Tom 
Rogers and — Glass, Tristan d'Aeunha. 

Reg. No. 1924. 68. 13. 

TROGLODYTE) AE. 

16. Troglodytes troglodytes zetlandicus Hartert. 

Troglodytes troglodytes zetlandicus Hartert, Vogel der Pal. Fauna, i. p. 777 (1910— Shetland). 

Type: #. December 12, 1906. Dunrossness, Shetland. Collected by 
N. B. Kinnear. 

Reg. No. 1919. 4. 

17. Troglodytes troglodytes hebridensis Meinertzhagen. 

Troglodytes troglodytes hebridensis Meinertzhagen, Scott. Naturalist, p. 135 (1925). 

Type: <J. October 1, 1914. Butt of Lewis. Coll. by W. Eagle Clarke. 
Reg. No. 1914. 168. 23. 

EURYLAEMDDAE. 

18. Eurylaimus dalhousiae Jameson = Psarisomus dalhousiae. 

Eurylaimus dalhousiae Jameson, Edin. New Phil. Journal, xviii. p. 389 (1835). 

Type : no date or sex. Himalayas, 10,000 feet. 

Reg. No. 1926. 109. 32. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1832-33. No. 1-29. 
Presented by Countess of Dalhousie. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 273 

CAPITONIDAE. 

19. Megalaema ramsayi Walden = Gyanops franklinii ramsayi. 

Megalaema ramsayi Walden, Annals and May. Nat. Hist. (4), xv, p. 400 (1875). 

Co-type: $. March 11, 1874. Karen-Nee. R. G. W. R. collected. 

Reg. No. 1896. 133, 1373. Ex Tweeddale Collection. 

The British Museum claims to have <J and $ types ; the present bird is, 
however, a co-type with them. Its label is a " type " label of the Tweeddale 
Collection and the writing on it looks to be Wardlaw Ramsay's. Its measure- 
ments are : wing, 100 ; tail, 60 ; tar. 26 ; bill, 22 mm. 

PICIDAE. 

20. Picus magellanicus King = Ipocrantor magellanicus. 

Pirns mwjtltaniriis KiiiL'. Zoological Journal, vol. iii. p. 430 (1S27 — Port Famine). 

Type (or co-type) : ($ plumage). No date. " Straits of Magellan." 
Reg. No. 1926. 109. 110. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1831-32. No. 35. 
" Presented by Captain King." 

21. Picus (Apternus) arcticus Swainson & Richardson = Picoides arcticus. 

Picus (Apternus) arcticus Swains. & Richardson, Fauna Boreali Americana, vol. ii, pp. xxvi and 313, 
pi. 57 (1831 — Rocky Mountains). 

Type: (cJ plumage). No data. Franklin's Second Overland Exj>edition. 
Reg. No. 1921. 1. 42. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1830-31. No. 25. " Frank- 
lin and Richardson Arctic Birds. Presented by Lord Goderich." 

22. Picus rubidicollis Vieillot = Melanerpes portoricensis. 

Picus rubidicollis Vieillot, Ois. Amerique Sept. vol. ii, p. 63, pi. 117 (1807), " De la collection de 
M. Dufresne." 

Type : no data. Dufresne Collection. 

Reg. No. 1929. 186. 19. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1819-20. No. 1. 

Dufresne Catalogue : Picus portoricensis Daud. Le pic de Portorico Daud, 
tres rare. 

Dufresne made two catalogues, one in 1815 — the second dated 1819, just 
before his birds came to Edinburgh. In both catalogues this woodpecker is 
entered as "portoricensis." Apparently between 1807 and 1815 he discovered 
that rubidicollis of Vieillot and portoricensis of Daudin were identical. 

PSITTACI. 

23. Trichoglossus brooki Ogilvie Grant = Trichoglossus cyanogrammus broohi. 

Trichoglossus brooki Ogilvie Grant, Bull. B.O.C. xix. p. 102 (1907). 

Co-type : <J died in captivity, October 1915. 

Collected at Pulo Swangi (Spirit Island) off S. coast of Terangan, Aru 
Islands, by Walter Goodfellow. 

Reg. No. 1924, 154. 61. 

Ogilvie Grant described this new race of Trichoglossus from two living birds 
in the possession of Mr. Brook. He did not specify either as being the type. 
The other co-type is in the British Museum. 



274 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

24. Psittacara leptorhyncha King = Henicognathua leptorhynchus. 
PsUtaeara leptorhyncha King. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 14 (1830 — Chiloc). 

Type : No sex or date. " Straits of Magellan " (error). Chiloe Island. 
Reg. No. 1925. 38. 49. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1831-32. No. 35. " Pre- 
sented by Captain King." 

STRIGES. 

25. Strix nana King = Ghtucitlium n. nanum. 
Strix nana King, Zool. Journal, vol. iii, p. 427 (1827 — Port Famine). 

Co-type : no sex or date. " Straits of Magellan." 

Reg. No. 1920. 39. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1831-32. No. 35. "Pre- 
sented by Captain King." 

ACCIPITRES. 

26. Pernis elliotii Jameson = Pernis ptilorhynchus. 

Pernis elliotii Jameson, Mem. Werner Soc. vii. p. 493 (1836). 

Type : no date or sex. South India. Collected by Walter Elliot. 
Reg. No. 1916. 65. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1835-36. 

PLEGADIDAE. 

27. Ibis spinicollis Jameson = Carphibis spinicollis. 

Isis spinicollis Jameson, Edin. New Phil. Journal, xix. p. 213 (1835). 

Type : no date or sex. " Banks of River Murray," Australia. 

Reg. No. 1916. 64. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. Presented by Lieut. -Col. 
Lindsay, 39th Regt. 

Three lots of birds were received in the Museum from this officer ; one in 
1828-29, one in 1829-30, and the third in 1830-31 ; but it cannot now be stated 
in which of these consignments this " new bird " was. 

ANSERES. 
28. Anas speculiaroides King = Anas cristata. 

Anas specularioides King, Zool. Journal, vol. iv, p. 98 (1828). 

Type (probable) : no date or sex. " Straits of Magellan." 
Reg. No. 1926. 109. 112. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1831-32, No. 35. 
" Presented by Captain King." 

29. Oidemia patachonica King = Tachyeres cinereus. 

Oidemia patachonica King. Zool. Journal, vol. iv. p. 100 (1828). 

Type (probable) : no date or sex. " Straits of Magellan." 
Reg. No. 1926. 109. 90. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1S31-32. No. 35. " Pre- 
sented by Capt King." 



NoVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. ] '.Kill. 275 

COLUMBAE. 

30. Phlogoenas keayi Eagle Clarke = Phlegoenas keayi. 

Phlogoenas keayi Eagle Clarke, Ibis, 1900, p. 359 (Negros). 

Types : not sexed, not dated. Negros. Collected by W. A. Keay. 

Reg. No. (type) 1900. 116. 31. (co-type) 1900. 116. 32. Probably $ and ?. 
The wings measure 159 and 148 mm. 

LARIDAE. 

31. Larus rossii Richardson = Rhodoslethia rosea. 
Larus rossii Richardson, Appendix Parry's Second Voyage, p. 359 (1825). 

Type : not sexed. June 23, 1823. Alagnak, Melville Peninsula, lat. 
69° 15' N. Collected by Lieut. James Clark Ross. 

Reg. No. 1929. 186. 17. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1823-24. 

32. Larus jamesoni J. Wilson = Larus nome-hoUaruKae. 

Larus jamesoni J. Wilson, Illustr. Zoology, pi. 23 (1831). 

Type : adult. No sex or locality. " Brought to Leith by an Australian 
ship." 

Reg. No. 1920. 36. 

33. Larus franklinii Richardson. 

Larus franklinii Richardson, Fauna Boreali Americana, vol. ii, p. 424, pi. 71 (1831 — Saskatchewan 
River). 

Type : no details. Franklin's Second Overland Expedition. 
Reg. No. 1926. 109. 91. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1830-31, No. 25. 
(One of Richardson's three specimens.) 

34. Larus bonapartii Richardson = Larus Philadelphia. 

Larus bonapartii Richardson, Fauna Boreali Americana, vol. ii, p. 425, pi. 75 (1831 — Great Slave 
Lake). 

Type : <J. May 26, 1826. Fort Franklin, Great Bear Lake. Collected by 
Franklin's Second Overland Expedition. 

Reg. No. 1926.'l09. 125. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1830-31. No. 25. 

Richardson's type locality is erroneously given as Great Slave Lake instead 
of Great Bear Lake. 

35. Catharacta lonnbergi clarkei Mathews = Stercorarius skua antarctica. 

Calharacla lonnbergi clarkei Mathews, B. Australia, ii. p. 494 (1913 — South Orkneys). 

Type : not sexed. November 5, 1903. South Orkneys. Collected by 
" Scotia " Expedition. 

Reg. No. 1909. 61. 31a. 

36. Catharacta maccormicki wilsoni Mathews = Stercorarius maccormicki. 

Catharacta maccormicki toilsoni Mathews, B. Australia, ii, p. 495 (1913 — No exact locality). 

Type : not sexed. March 9, 1904. Lat. 74° S., long. 22° W. in Weddell 
Sea off Coats Land. Collected by " Scotia " Expedition. 

Reg. No. 1909. 61. 30a. 



276 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

RALLIDAE. 

37. Fulica gallinuloides King = Fulica leveoptera. 

Fttlica gallinuloides King, Zoological Journal, vol. iv, p. 96 (1828). 

Type (possible) : not sexed ; not dated. " Straits of Magellan." 
Reg. No. 1926. 109. 113. Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1831-32. No. 35. 
" Presented by Captain King." 

The type was a young bird and the above answers to the description. 

GALLI. 

38. Tetrao (Lagopus) leucurus Swains. & Richardson = Lagopus leucurus. 

Telrao (Lagopus) leucurus Swainson & Richardson, Fauna Boreali Americana, vol. ii, p. 356, pi. 63 
(1831). 

Co-types : no sex. No date. Rocky Mountains. 

Reg. No. 1926.109.118 (winter plumage); 1926.109.119 (summer 
plumage). Ex Edin. Univ. Mus. Reg. 1830-31. No. 25. 

Richardson described five specimens, all he had. The two in the Museum 
are the second and fifth described. One of them (but it cannot be said which) 
was collected in 54° N. by Mr. Drummond ; the other by Mr. Macpherson in 
lat. 63°. 



NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 277 



SOME NEW BUTTEKFLIES AND MOTHS FROM EASTERN 

NEW GUINEA. 

By DR. KARL JORDAN. 

(With six text-figures.) 

\V /"HERE not otherwise stated, the specimens here described were obtained 
" by Mr. A. F. Eichhorn on his trip to the Herzog (= Hertzog) Mts., 
situated inland from Huon Gulf on the south side of the Markham (= Wussi) 
River. The collection made during this expedition was but a small one, as 
a serious illness cut short Mr. Eichhorn 's activities and necessitated his 
removal to the coast by aeroplane. Though he has not yet entirely regained 
the use of the right arm, we are very glad to know that Mr. A. F. Eichhorn 
is progressing favourably. He has our cordial good wishes for a complete 
recovery. 

As was to be expected, the collection from the higher altitude (6,100 ft.) 
consists chiefly of Delias, among which we find representatives of several new 
subspecies, and of Satyrinae of the genera Erycinidia, Pieridopsis and Platypthima, 
described by us in 1905 and all confined to the mountains of New Guinea. The 
series of Platypthima decolor R. & J. 1905, of which only one specimen was 
known, includes both sexes, the female being rather paler than the male, but 
bearing, on the underside of the hindwing, the same conspicuous, forked, white 
band. There is also a series of P. homochroa homochroa R. & J. 1907, described 
from a pair collected by A. S. Meek on the Biagi R. 



PIERIDAE. 

1. Delias clathrata limata subsp. nov. 

£. Upperside; forewing with 6 subapical-submarginal dots, of which 
the 3 posterior ones minute ; black area slightly reduced ; white spots outside 
discocellulars triangular, longer than broad, touching each other at black disco- 
cellular spot. 

On underside the white discal band of forewing anteriorly narrower 
than in D. c. clathrata R. & J. 1904 ; on hindwing the white subbasal bar 
narrower, suffused with yellow, this yellow colouring less conspiciious than 
in D. c. clathrata ; black discal blotches on the whole smaller, particularly 
the fourth. 

$. Upperside; forewing: black area more extended, the three discal 
blotches from M 1 forward vestigial, being much dimmed by black scaling. 

Underside; forewing : white discal band anteriorly narrower than in 
D. c. clathrata, the costal spot isolated, the second usually missing. 

In one $ the upperside of forewing slightly yellow and the white discal 
band of forewing beneath not narrower than in some specimens of D. c. clathrata. 

Hub. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog (= Hertzog) Mts., Edie 
R., 0,100 ft., 1 c? (type), 6$?. 



278 Novitates Zoolooicak XXXV. 1030. 

-. Delias mira excelsa subsp. nov. 

(J. Upperside; forewing: white area larger than in I), tn. mira R. & .1. 
1904 and D. m. reversa Roths. 1925, nearly filling the entire cell, with the 
exception of one specimen, in which apical fourth of cell is black. 

Underside ; anal area of hindwing brighter yellow than in the other two 
known subspecies mentioned, penetrating farther basad at abdominal margin, 
abdominal marginal area shaded with yellow, black termen on the whole narrower. 

$. Upperside; white area of forewing extending beyond base of M-, the 
greater portion of the cell being white ; on hindwing the white area less large 
than in D. m. mira $ (this sex of D. m. reversa not known), reaching to lower 
angle of cell, only in one $ a little beyond. 

Underside; anal area of hindwing as in J brighter yellow ; small costal 
dot outside black oblique stripe yellowish. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 6,100 ft., 

3. Delias callima satura subsp. nov. 

cj. Underside; red markings of hindwing much less bright than in D. c. 
callima R. & J. 1905, of about the same dull tint as in D. bornemanni keysseri 
Roths. 1925, larger than in D. c. callima, discal band broader than black inter- 
space between it and cell-patch and than black terminal border, spots 1 and 2 of 
this band smaller than 3 to 5, some red scales between band and cell-patch. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 0,100 ft., 

I c? (type) ; and Watut R. to Buiang, 3,200 to 5,400 ft., 1 battered <J. 

4. Delias bornemanni entima subsp. nov. 

(J?. On u]5perside similar to D. b. keysseri Roths. 1925 and D. b. aegle 
Joicey & Talb. 1922, but on underside closely resembling D. b. rubrina Eecke 
1915, the white on upperside of forewing more restricted than in rubrina and 
the red markings of underside of hindwing much larger than in aegle and keysseri. 

tj. White area of forewing, above , reaching to base of M 1 or nearly. 

Black terminal border, as in D. b. aegle, anteriorly broader than in D. b. rubrina. 

On underside the white streak along hindmargin of forewing as in D. b. 

keysseri and D. b. aegle, shorter than in D. b. rubrina. Markings of hindwing 

dull red as in D. b. rubrina, and about as large : cell-spot much longer than its 
distance from their submarginal spot, the black discal area being very much 
smaller than in I), b. keysseri and D. b. aegle, being proximally of third sub- 
marginal spot about as wide as black abdominal marginal border, often much 
narrower ; in most specimens a red spot in angle R'-R-'. 

$. White area of forewing, above, extending to or beyond base of M-, 
but not reaching M l , usually slightly yellowish. 

Red markings of underside as in <$. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea: West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 0,100 ft., 

II cJcJ, 5$$ (type (J) ; Watut R. to Buiang, 3,200 to 5,400 ft., 4 <}<J, 1?. 

5. Delias cuningputi aemula subsp. nov. 
cj. Upperside: white area of forewing wider than in D. c. cuningputi 
Ribbe 1900, extending 1-5 to 2-5 mm. beyond upper angle of cell, its distance from 
fringe of termen being 2-5 to 3-0 mm. before tornus. Black terminal band of 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 279 

hind wing nearly 5 mm. broad at SO 2 (below apex), its inner margin rather 
strongly undulating. 

Underside: yellow markings brighter than in D. c. cuningputi and 
double spot at f of costa of forewing larger. 

Hub. Eastern New Guinea: West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 6,100 
ft., 4 <$S. 

6. Delias pheres endela subsp. nov. 

o. Upperside as in D. ph. hyperapproximata. Roths. 1925; terminal 
band of hindwing a trifle broader, less broken up posteriorly. 

Underside . Forewing black, the white area of the other subspecies 

suppressed, but paler black than terminal band, only a streak along hindmargin 
white, between M 1 and M- some white or yellow scaling in 3 of the 4 specimens. 

Hindwing : yellow spot in cell isolated ; discal yellow band reaching to 

abdominal margin. 

?. Similar to $ of D. ph. hyperapproximata. Forewing, upperside, 

with two subapical yellowish spots ; terminal black band covering extreme 

apex of cell, 6 mm. broad at M 2 . Hindwing with traces of three submarginal 

yellowish white dots ; terminal band 4-5 mm. wide at R ! ; white area penetrating 
to fringe below M 1 , nearly to fringe above M 1 . 

Underside. Yellowish white area of forewing as in D. ph. hyper- 
approximata, somewhat paler (faded ?), not quite reaching anterior margin of 

cell ; terminal band 5 mm. wide at M 2 . Hindwing : orange cell-spot nearly 

isolated ; median band narrower than in D. ph. hyperapproximata, orange spots 
within it deeper orange, first partition (C-SC ! ) of band transversely somewhat 
wider than it is long midway between the veins. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek 6,100 ft., 
4 <?(?, 1$. 

NYMPHALIDAE : SATYRINAE. 
7. Pieridopsis ducis sp. nov. (text-fig. 1). 

Upperside milky white, slightly glossy, less creamy than in P. virgo 
R. & J. 1905 ; white bands of underside sharply defined, on forewing a prominent 
submarginal white line. 

(J. Body dark brown, hairs of upperside more or less grey, especially on 
thorax ; underside of abdomen grey ; segments I and II of palpus greyish white, 
long hairs brown. On inner surface of shaft of antenna scaling white at bases 
of segments, on outer surface white from base to apex of segments. 

Wings ; underside . Forewing milky white from base close to disco- 

cellulars, the costal margin olive-brown, the white area distally extending across 
costal vein and posteriorly about 3 mm. distant from termen, its outer margin 
almost straight from below M 1 to costa ; 8 mm. from apex two white dots at 

costal margin, one behind the other. Hindwing milky white, termen (and 

fringe) narrowly black, the border gradually widening posteriorly, anal lobe 
black with a white line ; abdominal margin brownish black. 

Underside dark sepia, with sharply denned creamy white bands. 

Forewing : abdominal margin white except at termen ; beyond middle of cell 
from close to costal margin a band 1 \ mm. broad, ending at M in oetween Bt 1 and 
M> or extending to white area of posterior (= abdominal = inner) margin ; at 



280 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 

8 mm. from apex a white line, about f mm. broad, parallel with cell-band, and 
about 3 mm. from termen a somewhat thinner line parallel with termen, the two 
lines meeting in front of or at M ! , in the triangular space between them four 
minute white dots (remnants of ocelli) ; close to termen, but separate from margin, 
an inconspicuous greyish brown line continuous from near apex to near termen : 

posterior margin white except at termen, varying in width. On hindwing a 

large creamy white V open at costal margin, composed of a band parallel with 
abdominal margin and commencing near base at costal margin, and a median 
band which joins the former at lower angle of cell, each about 1J mm. broad, 
apex of V about halfway between cell and anal angle ; parallel with termen a 
creamy white submargina] band, 1 J or 2 mm. wide anteriorly, tapering posteriorly, 
not quite reaching M 1 ; near margin a thin, continuous, white line widened on 
anal lobe into a spot ; at and near abdominal margin two similar lines, of which 
the posterior one joins the subterminal line ; between submarginal band and V 
a row of minute white dots, anal lobe black, in front of it, between M 1 and M"-, 
an inconspicuous ocellus consisting of a minute white central dot, a black pupil 
(diameter about 1$ mm.) and an obscure brownish outer ring. 

Neuration : M l of forewing midway between R 1 and M : (in P. virgo M 1 
nearer to R 1 ). 

Genitalia : Anal tergite (X. t., text-fig. 1) shorter than in P. virgo, apically 
compressed. Lateral spur (X. st.) of anal segment much shorter than in P. 
virgo, not curved upwards above the level of X. t. Clasper (CI) apically narrower 
than in P. virgo, its ventral margin not excurved in proximal half. Ventral 
portion of penis-funnel narrower than in P. virgo. 

Length of forewing : 21 mm. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 6,100 ft. ; 
2 <J<J. 

8. Erycinidia hemileuca sp. nov. 

Upperside of forewing black, an oblong bar across cell and a thin vestigial 
line on disc white ; hindwing white, with narrow black margins. 

cJ. Body above dark olive, underside grey, long hairs of palpus dark 
brown. Shaft of antenna with white scales at bases of segments on inner side, 
more extended white on outer side. 

Wings, upperside; forewing black, slightly olivaceous towards base; 
before apex of cell a white bar nearly 2 mm. broad and 4 mm. long, not quite 
reaching costal edge, and so placed that its distal margin is a little beyond the 
point of origin of M 1 ; halfway to apex a small (single or double) white spot 
close to costal edge continued by a diffuse greyish line, slightly curved and 

disappearing about 3 mm. from termen at M 2 or M 1 . Hindwing in shape 

similar to that of E. maudei Joic. & Talb. 1916, white with a faint bluish 
(milky) tone, costal and terminal margins black, the border about \\ mm. broad, 
narrower towards anal lobe, bearing a thin white admarginal line from tail to 
near apex, abdominal area and base suffused with brownish black ; before tail, 
between M 1 and SI*, a minute black dot. 

Underside greyish drab. — Forewing: a white cell-bar as above, but some- 
what narrower and more sharply defined, parallel with it a narrow white discal 
line from costa to M= (or nearly), of even width, area between these white markings 
blackish brown, outside discal line three ocelli from subcostal fork backwards, 



Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1930. 



281 



inconspicuous, upon which follows an undulate blackish, indistinct line parallel 

with termen. Hindwing : base and abdominal area shaded with grey scales ; 

a thin, brown, broken line from near costal margin to abdominal area, crossing 
cell near origin of M=, where it forms the outer boundary of a small whitish spot ; 
from beyond middle of costal margin straight towards anal lobe, which it does 
not reach, a white band sharply denned on basal side by brown and gradually 
shading off on distal side ; a 
row of five submarginal ocelli, 
of which the last, before tail, 
deep black, the others paler, 
all with huffish ring ; an undu- 
late brown line nearly parallel 
with termen, disappearing pos- 
teriorly, where its silvery outer 
border forms a white line ; 
close to termen a clayish line 
bounded on both sides by a 
brown line. 

Neuration as in E. gracilis 
R. & J. 1905. 

Genitalia : Anal tergite 
(uncus) slightly compressed 
beyond middle, apex feebly 
spathulate, rounded, strongly 
convex above. Lateral spur 
(X. st.) of anal segment curved 
upwards and then down and 
inwards, extending beyond 
apex of tergite, gradually 
narrowing to a sharp point. 
Clasper ventrally strongly con- 
vex near base. 

Length of forewing : 20-22 
mm. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts 
3 c?cJ- 

9. Erycinidia tenera sp. nov. (text-figs. 2 and 3). 

Similar to E. gracilis R. & J. 1905, darker above, with a median and a discal 
grey band which unite at posterior margin and are shaded over with seal-brown 
on upperside. 

<$. Body olivaceous seal-brown above, grey beneath ; most of the long hairs 
of palpus seal-brown. Segments of shaft of antenna on inner side white at bases, 
on outer side almost entirely white. 

Wings, upperside, olivaceous seal-brown. Forewing: a median band 

from near costal margin to hind margin, which it reaches beyond middle, nearly 
2 mm. wide, narrower at costa, a discal band slightly incurved above its middle and 
anteriorly and posteriorly a little curving basad joins median band at hindmargin, 
both bands greyish sepia, this brown colouring extending to base from cell to 




Edie Creek, 6,100 ft. 



282 NOTITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

hindmargin, interspace between these shadowy bands seal-brown, 31 mm. wide 

in front and 2 mm. behind. Hind wing somewhat broader anteriorly than in 

E. gracilis ; a seal-brown line from middle of costal margin in direction of tail, 
which it does not reach, the line shading off on proximal side, better defined on 
outer side, the ground of wing here being somewhat paler ; before tail a small 
black spot with white central dot. further forward faint indications of other ocelli. 

Underside greyish drab. — Forewing : median and diseal bands nearly as 
above, but almost white, a submarginal, dark sepia, crenulate line from SC to 
R 1 , where it merges into a broadish, diffuse, dark sepia band, proximally of it 
below subcostal fork two inconspicuous ocelli and near termen a trace of a dark 

brown line. Hindwing : from one-third of costal margin to below M? a 

thin brown line, mure or less dentate on proximal side at veins, excurved between 
veins, on submedian fold sharply broken basad-abdominad, along basal side of 
line a whitish grey diffuse band ; parallel with this line a discal one, commencing 
just beyond middle of costal margin and directed towards tail, which it does not 
reach, being posteriorly sharply bent basad-abdominad ; along outside of this 
line a diffuse whitish grey band, fading away posteriorly, as does the antemedian 
grey band ; in greyish distal area a row of five ocelli, first and second larger 
than third and fourth, iris of fifth deep black ; near termen two sepia-brown 
lines, of which the inner is crenulate, interspace between the outer one and dark 
sepia marginal line slightly clay-colour. 

Neuration as in E. gracilis. 

Genitalia : Anal tergite (= uncus. X. t., text-figs. 2 & 3). instead of being 
compressed in middle and apically strongly convex above and rounded at tip, is 
flattened distally and gradually narrowed to apex, which is sinuate-bidentate. 
Lateral spur (X. st.) broader and shorter than in the other known species, not 
reaching to apex of X. t., with the sharp tip curved upward. Clasper (CI) in 
proximal half broader and in apical half narrower than in E. gracilis, apex more 
sharply pointed. 

Length of forewing : 18 mm. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 
6,100 ft. 1 $. 

RIODINIDAE. 

10. Praetaxila weiskei huonis subsp. nov. 

$. Differs from § of P. w. weiskei R. & J. 1901 in the white cell-bar on 
upperside of forewing being much shorter and separated from white band, 
interspace at hindmargin of cell 3 mm., white band narrower than in P. w. weiskei 
from cell backwards, its distance from cell 3 mm. at M 1 and 9 mm. at M s , last 

spot 6 mm. long. On underside the black discocellular spot continued as a 

band to near hindmargin ; white band essentially as above ; white cell-bar longer 
than above, but as widely separate from band as above. Orange colouring of 
termen of hindwing brighter than in P. w. weiskei $. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie R., 0,100 ft., 
one $. 

LYCAENIDAE. 
11. Candalides hemileuca sp. nov. (text-fig. 6.) 

J. Body olivaceous black above, white b e ncath ; frons white at eyes ; 
shaft of antenna ringed with white ; palpus olivaceous black above, white beneath. 



Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1930. 



283 



Wings, upperside . — Forewing olivaceous black, apex pointed, distal 

margin nearly straight ; long hairs of posterior margin white. Hindwing 

white, slightly creamy, basal area olivaceous black except at costal margin, not 
quite extending to base of M 1 , long hairs on this patch milky white. 

Underside cream colour, a little deeper yellow at base of costal margin 
of hindwing ; forewing from middle of cell to hindmargin and to tornus white. 

Genitalia: Anal tergite broad, divided into two broad, obtuse, lobes as usual 
in this genus ; on each side a sternal prong, long, slender, sharply pointed, first 
directed frontad and the curved anad, the distal arm being the longer. Clasper 
(text-fig. 0) truncate at apex, broad, with two conical teeth at apical margin, the 




one dorsal, short, directed straight backward, the other subventral, longer, 
sharper, somewhat curved laterad and ventrad. 

Length of forewing : 13-14 mm. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea: West side of Herzog Mts., Edie R., 6,200 ft., 
2 <?<?• 

12. Celastrina leucothelia sp. nov. (text-figs. 4 & 5). 

Allied to C. drucei B. Baker 1906 (described as a Cyaniris) ; upperside of $ 
white, with broad black terminal border on forewing. 

J. Upperside of wings campanula-blue, with a white tint, though there 
are no white scales on the wing-surface ; androconia fan-like, a little longer than 
broad (apart from pedicel), apex moderately rounded ; both wings narrowly 
margined with black, terminal black border of forewing 1 mm. broad, that of 
■ hindwing much narrower, widening at apex ; long scales of fringe of hindwing 
and around tornus of forewing white. 

Underside dull greyish white, resembling old silver, markings pale sepia. 

On forewing a discocellular bar, at distal side of point of bifurcation of sub- 

costals (SC 4 and SC B ) a slightly oblique bar to R 1 , from R 1 to M- a continuous 
submarginal line, at R 1 2-5 mm. from fringe, posteriorly a little nearer to the 
termen, the 4 bars composing the line at right angles to the veins, the last two 
bars slightly incurved ; near termen a row of 7 inconspicuous dots ; termen itself 

very narrowly pale sepia-colour ; shorter scales of fringe white. Hindwing : 

a narrow discocellular bar ; between it and base a row of 4 spots, second in cell 
bar-like, more or less broken up into 2 spots, third below cell, more proximal, 
subrotundate, fourth near abdominal margin, more distal than the others ; on 

19 



284 Xuvitates Zoological XXXV. 1930. 

disc from C to S.AI J a line of 7 bars, first, third and seventh nearly straight, the 
others more or less anguliform. first and second much more proximal than third 
and fourth, which are halfway between cell and termen, fifth and sixth again 
nearer cell, but in a line with third, fourth and seventh ; near termen a row of 7 dots, 
the last double, all sepia-brown ; extreme termen likewise pale sepia-colour ; 
fringe white, with pale brown dots at ends of veins. 

$. Body, above, black, shaded with white scaling, long hairs of pronotum 

pale brown. Wings, upperside, white. Forewing shaded with black at 

extreme base ; between cell and costal edge pale greyish brown, with a faint 
metallic green sheen in oblique light ; a broad black terminal border, touching 
upper angle of cell, its proximal boundary curved, crossing M 1 beyond middle and 
reaching almost exactly to apex of SM-, the boundary somewhat diffuse under 

the less ; fringe of termen pale sepia, white at tornus. Hindwing shaded with 

black about to middle of cell ; a very thin terminal line brownish black ; fringe 
white, with brown spots at ends of veins ; traces of brown subterminal dots 
anteriorly and posteriorly. 

Underside as in q ; discal bars of forewing straighter, not anguliforni ; 
discal spots near lower angle of cell of hindwing smaller and a little more proximal 
than in <J. 

Genitalia of $ : Lobe of anal tergite (X. t., text-fig. 4) constricted at base, 
apically broader (in a vertical sense) than long (in a horizontal sense), in aspect 
from apical side irregularly pisiform ; no X. st. ; clasjier (CI) in basal half 
broadened dorsally and incurved ventrally, subconstricted above middle (cf. 
text-figs. 4 & 5) ; apex curved mesad, with a row of sharp, conical, marginal 
teeth, of which the ventral one is the longest, left clasper with 5 teeth above the 
long one and right clasper with 3. 

Length of forewing : J 1 ? 15 mm. 

Hah. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie R., 6,200 ft., 
one pair, type q. 

ZYGAEIDAE. 

Atelesia gen. nov. 

tj. Frons broader than the eye is high. Forewing : 4 subcostals, SC 1 
being absent ; no transverse veinlets from C to costal margin ; R 1 from cell, 
R : and R 3 close together from cell ; M 2 on a level with SC 1 ; lundwing : SO 
well separated from R 1 and the cross-vein between them missing (cell open at 
upper angle), but S( ,J with a vestige of an angle as remnant of the missing vein, 

this angle farther distal than tipj of closed portion of cell. Genotype : A. 

nervosa sp. nov. 

Near Docleopvis .lord., 11107, but distinguished by the broader frons, the 
absence of costal veinlets and the open cell of hindwing. 

13. Atelesia nervosa sp. nov. 

(J. Antenna and body black ; hindmargins of head and of thoracic and 
abdominal tergites as well as middle of frons creamy bull' ; palpus, margins of 
thoracic sternites, legs and underside of abdomen somewhat deeper yellow, 
laterall\ the margins of abdomen orange. 

Wings, upperside. Forewing olivaceous black, all veins and hindmargin 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 285 

light ochraceous, these lines very narrow, not quite reaching to fringe of termen. 

Hindwing dull orange-ochraceous, shaded with olivaceous black in cell and 

between veins except from R 2 forward, the abdominal area olivaceous black, 
with two lines and the abdominal-marginal fringe dull orange-ochraceous ; an 
olivaceous black terminal border about 1-5 mm. broad, indented on the veins, 
and merging into the blackish abdominal area. 

Underside . Forewing : orange-ochraceous lines broader than above, 

especially in proximal three-fourths. Hindwing brighter orange-ochraceous 

than above, with hardly any blackish scaling from costal margin to well below 
cell, apart from a short streak in base of cell ; terminal border olivaceous black, 
indented on the veins, tapering behind, about 1-5 mm. broad anteriorly. 

Genitalia : Anal tergite, in dorsal aspect, much broader than long, broadly 
sinuate, the apical lobes triangular, turned ventrad and not visible from above ; 
anal sternite likewise broad, with a straight, strongly chitinized conical process 
each side. Clasper with two long and rather slender processes : the dorsal 
one sabre-shaped, gradually but not strongly curved downward, its upper 
inner margin membranous ; lower process feebly chitinized, pale, straight, 
slightly tapering, not quite so long as upper process. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., from between 
Watut R. and Buiang, 2300-5400 ft., 1 tf. 

14. Eusphalera pernitens f. aspila nov. 
The species occurs in two forms : (a) f. pernitens Jord. 1925, hindwing, 
above and below with a creamy white patch across apex of cell, and forewing, 
below, with the blue area bounded by a narrow white median band. One 

pair from Rawlinson Mts. and a $ from Edie Creek. (6) f. aspila nov., without 

the white markings of the preceding form. One o an< l two $$ from : Eastern 
New Guinea, West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 0,100 ft. 

Herpolasia augarra ducalis subsp. nov. 
$. White spots of forewing a little smaller than in H. a. augarra R. & J. 
1905 ; black terminal border of hindwing, above, more sharply defined, of nearly 
even width and 4 to 5 mm. broad. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., Edie Creek, 6,100 ft., 
3??. 

15. Hemiscia parthenia sp. nov. 

$. Close to H. meeki Roths. 1S96. Pectinations of proximal segments of 
antenna much shorter, the fifth branch of inner side not nearly reaching to base 
of seventh branch, whereas in the various subspecies of H. meeki the fifth reaches 
to base of eighth or at least beyond base of seventh. Frons narrower than in 
H. meeki. Posterior margin of pronotum, apical half of mesonotum, the entire 
metanotum and first abdominal tergite, apical margins of abdominal sternites, 
apices of coxae and undersides of femora white (on thorax above and below here 
and there white scales, but specimen too much worn to show exact distribution 
of colours on thorax). Body otherwise as in H. ma hi. 

Wings, upperside, creamy white to beyond middle, the extreme base 

green. Forewing : costal edge very narrowly black ; white area extending to 

near base of M 1 ; distal area black, veins green, a subcostal and a siibtcrminal 



286 NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

white dot vestigial, fringe white at apex of wing. Hindwing : white area 

reaching close to base of R\ black area not extending to anal angle, veins 
and extreme terminal margin blue, fringe white at apex of wing. 

Underside nearly as above. Forewing with short bluish green costal 

streak at base ; metallic scaling on veins of distal area blue ; the two white 

spots larger than above. Hindwing : no metallic scaling at base ; near apex two 

white spots, one close to costal margin, the other subterminal, metallic scaling 
around anterior spot and proximally of it, terminal band from second spot 
towards anal angle, but ending at white area, and veins blue. 

Neuration as in H. meeki ; but M ; of hindwing more proximal, originating 
almost exactly from middle of cell. 

Length of forewing : 22 mm. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea : West side of Herzog Mts., from between Watut 
R. and Buiang, 3200-5400 ft., 1$. 

16. Hemiscia meeki lota subsp. nov. 

$. All the scales of chaetosema of head white. Wings as in H. m. acelis 
Jord. 1907 from Southern New Guinea, but white area of forewing extending to 
near base of M 1 as in H. m. fergussonica Jord. 1907 from Fergusson and H. m. 
meeki Roths. 1896 from Woodlark I. ; subapical white spots vestigial on 
uppers i'de. 

Hab. North-eastern New Guinea : Stephansort, 1 $. 

17. Hemiscia meeki anthera subsp. nov. 

(J. White band of forewing, above and below, narrower, white spot of 
hindwing smaller than in H. m. meeki, and above not produced basad along 
costal margin. 

$. White area barely reading to base of M s on forewing and extending 
only a little beyond base of M 1 on hindwing (not reaching lower cell-angle) ; 
subapical white spots of forewing above distinct. 

Hab. Eastern New Guinea: Kumusi R., low elevation, VI., VIII. -IX. 
(A. S. Meek), one pair. 

18. Hemiscia meeki placiva subsp. nov. 

<$. Like H. m. meeki, but band of forewing of even width, broader and 
reaching to hindmargin. White patch of hindwing extended to below M 1 , 
its portion below cell narrow and shaded with black-brown, anteriorly the 

patch produced basad. On underside, band of forewing widened behind. 

Patch of hindwing prolonged as a band which narrows posteriorly and nearly 

reaches fringe in front of anal angle. Hindmargin of head orange below as 

well as at sides and above. 

$. White area of upperside extending on forewing just beyond base of 
M-, on hindwing beyond base of M 1 ; subapical spots of forewing as large as in 
H. m. fergussonica Jord. 1907 ; hindwing with a white subterminal spot between 

R ! and R'. On underside subterminal spot rounded, nearly 3 mm. wide, 

much larger than the subcostal spot. On hindwing a small subcostal spot 
and between R- and M 2 an elongate subterminal one white, more or less shaded 
with blue. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 287 

Hah. Louisiade Archipelago : Rossel I., Mt. Rossel, 2,100 ft., XII. 1915 
(W. F. Eichhorn), one pair. 

AGARISTIDAE. 

19. Argyrolepidea concisa stilbalis subsp. nov. 

<J$. Discal band of upperside of forewing broader than in A. c. concisa 
Jord. (in Seitz, Macrolep. XI., p. 23, 1912), of the Snow Mts. in Dutch N. Guinea, 
its anterior half narrower than posterior half, measuring about 2-5 mm. at M 1 ; 
white patch of hindwing larger, less regular, extending farther distad in middle, 
outwardly incurved before and behind its median portion, bordered with blue all 
round, veins within the patch likewise blue. 

On underside the discal band of forewing somewhat broader than above ; 
blue scaling of hindwing more extended than in A. c. concisa. 

In £ abdominal sternite VII bluish white in middle, while in A. c. concisa 
it is black. 

Hab. British New Guinea : Hydrographer Mts., 2,500 ft., I., II., & III. 
1918 (Eichhorn Bros.), a short series of both sexes. 



fr 












330 
-aSED 



LEPIDOPTERA 

COLLECTED BY THE 

British Ornithologists' Union and Wollaston Expeditions in 
the Snow Mountains, Southern Dutch New Guinea 

WITH TWO COLOURED PLATES 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D. 

(LORD ROTHSCHILD) 

PRICE : £1 5s. (lees 20% to Booksellers). 



A REVISION OF THE LEPIDOPTEROUS FAMILY 

SPHINGIDAE 

By the Hon. WALTER ROTHSCHILD, Ph.D., 

AND 

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NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE. 



H 3ouvnal of Zooloo\>- 



EDITED BY 



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Db. ERNST HARTERT, and Dr. K. JORDAN. 



Vol. XXXV. 



No. 4. 

Pages 289-354. 

Issued September 8th, 1930, at the Zoological Museum, Tring. 



PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON t VIKEY, LTD., LONDON AND AYLESBURY. 

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Vol. XXXV. 

NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAL 

EDITED BY 

LORD ROTHSCHILD, ERNST HARTERT, and KARL JORDAN 



CONTENTS OF NO. IV. 

PAQEB 

ON THE JAPANESE GEOMETRTDAE OF THE A1GNER COL- 
LECTION Louis P. Prout 289—337 

ALPHABETICAL INDEX 339—354 

TITLE AND CONTENTS, LIST OF PLATES TO VOL. XXXV 






NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE 



Vol. XXXV. SEPTEMBER 1930. No. 4. 

ON THE JAPANESE GEOMETRIDAE OF THE AIGNEE 

COLLECTION. 

By LOUIS B. TROUT. 

T^HE Geometridae of the extremely rich M. Aigner collection of Japanese 
Lepidoptera, recently acquired by the Trhig Museum, have been placed 
in my hands for working out, and include so much of interest that it has been 
found desirable to catalogue them very completely, and to publish this catalogue 
together with some notes on variation, taxonomy and synonymy. 

As there is not, so far as I know, very much phenological information yet 
published regarding the Japanese Geometridae, I have gives the dates of capture 
in considerable detail and have frequently commented upon the modifications 
in the later broods. It might, however, be made a generalisation that the 
second (and third ?) generations differ chiefly from the first emergences in their 
smaller size. It is to be added that the collecting on Takao-San was not con- 
tinuous, and several of the species may really show a succession of emergences 
throughout the summer months, including August, when the locality was not 
visited. 

Takao-San, which is about 60 km. west of Tokyo, must be extremely rich 
in species. Of the 295 species of Geometridae sent by Mr. Aigner, at least 226 
occur in that locality ; with the addition of the winter species and others that 
were missed, and a probable further addition of many Ewpiihecia which are 
rarely seen except through breeding, it may be safely said that the number would 
surpass the total for the British Isles. 

Subfam. OENOCHROMINAE. 
l. Alsophila tenuis (Butl.) (1879). 

Tokyo and vicinity, April 1925, 16 So ; 30 March 1926, 1 J. 

The series, mostly not in very fresh condition, shows some variation in 
size and in the degree of separation of the lines, but it cannot be called striking. 
The corrected synonymy of this species and its nearest ally, ■punctigera Prout 
(1915), is given on p. 414 of vol. iv of Seitz. 

2. Naxa (Psilonaxa) seriaria (Motsch.) (1866). 

Asamayama, July 1926, 1 J ; Takao-San, 7 July 1926, 1 £. 
20 289 



290 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

Subfam. HEMTHEINAE. 
3. Pingasa aigneri sp.n. 

J, 49 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings, face with a black 
band above. Palpus with terminal joint slightly longer than in the $$ of 
the other Japanese species. Genitalia with the arms of the harpe long and 
slender, the dorsal (not, as in pseudoterpnaria Guen., the ventral) the shorter, 
simple, rather blunt, the ventral only broadening a little at its tip, forming a 
small triangular plate and a quite rudimentary prong (totally unlike the strong 
thorn of pseudoterpnaria). Wings white, strongly irrorated and clouded with 
a light olivaceous drab-grey ; cell-marks about as in alba brunnescens or slightly 
narrower ; postmedian line black, fine and sharp, the lunules not so deep as 
in pseudoterpnaria, the teeth fairly sharp but without the black dots at their 
tips ; antemcdian with the posterior prong elongate. Underside much as in 
pseudoterpnaria, but without the strong proximal cloud of forewing. 

Takao-San, IS June 1925, 1 <$. 

4. Pingasa alba brunnescens Prout (1913). 
Takao-San, 9 June 1920, 1 & 1 ?. 

5. Terpna superans (Butl.) (1878). 
Nikko, August 1924, 1 $. Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 £ ; 20 September 
1925, 1 £ ; 7 July 1926, 3 $$. 

o. Dindica virescens (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, 20 June 1925, 1 $. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 5 £$ ; 18 June 
1925, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 1 £ ; 5 June 1926, 2 ^cJ ; 9 June 1926, 1 $. 

Apparently somewhat local or sporadic in its occurrence ; among the 
moderately extensive Japanese material previously received at the Tring Museum 
only one specimen is found, merely labelled " Japan." 

7. Agathia carissima Butl. (1878). 
Nikko, June 1925, 1 Q \ Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 1 cJ ; 5 June 1926, 1 $. 

8. Agathia curvifiniens Prout (1917). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 4 $$ ; 25 June 1925, 1 <$ ; 9 June 1920, 1 rf, 
1 $. Tokyo, 10-31 May 1926, 1 $. 

The originals of this species were from Ningpo, Corea and Kiushiu, so 
that the present record extends its range. In addition to the distinctions 
from carissima noted in the type description, curvifiniens differs in having the 
hindtibia of the <$ dilated, with hair-pencil. The cell-dot of the hindwing is 
wanting in one or two examples, thus not quite a constant distinction ; that of 
the forewing, on the other hand, is always conspicuous, placed on, or immedi- 
ately outside of, the central band. 

9. Aracima muscosa Butl. (1878). 
Takao-San, 1 ?, 7 July 1926. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 291 

10. Tanaorhinus reciprocata confuciaria (Walk.) (1862). 
Nikko, October 1925, 1 <$. Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 J, 1 $ ; 25 June 

1925, 1 (J ; 29 September 1925, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 5 $$ 
Tamagawa, W. of Tokyo, 25 June 1926, 1 <J ; Tokyo, June 1925, 2 £ $ ; June 

1926, 1 cJ. 

The second-brood specimens are not markedly smaller than those of the 
first brood. 

11. Tanaorhinus vittata prasinus Butl. (1879). 
Takao-San, 5 June 1920, 2 3 J ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J ; 15 September 1920, 
1 cJ ; 20 September 1920, 1 <$. 

Both the second-brood specimens are smaller, the later one especially small 
and dull. 

12. Hipparchus dieckmanni (Graes.) (1889). 
Nikko, November 1925, 1 £, 1 $. Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 <J ; 18 June 

1925, 2 (J ^ ; 9 June 1926, 1 <J, 1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J. Tamagawa, 25 June 

1926, 1 S- 

The Nikko specimens are small, no doubt a second brood. 

The figure of this species in Seitz (Macrolep. iv, t. lb.) is not recognizable 
and looks as though it had been taken from a somewhat faded Hemistola dijuncla 
(Walk.) ; the specimen figured as sponsaria is probably a large ample-winged 
dieckmanni, of which species the Japanese forms not seldom have the white 
costal spots somewhat reduced. It should be added that I was also (following 
the British Museum collection) guilty of a misidentification of sponsaria Brem.; 
the species which I called by that name (torn, cit., p. 17) has since been named 
ussuriensis Sauber (1915) = herbeus Kardakoff (1928). For the true sponsaria, 
see No. 14 (infra). 

13. Hipparchus valida (Feld.) (1875). 

Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 3 J^. Tokyo, June 1925, 1 <$ ; June 1926, 1 <$. 

14. Hipparchus sponsaria (Brem.) (1864). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 3 $$. 

Bremer's poor figure and description clearly point to the species which 
was subsequently named mandarinaria Leech ( 1 897) and is recognizably described 
and figured under that name in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 18, t. li). A crude figure, 
with antemedian line obsolete, is also supplied by Matsumura (Thous. Ins. Jap., 
supp. ii, t. xxix, f. 10) under the misidentification of " Megulochlora glaucaria 
Brem. $." Compare the note under No. 12 (supra). 

15. Hipparchus glaucaria (Menetr.) (1859). 
Tokyo, 25 June 1925, 1 <J ; June 1925, 1 ?. 
Both are extremely discoloured, but recognizable. 

16. Hipparchus vallata (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May-18 June 1925 and 5-9 June 1926, 18 $$, 4 $? ; 
15 September 1925, 1 <J. 

The September specimen is considerably smaller, manifestly representing 
a second generation ; otherwise the variation is negligible. 



292 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1U30. 

17. Comibaena procumbaria (Pryer) (1877). 

Takao-San, 14 May 1025, 2 J J ; 25 June 1925, 2 (J<J ; 15 September 

1925, 1 (J; 20 September 1925, 1 <J ; 7 July 1926, 2 <J<J. Hachijoshima 
(Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 1 J. 

The Fatsizio and the two September specimens are considerably smaller 
than the others. A similar small form occurs at Kanshirei, Formosa, in April 
and May. In all the nine specimens of the Aigner collection, as well as in the 
Formosan, SO of the forewing is stalked and SO arises well before SO. 

is. Comibaena amoenaria (Oberth.) (1880). 
Nikko, October 1925, 1 $. 

19. Comibaena delicatior (Warr.) (1897). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 14 June 1925, I J ; 18 June 1925, 5 J J ; 
25 June 1925, 1 <J ; 15 September 1925, 2 $$, 1 ? ; 5 June 1926, 1 y ; 14 July 

1926. 1 $. Tokyo, 16-31 May 1926, 1 j. 

Variable in size and somewhat in the extent of the apical patch of the 
hindwing and the clearness or suffusedness of its red part, but never approaching 
at all closely nigromacularia Leech (1897) = eurynomaria Oberth. (Et. Lep. 
Camp. xii. 109, f. 3274, 1916) from W. China. It may perhaps be a race of the 
last-named, but certainly not a synonym as I earlier assumed, in the absence 
of adequate material and probably influenced by Leech's union of them. Oberthur 
(loc. cit.) cleared up the confusion and beautifully figured the two forms in 
question, 3273 representing delicatior. Notwithstanding his professed inability 
to recognize written descriptions, he correctly interpreted Leech's by the " black " 
apical patch of the hindwing, but transferred the name nigromacularia to the 
Japanese delicatior (which he differentiates by its red apical patch) because that 
was the first figured form in Seitz ! 

20. Comibaena argentataria (Leech) (1897). 
Takao-San, 7 July 1926, 6 £<$, 1 ? ; 14 July 1926, 1 <$. 

21. Culpinia diffusa (Walk.) (1861). 
Tokyo, 16-31 May 1926, 1 J. 

22. Gelasma albistrigata Warr. (1895). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 £ ; 18 June 1925, 1 ?; 5 June 1926, 1 ?; 
9 June 1926, 1 (J. Tokyo, 1-15 June 1926, 1 <$. 

23. Gelasma ambigua (Butl.) (187S). 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 $. 

The specimen is rather large and is badly worn, but its lighter red face, 
more wavy lines, white cell-spot of hindwing and more acute, sinuous-bordered 
forewing separate it from albistrigata and refer it here. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 293 

24. Gelasma inimunis sp.n. 

cJ, 26 mm. Face black. Palpus rather short, blackish above, pale beneath. 
Vertex white ; occiput narrowly green. Antennal pectinations short, the longest 
scarcely 2. Thorax and abdomen concolorous with wings. Hindtibial pencil 
moderate, process short ; hindtarsus short. 

Forewing not very dark, of the usual dirty yellowish-green of old or captured 
specimens of the group ; costal edge narrowly buff, not dark-spotted ; lines 
whitish, indistinct ; antemedian at J, somewhat sinuous ; postmedian at about 
|, slightly sinuous, not appreciably dentate, obsolescent at costa, slightly incurved 
at fold, reaching hindmargin at beyond f ; termen and fringe concolorous or 

slightly paler. Hindwing with angle at R 3 very blunt, a very faint concavity 

between this and R 1 ; concolorous with forewing ; postmedian line continued, 
sinuous, becoming more proximal. Underside paler, unmarked. 

Takao-San, 7 July 1926, 1 <J. 

Readily distinguishable by its small size and short pectinations ; recalls a 
small Hemithea. 

25. Gelasma illiturata (Walk.) (1862). 
Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 7 <J<J ; 7 July 1926, 23 <$<$, 4 $$. 

Seven of the smallest specimens (25 June, 4 ,$<$ ; 7 July, 1 jj, 2 $$) appear 
to have been rather paler, the teeth of the jjostmedian less deep, pectinations 
rather more erect, tail of hindwing jwrhaps rather shorter (sp. div. ?), but are 
all in poor condition. 

26. Gelasma protxusa (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San 25 June 1925 2 #<$ 1 $; 14 July 1925, 1 ^ ; 20 September 

1925, 2 ?$ ; 7 July 1926, 4 $$, 2 $. 

In this species, the second-brood specimens are only a little smaller than 
the others. 

27. Gelasma grandificaria (Graes.) (1890). 
Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 1 <J ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J, 2 $. 

28. Hemithea aestivaria (Hb.) (1789). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 2 <J<J, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 1 <?, 1 $ ; 7 July 

1926, 2 $?. Tokyo, 4 July 1925, 1 $. Also 1 <J without exact locality (Japanese 
Alps), July 1926. 

29. Hemithea sp. 

Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 <$ ; 15 September 1925, 1 <J. 
Smaller than aestivaria and with other differences, but unfortunately not 
in a fit condition for describing. 

30. Hemithea marina (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J ; 14 June 1925, 6 <3S ; 18 June 1925, 1 <J ; 
25 June 1925, 2 $$ ; 5 June 1926, 1 <J ; 9 June 1926, 2 ^{J, 1 ? ; 7 July 1926, 
1 cJ. Sado I., 3-11 August 1926, 1 $. 

Several of the specimens are very badly faded, but seem unquestionably 



294 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

to belong here. One <J of 9 June is of a curiously (jrcy green, and so is that of 
5 June, the latter in addition much dwarfed. 

31. Hemithea anadeina sp.n. 

<J, 23 mm. Closely like a small marina, but sufficiently distinct. Crown 
of head and antenna] shaft dull purple, not white. Forewing with SC 1 connate 
with SC 2 " (from cell in marina), M 1 stalked with R ! (generally connate in marina) ; 
the buff costal edge only slightly dark-dotted ; lines very fine and weak, slightly 
dotted with cleaner white on the veins. Hindwing more rounded than in marina, 
the bend at R 1 only noticeable with careful attention ; line faint. 

Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 1 $. 

On account of the shape, this species might be referred to (section ?) Chlorissa, 
near C. obliterata Walk, and its crests are only a little more developed than in 
that species. In any case it must be congeneric with marina and both are in 
a measure intergrades, as are also several species which have been discussed 
on other occasions. 

32. Hemithea amphitritaria (Oberth.) (1879). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J (+ 2 SS ?) ; 14 June 1925, 2 ?$ ; 18 June 
1925, 1 <J ; 25 June 1925, 1 $ ; 14 July 1925, 1 £. 

I am uncertain how many species may be united under this name. The 
two best Ussuri £$ before me (Vladivostok and district) show definite red dorsal 
ornamentation on only two abdominal segments (Oberthiir says three) ; Aigner's, 
when good enough to show it, have it on four, and the crests perhaps a little 
better developed, and an Oiwake <$ and smaller Chang Yang pair in coll. Brit. 
Mus. agree with them, while an Ussuri $ and a Hokkaido <J in the same collec- 
tion, labelled nigropunctaia Warr., scarcely differ from one Takao-San $ except 
in having blackish cell-dots. The two $6 which are queried above are worn 
beyond recognition. 

The species is clearly related to the two preceding, though larger, paler 
and with slenderer lines. 

33. Diplodesma ussuriaria (Brem.) (18C4). 

Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 $ ; 14 July 1925, 1 $ ; 20 September 1925, 
1<J; 7 July 1920, 1 #. 

The September specimen is smaller than the others. 

34. Euchloris albocostaria (Brem.) (1864). 

Tokyo, 1 <$, June 1925. Takao-San, 15 September 1925, 1^:7 July 
1920, 2 (JcJ. Japanese Alps, July 1920, 1 <J. 

Except that the second-brood specimens are smaller, this is a very constant 
species. 

35. Hemistola dijuncta (Walk.) (1861). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 2 <?<? ; 21 June 1925, 1 <J. 

36. Hemistola veneta (Butl.) (1879). 

Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 1 <J ; 7 July 1926, 1 #. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 295 

37. Iodis lactearia (Linn.) (1758). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 <J ; 5 June 1926, 1 g ; 7 July 1926, 1 £. 
Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 2 <$<$. 

38. Iodis putata orientalis Wehrli (1923). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 $ ; 5 June 1926, 1 <^ ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J. 

Some of the Takao-San examples of this species and the preceding are so 
wasted as to be scarcely determinable without anatomical research, but in any 
case the occurrence of both in the locality is assured. 

39. Iodis praerupta (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 3 $$. 

40. Iodis urosticta sp.n. 

<J, 20-24 mm. ; $, 26 mm. Palpus with 3rd joint elongate, in $ about 1, 
in <J over |. Face green. Vertex white. Abdomen above green with white 

spots ; beneath white. Foreiving with R 1 generally stalked, SC 1 well beyond 

it, anastomosing shortly (in the $ connected) with C ; greenish olive-grey, 
iridescent — especially in proximal and distal areas — with light gull-grey ; mark- 
ings as in argentilineata (Wileman, 1916) ; a white spot or dot on DC 1 posteriorly. 

Hindwing with tail moderate ; as forewing, the white terminal dot on R 1 

enlarged. Underside whiter. 

Tokyo, April 1926, 1 <J, type. Takao-San, 20 September 1925, 1 $, 1$. 
Japanese Alps, July 1926, 2 $£. 

None of the examples is perfect, nor are the few others which I have seen 
in different collections ; but the smaller size, and especially the different position 
of SC 1 , as well as the locality, distinguish it readily from argentilineata Wileman. 

41. Iodis dentifascia Warr. (1897). 
Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 1 $; 7 July 1926, 3 $$. Japanese Alps, July 
1926, 1 (J, 1 ?. 

42. Comostola nympha (Butl.) (1881). 

Nikko, November 1925, 2 $$. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 3 $?. Takao- 
San, 21 May to 25 June 1925, 11 SS\ 15 September 1925, 1 <$, 1 $ ; 9 June 
1926, 2 cJcJ ; 7 July 1926, 2 $£ ; 14 July 1926, 1 <J. 

There is some little variation in the size of the cell-spots and in the extent 
of the red edging to the vein-spots. The September $ is small and vivid green 
and is almost exactly matched by one of 7 July ; the other from the latter date 
is larger and worn, as is also that of 14 July, and it may well be that two genera- 
tions overlap at that period, at least in favourable years. 

Subfam. STERRHINAE. 
43. Dithecodes erasa Warr. (1900). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 J, 1 ?. 

A re-examination of the type of this rare species (Nov. Zool. vii. 102), 
with which these specimens agree in size, etc., shows traces — especially on the 



2116 



XoVlTATES ZoOLOOICAE XXXV. 1930. 



underside — of the white cell-spots which are conspicuous in them. Hence I 
do not now think that vacua Swinh. (TV. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 671) can be 
treated as even an aberration, much less a species. 

Pylargosceles gen.n. 

External characters mostly as in Scopula sect. Pylarge (hindtibia of q with 
2, of $ with 4 spurs), but with the S antenna bipectinate, with slender branches, 
one pair to each joint, bearing long branching cilia, the hindwing with SC 2 shortly 







(or very shortly) stalked. Wing-pattern more as in Tanaotrichia or some Rhodo- 
strophia. Genitalia (text-figs.) abundantly confirming its wide separation from 
Scopula and its approximate association with the Rhodostrophia section. Uncus 
long, bilobed. Gnathos developed. Valves short, divided. Transtilla present. 
No true " mappa and cerata " ; instead a peculiar two-pointed body-plate at 
the posterior end of the 8th sternite, extending half across the segment, com- 
parable to those of the Rhodostrophia group (" pseudo-mappa " of Burrows, 
in litt.). 

Type of the genus : Pylargosceles steganioides (Butl.) = Acidalia steganioides 
Butl. (1878). 

To this genus will belong also " Ptychopoda " limbaria Wileman (1915), 
which is probably a local race (Formosan) of steganioides. 



NoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 297 

44. Pylargosceles steganioides (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 19 April 1925, 1 $. Tokyo, 15-31 May 1926, 1 $. 

45. Calothysanis amata recompta subsp.n. 

On an average smaller than a. amata Linn. (1758), the ground-colour clearer 
buff, chiefly on account of the reduction or entire suppression of the grey irrora- 
tion, the pink line strong, generally broad, nearly always bright (approximating 
to PI. xxxviii& of Ridgway), often without any blackish admixture, termen 
generally with extended pink suffusion which is rare in a. amata. The seobinate 
flanges of the " uncus " (Pierce, Oenit. Oeom. Brit. p. 36) are more heavily armed. 

Japan, Corea and Ussuri, the type from Chabarovsk, Ussuri railway, 5 July 
1911 (E. Borsow), in coll. Tring. Mus. 

The discovery that comptaria Walk, is a distinct species, differing markedly 
in the o genitalia, has explained the extreme variability of Japanese Calothysanis 
(= Timandra) which was assumed in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 48) and has left the 
true eastern race of amata without a name. Although it remains moderately 
variable, it is almost always distinguishable from the European by its reduced 
size and cleaner, brighter line, that of a. amata generally favouring PI. xxvii 
centre or row i of Ridgway. In the Aigner collection it is only represented by 
two examples : 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 J ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J. 

As both of these strongly favour the ab. effusaria Klem. (1894) in the 
abnormal broadening of the pink shade, it has not been thought desirable to 
make either of them the type of the race. 

46. Calothysanis comptaria (Walk.) (1862). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 14 June 1925, 3 $$ ; 18 June 1925, 4 <$<$ ; 
14 July 1925, 1 (J ; 15 September 1925, 1 <J ; 20 September 1925, 1 $, 2 $$ ; 
5 June 1926, 1 <J, 1 ? ; 7 July 1926, I $. Tokyo, 4 $? : June and July 1925, 
1-15 May and 16-31 May 1926. 

The dates point to two or three separate broods. Three out of the four 
specimens taken on 18 June are worn and all are of the size of the earlier speci- 
mens ; those dated July and September 1925 are smaller and in good condition 
(that of 7 July 1926 very worn, probably a delayed specimen of the first brood) 
and the gap between their dates leaves ample time for another brood to feed up, 
although it is possible that we have here a protracted second generation. Even 
in the later emergences this species is well irrorated ; the line is more vinaceous- 
rufous than pink, always mixed with black, not diffused distally, often thickened 
at apex ; the postmedian line is usually distinct and is more sharply angled 
on the hindwing than in most amata ; terminal line dull, without pink diffusion. 
Uncus much less blunt, its flanges quite differently shaped, branch of costa of 
valve much more proximal. 

Range more extended than in amata recompta, reaching W. China. Walker's 
type was from " China," probably in the Shanghai district. 

47. Somatina indicataria (Walk.) (1861). 
Takao-San, 40 $$, 3 9?, one (a (J) on 21 May, 1925 the majority from 
14 June to 14 July. Tokyo, June 1925, 1 J. Kuma, Shikoku, 27 August 1925. 
Variation very slight, the August specimen rather small. 



298 X..VITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

48. Problepsis superans (Butl.) (1885). 
" Japan " (without exact data), 1 (J. 

Lord Rothschild has besides only two specimens of this fine species, Yoko- 
hama, July and August (Dr. Fritze). 

40. Problepsis discophora (Fixsen) (1887). 

" Prolilepsis phoebeana Ersch." Matsutnura, Thous, Ins. Jnp.. supp. ii.t. xxvii, f. 13 (1910) (err. det.). 

Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 1 (J ; 14 July 1925, 1 <J ; 9 June 1926, 2 <JcJ ; 
7 July 1926, 2 <J<J. 

The specimens of 1926 are fine dark forms. The sinking of this species 
to the preceding is incorrect. Smaller ; hindtarsus of $ relatively a little 
longer ; retinaculum of o without defined black spot posteriorly ; both wings 
with ocellus less extreme, the black scaling in it not nearly so continuous (in 
superans on the forewing it encircles the entire centre except anteriorly), the 
outer subterminal spots generally developed. 

50. Scopula cineraria (Leech) (1897). 
Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 2 <$$, 1 $. 

51. Scopula impersonata (Walk.) (1861). 

Tokyo, June 1925, 1 <J. 

The specimen belongs to the form macescens Butl. (1879), though slightly 
intermediate towards name-typical impersonata, which was described from 
China (Fu-chau), but occurs among f. macescens on Kiushiu. I suspect the 
name-typical form to be a product of warmth. 

52. Scopula confusa (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 1 $. 

53. Scopula hanna (Butl.) (1878). 
Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 1 $. 

54. Scopula nigropunctata subcandidata (Walk.) (1862). 

Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 30 <$<$. Takao-San, 2 May-14 July and 
15-20 September, 73 S3, 40 ?$. 

The above series shows little variation ; the few September specimens are 
on an average smaller, but not extreme. The following are somewhat more 
doubtfully placed : 

Kuma, Shikoku, 27 August 1925, 1 $, small and apparently not very heavily 
dusted, but not very fresh. 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 <J ; November 1925, 1 $. Both small and very 
weakly marked, possibly a third brood, but worn ; perhaps an allied species. 

55. Scopula modicaria (Leech) (1897). 

Tokyo, 1-15 June 1926, 1 $. Takao-San, 15 September 1925, 1 ? ; 7 July 
1926, 1 $. 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 299 

56. Scopula apicipunctata (Christ.) (1881). 
Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 <$ ; 25 June 1925, 1 <$, 1 $ ; 15 September 
1925, 1 ? ; 9 June 1926, 1 ? ; 7 July 1926, 2 ??. 

The September example is small, as is also the case with the following 
species. 

57. Scopula superior (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 <J ; 15 September 1925, 1 <J. Tokyo, June 
1925, 1 $ ; 16-31 May 1926, 1 ?. 

58. Scopula sp. 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 4^,1?; 21 June 1925, 1 ? ; 14 July 1925, 
1 ? ; 7 July 1926, 5 $$. 

Pass as a form (or forms) of subpunctaria H.-Sch. (1847) but probably — 
at least in part — wrongly. There seem to be two mixed, a larger and a smaller, 
among the Takao-San series, but nearly all are in poor condition, and in any 
case I do not care to deal with the group at present, as I believe Mr. A. M. 
Djakonov is making a thorough study of them, particularly as regards the Ussuri 
forms. 

59. Scopula superciliata (Prout) (1913). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 2 (J<J ; 21 June 1925, 2??; 15 September 1925 
1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 1 ?. 

The September specimen, much smaller than the rest, shows that this 
species, in common with most of the Japanese Scopula, produces at least a 
partial second brood. 

60. Scopula floslactata claudata (Prout) (1913). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 5 <$$, 3 ?? ; 5 June 1926, 2 $?. Hirayama, 
Nindo, 5 May 1926, 1 ?. 

61. Scopula ignobilis (Warr.) (1901). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 3 $ J ; IS June 1925, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 1 <J ; 
15 September 1925, 3 $$ ; 20 September 1925, 1 <J, 2 $$ ; 5 June 1926, 1 $ ; 
7 July 1926, 8 £<?, 3 $$. Sado I., 3-11 August 1926, 1 <$. Hachijoshima 
(Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 1 ?. Nikko, October 1926, 1 $. 

In addition there is an anomalous-looking (J from Takao-San, 1 5 September 
1925, with the ground-colour of ignobilis or slightly yellower, but with the 
hindwing appreciably more angled than in other examples (shaped as in nigro- 
punctata), the cell-dots minute, the underside weakly marked, the median shade 
on the forewing scarcely oblique enough for ignobilis (almost touching the cell- 
dot), thus almost impossible for any form of nigropunctata. Probably a new 
species. 

62. Scopula personata (Prout) (1913). 
Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 2 $$. 

63. Sterrha muricata minor (Sterneck) (1927). 
Takao-San, 15 September 1925, 1 $. 



300 KoVITATES ZoOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

64. Sterrha impexa (Butl.) (187!)). 

Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 2 $$ ; 7 July 1926, 1 J, 2 $$ ; 15 September 
1925. 1 J, 1 $. 

Here again the second-brood specimens are considerably smaller. 

05. Sterrha foedata (Butl.) (1879). 
Tokyo, June 1925, 2 ??. 

60. Sterrha nudaria infuscaria (Leech) (1897). 
Takao-San, 7 July 1926, 2 $$. 

07. Sterrha invalida (Butl.) (1879). 

? Nikko, October 1920, 1 ?. Takao-San, ? 21 May 1925, 1 $ (very worn) ; 
14 June 1925. 1 J ; IS June 1925, 2 <?£, 1 ? ; 21 June 1925, 1 cJ ; 25 June 
1925, 1 <J, 1 $; 14 July 1925. 1 $ ; 20 September 1925, 1 ?; 5 June 1926, 
3 (JcJ. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 2 $$ ; 3-11 August 1926, 1 $. ? Hachijo- 
shima (Fatsizio [.), 23 July 1926, 2 $$. 

Variable. The o OI 25 June is small, very worn, possibly a different species. 
The September $ is a nice dark example of ab. lauta Warr. (1901), and some 
others from Takao-San approach this form. The $ from Nikko is a curious 
aberration, rather brown and smooth-looking, the postmedian line apparently 
scarcely dotted on the veins (but rather worn). The Hachijoshima form is 
rather small, browner, heavily marked, possibly a separate species, but one 
Sado $ connects it with the more normal forms. 

08. Sterrha remissa (Wileman) (1911). 
Takao-San, 7 July 1920, 2 SS, 2 ??. 

69. Sterrha effusaria (Christ.) (1881). 
Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 1 ? ; 14 July 1925, 10 °? ; 7 July 1926, 2 JJ, 
2 $$. Japanese Alps, July 1926, 1 $. 

7o. Sterrha trisetata Prout (1922). 
Tokyo, 9 July 1925, 1 $. Takao-San, 14 July, 15 and 20 September 1925, 
1 $ on each date. 

Subfam. LARENTIINAE. 
71. Xanthorhoe quadriiasiata ignobilis (Butl.) (1881). 
Nikko, October 1925, 2 $$ ; November 1925, 2 $$. 

72. Xanthorhoe" saturata (Guen.) (1858). 
Takao-San, 20 September 1925, 1 $. Tokyo, 5-31 October 1925, 1 J ; 
20-30 November 1925, 1 <J. 

73. Orthonama obstipata (Fb.) (1794). 
Tokyo, 15 September 1925, 1 <J. 

A fine sharply-banded aberration of this cosmopolitan species, which seems 
rather rare, though distributed, in Japan. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1030. 301 

74. Ortholitha propinguata niphonica (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May-14 July, and again 15-20 September, 20 So, 10 $?. 

One c?, 14 June 1925, is a striking aberration, with the median band of the 
forewing greatly narrowed, the postmedian line of the hindwing correspondingly 
displaced proximad. 

75. Colostygia grataria (Leech) (1891). 
Nikko, October 1925, 1 $. 

70. Coenotephria amelia (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, 10 June 1925, 4 So, 4 ??■ Takao-San, 14 April 1925, 3 So ; 19 
April 1925, 1 S, 3 ?? ; 2 May 1920, 2 £<$, 3 $?. Tokyo, April 1925, 11 <$ <J, 
5 $?. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1920, 1 <$, 1 $. 

The series sliows the usual range of variation. 

This species is, 1 think, misplaced generically, but its actual affinities have 
not yet been worked out, though the remarkable, long curved spines with 
which it is beset near the base of the S valve, together with a few other characters, 
suggest a probable association with Larentia (type clavaria Haw.). 

77. Coenotephria umbrifera (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $. 

78. Coenotephria consanguinea (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $. 

The ostensible figure of this species in Matsumura (Thous. Ins. Jap., supp. ii, 
t. xxvii, f. 20) represents laczanoivskiaria Oberth. (1880), which in Japan is 
chiefly northern and was not obtained by Aigner. 

79. Perizoma taeniata saxea (Wileman) (lull). 
Nikko, October 1U25, 1 $ ; November 1925, 1 $. 

so. Euphyia obscura obscura (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May-14 July, 19 S<S, 20 ??. 

81. Euphyia cineraria (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 2 So- Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 $; 3-11 
August 1926, 4 ??. 

82. Euphyia undulileraria unduliferaria (Motsch.) (i860). 
Asamayama, July 1920, 2 $$. 

The Japanese race u. unduliferaria is generally larger and more greyish 
than u. albostrigaria Brem. (1804) and shows several other small differences. 

83. Melanthia procellata inquinata (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 ? ; November 1925, 2 S3, 2 $?. Takao-San, 
14 April-20 September, 30 S<S, 19 $?• Sado I., 3-11 August 1920, 1 $. 

Variable as usual, but with a strong preponderance, in the Takao-San series, 
of ab. infuscata Prout and transitions (perhaps 70 per cent.). 



302 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

84. Ecliptopera mactata mactata (Fold.) (1876). 
Nikko, October, 1925, 1 3 ; November 1925, 7 cJ^, 7 ??. Takao-San, 
21 May-14 July and again 15-20 September, 18 36, 5 $$. Sado I., spring, 

1 $ ; August, 2 36, 1 ?• 

85. Ecliptopera decurrens excurrens subsp.n. 

Not quite so broad and dark as d. decurrens Moore (1888, Himalayas), 
forewing less suffused with whitish between cell and tornal patch, the dark 
element in the latter more extended, less intense, didymate line on middle of 
hindmargin less extremely oblique (in d. decurrens nearly parallel with ante- 
median). 

Takao-San, 14 May-14 July and 15-20 September, 18 33, 7 ?$. Type in 
coll. Tring Mus. 

This is the usual Japanese form, not heretofore differentiated. Together 
with it, though not on the same dates, occurred an enigmatical form which I 
have long had separated as a provisional species. 

f. insurgens form.n. (? sp.n.). On an average slightly larger and longer- 
winged, termen of forewing generally slightly more bent in middle ; forewing 
cinnamon-brown to snuff-brown rather than fuscous, subbasal line indistinct 
and curved, not straight, almost always only three white lines in the postmedian 
group (in decurrens almost always four, the second from the base, however, 
extremely slender, rarely distinct to costa), tornal brown shade still more uniform 
than in d. excurrens ; hindwing and underside generally rather paler. As the 
genitalia are identical and most of the distinctions more or less inconstant, I 
still hesitate as to its status. 

Takao-San, 19 April 1925, 1 3 ; 21 May 1925, 2 33 ; 21 June 1925, 1 3 ; 

2 May 1926, 2 33- Near Tokyo, April 1925, 1 $. Also from Nikko, Yokohama, 
1886 (Manley) and Nagasaki, in coll. Tring Mus. and from Shinano, Minom'o 
and Kioto in coll. Joicey. From Yokohama, whence I have selected the type, 
I know this form only. 

86. Ecliptopera pryeri (Butl.) (1881). 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 $ ; November 1925, 3 33, 3 $?. 

This is a good species, not — as previously indicated — a synonym of 
E. capitata H.-Sch. It is rather closely similar to fasligata Piing. (1909), though 
with the postmedian line not quite so acutely bent. 

87. Ecliptopera umbrosaria (Motsch.) (1860). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 3; October 1925, 2 ?$ ; November 1925, 1 3, 
1 ?. Takao-San, 2 May-14 July and again 15-20 September, 73 33, 30 ?$. 
Tokyo, 14 April 1925, 1 ? ; 18 May 1925, 1 ? ; April 1926, 1 3 ; June 1926, 
1 3. Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 3 ??. 

Variable in size and colouring. There are clearly two broods, possibly 
even three ; the specimens taken up to the middle of June are nearly always 
more mixed with white than the later ones, particularly on the hindwing ; the 
later, darker specimens are on an average smaller. A few, including all the 
three from Hachijoshima, have a rather pronounced admixture of ochreous 
brown on either side of the median area of the forewing. A single 3 (Tokyo, 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 303 

April 1926) has the median area of the forewing cut with white behind M ! , re- 
calling the ab. insulata of E. silaceata Schiff. Differences in the 3 genitalia 
and abdominal tufts show umbrosaria to be a good species, not — as it was treated 
in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 250) — a race of silaceata. 

88. Eustroma aerosa (Butl.) (1878). 

" Lijgris testala L. $ " (! !) Matsumura, Thous. Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxix, f. 16 (1910) (err. det.). 

Nikko, 1 ?, 26 June 1925. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 14 June 1925, 
1 ? ; 18 June 1925, 3 33 ; 15 September 1925, 1 <J, 1 ? ; 5 June 1926, 1 <J. 

89. Eustroma melancholica melancholica (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 15 September 1925, 7 $ J ; 2 May 1926, 
3 33- 

90. Photoscotosia atrostrigata (Brem.) (1864). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 3 ; October 1925, 3 S3; November 1925, 1 #, 
19??. 

Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 1 ?, a form or mountain race (?), dark, with 
median area of forewing heavily marked, distal area sufficiently darkened to 
bring out sharply the posterior part of the pale subterminal line. 

91. Callabraxas maculata (Swinh.) (1894). 
Sado I., spring 1926, 1 ?. 

92. Calleulype compositata (Guen.) (1858). 
Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 1 <J. 

93. Calleulype whitelyi (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 9 June-7 July, 14 S3, 9 ??. 

94. Gandaritis fixseni magnifica (Prout) (1915) 

Nikko, October 1925, 3 SS, 2 ?? ; November 1925, 11 S3, 2 ??. Takao- 
San, 14 July 1925, 2 S3- Tokyo, 4 July 1925, 1 ?. 

95. Lygris agues agues (Butl.) (1878) 
Takao-San, 2 June-7 July, 22 S3, 8 ??• 

96. Lygris ledereri Brem. (1864). 
Nikko, October 1925, 1 ? ; November 1925, 7 S3, 4 ??. Takao-San. 
18 June 1925, 1 3 ; 21 June 1925, 2 S3, 1 ? ; 14 July 1925, 1 S, 1 ? ; 7 July 
1926, 1 <J, 1 $. 

97. Lygris convergenata Brem. (1864). 
Sado I., spring 1926, 1 S, 1 ? ; 8-11 August 1926, 1 S, 7 ??. 

98. Dysstroma corussaria (Oberth.) (1880). 
Nikko, November 1925, 1 ? (badly worn). 



304 Novitates Zoologicae XXXV. 1930. 

99. Dysstroma japonica Heydem. (1929). 

Nikko, November 1925, 2 $$. 

This species is no doubt the " Cidaria russata " of Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap. 
xii. (1) 79 (1884), but is still closer to cinereata Moore, with which Sterneck 
(and I in 1908, Tr. City Lond. Ent. Soc. xvii. 58) confused it. Sec Mitt. Miinchn. 
Ent. Ges. xix. 228 for Heydemann's good description and figures. 

LOO. Dysstroma citrata citrata (Linn.) (1701). 

Nikko, 2(3 June 1925, 1 $ ; November 1925, 1 $. 

Dr. Heydemann in his excellent monograph on Old-World Dysstroma 

(Mill. Miinchn. Ent. Ges. xix. 207-292) regards the Japanese citrata as " rather 
large, but otherwise differing so little from Central European specimens that 
their separation does not seem warranted. The range of variation is the same " 
(loc. cit., p. 271). The Aigner specimens are not large, though that distinction 
will hold for a fairly high percentage of Japanese material. 1 am inclined to 
think that in other respects a racial separation will ultimately be found justified, 
as the ensemble of characters produces an impression which, to the eye accustomed 
to the European forms, is nearly always distinctive. The hindwing above is 
generally a shade darker and more unicolorous, the forewing often has the 
cell-dot more elongate, the proximal brown band is nearly always narrow, except 
posteriorly, the antemedian rarely much bent, the median area broad, generally 
with its distal prong elongate (recalling that of dentifera Warr., 1890), and 
showing a very frequent tendency (except, of course, in the wholly black-banded 
forms) to produce a dusky suffusion from the antemedian band in the posterior 
part of the cell. All these points, however, are very subtle and more or less 
inconstant, and will need verification on much larger material than is yet acces- 
sible to me. The Nikko $ belongs to the black-banded ab. strigulata Fab. 
(1794) = immanata Haw. (1809), the $ approaches the form which Lange 
(Iris xxxv, t. i, f. 19) figures as " immanata (Typus)," presumably a lapse for 
" citrata (Typus)," since it is recognized on p. 150 and t. i, f. 22, 23 that the 
black-banded is ab. immanata. 



101. Thera postalbida (Wileman) (1911). 

Nikko, November 1925, 1 <$. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $. Tokyo, 
16-31 May 1926, 2 <J<J, 3 ??. 

102. Thera comis (Butl.) (1879). 

Nikko, November 1925, 4 cJ o- Tokyo, 20-30 November 1925, 1 $. 
All the specimens are very wasted, showing that the period of emergence 
was past. 

103. Calocalpe excultata (Christ.) (1881). 

Takao-San, 14 April 1925, 1 ,$. 

The specimen is an aberration with the central band of the forewing 
narrowed, between M 2 and the fold interrupted. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 305 

104. Telenoraeuta punctimarginaria (Leech) (1891). 

Nikko, 2 May 1926, 1 $. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2^; 14 July 1925, 
5 £<?, 2 ?? ; 5 June 1926, 2 $,$ ; 7 July 1926, 2 JJ. Tokyo, July 1925, 1 <?. 

Triphosa inconspicua Bastelb., Sra£. Zeit. (Stuttgart) xxiii. 77, from Formosa, 
is synonymous with this. 

105. Loxoftdonia hortensiaria (Graes.) (1890). 

Tokyo, 1-15 April 1926, 1 $ ; 16-30 April 1926, 1 $. 

This species is wrongly placed with Xanthorhoe in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 223), 
its close resemblance to some of the species in that genus having apparently 
led to the untested assumption that the venation would support this resemblance. 
Only recently, when I was determining Chinese material for Dr. Sterneck, was 
the error discovered (see Iris, xlii. 155). 

106. Loxofidonia muscicapata (Christ.) (1881). 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 <$ ; November 1925, 2 <$<$. Takao-San, 21 May 
1925, 1 <J ; 14 July 1925, 1 c? ; 20 September 1925, 2 JJ. 

Unlike its Indian representative obfuscata Warr. (1893), this species seems 
to vary very little ; Aigner's seven (J (J, as well as the eight examples (" Japan ") 
previously in the Tring Museum, are, apart from the slight sexual dimorphism 
which is prevalent in the Xanthorhoe group, very constant. 

107. Epirrhoe' supergressa (Butl.) (1879). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 3 $$ ; 14 July 1925, 1 <$, 1 $ ; 20 September 
1925, 1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 1 (J. 

108. Epirrhoe placida (Butl.) (1878). 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 ? ; 3-11 August 1926, 1 £. 

Both examples are a modification of ab. propinqua Butl. (1881) with the 
lines which form the central band rather less heavy and confluent than in the 
common form figured in Seitz, pi. 8e. 

As noted in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 258), this species has evidently no near 
relationship with true Epirrhoe, notwithstanding the venational identity. More 
probably it may belong in the Callabraxas group, but pending a further revision 
I have abstained from erecting a new genus for it ; Epirrhoe (sens, lat.) still 
contains some other more or less dissonant elements. 

109. Epirrhoe evanescens (Butl.) (1881). 

Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 <$. 

This is obviously a separate species, as the distinctions in the markings 
are constant and include, in addition to those noted in Seitz (p. 258, as placida 
ab. evanescens), the development of a single solid (though often interrupted at 
M') postmedian band of the hindwing, whereas that of placida is almost invariably 
double or only partially fused into one, and a rather clearer white tone. The 
mimicry of Abraxas is much more manifest in it than in the preceding species. 

21 



306 NOYITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

110. Baptria tibiale (Eap.) (1791). 

Takao-San, 2 June 1926, 1 <J. 

111. Eulype hecate (Butl.) (1878). 
Asarnayama, July 1926, 3 (JcJ. 

112. Horisme (Pseudocollix) minuta (Butl.) (1881). 

Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 1 £. 

Whatever may be the correct generic location of this rare or overlooked 
species, it and the others listed under Pseudosterrha are certainly not Collix 
(cf. Prout, Ins. Samoa, iii (3) 132). In spite of the Collix-like underside of 
minuta, they have more in common with Horisme Hb. (= the " Eucymatoge 
Hb." of Meyrick, " Phibalapteryx Steph." of Hampson). and as that is, in its 
comprehensive sense, a nearly cosmopolitan genus, they may stand there, pending 
further research. Only sparsata Hb. (" Collix Guen." of Meyrick, overlooking 
Guenee's own notes, Spec. Gen. Lip. x. 358) appears to be sui generis. 

113. Horisme tersata chinensis (Leech) (1897). 
Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 $. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 4 $$ (wasted) ; 
15 September 1925, 1 $ (smaller). 

114. Horisme stratata (Wileman) (1911). 

Nikko, November 1925, 3 $$. 

Apparently a rather scarce species ; previously only represented in the 
Tring Museum by a $ from Oiwake, October 1886 (Leech). 

115. Eupithecia ruiescens Butl. (1878). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 $ ; 5 June 1925, 1 $ ; 9 June 1925, 1 $. 

116. Eupithecia subicterata sp.n. 

$, 28 mm. Comparable to the greyest forms of icterata Vill. (1789) in which 
the brown admixture is not very bright (appearing pinkish-cinnamon or pinkish- 
buff rather than apricot-buff) and almost confined to the triangular area at 

end of M and along R'-M 1 . Palpus rather longer (nearly 2). Forewing 

with cell-mark rather longer than in most icterata, postmedian heavier, with its 
angle at R ; instead of R\ posteriorly inclining a little more towards tornus and 
with a more noticeable curve outward between fold and SM 2 , black longitudinal 

dashes along fold sharp, though extremely fine. Hindwing with termen slightly 

less convex than in icterata, markings lather stronger, cell-dot larger. — 
Underside sharply marked. 

Takao-San, 2 May 1920. the type ? only. 

A $ (?), slightly less sharply marked (or perhaps less fresh), is figured by 
Uietze, Biol. Eup., t. 79, f. 862, but not named ; the explanation of the plate 
merely gives " ? n.sp., Japan. Farbung ahnlich svbfulvata. Original in 
Kgl. Naturalien-Kabinett, Stuttgart." 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 307 

117. Eupithecia sophia Butl. (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 £ ; 20 September 1925, 1 ?. 
Both are rather small and short-winged. 

118. Eupithecia addictata Dietze (190S) (?). 

Takao-San, 20 September 1925, 3 <J J. 

As Dietze has remarked (Iris, xxi. 195), Eastern Asia seems to hold a perfect 
"nest-full " of small species, superficially alike, in the selinata (H.-Sch., 1S61) 
group. It is therefore highly inexpedient to add to them on the strength of a 
single good specimen (two are badly worn), at least until I have been able to 
study Dietze's own material. In most respects the Aigner specimen tallies with 
the description and figures of addictata, but it is as greasy-looking and strongly 
spotted costally as selinata and its appreciably shorter palpus makes one think 
of tenebricosa Dietze (1910), which, however, should have bisinuate postmedian 
line on the hindwing and apparently a longer termen to the forewing — that of 
the Takao-San examples being, if either, shorter than in selinata and addictata. 

119. Eupithecia tripunctaria H.-Sch. (1851). 

Takao-San, 15 September 1925, 1 ?. 

I think new for Japan, though well known from Amurland. The specimen 
is worn and the record may need confirmation. 

120. Eupithecia mandschurica Stgr. (1897) (?). 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 <J, 5 ?? ; 3-11 August 1926, 6 $?. 

A series of absinthiata-iike forms, mostly in poor condition. The only 
^ (body and forewings only) is small but has, so far as can be made out without 
dissection, a body-plate like that of absinthiata. I am not aware that any 
anatomical work has yet been undertaken to test the status of mandschurica, 
which was published as a form of absinthiata and afterwards separated. 

121. Eupithecia sp. 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 J. 

Worn. The divided body-plate suggests affinity with castiyata Hb. (1808- 
14) and the markings may have been somewhat similar, but the wings are a 
little narrower. It does not particularly resemble the figures of ussuriensis 
Dietze (1910). 

122. Eupithecia sp. 

Nikko, November 1925, 1 $. 

Very worn. The tone and fine markings suggest, in its present condition, 
parallelaria Bohatsch (1893) ; smaller, less extremely elongate, the termen of 
the hindwing subconcave between R 1 and R 3 or M 1 and with a conspicuous 
cell-dot. Recalls also the figure of detrilata Stgr. (Iris, x. t. iii, f. 77), except 
that the postmedian line is much more distal, on the forewing passing midway 
between cell-dot and termen, 



308 XoVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

123. Eupithecia Bp. 

Takao-San, 15 September 1925, 1 g . 

Worn, rather recalling virgaureata Dbld. (1861), but with more nearly the 
structure of selinata H.-Sch., perhaps belonging to that group. 

124. Chloroclystis consueta (Butl.) (1879). 
Tokyo, 18 May 1925, 1 $ 

A rather large form, agreeing well with a q from the same locality 
(Dr. Fritze, 1890) in the Tring Museum. 

125. Chloroclystis coronata lucinda (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 9 June 1926, 1 ? ; 7 July 1926, 1 J. 

126. Chloroclystis (Rhinoprora) excisa (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 2 May 1926, 1 $. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 ?; 3-11 
August 1926, 2 (J (J, 3 ??. 

127. Brabira artemidora (Oberth.) (1884). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 <J. Sado I., 3-11 August 1926, 1 <J. 

128. Microloba bella bella (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May-14 July, 10 <$<$, 4 $$ ; 15 September 1925, 1 $. 
Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 1 <$. 

129. Heterophleps fusca (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 9 June 1926, 1 $. 

Worn and presenting rather a strange appearance, in some respects recalling 
an unnamed Chinese species, but probably an example of the not very rare 
aberration of fusca in which the subterminal costal spot of the forewing is absent. 

130. Carige hrorata Butl. (1879). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 $ ; 14 September 1925, 1 j 1 , 20 September 
1925, 1 <J, 5 $$. 

It has not yet been definitely proved that this is anything more than a 
very stable dimorphic form of cruciplaga Walk., which — as I have recently 
pointed out, Nov. Zool. xxxv. 143 — is probably of Japanese origin. The 
shape of the wings, however, though slightly variable, is nearly always more 
extreme in cruciplaga than in irrorata, the antemedian line of the forewing 
rather more sinous, and these distinctions, added to the difference in maculation, 
renders it extremely probable that we have to deal with two species. C. absorpla 
Warr. (1899) is synonymous with irrorata, though the selected type-specimen 
was a rather extreme form (ab.). 

131. Carige cruciplaga cruciplaga (Walk.) (1861). 

Semiothisa {Carige) cruciplaga Matsumura, Thaws. Ina. Jap., Sup]!, ii. t. xxiv, f. 20 (lllll). 

Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925. 1 $. 

A curious greyish (heavily irrorated) form with rather elongate forewing, 
bearing rather pronounced dark markings distally to the subterminal, beginning 
to recall extremaria Leech (1897), which is, however, a distinct species. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 309 

132. Naxidia maculata (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 ?. 

133. Trichopterigia volitans (Butl.) (1878). 
Near Tokyo, April 1925, 3 $$. 

134. Nothopteryx obscuraria (Leech) (1891). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 ^ ; 14 June 1925, 2 cJ^J ; 9 June 1926, 2 $$. 

135. Nothopteryx hemana (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 2 $$. Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 1 $ ; 2 May 1926, 
2 ?$. Near Tokyo, April 1925, 1 g ; 16-30 April 1926, 1 <J ; 15-31 May 1926, 

136. Nothopteryx terranea (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 2 May 1926, 3 <$S, 3 $?. 

137. Nothopteryx misera (Butl.) (1879). 
Near Tokyo, April 1925, 1 $. 

138. Otoplecta frigida (Butl.) (1879). 
Nikko, 2 May 1926, 1 <$. 

139. Sauris nanaria Leech (1897). 

Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 1 J ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J, 1 $. 

It has not hitherto been pointed out that this species, which was accidentally 
omitted from Seitz, vol. iv, is closely related to subalba Hmpsn. (1895), the 
Indian form or representative of eupitheciata Snell. (1881, Celebes). 

140. Oporinia mediolineata (Prout) (1914). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 7 SS I 2 May 1926, 1 <J. 

Basing it on a single $ from Owakidana, I overlooked the affinities of this 
species and placed it in Cidaria (Coenolephria). Subsequently Mr. Joicey 
received a series, mostly ££, from the Kyoto-Osaka district, collected in the 
middle of November, and I transferred it to Oporinia, which is approximately 
correct, although the discocellulars of the fore-, as well as of the hindwing, are 
biangulate. I suspect some error in dating the Nikko specimens of this, Operoph- 
tera brumata and some others. 

141. Operophtera relegata Prout (1908). 
Tokyo, December 1925, 1 $. 

142. Operophtera brumata (Linn.) (1758). 
Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 $. 



310 NOVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXV. 1930. 

143. Asthena aniurensis (Stgr.) (1897). 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 £ ; 3-11 August 1926, 4 <J<J. 

Attention should be called to an important note by Djakonov (J.B. Mart. 
Staatsmus. Minussinsk. iv. (1) 47), showing this to be a valid species. Typically, 
amurensis should have cell-dots, which are not present in the Sado I. specimens. 
They are therefore presumably a race or still another closely allied species. In 
any case they are not nymphaeata Stgr. (1897), by the less projecting antennal 
joints, short ciliation and apparently the genitalia. 

144. Asthena anseraria corculina Butl. (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 £<$ ; 14 June 1925, 1 $, 1 $ ; 18 June 1925, 
2 $$ ; 20 September 1925, 1 $. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 <$, 1 $. 

To the differentiation of this race, as given in Seitz, Macrolep. iv. 272, 
should be added that this is the " var. ? " noted by Staudinger (Iris, x. 98) in 
his article on the " Geometridae of Amurland," with the terminal dots not 
strigiform. 

145. Asthena nymphaeata (Stgr.) (1897). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 7 £<£, 1 ? ; 14 June 1925, 1 £, 2 ?$ ; 18 June 
1925, 1 <J ; 15 September 1925, 1 ?. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 3 <J<J, 8 $$ ; 
spring 1926, 1 <$ ; 3-11 August 1926, 1 #, 1 ?. 

Some of the $$ enumerated above may belong to the Japanese race (?) 
of amurensis (supra), which I confess I can at present only distinguish by <$ 
characters. 

146. Asthena ochrifasciaria Leech (1S97). 
Takao-San, 21 June 1925, 1 cJ ; 9 June 1926, 2 £$ ; 7 July 1926, 1 ?. 

147. Laciniodes unistirpis (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May-14 June, 27 <?<?, 4 ? ; 7 July 1926, 1 $ (worn) ; 20 
September 1925, 2 $?. ' 

The September specimens are not noticeably smaller, but both have the 
dark subterminal shade of the forewing unusually heavy. On the whole the 
series shows very little variation, and the same is true of the rest of the Japanese 
material known to me. Presumably unistirpis is the E. Asiatic race of pluri- 
linearia Moore (1867) from the Himalayas, but as I find there are two or three 
apparent species in that region and W. China, it is not safe to attach unistirpis 
definitely to any particular one until a revision of the group has been undertaken. 

148. Hydrelia adesma sp.n. 

<J$, 18-20 mm. Extremely similar to nisaria Christ., but slightly rounder- 
winged and markedly more suffused, with the cell-dots weakened, presenting a 
more uniform appearance of greyish drab. Antennal ciliation of the <$ less 
minute, on the broad proximal segments about J, on the narrower distal ones 
about J. Very readily distinguished in both sexes by having the normal hindwing 
venation of Hydrelia, with M 1 arising well separate from R', while in nisaria 
these veins are rather strongly stalked. 

Takao-San, 5 June 1926, <$ type ; 7 July 1926, 1 ?. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. I! ] 1 

A (J from " Japan." determined by Warren as nisaria, has stood in the 
Tring Museum over a blank label and I find, on examination of the British 
Museum series of ostensible nisaria, a £ from Gensan (Corea), a <$ from Yezo 
and a 5 from Hakodate. The species will doubtless be found in other collections 
mixed with nisaria. 

149. Hydrelia nisaria (Christ.) (1881). 
Takao-San, 2 May 1920, 1 (J ; 5 June 1920, 1 <J. 

150. Venusia (Discoloxia) phasma (Butl.) (1879). 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 $; November 1925, 9 $$, 10 ?$. Takao-San, 
15 September 1925, 2 S3 \ 20 September 1925, 15 <J<J, 7 ?? ; 9 June 1920, 1 <J. 

The June specimen is worn, but so are most of the Nikko S3 and several 
$$. Leech took the species at Nikko in September and at Hakodate in August, 
but specimens from Gensan, Corea, are dated July. 

I accept the view of Forbes (Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. xxv. 00) that Discoloxia 
is nothing more than a non-pectinate subgenus of Venusia. 

151. Eschatarchia ' lineata Warr. (1894). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 7 S3 ; 14 June 1925, 2 S3 ; 25 June 1925, 1 S ; 
5 June 1920, 2 S S, 1 $ ; 9 June 1920, 1 <J. 

Apparently a very local species ; the Tring Museum previously possessed 
only the type 3 (" Japan ") and one $ from Gifu. 

Palpoctenidia (Warr. MS.) gen.n. 

Face smooth. Palpus slender, rather short, terminal joint distinct. Tongue 
developed. Antenna in S bipectinate, in $ simple. Hindtibia with all spurs. 

Wings smoothly scaled ; 3 retinaculum a broad bar. Forewing with termen 

rounded ; cell not quite \, DC normally curved ; SO 1,5 ' 2,3,4 stalked, R 1 separate, 

R s normal, M 1 separate. Hindiving with abdominal margin fairly long, 

termen bluntly angled at R 1 ; cell J or f, DC straightish, oblique ; C anastomosing 
with cell to rather beyond middle ; SC : very shortly stalked, R ; slightly before 
middle, M 1 well separate. 

Type of the genus : Palpoctenidia phoenicosoma (Swinh.) = Chrysocraspeda 
phoenicosoma Swinh. (1895). 

Differs essentially from Chrysocraspeda in the Larentiine (or Asthenine) 
anastomosis of C of the hindwing ; from Cambogia, to which Hampson (Faun. 
Ind., Moths, iv. 561) transferred it, in that SC 1 of the forewing arises before 
SC 5 and M 1 of the hindwing is well separate from R ! . 

152. Palpoctenidia phoenicosoma (Swinh.) (1895). 

Takao-San, 7 July 1926. 

New for Japan, probably a separable race, or even a distinct though closely 
allied species, as the specimen is rather broad-winged and pale, the postmedian, 
especially on the hindwing, with its central projection less developed. The 
name-typical form is fairly common in the Khasis and is also known to me from 
Gopaldhara, Sikkim. 



312 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 

153. Hastina azela azela (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 1 $ ; 18 July 1925, 1 $. 

Subfam. GEOMETRINAE. 
154. Arichanna tetrica (Butl.) (187S). 
Nikko, 26 June 1925, 2 JcJ, 2 ??. Takao-San, 14 April 1925, 1 <J ; 19 April 

1925, 1 $ ; 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 2 May 1926, 1 ?. 

155. Arichanna jaguararia gaschkevitchii (Motsch.) (i860). 
Asamavama, June 1926, 1 ?. Ikako, Central Hondo, 25 July 1926, 2 $<$. 
Takao-San, 21 June 1925, 1 ^ ; 25 June 1925, 1 $ ; 14 July 1925, 2 $$ ; 5 June 

1926, 1 (J; 18 June 1926, 1 ?. Japanese Alps, June 1926. 3 $$. Sado I. 
1-15 August 1925, I (J, 6 ?? ; spring 1926, 1 $ ; 3-11 August 1926, 2 £?. 

The Japanese race is whiter than the Chinese j. jaguararia Guen., generally 
with heavier maculation. 

156. Metabraxas clerica Butl. (1881). 
Tokyo, 16-31 May 1926, 1 <J. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 8 S<$, 2 $$ ; 
3-11 August 1926, 4 ££. 

157. Dilophodes elegans elegans (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May-25 June, 8 $$, 3 $$ ; 15 September 1925, 1 $. 
The September specimen is small. 

158. Percnia albinigrata Warr. (1896). 

Takao-San, 21 May-7 July, 54 J^, 10 $?. 

Presumably abundant locally, as is the case with so many of the Abraxas 
group. The Tring Museum previously possessed, in addition to Warren's type, 
only four Asamayama and four Yokohama examples and a short series from 
different localities in W. China and from Ichang. The variation is only slight, 
but the accession of this splendid series brings out clearly that the Japanese 
forms (or at least those from the mountains — the four from Yokohama and 
Wileman's material are more equivocal) have the black spots more strongly 
developed than the Chinese, so that the latter may probably be found worthy 
of a subspeeific name. Arichanna jaguararia and Dilophodes elegans show 
the same tendency in Japan. P. " felinaria " (!) formosana Mats. (Thous. Ins. 
Jap., supp. ii, t. xxvi, f. 8) is apparently a somewhat intermediate specimen of 
albinigrata ; I do not know the species from Formosa. 

159. Percnia giraffata (Guen.) (1858). 

Takao-San, 14 April 1925, 2 <$£ ; 5 June-7 July, 36 J J. Kuma Shikoyu, 
27 August 1925, 1 $. 

The Takao-San series is very constant. The $ has the markings enlarged, 
partly confluent, notably the cell-spot of the forewing with the central post- 
medians. The enlargement of the cell-spot is in a measxire characteristic of 
the sex (compare Felder's type of " grandaria," t. cxxix. 28), but this Kuma 
Shikoyu specimen is much more extreme. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1030. 313 

160. Culcula panterinaria sychnospilas subsp.n. 

" Percnia exanthemata Moore," Wileman, Tr. Ent. Soc. Land. 1911, p. 318 (1911) (Japan). 

Very variable and often extremely asymmetrical in the median area of 
the forewing, in these respects agreeing with all the races, or at least with those 
from China. Yet differentiable by the general copiousness and heaviness of 
the markings, especially by the complete or almost complete postmedian of 
both wings. Nearest in all respects to p. abraxata Leech (Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 
1889, p. 143, t. ix, f. 14), but with the yellow line or band of the hind-, as well as 
of the forewing continued, uninterruptedly or interruptedly, to the costa, very 
generally accompanied by apical dark spots, the black clouding at tornus in- 
creased, central inner-marginal spot almost invariably well developed, costa of 
forewing often darkened, abdomen heavily clouded above. 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 14 $$, including the type. Takao-San, 18 June 

1925, 1 J; 21 June 1925, 1 <$ ; 7 July 1926, 4 <$$. Also in coll. Wileman 
from Yamato and Kiushiu (Hyuga) and in coll. Joicey from Takao and 
Mt. Kurama near Kyoto. 

Unfortunately I have not seen name-typical panterinaria Brem. & Grey 
(1853), from Pekin, and erroneously figured p. exanthemata Moore (1888), from 
the Himalayas, as Palaearctic (Seitz, Macrolep. iv, t. 14 f.). 

161. Cystidia stratonice (Stoll) (1782). 

Asamayama, July 1926, 1 $, 1 $. Ikaho, Central Hondo, 25 July 1926, 
1 ?. Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 2 £<$. Tamagawa, W. of Tokyo, 25 June 

1926, 1 $. Tokyo, July 1925, 1 <J. 

162. Cystidia couaggaria (Guen.) (1S58). 

Asamayama, July 1926, 1 <J. Ikaho, Central Hondo, 25 July 1926, 1 $. 
Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 2 S<3 \ 14 July 1925, 1(J; 9 June 1926, 1 jj, 1 ?. 
Tokyo, June 1925, 3^; July 1925, 2 $$, 1 $. 

163. Abraxas latifasciata Warr. (1894). 

The Japanese Abraxas of the miranda group are still in great need of revision 
and little can at present be said concerning the long Aigner series except that it 
will add some useful material for investigation whenever such revision may be 
found possible. It seems fairly evident, however, that latifasciata is not, as it 
was made to appear in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 311), a form of miranda Butl., seeing 
that in the last named the q hindwing has a costal protuberance near the base 
which is scarcely even adumbrated in latifasciata. On the basis of this distinc- 
tion it has become possible to catalogue roughly the material, although there 
may still be a further mixture, and in any case the placing of some $$ is pre- 
carious. 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 <J. 

Not extremely small ; rather heavily marked. 

? Asamayama, July 1926, 1 $. 

The large, broad midcostal spot (cell-spot) of the forewing and some strong 
maculation between the postmedian and the terminal series of the hindwing 



OM NoVITATES ZOOLOOICAE XXXV. 1030. 

give this a strange, at first glance rather miranda-l\ke, appearance. Perhaps 
it is a new species, but it is difficult to deal with a single $. 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 9 £<?, 1 ? ; 14 June 1925, 1 <J ; 18 Juno 1925, 

1 cJ, 2 $$ (and see fulvobasalis, infra) ; ? 20 September 1925, 1 ? (transitional 
towards miranda) ; ? 2 June 1926, 1 $ (large, clean, transitional towards [form. ?] 
fulvobasalis). Tokyo, April 1925, 1 cJ ; 18 May 1925, 2 cJcJ, 3 $? ; June 1925, 

2 ?$ ; 16-31 May 1926, 4 $$. 

Moderately strongly variable, both in size and maculation ; several examples 
have the basal patch almost as bright as in fulvobasalis, which will probably 
prove to be a form of the same species. 

Sado I, 1-15 August, 1925, 2 ?$. 

Presumably a second (or third ?) brood, rather small, not quite so fulvobasalis 
like as the following specimen, but helping to connect that with normal lati- 
fasciata. 

1. Corea : Kikai Nojo, 19 August 1926, 1 ?. 

A very small (32 mm.) late-brood form of the lalifasciala series, not quite 
clean and bright enough for (form. ?) fulvobasalis, though tending in that 
direction. 

164. Abraxas fulvobasalis Warr. (1894). 

Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 ?. 

Very similar to typical fulvobasalis, but with the basal patch of the forewing 
not quite so free from blackish admixture, median spots developed behind M. 
If fulvobasalis (Yezo) is really a separate species, concerning which I have already 
expressed my doubts, it may well be that the present specimen should remain 
with the preceding series as a very extreme ab. 

165. Abraxas miranda Butl. (1878). 

Takao-San, 14 May 1925, 1 $ ; 21 May 1925, 6 $#. Tokyo, 15-31 May 
1926, 1 cJ. 

The female is considerably larger than the rest of the series, more creamy, 
postmedian of forewing more broken into irregular pairs of vein-spots, cell- 
spot large, broad, with irregular projections proximad ; hindwing with median 
series more band-like, postmedian pairs more widely sundered. It is so different 
from the rest as to be hard to reconcile, though a series of undoubted miranda 
already in the Tring Museum shows intergrades with deminuta Warr. (1894), 
which I now consider a probable form of miranda and to which I refer Aigner's 
seven males. One of the Takao-San is banded, closely analogous to continuata 
Warr. (Nov. Zool. x. 269, as sylvata ab. !), which was founded on a $, but seema 
to be an ab. of latifasciata, not of the present species. 

166. Ligdia japonaria Leech (1897). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 2 $$ ; 18 June 1925, 5 $<$ ; 5 June 1926, 1 $ ; 
7 July 1926, 2 J$. 

167. Bapta (?) simplicior (Butl.) (1881. 
Nikko, October 1925, 3 <?<?, 1 ? ; November 1925, 6 <$<$, 9 ??. Takao- 
San, 9 June 1925, 1 <?> 1 $ ; 2 <> September 1925, 1 $. 



Novitates Zooloc.icae XXXV. 1930. 315 

168. Bapta bimaculata subnotata Warr. (1895). 
Takao-San, 5 June-14 July, 44 JJ, 7 ??. Sado I., 1-15 August, 9 $£, 2 $?. 
Mostly much worn. 

169. Bapta temerata (Schiff.) (1775). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 7 JJ, 3 $$ ; 18 June 1925, 1 <J, 2 $$ ; 21 June 
1925, 2 <?£, 2 $$ ; 25 June 1925, 1 cJ ; 5 June 1926, 2 SS I ? July 1926, 1 ?. 
Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 7 JcJ, 2 $? ; 3-11 August 1926, 2 ^. 

Rather strongly variable in the heaviness of the bands. 

170. Bapta foedata (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 3^; 14 June 1925, 1 ? ; 5 June 1926, 1 <J ; 
9 June 1926, 1 $. 

171. Crypsicometa incertaria (Leech) (1891). 
Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 <$. 

172. Parabapta Clarissa (Butl.) (1878). 
Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 3 <$<$. Takao-San, 19 April 1925, 1 $ ; 
21 May-25 June, 35 <?<?, 19 ??. 

173. Peratophyga hyalinata grata (Butl.) (1879). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 J 

The name-typical, Himalayan race of this species (hyalinata Koll., 1844 = 
aetata Moore, 1867) is so variable that it is not easy to discriminate the very 
similar, though less variable, grata Butl. of Japan. As, however, the moderately 
trained eye can nearly always pick it out, I consider that it was premature to 
sink the latter (Hampson, Faun. Ind., Moths, iii. 164 ; Prout in Seitz, Macrolep. 
iv. 316). The tone is rather different (less ochreous), the proximal edge of the 
median area of the forewing generally less sinuous, the distal edge with its 
central tooth smaller and more pointed, the pale mid-subterminal spot not or 
little developed, etc. The Chinese race totifasciata Wehrli (1923) is in general 
more distinct from both the above than they are from one another. 

174. Lomographa hyriaria (Warr.) (1894). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 J ; 14 June 1925, 1 # ; 18 June 1925, 5 £$ ; 
21 June 1925, 1 $, 1 ? ; 25 June 1925, 1 ? ; 14 July 1925, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 
1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 1 J, 3 ??. 

Warren (Nov. Zool. i. 406) only gave his type locality as " Japan " and 
some of the specimens were only so labelled ; but the holotype and two others 
were from Nagasaki, May 1886 (Leech). The species, however, seems everywhere 
very constant. 

175. Lomographa (Ingena) deletaria hypotaenia subsp.n. 
cj, 37-39 mm. Larger than name-typical deletaria Moore (1888) from 
Sikkim and the Khasis. Darker, the prevailing tone brownish drab to benzo- 



316 NOVTTATES ZoOI.Ol'.H'AK XXXV. 1930. 

brown ; the pale parts less ochreous (pale cream-buff), the apical patch of the 
forewing standing out sharply. Underside much less weakly marked than in 
'/. ddetaria, both wings with strong cell-spot and postmedian, the latter generally 
broad, band-like. 

Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 1 <J ; 9 June 1926, 3 JJ, including the type. 

Moore (Lep. Coll. Ath. 261), with his good eye for species, recognized that 
there were two in the present group and named them " Macaria " ddetaria and 
indistincta. But he failed to notice — or at least did not mention — a structural 
difference, and thus left the way open for Hampson (1895) to sink the latter 
to the former ; ddetaria, but not indistincta, has the hindtibia dilated, with a 
fuscous hair-pencil, the correlated abdominal spine developed. Hampson was 
further at sea in placing the species in Bapta and especially in assigning it to 
" Sect. 1 " (LeuceUiera). It is by his key a Lomographa (= Stegania), SC : being 
absent (coincident with SO), SC l arising from the cell. Chrostobapta Warr. 
(1909), erected for this group, must in any case sink to Ingenu Walk. (1862). 
Wileman (TV. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1911, p. 298) first recorded "ddetaria" from 
Japan, having obtained three specimens from Yoshino, Yamato, August and 
September. He says that they " are referable to indistincta Moore," which 
clearly implies that he accorded to the latter the status of an aberration rather 
than — as in Hampson — a S3Tionym. As a matter of fact d. hypotaenia has nearly 
the coloration of typical indistincta. An inspection of the Wileman collection 
shows that the Yamato specimens agree accurately with the Takao-San. A 
further $, rather faded (Satsuma, J. H. Leech), stands in the British Museum 
collection. 

176. Ninodes splendens Butl. (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, I(J; 9 June 1925, 1 <J, 1 ? ; 14 June 1925, 1 <J ; 
18 June 1925, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 1 $. 

177. Pogonitis cumulata Christ. (1881). 
Takao-San, 9 June 1926, 1 $. 

178. Cabera purus (Butl.) (1878). 

Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 5 $<$. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 3 ; 
9 June 1926, 1 <J. Sado I., spring 1926, 1 <? ; 1-15 August 1925, 1 $; 3-11 
August 1926, 1 S, 1 ?. 

Moderately variable. The August specimens are small, but the spring <J 
from Sado I. is somewhat intermediate between these and the mainland examples. 
The Hirayama five are all heavily dusted, but one lacks the cell-dot of the fore- 
wing. On the other hand the August <J from Sado I. has so little dusting as to 
be virtually schaefferi Brem. (1864), of which I now suspect purus Butl. will 
prove a form. 

179. Cabera griseolimbata (Oberth.) (1879). 

Takao-San, 21 May-14 July, 35 $£, 10 $$. Tokyo, April 1925, 1 <J. 
Very constant. Apparently a local species, hitherto only represented in 
the Tring Museum by one J from Sidemi, Manchuria, and two VV from " Japan." 



Novitates Zoological XXXV. 1930. 317 

180. Cabera (?) punctata (Waxr.) (1894). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 tf. 

This rarity, described by Warren (Nov. Zool. i. 405) from a single $ from 
Japan, as Deilinia (?) [i.e. Cabera Tr.], and redescribed by Leech three years 
later [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xix. 198) as Bapta candidaria, from two Oiwake 
$9 which he mistook for a pair, is not a true Cabera, as it has — in addition to 
the venational discrepancy noted in Seitz (iv. 318) — simple instead of fully 
pectinate <J antenna. 

181. Synegia hadassa (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 2 <$£, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 9 $$ ; 14 July 1925, 
1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 1 ?. Sado I., spring 1926, 1 <J ; 3-11 August 1926, 4 J 1 ^, 

3 99- 

The above series shows transitions towards omissa Warr. (1894), which is 
probably a South Jajjanese race of hadassa. In addition, the following forms 
are somewhat problematical. 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 £ ; 3-11 August 1926, 1 $. 

These are small, rather pale, the lines intensified, less band-like, less dentate. 
Both are in poor condition. 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 2 $$ ; 3-11 August 1926, 1 $, 2 $$. 

The <$$ are very small ; colour in both sexes rather bright, though not 
like that of the following species ; postmedian line little bent in the middle (in 
the preceding form well bent). 

182. Synegia ineonspicua (Butl.) (1881). 

Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 2 $£, 1 $ ; 14 July 1925, 
6 S S, 1 9 ; 15 September 1925, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 1 9 ; 7 July 1926, 1 $. 
Tokyo, 15 November 1925, 1 <J. 

I think, from the rather less elongate wings and more bent postmedian, 
that this will prove a form of esther Butl. 1881 (which has page-priority) rather 
than of hadassa Butl., as given in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 318). It may, however, 
be a third species, as Butler thought — costal margin of forewing strongly 
darkened, etc. 

Form. (?) suffusa Prout (1915) : Takao-San, 20 September 1925, 3 99. 

183. Petelia albifrontaria (Leech) (1891). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 $$, 1 ?. 

184. Petelia morosa Butl. (1881). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 <$S ; 14 June 1925, 1 " ; 11 July 1025, 1 <J ; 
15 September 1925, 1 cJ. 

All except the May specimens are rather small. 

185. Hypephyra terrosa Butl. (1889). 

Nikko, 2 May 1926, 1 J. Takao-San, 2 May-14 July. 35 j" 1 ^, 11 §>$ ; 15 
and 20 September 1925, 9 $$, 4 9$. Tokyo, 15 July 1925, 1 <?. 



318 Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 

186. Anagoga pulveraria japonica (Butl.) (1881). 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 4 $<$, 3 ?? ; 3-11 August 1926, 7 <$<$. Japanese 
Alps, July 1926, 1 <J. 

187. Ephoria arenosa (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May-7 July, 45 dtf. Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 
1926, 1 <J. 

Variation slight. None approach the interesting race insularis Kardakoff 
(1928), recently described from Russian Island (8 km. S.W. of Vladivostok). 

188. Proteostrenia leda (Butl.) (1878). 

Asamayama, July 1926, 2 £<$. Takao-San, 21 June 1925, 1 $ ; 25 June 
1925, 5 <$<$, 1 ? ; 7 July 1926, 1 $. 

The sole $ is of the form strenioides Bult. (1878). 

189. Scardarnia aurantiacaria Brem. (1864). 
Takao-San, 7 July 1926, 1 $. 

190. Nothomiza formosa (Butl.) (1878). 

Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 4 S6 J Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 <J<J ; 
25 May 1925, 1 $ ; 5 June 1926, 1 J ; 9 June 1926, 1 <$ ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J, 1 $. 
Near Tokyo, April 1926, 1 J. Tokyo, 16-31 May 1926, 1 J. 

191. Ennomos autumnaria nephotropa subsp.n. 

The Japanese race of autumnaria Werneb. (1864) should be separated from 
the European, although, on account of the extreme variability of the species, 
most of the distinctions fail in certain individual examples. The best character 
is in the wing-form, the tooth at R" being appreciably stronger, particularly on 
the forewing. General tone as in the brighter forms of a. autumnaria, the 
costal margin of the forewing generally more sharply pale ; the irroration and 
minute strigulation on an average brighter, its grey element being more domi- 
nated by the deep orange on which it is set ; cell-marks more elongate (especially 
that of forewing), that of hindwhig less blackened ; antemedian line of forewing 
almost straight after the pronounced subcostal angle, sometimes with a cloudy 
spot at the bend ; subapical dark shading of forewing generally more developed, 
typically forming an oblique, broadening band (more or less interrupted by the 
veins) from costa just outside postmedian to M 1 at or close to termen. 

Nikko, October 1925, type and another $ ; November 1925, 1 $. Hachijo- 
shima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 1 $. Also in the Tring Museum from Yezo 
(3 <SS) an d from Asamayama, 13 August 1898, 8 $,$, 2 $$ ; further represented 
in most of the larger collections. 

The Hachijoshima $ has the irroration small, the lines sharply expressed, 
approaching the enigmatical pair which are figured by Matsumura (Thous. 
Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxiv, f. 5, 6) as alniaria L. and which presumably represent 
aberrations of autumnaria nephotropa ; his figure 8 on the same plate (as autum- 
naria Wern. (J) is a different ab., with both lines strong anteriorly but obsolete 
from M and R J hindward. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 319 

192. Ennomos fumosa sp.n. 

(J, 60-65 mm. Face ochraceous-orange, with a few dusky spots. Palpus 
rather short, at tip dark-mixed. Tongue weak. Hindtibia not hairy ; all 
spurs present. Head and body concolorous with wings, the thorax in front more 
orange. 

Forewing with apex produced, a tooth at SC 6 , the latter not very acute, 
the termen being straightish, rather strongly oblique, without excavation, only 
very slightly waved ; SC 1 , ! coincident, sometimes connected with stalk of SO, ', 
R 3 and M 1 arising rather widely separate ; cream-buff, in part suffused with 
ochraceous buff, coarsely and irregularly irrorated and strigulated with grey, 
least densely in median area ; markings dark grey ; cell-spot large, oval, 
enclosing a thick streak of the ground-colour at DC ; antemedian line very proxi- 
mal, strongly excurved in its anterior part, obscured posteriorly ; median 
rather strong, proximal to cell-spot, extremely oblique outward from costa, 
acutely angled between C and SC, then straightish ; postmedian browner, about 
6 mm. from termen, nearly parallel therewith, but more gently curved and 
without the anterior teeth ; distal cloudings strongest at tornus and (especially) 

between the radials. Hindwing with apex well-marked, nearly rectangular, 

termen crenate in anterior half, faintly waved in posterior ; R ; vestigial, R 3 and 
M 1 rather widely separate ; cell-mark small and very weak, scarcely noticeable ; 
median line as on forewing, but fading out at costa ; postmedian rather more 
proximal than on forewing ; distal cloudings forming an ill-defined, macular 
presubterminal band. 

Underside rather more warmly coloured, with similar but more blurred 
pattern ; lines of forewing fading out posteriorly ; hindwing more densely 
irrorated, with median line strong to costa. 

Nikko, October 1925, the type only. Mt. Kurama, near Kyoto, 23 October 
1920 (I. Sugitani), 3 3<5 in coll. Joicey, sent as Ennomos fumosa Mats. (MS.) 
and as " Sebastosema bubonaria Warr." 

Not quite a typical Ennomos either in structure or pattern, but best placed 
here. Close to E. aenigma Prout (1914), but with 4 spurs and with more mark- 
ings — cell-spot and subterminal clouds. Much larger and darker than " Ange- 
rona " stramineata Warr. (1888), to which it bears a slight superficial resemblance. 



193. Selenia tetralunaria (Hufn.) (1767). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 <J, 1 ? ; 2 May 1926, 1 (J. 

Apparently not a common species in Japan. The specimens (first genera 
tion) are large, sometimes less purple than the ordinary European forms, but 
no necessity has yet been shown for racial separation. Matsumura's (Thous. 
Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxiv) fig. 2, erroneously determined as pallidaria Leech, 
gives a much more normal representation of tetralunaria than his fig. 1. 



194. Garaeus mirandus Butl. (1881). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J ; 2 May 1926, 1 $. 

This rare and striking species was not previously represented in the Tring 
Museum collection. 



320 Xhyitates Zoological XXXV, 1930. 

195. Ocoelophora lentiginosaria (Leech) (1891). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J. 

196. Xyloscia subspersata (Fold.) (1875). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 4 <J<£ 3 $? ; 14 June 1925, 1J; 18 June 1925 
2 ^ (J ; 14 July 1925, 1 & 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 1 <J. 

197. Auaxa cesadaria Walk. (1860). 
Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 1 $. 

198. Zethenia albonotaria (Brem.) (1864). 

Hirayama, Nindo, 5 June 1926, 1 ?. Takao-San, 14 April-21 June 23 ,*,* 
15 ?$. Tokyo, 1-15 June 1926, 1 $. 

199. Zethenia rufeseentaria Motsch. (i860). 

Takao-San, 14 April- 14 July, 68 £<?, 27 $$. Tokyo, 1-15 June 1926, 1 $. 

After about the beginning of June both the Zethenia species were so worn 
as to be scarcely worth taking, but on 14 July there seems to have been a partial 
second emergence of rufeseentaria, all the three of that date being in good 
condition. 

200. Endropiodes indietinaria (Brem.) (1864). 

Takao-San, 19 April 1925, 1 t? ; 21 May 1925, 4 <$£, 2 $? ; 14 July 19*5 
1 $, 1 ? ; 2 May 1926, 2 <?<? \ V July 1926, 1 <J. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925' 
1 <J, 1 $ ; 3-11 August 1926, 3 qV, 3 ??. 

One S (21 May) is ab. abjecta Butl. (1879), the two JJ of 2 May transitional. 
The July and August specimens are small, evidently a second brood. 

201. Gonodontis arida (Butl.) (1878). 

" Gonodontis o'lliquaria Moor." Matsumura, Thous. Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxiv, f. 18 (1910) (err <1 t ) 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 $, 5 ?$ ; October 1925, 1 <?, 1 ? ; November 1925 
1 $; 2 May 1926, 1 <J, 1 ?. Takao-San, 13 April-9 June, 17 <?<?, 6 ?? ; "15 
and 20 September, 2 rf^. Tokyo, 14 November 1925, 1 $ ; 1-15 April 1926 
1 oM ?• 

202. Gonodontis aurata Prout (1915). 
Nikko, 26 June 1925, 2 <£<£ ; 2 May 1926, 1 £. 

All three are more strongly irrorated and suffusd than the type form. 

203. Colotois pennaria ussuriensis O. B.-Haas (1927). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 <J (erroneously dated ?) ; October 1925, 2 JJ ■ 
November 1925, 6 tftf. Tokyo, 20-30 November 1925, 1 $. 

So far as I am aware, this species has not previously been recorded from 
Japan. When arranging the group in the Tring Museum a few years ago, I 
found, in addition to four males from Ussuri, one labelled 10 December 1887 
Yokohama, all belonging to a race which was at that time without a name, but 
which was shortly afterwards named pennaria ussuriensis by Bang-Haas, based 
on three males from Sutsehansk, S. Ussuri. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 321 

204. Pachyligia dolosa Butl. (1878). 

Nikko, 2 May 1925, 3 <$£, 5 ?? ; 26 June 1925, 17 $$, 14 ??. Takao- 
San, 19 April 1925, 1 ?. Komaba, near Tokyo, 7 April 1925, 1 $. Tokyo 
and vicinity, April 1925, 4 <J<J, 2 ?? ; June 1925, 1 ? ; 30 March 1926, 1 <j ; 
1-15 April 1926, 1 $. 

Evidently an early species to appear. In view of the suspicion attaching 
to the data " Nikko 26.vi.25 " (see Nos. 140, 142, 203), we cannot attach much 
importance to the second Nikko record above. It is perhaps legitimate to con- 
jecture that a consignment from Nikko may have been received by Aigner on 
that date. On the other hand, I see no grounds for challenging the " Tokyo, 
June 1925 " $, and it may possibly be that the emergence is spread over a long 
period, though the fact that the Tring Museum previously contained only one 
pair (undated) further suggests that P. dolosa is not on the wing at the time 
when collectors are the most active. The Wileman collections contains 3 c?c? 
from Tokyo dating from 18 to 24 March. 

2o5. Angerona prunaria turbata Prout (1929). 

Corea : Kikai Nojo, 19 August 1926, 1 <J. 

A small aberration and with the cell-mark of the hindwing less reduced 
than in true p. turbata, from Japan. Probably the Corean race will require 
naming separately. 

206. Angerona nigrisparsa Butl. (1879). 

Takao-San, 5 June-7 July, 28 $$, 1 $ ; 15 September 1925, 2 £<$. 

The September specimens are very small ; otherwise the variation consists 
chiefly in details of the size and distribution of the black dots. A few examples 
show differentiable, more or less elongate, black cell-marks. 

207. Angerona grandinaria grandinaria (Motsch.) (1860). 

Nikko, October 1926, 1 $. Takao-San, 20 September 1925, 1 £. 

Differs from g. serrata Brem. (1864, E. Siberia) in its less deep colouring and 
less heavy median shade. 

As already pointed out (in Seitz's Macrolep. iv. 333), the subcostal venation 
is not that of true Angerona.. From the genitalia, and even the superficial 
aspect of some of the forms, I have very little doubt that it will have to be 
transferred to Ctenognophos. 

208. Angerona (Bizia) aexaria Walk. (i860). 
Takao-San, 21 May-7 July, 33 $<$, 6 $? ; 15 September 1925, 1 ?. 
The September $ is small. 

209. Ourapteryx nivea Butl. (1883). 

*' Ourapteryx eambucaria L. var. percica Men." Matsumura, Thous, Ins, Jap., supp. ii, t, xxiii, f. 12 
(1910). 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 $; November 1925, 4 $$, 3 $?. Takao-San, 
21 May-14 July, 73 $S, 15 ?? ; 15 and 20 September, 6 $£, 5 $?. Tokyo, 
4 July 1925, 1 ?. Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 23 July 1926, 3 <J(J. 

22 



322 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

One Nikko § (November) is rather small for that sex, the tail at R 1 of the 
hind wing shortened, the strigulation rather sparse, the lines of the fore wing 
rather broad ; perhaps a separate species — somewhat intermediate in shape 
towards obtusicauda Warr. The Tokyo $ is large. One Takao-San $ (20 Septem- 
ber) is analogous to the above-noted Nikko in its shortened tail and broad lines, 
but these are more approximated, the strigulation and irroration are strong 
and so is the long dark cell-mark of the forewing. All the three Hachijoshima 
have the lines slender, the spots at the tail of the hindwing small. 

There are, I believe, several unnamed species in this group. In any case, 
there is no authority for sinking the Japanese nivea to the sharper-winged, less 
pure white persica Menetr. (1832) of Azerbaijan. Staudinger united all the 
white Palaearctic species of the sambucaria group as " var. persica." 

210. Ourapteryx obtusicauda (Warr.) (1894). 

Takao-San, 21 May-14 July, 39 <?£, 3 ??. 

Warren described this as a Tristrophis and did not indicate the course of 
the line of the hindwing ; it was therefore not only excusable but inevitable 
that Leech (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xix. 192) should sink it to his subpunctaria 
(Ent. Supp. 1891, p. 42) and that — Warren's type being mislaid at that time — 
I followed Leech's synonymy in Seitz Macrolep. iv. 336. A study of the original 
series shows, nevertheless, that Warren's species is that which was subsequently 
named cretea Swinh. (TV. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, p. 601) ; and in the light of this 
knowledge Warren's description of the bands of the forewing as " broadish " 
becomes significant, though it remains possible that an aberration of Tristrophis 
subpunctaria with that character might be discovered. In obtusicauda they are 
oftenest (as in Warren's type) fairly broad, but occasionally — notably in a 
Takao-San o of 5 June 1926— quite slender ; in this specimen they do not 
reach the costal margin. 

211. Euctenurapteryx maculicaudaria (Motsch.) (I860). 

Nikko, October 1925, 1 <J ; November 1925, 1 £. Takao-San, 15 September 
1925, 1 <J ; 20 September 1925, 1J; 7 July 1926, 1 <J. Tokyo, 5-30 November 
1925, 1 $. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 3 ??. 

Both the Nikko specimens are small. 

212. Tristrophis veneris (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 June 1925, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 3 $$, 1 ? ; 7 July 1926, 
1 S, 4 $?. 

213. Thinopteryx crocoptera striolata Butl. (1883). 
Takao-San, 9 June 1926, 1 <$ ; Tokyo, 1-15 June 1926, 1 $. 

214. Thinopteryx delectans (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 14 June 1925, 1 3 ; 18 June 1925, 2 J<? ; 
14 July 1925, 1<J; 5 June 1926, 2 JJ ; 9 June 1926, 2 £<? ; 9 July 1926, 1 <J. 

215. Plagodis dolabraria (Linn.) (1767). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 tf, Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 5 <J<J, 1 $. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 323 

216. Scionomia mendica (Butl.) (1879). 

Nikko, November 1925, 2 <$$. Takao-San, 5 June 1926, 2 $£ ; 9 June 
1926, 1 $. 

217. Corymica arnearia Walk. (i860). 
Tsushima, 6 September 1925, 1 $. 

The figure of this species in Matsumura (Thous. Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxv, 
f. 7, as C. specularia Moore) is large and too broad-winged, even for the §. 

218. Corymica pryeri (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 ?. 

219. Heterolocha laminaria f. niphonica (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 <J. 

I am unable to say whether the accepted synonymy is correct, as I am 
still unacquainted with Herrich-Schaeffer's laminaria (1847). If that should 
prove a different species, the present insect will stand as a synonym or race of 
aristonaria Walk. (1860), described from " N. China " [Shanghai]. 

220. Heterolocha stulta (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 $. 

Belongs to the greenest form (dark olive-buff), with the peculiar purple 
gloss which characterizes the species only weakly developed. 

221. Parepione grata (Butl.) (1879). 
Takao-San, 7 July 1926, 2 <$$. 

Also, from the same locality, 21 May 1925, 1 J, 1 $ of the form. ? (gen. I ?) 
lapidea Butl. (1881). 

222. "Epione" magnaria Wileman (1911). 

Nikko, November 1925, 1 $. 

On this s])ecies see Seitz, Macrolep. iv. 342. I have no further suggestion 
to offer as to its systematic position. The face is perhaps too smooth for 
association with the present group. 

223. Cepphis advenaria Hb. (1798). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 S3 ; 14 June 1925, 1 J ; 5 June 1926, 2 $$ ; 
9 June 1926, 2 <$<$. 

224. Spilopera debilis (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 <£. Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 ?. Sado I., 1-15 
August 1925, 1 $; 3-11 August 1926, 6 $$. 

225. Spilopera gracilis (Butl.) (1879). 

Nikko, November 1925, 1 $. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 3 <$<$. Takao- 
San, 2 May-14 July, 31 <?£, 13 $?. 



324 NOVTTATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

226. Rhynchobapta flaviceps (Butl.) (1881). 
Takao-San, 25 June 1925, 1 £ ; 14 July 1925, 1 <J, 3 $$ ; 7 July 1926, 
4 (JcJ. Japanese Alps, July 1926, 1 J. 

227. Rhynchobapta punctilinearia (Leech) (1S91). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 $$, 1 $. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 1 J. 
The Takao-San specimens are in poor condition. Leech only obtained the 
species on Kiushiu. Hitherto unrepresented in the Tring Museum. 

228. Nadagara prosigna sp.n. 

cJ, 29 mm. Head mixed with ochreous. Thorax and abdomen concolorous 
with hindwing. Hindtibia not dilated. 

Forewing slightly narrower than in typical Nadagara, termen rather strongly 
curved, oblique, not long ; pale cinnamon-drab (with the lens appearing as a 
mixture of whitish-drab and cinnamon-drab), with scattered darker scales and 
with an ill-defined cinnamon-drab cloud in middle of distal area ; cell-dot 
small ; lines fine and slender, punctuated on the veins, indistinctly whitish- 
edged, both equally developed, arising from heavy blackish costal marks ; these 
are oblique outward — especially the antemedian — and curve or bend at their 
junction with the lines, which are approximately parallel with termen, though 
the postmedian turns slightly more distad behind ; terminal dark line thickening 

between the veins ; fringe whitish, spotted with the ground-colour. Hindwing 

with termen slightly waved, not crenulate ; very slightly paler than forewing, 
at costa whitish ; cell-dot weak ; postmedian close beyond it, straightish, much 
as in vigaia Walk, and inordinate, Walk. ; terminal line and fringe as on forewing. 

Underside coloured about as in pale vigaia, with distinct cell-marks and 
postmedian line, the former slightly elongate, the latter dotted on the veins, 
on the forewing shaped as above, on the hindwing curved parallel with termen ; 
terminal line and fringe as above. 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, type (J. A second o in the Tring Museum from 
E. Wahr, received without label in a mixed collection, partly from Hong Kong. 
partly — doubtless including this specimen — from Japan. 

The type is worn, but easily recognizable. The paratype is in better con- 
dition, but has lost the right hindwing. In it, the median area is only 3-4 mm. 
wide, in the type 4-5.5 mm. The species is distinguished from all other Nadagara 
by the costal spots and from the great majority by the less oblique, more proximal 
postmedian line of the forewing. The genus is new for Japan. 

229. Semiothisa proximaria (Leech) (1897). 

" Semiothisa temiraria Swinh." Matsumura, Thoiis. Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxiv, f. 19 (1910) (nee 
temtraria Swinh. 1891). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 $ ; 14 June 1925, 1 ? ; 18 June 1925, 1 ? ;' 
2 June 1926, 1 <? ; 5 June 1926, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 1 ?. Sado I., 1-15 August 
1925, 1 $. 

The Sado I. specimen is rather small, with the black markings outside the 
postmedian reduced, probably a local or seasonal modification. 

I have noticed elsewhere {Ann. S. Afr. Mm. xix. 596) that according to 
the latest findings on the dates of Hiibner's Verzeichniss, Macaria Curt., as em- 
ployed in Seitz's Macrolepidoptera, must yield priority to Semiothisa Hb. 



N0V1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 325 

230. Semiothisa defixaria (Walk.) (1861). 
Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 2 <$$. Takao-San, 21 May-14 July and 
15-20 September, 49 $$, 12 ??. Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 1 ?. 

231. Semiothisa proditaria (Brem.) (1864). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J ; 14 June 1925, 1 <J ; 18 June 1925, 1 <$ ; 
21 June 1925, 1 <£ ; 25 June 1925, 2 <$$ ; 14 July 1925, 1 J ; 5 June 1926, 
1 S ', 9 June 1926, 1 J ; 7 July 1926, 4 (J^. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 1 <J. 

Several species have evidently been confused under the name of pluviata 
Fab. (1798). The oldest applicable name for the present species seems to be 
proditaria Brem. 

232. Krananda (Trigonoptila) latimarginaria Leech (1891). 
Tokyo, " 5-31 " [!] November 1925, 1 <J. 

233. Luxiaria amasa amasa (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 2 <$<$ (worn); 21 June 1925, 1 ^ ; 25 June 
1925, 2 cJcJ ; 14 July 1925, 5 £<?, 2 ?? ; 15 September 1925, 1 $ ; 20 September 
1925, 1 ? ; 2 May 1926, 1 <J, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 2 <$£, 2 $$ ; 7 July 1926, 8 cJcJ, 

3??- 

Are there two broods ? Or are two species confused under this name ? 
The May specimens have rather narrow, rather sharp forewing and the shade 
between the postmedian and subterminal (which in the majority of the others, 
but not in all, forms a fairly continuous, dusky band) is represented only by 
two elongate blackish spots on the forewing, respectively from R 1 to R 1 and 
from M°- to SM ! . 

The notice of Luxiaria contigaria (auctt. nee Walk.) in Seitz (Macrolep. 
iv. 350) is practically worthless. Not having studied the group personally, I 
very rashly accepted the synonymy given by Hampson (Faun. Ind., Moths, 
iii. 195) and the chaotic series which consequently stood in the British Museum 
under the collective name ; and though 1 observed that the Japanese amasa, 
which which alone I was concerned in the strictly Palaearctic fauna, had a 
distinctive facies, I was misled by the presence of its Indian race fasciosa Moore 
(1888) among the heterogeneous assemblage into pronouncing it (amasa) " not, 
however, everywhere constant." For elucidation of the group, the following 
references should be consulted : Nov. Zool. xxxii. 62-4 ; xxxv. 77. Joum. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xxxi. 792. Bull. Hill Mus. ii. 60, 61. 

234. Erannis leucophaearia dira (Butl.) (1878). 

Tokyo and vicinity, April 1925, 36 <$($. 

Very variable in size and moderately so in markings. The Japanese form 
is a race, not a synonym (as previously quoted) of leucophaearia Schiff. (1775). 
Its correct status was incidentally given in Nov. Zool. xxxv. 143, but no differ- 
entiation was offered ; the most stable distinction is in the posterior postmedian 
mark of the hindwing, which in /. dira is markedly oblique outward between 
fold and SM ! , angled on SM-, thence generally more or less thickened to abdominal 
margin. 



326 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

235. Erannis obliquaria (Motsch.) (1860). 

Bibernia obliquaria Motseh., FA. Ent. ix. 37 (1800) (Japan). 

Lozogramma bela But!., Ann. Mag. A'at. Hist. (5) i. 406 (1878) (Yokohama). 

Tokyo, 11 April 1025, 3 *o ; 20-30 November 1025, 23 <J<J ; December 
1925,3 (JcJ. 

Motschulsky's brief description points unmistakably to this common 
Japanese species. How the name can have been transferred to the Aids (No. 255 
infra) I am at a loss to imagine, although probably the words " antennis <J 
valde pectinatis," referring to the exceptionally long and heavy fascicles of cilia. 
started a " false scent." 

236. Zamacra juglansiaria Graeser (1889). 

Tokyo, April 1925, 5 $$ ; 1-15 April 1026, 1 (J ; June 1926, 1 £. 

237. Zamacra (Acanthocampa) excavata Dyar (1005). 

Tokyo, April 1025, 3 <$$ ; 1-15 April 1926, 4 <J<J ; 7 April-1 May 1926 
(2 (JcJ) ; 16-30 April 1026, 3 cJo"- 

Both this and the preceding species are new to the Tring collection and 
so far as I know the excavata are the first examples to be received in this country. 
They are evidently near relatives and are at first glance confusingly alike, except 
for the sharply angular antemedian line of excavata ; its postmedian is also 
more sinuous on both wings than that of juglansiaria, the tone rather less red. 
etc. They have in common a strong triangular crest on the vertex of the head. 
The short and hairy legs are in most of the specimens tucked in so that the 
tibial spurs are very difficult to investigate ; but I have dissected one of each 
species and confirmed the presence of the proximal spurs in excavata — rather 
nearly approximated to the terminal and very unequal in length. With the 
specimens before me I am able to cancel the query with which the synonymy 
was given in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 357, 358) ; Acanthocampa. ohamotonis Matsu- 
mura (Thous. Ins. Jap., supp. ii, t. xxv, f. 21) is almost certainly a strongly 
banded $ of juglansiaria, though the artist has rounded the hind wing rather 
too much, while " A. albofasciaria Leech " Matsumura in err. (ibid., f. 22) is 
unmistakably excavata Dyar, the obsolescence of the posterior part of the ante- 
median disguising its characteristic angulation. 

238. Megabiston plumosaria (Leech) (1801). 

? Boarmia theae Matsumura, Oyo Konchugaht (ed. 2) 603, t. 27, f. 5 (1920) (Japan). 
Tokyo, November 1925, 30 J J. 

239. Wilemania nitobei (Nitobe) (1907). 
Tokyo, 20-30 November 1925, 2 Jg. 

240. Biston robustum Butl. (1879). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 22 £3 ; 2 May 1926, 1 <£. Kogane, 25 km. from 
Tokyo, 18 April 1926, 9 J J. Tokyo and vicinity, April- 18 May, 28 ^,2 ?$. 

An extremely fine series. The Kogane specimens are on an average small 
and nearly all belong to ab. albicollis Warr. (1901), though in one or two the 



Novitates Zoolooicae XXXV. 1930. 327 

white patagium is just tinged with cream-buff ; the pale parts of the wings are 
also generally whiter in this form than in the name-type, bringing about a 
superficial resemblance to B, cognataria (Guen., 1858). The Nikko and Tokyo 
series intergrade and three Nikko J <$ (June) are rather dark, the median area 
and apex of the fore wing being little whiter than the bands. 

241. Biston comitate, (Warr.) (1899). 
Nikko, July 1925, 1 $. 

242. Buzura recursaria superans (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May-7 July, 44 <$$, 3 ??. 
Variable in size but scarcely so in other respects. 

243. Erebomorpha consors Butl. (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <$ ; 18 June 1925, 1 <£. 

244. Medasina nikkonis (Butl.) (1881). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 11 SSl 2 May 1926, 1 <?, 1 ?. Takao-San, 14 April 
1925, 4 (JcJ ; 2 May 1926, 1 ?. 

Not generally a common species ; previously only represented in the Tring 
Museum by one $ without exact data. There is possibly a mistake in labelling 
the last specimen recorded above, as a Nikko <$ and $ bear the same date ; 
but this date occurs for both localities elsewhere in the collection. Fortunately 
the matter is here of no importance, as there are other examples to confirm the 
occurrence on Takao-San. 

245. Hemerophila (?) amphidasyaria (Oberth.) (1880). 

Nikko, 26 April 1925, 1 <$ ; 26 June 1925, 1 <J ; 2 May 1926, 1 <J. 

As the cJ has a fovea, this fine species is not a true Hemerophila. By 
Meyrick's key to the Palaearctic genera (TV. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1892, pp. 99, 100) 
it would fall into Cleorodes Warr. (= Cleora Meyr. nee Curt.) or — if the antennal 
teeth of the last couple of joints are not treated as true pectinations — into Alcis 
Hb., sens. lat. (Selidosema part. Meyr., nee Hb.). In any case it has no near 
connection with Cleorodes lichenaria Schiff. (1775). 

242. Hemerophila senilis Butl. (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 12 £<$, 2 $$ ; 2 May 1926, 12 $$. Sado I., 
1-15 August 1925, 1 <J. 

247. Hemerophila (Phthonandria) atrilineata Butl. (1881). 

Takao-San, 5 June-14 July, 20 <$£, 2 $? ; 15-20 September, 2 ££, 1 ?. 

Variable ; 4 $<$ are more or less strongly melanic, 1 $ (20 September 
1925) partly so, with very conspicuous zigzag subterrninal line on forewing ; 
the second-brood specimens are, as usual, small, but so is also one <J dated 5 
June 1926. 



328 NOV1TATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

248. Jankowskia athleta Oberth. (1884). 
Takao-San, 14 April-14 July, 15-20 September, 57 $$ ; Tokyo, 4 July 

1925, 1 £ ; Japanese Alps, July 1926, 1 <$ ; Sado I., 6 ££, 3-11 August 1926. 
The second-brood specimens are small. The entire absence of the $ is 

noteworthy, though this sex seems to be always very rare in the species ; probably 
it is not attracted by light. 

249. Phthonosema tendinosaria (Brem.) (1864). 
Takao-San, 21 May- 7 July, 38 <$<$■ Tamagawa, W. of Tokyo, 25 June 

1926, 1 $. Sado I., August, 24 ££. 

Variable especially in the breadth of the median area of the forewing ; 
in one (5 June 1926) the lines are closely approximated ; one (7 July 1926) is 
remarkably asymmetrical, the right forewing being normal, the left having the 
postmedian running inward along and behind M 8 , coalescing slightly with ante- 
median, then vertical or slightly oblique outward to hindmargin. 

In this species again the absence of $$ points to a difference of habit in 
the two sexes. Compare also Megabiston plumosaria, of which no $$ were 
obtained, and Biston robustum, with only two $$ against 60 qJ. In all these 
three species the $ is well known and was fairly well represented in the Tring 
Museum. 

250. Cleora rimosa (Butl.) (1879). 

Nikko, October-November 1925, 13 JJ, 7 $$. Takao-San, 21 May- 
14 July, 25 S<$, 3 $$ ; 15 September 1925, 1 <J ; 20 September 1925, 7 <Jc3, 1 ?. 
Tokyo, October 1925, 1 <J. 

Very constant, though the second-brood specimens are on an average 
slightly smaller than the first-brood. 

In Seitz (Macrolep. iv, 365) it was stated that this is " in . . . structure a 
normal -Cleora," i.e. in the very comprehensive sense in which that name was 
employed prior to the advent of McDimnough's " Studies in North American 
Cleorini " (1920) ; but even so, the statement was not quite correct, as it was 
overlooked that it has no true fovea. The abdomen is long-scaled beneath, 
almost hairy, and I suspect it may belong somewhere between Hemerophila 
and Medasina, but I have not yet proceeded far enough with the taxonomy of 
the group to propose a transference ; SC 1 arises from near the base of SC ! and 
nearly always anastomoses well with C. 

251. Cleora charon (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 21 May-14 July, 40 $$, 40 $$. Tokyo, 15 May-4 July, 
11 Jd, 3 $$ ; 5 October 1925, 1 <J. 

This very distinct species is likewise probably nearer to Hemerophila than 
to Cleora but seems likely to demand a separate genus ; see Seitz 's Macrolep. 
iv. 365. Apart from the wide antennal difference, it is structurally distinct 
from rimosa in the smooth venter and non-dilated hindtibia of the $. 

252. Cleora cinctaria insolita (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J ; 18 June 1925, 1 $. 

In a recent revision of a section of this genus I have called attention (Bull. 
Hill Mus. iii. (3) 181) to a very slight, perhaps not constant, morphological 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 329 

difference between this form and its European representative c. cinctaria Schiff. 
(1775). I have since found vestiges of the basal abdominal spine in two or 
three European males and in any case I doubt whether it is any longer func- 
tional even in the Japanese, though their hindtibia does appear on an average 
somewhat more heavily dilated, therefore presumably enclosing a stronger 
hair-pencil. 

253. Cleora leucophaea (Butl.) (1878). 
Nikko, 26 June 1925, 8 £<$ ; 2 May 1926, 1 <$. Takao-San, 1 April-1 May, 

254. Alcis angulifera (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, October-November 1925, 11 <$,$, 31 $$. Takao-San, 21 May 
25 June, 106 <^J, 13 $$. 

All the Nikko g$ and many of the November $$ are badly worn. One 
October $, extremely worn, looks whitish and presents a very different aspect, 
superficially recalling jubata Thnb., but I think belongs here ; it is an interesting 
sport in venation, having C of the forewing forked, its longer arm connected, 
on the left wing only, with SO. 



255. Alcis lomozemia nom.n. 

" Boarnii<i obliquaria Motsch." Leech, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) xix. 415 (1897) ; Prout in Seitz, 
Man-olep. iv. 369, t. 20 g (1915) (err. det.) (Japan). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 4 <$£, 2 $$ ; 2 May 1926, 4 J J. Takao-San, 14 June 
1925, 1 $. Tokyo, 3 April 1925, 1 <$. 

Variable. The $$, being shorter- and broader- winged, have the ante- 
median line of the forewing less produced anteriorly than the t?cJ. One Nikko 
c? (2 May) is very interesting, being so aberrant that I at first took it for a new 
species and even now do not feel certain that it may not prove to be so, though 
I find a connecting link in the Tokyo q. Lighter and apparently somewhat 
more delicate-winged, the texture and in some measure the markings superficially 
suggesting Erannis leucophaearia (Schiff.) ; forewing with SO' not anastomosing 
with C, postmedian line with the anterior angle somewhat accentuated ; hindwing 
whitish. It is perhaps more than a coincidence that in the Tokyo jj, which 
also has the hindwing pale, though less extreme, SC 1 likewise escapes the usual 
anastomosis of obliquaria. 



256. Alcis grisea (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 5 June-14 July, 18 <$<$, 9 $$ ; 15-20 September 1925, 3 cJJ, 
3 $$. Tokyo, 16-31 May 1926, 1 J. 

The September specimens are somewhat smaller. 

257. Alcis simpliciaria (Leech) (1897). 

Takao-San, 26 May-7 July, 21 J J, 14 ?? ; 15 September 1925, 1 ?. 
? Nikko, November 1925, 1 $ (wasted). 
The September $ is small and dark. 



330 XoYTTATES ZOOLOGICAL XXXV. 1930. 

258. Alcis ribeata (Clcrck) (1759). 
Xikko. October 192.3. 1 2. Ikaho. Central Hondo. 2.3 July 1926. 1 $. 
Takao-San, 1 B Jime 1923. 2 ; J : 20 September 1923. II: 3 June l!"2t>. 1 J ; 
9 June 1926, 1 J, 3 

259. Alcis picata iButl.) (1881). 
Xikko. October 1925, 1 £. 

Alcis pryeraria (Leech) (1S97). 

Takao-San. 14 July 1925. 1 £ : 30 September 1925, 1 <J ; 7 July 1926. 1 £. 

The second-brood specimen is very small. 

Of this species only the type was known when vol. iv of Seitz was pre- 
pared, and it remains scarce in Japan, whence Mr. Joicey received a few specimens 
labelled nigroguttata Mats. [MS.]. Matsumura subsequently (Journ. Coll. 
Agric. Sapporo, xv. 179) made the correct determination and reported it "not 
rare in Saghalien." In all the specimens known to me SC l and SC" are free, and 
I suspect an error of observation on Matsumura's part when he gives these as 
long-stalked. 

261. Alcis melanonota sp.n. 
'. 28 mm. Closely similar to -4. jubata (Thnb.. 17SS). possibly a race 
Thorax with a stronger, entirely black, posterior crest, recalling " Chora " 
aagostigma Prout (1927). Hindtibia about 5 mm. long, only very weakly dark- 
spotted on the outer side, the pencil strong, tarsus about 2 mm. 

Rather more greyish white than typical jubata. Foremng with SC 1 

and SC : separate (probably variable as in jubata) : costal spots less strong 
than in jubata. the subterminal one almost obsolete ; postmedian line more 
proximal than in jubata. little outbent behind SC 5 ; between it and subterminal 
a strong black spot at R : -M 1 ; distal area otherwise very weakly dark-shaded ; 
fringe weakly clouded. Hindiring with cell-dot small. 

Japanese Alps. July 1926, the type only. 

262. Boarmia roboraria arguta Butl. (1879). 
Takao-San. 21 May 1925, 1 £ ; 18 June 1925. 6 £ £ : 25 June 1925. 4 £ £ : 
5 June 1926. 2 £ £ ; 9 June 1926. 2 ; j : 7 July 1926, 2 £ £. Tokyo, 16-31 May 
1926, 1 ;. 

263. Boarmia lunifera Butl. (1878). 
Xikko, October and Xovember 1925. 2 £ J. Takao-San. 18 June 1925. 
' : 20 September 1925. 1 £. '2 21 : 7 July 1926, 7 £ £. Tokyo. 4 July 
1925, 1 1. 

The second-brood specimens are smaller. 

_ t Boarmia invenustaria (Leech) (1897). 
Takao-San. 21 May-14 July. 45 ; ;. 2 ?$. Tokyo. 4 July 1925, 1 (J, 
Sado I., August. 23 J ,". 2 2?. 

A dark form is not infrequent on Takao-San. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 331 

265. Boarmia (Serraca) conferenda Butl. (1878). 

Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 16 $$. Takao-San, 2 May-14 July, 91 <J<J, 
24 ??. Tokyo, April 1925, I <J ; 18 May 1925, 2 <J<J, 1 $ ; 1-15 Juno 1925, 
1 o (very worn). Sado I., spring 1926, 1 <J ; August, 14 <J<J, 12 $$. 

A few examples are melanic, almost as in B. punctinalis Scop. ab. humperti 
Humpert. The Sado I. specimens are mostly in poor condition, but not so bad 
as would have been expected if they had been belated first brood. 

266. Boarmia definita Butl. (1881). 
Takao-San, 5 June-14 July, 22 $$, 13 $$ ; 15-20 September 1925, 11 £$, 
3??. 

267. Boarmia sordida (Butl.) (1878). 
Takao-San, 18 June 1925, 1 ? ; 21 June 1925, 1 $ ; 5 June 1926, 1 ?. 

268. Boarmia (Calicha) omataria Leech (1891). 

Nikko, 26 May 1925, 1 $. Takao-San, 2 June 1926, 1 £ ; 5 June 1926, 
1 <J. Sado I., 3-11 August 1926, 1 ?. 

Dr. Wehrli has recently shown (J.B. Mart. Staatsmus. Minussinsk. vi. (1) 
26, 1929) that this is a very close relative, or probably race, of the rare 
B. nooraria Brem. (1864), which was unrecognizably figured by its author and not 
very fully described, in consequence of which it was conjecturally placed by me 
(Seitz's Macrolep. iv. 368) in a position which proves erroneous. As some 
appreciable — though perhaps inconstant — differences were found in the genitalia, 
the build of nooraria (= omataria nigrisignata Wehrli, 1927) is somewhat less 
robust and the range of the two shows some complications, I have not cited 
Leech's form as nooraria omataria without further information. 

269. Ophthalmodes irrorataria (Brem. & Grey) (1853). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 3 ^ J ; 18 June 1925, 4 <$<$, 2 ?$ ; 5 June 1926, 
1 (J ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J. 

270. Ophthalmodes albosignaria (Brem. & Grey) (1853) 
Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 5 JJ ; 18 June 1925, 6 J J ; 21 June 1925, 
1 <J ; 25 June 1925, 4 <?<? ; 5 June 1926, 1 <J. 

271. Ascotis selenaria cretacea (Butl.) (1879. 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 1 J. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 1 <$. Takao- 
San, 21 May-14 July, 29 ^cJ, 1 $. Kogane, 25 km. from Tokyo, 18 April 1926, 
1 (J. Tokyo, June 1925, 1 £ ; 10 September 1925, 1 $ ; 1-3 October 1925, 
1 <J ; 16-31 May 1926, 6 $$. 

On the whole not very variable. Only two or three of the c?c? an( l one 
9 have the irroration slight enough (except perhaps in the proximal area of the 
hindwing) to leave the general impression of a whitish insect. One S (Takao- 
San, 14 July 1925) has it exceptionally dense, producing on the hindwing a 
strikingly sharp contrast between the whitish proximal area and the rest of the 



332 NOVITATES ZOOLOQICAE XXXV. 1930- 

wing, the median line accompanied distally by a blackish shade. A Tokyo 
£ (May L926) has the brown bands exceptionally clear, including an unusually 
proximal median on the forewing — close to antemedian at costa, midway 
between ante- and postmedian at hindmargin. 

272. Cusiala stipitaria (Oberth.) (1880). 

Nikko, October 1025, 1 $. Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 6 JJ ; 14 June 
1925, 1 j; IS June 1925, 1 <J, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 2 JJ ; 5 June 1926, 6 £<$ ; 
9 June 1926, 1 ,; ; 7 July 1926, 2 $$. 

Variable in the density of the dark irroration ; one $ (25 June) rather 
outstandingly dark. 

273. Ectropis bistortata (Goeze) (1781). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 6 ££, 26 $$ ; 2 May 1926, 1 <$, 2 $?. Sado I., 
1-15 August 1925, 1 (J; 3-11 August 1926, 2 <?<?, 1 ?. Takao-San, 19 April 
1925, 1 $ ; 21 May 1925, 5 <$<$ ; 21 June 1925, 4 $$, 1 $ ; 25 June 1925, 9 Jg ; 
14 July 1925. 6 $$, 1 $ ; 2 May 1926, 4 $$ ; 5 June 1926, 1 $ ; 9 June 1926, 
1 ;•. 7 July 1926, 31 $$, 2 $$. 

The Nikko series is not extraordinarily variable. The Sado I. specimens 
are similar to the Nikko, rather small, probably a second or third generation. 
The Takao-San 66 are variable, possibly two species mixed, as the demarcation 
on certain dates is rather clear ; a large, browner, more heavily marked form 
which might, but for some of the dates, have been assumed to be gen. 1, was 
taken on 19 April ($), 21 May (3 <^), 25 June (1 S), 14 July (2 ££, ? 1 ?) in 
1925, on 2 May (3 $$), 5 June (1 $) and 9 June (1 S) i" l i, - ,i \ similar, but 
rather smaller, forms occurred on 7 July 1926, only two or three being very 
pronounced but several others suggesting intergradations to the smoother, 
finer-marked forms. 

274. Ectropis aigneri sp.n. 
j. 44-47 mm. ; $, 48-52 mm. Head and body concolorous with wings. 
Face indefinitely darkened in upper part. Patagia somewhat darkened at tips. 
Antenna of q with the ciliation a trifle shorter than in bistortata and its closest 
allies (scarcely \\). Hindtibia of o without hair-pencil. Abdomen with the 
paired dark dorsal spots present, at least anteriorly ; ovipositor in $ long. 

Foreiviny rather elongate, the termen appreciably longer and more oblique 
than in bistortata ; stalk of SO 1 ' ! unusually well separate at its origin from that 
of S( !'-' ; in one $ SC 1 - ! coincident, as in most $$ of the group, in the other $ 
stalked ; rather blurred and glossy (but none perfectly fresh), with a peculiar 
fleshy-brown tone, nearest to that of grisescens Warr. (1894) but slightly whiter, 
at least in the 9? ; markings as in the allies ; ante- and postmedian lines not 
strong, with little or no black admixture, the fleshy-brown accompanying bands 
well developed, a median line of the same colour also in general well developed ; 
a darkening of the postmedian band at R'-M 1 recalling that of excellent Butl., 
except in its less black colour ; subterminal well dentate, its accompanying 

shades rather variable, in general fairly equal throughout. Hiwlwiny rather 

elongate ; concolorous with forewing or proximally a little less suffused ; a 
cell-dot often indicated but never strong ; lines and bands (except antemedian) 
as on forewing, only the postmedian band without darkening at R 3 -M'. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 333 

Underside with faint indications of the principal markings of upper. 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 7 $$, 1 ? ; 14 June 1925, 1 <$ (type) ; 18 June 
1925, 2 <$S; 20 September 1925, 1 $ ; 2 June 1926, 1 $ ; 5 June 1926, 1 $. 

From excellens Butl. and obliqua Warr., the only Japanese species of the 
group which have SO ; arising from the cell, aigneri is easily distinguished by 
the absence of the $ hindtibial pencil ; quite different from the former in colour, 
from the latter in its large size, more sinuate postmedian and well developed 
spot beyond it. 

275. Ectropis Obliqua Warr. (1894). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 2 Jg; October 1925, 1 <J. Takao-San, 14 April 
1925, 1 J ; 7 July 1926, 4 ££. Tokyo, 18 May 1925, 1 <J. 

This little-known species was founded by Warren (Nov. Zool. i. 434) on a 
single aberrant $ from Hakodate, with exceptionally strong and complete band 
outside the postmedian line and the blackish dashes on R 1 and M l obsolete. 
As it was treated as an aberration of grisescens Warr. (loc. cit., Ning2io), the 
name had no assured status under the Code, although the type label gives Ectropis 
grisescens " var." obliqua and the different localities might indicate the employ- 
ment of that much-abused term in the Staudingerian sense. In Seitz (Macrolep. 
iv. 377) I gave it the rank of a subspecies. But on closer study I find that it 
differs structurally in two particulars : (1) presence of $ hindtibial hair-pencil 
and short abdominal spine ; (2) origin of SO -, which in the <$ is always (in the 
9 often) from the cell, well proximal to SO s , whereas in grisescens the two 
stalks are well stalked together. The species is as variable as its congeners, 
but generally recognizable, apart from its structural characters, by the small 
size {£, 26-36 mm. ; <j>, 31-41 mm.) and relatively rather broad forewing and 
by the postmedian line, which is more as in consonaria Hb. than in the immediate 
allies, on the forewing straightish (or only with a weak inward curve in the 
posterior part) and about parallel with the termen. The underside is in general 
less blurred or blotched than in bistortala, often with well-developed postmedian 
lme and cell-dots, but both species vary beneath. 

The three Nikko examples are rather dark. The Takao-San specimens 
collected in July are a little smaller, paler and less brownish than the first-brood 
specimens, but at least as strongly marked. 

276. Ectropis excellens (Butl.) (1884). 

Takao-San, 21 May-7 July, 70 <$<$, 2 $$. Hachijoshima (Fatsizio I.), 
23 July 1926, 1 <J. 

In structure, E. excellens approaches obliqua Warr., though the tibial pencil 
and the spine may be a little stronger and the origin of SO 2 of the forewing is 
on an average more distal ; normally it may be regarded as connate with SO 6 
in the J (but there is some variation in both directions from this mean), stalked 
(though often extremely shortly) in the $. The specimen from Hachijoshima 
is small (38 mm.), rather ochreous-tinged and strongly marked and may represent 
a local race. In any case, there seems to be some geographical, as well as 
individual, variation in this species. Specimens from Yezo (loc. typ.) are whitish, 
those from Kiushiu much browner, with a tinge of vinaceous buff ; the fine 
series from Takao-San is intermediate, or in some specimens more greyish. 



334 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

Additional localities to those given in Seitz are Ningpo (J. H. Leech) and the 
Riu-kiu Islands (two of each sex in Mus. Tring, approximately of the Kiushiu 
form). 

277. Ectropis costipunctaria (Leech) (1891). 
Takao-San, 5 June-14 July, 27 cJcJ, 17 $$ ; 15 September 1925, 1 <J. 
Slightly variable, but none agree with opertaria Leech (see Seitz, Macrolep. 
iv. 378). 

278. Ectropis petrosa (Butl.) (1879). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 <J (worn) ; 14 June 1925, 1 J ; 18 June 1925, 
1 cJ ; 25 June 1925, 1 $ ; 14 July 1925, 4 <$<$, 3 ?$ ; 7 July 1926, 2 <?<?, 1 ?. 
Sado I., 3-11 August 1926, 1 $. 

Probably a development of the Indian genus Racotis. The series shows 
a similar, though less extreme, variability on the underside, as regards the 
development of broad dark borders, to that obtaining in the Khasi R. boarmiaria 
(Guen., 1858) and its ab. obliterata Warr. (1894). SO of the forewing, though 
similarly short-stalked with SC' 5 , anastomoses shortly with C, but this is rarely 
of generic value in the Boarmia group. 

279. Ectropis sinearia noctivolans (Butl.) (1881). 
Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 1 S (worn) ; 14 June 1925, 3 ^ ; 21 June 1925, 
1 S ; 25 June 1925, 1 $ ; 5 June 1926, 2^; 7 July 1926, 1 <J, 2 $? (worn). 

280. Ectropis sp. 

Sado L, 1 ?, 3-11 August 1926. 

Very worn ; closely similar to the doubtful E. iclraclabilis (Walk., 1864) 
recorded by me from Upper Burma in Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. xxxi. 937, 
but with the cells slightly longer, postmedian line of hindwing more incurved 
in the middle. I cannot reconcile it with any species known from Japan. 

281. Aethalura ignobilis (Butl.) (1878). 

Takao-San, 14 July 1925, 2 <?<? ; 7 July 1926, 1 $. Near Tokyo, April 
1925, 1 J. Hirayama, Nindo, 5 May 1926, 9 <JcJ, 1 ?■ 

282. Aethalura nanaria (Stgr.) (1897). 

Takao-San, 21 May 1925, 6 <$£ ; 14 June 1925, 1 cJ ; 18 June 1925, 4 <J J, 
1 ? ; 5 June 1926, 1 $*; 9 June 1926, 3 SS \ 7 July 1926, 1 (J, 1 $. 

Smaller than the preceding species (22-28 mm. as against 28-35 mm. for 
ignobilis), $ antenna with fascicles of cilia rather less heavy, hindtibia of $ 
without hair-pencil (therefore not quite a typical Aethalura according to the 
diagnosis of McDunnough, Studies N. Amer. Cleorini, p. 36) ; forewing with 
antemedian line generally less irregular, median rarely, if ever, obsolescent 
posteriorly, postmedian rather more bent at radials ; hindwing with cell-dot 
stronger, closely followed by the postmedian, which is costally contiguous to 
the posterior end of the median of the forewing ; uncus more pointed, valve 
perhaps less long. Emergence apparently mainly between the two broods of 
ignobilis, though lasting to the beginning of July. 



NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 335 

This species has been entirely overlooked; It is manifestly the one which 
Staudinger informs us (Iris, x. 61) he distributed under the name of Boarmia 
punctularia var. nanaria but which on publication he confused with ignobilis. 
It has therefore never been adequately described, though the indication " kleiner 
und etwas dunkler als deutsche punctularia," together with the locality " Amur " 
[-gebiet] is sufficient to validate the name ; I select as type the very small 
(20 mm., by Staudinger's measurement) $ from Vladivostok, 21 May. Mr. J. J. 
Joicey has acquired, in the Kardakoff collection, a $ from the Vladivostok 
district, 24 May 1927, of exactly the same size as this lectotype. The Tring 
Museum already possessed one <$ from Tokyo, December 1890, and six pairs 
from " Japan," undated. The Wileman and British Museum collections also 
had it mixed with ignobilis, the former containing 1 $ from Oyama, prov. 
Sagami, the latter a short series from Gifu. 

283. Hirasa paupera (Butl.) (1881). 

Takao-San, 14 June 1925, 1 $ ; 18 June 1925, 1 J, 1 $ ; 15 September 
1925, 1 cJ, 3 ?? ; 5 June 1926, 1 ^, 1 ? ; 9 June 1926, 1 $, 3 $?. 

The second-brood $ is rather small, but not the $$. There is an almost 
constant sexual dimorphism in the venation ; the 5 3$ have SC 1 of the forewing 
approaching SO but without anastomosing, while anastomosis occurs in all the 
$9 but one (5 June), in which the veins in question are appressed for some 
distance but without any fusion (cf. Sterneck, Iris, xlii. 225). 

284. Elphos insueta Butl. (1878). 
Nikko, October 1925, 1 J. 

285. Xandrames dholaria sericea Butl. (1881). 
Sado 1., 1-15 August 1925, 10 <J J ; 3-11 August 1926, 3 $$. 

286. Xandrames latiferaria (Walk.) (1860). 

Sado I., 1-15 August 1925, 3 S<S, 1 ?• 

A rather small, rather dark form which, if it proves constant on the island, 
will be worthy of a separate name. The white, brown-strigulated band of the 
forewing is more or less narrowed, the white line of the hindwing also narrowed, 
in extreme cases almost obsolete. The female and one of the males, however, 
are much less extreme than the other two. 



287. Duliophyle agitata (Butl.) (187S). 

Takao-San, 15 September 1925, 1 ^. 

The curious coincidence of the capture of one specimen of each in the same 
locality, and within a few days of one another, led me to wonder whether this 
specimen, which is rather worn, could possibly be an extraordinarily agitata- 
like, dwarfed aberration of the following species. A careful examination, how- 
ever, shows it to be a perfectly normal agitata, or only aberrant in the slightly 
enlarged cell-spot of the hindwing. 



336 NOVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 

288. Duliophyle majuscularia (Leech) (1897). 

Takao-San, 20 September 1925, 1 $. 

This is not, as was suggested by Warren and in Seitz (Macrolep. iv. 381), 
a form of agitata But]., for the $ antenna is pectinate, which is not the case in 
that species. The real distinction between Xandrames and Duliophyle is not 
in the antennae but in the venation (cf. Sterneck, Iris, xlii. 228). 

289. Itame fulvaria sordida (Butl.) (1881). 
Asama, July 1923, 2 tftf. 

290. Chiasmia lutearia (Leech) (1891). 
Takao-San, 15 September 1920, 1 £. 

Smaller and less heavily marked than the originals from Oiwake, no doubt 
a second brood. The Wileman collection contains equally small specimens 
from Yoshino, Yamato, August and September. 

291. Tephrina vapulata (Butl.) (1879). 
Tokyo, 1-15 June 1926, 1 #. 

292. Aspitates iormosaria Eversm. (1837). 
Takao-San. 14 June 1925, 1 , $ ; 14 July 1925, 1 $ ; 7 July 1926, 1 <J. 
Tokyo, June 1925, 1 $. 

293. Compsoptera simplex (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, May and June, 10 $$, 4 $?. Takao-San, 14 April 1925, 5 ^S \ 
19 April 1925, 2 $$, 1 $. Tokyo, 3 June 1925, 1 $. 

Planociampa gen.n. 

Crown slightly tufted in front. Frons protuberant, with a (typically 
horseshoe-shaped) corneous ridge in front and projecting tuft of hair at side. 
Palpus short, hairy. Tongue developed. Antenna of <J bipectinate almost 
to the apex ; of § simple. Pectus densely hairy. Femora hairy. Hindtibia 

with all spurs. Forewing rather narrow ; cell long (about f ) ; SC 1 from cell, 

connected by bar with C, SC ! from stalk of SC'" 5 , M 1 separate. Hindwing in 
cJ ample, in § narrow, in both sexes with abdominal region relatively ample ; 
cell over | (usually £) ; C approximated to SC to considerably beyond middle 
of cell, SC ; variably stalked (very rarely about connate) with R l , R ! vestigial, 
M l well separate, SM l rather long. 

Type of the genus : Planociampa modesta (Butl.) = Pacliyligia modesta 
Butl. (1878). 

in Seitz {Macrolep. iv. 413) I conserved the impossible taxonomic position 
assigned to Butler's modesta in the British Museum. Apart from the differences 
noted {loc. cit.), the frons is totally dissimilar and the suggestion that it probably 
belongs to the archaic Australian group of which Chlenias is perhaps the best- 
known genus seems warranted. I find, however, that it does not fit well into 
any described genus. From Ciampa Walk. (= Ceratucha Turn., Proc. Linn. 



X.IVITATES ZOOLOGICAE XXXV. 1930. 337 

Soc. N. Sth. Wales, xliv. 399), which, as Turner says, " differs from Chlenias 
only by the horny frontal process," Planociampa deviates not only in the 
subcostal venation but also very essentially in the formation of the frontal 
process. The venation is as given by Turner for Fisera, but that also has different 
antenna and is also dissimilar in shape, coloration and general habitus, so that 
any near affinity seems very improbable. 

294. Planociampa modesta (Butl.) (1878). 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 2^6- Komato, near Tokyo, 7 April 1925, 1 <J. 
Takao-San, 14 April 1925, 4 S<S \ 19 April 1925, 1 $. Tokyo, April 1925. 24 $$, 
5 ?? ; 1-15 April 1926, 2 JJ ; 16-30 April 1926, 1 <J ; 30 June 1926, 1 (J. 

Very variable in size, all the $$ and a few J j — especially the last two — 
very small. One Tokyo $ (April 1925) is a pretty aberration, the forewing 
having the proximal area and the region between the postmedian and the 
subterminal suffused with rose-colour. 

295. Planociampa antipala sp.n. 

q, 40-44 mm. ; §, 50 mm. Differs from modesta as follows : 
Frontal prominence less long, more densely clothed, the corneous ridge 
me iiv concealed, more open below. Antenna ochreous. Hindwing in J perhaps 
rather less elongate tornally, its line feeble, less zigzag than in modesta. General 
coloration more whitish, the hindwing white. $ larger than the q, less narrow- 
winged than that of modesta. 

Nikko, 26 June 1925, 5 (J (J, including the type. Takao-San, 14 April 
1925, 1 jj. Tokyo, 1-15 April 1926, 1 ?. 



23 



INDEX 



abencerragus (L3'caena), 227. 

Abraxas, 123, 124, 313, 314. 

Aoadra, 111. 

Acanthocampa, 326. 

acerbus (Ceratophyllus), 170. 176. 

Acidalia, 231, 232. 

Acompsia, 234. 

Acontia, 242. 

acritophyrta (Anisodes), 254. 

Acronycta, 241. 

acteana (Comostola), 257. 

acteon (Adopaea), 228, 237. 

acunus (Ctenophthalmus), 166. 

acutus (Ceratophyllus), 175. 

adalis (Pectinoctenus), 162. 

addictata (Eupithecia), 307. 

adesma (Hydrelia), 310. 

Adopaea, 227, 228, 237. 

adusta (Trogatha), 13. 

advenaria (Cepphis), 323. 

aechmeessa (Cleora), 144. 

aedon (Troglodytes), 89, 91. 

Aeluroedus, 205, 206. 

aemula (Delias), 278. 

Aepyornis, 197. 

aequivoca (Cleora), 71. 

aerosa (Eustroma), 303. 

aestivaria (Hemithea), 293. 

Aethalura, 334. 

aexaria (Angerona), 321. 

— (Bizia), 321. 
afiims (Boarmia), 141. 

— (Catoria), 141. 

— (Larus), 82. 

— (Tyto), 97. 

agana (Oxyambulyx), 85. 

Agathia, 290. 

agilis (Ceratophyllus), .'in. 

agitata (Duliophyle), 335. 

Aglossa, 233. 

agues (Lygria), 303. 

agrapta (Phragmatiphila), 9. 

Agrotis, 1. 

aigneri (Ectropis), 332. 

— (Pingasa), 290. 
Ailuroedus, 55, 59. 
Aiteta, 19. 

24 



akleyorum (Lampribis), 81. 
aksana (Haeraorrhagia), 238. 
Alauda, 271. 
alba (Tyto), 93-102. 
alberti (Ptilorhis), 208. 
alberti (Ptiloris), 58 
Albescens (Sarrothripus), 17. 
albida (Eublemma), 231. 
albidice (Leueochloe), 221. 
albifrontaria (Petelia), 317. 
albinigrata (Percnia), 312. 
albipuncta (Sideridis), 240. 
albistrigata (Gelasma), 292. 
albocostaria (Euchloris), 294. 
albonotaria (Zethenia), 320. 
albosignaria (Ophthalmodes), 331. 
albostriata (Eublemma), 12. 
album (Cirphis), 230. 
alceae (Carcharodus), 228. 
Alois, 329, 330. 
Alectura, 44. 
Alex, 264. 

alexandrinus (Charadrius), 212, 213. 
algerieusis (Deuteronomos), 148. 
algirica (Eumenis), 223. 
— (Satyrus), 223. 
ali (Hesperia), 228. 
alligator (Turnix), 45. 
alluaudi (Lyeaena), 227. 
alraoravida (Calophasia), 242. 
Alsophila, 289. 
altiloqua (Museicapa), 271. 
Alucita, 234. 
amasa (Luxiaria), 325. 
amazona (Pyrrhura), 219. 
ambiqua (Gelasma), 292. 
Amblyornis, 207. 
amelia (Cocnotephria), 301. 
Amephana, 230. 
amcricana (Stenoponia), 176. 
americanus (Lepus), 175. 
amianta (Epimeois), 69. 
amoenaria (Comibaena), 292. 
amoritaria (Eucoiiista), 147. 
Amorpha, 238. 

amphidasyaria (Hemerophila), 327. 
Amphipsylla, 161, 164, 182. 
339 



340 



amphitritaria (Hemithea), 294, 

amureasis (Asthena), 310. 

Amygdaloptera, 232. 

Anaoeraates, 247-249. 

anadema (Hemithea), 294. 

Anagoga, 318. 

Analtis, 232. 

Anas, 274. 

aneylus (Polytychus), 190. 

andamanensis (Corvus), 52. 

anerythra (Pyrrhura), 219. 

Aneurliinus, 246. 

angelicae (Arctia), 239. 

Angerona, 148, 321. 

angulifera (Alois), 329. 

Anisodes, 63, 254. 

anisus (Ceratophyllus), 164. 

annularis (Zernyia), 147. 

annulata (Protaracke), 14. 

Anophiodes, 21. 

antarctica (Stercorarius), 275. 

anthera (Hemiscia) 286. 

Anthocharis, 221,235. 

Anthophila, 231. 

antipala (Planociampa), 337. 

apatella (Spaniocentra), 261. 

apicipunctata (Scopula), 299. 

Aplasia, 150. 

Aplochlora, 109. 

apoda (Paradisaea), 208. 

Apopestes, 231. 

Aporia, 220. 

apricus (Ceratophyllus), 37. 

Aptenodytes, 42. 

Apternus, 273. 

araehis (Phalacropsylla), 38. 

Aracima, 290. 

Arctia, 239. 

arctica (Pipilo), 270. 

— (Pyrgita), 270. 
arcticus (Apternus), 273. 

— (Picoides), 273. 

— (Pious), 273. 

— (Pipilo), 270. 

arctomys (Ceratophyllus), 176. 
arcuata (Cassyma), 106. 
arenosa (Ephoria), 318. 
argentataria (Comibaena), 292. 
Argus, 227. 

arguta (Boarmia), 330. 
Argynnis, 223, 236. 
Argyrolepidea, 287. 
Aigyrospilft, 230. 
Arichanna, 312. 
arida (Gonodontis), 320. 
arizonensis (Ceratophyllus), 31. 
arnearia (Corymica), 323. 
artemidora (Brabira), 308. 



Ascotis, 331. 

asiatica (Aglossa), 233. 

asio (CeratophyUus), 33, 92, 176. 

— (Otus), 92. 

aspalacis (Amphipsylla), 161. 

aspila (Eusphalera), 285. 

Aspilates, 243. 

Aspitates, 336. 

assimilis (Megapodius), 43. 

— (Syntaracta), 108. 
Asthena, 310. 
Astrapia, 208. 
atalanta (Pyrameis), 222. 
Atelesia, 284. 

ater (Anacerastes), 249. 

— (Manucodia), 210. 
Athetis, 6-8, 230, 240. 
athleta (Jankowskia), 328. 
atlanticaria (Fidonia), 243. 
atlantis (Eumenis), 223. 

— (Satyrus), 223. 
atomaria (Ematurga), 153. 
atrata (Odezia), 150. 
atrilineata (Hemerophila), 327. 

— (Phthonandria), 327. 
atrostrigata (Photoscotosia), 303. 
Auaxa, 320. 

augustae-victoriae (Paradisaea), 209. 
aurantiacaria (Scardamia), 3^18. 
aurata (Gonodontis), 320. 
aurearia (Chiasmia), 153. 
aureoadflava (Venilia), 153. 

aurita (Amephana), 230. 
aurocapillus (Seiurus), 89, 91. 
austauti (Amorpha), 238. 
australis (Excalfactoria), 47, 48. 

— (Pyrrhura), 219. 

— (Synthymia), 230. 
Austroturnix, 46. 
autumnalis (Larentia), 151. 
Asia, 239. 

azela (Hastina), 312. 

baetica (Cleophana), 230. 
Bapta, 314, 315. 
Baptria, 306. 
Barasa, 18. 
bargei (Tyto), 101. 
baryconia (Catoria), 135. 
Belciana, 23. 

belemia (Euchloe), 222, 236. 
bella (Microloba), 308. 
bermetti (Corvus), 51, 54. 
berneyi (Turnix), 46. 
bewicki (Thryomanes), 91. 
biooloi (Belciana), 23. 

— (Iridoprocne), 90, 91. 
bicolorata (Larentia), 151. 



341 



bidentatiformis (Neopsylla), 159, 162, 164. 

bifasciata (Larentia), 151. 

bimaculatus (Anacerastes), 249. 

binderi (Cidaria), 151. 

bipunctaria (Ortholitha), 151. 

Biston, 69, 326, 327. 

bistortata (Ectropis), 332. 

bitterootensis (Ccratophyllus), 36. 

Bizia, 321. 

blaauwi (Ailuroedus), 55. 

Blarina, 174. 

blarinae (Doratopsylla), 177. 

Boarmia, 119-121, 134, 137, 140, 141, 330, 331. 

booagei (Lampribis), 81. 

boeticus (Lampides), 226. 

— (Polyommatus), 226. 
Bombyx, 229. 
bonapartii (Larus), 275. 
bonhoti (Corvus), 54. 
borombinus (Mecocerus), 248. 
borreyi (Zygaena), 228. 
botis (Amphipsylla), 182. 

— (Frontopsylla), 160. 
Botys, 233. 
Brabira, 308. 
brassicae (Ganoria), 221. 
brevioauda (Blarina), 174. 
breviclava (Aneurhinus), 246. 
breweri (Parascalops), 174. 
brisbanii (Epimachus). 270. 
brooki (Trichoglossus), 273. 
brooksi (Oxyambulyx), 61. 
brumata (Operopbtera), 309. 
brunnescens (Pingasa), 290. 
buceoidea (Ailuroedus), 59. 
Bupalus, 154. 

bureschi (Rhadiiiopsylla), 183. 
Buzura, 119, 327. 

Cabera, 316, 317. 

cacotrocha (Erebochlora, 64. 

caducus (Ceratophyllus), 268. 

caesiata (Larentia), 151. 

cairnsae (Excalfactoria), 47. 

Calicha, 331. 

calida (Lycaena), 227, 237. 

calidris (Vireo), 271. 

Callabraxas, 303. 

callantha (Rhodoprasia), 86. 

Calleulype, 303. 

callista (Coniostola), 258. 

Callopbrys, 237. 

Callopistria, 5. 

Calocalpe, 304. 

Calophasia, 242. 

caloraria (Ematurga), 153. 

Calothysanis, 297. 

camelaria (Boarmia), 135. 



camelaria (Catoria), 134, 135. 

eamelus (Struthio), 196. 

candace (Hydrelia), 68. 

Candalides, 282. 

canditata (Pseudoterpna), 150. 

canis (Ctenocephalus),#176. 

canus (Cylindroides), 247. 

Caradrina, 240. 

carbonata (Catoria), 135. 

Carcharodus, 228. 

cardui (Pyraineis), 223. 

Carea, 19, 20. 

Carige, 143, 308. 

carissima (Agathia), 290. 

— (Carea), 20. 

carlottae (Cyanocitta), 91. 

earolinensis (Dumetella), 89, 91. 

Carphibis, 274. 

oarpophaga (Polia), 241. 

carsicola (Ortholitha), 150. 

cassini (Lanivireo), 91. 

Cassyma, 106, 107. 

castanota (Turnix), 45. 

casuaria (Characoma), 16. 

Catallagia, 172, 175, 177. 

catapasta (Lithina), 113. 

catatina (Leptopsylla), 171, 177. 

Catephia, 24. 

Catharacta, 275. 

Catoria, 73, 132-141. 

oaurina (Melospiza), 91. 

eecilae (Corvus), 51, 54. 

Cediopsylla, 176, 268. 

Celastrina, 283. 

celebensis (Luxiaria), 77. 

Celerio, 238. 

celina (Lycaena), 226, 237. 

eelsus (Ceratophyllus), 91. 

centaureata (Eupithecia), 232. 

Cepphis, 323. 

Ceratophyllus, 28-37, 89-92, 155, 160, 163, 164, 

170, 175-177, 268. 
Ceriger (Litocerus), 244. 
eervinieauda (Drepanornis), 211. 
cerviniventris (Chlamydera), 206. 
cervinus (Synoicus), 47. 
Cerynea, 12. 
cesadaria (Auaxa), 320. 
cespitalis (Pyrausta), 234. 
chapini (Nycteridopsylla), 39, 176. 
Characoma, 16. 
Charadrius, 212-216. 
charlonia (Euchloe), 221, 235. 
charon (Cleora), 328. 
Chelonia, 239. 

chenopodiata (Ortholitha), 150, 151. 
cheopis (Xenopsylla), 176. 
chersonensi (.Struthio), 195. 



342 



Chiasmia, 153, 336. 
Chiastopsylla, 251. 
chinensis (Horisme), 306. 

— (Tyto), 104. 
Chlamydera, 55-57, 206, 207. 
Chloroclystis, 129, 130, 308. 
choritis (Ischnopterix), 68. 
ehrysocephala (Euprcpia), 229. 
chrysocephalus (Sericulus), 57, 207. 
Chrysocraspeda, 256. 
chrysonuchelloides (Crambus), 233. 
Chrysophanus, 226, 237. 
Chytonix, 6. 

Cichlopsis, 265. 

Cidaria, 151. 

ciliatus (Ceratophyllus), 34. 

cineraria (Euphyia), 301. 

— (Scopula), 298. 
cinerata (Lithostege), 242. 
cinereus (Tachyeres), 274. 
cinygma (Catoria), 138. 
Cirphis, 230, 240. 
citrago (Cosmia), 2. 
citrata (Dysstroma), 304. 
clarissa (Parabapta), 315. 
clarkei (Catharacta), 275. 
clathrata (Chiasmia), 153. 
claudata (Scopula), 299. 
claudia (Craspcdophora), 58. 
clavata (Oxyambulyx), 61. 
clavipalpis (Ethetis), 230, 240. 
Cledeobia, 233. 

clelandi (Chlamydera), 56. 

cleopatra (Gonepteryx), 222. 

Cleophana, 230, 242. 

Cleora, 70, 71, 122. 135, 144, 328, 329. 

clerica (Metabraxas), 312. 

clypeata (.Spatula), 90. 

Coenonympha, 225, 237. 

Coenotephria, 301. 

coerulescens (Pyrrhura), 21S. 

Coldoughia, 46. 

Colias, 222, 236. 

colletti (Excalfactoria), 48. 

Collix, 65-67, 127. 

colonorum (Corvus), 52. 

Colostygia, 301. 

Colotois, 320. 

Colutoceras, 260. 

Colymbus, 90. 

Comibaena, 150. 292, 

coinis (Dactylopsylla), 38. 

— (Thera), 304. 

comitata (Biston), 327. 

Comostola, 257, 258, 295. 

compar (Polyptychus), 191. 

compositata (Calleulype), 303. 

compsa (Macaria), 112. 



Compsoptera, 336. 
comptaria (Calothysanis), 297. 
comrii (Manucodia), 210. 
Condylura, 174. 
conferenda (Boarmia), 331. 

— (Serraca), 331. 
confuciaria (Tanaorhinus), 291. 
confusa (Scopula), 298. 
coanectens (Corvus), 52. 
consanguinea (Coenotephria), 301. 
consecraria (Rhodometra), 152. 
consiinilis (Polyptychus), 190. 
consors (Ereboiuorpha), 327. 
consueta (Cliloroclystis), 308. 
contempta (Tyto), 101. 
contigua (Oglasa), 26. 
convergenata (Lygris), 303. 
convexus (Polyptychus), 190. 
Corcorax, 54. 

corculina (Asthena), 310. 
Corgatha, 14. 
corouoides (Corvus), 53. 
Corsica (Polia), 241. 
corussaria (Dysstroma), 303. 
Corvus, 50-54. 
Corymica, 323. 
Cosmia, 2. 

costalba (Corgatha), 14. 
costinotata (Plecoptera), 26. 
costipunctaria (Ectropis), 334. 
Coturnix, 47. 

couaggaria (Cystielia), 313. 
Crambus, 233. 
crameri (Euchloe), 222. 
Craspedophora, 58. 
Craspedosis, 124. 
crassirostris (Ailuroedus), 55. 
cretacea (Ascotis), 331. 
cribrella (Myelois), 233. 
nristata (Anas), 274. 

— (Condulura), 174. 
crocea (Alauda), 271. 
croceus (Colias), 222, 236. 

— (Macronyx), 271. 
cruciplaga (Carige), 308. 
cruentella ( Eurhodope), 233. 
Crypsicometa, 315. 
cryptospila (Xadagara), 76. 
Ctenocephalus, 176. 

('tcuophthalmus, 41, 165-167, 171, 175-181. 
Cuoullia, 230, 241. 

Qulcula, 313. 

Culpinia, 292. 

cumulata (Pogonitis), 316. 

cupreipennis (Lampribis), 80. 

curvata (Doratopsylla), 172, 177. 

curvifiniens (Agathia), 290. 

Cusiala, 332. 



:m 



Cyanocitta, 91. 

Cyanops, 273. 

eyclobalia (Abraxas), 123. 

oylindricua (Gulamcntus), 245. 

Cylindroides, 247. 

cyrturus (Ceratophyllus), 34. 

Cystidia, 313. 

Daetylopsylla. 37. 38. 
dalhousiae (Eurylaimus), 272. 
— (Psarisomus), 272. 
dalmatina (Odezia), 150. 
Data, 5. 
dealbatus, 

dealbatus (Charadrius), 213. 
debilia (Spilopera), 323. 
debrunneata (Carige), 143. 
decoronata (Eumera), 152. 
definita (Boarmia), 331. 
defixaria (Parasynegia), 107. 
defixaria (Semiothisa), 325. 
deglandi (Oidemia), 90. 
Deilephila, 238. 
delectans (Thinopteryx), 322. 
delectaria (Gatoria), 136, 137. 
delectaria (Opbthalmodes), 137. 
Delias, 277-279. 
delicatior (Comibaena), 292. 
delioatula (Tyto), 100. 
delicatulus (Strix), 100. 
Dendroica, 271. 
dentaria (Ematurga), 153. 
dentifascia (Iodis), 295. 
dentirostris (Scenopocetes), 55, 

— (Scenopoeetes), 206. 
deochrata (Hydrelia), 152. 
depressaria (Sterrha), 232. 
de-roepstorffi (Tyto), 98. 
deserticola (Melitaea) 223. 
desertorum (Rhodometra), 152. 
designata (Cidaria), 151. 
despicata (Luxiaria), 77. 
detorta (Tyto), 97. 
Deuteronomos, 148, 149. 
diadela (Boarmia), 120. 
dialitha (Colutoceras), 260. 

— (Steirophora), 126. 
dicymanta (Orthonama), 63. 
dieckmanni (Hipparchus), 291. 
diffinia (Ceratophyllus), 89-92, 175. 
diffusa (Culpinia), 292. 
Diglossa, 266, 267. 

dijuncta (Hemistola), 294. 
Dilophodes ,312. 
dimidiata (Sterrha), 232. 
Dindica, 290. 
Dinornis, 199. 
Diphyllodes, 208. 



Diplodesma, 2!I4. 
Diplurodes, 74. 
dira (Erannis), 325. 
discisignata (Trachea), 4. 
discolor (Dendroica). 271. 

— (Sylvia), 271. 
Discoloxia, 311. 
discophora (Problepsis), 29S. 
disjecta (Phyllophyla), 231. 
Ditheeodes, 295. 

dives (Rhadinopsylla), 157. 
dobboensis (Cleora), 71. 
dolabraria (Plagodis), 322. 
dolia (Eupithecia), 131. 
dolosa (Pachyligia), 321. 
domcsticus (Gallus), 90. 

— (Passer), 91. 
Doratopsylla, 172, 177. 
dorsatus (Erethizon), 175. 
Drepanornis, 211. 
Dromiceius, 42. 

ducalis (Herpolasia), 285. 
ducis (Ctenophthalmus), 41. 

— (Pieridopsis), 279. 
dulciae (Ptilonorhynchus), 55. 
Duliophyle, 335, 336. 
Dumetella, 89, 91. 

durus (Ceratophyllus), 29, 170, 176. 
Dysauxes, 229. 
Dysstrorna, 303, 304. 

Earophila, 142. 
Eehidnophaga, 90, 176. 
echmatiea (Synegia), 75. 

— (Syntaracta), 75. 
Ecliptopera, 142, 302. 
ectroma (Erannis), 144. 
Eetropis, 141, 322-334. 
efformata (Ana'itis), 232. 
effusaria (Sterrha), 300. 
elachista (Collix), 127. 
elana (Oropsylla), 160. 
elegans (Dilophodes), 312. 
elegans (Sabaria), 113. 
elliotii (Pernis), 274. 
Elphos, 118, 335. 
Elydna, 9. 
Elydnodes, 22. 
Ematurga, 153. 

emma (Pyrrhura), 219. 
Enconista, 147. 
endela (Delias), 279. 
Endropiodes, 320. 
Ennomos, 318, 319. 
entiina (Delias), 278. 
Eois, 257. 
Ephoria, 318. 
Epimachus, 270. 



344 



Epimceis, 69. 

Epinephele, 225. 236. 

" Epione." 323. 

Epirrhoe, 305. 

Erannia, 143, 144. 325. 326. 

eraaa (Dithecodes), 295. 

Erebochlora, 64. 

Erebomorpha. 327. 

Erethizon, 17f>. 

erlangcri (Tyto), 97. 

ernesti (Tyto), 95. 

Eryeinidia, 280, 281. 

Eschatarchia, 311. 

Eublemma, 11, 12,231. 

Euchloe, 221, 222, 235, 236. 

Euehloris, 294. 

cuchora (Euphyia), 128. 

Euchoria, 117. 

eucryphes (Terpna). 262. 

Euctenurapteryx, 322. 

Eudule, 64. 

Eudyptula. 42, 43. 

Euu'nt'.sia. 7"). 

Eulype, 306. 

Eumelea, 264. 

Eximenis, 223. 

Eumera, 149, 152. 

Euphyia. 127. 128, 301. 

eupines (Terpna), 262. 

Eupithecia, 131, 232, 242, 306-308. 

eupithecioides (Boarmia), 121. 

Euprepia, 229. 

Euxhodope, 233. 

Eurrhantis, 243. 

Eurylaimus, 272. 

Eusphalera, 285. 

Eustroma, 303. 

Eutamias, 92. 

Euxoa, 240-241. 

evanescens (Epirrhoe), 305. 

everetti (Tyto), 99. 

evidens (Ctenophthalmus), 165. 

exaereta (Comostola), 257. 

Excalfactoria, 47, 48. 

excavata (Acanthocampa), 326. 

— (Zamacra), 326. 
excellens (Ectropis), 333. 
excelsa (Delias), 278. 
excisa (Chloroclystis), 308. 

— (Kliinoprora), 308. 
exeultala (( '; 1 1 < .< ■: 1 1 j >< ■ ) . 3114. 
excurrena (Eoliptopera), 302. 

faceta (Neopsylla), 170. 
fairfaxi (Ailuroedna), 55. 

— (Prionodura), 57. 
Falcinellus, 211. 
(alias Emat urga), 154. 



farinalis (Pyralis), 233. 
faroensis (Sturnus), 270. 
fasoiatus (( Vratnphylltis), 33, 177. 
felieina (iletopoceraa), 230, 241. 
felis (Ctenocephalus), 176. 
Fidonia, 243. 
filicornis (Litocerus), 244. 
finschi (Paradisaea), 209. 
flagrans (Hypochrocis), 115. 
flammea (Strix), 101, 102. 
flava (Athetis), 240. 
flaviceps (Rhynchobapta), 324. 
foedata (Bapta), 315. 
— (Sterrha). 300. 
formosa (Xothomiza), 318. 
forraosaria (Aspitates), 336. 
formosella (Acompsia), 234. 
fort is (Marumba), 85. 
franklinii (Larus), 275. 
frigida (Otoplecta), 309. 
Frontopsylla, 160, 163. 
Fulica, 276. 

fulvobasalis (Abraxas), 314. 
fumipennis (Cleora), 70. 
fumosa (Ennomos), 319. 
furcata (Tyto), 101. 
fusea (Heterophleps), 308. 
fusceseens (Hyloeiohla), 89, 92. 

galactica (Siona), 147. 

gallinaceus (Echidnophaga), 90, 176. 

gaUinae (Ceratophyllus), 90-92, 163, 171, 177. 

gallinuloides (Fulica), 276. 

gallopavo (Meleagris), 90. 

Callus, 90. 

gamma (Phytometra), 242. 

Gandaritis, 303. 

Ganoris, 221,235. 

Garaeus, 319. 

garei (Ceratophyllus), 90, 92, 175. 

gaschkevitchii (Arichanna), 312. 

geisleri (Drepanornis), 211. 

geislerorum (Ailuroedus), 59. 

Gelasma, 259, 292, 293. 

Geometra, 231, 232. 

geometricus (Anacerastes), 249. 

georgiae (Tyto), 103. 

Geothlypis, 271. 

gephyra (Abraxas), 124. 

gibrati (Melitaea), 223. 

gibratii (Melitaea), 236. 

gigas (Ctenophthalmus), 175. 

giraffata (Perenia), 312. 

glarearia (Chiasmia), 153. 

glaucaria (ffipparchus), 291. 

Glaueidium. 274. 

glanoopa (Tyto), 101. 

glaucus (Sarrothripua), 17. 



345 



gnophoides (Zernyia), 146. 

Gnophoa, 145, 243. 

Gonepteryx, 222. 

Gonodontis, 320. 

" Goose," 92. 

gordoni (Nesocichla), 272. 

goughensis (Nesospiza), 270. 

— (Phrygilus), 270, 271. 

— (Rowettia), 270, 271. 
goulburni (Pedionomus), 46. 
gouldi (Phonygammus), 58, 210. 
goweri (Cololoughia), 46. 
gracilirostris (Tyto), 96. 
gracilis (Spilopera), 323. 
grammodactyla (Orneodes), 234. 
grandifiearia (Gelasma), 293. 
grandinaria (Angerona), 321. 
grandis (Neopsylla), 172, 177. 
grata (Parepione), 323. 

— (Peratophyga), 315. 
grataria (Colostygia), 301. 
grisea (Alois), 329. 
griseipectus (Pyrrhura), 219. 
griseolinibata (Cabera), 316. 
guatemalae (Tyto), 101. 
guilelmi (Paradisaea), 209. 
Gulamentus, 244, 245. 
Gurelca, 87, 88. 

guttata (Chlamydera), 57, 207. 

— (Tyto), 97. 

guttatus (Gulamentus), 245. 

Gyninoscelis, 232. 

hadassa (Synegia), 317. 

Haeiuorrhagia, 238. 

hafneri (Oidaria), 151. 

hainanus (Corvus), 52. 

halli (Aptenodytes), 42. 

halmaturinus (Corvus), 53. 

halo (Catoria), 139. 

hamza (Adopaea), 228. 

hanna (Scopula), 298. 

hapala (Luxiaria), 110. 

Hapalia, 234. 

harterti (Phragmatobia), 229, 239. 

— (Zygaena), 229, 239. 
hassi (Corvus), 52. 
Hastina, 125, 312. 
hauderi (Larentia), 151. 
hebridensis (Troglodytes), 272. 

— (Turdus), 272. 
hecate (Eulype), 306. 
hellwegeri (Ortholitha), 151. 
hemana (Notboptcryx), 309. 
Hemerophila, 327. 
hemicelaena (Phragmatiphila), 10. 
hemileuca (Candalides), 282. 

— (Erycinidia), 280. 
hemiprosopa (Catoria), 141. 



heraiprosopa (Ectropis), 141. 
Hemiscia, 285, 286. 
hemisparacta (Sesamia), 11. 
Hemistola, 294. 
Hemithea, 293, 294 
Henicognatbus, 274. 
Hereyna, 234. 
Herpolasia, 285. 
Hesperia, 226, 228. 
hesperorays (Leptopsylla), 177. 
Heterolocha, 110, 323. 
Heteromiza, 116. 
Heterophleps, 308. 
himachala (Gurelca), 88. 
Hipparchus, 291. 
Hirasa, 335. 
hispana (Loxia), 270. 
hispulla (Epinephele), 225. 
holboelli (Colymbus), 90. 
Hoplopsylla, 175. 
Horisme, 306. 

hortensiaria (Loxofidonia), 305. 
hudsonius (Sciurus), 175. 

— (Zapus), 174. 
humiliata (Sterrha), 231. 
hunsteini (Diphyllodes), 208. 
huonis (Praetaxila), 282. 
Hydrelia, 68, 152, 310, 311. 
Hydriomena, 151. 

bygini (Nearetopsylla), 176. 
Hylochichla, 92. 
Hylocichla, 89, 92. 
Hyolocicbla, 92. 
Hypena, 231. 
Hypephyra, 317. 
hypermetra (Tyto), 97. 
Hyperstrotia, 15. 
Hypochrocis, 114, 115. 
hypopyrrha (Chloroclystis), 130. 
hypotaenia (Ingena), 315. 

— (Lomographa), 315. 
hyriaria (Lomographa), 315. 
HystrichopsyUa, 173, 177. 

Ibis, 274. 

Ichthyura, 239. 

ida (Epinephele), 225, 236. 

Idaea, 255. 

idahoensis (Ceratophyllus), 32. 

idius (Ceratophyllus), 89-92, 175. 

ignobilis (Aethalura), 334. 

— (Scopula), 299. 

— (Xanthorhoe), 300. 
ignotus (Ceratophyllus), 32. 
— (Seleucides), 208. 
illiturata (Gelasma), 293. 
illumitiata (Eupithecia), 232, 242. 
Ilythia, 233. 



346 



imitaria (Scopula), 231. 
immitia (Ceratophyllus), :i:i. 175. 
immunis (Gelasma), 293. 
impersonate (Scopula), 298. 
impexa (Sterrha), 300. 
implacata (Athetis), f». 
incarnaria (Si. Trim) 232. 
incertaria (Crypsicometa) 315. 
inconapie.ua (Synegia), HIT. 
Lncurvata (Oglasa), 25. 
indeviata (.Sterrha), 142. 
indica (Strix), 98. 
indieataria (Somatina), 297. 
indictinaria (Endropiodes), 320. 
indicus (Struthio), 195. 
ines (Melanargia), 224. 
infidelis (Deuteronomos), 148. 
inflexus (C'eratophyllus), 37, 92. 
infuscaria (Sterrha), 300. 
Ingena, 315. 
Ino, 228, 238. 

inornatus (AmWyomis), 207. 
Lnquinata (Melanthia), 301. 
insignia (Myodopsylla), 177. 

— (Zapus), 174. 
iiisolita (Cleora), 328. 

— (Rhadinopsylla). 158. 
insueta (Elphos), 335. 
insularis (Corvus), 51. 

— (Tyto), 102. 
intercedens (Ptilorhis), 207. 
interjunctalis (Botys), 233. 
intermedia (Austroturnix), 46. 
intermedins (Corvus), 52. 
inundata (Diplurodes). 74. 
invalida (Sterrha), 300. 
invenustaria (Boarmia), 330. 
Iodis, 295. 

Ipocrantor, 273. 
iredalei (Eudyptula), 42. 
Iridoplecta, 113. 
Iridoprocne, 90, 91. 
irritans (Pulex), 176. 
irrorata (Carige), 308. 
irrorataria (Ophthalmodes), 331. 
Lschnopsyllus, 184. 
Ischnopterix, 68, 69. 
Itame, 336. 

jahandiezi (Melanargia), 224. 
jamesi (Phonygammus), 210. 
jamesoni (Larus), 275. 
Jankowskia, 32s. 
jaonis (Rhadinopsylla), 40, 162. 
japonago (C'osmia), 2. 
japonaria (Ligdia), 314. 
japonensis (Corvus). .".2. 
japonica (Anagoga), 318. 



japoniea (Dyastroma), 304. 
javanica (Tyto), 98. 
jeanneli (Ctetiophthalmus), 17S. 
jessiae (Nesospiza), 271. 
jettmari (Ophthalmopsylla), 156. 
jobiensis (Manuoodia), 210. 
jordani (Idaea), 255. 
juglansiaria (Zamaora), 326. 

keayi (Plilo^ocnas), 275. 

keraudreni (Phonygammus), 211. 

Krananda, 325. 

kyehni (Tyto), 99. 

kukuschkini (llphthalmopsylla), 155. 

labiatus (Ceratophyllus), 29. 
labis (Ceratophyllus), 32. 

Laciniodes, 310. 
lactearia (Iodis), 295. 

— (Minoa), 152. 
laevigata (Sterrha), 242. 
Lagopus, 276. 

laminaria (Heteroloeha), 323. 
Lampides, 226. 
Lampribis, 78-81. 
Lanivireo, 91. 
Larentia, 151. 
Larus, 82-84, 275. 
lathami (Alectura), 44. 
lathonia (Argynnis), 223, 236. 
latifascia (Characoma), 16. 
latifasciata (Abraxas), 313. 
latiferaria (Xandrames), 335. 
latimarginaria (Krananda), 325. 

— (Trigonoptila), 325. 
latipennis (Lophorina), 207. 
latirostris (Corvus), 51. 
lawesi (Parotia), 207. 

leda (Proteostrenia), 318. 

ledereri (Lygris), 303. 

Leipoa, 44. 

lentiginosaria (Ocoelophora), 320. 

lepida (Phrrhura), 218. 

lepidus (Anacerastes), 249. 

lepta (Lophomaehia), 261. 

Leptopsylla, 171, 177. 

leptorhyneha (Psittacara), 274. 

leptorhynchus (Henicognathus), 274. 

Lepus, 175. 

Leucanitis, 231. 

leuciota (Collix), 66. 

Leucochloe, 221. 

leucophaea (Cleora), 329. 

leucoptera (Fuliea), 276. 

leucopus (Ceratophyllus), 28, 170, 176. 

— (Peromyscus), 174. 
leucothelia (Celastrina), 2S3. 
leucotis (Pyrrhura), 219. 



347 



leucurus (Lagopus), 276. 

— (Tetrao), 276. 
levaillantii (Corvus), 52. 
Ligdia, 314. 

limata (Delias), 277. 
limbopunctalis (Pyrausta), 234. 
limitata (Ortholitha), 150. 
lineata (Eschatarchia), 311. 
lipara (Eumclca), 264. 
hparampyx (Eugnesia), 75. 

— (Synegia), 75. 
lipotcra (Clcora), 122. 
lisaochila (Deuteronomos), 149. 
Lithina, 113. 

Lithostege, 242. 
litigiosaria (Sterrha), 231. 
Litocerus, 244. 
littorata (Euphyia), 127. 
littoris (Ccratophyllus), 31. 
Lomographa, 315. 
lomozemia (Alcis), 329. 
longimembris (Tyto), 102, 103. 
longistigma (Catoria), 134. 
Lophomachia, 261. 
Lophorina, 207. 
lorcyi (Cirphis), 240. 
lota (Hemiscia), 286. 
lotoris (Trichopsylla), 176. 
lotteri (Papilio), 220. 
Loxia, 270. 
Loxofidonia, 305. 
lucayana (Tyto), 101. 
lucayanus (Tyto), 101. 
luciani (Pyrrhura), 219. 
lucida (Tarache), 231. 
lucidata {Catoria), 135. 
lucinda (Chloroclystis), 308. 
lucipara (Trachea), 2. 
luctuosa (Acontia), 242. 
lulu (Tyto), 100. 
lunifera (Boarmia), 330. 
lutearia (Chiasmia), 336. 
lutescens (Vermivora), 91. 
lutulenta (Elphos), 118. 
Luxiaria, 77, 110, 325. 
luzonensis (Pliytometra), 23. 
Lycaena, 226, 227, 237. 
Lycocorax, 211. 
Lygris, 303. 

lyllus (Coenonympha), 225, 237. 
lynx (Hoplopsylla), 175. 
lyrianthina (Diglossa), 266. 
lysimon (Lycaena), 227. 

Macaria, 112. 

maccormioki (Stercorarius), 275. 
macdonaldi (Chlamydcra), 57. 
Maeronyx, 271. 



inacrorhynchos (Corvus), 50. 
maotata (Ecliptopera), 302. 
maculata (Callabraxas), 31)3. 

— (Chlamydera), 56, 57, 206. 

— (Naxidia), 309. 

— (Strix), 97. 

raaculicaudaria (Euctonurnptcryx), 322. 
maculosus (Aeluroedus), 205. 

— (Ailuroedus), 55. 
Maenas, 239. 
magellanicus (Ipocrantor), 273. 

— (Picus), 273. 

— (Turdus), 272. 
magnaria (Epione), 323. 
magnifica (Gandaritis), 303. 

— (Turnix), 45. 
majuscularia (Duliophyle), 336. 
Malocosoma, 229. 
raandschurica (Eupithecia), 307. 
mandachuricua (Corvus), 52. 
Manucodia, 210. 

margarita (Axia), 239. 
raarginatus (Charadrius). 214. 
marginepunctata (Scopula), 231. 
raarianae (Corvus), 53. 
marina (Hemithea), 293. 
marmorata (Eublemma), 11. 
marngli (Corvus), 54. 
martialis (Hapalia), 234. 
Marumba, 85. 
masuriensis (Gurelca), 87. 
maura (Apopestes), 231. 

— (Minucia), 242. 
mauretanica (Aporia), 220. 

— (Celerio), 238. 

— (Epinephele), 225. 

— (Ganoris), 221, 235. 
maxima (Papilio), 220, 235. 
meade-waldoi (Melanargia), 224. 
Medasina, 327. 

media (Zygaena), 239. 
mediodivisa (Larentia), 151. 
mediolineata (Oporinia), 309. 
meeki (Tyto), 99. 
Megabiston. 326. 
megacolpus (Ceratophyllus), 33. 
megaera (Pararge), 236. 
Megalaema, 273. 
Megapodius, 43. 
megera (Pararge), 225. 
Melanargia, 224. 
melancholica (Eustroma), 303. 
Melanerpes, 273. 
melanocepbala (Cerynea), 12. 
melanocephalus (Aeluroedus), 206. 
melanogaster (Turnix), 46. 
melanonota (Alois), 330. 
incLincirhaniplios (Corcorax), 54. 



348 



melanostigma (Ematurga), 154. 

Melanthia, 301. 

Meleagris, 90. 

Melitaea, 223, 23(i. 

racllori (Corvus), 53. 

Melospiza, 91. 

melvillensis (Oluamydera), 55. 

— (Coturnix), 47. 

— (Megapodius), 43. 

— (Turnix), 45. 
mcnrlica (Scionomia), 323. 
mengtszensis (Corvus), 51. 
meone (Pararge), 224, 236. 
Metabraxas, 312. 
Metapoceras, 241. 
Metopoeeras, 230. 
Metoptria, 230. 

meyeri (Falcinellus). 211. 

mianta (Colutoceras), 260. 

Microloba, 308. 

Microniodes, 105. 

Microtus, 174. 

migratorius (Planesticus), 89, 92. 

minima (Lycaena). 237. 

Minoa, 152. 

minor (Lophorina), 207. 

— (Microniodes), 105. 

— (Paradisaea), 209. 

— (Scenopocetes), 55. 

— (Sterrha), 299. 
Minucia, 242. 
minuta (Horisme), 306. 

— (Pseudocollix), 30 . 
mira (Chloroclystis), 130. 
miracula (Erannis), 143. 
miranda (Abraxas), 314. 
mirandus (Garaeus), 319. 
misera (Nothopteryx). 309. 
misticia (Catoria), 136. 
mitis (Amphipsylla), 164. 
mixta (Malacosoma), 229. 
modesta (Planociampa), 337. 
modicaria (Scopula), 298. 
moeniata (Ortholitha), 150. 
molestus (Aeluroedus), 205. 
— ■ (Ailuroedus), 59. 
molinae (Pvrrhura), 219. 
mononis (Ceratophyllus), 35. 
monotonia (Aplasta), 150. 
montana (Zygaena), 238. 
montanus (Ceratophyllus), 31. 
morosa (Petelia), 317. 
mulier (Eumera), 149. 
multilinea (Athetis), 7. 
multispinosus (Odontopsyllus), 175. 
munditibia (Cleora), 71. 

mungi (Coturnix). 47. 
murinata (Minoa). 152. 



Muscicapa, 271, 272. 
muscicapata (Loxofidonia), 305. 
muscosa (Aracima), 290. 
musculosa (Argyrospila), 230. 
mustellina (Hyolocichla), 92. 
Myelois, 233. 
Myodopsylla, 162, 177. 

Nadagara, 76, 324. 
nana (Strix), 274. 
nanaria (Aethalura), 334. 

— (Sauris), 309. 
nanum (Glaucidium), 274. 
Naxa, 289. 

Naxidia, 309. 

Nearctopsylla, 176. 

nebulosa (Acadra), 111. 

nelvai (Zcrnyia), 147. 

Neogabara, 25. 

neophantes (Rhanidopsis), 259. 

NeopsyUa, 159, 162, 164, 172, 175-177. 

nephodes (Alex), 264. 

nephotropa (Ennomos), 318. 

nervosa (Atelesia), 284. 

Nesocichla, 272. 

Nesospiza, 270-271. 

nevadensis (Ceratophyllus), 30. 

newtoniana (Prionodura), 57, 207. 

niger (Ceratophyllus), 90, 92, 175. 

nigreseens (Tyto), 102. 

nigrilinearia (Sauris), 126. 

nigrilineata (Barasa), 18. 

nigrisparsa (Angerona), 321. 

nigritibiata (Syntaracta), 109. 

nikkonis (Medasina), 327. 

niloticus (Xenopsylla), 251. 

Ninodes, 316. 

niphonica (Heterolocha), 323. 

— (Ortholitha), 301. 
Niphonissa, 117. 
nisaria (Hydrelia), 311. 
nitobei (Wilemania), 326. 
nivea (Ourapteryx), 321. 
nivosus (Charadrius), 214. 
noctivaga (Athetis), 240. 
noctivolans (Ectropis), 334. 
Noctua, 230, 231, 239-241. 
noctuella (Xomophila), 233. 
noctuoides (Hetcromiza), 116. 
nocturna (Ematurga), 153. 
Nomophila, 233. 

Noreia, 263. 

norwegicus (Rattus), 104, 174. 
Nothomiza, 318. 
Nothopteryx, 309. 
novaehollandiae (Eudyptula), 43. 
novae-hollandiae (Larus), 275. 
nuehalis (Chlamydera), 206. 



349 



Nycteridopsylla, 39, 176. 
nympha (Comostola), 295. 
nymphaeata (Asthena), 310. 

obiensis (Lyeocorax), 211. 
obliqua (Ectropis). 333. 
obliquaria (Erannis), 326. 
obscura (Chloroclystis), 129. 

— (Euphyia), 301. 
obscuraria (Nothopteryx), 309. 
obsitalis (Hypena), 231. 
obstipata (Orthonaraa), 232, 300. 
obtusicauda (Ourapteryx), 322. 
occidentalis (Cliaradrius), 215. 

— (Phragmatobia), 239. 
ocellata (Leipoa), 44. 
ochrearia (AspUates), 243. 
ochrias (Iridoplecta), 113. 
ochrifasciaria (Astbena), 310. 
ochroprosthia (Ischnopterix), 69. 
Ocoelophora, 320. 

Odezia, 150. 
Odontopsyllus, 175. 
oenotriensis (Siona), 152. 
Oglasa, 25, 26. 
Oidemia, 90, 274. 
olethria (Chytonix), 6. 
olivacea (Lampribis), 80. 
olivana (Aiteta), 19. 
olivescens (Catoria), 134. 
Omphalophana, 242. 
onaga (Catallagia), 172, 177. 
ononaria (Aplasta), 150. 
onopordi (Hesperia), 228. 
oorti (Ailuroedus), 59. 
opalescens (Microniodes), 105. 
Operophtera, 309. 
ophidius (Ceratophyllus), 36. 
ophthalmaria (Ematurga), 154. 
Ophthalmodes, 137, 331. 
Ophthalmopsylla, 155, 156, 163. 
Opistoclanis, 62. 
Oporinia, 309. 
orana (Eupitheoia), 232. 

— (Procris), 228, 238. 
orientalis (Chlamydera), 207. 

— (Iodis), 295. 

— (Manucodia), 210. 
ornata (Elydnodcs), 22. 

— (Risoba), 18. 
ornataria (Boarmia), 331. 

— (Calicha), 331. 
Orneodes, 234. 
Oropsylla, 10(1, 103. 
orru (Gorvus), 51. 
Orthooraspis, 21. 
Ortbolitha, 150, 161, 301. 
Ortlionama, 63, 232, 30(1. 



Oruza, 13. 
Otoplecta, 309. 
Otus, 92. 

Ourapteryx, 116, 321, 322. 
oweni (Chlamydera), 56, 206. 
oxa (Macaria), 112. 
Oxyambulyx, 60-62, 85. 
Ozola, 263. 

Pachyligia, 321. 
Palaeopsylla, 41. 
pallida (Acronycta), 241. 
pallidas (Charadrius), 214. 
Palpoctenidia, 311. 
palustri.s (Telmatodytes), 92. 
pantascia (Thalassodes), 258. 
panterpna (Gelasma), 259. 
Papilio, 220-228, 235-237. 
papuensis (Tyto), 103. 
Parabapta, 315. 
Paradisaea, 208-209. 
paradisea (Ptilorhis), 208. 
Pararge, 224, 225, 236. 
Parascalops, 174. 
parasynegia, 107. 
Parepione, 323. 
paridisea (Ptilorhis), 270. 
parilis (Frontopsylla), 163. 
parkmani (Troglodytes), 91. 
Parotia, 207. 

parthenia (Hemiscia), 285. 
parva (Catoria), 137. 

— (Muscicapa), 272. 

— (Ophthalmodes), 137. 
parvula (Plemyria), 151. 
pasiphae (Epinephele), 225, 236. 
Passer, 91. 

patachonica (Oidemia), 274. 
paupera (Hirasa), 335. 
Pectinoctenus, 162. 
pectoralis (Coturnix), 47. 
Pedionomus, 46. 
pelidna (Biston), 69. 
pendleburyi (Cleora), 70. 
penicilliger (ceratophyllus), 36. 
permsylvaiiicus (Ceratophyllus), 31. 

— (Microtus), 174. 
peralbata (Plemyria), 151. 
Peratophyga, 315. 
Percnia, 312. 

peridela (Trachea), 3. 

peristicta (Prasinoeyma), 258. 

Perixcra. 63. 

Perizoma, 301. 

perlata (Pyrrhura), 218. 

— (Strix). 1(11. 
pernis, 274. 

pernitens (Eusphalera), 285. 



350 



pernix (Ophthalmopsylla), 163. 

Peromyscus, 174. 

perpinnatus (Ceratophyllus), 90 92, 17."i 

peiplexus (Corvus), 53. 

peraonata (Scopula), 290. 

pcruvianus (Cichlopsis), 265. 

Petelia, 317. 

petiolatus (Ceratophyllus), 31. 

pctrosa (Ectropis), .'131. 

pfrimeri (Pyrrliura), 210. 

Phalacropsylla. 38. 

Phalaena, 220-234. 240-243. 

phasma (Discoloxia), 311. 

— (Venusia), 311. 
phauda (Noreia), 263. 
Philadelphia (Larus), 275. 
philippina (Syneda), 231. 
philippinensis (Calephia), 24. 
philippinus (Corvus), 51. 
phlaeas (Chrysophanus), 226, 237. 
Phlogoenas, 275. 

phoebus (Chrysophanus), 226, 237. 
phoenicosoma (Palpoctenidia), 311. 
phoenicura (Pyrrliura), 217. 
Phonygammus, 58, 210, 211. 
Photoscotosia, 303. 
Phragmatiphila, 9. 10. 
Phragmatobia, 220, 230. 
phrice (Euphyia), 128. 
Phthonandria, 327. 
Phthonosema, 328. 
phrator (Ctenophthalmua), 180. 
Phrygilus, 270, 271. 
Phyllophyla, 231. 
Phytometra, 23, 242. 
pia (Euchoria), 117. 
picata (Alcis), 330. 
picatus (Gulamentus), 244. 
Picoides, 273. 
picoides (Craspedosis), 124. 
picta (Pyrrliura), 219. 
pictimaculis (Anisodes), 63. 

— (Perixera), 63. 
picturata (Turnix), 46. 
pictus (Anacerastes), 248, 240. 
Picus, 273. 

Pieridopsis, 270. 
Pieris, 221-235. 
Piugasa, 200. 
piniaria (Bupalus), 154. 
Pipilo, 270. 

pissoconeta (Boarmia), 120. 
placata (Ecliptopera), 142. 
placida (Epirrhoc), 305. 
placiva (Hemiacia), 286. 
Planesticus, 89, 02. 
Planociampa, 336, 337. 
plagiola (Nc*)L r altara), 25. 



Plagodis, 322. 
Plecoptera, 26. 
Plemyria, 151. 

plcsia (Catoria), 137. 

— (Ophthalmodes), 137. 
plumbescens (Athetis), 8. 
plumbipicta (Haatina), 125. 
plumosaria (Megabiston), 326. 
plnrimelineata (Ortholitha), 151. 
Plutodes, 106. 
Poccilastbeuia, 125. 

Poensis (Strix). 07. 
Pogonitis, 316. 
Polia, 230, 241. 

polycyma (Chrysocraspcda), 256. 
polygonalis (Uresphita), 233. 
polymorpha (Hetcrolocha), 110. 
Polyommatus, 226. 
Polyptychus, 187-191. 
pons (Charadrius), 212, 213. 
portoriocnsis (Melonerpes), 273. 
postalbida (Thera), 304. 
powelli (Iohthyura), 239. 

— (Sterrhopterix), 230. 
praerupta (Iodis), 205. 
Praetaxila, 282. 
praetenta (Collix), 65. 
praetermissa (Coturnix), 47. 
Prasinocyma, 258. 
prasinus (Tanaorhinus), 201. 
pratineola (Tyto), 101. 
prinodes (Buzura ) 110. 
prionitcs (Polyptychus), 188. 
Prionodura, 57, 207. 
Problepsis, 255, 298. 
Procris, 228, 238. 
procumbaria (Coiuibaena), 202. 
proditaria (Semiothisa), 325. 
promulgate (Collix) 67. 
propinquus (Planesticus), 02. 
prosigna (Nadagara), 324. 
Protaracke, 14. 
Proteostrenia, 318. 

protinus (Ceratophyllus), 34. 
protrusa (Gelasma), 203. 
prouti (Hypochrocis), 114. 

— (Poecilasthenia), 125. 
proximaria (.Semiothisa), 324. 
pruinata (Pseudoterpna), 150. 
pryeraria (Alcis), 330. 
pryeri (Corymica), 323. 

— (Ecliptopera), 302. 

— (Oxyambulyx), 60, 61. 
Psaliodes, 65. 
Psammornis, 106. 
Psarisomus, 272. 

pseudagyrtes (Ctcnoplithalmus), 171, 177. 
pseudarctomys (Ceratophyllus), 28, 176. 



351 



Pseudocollix, 306. 

pseudoglarearia (Ematurga), 153. 

Pseudophia, 242. 

Pseudoterpna, 150. 

pseutes (Turnix), 44. 

Psilonaxa, 289. 

psilotes (Macaria), 112. 

psimythota (Catoria), 140. 

Psittacara, 274. 

Ptilonorhynchus, 55, 205. 

Ptilorhis, 207, 270. 

ptilorhynchus (Pernis), 274. 

Ptiloris, 58. 

Ptochophyle, 254. 

pulchella (Utetheisa), 229. 

pulcherrima (Plutodes), 106. 

pulchrilinea (Anophiodes), 21. 

Pulex, 176. 

pumilata (Gymnoscelis), 232. 

punctata (Cabera), 317. 

punctatissima (Tyto), 102. 

punctifera (Lycaena), 227. 

punctilincaria (Rhynchobapta), 324. 

punctimarginaria (Telenomeuta), 305, 

punctirena (Athetis), 7. 

punica (Melitaea), 223. 

purus (Cabera), 316. 

pusilla (Tyto), 96. 

pustulata (Comibaena), 150. 

puta (Euxoa), 240. 

Pygaera, 239. 

p.ygarga (Polyptychus), 187, 188. 

Pylargoseeles, 296, 297. 

Pyralis, 231, 233, 234. 

pyraloides (Ozola), 263. 

Pyrameis, 222, 223. 

Pyrausta, 234. 

Pyrgita, 270. 

pyristacta (Eudule), 64. 

Pyropteron, 230. 

Pyrrhura, 217-219. 

quadrisetis (Chiastopsylla), 251. 
queenslandicus (Corvus), 54. 

— (Cotumix), 47. 

— (Synoicus), 47. 

quirini (Ceratophyllus), 171, 175. 



remota (Palaeopsylla), 41. 

retessellata (Gassyma), 107. 

rhabdochlaena (Data), 5. 

rhabdota (Ourapteryx), 116. 

Rhadinopsylla, 40, 157, 158, 162, 183. 

Rhanidopsis, 259. 

Rhinoprora, 308. 

rhodogaster (Pyrrhura), 219. 

Rhodometra, 152, 242. 

Rhodoprasia, 86. 

Rhodostethia, 275. 

Rhynchobapta, 324. 

ribeata (Alcis), 330. 

rimosa (Cleora), 328. 

Riparia, 91. 

riparia (Riparia), 91. 

riparius (Ceratophyllus), 91, 177. 

Risoba, 18. 

robinsoni (Alectura), 44. 

robustura (Biston), 326. 

rogersi (Coturnix), 47. 

rosea (Rhodostethia), 275. 

roseola (Polyptychus), 188. 

rosinae (Leipoa), 44. 

rossii (Lorus), 275. 

rothschildi (Astrapia), 208. 

— (Chrysocraspeda), 256. 

— (Droraiceius), 42, 

— (Gnophos), 145, 243. 

— (Lampribis), 80. 

— (Psammornis), 196. 

— (Sericulus), 57. 
Rowettia, 270, 271. 
Rubecola, 272. 

ruber (Sphyrapicus), 90. 
rubi (Callophrys), 237. 
rubidicollis (Picus), 273. 
rubiginata (Plemyria), 151. 
rudolphi (Paradisaea), 209. 
rufescens (Eupithecia), 306. 
rufescentaria (Zethenia), 320. 
ruficapillus (Charadrius), 215. 
ruficostata (Sterrha), 232. 
rufidorsata (Collix), 66. 
runatus (Ceratophyllus), 163. 
rupestris (Ceratophyllus), 32. 
ruris (Ctenophthalnms), 180. 



raggiana (Paradisaea), 209. 
rarasayi (Cyanops), 273. 
— (Megalaema), 273. 
rara (Lampribis), 81. 
Rattus, 164, 174. 
recompta (Calothysanis), 297. 
reetitcrmen (Ortliocraspis), 21. 
regma (Eumera), 152. 
relegata (Operophtera), 309. 
remissa (Sterrha), 300. 



Sabaria, 113. 

sacraria Rhodometra), 152, 212. 

sanlilensis (Hydriomeua), 151. 

sanguinalis (Pyrausta), 234. 

Sarrotbzipus, 17. 

satura (Delias), 278. 

saturata (Catoria), 130. 

— (Syntaracta), 108. 

— (Xanthorhoe), 300. 
Satyrus, 223, 



35:! 



Sauris, 07, 126, 309. 
saxea (Perizoma), 301. 
Scardamia, 318. 
Scenopocetes, 55. 
Scenopoeete-s, 206. 
schawerdae (Chiasmia), 153. 
schisintus (Ceratophyllufl), 31. 
Schistostege, 151. 
schmitzi (Tyto), 96. 
Scionomia, 323. 
Soiuras, 175. 

ScopuJa, 231, 234, 298, 299. 
" Scoria," 152. 
scotica (Loxia), 270. 
scriptus fAnacerastcs), 249. 
scrophulariphila (Cucullia), 230. 
securifera (Trachea), 3. 
sedani (Chlamydera), 57. 
seebohmi (Charadrius), 213. 
segetum (Euxoa), 241. 
segnis (Leptopsylla), 177. 
Seiurus, 89, 91. 
Selenia, 319. 
Scleucides, 208. 
Selidosema, 137. 
selidosema (Zernyia). 146. 
. c emijubata (Diplurodes), 74. 
Semiothisa, 324, 325. 
seraiusta (Abraxas), 123. 
serrma (Earophila), 142. 
senclis (Hemerophila), 327. 
senniger (Litocerus), 244. 
separata (Dysauxes), 229. 
septa (Sauris), 67. 
seriaria (Naxa), 289. 

— (Psilonaxa), 289. 
sericea (Xandrames), 335. 
sericeipennis (Oxyambulyx), 85. 
Sericulus, 57, 207. 

Serraca, 331. 

serrata (Omphalophana), 242. 

serrator (Polyptychus), 188. 

Sesamia, 11. 

sexdentatus (Ceratophyllus), 30. 

Shannoni (Phalacropsylla), 38. 

Sialia, 89, 90, 92. 

sialis (Sialia), 89, 90, 92. 

Sideridis, 240. 

silanticwi (Oropsylla), 163. 

similis (Aplochlora), 109. 

— (Neopsylla), 175. 
simplex (Cediopsylla), 176. 

— (Compsoptera), 336. 
simplieiaria (Alcis), 329. 
simplicioi (Bapta), 314. 
Siona, 147, 152. 
Srnerinthus, 238. 
Somatina, 297. 



Sophia (Eupitheoia), 307. 
sordida (Boarmia), 331. 

— (Itame), 336. 

— (Oruza), 13. 
sororcula (Tyto), 99. 
Spaniocentra, 261. 
sparna (Elydna), 9. 
Spatula, 90. 

spatzi (Charadrius), 213. 
speculiaroides (Anas), 274. 
Sphyrapicus, 90. 
spillmanni (Cediopsylla), 268. 
Spilopera, 323. 
spilotaria (Boarmia), 140. 
spinicollis (Carphibis), 274. 

— (Ibis), 274. 
spinosaria (Aplasta), 150. 
splendens (Xinodes), 316. 
sponsaria (Hipparchus), 291. 
spurrelli (Polyptychus), 188. 
squamata (Aplasta), 150. 
steganioides (Pylargosceles), 297. 
Steganopus, 90. 
Steirophora, 126. 

stejnegeri (Ceratophyllus), 36. 

Steuia, 233. 

stenoplia (Collix), 67. 

Stenoponia, 176. 

stephaniae (Astrapia), 208. 

Stercorarius, 275. 

Sterrha, 142, 152, 231, 232, 242, 299, 300. 

Sterrhopterix, 230. 

stertens (Tyto), 98. 

stictica (Strix), 101. 

stigmatisata (Comibaena), 150. 

stilbalis (Argyrolepidea), 287. 

stipitaria (Cusiala), 332. 

stirlingi (Turnix), 45. 

stonei (Aeluroedus), 206. 

stratata (Horisme), 306. 

stratonice (Cystidia), 313. 

striata (Neopsylla), 175. 

striatus (Tamias), 92, 175. 

striolata (Thinopteryx), 322. 

Strix, 93-104, 274. 

Struthio, 194-196. 

stulta (Heteroloeha), 323. 

Sturnus, 270. 

subalbata (Catoria), 138. 

subalter (Manucodia), 210. 

subcandidata (Scopula), 298. 

subfasciatus (Anacerastes), 249. 

subguttata (Chlamydera), 57. 

subicterata (Eupitheoia), 306. 

sublavaria (Boarmia), 134, 140. 

— (Catoria), 139, 140. 
submiuuta (Turnix), 45. 
subnata (Catoria), 140. 



353 



subniger (Coroorax), 54. 
subnotata (Bapta), 315. 
subspersata (Xyloscia), 320. 
substrigilis (Oxyambulyx), 61. 
subvia (Carea), 19. 
sumbaensis (Tyto), 99. 
sungaris (Ccratophyllua), 155, 160. 
auperaiia (Buzura), 327. 

— (Problepsis), 298. 

— (Terpna), 290. 
supcrciliata (Scopula), 299. 
supergressa (Epirrhoe), 305. 
superior (Scopula), 299. 
superstes (Athetis), 240. 
sychnospilaa (Culcula), 313. 
Sylvia, 271. 

Syneda, 231. 

Synegia, 75, 317. 

Synoicua, 47. 

Syntaracta, 75, 108, 109. 

Synthymia, 230. 

Syrichthus, 228. 

systaltus (Ceratophyllus), 35. 

Tachyeres, 274. 

taeniatus (Gulamentus), 245. 

tahavuana (Hyatrichopsylla), 173, 177. 

Tamiaa, 92, 175. 

tamsi (Agrotis), 1. 

— (Catoria), 73, 138. 
Tanaorhinua, 291. 
Tarache, 231. 
Tarucua, 226. 
tasmanicua (Corvus), 54. 
tattina (Oxyambulyx), 62. 
tegulata (Trilophonota), 14. 
Telenomeuta, 305. 

tella (Boarmia), 119. 
Telmatodytes, 92. 
temerata (Bapta), 315. 
tenax (Catoria), 140. 
tendinosaria (Phthonosema), 328. 
tenebroaa (Stenia), 233. 
tenella (Rhadinopsylla), 158. 
tenellua (Charadrius), 214. 
tenera (Erycinidia), 281. 
tenuipilis (Anacerastea), 247, 249. 
tenuiroatria (Charadrius), 215. 
tenuis (Alsophila), 289. 
Tephrina, 336. 
terea (Ischnopsyllus), 184. 
Terpna, 262, 290. 
terranea (Nothopteryx), 309. 
terroaa (Hypephyra), 317. 
tertia (Syntaracta), 109. 
testaceata (Hydrelia), 152. 
testaria (Amygdaloptera), 232. 
testor (Neopsylla). 177. 



tctralunaria (Selenia), 319. 
Tetrao, 276. 

tetrica (Arichanna), 312. 
Thalassodea, 258. 
thambua (Ceratophyllus), 36. 
thaumas (Adopaea), 227. 
themeropis (Eoia), 257. 
theoplirastua (Tarucus), 226. 
Thera, 304. 
Tliiuopteryx, 322. 
thomensis (Tyto), 98. 
Thryomanes, 91. 
tibiale (Baptria), 306. 
tigrinua (Mecocerua), 248. 
timorenais (Catoria), 135. 
Tinea, 233, 234. 
tingitana (Pyropteron), 230. 
tormenti (Charadrius), 215. 
torquatus (Pedionomus), 46. 
tortuosa (Chloroclystia), 129. 
Trachea, 2^4. 

transiens (Scliistostege), 151. 
triangulata (Athetis), 8. 
Trichoglossus, 273. 
Trichopaylla, 176. 
Trichopterigia, 309. 
tricolor (Steganopua), 90. 
trifarius (Xenopaylla), 250, 251. 
trifasciata (Aplaata), 150. 
Trigonoptila, 325. 
Trilophonota, 14. 
tripunctaria (Eupithecia), 307. 
trisellis (Myodopsylla), 162. 
triaetata (Sterrha), 300. 
Triatophis, 322. 
Trogatha, 13. 
Troglodytes, 89, 91, 272 
trux (Euxoa), 241. 
tuidara (Tyto), 101. 
tumulus (Megapodius), 43. 
turbata (Angerona), 148, 321. 
Turdua, 272. 
Turnix, 44-46. 
tytha (Callopistria), 5. 
tytleri (Rubecola), 272. 
Tyto, 93-104. 

umbrifera (Coenotephria), 301. 
umbrina (Niphonissa), 117. 
umbrosaria (Ecliptopera), 302. 
una (Zeuctocleora), 72. 
unduliferaria (Euphyia). 301. 
ungemachi (Zygaena), 229. 
unistirpis (Laciniodes), 310. 
Uresphita, 233. 
urosticta (lodis), 295. 
usauriaria (Diplodesma), 294. 
usauriensis (Colotois), 320. 



354 



nstnlata (Hyloehichla), 92. 
Utetheisa, 229. 

valida (Hipparchus), 291. 
validus (Corvus), 51. 
vallata (Hipparchus), 291. 
vapulata (Tephrina), 336. 
varia (Turnix), 45. 
variata (Hyperstrotia), 15. 
variegatus (Anacerastes), 249. 
varius (Anacerastes), 247, 249. 
velata (Geothlypis), 271. 

— (Sylvia), 271. 
velutinaria (Cleora), 135. 
veneris (Tristrophis), 322. 
veneta (Hemistola), 294. 
Venilia, 153. 

Venusia, 311. 
verbasci (Cucullia), 241. 
verberata (Larentia), 151. 
Vermivora, 91. 
vernans (Catoria), 137. 
vernifera (Psaliodes), 65. 
vesperalis (Ceratophyllus), 28. 
victoriae (Exealfactoria), 48. 

— (Ptilorhis), 208. 
vinogradovi (Amphipsylla), 161. 
vinotincta (Turnix), 46 

violaceus (Ptilonorhynchus), 55, 205. 

Vireo, 271. 

virescens (Dindica), 290. 

virgata (Ptochophyle), 254. 

virgatus (Gulamentus), 245. 

viridaria (Boarmia), 137. 

viridis (Acluroedus), 205. 

— (Selidosema), 137. 



virilis (Ematurga), 153. 
vison (Ceratophyllus), 35, 170, 176. 
vitellina (Sideridis), 240. 
volitans (Trichopterigia), 309. 

wagneri (Ceratophyllus), 35. 

— (Frontopsylla), 163. 
walleri (Tyto), 103. 
wenraanni (Ctenophthalmus), 175. 

— (Neopsylla), 172, 177. 
whiteae (Corcorax), 54. 
whitelyi (Calleulype), 303. 
wickhami (Ceratophyllus), 176. 
wilemani (Problepsis), 255. 
Wilemania, 326. 

wilsoni (Catharacta), 275. 
woodwardi (Dromiceius), 42. 

— (Eudyptula), 43. 

Xandrames, 335. 
Xanthorhoe, 300. 
Xenopsylla, 176, 250, 251. 
Xyloscia, 320. 

yorki (Phonygammus), 58. 
youngi (Cleophana), 242. 

Zamacra, 326. 

Zapus, 174. 

Zernyia, 146, 147. 

Zethenia, 320. 

zetlandicus (Troglodytes), 272. 

Zeuctocleora, 72. 

zoota (Hypochrocis), 114. 

zuleima (Zygaena), 238. 

Zygaena, 228, 229, 238, 239. 



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