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Full text of "The novitiate; or, a year among the English Jesuits: a personal narrative with an essay on the constitutions, the confessional morality, and history of the Jesuits / by Andrew Steinmetz"

THE NOVITIATE; 



OB, 



A TEAE AMONG THE ENGLISH JESUITS. 



THE NOVITIATE; 



OR, 



A YEAR AMONG THE ENGLISH JESUITS; 

A PERSONAL NARRATIVE. 

WITH 

AN ESSAY ON THE CONSTITUTIONS, 

Cfje Confessional iHoi-alitg, anH i^istorg oC tf^t Jfesuits. 



BY ANDEEW STEINMETZ. 



" Nor aught so good, but strain'd from that fair use. 
Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse 1" 

Romeo and Juliet, Act. II. Scene III. 



LONDON: 
SMITH, ELDER AND CO., 65, CORNHILL. 

1846. 



i3y 



London : 
Printed by Stewart and Mubbat, 
MAY - 5 1988 01^ Bailoy. 



BOSTOH COllEM UBRAfflf 

CHESTr4UI fcULt AAA 02167 



PREFACE. 



A TRUNCATED biography, like a cone in the same 
condition, seems to require some account of the 
eliminated section. The author must disclose so 
much of his previous history, as will be necessary to 
enable the reader to comprehend, and duly to appre- 
ciate, the events that must, to a great extent, be 
intimately connected with the former. 

The past, the present, and the future in the life of 
man, are three inteijections in one and the same 
sentence : and the reader whose heart can s^-mpathise 
with the feeling indicated by the first, will respond, 
like the vibration of the musical string, to the sigh 
that saddens the second in the dirge of life. 

I was born in an island situated between the 
tropics — a Swedish colony. My parents were of 
German and French origin : at the time of my birth, 
and long after, they were sufficiently wealthy. 



VI PREFACE. 

Mj father was a *' liberal " Protestant, my mother 
not a '* bigoted" CathoHc : still, of six children five 
were devoted to the baptism of Rome, and only one 
conceded to that of Luther. 

To my seventh year, I was permitted to grow in 
health and strength, unmolested by study of any 
kind. Scorched and tanned by the vertical fierce sun 
of the tropics ; battling ever and anon with the wild 
waves, and borne on their crests as they lashed the 
rocks of our sea-girt isle — with hook and line, seated 
on some solitary boulder, the waves breaking around 
— or with my father sailing in our pleasure-boat far 
out to sea, on that ocean which I had so often to 
cross in after life — or engaged in some handy-work at 
home, learning to use every mechanical tool — for my 
father prided himself in being able to work at every 
trade, self-taught : such was my childhood. 

In my tenth year I lost my father. In my twelfth 
my mother took me from school, and consigned me 
to the care of a priest to prepare me for my first 
communion ; or as she said, " to break me in." The 
dogmas of the faith were then imparted to me for the 
first time. The seeds of religion sank deep in the 
virgin soil — I embraced the faith with rapture — went 
to confession every week, and to communion every 
fortnight. Such was the result of two months, 
excluswehj dedicated to the study of religion in the 
house of the priest. With religious fervour came 



PREFACE. Vll 

zeal for the conversion of heretics. I studied contro- 
versy. In my twelfth year I strove to propagate the 
faith. I attacked the forlorn hope of my father's re- 
ligion — my elder sister; and she was converted to 
the faith of Rome. I often think of the day when 
she surrendered to me her poor Common-Prayer Book 
to be transferred to the priest, at his request — then to 
be consigned emendaturis ignibus, to the cleansing 
fires ! 

My mother destined me for the medical profession : 
I studied it two years, vowing myself, meanwhile, to 
the priesthood. I obtained her consent, at length, 
and was sent to England. At St. Cuthbert's Col- 
lege, commonly called Ushaw, near Durham, I re- 
mained rather more than five years. 

Within the first year after my arrival, I lost my 
mother: and then my night of bitterness began — 
every letter I received from my home gave a pang! By 
intense application to study, and increased devotional 
fervour, I strove to forget the fate that impended. 

I was now a poor student on the funds of the 
college — pledged to the priesthood. Tolerable suc- 
cess in my studies tended to soothe the pangs of 
pride in humiliation. 

Controversy continued to be my favourite study. 
It cost me " the faith." I argued myself into doubts. 

By my nineteenth year I had read more than the 
course of studies required, or allowed, in classic and 



Vlll PREFACE. 

general literature ; in natural and moral philosophy : 
for I have never lost a day in idleness of mind since 
the hour when I first went to school, in my seventh 
year. 

iVbout this period a hope flashed on my mind, that 
I might be able, by returning to the world, to re- 
trieve the fortunes of my family. This hope sounded 
a truce to my temptations against the faith, from 
which I longed to escape by a life of action ; and I 
resolved to resign the certainties of the priesthood 
for the hopes of my dreams. 

The reader is now in possession of all the informa- 
tion he requires, concerning my previous history. 

In the Narrative that follows, he will find the 
next stage of my journey, — 

" While still pursuing, still unblest, 
I wander on, nor dare to rest !" 



Andrew Steinmetz. 



Fakeiiham, Norfolk. 
Feb. 1846. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER 1. 

Page 
luuoduction ......... I 

CHAPTER II. 
The Inspiration, and Reception at Stonjhurst ... 8 

CHAPTER III. 
Impressions ......... 16 

CHAPTER IV. 
Admission to the Novitiate ...... 25 

CHAPTER V. 

The Tliree Houses : Ways and Means : Silent Influences 

— Progress 32 

a 



CONTENTS. 
CHAPTER v.* 



Page 
Elessinsr ......... 49 



The Retreat — Doubts and Waverinsr — The Investment and 



o 



CHAPTER VI. 
The Novice — A Contemplation — Results .... 78 

CHAPTER VII. 
A Buy's Occupation 91 

CHAPTER Vlir. 
Cui Bono, or What's the Good of it? . . . .117 

CHAPTER IX. 

Ecoiiornics of" the Novitiate — The Master, jMinister, 

Monitors 135 

CHAPTER X. 

Gan.es — Recreation — Missionary Duties . . . 166 

CHAPTER XI. 
EiFtcts of the Tjainiog •,•..., 182 

CHAPTER Xtl. 
The Feast of Ignatius .,©,,,. 191 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Dryness — Remarkable Cure — Ojiinions . . . .217 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



CHAPTER XIY. 

A'isits from Friends — Letters — Festivities — Strangers' 
Retreats ......•• 



Page 



. 229 



CHAPTER XV. 

Mortifications — Reprimands — Briefs — The Chapter — 

Manifestation ......•• 238 



CHAPTER XVI. 
The Chain— the Discipline, Fasting, &;c 248 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Reflections — The Superior's Retreat— A General Order 



-A Pang 



. 259 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Interview with the Provincial— Les Adieus— A Blessing 
and a Prayer — The Departure . . . . . 



266 



An Essay on the Constitution's, the Confessional Morality, 
AND History of the Jesuits 



Introduction ...... 

Ignatius of Loyola — The Society — Its Rise 
The Society — Its Constitutions — Progress 
The Societ}' — Its Decline and Fall . 
The Society — Its Present State 
The Jesuits in England 



. 275 

. 278 

. 287 

. 337 

. 367 

. 368 



THE NOVITIATE. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. # 

The following narrative is an autobiography; with 
this distinction, that it is only the history of one year 
of my life — only twelve months : but a year of pecu- 
liar interest in a man's life, it must be allowed. Dur- 
ing that time of trial, what opportunities of self-exami- 
nation have I not had? In it I lived over aq-ain the 
past — I sought to anticipate the future. Separated 
from the world, from kindred, and friends — from all 
the ordinary pursuits and objects of life — from their 
anxieties, hopes, and fears — I gazed upon the world 
as a dispassionate observer, who was to mix in its 
concerns, perhaps take an active part in its manage- 
ment, without entertaining a thought of self, or 
having any individual interest to forward. I was 
trained in spirit as men are trained in body who 
have to struggle desperately for mastery, or to per- 

B 



jL introduction. 

form feats which seem impossible to ordinary mortals. 
The novice of the Society of Jesus has to pierce 
into his own mind, to examine the depths of his nature, 
to consider his affections, to feed (so to speak) on his 
own heart. lie has wrenched himself from father 
and mother, brother and sister, friends and connec- 
tions — in a word, from society, root and branch, in 
order to be reconstituted as an individual, according; 
to the plan and system laid down by Ignatius of 
Loyola. His battle has been with "nocturnal fear" 
and " the noon-day devil ;" he has wrestled with the 
angel ; he has gone through the fires of temptation ; 
and if he has not become a Jesuit, he can look back 
dispassionately on the process through which he has 
passed ; and, perhaps, instruct his fellow-creatures 
with the narrative of his experience, without indulg- 
ing any ill will towards those who permitted him to 
try their method. 

It is this that I purpose to do in these pages. 
My object is truth alone. I desire to exhibit the 
Jesuits and their course of instruction exactly as I 
found them and it. I have no motive for conceal- 
ment or exa2f2:eration. It has been usual to exhibit 
the men among whom for a time my lot was cast, as 
either angels or devils; I shall merely represent 
them as I, found them. I would rather that my 
statements should be accused of wanting interest than 
attempt to make them starthng by the insertion of 
fictitious details. I leave others to furnish materials 
for romance. My aim is less to amuse the idle, than 
to afford information to those serious and earnest 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

minds, who, surveying the rapid growth and expan- 
sion of Jesuit power, ask whether the movement is 
for good or for evil — who would fain know something 
authentic of the training, organization, and govern- 
ment of that tremendous Society, which once enacted 
so great a part in the history of the world, and now 
again appearing on the scene, changed to suit the 
changes of the world — adapted to its new wants, 
wishes, conditions, trials, and temptations — aims once 
more to obtain supremacy over the mind and actions 
of mankind. 

At the same time, I trust that there is no breach 
of confidence in divulo^ino- the doino^s of the Novi- 
tiate; since the object of all the discipline of train- 
ing-houses of every description being honest and 
honourable, there can be no rational objection to the 
means being known to all the world. No promise 
was exacted from me to that effect ; therefore, it 
is to be presumed, the reverend fathers were not 
ashamed of anything that took place in the Novitiate 
— at least, I hope not. 

Since I left the Novitiate, I have often spoken of 
my experience to my friends, and, as they have been 
interested with my recital, I have imagined that a 
narrative of my spiritual training and progress, under 
the influence of the famous ^'Exercises" of Ignatius, 
may be instructive at this time, when pious people 
seem to be convulsed all over the world — yearning- 
after change, desirous of novelty, uncertain what to 
do with their souls. Let them not fancy that the 
Jesuits will be inactive spectators of any movement 

B 2 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

that takes place in the religious or political constitu- 
tions of the world. They are spread abroad over the 
earth ; they are mixing in all societies ; they have 
their institutions in the midst of the most crowded 
marts of life. People must not imagine that the 
** Wandering Jew" has demolished the Society 
more effectually than the •' Provincial Letters" of 
old ; and still less must they opine that the severe 
measures against the Jesuits in France have mate- 
rially damaged the "cause" — far from it: the hydra 
will put forth more heads than have been lopped off; 
and, what is more, I will venture to predict that the 
secret machinations of the redoubtable conspirators 
will, before very long, be found to have given them a 
pretty solid foundation even in this country, the bul- 
wark of Protestantism. The Jesuits are tough 
fellows ; every man amongst them has all the strong 
motives for action, which give force, energy, intention 
to the whole body, and the whole body moves as one 
man. To my mind the Jesuits, or rather Loyola, 
has devised a system which gives to his sons all the 
properties which the Creator has given to *' matter:" 
that is, the true Jesuit has mobility, divisibility, 
malleability, compressibility, tenacity, elasticity, and 
porosity. It is to all these mental qualities of these 
wonderful workers that we must ascribe their signal 
triumphs in every quarter of the globe, and their 
greatness even in defeat and desolation. They have 
such fascination that their deadliest enemies have, in 
the moment of their extreme peril, declared them- 
selves their ^'friends indeed." Witness the conduct 



INTRODUCTION. 6 

of the Russian cabinet at the time of their suppres- 
sion : the very power which had pertinaciously re- 
sisted and proscribed their attempts, received them 
with open arms when rejected, even from the paternal 
bosom of the ^' Holv Father," who disowned his best 
supporters ! It is no wonder that these men look 
upon themselves as the objects of special Provi- 
dence, and walk forward, muffled in portentous 
gloom, to the grand consummation which they still 
believe will make amends for their past humiliation. 
But that gloom is a blind only to their enemies: there 
is a beacon-light in their van, — they fancy, at least, 
that they see it, and they march on confident of 
victory. 

I confess that I cannot refrain from admirinor the 
unflinching tenacity of these men. To the philo- 
sopher there can be but one opinion with regard to 
their practices, doctrines, and morality; but putting 
these questions aside, I propose to show them forth 
in a psychological and social point of view : how they 
twist and vvreneh, and bend and dove-tail poor 
humanity to serve their purposes, that is: '* For the 
greater glory of God^^ — the standing motto, as every 
one knows, of the Jesuits. 

Bold or submissive — firm as a rock, or pliant as a 
willow — the Jesuit must know his *' time for alt 
things" — when a virtue must be possessed or feigned, 
or a vice be absent or dissembled. Thus without, he 
is a Proteus of wonderful versatility — within, always 
and for ever the same — man of obedience — fashioned 



b INTRODUCTION. 

and trained in heart and mind strongly to will, and 
promptly to act — and yet, if it] should seem more 
expedient, content to bide his time ! He has had 
certain principles of action drilled into him over and 
over again ; he has been made to acquire a perfect 
mastery over himself; he has been set to study him- 
self before the mirror of perpetual self-examination; 
he has been humbled to the very dust in ten thou- 
sand trials, in all which he has stood firm to the test ; 
he has been " inspired" with the belief — as firm as 
his belief in God — that obedience to his superior 
can never be wrong; he has been impressed with the 
conviction that he has no tie on earth or in society, 
but to his order: something more than a nominis 
umbra — indeed, its very name is guaranteed immor- 
tality, by the exalted source of its derivation ! 

Again, the Jesuit is 2l picked man. No one will be 
admitted into the Novitiate, who is the least de- 
formed ; he must be guiltless of any public or noto- 
rious crime ; he should be born in lawful wedlock. 
He must have talent of some kind : rather more than 
average abilities. For the rest, it will be shown 
hereinafter, what care they take to teach the novice 
the useful art of '* behaving himself in company." 
Talk of ^' Hints on Etiquette V The Jesuits can 
show you a huge folio on the subject, written for the 
study of the novices by one of their own Society ; 
which, as all the world knows, can boast of writers 
on every subject from the most trivial to the most 
important. 



INTRODUCTION. 



I shall have occasion to speak of the origin 
and progress of this Society, but I have first to 
narrate the commencement of my personal connection 
with it. 



8 



CHAPTER II. 

THE INSPIRATION^ AND RECEPTION AT STONYHURST. 

I SHALL never forget the glow of enthusiasm that 
sent the blood rushing through my heart when 
I first conceived the idea of becoming a Jesuit. 

It was in London — in Fleet-street. I can point 
out the very stone of the pavement on which I stood 
at that eventful moment. Hardly an instant was 
given for consideration. The idea took complete 
possession of my mind, and I believed it to be an 
inspiration. I turned on my heel, wended my way 

to street, knocked, was admitted, and stood in 

the presence of a — Jesuit, for the first time in my 
life. 

My resolve, though' it assumed the character of 
religious enthusiasm, was not, I must confess, wholly 
free from worldly feelings. My position at that time 
may be stated in the very words which I addressed 
to the agent of the Jesuits. I was in a strange land, 
disappointed in all my hopes, friendless, despairing; 
and — with every reason, as I thought, to be so — dis- 



THE INSPIRATION. V 

gusted with the world — ay, disgusted with this beau- 
tiful world, which offers an equal share of bliss to 
all, if we would only learn to adapt our minds to the 
state in which we find ourselves, and would fall back, 
in the very midst of the worst destiny, on the sooth- 
ing, and, I may say, proud conviction, that because 
we are permitted to live, therefore are we the fa- 
voured retainers of a beneficent Providence, which 
has some work for us to do. 

The reverend gentleman listened to ray animated 
address apparently with interest. When I con- 
cluded, he put several questions to me respecting my 
former life, the place where I was educated, and 
finished with assuring me that, if I could get testi- 
monials of my good conduct from the president of 
the college in which I had been brought up, there 
was every probability of my being received into the 
Novitiate. In the mean time he advised me to go 
to the library of the British Museum and read the 
*' Constitutions of the Society." He promised me 
that he would write to the Provincial on the subject, 
but said that some time would elapse before a final 
answer would be given. " Still," he added, " you 
may hope for the best." 

If my enthusiasm was great before I entered the 
house, it was transcendent when I left ! Despair 
was changed into hope ! I looked up to Heaven, 
and breathed a fervent prayer of thanksgiving. I 
blessed the misfortunes that had hurled me into 
poverty, apparently but to lead me to the destiny 
which was appointed for me by Heaven. 



10 THE II^SPIRATION, AND 

It is singular how great a change was wrought in 
my feelings by this brief interview with the reverend 
father. His hopeful words, acting on my mind 
then excited to the highest pitch of religious enthu- 
siasm, made me believe myself under the especial 
guidance of Providence : this belief affected the 
course of my conduct, and made even trivial cir- 
cumstances appear to me direct interpositions of 
Heaven. 

I was aware that I could not enter the library 
of the Museum without a recommendation ; but I did 
not hesitate to enter boldly, search the catalogues, 
and write for the book I wanted. I was now in the 
hands of Providence ; and the barriers of human 
will, against such a motive, were as nought. One 
must have felt this species of enthusiasm to compre- 
hend it in its fullest extent. 

I was not disappointed. The book was brought 
to me without a question. I considered this trivial 
incident as another Divine interposition. I read 
with avidity the pages which were to me a new 
Gospel or ^* good tidings" of the happy vocation to 
which I was called : nay, as I conceived, pj^edesiined ; 
for I now clearly discovered that every circumstance 
of my life was but a link of the celestial chain that 
extended from my birth to the bosom of Ignatius ! 

Week after week I called on the agent, but no 
answer had been sent. My visits were short, but 
still long enough for scrutinising questions as to ray 
" vocation." I stood the test — my enthusiasm had 
increased, not diminished. Though, strange to say. 



RECEPTION AT STONYHURST. 11 

I had read every book that had been written against 
the Jesuits, and saw reason to believe many of the 
charges, still I set them all aside with this sincere 
exclamation : ** Wliatever they have been, or are, 
Heaven calls me to this Society. I, at least, will be 
an honest Jesuit!" 

At length an answer came — I was accepted ! 

''Thank God!" said I to the agent, *Uhen I have 
not lived in vain 1" 

But, medio defonte leporum — surgit amari aliquid ; 
I was in debt for my lodgings ! When aware of my 
circumstances, the agent gave me the requisite sum 
of money — thus, thought I, Heaven has repurchased 
my body as it liad my soul ! I was affected to tears 
by my emotion, and by the mark of confidence and 
regard which was given me on the threshold of my 
IS'ovitiate. 

In the month of February, 1838, I left London 
for Stonyhurst. — the world for religion — myself for 
" the phantom of hope !" 

On reaching Liverpool, my first visit was to a 
priest who had been my master of elocution at 
college. With this kind gentleman I spent a plea- 
sant day. My fervour was increased by his religious 
and philosophical conversation. 

On the following day, I set out once more for 
Stonyhurst — my first stage being to Blackburn. I 
arrived at Blackburn in the afternoon; and, not 
having money enough to pay for a conveyance, 
I left my trunk, and set out on foot for the college, 
ten or twelve miles distant. It was a brilliant frosty 



12 THE INSPIRATION, AND 

night of February. The silent stars looked down on 
my pilgrimage as the eyes of approving Heaven. 
Oh ! wliat a future seemed opening before me ! I 
felt as Ignatius must have felt when he set forth 
to dedicate his body and soul to '^ our Lady of 
Montserrat ;" but I regretted that I had no arms to 
hang up on her altar as trophies of the *' Queen of 
Heaven."* 

Accustomed to long walks from one end of Lon- 
don to the other, I felt my strength redoubled by the 
hopes whose first earnest of fulfilment was now in 
my grasp — my admission to the Novitiate ! 

Mile after mile on the frost-flinty road I mea- 
sured — my thoughts far away in the brilliant future. 

In spite of my inquiries at the few cottages I 
passed, I missed my way twice — till at last the 
towers of the ancient mansion cast their lengthened 
shadows towards me, as the moon, declining to the 
west, lavished upon their aged heads that inspiring- 
light in which " ruined battlement and tower" seem 
to dream of '' other days" — seem to meditate their 
history, pensively, sadly, as one whose regrets awake 
no kindred feeling of pity or of love. 

I knocked, w^as admitted, and led to a parlour, 
where I did not wait many minutes before one of 
the Fathers made his appearance. He was the 
rector of the college at that time — a man of mild, 
bland features, and tender expression. He has since 
then been sent forth to the vineyard, and has had 
the gratification, as 1 have been informed, to *' re- 

* BouHOURs — La Vie de St. Ignace, liv. i. 



RECEPTION AT STONYHURST. 13 

ceive into the church" more than one, or two, or 
three of the Tractarian harvest 

I was received with welcome, and congratulated 
on my zeal which had not grudged a walk of twelve 
miles in the holy cause. " Welcome to the Society of 
Jesus !" said the gentleman just alluded to, cordially 
grasping my hand — and his kind manner compen- 
sated for the uncouth bluntness of another Jesuit 
who came in shortly after. 

A good supper was kindly prepared for me ; and 
after a short conversation — for the Fathers commise- 
rated my long walk — I was shown to my room — to 
sleep and dream of my happy lot! 

On the following day, which was Sunday, I 
" offered up the mass" in thanksgiving for the glo- 
rious vocation which was vouchsafed unto me ; never 
doubting that I had at length found the destiny to 
which I was born, and had only *' to go forth and 
conquer." 

On the Monday I was formally enrolled : my 
name, age, &c., being recorded in the book kept for 
that purpose. After the lapse of two days, which I 
spent very agreeably with the reverend fathers, I 
was told that my room was ready to receive me at 
the Novitiate, and that the " Father of the Novices'* 
would be glad to see me as soon as possible. I 
must state that I had passed much of my time since 
my arrival with different '^ Fat?iers," whose care was 
to prepare my mind for my future life in the Novi- 
tiate, and to observe my character j according to the 
custom of the Jesuits. 



14 THE INSPIRATION, AND 

The *' Constitutions" require twelve or twenty days, 
and even a longer period, as the Superior may think 
fit, to be spent by the future novice in this preli- 
minary probation. Formerly a separate part of the 
establishments was consecrated to this ordeal. No 
intercourse was permitted with any one not deputed 
by the Superior, and those who had the candidate 
in charge were to instruct him in those concerns of 
the Society which he might safely know ; whilst by 
the same intercourse the Society would become 
more fully cognisant of his character "in our Lord."^ 
This is a convenient set-phrase which may be called the 
talisman of Ignatius ; for almost every page of the 
*' Constitutions" iterates it with such seeming so- 
lemnity, that one is well nigh apt to believe that 
the '* Constitutions" are one thing, and the Jesuits 
another — a belief to which I admit my inclination. 

Notwithstandino; the rule of the *^ Constitutions" 
just given, I was not kept longer than three days as 
a " guest :" very few questions were put to me. I 
could gain but little information concerning the 
Society from my companions; so that although my 
time passed, so to speak, very agreeably, I was not 
sorry when I received the order to start for the Novi- 
tiate. 

I think I am fully justified in saying, in the 
introduction, that the Order is changed to suit the 
chano;es of society : perhaps the sequel will further 
attest this judgment. The changes may be small, 
but they show a clever adaptability to meet the re- 

* Const, Part i. cap, 4. et Decl. A. Part i. 



RECEPTION AT STONYHURST. 15 

quirements of the age. If the Jesuit owes his youth 
to the spirit of the ** Constitutions," he has to thank 
the obloquy of fame, the design of his order, his 
segregation from humanity, for his manhood — that 
manhood which no honest man envies in the mind of 
him whose greatness stoops to craft — whose virtue 
dalhes with vice — whose gifts to humanity are bribes 
to the frivolous, and whose religion, if it is not the ad- 
vancement, the aggrandizement of his order, is cer- 
tainly the lever which is made to work to that un- 
conquerable lust of his burning heart — that advance- 
ment, that aggrandizement of his order ! 



16 



CHAPTER III. 



IMPRESSIONS. 



The impression made on my mind by the '' Fathers" 
of the Society, at my first interview and in subse- 
quent conversations, was by no means such as I had 
expected to receive from the sons of Ignatius. Bona- 
parte said, *^Qu'il nefautjamaisse fairede tableaux;" 
but I am a physiognomist : I love a fine face, and still 
more a fine head. Aware of what the '* Constitutions" 
require on that score, I was disappointed with the 
specimens of Jesuits who had me in charge for the few 
days before I went to Hodder-house. I had pictured 
them to myself as keen-eyed, quick, and intellectual : 
I found them generally the reverse. This may, per- 
haps, be accounted for by the fact (which should be 
known), that the Jesuits in England send out their 
best men to work " in the vineyard ;" apparently con- 
scious that, if the out-posts be well defended, the inner 
fortress must be secure. The agent in London and 
the Provincial were thus exceptions. The former, 
from the very first interview, seemed to me a some- 
thing of former days : there was that in his flashing 



IMPRESSIONS. -: 17 

J- 

eye, massive brows, and dark features, which told a 
history to come that might be not unhke the past. 
He was a man of few words, and spoke without " su- 
perlatives,'' according to the practice of Ignatius."^ He 
seemed to me a man of strong passions, and yet emi- 
nently prudent. His glance was vivid, but it did not 
centre in my eyes : it fell somewhere below the eye- 
lids. I never enjoyed that pleasure, to me most gra- 
tifying, of mingling glance with glance in the heart's 
uprightness. His exterior, though rather portly, was 
imposing from its altitude; and he sat like one whose 
mind is never idle, and whose portrait, if taken by a 
hundred different pencils, would still present in each 
the same expression — like that of Dr. Johnson, or 
Napoleon. 

Of his acquirements I was mi able to judge, my 
visits being very short — shorter than I wished. Of his 
natural endowments I am perfectly convinced : he has 
tact, energy, and penetration. His extreme caution 
was exhibited in the fact, that he positively refused to 
apply for an introduction to the library of the Museum 
for me : *' he did not wish to come forward." I asked 
him to lend me the " Constitutions ;" this, he said, he 
was not allowed to do.f Hence my successful attempt 
to " dispense" with the regulations of the library — an 
attempt which would be very difficult in the present 
organization of the reading-room. 

A curious incident, which I will now relate, may 
enable the reader to appreciate, according to its true 

* Bouhours, La Vie de St. Ignace, liv. vi. 
t According to Rule xxxviii. 

G 



18 IMPRESSIONS. 

standard value, much of the Jesuit-discipHne to be 
detailed in the sequel : — 

At the agent's request I wrote for testimonials to St. 
Cuthbert's college, stating to the president my intention 
of joining the society. I forgot to give my address in 
the letter; and not having received the reply on the 
expected day, I went to the agent to tell him of my 
disappointment. On being admitted, he pointed to a 
letter on the mantelpiece ; I opened it and found that 
it was the president's letter. I read it off to the Jesuit : 
it began with stating why it was sent to the agent's 
well-known address, viz., on account of my omission ; 
and proceeded to testify that, in the absence of any 
moral fault, I had given indications of considerable 
mental extravagance, impatience to discipline, &c. ; 
and he left it to the agent to decide whether my sub- 
sequent trials in the world had sobered my mind to 
the requisite submission. 

Having read the letter aloud, I handed it to my 
judge, saying, ^' Will this ^ character' do, sir?" 

" Certainly," said he ; '' these are not impediments : 
means will be given you in the Novitiate to conquer 
and govern your mind.""^ 

I should, perhaps, inform the reader that I had 
already presented my testimonials of success in my 
academical career at coUeoe. 

I often tried to gain his ideas on his profession ; but 
a very laconic answer, which referred me to the 

* This opinion was perfectly in accordance with the declar. b. 
Part i. cap. 3. Const. Sed quia accidere posset, aliquem hujusmodi 
defectum aliis praeclaris Dei donis compensari, &c. 



IMPRESSIONS. 19 

*' Constitutions," was all that I could ever get from 
him. I remember, on one occasion, I alluded to the 
charges made against the Society. '* What do they 
accuse us of?" said he, freezingly. I was rather star- 
tled by this apparent ignorance, and, in self-defence, 
stumbled on the Paraguay affair. " It is all false, 
sir," said he, " from beginning to end ;" and he began 
to give me some spiritual advice. This is curious ; but 
the fact is, I believe, that the Jesuits are, for the most 
part, kept in total ignorance of their own history in 
general. A discretion is used in this matter, as in 
the permission to read the Scriptures generally among 
Roman Catholics; and only " the great and glorious 
deeds" of Holy Father Ignatius (as he is coWed, par 
excellence) of Father Xavier, Father Campion, Fa- 
ther Parsons, &c., are familiar to the uninitiated. I 
say uninitiated ; for the members of the society, like the 
wheels in a clock, have different stations, more or less 
removed from the main-spring; and it is only after a 
long and severe probation that the favoured members 
are admitted to the grand concerns of this mysterious 
body.* Even the spiritual books written by accredited 
Roman Catholic divines are not permitted to be read 

* Primum ne libellus iste (Compendium Privilegiorura) uspiam. 
rursus typis sine permissu nostro edatur. Deinde ut exemplaria, quae 
singulis Domibus et Collegiis distribui curavimus, ut Superiorum, et 
Consultonim usui prcecipiit inserviant: in suis quaeque Domibus, et 
Collegiis semper retineantur, nee inde ad alia loca asportentur. Pote- 
runt tamen cum facultate Provincialis commodato nostris ad ea perle- 
genda concedi — sic tamen, ut diligenter prius admoneantur, ne ea cir- 
cumferautur, neve ostendantur, et multb magis, ne dentur externis. 
Ordin. Prsep. Gen. c. xi. 

c 2 



20 IMPRESSIONS. 

without extreme caution. I need not state the fact, 
that no Jesuit is allowed to read a book without the 
permission of his superiors ;^ this is an all-important 
rule of the " Institute." 

Tlie Provincial I saw seldom, except at meals, dur- 
ing the few days in question ; and but very few words 
passed, otherv^^ise than professional, when he admitted 
me into the society. He seemed eminently a man of 
business, and one who knew the value of a flattering 
hint ; for when, on referring to the Jesuit calendar of 
remarkable sociif he observed the name of the one for 
that day — which, as chance would have it, was just the 
lialfo{ my o^n patronymic-^^ — he wished me joy of the 
good omen, and shook hands with gratifying emo- 
tion. I aftervy^ards met him in the Ts'ovitiate, when he 
spoke very feelingly on the downfall of the society. 

But, for the most part, I saw hw indications of 
talent, or even of extensive information, amongst the 
" Fathers" introduced to me. To one of them I put 
the question, ^' How it happened that, amongst so 
many clever men of the society, no triumphant answer 
was put forth to meet the ' Provincial Letters' of Pas- 
cal ?" " There was," said he ; *^ but Father Daniel's 
reply was heavy — it lacked the wit of Pascal." I ex- 
pected this answer, and dropped the subject. The 
same gentleman was, I remember, very anxious to 
prepare my mind to submit, as he said, to the Novi- 
tiate. One of his remarks I think worth recording. 
He said — " Sir, I am only anxious lest a mind, used 
to inquiry, should compel you to ask too frequently, 

* Reg-, viii. -f- Andrew Metz, a German. 



IMPRESSIONS. 21 

in the practices of the Novitiate, Cui bono ?" " But," 
said I, " the object — the end — how sublime! — to the 
greater glory of God ! Shall I not thus answer the 
rebellious cui bono of pride ?" 

I was sincere, and he exulted in my devotion to the 
sacred cause. 

Whilst passing through the library of the " semi- 
nary," I observed some works on geology; and upon 
my asking the " master" if he favoured a science so 
replete with strange inductions, he replied, ^' We must 
keep pace with the age; these are eventful times; we 
must be armed at all points." 

I must confess that, notwithstanding the kindness 
shown to me on all sides, my enthusiasm — nourished 
as it had been by the study of the " Constitutions" of 
the Society, and by preconceived ideas of Jesuit 
intellectuality and austerity, — suffered considerable 
diminution during the few days that I spent as " a 
guest" at the college, previously to my entrance on 
probation. It was not, perhaps, the fault of the Je- 
suits to whom 1 allude, that I found them less intel- 
lectual, less austere, than my ideal model; but it is 
in accordance with the promised scope of this narra- 
tive that I should signalise the minutest fact that can 
throw its reflected light on the system to which those 
men belong. In my intercourse with them, it was as- 
suredly their object to influence my mind so as to fall 
in with their views on every subject; — the conduct, 
the manners of each member, therefore, were to me 
the criterions of what the " training," which I was to 
underoo, had left in the Jesuits in question. From the 



22 IMPRESSIONS. 

impressions made on my mind by the " Constitutions," 
I expected to find extraordinary virtue ; from their 
history, I looked for extraordinary men : in both ex- 
pectations I was painfully disappointed. Few men 
could be more indulgent to poor human nature than 
I always have been, and am at the present time; but 
I was certainly *' scandalised" at hearing, on the 
Sunday after my arrival, a daily newspaper read, over 
*' our wine'' after dinner. I was unedified at the irre- 
pressible merriment of one of the fathers, when ridi- 
culing the manner and expression of some absent 
individual on whom the conversation turned. Had I 
found these Jesuits as austere as La-Trappists^ I 
should have been more at ease, with regard to my 
** vocation," than I was at finding them, in the matter 
and manner of their conversation, passable " men of 
the world." Indications of bodily '^ mortifications" 
were certainly invisible : the men alluded to were de- 
cidedly well-conditioned, evidencing that the good 
things and comforts of this world are not always *^ of 
none effect" on the bodies of those whose minds are 
systematically devoted " to the greater glory of God." 
Whether the phenomena alluded to were equivocal — 
in fact, whether there was a *' mental reservation" in 
what seemed of the world so worldly, — I will not un- 
dertake to decide. I state impressions : apparent incon- 
sistencies, which damped the ardour of my enthusiastic 
devotion. 

On the other hand, turning to my own individual 
tastes and habits, there was much to console me — 
there was much to flatter hope. I was to live among 



IMPUESSIONS. 23 

men whose very name has become a pass-word to lite- 
rature — men who considered intellectual eminence 
worthy of emulation, and had the means, by seques- 
tration from the world and by ample wealth, of en- 
couraging every talent and predilection to their great- 
est development : by determined exercise, rendered 
doubly efficient by the soul-satisfying motives of 
conscience — the greater glory of God — the good of 
religion — the exaltation of the sublimest hopes that 
can warm the heart or guide the pen. I saw around 
me all the traces of dignity in ease. The time- 
honoured walls of the old lordly mansion, now a hall 
of literary pursuits ; the land and tenements attached — 
in times of old exclusively appropriated to the sup- 
port of individual wealth — perhaps, of pride and sen- 
suality, — now sanctified, so to speak, by being heaven- 
destined to administer to the corporeal necessities of 
those who had left all things in order to feed the souls 
of men unto eternal life. Such were my reflections. 
Applying them to my own motives — ray own hopes, 
the sweetness at the heart which ensued easily in- 
duced me to overlook, to palliate, what seemed dis- 
cordant with the beautiful harmony which thus could 
unite in my imagination things human and divine : 
a harmony of all that is of heaven, heavenly \ with 
that only of earth which is rational and necessary — • 
and no more, 

I have now given the reader a faithful reflection of 
my mind and sentiments at the time in question; and 
I trust that all my subsequent conduct, as detailed in 
these pages, will be found consistent with this reflec- 



24 IMPRESSIONS. 

tion. If I misled myself in the desperate step which 
I took, it is in my power now to make amends by a 
conscientious account of my experience during the 
year that followed my admission into the Society of 
the Jesuits : or, as I then fervently called it, the So- 
ciety of Jesus. 



25 



CHAPTER IV. 

ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 

At length, accompanied by two or three members of 
the Society, I went to *' Hodder-house" — so the Novi- 
tiate is called. I was received at the door by the 
Father of the INTovices, who seized my hand with rap- 
ture, kissed it, and, leading me to the little chapel, 
knelt down, to offer, I suppose, a thanksgiving similar 
to mine of the previous Sunday. I was much affected 
by the fervour of this venerable-looking man : his 
hair grey with age, and his countenance furrowed 
by care or religious mortifications. I found him 
throughout a kind, simple man ; but was always at a 
loss to imagine the cause of a perpetual sadness which 
dimmed his features. 

A '' brother-novice" led me over the various parts 
of the house, and then I was introduced to all the 
novices, who were assembled in the *' recreation- 
room." 

All the novices wore long black cassocks, with 
a strip of the material of which they were made hang- 
ing down from the shoulders : to typify, I believe, the 



26 ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 

wings on which, by meditation, the soul soars to 
heaven. They had caps which seemed very much 
the worse for wear — a fact which was afterwards 
explained by another, viz., that for the sake of 
" mortification" the old clothes and cast-off habili- 
ments, &c., of the students at the college were 
consio;ned to the use of the novices. There was 
nothino-, however, in their countenances that indicated 
excessive austerity, or much success in the art of 
lookino; religious ; which, of course, is to be acquired 
only by practice : by a/ifer-practice, when the devout 
novice shall have been transformed into a devoted 
Jesuit, /actus ad unguenij fashioned to a nicety — 
according to the memorable pattern exhibited by 
Ignatius to his followers, namely, '^as soft wax in 
the hands of his superior, to take what form he 
pleases !" 

After this introduction, the novices left the room. 
I remained with the brother who had me in charge, 
and whose duty it was to apprise me of all the regula- 
tions of the establishment: the hours of rest and 
rising, the things that might and might not be done 
— in fine, he was to be my dictionary, my encyclo- 
pedia for the week, to be consulted on every emer- 
gency in my difficulties touching the " exact science" 
of probationary discipline. He was a little man, not 
very prepossessing in features, but nevertheless very 
obliging, and extremely attentive. I may observe here, 
by the way, that it was most unfortunate for my 
"vocation," as the result proved, that I could not 
harmonise with the men with whom I came into im- 



ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 27 

mediate contact : somehow or other, desideravere 
oculi quicqiddf my mind or my heart always found 
something wanting ; so that I was always, as it were, 
on a bed of thorns, even when in full devotional 
bloom. 

As the wintry evening had closed in, we remained 
at the fireside in the recreation-room, till the bell 
rang for supper. My companion then instantly 
rose, and rehearsed the Angelus; to which I responded 
as well as this sudden appeal to my religious memory 
(somewhat weakened by worldly pursuits) would 
allow, and then accompanied him to the refectory. 

The novices stood in front of the tables on both 
sides of the room; — the Superior entered, went to his 
table near the fire-place, and said grace in Latin, the 
novices repeating the responses with ready exactness 
and solemn cadence. 

During supper I could not help observing that the 
novices never raised their eyes from the square foot 
of surface that included their plate and cup : this was 
'' keeping custody of eyes,'^ as I shall afterwards ex- 
plain more at large. I saw their faces, but they did 
not see mine ; so that, by sympathy, I imitated their 
pious demeanour, feeling, as it were, ashamed of my 
worldly curiosity. 

The silence, too — for not a word was spoken to ask 
for aught or in thanks for the supply — had a solem- 
nity in it which had never struck me before ; though, 
from my youth upwards, I had been accustomed to 
eat where *' no talking was allowed." All that was 
needed was before us, or the vigilant "waiters" — 



28 ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 

conscientious novices as they were — anticipated every 
want. 

As soon as the novelty of the scene had produced 
its first effect, my attention was directed to the 
reader, who was delivering to us the axioms on 
politeness alluded to in the introduction. These 
axioms were composed in Latin : good Ciceronian 
Latin ; which indeed most of the ancient Jesuits wrote 
on every topic prescribed or sanctioned by Holy Obe- 
dience. I reoretted that I had not fallen in with that 
book before ; for at that period of my life, I was en- 
oao-ed in collectins; the most remarkable axioms of 
all writers ancient and modern. 

The fact of this book being read to the novices 
was highly gratifying — I saw in it the presage of the 
men who were *' to be armed at all points." .... 

When about half an hour had elapsed, or rather 
when all the novices had finished their meal, the Su- 
perior rose — a simultaneous but orderly rising of all the 
novices followed — grace was said and responded to 
— the Superior led the way, and we followed him to 
the chapel, where we remained for a few minutes, and 
thence proceeded to the recreation-room. 

All the novices knelt down on entering the room 
for a second or two, and then commenced the clatter 
of tongues, once more joyfully free. 

I have not a distinct remembrance of the topics 
discussed during that hour of recreation. One thing, 
however, was evident, there was nothing spoken that 
the most scrupulous ear could object to : the subjects 
mooted being either devotional, or Jesuitico-historical. 



ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 29 

It was a strange sensation, that : I mean that pro- 
duced by being in the company of young, buoyant 
men, who did not blush in speaking of religion^ and 
the practices of devotion ! It struck me at the time, 
as worthy of remark, how soon the human mind 
adapts itself to influences from without, after once 
the idea of uncompromising necessity is impressed 
upon the will. Here were youths who left college 
only the year before, — here were two full grown men 
who seemed to have known the world. They had 
spent but one year in the T^ovitiate, and yet they 
talked of the soul's concerns as if they had passed 
their lives with Jerome in the '' howling wilder- 
ness." 

Was it the necessity for talking only, on any 
subject, so urgent to those vv'ho are condemned to 
'^solitary confinement" — that agony without death? 
or was it the suggestion, the interpretation of the 
soul now triumphant over the body and its lusts, in 
this solitude where the '^ flesh" was made — was com- 
pelled to be " obedient:" ay, *'even unto death?" 

I am inclined to believe« the latter opinion ; for I 
cannot think it possible, judging from my own ex- 
perience, that a novice under the Jesuits, can simu- 
late, or dissimulate, without detection, even if " un- 
converted" in that awful purgatory. Of this opinion, 
perhaps the reader will be convinced in due time. 

On the other hand, he must totally discard the 
idea that there was aught of melancholy or out- 
rageous cant in our conversations ; very far from it — 
we were rational on the most irrational absurdities ; 



30 ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 

for we were, for the most part, young, unsophisticated ; 
with minds of wax, which the innate spirit of de- 
votion — that solace of every woe, — had complacently 
impressed with her beautiful image. 

On this first evening of my probation, I was gra- 
tified with the animated conversation on all sides : 
frequent peals of laughter resounded on my startled 
ear, — for the reader must be told that there are many 
amusing, highly exhilarating stories in the ^' Lives of 
the Saints," and in devotional " tradition ;" and 
surely it is as possible to laugh piously as it is to 
laugh profanely. But in the very midst of this en- 
joyment — at the very height of this reciprocal exul- 
tation of heart, suddenly a bell rang. 

This was my first lesson in the Novitiate. As if 
struck dumb, the syllable, half uttered, was cleft in 
twain, and a dead pause ensued. In silence we as- 
cended the stairs, and entered the chapel. We knelt. 
After the lapse of about ten or fifteen minutes, passed 
in silence, the Superior entered, and, kneeling on the 
steps of the altar, said the *' Litany of the Virgin," 
and a few other short prayers, concluding with his 
blessing. Then followed the kissing of a relic, of 
Ignatius or Xavier, I forget which : the father held 
the glass case in his hand, which we all kissed in 
succession as we filed off to bed. As I had '* a 
retreat" of a week's duration to pass through, in 
order to be in a fit condition to perform the duties of 
a novice, I went to a spare room reserved for the 
purpose, and the novices retired to the dormitory: 
which I shall afterwards describe. 



ADMISSION TO THE NOVITIATE. 31 

Here I received a visit from the Superior, who ex- 
plained to me the nature of the "retreat" upon which 
I was about to enter, and left me, after committing 
me to the care of the angels and the saints. I slept 
very soundly till morning, when I was wakened by a 
scratching noise on the curtains of my bed ; as 
soon as my ears were opened, I heard the words 
"Deo g r alias r^ to which I responded (not being 
acquainted with the proper answer), "Very well!" 
and made all haste in dressing, as I had been called 
after the other novices, since it was one of them who 
gave me the " Deo gratias .'" I went to the lavatory? 
or washing-place, and there I found my " brothers " 
performing their ablutions, all in silence, in tin pans 
over a stone trough. After the given time was 
elapsed, the bell rang, and as all were ready, we en- 
tered the chapel for " morning meditation." Thus 
began my first day, after my first night, in the 
Novitiate. 

Here we will leave the novice for a while, to return 
to him after having described the scene of his future 
struggles. 






CHAPTER V. 

THE THREE HOUSES: WAYS AND MEANS: SILENT 
INFLUENCES — PROGRESS. 

By the name of Stonyhurst, a E-oman Catholic semi- 
nary for the education of youth under the direction 
of the Jesuits, is commonly understood. But, as in 
most things, there is more here than meets the eye. 
The Society of the Jesuits is regularly established in 
England. 

The Catholic Relief Bill is but a foil to the Jesuits 
where it pronounces their non-existence. That bill 
forbids Jesuits — and members of other religious orders, 
communities, or societies of the Church of Rome, 
bound by monastic or religious vows — from coming 
into the realm, under pain of being banished from it 
for life : excepting only natural born subjects who were 
out of the realm at the time of the passing of the Act. 
Such religious persons may, however, enter the 
United Kingdom on obtaining a licence in writing 
from one of the principal secretaries of state who is a 
Protestant ; and may stay such time as such secretary 
shall permit, not exceeding six months : unless the 



THE THREE HOUSES. 33 

license is revoked before the end of the six months.* 
A Jesuit by his vows is legally or civilly dead (this 
is the Jesuitical formulci) and the society by the law 
of the land is legally dead ; but both the Jesuit and 
his society are veo;etatino; in full luxuriance. 

" Man makes laws, but God breaks them," say 
their friends, with questionable logic, when com- 
menting on the progress of the Jesuits in the United 
Kingdom; and certainly, if we can ennoble a cause 
by tracing it to the councils of the Eternal, human 
logic and matter-of-fact deductions are struck dumb 
by the awful conviction, and we tremble at the 
thought that the avenging thunderbolt is about to 
be hurled against the bold, presumptuous mortal who 
dares to lift the veil ! 

But the Jesuits, notwithstanding a few indis- 
cretions in their history, rarely expose themselves to 
pains and penalties without a substantial, visible, 
tangible safeguard. They remonstrated by their de- 
legates against the stringency of the Act in question ; 
but it was intimated to them sub rosa, that they need 
be under no apprehension, as ** they might drive a 
coach and six through the said act.'* They believe 
that only the Attorney-General can bring an action 
of ejectment against them, and, consequently, the 
" coach and six" permission is a virtual set-oft on the 
part of a lenient government against the interesting 
disgrace of a verbal proscription. Est natur alls favor 
pro /aborantibuSf says Quintillian ; and the generous 
I^pghshman, of all men, is the last to strike the 

• The Act of the 10th Geo. IV. c. 7. 
D 



34 



THE THREE HOUSES. 



fallen foe. One thinsr is certain, however, the Jesuits 
hold up their heads in the high places, and move on, 
like all things at the present day, with *' Occupet 
scabies cxtremos T t:icked behind thtm, and, ''For the 
greater glory of God T blazing in their van. 

In the very heart of the Metropolis they are now- 
building a magnificent church, to be served, it is said, 
by twelve Jesuits, — mass every day, and a sermon 
after every mass ! This looks like progress, cer- 
tainly ; and what is still more curious and significant, 
no begging-box goes round — no subscriptions are 
solicited: as if by the lamp of Aladdin, the edifice 
rises rapidly,— a monument to attest the shielded 
audacity and the obedient munificence of the quiet, 
peaceful, harmless Jesuits ! 

I am informed by a competent authority, that the 
Traclariam prefer ''to be received into the Church" 
by the Jesuits : four have been received by one 
Jesuit in London. Commenting on these mj^stifica- 
tions, a Roman Catholic periodical emits the fol- 
lowing unintentional pleasantry, and well-seasoned 
sarcasm : — 

"We can — we do forgive them, — that urged by 
the clamour of their opponents, many of them ex- 
hibit towards us an extreme degree of intolerance, by 
way o^ proving their abhorrence of such of our tenets 
as they do not as yet hold, and exhibiting themselves 
as good and true men to the eyes of their brethren. 
All this we can readily excuse, because we know how 
natural is such misguided zeal to our frail naturi? ; 
but yet, even in this temper against us, such is the 



THE THREE HOUSES. 35 

force with which the modicum of truth they have 
received has operated, that their voices have been 
raised to swell the shout with which we hailed the 
late great triumph of truth and humanity over error 
and persecution. For that shout we thank them, 
and for all wherein they have sinned against us we 
forgive them heartily, and wish them strength and 
grace to persevere in the path along which they are 
noiu journeying ,''* The Jesuits seem to argue thus. 

If your neighbour's servant is defrauding his master 
by digging in your garden, whilst he is paid by that 
neighbour for work supposed to be done, are you 
not justified, considering the benefit you receive, 
in mystifying the conscience of that servant, by per- 
suadino; him that he is onlv performino- an act of 
charity ? 

I was informed in the Novitiate, that the present 
tenement of the Jesuits at Stonyhurst was presented 
to the fathers by the late Cardinal Weld (or his 
father, I forget which) and a curious story is told of 
the place. It is said that the old mansion was built 
by special permission of Queen Elizabeth for one of 
her courtiers, a Roman Catholic. It happened that 
his son and heir, when a mere boy, one day while 
walking in the grounds, swallowed some poisonous 
berries and died. This event so afflicted the father 
that he retired from the place in disgust. The 
deserted mansion was given over to desolation, and 

* Catholic Mag., Marcb, 1839, quoted in the Catholic Directory 
for the present year as something " remarkable and almost pro- 
phetic," p. 174. 

D 2 



36 



WAYS AND MEANS. 



fell, at length, into the hands of the Jesuits : 
througli the munificence of the pious Cardinal. 
The Jesuits soon set to work, rebuilt and added, 
cultivated and improved, till, at the present time, 
they possess an ample domain of some thousand 
acres of excellent land, three flourishing establish- 
ments, and a splendid church. 

The " College of Stonyhurst" was, for a long time, 
the chief Roman Catholic school for the education 
of the nobility and gentry of that persuasion. Of 
late years Ushaw-college, Prior- park, Oscott, &;c., 
have risen into eminence ; not without a slight feeling 
of jealousy — or, perhaps, I should say, holy emulation 
— in the respective parties. The number of pupils 
varies; at the time of which I am speaking, I beheve, 
It was about 150: it has amounted to near 300 in 
more prosperous times. The stipend is, for children 
under twelve years of age, forty guineas ; for those 
above that age, fifty ; and for students in philosophy, 
one hundred guineas. 

The course of studies professed, comprises the 
Greek and Latin classic authors, composition in 
Greek and Latin prose and verse; regular instruction 
in reading and elocution, writing and arithmetic; 
English, French, Italian ; history, sacred and pro- 
fane, and geography. The higher classes receive 
lessons in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry. 
The philosophical course embraces logic, metaphy- 
sics, ethics, and natural philosophy, with chemistry 
and the higher mathematics. There is in the college 
an extensive apparatus for experimental philosophy, 



WAYS AND MEANS. 37 

an astronomical observatory, a chemical laboratory, 
a collection of minerals, &c. There is also a con- 
siderable and increasing library of approved works of 
history and of general information ; of which the 
scholars have the use, on paying a small monthly 
subscription. Masters of music, drawing, dancing, 
and fencing, give lessons to those whose parents may 
desire it. All are closely examined, four times a 
year, in \vha.t they have learned during the preceding 
quarter, and rewarded accordingly. At the annual 
exhibition which precedes the vacation a consider- 
able number of prizes, consisting of books and silver 
medals, is distributed among those who have made 
the most distinguished progress. I have quoted the 
foregoing almost hterally from the prospectus of the 
college. 

There is a " theatre" in the college. When I 
visited the apartment so called, it presented no ap- 
pearance of a theatre ; but I was told that all the 
necessary apparatus could be erected with very little 
trouble, all being in readiness for the appointed time. 
According to my informant, the dresses were all in 
character, and some of them very costly. The per- 
formances take place at the annual exhibition, or at 
Christmas; and are either tragic or comic, or, as at 
other theatres, a tragedy is followed by a farce. All 
the performers are students of the college ; some 
were named to me as *' stars," and one had established 
his fame in the character of Richard the Third. 

One of the Jesuits is appointed to superintend the 
proceedings, in other words, to be " manager." 



oo 



8 WAYS AND .MEANS. 

As many of the students learn music, and as the 
music master resides on the spot — and is thus enabled 
to " lead" the band — we may infer that the profane 
model which suggests the main idea is faithfully 
imitated : the overture and the interludes callino- forth 
the plaudits of a delighted audience. The friends of 
the students are invited to be present on such occa- 
sions, and are most liberally entertained by the 
authorities. 

Doubtless these Jesuit- theatres — for they were 
'' open" in most of the Society's colleges in former 
times — present the heau ideal of the theatre : as far, at 
least, as the morality of the thing is concerned ; and if 
the Jesuits had the good sense to attempt the reality 
of the thing, rather than its mockery in the religious 
" mysteries" of old, their good taste and artistic 
consistency would be incontestible. 

1 must leave other discussions arisins; out of this 
delicate sensual gratification afforded by '* religious 
men," to be settled by my intelligent readers ; con- 
tenting myself with the opinion, that there was much 
in it, as in most things Jesuitical, to captivate the 
multitude: and surely if the Jesuits are not decidedly 
honest in their motto. Ad majorem Dei gloriam, they 
may be so in their standing rule to weep or laugh, to 
whme or smile, as occasion suits, ad captandum 
vulgus. 

A curious anecdote was related to me, to the effect 
that a popular actor, whose son was educated at 
Stonyhurst, expressly desired that the youth alluded 
to should not be permitted to take a part in the 



WAYS AND MEANS. 39 

theatricals, fearin'-r lest he miirht imbibe a taste for 
that profession. When informed of this, it struck 
me as *^ a palpable hit:" a hint to the reverend 
fathers, that the thing was not exactly consistent — 
at least when carried out to the extent which pre- 
vails, or prevailed, at Stonyhurst. 

It may be proper to mention that ecclesiastics of 
the Roman Church are positively forbidden by the 
canons, to be present at any theatrical exhibition. 
Truly there may be a distinction drawn between 
public and private exhibitions of the sort; but 1 
certainly never could have imagined that " dispensa- 
tions" might extend, in this matter, to '* a priest of 
the Church :" which, however, I can state as a fact. 
On entering one of the great London theatres, a 
few years ago, I met such a priest issuing from 
" the house of scandal ;" and on expressing my 
astonishment to this gentleman (who was an old ac- 
quaintance, and not a Jesuit) he told me with evident 
peace of mind and quiet of conscience, that the 
'* bishop" had given him a ** dispensation" in order 
to perfect himself in the practice of elocution ! . . . . 
Here, it is clear, the end justified — may I not say, 
sanctified ? — the means. 

To show how necessary this dispensation was to 
my young friend in *' pursuit of knowledge under 
difficulties," I must inform the reader that the 
canonical penalty for such a transgression is excom- 
munication ipso facto! . . . But the frail omnipotence 
of Rome — with its ever-varying unchangeableness, 
its limping, halting, infallibility — what will it not 



40 SILENT INFLUENCES. 

concede to expediency ^ if we only cease to be 
heretics i"^ . . . 

All the reoular masters at Stonyhurst are Jesuits, 
eitlier in orders or destined for the pt iesthood. The 
students are never left to themselves: an official, com- 
monly called *' prefect," is their constant attendant, 
whether in the common room of resort, on the 
play-ground, or walking in the vicinity on play-days. 

The strictest regularity prevails throughout the 
establishment. The students rise at an early hour, 
attend mass, and proceed to the " study-place," 
where they prepare for their respective schools or 
classes. No talking is permitted in proceeding 
from place to place, nor in the dormitory or public 
sleeping-room, nor in the refectory or eating-room; 
where signs-manual interpret the silent cravings 
of the stomach. During dinner and supper some 
book is read by a student appointed for the purpose, 
in accordance with one of the rules of the Novitiate, 
viz., that ''whilst the body is refitted, the soul, too, 
may have her food." The usual mode of correction 
is the rod; but never severely administered; for 
flagrant misdemeanours expulsion is reserved. But 
the confessional obviates, in a great measure, the 
necessity for the lash. Obedience — that talisman 
to all who are connected with the Jesuits — is in- 
culcated with awful solemnity; and the example of 

* Clement XIV. received some indirect compliments from Voltaire 
very kindly : he enjoyed his joke and told him, through his old friend 
the Cardinal de Berris, that he would willingly take him to his heart if 
he would end by becoming a good Cajmchin. — Saint-Priest, Chute des 
Jes. 



SILENT INFLUENCES. 41 

*' St. Aloysius," a saint of the society's own produc- 
tion, is held forth to the young student for his imi- 
tation. Besides, the " Good Virgin," who adopted 
Aloysius, will bless only those who strive to follow 
his footsteps ; and obedience was his great virtue : so 
the pious youth resolves to be like St. Aloysius, and 
learns " to bear the yoke" from his youth, until he 
becomes transplanted into the Novitiate ; where all 
the nascent virtues of the society, par excelleiice, are 
duly watered and expanded into bloom. The con- 
versation of the masters and prefects is always 
calculated to inspire a deep veneration in the students 
for the society and all its concerns ; and apparently- 
unintentional reports* circulated about such and 
such a one who is " doing so well " in the Novitiate, 
insensibly inspire an undefined wish in the unthinking 
youth, fast approaching the term of his *^ humanity 
studies," to be received there. Then he ventures to 
express half a wish to his " spiritual adviser" — the 
keeper of his conscience — who tells him to think of 
the matter — to ask the aid of " Mary and her Divine 
Son," and then to follow the finger that points the 
way — to the Novitiate, as a matter of course. 

It is not to be wondered at that this insidious 
course has buried in the Novitiate the sons of noble- 

^ This view of the case is not fictitious : it results from the con- 
versation of the "fresh novices" who came to Hodder duringf my 
year; and the " such a one" alluded to in the present instance was 
myself. I shall scrupulously avoid recording- any deduction un- 
founded on facts, seen or related to me, in the Xovitiate. My infor- 
mation respecting the Jesuits in England, Stony hurst, &c., was there 
obtained. 



42 SILENT INFLUENCES. 

men and the wealthy oF the land. There is a very 
iiostahia iienerated in tender minds, which makes 
them cling (as if under the fascination of the serpent) 
to the spot where their minds first budded into 
spriijg, and to the men who possess the tender secrets 
of their youthful indiscretions, which Heaven has 
long since forgotten ! It is through the confes- 
sional that drips the potent fluid, which encrusts 
the heart with a coating impervious to all ex- 
ternal influences that do not pass first through the 
medium of the '^ father of the conscience," who 
reigns in undivided and undisputed possession over 
the mind. 

The priests of the society are enjoined to display 
these arts of seduction — nor are motives of ostensible 
religion here wanting to gild the ^' soft impeach- 
ment." They are to invite those whom they meet 
on any occasion, vel levis amiciticBy and even to con- 
ciliate the parents of their pupils to the society.* 
Among the questions put to the novice before his 
admission, he is to be asked " when, where, and by 
whom he was first moved^ to enter the society." 
These questions are suggested by the characteristic 
caution of the Jesuits ; and their answers must ne- 
cessarily tend to explain character by the circum- 
stances to which they refer. It might be inferred 
that such influence from without is contrary to the 
spirit of the " Constitution," if not to fact ; but I 

* Cum occurrunt nobis in viis, invitare eos qualibet occasione, 
vel levis amicitiae, turn etiam parentes discipulorum nostrorum con- 
ciliare Societati. — Instr. iv. 3. Edit. Rom. 160(5. 



SILENT INFLUENCES. 43 

find in the " Examen"' which precedes the " Con- 
stitution," the foUov/ing pertinent declaration : — 

*' Should he afhrni that he has been induced,* 
(although it is laicjul and meritorious) still it will 
apparently conduce to his own greater spiritual 
utility, if a certain time be prescribed to him ; that, 
by thinking of the matter, he may commend himself 
entirely to the Creator and his Lord, just as if no 
one of the society had induced him.-f-*' 

Not far from the " college " is the '* seminary," 
which is a new building, tastefully built and re- 
markably well laid out in the interior. It is ex- 
clusively occupied by those who have passed through 
the Novitiate, and, having taken the three simple 
vows of voluntary poverty, perfect obedience, and 
perpetueil chastity, are continuing their studies for 
the priesthood. The rules of the Novitiate are here 
considerably relaxed, as far as spiritual occupation is 
concerned ; but still the seminary may be considered 
as a prolongation of the Novitiate.J This, indeed, 
may be said to last for ever ; for the Jesuit, as will be 
afterwards shown, is always under surveillance, 
always in a state of probation. This might be un- 
endurable, but for the conviction that there is no 
escape from it, and that all the members of the 
Society are subject ahke to its influence. The 
teachers in the " colle2;e " are drafted from this 
establishment. 

» Puisse motum. 

f Exam. Geii. cap. iii. 14. 

X Aquav. Inst. xiv. n. 1. 



44 PROGRESS. 

I now return to the Novitiate, or Hodder-house, as 
it is called. It is situated on the sloping bank of a 
streamlet from which it derives its name. 

In speaking of this Novitiate the Enghsh Jesuits 
always call it Hodder, and a stranger visiting Stony- 
hurst, would never be informed of its existence, cer- 
tainly he would not be taken to see this supernatural 
curiosity. The Jesuits are invisible people, known by 
their effects only — a species of " processionary cater- 
pillars :" interesting silk-worms that live in societies 
where the eye of the incurious observer sees nothing 
but a tree and its waving foliage. Here they spin, when 
young, a kind of silken tent, divided into cells. They 
may be seen to issue from it in the evening in procession. 
One of them advances at the head, and seems to act 
as a guide ; two then follow, next three ; then four, 
and so on : each rank containins; one more than the 
preceding. To complete the comparison, I must 
state that the larva when first hatched is in weight 
about one-hundredth of a grain; but just before its 
metamorphosis it increases to ninety-five grains, or 
9,500 times its original weight.* The quiet, im- 
perceptible expansion of the Jesuits — when other men 
are sleeping through ignominious dreams — is not less 
certain — is not less wonderful ! There may not be a 
large majority of extraordinary men in the society at 
present, but there are not a few "large figures" 
among the Jesuits that make up a good round "sum 
total :" if there be many small items of a penny 
each, a few large entries of many shillings and some 

* Rud. ofZool. p. 279. 



PROGRESS. 45 

pounds will raise a very fair '' deposit " for this 
established bank to let out at all manner of ** in- 
terest." In possession of their perfect system of 
trainincv and o;overnment — I mean with reference to 
their objects in view — all their men may be consi- 
dered as useful members — useful for some purpose, 
like the copulative conjunction, *' expressed or under- 
stood." 

The situation of the English Novitiate has sug- 
gested these reflections. The river winds round it on 
one side and the high banks opposite shelter it in 
that direction. Fronting the road are plantations in 
various stages of growth* — like the members of the 
society : the sapling that you may bend as you like; 
the full-grown tree that, by the rustling hiss of its 
leaves, seems to mock the strong winds of the tem- 
pest ; and the "old tree," quite dead at the pith, but 
still passably verdant in its deceptive branches. 
Hcdder-house reminded, me somewhat of Abbotsford, 
the residence of " the great magician," which is 
invisible till you have entered the gate — like the 
genius of its amiable in-dweller that bursts upon you 
as an angel's visit, or the calm sweet light of a hospi- 
table hearth to the traveller when the stars of heaven 
have ceased to twinkle. 

The house is an ordinary-looking building, appa- 
rently not built for the purpose to which, in the lapse 
of wonder-workino; time, it is now devoted. A neat 
gate opens upon a well-gravelled walk, winding to 
the front-door of the Novitiate, whose threshold is 
crossed only twice by the novice: once on entering, a n 



46 PROGRESS. 

then on his departure — either to the world once more, 
or to the second House. This word brings to mind the 
strangely, curiously concocted, and most fascinating 
system of judicial astrology: the Jesuit has his 
destined " house," like the child of fate, and looks 
forward to it with a faith and a hope that stagger not. 
In truth, though the system be not divine, it has 
much of divination. 

A few shrubs adorn the front of the house, oppo- 
site which is a ground for foot-ball. On the slope to 
the river is a kitchen-garden, cultivated by the 
novices, with the aid of a lay-brother attached to the 
establishment : he is mentioned at the end of the 
present chapter as "cook," but he made himself, as 
every Jesuit should, " generally useful." 

The interior comprises a small chapel; a public 
dormitory divided into compartments about eight 
feet by five in dimensions, with a green curtain in 
front; the Superior's room ; a spare room for casual 
novices (like myself) to perform their introductory 
retreat in, and for the use of strangers, who go occa- 
sionally for the same pious purpose ; lastly, the 
kitchen, lavatory or washing-place, and another large 
room, which is used as a school-room for very young 
children (under seven years of age) sent to Stony- 
hurst. One of the novices of the second year is ap- 
pointed schoolmaster to these little ones. Just over 
the school-room is their dormitory, and a little chapel 
where they hear mass; for they might otherwise be a 
distraction to the novices. 

At the back of the house, in a dwelling quite sepa- 



PROGKESS. 47 

rate, lived the laundresses of the Novitiate, whom we 
never saw. 

I have not mentioned servants' rooms, simplv be- 
cause there were no servants in the Novitiate. 
Every man in the Novitiate was a Jesuit, or to be 
one. The very cook was a Jesuit, commonly called 
a '' lay brother:" that is to say, a man who took the 
simple vows of the society, and dedicated his trade 
or craft to the service of the society. His assistants 
were lay novices also. These men have, of course, 
more work tlian prayer; or, at least, quite as much 
of one as of the other. Thus, in the palmy days of 
the society, there were all manner of workmen be- 
longing to the Jesuits; thus rendering it totally in- 
dependent of the world at large: and thus, we can 
imagine what this wonderful combination of the 
trades, the sciences, the spiritualities of this nether 
world could effect in swayino- the destinies of hu- 
manity. In those days when a Jesuit, proprement 
dit, went forth on his " mission," he was attended by 
his lay brother,^^ who went with him in the two-fold 
capacity of a servant and a spy on his actions : for 
all are bound to keep a watch on their brethren as 
well as on themselves. If they "manifest them- 
selves," they must " manifest their brothers. ''f 

There are funds beionjrino; to the Novitiate exclu- 
sively, resulting from pious bequests and donations ; 
the novices, consequently — who are always considered 

* Or by a socius in orders, Const. Part iii. cap. 1. Thus in Nor- 
AvicH there are two — in Londox, three, &c. 
t Reg. 9 and 10. Can. 10, Congr. 6. 



48 PROGRESS. 

by the "Constitutions" as without friends, kindred, 
home, and wealth, except in the society — pay nothing 
for their board and lodging. On entering the gates 
of probation, the novice gives himself to the society, 
" for the greater glory of God ;" and the society under- 
takes to be his mother, father, brother, sister, friend, 
and only acquaintance. 

True, a man cannot at once forget all these tender 
ties, unless by the hand of death they exist not ; 
but the progress of this consummation is not the less 
certain for being gradual. I never heard during 
my year a word mentioned of " kith or kin." Of the 
undying thoughts that rise in spite of ourselves, I 
can, of course, say nothing with regard to others. 
I heard the voices coming from afar, like voices of a 
dream, and I frequently asked myself, '^ Can you all 
forswear humanity ?" But the '^ spirit of Ignatius" 
whispered, '* He who has left father," &;c., let him 
believe that he must relinquish father, mother, 
brothers, and sisters, and whatever he had in the 
world : yea, let him believe that those words are ad- 
dressed to himself — " He who does not hate father 
and mother, and more, even his own soul, cannot be 
my disciple."^ Thus was the sacred text perverted, 
to countenance an unnatural dissevering of all the 
ties that the God of our common nature has woven 
tocrether — a web which, hack and tear it as we 
will, still repairs and renews itself for ever ! 

* Exam. Gen. cb. iv. 7, a rule of the Summary to be got bj heart 
by the novices. 



49 



CHAPTER V. 

THE RETREAT — DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS THE 

INVESTMENT AND BLESSING. 

I NOW resume my narrative where I left off, viz., with 
the commencement of the Retreat. 

The first meditation was on the "End of Man," 
that is to say, on the object for which man was 
created. I dare say few of my readers have the least 
idea what is here meant by meditation. It is a diffi- 
cult art. A man may be annoyed by disagreeable 
thoughts for days and weeks together; but in this 
case the mind is passive — thoughts impinge upon it 
like the excruciating drops of water falling on the 
head of the regicide of old, when every drop, as he 
remarked with unutterable ano:uish, felt like the blow 
of a mallet. This is meditation in spite of ourselves, 
and we would be glad of some '' distraction" or 
change of thought. But ascetics understand a very 
different thing by meditation: the mind must be fixed 
and retained on one idea or sentiment, until it is com- 
pletely exhausted in all its bearings and applications 
to the spiritual state of the meditator; and all chang 

E 



.:=^ 



50 THE RETREAT. 

of thought, commonly called "distraction," must be 
instantly checked as a wily temptation of the devil. 
In proof whereof we read in a book, recommended 
by the learned and pious pastors of the Romish 
church, and written by a Jesuit, as follows, speaking 
of this " distraction :" — 

" At other times it may proceed from the malice of 
the devil, as is stated by some of the Fathers of the 
desert, who, by God's permission, saw in spirit some 
devils sitting upon the heads of the religious, to 
oblige them to sleep; and others putting their fingers 
in their mouths to make them yavvn."^' 

I had been accustomed to meditate from early 
youth. At the Roman Catholic college, where I was 
educated, the more advanced students had to medi- 
tate daily for the space of an hour before mass ; and, 
during the annual retreat, meditation was an im- 
portant part of the proceedings; but I never knew 
what meditation was or might be till I became a 
INovice. It is among the Jesuits that one must live 
in order to know the true nature of a religious re- 
treat, and of meditation or mental prayer. This is 
considered the highest order of prayer, the most 
acceptable to God ; for it is supposed to bring the 
fervent soul into the immediate presence of the 
Divinity, when, by the enlightening of that grace 
which descends on the compunctious spirit, we be- 
hold ourselves as we are — all our wants, all our im- 
perfections, all our stains and spiritual wounds. 
"Happy is the man," says the master of ascetics, 
* Ilodrig. Christ, Perf. chap. xxiv. 



THE RETREAT. 51 

" who can reject every distracting thought, and can 
centre himself completely in a holy compunction !" 

I will endeavour to give the reader an idea of the 
method, by the following meditation on the Last 
Judgment. 

As I have forgotten none of the strong thoughts — 
none of the stirring emotions of my Novitiate, the ex- 
position will be as easy as it is authentic. 

JUDGMENT. 

^' But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun 
shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her 
light. 

" And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers 
that are in heaven shall be shaken. 

'^ And then shall they see the Son of Man coming 
in the clouds with great power and glory." 

Point I. I began by impressing my mind with the 
certainty of the coming event, and made thereon a 
firm, fervent act of faith. I reasoned with my soul 
on the necessity of that judgment. Throughout all 
time the good have been oppressed, afflicted, scorned 
by the judgment of men; that judgment must be 
reversed. God himself will rio-ht them on that awful 
day. They have sighed in bitterness of heart : ^' O 
Lord, my God, in thee do I put my trust : save me 
from all them that persecute me, and deliver me : Lest 
he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while 
there is none to deliver. 

" O Lord my God, if I have done this : if there be 
iniquity in my hands : If I have rewarded evil unto 

E 2 



52 THE RETREAT. 

him that was at peace with me ; (yea, I have deli- 
vered him that without cause is mine enemy:) 

"Let the enemy persecute my soul, and take it: 
yea, let him tread down my life upon the earth, and 
lay mine honour in the dust. 

''Arise, O Lord, in thine anger, lift up thyself 
because of the rage of mine enemies : and awake for 
me to the judgment that thou hast commanded. 

" Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an 
end : but establish the just: for the righteous God 
trieth the hearts and reins." 

On the other hand, the bad exult in prosperous 
iniquity — all things succeed to their liking ; they are 
favoured, comforted, exalted by the judgment of men ; 
that judgment must be reversed. God himself will 
condemn them on that awful day. They have said in 
their hearts exulting;: "God hath forao'ten : he 
hideth his face : he will never see it." 

Among which class shall I be on thatday of joy 
to the good, and of woe to the wicked ? How stands 
it with thee, my soul ? What hast thou done, what 
hast thou not done ? Were this the day, the hour of 
judgment, art thou prepared ? Consider the number- 
less graces of Heaven which thou hast abused. Thou 
wast bred in the true faith — instructed in its saving 
words — snatched from the world of scandal before it 
had made thee its own — placed in the garden of the 
saints, where thou wast sheltered from every blast of 
evil, and cherished with the warmth of celestial 
brcathino;s " with healino; on their wini2:s." Of what 
avail have been all these blessings? Hast thou less 



THE RETREAT. 53 

reason to fear the coming judgment? Dost thou not 
still linger on the brink of the rushing stream that 
hurries on countless myriads to destruction ? Hast 
thou not ever and anon turned a listening ear to their 
seducing appeals, as from their treacherous bark 
they have waved their hands to thee, inviting thee to 
join in their ceaseless revels by night and by day — • 
little thinking that all their frivolous and pernicious 
joys are only pains glossed over with pleasures,* 
soon to beuncoloured, unvarnished, laid bare? Then 
the judgment ! .... 

Point II. Consider who will appear at that final 
judgment — that judgment which shall never be re- 
versed — which will proclaim the exclusive existence 
of joy which "it has not entered into the heart of 
man to conceive" — and of woe equally inconceivable 
— unutterable! Then there will be no Purgatory to 
expiate the temporal penalties of sin — mere human 
frailties: then there will be no earth where we may 
retrieve the past ! All who appear then to judgment, 
will hear a final blessing, or a final curse ! Who shall 
appear? All who have sprung from the first-created 
man — from the beginning of time to the day of tri- 
bulation — the great and the little — the rich and the 
poor — the learned and the ignorant — Christians and 
infidels — Jews and Gentiles — obedient children of the 
church and heretics — sincere believers and philoso- 
phers ; all, absolutely all of every age, of every land 

* AuTrai (ipa iiaav rjdovaXg TrepiweTrefii-dvai. — Socrat. in (Econom. 
c. ii. 



54 THE RETREAT. 

shall appear to judgment. Thou, my soul, shall 
be there ! ........ 

On that day of what avail will be the dazzling 
glory, and endless renown of mighty conquerors — the 
power of riches — the power of learning that destroys 
as many as it saves, — this proud learning which thou 
covetest so much ! Of what avail will it be to thee, 
my poor soul, if thou hast not on '' the wedding 
garment?'' 

Sincere Christians, the elect and the rejected — 
amono' which wilt tJiou be? The obedient children 
of the church and the disobedient heretics; among 
which wilt thou be ? Once more thou hast been 
reconciled to the faith ; what a mercy ! what a favour ! 
Wilt thou remain faithful to the end — to the judg- 
ment ? Tremble at the awful thouo;ht ! .... 

Point III. Imagine the scene of judgment ; see, as 
it were now, the God of glory; Jesus the crucified, 
now the glorified, coming in majesty from on high in 
his chariot of celestial fire that illumines the whole 
earth from bound to bound, surrounded by all the 
angels of heaven, — thrones, principalities, domina- 
tions, cherubim and seraphim, hymning renown and 
glory to Him alone, who was, is, and ever will be 
worthy of all honour and praise. 

The trumpet sounds ! Phalanx on phalanx, 'and 
troop on troop roll in position, instantly, at that 
sound. Behold ! — the two divisions stand widely 
apart. Behold them ! read the features of the 
wicked ; tlien turn to those of the good. 



THE RETREAT. 55 

All stand again in the flesh — in the flesh wherein 
they have sinned : but oh ! dreadful pang ! They 
are now seen by all; by friends and by foes, — by 
angels and by devils, — ^just as they were seen when in 
the flesh, by God alone. Every hidden crime — every 
humiliating frailty that human vanity was so anxious 
to conceal, to palliate, to justify, — all will be laid 
bare. God will even thus deign to make this appeal 
to his creatures for \}ciQ justice of his judgment ! . . 
How stands it with thee, my soul I Hast thou con- 
fessed all? Lacks there not some cherished sin, or 
tender failing that thou hast not thoroughly repented 
of, not wholly discarded ? 

Now turn to the good. O entrancing change I 
All the stains of human sin have been wiped away, 
and the hearts of the saints reflect the divine thoushts 
of good that beam from the breast of the Redeemer! 
It is as though they had never sinned ; for they were 
born again in grace. The troops of martyrs wdth 
their crowns of glory ; the troops of confessors with 
their wreaths of light ; the holy virgins, with Mary 
at their head, close beside the God of purity, next to 
his bosom, — all, all smile heavenly smiles, and wait 
exulting to ascend with their Strength and their 
Hope, the Redeemer, to the joys that never end. 

Once more the trumpet sounds, — list ! 'tis the 
Judgment ! 

" Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, 
prepared for the devil and his angels!" 

** Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the king- 
dom prepared for you fromthe foundationof the world !" 



56 THE RETREAT. 

A shriek ! — a wail from bound to bound ! The 
sides of the doleful valley, with sounds of endless 
woe,* echo to the dreadful judgment. Hell, the 
insatiate, is now satisfied at last — filled with the 
eternal dead !.....•• 

A cry of joy ! — a shout of exultation, from bound 
to bound ! The heavens open, and the choirs of the 
angels and the saints sing welcome to the children of 
God ; and the gates of heaven gently, gently close on 
them — eternally blessed — for ever good, and, there- 
fore, for ever happy ! 

This may be considered as a faithful specimen of 
my meditations in the Novitiate. The scriptural 
phrases occur in the " Office of the Dead," appointed 
to be said or sung for the benefit of the souls in 
purgatory. I have given the version of the Pro- 
testant Bible ; but in the texts in question, it does 
not differ materially from that of the Roman church. 

Of course I have only recorded the most prominent 
thouohts and sentiments, on the most impressive of 
which I would dwell, and, as it were, steep my soul in 
anguish or in bliss, — in harmony with the key-note 
of the wonderful counter-point in question, which, 
with " dulcet symphonies and voices sweet," or 
" stunning sounds, and voices all confused," sweetly 
soothed, or harshly racked my helpless soul, when I 
resigned her to the impulse of *^ thoughts that wander 

* Gu la proda mi trovai 

Delia valle d' Abisso dolorosa, 
Che tuono accoglie d' infiniti guai. 

Dante, Inf. Cant. iv. 



THE RETREAT. 57 

through eternity." la truth, those thoughts were 
burnt in — they can never be erased. Not a day of 
my life passes without some occurrence, some remark 
that I hear or read, brinoino- to mind the thous^hts 
and sentiments which I cherished as the distinctive 
marks of a disciple of Jesus, ere I perceived the 
reverse of the cunning transparency which exhibited 
the Jesuit. 

Other speculators require a certain degree of craft 
in the novice whom they admit to a share of their 
^'privileges;" but only the Jesuits require perfect 
simplicity — innocence without guile — in their novice; 
cru-elly concluding that such a nature is best adapted 
for that perfect, blind, entire obedience which ''re- 
cognises God in his superior." ^ 

The foregoing specimen of meditation is from my 
last retreat in the Novitiate— the great retreat of 
thirty days — which will be described in the sequel. 
When that retreat took place I had made consider- 
able progress in the art of meditation : during the 
retreat now in question the subjects of meditation 
were to my mind, in a great measure, "like water 
dripping on a hard rock," that rebounds and flows 
off, scarcely moistening the polished surface. I had 
certainly been accustomed to reflect, to think deeply ; 
but the subjects of such reflection were congenial, 
were scientific, philosophical ; 1 could always come 
to satisfactory conclusions — conclusions as to the 
admirable design of Providence, the beautiful har- 

* Ut constanter applicet animum, Deum in Superiore cognoscat. 
R. P. Claudii Aquav. P. G., Indust. cap. v. 6, Rom. 1606. 



58 



THE RETREAT. 



mony of creation, the destined moral government of 
the world, and that wonderful retributive justice 
which is dispensed to all men in reward for physical, 
moral, intellectual obedience to the laws of nature, 
or in punishment for physical, moral, intellectual in- 
fringement of the same Divine legislation. That was 
philosophical meditation. As will be presently evi- 
dent, this habit of thought, far from being of service 
in my present meditation, only tended to " distract^' 
my mind — to thwart the influence of the topics se- 
lected for my spiritual transformation. 

But there was ''a necessity upon me;" I must 
advance: to fall back at the very gates of the strong- 
hold which was about to surrender, would be absurd, 
disgraceful. 

Patiently, humbly, then, I listened to the words 
which explained to me the form and method of my 
first meditation. 

I was enjoined, first, " to place myself in the 
presence of God ;" that is, to make a firm act of faith 
in his omnipresence ; secondly, to ask his aid well to 
perform my meditation, and to derive the expected 
benefit therefrom ; and, thirdly, to invoke the assist- 
ance of the Virgin, the saints, and angels. The 
meditation lasts one hour. The subject was given on 
a slip of paper, and was divided into three points, 
giving the heads of the argument that was to be 
discussed between the soul and its inclinations, or, 
as phrenologists would say, between the superior 
sentiments and the animal propensities. 

We meditated in three positions — kneeling, stand- 



THE RETREAT. 59 

ing, sitting — a quarter of an hour in each position ; 
and, as by the last quarter the soul was supposed to 
have gone through that severe scrutiny which was 
to produce the resolution of amendment, we knelt 
during the last quarter, and made supplications to 
God, the Vircrin, the saints and ano-els — to God for 
grace y to the Virgin, &c., for the aid of intercession. 
This distinction is accurately made by Roman 
Catholics ; but the Jesuits certainly carry their 
veneration for the Virgin to an extravagant extent. 

At first this veneration, or hyperdulia, as it is 
termed, was but very indifferently embraced by me ; 
but after a while, when my feelings — the ardent feel- 
ings of one on whom woman's beauty always made 
an impression — were sanctified by the apparently 
virtuous source of their excitement, then it was 
that the worship of the Virgin was established in my 
heart to the fullest extent. If she was not my God, 
she had the power of my God, united to the fondest 
love of the fondest mother ! 

There was a time when I could make a satisfactory 
distinction between the worship of God and that of 
Mary ; but it was before I became a novice. I trust 
that I am justified in using the word 'Svorship" with 
reference to the Virgin, since in the Libellus, or prayer- 
book, which I used at Hodder — now open before me 
— the words Modus colendi are the same that would 
be applied to the Creator. An extract from the book 
will render that meaning more evident: — 

*^ All gifts, virtues, and the graces of the Holy 
Ghost himself, to whomsoever she wishes, in the 



60 THE RETREAT. 

manner she wishes, and when she wishes, are dis- 
pensed through the hands of Mary. 

*' Give her thanks, therefore, for all the benefits 
which she has obtained for thee from Christ, but par- 
ticularly for those which thou especially knowest 
that thou hast obtained by her intercession; such as 
the remission of the sins whereby thou hast offended 
God, — thy preservation from many sins, — many holy 
inspirations, greater fervour and devotion, greater 
relish for holy things ; a desire of virtue, particularly 
of humility, chastity, meekness, charity, sobriety, — a 
more ardent desire of promoting thy salvation and 
that of others — a bri^ihter oenius, a better memory, 
a keener intellect, greater diligence in study, and the 
like blessings, which, from the name given to her 
Congregation, thou seest and feelest, have been in- 
creased in thee. Yield and offer thyself entirely to 
her, beseeching her to take thee under her guardian- 
ship and patrona2:e, and to vouchsafe to defend thee 
— protected by her safeguard — from every danger of 
body and soul." 

In accordance with this advice, the name of Mary 
was constantly invoked by the novices : it was oftener 
uttered than that of God or the Redeemer. In truth, 
whatever verbal distinctions are made, the virtual 
effect is certain — God is contained in Mary : if she be 
not God to the deluded fanatic ! The misguided 
IsraeHtes forgot the God whom they could not see 
nor imagine, and fell down and worshipped the 
molten calf, which they could see and feel when 
present, and imagine when absent. Herein the 



THE RETREAT. 61 

human sympathies and cravinpfs act in perfect ac- 
cordance with their seducing nature. Thus, if I 
could not see or imagine my God, I could mentally 
see and imagine Mary; and oh! how beautiful is 
she pictured to the mind in the glowing, thrilling, 
gushing words of her worshippers, who have ex- 
hausted every metaphor, expended every figure of 
the beautiful, the sublime, the sweet, in eulogizing 
'' the Queen of Heaven*" ! 

I pity the mortal thus deluded into idolatry, whilst 
I denounce the carnal system ; for who that has had 
a kind, fond mother — of whom, thouo;h loner since 
laid in the cold grave, he often thinks, weeping 
sweet tears — can resist the impulse which urges him 
to seek and to find in Mary all that he loved in his 
kind, fond mother, infinitely enhanced by the power 
to bless him with the dear sug-eestions of a mother's 
heart? 

I have been speaking of emotions which were not 
yet awakened. At the commencement of my retreat, 
my mental movements were simply mechanical ; or, 
to develope the figure, my mind worked on the hori- 
zonlal principle — afterwards the lever was substituted 
with w^onderful success. 

I had four meditations each day, the intervals 
being filled up with verbal prayer, spiritual reading, 
an examination of conscience, preparatory to confes- 
sion, and a walk in the garden for relaxation. On 
the last occasion I was accompanied by the 
*' brother" who had me in charge for the week. This 

* See note A at the end of the Volume. 



62 THE RETREAT. 

indulgence was doubtless kindly intended to ease the 
pressure of the solitude into which I was suddenly 
thrown from the turmoil and busy scenes of life. In 
general, according to the requisition of Ignatius, a 
person, in retreat, must be left entirely to himself and 
his spiritual director, who should not visit him oftener 
than is absolutely necessary: the influence — the im- 
pulse being given in a certain direction, he is left to 
sail as the inner breathings blow : as long, at least, as 
the coast is clear and the light-house visible ; if not, 
he should prudently take his " pilot" on board ere his 
tiny bark founders on the hidden shoal. 

It must be manifest that few minds can be capable 
of this mental exile, which the ** Spiritual Exercises" 
of Ignatius suppose to exist. A habit of abstraction — 
of self-communion, is not to be put on as a garment ; 
a spiritual divorce from thoughts and sentiments to 
which we have been long wedded, cannot be ob- 
tained without considerable difficulty : if the will 
accuses the heart, the latter still makes out a strong 
case, and it rarely happens on such occasions 
that a reconciliation is not effected. Apparently 
aware of this obstacle, the Jesuits are cautioned not 
to administer all the ** Exercises'' to every mind ; 
but only "to a select few, and such as may seem 
adapted to greater things." The opinion of Ignatius 
on this subject is curious, and may throw some 
light on his system. He is said to have dictated the 
following sentiments : — " It does not appear to me 
tl*at any one is to be exhorted to go through these 
exercises, unless he has these or the most important 
of these dispositions — first, that he should be so 



THE RETREAT. 63 

constituted as to give hopes of becoming very useful 
to the house of God, if he be called to his service : 
secondly, if he has not as yet acquired those arts and 
sciences which give evidence of this utility, he should 
at least be young and clever enough to make it 
evident that he may in time acquire them : thirdly, he 
should be free to dispose of himself, even so far as to 
embrace the state of perfection, should God call him 
to that state : fourthly, he should seem inclined to 
spirituality, and have a comely and agreeable personal 
appearance :* fifthly, he must not be so addicted to 
anything as to seem unable to be separated from it 
without difficulty, and be trained to that equanimity 
which is required for this business of the soul, to be 
properly carried on with God.f 

Supposing, then, that the most important of these 
dispositions were sufficiently evident, the reader will 
now accompany me in spirit through my first retreat 
among the Jesuits. 

I will describe the scene of my retreat. As you 
entered the room, on the left was my bed, decently 
hung with homely curtains; opposite the bed was a 
small table upon which was a crucifix, and beside 
the table was a cushion to kneel on — imagine a chair, 
and my room is described. At some distance from 
the part of the house occupied by the novices, I 

* Habitumque corporis honestum ac decentem habeat. 

t Direct. Eserc. Spir, c. i. This is an interesting' little book, in 
my possession, printed in 1600, and bearing the following inscription 
on the title page : CgU. Soc. Jesu, Louanil — thus it belonged to one of 
the colleges before the suppression, viz., that of Louvain. 



64 THE RETREAT. 

beard nothing, saw nothing of them, except during 
meals. 

I have an unpleasant recollection of the first day, 
or rather of the first morning. A comparison will be 
the best exponent of my position. Travelling in 
Scotland several years before, 1 made an excursion 
on foot, visiting Melrose, Abbotsford, — and vener- 
ated the memory of the Scott over his tomb at Dry- 
burgh. On leaving this thrilling memory of the 
past — rendered still more acute by the association 
of the warrior's tomb hard by, and the damp chill 
cloisters of the abbey through which I had pre- 
viously strolled — I strayed from the road, and 
struggled for a footstep with the weeds and briars 
in general possession of the river's bank. I stood 
beneath the rough but thoughtful statue of 
Wallace. Thence following the winding stream, 
I journeyed on, hoping to find an easy fording- 
place ; but the farther I went the deeper it seemed to 
become. The day was far spent — to return would be 
long and tedious — but how to cross that impassable 
stream? I strained my eyes up the river towards 
the chorus of " giggling waves"* that were hurrying 
down to mock my dilemma ; but the rolling river 
rolled on, deep and broad, and seemed to say: *' If 
you would reach your liome, throw off all that will 
encumber you in the only path that I can give you; 
tie up that all in a bundle, and hold it high above 
your head, to be useful again when necessary: but you 

* Hqvt'huv KviiuTbJv dvrjpiOjxov yeXao-/ta. — Prom. iEsch. 90. 



THE RETHEAT. 65 

must take to my bosom — you must strike out boldly — 
advance, and God speed to you ! 

I did as the stream seemed to advise, and swam 
across to the opposite bank. 

If the reader will spiritualise this my little adven- 
ture, translating it into mind from body, he will con- 
ceive my mental position on that first morning of my 
"retreat." I will not offend his ingenuity by point- 
ing to all the similitudes ; and should they not be 
apparent at first sight, I am now to open ray mind 
and heart to him with such unhesitating confidence, 
that from imagining my distress on the river's bank— • 
from witnessing my struggle with the rushing 
stream — his transition will be easy to ray solitude ; 
where the world and all my fascinating hopes were 
the bank on which I stood, and the unpitying stream 
was adequately represented by the mental ordeal 
through which I had to pass, ere the home I was 
seeking could be reached. 

I have spoken of my enthusiasm. I now began to 
discover that, in embracing so rapturously the idea of 
becoming a Jesuit, I had given but very little thought 
to what Jesuits have to believe. The sioht of that 
crucifix in my room produced an emotion of which 
I had never been conscious before ! And whilst 
fixedly gazing on that awful image of hideous 
d.ng\us\\j—feeli7ig, as it were, the endless pangs of 
those cruel wounds that suspended what they tor- 
tured, — the spell of my dreams was broken : a d iso- 
lating reality stood before me, and I seemed to hear 
those uncompromising words of life : — " lie that 

F 



66 THE RETREAT. 

taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not 
worthy of me." 

The Jesuits had presented themselves to my excit- 
able imagination as gods of intellect; whose mental 
omnipotence and beneficence had showered innumer- 
able gifts on every department of knowledge, human 
and Divine. 

My ambition was certainly equal to my enthu- 
siasm, and the " inspiration " which agitated my 
mind seemed an earnest, not to be doubted, of a 
glorious future in this world at least : for the thouH;ht 
of another world is not a haunting spirit of 
youth. Conscious of possessing a will whose efforts 
have rarely been unsuccessful, by the unflinching 
industry and application which are its instruments 
in the pursuit of knowledge, I had resolved to strive 
for the highest, the noblest wreath of intellectual 
renown. A Tursellini in classical learning — a 
BoscoviCH in mathematics — a Tiraboschi in 
general literature — a Bell arming in ecclesiastical 
learning and controversy — or a Bourdaloue in 
sacred eloquence : such were my models, to be 
selected by my superiors for my imitation, — to be 
imitated by me. How ravishing was the thought! 
how strong and sublime the hope ! But it was the 
last high eminence that glimmered to my mind's eye 
from afar, like the constellation of the Southern 
Cross — flaming above in majesty, and beautiful 
amidst the beautiful — to the mariner in his midnight 
watch when doubling the " Cape of Hope." I 
pictured myself standing in tlie pulpit, pouring 



THE RETREAT. 67 

forth the forceful words of resistless conviction, and 
the conquering appeals of sweet persuasion. Oh ! 
how my heart beats even now when I think of that 
entrancing thought — those fascinating hopes ! The 
desire of inspiring my fellow-men with exalted 
thoughts of man's high destiny, and with expanding 
sentiments of large, gocl-like benevolence towards all 
that is man, even now makes me regret sometimes, 
that it is not my calhng *' to preach the gospel!" . . . 
All these thoughts and hopes vanished as I stood 
gazing on that crucifix : the fire of my human desires 
grew dim : was eclipsed by the cloud of that agony, 
pain, humiliation, — the withering scorn of men ! 
These must now be the objects of desire, for it was 
spoken : " He that taketh not his cross, and fol- 
loweth after me, is not worthy of me !".... 

To one who is keenly alive to every internal and 
^ external impulse, the emotion produced by the sight 
of the crucifix was like the sight — to the hopeless 
merchant — of his long-desired ship, laden with all 
the riches of the East, wrecked and sunk as it enters 
into port. Then, for the first time, I became aware 
of the unfitness of my mind for religious practices, 
as suggested by the faith of the Romish church. 
True I had not been, as I am now, totally separated 
from that communion ; but there were many points 
of " dissent" in my creed, which certainly drove me 
to the very brink of heresy. Still I was a Roman 
Catholic — as it were, a believer under temptation : 
a state in which, perhaps, many of that communion 
live and die! From my eighteenth year I had 

v2 



68 THE RETREAT. 

doubts — temptations against the faith. Contro- 
versial works had been my favourite study: I 
endeavoured to arm myself in defence of the Church ; 
but it was this very process that produced the doubts 
that threatened my final separation from the faith 
which I, not unfrequently, and successfully defended. 

During the few weeks that intervened between my 
first interview w^ith the Jesuit who was then the 
London agent of Stonyhurst, and my departure for 
the Novitiate, I had been to confession and com- 
munion. At the request of the Jesuit, the priest 
who absolved me gave me a testimonial of his 
unqualified belief as to my "vocation." My enthu- 
siasm stifled my doubts ; but they returned with the 
greater violence when I had been a day or two in 
the company of the " Fathers " at Stonyhurst. I 
have already enlarged on my disappointed expecta- 
tions : if it was not the fault of these men that 
they did not edify me, it was doubtless mine that 
I was scandalized. I am willing to give them the 
benefit of the doubt : content to state facts and 
impressions without exaggeration or suppression. 

In this frame of mind, then, I had to meditate on the 
saving truths of Christianity, as unfolded and applied 
by Ignatius to the " ground-work "* of the Jesuit. 

I meditated on "the end of man." The subject 
had long been familiar to my thoughts. I had 
worked out the problem : to my own satisfaction at 
least; and notthemost unimportant corollary deduced, 

* Ad fundamentum. Exerc, Spirit. 



DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 69 

was the conviction that we have considerably iinsiin- 
pUfied the plain words of Revelation, and have been 
unaccountably deaf to the suggestions of Nature : 
which, after all, is revelation more or less obscured 
or invisible to the eves of the thou2:htless and the 
sensual. The "prelude — " for there were preludes to 
each meditation — was quite in accordance with my 
religion or philosophy : if the candid reader will not 
be terrified by the legitimate use of a much-abused 
term, which, like the holy name of the Redeemer in 
the word " Jesuit," has been piteously degraded from 
its original acceptation.^ *^ Man was created for 
this end — to praise and revere the Lord his God, 
and by serving Him, to be saved at last."t 

I embraced the pleasing theme as an old friend : 
but I could not help thinking, ever and anon, that 
my thoughts on the subject were not those of the 
Jesuits, however firmly convinced I was that they 
w^ere in perfect accordance with the doctrines and 
life of Jesus. In the doctrines and life of the 
Redeemer I had found nothing wanting ; whereas 
the Jesuits would require from me the unqualified 
profession of the Romish faith : which had been 
hkened, in my imagination, to certain tropical nuts 
whose kernel is inexplicably involved in a hard, 
tough, intertwisted husk enclosing a harder shell. 
For I was willing to admit that there was some truth 
in the system : some signs of vitality, some indica- 
tions of soundness : a period of decomposition so 

* See note B. 

J Exerc. Spirit. Med. i. 



70 DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 

grateful in rich viands to the epicure. How easy is 
the transition from the *' flesh-pots of Egypt" to 
the flesh-pots of religion ! And what a splendid 
mental epicureanism is the religion of Rome ! And 
how the Jesuits of old enhanced its attractions by 
their orthodox expediency in the ticklish matter of 
morality ! But I am anticipating a momentous ques- 
tion — I return to the " end of man.'^ Some of the 
motives held forth for a grateful return to the Creator, 
in consideration of all His manifold blessings, were 
satisfactory; but I outstripped the scope of the 
" point," and expatiated in universal nature for the 
unnumbered motives that suggest the name of the 
all-wise, all-good, eternal God, to the heart as well 
as to the mind of the grateful worshipper. And to 
crown all, God himself took the form of his favoured 
creature, and thus exalted man still higher in the 
grades of creation : hence, perhaps, the noblest 
secondary motive of Christian morality — namely, not 
to degrade that which was glorified by a God made 
man 

I need not say that I was but little " distracted " 
during the meditation : if the whole train of my 
thoughts, strictly speaking, was not a palpable dis- 
traction throughout, according to the ideas of Igna- 
tius. However, the hour passed off very agreeably. 

According to practice, the Father of the Novices 
visited me after the meditation. He seemed, as it 
were, the divine physician feeling the pulse of my 
soul. I *^ reported progress " to his satisfaction. 

My next meditation was on " sin," and was less 



DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 71 

satisfactory. My philosophy totally revised the 
''points." I found them inconsequent through- 
out: confused, absurd. That is, of course, according 
to the views vv^hich I had taken of the subject: 
having apparently reconciled the morality of pure 
revelation with that suggested by the laws which 
govern external nature in which we move, by the 
bodily and mental structure or organization with 
which we are endowed, and by the bodily and 
mental rewards and penalties which perpetually 
remind us of a superintending Providence. 

I became uneasy. I thought of arguing the points 
with the Superior : but a moment's reflection con- 
vinced me that I came to be converted not to convert. 
Was it possible for me to assent to the doctrine? 
If not, how could I be a conscientious, an honest 
Jesuit ? , . . . I told the Father despondingly that 
I had been sadly distracted in this meditation. He 
smiled benignly ; said he was not surprised at it, 
and with great '' unction," as sentimental piety is 
called, he unfolded the cause of the failure : which, 
he said, manifestly resulted from the flesh battling 
with the spirit!^ ''Never mind, brother!" said he, 
sweetly, " grace will be given you to see all things 
clearly : by-and-by all will be well !" The apparent 
candour of his sentiment nearly extorted from my 
heart the confession of my heresy ; but he continued 

* I find this cause among the many given by Aquaviva in his 
Industrial f cap. 3, viz.. Ex desideriis et inordinate afFectu erga aliquid, 
quod subinde recurrit et animum pulsat, mentemque ad se importune 
revocat. 



72 DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 

his pious instruction with such seeming gratification, 
that I was unwilling to blast the hope which he had 
so fervently and confidently expressed. 

By this time, I had half convinced myself that my 
hope of becoming a Jesuit was very uncertain ; for 
the idea of subscribing to their doctrines with a 
^* mental reservation" never entered into my mind. 

'* Death" was the subject of my third meditation. 
I grappled with the grim tyrant, and brought him to 
a parley. This time I could give a good account of 
my soul, as far as its peace and quiet were concerned ; 
for the wise, and merciful, and beneficent ends sub- 
served by death throughout creation, filled my mind 
with sweet thousfhts of the Creator's universal love. 
By a curious contradiction, it was impossible for me 
to follow the leading ideas of the '' points." I could 
see nothing terrible in death, or the simple cessation 
of the body's functions, after having done their ap- 
pointed work. Further, from the constant tendency 
of all organic nature to give pleasure : to bless with 
comfort some one or other of God's creatures, I had 
been deeply impressed with unbounded faith in the 
Creator's goodness and love ; so that I looked beyond 
the grave with unshaken hopefulness, despite the 
consciousness of my infirmities : since I had re- 
marked, as every one must, that the physical blessings 
of nature are freely dispensed to all — to the unjust 
as well as the just; though their pleasures are con- 
fined to those who use and do not abuse them. 

Such were the thoughts that entertained my first 
hours of the Retreat: it is evident that they were not 



DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 73 

in the spirit of Ignatius. This state of things was 
not to continue : the trial was at hand. 

"Judgment," ''Hell," and ''Heaven," were the 
following topics. ... I confessed my doubts : I 
could conceal them no longer. My views of the 
subjects were totally at variance with the doctrine 
of the " points." I could not reconcile them. I 
despaired for my "vocation," and wept with bitter 
anguish. The good Father endeavoured to calm my 
agitation. Of course he did not argue with me: that 
was out of the question ; for " the devil is not to be 
argued with." He advised me to pray : to pray fer- 
vently for aid : it would be given : the tempter would 
vanish. He said he would pray for me: 'twas 
natural that I should not be easily surrendered by the 
Evil One : but the will of Heaven would be accom- 
plished in me in spite of all his efforts I .... 

These his last words were to me like the last and 
conquering remedy of the physician to the desperate 
patient. 

" The will of Heaven would be accomplished in me, 
in spite of all his efforts !" This appeal to my ruling 
sentiment was electric in its effects. Instantly I de- 
termined, with all the strength of my will, to believe : 
and I believed ! From that moment, the few doubts 
that rose up against me were easily vanquished. I 
felt totally changed in opinion on every subject. I 
prayed with fervour, meditated with comfort, and was 
eager, " like a giant prepared to run his course,'* 
to begin a new life of action as well as of sen- 
timent I 



74 DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 

Strange ! inexplicable ! if the sentiment was not an 
illusion. Here was an inspiration of faith produced 
by an appeal to a sentiment which was certainly in- 
timately allied to vanity ; or at least to a self-idea, that 
mere human pride may suggest as a motive of rational 
ambition ! I have felt the force of this omnipotent 
flattery, and therefore can pity the deluded " con- 
verts" who seek in the Midian of Romanism that 
sensual spirituality which is not permitted to the 
faithful pilgrims of the desert. More of the letter of 
the law is required of the Roman Catholic than of 
the Protestant, but not more of the spirit, if so 
much ; since the heart must be strong in faith to live 
up to the doctrines and model of Jesus, when the 
allurements, the pleasant devices, the '^ soft impeach- 
ments" of Romanism are not admitted into the 
sanctuary : where, in spirit and singleness of heart, 
the spiritual worshipper seeks God, and God 
alone. 

Henceforth I have to describe myself as a devout 
believer : tempted, but still striving to resist — to con- 
quer the thoughts that were ready, at every moment, 
to rise and appeal for a dispassionate judgment. 

With faith came compunction. I was anxious to 
unburthen my conscience to my spiritual director. 
About the middle of the Retreat I began my con- 
fession. 

This, of course, was essential. Whoever is admitted 
into the society must, on his entrance, make a general 
confession of his whole life, to be repeated every six 
months after : on account, it is said, of the manifold 



DOUBTS AND WAVERINGS. 75 

utility to the spirit which is evidenced in that per- 
formance."^ It was a general confession, then, that I 
had to make : a confession which included all the 
sins of my past life up to that time. 

This great undertaking is performed by Roman 
Catholics at their first communion ; and only occa- 
sionally afterwards, according to the advice of their 
spiritual directors, which is influenced by the sup- 
posed state of the penitent's soul : for it is considered 
useful to rouse the lukewarm to a fruitful effort, when 
their relaxed vigilance is preparing a grievous fall. 

It is only necessary to confess *' mortal sins ;" for 
" venial sins" are not ^* matter for absolution." The 
distinction between a mortal and a venial sin, is, in 
most cases, easy enough; as the ^* intention" of the 
penitent, together with the *^ circumstances," decides 
the judgment of the expert casuist; who has been 
dihgently instructed in all the intricate, and fre- 
quently disgusting shades of human frailty. By a 
mortal sin is meant a sin which causes " death to the 
soul :" in other words, which would consign the soul 
to eternal perdition. It is defined as a wilful infringe- 
ment of the commandments of God, or of the church, 
in a grave matter, by thought, word, or deed. A 
venial sin is defined to be a sh^ht dereliction of those 
duties which result from the commandments of God, 
or of the church, in a light matter ; or in a grave 
matter, without perfect consent of the will; and con- 
sequently pardonable, as the Latin word, rather in- 
congruously, is made to signify : for by implication 

* Exam. Gen. cap. 4. 



76 



INVESTMENT AND 



we might conclude that a mortal sin is not pardon- 
able. Absolution, however, is always given — " to 
make sure ;" and for this purpose the penitent is 
requested " to accuse himself of some particular sin 
of his past life, writh a fervent act of contrition." 

In my confession to the ather of the novices, I 
was candid and minute to the utmost. Every sin of 
my past hfe: every propensity, was confessed without 
reluctance. I never felt shame in confession. I 
looked upon the priest as the vicegerent of the 
Almighty, and often exaggerated rather than dimi- 
nished my guilt. To the Jesuit I told all — absolutely 
all : his every question received an unhesitating reply. 
It is commonly thought that Roman Catholics do not 
tell all in confession : for myself, I can only say that 
the idea of a sacrilegious confession and communion 
was always horrific to my mind ; and I have even 
confessed a nightly dream on the morning of com- 
munion, in order to be *' spotless" for that astounding 
ceremonial. Gratified, doubtless, by my candour; 
exulting in my fervour, and triumphing in the victory 
gained, the good father poured forth the honeyed 
words of consolation : assuring me that '^ all the 
past was past" and would be forgotten, and that 
it was now, by a most especial grace, granted me to 
make amends by a life of meritorious deeds in the 
holy Society of Jesus. Then followed the absolution, 
which he pronounced with strong emotion, and con- 
cluded with the words '* Go and sin no more I pray 
for me!" 

In the evening he brought me my cassock, with 



BLESSING. 



77 



the discipline and the chain; and, with a fervent 
blessing and prayer that I would wear it in hohness 
and sincerity, he commended me to the Virgin and 
holy Aloysius, and left me — a saint in anticipation : 
for I was determined to wear the garb in the manner 
recommended, and I certainly endeavoured to my 
utmost to do so during my eventful year ; as the 
Jesuits can testify, and have testified. 



78 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE NOVICE A CONTEMPLATION RESULTS. 

On the following morning I received the sacrament, 
or the Eucharist, as Roman Catholics call it, at 
mass. The recollected demeanour of the novices 
during that ceremony — their hands joined on the 
breast — using no book, but with eyes downcast in 
mental prayer, — the apparent fervour of the Superior : 
seeming to weep as he ejaculated the words that 
others repeat as a task, — these signs of a religious 
life I had not appreciated till the morning of my 
first communion in the Novitiate. I cannot forget 
the mere sensation of the gown, which, as it were, 
veiled all that was worldly in me from my eyes, that 
now would fain forget every object that they had 
ever rested on with pleasure. That gown transformed 
me as much as any other influence in the Novitiate. 
On all occasions it was a monitor to me. I always 
put it on with pleasure, and could have wished 
never to appear without it: for to me it seemed to 
suggest the resolve to attain perfection. I con- 
sidered it in the hght of a contract made with 



THE NOVICE. 79 

Heaven — a covenant which cancelled the past, and 
gave me a rule of life for the future. 

I remember my sensations on that morning, as if 
they were of yesterday. My meditation was most 
interesting by its comparisons and association of 
ideas ; which enable me to call to mind thoughts as 
far back as my sixth year, and have rendered easy the 
task of reproducing my mind in the Novitiate. Thus 
all things that the eyes can see, the ears hear, the 
hands touch, the nostrils smell, the tongue taste, 
have been made to me records of thoughts to be re- 
called to mind at any moment. 

On the morning in question, during that medita- 
tion, I likened my soul's condition to scenes that I 
had witnessed after a hurricane within the Tropics. 

The roar of the winds, that have raged from every 
quarter in succession, has ceased — the shout of the 
sailor striving to save his ship from the shore — the 
crash of falling rafters — the screams of women, have 
heard their last echo ; and the sea, the terrible deep, 
that seemed in its fury last night about to engulf the 
little island, now smiles in its thousand ripples, curled 
by the morning breeze born from its own cool bosom,^ 
as the rising sun in the east pours his life-giving 
radiance on the isle now waking from its troubled 
sleep. 

Let us go forth and see the work of the hurricane. 
Here are the remnants of a wreck, the greater part of 
which is now floating far and wide on the wilderness 
of ocean, soon to be covered with moss, and weeds, 

* The sea breeze. 



80 A CONTEMPLATION. 

and shell-fisb, and then to become a shelter for the 
fish that seek their food, only to be preyed upon by 
others larger and fiercer than themselves. 

There, see ! are numerous shells and curious 
mosses thrown up from the treasury of ocean — 
useless where they were — but if some clever hand 
will cleanse them from their dross, and polish and 
sort them, how beautiful they will be — those shells of 
every hue ; and yet not tinted in vain, but for some 
wise end, some bounteous purpose, some providential 
destiny. 

Here is a dead body — cold — stiff! Poor sailor ! 
the ocean, thy adopted mother, has wafted thee 
kindly once more to a home — the home of the grave; 
and strangers will bury thee in a strange land, far 
from all that may love thee ; and no mother will 
weep over thee a mother's tear, nor sister wreathe a 
garland of the wild flowers, that daily she may 
renew. 

Observe that man. Sadly he sits beside that 
wreck ; he was the owner of the vessel which but 
yesterday rode gaily at anchor in the harbour — a 
strong, tight bark, ready for a voyage. He laments, 
uselessly bewails, his sudden loss: the wreck must be 
broken to pieces, sold by lots, all to be burnt, or 
applied to uses for which it seemed never to have been 
destined.^ 

Such was my contemplation. I likened the world 
that I had left to the hurricane ; my present state was 

* The foregoing- contemplation is, in every particular, a scene which 
I witnessed in the West Indies in my tenth year. 



A CONTEMPLATION. 81 

the calm that followed, and the rising sun was the 
quickening spirit of religion. 

The remnants of the wreck were my remaining 
propensities and failings ; those that were floating far 
and wide were my evil deeds — their scandal, that 
might be made an excuse to sin by others whom I 
had influenced, and thus the Evil One would find 
his prey. 

The mosses and shells were the faculties of my 
mind — Will, Memory, and Understanding — which 
would now be divinely trained and directed to the 
work of edification. 

The dead body — the carcass — was self-will — was 
self, now no longer living, if it was still unburied, 
and resigned to decay without reluctance, in spite of 
the heart's suggestions. 

The disconsolate owner of the stranded bark was 
the spirit of the world, that might now lament in 
vain the wreck of all that it had in me — all that 
was now to be burnt or applied to other uses, — uses 
which the spirit of the world could not conceive. 

My first day after the retreat was a holiday for me 
in both senses of the word : recreation for the body 
as well as gladness — exultation for the mind. 

Two of the novices were ordered to take me for a 
walk in the vicinity. We conversed cheerfully on 
the rules and regulations to which I was now to con- 
form ; and they seemed surprised, I remember, to find 
me so happy in my lot — so eager to run the race, to 
fight the battle, to ascend " unto the holy moun- 
tain." 

G 



82 



RESULTS. 



On meeting my brothers at recreation after dinner, 
I received congratulations on all sides — radiant, sweet 
looks, that seemed to reflect the emotions of gladness 
I felt in beino- called to their brotherhood. 

My duties began in the afternoon, I think, with 
''manual works," but my probation did not virtually 
commence till the morning after. A preliminary idea 
of life in the Novitiate will be given in the followins; 
chapter ; meanwhile I shall enable the reader to 
judge of the results of the Novitiate in my individual 
case, by transcribing a portion of a letter written to 
a friend in London, within a month after my admis- 
sion. With this friend I corresponded during the 
year. It is necessary to state that he was my fellow- 
student at college, and is a Roman Catholic. His 
letters were always given to me open: that is, with 
the seal broken; my letters were given to the Supe- 
rior open, and he sealed and sent them to their desti- 
nation : whether they were read, or merely glanced 
over, I cannot say. This was perfectly understood 
and agreed to on my part. I merely mention the 
fact as an elucidation : the extraordinary sentiments 
which my letters contained went forth " by permis- 
sion," either read or glanced over. I state the fact, 
the reader must draw conclusions. 

This letter, which has been kindly returned to me 
at my request, bears date the 8th of March, and is 
headed thus: — ''From my sweet Hermitaoe at 
Hodder." Curiously enough, the name and day of 
the month are in Greek. It is written on a laroe 
sheet of paper. The first twenty or thirty lines relate 



RESULTS. 83 

to some literary matters I had on hand when I left 
London : totally foreign to the present purpose, except 
a certain note which was to have been appended to a 
passage, and which called attention to a curious old 
book written by a Jesuit — the same which is alluded 
to in the introduction as " Hints on Etiquette." The 
letter proceeds as follows: — 

" However, now it (the note aforesaid) must be 
anathema ! for although our good Superior gave me 
leave in the first instance to write the note, he has 
since expressed his doubts whether it might not be 
detrimental to the Society, by exciting researches 
which may be directed to a wrong end, in these times 
of atrocious scandal. To such reasons I submit un- 
qualifiedly; nay, to the slightest intimation. You 

will, therefore, call on , and request him to omit 

the note, without explaining reasons, but merely by 
second thought. However, I leave all to your good 
judgment, do what you think fit, and you will do 
right. There was a time when I might have pre- 
ferred my own darling will in such a moment ; but, 
thank God ! I make the sacrifice with pleasure, so 
that you may consign it ' emendaturis ignibus' aut, 
'in mare Creticum portare ventis/ and God be 
praised ! On its end I said, * Laus Deo semper,'' 
as I said in its beginning, * Ad majorem Dei 
o;loriam' — now, anathema sit! 

** And now, my dear friend, having eliminated 
these preliminaries, let us turn to our honey-comb, 
and sip of its sweets. Daily I grow more and more 
enamoured with this terrestrial paradise ; daily my 

G 2 



84 RESULTS. 

heart overflows with love to mv God, who has been 
so singularly kind to me ! I shudder when the me- 
mory of the past rises in judgment against me ! How 
I fluttered on the abyss of infidelity ! You remember 
the wanderings of my mind — the specious arguments 
she framed on the basis of impassioned flesh. Yes, 
I was almost a Deist, and imagined I served God in 
simplicity of heart. But the winter is past, and the 
spring-flowers of repentance have budded in my poor 
soul. For all God's mercies may his holy name be 
blessed ! I talked to you of a ' system' which I had 
framed ; I have given it to oblivion, fearful of the 
curse pronounced by the oracle of Truth — Corrupti 
et ahominahiles facti sunt in studiis eorum, &c. Sec. 
!N"ow I am cured ; now I begin to relish the milk of 
Truth ; and, from the midst of my soul, I exclaim — 
How happy and enviable is the mental condition of 
those, who, cradled on a houndless Faith, and cheer- 
fully sleeping on a magnificent Hope, can feel edified 
by every act of piety — can relish every legend, how- 
ever absurd in its conception, and rest secure as to 
the merit of their minutest practice, in the presence 
of their God ! The sceptic, puffed up with a proud 
exaltation of mind, may smile, and see an exemption 
from all such 'absurdities' in the abyss of God's 
mercy ; but he must still confess that his faith is but 
weak, and, his hope but frail; for if we ' would enter 
into life, we must become as little children.' 

^ ^p ^ t/P ^* 

'* Yes, my dear friend, without virtue no one can 
be happy. I w^as high-spirited before, but only now. 



RESULTS. 85 

since I have left all to gain all, do I feel a joy 
which is inexpressible ; in truth, my heart bursts 
with exultation, and I had almost said, * Enough, 
enough !' . . . 

"All with us is so regular; every minute appro- 
priated ; all my brethren so charitable, so loving, so 
filled with that piety which, albeit I have it not so 
abundantly as they, I can still admire it in them, 
and bless God. Oh! Vvould that you were here, my 
dear friend ! Next to heaven, I cannot wish you 
anything greater ; for these solitudes only lack the 
'beatific vision" to make them heaven itself! Emi- 
nently favoured by nature, as you shall see when you 
come to visit me, (which must be in June or July), 
they are fit for angels, not men. 

"Oh yes! my soul, let us a thought of love ex- 
press; for now the spring begins to rise from out her 
vestal grave, and, pure as virgin's heart, ascend her 
buds. Her breasts are fair, her locks stream beauti- 
fully down, and lo ! her feet are sandalled by the 
flower-awakening showers. Haste ! my beloved I 
my soul I and with thy breath invite the primrose 
and the daisy to adore, with us, our God, when 
Spring shall ope her eyes. Invite the roses of the 
bovvers, and daisy of the everlasting fields; bid them, 
too, come and deck the garland for the Saviour's 
altar ; and His lily, too, honoured of flowers I inno- 
cent and modest-eyed, with downcast look, and 
virgin purity. Come all ! and let us sing the praises 
of our God, because the Spring doth come to gladden 
all. The hills, the mountains, the dales, the bosky 



86 RESULTS. 

dells — all shall re-eclio to our song, because all shall 
rejoice ! The flocks, the herds, slowly emerging 
with their unbound feet, shall come to our acclaim ; 
and lo ! the birds will chorus join, and all creation 
will a hymn upraise to God eternal ! Lovely Spring ! 

time of flowers 1 time of the loves and song of 
little birds ! Now breathes my soul a pious aspira- 
tion to her Love, my Saviour ! Blessed is Thy name, 
because Thou art the Love, the Life of all — thrice 
blessed is Thy name !'' 

Excuse this long quotation from a little work which 

1 have conceived for you, particularly, to be entitled, 
'^Solitude; or, the Spring-Flowersof my Hermitage." 
J shall give it to you, permissu superiorum, when 
concluded, if you come to see me next June or July. 
It will be religious, or mixto-religious — it will treat of 
the heart and its eternal love. The above is an ex- 
tract from it. I intended to send you the procemium, 
but have not time or room. I find it a wonderful 
help to piety to record the burstings of sudden reli- 
gious feeling, and have found many of my inveterate 
^presentiments overcome by writing down the contrary 
inspirations of the moment. These thoughts occur 
when I am at my " silent occupation"* in the garden, 
and my soul is so entranced with delight that, in 
truth, the body *' dulci laborum decipitur sono" — 
they 

*' Dissolve me in sweet exstacies, 
And bring all Heaven before my eyes !" 

• That is, '* Manual "Works," vrbicli are described in the next 



RESULTS. . 87 

The other morning, as I was in silence beneath the 
garden-willows, I heard the thrush warbling its little 
hymn to its Creator. I rejoiced with it, and imagina- 
tion bearing me to distant climes, I felt the delicious 
dream steal over me, and thus my memory narrates 
my thoughts — an offering to the God of all things 
and of Spring.* 

"TV* •A* "?(• 

And now, my dear friend, I must tell you my 
joy for the pious resolution of our good friend 

. God be praised ! I have not ceased to pray 

for you both. Yesterday's fast and exercises I 
offered up for you — to-day's for our perseverance in 
our good purposes — and now I must beg you to pray 
for me, that I may be faithful to the great grace 
which has been vouchsafed to me — that it may 
be in truth eduxit in soliiudinem, et quoniam voluit, 
salvum ine fecit. Do take your resolution with de- 
termination — certa veriiiter et prospere procede. Re- 
member the adage, consuetudo consuetudine vincitur — - 
cella continuata dulcesclt — retirement becomes sweeter 
and sweeter, and the end of it is " a perfect 
possession of one's self" — a conviction that we 
walk in God and with God, and that angels attend 
us. But the election must be speedily made — 
delay were fatal. An eternity is at stake — present 
graces may never be offered again — seize them 
now — *^ for Heaven suffers violence, and the 

chapter. We were cautioned not to write about anything- that took, 
place in the Novitiate — hence the mystery of the allusion. 

* This is an ode written in Frencii — it is given in the Appendix. 



88 RESULTS. 

violent bear it away." It is related* in Hilary de 
Cost's *• Eloges des femmes illustres," that Jane, 
daughter of Alphonsus V., King of Portugal, was 
sought after in marriage, on account of her incom- 
parable beauty, by the greatest princes of Christen- 
dom. Three particularly desired her hand — Louis XL, 
for his dauphin, Charles VIIL; Maximilian of 
Austria; and Richard IIL of England. But she, 
elevating her thoughts still higher, renounced the 
marriage of earthly kings for that of the King of 
Heaven; to whom she sacrificed the beauty which 
she had received from his hand, and became a re- 
cluse in the very austere monastery of Alveiro, of 
the order of St. Dominic. The conduct of this 
young princess may serve to symbolise that of our 
soul. We may say that she is beautiful, because 
she serves God, and therefore must love Him — aman- 
do Deumpulchra efficitur. 

And she is sought after in marriage. The princes 
of darkness have all desired her. — Mammon, the god 
of riches and the pride of life — Lucifer, the god of 
human applause and ambition — and Asmodeus, the 
god of pleasure and sensuality. But she has re- 
jected all their offers for the Divine spouse Christ 
Jesus. Let us make her choice eternal. If we love 
a creature, however beautiful or amiable, our love 
still craves on, and there is no fuel to satisfy its 
burning : but if we love Thee, my God I where shall 
it end ? or when shall the soul exclaim *' Enough V* 

* Vide St. Jure, Connais. de Jesus Christ, 



RESULTS. 89 

Thou art beyond all space, all time — and at the 
thought of Thy name, the soul swells and is 
exalted. In Thee, as in an abyss, we may lose our- 
selves in infinite and eternal love — may ascend to the 
highest heaven where Thou livest midst the blaze of 
seraphim and cherubim — or descend to the lowest of 
hell where Thou art terrible in the furnace of Thine 
anger ! We may see and love Thee in all Thy 
creatures — in the modest primrose which first salutes 
the spring, or in the grandeur of the centenary oak. 
We may love Thee in the song of the friendly linnet 
that pipes its little accent of praise, or in the 
thunder and crash of elements when the devastating 
hurricane rages, and to Thy name sings '' Venite 
adoremusr Come let us adore! for thou art an 
unfathomable and boundless ocean of being — YliXayos 
yap 2d ova-la's aTT€Lpov kcll aopicrrov. 

My dear friend, you know the sincerity of my 
heart — believe me, if I now hold a different language 
to you than I was wont to indulge in, I love you, 
and therefore would wish you as well off as myself 
on the Great Day ! 

Tell , ^ he has done well — but has yet more 

to do. Let him consider the case well ! Still for 
ever yours — adieu — and pray for me, both of you — 
that I may persevere — that is all — I am, thank God ! 
very happy,*' 

Such were the '^ results" of three weeks in the 
Novitiate. That a total change — a metamorphosis, 

* Alluding- to a friend whom I had advised to embrace the priesthood 
— he took my advice — at all events he has become a priest ! 



90 RESULTS. 

had taken place in my mind, is, perhaps, very evi- 
dent ; and the enthusiasm of the letter vi^ill prepare 
the reader for what is to follow. Every previous 
train of thought in my mind was broken up ; new 
roads and by-paths were being made through its 
wilderness. 



91 



CHAPTER VII. 



A day's occupation. 



The reader may perhaps remember a pretty little 
fable {Der Adler) of Lessing : — " Man once asked 
the Eagle, 'Why dost thou bring up thy young so 
high in the air?' The Eagle replied, 'Would they, 
when grown up, venture so near the sun if I brought 
them up low down on the earth ? ' " 

The plan of Ignatius is just the reverse: he clips 
the wings of the will long before the joyous scenes of 
nature's freedom tempt it to soar. He begins with 
abasement — humiliation — complete subj ection — de- 
gradation, and ends with (the certain result) " perfect 
obedience." This he ensures by never-ending prac- 
tice : of this he is convinced before he says to the 
trembling novice, " Proceed !" ; and this, finally, he 
secures by avow — pronounced freely, fervently, in the 
presence of his representative and a witness — to the 
Eternal God ! If I am asked what is the essential 
characteristic of a Jesuit in the estimation of his 
superiors — the characteristic which alone gives value 
to every virtue or talent — without which characteristic 



92 A day's occupation. 

in its most unscrupulous, in its blindest extravagance, 
the society disowns, discards him,' — I say that cha- 
racteristic is perfect obedience. This is the very 
soul of the society, — the heart, the mainspring, the 
fulcrum, the foundation, the royal hank of the society 
which is always solvent, however large, sudden, or 
unexpected the demand may be ! In his Superior 
the Jesuit " lives, moves, and has his being ;" the 
will of the Superior is to him the will of God.* 

We rose at five, or half past, I forget which. The 
brother porter (of whose office, more anon) walked 
from curtain to curtain, which he scratched, uttering 
the words ^' Deo gratiasV^ "thanks be to God!" 
to which every novice replied, " T)eo gratiasl'^ and 
rose instantly. As soon as he was out of bed he 
pulled the upper sheets over the foot of the bed, and, 
"collecting himself," that is, thinking of God, or 
making some pious ejaculations, he dressed him- 
self as speedily as possible, but still with the 
utmost decorum, without bustle or noise. When 
completely dressed, and not before, he emerged from 
his cell. 

One after another we filed down to the back 
regions of the house, where there was a pump, and 
there we performed the first menial duty of " Holy 
Obedience." 

* See CoNSTiT. •passim — but more particularly Part vi. c. 5, where 
it is decided that the guilt of sin is attached to disobedience when the 
Superior commands, " in the name of our Lord Jesus Chmt, or in 
Virtue of Obedience ! " The subject will be fully discussed in the 
sequel. 



A day's occupation. 93 

This was done calmly, seriously, piously, — for we 
walked in prayer. I doubt not that the reader will 
imagine that we must have been tempted to smile 
and indulge an excusable merriment at many of our 
occupations. At first, such symptoms of frivolity 
were apparent,* but after a week or two, it was 
astonishing how seriously the very thing that had 
seemed so comical inspired sentiments of devotion. 
But the reason is obvious. Clement XIV., the 
pope who abolished the society of the Jesuits cooked 
for himself J whilst a prey to the dismal malady that 
proceeded from, or followed that suppression,— 
because " poniards and poison were incessantly before 
him."* Cincinnatus the Roman, victorious over 
the enemies of his country, returned in triumph to 
Rome, but laid down his office as dictator, and retired 
to plough his fields. Dionysius of Syracuse, and 
Louis Philippe, it is said, were not ashamed " to 
keep a school." A hundred examples of the like 
nature crowd to the mind, and all give evidence that 
when the human will is firmly directed by any 
motive, human or divine, things despised, abhorred 
before, become invested with honour — inspire sen- 
timents of esteem and affection. The first repug- 
nance will give place to satisfaction ; and the motive 
held forth, whatever it may be, will induce us to 
outstrip the letter of necessity in the spirit of love. 

" Call it a travel that thou tak'st for pleasure, 
The sullen presage of thj weary steps, 

* Count A. de Saint Priest— Fall of the Jesuits, p. 91. 



94 A day's occupation. 

Esteem a foil, wherein thou art to set 
The precious jewel of thj home return."* 

From the pump aforesaid, we proceeded to the 
lavatory ; washed, and returned to our cells to brush 
our hair. 

We had not much to brush. When I went to the 
Novitiate my hair was long, and fell to my shoulders. 
The contrast, when I saw the jail-fashion of the 
novices, was unpleasant ; and I had the weakness to 
retain the "honour of the head," despite tlie tacit 
admonition. I expected every day an order to con- 
form, but it never came ; till at length, ashamed of 
myself, I sacrificed the toy of vanity, and was reli- 
giously shorn by the cook. 

" Hyacinthine locks," then, were out of the ques- 
tion, — few retained more than an inch or two, — but 
still we brushed the stubble, and brushed it well, for 
there was '^merit'^f in every action when performed 
by holy obedience. 

The reader must bear in mind that not one word 
but the " Deo gratias" has been spoken, and nothing 
has been seen but what was immediately before the 
eyes. We walked with looks prone to the earth ; no 
one durst raise his eyes from the ground : '^ for the 
custody of the eyes" was never relaxed except during 
recreation-hours, and even then *' much might be 
done" in the spirit of the rule. - 

The rule of the Summary, which fashions the ex- 
terior of the novice, is the following : — 

" All should take the most diligent care to guard 

* SiiAKsp., Rich. II. t Const., Part iv. c. 6. 



A day's occupation. 95 

the gates of the senses, — particularly the eyes, ears, 
and tongue, from all irregularity ; and preserve them- 
selves in peace and true internal humility, — and to 
exhibit this humility by silence, when it is to be 
observed ; but when they are to speak, by the cir- 
cumspection and edification of their words, and mo- 
desty of their looks, and demureness^ of their steps, 
and every movement — without any sign of impatience 
or pride: in all things procuring and deserving that 
the best of everything should be given to others, 
esteeming in their mind, all others, as it were, their 
superiors, and by outwardly exhibiting with sim- 
plicity and religious moderation, the respect and 
reverence which the rank of the party demands : and 
thus it may come to pass that, taking thought for 
each other reciprocally, they may increase in devotion, 
and praise God our Lord, whom each should study 
to recognise in another as in His image.-f* 

Twenty minutes, or half an hour, I forget which, 
elapsed from the time of rising — the clock gave its 
notice — the brother porter rang thrice successively — 
we marched into the chapel. After a short prayer in 
silence, the porter read the ''points" of the medi- 
tation. We meditated kneeling, standing, sitting, 
and kneeling again, for the space of an hour. 

The chapel is about the size of an ordinary par- 
lour. Benches, with long cushions in front, are placed 
transversely, and along the sides. 

The porter's place was near the door, and any one 
quitting the chapel had first to ask his leave. 

* Maturitate incessus. t Cokst., Part iii. c. 1, 4. 



96 A day's occupation. 

The Superior meditated in his room, I suppose ; 
for he only came in for mass. In the Superior's 
absence, on all occasions, the Porter, a novice of the 
second year,^-" was, as it were, Superior : we could not 
even leave the recreation-room, the garden, or play- 
ground, without his permission ; which, of course, 
was always given. Any irregularity in the applicant 
as to the frequency of the application, or otherwise, 
would be reported to the Superior ; who, if he thought 
proper, would reprimand the delinquents, either 
privately or in public, by a '^ brief :" of which more 
anon. 

Meditation ended, the Superior entered, and re- 
hearsed the " Litany of Jesus," — a sweet, affection- 
ate appeal to the Redeemer, which makes every 
thrilling incident in the life of the Man made God, 
a source of ardent hope and steadfast confidence. 
Standing before the chest of drawers that contained 
the vestments, the Superior robed himself, muttering 
the prayers which the Romish Church prescribes for 
the occasion : but there was no looking-glass before 
him, as I have seen on other similar occasions, when 
the thought occurred to me, that if vanity sug- 
gested to the priest that use of woman's ^* best com- 
panion," — still, 

" Vice sometime 's by action dignified." 

Mass commenced ; and we joined in spirit in the 
awful *' Sacrifice." 

As soon as mass was ended, we rose — eyes down- 

* That is, a novice wlio had passed one of the tuo years of proba- 
tion. 



A day's occupation, 97 

cast, head inclined a little, not much — hands joined 
on the breast — and walked decorously to our cells 
for half an hour's " spiritual reading." 

This was Rodriguez on ^^ Christian Perfection." 

If the Jesuits were asked to produce a book which 
contained their recognised morality, "Christian Per- 
fection," by Rodriguez, would be, I imagine, the 
book selected : not " Escobar," " Lessius," '' Bu- 
SEMBAUM," &:c., though published with the neces- 
sary^ ^' Facultas, approbatio, licentio,, consensus et per- 
misslo/'f whereby the respective works became the 
exponent of the Society's indoctrination. 

Accordingly, "Rodriguez" is put into the hands 
of the NoviceSj who must be conquered by the sweet 
spirit of Heaven before they can be ruled and fash- 
ioned by the spirit of men — for I will spare the anti- 
thesis. Admirable means and worthy of a better end ! 

I relished the book exceedingly : my half hour 
before breakfast always passed agreeably even when 
tormented by the restless " chain,'' of which more in 
the sequel. 

Our breakfast consisted of oatmeal porridge, witli 
milk and bread. Grace was said in Latin. We ate 
in silence and "recollection,"j and with downcast eyes, 

* Const. 5, d. 0. I was reminded of the mandate by the Provincial 
when he admitted me. 

t See Lib. Theol. Moral., by Escobar, 8vo. Lugd. 1659, which ex- 
hibits all the above credentials duly signed and dated. 

X Thomas a Kempis will explain what is meant by this technical 
term of asceticism. " My son, you should diligently strive, in every 
place and action, or external occupation, to look within thyself, un- 
fettered, in self-possession J and let all things be subjected to you, 

H 



98 A day's occupation. 

The porter alone was exempt from this restriction, 
for he had to see that others did their duty. When 
all had finished he rose — we did the same — grace 
was said — we followed him to the dormitory. 

A minute or two elapsed and the bell rang. It 
called us to the chapel for a lecture on the rules of 
the Novitiate. Each novice had a little book called 
"The Summary." ** The Summary" is written in 
Latin, and contains about thirty rules, extracted from 
the ** Constitutions/' for the guidance of the novices. 
We had to get these rules by heart ; but some how 
or other 1 could never say them well. I have 
penanced myself over and over again for this defalca- 
tion ; have tried every means, but could never suc- 
ceed. I always stammered and broke down. This 
was very annoying to me. My memory is naturally 
very quick and tenacious. I easily learned and retain 
to the present time the " Odes of Horace ;" but the 
rules of ** The Summary" have not left a vestige 
behind as far as the Latin construction is concerned ; 
though the duties involved I shall for ever remember: 
i learned them by practice. 

The lectures read to us were composed by one 
Father Plowden, formerly master of the novices at 
Hodder. They were remarkably well written, always 
well arranged, luminous, full of vigour, and not 
unfrequently facetious. I enjoyed these lectures. 
And yet, strange to say, it was the lecture which 

and not yourself to \liem : that you may be the lord and ruler of 3-our 
actions, not their servant and slave." — De Imit. 1. III. c. 38. 



A day's occupation. 99 

referred to the downfall of the society, and the 
charges brought against it, that first shook my reso- 
lution to become a Jesuit. I shall never forget the 
impression made on my mind by the concentrated 
ferocity with which the character of an English 
priest* who had written against the society, was 
assailed. In reading the passage the meek Father of 
the novices seemed to tremble at the words of wrath. 

After the lecture we assembled, in groups of three 
or four, in the dormitory, for the purpose of repeating 
as much of it as we could remember: making; notes 
upon a slate : for on a subsequent day we had to 
appear in the chapel to be questioned on the sense 
and spirit of the rule as explained in the former 
lecture. I think a quarter of an hour was the time 
allotted to this rehearsal. At its expiry the porter 
went to the end of the dormitory, and cried out 
"Deo gratias!" Every voice was stopped: it was 
the order *' to make our beds !" 

Our beds were comfortable, though of coarse ma- 
terials: hard, "mortifying" mattresses to the sensual. 
The bedstead was so constructed as to turn on a hinoe : 
so that, after making the bed, we strapped the lower 
part and turned the bedstead up, securing it with a 
belt, so as to leave more room in our little cells. I 
say cells, but the Jesuits are not monks : they scorn the 
very notion. A wooden partition, which did not reach 

* Referring-, perhaps, to the fierce dissensions between the regular 
and secular clergj of England, many years ago. 1 think a full account 
of ihe matter appeared in the Gentleman's INIagazine. 
Tanteene animis caelestibus irse ! 

H 2 



100 ' A day's occupation. 

the ceiling, divided the dormitory into compartments, 
givinc; to each novice about as much space as a pas- 
senger has in a packet-ship for his berth. Each 
compartment contained a small desk (without a lock, 
of course) and a chair. A crucifix was suspended 
over the desk, and I think there w^as a pot containing 
" holy water.'* In the desk were our books, papers, 
discipline or whip, chain, &;c. I say our, but I am 
wrong : meum and tuum were to be totally forgotten. 
A quarter of an hour was allowed for making beds. 
Then came ** manual works." These were divided 
into in-door and out-of-door works. When there 
was no lecture, an hour for each division — on other 
occasions, half an hour. 

I could not help admiring the neatness and facility 
with which the novices worked in every department. 
Only a few lessons were requisite in the first instance, 
and then each seemed to become master of the 
respective art, whether it was that of sweeping, 
dusting, shoe-cleaning, &c. Indeed, after a year's 
training in these mysteries, I think a man might 
conscientiously, in a case of emergency, undertake to 
make himself "generally useful," as "a servant of 
all work." 

In-door manual works consisted in all the func- 
tions of domestic economy. You went to the porter, 
and said " Deo gratias !" He replied, " sweep the 
dormitory, clean knives, clean shoes, sweep the 
recreation-room, sweep up the hearth, dust the 
chairs," &c. 

Sometimes the " Deo gratias" would be answered 



A day's occupation. 101 

by, '* go to Brother So-and-so, in the refectory." 
Brother So-and-so would then order you to sweep 
the room, or set the benches, or lay the cloths, or 
plates, or knives and forks; and when he had nothing 
more for you to do, he would answer your '^ De^ 
gratias !" by another *' Deo gratias!" and you went 
again to the porter. 

The porter would then, perhaps, order you to go to 
another brother. This brother, on hearing the " Deo 
gratias !" might order you to go and fetch the " tub;" 
or perhaps he would go with you, as it required two 
persons to lift it. This tub was set ready by the lay- 
brother at the kitchen door. You carried the tub to 
the back region of the house, and then you washed, 
and wiped the utensils there deposited ; and then 
you scrubbed the sedilia, swept out the adjacent 
localities, made all neat and tidy, and returned the 
tub aforesaid to where you found it. This part of 
manual works was considered the most trying to 
pride; and, consequently, it was not ordered to new 
novices. For my part, I often longed for the order, 
in my fervour; and when it was vouchsafed me, I 
was rather grieved to think that perhaps the compa- 
nion selected for me was chosen in order to diminish 
my repugnance — which certainly did not exist. At 

all events, my companion was a son of Lord , 

a Catholic nobleman. I may mention that at the 
time of which I am speaking there were in the No- 
vitiate, besides the gentleman just alluded to, the 
son of a baronet, and two near relatives of another 
Roman Catholic nobleman. Before I left I think we 
numbered about twenty novices in all. 



102 A day's occupation. 

Other occupations consisted in dusting the books, 
cleaning out the chapel, polishing plate, 8cc. &c. — 
in a word, every domestic work was performed by 
the novices, excepting cooking ; which was, however, 
in the hands of the lay-brother, and an assistant who 
was a lay-novice. 

When the appointed hour was passed, we were 
ordered into the siarden. Here we were sent to dio- 
potatoes or root up weeds — to pick fruit, or sweep 
away dry leaves, to roll the play-ground, or clean 
the walks, — according to the season. 

The "custody of the senses" is strictly kept 
during all these various operations. Imagine the 
scene — its pious regularity — sanctified homeliness — 
beautiful poverty — and perfect obedience. Some- 
times several worked in company. On such occa- 
sions I have been reminded of a scene I beheld when 
sailing past one of the West India islands — a "gang" 
of poor negroes on a hill side — naked to the waist, 
whilst the tropical sun blazed cruelly hot: but little 
they recked that terrible sun ! They stood in a row 
— curved to the work — and their hoes went up 
and their hoes went down, like the hammer of a 
clock that seems to curse with its clash the tyrant 
time ! 

All the works, then, were carried on in perfect 
silence : the eyes fixed on what was before you : they 
were indeed, never raised on any account as we walked 
through any part of the house, on any occasion what- 
ever. 

When the time was very nearly expired, on giving 
the porter the " Deo gratias," he said " Deo gra- 



A day's occupation. 103 

tias;'' which meant that he had nothing more for 
you to do. You then went and washed your hands, 
put on your cassock and shppers — for sHppers were 
worn in the house to favour silence — and remained 
in your cell for the next order. 

This time the '' Deo gratias" meant "study"— 
which lasted an hour. The term is apt to mislead: 
no profane study is allowed in the Novitiate. The 
** study" of the Novitiate is asceticism, spirituality. 
But then this was acquired through the medium of 
the langrua^es with which the novices were ac- 
quainted : the languages were " kept up ;" nothing 
was to be lost in the Novitiate except individuality 
or self-will. For instance, I was ordered to read a 
little German, Italian, and Spanish daily, though 
only for a quarter of an hour. All the novices had 
acquired the French language, and were well 
grounded in Latin. 

The subjects for "study" were appointed by the 
Superior. It might be the lives (in Latin) of eminent 
Jesuits who suffered " martyrdom" in Holland, in 
England, and in Japan ; or it might consist in trans- 
lating from St. Cyprian or Bernard, or the " Con- 
fessions of St. Augustine," 8cc. The discourses of 
Bernard on the Canticles were appointed to me, 
and they certainly well accorded with the glowing 
enthusiasm which filled my soul with "love divine." 
It was durino; this hour that we wrote letters to our 
friends, concerning which I shall speak in its proper 
place. These, of course, were necessarily sermons in 
their way. During this hour we wrote our short dis- 



104 A day's occupation. 

courses to he preached to our hrother-novices — for 
we had sermons of this sort, 1 think, twice or thrice 
a week. In a word, the hour was industriously em- 
ployed in the manner prescribed by the Superior. 
Had you been permitted to enter the dormitory during 
that hour, you would never imagine that every cell 
contained an active, intelli2:ent, thoughtful soul 
engaged in a mighty struggle, without a doubt of 
victory : and yet it was intent on one grand consum- 
mation, namely, to die to itself in order to live in 
perfect obedience. I need not say that the stillness 
of the tomb prevailed on all sides; and if ever my 
thoughts wandered, the sound of the wind, or of the 
rushing waters of the stream below when the wintry 
torrents gave it voice, seemed an admonition as it 
were of the eternal trumpet that has yet to proclaim 
"Awake, O dead !'' But I must not anticipate my 
visions and my dreams. I had enough, Heaven 
knows I I shall hereafter narrate one or two; and 
the reader will then believe me when I say that I 
wonder at no recital of the kind in times of old or 
times present. 

About twenty minutes before dinner, the *^ Deo 
gratias" was given out by the porter. We went and 
washed, and at the sound of the bell we said (to our- 
selves) what Roman Catholics call the "Angelus." 
It consists of three sentences and three Ave Marias 
in memory of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary. 
We then went to chapel. 

The reader may perhaps fancy that we liave 
not had much time for sinning; but he is mistaken: 



A day's occupation. 105 

we went to chapel for the examination of conscience. 
We remained kneeling during this quarter of an 
hour. 

It mav be asked what we examined our consciences 
to find ? I will state a few novice-sins,"* and the 
result of this proceeding will render the matter per- 
fectly intelligible. Suppose a novice walked rather 
hurriedly — it was a fault. If he contradicted his bro- 
ther in conversation — it was a fault. If he failed in 
the custody of the eyes — it was a fault. It might 
happen that he spoke more to one than another — it 
was a fault. He laughed too loudly — that was a 
fault. In fine, he has not "done his best" in every 
public duty — this is a fault. These are sins ; but 
every novice has some particular failing, which he 
has determined more or less fervently to vanquish : 
here, then, is an interesting battle to fight. I will 
copy from my diaryf at Hodder, five resolutions made 
on the '* day of St. Stanislaus." 

* "The Constitutions, Declarations, and Order of Life do not bind 
under penalty of sin" in the usual acceptation of the term : but it was 
difficult — I speak from experience — to divest the mind of the fear. 
The mystification, therefore, just alluded to, answers the end in view. 
Those who stand beside the roaring cataract of Niagara can hear, but 
indistinctly, if at all, the report of a cannon, but in the chapel where 
we meditated in the Novitiate, you might hear a pin fall, or the heart 
beat. In after life a Jesuit may sin against the Constitutions, Sec, 
without scruple ; but a novice — I speak from experience — has a con- 
science whose nerves, like the fingers, ears, and smell of the blind, 
keenly admonish or rack with aflfright. 

f 1 regret to say that I have lost a wbole volume of that diary — it 
would have been very useful on the present occasion. 



106 A day's occupation. 



" Resolutions on St. Stanislaus. 

'* Henceforth my continual thoughts will be Jesus, 
Mary, Stanislaus. O Lord, it is good for us to be 
here! Let me make three tents — one for Thee, one 
for our sweet Mother, and one for Stanislaus. I will 
wait upon you — not daring to enter — but standing 
without, and ministering. O sweet ! O most sweet 
Jesus ! never more permit me to be separated from 
Thee! 

''Res. I. — To do everything in the best manner. 
*' IL — Never to go to public duties with dirty 

shoes, &c. 
" in. — To keep my room in order. 
'' IV. — To conform to the will of others. 
<' v.— To do nothino' extra without the consent 
of the Superior. 
'' Jesus ! Mary ! Stanislaus." 

I find also an entry thus : — 

*' December^ — Review and Renovation. Defect 
in observing the 29th Rule — Occasional vanity. Re- 
solution — Five or ten minutes' prayer daily to St. Ig- 
natius to obtain the spirit of the 11th, 12th, and 
29th Rules. 

''Noster autem Jesus, tanquam agnus mansuetus, 
omnem austeritatem abstulit !" 

Every novice kept a small piece of paper (one is 

* That is, about a month before my secession — it is manifest, there- 
fore, that my fervour in self-reformation had not subsidod. 



A day's occupation. 107 

still in ray possession), ruled with seven lines, for 
every day in the week, and he made dots on the lines, 
accordingly as he broke his resolution. The number 
should, of course, diminish on the lines with the days 
of the week. 

The subjoined is the form of the Soul's Day-book 
for casual entries — the two lines referrino- to the two 
daily examinations. 



Thus, by sheer necessity, were the sins to diminish 
in number by the end of each week ! 

Had you been in the chapel during this examina- 
tion, you would have wondered why some of the 
novices left their places and went into the Supeiior's 



108 A day's occupation. 

room, one by one ; returning after the lapse of a 
second or two. The Superior stood in his room, the 
novice knelt before him, and said : — " Holy Father! I 
have done such and such a thing, for which I beg 
permission to perform such and such a penance." 
The Superior gave leave, if he thought proper; or 
commuted the penance into something else, more or 
less severe. It must be remembered that only public 
faults could be thus proclaimed ; but, of course, with 
permission, public expiation of a private fault might 
be made. 

The clock struck — we went to the refectory. We 
stood around — not all, for the novices who had gone 
into the Superior's room were now kneeling on the 
floor, with their arms outstretched at full length in 
the form of a cross. The superior said grace ; those 
who were standing took their seats, and those who 
were kneeling began their " public confession." 

As there were penitents everyday, the novices were 
divided into three companies for that purpose; five or 
six in each company doing penance in rotation on 
the appointed day. 

Kneeling, as I have described, and the Superior 
standing in his place, the first penitent would stoop, 
kiss the floor, and confess, as follows : — 

" Holy Father! I acknowledge my fault in having 
neglected the custody of eyes on one or two occa- 
sions, for which fault holy obedience enjoins me to 
do penance." 

This penance was probably a De profundis for the 
souls in purgatory — that is, he repeated to himself 



A day's occupation. 109 

the 130th Psalm, kneeling where he was, with out- 
stretched arms. 

The second penitent would say : — 

" Holy Father! I acknowledge my fault in talking 
too loud during recreation, for which, &;c. &c." 

He probably had to say the '^Miserere/' or 51st 
Psalm. 

When the psalm was concluded, the penitent 
kissed the floor again, rose and went to his place at 
the table. 

The third penitent would say : — 

'* Holy Father ! I acknowledge my fault in having 
been too positive in maintaining my opinion, for 
which fault, &c. &c." 

His penance was, perhaps, to rise after having 
dined, with his can in his hand; he then went to a 
brother, knelt before him, and presented his can to 
be filled : he drank the drink of huraihation, kneel- 
ing. 

A fourth would say : — 

*' Holy Father ! I acknowledge my fault in having 
spoken somewhat sharply to a brother, for which 
fault, &c. &c." 

He went to the brother and kissed his feet. 

The fifth might be the porter. He might 
say :— 

" Holy Father ! I acknowledge my faults in having 
neglected several duties, and in scandalising my 
brothers by my worldly remarks in conversation, for 
which faults, &c. &c." 

He stooped, kissed the floor, rose, and, proceeding 



110 A day's occupation. 

from brother to brother, he kissed the feet of all^ the 
Superior included. 

This penance affected me very much when I first 
witnessed it, which occurred during my retreat. 

Sometimes the penitent would eat his dinner 
kneeling, at a small table placed for the purpose in 
the middle of the refectory. 

On one occasion a novice prostrated himself at the 
threshold of the door, crying to each brother as he 
stepped over him, '^ Pray for me, brother!" This 
penance occurred but once in my year. It was dur- 
ing the awful time of the "thirty days' retreat;" and 
the penitent was — myself. 

The penitent chose his penance ; or rather the 
penance presented itself to his mind in the similitude 
of an inspiration. So much, indeed, was this symp- 
tom a part of my mind's distemper during my 
Novitiate, that the idea of what I wished to do 
remained in my mind as the remembrance of the 
penance performed. Thus, upon reflection, I am 
unable to say whether I actually prostrated myself — 
as mv mind sus^orested, or only knelt by the door and 
repeated the words. When I wrote the passage I 
had a full conviction that the penance was performed 
as I have given it, but a few days since the thought 
suddenly occurred to me that I had requested per- 
mission to perform that penance, but it was commuted 
by the Superior into the last mentioned modification. 

Of course we dined in silence; but a rule of the 
Summary enjoins that *' whilst the body is refreshed, 
the soul, too, may have its food." Accordingly we had 



A day'^ occupation. Ill 

a reader. The first thing read was the " Roman 
Marty rology," that is, the notice of the saint for the 
day ; tl^en followed the '* Fasti Societatis Jesu," 
giving the commemoration of the saint of the society, 
or eminent member, for the day. If there was no 
*^ Brief" to be read, the reader proceeded with the 
work in hand. 

The work in hand was, of course, appointed by the 
Superior, and always spiritual, or directly in accor- 
dance with the scope and aim of the Novitiate. When 
I first went to the Novitiate, the work was the one 
alluded to in the first article, as " Hints on Etiquette." 
I regret that I can neither remember the name of the 
book nor of the author. Every sentence was an 
axiom on politeness, and in accordance with the most 
rigid opinions on that subject. It was written by a 
German, and in Latin. I need not state that the 
"Marty rology "and " Fasti" were also in Latin. Among 
the works read in the refectory during my year, I 
may mention the ** History of the Church of Japan," 
detailing the exploits of Xavier and his companions; 
'* Christian Perfection," by Rodriguez ; " Difference 
between Temporal and Eternal," — a truly awful affair ; 
" The lives of the Saints," bv Alban Butler. 

After dinner, we went to the chapel for a few 
minutes ; this being a visit to the " blessed Sacra- 
ment ;" for the " holy elements" were constantly 
kept on the tabernacle of the altar. 

This visit ended, we walked demurely to the 
recreation-room. 

I fancy I hear the reader exclaim, " At last!" but 



112 A day's occupation. 

we have not done with prayer and " recollection" as 
yet. As soon as the novice entered, he knelt down 
and said an Ave Alaria, to place himself under the 
protection of the Virgin. 

If the weather permitted we adjourned to the 
garden, where we paced up and down the walks, 
chatting on **professioual" topics, pleasantly, quietly 
— entertaining each other by what we had read, 
and stimulating the spirit by original thoughts, if 
any, expressed in the glowing words of sincerity : for 
I cannot imagine it possible for a man to be a hypo- 
crite in the Novitiate. I judge from myself. It 
requires an overwhelming fervour and determination 
to conquer human nature in order to submit to the 
Novitiate for two long years without intermission. 
And who is the man that can play the hypocrite in 
the midst of so many rules and regulations, goading 
him on every side : in the midst of so many eyes that 
have him in charge — ay, that have his immortal soul 
in charge, for which they have to answer according to 
the " spirit of Ignatius?" 

An hour was allowed for recreation. At its ex- 
piry the bell summoned us to the chapel for another 
visit to the *' blessed Sacrament." It was now two 
o'clock. '^ Manual works" began our afternoon 
duties. These lasted only one hour ; half an hour in 
the house and half an hour in the garden. Any work 
left unfinished in the morning had then to be com- 
pleted : for it must be remembered that, as soon as 
the bell rang, whatever you were doing must be in- 
stantly relinquished, or you committed a fault against 



A DAY*S OCCUPATION. 113 

holy obedience. In-door work in the afternoon con- 
sisted chiefly in preparing the Refectory for supper; 
out-of-door work as usual. 

The remaining hours before supper were employed 
in reading-, writing, rehearsing the Rosary, &c. 

The Rosary is a devotion to the Virgin, consisting 
of one hundred and fifty Ave Marias, of fifteen Pater 
Nosters, and the Gloria ; with a Meditation, during 
the rehearsal, on the principal incidents in the life of 
Mary and Christ. This always seemed to me rather 
strange ; for I could never comprehend how one could 
pray to God or the Virgin whilst thinking of something 
else. I used to say the prayers, and then meditate 
for a few minutes. 

During this portion of the day the novice might 
be sent for by the Superior to be " advised" or *Mec- 
tured," or ** questioned" on his spiritual progress. 
Or he might go to the Superior with his ^' difficulties," 
after asking leave of the brother porter to leave the 
dormitory: for no one could leave the room without 
permission. The novice scratched the curtain, 
the porter whispered '* Come in !" and you stated 
your wish, which was always granted. 

The curtain was never to be closed until you 
retired, if on any occasion you had to remain a few 
minutes in a brother's cell* — nor could you go to it 
without leave. 

Towards six o'clock (when we supped) the porter 
went to the end of the dormitory, and sang out ** Deo 
gratias !" This meant that you had to go to your 

* Const. P. hi. c. 1. D. p. 109. 
I 



114 A day's occupation. 

brother monitor. Of this personage I shall speak in 
the proper place. 

This duty ended, we retired to our rooms, and after 
the lapse of a few minutes the bell rang for supper. 

During supper we were read to, as during dinner; 
excepting the " Martyrology" and " Fasti." 

I may mention that there were two novices ap- 
pointed by turns to wait at table. They wore a long 
white apron as a badge of their office during the per- 
formance of their functions. 

Our dinner was always plentiful and substantial. 
Supper consisted either of sliced meat or rice pud- 
dings, crowned with preserves and milk. We had 
beer and water to drink. Most of the novices drank 
water, but the juc£ of beer was always there. By 
long standing the beer sometimes got sour: in that 
state I have drunk it for "mortification." I cannot 
say whether it was always drunk with the same 
intention. 

I must here state, that we were enjoined to satisfy 
our appetite — no mortifications were allowed in this 
matter. The Superior once said to me, " Brother 
Steinmetz, you do not eat enough — you require all 
you get to preserve your strength for the duties of 
the Novitiate : 'tis hard work, and nature must be 
supported." 

On the other hand, any "pampering" was instantly 
checked. When I first went I once or twice used 
some vineg^ar. I was checked for this. On another 
occasion I ate mustard with boiled meat — I was told 
that this was irregular : nor was I permitted to eat 



A day's occupation. 115 

meat without salt and mustard when I took it into 
my head thus to " mortify" the spirit. The Superior, 
in his admonition, remarked, that in this cold climate 
such accessories tended to promote digestion. Reasons 
are not often given to novices, but this worthy gentle- 
man did sometmies kindly explain the why and 
wherefore to me. 

After supper we had another hour of recreation, 
which was, as before, preceded by the " visit" and 
" Ave Maria" aforesaid. In summer we walked in 
the garden ; in winter we remained at the fireside. I 
must state that there was also a stove in the dor- 
mitory. 

The Superior sometimes visited us during recreation, 
and told us such pious news as he thought would 
interest us. 

At eight o'clock the porter rang his bell. We now 
went to chapel for another examination of conscience, 
which lasted a quarter of an hour, as before. 

Then followed the readinor of the " Points" of the 
meditation for the next morning ; the " Litany of the 
Virgin ;" the " Blessing ;" the " Kissing of the Relic." 

This last duty was performed thus: — the Superior 
held the relic in his right hand, and a small napkin 
in his left. After presenting it to the lips of one 
novice he wiped it, and so on. I must say that I 
never thoroughly conquered my repugnance to 
"submit" to this kissing; but ^' Ad majorem Dei 
gloriarn' was my adopted motto : I forgot the act in 
the intention. 

From the chapel we retired to the dormitory. In 

I 2 



116 A day's occupation. 

an instant you might hear all the beds creaking on 
their hinges, and resuming the horizontal. We got 
between the sheets as soon as possible, ** right tired" 
in body and mind, and never likely to suffer from 
want of sleep. A few minutes after, tlie porter came 
round, scratching at each curtain with his ** Deo 
gratias !" to which each novice responded : if he had 
not fallen asleep, which sometimes happened. 

If it was a '* mortification night" the novices re- 
mained sitting in their beds, waiting for the tinkling 
of a small bell ; and then each administered to himself, 
on his back, bared for the purpose, the '' discipline :" 
of which more hereafter. 

Such is a day's occupation in the Novitiate — not 
every day's occupation, but one that may serve as a 
sample. Other duties of the Novitiate required de- 
viations from this *' order of the day," 

I think the reader will readily aoree with me that 
if Eugene Sue intended his terrible "Moroc"* to 
typify the Society of the Jesuits, the idea of that 
" tamer of wild beasts" was well imagined. One 
must either break down in the Novitiate, or break 
forth a being of another world. Le Sage intimates 
that a monk should be more or less than a man ; 
and I will add that a Jesuit should be a — Jesuit. 
Perhaps by the time we part the reader may be 
enabled to form some distinct, definite idea of this 
wonderful being:. 



* See "The Wandering Jew, 



117 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GUI BONO, OR what's THE GOOD OF IT? 

The details of a day's occupation in the Novitiate 
have produced, I doubt not, various effects on my 
readers. Some have smikd, others have laughed, 
some have shuddered, others have been indignant. 
Not a few, I trust, have penetrated beneath the rip- 
pling surface, and have caught a glimpse, as it were, 
of the *' hidden things" that lie at the bottom. All 
have asked " Cui bono V 

I shall now endeavour to answer the question. 

One striking fact must, however, have surprised 
the reader. He must have exclaimed : " Wiiat ! no 
mention of the Bible among the books set before 
men studying Christian perfection?" 

I answer, JVone ! We did not read the Bible ; or, 
if any did so, they did it privately and by special 
permission. But, in point of fact, why should a 
Roman Catholic read the Bible ? By so doing, he 
only exposes himself to temptation against the faith : 
he may " wrest the Scripture to his own perdition. '» 
All '' proximate occasions" of sin must be avoided : 
— the Bible is such to him — therefore the Bible 
whould be avoided! Observe, the Roman Catholics 
do not admit this matter-of-fact argumentation — not 



118 CUI BONO? 

they, indeed ! They will tell you to read, of course : 
but beware of interpreting contrary to the prooiul- 
gated doctrines ! 

Of what use, then, are the Scriptures to these men ? 
For the study of the priest, who will take care to 
read and explain them to his congregation. 

Besides, they are necessary in order to prove that 
the "Church" is the Church; and then the ** Church" 
returns the favour by proving that the Scriptures 
are the Scriptures — as beautiful a ** vicious circle" 
as was ever circumscribed by the compasses of 
sophistry. 

For my part, I read the Bible when a boy : I read 
it when at college. Roman Catholics are not for- 
bidden to read the Bible; only a discretion is used in 
the permission to read : such is the distinction, which 
answers the important end in view, viz., subjection to 
the Infallible Popedom. 

I return to the question. The scope and end of 
all the training in the Novitiate were, to teach the 
meaning and practice of the Three Vows which were 
to be made at the end of two years' probation. Its 
aim was to lay a deep, broad foundation, whereon 
the '^ Society " would build, as it thought most ex- 
pedient : ostensibly " for the greater glory of God," 
but virtually, effectually, infallibly for its own ad- 
vancement. This is not an unfair assertion. I con- 
clude thus from facts. Is not a devoted life-and- 
death love of the Society considered the first sign of 
a true vocation to it? Is not this love cherished, 
fostered, stimulated by every motive human and 
divine ? It may be objected that such characteristics 



CUI BONO? 119 

must be more or less common to the members of 
every association, and are essential to its existence. 
I admit the objection, and affirm that it only renders 
my assertion more probable. Further, if my impres- 
sions in the Novitiate be worthy of attention, I say 
that every conversation in v^hich the concerns of the 
Society were discussed, tended to plant and water 
this conviction in my mind. It was always *' what 
we (the society of Jesuits) have done — what we are 
doing — what we will do." Every man strove to 
render himself acceptable to the Society : the sample, 
the pattern being given, every man knew the number 
of stitches and shades requisite to knit together the 
^' coat of many colours" which adorns the favourite 
son of Ignatius. 

" Begun by God," it is written, "the Society must 
be preserved by Divine, not by human means" •* but 
still care must be taken that it be increased in num- 
ber,i- and prayers must be said for its preservation and 
increase. As the past was, so will the future be; if 
human nature is the same for ever. 

And yet one is inclined to doubt the fact. Were 
there ever such men in the Society ? Many reasons 
may be alleged for the negative opinion. For how 
could men, dead to the world, crucified with Christ, 
who made themselves a holocaust to God — formed by 
so many constitutions, so many regulations ; tried by 
so many probations, admonished by so many illus- 
trious examples, aided by so many annual retreats, 
so many meditations, reading, daily exhortations — by 

* Const. § 1. p. 61, and P. x. § 1. 

t P. i. c. 1, Const., and Part ii, cap. 1, § 1. 



120 GUI BONO ? 

SO many holy sacraments, vows — by so many divin 
words and illuminations, — fall ofF so basely to such 
an extent as to think of Egypt in the Holy Land, 
— after havinq; put their hands to the plough, to look 
behind, — forgetting the Divine glory, their salvation, 
the edification of their neighbour, wickedly to indulge 
the suggestions of private affection and human neces- 
sity, basely to consult their own interests; and, as 
far as they could go in this direction, to dare to shake 
the foundations of obedience, annul discipline, and 
destroy the work of God without hesitation !''^' 

These are not my words. The whole paragraph is 
faithfully translated from the epistle of Goswin 
Nickel, the General of the Society, to the Fathers 
and Brothers of the same Society, in the year 1656: 
about one hundred years after this Divine Society was 
established. 

All this is perfectly natural. It is human nature; 
and this is all I contend for. I affirm that these 
human motives weld the Jesuits together: the 
Divine motives being, as it were, the bellows in the 
hands of the clever " Superiors," wherewith the pas- 
sive metal of the society is rendered malleable, porous, 
and ductile. 

In this fact is the element of decay. But human 
reason discovers its errors always too late ; and the 
deceitful heart cheers itself the while with the short- 
lived hopes, which, like wintry suns, have but a 
small arc to describe in the jealous firmament of 
day. 

Ever and anon the voice of a just man rises supe- 

* Epist. ii. Gosw. Nick. 



GUI BONO? 121 

rior to the clamours of the multitude, and cries, Be- 
ware ! but the torrent rolls on — the abyss is dug by 
the falling waters ; and the fate of great names has a 
place in the map of history ! 

The modern Jesuits, like those of old, march on : 
who shall arrest their progress? They themselves — 
the Jesuits. They are working their own ruin ; and 
the more influence they gain in this country, the 
nearer they will approach destruction. Their history 
will always be the same, because the essentials of 
their institute are unchangeable. The veil of mystery, 
•which dims the sight even of the subordinates of the 
Society, gives them the prime fulcrum of diplomatic 
craft. But it is too human to be an element of long 
life. The man who cannot, in every action, look in the 
face of day, and say to the witness, Is it not well? — 
works not as the champion of Truth, but the menial 
of Error, and its tyrant — Self. 

But is there no understanding in the first instance 
as to the precise position that a man might expect 
to fill in the Society? Expect! why a tractarian 
might as well expect, in becoming a Roman Catholic, 
to become Pope ! No, no ; a Jesuit can expect no- 
thing, as far as his individual ambition is concerned.* 
He must consider himself perfectly worthless, till the 
voice of God— that is, of his Superior — shall call him 
forth from penance to power, from prayer to politics, 
from obscurity to renown. But from his birth in the 
Novitiate, to his death in the Society, ah that he is 
permitted to think himself is, that he is only a too- 

* For the various denunciations against ambition, vide Const. P. x, 
p. 9, c 1, A. P. viii. c. 6. 



122 GUI BONO ? 

fortunate fellow-labourer in the Society of Jesus. 
Meanwhile, he must patiently gnaw like the beaver 
— he must float down the felled trunk like the 
beaver — he must gather and carry mud like the 
beaver; and he must "lend a hand" to build up the 
dam and the habitation like the beaver ; but he must 
be content with his allotted nook : his ** angulus 
terrse/' in the absolute monarchy wherein his lot is 
cast. If not, he must put forth his ambitious claims, 
like the clever pope of old, in the celestial form and 
figure of consummate wisdom, unapproachable tact, 
discretion, and humility, such as to deceive Lucifer 
himself. 

Eugene Sue's *' Rodin" is quite a misconception : 
his habitual filth alone is enough to ruin the cha- 
racter : a Jesuit must be clean — clean as a lancet, a 
dirk, a stiletto, or a tiger's fangs. 

Voluntary poverty, perpetual chastity, perfect obe- 
dience ; these are the three symbols of the professed 
piety of the Jesuit — these are the bulwarks of his 
lofty ambition. The pains taken by the trainer, and 
the determined efforts of the trained, point forward 
to a boundless reward — universal power immovably 
based on mind, on conscience — a power whereon the 
sun shall never set. 

During those hours of recreation in the Novitiate 
which we were permitted to spend in solitude, I 
would sometimes take the *' Summary," skim through 
the thirty or forty rules it contained, and endeavour 
to understand my intended profession by seeking out 
its requirements in the perfect Novice. 



GUI BONO ? 123 

As I frequently revolved the subject, and as all 
my thoughts during that probation, particularly 
towards its conclusion, were strong, serious, never to 
be forgotten, I have now only to summon them from 
the " dark backward, and abysm of time," and give 
them words, that they may bear witness. I shall be 
an impartial interpreter to myself, as it were, of those 
mystic thoughts — that wild infatuation, strong fana- 
ticism — and with the serious reader I shall strive to 
profit by the awful lesson. 



VOLUNTARY POVERTY. 

It was difficult for me to conceive how a man 
could take a vow to remain poor, or to become poor, 
and yet possess all that he could rationally desire of 
the world's comforts. We were decently clad — we 
would always be so in all likelihood : we were well 
fed ; there was no probability of being starved ; we 
were sheltered ; in every region of the globe the 
Society would hereafter possess its '^ three houses." 
What, then, was to be the meaning of the vow which 
we were to make to God, or rather to the Society? 
It is as follows : — We were taught to believe that 
we could possess without feeling that we possessed. 
We used, we did not take. We consumed — not we, 
but the Society in us — and the Society was to us as 
God; for it said to us, "Consider the lilies of the 
field," kc. Self-abnegation was the specific which 
was to effectuate this frame of mind ; this sublime 



124 GUI BONO? 

*' mental reservation.* On this topic I find among 
my papers, written at Hodder, the following conclu- 
sion : '^ I must divest myself of myself, so as not to 
desire health more than sickness, riches more than 
poverty, honour more than ignominy, a long life more 
than a short one ; finally, in all things, singly desir- 
ing and choosino; those thinos which rather conduce 
to the end for which I was created, viz., to glorify 
God in the Society of Jesus." Such is the Jesuit's 
interpretation (as expounded to the novice) of the 
Beatitude, '* Blessed are the poor in spirit!" 

That transcendent philosophy, that divine Chris- 
tianity was held forth to us as perfectly attainable by 
prayer, practice, and the peculiar grace which we 
were taught to believe was vouchsafed to him who 
was called to the Society. No ordinary virtue was 
sufficient in a Jesuit: the name did not suggest a 
model without expecting a copy faithful to the divine 
original. 

Hence we became menials for His sake ; hence we 
gloried in humiliation ; hence we exulted in spirit 
when thwarted in the dearest wish ; hence we would 
always, in every action however trivial, fervently 
breathe, '^ Father, not my will but thine be done!" 
and hence — the Society being the exponentof the will 
of the Eternal — we would be prepared for any fate 
whilst in its service : seeing that we must necessarily 
be indifferent in all things. 

* See Const. P. iii. c. 1, § 7. Exam. c. 4. P. vi. c. 2. But, in 
point of fact, there is no end of the praises, explanations, &c., of thia 
row in the Institute. 



cur BONO? 125 

So much for the enthusiasm, the fanaticism : of the 
thing. Let us now indulge a few matter-of-fact, com- 
mon-sense reflections on this very curious topic. 

If I remember aright, there was in the lecture 
which explained the rule enjoining the self-abnega- 
tion necessary for this vow, an attempt to show how 
the Society could possess riches whilst each member 
thereof vowed poverty. I think the argument rested 
mainly on the necessity of possessing funds in order 
to carry out one grand object of the Society, viz., the 
education of youth. It is clear that no other excuse 
or explanation will hold ; since, by the distinct en- 
gagement of Ignatius, a Jesuit would expect no 
viaticum or pecuniary support in his " mission :" he 
was to go forth as an apostle ; that is, provided 
with faith, hope, and charity, to which he was to 
superadd, "For the greater glory of God;" without 
a thought for the body, which Heaven would take care 
how to support. 

It is then on educational grounds that the Jesuits 
excuse themselves from being poor in body as well 
as in spirit. But then why take the vow at all, if it 
becomes virtually a dead letter? What! not take 
the vow! this would never answer. And why not? 
Because, when a novice has money, it is clear that he 
will have to make it over to somebody before he 
takes the vow; but surely he would make it over to 
the Society in preference to anybody, therefore the 
vow is retained.* Again, it is by no means clear that 

* There is a delicate piece of dexterity in the injunction respecting 
the distribution of property. The distribution should be made to the 



126 CUI BONO? 

these men of piety must absolutely have funds in 
order to fulfil the enoasfements which the Society has 
undertaken. They should give their services accord- 
ing to the rule which enjoins every Jesuit "freely to 
give what he has freely received."* From the stipend 
which the pupils pay, it is clear that a large annual 
surplus must fall into the coffers of the Society. 
Who owns this money? Not the Jesuits, but the 
Society, they will tell you j and will seem perfectly 
satisfied with the equivocation. It follows that the 
vow of "voluntary poverty" is only a by-way of 
enriching the body and accumulating funds, which 
may be applied to whatever purpose is thought expe- 
dient: labelled and ticketed "To the greater glory of 
God." When the Jesuits put themselves under some 
religious association or government, to depend entirely 
on that association or government for the means of 
subsistence and education, then they will be con- 
sistent in this vow; but then they will be shorn of 
half their power : and that time will never come. 
Aut C(Ksar aut nullus is the motto of those who feel 
that they were born to command. 

truly poor, and not on account of relationship — propiiiquitatis — Exam, 
e. 4, 2 ; and if any one wishes to give his property to the Societj, he 
must resign it freely into the hnnds of the General. Part. iii. c. 1, 9. 
* This rule is clamorous : — " Meminerint se gratis dare debere, 
quaj gratis acceperunt ; nee postulando, nee admittendo stipendium, vel 
eleemosynas ullas, quibus Missas, vel Confessiones, vel Praedicationes, 
vel Lectiones, vel visitationes, vel quodvis allud officinm ex iis quae 
Societasjuxta nostrum Institutum exereere potest, compensari vide- 
atur."— Coust. P. vi. c. 2, 7. 



GUI BONO? 127 



PERPETUAL CHASTITY. 

We read that Aloysius " received of God so 
perfect a gift of chastity, that in his whole life 
he never felt the least temptation either in mind or 
body against purity, as Jerom Platus and Cardinal 
Bellarmin assure us from his ov^^n mouth.'* 
Again : — *' He never looked at any woman, kept 
his eyes strictly guarded, and generally cast down ; 
would never stay with his mother alone in her 
chamber; and if she sent any message to him by 
some lady in her company he received it, and gave 
his answer in a few words, with his eyes shut, and 
his chamber-door only half open. # * # ^ It 
was owing to his virginal modesty that he did not 
know by their faces many ladies among his own re- 
lations, with whom he had freqently conversed, and 
that he was afraid and ashamed to let a servant see 
so much as his foot uncovered. ''"^ We read also that, 
after a visit from the Virgin Mary and Jesus 
Christ, Ignatius had all impure images wiped 
from his heart. Anorels came down and " bound 
the loins" of Thomas Aquinas, and thenceforward 
he was '* never annoyed with temptations of the 
flesh." The reader may consult the " Lives of the 
Saints" for more examples of such Divine inter- 
position. 

These examples were objects of our intense admi- 
ration. But who could aspire to such matchless 
purity? Only those who were ''humble, watchful, 

* Butler — Lives of the Saints — Aloys. 



128 CUI BONO? 

and obedient." Hence the humiliations to which 
we were constantly subject — the state of servitude 
and degradation, corporeal and mental, which our 
training was intended to effect. And is the habit 
of chastity thus to be acquired ? This question 
must be answered in the affirmative ; and that such 
is the case will be evident from this simple axiom, 
that any of the sentiments being predominant in the 
mind, obliterate, or tend to obliterate, the rest. I 
am tempted to enlarge on this topic ; but the dis- 
cussion would be out of place, and enough has been 
said to direct the application of the principle. Doubt- 
less some encountered more difficulties than others; 
but the awful necessity which was upon all to ac- 
quire the mental habit, at least, of this virtue, en- 
hanced our fervour in embracin2; the infallible means 
held forth to us, by being to the best of our power 
humble and obedient. The peculiar views of my 
philosophy tallied well with many of the regulations 
of the Novitiate. The infinite variety of occupation 
I never could sufficiently admire; and in a very short 
time I felt convinced that the object and scope of all 
the training were to give to every faculty of the mind, 
every sentiment of the heart, that peculiar bent which 
emphatically stamps the Jesuit. In my private 
interviews with the Superior, I frequently expressed 
my thoughts on this subject with enthusiasm. He 
listened to me with delight; and he once said, 
"Brother! the grace to understand these things is 
not given to all — be thankful for it." In the matter 
of chastity, particularly, I found in the books as- 



GUI BONO? 129 

signed to me sufficient to convince me that "love 
divine" in all its objects — but most to the Virgin 
and other female saints of the calendar — was but 
human love, with all its raptures : only it was shorn 
of its grossness. How have I exulted — how entranc- 
ing were my thoughts and feelings — when readmg 
the discourses of Bernard on the Canticles ! parti- 
cularly the one on the words, " Osculetur me osculo 
oris sui !" "Let him kiss me with the kisses of his 
mouth!" Oft have I repeated to my "Brothers" 
those words of its conclusion — " Show me, O most 
sweet ! O most serene ! show me where thou goest 
to pasture, where thou reposest at mid-day ! My 
brothers, it is good for us to be here, but behold! 
the malice of the day calls us away." I got passages 
by heart — I translated others — and my soul swam, 
as it were, in an ocean of delights. Easily, then, 
was the idea of carnal pleasure denied access to a 
mind which luxuriated, so to speak, in ethereal de- 
lights unknown before : for never have I experienced 
pleasures so intense, complete, absorbing, as that 
which frequently resulted from spiritual contempla- 
tion and meditation in the Novitiate. I had my 
trials, of course — my diseases, as it were ; and a 
curious dream which, as it was pronounced good by 
authority, I shall now relate for the amusement of 
the reader. I had been troubled during the day 
with certain thoughts and remembrances which we 
will call "temptations." I had told my distress 
thereat to the Superior: he consoled me; said it was 
natural; I must not be disheartened. I fell asleep 

K 



130 GUI BONO? 

and dreamt. How keen is the mental vision when 
the mind, by its strontir nervous excitement, seems to 
be totally independent of the body, which it com- 
mands and holds in subjection ! I dreamt that I 
saw in the heavens a beautiful woman, clad in azure, 
star-bespangled. She looked down upon me benignly, 
and with her finger pointed to her brow, which was 
encircled with a luminous band. On that band I 
read, in my dream, the word Atreria; and in my 
dream, I interpreted the word to myself thus: — 
*' Atreria — a nonTpico trepido — Intrepidity;" and 
I seemed to hear a voice, which said — -'^ Yes ! bv intra- 
pidity you shall conquer." I need not say that I 
awoke in consolation. I told my dream — it was ap- 
proved — I was happy !* 

It was this exaltation of sentiment, thus turned 
into the " proper channel," that enabled me to fall 
in with the extravagant devotion of the Jesuits to the 
Virgin Mary; and whilst I prayed to the male 
saints of the calendar with warmth, I poured forth 
my soul's languishings to the Agathas, Theresas, 
Perpetuas, with rapturous devotion. I "took 
advice" on this matter, and it only called forth this 
remark, viz., ^' that St. Theresa always preferred 
the advice of holy men to that of holy women." 
This was meant to keep in check the natural tendency 
of my heart; but the remark brought to mind the 
strange sentiment of Balzac, viz., ^' That the most 
malicious man cannot say of women as much evil as 

* "WLat rendered the dream more strikint^ was, that I had never 
seen nor beard the word Atreria, nor have I met with it since. 



cur BONO ? 131 

they think of themselves." I repeated the words to 
the father, and he said they were quite true ! Still 
it is curious how the human mind strives to re- 
concile apparently contradictory feelings. It is a 
significant psychological fact that men prefer female 
saints for their patronesses, and that women prefer 
male saints for their patrons. 

In this explanation which I have given, it was 
absolutely necessary to bring myself forward : and 
only myself; but I may be permitted to give a 
curious instance of the strong emotion that still, 
amongst "holy men," goes by the name of "love 
divine." The verses were repeated to me by a brother 
novice, and were composed by '* St. Francis of 
Assvsium." The burninj: translation of Alban 
Butler, himself a very exemplary priest, is quite 
equal to the original : — 

" Into lore's furnace I am cast ! 

I burn, I languish, pine, and waste ! 

love divine, how sliarp thy dart ! 
How deep the wound that galls mj heart ! 
As wax in fire, so from above 

]\Ij smitten soul dissolves in love ! 

1 live, yet languishing I die, 
Whilst in th j furnace bound I lie. 

:t: * * m: 

The tree of love its roots has spread 
Deep in my heart, and rears its head. 
Kich are its fruils, they joy dispense. 
Transport the heart and ravish sense. 

* it: * Hf 

While throbbing pangs I feel, my breast 
Finds love its centre, joy and rest. 

K 2 



132 GUI BONO 







Love's slave, in chains of strong desire 
I'm bound, nor dread edged steel or fire. 

• • • » 

The hills shall melt, back rivers roll, 
Heavens fall, ere love forsake my soul ! 
All creatures love aloud proclaim — 
Heavens, earth, and sea increase my flame — 
Whate'er I see, as mirror bright, 
Reflects my lover to my sight." 

I found the whole ode a splendid piece of senti- 
mentahty, and asked the brother to give it me; he 
said he would, if permitted. Permission from the 
Superior was obtained — he gave me the verses, and 
I did not read them over many times before they 
became part and parcel of my heart. 

Such direct helps as these, particularly among the 
philosophical Jesuits, render the habit of chastity 
comparatively easy. The physiologist will under- 
stand me when I say that the chastity referred to is 
a mental habit. 

PERFECT OBEDIENCE. 

We heard comparatively little about the vows of 
poverty and chastity ; but every moment of the day 
we were reminded of that of obedience. If chastity 
was the crown, and poverty the robe, obedience was 
the head and the body to wear them : it was to be 
the virtue of the Jesuit. No boundaries, no limits, 
were set to this virtue — it was infinite space for ever 
enlarging ! It was to extend over body and soul, as 
if we had *^ sold them to the devil!" One sinde 
example, which was held forth to us for a " sign/' 



■ CUI BONO? 133 

will enable the thoughtful reader to apply the prin- 
ciple in all its bearings. It was to show the nature 
of blind* obedience and its reward. A certain holy 
man was ordered by his Superior to water a dry stick 
set upright in the ground. He obeyed without a 
question, or a thought of a question — and behold ! 
the stick put forth branches and grew a beautiful 
tree ! . . . . 

True, we read that " for no reason in the world, 
for the pleasure of no man, was any evil to be done ;" 
but were we to judge what was evil? Did the holy 
man referred to judge what seemed to be absurd, use- 
less ? The will of the Superior is " as it were the will of 
God ;" and were we to question His morahty ? If 
'^ there was a way which seemeth good unto man, 
but leadeth unto death," there might also be a way 
which seemeth evil unto a man but which leadeth 
unto life ! . . . . 

Now, then, for the cardinal points : the north, 
south, east, and west of this mighty argument ! 
Consider the fact of twenty thousand men thus 
obedient to the will of one man — the General of 
the Society ! From the highest official next in suc- 
cession — the provincials in their respective countries 
in every region of the world, the masters of colleges, 
the professed, the simple socii, the lay-brothers, — 
down to the aspirant Novice : all ready, eager to obey 
the will of this one man, without a question or a 
thought of a question — as if he were God himself! 
Consider the possibility of this man being bought over 

* Const. Part vi. c. 1, § !• 



134 CUI BONO ? 

or bribed, or from himself possessed of some" Napo- 
leonic idea," to bring all his forces to act on any 
given point : all his forces of intellect, eloquence, secret 
influence of the confessional; in a word all the arts, 
human and divine, at his command ! I ask, who shall 
resist this man? It is not a question whether such 
has been or will be the case, but whether such 
might not be the case? To say that there would be 
some honest, worthy men among them, who might 
question the morality of the mandate, is quite beside 
the question ; the majority must always yield a blind 
obedience, for this is essential to the verv existence 
of the Society. The love for the Society has been 
shown to exist to an unlimited extent : all desire its 
advancement and prosperity. Each member, there- 
fore, is satisfied that every mandate of the General 
will tend to those grand objects of desire; and, con- 
sequently, as his temporal welfare depends on the 
temporal welfare of the Society, his own individual 
interest is involved in blind obedience ; for it is not 
to be supposed that the inculcation of a splendid 
*' indifference to all things," has anything to do with 
the prosperous condition of the Society: to thaty 
indeed, the Jesuit must not be indifferent. 



135 



CHAPTER IX, 



ECONOMICS OF THE NOVITIATE THE MASTER, 

MINISTER, MONITORS. 

The clay's occupation' has doubtless given the reader 
an idea of the training pursued in the Novitiate. In. 
that article I have alluded to many matters on which 
I have now to enlarge. 

It was a common axiom with us, that he who 
went through his novitiate with perfect satisfaction 
to his superiors, would give the best proof of a true 
vocation to the Society. It is in the Novitiate that 
the Jesuit learns the fundamental principles of his 
art : in after life, he has but to apply or enlarge on 
those principles — all, of course, in accordance with 
the direction of holy obedience ; for I need not say- 
that a carte blanche in the portfolio of a Jesuit sent 
out on his ** mission," is quite out of the question. 
He can do nothing without the " permission of his 
superiors."* 

Every ordinary duty, then, which he has after- 

* Debet iis a Superiore dari instructio in scriptis — non tantiim de 
negotiis, sed etiam de jyenonii. C. P. vii. c. 2j ibid, N. 



136 ECONOMICS OF 

wards to perform, has its representative in the Novi- 
tiate. This will appear in the sequel. The Novice 
studies to learn these duties ; meanwhile the Supe- 
rior studies the Novice: hence the terms novitiate 
and probation are synonymous. To speak anatomi- 
cally, his mentality is dissected from his cranium 
down to the metatarsal bones ; the keen scalpel laying 
open every viscus, every organ; and the judgment 
thereon being deliberately weighed and recorded, as 
if only a dead body was on the table. But I forget 
— Ignatius, on his deathbed, enjoined every Jesuit 
to be in the hands of his Superior, perinde ac cadaver, 
mst like a carcass. 

The character, attainments, qualifications of every 
Jesuit are thoroughly known to his Superior;* and 
not only to his Superior, but to the General himself, 
though constantly resident in Rome. This must not 
be understood to mean a mere general idea of these 
attainments, qualifications, and character ; but a real, 
certain knowledge, resulting from repeated tests on a 
thousand different occasions. A statement of the asre, 
attainments, character, country, and, I think, " form 
and figure,'* of every member, even in the Novitiate, 
is annually, immediately after the " manifestation of 
conscience," sent to the General at Rome, by the 
various provincials from every part of the world where 
the Society is, as in England, established. 

Besides, in these annual reports, the state of reli- 
gion, prospects of the Society, &c. &:c., in the respec- 

* Oportet eos esse notissimos Superiori. Ex. c. 4 — 35. 



THE NOVITIATE. 137 

tive countries, are given with the same precision.* 
Letters, also, in Latin, occasionally pass between the 
Novices of one country and those of another. This 
correspondence, of course, is only intended to unite the 
confraternity more closely together ; and as such it is 
" part of the system." We wrote a letter to the Ro- 
man Novices whilst I was at Hodder; and having 
had much to do with the Latin construction (the 
matter was furnished by the Novices of the second 
year), I can answer for some of the hopes therein fer- 
vently breathed, as bearing the fruit of fulfilment 
in these days of Tractarian conversion. If our 
Joshuas only could go forth to smite Amalek, 
we could stand on the top of the hill, and hold 
up our hands in prayer for victory against the *' he- 
retics," whose land we piously coveted : for it was a 
"good land, that beyond Jordan, that goodly moun- 
tain, and Lebanon !" For this consummation we 
prayed daily — for this all Roman Catholics pray 
daily : and they will continue to pray till they enter 
the promised Canaan, and '* mass be sung in West- 
minster Abbey !" 

"Novices ?ire sometimes interchanged : thus an En- 
glishman might be sent to the Roman Novitiate. Some 
of the Jesuits at Stonyhurst passed their novitiate at 
Rome. The utility of this is obvious. Foreign lan- 
guages are acquired without loss of time : not that 
the languages are grammatically studied in such cir- 
cumstances ; but most assuredly a facility of expres- 
sion is therein acquired ; and we may rest assured 

* Vide In6tr. xviii. pro Consult. 



138 ECONOMICS OF 

that the person thus selected to go abroad is per- 
fectly qualified to make the most of his opportunity. 
No men "seize Time by the forelock" with such a 
prompt and resolute grip as the Jesuits. 

From all that I have said it is clear that the selec- 
tion of a Jesuit to work in any given '' vineyard" — 
whether by the Provincial or by the mighty General — 
is, on most occasions, an easy matter. 

It may be thought that this general training, to 
which all are subjected alike, would necessarily pro- 
duce a similarity in the characters of all. It pro- 
duces a similarity, but no more : and yet — 

Facies non omnibus una, — 

Nee diversa tamea — qualem decet esse sororum. 

The training is intended eminently to effect a habit 
of perfect obedience ; for, strange to say, perfection in 
this *' virtue" is considered a preservative against 
every crime which would disqualify a Jesuit. 

The following is the rule in all its fervour. After 
having alluded to the vow of Chastity, whose model 
is to be the purity of the angels, Ignatius proceeds to 
speak of Obedience, " which all are most^ to observe, 
and study to excel in — not only in things of obli- 
gation, but even in others — although nothing but the 
sign of the Superior's will should appear without an 
express command. They should have before their 
eyes God the Creator, and our Lord for whose sake 
obedience is yielded unto man : and, that this may 
follow in the spirit of love and not with the pertur- 
bation of fear, care must be taken, so that we may 

* Plurimum, 



THE NOVITIATE. 139 

all strive with a stedfast mind not to set aside 
aught of perfection which we may be able to attain 
with Divine grace, in the absolute observance of all 
the Constitutions, and in corresponding to the pecu- 
liar design of our Institute : — and we should strenu- 
ously strain every nerve in our power in manifesting 
this virtue of obedience, in the first place to the 
Pope, and secondly to the Superiors of the Society. 
So that in all things to which obedience can extend 
with charity, we should be eagerly ready* at its 
voice, just as if it came forth from Christ the Lord, 
since we yield obedience to one who holds His place, 
and for the sake of His love and reverence — in any- 
thing whatever, and indeed, even a letter [of the 
alphabet] begun, being left unfinishedt [at the word 
of command]. 

*' Directing to that end all our powers in the Lord, 
that holy obedience be always perfect in all its attri- 
butes, in the execution^ in the will, in the intellect — 
with great agility, spiritual joy, and perseverance, 
performing whatever we have been enjoined to do — 
persuading ourselves that all things are just — re- 
jecting every opinion and judgment of ours which 
may be contrary, with a certain blind obedience ; 
and this indeed in all things which are ruled by the 
Superior — wherein (as has been said) no kind of sin 
can be defined to enter. And each one should per- 
suade himself that those who live under obedience, 
ought to allow themselves to be borne and ruled by 

* Q,uam promptissimi. 

t Litera a nobis inchoata nee dum perfecta relicta. 



140 ECONOMICS OF 

Divine Providence through the Saperior, just as if 
they were a carcass which may be borne in any direc- 
tion, and permits itself to be handled in any manner 
— or hke an old man's staff which everywhere serves 
him, and for whatever purpose he who holds it in his 
hand, wishes to use it. For thus the obedient man 
ought to perform with alacrity of soul anything what- 
ever to which his Superior may wish him to apply 
himself, for the aid of the whole body of the Order''^ 
— being convinced as of a certainty that he will con- 
form to the Divine will by that means, rather than by 
any other whatever that he could apply, by following 
his own will and judgment."f 

The novice who strives to attain this perfection of 
obedience should have Divine superiors. Has the 
reader ever imagined it possible for man to expect, or 
have yielded to him such prostrate submission as this 
rule exemplifies ? Does the reader think that it can 
possibly exist? He will say no ! if he has not pene- 
trated into the depths of his own mind — if he has 
not been accustomed to imagine the various circum- 
stances, in which as a human being, he might be tried, 
tempted, proved as by fire — and if, uninstructed 
by this species of experience open to all, he is yet to 
be convinced that the human mind can be brought 
to believe anything when its predominant sentiments 
are trained to bribe the rebellious will to subjection. 

No man can be more intensely convinced than 
I am of the resistless force of Divine religion — 

* Religionis, 

t A rule of the Summary. Const. P. vi. cap. I. 1, 



THE NOVITIATE. 141 

God-inspired in the humble soul : an impulse that 
may have all the energetic fervour of enthusiasm, 
combined with religious sobriety, such as charity 
in her sweetest mood, breathed into the heart which 
truly said — " Not /, but Christ in me !" But for this 
Divine religion I look in vain in the Jesuits. I found 
its sentiments inculcated by the spirit which presided 
over my meditations — I looked above me for a model ; 
but found it not. As the prophets of old, they 
were trained in a school ; but they became not pro- 
phets — and yet they would go forth as such ! It was 
a painful thing, this : to seek what one wished to find, 
and yet to seek in vain. 

Perhaps the impression was unfounded — doubtless 
the friends of the Jesuits will think it so. The former 
I should be happy to believe, the latter I cannot 
allow to have any weight in the balance of facts — 
of conduct, that my eyes beheld and have perused. 

How humanly all things progressed in the path 
quasi Divine, will be evident in my narrative : still 
more in the history which is to give completeness 
to this exposition of the Jesuit mind. 

Let it be distinctly understood that, philosophi- 
cally, I give the Jesuits unbounded credit for the 
tact and cleverness of their system. This view of 
the matter will not recommend it to the sincere fol- 
lower of Christ ; but it may tend to place a momen- 
tous topic on its right footing, and give a key to the 
secret of the rise, decline, and fall of the Jesuits. 

To such a Society, union is absolutely necessary — 
union of thought as well as of action. The will of the 



142 ECONOMICS OF 

Superior should settle every doubt: answer every 
question, without appeal. Obedience, then, is the 
bond of union.* 

Among the many motives held forth for this union 
of thought and action, or execution, 1 find the fol- 
lowing, in the Declarations superadded by way of 
running commentary to the Constitutions, viz. — 
" There are also other reasons, namely, because there 
will be for the most part literary men amongst us, 
and who will have not a little influence by favour 
with princes and men of high rank, and the people.''^ 

We will now inquire into the method of effectuat- 
ing this obedience. 

Obedience — in its ascetic acceptation — is not pecu- 
liar to the Jesuits : all monks were, or should have 
been ; are, or should be, obedient. Obedience in the 
Jesuit acceptation is certainly peculiar to the Jesuits ; 
and it is rendered so by the peculiar functions which 
the Jesuits have to perform. This distinction should 
be borne in mind by those who ask if the Benedic- 
tines, the Dominicans, the Franciscans, &:c., do not 
vow obedience? Bearing this distinction in mind, 
they may quote whole treatises of Bernard, Basil, 
&c., without touching the main question. Ignatius 
himself shall tell us what sort of obedience he means. 
On the occasion of certain " missfuided " mortifica- 



'& 



* Unio magn;"i ex parle j er Obeclientia3 vinculum conficitur. Const. 
P. viii. c. 1. 

t Sunt et aliffi rationes, qualis est, quud ut plurimum literati erunt, 
et gratia apud principes et priraarios viros, ac populos, non parum 
valebunt. Const. P. viii. c. 1. 



THE NOVITIATE. J 43 

tions and austerities, Ignatius addressed his cele- 
brated Epistle, ^* On the Virtue of Obedience," to his 
devoted followers. He begins with stating that 
obedience is the only virtue which produces and 
cherishes the *ther virtues ; that, properly speaking, 
it is the virtue of the Societv, and the character 
^vhich distinguishes its children; that thus other 
religious orders might surpass them in fastings, in 
"watchings, and in many other austere practices, 
which each of them observes piously, according to 
the spirit of their vocation ; but as to what concerns 
obedience, they ought not to yield the palm to them ; 
and that their vocation obliges them to render them- 
selves perfect in that virtue. 

He then establishes, on reasons deduced from the 
Scriptures and the Fathers, three degrees of obe- 
dience. The first and the lowest consists in doing 
what is commanded. The second is, not only to 
execute the orders of the Superior, but to conform 
our will to his. The third, to consider what is com- 
manded as the most reasonable and the best, for this 
only reason — that the Superior considers it as such. In 
order to attain this degree so elevated — which is 
called the obedience of the understanding — he says 
that we ousht not to care whether he who commands 
is wise or imprudent, holy or imperfect; but consider 
in him only the person of Jesus Christ : who has 
placed His authority into his hands, in order to guide 
us ; and who, being wisdom itself, will not permit His 
minister to be mistaken.* 

* Eouhours, La vie de St. Ignace, liv. v. 



144 ECONOMICS OF 

On his deathbed Ignatius exclaimed : — 

" Write ! I desire that the Society should know 
my last thoughts on the virtue of obedience." I 
shall only quote one, as most of them have been 
given already. The following is significant : — 

"VI. If the Superior judges that what he com- 
mands me to do is good, and I believe that I cannot 
obey without offending God — unless that be evident 
to me — I must obey. If, however, I find a difficulty 
by some scruple or other, I will consult two or three 
persons of good sense, and I will abide by their 
opinion. But if I do not yield after that, I am very 
far from the perfection which the excellence of a reli- 
gious state demands."* 

This last bequest speaks out clearly enough : it 
needs no "declaration," no commentary. But a ques- 
tion arises — was there, then, a necessity to foresee 
the circumstances in which a Jesuit might scruple 
as in temptation ? — might fear to offend God by 
pleasing man ? — might object to sin '* by virtue of 
Holy Obedience ?" In the seventh congregation of 
the Society it was decreed, that whoever said to the 
minister commanding " I will not do it," falls into a 
'^ reserved case"f — that is, a crime the absolution from 
which is exclusively vested in a higher functionary of 
the Society. 

I proceed to develope the philosophy of this inte- 
resting topic. 

• Bouhours, La Vie de St. Tguace. liv^. v. 

t CoNGii. 7. D. 45. Ministro qui elicit, Nolo facer e, in casum 
incidit reservatura. Index Gen, Inst. S. I. 



THE NOVITIATE. 145 

How are the novices conquered ? — how are they 
made to conquer themselves ? — How are tlie Jesuits 
conquered ? — how do they conquer themselves ? — so 
as to execute, with hand and heart, blind in will, 
obscure in intellect, any and every command " with no 
less eagerness than a child in the extremity of hunger 
obevs the voice of the nurse that calls it for food."^ 

If all physicians and surgeons would study physi- 
ology with the perseverance that its necessity in 
the correct diagnosis and proper treatment of disease 
seems to demand, doubtless the art of medicine would 
become something like a system — one system instead 
of a thousand. Jesuit casuistry and spiritual nosology 
are based on a most respectable knowledge of mental 
physiology. In reading some of their casuists, 
one is astounded by the extraordinary minuteness of 
criminal distinctions, which smell of phosphorus, in 
every page. They have made a terrible use of the 
confessional. On the other hand, their ^'spiritual 
books" give evidence of deep thought. Take the 
following in the matter of disobedience : I quote it in 
proof of what I have said with regard to the senti- 
ments in the motives to obedience. 

"If any command is abhorrent to self-esteem or 
self-respect, the difficulty of obedience results from 
pride ; v/e must here apply the examination of con- 
science, meditations; and remedies are to be adminis- 
tered by considering what an empty thing is pride, 
particularly in a religious man, who professes a con- 
tempt for himself, and declares himself to be crucified 

* S. Basil, cit. ab Aquav. in Instr. pro Super, de Obed. 

L 



146 ECONOMICS OF 

to the world. If any work is imposed, or any office to 
whicli we feel a repugnance, the difficulty flows from 
an unmortified nature ; but if, on the contrary, we 
have to leave an office to which we are rather inclined, 
the difficulty emanates from the very same inordinate 
affection for that office, or a person with whom it 
brings us in contact. If the difficulty of the work 
frightens us, fortitude is deficient; and in like manner 
in similar cases. Let us humble ourselves then, and 
striving to attain the aims before us, we may gain a 
glorious victory over self."* 

The same renowned General of the Society thus 
explains the conquering discipline of his troops : — 

" It will be advantageous if the Superior should 
sometimes command the subject to hold himself in 
readiness to do something as yet uncertain, in two or 
three days, which, perhaps, will be against his will 
and mind, but still he should resolve in his mind that 
he will never positively consent to the contrary.''^ 

On\y divine motives are ever to be held forth, and yet, 

" Let the Superior frequently enjoin him to do 
trivial things in which he knows that the subject 
finds no difficulty, so that he may thus accustom him 
to do somethinor towards the command of somethins: 
else; when he has done it let the Superior praise him, 
encourage him, 8cc."J 

Again, ** Sometimes let the Superior select some- 
thing certain, in which the subject finds great diffi- 

* Aquav. De Spir. cap. 4, 7. 

t Id. Ad curand. anim. morb. c. 5. 

I It'. De Perfect. Obed. c. 5. 



THE NOVITIATE. 147 

culty, and let him tell him to prepare himself to do it 
in the course of two or three days, as if he is to do it 
by common consent. When he has done it, if with 
alacrity, let him be cheered and encouraged, showing 
him that it will come to pass by that example that all 
things will become more easy. If he has done it with 
difficulty, let his patience be praised, promise him 
victory, telling him that he may easily conquer and 
by degrees may become stronger by this exercise. 

" Let the Superior sometimes condescend so far as 
to pass over that order to comply with which he feels 
a great repugnance ; but in so fatherly a manner that 
the subject may understand that it was o. pious dis- 
pensalioii and sweet condescension, only in order that 
he may profit by it and gain vigour, and after having 
become stronger, be able to bear with alacrity what is 
now above his strength. Meanwhile, although the 
Superior may do this on his part, let the subject, 
however, know that he has diminished his merit and 
strength, which he would have increased if he had 
conquered himself with magnanimity."* 

To give examples of Jesuit obedience would be to 
narrate the history of the society. 

It is the human will — considered as a cause and not 
an effect by the majority of moralists — that the 
Jesuits seem most anxious to direct; esteeming all 
other mental phenomena as purely indifferent : that 
is neither good nor bad in themselves, but only so 
in proportion as they are directed by a will quasi 
perverse, or quasi right, according to their notions. 

* Id. ut antea. 
L 2 



148 ECONOMICS OF 

In effect the Jesuits are more philosophical than 
other ascetics. They do not strive to change nature, 
but only to direct it from one object of appetence to 
another. Thus they endeavour to sanctify (so to 
speak) ambition into what they call apostolic fervour : 
thus Ignatius, from a warrior, aspired to be a saint. 
I remember reading in the Novitiate — I think in a 
Latin life of Xavier — some very striking remarks on 
this subject, the conclusions v;hereof may be enun- 
ciated as follows : viz., that the characters of men 
were all wisely ordained for some purpose — that they 
were not to be radically altered — indeed, that was 
impossible — but only directed into a proper channel, 
so as to sail prosperously down the stream of Grace, 
which leads each to the same ends by different 
means. There is something worthy of consideration 
in that exposition of Jesuit-ethics ; and though liable 
to extravagant abuse, it is perhaps a good principle 
whereon to build a rational and religious system of 
education. 

Thus, whatever is altered in a man's mentality 
by the Jesuits, his ruling passion is not virtually 
changed : it is held in check — it is trained — it is 
purified — sublimated according to their notions — but 
it is still there — coiled up as an everlasting mainspring 
which is wound up at stated times by Holy Obedience, 
and keeps the whole system in accurate movement : 
whether laid by, like the chronometer after a voyage, 
in one of the ''Three Houses," or when — like the 
chronometer, again hung on gimbals in the cabin of 
the ship tempest-tossed on the waste of waters — he is 



THE NOVITIATE. 149 

set adrift to work his way in the latitude and 
longitude of a heretic-world. 

The same principle is applied to genius, talents, 
and their predilections. The whole history of literature 
in every language attests this fact: the Jesuits know 
their wants, they have the means to supply them, and 
they shape their course accordingly. 

What are the means taken to discover the real 
character of the novice? 

I have spoken of my " general confession" on 
entering upon my probation ; but there are other 
means still to be mentioned — and these, the most im- 
portant of all. To show how such means are ap- 
plied, I shall now draw a sketch of the various 
functionaries in the Novitiate, and describe their 
respective functions in operation. 

THE MASTER. 

It must be evident that the master of the novices 
fills an important office in the society. Very pecu- 
liar tact and discernment are required in the man 
whose duty it is to discover all that is in the heart 
within, and at the same time render all that is out- 
wardly unpleasant bearable, at least, if not sweet and 
palatable. From the immense importance attached 
to obedience, the reader must not conclude that per- 
fection in this quality is absolutely " the one thing 
needful;" though, assuredly, like charity, it "co- 
vers a multitude of sins." There are other qualifi- 
cations which are certainly essential in a Jesuit. All 
these qualifications constitute what is called a 
" vocation" to the Society of Jesus. These the master 



150 THE MASTER. 

of the novices has to discover, and two entire years 
are allowed him for this investigation. Other re- 
ligious confraternities require but one year for pro- 
bation before the vows are taken. 

This simple fact alone declares something of no 
small importance in the eyes of the philosopher; and 
all will be convinced that the qualifications required 
must be both extraordinary and difficult to be dis- 
covered. If I may be permitted to express by a 
single word what the spirit of Ignatius requires in 
his novice, I say it is malleability. The master of 
the novices once said to me, " I have reason to hope 
for the best because you are so amenable — in this 
sense, that you are easily led by the heart." This 
forced and peculiar meaning which he gave to the 
word has stamped it on my mind as a philological 
curiosity.^ It is then a nature which is easily worked 
that is required in the novice destined to become a 
Jesuit — a gentle, confiding, candid, ingenuous heart, 
which, like the clear still water over pure white 
sand, reflects the thoughts unspoken, but still well 
shadowed, of his Superior, as truthfully and as beau- 
tifully imaged as the pictured heavens with passing 
clouds, momentary gleams, shade mingling with light, 
towers and battlements, a cottage and a church, a 
prison and a palace, trees and sign-posts, cattle and 
labourers, children and birds of passage, the straight 
and the crooked, the hurried, the slow — there, on 

• Amenable — that may be moved, brought to answer inquiries, to 
account for actions ; or may it not rather be — subject to the jurisdic- 
tion of a Mesne Lord ; to be summoned before him, adjudged by him ; 
and then — subject to trial or examination. See Richardson. 



THE MASTER. 151 

that still mirror of the lake which takes every im- 
pression without a murmur, and asks not why nor 
wherefore ! 

It must be difficult to find such a nature : approxi- 
mations, therefore, must satisfy where perfection 
cannot be found. Here the tact and discernment of 
the master are constantly required. 

Again, he must be a man of great patience and 
natural kindness of disposition, to bear with all the 
little afflictions which the novices must give him, in 
spite of themselves. Doubts and fears, bitterness 
and sadness, come upon them at times, and often, — 
they rush to him for aid and consolation. But if 
too many of these crotchets molest the mind — in 
other words, if a novice is " too scrupulous" he will 
not do for the society. When at Hodder, one of the 
novices disappeared rather unexpectedly — I say 
unexpectedly, because he was with us at night, and 
we only missed him at recreation. I asked a novice 

of the second year why Brother had left? The 

answer was to the following effect, and nearly in the 

very words : '' Brother was too scrupulous : 

men of strong minds are wanted ; when holy obe- 
dience has spoken, all doubts and difficulties should 
vanish." I confess that I was pained for the depar- 
ture of our friend, who was truly an amiable youth ; 
and 1 was by no means satisfied with the cause. 
How the report was put into circulation, or whether 
my informant was correct, I know not ; but I have 
many reasons, in my own experience, for taking 
his words in their literal and fullest sense, as develop- 



152 THE MASTER. 

inga fundamental principle of the system in question. 
To show that few other considerations, if any, will 
induce the Jesuits to deviate from the model on 
^vhich all their men must be fashioned as to their 
essentials at least, I may state that the gentleman 
who left under the circumstances mentioned, was the 
son of a baronet. 

It is the Father of the Novices who has to scrutinize, 
advise, and pass judgment on these secret matters. 
He heard the sacramental confessions of the novices 
every Saturday, preparatory to our communion on the 
following day. If any particular saint's day occurred 
during the week, we went to communion without 
going to confession ; a fervent act of contrition being 
considered sufficient. Besides this sacramental con- 
fession, he would send for every novice once a week, 
in order to have a private conversation with him as to 
his spiritual progress. These interviews were always 
interesting to me, and they were frequently prolonged 
beyond the time which was allowed to others. In- 
deed, these were the only occasions on which I could 
fully express the thouo;hts that occurred to me during 
meditation. We often had very animated conversa- 
tions on all the topics connected with a spiritual life ; 
and it was most gratifying to observe the pleasure 
which beamed on his countenance at observing the 
total change which had taken place in me, in the 
short space of a few months. 

Again, the Master of the Novices must be highly 
gifted in what is called the "discernment of sphits :" 
that is to say, the peculiar influences from within 



THE MASTER. 153 

that retard or promote spiritual progress. His con- 
clusions in this matter direct his advice, and deter- 
mine the selection of books for the study of the 
novice. As I shall afterwards relate, his discernment 
on one occasion raised me from the depths of bitter- 
ness to exultation : instantly, suddenly as the light- 
ning-flash that lights up a hemisphere, — i thought 
the man was inspired. 

A mother's gentleness is also requisite to inspire 
that confidence which has no secrets. In this respect 
the man selected to ouide us at Hodder left nothino; 
to desire : in unbosoming my heart to him I often 
thouo;ht of my mother. Oh! how sweet it was to be 
thoroughly known, thoroughly understood — even as 
I was to Him from whom nothing is hid ! 

" I have now before me," says one of the Generals, 
" the true image of our novice — the more perfect 
form — but we need the reality. All my anxiety and 
difficulty consist in this, namely, how to describe the 
model and the likeness of this ideal perfection to 
which the imperfect flesh itself is to be moulded. It 
is not by himself that this novice just escaped from 
the world, and still intensely burning with its flame — 
it is not, I say, by his own unassisted mind that he is 
fit to receive the doctrine and transcendent wisdom 
which Christ unfolds to him in the inculcation of 
self-abasement — an infant lately born to life cannot 
swallow hard bread. It is the duty of the mother to 
crumble the food of such a little one, and make it soft 
in her own mouth, and, as Augustin observes, give it 
to her child, after having changed its nature in her 
own milk. What the mother eats, the infant eats 



154 THE MASTER. 

but as the infant is unable to eat the bread, the 
mother incarnates the bread, and by the humility of 
the breast* and the juice of the milk, feeds the infant 
with the same bread itself. 

"The Superior or Master of the novices is their 
father, mother, and nurse. His duty is to break the 
too solid bread, to grind it once more with his own 
teeth, then change it into milk and present it to the 
novice. =^ * # * # # 

" If the novice is fed with this milk, we may promise 
ourselves to find in him the virtue which is expected 
in those who are far advanced in the path of religion 
and perfection. For, if St. Bernard most elegantly 
calls twilight the hope of the sun, and names a 
flower the hope of the fruit, so in like manner we may 
call the best and perfect novice the hope of the best 
and consummate professed. "-f- 

After this, I trust that my idea of the man to be 
selected to fill the post of Master of the Novices is 
perfectly in accordance with the spirit of the Institute. 

THE MINISTER. 

The second functionary in the Novitiate is the Father 
Minister, When I went to Hodder-place there was 
no father minister ; but about six months after my 
arrival one was appointed. It would appear that the 
father minister is nominated somewhat with the same 
view as the ''coadjutors" of the Roman Catholic 
bishops, or *' vicars apostolic" in England, viz., in 
order to succeed to the higher oflGice in the event of 

* Humilitatem mammillK. 

t Epist. Fran. Piccolom. Praep. Gen. S. J. 1650. 



THE MINISTER. 155 

death or other translation. He is a kind of imnriediate 
superintendent; is generally, if not always, with the 
novices,and consequently advises and reprimands as he 
thinks fit and expedient. When I say reprimand, I wish 
it to be understood that there never was any harshness 
in the exercise of that function. At all events, the re- 
prehensions applied to try my "spirit" were kindly and 
meekly expressed : a harsh word was never spoken in 
the Novitiate, though impremeditated slips of the 
tongue might to a vigilant conscience occasionally 
assume the form of uncharitableness; in which case 
they were duly expiated by a public acknowledgment 
and penance. 

The father minister, then, is an additional instru- 
ment of probation — another eye to the omniscient 
Argus, none of whose eyes are ever asleep ; and it is 
precisely because no lute with notes melodiously 
sweet can charm these eyes to repose, that this mo- 
dern Argus — the Society of the Jesuits — fears no sur- 
prise : lives on, if not for ever. 

The Father Minister at Hodder, at his very first 
appearance, cast a shadow on my mind and heart. 
There are natures which are attracted or repelled at 
first sight. An innocent babe will scream at the 
glance of one man, and sweetly smile at that of 
another. Surely this voice of nature — this uncon 
querable instinct — must be oftener right than wrong. 
At least, such is my idiosyncrasy ; and it was un- 
favourably affected by this Jesuit, the father minister. 
When I first raised my eyes to his countenance I felt 
a shock similar to that of electricity, and a foreboding 



156 THE MINISTER. 

seemed to tell my heart that I could not live with one 
whom it was impossible for me to esteem and to love. 
He came at a time, too, when my mind was assailed 
by doubts as to my '* vocation;" and I well remember 
that at the sight of his features I thought o^ the front 
door by which I had entered the Novitiate. 

I remember that thought ! 

This may seem strange — preposterous ; but there 
are self-ideas — strono- thoucrhts — sweet and bitter 
thoughts — that stamp themselves on the mind and 
memory for ever ; to be recalled ever and anon, like 
the scenes we have witnessed — the events which con- 
stitute our history, whereby we have been made happy 
or wretched. 

I strove to overcome my repugnance to this man — 
I confessed it to the Superior — I prayed for aid — I 
tried to reason myself out of it; but that was the 
"rock on which I split :" reasoning was the hundred 
arms of the polypus that entangled and stifled the 
pious wish whenever it floated within reach on my 
little " sea of troubles." I shall have to speak of 
this Jesuit again towards the close of my narrative ; 
but a few words are necessary here in order to justify 
my repugnance. Of all the Jesuits whom I met at 
Stonyhurst, this man seemed the most insincere. I 
never heard a word from his lips that could edify or 
inspire devotion — he always seemed tired in body or 
mind of something that was never to be disclosed. 
This last remark may apply to the ** Fathers" gene- 
rally ; and it was to me a matter of wonder how men 
could have been trained as I was in the Novitiate, 



THE MINISTER. 157 

and yet be so cold, unimpassioned on the most vital 
topics of religion, as I found them; — though, it must 
be confessed, they brightened considerably on all 
occasions when the affairs of the Society were dis- 
cussed. Far be it from me to write ought that may 
wantonly wound the feelings of any one. I denounce 
the system — not the men who were kind to me : ex- 
cept so far as they are inseparable from it. I j^ity 
them; therefore have I undertaken to attempt a dis- 
section of that system, which, amongst all its other 
contortions, wrenchings, and twistings of the human 
heart and mind, renders even the godlike virtue of 
brotherly love and human kindness suspicious in its 
manifestations 

Aversions must necessarily occur at times among 
men living together : the mysterious influences that 
make the most vigorous plant droop to decay in a 
single day, a single hour, may have their representa- 
tives in the human heart. We are not always the 
same : the plant of love has its Spring, Summer, 
Autumn, and Winter; and though its seasons are 
subject to considerable perturbations, still, doubtless, 
in every heart its Spring and Summer are well 
remembered. 

Against the aversions alluded to, I find certain 
''cures" prescribed by Aquaviva in his Instruction for 
the Superiors of the Society. The patient " must be 
stimulated by the confessor, and he is not to be per- 
mitted, as in other imperfections, to delay in over- 
coming his aversion, in discarding all bitterness, and 
in being reconciled to his brother, persuaded as he 



158 THE MINISTER. 

must be that neither his prayers nor other actions 
can be such as they should be, unless this imperfec- 
tion be amended. The Superior must see that he be 
reconciled as soon as possible with his brother, and 
must by no means permit, should the thing ever 
occur, that the common signs of salutation, conversa- 
tion, and duty, or the like, be reciprocally vi^ithheld. 
* * ^ ^ ^ 

'* Let the Superior speak to the brother who is the 
object of aversion, in order that the latter, although 
innocent of any cause of offence, should, neverthe- 
less, overcome evil with good, should humble himself, 
be the first to go and blandly address the delinquent, 
and by all means entice him to brotherly love. In 
fine, let the Superior, or any other mediator, settle 
the matter entirely and without delay ."^ 

In the Life of Ignatius, a curious instance of 
this aversion is related, together with its sudden cure, 
by the magic of the eyes. I must preface the anec- 
dote by a few remarks. Of all the faces that the 
limner's art has handed down to posterity, as the 
compendious records of the renowned or notorious 
dead, that of Ignatius of Loyola always seemed, 
and seems still to me, unlovable amongst the least 
lovable. I have before me now a well-executed en- 
graving of his miniature, and it produces the same 
repugnance that I felt in the Novitiate, without the 
pious wish to overcome the feeling. And yet '* he 
could bend the minds of his followers in whatever 
direction he pleased." 

* Aquav,, De impat. & aversio. 2, et seq. 



THE MINISTER. 159 

RiBADENEYRA was young, and not very regular 
nor prudent; his extravagance went so far as to shake 
off the yoke of obedience, and to feel so strong a 
repugnance to Ignatius, that he could not bear the 
sight of the holy Father: such was his secret 
aversion. 

Ignatius sent for him one day, and only said two 
or three words to him. In the instant, Ribadeneyra 
threw himself at his feet, and bursting into tears, 
exclaimed — '* I will do, Father ! I will do whatever 
vou like !"^ 

In my case the cause was too deep, too continuous 
to admit of a radical cure: the disease was organic. 
With the exception of my Superior — the Master of 
the Novices — no Jesuit that I conversed with left a 
pleasing impression on my mind. Doubtless, obe- 
dience under such circumstances would indeed have 
had " great merit;" but my faith in the possibility of 
thus rendering myself acceptable to God, was too 
weak for a Jesuit. 

I must do justice to the immediate object of my 
'''aversion," by stating, that on one occasion he 
jocosely animadverted on the " prevarication and equi- 
vocation*' of certain English Jesuits during the times 
of persecution ; including, or directly alluding to, 
Parsons and Garnet, if I remember rightly. But 
though this was only "in jest," still I felt inchned 
to open my heart to the man : even for that candour 
which, by a little charitable twisting, might, to " the 



• BouHOURS — Vie d* Ignace. liv. vi. 



160 THE PORTER. 

simplicity of the dove," seem not to be " the cunning 
of the serpent." 

Had I gone among these men as an enemy, I 
would now suspect my impressions; but I went as a 
friend, as a passionate admirer : and surely it was 
scarcely my fault, if the peculiarities of their minds 
did not please me — veluti Balhinum polypus Haguce ! 

THE PORTER. 

The porter was one of the novices of the second 
year. He continued in office for sometime: there 
were but three different porters during my year. All 
the general and particular orders of the Superior 
came through him; and, though without any power 
resulting from his office, he directed, as we have 
seen, all the movements of the novices durins; the 
public works. He was expected to be more watchful 
over himself, because he was porter, in addition to his 
being a novice of the second year : which was itself 
an influential motive to perfection in all the duties of 
a novice. He was expected to give an account of 
all the novices — to report any public infringement of 
the rules. Whatever was needed by the novices was 
to be asked from him ; whether clothing, shoes, pens, 
ink, and paper. These were always liberally supplied ; 
in accordance with that part of one of the rules of the 
Constitutions, which enjoins every Jesuit " freely to 
give what he has freely received:" a doctrine wliich 
it is difficult to reconcile with the educational re- 
venue derived by the Jesuits in most parts of the 
world 



MONITORS. 



161 



The porter was thus, as it were, housekeeper in the 
establishment. He rose first, and went to bed last ; 
after having bolted the outer doors, put out the fire 
and the lights, and wound up the pious old clock on 
the stated days. That old clock ! I think I hear it 
now clicking its on-for-ever and contented pulse, as 
its obedient children passed by, but never greet- 
ing it with a friendly look. It stood on the landing, 
opposite the door of the dormitory, close to that 
of the chapel : we therefore passed it frequently ; 
but if I did not see its face in the first days of 
my first retreat, I have never seen it : and yet I 
often think of that good old clock — that venerable 
old clock! 

MONITORS. 

Every novice had his monitor. Sunday-schools 
and union-schools, and likewise the Methodists (who, 
by the way, have borrowed a few rules and regula- 
tions from Ignatius), have made the word monitor 
quite familiar to the language; but its original phi- 
lological meaning has not been preserved. The 
Jesuits, and, I believe, the Methodists, use it pretty 
much in its strictest sense: certainly it means some- 
thing in the Novitiate. 

The monitors were appointed by the Superior. At 
certain times — for these were not perpetual curacies 
— all the novices were ordered to the Refectory just 
before " Manual Works.'* They stood around, and 
the porter at the end of the room, with a paper in 
his hand, read off, in Latin, the appointment of all 

M 



162 



MONITORS. 



the minor functionaries by name : — the waiters for 
the week, the readers, the monitors reciprocally, 
and the porter, if the will of the Superior had put 
a period to his functional existence : and that 
would be the first intimation he would have of the 
supersedeas issued against its continuance. Power, 
over mind or body, is pleasant to the human heart. 
V¥e soon habituate ourselves to the possession ; and 
however unselfish we are, it will be found, if we 
probe the heart, that we never part with it without 
some "triflino:" reluctance. Ignatius knew this: 
the Jesuits know it ; and so they habituate the no- 
vice to this bitterness by times : for no one knows 
how long he is to discharge any ofliice. As is the 
porter in the Novitiate, so is the Jesuit everywhere. 
]Vo handwritino' on the wall forewarns him of his 
fate ; with the shriek of the prey-bird; or the stun- 
ning crash of the whirlwind, " Othello's occupation 's 
gone !" The highest are levelled to the lowest, and 
beneath them ; the most glorious plume is snatched 
from the cap of one, to be placed in that of another: 
unscrupulously, unhesitatingly, suddenly, by Holy 
Obedience : — 

" bine apicem rapax 

cum stridore acuto 



Sustulit : hie posuisse gaudet." 

The duty of the monitor is to remark any irregu- 
larity in the novice whose monitor he happens to be, 
and to admonish him of it at the appointed time. I 
think this occurred twice a week. As I have said 
before, the porter gave the signal by his " Deo 



MONITORS. 163 

gratias." The novice then went to his monitor (who 
should be in his cell in readiness), scratched the cur- 
tain, entered as soon as permission was given, and 
with downcast eyes said " Deo gratias." His 
monitor mentioned whatever he had observed amiss 
in his conduct; concluding with *^ Deo gratias," 
which was a dismissal, and then went to his own 
monitor: if he had not already received his admo- 
nition. This was a painful duty to perform ; parti- 
cularly if you had to admonish one considerably older 
than yourself, as was my case. I fulfilled the duty 
once, and I think but once. I took refuge in that 
concentration of the heart and mind which strives, 
at least, to see no evil in others : a consummation to 
which all may in a great measure attain, if we ana- 
tomise our own heart and its suggestions. The novice, 
when admonished, was expected to receive the ad- 
monition with grateful humility, and resolve to avoid 
the fault admonished. Of course, no question was 
asked as to the when? or why? of the time and 
reason of the objected imperfection : you listened, 
but never rejoined. 

If the monitor had observed nothing, he said '' Deo 
gratias." 

'* To the greater glory of God !" was the end held 
forth to us, in all that we were taught to think, to 
feel, to do; and it was certainly not impossible to 
console our nettled self-love with " banc veniam peti- 
musque damusque vicissim" — "we give and take'' — 
sanctifying the worldly motto w'ith an aspiration in 
*' the spirit of holy Father Ignatius." 

M 2 



164 MONITORS. , 

In a state of primitive Christianity — or among the 
Jesuits if they could reproduce that golden age, — how 
beautiful would be that reciprocal anxiety or rather 
solicitude for each other's spiritual welfare ! But 
when one has felt, as I have, the fearful temptations 
of bitter thought which the practice multiplies for 
poor humanity — already sufficiently tempted — it 
requires but little reasoning to convince us that it sub- 
serves the unalloyed selfishness of the Society, much 
more than the cause of religious amendment in the 
individual. " He who toucheth pitch," it is written, 
" shall be defiled therewith" — there are defiling 
things in our nature which not even the Jesuits can 
sanctify by the ewe? of their application. 

True, the novice is aware of this regulation before 
he enters into probation ; but the previous knowledge 
of their existence does not diminish the pang or the 
poison of the sting of the musquitoes in the pestilen- 
tial swamps of America, when the traveller y'ee/s their 
sting, or hears their sepulchral serenade: a thousand 
times more annoying than the silent sting. 

To an honest man — to a generous heart, counsel, 
advice, a friendly admonition must always be accept- 
able : *' a word to the wise" should be the motto of 
every man, because eveiy man should strive to attain 
the perfection of his state ; but by rendering such 
reprimands the result of a systematic espionage (I 
rejoice that there is no English word to express it), 
you open the way to unholy selfishness in its 
deadliest rancour, precisely because it can work 
unseen as the blast of pestilence. 



MONITORS. 165 

Of what import will it be, if I admit that all things 
may be endured for the sake of Him who endured all 
things for us ? Let those things be endured as He 
endured them, namely, when they came upon Him 
as man — but let us not lead ourselves into tempta- 
tion whilst we pray to be delivered from evil ! 

Perhaps my conclusions would have been different 
had I beheld better effects of the training than it was 
my misfortune to witness : had I seen a pure, morti- 
fied spirit in the Fathers generally — an honest con- 
sistency with the dazzling models of my daily medi- 
tations. But I looked around in vain : I waited in 
vain — my gorgeous dreams dissolved in the presence 
of the sad reality. I therefore am compelled to 
admit that I was constantly " tempted" to think the 
'* Fathers" with whom I associated — whose looks, 
eyes and words 1 could study — as eminently self- 
seekers : men of an association ; not of the " Constitu- 
tions/' where these described my model. 

This impression was never thoroughly overcome ; 
and the last interview with the Provincial, when I 
made known ray determination to leave, engraved on 
my mind what had only been traced or sketched 
before : it will be given in full in its proper place. 

Training gives the Jesuit power to do what other 
men cannot do — as it does to the acrobat, the 
tumbler, the equestrian : what the latter effect in the 
brute muscle and limb, the former display in mind 
and morals. All have, doubtless, motives strong 
enough to rouse the most uncompromising exertion. 



166 



CHAPTER X. 

GAMES. — RECREATION. — MISSIONARY DUTIES. 

This is a strange combination of topics : it will not, 
however, appear so very strange at " the end of the 
chapter." The Jesuits do nothing in vain : at least 
without an object ; and their " Philosophy in sport" 
is as admirably devised as it is, in the long run, per- 
fectly successful. In effect their whole system is a 
gigantic speculation — a cunning stratagem — a splen- 
did deceit — a most bewitching artifice. And yet, like 
the conjurer, it is by natural means that they exhibit 
supernatural manifestations. Whatever be the mental 
deficiencies of the Jesuit, like Ignatius himself, he 
must have, he has, tact — such tact, precisely, as a 
tiger would acquire were its original cunning modified 
and trained by the patient, wise, discreet elephant. 
Such a result would evidently be a remarkable phe- 
nomenon in zoology ; and such is the Jesuit-mind in 
psychology — nothing more, nothing less. The Jesuits 
are terrible because they are natural. We do not 
habitually fear the devil as much as we do a bad 
man — and a child can tell you the reason. 



GAMES. 167 

My adaiiration of the wonderful adaptahility of 
the human mind has been so vastly increased by the 
study of these men and their system, that I have 
great pleasure in returnino- the favour, by enabling 
others to deal fairly with them : to do them justice, 
as honest Milton, in " Paradise Lost," seems to have 
intended by his gorgeous development of Satan and 
his awful theory. They are conscious of their 
'' cleverness." Perhaps one of the best specimens of 
harmless Jesuits was my old friend the master of the 
novices at Hodder ; and yet the following incident 
rather staggered my esteem of this gentleman — it 
suggested "temptations." The reader shall judge. 
One day I was ordered to mend a torn leaf of the 
missal. I required some india-rubber : there was 
none to be had. I suggested a piece of bread as a 
substitute. He accordingly led me to the kitchen, 
seized a loaf, and taking a knife in his hand he cut a 
slice, not in the usual way, towards the breast, but 
from him ; observing, "Remember, Brother Steinmetz, 
le Jesuite coupe, mais il ne se coupe pas''' — '' the Jesuit 
cuts, but he takes care not to cut himself." He 
smiled — I did the same — but I certainly wished he 
had forgotten the maxim. At the end of my work, 
however, he partly did away with the bad impression 
by delicately praising my work ; adding — " Qui dedit 
tihi pietatem, dedit et scientiam'^ — " He who gave thee 
piety, gave thee also skill." The latter anecdote 
certainly shows a delicate perception of the pleasant 
and beautiful, if the former does not point to an ac- 
knowledged and systematic craft : still it seemed to 



168 GAMES. 

ine as if any clergyman should say (in jest, of course, 
which makes the matter worse), " Do as I say, not as 

I c?o." 

But cool cleverness is essential to a Jesuit — a pa- 
tient cleverness united to a soul possessed in patience 
— whose joy at success is subdued, and whose annoy- 
ance at failure has no voice. Means were given to 
us in the Novitiate to acquire this frame of mind. 
We played at backgammon, chess, and draughts. I 
know not whether dice, and so absorbing a game 
as chess, are conducive to " holy living ;" but I do 
know that the former, at least, are positively forbid- 
den to the priest by the Council of Trent; and I also 
know that we found them very useful in curbing the 
temper, and in giving us numerous opportunities to 
afflict, mortify, contund, the spirit — the rebellious 
spirit. 

Our times of play were the recreation-days. Al- 
though these days came round every week pretty 
regularly, still they were occasionally stopped ; and 
they were always announced by the porter in the usual 
way, thereby giving us to understand that they did 
not come as a matter of course. 

We also played at football, and here slight ebulli- 
tions of temper were sometimes seen ; but the re- 
pentant brother, on his knees in the Refectory, was 
sure to make ample amends for his misdemeanour. 

I have felt the pleasure of apologising for an un- 
premeditated word of anger, and I have experienced 
the pain of receiving such an apology, mingled though 
it was with pleasure ; but I had neither pleasure nor 



A WALK. 169 

pain when I beheld a brother kneehng,and heard him 
confess a trivial contradiction, and felt the kiss of his 
lips on my feet : only then reminded (not that / had 
been offended), but that he had committed a fault 
against brotherly love ! I had neither pleasure nor 
pain on such occasions : I was simply humbled — 
lowered still more in my own estimation— more re- 
signed — more contrite. 

Truly there is something of Heaven in this gene- 
rous humility of the heart, expiating all its guilt in a 
noble acknowledgment, by loving kindness prompted, 
and with Christian simplicity expressed ! 

Recreation superseded manual works and the lec- 
ture, so that it lasted about three hours ; sometimes 
in the forenoon, sometimes in the afternoon, when we 
now and then went out for a walk in the vicinity. 

The porter announced the order to that effect. 
We made ready as expeditiously as possible, by doff- 
ing: our cassocks and donnins; our coats, — and o-reat 
coats in winter, — putting on thick shoes, and taking 
our sticks and hats : thus equipped, we walked de- 
murely to the recreation-room, said the usual " Ave 
Maria" kneeling, and then went and stood in a line 
opposite the door which opened into the garden — for 
I must repeat that we never went through the front 
door of the Novitiate except twice : once on entering 
for the first time, and then on departing from the 
gates of probation. Standing in a line, then, presently 
the porter appeared, and stood on the steps of the 
door, with a paper in his hand. This was a list of 
the different companies into which we were divided ; 



170 THE LITANY. 

generally a second-year novice was in each company ; 
the novice first named had the company in charge. 
When each company was named it filed ofF, the leader 
rehearsing the Litany of the Virgin Mary in Latin, 
and his companions answering the ''Ora pro nobis'* 
in sonorous cadence. As this Litany has been men- 
tioned before, I may state, for the information of the 
reader, that it consists chiefly of eighteen laudatory 
epithets of the Virgin, as the mother '^ of the Creator," 
'* of the Saviour," and " of Divine Grace.*' Next 
follow thirteen incongruous and middle-age metaphors 
or tropes, expressive of certain mystic qualities which 
Romanticism has ascribed to the ^* Queen of Heaven." 
She is then stated to be the "health of the sick," the 
'•' refuge of sinners," the " consolatrix of the afflicted," 
the " aid of Christians ;" and the Litany winds up 
with invoking Mary as the queen of angels, patriarchs, 
prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, virgins, and of 
all the saints. 

It is repeated rapidly, and the sound reminds one 
of that husky guttural note with which the palanquin- 
bearers of the East supply the place of a pedometer, 
and kill monotony : to their own satisfaction, at least, 
if not to that of the traveller. 

The list was in Latin, the Litany was in Latin, and 
we talked Latin for the first hours of recreation, on all 
occasions. To those whose tongues are habitually 
tied, I doubt not that Hebrew or Chinese would soon 
be sufficiently mastered as a vehicle of thought when 
the ordinary locomotive of the mind is forbidden "to 
run." Few of us found much difficulty in conversing 



A DISCUSSION. 171 

fluently, particularly as our topics were invariably 
spiritual or Jesuitico-historical, and of course most, if 
not all, our reading in the Novitiate was in Latin. 
Generally the Father Minister was in one of the com- 
panies, and he was often in mine. There were three 
or four in each company — very seldom only two. 
The object of this is evident — the conversation of two 
is much more likely to become irregular than that of 
three. 

I was once reminded of the wisdom of this regula- 
tion. It happened that two of us — another novice 
and myself — were permitted to go out without the 
usual third. From one thing to another, our conver- 
sation — according to the usual phases of that social 
Proteus — turned on the noble sacrifices that have 
been made for the sake of religion ; and I charitably 
alluded to one of our brothers, who, being the son of 
a nobleman, was content with exchanoing; that hio;h 
honour for the obscurity of the Novitiate. My com- 
panion, to my great surprise, treated the idea very 
lightly, informing me that the novice alluded to was 
only a younger son of a nobleman not very rich. 

But not stopping here, he very lucidly explained 
how he had made a much greater sacrifice by leaving 
considerable property in the world. 

" After all," said I, ** perhaps it does not matter 
much what we have left in the world, provided we 
have left our self-will there also." 

Thus I managed to give the conversation another 
turn ; for it was evidently not very edifying on that 
tack. I did not report the error, though doubtless 



172 



REMARKS. 



I ought to have done so. Let me now make amends 
for my irregularity by a few remarks flowing directly 
from the subject. 

People are apt to lay too much stress on what 
'^converts" resign for the sake of religion. For my 
part I value their mental much more than their 
bodily sacrifice. Philosophers of old — pagan philo- 
sophers — have shown their contempt for riches in 
many a beautiful anecdote. I am aware that their 
motives have been unkindly called in question by the 
moderns; but if we undertake to find out the motives 
of men without decided proofs of tlieir tendency, we 
may offend as much against true morality as against 
logic. 

Again, how many men have thrown up most 
lucrative employment, with the certainty of vast 
pecuniary inconvenience before them, when merely 
their self-love has been wounded by an insulting word 
of their employer ? 

The love of literature, of music, the love of women, 
of the bottle, has seduced thousands into desperate 
resolutions, fraught with worldly ruin. 

I do not suggest these hints by way of depreciat- 
ing the *^ great sacrifices" in question, but simply to 
show that they are at most but negative criteria, if 
there be such things in the chaos of mind. 

The poor labourer, who despite the bitterness of 
the hour — pinching poverty — with many a little one 
beside him to feed, and but little to feed their 
craving mouths withal — unpitied by the rich man 
whose mansion is inconvenienced by the sight of 



REMARKS. 173 

his humble cottage hard by — such an outcast of 
men — so desperately tried in the fire of temptation — 
if he can feel his honest heart beat with devotion, 
can look up to Heaven — can think sweetly of his 
merciful good God, saying, ''Thy will be done !" Then 
is there a sacrifice indeed : a whole burnt-ofFering 
whose odour ascends undeviating, unscattered, un- 
spent, to the judgment-seat of God ! 

Still, perhaps, taking a worldly view of the ques- 
tion, the novice just alluded to, and those who are 
interested in " conversions" may be very right in 
estimating them according to pounds, shillings, and 
pence; as the computation is thereby rendered ex- 
tremely easy to all. 

Guided by a sort of traditionary map, we always 
managed to avoid other companies, though we 
frequently contrived to reach the outer gate about 
the same time, so great was the punctuality of our 
leader. 

We were not allowed to speak with another com- 
pany if we ever fell in with one — nor with any one 
else we might meet : we merely raised our hands to 
our hats in salutation, and silently passed on. We 
were not even allowed to speak to the scholastici of 
the seminary on such occasions. 

All seemed happy as we set out, particularly dur- 
ing the summer months ; and very often, as soon as 
the Litany was concluded, one of the company would 
burst into a fit of laughter ! — a sort of pent-up torrent- 
like full-heartedness that could not be resisted any 
lonofer. This must not remind the reader of what 



174 



A SHOCK. 



Cicero says of the ancient augurs of Rome when they 
got together:* at least I should be very sorry to hear 
the remark paralleled to the incident just described. 

We went as much as possible by unfrequented 
paths: by the river's bank and its beautiful vale; 
or through the meditative woods, where the love- 
notes of the summer-birds oft recalled, to my affliction, 
that true and real inspiration of heaven — music and 
song: which, in our solitude, I rarely heard, except 
in dreams of the night. When we were permitted to 
go to the church at the college, to be present at high 
mass on the great festivals, the sound of the organ 
"was ravishing, ecstatic. To the sensual, music may 
be sweet, but to the spiritual, it is divine : a child 
of the imagination, it is maimed and crippled by 



grossness. 



In our walks we were careful to preserve " custody 
of eyes," and we rarely saw the faces of those whom 
•we met. I shall never forget the pang that shot 
through my frame, when once, on passing a stile, I 
inadvertently raised my eyes and beheld — a hand- 
some woman ! 

It required some days for me to recover from this 
shock; and I must say that the Superior perfectly 
convinced me, at last, that '* 'twas quite natural." 
Mark, here, a curious fact. In my contemplations 
my soul v/as frequently in company with the beauties 
of the saints — to the present time I am sometimes 
reminded o^ familiar faces, but I was happy in those 

* Namely, that tLey could not look each other in the face without 
smiling at the deceit they practised. 



MISSIONARY DUTIES. 175 

•visions. Was it the idea alone that there was no 
danger in the latter case, and some in the former, 
that thus changed bliss into misery ? 

It was durino- recreation that we were often sent on 
our missionary duties — particularly on Sundays. 

Once for all, I will now state, that considerable 
relaxations are made in the Novitiate in England. 
Novices in the Roman Novitiate have, I was told, 
a much harder time of it. I remember one parti- 
cular instance of its severity was, the custom for 
one of the novices to eat his dinner at the gate 
with the lowest beggars of Rome ; who were fed 
there, apparently in order to give the novices one 
trial more. By the Constitutions the novice is re- 
quired to go on a pilgrimage, to attend for the 
space of a month in some hospital, and to teach the 
Christian doctrine to the children of the poor. We 
had only the last duty to perform at Hodder. Here- 
after, when " mass is sung in Westminster Abbey," 
doubtless our English novices will go on a pilgrimage, 
and attend at some hospital, in their picturesque cas- 
socks, walking demurely, keeping custody of eyes, 
and working miracles by edification. 

The Jesuits have established a school for the poor 
near the college ; and the novices instruct the children 
in the Romish faith. Besides this general collec- 
tion, we went to various poor families, and catechised 
the little ones who were assembled for the purpose. 
To judf;e from the crowds I saw at mass on the first 
Sunday I spent at the college, the Roman Catholics 
in the vicinity are very numerous; and, doubtless, 



176 MISSIONARY DUTIES. 

are annually increased in numbers, if not in fervour : 
for the Catholic or Universal Church delights in 
numbers, mere numerical force being an essential 
'* mark of the true church." It is indeed remarkable, 
that the Roman church, like the Roman republic and 
empire of old, should be satisfied with nothing short 
of universal power! And it is also a curious fact, that 
as the tough Germans of old gave the first mighty 
blow to the latter, so has a tough German of modern 
times given another such blow to the former: a blow 
from the effects of which she will never recover ; any 
more than her predecessor in tyranny, injustice, and 
craft. 

If tyranny, injustice, and craft, be crimes against 
the mere body of man, that called for a mighty and 
lasting retribution, why should the retribution for 
similar crimes aoainst his soul be lessoned in extent, or 
shortened in duration ? . . . It cannot be! The 
men of Rome exult in this " reaction," as they call 
it, which is making *' St. Mary's, at Oscott,'' a true 
"refugium peccatorum," a refuge of sinners. But, 
perhaps, from among the very men whose captive 
chains clank in their triumphal thanksgiving, there 
will be shot the " lethalis arundo," the deadly arrow 
that will pierce and cling to the side of their " Mother 
Church" in the appointed time. It is not children 
that they are receiving, but full-grown men, who 
have been accustomed most pertinaciously " to think 
for themselves." They began with being reformers : 
and it must be confessed with some of the boldness 
of reformers. Will theyjbe content to "change their 



MISSIONARY DUTIES. 177 

skins:" to become sheep, from having been, as it 
were, wolves : to smother the cunning and the clever 
thought, which seems so flattering to one's own 
vanity, in the cold, dead ashes of papal infallibility? 
We shall see! 

On our return from our walk and missionarv 
duties, we begun the Litany again, just as we entered 
the outer gate; and as we walked slowly on departing 
from and returning to the Novitiate, we generally 
finished before we reached the steps aforesaid. We 
went to the recreation-room, said the " Ave Maria," 
deposited our sticks, See, put on our cassocks, and, if 
not otherwise ordered, we might remain in our cells, 
or walk in the garden ; but we generally assembled 
altogether, on the same days, in the recreation-room, 
or in the garden, for conversation : the porter an- 
nounced the termination of the hour prescribed for 
Latin conversation. 

For our missionary duties we were directly and 
indirectly prepared; indirectly, by all our reading; 
and directly, by the short sermons which every novice 
in his turn had to compose and deliver; and by a 
course of Christian doctrine which was read in class. 
The book was in French, and each novice, when his 
turn came round, standino- at the end of the Recrea- 
tion-room, translated it into English, as if he were 
reading an English book. Time was given to prepare 
for the lecture ; and some of the novices, I remember, 
gave the viva voce translation with considerable neat- 
ness and elegance. The Superior was always present, 
and he sometim.es put questions to the novices on the 

N 



178 MISSIONARY DUTIES. 

topic discussed in the book, which was written by a 
Jesuit. 

The moraUty of the catechism which we read at 
Hodder was, as far as I remember, that of Roman 
Cathohcs in general; nor do I think there was any- 
thing read to us from it contrary to the notions of 
Christians in general on questions of simple morality. 
I must state that the passages read were appointed 
by the Superior; and we never had the book on any 
other occasions but those when we had to read over 
the passages preparatory to translation. The time 
given was barely sufficient for the work, much less to 
read more ; even if we would do violence to conscience 
by reading without permission, which, of course, was 
contrary to rule. 

Our sermons were short discourses — delivered viva 
voce, in like manner — on the virtues and vices, from 
texts of Scripture selected by the Superior. A 
short, clever model of the discourse was given to 
us, to be committed to memory and imitated as 
closely as possible ; and we had to rehearse the 
model before deliverincr our imitation. We had 
also to compose and deliver longer sermons after 
the great retreat — a list of the subjects with the 
preacher's name being deposited for inspection on a 
table in the dormitory. On this table, I may men- 
tion, by the way, were a few books ; to read which, 
general permission was given. These books were 
small pious tracts, the only one of them worth men- 
tioning being a life of Segneri, a renowned preacher 
of the Society. 



MISSIONARY DUTIES. 179 

There was a library in the dormitory containing 
two or three hundred volumes of miscellaneous spi- 
rituality, which, however, we were not permitted to 
read without express leave from the Superior; but, as 
we had to dust these books occasionally, I remember 
having- seen among them a copy of the Bible and the 
sermons of Bourdaloue. 

We delivered our sermons without gesture, keeping 
custody of eyes, after the manner of the last-named 
celebrated orator.* 

A sermon, or the catechism, or a translation from 
Cyprian, alternated in the afternoons, twice or thrice 
a week. The sermon was generally criticised by the 
Superior, or the minister when he was appointed; and 
sometimes keenly — I suppose " to try the spirit." 

From what I have said the reader will judge what 
care is taken to prepare the novice for his future func- 
tions. Indeed, with the Romish priesthood in gene- 
ral, divinity is not an afterthought — is not a matter 

* I was told an interesting anecdote of this celebrated preacher. 
As it was related in the Novitiate, I suppose we may rely on its 
authenticity. 

On one occasion Bourdaloue had to preach a sermon on some very 
serious topic — I was not told what — and had retired to his room for 
his previous meditation. 

Being a few minutes beyond the appointed hour, he was sent for — 
when lo ! they found him with a fiddle in his hand, scraping a lively 
air, to which he was dancing with all his might and merriment ! On 
being surprised, he said: — "Pardon me! brothers; but the fact is, 
I was so depressed in spirits by the terrible subject, that I have been 
striving to rouse my heart by this little foolery." 

It is said he never preached a more powerful sermon than the one 
which followed " this little foolery." 

N 2 



180 MISSIONARY DUTIES. 

# 

left in a great measure to individual piety, honesty, 
and zeal ; but a first necessity : a kind of mother's 
milk, w hich is imbibed betimes. Hence the tenacity 
with which the Roman faith sticks to the mind — a 
tenacity which gains strength with every year of the 
mind's growth. It is a well-concocted system, 
adapted to suit every weakness of the human mind; 
which it knows how to exalt into the semblance of 
strength, by argument and example suited to every 
capacity. The like principle is not less evident in 
Mahomedanism ; whose tenets are inculcated and 
practices enforced, in the earliest youth of the believer. 
A hatred of all other religions is sedulously imbibed 
by the follower of Mahomet, as by the Roman 
Catholic ; and the Koran is decidedly a parallel to 
infallihility. Man is the puppet of both supersti- 
tions : both are contrived to mystify his mind with 
similar illusions, in the many outward practices which 
evolve its inward graces. 

I must not forget to call the reader's attention to 
another means of preparation in the Novitiate for 
the " sacred functions" — I mean meditation. To 
me it is a matter of wonder that the Jesuits are not 
all orators — extemporaneous orators. Truly, if all 
meditate according to the plan set down by Ignatius, 
they can never lack ideas. But sincerity, and earnest- 
ness are the founts of eloquence — certainly of sacred 
eloquence : as the word means, it is speech out ofiho, 
heart. 

Perhaps, however, all things cloy on the mind as 
on the palate, in time. And who shall give life to 



MISSIONARY DUTIES. 181 

the heart when all its sympathies are no longer felt 
— or lie inactive till the will of self interest or of a 
party shall command them to feel as they were 
wont? Let it die, and be dead for ever — if it cannot 
live to its God and humanity, constant and true in 
word and deed ! 

If I may be permitted to speak of myself, I will say 
that, when I left the Novitiate, it would have been 
an easy matter for me to preach a sermon extempo- 
raneously on most of the topics of Christian morality; 
and I record the fact with candour and thankfulness, 
that the habit of meditation acquired in the Novitiate 
gives me great facility in rivetting my mind to any 
subject suggested by the will or the fancy : and for 
any length of time, without " distraction." 



182 



CHAPTER XI. 

EFFECTS OF THE TRAINING. 

There are certain hardy bulbous plants in my gar- 
den which I have repeatedly removed, even when in 
full flower, from one bed to another, as fancy directed, 
for the sake of a pleasing contrast. Despite the trans- 
plantation, these plants have flourished as vigorously 
as ever, after every removal. I feel a kindred affec- 
tion for these plants. Their hearty acquiescence and 
submission in every fate, and apparent determination 
" to do their best" in all circumstances, I cannot 
help associating and comparing in idea with my own 
career through life. Perhaps, however, my trans- 
plantation to the Jesuit-Novitiate is the one which 
will outlive in my memory every other : in recalling 
that period of my life 1 seem to contemplate another 
self, distinct from my present individuality. This 
statement will, I trust, exonerate me from the charge 
of egotism in speaking of myself with seeming ad- 
miration. I wish to contribute a few striking facts 
to the mysterious science of mind — to psychology — 



EFFECTS OF THE TRAINING. 183 

nothing more ; and I trust that the reader's candour 
will not accuse me of vanity in the exposition, I 
have far hio^her aims and intentions. In other re- 
spects, history furnishes examples similar, if not 
identical, of such transplantation — among the rest, 
Alcibiades, the Athenian, leaving the delights of 
Athens, conformed with the rules and regulations of 
the ancient Jesuits of Greece: the hard, tougli, un- 
compromising Spartans. 

Robert de' Nobili, the Jesuit, became a Brah- 
min among Brahmins — conforming with all their 
ceremonies and customs:^ — but he was a Jesuit — 
and the parallel diverges. 

Nevertheless, the malleability of the human mind 
is evident. I may, then, describe the effects of 
Jesuit-training on my mind after six months' proba- 
tion. To enable the reader to judge of its extent a 
retrospect is necessary : I must give him an idea of 
what I was before I underwent the operation. 

After spending nearly six years in England — years 
of intense application and mental industry — I took 
ship for America. I spent my twenty-first birthday 
in an island of the Western Archipelago. With the 
last remnant of a ruined fortune I resumed my travels, 
visited several of the islands, returned to the United 
States, crossed the Atlantic once more to France, 
travelled the Continent, and finally, in the following 
year, took refuge in London: possessing very little 
more than hopes wherewith to meet " the evil of the 
day." 

* Jouvency, Hist. S. I. p. 5, 1. 18. 



184 EFFECTS OF 

From an enthusiastic student I liad become as 
enthusiastic "a man of the world." But in the 
midst of the whirlpool into whose eddies I unscru- 
pulously ventured, thoughts of my previous " voca- 
tion" rose up ever and anon, like the buoyant rem- 
nants of a wreck which has gone down, suddenly 
rising and striking the sides of the forlorn mariner, 
who dreads their violence more than that of the 
raging waves. My forlorn condition in London was 
interpreted, as I have said in the introduction, into a 
judgment of Heaven against my prevarication — 
hence my self-love was gratified by this providential 
character which my poverty assumed ; and, as my 
intentions were honest and honourable, I never gave 
my poverty a thought as to its having influenced me 
in the least : besides, the reception of one of the 
first Jesuits, Bobadilla, by Ignatius himself, was, 
so far at least, quite identical with mine. Certainly, 
in offering a refuge to merit of every kind, the Jesuits 
are the most extensive patrons in existence! 

The reader's imagination can now easily picture to 
itself the effects of a sudden introduction to the 
world from the strict seclusion of a Romish colleoe, 
on a mind, all whose studies had tended to invest it 
with the keenest sensibility, the most passionate 
admiration of the beautiful in nature, in art, and, I 
will add, in woman. 

These effects, these habits, did they not tempt the 
mind to cast " a longing lingering look behind" as I 
journeyed up the winding paths of that, to me, 
heaven-indicated Sinai? What! a mere " philo- 



THE TRAINING. 185 

sopber" this week, mingling in the gay and sad 
scenes of London's o-oroeous wealth and heart- 
rending penury — and, the next week, a *' true 
believer," humbled, contrite, and yet happy ! I 
answer, even so ! Scarcely a week elapsed, and I 
felt as though all my life had been spent in the 
Novitiate. Strange as this seems, it admits of an 
easy explanation. It is simply this: — Sentiments 
hitherto but superficially excited were now stirred, so 
to speak, throughout their whole breadth and de[)th, 
by the wand of a reli2;ion whose handmaid is enthu- 
siasm. It did, indeed, seem '' good for me to be 
there," where my destiny would be evolved for me 
by the direct interposition of Heaven ! Now, it was 
that which I was seeking; and the clever system 
which had taken me by the hand, pointed to the 
" everlasting hills," that seemed to my deluded eyes 
"already near." Little did I think that "Alps on 
Alps" would arise ere the long-desired Pacific of my 
fate (as to the way-worn traveller in the far-west) 
would rise to view and hail me to its bosom. In truth, 
there was poetry in the thoughts that sent me among 
the Jesuits ; there was poetry in the feelings inspired 
and maintained by their system ; and there was poetry 
in the triumph gained over me. " Brother," said the 
Superior to me, after a friend from St. Cuthbert's 
College had visited me, " they come to see the tamed 
lion !" Had that friend described me as he saw me 
at Hodder, he might have said : — ** His eyes were 
downcast, his features pale and trembling, his voice 
was soft, like that of a woman who loves strongly." 



186 EFFECTS OF 

After I returned to the world, the friend with whom 
I had corresponded from the Novitiate remarked to 
me, that from my letters he had feared lest my enthu- 
siastic religion should end in insanity ! In concluding 
this topic I will only add, that I attained in a short 
time so complete a mastery over mind and heart, that 
at tlie slightest thought of evil, the vigilant conscience 
shuddered, as the body starts, in a solitary walk, at 
the rustling of the leaf suddenly falling, 

A few extracts from my letters may justify my 
friend's remark just alluded to. The letter was 
written about six months after my admission : — 

''My Dear Friend, — I believe that in my last 
letter you could perceive a strain of feeling not in- 
consonant with your present situation. Your mind, 
feelings, and dispositions, you exclaim, have under- 
gone a total subversion. I rejoice at it. It is a 
blessing of God for which you cannot sufficiently 
thank Him. You have hitherto been amusing your- 
self in criminal desires — flying from your God, and 
striving to fly from yourself! You remind me much 
of poor Orestes of olden time, who would compensate 
for his terrible torments by flying from himself, 
taking refuge in dissipation : but in the hey-day of 
merriment the furies were upon him, and death had 
then been welcome ! Be not oflfended at my com- 
paring you to a poor pagan, for you will, I trust, in a 
very few minutes, allow, that in point of fact, you are 
little richer in true magnanimity of soul than the 
poor pagan who had no sweet Redeemer — no good 
'priest to compassionate his infirmities — tried in all 



THE TRAINING. 187 

things/ as the Apostle exclaims, ' for an example.' 
But let us proceed. Before I appeal to your reason, 
however, let me breathe a sweet perfume to your 
heart : a black sky is as^ a troubled heart, but 
the rain falls, and the sky is gladdened, so by a 
flood of tears will the heart exult. The mind is at 
ease when the passions are still, but she suddenly starts 
when the passions, like bats, are disturbed from their 
repose. Nevertheless, like some celestial melody, 
swelling from instrumental harmony, through tone 
and semitone, alt and tenor, through treble and 
through bass — such- is the enduring harmony, the 
entrancing melody of that soul whose passions God 
attunes, touches and modulates into the chorus of 
his love. 

*' Upon deep reflection, a question occurred to me 
in these words : All things considered, whose enjoy- 
ment is the greater — that man's who has had the 
contentment of all his passions, or the enjoyment of 
another man who has subdued them all — who has left 
not a wish uncontrolled by reason and religion ? . . 
Now, my passions being decidedly the best judges 
in this case, at least, I appealed to them— instantly 
they exclaimed — the last! — the last!— we cannot 
sovern ourselves ! And reason confirmed the sentence, 
and religion, who sat beside, rejoiced thereat, and I 
have chosen the better part. 

*' As you arej my dear friend, what are you ? 
Without religion, without virtue, without God ! 
Can there be conceived a state of greater or 
more deplorable dereliction ! Your heart is like a 



188 EFFECTS OF 

morass teeming with immundicities that spring up 
incessantly and scatter their disastrous seeds in every 
direction. You admit every desire, every thought, 
every suggestion of your soul's enemy. You dally 
with him — you expose to him the source of your 
weakness, and behold ! the infernal Dalilah despoils 
you of your only defence — then she exclaims in glee, 
the Philistines are upon you ! — you are taken, 
thrown down, your eyes plucked out ! — that is, you 
are blinded by your passions, now become unruly. 
If your conscience were well, your will would not be 
diseased. I cannot imagine how you can remain in 
your present condition, seeing yourself thus without 
God, utterly unable to bear up against the afflictions 
of life. It has pleased God to give you riches, &;c. 
What, if by a single stroke, very possible if not pro- 
bable. He deprived you of all, and left you naked ! 
God in his mercy avert so terrible a visitation! 
But, my dear friend, are you in the right way to 
avoid the exterminating angel ? Do you expect to 
confirm God's temporal mercies by the most in- 
veterate spiritual barrenness? And if the Almighty, 
provoked by your hardness, (which your present 
calamity ought to soften,) fulmined against you the 
avenging terrors of his justice, what corner of the 
earth would shield you when the breath of His name 
strikes dismay in the uttermost caverns of hell ? 
Look, my dear friend, to yourself, to your poor soul, 
to your true earthly comfort ! To yourself — you 
have bad health — is this not a sufficient warning ? 
To your soul, if you die suddenly in your present 



THE TRAINING. 189 

condition, can you expect heaven, or purgatory, or 
hell ? Three tremendous alternatives ! To your 
bodily comfort, for, in truth, from your obduracy, I 
do really fear for you, my friend. O beware of the 
judgments of God I They are terrible. * He hath 
made some to wither away and hath destroyed them, 
and hath made the memory of them to cease from 
the earth.' Again I say — again I intreat you, haste 
to be reconciled ! For God's wrath may be at hand, 
and may His mercy protect you in the day of trouble. 
If you have sinned, have we not all sinned ? The 
Apostle exclaims Mn multis offendimus omnes,' and 
if you have not been ashamed to sin, why be ashamed 
to own your sin ? This is ungenerous, unworthy of 
you ! Beware of the secret passion that perchance 
clings with you still to the flesh ! Oh ! spare no 
pains to eradicate the hellish monster — the hideous 
Gorgon whose very face is death to the soul. ^ * * 
*' From considerable experience in this world, I am 
sometimes inclined to hold it for certain that disap- 
pointment in every affection of the heart is the only 
certainty of our existence here, death alone excepted. 
Certes, I have had my desires, and many, perchance 
most of them, accomplished, but I can confidently as- 
sert that I was disappointed in all. I would particularly 
recommend this consideration to you. The hearts of 
the young and ardent may be said to teem with 
desires, as the bottom of the sea with weeds. They 
are all doomed to be disappointed. The fact is that 
we form our notions of things, at second hand — on 
se fait de tableaux — and was there ever a fool who, 



190 EFFECTS OF THE TRAINING. 

in his particular pursuit, owned himself at fault ? 

"tF ^* ^fP T»* 

" For the rest, my dear friend, be not offended at 
my freedom with you. You know my heart, what 
would I not do to bring you to God ! I have com- 
menced a Novena for your consolation and reconcilia- 
tion with offended Heaven, and under the patronage 
of our blessed Lady and St. Francis Xavier, I hope 
for success. Be of good heart! Remember, Quern 
d ill git Dominus castigat ; flagellat autem omnem 
filium quem recipit " 



191 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE PEAST OF IGNATIUS. 



At length the joyous holiday came — the Feast ot 
Ignatius. The novices whose probation was ended 
took their vows, and fresh aspirants to the blessings 
of Ignatius knocked at the gate. The novices whose 
second year was ended took the vows in the morning. 
The other novices did not know when this ceremony 
was performed; but, as all the usual occupations of 
the day were suspended, we saw them depart to the 
seminary, all apparently glad of the change. I was 
told by one of them that only the lay-brother — the 
cook of the establishment — was present, besides the 
Superior, when each novice was admitted to the room 
to take his vows. He also said that the object of the 
vows being taken in private was to guarantee the 
Jesuit from legal conviction, inasmuch as it is con- 
trary to law to take such vows in England. This 
was perfectly new to me, and the intelligence was at 
least unpleasant: it reminded me of the agent in 
London, who, finding from what I had said to him 
that I made no secret of my intention to become a 



192 THE FEAST OF 

Jesuit, cautioned me " not to say anything about the 
matter to any one." He gave me no reason for his 
caution, but I have no doubt now that he alluded to 
the clause of the Act of the 10th Geo. IV., c. 7, 
which makes it '' a misdemeanour in any Jesuit, or 
member of other religious body described in the act, 
to admit, or to aid in or consent to the admission of, 
any person within the United Kingdom, to be a mem- 
ber of such body ; and any person admitted or be- 
coming a Jesuit, or member of other such body within 
the United Kingdom, shall, upon conviction, be ban- 
ished from the United Kingdom for life." It may 
be questioned whether the law against smuggling is 
more stringent — but there can be but one opinion as 
to which is enforced. Verily, the act is a thorough- 
fare, and the Jesuits " drive their coach-and-six 
through it" with admirable dexterity. 

The following is the formula of the simple vows 
taken by the novices, who then become scholastic! or 
scholars of the Society : — 

" Omnipotent, Eternal God ! I, N., although in 
every respect most unworthy of thy Divine presence, 
still, confiding in thy infinite bounty and mercy, and 
impelled by the desire of serving thee — vow, in the 
presence of the most holy Virgin Mary and thy uni- 
versal celestial court, to thy Divine Majesty Poverty, 
Chastity, and Obedience perpetual, in the Society 
of Jesus ; and I promise to enter that Society in 
order to live and die in it,^ taking all things in the 
sense of the Constitutions of the same Society. Of 

* Ut vitam in ea perpetuo degam. 



IGNATIUS. 193 

thy immense bounty and clemency, therefore, through 
the blood of Jesus Christ, I pray and beseech that 
thou wouldst vouchsafe to accept this holocaust in the 
odour of sweetness ; and as thou hast granted me the 
desire and permitted the offering, so mayst thou grant 
me also the plentiful grace to fulfil it. Amen." 

I need scarcely state that the vow was pronounced 
in Latin. 

On the same day, as I have said, the fresh novices 
came from the college at Stonyhurst. I think there 
were six, two of whom left after a week's probation 
— all students from the college, averaging in age from 
seventeen to twenty. These were accompanied by 
all the " Fathers" and students from the seminary ; 
and our little garden was roused from its " sober sad- 
ness" by the joyful greetings of many voices exulting 
at the " harvest home !" and the goodly prospects of 
the revolving year. 

Then it was that we "heard the news" from the 
four points of the compass — from Rome, Switzerland, 
France, Germany, Ireland, India, Jamaica, &:c. &c. ; 
then it was that we saw the men who made " the 
news" in England ; then it was that I had another 
sight of the Provincial and the London agent, whose 
distinguished air was a study — I would turn back and 
meet that man fifty times, merely for the pleasure of 
studying his expression. If he ever becomes General of 
the Society, the Jesuits will enact exploits for history. 

Immediately after the accession of fresh novices 
commenced the grand Retreat of thirty days, or the 
'' Spiritual Exercises" of Ignatius. 

o 



194 THE SPIRITUAL 

The book of the " Spiritual Exercises" is the grand 
'' Inquisition" of the Jesuits. The Jesuits assert that 
Ignatius composed that famous book ; but a Bene- 
dictine affirms that it is copied from the work of a 
Spanish Benedictine whose name was Cisneros. 
The question, however, may be settled, if the reader 
can believe what Ignatius asserts ; namely, that he 
"was inspired by the Virgin Mary herself in the com- 
position ; or rather, that " the book was truly written 
by the finger of God, and delivered to St. Ignatius 
by the holy Mother of God."* 

There maybe doubts as to its authorship, but there 
can be none as to its efficacy in the dissection of con- 
science, if the prescribed " Exercises" are sincerely 
performed. A retreat in a retreat — for such is the 
Novitiate — seems unnecessary ; but the important 
changes which Ignatius intended to effect in his 
novice required a broad and deep foundation to be 
]aid beforehand ; and this is to be done by the Thirty 
Days' Retreat and its " Spiritual Exercises." 

* " A beata scilicet Virgine per manus sancti Ignatii Patris nostri. 
Est enim liber Exercitiorum vere digito Dei scriptus, et a beata Dei 
Matre sancto Ignatio traditus. Homo Orat. a J. Nouet. S. J. 1843.— 
" Tlie internal responses," says another Jesuit, " which the Holj 
Ghost gave to St. Ignatius," &c. &c. Having once asked Father 
Laynez if he thought that God had revealed to the founders of orders 
the form of their institute ; and Laynez having said that he thought 
it very probable, at least with regard to essentials : ' I am of your 
opinion,' replied the saint ; and it was doubtless his own experience 
that dictated his opinion." BounouRS, 1. iii. 

The age in which Ignatius lived may palliate this presumption ; 
but the traditions are still ripe in the Novitiate — I heard them at 
Ilodder ! 



EXERCISES. 195 

On the day when it commenced all the novices had 
" recreation" — all were sent forth to take a long walk 
in the country round, most of the usual duties being 
superseded. In the evening the Retreat commenced 
with the reading of the ^' Points" of the meditation 
for the next morning, as I have stated with regard to 
my first Retreat : indeed, the meditations of that 
retreat consisted of the most prominent meditations 
of the " Spiritual Exercises:" as it were, the grand 
Retreat abridged. There were four meditations daily, 
with spiritual reading and walking in the garden for 
relaxation ; but during the week we had no inter- 
course at all with the other novices, who were now 
beginning their second year : they, of course, had 
made their great Retreat the year before. Silence 
was the order of the day : during the whole week we 
spoke to no one but the Superior. At the end of each 
week we had a holiday — a truce, as it were, between 
the soul and its spiritual enemies. On that day we 
mixed with the other novices, played at football, or 
walked in the vicinity. 

A few remarks on the Spiritual Exercises may be 
acceptable to the reader. 

The pious Alban Butler says: — "Though the 
Saint was at that time unacquainted with learning 
any farther than barely to read and write, yet this 
book is so full of excellent maxims and instructions 
in the highest points of a spiritual life, that it is most 
clear that the Holy Ghost supplied abundantly what 
was yet wanting in him of human learning and study. 
The spirit which reigns in this book was that of all 

o 2 



196 THE SPIRITUAL 

the saints. Frequent religious retirements had been 
practised by pious persons, in imitation of Christ and 
all the saints from the beginning : likewise the use 
and method of holy meditation were always kno^vn, 
but the excellent order of these meditations prescribed 
by Ignatius was new ; and though the principal 
rules and maxims are found in the lessons and lives 
of the ancient fathers of the desert, thev are here 
judiciously chosen, methodically digested, and clearly 
explained."* 

With the exception of the first sentence of this ex- 
position, I agree with the writer. I give Ignatius 
credit for his judgment in selection, sagacity in 
arrangement, and wonderful tact in adaptation, 
Next in rank to the Q:enius which conceives *Uhinofs 
unattempted yet in verse or rhyme," is the vigorous 
talent which collects the diverging rays of the former 
into that focus whence a new fire is born, as it were, 
from old materials — old though they be as the rays of 
the first created sun. 

Again — "Every good gift and every perfect gift is 
from above, and cometh down from the Father of 
Lights:" perhaps the unnatural division of knowledge 
into human and divine, has marred the efficacy of 
both in directing the grateful heart of the creature to 
the Creator. All knowledge that has not a positive 
tendency to evil should be considered divine ; as it 
must necessarily tend to expand the mind and heart 
with thouohts of grateful love to the Author of all 
good things. 

* Lives of Saints, Ignat., July 31. 



EXERCISES. 197 

Here, however, is a book admitted to be a com- 
pilation ; and yet the direct agency of the Holy Ghost 
is called in to inspire what was already known to 
men: namely, ''what was wanting in Ignatius of 
human learning and study." 

The Spiritual Exercises have worked miracles of 
conversion in all times; the commonest of which was 
the greatest : I mean the creation of the Jesuit. 

I shall endeavour to give the reader some idea of 
this mental process. 

All the exercises or meditations are divided into 
four weeks ; but this division refers more to the sub- 
jects of meditation than to the number of days. Each 
week's ending should find the soul inspired with 
appropriate and peculiar sentiments. 

In the first week we meditated on the end of man ; 
the object for which he was created ; and the various 
pursuits which thwart the accomplishment of that ob- 
ject: namely, the pursuit of riches, glory, knowledge, 
and power. The nature and enormity of sin ; its penal- 
ties; judgment; hell; were prominent topics of this 
week's meditations; preparatory to the '* general con- 
fession," which all the fresh novices had to make : 
myself included, though I had made one only a few 
months before. In fact, the " Exercises" require a 
general confession, as a part essential of their effects."^ 
But, even had it not been necessary, I would have 
requested permission to make mine ; for my increased 
devotion and spirituality discovered during my medi- 

* Exerc. Spir. 



198 THE SPIRITUAL 

lations numerous forgotten " crimes and misdemea- 
nours," wlien conscience was probed by the searching 
scrutiny of self-examination. Great, indeed, was my 
affliction : I shed tears of contrition, and repaired to 
the confessional for that absolution which would 
speedily reconcile me to an offended God. 

I desired to feel that I was free from all sin; and 
I felt so — thanks to that miraculous tribunal ! Pro- 
testants must walk in uncertainty as to the absolute 
remission of their sins ; but Roman Cathohcs know, 
even in this world, that their " sins are forgiven 
them." Nay, more, even the temporal penalties due 
to their sins are remitted by ^'indulgence;" and won- 
derful to tell ! they can even send ojie soul at a time 
from purgatory to heaven ! I hold now in my hand 
a piece of paper given to me at Hodder, whereon is 
written a prayer, for the rehearsal of which, before a 
crucifix, after having: received the sacrament, a full 
remission of sin is jrranted, t02:ether with the libera- 
tion of one soul from the pains of purgatory — unius 
animcB a purgatorii poenis liherationem concessit ! The 
" indulgence " is stated to have been granted by 
Pius Vll.^ 

This is, doubtless, the most important week. In 
it the beginning, or foundation,^ is to be laid : that 

* Pius VII., in perpetuam concessit plenariam peccatorum remis- 
sionem, et unius animae a purgatorii poenis liberationera, ab omnibus 
lucrandum, qui, corde contrito confessi, et sacra refecti synaxi, ante 
sanctissimi crucifixi imaginem, banc oralionem, quocumque idiomate, 
pie recitaverint. 

f Principium sive Fundamentum. 



EXERCISES. 199 

is, a total indifference to all things in themselves ; 
preferring only such as conduce to the end for which 
we were created. 

The difficulties that may be expected to arise in. 
the soul of the self-reformer are obviated : at least an 
attempt is made to that effect. 

He must, on first risino; in the mornincr, call to 
mind the sin or defect which he particularly desires 
to discard. At noon, and in the evening, he must 
examine his conscience, to see how far he has suc- 
ceeded in this particular; having imprinted every 
lapse of thought or deed on his memory, by pressing 
his hand on his breast on every occasion of offence. 
After the examen he must enter these debts of con- 
science on the lines of his Sin-book before described ;* 
continuing the practice day after day, and comparing 
one day with another, till he is free from sin. 

Ignatius then proceeds with some instruction : 1st, 
on the various ways of sinning by thought, word, 
and deed, '* most useful for the purgation of the soul, 
and the confession of sins :" 2ndly, on " the emolu- 
ments of a General Confession." 

The method of meditating^ is then o;iven. Each 
meditation has two or more preludes. The first is 
the " composition of place." In every meditation or 
contemplation on sensible objects, such as Christ, 
we must fancy, according to some imaginary vision, 
the visible place, representing what we contemplate: 
such as a temple, a mountain, where we may find 
Christ Jesus or the Virgin Mary ; and other circum- 

• Page 107. 



200 THE SPIRITUAL 

stances which enter into the argument of our con- 
templation. On the other hand, if the topic of 
speculation be not corporeal : such as the considera- 
tion of our sins, the composition or construction of 
the locality may be as follows. Imagine that you 
see your soul in this corruptible body, as it were 
confined in a prison, and both body and soul, or the 
whole man, exiled in this valley of misery amongst 
the brute beasts. 

The second prelude is to beg of the Lord that 
which you desire, according to the argument of the 
proposed contemplation. For instance, if we have to 
meditate on the Resurrection of Christ, we must beg 
to be inspired with the joy wherewith we may rejoice 
with Christ rejoicing ; but if on the Passion, we 
must beg for tears, pains, and anguish, in order to 
sympathise with Christ suffering. 

In the meditation on Sin, we must beg for shame 
and self-confusion : considering how many men have 
been consigned to eternal perdition for mortal sin : ay, 
even one ! and that we have so often merited damna- 
tion by sin. 

A preparatory prayer, to consecrate the intention, 
and two preludes, must precede every meditation and 
contemplation : the prayer always the same, the 
preludes varying with the subject. 

Collorjuia, or familiar mental conversations, con- 
clude the meditations. In the one on Sin, we must 
imagine Jesus Christ present before us, nailed to the 
cross. We must ask ourselves the reason why the 
infinite Creator himself became a creature, and 



EXERCISES. 201 

deigned to descend from a life of eternity to the 
death of time for our sins. Moreover, we must 
press the argument to ourselves ; asking what hitherto 
have we done for Christ, worthy of being remem- 
bered ? What shall we do at length ? what ought we 
to do? And looking on him thus nailed to the cross, 
we must express the suggestions of our minds and 
affections. In a word, it is the peculiar property of 
the colloquy, that it is as it were the address of a 
friend to a friend, or of a servant to his master; at 
one time begging some particular grace or favour, at 
another time accusins: ourselves of some fault — 
sometimes proposing our difficulties, asking advice 
and aid. To conclude with the Pater noster. 

The sin of the angels in revolt, the sin of Adam, 
our own sins, are the three points of the first exer- 
cise; the memory, understanding, and will being 
respectively affected and influenced by cause and 
eflect, sin and its consequences. 

Following up this beginning, we are to review our 
whole life, recapitulating where we have lived, our 
usual topics of conversation, and the various occupa- 
tions in which we have been engaged. 

We must perpend — deliberately weigh — our sins 
themselves, their foulness, the heinousness of each 
according to its nature, even if they had not been for- 
bidden. 

A conscious comparison of ourselves with the infi- 
nite Creator, must cover us with confusion at our 
presumptuous littleness; and yet so corrupt, so de- 
praved in mind, loathsome in body — in fine, like an 



202 THE SPIRITUAL 

ulcer or impostume, whence issue so great a dis- 
charge of sins and pestilent vices.* 

Then consider the attributes, the perfections of the 
God whom we have offended ; opposing them all to 
our vices and defects — to wit. His power, wisdom, 
goodness, and justice; to our extreme weakness, ig- 
norance, malice, and iniquity ! 

The soul will then burst forth into exclamations, 
impelled by this vehement commotion of the feelings ; 
wondering greatly how all God's creatures, instancing 
each, could have borne with us so long, and permitted 
us to live till now. How the angels, bearing the 
sword of Divine justice, have endured, guarded, and, 
by their suffrages, even aided us: how the saints 
have interceded for us : how the heavens, the sun, 
moon, and other heavenly bodies; the elements and 
all manner of animals and productions of the earth, 
instead of punishing, have preserved us: how, in fine, 
the earth opening beneath our feet has not swallowed 
us down, throwing open the gates of a thousand hells, 
where we should suffer eternal punishmentt 

This meditation is followed by repetitions of the 
first and second just given, and of the third, — new 
colloquia being introduced in the third, viz., with the 
Virgin Mary, with Christ, and lastly, with God the 
Father. 

The Virgin Mary is asked to " impetrate" the Son, 
the Son to " irapetrate" the Father, and the Father 

• Tanquam ulcus, sire apostema — ex quo tanta sanies peccatorum, 
tantaque vitiorum lues defluxerit. Exerc. Spir. 2. 
t Exerc. 2. 



EXERCISES. 203 

to give the grace of perfect repentance ; which should 
result from having dwelt anew on the various topics 
of the meditation which affected us most: for it must 
always be remembered, that we should suffer the soul 
to dwell on such topics as made the most impression.* 

The fifth meditation is one of the most singular in 
the whole book— certainly the most characteristic of 
the system, whose influence on the minds of men I 
am now endeavouring to explain. The subject is 
Hell. 

The first prelude gives the composition of place : 
viz., the eyes of the imagination must behold the 
length, breadth, and depth of hell. The second con- 
sists in praying for an intimate knowledge or consci- 
ousness of the sins for which the reprobate are suffer- 
ing; so that if ever we should forget the love of God, 
the fear of punishment, at least, should restrain us 
from sin. 

The first point is to behold, in imagination, the vast 
conflagration of hell, and the souls therein, enclosed 
in certain flaming bodies : as it were in a prison of 
fire.-f- 

Secondly, to hear in imagination the wailings, the 
shrieks, cries, and blasphemies against Christ and his 
saints, issuing thence. 

Third, thoroughly to smell, even with the smelling 
of the imagination, the smoke, brimstone, and the 
horrid stench of some sewer or filth and rottenness. 

* lUis diutlus, diligentiusque imraorandum est. 
t Auimas igneis quibusdam corporibus, velut ergastulis inclusas. 
Ex. 5. 



204 THE SPIRITUAL 

Fourthly, to taste in like manner the bitterest 
things ; such as tears, rancour, the worm of con- 
science. 

Fifthly, to touch in a manner those fires, by whose 
touch those very souls are burnt up. 

In the colloquy with Christ, we must call to mind 
the souls of those who are condemned to hell, either 
because they would not believe in the coming of 
Christ; or if they believed, did not live in conformity 
with his precepts, either at the same time when Christ 
lived in this world, or after and subsequently. We 
must then g-ive thanks to the same Christ most fer- 
vently, for not having permitted us to rush to such 
destruction, but rather has, to this very day, treated 
us with clemency and mercy ."^ 

Other meditations may be given by the Spiritual 
Director, such as Death, Judgment, &c. 

The place where the retreat is to be made should 
be, as much as possible, remote from " the busy hum 
of men" — some solitude wherein the terrors of con- 
science will make the strong man tremble as the babe 
in the cradle when the wolf comes to devour it. 

According to Ignatius, the first exercise should 
take place at midnight — the second in the morning at 
rising — the third before or after mass, before breakfast 
— the fourth about the time of vespers — the fifth 
during the hour before supper. This distribution of 
time is common to the four weeks, but it may be 
varied, with additions or diminutions according to the 
age, habit of mind and body, or temperament of the in- 

* Ex. 5. 



EXERCISES. 205 

dividual. Under the title of " additions," Ignatius 
gives the following regulations for the retreat. 
After going to bed, and before closing the eyes to 
sleep, a few seconds must be spent in thinking of 
the hour of rising, and the meditation then to take 
place. 

To collect one's thoughts as soon as the eyes are 
open, directing them exclusively to the subject of 
meditation; and for the sake of greater modesty 
and confusion, to set some such example as this 
before the mind : namely, how a soldier would stand 
before his king and royal court, blushing, anxious 
and confused, if he were convicted of having com- 
mitted a grave misdemeanour against the king, after 
having received from him many benefactions, many 
and great gifts. In the second exercise, considering 
how much I have sinned, (continues Ignatius) I 
will fancy myself bound in chains ; and soon to be 
placed before the judge, as a culprit is wont to be 
drao-o-ed to the tribunal, bound in irons. Imbued 
with such thoughts or others, according to the sub- 
jects of meditation, I will dress myself. 

Thirdly, at a step or two from the place of medi- 
tation, I will stand for a short time, as long as it 
might take to recite the Pater nosteVj raise my soul 
on high, and contemplate my Lord Jesus, as present, 
and seeing what I am going to do : to whom I ought 
to do reverence by an humble gesture.* 

Fourthly, I will enter upon the contemplation, 
sometimes prostrate on the ground, with my face 

* Reverentiam, cum humili gestu exhibere. 



206 THE SPIRITUAL 

downwards, or on my back ;* sometimes sitting, or 
standing, and composing myself in that manner 
whereby I may hope more easily to obtain what I 
wish. Here tv/o things must be borne in mind : 
first, if I obtain my desire whilst on my knees, or 
in any other position, I shall seek no more : secondly, 
in the point wherein I shall feel the desired devotion, 
I ought to rest at ease without any anxiety of passing 
on, until I am satisfied. 

Fifthly, after the exercise, either sitting or walking 
for a quarter of an hour, I will consider with myself, 
how my meditation or contemplation has succeeded : 
if not well, I shall seek out the causes with sorrow 
and the resolve of amendment; but if well, I shall 
thank God, resolving to follow the same method 
afterwards. 

Sixthly, I will avoid the thoughts which produce 
joy, such as that of Christ's glorious resurrection; 
because any such thoughts impede tears, and the 
grief I should feel for my sins : which grief is then to 
be sought after, by rather indulging the remembrance 
of death or judgment. 

Seventhly, for the same reason, I will deprive 
myself of all light by closing the doors and windows 
whilst I am there, except whilst I have to read or 
eat. 

Eighthly, I will refrain from all laughter, and 
words that induce laughter, with the greatest care. 

Ninthly, I will not set my eyes on any one, except 
for saluting or taking leave. 

* Pronus aut supinus jacens. 



EXERCISES. 207 

Tenthly, I will add some satisfaction or penance, 
&:c. — rejecting, in the matter of food, not only cer- 
tain superfluities (which is the part of temperance, 
not penitence), but even necessaries ; and the more 
the better, avoiding, meanwhile, any injury to nature, 
or great debility or infirmity. In the manner of 
sleeping, and the condition of my bed, removing not 
only what is soft and comfortable, but even other 
things that are requisite, as much as may be without 
serious danger of life or health. Sleep is not to be 
abridged, unless one has been accustomed to indulge 
it to excess. With regard to the flesh, I will inflict 
on it and make it feel pain, by applying and wearing 
haircloths, ropes or iron bars, or by inflicting stripes 
and lashes, or by other kinds of austerity. In all 
which, however, it seems more expedient that the 
feeling of pain should be in the flesh only, and should 
not penetrate the bones, &c. 

Wherefore, let us rather use whips made of small 
cord, which afflict the surface, but not the inner 
parts, to such an extent as to injure health. 

Few of these ** additions" were observed at Hodder, 
particularly with regard to the last mentioned ma- 
cerations. On the other hand, all the advice as to 
the mental phenomena was strictly inculcated, and 
influenced all the training in the Novitiate ; which, in 
one word, is assimilated throughout the year to the 
four weeks of the Spiritual Exercises. 

Supposing that the soul has turned her back on 
all the '^ pomps and vanities" of this world j is broken 
in by contrition; is convinced of her destiny, and 



208 THE SPIRITUAL 

ready to embrace it — a great model is proposed after 
the manner of Ignatius. 

The second week begins with a grand contempla- 
tion of the kingdom of Christ, in the siaiiUtude of an 
earthly king. Synagogues, villages,* and towns, 
through which Christ journeyed, stand before the 
eyes in the pious panorama which the fancy of Igna- 
tius always constructs for the interested soul. 

The king speaks — we listen. " I intend to con- 
quer all the regions of the infidels. Whoever will 
go with me must be ready. He must not use any 
other kind of food, raiment, or any thing else than 
he sees me use. He must also stand out with me in 
the same labours, watchings, and other occasions, in 
order that each may share my victory and bliss, ac- 
cordingly as he shall partake in my labours and diffi- 
culties." 

A prompt response to this offer must be made by 
acceptance of the terms ; or else, mark the conse- 
quence, ye generous hearts, but still full of vanity ! 
^' If any one refuses, of how much blame will he be 
worthy among all men, and what a cowardly soldier 
he will be thought !" 

All who are in their senses will be eager to offer 
themselves to the service of Christ. 

But the rebellious flesh, the senses, self-love, and 
the love of the world must be stormed. Then the 
terms of surrender: — ''Behold, O King, supreme 
and Lord of all ! Although most unworthy, still, 
confiding in thy grace and assistance, I ofl'er myself 

* Villas. 



EXERCISES. 



209 



entirely to Thee, and subniit all that I have to thy 
will; attesting in the presence of thy infinite good- 
ness, and in the sight of the glorious Virgin thy 
Mother, and of the court of Heaven, that this is my 
intention, this my desire, this my firmest resolve; 
that, provided it conduce to the greater increase of 
thy praise and my service, I may follow Thee as 
closely as I can, and imitate Thee in bearing injuries 
and all adversit}'^ with true poverty of spirit, as well 
as of worldly goods; provided, I say, it please thy 
most holy Majesty to choose and receive me for this 
manner of life."* 

This contemplation, which may be said " to come 
to the point," is to take place twice in the day. 
Doubtless it has given many an " indifferent" peni- 
tent to the Society, at the time when, by the permis- 
sion of popes, princes, and prelates, the Spiritual 
Exercises of Ignatius recruited its ranks in every 
res^ion of the orlobe. And wonderful to think! a man 
entangles himself — falls by his own mind, as if by his 
own hand — a most fascinating and irresistible mental 
suicide. Ignatius gives us the weapon ; we commit 
the fatal act ; the Society buries, embalms, or burns 
our lifeless carcass ! 

" In this and the following weeks," Ignatius ob- 
serves, " it would be useful to read out of the New 
Testament, or other pious book, such as the * Following 
of Christ,' and the ' Lives of the Saints.' "f 

* Exer. 1. Heb. sec. The above may be called the shadow of the 
vow " cast before ;" the latter resembles it most sisterly, 
f Exer. Spir. Heb. sec. 

P 



210 THE SPIRITUAL 

At Hodder we read the second, but not the first. 
The second week, then, is passed in meditating on 
the life of Christ — the Incarnation, Nativity, Cir- 
cumcision, Sec. ; all presented to the mind according 
to the spirit of Ignatius, and brought home, by the 
same spirit, to bear with conquering energy on the 
soul: supposed, as we have seen, to be "indifferent 
to all things," but still ready to decide on the 
election. 

There is some wisdom in this. The mind should 
come unprejudiced to the study of every subject, 
otherwise she had better remain in primitive igno- 
rance : the jaundice of the mind, like that of the 
eyes, is the never-failing source of erroneous judg- 
ment. 

All the incidents just named were to be contem- 
plated as if we were present at the very scene in per- 
son : the soul, meanwhile, in her ardent colloquy, 
endeavouring to derive strength in her resolutions of 
amendment, by the hope of assistance from the foun- 
tain of Divine grace. 

The views of Ignatius are always striking, sometimes 
magnificent. Thus on the Incarnation, the preludes 
exhibit the three Divine Persons in the act of looking 
down upon the earth, densely peopled with its inhabi- 
tants, who were dropping into hell. In the eternity 
of their Godhead, they decree that the second Person 
should assume the nature of man for the salvation of 
the human race. Accordingly, at the time prescribed, 
the archangel Gabriel is destined to be the messenger 
to the blessed Virgin Mary. 



EXERCISES. 211 

Then the imaginary vision, just as if the circumfe- 
rence of the universal earth were spread before the 
eyes, with all her habitants — nations unnumbered ! 
The mental eyes look around, and in a certain part of 
this spreading; earth, they discover the little house^ of 
the blessed Virgin at Nazareth, in the province of 
Galilee ! 

I behold all the men who are the objects of my con- 
templation, — all men dwelling on the face of the 
earth, so different in manners, movements, and ac- 
tions; some white, others black; some enjoying 
peace, others agitated by wars; one man weeping, 
another laughing; one in health, another diseased; 
some at the moment of birth, others, in their turn, in 
their last agony; and so on according to the almost 
countless varieties of human action and passion. 

In the midst of this scene, I raise my eyes and con- 
template the three Divine Persons, from the royal 
throne, beholding all the races of men on the surface 
of the earth, living like the blind — on all sides dying 
— descendino- into hell 

Then I let fall the eyes and see the Virgin Mary 
in her little house, with the angel saluting her at the 
eventful moment; brino;ing home always the thought 
to myself, and from such a contemplation deriving 
some fruit in the soul. 

The various personages in this drama must be 
heardj SiS well as seen. I hear ''men in the world 
conversing, hlasphemhig, and abusing each other." I 
direct my hearing heavenward, and hear the Divine 

* Domuncula. 

p 2 



212 THE SPIRITUAL 

Persons in heaven discussing the redemption of the 
human race: from heaven to earth once more — to a 
little room descending, I hear the Virgin and the 
Angel negotiating* the mystery of the Incarnation. 
From reflecting on each and all, or by applying the 
circumstances to myself, I shall study to derive not a 
little fruit. 

I have heard the words of these personages, I 
must also see their actions — see 'Miovv mortals injure 
one another, strike, murder, and rush all to hell! . . ." 

Then, — '^How the most holy Trinity executes the 
work of Incarnation." 

Thirdly, " How the Angel fulfils his mission^i' and 
the blessed Virgin, with most humble demeanour, 
gives thanks to the Divine Majesty, 

" Directing the reflected light of all these incidents 
to ourselves, we may gather fruit as we proceed. 

"In the colloquy 1 shall diligently seek for the ex- 
pressi6ns wherewith I may worthily address each 
Divine Person, the Word incarnate, and his Mother; 
praying, according to the emotion I shall feel in 
my heart, for whatever may aid me to a greater imi- 
tation of my Lord Jesus Christ, as it were just made 
man."j 

This contemplation will give the reader an idea of 
the plan by which Ignatius leads the soul into his 
enticing trap. How sweet are the baits suspended 
there ! how delicious the odours around that make us 
ask — Whence come they ? these odours ! but they 

* Tractantes. -f Fuugatur legatione. 

X Exer. Spir. Heb. sec. 



EXERCISES. 213 

are so sweet, so delicious, tliat poor human nature 
bribes the judgment to believe them divine — they 
are so sweet — -so delicious ! 

Every meditation, and every contemplation, are 
scenes of a drama — instinct with life: its pleasures and 
its pains, its vices and its virtues, and every corporeal 
sense — the five senses all — must perform, each, its 
function: metaphorically at least, to aid the deception. 

Mere]}'- to see and hear the personages in contem- 
plation is trivial ; we must, with a certain interior taste 
and smell, relish the suavity and lusciousness* of the 
soul imbued with divine gifts and virtues, according 
to the personages. 

Again, we must, ^^ by means of an internal touch, 
feel and kiss the garments, places, footsteps, 8cc., 
where we may expect a greater increase of devotion, 
or any other spiritual gift."f 

Such is the "application of the senses" to the 
uses of the soul. 

It is towards the end of this week that occurs 
the famous meditation of " The two Standards," 
in which Ignatius sanctified his previous warlike 
notions, just as he has applied all his natural predi- 
lections and refined sensuality to the purposes of his 
religion. We contemplate two camps in battle array 
— two generals appealing to us, eager to enlist us in 
his service. In the rear of each general is his re- 
spective city or stronghold. One general is Jesus 
Christ, his city Jerusalem ; the other is Satan, his 

* Dulcedo. f Ibid, ut antea. 



214 THE SPIRITUAL 

city Babylon the Great. The latter displays a 
splendid banner on which is inscribed his watch- 
word— *^ RICHES, HONOUR, PRIDE!" On 
the standard of the Redeemer appear the words — 
"POVERTY, SHAME, HUMILITY !'' "To 
arms !" is sounded on all sides — we must instantly 
decide in whose ranks we will fig^ht — shall it be with 
Satan or with Christ ? . . . . 

Having joined the ranks of the latter, having made 
the " election/'* we must learn how to conquer by 
patience and submission — by non-resistance unto 
death ; these being the arms of the novice, and of 
every Christian who wishes to enlist under the re- 
cruiting flag of Ignatius. The third week, there- 
fore, we contemplated the passion of Christ — we 
walked in the awful procession from the garden of 
Gethsemane to the hall of Caiaphas — to the tribunal 
of Pilate — we witnessed the hideous flagellation, and 
seemed to hear the sound of the remorseless lash ! 
and thence we repaired to Calvary to see the end. 
It was the contemplation which follows the Cruci- 
fixion, viz., the lament of the holy women at the 
burial of Christ — the mother's anguish, the friend's 
affliction — that I most remember. My eyes filled 
with tears — thoughts of sincere sadness filled my 
soul — my sentiments assumed the form of verse, and 
when informed of the fact, the Superior, at my re- 
quest, gave me leave to write the verses ! — Truly if 
anything can bind the soul irrevocably to a system, 

* Exer. Spir. Heb. 2. 



EXERCISES. 215 

it is this facile humouring of the mind and temper 
— this identification of things human with thing-s 
Divine ! 

Still we were '' persuaded that our progress in spi- 
rituality, would be commensurate with our estrange- 
ment from the love of self and of our own conve- 
nience!'**" 

The fourth week is the Sabbath of the Retreat, 
The *' glorious mysteries " then make amends for the 
gloom of the preceding weeks, when no thought of 
gladness was permitted to distract the soul deter- 
mined on its self-affliction. 

Now the scene is changed. We stand by the 
sepulchre of Christ, in the little house of the blessed 
Virgin : the form, parts, and other peculiarities of 
which, as a cell or oratory, we examine with dili- 
gence one after another.j We must think of those 
things only which give spiritual joy, such as the 
thought of glory. The light of day is to be ad- 
mitted ; in spring and summer we must be cheered 
by the sight of the verdant herbage and of flowers, 
or the loveliness of some sunny spot ; during winter 
by the now seasonable rays of the sun or a fire; and 
so on, in like manner, with regard to the other be- 
fitting delights of body and mind, wherewith we can 
rejoice with the Creator and our Redeemer. J 

* Exer. Spir. Heb. 2. t Heb. 4. 

X Heb. 4. The edition from which I have translated is that of 
NouET, with notes by Roothan, the present General of the Society. 

Other writers have thought proper to dismiss the Spiritual Exercises 
of Ignatius with contempt or abuse. For my part, I am of opinioa 
that nothing can be gained by misrepresentation, certainly with 



216 CONSOLATION. 

The contemplation of Divine love concludes the re- 
treat. The perfections of the Creator, the joys of 
the saints and angels, become the subjects of affec- 
tionate meditation. The soul has made its choice — 
its wings are fledged — it soars triumphant to the 
empyrean of *' love Divine.'' 

My enthusiasm was raised to the highest pitch 
during the latter part of this retreat. I could not 
help speaking from the fulness of my heart to my 
'^ Brothers," of the gushing consolations that en- 
tranced me with delight. Sometimes I was uncon- 
scious of existing in the body — my breast within 
seemed to glow with a fire that gently warmed but 
did not consume ! I saw no difficulties in perfection 
— all things were easy to him who loved strongly. 
All that I did gave me intense satisfaction ; my heart 
yearned for some great occasion when the sacrifice 
would be made complete : martyrdom or a natural 
death would have been sweet in that exaltation ! 

I was imprudent enough to speak of my sensations 
to some of the ** Brothers:" the Superior sent for me, 
and mildly reprimanded me for the indiscretion. He 
said, '' Brother, your consolations, if spoken of, may 
discourage those who have not been thus favoured ; 
but beware ! the time of 'dryness' will come! So, 
moderate your exultation." It came — that time of 
" dryness," as ascetics call that sterility of thought, 
that disgust for prayer and meditation and all spiri- 
tualities, which must naturally follow intense unre- 
mitted application to any pursuit, carnal or spiritual. 

regard to the Jesuits — the reality exceeds the fiction iu terrible 
import ! 



217 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DRYNESS — REMARKABLE CURE OPINIONS. 

Ascetics understand by '^ spiritual consolation," 
that joy of the soul, that alacrity, gifted with which, 
it finds no religious duty irksome, but, on the con- 
trary, highly pleasant, and performs all its functions 
with inexpressible satisfaction. The ** gift of tears" — 
that is, the flowing of tears during meditation — is 
esteemed the highest degree of "consolation." It is 
said that few — even of the preatest '' saints" — have 
had much " consolation" in their earthly pilgrimage. 
St. Theresa passed, I believe, two and twenty years 
of her life in "spiritual dryness,"^ which is the anti- 
thesis of " consolation." Her " merit" was conse- 
quently greater, since she persevered in all the 
practices of devotion, despite the denial of consola- 
tion, or the heavenly encouragement vouchsafed to 
piety. A'Kempis exclaims with a pious sneer, " That 
soul rides pretty easily whose steed is the grace of 



* Eibaden. p. 799. " The fervid Ignatius often found all the 
liquid pleasures of the inward man quite dried away.'' — Bartol. p. 20. 



218 DRYNESS. 

God !"* thereby implying that it is an easy matter to 
persevere in devotion when its practices are pleasant 
to the soul. 

The time of aridity is therefore a time of trial ; 
when the soul is left as it were to herself, to battle 
with the cunning tempter, who then endeavours to 
terrify her with all manner of doubts and fears, 
disousts and bitterness. This is the ascetic view of 
the subject. What is the true cause ? If a man 
takes much wine, it will produce on his mind, first 
exhilaration, then delirium. If for several days he 
works incessantly at his desk, the result will be total 
exhaustion of idea, and extreme fatigue. Here are 
effects whose causes are apparent to " the meanest 
capacity.'' 

Enlightened physiology traces mental effects un- 
erringly to physical causes, and, vice versa, physical 
effects to mental causes. If the " Saints" could 
have been enlightened in this matter, how soon 
would they have shaken oft' their desolation by giving 
their over-toiled faculties a short respite, or a change 
of exercise ! 

The Jesuit system, by varying and alternating cor- 
poreal and mental application, obviates, to a con- 
siderable extent, the pernicious effects of this mental 
lassitude ; or, in the language of asceticism, this exile 
of the heart. Still the constant return of the same 
duties must sooner or later dispel the charm which 
deludes the mind by novelty. To youths trans- 

• Satis suaviter equitat, quam gratia Dei portat ! De Imit. Christ. 
1. ii. c. 9. 



DRYNESS. 219 

planted from the nursery-bed of a Romish College, 
the extra confinement and prayer are only a good 
" set-off" against " tasks and lessons." They conse- 
quently " submit" to the Novitiate with tolerable 
ease : they only enlarge that obedience which the 
Jesuits have, from their early years, drilled into them 
with prescient solemnity. Of course all are ^here 
completely tamed — at the college they were only- 
caught, and they came to the Novitiate with the 
mark of the lasso on their necks. To them the duties 
of the Novitiate soon become mechanical, and they 
bear the yoke easily. 

It is very different, however, with those who went 
to Hodder from worldly pursuits : full grown, mature 
men, with habits long formed, and inclinations long 
used to gratification. I often pitied one of my brother 
novices in this respect. I am sure that the Novitiate 
was a hard trial to that poor fellow. 

For myself, I was in my twenty-second year ; and, 
though I l^had been in the world, still I had con- 
tracted no habits which a strong effort of the will 
could not overcome. I never felt the duties irksome, 
but I suffered intensely for several days from a dis- 
mal depression of spirits. Doubtless it was brought 
on by mental application and confinement ; but, as a 
matter of course, I considered it a trial and the work 
of the enemy. Hideous dreams by night and bitter 
thoughts by day — remorse for the past, despair of the 
future — I could not think of Heaven ! 

It seemed to my desolate heart that I was des- 
tined to commit some horrible crime — inconceivable 



220 REMARKABLE CURE. 

though it was, and impossible to a will long 
resigned to Heaven and bent on perfection : and 
yet the visible, tangible thought rose up and 
mocked me with the awful words : Thou art 
doomed I 

Such was my desolation. The Superior's watch- 
ful eye perceived my sadness; he questioned me, I 
told him of my soul's unrest. He ascribed it to a 
natural cdiuse. "Brother," he said, *^you need a 
change of occupation — your mind yearns after its 
former studies — what would you like to read ? What 

say you to St. Chrysostom ?" 

I was already half cured. I wiped away my tears, 
for they were flowing fast, and assented to the pro- 
posal. He went into the library, which opened into 
his room, and brought me a huge folio, saying, 
*' Here, brother, read this and be happy !" I thanked 
him, took the book, went to my cell, opened the 
folio at random, and the first words that caught my 
eye were as follows: — 

"To Stageirius, on Providence. It was be- 
fitting, my dearest friend, Stageirius, that I should 
now both be at your side, and together with you 
thoroughly share your affliction ; and by exhortation 
of words, and ministering to you by services, and 
taking a share in everything else for your comfort, 
lighten in part, as much as I were able, your sad 
despondency .'' 

Here, then, was a pious man, suffering from the 
same malady that afflicted me ! 1 was now the 
patient, and St. Chrysostom was my physician ! 



REMARKABLE CURE. 



221 



Oh ! how soon was my sorrow changed into gladness 
even by the few lines of the introduction. I was, 
above all, struck with the beautiful expressive word 
of the original o-vvhiaTaXai-noipeicrOaLj which requires to 
be paraphrased in English by *' together with you 
thoroughly to be afflicted." No modern language 
but the German can express its meaning by a single 
compound verb : perhaps, a German may translate it 
into durch-mitleiden ; but still some of the Original 
force and descriptiveness is lost — unexpressed. 

It is needless to state that my cure was as perfect 
as it was instantaneous. Sadness fled from my heart, 
and joy was restored to it, as to its own loved dwell- 
ino- — eaoer to return ! To borrow a beautiful com- 
parison of the same author, *'as a bird when it 
hath flown from its nest, so is man oppressed as a 
slave, when he becomes a stranger far from his own 
home."* I found the treatise throughout strikingly 
apposite to my own case; the symptoms of the 
malady of his friend were singularly similar to those of 
my own distemper ; and the forceful yet tender, the 
argumentative yet passionate appeals of Chrysostom, 
compounded a panacea to which I am happy to append 
my testimonial. I have now before me an analysis 
of the tract, with translations of the most striking 
passages, all written atHodderat the time in question. 

I fancy I hear the reader exclaim, "What a strange 
coincidence !" And so it appeared to me, nay more, I 

* "Qg yap opvfov orav iKirtraaOy, Ik rriQ vocrcriaQ avTOv, oVTio 
av9po)7rog covXovrai, orav a7ro^ev(>)9y, UTfb rdv Idicjv tottojv.— 
Chrysost. De Provid. 



222 REMARKABLE CURE. 

could not help considering it as another providential 
interposition; for, as I have said, I opened the book 
at random, and it opened at the very beginning of 
that address to Stageirius concerning his despon- 
dency and the adorable providence of God ! Whether 
the Superior expected that I would light on that 
treatise sooner or later, and so derive consolation, I 
know not now ; but I certainly thought he was in- 
spired to bless me with the means of cure.* And 
yet the thoughts that occurred to me whilst reading 
that book were, I may say, additional stones that 
paved the way to my emancipation from the Society. 
My mind listened, deeply thinking, to these words 
that follow : — " Let us shake off this dust (the preju- 
dice of the ignorant and their superstitions), for thus 
the violence of this grief will be rendered tolerable 
and light, provided we yield not ourselves to be hur- 
ried by the distemper over the precipice ; but rather 
let us be solicitous to look back and rationally consider 
what is expedient — ak\a kol hiav aa-rrjaov aeavrov — 
rouse thyself !'' 

The reader would doubtless wish to know whether 
similar influences to those which I have hitherto de- 
tailed, were brought to bear upon my fellow-novices. 
I know not. I could not help telling them, some- 
times, the *' strange things" and the burning thoughts 
that occurred to myself ; but whether they were more 

* It is but fiiir to state that the book had been evidently very little 
used, and, for an old edition, was quite new ; the tract Upog Sray. 
was not the least " thumbed." The incident was a casualty rendered 
remarkable only by the state of my own mind ; just as the accidental 
opening of a window refreshes the patient under burning fever. 



OPINIONS. 22 3 

discreet, or less " favoured," I cannot say. They 
seemed to me — all of them — sincere in their determi- 
nation to be strict conscientious novices ; and, though 
at all times some one or other was evidently *' in de- 
solation," yet, on the whole, I may safely say that 
they seemed satisfied with their " vocation." As all 
allusions to mere *^ worldly matters " were to be 
utterly discarded from our conversations, we had to 
speak of " things divine," or of the Society : its heroic 
apostles, its martyrs, its present state, its progress. 
Unless the last-mentioned topics are to be included 
in " things divine," I say that " things divine" were 
frequently substituted by *Hhe Society and its con- 
cerns." There was a difference in the conversation 
of the second-year novices : these, I could not help 
remarking, spoke very pointedly on the vow of Ohe^ 
dience. From them I heard the tropes and metaphors 
which Ignatius has bequeathed for a sign to his 
faithful followers. ** I must be/' said they, '' like 
soft wax in the hands of my Superior, to take what 
form he pleases.'^ Again, *' I must look upon myself 
as a corpse, which has no voluntary motion ; or as the 
staff in an old man's hand, which he uses according 
to his own convenience.^' 

This is not *' tyranny ! oppression! a gross insult to 
common sense !" : not the least in the world : it is 
only the perfection of holy obedience, nothing more. 
How can there be tyranny, oppression, where men 
are willing and eager to do all that is commanded ? 
The enemies of the Jesuits never stumbled on a more 
stupid argument than this : it is the very essence of 



224 OPINIONS. 

ignorant prejudice, and only serves to interest us by 
the comparison of Eugene Sue, whereby he assimi- 
lates the Jesuits to the Thugs, who also make corpses! 
— a pitiful conundrum, but quite legitimate according 
to the principles of the paranomasia in question. 
But we will take quite a different view of the subject ; 
expressing our thanks to the party who suggested the 
objection.* Here, then, has Holy Father Ignatius 
selected three metaphors to " give an idea" of what 
sort of obedience he expects to find in his Jesuits. 
These metaphors are — 1st, wax; 2d, a corpse; 3d, an 
old man's stick. Very expressive, certainly. But 
he did not stop there; he subjoined the property of 
wax, namely, " to take what form he pleases ;" he 
intimates the passiveness of a corpse, " which has no 
voluntary motion ;'' he declares the unscrupulous 
adaptation of an old man's stick, " which he uses 
according to his convenience." 

Novv, in all fair play, I ask, if a man becomes, in 
the hands of his superiors, as this wax, this corpse, 
this old man's stick, in the manner that Ignatius 
superadds by way of explanation— I ask, *' in the 
name of common sense," will that man not do what^ 
ever his Superior commands ? He will, you say, but 
" where no sin lies !" Will your wax demur to be 
made into a Ravaillac by Madame Tussaud? 
Will your corpse refuse to be dissolved into rank cor- 
ruption ? Will your old man's stick aid his steps, 
but refuse to " knock down" *' according to his con- 
venience ?" 

* Notes, &c., on the Jesuits, bj " John Fairplaj, Esq." 1845. 



OPINIONS. 225 

Here is no " confusion of tonoues," indeed ! Here 
is argument — argument suggested by yourself. True, 
we were told that " holy obedience would never exact 
what was contrary to the will of God." Alas! what 
crimes have men not committed under the sanction 
of conscience ! — a false conscience, of which you 
know how to declaim.'*' The boundless confidence, 
the divinitij with which you are invested as '' Supe- 
riors" — a mystification which you constantly keep 
alive — suppresses every question or thought of a 
question in your wax, your corpse, your old man's 
stick ; and your Jesuit will be true to his calling in all 
things : superadding, if you like, " lohere no sin lies ;^^ 
for that is necessarily understood, and would not be 
more satisfactory if you printed the words in italics as 
long as a line of longitude. 

Many of these thoughts occurred to me in the No- 
vitiate, but I resisted them, treated them as *' temp- 
tations." I listened to the conversations of our 
second-year novices, humbly seeking to be enlight- 
ened. Had they been more fervid in their sentiments, 
generally, doubtless they would have pleased me 
more. They were, however, always courteous, as, 
indeed, the rules require. They seemed for the most 
part to be the sons of the English gentry and nobility 
or titled families, but younger sons. There was, how- 
ever, no distinction as to rank or wealth. Punctu- 

* Conscientia erronea — quae objectum aliter ac est, agnoscit. Con- 
scientia autem hujusmodi assolet jam iuvincibiliter, jam vincibiliter 
errare ! — says the accommodating Escobar. Lib. Theol. de Consc. 

Q 



226 OPINIONS. 

ality, the spirit of the rules — obedience — these were 
the only distinctions in the Novitiate, and they re- 
dounded to individual credit vvitli the heads of the 
Society. 

Whether in a climate different to that of Britain, a 
climate where the glow of a more ardent sun sends 
the blood in quicker motion through the veins, the 
physical temperament could be repressed as easily as 
in the austerity of a Novitiate in the north of Eng- 
land, is a question which I will certainly not answer 
in the affirmative. But still I see no reason to doubt 
the adaptability of means to ends by the Jesuits, in 
order to meet the obstacles of climate ; particularly 
in the matter of the second vow. Of the scrupulous 
purity of my own mind I have spoken. I could not 
possibly be expected to express an opinion of others 
in this matter otherwise than favourable. On the 
other hand, if any particular legislation presupposes 
crime, I say that the disgusting minuteness of several 
matters in the lecture on that vow, staggered my belief 
in ihe omnipotence of all rules and regulations 
against depraved nature. That lecture completely 
disgusted me — I shuddered as the Superior read it. 
I had nothing to write on the slate when we assem- 
bled for that purpose in the dormitory; and to my 
horror — I must speak the fact — to my horror, I say, 
the whole lecture was minutely repeated on the fol- 
lowing day; and, to make the matter worse, the Su- 
perior sternly questioned the novice who stood before 
him as to passages which the latter seemed inclined 



OPINIONS. 227 

to pass over! There are subjects on which one must 
speak enio-matically: this is one; and the reader must 
solve it to his own satisfaction. 

All special friendships — all preference for one 
"brother" more tlran for another — were strictly pro- 
scribed. One day the Superior sent for me ; he said, 

'' Brother, I wish to warn vou. Brother seems 

inclined to court your society ; treat him coolly — 
avoid his conversation — until he learns to conform to 
the rules." Strano-e ! I actually felt an affection for 
the youth that very moment — I felt inclined to love 
him for his apparent love for me ! .... Of 
course, the " brother" was lectured for his misde- 
meanour; but I must confess, /, at least, had not 
before been conscious that he had any extra affection 
for my poor self. I was at the time strugglinfr with 
doubts, and this incident did not allay them. I com- 
plied as well as I could with the injunction, but from 
that day certainly felt more inclined to my *^ admirer" 
than to any otlier '^ brother." It was only two or 
three months after, that I left Hodder, and the affec- 
tion thus sown hy the Superior brought forth mutual 
tears as we parted — perhaps for ever — on that me- 
morable leave-taking which was publicly vouchsafed 
to me on my departure from the Novitiate. Truly, 
this last struggle was the greatest; and, had not my 
mind, as it were, taken arms against my heart on that 
occasion, I know not how much longer I should have 
continued "a child of Ignatius." 

Such a public farewell was not given to any other 
novice that left — three left during my year — and I 

Q 2 



228 OPINIONS. 

leave it to the Superiors to say what induced them to 
grant me that signal favour — that favour which well 
nigh laid me at their mercy once more ! 'AA.A.a koll 
biavda-TTjcrov creavTov. "Rouse thyself 1" whispered 
my mind, and my heart said, *' perhaps it was right!" 



229 



CHAPTER XIV. 

VISITS FROM FRIENDS. LETTERS. — FESTIVITIES. 

strangers' RETREATS. 

The novice must learn to forget his father, mother, 
brother, sister, and friends ; except in his *' universal 
prayer" for the salvation of all mankind. This re- 
quisition is at least consistent : a Jesuit must neces- 
sarily forswear all the claims of kindred. The Society 
is everything to him — all the world nothing : that is, 
of course, as far as the sympathies are concerned. 
The novelist has invented a strons; case, in which the 
most sacred feeling of our nature — mother s love — is 
unscrupulously thwarted, resisted, crushed. Whether 
such a case has ever occurred, or will ever occur, 
matters not to the question ; but such a case, in the 
circumstances supposed by Eugene Sue, i believe ta 
be quite in accordance with the spirit of Jesuit policy. 
The rule of the summary on this subject is, I re- 
member, one of the longest: it mentions all whom 
we had '^ to leave" in the world, viz., father, mother, 
brother, sister, and friends, in order to be adopted by 
the Society ; and the strong words of the rule were 



230 VISITS FROM FRIENDS. 

enforced by the stronger words of the lecture thereon. 
My impression, after that lecture, was that a total 
oblivion of all human ties was to be the result, and 
the test of our true vocation to the Society of Jesus ; 
whose well-known words were made to sanction the 
requirements of Ignatius. 

In the Novitiate, of course, the novice is only in a 
state of probation ; some relaxation as to the strict- 
ness of the letter and the s])irit must, therefore, be 
made: besides, it would not 'Mook well" if all inter- 
course of friends were interdicted. Permission is 
therefore, on application, granted by the Superior, to 
friends and relatives sometimes to visit the novices : 
except during the great retreat. During that time, 
some friends from St. Cuthbert's College wished, as I 
was afterwards informed, to see me ; but permission was 
refused. We saw our friends in a parlour below the 
Superior's room; and as they generally, if not always, 
came attended by some of the Jesuits from the col- 
lege, the meeting was a public one : permission was, 
however, granted me to accompany my fellow-colle- 
gian to some distance on his way back to Stonyhurst. 
As we always '* heard the report" when strangers 
came, I can say that the visits were very few during 
my year : whether resulting from application not 
being made, or refused, I cannot state ; nor have I a 
positive opinion on the subject, unless I appeal to the 
spirit of the rule and its exposition in the lecture 
thereon. 

The same lecture dwelt with considerable earnest- 
ness on the correspondence by letters, which we were 



LETTERS. 231 

permitted to carry on in the Novitiate. I remember 
that allusions were made to the topics that might not 
be introduced : namely, what took place in the No- 
vitiate; and an attempt was made, by a strange 
inconsistency, to assimilate the " secrets '' of the 
Novitiate to those of a private family: whereas only 
divine motives were held forth to us in all the 
practices to which we were expected to *^ submit." 
Surely the method of training pursued by any body 
of men, whether as to intellectual or moral develop- 
ment — open to all men who choose to enter — must be 
to all intents and purposes a public matter. Let the 
world know what you do, how you do it, and why 
you do it; and then this very expressive little pro- 
noun will honestly as well as grammatically resign its 
place to a substantial, tangible, or conceivable 7ioun, 
The world will judge and decide whether you are 
" honest in the sacred cause." Suppose a novice 
like myself had written his experiences in the No- 
vitiate, praising everything, lauding the ** fathers" to 
their hearts' content, &c. &c. This would not dis- 
please you, though I am convinced it would not please 
you, for you do not like these things to be known ; 
hence our letters were only to contain spiritual ex- 
hortations to piety, and expressions of joy at our 
" vocation." 

The letters written to us were opened by the Supe- 
rior before we received them, and those that we wrote 
were given to him open, to be sealed and sent by him 
if he thought proper. Shortly after I went to the 
Novitiate I wrote to a friend in London, requestino- 



232 LETTERS. 

him to send me a German and a Spanish dictionary. 
He sent the books. The Superior ordered me to 
his room, and reprimanded me for writing for the 
books without permission ; adding that ^' now I was 
to ask the Society for what I wanted, not having a 
claim on anybody, nor anybody on me." I was on 
the point of replying, that if he had told riie so when 
he saw the request in the letter, I would have erased 
it ; but ere the first word was out of my mouth he 
said, ''Nay, brother, when holy obedience speaks 
there should be no reply/' I begged pardon for my 
forgetfulness, he gave me the books, and I left him; 
but the thought luould rise, "if he knew of my sin 
beforehand, why did he not anticipate the completion 
of the act ?" But perhaps he did not read my letter, 
or perhaps he wished to render the books a monu- 
ment of rebuke to me ; or perhaps anything else : for 
I was quite mystified by this queer, very queer in- 
cident. We had to ask permission to write letters, 
and we wrote them during "study," or during that 
portion of " recreation" which we might employ as 
we liked : that is, in reading, or writing, or walking in 
the garden, or playing at chess, &c., in the recreution- 
room, if more than two novices were there at a time. 
All extra prayer was discountenanced : he who did 
well what was prescribed in that matter did all that 
was required. I may here state that every precaution 
was taken lest the novices should suffer in health by 
the austerity of the Novitiate. A physician from the 
neighbouring town came at stated times, or was sent 
for wlien required. When a novice was indisposed 



FESTIVITIES. 233 

his religious duties were considerably relaxed ; he 
took up his abode in the infirmary, which Vv^as a 
room adjoining the recreation-room, and two novices, 
by turns, were constantly with him^^ to entertain him 
with conversation. To show the tenderness of the 
Jesuits on proper occasions, I may state a fact which 
occurred at Hodder. One of the novices was attacked 
with a severe inflammation of the eyes. The patient's 
eyes had to be frequently bathed with the prescribed 
lotion : he found, or fancied that he found, the touch of 
one of his ^' brothers" more oentle than that of ail the 
rest, and requested that the brother alluded to might 
be sent always to give him relief. The v/ish was 
granted. 

With these relaxations may be mentioned the fes- 
tivities which the novices enjoyed from time to time. 
On great festivals, such as Christmas, Easter, the 
feast of Sts. Ignatius, Xavier, Aloysius, and Holy 
Innocents, we always made merry. On the eve of 
the last-named festival, the Superior would come to 
the recreation-room, with a number of small slips of 
paper in his hand, each having a sentence from 
A'Kempis, or some other ascetic, inscribed on it : 
except one, on which was written, I think, " Ego 
sum innocens" — " I am the innocent." We each 
drew a slip, and the novice who drew the one in 
question was to be Porter for the next day. I have 
now the one which I drew: the maxim inscribed 
is thus translated: "For nothing in the world, and 
for the pleasure of no man, is evil to be done.'*^ 

* A'Kempis. 



234 FESTIVITIES. 

Of course the office of porter, thus assumed by 
chajicny was like many similar chance-appointments 
in the world, very clumsily discharged. But the 
fun of the thing did good to the mind, and we were 
always permitted to laugh when we could not help 
it — not unfrequently some quaint remark or strange 
story in the lecture on the rules, or in the readino- in 
the Refectory, set us off in a fit of laughter : the more 
irresistible from our efforts to suppress that lene tor- 
mentumy that 2;entle torment and fascinating tyrant of 
the human breast. Doubtless, by agitating the dia- 
phragm, laughter promotes digestion ; and of " all 
the ills that flesh is heir to," most assuredly those re- 
sultino; from a disordered stomach are the most com- 
mon and disastrous — it has been said, that " we dig- 
cur graves with our teeth." So we laughed and 
laughed again, feeling all tlie fresher for the pleasant 
excitement; only we endeavoured to laugh like 
" religious men :" that is, as little as possible in 
imitation of Balaam's monitor. 

On these festivals we went to High Mass at the 
church. We walked two a-breast, with eyes down- 
cast, in silence, to that part of the church appro- 
priated to the novices exclusively. It is the eastern 
transept or gospel-side of the altar : the western was 
occupied by the Superiors and the scholastici of the 
seminary, &:c. We were expected to edify all our 
brethren by our pious, demure, and recollected de- 
meanour. There is a private entrance to this part 
of the church, and we were invisible to the con- 
gregation. I need not say that High Mass, the 



strangers' retreats. 235 

sermon, and the organ's celestial tones, and the song 
of human voices, were at least a desirable gratifica- 
tion ; if they were not a necessary relief to us, children 
of solitude — pilgrims in the desert of the heart. 

We returned to Hodder as we came, recognising 
no one that we met ; unless the long robe was visible, 
and then we raised our hands to our hats in saluta- 
tion : every novice, according to the rule must touch 
his hat or cap to his Superior, and when the latter 
entered the recreation-room, we always rose and stood 
until he was seated. 

After dinner we assembled in the recreation-room, 
as usual, and after a convenient interval the bell 
rang : we returned to the Refectory, where our eyes 
beheld the now innocent baits of sensuality — cake, 
fruit, and wine. We sat down, the Superior at the 
head of the table, and indulged in holy merriment. 
It was a pleasant, rational symposium, that might be 
quoted as an example of creation's gifts used but not 
abused : the blessings of the Creator without the 
superadded curse of the creature. On those occa- 
sions we chatted, we laughed ; we laid up spirit and 
strength for another stage in our pilgrimage. 

At the conclusion of the feast, we made ready to 
attend at " Vespers," or the evening song of the 
church, and thus had another treat of music. After 
vespers we took a walk, and returned to Hodder to 
resume our onward march to perfection. 

These were the only breaks in our monotonous life : 
if the casual sojourn of strangers coming to make a 
retreat may be excepted. Several came during my 



236 strangers' retreats. 

year : one was, as I was told, a " convert." In 
general they were kept entirely apart from the 
novices ; but this gentleman was permitted to take 
his meals in the Refectory, and thus was doubtless 
edified by the pious demeanour of the novices. I 
think, however, that the pubhc penances were sus- 
pended during that week: but I cannot speak with 
certainty as to this fact. Of course their retreat con- 
sisted in meditation, confession, and communion. A 
strange occurrence connected with these strangers' 
retreats once *' frightened us out of our proprieties." 
One morning, during the most solemn part of the 
mass, the Superior's door was thrust open, and we 
heard some one crying out in the tones of a madman, 

" Father ! Father ! Oh, Father !" 

.... We were terrified, of course : but the lay- 
brother went into the Superior's room whence the 
noise proceeded, closing the door after him, and 
"we endeavoured to *^ recollect ourselves" for the 
'* awful sacrifice" that was thus interrupted. As we 
were forbidden to speak of such unpleasant, un- 
edifying occurrences, I never heard any explanation 
of this most unaccountable manifestation. Still I 
was reminded of it on one occasion, when a novice 
told me the followine; anecdote. He said that when 
inquiries were instituted to discover the " pretended" 
diabolical influences of the Jesuits, one man, in evi- 
dence, was asked what he saw in his " retreat" 
among the " holy fathers." His reply was: " J saw 
a huge beast, a hideous monster!" Highly gratified 
with the prospect of finding irrefragable evidence as 



strangers' retreats. 237 

to the supposed malpractices, the inquisitor winked 
to his assistants, chuckled, and mended his pen to 
take down the desired evidence with extraordinary 
care. 

'* Well, my man, let us hear exactly what beast, 
what monster you saw." 

The man replied : — 

*' I saw — myself r^ 

A decidedly pretty story ; which shows that Epic- 
TETUS was quite right, when he said that " every 
pitclier has two handles :" in other words, that the 
Jesuits have always had, as they have, friends as 
well as enemies j only, unfortunately for them, one 
handle was wrenched off altogether when the pitcher 
got full — a casualty that may chance again. 



238 



CHAPTER XV. 

MORTIFICATIONS. REPRIMANDS. BRIEFS. THE 

CHAPTER. — MANIFESTATION. 

If the reader is accustomed to contemplate, to study 
the growth and development of plants, he has an in- 
exhaustible source of pleasure and instruction. Last 
summer I remarked a beautiful sprout of honeysuckle 
rapidly intertwining the trellis of my verandah : it 
was then a brilliant purplC; soft and succulent ; to- 
day I observed it again — it has become tough, 
yellowish wood, as hard as a brick. What time and 
grow'th effect in the plant, time and training produce 
in the Jesuit. There are all manner of plants in the 
Society, and the skilful gardeners that have this in- 
teresting conservatory in charge know by what soil, 
manure, and temperature to guarantee the production 
of the desired bloom and fruit. Chesterfield tells us 
that the Superior of the Roman College, after having 
exultingly alluded to his philosophers, mathemati- 
cians, orators, &c., exclaimed, " Ed ahhiamo anche 



MORTIFICATIONS. 239 

martiri per il mariirio se hisogna — and we have men 
for martyjclom if they be required !"* This is very 
fine, it is the very moral of my exposition : the Jesuits 
have men adapted for every enterprise. The boast of 
the Roman Superior, if it does not reduce the whole 
argument to the capacity of a nutshell, certainly 
gives us the kernel thereof without the trouble of 
crackino;. 

To produce men who shall be fit for every situation, 
so that they shall come off without *' being cut them- 
selves," as the sjood father observed to me, thev 
must be used to bear without shrinking^ as the 
Spartan youths bore the lash, that severe ordeal of 
our nature, — the rebuke, the reproaches of friends and 
enemies. Many a public character would deserve 
well of the present generation, and of posterity, were 
it not for this pusillanimity, this coward-vanity. 
jVot that I believe the Jesuits become insensible to 
such panos : I believe nothing of the sort. They 
retain — they have "temper;" but they learn to curb it : 
to cover it with smiles : hence they are true '* men of 
the world." Lainez certainly belaboured Beza and 

* Letters to his Son, L, 236. In letter 176, alluding to these 
chevaliers d'indnstrie, he says; — "Among; your graver company, I 
recommend (as I have done before) the Jesuits to you ; whose learning 
and address will both please and improve you. Inform yourself, as 
much as you can, of the history, policy, and practice of that Society, 
from the time of its founder, Ignatius of Loyola, who was himself a 
mndman. If you would know their morality, you will find it fully and 
admirably stated, in Les Lettres d'un Provincial, by the famous 
Monsieur Pascal , and it is a book very well worth your reading." 



240 MORTIFICATIONS. 

his fellow-reformers with splendid abuse j and the 
Provincial and London agent were rather severe with 
me when I left; but then " circumstances alter cases:" 
there was no necessity for "dumb-show" on these 
occasions. I allude to these facts without the 
sli^TJitest acrimony : seven years have been quite suffi- 
cient to make me " forget and foro;ive :" besides I 
think ** 't was all quite natural." 

And this particular training, how is it applied ? 

First, as to the external man. Our habiliments, 
during manual w'orks, were sublimely ridiculous : I 
was often reminded, when working in company with 
another " brother," of certain crustaceous animals 
in the West Indies, which I have seen lugging a shell 
five times too large, into which they had insinuated 
their tiny bodies, doubtless without a thought of the 
previous in-dweller. Coats vastly too large; trousers 
decidedly too wide or too narrow, too short or too 
long ; waistcoats in the same predicament, all patched, 
greased, threadbare; and the greenish trousers that 
1 had on when I went to the Novitiate, I brought 
away with an extensive cataplasm of sober quaker- 
brown. 

This appears ridiculous enough: still the thing 
tried us — it tried me, this beggar's garb ; but soon I 
got used to it, and the object was gained. This was 
the only thing, among the Jesuits, that ever virtually 
reminded me of the vow of voluntary poverty. So 
much for the mortification of the outer, or rather the 
external, man ; for there were three gradations; the 



REPRIIVIANDS. 241 

inner man, or the spirit; the outer man, or the flesh; 
the external man, or the integuments, looks, car- 
riage, &c. 

Of the second gradation I shall speak anon; I pass 
to the first, namely, the mortifications to contund the 
spirit. These were reprimands, which came, when 
you least expected them, in various forms. You 
mio;ht not be conscious of the alleoed misdemeanour: 
perhaps it had not been committed ; but you received 
the reprimand in humble silence, and battled, as well 
as you could, with the old Adam within, that will 
strive to throw the blame on somebody or something 
else. Perhaps a penance would be superadded : you 
performed it with rapturous fervour. Take a case in 
point. ** It haj)pened that the pious and learned 
Jerome Platus, whilst he was his(Aloysius's) master 
of novices, thinking his perpetual application to 
prayer and study prejudicial to his health, ordered 
him to spend, in conversing with others after dinner, 
not only the hour allotted for all, but also the half hour 
lono;er which is allowed to those who dined at the 
second table. Father Minister, not knovvino; this 
order, punished him for it, and obliged him publicly 
to confess his fault ; which he underwent without 
offering any excuse. The minister, learning afterwards 
how the matter was, admired very much his silence, 
but, for his greater merit, enjoined him another penalty 
for not telling him the order of his master."^ 

This story was a " staple commodity" of admiration 
in the Novitiate — I often heard it quoted. To my 

* Butler — Saints' Lives — Aloys. 



242 REPRIMANDS. 

mind it susrirests other conclusions besides that whicli 
is intended by the Jesuits. If the reader remembers 
the form of public confession of faults given in a 
''Day's Occupation," something very much like false- 
hood appears in this "acknowledgment" of Aloysius, 
which had "great merit;" but holy obedience en- 
joined him to say he was guilty of a fault, and he 
obeyed, and had "i^^reat merit." What crimes has a 
Jesuit to commit in order to have greater merit? At 
least this is tlie view I take of the matter. These men 
invest themselves with lofty pretensions to piety when 
they figure before us in the field of life — let them be 
uncloaked, laid bare, that we may distinguish the in- 
terloper from the rightful heir. 

Such reprimands might proceed directly from the 
Superior's own observation or inclination, or from re- 
ports made to him by the porter and ^'brother novices." 
It happened, during the first month of my probation, 
that, whilst in conversation with some of the brothers, 
I spoke rather slightingly of the ^' Visions" of St. 
Theresa. I observed no visible effect that my incre- 
dulity produced on the hearers, and the conversation 
turned on other topics. The very same evening the 
Superior sent for me, and mildly rebuked me for my 
htresy ; giving me a reason for my future orthodox)^ 
by saying, " that very clever and learned men believed 
in the said visions" — an argument which, I confess, 
enabled me to "take in," as I advanced, a vast deal 
of " doctrine" that I was " tempted" to eschew. He 
did not inflict a penance; but I trust that my subse- 
qu( nt enthusiasm in all the major and minor probabi- 



liRlEFS. 



234 



lilies and plausibilities of Romanism " did away" with 
my primitive incredulity. 

It was a bitter thing this to comply with — I mean 
this spy system — but it was *'for the greater glory of 
God:" what sliould not that motive induce us not to 
do? i\.nd yet Englishmen must find it a sticking''pill. 
True, we have informers, but they are as much de- 
tested here as they were at Athens, and the language 
perpetuates that abhorrence by having applied the 
Greek name, sycophant, to a very shabby individual.* 
For my part I will only say, as a certain facetious 
worthy said of his eating pease, I once told a fault 
committed by a brother; but I felt so essentially 
ashamed of myself, that the incident is as fresh in my 
memory as if it had occurred but yesterday. 

As there was no regular '' confession of faults" dur- 
ing supper, whenever a novice was then seen on his 
knees, we might be sure that he was doing penance 
for some reported ofience against the rules and regu- 
lations. 

In the Novitiate, thouo;h many thinos were fearfully 
true to their name, yet some were characteristic equi- 
vocations — such as the discipline, chain, chapter, and 
the brief: of which last mortification I am now to 
speak. 

Imagine the novices pleasantly engaged at dinner, 

* " They say, they did forbid in the old time that men should carry 
figs out of the country of Attica; and that from thence it came that 
these pick-thanks which bewray and accuse them that transported 
figs, were called sijcophants." — North. Plutarch. The term is derived 
from two Greek words signifying an indicator of Jigs. 

R 2 



244 BRIEFS. 

satisfvins: the crrateful stomach with savoury food, and 
the pious soul with holy thoughts. The Martyrology 
and Fasti have been read. One novice has the cup 
in his hand, another his fork to his mouth, a third is 
dividing his meat, a fourth is masticating. Suddenly 
the reader solemnly entones, *' By order of holy obe- 
dience !" Now look ! — the cup is down — the fork 
deposited — the meat relinquished — the teeth forget 
their function — the mouth is closed in the death of 
obedience. The hands are joined on the breast — 
each throbbing heart is asked by vanity, " Is it I ? Is 
it I?" 

Now listen to the brief. 

" By order of holy obedience ! 

" Brother is hereby reprimanded for his gene- 
ral unedifying conduct — want of punctuality — hurried 
gait- — bustling demeanour, totally unbecoming a no- 
vice of the Society of Jesus. He must remember 
what is required of him by the rules of the Summary, 
and entirely discard the habits of a schoolboy. Holy 
obedience enjoins him to kiss the feet of all the bro- 
thers as soon as he has dined." 

The reader sat down, and dinner proceeded as if 
nothing had taken place, except the crimson blush 
on the cheek of the brother whose brief has just been 
read. Briefs did not come often, but they alv/ays 
made an impression. Soon after my admission I re- 
ceived a brief, reprimanding me for "sitting with my 
legs sprawling at church, a manner totally unbecom- 
ing a novice of the Society of Jesus." 

The brief was in English ; and the one given may 



THE CHAPTER. 245 

be taken as a faithful imitation of the Superior's 
style, as well as a correct exposition of the ^'' subject- 
matter." 

The "chapter" was quite a different affair. It 
superseded the sermon or translation of which I have 
spoken. On entering the recreation-room we saw a 
cushion in the centre: this announced a "chapter." 
"We sat down, the Superior entered, and filled the 
seat at the end of the room. After a pause he named 
one of the novices. The novice rose, walked to the 
cushion, and knelt. Another pause ensued. Then 

the Superior said, " Brother , mention what you 

have observed amiss in the conduct of Brother :" 

that is, the novice kneeling on the cushion aforesaid. 
The brother obeyed if he had anything to say, if not 
he remained silent. Another novice mioht be called 
on, and so on, according to the Superior's discretion. 
Then followed a solemn lecture to the penitent — mild 
thoucrh severe : for our master of novices was a kmd 
man by nature. I was told that a former master of 
novices — the Father Plowden before alluded to — 
was remarkable for the severity of his admonitions. 
Two or three novices might thus be made to go 
through the ordeal of reproach : 1 should state that 
they were generally, if not always, novices of the 
second year. 

No allusion should ever be made in conversation to 
the reprimands, briefs, chapters, or penances — they 
were sacred subjects : like the name of the Eternal to 
the children of Israel. 

The brief and chapter referred to public faults. 



246 THE MANIFESTATION- 

These the Society requires to be known ; but it re- 
quires more — it requires to know secret propensities, 
hidden inclinations — it seeks to rival the Divinity in 
its knowledge of the human heart. Hence the fre- 
quent interviews with the Superior — hence the annual 
manifestation of conscience to the Provincial, These 
manifestations — as we were undiso-uisedly, pointedlv, 
unmistakeably given to understand by the lecture on 
the subject — were to have all the sincerity, nothing- 
concealing candour of sacramental confession without 
that consolatory safeguard of the latter, sacramental 
secrecy. The object and intention of the Provincial 
are bona fide to make use of the knowledge gained by 
manifestation. Observe, we were perfectly aware of 
this : no man is deceived as to what is required of 
him in becoming a Jesuit — that is, in one word, a 
total surrendry — no capitulation — no by-clause — no 
codicil — soul and body like wax to the designer, mind 
and will like a corpse to corruption, hands and feet 
like an old man's staff — these are conditions which 
every man accepts in becoming a Jesuit. 

Accustomed as I was to *' tell all" to mv indulo-ent 
Superior, I should not have felt the least repugnance 
to open my heart to the Provincial. This was not 
the Provincial who admitted me, but his successor — 
a man of hard features, rough and cog-wheeled in 
manner and expression. I did not like the man. 
Still I '' manifested" myself, and his advice and ob- 
servations were like the sensation produced by passing 
one's hand along the teeth of a saw. 

A whole day was set apart for this annual manifes- 



THE MANIFESTATION. 247 

tation. The Provincial occupied the infirmary for the 
day, and sent for each novice in his turn. A report 
is subsequently sent to the General at Rome, touch- 
ing the character, 3cc., of all the novices. Antici- 
pating the analysis of the constitutions, i may state 
that monthly reports are forwarded to the General by 
all Provincials, and quarterly communications to the 
same potentate by the heads of the houses of the 
professi. 



248 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE CHAIN — THE DISCIPLINE, FASTING, &C. 

The expositions of the rules of the Summary read to 
the novices were argumentative ; but all the argu- 
ments by which they w^ere enforced were deduced 
from the nature or definition of the three vows which 
we were to pronounce at the end of our probation. 
From our expressed determination, the main gist of 
the argument was assumed ; therefore, this line of 
argument, if not strictly logical, was perfectly justi- 
fiable in point of fact and common sense. Appeals 
were occasionally made to motives of worldly pru- 
dence — one such appeal, with regard to ** manifesta- 
tion of conscience" to the Provincial, struck me, at 
the time, as being the best argument in the exposi- 
tion. It was as follows : — If a man is not thoroughly 
known to his Superiors he may be sent to an appoint- 
ment where his *' ruling passion" may be tempted 
beyond resistance — decidedly a clever forethought, 
and worthy of consideration and application by all 
whom it concerns. The alleged motive — like *'Ad 
majorem Dei gloriam" — is good, very good ; but it 



THE CHAIN. 249 

would follow from this argument that all the secular 
clerov of Rome must be chosen to a o-reat extent 
blindly to fill their various appointments. I leave 
the respective parties to argue the point. One thing 
is pretty certain, however; this very manifestation — 
rendered as it is virtually identical with sacramental 
confession, and to a very certain extent guaranteed 
authenticity by that confession ; this manifestation, I 
humbly submit — is the mighty lever of the society, 
which, outstripping Archimedes, has found a ful- 
crum in the consciences of men, whereby it has 
moved the world : and may move it again. But it is 
the heaven-influenced nature of all despotism that it 
works out its own ruin : and so the fulcrum sank — 
and the lever was shattered — and the world was at rest 
once more. Space is not allowed me to pursue this 
argument through all its interesting labyrinths : I 
have given the clue to it, have signalised the fact — 
the object of pursuit — the beauty and the beast — and 
the reader may investigate for himself. But as the 
physician, whilst he requires a perfect knowledge of 
all the symptoms of disease, also expects that his 
drugs be swallowed, so Ignatius, knowing the dis- 
eases of the soul, applies his specific. The second 
vow is acknowledged to be the greatest trial of the 
Romish clergy in general ; perhaps the Jesuits may be 
included : at all events we had our nostrums — our 
preservatives in the Novitiate. These were the dis- 
cipline and the chain. I confess that I have been 
anxious to reach this point of my narrative, in order 
to set the reader's mind at ease on this subject ; and 



250 THE DISCIPLINE. 

I think it prudent, now at least, to remind him of the 
*^ Mountain in labour, a Fable." 

The highly imaginative Romish Church has found 
in the Scriptures allegories, facts, and words to ticket 
all the ^^ sights" in her phantasmagoria — a perfectly- 
easy process from the very nature of the book, but 
by no means more satisfactory to the thoughtful 
Christian than the said tickets, in other phantasma- 
gorias, are to the extensive traveller. Among the 
rest, the extravagant efficacy of bodily macerations, 
in the matter alluded to, may be said to be deduced 
from the remark* of St. Paul; just as the famous 
'* hair-cloth" may be said to be derived from the food 
whereon the horse was fed whose mane and tail com- 
pose it: or, in fact, from the soil — good mother 
earth — that fed the grass, that fed the horse, Sec. 

The use of the discipline, " whereby to subdue and 
punish the flesh," has been recommended by most of 
the " Saints." Three thousand lashes, says Butler, 
with the recital of thirty psalms, were a redemption 
of a canonical penance of one year's continuance.-j' 
Luckily it is not stated whether these three thousand 
lashes were to be inflicted on the monk's own back, 
or on that of any other ** beast of burden ;" so we 
may suspend the judgment of incredulity, and solace 
ourselves with harmless merriment. 

I am far Irom denying the efficacy of vigorous 

* " liut I keep under my body, and biing it into subjection, lest 
that by any means, when 1 bave {>reached to others, 1 myself should 
be a castaway." 1st Corinth, ix. 27. 

t Lives of the Saints. Feb. 23. 



THE DISCIPLINE. 



251 



exercise, bodily or mental, in the matter in question. 
I consider such means physiological specifics : this, 
and what has been said before to this effect, are all 
that the present occasion renders necessary, or per- 
mits. I will now describe the '* discipline" and 
chain of the Novitiate, which are delineated in the 
subjoined wood-cut. 




The discipline or whip is made of whipcord. It 
is a kind of cat-o'-nine-tails, duly knotted at the 
ends of the tails. The chain — this name has doubt- 
less conjured up phantoms which I must unfortu- 
nately dispel — the chain was made of steel-wire, 
exactly the thickness of that indicated in some 
knittino-books as No. 23 : or about the diameter of 
whipcord. The wire was bent into the shape of a 
horse-shoe, so as to form links, the extremities being 
twisted so as to keep the links together, and allow of 
motion up and down ; and at every link the super- 



252 THE DISCIPLINE. 

fluous wire projected about half an inch, not rounded 
off nor pointed, but just as it was cut or filed. I 
have just constructed one, and think that there must 
have been about a dozen or fourteen hnks with the 
two prongs on each. I must describe these " helps 
to holy living" in operation. 

They were not constantly used, but only at stated 
times, such as during Lent; but at any time with 
permission. During Lent we used them twice a 
week. The porter gave out "Mortification I" — we 
understood him. After he had gone the round of the 
curtains with the " Deo gratias — tl^anks be to God !" 
we made ready by uncovering our shoulders — each 
novice sitting in his bed — and seized the whip. The 
time the porter took for these preliminaries pre- 
supposed an equal alacrity in the other novices : we 
were always ready when he rang a small bell, and 
then, oh ! then, if the thing edifies you, gentle reader, 
be edified ; if it makes you laugh, laugh to your 
heart's content, at the sound of twenty whips crack- 
ing like a hailstorm on the twenty innocent backs in 
question. 1 think we were restricted to twelve 
strokes : they were given as rapidly as possible : all 
ended almost at the same instant. In the excitement, 
very similar to a shower-bath, we could not help 
tossing the whip into the desk; and then, divin^^ into 
the sheets, felt very comfortable indeed ! Perhaps, 
after the chorus of flagellation, you might hear a 
young novice giggling; "it was quite natural," he 
could not help it ! 

Why have I described this foolery in this merry 



THE CHAIN. 



253 



vein ? Because it is a foolery, and the '' holy 
fathers" must consider it as such : but more, I main- 
tain it to be a most pernicious foolery, and conducive to 
anything rather than the end proposed. The reader 
must imagine my meaning. ..... 

]Manat 

In venas animumque ! 

A foolery as it is, why do the Jesuits prescribe it to 
the novices ? It serves to keep them alive, to kill 
monotony : to flatter their minds ^vith the idea that 
they are '^ doing something" in the labour of per- 
fection, ccsdi ferarum ritUy after the manner of the 
wild monks of old and their three thousand lashes ! 
. . . If a good stiff rope were used, the purpose, 
by physical pain, might be attained ; but the whip 
at Hodder only excites: it tickles. Oh ! I remember 
it well: it was hideous to me. And yet, in the 
outrageous fanaticism of the Great Retreat, I asked 
leave to self-administer an extra flagellation: deter- 
mined to " punish" myself; but I failed : I left the 
room essentially ashamed of myself, and irrevocably 
disgusted with this erotic instrument of " com- 
punction." The chain was less objectionable in 
this respect : it gave some pain, but more annoy- 
ance. It was worn on the mornins; follow ino;. We 
tied it by the two strings, which were attached to the 
extremities, round the middle of the thigh, next to 
the skin ; drawing it tight enough to hinder it from 
slipping down, which sometimes happened. We 
wore it about six hours, taking it off for manual 
works. 



254 THE CHAIN. 

Let the reader fancy his thigh tightly gripped in 
the embrace represented by the image of the thing. 

Every one knows that even the blunt end of a 
bodkin, though gently pressed, will, after a given 
time, produce considerable pain in any part of the 
body where the cuticle is not sufficiently hardened to 
shield the nerves from pressure. Thus, after a time, 
the prongs of our chain produced a continuous dull 
pain, such as that which the teeth of a playful spaniel 
gives the hand, when he holds the member but bites 
it not. It was put on as soon as we rose out of bed. 
My fancy often likened it to the huge centipedes of 
the West, crawling round the limb, that felt a 
sudden sting if it made the slightest motion: for it 
was when we moved that we were truly '' mortified." 
As we meditated, breakfasted, heard the lecture, re- 
peated the lecture in the dormitory, with the chain on 
our thigh — the right thigh — sometimes sitting, some- 
times standing, moving to and fro from different 
places — it often happened that we struck the prongs 
into the flesh (however careful degenerate fear miLrht 
make us), by coming in contact with the lid of a 
table, the seat of a chair or bench. I could not walk 
without limping both in body and in mind ; for the 
chain was a perpetual source of " distraction." I was 
constantly reminded of it, and where it was; and con- 
sequently, by the natural association of ideas, it was 
to me, at least, a real ^* proximate occasion" of 
temptation ; though not of sin, and so perhaps my 
'' merit'' was increased. If my own experience is worth 
anything, I tell the Jesuits that their *' discipline and 



FASTING. 255 

chain" totally defeat the alleged object of their use ; 
and appeal to the principles of physiology in proof of 
my opinion. In this matter, at least, we may say 
with perfect truth — nocet empla dolore voluptas! 

The efficacy of fasting is not so doubtful. AH or 
most men eat too much: superabundant nourishment, 
as Dr. Johnson might have said, effectuates plethora 
in body and mind. Periodic fasting may thus, in 
some measure, bless us with the boon reserved for 
habitual temperance.* 

The Church of Rome does not require any of her 
members to fast before their twenty-first year is ac- 
complished. By fasting is understood one full solid 
meal a day, with a '* cubic inch" of bread, or six 
almonds, in the morning, and a slight collation at 
night. Many people confound fasting with absti- 
nence; but they are totally distinct: all Fridays are 
abstinence davs with the Roman Catholics, but not 
days of fasting; except in Lent. By abstinence is 
meant an abstainin": from meat of all kinds — e"o;s, 
fish of every kind being lawful canonical substitutes. 
Thus the Church of Rome has kindly taken the de- 
scendants of the Fisherman under her patronage, 
whilst she lays claim exclusively to the descendants 

* Food is the main stimulant of the system ; hence its withdrawal 
is beneficial in all acute diseases. The passions maj be termed acute 
diseases of the brain, when thej riot in excess ; consequently fasting 
operates on the passions by the physical medium. Apoplexy, morbid 
affections of the stomach, derangements of the liver, many diseases of 
the heart, may be averted or subdued by well-directed fasting-. .Now 
many of the mind's diseases are sympathetically deduced from the 
morbid state of the respective organs diseased in the fore-mentioned 
cases. Thus the efficacy of fasting is manifest, besides being " highly 
meiitorious," like everything else done " by authority," 



256 FASTING. 

of the Apostle. Queen EliZxVbetii produced the 
same efiect by means more direct and satisfactory ; 
namely, by her statute against the consumption of 
meat on certain days of the week. 

It must be evident, however, that what would be 
fasting to one stomach would be only temperance to 
another, and the temperance of the latter would be 
positive fasting to the former; consequently ''ad- 
vice" must be taken in this matter: then follow^ '' in- 
dulgences and dispensations." 

To a man, like myself, who seldom eats anything 
for breakfast, conscience must be appealed to in order 
to settle what is to be the quantum sujjiciat of ortho- 
dox fastinof. Beino' of aoe at Hodder, I fasted durino* 
Lent, together with two or three other novices simi- 
larly conditioned. I may observe here, that the 
Jesuits by no means approve of excessive corporeal 
austerities: health of body is essential in a Jesuit: 
sound health is as requisite in the candidate for ad- 
mission into the Society as into her Majesty's regi- 
ments. Our method of fasting was as follows: — We 
had a small piece of dry toast and a cup of excellent 
coffee in the morning : we had a good dinner of fish, 
or meat; if it was not a day of abstinence as well — 
that is, every other day. Sunday is neither a fast 
nor abstinence day in our cold latitudes, though for- 
merly, in the palmy days of *' modern Rome," a 
Black Lent was occasionally fulminated on the faith- 
ful, when even Sundays were included as days of fast 
and abstinence. 

Tn the evenino; we had a sli2:ht collation : I foro;et 
what it consisted of, but it was quite satisfactory ; 



SUNDAY. 257 

the fasting-diet at Hodder was just what has always 
constituted my ordinary fare whilst in " the world." 
Obedience sanctified the pious wish to '^punish" 
the flesh, although it denied the fulfilment. 

On Sunday, those whose stomachs had virtually 
fasted during the week might recruit their strength 
by indulgence. 

Sunday ! day of rest, by Heaven appointed for 
the joy of soul and the comfort of body ! Day 
that brings the poor labourer to his grateful bench, 
beside the partner of his toils, in the midst of his 
little ones, who have reason to bless God for the 
strength of those arms, those work-hardened limbs, 
whereby God gives them food and raiment ! Sweet 
day ! we did not feel thy blessings in our solitude. 
Little reminded us that the angel came down on that 
day, and stirred the pool of aflSiction, so that many 
were comforted even in that world whence we had fled 
to seek consolation, as it were in the desert ! 

We received the sacrament at mass, and then read 
Rodriguez on "Christian Perfection," as usual, for half 
an hour before breakfast. After breakfast we made 
our beds ; and, after an interval spent as we liked, we 
went to " Conference" — so I think it was called — in 
the recreation-room. Here one of the novices trans- 
lated a chapter or two of a work by Thomas ^ Kem- 
pis OP. Asceticism — not the " Followino' of Christ," 
but another work of the same author : the title I have 
forgfotten. After conference we went to our cells, and 
read or wrote or walked in the garden, either with 
another brother or alone, repeating the " Office of the 

s 



258 SUNDAY. 

Virgin Mary" in Latin, which occupied a good hour, 
as far as I can remember. I am not sure whether the 
occupation just mentioned did not precede the "con- 
ference" — at all events all the morning Sunday duties 
have been mentioned. After dinner, there bein^ no 
public confessions on Sunday, we had recreation for 
an hour; then came " Vespers," which were read by 
the Superior, the novices repeating the alternate verses 
of the psalms and responses. After vespers we went 
out to catechise the children of the poor, and pro- 
ceeded on our walk, when the time allotted to that 
missionary duty had expired. On our return home, 
everything went on as usual, precisely as on any other 
day. 

Such was our Sabbath in the Novitiate : if it has 
not edified, I trust that it has not scandahsed, the 
reader. 



259 



CHAPTER XVII. 



REFLECTIONS. THE SUPERIOR'S RETREAT. A GENE- 
RAL ORDER. A PANG. 



My narrative is now drawing to a close. Having 
just recalled and meditated the events which I am 
about to describe, I feel a sadness of the heart : the 
sadness of human sympathy at the remembrance of 
those hopes which it was my destiny to nourish into 
bloom, and again my destiny to cause to wither and 
to die ! At this still hour of the wintry night, medi- 
tating, I have cast my eyes ever and anon on the 
exotics that adorn my window and its inner arch. 
The few flowers that remain droop and are withering, 
but the vigorous Coboea that intertwines the arch is 
as verdant as when the summer sun kissed it with his 
beams : it will bloom when they woo it again. An 
exotic, as I was, transplanted from the world into the 
conservatory of Probation, my soul put forth its forced 
bloom in this winter of youth — the brilliant flowers 
pleased the gardeners of my soul — and in the height 
of that blossoming, as in all beautiful sweet things, it 
seemed that no blight could ever mar the well-pro- 

s 2 



260 



REFLECTIONS. 



^ected plant. But the blight came; and the plant 
which had been forced to bloom, to please the eyes or 
cupidity of its trainers, dropped the flowers that had 
pleased so well. Meanwhile the arch of reason, 
with its everlasting verdure, lived on transparently 
bright ; hoping for a natural spring, an appointed 
summer. 

Eleven months of my probation had passed away. 
Occasional doubts, frequent doubts, as to my fitness 
for the Society of the Jesuits had marred the joys of 
that solitude which I may be permitted to call the 
oasis of my life : since there, only, did I feel the im- 
measurable supremacy of mind over body. Had I 
meditated less fervently, had I been less sincere in 
my ardour for perfection, doubtless I had become a 
Jesuit; but the very moment that I felt the full force 
of the awful vow — perfect obedience to man — at that 
moment my dream was passed — I exclaimed : The 
die is cast! Poverty, be thou once more my mother! 
World of my fellow-men, be thou once more my 
battle-field ! I can at least die with self-respect ; 
that last and satisfying solace of those who have 
^' fallen on evil days I" 

Again I seemed to stand alone. I had long en- 
deavoured to distinguish between the " greater glory 
of God" and the greater glory of the Society of the 
Jesuits. I had fixed the idea in my mind that 
in this matter, as in everything else, the end was 
distinct from the means; and though on one occa- 
sion I heard the same thought expressed by a novice, 
yet I am compelled to declare every other remark 



REFLECTIONS. 261 

pronounced in the Novitiate, whether by novices or 
Superiors v^^ho visited us, brought home the growing 
conviction that we were prepared to take our ** shares" 
in a grand speculation which was to invest the entire 
earth in its grasping monopoly. 

I looked for faith ; I found self: its interests and its 
cravino;s. In the men who had been trained as we 
were, I saw no indications of that training. We 
were taught to keep every sense in restraint — I was 
often scandalised by the trivial remarks, eager 
curiosity, wTzreligious deportment of the men who 
were far advanced in the grades of the Society. What^ 
then, has become of all this training — has it been of 
no effect? See the same Jesuits in the world, 
— demure or gay, mild or severe, learned or ignorant 
— worming their way like Ignatius, who never spoke 
in conversation with strangers until he had divined 
the characters of all his hearers from what they had 
uttered. The ** Fathers" were natural with us ; it is 
in the world that they become supernatural — that 
they show how they were trained. Unsatisfactory as 
was the opinion I formed of the intellectual attain- 
ment of those whomi met at Stonyhurst, I doubt not, 
(and I candidly record the fact) that each and all had 
their peculiar talent : their tact, adapted to some pecu- 
liar emergency. These opinions are sincere. I stand by 
them. No party feelings, no base motives, have in- 
fluenced me : the very important fact that I have lived 
among these men has made me scrupulous lest I should 
emit aught that may mislead the minds of those who 
read for instruction. I believe what I have written : 



262 THE superior's retreat. 

what T write ; and sincerity makes me earnest in the 
cause of truth. If I say beware ! I speak as one who 
has seen : who has felt. The reader is now, I trust, 
prepared to accompany me to the end. 

In the month of January of the year following my 
admission, the Superior of the Novitiate made his 
annual retreat. He resigned his office, for the time, 
to the Father Minister. It was a time of edification 
to us all. He did penance like the humblest novice. 
He knelt in the centre of the Refectory with his arms 
outstretched ; he kissed the floor; he kissed our feet — 
the feet of all the novices. Once he dined kneeling 
at the small table, in the midst of the room : an old 
man, grey with age, weak in health, knelt during 
dinner on the hard cold floor ; and when he had 
finished he joined his hands on his breast and conti- 
nued kneeling till grace was said. He worked in the 
garden during manual works; and I think, but cannot 
state the fact for certain, that he said " Deo Gra- 
tias !" in my hearing to the porter, and had some task 

appointed for him to do I liked this man. 

I hke him still ; and will only say that his conduct 
during that retreat filled me with sorrowful admira- 
tion. I leave all other reflections to the reader. There 
are sacred thoughts which only Heaven should know. 

Nam neque chorda sonum reddit quern vult manus et Jiieiis ! 

Saturday came, the day of sacramental confession. 
An order came down that we were to confess to the 
Father Minister. 

I have felt some shocks of the mind and the heart 



A GENERAL ORDER. 263 

in my hitherto short career; but few are more keenly 
remembered than that given by the order to confess 
to the Father Minister. What had I to confess? 
Perhaps a little negligence in this, a trivial omission 
of that duty, nothing more ; and yet, had my soul 
been guilty of the foulest sin, confession could never 
have been more repugnant to me than on that sad 
day. My mind was overcast — the sudden chillness 
of that shadow numbed my heart. In all that I did 
the thought dispelled devotion. I went to the Su- 
perior — he could not see me. The man who could 
console me, turned me away : directed me to go to the 
minister — the man I was flying from !....! left 
his door agitated and sad. I met the minister: 
gracious Heaven ! he reprimanded me for walking 
hurriedly ! He did not stop there — " he also thought 
that I might speak less dictatorially in conversation— 
my bearing was proud." And yet it had seemed to 
me that I was beloved ! I went to my cell and wept 
bitterly : resolved to go once more to my good old 
friend, struggling helplessly as I was against obe- 
dience. I knocked, he came to the door. ** Bro- 
ther !" he said, " what brings you here after my 
order ?" One word was enough to speak all, and 
the word was uppermost — " May I not confess to 
you, Father?" I asked, weeping. '* Holy obedience 
has spoken," said he firmly, but mildly and sorrow- 
fully ; " go, brother, and obey !" ... He closed the 
door once more, but the victory of love was gained : 
I determined to go: I conquered myself: I went. I 
remember that moment well — full well ! When I 



264 A PANG. 

have seen the struggle of woman's features striving 
to 2/wharmonise their expression with the thoughts 
that rack the heart, then have I thought of myself on 
this memorable day. 

My confession took but a few minutes: the minis- 
ter absolved me. I rose determined to leave the 
Novitiate. 

I had yielded in weakness — was conquered to do 
what my mind and heart rejected. Such was obe- 
dience! such might be obedience hereafter: and it 
might not be so innocent. Confidence in my Superior 
won the day : it might win it again ! On the follow- 
ing day, Sunday, my sadness was changed to serenity ; 
thouorh it must have been evident to all that there 
was something more than usually weighty on my 
mind. Whilst walking in the passage, the minister 
met and asked me " if he could be of any use to 
me with his advice?" This question surprised me, 
but I humbly declared that I did not need the 
proffered service. On that Sunday night occurred 
the fearful storm which did so much damaoe on 
sea and land, in the month of January, 1839. 
When I went out to work in the garden, on the 
following morning, the first object that caught 
my eye was an old thorn-tree torn up by the roots. 
*' 'T was natural," gentle reader : I compared all the 
hopes, the enthusiastic hopes, that I had built on my 
" vocation" to the Society of the Jesuits, to that 
strong tree which had stood the appointed time, but 
was uplifted by the breath of Heaven. That tree 
might have been shaken, disengaged from the soil so 



A PANG. 265 

as to seem to be living still, though dead at the core — 
but no ! it was an honest tree; it would cling by no 
offset when the main root was wrenched asunder. . . 

In the evening I went to the Superior; he came to 
the door. "Well, brother, what now?'* .... 

I replied, " I have resolved to leave, Father ; 

and would wish to apprise the Provincial of my reso- 
lution." 

"You shall see the Provincial to-morrow, brother; 
in the mean time be calm : do not resist the grace 
of God !" 

Had he looked in my face then he would have seen 
that I was calm : that there was joy in my looks ; but 
his eyes were downcast, and he saw me by the mind, 
not by the faithful eyes. 

That night I slept well, and went through my 
morning meditation with " unction :'* that is, with 
spiritual relish and virtuous resolve : with glow of 
heart and light of mind. 

At ten o'clock the Provincial sent for me, and the 
following interview took place in the parlour; be- 
neath the room where the Superior was then in 
" retreat.'* 



266 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

INTERVIEW WITH THE PROVINCIAL LES ADIEUX 

A BLESSING AND A PRAYER — THE DEPARTURE. 

It was during manual works. I hastily put on the 
gown which I was soon to resign : I put it on for the 
last time. At the parlour-door, then, I tapped ; the 
voice which I have described before bade me enter. 
The man to whom I had '^manifested" sat before 
me : I saw him smile for the first time. Kindly he 
requested me to sit — I obeyed. Then ensued the 
following questions and answers : — 

"Well! how now! what has happened?" 
" Sir, I wish merely to say that I am unfit for the 
Society — I must leave." 

*' Leave ! why must you leave ?" 
** Because, sir, I am unfit for the Society." 
" But you did not think so when you entered." 
" You have given me the means to know myself: 
I have gained that knowledge." 

*' Have you been induced by any one from without 
to take this resolution ?" 

" My letters have been given to me always open ; 



INTERVIEW WITH THE PROVINCIAL. 267 

you would have been apprised of such influence. I 
am not influenced from without." 

" Then you wish to re-enter the world, in order to 
indulge your passions?" 

Was this an allusion to my " manifestation ?" . . . 
I replied, " It seems to me, sir, that your conclusion 
is neither just nor necessary." 

" But what reason have you to leave V* 

" I have said it — I am unfit for the Society." 

'* Well ! we cannot force you to stay." 

*' I am poor ; I have not the means to pay for my 

journey to London May I depend on the 

charity of the Society ? It may be in my power here- 
after to refund all that 1 have cost you." 

**0h! certainly, we will see to that. But this is 
very annoying '" 



A pause ensued — I rose and said : — 

** May I leave without delay ?" 

"When vou like!" 

I think I hear the growl of these last words : they 
were the very antithesis of Chesterfield's advice, 
namely, to yield with seeming pleasure when you 
cannot resist with certain effect. I thanked him, 
left the room, and went to my old friend, the Superior, 
to apprise him of the result. He heard me with evi- 
dent sorrow, but merely said, " Very well. Brother 
Steinmetz, God's will be done in all things !" 

I requested him to permit me to stay till the fol- 
lowing day, in order to prepare myself, by confession 
and communion, to re-enter the world of temptation. 
He kindly assented. I went to the chapel and 



268 LES ADIEUX. 

prayed fervently. Returning to my cell, I began to 
read over my diary — calm, collected, cheerful. I had 
not been seated many minutes when the porter came 
and told me that the Superior wanted me. I was 
glad to hear this, for I could have wished to have one 
more conversation with him before we parted for ever : 
in this world at least. But, alas ! it was not for con- 
versation that he sent for me. He merely said, 
" Brother Steinmetz, I know that your departure will 
give pain to the novices : your stay under such cir- 
cumstances will throw a damp on their minds ; so, 
perhaps, all things considered, you had better leave 
to-nioht.^' 

All that this kind man ever requested or ordered 
me to do I did from my heart ; on the present occa- 
sion the justness of his remark was evident at a 
glance: I assented without a murmur. 

In the course of the day the lay brother brought 
me the sum requisite to pay the coach-fare to London, 
with a pair of trousers and a hat of a very antique 
fashion: rather a tight fit, but still very '* thank- 
fully received," like all similar ** contributions." He 
informed me that a chaise would take me to a neigh- 
bouring village, whence the coach started for Man- 
chester, and from the last-named place I would go by 
railway to London. 

I dined for the last time in the Novitiate. I saw 
and heard the *' public confessions" for the last time; 
and for the last time I spent the hour in company 
with the novices about to be my "brothers" no more. 
It was a heavy hour — a dull hour ; the inner works 



LES ADIEUX. 269 

seemed running down, and the hands marked mid- 
night. 

After recreation, manual works went on as usual. 
I remained in my cell ; visited the *' sacrament ;" 
prayed with fervour. 

About five o'clock I w^as told by the porter that the 
novices were in the recreation-room to bid me fare- 
well. 

Agitated by the rushing emotion, I went to the 
room and saw my *^ brothers" standing around. All 
seemed affected — none more than myself. It was, 
" Good-by, Brother Steinmetz ! Good-by, brother !" 
I shook hands with each, and one wept. The inter- 
view lasted but a moment or two ; and yet how my 
resolution staggered — how my heart battled for the 
mastery ! . . . . 

The novices left the room. I remained, and sat 
down overpowered by the scene I had witnessed : by 
the emotions I felt. The Father Minister remained 
also : he was sitting beside me. He seemed pained 
at my departure : in fact, he said mournfully, 
" Brother, I am sorry that you are leaving us." I 
did not reply; I was stunned, as it were : my tongue 
was tied ; and there was no one beside me whose words, 
whose looks, whose heart could set it free. 

As yet I had not taken leave of the Superior. He 
sent for me. He gave me the testimonial which I 
had requested as to my conduct in the Novitiate, 
saying, *' I suppose this will do." It was as 
follows : — 



270 THE TESTIMONIAL. 

*' I hereby testify that Andrew Steinmetz, Esq., 
during his stay atHodder, conducted himself in every 
respect as a Christian and a gentleman. 

(Signed) '^ Thomas Brownbill.'* 

I give the above from memory. It was short 
enough and gratifying enough to be remembered 
without an effort: the last words particularly; and 
though it would be a consolation to have the docu- 
ment in my possession, yet it would be at present, 
perhaps, unimportant. I felt the loss of it, however, 
on one occasion — one bitter occasion ; and I cer- 
tainly then denounced the unjustifiable unkindness 
with which it was taken from me. It happened 
thus: — When I reached London I thought it advis- 
able to write a note to the London agent who had 
been instrumental to my admission, apprizing him of 
my secession, and enclosing the testimonial in ques- 
tion ; requesting him very urgently to return it, as it 
was my only fortune. The friend in whose presence 
I wrote the note advised me not to send the testi- 
monial : which, in point of fact, was by no means ne- 
cessary to the party ; but my feelings overruled the 
caution : I sent it. I waited : no reply came : no tes- 
timonial. I wrote, and wrote again, and at last 
''gave it up :" resigned to my fate, and determined to 
prove a character similar to the one attested by the 
kind Father of the novice?. 

Some time after I called on the London ao-ent. It was 
on a Sunday morning, I had written to him before, 



ANOTHER pang! 271 

asking if he could recommend me to any literary em- 
ployment. My letter was unanswered. On the Sun- 
day morning, then, I called, and knocked : the servant 
said, ** Not at home!" — but it unluckily happened 
that the gentleman at that very moment emerged 
from a side door in the passage, apparently just about 
to enter a carriage which stood at the door. As soon 
as he saw me he said with flashing eye and rapid 
words : — 

"Sir, I can do nothing for you!" 

" But the testimo — " 

He rushed into the carriage : there was a lady in 
it; and the last syllable of my word shrunk back 
from the ear that closed upon it, like the carriage 
door slammed in the face of the poor man begging for 
bread. 

Still I must defend : at least must palHate, the un- 
kindness of this Jesuit. It would never answer for a 
man to carry about a testimonial from the Novitiate, 
in a country where, by the law of the land, no such 
place should exist; and doubtless my poor old friend, 
the master of the novices, was "reprimanded" for 
granting me the testimonial. If so, 't was a pitiful 
thing !* 

But to the conclusion — to the end of my connec- 

* Since the above was written my Hodder letters have been re- 
stored to me by the friend to whom they were addressed. In the 
last letter, apprizing him of my intended departure, I have found, to 
my delight, a testimonial written by the Superior on the page opposite 
to the address. I remember having requested him to state in the 
letter that I left of my own accord, — but I am unable to account for 



272 



THE DEPARTURE. 



tion with the Jesuits ! The kind Father was too 
much affected to speak much during our last inter- 
view. It was short. I knelt before him : he blessed 
me; and, making the sign of the cross on my fore- 
head, he prayed that I *' might never swerve from the 
faith." 

A few minutes after the chaise drove up ; I entered ; 
and the gates of Probation closed upon me, departing 
as joyful as when I entered : for my mind and heart 
bore testimony to good intentions, honourable mo- 
tives ; on both occasions equally strong, equally 
salient. I had left poverty in the world ; I had de- 
serted poverty ; perhaps one of my best friends ; for it 
has advised, admonished, and, I trust, improved my 
heart and mind. I was now again to be reconciled 
to poverty, and make amends for my apparently equi- 
vocal dereliction. And we were desperately recon- 
ciled. I knew the fate that awaited me : I was pre- 
pared for it; and I received the cup brimful and 
foaming with that bitter drink, which has rendered a 
time of comparative rest and comfort sweet, cheerful : 
the very nurse of memory and its ever-attendant 
meditation ; which it varies with endless alternation of 

the word "insists" being- used by the Reverend Father, unless he 

meant that there was no need of it. Here is the testimonial : * 

" Mr. Steinmetz insists upon my giving your goodness a testimonial 

that his conduct here has been everything creditable and praiseworthy ; 

which I beg hereby to do most fully and cordially. 

" Sir, your obt. sert. 

" Thomas Bkownbill. 
"Hoddtr Place, Jan. 15, 1839." 

* A fac simile of this Testimonial is given. 



FAiimiizE ^/ay msTmmiAi 






/ 



a 




GM^ oyi^^^^^. 



,/%- .d^ yi^^Wi^U^ cCy/^-'f^^'M' .~) 



cAel ficf ^^ i^ 




ANTICIPATION. 273 

instructive topics; never flagging, always interested, 
and yearning for the fulfilment — the blessed fulfil- 
ment — human happiness : the harmony of body and 
soul by Heaven united to work together ; then the 
future — the mystery explained to rejoicing hearts, to 
exulting minds for ever! 



AN ESSAY 



ON 



THE CONSTITUTIONS, 

CT^e Confcgsiotml ifHoralitg, antr f^istorg of t^e Ifcsuits. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Jesuits have had, and have, opponents; they 
have had, and have, apologists. The former have accused 
them of every crime ; the latter have met every charge 
with unscrupulous denial.* The violence and misrepre- 
sentations — in many instances, falsifications — of their op- 
ponents, excite strong suspicion in the minds of the 
candid, and disgust in the lovers of truth and fair-dealing. 
Their apologists do not exhibit less rancour — but excite 
a stronger suspicion, if possible — by waiving the main gist 
of the argument to trumpet forth the achievements of the 
Society, in Science, the Arts, and the work of '* Con- 
version." 

* Saint Priest observes : " The system of apology which the Jesuits 
have adopted, has uniformly led them to deny everything — even 
courageous and honourable acts — to serve a temporary purpose.''— 
Tall of the Jesuits, p. 5. 

T 2 



276 INTRODUCTION. 

This was the successful manoeuvre of Demosthenes, in 
his oratorical encounter with ^schines.* If their cause 
were to be judged by the giddy, frivolous Athenians, per- 
haps the dexterity of the Jesuits would serve the tem- 
porary purpose : there are minds that will be made blind 
to a hundred crimes by the sudden blaze of one, two, or 
three " glorious deeds" claimed by the accused, and un- 
denied as matters of fact, though admitting of a damag- 
ing investigation. The apologists of the Jesuits have 
undertaken to prove what was not denied ; but the ten- 
dency to abuse — the time-serving expediency of the So- 
ciety, or a large number of her members, hurried forward 
in the slippery path by the " pressure from without," to 
which, " by virtue of holy Obedience," they were exposed 
— the vices of Intellect running riot in the intoxication of 
renown — the vices of the Will irresistibly tempted to 
abuse its influence on the minds of men, and the conse- 
quent price of that ambition, to-wit, confessional laxity 
in the sacred matter of morality ; — in a word, question- 
able means resorted to when the end in view seemed to be 
good, was manifestly expedient — these are the topics 
which I find cleverly avoided, or Demosthenically dis- 
missed. 

ViTELLEscHi, a General of the Society, is more candid. 
He compares the Society to the skies : the Society is 
Aurora ; Ignatius is the sun ; the members are the stars, 
'* during so many years, and in so many lands, shining 
with the splendour of virtue, eminent and perfect." 
** But if," he continues, " any comet of disastrous result, 
compounded of the foul and pestilential vapours of a 

* See his Oration Xlfpi 2rf0., in which the damaging charges are 
veiy summarily slurred, at the very moment when the syren-notes of 
the orator, by modulating on his achievements, have entranced his 
excited audience. 



INTRODUCTION. 277 

world too near, should light its deadly flame among so 
many benign and propitious fires, we should not, on that 
account, condemn those skies, since even in the beautiful 
skies of nature we sometimes unwillingly behold the same 
anomaly."* A bad Jesuit is therefore a comet ; but a 
comet is a functionary in the celestial systems ; it is a 
secondary cause, produced and propelled by a great De- 
signer : then, may we substitute this Jesuit for the comet, 
and the spirit of Jesuitism for the great Designer? 

Thus, then, much has been said in favour of the Jesuits 
— more against them ; accusations have been denied, 
countercharges have been brought, and even questions of 
history still remain uncertain, undecided. 

I am surrounded with books of every description about 
the Jesuits. They have all been written with one pro- 
fessed object in view — ^Truth. Truth has been contem- 
plated by all ; but in how many different ways have they 
gazed at her charms I Some have peered with one eye, 
others with half an eye ; some " with spectacles on nose," 
others with quizzing glasses ; and not a few with that 
vacant stare which sees nothing! It is thus with the 
affairs of the Jesuits; any and every mind may find 
something to praise or blame in these extraordinary men, 
and their extraordinary achievements. 

" Nor aught so good, but strain 'd from that fair use, 
Revolts from true birth, stumbling on abuse!" 

Such is the lenient motto that will soften down my 
argument to the requisite tone of sober Truth. If the 
conclusions evolved be against the Jesuits, that result 
will issue from facts of undeniable vouchers, and reason- 

* Epist. 4 R. P. N. Vitell. 1639. TLe letter was written to the 
Society on a joyous occasion — its centennial anniversary — but its sad 
foreboding must have marred the joy of every member. 



278 IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA. 

ings based on the admitted principles of human conduct — 
on the philosophy of the human will. 

Bly object in this Essay is to enable the reader to judge 
for himself. Its materials will be taken, for the most 
part, from Jesuit writers and historians. The charges on 
which it will be my misfortune to insist, shall be in the 
words of the Generals themselves of the Society. 

VlTELLESCHI, CaRRAFA, PiCCOLOMlNI, NiCKEL — all 

Generals of the Society — shall accuse the Jesuits of the 
past : the Jesuits of history ; and their own historians 
shall be quoted for the facts on which the argument of 
this Essay shall be raised, without exaggeration as with- 
out extenuation ; for, if I err, I err from the mind, not 
from the heart. 



I. 

IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA. — THE SOCIETY. ITS RISE. 

Lycurgus undertook to reform his countrymen. His 
laws continued in force seven hundred years.* 

Mohammed, with ten followers, went forth on his 
" divine mission ;" and within twenty years from the 
moment of inspiration, his followers amounted to one 
hundred and fifty thousand. 

Islamism has lasted more than twelve hundred years. 

The Society of the Jesuits has existed three hundred 
and twenty-five years ; for the Brief of Clement XIV. 
was one of those measures of expediency which weak, 
imbecile governments emit, only to inconvenience a great 

* Lycurgus flourished 884 years before the Christian era. — Lemp., 
Plut., &c. 



THE SOCIETY. — ITS RISE. 279 

many people without advantaging any : mental reserva- 
tions all — successful equivocations. 

It was a ^* Brief ;"* intentionally such; not a " Bull ;" 
and almost as wide a thoroughfare to the Jesuits as the 
Catholic Relief Bill, which proscribed them in Great 
Britain. The Jesuits boast of both ;t and well they 
may; for it is highly flattering to feel convinced, that 
both our friends and enemies are respectively less severe 
or less unkind than appearances indicate. 

Who was Ignatius of Loyola? He was born the yearj 
before Boabdil, the Moor, surrendered by capitulation 
the Albayzin and Alhambra, and delivered up to Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella the keys of Granada. The age of 
chivalry was gone for ever — its excitements remained : 
the poetry of the human passions was now to be sung in 
the terrible notes that Dante listened to in the realms 
of woe. 

We are contemplating the age that is to bring forth a 
Luther. It is easy to discover, in every direction, the 
beginning of an insatiable spirit in the heart — the very 
heart of Roman Catholicism ; variously modified, but 

* A " Brief" is a letter which the Pope writes to kings, princes, 
or magistrates, and sometimes to private individuals : they are gene- 
rally written on paper, and refer to brief, succinct, unimportant mat- 
ters. The matter of "Bulls" is more important: their form is 
more ample : they are always written on parchment. The name is 
derived from bulla, the leaden seal which is attached to the document. 
On one side of the seal are the heads of Sts. Peter and Paul, on the 
other the name of the reigning Pope. On the briefs or mezze bolle, 
there is only the impression of the Apostles. — Dizcnar. di Erud. di 
Moroni. 

t La sentence de Clement XIV., parait sous forme de bref et non 
de buUe, afin qic'elle soit moins solennelie et plus facile a revoquer. Ca- 
hours — a Jesuit. I have before alluded to the opinion respecting the 
Relief Bill, page 33. 

t 1491. 



280 IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA. 

acting even reckless of means, and tending directly to its 
end. 

It was at the very foot of the papal throne that the 
mine was sprung: Italy pioneered the way to the human 
mind escaping from its fastness. 

Who was Ignatius of Loyola ? A French army has 
marched into Spain — the province of Guipuscoa is over- 
run — the invading forces lay siege to Pampeluna, the 
capital of Navarre. A Spanish officer in the garrison 
endeavours, but in vain, to inspire the troops with courage 
to resist the invaders— they must capitulate. Besieged 
and besiegers come to a parley in the citadel ; the severe 
terms of surrender are proposed ; a base compromise is 
about to be effected, when that Spanish officer, seizing 
the hopeful moment, launched into furious invective 
against the French. The conference broke up — the elec- 
tion was made — "To arms!" resounded on all sides. 
Now look to yon fortress; sword in hand the warrior 
Leads his devoted band to the breach ; now compelled to 
fight by the clever stratagem of the leader. Hand to 
hand, and foot to foot — the struggle is for victory or 
death ; but fortune or Providence decides the day — the 
hero of the fight falls desperately wounded. The hero of 
that fight was Ignatius of Loyola. 

He was born in the castle of Loyola, in Guipuscoa, a 
province of Biscay. His father was a nobleman ; his 
mother not less illustrious by her extraction. Inigo, or 
Ignatius, was the youngest of eleven children. Bred in 
the court of Ferdinand V., in the quality of page to the 
king, he was taught all the exercises calculated to make 
him an accomplished officer, the profession of arms being 
the object of his choice. 

In the army he gave tokens of distinguished valour ; 
and by declining on one occasion to share the booty of a 



THE SOCIETY. — ITS RISE. 281 

captured town, he won the universal good-will that such 
generosity always creates in the hearts of men. 

If the love of glory was the god of his soul, gold was 
not its idol. In such a man the love of woman rules by 
its own right : he was addicted to gallantry, and full of 
the maxims of worldly honour, vanity, and pleasures. 

Dexterous in the management of affairs, he had no 
tincture of learning ; but the place of science was ade- 
quately supplied by a natural cleverness; and from his 
tenderest years he evinced a discretion but rarely witnessed 
in youth. 

He was well made — of an ardent temperament — 
haughty in demeanour — even violent in disposition ; and 
yet he could compose his features into that soft, seduc- 
ing expression which few men and fewer women can 
resist. 

His leg was broken in the fight. As soon as the pa- 
tient's condition permitted, he was carried to the castle of 
Loyola. His surgeons were now of opinion, that it was 
necessary to break the bones anew, in order to replace 
them into their natural position, having been badly set, or 
jolted out of place by the movement of the journey. 
He submitted to the cruel operation without a groan. 

The result was nearly fatal. A violent fever ensued, 
and he was given over by his medical attendants. Re- 
signed to his fate, the warrior slept ; and in his sleep be- 
held St. Peter, who cured him with his own hand ! 
" The event," BouHouRS, the Jesuit, remarks, "showed 
that this dream had nothmg false in it :" when he awoke 
he was found out of danger — his pains ceased — his 
strength returned. I omitted to state that Ignatius had 
composed a poem in praise of St. Peter. 

This miraculous recovery seems to have left him un- 
converted ; for, finding that the bone protruded, even 



282 IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA. 

after the miracle, and marred tlie elegance of his boot,* 
our interesting admirer of grace and fitness in all things, 
determined to resort to the bone-nipper for that perfection 
which the apostle of his dream had not thought neces- 
sary : he had the deformity cut away without uttering a 
word — without changing countenance ! 

This was not all : he had the limb stretched by a ma- 
chine of iron ! But vain was this struggle for the sake 
of the world of beauty, which requires elegance in its 
votaries! To his despair — the operation justifies the 
word — to his despair the experiment failed ; and he re- 
mained crippled ever after — one leg shorter than the other. 

Still confined to his bed, Ignatius asked for a book to 
while away the tedious hours. He wanted a romance ; 
some work of chivalry; but though the castle of Loyola 
was just the place for such fabulous stories, there hap- 
pened not to be one there at the time in question : they 
brought him the Life of Christ, and the Lives of the 
Saints, instead. 

It would amuse the reader to recount the highly 
spiritual conclusions which the biographer ascribes to our 
gallant, after the perusal of the works aforesaid ; but this 
brief narrative will not admit of the detail. The reader 
must consider Ignatius a changed man — converted. 

He left the castle of his ancestors, and went to the 
monastery of St. Benedict at Mont-Serrat ; where, 
before the miraculous image of the Virgin Mary, he de- 
voted himself '* to Mary and to Jesus," as their knight : 
according to the martial notions which inspired all his 
interpretations of thoughts divine. 

It is necessary to state that the Virgin Mary had also 
appeared to him in the castle : she held the infant Jesus 

• Qui empecliait le cavalier de porter la botte bien tiree. — 
Bouhours. 



r 



THE SOCIETY. — ITS RISE. 283 

in her arms, in the midst of a blaze of light. It was on 
this occasion that he was freed for ever from all the troubles 
of concupiscence. 

What wonder, then, if on his journey to the shrine, he 
coolly deliberated whether he was not called upon to kill 
a poor Mahometan, who spoke disrespectfully of the 
Virgin ! Returning in pursuit of the blasphemer, he left 
it to chance to decide, by dropping the bridle of his 
horse: determined to kill the man if the horse took the 
fatal road. But the animal was more charitable, more 
virtuous than its master ; it took the other road (which 
was actually a worse road than the poor Mahometan's) 
and spared Ignatius — the converted sinner, blessed with 
holy visions — from the commission of a mortal sin ! 

He now began a life of excessive bodily maceration ; 
beating himself with an iron-chain four or five times a 
day, fasting rigorously, and bewailing the crimes of his 
youth. He was tried — he had his temptation : the devil 
spoke to him internally. All the temptations are given 
by the learned biographer. But he triumphed ; and if he 
has not said that angels came and ministered unto him, 
still he affirmed that, whilst rehearsing the office of the 
Virgin Mary, he was elevated in spirit, and saw as it were 
a figure, which clearly represented to him the most holy 
Trinity ! 

Devils had shaken the room where he prayed ; but of 
what avail was their impotent foolery against one so 
strong in faith, without the merit of belief? 

The most remarkable of all the favours that he re- 
ceived, says his biographer, was a rapture of eight days* 
duration. They thought him dead, and were on the point 
of burying him, when he opened his eyes, and, with a 
tender and devout voice, exclaimed — " Ah I Jesus T 

*' No one knows," continues the same authority, ** the 



284 IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA. 

secrets which were revealed to hira in that long ravish- 
ment : for he would never tell ; and all that could ever 
be extorted from him was, that the graces with which God 
favoured him were inexpressible.'* 

After these events he composed his Spiritual Exercises, 
and undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Indeed, it 
would appear that his intention was to labour for the 
conversion of souls in the East. However, after visiting 
the holy places, he returned to Europe, and was miracu- 
lously saved from shipwTeck, to be subsequently impri- 
soned on a suspicion of heresy. Escaping from the 
Inquisition, he went to Paris, with the intention of sup- 
plying the deficiencies which his Divine knowledge still left 
in his enlightened mind. He entered at the university; 
but, experimenting with his Exercises on some of the 
students, he got into trouble : these youths sold all they 
had, and gave the money to the poor. 

Meanwhile, it must be evident that Ignatius has 
hitherto been a very extensive traveller for a man without 
funds, subsisting on charity ; but such is the fact never- 
theless. Doubtless it was his own experience that induced 
him, subsequently, to bribe the Pope's good will to his 
enterprise, by stipulating for no pay or support in the 
missions of the Jesuits. 

In Paris — as elsewhere when he made the attempt — he 
was more anxious to extend the practice of his Exercises 
than to advance in science; for when a man gets a 
hobby of any kind, he is irresistibly inclined to ride it for 
ever. At Barcelona, for instance, he forgot everything he 
read ; and whilst conjugating the verb Amo, I love^ he 
could only repeat to himself, *' I love God," or, *' I am 
loved by God." And at Alcala, where he attended some 
lectures in logic, physics, and divinity, he only con- 
founded his ideas by the multiplicity of his studies; and 



THE SOCIETY. ITS RISE. 285 

learned nothing at all, though he studied night and 
day. 

He nianaged by his dexterity to exchange a public 
whipping, at the college of St. Barbara, for a public 
triumph. It seems that Ignatius had been admonished 
not to interfere with the studies of the students by his 
devotional practices ; he disobeyed, and tlie punishment 
was announced. But by a single interview he operated 
so effectually on the principal of the college, that without 
replying, the latter led him by the hand to the expectant 
students, all ready for the sign to inflict the penance ; — 
then threw himself at the feet of Ignatius, and begged 
his pardon for having believed the evil reports against 
him ; and, rising, pronounced him a saint ! 

After this the reader will not be surprised to hear, that 
Ignatius now began to collect followers : tlie Spiritual 
Exercises were operating. Peter Le Fevre, or Faber, 
was his first convert ; Xavier, afterwards a saint, was his 
next; and Laynez, Salmeron, Bobadilla — all famous 
men in the Society — subsequently enlisted. Moved by 
the pressing instances and exhortations of Ignatius, they 
made a vow to renounce the world, and to preach the 
gospel in Palestine ; or, if that design were thwarted, 
to offer themselves to the Pope, to be employed in the 
service of God in what manner he should judge best. 
They pronounced this vow aloud in the subterraneous 
chapel at Montmartre, after they had all received the 
sacrament from Peter Faber. 

Claudius Le Jay, Codure, and Brouet afterwards joined 
the band; which, with Ignatius, now amounted to ten 
men — of different nations — of widely different disposi- 
tions and attainments, but all devoted to Ignatius. 

They went to Rome. Tlie Pope, Paul III., received 



286 IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA. 

them graciously, and permitted those among them who 
were not priests to be immediately ordained. 

War having been declared against the Turks by the 
Venetians, their pilgrimage, it is said, was rendered im- 
practicable. It was at this time, and whilst the band re- 
mained at Vicenza, that Ignatius enjoined his companions 
to call themselves "the Society of Jesus" — ''because 
they were to fight against heresies and vice under the 
standard of Christ." 

From this place he set out for Rome. On the journey, 
whilst in prayer, he saw the Eternal Father presenting 
him (Ignatius) to His Son; and he saw Jesus Christ 
bearing a heavy cross — who, after having received him 
(Ignatius) from His Father, said these words to him : / 
shall be propitious to you at Rome. 

He related this vision to his companions, in order to 
fortify them against any contrarieties that might stand in 
their way. 

"This vision," says Bouhours, " is one of the most 
remarkable that St. Ignatius ever had ; and it is so well 
vouched for, that it admits not of a doubt." It is a strik- 
ing, awful — I had almost said hideous fact — that this 
presumptuous mortal, referring to this (his vision) actually 
wrote these words : " When the Eternal Father placed 
me with His Son !"* 

Again was Ignatius well received at Rome. All his 
companions soon followed at his command ; and he pro- 
posed to them his design, and motives, of forming them- 
selves into a religious order. Thev agreed. 

Three cardinals were appointed by the Pope to examine 
the merits of the application made by Ignatius : they at 

* Quando el Padre Eterno me puso con su Hijo. Bouhours trans- 
lates puso into usiocia ou mit. — Vie d' Ignace, 1. III. 



THE SOCIETY. ITS RISE. 287 

first opposed it, but afterwards changed their opinion : it 
is said, " on a sudden," One of them avowed that the 
order seemed necessary to remedy the evils of Christen- 
dom, and arrest the progress of heresy then spreading all 
over Europe. Possibly the disinterestedness of the pro- 
mise to serve his Holiness with desperate devotion, and 
without the expectation of any pecuniary support, had 
considerable influence in the determination that followed 
— the Jesuits would be " a cheap defence" of the Pope- 
dom. Paul III. confirmed the Institute of Ignatius, by a 
Bull, dated September the 27th, 1540. The number of 
the professed was at first limited to sixty ; but the re- 
striction was taken off two years after by another bull — 
the scheme having proved eminently successful.* 



II. 

THE SOCIETY ITS CONSTITUTIONS PROGRESS. 

The Society being established, Ignatius deemed it 
necessary to begin with electing a commander-in-chief — 
or general ; for he would not resign his martial notions j 
they might certainly be sanctified — rendered innocent. f 
Wilh this view he summoned his little troop to Rome — 
not all, for some of his men were already at important 
posts. True to its subsequent history, the Society was 

* For all tLe facts recorded in this Section, see Boubours, La Vie de 
St. J<rnace, and Butler's Lives of the Saints, July 31. 

t All the facts stated in this Section are from Boubours, or Butler 
quoting Jesuit historians. This general notification is thought more 
advisable in order not to encumber the tezt with references. 



288 THE SOCIETY.. 

already in position to influence the minds of kings. 
Xavier and Rodriguez were at the court of Portugal; 
Faber at the Diet of Worms ; and Bobadilla had ex- 
press orders not to leave the kingdom of Naples before 
the affairs committed to his management were accom- 
plished. The absent members had left their votes ; the 
suffrages were collected — Ignatius was elected General. 

Ignatius was afflicted and even surprised at seeing 
himself elected General ! — What ! A man who had been 
favoured with Divine visions — who had been enlightened 
so as to see through the mysteries of faith — who had 
been placed or associated by God the Father with God 
the Son — such a mortal considered fit to govern ! Im- 
possible ! 

Ignatius, as modestly as Julius C^sar, refused the 
dignity — nobly but gently pushed away the proffered 
diadem ! 

This refusal only served to confirm the electors in their 
judgment : still, obedient to his request they spent four 
days more in prayer and penance, before the next election. 
Ignatius was again elected ! 

Surely the Divine will is now manifest. Ignatius is of 
a different opinion : he makes another effort to escape. 
He says that ''he will put the matter into the hands of 
his confessor; and if the latter, who knows all his bad 
inclinations/' which the reader is aware, were all wiped 
away by the Virgin Mary — '* if his confessor shall com- 
mand him in the name oj" Jesus Christ, to submit, he will 
obey blindly." 

It is needless to state that the said confessor *' told 
him plainly that he was resisting the Holy Ghost in resist- 
ing the election ; and commanded him, on the part of 
God, to accept the appointment." 

One curious question arises here. For whom did 



PRELIMINARIES. 289 

Ignatius vote in the election ? Surely if this man did 
not think himself qualified, he should have named the 
companion whom he deemed worthy of the high function ; 
particularly as he had called the electors to Rome for 
the express purpose of the election. But the sentimental 
votes recorded by Bouhours, lack that of Holy Father 
Ignatius. Xavier, Codure, Salmeron, have left their 
votes on the grateful page ; and doubtless every other 
vote was equally fervid — but it seems that we must 
remain perfectly mystified as to the conduct of this 
modest saint on that interestins; occasion. It exhibits 
character however, and therefore have I dwelt on the 
incident : I have to depict Ignatius in the sequel. 

Anticipating the celebrated " Constitutions," Ignatius 
issued a few regulations for the guidance of his soldiers ; 
the sum total whereof was '* to have God before their 
eyes always" as much as possible — with Christ for a 
model ; to see God in their Superiors : obedience being 
an infallible oracle, &c. Mutual charity, silence, and 
religious deportment, were enjoined; and if they should 
fall into any sin that might become public, they were not 
to despair; but rather " to give thanks to God for 
permitting them to commit a fault, and for teaching 
them the weakness of their virtue." Lastly to press for- 
ward gaily, but not excessively so, in the Divine work ; 
undeviating, unflinching. 

Xavier was sent to India by a Brief; Salinieron and 
Brouet were despatched into Ireland by the Pope; 
Laynez went to Venice ; Faber to Madrid ; Bobadilla 
to Vienna; and Le Jay to Ratisbon. Ignatius remained 
at Rome to be inspired in the concoction of tlie Consti- 
tutions. 

Meanwhile, at the very time when Luther was engaged 
in purging the church of Romanism, Ignatius was use- 

u 



290 THE INSTITUTE. 

fully occupied with purging Rome of its licentiousness : 
both excellent works and worthy of being recorded on the 
same page. All mankind owed a debt of gratitude to 
Luther for the light of mind; and the streets of Rome 
were a monument to Ignatius for the darkness which he 
rendered innocent.* 

From the contemplation of this pious work, we will 
turn to the famous Constitutions of the Society. The 
Institute of the Jesuits is contained in fifteen distinct 
works; the book of the Constitutions being the ground- 

* See Bouhours, for the account of this reformation of the public 
sinners at Rome. It is usual to talk very finely on the public 
depravity -which is said to have "followed" the Reformation ; but if 
the holders of such an opinion will take the trouble to investigate the 
history of the church at the period which immediately preceded that 
event, they may perhaps be disabused of that opinion. In truth, the 
corruption of morals — enclosed though it was by the universal church 
— was rampant throughout society. The conduct of pontiffs was 
ambiguous, if not highly criminal ; bishops, priests, monks, and laity 
alike slid in the slippery path, that seemed to stretch from the sanc- 
tuary itself. See Cornelii Aurelii Gaudaui Apocalypsis, seu Visio 
jMirabilis super Miserabili Statu Matris Ecclesias, in Caspar. Burmanni 
Analect. Hist, de Hadriano VI. See also Mosheim, Eccl. Hist vol. ii. 
b. 4. c. 1. See also Villani, Istor. c. 9. As far back as the tenth 
century, vice rioted in the papal chair. ** John XII.," says Villani, 
" was a man of evil life, tenendo publicamente le famine, and hunted 
and hawked like a private gentleman, and did many guilty and furious 
things." The " infamous Borgia," as even Reeve, the Roman 
Catholic, calls him — began the sixteenth century as Alexander VI. 
Dante, Petrarch, and Battista of Mantua, have immortalized the crimes 
of popes, monks, and priests, in the chorus of guilt — their books were 
in the libraries of cardinals : Sadolet and Bembo knew long passages 
by heart, which they recited, notwithstanding the papal censure by 
which they were prohibited. Battista wrote these verses : 

Vivere qui sancte cupitis, discedite Roma ; 
Omnia cum liceant, non licet esse bonum. 

— See Jewel's Apolo. c. 4. 



DEFINITIONS. 291 

work of the system : strongly, deeply built ; with a know- 
ledge of mental architecture unsurpassed, except in the 
Spiritual Exercises of the same cunning Builder. 

Subsequent Rules, Decrees, Canons, &c., are stated to 
have 'resulted from the spirit of the Institute, which they 
are intended to uphold and enforce. 

The Constitutions are divided into ten parts. They are 
preceded by a "" General Examen," to be proposed to all 
W'ho wish to be admitted into the Society of Jesus. Ac- 
cording to this Examen, the end of the Society is not only 
to 2:ive to each member the means of workino; out his own 
salvation and spiritual perfection, with the grace of God ; 
but with the same grace diligently to apply himself to the 
salvation and perfection of his neighbour. To attain 
this end the better, three vows are taken ; namely, of 
Obedience, Poverty, and Chastity : understanding Poverty 
to mean that the Jesuit will not and cannot have any 
revenue for his own maintenance, nor for any other pur- 
pose. This is to be understood not only with regard to 
each member in particular, but also with regard to the 
churches and houses of the professed. No stipend nor 
alms are to be received for masses, sermons, lectures, the 
administration of any sacrament, or any other pious office 
which the Society, according to its institute, can perform. 
Such emoluments are lawful to others, but to the Jesuit 
they are forbidden : God alone is to reward the child of 
Ignatius."^ 

The professed Jesuits are those who make, besides the 
three vows just mentioned, an express vow to the Pope 
and his successors ; to set out without excuse, without a 
viaticum or travelling expenses, to any part of the world 
• — among Christians or Infidels — *' for the prosecution of 
such matters as tend to divine worship and the good of 

* Exam. Gen. 

u 2 



292 DEFINITIONS. 

the Christian religion" — a very comprehensive formula as- 
suredly ! 

As to externals, the manner of life — for just reasons, 
having the greater service of God always before them — is 
common : the Society does not assume, by obligation, 
any of the ordinary penances or macerations of the body. 
These are left to the dictates of individual piety and the 
judgment of the immediate superior. 

The members of the Society are divided into four 
classes. 

I. The Professi, or Professed. 

II. The Coadjutors; who are admitted into the Society 
for the divine service and aid of the Society in matters 
spiritual and temporal. These are the temporal coadju- 
tors or lay-brothers ; they bind themselves by the three 
simple vows only. 

III. The Scholastici, or Scholars ; whose future position 
in the Society is to be determined by their respective 
qualifications. They may become either spiritual coad- 
jutors or simple priests of the Society; or be permitted to 
enter the ranks of the Pope's life-guard aforesaid, after 
mature deliberation on the part of the authorities con- 
cerned. 

IV. The Novices. These are admitted indeterminately : 
their respective talents will hereafter assign their position 
in the Society. They must be "indifferent;" that is, 
totally resigned to the god-like will of the head that 
governs. 

A probation of two years' duration precedes the vows 
of the temporal coadjutors; and. of the scholastici, who 
are to become spiritual coadjutors. 

Another probation of one year's duration precedes the 
last vow of the Professi, or Professed. 

Although the Society may have colleges and houses of 



QUALIFICATIONS. 293 

probation, endowed with revenues for the sustenance of 
the scholastici before they are received into the ranks of 
the professed, still, revenues of this kind cannot be ex- 
pended for any other purpose, according to the apostolical 
letters ; nor can any of the members, even the coadju- 
tors, make use of the same. 

So much for the "ways and means" of the Society in 
its original conception. 

I shall now endeavour to give the outlines of the sys- 
tem ; refraining from such minute details as would not 
interest the general reader — always translating the text 
of the original, or giving its substance. 

Part I. 

The more endowed the applicant for admission is with 
natural talents or acquirements, and the more trying the 
experiments have been in which he has stood the test, the 
more fit will he be for the Society. The Society requires 
sound knowledge, or an aptitude to acquire it, in the 
candidate, united to tact in the management of affairs ; 
or certainly the gift of a good judgment to acquire that 
discretion. He must have a good memory, both quick 
and retentive. The desire of spiritual perfection must be 
in the will; coolness, constancy, and determination in action. 
There must be zeal for the salvation of souls ; " which is 
the cause of the love that the candidate has for the So- 
ciety." 

Elegance of expression is particularly to be desired ;* 
being very necessary in his intercourse with others ; and 
a handsome or agreeable person,t which usually edifies 
those with whom we have to deal : good health and 

* Exoptanda est sermonis gratia. — P. I.e. 2. 
t Species honesta — Ibid. 



294 IMPEDIMENTS. 

strength of body are essentials. The age for admission 
to the Novitiate is fourteen and above; for Profession, 
five and twenty. 

The external recommendations of nobility, wealth, repu- 
tation, and the like — since they are not sufficient if others 
be wanting — will not be necessary when other qualifica- 
tions are possessed. Still, as far as they conduce to edi- 
fication, they enhance the fitness of the candidate. 

The impediments to admission are previous apostacy 
from the church, and heresy ; having committed murder, 
or being infamous on account of some enormity; to have 
been a monk or hermit; being married, or a slave, or 
partially insane. These are stringent impediments; but 
the Pope and the General can grant a dispensation even 
in the case of these impediments, when it is certain that 
the candidate is adorned with such divine gifts as to be of 
great assistance to the Society — always understood, *'for 
the service of God and our Lord." 

Minor impediments are, apparently indomitable passions, 
and such a habit of sin as to give little hope of amend- 
ment ; inconstancy of mind; ** a defective judgment, or 
manifest pertinacity, which usually gives great trouble to 
all congregations." 

Among the questions to be put to candidates are the 
following : — Whether any of his ancestors were heretics ? 
whether his parents are alive ? their name, condition as 
to wealth or poverty, their occupation ? whether he has 
ever been in pecuniary difficulties, or is bound by any 
claim to his parents or relatives ? whether, discarding his 
own opinion and judgment, he will leave that point to the 
judgment of his Superior or the Society ? how many 
brothers and sisters he has ? their situation, whether mar- 
ried or otherwise, their occupation or manner of life ? 



A DISTINCTION. 295 

with regard to himself, whether he has ever uttered words 
that may seem to have pledged him to marry ? or has 
had, or has, a son ? 

A severe scrutiny as to his spiritual bent, faith, and 
conscience, follows this domestic inquisition. If the candi- 
date has any property, he must promise *' to leave all,'* 
without delay, at the command of his Superior, after he 
has been a year in the Novitiate. But he is to resign his 
property to the " poor ;" for the Gospel says, " give to 
the poor," not to relatives. Thus he will give a better 
example of having put off his inordinate love towards his 
parents, and of avoiding the usual unpleasantness of dis- 
tribution, which proceeds from the said love ; and thus — 
the opening to return to his parents and relatives, and to 
their very memory, being closed beforehand — he may 
persevere firmly and fixedly in his vocation. 

He may, however, give something to his relatives ; but 
this must be left entirely to the discretion and judgment 
of the Superior, and those who are appointed by him to 
investigate the claim to relief or benefit. 

All ready money that he may have must be given up, 
to be returned to him should he leave, or be found unfit 
for, the Society. 

Any defect in the integrity of the body — disease, weak- 
ness, or remarkable deformity ; being too young or too 
old, or bound by civil obligations or debt, constitute 
minor impediments. But in case of these minor impedi- 
ments, as in the major, the Society can grant dispensa- 
tions. 

Part II. 
The power of dismissal from the Society is granted by 
the General to the various Provincials, or rulers of a 
province (like that of England) ; and to local Superiors 



296 DISMISSION. 

and Rectors, in order that, in the whole bodv of the So- 
ciety, the subjection of holy Obedience may be continued 
— that the inferiors may clearly know that they depend 
on their immediate Superiors ; and that it becomes them 
very much, yea, is necessary, that they should be submis- 
sive to them in all things. Caution is advised in the 
matter of dismissal ; and the caution is to be increased 
according to the position in the Society which the delin- 
quent happens to hold — a suggestion of mere human 
prudence which is self-evident. 

In important cases, Provincials should not dismiss 
without consulting the General. I need scarcely state 
that a case becomes important, not by the guilt of the 
delinquent, but by his rank in the Society.* 

The causes of dismissal are, *' Incorrigibility in certain 
depraved affections and vices ; even should they not scan- 
dalise others, on account of their secrecy." 

Secondly, If it be contrary to the good of the Society 
to retain any one : the good of the whole body should be 
preferred to that of the individual. 

Of course, any of the impediments being subsequently 
discovered in probation, may be just causes of dis- 
missal. f 

So far the Constitutions. But a Declaration runs on 
hand in hand to the following effect ; — " How far certain 
faults,]: which are said to be contrary to the divine honour 
and the good of the Society, should be tolerated, — since 
the matter depends on many particular circumstances, of 
persons, times, and places, — it must necessarily be left to 
the discreet zeal of those who have that matter in 
charge. "§ 

Dismissal is to take place as privately as possible, so 

* Part 2, c. 1, Decl. f Part 2, c. 2. 

X Defectus, § Ibid, A. 



CAPIAS. 297 

as to cherish the s:ood-will and charity of the delinquent 
towards the Society ;* and aid should be given him to 
embrace some other state of life. Charity should offer 
him her hand at dismiijsal, and defend his memory in his 
absence ;t at least, such is the import of the passage 
which I have thus condensed. 

Those who leave the Society of their own accord are 
not to be sought after, unless for very good reasons. 
" Should they be such as we should not thus resign — 
particularly if they seem to have left on account of some 
violent temptation, or deceived from without by others — 
we may endeavour to bring them back, making use of the 
Privileges conceded to us for this purpose by the Apos- 
tolic See." 

The Privilege referred to pronounces " excommunica- 
tion ipso facto" against any Jesuit who returns to the 
world after having taken the vows — from the guilt of 
which he cannot be absolved, except by the Pope or a 
Superior of the Society. By another such mandate, 
eight days are allowed him to return, under the penalty of 
excommunication lafcB sententicB, which is a case reserved 
to the Pope ; and all who aid, advise, or abet the fugitive 
are obnoxious to the same penalty. 

By another mandate, the General and other Superiors 
can summarily, and without the form of judgment, re- 
claim, take, and imprison the delinquent, and compel 
him to undergo the merited penance, just as if he were 
an apostate, calling in the aid of the secular arm. 

Nay, even those who are dismissed from the Society — 
unless they enter some other order with permission of the 
General, the Provincial, or the Pope — are forbidden to 

* Ibid. 6. t|lbid. 8 et 9» 



298 CONSEQUENCES. 

hear confessions, teach or preach, under penalty of ex- 
communication.* 

These severe enactments seem to scoff with the hiss 
of contempt at the words of the Constitutions, where 
the spirit of mildness is enjoined in this proceeding, 
without exception — omnino, in spiritu mansuetudinis pro- 
cedere.f 

What wonder, then, that the ** secrets" of this Society 
have rarely transpired, at a time when such terrible 
penalties hung in all their Apostolical horrors over the 
head of the apostate ! 

Why should a Society need such a defence, if its 
motives, its means, its exploits were honest? Some 
idea of the power of the Jesuits in the day of their great- 
ness, may be formed from what we have just read: as 
we proceed, the argument will be developed with fearful 
iteration in the same strain. 

On being re-admitted, the fugitive must perform his 
appointed penance, undergo another examination, make 
a general confession, and be subjected to other tests and 
trials. 

Pakt III. 

The training and preservation of the novices are 
amply discussed in the third part of the Constitutions. 
Having already thoroughly developed the subject, I 
shall now confine my remarks to those matters which 

* Comp. Privil. Apost. All the Superiors Lave the power to " in- 
flict corrections and punishments" — provided they are deliberate and 
mature, " they may proceed freely" in the matter — libere procedere 
possunt. — Ibid. Correct. 

t Part 2. c. 4, 5. 



A DELICATE QUESTION. 299 

were not enforced Jn the English Novitiate; or such 
particulars as have not been incidentally mentioned. 

It is not thought necessary that the novice should 
resign the property he may happen to possess at the 
time of his admission, unless the Superior should com- 
mand him to do so, after the lapse of a year; "judg- 
ing that in property of this kind, he may have an occa- 
sion of temptation, or be impeded in his spiritual pro- 
gress, since he may cling to his wealth with some im- 
moderate affection or confidence." 

Anticipating a delicate' question, the prudent legislator 
says : — " Whenever at his entrance, or after his en- 
trance on the practice of obedience, the novice, being 
moved by his devotion, wishes to dispense his property 
or a part of it, to the subsidy of the Society, doubtless 
he would do a work of greater perfection, alienation, 
and abnegation of all self-love, by not descending with 
a certain tender affection to particular places, applying 
his property to this purpose rather than to that, accord- 
ing to its suggestion : but rather earnestly wishing the 
greater and more general good of the Society,* he should 
leave this matter to the judgment of him v/ho has the 
care of the whole Society, whether the property is to be 
applied to another place rather than to that which is in 
the same province ; for he (the General) can know better 
than any one else what is proper to be done, and what 
is most urgent in all places, taking into consideration, 
kings, princes, and potentates, lest any cause of offence 
be given them."t 

Each novice is to have his settled confessor ; and the 
latter should know what cases of conscience the Superior 

* "Instituted for the greater glory of God, and the universal good 
and utility of souls." 
t Part 3, c. 1, 9. 



300 PRECAUTIONS. 

reserves to liimself for absolution. Such cases shall be 
reserved to him as may seem necessary or very proper to 
be known by him, in order that he may the better 
apply a remedy. 

Temptations must be anticipated : so that if any one is 
observed to be inclined to pride, he should be exercised in 
lowly occupations;* and so on with regard to the other 
propensities. 

Women must not enter the houses of the Society, nor 
the colleges, but only the churches ; unless they are 
remarkable for their very great charity and dignity : 
then the Superior may give them a dispensation to enter 
— always for just ve2iSons,justas oh causus — in order to 
see the houses, if such be their wish. 

Public punishments should be awarded to public faults. 
If the novices do not go to confession within the prescribed 
time, their food must be stopped, till they take the food 
of the spirit. If any one goes to another confessor 
than the one appointed, he must repeat all that he has 
confessed to his proper confessor ; who being thus ig- 
norant of nothing with regard to his conscience, may 
better assist him in the Lord. The third part concludes 
with the following general observations : — 

" With regard to the preservation of our temporalities, 
besides that care which charity and reason impose on all, 
it will be right to assign this function to some one in par- 
ticular ; in order that he may take care of them as the 
goods of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

For other necessary functions, likewise, and those par- 
ticularly which are more decently performed at homef 

* Rebus abjectioribus. 

t Such as the functions of the washer-Twan, barber, and the like : 
who should be in the house if possible. Ibid. H. The head-tailor at 
StODjhurst was a temporal coadjutor, lay-brother, or Jesuit. How 



EDUCATION. 301 

than abroad, care must be taken that the necessary number 
of officials be appointed ; and it is expedient that the 
temporal coadjutors, or lay-brothers, should learn to 
perform these offices, if they are ignorant of the art — all 
for the glory, &c.* 

Part IV. 

The colleges of the Society are governed by Rectors 
and their assistants. 

If the revenues are insufficient for the support of all 
the functionaries, alms may be begged, even from door to 
door, if necessary. 

After prescribing the species of devotional exercises to 
be administered to the scholastic!, their studies are enu- 
merated. The languages, logic, natural and moral phi- 
losophy, metaphysics, theology, and the Scriptures, enter 
into the prescribed course ; the time allotted for each 
being unlimited, and dependent on the judgment of the 
Rector after examination. 

The scholars may be trained in all these faculties ; but, 
as they cannot excel in all, each must be made to excel 
in some one or other of them, according to his age, 
genius, inclination, and previous acquirements. 

In the books of heathen writers, nothing must be read 
that can offend decency. They must be expurgated ; and 

many more such officials were or are in the English province, I cannot 
state. Alluding to the time when the Society numbered all manner of 
workmen among her temporal coadjutors, I asked a Jesuit at Stony- 
burst, if anything of the kind existed at the time in question ; he 
said, " Not as yet." 

It would be a curious inquiry to find out, how poor ignorant opera- 
tives are made acquainted with the fact that the Society is open to 
them also? But, in point of fact, ** licite et cum merito moveri" pos- 
sunt ! 

* Part 3, c. 2. 



\ 

302 TALIS QUUM SIS, ETC. 

the Society will *' use the remnants as the spoils of 
Egypt."* 

The books written by Christians, although good in 
themselves, are not to be read if the author be a sus- 
pected character, lest there should result a partiality for 
the author. In every department, such books as may or 
may not be read, must be determined by the authorities. 

All impediments to study must be removed, whether 
resulting from devotional practices, or mortifications in- 
dulged in to excess, or unseasonably. 

There must be a library common to all : but its key 
must be confided to those whom the Rector may consider 
trustworthy, and each student is to have what books are 
necessary. 

Assiduity in the classes, repetitions of what they have 
learned, the solution of diflficulties that result, public dis- 
putations, private conferences — all these train the Jesuit 
mind, and give it that perfection which induced the philo- 
sopher to exclaim — " Talis, quum sis, utinam noster 
esses !"t This enthusiastic admiration of Jesuit art, 
in so great a man, must be excused, if not shared, by all; 
and we have only to lament — sadly to regret — that our 
admiration, as well as that of the philosopher, must be 
confined to the " application and ability of those masters 
in cultivating the minds and forming the morals of the 
young'' 

The Latin language is to be commonly spoken, and 
perfection in style is to be acquired by diligent practice. 

Emulation must be excited by competition ; two stu- 
dents being opposed to each other by a pious challenge.^ 

* Ut spoliis ^Egypti Societas uti poterit. 

t Bacox, quoting the words of Agesilaus to Pharnabasus. — De 
dign. and Augm. Scient. 

t Sancta eniulatione se invicem provocent. 



STIMULANTS. 303 

A specimen of their composition may be sent to the Pro- 
vincial or the Genera] ; and an additional impulse is 
given to emulation by the fact, made known to every 
student, that he will be examined in all his studies at 
their conclusion. 

Public schools, for general education, may be opened. 

In these, instruction in Christian doctrine must be 
attended to ; monthly confessions enjoined ; and corporal 
correction must not be wanting when necessary, but not 
to be inflicted by a Jesuit. There should be a public 
corrector : if one cannot he had, some means of castiga- 
tion must be devised, either administered by one of the 
scholars themselves, or in some other convenient manner. 

For these spiritual services the Jesuits should receive 
no pay, according to the Constitutions ; should receive 
no temporal reward ; they give freely what they have 
freely received — dare grath quae gratis accepimus ; but an 
endowment is permitted for the support of those who are 
employed in the various offices of the college. 

The Rectors of colleges are appointed by the General, 
or by those to whom he delegates the appointment. 
They may be deprived of office by the General, but are 
absolute whilst in command. The Rector is aided in his 
duties by a minister or vice-rector ; and minor officials 
march in the train of obedience — each with his meritorious 
contribution to the common fund of philosophical comfort 
and spiritual perfection. 

The Society may undertake the direction of universi- 
ties, where, besides the humanity studies, theology, and 
philosophy, Arabic, Chaldaic, Hindostanee, and the 
Turkish language may be taught ; indeed these languages 
are to be taught in the colleges, when the future " apos- 
tles" are being prepared for their arduous mission among 
the Gentiles. 



304 THE JESUIT METHOD. 

Logic, physics, metaphysics, and mathematics must 
also be taught, but only so far as the scope of the Society 
admits. 

The course for a master of arts occupies three years 
and a half; for divinity, six. Strictness in the examina- 
tion for the degree is enjoined ; and ambition is held in 
check by the uncertainty that exists as to the position to 
which a successful candidate may be promoted. 

The fourth part concludes with a minute assignation of 
all the officials in the universities — evidencing consider- 
able tact and discretion, as usual — not forgetting the 
standing motto* of the Jesuits, which palls upon the ear 
like the sound of a musical string struck as you turn the 
screw in tuning — till it snaps and makes your blood 
run cold. The '' Ratio Studiorum" and " Ars Discendi'' 
of the Jesuits exhibit an admirable course of studies, 
adapted to every capacity by its easy and smooth deve- 
lopement, and calculated to bring forth every hidden gift 
which nature conceals so often — apparently apprehensive 
of that tendency to abuse the gifts of Heaven, to which 
the human will is exposed. 

The limits of this work will not permit me to give an 
analysis of the Jesuit method. The task would have 
been equally pleasant and easy; since the method was 
fully carried out at the college where the author was 
educated — a secular college, but originally organized by 
some English Jesuits, as I was informed at Stonyhurst. 
Indeed, my memory now brings to mind very many rules 
and regulations, which point to the Jesuit system as their 
source. 

The main characteristics of the Jesuit system of educa- 
tion are, regularity, adaptation of the subjects to the 
student's capacity ; frequent repetitions ; — and perhaps 

* For the greater glory, &c. 



THE PROFESSED. 305 

the most important — due time is given for each depart- 
ment to be studied exclusively , such as a year, two years, 
three years or more, for each. A student of common 
capacity, who has to ascend regularly from the lowest 
to the highest school, would require sixteen years for 
the course ! I believe the system to be a good one, but 
the time required will never permit it to be more than 
partially applied by those who agree with Bacon — unless 
time is no object in the end proposed. 

Each pupil has his pedagogue, or tutor, who prepares 
him for the classes by explaining all his difficulties, whilst 
the pupil construes the classics : thus, he first learns the 
portion to be construed ; secondly, he reads it to his 
tutor ; thirdly, to the master ; fourthly, he should read it 
over to himself afterwards ; fifthly, he will be examined 
at the end of the quarter in all that he reads ; sixthly, 
likewise at the end of the year. Truly this is enough to 
weld knowledge to the brain, however adamantine it may 
be by nature ! 

Part V. 

The fifth part treats of the qualifications requisite in the 
professed members. Considerable progress in learning 
and the prescribed essentials of a perfect Jesuit, are the 
introductions to this distinction — I mean the permission 
to take the fourth vow — the vow that admits the favoured 
member to his position in the body of the hydra. 

Part VI. 

This section treats more at large respecting the nature, 
extent, and motives of obedience; reverence to superiors; 
manifestation of conscience by every member, once a year, 
to the local Superior; and inculcates unlimited confidence 
in his judgment in all things — since '* he holds the place 

X 



306 VERISIMILITUDES. 

of Christ himself in regard of those who are beneath him 
bv holv obedience." 

It also treats of Poverty — " the firm wall of the order." 
No innovation is to be made in the thorough, perfect in- 
terpretation of this vow : to which effect a promise is re- 
quired from the professed. 

The professed must live on alms in their houses ; and 
no one must try to induce persons to leave endowments 
to the houses or churches of the Society : the pious gift 
must flow, as by inspiration, or by a natural syphon, 
from the heart of charity. 

The injunction to receive no stipend for any service is 
again most solemnly given : indeed, from the numerous 
repetitions to this effect in the constitutions, one can 
scarcely imagine how the Jesuits could transgress — unless, 
with " veterem cecinere querelam," they smile, and sleep, 
and dream the sound away ! 

To avoid all appearance of avarice, there must be no 
box in the churches of the Society to receive the offerings 
of the faithful. 

The Jesuits m.ust not accustom themselves to visit the 
great, unless for pious purposes. 

Jesuits cannot succeed to property (hereditarise suc- 
cessionis non erunt capaces). The houses and churches 
are included in this prohibition ; which is intended to 
preclude " all litigation and disputes." 

The Jesuit's dress must be decent, but homely : silks 
and precious stuffs seem repugnant to poverty, and there- 
fore must not be used. 

No Jesuit can submit to be examined before a court of 
justice, in civil or criminal cases, without special permis- 
sion of his Superiors ; and in certain cases no Superior 
can grant permission : such as criminal or defamatory 
cases. 



JESUITISM. 307 



Part VI I. 

The Missions of the Society are now under considera- 
tion. The whole earth is open to the Jesuit. At the 
word of command from the Pope or the General, he is 
ready for every fate : to share the luxury of kings, whose 
"conscience" he must govern; or to be devoured by 
cannibals who prefer his flesli to the spirit of his religion. 

The General sends out his missionaries whithersoever 
he pleases; and must select them according to the quali- 
fications required by the circumstances in which they will 
be placed. The strong and healthy, the trustworthy and 
tried — probati et securiores — the discreet and insinuating 
— qui discretionis et conversandi graiiam hahent — the 
well-favoured in person — cum exteriori specie — men of 
genius and peculiar talent, orators and skilful confessors ; 
all must be sent where their respective qualifications are 
most required, or are likely to reap a plentiful harvest. 

The missionaries, being sent in company, must be con- 
trasted: the talent of one must co-operate with that of 
another; or modified effects must result from the union 
of different natures. 

With a very fervid and fiery temper — ferventi et ani- 
moso — let a more circumspect and cautious spirit be 
joined : a single missionary should not be sent; and more 
than two, according to necessity, may be despatched by 
the General. 

The seventh part concludes thus : — He who has talent 
for the composition of books may compose them ; but he 
must not publish them before the General has seen them 
and caused them to be examined. 



x2 



308 JESUITISM. 



Part VIII. 

Exhorts to union and enumerates the means that con- 
duce to that end. 

It will be expedient not to admit " a great crowd" — 
magnam turham — to profession ; but only select men : a 
precaution which is also to be observed with regard to the 
coadjutors and scholastici. 

Prompt, humble, devout obedience, well exhibited in 
his previous conduct, must accompany the distant mis- 
sionary; if not, his companion must excel in that virtue 
by way of a holy check. 

A constant correspondence is to be kept up v/ith the 
Provincial, and all must conduct themselves according to 
his will. 

Obstinacy is to be prevented from causing disunion; 
either by removal to another scene of action, or by expul- 
sion. 

The local Superiors, or Rectors, must write to their 
Provincial every week, if possible; the Provincials and 
others to the General everi/ week, if in the same country; 
if not, every month; and the Provincials must write every 
month to the rectors, and oftener if necessary. 

Frequent correspondence among all the members indi- 
vidually and collectively, one with another, tends to edifi- 
cation and the knowledge of those whose occupations are 
therein contained. The General may distribute copies of 
the various letters among the provinces ; so that all may- 
become acquainted with the matters interesting to all, 
distant or near. 

Every fourth month there must be sent to the Provin- 
cials, from the houses and colleges, a catalogue of all the 
members ; succinctly noticing the qualifications of each, 
ad clariorem omnium cognitionem. 



THE ELECTION OF THE GENERAL. 309 

A general congregation of the Society is called to 
deliberate on matters of great moment and difficulty — 
to elect or to depose a General, if that can ever take 
place — or for the purpose of dissolving colleges and 
houses, or a transfer of property. It must be deter- 
mined by the General ; but his assistants, the Provincials 
and Rectors, can, by a majority of votes dispense with 
his assent : or rather he should then consider the thing 
meet and justifiable. Only the professed and some of 
the coadjutors, if expedient, are to attend in a general 
congregation. For the election of a General, none can 
vote but the professed ; and the General elected must 
be a professed. 

Any underhand attempt to influence a vote by indivi- 
dual ambition, deprives the delinquent of the vote 
*' active and passive ;" and whoever does not denounce 
such conduct, if known, is " excommunicated latce sen- 
tenfia." 

The mass of the Holy Ghost is to be celebrated on the 
day of election. At the sound of the bell, all must pro- 
ceed to the place of congregation ; one of the members 
delivers an exhortation on the subject: the doors are 
closed : none can leave, nor have anything by way of 
support, but bread and water, till the General is elected. 

If " the Holy Ghost moves them" to an unanimous 
election, the object of their choice is the General elect. 
If not, each elector writes the name of the object of his 
choice, and his own likewise ; the votes are collected, and 
the election goes by plurality as usual. 

When the General is elected all must kneel before 
him and kiss his hand. The person elected cannot re- 
fuse to undertake the function, nor object to the reverence 
aforesaid : all repeat the Te Deum laudamus ! 



310 . THE GENERAL, 



Part IX. 



The General is elected for life. His qualifications 
must be great piety and the spirit of prayer ; he must 
be exemplary in all the virtues; calm in his demeanour, 
circumspect in words. Magnanimity and fortitude are 
most essential attributes. He must have extraordinary 
intellect and judgment ; prudence rather than learning; 
vigilance, solicitude in his duties ; moreover his health 
and external appearance must be satisfactory. He must 
be middle-aged; and due regard is to be had to the 
recommendations of nobility, or the wealth and honours 
that he might have enjoyed in the world. 

His power is simply absolute — absolute as to the ap- 
pointment of officials, the disposal of the temporalities, 
admission of fresh members to the Society, — absolute in 
the power of *' dispensation.'^ To the Pope alone is he 
subservient. 

He cannot be deprived of office unless he commits some 
mortal sins of a delicate nature, and external — in externum 
prodeimtia — or wounds any one, or misapplies the re- 
venues, or becomes heretical. 

He has five assistants, corresponding to the great pro- 
vinces, to aid him in his function. 

Part X. 

Treats of the means of preserving and increasing the 
whole body ; exhorts to perfect obedience and discipline ; 
forbids any Jesuit to aft'ect any dignity in the church, 
which he cannot receive without a positive command from 
the Pope ; enjoins the care of health, moderation in mental 
and bodily labour, and observance of the Constitutions; 
which all must read every month : at least that portion 
of them which concerns himself. 



THE WISDOM OF THE SERPENT. 311 

Such are tlie Constitutions of the Society of the 
Jesuits. The despotic Richelieu termed them a model of 
administrative policy ; but surely any form of govern- 
ment can rule men if they can be induced to bind them- 
selves by a vow of perfect obedience, and be kept in 
awe by penalties similar to that of expulsion from the 
Society of the Jesuits. 

A principal share in the composition of the Constitu- 
tions is attributed to Lainez. They were written in 
Spanish and translated by Polancus, the founder's secre- 
tary. As the anecdote previously given* intimates, Igna- 
tius wished it to be believed that he was inspired in the 
composition. According to his biographer, " a flame 
was frequently seen over his head, just as tongues of fire 
appeared on the heads of the Apostles." Indeed the 
supernatural visitings that were vouchsafed to Ignatius, 
as recorded in the various biographies of this remarkable 
man, are of a nature to make one laugh with horror ! 

For my part, I look upon the *' Spiritual Exercises" of 
Ignatius as a more remarkable work than his " Consti- 
tutions." The former eflfectuate that frame of mind with- 
out which the Constitutions would be ineffective. It is 
the training under their constant influence, that stamps 
and moulds every Jesuit with unerring precision, as to 
the various mental qualities which enter into his com- 
position. 

But the natural cleverness of the founder is still brilliant 
in the prominent essentials of his institute. 

Luther was raising his mighty voice — whose echoes 
still resound — against the sordid avarice of the hierarchy : 
priests and prelates. Ignatius stipulated for no pay to 
his troops, however important might be their functions. 
Again the monks were out of date, if not contemptible ; 

* Page 194. 



312 



THE WISDOM OF THE SERPENT. 



but Ignatius soon convinced the cardinals that nothino- 
was /uV^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^'s intention tlian to institute an order 
of monks : his Jesuits would wear the dress of ordinary 
ecclesiastics or totally conrc^"^ to that of the people 
among' whom they lived. Here wa» another "capital 
idea ;" and of wonderful use in after times. 

Thirdly, there was to be no public rehearsal or chaul^t- 
ing of the Breviary among the Jesuits — no canonical 
hours : the Jesuits must be here, there, and everywhere. 
This was a bold innovation ; but it took place in the 
age of Luther, and was, I repeat, a capital idea. 

Fourthly, the Jesuits were placed under the immediate 
protection and patronage of the Pope. The servants had 
but to serve faithfully and the master would be kind — 
and he was kind to an astounding extent, as we shall 
presently see. So much for the sagacity of this first 
Jesuit, as to outward matters. Look within : see how he 
thumb-screws the novice, and yet preserves the integrity 
of the man — whatever that may be ; for it must be evi- 
dent, from *' the Novitiate," and the analysis of the 
Spiritual Exercises, that every passion of our nature is 
therein appealed to and roused to the fiercest excitement 
to be hereafter applied by the Society. Meanwhile the 
charms of Holy Obedience woo and win the destined 
Jesuit by all the allurements of bodily comfort, or glo- 
rious peril ; in the bosom of friends, or in the wilds of the 
savage. But that manifestation of conscience and decla- 
ration of each other's faults ; how they tend to exact 
discipline in the letter of the law ! Or if the Jesuit in- 
dulges his corrupt nature, how strong must be his 
motives to imitate the cunning Spartan, who was per- 
mitted " to carry off things by surprise," but severely 
punished if detected ! 

Ignatius isolated his Society, and thus made it strong 



A CHARACTER. 313 

by union. The Jesuits were not to receive any eccle- 
siastical dignity unless imperative circumstances made 
the step expedient ; as when the common cause* would be 
decidedly advanced — as in the case of BellarminOc 

The grand merit of the Constitutions is, that they lay a 
foundation round about the " hanging garden" of the 
Spiritual Exercises; and sustain the props thereof ; like 
the Banian tree, always striking in new roots and striking 
out new branches. Herein is the focus of my admiration 
of this wonderful Spaniard. He may never have guessed, 
imagined, or foreseen that the voluntary beggars of his 
order would rise to the right hand of princes and sway 
tiie destinies of nations. Nevertheless he laid such a 
foundation, that any superstructure, whatever might be its 
magnitude, could be raised thereon. He was a shrewd 
man, and yet highly imaginative : a calculator, and yet no 
gambler. Another X-ycurgus he was: but a Lycurgus 
of a deeper mould and higher powers. He was a man of 
one idea: " too much learning had not made him mad." 
His was a Spanish will ; which means a haughty, in- 
domitable will — that would have bridged the Red Sea if 
the waters had not parted — " If by ordinary means I can- 
not succeed,'* said he once, " / will sell myself rather 
than disband my German phalanx 1" His mind was en- 
dowed with the cunning of the fox, the constructiveness 
of the spider, and its patience withal, the sagacity of the 
elephant, and the cool, sound common-sense o(— Oliver 
Cromicell. Ignatius was no fanatic, no more than 
Cromwell; but both knew how to make and manage 
fanatics to serve a purpose. 

Ignatius made his religion the basis of his common- 
wealth : thus he gained the appeal to a motive as omni- 
potent as it is inexplicable. He made talents of the 
* Quaiiy Ad majorem Dei gloriam I 



314 SWORN FRIENDS. 

highest order its ramparts and defence. Aware that 
universality of talent is in general too diffuse for effective 
operation, the Jesuit seized the salient point — the pecu- 
liar talent — and fortified it by a well-directed and exclu- 
sive exercise. As a mechanician has a lever for one 
movement, a screw for another, a wedge for a third ; so 
had he an orator for one enterprise, a statesman for an- 
other, a philosopher for a third, and a gentleman — a man 
of the world — for all. Such an institution could not fail 
to be successful ; and its success, to a superficial observer, 
would appear the result of mere intrigue or divine inter- 
position — " so wisely did they charm'" — whereas it was 
the necessary consequence of genius (which is power) 
acting against dulness (which is weakness) in the midst 
of circumstances that favoured its success : nor was 
novelty the least important of secondary aids. 

Hac arte Pollux, et vagus Hercules 
Enisus, arces attigit igneas ! 

The Pope of Rome, the kings of the earth bethought 
themselves that such men would be valuable friends to them 
in subduing the masses; at that time set in commotion 
by the ardent breathings of Liberty, civil and religious. 
The advent of this spirit then for the second time born 
again, was heralded to the universe by the trumpet-note 
of Luther; who was goaded to the onslaught by unjust 
contempt in the first instance, and by subsequent perse- 
cution. 

And the kings of the earth made friends with these 
men — gave them their hands — and with their hands, full 
purses — and for a time they worked together in amity. 

The Pope of Rome set the example; and with few 
exceptions the Jesuits served him well ; faithfully to the 
end. Doubtless it was their interest to " keep in" with 
the arbiter of their fate ; still it was surely the " unkind- 



PROGRESS. 315 

est cut of all " when that mighty Bull drove his horns into 
them ! But he was the last to worry them — like the ass 
kicking the decrepit lion almost defunct — and that was 
some consolation ! 

What were the favours lavished upon them by the 
Popes ? 

Herein, I apprehend, is the key to the history of the 
Jesuits : I mean the privileges granted to them by suc- 
cessive Popes ; for a permission to do, in this matter at 
least, points to the deed — particularly if facts of history 
stand recorded in the colours to match. Before answer- 
ing the question, let us see what progress the Jesuits 
made in their early career. 

At his death in 1556 — sixteen years after the establish- 
ment of the Society — Ignatius was bewailed by upwards 
of a thousand Jesuits, in twelve flourishing provinces. 

Xavier — like Alexander the Great in rapidity and 
duration of conquest — had overrun the continent of India 
— numbering the suddenly made captives to his Chris- 
tianity by thousands and tens of thousands: the times of 
the Apostles were come again — to all appearance. From 
his strong-hold of Goa to Cape Comorin, his progress 
was the "triumph of the faith." "In the space of one 
month, as he himself informs us, he baptized with his own 
hand, ten thousand souls" — about four hundred a day! 
. . . " Here the Saint seems to have received the 
gift of tongues for the first time; here he wrought many 
miracles ; he restored the sick instantaneously to health, 
and raised four from death to life, as is juridically 
proved."* 

Japan, Africa, America, the isles of the sea, — every 
nook of earth became familiar with " the greater glory of 
God." The golden age of the church was restored — 
* Reeve's Hist, of the (Roman) Church, p. 461. 



316 



PROGRESS. 



Heaven compensated Ptorae for her eternal and temporal 
losses ! 

This was magnificent ! And the Jesuits were the divine 
instruments of this bewilderins: crusade — this metamor- 
phosis that echpses the wildest of Ovid. 

How could the Reformation escape? .... For 
every ojie heretic that the apostate Luther made, a thou- 
sand savages leaped into the church, and made the sign 
of the cross with holy water : — the Jesuits taught them. 

By " a wonderful and inscrutable ordination of Provi- 
dence," these men were no less triumphant in Europe : all 
vied to do them honour — the rich, the great, the noble 
knocked at their gates, humbly begging to be admitted 
into the Society of Jesus — in its glorious entrance into 
the Holy city, whilst all men were shouting Hosannah ! 
Hosannah to the sons of David ! Francis Borgia, duke 
of Gandia, became a Jesuit : it was he who afterwards 
said ; " Like lambs have we crept into power, like wolves 
have we used it, like dogs shall we be driven out — but 
like eagles shall we renew our youth." He was a Gene- 
ral ; and, like Ignatius, was canonised — sainted by the 
Pope, to gratify his favourite children, the Jesuits: the 
usual number of miracles were duly attested. 

Germany, Bavaria, Austria received the Jesuits with 
open arms; privileges and foundations dropped upon 
them like the golden shower of Jove. 

In controversy dexterous, if not always triumphant, 
they fascinated by their well-composed exterior, and 
charmed by their eloquence. They fulfilled the object 
of the Pope, and did some service in checking the spread 
of the Reformation. 

Lainez, the successor of Ignatius — more learned than 
the latter, if not equally astute — gave a greater develope- 
ment to the system : expanded the hand that the one idea 



THE INFANT OF A HUNDRED YEARS. 3l7 

of Ignatius closed and shut alternately as occasion suited : 
the sciences be2:an to flourish in the viro:in soil of the 
Society. The church had been accused of fostering 
ignorance ; the Jesuits disproved the charge : they opened 
schools to all the world. 

Aquaviva confirmed and promoted this expedient 
measure. Mild and affectionate to their pupils, and yet 
learned in all things human and divine, the Jesuits capti- 
vated the hearts of their youth, — delighted the ears of all 
who came within the influence of their magic. Prizes, 
marks of honour, gymnastic exercises, theatrical represen- 
tations were certainly no longer mere human things; 
since they tended to rouse the intellect, give grace to the 
body, a pleasing address to the whole outward man ; and 
as such, might surely promote " the greater glory of 
God.'' 

From these public colleges, how easy and successful 
was the choice of a future historian, mathematician, 
statesman, orator, man of business, apostle, martyr — in a 
■word, Jesuit! Mariana, Bellarmino, Tursellinus — but 
the catalogue would fill pages — blazed to the world like 
fire-ships of equivocal destination to the enemies of the 
Popedom. 

At length, in 1618, numbering thirteen thousand one 
hundred and twelve members, and thirty-two provinces ; 
having houses in France, the Rhenish provinces, America, 
China, India, the Moluccas, and Philippines — the Jesuits 
might be said to have fought their way valiantly to the 
grand consummation. Four years after, in 1640, the 
Society celebrated her " secular year," or centennial 
anniversary — " an infant of a hundred years," just 
doubled ! 

On that occasion Vitelleschi, the General, addressed 
to the Fathers and Brothers of the Society a memorable 



318 THE DISEASED EAGLE. 

Epistle. It was an occasion of triumph — a glorious 
jubilee for all. But prophetic sounds boomed, with the 
stifled muttering of the muffled horn sounding the dismal 
reveille in the morning-watch of the camp, when the 
scouts have announced the enemy at hand. 

After feelingly bewailing the tendency of mankind to 
make all the members of a bod^ responsible for the 
crimes of a few, he urges the necessity to act upon the 
maxim ; quoting the words of Augustin — " What thou 
doest, the Society does, on whose account thou doest it, 
and whose son thou art." With strong words of earnest 
impeachment — and yet so cautiously] that he prefers to 
quote old dead authors and Scripture, rather than bring a 
pointed accusation — he insists that the primeval ardour 
and spirit of the society must be restored. 

" Thy youth shall be renewed as the eagle's." On this 
theme he quotes a curious exposition of Augustin, giving 
the diagnosis of the eagle's disease; to the effect that 
there happens to have grov/n on the tip of the beak of 
this queen of the birds a stony induration, the upper and 
lower beak being united by a sort of fleshy tie or mem- 
brane, so that they cannot open to feed : hence, says he, 
she is sorely distressed by the languor of old age, and 
pines away for the want of food. But, he adds, she is 
instructed by nature to retrieve her better days ; for, 
striking, and worrying, and rubbing the excrescence of 
her crooked beak against a stone, she wears away by de- 
grees the morbid obstruction, and at length opens a way 
for food. Then she sets to, in right good earnest, enjoys 
her meal ; the vigour of all her members return — her 
feathers shine again ; with the rudder of her wings she 
cleaves the upper air as before ; she becomes, after her 
old age, a young eagle. 

Vitelleschi continues : — "1 do not deny the truth of 



THE DISEASED EAGLE. 319 

these observations ; let the authors whom Augustin 
reads answer for it. I am satisfied that somehow in 
this manner, whether by the infirmity of age, or some 
carelessness on our part, an indescribable mass of aflfec- 
tions, curved to the earth, and desires, is gathering on the 
lips of our hearts — whence, as it were by fleshy curbs,* 
the mouths of the mind are violently closed, so that they 
cannot be opened to heaven, and be refreshed by Divine 
food. The royal prophet lamented the same affliction in 
a different figure : — ' I am stricken as hay, and my heart 
is dried up :'f behold our languor and old age ! But 
what is the cause ? * Because I have forgotten to eat my 
bread: • * * * 

" But whence can we suspect the cause of our insipi- 
dity in Divine things ? — our laborious irksomeness in 
recollection ? — in checking the wanderings of our 
vague imaginings, frequently tending to that direction 
which is least to be desired, because we have not re- 
pressed them when we could ? What is that tenacious 
and entangling lovej of the lowest objects — the world, 
honour, parents, and worldly comforts ? That greater 
authority conceded to the rebellious flesh and blood, rather 
than to the spirit — in actions, for I care nothing for words 
— that enervated, exhausted weakness in resisting the peti- 
tions of the adversary in our conflicts with the domestic 
enemy — perhaps not entirely yielding, but still not evi- 
dencing that alacrity and exaltation of mind to which 
the name of victory is given ? These are the fruits of 
tepidity and of a dissolute spirit; which, unless it is 
raised betimes and warmed anew, is clearly approaching a 
fall and destruction. "§ 

* Camels lupatis. 

t The reader will remark tbis forced application of the text, 

X Tenax aruor et viscatus. 

$ Epist. 4, Tslutii Vitc-llesch: — Ed. Antwerp. 1665. 



320 balthasar's feast. 

Remissness in the Superiors ; the fear of giving offence 
to the inferiors ; too great indulgence, favouritism, self- 
love, self-interest,* excessive care and solicitude in worldly- 
matters — such are the notes of preparation prophetic of 
a fall, that Yitelleschi kindly and most cleverly alludes to 
in this curious epistle ; which, he says, to use his own 
metaphor, ** has been ploughed out of his own and inmost 
heart, and the very blood of his soul — for it would be his 
last to the Society."t 

The conclusion is strong and urgent : — " I eagerly call 
all to witness, and proclaim to them that, with Bernard, 
I expect an answer of your benignity to this Epistle ; but 
an answer of deeds, not words."| The letter is dated 
November the 15th, 1639. 

A subsequent Epistle— that of the General Vincent 
Caraffa — exhorts to a preservation of the primeval spirit 
of the Society. Caraffa pointedly alludes to infractions 
of the vow of Poverty, dividing the various delinquents 
into five classes, and thereby throwino^ some li2:ht on the 
various animal instincts that prevailed in the Society. He 
indirectly alludes to the indiscriminate literary pursuits of 
the Jesuits, as contrary to the spirit of the Society; *'for 
how monstrous will it be to consign the chalice which is 
dedicated to the altar, to profane uses, following the 
example of the sacrilegious Balthasar ! But the matter 
is not a little more serious when the mind of a relio-ious 
man is defiled by the refined knowledge of empty topics." 
The following passage is certainly important ; — 

* Privatus in seipsum amor cum proprii nominis, et coramoditatum 
acriore studio conjunctus. It is clear that I have not exaggerated the 
text. 

t Utique scripta ex peculiari meo et intimo sensu, et animi san- 
guine exarata. 

X Oranes cum B. Bernardo impatientius obtestor, iisque denuntio 
expectare me ad hanc Epistolem, benignitatis vestaj responsumi sed 
responsum facti, non verba.— Ibid, sub fin. 



Satan's toast. 321 



<< 



If you ask me, what it is to read unchaste books ; 
books conceived by the instinct of the evil spirit, com- 
posed and published in his own type, to indicate to men 
the way of destruction, as if it was not already known, 
and precipitous ? [If you ask me this question] you will 
hear me repeat that it is to drink to the devil in the sacred 
cup ! It is to labour to gratify the devil and afflict God, 
as far as possible. For, if this proscribed reading of such 
books prevails in the world, how much more detestable is 
it in a religious man — in a Jesuit* — in a student of the 
sacred pages — in one who is appointed for the conversion 
of souls, and, by the function of his institute, for the 
defence of the faith ! Nor does the excuse avail, namely, 
the language and eloquence of such books, whose bril- 
liancy some allege as a cause of their reading — to acquire 
that recommend ation."t 

After pointing out the mighty evils that overwhelm the 
spirit by this practice, and alluding to profane, worldly 
conversation in general, CarafFa says : — 

" Nor can I possibly pass over in silence, that these 
errors result, in a great measure, by the error of the 
Superiors." X 

That the practice existed, may be evident from the fol- 
lowino- : — 

" I speak particularly to our younger scholars, and I 
wish this exhortation to penetrate deeply in their minds ; 
but I enjoin the Superiors that if they detect any one 
(which Heaven forbid !) reading such books, or having 
them in his possession, let them, without admitting any 

* In bomine de Societate. 

t Nee valet excusatio linguarum et eloquentiffi quarum inde nitorem 
se petere nonnulli causantur. 

$ Nee posse videor tacitus praeterire, quascumque hic errantur, mag- 
nam partem Superiorum errore venire. 

Y 



322 A JESUIT ATTORNEY. 

excuse or intercession, send him at once back to the 
Novitiate, there to imbibe the spirit of religious virtue, 
which he has not hitherto tasted." 

Some pertinent advice follows, such as to refrain from 
all worldly affairs — ^' they are not ours — they are fo- 
reign :" — nostra non sunt, aliena sunt. 

"Our Procurators should be more cautious; for al- 
though they seek what is just, by lawful right, still they 
seem to seek it with avarice and cupidity ;* and exhibit 
too much avidity that smells of the w^orld." 

Nevertheless, I find in the " Instructio pro Procura- 
tore" the following very pertinent language — in reading 
it, one fancies it is the character of a griping attorney. 
*'The office of Procurator is defined in five heads. 1st, 
he must preserve the goods and rights of the college. 
Sndly. He must take care that the revenues do not 
decrease, but rather, be augmented. ordly. He must 
exact with the greatest diligence the debts that are owed 
to the college. 4thly. He must see that the goods and 
moneys be properly disposed of. 5thly. He must take 
care to be able to give an account of what he has received 
or delivered. Whence it is especially evident that to this 
function would be destined a very prudent, skilful, and 
faithful man, one who is not engaged in any other occu- 
pation which can impede his duty." After this sum- 
mary, a minute detail is given, most cleverly enumerating 
all the particulars to which he has to attend in his 
farming-book — the number of acres, quality of land, pro- 
ducts of wheat, wine, olives, fodder, and wood, &c. 
** He must be present Avhen the products are measured, 
sovv'n, and collected, and when the vintage takes place, 
and the olives are pressed ; and must not trust too'much 
to the rustics. At the same time, he must get back what 
* Avare et cupide videutur petere. 



HUMAN NATURE. 323 

he has lent to the labourers, and must recover from other 
debtors at stated times, and must not be too indulgent ; 
for, by conceding a long delay in the payment of debts, 
it comes to pass at length that they are not paid at 
all." 

And yet, will the reader believe it ? this griping Pro- 
curator is, in the three last lines, told to confide in 
"Divine Providence."* 

CarafFa concludes effectively thus : 

" I can add nothing more to this Epistle, for if this be 
done, it is siifficient — si hoc fiat, sufficit — to renew the 
Society, and to restore her to her primitive complexion 
and health : but I again and again desire that these 
words should not vanish into the air, but be ratified by 
deeds and things." To aid them in this object, he 
strongly recommends " all to renovate and bring to per- 
fection their piety in the worship of the most holy mo- 
ther of God.^f 

In 1653, the General Goswin Nickel signalised "with 
grief" those members who were devising specious argu- 
ments for relaxing the vow of Poverty ; Decency and 
Necessity were the pretexts — " names clearly innocent in 
themselves, and therefore more adapted to deceive." 
These are the words of Nickel ; he says there were six 
hundred machinations of the devil, whereby they were 
endeavouring, with all their might, to subvert the vow of 
Poverty. 

** But although this true vanity and pride, under the 
false name of Decency, may aflfect all ; still they affect 
much more easily those who perform splendid functions^ 
particularly those who frequent the courts of Princes." 

* Inst, pro Adminst. Rer. temp. — Proc. 
t Epist. R. P. l<i, Vincent, CAUAFFiE. 
Y 2 



324 JESUIT NABOBS. 

After alluding to the love of individual comforts — in- 
clination to particular places — he proceeds thus : — 

" What shall I say of those who, when they are ordered 
to remove to another place, carry away so many move- 
ables, that if one may judge the matter by the baggage, 
you would think that a whole family, not a single man, 
was migrating ! Suppose one of the men of our ancient 
Society, not as yet acquainted with baggage and effects 
— were to meet these men thus burthened? Peter 
Faber, for instance, who returned the precious gifts of 
a cardinal, saying that he was one of those who carry all 
their goods with them." 

Extravagance in the purchase of books calls for anim- 
adversion ; "nor are those to be praised who consign 
the books which they have bought with the alms of pious 
men, to another college, and thus defraud the one wherein 
they happen to dwell." 

Intermeddling in the temporal affairs of their relatives — 
its sad effects — the difficulty of curing that disease — are 
feelingly brought forward. 

*' But what of those who, relinquishing the culture of 
the Lord's field, and of their neighbours, turn themselves 
to the negotiation of v;orldly aftairs !" 

Extravagance has been lashed ; its opposite vice, 
avarice, too, has unfortunately " crept in." 

" There are those who honour their hardness of heart 
and filth (the vice of their nature) with the name of 
economy and frugality ; and whilst they are griping — 
tenaces — they wish to seem to be lovers of poverty. 
Hence they hoard up much, lay out little ; clutch what 
they have, and dispense even what is necessary with a 
sparing hand ; and, lest their inferiors should complain, 
they thrust in their faces everywhere and lament, the 
penury of the estabhshment!"* 

• Epist. 1, R. P. N. G. Nickel. 



PRIVILEGES. 325 

Three years after this epistle was written, the same 
General wrote a desperate and stirring manifesto " to the 
Fathers and Brothers" respecting " the pernicious pro- 
vincial and national spirit" which had begun to spread 
disunion in the Society. I have already quoted* a 
striking passage from this letter ; and will only add that 
Nickel justifies the severity of his animadversions by the 
numerous letters — non unis Uteris — which he had re- 
ceived on the subject, and admits his belief that the 
complaints and representations were substantially cor- 
rect.f Eight years after. Nickel resigned. 

Again I ask what were the privileges conceded, what 
were the powers confided to these men : tliese Jesuits, 
"whose characters we have just read by the pen of their 
own Generals ? For though all could not have given 
cause for the various strictures in question, yet a consi- 
derable number, if not a large majority, must have been 
obnoxious to the charges ; since a General's epistle was 
considered necessary on the subject, and was couched in 
the strong terms we have read : though tender and cau- 
tious in vituperation. 

What are these privileges ? Some are held in common 
with other Orders, some are peculiar to the Society. All 
are granted by the dififerent Popes who cherished the sons 
of Loyola. 

The Jesuits might absolve sinners from any and every 
crime — from all ecclesiastical censures, pains, and penal- 
ties, with only one or two exceptions.]: 

Alexander VI. permitted the General and Provincials 

to absolve all Jesuits who, living in the world, might 

• Page 119. 

t Ego quoque subesse aliquid, idque non levis momenti, tot querelis, 
scriptiouibusque suspicer. — Epist. 2, Gos. Nickel, 
j Com. Priv. Absol. 



326 PRIVILEGES. 

incur an ccc\esiasticdi\ censure propter delationem ligami- 
num, seu ferramentorum ad partes injidelium. This pri- 
vilege was afterwards extended to all the Superiors and 
other confessors of the Society. 

The Jesuits may build churches, chapels, houses, &c., 
anywhere and everywhere ; and no one is to molest them 
in the undertaking. They may sell, exchange, or other- 
wise transfer all their property, moveable and immoveable, 
present and to come — pro iUorum utilitate seu necessitate, 
to any persons, of every rank and condition — in other 
words, might trade, traffic, barter^ or seZ/.* 

The power of excommunicating those who might pre- 
sume to leave the Society, has been mentioned. 

There is no appeal from the correction of the Society. 

Powers hitherto confined to bishops — such as the so- 
lemn consecration of churches, vestments, &c. were con- 
ceded to the Jesuits. 

Whoever seized the goods or money of the Society — 
or belonging to persons thereof — whether colleges or 
hcnuses — unless restoration be made in three days, incur- 
red the penalty of excommunication. 

All the " merits " of all other religious orders in all 
regions of the world, resulting from fasting and other 
spiritual good works, are shared suojure by the Jesuits. 

The Jesuits may commute or compound all vows — 
may *' relax'^ each other s oaths, without the prejudice of 
a third party ! Jurarnenta sine prejudicio tertii, relax- 
are possunt nostri. 

They may impose censures, penalties, even pecuniary 
fines on all who rebelled against them, or otherwise 
offended, when constituted judges and conservators: 

* This is one of the most explicit of tbe Privilegia. See Compen- 
dium Privilegiorum, Alienatio, § 2. 



pRiviLFCES. .327 

they might -^g^ pi^^g ^ country under ^j^^ " [^^^^^i^^'f ^^ 
— '^iCr excommunication. 

The General and Provincials can grant a dispensation 
to Jesuits {Nostris sibi suhditis) in the irregularity in- 
curred by homicide — provided such homicides are not 
certain that they actually killed, &c. Again, the General 
in foro conscienticB, can dispense with persons of our 
Society in all irregularity, even in those cases, which are 
reserved to the Pope — namely, *' in the case of death, 
cutting of the limbs, and great effusion of blood, provided 
any of these cases be not notorious : and this, on account 
of the scandar ! 

I omit other convenient and comfortable dispensations 
which the Jesuits can grant in favour of the tender pas- 
sions.* They can or could dispense with the prohibition 
of eating meat on certain days, fasting, &c., when they 
thought proper, either with or without the advice^ of a 
physician. 

According to Escobar, ^' a dispensation is an act of 
jurisdiction whereby any one is exempted from the obli- 
gation of a law, or by which the obligation of a law is 
suspended." 

They and their lands and tenements are exempted 
from paying all taxes, even the papal tithe. 

The Jesuits might postpone the mass without scruple: of 
course, for "just reasons" ; they might also, in like man- 
ner, compensate for any part of the divine office omitted, 
by repeating the Pater Noster or Ave Maria. 

Immunity was granted to all who took refuge in their 
churches; and all persons were prohibited from laying- 

* Possunt nostri Confessarii, si sint vere docti, &cc. ; dispensare in 
foro conscientiae ad petendum debitum cum iis, qui consanguineum 
aut consanguineam sui corijugis, post matrimonium, carnaliter cofoo- 
▼erunt. Privileg. Dispens. 8, See 9 and 10. 



328 JESUIT CASUISTS. 

hantis Cr. ^^^^^ fugitives, under penalty of excommunica- 
tion. In the word churches, says the Privilege, are in- 
cluded colleges, houses, gardens, offices, all places. 

Numerous indulgences were granted to the Jesuits for 
the performance of the most trivial actions: also to the 
fathers and mothers of the Jesuits, were they even in 
Purgatory, in Purgatorio existentes. 

Under penalty of excommunication all are forbidden 
to impugn the " Constitutions," &c. 

Even during the time of an Interdict, the Jesuits could 
open their doors, say mass, hear confessions, &c. 

The Jesuits might practice medicine, provided they did 
not perform operations. 

Such are a few of the privileges of the Society. The 
Jesuits possessed the power of bishops in most matters ; 
they were omnipotent in the confessional. We will now 
consider their casuists. 

Did the Jesuits ever teach or touch suspicious topics of 
morality, or topics of suspicious morality ? 

As far back as 1612, Aquaviva deemed it necessary to 
issue three stringent mandates **in virtue of Holy Obe- 
dience, and under penalty of excommunication," against 
any members who should inculcate lax morality respecting 
the vow of obedience, the vow of chastity — and respect- 
ing the murder of tyrants, kings, and princes.* 

In 1614, the same General issued a similar mandate 
against the publication of any work in which the last 
named topic was discussed — unless first approved of at 
Home, and acknowledged. f 

The Fifth Congregation, " in Virtue of Holy Obedience,'' 
forbids all Jesuits to intermeddle in the affairs of Princes, 
on any account whatever. J 

* CensuriE Collectae in Congreg. VIII. 

t Epist. C. Aquav. 2 Aug. 1614. 

t V. Congreg. Can. 12, Dec. 47 and 49. 



THE RIOT OF INTELLECT. 329 

In 1651, Piccolomini sent forth his Ordinatio respecting 
the questions that might and might not be mooted by- 
Jesuits. In the introduction to this mandate, he says: 

*' There are not wanting serious complaints from the 
various Provinces, respecting certain teachers of Philo- 
sopuy and Divinity, both in the eighth and ninth Con- 
gregation."* 

A list of permitted and forbidden topics is subjoined — 
all curiously illustrative, of *' the activity of the Jesuit 
mind," at that period — mere trifles and momentous ques- 
tions following each other in admirable confusion : the 
diurnal motion of the earth, and the motion of the planets 
being among the proscribed topics. The '' hypothesis" 
had not yet become a " theory." 

Six " other propositions" are superadded — " not that 
he believes any member of the Society has taught them 
— but because they have been brought forward by the 
deputies.^' The first proposition is the following : 

" God is the cause of sin." 
All the other five propositions refer to the attributes of 
the Divinity. The General continues : 

" However, we do not at all censure all the aforesaid 
propositions ; but we only forbid them to be taught in 
our schools — for the sake of greater uniformity, and more 
solid and copious fruit in the hearers : nor should the 
authority of any authors be alleged, if perchance any of 
these propositions be found in their works, or in the 
books already published by our men, even with some ap- 
probation—for it were to be wished that many of the 
Revisers had been more diligent and severe." f 

It follows from what we have read, that the conscien- 
tious or more prudent members of the Society were 

* Ordinatio pro Studiis, super, 
t Ibid, ut antea. 



330 CONFESSIONAL MORALITY. 

seriously alarmed by the extravagance of opinions that 
had beirun to characterise the Jesuits. 

The Jesuits are fond of quoting Voltaire in their 
defence. The authority is suspicious : it has just about 
as much weight in the question as the authority of Jack 
Sheppard would have when quoted by a highwav^;^.^^ j^^ 
his own defence. In a letter Avhich V-^^^taire wrote to a 
Reverend Father, alluding with considerable pungency 
to the Provincial Letters of Pascal, he says : 

" De bonne foi, is it by the ingenious satire of the Pro- 
vincial Letters that we should judge of the morality of 
the Jesuits? Assuredly, it is by Father Bourdaloue, 
by Father Cheminais, by their other preachers, by their 
missionaries."* 

I would agree with Voltaire, if I could permit myself 
the mental reservation, suhintelligendo, as to the public 
morality of the Jesuits. 

Was it at all likely that a public preacher would dare 
to hold forth, in the pulpit, such doctrine as Escobar, 
Hurtado, Salas, Busembaum, &.C., infused into the young 
confessors of the Society for inculcation in the con- 
fessional? 

Herein is the terrible peculiarity of this Society ; that 
its moral needle, turning on the pivot of expediency, 
points to Heaven and Hell, as steadily as the magnetic 
needle points to the north and south. 

It is the good inextricably blended with the evil that 
stamps the Jesuit system with its unenviable originality. 

Again, if the men whose immoral opinions and per- 
missions I am about to unfold, had been profligate in 
their outward conduct, we might be disposed to overlook 
the attempt to corrupt ; thus rendered, comparatively, 
impotent by the acknowledged character of the authors. 

* Lettre de Volt., au Pere La Tour. 



PERJURY. 331 

But the case is different. The Jesuit casuists were men of 
** character" in the Society : Escobaii died an " exem- 
plary " member of the Society of Jesus ! .... 

What reason could an *' exemplary" teacher have for 
inculcating " rather lax opinions" ? He shall tell you 
himself. 

" But if I often seem to adhere to rather lax opinions, 
that is not to define what I think myself, but to put forth 
what the learned shall be able to apply practically, without 
a scruple, whenever it shall seem expedient to quiet the 
minds of their penitents."* 

Another question — what proof have we that others 
before him inculcated these " rather lax opinions" ? 

Again he shall answer : 

*' This I candidly declare that I have written nothing in 
the whole book that I have not received from some Doc- 
tor of the Society of Jesiis*^* 

Consequently his book has the " Faculty, Approba- 
tion, Licence, Consent, and Permission of the respective 
functionaries, and professes to be an exposition of the 
opinions, in cases of conscience or casuistry, of twenty 
doctors of the Society, for the instruction of young con- 
fessors — in Questions and Answers. A question is pro- 
posed : 

" Q. Is it lawful to ask an oath from the man who, I 
fear, will swear falsely ? 

^^ A. It is lawful, provided he is not asked to swear 
falsely ; and there is a just cause for asking the oath, such 
as necessity, such as utility ; because I am not held to 

* Quod si saepe videor me laxioribus opinionibus adhaerescere, id 
certe non est definire quod sentio, sed exponere quid sine conscientise 
IjEsione Docti poterunt, cum eis visum fuerit expedire, ad sedandas 
penitentum animas, ad praxin adducere — Escobar y Mendoza, Lib. 
Theol. Moral. 80. Lugd. 1659. The quotation is from the preface. 
The book is in the Library of the British Museum, Press Mark, 848 c. 



332 EQUIVOCATION. 

abstain from asking tlie performance of an action (with 
serious loss) [to myself], which action any one may do 
either well or ill"* — bene et male ; that is indifferently, as 
far as the mere action is concerned. 

" Q. Is it lawful for a man who takes an oath, to 
make use of amphibology or equivocation ; namely, utter- 
ing an oath which is understood by the persons present, 
in the common sense of the words, in which, however, the 
swearer sub-understands something different ? 

'* A. Sanchez replies in the affirmative — Sum. tom i. 
lib. 3, c. 6, n. 15. / (Escobar) confirm the opinion with 
practical examples. Being interrogated by a Judge, on 
oath, if you have killed Francis ; if you have killed him in 
your own defence, you can deny it, sub-understanding as 
to criminal homicide. Less. 1. 2. Dub. 9, n. 47. If it 
is a probable opinion, that the tax imposed on anything is 
unjust, and therefore a tradesman compensates himself by 
using false weights, or in any other way : — being after- 
Avards interrogated by the Judge, he can deny the whole 
with an oath — sub-understanding that he has acted un- 
justly. Sanch. Sum. tom i. lib. 3, cap. 6, n. 29, A 
priest being interrogated, having heard a sin in confes- 
sion, can answer, even adding an oath if necessary, that 
he has heard nothing of the sort — sub-understanding , as 
a private individual. You have concealed some neces- 
sary effects, lest they be taken by your creditor, and you 
may be compelled to beg your bread : — when interrogated 
by the Judge, you can swear that you have nothing con- 
cealed — sub-understanding what you are bound to brhig 
forth. A man may swear to a robber that he will give 
him his money, without intending to give it; using this 
mental reservation, I will give it if I am bound. A guilty 
wife, being asked by her husband if she has sinned against 
* Escobar, Theol. Mor. Exam. 3, c. 3. 



MURDER. 



333 



him,* may swear negatively ; conceiving in her mind a 
different day to the one on which she committed the 
crime. Coming- from a place which is falsely believed to 
be infected with pestilence, when interrogated you can 
swear that you have not come from that place — sub- 
understanding ^ as from a place of pestilence. Omnia ex 
Sanchez et aliis.f 

*' Q. Is it lawful for a man belonging to an Order 
(Religioso) to kill a calumniator who is spreading serious 
accusations (crimina) against his Order, just as it is law- 
ful to any one, in defence of his honour, to kill with ma- 
nagement, cum moderamine interimere ? 

'-'• A, i^a^Aer ^mz'cMS (whose eight volumes, De Cursu 
Theologico, have just come to hand), tom. 5 de Just. d. 
36. sec. 7. n. 118, does not dare to adhere to the affirma- 
tive opinion, lest he may seem to go against the common 
one. Nevertheless he thus strengthens it by argument. 
If, says he, this is lawful to a layman, on account of his 
honour and fame, it seems much more lawful to a cler- 
gyman and a man of any Order (Religioso) ; inasmuch as 
the profession, learning, and virtue, whence the honour of 
a clergyman and a member of a religious body is pro- 
duced, are superior to the dexterity of arms, whence 

* Adultera rogata a marito, an admiserit adulterium. 

t Esch. Theol. Moral. Tract I. By a curious coincidence, I find 
this last ** practical example" used by Garnet, the English Jesuit, of 
gunpowder-plot notoriety, in a paper dated 20th iNIarch, 1605-6 : it is 
given as an illustration in the same vein as that of Escobar, but is 
supposed to have been written by Francis Gresham. " Let us 
suppose," says he, " that I have lately left London, where the 
plague is raging: and, on arriving at Coventry, I am asked before I 
can be admitted into the towK, whether I come from London, and am 
perhaps required to swear that I do not: it would be lawful for me 
(being assured that I bring no infection) to swear in such a case that 
I did not come from London ; for I put the case, 6cc. &c." 

See Criminal Trials, vol. ii. p. 316. 



334 



DUELLING. 



worldly honour arises. Then, again, it is lawful for cler- 
gymen and members of a religious Order, to kill a thief, 
in defence of their property (facultatum), if no other 
means of defence are at hand ; therefore it is lawful also 
in defence of their honour.* 

'' Q. A nobleman is on the point of being slapped or 
cudgelled by any one : — will it be lawful for him to kill 
the aggressor before the act ? 

'^ A. Lessius answers in the affirmative, Lib. 2. cap. 9. 
Dub. 12. n. 77., because it is the greatest disgrace in 
some regions to suffer slaps and cudgellings to remain 
unavenged. However, I limit the sentence to noblemen — 
for slaps and cudgellings are not disgraceful to ple- 
beians, f 

" In fine, if a nobleman at court, or a military man in 
the camp, being challenged (provocatus) should stand, 
merely on his own defence, with the hope of coming best 
off, cum spe prc^valendi—il he will be deprived of his 
dignity, office, or favour of his prince on account of the 
suspicion of cowardice, — Layman does not dare to con- 
demn the man — Laym. 1. 3. t. 3. p. 3. c. 3. — the same 
man is excused by Hurtius, Lessius, Filliucius, Navarrez. 
Hence, even others say, for instance, Sanchez, 2. Mor. 
c. 22., and others, that it is lawful to kill the man who is 
plotting by false accusation or testimony, &c., to a judge, 
such things whereby you are sure to be killed, or muti- 
lated ; or even (others concede this with more difficulty), 
to lose your temporal goods, honour, &c. ; because it is 
not an attack then, but a just defence ; it being settled, 
that you are certain of the injury intended, and cannot 
escape by other means. But Lessius, Filliucius and 
Layman dare not defend this sentence, on account of the 
danger of great abuses !% 

* Exam. vii. n. 45. t Tract I. Exam. vii. 

+ Escob. De Duello — Tract I. 



PROBABLE OPINIONS. 335 

" Can a nobleman accept a dial lenge,^cZwe/ZM 772, in de- 
fence of his honour, nobilitatis ? He can. The reason is 
because in such a case the acceptance of the challenge to 
defend his honour, is the only means.* 

" Q. What is a probable conscience ? 

" A. That, which embraces a judgment from a probable 
opinion. That is called a probable opinion which de- 
pends on reasons of some importance. Hence, some- 
times, one doctor alone, of very grave authority, can 
effect a probable opinion ; for a man especially given to 
learning would not adhere to any opinion, unless induced 
by the force of a great and sufficient reason. 

*' Q. Is it lawful to follow a probable opinion — leaving 
a more probable one ? 

" ^. It is lawful, yea, and safe; provided no danger 
impends, to avoid which, prudence, or justice, or charity 
may dictate that the opposite opinion is to be chosen. 

" Q. Can I accommodate myself to the probable opinion 
of others, leaving my own which is more probable and 
safer ? 

*' A. Yes, evidently; nor would I, in the action, act 
against conscience ; provided, I think, that the other 
opinion which I follow is probable."t 

In fact, it is the intention that is to distinguish the 
action — intentio enim discernit actionem.X You have 
but to impress your mind with the idea that you wish to 
" fulfil all justice," and then break the commandments — • 
you may " believe like angels, and sin like devils '."§ 

In fact, perjury, as the reader has seen, duelling, 

* Escob. De Duello— Tract I. § 12. 
t Escobar, De Conscientia — Tbeol. Moral, sub init. 
X Filliuc. Tract sxv. c. 11, n. 331. 

$ I beard tbat pbrase applied to tbe Irish, whea I was a child. It 
was uttered as a quotation. 



336 PITCH. 

fraud, falsehood in all its ramifications,* murder and 
violence, — these are the crimes which I see permitted by 

the casuists of the Society which calls itself of 1 

will not blaspheme that adorable name by recording it Iq 
juxtaposition with these atrocities! 

Other misdemeanours I see permitted in like manner — 
too foul to translate — disgusting beyond endurance ! In 
reading the passages, I knew not whether to wonder more 
at the astonishing phijsiological inquiries which the 
authors must have made, than at the shameless effrontery 
with which the immundicities are minutely detailed. f 

Other most pernicious inculcations might be adduced. 

And yet Escobar says in his preface, that he has not 
maintained a single proposition which cannot be confirmed 
by the " gravest doctors" out of the Society]: — thus in- 
volving all Romanism in the mire of this demoniac mo- 
rality ! 

How far Escobar could have made good his boast, I 
leave others to determine ; but I do not believe that any 
other casuists ever equalled the Jesuits in confessional 
levity, when it was expedient, cum eis visum fuerit expe- 
dire. 

Much of this immorality is to be ascribed to the prac- 
tice of sacramental confession ; for, when the conscien- 
tious conviction of simple right and wrong is deemed in- 



* Vide Vincent. Filliucii, Tract xxv. c. 11, n. 331. (Edit. Lug-. 
1634.) Questiones Morales — in the Library of the B. Museum — 
press mark, '^^^ m. 

t See Azor. Institut. Moral., Lug. 1613, Part iii. 1. 3, c. 11 D. 
Item, c. 21. Item, c. 31. — See Busembaum, Medulla Theol. Moral. 
Pat. 1729 — Lib. iii. Tract iv. c. 3. — See Dubium iv. § 3.— See 
Escobar De Luxuria, Exam. 8. — See Tract i. § 67. Et alibi. 

I NuUam enim propositionem quai non possit gravissimis extra 
Societatem Doctoribus conGrmari. 



RECAPITULATION. 337 

sufficient to determine guilt, the specious, interested 
distinctions of man run riot in the darkened chambers of 
the heart's desires. 

The royal road of right and wrong is cut up into a 
thousand intersecting by-paths, and the tyrant-will of the 
usurper who sits in the confessional, permits or forbids 
the deluded creature of the God whose right he has 
usurped, to luxuriate or not in those perilous by-ways, 
just as his own heart whispers — 'by weakness urged, or by 
the moment's whim determined ! 



THE SOCIETY ITS DECLINE AND FALL. 

Here let us recapitulate. Ere we contemplate effects, 
let us estimate causes — causes efficient, working to a des- 
perate end I 

In the Novitiate we have seen how the man is put in 
possession of himself — we have examined the Constitu- 
tions and their mistress, the Spiritual Exercises — we have 
penetrated into the character of the Founder — glanced at 
the state of the world at the time of his speculation — 
witnessed its success in every region of the globe — 
weighed some of the imvileges entrusted to them, and 
found them heavy. 

"For the greater glory of God" was the loudly- pro- 
claimed motto in that bewilderin2:, bewitchins; first scene 
of Act the first. We have done justice to the performers 
— we have bestowed upon their efforts due applause — and, 
theuj we quietly listened to the Generals, the heads of the 

z 



338 THE SOCIETY 

Society, cautiously, but severely, lashing the characters 
of his own troops, now become as it were desperate free- 
booters ! 

In this conjuncture, an exclamation escaped us, " There 
were then some honest men among the Jesuits !" 

And yet, observe the bent of these animadversions : it 
is not so much the interests of religion, the cause of God, 
that will suffer from this prevarication — but the good 
odour of the Society — its influence — power ! Listen to 
GoswiN Nickel, the General, 1656. 

*' Let the elements be separated into their primitive parts, 
and be restored each to its own nature and place : as a 
compound they are no longer disturbed ; but the com- 
pound has evidently ceased to exist, is utterly annihilated. 

Why have the empires of the Assyrians, Greeks, Per- 
sians, and Romans, for a long time vast and powerful, 
vanished from the earth, if not by the dismemberment of 
their Provinces, and by breaking down the barriers of 
union ? Our Society, if I may compare the least with the 
greatest ; our Society, I say, from the holy compound of 
different men, by the uniting force of the Holy Ghost, has 
been gathered together into this most beautiful body ; by 
the same force it has grown up, by the same it is spread 
to the utmost limits of the earth. Woe to us if this vital 
bond is ever relaxed" !* 

True, the famous watchword " For the greater glory of 
God" was muttered ever and anon with clenched teeth; 
but the gasping mouth opened wide, oft and oft, when 
the political integrity of "Our Society" called for atten- 
tion. " 'Twas natural " — 'tis natural — but let us see the 
natural effects thereof: to these the Society is hastening 
as the devoted stream within sight of Niagara's fall to be 

* Epist. ii. De Psation. Spirit. 



ITS DECLINE AND FALL. 339 

engulfed in its everlasting^ eddy, wherein the uprooted 
tree and the dead man's carcass reel in a wild, whirling 
dance of death/ 

3 

The following apparently well authenticated passage 
from a sermon preached by Dr. Brown, Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Dublin, in 1551 — shall prelude the events I am 
about to record. 

" But there are a new fraternity of late sprung up, who 
call themselves Jesuits, which will deceive many, who are 
much after the Scribes and Pharisees' manner. Amongst 
the Jews they shall strive to abolish the truth, and shall 
come very near to do it. For these sorts will turn them- 
selves into several forms ; with the heathens a heathenist, 
with the Atheist an Atheist, with the Jews a Jew, with 
the Reformers a Reformade, purposely to know your 
hearts, and your inclinations, and thereby bring you at 
last to be like "the fool that said in his heart, ' There is 
no God.'" These shall spread over the whole world, 
shall be admitted into the councils of princes, and they 
never the wiser; charming of them, yea, making your 
princes reveal their hearts and the secrets therein, and 
yet they not perceive it ; which will happen from falling 
from the law of God by neglect of fulfilling the law of 
God, and by winking at their sins; yet in the end, God, 
to justify his law, shall suddenly cut off this society, even 
by the hands of those who have most succoured them, and 
made use of them ; so that, at the end, they shall become 
odious to all nations. They shall be worse than Jews, 
having no resting-place upon earth, and then shall a Jew 
have more favour than a Jesuit."* 

The natural jealousy of mankind would necessarily be 

* This sermon is stated to have been given to Sir James Ware, 
and may be found in the Harleian Miscellany, vol. v. p. 556. See 
Mosheim, vol. ii. p. 85. 

z 2 



340 THE SOCIETY — 

roused by such unparalleled prosperity as the Jesuits en- 
joyed two hundred years after their establishment ; but 
how soon would that weakness of our nature be changed 
into righteous indignation, when the objects of jealousy 
become the subjects of guilt ! 

It is manifest from the strictures of their own Generals 
that the Jesuits were mingling in politics ; consequently, 
despite the denial of these men, who "deny everything," 
I shall rapidly glance at all the charges brought against 
them as historical facts ; leaving the reader to decide for 
himself as to their probability. If my opinion is of any 
weight with the reader, I say that I believe every charge 
recorded in these pages to be extremely probable, if not 
positively true. The clever precautions which the Jesuits 
display in all their movements and exploits have mystified 
both their enemies and their friends. I am the enemy of 
no man. My object is simply to place a momentous topic 
in its truest possible light — would that all error were 
purely abstract, " indifferent" — so that v/e might cherish 
the man to our bosom, whilst we consign his error to its 
fittest abode ! 

To the thoughtful reader, accustomed to draw conclu- 
sions as he reads, the history of the Jesuits is already 
traced — and that, too, by the pen of their own Generals ! 
Let us once more pause — and sigh — and palliate, if possi- 
ble, what we cannot justify. For the sake of humanity 
let us feel for the frailties of human nature. 

The Jesuits were never in obscurity. Like Minerva 
from the head of Jove, the Society sprang forth from the 
brain of Ignatius, full-growm, armed, ready for battle. 
Hers was the infancy of years only, not of vigour and 
action. All the first disciples of Ignatius became eminent, 
extraordinary men. — How similar to a feature in the 
career of Napoleon is this fact in the life of Ignatius ! 



ITS DECLINE AND FALL. 341 

The Council of Trent suspended its sessions owing to the 
temporary iUness of Lainez ; Xavier, Sahiieron, Bobadilla 
— all the first ten are historic characters. It was vigour 
from vigour, as fire from fire. 

In a few years the Jesuits — the clever, polished, gentle- 
manly preachers and teachers — engrossed the suffrages of 
all who, in every age, find an irresistible charm in novelty. 
The Jesuits, to the annoyance of their predecessors, be- 
came "fashionable" confessors. They were recommended 
by their very name to every Christian ; and the sworn 
disinterestedness of their motives invested them with that 
conscious power of the man on whom sordid gold makes 
no impression ; except that of unmitigated contempt, 
when the heart speaks forth its words of fire. 

Years rolled on ; the fame of the Society, like the flame 
of the lamp that illumes the universe, blazed brightly 
forth — it was the "greater light" to the first men who 
could not imagine an eclipse of that luminary which 
shone so intense in its dazzling — so glowingly warm ! 

But the wonderful rise, progress, and eminence of the 
Jesuits could not take place without the usual concomi- 
tant of all distinction (merited or unmerited) — jealousy — 
then cankering envy. This fact must be borne in mind 
by those who sincerely seek truth in the judgments of his- 
tory. 

Meanwhile, despite a few unimportant checks in its 
earliest career, the Society advanced. Cherished by 
Popes, fondled by princes, beloved by the people, it was 
but natural that the Jesuits should strive to render them- 
selves acceptable men to all who came within their influ- 
ence. Hence the development which they gave to all the 
sciences — their indefatigable exertions in the education of 
youth — their missions at home and abroad — linkins: all 
ranks together by the magic influence which they brought 



342 THE SOCIETY 

to act on the consciences of men. This is the philosophi- 
cal view of the subject that may be translated into their 
motto " For the greater glory of God," by the Jesuits and 
their friends : and yet all the authentic extracts which 
the reader has perused in the foregoing pages dissolve this 
beautiful motto into that disenchanting philosophical 
view ! 

Their temptations were too great. The exaltation of 
mind to which the Society ostensibly aspired was the 
badge of each member ; but scattered as they were in 
every part of the world, whither they were expressly in- 
vited, or sent on speculation, provided amply with all the 
credentials of talents human and divine, how was it pos- 
sible for these Jesuits to act otherwise than as men under 
strong temptation ? The energetic denouncement of their 
General, Goswin Nickel,* under the form of a gentle 
doubt, insinuates the inefficacy of all the many " helps" to 
perfection in certain characters, to whom he alludes ; his- 
torical facts in every age attest this axiom of daily expe- 
rience ; why will not the Jesuits acknowledge that they 
grasped at too much for mortals to hold — that they in- 
serted their hands through the fatal hole, seized the 
enticing bait, clenched their fist, and were caught ? — for 
they could not relinquish that fatal hold ! Why will they 
not acknowledge that in every region of the globe their 
influence extended far beyond the pale of religion — that, 
qualified as they were by talent and training, many of 
their body, " as confessors of kings," presided over the 
fortunes of empires, undertook the negociations of princes, 
dexterously achieved exploits far above the reach of men 
endowed with only ordinary experience and ordinary 
knowledge of the human heart. A frown may ripple the 
saddened face of Religion at the avowal ; but philosophy, 
* jNovitiate, page 119, et seq. 



ITS DECLINE AND FALL. 343 

worldly justice will smile and admire: or if we permit a 
jealous scruple to suggest the words " Non Jesu itd /"* 
we shall be forced to admit, that by the scope of his 
talents, such exploits were natural to the Jesuit. With a 
similar candour we will proscribe the absurd denunciations 
of those who consider every Jesuit a rogue by profession 
—who exhibit the Society of Nickel, Carraffa, Picco- 
LOMiNi, and ViTELLEscHi, as the systematic corrupter of 
mankind — as if the very sentiment of self-preservation 
which is sublimely characteristic of that Society, were not, 
of itself, sufficient to scout the atrocious temptation, in 
any and every phase of its appearance ! The writers who 
thus poison the minds of those who ask for the food of 
mind, may flourish in notoriety, but cannot promise them- 
selves that peace of unmolested conscience which results 
from the pursuit of Truth. That the Jesuits of old were 
men of different nations — of different characters — placed 
in different circumstances — with different obstacles to 
overcome — and yet tending — all of them — to the binary 
end, the spread of the Roman Faith and the " good" of 
the Society, is, perhaps, the surest clue to their history; 
whilst an adequate knowledge of the Institute, and a 
thorough perception of its training, are necessary to evolve 
a judgment as to the powerful temptations to overlook 
the guiltiness of means in the glorious end^ that must 
always knock at the hearts of those whose minds have in 
the process of training, been familiarised with self-deceit 
in the Jesuit-theory and practice of obedience. I have 
endeavoured to supply the premises of this judgment. It 
only remains for me to signalise such events in the history 
of the Jesuits as are not only admitted, but put forth by 
the Jesuits themselves ; after having briefly catalogued, 
as it were, those charges which I should be glad to omit 

* Jesus did not so ! 



S44 THE SOCIETY 

if they were not necessary in the balance of judgment. 
In forming' his conclusions, the candid reader will bear in 
mind that he is judging a body of men whose scientific 
labours alone entitle them collectively to respect and 
admiration ; and the irreproachable lives of many of them 
individually, compensate, to a vast extent, for the errors 
of those who abused their high powers, their talents, and 
the witchery of their training, for purposes incompatible 
with the "design" of the Order. Their General's injunc- 
tion in 1639 — to all the Fathers and Brothers of the 
Society, namely, " What thou doest, thy Society does, 
on whose account thou doest it, and whose son thou art,"* 
should render our judgment less severe ; seeing that the 
grand exponent of the Society's will endeavoured to stay 
the abuses that threatened infamy to all its members. 
There is something awful in Vitelleschi's words that im- 
mediately follow his quotation just given : *' This thought," 
says he, " ought not to render us careful of the good esteem 
of the multitude only, but also, and much more, of that 
Divine judgment whereby the sin of one man is often 
punished in the whole people." 

Another important fact must be borne in mind — the 
numbers that went forth sanctioned by the name of the 
Society. There were upwards of twenty thousand Jesuits 
in all parts of the world, for many years previous to the 
suppression of the Society. In juxtaposition with this 
fact, place the perfect training in all arts human and 
divine, of talents above mediocrity, if not transcendent — 
consider all that these pages have unfolded — and then 
you v/ill be able to judge whether the Jesuits of old were 
not the dupes of ambition under some specious misnomer 
— and whether the interested schemes of Popes and Kings 
did not urge them to the fearful retribution that must^ 

* Epist, iv. M. Vitell. 



ITS DECLINE AND FALL. 345 

sooner or later, descend on those who strive to serve men 
better than God. The history and downfall of the Jesuits 
are the " pillar of infamy" to the chair of St. Peter — an 
everlasting satire — a burning sarcasm on the Popedom ; 
and a perpetual reproach to the memory of those royal 
ingrates whom they served too well — served with the 
devotedness of men who felt convinced that thev were also 
serving themselves. 

Talent, always eminent, belonged to the Jesuits — de- 
termination that no danger could check, was theirs— 
dexterity and craft (call it " pious" if you please) were 
their constant or usual characteristics as a natural result 
— hearts and minds of sublime piety from time to time 
burnt brightly in their firmament ; and, if there were not 
*' ten just men" to save them from destruction in the evil 
day — — but I must not anticipate this tragi-comedy 
of the Popedom ! Let us contemplate the declining 
vitality of this renowned Society, 

The edict of Nantes was one of the first measures of 
Henry IV. of France : it confirmed and re-established all 
the concessions that had been made in favour of the 
Protestants. The conspiracy of Barriere followed — a 
Jesuit rector of the college of Paris, " is said" to have 
been one of the accessories to the conspiracy, which was 
defeated. Soon after another fanatic attempted the 
king's life : Chatel had only been a pupil of the Jesuits ; 
but they were attainted of the crime, and banished in 
1594 ; in consequence of the suspicions produced by that 
crime, and its real or forged approbation by Guignard, a 
Jesuit, who was banged. I lay no stress on these charges; 
and will even palliate the doctrine of " tyrannicide" that 
may be found in the works of Jesuit casuists — particularly 
in Busembaum's lucubrations; which, it is not denied, 
became the text-book in the seminaries of the Society* 



346 THE SOCIETY 

Other writers of the age maintained the same doctrine* 
—hence it was an age of plots and massacres : the mur- 
der of Henry III. was certainly not very charitably be- 
wailed by the Father of the Faithful, Pope Sixtus V. 

Why do 1 signalise these facts? these characteristic 
events of the age when the Jesuit schools were flourishing 
— when they might have preached the mild doctrines of 
the Redeemer — might have pacified the spirit of anarchy 
and rebellion, if they had deemed it expedient so to do ? 
Here is my reason: because, the Jesuits and their friends 
are fond of pointing to the events of the French Revolu- 
tion as the consequence of their moral influence being 
taken away by the suppression of the Society ! . . . . 

Henry IV., at the request of the Pope, or induced by 
the Jesuit Cotton, his confessor, recalled the Society in 
1603. Like C^sar, kind and forgiving, he acquitted 
them of the charges brought against them, and gave them 
a college; whence a Brutus went forth, and the "good 
Henry" was murdered by Ravaillac, a pupil of the Je- 
suits. This unfortunate coincidence (like a dolphin and 
flying-fish meeting anon) was, doubtless, fortuitous ; it 
proves nothing — I lay no stress upon this fact, though I 
have used it "to point a moral." 

The conduct or machinations of the Jesuits in England 
are detailed in every history. Perhaps the severe mea- 
sures of Elizabeth against the Catholics, are mainly to 
be attributed to the machinations of the English Jesuits. 
The suspicion of treason became synonymous with 
Romanism — and Romanism (to the affliction of the 
secular priests) became identified with Jesuitism — and 
Jesuitism was apparently doing its darksome work of 
treason incessantly, indefatigably determined.! 

* Dumoulin, Bodin, Arthusius, Buchanan, &c.. Catholic and 
Protestant. 

t See " Important Considerations," by Watson, a Catholic priest. 



ITS DECLINE AND FALL. 347 

Perhaps tlie destruction of Elizabeth was the day- 
thought and the night-dream of the Jesuits. The arma- 
ment of Spain that sank "in the yeast of waves" — van- 
quished by God and man — may be called a tribute of 
his country to the majies of Ignatius ! Parsons flour- 
ished in those days : Parsons, that legion of Jesuitism ! 
His disguises, perils, and escapes are the standing 
budget of the Order — of that Order whose aim — if we 
may conclude from the sum total of its achievements — 
seems to have been an accomplishment, or a desperate 
parody on the words of the Apostle : " I am made all 
things to all men." At these words let us turn from 
Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot, to contemplate the 
Brahmins, and Pariahs of the Society of Jesus.j 

Alluding to the facts which I am about to narrate, the 
Jesuit from I quote, makes the following observation : — 

*' Great sacrifices imply a mighty will ; and in the soul 
of the new apostle, the ambition of evangelical conquests 
equalled its generosity." 

In 1605, Goa witnessed the disembarkation of an 
Italian missionary, whose age was twenty-eight. Robert 
de' Nobili was the scion of a family which had given 
two popes to the church, and a cardinal Bellarmin to the 
Society, besides tracing its descent to the emperor Otho 
III. Aquaviva had resisted the pious ambition of the 
missionary ; but at length yielded to *' the inspiration of 
God," when the Jesuit's family consented to his depar- 
ture. This seasonable deference to the feelings of nature 
must speak for itself: — it looks well. 

The exigencies of the case, now presented to the Jesuit 
mind, may be stated in a single sentence of the Jesuit 

detailing the political machinations of the Jesuits. He was executed 
for treason in 1603. This very interesting tract is republished b 
^'^''ittaker & Co., edited by the Rev. J. Mendham. 



348 A JESUIT BRAHMIN. 

historian: — "The Europeans were deeply despised, and 
the Christians of the country Uved under the opprobrium 
and burthen of an universal, indestructible anathema."* 

I must suppose that the reader is aware of the contempt 
and aversion which all the castes of India evince for the 
unfortunate Pariahs ; and the utter destitution and immo- 
rality resulting from that inhumanity. It was from the 
lowest castes alone that hitherto the Christians of the 
Jesuits had been made ; or, to use the forcible expression 
of the Jesuit, " The water of baptism had rarely mois- 
tened any but the brows that never blushed." Even 
Xavier was baffled by the Brahmins ; " nowhere did he 
work more miracles than in the peninsula of India; and 
yet no noble castle surrendered to his preaching." 

De' Nobili conceives a grand project, and " his Pro- 
vincial and brothers give him their approbation — the 
Archbishop of Cranganor his benediction ; he puts it 
into execution." 

Avoiding all intercourse with Europeans, he put off 
their dress, resigned their customs ; and, penetrating into 
the interior of the country, dwelt in a hut, after the 
fashion of the Brahmins. He took care to anticipate 
detection by the rapidity of his first movement. He 
chose to himself a servant, poor, but from a noble caste. 
He carefully learned all the habits and ceremonies in use 
among persons of quality, in order to copy them with 
scrupulous exactness. He mastered the tamul, or vulgar 
tongue ; learned the language of the Court, and the 
Sanscrit, or the language of science and religion. So 
rapid was his progress, that in a short time he might have 
been supposed a native of the country. 

And now prepared for his undertaking, he exhibited 
himself in the costume of the penitent Brahmins. From 
* P. A. Cahour— Des Jesuites— Sec. Part. p. 148. 



A JESUIT BRAHMIN. 



349 



the time of his arrival he had lived a life of austerity ; 
abstained from flesh-meat, fish, eggs, wine, and all 
intoxicating drinks; living on milk-meats, vegetables, 
and rice, and of these eating only one meal a day. 

When the Indian Brahmins beheld the European 
Brahmin dressed like themselves, speaking as well as 
themselves, resembling them in every feature, from the 
tuft of liair at the top of his shaved head, down to the 
socks or clogs, in which he moved with ease, despite the 
goading peg of wood by which they were held to the 
feet, — all were eager to see and hear him. *' Still there 
remained doubts respecting his titles of nobility. He 
produced witnesses, and swore that he was frovi an 
illustrious caste. The document was prepared ; and the 
Roman Brahmin, judicially recognised, received the name 
of Tatouva Podagar Souami : that is to say, " the man 
who has passed master in the twenty-five or ninety-six 
qualities proper to the true sage." 

*' The town of Madura was roused — visitors thronged 
from all parts. He kept them at a distance ; admitting 
only certain persons, and at certain hours, in order the 
more to entice attention and curiosity." 

The Jesuit continues : " His science, his manners, and 
penitent life, attracted a great number of disciples : he 
opened a school ; mixed lessons of the gospel with human 
doctrine ; and in a short time the doctrine of the gourou 
of Europe was reputed noble and worthy of the Indians. 
In order to " ingraft"* Christianity on those natures, till 
then rebellious, he availed himself of everything — attack- 
ing them on all sides where he could find an entrance, 
by the aid of reason, by their prejudices, and national 
traditions." 

* Enter is the French word, " ingraft" the English. Is it inten- 
tionally used, or a slip of the pen ? 



350 A JESUIT BRAHMIN.' 

He told them that he was come to announce to them 
that sublime and blessed law which was the object of 
their wishes, as held forth by their traditions respecting 
a law long lost or obscured. 

" He was believed. He developed the laws of the 
Gospel and its mysteries : seventy Brahmins bowed 
before the cross, and were baptised in a short time." 

This conduct or success of Nobili naturally excited a 
clamour in the rivals of the Jesuits in the work of con- 
version ; or in those who objected to the specious 
Christianity which was its object: he was summoned 
to Goa to make his defence. 

*' He had given out that he was born of the forehead 
of Brahma, because he had incorporated himself with the 
haughty caste of a like origin. When he appeared with 
his cylindrical cap of flame-coloured silk, covered with 
a long scarf that fell like a shawl over his shoulders, 
with his red muslin robe, his large ear- buckles, and his 
forehead distinguished by a broad potou, or yellow mark, 
made with the paste of sandanum wood, — his Superior, 
Father Palmerio, the visitor of India, would not deign to 
look at him; and all his Jesuit Brothers exclaimed, that 
they ought to eject from the mission a man who gave 
himself to idolaters, instead of gaining them to Jesus 
Christ. Four things particularly shocked them ; his 
name, the mark on his brow, his continual ablutions, 
and the string composed of a hundred and eight yellow 
threads, which he permitted his disciples to wear." 

It is difficult to reconcile this '' shock" of the Jesuits 
with an assertion made in the page that precedes, where 
the Jesuit historian says — ** Encouraged by the approba- 
tion of his Superiors, and by thirteen years of experience. 
Father De' Nobili followed up the course of his apostolic 
triumphs." 



ANOTHER. 351 

Still he defended himself successfully ; '' every one 
amongst his brothers sided with him." This did not pre- 
vent Cardinal Bellarmin from writing to his nephew, a 
severe letter on his equivocal experiment — " a letter full 
of reproaches," says the Jesuit historian. 

The reader would probably like to know the number of 
idolaters converted by this Roman Brahmin. It is stated 
to be *' nearly one hundred thousand." He died at the 
age of seventy-six, "venerated as a saint." 

Such was the origin of the famous charge brought 
against the Jesuits with regard to the Malabar rites and 
ceremonies, which the Jesuits permitted their " converts" 
to retain. Their defence must be quite satisfactory to 
Roman Catholics in general ; but as it would not hold 
with Protestants, it is only necessary to state the fact as 
an elucidation. 

De' Nobili had worthy imitators. John de Britto 
walked in his footsteps and with the like success; but the 
fame of De' Nobili was eclipsed by another Jesuit, Con- 
stant Beschi. His dress, in all its gorgeous magnifi- 
cence, is fully described by the Jesuit, enhancing that of 
his predecessor by the pearls or red stones that adorned 
his ears ; he wore a ring composed of five metals, Turkish 
slippers on his feet, and carried a long cane. He sat in 
a palanquin on a tiger-skin remarkable for its beauty. 
Two men, one on each side, shook over him magnificent 
fans of peacock's feathers ; they carried before him a silk 
umbrella tipped with a golden ball. Such was the great 
Viramamounis mode of travelling. If he ever stopped 
in any place, he always sat on a tiger's skin," 

Beschi was a prodigy of learning. Besides Italian, his 
mother-tongue, he had mastered Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
Portuguese, and several other languages. In India he 



352 



A JESUIT DEW AN, 



learned the Sanscrit, the Telenga, and the Tamul. He 
read all the works of the native poets, and composed, in 
the languages which he had acquired, works that are com- 
pared by the Jesuit to '* a mountain of gold, which, reflect- 
ing the rays of the sun, scatter afar torrents of light." 

The subjects selected by Viramamouni — for the Jesuit 
still gives him that name — were characteristic of Jesuit 
sagacity. They were the '' Sufferings of Christ," the 
** Virginity of Mary," the "Immaculate Conception," and 
the " Dolours of the Vir2:in," &c. 

The more one knows of Indian superstitions, the more 
striking will this sagacity appear. 

He required " five scribes, when he composed ; the first 
wrote the first part of the quatrain, the second, the 
second, and so on ; then the fifth put all those copies in 
order. One would not have sufficed for the rapidity of 
his conception." 

He required to have an audience of a native prince ; 
and " in three months he mastered the Persian and 
Turkish languages" ! The interview was successful. The 
prince was charmed by his genius ; gave him a new name, 
and his grandfather's palanquin. Nay more, like the 
patron of Themistocles of old, he assigned him four pro- 
vinces for his maintenance, with a revenue of twelve hun- 
dred rupees per a?zm<m; and constituted him Deivan, or 
prime minister. Then he might be seen with " an escort 
of thirty horsemen on every occasion, with twelve standard- 
bearers, and four attendants with silver staves. He was 
mounted on a magnificent white horse, or a black one, 
richly caparisoned. Behind him went a trumpeter on 
horseback ; a camel laden with enormous cymbals ; an- 
other camel carrying a huge drum, which resounded afar; 
on another were the ornaments necessary to celebrate the 



MYSTIFICATION. 353 



Mass ; and three other camels carried his ba2-o^ao:e and 



bo"*©^ 



tents." 



The Jesuit shall comment on this curious picture : — 
*' This oriental picture of the magnificence of Father 
Beschi is calculated to scandalise, if we permit ourselves 
to catch at the colouring : and more than one reader has, 
perhaps, already exclaimed — Jesuita, Jesuita^ Jesus non 
ibat ita ! Still, I have thought proper to cite it, in order to 
make known the appreciation of the Indians, and not the 
reality ; for beneath the pencil of an European the figures 
would lose vastly of their brilliancy." 

I confess that this last remark totally surpasses my 
comprehension. The mystification is enhanced by the 
conclusion of the chapter which describes the austere 
private life of the same Brahmin, as if it were not " part 
and parcel" of his assumed professioii as Brahmin. 
Horace boasts of his cowardice in the field of Philippi ; 
for his parmuld none hent relicfd, is the " small blame" 
that strives to conciliate a gentle judgment. Does this 
Jesuit publish these, at the least, equivocal facts with the 
same intention ?* 

* Cabours's work is an answer to that of Michelet, On the Jesuits — 
which last, like his other work, On the Priest, &c., evinces more 
violent rancour than knowledge of his suhjects. Cahours's defence is 
quite as inconsequent ^ but better written ; and has the peculiar merit of 
damaging the cause of the Jesuits more effectually than his oppo- 
nent's perfectly French hallucination. Cahours, with considerable 
simplicity, says that he thought proper to adopt the same size in his 
book as that of Messrs. IMichelet and Quinet, because "his brochure, 
serving as a complement to theirs, it was befitting that ihey should 
both be bound up together" — in other words, perhaps, that they are 
"six for one, half a dozen for the other;" an estimate in which I 
would agree as to the mere attack and defence — but must vastly prefer 
the Jesuit's book, for the instructive reflections that it suggested. 
Disgust was the only sentiment produced in me by Michelet in both 
of his works : he has abused a serious topic, if I may be allowed 

A A 



354 A JESUIT IS A — JESUIT, 

Dismissing this topic, I may state that other Jesuits 
became Pariahs,* as well as Brahmins, and with the 
same " pious intention ;" and kennelled with the outcasts 
of men, as if they had been born among them ! This 
astounding fact is enhanced in import by another, namely, 
that the men who thus crushed every human feeling in 
their determination to accomplish the dictates of the will, 
•were men of high birth, scions of noble families ! 

I trust that the reader by this time understands what I 
meant by the phrase that a Jesuit is a — Jesuit ! 

We are now hurrying to the crisis — the penumbra of 
fatal eclipse is fringing the satellite of Rome. The cla- 
mours of envy or the scruples of pure Christianity roused 
the Popedom to an expedient interference in these equi- 
vocal means of the Jesuits. As philosophers, the latter 
defended their scheme of Christianity ; and as philosophers 
■we are compelled to give them the victory of unlim.ited 
knowledge of the character and institutions of the pagans 
on whom thev would "insrraft" the reli2:ion of Rome. 
Based on this undeniable foundation, they were more than 
a match for their opponents — their logic should have been 
triumphant. But they were condemned ; and they made 
signs of resistance. " The men the most devoted to the 
authority of Rome were about to wage against it a war for 
the settlement of evangelical duties and moral principles. "f 
The scene is shifted to the Celestial Empire ; for the 

the opinion. It is curious that the Jesuit proves very/ satisfactorily, 
that the assertion on the title-page of his opponent's book about 
'* editions" is all "humbug." It seems that Cahours kept a "sharp 
look-out:" he certainly shows that the book was not reprinted, or 
*' set-np," for the subsequent " editions." 

* Cretineau-Joly, Hist, de la Corap. de Jesu, vol. v. p. 43, quoting 
Perrin, Voy. dans I'Indost. Cretineau-Joly is a friend of the Jesuits, 
if not more — Stat nominis umbra ? 

t Cr6tineau-Joly, ibid. p. 50, et seq. 



A JESUIT MANDARIN. 355 

intellectual Chinese necessarily sympathised with tlie 
Jesuits. Their influence had become paramount in the 
land of Koiing-Fou-Tseu, the renowned Confucilts. 

A crowned head of Europe exulted in the achievement : a 
predecessor of Louis Philippe — that tinsel of history, Louis 
XIV. — " had perceived tlie changes that such a state of 
things were influencing in Europe ; and in order to confirm 
to France, at some future time, the plenitude of commerce in 
those empires, he strove to invest the Chinese mission with 
a national ratification.*" Let this fact be remembered, and 
referred to its peculiar section of this essay : it is also the 
key-note of what is to follow in disgraceful contrast — the 
kings of the earth were never remarkable for gratitude — 

Quicquid delirant reges plectuntur Aclnvi ! 

The court of Peking was the asylum of the sons of 
Ignatius ; the emperor showered honours on the men of 
science; Father Dominic Parrenin was made a Man- 
darin ! His portrait is now before me, and well he looks 
the character ! Nostri harham non immitlant is glo- 
riously superseded, and the Jesuit Mandarin sports the 
honours of the lip and a luxuriant beard : his mandarin- 
cap is not invisible. Parrenin, like Schall, another Jesuit 
Mandarin, performed the functions of Grand Mandarin 
with merited applause : as mediator between the Russian 
and Chinese cabinets, Peter the Great forgot the Jesuit, 
and lavished honours, on the statesman. Bouvet, an- 
other Jesuit, and " Imperial Geographer," vied with a 
third Jesuit, Father Gaubil, in '* rendering science the 
vehicle to the good graces of the prince. "f I need not 
say that the good of religion was the end proposed. 

Benedict XIV. proscribed the expedient connivance of 
the Jesuits in the Malabar rites and the Chinese cere- 

* Cretiueau. t Ibid. 

A A 2 



356 A JESUIT FOUNDRY. 

monies. As might be expected, the Jesuits submitted to 
the mandate which " cut short all the difficulties, arid 
sacrificed the uncertain to the certain, — the hopes of the 
future to the realities of the present,"* 

Now mark the consequence. " As the Jesuits had 
foreseen, their deference to the pontifical judgment was 
the signal of the fall of Christianity on the banks of the 
Yellow River and the Ganges. The Missionaries were 
imprisoned, proscribed, or consigned to destruction. "f 
Perhaps this consequence of the Pope's expedient mea- 
sure attests the extent of the sacrifice which those rites 
and ceremonies supposed in the Christianity of the Mis- 
sionaries, thus *' engrafted" on paganism ; if not, the 
papal court bore the penalty awarded to those whose 
first and last desire is to '' save appearances." 

The Emperor kept his Jesuits however : he consented 
to the persecution of Christianity, but still cherished his 
astronomers and statesmen : they were useful. 

As a contrast — for such is Jesuitism throughout — the 
Jesuits in Abyssinia were persecuted for preaching 
against the rite of circumcision, and the plurality of 
wives ! Take another case : the Jesuit Verbiest accom- 
panied the Chinese army, marching to reduce a rebel. 
Cannon was wanting : he was ordered to found guns of 
various calibres. He replied that his mission v/as to 
bring down the blessings of Heaven on men, not to furnish 
them with new means of destruction. Verbiest was sus- 
pected of favouring the enemy : he and his companions 
and converts were threatened with persecution : he yielded 
to the order ; set up a foundry ; directed the works ; the 
messengers of death went forth ; and Kang Hi had to 
thank the Jesuits for victory. | 

* Cretineau, Hist. vol. v, p. 81, et seq. t Ibid. 

X Cretineau. 



CURIOSITIES. 357 

Nevertheless " Christianity was expiring in China — it 
was a deadly conflict. Tiie Jesuits, in order to preserve 
the germ of the Faith, placed it under the safeguard of 
the Sciences. 

" Honoured with the imperial favour as literary men, 
execrated as Catholic priests, they conformed to the condi- 
tion traced out for them by circumstances. Father De Ven- 
tavon resided at the court in the capacity of Mechanician 
to the Emperor: the brothers Castiijlione and Attiret 
were his favourite painters : Father Hallerstein presided 
over the tribunal of Mathematics. Some of the mission- 
aries made clocks with moving figures, others applied to 
the Fine Arts, or the mechanical x\rts, for inventions that 
might be worthy to please Kian-Loung; all tortured their 
wits to devise some means of avertino; the storm that 
growled over the heads of the Christians. Father Michael 
Benoit applied the principles of hydraulics. Tlie spurt- 
ing water, whose scientific management was not as yet 
known in China, excited the applause of the Prince and 
his court. He desired to multiply the prodigy in his 
gardens. Benoit was charged with the direction of the 
works. He thus gained frequent opportunities of seeing 
the Emiperor, in order to overcome his prejudices against 
the Christians and Europeans. Benoit set to the work : 
he did more : he studied the art of engraving in copper- 
plate : he trained artists, and produced engravings. He 
initiated the Emperor in the use of the telescope, and the 
mystery of the air-pump."* 

Let the scene be shifted once more. The evening is 
come : night will soon follow ; and after that morning 
will return. 

Pascal and Jansenism must have a place in every his- 
* Cretineau, vol. v. p. 83. 



358 DECLINE. 

tory of tlie Jesuits. I have studied the quarrel, and have 
found nothing in it adapted to develope the object of this 
essay ; namely, the system of the Jesuits. The Pro- 
vincial Letters only accelerated events which the Jesuits 
themselves, unwittingly, had been preparing during the 
course of the preceding century. They had given an 
impulse to the age by their universal development of 
education : intellectuality was in the ascendant. A 
similar process has, in the present age, been in operation 
for the last fifty years or more. The idea of universal 
equality, or the '* levelling" mania, is one of the abuses 
of intellect, trained without the moral sentiments being 
raised to pilot the adventurous bark on the trackless 
ocean of mind. The pursuit of knowledge, after the 
example, or under the sanction of the great educators, 
had become a mania: the result was that yearning after 
change which flatters the heart with the accomplishment 
of every desire. At the present day, are we hurrying to 
the same result? 

In the case of the Jesuits, novelty had lost its charm ; 
Escobar, Busembaura, and other " moralists" of the 
Society had been made to cover the Jesuits with shame 
or suspicion, — the finger of scorn was raised with im- 
punity. Their name became a term of reproach ; every 
language had consecrated it to fraud, cunning, and du- 
plicity. It is hard to battle against ridicule and evil 
fame. 

Portugal was the first kingdom in which the influence 
of the Jesuits became paramount : it was the first efifec- 
tually to strike it down. If Philippe II. humbled Por- 
tugal by the aid of the Jesuits,* the vengeance of Pombal 
was a fearful retribution — such as may be ever and 
* Rabbe et Chatelain, Hist, de Portug. 



PARAGUAY. 359 

anon recognised in tlie history of man, ruled by Provi- 
dence. 

I allude to the affair of Paraguay. In modern times 
Dr. Francia despotically and most successfully isolated 
the people who inhabit that country, or a contiguous de- 
partment. The Jesuits, as must be admitted, blessed the 
savages with the usual gifts of semi-civilization; and 
governed them, or enabled them to govern tliemselves in 
tlie midst of prosperity resulting from order, industry, 
and the nature of a soil that may be said to dispense with 
the labour of man. It is not my intention to depreciate 
the exertions of the Jesuits in ameliorating the condition 
of the savage. I have only endeavoured to give an idea 
of the reality without exciting incredulity. The " Utopia" 
of the Jesuits, had it stood the test of time, might have 
become a model government for tlie world. In 1753, the 
kings of Spain and Portugal made an exchange of pro- 
vinces in South America : the inhabitants respectively 
v/ere to change territories. The religious subjects of the 
Jesuits refused to obey. I applaud the conduct of these 
men, if they thouglit they could resist v>'ith effect; for, 
unquestionably, the mandate was tyrannical. On the 
other hand, it was to be expected that the " mother 
country" would enforce the demand ; and the result was 
the destruction of this Jesuit republic. The Jesuits deny 
that they aided the Indians with their advice and martial 
science ; they deny that they stimulated them to resist- 
ance ; — if there was no chance of success, the denial is 
probably correct. 

Pombal followed up this first assault. Strange! that 
such a man should proclaim, as the motive of his persecu- 
tion of the Jesuits, that " they had remained less faithful 
than their predecessors to the principles of Ignatius !"* 
* Saint Priest, Fall of the Jesuits. 



360 INDISCRETIONS. 

They were expelled from Portugal and its dependencies. 
What motive liad Pombal for the expulsion of the Jesuits? 
His otiier atrocities furnish a clue to the answer — doubt- 
less he feared their influence, which he either knew to 
exist or imagined possible. He nevertheless feared tl^e 
Jesuits. 

In 1764, the sons of Ignatius were expelled from France. 
This event is certainly connected with an offended woman, 
Madame de Pompadour. Her confessor De Sacy, a Jesuit, 
refused to sanction what she stvled her *' purest attachment 
for theking." The reader, who is aware that Father Cotton 
another Jesuit, was confessor to the tender-hearted Henry 
IV,, and who has probably read the curious Historieite 
of Tallement des Reaux, will be pleased to see this con- 
trast of affairs. The lady resolved on the expulsion 
of the Order, and was successful. Previously to this, 
the Society had become the laughing stock of Paris by 
the credulity of Gerard, one of the body, in the case of a 
misguided woman whose ambition was to rival St. Ca- 
tharine of Sienna with her Stigmrda or sympathetic 
wounds.* Pamphlets, songs, logic, and sarcasm swarmed 
like a nest of hornets — the Jesuits were become con- 
temptible. Voltaire, D'Alembert, the " philosophers" 
were in the zenith of their fame. The Jesuits cannot 
speak of their downfall without stigmatising the " philo- 
sophers :" for my part I am incredulous as to the large 
share assigned to these men in the expulsion of the Jesuits. 
The Jesuits prepared their own destruction ; they have 
the merit of having ruined themselves : had they not 
grasped too much, their hands might have remained 
moderately full to the present time. 

The affair of Lavalette supervened ; another lever of 
destruction. This Lavalette was the Jesuit-procuratcr of 
* Cr^tiueau, vol. v. p. 214. 



LAVALETTE. 361 

the West India missions, Jesuit missionaries in South 
America had endeavoured to ameHorate the condition of 
the poor African, but Lavalette oumed slaves at Dominica. 
An epidemic disease broke out among his negroes, and 
several died. In addition to this the English cruisers 
took liis freighted ships — he became a bankrupt for a 
large sum, which the Society refused to pay. This was a 
fatal imprudence in the Jesuits, or the result of decep- 
tion ; they suffered the matter to go before the French 
Parliament, and were condemned to pay the full amount 
of the debt. 

Louis XV., " wearied out rather than convinced," 
yielded to the solicitations of Madame de Pompadour 
and Choiseul, his minister ; the Jesuits were expelled. 

In 1767, the Jesuits were suddenly and unexpectedly 
driven out of Spain by Charles III., a pious, zealous, 
most Catholic sovereign, if history is to be credited. This 
act took the Jesuits totally to windward — it mystified 
even the Jesuits; and to this day the motives that dic- 
tated their expulsion from Spain remain inexplicable, if 
we may not believe the exclamation of the king, alluding 
to a frivolous revolt some time before, which the Jesuits 
suppressed so easily that they were suspected of having 
fomented it! The king is said to have declared "that 
if he had any cause for self-reproach, it was for having 
been too lenient to so dangerous a body;" and then, 
drawing a deep sigh, he added, "I have learned to 

know them too well !"* 

I pass over the sufferings of the Jesuits ; their utter 
dereliction by all who had before been served by them, 
when, on the same day, and at the same hour, — in 

* Despatches of the Marq. of Ossun to Choiseul, quoted bj Saint 
Priest, — Fall of the Jesuits. 



362 ATROCITIES. 

Spain, in the north and south of Africa, in Asia and 
America, in all the islands of the Spanish monarchy — 
the alcades of the towns opened the despatches which 
they received from Madrid, commanding them, under 
penalty of death, to enter the establishments of the 
Jesuits, armed, to take possession, to expel the Jesuits, 
and transport them, within twenty-four hours, as prisoners 
to such port as Avas mentioned. The latter were to em- 
bark instantly, leaving their papers under seal, and 
carrying away with them only a breviary, a purse, and 
some apparel ! " Nearly six thousand priests, of all 
ages and conditions — men illustrious by birth and learn- 
ing — old men oppressed with infirmities, despoiled even 
of the most indispensable requisites — were stowed away 
in the hold of a ship, and sent adrift upon the ocean, 
with no determinate object, and without any fixed direc- 
tion."* They neared the coast of Italy ; the Pope 
refused to receive them ! What were his motives for 
this appr.rently unchristian act, in the Father of the 
Faithful ? Perhaps their numbers suggested the fear of 
famine! If Ricci tlieir General, as is alleged, joined in 
or suggested the refusal, it was a sad indiscretion at a 
time when the reputation of the Society was at its 
lowest ebb. 

The Courts of France and Spain now determined to 
effectuate the total abolition of the Society of Jesus, by 
the Pope himself! 

After long and tedious negotiations on the part of the 
respective potentates, nothing was done in the matter : 
the death of the Pope Clement XIII. raised the hopes of 
those princes bent on the destruction of the Jesuits. 

* Saint Priest, 



THE BRIEF OF SUPPRESSION. 363 

The election of Clement XIV., which followed in due 
time, was effected by these princes. This is not denied 
by any party. The princes of the earth placed in the 
papal cliair a man who was to fulfil a written promise to 
suppress the Jesuits. So the vicegerent of the Redeemer 
— the exponent of councils over which the Holy Ghost 
presides — sold himself to a party, and the price was the 
honour of the pontificate ! 

Ricci was the last General of the Jesuits before tlie 
suppression. If the accounts respecting the doings at 
Rome, during the period in question, be correct, that 
man was bitterly humbled by his former friends; still he 
exerted himself to his utmost in endeavouring to avert 
the ruin of his Order : but failed. Ganganelli assumed 
the tiara ; and after the most disgraceful tergiversations, 
displaying a degree of weakness that would cover the 
pettiest prince of Europe with scorn — the Pope of Rome 
condemned the Jesuits — the Pope did this — compelled by 
the kings of the earth, whom his predecessors had 
trampled to tlie dust ! Here was a retribution indeed ! 
If you v/ould have your contempt for the papal court, 
at that time at least, raised to the highest, read 
the brief of suppression, and see how it sings the 
song of expediency. It went forth on the 21st of July, 
1773, and began with the words: "Our Lord and 
Redeemer" ! 

Dread must have been the anxietv of the Jesuits whilst 
that conclave was preparing their destruction ! If the 
authorities of Count Alexis de Saint Priest are true — (he 
seems to be an impartial historian) the last struggles of 
the Jesuits were truly systematic, that is, in accordance 
with the theory by these pages unfolded. 

Father Delci started for Leghorn, with the trea- 
sures of the Order — intending to transport them to 



364 THE LAST GENERAL. 

England:* but the energetic Ricci — his portrait stands 
before me — stopped the pusillanimous flight. 

The fortune of Cromwell was decided, the star of Na- 
poleon was made a sun, by that supernatural boldness 
inspired by the emergency of life or death ! Ricci put 
forth his character, or rose with the occasion. Anxious, 
disturbed, he was seen hurrying from place to place — " one 
while mingling in the numerous bodies of the Guarda 
Nobile, the pompous escort of the dinners of the cardi- 
nals, which are carried through the city in rich litters ; at 
another time mixing in the groups of the grave Traste- 
verini, or the motley crowds of cattle-drivers and peasants 
assembled from the Sabine territory, Tivoli, Albano, and 
every part of the Pontine marshes, to witness the grand 
ceremony. At daybreak Ricci was on foot, traversing 
every quarter of the city from Ponte-Mola to the Basilica 
of the Lateran. The Jesuits de consideration (so styled 
in a cotemporary document) imitating the example of 
their chief, were continually engaged in paying visits to 
the confessors and friends of the cardinals ; whilst, loaded 
with presents, they humbled themselves at the feet of the 
Roman princes and ladies of rank. Nor was all this 
attention superfluous : the current of public favour had 
already been diverted from the Jesuits; and, amongst 

* The Jesuit Bernard Rhodes, a physician, cured the Chinese Em- 
peror Kang-hi. The monarch gave him about 8000/. in gold. This 
money was de])Osited with the East India Company, on interest. At 
the suppression of the Society, the Company, like all the Catholic 
powers, confiscated the money, applying the interest to the hospitals. 
But the Jesuits sent a deputy from India to represent their case to the 
Board. They were kindly received, the arrears were paid up, and the 
interest was given till the death of the last Jesuit missionary. In 1813 
the Propaganda transferred this money from the Jesuits to the Laza- 
rists of China. The generosity and honesty of the Board stands in 
contrast with the injustice of the Propaganda. Such is Rome ! 



A ROYAL INSULT. 365 

Other fatal prognostics, the Prince de Piombino, a partisan 
of Spain, had withdrawn from the use of the General the 
carriage which his family had for more than a century 
placed at his disposal." The last General of this redoubt- 
able Society threw himself at the feet of the cardinals; 
and in tears, *' commended to their protection that Society 
which had been approved by so many pontiffs, and sanc- 
tioned by a general council — the Council of Trent : he 
reminded the cardinals of his services, and claimed the 
merit of these, without casting blame upon any court or 
cabinet. Then, in an under tone, and in the freedom of 
secret conference, he represented to the princes of the 
Church the indignity of the yoke which these courts were 
attempting to impose upon them."* But the honour of 
the Popedom was sold and bought : Judas, the Iscariof, 
with the price of blood in his hands, not Peter in repent- 
ance, was now to be the papal model ! 

Joseph II. of Austria would be present at Rome on 
that pregnant occasion. On this straw of royalty the 
Jesuits fondly relied: he stooped to insult the men who 
could not resent the injury ! He paid a visit to the Gran 
Gesit, a " House" of the order, and a perfect marvel of 
magnificence and bad taste. The General approached 
the Emperor, prostrating himself before him with pro- 
found humility. Joseph, without giving him time to 
speak, asked him coldly when he was going to relinquish 
his habit? Ricci turned pale, and muttered a few inar- 
ticulate words : he confessed that the times were very 
hard for his brethren, but added that they placed their 
trust i]i God and in the holy father, whose infallibility 
would be for ever compromised if he destroyed an Order 
which had received the sanction and approval of his pre- 
decessors. The emperor smiled and, almost at the same 

* St. Prieit. 



366 A SUSPICION. 

moment, fixing- Iiis eye upon the tabernacle, he stopped 
before the statute of St. Ignatius, of massive silver, and 
glittering' with precious stones, and exclaimed against the 
prodigious sum whicli it must Iiave cost. " Sire," stam- 
mered the fatlier-general, " this statue lias been erected 
with the money of the friends of the Society." " Say, 
rather," replies Joseph, "■ with the profits of the 
Indies !"* 

Clement XIV. died. Suspicious symptoms attended his 
death ; he was probably poisoned : but I can find no 
proof that the Jesuits promoted the crime, though such is 
the implied accusation. Nay, Ricci, the General, is said 
to have visited the " prophetess" who foretold the Pope's 
death If 

What motive could the Jesuits have for desiring the 
Pope's death ? I discard the idea of mere revenge, — but 
was there hope in the probable successor ? This is the 
most dismal page of their history ; if guilty of all the 
alleged crimes and misdemeanours, they became doubly 
so by their humiliations — such is the world's judgment. 

The successor of Clement XIV. connived at the dis- 
obedience of the Jesuits in not being abolished. Frederick, 
the king of Prussia, gave them an asylum, and they were 
permitted to open a Novitiate in Russia by the Empress 
Catharine, and by the ambiguous will of the Pope who, 
like his predecessor, feared to offend the crowned heads, 
the foes of the Jesuits, who had caused their sup- 
pression. 

In 1814, Pius VII. restored the Jesuits as an Order, 
by a Bull, revoking the paltry Brief of Clement XIV. 
Why was Ricci, the ex-General of the Jesuits, detained 
in prison by Clement XIV ? . . . . Still, as might be 

* Saint Priest, Fall of the Jesuits, 
t St. Priest. 



PRESENT STATE. 367 

expected, he died protesting his innocence, and that of 
the Society. 

If my inquiries are correct, the number of Jesuits in 
all parts of the world at the present time, cannot be 
much less than seven thousand of all ranks in the 
Society. 

In the province of Turin the number of the Jesuits in- 
creased between the 1st of January, 1841, and the 1st of 
January, 1845, from 379 to 428. They have in Turin a 
*' noble " college, another college and a penslonnat, in- 
cluding 81 Jesuits; a professed house at Genoa ; novi- 
tiates at Chiari and at Cagliari ; colleges and pensionnats 
at Aosta, Chambery, Genoa, Nice, Novara, Cagliari, San 
Remo and Voghera. Since the commencement of the 
year 1845, a new college has been opened at Massa. 

The establishments of the province of Spain have been 
disorganised by the political events which have convulsed 
that country. In 1845, there were 113 Jesuits dissemi- 
nated in Spain, particularly in the dioceses of Toledo, 
Seville, Pampeluna, and Valencia. This province has a 
*' residence" at Nivelle in Belgium, and another at Aire, 
in France ; it has also residences in South America, 
namely, in Paraguay, Uruguay, La Plata, Brazil, New 
Grenada and Chili. Another list gives 536 Jesuits in 
Spain.* 

At the commencement of 1845, the province of Paris, 
which includes the northern part of France, numbered 
420 Jesuits, thus giving an increase of 129 from the year 
1841. 

The province of Lyons includes the southern part of 

France; in 1841 it contained 290 Jesuits, in 1845, 446, 

— scattered over the country, — at Lyons, Bordeaux, Dole, 

Grenoble, Marseilles, Toulouse, and Avignon, as priests, 

* Frankfort Postamts Zeilung. 



368 PRESENT STATE. 

novices, and brothers. The Society in France numbered 
872 Jesuits. 

As the colleges are not open to them in France, they 
have founded one in the frontiers of the kingdom, at 
Brugelette, in Belgium. The French province has still 
19 Jesuits, employed on the mission in Grenada, and 8 in 
China : it also possesses in North America, two flourish- 
ing establishments, containing 19 priests, 35 novices, and 
11 brothers. These are the novitiate of St. Mary, and 
the college of Louisville, in the state of Kentucky. 

The French province had also 39 Jesuits in Africa, 
namely, at Algiers, Oran, and Constantine; also 22 mis- 
sionaries in the East Indies — at Trichinopoly, in the pre- 
sidency of Madras, and in the island of Madura ; 10 in 
Syria, and 6 in Madagascar. 

The province of Belgium is one of the most flourishing 
at the present time. In 1841, there were 319 Jesuits in 
that province ; there are now 472. The novitiate of 
Tronchiennes contains 129. They have colleges at Alost, 
Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, Louvain, Namur, Liege, &c. : 
residences at Bruges, Courtray, and Mons : missions at 
Amsterdam, the Hague, Nimeguen, Dusseldorf, and in 
Guematala, in America. 

The province of Germany includes Switzerland, which 
contained 245 Jesuits in 1841, and 273 in 1844. 

There are 88 *' houses" in Germany, containing 1000 
Jesuits, of whom 400 are priests. 

In Columbia, Maryland, Massachusetts, and Pennsyl- 
vania, the Jesuits have found a footing, — and " go ahead" 
in " the land of the Free and the Brave," as gaily as all 
other speculators. 

In England they have thirty-three establishments, or 
houses, colleges, residences, and single missions. Of 
course, Slonyhurst, in Lancashire, is the principal estab- 



PRESENT STATE. 369 

lishment ; and it is stated to contain, at the present time, 
twenty priests, twenty-six novices, and fourteen brothers. 

Such is an abstract of the numerical force of the Jesuits 
at the present time." I am unable to vouch for the accu- 
racy of these numbers : it is difficult to coip.e at correct 
Jesuit statistics. 

Of the seven hundred and seventy-six priests in Great 
Britain, the Jesuits alone can say how many are enlisted 
under the banner of Ignatius, unless this knowledge is 
shared by the " Vicars Apostolic" of the various districts 
in which they are privileged to move unmolested. They 
are muffled in England : it is difficult to distinguish them ; 
and they endeavour to keep up the mystery — omne igno- 
tum pro magnifico. They have established a " Classical 
and Commercial Academy," at Mount St. Mary's, near 
Chesterfield ; and the prospectus of the establishment, 
after describing the suit of clothes that the pupils are to 
bring, not forgetting the ominous " Oxford mixture"! — 
simply informs the v/orld that " the college is conducted 
by gentlemen connected with the college of Stonyhurst.'* 
These "gentlemen" are generally sent out in pairs, hy 
the Provincial, according to the Constitutions ; and thus 
may charm by variety ; for the quantity of work on hand 
in the various Jesuit missions in England is by no means 
so evident as the speculation for more, by this constitu- 
tional provision. The secular priests are doubled and 
tripled by the necessities of the mission ; the Jesuits are 



* The /(7j-mai restoration of the Society by Pius VII., in 1814, is 
too unimportant to deserve a notice in the text. Its suppression only- 
inconvenienced the Jesuits for a time : their energies were condensed, 
— the pressure was taken off in 1814 — and vast was the expunsio)t 
thereof! In Italy alone there are 4000 Jesuits, in 150 houses. 

f Cath. Direct, p. 126 — " trousers of Oxford mixture."* 

B B 



370 PRESENT STATE. 

doubled, tripled, and quadrupled, by the requirement of 
the Constitutions, and the prospects before them. 

The Jesuits in England dress as any clergyman, or any 
gentleman : by their outward man you cannot tell them. 
Strange notions are afloat respecting these men. I have 
been asked if I do not think that there are Jesuits 
incognito in the University of Oxford ; and, stranger still, 
if I do not believe Dr. Pusey to be a veritable Jesuit I 
These questions I cannot undertake to answer. Such a 
speculation would indeed be a bold one, even in the 
Jesuits : but then, consider De' Nobili, Beschi, &c. ; 
surely, if a Jesuit may assume the Brahmin and Pariah, 
in order to " ingraft Christianity on Paganism," he may 
assume the Protestant, in order to ingraft Romanism 
on Protestantism, firmly convinced of Lucian's axiom, 
namely, that "a beginning is the half of everything."* 
This is arguing from the past to the present — nothing 
more. I do not emit an opinion on the subject. 

Again have I been asked, by what sign can one dis- 
tinguish a Jesuit ? Perhaps the sign whereby you may 
know the Jesuits, is their being better housed, better 
clothed, and better fed than most other Roman Catholic 
priests. This sign is, of course, equivocal: hut the fact 
is undeniable : the " missionary funds" of the Jesuits are 
liberally applied — " they give freely what they have freely 
received." In other respects the Jesuits show themselves 
by "results." They dare not interfere openly in " mis- 
sions" pre-occupied by the secular clergy ; but they are 
independent of the Roman Catholic Bishops, except for 
ordination, which is a matter of course. Still, perhaps I 
am justified in believing that their movements in London 
are considered by many of the orthodox as rather strong, 
somewhat encroaching. 

* 'Ap%?) i'lfxicrv navTog. 



PRESENT STATE. 371 

From the Catliolic Directory, it appears that tl^ere are 
at least twelve Jesuit priests at Stonyhurst — eleven by 
the list; but I have added one for " the Master of the 
novices," whose name is never given, I believe, in the list 
of the clergy. 

Of the Jesuits in Scotland I can give no account. 
That a " Mission" of the Society formerly existed there, 
is certain ; in fact, the copy of the Constitutions in my 
possession belonged to that mission, as is evident from a 
written inscription on the title-page, as follows : — Mis- 
sionis ScoticcB Soc. Jesu. The Jesuits are not the men to 
forget their hiding-places. If their " doings" in London 
are " for a sign" as to other localities, they are not idle. 
Seven years ago, at the time of my secession, there were 
only two Jesuits in London; there are now four in one 
"residence;" and if the current report among Roman 
Catholics in London be correct, there will soon be twelve 
Jesuits in London, to " serve" their great church now 
building in the heart of the metropolis ! f Crescit occulta 
velut arbor (zvo. 

A bill is now before Parliament, one of whose clauses, 
it is said, is intended to free the Jesuits from the odious 
verbal proscription to which I have before alluded.* 
When the discussion comes on, their friends v/ill say 
that the Jesuits are proscribed for being pious, religious 
men, wishing to serve God according to His counsels; 
and those who have studied their Institute and history, 
will reply, that the Jesuits are proscribed lest they do 
as they have invariably done in every region of the globe ; 
and will perhaps suggest this remark, namely, tliat if we 
must fight the battle of politics and diplomacy, let it be 
fought fairly ; but your Jesuits, who have always had a 

* In Farm-street, Berkeley-square. See p. 34, Novitiate, 
t Page 32, 



372 MOPiXING RETURNS. 

peculiar fancy for finance, cliplomac\% and the affairs of 
the g-rcat in general, will always have an advantage, a 
small, trifling advantage over other candidates, since they 
can know more than comes to their ears as *' private indi- 
viduals." 

A cunning minister would certainly shake hands with 
the Jesuits — because such a man is apt to overreach him- 
self; an honest, prudent Minister v.ould, in the present 
state of all parties, take time and consider the matter 
and the men, and would perhaps die undecided what to 
do — so hard is all Jesuit matter to understand in all its 
bearings; but your slashing, keep-pace-with-the-times 
Minister would use Jesuits to serve his purposes, and then 
sacrifice them, as every other friend or foe, to expediency 
• — if the Jesuits would be simple enough to be caught a 
second time — which is quite j^ossible, — for it is astonish- 
ing how a little sunshine, after dull v.eather, deceives the 
ants, bees, ground-vi^orms, all the natural barometers of 
earth ! 

The English province has twenty missionaries at Calcutta, 
and a " liouse," or residence, in Jamaica. It is asserted, 
that the English Government is even assisting the Jesuits, 
at the present time, to found a new college, especially 
destined for China. Assuredly England is making ample 
amends for lier ancient persecutions of the Catholics and 
Jesuits, as well as for her part in the nefarious slave- 
trade I But as Divine Providence weighs ynotives, not 
actions, time only will unravel the mystery. The Jesuits 
will serve their patrons, and they will serve themselves, 
and the history to come, like all history, will have many 
points of resemblance to that of the past. 

The vice-province of Ireland numbered sixty-three 
Jesuits in 1841, and seventy-three in 1844. They pos- 
sess, in Ireland, the colleges of Clongowes, Tollabey, and 



WARNINGS. 373 

Dublin. They have recently established a second ^' house" 
in the last mentioned citv. 

From France the Society has been expelled ; but the 
Jesuits may remain ; the Government has given them the 
earnest of success in this mystification; they may work 
unseen, unknown, unsuspected — as a hidden disease, or 
the mine of the enemy, sprung in the midnight-watch, 

Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and the Isles of tlie sea 
are mapped for Jesuit navigation — hope sits at the helm, 
but they cannot rule the elements. Their day is passed 
— they can interfere in the concerns of the world, but 
can never more rule kingdoms by conscience. The reign 
of the latter is also passed — commerce is the prime-mover 
of the age ; and its *' balance-sheet" is uncompromising, 
omnipotent. May not the Jesuits direct their attention 
to that quarter ? They are quite competent to the task. 
We shall see. 

My task is accomplished. Are the Jesuits, is the Society 
of Jesus to be iudo-ed bv the facts of its history only — 
"whether good, bad, or indifferent? I think not. It has 
been my endeavour to lead to the contrary conclusion. In 
its perfectly organised system, its pov»'er of mind, its isola- 
tion, we must seek to find its tendency. This will be 
satisfactory, if the reader is a Roman Catholic in heart 
and mind ; for the Jesuits are most assuredly working for 
the universality of the Church of Rome. They are, con- 
sequently, the sworn foes of Protestantism in all its 
phases. The preceding pages v/ill have attested the 
enemy's power ; and should be well computed by those 
who are concerned in the momentous conflict. 

On the other hand, I have endeavoured to suggest a 
■warning to the Jesuits. The end can never justify the 
means — even if we admit the former to be indifferent or 
even good. The human heart, with its fond deceptions. 



374 FAITH, HOPE, AND CHARITY. 

will for a time have cause for exultation in seeing all its 
schemes successful : then it will yearn for more : zeal 
will have all the restlessness of ambition without its hon- 
esty — and then the pit will be dug — deep as the human 
heart itself — as devouring as death ! 

Beautiful image, entrancing reality of the Redeemer's 
religion ! When shall it bless mankind with all its hea- 
venly gifts ! Its never-ceasing faith, hope, and charity — 
love that strives to find and succeeds in finding motives 
to love on, in all that is man, in all that is created — and 
rises, from every contemplation, with renewed benevolence 
that prompts the heart to attest its faith, hope, and charity 
by deeds, such as a God vouchsafed to model for the imi- 
tation of his creature. How simple, and yet how sub- 
lime I The parching blast of exclusive opinions dries up 
the heart; but the gentle glow of charity makes it the 
centre whence a thousand rays shall diverge, and move on 
for ever — refracted or reflected — but still indestructible, 
and never ceasing to fulfil their destiny — good to all whom 
the God of all wills us to cherish as friends, as brothers ! 



APPENDIX. 



Note A. p. 61. 

The great storehouse of the praises of Mary is a comparatively 
modern work, entitled the ' Glories of Mary,' by Alphonsus 
Liguori, who died in the year 1787. He wrote in Italian, but his 
book has been recently translated by " a Catholic Clergyman. '^ 

Le 'Soulas du Pecheur' was famous enough : but the * Glories 
of Mary' by Liguori, since canonised, have far outshone all pre- 
vious coruscations of similar fires. Liguori has collected every 
eulogium from previous writers, and has surpassed them in the 
extravagance of his pregnant fancy. A few extracts may be in- 



teresting. 



" But," says St. Bernard, "how can you, O Mary! refuse to 
relieve the miserable, since you are the queen of mercy ? And 
who but the miserable are the subjects of mercy? You are the 
queen of mercy, and I a sinner the most miserable of all ; since, 
then, I am the greatest of your subjects, you should take more 
care of me than of all others. Have pity then on us, O Queen of 
Mercy, and watch over our salvation. Do not tell us, O sacred 
virgin, that thou canst not assist us on account of the multitude of 
our sins ; for thy power and clemency are so great that no num- 
ber of sins can overcome them." Thou hast insuperable strength, 
lest the multitude of sins should overcome thy clemency. No- 
thing resists thy power, for the Creator esteems thy glory as his 
own. Nothing resists thy power, since thy Creator and the Creator 



376 APPENDIX. 

of all, honouring tliee, who art his mother, regards thy glory as 
his own. And," adds the saint, "the son exulting in her, as it were 
paying his debt, fulfils thy petitions." He meant to say, that 
though Mary owes an infinite obligation to her Son for havino- 
destined her for his mother, still it cannot be denied that the Son 
is under an obligation to this mother for having given him his 
human existence. Hence, as if to repay what he owes to Mary, 
Jesus, for his own glory, honours her in a special manner, by 
always hearing all her prayers. How great then should be our 
confidence in this queen whom we know to be so powerful before 
God, and at the same time so rich in mercy that there is no one 
living on this earth who does not partake of the clemency and 
favours of Mary. 

The Blessed Virgin herself said to St. Bridget : " I am the 
queen of Heaven, and the mother of mercy; I am the joy of the 
just, and the door by which sinners are introduced to God; 
neither is there on earth a sinner so accursed as to be deprived of 
my mercy. For every one, if he obtains nothing else through my 
intercession, at least receives the grace to be less templed by the 
devils than he would otherwise be." 

Mary is " a worthy mediatrix between men and God" — propterea 
Deum inter et homines mediatrix intercedens, according to St. 
Basil. Liguori expands with the theme, and handles his logic 
like a Thomas Aquinas in proving the " attributes" of Mary : 

"Mary, then, was the mediatrix of all men : but how, some 
one may ask, was she mediatrix of the angels ? Many theologians 
are of opinion that Jesus Christ merited grace even for the angels : 
then, as Jesus Christ was their mediator o'e condigno, so Mary was 
their mediatrix de corigruoy inasmuch as by her prayers through 
the merits of the Redeemer to come, she accelerated his comin"-. 
At least, by meriting de congruo to be made the mother of the Re- 
deemer, she merited for tiie angels the reparation of the angelic 
thrones, lost by the devils. She has therefore merited for them 
this accidental glory." "By or through Mary," says Richard of 
St. Victor, " the ruin of the angels is repaired, and the human 
race reconciled." And long before, St. Auiselm said: "All 
things by this virgin — per banc virginem — have been restored and 
reinstated in their first state— in sta-tura pristinum." 



APPENDIX. 377 

It is difficult to find one's way through this logic : but Liguori 
is quite at home in the labyrinth — he has found the object of his 
search — the "divinity" of his pious imagining. He proceeds : 

" It is not a mere opinion," says Father la Colombiere (a 
Jesuit), "it is the opinion of the whole world, that when Mary 
received the gift of sanctifying grace in the womb of St. Anne, 
she at the same time received the perfect use of reason, along with 
a great liglit from God, corresponding to the grace which had 
been bestowed upon her. * * * « 

" Hence, from thej^r^^ moment of her existence, Mary, grateful 
to her God, began to do all that was in her power, vegwiating 
faitlifuUij with the capital of grace which had been conferred upon 
her, and employing all her faculties to please and love the Divine 
goodness. From that moment she loved God with all her 
strength, and thus continued to love him during the nine months 
she spent in her mother's womb, and never ceased for a moment 
to unite herself always more intimately with God, by fervent acts 
of love. She was free from original stain, and was therefore 
exempt from every earthly attachment, from every irregular 
motion, from every distraction, &:c. &c. Hence, she has called 
herself the plane-tree, planted near the running waters ; " As a 
plane-tree by the water . . . was I exalted." Fccles. xxiv. 19 : 
for she was that noble plant of the Lord, that always grew beside 
the current of the divine graces. Hence she has called herself 
a vine : " As the vine I have brought forth a pleasant odour." — 
Eccles. xxiv. 23. 

Does Liguori mean that Marx/ inspired the sacred penman 
when he wrote those words ? Is this tiie result of the attribute 
given in the Litany to Mary as " Queen of the Prophets ?" 

Adopting the theory of " several respectable tlieologians" with 
regard to the geometrical progression of grace by every merito- 
rious'action, Liguori thus makes his calculation : " If, in the first 
instant, Jiary had received a thousand degrees of grace, in the 
second she had two thousand; in the third, four thousand; in 
the fifth, sixteen thousand; in the sixth, thirty-two thousand. 
We are now at the sixth instant : but when the degrees of 
grace are thus multiplied for an entire day, and^tir nine months 
[the time before her birth] consider the treasures of grace, of 



378 APPENDIX. 

merit, and of sanctity, which Mary brought into the world at her 
birth!" * * * * 

* " Some saints," adds the angelic doctor, " have grace sufficient 
to save not only themselves but many others. To Jesus Christ 
alone, and to Mary, was given grace sufficient for the salvation of 
all men : Sed, writes the saint, quando quis haberet tantum quod 
sufficeret ad salutem omnium, hoc esset maximum, et hoc fuit in 
Christo et beata Virgine. Thus, what St. John said of Jesus, 
*'of his fulness we have all received" — the saints say, in a certain 
sense, of Mary. St. Thomas of Villanova calls her, "full of 
grace, of whose fulness we all receive.'" 

We are reminded that " we receive grace from Jesus as from 
the author of grace, from Mary as a mediatrix''; and then Ber- 
nard, the seraph of hagiology, bursts upon us with the inspiration 
that totally confounds our orthodox distinction : " Consider,' 
says he, " with what tender devotion God wishes that we honour 
this great Virgin, in whom he has placed the treasure of his gifts, 
that for whatever hope or grace or salvation we receive from him, 
we may thank this most amiable queen, because all comes to us 
from her hand, and through her intercession.^' — Serm. de Aqsed. 



Note B. p. 62. 

The name "philosopher'' is of Greek origin, and signifies "a 
lover of wisdom" — an appellation modestly assumed by the wise 
men of old, objecting to the implied arrogance of the namesop^oi 
or " the wise." 1 need not explain the derivation of the word 
Jeauit. " It is believed," says Bouhours, the Jesuit, " that God 
revealed to Ignatius the name of the Society, in the meditation 
of the Two Standards, wherein he was shown the first features 
and general plan of his Order, in a martial metaphor." 



APPENDIX. 

Note C. p. 87. 
ODE COMPOSED IN THE NOVITIATE. 

A LA GRIVE. 

Belle Grive du Printems ! 
D'ou viens lu, ma chere si tot? 
C'est peut-etre les hauts vtnts 
Qui t'ont cliassee sur les eaux — 
Pour benir notre Dieu 
Qui, de Thiver fait renaitre, 
1^ Le Printems, douce saison ! 
Quand torrent de chaque creux 
Va riviere pour repaitre : 
Bref ! voila, sur vieux gazou 
Laboureur prepare cbarrue, 
Attendant la pluie des cieux 
Douce, bruinant a gouttes menues. 
Beau Soleil et belle Lune ! 
Deja commence le crepuscule — 
La montagne deja est brune, 
Car les ombres se reculent. 
Les oiseaux font tous leurs nids, 
Ou de paille ou d'autre chose — 
C'est qu'ils pensent a leurs petits, 
Comme les boutons a leurs roses. 
Le vieillard a cheveux blancs, 
Et la vieille dans la cbaumiere, 
'A genou au Tout-puissant, 
Le supplient en humbles prieres. 
Le gar9on, la jeune fille, — 

ous iuvoquent une belle vendange. 
Tous se batent denotement 
'A I'autel de la Vierge : 
Disent leurs prieres, font leurs offrandes, 
Chacun, de fieurs, ou bien de cierges, 
Pour benir leurs demandes. 
C'est alors que Ton entend 
Sur le saule ou chene grand, 
Belle Grive du Printems ! 
De ton gozier liquide 



379 



380 



APPENDIX. 



Suavites et delices 

Sans cesse decouler ! 

Tu te vois a I'onde limpide 

Quand tes ailes lu-liaut glisseut 

Pour te voir voltiger ! 

Alors c'est toi qui nous inspire 

Des doux timbres de ta lyre ! 

Viens, ma belle ! aide-moi, — 

Cbautons Dieu, d'une voix — 

A jamais beni soit ! 



PALINODE OF THE RETREAT. 

TO MAGDALEN. 
I. 

"Wbat tbougb the rose at noon shall fade. 
And droop its panting breast to die'? 

By one sweet drop of dew array'd 
'T will cheer again the evening sky. 

n. 

"Wliat though the stream by summer sun 
Be parched with cruel thirst and dry 1 

One little shower will bid it run 
And sing again its lullaby. 

III. 

What though thy heart, poor IMagdalen ! 

Was sear'd, and wither'd, and forlorn? 
Thy God did make it bloom again, 

Fresh as the virgin-dew of morn. 

IV. 

Bedash'd with Heav'n's grace, thy soul 
Did overflow with endless love — 

Then bless the sin which, though so foul. 
Such tears of blissful grief could move ! 



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VI. LHT AND LET LIVE ; OR, THE 

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LEGENDS AND EECOEDS, CHIEFLY HISTOEICAL. 

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1S 



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ir^ •■ 

IF © 1§ "S" IE W, 
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London: Printed by Stkwart & Mubhay, Old Bailey. 



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