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Full text of "[Appletons'] annual cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year: 1876-95. New series"

APPLE TONS' 



ANNUAL -CYCLOPAEDIA 



AND 



REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS 



OF THE YEAR 



1883 



EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS ; PUBLIC DOCU- 
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE, 
SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY. 






NEW SEEIES, VOL. VIII. 

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XXIII. 




NEW YORK : 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

1, 3, AND 5 BOND STREET. 

1888 



COPYRIGHT, 1884, 
BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 





D.Appleton. &: Co 



PREFACE. 



IN the present volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPAEDIA, the eighth of the New 
Series, some improvements have been introduced which it is hoped will add to 
its attractiveness and usefulness. The subjects treated have been subdivided 
with unusual care, and the use of full-face type for the heads and sub-heads 
brings them out more distinctly, and renders it easier for the reader to turn at 
once to the exact piece of information which he seeks. Increased attention has 
been given to illustration. The accounts of the wars in Egypt and Tonquin 
are each accompanied by a full-page map ; another full-page map exhibits the 
annual rainfall in every part of the United States, and a colored map shows the 
new time-system recently adopted; there is a large view of the Cantilever 
Bridge at Niagara, one of the German National Monument on the Niederwald, 
and one of the new Capitol at Albany ; the improvements in the use of gas and 
electricity are fully illustrated ; and some strange and important discoveries in 
the aberration of sound as used for fog-signals are represented by curious dia- 
grams. Portraits of the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Speaker Carlisle, Peter 
Cooper, Gustave Dore, General Gordon, Hicks Pasha, Mario the singer, General 
Sheridan, Alexander H. Stephens, Wagner the composer, and other celebrities, 
appear in their proper places. 

The report of the proceedings of Congress has been made unusually full, as 
a means of ready reference to several subjects of national interest which will be 
discussed in the Presidential canvass of 1884. 

A brief summary of the events of the year, in chronological order, is a new 
feature, serving to refresh the reader's memory as to numerous occurrences 
which could not be treated at length in a work like this. The paper-on the 
"Composition and Nutritive Yalue of Foods," and that on the " United ' States 
Fish Commission," with instructions for the propagation and preservation: of 
fish, will be found especially instructive and practical, 

Mr. Alphonso A. Hopkins, Prohibition candidate for Governor of New 
York in 1882, gives a full history of prohibition,, from the earliest times- to-the 
present day a subject that is rapidly making for itself a place in political and 
legislative affairs ; while the editor of the Salvation Army's publications gives 
an Authoritative account of that strange movement in the religious world!. The 
recent advances in chemistry, surgery, and other sciences are noted, and the 
present condition of each of the great denominations of Christians is set forth. 



vi PREFACE. 

The articles " Failures in Business," u Financial Review of 1883," and " United 
States Finances," show clearly what has taken place in the monetary world. 
These and the numerous other articles, most of which, being subjects treated 
every year, need not be specially enumerated, constitute substantially the 
world's chronicle for 1883. Those who have just lived that year amid the 
crowding occurrences of our hurrying age, will realize, as they glance over the 
record, how letters in their simplest and humblest capacity, if they can not 
bring back the past, at least may double memory, and thereby lengthen life. 

An index to the eight volumes (including the present) of the New Series 
will be found at the close of the book. An effort has been made to give it 
sufficient fullness to render all the information easily accessible, and yet not to 
overload it with needless entries that obscure the very things the reader is look- 
ing for. 

In its proper place will be found a portrait and brief sketch of the late 
"William J. Tenney, who edited this work from its beginning, in 1861, up to 
and including the volume for 1882. 

NEW YOBK, April 11, 1884. 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Among the Contributors to this Volume of the " Annual Cyclopedia " are the following . 
Wilbur O. At water, Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry in Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Conn. 

FOODS, COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIVE VALUE 
OF. 

Tarleton H. Bean, M. D., M. S., 

Curator Department of Fishes, National Museum. 
FlSH-CuLTURE. 

Marcus Benjamin, 

IT. 8. Laboratory, port of New York. 
PHARMACY, 
SUGAR. 

Linus P. Brockett, M. D. 
PAPER-HANGINGS, 
PORCELAIN, 
and other articles. 

Eaton S. Drone. 
CIVIL RIGHTS, 
LAW, CONSTITUTIONAL. 

Nathaniel H. Egleston, 

of U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
FORESTRY. 

George T. Ferris. 

LITERATURE, AMERICAN. 
A. K. Fiske. 

GREELY RELIEF EXPEDITION, 
REFORM IN THE CIVIL SERVICE, 
and other articles. 

G. Brown Goode, M. A., 

Assistant Director National Museum. 

UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 
Edward 0. Graves, 

Assistant Treasurer of the United States. 

UNITED STATES, FINANCES OF THE. 
Alfred H. Guernsey, Ph. D. 

JOHN RICHARD GREEN, 
LUTHER CELEBRATION. 

John B. Hamilton, M. D., 

U. S. Supervising Surgeon-General. 
EPIDEMICS IN 1883. 
James W. Hawes. 

ARTICLES ON THE STATES AND TERRITORIES. 
Alphonso A. Hopkins, 

Prohibition Candidate for Governor of New York in 

PROHIBITION. 
James L. Hughes, 

Toronto, Canada. 

CANADIAN ARTICLES. 
Frank Huntington. 
DANUBE, EUROPEAN COMMISSION OP, 
EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES, 
ENGINEERING, 
and geographical articles. 



Arnold B. Johnson, 

Chief Clerk of U. 8. Lighthouse Board. 

SOUND-SIGNALS. 
Charles B. Kelsey, M. D. 

CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION, 
SURGERY, 
and other articles. 

John B. Kendrick, 

Editor of the Philadelphia Carpet Trade. 
CARPETS. 

C. Kirchhoff. 
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN ARTICLES. 

Prof. Daniel Kirkwood, LL. D., 

of Indiana University. 

ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS. 

William H. Larrabee. 

AURORA BOREALIS, 
IGUANODON, 

TIME, STANDARD AND COSMOPOLITAN, 
and other articles. 

Charles M. Lungren, C. E. 
ELECTRIC LIGHTING, 
GAS-LIGHTING, 
RAILWAYS, ELECTRIC. 

Frank H. Norton. 
LITERATURE, BRITISH, 
WORLD'S FAIRS. 

George E. Pond, 

Author of " The Shenandoah Valley tn 1864." 
SHERIDAN, PHILIP -HENRY. 

John Gilmary Shea, LL. D. 
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

T. O'Conor Sloane, Ph. D. 
GAS, 
PATENTS. 

Prof. J. A. Spencer, D. D. 

COLENSO. JOHN WILLIAM, 
COOPER, PETER, 
. LITERATURE, CONTINENTAL, 
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 
and other articles. 

Rev. John F. Thompson, 

Editor of Salvation Army publications. 
SALVATION ARMY. 

I. de Veitelle. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, 
SPAIN. 

William J. Youmans, M. D., 

of the Popular Science Monthly. 
CHEMISTRY, 
METALLURGY, 
PHYSIOLOGY, 

and other articles. 



THE 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA. 



A 



AFGHANISTAN. Abdurrahman Khan, since 
he was set up by the British as Amir of Af- 
ghanistan, has struggled vigorously to con- 
solidate the Afghan state and maintain his 
rule over the loose league of turbulent clans 
which form the Afghan nation. After the 
withdrawal of the British army from Afghan- 
istan, there was no hope of preserving a close 
control over Abdurrahman, for as a puppet of 
England he would immediately become impos- 
sible. As the British nominee, he was left in 
an exceedingly difficult position. The policy 
of the Imperial Government was, to attempt 
no dictation and make no exhibition of British 
power in Afghanistan, nor even inquire too 
closely into the loyalty and friendship of the 
Amir, yet to supply him liberally with money 
and war materials, at the expense of the In- 
dian revenue, so as to enable him to buy or 
compel the submission of his vassals. " A 
strong, peaceful, and friendly Afghanistan " 
was the aim of this policy, the friendship to 
be won by large gifts and the renunciation of 
British claims to domination, which would 
encourage the Afghans to apply their united 
strength to resist Russian encroachments. Ab- 
durrahman gained possession of the fortress 
of Herat, which is the bulwark of Afghanistan 
on the west, by a prompt military movement. 
His energy, or that of his lieutenants, broke 
up the seemingly formidable power of his 
cousin and rival, Ayub. Yet the undivided 
authority of the Amir was not established in 
Herat, nor can the Heratis be counted upon 
in future complications to remain true either 
to their allegiance to the Amir, or to their 
political union with Southern Afghanistan. 
Gen. Abdul Kudus Khan, who took possession 
of Herat in the autumn of 1881, after the 
defeat of Ayub, established himself there as 
unlimited ruler, and by the mildness of his 
government won the affections of the Herat! 
people. Abdurrahman quickly re-established 
the sovereignty of the Amir in Turkistan, or 
Northern Afghanistan, as soon as he crossed 

VOL. XXIII. 1 A 



the Oxns. This great province, embracing the 
rich region on the northern slope of the Hindoo 
Koosh, was given into the hands of the Amir's 
cousin, Isa Khan, as a reward for his fidelity 
to the cause of Abdurrahman while he was 
still living as an exile in Samarcand. Isa Khan 
objected to the appointment of his former sub- 
ordinate, Kudus Khan, to the governorship of 
Herat, which post he desired for his brother, 
Mohsin. Abdurrahman would have been glad 
to please his cousins and displace the danger- 
ous officer who had implanted himself too firm- 
ly in Herat, but he dared not put his authority 
to the test. This caused an alienation between 
the Amir and his viceroy in Turkistan. Both 
the northern divisions of the country are thus 
ruled by governors who are able and ready to 
defy the commands of the Amir. The advanc- 
ing influence of Russia finds there a field which 
the misdirected efforts and sacrifices of the 
British have helped to prepare for it. 

In the southern parts of the country Abdur- 
rahman has been but little more successful in 
consolidating his power. In Cabool he rules in 
state with the aid of British gold, and Canda- 
har he holds with a tolerably firm hand. But 
the maintenance of civil order in garrisoned 
towns is a different thing from keeping in sub- 
jection and restraint the Afghan people, which 
is composed of warlike clans who have not 
yet passed out of the tribal organization of 
society, and who will accept none of the bur- 
dens and pay none of the duties 'of civil gov- 
ernment, except to unite in repelling a foreign 
enemy. In 1883 the Shinwarris, a tribe in- 
habiting the eastern side of the Sufed Koh 
range, rebelled against the authority of the 
Amir. Abdurrahman sent a force to reduce 
them to subjection, but the military operations 
accomplished nothing except to spread dis- 
affection, and the rebellious agitation extended 
to the neighboring clans, the Afridis and Mo- 
munds. The Government of British India 
came to the aid of the Amir with arms and 
ammunition. Some of these were intercepted 



ALABAMA. 



at the Khyber pass. Tbe spirit of discontent 
began to pervade the great Ghilzai nation, up- 
on whose loyalty the power of the Ainir main- 
ly rests. These warning signs impelled Abdur- 
rahman not to strain his authority, and he ac- 
cordingly withdrew the military and yielded 
to the demands of the Shinwarris. 

The British, seeing the power of the Amir 
broken in the north and threatened in the 
south, and knowing that the treasure which 
they had given him three years before, with. 
which he had established his position,- was 
exhausted, thought they could strengthen his 
hands to maintain his power and at the same 
time secure his wavering and uncertain attach- 
ment by coming to him in the hour of his need 
with the promise of a stated annual allowance 
sufficient to support his power and state. Pe- 
cuniary gifts and subsidies have been a feature 
of British policy in Afghanistan from the be- 
ginning. Dost Mohammed received, by the 
treaty of 1856, twelve lacs of rupees per an- 
num during the war with Persia, besides large 
occasional presents of money and arms. Shere 
Ali was the recipient of lavish gifts of money 
and munitions of war, and a treaty to bestow 
on him a subsidy of twelve lacs a year was 
in negotiation when his secret understanding 
with Russia was discovered, and was declared. 
Sir Louis Oavaguari, whose murder created a 
fresh rupture, was the bearer of an offer to 
Yakub Khan of half that amount per annum. 
When the British set Abdurrahman on the 
throne, they supplied him with treasure to the 
amount of over thirty lacs of rupees, or nearly 
a million and a half of dollars. The offer now 
made to Abdurrahman by the Indian Govern- 
ment, and accepted by him, was twelve lacs 
of rupees per annum. The payment of this 
large subsidy is conditional on his conforming 
his external policy to the wishes and interests 
of the British Empire. 

ALABAMA. State Government. The following 
were the State officers during the year: Gov- 
ernor, Edward A. O'Neal, Democrat ; Secre- 
tary of State, Ellis Phelan ; Treasurer, Fred- 
erick II. Smith ; Auditor, Jesse M. Carmichael ; 
Attorney-General, Henry 0. Tompkins ; Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction, Henry C. 
Armstrong. Judiciary, Supreme Court Chief- 
Justice, Robert C. Brickell; Associate Justices, 
George W. Stone and II. M. Somerville. 

Legislative Session. The Legislature, which 
w:n in session at the beginning of the year, 
adjourned near the close of February. Perhaps 
the most important act of the session was one 
"to provide for the assessment and collec- 
tion of taxes for the use of this State and the 
counties thereof, and to define the duties of 
officers engaged about the said assessment and 
collection of taxes." 

It provides a complete system, and contains 
stringent provisions requiring individuals and 




Another systematic act fixes the rate of poll 
and other taxes, the amount and kind of license 
fees, and defines the classes of taxable property. 
By an act "to establish a Department of Ag- 
riculture for the State of Alabama," a depart- 
ment of agriculture is created and established 
" which shall be under the management and 
control of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 
who shall be a practical and experienced agri- 
culturist. Said commissioner shall be appointed 
by the Governor, and shall hold his office for 
the term of two years, and until his successor 
is appointed and qualified." 

An act u to assist the University of Alabama, 
and the State Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege, in furnishing additional room for students 
and facilities for instruction," appropriates the 
sum of $90,000. It was further enacted that 
" landlords of storehouses, dwelling-houses, and 
other buildings shall have a lien for rent, upon 
such goods, furniture, and effects as may belong 
to the tenant, and that this lien shall be a supe- 
rior lien to all other liens on said goods, except 
for taxes." 

An act " to prevent monopolies in the trans- 
portation of freight, and to secure free and fair 
competition in the same," provides that " it 
shall be unlawful for two or more railroad com- 
panies or persons operating railroads in this 
State to enter into any agreement among them- 
selves, directly or indirectly, for the division 
among themselves of the freight-carrying busi- 
ness at any station, town, or city in this State, 
or into any pool arrangement among themselves 
of the nature and character aforesaid, the ob- 
ject, purpose, and effect of which in either event 
shall be to prevent free and fair competition 
among said railroad companies or persons oper- 
ating said railroads, for said freight-carrying 
business, and to establish extortionate rates in 
favor of said companies or persons in doing 
said business, and which shall have the effect 
of being in undue restraint of the trade and 
business at any such station, town, or city of 
this State " ; that u it is the true intent and mean- 
ing of this act that any such agreement rates 
or pool agreement made by any convention or 
association of freight agents, or commissioner 
of freight rates or rate-making committee out- 
side of this State, but to be performed in whole 
or in part in this State, shall as to such part of 
the same as is to be performed within this 
State, come within the provisions of this act." 

Other acts were entitled as follows: 

To regulate the hiring and treatment of State and 
county convicts. 

To regulate the business of co-operative and mu- 
tual aid and relief associations, societies, and cor- 
porations. 

To amend an act to revive and complete the Geo- 
logical and Agricultural Survey of the State of Ala- 
bama. 

To provide for the introduction of the study of the 
laws of health in the public schools of this State. 

To authorize railroad companies organized under 
the general incorporation laws to extend their lines 
and build branch roads. 

To vacate and annul the charter and dissolve the 



ALABAMA. 



ANGLICAN CHUEOHES. 



3 



corporation of the city of Selma, and to provide for 
the application of the assets thereof to the payment of 
the debts thereof. 

To prevent cruelty to animals. 

To empower the Railroad Commission of Alabama 
to recommend joint local rates on freight to railroad 
companies and persons operating railroads in this 
State. 

To provide for the comfort and accommodation of 
oassengers at each of the passenger depots along the 
line of every railroad operated by every railroad com- 
pany in this State. 

To provide that a determination of any matter by 
the Kailroad Commission within its jurisdiction shall 
be prima facie evidence- that such determination was 



right and proper, etc. 

To confer police po 
passenger-trams in this 



wers upon the conductors of 
passenger-trains in this State. 

To make appropriations for the payment of the rail- 
road commissioners and their clerk, and for other ex- 
penses of the Eailroad Commission. 

To incorporate the inhabitants and territory for- 
merly embraced within the corporate limits of the 
municipal corporation, since dissolved, styled the city 
of Selma, and to establish a local government therefor. 

To authorize private corporations to hold stock- 
holders' and directors' meetings outside of this State 
in certain cases. 

The amount of appropriations for the fiscal 
year was $1,120,435. 

Statistics. The total taxable property in Ala- 
bama in the year 1881, on which the tax 
for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1882, 
was collected, is $152,880,069.24. Of this 
amount the railroads of the State furnished 
$17,574,583. The total railroad mileage in 
Alabama is, main track, 1,788 miles; side-track, 
131 miles 1,919 in all. The total valuation of 
track is $15,801,829.78; of rolling-stock, $1,- 
762,753.89. 'The average value of the main 
track is $8,643 per mile. Of the several rail- 
roads in the State, the Nashville and Decatur 
has the highest valuation, it being $14,000 per 
mile. Of the whole taxable property, the rail- 
roads furnish over 11 per cent. Variations in 
land values, shown by the Auditor's report, are 
as numerous as the counties in the State. In 
Baldwin, the value is 65 cents per acre. Even 
in so rich a county as Barbour, the valuation 
is only $3.50 per acre ; in Cherokee, $4.50 ; in 
Escambia, less than 50 cents ; in Eto wah, $6.50 ; 
in Limestone, $5.11; in Lowndes, $5.06; in 
Madison, $6 ; in Marshall, over $4 ; in Wash- 
ington, less than 50 cents. 

The whole tax raised on property that reached 
the Treasury in the fiscal year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1882, was $651,156.83. Of this amount 
the five counties in the State paying over $20,- 
000 apiece contributed $254,351.56, or 39 per 
cent. The amounts paid by each of these coun- 
ties were as follow : 

Mobile $93,917 23 

Montgomery 71 059 34 

Dallas 36,535 2 3 

Jefferson 27,255 35 

Madison 25,58441 

The county coming next to these, but pay- 
ing less than $20,000, is Barbour, with $19",- 
185.30. The amount of licenses paid by these 
five counties is $25,998.90, or 36 per cent of 
the whole amount of license-tax. The amount 



of tax retained in these five counties for the 
school fund, which of course never reached the 
State treasury, was $43,435.25, or over 19 per 
cent, of the whole school fund. 

Adding to the tax of the counties mentioned 
that of Barbour, Bullock, Jackson, Lowndes, 
Talladega, and Tuscaloosa, all of which pay 
over $15,000, we have the eleven counties in 
the State which pay over $15,000 in direct 
taxes, paying considerably more than half the 
entire property-tax of $651,156.83. The black 
belt is still by far the richest portion of the 
State, especially if we include those black coun- 
ties which are not in the black belt proper. 

The entire tax paid by Montgomery county, 
for general purposes, for the school fund, from 
licenses and from general taxes, aggregated 
$93,383.75. The whole amount paid by Mobile 
county was $109,620.64. The next highest was 
Dallas, with $40,983. Of the $651,156.83 paid 
into the treasury from the tax on property, 
Montgomery and Mobile paid $164,976.57, or 
about one fourth. 

Congressional Election, On the 2d of January, 
Gen. Joseph Wheeler was elected, by a major- 
ity of 3,846, to fill the vacancy in the 8th dis- 
trict, caused by the death of Mr. Lowe. 

Miscellaneous. In February, Walter L. Bragg 
was chosen President of the Railroad Com- 
mission. James Crook and Charles P. Ball 
were chosen members. In January, State 
Treasurer Isaac H. Vincent absconded, leav- 
ing a deficit of about $212,000. 

ALGERIA. See FRANCE. 

AMSTERDAM EXPOSITION. See WORLD'S FAIR 
AT AMSTERDAM. 

ANGLICAN CHURCHES. An exhibit of the 
work of the Church of England, and the vari- 
ous societies co-operating with it, is given in 
"The Official Year-Book of the Church of 
England," the first volume of which was pub- 
lished in 1883, under the sanction of the Arch- 
bishops and Bishops of the English, Irish, and 
Scottish Churches, and of the lower house of 
the Convocation of Canterbury. The present 
number of dioceses in the Church of England, 
including the two archdioceses, is thirty-two. 
With them are connected 17,970 clergymen, of 
whom 11,186 are registered as "incumbents 
resident," 1,509 as "incumbents non-resi- 
dent," 387 as "curates in sole charge," and 
4,888 as "assistant curates." In communion 
with the Church of England are the Church 
of Ireland, having twelve dioceses; the Epis- 
copal Church of Scotland, having seven dio- 
ceses ; sixty colonial dioceses in America, Asia, 
Africa, Australasia, New Zealand, and other 
colonial settlements, and the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States. (See the 
article on PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.) 
The official records of the several dioceses of 
the Church of England show the number of 
ordinations to the order of deacons, during the 
ten years ending in 1881, to have been 6,560. 
The number of confirmations during the same 
period was 1,471,718. Five general societies, 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



two of them dating from the last century, aid 
theological students requiring pecuniary help ; 
besides which a few diocesan societies exist for 
the same purpose, and special funds are set 
apart in some of the theological schools. Spe- 
cial theological training is given at ten theo- 
logical schools, besides the universities. The 
Society for Promoting the Employment of 
Additional Curates returns an income of 
42,686, and supports, in whole or in part, 
620 clergymen ; the Church Pastoral Aid So- 
ciety, existing with the similar purpose of in- 
creasing the number of clergymen and lay 
agents, returns an income of 55,659, and 
maintains, wholly or in part, 540 clergymen 
and 168 lay agents. Besides these societies 
and similar diocesan organizations, societies 
exist within the Church, whose object it is to 
support agencies supplementary to clerical 
work ; and numerous special mission agencies 
are maintained in all the large centers of popu- 
lation, and among particular classes of work- 
ingmen, wherever they are congregated; in 
the army and navy; among British seamen 
abroad, at seventy foreign ports; among the 
fishermen of the Mersey and the Thames; 
among navvies, or laborers on works of pub- 
lic improvement; among hop-pickers; among 
homeless and friendless women and girls and 
abandoned women; among emigrants collect- 
ed at ports of embarkation preparatory to 
sailing; and among the miscellaneous popu- 
lations of the lower classes in the larger towns 
and cities. 

According to the report presented by Lord 
Hampton in the House of Lords in 1874, 1,727 
churches and 27 cathedrals had been built, and 
7,117 churches restored, from 1840 to that time, 
at a total cost of 25,548,703. According to a 
later return, the sum of 4,326,469 was spent 
in thirteen dioceses upon church building and 
restoration between 1872 and 1881. Among 
the larger funds in aid of this purpose are that 
of the Incorporated Church Building Society, 
which has expended for it 785,859 since 1818, 
and which granted 13,690 in 1881, and the 
Bishop of London's Fund, applicable to the 
diocese of London alone, of which 588,412 
were spent during the eighteen years ending 
with 1881. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
were the means of securing through their own 
grants and the benefactions that were called 
out to meet them, between 1840 and 1880, a 
total increase in the incomes of benefices of 
765,500, representing a capital sum of about 
23,000,000 ; and during 1881 they made 347 
grants, amounting to 26,270, to maintain as- 
sistant clergy in twenty dioceses. The Free 
and Open Church Association seeks to multi- 
ply free sittings in churches ; to spread the doc- 
trine that the offertory is an obligation " for 
which there is a direct scriptural warrant"; 
and to have the churches opened daily for pri- 
vate prayer. It is also prepared to receive and 
hold trust gifts for building, endowing, and re- 
pairing free-seated churches, and to accept in 



trust, exercise, and dispose of the patronage of 
benefices. 

The Church of England Temperance Society, 
formed in 1862, has organizations in twenty- 
nine dioceses, twenty-six of which return 2,443 
bran ch societies. Steps have been taken in later 
years for making the cathedrals more accessible 
to the people, and introducing into them ser- 
vices adapted to popular wants, and for encour- 
aging the employment of lay-readers and as- 
signing them a recognized place in the service 
of the church. Much attention has also been 
given to the sending out of earnest men and per- 
suasive speakers to interest the masses in reli- 
gious concerns, or in the work of what are called 
" Parochial Missions." The Church Parochial 
Mission Society, organized in 1873, supports 
eight preachers, and reported, in 1881, that 
more than 500 missions had been held by its 
agents. Similar enterprises are sustained by a 
number of diocesan organizations. Nine dea- 
conesses' institutions have been formed in dif- 
ferent dioceses, as homes for women who will 
devote themselves to religious work and the 
care of the sick. They returned, in 1881, 190 
nurses domiciled within them. The National 
Society for Promoting theEducation of the Poor 
in the Principles of the Established Church has 
spent, since its formation, in 1811, more than 
1,100,000 in furtherance of its object, involv- 
ing, according to the statement of its secretary, 
an expenditure of at least twelve times as much 
from other sources, for the same end. In 1881 
it returned 11,589 efficient church schools un- 
der government inspection, which afforded ac- 
commodation for 2,351,235 children, or more 
than half the school accommodation of the 
country. Thirty colleges have been established 
for the training of teachers, in which two thirds 
of the entire number of trained teachers in the 
country have received their professional edu- 
cation. Provision is made for the religious in- 
spection of the schools under the direction of 
the bishops in the several dioceses, and for the 
regular examination of students in religious 
knowledge. A society of fellows of a college 
has been formed for the promotion of middle- 
class schools; and eight such schools provide 
for the education of more than two thousand 
boys and girls. The interests of Sunday-schools 
are cared for by the Church of England Sun- 
day-School Institute, which publishes returns 
from 8,405 of the 14,466 parishes in England 
and Wales, of 16,498 Sunday-schools with 113,- 
412 teachers and 1,289,273 enrolled scholars. 
The tendencies of modern thought which are 
described under the general term of " secu- 
larism" are opposed by the Christian Evi- 
dence Society, in which the Church co-op- 
erates with other denominations, and which 
works by means of conferences and meet- 
ings, sermons, lectures, open-air lectures, in- 
struction of classes, publication and other agen- 
cies ; and by the Christian Evidence Committee 
of the Society for the Promotion of Christian 
Knowledge. 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



Missionary Societies. The principal foreign 
missionary societies of the Church are the " So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, 1 ' which was organized in 1701 
and has missions in all the British colonies 
among colonists and natives ; the " Church 
Missionary Society for India and the East," 
organized in ] 799, and having missions, chiefly 
to the heathen, in West, East, and Central Af- 
rica, Palestine, Persia, India, Ceylon, Mauri- 
tius, China, Japan, New Zealand, Northwest 
America, and the North Pacific coast and isl- 
ands ; the Zenana Missionary Society, affiliated 
with the Church Missionary Society, and labor- 
ing among women exclusively; the South Amer- 
ican Missionary Society, founded in 1844, and 
having missions in the southern part of South 
America and among Indians of the Patagonian 
race ; the Universities Mission to Central Afri- 
ca, founded in 1859, especially to take care of 
Africans freed by the British Government from 
slavery, and having its center of operations at 
Zanzibar and in the neighboring regions of 
Africa; the Oxford Mission to Calcutta, or- 
ganized in 1880 ; the Cambridge Mission to 
North India, formed in 1876; the Indian Church 
Aid Association, formed in 1880; the mission 
in the Diocese of Maritzburg, South Africa ; the 
Melanesian Mission, begun in 1848 ; the Colo- 
nial and Continental Church Society, for pro- 
viding clergymen, teachers, etc., for the colo- 
nies of Great Britain, and to minister to British 
residents in other parts of the world ; and the 
Anglo-Continental Society, instituted in 1853, 
" to serve as an organ of the Church of Eng- 
land in dealing with Christians outside of Eng- 
land." Six special colleges or mission-houses ex- 
ist for the training of missionaries, and twenty 
"Missionary Studentship Associations" have 
been formed in different dioceses. 

The Colonial Bishopric's Fund was founded 
in 1841, to promote the growth of the Church 
in the colonies and distant dependencies of the 
British Crown, by securing the endowment of 
bishoprics in them. From its foundation to 
1882 it had been the means of raising 635,311 
toward the endowment of forty-one sees. 

The London Society for Promoting Chris- 
tianity among the Jews was founded in 1809, 
and has been distinctively a Church of Eng- 
land institution since 1815. It seeks to extend 
its labors among the people of the Hebrew race 
wherever they may be found, and has mission 
stations in England, Austria, France, Germany, 
Holland, > Italy, Persia, Poland, Turkey, the 
Principalities, Asia Minor, Syria, and North 
America, with a special station, comprising 
schools, an inquirer's home, a house of indus- 
try, and a hospital at Jerusalem. It promotes 
the circulation of the Hebrew Bible, of a trans- 
lation of the liturgy of the Church of England, 
and of controversial works, and maintains 
schools in London, Warsaw, Bucharest, and 
Jerusalem. It reports that 360 Israelites had 
been baptized at Warsaw before the mission 
was broken up, and 767 adults and 784 chil- 



dren had been baptized in London up to 1881. 
Its missionaries estimate that there are now 
2,000 Christian Israelites in London, and proba- 
bly a thousand more in other parts of England, 
and that there are nearly 5,000 Jewish Chris- 
tians in Prussia. 

The ordinary increase of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 
for 1882 was 109,041. Including 33,571 ad- 
ditional of gifts for special purposes, the gross 
receipts were 142,612. The general fund had 
increased 7,805 in two years. Five hundred 
and twenty-seven ordained ministers were em- 
ployed by the society, of whom 161 were labor- 
ing in Asia, 129 in Africa, 20 in Australia and 
the Pacific, 216 in America and the West Indies, 
and one in Europe. There were also in the va- 
rious missions about 1,400 catechists and lay 
teachers, mostly natives, and about 300 students 
in colleges. An important change had been 
made in the constitution and administration 
of the society. A supplemental charter granted 
by the Crown had removed the various anoma- 
lies which in the course of 181 years had sur- 
rounded the ancient charter ; and the incor- 
porated members scattered over the whole 
country now possessed by representation that 
power in the conduct of the society's affairs 
which a very large proportion of them had not 
previously enjoyed. 

The ordinary income of the Church Mission- 
ary Society for 1882 was 200,402 ; including 
in addition the special gifts, the gross receipts 
amounted to 225,231. The total expenditures 
were 215,483. Missionary work was carried 
on at 206 stations, under the agency of 227 
European ordained missionaries, 244 native 
clergy, 44 European lay missionaries, 3,106 na- 
tive lay agents. Of 182,000 native Christian 
adherents reported, 37,391 were communicants. 
New work had been taken up, or extended, 
at the Afghan frontier, at Kok-Ning-Fu in the 
Fuhkien province of China, among the Esqui- 
maux, at Bagdad, and at Cairo, Egypt, to the 
Mohammedans. A gift of 72,000 had been 
received from Mr. W. 0. Jones f or a " William 
Charles Jones China and Japan Native Church 
and Mission Fund." 

Convocation of Canterbury. Both houses of the 
Convocation of Canterbury met for business, 
for the first time in the year, April 10th. A 
minute was unanimously adopted in the upper 
house, with the expectation that the lower 
house would concur in it, taking notice of the 
death of the late archbishop. A "statement" 
was then made by the committee, to whom 
had been referred the question of the attitude 
the Church should assume with reference to 
the movements of the Salvation Army! The 
archbishop represented "in behalf of the com- 
mittee that it had not been found possible to 
make any definite statement or recommenda- 
tion on the subject, as the committee consid- 
ered that the movements of the organization 
were still in a transitory condition, and he sug- 
gested that the committee should be consti- 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



toted as one of inquiry rather than as a com- 
mittee to make any report or recommendation. 
In the course of the discussion which followed, 
while some of the bishops thought that the 
Salvation Army was doing a good work in par- 
ticular places, and others conceded that its 
promoters were actuated by good intentions 
and motives, the general expression of opinion 
was, that many of the methods employed by it 
were unhealthful and likely to lead to immo- 
rality. The committee was reconstituted, and 
instructed to consider whether the Church 
should take any steps having particular refer- 
ence to the unsatisfactory spiritual state of 
large masses of the population, especially in the 
towns. 

The subject of the " Affirmation Bill," which 
was pending in Parliament, was brought be- 
fore the lower house upon a recommendation 
of a committee that the members of the upper 
house be requested to oppose the bill. A mo- 
tion was offered in amendment that their lord- 
ships be requested to watch the progress of 
the bill through the Houses of Parliament, in 
order to prevent its being enacted with retro- 
spective powers. Some of the members of the 
house expressed a preference of affirmations 
to oaths, on grounds of principle. Canon 
Gregory contended that the real question was, 
whether the house was anxious to support the 
introduction into Parliament of Mr. Bradlaugh, 
or whether they were anxious to prevent peo- 
ple of that description from polluting the legis- 
lature of the country. Prebendary Stephens 
considered that oath-taking was most injurious, 
in that it had a pernicious tendency to cause a 
belief in two kinds of truth oath-truth and 
ordinary truth. The proposal of the committee 
was agreed to. 

The convocation met again on July 3d. The 
following address to the upper house was adopt- 
ed in the lower house : 

The lower house of Convocation of the Province of 
Canterbury, in humble thankfulness to Almighty 
God for the rejection by the House of Lords on Thurs- 



day, June 28, 1S83 ; of the bill for legalizing marriage 
witli a deceased wife's sister, make this their dutiful 
representation and prayer to the upper house. 

They represent that there is reason to apprehend 
un immediate renewal of the agitation upon this ques- 
tion. 

^ That, inasmuch as holy matrimony is the founda- 
tion of human society ; and inasmuch as there is a 
wide-spread ignorance of the principles of Christian 
marriage, the lower house, as in love and duty bound, 
turn- to the Archbishop and Bishops in Convocation 
assembled ; earnestly praying them to exhort all who 
have cure of souls in the "province of Canterbury to 
set forth plainly, from time to time, in their addresses 
to their flocks the aforesaid principles ; as embodied 
in the Table of Prohibited Degjrees, in the 99th Can- 
on, and in the form of Solemnization of Matrimony ; 
and, in particular, to remind their people that the 
union of a man with his wife's sister has been forbid- 
den by the Church of Christ from the beginning, as 
being contrary to the Word of God. 

The lower house venture further to call special at- 
tention to the injury which would be done to the 
moral and spiritual welfare of the English people 
also to the disruption of domestic and social relations 
necessarily involved in the success of the agitation 



above referred to; and, lastly, to the grave conse- 
quences which must ensue if the law of the Church 
and the law of the state be brought into open opposi- 
tion. 

The subject was referred in the upper house 
to a committee, whose report, which was 
adopted, besides minutely setting forth the con- 
siderations on which the action was based, 
embodied a resolution to the effect that u this 
house concurs with the lower house in their 
earnest desire for the maintenance in its integ- 
rity of the Table of Prohibited Degrees, set 
forth in the year of our Lord 1563, in order to be 
publicly set up in churches by the 99th canon." 
A resolution was adopted that the Church, 
" though always insisting on the use of wine in 
the holy communion, has never prescribed the 
strength or the weakness of the wine to be 
used, and consequently it is always possible to 
deal with even extreme cases without depart- 
ure from the custom observed by the Church, 
and it is most convenient that the clergy should 
conform to ancient and unbroken usage, and 
to discountenance all attempts to deviate from 
it." 

Enthronement of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The Eev. Edward White Benson, D. D., Bishop 
of Truro, having been nominated by the Queen, 
was formally elected Archbishop of Canterbury 
at a special session of the Dean and Chapter of 
the See, Jan. 28th. The election was confirmed 
by the Bishop of London and a commission of 
bishops of the Southern Province, March 3d. 
The new archbishop was enthroned with im- 
posing ceremonies at the Cathedral of Canter- 
bury, March 29th. The proceedings were par- 
ticipated in or witnessed by a large assemblage 
of clergy and laity, and home, colonial, and 
foreign bishops, among whom the Duke of 
Edinburgh represented the royal family, and 
Bishop Littlejohn. of Long Island, the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church in the United States. 

The Ritualistic Controversy. The late Arch- 
bishop Tait, of Canterbury, a short time before 
Ins death, in December, 1882, had devised and 
partly carried into effect a plan for indirectly 
removing from the courts the suit against the 
Rev. A. H. Mackonochie, of St. Alban's, who 
was still under prosecution for contumacy, 
hoping that one of the results of his action 
might be to help allay the ritualistic agitation. 
He induced Mr. Mackonochie to resign his bene- 
fice in the interest of the peace of the Church, 
while the Bishop of London offered him an- 
other benefice, that of St. Peter's, London 
Docks, at the same time transferring the in- 
cumbent of that benefice to Mr. Mackonochie's 
former parish of St. Alban's. The Church As- 
sociation refused to acquiesce in this proceed- 
ing. It published a statement showing that 
illegal acts were still practiced at St. Alban's 
and St. Peter's, and addressed resolutions of 
protest against the fulfillment by the Bishop of 
London of the compromise which had been 
arranged. The Bishop of London replied to 
these resolutions : 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



If, by refusing to accept Mr. Mackonochie's resig- 
nation, I had defeated the late archbishop's dying 
desire and effort to promote the peace of the Church, 
I could never have forgiven myself"; nor could I have 
expected the forgiveness of the great bulk either of 
the clergy or of the laity of England, whether within 
the Church or without it. I am not aware that the 
bishop has the power to require from a duly qualified 
clergyman, the sufficiency of whose learning he has 
no reason to doubt, any conditions of admission to a 
benefice, when presented by the rightful patron, other 
than the production of testimonials signed by three 
beueficed clergymen and the oaths and declarations 
prescribed by law. 

If there are those who, knowing as I do the good 
and self-denying work done among the poor and igno- 
rant by such men as Mr. Mackonocnie and the late Mr. 
Lowder, are yet, on account of differences in disci- 
pline and doctrine (the seriousness of which I do not 
wish to extenuate), unable to appreciate or afraid to 
acknowledge it, I can not sympathize with them 1 
can only pity them. 

A memorial was addressed to the bishop by 
the Canons of Durham, Peterborough, Carlisle, 
and Ripon, and others, in which exception was 
taken to the institution of Mr. Mackonochie, 
because by reason of it the recent legal de- 
cisions against ritual (ritual openly acknowl- 
edged to be preparatory to the restoration of 
the sacrifice of the mass) had apparently been 
rendered nugatory; because by it disloyalty to 
the formularies, articles, and homilies of the 
Church of England had received tacit encour- 
agement from her highest officers; becauss his 
lordship's action in the matter would appear to 
the public to be inconsistent with law and or- 
der; and because the illegalities of ceremony 
which had been practiced at St. Alban's would 
seem to them to have received episcopal sanc- 
tion and approval. Hence a most injurious 
effect would be produced upon the Church and 
nation, an.l a strong weapon placed in the 
hands of the enemies of the Church of Eng- 
land, for the furtherance of their designs to 
procure its disestablishment. 

Mr. Mackonochie was formally installed in 
the benefice of St. Peter's, London Docks, on 
Jan. 21st, when he read himself into the vicar- 
ship and subscribed to the Thirty-nine Articles 
of the Church of England. 

The suit against Mr. Mackonochie, which 
had been before the law courts in various 
phases for nearly fifteen years, was contin- 
ued, notwithstanding the exchange of bene- 
fices which it was hoped would lead to a 
cessation of proceedings. The final judgment 
in the case, by Lord Penzance, was given 
July 21st. The question before his lordship 
was now whether Mr. Mackonochie should 
be deprived of all ecclesiastical promotions in 
the province of Canterbury. The defendant 
had been admonished by the Court of Arches 
repeatedly for his illegal ritualistic practices 
at St. Alban's, Holborn, and had treated the 
orders of the court with contempt. He had 
therefore been ordered to be committed. In 
the mean time an exchange of livings had been 
effected between Mr. Mackonochie and the 
Rev. Mr. Suckling, incumbent of St. Peter's, 
London Docks. The case was remitted to the 



Dean of Arches by the Judicial Committee of 
the Privy Council for a " definitive sentence " 
to be passed, it having been decided that a 
sentence of suspension would be inadequate, 
because it had once before been pronounced, 
and Mr. Mackonochie had discharged it, and 
that a sentence of deprivation was the only 
one applicable. In the present case, however, 
the issue was more complicated than usual, 
the ordinary form of sentence being inapplica- 
ble in consequence of the defendant having 
ceased to hold the living of St. Alban's, Hoi- 
born, in which the offense had been com- 
mitted. The court had to consider whether a 
decree of deprivation had become impracticable 
by the course the defendant had adopted of re- 
signing the benefice with respect to which the 
suit had been instituted. After a careful ex- 
amination of authorities, Lord Penzance came 
to the conclusion that it, had not. A depri- 
vation of the defendant was then decreed from 
all his ecclesiastical promotions in the province 
of Canterbury, among which is included the 
living of St. Peter's, London Docks. An ap- 
peal may still lie to the Privy Council. 

The parish of St. John's, Miles Platting, hav- 
ing become vacant by the deprivation of the 
Rev. S. F. Green for contumacy in ritualism, 
the patron of the benefice presented the Rev. 
Mr. Cow gill, Mr. Green's former vicar, for the 
incumbency. The Bishop of Manchester re- 
fused to institute Mr. Cowgill unless he would 
obligate himself to conform to the cathedral 
standard of services, and this Mr. Cowgill, in 
turn, refused to do. The patron notified the 
bishop that if he persisted in his refusal to 
institute Mr. Cowgill, he (the patron) would 
be driven to one of two alternatives : either to 
seek in a court of law to protect his right of 
patronage, which he, had exercised to the best 
of his judgment, or to ask Mr. Green to re- 
ceive back his resignation, the bishop having 
refused to accept it, and to take his old place 
at the rectory. The bishop replied that he 
saw nothing in the patron's letter to modify 
or change the resolution he had come to not 
to institute Mr. Cowgill, and added : " I deeply 
regret that it should be so ; but there is a 
peace which may be too dearly purchased, and 
in my opinion it would be so in this instance 
if it were purchased by the surrender of all 
law and authority in the administration of the 
discipline of the Church of England." Ad- 
dresses expressing sympathy with him, and 
satisfaction at his course, were sent to the 
bishop from different sources, to one of which 
he replied : 

With you, in the course which I have felt it my 
duty to pursue, I " desire no party triumph." _ But the 
principle of obedience to law, when authoritatively 
declared, seems to me to need to be vindicated ; and 
again I agree with you in thinking that to institute to 
a benefice a clergyman who would continue the same 
illegal ceremonial acts for which the former incum- 
bent had been deprived, would be a stultification of 
the law which the common sense of the country would 
not tolerate. If I am wrong in my conception of my 
duty, the law, which is appealed to, will set me right, 



8 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



and to its decision, when duly pronounced, I am pre- 
pared to bow. Meanwhile, I am anxious, as far as 
may be, without raising partisan passion or animosity, 
calmly to await that decision. 

To another address he replied : 

My course of action has not been dictated by any 
desire to strain the principles of episcopal authority, 
but simply to secure obedience to the law, as the only 
guarantee of the stability of our beloved church, and, 
indeed, of the rights and liberties of churchmen. 

In May, the Archbishop of York issued a 
monition to the Rev. G. C. Ommanney, Vicar 
of St. Matthew's, Sheffield, directing him to 
discontinue eight specified ritualistic prac- 
tices. The archbishop's requirements were 
as follow : 

1. To use pure wine, and not wine mixed with water, 
in the holy communion. 2. To use ordinary wheaten 
bread in all celebrations of the holy communion, and 
not bread pressed so as to resemble wafer bread. 3. So 
to proceed in the acts of the holy communion that the 
congregation may see his acts. 4. To refrain from pros- 
trating or bowing low over the elements at the time of 
celebration. 5. To refrain from making the sign of the 
cross over the elements at the time of celebration. 6. To 
discontinue the ceremonial of elevation of the paten and 
the cup. 7. To permit no person not licensed by the 
archbishop to officiate in any manner at the holy com- 
munion , whether such person be caDed server or by any 
other title; and 8. That the washing and cleaning of the 
vessels used in the holy communion shall not take place 
in the service, but in some place apart. 

The observance of these rules was demanded 
in virtue of the vicar's promise of canonical 
obedience. Mr. Ommanney, in a published let- 
ter, declared that he did not intend to abandon 
the eastward position, the mixing of water and 
wine at the communion, and the washing of the 
chalice ; but that, in order to promote peace in 
his parish, he was willing to give up making 
the sign of the cross and other practices that 
did not interfere with his conscientious con- 
victions. 

The Archbishop of York, in a letter to the 
church- wardens of the parish on the subject 
of the monition, pointed out that no person 
had a right to interfere and put a stop by force 
to ceremonies in churches. 

Reorganization of Ecclesiastical Courts. A royal 
commission was appointed in May, 1881, to 
inquire into the constitution and working of 
the ecclesiastical courts under existing stat- 
utes. The principal object of its work was to 
frame a plan for such a reconstitution of the 
courts having cognizance of ecclesiastical mat- 
ters as would remove the objections entertained 
by a large party in the Church to having ques- 
tions of doctrine and ritual decided by lay 
judges. An analysis of the report of the com- 
mission was published in August. The essen- 
tial features of the scheme proposed in it are 
the establishment of an exclusively ecclesiasti- 
cal jurisdiction in the courts of first instance 
and the postponement of the intervention of 
lay authority to the court of final resort. Un- 
der its provisions, the Diocesan Court and the 
Provincial Court, which were practically de- 
stroyed by the Public Worship Regulation Act, 
will be restored to their original vitality. 



While by the Public Worship Regulation Act 
the co-operation in prosecution of three ag- 
grieved parishioners was required as initiatory 
to the beginning of proceedings against a cler- 
gyman charged with offending in doctrine or 
ritual, the act proposed by the commission 
makes the right to begin an action open to 
any one, and unrestricted. It is then left dis- 
cretionary with the bishop whether he shall 
allow the complaint to be prosecuted or shall 
stop it at once. If it is allowed to proceed, the 
bishop may, with the consent of the parties, 
deliver a final judgment ; if this consent is not 
given, the case is carried before the Diocesan 
Court. This court will consist of the bishop, 
with the chancellor of the diocese, or some 
other person learned in the law, as legal as- 
sessor, and a theological assessor to be chosen 
for the occasion by the bishop, with the ad- 
vice of the dean and chapter. From this court 
an appeal may be taken to the Provincial 
Court, where it may be heard, at the discre- 
tion of the archbishop, by the official principal 
of the province, or by the archbishop himself, 
with the official principal as assessor, in which 
case the archbishop is empowered to appoint 
any number of theological assessors, not ex- 
ceeding five, to sit with the court. The theo- 
logical assessor must be either a bishop within 
the province, or a professor, past or present, of 
one of the English universities. From the 
Provincial Court an appeal will lie to the 
Crown, which is to exercise its prerogative 
through an entirely new court, composed of 
" a permanent body of lay judges, learned in 
the law," of whom not less than five shall be 
summoned for each case, by the lord chancel- 
lor, in rotation. In doctrinal cases, this court 
may, only on demand of one or more of its 
members, consult experts, namely, the arch- 
bishop or bishops of the province, or of both 
provinces. The court shall not be bound to 
give the reasons for its decisions ; but, if it does 
state its reasons, each judge shall deliver his 
own judgment separately ; and only the bare 
words of the decree shall be legally binding. 
On this feature of the proposition, the report 
furnishes the explanation: "Considering how 
widely different a matter the legal interpreta- 
tion of documents must often be from the defi- 
nition of doctrine, we hold it to be essential 
that only the actual decree, as dealing with the 
particular case, should be of binding authority 
in the judgments hitherto or hereafter to be 
delivered, and that the reasoning in support of 
those judgments and the obiter dicta should 
always be allowed to be reconsidered and dis- 
puted." Should a clergyman refuse to obey 
the sentence of a church court, he is to be pun- 
ished, not by imprisonment, but by a tempo- 
rary suspension. A second disobedience shall 
be followed by another suspension, and diso- 
bedience for the third time by suspension until 
the court is satisfied. Disobedience to a sen- 
tence of suspension may be visited, after three 
months' notice, with deprivation ; and any cler- 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



9 



gyman who, during suspension or deprivation, 
attempts to conduct divine service in a church 
forbidden to him, may be charged with dis- 
turbance of public worship. The practical 
effect of the act, if it is adopted by Parliament, 
will be to repeal the Public Worship Regula- 
tion Act, and restore the old courts to their 
pristine vigor. By its provisions, the Dean of 
Arches is to be elected, and to be required to 
qualify in the ancient way. All spiritual sen- 
tences are to be pronounced by the bishop in 
person in the Diocesan Court, and by the arch- 
bishop in the Provincial Court. And the two 
primates are to be empowered, if they think 
fit, to appoint the same person as official prin- 
cipal for both provinces. 

Some of the features of the scheme of the 
commission have been criticised in the dis- 
cussions to which it has been subjected. Eight 
of the 23 members of the commission itself ex- 
pressed objections to the power of vetoing the 
continuance of proceedings given by it to the 
bishop. Among these are the Lord Chief- 
Justice and the Archbishop of York. The 
archbishop remarked, in expressing his dissent, 
that under the operation of this rule the courts 
might be entirely closed to laymen. The Lord 
Chief-Justice, while he admitted that the power 
of prosecution might be liable to abuse, if no 
trammels were put upon it, thought it better 
to run the risk of abuse than to override the 
rights of the laity, and expressed himself per- 
fectly confident that "competent judges, with 
absolute power of costs, would very soon re- 
strain, and indeed altogether put an end to 
merely frivolous litigation." Similar objec- 
tions were made by the Church Association, 
which devoted the entire session, of its autum- 
nal conference in October to the discussion of 
the report. Besides this point, a number of 
speakers at the Church Congress, and the chair- 
man of the Church Association, offered objec- 
tions to the feature of the constitution of the 
final court of laymen. The Executive Com- 
mittee of the Liberation Society has published 
a statement of objections to the proposed 
measure. It deprecates the investment with 
judicial authority of bishops and judges ap- 
pointed by the archbishops, so long as the 
Church continues f o be a national establish- 
ment, and protests against the recommendation 
that the members of the courts shall declare 
themselves to be " members of the Church of 
England as by law established," as involving a 
civil disqualification on ecclesiastical grounds, 
as placing members of the Church of England 
on a different footing from Nonconformists in 
regard to the administration of justice, and as 
being inconsistent with the position of .that 
Church as a national institution. 

The Liberation Society. The triennial confer- 
ence of the Liberation Society was held May 
1st. Mr. H. P. Richard, M. P., presided. The 
report represented that the friends of religious 
equality, who had waited during the abnormal 
pressure on Parliament, now claimed that the 



question of disestablishment should be dealt 
with by the Legislature. The educational work 
of the society during the past three years had 
been carried on on a large scale. As many as 
3,074,000 publications had been issued, and 
1,247 meetings had been held. During the 
course of the meetings Mr. John Bright made 
a speech censuring the Established Church for 
inefficiency. He discussed the questions, Is 
the state the better for its union with the 
Church? or is the Church the better for its 
union with the state ? The theory of many 
supporters of the union was that the Church 
tends to make the state more Christian that 
is, more just and gentle, more merciful and 
peaceful. That theory the speaker declared 
to be "unsound and baseless." The bishops 
of the Established Church in the House of 
Lords had never exercised their influence in 
behalf of Christian and generous legislation. 
In respect to the criminal code, when it was 
most barbarous, the bishops and the clergy 
never raised a voice against the cruelty of the 
laws. The Church had provided no check, and 
uttered no denunciation of the country's inces- 
sant wars. " I complain, then," he added, u of 
the Established Church in this broad manner, 
that it does nothing to guide the state in the 
way of righteousness; that it is, in certain re- 
spects, the bond-slave of the state ; that, in all 
the great matters which must affect our coun- 
try, the bishops and the clergy are dumb, and 
their activity is shown only when any com- 
paratively small measure is discussed which 
they think treads a little upon their position 
and their supremacy." He predicted a better 
future for the Church as a church, and as an 
object of popular affection, after it shall have 
been disestablished. 

The Church Congress. The Church Congress 
met at Reading, Oct. 2d. The Bishop of Ox- 
ford, being the bishop of the diocese in which 
the congress was held, presided, and delivered 
the opening address. He spoke of the subjects 
which would engross the attention of the meet- 
ing as being such as men of academic culture, 
serious thinkers, and ardent seekers after knowl- 
edge might properly discuss. The statement of 
them implied no foregone conclusion, and as- 
sumed no contradiction to exist between the 
great generalizations of science and the Chris 
tian faith. Believers in the one source of truth 
and life, the members of the congress could not 
conceive of any physical discovery which should 
destroy that faith ; but they did not, therefore, 
separate themselves from the votaries of sci- 
ence, or ask them to be untrue to themselves ; 
but rather believed that the seeming contra- 
dictions would disappear. The president also 
spoke of the subjects relating to social morality 
that were upon the programme of the congress, 
particularly on the one concerning the proposi- 
tion to repeal the prohibition of marriage with 
a deceased wife's sister. He knew, he said, 
the bishops were threatened with expulsion 
from the House of Lords because they refused 



10 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



to support a measure of which its friends could 
not give an intelligible account. He was not 
tenacious of temporal honors, and he hoped 
they would not forfeit their place by coward- 
ice, political corruption, slavish adherence to a 
party, or subserviency to a court. He, however, 
** should feel no sense of shame if the bishops 
gave the vote which was fatal to themselves in 
defense of the purity of English homes, and 
the teaching of the word of God." Papers on 
" Recent Advances in Natural Science in Re- 
lation to the Christian Faith " were read by 
Prof. Flower, the Bishop of Carlisle, and the 
Rev. Aubrey Moore. The general expression 
of the discussion was to the effect that the 
newly developed theory of evolution, irrespect- 
ive of its scientific value, which was regarded 
favorably, had nothing in it contrary either to 
the idea of an intelligent Creator or to the 
Bible. The Bishop of Carlisle affirmed that 
recent advances in natural science do not lead 
logically, and therefore ought not to lead at 
all, to either unbelief or atheism. The Rev. 
Aubrey Moore asked whether it is too much 
to believe that the time will come when we 
shall see in evolution, modified perhaps by 
wider knowledge conditioned certainly by 
truths drawn from another sphere a fuller 
revelation in nature than now seems possible 
for man of the wonderful works of God? On 
the subject, " Recent Advances in Biblical 
Criticism in their Relation to the Christian 
Faith," papers were read by the Rev. T. K. 
Cheyne on "Old Testament Criticism," by 
Prof. Sanday on " New Testament Criticism," 
and by Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson and Canon 
Rawlinson on " Historical Discovery." 

Special interest was taken in the discussions 
on "the Marriage Laws," in view of the pend- 
ing applications for relaxing the restrictions 
upon marriages of affinity. The speakers all 
opposed the relaxation sought. 

The subject of " Ecclesiastical Courts " was 
discussed during two sessions, with especial ref- 
erence to the report of the commission on the 
reorganization of those courts. Among the 
speakers were Dr. Hayman, Canon Trevor, Mr. 
Sydney Gedge, Lord Edward Churchill, the 
Rev. Dr. Porter, Prof. Burrows, of Oxford, 
the Bishop of Winchester, Mr. W. G. F. Philli- 
more, the Rev. Dr. Hay, of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States, and Mr. 
Beresford-IIope, M. P. Two points elicited 
differences of opinion. They were the pro- 
posed constitution of the Court of Final Ap- 
peal of Laymen, and the provision in the plan 
projected by the commission for allowing the 
bishop a veto on the initiation of proceedings 
in the courts. Other subjects discussed in the 
congress were the prevention of pauperism, 
"personal religion," education in the universi- 
ties and in the public schools, and " the rela- 
tions of the Church at home to the Church in 
the colonies and in missionary dioceses." 

Woman's Work. A session was given to the 
ubject of woman's work in connection with 



the Church. A suggestion by one of the speak- 
ers that women engaging in organizations for 
dealing with sorrow and misery should take 
vows of celibacy, was met by a proposition by 
the Bishop of Lincoln that the ceremony should 
be postponed till the women are sixty years 
old. The subject of the promotion of personal 
purity, and the prevention of the degradation 
of women and children, was considered in a 
private session. 

Kpiscopal Synod of Canada. The Anglican 
Church of British North America is divided 
into two provincial synods, one of which is 
composed of the Dioceses of Canada and the 
Maritime Provinces, with the Bishop of Fred- 
ericton as metropolitan ; and the other, con- 
stituted in 1873, includes the Dioceses of the 
Northwest Territories, with the Bishop of 
Rupert's Land as metropolitan. 

The Provincial Synod of Canada met in tri- 
ennial session in Montreal, September 12th. 
The Dioceses of Nova Scotia, Quebec, Toronto, 
Fredericton, Ontario, Montreal, Huron, and 
Niagara, were represented by their bishops 
and by delegates. The Rev. Charles Hamil- 
ton, of Quebec, was elected prolocutor of the 
synod. The Central Board of Domestic Mis- 
sions presented its first triennial report. It 
showed that the eight dioceses had during the 
past three years contributed $34,396 to the 
work of domestic missions, and $23,878 to 
the mission fund. The principal objects of 
missionary work were in Algoma and the 
Northwest. The Central Board of Foreign 
Missions reported that its receipts for the past 
three years had been $6,743. The report of 
the board closed with a recommendation that 
it be amalgamated with the Board of Domestic 
Missions; and a proposition was introduced 
for the organization of a Domestic and For- 
eign Missionary Society of the Church of Eng- 
land in Canada. A memorial from the Diocese 
of Niagara requested the enactment of a canon 
for the promotion of greater uniformity in the 
rubric worship of the Church. The committee 
to which the subject was referred reported 
that it was at present impossible to frame in 
the dogmatic form of a canon what should be 
considered legal or illegal in the private minis- 
trations of ritual, but that clergymen should 
be advised to submit to the ruling of their 
bishops in all matters connected with worship 
as to the legality of which doubts are enter- 
tained, or controversy shall have arisen. The 
Diocese of Montreal sent in a memorial, set- 
ting forth its claims to be the metropolitan 
see, averring that it had never ceased to pro- 
test against the action of the Provincial Synod 
in appointing another than the Bishop of 
Montreal as metropolitan, as illegal, and ask- 
ing for a reconsideration of the question. No 
change was made in the present rule, which 
vests the selection of the metropolitan in the 
House of Bishops. A committee appointed 
to consider the subject of the employment of 
women in the work of the Church reported, 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



H 



recommending the recognition of deaconesses 
and sisterhoods. Objection being made to the 
feature of sisterhoods, the synod, " adopting 
the principle of the desirability of making 
arrangements for the better employment of 
Christian women in the work of the Church," 
but without binding itself to the provisions 
of the report, referred it back to the commit- 
tee to prepare a canon on the subject to be 
presented at the next session. Satisfaction 
was expressed at the success of the recent 
Church Congress, with the declaration that 
the organization and conduct of such bodies 
ought to be free from any synodical action. 

The first Church Congress of the Episcopal 
Church in Canada was held at Hamilton in 
June. The Bishop of Niagara presided, and 
the meeting was attended by a number of 
clergymen from the United States. Among 
the subjects considered were those of clerical 
education, the attitude clergymen should oc- 
cupy toward popular literature and recrea- 
tion, "Lay Co-operation," "the Revised Ver- 
sion of the New Testament," " Modern Doubts 
and Difficulties," " Woman's Work in the 
Church," and " Church Music." 

Anglican Churches in South Africa and Australia. 
The question whether the Diocese of Natal, 
South Africa, shall be continued has been raised 
by the death of Bishop John William Colenso. 
Bishop Colenso was, in 1863, declared by the 
Bishop of Cape Town to be deposed from his 
office for certain heretical doctrines which he 
was found to have published. The validity of 
the act of deposition was not established, and 
the Colonial Assembly of Natal, in 1872, passed 
an act vesting in Bishop Oolenso the property 
belonging to the See of Natal. In the mean- 
time, the Diocese of Maritzburg had been 
founded in 1869, with jurisdiction extending 
over the colony of Natal, and conflicting with 
the jurisdiction claimed for the Bishop of Na- 
tal. If the bishopric of Natal were allowed 
to lapse, the conflict of jurisdictions would 
be quietly terminated. The authority of the 
Bishop of Maritzburg is recognized by the other 
South African dioceses, while that of the Bishop 
of Natal is acknowledged only by those imme- 
diately connected with the diocese. The Dio- 
cese of Natal includes seven clergymen, all but 
two of whom were ordained by Bishop Colen- 
so after he was excommunicated, with fifteen 
churches, three of which are closed and two 
are connected with native work, while two are 
in the hands of the Diocese of Maritzburg. 
The latter diocese has thirty-four clergymen, 
seven of whom are missionaries to the heathen, 
while three others have native work, superin- 
tended by themselves, going on in their par- 
ishes; and thirty-two churches, seven of which 
are devoted to native work. 

The bishopric of Sydney, which includes the 
metropolitan ate and the Episcopal primacy of 
Australia, having become vacant, the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury and York and the Bish- 
ops of Durham, Rochester, and Liverpool have, 



on request, recommended the Rev. Canon Al- 
fred Barry, D. D., Principal of King's College, 
London, as a suitable candidate for the office. 

Anglican Church in Norway. The foundation- 
stone of an English Episcopal church has been 
laid in Christiania, Norway. The ceremonies 
were superintended by Sir Horace Rumbold, 
the British minister resident at the court of 
Norway and Sweden, and were witnessed by 
the Norwegian Minister of State and other 
members of the royal government, and the ec- 
clesiastical, military, and civil authorities. 

ANTISEPTICS. See SUKGERY. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. Area. Since the set- 
tlement of the boundary question with Chili, 
in October, 1881, the Argentine territory em- 
braces an area of 1,168,682 square miles. Be- 
fore that settlement, the republic was credited 
with but 841,000* square miles (including the 
undisputed portion of the Gran Chaco), Pata- 
gonia having then been treated as a separate 
region. 

Population. In no other country in the west- 
ern hemisphere, save the United States, has 
the population grown so rapidly as in the Ar- 
gentine Republic. From 620,730 in 1836, it 
had reached 1,526,738 (an increase of 146 per 
cent.) in 1869; and in an official publication 
issued in September, 1882, it was estimated at 
2,942,000, as follows: 



PROVINCES, ETC. 


Population. 


Capitals. 


LlTTOBAL OB ElVEKINK PfiOV- 

INCE8. 


907 000 




Corrientes . . . v 


204.000 


Corrientes 


Entre-Rios . . 


188,000 


Concepclon del 


Santa F6 


187,000 


Uruguay. 
Santa Fe 


ANDINE PBOVINOES. 
Catamarca 


102000 


Catamarca 


LaEioja 


87,000 


La Kioja. 


Mendoza 


99,000 


Mendoza. 




91 000 




CKSTTBAL PBOVINCES. 
Cordoba 


820,000 


C6rdoba 


San Luis 


76,000 


San Luis 


Santiago del Estero 


158000 




Tucuman 


178 000 


Estero. 


NOBTHEBN PBOVINOES. 


66000 




Salta 


167 000 


Salta 


TERRITOBIES 


112.000 




Total 


2 942 000 











Of the total number of inhabitants, as given 
in that table, the classification by nationalities 
was as follows : 2,578,255 Argentine citizens; 
123,641 Italians; 55,432 French ; 59,022 Span- 
iards; 8,616 Germans; 17,950 English; -and 
99,084 of various other nationalities. 

* Details concerning territorial divisions, population, etc., 
may be found in the '-Annual Cyclopedia" for 1872, 1877, 
and 1878. 

t The new capital of this province, La Plata, was founded 
Nov. 19, 1882, on the banks of the river of the same name, 
and thirty miles southeast of Buenos Ayres, the latter city 
having been constituted the Federal capital by the law of Sept. 
21, 1880. 



12 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



The estimated population of the city of Bue- 
nos Ayres was, in September, 1882, 295,000; 
and those of other important cities as follows : 
C6rdoba, 39,651; Rosario, 32,204; Tucuman, 
24,237. 

Immigration. By the terms of the "homestead 
law," enacted Oct. 6, 1876, inducements were 
loffcred with a view to attract Europeans to the 
shores of the republic.* 

In pursuance of a new decree of May 16, 
1883, passage-money was advanced to 135 im- 
migrants in that year. A new and prosperous 
colony in the fertile region surrounding Bahia 
Blanca, in southern Buenos Ayres, bids fair to 
make of that seaport at no distant day " one 
of the great centers of Argentine commerce." 
The already rapid growth of the settlement 
will be materially enhanced on the completion 
of the railway between Buenos Ayres city and 
Bahia Blanca, the northern half of which line 
is now in operation to Olavarria. Of the older 
colonies may be mentioned those of Santa F6, 
sixty-eight in all, with an aggregate population 
of 55,143 (in 1883); and Entre-Rios, number- 
ing seventeen, with 9,905 inhabitants. The 
Santa F6 colonists, besides other products, har- 
vested upward of 1,000,000 bushels of wheat 
in 1882. 

The following table exhibits the nationality 
and number of the immigrants who landed at 
Buenos Ayres in 1879, 1880, 1881, and 1882 : 



NATIONALITIES. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1889. 


Italians. 


22,774 
8,422 
2149 
788 
717 
490 
1,760 
23 
78 
47 
7 
15 
17 
51 
861 


18,416 
8,112 
2,175 
583 
5S1 
445 
819 
84 
57 
54 

's 

11 
21 

292 


20,506 
8,474 
8,612 
1,149 
685 
591 
495 
78 
140 
11 
10 
84 
28 
72 
648 


29,587 
8,520 
8,882 
826 
948 
1,128 
672 
108 
188 
11 
5 
26 
14 
226 
410 


Spaniards 


French 


Enirllsh.. 


Swiss 




Aastrian.s 


Portuzuese . . 


BeltfaVs.... 


DttftM 


Dutch 


Russians 


Greeks and Turks 
Americans .. . 


Various 


Total 


82,702 


26,643 | 81,463 


41,041 



The number of arrivals for 1883 was 63,325. 

GoTernment, Pnblie Officers, te. The President 
of the Republic is Lieut.-Gen. Don Julio A 
Roca (inaugurated Oct. 12, 1880), and the Vice- 
President, Don Francisco Madero. 

The Cabinet was composed of the following 
Ministers: Interior, Don Bernardo de Irigoyen; 
Foreign Affairs, Don Francisco Ortiz; Finance, 
Don Virtorino de la Plaza; Justice, Public 
Worship, and Public Instruction, Dr. Eduardo 
Wilde ; War and the Navy, Gen. Don Benia- 
min Victories. 

The governors of the several provinces, etc., 
were: 

Buenos Ayres Dr. D. Rocha 

Oatamarca Don .1. Acuna 

^nloba Don G. Gavier'. 

Corrientes Don A. 8oto 

Entre-Rios Col J. Antelo. 

* An abstract of this "homestead law," or "colonization 
WH," was ylren In our Volume for 1877, p. 29. 



Jujuy Don E. Tello. 

La Rioja Don B. Jaramillo. 

Mendoza Don J. M, Segura. 

Salta : . Don M. 8. Ortiz. 

San Juan Don A. Gil. 

San Luis Don Z. Concha. 

Santa F6 Don M. Zavalla. 

Santiago del Estero Don L. G. Pinto. 

Tucuman Don B. Paz. 

Gran Chaco Territoiy Col. F . Bosch. 

Patagonia. Col. L. Winter. 

Misiones Col. E. Roca. 

The Argentine Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States 
is Dr. Don Luis L. Dominguez (accredited in 
1882) ; and the Argentine Consul-General (at 
New York) for the American Union, is Don 
Carlos Carranza. 

The United States Minister Resident in the 
Argentine Republic is Gen. Thomas O. Osborn ; 
and the United States Consul at Buenos Ayres 
is Mr. E. L. Baker. 

Army. The Argentine army in June, 1883, 
comprised, exclusive of the National Guard, 
6,787 men, as follows : 3,500 foot, 2,474 horse, 
and 815 artillery. There were 4 lieutenant- 
generals, 14 generals of division, 50 colonels, 
127 lieutenant- colonels, 142 majors, and 742 
officers of other grades. The National Guard 
was 315,850 strong. The military academy 
had, in 1882, 14 teachers and 123 students; and 
the military school (for non-commissioned offi- 
cers) 6 teachers and 68 pupils. 

Navy. The navy, in June, 1883, was com- 
posed of 39 vessels, namely : 3 steam-ironclads, 
6 gunboats, 7 torpedoes, 2 steam-transports, 
3 cruisers, 6 other steam-vessels, and 12 sail- 
of-the-line, with an aggregate tonnage of 12,- 
630, and an armament of 55 guns, and manned 
with 1 rear-admiral, 2 chiefs of squadron, 3 
colonels, 9 lieutenant-colonels, 9 majors, 20 
captains, 32 lieutenants, 45 second-lieutenants, 
63 students, 23 midshipmen, 20 paymasters, 
48 engineers, 23 physicians, 2 almoners, 20 
pilots, 1,505 seamen, 1,737 marines (including 
officers), and a torpedo division 137 strong. 
In the foregoing enumeration is not included 
the flotilla of the Rio Negro, comprising 3 
steamers and 3 steam-launches. 

The naval school had, in 1882, 17 teachers 
and 69 students; and another school, for sea- 
men, had 9 teachers and 43 pupils. 

The navy, like the army, is recruited by vol- 
untary enlistment for a fixed period. 

Education. The cause of popular education 
continues to be zealously fostered by the Ar- 
gentine Government, than which none has dis- 
played more untiring energy in its efforts to 
insure the benefits of rudimentary instruction 
to the youth of all classes of society. In the 
budget for 1883 the cost of this department to 
the state was estimated at $2,190,430.88. 

There were in the republic, in 1882, 2,023 
educational establishments of all grades, with 
an aggregate of 4,097 teachers, and a total of 
136,928 pupils. Primary instruction was given, 
in 1881, at 1,985 schools, national, provincial, 
municipal, and private, by 3,544 teachers to 
128,919 children. But as, from a bare statement 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



13 



of the number of primary schools, no precise 
idea of the status of rudimentary education can 
be derived, the following comparative statistics 
are transcribed from the report of the Minister 
of Public Instruction for 1882 : Assuming the 
population of the republic to be 2,500,000, and 
the proportion of the children between the ages 
of six and fifteen to be 20 per cent., we should 
have: 

Children fit to attend school 500,000 

Actual number attending public primary- 
schools 99,968 

Estimated number attending private pri- 
mary schools 100,000 

Estimated number home-taught 10,000 



Total number possessing or acquiring 

primary education 

Total number illiterate . . . 



Total... 



500,000 

Yet these figures attest a notable improvement 
when compared with those for 1872, in which 
year but 81,183 children, out of a total of 
468,987, attended school. 

Finance. Contrary to the almost general 
rule in Spanish America witness Mexico, Cos- 
ta Rica, Honduras, and principally Peru the 
Argentine Republic, while rapidly extending 
her already considerable railway and telegraph 
systems, and otherwise facilitating transpor- 
tation to and from the seaboard, not only ac- 
complishes this without sacrifice to the nation- 
al credit, but seldom fails to render such mate- 
rial improvements subservient to the financial 
prosperity of the country. Thanks to this sys- 
tem, and to punctuality in the service of the 
national debt and in the payment of interest 
thereon, Argentine bonds, first quoted at a 
premium in December, 1881, have rarely de- 
scended below par since that year. 

The budget estimates for 1883 were: reve- 
nue, $29,576,000; expenditure, $31,224,749, 
whereby there would be a deficit of $1,648,- 
749. 

The subjoined tables, which are transcribed 
from official returns published this year, ex- 
hibit the branches of the national revenue and 
expenditure, and the amounts of each, as esti- 
mated in the budget for 1884 : 



Import duties $20,600,000 

Additional duties 670,333 

Exportduties $3,080,000 

Additional duties 513,000 

Warehouse fees 

Stamped paper 

Licenses \\ 

Direct taxes 

Post-Office ....'..'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.' 

Telegraphs [ ' '_ ' 

Lighthouses, etc 

Sanitary Department 

Forests '//.'. 

"Water- works 

Railways ". ' 

National Bank shares 

Wharfage ' '. ' 

Penitentiary 

Mint '/. 

Sundries . . . 



$21,270,833 



Total 




EXPENDITURE. 

Ministry of the Interior $6,950,714 09 

u Foreign Affairs 871,70000 

" Finance 13,788,93627 

" Justice, Public Worship, and Pub- 
lic Instruction 4,291,671 40 

"War and the Navy: 

War-Office $6,150,924 72 

Navy Department 2,549,537 88 

8,700,462 60 

Total .$34,053,484 85 

Estimated deficit for 1884 $283,151 

The actual showing of the Finance Depart- 
ment for 1882 was unusually favorable; for, 
as Gen. Roca observes in his message to Con- 
gress in May, of a revenue of $26,763,985.27, 
but $25,354,996.76 were required for the ordi- 
nary expenditure of the administration. " The 
surplus, $1,408,988.51, together with $3,712,- 
962.54, the proceeds of the treasury notes is- 
sued under the law of Nov. 3, 1881, the $2,- 
312,704.16 balance in the treasury at the end 
of that year, and other funds resulting from suc- 
cessful credit operations, was applied to reduce 
the balance overdue on our debt, thus placing 
the treasury in a position to discharge within 
a few days all our old accounts." The consoli- 
dated national debt, according to the Presi- 
dent's statement, amounted on Dec. 31, 1881, 
to $82,048,004.50, and to $94,565,787.90 at the 
end of 1882, in which latter year the principal 
of the debt was reduced by $3,625,257.13, and 
increased by new emissions to the amount of 
$14,283,788.50. Gen. Roca affirms that the 
reduction just alluded to was a real diminution 
of the country's indebtedness, while the four- 
teen million increase represented only the 
transformation of existing debts or the defray- 
al of productive outlays on works the yield of 
which would be more than sufficient for the 
amortization of the bonds emitted. " At the 
end of the present year " (1883), adds the 
President, " the 6 per cent, consolidated debt, 
with a small portion at 8 and 9 per cent., will 
have been reduced to $75,418,201.31. The 
amount paid annually on the national debt 
(principal and interest) is $8,979,061.51. 
Should the conversion * which I proposed to 
Congress last year be sanctioned, we should 
only require to dispose of 5 per cent, bonds 
to the amount of $88,727,295.66, at the price 
of 85 per cent, (the rate taken as a basis by 
the committee on ways and means), for the ex- 
tinction of those debts. And if the emission 
were made without a sinking fund for a term 
of twenty or twenty-five years, the annual ser- 
vice would only call for $4,436,364.78. The 
advantages accruing from either of these plans 
are apparent, and would enable us to carry on 
numberless works of public utility without 
burdening future generations with such debts 
as have been handed down to us and were con- 
tracted to defray the expenses of wars abroad 
and internecine strife." The President referred 
to the urgent need of a national bank law 
similar to that existing in the United States. 
Up to March 31, 1883, there were delivered 
* See the "Annual Cyclopaedia" for 1881, p. 25. 



14 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



from the mint 5,755,257 coins (gold, silver, 
and copper), representing an aggregate of $4,- 
154,519.16, and most of which was to replace 
the fractional paper currency, the withdrawal 
of which from circulation was decreed on Nov. 
5, 1881. 

The following tables exhibit the sources, 
destinations, and values respectively of the Ar- 
gentine imports and exports for the year 1882 : 

FROM IMPORTS. Value.. 

Belgium $2.775,735 

Bolivia 128,688 

Brazil 2,084,298 

Chili 15.185 

France 1 1 ,798,701 

Great Britain' !! ! .... is!924'l28 

Holland 978,011 

Italy 2.822,301 

Paraguay 1404.347 

Portugal 85,555 

Spain 2,812,409 

United States 4,930,417 

Uruguay 2,799,592 

West Indies 120,367 

Other countries 8,839,712 

Total (for 1832) $59.270,866 

Against (for 1881) 54,029,649 

Increase in 1882 $5,240,717 

TO EXPORTS. values. 

Belgium $13,901,460 

Bolivia 318,605 

Brazil 2,092,219 

Chili 1,463,078 

France 15,869,992 

Germany 4,648,995 

GreatBritain 7,879,582 

Holland 65,660 

Italy 1,620,931 

Paraguay 70,341 

Portugal 28,780 

South Africa 

Siain 

United States ! ! 

Other countries I" *"M." "!.*ill.'!i 8|3I2l223 

$58,440,905 

56,069,104 

Increase (in 1882) $2,371^801 

The exports and imports for the first ten 
months of 1883 were of the respective values 
of $35,532,486 and $50,176,456. against $34,- 
325,245 and $41,217,972 respectively for the 
corresponding period of 1882. 

The trade in transitu for 1882 was as follows : 



TOIE8 - 



Totala 



Inward - 



$12,888,585 



$17,057,917 



0nt L 



$1,802180 
i',287,059 



$17,057,917 



Argentine territory, unburdened by any such 
tax as Peru used and Chili continues to exact, 
and with the great additional advantage of 
ready access to the Atlantic seaboard. In 
November, 1883, Bolivian explorers announced 
the navigability of the Pilcomayo river through- 
out, which circumstance, with the completion 
of the Northern Central Railway, will establish 
easy communication between the two countries. 
The export branch of this trade consists chiefly 
of bismuth, tin, silver, silver-ore, etc., while 
the imports are European manufactures. 

Thus, the foreign commerce of the republic 
for 1882 was of the aggregate value of $117,- 
711,271, constituting an increase of $7,612,518 
as compared with 1881. On comparing the 
value of the imports and exports for each of 
these two years, it will be seen that the bal- 
ance of trade for 1882 ($829,461) was against, 
while that for 1881 ($1,039,455) was in favor 
of the republic. It has been officially objected, 
however, that the unfavorable showing for 
1882 is rather apparent than real, since of the 
value of the imports $4,513,638 were for " ar- 
ticles of a productive character, such as rail- 
way materials, machinery for industrial pur- 
poses, and a large quantity of tools and agricul- 
tural implements." Among the more extensive 
consumers of Argentine products, as shown by 
the foregoing table of exports, France stands 
first, Belgium second, Great Britain third, 
Germany fourth, and the United States fifth. 
In the table of imports, those same countries 
range in the following order as shippers to the 
republic: Great Britain first, France second, 
the United States third, Germany fourth, and 
Belgium fifth. The imports from Germany, 
the United States, and Great Britain are steadi- 
ly increasing, while those from Belgium and 
France fluctuate from year to year ; and the 
exports to Germany and France, and particu- 
larly to the former, have increased, while 
those to the other three countries have fluctu- 
ated during the seven years 1876-'82. 

Of the aggregate trade imports and exports 
of the republic with all countries for the sep- 
tennial period 1876-'82, the subjoined table ex- 
hibits the proportions represented by each of 
the five countries just referred to : 

Chief among the competitors of the United 
States, as a supplier of the Argentine Republic, 
is Great Britain. 

The American articles shipped most exten- 



Bolivia, now 



agricultural instruments ($528,046, the total 
from al1 COUI1 tries having been $727,807) ; ker- 



, ow an , 

channe forLr f,S ** C l emer1 *' osene ($363,139) ; books and other printed mat- 

ier foreign commeroe_ftrougfater98,826); machinery ($126,588); manufact- 

~~~ 






Belgium 
France 
Germany 
Great Britati 






S-4 



1878. 






P" cent. 



oo 
22'4 

8'9 



188O. 



Percent. 

16 ' 2 
28-4 

4'7 



Percent. 

15 ' 5 

23'7 

6'6 



Percent. 

14 '1 
23'5 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 



15 



ured tobacco ($120,339) ; clocks and watches 
($30,347, against $24,006 from France, and $14,- 
926 from Great Britain). Of American musical 
instruments of all kinds, but $5,939 worth were 
sent to the republic in 1882. American ma- 
chinery is fast gaining favor, no fewer than 
sixty-two locomotives having been ordered ot 
a single Philadelphia firm in 1882, while the 
total number imported from the United States 
in the year previous was but seven ; and exten- 
sive orders for rolling-stock, particularly draw- 
ing-room cars, were also given in 1883. Indeed, 
there is a growing appreciation of things Ameri- 
can in the Argentine Republic. 

The imports of specie in 1882 were $2,683,- 
327. and the exports, $2,225,082 ; against $4,- 
157,648 and $2,991,305 respectively in 1881. 

Chief among the Argentine export staples is 
wool; the quantity shipped in 1882 was 111,- 
009,796 kilogrammes, of the value of $29,033.- 
000, against 89,259,122 in 1876. Next in im- 
portance after wool are hides, of which but 
1,945,427, of the value of $8,286,000, were ex- 
ported in 1882, against 2,325,866 in 1876 ; then 
follow sheep-skins (22,353,021, of the value 
of $4,095,000 in 1882, against 27,597,973 for 
1876); jerked beef, 26,996,613 kilogrammes, 
$3,756,000; tallow, $2,699,000: maize, 107,- 
327,155 kilogrammes, $2,141,000; live cattle, 
94,649, $1,478,000; linseed, 23,351,794 kilo- 
grammes, $1,650,000; bones, ores, etc. 

Agriculture, etc. Until within a few years an 
importer, the Argentine Republic is now an ex- 
porter of wheat in constantly increasing quan- 
tities: 1,705,292 kilogrammes in 1882. Sugar- 
culture is rapidly developing in Tucuman, Sal- 
ta, Jujuy, Santiago, Corrientes, and in parts of 
the Gran Chaco and Misiones. The total su- 
gar-crop for 1882 was estimated at 11,615,000 
kilogrammes. Tucuman nowgrowsl7,500 acres 
of cane, giving work to thirty-four mills. The 
vine is extensively cultivated ; Catamarca, in 
1881, produced 1,200,000 gallons of wine, val- 
ued at $108,000 ; and, in 1882, San Juan pro- 
duced 5,236,186 gallons, valued at $1,107,275. 
But the main sources of the country's wealth 
are cattle rearing and sheep-farming. There 
were in the republic, at the beginning of 1883, 
93,000,000 head of sheep, while Australia's 
flocks numbered but 72,000,000, and those of 
the United States, 41, 000,000; of horned cattle 
there were 16,000,000 in the republic; and of 
horses, about 5,000,000. The statistics of these 
industries, for the single province of Buenos 
Ayres, were given in the census returns of Oct. 
9, 1881, as follow : Sheep, 57,838,073 ; horned 
cattle, 4,754.810 ; horses, 2,396,469; hogs, 
155,134; goats, 7,612. 

Shipping Movements. The shipping movements 
at the various ports of the republic were as be- 
low, in 1882 : 

Entered: FOREIGN TRADE. 

Steamers, 8.040, with an aggregate of 1,104.927 tons. 

Bailing-vessels, 8,031, " " 423,121 " 

Cleared : 

Steamers, 2,742, " u 1,080,214 " 

Sailing-vessels, 2,023, " " 867,925 " 



The distribution of the foreign carrying- 
trade by flags was as follows : British, 31 per 
cent.; French, 16; Argentine, 13; Italian, 9; 
Uruguayan, 9 ; German, 6 ; Brazilian, 4 ; Nor- 
wegian, 4; Spanish, 3; American, 2; Belgian, 
1 ; others, 2. 

COASTING AND FLUVIAL TRADE. 
Entered : 

Steamers, 6,002, with an aggregate of 1,351,468 tons. 

Sailing-vessels, 15,725, " " 478,465 " 
Cleared : 

Steamers, 6,012, " " 

Sailing-vessels, 16,195, " " 



The distribution of this trade by flags was : 
Argentine, 57 per cent. ; British, 24 ; French, 
9 ; Uraguayan, 3 ; Paraguayan, 2 ; others, 5. 

"We have no merchant navy," writes a na- 
tive statistician, " unless that name be given to 
a few hundred barges, lighters, and schooners, 
which, with Italian and Austrian crews, ply 
on our rivers and carry the Argentine fiag just 
as they might carry the Turkish." 

Railways. The railways in operation, and in 
process of building, at the end of 1883, were as 
follow : 



Central Argentine (Rosario to Cordoba) . . 
Northern Central (Cordoba to Tucuman). 

Northern Central (Tucuman to Jujuy) 

Northern Central (branch from Frias to 

Santiago) 

Northern Central (branch from. Eecreo to 

Chumbicha)* ... 

Andine (Villa Maria to La Paz) 

Andine (La Faz to San Juan via Mendcza} 
Western (Buenos Ayres to Bragado, and 

branches to Pergamino and Lobos). . . 

Western (extensions) 

Southern (Buenos Ayres to Altamirano, 

and branches to Olavarria and Tandil) 
Southern (Olavarria to Eahia Blanca). . . 
Northern (Buenos Ayres to El Tigre). . 
Ensenada (Buenos Ayres to Ensenada). 
Campana (Buenos Ayres to Campana). . 

Eastern (Concordia to Ceibo) . 

Puerto Euiz and Gualeguay 

Eosario to Candelaria 

Transandinef (Mercedes in Buenos Ayres 

to Mercedes in San Luis) 

Santa Fe Colonial 



Kilometres Kilometres 



Totals 2,950 2,567 



In 

operation. 



546 



470 



515 



679 

'85 

58 

81 

ICO 

10 



840 



.255 



386 



578 
100 



Tramways. At the end of 1882 there were 
in the capital five tramway or horse-car lines, 
which, covering an aggregate of 95 miles, and 
with 1,001 employes, carried an average of 51,- 
740 passengers daily. There were also lines in 
some of the smaller towns of the province of 
Buenos Ayres; C6rdoba city had two lines, 
and Rosario one. 

Telegraphy. The total length of the Argen- 
tine telegraph lines at the end of 1882 was 13,- 
543 kilometres, of which 10,772 belonged to 
the Government; there were 202 offices, and 
the number of dispatches transmitted through- 
out the year was 509,928, of which 71,838 

* From Chumbicha the line is to be extended southwest to 
La Kiqja, and northeast to Catamarca. 

t This line will open direct communication between Buenos 
Ayres and Santiago, the capital of Chili, and so .between the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 



16 



ARIZONA. 



were official. By Dec. 81, 1883, 1,727 addi- 
tional miles of Government line were com- 
pleted. 

Telephone. In December, 1882, there were 
two telephone companies in Buenos Ayres, 
with 1,500 subscribers. 

Post-Offlee. In 1881 the number of letters 
that passed through the post-office was 9,723,- 
740, of which 2,380,065 were official ; and 
that of packages of printed matter, 6,132,374, 
of which 1,191,046 were to or from foreign 
countries. 

Improvements. The much-needed work of 
improving the condition of the ports, which is 
"still almost the same as at the arrival of the 
first Spanish settlers," says President Roca, 
was continued actively during the past year. 
The canalization of the Riachuelo, at Buenos 
Ayres, was sufficiently far advanced in Janu- 
ary, 1883, to admit vessels of 1,120 tons reg- 
ister, and the intention is to prepare the har- 
bor for craft of all sizes. 

ARIZONA. Territorial Government, The fol- 
lowing were the Territorial officers during the 
year : Governor, Frederick A. Tritle ; Secre- 
tary, H. M. Van Amain ; Chief-Justice of 
Supreme Court, Charles G. W. French ; Asso- 
ciate Justices, Wilson W. Hoover and Daniel 
H. Pinney. 

General Condition. During the past two years 
the advancement of the Territory, both with 
regard to wealth in the development of profit- 
able industries and increase of population, has 
been remarkable. The Territory can now claim 
75,000 people and over $20,000,000 of taxable 
property ; and while the progress of its civili- 
zation and the development of its resources 
have been opposed by most serious difficulties, 
it is now safe to say that those dangerous and 
disturbing elements are well under control. 
During the past two years exceptional devel- 
opment has been made in all industries, mining, 
grazing, and agricultural ; extensive railroad 
enterprises have been successfully completed ; 
and the affairs of the Territory generally are 
exceedingly prosperous. 

The <rreat natural facilities of the country 
for stock-raising and wool-growing are begin- 
ning to be understood, and large droves of cat- 
tle and sneep are being driven in from the 
neighboring States and Territories. 

The valleys along the principal water-courses 
yield magnificent crops of grain, fruits, and 
vegetables, and even the mesa or table-lands 
adjacent will grow almost everything with a 
sufficient water-supply. The valleys of the 
(iihi and Salt river are being rapidly settled. 

Beyond the making of flour and lumber the 
manufacturing interests of the Territory are in 
their infancy. Some of the native plants fur- 
nish excellent material for the manufacture 
of paper, coarse cloths, mats, ropes, and other 
articles. No attempt has been made to utilize 
this raw material, although it is known that 
the aborigines have succeeded, in their crude 
way, in making rdpes of fair quality. 



Mining. Since the building of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, mining has made rapid prog- 
ress, and now Arizona stands second on the 
list of silver-producing States and Territories. 

Eight years ago the bullion yield of the Ter- 
ritory was but a little over $100,000, while 
now it stands third on the list in its yield of 
the precious metals. 

According to the best information at hand, 
the production of Arizona in gold and silver 
for the four years ending Dec. 31, 1882, was as 
follows : 

1879 . . . $1,942,403 I 1881 $8,198,766 

1880 4,472,471 | 1832 9,298,267 

A large quantity of rich ore and base bullion 
which finds its way out of the country is not 
included in the above. It is safe to estimate 
the value of such ores and bullion at 10 per 
cent- of the figures given. 

From careful estimates it is believed that 
Arizona's yield of gold and silver for 1883 will 
exceed $12,000,000. 

As near as can be ascertained, the copper 
yield of the Territory for the past three years 
has been as follows : 

Pounds. 1 Pounds. 

1880 2,000,000 1882 15,000,000 

1881 5,000,000 I 

The estimated yield for 1883 has been placed 
at from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 pounds. 

The combined value of the silver and copper 
product for 1883 will be between fifteen and 
sixteen million dollars. 

Agrienltnre and Grazing. Irrigation is neces- 
sary to the raising of a crop in Arizona. It is 
estimated that there are at the present time 
between 60,000 and 70,000 acres under cultiva- 
tion in the Territory, and that the quantity of 
grain (wheat, barley, and corn) produced dur- 
ing the year was nearly 60,000,000 pounds. In 
the valleys of the Gila and Salt rivers alone 
there are 400,000 acres which can be brought 
under cultivation, of which only about one 
tenth is now utilized. Two crops a year can 
be grown. After the wheat or barley is har- 
vested, corn is planted. There are at present 
about 30,000 acres under cultivation along the 
Salt river, yielding, in 1883, 14,000,000 pounds 
of wheat, and 18,000,000 pounds of barley. Of 
fruit-trees there are nearly 40,000, and over 
300,000 vines in bearing. Alfalfa is sown ex- 
tensively, and yields three cuttings during the 
season, averaging two tons to the acre at a 
cutting. The number of cattle in the Territory 
is about 280,000, an increase of more than 300 
per cent, during the past two years. It is esti- 
mated that the area of grazing-land in the 
Territory will reach 60,000 square miles. The 
country north of the thirty -fourth parallel is 
well adapted to the raising of sheep. The 
number of sheep in the Territory is placed 
at. 300,000, and the yearly clip at 2,400,000 
pounds. 

As near as can be ascertained, the number 
of horses, mules, and hogs in the several coun- 
ties is as follows : 



ARIZONA. 



ARKANSAS. 



17 



COUNTIES. 


Horses. 


Mules. 


Hogs. 


Yavapai 


10,000 


2000 


1,000 


Maricopa 


5000 


2000 


TOOO 


Cochise 


4000 


3000 


500 




8,000 


1,000 


500 


Final 


2000 


1 000 


600 


Gila 


1000 


800 


300 


Yuma 


800 


300 


200 


Mohave 


1,000 


500 




Pima 


6000 


2500 


1 000 


















Total 


32,800 


12600 


11,100 











The School System. No Territory of the Union 
has a .better school system than Arizona. All 
children of school age are compelled to attend 
the public schools, and the expenses are borne 
by a direct tax on the people. A superintend- 
ent is elected every two years. In each county 
the probate judge is ex-officio superintendent 
of the schools of his county. According to 
the latest census, the number of schools was 97. 

The total revenue for school purposes in the 
Territory, for 1882, was $101,967.35. 

There are many small communities that fail 
to receive any advantage from the school fund, 
owing to the necessity of only organizing schools 
with a large number of pupils. The number of 
children of school age is nearly 10,000. 

Railroads. Arizona is now in possession of 
two transcontinental railroads. The South- 
ern Pacific enters the Territory at Yuma, and 
crosses nearly along the line of the thirty-sec- 
ond parallel. Its length through the Territory 
is 389 miles. From Benson, 40 miles east of 
Tucson, the Arizona and New Mexico Railroad 
branches from the Southern Pacific and runs 
southward to Gnaymas, on the Gulf of Califor- 
nia. The length of this road through Oochise 
and Pima counties is about 65 miles. The 
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad begins at Albu- 
querque, New Mexico, and strikes westward, 
following very nearly the line of the thirty- 
fifth parallel, to Colorado river. Its length 
through the Territory is about 350 miles. This 
road opens up the great coal-beds and the 
grand timber-belt of the Mogollon mountains. 
This great forest is nearly 200 miles in length 
by 60 in width, and contains some of the finest 
timber in the United States. There is also the 
Clifton and Lordsburg road, now nearly com- 
pleted, running in this Territory a distance of 
about 60 miles, and furnishing an outlet to a 
very rich mineral and grazing region. Other 
roads have been projected, and some are un- 
der way. In connection with these roads there 
is over a thousand miles of telegraph lines. 

The Indian Question. One of the greatest 
drawbacks to the prosperity of Arizona has 
been found in the hostile Apaches. Up to 1874 
they terrorized the entire Territory, kept out 
immigration and capital, and had life and prop- 
erty virtually at their mercy. In that year 
they were placed on a reservation, where those 
of them who are not absent in Mexico yet re- 
main. It was supposed that an end had been 
put to Indian troubles, but the raids of the 
VOL. xxiii. 2 A 



past two years have shaken the feeling of se- 
curity. 

There are in Arizona about 25,000 Indians 
occupying lands reserved to them by the Gen- 
eral Government. A large part of them are 
self-supporting, although about 5,000 depend 
almost entirely upon the Government. The 
tribes occupying the Territory are the Huala- 
pais, Yum&s, Papagoes, Pimas, Maricopas, Mo- 
haves, Navajos, Ava Supies, and Moquis ; also 
various branches of the Apache family, who 
have been placed upon the San Carlos Reser- 
vation. With the exception, perhaps, of the 
Hualapais and Yumas, these Indian tribes oc- 
cupy some of the finest spots in the Territory, 
covering a vast area. The Hualapais and Yu- 
mas occupy reservations that are almost entire- 
ly barren lands. The principal dissatisfaction 
upon the San Carlos Reservation came from the 
Chiricahuas, and in April, 1882, it resulted in 
an open rebellion. On the morning of April 
19th Loco's band of Chiricahuas broke out, and, 
after killing the chief of police, entered the 
valley of the Gila, and it is estimated that sixty 
industrious citizens were killed. The military 
force of the Territory was so small and so scat- 
tered that the raid was continued almost with- 
out interruption until the Indians reached the 
boundary line between Arizona and Sonora. 
Gen. Wilcox, then in command of this de- 
partment, moved his forces with great activity, 
and the General of the Army, as well as the 
Secretary of War, responded promptly by send- 
ing more troops into the field, and several en- 
gagements took place within a few miles of the 
Sonora line, in which a number of the Indians 
were killed. 

The survivors, supposed to number about 
500, took up their abode in the Sierra Madre 
mountains, in Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. 
They remained quiet until March, 1883, when 
a small number of them raided through South- 
eastern Arizona and Southwestern New Mexi- 
co, killed a number of citizens, and stole a 
large amount of property, returning to Mexico 
without receiving any punishment. 

Gen. George Crook visited Sonora and Chi- 
huahua and arranged with the authorities there 
to take a military force into Mexico for the 
purpose of capturing these Indians. He found 
them encamped in the Sierra Madre moun- 
tains, but npon his approach many of the fight- 
ing men fled. An engagement was had, and 
some Indians killed. Quite a large number of 
men, women, and children were captured. With 
these the general returned and placed them 
upon their reservation. 

Lawlessness and the depredations of " cow- 
boys" and "rustlers," who at one time held 
portions of the Territory in a condition of ter- 
rorism, have succumbed in a large degree to 
law and order. 

ARKANSAS. State Government. The State offi- 
cers during the year were as follow : Govern- 
or, James H. Berry, Democrat; Secretary of 
State, Jacob Frolich ; Auditor, A. W. Files ; 



18 



ARKANSAS. 



Treasurer, W. G. Woodruff, Jr.; Attorney-Gen- 
eral, 0. B. Moore ; Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, W. E. Thompson ; State Land Com- 
missioner, W. P. Campbell. Judiciary, Su- 
preme Court : E. H. English, Chief-Justice ; W. 
W. Smith and John R. Eakin, Associate Jus- 
tices. Chancellor, D. W. Carroll. 

Legislative Session. The Legislature met on 
the 8th of January, and adjourned on the 28th 
of March. The State was redistricted for con- 
gressional purposes as follows : 

1st district, the counties of Randolph, Clay, Green, 
Lawrence, Sharp, Independence, Jackson, Craighead, 
Mississippi, Pomsett, Cross, Crittenden, St. Francis, 
Lee. Phillips, Desha, and Chicot. 

2d district, the counties of Dorsey, Lincoln, Grant, 
Jefferson. Arkansas, Monroe, Prairie, Lonoke, Wood- 
ruff, White, Faulkner, Conway, Pope, Van Buren, 
Stone, and Cleburne. 

3d district, the counties of Polk, Howard, Sevier, 
Little River, Pike, Hempstead, Miller, Lafayette, Co- 
lumbia, Nevada, Clark, Hot Spring, Dallas, Ouachita, 
Calhoun, Union Bradley t Drew, and Ashley. 

4th district, the counties of Crawford, Franklin, 
Johnson, Sebastian, Logan, Scott, Yell, Perry, Gar- 
land, Saline, Pulaski, and Montgomery. 

5th district, the counties of Benton, Washington, 
Madison, Carroll, Boone, Newton, Searcy, Marion, 
Baxter, Fulton, and Izard. 

An act was passed to provide for revising 
and digesting the statutes. Another act pro- 
vides that " the charters and all the amend- 
ments thereto of all municipal corporations 
within this State, designated as cities of the 
second class and incorporated towns, may be 
surrendered, all offices held thereunto abol- 
ished, and the territory and inhabitants thereof 
remanded to the government of this State in 
the manner hereinafter provided." 

An act was passed to establish the county 
of Cleburne from portions of Van Buren, In- 
dependence, and White counties. 

An important enactment was the following: 

That if any person belie \-ing himself to be the 
owner, either in law or equity, under color of title has 
peaceably improved, or snail peaceably improve any 
land, which upon judicial investigation shall be de- 
cided to belong to another, the value of the improve- 
ment made as aforesaid, and the amount of all taxes 
which may have been paid on said land by such per- 
son and those under whom he claims, shall be paid 
by the successful party to such occupant, or the per- 
son under whom or from whom he entered and holds, 
before the court rendering judgment in such proceed- 
ing shall cause possession to be delivered to such suc- 
cessful party. 

The principal law of the session, relating to 
the liquor-traffic, provides : 

That any person owning or using or controlling any 
house or tenement of any kind, who shall sell or give 
awav or cause or allow to be sold or given away any 
alcohol, ardent or vinous spirits or malt liquors, any 
compound or tincture commonly called bitters or ton- 
ics, whether the same be sold or given away, openly 
or secretly, by such device as is known as " The Blind 
Tiger," or by anv other name or under any other de- 
vice, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and' if any per- 
son shall obtain any such alcohol, ardent or vinous 
spirits, or malt liquors, or any compound or tincture 
commonly called bitters or tonics, in any house, room 
or tenement so owned, occupied, or controlled by an- 
other, by going therein or thereto, and by call, sound 
word, or token, it shall be prima facie evidence of the 



guilt of the person who so owns, occupies, or controls 
such house, room, or tenement ; or, if any persons 
are allowed to pass through or into any room or place 
so owned or controlled or occupied by another, and 
there obtain such alcohol, ardent or vinous spirits, or 
malt liquors, or any compound or tincture commonly 
called bitters or tonics, it shall be deemed presump- 
tive evidence of the guilt of the party who owns, con- 
trols, or occupies such house or room. 

Other acts passed were as follow : 

For the better regulation of the system of letting 
and subletting of lands, and for the punishment of 
persons for violations of the provisions of this act. 

Making the stealing of cattle, hogs, sheep, and goats 
a felony, and prescribing the punishment. 

To provide now railroads shall unite, cross, intersect, 
or join other railroads. 

To prevent the sale of obscene literature. 

Requiring compensation for causing death by wrong- 
ful act, neglect, or default. 

The following article was proposed as an 
amendment to the Constitution of the State, to 
be voted upon at the next general election : 

ARTICLE XX. The General Assembly shall have no 
power to levy any tax, or to make any appropriations 
to pay either the principal or interest, or any part 
thereof, of any of the following bonds or the State, or 
the claims, or pretended claims, upon which they may 
be based, to wit : Bonds issued under an act of the 
General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, entitled 
" An act to provide for the funding of the public debt 
of the State," approved April 6, A. D. 1869, and num- 
bered from 491 to 1,860, inclusive, being the " funding 
bonds," delivered to F. W. Caper, and sometimes 
called " Holford bonds," or bonds known as .railroad 
aid bonds, issued under an act of the General Assem- 
bly of the State of Arkansas, entitled " An act to aid 
in the construction of railroads," approved July 21, 
A. D. 1868, or bonds called "levee bonds," being 
bonds issued under an act of the General Assembly 
of the State of Arkansas, entitled " An act providing 
for the building and repairing the public levees of the 
State and for other purposes," approved March 16, 
A. D. 1869 ; and the supplemental act thereto, approved 
April 12, 1869 ; and the act entitled " An act to amend 
an act entitled ' an Act providing for the building and 
repairing of the public levees of this State,' " approved 
March 23, A. D. 1871, and any law providing for any 
such tax or appropriation shall be null and void. 

United States Senator Garland was re-elect- 
ed. 

Finances. The total amount of warrants 
drawn by the Auditor for the two years end- 
ing September 30, 1882, was $1,356,392.80, of 
which sum $498,382.63 was used in paying the 
current expenses of the State government for 
the two years. 

During the two years the 10 per cent, bonds 
of the State, known as the Baxter war bonds, 
amounting originally to $280,443.02, were re- 
deemed and canceled. 

There is now outstanding only about $50,000 
in State scrip. 

On the subject of the State debt, and the 
condition of the State's finances, Treasurer 
Woodruff says: "The redemption of the ten- 
year_ bonds, and the near absorption of the 
floating (scrip) debt, place the State in better 
financial condition than at any time since 1860. 
. . . Taking as correct the estimate of the 
bonded debt contained in statement No. 18, 
the acknowledged debt was, October 1, 1882, 



ARKANSAS. 



19 



$5,078,692. Of this amount, $2,495,500 bears 
interest at the rate of 6 per cent., and $22,000 
at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum ; $6,200 
bears no interest, and will be redeemed before 
the Legislature meets. The remaining $2,554,- 
992 is unpaid interest accrued." 

In his message to the Legislature at the be- 
ginning of the year, the Governor says : 

By reference to the reports of the Treasurer and Com- 
missioner of State Lands, it will be seen that both rec- 
ommend the repeal of the donation or homestead 
law, and that the forfeited lands, which now amount 
to over 3,000,000 acres, be reserved, or sold only for the 
extinguishment of the State debt. This would seem 
to be a wise provision, and I most heartily concur in 
its recommendation. 

Among the first things, however, to determine is, 
of what does the just and legal debt consist ? The le- 
gality and justness of a portion of this debt have been 
questioned, and much bad feeling has been engendered 
among the people of the State. Among all classes. 
however, there is a disposition to act honorably ana 
honestly by the State's creditors. The mass of the 
people are honest and in favor of honest methods, 
and the one important point first to determine is, 
whether common honesty demands payment of any 
portion of our disputed indebtedness. 

Repudiation, in any form or in any shape, can be 
fraught only with evil. No constitutional enactment 
can do away with the State's legal responsibility for 
paper issued by her. 

The history of the issuance of $5,300,000 of bonds 
to aid in the construction of railroads is well known. 
The bonds were issued to the roads, taken to New 
York and other commercial centers, sold, and the pro- 
ceeds used by the roads to aid in their construction. 
When this was done, there was a contract between 
the roads and the State that the latter should be held 
harmless. These bonds are now in the hands of inno- 
cent purchasers. Because the Supreme Court of the 
State has declared the act under which the bonds 
were issued illegal, and as the General Assembly, at its 
extraordinary session in 1874, repealed the act pro- 
viding for the sequestration of the earnings of the 
roads, in default ot payment of interest, it is contend- 
ed that the innocent holders of the bonds should re- 
ceive nothing. So far as the State is concerned she 
can not be expected, nor is it assumed, by even the 
bondholders, that she ought to pay any part of this 
indebtedness. But does she not owe a duty to the in- 
nocent purchasers of her bonds, to see that they are 
protected, and that the roads are compelled to comply 
with their contract ? The State has the power, through 
the Legislature, undoubted and supreme, to tax the 
railroads in an amount sufficient to meet the yearly 
interests and eventually the principal of these bonds ; 
this, irrespective of the unconstitutionality of the law 
under which they were issued. 

Since commencing my message, the Circuit Court 
of the United States, for this State, has rendered a de- 
cision in regard to these railroad aid bonds, sustain- 
ing this view of the case, and therefore strengthens 
this my recommendation. 

I desire to again emphasize all that has heretofore 
been said on the subject of the judgment held by citi- 
zens against the State, on account of property taken 
from them during the pending of martial law'in sev- 
eral counties in 1869. Provision for the payment of 
this debt should be made at once. 

Inaugural Views. Gov. Berry was inaugu- 
rated on the 13th of January, and in his ad- 
dress expressed the following views: 

The fact that there are outstanding "bonds repre- 
senting some $13,000,000, which are claimed by the 
holders to be a valid obligation of the State, and 
which are believed by a large portion of our people to 
be fraudulent and void, has proved a constant source 



of annoyance and embarrassment. The best interests 
of the people demand that the question of the State's 
liability for these bonds be definitely settled. If they 
constitute a just claim, we ought to provide for their 
ultimate payment. If they are not a legitimate charge 
against the State, and we do not intend to pay them, 
common fairness requires us to say so, and say it in 
such a manner that we can not be misunderstood. 
Two classes of these bonds, those known as the rail- 
road aid and levee bonds, amounting to more than 
flO, 000,000, have been declared by our Supreme 
Court to have been issued without authority of law, 
and not binding upon the State. The remaining 
class, known as the Holford bonds, are based upon a 
claim which the authorities of the State refused to 
recognize when first preferred a claim the people 
have never admitted to be just, but upon which they 
have already paid all that, under any view of the 
circumstances, could be claimed was either legal or 
equitable. In a matter of this magnitude it seems to 
me eminently proper that the question should be 
withdrawn from the General Assembly and placed 
directly before the people. Under our present sys- 
tem the railroad property practically escapes taxation, 
the total amount of State taxes upon railroad property 
upon last year's assessment, excluding lands, being 
only $2,400. Some of these railroad corporations 
claim to be exempt from taxation by their charters. 
This claim should be thoroughly investigated. 

The Governor proposed a new revenue law, 
" that will compel assessors to assess all of the 
property of the State at its true value ; that 
will impose upon railroad property its just 
portion of taxes, levied for the benefit of all ; 
that will prevent tax-dodging," etc. 

Railroad Aid Bonds. The railroad aid bonds 
were issued by the State under the act of 
1868. They were accepted and used by five 
railroad companies, to which the following 
issues of bonds were made : 

Little Rock and Fort Smith ... ... $1,000,000 

Little Rock, Pine Bluff, and New Orleans 1,200,000 

Mississippi. Ouacliita, and Red Kiver 600,000 

Memphis and Little Rock 1,200,000 

Arkansas Central ; 1,850,000 

Total $5,350,000 

To which sum must be added twelve years' 
interest at 7 per cent. 

The Memphis and Little Rock Railroad 
Company owns and holds $938,000 of the $1,- 
200,000 bonds originally issued to that corpo- 
ration, and the bonds owned and held by the 
Little Rock and Fort Smith Railway Company 
amount to $644,000. These bonds were pur- 
chased years ago upon advice of counsel, at 
very low figures, with a view of hedging 
against a possible decision by the courts, hold- 
ing the railroads and not the State liable for 
the bonds issued to those corporations. The 
remainder are outstanding. 

Of the railway corporations above named, 
all but one the Arkansas Central are thor- 
oughly responsible, and fully able to liquidate 
the claims due on these bonds. 

In the suit of Tompkins vs. the Little Rock 
and Fort Smith Railroad Company, in the 
United States Circuit Court, Judges Caldwell 
and McCrary held on deinurrer that these 
bonds were a lien on the railroads, but, at the 
hearing on the merits, Justice Miller held the 
contrary. Judge Caldwell dissented, and the 



20 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



case went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. These issues of railroad aid bonds form 
a portion of the alleged public debt of the 
State, to repudiate which amendment No. 1 
was submitted to the electors in 1880, lost by 
not receiving a constitutional majority, and 
will be resubmitted at the general election in 
1884. The significance of Justice Miller's de- 
cision is in holding the railroads harmless, and 
throwing the bonds back on the State, which 
issued them under an act in whose passage the 
State Supreme Court has decided the necessary 
forms were not complied with. 

Miscellaneous. The Insane Asylum has been 
completed, and a State Board of Health organ- 
ized. The building for a branch normal col- 
lege for the education of colored teachers, 
near Pine Bluff, has been completed. 

In March a joint legislative committee re- 
ported the net deficit of Gov. Churchill's ac- 
counts, as State Treasurer during three terms, 
to be $233,616.89, differing widely from the 
previous report of a Senate committee, which 
made the deficit about $114,000. 

ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 
Solar Activity. The year 1883 has been char- 
acterized by considerable disturbance of the 
sun's surface. The " Comptes Rendus," vol. 
xcvii, No. 4, describes in detail the phenomena 
observed from the Irtth to the 23d of July a 
period of very marked activity. At 4 o'clock 
on the afternoon of the 16th, M. Thollon saw, 
on the sun's eastern limb, a most brilliant 
prominence, in which the spectroscope indi- 
cated a violent displacement of the C line. At 
gh. 20m. this displacement was so pronounced 
that M. Thollon inferred an approach of solar 
matter at the rate of 186 miles a second ten 
times the velocity of the earth in its orbit. 
Somewhat earlier in the afternoon a smaller 
displacement was observed in the opposite di- 
rection. On the 21st and 22d, a considerable 
part of the sun's southern hemisphere gave 
signs of great agitation. A large group, con- 
sisting of spots too numerous to be counted, 
was seen near the eastern margin, and a long 
chain of spots, at almost regular intervals, 
stretched across the disk, from limb to limb. 
On the morning of the 22d a brilliant promi- 
nence attracted attention, and a number of 
metallic lines were strongly reversed. M. Thol- 
lon says he had never, in so short a time, seen 
so many large displacements of the spectral 
lines. 

Total Eclipse of May 6, 1883. This eclipse was 
observed at Caroline Island, in the South Pa- 
cific Ocean, by parties from the United States, 
Paris, and Vienna. The expedition sent by 
the United States Government was under the 
direction of Prof. Edward S. Holden, of the 
Washburn Observatory, at Madison, Wis. Oth- 
er members of the party were Lieut. Brown, of 
the Navy ; Prof. Hastings, of the Johns Hop- 
kins University; Prof. 0. S. Peirce, of the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey ; and Mr. 0. H 
Rockwell, of Tarry town, N. Y. It had been 



hoped by astronomers that the question of the 
existence of an intra-Mercurial planet would 
be definitely settled, as a special search had 
been arranged for by two parties of observers. 
The state of the atmosphere was favorable, the 
duration of totality was unusually long, and 
Prof. Holden himself swept the region about 
the sun with all possible attention. His search, 
however, was entirely unsuccessful. The facts 
of the case are thus exceedingly perplexing. 
That fixed stars, whose positions were well 
known, should have been mistaken for planets 
by two experienced observers, such as Watson 
and Swift, seems almost incredible. On the 
other hand, it is at least equally improbable 
that Professors Holden and Palisa, with more 
time for the search, should have failed to de- 
tect a planet, if any were visible. During to- 
tality, M. Trouvelot noticed a reddish star of 
the fifth magnitude not far from the sun 
which he has not since been able to identify. 

Markings and Spots on Mercnry. " The Month- 
ly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society " 
for March, 1883, contains the results of the re- 
cent observations of Mercury by Mr. W. F. Den- 
ning, of Bristol, Eng., and Sig. Schiaparelli, of 
Milan, Italy. The former saw several dark, 
irregular spots on the mornings of Nov. 6, 7, 
9, and 10, 1882; also a small bright spot and 
a large white area. The south horn of the 
planet was also seen on several mornings to be 
very much blunted. Both Denning and Schia- 
parelli find the markings on Mercury much 
more distinct than those on Venus. They find, 
moreover, that the former bears a more strik- 
ing resemblance, in its physical aspect, to Mars 
than to Venus. Without undertaking to give 
an exact determination of Mercury's rotation- 
period, Mr. Denning expresses the opinion, con- 
curred in by Schiaparelli, that Schroeter's pe- 
riod of 24"' 5 m - 30 s - is too short. The observa- 
tions of these astronomers give promise that 
this element, hitherto somewhat doubtful, may 
soon be accurately found. 

The Transit of Venus on Dee. 6, 1882. The va- 
rious expeditions sent to different parts of the 
world to observe the transit of Venus in 1882 
were generally successful. At the Naval Ob- 
servatory, Washington, D. C., Prof. E. Frisby, 
with the 26-inch equatorial telescope, observed 
the four contacts as follows: 

First contact 8h. 56m. 45s. 

Second contact... 9 16 9 

Third contact 2 88 57 

Fourth contact 2 58 55 

Capt. Sampson observed with the 9-inch equato- 
rial telescope as follows : 

Firstcontact 8h. 55m. 9'96s. 

Second contact 9 16 18-96 

Third contact 2 89 56-11 

Fourth contact Uncertain. 

The observations at Princeton, N. J., were re- 
ported by Prof. Young in the " Sidereal Mes- 
senger " for January, 1883. All four of the 
contacts were observed. One hundred and 
eighty-eight photographs were taken by Prof. 
Bracket. The spectroscopic observations by 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



Prof. Young and Mr. McNeill showed unmis- 
takably the presence of water-vapor in the at- 
mosphere of Venus. " Between the first and 
second contacts the atmosphere of the planet 
was conspicuous as a delicate halo around its 
disk." 

The transit was observed at Vassar College, 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., by Prof. Maria Mitchell ; 
at Harvard College Observatory, by Prof. Pick- 
ering and others ; at Dearborn Observatory, 
Chicago, by Professors G. W. Hough and S. W. 
Burnham; at Allegheny Observatory, Pa., 
by Prof. 8. P. Langley ; at Tarrytown, N. Y., 
by Mr. Charles H. Rockwell ; at Columbus, O., 
by Prof. R. W. McFarland and Mr. F. H. El- 
dredge ; at Phelps, N. Y., by Mr. W. R. Brooks ; 
at Nashville, Tenn., by Prof. E. E. Barnard ; at 
New Windsor, 111., by Prof. E. L. Larkin ; and 
by many others in various parts of the country. 
The observations of foreign astronomers were 
also generally successful. "How long it will 
be before the observations, especially the pho- 
tograph and heliometer measures, are fully re- 
duced and published, it is impossible to say. 
It must be years at least. After this is done, 
it will be extremely probable that some high 
authority, perhaps an international commis- 
sion, should collect and discuss all the various 
observations, both of this transit and that of 
1874, and, from the enormous mass of material 
thus obtained, deduce the best final result which 
it can furnish a result which can not fail to be 
of the highest value in settling the dimensions 
of our universe." * 

Mr. A. Stanley Williams, who observed the 
transit at Brighton, Eng., while examining the 
border of light around Venus, noticed this 
fringe to be very conspicuous on the southern 
portion of the planet's limb, but very faint and 
narrow elsewhere. During the transit, how- 
ever, some change was manifest in the relative 
brightness at different parts of the ring. The 
phenomenon was ascribed by Mr. Williams to 
the presence of clouds on the limb of Venus. 

The Moon. In " The Observatory " for March 
and April, 1883, Mr. A. Stanley Williams, of 
West Brighton, Eng., gives an interesting ac- 
count of his observations on the lunar crater 
Plato during the past five years. The condi- 
tion of our satellite has long been regarded as 
dead and changeless ; but the observations of 
Mr. Williams, in connection with a most care- 
ful examination of the floor of Plato by several 
astronomers from 1869 to 1871, reveal the fact 
of undoubted physical changes within the past 
twelve years. The evidence of variation does 
not rest on the testimony of a single observer. 
Observations of Plato were simultaneously con- 
ducted by the Rev. J. B. Allison, of Chester- 
field; W. F. Denning, of Bristol; T. P. Gray, 
of Bedford ; and H. Pratt, of Brighton. Some 
of the changes discovered by a comparison of 
the late observations with those of 1869-'71 
are as follow : 

1. Of the thirty-seven spots observed and 
* " Sidereal Messenger, 11 February, 1883. 



mapped about 1870, six have entirely disap- 
peared. Seven new ones have been found, 
however, during the recent observations. 

2. A very large increase in visibility is found 
in the spots numbered 12 and 13 on the chart 
of the floor of Plato. The latter also exhibits 
some remarkable changes in form. 

3. No. 16 has to a considerable extent de- 
creased in brightness. 

4. Several streaks in the floor of the crater 
have sensibly increased in breadth ; three new 
streaks have appeared within the past ten 
years, and several that were distinctly visible 
about 1870 can not now be found. 

5. Very obvious changes in the state of the 
floor of the crater have taken place since the 
observations of 1869-'71. 

Diameter of the Moon. Prof . H. M. Paul, of 
the United States Navy, has lately redeter- 
mined the semi-diameter of the moon from two 
occultations of the Pleiades, observed on July 
6, 1877, and September 6, 1879. His value of 
the mean apparent semi-diameter is 15' 31*78" ; 
corresponding to a diameter of 2158*3 miles. 

Minor Planets. The 232d minor planet was 
detected on the 21st of January, 1883, by Herr 
Palisa, of the Vienna Observatory. It is of 
the twelfth magnitude, and is the thirty-ninth 
discovered by this observer. The right to 
select a name was delegated to Dr. Engel- 
hardt, of Dresden, who called it Russia. Its 
elements, computed by Dr. Herz, from Vienna 
observations of January 31st, Rome, March 
8th, and Dresden, April 13th, are as follow : 

Epoch, April 15- 5, Berlin mean time. 

Longitude of perihelion 200 24' 87' 

Longitude of ascending node 152 80 28 

Inclination 6 8 34 

Mean daily motion 870-2296" 

Period 1489 26 days. 

Mean distance 2-5522 

Eccentricity '. 1 754 

The mean distance falls in the cluster imme- 
diately exterior to the well-known hiatus where 
the period of an asteroid would be one third 
that of Jupiter. 

Another asteroid was discovered at Mar- 
seilles, on the llth of May, by M. Borelly. Its 
light is about equal to that of a star of the 
eleventh magnitude. The third minor planet 
of the year was detected, August 12th, by Dr. 
Peters, of Clinton, N. Y. This is the 234th 
of the group, and the 42d discovered by him. 
It is of the ninth magnitude, and its approxi- 
mate elements are as follows : 

Epoch, 1883, August 30- 5, Berlin mean time. - 

Longitude of perihelion 332 6' 35 5" 

Longitude of ascending node 144 6 44 

Inclination 15 81 19 

Eccentricity 0'2436 

Mean daily motion 956'674" 

Period 1354-7 days.' 

Mean distance... 



Owing to the great eccentricity of this 
planet's orbit, its least distance from the sun 
is only T812. Its remarkable brightness when 
discovered was due to the fact that it was 
nearly in opposition, as well as near the sun, at 
the time of its detection. The 235th minor 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



planet was discovered on the morning of Nov. 
29, 1883, by Dr. Palisa, of Vienna. 

Distribution of the Asteroids in Spaee. Flam- 
marion's " L'Astronomie " for June, 1883, con- 
tains an article of much interest on the dis- 
tribution of the asteroids between Mars and 
Jupiter. The author, Gen. Parmentier, notices 
well-defined gaps in those parts of the zone 
where the periods would be commensurable 
with that of Jupiter. His discussion of the 
periods and distances is thus confirmatory of 
Prof. Kirkwood's theory, published in 1866. 

Several asteroids lately discovered are still 
without names ; the following have been con- 
ferred during the current year: 



No. 224. Oceana. 
u 225. Henrietta. 
" 226. Weriniria. 
" 227. Philosophic 
" 229. Adelinda. 



No. 230. Athemantis. 
" 281. Vindobona. 
" 282. Russia. 
" 234. Barbara. 



Jupiter. The great red spot on Jupiter, 
which had been observed for several years, 
gradually disappeared in 1883. Prof. Ricco, 
of the Royal Observatory, Palermo, says that, 
in September, the part of the surface recently 
occupied by it bad become brilliantly white. 
He infers from his own observations that the 
neighborhood of the red spot had acquired the 
same rate of motion as the spot itself. This 
place is designated by a permanent depression 
in the great belt in which the red spot was 
situated. 

Prof. G. W. Hough, Director of the Dear- 
born Observatory, Chicago, has for several 
years made Jupiter a special object of atten- 
tion. In his last annual report, May 9, 1883, 
he says: " While the spot has remained nearly 
stationary in latitude, the south edge of the 
great Equatorial Belt has gradually drifted 
south during the present opposition, until it is 
nearly coincident with the middle of the spot. 
But what is remarkable, the two do not blend 
together, but are entirely distinct and separate. 
A depression has formed in the edge of the 
belt, corresponding in shape to the oval out- 
line of the spot, the distance between the two 
objects being about one second of arc. That 
portion of the belt following the spot first 
began to drift, forming a bend near the posi- 
tion occupied by a curious offshoot, seen at 
various times in 1880 and 1881. The non- 
blending of the two objects would seem to in- 
dicate that they are composed of matter hav- 
ing repellent properties, similar to two clouds 
charged with the same kind of electricity." 

It is suggested by Prof. Hough that the 
red spot visible from 1878 to 1883 may have 
been a return of the great spot observed by 
Hook and Cassini from 1664 to 1666. It was 
some distance south of the equator, and its 
diameter was over 8,000 miles. It reappeared 
and vanished eight times within forty-four 
years from the date of its first discovery. If 
the objects are the same, " we would naturally 
infer that it was a portion of the solid body 
of the planet; being sometimes rendered in- 
visible by a covering of clouds." 



"The Observatory" for April contains a 
communication by N. E. Green, on the relative 
heights of markings on Jupiter. The white 
spots, it is maintained, are at a higher level in 
the atmosphere of the planet than the dark 
ones. This theory is derived from a critical 
examination of several hundred drawings of 
the planet, taken within the past twenty years. 
The reasons assigned by Mr. Green for the 
adoption of his views are as follow : 

" 1. The general form of the light marks, 
these being round, oval, or compact patches, 
very unlike openings or rifts in a superficial 
cloudy envelope. 2. That the. oval forms so 
frequently seen on the equatorial side of the 
dark southern belt, indent equally both the 
dark belt and the general surface of the planet. 
3. That the continuity of a long, dark streak 
is occasionally broken by a patch of light broad- 
er than the streak, the patch of light hiding, 
therefore, not only the streak but a portion of 
the general surface of the planet to the north 
and south of it. The first reason, that of the 
general form of the light markings, may seem 
to be weak, but, taken in connection with their 
relative position, is by no means inconclusive. 
In March, 1874. lines of small round patches 
of light, smaller than the satellites, were fre- 
quently seen, looking like strings of pearls ; 
these occurred generally on the dark southern 
belt, but were occasionally seen in northern 
and high southern latitudes. Now, if the 
darker portions are uppermost, these surfaces 
must have been pierced like the sides of a 
man-of-war, in order that the light underlying 
portion might be seen through the openings. 
Again, in January, 1873, large oval masses of 
light were so constant on the equatorial side 
of the southern belt, that the belt itself looked 
like a long, dark bridge with many arches ; 
but let it be observed that these light forms 
not only indented the dark belt on one side, 
but equally indented the general tone of the 
planet on the other ; and if we consider the 
dark belt as being at a higher level, and the 
light marks as portions of a continuous light 
surface seen through its openings, we must 
admit that some other envelope is also pierced 
with similar openings, and that the two open- 
ings coincide, in order that the oval form may 
be complete a supposition which is not rec- 
ommended by its probability. But the last 
argument, that of the imposition of a mass of 
light on a long, dark streak, is the most con- 
clusive ; this has occurred several times since 
the last opposition, the most marked instances 
being on Feb. 18, at 8 h - 55 m - G. M. T., and 
Feb. 24, at 8 h - 4o m - On the first date a broad 
and some what square patch of light interrupted 
the continuity of the darkest portion of the 
southern belt, and, being broader than the belt, 
extended in the direction of the equator over 
the general tone of the planet. On Feb. 24th, 
gh. ^gm., ft S q Uare p a tch of light was nearly on 
the center of the disk ; this lay on a long, blu- 
ish streak. The patch of light was consider- 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



ably broader than the streak, and, what is very 
remarkable, portions of blue streak appeared 
on the north and south sides of the square 
patch, as though the light patch had been 
formed from material drawn away from the 
general covering of the surface, thus leaving 
vacant spaces both above and below it." 

In "The Observatory" for April, 1883, W. 
F. Denning gives some results of his own ob- 
servations of Jupiter's equatorial white spot, 
and also of the great red spot now no longer 
visible. Mr. Denning has found that while 
the white spot was completing 2,064 revolu- 
tions, the red spot performed only 2,045 ; in 
other words, the white spot gained 19 revolu- 
tions. The former, therefore, moves 260 miles 
an hour more rapidly in a direction from west 
to east around the planet. The average pe- 
riod of the red spot from July, 1881, to March, 
1883, was 9 h - 55 m> 37'7 8 - ; that of the white 
spot, 9 h - 50 ra- 8/7" - . These results are very 
nearly identical with those found by Prof. 
Hough. 

Researches on the Satnrnlan System. During the 
past three years Dr. Wilhelm Meyer, of Gene- 
va, has been engaged in an elaborate investi- 
gation of the Saturnian system.* His observa- 
tions of 1881 give the following: 

Dimensions of Saturn and its rings for the distance. . 
Exterior diameter of the bright ring. ................ 

Diameter of the ring in the middle of Cassini's di- 

vision .......................................... 

Interior diameter of the bright ring ............ _____ 

Interior diameter of the dusky ring ................ 

Distance between the extremity of the ring and the 

planet on the west ........ ....................... 

The same distance on the east ...................... 

Equatorial diameter of the planet ................... 

Polar diameter of the planet ........................ 

Compression ...................................... ^^ 

The interior edge of the bright ring was not 
sharply defined, and hence the interior diame- 
ter could not be determined with accuracy. 

Orbits of the Satellites and Mass of the Primary. 

Dr. Meyer's observations of Mimas and Hype- 
rion were insufficient for a determination of 
their orbits. The others were satisfactorily 
observed, and the resulting distances and pe- 
riods are given below : 

SATELLITES. Mean distance. Period. 

d. h. in. e. 

Enceladus ....................... 34"'3501 1 8 53 6'92 

Tethys ......................... 4'2 -7514 121 1825-62 

Dione ........ ................... 54 -7574 217 41 9'29 

Ehea ........................... 76 -4838 4 12 25 11'57 

Titan ............................ 176 '9102 15 22 41 23'16 

lapetus .......................... 514-710879 7 4924-84 

The mass of Saturn obtained from these peri- 
ods is ^4^, a value somewhat greater than 
that found by Bessel. The mass of the ring, 
that of Saturn being 1, is y^. 

The Divisions in the Ring. The London " Ob- 
servatory" for September, 1883, gives the fol- 
lowing abstract of Dr. Meyer's researches on 
the divisions of Saturn's ring, and the disturb- 
ing influence of the satellites: 

" Prof. Kirkwood showed, some twenty years 
ago, that Jupiter exercised a peculiar influence 

*Astr. Nach., Nos. 2,517,2.527; London Obs., July and 
September, 1883; Payne's Sid. Mess., September, 1888. 



84-48 
26 '05 
21 13 

11-34 
11 -30 
17' 77 
16-12 



over the minor planets, tending to produce- 
well-marked gaps among them at certain well- 
defined distances. For if the period of any 
minor planet were commensurable with that 
of Jupiter, the latter would exercise a perturb- 
ing influence upon it, which would eventually 
result in a complete change of orbit. Later 
on, in 1868, Prof. Kirkwood employed the 
same principle to account for the great divis- 
ion (Cassini's) in Saturn's rings. Maxwell had 
shown that the rings must be formed of sepa- 
rate particles moving round the planet to a 
certain extent as independent satellites. But 
a body moving round Saturn at the distance of 
Cassini's division would have a period that was 
very closely commensurable with those of each 
of the six inner satellites, and it would, there- 
fore, be especially exposed to perturbation. 
Dr. Meyer has carried the principle yet further, 
and has investigated every possible combina- 
tion of the commensurabilities of the revolu- 
tion periods of the satellites, and he finds that, 
including the division of Cassini, there are 
seven places where the satellites would unite 
to exercise a perturbing influence on the mem- 
bers of the ring system. The first position is 
where the period would be one fourth of that 
of Mimas, and marks the inner boundary of 
the dark ring. Particles moving at almost 
precisely the same distances would have their 
times commensurable with each of the other 
five inner satellites: thus, for a period of one 
fourth of that of Mimas, we have a distance of 
10'56"from the center of Saturn ; for one sixth 
of that of Enceladus, 10-43", and for one eighth 
of that of Tethys, 1Q-66". Dr. Meyer sees a 
consequence of this close agreement in the 
well-defined character of the inner edge of the 
dark ring. Next comes Struve's division in 
the dark ring. One fifth the period of Ence- 
ladus corresponds to a distance of 11-79", one 
seventh that of Tethys, 11 -66"; the next three 
satellites give a closely similar result. The 
position of Struve's division is not very exactly 
known, and Dr. Meyer adopts 11*79" as its 
distance, being the mean between the posi- 
tions of the inner boundaries of rings C and 
B. One third of the period of Mimas intro- 
duces a new series of commensurabilities in 
which all the six satellites take part, but the 
agreement is by no means so close as in the 
first two cases ; and Dr. Meyer regards the in- 
distinct character of the inner boundary of the 
bright ring B, which would about correspond 
to the mean of the distances indicated, as con- 
nected with this less perfect coincidence. The 
period of Enceladus is four times, that of Tethys 
six times, that belonging to a particle at this 
distance. Cassini's division corresponds, as'al- 
ready stated, to a period commensurable with 
each of the six inner satellites, the period of 
Mimas being twice as long, Enceladus three 
times, Tethys four, Dione six, Rhea nine, Ti- 
tan thirty-three. The commensurabilities in 
the case of the four nearest satellites are of 
the simplest possible character; and we find 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



that the inner edge of Cassini's division, which 
is situated at the distance thus indicated, is 
especially distinctly marked. The outer edge 
is very indistinct, the influence of Rhea and 
Titan being much feebler, on account of their 
great distance. 

" One tifth the period of Dione corresponds 
to about the distance of Encke's division. One 
eighth of Rhea's period and one halt' of Titan's 
approximate roughly to the same distance. The 
division is faint and ill-defined. One third the 
period of Tethys, the simplest relation now re- 
maining, indicates the outer boundary of the 
ring system, and one seventh that of Rhea, and 
one twenty-sixth that of Titan, correspond to 
distances of nearly the same amount. 

" The only simple relation omitted is that of 
one fifth the period of Tethys, and this closely 
corresponds to integral parts of the periods of 
the three next outer planets. There should, 
therefore, be another division at about 14'7". 
Dr. Meyer does not seem aware of the fact; 
but several observers of Saturn have noticed 
that ring B begins to shade off a little nearer 
Saturn than the center of the ring, which would 
correspond to a distance of about 14'T" or 
14 - 8". Prof. Holden speaks of the point where 
this shading off begins as 'a definite point.' 
The correspondence between calculation and 
observation as to the divisions of Saturn's rings 
would, therefore, seem to be complete." 

At a meeting of the Philosophical Society of 
Washington, Oct. 13, 1883, William B. Taylor 
recalled attention to M. Struve's conclusion, 
announced in 1851, that the rings of Saturn 
are increasing in breadth, while the interval 
between the inner brigh't ring and the planet 
is gradually decreasing. This conclusion, ac- 
cording to Mr. Taylor, is confirmed by later 
observations ; although the change is probably 
less rapid than was inferred by Struve, from a 
comparison of the measures up to 1850. This 
process of convergence, it was shown, is a 
necessary consequence of the modern discov- 
ery that the rings consist of dense streams of 
indefinitely small satellites. All parts of the 
ring are subject to perturbations by the exte- 
rior members of the Saturnian system. The 
bodies composing the ring can not, therefore, 
revolve in circular orbits. Hence the friction 
or collision of the different parts must fre- 
quently occur, resulting in a " degradation of 
motion," a convergence of orbits, and a short- 
ening of the periods. In this theory of their 
constitution Mr. Taylor foresees the ultimate 
precipitation of the rings upon the surface of 
the planet. 

Uranus. The question whether Uranus has 
any measurable ellipticity seems to have been 
definitely settled by the recent observations of 
Profs. Safarik, of Prague; Schiaparelli, of Mi- 
lan ; and Young, of Princeton. The polar com- 
pression, according to these astronomers, is 
about T V. This is greater than that of Jupi- 
ter, and nearly equal to that of Saturn a fact 
indicative of a rapid rotation. Prof. Young 



has also observed certain spots or markings on 
the surface of the planet, similar to those on 
Jupiter and Saturn, by the continued exami- 
nation of which the rotation period may pos- 
sibly be determined. 

Comets. On the evening of February 23, 1883, 
a comet was discovered by W. R. Brooks, of Red 
House Observatory, Phelps, N. Y. The same 
body was independently detected only a few 
minutes later on the same evening by Dr. Swift, 
of the Warner Observatory, Rochester. About 
the first of March the comet was described as 
nearly round, and with a very condensed nu- 
cleus. According to some observers, it had a 
granular appearance, somewhat resembling a 
resolvable nebula. It had a faint tail, about 18' 
in length. From observations made at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., on February 24th, March 5th, 
and March 17th, and one at Albany, N. Y., on 
March 5th, Messrs. Chandler and Wendell, of 
Cambridge, computed the following elements : 

Perihelion passage = 1888, Feb. 18 '9357, G. M. T. 

Longitude of perihelion 29" 00' 00" 

Longitude of ascending node 278 7 41 

Inclination 78 4 40 

Perihelion distance 0-7599 

On the night of September 1st, W. R. Brooks 
observed a small object, which he at once sus- 
pected to be a comet. Cloudy weather pre- 
vented satisfactory observations till the night 
of the 3d, when his suspicions were fully con- 
firmed. The comet was circular, more than a 
minute in diameter, had a well-defined 'star- 
like nucleus, and was without a tail. From 
about two weeks' observations at the Dudley 
Observatory, Albany, N. Y., Prof. Lewis Boss 
found the elements of the comet's orbit so 
nearly coincident with those of the comet dis- 
covered by Pons on the 20th of July, 1812, as 
to leave no doubt of their identity. This fact 
was announced on the evening of September 
19th. The sameness of the two bodies, how- 
ever, had been independently shown one day 
earlier by the Rev. George M. Searle, of New 
York. Mr. Searle's conclusion reached by a 
method different from that employed by Prof. 
Boss was at once forwarded to Harvard Col- 
lege, where it was received on the morning of 
September 20th. Marked changes of structure 
in approaching the un were observed within 
three weeks from the date of its discovery. In- 
dications of a nucleus were seen at Harvard on 
the night of September 21st. The next night its 
appearance was greatly changed ; the bright- 
ness being nearly equal to that of an eighth- 
magnitude star. On the night of the 23d it 
had lost its stellar .aspect, had become blurred, 
had a rather distinct nucleus, and was begin- 
ning to develop traces of a tail. The perihelion 
passage will occur about 1884, January 25th. 

Attention has been called to the fact that 
the elements of this comet strikingly resemble 
those of De Vico's comet of 1846, with the ex- 
ception that the ascending node of the one co- 
incides with the descending node of the other. 
This close coincidence of orbits has been thought 
to indicate a common origin. 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



Periodicity of Comets. At the session of the 
Paris Academy of Sciences on January 8, 1883, 
M. Zenger read a paper on the periodicity of 
comets. The theory proposed includes the fol- 
lowing propositions : 

1. Comets have originated in the sun. 

2. Their origin has been in some way con- 
nected with the sun's rotation. 

3. Portions of the matter forming the solar 
protuberances have been thrown out into space 
by enormous explosive force. From the mat- 
ter thus ejected large meteorites might gather 
about them such quantities of the coronal sub- 
stance as to constitute comets. 

4. The periods of comets are multiples of 
half the rotation period of the sun. 

M. Zenger has collected a number of facts 
which he regards as evidence in favor of his 
hypothesis. 

The Great Comet of 1882, and the Speetroseopic 
Method of determining Motions in the Line of Sight 
This comet afforded an excellent opportunity 
for testing the accuracy of the spectroscopic 
method of finding the rate of approach or re- 
cession of the heavenly bodies. M. Thollon, 
observing the comet's spectrum on September 
18th, found the bright lines of sodium displaced 
by an amount indicating a recession at the rate 
of forty-seven miles a second. After the comet 
had been observed for a sufficient length of time 
to determine its orbit, its true rate of motion in 
the line of sight was found to have been forty- 
five miles a second. As the amount of dis- 
placement was only estimated by M. Thollon, 
not accurately measured, the agreement be- 
tween the observed and calculated rates is 
quite satisfactory. The comet's rate of reces- 
sion, September 18, 1882, was about equal to 
that of Vega as determined by the spectro- 
scope. 

Meteors. The following large meteors were 
observed during the year ending December 1, 
1883: 

On December 12, 1882, a large meteor was 
seen from the United States steamer Alaska, 
westward from San Francisco, latitude 38 21', 
longitude 134 7' west; when about 10 above 
the horizon it exploded with a loud detona- 
tion, the glowing fragments plunging into the 
ocean. 

At Concord, N. H., one of the largest and 
most brilliant meteors ever observed there was 
seen on the afternoon of December 20, 1882, 
between four- and five o'clock. It passed from 
west to east, and was as plainly visible as me- 
teors usually are after dark. 

Payne's "Sidereal Messenger" for March, 
1883, contains an account of a very brilliant 
meteor which passed over Central Indiana. on 
the evening of January 3d. From observations 
at numerous points in Indiana and Illinois it 
is concluded that the meteor first became visi- 
ble over Grant county, Indiana, at a height of 
about 85 miles, that it passed very nearly over 
Kokomo and Lafayette, its height at the latter 
place being 53 miles ; that its course was south 



78 west, and that the length .of its visible track 
was about 140 miles. 

About six o'clock on the evening of February 
5th a meteor three or four times as large as 
Venus was seen at several points in Indiana. At 
Bloomington, when first noticed, it was a few 
degrees east of south, 18 or 20 above the 
horizon. It disappeared behind a building, the 
length of its visible track having been nearly 
20. At Martins ville, Morgan county, it was 
first seen 5 west of south at an apparent eleva- 
tion of 18. 

On the 16th of February a large meteoric 
stone fell, a little before three o'clock in the 
afternoon, between Cremona and Brescia, sink- 
ing more than three feet into the earth. The 
explosion was heard at a distance of 12 or 13 
miles. 

At Norwich, Conn., a meteor of great mag- 
nitude was seen on the evening of February 
27th. Its path was from the northeast to the 
northwest. 

Early on the morning of March 4th an im- 
mense fire-ball darted across the heavens at Pe- 
tersburg, Va., brilliantly illuminating the city. 
Its course was northwest, and an explosion was 
heard shortly after its passage. 

At the meeting of the Royal Academy of 
Vienna, on the 14th of June, 1883, Prof. G. von 
Niessl read an elaborate discussion of the ob- 
servations of a meteoric fire-ball seen at Brunn 
and elsewhere, at about 7 h ' 30 m - on the even- 
ing of March 13, 1883. Dr. von Niessl finds 
the radiant point of this meteor to have been 
in right ascension 148 30' and in south dec- 
imation 9. Its mean altitude was about 61 
English miles, and its heliocentric velocity was 
estimated at 50 miles a second. The meteor's 
orbit about the sun was, therefore, an hyper- 
bola. If it belong, then, to a meteoric cluster, 
no member of the group can be expected to 
return. Several other large meteors are known 
to have appeared at nearly the same epoch. 

On the evening of April 14th, at 7 h- 30 m a re- 
markably fine meteor was seen at Wooster, O. 
When first noticed, its direction from the point 
of observation was east-southeast, about 45 
above the horizon. It had at least twice the 
apparent magnitude of Venus, and the line of 
its motion would have cut the horizon a little 
north of east. After a brief visible flight as a 
single body, it suddenly burst into fragments 
twenty or more all brilliant and pursuing the 
same direction, but more slowly, and falling 
somewhat below the line which the meteor 
seemed at first to pursue. 

At about 10 h - 45 m - on the evening of June 
3d, a meteor whose apparent magnitude was 
several times that of Venus was seen at sev- 
eral points in England. At Ripon its length 
of path while visible was about 120, with the 
middle point due east; direction of motion, 
parallel to the horizon ; elevation, 20 ; length 
of train, 25. Another large meteor was seen 
later in the same evening. 

A splendid meteor was seen in the evening 



26 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



twilight, in England, on the 6th of July, at 8 h - 
60- Its coarse was from northeast to east, at 
an altitude of 27 when first seen, and 22 
when it disappeared. Its motion was slow ; 
the duration of visibility being six or seven 
seconds. When first seen, its form was globu- 
lar, but in a second or two it became elongated 
as though the change were produced by the 
resistance of the atmosphere. Its color was 
at first a deep red, afterward a golden hue, and 
just before disappearance, a brilliant white. 

A meteor of intense brilliance was seen at 
many points in New Zealand at 4 h> 46 m- P.M., 
on July 12th. At Ohinitahi it was seen moving 
slowly from the west in an easterly direction, 
at an altitude of about 45. Its appearance 
was in broad daylight. 

A meteoric fire-ball was seen in England at 
8"- 25 m - on the evening of August llth. It 
moved easterly, and its color was a deep ame- 
thyst. 

A beautiful meteor, considerably brighter 
than Venus, was seen in different parts of Eng- 
land about ten o'clock on the evening of Au- 
gust 19th. As seen near London by A. J. Mott, 
" it passed along the eastern sky and vanished 
over the summit of the Little Orme. The path 
was northward, nearly horizontal, apparently 
much foreshortened, for the motion was very 
slow not faster than that of balls falling from 
a rocket; white light, slightly tinged with blue. 
The meteor divided, and left one large and 
several smaller portions behind it, all vanish- 
ing together." According to Mr. Mott, the 
meteor did not reach the earth, but after skim- 
ming through the upper atmosphere at an alti- 
tude of about seventy miles passed onward in 
its orbit. 

A splendid meteor was seen near London, 
Eng., about nine o'clock on the evening of 
October 6th. It passed from the northeast, 
beneath the pole-star, to the west, where it 
vanished instantaneously without bursting. 
The nucleus measured at least five minutes of 
arc in breadth, and was extremely brilliant. 

Moleorif Showers. So far as reported, no me- 
teoric showers of any considerable note oc- 
curred during 1883. The numbers seen were 
small both in January and April ; while the 
showers of August and November almost 
totally failed. At Great Badow, Eng., H. Cor- 
der kept watch on the nights of the 9th, 
10th, and llth of August, with the following 
results : On the 9th, in two hours and forty- 
five minutes, 61 Perseids were counted, or 22 
an hour. On the 10th, 113 were seen in two 
hours. On the llth he watched the whole 
night, counting 157 Perseids in five honrs; the 
highest number in an hour being 43. The 
radiant was in 46 R. A., and 56 N. declina- 
tion. 

Telescopic Meteors. In March, 1883, W. F. 
Denning, of Bristol, Eng., observed a num- 
ber of telescopic meteors of the eighth or ninth 
magnitude. These, as well as those seen dur- 
ing former observations, were generally remark- 



able for the slowness of their motion a fact 
probably due to their distance. 

Double Stars. In the " Sidereal Messenger '' 
for November, 1883, S. W. Burnham has dis- 
cussed the observations, by himself and oth- 
ers, of the double star Delta Equulei. The 
principal star of this wide pair is itself an ex- 
cessively close binary system, the components 
of which are very nearly equal. Mr. Burnham 
finds the probable period a little less than 
eleven years much shorter than that of any 
other binary star now known shorter even 
than the. period of Jupiter. Mr. Burnham re- 
marks that " by reason of the rapid orbital 
motion of this close pair, and its movement 
through space, this is undoubtedly the most 
important and interesting of all the sidereal 
systems which have been investigated." 

On the evening of October 5th, Prof. C. 
A. Young, of Princeton, discovered the du- 
plicity of a star in right ascension 16 h - 29 m - 
26-3 8 -, declination N. 58 00' 49-9". The com- 
ponents are of magnitudes 8 and 9|. 

The last report of the Astronomer Royal, 
W. H. M. Christie, contains some interesting 
results derived from a discussion of the obser- 
vations of Sirius from 1877 to 1883. A few 
years since, the spectroscope indicated a rapid 
recession of this star in the line of sight. A 
comparison of observations, however, has led 
to the conclusion that its rate of departure has 
progressively diminished during the past six 
years, and that the motion is now on the point 
of being converted into one of approach a 
fact which seems incapable of any explanation 
except on the theory of orbital motion. 

Parallax of Certain Stars. Prof. Asaph Hall, 
Director of the Naval Observatory, Washing- 
ton, D. 0., has recently completed a series of 
observations for determining the annual paral- 
lax, and hence the distance, of Alpha Lyras and 
61 Cygni. In his reduction of these observa- 
tions, Dr. Hall was assisted by Prof. Edgar 
Frisby. The resulting value of the parallax of 
the former star is 0*1 797", corresponding to a 
distance more than a million times greater than 
that of the sun from the earth. The parallax of 
61 Cygni was found to be 0-4783", and hence its 
distance is about 380,000 times that of the sun. 
This value is very nearly identical with that 
deduced from a series of Dunsink observations 
extending over a much longer period. The 
probable error is small in each determination. 

At the session of the Astronomical Congress 
in Vienna, September 14-16, 1883, Dr. Elkin 
reported the result of some parallax determi- 
nations, at the Cape of Good Hope by Mr. Gill 
and himself; particularly of Sirius and Alpha 
Centauri. The observers found the annual 
parallax of the former four tenths of a second, 
and that of the latter three fourths. 

Mean Parallax of Stars of the First Magnitude. 
Dr. Gylden, of Stockholm, has been lately en- 
gaged in a series of observations for finding 
the annual parallax of the brightest stars. The 
reduction has not yet been completed, but Dr, 



ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. 



Gylden has reached the conclusion that the 
mean parallax of stars of the first magnitude 
i8 about one tenth of a second. With this re- 
sult, the average distance of these bodies would 
be two million times greater than that of the 
sun a distance requiring more than thirty-one 
years for the transmission of their light to the 
earth. 

Distribntion of tbc Variable Stars. In the a Ob- 
servatory " for June, 1883, T. E. Espin, Vice- 
President of the Liverpool Astronomical So- 
ciety, concludes his interesting paper on the 
distribution of the variable stars. (See " An- 
nual Cyclopaedia" for 1882.) The shortest 
period in his second class of variables is 135 
days; the longest, 570. The variation in 
brightness is from one to nine magnitudes. 
The number of stars in relation to different 
periods is as follows : 



Period in dayg. Stars. 

185-170 7 

170-220 9 

220-270 10 

270-320... .. 15 



Period In days. Stars. 

820-870... .. 21 

870-420 15 

420^70 7 

470-520 3 



And the number of stars in relation to the va- 
riation in magnitude is 



Var. mag. Stan. 

5 27 

6 25 

7 6 

Sand 9 3 



From his examination of these tables Mr. Es- 
pin infers : 

1. That the number of stars increases with 
the length of the period. 

2. That the number of stars increases with 
the variation in magnitude. 

3. That more than two thirds of the varia- 
ble stars of class second vary more than four 
and less than six and a half magnitudes ; and, 

4. That nearly two thirds of the variable 
stars of class second have periods between 320 
and 420 days. 

Mr. Espin concludes as follows: "When, 
nearly eighteen months ago, I commenced the 
first of these papers, I believed that all cases 
of stellar variation might, with the exception 
of temporary stars, be included in classes first 
and second. Lately, however, I have become 
aware of the existence of a new class stars 
which have a small fluctuation in magnitude 
once in several years. The observations of 63 
Cygni first led me to this conclusion, and some 
of the stars suspected of variation now under 
observation go far to confirm it. For the 
greater part of the time the light of these stars 
is constant, but then it alters a magnitude or 
so ; but, after a month or two, it returns to its 
ordinary magnitude. Many of the stars sus- 
pected of variation undoubtedly belong to this 
class third, and it is obvious that only long and 
careful determinations of magnitude during 
many years can determine the periods and 
variation of such stars. 

" Summing up our results, then, we find 
four classes of variable stars : 



" Class I. With short periods and small va- 
riation. 

" Class II. Long period and great variation. 

" Class III. Period of several years and small 
variation. 

" Class IV. Temporary stars." 

The " Monthly Notices of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society " for March, 1883, contains a 
note by the Rev. T. E. Espin, of Birkenhead, 
Eng., on the variability of Beta Cygni and 63 
Cygni. The former is placed in the table of sus- 
pected variables in " Chambers's Astronomy," 
and this suspicion has been confirmed by Mr. 
Espin. The change in brightness is not great 
about one magnitude while the period, 
though not well ascertained, is undoubtedly 
several years. The period of 63 Cygni is about 
five years, and the observe'd variation is from 
the sixth to the 4'7 magnitude. 

Dr. Peters's Star-Charts. Dr. 0. H. F. Peters, 
of Hamilton College, N. Y., has recently pub- 
lished the first installment of a very elaborate 
series of star-charts. They are to contain all 
stars down to the 14th magnitude, as far as 30 
degrees on each side of the equator, through- 
out the whole of the twenty-four hours. Dr. 
Peters has himself done all of the observing as 
well as the draughting, and the charts are pub- 
lished at his own expense, for gratuitous dis- 
tribution. The construction of these charts 
has occupied his time and attention for the 
past twenty years. In his laborious observa- 
tions, he not only carefully marked the place 
of every one of the 60,000 stars or more al- 
ready mapped, but, after receiving the proof, 
he again compared the positions with the act- 
ual condition of the heavens, so as to insure 
the utmost possible accuracy. It has been 
while engaged in this work that Dr. Peters has 
picked up so great a number of small planets; 
these interesting discoveries being merely inci- 
dents connected with his systematic observa- 
tions for another and, perhaps, more important 
purpose. 

Recent Papers on Astronomy. The following 
astronomical papers were read at the Minne- 
apolis meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, August, 1883 : 

1. The Total Solar Eclipse of May 6, 1883; by 
Prof. E. S. Holden. 

2. Internal Contacts in Transits of Inferior Plan- 
ets ; by Prof. J. E. Eastman. 

3. Physical Phenomena on the Planet Jupiter ; by 
Prof. G. W. Hough. 

4. Observations of the Total Solar Eclipse of May 
6, 1883 by Dr. J. Janssen. 

5. Orbit of the Great Comet of 1882 ; by Prof. Ed- 
gar Frisby. 

6. Some Observations on Uranus ; by Prof. C. A. 
Young. 

7. Observations on the Transit of Venus made at 
Columbia College, New York" city ; by Mr. J. K. 
Kees. 

Astronomical Prizes. At the annual meeting of 
the Royal Astronomical Society, Feb. 9, 1883, 
the society's gold medal was awarded to Dr. 
B. A. Gould, Director of the Observatory at 
C6rdoba, South America. "The work for 



28 ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA. 



AURORA BOREALIS. 



which the medal was chiefly awarded may be 
considered as an extension of Argelander's 
scale of magnitudes to all the stars which can 
be seen by a good eye, without instrumental 
aid, between 10 north declination and the 
south pole, together with a series of charts ex- 
hibiting, on a stereographic projection, the 
positions of all these stars to the sixth magni- 
tude, and a proposed revision of the boundaries 
of the southern constellations." 

On presenting the medal, the president of 
the society, E. J. Stone, F. R. S., delivered an 
address in which the labors of Dr. Gould were 
briefly reviewed, and concluding as follows: 
" The ' Uranoraetria Argentina ' is a work of 
very considerable extent ; it has been planned 
with great care, and executed with the most 
scrupulous attention to details. It will remain 
an enduring record of the relative brightness 
of the southern stars for its epoch ; and will be 
accepted for many years as the chief authority 
upon questions of their magnitude." 

The "Comptes Rendus," vol. xcvi, No. 14, 
announced that the French Academy of Sci- 
ences had awarded the Lalande prize to M. 
Souillart, Professor in the Faculty of Sciences 
in Lille, for his investigations into the theory 
of Jupiter's satellites. A prize of 2,000 francs 
was given to Dr. W. Schur for his determina- 
tion of the mass of Jupiter, and of the eccen- 
tricities of the orbits of the first and second 
satellites. The first Valz prize was awarded 
to Dr. Huggins, of England, chiefly for his 
spectroscopic determination of the motions of 
stars in the line of sight. The stcond Valz 
prize was given to M. Cruls, director of the 
observatory at Rio Janeiro. 

Llek Observatory. The dome for the 12-inch 
equatorial telescope of the Lick Observatory, 
as well as buildings for the transit and the 
photo- heliograph, was finished some months 
since. The instruments have been mounted, 
and are said to be in excellent working order. 
The walls of the main building are approach- 
ing completion, and arrangements are in prog- 
ress for the reception of the great 36-inch 
equatorial. The house for the meridian circle 
has been begun, and a residence for the direct- 
or and his assistants will be provided as soon 
as practicable. 

Potsdam Obsmatory. Prof. H. C. Vogel, 
Director of the Astrophysical Observatory of 
Potsdam, has undertaken the preparation of a 
complete spectroscopic star-catalogue. The 
examination of the zone extending from 1 
south declination to 20 north has been com- 
pleted, and the second zone, from 20 to 40 
north declination, will soon follow. " To pre- 
pare such a catalogue," says Vogel, "is a duty 
which the present generation owes to posterity. 
The changes taking place in the stars are of 
special interest to us, and are of importance to 
science ; and although it may be conjectured 
that changes in the spectra will show them- 
selves soonest in those stars which have pro- 
ceeded further in their development, that is, 



in the red stars, yet this can not be positively 
affirmed a priori. Equally with those wonder- 
ful spectra of the red stars, which so enchant 
the eye of the observer, will changes take 
place in the course of time in the simple spec- 
tra of the white and yellow stars, so that 
investigations of as large a number of star- 
spectra as possible, without limiting them to 
particular classes of stars, are absolutely ne- 
cessary for future researches." 

The Annual Report of the Council of the 
Royal Astronomical Society of London, read 
February 9, 1883, contains an account of the 
proceedings of the British observatories, public 
and private, for the past year. Most of the 
results, however, have been already given. At 
the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, arrange- 
ments have been made with the committee on 
solar physics by which the gaps in the Green- 
wich series of sun-pictures may be filled up by 
photographs taken in India, thus rendering 
the series almost perfectly continuous. The 
Oxford University Observatory has been chief- 
ly directed to the photometry of the brighter 
stars of the northern hemisphere. At Mr. 
Huggins's observatory, Upper Tulse Hill, the 
director has obtained photographs of the sun's 
corona without an eclipse. "In the longer 
exposed plates," Dr. Huggins remarks, "the 
outer corona with its rays of varying length 
and peculiar rifts is seen ; in the plates with a 
shorter exposure the inner corona, which is 
more nearly uniform in height, may be seen 
under suitable illumination. The average 
heights of the outer and inner coronse agree 
closely with the coronse as seen on the plates 
taken in Egypt," during the total eclipse of 
May 16, 1882. 

AURORA BOREALIS. The phenomena of the 
aurora borealis have recently been made the 
object of several special studies. They have 
long been regarded as of electrical origin, but 
nothing was known of the source of the elec- 
tric currents that produced them, or of the 
manner of action under which the different 
kinds of auroral phenomena were manifested. 
M. de la Rive, a physicist of Geneva, set forth 
the hypothesis, about 1850, that the earth is 
charged with positive, and the upper strata of 
the atmosphere with negative electricity, and 
that two currents, very strong in the tropical 
regions, are constantly proceeding toward the 
polar regions, where they meet through the 
medium of an air containing infinitesimal vesi- 
cles of water and crystals of snow and ice, and 
consequently having higher conducting pow- 
ers. He constructed an apparatus by the aid 
of which, establishing conditions similar to 
those he regarded as fundamental to his the- 
ory, he produced, on a minute scale, luminous 
phenomena comparable in appearance to those 
of the aurora. 

Mr. Nordenskjold, the Swedish explorer, 
when wintering near Bering Strait, in 1878, 
observed on perfectly favorable nights a faint 
luminous arc having its culminating point in 



AURORA BOREALIS. 



the north-northeast. His studies of this phe- A = 5,569 was observed, with soft variable 

nomenon led him to the conclusion that the intensity. The galvanometer gave the detiec- 

earth is provided with a permanent luminous tions, extremely variable in intensity, but never 

corona, about 400 kilometres from the surface, ceasing, of a positive current from the " ut- 

having its center correspondent with the mag- stromnings " apparatus to the earth. Ari 
netic pole, and its plane perpendicular to the 



terrestrial radius at that point. Its light is so 
feeble that the slightest rival luminous mani- 
festation the light of the moon, for example, 
or the presence of moisture or frost in the 
air is sufficient to extinguish it. Hence it is 
not likely to be visible in inhabited lands, and 
can be seen, even in the polar regions, only in 
such favorable seasons as the one he enjoyed, 
which was a season of minimum of auroras, 
and then only rarely. 

Prof. Lenstrbm's Experiments in Lapland. Di- 
rect and definite experiments to ascertain the 
cause of the auroral displays have been made 
by Prof. Selim Lenstrom, of the Fin- 
nish Meteorological Station at Sodan- 
kyla, Lapland. They were directed 
especially to the variety of the mani- 
festations which takes the form of tiny 
flames or a phosphorescent luminosity 
appearing around projecting objects, 
such as mountain cones and ridges. 
Prof. Lenstrom's first experiments 
were made in 1871, when, with an 
apparatus similar to the enlarged one 
with which he produced the same re- 
sults on a grander scale in 1882, he 
succeeded in artificially inducing an 
aurora on the top of the Luosmavaara 
mountain, 520 feet above the surface 
of Lake En are, in Lapland. Toward 
the end of November, 1882, Prof. Len- 
strom laid out on the summit of Mount 
Oratunturi (lat. 67 21', long. 27 17' 
32"), about 540 metres above the level 
of the sea and twelve miles from the 



On an- 
other mountain, Pietarintunturi (lat. 68 32' 
5", long. 27 17' 32"), 950 metres above the sea, 
a smaller utstromnings apparatus was erected 
in two parts, so arranged that the inner one 
covered about 80 square metres, and the outer 
one 320 square metres. On the 29th of Decem- 
ber a single column of aurora, 120 metres in 
height, appeared above the apparatus. The 
current, as shown by the galvanometer, was 
found in the case of this mountain to be " pro- 
portionate to the surface-area laid out " ; and 
observations of comparison between the two 
mountains led to the conclusion that u the elec- 
tric current from the atmosphere increases 





I 

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i 






i. 


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i 








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i 




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-; 
















I 
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observatory at Sodankyla, an instru- 
ment which he called an " utstrom- 
nings" or "discharging" apparatus. 
It consisted of a bare copper wire 
two millimetres m diameter, fitted at every 
half-metre with points or nibs soldered upon 
it. The wire was laid out in entwined squares, 
or in the form of a rectangular helix, in such 
a way that each innar coil was about a metre 
and a half from the outer one, and was raised 
on poles 2| metres high ; and the whole appa- 
ratus covered a superficial area of 900 square 
metres. From the inner end of this wire, an 



PROFESSOR LENSTRSM'S UTSTRO'MNINGS APPARATUS. THE Con op 
WIRES. The insulators are indicated by the letters'. The open 
end of the wire is shown at 0, while the inner end is connected 
with the galvanometer. 

rapidly with the latitude." Other researches 
led to the inference that, while the condition 
of the ground is of some influence, the terres- 
trial current ceases at a certain latitude. Si- 
multaneous measurements of the angles of ele- 
vation were made, at Sodankyla, and at a sta- 
tion four and a half kilometres north of that 
place, for the purpose of determining the height 
of the aurora. The measurements made the 



insulated copper wire on poles, with telegraph angle at the southern station three degrees 



insulators, led to the foot of the mountain, 
where a connection was made at the station 
with a galvanometer, whence another wire led 
to a zinc disk in the earth. From the day the 
apparatus was finished, a yellowish-white lumi- 
nosity appeared almost every night around 
the summit of the mountain, while nothing of 
the kind was seen around any of the other 
mountains. When tested with the spectro- 
scope, the light gave a faintly continuous spec- 
trum from D to F, in which the auroral line 



larger than that at the northern one, a result 
inconsistent with the supposition that the dif- 
ference in angle represented a parallax of a 
single object seen from two places; for in -that 
case the larger angle would have been observed 
at the northern station, and the difference 
would have been slight. Prof. Lenstrom came 
to the conclusion that the two observers did 
not see the same aurora ; and comparing this 
observation with others, that " measurements 
of the height of the aurora calculated on those 



30 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



with a long base north and south, are always 
erroneous, as the two observers never see the 
same aurora." Occasionally the characteristic 
auroral line was revealed in the spectroscope 
when no aurora was visible to the eye ; and 
the phosphorescent " shine," or diffused lumi- 
nosity, was observed so regularly as to induce 
the conclusion that that manifestation is a 
nearly constant accompaniment of the winter 
nights of Northern Lapland, and is of auroral 
origin. From his observations as a whole, 
Prof. Lenstrdm has drawn the conclusion that 
"the experiments at Luosrnavaara in 1871 and 
atOratunturi and Pietarintunturi in 1882 clear- 
ly and undeniably prove that the aurora borealis 
is an electric phenomenon," ; and also prove 
" that aurora borealis may be produced in na- 
ture by a simple contrivance assisting the elec- 
tric current flowing from the atmosphere to 
the earth." 

Dr. Tromholt's Observations in Fionmarken. Dr. 
Sophus Tromholt, of Norway, spent the win- 
ter of 1882-'83 at Kautokeino, in North Finn- 
inurketi (latitude 69 north, longitude 23 east), 
making observations in connection with the 
Norwegian station at Bossekop, about one de- 
gree north, and the much more distant Finn- 
ish station at Sodankyla, southeast of his post, 
for the purpose of obtaining the parallax of the 
aurora. The station is peculiarly favorable, for 
it is in a zone where the auroral displays at- 
tain their maxima, and are nearly constant. He 
made several attempts to photograph the phe- 
nomena, but without success, even the most sen- 
sitive English dry plates failing to give a trace 
of a negative. This he believes to be because 
of the exceedingly limited substance of light 
possessed by the glow ; a flood of which, il- 
luniiimting the whole heavens, would not alto- 
gether possess a lighting power equal to that 
of the moon when full. He has confidence in 
the practicability of his plan for measuring the 
height of the arc, and estimates it at 150 kilo- 
metres; and he believes that its plane is to 
be found far above that of the clouds. Prof. 
Lenstrdm, while he admits that the height is 
variable, is of the opinion that it has been 
greatly overestimated. Dr. Tromholt expect- 
ed to spend the winter of 1883-'84 in Northern 
Irehmd, experimenting with Prof. Lenstrom's 
" utstrdmnings " apparatus. 

AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. Consolidation. 
The movement for the consolidation of the 
Australasian colonies into a federal union, on 
the lines of the confederation of British North 
America, i.s piining ground in Australia, and 
receives the strongest encouragement from the 
present Government of Great Britain. The 
tendency toward union became apparent in 
1883 in different acts of co-operation and 
manifestations of a sense of common interests. 
A second conference to discuss the question 
to what extent confederation is practicable at 
the present time met at Sydney in November. 
The legislatures of the different colonies were 
represented by delegates selected from their 



number. The conference was appointed at 
the suggestion of the Victorian Parliament and 
Government. It arrived at no practical con- 
clusions on the main question. The question 
of the annexation of the Melanesian Islands 
gives a new import to the movement. All the 
colonies of Australia, through resolutions of 
their legislatures during the year, called upon 
the Imperial Government to occupy those isl- 
ands to prevent their falling into the hands of 
other powers. The British Government holds 
out the hope that their wishes will be gratified 
as soon as they shall combine in a strong po- 
litical union, and show that they can, at some 
future, time, take into their care and govern- 
ance the new possessions, and meanwhile bear 
their share of the cost of the occupation, 
administration, and defense of these vast re- 
gions. 

Postal Union. A conference of delegates from 
all the colonies, except New Zealand, which 
refused to join, was held at Sydney, for the 
purpose of considering the question of adopt- 
ing the arrangements of the Universal Postal 
Union. The meeting was called at the in- 
stance of Mr. Fawcett, the English Postmaster- 
General, who wished to have the votes of Aus- 
tralian delegates at the Lisbon conference in 
1884, in order to help the interests of the Brit- 
ish steamship lines. The Postal Union expects 
to reduce the maximum rate of ocean postage 
to ten cents a letter. The Sydney meeting took 
action in conformity with Mr. Fawcett's views, 
and appointed commissioners to attend the 
congress. The effect of the proposed arrange- 
ments will be to give the bulk of the business 
of carrying Australian mails to the Peninsular 
and Oriental Steamship Company, diverting 
that portion which is carried across the United 
States, and entailing losses on the colonies 
which have mail contracts with the Pacific 
Mail and other steamship companies. Such 
losses the colonies agreed to share with one 
another. 

Defenses. The various colonies are proceed- 
ing with the organization of a militia, and have 
already spent large sums in a system of coast 
defense fulfilling the latest requirements of 
naval science. "The. approaches to the prin- 
cipal ports are guarded by batteries mounted 
with modern artillery and by sunken torpe- 
does. A considerable fleet of powerful gun- 
boats and torpedo-boats of improved construc- 
tion is building for the colonial governments 
in England. Victoria ordered two gunboats, 
one of 530 tons' displacement and a speed of 
12 knots, to carry a 25-ton gun, two smaller 
guns in the stern, and improved Gatling guns ; 
the other, with a displacement of 350 tons and 
a speed of 10 knots, to be similarly armed, 
with a lighter gun in the bow. South Aus- 
tralia is having built a vessel which is rather a 
cruiser than a gunboat, with a displacement of 
900 tons and a speed of 14 knots, to be armed 
with an 8-inch gun in the bow, four 6-inch 
broadside guns, another in the stern, and five 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



31 



machine-guns. Queensland ordered two gun- 
boats identical with the smaller Victorian ves- 
sel. Victoria will have three torpedo-boats, 
New Zealand four, Queensland two, and Tas- 
mania one. One of the Victorian boats is the 
largest yet constructed, except one built for 
the Russian Government, being 113 feet long, 
with a displacement of 58 tons. It was 
launched in 1883, and is armed with four large 
Whitehead torpedoes and two Hodgkiss ma- 
chine-guns. The smaller boats will be armed 
with McEvoy spar torpedoes, or Whitehead 
projectile torpedoes. 

Annexation Schemes. The impulse to colonial 
extension observed in European Continental 
nations, the result chiefly of their protection- 
ist policy, and excessive expansion of indus- 
trial activity, diverted the movement for Aus- 
tralian confederation from its original purpose 
in 1833. The prospect of a further ''division 
of the world " became more imminent after 
the British occupation of Egypt. France be- 
gan the movement by casting about among the 
unclaimed regions of the earth for compensa- 
tion. The Australian colonists, who at this 
time started embryonic military and naval es- 
tablishments, and began to form a conception 
of the power of union, determined to take a 
stand against the establishment of any foreign 
colonies in Australasia, and to claim for Austra- 
lia pre-emptive rights to all the islands of the 
Pacific. In the absence of a federal union, the 
colonies began individually to agitate for the an- 
nexation of the more important islands. Euro- 
pean nations have for years debated over the 
question of establishing colonial plantations in 
Australasia. The party in Germany in favor of 
colonizing has directed attention by turns to 
every unoccupied group in Australasia, and near- 
ly every other uncivilized region in the world. 
German commerce has been extending in the 
neutral markets, and the Government has given 
some tentative aid and protection in Polynesia; 
but the German Government is more cautious 
in this respect than any other, and has resisted 
every temptation to establish a dominion over 
uncivilized races. Italy has discussed various 
fields for colonizing, and claims a sort of pri- 
ority in New Guinea, by virtue of the explora- 
tions of Beccari ani D'Albertis. France, as 
the only active colonizing power, was the most 
dreaded by the Australians, and is the most 
firmly seated in Australasia, possessing New 
Caledonia, and having interests in the New 
Hebrides. In 1878 France and Great Britain 
entered into reciprocal engagements not to an- 
nex the New Hebrides. Since then a private 
company, composed of colonists of New Cale- 
donia, has obtained trading concessions on 
those islands, and acquired some of the smaller 
ones by purchase. The colonists of New South 
Wales urged the home Government to acquire 
possession of the Solomon Islands and the New 
Hebrides, in order to prevent them from be- 
coming French penal colonies. In New Zea- 
land the old agitation for the annexation of 



the Friendly and Navigator groups was re- 
newed. But the oligarchy of Queensland, who, 
enriched by colored labor, consider it their 
vocation to rule over native races, showed the 
most impatient and aggressive spirit. They 
conceived the ambitious design of annexing to 
their little colony the great island of Papua, 
with its vast population and inexhaustible 
natural wealth. To establish a dominion over 
Papua, and derive any material benefit from 
the possession, would not only necessitate cruel 
oppression, which the mother- country would 
not permit, but would cost a long struggle, 
which would require considerable military re- 
sources. The Papuans are a brave and vigor- 
ous race, who live in large villages, cultivate 
the soil, and hold the land by fixed proprie- 
tary titles. 

In May the British Foreign Office received a 
dispatch from the Governor of Queensland, 
saying that the Queensland Government, in 
order to prevent other powers from occupying 
Papua, had taken formal possession of that 
island in the name of the Queen. The home 
authorities, who had had knowledge of this 
purpose since February, would not allow their 
hand to be forced by the Queenslanders. They 
repudiated the proceeding of the Governor, 
which could only be consummated by the 
power of Great Britain. Yet Lord Derby as- 
serted the pre-emptive claim of England to 
Papua, by declaring that they should " not view 
it as a friendly act if any other country at- 
tempted to make a settlement on that coast." 
They obtained assurances that the French Gov- 
ernment had no designs on the island. The 
British Government would go no further than 
to extend its jurisdiction over the southern 
coast of New Guinea, between which and Aus- 
tralia a considerable trade had sprung up, by 
giving the High Commissioner of Feejee power 
to enforce discipline over British subjects. 

The western half of Papua was claimed by 
Holland, by virtue of a cession from the Sultan 
of Tidore, in the Moluccas, a title like that of 
Portugal to the Congo Basin, which Great 
Britain might acknowledge, if expedient, and 
yet at any future time set aside. On the east- 
ern end Lieut. Yule had raised the British flag 
in 1848, as did Capt. Moresby on the islands 
off the east coast in 1873. 

The annexation of Papua by Great Britain 
had been mooted about five years before, when 
gold was discovered at Port Moresby on the 
south coast. There was a rush of- gold-diggers 
to the spot, but the new field was not as pro- 
ductive as was supposed, and the hostility of 
the natives made it dangerous for the miners 
to remain and explore further. The Torres 
Strait, which separates Papua from the north- 
ern point of Queensland, is only 80 miles wide; 
but Brisbane, the capital of the colony, is 1,000 
miles from the coast of Papua. The island, 
which Sir Thomas Moll wraith, the head of the 
Queensland Government, and Sir Arthur Ken- 
nedy, the Governor, attempted to add to the 



32 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



colony, which has already five square miles of 
land to every male inhabitant, by a proclama- 
tion issued without consulting the home au- 
thorities, contains 812,000 square miles, and a 
population of several millions. The suspicion 
was generally entertained, and was intimated 
in Lord Derby's sharp reply, that the colonists 
wished to obtain an unlimited supply of black 
labor, without the restraint which the imperial 
authorities put upon the cruelties incident to 
that traffic. The main business of the British 
squadron on the Australian station is to police 
the seas, so as to keep in check this slaving 
trade. The island of Papua has never been ex- 
plored, except along the coast, although D'Al- 
bertis, Miklucho-Maklay, and Lawes have pene- 
trated a short distance inland. Powell, who 
lived eight years on the coast, considers it the 
richest island in the world in natural resources. 
Products which are obtainable in large quan- 
tities, and some of which are already objects 
of commerce, are tortoise-shells, pearl-shells, 
ivory-nuts, gums, sandal- wood, camphor, sago, 
arrowroot, ginger, sugar-cane, ebony, and bird- 
of-paradise plumes. Tobacco is produced in 
large quantities. Copper, tin, and gold have 
been found, but of the mineral resources of 
the island but little is known. 

The British Colonial Office, after disposing 
of the presumptuous act of the Governor of 
Queensland, had a wider scheme of colonial 
extension presented to its attention by agents 
of all the colonies. They proposed the an- 
nexation of Papua, the New Hebrides, the Solo- 
mon Islands, and the islands in the neighbor- 
hood of Papua, and of the little-known islands 
to the north and northeast of Papua, compris- 
ing all together an area of over 300,000 square 
miles. The hope which Lord Derby held out 
to the colonies was that they should unite 
in a confederation and help to carry out their 
annexation schemes with their own powers. 
The conference of delegates from the legisla- 
tures of the different colonies which was held 
at Sydney in November to consider the ques- 
tion of confederation turned its attention to 
that of annexing the South Sea islands. The 
conference resolved that it would be highly 
injurious to the interests of Australia and the 
mpiro to have any foreign power acquire 
dominions in the southern Pacific, and there- 
fore called upon England to take the initiative 
in taking possession of that part of Papua not 
H.-iiriird by Holland, and the neighboring isl- 
ands, and to make arrangements with France 
to preclude that power from making conquests 
in these regions, and to induce it to relinquish 
the New Hebrides to British possession. The 
conference promised that Australia would bear 
its fair share in the cost of these enterprises. 

Victoria wos constituted a self-governing col- 
ony in 1854. The Legislative Council, of 86 
members, is elective by a limited franchise, 
fixed by the law of 1881 at 10 annual rata- 
ble value of freehold property or the occu- 
pancy of rented or leased property rated at 



25 annual value for all except professional 
men. The term of the members, who must 
have property yielding 100 income, is nine 
years, one third retiring every three years. 
The members of the Legislative Assembly are 
elected for three years by universal suffrage, 
The bill of 1881 increased the electorate for 
the Legislative Council from 33,105 to 110,000. 
The electors for the Assembly number 176,022. 

The Governor, who was appointed Dec. 10, 
1878, and assumed office Feb. 27, 1879, is the 
Hon. George Augustus C. Phipps, second Mar- 
quis of Normanby, who has filled similar posts 
in Nova Scotia, Queensland, and New Zealand. 

The area of Victoria is 87,884 square miles. 
The population on the 3d of April, 1881, was 
862,346452,083 males and 410,263 females- 
including 12,128 Chinese and 780 aborigines. 
The Chinese and natives have decreased greatly 
in the past ten years. About half of the total 
population live in towns. Those containing 
over 10,000 inhabitants in 1881 were as fol- 
low : Melbourne, 65,859 (including suburbs, 
282,981); Sandhurst, 28,513; Emerald Hill, 
25,374; Collingwood, 23,829; Richmond, 23,- 
405; Fitzroy, 23,118; Ballarat, 22,411 ; Prah- 
ran, 21,168; Hotham, 17,839; Wahalla, 16,- 
147; Ballarat East, 14,849; St. Kilda, 11,654. 
The population of Victoria formerly increased 
rapidly by immigration, but owing to the with- 
drawal of the system of assisted immigration 
and other causes the influx has moderated 
greatly. 

The total imports in 1881 amounted to 16,- 
718,521, the exports to 16,252,103. The 
chief imports are woolen manufactures, live- 
stock, sugar, cotton, clothing, and tea. More 
or less grain is imported each year. The two 
staple articles, wool and gold, make the prin- 
cipal part of the exports. There were ex- 
ported in 1881, 98,467,369 pounds of wool, 
valued at 5,450,029, and gold bullion of the 
value of 8,674,104. The quantity of gold 
produced, which averaged 2,000,000 ounces 
per annum in the first ten years after the dis- 
covery of the mines in 1851, and fell to 1,500,- 
000 ounces in 1867, and below 1,000,000 in 
1876, slightly increased with the application 
of the diamond - drill after 1878, while the 
number of miners employed has decreased in 
recent years. The number at the beginning 
of 1882 was 38,136, including 7,941 Chinamen. 
The value of the total quantity of gold pro- 
duced since 1851 is estimated at 201,674,118. 

The number of acres under cultivation in 
1882 was 1,997,943. There were 4,919 acres 
of vineyards. In March, 1881, the census of 
live-stock gave 275,516 horses, 1,286,267 
horned cattle, 10,360,285 sheep, and 241,936 
pigs. 

The mileage of railroads open to traffic at 
the close of 1881 was 1,214 miles, all belong- 
ing to the state. There were under construc- 
tion 450 miles more. The system has been 
built in great part since 1875. The total cost 
was 18,603,830, the cost per mile 15,324; 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



33 



net revenue, 4'04 per cent. ; borrowed capital, 
17,609,207, on which the interest charge is 
918,218 ; gross earnings in 1881. 1,665,209 ; 
expenditure, 913,572; profits, 751,637. Two 
fifths of the receipts were from passenger and 
three fifths from freight traffic. 

The number of miles of telegraph lines com- 
pleted at the end of 1881 was 3,349 ; the num- 
ber of messages, 1,281,749. Since 1870 the 
rate has been Is for ten words and Id. for 
each additional word. 

The revenue of the colony in 1881 was 
5,114,460, the expenditure 5,102,470. The 
receipts for the year ending June 30, 1882, 
were 5,770,000, the expenditure 5,690,000. 
The public debt was 22,944,602 in 1881. In 
June, 1883, the total liabilities amounted to 
about 26,000,000. The net revenue from the 
railways and water-works for which the debt 
was incurred is stated by Mr. James Service, 
the Colonial Treasurer and Premier, to be suf- 
ficient to pay 4 per cent, on the total amount. 

The O'Loghlen Ministry, which had already 
lost its popularity, was defeated at a general 
election in February in consequence of an un- 
successful financial operation in London. The 
ministry attempted to convert 3,800,000 of 
6 per cent, bonds, falling due in October, 1883, 
into a new loan at 4 per cent. The books for 
a loan of 4,000,000 were accordingly opened 
in London in January. In insisting upon is- 
suing the bonds only at par, the Premier came 
into collision with the English magnates of 
finance. A mere fraction of the stock was 
taken. The credit of Victoria had suffered 
from the frequent comparisons made between 
it and the more rapidly growing free-trade 
colony of New Soath Wales, and through the 
unpopularity in England of its protectionist 
policy. The momentary financial embarrass- 
ments of the Government, which had compelled 
it to obtain advances of 2,000,000, gave a 
colorable ground for the rejection of the loan. 
The Victorians were more astonished than dis- 
couraged, and attributed the result entirely to 
the blunders of the Ministry. The Cabinet pre- 
ferred to make an appeal to the country rather 
than be voted out of office by the Parliament, 
which was to meet Feb, 13th. With the con- 
sent of the Marquis of Normanby a new elec- 
tion was ordered. It took place in the latter 
part of February. Only 14 Ministerialists were 
returned ; Sir Bryan O'Loghlen himself lost his 
seat. The Liberal Constitutionalist party, led 
by James Service, elected 38 members, and 
the Radical or Democratic party of Graham 
Berry, 32. A coalition ministry was formed, 
March 7th, as follows: Hon. James Service, 
Premier, Colonial Treasurer, and Minister of 
Public Instruction ; Hon. Graham Berry, 
Chief Secretary; Hon. George Briscoe Ker- 
ferd, Attorney - General ; Hon. Albert Lee 
Tucker, Minister of Lands, Agriculture, etc. ; 
Hon. Duncan Gillies, Commissioner of Rail- 
ways and Roads; Hon. Alfred Deakin, Com- 
missioner of Public Works ; Hon. J. F. Levien, 
VOL. xxiir. 3 A 



Minister of Mines ; Hon. George D. Langridge, 
Commissioner of Trade and Customs; Hon. 
W. Anderson, Minister of Justice; Hon. Mr. 
Sargood, without portfolio. The financial 
statement made April 4th charged the former 
Minister of Railroads with imprudence in en- 
tering into contracts for rails and rolling-stock 
to be manufactured in the colony beyond the 
amounts sanctioned by Parliament, causing the 
estimated expenditures to be exceeded. The 
loan of 4,000,000 was placed by the new 
Government, by acceding to the demands of 
the London bankers, at only a slight discount, 
the Government pledging itself to borrow not 
more than 2,000,000 additional during that 
year. The finances of the colony were de- 
scribed by Mr. Service to be in no critical con- 
dition, though the sales of public lands had 
been declining for two or three years ; but the 
maturity of the old debt, which would require 
3,000,000 more to be raised in 1884 and 
4,000,000 in 1885, puts a stop temporarily to 
large expenditures on public works. The leg- 
islative programme of the new ministry em- 
braced the reform of the civil service by de- 
livering it from political patronage and intrust- 
ing official appointments to a permanent board ; 
the creation of a board of commissioners to 
manage the state railroads ; the extension of 
the system of irrigation and water conserva- 
tion by local authorities ; and the introduction 
of pastoral leases to apply only to the " mallee 
scrub " lands of inferior quality which are 
overrun with rabbits, the leases for twenty 
years being made conditional on the tenants' 
exterminating noxious animals. 

The tariff controversy was continued during 
the year, and the Commission of Inquiry col- 
lected evidence from all classes. Invidious 
comparisons with the rapid growth of New 
South Wales are not considered just by the Vic- 
torians, as their colony has no unlimited sheep 
pasturage to i.vvite immigration. The flocks 
of Victoria have scarcely increased since 1873, 
while those of New South Wales have nearly 
doubled. Though the population of Victoria 
increases slowly, the growth in wealth is 
stfeady, and the progress is marked in agricul- 
ture and cattle-raising. The herds increased 
from 883,763 head in 1873, to 1,286,267 in 
1881. The protected industries do not show 
the same healthy growth, and the rural commu- 
nity is becoming more and more dissatisfied 
with the protective policy, which favors the 
working-classes of the towns at its expense. 

New South Wales, the oldest Australian colo- 
ny, originally a penal settlement, and formerly 
including the present colonies of South Aus- 
tralia, Victoria, and Queensland, obtained re- 
sponsible government in 1855. The Legislative 
Council consists of 21 or more members, nomi- 
nated by the Crown. The Legislative Assembly 
consists of 108 members, elected by 72 constitu- 
encies by universal suffrage and secret ballot. 
The Governor is Lord Augustus W. F. 8. Lof- 
tus, born in 1818, formerly British embassador 



34 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



to Austria, Germany, and Russia, who entered 
upon the office Aug. 4, 1879. The ministry is 
composed as follows: Colonial Secretary and 
Premier, Hon. Alexander Stuart ; Treasurer, 
Don. George Dibbs ; Minister of Justice, Hon. 
Henry Cohen ; Minister of Public Instruction, 
Hon. George H. Reed ; Attorney-General, Hon. 
W. Bede Dalley; Minister of Public Works, 
Hon. Henry Copeland ; Postmaster - General, 
Hon. F. A. Wright, Minister of Mines, Hon. 
Robert P. Abbott; Secretary for Lands, Hon. 
James Squire Farnell; Vice-President of the 
Council, Hon. Sir Patrick Jennings. 

The area is 323,437 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1881 was 751,468, of whom 411,149 
were males and 340,319 females. The immi- 
gration in the seven years ending with 1880 
averaged 10,000. The birth-rate is high. The 
population of Sydney, the capita], in 1881, was 
220,427, having increased 66-25 per cent, in ten 
years. 

There entered the port of Sydney, in 1881, 
2,254 vessels, of the aggregate tonnage 1,456,- 
289 tons. The tonnage of the port of Newcas- 
tle was almost as large. 

The total exports of New South Wales in 
1881 amounted to 16,049,503, the imports 
to 17,409,326, both larger than in any previ- 
ous year. Over one third of the trade is with 
Great Britain; the rest is mainly with the 
other colonies. The leading export article is 
wool, of which 87,739,914 pounds, valued at 
5,304,576, were shipped to England in 1881. 
The chief exports next in order are tin, copper, 
tallow, and preserved meat. 

In March, 1882, the colony had 33,062,854 
sheep, 2,180,896 cattle, 316,931 horses, and 
213,916 swine. The total area under cultiva- 
tion was 645,068 acres, about one half of which 
was under wheat and maize. New South 
Wales is richer than the other colonies in coal, 
of which 1,775,224 tons were raised in 1881. 
The gold production in 1881 was 550,111, 
about the average of the last five years, having 
suddenly fallen off from 2,097,740 in 1875, 
and 1,589,854 in 1876. 

In 1881 there were 995 miles of railroad in 
operation, and 487 miles under construction. 
Sydney has 11 miles of steam tramways, a 
system which is to be extended to some of the 
neighboring towns. The Colonial Treasurer 
that though the railroads of New South 
Wales were laid out and are rapidly extended 
for the purpose of developing the country, and 
hhougfa the Government fixes the tariff lower 
than in the other colonies for that object, yet 
they return a higher rate of profit on the capi- 
tal invested than any other railroads in the 
world. 

The telegraph lines completed at the end of 
1881 were 14,278 miles, constructed at a cost 
of 492,211. 

The public revenue of New South Wales in 
1881 amounted to 6,707,963, the expendi- 
ture to 5,890.579. The estimated revenue 
for 1882 was 6,240,000, the expenditure 5,- 



960,000. The actual revenue was 7,062,873, 
and showed a surplus of 1,846,000. The reve- 
nue for 1883 was estimated at 6,819,200, the 
expenditure at 6,483,000. 

The public debt, increased by an issue of 
2,000,000, in 1882, was at the end of that year 
18,924,019. In 1882-'83 loans to the amount 
of 3,000,000 were placed in London. The 
sums expended by the colony on railroad and 
telegraph construction amounted at the end of 
September, 1882, to 17,078,654. The revenue 
from these public works exceeds the interest 
on the public debt. The railroad system could 
be sold out to capitalists, according to the cal- 
culation of Mr. Dibbs, for 25,000,000. Be- 
sides the railroads and the public lands, the as- 
sets of the colony include 12,000,000 owing 
to it from conditional purchasers of land. 

The financial policy of the new Cabinet, which 
came into office in January, 1883, is to restrict 
sales of land as much as possible pending the 
new land legislation, thus reducing the surplus 
revenue. A revision of the tariff is in pros- 
pect after the land question is settled. 

The Parliament of New South Wales was 
suddenly and unexpectedly dissolved in Novem- 
ber, 1882. The Government had placed before 
Parliament a land bill, which was, with slight 
amendments, a consolidation of the various 
land laws embodying the system first intro- 
duced by Sir John Robertson in 1861. The 
Robertson policy was hailed at the time it was 
adopted as a triumph of democratic principles. 
It allows the free selection of lands by actual 
settlers anywhere upon the tracts occupied on 
pastoral leases 'as sheep-runs by " squatters," 
or Government leaseholders. This provision 
has not prevented the building up of huge pas- 
toral estates in accordance with the natural 
and economical conditions which prevail in 
Australia, nor promoted to any extent the im- 
migration of settlers and the agricultural de- 
velopment of the country. But it depreciated 
the value of the public lands and prevented the 
Government from obtaining the best value on 
leases or sales. It has also brought about eco- 
nomical conditions which are regarded with 
grave apprehensions by the younger statesmen. 
The squatters have been impelled by reason of 
the insecurity of their tenure to strain their 
credit in order to obtain the freehold of their 
runs. The portions which they can not borrow 
the means to buy at auction they endeavor to 
keep out of the hands of actual settlers by in- 
ducing dependents and dummies to free-select 
the desirable sections. Illegal and violent 
means are often resorted to for the purpose of 
fighting away interloping settlers. The conse- 
quence of this state of things is, the creation 
of a class of large landholders more rapidly 
than if the Robertson law did not exist, and 
of landholders whose property is deeply mort- 
gaged at heavy interest to absentee capitalists. 
Sir Henry Parkes, the Premier, agreed to a 
dissolution, although the Parliament had but 
one year to run, and the adoption of the tri- 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



35 



ennial period was intended to prevent avoid- 
able dissolutions, and although Sir Henry Rob- 
ertson was alone responsible for pressing the 
measure, and the country was with the coali- 
tion ministry on every other question. The 
party opposed to the perpetuation of the exist- 
ing land system proposed to limit the right of 
free selection on unsurveyed lands and allow a 
large portion of the colony to remain under 
pastoral leases, but without giving to squat- 
ters the power of purchase. In the elections in 
December, 1882, Mr. Watson, the Treasurer; 
Dr. Kenwick, the Minister of Mines; and Mr. 
Foster, the Minister of Justice, lost their seats; 
Sir Henry Robertson was barely elected, and 
Sir Henry Parkes was defeated in his own dis- 
trict, and took the place of a candidate who 
retired in his favor. A new ministry was 
formed by Mr. Alexander Stuart. 

A Commission of Inquiry reported in May 
upon the facts governing the land question. 
The territory of New South Wales is divisible 
into three parts. The old settled portion, con- 
sisting mainly of the land lying between the 
sea and the Blue Mountains, contains 500,000 
inhabitants, including 220,000 in Sydney and 
117,000 in other towns, and has an area of 26,- 
000,000 acres, of which 9,000,000 have been 
alienated, consisting of all the best lands. This 
land was not occupied in pastoral squatting 
leases, but in the form of freeholds of moder- 
ate size, with grazing rights over an additional 
space. The result is stated to be a beneficial 
division of the land and settlement by fami- 
lies, with few estates exceeding 5,000 acres. 
The second division, comprising the nearer in- 
land districts as far as the Barwon river and the 
confluence of the Murrumbidgee and the Mur- 
ray, on the frontier of Victoria, is the largest 
of the three, and contains the finest lands, 
such as the rich plains of the Clarence and 
Macleay rivers, and the valuable grazing dis- 
tricts of New England, Liverpool Plains, Gwy- 
dir, Dubbo, Deniliquin, the Upper Murray, Mo- 
miro, and Twofold Bay. It has a total area 
of 86,000,000 acres, and a population of 223,- 
560 souls, of whom 88,178 live in the towns. 
This region was settled under the land laws of 
1862. The class-conflicts which arose between 
the squatters and the free-selectors are said to 
have wasted the resources of the settlers and 
embittered social life. The quantity of land 
which has passed into private ownership is 
25,156,000 acres.' In the Deniliquin and Wag- 
ga Wagga districts only one eighth or less of 
the nominal owners remain on the land, much 
more than half the farms ostensibly free-se- 
lected for agricultural purposes having been 
taken up at the procuration of lessees of pas- 
toral runs. The third division contains the 
broad plains, well adapted to pastoral pur- 
poses, which are traversed by the Darling river. 
This region contains but few inhabitants as 
yet. Very few sales have been made to set- 
tlers, and these are mostly of the same ficti- 
tious character as in the second division. The 



effect of the land laws, according to the com- 
mission, has been not only to divide the rural 
community into two hostile camps, and to waste 
the lives and fortunes of numbers of persons in 
litigation, but u the personal virtues of veracity 
and honorable dealing have been tarnished by 
the daily habit of intrigue, by the practice of 
evading the law, and by declarations univer- 
sally made in defiance of fact : self-interest has 
created a laxity of conscience in these mat- 
ters ; the stain attaches to men of all classes 
and degrees." 

The revision of the land laws inaugurated 
by the Stuart ministry proceeds on the prin- 
ciple of restricting the right of free selection 
to a limited portion of each pastoral leasehold 
and giving the squatter a more secure tenure 
of the remainder. Under this system the Gov- 
ernment expects to exact a considerably higher 
rent from the squatters. 

South Australia was invested with represent- 
ative government in 1856. The Legislative 
Council consists of 24 members elected from 
four districts, one third of whom retire every 
three years. The electoral qualifications are the 
possession of real estate of 50 value or leased 
premises of 20 annual value. The House of. 
Assembly, elected by universal suffrage, con- 
sists of 46 members. The Governor of South 
Australia is Sir William C. T. Robinson, pre- 
viously Governor of several minor colonies, ap- 
pointed in November, 1882. The Executive 
Council is composed as follows: Chief Secre- 
tary, Hon. J. Cox Bray; Attorney-General, 
Hon. John W. Downer; Chief -Justice, Hon. 
S. J. Way; Treasurer, Hon. Lavington Glyde; 
Commissioner of Crown Lands, Hon. Alfred 
Catt; Commissioner of Public Works, Hon. 
James Garden Ramsey ; Minister of Education, 
Hon. John Langdon Parsons. 

The estimated area of South Australia is 
903,425 square miles. The population on April 
3, 1881, was 279,865, of whom 149,530 were 
males and 130,335 females, including 2,734 
Chinese, but exclusive of the aborigines, num- 
bering 6,346. The population of Adelaide, the 
capital, was 38,479 without the suburbs. 

South Australia is the leading agricultural 
colony. The area under cultivation increased 
from 739,714 acres in 1866 to 1,444,586 in 
1876, and 2,613,903 in 1882, of which 1,768,- 
781 acres were sown to wheat. The live-stock 
census showed 159,678 horses, 314,918 horned 
cattle, and 6,810,856 sheep. 

The total exports in 1882 amounted to about 
5,280,000, the imports to 5,890,000. The 
staple articles of export are wool, wheat, and 
flour, and copper-ore. The wool exports were 
valued in 1881 at 2,345,231, The grain ex- 
ports were of the value of 82,092 in 1876 ; 
514,176 in 1877; 514,176 in 1878; 464,- 
049 in 1879; 1,025,077 in 1880; and 496,- 
741 in 1881. The exports of copper in 1881 
amounted to 179,731. Besides copper there 
exist iron-ores of great richness. 

There were 945 miles of railroad in opera- 



36 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



tion in July, 1882, and 174 miles in the course 
of construction. The length of telegraph lines 
completed at the end of 1881 was 4,946 miles. 

An intercolonial railroad is projected which 
will connect Adelaide with Melbourne. The 
Murray Bridge or Callington route, chosen by 
the Government, is criticised by many. The 
large falling off in the grain exports has had a 
depressing effect on the colony, and has affected 
the revenue. A proposed property tax of a 
penny in the pound is strongly opposed. The 
land law has been amended so as to allow pur- 
chasers on deferred payments to surrender 
their holdings, with remission of the remaining 
installments. 

Queensland was separated from New South 
Wales and endowed with responsible govern- 
ment in 1859. The Legislative Council con- 
sists of 30 life-members nominated by the 
Crown, the Legislative Assembly of 55 mem- 
bers elected for live years. Every tax -payer 
has a vote, and every property-owner or lease- 
holder one in the district in which the prop- 
erty is situated as well as in the district in 
which he resides. 

The Governor of Queensland is Sir Anthony 
Musgrove, formerly Governor of Jamaica, who 
was appointed in 1883. The late Governor, 
Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy, who held the 
office six years, died after his recall, on the 
voyage to England. The Ministry is composed 
as follows: Colonial Secretary and Premier, 
Hon. Sir Thomas Mcllwraith ; Colonial Treas- 
urer, Hon. A. Archer; Secretary for Public 
Works, Hon. John M. McCrossan; Secretary 
for Public Lands, Hon. Patrick Perkins ; Post- 
master-General, Hon. Boyd Dunlop Morehead. 

The area of Queensland is 668,224 square 
miles. The coast line measures 2,250 miles. 
The population in 1881 was 213,525, divided 
into 125,325 males and 88,200 females, includ- 
ing 11,229 Chinese engaged in the gold-mines 
and 6,848 Polynesians, but not including the 
aborigines, estimated at 20,585. The capital, 
Brisbane, had 31,109 inhabitants. The immi- 
gration from the United Kingdom declined 
after the introduction of Chinese and Polyne- 
sian laborers. 

The total imports in 1881 amounted to 
3,601,906, the exports to 3,289,253. The 
leading article of export is wool, which is 
shipped to England to the value of over 800,- 
000 a year.. Preserved meat and tallow are 
also exported. The cultivation of cotton and 
sugar-cane, recently introduced, is growing 
rapidly. The total area under cultivation in 
the beginning of 1883 was 128,875 acres, of 
which 28,026 acres were planted to sugar-cane. 
The live-stock at the beginning of 1882 num- 
bered 194,217 horses, 3,618,513 cattle, 8,292,- 
883 sheep, and 56,438 hogs. There are several 
coal mines worked in the colony. The value 
of the gold product declined from 1,306,431 
in 1877, ten years after the discovery of gold, 
to 925,012 in 1881. 

At the beginning of 1882 there were 800 



miles of railroad in operation, and 200 miles in 
process of construction. A trans-Australian 
line from Bisbane to Port Darwin was begun 
in 1882. The telegraph mileage was 6,279. 

In Queensland, besides the appropriation of 
the land by monopolists, there exists the form 
of slavery 'known as "indentured labor," an 
evil now found in no other Australian colony. 
The culture of sugar in the sub-tropical por- 
tion of the colony is so profitable that free 
white settlers who penetrate beyond the occu- 
pied districts to raise the cane and evaporate 
the juice are better repaid than in any other 
occupation now open in Australia. Yet the 
laws allowing bound labor are kept on the 
statute-book by the influence of the large 
planters, on the plea that the product can only 
be cultivated by colored labor, and that colored 
labor can only be made effective by special 
sanctions. Until recently, veritable slavers 
supplied the labor market by enticing away or 
capturing in violent raids the natives of the 
Polynesian islands. But an outcry was made 
in England which led to a parliamentary in- 
quiry. The revelations of these piratical raids 
and of the cruelties and frauds practiced upon 
the Kanakas in Queensland, which resulted in 
the appointment of a commission, consisting of 
Sir A. Gordon and the two naval commanders 
on the station, to consider means of punishing 
crimes committed on the Pacific islands by 
British subjects, discouraged further importa- 
tions of Pacific- islander s. The planters then 
turned to Ceylon and Southern India. Cinga- 
lese and Bengalee coolies are brought by specu- 
lators, to whom they have, or are supposed to 
have, contracted their labor for a term of 
years, and are by them transferred to the sugar- 
planters. The employment of colored labor is 
restricted by statute to the sugar-estntes on the 
northern coast. The term of service is limited 
to three years, after which they have to be 
sent back at the expense of their employers. 
The white laborers, who through a low fran- 
chise exert great political power, and to please 
whom a tax of 10 a head is imposed on Chi- 
nese immigrants, are in favor of restricting 
colored labor. The laborers are subjected to 
official inspection: Nevertheless, as the na- 
tive races are not permitted to testify in the 
courts, they are not protected against any form 
of cruelty or injustice. According to a statis- 
tical statement cited by Lord Lamington, there 
were imported into Queensland, within a com- 
paratively few years, the large number of 17,- 
329 black laborers. 

Tasmania, constituted a self-governing colony 
in 1871, has two Houses of Parliament, elected 
by suffrage limited by property qualifications 
of different degrees. The Govornor is Maj.- 
Gen. Sir G. Cumine Strahan, transferred from 
the governorship of the Windward Islands in 
August, 1880. The head of the responsible 
ministry is Hon. William R. Giblin. The rev- 
enue in 1881 was 502,417; expenditure, 466,- 
313 ; estimated revenue in 1883, 530,000 ; ex- 



AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



37 



penditure, 457,242. The public debt, raised 
for the construction of public works, was on 
Dec. 31, 1881, 2,003,000, bearing interest at 
6 per cent. 

The area is estimated at 26,215 square miles, 
or 16,778,000 acres, including the adjacent isl- 
ands. The population in 1881 was 115,705, of 
whom 61,162 were males and 54,543 females. 
The increase in eleven years was but 16,377. 
The aborigines are entirely extinct. The ex- 
ports in 1881 amounted to 1,555,576, the im- 
ports to 1,438,524. The chief articles of ex- 
port are wool and tin, and more recently gold. 
The valuable deposits of tin and iron and the 
discovery of gold have given a slight impetus 
to enterprise and immigration, but in agricul- 
ture the colony has receded ; barley, the quality 
of which is superior, is the only crop except 
potatoes that has increased. 

New Zealand was organized in six provinces 
in 1852, and united under a Governor and Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1875. The members of the 
Legislative Council are appointed by the Crown 
for life. The House of Representatives con- 
sists of 95 members elected by household suf- 
frage. The Maoris are represented by four 
members elected by themselves. 

The Governor is Maj.-Gen. Sir William Fran- 
cis Drummond Jervois, transferred from South 
Australia in November, 1882. 

The Premier, Mr. Whittaker, resigned the 
office in 1883 not, however, for political rea- 
sons. He was succeeded by Maj. Atkinson, the 
Colonial Treasurer. 

The area of New Zealand is estimated at 
105,342 square miles. Two thirds of the total 
surface is good agricultural or grazing land. 
The census of 1881 gave the total population 
as 534,032, including the Maoris, who num- 
bered 44,099, divided into 24,370 males and 
19,729 females; of the rest, 269,605 were males 
and 220,328 females. The Chinese numbered 
5,004. The towns with more than 10,000 in- 
habitants were Dunedin (24,372 with suburbs, 
48,802), Auckland (16,664 with suburbs, 39,- 
966), Wellington (20,563), and Christchurch 
(15,213 with suburbs, 30,719). The popula- 
tion of New Zealand is increasing faster than 
that of any of the Australian colonies, both by 
immigration and by a high birth-rate. 

The total imports in 1881 amounted to 7,- 
457,045, the exports to 6,060,866. The quan- 
tity of wool exported was 59,368,832 pounds; 
value, 3,477,993. Grain and flour were 
shipped to Great Britain in 1881 to the value of 
913,581. Gum and preserved meat are, ex- 
cept gold, the next most considerable articles 
of export. There were in April 1881, in the 
colony 161,736 horses, 698,637 cattle, 12,985,- 
085 sheep, and large numbers of hogs and 
poultry. The New Zealand gold-fields, discov- 
ered in 1857, and yielding at the height of their 
production in 1877, 1,496,080, produced in 
1881, 996,867. 

The railway system of New Zealand was 
begun in 1872. In 1882 there were 875 miles 



completed on the South Island and 458 on 
the North Island. When completed, the sys- 
tem is to have 2,075 miles of line, and will 
cost 1 6,OOU,000. The capital already expend- 
ed in 1883 was about 11,500,000. The rail- 
roads in the South Island already return 3 per 
cent, on the outlay, those in the North Island 
If per cent. There were 3,824 miles of tele- 
graph open to traffic in March, 1882. 

The revenues of the Government are derived 
partly from customs receipts, etc., and partly 
from sales of public lands, depasturing licenses, 
export duties on gold, and mining licenses. 
The latter category, called the territorial rev- 
enue, was, down to 1879, nearly as productive 
as the ordinary sources of revenue. In 1882 
the ordinary revenue amounted to 3,488,170, 
the territorial revenue to 317,063 ; total 
revenue, 3,805,233. The total expenditure 
was 3,590,233. The estimated revenue for 
the year ending March 31, 1883, is 3,393,- 
500 ; expenditure. 3,478,639. The public debt 
amounted in 1882 to 29,946,711. At the end 
of March, 1883, it was 30,357,000, not de- 
ducting the sinking fund, amounting to 2,571,- 
000. Notwithstanding the magnitude of its 
liabilities, the colony obtained a loan of 1,- 
000,000 in London in 1883 at 4 per cent, at a 
very slight discount. This state of the credit 
allows the considerable floating debt to be con- 
verted at a reduced interest. 

The Government has introduced proposals 
in the Legislature to change the constitution of 
the Legislative Council, making it an elective 
body, as in the older colonies, instead of the 
members being appointed for life by the Gov- 
ernor. 

The difficulties with the Maoris in the west- 
ern part of the North Island have ceased. 
The natives have abandoned their attitude of 
exclusion and isolation, and given pledges of 
peaceful submission to the laws. The pressure 
of public opinion in England has put some re- 
straint upon the oppressive and confiscatory 
instincts of the colonists. Improvements are 
being introduced in the Maori country, and in- 
tercourse between the natives and the white 
settlers who have penetrated there has a bene- 
ficial influence on both races. The harbor of 
Kawhia, after being closed for twenty years, 
was opened again without opposition from the 
natives. A government township was laid out 
at that place. Surveys for roads and railways 
have extended into parts of the country where 
formerly no European was suffered to travel. 

AESTRIA-HUNGARY, an empire constituted 
since 1867 as a dual monarchy. The Cisleithan 
Kingdom, or Austria, and the Transleithan, or 
Hungary, are connected by a common army, 
navy, and diplomacy, and in the person of the 
hereditary sovereign. The house of Hapsburg 
has reigned over Austria for six hundred years, 
and has possessed the Hungarian crown for 
more than half that period. Franz Josef I., 
reigning Emperor of Austria and King of 
Hungary, was born Aug. 18, 1830, and sue- 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



ceeded his uncle, Ferdinand I., who abdicated 
in 1848. The heir-apparent is the Archduke 
Rudolf, horn Aug. 21, 1858. 

Government The common affairs of the two 
monarchies, restricted to military defense and 
foreign policy, are regulated by the Delega- 
tions, consisting of 120 members, chosen in 
equal numbers from the Austrian and Hun- 
garian legislatures 20 from the upper and 40 
from the lower house of each. The common 
Ministers, responsible Jo the Delegations, are 
as follow: Minister of Foreign Affairs and 
of the Imperial Household, Count G. Ka^nocky 
de Korospatak, born in 1832, Minister to Rome, 
187U-'80, and then at St. Petersburg until he 
was called to the head of the administration, 
Nov. 21, 1881 ; Minister of War for the whole 
empire, Count Bylandt-Rheydt, appointed June 
21, 1876; Minister of Finance for the whole 
empire, Baron von Kallay, appointed June 4, 
1882. 

Area and Population. The total aiea of the 
Austrp-Hungarian Empire, exclusive of the 
occupied provinces, is 240,942 square miles; 
the total population was returned in the cen- 
sus of Dec. 31, 1880, as 37,786,246, or 159 to 
the square mile. The population increased in 
eleven years in Cisleithania, 8*5 per cent. ; in 
Hungary only 1'24 per cent. In Transylvania 
there was an actual decrease of 70,000. The 
area and population of the separate provinces 
of the two monarchies were as follow : 



PROVINCES OF THE EMPIRE. 


Square 
miles. 


Population. 


AUSTRIAN MONARCHY : 
Lower Austria (Unter der Ens) 
Upper Austria (Ober der Ens) 


7,654 
4631 


2,330,621 
759 620 


Salzburg 


2 767 


1 63 570 


Btyria (Steiermark) 


8 670 


1 2 1 s'597 


Carinthia (Karntcn) 


4' 005 


843 780 


Carniola (Krain) 


8*856 


481 248 


CoastLand 


8084 


647 934 


Tyrol and Vorarlberg 


11324 


912 549 


Bobemia (Bohmen) 


20060 


5 56o'si9 


Moravia (Mahren) .... 


8 588 


2 153 407 


Silesia (Scblesien) 


1 987 


565 475 


Galicia (Gali/ien) 


80307 


5 958*907 


Bukowina 


4'035 


571 671 


Dalmatia (Dalmatien) 


4940 


476 101 


Total, Austria .... 


115908 


22 144.244 


KINGDOM OP HUNGARY: 
Hungary Proper.. .. 


87048 


11 644 574 


Croatia and Slavoma, with Militwy 
Frontier.. . 


16 778 


1 892 899 


Transylvania (Siebenburgen) . . . 


21 215 


2 084 048 


Town of Flume 


g 










Total, Hungary 


125089 


15 642 002 


Total, Austria-Hungary 


240,942 


87,786,246 



The Principality of Liechtenstein in the 
Austrian Alps, with an area of 68 square 
miles and 9,124 inhabitants, is nominally inde- 
pendent, and its people are not subject to tax- 
ation or military duty. The provinces of Bos- 
nia and Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi- 
Bazar, were placed provisionally under the 
administration of the common authorities by 
the Berlin, Treaty of 1878. Their population 
numbered 1,328,453, of whom 448,613 were 



Mohammedans, 496,761 Greek Orthodox Chris- 
tians, 209,391 Roman Catholics, and 3,439 Jews. 

The population of the cities in Austria and 
Hungary containing over 50,000 inhabitants, 
was as follows In Austria: Vienna, 726,105, 
with suburbs, 1,103,857; Prague, 162,323; 
Trieste, 144,844; Lemburg, 109,726; Gratz, 
97,791; Brtinn, 82,660; Krakau, 66,095. In 
Hungary: Buda-Pesth, 3CO,551 ; Szegedin, 
73,675; Holdmezo-Vasarhely, 50,966; Maria- 
Theresiopel, 61,367. 

Among the population of Cisleithania, the 
principal religious confessions were represented 
by the following numbers: Roman Catholics, 
17,693,648; Greek Catholics, 2.533,323 ; Israel- 
ites, 1,005,394; Greek Oriental, 492,088 ; Evan- 
gelicals of the Augsburg Confession, 289,005 ; 
of the Helvetic Confession, 110,525. 

The percentage of the various nationalities 
was as follows : Germans, 36 - 75 per cent. ; 
Czechs, 23-77; Poles, 14-86; Ruthenians, 12-- 
81 ; Slovenes, 5'23 ; Italians. 3'07 ; Serbs and 
Croats, 2-58 ; Roumanians, -88 ; Magyars, -05. 
The Israelites have increased since 1869 22-58 
per cent., the Italians 13-19 per cent., the Poles 
9-97 per cent., the Czechs 8-69 per cent., the 
Serbs and Croats 7'77 per cent., the Ruthe- 
nians 7-71 per cent., and the Germans 7'25 per 
cent. The Slovenes have decreased consider- 
ably, owing to their adoption of the nationality 
of the Germans in Carinthia and Lower Styria, 
and in the coast-lands of that of the Italians, 
who received accessions also from the Serbo- 
Croats. 

The percentage of the population of Austria 
who could neither read nor write was 44-5, 
among the males 43-2, among the females 45-8; 
percentage of those who could read only 6*1, 
among males 4-6, among females 7"5 ; percent- 
age of those who could read and write 49*4, 
among males 52-2, among females 46'7. In 
the Bukovina the percentage of illiterates was 
89-7, in Dalmatia 89-3, in Galicia 81-1, in Is- 
tria 77'8, in Borizia and Gradisca 60-3, in Car- 
niola 54-1, in Trieste 38-9, in Carinthia 47'6, 
in Styria 37'3, in Bohemia 22'6, in Moravia 
24-3, in Silesia 25-8, in Salzburg 22-9, in Tyrol 
22-7, in Lower Austria 21, in Upper Austria 
20-2. and in Vorarlberg 16'2. 

The following table gives the millesimal 
proportions of the population of the Cisleithan 
lands engaged in the various classes of em- 
ployments, including families and dependents : 

PROFESSIONS. Per mille. 

Agriculture . 588'20 

Industry and mining 264-25 

Mercantile employments and transportation 55 -,64 

Professions requiring a higher education 83-54 

Property-owners and pensioners 81-67 

Laborers 18-11 

Employed in educational and charitable institutions. 5'54 

With no known occupation 3-05 

Total 1000-00 

Statistics collected by the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment bureau show that the ratio of the 
Magyar- speaking portion of the population has 
increased only 1 per cent, in sixty years. In 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



39 



the capital, where the Germans are more pli- 
ant in changing their language than the Slavic 
population of the provinces, particularly since 
the recent Magyar agitation has made it more 
to their interest to do so, the extension of the na- 
tional language has been greatest. The propor- 
tion of children under five years of age speaking 
the Magyar tongue in Buda-Pesth is 47 per 
cent., against 45 -7 per cent, among persons be- 
tween fifty and sixty years of age. Of the Ger- 
mans in Hungary as many as 21 per cent, are 
acquainted with the Magyar language ; but of 
the Slovaks not 10, and of the Roumanians and 
Ruthenians not 6 per cent. The German lan- 
guage is extensively cultivated, over 10 per 
cent, of the Magyars acquiring it tor commer- 
cial intercourse or education and travel. In 
the kingdom there are 817,668 non-Magyars 
who can speak Hungarian, and 791,670 non- 
Germans who speak German. The progress 
of education has been remarkable, 46 per cent, 
of the 10,844,000 above the age of seven being 
able to read and write in 1880, against only 25 
per cent, in 1870. 

Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture. The total 
value of the imports and exports of the Austro- 
Hungarian Empire for the last three years re- 
ported, was as follows, in florins : 



YEAR. 


Import!. 


Export.. 


18T9... 


551,390,000 


675.140.000 


1880 


607 640 000 


666 370 000 


1881 


634,420,000 


717390 000 









The export of flour, which averaged, just 
before the enactment of the German corn-du- 
ties, about 2,400,000 metric quintals, has fallen 
to half that quantity. Owing to the active 
trade in live hogs with Servia, the imports 
and exports of live animals were considerably 
larger in 1881 than in the preceding year. The 
commercial treaty with Servia, ratified in June, 
1882, secures the entrance of certain Austrian 
products at half the ordinary duties, and on the 
other hand a reduction of the Austrian duties 
on live hogs, and Servian wines, prune-brandy, 
etc. The exceptional treatment of German 
partly manufactured products, which was kept 
up as compensation for possible advantages to 
be extended to Austria-Hungary in the German 
tariff, ceased from the beginning of 1883 to 
operate as regards textile manufactures im- 
ported for printing, dyeing, or bleaching, the 
most important branch of this trade. The im- 
portation of lard and pork products showed a 
great decrease in 1881, in consequence of the 
prohibition of American pork. The export of 
wines, stimulated in 1880 by the failure of the 
French vintage, decreased from 905,841 to 438,- 
213 metric quintals. The import of petroleum 
increased from 1,150,000 to 1,480,000 metric 
quintals. Cotton and other textile materials 
were imported in considerably larger quanti- 
ties than in the preceding year. The contin- 
ued large importation of yarns strengthened 
the spinners in their demand for a protective 



duty. A marked improvement in the indus- 
trial situation and the consumptive capacity 
of the people is indicated by a larger impor- 
tation of raw stuffs of various kinds, of colo- 
nial wares, of machinery, of textile manufac- 
tures, and of articles of luxury, and an increased 
exportation of textiles, paper manufactures, 
fine leathers, chemical products, etc. 

More than half the export and import com- 
merce of the Austrian Empire is with Ger- 
many, next to which the chief market is Rou- 
mania, which receives 50,000,000 florins of the 1 
exports, and furnishes 40,000,000 florins of the 
imports. Italy and Russia follow, but with a 
much smaller trade. 

Precious Metals. The movement of the pre- 
cious metals in 1881, as compared with the 
previous year, was as follows, in florins: 



SPECIE. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Excess of 
imports. 


1880: 
Gold 


22,200,000 


3,200,000 


19,000,000 


Silver 


1,100,000 


15,400,000 


8,300,000* 










Total. 


29 300 000 


18,600,000 


10,700,000 


1881: 
Gold 


19,800,000 


2,200,000 


17,600,000 


Silver 


16 100 000 


1 200000 


14 900 000 










Total 


85,900,000 


3,400,000 


32,500,000 



, The Hungarian Legislature passed 
a law in 1881, denounced by the Constitutional 
party in the Austrian House of Deputies as an 
infringement of the customs-union, which re- 
quires a declaration to be made of all goods 
imported into or exported from the kingdom. 
According to the statistics collected for the last 
eight months of 1881 in pursuance of this regu- 
lation, Hungary has a balance decidedly in its 
favor in the trade with Austria as well as with 
other countries. The returns exhibit the total 
value of imports as 185,800,000 florins, of which 
139,080,000 florins came from Austria ; and the 
total value of exports as 242,800,000 florins, 
of which 165,250,000 florins were shipped into 
Austria. 

Hungary. Although in the social life of Hun- 
gary certain vestiges of feudalism survive the 
development of liberal political institutions, 
she strives to keep abreast of economical prog- 
ress; people and Government uniting their 
efforts to develop all their resources under the 
pressure of American competition. The great 
richness of the Hungarian soil is counterbal- 
anced by adverse geographical and climatic 
conditions which warn them against remain- 
ing a purely agricultural state. It is only by 
gigantic protective works and a more and 
more intensive culture that they can still Lold 
their own. The invention of the Hungarian 
method of flour-milling, made necessary by the 
hard quality of their wheat, which has since 
been adopted and improved in the United 
States, marked the beginning of industrial de- 
velopment. A regular line of vessels from 

* Excess of exports. 



40 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



Fiume facilitates the export of Hungarian flour, 
which is now largely consumed in England. 
The new beet-sugar culture and manufacture 
are not sufficient to supply the home demand ; 
but high-wines and refined spirits are exported 
as far as Spain. The wine production repays 
the encouragement bestowed upon it by the 
Government. The wines are produced in 
greater quantities, and of better and more uni- 
form quality, and are shipped by the cargo to 
Bordeaux to replace the diminished growths of 
France. The number of persons engaged in in- 
dustrial occupations proper increased between 
1870 and 1880 from 784,378 to 908,958, or 
14 per cent., while the whole population in- 
creased only by a small fraction. 

Manufactures. Unable to resort to protection, 
owing to the customs-union with Austria, Hun- 
gary employed other methods of encouraging 
industry. Hungarian manufacturers have the 
preference in Government and municipal or- 
ders, if they can produce articles of satisfactory 
quality. In the iron industry there are the im- 
perial railroad works at Oravicza and Resitza, 
for which the best technical skill in France was 
imported; the shops of the Hungarian state 
railroad, which excel in the production of iron 
bridges ; and various private establishments 
which stand on the highest plane of technical 
art. Leather, paper, pottery, and glass are also 
manufactured successfully on a large scale; but 
the important branch of textile industry is 
represented only by factories which subsist on 
the Government commissions for the supply 
of the army, although the country 'produces 
an abundance of wool of superior quality. By 
a law which went into effect on Jan. 1, 1882, 
industrial establishments which found new in- 
dustries, or utilize products previously wasted, 
are exempted from all public dues and taxes. 
This and other measures of the kind led to the 
establishment of some two hundred factories 
in new branches. In museums, industrial exhi- 
bitions, a national school of mechanical draw- 
ing, a. technical school for wood- workers, in- 
dustrial evening-schools, etc., the Government 
has co-operated with private individuals in fos- 
tering technical education and industrial art. 
A review of the industrial progress already at- 
tained is to be made in a national exposition 
in 1885. 

Live-Stork. The live-stock census of the em- 
pire shows that horned cattle, which decreased 
between 1857 and 1869, increased between the 
latter date and 1880 from 7,425,212 to 8,584,- 
077; while sheep, in consequence of the Aus- 
tralian production, decreased from 5,020,398 
to 3,841,340. American competition and the 
German protective tariff are beginning to ex- 
ercise a depressing effect on the wheat- grow- 
ing, flour-milling, and cattle-raising interests of 
Hungary and Austria. There have been actual 
importations of American wheat. 

Mining. The total net value of the product 
of the mines and furnaces, after deducting the 
value of the ores, together with that of the sa- 



lines, was 83,790,373 florins in 1881, as against 
79,988,819 florins in 1880. 

Railways. The total length of railways in 
the empire, open to traffic in 1882, was 11,480 
miles, of which 7,130 were in Austria and 
4,350 in Hungary. There were, besides, 177 
miles in Bosnia. The length of railway owned 
or operated by the state, at the close of 1881, 
was 2,912 kilometres, or 24 per cent, of the 
total mileage. To this was added on the 1st 
of January, 1882, the Empress Elizabeth rail- 
road, 922 kilometres in length, which was taken 
over into the management of the state under 
a convention providing for its eventual acqui- 
sition. On the 1st of July, 1882, a railroad 
bureau was created for the direction of the 
state railroads. The total receipts of the Aus- 
tro-Hungarian railroads in 1881 were 215,- 
950,000 florins, of which 47,950,000 florins were 
from passengers, and 168,000,000 florins from 
freight. 

Telegraphs. The length of telegraph lines in 
1881 was 21,735 miles in Austria, with 56,862 
miles of wires, and 9,032 miles in Hungary, 
with 32,380 miles of wires. The number of 
messages carried in 1881 was 8,865,030, in- 
cluding 584,059 official dispatches. 

Post-Office. The number of letters forwarded 
by the post-office in 1881 was 248,509,000, 
besides 47,858,000 postal-cards in Austria, and 
in Hungary 74,218,000 letters and 13,623,000 
postal- cards. 

Shipping. The merchant marine in 1882 
numbered 70 ocean-steamers, of 16,145 horse- 
power and 62,387 tons ; 42 coasting-steamers, 
of 2,179 horse-power and 4,472 tons; and 
8,294 sailing-vessels and fisliing-smacks of 259,- 
970 tons. The crews numbered 27,187 men. 
The Austro-Hungarian Lloyd, which owns the 
large steamers and does the greater part of the 
carrying trade between Austria and the East 
through 'the Suez canal, receives a subsidy of 
1,730,000 florins per annum. 

The number of vessels entering the Austrian 
and Hungarian ports, Trieste and Fiume, in 
1881, was 47,045, of 5,911,885 aggregate ton- 
nage, of which 19,415, of 4,947,399 tons, were 
steamers; the number of departures was 46,- 
907, tonnage 5,913,720, cf which 19,392, of 
4,942,078 tons, were steamers. The tonnage 
entering Austro-Hungarian ports under the 
national flag was 5,197,855 ; under the British 
flag, 402,164; under the Italian, 201,603. 

Finance. The budget estimates of revenue 
and expenditures for common affairs in 1882 
place the total at 117,149,549 florins, of which 
the contributions from the two halves of the 
empire make up 113,824,679 florins (one florin 
= 50 cents). Of the total sum, 101,591,380 flor- 
ins are devoted to the army, 9,177,829 florins 
to the navy, 4,328,900 florins to the diplomatic 
service, 1,926,040 florins to the financial ad- 
ministration, and 125,400 florins, to the finan- 
cial control. 

The estimates for 1883 make the expendi- 
tures 184,661,988 florins, of which 102,413,318 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



florins are required for the army, 9,162,224 BRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE. 

florins for the navy, 4,246,900 florins for for- Ministry of Finance 

eign affairs, and 1,962, 661 florins for the finance Commerce '. '. '. '. '. '.'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. 

ministry. There are extraordinary expenses Board of Control 155000 

for the army in Bosnia. The contributions to KSL'SXSff. ' '. 

be assessed on the tWO parts of the empire Cisleithan portion of common expenditure 

are 99,991,763 florins Total diture of 1882 

The expenses of the civil administration of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina for 1883 are estimated The Hungarian budgets from 187V to 1882 

at 7,039,809 florins, including the following 8now an average annual deficit of nearly 23,- 

items: public highways, 239,500 florins; wor- 000,000 florins. The estimated revenue for 

ship, 162,503 florins ; education, 91,889 florins ; 1882 was as follows : 

military forces, 251,034 florins; gendarmerie, SOURCES OF REVENUE. Florin.. 

1,114,475 florins. The receipts are estimated ^K^^d'^^^\\'\\\\\\\\\:::\\: ifsj^? 

at 7,217,819 florins, of which the tithes pro- State domains, mines, and railways 36,137,116 

duce 2,250,000 > florins; the > -tax, 600,- BtSS^^""r.i 7. 

000 florins; sheep-tax, 247,000 florins; cus- L-J 

torns, 702,000 florins; tobacco-tax, 1,896,000 Total revenue of 1882 301,967,214 

florins; salt, 867,135 florins; octroi, 43,000 The following were the estimated expendi- 

florins; and stamps, 300,000 florins. tures under the principal heads : 

The estimates communicated to the Delega- BRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE. norm., 

tions for 1884 call for 4,383,110 florins for Royal household 4,650.000 

foreign affairs, 102,413,639 florins for the army, ^^^^^ y ::::::::::::::::::::-- t^S 

including 6,876,005 florins of extraordinary ex- Ministry > ad latm " 5^346 

penditure, 9,470,977 florins for the navy, 174,- Ministry of Finance 

400 and 125,747 florins respectively for the Wnf.^^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\r. 

financial administration and control, and 1,973,- Education and 'worship.' .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. 4^02,647 

450 florins for pensions. The total expendi- " pStoWki 28 sSIJi 

tures are estimated at 115,170,880 florins, the " Agriculture and Commerce'. '. '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 8'628,'913 

net surplus Of the customs applicable to the Public debt and pensions 61,913,035 

, 1 ,_ n a . , Guaranteed interest to private railways 10,900000 

common expenses at 17,633,570 florins, and Transleithan portion of the common expenditure 

the contributions of the two states at 98, 107,- f the empire 68,392,174 

799 florins. For the army of occupation in Miscellaneous expenses 66081,085 

Bosnia and Herzegovina, 7,307,000 florins are Total expenditure of 1883 328,235,311 

asked. The cost of th 9 civil administration of T he ordinary expenses for 1883 were esti- 

the occupied provinces is estimated at 7,356,- raate d at 288,800,000 florins, the ordinary rev- 

267 florins, and the revenue from the.provinces e nues at 280,700,000 florins. The budget for 

lr A * "J?' 1884 P laces the ordinary expenditures at 298,- 

The Austrian Government is very tardy m 200,000 florins, and the revenues at 295,500,- 

pubhshmg the accounts of actual receipts and 00 florins; the total expenditures at 329 200 - 

expenditures. The budget estimates in recent 00 florins, and the total revenues at 308,900 - 

years show invariably a deficit, averaging since QOO florins 

1876 some 37,500 000 florins a year The es- p^ Deb t.-The public debt of the Austrian 

timated revenue for 1882 is 448 Io5,793 flor- Empire was a i read v large at the end of the Na- 

ms; expenditures, 485,720,951 Horins. The poleonic wars. After 1848 it increased again 

principal heads of revenue are as follow : rapidly from 1,250,000,000 florins to 3,000,000,- 

SOURCES OF REVENUE. Fionns. 000 florins in 1868. The war of 1866 added 

Direct taxes 92,970,000 300,000,000 of new loans, which were offset 

SM monody* ::::::::'.. :::::::::::::::::::::: Sffiooo b ? the amonnt of the Lombardo- Venetian debt 

Tobacco monopoly .........'... 6s',947^2oo assumed by the kingdom of Italy. At the 

juTciaifees SSo'cM se P aration of Austria and Hungary an agree- 

state lottery !""!!.""".! I !!.'.'"! 20222'ooo nient was made, in May, 1868, renewed with 

Excise duties 88,i67',ooo certain modifications in 1877, whereby 70 per 

^^^^^:::^:^^ i'oW <at. of the total charges of the debt fell upon 

Miscellaneous receipts 4il628'899 Austria and 30 per cent, upon Hungary. Since 

Total revenue of 1882 448 155 793 ^ 8 ^ 8 the two kingdoms have kept their finances 

separate. The deficits in Hungary constantly 

The following are the estimated expenditures recurring since 1867, have been funded in a 

of the several departments: special debt, amounting in. 1881 to the enor- 

BRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE. Florins. nious sum of 1,045,319,600 florins. Austria 

Imperial household 4,650,000 has a large amount of floating liabilities arising 

&sr a a th abinet Chancery ' ' ' t Jjj'gg from the same cause, given in a return for Jan. 

Council of Ministers .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' ' .' .' .' ' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' i 'o48^2io * 1 882 > as 41 1 , 998, 744 florins, represented by 

Ministry of the interior !T,fi80,T6B a depreciated paper currency amounting to 

pSrEducaSand Worship' i! n'jK 320,434.947 florins, and interest-bearing treas- 

Agricuiture 11,519^408 ury notes amounting to 91,563,797 florins, into 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



which form the later deficits were converted. 
The debt of the whole empire and of the Aus- 
trian monarchy, on the 1st of July, 1882, was 
8,280,055,699 florins, of which the consolidated 
debt, bearing interest, represents 3,038,116,776 
florins; non-interest-bearing, 115,756,604 flor- 
ins; floating liabilities, 112,183,618 florins; and 
annuities, 13,998,701 florins. The total annual 
charge of the Austrian and common debts 
amounted in 1882 to 158,365,020 florins, of 
which the share borne by Hungary was 30,317,- 
753 florins. 

An operation for the conversion of the Hun- 
garian debt was begun in 1881, in which year 
160,000,000 florins of 6 per cent, gold bonds 
were redeemed by the issue of a 4 per cent. 
loan which was taken at a fixed price of 77f. 
The operation was suspended on account of 
the monetary crisis, and resumed again in 1883, 
when 300,000,000 florins were converted on 
slightly less favorable terms than before. 

Tariff. By agreement between the Austrian 
and Hungarian governments an increase in the 
tariff on petroleum, coffee, and tea was adopted 
as a means of reducing the chronic deficits in 
both countries. These enhanced duties, which 
fall with excessive severity on the laboring 
classes, went into operation in 1882. The im- 
port duty on petroleum was increased from 3f 
to 10 florins per metric quintal. In addition 
to this an excise duty on refined petroleum of 
6i florins per 100 kilos was imposed by the 
Hungarian Government. The increased reve- 
nue in both halves of the empire from the new 
petroleum duty is calculated at 6,000,000 flor- 
ins. The duty on coffee is increased from 24 
to 40 florins per metric quintal, and on tea from 
50 to 100 florins, from which changes an in- 
creased yield of 6,500,000 florins is expected. 

Taxes. A bill for Ihe amendment of the in- 
come-tax, carried through by the Austrian Gov- 
ernment, forms part of a plan for the reform 
of the whole system of direct taxation. The 
revision of the land and house taxes had already 
been accomplished. The new income-taxes are 
much simpler than the former system, which 
even the officials had difficulty in understand- 
ing in all its details. A progressive scale is 
established for incomes derived from trades and 
professions. Besides the other taxes on special 
kinds of income, every one receiving more than 
700 florins a year of net income pays a personal 
income-tax calculated on a progressive scale. 
The changes afe expected to augment the reve- 
nues, which the chronic deficits in the budget 
render necessary in Austria as well as in Hun- 
gary. In both halves of the empire the indirect 
taxes, consisting of stamps, fees, and imposts 
on articles of consumption, have been pushed 
to the extreme limit, with the exception, per- 
haps, of the sugar and spirit taxes. The in- 
come-tax in Hungary is higher than in almost 
any other country, being 12 per cent, on incomes 
from stocks and bonds.* The revision of the 

* It is exceeded only in Italy, where Incomes from funded 
securities pay 18- S per cent. 



Austrian system of taxes, the fourth within 
eighteen years, turns to this source which is 
already so fully utilized in the sister kingdom. 
The new land-tax is apportioned among the 
different provinces, and is assessed at 37,500,- 
000 florins for fifteen years from 1881. The 
new personal income-tax is intended to replace 
all other methods of extraordinary or supple- 
mentary taxation. The rate is variable, and 
is fixed in the budget annually, according to 
the requirements of the Government. Incomes 
from enterprises which are required to furnish 
an official exhibit of their finances, and which 
are taxed at their source, are not subject to 
the personal income-tax. This variable extraor- 
dinary tax is supplementary to the scheme of 
the ordinary direct taxes, which covers system- 
atically the five classes of objects approved by 
modern national economists, viz., land, houses, 
income from investments, trades, and salaries. 
The land-taxes are copied after the Prussian 
system. The cadastral survey and valuation, 
begun in 1869, was completed in 1881, at a 
cost of 20,000,000 florins. The yield of the 
land-tax is not greater than before. The house- 
tax is assessed on town property according to 
its renting value, and upon rural dwellings ac- 
cording to the number of rooms they contain. 
Mud and thatch cabins pay 75 kreutzers (37 
cents), houses with a single room 1 florin 50 
kreutzers (75 cents), with two rooms 1 florin 
70 kreutzers, up to villas and castles with forty 
rooms, which pay 220 florins ($110) per annum, 
and 5 florins more for each additional room. 
This class-tax on dwellings is higher, and the 
progression somewhat steeper than under the 
old law. The new income-tax affects all in- 
comes from invested capital which are not taxed 
under other heads, or expressly exempted from 
taxation by special laws, as are the interest on 
deposits in the postal savings-banks, and the 
revenues of charitable institutions, of public 
schools, and incomes not exceeding 300 florins. 
The law requires every one to give any desired 
information respecting his own income or that 
of another. The tax is 5 per cent., except on 
dividends derived from corporations, which pay 
10 per cent. Industrial and commercial con- 
cerns are taxed according to their mean profits, 
beginning with 3 per cent, on 1,500 florins, and 
ascending to 10 per cent, on over 50,000 florins 
annual profit. The tax on earnings does not 
touch incomes below 300 florins. Up to 500 
florins the rate is 0*2 per cent., ascending to 1 10 
per cent, for salaries or professional earnings 
exceeding 5,000 florins. 

Army and Navy. The total war strength of 
the Austro-Hungarian army in the beginning 
of 1883 was about 1,250,000 men, including 
245,000 Austrian Landwehr and 205,000 Hun- 
garian Honveds. The standing army is under 
the control of the common Minister of War, 
while the militia is looked after by the Minis- 
ters of National Defense in the two king- 
doms. The system of army organization agreed 
to by the two states and embodied in the law 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



43 



of Dec. 5, 1868, is that of universal liability to 
arms, on the model of the German army. The 
term of service is three years in the standing 
army and seven years in the reserve, with a 
liability to serve two years more in the Land- 
wehr. The reorganization of the army, be- 
gun in 1883, introduces the territorial system, 
dividing the empire into fifteen corps cVar- 
mee districts, subdivided into recruiting pre- 
cincts. The 102 regiments of infantry, of four 
battalions, will each be stationed in the dis- 
trict from which it is recruited. The stand- 
ing army numbered in -the beginning of 1882 
251,455 men on the peace footing and 779,597 
including the reserves. The active army was 
made up as follows : infantry, 144,738 men ; 
yagers, 16,136; cavalry, 42,271 ; field-artillery, 
20,223 ; fortress artillery, 7,110 ; engineers, 
5,296; pioneers, 2,672; staff and departmental 
services, 13.009 ; total, 251,455. 

The Austro- Hungarian navy consisted, in 
1882, of 13 iron-clad war-vessels, 37 steamers, 
chiefly small and constructed for coast-defense, 
6 sailing-vessels, and 12 torpedo-boats. Of the 
armored vessels, ten are sea-going cruisers. 
The largest is the Custozza, a broadside ship 
of 7,060 tons, covered with 9J-inch plates, and 
armed with eight 18-ton Krupp guns. Of more 
modern type is the Tegethoff, of 7,390 tons, 
armored with steel 13 inches thick, with six 
25-ton Krupp guns ranged broadside and in a 
turret. The Erzherzog Albrecht has 8| inch 
plates and eight 18-ton Krupp guns. The navy 
was manned in July, 1882, by, 6,270 officers and 
men, who can be doubled in the event of war. 
The navy is recruited by a levy on the sea- 
faring population, subject to the same term of 
service as in the army, supplemented by enlist- 
ments. Austria has a strongly fortified naval 
harbor at Pola, which has been enlarged so 
as to be enabled to contain the entire fleet, 
and another naval port at Trieste, where the 
arsenals are situated. 

Foreign Relations. The situation of Austria- 
Hungary in its relations to foreign powers and 
the peace of Europe, though more difficult 
than that of any other country, is becoming 
more secure through the strengthening of the 
league of peace of which the German Chancel- 
lor is the author. The dangerous feelings which 
were rife in both Russia and Italy in the preced- 
ing year were less noticeable in 1883. The bond 
betweeh the Governments of Austria and Italy 
seems to grow more acceptable to the Italian 
people, although a large section do not yet give 
up the idea that there are still scores to se'tle 
with their old enemy. The Irredentist demon- 
strations continued in the early part of the year, 
but subsided later. The Russian strategic' rail- 
roads and rumored massing of troops on the 
frontier created great alarm in the beginning 
of the year, but the visit of the Russian minis- 
ter, M. de Giers, at Vienna, and the manifes- 
tations of pacific intentions for the present on 
the part of the Czar tranquillized this feeling. 
The source of the danger, however, the situa- 



tion of the south Slav peoples, became still more 
evident in 1883. The King of Servia, by becom- 
ing the protege of Austria, effectually alienated 
his subjects, who after his return from a visit 
to Vienna, in August, broke out in open revolu- 
tion. The pretender, Karageorgevich, fortified 
by Russian support and a matrimonial alliance 
with the Prince of Montenegro, hovered on the 
borders, ready to seize the throne. The occu- 
pied provinces remained tranquil during the 
year. The refugees nearly all returned from 
Montenegro. In the autumn the recruiting 
proceeded without objection. The difficulties 
with the Roumanian Government were not de- 
cided at the Danubian conference in a manner 
satisfactory to Roumania, but negotiations be- 
gun at Vienna with M. Bratiano in the fall 
promise to remove some of the causes of jeal- 
ousy. (See DANUBE, EUROPEAN COMMISSION OF 
THE.) The Roumanian Minister apologized for 
his hostile declarations of the preceding year. 
A boundary commission began the adjustment 
of certain disputed points of the frontier line 
between Hungary and Roumania. One of the 
occasional quarrels between the frontier guards 
on both sides of the line created a sensation in 
October, until it was known that the partici- 
pants were alone responsible. The Hungarian 
Government was intrusted with the duty of re- 
moving the obstacles to navigation at the Iron 
Gate in the Danube. 

Still more important to Austria than the ar- 
rangement of the affairs of the Danube, was 
the decision arrived at by the Conference d 
quatre and arranged with the Turkish Gov- 
ernment regarding the speedy completion of 
the Turkish lines of railroad to connect with 
the Austro- Hungarian system. 

The Danube and Turkish Railways. In the 
eighteenth century, and down to the middle 
of the nineteenth, Austria enjoyed a commer- 
cial primacy in Turkey which was originally 
won by her successful wars against the Otto- 
mans, and which her geographical position 
enabled her to maintain. The political ascend- 
ency in the lands of the divided Ottoman Em- 
pire has since been borne away by Russia and 
the Western powers, and in the commercial 
arrangements subsequently entered into Aus- 
tria has seen her geographical advantages neu- 
tralized and the trade pass into the hands of 
the more enterprising merchants of England, 
France, and Belgium. This Levantine trade 
is, however, of vital importance to Austria and 
Hungary, unfavorably situated as they are with 
regard to the ocean commerce. By the Paris 
Treaty of 1856, Austria was compelled to share 
the control over the navigation of the Danube 
with France, Great Britain, the German states, 
Russia, Italy, and Turkey." The acte public 
of 1865 took away the remaining privileges 
which the Commission of Riverain States se- 
cured to Austria, and the Pontus conference 
of L871 confirmed the prolongation of the Eu- 
ropean commission till April 24, 1883. The 
Treaty of Berlin in 1878 extended the jurisdio- 



44 



AUSTRIA HUNGARY. 



tion of the commission up to the Iron Gate, 
gave Roumania a voice which it has used 
against Austria, and delivered over to Russia, 
with the Kilia arm and the Stari-Stamboul 
mouth, the possible military command of the 
mouth of the Danube and control of its com- 
merce. The deepening of the mouth of the 
Danube by the European commission was in 
reality detrimental to Austrian commercial in- 
terests. The stoppage of navigation during the 
winter months, the shoal and shifting chan- 
nel in the wide stretch between Pressburg and 
Gonyd, and the rapids of the Iron Gate, de- 
prive the Danube of value as an outlet for Aus- 
trian commerce. Before the improvement of 
the mouth, Austrian merchants monopolized 
the markets of the lower valley. Since British 
and French vessels are enabled to ascend the 
river, the Austrians have been driven step- 
by step from this profitable field. In the sea- 
traffic Austria has lost ground in the same pro- 
portion. The overland exports to Turkey, in- 
ciuding Servia and Roumania, increased only 
16,000,000 florins in the sixteen years from 
1864 to 1880. Of the imports of all Turkish 
ports in the ten years ending with 1872, Eng- 
land furnished 48 per cent., France 15 per 
cent., Germany 7 per cent., and Austria not 
7 per cent. In the ten years between 1867 
and 1877 the trade with Turkey showed a rapid 
decline. In the former year 13 '3 per cent, of 
the import, and 22' 1 per cent, of the export 
trade of the Austrian Empire was with Tur- 
key; but in 1876 the proportions were 11-6 
and 18 per cent, respectively, while the tran- 
sit trade declined 30 per cent. The Austrian 
tonnage on the lower Danube declined from 
86,000 in 1879 to 50,000 in 1881, while the 
British increased from 1 36,000 to 332,000. Of 
the tonnage which passed through the Sulina 
mouth in 1872, 30 per cent, was British and 11 
per cent. Austrian; while in 1881, 63 percent, 
was British and 6 per cent. Austrian. 

The long-projected railroad connection with 
Turkey was expected to give Austria the op- 
portunity to regain the position which was 
lost through the errors of her diplomatists and 
the incapacity of her merchants. In 1869, 
Baron Hirsch, the famous Austrian railroad 
financier, undertook to construct for the 
Turkish Government a line of railroad which 
should extend through the length of Turkey 
and connect under the most favorable condi- 
tions with the 'Austrian net- work. The con- 
cessions provided for a railroad from Con- 
stantinople via Adrianople and Philippopolis, 
through Bosnia to the Save, where it would 
connecfwith the Southern railroad of Austria. 
Branch roa^ls were to connect the trunk-line 
with Salonica, Dedeagatch, and Shumla. The 
Constantinople end was built to beyond Philip- 
popolis, the Salonica branch constructed, and 
the Novi-Banjaluka section finished, by 1872. 
A convention was concluded for the continu- 
ation of the east end from Bellova to Sophia 
and Nish, and the extension of the Salonica 



branch from Uskub to meet the Bulgarian sec- 
tion at Mitrovitza, which it was intended to 
continue from Nish by way of Mitrovitza, 
Novi Bazar, ^erajevo, Travnik, Banjaluka, and 
Novi, to join the Austrian railroad at Agram. 
Baron Hirsch finished the Salonica road up 
to Mitrovitza, and constructed the Bulgarian 
branch to Tirnova. British intrigues and the 
rival interests of the Austrian and Hungarian 
states prevented the work from being carried 
any farther. The portions thus far completed 
opened up the whole interior of the Balkan 
Peninsula to British commerce, while Austria- 
Hungary derived no benefit from them. When 
the Porte showed an inclination to complete 
the connection with the Austrian railroads, it 
was persuaded to divert the line for supposed 
strategical reasons, and adopt the project of 
a difficult mountain railway from Sophia to 
Uskub. The Hungarians were strongly op- 
posed to the Hirsch project, desiring that the 
connection with the Continental system should 
be through Hungary, and the Government 
went so far as to make surveys for a direct 
line from Pesth through Semlin and Belgrade 
to Nish. The territorial changes consequent 
upon the Russo-Turkish War increased the 
divided interests and strategical questions. 
The Berlin Congress, instead of deciding the 
question of the railroads, left it in an almost 
hopeless tangle by referring it to the Confe- 
rence d quatre, making it depend upon the 
mutual agreement of Austria - Hungary, the 
Porte, Servia, and Bulgaria. The Austro- 
Servian railroad convention was concluded as 
early as April 9, 1 880. In this, Servia bound 
itself to construct within three years a rail- 
road connecting with the Pesth-Semlin line 
and running from the Hungarian boundary 
near Belgrade up the Marava valley to Nish, 
and there dividing so as to connect with the 
Turkish railroads by two branches, one run- 
ning to the Bulgarian boundary toward Bel- 
lova, where it would join the Constantinople 
line, and the other to the Turkish boundary 
to meet an extension of the Salonica-Mitro- 
vitza railroad. The work was not completed 
at the term agreed upon, June 3, 1883, nor is 
it yet decided where the junctions with the 
Turkish and Bulgarian railroads are to be. 
The Conference d quatre, at its sittings in 1881 
and 1882, debated fruitlessly the questions of 
the international postal and telegraph services, 
tariff regulations, etc. A note communicated 
to the Turkish Government by the Austrian 
embassador in the early part of 1883, com- 
plains of the delay in carrying out the decis- 
ions of the Conference d quatre, and making 
the extensions to connect with the Servian 
and Bulgarian roads. It declared that the 
Porte had not yet determined the route by 
which the Yamboli line was to reach the Bul- 
garian railroad at Shumla, and neither accept- 
ed nor rejected the Servian proposal of the 
Vranja route for the connection of the Saloni- 
ca-Usknb road with the Servian system. The 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



45 



alternative is the Pristina route, by which the 
continuation already constructed to Mitrovitza 
would be utilized. The Austrians were desir- 
ous that the conuection with the Salonica 
road should be taken in hand first, instead of 
the extension of the Yamboli branch into 
Bulgaria, which latter would serve Roumanian 
and Russian interests and promote British 
rather than Austrian commerce. The passage 
of the railroads through Hungary, Servia, and 
Bulgaria, instead of directly from Austria 
proper into Turkey, deprived them of many 
of the expected advantages to Austrian com- 
merce and industry, while favoring the rival 
Hungarian interests. Th protracted discus- 
sions of the Conference d quatre led at last to 
the adoption of a railroad convention which 
was signed May 9, 1883. The route agreed 
upon for the line which will connect Vienna 
with Constantinople, passes through Semlin, 
Belgrade, Nish, Pirot, Caribrod, Sophia, Ba- 
kerel, and Bellova., to Sarembey, the present 
terminus of the railroad from Constantinople. 
The road from Salonica is to join the Servian 
railroad from Belgrade to Vranja, by means 
of a railroad to be constructed from the latter 
place to a point on the Salonica railroad in 
the neighborhood of Pristina, or wherever the 
surveys indicate the most favorable route, the 
point of junction to be settled upon by the 
Porte within a year. The 15th of October, 
1886, is set as the term at which both lines 
must be completed. The gauge is to be the 
same as that of the Austrian railroads, the 
signal system and other modes of operation 
are to follow those of Austria, and in the 
customs arrangements every facility is given 
to commerce -and travel. The tariffs per kilo- 
metre are to be identical in the countries 
through which the roads pass. At least one 
express daily is to run in each direction be- 
tween Vienna and Pesth and Constantinople, 
and Vienna and Pesth and Salonica, at a speed 
of at least 35 kilometres (22 miles) an hour. 

Austria. Austria proper, or Cisleithania, has 
been governed since the recognition of Hun- 
garian independence by a twofold Legislature, 
a central body, called the Reichsrath, and local 
assemblies, or Provincial Diets, for the indi- 
vidual provinces. Tue Reichsrath consists of 
an upper house, or House of Lords, and a low- 
er houso, or House of Deputies. The House 
of Lords is composed of the princes of the 
blood royal, 14 in number in 1882 ; the terri- 
torial nobility, numbering 53 ; the archbishops 
(10) and bishops of princely rank (7) ; and life- 
members appointed by the Emperor for distin- 
guished merit and ability, in number 105. The 
Abgeordnetenhaus, or House of Deputies, con- 
sists, under the electoral law of 1873, of 353 
members elected by four different constitu- 
encies: 1, the people of the rural districts ; 2, 
the people of the towns ; 3, the chambers of 
commerce in the large towns; 4, the large 
landed proprietors. The franchise in the popu- 
lar urban constituencies was extended by a 



law enacted in 1882 to all male persons paying 
five florins in direct taxes. The Provincial 
Diets are composed as follows : 1. the archbish- 
ops and bishops of the Roman Catholic and 
Oriental Greek Churches and the chancellors 
of the universities ; 2, representatives of the 
landed aristocracy, elected by all proprietors 
paying taxes to the amount of 100 florins; 3, 
representatives of towns, elected by all the 
burgesses ; 4, representatives of chambers of 
commerce and trade-guilds; 5, representatives 
of rural communes elected indirectly through 
electoral colleges. The provinces are seven- 
teen in number: Lower Austria, Upper Aus- 
tria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Bohe- 
mia, Dalmatia, Galicia, Carinthia, Carniola, 
Bukovina, Moravia, Silesia, Gorizia, Istria, and 
Trieste. 

The Reichsrath has power to legislate on 
matters of customs, trade and commerce, bank- 
ing, posts, telegraphs, and railroads, subject to 
royal approval, to scrutinize the public accounts 
and discuss all bills of taxation and expendi- 
ture, and to ratify all legislation relating to 
military service. Members of both houses 
have the right of initiative. The presiding 
officers in both bodies are nominated by the 
Emperor. The Reichsrath must be convened 
annually, and, in case of dissolution, new elec- 
tions must take place within six months. The 
Provincial Diets legislate on matters of local 
administration and taxation, particularly agra- 
rian regulations, public works, the church, 
schools, and public charity. 

The Cabinet is composed as follows : Presi- 
dent of th Council and Minister of the Inte- 
rior, Count Eduard Taafe, born in 1833, who 
held the same portfolio in a former ministry, 
1867-'70, and was appointed chief of the pres- 
ent Cabinet Aug. 19, 1879 ; Minister of Public 
Instruction and Ecclesiastical Affairs, Baron S. 
Conrad D'Eybesfeld, appointed Feb. 17, 1880; 
Minister of Finance, Dr. J. Dunajewski, ap- 
pointed June 26, 1880 ; Minister of Agricul- 
ture, Count Julius Falkenhayn, appointed Aug. 
19, 1879 ; Minister of Commerce and National 
Economy, Baron F. Pino von Friedenthal, ap- 
pointed .Jan. 14, 1881; Minister of National 
Defense, Maj.-Gen. Count S. von Welsersheimb, 
appointed June 25, 1880 ; Minister of Justice, 
A. Prazak, appointed Jan. 14. 1881; Minister 
without Portfolio, F. Ziemialkowski, appointed 
Aug. 12, 1879. 

Political Chronicle. The Czechs, whose posi- 
tion was strengthened by the Bohemian elec- 
tions of 1883, continued to press their victory 
over the German party, which showed a still 
more bitter and irreconcilable spirit. Pro- 
vision was made for the establishment of a 
Czechish medical faculty in the University of 
Prague. Although the Czechs and Slovenes 
elected representatives to the Reichsrath who 
for four years have dictated radical changes 
in the laws of the empire for the benefit of 
their races, yet the provincial legislation 
has remained in the hands of the old German 



46 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



majority. Finally, the ministry gave heed 
to the frequent memorials from Bohemia and 
Carniola, and ordered new elections for the 
Diets of those provinces, in which an over- 
whelming majority of Autonomistic candidates 
were returned. In Galicia the Ruthenians 
have the same complaints to make against the 
Poles which the latter and the other Slavs for- 
merly made against the Germans. To them 
alone of all the Slav races the triumph of the 
federalistic principle signifies the extirpation 
of their national characteristics. They are 
about equal in number with the Poles, but form 
the poorer and politically weaker class. They 
formerly voted with the German Centralistic 
party, and looked to it for protection, but, los- 
ing hope of relief from that quarter, are gradu- 
ally abandoning their opposition, relying on 
the hope that the combination of parties which 
has saved from extinction all the other nation- 
alities will not be so inconsistent as to help 
crush out theirs. In the elections of 1883 the 
Polish Federalistic party carried everything 
before them. A sign that the Germans will 
soon abandon their efforts to recover the domi- 
nant position which enabled them to impose 
German civilization upcn the unwilling Slavs 
by political means, is seen in the growth of a 
German national spirit manifested in demands 
for the autonomy of the German communi- 
ties of Austria which are in danger of being 
ingulfed in the " Slavic deluge." Many of the 
Jews in Austria, who formerly counted them- 
selves as Germans, have turned with the popu- 
lar current, and adopted other nationalities. 
The Germans also begin to show the same fa- 
cility as in other countries to merge their na- 
tionality, now that it secures them no advan- 
tage, in that of alien races. 

As the Saxons of Transylvania complain of 
Magyar oppression, the German party in Bo- 
hemia anticipate similar grievances, and have 
broached the subject of the division of the 
province into separate German and Czechish 
administrative districts. These incidents of 
the race struggle are but superficial manifesta- 
tions. The preponderance of German thought 
and the spread of German influence through 
commercial, political, and intellectual channels 
still continues in Austrian lands and extends 
through southeastern Europe, although Magyar 
and Slav politicians attempt to revive the in- 
fluence of French ideas, and during the year 
gave expression to this sentiment in frequent 
newspaper articles and a number of political 
manifestoes. The combination of Czechs, 
Poles, and Conservatives, which has carried 
through the federalistic policy, obtained in 
1883 for the first time a majority in the Aus- 
trian Delegation, which, according to the usual 
custom, is not elected by the whole House, but 
by the deputations of the several provinces, to 
each of which a certain number of seats in the 
Delegation are allotted. 

Socialism. Austria has hitherto prided itself 
on its freedom fr'om socialistic agitation. But 



for a year or two past it has seen evidences of 
a wide-spread socialistic propaganda, and has 
been startled by eccentric crimes committed 
by revolutionary desperadoes, by riotous dem- 
onstrations in the streets of Vienna, and by 
murderous encounters between the police and 
socialists. In November, 1882, the breaking 
up by the police of a shoemakers' trades-union 
was the occasion of a riot in Vienna, in which 
the cavalry were called out, and charged on 
the mob. The following month there was a 
monster trial of socialists in Prague, \vhich re- 
sulted in the conviction of forty-five persons. 
Another band, twenty-nine in number, were 
brought to trial at Vienna in March, 1883. To 
some of these a singular crime was brought 
home. They had murdered and robbed a shoe- 
maker in July, 1882, in order to obtain money 
to spread the inflammatory teachings of Johann 
Most's " Freiheit." All the prisoners except 
the two implicated in the crime were acquitted, 
because there is no law against socialism in 
Austria, and convictions can only be pro- 
nounced for high treason or disturbance of the 
public peace. A general strike of the bakers 
in Vienna caused some excitement and much 
inconvenience, until the Government came to 
the relief of the public and crushed the strike 
by supplying the city with bread made by the 
army bakers. On December 15th a commissary 
of police who had attended socialistic gather- 
ings, in conformity with a law requiring all 
meetings, however private, to be held under 
police supervision, was murdered in a suburb 
of Vienna. 

The socialistic ferment, which has penetrated 
into Austria, has stimulated politicians to pro- 
pose remedial measures. The Government in- 
troduced into the Reichsrath, in the session 
which opened Dec. 5, 1882, a trade-regulation 
act, an employers' liability act, and a. project 
for accident insurance. Even the Left sacri- 
ficed the principle of non-interference so far 
as to accept the trade act with its provisions 
for compulsory benefit associations. Another 
law intended to counteract the unrestricted 
supremacy of capital, which was passed, im- 
poses limitations on joint -stock companies. 
The Liberals, who here as in Germany have 
been accused of indifference to the welfare of 
the humble classes, brought forward a scheme 
which embraced industrial, agrarian, and poor- 
law reforms. They proposed to establish sick- 
funds, accident insurance, and superannuation 
pensions for industrial operatives at the sole cost 
of employers. The poor laws they wished to 
amend so as to enlarge the districts or facilitate 
the acquirement of a domicile, as now relief to 
the sick or hungry is often refused on account 
of non-residence, and in some cases persons are 
sent away from cities where there are hospitals 
to carry contagious diseases into their rural 
parishes. The agrarian question is one of great 
moment and difficulty in Austria, but is not 
likely to find the same reconstructive disposi- 
tion on the part of the ruling factions as the 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



47 



question between capital and labor, for it 
touches the interests and the prejudices of the 
land-owners. The class of cottagers who are 
half peasants and half laborers, and who have 
sunk into abject proletarianism, is increasing. 
When their useless parcels of ground are ever 
given up, they do not pass into the hands of 
the farming class, which is too poor to acquire 
them, but are added to the estates of great 
laud-owners or the country-seats of city resi- 
dents. The effect of overgrown estates, a 
numerous dependent proletariat, and taxes 
which bear heavily upon the small farmers, 
who are already handicapped by an uncertain 
climate and a dearth of credit facilities, is to 
perpetuate negligent methods and a stationary 
routine which leave Austria ill prepared to 
stand the stress of American competition. 

School Laws. An amendment of the school 
law was carried in the Reichsrath, which 
makes some alterations in the system of ele- 
mentary instruction of a reactionary character, 
to meet the views of the clerical and feudal- 
istic elements in the majority of the House of 
Deputies. The number of days of obligatory 
attendance can be greatly reduced at the re- 
quest of a commune. Religious instruction is 
made a more important branch, and is to be 
imparted in the faith of the majority of a com- 
mune. The Poles, who, because they hold the 
balance of power in the Reichsrath, can usually 
impose their will on the Government, secured 
the exemption of Galicia from the provisions 
of the new school ordinance. 

Hungary. The kingdom of Hungary possess- 
es an ancient constitution, consisting of funda- 
mental statutes enacted at various dates since 
the foundation of the kingdom in the ninth 
century. The Constitution was abrogated after 
the rebellion of 1848, restored in 1860, and ex- 
tended to its ancient limits in 1867, when the 
national independence of Hungary was finally 
re-established. The Hungarian Diet consists of 
an upper chamber, called the House of Mag- 
nates, and a lower, called the House of Repre- 
sentatives. The House of Magnates was com- 
posed in 1882 of 2 royal princes, 50 archbish- 
ops and bishops of the Roman Catholic and 
Greek Churches, 672 peers and dignitaries of 
Hungary and Transylvania, 5 regalists from 
Transylvania, and 2 deputies of Croatia in all, 
731 members. The House of Representatives, 
elected directly by all citizens who pay eight 
florins in direct taxes, consisted in 1882 of 334 
deputies from Hungarian districts and towns, 
75 from Transylvania, 34 delegates from Croa- 
tia, and 1 from Fiume. 

The executive power is exercised by a respon- 
sible ministry, composed as follows : President 
of the Council, Koloman Tisza de Boros-Yeno, 
who has been chief minister since Feb. 25, 
1877 ; Minister of Finance, Count Gyula Sza- 
pary, appointed Dec. 6, 1878; Minister of Na- 
tional Defense, Count Gedeon Raday, appointed 
Oct. 10, 1882; Minister ad latus to the King, 
Baron Bela d'Orczy, appointed Aug. 12, 1879 ; 



Minister of the Interior, Koloman Tisza ; Min- 
ister of Education and Public Worship, Dr. 
August de Trefort, appointed Feb. 26, 1877 ; 
Minister of Justice, Dr. Theodor Pauler, ap- 
pointed Dec. 6, 1 878 ; Minister of Public Works 
and Communications, Baron de Kemeny, ap- 
pointed Oct. 14, 1882; Minister of Agriculture, 
Industry, and Commerce, Count Szechenyi, ap- 
pointed Oct. 14, 1882; Minister for Croatia 
and Slavonia, Count de Bedekovich, appointed 
Feb. 26, 1877. 

Political Chronicle One of the first acts of 
the Hungarian Parliament, which met in Octo- 
ber, 1882, was to remove from the committee 
of education the elements that opposed making 
the Magyar tongue the national language of 
instruction. The chief contest was over the 
classical and scientific intermediate schools of 
Transylvania, and the educational supervision 
of the Evangelical Church in that province. 
The bill, elaborated in the committee, and car- 
ried March 17th by a large majority, prepares 
the way for the substitution of Hungarian for 
German in these schools, and Roumanian for 
the intermediate schools in which Roumanian 
is the language of instruction. It requires all 
candidates for teachers' positions in the inter- 
mediate schools of the monarchy to submit to 
a government examination conducted in the 
Magyar tongue. Three of the four years of 
preparatory study may be passed in foreign 
universities, but the final examination must be 
passed in a Hungarian university, and requires 
a literary training in the national language. 

The Ritual Murder Case. A criminal trial which 
was held in June shows that the antipathy 
against the Jews in eastern Europe, though 
springing from economical motives, contains 
an element of superstitious hatred known else- 
where only from the legends of the middle 
ages. In the village of Tisza-Eszlar, a Chris- 
tian girl, named Esther Solymossy, suddenly 
disappeared in the spring of 1882. The rumor 
was started that the Hebrews of the village 
had murdered her to obtain the blood of a 
Christian virgin, which, according to the an- 
cient fable, they mix in their Passover cakes. 
A malicious petty magistrate, Bary, who had 
charge of the preliminary examination, influ- 
enced or suborned a Jewish boy, named Mo- 
ritz Scharf, to accuse Salomon Schwartz, and 
some other Jewish butchers, of cutting her 
throat, and a number of others, among them 
his own father, of being witnesses and accom- 
plices in the crime. The girl had been sent to a 
neighboring village to purchase dye. The last 
that was seen of her was in the vicinity of the 
synagogue on her return. The Jews were in 
the temple that morning trying candidates for 
the office of butcher to the 'congregation. Mo- 
ritz Scharf testified that he saw the murder 
through thekey-hole of the entrance-door. Two 
women declared that they heard cries and sobs. 
On this evidence the nccused were brought to 
trial. The body of a drowned girl was found 
in the river Theiss three months after Esther 



48 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



Solymossy's disappearance. It was clad in her 
garments, and was recognized as her remains 
by her father and others; but her mother, 
pastor, school-teacher, and numerous acquaint- 
ances denied the identity. A commission of 
medical experts reported that it was the corpse 
of an older person than Esther, and of one not 
accustomed to hard labor. A second commis- 
sion, composed of university professors, found 
that the marks of physical development did 
not indicate an age of more than fourteen 
years. The evidence of the body, the modifi- 
cation of the statements of neighbors who heard 
cries, and the confused and contradictory tes- 
timony of the Hebrew boy under cross-exami- 
nation, would have abundantly exculpated the 
prisoners if additional suborned testimony had 
not strengthened the theory that the corpse 
was a spurious one placed in the river by mem- 
bers of the Jewish congregation to defeat the 
evidence against the accused. Two Jewish 
raftsmen confessed that they had been em- 
ployed to convey the dead body and deposit 
it in the water where it was found. The pub- 
lic prosecutor, Szeyffert, declared in taking the 
case that he did not believe in a ritual mur- 
der, and only took part in order to have the 
evidence sifted and the truth brought out. Be- 
yond this the Government did not intervene in 
the proceedings. The prosecution was con- 
ducted by lawyers retained by anti-Semitic par- 
tisans. The trial was interrupted by exhibi- 
tions of popular passion, and an anti-Semitic 
outbreak was feared. The trial ended in the 
acquittal of the ten prisoners. The efiect was 
eventuallv to confine the anti-Semitic move- 
ment in ^Hungary more within logical bounds. 
The excitement continued, however, for some 
time after the trial, and in various places in 
North Hungary outburstsof fanaticism occurred. 
At Tisza-Eszlar there were incendiary fires. 
At Presburg, riots, like those of the preceding 
year, required the services of the military to 
suppress. The Scharf family were mobbed out 
"t IV-th, and their advocate, Dr. Eotvos, was 
the object of angry demonstrations at Nyiregy- 
haza. At Zala Egersseg, in Western Hungary, 
serious riots, in which the neighboring peas- 
antry took a prominent part, began Aug. 23d, 
and lasted several days. The garrison of the 
town were unable to preserve order or to pre- 
vent the mob from sacking the Jewish quar- 
ter. In a riot at Szegitvar, Sept. 2d, artisans 
broke into and wrecked the stores of Jewish 
shopkeepers, and were fired upon by the po- 
lice, but not cowed until the arrival of troops. 
The Hungarian Government maintained 
throughout the anti-Jewish agitation a firm 
attitude, and not only employed every means 
to <|ii.-|l disorder, but gave no countenance 
to the popular demands for the repeal of 
Jewish emancipation or any class legislation 
directed against the Jews. Yet Minister Tisza 
acknowledged that there was a Jewish ques- 
tion of an economical nature, and that the 
evils would not cease until the social causes 



were removed. The public - houses through- 
out the country are kept by Jews. They 
combine with their trade that of the money- 
lender, and with other usurers, all of the 
Hebrew race, keep the peasantry in a condi- 
tion of economical subjection. The Govern- 
ment brought in bills designed to abate the 
evils, one of which deprives wine and liquor 
sellers of legal remedies for the collection of 
debts for drink, and another is a usury law 
with severe penalties and elaborate safeguards. 
The Croatian Troubles. The Hungarians, who 
have observed with a feeling of indifference 
if not with sympathy the victories of the 
Czechs over the German Centralists, and the 
federalistic movement among the other Slav 
nationalities in Austria, were confronted in 
1883 with a Slavic question of their own. The 
results of the Russian "War, and the provisional 
occupation of Bosnia by Austria, were to 
arouse in Servia the ambition of uniting the 
Serbic race into one kingdom; then, since 
Austria was not likely to relinquish the occu- 
pied provinces, to excite hopes in Montenegro 
of becoming the head of a great Serbic nation 
under the protection of Russia ; and, next, of 
stirring with similar aspirations the petty na- 
tionality of the Croats. The Great Croatian 
idea looks to the creation of a third member 
of the Dual Monarchy, a South Slav monarchy 
with its capital at Agram. The Croats have 
certain grounds for considering themselves the 
fittest instrument for the mission of Austria 
among the South Slavs. Their fidelity and 
attachment to the Hapsburg dynasty are pro- 
verbial. They claim to have been of great 
assistance in rescuing the dynasty in the con- 
flict with the rebel Magyars in 1848. Since 
then the Croats have progressed in intelligence 
and culture as much as or more than the Mag- 
yars. The development is in the direction 
which was given it nnder German control 
before their incorporation, sorely against their 
inclination but in obedience to the will of the 
monarch, in the kingdom of Hungary. They 
have not been treated with oppression by the 
Hungarian Government, but have been per- 
mitted to retain their old laws as to land, 
inheritance, and the election of magistrates. 
They are not fairly represented in the Hun- 
garian House of Magnates, owing to the same 
electoral system which denies to the Germans 
their just quota of representatives in the Cis- 
leithan legislative bodies. The Croatian depu- 
ties in the lower house have, however, exercised 
an influence on the Hungarian Government 
which is out of proportion to the importance 
of their province, because they have always 
voted with the ministry, and on several occa- 
sions when the opposition was strong their 
vote saved the Government from defeat. The 
incorporation of the Military Frontier, which 
operation was completed in 1882 and 1883, 
increased the importance of the province, and 
gave an impetus to the movement for the union 
of the districts inhabited by Servians and 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



49 



Croats, in Dalmatia, Slavonia, Istria, Carniola, 
and Carinthia, with Croatia and the Military 
Frontier, to form a Croatian kingdom under 
the Austrian crown, to which Bosnia and 
Herzegovina could be added, with the expec- 
tation that the other Balkan lands inhabited 
by the Serbic race would gravitate toward this 
great state in the future permutations of the 
Eastern question. The Servians of Croatia 
and the Austrian provinces, who differ from 
the Croats, not in language or race, but in 
religion and political tendencies, were strong- 
ly opposed to the occupation of Bosnia. They 
sympathize with the idea of a Great ervia. 

In August began a series of violent Croatian 
demonstrations in A gram and different parts 
of the country. The first act was the tearing 
down of the Hungarian arms from the door 
of the Finance Office in the capital. These es- 
cutcheons with bilingual inscriptions had re- 
cently been put up an act which was sus- 
pected of being the commencement of a policy 
for the suppression of the Croatian language 
and institutions. Magyar inscriptions and 
signs were destroyed by rioters in all the towns. 
The military were called into requisition, and, 
in consequence, the disturbances became more 
violent. Some districts were placed under 
martial law. In Maria Bistrica, in a collision 
between gendarmes and Croat peasants, sev- 
eral rioters were killed. The Ban of Croatia, 
Count Prejacsevich, who had not been a pop- 
ular administrator, showed sympathy with the 
movement and declined to replace the Hun- 
garian arms with the obnoxious Magyar in- 
scription on the front of the government 
buildings. He was obliged to resign his office 
in consequence, and now received popular ova- 
tions as a great patriot. There were signs of 
the Slavic ferment in the neighboring Austrian 
provinces. In the beginning of the year Baron 
Jovanovich created an uproar in Dalmatia by 
ordering the official communications between 
civil servants to be made in German. By an 
act of the Reichsrath this order was subse- 
quently rescinded. In Darenzo, where the 
Istrian Provincial Diet meets, a Croat depu- 
ty made an attempt to debate in his national 
tongue instead of in Italian, which is the official 
language. The Dalmatian deputies obtained 
the enactment by the Reichsrath of a law di- 
recting judicial proceedings in their province 
to be held in the Servian or Croatian dialects, 
instead of in Italian. The troubles in Croatia 
attained the magnitude of an insurrection. The 
Emperor did not nominate a Ban to succeed 
Count Prejacsevich, but appointed a royal 
commissioner with extraordinary' powers to 
restore civil order. The Minister for Croatia, 
Bedekovich, resigned his portfolio. Gen. Ram- 

VOL. XXIII. 4 A 



berg was selected for this service. In the Za- 
gorien district, encounters took place between 
the military and the rioters, and the troops were 
repelled at Krapina, Toplitz, and Sopo. The 
commissioner i<sued a proclamation stating 
that the bilingual official notices would be con- 
tinued, to demonstrate the fact that political 
questions were not to be settled by street riots. 
The escutcheons were replaced on the govern- 
ment buildings at Agram on t!ie 7th of Sep- 
tember, and on the following day occurred 
another riot. The economic distress of the 
people made them more susceptible to the en- 
ticements of agitators, and complicated the 
movement with socialistic and anti-Semitic 
demonstrations. The men at the head of the 
Imperial and Hungarian governments were not 
inclined to proceed to extremes, and the troops 
used great forbearance. The suspension of ex- 
ecutions tor the collection of taxes caused a par- 
tial subsidence of the agitation. 

After Agram was tranquillized, an insurrec- 
tion broke out in the Military Frontier, which, 
like the one in Zagorie, was of an agrarian na- 
ture. At Farkasevinez an anti-Magyar riot 
occurred on the 20th of September, and ten 
peasants were killed by the soldiery. Persons 
concerned in the riots at Agram were brought 
to trial and, September 30th, sentenced to short 
terms of imprisonment. At the meeting of the 
Hungarian House of Deputies on the 1st of 
October, the Croatian deputies refused to take 
part in the proceedings pending the settlement 
of the question of the escutcheons. They for- 
mulated the national demands, which embraced 
the restitution of the escutcheons with Croa- 
tian legends only, the recall of the royal com- 
missioner and the appointment of a Ban, the 
establishment of constitutional government, 
the convocation of the Croatian Diet, and the 
immediate discussion of the compromise law 
under which Croatia was attached to Hun- 
gary. The Premier announced a policy of con- 
ciliation and of willingness to discuss and rem- 
edy any grievances. The complaints of unfair 
taxation were shown to be groundless as far as 
the Central Government was concerned, but not 
as regards the local authorities. Peculations 
of the magistrates of their own appointment 
aggravate the burden of taxes. All intentions 
of suppressing the language, nationality, or au- 
tonomic rights of Croatia were disclaimed. 
After a spirited debate, the Parliament ap- 
proved the proposal of the ministry to replace 
the demolished escutcheons without any in- 
scriptions, letting those remain which bore 
Croatian inscriptions. The royal arms were 
accordingly erected on the 16th of October, 
after the disturbances were over, without 
either Magyar or Croatian legends. 



60 



BAPTISTS. 



B 



BAPTISTS. The "American Baptist Year- 
Book" for 1883 gives tables of statistics of 
the regular Baptists of the United States, of 
which the summary of the footings is as 
follows: Number of associations, 1,167"; of 
churches, 26,931 ; of ordained ministers, 17,- 
090 ; of members, 2,394,742 ; number of addi- 
tions by baptism during 1882, 94,680; number 
of Sunday-schools, 15,138, with 130,606 officers 
and teachers and 1,065,195 pupils, and 13,804 
baptisms in the Sunday-schools. Amount of 
benevolent contributions reported, $5,219,396. 
Increase of members during the year, 58,720. 
The educational institutions of which the 
" Year-Book " gives reports include 8 theo- 
logical seminaries, with 45 instructors and 451 
students ; 33 colleges and universities, with 
291 instructors and 4,177 students; and 52 
academic institutions and seminaries for young 
men and young women, with 391 instructors 
and 6,554 students. 

The numerical summaries of the regular Bap- 
tists in other countries are as follow : 





Churches. 


Ordained 

ministers. 


Members. 


North America (outside of the 
United States) 


809 


595 


99477 


South America (Brazil) 


g 


4 


'225 


Europe . . . 


8,108 


224T 


842240 


Asia?..... 


660 


822 


58410 


Africa 


87 


88 


6682 


Australasia . . 


124 


82 


10122 










Total for the world 


81,812 


20,378 


2,905 848 











Whole number of associations, 1,268. 

The number of other Baptist churches than 
the regular Baptists in the United States is as 
follows : 





Churches. 


Ministers. 


Members. 


Anti-Mission Baptists . . . 


900 


400 


40000 


Church of God.. .. 


400 


850 


80 000 


Free-will Baptists 


1,485 


1286 


76*706 


Seventh-day Baptists 


87 


103 


8 606 


Six-principle Baptists . 


20 


17 


2 075 











Bible Convention. The regular anniversary 
meetings of the Northern Baptist benevolent 
societies of the United States were preceded 
by a " Bible Convention," which was called in 
accordance with action taken by the several 
societies at their anniversaries in 1882, "to 
consider and decide what the Baptist denomi- 
nation ought to do in reference to translations, 
versions, and the circulation of the Bible in all 
lands, and through what organizations this ob- 
ject shall be effected." The convention met at 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y., May 22d. The Hon. 
James L. Howard, of Connecticut, presided. 
Resolutions were adopted, as follow : 

Whereas, In the year 1883, the Baptists of America 
resolved to give to the heathen the pure Word of God 
in their own languages, and to furnish their mission- 
aries with all the means in their power to make their 



translations as exact a representation of the mind of 
the Holy Spirit as may be possible ; and 

Whereas, Their missionary translators were in- 
structed to endeavor by earnest prayer and diligent 
study to ascertain the exact meaning of the original 
text, and to express that meaning as exactly as the 
nature of the language into which they translate the 
Bible will permit ; therefore, 

Resolved, 1. That this convention earnestly reaf- 
firms these positions as sound and obligatory. 

2. That as_these principles are defined, it is the 
duty of American Baptists to circulate versions made 
upon these principles in all languages, as far as such 
versions can be secured. 

3. That as there are differences of opinion in our 
denomination touching the several versions now ex- 
isting in English, on the score of fidelity, it is the right 
of every Baptist to use that version which best com- 
mends its faithfulness to his conscience in the sight 
of God. 

4. That while ; in the judgment of this convention, 
the work of revision is 'not yet completed, whatever 
organization or organizations shall be designated for 
the prosecution ofhome Bible work among American 
Baptists should now circulate the commonly received 
version ; the new Kevised Eevision with the correc- 
tions of the American revisers incorporated in the 
text, and the translation of the American Bible 
Union, according to demand, and that all moneys 
especially designated for the circulation of either of 
these should be faithfully appropriated in Tieeping 
with the wish of the donor. 

Furthermore, the convention expressed its 
judgment that the Bible work of the Baptists 
should be done by the two existing societies, 
the foreign work by the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, and the domestic work by 
the American Baptist Publication Society ; 
that the Missionary Union "should more fully 
recognize the necessity of accurate translation 
and wide distribution of the Word of God in 
foreign lands," and should use every effort to 
enlarge its means ; that the Publication Soci- 
ety should establish a new department, to be 
designated as the Bible Department, with a 
special secretary, to be charged with the duty 
of collecting and expending funds for home 
Bible work: 

That as a guarantee that all the chief views cur- 
rent in our denomination shall be represented in the 
conduct of our home* Bible work, and as a provision 
for a settlement of the questions which have arisen 
with regard to the administration of that work, the 
American and Foreign Bible Societies be requested 
to name three persons to be voted for as managers of 
the Publication Society, and that upon the election 
of these persons as such managers, the American and 
Foreign Bible Societies be requested, in the interest 
of Baptist unity, to dissolve and thenceforth cease 
to exist as a separate organization ; 

and that the Publication Society should estab- 
lish such relations with the American Baptist 
Home Mission Society that the missionaries of 
the latter body may .co-operate with it in the 
circulation of the Bible. 

The American and Foreign Bible Society, at 
its annual meeting, May 24th, determined to 
accept the advice of the convention, and to 
make arrangements to disband as a separate 



BAPTISTS. 



51 



organization, and turn over its work to the 
Publication Society and the Missionary Union. 
The other societies concerned in the proposed 
scheme also resolved to accept the functions 
which its execution would impose upon them. 
American Baptist Missionary Union. The annual 
meeting of the American Baptist Missionary 
Union was held at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
May 24th. The Rev. George Dana Boardman, 
D. D., presided. The receipts of the Union 
for the year had heen $327,800, and its ex- 
penditures $316,410. The condition of the 
missions is exhibited in the following table: 



MISSIONS. 


1 8 

|'S 


Native 
preachers. 


Churchei. 


! 


i 


ASIATIC MISSIONS. 
Burmah 


99 
15 


485 
87 


471 

27 


1,649 
145 


24,094 
1 851 


Telugus, India 
Chinese 


87 

25 


95 

48 


89 
89 


2,074 
129 


22,277 
1,685 




12 


19 


9 


69 


289 














Totals 


188 


684 


585 


4,066 


50146 


Africa 


2 


1 


7 




429 


EUROPEAN MISSIONS. 
Sweden 




813 

350 


331 
146 


4,510 
1,992 


22,616 

28038 


France 




9 


9 


69 


759 


Spain 




4 


8 


7 


150 






3 


1 


1 


7 














Totals 




679 


490 


6,579 


51,570 














Grand totals... 


190 


1.364 


1,082 


10,645 


102,145 



A newspaper statement had charged the 
treasurer of the society with taking advan- 
tage, in settlements with the missionaries, of 
the differences in exchange in the valuation of 
dollars and rupees at the expense of the mis- 
sionaries and to the profit of the treasury. 
This charge was answered by the chairman of 
the committee of finance, who, after a special 
examination of the subject and of the treas- 
urer's accounts, reported that "for tweuty- 
three years previous to 1878 the changing of 
dollars into rupees favored the missionaries on 
the field by the appreciation of the rupee, 
while for three years afterward the Union 
gained by the depreciation of the value of the 
rupee. To remove all cause for dissatisfaction 
by the missionaries in 1879, the Union now 
changes its dollars into pounds sterling and 
then into rupees, so that the missionaries now 
receive the full amount of their salary of 
dollars in rupees. All of the gain during five 
years in the depreciation of the rupee is strict- 
ly accounted for by the treasurer's report." 
Resolutions were adopted expressing satisfac- 
tion with the statement, and " unqualified con- 
fidence " in the late treasurer. 

American Baptist Home Mission Society. The an- 
nual meeting of the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society was held May 25th. The Hon. 
James L. Howard presided. The total receipts 
of the society for the year had been $283,- 
944 ; the permanent and trust funds held by it 
amounted to $497,535 ; and an indebtedness 
was returned of $49,967. Six hundred and 



seven missionaries had been employed, of whom 
362 were laboring among American, 100 among 
foreign, and 37 among other populations ; and 
they had supplied 1,762 churches and out-sta- 
tions. The fourteen schools among the colored 
people and the Indians, and in Mexico, em- 
ployed 112 teachers, and were attended by 2,713 
students. Besides forty-four States and Ter- 
ritories in the United States, the society had 
prosecuted its work in British Columbia, Mani- 
toba, and Mexico. Its work among Scandi- 
navians was conducted in nine States and Ter- 
ritories, among French in six States, and among 
Germans in seventeen States and Territories ; 
and missionaries had been appointed repre- 
senting ten nationalities or people, viz., Ameri- 
cans, Germans, Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, 
French, Mexicans, Indians, negroes, and Chi- 
nese. The Indian University, in the Indian 
Territory, was in a flourishing condition, and 
was attended by 42 young men and 53 young 
women. 

The Woman's Baptist Home Mission Society 
had received during the year $22,000 in cash 
and $4,524 in goods, and had disbursed $22,- 
348. It had employed 26 missionaries, 6 mis- 
sionary teachers, and 10 Bible-women, who 
were laboring among the Indians, the freed- 
men, Scandinavians, Germans, and Mormons. 

American Baptist Publication Society. The anni- 
versary of the American Baptist Publication 
Society was held May 28th. The receipts of 
the society for the year had been $399,673 in 
the business department, and $122,246 in the 
missionary department. Forty-five new pub- 
lications had been issued, and 122,300 Bibles 
had been distributed. 

Southern Baptist Convention. The Southern 
Baptist Convention met at Waco, Texas, May 
llth. The Rev. P. H. Mell was chosen presi- 
dent. The principal business of the meeting 
consisted in a review of the progress of the 
missionary and benevolent work of the South- 
ern Baptist churches. The income of the Board 
of Missions for the year had been $56,805, 
and the board had a balance of $6,100 in its 
treasury. Reports were made of the condition 
of the several missions, as follow : The Mexi- 
can mission had 65 church-members, of whom 
13 had been baptized during the year. Two 
missionaries, with three assistants, besides na- 
tive helpers, were employed at eight stations. 
In Brazil, four missionaries, all foreign, were 
employed at the stations of Santa Barbara and 
Bahia, where were 50 church-members, and in 
which five persons had been baptized during the 
year. Three missions were sustained in China, 
employing 34 missionaries, and with them were 
connected 587 church-members. In Africa were 
seven missionaries, at five stations, with 100 
church-members and 194 pupils in schools. The 
missions in Italy included ten stations, at which 
were 14 missionaries and evangelists, and with 
which were connected 220 members. Seven 
missionaries had been sent out by the board 
during the year. 



BAPTISTS. 



The Home Mission Board reported that it 
employed 95 laborers, who had supplied 276 
churches and stations and baptized 245 persons, 
had organized 55 Sunday-schools with 2,680 
teachers and pupils, and bad collected $844 for 
missions, and $2,000 for church-building pur- 
poses. The board had received co-operation 
in its work from the Baptist State organiza- 
tions of Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkan- 
sas, Florida, Texas, and Missouri. A favorable 
report was made of the Indian Muscogee mis- 
sion. During the thirty years that the late prin- 
cipal missionary, the Rev. Dr. Buckner, labored 
in it, an average of one church was organized and 
one minister was ordained for every year, and 
75 conversions took place annually. The num- 
ber of members was now 2,600. The subscrip- 
tions in behalf of the theological seminary 
had been sufficient to pay its expenses during 
the past three years, and the institution had 
now a surplus. It had been attended by stu- 
dents from every Southern State except Mary- 
land, and from other States and from Mexico. 

German Baptist Conferences. In the German 
Baptist conferences, six new churches were 
organized in 1882, making 168 in all connected 
with the conferences, with a membership of 
30,442, against 28,956 in the previous year. 
The number of baptisms during the year was 
2,967. The number of Sunday-schools had 
increased during four years from 178, with 691 
teachers and 8,954 pupils, to 402, with 1,146 
teachers and 8,954 pupils. 

Baptist Convention in the Indian Territory. A 
Baptist Convention, composed of the associa- 
tions and churches of nil the Indian nations 
settled in the Indian Territory, was organized 
in Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, in June. Rep- 
resentatives were present of the Cherokees, 
Creeks, and Seminoles, of the Plains Indians 
at the Wichita agency, and of other bodies, 
making in all seven Indian tribes, of three 
races and five languages, whose delegates par- 
ticipated in the proceedings. This organiza- 
tion was recognized and approved by the Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw Association at its annual 
meeting in October. 

Baptist Autumnal Conference. The second Bap- 
tist Autumnal Conference was held in Boston, 
Mass., November 13th, 14th, and 15th. The 
Rev. Alvah Hovey, D. D., presided. The fol- 
lowing topics were considered in papers read 
by appointed essayists and in general discus- 
sions: "Church Architecture" (Rev. C. J. 
Baldwin and Pvev. J. R. Thomas); "The So- 
cial Element in Church Life and Church 
Work " (Rev. W. E. Hatcher, D. D. ; Rev. J. 

B. Simmons, D. D. ; Hon. J. M. S. Williams; J. 

C. Hiden, D. D. ; and Rev. Mr. Rhoades) ; " The 
Sanitary Provisions of the Mosaic Code " 
(George H. Fox, M. D.) ; " Christianity and the 
Body " (President S. L. Caldwell, of Vassnr Col- 
lege) ; " Christianity in Politics " (Rev. E. P. 
Gould, D. D.) ; " The Divorce Question " (Rev. 
H. S. Barrage. D. D. ; Judcre Buchanan, of New 
Jersey ; President A. Owen, of Denison Uni- 



versity) ; " Modern Biblical Criticism " (Rev. 
T. J. Conant, D. D. ; Prof. Howard Osgood, 
D. D. ; Prof. D. G. Lyon, Rev. J. A. Smith, 
D. D., and Prof. D. J. Hill); "The Coming 
Ministry" (President E. Dodge, of Madison Uni- 
versity ; Rev. J. C. Hiden, D. D., and Rev. P. 
S. Moxon); " Worldliness " (Rev. T. Edwin 
Brown, D. D. ; Rev. H. M. King, D. D., and 
Rev. A. C. Dixon). 

Convention of Liberal Baptists. A convention 
of "Liberal" or "Open-Communion" Bap- 
tists, the call for which was signed by repre- 
sentative men of the Free- will Baptist Church, 
the Free Baptists of New Brunswick and of 
Nova Scotia, the Church of God, the General 
Baptists, and the Separate Baptists, met in 
Minneapolis, Minn., October 2d, with the de- 
clared object of promoting a more intimate ac- 
quaintance and a closer union among the dif- 
ferent branches of the church in whose name 
it was held. The Rev. O. B. Cheney, of Maine, 
was chosen president of the convention. A 
paper which was read on the subject of "The 
Liberal Baptists of America," sketched the rise 
of the General Conference of the Free-will 
Baptists of New England, with which 78,000 
members are now connected, and described 
other Free Baptist organizations, as follows: 

In 1823 a movement, under Elder Stimson, began 
in Indiana. The people took the name of " General 
Baptists," and now have in the Western States not 
less than ISjOOO members. About 1828 a few churches 
separated from the United Baptists and took the 
name of " Separate Baptists." Churches have been 
planted by them, and we now know of ten associa- 
tions, with a membership of not less than 7,000 com- 
municants. We also have Free Christian Baptists 
in Nova Scotia and the Free Baptists of New Bruns- 
wick. The people known as the " Church of God," 
organized in Pennsylvania in the year 1830j now em- 
brace upward of 30',000 members, and sustain several 
newspapers and institutions of learning. If we give 
a summary, the showing is : Free Baptists, 78,000 ; 
Church of God, 30,000 ; Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, 14000- General Baptists, 13,000; Free Bap- 
tists in North Carolina.10,000 ; Separate Baptists, 
7,000 ; Free Baptists in Western States, 5,000 : total, 
157,000. 

A report from the business committee, 
which was adopted, opened with a declaration 
that "the several associations of churches of 
Jesus Christ in America, who hold the evan- 
gelical faith, practicing believers' baptism, and 
excluding no recognized Christian from the 
Lord's table, are one by the strongest ties., that 
of a common faith and spirit, unity of purpose, 
mutual respect, and paternal love, and hence 
should be one in formal fellowship and meth- 
ods of co-operation." The action of the con- 
vention embodied recommendations that a 
year-book be published, representing all bodies 
of Liberal Baptists; that a quarterly publica- 
tion, or magazine, be established; that there 
be co-operation in the support of foreign mis- 
sions; that Liberal Baptist literature be cir- 
culated ; that the convention be perpetuated 
by the election of an executive committee au- 
thorized to represent the Liberal Baptist bodies 
and to call another convention ; that the sev~ 



BAPTISTS. 



53 



eral bodies be urged to correspond with one 
another ; and that the cause of education be 
given every possible encouragement. An ex- 
ecutive committee was appointed, of which the 
Rev. G. H. Ball, of New York, is chairman. 

Free-will Baptist Church. The twenty-fifth Gen- 
eral Conference of the Free-will Baptist Church 
was held in Minneapolis, Minn., in October. 
The Rev. Ransom Dunn, D. D., was chosen 
moderator. The most important business trans- 
acted was the discussion of the resolutions of 
the General Convention of the Open-Com- 
munion Baptists, which were approved, and, 
so far as they affect the Free-will Baptist 
Church, adopted. A new charter and consti- 
tution for the Foreign Missionary Society were 
adopted, by the operation of which the scope 
and power of that organization, and its ca- 
pacity to hold property, are expected to be 
greatly increased. Among the important 
changes made in the constitution are the incor- 
poration of provisions for the representation of 
the several denominations or organizations of 
open-communion Baptists in the Executive 
Board of the society, and for the admission of 
women to full membership and on equal terms 
with men. The society began the year with a 
deficiency of several thousand dollars, but was 
able to show a surplus above all expenditures 
on closing its accounts. The mission is in 
Orissa and Bengal, India, and returned 551 
communicants. Twenty members had been 
added by baptism during the year. The whole 
number of pupils in the schools was 3,089 ; of 
whom 347 were Christians, 1,043 Hindoos, 261 
Moslems, and 1,438 Santals. Measures were 
taken for the organization of a church exten- 
sion department of the Home Mission Society. 
A committee was appointed to draft a course 
of study for general use among ministers, and 
to encourage the organization of ministers' con- 
ferences for discipline and study. The confer- 
ence recommended that a pastor or stated sup- 
ply of a church, whose membership is else- 
where, be amenable to the church with which 
he is laboring, as if he were a member of it. 
Provision was made for the organization of a 
Ministers' Relief Association. An offer by Mr. 
M. A. Shepherd of property valued at $50,000 
as a gift for a publishing and school fund was 
accepted, and steps were taken toward making 
an application of the sum. A committee was 
appointed to revise the constitution of the Gen- 
eral Conference. Gratification was expressed 
over the revival of friendly feeling between the 
North and the South. Interest was declared 
in the education of freedmen and in civil-ser- 
vice reform. Efforts for the suppression of 
obscene literature were commended, and the 
action of the Government in refusing the use 
of mails for the circulation of such matter was 
approved. 

Seventh-Day Baptist Church. According to the 
statistical reports presented to the Seventh- 
Day Baptist General Conference, in Septem- 
ber, the whole number of members of the 



church for 1883 was 8,611, showing a net in- 
crease during the year of 8. The whole number 
of baptisms reported was 151. Nine churches 
had been organized, making the whole num- 
ber of churches connected with the denomina- 
tion 99. The number of Sabbath-schools was 
86, and they returned 5,773 scholars. The de- 
nomination is represented in England by the 
Mill- Yard Church, London, instituted in 1654, 
and returning for 1883, 14 members, and the 
Natton Church, Tewkesbury, instituted in 1663, 
and returning 4 members. It has also mission 
churches at Shanghai, China, with 18 members, 
and at Haarlem, Holland, with 19 members. 
The American Sabbath Tract Society had re- 
ceived during the year $8,968, and disbursed 
$7,109, and had distributed 179,534 pages of 
tracts. The operations of the society were 
carried on by the distribution of tracts and 
periodicals in the United States, England, and 
Holland, and by the use of tents, in which 
preaching services were conducted, carried 
from place to place. Under its direction are 
published a general religious weekly newspa- 
per, the "Sabbath Recorder," and two jour- 
nals of a more special character. The publica- 
tion of a quarterly periodical is contemplated. 
The Seventh-Day Baptist Education Society 
returned the amount of its funds and receipts 
at $45,303. Only Milton College, Wis., and 
Alfred University, N". Y., made detailed 
statements of their condition. The whole 
number of students in these two institu- 
tions was 733. The receipts of the missionary 
society were $8,154, in addition to which the 
society returned a permanent fund of $1,454. 
Twenty-six missionaries were employed to visit 
41 churches and 94 other preaching-places, in 
various parts of the United States, and report- 
ed in connection with the missions, 336 
" Sabbath-keeping " families, 937 church-mem- 
bers, with 936 in Bible classes, and 23 added by 
baptism during the year. An American mis- 
sionary and his wife, two native preachers, a 
Bible-woman, and three day-school teachers 
were employed in connection with the mission 
at Shanghai, China, and a woman medical mis- 
sionary was to be sent out. Three day-schools 
returned fi6 scholars. A boarding-school was 
to be established. One missionary was em- 
ployed at Haarlem, Holland, who returned 4 
additions to the church, and Bible-schools at 
Haarlem and Workum with 24 scholars. The 
accounts of the Seventh-Day Baptist Memorial 
Fund were balanced at $9,564. 

The Seventh-Day Baptist General Conference 
met at Adams, N. Y., September 19th. W. A. 
Rogers presided. The Committee on Denomina- 
tional History reported that an autobiography 
of Elder Alexander Campbell and a number of 
papers on the u Ward family " had been pub- 
lished during the year. Measures were taken 
for the establishment of a " Seventh-Day Bap- 
tist headquarters " in connection with the as- 
sembly-grounds at Chautauqua. Resolutions 
were passed against the system of licensing 



54 



BAPTISTS. 



the traffic in intoxicating liquors, and demand- 
ing that "the evil shall be prohibited, not 
protected, by the laws of the land." 

Baptist Chnrebes of Canada. The Baptists of 
the Dominion of Canada fall naturally into 
two grand divisions, viz., the Baptists of On- 
tario, Quebec, and Manitoba, and the Baptists 
of the Maritime Provinces. Owing to the 
great distance between the eastern and the 
western portions of Canada, intimate denomi- 
national relations between the two sections 
have never been established, and they have 
united in no branch of denominational work. 

In Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba, the Bap- 
tist denomination holds numerically the fifth 
place among the religious bodies, being out- 
ranked by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Pres- 
byterians, and Methodists. The statistics of 
the denomination for 1883 are: Number of 
ministers, 260 ; of church-members, about 27,- 
000; of adherents, about 125,000. Of these 
about three fourths are in the Province of 
Ontario, one sixth in the Province of Quebec, 
and the remainder (500 or less) in the North- 
west. About 26,000 of these are known as 
"Regular Baptists," and are included in 15 
associations, which make restricted communion 
a term of fellowship. Outside of these .asso- 
ciations are 25 or 30 churches with a member- 
ship of about 1,100, which differ in certain 
minor points from the associated churches. 

Each province has a Home Mission Conven- 
tion of its own. The Ontario Convention 
(founded in 1852) expends about $6,000 annu- 
ally in assisting feeble churches, and in open- 
ing up new fields within the province. Dur- 
ing the conventional year 1881-'82, 28 mis- 
sionaries were employed, who occupied 63 
stations and received 250 persons into the 
fellowship of the mission churches. The Can- 
ada Baptist Missionary Convention, East (or- 
ganized in 1859), expends nearly $2,000 annu- 
ally in home evangelization. During the year 
1881-'82, 18 missionaries were employed, who 
occupied 47 different stations and baptized 
52 converts. The Regular Baptist Missionary 
Convention of Manitoba and the Northwest 
(organized in 1881) has for its aim the early 
occupancy of the Canadian Northwest, and has 
secured the co-operation of the American Bap- 
tist Home Mission Society, the American Bap- 
tist Publication Society, the Baptist Missionary 
Convention qf the Maritime Provinces, and of 
individuals and churches in Ontario and Que- 
bec. 

For foreign mission work there is one gen- 
eral society, the Regular Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sion Society of Ontario and Quebec (founded 
in 1866), and two women's auxiliary societies, 
one for Ontario and one for Quebec. These 
support a vigorous mission among the Telugus 
of India at an annual expense of about $12,000, 
of which amount the women's societies con- 
tribute nearly one third. The missionaries re- 
port 292 baptisms during the year 1881 -'82. 
A seminary has been founded at Samulcotta 



for the training of native preachers and teach- 
ers. The Grand Ligne Mission among the 
Roman Catholic French of the Province of 
Quebec receives contributions from Ontario, 
Quebec, the United States, etc. It has occu- 
pied a considerable number of stations, and 
sustains a school. 

Woodstock College, founded in 1857, is pro- 
vided with a fund of $100,000 for grounds and 
buildings, and an endowment subscription of 
$85,000, of which more than $30,000 have been 
paid in. It furnishes four independent courses 
of study, and admits on equal terms students of 
both sexes. Toronto Baptist College was found- 
ed in 1879 by the aid of a gift and a pledge of 
support from Senator William McMaster, as a 
theological seminary, and has absorbed the for- 
mer theological department of Woodstock Col 
lege. It has a building valued at $80,000, and 
four organized chairs of instruction. It was 
opened in 1881, and had eighty-one students 
during the first year. 

The work of publication is conducted by the 
Standard Publishing Company, which has a 
capital stock of $100,000. The dividends from 
$45,000 of this stock, which was furnished by 
Senator McMaster, have been devised by him, 
provided they be not more than 6 per cent., to 
the Home and Foreign Missionary Societies 
and the Superannuated Ministers' Fund. 

The Baptist Union of Canada (organized in 
1862) is composed of officers of the denomi- 
national societies and colleges and of pastors 
and delegates of churches, and meets annually 
for the promotion of fraternal relations and 
the discussion of topics affecting the welfare 
and progress of the denomination. 

In the maritime provinces the Baptists con- 
stitute a much larger proportion of the popu- 
lation, and are actually more numerous than in 
the western provinces. In New Brunswick 
they are outnumbered only by the Roman 
Catholics; in Nova Scotia, only by the Roman 
Catholics and Presbyterians; and in Prince 
Edward Island they rank fourth. The numeri- 
cal strength of the denomination is, according 
to the statistics for 1883 : Number of ministers, 
188 ; churches, 348 ; church-members. 37,423 ; 
and of adherents, about 175,000. The work 
of the denomination in home missions, foreign 
missions, education, ministerial relief, etc., is 
transacted through the Baptist Convention of 
the Maritime Provinces. The Home Mission 
Board, in 1881-'82, assisted, at an expense of 
nearly $5,000, in the support of 58 missionaries, 
occupying 50 fields of labor and serving 97 
churches, in which 282 persons were baptized. 
Two churches were organized during the year. 
The Foreign Missionary Board expends $10,- 
000 a year, and supports three missionary fami- 
lies and a Zenana worker among the Telugus 
of India. The Ladies' Aid Societies furnished 
more than one third of the missionary contri- 
butions for 1881-'82. The literary institutions 
of the convention are the University of Acadia 
College, and Hortoii Academy, where students 



BELGIUM. 



55 



are prepared for the college. Acadia College 
has buildings and grounds valued at $100,000, 
and an endowment fund of nearly $100,000, 
with an indebtedness of $30,000. It has a 
literary department with seven professors, and 
a small theological department. At Horton 
Academy separate departments are provided 
for young men and young women. 

English Baptist Missions. The English Baptist 
Missionary Society received, during the year 
ending with its anniversary in April, 60,722. 
It had begun the year with a debt of 9,000, 
the larger part of which had been liquidated, 
but, as the operations of the society had been 
at the same time much enlarged, its books still 
showed a deficit of 4,575. Reports were 
made at the anniversary, of the condition of 
missions in India, Ceylon, China, Japan, West 
Africa (Cameroons and Victoria) ; the new 
Congo mission in Central Africa, where eleven 
missionaries were employed; the West India 
islands, and Norway, Brittany, and Italy, in 
Europe. Colleges were maintained for Hindoo 
and Urdoo speaking young men at Delhi, and 
for Bengalis at Serarapore, India, and at Cal- 
abar, Jamaica. At the autumnal meeting of 
the Baptist Union, held in Leicester, in Oc- 
tober, the debt of the society was reported to 
be all discharged. It was also announced that 
fourteen missionaries were to be sent to China, 
sufficient funds having been promised to assure 
their outfit and annual maintenance. 

The Baptist Zenana Mission, which is affili- 
ated with this society, labors particularly among 
the women in India. It is supported by wom- 
en, and employs 32 women as visitors to the 
Zenanas, and 50 Bible women and native teach- 
ers, and maintains 20 schools, which are regu- 
larly attended by 800 pupils. 
BASUTOLAND. See CAPE COLONY. 
BECHUANALAffD. See CAPE COLONY. 
BELGIUM, a constitutional monarchy in West- 
ern Europe. The King has power to convoke 
and dissolve the Legislature, and to conclude 
treaties ; but treaties affecting the interests of 
the nation require legislative sanction. The 
House of Representatives is elected in the 
ratio of one member to at least 40,000 inhab- 
itants, by citizens paying direct taxes to the 
amount of 43 francs, which restricts the fran- 
chise to about one thirteenth of the adult male 
population. The deputies are elected for four 
years, one half of the terms expiring every two 
years. All laws relating to finance and mili- 
tary service must originate in this Chamber. 
The members of the Senate are elected in the 
same way as the deputies ; their number is 
exactly half that of the deputies, and their 
terms are twice as long. The reigning sov- 
ereign is Leopold II., born April 9, 1835, who 
succeeded his father, Leopold I., December 
10, 1865. 

The Cabinet. The present Cabinet consists of 
the following members: Minister of Foreign 
Affairs and President of the Council, Hubert 
J. W. Frere-Orban, appointed June 19, 1878 ; 



Minister of Justice, Jules Bara, appointed June 
19, 1878 ; Minister of War, General Gratry, 
appointed Nov. 8, 1880 ; Minister of Public 
Works, Sabier Olin, appointed April 5, 1882; 
Minister of the Interior, Rolin Jaequemyns, 
appointed June 19, 1878; Minister of Finance, 
Charles Graux, appointed Nov. 8, 1880; Min- 
ister of Public Instruction, Pierre van Hum- 
beeck, appointed June 19, 1878. 

Area and Population. The area of Belgium is 
29,455 square kilometres, or 11,373 square 
miles. The area and population of the nine 
provinces into which the kingdom is divided, 
according to a census taken Dec. 31, 1880, were 
as follow : 



PROVINCES. 


Square 
miles. 


Population. 




1,093 


577,282 


Brabant 
West Flanders 


1,268 
1 249 


985,274 
694,764 


East Flanders 


1,158 


881,816 




1,487 


977,562 


Lie<*e 


1,117 


663,607 




981 


210,851 




1,706 


209,118 




1,414 


322,620 








Total 


11 373 


5519844 









The density of population is 485 per square 
mile, exceeding that of any other country in 
Europe. In 1878 the number speaking French 
was reported as 2,256,860 ; Flemish, 2,659,890 ; 
both languages, 340,770; German, 38,070 ; Ger- 
man and French or Flemish, 28,980. Since the 
separation of Belgium from the Netherlands in 
1830, the increase of population has been at the 
rate of one per cent, per annum. One fifth of 
the population follow agricultural pursuits, and 
one fifth trade and manufactures. The number 
of freehold proprietors in 1880 was 1,181,177, 
an increase of 29 per cent, since 1846. The pop- 
ulation not only increases rapidly by natural in- 
crement, but in recent years by immigration to 
a slight extent. The population of Brussels, 
the capital, in 1880, was 394,940. There were 
six other cities with over 40,000 inhabitants: 
Antwerp, 169,112; Ghent, 131,431; Liege, 
123,131; Bruges, 44,501; Mechlin, 42,381; 
Verviers. 40,944. 

Religion. The entire population, with the ex- 
ception of about 15,000 Protestants and 3,000 
Israelites, profess the Roman Catholic religion. 
The dissenting bodies not only enjoy full reli- 
gious liberty, but their ministers, like the Roman 
Catholic priests, receive salaries from the state 
treasury. These salaries of the clergy, rang- 
ing from 600 to 1,360 francs for the parish 
priests, are supplemented by fees and contri- 
butions. By the census of 1880 there were 
1,559 convents, containing 1,346 male and 20,- 
645 female inmates. 

Education. The public-school system of Bel- 
gium has been for years the subject of bitter 
controversy between the Government party 
and the Clericals. The clergy have retained 
in a large measure the control of the education 
of the people, by maintaining schools supported 



56 



BELGIUM. 



by private contributions, in opposition to the SOORCTS OF REVENUE, isu. 

state schools. The educational work is done SsStai":'.:::"'.:::::::::::::::::'.::'.'.'.'. i^S 

largely by Jesuits. The public schools are Trade licenses ; . 6,200,000 

supported by the communes, the Government g^;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. I::::::::::::::::: 21,700:000 

and the provinces.- The expenditure in I860 succession duties 18,860,000 

amounted to 34,888,000 francs about half of E^anr.^n^.^.pW,,. ............ ^gooo 

which was defrayed by the state. Accoi ding Exci9e on beer and vinegar 9,304,750 

to the military returns, about one sixth of the Excise on sugar 

recruits are unable to 'read or write. Among g^S^^! 8 ^^ 8 ;;;;;;; :;;;;:;;;; 

the younger generation the proportion is con- post-office 8,145,400 

siderably less A law was passed in 1883 g^'SS^^Und ::::::! 1M , 

making Flemish the language ot instruction Miscellaneous receipts 15,021,620 

in the intermediate schools in the Flemish 

parts of the country, but providing for pre- Total revenue 299,571,760 

paratory departments in which both French The expenditure for the various departments 

and Flemish are to be taught. was estimated as follows : 

Commerce. The general commerce in 1881 BRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE, isss. Francs. 

was 2,787,831,075 francs' worth of imports, Interest on public debt 97,519,119 

anrt J_fiO R94. 9*7fi frnru'> nf ftirnnrtq thft sne- Civil list and dotations 4,847,175 

and A4bU,bZ4,ZfO nancs exports , me spe Ministry of Justice 16084,111 

cial commerce by imports to the value 01 Foreign Affairs 

1,629,871,040 francs, and exports to the value l nt ^? or T - * v- 

of 1,302,670,100 francs, the first representing g*Jj l^S*. '. .' i ::::: 

the consumption of foreign and the second War 44,764,900 

the exportation of domestic products The Gen ameri J inaDce .;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;::;;;;;;:;: 'fcgjg 

largest import trade is with France and the Miscellaneous expenditure 1,653,500 

next with the United States, followed by Ger- 
many, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Total expenditure 324,352,818 

Russia. Of the exports, France takes the The national debt amounted in 1882 'to 

largest share, followed by Great Britain, Ger- 1,799,566,644 francs. Of this, 219,959,632 

many, and the Netherlands. francs, bearing 2 per cent, interest, and 710,- 

The coal-mines of Belgium produce about 956,082 francs, bearing 4 per cent, interest, rep- 

16,000,000 tons per annum, supporting large resent the share of Belgium in the old debt of 

metallurgical and other industries, and furnish- the Netherlands. The rest was contracted for 

ing about 4,000,000 tons for export, chiefly to railroads and other works of public utility. 

France. Loans of 1873-'78, amounting to 381,628,500 

The carrying-trade is mainly in the hands of francs, pay 3 per cent.; 134,719,000 francs, 

the British. The mercantile marine in the be- issued in 1880, pay 4 per cent.; and 340,742,- 

ginning of 1882 numbered 68 vessels, of 75,- 155 francs of railroad annuities pay 4| per 

666 tons, including 42 steamers, of 65,224 cent. All the debts except the old 2 per 

tons. cents have sinking funds provided for their 

Commanleations. Of 4,182 kilometres (2,600 extinction. By a law of 1879, the 4 per cent, 
miles) of railroad at the end of 1881, 2,888 debt was ordered to be converted into one at 
kilometres were operated by the state and 4 per cent. Treasury notes bearing 4 per cent. 
1,294 by private companies. The working interest were issued in 1881 for floating liabili- 
expenses in 1881 were 62'4 per cent, of the ties amounting to 31,000,000 francs. In May, 
gross receipts of the state railroads, being 3'9 1883, a new loan of 100,000,000 francs was 
per cent, greater than four years before, owing issued. Sums aggregating as much as that 
to the purchases of unprofitable lines. The have recently been appropriated for the Ant- 
net earnings in 1881 were $4,540 per mile. werp harbor improvements, the erection of 

The total length of telegraph lines in Janu- schools, etc. To prevent the recurring defi- 

ary, 1882, was 5, 693 kilometres; of wires, 25,- cits, the Government in the session of 1883 

404 kilometres. The number of messages in brought in a bill imposing additional taxes on 

1881 was 6,861,985. coffee, tobacco, spirits, etc.; but the coffee-tax 

The post-office carried in 1881, 77,627,488 was withdrawn, that on alcohol rejected, and 

private letters and 20,301,762 postal-cards, the mutilated bill finally passed by a majority 

besides 12,891,656 official letters, 40,538,000 of only six votes. Among the new taxes is one 

packages, and 82,573,000 newspapers. The on securities, and another on operations of the 

receipts were 12.301,321 francs, and the ex- stock exchange, 

penses 7,425,683 francs. Politics and Legislation. The struggle be- 

Finanee. The expenditure of the Govern- tween the Liberals and Clericals occupied in 

ment has exceeded the revenue every year 1883 the political arena, as in former years. 

since 1876. The budget for 1882 estimates The more advanced Liberals proposed to cut 

the revenue at 296,647,709 francs, and the ex- down the salaries of bishops and abolish can on - 

penditure at 310,755,895 francs. For 1883 ries and vicarships. The Government toned 

the estimated revenue from the various down these demands, and carried an amend- 

sources was as follows : ment providing for the extinction of the canon- 



BELGIUM. 



BENSON, EDWARD W. 



57 



ries on the demise of the incumbents, and the 
withdrawal of the salaries of vicars found to be 
superfluous, at the discretion of the Govern- 
ment. The clergy protested against the with- 
drawal of subventions which were already too 
small, and which were only an indemnity for 
the ecclesiastical domains of which the Church 
was robbed in 1790. Minister Barras retorted 
that on that supposition their salaries would 
be a mockery, instead of being paid as they 
were for public services, and that the Church 
had other and secret sources of income. A 
law was passed taking away the exemption 
from military duty enjoyed by seminarists arid 
the inmates of religious houses. An electoral 
reform law provoked the opposition of the 
clergy, not less than the bills which affected 
them directly. This extends the right to vote 
in communal and provincial elections to all 
citizens who can pass an examination corre- 
sponding to the standard in the state element- 
ary schools. This radical measure was intro- 
duced by the Government in fulfillment of a 
pledge made to the group of advanced Liber- 
als in return for their support of the new taxes. 
The Bernard Affair. In the su;nmer a note- 
worthy trial took place, originating in circum- 
stances connected with the conflict between 
the ecclesiastical and civil authorities. The 
Bishop of Tournai, Monseigneur Dumont, one 
of the most uncompromising adherents of the 
Syllabus, was in 1879 deprived of his spirituali- 
ties by the Pope, on the ground that he was 
insane. Monseigneur du Rousseaux was ap- 
pointed apostolical administrator of the dio- 
cese. The Belgian clergy have amassed enor- 
mous funds from gifts and fees, the legal title 
to which rests with the incumbents of the ec- 
clesiastical offices for the time being, and is 
transferred by them to their successors by sim- 

Sly handing over the property. Monseigneur 
umont was, by a ruse, and before he knew of 
his disgrace, deprived of the possession of the 
episcopal palace, and of the custody of the 
diocesan funds. Bishop du Rousseaux, having 
knowledge of the intention of the deposed 
bishop to bring a suit to recover the funds of 
the diocese and test the legality of his dis- 
missal, committed the episcopal treasury and 
documents into the keeping of Canon Bernard, 
with directions to place them out of the reach 
of Bishop Dumont. Although Tournai is the 
smallest and poorest of the six Belgian sees, 
yet the portable funds in the treasury amounted 
to more than 5,000,000 francs. Canon Bernard, 
after first consulting M. de Landtsheere, who 
was Minister of Justice in the last Conservative 
Cabinet, ran away with the securities and ac- 
counts to America, and deposited most of them 
in safety-vaults in New York and Boston. 
About 1,700,000 francs of the private funds of 
Monseigneur Dumont were sent back to Bel- 
gium in charge of a Montreal attorney, named 
Goodhue, who was arrested on his arrival. 
The Belgian Government applied for his ex- 
tradition, and he was arrested at Havana and 



sent back to Belgium on a charge of embezzle- 
ment. The securities were also obtained with 
some difficulty and held by the Belgian Gov- 
ernment, subject to the decision of the court. 
Canon Bernard was honorably acquitted at his 
trial in August, as it was shown that he had 
not misappropriated the property, but had 
acted throughout in obedience to the orders W 
his superiors, although they were only gen- 
eral orders to conceal the account-books and 
securities, and so in taking them out of the 
country he had acted on his own discretion. 
This act was repudiated by Bishop du Rous- 
seaux, who, when convinced that it was illegal, 
himself instituted the extradition proceedings. 
BENSON, Edward White, an English clergy- 
man, born in Birmingham, July 14, 1829. He 
was educated by private tutors and at the 
Birmingham Grammar-School, and gained an 
open scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
After a brilliant college career, in which he 
gained the senior chancellor's medal, the mem- 
bers' prize, a first class in the classical tripos, 
and a senior optime in the mathematical tri- 
pos, he graduated in 1852. He entered into 
holy orders, and became a master at Rugby, 
where he taught with marked success, and 
instituted some reforms. On the establish- 
ment of Wellington College, for sons of de- 
ceased .army officers, he was chosen head- 
master. Within, a year he threw the school 
open to non-foundationers, and made the cur- 
riculum the most liberal, if not the best, in 
England. He also made it a model in the mat- 
ter of ventilation, drainage, dormitories, etc. 
In 1868 he became prebend of Lincoln, and in 
1874 chancellor of the cathedral. When in 
1877 the diocese of Truro was created, being 
set off from that of Exeter, Dr. Benson was 
made its first bishop. " Under his administra- 
tion a divinity school was founded, which has 
attained great popularity, and the church of 
St. Mary's, in Truro, was restored, beautified, 
and converted into a cathedral, at a cost of one 
million dollars. In connection with his dio- 
cesan work in Truro, he adopted and carried 
out the principle of employing lay help in the 
church, both in the reading of prayers and 
in preaching. He made himself familiar with 
the history and interests of the diocese, and 
performed his duties with so much industry 
and personal interest as to infuse new vigor 
into the religious life of the people. He made 
his administration also acceptable to the Non- 
conformists, and won their confidence to a de- 
gree which was only temporarily diminished by 
his hasty words of censure against the Libera- 
tion Society a few weeks before his nomina- 
tion for the archbishopric. He was preacher 
to the University of Cambridge from 1864 to 
1871, and to that of Oxford in 1875-76. Aft- 
er the death of Archbishop Tait in December, 
1882, Bishop Benson was chosen to succeed 
him, and his consecration as Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Primate of all England, took place 
March 29, 1883. Archbishop Benson has con- 



58 



BLACK, JEREMIAH S. 




EDWARD WHITE BENSON. ARCHBISHOP OP CANTERBURY. 



tributed to the " Speaker's Commentary," has 
written much for periodicals, and has pub- 
lished in book-form "Work, Friendship, Wor- 
ship," three sermons (London, 1872); "Boy- 
Life " (1874) ; " Singleheart " (1877) ; " Living 
Theology " (1878) ; and " The Cathedral in the 
Life and Work of the Church " (1879). 

BERNARD AFFAIR, The. See BELGIUM. 

BLACK, Jeremiah Sullivan, an American jurist 
and statesman, born in the Glades, Somerset 
co., Pa., Jan. 10, 1810; died at his home in 
York, Pa., Aug. 19, 1883. His ancestry was 
partly Irish and Scotch. James Black, his 
grandfather, came to America from the north 
of Ireland, and settled in Somerset co., Pa., 
where, in 1778, Henry Black, father of Jere- 
miah, was born, and where he lived. Henry 
Black was a man of note in his day. 



Jeremiah's early education was obtained at 
school near his home, on his father's farm, and 
he displayed in youth a decided turn for intel- 
lectual and literary pursuits. He studied law, 
was taken into the office of Chauncey For- 
ward, a prominent lawyer in Somerset co., 
and was admitted to the bar in 1833 . In 1838 
he married a daughter of Mr. Forward. After 
an active and successful practice of eleven 
years, he was raised to the bench. In politics 
he was a Democrat, claiming to be after the 
Jeffersonian pattern, and he was nominated, 
in 1842, by a Democratic Governor, for Presi- 
dent Judge of the district in which he lived. 
This post he held for nine years. In 1851 
Judge Black was elected to be one of the Su- 
preme Court judges of Pennsylvania. After 
serving the short term, three years, he was re- 



BLAKE, EDWARD. 



59 



elected, in 1854, for a full term, fifteen years. 
On the accession of James Buchanan to the 
presidency, in 1857, Judge Black became At- 
torney-General. He was very industrious and 
successful, in connection with Edwin M. Stan- 
ton, in protecting the interests of the nation 
against false claimants to grants of land made 
by the Mexican Government to settlers in 
California before that country came under 
the control of the United States. When the 
secession crisis arrived, Judge Black showed 
himself to be considerably in advance of the 
weak and vacillating President. Buchanan 
held that there was no authority which could 
coerce a State, if it chose to secede and set 
up as an independent government for itself. 
His Attorney-General was clear that it was 
the absolute duty of the Government to put 
down insurrection anywhere and everywhere, 
under whatever plea or pretense it might be 
attempted to be justified, and that the Con- 
stitution contained no provision for a disso- 
lution of the Union by secession or in any 
other wise. Gen. Cass having resigned as 
Secretary of State in December, 1860, Judge 
Black was appointed to fill the vacancy, Edwin 
M. Stanton taking the post of Attorney-Gen- 
eral. He occupied this position during the 
remainder of Buchanan's administration, and 
it is claimed, in his behalf, by those intimately 
acquainted with the history of that critical 
period, that he was mainly instrumental in 
saving the Government from absolute disrup- 
tion and falling into the hands of the seces- 
sionists. 

In March, 1861, when Abraham Lincoln be- 
came President, Judge Black retired from 
public life. He was appointed United States 
Supreme Court Reporter, but soon resigned 
that position, and entered again upon the 
practice of law at his home, near York, Pa. 
He was engaged in several prominent law- 
suits during the last twenty years of his life, 
and retained his vigor and professional skill 
even to the close of his career. The Vander- 
bilt will contest, the Milliken case, and the 
McGarrahan claim, were among the more 
noted cases in which he was engaged. Be- 
sides more strictly professional duties, Judge 
Black found time for contributing to current 
literature. He furnished an account of the 
Erie railway litigation, argued the third-term 
question in magazine articles, and had a lively 
newspaper discussion with Jefferson Davis. 

Judge Black generally enjoyed good health, 
but an operation having become necessary, it 
was successfully performed, yet superinduced 
pyaemia, which was the immediate cause of his 
death. His religious views were those of the 
Campbellites, or Disciples of Christ. He left 
a wife, two sons, and two daughters, these last 
being married. One of his sons was elected 
Lieutenant- Governor of Pennsylvania, in 1882 ; 
the other resides in Texas and is a lawyer. 

BLAKE, Hon. Edward, a Canadian lawyer and 
statesman, born in the county of Middlesex, 



Ontario, in October, 1833. He is of Irish ex- 
traction, being descended, on his father's side, 
from the Blakes of Cashelgrove, Gal way, and 
on his mother's from William Hume, M. P. for 
Wicklow, who during the rebellion of 1798 
was shot by a party of rebels of whom he was 
in pursuit. William Hurne Blake, his father, 
emigrated to Canada immediately after his 
marriage, and took up his residence near Pe- 
terborough. He was accompanied by his bro- 
ther, a clergyman of the Episcopal Church ; 
and on the appointment of the latter to a 
charge in the county of Middlesex, both fami- 
lies migrated westward, and settled in what 
was then an almost unbroken forest. Here 
Edward Blake was born, in a log-cabin ; but 
the family removed to Toronto when he was a 
year old, and there his father became an emi- 
nent lawyer. The son followed, professionally, 
very closely in his footsteps, as did also his 
younger brother, Samuel Hume Blake, who 
never entered public life, but was raised at a 
very early age to the post of Vice-Chancellor 
in the court over which his father formerly 
presided. 

Edward Blake was educated" at Upper Cana- 
da College and University College, Toronto, 
and graduated in the University of Toronto. 
He was called to the bar in 1856, and rose with 
extraordinary rapidity to the very foremost 
position as a chancery practitioner; and dur- 
ing the ten years which elapsed before confed- 
eration took place he had gained such a position 
that he became, in 1867, a candidate for elec- 
tion at once to the House of Commons of the 
Dominion and to the Legislative Assembly of 
Ontario. In both positions he astonished even 
his most intimate friends by his extraordinary 
capacity for work. He was chosen leader of 
the Opposition in the t)ntario Assembly very 
soon after it began its course, and during the 
whole of the first parliamentary term, though 
at the head of a small minority of the House, 
he kept the ministry almost constantly at a 
disadvantage. He frequently introduced bills 
which his legal experience and political saga- 
city suggested, and many of these were voted 
down, at the instance of the Government, 
only to be taken up afterward and carried 
through as Government measures. One of 
the principles which Mr. Blake most persist- 
ently kept before the public was the obligation 
resting on the Government to give the people's 
representatives as much detailed knowledge as 
possible of the destination of public moneys 
before they are voted by Parliament. This 
very principle was the final issue on which the 
Sandfield-Macdonald Government was defeated 
in 1871, and it therefore became the most, im- 
portant plank in the platform of its successor. 
Of the bills first introduced by Mr. Blake, and 
afterward taken up by the Government, was 
that which provided for the trial of contested 
elections by the courts instead of by partisan 
committees of Parliament. This system came 
into operation for the first time in the Prov- 



60 



BLAKE, EDWARD. 



BLOOD. 



ince after the general election of 1871, with 
the' result of unseating an unusually large num- 
ber of the members-elect. While many of the 
seats were vacant from this cause, the Legisla- 
ture was convened, and Mr. Blake asked from 
it and obtained a severe condemnation of the 
Government for its policy of voting a large 
sum in aid of railways, without first specifying 
the roads to be aided and the amount to be 
granted to each. This censure of the adminis- 
tration led to a change of Government, and 
Mr. Blake took office as Premier. He kept it, 
however, for only a single session, as an act 
passed by the Dominion Parliament to abolish 
dual membership rendered it necessary lor him 
to choose between the two positions which he 
had filled for four years. 

His most noted speech in the Ontario Assem- 
bly was one in support of a resolution respect- 
ing the shooting of Scott by the Red river 
insurgents, under the leadership of Louis Kiel, 
in 1870. The'setting in motion of a new Con- 
stitution naturally gave rise to some friction, 
and not a few direct conflicts of opinion. The 
Constitution embodied in the British North 
America Act is distinctly federal in form, but 
it would, at the outset, have been easy to im- 
part to it in practice a tendency toward cen- 
tralization. Against every manifestation of 
such a tendency Mr. Blake steadily set his 
face. His summing up of the evidence against 
Sir John Macdonald, in the great "Pacific 
Scandal" case in 1873, decided the fate of the 
Conservative ministry. 

He took office asa member of the Macken- 
zie ministry, without a portfolio, but he soon 
withdrew to devote himself to his private busi- 
nees and the recuperation of his health. He 
afterward held, under Mr. Mackenzie, from 
1875 to 1877, the office of Minister of Justice, 
and in that capacity initiated and carried 
through a mass of important legislation. It 
fell to his lot also to discuss, by correspond- 
ence with the Secretary of State for the Colo- 
nies, Lord Carnarvon, a somewhat important 
point in connection with the relation of Cana- 
da to the mother-country. Long after the Red 
river insurrection was repressed, the final dis- 
posal of the chief insurgents continued to be a 
difficult question, owing to uncertainty as to 
what had been really promised to them. Lord 
Dufferin undertook to cut the Gordian knot by 
an exercise of the royal prerogative under his 
"instructions," without taking the advice of 
his ministers. A request was then sent to the 
Imperial Government to amend the instruc- 
tions, so that thereafter the prerogative of par- 
don, like all other prerogatives, should be ex- 
ercisable by the Governor only on the advice 
of his ministers. To this Lord Carnarvon de- 
murred, but Mr. Blake's potent arguments at 
last convinced the imperial authorities of the 
absurdity and danger of leaving the way open 
to a foolish Governor to create serious trouble 
between the two countries, and the obnoxious 
instruction was modified as desired. 



The general election of 1878 was disastrous 
to the Mackenzie administration, and among 
other defeated candidates was Mr. Blake, who 
had sat for South Bruce for two Parliaments. 
He remained out of the Commons for one 
session, and, when he returned to it as member 
for West Durham, he was chosen leader of the 
Liberal party. 

Mr. Blake has always enjoyed in an eminent 
degree the confidence of his fellow-members of 
the Law Society of the Province, of which 
corporation he has for years been the presid- 
ing and chief executive officer. He has been 
equally fortunate in securing the suffrages of 
his fellow graduates of the Provincial Univer- 
sity, who have repeatedly elected him by ac- 
clamation to the position of Chancellor. 

BLOOD. The Mechanism of the Arrest of Hsemor- 
rhage. Recent investigation of the blood has 
led to the discovery of a new element in its 
composition of great practical importance, in 
the shape of small granular bodies differing 
greatly from both the red and the white blood- 
corpuscles. Andral, by examining blood with 
the microscope, either pure or mixed, as it 
came from the vein, with one seventh of its 
weight of sulphate of sodium, found that all 
the fibrin was held in suspension under the 
form of little white corpuscles 3 ^ T mm. in di- 
ameter. To these corpuscles filaments were 
added at the moment of solidification. Many 
other observers, also, have seen in the blood 
in process of coagulation these little pale gran- 
ules, either single or agminated, and the fila- 
ments of fibrin. In 1873 M. Ranvier also pro- 
nounced on the nature of these little bodies. 
"It is probable, without being proved," he 
said, "that these angular granulations which 
exist in the blood are little masses of fibrin, 
and that they become the centers of coagula- 
tion, as a crystal of sulphate of sodium placed 
in a solution of the same salt becomes the cen- 
ter of crystallization." 

Such was the state of our knowledge upon 
this subject whtn, in 1877, M. Hayem an- 
nounced that there existed in the blood pecul- 
iar little elements having the singular property 
of undergoing instant alteration when they 
came from the body, more especially when 
they carne in contact with a foreign substance. 
As these elements are destined to become the 
red corpuscles of the blood, he proposed for 
them the name of hromatoblasts, believing them 
to be the same as those already described by 
other observers, only more or less altered in 
appearance. He also believed that the process 
of coagulation was intimately connected with 
the modifications of these elements. In works 
which he published from 1877 to 1881 he in- 
sisted upon the viscosity which the bsemato- 
blasts acquired when they were no longer in 
their normal condition, adhering then to one 
another, and to any foreign body with which 
they came in contact. It is only after having 
undergone a manifest metamorphosis, of which 
this state of viscosity is the first degree, that 



BLOOD. 



61 



they become the principal points of ^departure 
and of attachment of the filaments of fibrin. He 
also discovered that all the conditions known as 
having an effect in retarding or preventing co- 
agulation also prevented these alterations of 
the haematoblasts, and vice versa. 

Pursuing this study, he was led to examine 
the manner in which the flow of blood result- 
ing from the wound of a vessel is arrested. 
He believed that the haematoblasts took an 
active part in the process. In the case of a 
wound of a blood-vessel, the haemorrhage, at 
first rapid, gradually - decreases, and then 
ceases. To explain this favorable result, the 
contraction of the wall of the vessel has been 
invoked. This is real, and even energetic, for 
arteries of medium and small caliber, but al- 
most nothing for the veins. But this contrac- 
tion can not of itself close the wound. It is 
evident that, in the arrest of haemorrhage ap- 
parently by the formation of a clot, there is 
something peculiar, the mechanism of which 
needs explanation. In fact, during a haainor- 
rhage, the blood which passes between the lips 
of the wound in the blood- vess3l is always new, 
and when collected in a vessel it is transformed 
into a gelatinous mass only after several min- 
utes ; why, then, does it form a solid plug be- 
tween the lips of a wound, which soon opposes 
an obstacle to all issue of blood? TJpon this 
point M. Hayem has endeavored to throw some 
new light. After exposing the jugular vein of 
a dog, a small wound is made in the vessel, and 
the haemorrhage is allowed to cease spontane- 
ously ; immediately after, a ligature is applied 
to the peripheral extremity of the vessel. It is 
easy then to draw from the little wound a clot 
shaped like a nail, the point of which pene- 
trates into the lumen of the vessel, the head 
resting upon the outer wall of the vein. By 
immediately placing this coagulum in a liquid 
which fixes the elements of the blood, its dif- 
ferent parts may be examined with the micro- 
scope. The point and central portion are 
grayish, viscous, and composed of partly granu- 
lar and partly amorphous matter. The granu- 
lations are composed of enormous masses of 
haemato blasts already altered, but still very dis- 
tinct one from the other, while the amorphous 
matter results from th-^ confluence into one com- 
mon and coherent mass of the haamatoblasts 
which have undergone the greatest change. The 
head of the nail, which is red on the exterior, 
contains in its-center a prolongation of the vis- 
cous haematoblastic matter, and at the periph- 
ery the fibrillary meshes hold a great num- 
ber of red corpuscles. In all the central, and, 
properly speaking, obstructive part, there are 
very few white corpuscle*. It is, therefore, 
evident that the fibrin is added to a central 
nucleus composed almost entirely of haemato- 
blasts. The formation of this nucleus may be 
studied in the mesentery of a living frog under 
the microscope. After having brought into 
the field of the microscope a vein of medium 
caliber, with transparent walls, an incomplete 



section of the vessel is made with the point of 
a fine scalpel. An abundant haemorrhage is 
produced, and, for a few seconds, nothing is 
observable but a mass of blood. Soon the 
blood flows more slowly, and is confined by a 
crown of elements attached to each other and 
adhering to the wall of the vessel. A few mo- 
ments later the orifice of the wound is sur- 
mounted by a sort of whitish excrescence, 
through the elements of which the red blood- 
corpuscles insinuate themselves with difficulty. 
Far from being formed, as several observers 
have said, of the white blood-corpuscles, the 
wall consists of haematoblasts which have been 
retained during the flow of blood. At the mo- 
ment when the haemorrhage ceases, these have 
already become altered, and, continuing the 
observation, they may be seen to undergo all 
the changes described by the author. 

The obstructing hsematoblastic button holds 
only an insignificant number of white blood- 
corpuscles. These are spherical, smooth, not 
adhesive, for by continuing the observation for 
a few moments they may be seen to separate 
themselves from the mass of haematoblasts by 
means of their own inherent contractility. 
They do not appear to participate at all in the 
arrest of the flow, and they still possess their 
physiological properties and normal anatomical 
character, while the haematoblasts of the ob- 
structing plug are already greatly modified. 
In this process the edges *of the wound seem 
to play the part of foreign bodies. It is easy, 
moreover, to determine how the haematoblasts 
act with regard to a foreign body directly in- 
troduced into the circulation. By means of a 
slightly curved needle, carrying a thread of 
silver or platinum, the external jugular vein of 
an animal (dog) is pierced in such a way that 
about one centimetre . of the cord remains 
within the lumen of the vessel. When the 
operation is well done, hardly a drop of blood 
will escape from either the point of entrance 
or exit of the needle. After two or three 
minutes a length of time sufficient in the dog, 
in which the haematoblasts are very vulnerable 
the segment of the vein traversed by the 
cord is separated by the aid of two ligatures, 
the first placed on the peripheral end, the sec- 
ond on the central. The trunk of the vein 
containing the thread is immediately detached 
and opened after being plunged into a liquid 
which fixes the elements of the blood. Already 
the thread is surrounded by a grayish mass, a 
little reddish here and there, composed of in- 
numerable hsematoblasts, the more readily rec- 
ognizable the shorter the time that the thread 
has been in contact with the circulating fluid. 
When the thread is left for a longer time in 
the vessel, and the muff which surrounds it 
has become more voluminous, the constitution 
of the muff is entirely analogous to that of the 
haemostatic nail already described. 

The haematoblasts thus play an important 
r6le in the mechanism of the arrest of haemor- 
rhage. These elements are alterable to the 



BLOOD. 



BOLIVIA. 



extent that, coming in contact with the edges 
of a wound, they become adhesive, as when in 
contact with a foreign body. In accumulating 
little by little around the open orifice of a ves- 
sel, they form there an obstacle at first insuffi- 
cient ; then, the first haeinatoblasts being ar- 
rested, they retain in their turn those which 
issue with the blood coming constantly in con- 
tact with them; the orifice of the wound re- 
tracts little by little, until finally it is complete- 
ly closed by a solid and fixed plug. The other 
elements of the blood and the formation of 
fibrin only participate in this process in a sec- 
ondary and accessory manner. The blood, 
then, contains within itself a powerful haemo- 
static agent, and, were it possible to remove 
from the normal blood all of the hsernatoblasts, 
the wound of a vessel would cause a hemor- 
rhage which would have no tendency to cease 
spontaneously. 

These experimental facts have a practical 
application of importance. All foreign bodies 
alter and retain the haematoblasts, and in this 
way is easily explained the formation of intra- 
vascular clots in living persons by the contact 
of diseased points in the cardiac or vascular 
walls. In the same way may be understood 
the haemostatic action of foreign substances 
brought into contact with the surface of the 
wound, notably those of a pulverulent or 
spongy nature. According to the experiments 
of M. Hayem the modifications of the haema- 
toblasts are favored by an elevation of tem- 
perature, and are extremely active at a tem- 
perature a little above that of the body. He 
asks if this may not explain the good effects 
of hot-water injections and applications in the 
treatment of hemorrhages. For, to the action 
of water, which is in itself effective upon the 
haomatoblasts, is added that of heat. Again, 
for blood to cease flowing it must contain 
hsematoblasts, and these must be impression- 
able to the contact of foreign bodies. In 
animals like the horse, whose blood is only 
slightly coagulable, the haamatoblasts are modi- 
fied with comparative slowness. Again, these 
elements may undergo alterations in number 
and quality in cases of disease, and it may be 
concluded that in certain cases the constitution 



of the blood itself may be a predisposing cause 
of haemorrhage following the least vascular 
injury. That singular malady known as haemo- 
philia, the victims of which are known in 
popular language as " bleeders," is perhaps pre- 
cisely the consequence of a particular state of 
the haematoblasts. 

A practical example of the importance of 
this view may be given. The case is one of 
extreme and frequently repeated bleeding from 
the nose, and the patient is at the point of death 
from the loss of blood. For thirty years the 
patient has been subject at intervals to such 
attacks. On examining the blood, the fact of 
the relative rarity of the haematoblasts, and of 
their feeble vulnerability, is apparent the 
changes which they undergo out of the organ- 
ism occurring much more slowly than natural. 
It is suspected, therefore, that the bleeding, 
which has lasted for three weeks, and which 
returns whenever the plug is removed from 
the nose for a few hours, is due to these 
changes ; and that by transfusing into the pa- 
tient a certain quantity of normal blood con- 
taining active haematoblasts, the condition may 
be modified to advantnge. A small quantity of 
venous blood is, therefore, injected into the 
patient's veins, and the nose-bleed is imme- 
diately and definitely arrested. The plugs are 
removed, but the bleeding does not return. It 
is evident that the conveying into the blood 
of the patient new and healthy blood from 
another body has effected a cure, and the active 
element in the cure is probably the haBmato- 
blasts. 

BOLIVIA (Republica de Bolivia), an independent 
state of South America, whose limits before 
the war on the Pacific were between latitudes 
10 and 24 south, and longitudes 57 25' and 
TO 30' west. The western limit has still to be 
negotiated between Bolivia and Chili. It is 
bounded on the north and northeast by Brazil, 
on the south by the Argentine Republic and 
Chili, and on the west by Peru. 

The republic previous to the war was divided 
into nine departments, which, with their areas 
in square miles, capitals, and population (exclu- 
sive of 250,000 savage Indians), were approxi- 
mately as follows :- 



DEPARTMENTS. 


Area. 


Population. 


Capitals. 


Population. 


Atacama... 
Ben! 


70,178 
150,000 


10,830 
70,200 


Cobija... 
Trinidad 


2,500 
4835 


Chuqulsaea , 
Cochabaroba 
LaPaz 


72,798 
26,808 
43051 


275,722 
473,717 


Sucre 
Cochabamba 


26,624 
44,908 


Oruro 
Potosi 
Santa Cruz. .. 


21.600 
54,297 
144 077 


140!866 

876,394 


Oruro 
Potosi 


8,492 
25,774 


Tarija " " 
Total 


114,484 
697,288 


180,940 
2,824,150 


Tarija 


8,375 



The result of the war between Bolivia and 
Peru on the one hand, and Chili on the other, 
terminated in 1883, has been to deprive Bolivia 
of its former outlet on the Pacific, Cobija, but 
the treaty of peace which was being negotiated 
between Bolivia and Chili at Santiago, at the 



close of that year, may still lead to a territorial 
rearrangement which shall give Bolivia the 
coveted port or ports. Should Bolivia be dis- 
appointed in this respect, Brazil is said to be 
ready to facilitate Bolivian trade through San 
Antonio on the Madeira river. Brazil would 



BOLIVIA. 



63 



engage to render the Madeira navigable for a 
distance of 400 miles, from its junction with 
the Amazon to San Antonio, and no transit 
dues of any kind would be levied by Brazil on 
goods forwarded to and from Bolivia. There 
was a rumor early in 1883 that a secret treaty 
had been actually concluded between the two 
governments to that effect as early as Septem- 
ber, 1882. The real present outlet is to the 
Atlantic, through the Argentine Republic. 

The President of the Republic is Gen. Cam- 
pero (since June, 1880), the First Vice-Presi- 
dent is Dr. Aniceto . Arce, and the Second 
Vice-President, Dr. B. Salinas. The Cabinet 
in 1883 was compossd of the following minis- 
ters : Interior and Foreign Affairs, Sefior P. J. 
Silvetti; Finance, Sefior A. Quijano ; Public 
Worship, etc., Dr. P. H. Vargas ; War, General 
J. M. Rendon. 

The United States Minister resident at La 
Paz is Mr. Richard Gibbs. 

The Bolivian Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary at Washington is Dr. L. 
Cabrera, with Dr. A. Aramayo as Secretary 
of Legation. The Bolivian Consul-General at 
New York is M. Obarrio; Consul at New Or- 
leans, J. P. Macheca; and at San Francisco, F. 
Herrera. 

In order to understand the position of Bo- 
livia at the close of 1883, it will be necessary 
to review chronologically the events in Bolivia 
and Peru, of which the negotiation of a treaty 
of peace between Bolivia and Chili was the last. 

The War on the Pacific in 1883. In December, 
1882, a convention was made and ratified at 
Santiago, between Italy and Chili, to the effect 
that all claims of Italian subjects arising out of 
the war in Bolivia and Peru should be deter- 
mined by arbitration. 

On April 20, 1883, the Congress assembled at 
Cajamarca closed its sessions after authorizing 
the Government to order an election to be 
held upon the basis of the census of 1882, for 
the nomination of a Constituent Assembly. 

In May the partisan general Caceres had sev- 
eral engagements with Chilian detachments, 
being defeated in two of them, at Balconcillo 
and Pampas de Sicaya, by Canto, and on May 
22d in one at Larma by Garcia. 

On May llth a ra-ovisional treaty of peace 
was signed between Jovino Novoa on the 
part of Chili, and Lavalle on the part of Gen. 
Iglesias, the Peruvian commander. (The con- 
ditions submitted to by Peru will be found 
under CHILI, in this volume.) 

On May 20th the opposition Congress of the 
Calderon-Montero faction in Peru assembled 
at Arequipa, on which occasion Gen. Monte- 
ro delivered his message, in which he praised 
the faithfulness of Bolivia, and declared that 
he did not consider the time to have come for 
making peace. The message contained this 
passage : " At the time it became evident that 
the belligerents would be unable to arrive at 
an understanding through direct negotiation, 
Peru accepted the good offices of the United 



States. But after a year's useless negotiations, 
after the energetic and comforting assurances 
of Gen. Hurlbut, the measured and diplomatic 
utterances of Mr. Trescott, and the impudent 
and hostile declarations of Mr. Logan, we be- 
came convinced that the United States were 
unable to be useful to us in any manner what- 
soever." 

June 2d, the people of Oerro de Pasco ad- 
hered to the Cajamarca peace proclamation of 
Iglesias. June 3d, at a meeting held at San 
Mateo (province of Nuarochiri) under the 
chairmanship of Jose Maria Sanchez, Peru- 
vian citizens there present pronounced in favor 
of peace. A similar declaration was simul- 
taneously made at Huaraz (department of Anca- 
cho) and at Recuaz, for peace and Iglesias. 
On June llth the Congress assembled at Are- 
quipa confirmed the following nominations: 
President, Garcia Calderon ; Vice-President, 
Montero; Second Vice-President, Caceres. 
And on June 16th a new Cabinet was formed. 
A few days later Gen. Montero reviewed the 
troops under his command, and soon after a 
force was sent by him to Moquegua, under the 
command of Canevaro, 1,200 strong, and in- 
cluding 200 horse under the Cuban Cespedes, 
to operate against Tacna. 

Toward the close of June the Chilian forces 
evacuated Pacasmayo, and the Chilian colo- 
nel, Y. Garcia, occupied Trujillo, where the 
Peruvian flag was hoisted. 

Early in July the Chilian President, Santa 
Maria, delivered his message to Congress, at 
Santiago, containing the following passage : 
" Prior to the war, Bolivia had become an in- 
strument of Peruvian intrigues and greediness, 
because that country had become dependent 
on Peru, which, for the past fifty years, stood 
as a sort of door-keeper of Bolivia, owning 
as Peru did the province of Moquegua, and 
thus, through the routes leading from Arica 
and Tacna to La Paz, controlling the only 
practicable communication between the inte- 
rior of Bolivia and the Pacific. If the rela- 
tions between Peru and Bolivia remained the 
same as they were then in this respect, now 
that the war has been carried by us to a safe 
issue, we should at all times in the future be 
exposed to the risk of seeing Bolivia attack 
us again at the instigation of Peru. It is no 
secret that politics are very uncertain in Bo- 
livia, and any government capable of exercis- 
ing efficient pressure on the latter may easily 
render Bolivia amenable to its purposes. Un- 
der these circumstances we owe it to our own 
safety in the future to deprive Peru forever 
of the means to do mischief in this respect. 
This is the chief reason why Chili insists, not 
on annexing the province, of Moquegua, but on 
temporarily occupying, and eventually acquir- 
ing the same from Peru by purchase. All 
friends of a durable peace can not fail to ad- 
mit that we have a right to insist on these 
conditions which present a guarantee of real 
tranquillity. These demands are not those 



64 



BOLIVIA. 



of a rapacious conqueror, they are merely the 
dictates of a wise policy whose object is to 
secure a lasting peace." The Peruvian gen- 
eral, Canevaro, presided over a meeting at Mo- 
quegna, and declared to the citizens there as- 
sembled that he was tired of the war. 

On July 10th a crushing victory was achieved 
by the Chilian forces, led by Col. Gorostiaga, 
over the Peruvian partisan troops under Gen. 
Caceres at Huamachuco. In this action 1,600 
Chilian soldiers were engaged against over 4,000 
Peruvians, the loss of the latter being 900 
killed and many wounded, while the Chilians 
lost 56 killed and 104 wounded, including four 
officers. The Peruvians lost a number of offi- 
cers, including Gen. Siloa, 11 pieces of artil- 
lery, and 800 rifles. The action lasted from 6 
A. M. to 2 p. M. As soon as the news reached 
Gen. Lynch, the Chilian commander-in- chief, 
he sent a message to President Iglesias inviting 
him to Lima. 

Commander Lynch subsequently published 
a decree calling on all officers formerly serving 
under Caceres to appear at headquarters, or be 
treated as spies. 

On August 10th Castro Zaldivar proceeded 
from Lima to join Gen. Iglesias, in order to 
undertake an important mission which the lat- 
ter wished to put him in charge of. On Aug. 
13th Iglesias issued a decree levying a capita- 
tion tax of $1, silver, per head. 

Aug. 15th the Chilian commander at Hu- 
ancayo chastised 3,000 pillaging Indians, and 
killed and wounded 800 of them. Simultane- 
ously a mutiny, broken out among Peruvian 
troops in the province of Chan cay, was prompt- 
ly quelled. On Aug. 20th Gen. Iglesias made 
his entry into Trujillo, and was enthusiastically 
received by the population. On Sept. llth the 
citizens of Cafiete and the troops in the Paca- 
ran district recognized the authority of Igle- 
sias. On Sept. 15th the Chilian Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Aldnnate, left Valparaiso on 
his way to Callao to hasten the pacification of 
Peru. Two days later the steamer Amazon 
arrived at Payta with 600 Chilian infantry, 
sent by rail to Sullam, and thence to Piura, 
which place was occupied the next day. Sept. 
18th, 3,000 monteneros were defeated by the 
Chilians at Huancayo, leaving 200 killed and 
wounded on the field. In the mean time news 
was received from the department of lea that 
peace reigned there. 

On Oct. 4th, 870 Peruvian officers submitted 
to the Chilian authorities, and Puno was occu- 
pied; on the 9th, Casma, a port of the Am- 
cache district, declared in favor of peace. Ten 
days subsequently the city guard was reorgan- 
ized at Lima. 

On Oct. 20th the Chileno-Peruvian peace 
was signed at Ancon, and on the 24th Gen. 
Iglesias entered Lima as Presidente regen era- 
dor, Gen. Lynch having prior to this left for 
Barranco, near Chorrillos. On Oct. 28th Ad- 
miral Garcia y Garcia was appointed Peruvian 
minister in France and England. On the 29th 



Arequipa surrendered, and Montero fled to 
Bolivia, where a cold reception awaited him. 
Prior to his flight he resigned the command in 
favor of Caceres. The Peruvian minister, Bus- 
tamante y Salazar, left for Bolivia, and Gen. 
Osma, the Peruvian Minister of War, went to 
Arequipa. 

On Nov. 9th the Chilian army of occupation 
was concentrated at Arequipa, and the Bolivi- 
an army at Oruro the same day that the Bo- 
livian envoy, Guijarro, left for Tacna to confer 
about peace with the Chilian envoy, Lillo. A 
week later Col. Lorenzo Iglesias, in garrison at 
Lima, marched with an adequate force to Chic- 
layo and Cajamarca, to quell an incipient ris- 
ing. At the close of November a decree was 
promulgated declaring null and void all official 
acts of the Arequipa government from Jan. 1, 
1883. This was particularly aimed at the Are- 
quipa Congress of July, 1883. 

The President of the United States, in his 
annual message of Dec. 4th, expressed himself 
about events on the west coast to the follow- 
ing effect : 

The contest between Bolivia, Chilij and Peru has 
passed from the stage of strategic hostilities to that of 
negotiation in which the counsels of this Govern- 
ment have been exercised. The demands of Chili for 
absolute cession of territory have been maintained 
and accepted by the party of Gen. Iglesias to the ex- 
tent of concluding a treaty of peace with the Govern- 
ment of Chili in general conformity with the terms 
of the protocol signed in May last between the Chili- 
an commander and Gen. Iglesias. As a result of the 
conclusion of this treaty. Gen. Iglesias has been for- 
mally recognized by Chili as President of Peru, and 
his government installed at Lima, which has been 
evacuated by the Chilians. A call has been issued by 
Gen. Iglesias for a representative Assembly to be 
elected on the 13th of January, and to meet at Lima 
on the 1st of March next. Meanwhile the provisional 
Government of Gen. Iglesias has applied for recogni- 
tion to the principal powers of America and Europe. 
When the will of the Peruvian people shall be mani- 
fested, I shall not hesitate to recognize the Govern- 
ment approved by them. 

On Dec. 7th Gen. Lynch went to Chorrillos. 
The declaration of the Chilian President, that 
he would carry out the treaty with Peru in its 
entirety, had meanwhile strengthened the po- 
sition of Iglesias materially. But he still had 
the Indian trouble in the interior to contend 
with. These Indians, led by a few unscrupu- 
lous men T were ready to adopt any pretext for 
their crimes, although their real motive was 
based upon their hatred of their so-called op- 
pressors, inherited by their fathers from the 
time of the Spaniards. This hatred is the 
point that Caceres depended upon to win 
power among them. He speaks the Quichua 
language, which gives him great prestige among 
them. Meanwhile Gen. Bermudez, the Peru- 
vian commander, occupied Ayacucho, and the 
Chilian envoy, Monte, went to Buenos Ayres 
on Dec. 12th. The Bolivian peace commis- 
sioners, Baptista and Bosto, arrived at Santi- 
ago, Chili, accompanied by the Argentine and 
Brazilian ministers. One of the conditions 
contained in their instructions reads as follows: 



BOLIVIA. 



BRAZIL. 



65 



On goods for Bolivia, Chili will take 20 per cent, 
of the customs duties, and Bolivia the remainder; 
railways to be constructed from Iquique to Lake Aul- 
lagas, and from Mejillones or Antofagasta to Potosi; 
the colonization of the country along the river Desa- 
guadero to be effected, and the ratification of the 
frontier line passing the Desaguadero river to the 
Argentine line, Chili to permit the passage of Boliv- 
ian troops through its territory in the event of a war 
between Bolivia and a power not on her frontier. 

On Dec. 14th President Iglesias wrote to 
Caceres, assuring him of his personal security, 
should he feel disposed to capitulate. Puga 
was beaten by the Peruvian Government troops 
at Stollon, and Gen. Caceres took position with 
2,000 men two leagues from lea. The United 
States minister at Lima asked permission for an 
American man-of-war to take soundings on the 
Peruvian coast. 

Toward the close of the year 1883 the outlook 
in Peru became quite gloomy once more, ow- 
ing to C&ceres's continuing to play a double- 
handed and treacherous game. While pre- 
tending to wish to visit Lima, he incited the 
Indians to plunder and murder. Two scenes 
of savagery, as barbarous as those which oc- 
curred during the mutiny in India, were enact- 
ed in the region which he pretended to gov- 
ern. The Chilians, adhering to the terms of 
peace, declined to interfere. 

The slight reduction of the import duties, 
after the departure of the Chilians, who had 
raised them to 50 per cent., caused consider- 
able disappointment and some discontent in 
Peru. The finance minister of Iglesias re- 
duced the duties from 50 per cent, to 35 per 
cent., thereby causing a check on importation. 
Many articles, formerly entering duty free, such 
as agricultural machinery, printing-presses and 
paper, etc., now pay a heavy duty. It thus 
happened that, in spite of the pacification of 
the country, buyers from the interior were 
scarce at Lima, although there was a good as- 
sortment of all sorts of merchandise. The 
paper money current had nevertheless im- 
proved at the close of December from fifteen 
paper dollars for one silver dollar, to twelve 
for one. 

Another great difficulty which President 
Iglesias encountered was financial distress. 
Letters received at Luna during the last week 
of the year 1883 stated that, according to ad- 
vices from La Paz, the Bolivian capital, the 
national guard had entered on active service ; 
three battalions had been pushed forward to- 
ward the Peruvian frontier on the way to Tacna, 
7,500 men were marching from the interior in 
the same direction, and the regular army 
8,000 strong was being concentrated at the 
capital. It was added that these movements 
might be interpreted as either to mean resist- 
ance to a possible but not probable Chilian 
invasion, or to effect a coup de main on the 
Peruvian territories of Arequipa and Mollendo. 
It was stated that the Peruvians of Arequipa 
and Puno were so thoroughly convinced of 
their danger that they had offered to form the 
VOL. xxni. 5 A 



vanguard of the Chilian army should a march 
on the Bolivian capital be decided upon. 

Finance. In August Gen. Campero, President 
of Bolivia, read his message before the assembled 
Congress in La Paz. He said that the expendi- 
tures of the republic, during the fiscal year 
ended, amounted to $3,300,528, while the in- 
come did not exceed $2,527,515, leaving a defi- 
cit of $803,012, to cover which a loan would 
have to be made. He added that the scrupu- 
lous punctuality with which Bolivia had at- 
tended to the settlement of all her pecuniary 
obligations had replaced the credit of the re- 
public on a firm basis both at home and abroad, 
so that there were not wanting overtures from 
Europe for placing a Bolivian loan in that 
market. It was at the same time said that great 
activity prevailed on the banks of the Beni 
river in gathering India rubber for export, 
which commanded on the spot 70 cents Boliv- 
ian silver coin, the cost of freight to San An- 
tonio on the Madeira being 12 cents. A large 
transit trade was also going on between Potosi 
and the Argentine frontier. 

Commerce. Bolivian imports and exports in 
1883 went almost exclusively via the Argen- 
tine Republic. No official statistics having 
been published, showing the imports and ex- 
ports of Bolivia during the war, the amount of 
goods which entered the country in normal 
times has to be calculated upon the duties col- 
lected at the custom-houses. According to 
these, the import would not exceed $6,150,000, 
while the export amounted to $9,381,917 in 
1881, the bulk of it being silver, $6,897,130, 
other metals, $1,136,787, and the balance cin- 
chona-bark (quinine), India-rubber, etc. 

Telegraphs. There is a line from Chililaya, on 
Lake Titicaca, to La Paz and Oruro, 183 miles 
in length. It is intended to extend this line to 
Cochabamba and Sucre. 

BRAZIL (Imperio do Brazil). (For details re- 
lating to area, territorial divisions, population, 
etc., reference may be made to the "Annual 
Cyclopaedia" for 1878.) 

The Emperor is Dom Pedro II, born Dec. 2, 
1825 ; proclaimed April 7, 1831 ; regency until 
July 23, 1840; crowned July 18, 1841; mar- 
ried Sept. 4, 1843, to Theresa Christina Maria, 
daughter of the late King Francis I of the Two 
Sicilies. 

The new Cabinet, formed after the resigna- 
tion of the one presided over by Viscount 
Paranagua, was, on May 24, 1883, composed 
of the following ministers : President of the 
Council of Ministers and Minister of Finance, 
Senator Councilor of State, Lafayette Rodri- 
gues Pereira; Interior, Francisco Antunes Ma- 
ciel ; Justice, Francisco Prisco de Souza Para- 
izo ; Foreign Affairs, Councilor Francisco de 
Carvalho Scares Brandao ; War, Antonio Joa- 
quim Rodrigues, Jr. ; Navy, Antonio de Al- 
meida Oliveira; Agriculture, Commerce, and 
Public Works, Councilor Affonso Augusto Mo- 
reira Penna. 

The Council of State was composed of the 



66 



BRAZIL. 



following members in ordinary : The Princess 
Imperial, Donna Isabel ; Prince Gaston d'Or- 
le"ans, Count d'Eu; the Senators Viscount de 
Abaete", Viscount de Muritiba; Viscount de 
Bom Retiro; Viscount de Nictheroy; Sena- 
tor J. J. Teixeira; Vice-Admiral J. K. de 
Lamare ; Dr. P. J. Soares de Souza ; Senator 
M. P. S. Dantas; Councilor Martin Francisco; 
Councilor J. C. de Andrade ; Senator J. L. V. 
Cansansao de Sinimbu ; and of members ex- 
traordinary : Senators Viscount de Parana- 
gua ; Affonso Celso; L. A. Vieira da Silva; 
J. B. da 0. Figueiredo, and Lafayette. 

The President of the Senate, which com- 
prises 58 members elected for life, was J. L. 
Lima Duarte; and the Vice- President, A. M. 
de Barros. 

The President of the Chamber of Deputies, 
with 122 members elected for four years, was 
Councilor J. F. de Moura ; and the Vice-Presi- 
dent, J. L. Lima Duarte. 

The presidents of the several provinces were 
as follow: Alag6as, Dr. H. M. Salles; Ama- 
zonas, Dr. J. L. da Cunha Paranagud ; Bahia, 
Councilor Pedro Luiz P. da Souza; Ceara, 
Dr. Satyro ; Espirito Santo, Dr. A. P. 1ST. Ac- 
cioly; Goyaz, Dr. A. G. Pereira; Maranhao, 
Dr. J. A. P. Ovidio; Matto-Grosso, Baron de 
Bacovi; Minas - Geraes, Dr. A. G. Ohaves; 
Para, Viscount de Maracaju; Parahyba, Dr. 
J. A. do Nascimento; Parana, Dr. 0. A. C. 
de Oliveira Ballo; Pernambuco, Dr. J. M. de 
Freitas; Piauhy, Dr. F. P. Salles; Rio Grande 
do Norte, Dr. F. M. Vianna ; Rio de Janeiro, 
Councilor B. A. Gaviao ; Sta. Catharina, Dr. 
F. 0. de F. Sonto ; Sao Paulo, Baron de Gua- 
jara; Sao Pedro do Sul, Councilor J. J. d' Albu- 
querque ; Sergipe, Dr. F. G. C. Barreto. 

The Archbishop of Bahia, the Rt. Rev. L. 
A. dos Santos (1880) is Primate of all Brazil; 
and there are eleven bishops : those of Para, 
Sao Luiz, Fortaleza, Olinda, Rio de Janeiro, 
Sao Paulo, Porto Alegre, Marianna, Diarnan- 
tina, Goyaz, and Cuyaba. 

The Brazilian Minister Plenipotentiary and 
Envoy Extraordinary to the United States is 
Councilor Lopes Netto ; the Secretary of Lega- 
tion, J. G. Valente; and the Consul- General 
of Brazil at New York, for the Union, is Dr. 
Salvador de Mendoaca. 

Temporary changes in the Brazilian legation 
at Washington are said to be due mainly to the 
disposition on the part of Brazil to serve the 
interests of peace between Chili and Peru. 
Senhor Netto, Brazilian minister to the United 
States, left Washington for Chili about the 
middle of August, with instructions to express 
to the Chilian Government the anxiety of Bra- 
zil to have a satisfactory peace established be- 
tween Peru and Chili, and that he was author- 
ized to act as a mediator to this end, if his 
services were desired. Under his instructions 
he is to remain in Chili for two years, and, 
while there, is to attend to some pending Bra- 
zilian claims. 

The United States Minister to Brazil is Hon. 



T. A. Osborn, and the Consul- General at Rio 
de Janeiro, C. C. Andrews. 

Army. The actual strength of the army in 
1883 was 11,333. The distribution of the sev- 
eral arms was as follows: Artillery, 1,951 ; 
cavalry, 2,140; infantry, 7,242; 2,149 more 
soldiers would have to be enlisted to complete 
the number fixed by law. The artillery counts 
three mounted regiments, four foot battalions, 
and one battalion of sappers ; the cavalry, five 
regiments, one squadron, and four companies ; 
the infantry, twenty-four battalions and eight 
companies. 

Navy. -The navy, in 1883, consisted of seven 
steam-ironclads, one steam-frigate, seven steam- 
corvettes, sixteen steam-gunboat?, two sail of 
the line, and two smaller crafts, with an aggre- 
gate of 3,148 men, and a total armament of 
123 guns. There was, besides, one school-ship ; 
and one ironclad and five gunboats were being 
built. 

The personnel of the navy consisted of 15 
general staff-officers, 378 first-class officers, a 
sanitary corps 68 strong, 91 pursers, 79 guar- 
dians, and 181 engineers; an imperial marine 
corps 2,922 strong, a naval battalion of 450 
men, and 1,520 apprentices; total, 5,704 men. 

The Frontier Dispute. There is a long-pending 
dispute between France and Brazil, concerning 
the precise border-line between the French and 
Brazilian Guianas, specially relating to the ter- 
ritory between the Oyapok and Amazon riv- 
ers. It seems that the Treaty of Utrecht as- 
signed to France a portion of Guiana not 
clearly defined, nor did the treaty of 1815 es- 
tablish the boundary with any greater precis- 
ion. These lands are isolated by one of the 
branches of the Amazon in its delta, and are 
represented as being quite valuable for grazing 
purposes. 

Postal Service. The number of letters for- 
warded by the Brazilian Post-Office in 1881- 
'82 was 35,815,869, against 31,228,635 in 1880- 
'81 ; the number of post-offices was 1,610. The 
gross amount of postages collected amounted 
in 1881-'82 to 1,513,872 milreis, and the ex- 
penditure was 1,741,721 milreis. 

Railroads. The first railroad in Brazil, the 
Macia, 18 miles in length, went into operation 
on Dec. 16, 1853. There are at present 2,400 
miles in operation and 2,200 being built. The 
Government owns and administers several lines, 
and, as a rule, guarantees an income of 7 per 
cent, on the necessary capital invested in the 
construction of private roads, i The number of 
miles of railroad owned and in operation by the 
Government is 800 ; and it also has nearly the 
same number of miles of railroad in course of 
construction. Most of the rails with which 
the roads have been made were imported from 
England, while a part of the rolling-stock was 
brought from the United States. The roads are 
surveyed and built almost wholly by Brazilian 
engineers. 

Under the provisions of a recent law the 
Government grants concessions to railroad 



BRAZIL. 



67 



companies, with the following chief condi- 
tions : After the Government is satisfied that 
the capital of a new company applying is suffi- 
cient, an annual interest of 7 per cent, is guar- 
anteed, the latter payable half-yearly during 
thirty-two years. While the construction of 
the line proceeds, the Government pays inter- 
est on the sums of money it considers neces- 
sary; the latter are deposited in a bank, and 
can only be drawn as wanted. The state grants 
gratuitously to such companies all Government 
lands that may be requisite for the lines, depots, 
entrepots, shops, etc., designated in the con- 
tract. The companies are allowed to import 
duty-free all material and, for twe"nty years, 
coal and all other fuel. 

In return for these privileges the companies 
engage to forward at reduced rates all Gov- 
ernment officials, luggage, and material, and, 
if called upon to do so, furnish the Govern- 
ment whatever information it may wish to ob- 
tain respecting the business of the line. 

From the moment the dividends exceed 8 per 
cent, per annum, the excess is equally divided 
between the Government and the company; 
but this participation of the Government in 
the excess of profits ceases as soon as the sums 
of money advanced for interest are paid back. 
Should the dividend at any time exceed 12 per 
cent, during two consecutive years, the com- 
panies, if called upon by the Government to 
do so, bind themselves to reduce their freight 
rates. If the construction capital be procured 
abroad, the exchange is fixed at 27^. per mil- 
reis. The following are the leading com- 
panies that have gone into existence on this 
basis : 

LINES BUILT UNDER GOVERNMENT GUARANTEE. 



LINES. 


Length, 
in 
kilome- 
tre. 


Rate of 
interest 
guaran- 
teed, per 
cent. 


Capital, 
in 
milreis. 


Natal to Nova Cruz 


121 


7 


5,496,052 


Conde d'Eu 


121 


7 


6,000,000 


Eecife to Sao Francisco 
Eecife to Liraoeiro 
Maceio to Imperatriz 
Bahia to Sao Francisco 
Bahia Central 


124 
121 

88 
124 
802 


7 
7 
7 
7 

7 


14,977,965 
5.000,000 
4,553,000 
16,000,200 
13 000 000 


Campos to Carangola 
Sao Paulo to Rio Janeiro 
Santos to Jundiahy 
Paranagua to Coritiba 


847 
281 
139 
109 


7 
7 
7 
7 


6.000,000 
10,000,000 
23,555,850 
11 492 042 


Dona Theresa Christina 
Dom Pedro I 
Kio Grande do Sul to Cacequy . 
Cacequy to Uruguayana ...... . 
Quarahim to Staquy 


112 

120 
225 
259 
186 


7 
6 
6 
6 
6 


5,451,000 
4,000,000 
13,521,423 
10,000,000 
6,000.000 


Kio to Minas 


168 


7 


16150000 










Total 


2,892 




171,197,532 



All these lines have been built with English 
capital, with the exception of two, the Recife-Li- 
moeiro, which is Brazilian, and the Paranagua- 
Coritiba, which is French. 

Telegraphs. The first telegraph lines were 
laid in 1852, but not till 1866 did Petropolis 
and Rio de Janeiro receive telegraphic commu- 
nication. Now, Rio has two telephone lines, 



and the empire counts land telegraphs of a to- 
tal length of 7,419 kilometres of line and 13,- 
250 of wire, communication being established 
by means of 136 stations. The number of tele- 
graphic messages sent in 1881-'82 was 739,906 ; 
the gross receipts were 1,241,770, and the ex- 
penses 1,632,549 milreis. 

Trade-Marks* Brazil protects the trade-marks 
of persons domiciled in the country and -for- 
eigners having in Brazil an establishment of 
commerce or industry. Foreigners who do not 
possess branch houses or manufactories in 
Brazil receive no benefit from the law, except 
in cases where treaties of reciprocity exist be- 
tween Brazil and iheir own country. 

Foreign trade-marks are registered at the 
office of the secretary of the Tribunal of Com- 
merce at Rio de Janeiro. 

The legal effect of the registry continues for 
fifteen years, and may be renewed for another 
term of the same duration. 

A Floating Cathedral. A floating cathedral on 
the Amazon river is the most novel idea con- 
ceived and to be carried out by enterprising 
missionaries in Brazil. The matter has been 
taken in hand by the Catholic Bishop of Par& 
and Amazonas. The best architects and ship- 
builders of Europe are to construct it complete 
and in magnificent style, and it is to be bap- 
tized " Christopher," because it is to carry 
Christ over the waters. It is to. attend to the 
spiritual wants of the whites and Indians in- 
habiting the banks of the great river. 

Emancipation. A new issue is steadily forc- 
ing its way into Brazilian politics, and will, at 
no distant day, form a disturbing factor of 
vital importance to the country. Thus far there 
has been no abolition party and no division be- 
tween the old parties on that question. Since 
the beginning of the present year a new move- 
ment has set in which promises to change all 
this. In the northern provinces, especially in 
Ceara, the popular sentiment in favor of aboli- 
tion has been worked up to such a pitch that 
the people are voluntarily emancipating their 
slaves. Ceara has already liberated about 
6,000 slaves, and may free all before the close 
of the year. As this movement is principally 
confined to the northern provinces, it is not 
improbable that the abolition of slavery in 
Brazil will be transformed into a sectional 
issue at no distant day, and that it will lead to 
troubles which will have an important influ- 
ence upon the future of the country. 

Slavery. In July, 1883, there were in Brazil 
1,346,648 slaves. When the gradual abolition 
decree of Sept. 28, 1871, was passed, there 
were officially registered 1,547,660 slaves; since 
then about 130,207 slaves have died, the Gov- 
ernment has liberated 12,898, private individ- 
uals and savings-banks 56, 056, and 1,851 slaves 
have bought their freedom themselves. The 
average value of slaves is at present about 
$375, so that the amount of slave property still 
existing in Brazil represents a value of some- 
thing like $505,000,000. The provinces in 



68 



BRAZIL. 



which the greatest number of slaves has been 
liberated are Rio de Janeiro and the neutral 
district, 23,002; Rio Grande do Sul, 9,100; 
Minas-Geraes, 7,108; Bahia, 7,037; Sao Paulo, 
6,681; Pernambuco, 5,649; Para, 4,709; Ma- 
ranhao, 4,644, and Ceara, 4,272. In other 
provinces the number ranges between 99 and 
1,871. 

Immigration. The immigrants in the first six 
months of 1883 numbered 14,225, among whom 
were about 700 Germans, 6,000 Portuguese, 
and 5,000 Italians. Only 2,500 were agricul- 
turists. 

Tbe " Rio News," of July 15, 1883, expresses 
itself about immigration into and naturaliza- 
tion in Brazil to the following effect : 

According to the " Diario Official " 5,309 foreigners 
have become naturalized in Brazil ^not including colo- 
nists) in the period between 1825 and 1882 a period of 
fifty-seven years. There is a significance in this result 
which will not be unnoticed when comparisons are 
made with the enormous number of foreigners natu- 
ralized in the United States during the same period. 
When it is considered that these fifty-seven years com- 
prise the entire reign of the present Emperor, whom 
the civilized world has been pleased to call one of 
the most enlightened and liberal monarch s of the age, 
that they have been years of only briefly interrupted 
peace, and that during all this time Brazil has had a 
very large population of foreigners engaged in com- 
mercial and industrial pursuits, the greater part of 
whom could easily have been transformed into Bra- 
zilian citizens, there is certainly very little cause for 
satisfaction, what with her incubus of slavery, her 
great landed estates, her religious intolerance, her 
jealousy of foreigners, her vices of administration 
and her oppressive exactions upon commerce and in- 
dustry, she has shut out this great stream of wealth 
and population which has been steadily flowing by 
her doors all these years, until now, in her weakness, 
she is able to secure only the scattering drops which 
the rushing current casts upon her shores. It is not 
altogether a pleasant theme for consideration, for it is 
a living proof that the reign of Dom Pedro II has 
been very far from liberal and enlightened, and that 
the dominant policy which has thus far controlled 
Brazil has resulted only in shutting her out from the 
progress of the world and hi retarding her national 
growth. 

Naturalization. The new bill relating to. nat- 
uralization of foreigners in Brazil, stipulates 
that all foreigners residing for three years in 
the country shall thereby become and be consid- 
ered Brazilian citizens, unless during the inter- 
val they have made a declaration before their 
consul that they do not wish to relinquish the 
nationality of their native country. The time 
of residence for acquiring Brazilian citizenship 
will even be' reduced to two years, if the for- 
eigner marries a Brazilian or holds office under 
the Government. The naturalized citizen is 
to be eligible to municipal office and other 
public functions, and may even become regent 
of the empire. This law would place Brazil 
even above the Argentine Republic in point of 
liberality toward foreigners, and the proba- 
bility is that the latter will follow the example. 
The Brazilian press unanimously approves of 
the project. 

Finances. In financial matters the present 
situation of Brazil is no less critical, and the 



danger is even more imminent. Her public in- 
debtedness has been steadily increasing until it 
is now much greater than her income warrants, 
and her expenditures are largely and regularly 
in excess of her revenue. There has been no 
annual surplus since 1856-'57, only two since 
1846-'47, and only four since 1886-'37. Ac- 
cording to an abstract of the national budgets 
during the period between 1827 and 1879-'80 
inclusive, the aggregate of these deficits 
amounts to about $350,000,000. The interest 
charged upon her funded debt is now nearly 
two fifths of the total revenue. 

These statements will, of course, excite sur- 
prise abroad, simply because of the high credit 
which Brazil enjoys in the London market. 
The Brazilian Government is scrupulously care- 
ful to meet the interest charges on its foreign 
debt promptly and fully, for which reason its 
funds are quoted high and excite no distrust. 
To do this, however, new loans have been 
floated, apolices (bonds) of internal indebted- 
ness have been issued, taxation has been in- 
creased, and local creditors have been com- 
pelled to wait years for the payment of their 
accounts. And then, too, these loans and in- 
vestments in London are nearly all in the 
hands of a small circle of capitalists known as 
the " Brazilian ring," at whose head is the fa- 
mous house of Rothschilds; and this ring is 
very careful not only to place investments on 
the market to the best advantage, but also to 
suppress every item of information detrimental 
to Brazilian credit. To this end journals and 
journalists are subsidized (a deficiency credit 
has been under discussion in the Brazilian 
Legislature, in which two subsidized London 
journalists are specially mentioned), flattering 
articles are published in the newspapers and 
reviews, and everything is made easy and com- 
fortable for all the parties concerned. 

An epitome of all the imperial budget laws 
since 1823 has been published in the "Diario 
Official " by Senator Castro Carreira. A com- 
parison with the annual reports of the Min- 
ister of Finance shows that its figures are cor- 
rect, or as nearly so as careless typographical 
work will admit. This epitome includes quin- 
quennial summaries and abstracts of public 
indebtedness, which are of great value in com- 
parisons. In order to make this abstract cover 
the period of the present system of "public 
improvements," beginning with the construc- 
tion of the Dom Pedro II railway, and also 
to comprise these quinquennial 'debt abstracts, 
it is necessary to take the fiscal year 1855-'56 
as a starting-point. During the preceding five 
years the aggregate revenue of the Govern- 
ment had been 176,376.699 milreis, and the 
aggregate expenditure 182,607,684, leaving a 
deficit of 6,230,985. The total indebtedness 
of the empire at the end of this period 
(1854-'55), including the 1852 foreign loan 
of 1,040,600, was as follows, the Brazilian 
milreis at par being equivalent to 54J cents 
United States gold: 



BRAZIL. 



Foreign debt, 4i * and 5 per cent 

Internal debt, 4, 5, and 6 per cent 

Total.... 109,704,381 

Overdue amortization 552,675 

.During the five years from 1855-'56 to 
1859-'60, inclusive, the reign of reckless ex- 
penditure on public works began, and since 
then there has been but one single year 
(1856-'57) in which the revenue has exceeded 
the expenditures. Some of these works were 
necessary, and either have been or will be pro- 
ductive; but in great part they have been 
unnecessary and enormously expensive. The 
best of these investments has been the Dom 
Pedro II railway, upon which the Govern- 
ment has expended, not including interest on 
investment, over 10,000,000. In this period 
three foreign loans were made, aggregating 
3,407,500, while the internal debt was slightly 
decreased. The aggregate deficit for the five 
years was 14,766,501 milreis, the average an- 
nual revenue being 45,653,024 milreis, and 
the expenditure 48,606,324. With that year, 
1860-'61, anew portfolio was added to the Im- 
perial Cabinet, that of "Agriculture, Commerce, 
and Public Works" a department which 
was designed to preside over and develop the 
wealth-producing industries of the nation, bat 
which has succeeded only to the extent of 
mischievous interference and burdensome ex- 
pense. In 1860-'61 its operations were cov- 
ered by the modest expenditure of 3,871,544 
milreis ; in 1880-'81 this annual expenditure 
was 36,798,932. In the last year of this quin- 
quennium (1864-'65) a war broke out between 
Brazil and Paraguay, which lasted through the 
succeeding five years. But one foreign loan 
was contracted, amounting to 3,855,300, but 
the internal debt was increased to 84,265,751 
milreis by the issue of 6 per cent, apolices. A 
large amount of paper money was also put into 
circulation. The aggregate deficit of the five 
years amounted to 39,291,247, the average an- 
nual receipts being 52,591,518, and the expen- 
ditures 60,449,967. 

In the next five years (1865-'66 to 1869-'70) 
the expenditures of the Government were 
enormously increased by the war with Para- 
guay, the total cost of which is calculated to 
have been 613,183,263 milreis. The extraor- 
dinary credits of the Government during this 
period amounted to 297,901,468 milreis," taxa- 
tion was largely increased, and new issues of 
paper money were made. The aggregate defi- 
cit amounted to 324,308,487, the average an- 
nual revenue was 75,378,204, and the expendi- 
ture 140,239,901. One foreign loan, amounting 
to 6,963,600, was raised in London, and the 
internal debt was largely increased by the issue 
of 6 per cent, apolices. The total public debt 
(1870) was as shown in the next column. 

In the five years following there was a large 
falling off in the expenses of the War and 

* The loan of 1852, amounting to 9,201,004 milreis, was the 
only one issued at 4* per cent. 



Milreis. Milreis 

51,760,214 Foreign debt, 4, 4J, and 5 per cent 118,186,525 

57,944,117 Internal debt, 4, 5, and 6 per cent , 288,590,558 



Total ; 851,727,078 

Overdue amortization 2,054,162 

Navy Departments, but the steady increase in 
those of Agriculture and Finance kept the total 
up to an unwarranted high figure. Although 
this was a period of peace, the expenditures 
were largely disproportionate to the revenue, 
the aggregate deficit for the five years being 
56,612,024 milreis. Extraordinary credits were 
authorized to a total of 70,426,709, more paper 
money was issued, and taxation was again in- 
creased. One loan of 3,459,600 was placed 
in London, and the internal debt was increased 
to 289,562,250 milreis. The average annual 
revenue was 102,850,543, and the expenditures 
114,173,147. 

In the last quinquennial period under review, 
there was a steady increase in the expenditures 
of the Department of Agriculture, and the ag- 
gregate expenditures of all the departments 
largely exceeded those of the five years of the 
war. This period included the great drought 
of Ceara, in which there was so great a loss of 
life and property, and upon which the Govern- 
ment expended 60,503,848 milreis for public 
relief. A large part of this expenditure, how- 
ever, was swallowed up by speculators and dis- 
honest public officials, of whom the Govern- 
ment has the names of 1,539, with evidence of 
guilt, not one of whom has ever been prose- 
cuted . The aggregate deficit of these five years 
was 208.226,627 milreis, the average annual 
revenue 101,489,514, and the expenditure 149,- 
134,839. The extraordinary credits footed up 
to 194,252,407, a large issue of paper money 
was made, and the internal debt was increased. 
One loan was made in London (1875) amount- 
ing to 5,301,200, and a national loan was 
made in 1879 amounting to 51,885,000 milreis. 
At the close of this period (1880) the state of 
the public debt was as follows: 

Foreign debt (estimated at 27<2.), 4, 4$, and 5 per 

cent 144,059,479 

Internal debt, 4, 5, and 6 per cent 416,306,722 

Total 560,366,201 

Overdue amortization 3,364,972 

Paper currency (April 1, 1880) 189,199,591 

Public deposits (finance report, 1880) 52,956.885 

Treasury bills (April 80, 1880) 11,632,700 

Total 817,520,349 

Tabulating the aggregate quinquennial revenue 
receipts, expenditures, and deficits of this period 
of twenty-five years, gives the following result : 



QUINQUENNIUM. 


Receipt*. 


Exp nditnres. 


Deficits. 




Milreis. 


Milreis 


Milreis 


1855-56 to 1859-'60. 
1860-'61 to 1864-'65. 
1865-'66 to 1869-'70. 


228,265,120 
262,957,f'S9 
876,891.019 


243,031,621 
- 802,248,^36 
701,199,505 


14,766,501 
89.291,247 
824,808.486 


1870-'71 to 1874-'75. 
1875- 1 76 to 1879-'80. 


514,253,712 
537,447,569 


570,865,737 
745,674,196 


56,612,025 
208,226,627 


Totals ..... 


1,919,815,009 


2,563,019,895 


643,204,886 



Average annual deficit, 25,728,195 milreis. 
Since 1879-'80 only the accounts of the year 



70 



BRAZIL. 



following have been definitely settled, from 
which it appears that the receipts were 127,- 
076,363, the expenditures 138.583,090, and the 
deficit 11,506,727. For 1881-'82 the Govern- 
ment admits a deficit of 5,054,000 ; hut on 
removing some 7,000,000 milreis of Treasury 
bills, deposits, etc., from the revenue, and 
nearly 1,000,000 from the expenditures, which 
had no place there, the actual deficit amounts 
to 10,315,847. For 1882-'83 the Government's 
estimate places the deficit at 6,104,000 ; but 
as the revenue receipts include 17,666,800 of 
Treasury bills emitted, 141,200 in nickel coins, 
and 3,500,000 of deposits for special purposes, 
the deficit really amounts to 27,412,000 milreis 
as shown on the minister's report. For the 
current year the " Jornal do Commercio " cal- 
culates that the deficit on actual appropriations 
will be 28,366,066, making a total of 62,249,- 
842 for the two years covered by the budget 
law now in force. 

On the 19th of September, after a session ot 
139 days, the General Assembly of Brazil was 
formally adjourned. Although the financial 
state of the country is most critical, the impe- 
rial budget laws for the ensuing year were not 
passed, and no measures were adopted to aid 
or relieve the public Treasury. Supplementary 
or deficiency credits were passed, to an aggre- 
gate of 18,000,000 milreis ($9,000,000), one of 
which was for a deficit of 12,000,000 milreis 
in the public relief expenditures of the Ceard 
drought of 1878-'80. As the public depart- 
ments are now running under the budget laws 
of 3882, which were prorogued to 1883 be- 
cause the General Assembly failed to pass the 
regular annual appropriations, it is evident 
that this fail-are of last session can not be 
otherwise than inimical to a proper fiscaliza- 
tion of the public expenditures. 

Revenue of the Provinces. The following table 
shows the revenue of each province in 1882- 
1883, the total being 32,662,058 milreis, of 
which 17i per cent., altogether 5,688,943 mil- 
reis, were spent on public instruction : 



PROVINCES. 


Revenue. 


Proportion 
per cent, 
spent on 
public in- 
struction. 


Propor- 
tion per 
cent, of 
pupils. 


Amazonas . . 


Milreis. 
1 664 UOO 


6' 79 


4 1 


Par& 


2.742,000 


13-5 


5-6 


Piauhy 


733,596 
849421 


14-8 
10 '9 


1-7 
1*1 


Cearti 
Rio Grande do Norte 


808.700 
308 827 


24-5 
26 '4 


1-4 
t'5 


Parahyba 




18'8 




Pernambuco 
Alagoas 


*,786!457 
002 o55 


26-4 
20*9 


2-8 
2*6 


Serpipe 


716 658 


16-9 


8*8 


BahlaT. .... 


3 484' 687 


15'9 


1*8 


Esplrito Santo 


858 9% 


25 '7 


4. i 


Rio de Janeiro 
Sao Paulo 


6,258,684 
8 743 460 


19-9 
14 - 2 


4-2 
2'1 


Minas-Geraes . . . 


s'o^'^o 


24' 6 


8'4 


ParanA 


'797'oflO 


14*5 




Santa Catharina 


342 854 


26' 6 


8*8 


Rio Grande do 8ul 
Goyaz 


2,917,280 
222 234 


18-7 
16'1 


2-0 


Matto-Grossd . 


241 '286 


21 "6 


8*8 











In 1854 the total number of primary schools 
in the provinces was 4,014; in 1883 it had 
increased to 6,180, the increase being about 
two per cent, per annum. 

The Mint Under provisions of the law of 
1849 there have been coined since that year, 
to the close of 1882, 44,948,083 milreis gold 
and 18,979,927 milreis silver. From 1703 to 
1883 the mint at Rio de Janeiro has coined 
262,139,212 milreis gold and 35,508,316 milreis 
silver. 

Commerce. According to the List " relatorio " 
of the Minister of Finance, the foreign trade of 
Brazil (official values), during the fiscal years 
1880-'81 and 1881-'82, was approximately as 
follows, the minister stating that full reports 
had not been received from all the provinces : 



MERCHANDISE. 


1880- '81. 


1881-'83. 


Imports 


Milreis. 
ISO 458 700 


Milreis. 
18-1 118 300 


Exports 


233,567 700 


216709800 


Total 


414,026,400 


400 828 100 









From this it will be seen that the total for- 
eign trade of the country is about 400,000,000 
milreis, or, in round numbers, about $200,000,- 
000 at the par of exchange. During the past- 
fiscal year (1882-'83), although no general sta- 
tistics of that year have been compiled, it 
is certain that the above totals were greatly 
reduced. The imports were considerably de- 
creased because of the general stagnation in 
business and the increase in taxation. Toward 
the end of 1882 a new surtax of 10 per cent, 
was imposed on imports, and the customs-ware- 
house charges were largely increased. The im- 
mediate result of this step was a decrease in 
imports, both on account of the enhanced cost 
of goods and the additional costs of storage. 
Under the new warehouse charges, importers 
are limiting their receipts to current demands, 
and are keeping their stock reduced to the 
narrowest limits possible. In exports, with 
the exception of coffee, and possibly rubber, 
there was also a large falling off', owing to the 
failure of crops in the northern provinces, and 
to the general decline in many branches of in- 
dustry. In the rubber-trade it is possible that 
the exportation was also reduced through the 
attempt to "corner" the market, though at 
the sjime time production has gone on steadily 
increasing. The customs revenue, however, 
shows a large increase, though how much of 
this is due to enhanced values it is difficult to 
say. In the absence of complete and trust- 
worthy statistics it is impossible to form any 
accurate opinion as to the trade of the whole 
empire. The official reports, as complete as 
they ever appear, are always from three to 
five years behind, and the customs returns 
from the provinces are both irregular and con- 
fusing. They are neither accurate nor uni- 
form. Taken all together, the customs receipts 
of last year will show a large falling off from 
the two or three preceding years. The causes 



BRAZIL. 



71 



are political, financial, and industrial. For the 
past three or four years the state of business 
has been steadily going from bad to worse. 
The long-credit system gave facilities for trans- 
acting business long after the interior became 
really insolvent, and thus postponed the crash. 
Recently, however, the importers have begun 
to realize the extra-hazardous character of this 
system of long credits, and have, therefore, 
been steadily cutting them down. Five years 
ago a "cash" house (and ''cash" here means 
five or six months' credit) was the exception ; 
now the long-credit house is the exception, and 
business is being reduced to a cash basis as 
rapidly as outstanding credits will permit. 
This step, however, was postponed too long, 
for the outstanding credits are still enormous, 
and the interior is practically bankrupt. 

Three years ago great difficulties were en- 
countered in making collections in the prov- 
inces. There was very little money afloat, the 
masses were earning nothing, and everybody 
was in debt. This state of affairs was princi- 
pally due to the bad management and extrav- 
agance of the large coffee and sugar planters, 
upon whose industries nearly the entire busi- 
ness of Central Brazil depends. Demoralized 
by the pernicious influences of African slavery, 
and recklessly over-confident because of the 
prosperity enjoyed by the cotton-planters dur- 
ing the years of high prices caused by the 
American civil war, and by the coffee-planters 
from 1871 to 1873, the great proprietors of the 
country plunged headlong into extravagant 
expenditures. 

The foreign-trade movement in Brazil is of- 
ficially given as follows : 



YEAR. 


Import. 


Export. 


1879-'80 


Milms. 

277,893,800 


Milreis. 
313 357 100 


1880-'81 


259 412 000 


309 131 000 


1831-'82 


275 541 600 


800 180 900 








Average 


270,949,100 


807,556,300 



The ensuing table shows the coastwise trade : 

IMPORT AND EXPORT IN MILREIS. 

1879-'80 . 180,712,800 

1880-'81 ; 155,843,600 

1881-'82 174,899,400 



Average 



170,485,200 



DIRECT EXPORT AND IMPORT OF GOODS AT RIO DE JA- 
NEIRO. 





Export. 


Import. 


To and from Germany. 


Milreis. 
10 309 960 


Milreis. 
8 332 540 


The West Indies 




' 21 '366 


Austria 


168 '^97 


147 062 


Belgium 


8 1 06*794 


4 370 494 


Cape of Good Hope .... ... 


1 354 242 


80 


Canada 






British Channel 


166 127 




Chill 


S2''2'76 


552 001 


China 




7658 


Argentine Republic 


1.305,461 


8 522 684 


Denmark 


415 699 




Uruguay . . . 


1,524,256 


5.599.728 



FISCAL YEAR 1881-'; 



COUNTRIES. 


FISCAL YKAR 1881- 1 82. 


Export. 


Import. 


United States 


Milreis. 
00,178,415 
9,035,092 
602,911 
T,114,9'26 
7,657 


MflreU. 
8,085,190 
16,697,657 

87,615.874 
403.666 
181,629 
754,097 

4,566 
40 




Gibraltar 


United Kingdom 


Spain 


Holland 


Italy 


102,759 

429,781 


Mediterranean 


Mexico 


Paraguay 


68 


Peru 


Africa ... . . 






Portugal 


2,841,145 
71,820 
1,440 
124,049 
3,024 


6,547,997 


Natal 


48,588 
242,920 


Scandinavia 


Turkey . . 


Other countries 


Totals 






88,34(5,309 


93,085,687 





Trade of the United States with Brazil. The im- 
port of merchandise and specie into the United 
States from Brazil during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1883, was $44,488,459, the domestic 
export from the United States to Brazil was 
$9,159,330, and the re-export of foreign goods 
and specie thither was $92,764. The principal 
imports from Brazil into the United States 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1882, 
consisted of coffee, 315,465,986 pounds; cocoa, 
1,456,665 pounds; horse-hair, 690,770 pounds; 
India-rubber, 11,348,618 pounds; sugar, 228,- 
683,398 pounds; wool, 493,505 pounds, and 
hides represented by a value of $1,445,541. 
The total import of Brazilian merchandise was 
$48,801,878. 

The export of domestic goods from the 
United States to Brazil in the same year com- 
prised the ensuing chief items: Flour, 618,908 
barrels, worth $4,546,224; cotton goods, 6,- 
993,979 yards, worth $709,756 ; iron and steel 
manufactures, $711,090; petroleum, 5,473,525 
gallons, worth $663,575; lard, 3,698,462 
pounds, worth $491,252; soap, 2,573,453 
pounds, worth $134,783, and lumber and 
wooden-ware, $355,628, the total domestic ex- 
port summing up $9,035,452. Re-export of 
foreign goods thither, $117,110. 

The Rise in Coffee in 1883. Fair Rio coffee 
stood in the New York market at 8 cents on 
January 1, 1883 ; on November 21st it had ad- 
vanced to 12 cents. The gradual improve- 
ment in the value of coffee had begun in all 
consuming countries as early as October, 1882, 
when good ordinary Java had declined in Hol- 
land to the lowest ebb it had reached since 
1848, say 25 centimes per half kilogramme ; on 
November 20, 1883, it had advanced in Rotter- 
dam to 33 centimes, the total rise in that mar- 
ket thus having been 32 per cent., while the 
improvement in Rio coffee in the New York 
market had been, as shown above, about 50 
per cent. This greater advance in Brazil coffee 
in the leading American markets as compared 
with the advance in the leading European mar- 
ket in Java coffee, was due to the fact that 



BRAZIL. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



Brazil had a short crop in 1883. In part it 
was also due to a more active speculative 
movement in New York and Rio than in Hol- 
land and Europe generally, in this staple article 
of consumption. 

EXPORT COFFEE FROM RIO DURING THE TWELVEMONTH 
ENDED JUNE 80. 



DESTINATION. 


1880. 


1881. 


1889. 


1883. 


To European ports 
United States 

Total... 


Tom. 
61,719 
110,485 

172.154 


Tom. 

181,079 
128,581 

254.660 


TOM. 
94,410 
134,800 

229.210 


TOM. 
112,081 
152,557 

Jti4,f)8S 



OF COFFEE FROM SANTOS. 

TOM. 

1877 41.104 

1878 68,078 

1879 68,979 

1880 68,786 

1881 80,414 

1882 104,006 

In 1882 there were fifty cotton-mills in op- 
eration in Brazil, having 2,305 looms and 77,- 
328 spindles, employing 3,082 operatives, and 
having a capital invested of 8,632,000 milreis. 
They produced 22,076,000 yards of goods. 

Cattle-raising. The southern portion of the 
province of Rio Grande do Sul is the best suit- 
ed for stock-raising. Land in this locality is 
difficult to obtain, it being generally heredita- 
rily transmitted. Should it, however, come 
upon the market, the owners of adjoining prop- 
erty will make almost any sacrifice to obtain 
it rather than have a stranger settle in the 
neighborhood. Land is worth from $10 to $20 
for each braca of frontage by 2,000 bracas 
deep (a braca is 7 feet 2 inches). Stock-cat- 
tle are worth, one with the other, $5 to $6 ; 
for butchery they bring from $2.50 to $13. 
They are generally sold at the breeding-grounds, 
as the means of transportation are of the most 
primitive kind and the cost large. The slaugh- 
ter last year amounted to 260,000 head, against 
275,000 the year before. 

Rio Grande's Hide-Shipments to New York. The 
following tables show the proportion of import 
of hides and kips into New York from Rio 
Grande, as compared with other sources of 





1882. 


1881. 


1880. 


Buenos Ayres . . . 


158 146 


892 018 


420 061 


Montevideo. 


fll~ '!''4 


i i go 400 




Rio Grande... . 


109' 558 


68 898 




Other ports ' 


1 30S'741 


1 296 961 


1 516 559 


Domestic ports 
Total 


858J78 
2,574,527 


851,728 
8,289,599 


410,587 
8,428,675 



RECEIPTS OF HIDES AND KIPS IN NEW YORK FROM JAN 
UARY 1ST TO DECEMBER 31 ST. 





1883. 


1889. 


1881. 


Buenos Ayres . . . 
Montevideo. 


147,104 

378 877 


158,146 


892,013 


Rio Grande .... 


86152 






Other ports.... 


1 "">' 71" 






Domestic ports 


404 644 






Total........ . 


2,819,522" 


2,574,527 


8,289,599 











Brazilian Woods. Some investigations by M. 
Thanneur show that Brazil is rich in woods 
for engineering purposes. The " yandubay " is 
exceedingly hard and durable; the "couru- 
pay " is also very hard and rich in tannin ; the 
" quebracho " is, however, more interesting 
than any, and grows abundantly in the forests 
of Brazil and La Plata. It resembles oak in 
the trunk and is used for rail way- sleepers, 
telegraph-poles, piles, and so on. It is heavier 
than water, its specific gravity varying be- 
tween 1-203 and 1-333. The color at first is 
reddish, like mahogany, but grows darker with 
time. Being rich in tannin, it is employed for 
tanning leather in Brazil, and recently has 
been introduced for that purpose into France. 
A mixture of one third of " quebracho " and 
two thirds of ordinary tan gives good re- 
sults. 

Diamond-Mining. The discovery of the first 
deposits of gold in the province of Minas-Geraes, 
the most productive in Brazil, led to the search 
for diamonds as early as the close of the sev- 
enteenth century, the first being found at Ser- 
ro. The fever spread, and moving northward 
into virgin country founded the village of 
Tijuco, the Diamantina of to-day, the center of 
diamond-mining in Brazil. M. A. de Bovet, 
professor at the School of Mines of Ouro- 
Preto, Brazil, has recently, in the " Annales 
des Mines," Paris, published an exhaustive ac- 
count of a visit to that section. Diamonds are 
found in the provinces of Minas-Geraes, Ba- 
hia, Parana, Matto-Grosso, and Goyaz. In 
Minas they are mined at Diamantina, Grao 
Mogol, Bagagem, Conceicao, Cocaes, and other 
points, the first named, however, being the 
most important. Diamonds are found in a 
rounded gravel, having peculiar characteris- 
tics, which is called by the miners u cascalho." 
It is a mass of small pebbles, chiefly quartz, 
mixed with very little clay. If examined with 
care it will be found to contain a large num- 
ber of minerals, many of which are present in 
the cascalho from all the districts. 

BRIDGES. See ENGINEERING. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. This, the most western 
province of Canada, extends from the United 
States on the south to the Northwest Terri- 
tories on the north, or from the forty-ninth to 
the sixtieth parallel of latitude, and from the 
Pacific ocean on the west to the main ridge of 
the Rocky mountains, as far north as parallel 
54, and thence to the sixtieth parallel along 
meridian 120 W. on the east. 

Area and Population. British Columbia is in 
its infancy. With a territory of 341,000 square 
miles, it had in 1881 a population of only 49,- 
459, of whom 4,350 were Chinese, and 25,661 
Indians. Victoria, the. capital, is on the south- 
ern end of Vancouver island, on the straits of 
Juan de Fuca. Its population is 6,000. There 
are no other towns of note. The chief villages 
are: Esquimalt, near Victoria; Nanaimo, on 
the Gulf of Georgia; New Westminster and 
Port Moody, near the mouth of the Eraser; 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



73 



Hope, Yale, Lytton, Kamloops, Lilloet, Rich- 
field, Cariboo, and Quesnel, in the Fraser val- 
ley, and Cassiar, in the northern part of the 
province. 

Geography. The Rockies run in three near- 
ly parallel chains, although in some localities 
they almost unite. Between these ranges are 
rough valleys, or narrow plateaus containing 
small tracts of arable land, besides larger areas 
suitable for grazing. Its timber is chiefly the 
far-famed Douglas pine, though in many locali- 
ties, especially along the mainland and Vancou- 
ver island shores, the sturdy hard- woods are 
found growing to a considerable size. Between 
the Rockies and the Cascades or Coast-range, is 



a broad, irregular plateau nearly one hundred 
miles in width, forming another district of 
"oases." In its valleys are found slopes, 
openings, and expansions, such that while, on 
the one side, grass grows luxuriantly, and oats, 
barley, and wheat ripen, on the other the ice 
is packed in the gorges throughout the year. 
But as rain falls very rarely on this plateau, 
the ice is of value in supplying moisture neces- 
sary to mature fall wheat and other grains. 

Meteorology. T lie following table, illustrating 
the temperatures and rainfalls of some of these 
plateau valleys, compared with Esquimalt on 
the straits of Juan de Fuca, is from official re- 
ports of the Canadian Government : 



LOCALITIES. 



II 



B 



ii 



Esquimalt 

Plateaus, inland. 



Deg. 

48-42 

47-79 



57-98 
68-41 



Deg. 
89-46 
26-01 



Deg. 

89-17 

29-84 



Per cent. 
58 
46 



Inches. 
28-41 

10-10 



SK 



Deg. 
17-2 
-9-4 



Deg. 
85 
105 



Dg. 

8 



Deg. 

62-9 
108-2 



The cause of the dry climate of the plateaus 
is found in the wide and high Coast-ranges, 
which intercept the moisture of the westerly 
winds. It may rain for several days over the 
western slope of these mountains, while not a 
drop falls on the eastern, only fifty miles dis- 
tant. The clouds fly eastward, but appear in- 
capable of forming rain. However, on the 
Gold and Selkirk ranges of the Rockies rain 
falls abundantly. 

Along the mainland shore and on Vancouver 
island are many large tracts of land admirably 
suited for farming, and toward the head of the 
Fraser and in the Thompson valley many agri- 
cultural and grazing farms are established. 

Forests. The plateau valleys and the pla- 
teaus are, as a rule, thinly wooded, although 
the Douglas pine and various hard-woods afford 
supplies far in excess of the present or the pro- 
spective demands. On the coast, and in Van- 
couver, however, the trees are of an enormous 
size, rivaling the giant pines of California. 

Metals. The province abounds in minerals, 
the most precious and vrluable having already 
been found in paying quantities. It was only 
in 1857 that the first gold was discovered in 
British Columbia. The gold is found in nug- 
gets, three brought forth in 1877 being worth 
$40, $90, and $130, respectively. In other places 
it is. found in thin scales, the rocks in all such 
cases being igneous. Hitherto gold-mining has 
been conducted in the primitive way, washing 
the sand or gravel of the streams, and collecting 
the proceeds. In places a lucky miner averages 
$20 to $100 a day ; but, as the claims are 
small, good luck does not last long. From ex- 
periments conducted in San Francisco, it seems 
there are localities where the quartz yields 1-21 
ounce of gold, 2'43 ounces of silver, and sever- 
al pounds of copper to the single ton. Some 
specimens of silver-ore have yielded $300 a ton, 



but ordinary specimens furnish 8*25 ounces of 
silver and - 6 ounce of gold. Native silver pel- 
lets have often been found, hut in isolated locali- 
ties. Copper is found in rich veins in several 
places already, and also in ores. It occurs in a 
native state in the Thompson river district. 

Coal. Coal is very abundant. The extensive 
fields of Nanaimo or Vancouver are worked, 
while many others on the mainland are await- 
ing development. The following are the ex- 
ports of coal mined in British Columbia for the 
year 1882 : 



DESTINATION. 



To United States . . . . 


188 756 


$688 585 


To Sandwich islands 


12,170 


40,857 


To China 


5670 


19845 


To Mexico . 


8960 


13860 








Total 


210,556 


$713,147 









During the same year British Columbia ex- 
ported to the United States $723,225 worth of 
gold-quartz. 

Education. The system of free public educa- 
tion was established in British Columbia in 
1872. During the first ten years of their exist- 
ence the total expenditure for public schools 
amounted to $480,395. Up to the end of 1882 
only 50 school-houses had been erected, and 
provision was made for 64 teachers for 1883. 
The number of pupils enrolled in 1882 was 
2,653, with an average daily attendance of 
1,359. There is one high-school in the prov- 
ince, with a registered attendance of 74. The 
education department is presided over by a 
chief superintendent, who acts under the di- 
rection of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, 
through the Provincial Secretary. The indi- 
vidual schools are controlled by school boards, 
consisting of three members each,, who are 
elected by resident male freeholders and house- 



BULGARIA. 



holders. The compulsory clauses of the school 
law require every child between the ages of 7 
and 12, inclusive, to attend school for at least 
six months in the year. The penalty inflicted 
on the parent or guardian for non-compliance 
is $5 for the first offense, and $10 for each sub- 
sequent conviction. 

BULGARIA, a principality created by the Treaty 
of Berlin, signed July 13, 1878, out of a por- 
tion of the Christian provinces of Turkey. The 
treaty provided that it should be an autono- 
mous principality, tributary to Turkey, and 
under the suzerainty of the Sultan, with a 
Christian government, a prince elected by the 
people, and a national militia. By unanimous 
vote of the Constituent Assembly, Prince Alex- 
ander of Battenberg, brother of the then Em- 
press of Russia, and grand-nephew of the Ger- 
man Emperor, was elected hereditary prince 
as Alexander I, April 29, 1879. The Constitu- 
tion of 1879 vests the legislative authority in 
a single Chamber, the Sobranje, or National 
Assembly, elected by universal suffrage in the 
proportion of one deputy to every 10,000 in- 
habitants, and gives the Prince power to ap- 
point additional members not to exceed half the 
number elected by the people. The duration 
of the National Assembly was fixed at four 
years, but the Prince could dissolve it at any 
time and order new elections. The Constitu- 
tion was suspended by Prince Alexander in 
1881, who dissolved the National Assembly, 
and, by despotic use of the military power and 
falsification of the returns, procured the elec- 
tion of a Grand National Assembly, the body 
intrusted with the power to make changes in 
the Constitution, which, by a vote of July 13, 
1881, clothed the Prince with autocratic legis- 
lative, and executive powers for seven years. 

Statistics. The area of Bulgaria is estimated 
at 24,360 square miles. The population, as 
returned in the census of Jan. 1. 1881, was 
1,998,983, of whom 1,023,730 were males and 
975,253 females. As regards religion, 68-8 per 
cent, were Christians, 30'7 per cent. Moham- 
medans, and 0-5 per cent. Israelites ; in respect 
to nationality, 66'7 per cent, were Bulgarians, 
30-6 per cent. Turks, 1-3 per cent. Roumani- 
ans, 0-5 per cent. Greeks, 0'5 per cent. Israel- 
ites, 0'3 per cent. Germans, and O'l per cent, 
of other nationalities. In 1883 the emigration 
of the Mohammedan element recommenced on 
a large scale. The capital, Sofia, contained 20,- 
541 inhabitants ; Rustchuk, 26,867 ; Varna, 
24,649 ; Shumla, 22,921. There were nine oth- 
er towns of over 10,000 inhabitants. The main 
occupation of the people is agriculture. The 
exports of grain are about 1,500,000 tons per 
annum. Other articles of export are wool, tal- 
low, hides, and timber. Coal and iron mines 
exist, but are almost entirely undeveloped. 
There is a railroad between Rustchuk and Var- 
na, 140 miles in length. 

Army. The army has been the subject of 
particular attention on the part of Prince Al- 
exander. In order to increase the reserve ar- 



my as rapidly as possible, the period of service 
with the colors is only two years, instead of 
four. The army was trained by Russian of- 
ficers, who fill most of the superior commands. 
Bulgarian officers have been educated at the 
Military Academy at Sofia to take their places 
as speedily as practicable. The number of 
Russian officers in 1882 was 376. In the au- 
tumn of 1883 there were 185 Russian officers 
still on the lists, and 400 of Bulgarian nation- 
ality. The total strength of the army was 
16,500 men. 

Political Review. Prince Alexander, when by 
a state-stroke he abolished representative gov- 
ernment, placed himself under the direction 
and tutelage of the Russian court. He soon 
found that his Russian mentors would give 
him no chance to exercise his statecraft, but 
pursued aims which were more in harmony with 
the ideas of the Radical party which he had 
expelled than with his own. The coup d^etat 
placed it in the power of the Russians to 
strengthen their grasp upon the country. Al- 
exander had made his cousin, the Russian Em- 
peror, the arbiter between himself and his 
subjects, expecting when endowed with auto- 
cratic power to guide the policy of the country 
by balancing the interests of Russia and Aus- 
tro-German interests against each other, and 
thus secure the independent position guaran- 
teed by the Treaty of Berlin. Instead of the 
personal government at which he aimed, he 
was forced to submit to the dictation of Rus- 
sian guides who sympathized with the Pan- 
bulgarian and radical ideas of the popular party 
which they had aided the Prince in excluding 
from the seats of government witli the bayo- 
net. Zankoff and Balabanoff, the Radical lead- 
ers, from their near place of exile in Eastern 
Roumelia, and in clandestine visits in the coun- 
try, were able to carry on a lively agitation 
for the overthrow of the Prince. Hitrovo, 
the Russian consul-general, who had planned 
the arrangements of the coup d'etat, and many 
of the Russian officers, openly fraternized with 
the Prince's enemies. Kryloff, the Russian 
general, who was Minister of "War, refused to 
issue an order forbidding officers of the army 
to take part in these antagonistic demonstra- 
tions. Alexander journeyed to St. Petersburg, 
and threatened to lay down the crown if he was 
obliged to submit to such indignities, where- 
upon the Emperor recalled the obnoxious offi- 
cials, and gave the Prince for advisers Generals 
Soboleff and Kaulbars, who were supposed to 
be free from Panslavistic tendencies, admon- 
ishing him at the same time to be sparing in 
the exercise of his autocratic powers. 

The ministry which was formed in July, 
1882, consisted of Gen. Soboleff, Premier and 
Minister of the Interior; Gen. Kaulbars, Min- 
ister of War ; Natshevich a Bulgarian, whose 
appointment as Minister of the Interior a year 
before in the place of the Russian Lieut-Col. 
Remlingen, who was dismissed, had provoked 
angry menaces from Hitrovo Minister of Fi- 



BULGARIA. 



75 



nance ; Vulkovich, Minister of Public Works 
and Minister of the Exterior ad interim ; Gre- 
koff, Minister of Justice ; and Tesharoff, Min- 
ister of Education. The new National Assem- 
bly, a simply consultative body, contained 80 
members, elected by the indirect system. 

The Conservative party became gradually 
imbued with the same jealous distrust of Rus- 
sian supremacy which the Liberals professed. 
The latter represented the sentiments of the 
bulk of the population, among whom gratitude 
toward their Russian deliverers, and affinity for 
the popular ideas agitating Russia in contra- 
distinction to the ideas of liberty and reform 
which prevail in Western Europe, co-existed 
with a jealous spirit of resistance to the domi- 
nation of the Russian Government. 

The Russian generals worked tor a time in 
harmony with their Conservative colleagues. 
But in January, 1883, a difference arose re- 
garding the projected line of railroad from So- 
fia to Rustchuk. On their insistance, Vulko- 
vich retired from the ministry, being succeeded 
by Stoiloff, a man of similar patriotic Bulga- 
rian sentiments. The pretext for the dismissal 
of Vulkovich was the action of the Govern- 
ment in the matter of a Radical demonstration, 
for which action Soboleff was himself chiefly 
responsible. Zankoff, who had been kept in 
prison for many months, was a few weeks be- 
fore allowed to leave the country. He returned 
to Rustchuk, and was received with public 
manifestations of sympathy. The demonstra- 
tion was suppressed by the prefect. The Gov- 
ernment, trying to satisfy all parties, dismissed 
the prefect and reimprisoned Zankoff. Other 
subjects of dispute arose, particularly the ques- 
tion of employing the civil power to execute a 
disciplinary decree pronounced against Mile- 
tius, Archbishop of Sofia, by the Bulgarian 
Synod. Soboleff acquiesced in the forcible 
seclusion of the prelate, but fearing the effect 
in Russia, where the act might be construed as 
an indignity committed upon a high dignitary 
of the Holy Orthodox Church, threw the 
blame upon his colleagues. In March, Stoi- 
ioff, Gregoff, and Natshevich sent in their res- 
ignations. A working Cabinet was formed, 
in which a Russian, P -ince Hilkoff, was given 
the Ministry of Public Works, and other Rus- 
sians or partisans of the generals the other 
posts. The rupture between the Conserva- 
tives and the Russian ministers became com- 
plete. When the Prince went to Moscow to 
attend the coronation of the Emperor, after 
first visiting the Sultan at Constantinople and 
stopping at Athens, he found there a deputa- 
tion from the National Assembly, a deputation 
of Liberals, and his two Russian ministers, all 
desirous of laying their grievances before the 
Emperor. When, after the ministerial crisis 
in March, the Russian generals took the gov- 
ernment of the country entirely into their own 
hands, they found themselves isolated. The 
contracts which they distributed among Rus- 
sians rendered them unpopular. They rejected 



the authority of the Prince, and represented at 
St. Petersburg that constitutional government 
ought to be restored. They approached the 
Radicals, who demanded the restitution of the 
constitution of Tirnova. The Prince, who 
submitted tamely to the open insubordination 
of the Russian ministers, resisted the return to 
regular government, because he would not 
govern with a Radical ministry and Assembly. 

The only hope of emerging from the lawless 
condition under which the country suffered, 
with no sovereign power capable of exercising 
authority, was by a compromise and fusion of 
the two warring political parties. The Russian 
emissaries were under standing orders to bring 
about a return to a constitutional regime as the 
chief part of their task. The Liberal leaders 
were recalled from exile, and in August they 
held consultations with the chiefs of the Con- 
servative party. Their demand for the convo- 
cation of a Grand Sobranje, for the re-estab- 
lishment of the constitution of Tirnova, was 
inacceptable. 

The Russian Government sent M. Jonin as 
extraordinary embassador to direct the set- 
tlement of the question of the Constitution. 
Prince Alexander quarreled outright with his 
chief minister, and attempted to dismiss him 
and form a ministry of Bulgarian Conserva- 
tives. The Russian generals thereupon showed 
the Prince orders from the Emperor not to 
leave the country, even at the Prince's com- 
mand. Jonin then presented an ultimatum, 
demanding that the Prince should lay down 
his autocratic powers, call a Great Sobranje 
within six months, for the adoption of a Con- 
stitution, and in the mean time leave the ad- 
ministration entirely in the hands of the two 
generals. Alexander finally complied with the 
demand by issuing a manifesto on Sept. llth, 
announcing the appointment of a commission 
to elaborate a Constitution which would be 
laid before a Great National Assembly. 

The Prince, in order to avoid the humiliation 
of resigning the sovereignty to the Russian 
agents, made up his mind at last to come to 
terms with the Liberal party. Zankoff and 
Balabanoff, on behalf of the Liberals, and 
Natshevich and Grekoff, the Conservative lead- 
ers, effected a compromise, whereby the con- 
stitution of Tirnova was restored by proclama- 
tion, subject to revision by the Great Sobranje, 
but the legislative powers were to be exercised 
by the extraordinary Sobranje elected in De- 
cember, 1882, as to some extent they virtually 
had been all along, instead of by a new So- 
branje elected under the old Constitution. This 
course was urged in a resolution of the Nation- 
al Assembly in which both parties united their 
votes. By this turn of affairs, General Sobo- 
leff was taken by surprise, and rendered power- 
less. The entire episode was prearranged by 
the Prince and the political leaders, all parties 
suddenly sinking their differences for the pur- 
pose of escaping the dictation of the obnoxious 
Russian agents. Giving the anomaly of gov- 



76 



CABLES. 



erning under the Constitution with a National 
Assembly not constitutionally elected as their 
ground, the Soboleff-Kaulbars ministry, con- 
sisting of the two generals, Burmoff, Agura, 
Prince Hilkoff, and K. Zankoff, handed in their 
resignation, Sept. 19th. Stoianoff, whom the 
Prince had insisted on placing in charge of the 
Ministry of Justice, in opposition to the Rus- 
sians, did not sign the paper. A Bulgarian 
ministry was formed, with Drogan Zankoff at 
the head, the man who had passed the last two 
years in prison and in banishment, and had 
visited Bulgaria only by stealth to agitate for 
the deposition of the Prince. Stoiloff received 
the portfolio of Justice. 

Over the nomination of a Minister of War, 
Prince Alexander was again involved in strife 
with the Russian diplomatic representative. 
With both the political parties at his back, 
their fierce rivalries reconciled by the national 
danger of sinking into a Russian dependency, 
he was emboldened to refuse both the officers 
given to him to choose from, and select Gen. 
Lessovoy for the position. But the admoni- 
tions of M. Jonin caused him to yield the point, 
and accept Lieut.-Col. Redigher. A spirited 
contest over the control of the army ensued. 
Soboleff and Kaulbars had succeeded in gather- 
ing a party with Panslavistic tendencies, a part 
of whose programme was the confederation of 
the Balkan states. This party was now strong- 
er, and carried on an active opposition to the 
Prince under the encouragement of Jonin and 
the leadership of Karaveloff, a more extreme 
and consistent Radical than Zankoff and his 
associates. 

Alexander, in his disputes with the Russian 
agents, had several times received the hint that 
he might lose his throne. Suggestions had 



been thrown out to the people that Prince 
Waldemar of Denmark, brother of the Empress 
of Russia, would make a popular ruler. The 
Russian agents succeeded in throwing Prince 
Alexander into a dangerous passion by the re- 
call to Russia, without warning, of Adjutant- 
Gen. Lessovoy, and another officer. The 
Prince discharged every Russian officer on his 
staff, and, when Col. Redigher refused to carry 
out the order, he took away his commission 
and demanded the resignation of his portfolio, 
threatening, in case he refused, to have him 
conducted across the frontier. The Russian 
Government did not resent it, but secured a 
more definite control over the Bulgarian army. 
The Bulgarian Government arrived at an un- 
derstanding with Baron Kaulbars, the Emper- 
or's aide-de-camp, and accepted a convention, 
signed for three years, whereby the Bulgarian 
Minister of War is to be appointed by the 
Prince, subject to confirmation by the Emper- 
or. Russian officers are not allowed to accept 
civil appointments, nor to take part in political 
affairs, and are subject to the Minister of War, 
who is answerable to the Russian diplomatic 
representative. 

Legislation. The Sobranje, after receiving 
legislative authority, immediately applied itself 
to the settlement of the debt to the Russian 
Government for the cost of the occupation, 
and to the railroad convention with Austria. 
This convention (see AUSTRIA), though opposed 
by the Russian representatives, could not well 
be avoided, as it was an affair of the European 
concert. The terms for the payment of the 
indemnity for the Russian occupation in the 
Turkish War, amounting to 10,618,250 paper 
rubles, were settled by a treaty entered into 
with Russia. 



c 



CABLES, INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION OF 
SUBMARINE. When the first attempt to lay 
an Atlantic cable was made in 1864, France, 
Brazil, Hayti, Italy, and Portugal entered 
into an agreement recognizing the neutrality 
of the cable, and accepting the obligation not 
to injure or destroy it, even for military pur- 
poses, in the event of war. This treaty fell 
through with the cable project. In 1869 the 
United States Government called a conference 
at Washington, to consider the international 
relations of the ocean telegraphs and their 
regulation in war and peace. The American 
Government prepared a project which pro- 
Tided for the protection of the cables and their 
neutrality in war-time; but the outbreak of 
the Franco-German war prevented the meet- 
ing of the conference. In 1871 Cyrus W. 
Field submitted a similar proposal to the 
conference in Rome, and the Italian ministry 
undertook to lay it before the European gov- 
ernments. Only one answer was received, a 
favorable one from the Austrian Government. 



Confidential inquiries proved it to be out of 
the question to expect the majority of the 
powers to agree to the inviolability of the 
cables in time of war. The Institute of Inter- 
national Law accepted the situation, in dis- 
cussing the matter at their meeting at Brus- 
sels, in 1879, and proposed a treaty to pro- 
vide for the arrest and punishment of persons 
who injure cables on the high seas, and the 
neutralization of cables running between neu- 
tral countries. They proposed that persons 
suspected of injuring a cable should be subject 
to arrest by naval vessels of any of the pow- 
ers, but that they should be brought to trial 
in the country of the vessel on which they are 
taken. They also suggested that measures 
taken to interrupt cable communication in 
war-time should not extend, unless it should 
be unavoidable, to the injury of the cable; 
and if it does, that the same government 
should repair the damage when peace is re- 
stored. 
In 1881 several cables were badly injured 



CALIFORNIA. 



77 



in the North Sea. The English subjects who 
were interested appealed to their Govern- 
ment to secure reparation, but their request 
was received coldly. The conference held 
at the Hague in 1881 for the regulation of 
the North Sea fisheries, in which the Nether- 
lands, Germany, France, Great Britain, Bel- 
gium, Sweden, and Denmark took part, 
adopted a resolution recommending the gov- 
ernments to take measures to prevent the 
injury of submarine cables by fishermen. 

When this question came up at the Electrical 
Congress at Paris, in 1881, the French Gov- 
ernment proposed a conference for the dis- 
cussion of the subject. The conference met 
Oct. 16, 1882, in Paris. Representatives of 
France, Austria, Germany, Great Britain, 
Italy, Russia, the Netherlands, Belgium, Den- 
mark, Switzerland, Turkey, Norway, Sweden, 
Spain, Portugal, Greece, Servia, Roumania, 
the United States, Colombia, British India, 
Japan, China, Mexico, Nicaragua, the Argen- 
tine Republic, and Costa Rica were partici- 
pants. The conference confined itself to the 
subject of the protection of cables in time of 
peace. After long deliberations, a compromise 
project was adopted. Any person who inten- 
tionally or through criminal negligence in- 
jures or breaks a submarine cable, is de- 
clared an offender against the law. The 
courts of the country to which the vessel be- 
longs upon which the illegal act is committed, 
are to have jurisdiction of the offense. 

CALIFORNIA. State Government. The State 
officers during the year 1883 were the follow- 
ing: Governor, George Stoneman, Democrat; 
Lieutenant-Governor, John Daggett ; Secre- 
tary of State, T. L. Thompson ; Treasurer, W. 
A. January; Comptroller, John P. Dunn ; Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction, W. T. 
Welcker; Attorney-General, C. E. Marshall; 
Surveyor-General, H. I. Willey. Judiciary : 
Supreme Court Chief -Justice, Robert F. Mor- 
rison ; Associate Justices, M. H. Myrick, E. 
W. McKinstry, E. M. Ross, J. D. Thornton, J. 
R. Sharpstein, S. B. McKee. 

Legislative Session. The Legislature, consisting 
of 30 Democrats and 10 Republicans in the 
Senate, and 58 Democrats, 21 Republicans, and 
one Independent in the House, met on the 8th 
of January and adjourned on the 13th of 
March. Among the measures passed were the 
following : 

Bills in aid of the State University ; the road law ; 
concerning tax-sale redemptions ; classifying munici- 
pal corporations ; providing for a preparatory course 
tor the university in the common-school system ; a 
new and good street law ; in aid of decrepit veterans 
of the Mexican War ; in aid of foundling asylums ; in 
aid of viticulture ; in aid of horticulture and the de- 
struction of fruit insect-pests ; protecting food-fish ; 
settling contests as to preferred labor claims ; provid- 
ing for a wall at the Folsom Prison ; a fair municipal 
government bill ; giving boards of health control 
over drainage-fittings for houses a county govern- 
ment bill, about equally balanced between good and 
ill provisions ; in aid of silk-culture ; to prevent the 
introduction of contagious diseases into the State ; 



providing additional accommodations for the insane ; 
requiring the insane with sufficient estates to pay for 
their care : giving a fit salary to the Clerk of the State 
Board of Equalization ; providing for better invest- 
ment of school moneys ; aiding the State Agricultural 
Society ; aiding the Mining Bureau ; paying some just 
claims ; aiding the industrial education of the deaf 
and dumb and the blind ; providing for the care and 
repair of State buildings, and aiding State normal 
schools ; and submitting the text-book question to a 
vote ; some few amendments to the Code, of no par- 
ticular significance, the best being a new provision for 
authentication of marriage : the repeal of the Sunday 
law ; the oleomargarine bill ; the Statistical Bureau 
bill ; the street rail way -ticket bill ; the Lake Tahoe 
forestry bill, limited to a small region, and hence 
tending to prevent general remedies being applied; 
the legislative and congressional partisan appor- 
tionment bills ; the bill legislating out of office Ee- 
publican Harbor Commissioners; vacating a judicial 
office in Mono instead of impeaching the incumbent; 
the hair-cutting bill for county prisoners ; for the 
destruction of wild animals ; as to refunding the in- 
debtedness of cities ; auditing the accounts of the In- 
surance Commissioner; the jurisdiction of justices; 
as to juvenile offenders ; as to the method of submit- 
ting constitutional amendments ; as to drawbridges 
in cities ; purchasing portraits of Governors ; as to 
the manner of assessing railroad property. 

The following are the new congressional 
districts: 1st Del Norte, Humboldt, Trinity, 
Siskiyou, Shasta, Modoc, Lassen, Plumas, Sier- 
ra, Tehama, Colusa, Mendocino, Lake, Sonoma, 
and Napa counties; 2d Butte, Sutter, Yuba, 
Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, Calave- 
ras, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, Tuo- 
lumne, and Mariposa; 3d Yolo, Sacramento, 
Solano, Contra Costa, Marin, and Alameda; 
4th part of San Francisco ; 5th part of San 
Francisco, and all of San Mateo, Santa Cruz, 
and Santa Clara ; 6th San Benito, Monterey, 
San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, 
Kern, Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardi- 
no, Alpine, Tulare, Fresno, Mono, and Inyo. 

The Governor's Views. Gov. Stoneman was 
inaugurated on the 10th of January. In his 
address he expressed the following views re- 
garding the regulation of freights and fares, the 
Sunday law, the Chinese question, prison re- 
form, and irrigation : 

Three years have now elapsed since the people 
solemnly expressed their views upon the subject of 
the regulation of fares and freights, and delegated to 
a commission, chosen under the new organic law, the 
authority to execute their expressed will. It is to be 
deeply regretted that the retiring Railroad Commission 
has entirely neglected and refused to take any posi- 
tive steps toward enforcing its powers. It is to be 
earnestly hoped that the incoming Commission will 
prove to be composed of men of sufficient .courage and 
sagacity to meet this issue in a spirit of fairness ; to 
deal justly by the transportation companies and can- 
didly by the people. I wish it to be distinctly under- 
stood that all the power and influence of the Execu- 
tive department ot the government will be cheerfully 
exercised on behalf of the commission to bring the 
issue between the people and the transportation com- 
panies to a final and satisfactory termination. The 
question of the regulation of fares and freights is the 
great living issue of the day, and no postponement of 
its solution to a future time will prove satisfactory 
either to the people of this State or the Union. The 
question of the power of the State to fix and regulate 
the charges for fares and freights upon transportation 
lines within the State has passed beyond the line of 



78 



CALIFORNIA. 



legitimate argument. As to the policy of enforcing 
the power of the State to regulate fares and freights 
there can not, since the result of the late election, ba 
flirther doubt. 

Sumptuary laws are and ever have been opposed to 
Democratic teachings, and find no support among 
liberal-minded people. For many years sections 299, 
300, and 391, of the I'enal Code, commonly called the 
" Sunday law," have been on our statute-books. 
Under slightly varying torms this law has been in 
existence in this State during the major portion of the 
past quarter of a century. Now and then spasmodic 
efforts have been made to enforce it, but without suc- 
cess. In every contest before the courts the condition 
of public opinion has been shown by the fact that the 
law has been practically placed on trial, and not the 
particular defendant at the bar. In cases where the 
testimony adduced has been conclusive that the al- 
leged offense has been committed, juries have almost 
uniformly refused to convict a state of facts never 
before observed with reference to any other portion 
of our criminal jurisprudence. Such is the condition 
of the sections above cited. It is unwise to encumber 
the statute-books with an enactment which experience 
has proved can not be enforced. The result at the 
late election is an emphatic indorsement of the atti- 
tude of the now dominant party on this important 
subject, and our duty in the premises is perfectly 
clear. We all concede that those sections of our 
Codes which provide for certain holidays and non- 
judicial days are essential to happiness and health. 
The repeal of the " Sunday law " will in no wise inter- 
fere with the permanency or effect of our civil legis- 
lation in the matter of a day of rest. Nor is there 
any disposition to disturb those penal enactments 
which are intended to protect religious assemblages 
from all unseemly interference. 

Within the past year Congress has granted to the 
people of this coast partial relief from the much-de- 
plored evil of Chinese immigration. There are some 
who affect to believe this important question finally 
settled by the statute referred to. There are those 
who evince a desire to nullify its effect by a loose con- 
struction of its terms and an inefficient execution of 
its provisions. The law had hardly taken effect when 
another bill was introduced into the Senate of the 
United States, and I believe is now pending in that 
body, under which many thousands of Chinese now 
serving under labor contracts in the West India 
islands might be permitted to cross the territory of 
the United States to their homes in the Chinese Em- 
pire. Considering that we have no power to deport 
the Chinese, if they were once permitted to land in 
this country, they might remain here permanently. 
Against this new danger the people of this coast will 
depend upon their representatives in Congress to 
guard. 

The congregate system of imprisonment, which, 
owing to the peculiar construction and want of cell- 
room in our prisons, is necessarily in vogue therein, 
is, in my opinion, not conducive of the moral well- 
being of the prisoner. The most important object of 
penal confinement ought to be to effect a reformation 
of the prisoner. 1 would respectfully recommend that, 
if practicable, a system of isolation and solitary con- 
finement be instituted among those of the most vicious 
character. In the absence of such a system of isola- 
tion, San Quentin Prison, from its geographical posi- 
tion, might be made a distributing prison. All con- 
victs should be sentenced to that institution in order 
that they may be registered and graded, the prison 
directors selecting those for distribution to Folsom 
and any other branch prison hereafter established. 
After careful study and examination of past records, 
the comparatively good should be retained and the 
vicious and incorrigible confined at another prison, so 
far as the interests of the State may permit. This 
system, strictly carried out, would form a perfect rec- 
ord of the antecedents and disposition of all convicts 
within the State. This system is not only essential 



for the good of the prisoner and for the guidance of 
the directors, but would enable the district attorneys 
of each county to be always able to procure a complete 
record to embody in their information or indictments 
the number of convictions of each defendant, it' any 
such there be, as they are now compelled by law to do 
under what is known as the " Prior-Conviction Act." 
In a large portion of the State, agricultural interests 
are being developed by the aid of irrigation. The 
history of all countries dependent upon irrigation 
shows that this practice has necessitated the enact- 
ment of laws especially designed for the protection 
and regulation of irrigation, the maintenance of order, 
equity, and economy in^the appropriation and use of 
waters, and that the subject has been one of the most 
difficult to deal with in legislation. Our own experi- 
ence,, limited though it be, is sufficient to establish 
this fact, as our courts arc crowded with litigation 
growing out of irrigation practices, which constitute a 
serious drawback to our prosperity. 

Finances. The receipts for the thirty-second 
fiscal year (1881) were $4,751,573.66, and for 
the thirty-third fiscal year (1882), $4,698,- 
654.41. Of these, for the thirty-second year, 
$3,636,008.23, and for the thirty-third, $3,- 
685,367.60, came from property-taxes; and 
from poll-taxes, for the thirty-second year, 
$316,869,48, and for the thirty-third year, 
$248,816.30. 

During the two years the disbursements on 
account of the State were : 



FUNDS. 


Thirty-second 
fiscal year. 


Thirty-third 
fiscal year. 


General 


$2243567 38 


$1 828 826 88 


School 


1 797312 51 


1 888'579 98 


State school land. 


28 690 56 


8 825 51 


Interest and sinking 
University 

Consolidated fund, University. . 
State Library 


314,745 00 
71,800 25 
33,500 00 
11 859 88 


310,555 83 
81,496 59 
12,000 00 
5980 47 


Supreme Court Library . . 


2 878 40 


1 914 85 


Election reward 


2(0 00 




Condemnation 


8.000 00 






287 943 61 




Harbor improvement 


482 8S4 79 


165 248 07 


Mining Bureau 
Indian War bond 
Construction fund, Drainage 
District No 1 


11,730 00 
218 73 

76046 45 


10,700 00 


Levee I >istrict No. 5 
Funded debt of 1373 


14,740 00 


10,240 00 
99,000 00 


Total . 


$5885612 56 


$4418362 18 


Less general fund wan-ants is- 
sued and canceled during the 
thirty-second fiscal year 


721 00 










Total 


$5384891 56 


$4418862 13 









For the thirty-second year the disbursements 
exceeded receipts $633,317.90, but forthe thirty- 
third year the receipts exceeded disbursements 
$280,292.28. The Comptroller says, " The nat- 
ural inference to be drawn from the fact that in 
any one year the disbursements exceeded the 
receipts, is that the finances of the State were 
not in a healthy condition, but this would be 
unjust, as such disbursements were made from 
not only incoming moneys, but from moneys 
accrued in previous years to the funds where 
the discrepancy occurs." 

It cost $16,101.90 to carry convicts to prison 
in the thirty-third fiscal year, and $22,500 for 
transportation of insane patients to the asy- 
lums. 



CALIFORNIA. 



79 



The following tables show the assessed val- 
ues of the several classes of property in the 
State for the years 1881 and 1882 respectively: 

ASSESSED VALUES OF PROPERTY FOR 1881. 

Value of real estate ...$348,869,810 

Value of improvements on real estate 1 lo,218,041 

Value of personal property, exclusive of money.. 146,180,978 

The amount of money 13,597,566 

Value of railroads operated in more than one 
county 84,829,664 

Total $658,691,059 

TAX-RATE FOR 1881. 

For general fund '. . . 87 7 cents $2,190,084 

For school fund 22 4 cents 1 ,300,000 

For interest and sinking fund 5'4 cents- 815,000 

Total 65-5 cents $3,805,084 

ASSESSED VALUES OF PROPERTY FOR 1882. 



Value of real estate -v^ .,~~~, 

Value of improvements on real estate 114,516,747 

Value of personal property, exclusive of money.. 120,848,453 

The amount of money 12,702,056 

Value of railroads operated in more than one 
county 27,602,313 

Total $607,472,262 

TAX-RATE FOR 1882. 

For general fund 27 8 cents $1,488,735 

For school fund 24-3 cents 1,800,000 

For interest and sinking fund 7 5 cents 398,000 

Total 59-6cents $3,186,735 

The counties paid to the State for taxes in 1881, 
$4,230,075.68, and in 1882, $4,144,659.93. 

From other sources the State received, for 
1831, $52,497.98, and for 1882, $553,994.48, 
making a total of all receipts from all sources 
for the thirty-second year, of $4.751,573.66, 
and for the thirty-third year of $4,698,654.41. 

The amount of outstanding warrants, June 
30, 1882, was $286,749.69 ; balance in Treas- 
ury, $1,016,021.77. On the financial condition 
of the State, Gov. Perkins, in his valedictory 
message, says: 

The State has taxable property of the assessed value 
of about $610,000,000. Her interest - bearing debt 
amounts to $3,293,500. Of that debt the State owns, 
holding in trust for educational purposes, $2,690,000. 
This leaves only $603,500 of her bonds in private 
hands; and there is now in the Treasury, and pro- 
vided for by taxes already levied, something more 
than $500,000 applicable to their purchase or redemp- 
tion. That showing is a good one for a Common- 
wealth that has expended within the past ten years 
more than $4,000,000 upon public buildings, more 
than $4,500,000 for charities, and more than $2,000,- 
000 for public education. 

Within fifteen years our expenditures for educational 
purposes have increased from the annual average of 
$275,000 to that of the current fiscal year $2,029,- 
974 ; expenses, ordinary and extraordinary, have been 
met ; permanent improvements of great value have 
been made; taxation has not been excessive, com- 
paratively speaking, and the public debt has been 
steadily reduced. 

During the present administration the ordinary ex- 
penses of government have been light, the extraor- 
dinary ones great. The public institutions have been 
ably and economically managed. The various offices 
have been efficiently filled and prudently conducted. 
The expenditures for all purposes have averaged $4,- 
244,038 annually. For the five years preceding, the 
annual average expenditure was $3.633,902. The in- 
creased average expenditure yearly has been $610,136. 
Such increase is owing in part to extraordinary ap- 
propriations made and, in my opinion, wisely made 



for various purposes ; but is owing mainly to our 
growth as a community, which has naturally necessi- 
tated greater outlay. 

For charities, the annual expenditures were, for five 
years preceding this administration, $433,870. The 
average for the past three years has been $623,262. 
For public education, the average yearly outlay tor 
the five fiscal years immediately preceding my inau- 
guration was $1,880,628. During my term of office, 
the average annual outlay for the same purposes has 
been $1,783,948. The increased annual average, there- 
fore, for these two items alone, amounts to $592,865 
which is within $17,000 of the total increased 
average. 

The State Board of Equalization was provided for 
under the Constitution for the purpose, in part, of ef- 
fecting an equalization of the assessment of the prop- 
erty of the State. From the report of the board it 
would appear that it has not been able, through de- 
fects in the law, and decisions of the Supreme Court, 
in raising the assessment of the State to the true 
standard of value in money. Thus, while, exclusive 
of railroads, the assessment of 1880 exceeded that of 
1879 in the sum of $103,068,642. the assessment of 
1881 and 1 882 did not increase in the proportion which 
was expected from the known progress of the State 
in material wealth and industrial pursuits. The as- 
sessment of 1881 was below that ol 1880 $36,278,541. 
The assessment of 1882 shows a decrease below that 
of 1880 of $55,158,105, and below that of 1881 of 
$18,879,564. 

I entered upon the duties of my office with defi- 
ciency bills amounting to more than $218,000. A 
part of this sum was for increase in salaries of the 
judiciary, and expense of Railroad Commission and 
Board of Equalization, that were created by the new 
Constitution, and began life the middle of the fiscal 
year. The Legislature of 1880 appropriated $414,000 
more than it levied a tax to raise. Hence resulted the 
tax levy for 1881 of 65-5 cents as against that for 1880 
of only 59 cents. The last Legislature paid all these 
accumulated debts ; there was a falling off in the 
assessed value of property of $51,000,000, and yet, as 
the result of prudent economy in outlay, the tax levy 
for 1882 was reduced to 56-6 cents ; and to-day our 
public buildings are all in a most excellent state of 
preservation ; and one of our prisons almost placed 
upon a self-sustaining basis." 

California contributes $190,000 annually to 
twenty orphan asylum societies toward the 
expense of caring for the children. The insane 
asylums cost $458,000, and the State prisons 
$450,000. 

Viticulture. The Board of Viticultural Com- 
missioners has performed its labors with credit 
to itself and profit to the State. Established 
but three years, it has seen the increased plan- 
tation of from 50,000 to 60,000 acres of land 
in.vines, which plantations were made mainly 
through the encouraging influence of this 
board, it being also instrumental in choice of 
the vines planted and the locations selected. 
The actual present value of these new planta- 
tions is over $15,000,000, and the increased 
value by this reason given to the surrounding 
properties must be fully as much more. The 
impetus thus given to the plantation of vine- 
yards still continues. The present plantations 
will yield the producers after the next vintage 
not less than six and a half million dollars per 
annum. There are now planted not less than 
100,000 acres of vineyards, of which, probably, 
7,000 are planted with the choicest of import- 
ed vines. 



80 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



Eteftion Returns. The result of the election 
in November, 1882, was as follows: For Gov- 
ernor, Stoneman, Democrat, 90,724 ; Estee, Re- 
publican, 67,175 ; McDonald, Prohibitionist, 
5,765 ; McQuiddy, Greenbacker, 1,020. All 
the State officers elected were Democrats. The 
Democrats also elected two Congressmen- at- 
large, four district Congressmen, three Railroad 
Commissioners (one in each district), and three 
members of the State Board of Equalization 
(first, third, and fourth districts). In the sec- 
ond district the Republicans elected the mem- 
ber of this board. The following is the vote 
for district Congressmen : 



ada, when considered in degrees of longitude, 
its breadth in miles is only 3,200 from extrem- 
ity to extremity, and from ocean-port to ocean- 
port, only 2,200. From Port Nelson, on Hud- 
son bay, to the mouth of the Skuna river, in 
British Columbia, is only 1,360 miles. 

The physical features of Canada, considered 
as a whole, are very regular. The northeastern 
coast-line is deeply indented by Hudson and 
James bays, while its eastern one is broken 
irregularly by the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the Bay of Fundy. 

The lakes of Canada are detailed in the fol- 
lowing table : 



DISTRICT. 


Democratic. 


Republican. 


Other. 


First 


22,788 


14,847 


656 


Second 


20,229 


19,246 


556 


Third 


21,807 


19,478 


1,266 


Fourth 


23105 


18,387 


710 











CANADA, DOMINION OF. The Dominion of 
Canada, the largest and in many respects the 
most important colony of Great Britain, com- 
prises the greater portion of the North Ameri- 
can continent lying north of the United States. 

Geography. Its boundaries are : on the south, 
the United States and the Great Lakes ; on the 
west, from the Straits of Juan de Fuca, latitude 
48, to Dixon Entrance, latitude 55 N., in the 



NAME. 


Area 
in 
miles. 


Depth 
in 
feet. 


Latitude 
center. 


Nipigon 


1,650 


850 


50 


Simcoe 
Nipissing 


300 
550 


704 
634 


44 25' 
46 15' 


Temiscamingue 


350 
567 


650 


47" 15' 
44 80' 


St John 


500 


50 


48 80' 


Great Bear* 


14,000 


230 


66 


Great Slave* 


20,000 


580 


62 


Athabasca* 

Wollaston* 


5,000 
2000 


600 
600 


59" 
58 


Deer* . ... 


8,000 


500 


57 


Winnipeg 


10,000 


700 


52 80' 


Winnipegosis 


2,800 


728 


52 80' 


Manitoba 


2000 


720 


51 


Woods... 


500 


977 


49" 30' 




Pacific ocean, and from Dixon Entrance to 
the Arctic ocean, in latitude 70, the United 
States Territory Alaska ; on the north lies the 
Arctic ocean ; while on the northeast and east 
are Baffin bay, Davis straits, the Atlantic ocean, 
Labrador, Straits of Belle Isle, and the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence. Labrador, though part of the 
mainland, is under the administration of New- 
foundland. Included within these boundaries 
are 3,370,000 square miles of land. 

Notwithstanding the great breadth of Can- 



The provinces of Canada are : 



NAME. 


Area In 

miles. 


Population 
in 1881. 


Capital 
of province. 


Ontario 


220000 


1 928 228 




Quebec 


188 000 


1 359 027 


Quebec 


New Brunswick 
Nova Scotia 
Manitoba 


27,000 
20,000 
123000 


821,233 
440,572 
65954 


Fredericton. 
Halifax. 
Winnipeg. 


British Columbia.... 
Pince Edward 


341,000 
2,000 


49,459 
108,891 


Victoria. 
Charlottetown. 



* Great Bear, Great Slave,' Athabasca, Wollaston, and Deer 
are not properly surveyed yet, hence the areas, etc., are only 
approximate. They are all shallow. 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



(For details concerning the various provinces, 
eee the articles under their respective names.) 

Territories. To the east of British Columbia 
lie the four new Territories of Canada, viz., 
Athabasca, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Assini- 
boia. By an Order in Council, dated May, 
1882, these were erected out of the Northwest 
Territories, for the convenience of settlers and 
for postal and other purposes. 

Assiniboia. The District of Assiniboia, about 
95,000 square miles in extent, is bounded on 
the south by the 49th parallel ; on the east by 
the western boundary of Manitoba, meridian 
101 1 ; on the north by the southern boundary 
of Saskatchewan, the 52d parallel of latitude ; 
and on the west by the eastern boundary of 
Alberta, near meridian 111^. 

Saskatchewan. The District of Saskatchewan, 
about 114,000 square miles in extent, is bound- 
ed on the south by Assiniboia and Manitoba ; 
on the east by Lake Winnipeg and the Nel- 



son river ; on the north by the 55th parallel of 
latitude ; and on the west by Alberta, me- 
ridian 11 1. 

Alberta. The District of Alberta, about 100,- 
000 square miles in extent, lies between the 
49th parallel on the south and the southern 
boundary of Athabasca, the 55th parallel, on 
the north ; and between the western bounda- 
ries of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, meridian 
111^, on the east, and the eastern boundary of 
British Columbia on the west. 

Athabasca. The District of Athabasca, about 
122,000 square miles in extent, lies between 
Alberta on the south and the 60th parallel of 
latitude on the north ; and between the eastern 
boundary of British Columbia, meridian 120, 
on the west, and the meridian forming the 
eastern boundary of Alberta, continued north 
until it intersects the Athabasca river, thence 
that river, Lake Athabasca, and Slave river, to 
the 60th parallel. 



TERRITORIES. 



NAME. 


Area in miles. 


Most important placet. 


Assiniboia 


95,000 




Saskatchewan. .... 
Alberta 


114,000 
100,000 


Walsh and Pelly, Broad view,' Medicine Hat, and Touchwood 
Battleford, Cumberland, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Forts Pitt, Carlton, and La 
Corne. 
Fort Macleod, Edmonton, Victoria, Rocky Mountain House Forts Calgary Sas- 


Athabasca 
Keewatin 


122,000 
360,000 


katchewan, Old Bow, and Assiniboine. 
Dunnegan, Vermilion, Peace Kiver, Athabasca, Forts Macleod, and Lesser Slave. 
Fort York, Fort Churchill Norway and Oxford 









The remaining portions of Canada, unoffi- 
cially named Northwest, North, and Northeast 
Territories, include nearly one half of it. The 
capital of the organized Territories is Regina. 
Formerly it was Battleford, but it was changed 
in 1882 to its present site. 

Population. The official census shows that 
Canada contained, in 1881, 4,324,810 souls. 
The following table exhibits the countries in 
which these were born, with the number from 
each: 



England 




169,504 


Russia 


6,376 


Adventists 


7,211 






185 526 


Spain 


215 


Baptists 


296,525 


Scotland 
Canada 




115,062 
3,715,492 
8143 


Sweden, Norway. 
United States.... 


2,076 
. . 77,753 
14169 


Brethren 
Koman Catholics . . 
Anglican 


8,831 
1,791,982 
574.818 


France 
Germany 




4,389 

25,328 


Total... 


.. 4.324,810 


Congregational 
Disciples 


26,900 
20,198 


Italy ' 




111 






Refor'd Episcopal. 


2,596 












Jews 


2,898 


TVia frvllrKTT 


; r 








Lutherans... 


46,350 



cording to origin or nationality of parents : 



21,394 

4,383 

30,412 

881,301 



African 

Chinese 

Dutch 

English 

French 

German 25<319 

Icelandic 1,009 

Indian 108,547 

Irish 957,403 

Italian 1,849 



Jewish 667 

Russian 1,227 

Scandinavian 4,214 

Scotch 699,863 

Spanish 1,172 

Swiss 4,588 

Welsh 9,947 

Others 43,536 

Total 4,324,801 



Ontario 1,923,288 Prince Ed. Island 

Quebec 1,359,027 Manitoba 65^954 

Nova Scotia 440,572 British Columbia. . . 49,459 

New Brunswick . . . 321,233 Territories 56,446 

NOTE. This is the census of 1881. Since that date Mani- 
toba and the Territories have increased by immigration over 
150,000 (1883). 

The following statement shows the total 
number of the adherents to the various churches 
in Canada. (For more extended information 
concerning the leading denominations, see the 
articles under their respective titles.) 

Methodists 742,981 

Pagans 4,478 

Presbyterians 686,165 

Quakers 6,553 

Unitarians 2,126 

Universalists 4,517 

Not given 110,191 

Total 4,324,801 



Indians. There are nearly 108,000 Indians 
in the Dominion, distributed as follows: 



Ontario 15,780 

Quebec . 11,071 

Nova Scotia 2,219 

New Brunswick 1,416 

Prince Ed. Island. ... 290 

Manitoba & N. W. Ter. 35,726 



Athabasca District. . . 2,398 

British Columbia .... 35,052 

Rupert's Land 3,770 

Total 107,722 



In this table Canadians and Americans are 
classed under the various headings, English, 
French, Irish, Dutch, etc. 

By provinces, the following is the classifica- 
tion of the population : 
VOL. xxin. 6 A 



Of the above, 46,962 reside on reserves, and 
cultivate 75,365 acres of land. 

Schools are maintained for the children of 
Indians chiefly at the expense of the Dominion 
Government. The attendance at them is as 
follows: 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



Ontario . ..1,907 N. W. Territories 971 

Quebec 404 British Columbia 662 

Nova Scotia 107 

NewBrunswick 67 Total 4,126 

Prince Ed. Island 18 

History and Government. The Dominion of 
Canada was founded on the 1st of July, 1867, 
by the federal union of the provinces, Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Canadas, Up- 
per and Lower. By the act of Union the Can- 
adas were named Ontario (Upper), and Quebec 
(Lower). The " British North America Act" 
is the name given to the Imperial statute creat- 
ing the Dominion. In that statute authority 
is given to create the province of Manitoba. 
By virtue of that, and succeeding imperial and 
Canadian statutes amending it, that province 
was admitted into the Dominion in 1870, being 
formed out of that part of the Hudson Bay Ter- 
ritory known as Assiniboia Colony, or earlier 
as Selkirk Settlement. This Assiniboia was not 
the same as the present Territory of Assini- 
boia, but more nearly corresponded to the pres- 
ent Manitoba. In 1871 British Columbia was 
admitted into the Dominion, and in 1873 Prince 
Edward Island. The Territories were acquired 
in 1870, by transfer from the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany. 

The form of government in Canada is in 
theory monarchical, but in practice republi- 
can. It consists of a legislative and an execu- 
tive power. The legislative power is a Parlia- 
ment composed of a House of Commons, a Sen- 
ate, and a Govern or- General. The members 
of the House of Commons are elected by popu- 
lar vote. At the time of the Confederation, 
this House consisted of 181 members, of whom 
82 were elected from Ontario, 65 from Que- 
bec, 19 from Nova Scotia, and 15 from New 
Brunswick. These numbers are readjusted 
according to each decennial census, subject to 
the following rules : Quebec has the fixed 
number of 65 members. There shall be as- 
signed to each of the other provinces such a 
number of members as will bear the same pro- 
portion to the number of its population (ascer- 
tained at such census) as the number 65 bears 
to the number of the population of Quebec (so 
ascertained). In the computation of the num- 
ber of members for a province, a fractional 
part not exceeding one half of the whole num- 
ber requisite for entitling the province to a 
member, shall be disregarded ; but a fractional 
part exceeding one half of that number shall 
be equivalent to the whole number. On any 
such readjustment the number of members 
for a province shall not be reduced unless the 
proportion which the number of the popu- 
lation of the province bore to the number of 
the aggregate population of Canada at the then 
last preceding readjustment of the number of 
members for the province is ascertained at the 
then latest census to be diminished by one- 
twentieth part or upward. Such readjustment 
shall not take effect until the termination of 
the then existing Parliament. 

After the census of 1881 the readjustment 



stood as follows: Quebec, 65; Ontario, 92; 
Nova Scotia, 21; New Brunswick, 16; Mani- 
toba, 5; British Columbia, 6; Prince Edward 
Island, 6; total, 211. 

The members continue in office for a period 
of five years from the day of the return of the 
writs, subject, however, to an earlier dissolu- 
tion by the Governor-General. The meetings 
of the House of Commons are presided over by 
one of its own members, elected Speaker. To 
become a member of Parliament no property 
qualification is necessary, but every member 
must be either a native-born or legally natu- 
ralized British subject. In 1874 voting by bal- 
lot was introduced, and the law for the pre- 
vention of bribery and other corrupt practices 
at elections was made more stringent than for- 
merly. The elections, except those for British 
Columbia, Manitoba, and some of the remote 
or thinly settled districts of Ontario and Que- 
bec, take place, according to law, on the same 
day throughout the Dominion. 

The Senate of Canada, at the time of con- 
federation, was composed of 72 numbers, 24 
being appointed from Ontario., 24 from Que- 
bec, 12 from New Brunswick, and 12 from 
Nova Scotia. The present (1884) status of the 
Senate is: Ontario, 24; Quebec, 24; Nova 
Scotia, 10 ; New Brunswick, 10 ; Manitoba, 3 ; 
British Columbia, 3; Prince Edward Island, 
4; total, 78. By the British North Amer- 
ica Act, the number of Senators is limited to 
the present number 78, unless Newfoundland 
should enter the Dominion, in which case pro- 
vision is made to allow the number to reach 
82. The chief qualifications to be a Senator 
are : to be thirty years of age ; to be either a 
native-born or a naturalized British subject; 
to hold, over and above all mortgages or 
charges of any kind, property valued at 
$4,000 ; to be a resident in the province for 
which he is appointed ; in Quebec, to be resi- 
dent in the electoral district for which he is 
appointed. Senators are appointed for life 
(subject to certain conditions) by the Gov- 
ernor-General in Council, or practically by 
the Premier or leader of the government of 
the day, who recommends the appointment. 
A Senator is disquajified by non-attendance 
in the Senate for two consecutive sessions. 
The Governor - General is appointed by the 
Government of Great Britain ;md Ireland, and 
represents the Queen. Wherever the Gov- 
ernor-General is named it is clearly under- 
stood, and is so stated in the British (North 
America Act, that it refers to the Governor- 
General acting by and with the consent of 
the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. His 
special or independent functions are few. He 
has the privilege of declaring " according to 
his discretion, but subject to the provisions 
of the British North America Act, and to in- 
structions from the British Government, either 
that he assents in the Queen's name to a bill 
that has passed both the House of Commons 
and the Senate, or that he withholds the 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



83 



Queen's assent, or that he reserves the bill 
for the signification of the Queen's pleasure." 
When the Governor-General, in the Queen's 
name, assents to any bill, he sends by the first 
opportunity an authentic copy of the act to 
one of the principal Secretaries of State for 
the Government of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and if the Queen in Council within two years 
after the receipt thereof thinks fit to dis- 
allow the act, such disallowance, being sig- 
nified by the Governor - General, annuls the 
act from and after that day. The salary of 
the Governor - General is 10,000 sterling 
($50,000), payable out of the Consolidated 
Revenue Fund of Canada. The legislative 
jurisdictions of the Canadian and the Provin- 
cial legislatures are clearly defined in this, as 
indeed in the general plan of confederation, 
much has been modeled after the general 
Constitution of the United States. The prov- 
inces stand nearly in the same relation to the 
Dominion that the individual States do to the 
Union. But there is one very important dif- 
ference, that all matters not specifically men- 
tioned as coming under the exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of the various provinces, belong exclusive- 
ly to the Dominion. 

This division of legislative jurisdiction has 
been the subject of considerable controversy 
between the province of Ontario and the 
Dominion. One point of dispute, the control 
of the liquor -traffic, was finally settled by ap- 
peal to the Privy Council of Great Britain in 
the autumn of 1883. The Government of 
Canada claimed that the powers exercised by 
the provinces of not only raising a revenue 
from the sale of liquor- licenses, but also of 
limiting the hours and modes of such sale, 
were in excess of their privileges, and conse- 
quently in the session of 1883 the Dominion 
Parliament passed a general liquor law. This 
law did not in itself interfere with the provin- 
cial laws, but while asserting the right of the 
federal authority in such matters, imposed 
double liquor laws on the provinces. A test 
case was submitted to the Privy Council of 
Great Britain and Ireland, with the result that 
Ontario, and hence all the provinces, is con- 
firmed in the right of Uniting the hours and 
modes of selling, as well as of levying the 
revenue on shops, saloons, etc. 

Another subject of contention was in the 
matter of escheats. The province of Ontario 
claimed, on the death without heirs of a per- 
son named Mercer, that his property reverted 
to the province. The Canadian Government 
claimed it as reverting to Canada. As in the 
former case, the Privy Council sustained the 
province of Ontario. Several questions in- 
volving disputed jurisdiction are still pending, 
so that before many years the relative duties 
and powers of both federal and provincial 
legislatures will be definitely settled. 

Viscount Monck was Governor General 
when the Dominion was established. He 
was succeeded in 1868 by Sir John Young. 



Lord Dufferin was appointed in 1872, and re- 
tained the office for nearly seven years. The 
Marquis of Lome was Governor-General from 
1878 to 1883, when he was succeeded by the 
Marquis of Lansdowne. The administration of 
justice is intrusted to judges appointed for 
life, i. e., during good behavior, but removable 
by the Governor - General on address of the 
Senate and House of Commons. The Gov- 
ernor-General in council appoints the judges 
of the Superior, District, and County Courts in 
each province, except those of the Probate 
Courts in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
These judges must be selected for the prov- 
inces of Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, and 
Quebec, from the bars of those provinces. 
There is a Supreme Court of the Dominion, 
which is a general Court of Appeal. 

Militia. The militia of Canada are under the 
control of a Minister of Militia and Defense, 
who is responsible to Parliament. The militia 
consists of all male inhabitants of Canada of 
the age of 18 years and upward to 60, not ex- 
empted or disqualified by law, and being Brit- 
ish subjects ; but the Government may require 
all male inhabitants capable of bearing arms to 
serve, in case of a levy en masse. The militia- 
men are divided into four classes, as follow : 
1. Unmarried men and childless widowers from 
18 to 30 years of age. 2. Unmarried men and 
childless widowers from 30 to 45 years of age. 
3. Widowers with children and married men 
from 18 to 45 years of age. 4. Those from 45 
to 60 years of age. These shall serve in order 
as above. The militia is divided into active 
and reserve land force, and active and reserve 
marine force. The active land force is com- 
posed of corps raised by voluntary enlistment ; 
corps raised by ballot ; corps composed of men 
raised by voluntary enlistment and of men bal- 
loted to serve. The active marine force is 
similarly raised, and is composed of seamen, 
sailors, and persons whose usual occupation is 
upon any vessel navigating Canadian waters. 

Canada is divided into 12 military districts, 
each under the supervision of a deputy adju- . 
tant- general assisted by brigade-majors. These 
districts are subdivided into brigade divisions, 
and these still further into regimental and com-i 
pany subdivisions. The militia is to be enrolled 
each year by the officers of the reserve militia. 

The active militia consists of cavalry, artil- 
lery, engineers, mounted infantry, infantry and 
marine corps, a total number (all volunteers) 
of about 36,000 men. 

The term of service is three years. These 
turn out annually for twelve days' drill, as a 
rule, in brigade camps, where they undergo a 
fairly good training (under canvas) in their 
duties. The strength of the regiment is usually 
from 6 to 10 companies of 42 men and 3 offi- 
cers each. There is an officer commanding 
the militia, selected from the regular army of 
Great Britain, and holding rank therein of 
colonel or a superior rank. He ranks as ma- 



84 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



jor-general in the militia, and receives a salary 
of $4,000. 

There is a permanent college, the Royal Mili- 
tary College of Canada, at Kingston. Its ob- 
jects are to impart a complete education in all 
branches of military tactics, fortification, engi- 
neering, and general scientific knowledge. 

Finances. The total debt of Canada, which 
in 1867 was $93,046,052, in 1882 was $205,- 
365,252, and bore an average interest of 3*82 
per cent. The amount of debt payable in 
Canada was $73,242,377, consisting of pro- 
vincial debts assumed, savings-bank deposits 
($14,229,000), Dominion stock, etc., and $15,- 
807,910 of Dominion notes. The debt payable 
in London, which in 1867 amounted to $67,- 
069,116 and bore an average interest of 5*55 
per cent., had grown by 1882 to $132,122,875, 
the rate of interest having been reduced to 
4-39 per cent. Where, in the first year of 
confederation, the major portion of the for- 
eign debt bore 6 per cent, interest, the portion 
paying so high a rate had, by 1882, been re- 
duced to $9,254,000, and the large sum of $89,- 
060,000 bore only 4 per cent., the remainder 
bearing. a rate of 5 per cent. No less than 
$4,000,000 of debt was retired in the year last 
named. 

The Consolidated Fund of Canada is com- 
posed of her public works, such as canals, wa- 
ter-power, railways, railway debts, harbors, 
and river and lake improvements, together 
with all securities, cash, bankers' balances, 
lands, mines, and royalties, as well as the 
revenues from customs, excise, and public 
lands. The receipts on account of this fund, 
in 1882, were $33,383,000, of which $21,- 
581,000 were from customs, and $5,884,000 
from excise. The further receipts were 
$23,000,000, consisting of Dominion notes, 
savings-bank and other loans. The expendi- 
ture on Consolidated Fund account was $27,- 
067,000, otherwise, $29,000,000, of which 
$12,000,000 went in redemption of debt. The 
sum of $7,351,000 was expended in 1882 on 
capital account, two thirds of which was for 
railways, the remainder on canals, telegraphs, 
and Dominion lands. The post-office savings- 
banks show an increase during 1882 equal to 
$2,260,000 over 1881. The number of ac- 
counts is 25,633 greater (51,463 is the total 
number), and the average amount at the credit 
of each depositor has grown from $97 to $184 
in fifteen years. 

Banking. Canadian banks resemble most 
closely the joint-stock banks of Scotland, which 
first came into existence early in the last cen- 
tury ; with, however, the important difference 
that where each individual proprietor in the 
latter is liable to the full extent of his property 
for the obligations of the bank, the Canadian 
shareholder is, like the American one, liable 
only for double the amount of his shares. In 
some particulars, both of banking and cur- 
rency, the United States model has been fol- 
lowed. The decimal currency system of dol- 



lars and cents, used for a hundred years by 
their American neighbors, was adopted by 
Canadians twenty years ago. 

The banking system of Canada is not, cer- 
tainly, a copy of the cash- credit or personal 
security system of Scotland, where one can get 
credit from a bank if sureties will vouch for 
him. Nor is the system closely allied to what 
may be described as the mortmain or funded 
security plan of English bankers, under which 
one must either deposit title-deeds to land or 
hand over Government or other stock, to ob- 
tain a loan. Loans are freely made by Cana- 
dian banks on stocks and bonds, but lending 
upon real estate is left to the loan societies. 
The largest item by far among the assets of the 
banks is their discounts of promissory notes 
bearing two or more names. The rate of in- 
terest charged has ranged of late years from 
7 to 9 per cent. ; to-day it ranges from 6 to 8, 
7 per cent, being the legal rate. 

Early in 1870 the banks ceased to issue notes 
of a smaller denomination than $4, and in the 
next year the $1 and $2 notes were issued by 
the Government, as they have since continued 
to be. Offices of the Receiver-General and 
Government savings-banks were opened in 
various cities, for the issue and redemption of 
the small notes and for the sale of Dominion 
stock. Assimilation of the currency of the 
various provinces was provided for by Hincks's 
act of 1870, and the British silver coins, which 
up to that time had circulated in Canada, were 
arranged to be withdrawn. 

By the act of 1871 banks were required to 
hold not less than one third of their cash re- 
sources in Dominion notes, which are procura- 
ble in exchange for gold at all times. The 
Government was constituted the chief specie- 
reserve-provider and comptroller. An amend- 
ment of April, 1882, provided that any ex- 
cess over $9,000,000 to which amount the 
issue of Dominion notes was at that time lim- 
ited may be held by the Receiver-General 
partly in specie and partly in deposits in char- 
tered banks, the proportion being 20 per cent, 
in specie and 80 per cent, in deposit receipts. 
By the act of 1871 banks were exempted from 
tax upon their circulation. 

Among the twelve heads of departments 
who administer the affairs of Canada at Ot- 
tawa, not the least important is the Minister of 
Finance, a minister of the Crown, who is 
charged with the direction and control of the 
public accounts, revenue and expenditure, and 
financial affairs generally of the country, ex- 
cepting customs and inland revenue, which have 
separate ministers. The banks and the currency 
are under the control of this department. 

The paid-up capital of the twenty-seven 
banks of Canada at the date of confederation 
(1867) was under $30,000,000; their circula- 
tion, $10,000,000 ; deposits, $38,000,000 ; and 
discounts, $53,000,000. The number of banks 
had grown by 1883 to forty, whose aggregate 
capital exceeded $61,000,000 ; circulation, $34,- 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



85 



000,000; deposits, $106,000,000; and discounts, of Canada, with the amount and value of their 
$145,000,000. shares, their capital, and reserve funds in 

The following is a list of the chartered banks March, 1883 : 



BANKS. 


When 
chartered. 


Amount 
per share. 


Capital paid. 


Rest. 


Yearly 
diridend. 


Cash value 
per shai*. 


Bank of British North America 


1886 


50 


$4,866,666 


$1,215,000 


Per cent. 
6 


$273 50 




1867 


$50 


6 000 000 


1 650000 


g 


68 25 


Commercial Bank of Windsor Nova Scotia 




40 


260,000 


78000 


8 






1871 


50 


1,500,000 


750000 


10 


100 87 


Eastern Townships Bank 


1859 


50 


1,397,659 


270,000 


1 


60 00 




1872 


100 


500000 


250 000 


8 


170 00 




1874 


100 


2,691 610 


1,800 000 


1 


158 25 




1872 


20 


500,000 


30000 


6 


21 60 


Bank of Hamilton . . .... . .... 


1872 


100 


852,580 


185 000 


7 


116 00 


Imperial Bank of Canada 


1875 


100 


1,472,000 


504,000 


8 


144 00 




1855 


50 


1 000 000 


240 000 


5 


4 00 






25 


500 000 


125 000 


7 






1860 


100 


2,000,000 






* 


Maritime Bank ... . 


1872 


100 


697,800 






55 00 




1864 


100 


5,698,696 


750,000 


7 




Merchants' Bank of Halifax 


1869 


100 


1 000 000 


180 000 


7 


180 00 


Molson's Bank 


1855 


50 


2,000 000 


425,000 


7 






1818 


200 


11,999,900 


5,500,000 


12 




Bank of New Brunswick 




100 


1,000,000 


400,000 


8 


140 00 


Bank of Nova Scotia 


1882 


200 


1 000 000 


325 000 


8 


150 00 


Ontario Bank 


1857 


100 


1 500 000 


225 000 


6 






1818 


100 


2,500 000 


325 000 


7 




Bank of Ottawa . . 


1874 


100 


600,000 


60,000 


6 




People's Bank of Halifax 


1864 


20 


600,000 


50,000 


6 


110 00 


People's Bank of New Brunswick 




50 


150,000 










1873 


40 


200,000 


32,000 


6 


108 00 


Standard Bank of Canada 


1875 


50 


762,510 


80,000 


7 




Bank of Toronto . ... 


1855 


100 


2,000,000 


1,000,000 


8 




Union Bank of Halifax 


1864 


50 


500,000 


80,000 


6 


114 00 




1865 


100 


2 000 000 




7 




Union Bank of Prince Edward Island 


1863 




500,000 






120 00 




1864 


100 


388,970 


20,000 


8 


110 00 


St Stephen's Bank, New Brunswick 


1836 


100 


200,000 










1882 




161 439 








Bank of British Columbia 
















1869 


70 


245,021 


85,560 


6 




La Banque Ville Marie 






464,250 














226 090 














257 850 














685,200 






















Total... 






$60,873,241 


$16,034,560 




.... 



Building and Loan Societies. The loan compa- 
nies of Canada play an important part in her 
money-lending system. They were established 
as building societies after the English plan, 
the design being to assist investors to acquire 
land or to build houses by making payments 
in regular installments? to that end ; but they 
have for the most part changed their method 
Of late years, and now lend upon the security 
of real estate the money which they receive 
from depositors in Canada, and debenture- 
holders in the United Kingdom, in addition to 
their paid-up capital. In 1846 legislation was 
granted in Upper Canada favoring such socie- 
ties. About 1847 very similar acts were passed 
by Quebec and New Brunswick, and in 1849 
by Nova Scotia. 

The growth of societies of this kind, both in 
number and extent, has been remarkable, es- 
pecially in Ontario. In the first return of their 
operations made to Government in 1863, only 
eleven permanent building societies were in- 
cluded, having a total capital of $1,208,000, 
deposits of $365,000, and mortgage loans of 
$1,500,000. There were, besides, at this time 
terminable building societies whose aggregate 
capital was $873,000. By 1873 the number of 
societies shown in this yearly return had grown 
to twenty-three; their capital to 6,376,000; 



deposits to $2,869,000, while the value of the 
mortgages they held exceeded $9,500,000. It 
was soon found possible to borrow money in 
Britain, however, at lower rates and in larger 
sums than was possible at home; and in 1874 
a Dominion act was passed granting power to 
such societies to issue debentures. Several of 
the leading companies at once became borrow- 
ers in the Scottish and English money-mar- 
kets, and the additional capital obtained gave a 
decided impetus to the working of such lead- 
ing corporations. By a return to Government 
for the calendar year 1880, it appears that at 
least eighty such societies were then in exist- 
ence in the Dominion ; capital, $24,495,975 ; 
deposits, $11,713,633; loans secured on real 
estate, $56,612,200. 

Insurance Companies. There are in Canada 
sixty-nine insurance companies, some of which 
do more than one kind of insurance. The na- 
ture of the business done by them is as fol- 
lows : companies doing life-insurance, 39 ; fire, 
29 ; inland marine, 6 ; ocean, 3 ; accident, 5 ; 
guarantee, 2; plate-glass, 1; steam-boiler, 1. 
The deposits for the protection of policy-hold- 
ers, held by the Keceiver- General in trust for 
these companies, according to the last official 
report, amounted to $7,032,377.53. 

The total net amount insured by fire-policies 



86 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



in force in Canada at the end of 1881 was $462,- 
210,968. The premiums received by all compa- 
nies for fire-insurance during 1881 amounted 
to $3,827,116. Of this amount Canadian com- 
panies received $1,206,476 ; English companies, 
$2,353.258; and American companies, $267,388. 

The total amount received in premiums by 
marine companies during 1881 was $3,131,- 
925.97. Of the 39 life companies, 9 are Cana- 
dian, 18 British, and 12 American. The total 
amount of life-insurance in force at the end of 
1881 was $103,290,932. Of this amount $46,- 
041,591 is in Canadian companies, $20,983,092 
in English companies, and $36,266,249 in 
American companies. In all 62,857 persons 
are insured. The following was the surplus 
of assets over liabilities of the Canadian com- 
panies in existence at the end of 1881 : Canada 
Life, $451,752 ; Citizens', $20,513 ; Confedera- 
tion, $235,916 ; Mutual Life, $42,107 ; North 
American, $59,831 ; Ontario Mutual, $27,495; 
Sun, $127,324 ; Toronto, $37,510. 

Agriculture. The total value of the agricul- 



tural exports from the Dominion for 1881 was 
$21,268,327. The several provinces exported 
these products as follows: Ontario, $11,426,- 
692; Quebec, $8,242,024; Nova Scotia, $526,- 
004; New Brunswick, $141,772; Manitoba, 
$21,367; Prince Edward Island, $910,222. 

The agricultural products were sent almost 
entirely to England and the United States; 
$9,490,890 to the former, and $10,631,374 to 
the latter. Fourteen countries in all shared in 
these exports. The chief productions of the 
soil exported were as follow : 



ARTICLES. 


Bushels. 


Value. 


Barley 


8,800,579 


$6,621 188 


Beans 


108 923 


117 708 


Oats 


2 926 532 


1 191 873 


Peas 


4 245 590 


3 478 003 


Rye 

Potatoes 


870,296 
2 295 307 


783,840 
830 218 


"Wheat 


2 523 678 


2 593 8''0 


Fruit (sreen) 


334538bbh 


645658 


Flour (of wheat) 


439 728 " 


2173108 


Hay . . . 


168,381 tons. 


1 813 208 


Malt 


25,51 5,754 iu. 


649,857 



ACRES OF LAND OCCUPIED, AND NUMBER OF OWNERS AND OF TENANTS. 



PROVINCE. 


Total occupied. 


Total 

improved. 


Under crops. 


In pasture. 


Gardens and 
orchards. 


Total owners. 


Total tenants. 


Ontario 


19,259,909 


11,294,109 


8,370,266 


2,619,088 


804,805 


169,140 


36,690 


Quebec 


12,625,877 


6,410,264 


4,147,984 


2,207,422 


54,858 


123,932 


12,344 


New Brunswick 


3 809 621 


1,253,299 


849,678 


392,169 


11,452 


33,901 


2,786 


Nova Scotia 


5,396,382 


1.880,644 


942,010 


917,010 


21,624 


51,710 


3,929 


Prince Edward Island 


1,126,653 


596,731 


467,211 


126,935 


2.585 


12,736 


842 


British Columbia. 


441 255 


184 885 


83657 


98457 


2955 


2410 


313 


Manitoba ... .... 


2,384,337 


250,416 


230,264 


17,197 


2771 


8,742 


301 


















Total ... 


45 358 141 


21 899 181 


15 112 284 


6 385 562 


401 335 


403 491 


57 245 



















Forest Products* The total value of the pro- 
ductions of the forest exported in the year 
1881 was $24,960,012. The several provinces 
exported as follows: Ontario, $t>,576,332; 
Quebec, $12,785,223; Nova Scotia, $1,325,- 
280; New Brunswick, $4,068,241; British 
Columbia, $162,747; Prince Edward Island, 
$42,189. 

Mineral Products. The total value of the 
mineral products exported from Canada in 
1881 was $2,767,829. The following state- 
ments show the amount of each mineral ex- 
ported : 



Coal. 


420 055 


$1 123 091 


Gold-bearing 'quartz 
Gypsum 


130961 


'767,818 

119 399 


M ineral oils gallons 


2456 


681 


Antimony-ore 


46 


8921 


Copper- ore 


19802 


150*412 


Iron-ore 


44677 


114850 


Manganese-ore 


2,101 


38788 


Silver-ore 




34494 


Phosphates 


15601 


239 498 


Halt . . bushels 


253 555 




Sand and gravel 
Stone and marble 
Other minerals 


55,860 
28,189 


12,511 
81,924 
41,481 



Fisheries. The exports of fish and articles 
produced from tish and other marine animals, 
amounted in 1881 to $6,867,715. The value 
exported from the various provinces was as 



follows: Ontario, $128,839; Quebec, $747,- 
549; Nova Scotia, $4,278,731; New Bruns- 
wick, $786,400; Manitoba, $3,930; British 
Columbia, $400,984; Prince Edward Island, 
$521,282. 

Manufactures. A great impetus has been 
given to manufacturing interests throughout 
the Dominion by the protective act known as 
the National Policy. In addition to supplying 
the demand of Canada itself with a very large 
part of the articles necessary in every depart- 
ment of life and labor, the manufacturers are 
now able to compete successfully in some im- 
portant lines with other countries. The amount 
of capital invested was $165,302,623; hands 
employed, 254,935; total value of products, 
$309,676,068. Manufactures were exported 
from Canada in 1881 to twenty-seven other 
countries, the total value being $3,075^,095. 

The value of the principal articles manufac- 
tured for export was as follows : 

Agricultural implements , . . $31,269 

Biscuits 17,228 

Carriages 46,442 

Clothing , 9.952 

Cordage, ropes, and twine 12,031 

Extract of hemlock-bark 190,068 

Furs 3,223 

Grindstones 85,755 

Gypsum or plaster, ground 13,888 

Iron : Stoves 3,809 

Other castings ". 14,387 

Scrap . . 191,210 

Other, and hardware 84,713 



CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



87 



Junk and oakum 35,1T7 

Leather : Sole and upper 41 6,902 

Boots and shoes 101,727 

Liquors : Ale, beer, and cider 20,824 

Whisky 2,598 

Other spirits 8,264 

Machinery 40,201 

Oil-cake 39,474 

Organs . 27,612 

Bags.. ..'.'. 49,044 

Sewing-machines 165,452 

Ships sold to other countries 848,018 

Starch 32,691 

Steel, manufactures of 148,656 

Stone and marble, wrought 13,802 

Tobacco 44,803 

Wood : Furniture 100,3s7 

Doors, sashes, etc '. 22,280 

Other manufactures of 291,657 

Shipping. The total number of vessels regis- 
tered in the Dominion, Dec. 31, 1881, 4 was 
7,394, measuring 1,310,896 tons, register ton- 
nage. The total estimated value of these ves- 
sels was $39,326,880. Three hundred and 
thirty-six new vessels were built in the Do- 
minion during 1881, measuring 74,060 tons, 
register tonnage, and valued at $3,332,700. 

The merchant shipping of the Dominion is 
now exceeded by that of three other countries : 
Great Britain, the United States, and Norway. 

Exports. The exports from Canada amount 
annually to about $100,000,000. They consist 
chiefly of the products of the forest, the mine, 
agriculture, and animals. 

The rapid increase in the export trade of the 
Dominion during the years 1880 and 1881 is 
shown by the following table: 



COUNTRIES. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


Great Britain 
United States 
France 


$36,295,718 
27,165,501 
714,875 


$45,846,062 
83,349,909 

812,829 


$53,751,570 
86,866,225 
662,711 


Germany 


112,090 


82,237 


84,932 


Spain 


50,596 


60,727 


46.653 




135,748 


165,885 


108,594 


Italy 
Holland 
Belgium 
Newfoundland 
British West Tndies . . . 
Spanish West Indies. . . 
French West Indies. .. 
Other W. India islands. 


148,472 
9,713 
40,430 
1,641,417 
1,955,584 
1,237,598 
219,121 
88,367 
741,442 


163,787 
102,592 
688,811 
1,510,300 
1,906,053 
1,319.588 
223,973 
94,489 
789,940 


145,997 
215,754 
258,433 
1,523,469 
1,787,813 
1,167,612 
111,175 
80,769 
732,111 


China and Japan 
Australia 
South Africa 


56,551 

290,762 
45,515 


87,546 
139,901 

82,178 


19,761 
146,363 
81,644 


Other countries 


541,755 


534,651 


499,237 


Totals 


$71,491,255 


$87,911,458 


$98,290,823 



In 1882 the largest share of Canadian exports 
went to the United States, while the greater 
portion of the imports came from Great Brit- 
ain. Thus : 



COUNTRIES. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


United States 


Per cent. 
46'94 


Per cent. 
42-86 


Great Britain 


44-33 


44-91 


Other countries 


8-73 


12-33 



Railways. Although the railway system of 
Canada is yet in its infancy, immense and 
rapid strides have been made in recent .years, 
as the following statistics show. The total 
mileage on June 30. 1882, was : 





M.I.,. 


Increase 
during year. 


Eailways in operation 
Railways having the track laid. . . 


7,530-44 
589-00 
8 189-16 


269-98 
203-70 
279-16 








Total 


11 253-60 











The nominal capital on June 30, 1882, was : 

Ordinary share capital $142,936,524 C3 

Preference share capital 71,531,940 40 

Bonded debt 92,487,932 42 

Aid from Government and municipalities. . . 108,655,412 85 

Total $415,611,810 30 

This shows an increase of $26,326,109.99 
over the previous year. 

The number of passengers carried during the 
year ending June, 1882, was 9,352,335, an in- 
crease of 2,408,664, or 34'68 per cent. The 
freight handled was 13,575,787 tons, an in- 
crease of 1,510,364 tons, or 12'51 per cent. 

The earnings of the railways for 1881-'82 
are: 

Increase for year. 

Passengers $10,018,478 $1,795,224 

Freight 17,729,945 * 

Mails and express 1,037,460 91,301 

Other sources 235,857 90,525 

Earnings of roads not detailed 6,049 267 

Totals $29,027,789 $1,977,817 

The operating expenses are : 

Maintenance $4,614,041 Increase, $498,943 

Working and repairing of 

engines 6,834,530 " 850,810 

Working and repairs of cars. 2,219,015 " 153,801 

General operating expenses. . 8,643,933 " 896,428 

Expenses of roads not de- 
tailed 79,183 Decrease, 



Total.' $22,390,708 Net inc'e, $2,269,290 

Thus the earnings show an increase of $1,- 
040,280, and the working expenses of $2,269,- 
290, over the previous -year. 

The net profits were : 

Receipts $29,027,789 

Expenses 22,890,708 

Net profit $6,637,081 

The construction of the Canada Pacific Rail- 
way was one of the conditions under which 
British Columbia entered into the union of 
provinces. It was at first the intention to 
make the work a Government enterprise, and 
as such it was begun. In 1881, however, the 
road was transferred to a company. By the 
terms of contract, this company was bound 
to complete the line through Canadian terri- 
tory, from Callander in Ontario to Port Moody 
in British Columbia. As the most difficult 
parts cf the road were not at that time com- 
pleted, it was only on receipt of great privi- 
leges and subsidies that the company undertook 
the work. An important .privilege granted to 
the company is that " for twenty years from 
the issue of the charter (1881), no line of rail- 
way shall be authorized by the Dominion Par- 
liament to be constructed south of the Canada 

* Though the increase in freight in tons was 12-51 per cent., 
yet the receipts for freight show a decrease of $937,037 as 
compared with the previous year. 



88 CANADA, DOMINION OF. 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFKICA. 



Pacific Railway, from any point at or near the 
Canada Pacific Railway, except such line as 
shall run southwest, nor to within fifteen miles 
of latitude 49. And in the establishment of 
any new province in the Northwest Territories 
provision shall be made for continuing such 
prohibition." This clause was intended to bar 
the entrance into the United States of any 
other road; in other words, to force trade 
through Canada via the Canada Pacific Rail- 
way, or, if through the United States, over 
their lines. The province of Manitoba claims 
that, as it was organized as a province before 
the passage of that act, the clause is of no effect 
in its territory ; therefore rival lines are being 
projected to the Dakota border from Manitoba. 

The lands of the company in the Northwest 
are offered on terms as favorable as the Gov- 
ernment's, and already some millions of acres 
have been disposed of. 

Recent investigations, coupled with the ex- 
perience of 200 years, have proved that Hud- 
son bay is navigable, and its ports are open for 
at least six months each year. This route is 
attracting attention among capitalists and busi- 
ness men in Great Britain, and two railways 
are in course of construction from Winnipeg 
to York Factory. The distance from Liverpool 
to York Factory, or Fort York, is a little less 
than to Montreal. 

Canals. The canal system of Canada is ex- 
tensive, locks being required to overcome the 
rapids on the St. Lawrence river as well as 
Niagara Falls. These are the important canals 
of Canada, but minor ones are in use to render 
navigable the Ottawa, the Rideau to Kingston, 
the Trent river and lakes, the Richelieu to 
Lake Champlain, and thence to Albany, and 
other waters. The Trent valley, the Georgian 
bay and Ontario, or the Huron and Ontario 
canal, is intended ultimately to connect the 
Georgian bay waters with those of Lake On- 
tario. 

The following table indicates the cost of the 
canals from the outset, as well as their earn- 
ings for the year 1882 : 



CANALS. 


Total cost. 


Earnings for 
1882, including 
tolls, rents, etc. 


Lachlne 


$8 168 718 09 


N 


Beauharnois 
Cornwall 


1,624,632 01 
2 522 519 81 




Williamsburp-I.e., Farrar's, 
Kapide, and Galops 
St. Lawrence river below 
Montreal, dredging, etc 
Welland . 


1,826,312 54 

131,404 08 
20 809 365 09 


$114,578 00 


8t. Ann's.. 


'539't>43 (5Q 




Carillon and Grenville 
Culbuto 


2,885'853 92 
812 577 28 


I 58,511 05 


Eideau 


4,132' 670 10 


7 882 26 


Chambly. . . 


651 745 01 




St. Peter's 


585747 19 


'926 74 


Burlington Buy . . . 




8 807 90 


Survey of Bale Verte 


9992 78 










Total 


$48,418,602 87 


$326,029 03 



Art Education. Industrial drawing finds a 
place in the programme of school studies of 



every province of the Dominion. The object 
aimed at is practical drawing. Nothing of a 
purely artistic nature is taught in the public 
schools, but only such drawing as can be done 
by all who attend school. Teachers are com- 
pelled to pass an examination on this subject 
before obtaining their certificates. 

Art education, in the strictest sense of the 
application of the term art, is not neglected. 
In both Ontario and Quebec the Government 
makes a liberal grant in aid of art-schools. In 
Ontario there are three of these special schools of 
art in Toronto, London, and Ottawa. In Que- 
bec there are a number of smaller institutions 
aided by the Government grant, which is made 
through the Society of Arts and Manufactures. 
The Marquis of Lome and the Princess Louise 
did a great deal for the encouragement of paint- 
ing in Canada, and it was through their inter- 
est in the subject that the Royal Academy of 
Artists was established. This society holds an 
annual exhibition in some of the large cities of 
the Dominion, and has done much to develop 
the taste of the people, and to direct general 
attention to the subject of art. 

Medical .Education. The various medical col- 
leges throughout the Dominion are in a very 
efficient condition as regards the theoretical 
part of the work, but not quite so fully up to 
the present requirements of complete medical 
education in a practical point of view. In all 
the universities and colleges a full four-years' 
course of study is required, and in some of the 
colleges there is a summer session. On the 
more important subjects as medicine, surgery, 
and anatomy there are two courses of six 
months each. The degrees and licenses grant- 
ed by the different universities and colleges in 
Canada are accepted by licensing bodies of 
Britain, and admit the holder of such degree 
or license to examination for a qualification to 
practice in Britain without further attendance 
upon lectures. A student who obtains the 
degree of M. B. or M. D. from a Canadian 
university, is not eligible for practice until he 
has also obtained the diploma of the licensing 
body for the province in which he intends to 
practice. On account of this regulation, nearly 
all the students take the examinations of the 
university with which their college is affiliated, 
and also that of the Council of the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, for the necessary 
license to practice. Students must spend at 
least three winter sessions in hospital work, 
and at least six months of a summer term with 
a regular physician in practical compounding 
and dispensing, in order to be admitted to the 
final examination of the council. No qualifi- 
cation whatever from the United States admits 
to practice in Canada; and only such from 
Britain as can be registered there as a qualifi- 
cation in medicine and surgery. 

CAPE COLONY AND SOIJTH AFRICA. The Cape 
of Good Hope is a British colony at the south- 
ern extremity of the continent of Africa. It 
was first settled by the Dutch, and passed into 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 



the possession of Great Britain during the Na- 
poleonic wars. It has had a responsible gov- 
ernment since 1872. The Parliament consists 
of a Legislative Council of 21 and a House of 
Assembly of 68 members, both elected by vot- 
ers qualified by a certain amount of income. 
The Governor is Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson, 
appointed in 1880. The Prime Minister is T. 
0. Scanlen. 

Area and Population. The area of Cape Colony 
proper is estimated at 199,950 square miles. 
Its population in 1875- was 720,984, of whom 
236,873 were of European origin. The great 
majority of the European population are de- 
scendants of the original Dutch, French, and 
German settlers. The colored population con- 
sists chiefly of Kaffirs and Hottentots. The 
rest are half-breeds and imported Malay labor- 
ers. Cape Colony includes a large extent of 
annexed native districts, some parts of which 
contain a considerable white population. In- 
cluding Basutoland, which was placed under 
the administration of the colonial authorities 
in 1875, but again detached in 1883, the total 
area of Cape Colony was 441,750 square miles, 
and its total population 1,618,211. These 
dependencies and annexed districts comprise 
Griqualand West with an area of 17,800 square 
miles and a population of 45,277 ; the Trans- 
gariep, or Damara and Namaqua Lands, having 
an area of 200,000 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of about 250,000 ; and the Transkeian dis- 
tricts, otherwise called Kaffirland proper, with 
an area of 17,000 square miles, and a popula- 
tion of 475,000. The area of Basutoland is 
7,000 square miles, and its population 127,000. 

Commerce. The commerce of Cape Colony 
in 1881 consisted of exports to the value of 
4,220,706, and imports to the value of 9,227,- 
171. Wool is the only important export arti- 
cle, constituting nearly nine tenths of the total 
exports. Minor articles of export are copper- 
ore, ostrich-feathers, and sheep-skins. The 
quantity of wool shipped to England in 1881 was 
47,165,019 pounds. The number of sheep in 
the colony in 1875 was 9,836,065. There were 
961 miles of railway open on the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1882. 

Finance. The revenue of the colony in 1881 
was 4,835,189, including money borrowed ; 
the expenditure, 5,472,263. There was a 
debt in 1882 of 15,441,700. 

Natal. Natal, formerly a part of the colony 
of the Cape of Good Hope, was detached and 
made a crown colony in 1856, administered by 
a Governor with the assistance of an Execu- 
tive Council and a Legislative Council, the lat- 
ter consisting, since 1879, of 13 official and 15 
elective members. The area is estimated to be 
21,150 square miles. The population in 1881 
was computed to be 408,280, comprising 25,271 
of European descent, mostly English, 362,477 
natives, and 20,536 coolies. There was a de- 
crease in both the white and native population 
since 1877. The exports in 1881, chiefly wool, 
amounted to 474,934 ; the imports to 1,194,- 



992. The revenue of the colony amounted in 
1881 to 518,924 ; the expenditure to 492,- 
338; the public debt to 1,631,701. The Gov- 
ernor is Sir Henry Ernest Bulwer. 

Transvaal State. The Transvaal State, or South 
African Republic, independent since 1852, was 
annexed to the British crown in 1877. After 
the Transvaal war complete autonomy was re- 
stored by the convention of Aug. 3, 1881, but 
suzerain rights were preserved with respect 
to foreign affairs, giving the British Govern- 
ment supreme control over the relations of the 
republic with the native races. The area is 
110,183 square miles. The white population 
is from 40,000 to 45,000, descendants of the 
original Dutch and Huguenot settlers of the 
Cape. The native population numbered, in 
1879, 774,930. A triumvirate, composed of 
S. J. P. Kruger, M. W. Pretorius, and P. J. 
Joubert, was elected, Dec. 13, 1880, and in- 
vested with extraordinary powers. Kruger 
was elected regular President in 1883. 

Orange River Republic. The Orange Free State 
achieved independence in 1854. It has an area 
of 41,320 square miles. The white population, 
according to the census of March 31, 1880, was 
61,022 ; the native population, 72,496. The 
Orange Republic has no debt, but possesses a 
considerable estate in lands, buildings, and ac- 
cumulated funds. The imports in 1 88 1 amount- 
ed to 2,583,738, the exports to 4,001,658. 
Wool is the chief product ; the quantity ex- 
ported in 1881 was 30,353,025 pounds. 

Separation of Basntolaud from Cape Colony. The 
principal question of the year at the Cape of 
Good Hope was the rearrangement of the af- 
fairs of Basutoland. The Basutos are a tribe 
of the Bechuana race which inhabits the east- 
ern part of the South .African elevation. In 
the beginning of the century they possessed, 
besides the present Basutoland, a large part of 
what is now the Orange Free State. There 
Mosele, with his Matabele warriors, fell upon 
them and annihilated the whole tribe, except 
those who escaped to the inaccessible region 
in which the Orange river takes its rise. The 
Boers moved into the deserted plains in the 
third decade of the century, broke the power 
of the Matabeles, and formed a bulwark for 
the Basutos, behind which they grew again 
into a numerous people. They were reminded 
by the needs of their now redundant popula- 
tion that the Free State Boers were settled 
upon lands which had once been their own. 
The circumstance that no boundary had ever 
been agreed to between the Free State and 
Basutoland left the way open for disputes. The 
Basutos began an aggressive course, as usual, 
by cattle- stealing. The Boers retaliated, and 
a long border war followed, in which forays 
for the capture of cattle and the destruction 
of crops, rather than the taking of life, were 
the distinguishing feature. The Basutos, under 
the tuition of French missionaries, had made 
astonishing progress in civilization, and pos- 
sessed in their chief, Moses, a leader of char- 



90 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 



acter and ability. When the war had lasted 
six years, and both sides suffered severely 
from the losses of property, a peace was con- 
cluded between Moses and the Free State in 
1858. The cause of the war remained, and 
in 1865 the Basutos felt strong enough to 
attempt another incursion. The Boers mus- 
tered in force and, driving Moses and his peo- 
Cinto the mountain stronghold of Thaba 
igo, laid waste the whole country. Thou- 
sands of the Basutos perished of hunger. In 
April, 1866, Moses signed a new treaty of 
peace which transferred to the Boers a large 
section of Basutoland. The Basutos, however, 
remained on the ceded tract, on the pretext of 
gathering the harvest, until the Boers, perceiv- 
ing that they intended to break their engage- 
ment, again took up arms in August, 1867, 
and would have totally annihilated the Basuto 
tribe if the Governor of Cape Colony had not 
interfered. The Boers were informed that the 
Basutos had been at their request received as 
British subjects, March 12, 1868. Baffled and 
indignant, they were obliged to accept the 
treaty of Aliwal, in February, 1869. This de- 
prived them of the compensation for their 
losses and the fruit of their victories, but on 
the other hand took from the Basutos a strip 
of land of which they had been in undisputed 
possession prior to 1865. 

As long as the Governor's agent was the 
only British authority in the newly annexed 
Basutoland, all went smoothly. When six 
magistrates were sent to supplement and re- 
strain the authority of the six sub-chiefs, signs 
of dissatisfaction appeared. The discovery of 
diamonds in the northwest part of the Orange 
Free State in 1869, and the annexation of this 
district by Great Britain in November, 1871, 
gave another turn to the fortunes of the Basu- 
tos. High prices were paid in Kimberley for 
all the maize, oats, and barley they could raise, 
and the young men who went to work by 
thousands in the diamond-fields returned in 
a few months with breech-loading rifles and 
with money in their pockets. Reduced to a 
mere remnant, impoverished and degraded, the 
Basutos increased in numbers to nearly 130,- 
000 in 1875, and in wealth in an astonishing 
progression, possessing in that year 35,000 
horses, 217,000 head of cattle, 300,000 sheep, 
215,000 goats, and paying as much as 16,500 
in direct and indirect taxes. 

By the action of the Cape Parliament in 
1871, the annexation of Basutoland was ap- 
proved ; but upon the adoption of responsible 
government in the following year the question 
whether the colony should accept the incor- 
poration or repudiate the act of the Governor 
and cut loose from Basntoland was reopened. 
The colonists were not inclined at first to re- 
fuse the responsibility, as the Basutos were not 
only increasing rapidly in wealth, but through 
the efforts of the French, and now of English 
missionaries, advanced rapidly in knowledge 
and refinement. In 1877 the war with the 



Gaikas and Gulaekas of British Kaffraria 
broke out. The circumstance that a large 
portion of the hostile Kaffirs were armed with 
rifles, opened the eyes of the British to the 
mistake of allowing the sale of fire-arms in 
Kimberley to colored persons. The Cape colo- 
nists, remembering that they were surrounded 
by unfriendly natives, and that the blacks out- 
numbered them two to one within their own 
borders, were carried away with the mingled 
feelings of panic and arrogance which any col- 
lision with the natives awakens in English 
settlers. The Cape Parliament passed a law 
which not only restricted the sale of arms to 
natives, but required a large portion of them 
to deliver up the rifles which they already 
possessed. Soon after the close of the Gaika 
war the Basutos were commanded to comply 
with the disarmament. To require these peace- 
able and faithful subjects to give up for a nom- 
inal compensation the arms which were their 
proudest possession, which they had earned 
with months of toil in the scorching sands of 
the diamond - diggings, and which they had 
official permits to purchase and keep, was to 
them both an injustice and an indignity. Some 
of them delivered up their fire-arms to the 
half-dozen officials, for which they were re- 
warded with the epithet of " loyal," but the 
great majority paid no attention to the procla- 
mation, and were dubbed " rebels." Negotia- 
tions with the recalcitrant Basutos, in part 
carried on in person by the Prime Minister 
without result, made their refusal appear in a 
more serious light, so that the Cape Govern- 
ment felt driven to compel obedience by mili- 
tary force. The British Government had taken 
a stand against lending English troops to fight 
any more ''little wars" for the colonists in 
South Africa. The Cape Colonists had an 
opportunity, therefore, of putting to the trial 
their new conscription laws. Every citizen 
between 20 and 45 years of age owes military 
service, those between 20 and 30 being subject 
to the first, and the rest to a second levy. The 
magistrates were directed to select the quotas 
by lot. The law was very loosely adminis- 
tered. Many of the substantial citizens were 
exempted on a specious excuse of corporal dis- 
ability, and most of those who were drawn 
sent purchased substitutes. An army of from 
8,000 to 10,000, lacking training and military 
experience, and without the first notion of 
discipline and obedience, was thus collected 
and sent into Basutoland. The rain fell in- 
cessantly in the summer season of 1880-'8/l, 
fuel was not obtainable, and, except raw meat, 
all food was very scarce. The Basutos har- 
ried them, but avoided a close engagement. 
Under the privations and the wearying guard 
duty the army began to melt away, whole 
companies deserting and returning to their 
homes without penalty or disgrace. Despair- 
ing of chastising the Basutos with such troops, 
the government, sustained by a growing senti- 
ment in the country against the disarmament 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 



91 



act and the war, concluded a peace with the 
Basutos by which everything was left as it 
was before the war. 

The triumphant Basutos felt a natural con- 
tempt for the poor-spirited or treacherous 
members of the tribe who had sided with the 
British. Toward the end of 1882 one of the 
rebel chiefs fell upon a loyal Basuto, took his 
cattle, and put to death his women and chil- 
dren. In this condition of affairs, the pres- 
ence of British resident magistrates and po- 
lice whose authority was despised was only a 
sign of impotence. The Parliament was sum- 
moned to an extraordinary session in January, 
1883, for the consideration of a ministerial 
proposition to recall the resident authorities 
and leave the Basuto nation complete inde- 
pendence in the management of its internal 
affairs, reserving simply the control of its ex- 
ternal politics, that is, its relations with the 
Orange Free State. With a slight modification 
the act was passed by a bare majority. The 
cost of the inglorious Basuto war of 1880-'81 
was about 4,000,000. The sub-agents were 
not recalled. The policy of the Government 
was denned by the Premier, T. C. Scanlen, to 
be to build up a government by which the 
people would be able to manage their own 
affairs. He admitted that, if they failed in the 
new experiments, there was no course left but 
abandonment. 

Mr. Scanlen had many conferences with 
the chiefs, ending with a pitso or assembly at 
Matsieng, on the 24th of April. Letsea and 
the friendly natives accepted the Government 
proposals, but Masupha and other malcontents 
angrily refused to accede to the new scheme 
of modified supervision. At a conference 
called by the agent of the Cape Government 
only about 2,000 persons were represented. 
Convinced that the Basutos desired to have no 
further connection with the colony, the Cape 
authorities concluded to terminate relations 
with them, and hand over the responsibility 
for the future management of the troublesome 
dependancy to the British Government. As 
Cape Colony thus laid down the task of govern- 
ing Basutoland, which had cost more than 
3,000,000, and sine 3 the Basutos were not 
able to stand alone, the Imperial Government 
announced its willingness to take them again 
under its control and protection, as prior to 
1869, on the conditions that the great majority 
of the Basutos desired it ; that they and Cape 
Colony should bear the principal part of the 
expenses, and that the Orange Free State 
should co-operate in keeping order along its 
boundaries. The British Government did not 
propose to establish a costly administration of 
Europeans and govern .Basutoland as a crown 
colony, but to guide and protect the natives in 
governing themselves in accordance with their 
own customs. Cape Colony undertakes to pay 
20,000 a year toward the expenses of admin- 
istration. The bill ratifying the arrangement 
passed the Cape Legislature in July, after a 



prolonged discussion. In order to be further 
relieved of its financial embarrassments, the 
Cape ministry would be glad to transfer to the 
crown the Transkei also, with its large popu- 
lation of Kaffirs. 

Natal Legislation. A change was made in the 
Constitution of Natal, approaching self-govern- 
ment. The number of members in the Legisla- 
tive Council was increased from 20 to 30. The 
elected members bear nearly the same propor- 
tion to the nominated members as before, being 
23 to 7, as against 15 to 5. The franchise, 
which was confined to holders of real estate of 
50 value, or 10 rental, is liberalized, the 
limitations being a residence of three years and 
the possession of an income of 96 a year by 
male British subjects or naturalized aliens. 
From natives an educational test is required in 
addition. 

Znlnland. Cetewayo was reinstated in his 
kingdom on Jan. 29th, in the presence of a con- 
course of Zulus, but he was only given a seg- 
ment of the territory over which his rule for- 
merly extended. The chief Usibepu was left 
in possession of the district allotted to him. 
It was left free to all the chiefs and people to 
return to their allegiance to Cetewayo, or to 
receive lands outside of his kingdom. For 
such a large section, called the Zulu Native Re- 
serve, was set apart. 

The restoration of a portion of his former 
dominions to Cetewayo turned out to be as 
great a blunder as the other acts of the British 
Government in connection withZululand. In- 
stead of leading to the tranquilization of the 
country which the British by splitting it up 
into petty dominions under thirteen different 
chiefs, had involved in chronic guerilla war- 
fare the result was an internecine conflict 
between Cetewayo on the one part, and Usi- 
bepu, in league with all the adversaries of the 
restored monarch, on the other. Cetewayo 
was anxious to avoid fighting, but the English 
in Natal and his rivals in Zululand were deter- 
mined to destroy, while his hot-headed par- 
tisans were not averse to the struggle. 

Not many weeks after the return of Cete- 
wayo the Usutu party, composed of the young- 
er and more ardent partisans of Cetewayo, 
marched in a large body, mustering 80 com- 
panies, against Usibepu in the northeastern 
corner of Zululand, the chief who, under the 
Wolseley settlement, received the wives of the 
imprisoned king. Usibepu withdrew before the 
superior force into the bush in the heart of his 
country, where he prepared an ambush for the 
invaders. While he lay in waiting with 20 
companies and his picked guard of five compa- 
nies, called the Mauhlagazus, small bands flying 
before the Usutus led them on, flushed with 
victory and burning the abandoned kraals, into 
the ambuscade at Baugonono kraal. Usibepu 
fell upon the advancing column without warn- 
ing. In accordance with Zulu tactics, he closed 
in on half of the army, and cut .it to pieces. 
The remaining portion fled in a disorganized 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 



rout, followed for a long distance by the Mauhla- 
gazus. Cetewayo denied all knowledge and 
responsibility as to the ill-fated expedition, but 
he immediately began to drill soldiers for an- 
other conflict with Usibepu, until he had about 
six thousand. When he was moving forward 
with his force, Usibepu and Oham fell upon him 
with all their warriors and defeated him with 
great carnage. 

After some preliminary fighting, in which 
Oham and his warriors were hard pressed by 
Cetewayo's bands, a decisive battle occurred 
on July 21st, in which the king's newly or- 
ganized military force was crushed. Usibepu, 
with an army equipped with the aid of the 
people of Natal and partly led by white men, 
descended upon Ulundi, Cetewayo's capital. 
The king's army was cut to pieces, all his pos- 
sessions captured, his town destroyed, and he 
himself severely wounded. He was carried 
away into concealment by his people, and was 
long supposed to have been killed. Umny- 
amana and the Usutus kept up the struggle 
until they were reduced by Usibepu and ac- 
knowledged his supremacy. Cetewayo kept 
out of the way of his enemies, and entered 
into communications with the British relative 
to surrendering himself into their protection. 
Finally, when assured of the safety of such a 
course, he delivered himself up and was taken 
to Natal in October. 

Border War in Bechnanaland. The Transvaal 
Boers have severely tried the Liberal Govern- 
ment, which rendered back to them their inde- 
pendence, by continuing their encroachments 
in Bechuanaland and assisting the chiefs who 
were friendly to them to drive tho allies of 
the British off their lands. The troubles in 
Bechuanaland,* which lies on the west and 
southwest of the Transvaal, date back to 1872- 
'73. After the discovery of diamonds in 1871, 
Great Britain, which had recognized the inde- 
pendence of the two Boer- republics in 1852 
and 1854, and by the Sand River Convention 
had bound itself never to encroach north of 
the Vaal river, broke the treaties by annexing 
the diamond-fields, and began its interference 
in the affairs of Bechuanaland. The Bechu- 
ana nation was divided into two parties, one 
headed by the chiefs Montsiva and Manko- 
roane and the other by Moshette and Mas- 
souw. Mankoroane, chief of the Batlapins, 
and Massouw, chief of the Korannas, laid 

* The Bechuanas are tho negroes among whom Moffat and 
Livingstone labored. They are akin to the Basutos in race, 
and are more intelligent and far more advanced in civiliza- 
tion than the other Kaffir races. They have schools and 
churches, are clothed, and many of them are to some extent 
located. They have separate property in land, and had 
nado considerable progress in industry and agriculture be- 
fore the Trek Boers arrived in the country north of the Vaal. 
The chiefs, unless they led the people in the arts of peace, 
lost their power and influence. Many of them, including all 
of the four leaders in this intestine conflict which was pro- 
voked by white adventurers, have at various times requested 
the British Government to take their country under its pro- 
tection. Nearly all of the internal quarrels of the Bechuanas 
are over disputed claims to chieftainship. They are not of a 
predatory disposition like the Kaffirs in the east, and have 
never committed cattle-raids in the Transvaal. 



claim to the same territory, while Montsiva 
disputed with Massouw the position of para- 
mount chief of the Baralongs. The South 
African Republic recognized the claims of Mo- 
shette and Massouw, and by virtue of having 
subdued Moselekatsie, the Matabele conqueror 
of the country, and of a cession executed by 
the chief of the Korannas, the most ancient 
inhabitants, took the country under its protec- 
tion by annexing it to the Transvaal state. 
The British Government, by the Keate award, 
refused to recognize the annexation, gave a 
portion of the country to Mankoroane, and ac- 
knowledged Montsiva as paramount chief of 
the Baralongs. This award, if not made in 
the interest of white land-speculators, had the 
effect of delivering the country over to their 
machinations and prolonging the tribal dis- 
putes. Bechuanaland was to have been re- 
united with the Transvaal upon its annexation, 
through Sir Theophilus Shepstone, to British 
South Africa. 

In the Transvaal war which resulted from 
this act, Montsiva and Mankoroane sided with 
the British and aided them by furnishing shel- 
ter and supplies, although the direct military 
assistance of the blacks was refused by the 
English. Moshette and Massouw sympathized 
with the Boers. In the convention of 1881, 
by which the British under the auspices of the 
Liberal party withdrew from the Transvaal, a 
new boundary-line was drawn. This line cut 
off a large portion of the annexed territory 
from the Transvaal and even separated from 
the Boer state a number of farms and settle- 
ments belonging to its citizens. It was ob- 
jected to and declared impracticable at the 
time of signing the convention, and has been 
the subject of frequent reclamations since. 
The British Government paid no attention to 
these diplomatic representations. Bechuana- 
land was at once plunged into warfare and an- 
archy by the boundary settlement insisted 
upon by the British Government for the sake 
of their native allies and the white abettors 
and advisers of the latter. Montsiva ordered 
Moshette and Massouw to vacate their lands 
and find homes ^within the new boundary-line 
of the Transvaal. In league with Mankoroane 
he made war upon them in May, 1881, to com- 
pel them to give up the disputed territory. 
The white volunteers and speculative foment- 
ers of the war who were engaged on both 
sides were to be paid in farms in the rich pas- 
ture-lands of the disputed territory. There 
was a brief cessation of hostilities; but when 
the war broke out again in October of that 
year the Boer filibusters or volunteers took an 
important part in the operations on the side of 
chiefs who were in possession. 

The Boer Government agreed to place a 
guard on the frontier, to prevent Boer volun- 
teers from crossing, but their efforts to pre- 
serve neutrality lacked earnestness or efficien- 
cy. Montsiva and Mankoroane were defeated 
and forced to sign a treaty, in 1882, which 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 



CARLISLE, JOHN G. 



placed their territory under the protection of 
the Transvaal, and granted lands to Boers who 
had taken part in the war. This treaty lacks 
the ratification of the suzerain power. The 
frontier war did not cease. English filibusters 
rushed in, on the pretext of supporting the 
cause of the worsted party. The white par- 
ticipants increased, until Bechuanaland was 
occupied by adventurers from the Transvaal, 
the Orange Free State, and the English colo- 
nies. The cattle and the lands adjacent to the 
streams were taken away from the natives be- 
longing to the defeated party. Many of the 
Bechuanas were reduced to starvation. The 
Transvaal Government excused the aggres- 
sions of the Dutch on the ground 
that the boundary-line fixed by the 
Pretoria convention was unfair and 
injurious to the Boers. When Mr. 
Fox, their Secretary of State, was 
called to account for signing a treaty, 
he replied that his action was not in 
violation of the convention, but was 
the consequence of a defect in the 
convention. 

In February, 1888, Lord Derby, 
British Colonial Secretary, proposed 
that the Cape Government should 
organize a police to prevent the 
incursion of British subjects into 
Bechuana-land. Sir Hercules Rob- 
inson replied that the only remedy 
would be to send a military force 
to occupy the country and clear it 
of white filibusters. The lands which 
were seized by the Boers, and from 
which Mankoroane and Montsiva 
and their people were expelled, were 
those which they had formerly held, 
but of which the Pretoria conven- 
tion had deprived them. The pre- 
tended volunteers of Moshette and 
Massouw who retook the lands by 
force, had the approval of the Trans- 
vaal Government and people, and 
the sympathy of all the Dutch in 
South Africa. When Sir Hercules 
Robinson proposed that the dis- 
turbed district shou'd be guarded 
by a mounted police, the expense 
of which should be divided between 
the British Government, the Cape 
of Good Hope, the Orange Free State, and the 
Transvaal Republic, the Cape Government were 
unwilling, the Orange Free State declined on 
the ground that its Constitution forbade such 
a use of its forces, and Triumvir Kruger an- 
swered for the Transvaal that his colleagues 
were absent, at the same time expressing his 
surprise that a remedy should be proposed that 
was worse than the disease, and saying that the 
cause of the difficulty is the boundary-line fixed 
by the convention. A commission constituted 
by the Yolksraad, the 3d of June, 1882, to put 
an end to the controversy, was instructed to 
regard the boundary as established in the dis- 



allowed treaties with Moshette and Mont- 
siva. 

Mankoroane, no longer lord of his territory, 
which was in part apportioned out among the 
white volunteers, made a formal appeal to the 
British Government to annex his country. On 
the confines of the Transvaal the marauders, 
Dutchmen from all parts of South Africa, and 
English adventurers, many of them deserters 
from the British army, had set up an indepen- 
dent republic, under the name of Stellaland, 
and elected a president of their own. This com- 
munity of outlaws numbered about 2,000 souls. 

CARLISLE, John Griffin, an American states- 
man, born in Campbell co., Ky., Sept. 5, 1835. 




JOHN GRIFFIN CARLISLE. 

He received a common-school education, and 
became a teacher. Afterward he studied law, 
and in 1858 was admitted to the Kentucky bar, 
where he gradually built up an extensive and 
lucrative practice. He was elected to the low- 
er house of the Legislature in 1859, and to the 
State Senate in 1866 and 1869. He was a dele- 
gate to the National Democratic Convention 
held in New York in 1868, he was Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Kentucky from 1871 to 1875, 
and in 1876 was a presidential elector. He 
was elected to Congress the same year, taking 
his seat in March, 1877, and has been a mem- 
ber ever since. He soon became prominent as 



94 



CARPETS. 



a Democratic leader, especially as a member of 
the Committee of Ways and Means, and at- 
tracted attention by an able speech on revenue 
reform. This and the revival of American 
shipping he looks upon as the important ques- 
tions now before the country. In the speech 
referred to he said : " In the broad and sweep- 
ing sense which the use of the term generally 
implies, I am not a free-trader. Of course, 
that is understood. At least it should be. I 
will add that in my judgment it will be years 
yet before anything in the nature of free trade 
would be wise or practicable for the United 
States. When we speak of this subject we 
refer to approximate free trade, which has no 
idea of crippling the growth of home indus- 
tries, but simply of scaling down the iniquities 
of the tariff schedule, where they are utterly 
out of proportion to the demands of that 
growth. After we have calmly stood by and 
allowed monopolies to grow fat, we should not 
be askt-d to make them bloated. Our enor- 
mous surplus revenues are illogical and op- 
pressive. It is entirely undemocratic to con- 
tinue these burdens on the people for years and 
years after the requirements of protection have 
been met and the representatives of these in- 
dustries have become incrusted with wealth. 
This is the general proposition on which I 
stand." On the organization of Congress in 
December, 1883, Mr. Carlisle received the 
Democratic nomination for Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, and was elected. 

CARPETS. Progress of the Industry. No bet- 
ter carpets are made in America now than 
were made twenty years ago. Indeed, as early 
as 1851 an American inventor the late Eras- 
tus B. Bigelow, of Massachusetts showed 
English weavers (who were then making more 
and better carpets for general use than any 
other people) that success in weaving body- 
Brussels carpets by power had been fully 
achieved in America. 

Specimens of Bigelow Brussels carpets were 
exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London 
in 1851, but not till after the prizes had been 
awarded. In a supplement to their report the 
jury said : " The specimens of Brussels carpet- 
ing exhibited by Mr. E. B. Bigelow are woven 
by a power-loom invented and patented by 
him, and are better and more perfectly woven 
than any hand-loom goods that have come 
under the notice of the jury. This, however, 
is a very small part of their merit, or rather that 
of Mr. Bigelow, who has completely triumphed 
over the numerous obstacles that presented 
themselves, and succeeded in substituting 
steam-power for manual labor in the manu- 
facture of five-frame Brussels carpets. Several 
patents have been taken out by different invent- 
ors in this country for effecting the same object ; 
but as yet none of them have been brought into 
successful operation ; and the honor of the 
achievement, one of great practical difficulty 
as well as of great commercial value, must be 
awarded to a native of the United States." 



The Centennial Exhibition. The American Cen- 
tennial Exhibition gave a great and lasting im- 
petus to carpet manufacture; the exhibit of 
foreign carpets stimulating our manufacturers, 
color artists, and weavers to an emulation 
which, in the brief period since elapsed, has 
transformed a struggling industry into one of 
the most stately proportions. This expansion 
has been evidenced in Philadelphia especially 
by the remodeling of old and the erection of 
new factories, the undertaking of hitherto 
rare and costly fabrics, and the substitution 
on an extensive scale of power for hand 
looms. 

Looms. English manufacturers adopted the 
Bigelow patents, and till within a recent period 
continued furnishing us with body-Brussels 
carpets for which we had first provided them 
a power-loom. At home, meanwhile, the Bige- 
low Carpet Company held fast to their dis- 
covery, and remained, until the lapse of their 
patent-rights, the principal power-loom body- 
Brussels weavers in the United States. 

It is safe, too, to assert that all looms now 
employed in England and the United States in 
the weaving of body-Brussels, Wiltons, and 
tapestry-Brussels carpets may be traced, in the 
principles of their construction, to the original 
Bigelow loom. This is largely true, too, of in- 
grain-weaving. Mr. Bigelow invented a loom 
for ingrains, which produces a fabric of great 
excellence, and is now in general use in the 
older New England factories. Besides the 
Bigelow Company, two manufacturing firms, 
E. S. Higgins & Co., of New York city, and 
John and James Dobson, of Philadelphia, are 
entitled to the distinction of first undertaking 
on a large scale the production of high-grade 
power-woven carpets in America. Indeed, E. 
B. Bigelow's patent for weaving body-Brussels 
and tapestry carpets was first employed by 
E. S. Higgins & Co. on tapestries only, and 
subsequently the present Bigelow Company 
applied the invention to Brussels and Wilton 
fabrics. In Philadelphia, no carpets other than 
common ingrains were made prior to 1872. 

Since Mr. Bigelow's time but one ingrain- 
loom has been invented in the United States 
which has proved wholly free from objection, 
and been regularly adopted. This is known 
as the "Murkland loom," the invention of 
William Murkland, of Massachusetts, who died 
a few years since. The Murkland loom is 
noted for its fine shading qualities, for its great 
productiveness, ease of manipulation, and gen- 
eral adaptation to ingrain weaving, to which 
it is confined. It is now used almost wholly 
by new manufacturers. 

Equally ingenious, though less adapted to 
general use, was the Duckworth ingrain-loom, 
produced under the patronage of Messrs. E. 
S. Higgins & Co., by John C. Duckworth, a 
young inventor who died in 1882. 

A signal triumph, and by far the most impor- 
tant, lately achieved in America in mechanism 
for high-grade carpet- weaving, was the loom 



CARPETS. 



95 



for moquette carpets, invented and patented by 
Halcyon Skinner, of the Alexander Smith & 
Sons Carpet Company, at Yonkers, N. Y. A 
loom capable of such results as the Skinner loom 
produces, emphasizes strongly our singular suc- 
cess in first furnishing power-looms to makers 
of fine carpets in other lands. 

New Fabrics. Since the Centennial Exhibi- 
tion three important additions bave been made 
to our carpets. These are the moquette, che- 
nille-Axminster, and Smyrna fabrics. 

Moquette is made by -power, the two latter 
by hand, only. Moquette ranks among the 
best and most luxurious of pile-fabrics, being 
singularly receptive to colors, and capable of 
the most subtile and pleasing color treatment. 
Upon its introduction, the mystery and gla- 
mour which had long attached to the finer car- 
pets manufactured abroad quite vanished. 

Chenille-Axminster, long known in England, 
is made in Philadelphia, but only on the most 
limited scale. It ranks second to none in many 
elegant essentials, but can not take its proper 
rank until made by power. A loom for this 
purpose has recently been perfected by an 
English firm. 

Smyrna, a very thick, reversible chenille fab- 
ric, resembling in texture certain Turkish car- 
petings shown at the Centennial Exhibition, 



was easily reproduced here, and has rapidly 
found favor with American dealers and con- 
sumers. It is made almost wholly in Philadel- 
phia, and, though made in lengths for sale by 
the yard, it is most used in rugs. The Gov- 
ernment departments at Washington have 
adopted this new and useful covering. 

Statistics. Carpet- weaving in America has so 
advanced within the past few years as to ren- 
der the exhibit of the census of 1880 wholly 
insufficient as a basis upon which to estimate 
the present magnitude of the industry. Dur- 
ing the past four years, in Philadelphia alone, 
numerous extensive carpet-factories, many of 
them of imposing proportions, have been 
erected and put in motion, while in New Eng- 
land the Lowell, Hartford, Bigelow, Roxbury, 
and Worcester companies, the Sanford Mills at 
Amsterdam, N". Y., and the Alexander Smith & 
Sons Carpet Company, at Yonkers, have each 
added very materially to their structures and 
manufacturing facilities. Vastly more of capi- 
tal and labor are now employed in varieties of 
fabric, richness and excellence of texture, and 
consequent increased value of annual product, 
than at any period of our history. With this 
caution, we append for comparison the cen- 
sus statistics of the United States relating to 
carpets for 1870 and 1880 : 



CAEPET MANUFACTURES (OTHER THAN RAG) OF THE UNITED STATES. 





Factories. 


Hands employed. 


Ci 


tal. 


Value of product. 


1870. 


1880. 


18?0. 


1880. 


18?0. 


1880. 


18?0. 


188O. 


Connecticut 


3 


2 
1 
1 

1 

*2 

10 
237 


1,188 


1,654 


$1,530,000 


$3,085,000 





$1,200 


Maine 


Maryland 


1 

6 
3 
2 
18 
184 
3 


12 

2,200 
170 
147 
3,424 
4,941 
19 


75 
3,908 

'243 

5,622 
11,043 


10,000 
8,250,000 
810,000 
155,000 
4,251,750 
3,026,500 
2,500 


10,000 
4,637,646 

lb3,66ji) 
6,422,158 
13,400,000 


$14,000 
4,4S7,525 
'299,750 
193,656 
4,976,835 
9,758,171 
4,550 


50,000 
6,337,629 

179,500 
8,419,254 
20,300,445 








New York 




Other States 


Totals 


215 


260 


12,098 


22,545 


$12,540,750 


$27,657,804 


$21,761,573 


$87,788,587 





Imports. Government statistics for twelve 
.years past show a steady decrease in the im- 
ports of carpets. The following table is from 
official sources : 

IMPORTATION OF CARPETb INTO THE UNITED STATES, 
1872 TO 1883 INCLUSIVE. 



FISCAL YEARS ENDING JUNE 30. 


Square yards. 


Value. 


1872 


5,072,247 


$5,797,183 


1878 


3,915,997 


4.388,257 


1874 . . 


8.122,503 


3,649,863 


1875 ; 


2,314,788 


2.648,932 


1876 


1.118,736 


1,521,692 


1877 


638,589 


674,011 


1878 


278,262 


398,389 


1879 


257,686 


867,105. 


1880 


1,443,535 


1,237,431 


1881 . 


991,947 


1,064,076 


1882 


715,583 


949,670 


1883 


834,939 


1,053,912 



The increase in the import values of 1880, 
1881, 1882, and 1883 is attributable mainly to 
the sudden demand (begun about 1880) for 
Oriental rugs and carpet " squares," the " an- 



tiques " of which have been eagerly sought for 
and at prices generally greatly in excess of 
their intrinsic worth. Present imports are 
largely composed of these Eastern rugs, the 
makers of which are striving very particularly 
to retain America as a permanent market. 

Exports. Excepting desultory shipments to 
Mexico and South America, the exports of 
carpets from the United States are as yet 
small. The two countries named increase 
their demand each year. In South America 
our floor oil-cloths are highly esteemed, and 
the trade with Philadelphia is growing. 

Tariff. The United States tariff act of 1882 
reduced considerably the duties formerly im- 
posed on foreign carpets, and has resulted in 
the formation of a national association of man- 
ufacturers, whose object is to deter further 
legislation of the kind and to look generally 
to the conservation of the industry. Since the 
passage of the act referred to, certain English 
carpets, which had wholly disappeared from 



96 



CARPETS. 



our markets, have again been offered and sold 
here, but at prices not below those asked for 
similar goods of American origin. 

Location of Factories. The late A. T. Stewart 
lived to see the decadence of the trade in for- 
eign carpets (first largely undertaken by him 
in New York), and, determining on manufac- 
ture, built, just prior to his death in 1876, 
an extensive carpet-factory at Groversville, 
Dutchess co., N. Y. The first roll of carpet 
from his looms was finished about the day of 
his death. The Glenham Carpet-Mills, such 
being their name, now have a capacity for 
operating 200 power-looms, and for producing 
annually 2,000,000 yards. Body-Brussels, Wil- 
ton, tapestry- velvet, and tapestry-Brussels car- 
pets, also rugs and mats of the same fabrics, 
besides ingrain carpets, are produced by the 
Stewart Mills. 

It is noteworthy that while New York city 
distributes through its jobbing houses the 
greater percentage of the carpets made in the 
United States, yet only one carpet-factory of 
importance that of E. S. Higgins&Co. exists 
in the city proper. This was among the first 
important factories established in the United 
States, and has expanded into enormous pro- 
portions, covering now several acres of ground, 
and giving daily employment to more than 
two thousand persons. 

The particular locations of factories com- 
prised in the preceding, statistics, also the sev- 
eral carpet fabrics made at each point in the 
several States, are substantially as follow : 



LOCATION. 


No. of 
facto- 
ries. 


Fabrics produced. 


Philadelphia, Pa.... 


237 


Body-Brussels, Wilton, tapestry- 






Brussels, ingrain, and Vene- 

Han 


Baltimore, Md 


2 


tian. 
Ingrain wool carpets and jute 






mattings. 


Little Falls, N. J... 


1 


Tapestry-velvet, Wilton, and 


Paterson, N. J . . . 
New York, N.Y... 


1 
1 


Smyrna. 
Jute carpets and mattings. 
Body-Brussels, tapestry-Brus- 


Brooklyn, N. Y... 
Yonkers, N.Y 


1 
1 


sels, Wilton, and ingrain. 
Jute carpets and mattings. 
Moquette and tapestry-Brussels, 


Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 
Rifton Glen, N.Y. . 


1 

1 


and rugs of same. 
Ingrains. 
Ingrains. 


Amsterdam, N. Y. . 


2 


Tapestry-Brussels (extensively), 






tapestry-ingrain, body-Brus- 








Auburn, N. Y 


2 


Ingrains. 


Bridgeport, Conn... 


1 


Ingrains. 


Hartford, Conn, .... 


1 


Body-Brussels, Wilton, and mo- 


Roxbury, Mass 


1 


quette. 
Tapestry-velvet and tapestry- 
Brussels. 


Clinton, Mass . . . 
Medford, Mass 
Palmer, Mass 
Lowell, Mass 


1 

1 
1 
1 


Body-Brussels and Wiltons. 
Tapestry-Brussels. 
Body- Brussels and Wiltons. 
Body-Brussels, Wiltons, and in- 


Lowell, Mass . . . 
Worcester, Mass... 


1 

2 


grains. 
Ingrains only. 
Body-Brussels and Wiltons. 



New York city has now one factory making jute carpets. 

Advance in carpet-weaving since 1870, at 
points other than Philadelphia, has been shown 
more by enlargement of the old factories and 
the making of new fabrics than by the starting 



of absolutely new industries. In Philadelphia, 
not only have these improvements been ob- 
served to a most remarkable degree, but new 
factories, considerably more than the last sta- 
tistics disclose, and of a most important kind, 
have been added to the old. The factories, 
too, reckoned as such in the census of 1870 
were, in reality, many of them petty ingrain 
mills, employing rude hand-looms and pro- 
ducing a low grade of goods. These have 
largely been transformed into dignified indus- 
tries, power being used instead of hand- weav- 
ing, and better goods produced. In Philadel- 
phia, twelve years ago, only ingrain carpets 
were made; now there is no fabric known to 
the art, save the one of moquette and the pro- 
ductions of the East, which does not leave 
Philadelphia looms. 

The annexed table shows the comparative 
state of the industry in Philadelphia in the 
two years, 1870 and 1882, according to the 
United States census and the city census re- 
spectively : 

COMPARISON OF RETURNS OF CARPET MANUFACTURES 
IN PENNSYLVANIA (BEING PHILADELPHIA). 





1870. 


1889. 


Establishments 


184 


237 


Number of persons employed 
Capital 


4,941 
$3 169 500 


11,043 
$13 400 000 


Wages 


1 910 963 


4 085 920 


Product 


9 788 787 


20 300 445 









Rugs. Notwithstanding the positive revival 
apparent in the use of rugs, both as accom- 
paniments and as substitutes for carpets, the 
number of American manufacturers who seri- 
ously undertake the production of fine rugs 
has been surprisingly small. The Glenham 
Mills (A. T. Stewart's) were, probably, the first 
regularly to manufacture Wilton, body-Brus- 
sels, tapestry - velvet, and tapestry - Brussels 
rugs, and these to some extent are still con- 
tinued by them. The Alexander Smith & Sons 
Carpet Company make successfully moquette 
and tapestry-Brussels rugs, and this concern 
and the Glenham Mills are the only houses in 
America making in variety high-grade, power- 
loom rugs. Kitchenman & Neall and A. Cam- 
eron, of Philadelphia, weave chenille- Axmin- 
ster rugs of superior fineness by hand. 

Carpet-Wools. Numerous experiments have 
proved that wools best adapted to carpets can 
not be profitably produced, if produced at all, 
in the United States. The grades most em- 
ployed are from wild and sterile regions in 
Russia, Turkey, and Asia, where carpet-sheep 
and shepherd exist in the most primitive man- 
ner. Colorado and Texas yield certain wools 
which find a limited market in our carpet-mills ; 
but as yet we are mainly dependent upon the 
sources just named. Strong efforts have been 
made to influence the remission by Congress of 
the duties imposed upon foreign carpet-wools, 
and this, if accomplished, would somewhat 
cheapen our carpet-product, and would also en- 
able us, it is contended, to compete more sue- 



CARPETS. 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 



97 



cessfully with foreign companies in an export 
trade. 

Rag and List Carpets. These, the first floor- 
coverings made in America, have by no means 
disappeared. The German settlements of Penn- 
sylvania excel in them, and produce rag car- 
pets the texture and colorings of which show 
of late years a very decided advance. 

Wages. Carpet- weavers, as a rule, earn good 
wages, and live in as much comfort as journey- 
men in any other industry. The factory re- 
gion of Philadelphia is well provided with 
comfortable brick dwellings, which rent at rea- 
sonable figures, and like satisfactory conditions 
exist around the mills of New England and 
New York. Practiced weavers earn fifteen to 
twenty dollars a week. A large percentage of 
the weavers are of English, Scotch, and north 
of Ireland origin or descent, and some of the 
most conspicuous successes in Philadelphia 
have been by foreigners, who started there as 
humble toilers on rude hand looms. Not a few 
such are to-day the owners of factories of great 
magnitude. 

Noteworthy Events. Certain important changes 
which have happened within a brief period 
can best be illustrated by reference to particular 
industries: The Alexander Smith & Sons Car- 
pet Company, at Yonkers, from being former- 
ly ingrain-makers only, will, during 1884, have 
350 looms engaged on tapestry- Brussels, and 
218 looms on moquette carpet ; the whole hav- 
ing a total daily capacity of 27,500 yards ; 500 
hands will also be added, in 1884, to their 
working-force, making the total of persons 
employed 3,000. Homer Brothers, of Phila- 
delphia, who in 1876 began on Brussels with 
six looms, have but just finished a factory 
of vast proportions, and are now among the 
largest Brussels producers in the world. They 
have undertaken, also, the weaving of tapestry- 
Brussels. John Bromley & Sons, noted in- 
grain-weavers, of Philadelphia, have of late 
discontinued all but the Brussels manufacture, 
and have an extensive factory whose founda- 
tion was laid in the humblest way. John & 
James Dobson, at the Falls of the Schuylkill, 
have now body- Brussels, Wiltons, velvets, and 
tapestries on their lir ^s, and conduct an indus- 
try famous here and abroad for its magnitude 
and the variety of its products. McCallum, 
Crease, & Sloan, of Philadelphia, one of the 
oldest and most successful firms making in- 
grains only, now weave Brussels and Wilton 
carpets of the highest standard, and are just 
completing an extensive factory. Ivins, Dietz, 
& Magee, Philadelphia, have completed and 
entered a stately Brussels and ingrain mill, and 
will reintroduce a costly fabric once made by 
them, known as tapestry-ingrain. The Low- 
ell Manufacturing Company, at Lowell, Mass., 
have of late doubled the number of their Brus- 
sels-looms, enlarged their mill, and placed them- 
selves in the front rank on this fabric. The 
Hartford Carpet Company, in addition to Brus- 
sels and ingrains, has begun the manufacture 
VOL. xxni. 7 A 



of moquette, and alone shares the honor with 
the Smith Company, at Yonkers, of making 
this fabric in the United States. Hon. Stephen 
Sanford (Amsterdam, N. Y.) has reared an in- 
dustry of great extent, employing 200 looms 
on tapestry carpets. 

These facts indicate, not the movements 
merely of individuals and firms, but are cited 
rather to show recent enterprise in directions 
limited a few years since to the efforts of per- 
haps a half-dozen firms. The achievements 
of numerous others, though hardly less signal, 
must of necessity be omitted here. 

Cocoa-Matting. Floor-matting and foot-mats 
made in East India from the cocoa-fiber, and 
formerly imported fully manufactured from 
that country, are now woven equally well in 
America, and factories are successfully em- 
ployed on these goods in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Philadelphia, and Chester, Pa. Cocoa-fiber is 
admitted into the United States free of duty, 
and the fabrics made from it are found prefer- 
able to those produced in India. 

Floor Oil-Cloths. The consumption of floor 
oil-cloths, which diminished considerably with 
the cheapening of carpets, has revived very 
greatly, especially in the South and West, and 
the annual yield of the medium class of goods 
is greater by far than at any former period. 
The floor-cloth industries of the several States 
are as follow : Maine, 3 ; Massachusetts, 2 ; 
New York, 6 ; New Jersey, 4 ; Pennsylvania, 
3 ; total in the United States, 18. There is 
also on Long Island, N. Y., a factory engaged 
in making linoleum, a cork floor-cloth, used 
for like purposes as the ordinary floor oil- 
cloth. 

The jute fabrics, or "foundations," used in 
the manufacture of floor oil-cloths, are im- 
ported mainly from Scotland. The Dolphin 
Company's jute-mill, at Paterson, N. J., and 
that of the Planet Mills, in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
have each successfully made the canvas on 
which the wide cloths, 18 to 24 feet in width, 
are prepared. The Chelsea Jute Works, of New 
York city, for the first time in America, are 
now about producing power-woven, narrow- 
width jute canvas or burlap. (See JCTE.) 

Fewer factories are engaged in making sheet 
oil-cloths goods 12 to 24 feet wide than ex- 
isted ten years ago, and the production conse- 
quently has been very much lessened. Out of 
the oil-cloth factories enumerated, three only 
give particular attention to the sheet-widths. 
Narrow-width oil-cloths, 3 to 7i feet wide, on 
the contrary, are made in vastly larger quanti- 
ties than ever before, their low price and use- 
ful qualities rendering them exceedingly popu- 
lar. A machine for printing the colors, of re- 
cent invention, has been adopted by one or 
two firms, which secures a more rapid produc- 
tion than by the block or hand method of 
printing. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. The following five in- 
dependent republics constitute the Spanish- 
speaking portion of Central America : 



98 



CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION. 



STATES. 


Area in quare 
kilometres. 


Population. 


Per 

kilometre. 


Active 
army. 


Militia. 


Capitals. 


Popula- 
tion. 




121 140 


1 252 497 


10 


2,180 


33,229 


Guatemala 


58456 


Salvador 


18720 


554,785 


80 


1400 


18,500 


San Salvador 


14,059 




183 800 


275 815 


2 


703 


9,600 


Managua 


9000 


.w icara^ua 


120480 


350 000 


3 


843 


81,500 


Tegucigalpa . 


12000 


Costa Kica 


51,760 


185,000 


4 


500 


All men between 
















18 and 55. 


San Jos6 


12000 


Total . . . 


445900 


2,618,100 





























There was a plan on foot in 1883 to reunite 
the five republics in one confederacy, to be 
called the United States of Central America. 
This scheme was started in Guatemala, which, 
under President Don Rufino Barrios, has a 
tendency to exercise a sort of hegemony over 
the remaining states, and the idea proba- 
bly originated in the mind of Gen. Barrios 
himself, who has an ambition to be elected 
President of the Union, should the project 
meet with the assent of the people at large. 
For the present the plan has failed, owing, as 
was supposed, to the avowed or secret jealousy 
and intrigues of Don M. A. Soto, ex- President 
of Honduras, while he was the executive of 
that republic. Don M. A. Soto, however, left 
his country, and retired into voluntary exile in 
the summer of 1883, residing in San Francisco, 
California, where he published some letters 
provoking replies from Gen. Barrios. Finally, 
he resigned his office. The alleged main ob- 
stacle to the projected union thus seems to 
have disappeared. (See articles on the several 
republics.) 

CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION. The whole tend- 
ency of recent anatomical study has been to- 
ward greater accuracy in minute details. Such 
knowledge as was to be gained by the scalpel 
and forceps in the way of dissection has long 
since been acquired. The microscope still re- 
mains, however, and much is to be learned of 
the minute anatomy and functions of parts the 
gross appearances and relations of which have 
long been understood. 

The theory of * cerebral localization," briefly 
stated, is this : The brain is not a homogene- 
ous organ, but a mass composed of a certain 
number of diverse organs, to each of which be- 
long certain definite physiological properties 
and functions. The object of recent study has 
been to locate these different functions each in 
its own portion of the nerve-substance of the 
brain: In a crude way, the general fact of a cer- 
tain amount of cerebral localization has long 
been admitted. For example, the sense of sight 
has been located in a certain portion of the 
cerebrum, as has the sense of smell in another. 
The gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres 
was supposed to be especially associated with 
mental power, and the amount of the former to 
be an index of the amount of the latter. The 
nerve-fibers of the medullary portion and the 
large ganglia at the base of the brain were sup- 
posed to be especially connected with the act of 
locomotion. Further than this, paralysis limited 
to the leghad been connected with disease of one 
of the large ganglia (the corpus striatum) and 



the adjacent medullary fibers at the anterior 
portion of the organ ; while paralysis limited 
to the arm had been similarly associated with 
disease of another ganglion (the optic thala- 
mus), and the* surrounding medullary fibers at 
the posterior part of the brain. It was known 
that, when the arm and leg were both affected, 
the disease would probably be found in the 
base of the brain, rather anteriorly if the leg 
were chiefly affected, and posteriorly if the 
paralysis were greater in the arm. The re- 
spective functions of the anterior and pos- 
terior tracts of the spinal cord were also 
known, and the cerebellum or smaller brain, 
to which the posterior or sensory tracts of the 
cord were traced, was held to be on this ac- 
count the especial seat of sensation. In 1863 
a still further advance was made in locating 
the cerebral center of articulate speech. The 
disease known as aphasia consists either in a 
loss of the memory of words, so that the suf- 
ferer is unable either to speak or write the 
particular word he wishes to use, or else in 
a loss of the power to articulate a particu- 
lar word or words, though the sufferer re- 
members them perfectly, and can write them 
correctly. In either of these cases it is evi- 
dent that the diseased point in the brain must 
be either at the center controlling the muscles 
of articulation, or in the center of articulate 
speech itself. Careful examinations of the 
brains of such patients resulted- in locating 
the lesion at a certain point in the anterior or 
middle portion of the frontal lobe of the left 
side, known as the "island of Reil," and sup- 
plied with blood by the left middle cerebral ar- 
tery. It was at first supposed to follow neces- 
sarily from these investigations that the func- 
tion of speech was confined to the left side of 
the brain ; that as speech is learned by use, in 
most persons only one side of the brain had 
been educated for that purpose; and that as a 
person is right-handed as respects movements, 
he is left-handed as respects the faculty of 
speech. More thorough study has weakened 
the supposed force of the first discoveries, and 
although it still seems to be a fact that in most 
cases the center of speech is in the left anterior 
portion of the brain, there have been several 
reported cases of aphasia in which the lesion 
was plainly at the corresponding point on the 
opposite side.* 

These and a few other similar conclusions 
constituted about all that was definitely known 
as to the functions of the different parts of the 
brain till within the past few years. The field 
of study has always been attractive, both for 



CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION. 



99 



the anatomist and the physiologist, and their 
labors have been well repaid. The following 
account of the experiments of Dr. R. W. Ami- 
don, of New York, may be of interest. They 
were based upon the following propositions: 
1. Marked local variations in the temperature 
of the cephalic contents may be demonstrated 
by the use of specially constructed surface- 
thermometers. 2. Cerebral cortical localiza- 
tion is now sufficiently far advanced to warrant 
the assertion that the psycho-motor centers for 
one half of the body occupy a certain area in 
the cerebral cortex of the opposite hemisphere. 
3. Functional activity of an organ implies in- 
creased blood-supply and tissue-change, and 



ft 



cured to the head by buckles. The desirable 
points in the subject to be experimented upon 
are, a well-shaped head, thin hair, well-devel- 
oped and trained muscles, power of facial ex- 
pression, especially of unilateral facial move- 
ments, and the ability to contract individual 
muscles, and moderate intelligence. A man is 
preferable to a woman, and a European to an 
African. 

The arrangements being completed, the sub- 
ject of the experiments is made to exercise re- 
peatedly a certain muscle or set of muscles; 
for example, to move repeatedly the right arm. 
The thermometer which registers an increase 
of temperature as a result of the movements is 




FIG. 1. LATERAL VIEW OF THE HUMAN BRAIN, SHOWING ITS LOBES AND FISSURES. (After Ferrier.) 
F, frontal lobe; P, parietal lobe ; O, occipital lobe ; T, temporo-sphenoidal lobe; S, fissure of Sylvius ; S', horizontal portion; 
8", ascending portion of the same ; c, sulcus centralis, or fissure of Eolando ; A, anterior central convolution, or ascend- 
ing frontal; B, posterior central convolution, or ascending parietal ; F,, superior; F 2 , middle; F 3 , inferior frontal con- 
volution ; /j, superior ; / 2 , inferior frontal sulcus ; / 3 , sulcus praecentralis; P,, superior parietal lobule, or postero-parietal 
lobule; P 2 , inferior parietal lobule, viz. : P 2 , gyrus supra-marginalis ; P 2 ', gyrus angularis ; p, sulcus intra-parietalis ; 
c, m, termination of the calloso-marginal fissure ; O 1 first, O 2 second, O 3 third occipital convolutions ; po, parieto-oc- 
cipital fissure ; o, sulcus occipitalis transversus ; o 2 , sulcus occipitalis longitudinalis inferior ; T x first, T 2 second, T 3 third 
temporo-sphenoidal convolutions ; t l first, # 2 second temporo-sphenoidal fissures. 



consequent elevation of the temperature of that 
organ. 4. Willed contraction of muscles pre- 
supposes an increased activity of the volitional 
motor-center of those muscles in the cerebral 
cortex. From this it was natural to make the 
deduction that voluntary activity in a periph- 
eral part would cause a rise of temperature in 
the psycho-motor center for that part, which 
might be indicated by thermometers applied to 
the skull over such center. Numbers of self- 
registering surface-thermometers were applied 
to the surface of the skull to be tested, by pass- 
ing them through holes in rubber straps se- 



supposed to be placed over the part of the 
brain controlling such movements, and in this 
way the cerebral center for movement of the 
arm is localized. 

This is but one of the many means of investi- 
gation which have been employed in the study 
of this question. A study of Fig. 1 will show 
the normal arrangement of a human brain as 
seen from the side ; and Fig. 2 shows what has 
been accomplished in the way of localization 
as regards the surface of the organ what is 
known in anatomy as the gray matter of the 
cerebral convolutions, or of the cortex. These 



100 



CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION. 



results, as concisely stated by Raimey, may be 
briefly summarized as follows : 

1. The cortex is capable of artificial stimula- 
tion, and the functions of certain areas may 
thus be accurately determined. 2. A well-de- 
fined relation exists between the cortex and 
certain muscular groups. 3. The excitable re- 
gion of the cortex, where motor effects are 
chiefly produced, may be said to be localized 
in the following parts, some of which may be 
seen by reference to the figure: The center 



movements of the forearm and hands (6) ; for 
extension and forward movement of the arm 
and hand (5) ; centers for complex movements 
of the arms and legs when acting together (2, 
3, 4). The ascending parietal convolution pre- 
sents, from above downward, four centers for 
complex movements of the hand and wrist (a, 
&, c, d), such as the use of individual fingers, 
etc. The superior parietal convolution pre- 
sents the center which presides over the move- 
ments of the leg and foot, as in the act of 




Pro. 2. SAME VIEW OF THE HTTMAN BEATW, SHOWING THE AREAS OF THE CEREBRAL CONVOLUTIONS. (After Ferrier.) 
1 (on the postero-parietal [superior parietal] lobule), advance of the opposite hind-limb as in walking; 2, 3, 4 (around the 
upper extremity of the fissure of Rolando), complex movements of the opposite leg and arm, and of the trunk, as in 
swimming ; o, "ft, c, d (on the postero-parietal [posterior central] convolution), individual and combined movements 
of the fingers and wrist of the opposite hand : prehensile movements ; 5 (at the posterior extremity of the superior 
frontal convolution), extension forward of the opposite arm and hand ; 6 (on the upper part of the antero-parietal or as- 
cending frontal [anterior central] convolution), supination and flexion of the opposite forearm ; 1 (on the median portion 
of the same convolution), retraction and elevation of the opposite angle of the mouth by means of the zygomatic muscles; 
8 (lower down on the same convolution), elevation of the ala nasi and upper lip with depression of the lower lip, on the 
opposite side; 9, 10 (at the inferior extremity of the same convolution. Broca's convolution), opening of the mouth with 
9, protrusion, and 10, retraction of the tongue region of aphasia, bilateral action ; 11 (between 10 and the inferior ex- 



, , 

side ; 12 (on the posterior portions of the superior and middle frontal convolutions), the eyes open widely, the pupils 
dilate, and the head and eyes turn toward the opposite side; 13, 13 (on the supra-marginal lobule and angular gyrus), 
the eyes move toward the opposite side with an upward 13, or downward 13- deviation ; the pupils generally contracted 
(center of vision) ; 14 (of the infra-marginal, or superior [first] temporo-sphenoidal convolution), pricking of the opposite 
ear, the head and eyes turn to the opposite side, and the pupils dilate largely (center of hearing). Ferrier, moreover, 
places the centers of taste and smell at the extremity of the temporo-sphenoidal lobe, and that of touch in the gyrus 
uncin-itus and hippocampus major. 



for movements of the lips and tongue lies at 
the base of the third frontal convolution, near 
the fissure of Silvius (9 and 10 on figure). On 
the first and second frontal convolutions there 
is a center (12) for lateral movements of the 
head, for elevation of the eyelids, and for dila- 
tation of the pupil. The ascending frontal 
convolution presents, from below upward, the 
following centers: for elevation and depres- 
sion of the corners of the mouth (8 and 7) ; for 



walking. The sensory region of the cortex is 
confined to the parietal, temporal, and occipital 
lobes of the cerebrum. In it certain centers 
have been definitely located by Terrier which 
are not as yet accepted as fully proved. 

It may be asked whether these facts, which 
have resulted from physiological experiment 
and from faradization, are of any practical 
value at the bedside. Their value may easily 
be shown. In a case of brain-disease, where 



CEREBRAL LOCALIZATION. 



101 



the faculty of speech is affected to any extent, 
it is safe to conclude that the lesion must he in 
one of three places nearly connected with each 
other the island of Reil, the base of the third 
frontal convolution, or the white substance ly- 
ing between the third frontal convolution and 
the base of the cerebrum. It will also, in most 
cases, be upon the left side, as already shown. 
Paralysis of motion affecting only the upper 
extremity, leads to a location of the lesion on 
the side of the brain opposite the affected arm, 
and either confined to or involving the ascend- 
ing convolutions of the frontal and parietal 
lobes. In the same way, the affected point 
may be predicted, with an approach to cer- 
tainty, in paralysis of the leg, of the muscles of 
the face, of ithe eyes, etc. Supposing, now, that 
a patient affected with certain forms of paraly- 
sis, either of motion or sensation, with diffi- 
culty of speech, or with a certain variety of 
strabismus, gives a history of an injury at some 
time long passed, to the head. The surgeon 
concludes that as a result of such injury the 
bones of the skull have become gradually 
thickened until the pressure of new bone upon 
the brain-substance is causing the symptoms 
which he observes. From the muscles and 
parts affected he is enabled, in some cases with 
almost absolute exactness, to predict where 
the thickened bone on the inner surface of the 
skull will be found, and by the use of the tre- 
phine upon this point he may cure the disease 
a result which could not be obtained with- 
out the accurate knowledge which has resulted 
from the study of cerebral localization. Ab- 
scess in the substance of the brain, following 
a few weeks after an injury is by no means 
uncommon. Such abscesses may be treated as 
abscesses are in other parts of the body, by 
opening them and allowing pus to escape, pro- 
vided only thay can be located with sufficient 
exactness, so that the trephine may first be 
used to remove a portion of the skull and thus 
allow the plunging of a knife into the brain- 
substance and reaching the abscess-cavity. 
Suppose that a person who has been injured 
on the head develops aphasia, or the loss of 
words, after a few weeks. The indications are 
all in favor of the diagnosis of an abscess in 
the anterior part of the brain on the left side, 
and -an operation at this point may save the 
patient's life, and has done so. 

The surgical importance of these discoveries 
may be still further exemplified. Thus, if a 
person receive a severe injury on one side of 
the head, and there follows a paralysis of the 
hand and arm on the same side of the body, 
instead of on the opposite side, any surgical 
interference is contraindicated ; for the reason 
that, were the injury to the brain confined to 
the seat of the wound, the paralysis would be 
on the opposite side of the body ; but, being on 
the same side, it is proved that the brain-injury 
must be on the opposite side ; in other words, 
that the brain has been extensively damaged, so 
extensively that the side opposite the point of 



injury is also deeply affected, and therefore sur- 
gical interference is probably useless. Again, 
the completeness of the paralysis may indicate 
that the brain-disease is not confined to the 
surface, but has involved the deeper portions, 
and that the operation of trephining is likely 
to do little if any good. 

The celebrated " American crow-bar case," 
which was for a time looked upon with incre- 
dulity as a " Yankee invention," has recently 
been appealed to as an argument against the 
fact of cerebral localization, and as a proof that 
the most extensive injury may be done to that 
portion of the brain supposed to be the center 
of voluntary motion, without causing paraly- 
sis. The case was that of a man, aged twen- 
ty-five years, who was tamping a blasting- 
charge in a rock with a pointed iron bar three 
feet seven inches long, 1 inch in diameter, 
and weighing 13J pounds. The charge ex- 
ploded prematurely, and the bar entered with 
its pointed end at the left angle of the patient's 
jaw, passed through the skull and out at the 
forehead, and was picked up at some distance, 
covered with blood and brain. The patient 
was stunned, but within an hour after the ac- 
cident he was able to walk up a long flight of 
stairs, and give an intelligent account of the 
injury to the surgeon who attended him. He 
ultimately recovered, after an illness which it 
was supposed must necessarily end fatally, and 
lived twelve and a halt years, dying of epilep- 
tic convulsions, without medical supervision. 
The skull was subsequently exhumed, and may 
now be seen in the Medical Museum of Harvard 
University. 

The case is generally cited as one in which 
the man suffered no permanent damage from 
the injury, either mental or bodily ; but a more 
careful study of it, made by Charcot, proves 
quite the contrary, and in fact brings it within 
the ranks of the proofs of cerebral localization. 
An examination of the parts of the brain which 
must have been lacerated by the projectile, 
proves that the whole track of the bar was 
in the prse-frontal region, and that the absence 
of paralysis was exactly what should have been 
anticipated from experimental research. The 
outer root of the olfactory bulb may also have 
been injured, and if such were the case there 
should have been a partial loss of the sense of 
smell ; but on this point the history is silent. 
There should have been also more or less intel- 
lectual disturbance, and on this point the his- 
tory by Dr. Harlow is conclusive : " His con- 
tractors, who regarded him as the most efficient 
and capable foreman in their employ previous 
to his injury, considered the change in his mind 
so marked that they could, not give him his 
place again. The equilibrium of balance, so to 
speak, between his intellectual faculties and 
animal propensities seems to have been de- 
stroyed. He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at 
times in the grossest profanity (which was not 
previously his custom), manifesting but little 
deference to his fellows, impatient of restraint 



102 



CHADBOUKNE, PAUL A. 



or advice when it conflicts with his desires, at 
times pertinaciously obstinate yet capricious 
and vacillating, devising many plans of future 
aspiration, which are no sooner arranged than 
they are abandoned in turn for others ap- 
pearing more feasible. A child in his intel- 
lectual capacity and manifestations, he has the 
animal passions of a strong man. Previous 
to his injury, though untrained in the schools, 
he possessed a well-balanced mind, and was 
looked upon by those who knew him as a 
shrewd, smart business man, very energetic 
and persistent in executing all his plans of 
operation. In this regard bis mind was radi- 
cally changed, so decidedly that his friends 
and acquaintances said he was ' no longer 



CIIADBOURNE, Paul Insel, an American edu- 
cator, born in New Berwick, Me., Oct. 21, 
1823 ; died in New York city, Feb. 23, 1883. 
He was graduated at Williams College, at the 
head of his class, in 1848, and became. a teacher 
in Willis's Academy, Freehold, N. J. From 




PAUL ANSEL CHADBOUBNB. 

Freehold he went to the Theological Seminary, 
EastWindsor, Conn., and after graduation went 
to Exeter, Mass., where he married. His wife 
and two children survive him. 

Mr. Chadbourne next became tutor in his 
Alma Mater, nd in 1853 was raised to the 
professorship of Chemistry and Natural His- 



tory. It is worthy of note that he was also, 
without giving up his chair at Williams, elected 
to the same chair in Bowdoin College, and did 
the duty of both for seven years. He served 
as professor in the Berkshire Medical College, 
Mass., and for thirteen years was Chemical Lec- 
turer in Mount Holyoke Seminary. 

In 1855 he visited Newfoundland. Two 
years later he was at the head of a scientific 
party iu Florida; and two years after this he 
visited Europe. For the purpose of studying 
the geysers and volcanoes, he extended his tour 
to Iceland. In 1869 he made a journey to 
Greenland, for exploration and research. 

With all his devotion to science and learn- 
ing, Dr. Chadbourne was a careful observer of 
public affairs, and quite as anxious to do his 
share in this line of duty as in any other. He 
was elected to the Senate of Massachusetts in 
1865, and in 1876 was a delegate-at-large to 
the Republican National Convention. For the 
benefit of his health he removed to the West, 
and was soon after elected President of the 
University of Wisconsin. He dis- 
charged the duties of this post for 
three years, and then passed two 
years in examinations and experi- 
ments among the Eocky Mountain 
mines. 

At this date (18V2)he was chosen 
to succeed the venerable Dr. Mark 
Hopkins as President of Williams 
College. His occupancy of this of- 
fice may be called the great work of 
his life. Under his able and skill- 
ful oversight the college prospered 
greatly ; the number of its students 
was increased, and funds were liber- 
ally poured in for its support. He 
held the office for nine years, with 
unvarying success, after which he 
resigned, in order to carry out some 
extensive literary plans which he 
was very desirous to execute. 

Dr. Chadbourne was first Presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts Agricult- 
ural College, and in 1882 was re- 
elected to that post. He also held 
it at the time of his death. He was 
a member of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, of the Albany Insti- 
tute, and of other learned societies 
abroad as well as at home. Two 
honorary degrees were conferred 
upon him by Amherst College, and 
the degree of M. D. by the Berk- 
shire Medical College. He was the 
author of several books, among 
which were " Natural Theology," 
"Instinct in Animals and Man," and the "Re- 
lations of Natural History." He was chief 
editor of an elaborate work entitled "The 
Public Service of the State of New York." 
He was actively interested in manufacturing 
enterprises, as well as financial operations, 
and was a marvel to those who knew the 



CHAMBERS, WILLIAM. 



CHAMBORD, COMTE DE. 103 



amount and number of works to which he 
put bis hand and carried through successfully, 
despite the infirmities of body and the perils 
of uncertain health. He started for a vi.4t to 
New York on the 13th of February, ^but, be- 
fore leaving the cars, he was seized with what 
proved to be a fatal attack. He was carried 
to the residence of his brother-in-law, Mr. A. 
Schenck, peritonitis ensued, and he died on 
Friday, the 23d. 

Dr. Chadbonrne was a man of mark in many 
ways. As a scholar of varied acquirements, 
and an educator of rare skill and ability, he 
has had few equals in his day. Activity and 
zeal were specially prominent in his career, 
and his experiences of life were multiform. 
He was born in Maine, fitted for college in 
New Hampshire, and graduated at college in 
Massachusetts. He traveled extensively in his 
own country as well as in foreign lands. His 
life was full of adventure, of singular vicissi- 
tudes, and of noble, memorable work. He 
served four institutions of learning, three of 
them as president. He led parties for scien- 
tific exploration and research; he managed 
large and important business enterprises ; and 
he published a number of learned scientific 
books. He was a theologian, too, of no mean 
power, and his mind and heart were at rest in 
possessing and enjoying those truths firmly 
held by the denomination with which he was 
connected. 

CHAMBERS, William, a Scottish author and 
publisher, born at Peebles in 1800, died in 
Edinburgh, May 20, 1883. At the age of thir- 
teen, after receiving the education which the 
schools of his native town afforded, he was 
apprenticed to a printer in Edinburgh. Three 
years later he opened a book-stall, and be- 
fore 1832, when his brother Robert joined 
him, he eked out the profits of a small trade 
by working at case and press, and in 1830 pub- 
lished his " Book of Scotland," an elaborate 
and comprehensive account of the usages and 
institutions, the schools, social system, and 
civil and religious organization of that coun- 
try. Previous to this time the brothers united 
in preparing a " Gazetteer of Scotland," which 
was written in the intervals of business and 
published in 1832. In February of that year 
appeared the first number of the " Edinburgh 
Journal," designed " to supply intellectual 
food of the best kind, and in such a form and 
at such a price as must suit the convenience 
of any man in the British dominions." It 
almost immediately attained a circulation of 
50,000, whereupon the brothers united their 
business (Robert having also carried on a small 
book-store) into one establishment. The " Jour- 
nal " has remained for fifty- two years one of the 
most widely circulated of British periodicals, 
and is at present conducted by Robert Cham- 
bers, son and nephew of the original found- 
ers. In 1834 W. & R. Chambers began the 
publication of a series of scientific and histori- 
cal treatises, written in a popular style, under 



the title of "Information for the People," the 
average sale of the numbers of which was more 
than 100,000 copies. They were followed by 
the " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent 
Scotsmen " (1835) ; " Cyclopaedia of English 
Literature" (1844); the "Popular Edition of 
Standard English Works," "Papers for the 
People," "Miscellany," "Repository of In- 
structive and Entertaining Tracts," and other 
similar collections all of which were in a 
cheap form, and were widely read. " Cham- 
bers's Educational Course," which has been 
completed by degrees, includes works in al- 
most every branch of knowledge, and was fol- 
lowed by " Chambers's Encyclopaedia " (10 
vols. 8vo, , 1860-'68; new edition, 1871-*72) 
all of which were in whole or part edited by 
William Chambers and his brother. The for- 
mer contributed numerous essays to the "Jour- 
nal," of which he was for many years after his 
brother's death the editor, and gave his im- 
pressions of the United States in a work enti- 
tled " Things as they are in America " (repub- 
lished in New York in 1854). He was also the 
author of " Slavery and Color in America," 
"Peebles and its Neighborhood," "About 
Railways," " Wintering at Mentone," " Youth's 
Companion and Counselor," and "Improved 
Dwelling-Houses for the Humble and other 
Classes in Cities," suggested by his experiments 
in improving the dwellings of his tenantry on 
his estate of Glenormiston, near Peebles. He 
presented to his native town, at a cost of $150,- 
000, a substantial building and an excellent 
library, known as the " Chambers Institution," 
and served two terms as Lord Provost of Edin- 
burgh. In 1872 he published his last work, 
entitled "Robert Chambers, with Autobio- 
graphical Reminiscences."- The crowning act 
of his long career was the restoration, at a 
cost of $150,000, of the interior of the old 
Cathedral Church of St. Giles, Edinburgh, to 
its former state of grandeur. Three days be- 
fore the cathedral was to be reopened with 
appropriate ceremonies, the restorer was no 
more. The publishing-house of W. & R. Cham- 
bers is the largest in Scotland, employing more 
than three hundred persons. 

CHAMBORD, Comte de (Henri Charles Ferdinand 
Marie Dieudonne d'Artois, Due de Bordeaux), the 
last of the principal line of Bourbons, and, 
under the laws of the old French monarchy, 
heir to the throne of France, died at Frohs- 
dorf, in Lower Austria, Aug. 24, 1883. He 
was born in the Tuileries, Sept. 29, 1820, eight 
months after his father, the Due de Berry, son 
of the Comte d'Artois, afterward Charles X, 
was assassinated by a political fanatic. The' 
birth of a prince in the continuation of the 
elder line, the one which preserved, untainted 
by any compromise with the Revolution, the 
traditions and principles of the monarchy, was 
hailed with ostentatious demonstrations by the 
royalists. The infant received the surname 
"Child of a Miracle," and was christened De- 
odonatus, or " God given." A national sub- 



104 



CHAMBORD, COMTE DE. 



scription was opened, and with the proceeds 
the beautiful castle and estate of Chambord 
were purchased, and presented to the Prince 
as a public offering. The title of Due de Bor- 
deaux was given him out of compliment to the 
city which was the first to proclaim the Bour- 
bons after the fall of Napoleon. He was now 
created Count de Chambord by the King, his 
great-uucle. 

The birth of the Prince occurred at the time 
when a reaction against liberal ideas had set in, 
the main cause of the revival of royalist ideas 
being the murder of his father. The Duke of 
Orleans, who was descended from Philippe of 




COMTE DE CHAMBOBD. 

Orleans, second son of Louis XIV, and was the 
son of Philippe Egalite of the Revolution, stood 
heir to the murdered Duke in default of male 
issue. He was the hope of the party of liberal- 
constitutional ideas. Between the throne and 
the Duke of Orleans were, in the regular line of 
succession, the Comte d'Artois, brother to the 
reigning King, the infirm Louis XVIII, and 
the Comte's surviving eldest son, the childless 
Due d Angouleme. It was in the hope of de- 
stroying the elder branch of the Bourbons that 
the saddler Louvel assassinated the Due de Ber- 
ry, under the portico of the Opera-House, Feb. 
13, 1820. The< Liberal ministers were driven 
from office, and the supporters of the Duke of 



Orleans were accused of inspiring the crime. 
When the Duchesse de Berry gave birth to a 
prince, the report was circulated by the Lib- 
erals that the child was a changeling. 

The education of Henri was planned to fos- 
ter in his mind the principles of absolutism 
and divine right. The chiefs of the ancient 
nobility, who served him as tutors and gov- 
ernesses, filled his brain with their romantic 
ideas of the ancient regime. When he was in 
his fifth year his grandfather succeeded the 
shrewd and prudent Louis XVIII, as Charles 
X, and the glories of the old monarchy were 
revived, and, in the exhibitions of royal splen- 
dor, the handsome little prince was 
made a central figure. Dressed in 
white and blue until he was six 
years old, in token of his dedication 
to the Virgin Mary, he reviewed his 
regiment of hussars, and distributed 
boons and pardons to suppliant 
crowds. In 1830 Charles X, with 
the assistance of his minister, Prince 
Polignac, attempted to reassume the 
prerogative of the kings of France. 
After twice dissolving the Liberal 
Chamber, he issued an ordinance, 
on the 25th of July, 1830, abrogat- 
ing the charter of 1815. At the end 
of three days of barricade-fighting, 
the royal troops were beaten by the 
people of Paris. The Duke of Or- 
leans accepted the crown as King 
of the French, and the deposed mon- 
arch journeyed slowly in royal state 
to Cherbourg, still expecting to be 
restored to the throne by an upris- 
ing of the provinces, and then set 
sail with all his family, followed by 
a frigate, which had orders to sink 
the ship if she should put back for 
the coast of France. 

The proscribed King set up a court 
in the palace of Holyrood, at Edin- 
burgh, until the ministry of William 
IV gave him to understand that there 
were political inconveniences attend- 
ing the^stay of the royal family in 
Great Britain. Before settling at 
Hradjin, near Prague, where they 
next established themselves, the 
Duchesae de Berry, & princess of energetic 
character and adventurous spirit, undertook 
an expedition into France, for the purpose 
of heading a movement to place her son 
on the throne. With her boy she landed se- 
cretly in the Vendee. The plans of the ex- 
pedition were well laid, and the Legitimists 
formed in a military body without detection. 
But the Breton peasants did not flock to the 
white flag as was expected, not understanding 
the grounds for upsetting one Bourbon King 
to establish another. In a single engagement 
with the King's troops the insurgent band was 
routed. The Duchess was betrayed into the 
hands of the Government, anc 1 , when confined 



CHAMBORD, COMTE DE. 



105 



in the Chateau de Blaye, was discovered to be 
pregnant, and declared that she had contracted 
a secret marriage with an Italian, Count Luc- 
chesi-Palli. This episode not only brought the 
cause of Henri V into ridicule, but separated 
the young pretender thenceforward from his 
mother, as Charles X could never forgive her 
misalliance. Henri, who was safely brought 
back from the unlucky expedition by faithful 
adherents, was placed by his grandfather un- 
der the guardianship of the Duchesse d'Angou- 
leme, a woman of strong will and masculine 
nature, while the Duchesse de Berry, who was 
a princess of Naples, was banished to the land 
of her nativity. 

Chateaubriand, the celebrated expositor of 
clerico-royalist theories, filled with ideas simi- 
lar to those which stirred Disraeli, Bismarck, 
and other statesmen, made the pilgrimage to 
Prague, in the hope of taking the direction of 
the young prince's education and bringing him 
up to become a democratic ruler, who should 
realize under the old patriarchal forms the 
popular aspirations of the Revolution, which 
the bourgeoisie, after becoming the dominant 
class under Louis Philippe, had selfishly for- 
gotten. But democratic ideas were regarded 
with dread and aversion by the people sur- 
rounding the young Due de Bordeaux. He 
was trained by his tutor, the Duo de Damas, 
in doctrines at variance with the whole move- 
ment of the century, and in the hope of sim- 
ply restoring the old order as he was taught 
to conceive it by clerical guides, who made 
him believe that the kings of France were all 
men of saintly character, and that the dalliance 
of the aristocracy with Voltairean heresies was 
the cause of the fall of the monarchy. Henri 
grew up a religious devotee, completely igno- 
rant of the world, and possessing ideas of the 
religious nature of the kingly office which cre- 
ated astonishment in the courts of Europe, 
when in his twentieth year he made a tour by the 
counsel of Cardinal Lambruschini, who fearegl 
the effects of his ascetic devotions upon the 
mind of the Prince. The family lived for some 
years at Goertz, or Goritz, in Istria, where 
Charles X died in 1836. When he was twenty- 
one years old he was thrown from his horse 
and sustained a fracture of the thigh, which 
made him slightly lame for life and unfitted 
him for robust exercise. The same year the 
Duchesse d'Angouleine purchased the castle 
and estate of Froschdorf, or Frohsdorf, forty 
miles from Vienna. The Comta de Chambord 
(which was the title that the Prince was called 
by after the expulsion ojf his family from 
France) was not able to leave his bed for two 
years after his accident. Shortly after his own 
raishap, the popular Due d'Orleans, Louis Phi- 
lippe's heir, was thrown from his carriage and 
killed, leaving the infant Comte de Paris as 
next heir) with the prospect of a regency un- 
der the Due de Nemonrs, who was not popular. 
In November, 1843, as soon as he left his sick- 
bed, he took up his residence in London, and 



publicly 
take the 



called upon his partisans to come and 
take the oath of allegiance. The Legitimist 
members of the Chamber and the House of 
Peers, with thousands of others, flocked to his 
mansion in Belgrave Square to pay homage to 
Henri V. A vote of condemnation passed by 
the Chamber on the conduct of these deputies 
had the effect of exposing the weakness of Louis 
Philippe's tenure of the throne and the seem- 
ing hopefulness of Chambord's prospects. The 
censured deputies resigned, and were all re- 
elected. It became the fashion in Paris to 
praise the Comte, and rave over the glories of 
the old regime. He strengthened his position 
and augmented his great fortune by marrying 
Maria Theresa, daughter of the Duke of Mo- 
dena, in 1847. 

With the brilliant Berryer to lead his party, 
which grew in numbers and importance up to 
the Revolution of 1848, there was an oppor- 
tunity, if Chambord had been daring, unscru- 
pulous, and despotic, and willing to sacrifice 
his principles to expediency, of obtaining the 
crown after the ignominious overthrow of 
Louis Philippe, though scarcely of holding it. 
But Chambord's lack of courage and decision 
of character kept him from making the attempt. 
It was necessary that he should pledge himself 
to rule constitutionally, a condition which he 
had already accepted in letters and addresses, 
and in the columns of his organs. 

The communistic outbreak of June decided 
the fate of the second republic. After its rig- 
orous suppression by Cavaignac, a Chamber 
was elected containing a strong group of Le- 
gitimists, and a large number who were ready 
to rally around Chambord, provided he would 
issue a manifesto embodying a charter of popu- 
lar representation. He appointed many meet- 
ings with his political friends, and made fre- 
quent promises to adopt this course, but when- 
ever the moment for decision arrived he escaped 
from his political advisers to meditate in some 
monastery and take priestly counsel. Prince 
Louis Napoleon canvassed the country, and se- 
cured the election to the presidency. The Le- 
gitimists voted for him, to keep out Cavaignac. 
The Comte de Chambord could not bring him- 
self to renounce the absolutist theory of the mon- 
archy by right divine and the re-establishment 
of the old ecclesiastico-feudal order. He shrank 
still more from the employment of military 
force. There was no hope of re-erecting the 
old Bourbon throne under any compromise or 
possible concessions without a sharp, sangui- 
nary conflict with the democracy of the cities. 
While Thiers, Guizot, and Berryer were labor- 
ing to bring about a fusion between the Legiti- 
mists and Orleanists, which advanced to the 
point of direct negotiations with the Comte de 
Chambord at Wiesbaden after the death of 
Louis Philippe, and while Marshal Bugeaud, 
the first general of the French army at the 
time, held 50,000 of the choicest troops ready 
to strike at the orders of Henri Cinq, Prince 
Bonaparte strengthened his grasp on the cen- 



106 



CHAMBORD, COMTE DE. 



tralized administrative machinery, and two 
years later destroyed the hopes of the royalists 
by liimseif establishing an absolute monarchy, 
and subsequently assuming the duty of defend- 
ing the temporal power of the Pope. The 
Comte de Chambord still expected that the 
French people would fall at the feet of their 
hereditary sovereign, and accept him uncondi- 
tionally. 

His wavering conduct during this crisis dis- 
gusted his adherents. Yet many still upheld 
his pretensions as embodying the principles of 
Legitimist!). In his comfortable retirement at 
Frohsdorf, where he maintained a stately court 
as a king in exile, he entertained courteously 
all who came from France. He enjoyed sport, 
following the hunt in a carriage, but occupied 
his mind chiefly with ecclesiastical antiquities, 
acquiring a remarkable acquaintance with the 
shrines of all countries and the religious relics 
they contained. The imperial court of France 
always treated him with deep respect, as a 
means of conciliating the old nobility, who 
kept aloof from the Tuileries, and after a 
while he seemed to be completely forgotten. 
When he abandoned the hope of having chil- 
dren', not only was the chief motive for estab- 
lishing his claim to the throne taken away 
from him, but a deterrent sentiment took its 
place. Like all his family, Chambord hated 
the house of Orleans. The fall of the empire 
in 1870 drew him from his retirement at the 
age of fifty to resume the active role of a pre- 
tender. The crown was almost thrust upon 
him by his energetic partisans, and the dangers 
threatening the Church gave his cause a politi- 
cal significance which was lacking in 1848-'52, 
but he performed his part in a more reluctant, 
vacillating, and half-hearted way than before. 
After Sedan, he issued from Geneva a mani- 
festo bewailing the fate of France, rather than 
announcing his enndidacy. The royalists were 
politically active in the midst of the war, and 
the precipitate election of February, 1871, they 
turned to their advantage. 

After the suppression of the Commune, the 
Comte resided for a time in his castle at Cham- 
bord. He wrote a series of letters disclaiming 
any intention of abolishing the tricolor, or rep- 
resentative government, or political equality, 
or of reviving church tithes. After launch- 
ing a second manifesto, he withdrew to Mari- 
enbad. On 'the understanding that the Comte 
de Chambord would accept the crown as a 
constitutional monarch, and would appoint the 
Comte de Paris his heir, the Legitimists pur- 
sued their efforts to undermine the Thiers re- 
public, and in the winter of 1872 they went to 
Bruges to pay homage to the pretender. Thiers' 
declared that he would prosecute the actors in 
this demonstration, and have Chambord es- 
corted across the frontier if he showed him- 
self in France. On May 24, 1873, the royal- 
ist cabal overthrew Thiers, and on the 5th of 
August the C6mte de Paris went to Frohsdorf 
in acknowledgment of the claims of the head 



of the family. In October the Comte de 
Chambord was at Versailles, and everything 
was ready for the coup de main which his 
friends urged upon him. The royalist major- 
ity in the Assembly would hail him King by 
acclamation, if he would only enter the hall 
and declare himself; while Marshal MacMah on 
stood ready to uphold his rights with the 
army. But he shrank from such a course, 
perceiving that the French people were not 
in sympathy with the restoration of the Bour- 
bons. A deputation from the Right waited 
upon him at Salzburg and made a formal offer 
of the crown in the name of the parliamentary 
majority. The Prince, racked by the old ques- 
tions, wavered and vacillated as before. To 
the delegates he replied that he accepted the 
crown, arid would leave it to the National As- 
sembly to frame a Constitution. His friends 
supposed that all difficulties were removed, 
and state carriages and decorations were ready 
on the 25th of October for the solemn entry 
of the King. Six da}s later his official organ, 
I? Union, published a manifesto declaring that 
he would never disown the white flag of Henri 
IV, or consent to become "the King of the 
Revolution." 

The Orleanists were indignant. The re- 
publicans praised the Prince for his consist- 
ency of character and firmness of principle. 
The slender group of pure royalists clung still 
closer to the Comte de Chambord. 

The Royal Succession. The legitimate suc- 
cessor to the French throne is now the Comte 
de Paris, chief of the Orleans branch, who 
was formally accepted as such in the meeting 
between the heads of the two houses at Frohs- 
dorf in 1883. Still the question can be raised 
by the dwindling party which adheres to the 
principles of feudalism and absolutism, whether 
the Spanish Bourbons, who are the eldest 
branch by descent, do not come legally next 
in the order of succession, since they are cut 
off from the Spanish throne. 

The cadet branch of Orleans is almost as old 
as the Bourbon dynasty, being sprung from 
Philippe, Duke of Orleans, second son of Louis 
XIII, who was the son and successor of Henri 
IV, the first of the line. All the other living 
Bourbons are descended from Louis XIV, the 
elder son of Louis XIII. The appended genea- 
logical table on page 107 exhibits the relation- 
ship of the various branches of the Bourbon 
family. 

The house of Orleans has many living mem- 
bers, descended from Louis Philippe. His eld- 
est son, who was accidentally killed, July 13, 
1842, left two sons; the eldest, Louis Philippe, 
Comte de Paris, born Aug. 28, 1838, has a son, 
Louis Philippe Robert, born Feb. 6, 1869. His 
brother, the Due de Chartres, has two sons. 
His uncle, the Due de Nemours, has sons and 
grandsons; and of his other uncles, the Prince 
de Joinville, the Due de Montpensier, and the 
Due d'Aumale, the two former have male 
issue. 



CHANZY, ANTOIKE E. A. 



107 







Louis XIII. (d. 1643). 
I 






Louis XIV. (d. 1715). 

Louis, the Grand- Dauphin 
(d. 1711). 




Philippe, 
Due d'Orleans 
(d. 1701). 




I 




Philippe, 




Louis, Due de 
Bourgogne 


Philippe V. of Spain, 
Due d'Aniou 


Due d'Orleans, 
the Regent 
(d. 1723). 




(d. 1712). 


(d. 1746). 


I 
Louis Joseph 
Philippe 


1 


1 | 


| | 


(d 1793). 


Louis XVI. 
(d. 1798). 

Louis XVII. 


Louis XVIII. Charles X. 
(d. 1821). (d. 1836). 

Henri, Comte 


Charles III. Philippe (d. 
of Spain 1765). [Ducal 
(d. 1788). line of Parma.] 


Louis Philippe, 
King of the 
French 


(d. 1795). 


de Chambord 


1 1 J 


(d. 1850). 




[principal line, 
or branch of 
Artois. ex- 
tinct in 1883]. 


Charles IV. Ferdinand I. The Infante 
(d. 1819). (d. 1825). Gabriel 
| [Branch of the (d. 1788). 


[Branch of 
Orleans.] 


1 1 Two Sicilies.] [Cadet branch 
Ferdinand Don^arlos ofBp^ rep- 






the children 








Isabella II. Don Carlos of the Infante 
(b. 1822). Sebastian.] 








Alfonso XII. | 
Don Carlos 








(b. 1848). 








Prince Jaime 








(b. 1S70), 








[principal line 








of Spain]. 





CHANZY, Antoine Eugene Alfred, a French gen- 
eral, died in Chaldns, January 4th. He was 
born at Nouart, in the Ardennes, on the 18th 
of March, 1823. His father was a captain of 
cuirassiers. He entered the navy at the age of 
sixteen, and a year and a half later joined a 
regiment of artillery ; was then received into 
the Academy of St. Cyr, and in 1843 was com- 
missioned sub-lieutenant of zouaves, was given 
a lieutenancy in the line in 1848, became cap- 
tain in 1851, and was then appointed chief of 
the Arab bureau in Hemsan. He became chief 
of battalion in 1856, fought in the Italian cam- 
paign, and as lieutenant-colonel took part in 
the Syrian expedition. Being promoted to a 
colonelcy, he commanded a regiment stationed 
at Rome, and in 1864 was transferred back to 
Algiers, and became general of brigade and 
commandant, first of Bel- Abbes and then of 
Hemsan. 

At the beginning of the German war he 
went to Paris, and asked to be assigned to a 
command, but Marshal Leboeuf ignored him. 

After the surrender of the imperial army at 
Sedan, and the investment of Paris, when the 
Government of National Defense marshaled 
the raw bodies made up of the remaining fight- 
ing material of the country, in the hope of still 
redeeming vanquished France, Ohanzy was 
made a general of division, as most of the su- 
perior officers of the army were prisoners of 
war. After the retirement of General d' Aurelle 
de Paladines he was selected by Gambetta as 
" the true soldier revealed by events " to lead 
this second Army of the Loire in its stubborn 
resistance. 

He has been spoken of as the one great 
soldier produced by France in 1870-'71, and 
the magnificent stand he made against the 



huge German forces in the region of the Loire 
gained the respect and admiration of Europe. 
The quality of his troops at this time was of 
the poorest, and discipline scarcely existed. 

With Chanzy in immediate command under 
the direction of Gen. d' Aurelle, a new spirit was 
breathed into this mass. The Sixteenth Corps, 
joined with the Fifteenth, was now given the 
name of the Army of the Loire, and, by Nov. 1, 
1870, it held the country to the north of the 
river, between Beaugency, Blois, and Marche- 
noir. D'Aurelle now resalved to march on 
Orleans, which had been captured by a raid 
from Paris, and, if possible, to cut off a Bava- 
rian detachment, which was the only hostile 
body in his path. For this purpose he ad- 
vanced his two corps, combining his operations 
with a French division which was to descend 
on Orleans from the upper Loire. These 
movements led to the battle of Coulmiers, the 
one French victory gained in the war, and 
though, owing to the delay of the distant 
French wing, the Bavarians contrived to effect 
their escape, they were rudely handled and 
badly beaten. Chanzy was in command of the 
French left, but, through the mistake of a cav- 
alry leader, his operations were not brilliant. 

The apparition of a victorious army per- 
plexed the counsels of the Germans at Ver- 
sailles; and it is now known that the French 
commander might have struck with great ef- 
fect. The Bavarian detachment, not 20,000 
strong, was literally the only hostile force be- 
tween D'Aurelle and the capital of France, and 
had that general advanced boldly with his 
60,000 or 70,000 men, he would almost cer- 
tainly have crushed Von der Tann, very prob- 
ably have defeated the Grand Duke of Meck- 
lenburg, who was hurriedly sent off with a 



108 



CHANZY, ANTOINE E. A. 



few thousand men to attempt to reach his 
Bavarian colleague, and might possibly have 
raised the siege of Paris, for Von Moltke con- 
templated even this contingency. D'Aurelle, 
however, fell back on Orleans, his object be- 
ing to make the position an intrenched camp 
of formidable strength, and a base tor future 
offensive movements. Ohanzy protested against 
this, urged his chief to advance to the line of 
the Coulie and be ready to assume the offen- 
sive, and especially entreated him to attack in 
detail Von der Tann, the Grand Duke, and 
Prince Frederick Charles, as, gathering togeth- 
er from wide distances and presenting their 
flanks to their collected enemy, these generals 
slowly converged on Orleans. 
By the close of November, the Fifteenth 




ANTOINE EUGENE ALFRED CHANZT. 



and Sixteenth Corps had been reenforced by 
the Seventeenth, the Eighteenth, and the 
Twentieth, and the French army, 200,000 
strong, filled the region around and in front of 
Orleans. The purpose of D'Aurelle was to 
await the attack of the enemy in his in- 
trenched camp. Gambetta, however, believ- 
ing himself as capable of directing armies as he 
was of levying troops, having heard that Tro- 
chu was about to make a great effort to break 
out of Paris,,insisted upon a general movement 
in the very teeth of Prince Frederick Charles. 



For this purpose the Eighteenth Corps was 
prematurely thrown forward on Beaune-la- 
Rolande, the Twentieth failing to give it sup- 
port, while the Fifteenth, the Sixteenth, and 
the Seventeenth were ordered to make what 
really was a flank march within reach of a foe 
at this moment all but concentrated. The 
Eighteenth Corps was at once defeated ; and 
then the "Prince, by a masterly movement, com- 
bined with his supports on the left, fell on the 
French center, the Fifteenth Corps, and shat- 
tered it after a brave resistance. This stroke 
forced Chanzy, who up to this time had gained 
slight advantages, to fall back with the Six- 
teenth on the Seventeenth Corps ; the German 
commander followed up his success with ener- 
gy and skill, and the result was that the Fif- 
teenth Corps was -all but ruined as 
a military force ; Orleans and the in- 
trenched camp were carried, and the 
Army of the Loire was rent in twain, 
the Eighteenth and Twentieth Corps 
being driven across the river, while 
the Sixteenth and Seventeenth and 
the wreck of the Fifteenth were ral- 
lied by Chanzy on the northern bank. 
A succession of false movements had 
inflicted a ruinous defeat on France ; 
neither the defensive strategy of 
D'Aurelle nor the bolder plans of 
his able lieutenant had had a chance 
to be carried out. 

D'Aurelle was dismissed. The di- 
vided parts of the Army of the Loire 
were separated into two bodies, the 
first army given to Bourbaki, and 
the second remaining under Chanzy, 
whose forces had been strengthened 
by the Twenty -first Corps, and by a 
flying column from Tours. By Dec. 
6th he had placed the army between 
Marchenoir, Josnes, and Beaugency, 
having skillfully chosen a strong de- 
fensive line, with his flanks covered 
by a great forest and the Loire. He 
was forthwith attacked by Prince 
Frederick Charles, who, having en- 
tered, Orleans on the 4th and 5th, 
turned against the enemy hanging 
on his flank, no doubt confident of 
easy success ; but his calculations 
were completely baffled. In a series 
of stern and sustained engagements, 
Chanzy for four days repelled his as- 
sailant, inflicting considerable loss, and though 
the Prince was reenforced from Orleans by a 
detachment under the Grand Duke of Meck- 
lenburg, he made no impression on his heroic 
enemy, until a demonstration from the Loire 
and Blois placed a German corps on the French 
rear. 

Chanzy's skill was not more remarkable 
than his confidence and tenacious energy; 
his presence electrified his young levies, and 
from this moment he held absolute sway over 
the hearts of officers and men. The astonish- 



CHANZY, ANTOINE E. A. 

ing efforts which he made once more discon- 
certed the strategists of "Versailles. The great 
sortie from Paris had, no doubt, failed ; out it 
had cost tb.3 Germans thousands of lives, and 
the proud city still defied its enemy. D'Au- 
relle had succumbed with Orleans; but afresh 
army had arisen from the wreck, and it had 
found a chief who could make it accomplish 
feats that seemed impossible to professional 
soldiers. 

While Ohanzy was making his heroic stand, 
exposed to the whole weight of his enemy's 
force, Bourbaki did nothing, and declared that 
he could not detach a man from his quarters at 
Bourges to aid his colleague. This remissness 
enabled the Germans to make the movement 
along the Loire which endangered the flank of 
Chanzy when it had been found impossible to 
break his front, and it compelled him to leave 
his position. The great object of the French 
Government was to direct a relieving force on 
Paris, already besieged for four months. Ac- 
cordingly, Chanzy resolved to ascend from the 
Loire toward the capital by the northwest, 
and by the 13th of December the French army 
was in position around Vend6me. 

On Dec. 15th Chanzy was attacked again, 
Prince Frederick Charles having rightly judged 
that he was the foe to strike down at all cost. 
The French made a gallant resistance ; but on 
the second day their right wing was turned, 
and shattered by an attack in flank. Chanzy 
decided on a retreat to Le Mans, a strong posi- 
tion upon the Huisne, and a strategic point of 
no little value, his. object being still to attain 
Paris. He drew off his army without difficul- 
ty, and having been re-enforced by a Breton 
detachment, he reached Le Mans on Dec. 20th. 
During three weeks of incessant fighting he 
had held the main German army at bay. Hav- 
ing soon established his army on the Huisne, he 
threw out posts to the Bruye ami the Loire. 
Meanwhile Prince Frederick Charles had fallen 
back, holding a long line from Oh art res to Or- 
leans, his worn-out troops being in sore dis- 
tress. A pause in the contest now occurred. 

The position of France was very far from 
hopeless, but another interference of Gambet- 
ta's brought disaster. He rejected the judi- 
cious scheme of the general, and adopted the 
fatal project of detaching the First Army far 
to the east in order to raise the yiege of Belfort 
and reach the German communications with 
the Rhine. Bourbaki, thus sent off to destruc- 
tion amid the snows of the Jura, freed Prince 
Frederick Charles from an enemy on his flank, 
and enabled him to turn his whole forces against 
the one chief he had found invincible. Draw- 
ing together his army and that of the Grand 
Duke, the German commanders in the first 
week in January began to move toward Le 
Mans and the Huisne. The advanced posts of 
Chanzy were gradually driven in, though not 
without a tenacious resistance ; but his trust 
was in his positions on the Huisne, which he 
had strengthened with remarkable skill, and 



CHEMISTRY. 



109 



he fell back on them with unabated confidence. 
He had still 90,000 men, against 60,000 or 70,- 
000 Germans ; but his troops were not to be 
compared to their foes. The attack began on 
Jan. 10th, but the decisive effort was made 
next day ; and the Prince struck home with his 
full strength. The defense was stern and sus- 
tained ; Chanzy's tenacity, and his strong posi- 
tions, made up for the defects of his soldiers, 
and after ten hours of desperate fighting the 
French were still in possession of their lines. 

A sudden attack, made after nightfall, by 
a German corps, discomfited the Breton lev- 
ies, and placed a hostile force on Chanzy's 
flank. Scenes of confusion and panic followed, 
an effort to drive away the enemy failed ; and 
Chanzy was compelled to make a general re- 
treat. Although part of the French army dis- 
banded, and several thousand were taken pris- 
oners, it was in tolerable order within two 
days. By the 20th, having been scarcely pur- 
sued, so heavy had been the loss of the Ger- 
mans, Chanzy was once more in a good position, 
around Laval and upon the Mayenne, and hav- 
ing been joined by a new corps, he still expected 
to make, as quickly as possible, good use of 
his force, and to march to the relief of Paris. 
But the fall of that city on Jan. 28th, and the 
catastrophe of Bourbaki's army, prevented him 
from attempting that march. He received the 
thanks of the Assembly at Versailles, and held 
afterward high command. 

After the close of the war he was elected 
deputy to the National Assembly for Ardennes, 
and became the leader of the Left Center, de- 
claring in favor of the republic from " patri- 
otic and rational " grounds. Gen. Chanzy was 
reputed to be attached to the cause of the 
Orleanist monarchists, and it is certain that 
through his secret protection the Orleans princes 
entered the army under assumed names, and 
fought in the final campaign. After he was 
appointed on the committee of defense, on July 
29, 1872, and placed in command of the Sev- 
enth Army Corps, he took no further part in 
political discussions. 

On June 15, 1873, he was appointed Gov- 
ernor-General of Algeria, where he had diffi- 
culties with his subordinates, and declared a 
state of siege in the commune of Algiers. On 
Dec. 10, 1875, he was made a Senator, and in 
the election for President on Jan. 30, 1879, 
received 99 votes. On Feb. 18, 1879, he was 
appointed embassador to St. Petersburg, his 
political activity and ambition having awakened 
distrust in France. He was a persona grata 
at the Russian court, and his suspected roy- 
alist proclivities led to his recall toward the 
close of 1881. From Feb. 19, 1882, he com- 
manded the Sixth Army Corps at Chalons. 

CHEMISTRY. Chemical research during 1883 
can not be said to have exhibited very marked 
progress in any one department, nor has it 
yielded much that is particularly striking in 
the way of new discoveries. There has. been 
clearly apparent, however, on the part of those 



110 



CHEMISTRY. 



devoted to the advancement of chemistry, a 
disposition to test the later results of investiga- 
tion, with a view to the elimination of error, 
and the compacting and strengthening of the 
foundations of the science. This is seen in 
the study and discussion, by eminent authori- 
ties, of such questions as the variability of the 
law of definite proportions ; the principles that 
should govern in the simplification and ex- 
tension of the nomenclature; the revision of 
atomic weights; and the verification of old 
and the introduction of new and improved 
methods of analysis ; while much valuable 
work has also been done in simplifying and 
perfecting methods and processes in the several 
departments of practical and applied chemistry. 
Chemical Philosophy. In a paper presented to 
the Chemical Society of Paris, Boutlerow al- 
luded to the announcement by Schiitzenberger, 
that in analyzing some hydrocarbons, the sum 
of the carbon and hydrogen was 101 for 100 
parts of material ; the result under other con- 
ditions being normal. The question thus raised, 
as to whether the law of definite proportions 
may not, like Boyle's and Mariotte's laws, vary 
within small limits, Boutlerow has undertaken 
to examine by a series of experiments. If we 
disregard the physicist's theory that atoms are 
definite indivisible particles, the atomic weight 
of an element represents merely that weight of 
matter which carries a fixed quantity of chemi- 
cal energy. The quantity of forms of energy 
other than chemical is not determined by the 
mass of the portion of matter in which they 
reside. The energy may increase while the 
mass remains the same, as when the velocity 
of a moving body increases, and it is suppos- 
able that chemical energy varies similarly to a 
very slight extent. This would make possible a 
variation in the composition of compounds, but 
the varieties would be identical as far as their 
chemical properties are concerned. The prop- 
erties of a compound result simply from the 
reciprocal action of the mutually saturated 
combined elements, and this state of saturation 
would remain unchanged in these varieties, 
since the quantities of chemical energy acting 
on each side are still the same, only the mass 
of the carriers changing. This paper was fol- 
lowed by a statement from Schtitzenberger of 
his views on the subject. His researches would 
seem to show that within the very narrow 
range thropgh which a body may vary in com- 
position, is a ratio which gives the maximum 
stability, and this ratio represents the normal 
composition. Crystallization imposes a rigid 
constancy of combining proportions, but the 
composition of bodies can generally be varied 
by varying the circumstances under which 
they are formed. Among the cases enumer- 
ated by Schtitzenberger are the following : 1. 
Hydrocarbons, such as are obtained from Cau- 
casian petroleum, or even turpentine, when 
burned in a combustion-tube with CuO and a 
current of oxygen, show always a loss of car- 
bon of 1 to H per cent, when effected at a low 



temperature and under circumstances where 
no carbonous oxide or empyreumatic products 
could escape. 2. When diamond is burned at 
a high temperature in pure oxygen, the carbon 
dioxide formed has oxidizing properties which 
it does not possess when produced by the com- 
bustion of an organic compound at the ex- 
pense of CuO. 3. Barium carbon ate obtained 
by precipitating baryta-water pure, boiling, 
by an excess of CO 2 , washing and drying at 
100, then at 440, contains, as Berzelius 
showed, 21*7 per cent. CO 2 for 78*5 per cent. 
BaO. Heated to a red heat in a current of 
dry oxygen, it increases considerably in weight 
without losing CO 2 ; and the product gives 
22-0 to 22-05 of CO 2 to 76'6 of BaO. 4. Nu- 
merous analyses of metallic oxides show varia- 
tion in composition within narrow limits, ac- 
cording to their mode of formation. HgO 
derived from the nitrate produces, in oxidizing 
formic acid, more carbon dioxide than the pre- 
cipitated oxide. Ferric oxide obtained from 
the nitrate gives the atomic weight 54 for Fe, 
from the formula Fe 2 O 3 ; while the ferric ox- 
ide obtained by roasting ferrous oxalate gives 
56. The same differences are observed with 
tin, manganese, load, cadmium, zinc, and cop- 
per oxides. 

Prof. A. W. Williamson, in his address at 
the British Association, on " Chemical Nomen- 
clature," remarked that the chief object sought 
in the nomenclature had been to state in a 
name, as briefly as possible, certain important 
facts. The first condition and requirement of 
a nnine was that it should call to mind, without 
ambiguity, some particular thing or one partic- 
ular idea. The more a name could be defined 
and shortened the better it would be for chem- 
istry. In the modern progress of the science 
particularly in the department of the carbon 
compounds the purpose of obtaining clearness 
and avoiding ambiguity in the nomenclature 
had been, with few exceptions, satisfactorily 
attained ; but the chief object of convenience 
had not been reached to an equal extent in 
giving names to some of the more complex 
compounds. Some of the names told their story 
in a manner really free from any ambiguity, but 
in a very long and inconvenient word. On the 
other hand, the systematic process had been 
adopted to a considerably less degree in the 
names of common substances, which in the 
case of the older names were based upon facts 
indeed, but upon facts which were by no 
means the only ones to be recalled. Other 
names had grown up which were purely em- 
pirical, which did not recall any particular 
properties, but seemed with great convenience 
and without ambiguity to indicate the body. It 
was sometimes proper to change a name un- 
der the sanction of new information, but this 
should be done as little as possible, especially 
when a name once given had come to be used 
in relation to a particular substance. When 
changes tended to introduce confusion, they 
were necessarily injurious to the progress of 



CHEMISTRY. 



Ill 



science. The best way to obtain a name was 
as the result of experiment, and then there 
could be no ambiguity. Names intended to 
indicate molecular constitution had better be 
avoided, because investigations in this direc- 
tion had not arrived at finality. The chemists 
of fifty years ago were as confident as the 
chemists of the present day in the matter of 
nomenclature; and therefore the more they 
could obtain names without ambiguity and 
without liability to change in the future, the 
more probable was it that such names would 
stand and continue to be used. 

New Substances. Jannay, working under the 
direction of Von Meyer, has produced, by the 
action of hydroxylamine upon various ketones, 
a new class of organic bodies which he calls 
acetoxims. The term acetoxim is applied to 
a body containing the group ONOH= com- 
bined on both sides with carbon. If hydrogen 
saturates on one side, a body is formed to which 
Jannay gives the name aldoxim. The simplest 
acetoxirn is dimethyl-acetoxim, CH 3 CNOH 
CI:Is,or acetoxim proper, analogous to dimethyl- 
ketone or acetone, and is produced by the action 
of hydroxylamine upon acetone in the cold in 
aqueous solution. It is easily soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether, fuses at 59 to 60, and 
boils at 134-8. Petraczek has studied the 
aldoxirns in the same laboratory, and describes 
ethyl-aldoxim C 9 H,NO, or CH 3 -CNOH-H, 
and others. They are formed by the action 
of hydroxylamine upon the respective alde- 
hydes. 

Von Lippmann has examined the incrusta- 
tions formed upon the pans in which beet-juice 
is evaporated. Besides finding in them citric, 
aconitic, tricarballylic, and malonic acids, he 
has isolated a new acid, which was obtained 
by fractional solution in ether and evaporation. 
The resulting sirup, after standing two years, 
became a mass of needle-shaped crystals soluble 
in water, alcohol, and ether, and having the 
formula C 8 H 8 O 8 . The acid is tribasic, and 
appears to be identical with the oxycitric acid 
described by Pawolleck as obtained from chlor- 
citric acid. 

Divers and Shimos6 have obtained a new 
oxide of tellurium by heating in a vacuum the 
compound of sulphur trioxide and tellurium 
until it decomposes. It is a solid body which, 
on heating, decomposes into tellurium dioxide 
and free tellurium, and appears to have neither 
acid nor basic properties. It is stable in ordi- 
nary dry air, is black with a brown shade, has 
a graphitic luster when pressed, is represented 
by the formula TeO, or a multiple of it, is de- 
composed by potassium hydrate on boiling, and 
by hydrochloric and sulphuric acids in the cold, 
is oxidized readily by nitric acid, and colors 
sulphuric acid red as it dissolves it, the solution 
giving a deposit of tellurous sulphate. The 
same chemists have also obtained, by the action 
of sulphur trioxide on tellurium, tellurium stil- 
phoxide, as an amorphous solid, of a beautiful 
red color, transparent in thin layers, which 



softens at about 30 without melting, and is 
quite stable when kept in close tubes. Its com- 
position is represented by the formula SOsTe, 
and it is decomposed by water into tellurium, 
tellurium monoxide, tellurous acid, sulphurous 
and sulphuric acid. It appears to exist in two 
modifications, as the red variety is at 90 con- 
verted instantaneously into a brown substance 
of identically the same composition. 

Victor Meyer was led by certain observa- 
tions to the conclusion that some difference 
existed between the benzene obtained from 
coal-tar and that from benzoic acid. He con- 
tinued his experiments, and succeeded in isolat- 
ing from coal-tar benzene a peculiar substance 
containing sulphur, which he calls thiophene. 
It is a light, limpid, very mobile oil, with a 
slight odor suggesting that of benzene. It does 
not solidify in a mixture of ice and salt. It 
dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving 
a deep-brown solution. Its derivatives under 
the action of various reagents resemble the 
corresponding derivatives of benzene, and their 
constitution is similar, except that they are de- 
rived from a mother-substance containing sul- 
phur. It is stable toward alkalies and even 
toward the alkali metals. All commercial ben- 
zene contains thiophene. 

Dr. Albert R. Leeds has formed from the 
union of oenanthol with the aromatic bases 
the oils of closely related physical properties, 
cenantholaniline, a reddish mobile oil of pleas- 
ant ethereal smell, cenantholxylidine and cenan- 
tholnaphthylamine. The ethereal smell of the 
latter oil is very pronounced and agreeable, and 
resembles the odor of pineapple. The process- 
es of the formation of these substances are ac- 
companied by great energy and a remarkable 
elevation of temperature. . The compounds are 
permanent, and can be sublimed with only 
partial decomposition. By the sublimation of 
xylidinacrolein was obtained an oil with an 
unpleasant smell and very bitter taste, which 
forms crystalline salts with sulphuric, hydro- 
chloric, and other acids. From the hydro- 
chloric salt was obtained an oil of reddish 
color and unpleasant smell, having the compo- 
sition of cryptidine. This is the first attempt 
to isolate this member of the pyridine series, 
only its salts having been obtained before, and 
it is of further interest as being accomplished 
by a process of synthesis. 

New Processes. Dr. A. R. Leeds has described 
an actinic method for the determination of 
organic matter in potable water, which he 
considers more accurate than any of the other 
methods in common use. It depends upon 
the fact that compounds of silver are not de- 
composed by light when they are in solution 
in water, unless organic matter is present in 
the water also ; and upon the other fact that 
stable organic bodies, like sugar, starch, gum, 
etc., have very little influence, while decompos- 
ing substances precipitate the silver very rap- 
idly. The amount of silver thrown down can 
be readily weighed, and the relative amounts of 



112 



CHEMISTRY. 



organic matter present in the water thus deter- 
mined. 

While the method of testing sugar for the 
presence of starch glucose by the optical sac- 
charometer is satisfactory, it can be applied 
only by the very few persons who have such an 
instrument. Mr. P. Casamajor has described 
a process which can he applied by using such 
means as are at the command of every one, 
and is effective for the detection of adultera- 
tion with either anhydrous or hydrated glu- 
cose, as follows: Take two beaker-glasses, or 
two teacups ; in one put a quantity of the sus- 
pected sugar, and in the other put about the 
same quantity of a sugar known to be refined 
sugar, free from adulteration. Add, cautiously 
and gradually, a quantity of water to each 
sugar sufficient to make each equally and de- 
cidedly moist, and stir the sugar to mix it well 
and get it uniformly wet. Then place both 
cups in hot water at any temperature be- 
tween 50 and 100 0. In about ten minutes 
the pure sugar will appear more moist than 
when cold, while the other sugar, if it con- 
tains a sufficient amount of starch-glucose, will 
have sunk into a pasty, sticky mas?, analogous 
to the fill-mass of sugar-refiners. The appli- 
cation of heat is not indispensable, as a differ- 
ence may be obtained by allowing the two su- 
gars to stand several hours after being moist- 
ened, but with heat the effect is immediate, 
and is much more marked. If the two samples 
of sugar are allowed to stand in the cups after 
they have cooled down, the pure sugar will 
look drier on becoming cold, while the adul- 
terated sugar will continue in the state of a 
pasty, sticky mass. This test is founded on the 
property possessed by cane-sugar of forming 
viscous, uncrystallizable compounds, of which 
molasses is an example, when mixed with many 
organic or inorganic compounds, among which 
are anhydrous and hydrated glucose. As long 
as a mixture of cane-sugar and starch-glucose 
is sufficiently dry, it may look fairly enough, 
as the elements which form molasses are kept 
from combining by want of water. Hence 
adulterators are careful to dry their sugars be- 
fore mixing with glucose. Indeed, one char- 
acteristic of adulterated sugars is, that they are 
drier than refined sugars of the same grade, 
which are known as coffee-sugars, and are 
always sold moist. 

Peter Claesson proposes a new method for 
determining sulphur in organic substances by 
effecting the complete oxidation of the sub- 
stance in a current of oxygen and nitric oxide 
i. e., nitrogen tetroxide gas. A combustion- 
tube somewhat longer than the furnace is 
drawn out at one end and bent at a right an- 
gle. Next to the bend is placed a roll of plat- 
inum gauze; beyond this a boat containing 
fuming nitric acid ; beyond which follow a sec- 
ond and a third roll of platinum gauze, and 
beyond this the sulphur-boat and a fourth roll 
of platinum gauze. The bent end of the tube 
dips into water in a small flask, and the other 



end is closed with a stopper admitting the con- 
necting tubes to the oxygen and nitric oxide 
supplies. After filling the tube with the mixed 
gases the platinum roll on either side of the 
nitric-acid boat is heated to low redness, then 
the boat farthest from the substance. The 
tube is then heated. The color of the tube 
between the two boats serves as an indicator ; 
if the red color disappears, the combustion 
must go more slowly. The nitric acid in the 
boat acts as a reserve ; the hot gases in pass- 
ing over it always take up enough oxygen 
compounds to complete the oxidation of any 
unburned particles. At the end of the com- 
bustion the heating is extended forward until 
all the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid formed 
in the reaction have distilled over into the 
flask. After cooling, the contents of the flask 
and the washings of the tube are evaporated 
to dryness, and after dilution with water the 
sulphuric acid is determined as barium sul- 
phate. 

C. Bohmer has described a new method of 
estimating nitric- oxide gas obtained by the re- 
duction of nitric acid. It is hased on the fact, 
which the author had shown in an earlier 
paper, that chromic acid is an excellent ab- 
sorbent for nitric oxide. The nitrate or nitric 
acid is decomposed in the usual way, and the 
resulting gas, after being dried by calcium 
chloride, is absorbed in a Liebig's potash-bulb 
containing chromic acid, and the nitric oxide 
is determined by the increase in weight. 

\V. Ilalberstadt has proposed a new method 
for the separation of vanadic acid from met- 
als, which is based on the fact that, when a 
mixture of the acid and metals is heated with 
ammonium oxalate and acetic acid, the metals 
are precipitated as oxalates, while the acid 
sought for remains in solution. The hydro- 
chloric-acid solution of vanadic acid is evapo- 
rated to dryness, the residue is heated with a 
solution of ammonium oxalate in water, and a 
few drops of strong acetic acid are added till all 
has dissolved. The liquid is poured into a beak- 
er and heated over a free flame, while acetic acid 
is added drop by drop not too rapidly, for 
then the precipitate is difficult to wash until 
the precipitate ceases to form. After filtering 
off the precipitate and washing with a mixture 
of equal parts of strong acetic acid, alcohol, 
and water, the filtrate is evaporated to dryness 
in a weighed platinum dish, and the residue is 
heated slowly to expel volatile ammonium 
salts, and then the remaining vanadium oxide 
is converted into vanadic acid by heating in a 
current of oxygen. The method gives good 
results in the presence of barium, calcium, 
zinc, or lead, but not with cobalt, nickel, man- 
ganese, magnesium, bismuth, copper, or cad- 
mium. 

Mollenda determines, volumetrically, the 
phosphoric acid in superphosphates by finding 
the amount of a standard solution of sodium 
carbonate necessary to neutralize the acid 
phosphate of calcium, which forms the solu- 



CHEMISTRY. 



113 



ble portion of the superphosphate. In order 
to prevent the precipitation of calcium car- 
bonate from any sulphate of calcium that may 
be present, the entire amount of calcium is 
precipitated by sodium oxalate, and the acidity 
of the resulting mono-sodium phosphate is de- 
termined. If free sulphuric or phosphoric acid 
is present in the superphosphate, sodium car- 
bonate is added before titration. until the 
liquid becomes slightly turbid. 

Mr. L. Marquardt has described a new meth- 
od for the quantitative determination of fusel- 
oil in brandy. The oil is extracted with chlo- 
roform, and the product is oxidized with bi- 
chromate of potash, distilled, and treated with 
barium carbonate. The chloroform and the 
excess of barium carbonate are removed, when 
the baryta and the barium chloride are deter- 
mined by means of nitric acid. The quantity 
of amylic alcohol or fusel-oil is calculated from 
the baryta. 

G. Larsen has shown that copper and zinc 
can be separated by one precipitation with hy- 
drogen sulphide if hydrochloric acid is added 
to the hydrogen sulphide with which the pre- 
cipitate is washed. Emil Berglund finds that 
the method holds good when the amount of 
hydrochloric acid added to the wash- water is 
smaller than recommended by Larsen, and fur- 
ther, that zinc is not precipitated with copper 
if the amount of hydrogen sulphide in the wash- 
water is small. 

Spring has communicated the results of ex- 
periments in producing sulphides by exposing 
various metals mixed with sulphur, both finely 
divided, to a pressure of 6,500 atmospheres. 
Magnesium after six pressings, each time being 
reduced to filings, gave a gray homogeneous 
mass having a weak metallic luster. Zinc, after 
three pressings, gave a sulphide resembling the 
natural blende ; iron, after four pressings, gave 
a block which was hardly touched by the file, 
and appeared homogeneous under the micro- 
scope. Cadmium sulphide was formed easily 
in three pressings, in a yellowish-gray, homo- 
geneous mass. Bismuth sulphide and antimo- 
ny sulphide were formed in two pressings, and 
lead sulphide still more easily ; copper and tin 
yielded the sulphide in th-ee pressings. Silver 
required from six to eight pressings before a 
homogeneous mass could be obtained. Alumi- 
num and carbon gave imperfect results. Spring 
has drawn the conclusion from his experiments 
that allotropic states are only different con- 
ditions of polymerization, in which the chemi- 
cal activity decreases as the process goes on. 

The method almost exclusively employed for 
estimating the halogens in organic compounds, 
that of Carius, consists in heating the substance 
in a sealed tube with fuming nitric acid and 
silver nitrate. R. T. Plimpton and E. E. Graves 
propose, in the case of volatile compounds, a 
method by which the substance is introduced 
into a U-tube through which illuminating gas 
and air are passed, as in a Bunsen burner. The 
volatile substance evaporates and burns with 
VOL. xxin. 8 A 



the gas at a tip on one end of the tube, while 
the halogens are left partly tree and partly in 
combination with hydrogen. The evaporation 
is sometimes aided by warming the tube with 
hot water or otherwise. The temperature is 
raised or lowered so that the substance may 
always be detected in the flame, yet not in 
sufficient quantity to make the flame luminous. 
The products of combustion are aspirated 
through a bent funnel tube and collected in 
dilute caustic soda ; this is boiled with sulphur- 
ous acid to reduce chlorates, etc., and the halo- 
gens are then precipitated with silver nitrate. 
The success of the experiment depends upon 
the regular volatilization of the compound. 

Mr. W. G. Strype, of Wicklow, Ireland, has 
devised a method of purifying the hydrochloric 
acid used in the manufacture of chlorine from 
sulphuric acid before admitting it into the 
chlorine-stills, by which the difficulties arising 
in this manufacture from the accumulation 
of calcium sulphate are to a large extent ob- 
viated. His process depends upon the fact that 
while calcium sulphate is somewhat freely 
soluble in hot hydrochloric acid, it is only 
slightly soluble in the cold acid. 

Successful experiments have been made by 
M. J. Garnier at works near Rouen, France, 
with a new process for removing arsenic and 
antimony from copper. It comprises the em- 
ployment of a sole of chalk and tar, over which, 
for each separate operation, is placed a falsa 
sole of limestone and manganese peroxide. 
With the melting of the copper, a generation 
of carbonic acid and oxygen begins from the 
upper sole, which oxidizes the charge. As 
soon as the metal is sufficiently liquid, the 
lime and manganese ' protoxide rise and dis- 
solve the arsenic acid. By this one operation 
the amount of arsenic, according to M. Gar- 
nier, is reduced to one-fifth. Subsequent fu- 
sions with basic fluxes are said almost com- 
pletely to eliminate the arsenic. 

Dr. Sidersky bases a method for the separa- 
tion of calcium from strontium on the state- 
ment that on adding a mixture of sulphate and 
oxalate of ammonium to a solution of stron- 
tium, the latter is all precipitated as sulphate ; 
while, if the mixture is added to a calcium salt, 
only oxalate is precipitated. If it is added to a 
solution containing both strontium and calcium, 
the former is precipitated as sulphate and the 
latter as oxalate. The two precipitates are 
separated by the solubility of the oxalate in 
acids. 

Otto F. von der Pfordten has published a 
new method for the estimation of tungstic acid 
.by reduction with zinc and hydrochloric acid 
to tungsten dioxide. The reduction is best 
effected by using a 27-per-cent. solution of hy- 
drochloric acid. The solution first becomes 
blue, then a black-green, and finally a dark 
brownish-red, the end product being tungsten 
dioxide, which is determined by titration with 
potassium permanganate. The method has the 
disadvantage that only very small quantities of 



114 



CHEMISTRY. 



tungstic acid can be used in the reduction, so 
that the percentage of error may easily become 
large. 

Industrial hemistry. The manufacture of or- 
ganic coloring-matters from coal-tar has made 
enormous progress within recent years, but the 
activity of chemists has been exerted to a 
much higher degree in developing the appli- 
cation of the direct products of tar- distillation 
than in bettering the methods of obtaining 
those products. Several of the coal-tar hydro- 
carbons have found extensive practical appli- 
cations in the manufacture of the azo colors. 
The azo compounds, containing the group N 
=N in combination with two aromatic nuclei, 
are all colored, but the azo hydrocarbons them- 
selves have no affinity for animal and vege- 
table fibers, and hence can not be used as dyes. 
On the other hand, such of their derivatives as 
contain amido or hydroxyl groups are color- 
ing matters. Some of these have long been 
known, but, with the exception of aniline yel- 
low and Bismarck-brown, the azo compounds 
were not made use of until 1876. Since then, 
a great number of new ones have been made, 
many of which have been patented and manu- 
factured on a large scale. The oxyazo colors 
are made from a diazo salt and the combina- 
tion of a phenol with an alkali metal. The 
amidoazo colors are made on a large scale by 
the action of nitrous acid on a free amine, or, 
when this is not practicable, by the action of 
a diazo salt on an amine. By means of these 
reactions the number of azo colors which may 
be formed from aromatic compounds contain- 
ing amido and hydroxyl groups is almost in- 
finite. The popularity of these colors has 
become so great that the demand for the hy- 
drocarbons used in making them has vastly in- 
creased, and their price has risen considerably, 
while attention has been given to means of 
producing them in greater abundance and in 
the state of purity in which they have to be 
to secure perfect colors. 

The manufacture of soda by the ammonia 
process has been greatly increased within a few 
years past. Tables of the relative amounts of 
soda manufactured in different countries by 
the Leblanc and the ammonia processes, pre- 
pared by Mr. Walter Weldon, show that out 
of a total of 708,725 tons, representing the an- 
nual products of Great Britain, France, Ger- 
many, Austria, Belgium, and the United States, 
163,225 tons are manufactured by the ammonia 
process and 545,500 tons by the Leblanc pro- 
cess. A new enterprise has been begun for the 
working of the Leblanc process in connection 
with the extraction of copper and iron from 
Spanish and Portuguese pyrites, in which the 
sulphuric acid evolved in that manufacture 
will be made economically available. The Rio 
Tinto Company is building factories in France 
for the exploitation of a combined process in 
which copper and oxide of iron will be relied 
upon as the'products of chief importance, while 
soda and hydrochloric acid will be made as 



by-products. Thus, at first soda was the only 
product of the Leblanc process that had com- 
mercial importance; then in time a demand 
grew up for chlorine, and the hydrochloric 
acid formed during the process became val- 
uable ; next, soda ceased to be profitable, and 
became a kind of by-product that continued to 
be made because chlorine could not be made 
without it. Now Leblanc soda, says Mr. Wel- 
don, gives no profit at all, and chlorine none 
to speak of ; and both have come to be regarded 
as secondary products, to be made only inciden- 
tally, and only because making them is essen- 
tial to the application to certain ores of the wet 
method of extracting copper. The difficulty ot 
obtaining a supply of ammonia commensurate 
with the extension of the demand, which it was 
at one time thought would hinder the speedy 
development of the ammonia process for mak- 
ing soda, has been removed so completely 
that, notwithstanding the great increase in the 
development of the process, the price of am- 
monia is falling. It is now obtained commer- 
cially from coke-ov ens ; and Mr. William Fer- 
rie has introduced with success a method for 
collecting it from the gases of blast-furnaces 
in which raw coal is used. From two of the 
sixteen blast-furnaces at the Gartsherry Iron 
Works in Scotland, ammonia and tar are now 
regularly collected at the rate of twenty 
pounds of ammonium sulphate per ton of coal 
consumed. Thus it appears to be possible to 
collect and utilize as ammonia a portion at 
least of the nitrogen of nearly all the fuel 
burned for industrial and domestic purposes. A 
suggestion has been made that the soda-maker 
shall entirely cease to use raw coal as fuel, but 
shall convert all his coal into coke, collecting 
for sale the oil and ammonia evolved during 
the conversion, and himself using for heating 
purposes the gases evolved during the coking 
operation and the coke itself. It is believed 
that the soda-maker might by this mode of 
proceeding obtain his fuel virtually for noth- 
ing. In the Leblanc process the chlorine of 
the salt decomposed is yielded as hydrochloric 
acid ; in the ammonia process it is yielded as a 
somewhat dilute solution of calcium chloride. 
This is a matter of small importance in Eng- 
land, where hydrochloric acid is produced in 
excess; but on the Continent, where the de- 
mand for chlorine is greater than the supply, 
it operates against the Leblanc process. M. 
Solvay is accordingly about to try at his am- 
monia-soda works in Dombasle, France, a pro- 
cess for obtaining hydrochloric acid from cal- 
cium chloride. Having concentrated by evap- 
oration the mixed solution of calcium and so- 
dium chlorides which is the residual product 
of the ammonia process, he mixes it with clay 
into balls, dries the balls and heats them to 
redness in a current of steam, whereby he ob- 
tains a mixture of the vapor of water and the 
vapor of hydrochloric acid, which he dries by 
passing through a very strong solution of bi- 
chloride of calcium. 



CHEMISTRY. 



115 



The Societe de St. Croix at Lisle is manu- 
facturing potash upon a large scale by the 
trimethylamine process, which is similar in 
principle to the ammonia process for the man- 
ufacture of soda. The latter process can not 
be used for the manufacture of potash, by rea- 
Bon of the too great solubility of hydro-potassic 
carbonate in solution of ammonium chloride. 
Bicarbonate of potash is, however, but very 
slightly soluble in chloride of trimethylamine. 
Besides the nature of the ammonia employed, 
the chemistry of this process appears to differ 
from that of the ammonia process also in the 
fact that, instead of using a bicarbonate as in 
that process, the sesquicarbonate, the highest 
carbonate of trimethylamine that can be ob- 
tained at present in a free state, is employed, 
and the reactions are more complex. The tri- 
methylamine process is limited in its applica- 
tion, for it is available for the manufacture of 
potash only from potassium chloride, while the 
Engel process is efficient either with that salt 
or with the sulphate. 

G. Archibald describes a new industrial 
method of preparing paper-pulp, which has 
been patented in the United States and Canada. 
Wood or straw is cut to pieces, macerated with 
milk of lime, transferred to a digester after 
twenty-four hours, and saturated with sulphur- 
ous acid, with the simultaneous application of 
a pressure of five atmospheres for one or two 
hours. The material is then washed with water 
and again treated under pressure with three 
per cent, calcium chloride and half per cent, 
aluminum sulphate. After these substances 
have been washed out, the pulp resembles cot- 
ton in appearance, and can be employed for 
manufacturing the finer grades of paper at once. 
The process requires about three hours after the 
treatment with milk of lime. 

A.Houzeau and Fr.Goppelsroeder have traced 
the active agency in grass- bleaching, which 
Schoenbein ascribed to ozone, to peroxide of 
hydrogen. The proportion of this substance in 
the air was found to differ, according to a va- 
riety of circumstances ; and the preponderating 
influence in its production is believed to be 
light. Atmospheric precipitations, particularly 
hoar-frost, contain considerable quantities of it ; 
and the quantity that came to the earth within 
four months was found to amount to 62-9 mil- 
ligrammes per square metre. The ordinary pro- 
cesses of open-air 'and wax-bleaching are at- 
tended with so many inconveniences in delays 
that the production of the effective agent in a 
concentrated form was suggested as a manifest 
remedy. The peroxide of hydrogen is superior 
to all other media for oxidation in bleaching, 
in that it can be used without inconvenience 
and without any danger of injuring the fiber. 
It may be concentrated from its solutions by 
freezing out, or by evaporation in a vacuum 
over sulphuric acid, at a temperature of from 
69 to 68 Fahr. Diluted solutions of it are 
equal to solution of chlorine in effect, and will 
keep for months in a temperature not exceed- 



ing 77 Fahr., if protected from the light. All 
products which are to be bleached by this 
substance must be submitted to a preparatory 
treatment, the purpose of which is to render 
them capable in every part of being moistened 
with the watery solution. 

Dr. Max Schaffner and Mr. W. Helbig, of the 
Aussig Works, Bohemia, have applied a pro- 
cess for recovering sulphur from alkali-waste, 
which, while it requires no acid, saves the 
whole of the sulphur originally contained in 
the waste, and in addition all of the calcium as 
carbonate. It includes three operations, the 
first of which consists in heating fresh waste 
with solution of magnesium chloride in a closed 
iron vessel furnished with a mechanical agi- 
tator, when two double decompositions take 
place calcium sulphide and magnesium chlor- 
ide into calcium chloride and magnesium sulph- 
ide ; and a reaction of the last upon some of the 
water present to produce magnesia and sulphu- 
reted hydrogen. The sulphureted hydrogen is 
evolved in a continuous stream until the charge 
of waste is completely decomposed, and then 
there remains in the boiler a solution of cal- 
cium chloride holding in suspension an equiva- 
lent of magnesia. In the second operation, 
one third of the sulphureted hydrogen is 
burned into SO 2 and steam, and these products 
are mixed with the other two thirds and passed 
through a solution of calcium chloride, whence 
is derived a thin magma, consisting of solu- 
tion of calcium chloride holding in suspension 
free sulphur. The third operation consists in 
injecting carbonic dioxide into the solution of 
calcium chloride, holding magnesia in suspen- 
sion, which had been obtained as the residual 
product of the first operation, thereby repro- 
ducing the quantity of magnesium chloride 
which had been begun with, and at the same 
time regenerating all the calcium carbonate 
which had been employed for the production 
of the black ash, of which the waste had been 
one of the constituents. Mr. Alexander Chance, 
of Birmingham, has applied a modification of 
the third part of the process, by which all of 
the sulphnreted hydrogen evolved in the first 
operation is burned, and the resulting sulphur- 
ous oxide is sent into the vitriol chambers, by 
which the cost of the process is reduced simply 
to the cost of the operation of reducing the 
magnesium chloride. 

MM. Benker and Lasne have introduced a 
process for economizing nitrous compounds in 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid, which con- 
sists in the reduction of the nitric peroxide in 
the chamber gases before they reach the Gay- 
Lnssac tower into nitrous anhydride (N 2 O S ), 
which forms a stable compound with sulphuric 
acid. This is done by injectytg into the con- 
duit conveying the exit gases from the last 
chamber to the foot of the Gay-Lussac tower, 
a regulated quantity of sulphurous oxide, ac- 
companied with just the quantity of vapor of 
water necessary to form, with the SOa + NOa, 
nitro- sulphuric acid. Another plan for accom- 



116 



CHEMISTRY. 



plishing the same object consists in making 
the gases which have traversed the ordinary 
Gay-Lussac tower afterward traverse several 
supplementary towers, supplied with weaker 
sulphuric acid than is supplied to the Gay- 
Lussac tower itself. 

Domestic Chemistry. F. P. Hall, of the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, has pub- 
lished in the "American Chemical Journal" 
the results of some investigations on the cor- 
rosion of fruit-cans and tin-foil by the acids of 
the articles of food inclosed in them. Acetic, 
tartaric, and citric acids dissolved more tin 
and lead (in some cases twice as much) from 
sheets of pure metal than from alloys. In 
glass-stoppered bottles from which the air was 
as well excluded as it is from ordinary fruit- 
cans, the action was less than in loosely- cov- 
ered beakers, but still considerable. Three 
cans tli at had been emptied were let stand 
two weeks with acid in them, at the end of 
which time the tinning had been taken off up 
as far as the acid reached. There was dis- 
solved by 





Tin. 


Lead. 


Acetic acid 


Grammes. 
0'41T8 


Grammes. 

0-0117 


Tartaric acid 


1'0430 


' 0878 


Citric acid. 


0-6828 


0-1559 









Hence a can once opened should be emptied 
immediately, as corrosion thereafter takes place 
very rapidly. Analyses of the " bright plate " 
of which cans and other tinware are made, 
showed no admixture of lead in the tinning, 
and no tinware could be found made of "terne 
plate," the sort that is understood to be coated 
with an alloy of tin and lead. The solder of 
the cans, however, contains a large amount of 
lead, and vegetable acids act on this as well as 
on the pure tin of the plate. 

Twelve specimens of tin-foil obtained from 
dealers were analyzed. Only threfe of these 
were sold for pure tin, and they proved to be 
as represented; the others, some of which 
were called ** composition foil," gave from 60 
to 95 per cent, of lead. Nine specimens that 
had been in use gave various results. Two 
from different kinds of compressed yeast con- 
tained no lead, and a piece of foil from a cake 
of chocolate bought at a street stand was also 
pure. A piece of embossed foil from a fancy 
cake of chocolate gave 80 per cent, of lead, 
and in two specimens from Neufchatel cheese 
were found respectively 73-19 and 75-27 per 
cent. " The use of a foil containing about 75 
per cent, of lead for wrapping the so-called 
Neufchatel and other soft cheese is certainly 
reprehensible. Owing to the acid in or de- 
veloped in the cheese, the foil becomes crum- 
bly, and even when the cheese is first covered 
with greased paper, particles of the oxidized 
foil are very likely to become attached to the 
cheese as it is used." 

Mr. William Thomson, F. E. S. E., having 
investigated a case of lead-poisoning arising 



from the use of unsuspected water-pipes of 
lead, was induced to examine the merits of 
the tin-lined pipes. A pipe, the coating of 
which was from -j^ to -fa of an inch thick, 
to his surprise, gave evidence of contamina- 
tion to the water that passed through, and 
the lining was found to contain a large 
proportion of lead. A similar pipe from an- 
other manufactory revealed the same impu- 
rity. These pipes were found to have been 
made by pouring tin down the side of a strip 
of lead in introducing it as lining. In the 
course of the process the tin had dissolved a 
considerable quantity of lead. Such pipes are 
used to a considerable extent in drawing beer, 
and are in danger of contaminating the liquor, 
particularly that portion of it which, standing 
in them over night, is sold to the first customer 
in the morning. In another kind of lead pipe, 
called "tinned-lead pipe," the inside coating is 
made by filling the first few inches of the lead 
pipe, while still very hot, with molten tin, 
which remains molten and washes the inner 
surface of the lead tube as it is produced. The 
quantity of this " tin " increases as the pipe is 
drawn out, by melting the lead with which it 
is in contact and carrying it along, and ulti- 
mately the lining consists chiefly of lead. Mr. 
Thomson has observed that aerated waters are 
contaminated with lead much more often and 
in many cases to a much greater extent than 
would be expected, considering the pains which 
is taken in preparing the articles. Manufac- 
turers admit the fact, but say that it is impos- 
sible to procure the substances free from me- 
tallic contamination at anything like reason- 
able cost. 

M. Gustave Le Bon has been carrying on in- 
vestigations upon the action of antiseptics, 
from which he concludes that the disinfectant 
power of any antiseptic appears to be the more 
feeble as the putrefaction is the more ad- 
vanced. If an aqueous solution containing 
one tenth its weight of minced meat be taken 
as the normal solution, it will exhale during 
the first stages of putrefaction an extremely 
fetid odor, which, however, can be destroyed 
by a comparatively small amount of antiseptic. 
At the end of about two months new bodies 
with a special odor will be developed, which 
require for their destruction quantities of the 
same antiseptic at least twice as great as at 
first. If the power of antiseptics be measured 
by taking as a means of comparison their dis- 
infectant properties upon a given weight of 
the normal solution already mentioned, the 
most powerful disinfectants will be shown to 
be potassium permanganate, chloride of lime, 
sulphate of iron acidulated with acetic acid, 
phenol, and the glyceroborates of sodium and 
potassium. There is no parallelism between 
the disinfectant action of an antiseptic and its 
action on microbes. Potassium permanganate, 
which is one of the most powerful disinfect- 
ants, exercises no appreciable action on mi- 
crobes. Alcohol, which checks the develop- 



CHEMISTRY. 



117 



ment of microbes, exerts only a very feeble 
disinfectant action upon tbe products of putre- 
faction. There is likewise no parallelism be- 
tween the power of preventing putrefaction 
and that of checking it when it has begun. 
Phenol and alcohol are excellent preservative 
agents, bnt have only a slight action upon 
putrefaction in progress ; with the exception 
of a very few substances which are powerful 
toxic agents, such as mercuric chloride, the 
greater number of antiseptics, and notably 
phenol, have only a very feeble action upon 
bacteria. M. Le Bon even regards phenol as 
one of the best liquids which can be employed 
to preserve living bacteria for a long time. 
The experiments made upon cadaver alkaloids 
can not serve to decide the question as to 
whether the volatile alkaloids which give to 
putrefaction its odor are poisonous, for such 
experiments have generally been made by in- 
troducing into the system putrefaction prod- 
ucts containing bacteria, to which the effects 
observed may be attributable. M. Le Bon's ex- 
periments were made upon frogs placed in jars, 
at the bottom of which was a very thin layer 
of his normal liquid. At the beginning of the 
putrefaction the liquid, although it emitted a 
very fetid odor, swarmed with bacteria, and 
was very virulent if injected under the skin, 
had no appreciable effect upon the frogs ; but 
the same liquid, two months old and no longer 
having virulent properties, killed in a few min- 
utes the animals that breathed its exhalations. 
In fact, the virulent power of a body in putre- 
faction and the toxic power of the volatile 
compounds which it gives off seem to be in an 
inverse ratio to each other. The extremely 
minute quantity of the products of advanced 
putrefaction necessary to kill an animal by 
simple mixture with the air it breathes is a 
fact that shows these volatile alkaloids to be 
extremely poisonous. 

Atomic Weights. Nilson has calculated the 
atomic weight of thorium from the sulphate, 
which he obtained from Arendal thorite by 
successive treatment with hydrochloric and 
sulphuric acids. The purified salt was twice 
precipitated with ammonia, and washed and 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and then con- 
verted into an oxalate ana ignited. The snow- 
white oxide was converted into sulphate, and 
this was allowed to crystallize by the sponta- 
neous evaporation of its solution. Large, trans- 
parent, brilliant crystals were thus obtained, 
which were permanent in the air and had the 
composition Th(SO 4 ) 2 (H 2 0). For the estima- 
tion of the atomic weight a weighed quan- 
tity of the pulverized salt was heated to expel 
its crystal water, again weighed, and then 
again heated to a full white heat. The sul- 
phuric oxide was entirely expelled, leaving the 
pure thorium oxide, which was again weighed. 
From the data thus obtained the atomic weight 
was calculated. Assuming the quadrivalence 
of thorium, the means of two series of obser- 
vations are, respectively, 232-43 and 232*37. 



Cleve, taking the mean of twelve experi- 
ments upon the synthesis of yttrium sulphate 
with pure material, proved to be free from 
terbia, has redetermined the atomic weight of 
yttrium to be 88'9'027, or, if SO 8 =80, then 
Yt=89'02. The last figure suggests a fairly 
close conformity with Prout's law. 

Clemens Zimmermann has prepared uranium 
by reducing a mixture of potassium or sodium 
with chloride of uranium, by heating in a char- 
coal crucible. Thus prepared, its atomic weight 
has been calculated to be 240, or greater than 
that of any other known metal. Uranium has 
the color and luster of silver, but is harder, and 
gives out sparks when struck with a hammer. 
It oxidizes gradually when exposed to the air, 
burns when heated on platinum-foil, and is dis- 
solved by nitric acid. Its specific gravity has 
been determined at 18'7. 

Analytic Chemistry. The properties of hydro- 
gen dioxide as an oxidizing agent have been 
found useful in a variety of analyses. It oxi- 
dizes arsenious acid to arsenic acid, and phos- 
phorous acid to phosphoric acid, and decom- 
poses hydrogen sulphide with the formation of 
water and free sulphur. If, however, it acts 
in ammoniacal solution, such as ammonium 
sulphide or sodium sulphide, the liquid be- 
comes warm, and is gradually decolorized with- 
out deposition of sulphur ; but that sub- 
stance is instead oxidized to sulphates and hy- 
posulphates. With sulphide of tin, antimo- 
nium and arsenic in ammonium sulphide, the 
addition of hydrogen dioxide causes oxidation 
of the ammonium sulphide, with at first pre- 
cipitation of the other sulphides, ending, on the 
addition of an excess of the reagent and heat- 
ing, in their more or less complete transforma- 
tion into oxides. The conduct of hydrogen di- 
oxide toward ammonium sulphide, or the action 
of hydrogen sulphide gas on ammoniacal hy- 
drogen dioxide, maybe employed in qualitative 
analysis for destroying an excess of those sul- 
phides, and in quantitative analysis for deter- 
mining amounts of gaseous or dissolved hydro- 
gen sulphide, or for the determination of sulphur 
or metals in sulphides. The property of oxi- 
dizing hydrogen sulphide easily and completely 
in alkaline solution may be taken advantage 
of in the estimation of chlorine, bromine, and 
iodine in liquids containing hydrogen sulphide. 
Metallic sulphides which are oxidized directly 
by hydrogen dioxide may be estimated by the 
amount of sulphuric acid formed in the solu- 
tion. Such metals are arsenic, antimony, zinc, 



copper, and cobalt. The estimation of metala 
by this means is capable of more extended ap- 
plication than the direct oxidation of the sul- 



phide. Pure metallic sulphides are seldom 
obtained in analysis, but more frequently mix- 
tures with free sulphur. The amount of free 
sulphur does not affect the quantity of hydro- 
gen sulphide liberated by an acid, and hence 
the advantage of determining the latter. It is 
absorbed in a peculiar apparatus, described by 
the authors. Foremost among the metals that 



118 



CHEMISTRY. 



may be conveniently determined in this way, 
are antimony, tin, cadmium, and iron. 

A question has arisen in the examination of 
the various processes for the analysis of water, 
whether a loss of volatile organic matter may 
not occur during the evaporation and boiling 
which are necessary, particularly in the ammo- 
nia process. Mr. Charles W. Marsh has made 
experiments to determine this question, to which 
attention was more strongly directed, while the 
investigations were going on, by the observa- 
tion by Prof. Ira Remsen of such a loss in his 
analysis of the Farm-pond water of Boston. 
Out of twenty- six analyses which he performed 
for this purpose by the Wanklyn process, the 
sum of the free and the albuminoid ammonias 
was equal to the u total ammonia " in only 
four. In one of the four the sum apparently 
exceeded the "total," betraying probably a 
slight error in the estimation. These results 
prove that something in the water escapes con- 
version into ammonia. To determine whether 
this was something that escaped condensation, 
or something that would be found in the dis- 
tillate, ten other analyses were made, the dis- 
tillates of which were redistilled with perman- 
ganate and nesslerized. It appeared in eight 
of the last analyses that the excess of ammonia 
obtained where the whole of the water was 
distilled with the permanganate directly, over 
the sum of the free and albuminoid ammo- 
nia as usually obtained, was due to some vola- 
tile, condensible, nitrogenous compound, from 
which as much ammonia could be obtained by 
the action of boiling permanganate after its 
distillation from the original water as before. 
A modification of the usual ammonia process 
is suggested by these experiments. 

MM. Ed. Heckel and Fr. Schlagdenhauffen 
have made analyses of the kola-nut (Stercularia 
acuminata), and found that it is richer in cafe- 
ine than the most esteemed coffees, and that 
this base is all included in a free state, and 
not combined, as in coffee, with an organic 
acid ; that it contains a very appreciable quan- 
tity of theobromine, which operates to augment 
the action of the cafeine; that a notable quan- 
tity of glucose, of which cacao exhibits no 
trace, is present; that the quantity of amidon 
is triple what it is in the seeds of theobroma; 
that fatty matter is much less abundant than 
in cacao ; and that a specific tannin and a red 
coloring-matter are present. 

The difficulties which have hitherto pre- 
vented the isolation of levulose in a satisfac- 
tory state of purity have been overcome by 
Messrs. Jungfleisch and Lefranc, who have 
succeeded in preparing the pure substance in 
crystalline form, and have studied its proper- 
ties. Thus crystallized, it consists of fine, color- 
less, silky needles, which sometimes attain the' 
length of ten millimetres, and usually radiate 
from a central point, forming spherical groups. 
When freed from mother- liquor and dried over 
sulphuric acid, their composition is represented 
by the formula CJInO. When moistened with 



alcohol and exposed to the air, levulose is deli- 
quescent, but when perfectly dry it is very 
slightly hygroscopic. It fuses at about 95, and 
at 100 loses water gradually, yielding ether 
derivatives. Its rotary power varies very rap- 
idly with the temperature, and varies in a still 
greater degree with the dilution of the solu- 
tion. 

Mr. Clifford Richardson, of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, has made a series 
of analyses of grasses of the United States, for 
the purpose of determining the relations of cul- 
tivated and wild grasses to each other, and the 
variations in composition which one species 
may present when grown on different soils and 
in different climates. His analyses embraced 
77 of wild grasses, 21 of grasses from one farm 
in Pennsylvania, 19 of grasses from the grounds 
of the Department of Agriculture, and 6 of 
orchard-grass from various localities. Against 
the results he has placed, for comparison, the 
averages of those obtained by Wolff from the 
analyses of German grasses. The analyses 
plainly show that all our American grasses 
are strikingly different in composition from 
similar German varieties, chiefly in that the 
content of nitrogen is smaller, and the amount 
of fiber is diminished, while the amount of 
nitrogen free extract is larger, and the fat is 
slightly increased. The nutritive range in the 
American grasses is, then, much wider than 
in the German grasses. In the American 
grasses the wild varieties are of much less nu- 
tritive value than the cultivated sorts. The 
average composition of orchard-grass is not 
equal to that of the better-cultivated grasses, 
and the quality of the latter is improved as the 
cultivation is higher a fact shown by the 
superior quality of the grasses grown in the 
highly-fertilized grounds of the department. 
The tables of the analyses also show that the 
amount of nitrogen in the non- albumin old form 
is larger in the wild grasses than in the culti- 
vated varieties, and that it vane's somewhat 
inversely as the quality of the grass. In the 
analysis of a single species (orchard -grass), from 
different localities, it appeared that the amount 
of non -albuminoid nitrogen does not increase 
with an increase in the total amount of nitrogen 
in the grass, for the poorer species had more 
than twice as much, relatively to the total nitro- 
gen, as the more cultivated ones; and the varia- 
tions in the non-nitrogenous elements do not 
show any regularity dependent on climate and 
surroundings. Analyses of meadow fox-tail at 
four stages of growth showed that the total 
nitrogen diminishes regularly from early to late 
stages ; that the albumen diminishes nearly in 
the same way, but remains constant for quite 
a long period at the time of blooming ; and that 
the non-albuminoid nitrogenous substances, 
while decreasing rapidly from the first stage 
at which the grass was collected, to nothing at 
full bloom, increase again slightly after bloom. 
The fiber increases toward maturity, while the 
fat decreases. The substances making up the 



CHEMISTRY. 



119 



" free-nitrogen extract " vary less regularly. 
Sugars appear in- larger amount in the young 
plant than in the other stages. The same is 
the case with the organic acids. 

Animal Chemistry. Accompanying the forma- 
tion of nitrogenous tissue in the vegetable 
organism, occurs a corresponding increase of 
phosphoric acid, and in the excretory products 
of the animal kingdom a definite quantity of 
nitrogen has been found to be accompanied by 
a relative amount of phosphoric acid. Again, 
when less nitrogen is excreted than is taken in 
the food, less phosphoric acid is also passed off, 
and from these data Kossel has inferred the 
existence of a compound of albuminous matter 
with phosphoric acid. The nucleins approach 
nearest to such a composition. Kossel has re- 
cently undertaken a quantitative determination 
of nuclein by estimating the nuclein-phosphoric 
acid. 

His percentages of acid found in various tis- 
sues are always largest in the case of organs 
containing most cell-nuclei; thus, in the spleen 
of the ox was found '636 per cent, of nuclein- 
phosphoric acid, in the liver '390 per cent., and 
in the pancreas -580 per cent., while in ox-mus- 
cle was found only '092 per cent., and inhuman 
blood merely a trace. It has been suggested 
that the amount of nnclein might be deter- 
mined from the quantity of its decomposition 
products, viz., guanine, xanthine, and hypo- 
xanthine, but Kossel has found that the quan- 
tity of hypoxanthine, though in proportion to 
the quantity of nuclein in some organs, bears 
no such relation in the muscles ; thus the mus- 
cle of the fowl yields much hypoxanthine, but 
has a very small content of nuclein. He also 
points out that the organs especially engaged 
in the nutritive and regenerative processes of 
the body contain far more phosphoric acid in 
the form of nuclein than the looomotot appa- 
ratus. Two so-called nucleins, those from cow's 
milk and the yolk of egg, which do not come 
from cell-nuclei, differ from those found in liv- 
ing tissue in yielding no xanthine, hypoxan- 
thine, or guanine. 

. The exact chernioal nature of the peptones 
has been much discussed, and no agreement of 
opinion has been reached upon it. In fact, the 
numerous results recorded are so strikingly at 
variance with each other that the theories on the 
subject have been, from time to time, very much 
modified. These differences may be partly ac- 
counted for by reference to the great diversity 
of conditions under which the experiments have 
been conducted. According to Berth's analysis, 
there is but little difference between albumen 
(Wurz's formula) and the peptone formed from 
it. From a great number of analyses of pep- . 
tones prepared by fractional precipitation with 
alcohol and ether, Herth has drawn conclu- 
sions in favor of the individuality of the pep- 
tones, and infers that there is no ground for 
belief in the theory that they are a mixture of 
several closely-related bodies. Adamkiewicz 
concludes from his studies that chemically the 



peptones are nothing but albuminates which 
differ from ordinary albumen by containing a 
diminished content of inorganic salts and a 
somewhat different molecular formation, but 
the grounds on which he bases his view are 
controverted by Maly and Herth, who found 
no evidences of a materially diminished quan- 
tity of salts ; and Aronson has shown that the 
uncoagulability of the peptones their most 
striking feature is wholly independent of in- 
organic salts. Herth concludes that the analyti- 
cal data give no idea of the actual alterations 
which albumen undergoes in its transforma- 
tion into peptones, and thinks it possible that 
a rearrangement of the atoms takes place ; but 
he has few supporters. Henninger believes, 
after a long investigation, with Wurz and 
Hoppe-Seyler, that the formation of peptones 
is due to a process of hydration. He has also 
attempted to produce albumen again from his 
peptones by a process of dehydration, and has 
succeeded in forming syntonin, the next modi- 
fication of albumen. .This result has been con- 
firmed by Hoffineister, who has, by dehydrating 
fi brine-peptone and dissolving the product in 
cold water, obtained a flocculent residue show- 
ing all the reactions of albumen. Maly holds 
that there is only one principal product of di- 
gestion, one peptone, which differs but slightly 
from the mother- substance in composition. 
Kossel inclines to the belief that more than 
one peptone can originate from a single albu- 
men, and that these bodies which we now term 
peptones do not actually possess a chemical in- 
dividuality. As regards the nature of peptone, 
whether it is an acid or a base, the preponder- 
ance of evidence is on the side of its being an 
acid, while it is capable of acting both as an 
acid and as a base. Henninger regards the 
peptones as feeble ami do -acids, and, as such, 
capable of acting either as acids or bases. The 
combination of peptones with acids is formed 
directly whenever an acid is added to a solu- 
tion of peptone, and the compound is a salt of 
the peptone corresponding to the acid em- 
ployed. Peptones also combine with salts, 
forming a very loose union. 

R. H. Chittenden has given an account of an 
examination for arsenic of a human body dis- 
interred for the purpose nearly six months after 
burial, in order to ascertain the actual amount 
of poison in the whole body, and at the same 
time to glean all possible facts relative to its 
distribution. The analysis was performed by 
oxidizing a weighed amount of the sampled or- 
ganic matter with nitric and sulphuric acids 
at elevated temperatures, and ultimately ob- 
taining the arsenic and weighing it in the 
metallic state, the results being verified when 
possible by duplicate analyses. From the 
amount of arsenic found in the portion exam- 
ined, the content of the entire organ or por- 
tion of tissue was calculated. By this method, 
the internal organs were found to contain 
1'1694 grain of arsenious oxide, and the rest 
of the body 1-9498, making a total of 3'1192 



120 



CHEMISTKY. 



grains for the whole body. A striking feature 
of the results was the irregular distribution of 
the arsenic in the muscular tissue,%which va- 
ried from nothing in the bone up to a quarter 
of a grain per pound in the muscle of the 
back, whereas, in cases of chronic poisoning, or 
where arsenic is habitually used, the distribu- 
tion is generally quite regular. The irregu- 
larity is regarded as indicative of the arsenic 
having been taken but a short time before 
death, particularly as the larger proportions of 
poison in the muscular tissue were observed in 
the parts nearer to the great vessels and or- 
gans. It is usual in cases of chronic poisoning 
to find a considerable proportion of the poison 
in the kidneys. In the present case only a 
small proportion was found there, while the 
tongue and throat contained nearly three times 
as much, or nearly as much as was contained 
in the entire left arm. It has been asserted 
that the presence or absence of arsenic in the 
brain is an index as to whether the poison was 
introduced into the body before or after death. 
The finding of arsenic in the brain may be re- 
garded as proof that its introduction was not 
post mortem, but its absence can not be held to 
prove the contrary. The amount of arsenic 
found in the brain in the present case can be 
regarded only as indicating that it was taken 
in a form readily soluble and diffusible. 

Passive and Active Oxygen. Moritz Traube 
has published a discussion of the circumstances 
under which oxygen experiences the remark- 
able change of passing from the ordinary pas- 
sive to the active condition. Considering the 
formation of hydrogen dioxide under the influ- 
ence of the slow oxidation of metals in the 
presence of water and air, he concludes, from 
such experiments as he has made, that the 
process is not one of the oxidation of water, 
but a reduction process, in which the dioxide 
is probably formed by the addition of hydrogen 
directly to oxygen. Oxygen, at the ordinary 
temperature, is characterized by great passivi- 
ty, but in the animal body it becomes active, 
and has the power of effecting oxidations at 
temperatures below 40 C. (104 F.), which it 
can otherwise effect only at a red heat. Re- 
garded from this stand-point, the adult animal, 
which neither loses nor gains in weight, plays 
the part of a catalytic body, which, without 
suffering material change in composition, causes 
at low temperatures, by means of the oxygen of 
the air, the almost complete combustion of 
enormous quantities of food. Plants also, or, 
in general, all organisms down to and includ- 
ing bacteria and fungi, possess the same prop- 
erty, though to a much less extent; and there 
does not exist an organism which is indifferent 
toward oxygen. Herr Traube further assumes 
that he has pointed out, " with conclusive rea- 
sons," that the real hearth of the respiratory 
processes in animals is not the blood, but the 
tissues of the body, above all, the muscles ; that 
the oxygen taken up in the lungs is set free in 
the capillaries of the body, and enters as dis- 



solved gas into the tissues of the individual or- 
gans ; and that in this way each individual 
organ breathes independently at the expense 
of the free oxygen. Thus, not only do organ- 
isms as a whole have the power to make oxy- 
gen active, but each of their organs, indeed 
each individual cell; or, rather, they contain 
substances which have the power. Hence the 
problem of active oxygen is in the highest de- 
gree important, as well for physiology as for 
chemistry. 

Constancy of the Amount of Carbonic Acid in the 
Air. Very careful determinations of the propor- 
tion of carbonic acid in the atmosphere at dif- 
ferent places have been made by M. J. Reiset, 
with a particular view to answering the ques- 
tions : For a given place is there more or less 
carbonic acid in the air on a clear day than on 
a cloudy day ? Is there a difference in the pro- 
portion between day and night, or between win- 
ter and rammer? Is there more or less car- 
bonic acid at the bottom of a mountain than at 
the top? Is there more or less in the air near 
the sea than in the inland country ? etc. His 
tests were made by the precipitation of car- 
bonate of baryta by passing a known volume 
of air through a solution of baryta. His investi- 
gations have led to the conclusions that the 
maxima in the proportion of carbonic acid 
always correspond to cloudy, foggy, or misty 
weather; that air collected in the night con- 
tains more carbonic acid than that collected 
during the day, and that the minima of the 
acid correspond to days of fine weather, with 
bright sunlight and absence of clouds. Investi- 
gations to ascertain the effect of vegetation on 
the proportion were made difficult by the 
rapid diffusion of the gas in the air, and the 
variations were hardly appreciable. They in- 
dicated, however, a diminution of the propor- 
tion over growing fields. The presence of a 
flock of three hundred sheep near the ap- 
paratus on a certain day of fine weather, 
caused a notable increase in the proportion 
of the acid. A number of analyses were made 
near the Pare Monceau in Paris. During the 
month of May, when fires began to be extin- 
guished, the mean was found to be 30-57 per 
100,000 of air. The maximum, 35-16, was 
obtained on the 27th of January, 1879, dur- 
ing the period of most active combustion ; the 
minimum, 29'13, was obtained May 31, 1875. 
The normal variations in proportion are gen- 
erally between 28 and 30 per 100,000 of air, 
and are more sudden and more numerous dur- 
ing the summer. Determinations made by 
MM. Muntz and E. Aubin, in the city of Paris 
and in the open country near Vincennes, 
gave results substantially agreeing with those 
of M. Reiset, and indicate that carbonic acid 
is uniformly distributed throughout the lower 
strata of the atmosphere, while variations in 
the proportion occur only between very nar- 
row limits, and are due to local influences. 
MM. Muntz and Aubin also applied their analy- 
ses to the upper strata, fixing their station 



CHILI. 



121 



on the summit of the Pic du Midi in the Pyre- 
nees, 9,422 feet above the sea. Notwithstand- 
ing that during the course, of the experiments 
the direction of the wind and the state of the 
atmosphere varied frequently, the proportion 
was found to be constant, and to give as the 
mean of a large number of observations 2*86 
parts by volume of carbonic acid to 10,000 
parts of air. 

A New Form of Phosphorus. Messrs. Ira Rem- 
sen and E. H. Keifer, by distilling phosphorus 
in an atmosphere of purified hydrogen and 
condensing the vapor on cold water, obtained 
a white phosphorus, differing very greatly in 
appearance from ordinary phosphorus, which 
floated on the water in a snow-white layer 
about a quarter of an inch in thickness, and 
which was changed to ordinary phosphorus 
very easily, as by putting it into warm water. 
The white phosphorus thus obtained is light 
and plastic. If placed on a piece of bibulous 
paper, so that the water is absorbed from it, 
it gives off dense white furnes and melts, but 
does not take fire, and is then nothing but 
ordinary phosphorus. It dissolves readily in 
carbon bisulphide, and melts at exactly the 
same point as ordinary phosphorus, when it is 
transformed into it. It thus seems to bear 
the same relation to ordinary phosphorus as 
flowers of sulphur to roll-brimstone. It is also 
much less susceptible to the influence of light 
than ordinary phosphorus. Bottger describes 
another white phosphorus, which, however, 
appears to be quite different from this. 

CHILI (Repnblica de Chile). The area of por- 
tions of Patagonia and the Tierra del Fuego, 
acquired by the treaty made between Chili and 
the Argentine Republic, at Buenos Ayres, on 
July 23, 1881, is estimated at 215,725 square 
kilometres, which would increase the area of 
Chili to 537,187 kilometres, without counting 
the province of Tarapaca, ceded to Chili by 
Peru in the treaty of peace made at Ancon, 
signed Oct. 20, 1883, and containing the ensu- 
ing stipulations : 

1. Peru cedes to Chili, forever and uncon- 
ditionally, the department of Tarapac'a to the 
Quebrada .de Camarones. 

2. The territories of Tacna and Arica will, 
for a term of ten years, remain subject to 
Chilian authority. At the close of this term 
the vote of the people is to be taken in those 
localities, and direct suffrage to decide whether 
the same are to return to Peru or remain Chili- 
an. In either case, the country to which they 
will thenceforth be definitively annexed en- 
gages to pay to the other an indemnity of 
$10,000,000. 

3. Chili solemnly engages to carry out all 
the clauses in the treaty relating to the guano 
and nitrate-of-soda trade, and to pay over to 
the creditors of Peru 50 per cent, of the net 
proceeds accruing to the Chilian exchequer out 
of the working of these two products, until 
either the indebtedness is canceled or the de- 
posits of said products are exhausted. Those 



discovered henceforward on the territory an- 
nexed shall be the exclusive property of Chili. 
Beyond this, Chili is not responsible for any 
Peruvian indebtedness. 

4. As regards the island of Lobos, Chili is 
to continue administering the same until the 
expiration of the contract having reference to 
the sale of 1,000,000 tons of guano. The island 
shall then revert to Peru. Finally, Chili en- 
gages to cede to Peru, upon ratification of this 
treaty of peace, the 50 per cent, due the latter 
out of the net proceeds of the Lobos island 
guano-sales. The treaty to be ratified, and the 
exchange of ratifications to be effected at Lima 
within one hundred and eighty days from date. 
Till then Chili is authorized to maintain in 
Peru an army of occupation, toward the main- 
tanance of which Peru engages to pay the 
general-in-chief $300,000 silver coin monthly. 

A cable message, dated Lima, Jan. 8, 1884, 
stated that this monthly indemnity would be 
considerably modified in view of the financial 
condition of Peru. 

A cable dispatch, dated Dec. 11, 1883, an- 
nounced that the Bolivian commissioners had 
arrived at Santiago, Chili, and that forty-eight 
hours after their presentation a treaty of peace 
was signed between Chili and Bolivia. A brief 
sketch of the vicissitudes of the war in 1883, 
and its close, will be found under BOLIVIA. 

On Jan. 1, 1882, the population of .Chili was 
estimated at 2,223,434; a year later, at 2,239,180. 

The capitals of the provinces were counted in 
1882, and the number of inhabitants set against 
each is as follows: Santiago, 190,000; Val- 
paraiso, 95,000; Talca, 19,000; Concepcion, 
19,000; Chillom, 16,000; Cauquenes, 13,000; 
Serena, 13,000; Copiap6, 12,000; San Felipe, 
11,500; Curico, 11,000; Linares, 8,000; An- 
geles, 8,000; Lebu, 7,000; Ancud, 6,000; Val- 
divia, 6,000; Angal, 5,000; Puerto Montt, 
4,000 ; and Punta Arenas, 1,000. 

The President of the Republic is Sefior Don 
Domingo Santa- Maria, inaugurated Sept. 18, 
1881, for the usual term of five years. 

The Cabinet was composed of the following 
ministers : Interior, Sefior J. M. Balmaceda, in 
office since April 12, 1882; Foreign Affairs 
and Colonization, Sefior L. Aldunate, since 
April 12, 1882; Justice, Public Worship, and 
Instruction, Sefior J. E. Vergara, since Sept. 
18, 1881 ; Finance, Sefior P. L. Cnadra, since 
April 12, 1882; War and Navy, Sefior C. Cas- 
tellon, since Sept. 18, 1881. 

The Chilian Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary to the United States is 
Don Joaquin Godoy, accredited June 23, 1882 ; 
the Chilian consul at New York is Sefior D.. 
de Castro. 

The United States Envoy Extraordinary and 
minister at Santiago is Dr. C. Logan, accredited 
in 1882 ; the United States consul at Valparaiso 
is Mr. Lucius P. Foote. 

Army. Don Benjamin Vicufia Mackenna in- 
troduced a bill into the Senate creating one gen- 
eral of division and two brigadier-generals, for 



122 



CHILI. 



the reason that, prior to the war, on Sept. 12, 
1878, the force of the army did not exceed 
3,122 men, that during the war the army of 
occupation alone counted 25,000, and that dur- 
ing the summer of 1883 the Chilian army still 
numbered 17,408 men, while the number of 
generals was the same as in 1878 and in 1854, 
when the army counted only 3,000 men. The 
regular army comprised, in 1882, 9 generals, 
19 colonels, 77 lieutenant-colonels, 114 majors, 
198 captains, and 562 lieutenants, together 979 
officers ; ten battalions (9,040 men), three regi- 
ments (1,500 men) horse, and two regiments 
(2,214 men) artillery ; total strength of army, 
12,921. The National Guard counts 31,113 
men enlisted, 17,912 of whom perform service. 

Navy. The navy, in 1883, embraced two 
iron-clad frigates, one monitor, two corvettes, 
two gunboats, and two cruisers, carrying, to- 
gether, 53 guns, having a joint tonnage of 
10,611, and 3,260 horse-power the whole 
equipped by 1,728 sailors. 

The navy furthermore comprises two steam- 
ers, one transport, five pontoons, five small 
steamers, and eleven torpedo-boats. 

Navy officers : One vice-admiral, four coun- 
ter-admirals, eleven captains of ships-of-the- 
line, fourteen captains of frigates, twenty-two 
of corvettes, forty lieutenants, and forty -two 
enrolled cadets. 

Finances. The President, in his annual mes- 
sage, remarked with reference to the deprecia- 
tion of the paper money in circulation in Chili, 
and the low ruling of it as compared with the 
exchange on Europe, that this unfavorable 
feature must be due in part to the general 
trade relations between Chili and foreign coun- 
tries, the outstanding amount of paper money 
being comparatively small. 

The latest report of the Minister of Finance 
renders an account of the actual workings of 
the Treasury in 1882. According to this docu- 
ment, the ordinary revenue reached the aggre- 
gate of $40,107,209, being an increase of $3,- 
672,488 over that of 1881. The extraordinary 
revenue amounted to $1,849,825, thus increas- 
ing the income of the nation in 1882 to $41,- 
957,035. As, at the same time, the ordinary 
and extraordinary expenditure did not exceed 
$41,620,137, there was an excess of receipts of 
$306,897. The budget for 1884 estimates the 
income at $44,365,000, and the outlay at $46,- 
536,550. - 

Foreign Debt On Dec. 31, 1882, the foreign 
debt of Chili amounted to $34,878,000. The 
amount set aside toward the sinking fund for 
1884 is $1,567,000. These sinking-fund opera- 
tions have at no time, according to what the min- 
ister states, been less than 2 per cent, in a year, 
but in some years they reached 14 per cent. 

CHILIAN FOREIGN INDEBTEDNESS. 



1870 $27,843.000 

1871 27,079,500 

1872 2fi,2S2,000 _. 

1878 86,818,500 1880. 

1874. . . > 25.689,000 1 1881 

1875 80,168,000,1882. 

1876 88,809,000 1 1888. 



1877 $87,400,500 

1878 85,908.000 

1879 84,870,000 

84,870,000 

84,870,000 

84,870,000 

84,870,000 



As nearly all the foreign loans have been 
contracted for railroad purposes, the minister 
appends to his report a statement of the actual 
value of the Government railroads on Dec. 31, 
1882: 

Line from Valparaiso to Santiago $17,878,290 

" Santiago to Curico 9,298.924 

" " t urico to Angol 8,198,818 

" " Chilian to Taicahuano 4,795,904 

Total $40,171,846 

The Minister of Finance has appointed a 
committee of investigation to report on exist- 
ing mining laws, and a revision of the same. 
The committee is to give its opinion on the 
ensuing queries: Whether it is advisable to 
create a national mining bureau ; if so, the 
committee is to suggest what sphere of action 
should be assigned to it, and where it should 
have its seat ; whether the export duty on 
mineral products should be modified, and to 
what extent the import duty on mining mate- 
rial and sheet-iron, examining at the same time 
to what extent the public revenue would be 
affected by such changes ; what new privileges 
may be safely extended to mining industry so 
as to foster its development; to what extent 
transportation should be increased and per- 
fected between the mines and the coast. Fi- 
nally, the committee is ordered to procure com- 
plete statistics bearing on every branch of min- 
ing industry in all its details. The minister 
feels confident that great results will be reached 
if this important branch of the public wealth 
receives the attention it deserves at the hands 
of the Government and people of Chili, and 
for this purpose the bureau is proposed to be 
created. 

Another committee has been appointed to 
lay down the basis for a revision of the tariff, 
the members of the committee being mer- 
chants of leading nationalities. . 

National Legislation. A bill was passed to secu- 
larize the cemeteries, which caused a great deal 
of commotion among orthodox Catholics, espe- 
cially the female portion thereof, and at Santi- 
ago the ladies personally petitioned the Presi- 
dent en mAsse to intercede in behalf of threat- 
ened faith while the bill was under debate. 
Other bills elicited almost as much interest 
among the public at large, among them one 
reforming public instruction, another legaliz- 
ing civil marriage, one granting certain privi- 
leges to parties building a dry-dock at Valpa- 
raiso, one creating the new province of O'Hig- 
gins in the department of Rancagua, one or- 
dering a special medal to be struck to reward 
the soldiers participating in the crowning vic- 
tory of the war, the battle of Huamacucho, of 
July 10, 1883 ; finally, a pension bill in favor 
of all soldiers who fought on the Chilian side 
in the late war. 

On the other hand, the Senate rejected the 
bill limiting the coastwise trade to the Chilian 
flag. 

Railroads. Tn 1882 the total length of gov- 
ernment lines was 949 kilometres (equal to 598 



CHILI. 



123 



miles), and of private lines 906 kilometres 
(equal to 571 miles) ; together, 1,855 kilo- 
metres, or 1,169 miles. 

Postal Service. The number of post-offices, 
in 1882, was 370, forwarding during the year 
altogether 10,204,097 letters, 19,950 sample 
packages, 13,786 legal documents, 493,572 
government dispatches, and 11,046,534 news- 
papers ; together, 21,777,939 items of mail 
matter, the gross amount of postage collected 
being $378,749. 

'Telegraphs. The telegraphic service was, in 
1882, carried on in 136 offices, 127 of which 
were under government management ; the total 
length of lines was 9,493 kilometres (equal to 
5,981 miles), of which 8,943 kilometres were 
government lines. The number of messages 
sent was 433,475 ; of these 159,999 were gov- 
ernment dispatches, and 273,476 private. The 
gross amount collected for telegrams was 
$378,749. 

Immigration. To hasten the settlement of 
Villa-Rica, the new city founded in the center 
of the Indian territory of Araucania, now be- 
ing civilized, the Government has made a con- 
tract with Don Francisco de B. Echeverria for 
the introduction from Europe of 2,000 families 
from the Basque provinces of Spain. Mean- 
while the agent of Chilian colonization in Eu- 
rope has contracted for the immigration into 
Chili of numerous families belonging to the 
farming class in Germany. 

College Reforms. The Minister of Public In- 
struction is elaborating a reform project for 
the School of Arts and Trades at Santiago, 
preference to be given to the more practical 
branches of education in that college, and for 
this purpose, professors and machinists of note 
are, if possible, to be engaged abroad, and ma- 
chinery, etc., is to be procured for practical 
demonstration. 

Trade-Marks in Chili. Chili provides for the 
protection of trade-marks both to residents and 
foreigners. The registry of the marks is in- 
scribed on the register of the office of the Na- 
tional Society of Agriculture. The Chilian 
definition of a trade-mark is somewhat vague, 
and is comprised under the two heads, trade- 
marks applied to articles as products of indus- 
try, and marks applied to objects of traffic, the 
one relative to marks indicating ownership, as 
concerns the manufacturer, and the other that 
of distinctive ownership on the part of the 
dealer. The registry must be renewed every 
ten years. 

New Pass over the Andes. The recent discovery 
of a pass across the mountain-chain which di- 
vides Chili from the Argentine Republic may 
possibly exert an important influence upon the 
future of South America. This pathway has 
long been known to the Indians of the mount- 
ain-region, but they have hitherto kept it a 
secret. For more than 1,000 miles the Andes 
extend between Chilian and Argentine terri- 
tory, at an average elevation of 13,000 feet 
above sea-level. When the dispute in regard 



to the possession of Patagonia, a few years 
ago, threatened to bring the two republics to 
blows, it was seen that any war between them 
must be fought out at sea, the passage of the 
Andes, by any openings then known, being im- 
possible against a hostile force. An Argentine 
army, to maintain itself at all, would have 
needed to emerge from the mountains upon 
Chilian soil somewhere near its objective point 
that is to say, Valparaiso and Santiago, 
which are comparatively near each other, and 
would be included in any plan of invasion. 
The practicable passes thus became limited to 
the Patos and the Cumbre, for those farther 
north would not only give an invading army a 
dangerously long line of communication with 
its base, but are too difficult of ascent, and in 
some cases are approached over barren regions. 
The only pass to be seriously thought of, in 
fact, was La Cumbre, which is almost opposite 
Valparaiso, or on the same parallel ; and yet 
its height, its extreme narrowness for many 
miles, its continued windings and abrupt as- 
cents, would make it defensible by 1,000 good 
men against an invading army from either side. 

But the newly discovered Bariloche Pass, 
being near Lake Nahuelhaspi, puts an entirely 
new face on the question of transandean com- 
munication. It is situated where the continent, 
narrowing greatly, forms the peninsula of 
Patagonia ; it is approached easily across the 
pampas, and from the westernmost Argentine 
post at Nahuelhaspi the distance is only a few 
score miles to the Pacific coast. 

The commercial importance of this pass, 
however, far outweighs all military considera- 
tions. The two enterprising republics have 
removed their only serious source of dissension 
by a peaceful division of Patagonia, and hence- 
forth the one can pursue its development as an 
Atlantic and the other as a Pacific country. 
Both have long sought railroad communica- 
tion across the Andes. One such road, in 
fact, has already been undertaken between 
Buenos Ayres and Santiago, designed to pierce 
the mountains by way of Mendoza, through 
one of the passess already spoken of. The ex- 
treme difficulties of this route have impeded 
its construction ; but a road starting from the 
Gulf of San Matias and crossing northern 
Patagonia through the Bariloche Pass would 
have only half the length of the more north- 
erly route, and would traverse a region where 
the peculiar relations of the mountains to the 
two oceans cause the storms to be usually of 
rain rather than snow, the route being in about 
42 S. lat., and hence in a temperate climate. 
The great drawback seems to be that it trav-. 
erses a region infested with ho.stile Indians. 

Of course, a most important consideration 
is the exact height of the new pass ; but since 
it is known that the Andes in Patagonia fall 
off to an average altitude little more than half 
that of a few miles farther north, the route 
seems certain to yield advantages in this par- 
ticular. 



124 



CHILI. 



Agricultures M. A. F. de Fontpertuis writes They have been worked to a depth of 1,800 : 

about the economical condition and agricultu- 2,200 feet. The amalgamating of silver-or 

ral and mineral resources of Chili, in an article is carried on in great establishments at ai 

published in the " Economiste Francais" : Out near Copiap6. 

of the 2,200,000 inhabitants more than two Nitrate. The belief prevailed^for a long tin 

thirds are agriculturists; and the eight central that the province of Tarapaca was the on 

provinces, Santiago, Colchagua, Curic6, Talca, portion of the Atacama desert producing z 

Maule, Linares, Xuble, and Concepcion, alone trate enough to make it worth while exportii 

contain a farming population of 1,400,000 the same, but the high taxes imposed by Pei 

souls. While the country between Valparaiso caused explorers to prospect the southern po 

and Santiago resembles the plains of northern tion of the desert in Bolivia and in the nort 

Italy, the resemblance is merely superficial, for ern part of Chili. In this manner the nitra 

even in its best portions the soil of Chili is deposits at Antofagasta were discovered, and 

poor; immense plains are uncultivated, and great impulse was given to the nitrate industi 

the methods of culture are most primitive, be- there; but the rivalries arising led to the la 

ing in this respect the very reverse of those war. 

in use in northern Italy. In both countries Commerce. Chilian foreign commerce near 

there is a lack of rainfall, and they have to re- doubled during the four years following 1871 

sort to irrigation. The destruction of forests - 

has been such in Chili that in some regions on Total foreign trade. increwe. Increa 

the coast there are during a year 335 days of percet 

drought, 12 days of a light and 18 days of a 1878 H&ffftH 

heavy rainfall. The plain of Chili, it is true, Jg;:; $$"} f^gt % 

is traversed by numerous water-courses, such issi 108,878,168 21,682,245 24-se 

as the Rio-Bio, Chilian, Maule, Nuble, and 1882 

many more, receiving their water from the 

snow of the Andes, but their fertilizing action IMPORT. 

is limited to a restricted area, and the art of ' i&sz. 1881. 

irrigation is only properly understood in the 

more northern provinces, Talca and Curico. gysea |B J'JSffi 

Out of 34,245,500 hectares of land only 7,891 ,- Overland A 60 ' 842 

200 are arable, and of these only one seventh Total... $53,502,214 $46,973,981 

is under culture, and even in this portion cul- 
tivation is to a notable extent slothful. Dem- EXPORT. 

ocratic economists in Chili attribute this state i> TTTI 

of affairs to the large land-holdings by descend- _ 

ants of the conquerors, and insist, not without Products of the mines $56.137,670 $47,145.757 

some reason, that these large " hacendados - SSW-SSSS*::'::: "'^ "S3 

or landed proprietors have been a calamity Ee-export 997.674 1,459,651 

for Chilian agriculture. Fortunately, some ^^f-,::::: \S$> #8$ 
.time ago the law of primogeniture was abol- 
ished, and since then landed property gets to Total $71,374,126 $61,904,282 

be gradually better distributed among the 

farming population. This change has also had Chilian custom-houses yielded in 1882 tl 

the good effect of causing many of the large ensuing amounts of revenue : 

proprietors to settle down on their lands and i mport duties collected $11,802,8 

cultivate them, instead of living in luxury at Ten per cent additional 689,8 

the capital. Yet there have been till now wBSta^.:^.r.:C/.^:V/.:V/;V.".:V/.:;y.: SSa 

comparatively few small prosperous farmers, Light-house and tonnage dues....... '.'.....'..... 7i,'9 

and the system of long leases has not even vet gSKSSi*".iii-a::: ""-"- ,,tl 

been introduced. Export duty on nitrate of soda 7,C92,3 

Mining. Copper is found in a great many 

localities, especially in the provinces of Co- Total - $22,896,2 

quimbo, Aconcagua, Santiago, Nuranco, Chi- ^THIRTY-EIGHT YEARS OF CHILIAN FOREIGN TRADE. 

loe, and in Atacama, although in the latter two ' " 

gold and silver predominate. Caldera is the ** ** 

chiet port of the last-named province. Copi- 

ap6, its capital, is in the center of a long, nar- 1844-1858, 10 years.. $21,000,000 $19 

row valley, which might be fertile if it were JltlSlS " "'o%oro II 

not so badly irrigated, and surrounded by many 1874-1881, 8 " .. 73,000,000 

silver-mines partially abandoned because ex- " 

bausted. The richest mines were formerly the Anglo-German Competition. A French me 

Charnacillo, turning out, during the compara- chant reports from Iquique under date of Ms 

lively short period of 47 years from 1832 to 15, 1883 : "Although French goods are gene: 

1879, no less than $240,000,000 worth of pure ally very much liked in Chili, the trade bet wee 

silver, but these are now nearly exhausted. France and this coast has notably declined du 



CHILI. 



CHINA. 



125 



ing the past twenty years, while Anglo- Ger- 
man merchants, more active than French, have 
succeeded in substituting their manufactures 
for ours. But this is not the only success 
which English and German merchants can 
boast of: with abundant means and good Eu- 
ropean banking connections at their disposal, 
they have boldly gone into the nitrate industry 
and exportation, so that the bulk of this article 
now goes to Liverpool and Hamburg. Nor 
is this due to any very great superiority of 
theirs in the way of steamship lines, for we 
have our fine Havre line of steamers regularly 
touching at all ports on the west coast. The 
causes for this decay of French trade in this 
direction lie deeper, and we have to search for 
them in France, where both merchants and 
manufacturers trouble themselves too little 
about the changes going on in these distant 
countries on the Pacific, and, instead of estab- 
lishing branch houses or agencies in them, and 
thus pushing the export trade to them, they 
cling to time-worn methods, and are thus oust- 
ed from connections once valuable." 

EXPORT OF NITRATE OF SODA DURING THE FIRST 
TEN MONTHS. 





1883. 


1882. 


1881. 


To the north of Europe 
" Mediterranean 
" United States, At- 
lantic coast 
44 United States, Pa- 
cific coast 


Quintals. 
8,339,838 
161,206 

769,194 
157,390 


Quintals. 
7,299,715 
120,074 

909,778 
140,289 


Quintals. 
4,548,264 
85,126 

879,437 
125,985 


Total 


9,433,678 


8,469,856 


5,588,812 











Chilian Trade with England, France, and the United 
States. The import from Chili into the United 
States in 1881 was $1,435,970 worth of goods 
against $13,288,071 from Chili into England, 
and $5,478,793 into France, while the export 
from the United States to Chili was $1,614,836, 
from England $13,075,526, and from France 
$6,364,464. In 1882 the import from Chili 
into the United States was $1,810,487, and the 
export from the latter to the former $1,774,- 
645 worth of goods. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1883, 
the United States imported from Chili only 
$435,584 worth of goods, specie, and bullion, 
and exported thither $2,837,551 worth of do- 
mestic goods and $22,945 foreign ditto. This 
shows an extraordinary increase of domestic 
exportation from the United States to that 
country in a single twelvemonth. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1882, 
the United States imported from Chili 67,018,- 
386 pounds of nitrate of soda, and 2,534,219 
pounds of wool, and exported thither of do- 
mestic goods 5,259,858 yards of cotton goods ; 
$304,335 worth of machinery and hardware ; 
1,188,700 gallons of petroleum; 567,560 pounds 
of lard ; 373,585 pounds of refined sugar, and 
$263,687 worth of lumber and wooden-ware, 
besides numerous other articles. 

Merchant Marine. There were sailing under 



the Chilian flag, in 1883, 131 sea-going vessels, 
of a total tonnage of 53,070, comprising 27 
steamers, which aggregated 12,512 tons. 

CHINA, an empire in Asia, officially called 
Chung Kwoh (" The Middle Kingdom "). The 
Government is organized on patriarchal prin- 
ciples laid down in the books of Confucius and 
other ancient sacred writings. The supreme 
power is vested in the Emperor. There are 
two high advisory bodies which guide the pol- 
icy of the Emperor. One is the Neko, or In- 
ner Council, consisting of four members and 
two assistants, who see that the enactments 
are in harmony with the laws of the sacred 
books. Two of the active members and one 
of the juristic assistants must be chosen from 
the Manchu, and the other half of the Council 
from the Chinese race. Under the supervision 
of the Neko are the six boards of government, 
which have charge respectively of the civil ser- 
vice, finance, ceremonies, the army, justice, and 
public works. The practical direction of affairs 
has passed into the charge of a body called the 
Council of State (Chun-chi-chu), which is free 
from the rigid constitution and procedure of 
the Neko. The same men are often found in 
both councils, and also serving in some of the 
six ministries or other high charges of state. 
Besides the six ministries, there is a board of 
censors, whose duty it is to investigate all the 
departments of state and review the acts of 
government; a ministry for the administra- 
tion of the dependent states; the military 
administration of Peking, which also superin- 
tends the police service ; and an office for the 
administration of foreign affairs. The eighteen 
provinces have each a governor, who in the 
case of most of them is subordinated to a gov- 
ernor-general placed over two or three prov- 
inces. 

The Emperor is Kwangsu, the ninth ruler of 
the Tartar dynasty which conquered China in 
1644. The law of succession prescribes that 
each Emperor shall appoint his successor from 
among the sons of the princes of the royal 
house. Kwangsu was not regularly appointed, 
the late Emperor having died suddenly, but 
was by the management of the Empress dow- 
ager and his father, Prince Rung, proclaimed 
Emperor, Jan. 22, 1875, in the fourth year of 
his age. 

The members of the Council of State are 
Prince Kung, Pao Yun, Li-hung-tsao, Ching- 
lien, and Weng-tung-ho. The Prince Kung is 
president of the ministry for foreign affairs. 

Area and Population. The total area of the 
eighteen provinces is 1,534,953 square miles, 
and the total population, as given in the latest 
official returns. 362,447,183; being 236 per 
square mile. The density of population in the 
province of Kiangsu is as great as 850 per 
square mile; in Anhwei, 705; in Chekiang, 
671 ; in Pecheli, the capital province, 475 ; in 
Shantung, 444. The least thickly inhabited 
provinces are Szechuen, with 128 inhabitants 
per square mile, Kwangsi with 93, Kwei- 



126 



CHINA. 



chow with 82, Yunnan with 51, and the great 
province of Shenking with only 10 persons to 
the square mile. 

The dependencies of China, not including 
Corea, which is practically independent in its 
internal and external affairs, subject to a suze- 
rain control that is kept almost entirely in 
abeyance, have an estimated area and popula- 
tion as follow : 



DEPENDENCIES. 


Square miles. 


Population. 


Manchuria 


862 818 


12000000 


Mongolia 


1 288 085 


2 000 000 


Thibet 


648 734 


6 000 000 




152'958 


'eoo'ooo 


East Turkestan 


481800 


580 000 








Total 


2878835 


21 180 000 









The greater part of the Hi, or Kulja, terri- 
tory in Jungaria was receded to China by the 
treaty concluded with Russia, Feb. 24, 1881, 
but 4,340 square miles were annexed to Eussia, 
which received also 8,120 square miles on the 
Black Irtysh. 

The population of Peking, the capital, is esti- 
mated variously at from 500,000 to 1,650,000. 
Several cities in the interior are supposed to 
contain over 1,000,000 inhabitants. The esti- 
mated population of the treaty ports is as fol- 
lows: Canton, 1,600,000; Tientsin, 950,000; 
Foochow, 630,000; Hangchow, 600,000; 
Shanghai, 350,000; Ningpo, 260,000; Takao 
and Taiwan, 235,000; Nanking, 150,000; 
Chinkiang, 135,000; Amoy, 95,600; Tamsui, 
90,000; Wenchow, 83,000; Kelung, 70,000; 
Niuchwang, 60,000 ; Wuhu, 60,000 ; Kiukiang, 
53,000; Chefoo, 35,000; Ichang, 34,000 ; Swa- 
tow, 30,000; Kiungchow, 30,000; Pakhoi, 
25,000. 

The number of foreigners residing in the 
treaty ports in 1882 was reported as 4,894, of 
whom 2,402 were English, 474 Germans, 472 
Japanese, 410 Americans, 335 French, 202 
Spaniards, and 599 of other nationalities. 

Commerce and Agriculture. The annual value 
of the foreign commerce for the past six years 
was as follows, in taels (1 Haikwan tael= 
$1.50): 



YEAR. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1877... 


78 283 8% 


67 445 022 


1878 


70 fi04 027 


67172179 


1879... 


82 227 424 


72 281 262 


1880... 


79293452 


77'883'587 


1881. 


91 'MO 877 


71 452 974 


18S2 


77'?15228 


67 836 846 









The imports in 1882 from Great Britain, Hong- 
Kong, East India and other British possessions 
amounted to 67,640,000 taels; the exports to 
Great Britain and British dependencies to 40,- 
301,000 taels; the imports from the United 
States to 3,277,000 taels, as against 3,300,000 
in 1881 ; the exports to the United States to 
8,420,000 taels, as against 10,222,000; the im- 
ports from Continental countries, not includ- 
ing Russia, to 2,484,000 taels ; the exports to 
Continental Europe to 8,752,000 taels ; the ex- 



ports to Russia by ship to Odessa, 946, 00( 
taels, overland via Kiachta, 3,286,000 taels 
imports from Japan, 4,442,000 taels ; export: 
to Japan, 1,767,000 taels ; imports from am 
exports to other countries, 1,644,000 and 3, 
865,000 taels respectively. The main part o: 
the import trade is through Shanghai, whicl 
does also the largest export trade, Canton com 
ing next, and after it Foochow and Hangchow 
The following table gives an analysis of th< 
foreign trade of 1881 and 1882, showing th< 
values imported and exported of the differem 
classes of merchandise, in taels : 



IMPORTS. 


1881. 


1888. 


Opium 


37 590 000 


26 746 000 


Cotton goods 


26 046 000 


22 707 000 


Woolen goods 


5 854 000 


4 496'oOO 


Metals, and manufactures of 
All other . . . 


4,829,000 
17 590 000 


4,701,000 
19 065 000 








Total 


91 911 000 


77 715 000 









EXPORTS. 


1881. 


1888. 


Black tea 


26 201 000 


25 878 000 


Green tea 


5 107 000 


4'o9l'oOO 


Brick tea 


1 468 000 


1 804'000 


Silk and manufactures . 


26 868 000 


22 837 000 


Sugar 


2 5^4 000 


8 013 000 


All other 


9 225 000 


10 124 000 








Total 


71,453 000 


67 837 000 









Chinese trade has suffered for a year or tw< 
.from various causes. In 1882, in consequent 
of excessive speculation in joint-stock enter 
prises, occurred a financial crisis. Interest ros< 
at times in 1882 to 30 and 35 per cent. Man} 
failures happened in consequence. The im- 
ports of gray and white shirtings were less bj 
a million pieces than in 1881, and prices wen 
10 per cent, lower. Opium imports fell of 
9,000 chests. The reformatory efforts of th< 
Chinese Government and the use of theSzech- 
uen product have nearly expelled the Indiar 
drug from northern China. The quantity im- 
ported at the northern ports was but little 
more than a third as much as in 1879. The 
yield of silk has fallen off to an alarming ex- 
tent. The cause is supposed to be the ravages 
of a disease of the silk-worm similar to thai 
which prevails in Europe. The falling off was 
considerable in 1882; but in 1883 the quantity 
fit for export was not more than half as much 
as in average years. The cultivation of the 
sugar-cane is extending in southern China in 
the country back of Amoy, Swatow, and Can- 
ton, and on the island of Hainan and the south- 
ern part of Formosa. The exports of sugar go 
mostly to Australia and Japan. In certain dis- 
tricts along the East river as much as 40 per 
cent, of the area is planted to sugar, exciting 
the anxiety of conservative native economists, 
who see the more necessary rice-culture neg- 
lected for the more profitable new product. 

In 1882, notwithstanding the general depres- 
sion in trade, there was a further develop- 
ment of the tendency which first showed itself 
a year or two before, on the part of Chinese 



CHINA. 



127 



native merchants and capitalists, to invest in 
enterprises carried on by foreign companies. 
Companies were started with native capital, 
under purely native management, for the work- 
ing of coal, copper, and other mines. The 
numerous projects started in this speculative 
period include also gold and silver mining, and 
paper, glass, and cotton manufactories. Chi- 
nese capital was invested even in remote en- 
terprises carried on by foreigners in Perak, 
North Borneo, Selangor, and Colorado, and 
much of it was consequently lost. 

Navigation. The movement of shipping in 
Chinese ports is shown in the following table, 
which gives the number and tonnage of the 
vessels arriving and of those sailing under each 
flag, added together : 





] 


L881. 


3 


882. 


FLAG. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


British 


18,416 


10,332,248 


14,337 


10,814,779 




1,632 


728,027 


1,864 


882,856 


American 


870 
103 


224,780 
185 784 


762 
192 


167.801 
172,381 


Japanese 


227 


185,892 


250 


194,584 


Chinese 


6297 


4,767,188 


6429 


4,775,969 


Other 


642 


266,464 


895 


380,482 












Total .' 


28,187 


16,640,278 


24,729 


17,388,852 



Of the total number of ships entered and 
cleared in 1882, 19,607, of an aggregate ton- 
nage of 16,102,574, were steamers, against 
18,170, of 15,350,954 tons, in 1881. 

Communications. The only railroad in 1882 
was one eight miles long, running to the Kai- 
ping coal-mines. Besides short local lines, there 
was completed in 1881 a telegraph line from 
Tientsin to Shanghai, 950 miles. A line from 
Shanghai to Canton was under construction in 
1883. 

Finance. The accounts of the Imperial Gov- 
ernment are not made public. The approxi- 
mate yield of the various sources of revenue 
is estimated as follows: 

SOURCES OF REVENUE. Taels. 

Land-tax ' 18,000,000 

Land-tax paid in kind 18,100,000 

Likin (new impost on merchandise) 20,000,000 

Customs under Administration of Progress ...... 12,000,000 

Customs under native administration 8,000,000 

Salt 5,000,000 

Sale of titles of rink 7,000,000 

Other sources 1,400,000 

Total 79,500,000 

In 1882 the European custom-house admin- 
istration collected import duties to the amount 
of 4,684,007 taels; export duties, 8,068,435 
taels; pilotage, 740,078 taels; tonnage dues, 
279,799 taels ; transit toll, 313,353 taels total, 
14,085,672 taels. 

The Chinese Government raised a foreign 
loan of 13,500,000 taels in 1874. Of this 7,- 
000,000 taels have been repaid. There are 
domestic debts amounting to 30.000,000 taels. 

Army and Navy. The army has been divided 
since the Manchu conquest into the Banner 
army and the Green Flag militia. The for- 
mer, recruited from an hereditary military class, 



and constituting the garrison with which the 
Tartar conquerors long held the country in 
unwilling subjugation, is the most efficient 
branch, and may be considered as the regular 
army of China. Much attention has been paid 
in recent years to the improvement of its 
organization, training, and equipment. First 
American and French, and subsequently Brit- 
ish military men, have been its instructors in 
tactics. The Bannermen are divided into three 
branches, one recruited from the descendants 
of the Manchu army, one from their Mongol 
and one from their Chinese allies who helped 
conquer China. The Manchus are the most 
numerous, and are the subjects of the greatest 
care, as the majority of the officers and of the 
Board of War belong to this race. Their effi- 
cient force is 67,800 men, that of the Chinese 
or Hankiun Bannermen 27,000, and that of 
the Mongols, 21,100 making altogether 115,- 
900 men. Of these, about one half are sta- 
tioned in the Pecheli province, and the rest 
distributed through the empire to form the 
Tartar garrisons in the chief cities. The war 
strength of the Banner army can be largely 
augmented, since there were five times the 
present numbers on the rolls thirty years ago. 
The Chinese Government has further fighting 
material at its disposal in the frontier tribes 
and the Mongols of Mongolia, who alone can 
be levied on for 200,000 men, one third of 
them mounted. The national militia, or Green 
Flag troops, have formerly been discouraged 
by the military caste, and are still kept in a 
state of military inefficiency through the not 
groundless fears of the Peking Government of 
the danger of the dynasty from a powerful 
national army. For many years Li Hung 
Chang has devoted great -pains to the training 
of the Tartar force in the capital province by 
European tacticians. About 70, 000 troops h a ve 
thus been made capable of rapid military move- 
ments. The number of troops in the empire 
who are trained in the European way, and 
armed with modern weapons, is between 100,- 
000 and 200,000. The forts which guard the 
approaches to the capital are defended by a 
large number of Krupp and Armstrong guns. 

The Chinese Government some time ago ac- 
quired several European naval vessels, and has 
recently been at great expense to secure others 
of a more perfect type, which are being con- 
structed at Kiel. In 1880 the fleet contained 
two frigates, a corvette, and 47 gunboats, with 
transports and smaller craft the total arma- 
ment consisting of 283 guns. 

Political Situation. The diplomatic dispute 
with France regarding the suzerainty of China 
over Annam absorbed the attention of the rul- 
ing powers in China in 1883 (see TONQTJIN). 
Li Hung Chang, the liberal minister, who has 
had much to do with guiding the foreign policy 
of China for several years past, was recalled 
by the Empress Regent from the three years' 
seclusion into which he had just entered to 
mourn the loss of his mother, according to the 



128 



CHINA. 



national custom. After the failure of the ne- 
gotiations of M. Tricou at Shanghai, the direc- 
tion of the Tonquin business passed out of the 
hands of Li and the peace party into those of 
Prince Kung and the anti-foreign court party, 
who opposed a bolder and more resolute re- 
sistance to the demands of France. 

Canton Riots. In September serious anti- 
European riots broke out in Canton. The 
Chinese are accustomed to see crimes punished 
with extreme severity, while the foreign con- 
suls are loath to enforce rigorously the laws of 
their own countries when dealing in the exer- 
cise of extra-territorial jurisdiction with acts of 
violence committed upon Chinamen by Euro- 
peans. The populace of Canton were already 
excited to a dangerous pitch by the news of 
the French repulses in Tonquin and the war- 
like attitude of the Peking Government, when 
two flagrant instances of shielding Europeans 
from justice wrought them into fury. An 
Englishman, an official in the Chinese custom- 
house, fired a gun into a crowd of Chinese who 
were making a disturbance, killing one native 
and wounding two others. The Chinese were 
excited over a rumor that this man, whose 
name was Logan, was being screened, and, as 
in many previous similar cases, would escape 
the consequences of his crime. A day or two 
later a Portuguese sailor from a British ship 
killed a Chinaman. In this case the consul re- 
fused to arrest. When the embittered people 
saw the vessel depart with the homicide on 
board, September 10th, they pushed in a great 
crowd to the foreign quarter and attacked 
stores and houses. The merchants armed 
themselves with rifles, and fired a volley into 
the crowd, killing five and wounding many 
others. This rendered the mob more desper- 
ate, and they plundered and set fire to four- 
teen warehouses, English, German, French, 
and American, and four dwellings, and only 
ceased upon the arrival of the Chinese troops. 
Tumultuous crowds gathered the next day, but 
committed no further acts of violence. The 
foreign residents had fled on board vessels in 
the harbor. After the arrival of two British, 
one French, and five Chinese gunboats, they 
returned to their homes. The Chinese author- 
ities thereafter preserved order in Canton, but 
the irritation continued. The condemnation of 
Logan to seven years' imprisonment for man- 
slaughter was to the minds of the Chinese 
equivalent to his escape. 

Floods. China suffered in 1883 from inunda- 
tions which caused great suffering and loss of 
life. The Yellow river burst through the em- 
bankments and overflowed the lower country 
over hundreds of square miles. The country 
surrounding Tientsin and lying between that 
city and the capital was also flooded by the 
overflow of the rivers. The Government made 
considerable grants of rice to the homeless and 
starving peasantry, and encouraged private do- 
nations by, offers of brevet rank. A scheme 
for the improvement of the protective works 



CHRISTIANITY, GROWTH OF. 

on the Yellow river has been adopted by the 
Government. The execution of a more thor- 
ough system of stream regulation for the Yel- 
low river in accordance with the principles o] 
modern engineering would avoid for the future 
the periodical disasters in this country which 
have occurred since early times. 

CHRISTIANITY, Growth of. On the day oi 
Pentecost, the number of converts to Chris- 
tianity was 3,000. At the end of the first cen- 
tury the number had reached 300,000. In the 
year 323, when the Emperor Constantine was 
converted and began to encourage Christianity 
and suppress heathenism, the number of Chris- 
tians was 10,000,000 ; at the latter part of the 
sixth century, 20,000,000; at the close of the 
eighth century, 30,000,000. During the next 
two centuries the growth was 20,000,000, mak- 
ing 50,000,000 at the close of the tenth cen- 
tury. Then from the close of the tenth to the 
close of the eleventh century the gain was 
20,000,000, making the number, at that date, 
70,000,000. The next hundred years witnessed 
a growth of 10,000,000. Thus, for about thir- 
teen hundred years there had been a steady 
gain, and the number now reached 80,000,000. 
But during the next century there was a de- 
cline of 5,000,000 ; then followed, for the same 
period, a similar gain, making the number at 
the close of the fourteenth century the same 
as at the close of the twelfth, viz., 80,000,000. 
In the days of Luther the number reached 
100,000,000. Thus, from the tenth to the fif- 
teenth centuries the number of Christians had 
doubled. At the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the number had again doubled, i. e., be- 
came 200,000,000. From 1800 to 1880 the 
number again doubled, reaching 400,000,000. 
Hence we see that the last three periods in 
which Christianity doubled were 500 years, 
300 years, and 80 years, respectively. These 
figures include all nominal Christians, compris- 
ing the Greek, the Roman Catholic, and the 
Protestant churches. From 1800 to 1880 it is 
estimated that the Greek Church gained 25 per 
cent., the Roman Catholic Church 80 per cent., 
and the Protestant 170 per cent. 

In 1792 William Carey originated the mod- 
ern foreign missionary movement. He became 
a- great Oriental scholar, and lived to see the 
Bible, in whole or in part, spread among the 
people of India in forty dialects. He aroused 
an active missionary spirit among the English 
Baptists, and his dictionaries, grammars, and 
other works, in the Bengalee, Sanskrit, and 
other tongues of India, not only prepared the 
way for the rapid spread of the gospel, but also 
brought him distinguished honor from the Brit- 
ish Government. Since the days of Carey, 
Christianity has advanced in India, China, 
Japan, Africa, and in other fields, with re- 
markable rapidity. The number of Christ's 
followers at this date (1883) is. without doubt, 
450,000,000. The converts in foreign fields are 
now numbered by hundreds of thousands, and 
are gaining rapidly every year. In 1830 there 



CHRISTIANITY, GROWTH OF. 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



129 



were only 50,000 Christians in heathen lands; 
now there are more than 2,000,000. In 1830 
the Bible was read in 50 languages and dia- 
lects ; now in 250, and 150,000,000 Bibles are 
in circulation. In 1813 Judson arrived in Bur- 
mah, and in 1819 he baptized the first convert. 
Jn that province to-day there are 25,000 commu- 
nicants, and about 76,000 adherents to the faith. 
In 1850 there were in India about 14,000 com- 
municants, and 91,000 nominal Christians. 
To-day there are 114,000 communicants and 
about 420,000 nominal Christians. In the prov- 
ince of Madras, ten years ago, the number of 
Christian adherents was 161,000; to-day the 
number is 300,000. And throughout India, 
China, Africa, and other lands, the gospel is 
spreading at a rate never equaled since the 
days of the apostles. According to Gibbon, 
imperial Rome, at the time of her greatest ex- 
tent, ruled about 120,000,000 people ; but to- 
day Christian nations govern 650,000,000. 

"While the progress of Christianity has been 
very marked throughout the whole world, in 
the United States, where it has had an open 
field and perfect freedom, its gain has been 
greater than in any other land. During the 
past eighty-three years and particularly dur- 
ing the past three decades the growth has 
been more rapid than in any former period. 
Eighty years ago students in Yale and Harvard 
Colleges were accustomed to call themselves by 
the names of French and German infidels. In 
Yale College, infidel students used to combat 
President Dwight with their views in the 
class-room. Only a very small portion of the 
students in the colleges of the country at that 
time were church-members. In 1745 there 
were only four church-members among the 
students of Yale. But a wonderful change has 
taken place in that college since. 

From 1870 to 1880 Harvard graduated over 
1,400 young men, and only two of the number 
registered themselves as "skeptics." In 1830 
26 per cent, of the students of New England 
colleges were church-members. In 1880, out 
of 12,063 students in sixty-five colleges in the 
United States, 50 per cent, were professors of 
religion. En 1800, the population of the United 
States was about 5,000,0^0, and the number of 
communicants in the various churches was 
364,000, averaging one to fifteen of the popu- 
lation. In 1880, with a population of 50,000,- 
000, the number, of communicants was over 
10,000,000, averaging one to five of the popu- 
lation. These numbers include the communi- 
cants in Protestant churches alone. In 1800 
there was about one clergyman to every 2,000 
of the population. In 1880 there were 69,870 
ordained ministers in the Evangelical churches 
of the United States, averaging one to every 
720 of the population. 

From 1850 to 1880 the increase of the Ro- 
man Catholic population (not enrolled commu- 
nicants) was 4,753,000. During the same pe- 
riod the increase in the number of communi- 
cants in the Protestant churches was 6,500,000. 

VOL. XXIII. 9 A 



In 1850, in Boston, Mass., and vicinity, within 
a radius of ten miles, there were 19,838 com- 
municants in the Baptist, Congregational, and 
Methodist churches combined. In 1880 the 
membership of those churches had increased 
to 45,752, being a gain of 230 per cent. 

From the year-books of the principal de- 
nominations in the United States we gather 
the following general summary for 1883 : 



DENOMINATIONS. 


Ministers 


Church- 
member*. 


Adventists 


10T 
501 
167 

17,090 
400 
1,253 
600 
103 
16 
1,578 
450 
8,728 
1,240 
28 
8,782 
8,579 
85 
200 


11,100 
68,500 
17,169 
2,394,742 
*40,000 
77,927 
*33,000 
8,611 
1,450 
60,000 
45,000 
887,619 
76,000 
8,000 
591,821 
844,888 
6,811 
56,000 
*40,000 

80,000 
128,229 
285,202 
18,862 
288,111 
116,077 
*80,000 
1,799,593 
867,375 
391,044 
*300,000 
125,000 
123,054 
2,918 
159,547 
117,027 
*20.000 
12,735 
18,750 
8,837 
*5.000 
*3,000 
9,928 
8.994 
600,695 
127.01T 
113,750 
5,000 
85.448 
10,322 
11,000 
6,700 

6,510 
163,669 
80.156 
t6,882.954 
. *700 
*20,000 
86,238 


Adventists, Second 


Adventists Seventh-Day 


Baptists 


Baptists, Anti-Mission 


Baptists Free-Will 


Baptists, Christian Order, etc 
Baptists Seventh-Day. 


Baptists, Six- Principle 


Baptists, German (Tunkers) 


Baptists Church of God 


Congre p ationalist8 


Christians, Northern 




Disciples of Christ (Campbellites) 


Episcopal, Protestant 


Episcopal, Reformed 


Friends, Orthodox 


Friends, Unitarian (Hicksite) 


Lutherans, German Evangelical (State 
Church of Prussia) 


430 
847 
849 
141 
1,117 
475 
450 
11,294 
4,045 
2,051 
2,000 
688 
1,358 
82 
1,257 
926 
250 
289 
225 
50 
80 
40 
70 
92 
5,218 
1,070 
1,489 
50 
780 
107 
100 
80 

90 

751 
569 
6,546 


Lutherans, General Synod 


Lutherans General Council 


Lutherans, General Synod (South) 
Lutherans, Synodical Conference 


Lutherans, Independent Synods . . 


Mennonites 


Methodist Episcopal North 


Methodist Episcopal South 


Methodist Episcopal, African 


Methodist Episcopal, African. Zion 
Methodist Episcopal, Colored 


Methodist, Protestant 


Methodist, Protestant Colored 


Methodist, United Brethren 


Methodist, Evangelical Association 


Methodist, Wesleyan 


Methodist, Free 


Methodist, Congregational 


Methodist, Primitive 


Methodist, Independent 


Methodist Union Episcopal, Colored . . . 
Moravian 
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgians) . . .... 
Presbyterians North 


Presbyterians, South . . 


Presbyterians, Cumberland 


Presbyterians, Cumberland, Colored 
Presbyterians United 


Presbyterians, Reformed 


Presbyterians, Welsh Calvinistic 
Presbyterians, Reformed, General Synod 
Presbyterians, Associate Reformed Syn- 
od of the South 
Reformed German ... 


Reformed, Dutch. . . . 


Roman Catholics 


Schwenkfeldians. 


Unitarians . 


434 
718 


Universalists 





* Estimated. 



t Roman Catholic population. 



CIVIL RIGHTS. In 1 875 Congress passed an 
act to secure civil rights to colored citizens. It 
became a law March 1st of that year. On 
October 15, 1883, certain of its sections were 
declared unconstitutional by the United States 
Supreme Court. 

The law was entitled " An act to protect all 
citizens in their civil and legal rights." Its 
preamble recited that " it is essential to just 



130 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



government that we recognize the equality of 
all men before the law, and hold that it is the 
duty of Government in its dealings with the 
people to mete out equal and exact justice to 
all, of whatever nativity, race, color, or per- 
suasion, religious or political ; and it being the 
appropriate object of legislation to enact great 
fundamental principles into law, therefore be 
it enacted," etc. The first sections of the act 
are as follows : 

SECTION 1. That all persons within the jurisdiction 
of the United States shall be entitled to the full and 
equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, 
facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances 
on land or water, theatres, and other places of public 
amusement ; subject only to the conditions and limi- 
tations established by law, and applicable alike to citi- 
zens of every race and color, regardless of any previous 
condition of servitude. 

SEC. 2. That any person who shall violate the fore- 
going section by denying to any citizen, except for 
reasons by law applicable to citizens of every race 
and color, and regardless of any previous condition 
of servitude, the full enjoyment of any of the accom- 
modations, advantages, facilities, or privileges in said 
section enumerated, or by aiding or inciting such de- 
nial, shall for every such offense forfeit and pay the 
sum of five hundred dollars to the person aggrieved 
thereby, to be recovered in an action of deot, with 
full costs; and shall also, for every such offense, be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon convic- 
tion thereof, shall be fined not less than five hundred 
nor more than one thousand dollars, or shall be im- 
prisoned not less than thirty days nor more than one 
year: 

Provided, That all persons may elect to sue for the 
penalty aforesaid, or to proceed under their rights at 
common law and by State statutes ; and having so 
elected to proceed in the one mode or the other, their 
right to proceed in the other .jurisdiction shall be 
barred. But this provision shall not apply to crimi- 
nal proceedings, either under this act or the criminal 
law of any State : 

And provided further, That a judgment for the pen- 
alty in favor of the party aggrieved, or a judgment 
upon an indictment, shall be a bar to either prosecu- 
tion respectively. 

These sections were held unconstitutional so 
far as they apply to the States. The Territo- 
ries and the District of Columbia are subject 
to the complete legislative control of Congress. 
Whether the act of 1875 is valid as applied to 
cases arising in the Territories and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, is a question which the Court 
said was not before it, and which therefore it 
refused to decide. There is room for question 
whether the act of 1875 being unconstitutional 
in part that is, as to the States will stand as 
constitutional in part that is, as to the Terri- 
tories and the District of Columbia. But there 
is no doubt of the constitutional power of Con- 
gress to enact a civil-rights law applicable alone 
to the Territories and the District of Columbia. 
The Court further remarked that whether Con- 
gress in the exercise of its power to regulate 
commerce among the States might or might 
not enact a law governing civil rights in pub- 
lic conveyances by land and water passing 
from one State to another, was also a question 
not before it, and it is one on which the Court 
expressed ao opinion. It is believed, however, 
that Congress has such power. 



The third section of the act of 1875 relate! 
to procedure in cases arising under sections 1 
and 2. It falls with those sections. Sectioi 
4 is as follows : 

That no citizen possessing all other qualificationi 
which are or may be prescribed by law shall be die 
qualified for service as grand or petit juror in anj 
court of the United States, or of any State, on account 
of race ? color, or previous condition of servitude ; anc 
any officer or other person charged with any duty ir 
the selection or summoning of jurors who shall ex- 
clude or fail to summon any citizen for the cause 
aforesaid shall, on conviction thereof, be deemec 
guilty of a misdemeanor, and be fined not more thar 
five thousand dollars. 

This section is held constitutional by tb 
Supreme Court on grounds which will be ex- 
plained farther on. 

The constitutionality of the first two sec- 
tions was tested in five cases brought from the 
Federal circuit courts in different parts of the 
country. In two of these cases the accommo- 
dations of a hotel had been denied to negroes 
in Kansas and Missouri on account of theii 
color ; in two, admission to seats in the dress- 
circle of a San Francisco theatre and to seats 
in a New York theatre had been refused to col- 
ored persons; and one was a suit brought in 
Tennessee against the Memphis and Charleston 
Railway Company for not permitting a colored 
woman to ride in a car set apart for white 
persons. As all of these cases involved the 
same constitutional question, these were con- 
sidered together in one opinion by the United 
States Supreme Court. 

It is conceded that before the adoption of 
the thirteenth amendment to the Federal Con- 
stitution Congress had no power to pass a civil- 
rights law such as that of 1875. If it exists at 
all, the authority must be derived from the 
thirteenth amendment or the first or the last 
section of the fourteenth amendment. This is 
the thirteenth amendment : 

SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the 
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist 
within the United States, or in anyplace subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this 
article by appropriate legislation. 

The first and last sections of the fourteenth 
amendment are : 

SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the 
United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, 
are citizens of the United States and of the State 
wherein they reside. No State shall make or en- 
force any law which shall abridge the privileges or 
immunities of citizens of the United States ; nor shall 
any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or prop- 
erty, without due process of law ; nor deny to any per- 
son within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the 
laws. 

SEC. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, 
by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this ar- 
ticle. 

Considering these two amendments in their 
inverse order, the Court holds that the four- 
teenth prohibits State but not individual action 
against the civil rights of colored citizens, and 
that it empowers Congress to protect these 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



131 



rights when denied or abridged by a State, but 
not when invaded by individuals. As the act 
of 1875 was intended to punish persons for 
violating the civil rights of colored citizen.*, 
when these rights were not denied by the 
State, its enactment was held to be an exer- 
cise of power not given to Congress by the 
fourteenth amendment. The meaning of this 
amendment and the reasons on which the 
Court based its decision are set forth in the 
following extracts from the opinion prepared 
by Justice Bradley : 

The first section of the fourteenth amendment 
(which is the one relied on), after declaring who shall 
be citizens of the United States, and of the several 
States, is prohibitory in its character, and prohibitory 
upon the States. It declares that " no State shall 
make or enforce any law which shall abridge the priv- 
ileges or immunities of citizens of the United States ; 
nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, 
or property without due process of law ; nor deny to 
any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection 
of the laws." It is State action of a particular char- 
acter that is prohibited. Individual invasion of indi- 
vidual rights is not the subject-matter of the amend- 
ment. It has a deeper and broader scope. It nullifies 
and makes void all State legislation and State action 
of every kind which impairs the privileges and im- 
munities of citizens of the United States, or which in- 
jures them in life, liberty, or property without due 
process of law, or which denies to any of them the 
equal protection of the laws. It not only does this, 
but, in order that the national will, thus declared, 
may not be a mere brutumfulmen, the last section of 
the amendment invests Congress with power to en- 
force it by appropriate legislation. To enforce what ? 
To enforce the prohibition. To adopt appropriate 
legislation for correcting the effects of such prohibited 
State laws and State acts, and thus to render them 
effectually null, void, and innocuous. This is the legis- 
lative power conferred upon Congress, and this is the 
whole of it. It does not invest Congress with power 
to legislate upon subjects which are within the domain 
of State legislation ; but to provide modes of relief 
against State legislation, or State action, of the kind 
referred to. It does not authorize Congress to create 
a code of municipal law for the regulation of private 
rights ; but to provide modes of redress against the 
operation of State laws, and the action of State officers, 
executive or judicial, when these are subversive of the 
fundamental 'rights specified in the amendment. Posi- 
tive rights and privileges are undoubtedly secured by 
the fourteenth amendment ; but they are secured by 
way of prohibition against State laws and State pro- 
ceedings affecting those rights and privileges, and by 
power given to Congress to legislate for the purpose of 
carrying such prohibition inoo effect ; and such legis- 
lation must necessarily be predicated upon such sup- 
posed State laws or State proceedings, and be directed 
to the correction of their operation and effect. A quite 
full discussion of this aspect of the amendment may 
be found in U. S. vs. Cruikshank, 92 U. S. Reports, 
542 ; Virginia vs. Rives, 100 Id., 313, and Ex-parte 
Virginia, 100 Id., 339. . . . 

Until some State law has been passed, or some State 
action through its officers or agents has been taken, 
adverse to the rights of citizens sought to be protect- 
ed by the fourteenth amendment, no legislation of the 
United States under such amendment, nor any pro- 
ceeding under such legislation, can be called into activ- 
ity : for the prohibitions of the amendment are against 
State laws and acts done under State authority. Of 
course, legislation may, and should be, provided in 
advance to meet the exigency when it arises ; but it 
should be adapted to the mischief and wrong which 
the amendment was intended to provide against : and 
that is, State laws, or State action of some kind, ad- 



verse to the rights of the citizen secured by the amend- 
ment. Such legislation can not properly cover the 
whole domain of rights appertaining to life, liberty, 
and property, defining them and providing for their ' 
vindication. That would be to establish a code of mu- 
nicipal law regulative of all private rights between 
man and man in society. It would be to make Con- 
gress take the place of the State Legislatures and to 
supersede them. . . . 

An inspection of the law shows that it makes no 
reference whatever to any supposed or apprehended 
violation of the fourteenth amendment on the part of 
the States. It is not predicated on any such view. It 
proceeds ex directo to declare that certain acts com- 
mitted by individuals shall be deemed offenses, and 
shall be prosecuted and punished by proceedings in 
the courts of the United States. It does not profess 
to be corrective of any constitutional wrong commit- 
ted by the States; it does not make^ its operation to 
depend upon any such wrong committed. It applies 
equally to cases arising in States which have the just- 
est laws respecting the personal rights of citizens, and 
whose authorities are ever ready to enforce such laws, 
as to those which arise in States that may have vio- 
lated the prohibition of the amendment. In other 
words, it steps into the domain of local jurisprudence, 
and lays down rules for the conduct of individuals in 
society toward each other, and imposes sanctions for 
the enforcement of those rules, without referring in 
any manner to any supposed action of the State or its 
authorities. 

If this legislation is appropriate for enforcing the 
prohibitions of the amendment, it is difficult to see 
where it is to stop. Why may not Congress with 
equal show of authority enact a code of laws for the 
enforcement and vindication of all rights of life, lib- 
erty, and property ? If it is supposable that the States 
may deprive persons of life, liberty, and property with- 
out due process of law (and the amendment itself does 
suppose this)j why should not Congress proceed at 
once to prescribe due process of law for the protection 
of every one of these fundamental rights, in every pos- 
sible case, as well as to prescribe equal privileges in 
inns, public conveyances, and theatres ? . . . 

Civil rights, such as are guaranteed by the Consti- 
tution against State aggression, can not be impaired 
by the wrongful acts of individuals, unsupported by 
State authority in the shape of laws, customs, or judi- 
cial or executive proceedings. The wrongful act of 
an individual, unsupported by any such authority, is 
simply a private wrong, or a crime of that individual ; t 
an invasion of the rights of the injured party, it is 
true, whether they affect his person, his property, or 
his reputation ; but if not sanctioned in some way by 
the State, or not done under State authority, his rights 
remain in full force, and may presumably be vindi- 
cated by resort to the laws of the State for redress. . . . 

If the principles of interpretation which we have 
laid down are correct, as we deem them to be (and 
they are in accord with the principles laid down in 
the cases before referred to, as well as in the recent 
case of United States vs. Harris, decided at the last 
term of this court), it is clear that the law in question 
can not be sustained by any grant of legislative power 
made to Congress by the fourteenth amendment. 
That amendment prohibits the States from denying 
to any person the equal protection of the laws,"and 
declares that Congress shall have power to enforce, 
by appropriate legislation, the provisions of the amend- 
ment. The law in question, without any reference to . 
adverse State legislation on the subject, declares that 
all persons shall be entitled to equal accommodations 
and privileges of inns, public conveyances, and places 
of public amusement, and imposes a penalty upon any 
individual who shall deny to any citizen such equal 
accommodations and privileges. This is not correct- 
ive legislation ; it is primary and direct ; it takes im- 
mediate and absolute possession of the subject of the 
right of admission to inns, public conveyances, and 
places of amusement. It supersedes and displaces State 



132 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



legislation on the same subject, or only allows it per- 
missive force. It ignores such legislation, and assumes 
that the matter is one that belongs to the domain of 
national regulation. 

We have discussed the question presented by the 
law on the assumption that a right to enjoy equal ac- 
commodations and privileges in all inns, public con- 
veyances, and places of public amusement, is one of 
the essential rights of the citizen which no State can 
abridge or interfere with. Whether it is such a right 
or not, is a different question, which, in the view we 
have taken of the validity ot the law on the ground 
already stated, it is not necessary to examine. 

The Court then took up the thirteenth 
amendment, which abolishes slavery. Even 
admitting that this clothed Congress with 
power to pass laws necessary and proper for 
abolishing all badges and incidents of slavery, 
it could not be held, the Court said, that deny- 
ing to colored persons equal accommodations 
and privileges of hotels, public conveyances, 
and places of amusement, imposed upon them 
any badge of slavery or servitude. "Such an 
act of refusal," says the opinion, "has nothing 
to do with slavery or involuntary servitude, 
and if it is violative of any right of the party, 
his redress is to be sought under the laws of 
the State ; or if those laws are adverse to his 
rights and do not protect him, his remedy will 
be found in the corrective legislation which 
Congress has adopted, or may adopt, for 
counteracting the effect of State laws, or 
State action, prohibited by the fourteenth 
amendment. It would be running the slavery 
argument into the ground to make it apply to 
every act of discrimination which a person 
may see fit to make as to the guests he will 
entertain, or as to the people he will take into 
his coach or cab or car, or admit to his con- 
cert or theatre, or deal with in other matters 
of intercourse or business. Innkeepers and 
public carriers, by the laws of all the States, 
so far as we are aware, are bound, to the 
extent of their facilities, to furnish proper 
accommodation to all unobjectionable persons 
who in good faith apply for them. If the laws 
themselves make any unjust discrimination, 
amenable to the prohibitions of the fourteenth 
amendment, Congress has full power to afford 
a remedy under that amendment and in ac- 
cordance with it." 

The grounds for setting aside the first two 
sections of the act of 1875, under the four- 
teenth amendment, do not apply to the fourth 
section,' and this was conceded to be constitu- 
tional, as had been expressly held in the Vir- 
ginia jury cases. The section prohibits any 
discrimination on account of color in the sum- 
moning or selection of jurors. Such discrimi- 
nation, the Court points out, can be made only 
by law, for which the State is responsible. It 
can not be made by individuals without the 
authority of State laws. It may be made by 
statute, or, in the absence of any statutory dis- 
qualification on account of color, colored jurors 
may be excluded by a judge or some other officer 
of the law. In either case the discrimination is 
effected by the agency of the State. 



Eight of the nine justices concurred in 
judgment of the Court. An elaborate dissei 
ing opinion was rendered by Justice Harla 
of Kentucky, who maintained that the th : 
teenth as well as the fourteenth amendme 
conferred upon Congress the power whi 
was exercised in passing the civil - rights a 
of 1875. "The opinion in these cases," 
remarked, " proceeds, as it seems to me, upi 
grounds entirely too narrow and artifici 
The substance and spirit of the recent amen 
ments of the Constitution have been sacrific 
by a subtile and ingenious verbal criticism 
He then pointed out that in the Dred Scott ca 
the Supreme Court had held that negroes we 
not a part of the people of the United State 
that they were not entitled to the privileg 
and immunities of citizens ; that, in the la 
guage of Chief-Justice Taney, "they had ] 
rights which the white man was bound to i 
spect." He cited' an earlier case Prigg i 
Pennsylvania to show that the Court, in u 
holding the constitutionality of the iugiti 
slave law, had conceded to Congress a pow 
which was not expressly granted by the Co 
stitution, but was derived from it by.implic 
tion. The purpose of the thirteenth amen 
ment, he said, was to abolish slavery with i 
its badges and incidents, and to establish ui 
versal freedom. There was a fixed pnrpo 
to place beyond doubt the power of Congre 
to legislate in furtherance of these ends. TJ 
power to enforce the provisions of the amen 
ment was therefore expressly granted, and n 
left to implication. He said : 

The thirteenth amendment, my brethren concet 
did something more than to prohibit slavery 
an institution, resting upon distinctions of race, a] 
upheld by positive law. They admit that it esta 
lished and decreed universal civil freedom throug 
out the United States. But did that freedom, th 
established, involve nothing more than exempt! 
from actual slavery? Was nothing more intend 
than to forbid one man from owning another 
property ? Was it the purpose of the nation simp 
to destroy the institution, and then remit the rac 
theretofore held in bondage, to the several States i 
such protection, in their civil rights, necessarily grp 1 
ing out of freedom, as those States, in their discretio 
choose to provide \ Were the States, against whc 
solemn protest the institution was destroyed, to 
left perfectly free, so far as national interference w 
concerned, to make or allow discriminations agair 
that race, as such, in the enjoyment of those fund 
mental rights that inhere in a state of freedom ? Hi 
the thirteenth amendment stopped with the swee 
ing declaration, in its first section, against the exie 
ence of slavery and involuntary servitude, except f 
crimCj Congress would have had the power, by ii 
plication, according to the doctrines of Prigg vs. Cor 
monwealth of Pennsylvania, repeated in Straader ? 
West Virginia, to protect the freedom thus establishe 
and consequently to secure the enjoyment of such en 
rights as were fundamental in freedom. But that 
can exert its authority to that extent is now ma< 
clear, and was intended to be made clear, by the e 
press grant of power contained in the second secti< 
of that amendment. 

That there are burdens and disabilities which co: 
stitute badges of slavery and servitude, and that t 
express power delegated to Congress to enforce, 1 
appropriate legislation, the thirteenth amendmei 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



133 



may be exerted by legislation of a direct and primary 
character, for the eradication not simply of the in- 
stitution, but of its badges and incidents, are propo- 
sitions which ought to be deemed indisputable. They 
lie at the very foundation of the Civil-Rights Act of 
1866. 

"I do not contend," continued Justice Ilar- 
lan, " that the thirteenth amendment invests 
Congress with authority, by legislation, to regu- 
late the entire body of the civil rights which 
citizens enjoy, or may enjoy, in the several 
States. But I do hold that since slavery, as 
the Court has repeatedly declared, was the 
moving or principal cause of the adoption of 
that amendment, and since that institution 
rested wholly upon the inferiority, as a race, 
of those held in bondage, their freedom neces- 
sarily involved immunity from, and protection 
against, all discrimination against them, be- 
cause of their race, in respect of such civil 
rights as belong to freemen of other races. 
Congress, therefore, under its express power 
to enforce that amendment, by appropriate 
legislation, may enact laws to protect that 
people against the deprivation, on account of 
their race, of any civil rights enjoyed by other 
freemen in the same State; and such legisla- 
tion may be of a direct and primary character, 
operating upon States, their officers and agents, 
and also upon, at least, such individuals and 
corporations as exercise public functions and 
wield power and authority under the State. 
What has been said is sufficient to show that 
the power of Congress under the thirteenth 
amendment is not necessarily restricted to 
legislation against slavery as an institution up- 
held by positive law, but may be exerted to 
the extent, at least, of protecting the race, so 
liberated, against discrimination, in respect of 
legal rights belonging to freemen, where such 
discrimination is based upon race." 
_ He then contended that the denial to colored 
citizens of the equal accommodations and privi- 
leges of hotels, public conveyances, and places 
of amusement, presents a discrimination on 
account of color, which is a badge of servi- 
tude whose imposition Congress is empowered 
by the thirteenth amendment to prevent. 
u They are burdens which lay at the very foun- 
dation of the institution of slavery as it once 
existed. They are not to be sustained, except 
upon the assumption that there is still, in this 
land of universal liberty, a class which may 
yet be discriminated against, even in respect 
of rights of a character so essential and so 
supreme that, deprived of their enjoyment, in 
common with others, a freeman is not only 
branded as one inferior and infected, but, in 
the competitions of life, is robbed of some of 
the most essential means of existence ; and all 
this solely because they belong to a particular 
race which the nation has liberated. The thir- 
teenth amendment alone obliterated the race- 
line, so far as all rights fundamental in a state 
of freedom are concerned." 

Justice Harlan proceeded to maintain that 
power was given to Congress by the fourteenth 



amendment also to enact such a civil-rights 
law as that of 1875. He said : 

The assumption that this amendment consists 
wholly of prohibitions upon State laws and State 
proceedings in hostility to its provisions, is unauthor- 
ized by its language. The first clause of the first sec- 
tion ** all persons born or naturalized in the United 
States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citi- 
zens of the United States, and of the State wherein 
they reside" is of a distinctly affirmative character. 
In its application to the colored race, previously liber- 
ated, it created and granted, as well citizenship of the 
United States as citizenship of the State in which 
they respectively resided. It introduced all of that 
race whose ancestors had been imported and sold as 
slaves, at once, into the political community known 
as the "people of the United States." They be- 
came, instantly, citizens of the United States, and of 
their respective States. Further, they_ were brought, 
by this supreme act of the nation, within the direct 
operation of that provision of the Constitution which 
declares that " the citizens of each State shall be en- 
titled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in 
the several States" (Art. IV, sec. 2). 

The citizenship thus acquired, by that race, in vir- 
tue of an affirmative grant by the nation, may be pro- 
tected, not alone by the judicial branch of the Govern- 
ment, but by congressional legislation of a primary 
direct character ; this, because the power of Congress 
is not restricted to the enforcement of prohibitions 
upon State laws or State action. It is, in terms dis- 
tinct and positive, to enforce " the provision* of thie 
article" of amendment; not simply those of a pro- 
hibitive character, but the provisions all of the pro- 
visions affirmative and prohibitive, of the amend- 
ment. It is, therefore, a grave misconception to sup- 
pose that the fifth section of the amendment has ref- 
erence exclusively to express prohibitions upon State 
laws or State action. If any right was created by 
that amendment, the grant of power, through appro- 
priate legislation, to enforce its provisions, authorizes 
Congress, by means of legislation, operating through- 
out the entire Union, to guard, secure, and protect 
that right. . . . 

Although this Court has wisely forborne any at- 
tempt, by a comprehensive definition, to indicate all 
of the privileges and immunities to which the citizens 
of each State are entitled, of right, to enjoy in the 
several States, 1 hazard nothing, in view ot former 
adjudications, in saying that no State can sustain her 
denial to colored citizens of other States, while within 
her limits^ of privileges or immunities, fundamental 
in republican citizenship, upon the ground that she 
accords such privileges and immunities only to her 
white citizens and withholds them from her colored 
citizens. The colored citizens of other States, within 
the jurisdiction of that State, could claim, under the 
Constitution, every privilege and immunity which 
that State secures to her white citizens. ... No 
State may, by discrimination against a portion of its 
own citizens of a particular race, in respect of privi- 
leges and immunities fundamental in citizenship, im- 
pair the constitutional right of citizens of other States, 
of whatever race, to enjoy in that State all such privi- 
leges and immunities as are there accorded to her 
most favored citizens. A colored citizen of Ohio or 
Indiana, being in the jurisdiction of Tennessee, is en- 
titled to enjoy any privilege or immunity, funda- 
mental in citizenship, which is given to citizens of 
the white race in the latter State. It is not to be sup- " 
posed that any one will controvert this proposition. 

But what was secured to colored citizens of the 
United States as between them and their respective 
States by the grant to them of State citizenship ? 
With what rights, privileges, or immunities did this 
grant from the nation invest them ? There is one, if 
there be no others exemption from race discrimina- 
tion in respect of any civil right belonging to citizens 
of the white race in the same State. That,' surely, is 
their constitutional privilege when within the juris- 



134 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



diction of other States. And such must be their con- 
stitutional right in their own State, unless the recent 
amendments be "splendid baubles." thrown out to 
delude those who deserved fair and generous treat- 
ment at the hands of the nation. Citizenship in this 
country necessarily imports equality of civil rights 
among citizens of every race in the same State. It is 
fundamental in American citizenship that, in respect of 
such rights, there shall be no discrimination by the 
State, or its officers, or by individuals or corporations 
exercising public functions or authority, against any 
citizen because of his race or previous condition of 
servitude. 

After repeating that the opinion of the ma- 
jority proceeds on the ground that the power 
of Congress to legislate for the protection of 
the rights and privileges secured by the four- 
teenth amendment can not be brought into 
activity except with the view, and as it may 
become necessary, to correct and annul State 
laws and State proceedings hostile to such 
rights and privileges, and that, in the absence 
of State laws or State action adverse to such 
rights and privileges, the nation may not ac- 
tively interfere for their protection and secu- 
rity, Justice Harlan adds : 

If the grant to colored citizens of the United States 
of citizenship in their respective States, imports ex- 
emption from race discrimination, in their States, in 
respect of the civil rights belonging to citizenship, 
then, to hold that the amendment remits that right to 
the States for their protection : primarily, and stays 
the hands of the nation, until it is assailed by State 
laws or State proceedings, is to adjudge that the 
amendment, so far from enlarging the powers of 
Congress as we have heretofore said it did not only 
curtails them, but reverses the policy -which the Gen- 
eral Government has pursued from its very organiza- 
tion. Such an interpretation of the amendment is a 
denial to Congress ot the power, by appropriate legis- 
lation, to enforce one of its provisions. In view of 
the circumstances under which the recent amendments 
were incorporated into the Constitution, and especial- 
ly in view of the peculiar character of the new rights 
they created and secured, it ought not to be presumed 
that the General Government has abdicated its author- 
ity, by national legislation, direct and primary in its 
character, to guard and protect privileges and immu- 
nities secured by that instrument. Such an interpre- 
tation of the Constitution ought not to be accepted if 
it be possible to avoid it. Its acceptance would lead 
to this anomalous result : that whereas, prior to the 
amendments, Congress, with the sanction of this court, 
passed the most stringent laws operating directly 
and primarily upon States and their officers and agents, 
as well as upon individuals in vindication of slavery 
and the right of the master, it may not now, by legis- 
lation of a like primary and direct character, guard, 
protect, and secure the freedom established, and the 
most essential right of the citizenship granted, by the 
constitutional amendments. I venture, with all re- 
spect for the opinion of others, to insist that the na- 
tional Legislature may, without transcending the limits 
of the Constitution, do for human liberty and the 
fundamental rights of American citizenship what it 
did, with the sanction of this court, for the protection 
of slavery and the rights of the masters of fugitive 
slaves. If fugitive-slave laws, providing modes and 
prescribing penalties, whereby the master could seize 
and recover his fugitive slave, were legitimate exer- 
tions of an implied power to protect and enforce a 
right recognized by the Constitution, why shall the 
hands of Congress be tied, so that under an express 
power, by appropriate legislation, to enforce a consti- 
tutional provision, granting citizenship it may not, 
by means of direct legislation, bring the whole "power 
ot this nation to bear upon States and their officers, 



and upon such individuals and corporation? exercising 
public functions as assume to abridge, impair, or 
deny rights confessedly secured by the supreme law 
of the land? 

Justice Harlan further maintained that the 
decision of the Court was erroneous, even con- 
ceding that Congress has power to legislate 
only against hostile State action. He pointed 
out that the court had held, in Ex-parte Vir- 
ginia (100 U. S. Reports), that the fourteenth 
amendment means that no agency of the State, 
or of the officers or agents by whom its au- 
thority is exercised, shall deny to any person 
equal protection of the laws, and then said: 
"In every material sense applicable to the 
practical enforcement of the fourteenth amend- 
ment, railroad corporations, keepers of inns, 
and managers of places of public amusement, 
are agents of the State, because amenable, in 
respect of their public duties and functions, to 
public regulation. It seems to me that, within 
the principle settled in Ex-parte Virginia, a 
denial, by these instrumentalities of the State, 
to the citizen, because of his race, of that equal- 
ity of civil rights secured to him by law, is a 
denial by the State within the meaning of the 
fourteenth amendment. If it be not, then that 
race is left, in respect of the civil rights under 
discussion, practically at the mercy of corpora- 
tions and individuals wielding power under 
public authority." 

Justice Harlan conceded that Congress has 
no authority to regulate the social rights of 
men and races in the community, but he 
claimed that the rights covered by the law 
of 1875 were not social but legal. He set 
forth his views on this point as follows: 

I agree that Government has nothing to do with 
social, as distinguished from technically legal, rights 
of individuals. No government ever has brought, or 
ever can bring, its people into social intercourse 
against their wishes, "vv hether one person will per- 
mit or maintain social relations with another is a 
matter with which government has no concern. I 
agree that if one citizen chooses not to hold social in- 
tercourse with another, even upon grounds of race, 
he is not and can not be made amenable to the law 
for his conduct in that regard ; for no legal right of 
a citizen is violated by the refusal of others to main- 
tain merely social relations with him. What 1 affirm 
is that no State, nor the officers of any State, nor any 
corporation or individual wielding po'wer under State 
authority for the public benefit or the public conven- 
ience, can, consistently either with the freedom es- 
tablished by the fundamental law, or with that equal- 
ity of civil rights which now belongs to every citizen, 
discriminate against freemen or citizens, in their civil 
rights, because of their race, or because they once 
labored under disabilities imposed upon them as a 
race. The rights which Congress by the act of 1875 
endeavored to secure and protect are legal, not social, 
rights. The right, for instance, of a colored citizen 
to use the accommodations of a public highway, upon 
the same terms as are permitted to white citizens, is 
no more a social right than his right, under the law, 
to use the public streets of a city, or a town, or a turn- 
pike-road, or a public market, or a post-office ? or his 
right to sit in a public building with others, of what- 
ever race, for the purpose of hearing the political 
questions of the day discussed. Scarcely a day pass- 
es without our seeing in this court-room citizens of 
the white and black races sitting side by side, watch- 



CIVIL RIGHTS. 



OOLENSO, JOHN W. 



135 



ing the progress of our business. It would never 
occur to any one that the presence of a colored citizen 
in a court-house, or court-room, was an invasion of 
the social rights of white persons who may frequent 
such places. And yet, such a suggestion would be 
quite as sound in law I say it with all respect as is 
nie suggestion that the claim of a colored citizen to 
use, upon the same terms as is permitted to white 
oitizenSj the accommodations of public highways, or 
public inns, or places of public amusement, estab- 
lished under the license of the law, is an invasion of 
the social rights of the white race. 

The opinion of Justice Harlan closes with 
the expression of these views : 

My brethren say that, when a man has emerged 
from slavery, and by; the aid of beneficent legislation 
has shaken off the inseparable concomitants of that 
state, there must be some stage in the progress of his 
elevation when he takes the rank of a mere citizen, 
and ceases to be the special favorite of the laws, and 
when his rights as a citizen, or a man, are to be pro- 
tected in the ordinary modes by which other men's 
rights are protected. It is, I submit, scarcely just to 
say that the colored race has been the special favorite 
of the laws. What the nation, through Congress, has 
ought to accomplish in reference to that race, is 
what had already been done in every State of the 
Union for the white race to secure and protect rights 
belonging to them as freemen and citizens, nothing 
more. The one underlying purpose of congressional 
legislation has been to enable the black race to take 
the rank of mere citizens. The difficulty has been to 
compel a recognition of their legal right to take that 
rank, and to secure the enjoyment of privileges be- 
longing, under the law, to them as a component part 
of the people for whose welfare and happiness gov- 
ernment is ordained. At every step in this direc- 
tion the nation has been confronted with class-tyran- 
ny, which a contemporary English historian says is, 
of all tyrannies, the most intolerable, " for it is ubi- 
quitous in its operation, and weighs, perhaps, most 
heavily on those whose obscurity or distance would 
withdraw them from the notice of a single despot." 
To-day it is the colored race which is denied, by cor- 
porations and individuals wielding public authority, 
rights fundamental in their freedom and citizenship. 
At some future time it may be some other race that 
will fall under the ban. If the constitutional amend- 
ments be enforced, according to the intent with which, 
as I conceive, they were adopted, there can not be in 
this republic any class of human beings in practical 
subjection to another class, with, power in the latter 
to dole out to the former just such privileges as they 
may choose to grant. The supreme law of the land 
has decreed that no authority shall be exercised in this 
country upon the basis of discrimination, in respect 
of civil rights, against freemen and citizens because 
of their race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 
To that decree for the due enforcement of which, by 
appropriate legislation, Congress has been invested 
with express power every one must bow, whatever 
may have been, or whatever now are, his individual 
views as to the wisdom or policy, either of the recent 
changes in the fundamental law, or of the legislation 
which has been enacted to give them effect. 

The decision of the Court, and the dissenting 
opinion of Justice Harlan, gave rise to much 
discussion throughout the country. By some 
the opinion of the majority was freely criti- 
cised, but it appears to have been generally ac- 
cepted as a sound as well as a final interpreta- 
tion of the Constitution. The fact was recog- 
nized that the Court simply reaffirmed a prin- 
ciple which it had more than once previously 
affirmed, and had advanced as far back as the 
session of 1875-"T6. On the meeting of Con- 



gress, Senator Wilson, of Iowa, proposed this 
constitutional amendment: 

Congress shall have power, by appropriate legisla- 
tion, to protect citizens of the United States in the ex- 
ercise and enjoyment of their rights, privileges, and 
immunities, and to assure to them the equal protection 
of the laws. 

The New York Penal Code contains these 
provisions concerning civil rights : 

SECTION 381. A person who either on his own ac- 
count, or as agent or officer of a corporation ? carries on 
business as innkeeper, or as common earner of pas- 
sengers, and refuses, without just cause or excuse, to 
receive and entertain any guest, or to receive and 
carry any passenger, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

SEC. 383. No citizen of this State can, by reason 
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, be 
excluded from the equal enjoyment of any accommo- 
dation, facility, or privilege furnished by innkeepers 
or common carriers, or by owners, managers, or les- 
sees of theatres or other places of amusement, by 
teachers and officers of common schools and public in- 
stitutions of learning, or by cemetery associations. The 
violation of this section is a misdemeanor, punishable 
by a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more than 
five hundred dollars. 

CIYIL-SERVICE REFORM BILL. See CON- 
GRESS and KEFOEM IN THE CIVIL SERVICE. 

COLENSO, John William, an English clergyman 
and colonial bishop, born in St. Austell, Corn- 
wall, Jan. 24, 1814 ; died in D'Urban, or Port 
Natal, South Africa, June 20, 1883. He en- 
tered St. John's College, Cambridge, and in 
1836 was graduated as second wrangler and 
Smith's prizeman, and became a fellow of his 
college.' Two years later he was appointed 
assistant-master of Harrow School, which post 
he held until 1842. During these years he 
prepared books on arithmetic and algebra, 
which, being adopted as text-books in schools 
and universities, yielded him a handsome in- 
come. From 1842 to 1846 he resided at his 
college, and then became rector of Forncett 
St. Mary, Norfolk. Besides giving due atten- 
tion to his parish work and duties, Colenso pub- 
lished other mathematical works, a volume of 
"Village Sermons," and a treatise on the com- 
munion service in the Prayer-Book, with selec- 
tions from the writings of F. D. Maurice. 

On the 30th of November, 1853, Dr. Colenso 
was appointed Bishop of Natal, South Africa, 
being the first to occupy that see. His " Ten 
Weeks in Natal " was published two years 
after he left England, and his " Translation 
of the Epistle to the Romans, commented on 
from a Missionary Point of View," appeared 
in 1861. It is not known clearly how long 
Bishop Colenso had been engaged in studying 
the Old Testament, with reference to critical 
points at issue ; but it is quite likely that the 
matter had been before him for -years. At any 
rate, he considered it a duty, as appears from 
his course, to put forth views which at once 
excited severe animadversion and astonishment 
at his lapse from Anglican orthodoxy, and his 
adoption of German rationalism and neology. 

The first part of "The Pentateuch and Book 
of Joshua critically examined" appeared in 



136 



COLENSO, JOHN W. 



COLLISIONS, MARINE. 



1862. As was to be expected, this assault on 
the accuracy, veracity, and authorship of the 
books of Mo?es was at an early day brought 
before the authorities of the Church in Eng- 
land, and both Houses of Convocation of the 
Province of Canterbury condemned it in 1864, 
as containing " errors of the gravest and most 
dangerous character." That work was re- 
viewed in several of the prominent organs of 
free thought and of orthodox religion (chiefly 
the u Westminster " and " Quarterly" Reviews). 
On the one hand, Colenso was praised without 
stint, as a noble champion of truth and a fear- 
less critic of the Old Testament; on the other, 
he was censured with corresponding severity, 
as one who showed himself ignorant and pre- 
sumptuous beyond all excuse ; and it was 
urged that no honorable and upright man 
would be willing to continue to minister at 
the altars, or receive emoluments from a 
church, whose doctrines on inspiration and 
other fundamental points he denied and was 
holding up to public odium. 

The next step on the part of the Church in 
South Africa was the presenting and summon- 
ing Bishop Colenso for trial, and, on his refusal 
to appear, the deposing him from his bishop- 
ric by the metropolitan, Bishop Gray of Cape 
Town. Dr. Colenso resolved not to submit to 
the ecclesiastical authorities in the colony, and 
the result was that this case was brought on 
appeal before the courts in England. The 
matter was argued at length, and it was de- 
cided by the Privy Council, in March, 1865, 
that the deposition was "null and void in 
law," the ground of the decision being that 
the crown has no legal power to constitute 
a bishopric, or to confer coercive jurisdiction 
within any colony possessing an independent 
legislature; and that, as the letters - patent 
purporting to create the sees of Cape Town 
and Natal were issued after these colonies had 
acquired legislatures, the sees did not legally 
exist, and neither bishop possessed in law any 
jurisdiction whatever. Notwithstanding this 
decision, the bishops forming the Council of 
the Colonial Bishopric's Fund refused to pay 
Dr. Colenfo the income of the see of Natal. 
He accordingly appealed to the Court of 
Chancery, and the Master of the Rolls de- 
livered a judgment, Oct. 6, 1866, ordering the 
payment in future of his income, with all 
arrears and interest. Thus the income was 
secured to him for life, and, so far as the de- 
cision of the civil courts could affect it, he re- 
mained in possession of the see as its bishop. 
The Church in South Africa, however, held 
that he was lawfully and fully deposed, and 
would have no intercourse or fellowship with 
him. Dr. Colenso ministered to those who 
thought him right and supported him ; while 
the orthodox portion of the church commu- 
nity looked upon him as one deprived of all 
power lawfully to exercise the functions of the 
episcopal office. Nevertheless, the occupant 
of the see of Natal had numerous sympa- 



thizers in England, and in the summer of 1866 
a meeting of the subscribers to the " Colenso 
fund " was held in London, when 3,300 were 
presented to him, as a token of respect and 
good-will, on his going back to Africa. 

Ten years later he made another visit to 
England, in order to report to the proper 
authorities the condition of church affairs in 
Cape Colony ; to ascertain, if possible, his re- 
lationship to the new Bishop of Cape Town ; 
and to arrange other matters in the existing 
anomalous condition of church life and work 
in that distant field. During his stay in 
England, the Bishops of Oxford, Lincoln, and 
London inhibited him from preaching in their 
respective dioceses, as one having no lawful 
authority to preach. Dr. Jowett, however, 
whose sympathies doctrinally were with Co- 
lenso, invited him to preach in the chapel of 
Balliol College, that chapel not being within 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Oxford. 

Dr. Colenso's later life was passed quietly 
in Natal. He was noted for his kindly interest 
and zeal in behalf of the Zulus and Boers. 

He published at intervals the remaining parts 
of his work on the Pentateuch and the Book 
of Joshua. In 1866 a volume of discourses 
appeared, entitled " Natal Sermons." Besides 
these he prepared and had printed a Zulu 
grammar and Zulu dictionary, a Zulu transla- 
tion of the New Testament and other parts of 
the Bible and Prayer-Book, with several edu- 
cational works for the instruction of the 
Zulus. His latest publications were, "The 
New Bible Commentary, by Bishops and other 
Clergy of the Anglican Church, critically ex- 
amined" (1871) ; the sixth part of" The Penta- 
teuch and the Book of Joshua critically ex- 
amined " (1872) ; and " Lectures on the Penta- 
teuch and the Moabite Stone " (1873). 

COLLISIONS, MARINE. The increasing fre- 
quence of marine disasters with the extension 
of steam navigation leads to a general demand 
for more effective precautions against collision. 

Proposed Navigation Laws. Since quick pas- 
sages attract more custom to navigation com- 
panies than a reputation for safety, it has been 
proposed to sjiarpen the penalties for infrin- 
ging the maritime laws against rapid sailing in 
bad weather. In Germany, where the laws 
are already exceptionally stringent, the sugges- 
tion is made to bring such infraction within 
the provisions of the statutes against murder 
and attempted murder. The captain only 
would be liable to indictment, although the 
ship-owner is primarily and principally respon- 
sible. A remedy would be found in making 
them liable in cases of disaster to pecuniary 
damages, in the same manner as railroad com- 
panies. It is equally desirable to restrict 
the rate of speed. The terms " half -speed " 
and " slow " are indefinite, owing to the differ- 
ence in the speed of different vessels. To in-- 
sure the highest degree of safety, steamers 
should be prohibited, in fogs, driving snows, 
and on dark nights, from going faster than 



COLLISIONS, MARINE. 



137 



the rate required for steering. This can be 
accurately determined for each vessel. The 
present English law requires steam-vessels to 
have both a steam-whistle and a fog-horn, and 
in a fog to go at moderate speed and sound 
their whistles frequently. Masters neglecting 
the rules are liable to prosecution, and in the 
event of a collision are punishable for willful 
neglect. 

Signal-Lights. The use of electric lights is 
not regarded with much favor by seamen. It 
is not yet proved that the electric light will 
penetrate a fog much farther than the ordina- 
ry lamps, in such a manner as to indicate its 
distance and location. It would probably ob- 
scure the red and green side-lights, unless they 
could also be provided with electric lamps, and 
the colored side-lights are considered absolute- 
ly indispensable. If colored electric lights 
could be produced, and the electric light should 
prove to be sufficiently clear and distinct to be 
made out at a greater distance than oil and pe- 
troleum lamps, the risk of colliding with other 
steamers and large vessals carrying electric 
lanterns would be lessened, but the danger of 
running down smaller craft which must use 
the ordinary lights would be enhanced, as the 
blinding effects of the electric light would ren- 
der it difficult to distinguish the colored lights 
in the neighborhood of one lighted with elec- 
tricity. There is danger also of confounding 
an electric top-light with a light-house lantern. 
More practical is the suggestion to hang the 
white light of a ship as high as possible, and to 
maintain a watch at the mast-head in foggy 
weather. The fog is usually thickest near the 
surface of the water. 

Sound-Signals. The proposal of a system of 
sound-signals to indicate the course of ves- 
sels approaching one another meets with gen- 
eral approval. By combinations of short and 
long blasts, on the principle of the Morse al- 
phabet in telegraphy, sixteen of the thirty-two 
directions marked on the compass, which 
would be sufficient for all practical purposes, 
could be readily and. intelligibly signaled. If 
only eight points of the compass were em- 
braced in the signals, the advantages would be 
unquestionable, and every sailor would under- 
stand the signs. George Read, in England, 
has devised a simple apparatus for automati- 
cally signaling the course of a vessel by means 
of colored lanterns suspended from the ends of 
a spar which changes its position in obedience 
to the movements of the helm. 

Steering-Gear and Brakes Certain improve- 
ments in construction have been proposed 
to enable steamers to mind their helm more 
readily, or slow up more quickly. The ship's 
brakes proposed by two or three different in- 
ventors will accomplish either object. They 
consist of two strong plates fastened by hinges 
to the ship's sides, opposite each other, and 
are ordinarily folded forward against the side 
of the vessel ; but the chains holding them can 
be paid out until they stand at right angles 



to the wall, and quickly reduce the momentum 
of the ship. If one only is released, it acts as 
a rudder to turn the course of the ship to that 
side. A brake of this kind, designed by John 
McAdam, of New York, consists of a flat rect- 
angular plate of iron on each side of the ship, 
close to the rudder. When folded, these fins 
fit into the dead-wood. Powerful springs, 
worked from the pilot-house by a trigger, 
draw the pins which hold the brakes in place, 
and the pressure of the water immediately ex- 
tends them until they stand at right angles to 
the sides of the ship. A windlass winds them 
back again. When tried in November on the 
steamer Florence in New York harbor, going 
at a speed of ten knots against the tide, they 
brought the ship to a dead stop within her 
own length, the engines being reversed at the 
instant the brakes were applied. 

A second rudder in the bow, which can be un- 
fastened in foggy weather, but is ordinarily a 
rigid continuation of the keel, has been suggest- 
ed as another contrivance for improving the 
steering capacity of ocean -steamers. A third 
device is the lattice-keel, which has been used 
for many years on river-steamers in the Weser 
and Elbe. The stern part of the keel, called the 
dead-wood, consists of grating instead of solid 
plates, so tnat in turning the greater part of the 
water passes through the openings and offers no 
resistance to the sidelong motion of the ship. 

Water-tight Compartments. The complete 
avoidance of collisions is impossible. Con- 
sequently means must be provided to diminish 
the dangers in case of collision. Naval iron- 
clads are constructed with double hulls, be- 
sides water-tight compartments. In the large 
passenger-steamships it is usually attempted to 
render the ship secure from sinking by dividing 
the interior into water-tight compartments by 
vertical walls or movable doors. These com- 
partments must not be so large that the filling 
of one or two of them with water will sink 
the ship, the walls must be strong enough to 
withstand the pressure of the column of water, 
tight enough to prevent the escape of water 
into the neighboring compartments, and, if 
adjustable, they must be closed at the time of 
danger. These conditions are rarely fulfilled, 
and there is probably no iron steamship which 
would not sink if struck by a ship in certain 
quarters. 

Life-saving Appliances. The number of life- 
boats usually provided is sufficient to hold all 
hands on trading-vessels, but on the passenger- 
steamers which cross the Atlantic there is not 
davit-room for boats enough to seat the pas- 
sengers and crew. Moreover, it often happens 
that only the boats on one side or in one part 
of the ship can be lowered. Cork jackets and 
swimming-belts are of little value when acci- 
dents occur in mid-ocean or in winter. The 
laws require that life-preservers should be pro- 
vided in sufficient numbers, and kept unfast- 
ened in handy places. The life-preservers 
which must be carried on the Atlantic emi- 



138 



COLOMBIA. 



grant-steamers take up room that is sometimes 
desired for the cargo, and their stowage often 
occasions inconvenience. They are usually 
packed between the deck-beams, and it may 
be that in the crowded space between decks 
they sometimes harbor the germs of infection. 
It is necessary that passengers should be made 
acquainted with the use of life-preservers. In 
the catastrophe of Jan. 19, 1883, when the 
English coal-steamer Sultan collided with the 
German passenger- steamer Cirnbria, only a 
small portion of the life-preservers came into 
use, and those were of little avail, as the swim- 
mers soon perished in the cold. The four 
boats which set out from the sinking vessel 
rescued 65 persons, but the rest of the passen- 
gers and crew, who numbered altogether 522, 
were lost. Life-rafts are now regarded by 
many as preferable in most respects to boats 
or any other life-saving appliances. 

The inspection of foreign passenger- vessels 
in the United States is assigned to boards of 
inspectors at six of the principal ports. The 
boards at Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New 
Orleans, and San Francisco consist of two in- 
spectors each, that at New York of six. Rules 
for their guidance were issued by Secretary of 
the Treasury Folger on March 10, 1883. The 
law requires that the tackle for disengaging the 
life-boats should be capable of being worked 
by a single person, and so disposed that the 
boats can be launched, both ends being lowered 
at once, when the ship is going at full speed. 
This provision is not insisted upon, as no work- 
able single-hand disengaging apparatus has yet 
been invented. The rule of the British Board 
of Trade respecting the number of life-boats 
to be carried is, that there should be six or 
seven boats, 1,892 cubic feet in total capacity, 
for vessels of 1,500 tons, and an additional 
boat with the capacity of 495 feet for every 
500 tons additional. For the larger Atlantic 
steamers, running up to 8,500 tons, this re- 
quirement is incapable of fulfillment. Even if 
it could be carried out, the total complement 
of boats would accommodate less than half the 
number of persons usually carried on the emi- 
grant-steamers. 

Mid-Ocean Disasters. To enable vessels in dis- 
tress to be relieved in the Atlantic ocean, the 
adoption of fixed routes or lanes for all ships 
crossing between Europe and America is advo- 
cated, one for the east- and one for the west- 
bound navigation. To guard against collisions 
with icebergs, which was the probable cause 
of the loss of several steamships, a delicate in- 
strument on the principle of Edison's heat- 
measurer has been devised by an English in- 
ventor, which can herald a sudden fall of the 
temperature by means of an automatic alarm. 

COLOMBIA (Rtados Unidos de Colombia), (For 
statistics relating to area, see " Annual Cyclo- 
paedia" for 1877.) The republic is composed 
of nine States and five Territories, the States 
being Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca, Cauca, 
Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Panama, Santan- 



der, and Tolima. The names of the Territo- 
ries are Bolivar, Casanare, Goajira, Providen- 
cia, and San Martin. The form of government 
is democratic, and the system federal. 

The executive of the confederacy is Presi- 
dent Dr. Jose E. Otalora. The Cabinet is 
composed of the following ministers : Secre- 
tary of State, Sefior Ezequiel Hurtado ; War, 
Senor Juan N. Mateus ; Finance, Sefior Anibal 
Galindo; Public Works, Sefior Manuel Laza 
Grau ; Foreign Affairs, Sefior Antonio Rol- 
dan ; Public Instruction, Sefior J. V. Uribe ; 
and Treasury, Sefior Alejandro Posada. 

On Sept. 2, 1883, Dr. Nunez was elected 
President, and he will be inaugurated in Feb- 
ruary, 1884. Dr. Nufiez is fifty years of age. 
He was First Consul-General at Liverpool, and 
subsequently President of the State of Bolivar. 
He was a candidate for the presidency of 
Colombia in 1875, when Dr. Parra was elect- 
ed, but in 1879 he was elected President, his 
successor being Gen. Zaldera, who died on 
Dec. 21, 1882, and whose successor was Dr. 
Otalora, the present occupant of the presi- 
dential chair. 

The United States minister at Bogot6 is Mr. 
W. L. Scruggs. 

The population of Colombia is estimated at 
4,000,000 souls. 

According to the last census, the population 
of the capitals of the States was as follows: 
Panama, 36,000; Santa Marta, 3,500; Carta- 
gena, 7,800; Socorro, 16,000; Medellin, 20,- 
000; Tunja, 5,471; Bogota, 40,883; Ibague, 
10,346; and Popayan, 8,485. 

The General Government possesses the 
right of intervention in matters relative to 
lines of interoceanic communication at pres- 
ent existing, or which in the future may be 
opened in the territory of the Union, and in 
the navigation of rivers flowing through more 
than one State, or which pass to or from a 
neighboring power. 

The Magdalena river flows into the Atlantic 
at a point called the Bocas de Ceniza. At a 
distance of fifteen miles from its mouth, on the 
left bank, is the city of Barranquilla, the seat 
of an extensive import and export trade. 
Barranquilla is connected with the port of 
Sabanilla by means of a railroad fourteen 
miles in length. The Bocas de Ceniza, which 
for a long time were obstructed by a sand-bar 
at the entrance, are now open to easy access 
by vessels of large tonnage, and, on account of 
the privileges conceded of late years by Con- 
gress to the commerce of the country, they are 
frequently visited by steamers and sailing-ves- 
sels from abroad. Owing to the shifting of 
the bar, however, steamers do not at present 
enter the river. To aid the entry of sailing- 
craft, the Government has established a tug- 
boat service. 

For the purpose of navigation the Magda- 
lena is divided into the upper and lower Mag- 
dalena. The former is included between the 
cities of Neiva and Honda, 200 miles, and tl>e 



COLOMBIA. 



139 



latter comprises the portion from Caracoli to 
the mouth of Ceniza. The distance between 
the Laguna de las Pampas and Barranquilla is 
515 miles. The waters of the Magdalena are 
entirely free to commerce, and there are at 
present seventeen steamers navigating it. 

Stern-Wheel Steamers. Messrs. Yarrow & Co., 
of Poplar, England, have built a steamer of 
this kind specially for the Magdalena. A speed 
of thirteen miles an hour has been obtained 
in river-steamers of this class, the length being 
120 feet, by 24 feet beam, and the draught 12 
inches. A speed of fifteen miles an hour is 
attained by vessels 130 feet in length, by 28 
feet beam, and a draught of 15 inches. The 
dimensions of this new steamer are, exclusive 
of the wheel, 150 feet in length, by 31 feet 
beam, with an estimated draught of 15 inches. 

Army. The standing army of Colombia, or 
National Guard, numbers about 3,000 men. 

Finances. The national budget for the fiscal 
year 1883 estimated the income from import 
duties at $3,800,000 ; from the salines, at $1,- 
100,000; from other sources of revenue, $1,- 
344,000, constituting a total of $6,244,000, while 
the expenditure was fixed at $6,744,000, the 
outlays figuring therein with $1,800,000 to be 
spent by the Treasury Department, and $1,- 
400,000 by that of the army and navy. 

A message sent in to Congress by President 
Otalora, in July, 1833, attracted much atten- 
tion ; in this document he said : 

The monetary crisis becomes more serious every day, 
and members must adopt some definite plan respect- 
ing the State indebtedness by consolidating the dif- 
ferent issues. Our creditors must be more interested 
in this matter than ourselves, because otherwise ulti- 
mately it will be impossible to avoid further issues 
of obligations against branches assigned for other 
services. Since we are unable to cover the millions 
of the enormous deficit against the Treasury, we must 
endeavor to maintain the value of our bonds by as- 
suring the punctual payment of current interest until 
such time as the financial situation shall improve. It 
is also requisite that the principal bases should be 
fixed by law, upon which, without awaiting subse- 
quent authorization from Congress, final arrangements 
can be effected in Europe for the acknowledgment and 
payment by the canal company and the railroad com- 
pany of the credits we hold against them for indem- 
nity due as under the contracts for the concessions. 
It would not be wise that such law should place a 
limit on our rights, thus prejudicing our suits ; but 
you must give "a vote of confidence to the Executive, 
which will come to . no arrangement which has not 
been carefully and thoroughly studied by the Cabinet 
and its officers. The agent intrusted with the ad 
referendum agreement has already been instructed to 
dispose of the funds as follows : $1,000,000 to be given 
to the National Bank, to enable it to effect discounts at 
5 per cent. ; $500,000 to be devoted to the payment of 
overdue interest on foreign bonds under an agreement 
which shall insure the acceptance of such payment at 
the rate of 3 per cent., commencing in the first place 
at 1 per cent. ; $500,000 for the purchase of articles 
required for the schools, clothing and armament for 
the army, and for various objects of art to be placed 
in the Capitol, and the balance to be devoted to the 
construction or a railroad from Bogota to the Magda- 
lena. 

The amount of duties collected by the Fed- 
eral custom-houses during the fiscal year 1882- 



'83 was $4,350,478, being $45,512 in excess of 
what the revenue from this source had been 
the preceding year. 

The public indebtedness of the confederacy 
stood on Aug. 31, 1882, as follows: 

A. Foreign debt (consolidated) | 4Q K 7ft r ftn 

B. Horn! debt (loan of 1878).. f $9,570,500 

Consolidated debt 5,588,801 

Floating debt 425,388 

" "8 per cent 1,813,250 

" " not bearing interest ... 580,710 

Antioquia and Girardot railroads 578,500 

Treasury bonds 26,368 

Bonds for which the state's salt-works and cus- 
toms receipts are pledges 1,165,049 

Other outstanding bonds 1,668,011 

Indemnity to foreigners 253,450 

Purchase-money for Barranquilla railroad 420,000 

Total $21,589,527 

Banks* The Bank of Bogota, in ten years, 
has paid a little over 100 per cent, in divi- 
dends. The Bank of Colombia, in five years, 
has paid 83 per cent. The Banco Popular, in 
three years, has paid over 55 per cent. The 
national Government has no supervision over 
any of the banks except the National Bank, 
which is nothing more than an institution es- 
tablished for the purpose of discounting the 
Government's own obligations. As an exam- 
ple, the Government fails to pay the pensions 
for five or six months; those who should re- 
ceive them are suffering from want, and the 
National Bank steps in and offers to discount 
them. In this way the Government makes a 
large profit. Nearly if not all the stock of 
the National Bank is owned by the Govern- 
ment. All the other banks derive their powers 
from State governments, and are never taxed, 
except in case of a revolution, when they are 
all liable to be visited by the various chiefs. 
The only security for the- circulation of the 
banks is' the individual liability of the stock- 
holders. There are four banks doing business 
in Barranquilla. Three of them have a com- 
bined capital of $',000,000, the other being a 
branch of the National Bank of Bogota. The 
private banks are organized under the laws of 
the State of Bolivar, which are much the same 
as were those of the State of New York twenty- 
five years ago. The majority of the capital 
of the American Bank belongs to citizens of 
the United State. , being divided as follows: 
American citizens, $295,000 ; British subjects, 
$260,000 ; Colombians, $10,000. The rates of 
discount are : 90 days, 8 per cent. ; 180 days, 
9 per cent. ; rates of interest, 3 per cent, and 
4 per cent, for 180 and 90 days; rates of ex- 
change on New York, 27 per cent, and 28 per 
cent, for sight drafts, and 25 and 26 per cent, 
for 60 and 90 days' drafts ; on London, 24 per ' 
cent, and 25 per cent. Toward the close of 
1883 another bank with a large capital was to 
be established at Barranquilla. 

Contested Limits. There being a long-pending 
dispute about the precise frontier line between 
Colombia and Venezuela, the Governments 
have submitted the difference to the arbitration 
of Don Alfonso XII, King of Spain, who has 
accepted the office, and by virtue of a decree is- 



140 



COLOMBIA. 



sued in November, 1883, appointed a commit- 
tee of inquiry composed of five members. The 
investigation will have to take for a basis of 
its deliberations the frontier treaty between 
the two republics, of Sept. 14, 1881. Frontier 
disputes having so frequently led to disastrous 
wars between Spanish- American republics, the 
tendency is to avail themselves in the future of 
amicable arbitration. 

Postal Service. There were forwarded in 
1879-'80 altogether 463,832 letters and 413,- 
350 newspapers, and $2,283,974 in coin, be- 
sides 4,920 kilogrammes of gold-dust and 14,- 
348 kilogrammes of bar-silver. 

Railroads. There were in operation in 1883 
the ensuing lines of railway: 1. The Panama 
railroad, 47 miles; 2. The 17 miles from Sa- 
banilla to Barranquilla, in the State of Boli- 
var; 3. Of the Oucuta-Puerto Villamizar line 
(on the Zulia river), 38 miles were being built, 
and part of it 12 miles from Villamizar to 
Altoviento, were in operation; 4. The line 
from Buenaventura to Cordoba, 13 miles; 5. 
The line from Puerto Berrio to Zabaletas, 20 
miles: together, 110 miles in operation. There 
was formed in New York in 1883 " The Bogo- 
ta City Railway Company," a company pro- 
posing to establish in the Federal capital and 
elsewhere in the State of Cundinamarca a sys- 
tem of tramways and narrow-gauge railroads, 
with a capital of $2,500,000. 

Telegraphs. Length of lines in 1879-'80, 
2,960 kilometres; and number of telegrams 
forwarded, 150,204. 

The Panama Canal. The progress of the work 
on the Panama canal at the end of October, 
1883, is shown by the following statement : 
" The total length of the canal is 74 kilometres, 
from the Atlantic to its mouth in the Pacific, 
at the islands of Naos and Flamenco. It is di- 
vided into twelve sections, the most important 
of which are those of Colon, Gorgona, Obispo, 
Emperador, Culebra, and Paraiso. These united 
sections employ daily 80 steam-excavators, 40 
locomotives, and 300 tip-wagons. There are 
90,000,000 cubic metres to be excavated. The 
grand cutting, about two thirds of which has 
already been excavated, is the cutting between 
Obispo and Paraiso. The force employed upon 
the work is upward of 10,000 men, and the ex- 
cavation up to the 1st of October amounted to 
more than 2,500,000 cubic metres. During these 
latter months of the bad season the excava- 
tions have amounted to about 350,000 metres a 
month. This figure will be quintupled during 
the fine season, which begins in December, and 
next year (1884) nearly all of the necessary 
machinery will be at work, and the excavations 
will amount to 4,000,000 metres a month. The 
working force will be augmented to 15,000 
men. 

" At Colon the port works are nearly com- 
plete. The Terre Pleine, with the breakwater, 
destined to diminish the effect of the heavy 
seas at the entrance of the canal, is finished. 
An entire town has appeared there, with a 



collection of workshops, warehouses, and con- 
necting railways for the reception and dis- 
tribution of the material. The earth from 
Terre Pleine was taken to Monkey Hill, where 
a great cutting has been specially opened, with 
the object of filling up the lagoons at the bot- 
tom of the Bay of Colon to improve its sanitary 
condition. This cutting at Monkey Hill will 
itself be enlarged into Terre Pleine, and will 
become an annex for stores, workshops, ware- 
houses, etc. The port of Colon is dredged 
continually by three machines, lifting together 
daily from 6,000 to 7,000 metres. One of these 
dredges can work during the worst weather, 
and can lift 3,000 metres a day. From Colon 
to Gatun the contractors are Messrs. Huerne 
& Slavin, of San Francisco. These engineers 
must, with three machines of 120 horse-power 
each, open the first section in six months be- 
tween Colon and Gatun, a distance of nine 
kilometres. The first of these machines is able 
to excavate 6,000 metres a day. The Pacific 
opening, between the mouth of the Rio Grande 
and Paraiso, is contracted for by the Franco- 
American Trading Company. The first ma- 
chine of the American system will begin to 
work in a few days, and will be supplemented 
by others, which will be necessary to finish this 
part of the canal, from Gatun to Bahia del Sol- 
dado, in two years. On the Atlantic side the 
company are working two machines, furnishing 
a minimum of 4,000 cubic metres a day. 

"The Hercules, an American dredge, is at 
length at work on the Panama canal, and is 
giving satisfaction. The average day's work 
at present may be set down as about 6,000 cu- 
bic metres." 

Since the establishment of the canal-works 
the population of Panama has increased enor- 
mously. Including Colon and Panama, the At- 
lantic and Pacific termini of the canal, togeth- 
er with the villages between them, there is a 
population of 36,000, half of whom are ne- 
groes from Jamaica. The climate during the 
dry season December to April exhibits a 
steady temperature of about 82 Fahr. ; but 
during the rest of the year, when rain and 
storms prevail, it is much hotter. Accidents 
from lightning are common, and are likely to 
continue, for in the city of Panama there is not 
a lightning-rod to be found. There is no mut- 
ton in the country, and, when any lucky resi- 
dent is able to procure a joint, he invites his 
friends to partake of the unusual delicacy. The 
Indian equivalent for the word Panama is 
" plenty offish," and plenty there is, with the 
difference that those which are taken from the 
Atlantic side of the Isthmus are far superior to 
those on the Pacific side, which are not firm, 
and become tainted very soon after they leave 
the water. The Isthmus for fifty years had 
been free from earthquake-shocks till Septem- 
ber, 1882. On Aug. 29, 1883, earthquakes were 
felt in Salvador, Colombia, and Ecuador, while 
at Talcahuano, Chili, on August 28th, the water 
rose two feet above high- water mark, and al- 



COLOMBIA. 



COLORADO. 



141 



most immediately afterward fell three feet. 
During the last week in August noises such as 
that produced by continuous firing during a 
battle, were heard at Ohiman, within sixty 
miles of Panama, in all the towns on the Bo- 
gota plateau, and at Manabi, in Ecuador. On 
September 2d the sun at Panamd and Guaya- 
quil was discolored, almost at the moment when 
the fearful eruptions and earthquakes were 
destroying a portion of Java and adjacent isl- 
ands. On September 10th, a sharp earthquake, 
which did no damage, was felt in Lima, and 
was about coincident with that felt in the 
Western United States the same morning. 

In July, 1883, the dispute between the Feder- 
al Government of Colombia and the canal com- 
pany, with reference to the payment of the po- 
lice force, which is required to maintain order 
and good government along the line of work, 
had been amicably terminated in Bogota by 
Sefior Anibal Galindo, the Secretary of the 
Treasury at the time, and Settor Felipe Paul, 
the representative of the canal directory. Un- 
der this arrangement the canal company agrees 
to pay the Federal Government the expenses, 
estimated at $80,000 per annum, of maintaining 
a force of 300 men, to be stationed along the 
canal line, and leaves for future discussion the 
amount to be paid should more men be neces- 
sary. This contract, which also permitted the 
treasurer to draw at sight for $50,000 on ac- 
count, had been submitted to the Executive. 

Pearl-fishing. The pearl-fishery in the bay of 
Panama is being pushed on with great vigor, 
and with a good deal of success. Many fine 
specimens have lately been found, including a 
very finely shaped one called the u Lesseps," 
weighing nearly 200 grains. It is about the 
most important that has been in the European 
market for many years, and takes its place in the 
list of the largest-known pearls in theworld. 

Commerce. The total foreign trade (import 
and export) of Colombia, during a decade, has 

been : Annual average. 

1871-'73 $92,676,800 $18,535,360 

1876-'80 107,094,400 21,418,380 





Import, 


Export. 


1878-'79 


$10,787,654 


$13,711,511 


1879 '80 


10 387,003 


13 804 981 


1880-'81 


12,071 480 


15 886 944 


1881-'82 


12,355.555 


18,514,116 









The United States consular report, having 
reference to the export trade from the United 
States of Colombia to the United States, in 
1882, remarks about India-rubber : " The de- 
clared value of rubber exported for the last 
eleven years to the United States is $1,470,085, 
and the weight, in tons of 2,240 pounds, 1,- 
994. Although the difficulties in procuring 
this valuable forest product are becoming 
yearly greater, yet the recent high prices pre- 
vailing in the foreign markets have stimulated 
its gathering. N"ew and accessible forests have 
been discovered. When a tree is found by the 
rubber-hunters, it is immediately felled, in or- 



der to secure all the sap it contains. This un- 
wise practice will undoubtedly continue until 
all the forests are completely exhausted. The 
present price for rubber in the market of Car- 
tagena is $900 per ton of 2,240 pounds. 

"Owing to the unsatisfactory prices ruling 
in the foreign markets for ivory-nuts, their ex- 
portation has largely decreased. Thousands 
of tons of these nuts lie under the trees, only 
awaiting some one to come and cart them 
away ; most of these nuts are procured from 
the San Bias coast and Atrato river and its 
tributaries." 

Fustic. " The exportation of the yellow dye- 
wood called fustic has increased more than any 
other article on the list, caused mainly by the 
people being compelled, on account of the lo- 
custs, to relinquish agricultural pursuits, and 
seek a livelihood by getting out the products 
of the forest. The supply is nearly inexhaust- 
ible, and easy of access. The price per ton, 
delivered at Cartagena, is $13 to $16." 

Cedar. " Several New Orleans and Boston 
timber firms have sent agents to this district, 
and the result of their investigations of these 
vast timber-forests have been so highly satis- 
factory that the houses they represent are mak- 
ing arrangements to get out cedar and mahog- 
any on a large scale. The field is wide enough 
for any number of firms without their respect- 
ive interests coming in conflict. The mahog- 
any of this country is of fair quality, but infe- 
rior to the St. Domingo product. The quality 
of the cedar is excellent, and bears comparison 
with that procured in Mexico and Cuba. Ce- 
dar-logs are placed free on board here, at $45 a 
thousand feet. The same wood can be pro- 
cured at Cispate Bay, a goad anchorage for ves- 
sels of large tonnage, for $25 to $30 a thou- 
sand, delivered alongside vessel. 

"The value of gold-dust that was cleared 
through the Cartagena custom-house for the 
year 1882 was only $94,628; this, however, 
does not constitute the real value of the dust 
exported, as it is always underestimated on 
account of the steamers charging so much per 
cent, extra tariff, and frequently large amounts 
of the dust are placed in the personal charge of 
the captain. If the truth were known, the value 
is probably nearer $500,000 than $100,000. Car- 
tagena receives annually about $600,000 of gold- 
dust from the Choco (Atrato) regions." 

The import of merchandise, specie, and bul- 
lion from Colombia into the United States dur- 
ing the fiscal year ended June 30, 1882, was 
$5471,455 ; the domestic export from the latter 
to the former, $6,719,787; and the re-export of 
foreign goods, $149,184 worth. 

Maritime Movement. There entered Colom- 
bian ports in 1881-'82 altogether 1,059 sailing- 
vessels, of a joint tonnage of 67,876, and 618 
steamers, measuring jointly 765,825 tons. 

COLORADO. State Government. The State offi- 
cers during the year 1883 were: Governor, 
James B. Grant, Democrat; Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, W. H. Meyer ; Secretary of State, Mel- 



142 



COLORADO. 



vin Edwards; State Treasurer, Fred. Walsen; 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, J. 0. 
Shattuck; State Auditor, John C. Abbott; At- 
torney-General, B. F. Urmy. Supreme Court : 
William E. Beck, Wilbur F. Stone, and Joseph 
0. Helm, Justices. 

Legislative Session. The Legislature convened 
at the beginning of January, and remained in 
session about two months. After a prolonged 
contest, Thomas M. Bowen (Republican) was 
elected United States Senator for the long 
term, and H. A. W. Tabor (Republican) for 
the short term. Among the measures that be- 
came laws were the following: 

An act to secure the collection and publication of 

r 'cultural and other statistics ; an act to submit to 
people at the next general election for members of 
the Legislature, amendments to the Constitution re- 
lating to the compensation of members, the length of 
sessions, and the conduct of business ; appropriating 
$318.000 for the ordinary expenses of the executive, 
legislative, and judicial departments for the years 1883 
and 1884; submitting to the people at the election in 
November, 1883, the question of creating a bonded in- 
debtedness of $300,000 toward the erection of a Capitol; 
to regulate the working and inspection of coal-mines ; 
creating Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties from 
Gunnison ; Eagle and Garfield counties from Summit, 
and Uncornpahgre county from Ouray ; changing the 
name of Uncompahgre county to Ouray, and of Ouray 
county to San Miguel ; to enable counties to refund 
railroad-aid bonds; to provide for the drainage of 
lands for agricultural and other purposes ; to regulate 
primary elections ; to establish a State Bureau of 
Horticulture ; and to establish an insurance depart- 
ment and regulate the insurance companies doing 
business therein. 

Finances. The reports of the Auditor and 
State Treasurer show that the financial affairs 
of the State are in a more satisfactory condi- 
tion than at any previous period. These re- 
ports represent the condition of the State 
Treasury, Nov. 30, 1882, to be as follows: 

Warrants outstanding: 13g 551 28 

Certificates of indebtedness '..'.'. 95,'l3T 00 

Totaldebt $288,688~28 

Deduct cash in Treasury 188,616 65 

Indebtedness over cash in Treasury $45,071 63 

Amount due State on taxes payable Jan. 1, 1883.. $41T 762 73 
Deduct outstanding indebtedness 45,071 63 

Balance due above indebtedness $372,691 10 

The above amount, representing what is due 
the State on taxes payable Jan. 1, 1883, does 
not include delinquent taxes of former years, 
from which a large sum will be collected. 

The following is a more recent statement : 





Receipt.. 


Disbursements. 


1883: 
A prill 1th, balance.... 


$293,760 11 
17,629 51 
91,972 72 
fi.%450 04 
28.225 95 
26.985 75 
17,378 37 
9,041 11 




May ;; 


116,770 12 
82,714 99 
96,287 32 
19,824 85 
62,651 83 
16.978 63 
9,816 17 

$305,088 91 
240,399 65 


June 


July ' 


August 


September. . 


October 22d 


October 22d, balance 


Total 




$545,438 56 $545,438 56 



The assessed value of property in 1881 wa 
$96,135,305; in 1882, $104,440,683. 

State Institutions. The number of convicts in 
the Penitentiary, Nov. 30, 1878, was 146, and 
on the 30th of November, 1880, there were 226, 
being an increase of nearly 55 per cent, in the 
two years. The reports of the officers of the 
Penitentiary show that the number of convicts 
on the 30th of November, 1882, was 332, an in- 
crease of 42 per cent, during the two years. In 
January, 1883, there were 329, of whom 36 were 
life-convicts. So long as there continues to be 
such a large accession to the number of con- 
victs, requiring frequent enlargement of the 
institution for their accommodation, the Peni- 
tentiary must continue to be a burden to the 
tax-payers. During the last two years 114 new 
cells have been constructed, making, in the 
aggregate, cell accommodations for only 284 
prisoners. The erection of a new cell-building 
has been begun. Several large and substantial 
buildings have been constructed during the 
two years. These buildings have all been the 
work of convict-labor. 

The commissioners have estimated the ex- 
penses for the years 1883 and 1884 as follows: 

Material for two cell buildings $50,000 

Material for building for convicts under contract 5,000 

Material for remodeling a building for State work- 
shops 10,000 

Appropriation to pay for land already purchased 2,500 

Appropriation to pay for more lime-land 3,000 

Material for gates, etc., for extension of wall 1,000 

Maintenance and expense of prison 223,380 

$304,880 
Earnings estimated for two years 100,000 



Appropriation asked $204,880 

An additional building for the Mute and 
Blind Institute has been erected at a cost ot 
over $20,000. The number of inmates at the 
beginning of the year was 44. A new building 
for the Insane Asylum at Pueblo is in course 
of erection. When this is completed, there will 
be accommodation for 125 patients. 

During the two years ending Nov. 30, 1882, 
57 patients were received and 46 discharged, 
making a net gain of 11, which, added to the 
number on hand at the beginning of the term, 
38, makes 49. The percentage of recoveries 
has been about 53. 

The Legislature, in 1881, provided for the es- 
tablishment of the State Industrial School at 
Golden. Its purposes were to educate and re- 
form young persons who have fallen into the 
ways of crime, rather than to confine them in 
jails. The large number who have been sent 
there by the various district courts and police 
magistrates throughout the State, shows that 
the greatest necessity existed for such an insti- 
tution. The report of the officers of the school 
shows that 81 pupils had been sent there at 
the close of 1882 ; that the terms of five had 
expired, and that there were then 75 pupils at 
the institution. 

Education. The rapid increase in population 
during the past two years has occasioned the 
organization of many new schools. About 100 



COLORADO. 



143 



new districts have been organized, and nearly 
as many school-houses have been erected. Many 
of these buildings are large, expensive struct- 
ures. There are 370 school-houses in the 
State, valued at $1,235,491, having seating ca- 
pacity for 26,470 pupils. According to the 
school census of 1882, there were in the State 
49,208 children between the ages of 6 and 21 
years, of which number 31,738 were enrolled 
in the public schools. The permanent school 
fund of the State now amounts to $75,200.37, 
being an increase during the past two years of 
about $40,000. This fund is invested in inter- 
est-bearing State securities, and the interest 
received therefrom, together with money re- 
ceived from the rental of school lands, is dis- 
tributed to the several counties of the State 
according to the school population. During 
the past two years $30,604.68 of such money 
has been thus distributed. The State Library 
contains 7,107 volumes. 

The university at Boulder was the first edu- 
cational institution established by the Legisla- 
ture. The number of students now exceeds 
100, and six were graduated from the classical 
course of the college department in 1882. 

The report of the State School of Mines 
shows that the number of students is more 
than double that of two years ago. 

The agricultural interests of the State, which 
until recently have been overshadowed by min- 



ing and other interests, are now beginning to 
command attention. Now the climate is .un- 
derstood, irrigation is practiced intelligently, 
and the appliances for destroying the pest of 
farming communities are well understood. But 
owing to the scarcity of water for irrigation, 
only a limited amount of lands can be culti- 
vated, and Colorado can never become an agri- 
cultural State. The first State Legislature es- 
tablished an Agricultural College at Fort Col- 
lins. Under the economical supervision of the 
managers, very commendable results have been 
attained with the appropriations made by the 
State. The present value of the college prop- 
erty, at what is considered a low estimate, is 
as follows : 

Buildings and farm .. $28,960 00 

Fixtures and personal property 21,611 12 

Total $50,571 12 

The cost to the State has been 48,000 00 

The number of students in attendance in 
1881 was 62; in 1882 there were 95. The 
college farm, which contains 240 acres, has 
been fenced, irrigating-ditches have been con- 
structed, and a portion of the land has been 
brought under cultivation. Some blooded 
stock has been procured, and many trees plant- 
ed. In September, 1882, a department of me- 
chanics and drawing was established. 

Mining. The following table gives the prod- 
uct of precious metals at the periods named: 



YEAR. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper. 


Lead. 


Total. 


1859-'70 


$27213081 00 


$330 000 00 


$40000 00 




$27 583 081 00 


1870 


2000000 00 


650 000 00 


20 000 00 




2 680 000 00 


1871 


2 OOO'OOO 00 


1 029 046 00 


30000 00 




3019046 00 


1872 


1 725 000 00 


2015000 00 


45000 00 


$5 000 00 


8790000 00 


1873 


1 750 000 00 


2 185 000 00 


65000 00 


28*000 00 


4028000 00 


1874 


2002,437 00 


3096,028 00 


90 197 00 


7367-6 00 


5262883 00 


1875 


2161 475 02 


8 122 912 00 


90000 00 


60 000 00 


5434387 02 


1876 


2' 726 315 82 


8315592 00 


70000 00 


80000 00 


6 191 807 82 


1877 


8 148 707 56 


8 726 879 33 


93 796 64 


247000 00 


7216288 53 


1878 


3 490 334 86 


6 341 807 81 


89000 00 


686924 73 


10 558 116 90 


1879... . 


8,193,500 00 


15 885 000 00 




532362 00 


19,110.862 00 


1880 


3 206 500 00 


18 615 000 00 




1 678 500 00 


23 500 000 00 


1881 . . 










22203508 72 


1882 










26000000 00 












$166,607,575 99 



The following is a condensed tabulated state- 
ment of the bullion output of Lake county and 
Leadville from 1860 to J.-m. 1, 1883, and is as 
nearly correct as it is possible to make it : 

FIRST PERIOD. 

I880-TO. gold from placers $6,400,000 00 

1874, gold and silver... 145,00000 

1875, gold and silver 113,000 00 

1876, gold, silver, and lead 85,000 00 

1877, gold, silver, and lead 555,330 00 

1878, gold, silver, and lead 8,152,925 00 

Total $10,451,255 00 

SECOND PERIOD. 

1879, sold, silver, and lead $10,833,740 69 

1880, gold, silver, and lead 14,187,697 00 

1881, gold, silver, and lead 13,170,576 00 

1882, gold, silver, and lead, first quarter 4,048.618 00 

1882, gold, silver, and lead, second quarter. . . . 8,769,300 00 

1882, gold, silver, and lead, third quarter 4,575,340 00 

J882, gold, silver, and lead, fourth quarter (es- 
timated) 4,000,000 00 

. Total $54,085,271 69 

Grand total... 



Coal- mining is fast becoming one of the chief 
industries of this State. The counties of Las 
Animas, Fremont, Boulder, Jefferson, Gunni- 
son, Huerfano, El Paso, Park, and La Plata are 
large producers of coal. The following table 
will be of interest as showing the growth of 
the coal output of the leading mines of south- 
ern Colorado, from the time they were opened 
to the end of the year 1882 : 



Tons. 

1873 12.187 

1874. 18,092 

1875 15,278 

1876 20,316 

1877 44,410 



Tons. 

1878 82.140 

1879 120,102 

1880 221,373 

1881 350,944 

1882 511,289 



No exact figures concerning the output of 
the coal-mines of northern Colorado have been 
obtainable. It is safe to say, however, that 
the product of the "Welch banks, at Louisville, 
and the Boulder valley, at Erie, have been in- 
creased 50 per cent, over 1881. The Star and 



144 



COLORADO. 



Marshall banks, as well as the South Park 
mines, at Como, likewise show an increase. 

The Gunnison anthracite coal-fields near 
Crested Butte have been recently brought un- 
der development. The coal is a red-ash, free- 
burning anthracite, resembling most nearly the 
Lykens valley coal of Pennsylvania. 

AsricDltore aod Stock-raising. The acreage of 
southern Colorado was 149,509 ; value of prod- 
ucts, $2,862,595. The acreage of northern 
Colorado was 342,998; value, $6,905,374. 

RECAPITULATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS FOR THE 
YEAR 1882. 



ARTICLES. 


Acreage. 


Number of bushels.. 


Value. 


Wheat... 
Oats 


101,125 
84.951 


1,538.740 at $ 85 
1,088.287 at 60 


$1,803,679 
649,972 


Cora 


30,475 


600,058 at 85 


510,050 


Barley 


10,516 


261,185 at 1 00 


261,185 


Bye 


4,335 


78,080 at 1 10 


85,833 


Potatoes 
Hay 


8,655 
264,950 


844,000 at 75 
256,450 at 15 00* 


633,000 
3,846,750 


Vegetables 
Small fruits 


85,000 
2,500 


at 60 00 
at 150 00 


2,100,000 
377,500 


Total 


492 507 




$9,767,969 











*Tons. 

The extent of territory devoted to cattle- 
raising has become very large, and there is 
range enough in this State to support 1,500,000 
cattle. The assessors return the number of 
cattle now in the State as less than 500,000, 
but it is not believed that these reports are 
correct. The following table gives the assess- 
ors' returns for a number of years : 

Cattle in 1 871 ... . . 1 45,916 Cattle in 1880 541 ,568 

Cattle in 1 875. 299,515 Cattle in 1 881 411,970 

Cattle in 1878.... ..498.279 Cattle in 1882 428,948 

Cattle in 1879... 



But that there were in 1878-'80 more cattle 
than at present is doubtful. It is claimed that 
the vast region between the Gunnison and 
Grand rivers on the north, and the Uncompah- 
gre, the Dolores, and the San Miguel on the 
east and south, extending 50 miles in one direc- 
tion and 150 in another, and comprising nearly 
5,000,000 acres, furnishes an excellent and al- 
most unoccupied region for stock-growing. It 
is reached by the Denver and Rio Grande rail- 
road, and is within driving distance from the 
Union Pacific. 

According to estimate, 100,000 head were, 
in 1882, shipped out of the State, while the 
home consumption amounted to 60,000. The 
value of these is placed at above $6,000,OQO. 

According to the assessors' returns, there 
were, in 1882, 11 per cent, more sheep in 
Colorado than a year before. The assessors 
returned in 1879, 779,229 ; in 1880, 782,629 ; 
in 1881, 624,502 ; and in 1882, 706,048. It is 
thought that the number of sheep now in the 
State is over 1,000,000. Their value is esti- 
mated at $2,500,000. It is estimated that dur- 
ing 1882 the wool-clip amounted to 5,000,000 
pounds, worth $1,000,000 ; and that 100,000 
wethers, worth $350,000, were consumed or 
shipped to Eastern markets a total income 
from sheep of $1,350,000. 



There is considerable difference between the 
sheep of the southern part of the State and 
those of the northern part, the latter being 
much the better. In a division of this kind, 
Colorado Springs is about on the dividing 
line. 

Railroads. The rapid growth of the railroad 
system of the State is shown in the annexed 
table : 



1870 , 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874.' 

1875 

1876 



Miles. | 



328 


1878 


4R3 


1879 


fi08 


1880 


68?, 


1881 


807 


1882 . 


957 





Miles. 
1,045 
1,165 
1,208 
1,531 
2,208 
3,088 



The subjoined table shows the miles in op- 
eration at the beginning of 1883 : 

Miles. 

Union Pacific and branches 1,170 

Denver and Eio Grande 1,281 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 281 

Burlington 182 

Denver and New Orleans 134 

Denver, Utah and Pacific 40 



Total. 



Temperance. A State Temperance Conven- 
tion was held in Denver in October, which 
adopted a platform containing the following: 

We recognize it to be the duty of every real friend 
of humanity and all true reform, to refrain totally 
from the use of alcoholic drink of every description, 
and that no countenance be given to its manufacture 
or sale by license, either high or low ; and that the 
only proper and just way to treat such a monster evil 
is to prohibit it by the plainest and strongest statutes, 
enforced by the severest penalties, just as all other 
crimes are dealt with in the body politic. 

Resolved, That steps should at once be taken to 
prepare a bill providing for an amendment to the Con- 
stitution of this State, having prohibition for its foun- 
dation, and that a committee of five be appointed by 
this convention to further this end. 

State Capital. At the general election in No- 
vember, 1881, the city of Denver was selected 
as the permanent capital of the State. The 
litigation which has been pending for several 
years past concerning the title of the State to 
the block on Capitol hill, known as "Capitol 
square," has been finally determined in favor 
'of the State by the Supreme Court of the United 
States. 

Resources and General Condition. Colorado, 
now in its twenty -fifth year, counts a settled 
population of 300,000, and a taxable valuation 
of $110,000,000, representing an actual prop- 
erty value of $200,000,000. It is traversed by 
nearly 3,000 miles of railroad. Its growth in 
importance as a grazing State becomes yearly 
more manifest by its largely increased ship- 
ments of live-stock, while its available farming 
area is being constantly added to by the rapid 
extension of its system of irrigating canals. 
Not so generally understood, however, is the 
vast extent of its coal and iron deposits, now 
in the first stage of development. 

The area of the State is, in round figures, 
104,000 square miles, distributed (approximate- 
ly) as follows : 



COLORADO. 



COMMERCE, ETC., AMERICAN. 145 



Agricultural lands 6,000,000 

Pastoral lands 25,000,000 

Mineral and timber lands 85,000,000 

Statistics. The mileage and assessment of 
railroads have been as follow : 



YEAR. 


Miles. 


Assessed value. 


18T8 


1,085-68 


$5,013,685 


1879 


1218-60 


7 687 459 


1880 


1885-61 


8 688 668 


1881 


1,584-10 


11 638 055 


1882 


2 245 --29 


17 788 158 


1883 


2750-76 


20 146 864 









The total assessed number of live-stock in 
the State is: Cattle, 511,940; sheep, 834,127; 
other stock, 110,045. Assessed value, $12,- 
321,109. 

It is believed that this does not represent 
over 50 per cent, of the stock actually within 
the State. 

The gross product of the State from all 
sources, for the year 1882, was as follows : 

Gold, silver, and lead bullion ................... $26,750,800 

Agriculture .................................... 9,175,000 

Coal and coke .................................. 5,000,000 

Iron and steel .................................. 4,500,000 

Cattle, sheep, hides, and wool ................... 5,000,000 

Manufactures .................................. 10,000,000 

Total ...................................... $60,425,800 

The State has no bonded debt. Its total in- 
debtedness on Nov. 24, 1883, consisted of 

Warrants outstanding ............................ $524,045 

Certificates of indebtedness ........................ 19,836 

Total ......................................... $543,881 

The revenue of the State for the current year 
(collectable January, 1884, and thereafter) will 
amount to $583,125. 

The annual bullion shipments for five years 
were: 

1878, gold, silver, and lead ....................... $10,556,116 

1879, gold, silver, and lead ....................... 19,110,862 

1880, gold, silver, and lead ....................... 23,500,000 

1881, gold, silver, and lead ....................... 22,203,500 

1882, gold, silver, and lead ....................... 26,750,800 

The mining products of Colorado for the 
year 1883 (gold, silver, copper, and lead) were : 



COUNTY. Amount. 

Boulder $400,000 

Chaffee , 800,000 

Custer 800,720 

Clear Creek 2,000,000 

Dolores 200,008 

Eagle 930,000 

Fremont 20,000 

Gilpin 2,208,980 

Grand 10,000 

Gunnison 650,000 

Hinsdale 390,000 

Lake... 



COUNTY. 

La Plata 

Ouray 

Park 

Piiikin 

Rio Grande 

Routt 

Saguache 

San Miguel 

San Juan 

Summit... 



Amount. 
$128,000 
700,616 
400,000 
125.000 
182,000 
75,000 
100,001 
225,000 
418,956 
350,000 



Total $26,306,131 

The State Engineer says : " The mileage of 
new irrigating canals completed since June 1, 
1882, and those still under construction Dec. 
1, 1883, is as follows: 

Miles. 

Arapahoe county 86 

Douglas county . 15 

Larimer county 104 

Weld county !.'.".....! 135 

A total of 340 miles, which it is estimated will 
bring under water 350,000 fresh acres. Large 
additions are also being made to the system in 
Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla, and canals 

VOL. XXIII. 10 A 



have been begun in the new counties of Mesa, 
Montrose, and Delta, all of which will greatly 
increase the' available acreage next year " 
COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. The 

total volume of foreign commerce in the year 
ending June 30, 1883, was larger than in any 
year in the history of the country, exceeding by 
about $2,000,000 that of 1881. The total value 
of the exports and imports of merchandise in 
1883 was $1,547,020,316. Compared with the 
commerce of other countries it is only exceeded 
by that of Great Britain, which aggregated $3,- 
497,boO,000 in 1882, and that of France, where 
the special commerce in 1882 amounted to 
$1,713,000,000; exceeding in volume that of 
Germany, which in 1881 amounted to $1,480,- 
000,000. Including the imports and exports 
of specie, the total volume of the foreign com- 
merce in 1883 was $1,607,330,040, being lesi 
than in 1881, when it aggregated $1,675,024,- 
318, and less also than in 1880, when it was 
$1,613,770,633, but greater than in 1882, when 
it was $1,567,071,700. In 1874 the borrow- 
ing period which followed the war came to an 
end, and the extension of railroads greatly 
facilitated the exportation of agricultural prod- 
ucts. Since that year there has been a con- 
stant excess of exports over imports, and since 
1876 a large annual excess of merchandise ex- 
ports. The entire movement of foreign com- 
merce for these ten years is shown in the fol- 
lowing tables. The value of the total exports 
and imports of merchandise, with the annual 
excess of exports or imports, was each year as 
follows : 



YEAR. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Excess of 
exporti. 


1874 


$586 283 040 


$567 406 342 


$18 876 698 


1875 


513 442 711 


538 005 486 




1876 


540 384,671 


460 741 190 


79 643 481 


1877 


602,475 220 


451 323126 


151 152 094 


1878 


694,865,766 


487,051,532 


257 814 234 


1879 


710 489 441 


445 777 775 


264 661 666 


1880 


835 638 658 


667 954 746 


167 683 912 


1881 


902,377,346 


642,664 628 


259712718 


1882 


750 542 257 


724 639 574 


25 902 688 


1888 


823 889 402 


723 180 914 


100 658 488 











* Excess of imports. 

The annual values of domestic products ex- 
ported and of foreign commodities re-export- 
ed, in the total values given above, were as 
follow : 



YEAR. 


Domestic 

exports. 


Foreign 
axportf. 


1874 


$569,433,421 


$16,849 619 


1875 


499 284 100 


14 158 611 


1876 . ... 


525,582,247 


14 802 424 


1877 


589,670,224 


12 804 996 


1878 


680 709 268 


14 156 498 


1879 


698 340 790 


12 098 651 


1880 


823,946,853 


11 692 305 


1881 


888 925 947 


18 451 399 


1882 


733 289 782 


17'302'525 


1888 


804,223 632 


19 615 770 









The total value of gold and silver coin and 
bullion imported and exported, and the annual 
net exports or imports of specie, were as fol- 
low: 



146 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. 



YEAR. 


ExporU. 


Import.. 


Excess of 
exports. 


1874 


$66,680,405 


$28.454,906 


$38,175,499 


1875 


92,132,142 


20,900,717 


71,231,425 


1616 


56.506,802 


15,986,681 


40,569,621 


1877 


56,162,237 


40,774,414 


15,367,828 


1878 


88,740,125 


29,821,314 


8,918,811 


1879 


24,997,441 


20,296,000 


4,701,441 


1880 


17,142,919 


93,084,810 


75,891,391* 


1881 


19,406,847 


110,575,497 


91,168,650* 


1882 


49,417,479 


42,472,390 


6,945,089 


1888 ... . 


81,820,338 


28,489,891 


8,330,942 











* Excess of imports. 

The total value of exports and imports, in- 
cluding specie, with the annual excess of ex- 
ports, was each year as follows : 



YEAR. 


Export*. 


Imports. 


Excess of 
exports. 


1874 


$652,913,445 


$595,861,248 


$57,052,197 


1875 


605,574,853 


558,906,158 


51,668,700 


1876 


596,890,973 


476,677,871 


120,213,102 


1877 


658,637,457 


492,097,540 


166,539,917 


1878 


728 605 891 


466 872 846 


261 733 045 


1879 


735 436,882 


466 078 775 


269 368 107 


1880 


852,781,577 


760,989,056 


91 792 521 


1881 


921,784,193 


753,240,125 


168,544,068 


1882 


799,959,736 


767,111,964 


32,847,772 


1883 


855,659,735 


751 670 305 


108,989 430 











Classification of Exports. The exports of each 
of the general classes of domestic products in 
1883, as compared with the preceding fiscal 
year, were as follow : 



DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 


1888. 


1888. 


Agricultural products 

Manufactures 


$552,219,819 
108 132,481 


$619,269,449 
111,890,001 


Mineral products. ... . 


56,278,887 


51,444,857 


Products of the forests 


9,138,984 


9,976,143 


Products of the fisheries 
All other commodities 


6,197,752 
6,271,859 


6,276,375 
5,866,807 


Total . . 


$733 239 782 


$804 228 632 









The agricultural exports constituted 77 per 
cent, of the total exports of domestic produce; 
manufactures, 13'91 per cent. ; products of the 
mines and petroleum, 6*40 per cent. ; forestry 
products, 1-24 per cent. ; products of the fish- 



eries, 0*78 per cent. ; and all other commodities, 
0-67 per cent. 

The increased exportation of domestic mer- 
chandise in 1883, over that of the preceding 
year, was due to the more abundant crops. 
The increased exportation of cotton and cereals 
not only accounts for the increment, but, with 
an increase in the value of manufactured prod- 
ucts exported, makes good a large decrease in 
the exports of provisions, due in part to the 
failure of the corn-crop in 1881 and in part to 
the prohibition of American pork products by 
Continental governments; and offsets, more- 
over, a very considerable falling off in the 
value of the petroleum exports, mainly due to 
excessive production and a decline in price. 

From the founding of the republic to the 
civil war, agricultural products constituted usu- 
ally over 80 per cent, of the total annual ex- 
ports of domestic merchandise. During the 
ten years, 1870-'79, they averaged about 77 per 
cent., the percentage which they bore in 1883. 
The vast exports of grain in 1880 and 1881, 
from superabundant crops, to supply the defi- 
ciency of the crops in Europe, brought the 
percentage up to 83*25 and fe2'63; while in 
1882, with a diminished yield in the United 
States and better harvests in Europe, it fell 
below the average, to 75 '31 per cent. 

The four main classes of agricultural prod- 
ucts breadstuffs, raw cotton, provisions, sind 
tobacco with mineral-oil, constitute the five 
leading classes of domestic exports. Cotton 
was for half a century or more by far the most 
important, until the exports of grain and pro- 
visions increased, after the great extension of 
railroads. In 1878 the grain exports began to 
exceed in value those of cotton, but in 1882, 
when the grain-crop had suffered more than 
the cotton- crop, and again in 1883, with a bet- 
ter grain-crop, cotton reasserted its supremacy. 
The annual exports of these five leading classes 
of domestic products in the past ten years were 
as follow : 



YEAR. 


Breadstuff). 


Cotton, raw. 


Provision*. , 


Mineral-oil. 


Tobacco, and manu- 
factures of. 


1874... 


$161 1 OS 8(54 


$211 223580 


$78 828 990 


$41 245 815 


$32 968 528 


1875..., 


111 458265 


190 638 625 


81 348 401 


80 078 568 


27 844 470 


1876..., 


181 181 '555 


192' 659' 2 62 


gg'g8i'747 


82 915 786 


25 570 538 


1877 


117806476 


171 118508 


114 991 749 


61*89488 


82'o20'214 


1878..., 


181 777841 


180'03l'484 




46 574 974 


28'484'482 


1879... 


210 855 528 


162 304 250 


116'858 650 


40 305 249 


28 215 240 


1880 


288 036 835 


211 585 905 


127'o43'242 


86 218 625 


18'442' 278 


1881... 


270 382 519 


24 7' 695' 7 46 




40'315'609 


2o's78'884 


1882 


182'670'528 


199 812'644 




51 '232' 706 


2l'430'869 


1888 


208^040^850 


24I328',721 


107',8SS',387 


4^918'079 


22,095,229 



The value of the exports of products of man- 
ufacture in 1883 amounted to $111,890,001, as 
against $1 03,1 32,481 during the preceding year, 
and was larger than during any previous year 
in the history of the country, having increased 
from $45,658,873 in 1860. The exports of 
manufactured articles constituted, however, 
only 2 per cent, of the total annual value of 
manufactures produced in the country, accord- 
ing to the census of 1880. 



Agricultural Exports. The following is a list 
of the values exported during the year ending 
June 30, 1883, of the principal articles of ex- 
port which are products of domestic agricul- 
ture : 

ARTICLES. Values. 

Cotton, unmanufactured $247,828,721 

Bread and breadstuffs 208,040,850 

Provisions 107,888,287 

Tobacco, unmanufactured 19,488,066 

Animals, living 10.789,268 

Oil-cake 6, 061 ,699 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. 



147 



ARTICLES. Value*. 

Hops '. $5,616,870 

Seeds 4,311,919 

Tallow 8,248,749 

Hides and skins 1,220,158 

Hair, unmanufactured 448,897 

Lard-oil 853,184 

Hay 261,614 

Cotton-seed oil 216,779 

Sugar, brown . . 148,957 

Wine 77,280 

All other agricultural products 4,828,551 

Total $619,269,449 

In the class of bread and breadstuff's, the ex- 
ports of wheat amounted to $119,879,341; 
wheat -flour to $54,824,459; Indian corn to 
$27,756,082 ; rye to $1,657,998 ; raaizena, fari- 
na, and similar food preparations to $987,829 ; 
Indian-corn meal to $980,798; bread and bis- 
cuit to $829,281 ; and barley, oats, and other 
small grain and pulse and rye-flour, together, 
to $1,125,062. 

Of the live-animal exports, horned cattle rep- 
resented $8,341,431; sheep, $1,154,856; mules, 
$486,560; horses, $475,806; hogs, $272,516; 
and other animals and fowls, $58,099. 

The fruit exports comprised apples of the val- 
ue of $1,085,230; dried apples of the value of 
$786,800 ; other fresh and dried fruit of the val- 
ue of $447,395 ; and canned or preserved fruit 
of the value of $686,517. 

Of the total value of the exports of pro- 
visions, bacon and haras represented $38,155,- 
952; lard, $26,618,048; cheese, $11,134,526 ; 
fresh beef, $8,342,131 ; pork, $6,192,268 ; pre- 
served meats, $4,578,902; salted and cured 
beef, $3,742,282 ; butter, $2,290,665 ; potatoes 
and other vegetables, $694,676 ; and condensed 
milk, eggs, and fresh mutton, together, $443,- 
657. 

Exports of Manufactures. The following were 
the principal manufactured articles exported 
in 1883 : 

ARTICLES. Values. 

Wood, manufactures of $20,996,804 

Iron and steel manufactures 19,024,894 

Cotton, manufactures of 12,951,145 

Leather, and manufactures of 7.923,662 

Spirits of turpentine 4,366,229 

Agricultural implements 8,883,919 

Drugs, chemicals, and medicines 3,306,195 

Sugar and molasses 8.266 581 

Sewing-machines 8,061,639 

Tobacco, manufactures of 2,657,163 

Spirits, distilled 1,982,883 

Cars, railroad 1.900,903 

Carriages and carts 1,607,502 

Paper and stationery. . . .'. 1,589,908 

Copper, manufactures of 1,404,233 

Ordnance stores l'876 611 

Clocks.... 1,316,086 

Musical instruments 1,203,612 

Books and other publications 1,018,188 

Glass and glassware 998^857 

Dye-stuffs 877,601 

Hemp, manufactures of 799,935 

Fancy articles ... 785,928 

Wearing apparel 770,460 

Cordage, rope, etc 749,505 

Soap . 



ARTICLES. Value* 

Paintings and engravings $387,157 

Wool, manufactures of 866,214 

Perfumery 856,016 

Starch 825,575 

Scales and balances 817,642 

Brass, manufactures of 287,847 

Printing-presses and type 267,375 

The articles not here enumerated which were 
exported to the value of over $100,000 were 
stone and china ware, candles, blacking, hats 
and bonnets, tin and manufactures of, trunks 
and valises, varnish, brooms and brushes, ves- 
sels sold to foreigners, watches, volatile and 
essential oils, pig-iron, matches, and lime and 
cement. 

Mineral Exports. The following were the val- 
ues of the principal articles of export in 1883, 
which were products of mining, including 
mineral-oils : 

ARTICLES. Values. 

Mineral oil: Refined $40,555.492 

Crude 8,914,941 

Residuum 442,646 

Coal : Anthracite 2,648,033 

Bituminous 1,593,214 

Quicksilver 1,020,827 

Copper-ore 943,771 

Other mining products 



Mathematical and optical instruments 682,246 

India-rubber manufactures 569,296 

Beer, ale, and porter 490,442 

Paints and painters' colors 470,289 

Plated-ware 444,608 

Jewelry, etc 422,854 

Lamps 408,743 

Marble and stone, manufactures of 389,371 



Total $51,444,557 

Exports of Products of Forestry and the Fisheries. 

The values of the products of forestry ex- 
ported in 1883 were as follow : 

ARTICLES. Value?. 

Timber, sawed and hewed $3,102,232 

Logs, masts, spars, etc 2,401,021 

Other wood and timber 294,151 

Eosin and turpentine 3,068,132 

Tarandpitch 174,686 

Ginseng 848,398 

Tan-bark 87,528 

Total r $9,976^143 

The values exported of the various products 
of the fisheries were as follow : 

ARTICLES. Values. 

Oils, animal : Sperm. . . , $290,417 

Whale and other fish 115,490 

Provisions : Fish, dried or smoked 882,830 

Fish, fresh. 72,875 

Fish, pickled 872.385 

Fish, other cured 8,202,412 

Oysters 629,636 

Spermaceti 66,651 

Whalebone 599,550 

All other articles 44,129 

Total , $6,276,375 

Of the non - classified exports of domestic 
merchandise, amounting to $5,366,807, the 
principal items were fertilizers of the value 
of $1,082,501, and furs and fur-skins of the 
value of $3,935,603. 

The values of the various articles imported 
during the year ending June 30, 1883, were as 
follow : 

ARTICLES. Values. 

Sugar $91,539,330 

Molasses, melada, etc 7,787,065 

Wool, paw 10,949,381 

Wool, manufactures of 44,274,952 

Silk, raw 14,043,340 

Silk, manufactures of 36,764,276 

Chemicals, dyes, drugs, etc 43,126,285 

Coffee 42,050,513 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of. 40,796,007 

Cotton manufactures 



148 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. 



ARTICLES. Values. 

Eawcotton $800,532 

Hides andskins 27,640,030 

Tin, and manufactures of. 28,917,837 

Linen manufactures and flax 19,737,542 

Fruits and nuts 19,318,041 

Tea 17,302,849 

India-rubber, gutta-percha, and manufactures of 15,844,302 

Breadstuffs and farinaceous food 15,880,605 

Wood, and manufactures of. 14,857,578 

Leather, and manufactures of. 13,104,415 

Jute and grasses, raw and manufactured 12,606,513 

Wines, spirits, and cordials 12,308,307 

Tobacco, and manufactures of 11,771,596 

Provisions, including eggs, tish, and potatoes. . 10,653,273 

Earthen, stone, and china ware 8,620,527 

Fancy goods, perfumery, and cosmetics 8,358,471 

Furs, dressed and undressed 7,959,759 

Glass and glassware 7,762,543 

Precious stones 7,692,385 

Products of the United States brought back .... 6,514,999 

Paper materials 5,829,876 

Hemp, and manufactures of. 5,118,508 

Buttons and button materials 4,223,161 

Animals, living 4,042,367 

Books, engravings, and other publications 8,651,590 

Btraw and palm-leaf, manufactures of 3,565,137 

Paintings, lithographs, and statuary 8,403,874 

Metals, and manufactures of, not elsewhere 

specified 2,897,972 

Oils, of all kinds 2,736,753 

Watches and watch materials 2,522,111 

Hair, and manufactures of. 2,496,699 

Spices 2,474,088 

Household and personal effects of persons arriv- 
ing from foreign countries 2,815,353 

Coal, bituminous 2,085,972 

Paper, and manufactures of, not elsewhere 

specified 1,958,113 

Seeds 1,702,345 

Salt 1,674,803 

Musical instruments 1,652,528 

Paints, of all kinds 1,336,229 

Bristles 1,228,543 

Cocoa 1,213,371 

Clothing 1,182,355 

Beer, ale, and porter. 1,122,010 

Marble and stone, and manufactures of. 1,01 1,363 

Cork-bark and wood, unmanufactured 933,935 

Jewelry, etc 912,625 

Guano, except from bonded islands 535,742 

Brass, and manufactures of.. 530,281 

Bolting-cloths 418,711 

Copper, and manufactures of 894,765 

Barks, used for tanning '343,998 

All other articles 27,384,337 

Total $723,180,914 

The total value of the merchandise entered for 
consumption, during the fiscal year 1883, was 
$700,829,673, of which $493,916,384 was duti- 
able and $206,913,289 free of duty. The total 
amount of duty collected was $210,637,293, 
which was a larger sum than was collected in 
any previous year, except in 1882 and 1872. 
The average rate of duty collected was 42-64 
per cent, pf the values of the dutiable mer- 
chandise and 30-05 per cent, of the values of 
both free and dutiable. The average ad 'valo- 
rem rate of duty collected in 1882 was 42 '75 
per cent. ; in 1881, 43-25 ; in 1880, 43'56 ; in 
1879, 44-95 ; in 1878, 42-81 ; in 1877, 42'95 ; in 
1876, 44-80; in 1875, 40-69; in 1874, 38-61. 
The total value of merchandise entered for con- 
sumption in 1882 was $716,213,948, of which 
$505,491,967 was dutiable and $210,711,981 
free of duty. 

Undervaluation of Imports. American consuls 
in Europe report many details of a fraudulent 
practice of undervaluation in the declarations 
of the export value of dutiable merchandise 
brought into the United States, whereby large 



sums are lost to the Treasury. For the pur- 
pose of practicing this method of evasion, 
the European manufacturers and wholesale 
dealers maintain agents in the United States, 
to whom all their shipments are consigned, 
thus depriving American merchants of their 
trade by closing -the market to the regular im- 
porter. The protective intent of the tariff laws 
can in this way be defeated, for, when the 
American manufacturer lowers his prices, his 
foreign competitor need only make his ficti- 
tious invoices lower, to retain his advantage. 
The American agency or commission-house 
accounts to him for the selling price, so that 
the consignor sustains no loss by undervalua- 
tion. Many foreign houses refuse to furnish 
price-lists to American purchasers, referring 
them to their branch establishments in the 
United States, while some have specially pre- 
pared price-lists to show to American mer- 
chants. In 1883 the Treasury Department 
employed experts at various consulates to as- 
certain the wholesale market value of certain 
classes of merchandise. Their reports enabled 
appraising officers at the ports to scrutinize in- 
voices more carefully, which in many cases led 
to the collection of increased duties and fines. 
Fictitious discounts and unusual commissions, 
allowances for pretended defects and imper- 
fections, etc., are among the devices by which 
goods are got through the custom-house at 
valuations below the market price, shippers 
and consignees sharing in the profit. Half the 
profits from the large trade in silk manufac- 
tures with Switzerland are said to be derived 
from the evaded duties. The consul at Brad- 
ford, England, excited the animosity of the 
manufacturers by reporting instances of under- 
valuation. The consul at St. Galjen, Switzer- 
land, was threatened with appeals to the Swiss 
Federal authorities or the United States Con- 
gress, against his surveillance over the private 
business affairs of merchants. At Crefeld, in 
Germany, lists of prices in dollars are presented 
to American purchasers of velvets, the prices 
being payable in New York to the agents of 
the associated manufacturers. The velvet 
manufacturers of Basle resort to the practice, 
which is also common elsewhere, of including 
in an undervalued invoice a quantity of cor- 
rectly-valued goods, which the appraisers are 
to examine first, and then in the hurry of busi- 
ness to pass the lot. The invoicing of East 
India cashmere wool as common wool, as prac- 
ticed at Liverpool, illustrates another method 
pf evasion. Silks, aniline dyes, wool, velvets, 
incandescent lamps, chemicals of several kinds, 
silver filigree-work, ribbons, gloves, plush, 
seal-skins, worsted yarns, ladies' cloaks, wool- 
en cloths, paper-hangings, varnishes, fine pot- 
tery, cotton ties and hoop-iron, and many 
other articles, are in the category of fraudu- 
lently invoiced imports in respect to which the 
consuls have particular accounts of undervalu- 
ation. 
The practice is suspected to be general 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. 



149 



throughout Europe, and is not denied by many 
merchants, some of them of the highest stand- 
ing, who consider it legitimate thus to defraud 
the United States revenue, and treat it as an 
impertinent inquisition for consuls to obtain 
lists of prices and ascertain the facts of the 
cost of production, to be communicated to cus- 
toms officials. The undervaluations range from 
10 to 60 per cent. 

The Treasury authorities have no remedy 
against the consignees, even upon evidence of 
undervaluation, as either civil or criminal ac- 
tions must be based upon proofs of complicity 
in the frauds. In most cases, reappraisement 
is equally fruitless, and is likely to result ad- 
versely to the Government in the absence of 
evidence of the export values in Europe, which 
is carefully and systematically concealed from 
the knowledge of the commercial representa- 
tives of the United States. 

Commercial Intercourse with Foreign Countries. 
Of the total export and import trade of 1883, 
the share of Great Britain was 39*69 per cent. ; 
of France, 10*13 per cent. ; of Germany, 7'98 
per cent. ; of Cuba and the other West India 
islands, 7'85 per cent. ; of British North Amer- 
ica, 5-91 per cent. ; of Brazil, 3'47 per cent. ; of 
Belgium, 3*29 per cent. ; of the Netherlands, 
2'01 per cent. ; of Mexico, 1*60 per cent. ; of 
Spain, 1-60 per cent. ; of China, T57 per cent. ; 
of Italy, 1-44 per cent.; of Russia, 1'40 per 
cent. ; of the East Indies, T40 per cent. ; of 
Japan, 1*19 per cent. ; of Australia, Colombia, 
the Hawaiian Islands, Spanish possessions other 
than Cuba and Porto Rico, the Argentine Re- 
public, Guiana, and Venezuela, between one 
half and 1 per cent, each ; of Central America, 



COUNTRIES. 


Imports into 
the United 
States. 


Exports from 
the United 
States. 


Exports in 
excels of 
imports. 


Great Britain and Ireland. 
Russia 


Dollars. 
188,622,619 
2.599,995 
7,794,345 
57,377,728 
8,177,128 
12,253,733 

4,021,395 
23,161,200 
1.093,476 
302,886 
435,584 
1,918,894 

44,740,876 
5,171,455 
1,831,171 


Dollars. 
425,424,174 
19,141,751 
16,931,287 
66,169,929 
16,587,620 
18,919,583 

9,795,656 
27,778,975 
5,485,037 
4,508,876 
2,860,496 
8,777,759 

46,580,253 
6,868,971 
2,824,548 


Dollars 

286,801,555 
16,541,756 
9,136,942 
8,792,201 
8,410,497 
6,665,850 

5,774,261 
4,617,775 
4,391,561 
4,205,990 
2,424,912 
1,858,865 

1,839,877 
1,697,516 
993,377 


Spain 
Germany 
Mexico 


Netherlands - 


British possessions in Aus- 
tralasia 


Belgium 


Denmark 


Chili 


Hong-Kong 
British North American 


United States of Colombia. 
Sweden and N orway 
Gibraltar 


British possessions in Af- 
rica 
Azore, Madeira, and Cape 


1,840,020 


2,438,069 


598,049 


Miquelon, Langley, and St. 








Danish West Indies 
Hayti 


2,971,515 


8,223", i6i 


25l',5S6 


Liberia 










Portuguese possessions in 
Africa 










859,831 


8,141,714 


2,281,883 


Total... 


365,178,846 


682,451,799 


817,283,958 



Portugal, Hong-Kong, Uruguay, the Dutch 
East Indies, Denmark, Austria, Sweden and 
Norway, British South Africa, Turkey, Chili, 
and Peru, between one fifth and one half of 1 
per cent. 

The foregoing table gives the values of the 
imports of merchandise from and exports to 
those countries in the commerce with which, 
in 1883, there was a balance in favor of the 
United States. 

The following table exhibits the commerce 
in 1883 with those countries the imports from 
which exceeded in value the merchandise ex- 
ported to them from the United States : 



COUNTRIES. 


Imports into 
the United 
States. 


Exports from 
the United 
States. 


Imports in 
excess of 
exports. 


Cuba 


Dollars. 
65,544,534 
97,989,164 
44,488,459 
19,467,800 
20,141,331 
15,098,890 

10,617,563 
8,238,461 
5,946,429 
5,901,724 
5,477,493 
5,121,315 
6,192,111 
3,980,110 
2,526,918 
11,909.658 
2,984,923 
2,895,857 
2,168,967 


Dollars. 
15,103,703 
58,682,223 
9,252,094 
2,185,804 
4,080,322 
3,376,434 

324,474 
3,776,065 
2,035,156 
2,403.705 
2,164,708 
2,003,467 
8,543,196 
1,452,818 
493,894 
10,813,558 
1,779,904 
1,813,555 
1,869,703 


Dollars. 
50,440,831 
89,806,941 
35,236,365 
17,281,996 
16,061,009 
11,722,456 

10,293.089 
4,462,396 
3,911,273 
8,498,019 
8,312,785 
8,117,848 
2,648,915 
2,527,292 
2,033,024 
1,596,100 
1,205,019 
1,082,302 
799,264 


France ... . .... 


Brazil 


British East Indies 


Japan 


Spanish possessions, other 
than Cuba and Porto Rico. 
Hawaiian Islands 
British Guiana 
Venezuela 


Porto Kico 


Central American States . . 
Argentine Republic 


Peru 


Italy 




French West Indies 
Turkey 


Dutch West Indies 


Dutch East Indies 
British West Indies 


2,645,917 
8,736,112 
1,417,519 
8,515,813 


2,407,131 
8,502,158 
1,201,874 
8,115,662 


238,786 
283,959 
215,645 
5,400,151 


All other countries 


Total . . . 


358.007:068 


141.881,603216,625,465 



Trade of the Principal Customs Districts. The 

export and import trade of the port of New 
York in 1883 amounted to $857,430,637, be- 
ing 55-43 per cent, of the total value of the 
foreign commerce of the United States. The 
exports from that port were of the total value 
of $361,425,361; the imports of the value of 
$496,005,276. The foreign commerce of Bos- 
ton amounted to $134,908,824, or 8'72 per 
cent, of the total commerce of the country, the 
exports from there being valued at $62,356,749 
and the imports entering that port at $72,552,- 
075. The share of New Orleans in the total 
commerce was $104,704,076, or 6'77 per cent., 
of which $95,107,314 were exports and only 
$9,596,762 imports. The share of San Fran- 
cisco was $90,661,950, or 5'86per cent., divided 
into exports of the value of $44,959,420 and 
imports of the value of $45,702,530. Phila- 
delphia's commerce amounted to $71,886,300, 
4-65 per cent, of the total, $38,147,744 being 
exports and $33,738,556 imports. Baltimore's 
share was $69,602,530, or 4'50 per cent., of 
which $55,003,351 were exports and $14,599,- 
179 imports. Galveston, Savannah,. Charles- 
ton, and Norfolk exported $29,629,047, $22,- 
813,347, $22,573,227, and $18,445,548, and 



150 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. 



imported $1,511,712, $483,281, $498,891, and 
$186,355, their respective shares in the total 
foreign trade being 2'10, 1-50, 1'49, and T29 
per cent. 

The value of the imports of merchandise at 
interior points of the United States without 
appraisement at ports of first arrival was, dur- 
ing the last fiscal year, $16,594,934, as against 
$13,360,066 during the previous year. The 
total value of the direct exports from Chicago 
to foreign countries amounted to $33,750,000 
during the year 1882. In 1883 the exports of 
Chicago are reported as $3,723,548 and the 
imports as $649,090. The exports from Min- 
neapolis, St. Louis, and other interior points 
which are shipped direct to foreign countries 
are not officially reported. From Huron, Mich., 
and the district of Minnesota, exports were 
shipped of the value of $10,948,590 and $7,- 
169,185, the imports entered at those districts 
being $2,906,247 and $1,085,213 ; while at Os- 
wego, N. Y., and Vermont district imports 
were received of the values of $8,341,324 and 
$6,194,886, the amounts of their exports being 
respectively $1,465,170 and $1,809,521. The 
proportional shares in the aggregate commerce 
of the United States in 1883 borne by those 
customs districts which transacted less than 1 
per cent, and more than y 1 ^ of 1 per cent, of 
the total were as follow: Huron, 0'90 per 
cent; Oswego, 0'63 ; Minnesota, Minn., 0*53 ; 
Vermont, Vt., 0'51 ; Buffalo Creek, N. Y., 
0-37; Portland, Me., 0-33 ; Charnplain, N. Y., 
0-33; Wilmington, N. C., 0'32; Detroit, 
Mich., 0-31 ; Chicago, El., 0'28 ; Willamette, 
Ore., 0-26; Richmond, Va., 0'22; Niagara, 
N. Y., 0-21 ; Mobile, Ala., 0-21 ; Miami, Ohio, 
0-20; Oregon, Ore., 0-19; Oswegatchie, N. Y., 
0-19; Corpus Christi, Tex., 0'18; Brazos de 
Santiago, Tex., 0-14; Pensacola, Fla., 0-14; 
Puget Sound, Wash., 0-12; Brunswick, Ga., 
0-10; Yorktown, Va., O'lO. 

Shipping and Navigation. The aggregate ton- 
nage of the American merchant marine in 
1883 and the three years preceding, compared 
with the tonnage at quinquennial periods since 
1850, was as follows : 



Tons. 



YEAR. 


Sail. 


Steam. 


Total. 


1850.... 
1855 


Tons. 
8,009,507 
4441 716 


Tons. 
525.947 


Tons. 
8,535,454 


I860.... 


4 485 931 


867 937 




1865.... 


4 029 643 


1 067 1 89 




1870.... 


3 171 412 


1 075 095 


4 246 507 


1875. 


3 6S5'o64 


l'l68'669 




1880. .. 


2 856 476 


1 911 558 




1881 


2'792736 


1 264 998 




1882.... 


2 810107 


1 1 35^8' 7 6 




1883 


2,822,293 


1,413,194 


4,235,487 



Under sailing-vessels in the above returns are 
included barges and canal-boats, the tonnage 
of which in 1883 amounted to 435,736 tons. 
The shipping which constituted the mercantile 
marine of the United States was distributed 
between the foreign and coasting trades and 
the fisheries as follows : 



Foreign trade 

Coasting trade 2,888,854 

Whale-fisheries 82,414 

Cod-fisheries 95,038 

Total 4,285,487 

The tonnage of sailing and steam vessels 
built in the United States in 1883 and the 
three years preceding was as follows: 



YEAR. 


Sailing-vessels. 


Steam-vessels. 


Total tonnage. 


1880.... 


78556 


78858 


157 409 


1881 


162 888 


118 070 


280 458 


1882 


160 427 


121 842 


282 269 


1888. 


158 200 


107 229 


265*429 











There were built in 1883 33 ships, against 31 
in 1882, 29 in 1881, 37 in 1879, 71 in 1877, 114 
in 1875, and 28 in 1873 ; 2 brigs, against 2 in 
1882, 3 in 1881, and 10 in 1879 ; 567 schooners, 
against 473 in 1882, 317 in 1881, 256 in 1879, 
337 in 1877, 502 in 1875, and 611 in 1873; 
and 227 sloops, canal-boats, and barges, 
against 363 in 1882, 314 in 1881, 494 in 1879, 
352 in 1877, 340 in 1875, and 1,221 in 1873. 
The number of steam-vessels constructed in 
1883 was 439, 502 in 1882, 444 in 1881, 335 
in 1879, 265 in 1877, 323 in 1875, and 402 in 
1873. Of the total tonnage of vessels built in 
1883 there were built on the seaboard 210,349 
tons, against 188,083 in 1882; on the New 
England coast alone, 110,226 tons, against 93,- 
965 in 1882 ; on the Mississippi river, 26,443 
tons, against 35,817 ; and on the Great Lakes, 
28,638 tons, against 58,369. The tonnage of 
iron vessels built in 1883 was 39,646, of which 
2,033 tons were sailing-vessels ; in 1882 40,- 
140 tons, nearly all steam-vessels; in 1881, 
28,356 tons; in 1880, 25,582 tons; in 1879, 
22,008 tons; in 1878, 28,960 tons; in 1877, 
5,927 tons; in 1876, 21,346 tons; in 1875, 21,- 
632 tons; in 1874, 33,097 tons; in 1873, 26,- 
548 tons; in 1872, 12,766 tons; in 1871, 15,- 
479 tons; in 1870, 8,281 tons; in 1868, 4,584 
tons; in 1868, 2,801 tons. 

The tonnage of American and foreign ves- 
sels entered at American seaports each year, 
from 1864 to 1883 inclusive, was as fol- 
lows: 



YEAR. 


American. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


1864 


Tons. 
1,655,484 


Tons. 
2,512,047 


Tons. 
4,167,481 


1865 


1,615,317 


2,211,610 


8,826,927 


1366 


1,891,453 


8,111,084 


5,008.487 


1867 


2.145,691 


3,120,695 


5,266,386 


1868 


2.465,695 


3,105,826 


5.571,521 


1869 


2,459,836 


3,572,644 


6,081,980 


1870 


2,452,226 


8.817,963 


6,270,189 


1871 


2 608/91 


4,890,606 


6,994,197 


1872 


2,5=4,646 


5,185,340 


7,769,986 


1873 


. 2,443.285 


5,951,464 


8,894,749 


1874 


2,914,942 


7,094,713 


10,009,655 


1875 


2,887,158 


6,255,985 


9,143.188 


1876. ... 


2,927,780 


6,788,124 


9,715,904 


1877 


2,957,791 


7,448,697 


10,406,488 


1878 
1879. . . 


8,009,487 
3,049,744 


8,521,090 
10,718.394 


11,580,527 
18,768,188 


1880 
1881 


8,140,169 
2 919 149 


12,112,160 
12 711 392 


15,251,829 
15,630,541 


1882... 


2,968,290 


11,688,209 


14,656,499 


1888.... 


2.834.681 


10.526.176 


13,360,857 



COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION, AMERICAN. 



151 



The share of each nation in the total ton- 
nage entered at American ports in 1883, as 
compared with 1856, was as follows: 



FLAG. 


1856. 


1883. 


Increase. 


British 


Tons. 
985,886 


Tons. 
6,775,526 


Tons. 
5,889,640 




166 88T 


1126 113 


959 276 


Norwegian and Swedish.. . 
Italian 


20,6-22 
15,677 


694,240 
417,728 


673,618 
402,051 


French. .... 


23,935 


876,890 


352,955 


Spanish 


62,813 


254,422 


191,609 




1,477 


147 848 


146 871 


Belgian 


200 


827,539 


827,889 




40 


71,950 


71,910 


Dutch. 


16,892 


165,976 


149,084 


Danish 


5,838 
4,727 


98,954 
19493 


98,116 
14,766 


All other fla^s 


14,819 


49,497 


84,678 


Total foreign 


1,269,763 


10,526,176 


9,256,413 


Total American 


3,194,275 


2,834,681 


859,594* 


Aggregate 


4,464,038 


18,860,857 


8,896,819 











* Decrease. 

Of 1,190 steam- vessels, carrying 44,205,000 
bushels of grain from the port of New York 
during the calendar year 1883, there were 786 
British, carrying 29,441,951 bushels; 93 Bel- 
gian, carrying 5,734,018 bushels; and 170 
German, carrying 4,248,485 bushels; the re- 
mainder carrying mostly Dutch, French, Dan- 
ish, Italian, but none of them American colors. 
Of 166 sailing-vessels, carrying 4,252,946 
bushels, only two were American ships. Out 
of 113,343,163 bushels carried in 1880, 63,376,- 
584 bushels were shipped from New York by 
sail, but in 1883 the proportion had declined to 
4,252,936 out of 48,457,945 bushels. 

The American steam tonnage entering Amer- 
ican ports in 1883 was 1,300,727 tons, against 
1,356,790 in 1882, 1,240,578 in 1881, 1,195,- 
900 in 1880, 1,118,459 in 1879, 1,092,103 in 
1877, 1,141,734 in 1875, 870,192 in 1873, 836,- 
456 in 1870, 298,311 in 1866, and 153,230 in 
1864. Of the foreign tonnage 6,646,338 tons 
were steam in 1883, 7,163,237 in 1882, 6,391,- 
126 in 1880, 3,142,723 in 1875, 1,680,704 in 
1870, and 642,576 in 1865. 

In 1856 the tonnage of American vessels 
entered at our seaports from foreign countries 
amounted to 3,194,27 % tons, and constituted 
71^ per cent, of the total tonnage entered ; and 
in 1868, three years after the termination of 
the war, the tonnage of American vessels 
entered constituted 44'26 per cent, of the to- 
tal tonnage entered, but of the total tonnage 
entered at seaports of the United States from 
foreign countries during the last fiscal year, 79 
per cent, consisted of foreign tonnage, and 
only 21 per cent, of American tonnage. 

The amount of American tonnage entered 
has exhibited but little change since 1868, but 
the tonnage of foreign vessels entered has in- 
creased from 3,105,826 tons in 1868 to 10,526,- 
176 in 1883. In other words, foreign ship- 
owners have been able to secure the entire 
increase in the foreign carrying-trade of the 
United States, which increase has been very 
large. These facts show that the decadence of 



American shipping is not at the present time 
due to incidents of the late war, but to causes 
which are persistent. 

The iron ship, especially the iron steamer, 
has, to a great extent, superseded the wooden 
ship, and owing to certain conditions of min- 
ing, labor, skill, and capital, iron vessels can 
be more advantageously constructed in Eu- 
rope, particularly in Great Britain, than in the 
United States. How small, relatively, is the 
iron tonnage built in the United States is 
shown by the fact that during the year 1882 
there were 130 iron and steel sailing-vessels 
built in Great Britain and Ireland, the total 
tonnage of which was 132,340 tons, and 568 
iron and steel steam-vessels built, the total 
tonnage of which was 520,437 tons, a total of 
698 iron and steel sailing and steam vessels, 
the aggregate tonnage of which was 652,777 
tons, or sixteen and a half times the total iron 
tonnage built in the United States. 

The small progress made in the United 
States in the building of iron and steel vessels 
is even more strikingly exhibited by the fact 
that, of the 39,646 tons built in American 
ship-yards during the year ended June 30, 
1883, 18,530 tons were for the home trade, 
which under the navigation laws of the 
United States is confined exclusively to Amer- 
ican vessels, and only 21,116 tons for the for- 
eign trade, which under the principles of 
maritime reciprocity, now prevalent among 
commercial nations, ig free to the ships of all 
nations. 

Daring the fiscal year 1883, 30 per cent, of 
the exports of merchandise was carried in 
sailing-vessels, 67 per cent, in steam-vessels, 
and 3 per cent, in cars and other land vehicles. 
Of the imports, 24 per cent, was brought in 
sailing-vessels, 72 per cent, in steam- vessels, 
and 4 per cent, by land. 

During the fiscal year 21 '4 per cent, of the 
exports from the United States of wheat and 
wheat-flour was from the Pacific coast. The 
rates of transportation by sea from Pacific 
coast ports to Europe were exceptionally low 
during the season of 1883. The current rate 
on the 5th of November, 1883, from San Fran- 
cisco to Liverpool, was only 1 12*. 6d. per 
ton of 2,240 pounds. This was lower than 
the average monthly rate during any month 
since June, 1872. The reduction in the ocean 
freight rates from the Pacific coast to Europe 
prevented the expected diversion of wheat to 
the rail-line from California to New Orleans, 
to be shipped thence by vessels to European 
ports. The lowering of the rates by sea was 
the result of the low quotations of wheat in 
the European markets, which were due to the 
large stocks then on hand, and the expectation 
of supplies from other countries as well as 
from America. 

The percentage of the tonnage entered at all 
American seaports which was entered at each 
of the principal ports in 1883, as compared 
with 1870 and 1860, was as follows: 



152 COMMERCE, ETC., AMERICAN. 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 



PORTS. 


1860. 


1870. 


1883. 


New York 
Boston 


89-47 
14-87 


49-88 
12-66 


48-27 
10-06 


Baltimore 


8-78 


4-34 


6-69 


San Francisco. 


4-70 


6-29 


6-64 


Philadelphia 


8'70 


4'79 


6-42 


New Orleans. 


12-65 


7-81 


5-50 


Portland 


2-30 


2-80 


1-35 


Galveston 


65 


50 


1-15 




1-85 


1-87 


1-05 


Charleston 


2-58 


58 


1-01 


Mobile 
All other ports 


8-22 
10-88 


1-12 
8-91 


51 
11-35 


Total 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 



Railroads and Transportation. The cost of trans- 
porting grain and provisions from the interior 
to the seaboard is an important element in the 
foreign commerce of the United States. With 
the advantage of a level country, and under 
the spur of competition for such an enormous 
traffic, between the various trunk lines, among 
themselves and with alternative water-routes, 
the system of land-carriage in the United States 
has been brought to a higher degree of com- 
mercial economy and efficiency than that of 
any other country. The great markets of 
Europe are more accessible to the farmers of 
the Western prairies than to those of many 

Earts of the Continent of Europe or of certain 
arming districts in the British Islands. Be- 
sides great reductions in the time and cost of 
transportation, commerce has been promoted 
by arrangements made by the railroad lines 
with one another and with ocean-steamship 
lines, by which merchandise can be transport- 
ed over two or more connecting lines from the 
point of shipment to the point of delivery, 
without the necessity of any supervision on 
the part of shipper or consignee. The reduc- 
tion in the cost of inland transportation has 
been the main cause of the increase in the 
value of the exports of cereals from $84,586,- 
273 in 1872, to $208,040,850 in 1883, and in 
the value of the provision exports from $59,- 
696,670 to $107,388,287. The extent of the 
reduction can be seen in the following tabular 
statement of the average freight charges per 
bushel of wheat from Chicago to New York 
by the lake, the Erie Canal, and the Hud- 
son river ; by the lake to Buffalo and thence 
by rail to New York city, and all the way by 
rail, for the calendar years from 1868 to 1882 
and for the, first ten months of 1883 : 



YEAR. 


Lake and oanal. 


Lake and rail. 


All rail. 


1868.... 


Cent,. 
25'8 


Cents. 


Cents. 


1869.... 


24*1 


25* 




1870 
1871.... 


17-5 
21 "6 


22-0 


33-8 


1872.... 


26' 6 






1878,... 


19-2 


26 '9 


83*2 


1874.... 


14 - 2 






1875.... 


11'4 






1876.... 


9'7 






1877.... 


7'5 






1878.... 


10-1 






1879 


13-0 






1880... 


13*2 






1881 


8*6 






1882 


8'7 


10*9 




1888 


9*16 















The increase in the rates of 1883 over those 
of the foregoing year was due to the fact that 
the grain movement was much larger. The 
low rates in 1881 were exceptional, being due 
to the war of rates going on in that year be- 
tween the trunk lines. The secret "special" 
rates at which merchandise was transported 
were actually much lower than the quoted av- 
erage of 14-6 cents. In 1882 agreed rates were 
generally maintained. In 1883 the prospects 
of a smaller crop than in 1882 and of lower 
export prices caused variations from the sched- 
ule rates to be made privately by the different 
roads, until finally they worked somewhat 
more harmoniously under a reduced tariff, 
established by Commissioner Fink.* 

CONGREGATIONALISM. The following is a 
summary of the statistics of the Congregational 
churches in the United States as given in the 
J' Congregational Year-Book " for 1883. It 
includes the additional returns received after 
the regular tables of the " Year-Book " were 
made up : Number of churches, 1,024 ; of min- 
isters, 3,723 ; number of members, 387,837; of 
persons in Sunday-schools, 454,968 ; number of 
additions during the year by profession of faith, 
13,552 ; number of baptisms, 5,322 of infants, 
6,005 of adults. Of the ministers, 919 are re- 
turned as pastors and 1,607 as "acting pas- 
tors " ; of the churches, 2,914 as supplied with 
pastors, and 1,023 as " vacant." The benevo- 
lent contributions reported by 2,994 churches 
amounted to $1,383,685 ; the "home expen- 
ditures" of 2,256 churches were $2,934,027. 
The seven theological seminaries, at And over, 
Mass., Bangor, Me., Chicago, 111., Hartford, 
Conn., Oberlin, O., Oakland, Cal. (Pacific), 
and New Haven, Conn. (Yale), returned in 
all 39 professors, 24 instructors and lecturers, 
and 272 students, with graduating classes of 25 
members and 3 "resident licentiates." The 
Territories of Idaho and Montana are repre- 
sented in the statistical tables for the first time 
this year Idaho with one church of ten mem- 
bers, and Montana with four churches. 

American Congregational Union. The thirtieth 
annual meeting, of the American Congrega- 
tional Union was held in the city of New York, 
May 10th. The receipts for the year had been 
$100,518. Grants amounting to $66,658 had 
been voted to 150 churches in 25 States and 
Territories, and grants amounting to $177,263 



* The managers of the East and West trunk lines agreed 
in 1877, after their mutual arrangements had in every instance 
been disregarded, to submit to Mr. Albert Fink the task of 
arranging a pool or combination, apportioning a percentage 
of the total traffic to each road, and fixing the rate to be 
charged by each. He has continued to discharge the office ot 
arbitrator and intermediary with varying success. The first 
agreement related to the .west-bound freight, but the pooling 
arrangements have since been extended to almost all the 
business of the roads. The roads are not restricted as to the 
quantity of business they do, but the receipts beyond the al- 
lotted proportion are paid into the pool and divided. When 
the traffic is large, the railroads usually keep to their agree- 
ments, and their complicated accounts are adjusted through 
the office of Commissioner Fink ; but, when business falls 
off, evasions are practiced surreptitiously, which are likely to 
lead to a war of rates, as in 1881. when earnings estimated to 
amount to $30,000,000 were sacrificed. 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 



153 



had been paid to 91 churches in 23 States and 
Territories. The sum of $14,404 had been con- 
tributed expressly to aid in the building of par- 
sonages; and grants in aid of that object had 
been made to 14 churches. 

American Home Missionary Society. The anni- 
versary of the American Home Missionary So- 
ciety was held at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., June 
5th. The receipts for the year ending April 
1st had been $370,981, which, with a balance 
of $27,935 in the treasury at the beginning of 
the year, made the society's entire available 
resources $398,916. The expenditures in pay- 
ment of missionaries had been $354,105. The 
whole number of ministers in the service of 
the society was 1,150, and by their aid 2,659 
congregations and mission districts had been 
supplied. Three missionaries had served con- 
gregations of colored people, 16 had preached 
in their own language to Welsh, nine to German, 
and three to French congregations, while two 
had served Indian congregations. Two thou- 
sand and eight Sunday-schools, having 106,638 
pupils, were under the special care of mission- 
aries. Two hundred and thirty-three new 
schools had been formed. One hundred and 
one churches had been organized, and 43 
churches had become self-supporting during 
the year ; and 3,558 members had been re- 
ceived on profession of faith. A woman's de- 
partment auxiliary to the society had been 
organized. 

American Board. The seventy -fourth annual 
meeting of the American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions was held at De- 
troit. Mich., Oct. 2d. The total receipts of 
the board for the year had been $523,426, or 
$61,155 more than the receipts of the previous 
year. From the fund bequeathed by Mr. Otis 
had been received also, for evangelistic enlarge- 
ment, $7,613 ; for educational enlargement, 
$29,683 ; and for new missions in Africa, Chi- 
na, and Mexico, $30,286 ; making in all, $67,- 
568. Adding this sum, the whole amount at 
the disposal of the Prudential Committee had 
been $1,591,488. Four missionaries and twelve 
assistant missionaries had been added during 
the year to the force in the field, and fourteen 
returned missionaries, after a period of rest in 
the United States, had gone back to their work. 
The following general summary of the condi- 
tion of the missions is taken from the u Annual 
Survey " of the board. Number of missions 
(West Central Africa, Zulu, Umzila, European 
Turkey, Western Turkey, Central Turkey, East- 
ern Turkey, Maratha, Madura, Ceylon, Hong- 
Kong, Foochow, North China, Shanse, Japan,. 
Micronesia, Northern Mexico, Western Mexico, 
Spain, and Austria), 20 ; of stations, 80 ; of out- 
stations, 742. 

Laborers employed. Number of ordained 
missionaries (6 being physicians), 154; of phy- 
sicians not ordained, men and women, 9 ; of 
other male assistants, 7 ; of other female assist- 
ants, 263 ; whole number of laborers sent from 
the United States, 433 ; number of native pas- 



tors, 144 ; of native preachers and catechists, 
369 ; of native school-teachers, 1,014 ; of other 
native helpers, 300 ; total of native laborers, 
1,827; whole number of laborers connected 
with the missions, 2,260. 

The Press. Papers printed, as far as re- 
ported, 32,000,000. 

The Churches. Number of churches, 278 ; 
of church-members, as nearly as can be learned, 
19,364; added during the year, 1,737; whole 
number from the tirst, as nearly as can be 
learned, 89,323. 

Educational Department. Number of high 
schools, theological seminaries, and station- 
classes, 58, with 2,086 pupils; of boarding- 
schools for girls, 40, with 1,538 pupils ; of 
common schools, 832, with 31,016 pupils; 
whole number of pupils, 35,625. 

The Missionaries and the Armenian Churches. The 
matter of complaints which were made by the 
members of the churches formed among the 
Armenians, in the Eastern Turkey mission, 
against the management and administration 
of the affairs of the mission, received a full 
discussion. The subject of the complaint had 
been brought before the board at the meeting 
of the previous year, and a committee had 
been appointed then to inquire into it. This 
committee had appointed a sub-committee to 
visit the mission, and by conferences with the 
Armenian members of the churches and the 
missionaries to inform themselves at the origi- 
nal sources concerning the nature and merits 
of the complaints. From the various reports 
and documents presented it appears that the 
Armenians considered that their 'churches had 
in fact passed out of the stage of mission 
stations, and had become or were becoming 
fully developed churches, and they felt that the 
management of the mission ought to be modi- 
fied in recognition of the changed conditions. 
They asked that they be given a general civil 
and secular organization to meet the requisi- 
tions of Turkish law, and a representative ec- 
clesiastical organization ; that the missionaries 
become ecclesiastically connected with the na- 
tive churches, so as to be in fellowship with 
them and amenable to church discipline there ; 
that all native institutions connected with the 
churches should be encouraged by pecuniary 
help and moral support; that a central theo- 
logical seminary, equal to those in America, 
be established, with natives among the teachers 
and directors, and means be provided for the 
higher education of young men, cheaper than 
it can be obtained at Robert College ; that a 
larger proportion of native laborers be enlisted 
in the departments of evangelistical, literary, 
and educational work, with a gradual with- 
drawal of missionaries ; and that in the several 
departments of work, natives should have an 
equal voice with missionaries in representa- 
tion on the committees and in the councils, 
and in discussing and voting on all .questions, 
including those of the appropriation and dis- 
position of funds. After hearing a series of 



154 



CONGEE G ATION ALISTS. 



reports, in which the views of both sides were 
presented, the board resolved : 

1. That in accordance with the suggestion of the 
visiting deputation that, as a preparation for the with- 
drawal in our time of its missionaries from the work 
among the Armenians, the board favor the admission 
of representatives of native churches in Turkey in 
conferences concerning the practical work of evan- 
gelization, education, and publication^ including esti- 
mates for necessary expenses, reserving, however, to 
the mission, as the responsible agents of the board on 
the field, final action respecting the distribution of 
funds drawn from the treasury of the board, sub- 
ject, of course, to the approval of the Prudential 
Committee. 

2. That there is a pressing need for a large-hearted 
and even generous co-operation with our native breth- 
ren everywhere, its particular form and method being 
shaped by the circumstances of each locality, but such 
as may assure them of our Christian love, and fit 
them most speedily to assume the entire support and 
management of the evangelization of their respective 
fields. 

American Missionary Association. The thirty- 
seventh annual meeting of the American Mis- 
sionary Association was held in Brooklyn, N.Y., 
October 30th. The ordinary receipts of the 
society for the year had been $312,567, or 
$14,983 more than those of the previous year. 
Further sums amounting to $13,500 had been 
received toward the endowment funds of the 
chartered institutions of the association and 
the proposed Arthrington mission in the region 
of the Upper Nile, which with $10,918 ex- 
pended upon Stone Hall, Atlanta University, 
made the total amount that had been at the 
disposal of the Executive Committee, $337,003. 
In the work of rearranging and consolidating 
the missions of this society and other societies 
with which it has fraternal relations, the Mendi 
mission in West Africa, with its special fund and 
the steamer John Brown, had been transferred 
to the United Brethren, whose mission at 
Shengay is contiguous to it. The Arthrington 
mission, with its fund, had been offered to the 
Board of the United Presbyterian Church of 
North America, which was conducting a suc- 
cessful mission in Egypt. That board was 
ready to take up the mission, and intended to 
establish its base of operations at Khartoum, 
while Mr. Arthrington desired to have it pushed 
farther up the Nile to Fatiko. The Dakota 
mission of the American Board, with the ex- 
ception of. the Sisseton agency, which had 
been undertaken by the Home Board of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America, had been received by this association. 
It included 4 stations, 9 schools, 5 churches, 
12 missionaries, 25 teachers, one native pastor, 
12 native teachers, 271 church-members, 356 
pupils, and 584 Sunday-school scholars. The 
old mission of the association in Washington 
Territory had one missionary, two churches, 36 
Indian and 13 white members, and two Sun- 
day-schools, with 95 scholars. The mission to 
the Chinese in California returned 19 schools, 
with 40 teachers, 14 of whom were Chinese, 
and an enrollment of 2,823 pupils. One hun- 
dred and seventy-five Chinese had professed to 



cease from idolatry. Work among the negrces 
was prosecuted in twelve of the Southern 
States, and in Kansas and the District of Co- 
lumbia. The schools include eight chartered 
institutions in as many States, twelve high and 
normal schools, and forty-two common schools, 
which together reported 279 teachers and 
9,640 pupils. Seventy students^ were pursuing 
a theological course, and twenty a course in 
law. Departments in industrial training were 
maintained at Charleston, S. C., Macon and 
Atlanta, Ga., at Fisk University, Nashville, 
and at Memphis, Tenn. ; and at Talladega, Ala., 
and Tongaloo, Miss. Six new churches had 
been added, making the whole number of 
churches in the South connected with the as- 
sociation 89, with 5,974 members and 9,406 
Sunday-school scholars. These churches had 
raised for church purposes, during the year, 
$12,027. The Ecclesiastical Association of 
Mississippi, with six churches, had been added 
to the State bodies of this character connected 
with the society, making the whole number 
eight. They represent an average of eleven 
churches each. 

Triennial Council of the Congregational Churches. 
The fifth Triennial Council of the Congrega- 
tional Churches of the United States met in 
Concord, N. H., October 10th. About three 
hundred delegates were in attendance. The 
Rev. Dr. Arthur Little, of Chicago, was chosen 
moderator. The council has no authority, but 
is a voluntary body, for discussion and inter- 
change of reports and opinions in the effort to 
ascertain the condition and feelings of the 
churches, and for the purpose of making such 
recommendations as may seem good to it. Rep- 
resentations were made, with statements of 
their wants, of the condition of the several 
Congregational benevolent societies, including 
the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, the College and Education 
Society, the American Missionary Association, 
the American Home Mission Society, the Con- 
gregational Sunday-school and Publishing So- 
ciety, the American Congregational Union, 
and the New West Commission. The general 
statistical returns showed that there had been 
a net gain in the denomination during the past 
three years of 262 churches and 5,079 mem- 
bers ; that the additions to churches by pro- 
fession averaged 12,500 annually; that the 
contributions for Sunday-schools during the 
past year had amounted to $300,000, and the 
contributions for charitable objects to more 
than $6,000,000, and that there were 874 more 
churches than there were clergymen to supply 
them. A committee of seven members had 
been nppointed at the previous meeting of the 
council to select a commission of twenty-five 
persons for the purpose of framing a creed 
or statement of belief to be submitted to the 
churches for their approval. The committee 
reported that it had appointed the commission, 
and was discharged. The commission had not 
yet completed the preparation of a creed. A 



CONGREG ATION ALISTS. 



155 



resolution was passed urging it to complete and 
publish its work as speedily as practicable. A 
resolution was introduced advising that the 
terra "acting pastor" and its abbreviation, 
"A. P.," be dropped from the nomenclature 
and statistics of the denomination, and that all 
ministers in regular connection with some as- 
sociation or conference of churches, or minis- 
ters who accept calls to pastorates given by a 
formal vote of the churches, be enrolled as 
pastors, and all others be enrolled with their 
appropriate designations. This gave way to a 
resolution, which was adopted, directing the 
secretary, in preparing the "Year-Book," to 
follow the designations of pastor or acting pas- 
tor, adopted in the minutes of the several State 
bodies. The object of the measure is to remove 
the distinction previously recognized between 
pastors who have been installed with the ad- 
vice of a council and those who have not been 
so installed. A statement was made respect- 
ing the growth of Congregational churches in 
the South, showing that, while only about 
twenty churches had been formed among the 
white people of the South (outside of Missouri 
and the District of Columbia), nearly one hun- 
dred churches had been established among the 
colored people, and were organized in confer- 
ences covering the Southern States. A com- 
mittee was appointed to prepare a draft of a 
bill for the establishment of a Bureau of In- 
dian Education, and to press it upon the atten- 
tion of Congress. 

Congregationalists in Great Britain. The " Con- 
gregational Year-Book " for 1883 gives the num- 
ber of members of the Congregational churches 
in England and Wales as 387,619. showing a net 
gain during the year of 1,934. The number of 
churches was 3,936, and the number of min- 
isters 3,723, of whom 918 were pastors, 1,607 
acting pastors, and 1,198 not in pastoral work. 
The number of baptisms during the year was 
5,999 of adults, and 5,322 of infants. 

London Missionary Soeiety. The receipts of the 
London Missionary Society for 1882 were127,- 
627, and a balance in favor of the society of 
539 was returned on the year's accounts. 
The number of missionaries in connection with 
the society was 166, 15 of whom were women. 
Reports of missionary operations were made at 
the anniversary in May, from China, Mongolia, 
India, where 5,804 pupils in schools were re- 
turned; Madagascar; South Africa, including 
the Cape Colony and the country north of the 
Orange and Vaal rivers, extending almost to 
the Zambesi ; Central Africa, including the 
country of the Tanganyika-lake ; the West In- 
dies, including Jamaica and British Guiana; 
the South Sea islands, including the Samoa and 
Loyalty groups ; Tahiti, and a number of small- 
er islands; and Few Guinea, where, under the 
direction of four European missionaries and 
eight teachers, natives of the Loyalty islands, 
remarkable progress was claimed to have been 
made in eight years. A deputation had been 
sent out to visit the mission-fields of the so- 



ciety, beginning with India, and going thence 
to China and South Africa. Another deputa- 
tion had been sent out, with a representative del- 
egated by the Congregational Union of England 
and Wales for the same object, to inquire into 
the condition of the native churches of Jamaica 
and British Guiana, from which the society had 
been gradually withdrawing its aid, but which 
had asked for continued support. On the rec- 
ommendation of the deputation, the directors 
of the society, at a time later than the anniver- 
sary meeting, adopted a plan of continued but 
gradually diminishing support for three years 
longer. 

Congregational Union of England and Wales. The 
meeting of the Congregational Union of Eng- 
land and Wales for the spring was held May 
llth. The subject of lay agency was dis- 
cussed, with many expressions in favor of ex- 
tended lay preaching. A resolution was adopted 
respecting the Affirmation Bill, declaring : 

That the Assembly hereby records its extreme re- 
gret at the reactionary votes by which a majority of 
the House of Commons has rejected the Affirmation 
Bill, checked the course of Liberal legislation com- 
menced fifty years ago in the repeal of the Test and 
Corporation Acts, and carried still further in the Act 
of Roman Catholic Emancipation and the relief of 
Jewish disability ; and at the same time expresses 
gratitude to the minority who were faithful to the 
principle of religious liberty, and especially to their 
venerated leader, the Prime Minister ; for his exposi- 
tion and defense of those principles with an eloquence 
so lofty and in a spirit so eminently Christian. 

A scheme was adopted relative to examina- 
tions of young people on the three subjects of 
Scripture history and doctrine, Christian evi- 
dences, and ecclesiastical polity, and a special 
committee was appointed fo attend to the per- 
fection and execution of it. 

The forty-fourth autumnal session of the 
Union was held in Sheffield, beginning October 
9th. The Rev. Principal, A. M. Fairbairn, D. D., 
presided, and delivered the opening address, 
the subject of which was "Christianity in the 
Nineteenth Century." The committee of the 
Jubilee Fund reported that 100,000 sterling 
had been added to the fund, and it now stood 
at 280,000. Of it there had been promised 
27,826 to the Congregational Church Aid So- 
ciety; 125,000 for the liquidation of church 
debts ; 46,781 for Congregational Church ex- 
tension in London, and 1,830 to various Con- 
gregational institutions, besides 17,500 for the 
liquidation of the debts of the Yorkshire col- 
leges, while 24, 000 were not yet appropriated. 
The special committee appointed at the spring 
session of the Union, on the subject of the ex- 
amination of young people in Scriptural knowl- 
edge, reported that it had appointed central 
bodies of examiners on the subjects specified in 
the scheme approved at that meeting, and had 
divided the country into eight districts, for each. 
of which a body of eight examiners had been 
appointed. A report was made of the work oi ! 
the "Senatus Academicus" of associated theo- 
logical colleges of England and Wales, which 



156 



CONGREGATIONALISTS. 



had been instituted four years previously for 
promoting a higher standard of theological at- 
tainment by means of examinations. Eight 
Congregational colleges and one Baptist college 
had entered into the arrangement, and were 
represented in the Senatus by their professors 
and three other delegates each. Four annual 
examinations had been held, at which 69 can- 
didates had presented themselves, 57 of whom 
had satisfied the examiners. 

Congregationalisms in Australia. The Congrega- 
tional churches of Australia make returns of 
members as follows: In New South Wales, 
48 churches, 12,995 adherents, 6,229 Sunday- 
school scholars; Victoria, 45 churches, 15,447 
adherents, 7,370 Sunday - school scholars ; 
South Australia, 45 churches, 9,860 adherents, 
4,390 Sunday-school scholars; Queensland, 20 
churches, 5,650 adherents, 2,784 Sunday-school 
scholars; Tasmania, 29 churches, 4,835 adher- 
ents, 2,246 Sunday-school scholars ; total, 187 
churches, 48,747 adherents, and 23,019 Sunday- 
school scholars. 

The Jubilee of Congregationalism in Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania was celebrated by an in- 
tercolonial conference of the churches, which 
was held in Sydney. The establishment of a 
Jubilee Fund was determined upon, of $100,- 
000, to be applied to the payment of church 
debts and the foundation of a Ministers' Relief 
Fund. Ninety thousand dollars were sub- 
scribed to this fund during the sessions of the 
conference. 

Congregationalism in Canada. As early as 1753 
a congregational church gathered in Halifax, 
N. S. The name by which it was subsequently 
known, Mather Church, indicates its New Eng- 
land origin. A large Scotch Presbyterian ele- 
ment eventually came into Nova Scotia, and 
after the revolution settlement during which 
many of the old New England settlers returned 
to their Massachusetts home a Presbyterian 
minister was called to the pastorate. Eventu- 
ally, by act of Parliament, the property of 
Mather Church was secured to ''St. Matthew's 
Presbyterian Church," and Congregationalism 
lost its identity in Halifax. 

The men who planted the British flag over 
the French forts of Acadie were very largely 
Massachusetts Puritans, and their chaplains 
generally accompanied the troops, as the 
French were Roman Catholics. 

At present, there are in the two provinces 
of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, with 
their population of 750,000, twenty-one Con- 
gregational churches, sixteen ministers, and an 
acknowledged adherence of 5,000 souls. By 
ft bequest from Mrs. Gorham, of Liverpool, 
N. S., a Congregational College was estab- 
lished in that town, but want of sufficient 
means, with the burning of the college build- 
ing, has caused that interest to be closed and 
its funds to be appropriated, as the bequest 
provided, for mission purposes. 

In 1775 a Mr. Jones, a Welshman and a 
Whitefieldite, connected with the Royal Artil- 



lery, gathered a church at St. John's, N. F., 
which continues to this day in active opera- 
tion, and is the center of a missionary work in 
that island. A mission on the Labrador coast is 
worked from the church at St. John's. There 
are now one settled pastor and three ordained 
missionaries in Newfoundland connected with 
Congregationalism. 

In what are known as the Eastern townships 
of the present province of Quebec, settlers 
from Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Ver- 
mont came in, forming the nucleus of Congre- 
gationalism in that section. The first remem- 
bered church gathered on Stanstead plain in a 
log barn, 1798, near the site of the present 
church-building. The churches in this locality, 
though in working connection with the Cana- 
dian churches, take much of their tone from 
the New England brethren, representing the 
Congregationalism of Massachusetts rather than 
that of England. 

In 1801 Mr. Bentom, sent to the Canadas by 
the London Missionary Society, established a 
Congregational church in the city of Quebec. 
No clergyman other than of the Anglican and 
Papal communions could lawfully baptize, mar- 
ry, or officiate in a public burying-ground with- 
out license from the authorities, and the license 
or register was renewed annually. After re- 
ceiving his register two years, Mr. Bentom was 
refused the third. For daring to print a pam- 
phlet against this, he was arrested, fined 50, 
and imprisoned for six months. It was not till 
several years after that these disabilities were 
removed by act of Parliament. The Quebec 
church eventually, like that of Halifax, was 
merged into* a Presbyterian church, though 
another Congregational interest was imme- 
diately started, which continued till the pres- 
ent time, when the Protestant exodus from 
Quebec has closed it for a season. 

Generally speaking, Congregationalism in the 
present provinces of Ontario and Quebec dates 
from the arrival, under the auspices of the Eng- 
lish Colonial Missionary Society, of Mr. John 
Roaf in Toronto, and of Dr. Henry Wilkes in 
Montreal, about 1836. Around these gentle- 
men gathered the Zion churches, which, for 
life, liberality, influence, and social rank, were 
second to none in the provinces. Zion Church, 
Toronto, after having "hived off" four other 
churches, has just erected a new building. 
Emanuel Church, Montreal, is virtually the 
old Zion of that city. ,In 1873, scattered 
throughout the provinces of Ontario and Que- 
bec, 85 churches were reported, 67 ministers, 
and a membership of 4,500 : in 1883 the church- 
es numbered 90, ministers 67, and members 
6,000, with two churches established in the 
new province of Manitoba. Most of the 
churches and ministers of these provinces are 
associated in a Union which meets annually for 
conference only. 

^There is one theological college connected 
with the denomination, of which the first tutor 
or professor was Rev. A. Lillie, D. D., whose 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PBESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



157 



name must be associated with those of Dr. 
Wilkes and Mr. Roaf in the pioneer work of 
Congregationalism in the old Canadas. 

Congregationalism has proved itself in Can- 
ada more powerful as a principle permeating 
other bodies than as a distinct organization. 
It can only claim, in a population of 4,250,000, 
a following of 27,000. Many considerations 
may tend toward explaining its comparatively 
small following in an Anglo-Saxon colony, see- 
ing that it is truly the preponderating power 
in English nonconformity, and has a large place 
in the churches of the United States. Scotch 
emigration (700,000 in Canada claim Scottish 
descent) would represent Presbyterianism, Eng- 
lish emigration the Anglican and Methodist 
churches; the well-to-do class, representing 
English independence, having hitherto supplied 
little toward the stream of emigration. Con- 
sequent on this, the few who did emigrate 
would seldom find churches of their own order, 
and finding no overshadowing establishment 
in this land of liberty, would, with their catho- 
lic spirit, find a home in sister denominations. 

CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. The second ses- 
sion of the Forty- seventh Congress began on 
Monday, Dec. 4, 1882 ; and the second annual 
message of the President was submitted, as 
follows: 
To the Senate and Home of Representatives of the 

United States : 

It is provided by the Constitution that the President 
shall from time to time give to the Congress informa- 
tion of the state of the Union, and recommend to their 
consideration such measures as he shall judge neces- 
sary and expedient. 

In reviewing the events of the year which has 
elapsed since the commencement of your sessions, I 
first call your attention to the gratifying condition of 
our foreign affairs. Our intercourse with other powers 
has continued to be of the most friendly character. 

Such slight differences as have arisen during the 
year have been already settled or are likely to reach an 
early adjustment. The arrest of citizens of the United 
States in Ireland under recent laws which owe their 
origin to the disturbed condition of that country has 
led to a somewhat extended correspondence with the 
Government of Great Britain. A disposition to re- 
spect our rights has been practically manifested by 
the release of the arrested parties. 

The claim of this nation in regard to the super- 
vision and control of any interoceanic canal across the 
American Isthmus has continued to be the subject of 
conference. 

It is likely that time will be more powerful than 
discussion in removing the ^ divergence between the 
two nations, whose friendship is so closely cemented 
by the intimacy of their relation and the community 
or their interests. 

Our long-established friendliness with Eussia has 
remained unshaken. It has prompted me to proffer 
the earnest counsels of this Government that measures 
be adopted for suppressing the proscription which the 
Hebrew race in that country has lately suffered. It 
. has not transpired that any American citizen has been 
subjected to arrest or injury, but our courteous re- 
monstrance has nevertheless been courteously re- 
ceived. There is reason to believe that the time is 
not far distant when Kussia will be able to secure 
toleration to all faiths within her borders. 

At an international convention held at Paris in 1880, 
and attended by representatives of the United States, 
an agreement was reached in respect to the protection 



of trade-marks, patented articles, and the rights of 
manufacturing firms and corporations. The formu- 
lating into treaties of the recommendations thus 
adopted is receiving the attention which it merits. 

The protection of submarine cables is a subject 
now under consideration by an international confer- 
ence at Paris. Believing that it is clearly the true 
policy of this Government to favor the neutralization 
of this means of intercourse, I requested our minister 
to France to attend the convention as a delegate. I 
also designated two of our eminent scientists to attend 
as our representatives at the meeting of an interna- 
tional committee at Paris, for considering the adoption 
of a common unit to measure electric force. 

In view of the frequent occurrence of conferences for 
the consideration of important matters of common in- 
terest to civilized nations, I respectfully suggest that 
the Executive be invested by Congress with discre- 
tionary powers to send delegates to such conventions, 
and that provision be made to 'defray the expenses 
incident thereto. 

The difference between the United States and Spain 
as to the effect of a judgment and certificate of natu- 
ralization has not yet been adjusted ; but it is hoped 
and believed that negotiations now in progress will 
result in the establishment of the position which 
seems to this Government so reasonable and just. 

I have already called the attention of Congress to 
the fact that in the ports of Spain and its colonies 
onerous fines have latelv been imposed upon vessels 
of the United States for trivial technical offenses 
against local regulations. Efforts for the abatement 
ot these exactions have thus far proved unsuccessful. 

I regret to inform you also that the fees demanded 
by Spanish consuls in American ports are in some 
cases so large, when compared with the value of the 
cargo, as to amount in effect to a considerable export 
duty, and that our remonstrances in this regard have 
not as yet received the attention which they eem to 
deserve. 

The German Government has invited the United 
States to participate in an international exhibition of 
domestic cattle to be held at Hamburg in July, 1883. 
If this country is to be represented, it is important 
that in the early days of this session Congress should 
make a suitable appropriation for that purpose. 

The death of Mr. Marsh, our late minister to Italy, 
has evoked from that Government expressions of 
profound respect for his exalted character and for his 
honorable career in the diplomatic service of his coun- 
try. The Italian Government has raised a question 
as to the propriety of recognizing in his dual capacity 
the representative of. this country recently accredited 
both as secretary of legation and as consul-general at 
Koine. He has been received as secretary, but his 
exequatur as consul-general has thus far been with- 
held. 

The extradition convention with Belgium, which 
has been in operation since 1874, has been lately sup- 
planted by another. The Senate has signified its 
approval, and ratifications have been duly exchanged 
between the contracting countries. To the list of ex- 
traditable crimes has been added that of the assassi- 
nation or attempted assassination of the chief of the 
state. 

Negotiations have been opened with Switzerland 
looking to a settlement by treaty of the question 
whether its citizens can renounce their allegiance and 
become citizens of the United States without obtaining- 
the consent of the Swiss Government. 

I am glad to inform you that the immigration of 
paupers and criminals from certain of the cantons of 
Switzerland has substantially ceased and is no longer 
sanctioned by the authorities. 

The consideration of this subject prompts the sug- 
gestion that the act of Aug. 3, 1882, which has for 
its object the return of foreign convicts to their own 
country, should be so modified as not to be open to 
the interpretation that it affects the extradition of 
criminals on preferred charges of crime. 



158 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



The Ottoman Porte has not yet assented to the in- 
terpretation which this Government has put upon the 
treaty of 1830 relative to its jurisdictional rights in 
Turkey. It may well be, however, that this difference 
will be adjusted by a general revision of the system 
of jurisdiction of the United States in the countries of 
the East a subject to which your attention has been 
already called by the Secretary of State. 

In the interest of justice toward China and Japan, 
I trust that the question of the return of the indem- 
nity fund to the governments of those countries will 
reach at the present session the satisfactory solution 
which I have already recommended, and which has 
recently been foreshadowed by congressional discus- 
sion. 

The treaty lately concluded with Corea awaits the 
action of the Senate. 

During the late disturbance in Egypt the timely 
presence of American vessels served as a protection 
to the persons and property of many of our own citi- 
zens and of citizens of other countries, whose gov- 
ernments have expressed their thanks for this as- 
sistance. 

The recent legislation restricting immigration of 
laborers from China has given rise to the question 
whether Chinese proceeding to or from another coun- 
try may lawfully pass through our own. 

Construing the act of May 6, 1882, in connection 
with the treaty of Nov. V. 1880, the restriction would 
seem to be limited to Chinese immigrants coming to 
the United States as laborers, and would not forbid a 
mere transit across our territory. I ask the attention 
of Congress to the subject for such action, if any, as 
may be deemed advisable. 

This Government has recently had occasion to 
manifest its interest in the Kepublic of Liberia by 
seeking to aid the amicable settlement of the bound- 
ary dispute now pending between that republic and 
the British possession ol Sierra Leone. 

The reciprocity treaty with Hawaii will become 
terminable after Sept. 9, 1883, on twelve months' no- 
tice by either party. While certain provisions of 
that compact may have proved onerous, its existence 
has fostered commercial relations which it is impor- 
tant to preserve. I suggest, therefore, that early 
consideration be given to such modifications of the 
treaty as seem to be demanded by the interests of our 
people. 

In view of our increasing trade with both Hayti and 
Santo Domingo, I advise that provision be made for 
diplomatic intercourse with the latter by enlarging 
the scope of the mission at Port-au-Prince. 

I regret that certain claims of American citizens 
against the Government of Hayti have thus far been 
urged unavailingly. 

A recent agreement with Mexico provides for the 
crossing of the frontier by the armed forces of either 
country in pursuit of hostile Indians. In my mes- 
sage of last year I called attention to the prevalent 
lawlessness upon the borders and to the necessity 
of legislation for its suppression. I again invite the 
attention of Congress to the subject. 

A partial relieffrom these mischiefs has been sought 
in a convention, which now awaits the approval of 
the Senate, as does also another touching the estab- 
lishment of the international boundary between the 
United States and Mexico. If the latter is ratified, 
the action of Congress will be required for establish- 
ing suitable commissions of survey. The boundary 
dispute between Mexico and Guatemala, which led 
this Government to proffer its friendly counsels to 
both parties, has been amicably settled. 

No change has occurred in our relations with Ven- 
ezuela. I again invoke your action in the matter of 
the pending awards against that republic to which 
reference was made by a special message from the 
Executive at your last session. 

An invitation has been received from the Govern- 
ment of Venezuela to send representatives in July, 
1883, to Caracas, for participating in the centen- 



nial celebration of the birth of Bolivar, the founder of 
South American independence. In connection with 
this event it is designed to commence the erection at 
Caracas of a statue of Washington, and to conduct an 
industrial exhibition, which will be open to American 
products. I recommend that the United States be 
represented, and that suitable provision be made 
therefor. 

The elevation of the grade of our mission in Cen- 
tral America to the plenipotentiary rank, which was 
authorized by Congress at its late session, has been 
since effected. 

The war between Peru and Bolivia on the one 
side and Chili on the other began more than three 
years ago. On the occupation by Chili, in 1880, of 
all the littoral territory of Bolivia, negotiations for 
peace were conducted under the direction of the 
United States. The allies refused to concede any 
territory, but Chili has since become master of the" 
whole coast of both countries and of the capital of 
Peru. A year since, as you have already been ad- 
vised by correspondence transmitted to you in Janu- 
ary last, this Government sent a special mission to the 
belligerent powers to express the hope that Chili 
would be disposed to accept a money indemnity for 
the expenses of the war, and to relinquish her de- 
mand for a portion of the territory of her antago- 
nist. 

This recommendation, which Chili declined to fol- 
low, this Government did not assume to enforce ; nor 
can it be enforced without resort to measures which 
would be in keeping neither with the temper of our 
people nor with the spirit of our institutions. 

The power of Peru no longer extends over its 
whole territory, and in the event of our interference 
to dictate peace would need to be supplemented by 
the armies and navies of the United States. Such in- 
terference would almost inevitably lead to the estab- 
lishment of a protectorate a result utterly at odds 
with our past policy, injurious to our present interests, 
and full of embarrassments for the future. 

For effecting the termination of hostilities upon 
terms at once just to the victorious nation and gener- 
ous to its adversaries, this Government has spared no 
efforts save such as might involve the complications 
which I have indicated. 

It is greatly to be deplored that Chili seems re- 
solved to exact such rigorous conditions of peace and 
indisposed to submit to arbitration the terms of an 
amicable settlement. No peace is likely to be lasting 
that is not sufficiently equitable and just to command 
the approval of other nations. 

About a year since, invitations were extended to 
the nations of this continent to send representatives 
to a peace congress to assemble at Washington in 
November, 1882. The time of meeting was fixed at a 
period then remote, in the hope, as the invitation itself 
declared, that in the mean time the disturbances be- 
tween the South American republics would be adjust- 
ed. As that expectation seemed unlikely to be realized, 
I asked in April last for an expression of opinion from 
the two Houses of Congress as to the advisability of 
holding the proposed convention at the time appointed. 
This action was prompted in part by doubts which 
mature reflection had suggested whether the diplo- 
matic usage and traditions of the Government did not 
make it fitting that the Executive should consult the 
representatives of the people before pursuing a line 
of policy somewhat novel in its character., and far- 
reaching in its possible consequences. In view of the 
fact that no action was taken by Congress in the 
premises and that no provision had been made for 
necessary expenses, I subsequently decided to post- 
pone the convocation, and so notified the several gov- 
ernments which had been invited to attend. 

I am unwilling to dismiss this subject without assur- 
ing you of my support of any measures the wisdom 
of Congress may devise for the promotion of peace on 
this continent and throughout the world, and I trust 
that the time is nigh when, with the universal assent 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PBESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



159 



of civilized peoples, all international differences shall 
be determined without resort to arms by the benig- 
nant processes of arbitration. 

Changes have occurred in the diplomatic represen- 
tation of several foreign powers during the past year. 
New ministers from the Argentine Eepublic, Austria- 
Hungary, Brazil, Chili. Chuia, France, Japan, Mexi- 
co, the Netherlands, and Russia, have presented their 



For civil expenses $18,042,386 42 

For foreign intercourse 1,301,588 19 

For Indians 9,786,747 40 

For pensions 61,845,193 95 

For the military establishment, 
including river and harbor 
improvements and arsenals. 43,570,494 19 
For the naval establishment, 
including vessels, machin- 
ery, and improvements at 

navy-yards 15,032,046 26 

For miscellaneous expendi- 
tures, including public build- 
ings, light-houses, and col- 
lecting the revenue 84,539,237 50 

For expenditures on account 
of the District of Columbia.. 
For interest on the public debt. 



3,330,543 87 
71,077,206 79 



Total ordinary expenditures. $257,981,439 57 



redentials. The missions of Denmark and Venezu- 
ela at this capital have been raised in grade. Switz- 
erland has created a plenipotentiary mission to this 
Government, and an embassy from Madagascar and 
a minister from Siam will shortly arrive. 

Our diplomatic intercourse has been enlarged by 
the establishment of relations with the new kingdom 
of Servia, by the creation of a mission to Siam, and by 
the restoration of the mission to Greece. The Shah 

of Persia has expressed his gratification that a charge 

d? affaires will shortly be sent to that country, where Leaving a surplus revenue of. $145,543,810 71 

the rights of our citizens have been hitherto court e- Which, with an amount drawn from the cash 

ously guarded by the representatives of Great Britain. balance in the Treasury of 20,737,694 84 

I renew my recommendation of such legislation as !,. 

will place the United States in harmony with other Making ; $166,281,505 55 

maritime powers with respect to the international was applied to the redemption of 

rules for the prevention of collisions at sea. Bonds for the sinking fund $60,079,1 50 00 

In conformity with your joint resolution of the 3d of Fractional currency for the sinking fund .... 58,705 55 

August last, I have directed the Secretary of State to Loan of July and August, 1861 62,572,050 00 

address foreign governments in respect to a proposed t^fj loanof 1881 <?7 194 4?o n 

conference for considering the subject of the univer- Loanof 1858 looo 00 

sal adoption of a common prime meridian to be used Loan of February, 1861 . '. '. '. '. . . . . ! . " '. '. '. . . '. '. '. 303,'000 00 

in the reckoning of longitude and in the regulation Five-twenties of 1862 2,100 00 

of time throughout the civilized world. Their re- Five-twenties of 1864 7,40000 

plies will, in due time, be laid before you. Five-twenties of 1865 , 6,500 0( 

An agreement was reached at Paris in 1875 between l en ^j 1 ^^ 8 -^^ 8 ^ ^KT'^O o 

the principal powers for the interchange of official Consols of 1867 408 250 

publications through the medium of their respective Consols of 1868 '.['.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. 14l'400 00 

foreign departments. Oregon war debt 675',250 00 

The admirable system which has been built up by Old demand, compound-interest, and other 

the enterprise of the Smithsonian Institution affords a notes 18,350 00 

practical basis for our co-operation in this scheme, and 

an arrangement has been effected by which that insti- Total $166,281,505 55 

tution will perform the necessary labor, under the di- The foreign commerce of the United States during 

rection of the Department of State. A reasonable com- the last fiscal year, including imports and exports of 

pensation therefor should be provided by law. merchandise and specie, was as follows : 

A clause in the act making appropriations for the EXPORTS. 

diplomatic and consular service contemplates the re- Merchandise . $750,542,257 

organization of both branches of such service on a Specie : 49,417,479 

salaried basis, leaving fees to inure to the benefit of ~ , , * QO Qf . n - Qft 

the Treasury! I cordially favor such a project, as Total $799,959,786 

likely to correct abuses in the present system. The IMP< ^? TS v A . A -, n A con KTA 

Secretary of State will present to you af'an early day 

a plan for such reorganization. . ' L_J__ 

A full and interesting exhibit of the operations of Total $767,111,964 

the Treasury Department is afforded by the report of Excegg of ortg over imports of merchandise, 

the secretaries. $05 902 3 

It appears that the ordinary revenues from all * T ' Mg ' excegg ig legs than it hag been before for any 

sources tor the fiscal year ended June 30, 1882, were of the previou8 six years ^ app ears by the following 

as lollow : toble . v 

From customs $220 410,730 25 Excess of exports 

From internal revenue 146,497.595 45 ver im P orts of 

From sales of public lands 4,753,140 37 YEAR ENDED JUNE 30 merchaudise 

From tax on circulation and deposits of na- 1876 $.9,043.481 

tionalbanks 8,956,79445 1877 151,152,094 

From repayment of interest by Pacific rail- 1878 2o7,814,234 

way companies '. 840,55487 1879 264.661,666 

From sinking fund for Pacific railway com- 1880 167,683,912 

panies ... f 796,271 42 1881 2 MH 

From customs fees, fines, penalties, etc 1.343,348 00 18S2 2o,90J,b83 

From fees consular, letters patent, and lands. 2,638,990 97 During the year there have been organized 171 na- 

From proceeds of sales of Government prop- tional banks, and of those institutions there are now. 

<"- f " 314,959 85 - . .. , - 



From Indian trust funds ................... 5,705,248 22 

From deposits by individuals for surveying 

public lands ............................. 2,052,306 36 

From revenues of the District of Columbia.. 1,715,176 41 

From miscellaneous sources ................ 3,383,445 43 

Total ,viinarv rr>pint suos 19 n 9 9 

nary receipts ................. $403,525,250 1 

.The ordinary expenditures for the same period 



1, 1882, was $324,656,458. 

I commend to your attention the Secretary's views 
in respect to the likelihood of a serious contraction of 
tm - s circulation, and to the modes by which that re- 
gult ^^ in his ' j udgment5 be averted. 

In respect to the coinage of silver dollars and the 
retireme t of sil ver certificates I have seen .nothing to 
alter but much to confirm the sentiments to which I 
gave expression last year. 



160 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PBESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



A comparison between the respective amounts of 
silver-dollar circulation on Nov. 1, 1881, and on Nov. 
1, 1882, shows a slight increase of a million and a half 
of dollars. But during the interval there had been in 
the whole number coined an increase of twenty-six 
millions. Of the one hundred and twenty-eight mill- 
ions thus far minted, little more than thirty-five mill- 
ions are in circulation. The mass of accumulated 
coin has grown so great that the vault-room at pres- 
ent available for storage is scarcely sufficient to con- 
tain it. It is not apparent why it is desirable to con- 
tinue this coinage, now so enormously in excess of the 
public demand. 

As to the silver certificates, in addition to the 
grounds which seemed last year to justify their re- 
tirement may be mentioned the effect which is likely 
to ensue from the supply of gold certificates for whose 
issuance Congress recently made provision, and which 
are now in active circulation. 

You can not fail to note with interest the discussion 
by the Secretary as to the necessity of providing by 
legislation some mode of freeing the Treasury of an 
excess of assets in the event that Congress fails to 
reach an early agreement for the reduction of taxa- 
tion. 

'I heartily approve the Secretary's recommendation 
of immediate and extensive reductions in the annual 
revenues of the Government. 

It will be remembered that I urged upon the atten- 
tion of Congress at its last session the importance of 
relieving the industry and enterprise of the country 
from the pressure of unnecessary taxation. It is one 
of the tritest maxims of political economy that all 
taxes are burdensome, however wisely and prudently 
imposed. And though there have always been among 
our people wide differences of sentiment as to the 
best methods of raising the national revenues, and 
indeed as to the principles upon which taxation 
should be based, there has been substantial accord in 
the doctrine that only such taxes ought to be levied as 
are necessary for a wise and economical administra- 
tion of the Government. Of late the public revenues 
have far exceeded that limit, and unless checked by 
appropriate legislation such excess will continue to 
increase from year to year. For the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1881, the surplus revenue amounted to $100,- 
000,000 ; for the fiscal year ended on the 30th of June 
last the surplus was more than one hundred and 
forty-five millions. 

The report of the Secretary shows what disposition 
has been made of thes"e moneys. They have not only 
answered the requirements of the sinking fund, but 
have afforded a large balance applicable to other re- 
ductions of the public debt. 

But I renew the expression of my conviction that 
such rapid extinguishment of the national indebted- 
ness as is now taking place is by no means a cause 
for congratulation; it is a cause rather for serious 
apprehension. 

If it continues, it must speedily be followed by one 
of the evil results so clearly set forth in the report of 
the Secretary. 

Either the 'surplus must lie idle in the Treasury or 
the Government will be forced to buy at market rates 
its bonds not then redeemable, and which, under 
such circumstances, can not fail to command an enor- 
mous premium, or the swollen revenues will be de- 
voted to extravagant expenditure, which, as experi- 
ence has taught, is ever the bane of an overflowing 
treasury. 

It was made apparent in the course of the animated 
discussions which this question aroused at the last 
session of Congress that the policy of diminishing 
the revenue by reducing taxation commanded the 
general approval of the members of both Houses. 

I regret that because of conflicting views as to the 
best methods by which that policy should be made 
operative none of its benefits have as yet been 
reaped. 

In fulfillment of what I deem my constitutional 



duty, but with little hope that I can make valuable 
contribution to this vexed question, I shall proceed to 
intimate briefly my own views in relation to it. 

Upon the showing of our financial condition at the 
close of the last fiscal year I felt justified in recom- 
mending to Congress the abolition of all internal-rev- 
enue taxes except those upon tobacco in its various 
forms and upon distilled spirits and fermented liq- 
uors, and except also the special tax upon the manu- 
facturers of and dealers in such articles. 

I venture now to suggest that unless it shall be as- 
certained that the probable expenditures of the Gov- 
ernment for the coming year have been underesti- 
mated, all internal taxes, save those which relate to 
distilled spirits, can be prudently abrogated. 

Such a course, if accompanied by a simplification 
of the machinery of collection, which would then be 
easy of accomplishment, might reasonably be expected 
to result in diminishing the cost of such collection by 
at least two millions and a half of dollars, and in the 
retirement from office of from 1,500 to 2,000 per- 
sons. 

The system of excise duties has never commended 
itself to the favor of the American people, and has 
never been resorted to except for supplying deficien- 
cies in the Treasury when, by reason of special exi- 
gencies, the duties on imports have proved inadequate 
for the needs of the Government. The sentiment of 
the country doubtless demands that the present excise 
tax shall be abolished as soon as such a course can be 
safely pursued. 

It seems to me, however, that, for various reasons, 
so sweeping a measure as the total abolition of inter- 
nal taxes would for the present be an unwise step. 

Two of these reasons are deserving of special men- 
tion : 

First, it is by no means clear that even if the exist- 
ing system of duties on imports is continued without 
modification, those duties alone will yield sufficient 
revenue for all the needs of the Government. It is 
estimated that one hundred millions of dollars will be 
required for pensions during the coming year, and it 
may well be doubted whether the maximum annual 
demand for that object has yet been reached. Un- 
certainty upon this question would alone justify, in 
my judgment, the retention for the present of that 
portion of the system of internal revenue which is 
least objectionable to the people. 

Second, a total abolition of excise taxes would al- 
most inevitably prove a serious if not an insurmount- 
able obstacle to a thorough revision of the tariff and 
to any considerable reduction in import duties. 

The present tariff system is in many respects un- 
just. It makes unequal distributions both of its bur- 
dens and its benefits. This fact was practically rec- 
ognized by a majority of each House of Congress in 
the passage of the act creating the Tariff Commis- 
sion. The report of that commission will be placed 
before you at the beginning of this session, and will, 
I trust," afford you such information as to the condi- 
tion and prospects of the various commercial, agricul- 
tural, manufacturing, mining, and other interests of 
the country, and contain such suggestions for statu- 
tory revision, as will practically aid your action upon 
this important subject. 

The revenue from customs for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1879, amounted to $137,000,000. 

It has in the three succeeding years reached, first, 
$186,000,000, then $198,000,000, and finally, as has 
been already stated, $220,000,000. 

The income from this source for the fiscal year 
which will end on June 30, 1883, will doubtless be 
considerably in excess of the sum last mentioned. 

If the tax on domestic spirits is to be retained, it is 
plain, therefore, that large reductions from the customs 
revenues are entirely feasible. While recommending 
this reduction, I am far from advising the abandon- 
ment of the policy of so discriminating in the adjust- 
ment of details as to afford aid and protection to do- 
mestic labor. But the present system should be so 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE,) 



161 



revised as to equalize the public burden among all 
classes and occupations and bring it into closer har- 
mony with the present needs of industry. 

Without entering into minute detail, which under 
present circumstances is quite unnecessary, I recom- 
mend an enlargement of the free list so as to include 
within it the numerous articles which yield inconsid- 
erable revenue, a simplification of the complex and 
inconsistent schedule of duties upon certain manufac- 
tures, practically those of cotton, iron, and steel, and 
a substantial reduction of the duties upon those arti- 
cles, and upon sugar, molasses, silk, wool, and woolen 
goods. 

If a general revision of the tariif shall be found to 
be impracticable at this session, I express the hope 
that at least some of the more conspicuous inequalities 
of the present law may be corrected before your final 
adjournment. One of them is specially referred to 
by the Secretary. In view of a recent decision of the 
Supreme Court, the necessity of amending the law 
by which the Dutch standard of color is adopted as 
the test of the saccharine strength of sugars is too 
obvious to require comment. 

From the report of the Secretary of War it appears 
that the only outbreaks of Indians during the past 
year occurred in Arizona and in the southwestern 
part of New Mexico. They were promptly quelled, and 
the quiet which has prevailed in all other parts of the 
country has permitted such an addition to be made to 
the military force in the region endangered by the 
Apaches that there is little reason to apprehend trouble 
in the future. 

Those part? of the Secretary's reports which relate 
to our sea-coast defenses and their armament suggest 
the gravest reflections. Our existing fortifications are 
notoriously inadequate to the defense of the great 
harbors and cities for whose protection they were 
built. 

The question of providing an armament suited to 
our present necessities has been the subject of consid- 
eration by a board, whose report was transmitted to 
Congress at the last session. Pending the considera- 
tion of that report, the War Department has taken no 
steps for the manufacture or conversion of any heavy 
cannon, but the Secretary expresses the hope that 
authority and means to begin that important work 
will be soon provided. I invite the attention of Con- 
gress to the propriety of making more adequate pro- 
vision for arming and equipping the militia than is 
afforded by the act of 1808, which is still upon the 
statute-book. The matter has already been the sub- 
ject of discussion in the Senate, and a bill which seeks 
to supply the deficiencies of existing laws is now upon 
its calendar. 

The Secretary of War calls attention to an embar- 
rassment growing out of the recent act of Congress 
making the retirement of officers of the army compul- 
sory at the age of sixty-four. The act of 1878 is still 
in force, which limits to four hundred the number of 
those who can be retired for disability or upon their 
own application. The two acts, when construed to- 
gether, seem to forbid the relieving, even for absolute 
incapacity, of officers who do not fall within the pur- 
view of the latter statute, save at such times as there 
chance to be less than four hundred names on the re- 
tired list. There are now four hundred and twenty. 
It is not likely that Congress intended this result, 
and I concur with the Secretary that the law ought to 
be amended. 

The grounds that impelled me to withhold my sig- 
nature from the bill entitled " An act making appro- 
priations for the construction, repair, and preservation 
of certain works on rivers and harbors," which became 
a law near the close of your last session, prompt me 
to express the hope that no similar measure will be 
deemed necessary during the present session of Con- 
gress. Indeed, such a measure would now be open 
to a serious objection in addition to that which was 
lately urged upon your attention. I am informed by 
the Secretary of War that the greater portion of the 

VOL. XXIII. 11 A 



sum appropriated for the various items specified in 
that act remains unexpended. 

Of the new works which it authorized, expenses 
have been incurred upon two only, for which the total 
appropriation was $210.000. The present available 
balance is disclosed by the following table : 
Amount of appropriation by act of Aug. 2, 1882 . . $18,738,875 
Amount of appropriation by act of June 19, 1882 . 10,000 

Amount of appropriation for payments to J. B. 

Eads 304,000 

Unexpended balance of former appropriations. . . 4,738,268 

Total $23,791,188 

Less amount drawn from Treasury between July 
1, 1882, and Nov. 30, 1882 6,056,194 

Total $17,734,944 

It is apparent by this exhibit that so far as concerns 
most of the items to which the act of Aug. 2, 1882, 
relates there can be no need of further appropriations 
until after the close of the present session. If, how- 
ever, any action should seem to be necessary in re- 
spect to particular obiects, it will be entirely feasible 
to provide for those objects by appropriate legislation. 
It is possible, for example, that a delay until the as- 
sembling of the next Congress to make additional 
provision for the Mississippi river improvements 
might be attended with serious consequences. If 
such appear to be the case, a just bill relating to that 
subject would command my approval. 

This leads me to offer a suggestion which I trust 
will commend itself to the wisdom of Congress. Is 
it not advisable that grants of considerable sums of 
money for diverse ana independent schemes ot in- 
ternal improvement should be made the subjects of 
separate and distinct legislative enactments I It will 
scarcely be gainsaid, even by those who favor the 
most liberal expenditures for such purposes as are 
sought to be accomplished by what is commonly 
called the river and harbor bill, that the practice of 
grouping in such a bill appropriations for a great di- 
versity of objects, widely separated, either in their 
nature or in the locality with which they are con- 
cerned, or in both, is one which is much to be depre- 
cated unless it is irremediable. It inevitably tends 
to secure the success _of the bill as a whole, though 
many of the items if separately considered could 
scarcely fail of rejection. By the adoption of the 
course I have recommended, every member of Con- 
gress, whenever opportunity should arise for giving 
his influence and vote for meritorious appropriations, 
would be enabled so to do without being called upon 
to sanction others undeserving his approval. So also 
would the Executive be afforded thereby full oppor- 
tunity to exercise his constitutional prerogative of op- 
posing whatever appropriations seemed to him objec- 
tionable, without imperiling the success of others 
which commended themselves to his judgment. 

It may be urged in opposition to these suggestions 
that the number of works of internal improvement 
which are justly entitled to governmental aid is so 
great as to render impracticable separate appropriation 
bills therefor, or even for such comparatively limited 
number as make disposition of large sums of money. 
This objection may be well founded, and whether it 
be or not, the advantages which would be likely to 
ensue from the adoption of the course I have recom- 
mended may perhaps be more effectually attained by 
another, which I respectfully submit to Congress as 
an alternative proposition. 

It is provided by the constitutions of fourteen of 
pur States that the Executive may disapprove any 
item or items of a bill appropriating money ; where- 
upon the part of the bill approved shall be law, and 
the part disapproved shall fail to become law, unless 
repassed according to the provisions prescribed for 
the passage of bills over the veto of the Executive. 
The States wherein some such provision as the fore- 
going is a part of the fundamental law are Alabama, 
California, Colorado. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, 
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New 



162 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and West Virginia. I 
commend to your careful consideration the question 
whether an amendment of the Federal Constitution 
in the particular indicated would not afford the best 
remedy for what is often grave embarrassment both 
to members of Congress and to the^Executive, and is 
sometimes a serious public mischief. 

The report of the Secretary of the Navy states the 
movements of the various squadrons duringthe year, 
in home and foreign waters, where our officers and 
seamen, with such snips as we possess, have continued 
to illustrate the high character and excellent discipline 
of the naval organization. 

On the 21st of December, 1881, information was re- 
ceived that the exploring steamer Jeannette had been 
crushed and abandoned in the Arctic ocean. The 
officers and crew, alter a journey over the ice, em- 
barked in three boats for the coast of Siberia. One 
of the parties, under the command of Chief- Engineer 
George W. Melville, reached the land, and, falling in 
with the natives, was saved. Another, under Lieut. - 
Commander De Long, landed in a barren region near 
the mouth of the Lena river. After six weeks had 
elapsed all but two of the number had died from fa- 
tigue and starvation. No tidings have been received 
from the party in the third boat, under the command 
of Lieut. Chipp, but a long and fruitless investigation 
leaves little doubt that all its members perished at 
sea. As a slight tribute to their heroism I give in 
this communication the names of the gallant men who 
sacrificed their lives on this expedition : Lieut.-Com- 
mancler George W. De Long, Surgeon James M. 
Ambler, Jerome J. Collins, Hans Halmer Erichsen, 
Heinrich H. Kaacke, George W. Boyd, Walter Lee, 
Adolph Dressier, Carl A. Gortz, Nelse Iverson, the 
cook Ah Sam, and the Indian Alexy. The officers 
and men in the missing boat were Lieut. Charles W. 
Chipp, commanding ; William Dunbar, Alfred Sweet- 
man, Walter Sharvell, Albert C. Kuehne, Edward 
Star, Henry D. Warren, and Peter E. Johnson. 

Lieut. Giles B. Barber and Master William H. 
Scheutze are now bringing home the remains of Lieut. 
De Long and his comrades, in pursuance of the di- 
rections of Congress. 

The Eodgere, fitted out for the relief of the Jean- 
nette, in accordance with the act of Congress of March 
3, 1881, sailed from San Francisco June 16th, under 
the command of Lieut. Robert M. Berry. On No- 
vember 30th she was accidentally destroyed by fire, 
while in whiter quarters in St. Lawrence bay, but 
the officers and crew succeeded in escaping to the 
shore. Lieut. Berry and one of his officers, after 
making a search for the Jeannette along the coast ot 
Siberia, fell in with Chief- Engineer Melville's party, 
and returned home by way of Europe. The other 
officers and the crew of the Rodgers were brought 
from St. Lawrence bay by the whaling-steamer North 
Star. Master Charles F. Putnam, who had been 
placed in charge of a depot of supplies at Cape Serdze, 
returning to his post from St. Lawrence bay across 
the ice in a blinding snow-storm, was earned out to 
sea and lost, notwithstanding all efforts to rescue him. 

It appears, by the Secretary's report, that the avail- 
able naval force of the United States consists of thirty- 
seven cruisers, fourteen single-turreted monitors, built 
during the rebellion, a large number of smooth-bore 
guns and Parrott rifles, and eighty-seven rifled can- 
non. 

The cruising-vessels should be gradually replaced 
by iron or steel ships, the monitors by modern ar- 
mored vessels, and the armament by high-power 
rifled guns. 

The reconstruction of our navy, which was recom- 
mended in my last message, was begun by Congress 
authorizing, in its recent act, the construction of two 
large, unarmored steel vessels of the character recom- 
mended by the late naval advisory board, and subject 
to the final approval of a new advisory board to be 
organized as provided by that act. I call your atten- 
tion to the recommendation of the Secretary and the 



board that authority be given to construct two more 
cruisers of smaller dimensions, and one fleet dispatch- 
vessel, and that appropriations be made for high- 
power rifled cannon, for the torpedo service, and for 
other harbor defenses. 

Pending the consideration by Congress of the policy 
to be hereafter adopted in conducting the eight large 
navy-yards and their expensive establishments, the 
Secretary advocates the reduction of expenditures 
therefor to the lowest possible amounts. 

For the purpose of affording the officers and seamen 
of the navy opportunities for exercise and discipline 
in their profession, under appropriate control and 
direction, the Secretary advises that the Light-House 
Service and Coast Survey be transferred, as now or- 
ganized, from the Treasury to the Navy Department ; 
and he also suggests, for tlie reasons which he assigns, 
that a similar transfer may wisely be made of the 
cruising revenue-vessels. 

The Secretary forcibly depicts the intimate connec- 
tion and interdependence of the navy and the com- 
mercial marine, and invites attention to the continued 
decadence of the latter, and the corresponding trans- 
fer of our growing commerce to foreign bottoms. 

This subject is one of the utmost importance to 
the national welfare. Methods of reviving American 
ship-building, and of restoring the United States flag 
in the ocean carrying-trade, should receive the im- 
mediate attention of Congress. We have mechanical 
skill and abundant material for the manufacture of 
modern iron steamships hi fair competition with our 
commercial rivals. Our disadvantage in building 
ships is the greater cost of labor, and in sailing them 
higher taxes and greater interest on capital, while the 
ocean highways are already monopolized by our for- 
midable competitors. These obstacles should in some 
way be overcome, and for our rapid communication 
with foreign lands we should not continue to depend 



any 

foreign ports, our facilities for extending our com- 
merce are greatly restricted, while the nations which 
build and sail the ships, and carry the mails and pas- 
sengers, obtain thereby conspicuous advantages in 
increasing their trade. 

The report of the Postmaster-General gives evidence 
of the satisfactory condition of that department, and 
contains many valuable data and accompanying sug- 
gestions which can not fail to be of interest 

The information which it affords, that the receipts 
for the fiscal year have exceeded the expenditures, 
must be very gratifying to Congress and to the people 
of the country. 

As matters which may fairly claim particular atten- 
tion, I refer you to his observations in reference to 
the advisability of changing the present basis for fix- 
ing salaries and allowances, of extending the money- 
order system, and of enlarging the functions of the 
postal establishment so as to put under its control the 
telegraph system of the country, though from this 
last and most important recommendation I must with- 
hold my concurrence. 

At the last session of Congress, several bills were 
introduced into the House of Representatives for the 
reduction of letter postage to the rate of two cents per 
half ounce. 

I have given much study and reflection to this sub- 
ject, and am thoroughly persuaded that such a reduc- 
tion would be for the best interests of the public. 

It has been the policy of the Government, from its 
foundation, to defray, as far as possible, the expenses 
of carrying the mails by a direct tax in the form of 
postage. It has never been claimed, however, that 
this service ought to be productive of a net revenue. 

As has been stated already, the report of the Post- 
master-General shows that 'there is now a very con- 
siderable surplus in his department, and that hence- 
forth the receipts are likely to increase at a much 
greater ratio than the necessary expenditures. Unless 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PBESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



163 



some change is made in the existing laws, the profits 
of the postal service will, in a very few years, swell 
the revenues of the Government many millions of 
dollars. The time seems auspicious, therefore, for 
some reduction in the rates of postage. In what 
shall that reduction consist ? 

A review of the legislation which has been had 
upon this subject during the last thirty years, dis- 
closes that, domestic letters constitute the only class 
of mail matter which has never been favored by a 
substantial reduction of rates. I am convinced that 
the burden of maintaining the service falls most un- 
equally upon that class, and' that more than any 
other it is entitled to present relief. 

That such relief may be extended without detriment 
to other public interests, will be discovered upon re- 
viewing the results of former reductions. 

Immediately prior to the act of 1845, the postage 
upon a letter composed of a single sheet was as fol- 
lows: 
If conveyed Cents. 

30 miles or less 6 

Between 30 and 80 miles 10 

Between SO and 150 miles 12^ 

Between 150 and 400 miles 18| 

Over 400 miles 25 

By the act of 1845, the postage upon a single letter 
conveyed for any distance under 300 miles was fixed 
at 5 cents, and for any greater distance at 10 cents. 

By the act of 1851, it was provided that a single 
letter, if prepaid, should be carried any distance not 
exceeding 3,000 miles for 3 cents, and any greater dis- 
tance for 6 cents. 

It will be noticed that both of these reductions 
were of a radical character, and relatively quite as 
important as that which is now proposed. 

In each case there ensued a temporary loss of reve- 
nue, but a sudden and large influx of business, which 
substantially repaired that loss within three years. 

Unless the experience of past legislation in this 
country and elsewhere goes for naught, it may be 
safely predicted that the stimulus of 331 per cent, 
reduction in the tax for carriage, would at once in- 
crease the number of letters consigned to the mails. 

The advantages of secrecy would lead to a very 
eral substitution of sealed packets for postal cards 
1 open circulars, and in divers other ways the vol- 
of first-class matter would be enormously aug- 
nted. Such increase amounted in England, in the 
t year after the adoption of penny postage, to more 
in 125 per cent. 

As a result of careful estimates, the details of which 

n not be here set out, I have become convinced that 

.e deficiency for the first year after the proposed re- 
duction would not exceed 7 per cent, of the expendi- 
tures, or $3,000,000, while the deficiency after the 
reduction of 1845 was more than 14 per cent., and 
after that of 1851 was 27 per .icnt. 

Another interesting comparison is afforded by sta- 
tistics furnished me by the Post-Office Department. 

The act of 1845 was passed in face of the tact that 
there existed a deficiency of more than $30,000. That 
of 1851 was encouraged by the slight surplus of $132j- 
000. The excess of revenue in the next fiscal year is 
likely to be $3,500,000. 

If Congress should approve these suggestions, it 
may be deemed desirable to supply to some extent 
the deficiency which must for a time result, by in- 
creasing the charge for carrying merchandise, which 
is now only sixteen cents per pound. But even with- 
out such an increase, I am confident that the receipts 
under the diminished rates would equal the expendi- 
tures after the lapse of three or four years. 

The report of the Department o'f Justice brings 
anew to your notice the necessity of enlarging the 
present system of Federal jurisprudence, so as effectu- 
ally to answer the requirements of the ever-increasing 
litigation with which it is called upon to deal. 

The Attorney-General renews the suggestions of 
his predecessor, that in the interests of justice better 




provision than the existing laws afford should be made 
in certain judicial districts for fixing the fees of wit- 
nesses and jurors. 

In my message of December last I referred to pend- 
ing criminal proceedings growing out of alleged frauds 
in what is known as the star-route service of the Post- 
Office Department, and advised you that I had en- 
joined upon the Attorney-General and associate coun- 
sel, to whom the interests of the Government were 
intrusted, the duty of prosecuting with the utmost 
vigor of the law all persons who might be found 
chargeable with those offenses. A trial of one of 
these cases has since occurred. It occupied for many 
weeks the attention of the Supreme Court of this Dis- 
trict, and was conducted with great zeal and ability. 
It resulted in a disagreement of the jury, but the cause 
has been again placed upon the calendar, and will 
shortly be retried. If any guilty persons shall finally 
escape punishment for their offenses, it will not be 
for lack of diligent and earnest efforts on the part of 
the prosecution. 

1 trust that some agreement may be reached which 
will speedily enable Congress, with the concurrence 
of the Executive, to afford the commercial community 
the benefits of a national bankrupt law. 

The report of the Secretary of the Interior, with its 
accompanying documents, presents a full statement 
of the varied operations of that Department. In re- 
spect to Indian affairs, nothing has occurred which 
has changed or seriously modified the views to which 
I devoted much space "in a former communication to 
Congress. I renew the recommendations therein con- 
tained as to extending to the Indian the protection of 
the law, allotting land in severally to such as desire 
it, and making suitable provision for the education of 
youth. Such provision, as the Secretary forcibly 
maintains, will prove unavailing unless it is broad 
enough to include all those who are able and willing 
to make use of it. and should not solely relate to in- 
tellectual training, but also to instruction in such 
manual labor and simple industrial arts as can be 
made practically available. 

Among other important subjects which are included 
within the Secretary's report, and which will doubt- 
less furnish occasion for congressional action, may be 
mentioned the neglect of the railroad companies to 
which large grants of land were made by the acts of 
1862 and 1864 to take title thereto, and their conse- 
quent inequitable exemption from local taxation. 

No survey of our material condition can fail to sug- 
gest inquiries as to the moral and intellectual progress 
of the people. 

The census returns disclose an alarming state of il- 
literacy in certain portions of the country where the 
provision for schools is grossly inadequate. It is a 
momentous question for the decision of Congress 
whether immediate and substantial aid should not be 
extended by the General Government for supplement- 
ing the efforts of private beneficence and of State and 
Territorial legislation in behalf of education. 

The regulation of interstate commerce has already 
been the subject of your deliberations. One of the 
incidents of the marvelous extension of the railway 
system of the country has been the adoption of such 
measures by the corporations which own or control 
the roads as has tended to impair the advantages of 
healthful competition and to make hurtful discrimina- 
tions in the adjustment of freightage. 

These inequalities have been _ corrected in several' 
of the States by appropriate legislation, the effect of 
which is necessarily restricted to the limits of their 
own territory. 

So far as such mischiefs affect commerce between 
the States, or between any one of the States and a 
foreign country, they are subjects of national concern, 
and Congress alone can afford relief. 

The results which have thus far attended the en- 
forcement of the recent statute for the suppression of 
polygamy in the Territories are reported by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. It is not probable that any addi- 



164 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



tional legislation in this regard will be deemed de- 
sirable until the effect of existing laws shall be more 
closely observed and studied. 

I congratulate you that the commissioners, under 
whose supervision those laws have been put in opera- 
tion, are encouraged to believe that the evil at which 
they are aimed may be suppressed without resort to 
such radical measures as in some quarters have been 
thought indispensable for success. 

The close relation of the General Government to the 
Territories preparing to be great States may well en- 
gage your special attention. It is there that the Indian 
disturbances mainly occur, and that polygamy has 
found room for its growth. I can not doubt that a 
careful survey of Territorial legislation would be of 
the highest utility. Life and property would become 
more secure. The liability of outbreaks between In- 
dians and whites would be lessened. The public 
domain would be more securely guarded and better 
progress be made in the instruction of the young. 

Alaska is still without any form of civil govern- 
ment. If means were provided for the education of 
its people and for the protection of their lives and 

g'operty, the immense resources of the region would 
vite permanent settlements and open new fields for 
industry and enterprise. 

The report of the Commissioner of Agriculture pre- 
sents an account of the labors of that department dur- 
ing the past year, and includes information of much 
interest to the general public. 

The condition of the forests of the country and the 
wasteful manner in which their destruction is taking 
place give cause for serious apprehension. Their 
action in protecting the earth's surface, in modifying 
the extremes of climate, and in regulating and sustain- 
ing the flow of springs and streams, is now well under- 
stood, and their importance in relation to the growth 
and prosperity of the country can not be safely disre- 
garded. They are fast disappearing before destructive 
fires and the legitimate requirements of our increasing 
population, and their total extinction can not be long 
delayed unless better methods than now prevail shall 
be adopted for their protection and cultivation. The 
attention of Congress is invited to the necessity of ad- 
ditional legislation to secure the preservation of the 
valuable forests still remaining on the public domain, 
especially in the extreme western States and Terri- 
tories, where the necessity for their preservation is 
greater than in less mountainous regions, and where 
the prevailing dryness of the climate renders their 
restoration, ifthey are once destroyed, well-nigh im- 
possible. 

The communication which I made to Congress at its 
first session in December last contained a somewhat 
full statement of my sentiments in relation to the 
principles and rules which ought to govern appoint- 
ments to public service. 

Eeferring to the various plans which had thereto- 
fore been 'the subject of discussion in the National 
Legislature (plans which in the main were modeled 
upon the system which obtains in Great Britain, but 
which lacked certain of the prominent features whereby 
that system is distinguished), I felt bound to intimate 
my doubts whether they, or any of them, would afford 
adequate remedy for the evils which they aimed to 
correct. 

I declared, nevertheless, that if the proposed meas- 
ures should prove acceptable to Congress they would 
receive the unhesitating support of the Executive. 

Since these suggestions were submitted for your 
consideration there has been no legislation upon the 
subject to which they relate : but there has meanwhile 
been an increase in the public interest in that subject ; 
and the people of the country, apparently without 
distinction of party, have in various ways and upon 
frequent occasions given expression to their earnest 
wish for prompt and definite action. In my judgment 

I may add that my own sense of its pressing im- 
portance has been quickened by observation of a 



practical phase of the matter, to which attention has 
more than once been called by my predecessors. 

The civil list now comprises about 100,000 persons, 
far the larger part of whom must, under the terms of 
the Constitution, be selected by the President, either 
directly or through his own appointees. 

In the early years of the administration of the Gov- 
ernment the personal direction of appointments to the 
civil service may not have been an irksome task for 
the Executive ; but now that the burden has increased 
fully a hundred-fold it has become greater than he 
ought to bear, and it necessarily diverts his time and 
attention from the proper discharge of other duties no 
less delicate and responsible, and which, in the very 
nature of things, can not be delegated to other hands. 
' In the judgment of not a few who have given study 
and reflection to this matter, the nation has outgrown 
the provisions which the Constitution has established 
for filling the minor offices in the public service. 

But whatever may be thought of the wisdom or ex- 
pediency of changing the fundamental law in this re- 
gard, it is certain that much relief may be afforded, 
not only to the President and to the heads of the de- 
partments, but to Senators and Representatives in 
Congress, by discreet legislation. They would be 
protected in a great measure by the bill now pending 
before the Senate, or by any other which should em- 
body its important features, from the pressure of per- 
sonal importunity and from the labor of examining 
conflicting claims and pretensions of candidates. 

I trust that before the close of the present session 
some decisive action may be taken for the correction 
of the evils which inhere in the present methods of 
appointment, and I assure you of my hearty co- 
operation in any measures which are likely to conduce 
to that end. 

As to the most appropriate term and tenure of the 
official life of the subordinate employes of the Govern- 
ment, it seems to be generally agreed that whatever 
their extent or character, the one should be definite 
and the other stable, and that neither should be regu- 
lated by zeal in the service of party or fidelity to the 
fortunes of an individual. 

It matters little to the people at large what compe- 
tent person is at the head of this department or of that 
bureau, if they feel assured that the removal of one 
and the accession of another will not involve the re- 
tirement of honest and faithful subordinates, whose 
duties are purely administrative and have no legiti- 
mate connection with the triumph of any political prin- 
ciples or the success of any political party or faction. 
It is to this latter class of officers that the Senate bill, 
to which I have already referred, exclusively applies. 

While neither that bill nor any other prominent 
scheme for improving the civil service concerns the 
higher grade of officials, who are appointed by the 
President and confirmed by the Senate, I feel bound 
to correct a prevalent misapprehension as to the 
frequency with which the present Executive has dis- 
placed the incumbent of an office and appointed 
another in his stead. 

It has been repeatedly alleged that he has in this 
particular signally departed from the course which has 
been pursued under recent administrations of the Gov- 
ernment. The facts are as follow : 

The whole number of executive appointments during 
the four years immediately preceding Mr. Garfield's 
accession' to the presidency was 2,696. 

Of this number, 244, or 9 per cent., involved the re- 
moval of previous incumbents. 

The ratio of removals to the whole number of ap- 
pointments was much the same during each of those 
four years. 

In the first year, with 790 appointments, there were 
74 removals, or 9-3 per cent. ; in the second, with 917 
appointments, there were 85 removals, or 8'5 per 
cent. ; in the third, with 480 appointments, there were 
48 removals, or 10 per cent. ; in the fourth, with 429 
appointments, there were 37 removals, or 8'6 per cent. 
In the four months of President Garfield's adminis- 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (CiviL-SEEVioE REFOBM.) 



165 



tration there were 390 appointments and 89 removals, 
or 22 '7 per cent. Precisely th e same number of remov- 
als (89) has taken place in the fourteen months which 
have since elapsed, but they constitute only 7 '8 per 
cent, of the whole number of appointments (1,118) 
within that period, and less than 2-6 of the entire list 
.of officials (3,459), exclusive of the army and. navy, 
which is filled by presidential appointment. 

I declare my approval of such legislation as may be 
found necessary for supplementing the existing pro- 
visions of law in relation to political assessments. 

In July last I authorized a public announcement 
that employes of the Government should regard them- 
selves as at liberty to exercise their pleasure in making 
or refusing to make political contributions, and that 
their action in that regard would in no manner affect 
their official status. 

In this announcement I acted upon the view which 
I had always maintained and still maintain, that a 
public officer should be as absolutely free as any other 
citizen to give or to withhold, a contribution for the 
aid of the political party of his choice. It has, how- 
ever, been urged, and doubtless not without founda- 
tion in fact, that by solicitation of official superiors 
and by other modes such contributions have at times 
been obtained from persons whose only motive for 
giving has been the tear of what might befall them if 
they refused. It goes without saying that such con- 
tributions are not voluntary, and in my judgment 
their collection should be prohibited by law. A bill 
which will effectually suppress them will receive my 
cordial approval. 

I hope that however numerous and urgent may be 
the demands upon your attention, the interests of this 
District will not be forgotten. 

The denial to its residents of the great right of suf- 
frage in all its relation to national, State, and muni- 
cipal action, imposes upon Congress the duty of afford- 
ing them the best administration which its wisdom 
can devise. 

The report of the District commissioners indicates 
certain measures whose adoption would seem to be 
very desirable. I instance in particular those which 
relate to arrears of taxes, to steam railroads, and to 
assessments of real property. 

Among the questions which have been the topic of 
recent debate in the halls of Congress none are of 
greater gravity than those relating to the ascertain- 
ment of the vote for presidential electors and the 
intendment of the Constitution in its provisions for 
devolving executive functions upon the Vice-Presi- 
dent when the President suffers from inability to dis- 
charge the powers and duties of his office. 

I trust that no embarrassments may result from a 
failure to determine these questions before another 
national election. 

The closing year has been replete with blessings for 
which we owe to the Give- of all good our reverent 
acknowledgment. For the uninterrupted harmony of 
our foreign relations, for the decay of sectional ani- 
mosities, for the exuberance of our harvests and the 
triumphs of our mining and manufacturing indus- 
tries, for the prevalence of health, the spread of in- 
telligence and the conservation of the public credit, 
for the growth of the country in all the elements 
of national greatness for these and countless other 
blessings we should rejoice aad be glad. I trust 
that under the inspiration of this great prosperity our 
counsels may be harmonious, and that the dictates of 
prudence, patriotism, justice, and economy may lead' 
to the adoption of measures in which the Congress 
aad the Executive may heartily unite. 

CHESTER A. ARTHUE. 

WASHINGTON, December 4, 1882. 

Civil-Service Reform. One of the most impor- 
tant subjects brought up for consideration dur- 
ing the session was the bill for the reform of 
the civil service, which had fallen by the way 
in the previous session. It was reported in 



the Senate Dec. 12th fr.im the Committee on 
Civil Service and Retrenchment, with various 
amendments, which were agreed to without de- 
bate. Mr. Pendleton, of Ohio, who originally 
introduced the bill and had charge of it, opened 
the discussion of the measure as amended. He 
said: 

"The necessity of a change in the civil ad- 
ministration of this Government has been so 
fully discussed in the periodicals and pam- 
phlets and newspapers, and before the people, 
that I feel indisposed to make any further ar- 
gument. This subject, in all its ramifications, 
was submitted to the people of the United 
States at the fall elections, and they have spok- 
en in no low or uncertain tone. 

u I do not doubt that local questions exerted 
great influence in many States upon the result; 
but it is my conviction, founded on the ob- 
servation of an active participation in the 
canvass in Ohio, that dissatisfaction with the 
methods of administration adopted by the Re- 
publican party in the past few years was the 
most important single factor in reaching the 
conclusion that was attained. I do not say 
that the civil service of the Government is 
wholly bad. I can not honestly do so. I do 
not say that the men who are employed in it 
are all corrupt or inefficient or unworthy. 
That would do very great injustice to a great 
number of faithful, honest, and intelligent pub- 
lic servants. But I do say that the civil ser- 
vice is inefficient ; that it is expensive ; that it 
is extravagant ; that it is in many cases and 
in some senses corrupt ; that it has welded the 
whole body of its employes into a great politi- 
cal machine ; that it has converted them into 
an army of officers and men, veterans in political 
warfare, disciplined and trained, whose sala- 
ries, whose time, whose exertions at least 
twice within a very short period in the history 
of our country have robbed the people of the 
fair results of presidential elections. 

" I repeat, Mr. President, that the civil ser- 
vice is inefficient, expensive, and extravagant, 
and that it is in many instances corrupt. Is it 
necessary for me to prove facts which are so 
patent that even the blind must see and the 
deaf must hear ? 

"At the last session of Congress, in open 
Senate, it was stated and proved that in the 
Treasury Department at Washington there are 
3,400 employes, and that of this number the 
employment of less than 1,600 is authorized by 
law and appropriations made for their pay- 
ment, and that more than 1,700 are put on or 
off the rolls of the department at the will and 
pleasure of the Secretary of the Treasury, and 
are paid not out of appropriations made for 
that purpose but out of various funds and bal- 
ances of appropriations lapsed in the Treasury 
in one shape or another, which are not by law 
appropriated to the payment of these employes. 
I was amazed. I had never before heard that 
such a state of affairs existed. I did not be- 
lieve it was possible until my honorable col- 



166 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (OIVIL-SEKVICE REFORM.) 



league rose in his place and admitted the gen- 
eral truth of the statement and defended the 
system as being necessary for the proper ad- 
ministration of the Treasury Department. 

" Mr. President, we see in this statement 
whence comes that immense body of public 
officials, inspectors, detectives, deputies, ex- 
aminers, from the Treasury Department who 
have for years past been sent over the States 
for the purpose of managing presidential con- 
ventions and securing presidential elections at 
the public expense. 

" I hold in rny hand a statement made be- 
fore the committee which reported this bill, 
showing that in one of the divisions of the 
Treasury Department at Washington, where 
more than nine hundred persons were em- 
ployed, men and w^omen, five hundred and 
more of them were entirely useless, and were 
discharged without in any degree affecting the 
efficiency of the bureau. I do not intend to 
misstate any fact to-day if I can avoid it, and 
therefore 1 read from the testimony taken be- 
fore the committee. Every gentleman can find 
it if he has not it already on his table. The 
statement to which I refer I read from page 
121 of report of committee No. 576 : 

" The extravagance of the present system was well 
shown in the examination of the Bureau of Engraving 
and Printing by a committee of which 1 was chair- 
man. Of a force of 958 persons, 539, with annual sal- 
aries amounting to $390.000, were found to be super- 
fluous and were discharged. The committee reported 
that for years the force in some branches had been 
twice and even three times as great as the work re- 
quired. In one division a sort of platform had been 
built underneath the iron roof, about seven feet above 
the floor, to accommodate the surplus counters. It 
appeared that the room was of ample size without this 
contrivance for all the persons really needed. In an- 
other division were found twenty messengers doing 
work which it was found could be done by one. The 
committee reported that the system of patronage was 
chiefly responsible for the extravagance and irregu- 
larities which had marked the administration of the 
bureau, and declared that it had cost the people mil- 
lions of dollars in that branch of the service alone. 
Under this system the office had been made to sub- 
serve the purpose of an almshouse or asylum. 

" In consequence of this report the annual appropria- 
tion for the Printing Bureau was reduced from $800,- 
000 to $200.000, and out of the first year's savings was 
built the fine building now occupied by that bureau. 

" And again, on page 126, this same gentle- 
man says : , 

" My observation teaches me that there is more press- 
ure and importunity for these places [that is, the 
$900 clerkships], and that more time is consumed 
by heads of departments, and these haying the ap- 
pointing power, in listening to applications for that 
grade than for all the other places in the departments 
combined ; and that when it is diwcretionart with a 
department to appoint a man or a woman, the choice 
is usually exercised in favor of the woman. I know 
a recent case in the Treasury Department where a va- 
cancy occurred which the head of the bureau deemed 
it important to fill with a man. It was a position 
where a man's services were almost indispensable : 
but the importunity was so great that he was com- 
pelled to accent a woman, although her services were 
not required. In consequence of this importunity 
for places for women a practice has grown up in the 
Treasury Department of allowing the salaries of the 



higher grades of clerkships to lapse when vacancies 
occur, and of dividing up the amount among clerks, 
usually women, at lower salaries. In the place of a 
male clerk at $1,800 a year, for instance, three women 
may be employed at $600. Often the services of a 
man are required in its higher grade, while the wom- 
en are not needed at all ; but as the man can not 
be employed without discharging the women, he can 
not be had. The persons employed in this way are 
said to be ' on the lapse.' Out of this grew the prac- 
tice known in departmental language as ' anticipating 
the lapse.' 

" In the endeavor to satisfy the pressure for place 
more people are appointed on this roll than the sala- 
ries then lapsing will warrant, in the hope that enough 
more will lapse before the end of the fiscal year "to 
provide funds for their payment. But the funds al- 
most always run short before the end of the year, and 
then either the ' lapse ' appointees must be dropped 
or clerks discharged from the regular roll to make 
place for them. In some instances, in former admin- 
istrations, the employes on the regular roll were com- 
pelled, under terror of dismissal, to ask for leaves of 
absence, without pay, for a sufficient time to make 
up the deficiency caused by the appointment of un- 
necessary employes ' on the lapse.' Another bad 
feature is that these ' lapse ' employe's being appoint- 
ed without regard to the necessities of the work, for 
short periods and usually without regard to their quali- 
fications, are of little service, while their employment 
prevents the filling of vacancies on the regular roll, 
and demoralizes the service. 

" In one case thirty -five persons were put on the 
' lapse fund ' of the Treasurer's office for eight days 
at the end of a fiscal year, to sop up some money 
which was in danger of being saved and returned to 
the Treasury. 

" Says this gentleman further : 

" I have no doubt that under a rigid application of 
this proposed system the work of the Treasury De- 
partment could be performed with two thirds the 
number of clerks now employed, and that is a moder- 
ate estimate of the saving. 

"Mr. President, a Senator who is now pres- 
ent in the chamber and who will recognize 
the statement when I make it, though I shall 
not indicate his name, told me that the Secre- 
tary of one of the departments of the Govern- 
ment said to him, perhaps to the Committee on 
Appropriations, at the last session, that there 
were seventeen clerks in his department for 
whom he could find no employment ; that he 
did need one competent clerk of a higher grade, 
and if the appropriation were made for that 
one clerk, at the proper amount, according to 
the gradations of the service, and the appropria- 
tion for the seventeen were left out, he could, 
without impairing the efficiency of his depart- 
ment, leave those seventeen clerks off the roll ; 
but if the appropriation should be made, the 
personal, social, and political pressure was so 
great that he would be obliged to employ and 
pay them, though he could find no employ- 
ment for them. 

" Need I prove, Mr. President, that which is 
known to all men, that a systematic pressure 
has been brought upon the clerks in the de- 
partments of the Government this year to ex- 
tort from them a portion of the salary that is 
paid to them under a system which the Presi- 
dent himself scouts as being voluntary, and 
that they are led to believe and fairly led to 
believe that they have bought an<l paid for the 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (OIVIL-SEKVICE KEFOEM.) 



167 






offices which they hold, and that the good faith 
of those who take from them a portion of the 
salary is pledged to their retention in their 
positions ? 

"I have said before upon the floor of the 
Senate that this whole system demoralizes 
everybody who is engaged in it. It demoralizes 
the clerks who are appointed. That is inevi- 
table. It demoralizes those who make the ap- 
pointment. That also is inevitable. And it 
demoralizes Senators and -Representatives, who, 
by the exercise of their power as Senators and 
Representatives, exert pressure upon the ap- 
pointing power. 

" I am disposed to speak with due modera- 
tion and with respect for every gentleman who 
sits in this chamber. I certainly desire, in a 
statement like this, not to make personal re- 
flections upon anybody; but I say that this 
system, permeating the whole civil service of 
the country, demoralizes everybody connected 
with it, the clerks, the appointing power, and 
those who, by their official position and their 
relation* to the executive administration of the 
Government, have the influence necessary to 
put these clerks in office. 

" Mr. President, how can you expect purity, 
economy, efficiency to be found anywhere in 
the service of the Government if the report 
made by this committee to the Senate has even 
the semblance of truth ? If the civil service 
of the country is to be filled up with super- 
fluous persons, if salaries are to be increased 
in order that assessments may be paid, if mem- 
bers of Congress having friends or partisan 
supporters are to be able to make places for 
them in public employment, how can you ex- 
pect Senators and Representatives to be eco- 
nomical and careful in the administration of 
the public money ? 

" Mr. President, it was these methods of ad- 
ministration, it was these acts of the Repub- 
lican party, which made it possible for the 
Democratic party, and other men who prized 
their country higher than they did their party, 
to elect in Ohio a Democratic ticket by eight- 
een to twenty thousand majority, and elect 
sixteen out of the twenty-one members of 
Congress assigned to that State. 

" Under the impulse of this election in Ohio, 
upon these facts and influences which I have 
stated as being- of great importance there, it 
became possible for the Democratic party and 
its allies, whom I have described, to elect a 
Democratic Governor in New York, in Massa- 
chusetts, in Kansas, in Michigan, and various 
other States in which there has been none but 
a Republican Governor for many years past. 
The same influences enable us, having acces- 
sions to onr ranks from Iowa and Wisconsin 
and Michigan and Pennsylvania, to have at the 
beginning of the next session of Congress an 
aggregate of perhaps sixty or more Democratic 
majority in the House of Representatives. 

"I beg the Democratic party throughout 
the country not to mistake this result of last 



fall as a purely Democratic triumph. It was 
achieved by the Democratic party with the 
assistance of men of all parties upon whom 
their love of country sat heavier than their 
love of party. It was a protest made by an 
awakened people, who were indignant at the 
wrongs which had been practiced upon them. 
It was a tentative stretching out of that same 
people to find instrumentalities by which those 
wrongs could be righted. 

u The people demanded economy, and the 
Republican party gave them extravagance. 
The people demanded a reduction of taxation, 
and the Republican party gave them an in- 
crease of expenditure. The people demanded 
purity of administration, and the Republican 
party reveled in profligacy ; and when the Re- 
publican party came to put themselves on trial 
before that same people, the people gave them 
a day of calamity. 

" I beg that my colleagues on this side of the 
chamber may remember, I desire that our party 
associates throughout the country shall remem- 
ber, that the people will continue to us their 
confidence and increase it, that they will con- 
tinue to us power and increase it, just in the 
proportion that we honestly and fairly and 
promptly answer to the demands which the 
people have made, and which were thus re- 
sponded to by the Republican party. They 
asked revenue reform, and they received none. 
They asked civil- service reform, and they ob- 
tained none. They asked that the civil ser- 
vice of this Government should not, either as 
to its men or its expenditures, be made the 
basis upon which political contests were to be 
carried on, and they received for answer that 
that was an old fashion and a good method of 
political warfare. I beg gentlemen upon this 
side of the chamber to remember that, if they 
desire to escape the fate which now seems to 
be impending upon their adversaries, they must 
avoid the example which those adversaries have 
set them, 

"Mr. President, the bill which I have the 
honor to advocate to-day, and which is re- 
ported by a committee of the Senate, is the 
commencement, in my humble judgment, of 
an attempt to answer to one of the demands 
which the people have authoritatively made. 
I speak advisedly. It is the commencement of 
an attempt to organize a system which shall 
respond to one of the demands which the peo- 
ple have made. 

"I suppose the most enthusiastic supporter 
of this bill will not pretend that it is perfect. 
I suppose he will not pretend that upon the 
adoption of this bill a system will immediately 
spring into life which will perfect and purify 
the civil service of the Government. But it is 
the commencement of an attempt to lay the 
foundations of a system which, if it shall an- 
swer in any reasonable degree the expectation 
of those who by experience and faithful study 
have framed it, it will in the end correct the 
abuses to which I have alluded, and which have 



168 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (CIVIL-SERVICE REFORM.) 



been delineated by no enemy of the Republi- 
can party or of the Administration in the re- 
port which I have read to the Senate. 

"The bill has for its foundation the simple 
and single idea that the offices of the Govern- 
ment are trusts for the people ; that the per- 
formance of the duties of those offices is to be 
in the interest of the people ; that there is no 
excuse for the being of one office or the paying 
of one salary except that it is in the highest 
practicable degree necessary for the welfare of 
the people ; that every superfluous office-holder 
should be cut off; that every incompetent 
office - holder should be dismissed ; that the 
employment of two where one will suffice is 
robbery ; that salaries so large that they can 
submit to the extortion, the forced payment, 
of 2 or 10 per cent, are excessive and ought 
to be diminished. I am not speaking of purely 
voluntary contributions. 

" If it be true that offices are trusts for the 
people, then it is also true that the offices 
should be filled by those who can perform and 
discharge the duties in the best possible way. 
Fidelity, capacity, honesty, were the tests es- 
tablished by Mr. Jefferson when he assumed 
the reins of government in 1801. He said then, 
and said truly, that these elements in the pub- 
lic offices of the Government were necessary 
to an honest civil service, and that an honest 
civil service was essential to the purity and 
efficiency of administration, necessary to the 
preservation of republican institutions. 

u Mr. Jefferson was right. The experience 
of eighty years has shown it. The man best 
fitted should be the man placed in office, es- 
pecially if the appointment is made by the 
servants of the people. It is as true as truth 
can be that fidelity, capacity, honesty, are es- 
sential elements of fitness, and that the man 
who is most capable and most faithful and 
most honest is the man who is the most fit, 
and he should be appointed to office. 

" These are truths that in their statement 
will be denied by none, and yet the best means 
of ascertaining that fitness has been a vexed 
question with every administration of this 
Government and with every man who has 
been charged with the responsibility of its 
execution. We know what is the result. Pass 
examinations have been tried; professions have 
been tried ; honest endeavors have been tried ; 
a disposition to live faithfully up to these re- 
quirements has been tried ; and yet we know, 
and the experience of to-day shows it, that they 
have all made a most lamentable failure. We do 
know that now so great has been the increase of 
the powers of this Government and the number 
of officers under it that no President, no Cab- 
inet, no heads of bureaus, can by possibility 
know the fitness of all applicants foi the subordi- 
nate offices of the Government. The result has 
been, and under the existing system it must 
always be, that the President and his Cabinet 
and those who are charged with the responsi- 
bility have remitted the question of fitness to 



their own partisan friends, and those partisan 
friends have in their turn decided the question 
of fitness in favor of their partisan friends. 
The Administration has need of the support of 
members of Congress in carrying on its work. 
It therefore remits to members of Congress of 
its own party the questions of appointment to 
office in the various districts. These gentle- 
men, in the course of their political life, natu- 
rally (I do not find fault with them for it) find 
themselves under strain and pressure to secure 
a nomination or a renomination or election, 
and they use the places to reward those whose 
friends and families and connections and aids 
and deputies will serve their purpose. 

"I put it to gentlemen, particularly to my 
friends on this side of the chamber, because 
you have not the opportunity to exercise this 
patronage as much as our friends on the 
other side, whether or not the element of 
fitness enters largely into the questions of ap- 
pointment in your respective districts and 
States. It can not be. The necessities of the 
case prevent it. The pressure upon men who 
want to be elected prevents it. The demands 
that are made by partisan friends and those 
who have been influential and potent in secur- 
ing personal triumph to gentlemen who may 
happen to be in such relation to the appointing 
power that they have the influence to secure 
appointment prevents it. The result is, as I 
have stated, that instead of making fitness, 
capacity, honesty, fidelity, the only or the es- 
sential qualifications for office, personal fidel- 
ity and partisan activity alone control. 

" When I came to the Senate I had occasion 
more than ever before to make some investiga- 
tion upon this subject, and I found to my sur- 
prise the extent to which the demoralization 
of the service had gone. I saw the civil service 
debauched and demoralized. I saw offices dis- 
tributed to incompetent and unworthy men as 
a reward for the lowest of dirty partisan work. 
I saw many men employed to do the work of 
one man. I saw the money of the people shame- 
fully wasted to keep up electioneering funds 
by political assessments on salaries. I saw the 
whole body of the public officers paid by the 
people organized into a compact, disciplined 
corps of electioneerers obeying a master as if 
they were eating the bread of his dependence 
and rendering him personal service. 

'*! believed then, and I believe now, that 
the existing system which, for want of a better 
name, I call the ' spoils system, 1 must be killed, 
or it will kill the republic. I believe that it is 
impossible to maintain free institutions in the 
country upon any basis of that sort. I am no 
prophet of evil, I am not a pessimist in any 
sense of the word, but I do believe that if the 
present system goes on until 50,000,000 people 
shall have grown into 100,000,000, and 140,000 
officers shall have grown into 300,000, with 
their compensation in proportion, and all shall 
depend upon the accession of one party or 
the other to the presidency and to the execu- 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (CIVIL-SEEVIOE REFORM.) 



169 



tive functions, the presidency of the country, 
if it shall last in name BO long, will be put up 
for sale to the highest bidder, even as in Rome 
the imperial crown was put up to those who 
could raise the largest fund. 

" I beg gentlemen to believe that whatever I 
may have said as to the relations of parties I do 
not approach the question of the reform of the 
civil service in any mere partisan spirit. It was 
because I thought I saw this danger, because I 
believed that it was imminent, because I be- 
lieved then as I do now that it is destructive 
of republicanism and will end in the downfall 
of republican government, that I felt it my 
duty to devote whatever ability I had to the 
consideration of this subject. It was that 
which induced me a year or two ago to intro- 
duce a bill which after the best reflection, the 
best study, the best assistance that I could get 
I did introduce in the Senate, and which, in 
some degree modified, has come back from the 
Committee on Civil Service Reform, and is 
now pending before this body. 

" Mr. President, it is because 1 believe the 
4 spoils system ' to be a great crime, because I 
believe it to be fraught with danger, because 
I believe that the highest duty of patriotism is 
to prevent the crime and to avoid the danger, 
that I advocate this or a better bill if it can be 
found for the improvement of the civil service. 

" I am told, and I am sure that I am not far 
out of the way, if I am not exactly accurate, 
that the number of such offices does not exceed 
thirty or perhaps thirty-five, and that the num- 
ber of persons who are employed in them, to- 
gether with those in the departments here, 
will not exceed 10,000. 

" I said that this was a tentative effort ; that 
it was intended to be an experiment, and it is 
because it is tentative, because it is intended 
to be an experiment, that the committee 
thought it advisable in its initial stages to 
limit it, as they have limited it, in the bill. 
The bill does not apply to elective officers of 
course, nor to officers appointed by the Presi- 
dent by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, nor to the military, nor to the 
naval, nor to the judicial establishment. It 
applies simply now to those officials who are 
employed in the departments here and in the 
large offices of the Government elsewhere, 
first, because as an experiment it was thought 
that it gave scope enough to test its value and 
labor enough to employ all those who are en- 
gaged in putting it in operation until its merits 
shall be fairly tried and it shall commend it- 
self either to the approval or the condemna- 
tion of the American people. 

" There was another reason. The heads of 
offices and bureaus, where the number of em- 
ployes is small, can themselves personally 
judge of the fitness of persons who are appli- 
cants for appointment, knowing as they do 
more or less in their narrow communities 
their antecedents, their habits, and their modes 
of life. 



"The bill does not touch the question of 
tenure of office or of removal from office. I 
see it stated by those who do not know that it 
provides for a seven years' tenure of office. 
There is nothing like it in the bill. I see it 
stated that it provides against removals from 
office. There is nothing like it in the bill. 
Whether or not it would be advisable to fix 
the tenure of office, whether or not it would 
be advisable to limit removals, are questions 
about which men will differ ; but the bill as it 
is and as we invoke the judgment of the Sen- 
ate upon it contains no provisions either as to 
tenure of office or removals from office. It 
leaves those questions exactly where the law 
now finds them. It concerns itself only with 
admission to the public service; it concerns 
itself only with discovering in certain proper 
ways or in certain ways gentlemen may differ 
as to whether they are proper or not the fit- 
ness of the persons who shall be appointed. It 
takes cognizance of the fact that it is impos- 
sible for the head of a department or a large 
office personally to know all the applicants, and 
therefore it provides a method by which, when 
a vacancy occurs by death, by resignation, by 
the unlimited power of removal, a suitable 
person may be designated to fill the vacancy. 
It says in effect that when a vacancy occurs 
in the civil service of the lowest grade, every- 
body who desires entrance shall have the right 
to apply. Everybody, humble, poor, without 
patronage, without influence, whatever inay be 
his condition in life, shall have the right to go 
before the parties charged with an examination 
of his fitness and there be subjected to the test 
of open, regulated, fair, impartial examination. 

"Now, Mr. President, recurring to what I 
have said as to the scope of this bill, to the 
officers who are embraced in it, to the avoid- 
ance of the question of removal and tenure, I 
have only to say that the machinery of the bill 
is that the President shall call to his aid the 
very best assistance, with or without the con- 
currence of the Senate for that is a matter 
about which gentlemen perhaps would differ, 
and upon it I have no very fixed opinion that 
the President shall, with the concurrence of 
the best advice which he can obtain, form a 
plan, a scheme of examination free for all, open 
to all, which shall secure the very best talent 
and the very best capacity attainable for the 
civil offices of the Government. The -method 
adopted in the bill is by competitive examina- 
tion. That method has been imperfectly tried 
throughout the country. I have here the state- 
ment of the Postmaster of New York who ha& 
given much attention and has had great expe- 
rience in this matter. I have here his state- 
ment that the business of his office increased 
150 per cent, within a certain number of years, 
and the expenses increased only 2 per cent. 

"Says Mr. Pearson, 'To be specific, while 
the increase in the volume of matter has been 
from 150 to 300 per cent., the increase in cost 
has only been about 2 per cent.' 



170 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (CIVIL-SEKVICE REFOEM.) 



" Mr. Graves, whose testimony I read before, 
has stated as the result of the efforts which 
were made by Gen. Grant during the period 
that he was allowed any funds for the purpose 
of putting this scheme into operation, that the 
expenses of the departments here can be re- 
duced at least one third. 

"I have heard it said that this system of ex- 
amination proposes to present only a scholastic 
test; that it proposes only to give advantage 
to those who are college-bred, and have had 
the advantage in early life of superior educa- 
tion. The committee investigated that subject 
to some extent, and I have here the result in 
the city of New York. Says Mr. Hurt : 

" Taking seven hundred and thirty- one persons ex- 
amined, 60 per cent, of the appointees selected from 
them had been educated simply in the common 
schools of the country ; 33| per cent, had received 
what they call academic or high-school education ; 
and 6i per cent, a collegiate education. In all the 
statistics in regard to common-school education there 
is one little weakness resulting from the fact that we 
have to throw in that class men who have had hardly 
any education, men who will say. ' I went to school 
until I was eleven years old,' or ' I went to school in 
the winter,' or something of that kind. We have to 
throw them in that class, and it rather reduces the 
average standing in that category. As to the matter 
of age, we have very thoroughly exploded that objec- 
tion. There have been some young men of twenty- 
one and twenty-two who have come in, but the aver- 
age has been above thirty, and it is astonishing that 
it is the men above thirty who make the best time on 
examination, who show a facility to get through work 
quickly. 

" He goes on to say : 

" Yet about two thirds of the appointees had a com- 
mon-school education ; had not even an academic ed- 
ucation. 

" Of course these examinations must be 
proper; of course they must be regulated 
upon common- sense principle^ ; of course they 
must be conducted to test the fitness of the 
men who are to be appointed to particular of- 
fices. You have tests everywhere. To-day 
the law requires that there shall be a test of 
examination in the various departments here 
in Washington. They are pass examinations ; 
they are imperfect ; they are insufficient ; they 
are not thorough. Mr. Graves himself says 
that the only examination in his case was that 
the superior in the department looked over 
his shoulder while he was writing and said, 
4 1 think you will pass.' That was when he 
entered the service twenty-odd years ago. 

''If you have examinations, why not have 
competitive examinations? If you have pri- 
vate pass examinations, why not have open ex- 
aminations ? If examinations are to be made 
in the departments by subordinates of the de- 
partments, why not have them made by re- 
sponsible examiners amenable to the authority 
of the President under a system devised by the 
best intelligence that can be supplied ? 

" I hear the system of competitive examina- 
tion spoken of as if it were something extraor- 
dinary. Within the last fifteen years it has 
gotten to be a custom that I might almost say 



is universal that when a member of Congress 
has the right to appoint a cadet to West Point 
or to the Naval Academy he asks his constitu- 
ents to compete for it. Formerly it was never 
done ; it was looked on as the mere perquisite 
of a member of Congress. I appointed a gen- 
tleman to West Point who graduated at the 
head of his class, and now is an active and vig- 
orous spirit of the Military Academy. I ap- 
pointed him simply upon my own personal 
examination and knowledge. It would not be 
done now ; it could not be done now ; the pub- 
lic sentiment is against it. The public senti- 
ment of the district that I then represented 
would not permit it; but open competitive 
examinations are demanded, and everybody 
having the requisite qualifications of age and 
health and vigor can compete for the appoint- 
ment. 

" Why not apply that system to the Execu- 
tive Departments of this Government ? What 
earthly reason can there be why when you de- 
sire to appoint the best and fittest man for the 
place that is vacant he should not subject him- 
self to the competition of other people who 
desire to have that place ? Of course, as I said 
before, this all goes upon the basis that there 
shall be reasonable examination and reasonable 
competition." 

Mr. Hawley, of Connecticut, followed in the 
same strain. He said : " This is ' a bill to' reg- 
ulate and improve the civil service of the 
United States. 1 It is not a new subject, nor is 
the bill itself, in its essential particulars, new 
to the Senate or to the public. Something is 
to be done upon this subject. Beyond all 
manner of question there is something to be 
done. The experience of this country as to 
the evils of the existing system, the experience 
of other countries in the trial of improved sys- 
tems and aside from any evils that exist among 
us, the extraordinary growth of this country, 
render the continuance of the present system 
utterly impossible. All these things combined, 
with a stronger and stronger manifestation of 
puhlic sentiment from year to year, show, as I 
said, that something is to be done. 

" When our country began with what I may 
call the present system, which is a lack of sys- 
tem, there were 350,000 square miles of terri- 
tory; there are now 4,000,000 square miles. 
There were 3,000,000 of people ; there are now 
55,000,000 of people, or will be by next June, 
and there has been an addition of 25 States. 
In 1801 there were 906 post-offices; there are 
now 44,848. There were 69 custom-houses; 
there are now 135. The revenues were less 
than $3,000,000; now they are $400,000,000. 
Our ministers to foreign countries were 4 ; they 
are now 33. Our consuls were 63 ; they are 
now 728. A thousand men then administered 
the Government; it now requires more than 
100,000. 

"In many offices, I might say in every one 
of the departments and bureaus of the Govern- 
ment, the chief might, origirally, well be re- 



CONGKESS, UNITED STATES. (CIVIL-SEEVIOE REFORM.) 



171 



quired to have personal acquaintance with the 
character, the mental abilities, the fitness in 
general of his appointees. To require or ex- 
pect any such knowledge now is quite ridicu- 
lous indeed, with a Treasury Department alone 
that has more than 3,000 employes, and single 
subordinate offices outside of Washington that 
have nearly twice as many employes as the 
whole Government had ninety years ago. 

" The doctrine of old was a better doctrine 
than that we have lately practiced. It taught 
that the power and duty of making removals 
were vested in the President alone. It may be 
the theory now, but it is not wholly acknowl- 
edged to be such by the Tenure-of-Office Act, 
and in practice it is certainly not the law. 
Fidelity and efficiency were the measures of 
tenure, as capacity and character were the 
tests for appointment. 

"Here are some figures which have been 
made familiar during the discussion of this 
question. Washington made only nine remov- 
als, and all for cause ; John Adams only nine, 
and none, it would seem, by reason of political 
cause ; Jefferson only thirty-nine, and none of 
them, as he declared, for political reasons; 
Madison only five; Monroe only nine; John 
Quincy Adams only two, and all for cause. 
In general, the Government was very honestly 
and admirably administered. 

"There has been a constant an;l a steady 
growth of the idea that offices might be used 
to strengthen candidates and to reward active 
workers. The doctrine that 'to the victors 
belong the spoils' became (though it always 
provoked a smile) the practical rule of the 
country. The evils of the existing system can 
not be denied by any man, whatever his posi- 
tion, with regard to any of the pending meas- 
ures for civil-service reform. They are ob- 
vious, more clearly obvious to members of 
Congress than to anybody else. They are 
obvious in the suffering and humiliation of the 
employes. The condition of the majority of 
them is pitiable. They are under a sort of 
degradation that we have no right to impose 
upon our friends and neighbors and fellow- 
citizens. They are only partially secured in 
their positions by their character and by the 
good work they may do. How well we know 
that they do not depend upon those things to 
maintain them in place; that they are con- 
stantly coming to members of Congress and 
applying to influential friends everywhere to 
strengthen what they call their 'influence,' till 
the word 'influence' has become a cant term, 
a slang term among them. ' Who is your in- 
fluence?' is the phrase. 'I have none. My 
influence is dead.' Or, 'My influence was in 
Congress ten or fifteen years ago, and he is not 
in political life now, or he has no influence 
himself ' ; ' I must get some influence,' etc., 
etc. These are the every-day phrases among 
the employes ; and whenever a new chief of 
a bureau comes in, not to say a now Cabinet 
officer or a new President, there is a hurrying 



and a scurrying among all the terrified flock to 
strengthen themselves in position ; not by the 
good record they may have or the good char- 
acter they may have maintained, but by the 
recommendations of political friends. By this 
system the inefficient are kept in longer than 
they would be otherwise. These are facts so 
well known that I ought to ask pardon for re- 
peating them. 

" The man who is less efficient than his fel- 
lows, conscious that he has less of character or 
of ability, or of both, than they, is the man 
who is almost certain to have the largest pile 
of papers in support of his position. And 
thereby it becomes exceedingly difficult to re- 
move him. More persons are needed for the 
same labor than there would be under some 
ideal system, I do not say what. We can 
imagine that if they were appointed purely for 
efficiency and character and maintained for 
that, fewer persons I do not pretend to say 
how many, because no man knows; the esti- 
mates are quite at random ; some say a quarter 
less, some say a half would do the work 
equally well. 

" Moreover, there is unnecessary expense. 
The salaries must be kept higher in accordance 
with obvious laws of economy, because people 
will not enter into an uncertain service for the 
price they would be willing to take if they 
were guaranteed long continuance, or life ser- 
vice. A young man who comes here for one, 
two, three, four, or five years, is very hungry 
indeed to get his ten, twelve, or fourteen hun- 
dred dollars a year. If he had any guarantee 
of long service, or of service during good be- 
havior (and absolutely no minute longer than 
that), there would be in abundance young men 
of capacity willing to come here and begin at 
six, seven, eight, or nine hundred dollars a 
year, trusting to a well-graded system for pro- 
motion to nine, ten, eleven, or twelve hundred 
dollars, as they continued in the service. Our 
present system is therefore, in that sense, 
wasteful and extravagant. 

" There is another matter upon which I need 
not dwell in this audience, and that is the tor- 
ment of the legislative branch. Senators know 
this well. I am happy to say I know a little 
less of it than some of my neighbors; but 
those who represent large States, especially if 
they are within easy reach of Washington, de- 
serve our commiseration and should every 
Sunday, in the old fashion of New England, 
ask for the prayers of the congregation. Their 
desks are piled with letters, from scores upon 
scores, and their constituents sometimes stand' 
in their corridors in the same proportions. 
How large a share and how painful a share of 
our troubles and anxieties are due to this mat- 
ter of office-seeking, we all know too well. 
We are all under the necessity of hearing in- 
numerable applications for office, of reading 
and preparing papers that will sustain them, of 
calling in person, and perhaps repeatedly, to 
enforce applications, of writing innumerable 



172 



CONGRESS, UNITED STATES. (CIVIL-SERVICE REFORM.) 



letters in reference to the matter ; of re-en- 
forcing the support that an employ^ has; or 
of seeking to restore those who are discharged 
in times of reduction or for an alleged or a 
real falling below the standard, or discharged, 
perhaps, to give place to a protege of some 
more favored or more ardent politician. 

"We listen to the appeals of the utterly des- 
titute. The widow comes here whose husband 
has been a long time a clerk or public servant 
somewhere, and it is impossible not to sympa- 
thize, it is impossible not to say that it would 
be reasonable, if she were well qualified, that 
she should have a clerkship. She has a de- 
pendent family; she has, perhaps, dependent 
relatives. You know there are scattered about 
these departments many who are the children 
of men well known in the public service of the 
United States, and among whose honors it was 
that they went out of that service penniless, 
whose misfortune it was that they left depend- 
ent relatives. No man can say, ' I will close my 
eyes and shut my ears to these appeals.' He 
can not do it. He may put himself upon the 
cold ground that 'it is my duty to be studying 
public measures, to be reading and thinking 
about and preparing for the great measures 
that concern the whole country ' ; but he comes 
up from his breakfast-table and finds his room 
full of cases that he must at least hear. 

" Nor is this a matter that embarrasses one 
party alone. I have known gentlemen yes, I 
see one now in the chamber, not a member of 
my own party, whom I have heard cry out 
against the burden, the painful labor that 
pained and oppressed him, and, in the vexation 
of the moment, declare that he would leave 
this hall, and go back to his farm and his 
happy home. There is something wrong about 
all this. This Government is not running a 
great charitable establishment ; and yet, if it is 
to employ people in subordinate positions, you 
will say that equitably nobody has a better 
claim than a widow, or daughter, or sister, or 
brother of some old-time public servant, whose 
family for many years has been accustomed to 
the service of the United States, knows what 
it is, and can discharge the duties well; or 
than the dependent relative of some faithful 
soldier. 

' There , must be some relief. I said there 
will be. I say there can be one easily found, 
theoretically. Every man here, whether op- 
posed to civil-service reform, in the ordinary 
language, or in favor of it, sees that he can de- 
vise some plan by which these things can be 
very much bettered. Well, practically there 
has been, in a limited area in this country, a 
vast improvement, and that area can be ex- 
tended. I forbear to illustrate by the example 
of Great Britain, chiefly because many of the 
circumstances there are quite different. The 
ancient history of the civil service is different ; 
the relations of executive and legislative power 
are different. They have an avowed life-term ; 
they have pensions ; they have a right of pen- 



sion that grows with the years of service, anal- 
ogous to what the army calls the 'old fogy 
ration.' There are various provisions there 
for which our public sentime