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On the Self-division of ]\Iicrasterias dknticulata. 
By Mr. Lobb. 

(Read October lOtli, 1860.) 

In the month of April last^ Dr. Millar, Mr. Mummery, 
and myself, went out collecting in Epping Forest, near High 
Eeech, where the Doctor has a residence; and lie being well 
acquainted with the localities, we soon filled our bottles with 
Vo/vox globator, Volvox aureus, Actinophrys sol and viridis, 
DilHugia, Floscularia, Diatomace<e, Desmidiaceic, &c. And 
I may here take the opportunity of saying, that I know of 
no place so prolific in microscopic gatherings as Epping 
Forest, which exceeds even the noted bog at Fisher's Castle, 
Tunbridge WeUs. On examining, the next morning, the 
Dcsmidiaceae, I was favoured with a beautiful view, from com- 
mencement to termination, of the self-division of Micras- 
terias denticulata, occupying altogether three hours and a 
half: the result was to make me feel that Mr. Ralfs is wrongr 
in the figure he gives of the same in his highly valuable work 
on the British Desmidiaccre (fig. 1, pi. 7). So humble an 
individual as myself may well pause on diftering from so high 
an authority, but in this instance I am compelled to do so, 
and am happy to say that I am not alone in so doing, !Mr. 
Tomkins and Dr. Millar having both wtnesscd the same, 
and both of them perfectly agree with me. Mr. Tomkins 
saw it first, myself next, and lastly Dr. Millar. 

The self-division commences by the exudation of a small, 
perfectly hyaline, membranaceous globule from each half- 
frustule; very soon a small portion of granular endochrome is 
seen issuing forth into the globules from the original half- 
frustulcs. (See PI. I, fig. 1.) 

The next stage exhibits the globules dividing into three lobes, 
the endochrome increasing in quantity, sometimes gradually 
extending itself as in fig. 2, and sometimes entering, as it 
were, in two streams from the thickened sides of the end 
lobes of the parent half-frustules, as in fig. 3. 

In the next stage the three lobes divide into five ; the 
end lobe remaining luialtcred in figure, and only increased 
in size. (Sec fig. I.) 

VOL. 1, NEW SER. a 

2 LoBB, 071 Micrasterias Denticulata. 

This is followed by the incision of the central and basal 
lobes, and the central lobes being considerably larger than 
the basal the whole assumes somewhat the appearance of 
being composed of seven lobes. (See fig. 5.) 

After this a further incision of the central and basal lobes 
takes place (see fig. 6); then the sinuation of the end lobes, 
and the denticulation of the whole completes the division (see 
fig. 7) ; then separation follows. 

In each stage the endochrome increases, but never extends 
throughout ; the hyaline portion becomes less, the frustule 
is gradually filled, and when self-di\asion is completed, there 
still remains a perfectly hyaline portion all round the cell. 

The figure in Mr. Ralfs's work represents the first 
exudation firom the parent frustules as very large, and 
filled with a light colouring matter of the same density 
throughout, leaving no portion hyaline. There is no divi- 
sion into lobes, no incision, no denticulation, no granular 
endochrome ; and all these are so natural, and so perfectly in 
keeping with the parent frustules, that I do feel justified in 
differing even from so high an authority, and am compelled to 
say, that if ever such a self-division was witnessed, it must 
have been an abnormal one. Having seen many frustules in 
the course of self-division, and on different occasions, I 
can with confidence assert, that I have never seen any devia- 
tion from the method now described: there is a slight varia- 
tion in the spreading of the endochrome, which, it should 
be observed, is always granular. 

The self-division only requires to be witnessed, to show 
that Avhat I have stated is correct; and, should any one 
observe the phenomenon from its commencement to its close, 
as I have done, he will, with me, assert that a more beautiful 
object can hardly be seen even by a microscopist. 

There was one object Avhich struck me very forcibly, on 
looking over the gatherings from Epping Forest, and which I 
have endeavoured to figure, magnified only seventy-five dia- 
meters. It difi"ers, in several respects, from Actinophrys sol, 
though there is some resemblance, both in its circular figure 
and in the rays that issue from the disc; the central disc 
is perfectly hyaline, excepting the cell-walls, the cells of 
the inner disc being larger than the cells (if I may so 
term them) of the outer disc. It may, or it may not, be 
new, but I have never seen it figured. 

Oil a Portable Field or Clinical Microscope. 
By Lionel S. Beale, M.B., F.R.S., &c. 

(Head December 10th, 1860.) 

Tins instrument was originally designed for microscopical 
investigation in connection with medicine, but it has been 
found applicable to microscopical inquiry generally. Its 
simplicity and cheapness strongly recommend it for the pur- 
poses of teaching. Like some other instruments Avhich 
have from time to time been proposed, it is composed of 
draw-tubes like a telescope ; but the arrangement of the stage, 
and the plan adopted for moving the slide, Avhen different 
parts of the objects are submitted to examination, differ 
entirely, as far as the author is aware, from those usually 
adopted. The instrument consists of three tubes, a, b, c ; a 
carries the eye-piece, is foiu- and a half inches long, and slides 
in h, which is of the same length, but only slides up to its 
centre in the outer tube c. Tube h carries the object-glass. 
There is a bolt on tube c, which can be fixed by aid of a rack 
and tooth, at any height, according to the focal length of 
the object-glass. This arrangement prevents the risk of the 
object-glass being forced through the preparation Avhile being 
focussed. At the lower part of the body is a screw clamp 
for fixing the preparation in any particular position, and an 
aperture for throwing the light on opaque objects. The pre- 
paration is kept in contact with the flat surface below by a 
spring, which allows the requisite movements to be made 
Avith the hand. 

That part of the object which it is desired to ex- 
amine can easily be placed opposite the object-glass, if the 
instrument is inverted. Next, the focus is obtained by a 
screwing movementof the tube b; andif it be desired to examine 
any other parts of the object, this is easily effected by moving 
the slide with one hand, Avhile the instrument is firmly grasped 
by tlie other. Delicate focussing is effected by drawing the 
tube a up and down. By this movement the distance be- 
tween the eye-piece and object-glass is altered. 

Any object-glass may be used with this instrument. I 
have adopted various powers, from a three-inch, magnifying 
fifteen diametres, to a twelfth, magnifying seven hundred 

In the examination of transparent objects ordinary day- 
light, or the direct light of a lamp, may be used ; or, if more 
convenient, the light may l)e reffected from a sheet of white 
paper, or from a small mirror inclined at tlie proper angle, 
and placed on the table. 

4 BealEj on a Portable Field or Clinical Microscope. 

In examining objects by reflected liglit, sufficient illumina- 
tion is obtained from an ordinary wax candle placed at a 
short distance from the aperture, just above the object. But 
the most beautiful eftects are obtained by using the Lieber- 
kulm with direct light. 

The slide, as has been stated, is kept in contact "with the 
lower part of the instrument, which I have called the stage, 
by a spring which is therefore made to press on the back of 
the slide. On the other side of the stage the little screw and 
clamp are placed so that the specimen may be fixed in any 
position that may be desired. 

In using this microscope the slide with the object to be 
examined is placed upon the stage, the thin glass being up- 
wards towards the object-glass, while the spring is made to 
press upon the U7ider surface of the slide. The little screw 
is removed. The slide may now be moved in every position, 
and any particular object to be examined can readily be 
placed exactly under the object-glass. Tube a is withdrawn 
about two thirds of its length. The tube c being firmly held 
with the left-hand, b is grasped with the right, and with 
a screwing motion the object-glass is brought to its proper 
focus. The specimen having been fixed with the little clamp, 
and the bolt arranged at the right height, the instrument 
may be passed round a class. This microscope seems to be 
well suited to field-work and botanical purposes. It is not 
heavy, and, including the powers and an animalcule cage, 
will easily pack into a tube or case six and a half inches 
long and two inches in diameter. I constantly use it in 
clinical teaching. Urinary deposits, specimens of sputum, 
&c., may be examined by the patient's bedside, and their 
characters demonstrated to the class. Lately, I have fitted 
the instrument to a little stand, on which a light has been 
placed in a suitable position, and the Avholc has been passed 
round in class, while the characters of the object shown were 
being described. When the arrangements are perfected, I 
believe this form of instrument will be found very valuable 
for demonstrating the microscopical characters of objects to 
a large number of persons assembled in classes. 

The instrument can be seen at Mr. Matthews', Portugal 
Street, Lincoln's lun. 

On some Undescrired Species of Diatomace/E. 
By George Norman, Esq., of Hull. 

(Read November 14.tb, 1S60.) 
(Communicated by F. C. S. Roper, T.L.S., F.G S., &c.) 

In purposing to give, in this and future short papers, 
figures and descriptions of new forms of Diatomaceae from 
ray cabinet, I trust that no apology is needed, but rather, by 
so doing, to be of service to diatomists. 

As a general rule, it may not be deemed ad\isable to 
describe a new form from scanty materials, or from single 
specimens ; but when a form occurs that cannot easily be 
confounded with any described species, the sooner it is made 
known the better, in order that others may have their atten- 
tion draAvn to it. 

I gladly make use of this opportunity to call the attention 
of those who have facilities for obtaining from their corre- 
spondents in Australia, the Pacific Islands, West Indies, &c., 
the alimentary matter of Ascidians and other molluscs. It 
will be seen that some of the forms described in this paper are 
from an Ascidian gathering from the west coast of Australia. 

For this gathering I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. 
J. D. Macdonald, of H.M. Surveying Ship Herald. The 
great bulk of uon-diatomaceous matter in this gathering 
being calcareous, it was readily cleaned by means of acid ; 
and turned out to be by far the richest in new and unde- 
scribed forms of any gathering I have had an opportunity 
of examining. 

Among the beautiful forms, are such as Navicuhi bullata, 
Camjjylodiscus diplostictus, &c. ; there are a great many which 
I am unable to refer to any existing genera. 

The stomach-contents of the larger INIollusca, such as 
Strombus and Tridacna, would, doubtless, be found to be 
mainly diatomaceous in their nature. 

Even land molluscs seem to derive part of their nutrition 
from the endochrome contained between the siliceous valves 
of Diatomaceic, for on recently examining the frecal matter 
of our common garden-snail. Helix aspersa, I noticed, among 
other forms, a good many valves of Nitzschia Amphioxijs, a 
species Avhich ]?^hrenberg has found in a great number of 
samples of soil from various parts of the world, and wliich 
seems to have a wider geographical range than any other 
species that I am acquainted with. 

Again, the tadpole of the common Frog seems to be 

6 Norman, on Diatomacea. 

almost exclusively diatominivorous in the selection of its food. 
I lately examined the stomach-contents of some specimens 
which had been kept for a few weeks in a small glass tank, 
when the mass was found to consist of fully sixty per cent, 
of Diatoraaceae. 

These circumstances are mentioned here merely for the 
purpose of attracting the attention of those who have the 
opportunity of studying the subject more fully. It is also 
quite possible that such investigations may tend to clear up 
the yet, I believe, disputed point, as to the vegetable or 
animal nature of these beautiful organisms. 

1*. Astrolampra Stella, n. sp., Norm. (Plate II, fig. 1). — 
Valve of six rays, rays club-formed in the centre and gra- 
dually becoming linear towards the margin. Outer edge 
of disc divided into twelve punctate divisions. 

Habitat. — Sierra Leone, in a gathering kindly communi- 
cated by Mr. F. Kitton, of Norwich. 

This remarkable disc, I place, provisionally, in Astrolam- 
pra, its structure having little in common with that 
genus. The unsymmetrical appearance may be, and in all 
probability, is owing to my specimen being a double valve, for 
in the centre is seen a series of six indistinct rays, which I 
have endeavoured to give in the drawing. 

Altogether it is a remarkable form, and, probably, ought 
to constitute a new genus. 

By giving it a place in this paper, I hope to call the atten- 
tion of those who have correspondents at Sierra Leone, to 
urge them to send material from the coast in that locality. 

2. Surirella Baldjikii, n. sp.. Norm. (Fig. 2). — Valve 
panduriform, canaliculi conspicuous, widening out towards 
the margin, absent in constricted portion. Centre of valve 
a smooth cruciform space ; the transverse limb being 
broader than the longitudinal one, and approaching tlie 
margin of the valve at its constricted part. ]\largin of valve 
striated ; strise 40 in •OOl'" 

Marine, in a deposit from Baldjik, near Varna. 

This deposit is full of beautiful and interesting forms, 
many of which are new and imdescril)cd. The piece of 
earthy deposit I picked out of a cargo of bones discharging 
in the docks. The captain of the vessel informed me that 
the cliffs about Baldjik are wholly composed of this wliite- 
coloiired earth. 

It Avill be worth while obtaining a larger supply of tliis 
material, which is the same that yielded the beautiful little 
form which Mr. Brightwell has described as Odontidium 

NoRMAX, on Diatomacea. 7 

3. Coscinodiscus fuscus, n. sp., Norm. (Firj. 3). — 
Valve convex, depressed in centre ; granidcs arranged in 
radiating lines, diminishing in number at intervals, tlius 
forming distinct zones. Granules 20 in '001"; diameter of 
valve -0013" to -0007". 

Marine, stomach of Ascidians, North Sea. 

Valve, under a low power, opaque, broAniish black, lighter 
in centre, where it is green. At first sight it reminds one 
of Eupodiscus RaJfsii ; but the colour is much darker, the 
granules much smaller, and more crowded together. In 
this respect it appears to be half way between E. lialfsii and a 
disc which I found in considerable quantities on bones from 
Constantinople, and which has been doubtfully referred to 
Eupodiscus subtilis. 

The Avant of anything like a marginal nodule in the species 
now described, relieves me of any uncertainty as to its 
proper generic position ; hence I refer it, without hesitation, 
to Coscinodiscus. Hitherto it has occurred only in one or 
two ascidian gatherings, and then only sparsely. 

4. Nitzschia vitrea, n. sp.. Norm. (Fig. 4). — Frus- 
tule hyaline, broadly-linear, extremities truncated ; valve 
linear-lanceolate, slightly constricted in centre, and somewhat 
produced at the ends ; puncta conspicuous, bead-like. Stria3 
very obscure, 58 in -001". Length of fi'ustule -0025" to 

In brackish water, Hull. 

It is not often that one has the good fortune to detect a 
new British form. The present one, however, cannot be 
referred to any of the species given in Smith's ' SjTiopsis.' 

The only locality that has hitherto yielded it is a small ditch 
of water influenced by high spring tides. The same locality 
furnishes Nitzschia Brebissonii, vivax, and bilobata. 

5. Aulacodiscus Sollittianus, n. sp.. Norm. (Fig. G). 
— Disc large, coloui'less, processes very prominent (al)out 
six), submarginal. Granules in radiating lines, 9 in 'OOl", 
absent in centre valve and around base of processes. 

In a deposit from Nottingham, Maryland. 

Diameter of valve 'OOO" ; processes large, and, under a 
low power, appearing as if they had rings attached to 

This fine species I have great pleasure in dedicating to 
]Mr. J. D. Sollitt, whose long services with the microscope, 
conjointly Avitli ^Nlr. Robert Harrison, have, I think, been 
insufficiently recognised. 

Unfortunately it is very scarce in the small quantity of the 
deposit I have hitherto worked upon. I expect soon to have a 

8 Norman, on Diatomace(P. 

large quantity of the material, when it is to be hoped that it 
may prove more abundant. The blank centre, large size, and 
unusual distance from the margin of the nodules, together 
■with the large blank spaces around the same, render this a 
well-marked species. 

Judging from the occurrence, in abundance, of the various 
species of Heliopelta in this deposit, together with Eupodiscus 
Rogersii, Craspedodiscus elegans, Aidacodiscus Crux, Scep- 
troneis caduceus, Triceratium solenoceros, condecorum, undv- 
latum, and amdum, there can be little doubt that it is 
identical with the Bermuda earth of Professor Bailey, the 
locality of which has hitherto remained in much doubt. For 
the small quantity received I am indebted to ^Messrs. Sulli- 
rant and Wormley, of Columbus, Ohio. The deposit was 
discovered, I believe, by Dr. Johnson, of Baltimore, near 
Nottingham, in Maryland, not far from the Patuxent lliver, 
and within a moderate distance of Piscataway, where the well- 
known rich deposit occurs. 

Bermuda Hundred, on the James River, in Virginia, is 
distant about a hundred miles from Nottingham, but as all 
the waters of this distnct find their way into the gi"eat 
Chesapeake Bay, it is quite possible that the locality suggested 
by Dr. Aruott may have furnished the sample of Bermuda 
earth originally sent to this country by Dr. Bailey. I under- 
stand, however, from ^Messrs. Sullivant and AYormley, that 
Dr. Johnson had examined the country at Bermuda Hundred 
without finding any deposit whatever. When the larger 
supply of the Nottingham material arrives, I shall be glad to 
supply my friends with a portion. 

6. Eupodiscus oval'is, n. sp.. Norm. (Fig. 7). — Valve 
elliptical, nodule single, submarginal; granules arranged 
in radiating lines, croMcled near the margin, sparser towards 
the centre. Colour, tawnv brown. Length of valve "002.0" 
to -0035." 

]\Iarine, stomach of Ascidians, Shark Bay, Australia. 

This species approaches Eupodiscus fuJvus, diflering, how- 
ever, in the elliptical shape, altered position of the nodule, 
which in the latter is nearer the margin, and also in the 
arrangement of the granules, the disc being divided into 
regular segments by the longest lines of granules. 

7. Navicula bullata, n. sp.. Norm. (Fig. 6). — Valve 
elliptical, extremities slightly produced. Stria; in a marginal 
and two central bands ; marginal bands of unequal width. 
The smooth space between the striated bands studded with 
a line of circular bosses. Striic moniliform, 1-i in 'OOl". 
Length of valve -0065" ; breadth -0030". 

Norman, on Diatomucea. 9 

Huh. — Stomach of Ascidians, Shark Bay, Avcstcrn coast 
of Australia ; kindly comraiuiicatcd by Dr. ^Nlacdonald. 

This singularly l)cautiful form is exceedingly rare in the 
above-mentioned gathering. It belongs unquestional)ly to 
the group of forms of which Nav. hjra is tlic type. Tlie re- 
markable row of bosses on the smooth bands renders it 
distinct from any known species. 

It may be remarked that, in describing the structure of 
Coscinodiscits fuscus and Aulacodiscus Sollittianus, I have 
designated the markings on the valves " granules/^ instead 
of adopting the usual method of calling them areolae, or cells. 
Hitherto, I believe, most authors have adopted the latter desig- 
nation in describing the various species of Coscinodiscus, 
Aulacodiscus, Eujjodisciis, &c., and have, by so doing, in my 
opinion, overlooked the real nature of the construction. 

Dr. AVallich has done good service in pointing out the true 
structure of the markings of Pleurosigmu, and I feel con- 
vinced that all the above-mentioned discs are constructed on 
the same plan, differing only in the form of the elevations or 
granules, and their arrangement on the surface of the valve. 

In Pleurosigma the markings are four-sided elevations; 
while in Coscinodiscus, Eupodiscus, &c., they are circular 
when not crowded, but assuming the irregular or hexagonal 
form when pressing on each other. The same structure ap- 
pears to exist in Biddu/phia, Isthmia, &c., and probably in 
all diatoms, not even excepting Triceratium favus, the raised 
portions of silex only differing in form. 

On examining a valve of Coscinodiscus gigas, or lineatus, 
for instance, with a good one fourth or one twelfth, we find 
the colour of the valve, in the interstices betw^een the granules, 
to be pink, whereas the granules themselves are white, or 

The true structure, however, is better seen in valves 
where the granules are more circular, and not so much 
crowded together. Here the structm-e will be apparent at a 


On a Dissecting Microscope^ &c. 
By James Smith. 

(Read November lltli, 1860.) 

This microscope, the general design of ■nliichlhope, vritli the 
assistance of the accompanying dra^yings, to make sufficiently 
plain, I consider to be a modification of the one known as 
Slack's Dissecting ^licroscope, and which is figured and de- 
sciibed in Quekett's ' Practical Treatise/ It may be as well to 
state in the first instance, that the chief novelty in the con- 
struction of my instrument, is the method of fixing on the 
hand-rests to the stage, by means of hinges — and in such a 
manner that, when not in use, they fold down at'the si(^s — 
thus giving the advantage of fixed rests, available in a moment, 
while, at the same time, the microscope, when they are let 
down, is not larger than it would be if they were altogether 
separate fi'om it. They also, when not in use, fonn with the 
other parts, a box (as in Mr. Slack's model) iu which the 
dissecting troughs and any other accessory apparatus may be 
packed away, when necessary. 

No. 1. 

The above drawing shows a front elevation of the microscope 
as set up for use, and in the following brief description I shall 
endeavour to give as clear an idea of it as I can, only premising 
that I have given the various measurements for the sake of 
greater distinctness, as I presume that the actual size of any 
particular instrument must, in some measure, depend upon 
the requirements of the operator. I think, however, that the 
one hereafter described will be found very convenient for all 
ordinary purposes. 

Smith, on a Dissecting Microscope. 11 

In the first place, the stage, wliich consists of a stout piece 
of mahogany, or a plate of brass, is about seven inches long, 
by five broad — and it is attached to a good firm base, also of 
mahogany, by four brass or wooden pillars about five inches 
high (the two front ones being shown in the drawing), wliich 
serve the double purpose of supporting the stage, and of 
giving the requisite elevation to the hand-rests, by means of 
notches cut in their sides into which the supports fit. These 
hand rests are about five inches square and one fifth of an 
inch thick and are fixed to the sides of the stage by hinges, 
so that they can be placed at any angle re([uired, by means of 
the supports, which are two pieces of wood or metal fastened 
to the rests, as shown in the drawings ; these supports are 
shaped so as not to interfere with the hands in adjusting the 
mirror, this being one of the points that I have specially kept 
in A-iew in designing the instrument. 

The other parts more immediately in connection with the 
stage are the condenser and the arm for holding the magnify- 
ing lenses ; the former is attached to the front of the stage 
by a moveable arm in which it slides up and downi, and when 
not in use it can be taken out of the socket and put away in 
some convenient place ; the horizontal arm canying the lenses 
has the usual rack-work and pinion adjustment, and may either 
slide in and out as figured in the drawing, or also be fitted 
with a rack-work movement — the arm is turned on one side in 
order to show a slight bend at the end, holding the glasses, 
which I think wdll sometimes be found convenient, when 
rather a deep trough is being used the sides of which would 
otherwise prevent the lenses from being brought into focus 
w'itli the bottom, a eu'cumstance that has in more cases than 
one proved troublesome to me, as either a lower power had to 
be used or the subject shifted to a shallower trough. Upon 
the base of the microscope is a drawer for holding the lenses, 
knives, and other dissecting instruments, including a small 
glass syringe, which I find an extremely useful addition to the 
apparatus. Above the drawer is placed the mirror, which has 
two sockets, one in the centre for ordinary illumination, and 
one in the front for oblique light, by which the object under 
dissection is bnlliantly illuminated on a dark ground — a plan 
in many instances most eflbctive. A very convenient way of 
doing this would be by putting the mirror upon a socket 
moving in a groove — so that it could be at once placed in any 
required position, or when not in use pushed up to the back 
of the instrument, and thus be altogether out of the way avIicu 
the space is othcrw'ise needed. 

Drawing No. 2 shows the microscope as it appears Avith the 


Smith, on a Dissecting Microscope. 

rests let down and when not in use — and it is made complete 
as a box by a piece of wood (similar to that forming the back) 

No. 2. 

which drops into a groove in front of the drawer and is fastened 
by small hooks at the top to the stage, and upon this piece the 
condenser can conveniently be fixed by catches when the 
instrument is packed up I have thought it better to make 
this front a separate part, as it might sometimes be found very 
much in the way if permanently fixed on by hinges. I have 
not shown it in the drawing, thinking it unnecessary to do so. 

Drawing No. 2 also shows the small dark tube devised by 
Dr. Carpenter, for facilitating dissection without the aid of 
the glasses, and described at page 192 of his work on the 
Microscope. This tube (the adding of which as a part of my 
apparatus I am indebted to him for suggesting) has a piece 
of ground glass fitted into the bottom, and can either be used 
for the purpose more immediately intended, or for softening 
the light, M'hich is often very necessary when working at night 
with a lamp or candle. 

As a fitting addendum to the description of my microscope, 
I may here give that of a modification of the ordinary dis- 
secting trough, suggested to me by Professor Busk, who has 
kindly permitted me to add it to my paper. The new trough 
is made by cutting a small piece (say for example one inch 
long and a quarter of an inch in width) out of the centre of 
a gutta-percha one, and inserting in the hole thus left a piece 
of glass, so as to be on a level with the surface ; by this 
arrangement, the object to be dissected, after being cut open, 
can be fastened down over the glass by pinning it to the 
gutta percha on either side, and in this way it can be illumi- 
nated either by the condenser or the mirror, as may be 

Smith, on a Dissecting Microscope. 13 

found necessary, an advantage too obvious in many instances 
to need further comment. As pieces of glass of several widths 
would be required to suit objects of different sizes, thus ne- 
cessitating the employment of several troughs fitted up in 
this manner, it has occurred to me, that in case this might 
form a ground of ol)jection -with some to the plan, the 
same purpose might be answered by simply fitting slips 
of glass of the sizes most generally useful into fiat pieces of 
gutta percha, which woidd go into any of the ordinary glass- 
bottomed troughs, and thus easily be substituted the one for 
the other. 

No. 3. 

. ^m ^^^^-^ 

It now only remains for me to notice the arrangement 
figiu'cd in the above drawing, Avhich shows a sectional view of 
the stage of the microscope, under which is held, by two 
catches, a large trough, about an inch and a half in depth, 
and having a glass bottom ; a piece of sufficient size is also 
cut out of the stage, and a moveable plate of glass, or metal, 
put in its place (as shown in the drawing) , which is of course 
lifted ott' Avhen the trough is used ; another, and perhaps 
more effectual, way of getting at it would be, by making a 
portion of the stage nearly equal in length and breadth to 
the trough to slide in a groove, like the lid of a small box, 
which could just be pulled out when required. By this method, 
I think that many dissections, that in the ordinary way would 
be carried on apart from the microscope, might be made on 
it ; thus allowing the hand-rests, mirror, condenser, and other 
appurtenances of the instrument, to be made use of more 
advantageously and with greater ease to the dissector than if 
a trough of this size Avere placed on the top of the stage. In 
order to make this arrangement as complete as possible, I 
further propose to fit a piece of gutta percha into the bottom 
of the trough, which could be taken out Avhen wanted (and 
thus make it serve the place of two troughs) ; and also to make 
a small hole in it (fitted with a plug), so as to allow of the 
water being drained ott' when necessary into a vessel held 
below, without having to remove, or otherwise disturb the 
object under dissection in any way, which might thus, if 


Smith, on a Dissecting Microscope. 

requisite, be cleaned with a syringe, and after the plug was 
replaced, the trough could again be filled Avith clean water, 
and the dissection proceeded with. It will be apparent fi'om 
the drawing that this trough can be easily removed when 

Note. — It having been suggested to me at the close of the meeting tliat 
a more portable form of the microscope might be found couveuieut, 1 have 
endeavoured, as shown in the following drawings, lo carry this out. 

Nos. 4 and 5. 

No. 4 showing the instrument when closed, and No. 5 as it appears when 
opened out for use ; and as the general plan of tliis is precisely the same as 
the one jtreviously described, it will be only necessary for me to say that I 
propose to make "the supporting pillars work with hinges, which are pre- 
vented by a catch from going out of the perpendicular; these ])illars (which, 
in this case, are joined together at sides by two cross bars for the purpose 
of giving them greater firmness) are made to fit into four corresponding 
sockets in the stage, which is now sejiarate from the lower portion of the 
microscope. Any further detail will, I think, be unnecessary, as I have only 
attempted to indicate how tlie reduction in size might be efl'ected without 
interfering with the distinctive features of my original plau. 


On a new Combined Binocular, and Single Microscope. 
13y F. II. Wen HAM. 

(Read December 12tb, 1860.) 

At the meeting of this Society in June last, I exhibited 
and described an improved binocular microscope, on the 
principle of dividing the image by means of a thin achromatic 
prism fixed close behind the object-glass. The improvement 
on a former instrument {whicli had the defect of being 
pseudoscopic) consisted in refracting the right and left hand 
sections into the opposite eye, and by this transposition 
obtaining a true orthoscopic effect by an arrangement equally 
simple as before. Ha\dng since still further advanced the 
definition, by a modification in the constniction of the prism, 
the performance was so superior to anything that preceded it, 
that several were made for parties who had seen the results, 
and which instruments proved satisfactory to their owners. 

It appearing evident that the use of the binocular micro- 
scope was likely to become general, 1 have directed my 
attention once again to its improvement, and come before you 
this evening on the same subject, to announce the attain- 
ment of a degree of success in respect to convenience, sim- 
plicity, and improved definition, that, considering the uatui'c 
of the principle, could not have been anticipated. 

It is, perhaps, scarcely requisite to urge the advantage of 
being able to ^iew minute organisms vrith the aid of both 
eyes together ; for it is admitted that the single microscope 
affords but little appreciation of undulations of surface or 
bulk. We have even now a A^vid recollection of looking 
through the microscope for the first time, as exhibited at the 
Society of Arts five and twenty years ago, by our member, 
Mr. Cornelius Varlcy. The objects were the wheel ani- 
malcule and the sap circulation in the Chara. Not having, 
at that time, the least knowledge of the instrument or objects, 
■we formed no idea of bulk ; but observing a moving object 
in a field of light, supposed the efiect similar to the repre- 
sentations of a magic lantern, the then familiar toy of our 

The living organisms revealed by the microscope still 
possess a charm for us beyond all others, for herein can be 
traced the first links in the chain of creation. Quickly pass- 
ing from the simple vital plant-cell to higher grades of devc- 

IG Wenham, on a Binocular and Single Microscope. 

lopment^ we hover at length in pleasing uncertainty at the 
confines where the plant may be supposed to end and animal 
life commence. The waistcoat- pocket may conceal our 
menagerie, and any locality furnish objects. For example, 
at this season of the year, draw from the nearest hedge-side 
ditch a rotten leaf. " Drop it again,^^ the unknowing would 
say in disgust, it is decomposing, and coAcred with a loath- 
some-looking slime ; but remove a portion of this, and place 
it under the microscope, and marvellous is the li-s-ing host 
displayed to \dew, consisting oiDiatomacece, Desmidia, Oscil- 
latoria, Amoebce, Rotifers, &c., all assembled together in 
one dense crowd, perfect in beauty and cleanliness. An hour 
may pass away unheeded, in the interest caused by obser-s-ing 
the movements of these creatures ; but greatly is that interest 
enhanced by the aid of binocular \ision ; they appear then 
not as mere moving discs, but in all the reality due to life and 

The chief inconvenience of all the binocular microscopes 
hitherto made, besides distorted or imperfect definition, has 
been the necessity of a separate double body ; and the con- 
stant trouble of shifting this for the single tube very much 
limits their utility. There is also the difficulty of cleaning 
the prisms, and a liability to their derangement. In the in- 
strument I have now to describe these objections do not 
exist; for the effect, as a single microscope, is not in the 
slightest degree impeded or interfered with, and by a touch 
of the finger it is instantly converted into a binocular, or 
back again. The annexed diagi'am will explain the principle 
of action ; A is the body of an ordinary microscope, moved 
perpendicularly relative to the stage, with fine motion, &c., 
precisely as it is commonly made. On the right-hand side, 
in the neck at b, is cut a square hole, through Avhicli a prism, 
c, having two reflecting surfaces, is made to slide, as close 
behind the object-glass as possible. This prism is held by 
the ends only in the sides of a small drawer, so that all the 
four polished surfaces are accessible, and shoiild slide in so 
far that its edge may just reach the central line of the ob- 
jective, and 1)e drawn back against a stop, so as to clear the 
aperture of the same altogether, in which case the tube a acts 
without impediment as a single microscope. "Wlicn the 
prism is thrust in more or less, it collects a portion of the 
rays and reflects them to the opposite side of the tube, at 
n, where an opening is to be made large enough to admit 
them all, under extreme coiulitioiis. Parallel with the direc- 
tion of these rays is " gi-afted on " the supplementary tul)e 
E, with eye-pieces, &c.. and in size corresponding with the 

Wenham, on a Binocular and Single Microscope. 17 

Fig. 1. 

main tube. The additional body may either be soldered 
permanently on to the other^ or be made to draw on and oflF, 
a double collar holding them 
together at top, and a clip or bolt 
at the bottom. In the latter case, 
when the inclined tube is re- 
moved, a cover should drop 
neatly into the aperture, flush, 
and be secured by a bolt. But 
the additional body being no 
hindrance to the ordinary action 
of the microscope, it is best always 
to allow it to remain in place ready 
for instant use, as required. When 
the prism is drawn out to its limit, 
the main body acts just as the 
usual single instrument, and 
therefore needs no explanation ; 
but on thrusting it in, a part of 
the rays are thrown into the eye- 
piece of the inclined body, and 
thus the right-hand rays of the 
object-glass are reflected into the 
left eye, and the remainder pass 
directly into the right eye, having 
nothing intervening to obstruct 
them in the due performance of 
their best effect. The prism 
need not, in all instances, be 
thrust in to its fullest extent, so 
as to take in the total half of the 
object-glass, but only partially, 
to the degree requisite for tlirow- 
ing the object up in relief. In the case of a difiicult test 
the largest share of the direct aperture may be employed, 
wliilc, by coaxing the illumination for the reflected portion, 
the instrument can be made to perform well on the diato- 
maeeous tests. 

With respect to the illumination, in all cases where pos- 
sible the opaque principle should be employed, as it gives 
to objects a far more natural appearance. When transmitted 
light is needed, a large, angular pencil should be used, other- 
wise the two fields cannot be equally lighted with the higher 
powers. I intend to have a split mirror made, each half 
capable of separable and independent adjustment for each 
body. The necessity for this will be shown with the Podura, 

VOL. 1, NEW SER. b 

18 Wenham, on a Binocular and Single Microscope. 

for on bringing out the markings \vitli the maximum dis- 
tinctness for the refleeted vision, the direct will be found 
deficient. On altering the mirror, equal distinctness can be 
obtained in the direct tube, at the expense of the other. If 
each tube, therefore, has its own independent mirror, this 
inconvenience will be obviated. 

The adjustment for difference of distance between the 
eyes is etlected as before, the draw tubes being at the 
minimum limit of proximity Avhen close in, and by drawing 
these out to a small extent they accommodate for all positions 
of eyesight. This answers so well in practice as to need no 
amendment. It will be seen that the reflected rays have 
further to travel to reach the eye-piece (the radius of each 
tube being the same). The distance is just equal to that which 
they have to traverse across the interior of the prism ; this 
causes a slight disagreement of focus between the two, 
which may be compensated for by drawing out the main 
tube about a quarter of an inch more than the other, but it 
would be preferable to make a small difference in the mag- 
nifying power of the eye-pieces, which can be simply done by 
an alteration of distance between their lenses, each eye- 
piece to be marked for its appropriate tube. By transposing 
them such an adaptation would often compensate for those 
whose eyes differ materially in focus, or one being long and 
the other short-sighted, which is a common defect. 

The base into which the prism slides rotates to a small 
extent, for reflecting the image level with the centres of the 
eye-tubes ; this is the only adjustment, and when set right is 
held fast by a binding screw in the side of the inner fine 
motion tube. The prisms having two opposite reflecting 
surfaces, possess the common property of such, that, how- 
ever much tilted, the direction of the ultimate emergent ray 
cannot be altered. Great care and nicety is, therefore, need- 
ful in working them to the exact angles for the definite 
direction in which the ray is to be finally reflected, but this 
having been properly obtained, gives tiie double-reflecting 
prism this advantage, that it cannot be readily put out of 
adjustment. Fig. 2 is an enlarged outline of the prism; a 
ray of light, a, passing through the base, is totally reflected 
by the surface, b, towards c, at which surface it is again 
totally reflected in the direction required. Both the inci- 
dent and emergent surfaces of the prisms must be perpen- 
dicular to the direction of its corresponding ray, as any 
refraction is objectionable, and the reflecting sides be ar- 
ranged eonsideral)ly within the angle of total reflection 
(which, for crown glass is about 48'^). The base of the prism 

Wenham, on a Binocular and Single Microscope. 19 

should be of a witltli only just requisite to include the 
half aperture of any objeet-glass, one quarter of an iueli 
is quite suffieient ; it 

should not exceed this I'S- 2- 

for two reasons, first, tliat 
the greater the thickness 
of glass that the ray has 
to pass through, the more 
difference there will be in 
the magnifying power of 
the two bodies, and second, 
that a thick prism takes 
the ray more away from 
the centre of the main 
tube, and increases the 
convergence of the two, 
bringing the eyes nearly 
approaching to the dis- 
agreeable condition of a 

Both the transmitting and rejU'ding surfaces of the prism 
should be accessible for the purpose of wiping, for any par- 
ticles or mildew adhering to the latter will prevent total 
reflection at the point of contact. If the prism is avcII made 
and polished, and of the smallest size possible for admitting 
the pencil, the dilierence between the direct and reilceted 
image is scarcely appreciable, and with this standard of com- 
parison a faulty prism will immediately be detected. By 
pressing back the spring catch or stop on one side of the 
prism-slide, it can instantly be Avithdrawn altogether, and as 
quickly replaced. 


On Changes of Form in the Eed Corpuscles of Human 
Blood. — By William Addison, M.D., F.R.S. 

(Communicated by Dr. Lankester. Read December 12tb, 1S60.) 

When freshly drawn, human blood is examined with a 
microscope, the form in Avhich the red corpuscles appear is well 
known. The greater part of these bodies adhere together in 
rolls, a few floating singly in the blood-fluid, or liquor 

(Plate III, fig. 1.) We may call this form the normal form. 
But occasionally, without anything having been added to the 
blood, the forms depicted as alkaline forms (fig. 2) may be 

These rough or prickly forms (fig. 2) are -vnth certainty 
produced by fresh urine, by a weak solution of common salt, 
and by various liquids rendered slightly alkaline with solution 
of potash. On the other hand, the forms represented in fig. 3 
are determined by adding to the blood a solution of sugar 
and liquids rendered feebly acid by hydrochloric acid, or by 
lemon or orange juice. 

The tailed forms (fig. 4) occur when blood is submitted to 
the action of sherry wine. 

Make a saline solutiofi by dissohdng one grain of common 
salt in two fluid drachms of water, and render it very slightly 
alkaline with solution of potash; also dissolve four grains 
of refined sugar in two fluid drachms of water, and render it 
slightly acid to litmus paper with the diluted hydrochloric 
acid of the London Pharmacopoeia. 

Beceive a small drop of fresh blood upon a slip of glass, and 
place near to, but not touching it, a similar amount of the 
saline alkaline solution ; also place in a like manner, on the 
other side of the blood, an equal quantity of tlie acid-sugar 
solution; drop down upon the three fluids a thin piece of 
glass, so that the alkaline fluid may come into contact with 
one side of the drop of blood, and the acid fluid into contact 
with the opposite side of it. 

Upon examination with the microscope, the forms of the 
corpuscles which float out into the alkaline fluid will be found 
quite different from those which float out into the acid fluid. 
Those in the alkaline fluid have roughened outlines (fig. 2), 
whereas those in the acid liquid have smooth outlines, and a 
l:)right matter, of suiulry forms, makes its appearance in their 
interior (fig. 3) . If the corpuscles be followed as they continue 

Addison, on Blood-corpuscles. 21 

to float out in the two fluids, we find them experiencing further, 
but diff'erent, changes of form. In tlie alkaline fluid the phases 
A, B, fig. 2, and in the acid fluid the phases c, d, e, fig. 3, 
will be seen. Again, take a small drop of blood and place 
close to it an equal quantity of the alkaline-saline liquid, 
droj) down upon them a tliin piece of glass, and when a mul- 
titude of the corpuscles have floated out into the fluid and 
have assumed forms fig. 2, add at an edge of the covering- 
glass a drop of the diluted hydrochloric acid, and these forms 
will be seen changing into the forms fig. 3. Lastly, take a 
drop of blood and place near to it an equal amount of the 
acid-sugar solution, let fall upon them a thin covering-glass, 
and after a little time numerous corpuscles will be found of 
the forms represented fig. 3, add at an edge of the covering- 
glass a drop of liquor potassa, and forms fig. 3 will alter into 
forms fig. 2. The changes described may take place quickly 
or more slowly, according as the added fluid flows with more 
or less rapidity ; in the latter case it will be remarked that 
the corpuscles in progress of change from one form to the 
other regain for a brief space of time their normal figure and 
appearance (fig. 1) . We are able, then, by an appropriate appli- 
cation of alkaline and acid fluids to impress particular forms 
upon the red corpuscles of human blood, and we see them 
during the transition from one form to another regain their 
normal characters and aspect. 

This property of change of form in the corpuscles of the 
blood is not of long duration, it remains with them but for a 
limited period after their withdrawal from the circulation, 
and some of the corpuscles appear to lose it sooner than 
others, for, after a little time, corpuscles of difierent forms 
are to be seen floating side by side in the same current, 
and the further addition of an alkaline or acid fluid destroys 
them, without inducing any further change of figure. 

We have called forms fig. 2 alkaline, and forms fig. 3 
acid forms, not because they are exclusively determined in 
the one case by alkaline and in the other by acid liquids, 
but because the alkali potash will change the normal form 
fig. 1, and also forms fig. 3, into the forms fig. 2, and, again, 
because the hydrochloric and other acids will alter the nor- 
mal form, and also the forms fig. 2, into forms fig. 3, when 
they are properly applifed. 

In repeating these experiments, it will be seen that cor- 
puscles which approach near to an edge of the covering-glass, 
whatever may be their form, lose thereby all power of fur- 
ther change. 

Now forms b, fig. 2, which result from contact with alka- 

k'^ Addison, on Blood-corpuscles. 

line and saline fluids, are like forms d, fig. 3, which are pro- 
duced in acid liquids, the only difference between them being 
that those observed in alkaline are deeper coloured than those 
in acid fluids. Corpuscles of this form b, fig. 2, and d, 
fig. 3, are incapable of regaining the normal form. Ulti- 
mately, in alkaline fluids, the forms b, fig. 2, burst open, 
and the corpuscles are wholly dissolved; in acid liquids 
(fig. 3, d) they sometimes burst open suddenly, and some- 
times suddenly increase in size, the contents of the corpus- 
cles become colourless, and the enlarged capsules, with a 
granular matter within them, have very much the appearance 
of the white corpuscles of the blood (fig. 3, e) . 

Dissolve a grain of common salt and half a grain of bicar- 
bonate of soda in two fluid drachms of water, mix this 
solution with half a fluid ounce of good sherry wine, and 
filter. This liqiiid produces the tailed corpuscles (fig. 4). A 
small drop of blood and an equal quantity of the vino-saline 
mixture must be placed side by side on a slip of glass, so that 
their edges may mingle when a thin covering-glass is dropped 
upon them. In about five or ten minutes numerous corpus- 
cles, where they have floated out in the liquid, will be seen 
throwing out matter from their interior, two, three, four, 
or more minute molecular particles fringing their circum- 
ference. Some of these molecules separate fi'om the cor- 
puscles and float in the fluid, others elongate into tails, which 
wave about with a tremulous motion, in a very remarkable 
manner. These tails all have a little knob at then' extremity. 
After a short time, or upon any motion in the fluid, the tails 
break away from the corpuscles, but their singular move- 
ments do not cease when this has happened. Sometimes a 
discoid enlargement forms on some part of the tail, and then 
the tail suddenly retracts itself into a larger granidar and 
coloured particle. That the movements of these tails are of 
a peculiar kind, and not due to motion in the liquid, is shown 
by this — that all movement in them ceases entirely when 
they approach near to either of the edges of the covering, 
thin glass. In repeating this experiment, if the svirfaces of 
the upper and under glasses come so close together as to 
press upon the blood-corpuscles — which is known by increase 
of their diameter — the tails Avill not appear. The corpuscles 
must be free from pressure, for the ett'ects described to take 
place. Moreover, tails are not readily produced if the 
stand of the microscope and the glasses are cold ; the phe- 
nomenon takes place much sooner, and the tails are longer, 
when the instrument and fluids have been for some time in a 
warm room. 

Addi.soXj on Blood-corpuscles. 23 

Tho following have hccn fomul to succeed in producing the 
tailed forms of corpuscles (fig. A) : 

1. Sherry wine. 

2. Sherry ^\-ine and saline solution. 

3. One part fi'esh urine and two or three parts sherry wine. 

4. Port wine and quinine.— Dissolve with a gentle warmth 
one grain of sulphate of quinine in half a iiuid ounce of port 
wine; set it by for two or three days, and then filter the 

5. A mixture of the sherry Avine and the saline solution 
with port wine and quinine. — This mixture seems to improve 
by keeping. 

The folloAving experiments have been tried : 

1. One fluid drachm of the mixture No. 5 and one grain 
of sulphate of strychnia, shaken together. — Tails produced. 

2. One fluid drachm of No. 5 and one grain of acetate of 
morphia. — Tails produced. 

3. One fluid drachm of No. 5 and liquor potassse, just suf- 
ficient to remove the acid reaction of the mixed wines. — No 
tails appeared. 

In all these experiments there is no mixing together of the 
blood and the extraneous fluid previous to the application of 
the covering-glass, hence there are various degrees of inter- 
mingling between the added fluid and the natural fluid of the 
bk)od, and it is only Avhere these two fluids are mixed in cer- 
tain unascertainable proportions that the specific phenomena 
are to be seen. 

Blood consists of a fluid — the liquor sanguinis — and the cor- 
puscles ; therefore, before arriAing at any conclusion from the 
preceding experiments, it will be necessary to consider the 
part played by the fluid element of the blood. The added 
fluids, when they come, undiluted by the liquor sanguinis, 
into contact with the red corpuscles, destroy them. The 
changes of form of the corpuscles are therefore efl"ected, not 
by the extraneous or added fluid alone, but by a mixture of the 
added liquid and the liquor sanguinis ; and we conceive it to 
be correct to regard the phenomena described as the results 
of a change in the quality of the liquor sanguinis, wrought by 
the added liquor. It is to an unascertained mixture of the 
extraneous fluid and the natural blood-fluid that the various 
aspects of the corpuscles must be ascribed. It is well known 
how speedily elements of diet, medicinal substances, and poi- 
sons, are found in the liquor sanguinis, and these experiments 
show that corpuscles which have been changed in their form 
from change in the quality of the liquor sanguinis may l;e 
altered back again to their normal form by a counteracting 

34 Addison, on Blood-corpuscles. 

agent. But before any actual change of figure in the cor- 
puscles occurs, we must suppose a disposition to the change, 
and therefore we may conclude that such a disposition 
may be removed by an appropriate — a coimteracting agent. 
Lastly, we regard the facts as substantiating the doctrine 
that the fluid element of the blood has a pathology distinct 
from that of the corpuscles. 


Report on Slides of Diatomace.e, mounted by E. Samuels, 
for Boston (U. S.) Society of Natural History, and 
presented to the Microscopical Society of London. By 
Charles Stodder. 

(Read October lOtli, 1860.) 

The diatoms of our coast have been but little studied. 
These specimens will, on that account alone, possess consider- 
able interest, though they have only been glanced at, for want 
of time. Those from Quincy appear most promising. The 
Milton slide contains almost entirely what Mr. Samuels con- 
siders a new Hlmantidium. The Bangor and Bemis Lake 
deposits are similar to other " sub-peat " deposits found all 
over New England, and described by Ehrenburg and Bailey. 
These have not been fully studied as yet. 

The diatoms from the intestines of Holothurians and Echini 
are of great interest. They were taken from animals col- 
lected for our members, Mr. Jas. yi. Barnard and Professor 
L. Agassiz. Some of the slides, prepared and mounted by 
Mr. Samuels, coming into my possession last spring, I 
noticed that they were very rich in genera and species, and 
that many appeared to be new. I sent specimens to our 
corresponding member, Mr. A. M. Edwards, of New York, 
who has paid much attention to this department of science 
for several years. His interest was excited by the specimens, 
and a larger quantity of the material was procured from 
Mr. Samuels, and also some directly from !Mr. Barnard, 
and cleaned by 'Mr. Edwards, which, although but partially 
investigated as yet, has yielded a rich harvest of new forms, 
as well as many but recently published in Europe, together 
with a great number of old and well-known species. 

The discovery of this source of supply of diatoms will 
yield important scientilic results. ^Xe obtain specimens from 
localities otherwise all but inaccessible to the microscopist. 
We have ascertained that a great many species are common 


26 Stoddek, oil Diatomacea. 

to the Saudwicli Islands and to the Mediterranean ; some 
species are found iu the Sandwich Islands and the coasts_, 
England, France, Nova Scotia, and Botany Bay ; some com- 
mon to Sandwich Islands, Zanzibar, and Florida. 

Diatoms have been long knoAvn as the most cosmopolitan 
of all organism. The information afforded by these slides 
adds very much to our former knowledge of this character. 

They seem to exist as species, almost independent of 
climate or locality. 

Mr. Edwards has undertaken to make a list of the Sand- 
wich Island forms, and to figure and describe the new species, 
with the view to publication by our society. I have ex- 
amined these slides, prepared by ^Ir. Samuels, and have 
registered, with " Bailey^s indicator,^' some of the new species 
of Mr. Edwards, as he has communicated them to me verbally 
or by letter, with his provisional names. 

These slides have not been seen by -Mr. Edwards, and I 
only am responsible for any errors or mistakes. 

Mr. Edwards's new species are — 
Synedra magna. 
„ pacifica. 
Triceratium circulare. 

„ elegans, with 3 and 4 sides. 

„ undatum, with 3, 4, and 5 sides. 

These variations in the number of sides revive the question 
w^hether there is any generic distinction between Trice- 
raiium and Amphitetras. Mr, Brightwcll has described 
several species of four-sided Triceratium, and the only dis- 
tinction I can make out between T. IVilksii and Amp. 
Wilksii of Har. et Bai. (' Proc. Phil. Soc.') is the number of 

Among the rare or recently described forms in the Sandwich 
Islandis, are T. dubinm (Brightwcll), found also on the coast 
of Florida, Cocconeis fimbriata (Brightwcll), Biddulphia 
reticulata (Roper). The Campylodiscus figured by Brightwcll, 
in ' Jour. Mic. Soc.,' as C. striatus (Ehrenberg), is abundant, 
but bears but little resemblance to Ehrenberg's description 
or original figure. I propose to call it C. Brightwellii. 

Synedra nndidata, Greg. (= Toxarium undidans, Bail.), is 
abundant, also, at Quincy, Mass. ; so is /S'. Hennedyana, Grey. 
The two specimens have an expansion in the middle, l3ut one 
is straight, the other undulated ; now, we have likewise two 
forms, rather rare, one straiglit, the other undulating, but 
without the expansion: are all four one species ? Xaviculee 
of the type of A^. didyma aij p";ntiiul; some appear identical 
with described species, but they are so vaiiable that tliey 

StoddeRj on Diatomacea. 27 

recall Dr. Gregory's query, whether they should not all be 
considered one species. The same observations apply to 
Navicular of the type of A^. lyra. 

There arc two forms of Ehrenberg's genus Actinocyclus, 
called by most authorities^?//?or/i5CM5; one resembles jB.5/?ar5JW, 
Greg. E. tenellus, Breb., and the Actinocychis of Ehrenberg 
('Mic. Geol.' Taf. xix, fig. 5, c. 10). Also Coscmodiscus Iuykb 
(Tab. 35a, group xxi, fig. 7) ; Cos.gemmifer (Tab. 35a, group 
xxii, fig. 3) . This form is distinguished by rays composed of 
lines of contiguous dots, with other dots irregularly scattered 
between the rays. The number of rays is very variable, from 
six upwards ; sometimes the rays are so crowded, that the inter- 
mediate dots almost form continuous rays, only distinguish- 
able by their irregular distance from each other; colour, 
usually some shade of brown. 

The other form of Actinocyclus has very fine lines for 
rays, not always continuous ; and the whole surface of the 
disc is covered with a very fine network of, probably, hexagonal 
markings, too fine to be well made out with my instrument. 
This form is represented by Eupodiscus fulvus, W. Sm., and 
possibly by E. subtitis, Ralfs; by a great many of Ehrenberg's 
species^ 'Mic. Geol.,' Tab. xviii, fig. 8, c. 18, Richmond, 
„ „ xxviii, gr. 22, fig. 7, 

„ „ xxxv,A, gr. 17, fig. 1, and 2, guano, 

,y „ „ gr. 18, fig. 1, 2, and 3, guano, 

Saldauha Bay; 
also Strafibrd Cliffs and Rappahanock Clifts, var. colour, 
usually blue or purple, sometimes brown, and sometimes 
colourless. Both of these forms have generally, but not 
always, a nodule or process near the margin, resembling the 
" feet " of Eupodiscus and Aidacodiscus ; which is probably 
the reason of their having been taken for Eupodisci, though 
the structure of the valve appears entirely different from the 
true species of that genus. Ehrenberg does not figure or 
describe the nodule, but on examining the Actinocycli of 
Saldanha Bay, in the Bailey collection, received, I believe, by 
Bailey from Ehrenberg, I find the nodule is present in them. 

Ehrenberg's figures are sufficient to indicate the genus, 
but not the species, except by the number of the rays, which 
is not a good specific character, neither is colour. But I am 
Avell satisfied that many of the so-called Eupodisci are 
Ehrenberg's Actinocyclus ; in fact, it is almost admitted by 

These tAvo forms of Actinocyclus should probably be placed 
in two genera. They have quite a different structure ; that 
of the first-mentioned is not cellular, but the dots are pro- 

28 Stodder, on Diatomacece. 

jecting papillaj or tubercles, as may be easily seen in oblique 
examples. The whole group of Acfinocycli and Eupodisci 
requires revision, and I believe that Mr. Edwards intends to 
undertake the task. 

We have quite abundant and variable Stauroptera aspera, 
Ehr. = Stauroneis pulchella, W. S. Ehrenberg made a 
sub-genus of those Stauroneis that were striated or marked ; 
but improved instruments having shown that all the Stauro- 
neis are marked, and none smooth, the sub-genus should be 
cancelled, but the original specific names should stand. 

There are a great many species of other genera, some of 
which will undoubtedly prove to be new ; but these are not 
worked up as yet, or I have not received Mr. Edwards's 
results. There are also several new forms, whose position in 
classification is as yet quite doubtful. 

The Sandwich Island slides in this parcel represent veiy 
well the character of all the others examined, except perhaps 
in the genera Nitzschia, Amphora, and Campylodiscus, which 
have been found much more abundant in number and species 
than here, some of the species of which will probably prove 
to be new; spicules of sponges are very abundant. 

On the Zanzibar slides I have seen two specimens of an 
Auliscus, probably new; and several of an Isthmia, certainly 



February I3th, 1861. 

Dr. Lank ESTER in the chair. 

Report of Council. 

According to annual custom, the Council have to make 
the following report on the state and progress of the Society 
during the past year. 

The Society at present consists of — 

Compounders . . - 41 

Annual Snbscribers ■ - 259 

Honorary and absent - 5 

giving a total of - - - 305 for the number 

of members this day on the books ; of these 35 have been 
elected during the past year, and are included in the above 
number. The Council have to regret the loss by death of 5 
members — P. W. Fry, Esq., Geo. Jackson, Esq., Rev. David 
Laing, Charles May, Esq., and Dr. James Forbes Young. 
Three of these, viz., ]\Ir. Fry, ]\Ir. Jackson, and Dr. Young, 
were among the original members uho founded the Society. 
The Council have also received seven resignations. During the 
past year the Library has received an accession of 73 books ; 
of these 25 consist of various complete vrorks, many of which 
are of great value : among these may be particularly noticed 
the works of Leuwenhock, 2 vols. 4to., and Swammerdam^s 
' Historia Insectorura,' 3 vols, fob, presented with other works 
by Dr. Millar, and the valuable contributions of the Hackney 
Microscopical Society, presented through ^Ir. Roper; four 
works also have been purchased ^vith the Library Fund ; and 
the remaining works consist of serial pul)lieations, presented by 
the various editors, with the exception of one, the ' Annals of 
Natural History,' Avhich is purchased, as it appears, for the 
use of the Society. 

The cabinet of objects has received an accession of GG 
slides, including 27 from the Boston (U. S.) Natural History 
Society, 14 from Dr. Carpenter, being specimens of Polyozoa 


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The Preside /it's Address. 31 

and illustrations of tlic dcvrlop.ncnt of Comatula, and some 
micro-photographs by the late Mr. Jackson. 

At the first meeting of the present session an elaborate 
report was made by a committee, consisting of Mr. Farrants, 
Mr. Lobb, and Mr. Legg, appointed to examine, arrange, 
and report upon the objects in the cabinet. This task has 
been performed by these gentlemen in a most satisfactory 
manner, as may be seen by the report ; and the result of 
their investigation is, that at the date of the report, Octol)er 
3, 1860, the cabinet contained 832 objects, Avhich for facility 
of reference they had arranged under 13 heads or classes, 
distinguished by the capital letters from A to M. They at the 
same time made a suggestion as to an arrangement by which 
the objects might be allowed to be taken out by the members 
under certain regulations, to which arrangement the Council 
have given their assent. 

The Journal has continued to be pul)lishod rcgidarly, and 
circulated as usual. 

The President then dciivered tlie following address : 

The Pni:.'<i dent's AnDiiKssyb/" the year 1861. 

liy Professor Joh\ CiuEKETT, F.R.S. 

Gentlemen, — Before proceeding to the general business 
which usually occupies the attention of the members of the 
Microscopical Society on this, the evening of the anniver- 
sary, I have much to say to you in the way of apology for 
my seeming neglect in never having occupied the chair, to 
which, unknown to me, I had been elected by the Council. 
Feeling that the state of my health did not allow me to 
perform the duties of the office in such a manner as I could 
wish, I did all in my power to prevent the ap]")ointment 
when it was hiiited to me as likely to be made. Not having 
been consulted in the matter, nor ollicially informed of the 
intention of the Council, but hearing through a private 
source that I had been proposed to fill the ofiice of Presi- 
dent, I wrote a letter to the Council, telling them that, had 
my health permitted, I should have felt much honoured by 
the appointment; but that, as things stood, I nnist neces- 
sarily decline it. In February last, however, and but a few 
evenings before the Anniversary, I was, for the hrst time, 
officially informed that my letter, declining the position of 

32 The Presidents Address. 

President, had come to hand too late ; and that the election 
must stand good. I regret to say that my apprehensions vrith 
regard to the state of my health have been more than realised ; 
for, withoiit a single exception, from the time of the soiree, 
which was held in this room in April of the past year, I 
have been prevented, by illness, from attending any of the 

Knowing, as you all do, the part taken by me in assisting 
to establish this Society in the oiitset, and that I have per- 
formed the duties of Secretary for a period of nineteen years, 
during many of which I was unassisted, my declining so 
honorable a post as that of President must, at first sight, 
have given rise to the idea that either my views as to the 
usefulness of the Society had changed, or that my occupa- 
tions, being numerous, would not alloAv me time for micro- 
scopical investigation, nor for the transaction of any business 
connected with the Society ; but when I state the truth, viz., 
that I have been physically incapable of performing these 
duties, I feel sure that no further apology will be needed, 
more especially as I endeavoured in every way to prevent my 
appointment, having, on more than one occasion, previously 
refused it on the same grounds. I can only add, that should 
it please the Almighty Disposer of events that my heahh 
should be restored, I shall hope to be able, at some future 
time, to show you that a long period of unavoidable absence 
has in no way diminished my love for this Society, nor the 
zeal and energy with which I once assisted in carrying on its 

Since the Anniversary, which Avas held on the 8th of 
February in the past year, there have been nine meetings of 
the Society; and, in addition to the subjects Avhich have 
been brought forward orally, no less than thirteen papers 
have been read ; and of these, four relate to the Diatomacere, 
a subject which, perhaps, more than any other, has, from 
the earliest days of the invention of the Achromatic ]\Iicro- 
scope, occupied the time and attention of the most persevering 
and painstaking poi'tion of our ]Microscopic comnuniity; 
a certain number occupying themselves with the nature 
of the markings on the surfaces of the valves, whilst others 
are engaged in classifying and arranging the numerous spe- 
cies which are dailj-^ being procured from all parts of the 
habitable globe. We are indebted to Dr. Greville, Dr. Wal- 
lich, Mr. Norman of Hull, and ^Iv. Tuflen West, for these 
papers, all of Avhich have been ])ublished in full in the ' Tran- 
sactions' of the Society, and many of them have been de- 
lineated by the accurate pencil of the last-named gentleman. 

TJtt PresidciiCs Address. rjo 

The paper by Dr. Greville is a very elaborate one : it is en- 
titled a " ^[onograph of the Genus Asterohintpru, including 
Aster omphal us and Spatunfjidiuin." The material employed for 
investigation was obtained from three very difl'erent sources; 
the first consisted of soundings from the Indian Ocean ; the 
second, of a deposit from the United States, prepared for 
examination by Mr. E. W. Dallas ; and the third, of a 
substance known as the Monterey Stone, prepared by Pro- 
fessor Walker- Arnott. One great object of this paper is to 
point out how far the genus Spatanyidiiim of De Brebisson 
should have been adopted in his former paper ; the species 
formerly described as belonging to this genus being consi- 
dered as strictly referable to Asterolampra or Aster omphalus. 

The paper by Mr. Tuffen "West is entitled " Remarks on 
some Diatoniaccffi, new or imperfectly described, and on a new 
Desmid.^^ The sources from which the algte upon which Mr. 
West's observations have been madewere various, some of them 
being from the British coasts, others from the Mauritius and 
from the so-called Barbadoes earths The genus Tricerathnn 
is the one principally mentioned ; and of this no less than 
seven species are described, and figures of each given, with 
the usual accuracy of this accomplished artist. 

Five other genera are then alluded to, and one or more 
species of each described of these genera; that of Atthtya 
is new, and its species A. decora was found by Mr. Atthey 
plentifully on Cresswell Sands, in June, 1859, and in May, 
1860, in Druridge Bay. At first sight this species is con- 
sidered to resemble Striafella umpunctata in miniature ; but 
the presence of spinous processes at the angles, and the entire 
absence of stripes or attachment of any kind render the 
establishment of a new genus perfectly necessary. 

The paper of Mr. Norman, read in June, is a continua- 
tion of that brought before the Society in January, 1860. 
It is a list of the various forms of Diatomacere in the neighbour- 
hood of Hull. The genera Pinmdaria, Stauroueis, Pleuro- 
sigma, Synedra, Gomp/ionenia, Meridion, and upwards of 
thirty others, are represented each by one or more species, 
tending to show not only the richness of the locality, but 
also the zeal, activity, and powers of discernment of the 
microscopists of that town in this particular de^aartment of 
scientific inquiry. 

Volvox glubator, which within the last few years has occu- 
pied so much of the attention of microscopical observers, 
has points in its history still remaining to be cleared up. 
Dr. Hicks has done much to make the matter clearer, and has 
pointed out a stage, viz., the amoeboid, in which this Protean 

34 The President's Address. 

form agrees witli that of three other members of the veget- 
able kingdom. 

At the same meeting, Dr.Wallicli, in a paper, entered into 
a discussion on the structure of the diatom valve ; believing, 
from his observations, that tlie growth of the valve ceases 
either at or shortly after its liberation from the parent. 
That, subsequently, no change in shape occurs in the 
siliceous valve except at its margins. That the mark- 
ings are circular, and arranged determinately according to 
species ; the figure being dependent upon forces occurring 
during its connection with the parent frustule ; the size and 
relative fineness of markings depending upon the condition 
of the frustule while in the stage of generation. As to 
the gelatinous envelope, its growth may probably go on in- 

The next paper relates to the zoophyte division of the 
animal kingdom. 

Professor AUman described, in a paper read 14th March, 
1860, a new genus of Lucernariidse, Carduella, identical 
with the species L. cyathiformls of Sars, but diftering from 
the true Lucernariidce in the margin of the circular disc not 
being produced into the rays, the tentacles not springing from 
the edge of the cup, and in these being situated in a single circle. 

From a careful desci-iption of its anatomy, he believes it 
to represent a true hydrozoan type, notwithstanding a resem- 
blance to the actiuozoan,in the presence of the vertical lamellae 
connecting the stomach with the outer wall of the animal. 

The papers relating to the improvement in the microscope 
itself, and in the apparatus connected with it, have been, 
during the last year, more numerous than in any preceding 
one. Thus, there have been two on the Binocular form, by 
Mr. Wenham ; one on a Portable Field or Clinical Micro- 
scope, by Dr. Lionel Bealc ; and another on a Dissecting 
Instrument, by Mr. James Smith. All these are fully de- 
sci'ibed and illustrated in the 'Transactions/ and are worthy 
of the greatest attention from their being the contrivances of 
men qualified in every possible w' ay to shoAv to the uninitiated 
what is truly good and useful. INIr. "Wenham^s invention, 
how^ever, is one which requires more than a passing notice, 
as it is likely to prove of greater use to the observer 
than any other form of instrument which has yet been 
l)rought before the notice of the members of this Society ; 
and glad should I be if the limits of this address would 
allow me to enter fully into some of its advantages. 

The next duty I have to perform is a painful one, viz., to 
remind you that although our little community scarcely 

Tite Pr(\'<i(hiitl\'f Address. 35 

numbers three hundred stron;,^ yet ^vithin t!ie last year no 
less than five of our members have been taken from us by the 
unsparing hand of death. These are James Forbes Young, 
Charles May, David Laing, P. W. Fry, and George Jackson ; 
and of all the losses the Society has met with since 
its formation, no greater one has happened than that of so 
valuable a member as Mr. Jackson, for there is hardly one 
amongst us who has used the microscope as a scientific 
instrument, but has been more or less indebted to INIr. Jack- 
son^s skill for the instrument employed in taking accurate 
measurements of minute objects. 

Mr. George Jackson was the eldest son of a farmer at 
Higher Yellington, in South Devon, and was born in 1792. 
At an early age he exhibited a strong mechanical genius ; his 
first attempts in that direction being to manufacture a mouse- 
trap, his grandmother having promised him a guinea for the 
first that was caught, under the impression that such a thing 
was impossible ; a mouse, however, was soon trapped, and the 
promised guinea as quickly reduced to a half-crown. Then 
sixpence a head was the price affixed ; but still, even at this 
reduced rate, the money earned iVom the efficiency of the trap 
was considered too much for so young an artist, and payments 
consequently ceased altogether. He was educated at the 
Ashburton Grammar School, whither his innate tendencies, 
also followed him ; and if ever young Jackson was missing, he 
was sure to be found in the workshop of Mr. Ireland, the 
carpenter. Numerous lasting memorials of his skill, in the 
form of writing-desks, work-boxes, &e., still remain to evidence 
this early predilection. 

Mr. Jackson was articled to ]\Ir. Gervis, a surgeon and 
medical practitioner at Ashburton, whose sons had been his 
schoolfellows, and whose second daughter he afterwards 
married. He attended the lectures at the United Hospitals 
of St. Thomas and Guy, and took the diploma of Member 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of London in 1813. 

At an early period of his life he was an excellent manipu- 
lator with the table blowpipe, and supplied himself and many 
of his relatives and friends with most excellent thermometers, 
hydrometers, and barometers. He also constructed a transit 
instrument, which was erected, when in use, on a stone 
cantilever firmly embedded into the wall behind his house. 
In 182G, he was rewarded by the Society of Arts for an 
ingenious and useful instantaneous light-apparatus, being a 
modification of the hydrogen and spongy platinum lamp. 

Mr. Jackson was an eai-ly lover of the microscope, and many 
years before the existence of our Society constructed a very 

36 Tlie PresuleiiCs Address. 

efficient instrument for using the doublet lenses introduced 
by the late Dr. Wollaston ; the two lower pairs of these he 
framed and figured for himself. This was followed by the pro- 
duction of a large-sized instrument, capable of effecting all 
that the best microscopes of that period were able to do. At 
the turning-lathe and planing-machine he was a thorough 
workman, and these instruments he had constructed on his 
own plans, and much of them by his own hands. He was the 
first to show the great importance of employing the latter for 
perfecting the instrument and economising labour. 

Mr. Jackson was one of the original members of our Society 
at its formation in 1840, and most of his various suggestions 
for the improvement of his favorite instrument have been 
laid before the members. 

The first of these was a paper " On Microscopic Measure- 
ment,^' read September 23d, 1840, and printed in the ' Micro- 
scopic Journal,^ vol. i, p. 11 — a subject with which his name 
has become so intimately connected. 

In April, 1841, he described a portable candle-lamp for 
illumination by reflection, some observations on which will 
be found in the ' Microscopic Journal,' vol. ii, p. 77. This 
was followed in November, 1847, by his paper on "The Eye- 
piece Mici'ometer," published in the ' Transactions of the 
Society,' vol. ii, p. 134. 

The small but elegant little ruling-machine, which he con- 
structed for the division of these micrometers, is a most eflB- 
cient arrangement, and although, I believe, never figured or 
described, yet he had no hesitation in exhibiting it to any 
person who was interested in such matters. 

It was about this period tliat he also constructed a very 
complete and servicealile cutting-machine for producing thin 
sections of woods, &c. 

In 1852 Mr. Jackson was elected President of this Society, 
and I am sure that the members will all bear witness with 
me in stating that he was at all times most active in advanc- 
ing the true interests of the Society. 

In conjunction with Dr. Carpenter, Dr. Lankester, and your 
President, he was appointed by the Council of the Society of 
Arts a member of the committee, to assist in awarding their 
premium for the best and cheapest microscopes. 

In May, 1857, he exhibited and described a new form of 
travelling microscope, four of w^hich he has constructed as 
presents to various relatives. 

Soon after the process of photography on coUodion had 
become practised, Mr. Jackson turned his attention, with his 
accustomed clear-headed assiduity, to this engaging branch of 

The President's Addrtss. 2,7 

artj constructed for himself a camera box, travelling arrange- 
ments for micro-photographs, and with a good achromatic 
lens, manufactured by Ross, set to work ^vith his usual per- 
severance and industry to take the portraits of all his relatives 
and friends, scientific or not, the liberal distribution of which 
among his large circle of accmaintances afforded him un- 
alloyed pleasure. The Society's museum is enriched by his 
liberality with micro-photographs of some sixteen of its 

Several other short notices from our deceased member 
have also appeared in the pages of the ' Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopical Science,' as " On thin glass Covers" (vol. i, 
p. 141), "On Micrometers and Micrometry" (vol. iv, p. 241), 
" On Microscopical Photographic Portraits" (vol. vii, p. 122). 
He also undertook to oblige his friend, the late Dr. Pereira, 
with the measurement of the starch granules of various amy- 
laceous substances for the last edition of his ' Elements of 
Materia Medica' then in preparation, twenty-five of which 
have been published in that work. 

One of the greatest improvements in the microscope as a 
working instrument Avas that carried out by Mr. Jackson in 
the construction of the continuous bar, supporting the body 
of the instrument above the stage, and carrying a small 
secondary body beloAV, the Avhole bar being planed from end 
to end on one level, and with rack; 'this secondary body 
carrying the achromatic or other condenser, polarising prism, 
dark well, &c. In this way the axis of the instrument is per- 
fectly continuous, and no centering or adjustment is required. 

Three sets of castings were made from the patterns which 
he had constructed, two of which Avere given to his friends, 
Mr. Alfred White and the late Mr. Greening; and the 
patterns were then transferred to Messrs. Smith and Beck, 
and exist in the present form of their No. 1 instrument. 

In 1858 Mr. Jackson was elected one of the managers of 
the London Institution. 

In his own profession in mechanical surgery he exhibited 
considerable tact and skill ; and although such requirements 
were seldom brought into action, yet it was a source of 
great delight to him if he could by some simple contrivance 
alleviate the sufferings of his patients, and thus facilitate 
their cure. One of the last undertakings of his life was the 
production of a very simple and most efficient contrivauce for 
reducing dislocations of the shoulder-joint — an operation at 
times, in very muscular subjects, very difficult to perform. 

His quiet and unassuming manners, his clear and upright 
mind, rendered him generally Koi^veJ j and the readiness 

38 The President's Address. 

with wliich he was ever willing to communicate to others 
whatever knowledge he might have acquired made his ac- 
quaintance and society hoth profitable and engaging to all 
who had the privilege of his friendship. 

The other gentlemen whose loss we regret were more 
distinguished for their love of science than for their practical 

The several reports which have been read to you will show 
that the Society is in a flourishing condition ; its members, 
its list of books^ and its museum are being daily increased ; 
and though your President has been unable to perform the 
duties of his office^ yet owing to the kindness of friends his 
place has been most ably filled^ and in the hope that in years 
to come more and more will join our ranks^ he begs to resign 
the chair to one who is in every way calculated to do it 


Descriptions of New and Rare Diatoms. Series I. 
By 11. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E., &c. 

(Read ]Marcli 12tli.) 
Stictodiscus_, n. gen., Grev. 

Frustules simple, discoid, divided by radiating lines into 
numerous plicate compartments. Lines not reaching the 
centre. Compartments furnished with conspicuous transparent, 
pore-like puncta. (In the four typical species, large scattered 
jjuncta also occupy the blank central portion of the disc.) 

This genus is founded primarily upon D'lscopjea 7 Rota 
and D. ? Rotula of Ehrenberg, and two most beautiful dia- 
toms which occur in a deposit found in the Island of 
Trinidad. While engai;ed in preparing a description of the 
two latter, my friend, Mr. R.ilfs, directed my attention to the 
idea thrown out by Ehrenberg, that Actinoptychus dives, and 
Cyclotdla Rota, and C. Rotula might be generically associ- 
ated ; and that they would come very conveniently into the 
new genus I was proposing to establish. The words of 
Ehrenberg are (under his definition of D'lscoplea? Rota) — 
'' Proximo ad Act inoptij chum divitem in Grsecia fossilem acce- 
dens forma, et cum ea forsan, et cum sequente {Discoplea ? 
Rotula) in peculiari genere reponenda.^' (' Bericht. Berl. 
Akad.,' 1844, p. 202). I entirely concur in this view. Four 
of the species enumerated in this paper, namely, Siictodiscus 
Buryanus, S. Johnsonianus, S. Rota, and S. Rotula, may 
be considered typical, being distinguished not only by the 
pore-like puncta or papillae, or whatever they may be called, 
which occupy a definite (?) arrangement within the compart- 
ments, but by large puncta remotely scattered over the con- 
vex and otherwise blank centre of the disc. The remaining 
species, which agree in general habit, and in the presence of 
definitely arranged puncta or cellules within the compart- 
ments, may be at least retained provisionally. 

For the discovery of the deposit in Trinidad, new, I believe, 
to the microscopic world, we are indebted to Dr. John Davy, 
well known for his researches in various departments of 
natural history. He kindly informs me that, from his obser- 
vations made in Trinidad, he is disposed to consider the 
formation in which the deposit occurs as connected with the 
New Red Sandstone ; adjoining to which is the sandstone, pro- 
bably of the same description, in which the Pitch Lake is 

40 Greville^ on New Diatoms. 

situated. The extent of the deposit is not known ; but, like 
that in Barbadoes, it is probably large both in surface and 
depth. It does not contain a great variety of diatomaceous 
forms ; but various new and interesting species have already 
been observed in it. 

Stictodiscus Buryanus, n. sp., Grev. — Pore-like puncta at 
the marginal extremity of each compartment, forming a 
pyramidal group ; rays 30 ; diameter '0040" (PI. IV, fig. 1). 
" Hah. Deposit at South Naparima, Trinidad ; Mrs. Bury. 
The disc of this superlatively beautiful diatom is trans- 
parent and gently convex, remotely dotted over with large, 
clear, pore-like puncta, exhibiting also the shadows of puncta 
belonging to the lower valve. The marginal groups consist 
of six or seven. The radiating lines (septa?) are free for more 
than half their length, and then, after anastomosing, become 
faint and inconspicuous before reaching the centre. AVhen 
these lines are accurately focussed, the plicate character of 
the disc is not visible, but by changing the focus it becomes 
conspicuous (fig. 2) . A single specimen only has hitherto 
been observed, for which my cabinet is indebted to the 
generous kindness of its discoverer. 

Stictodiscus Eota (Ehr.), Grev. — " Disco amplo superficie 
insequaliter papillosa, papillis centralibus majoribus, margine 
radiis 52 sequalibus centrum non attingentibus iutervallorum 
papillis sparsis.^' 

Discoplea? Rota, Ehr., 'Bericht. Berl. xVkad.,' 1844, p. 202; 
' Microgeol.,^ pi. xxxv, a. 22, fig. 6. 

Cy clot ella Rota, Kiitz., ' Sp. Alg.,' p. 19; Ralfs in Pritch. 
' Infus.,' 4th edit., p. 812. 
Hab. Southern Ocean. 

The figure given of this diatom, by Ehrenberg, indicates 
very clearly that it is a genuine Stictodiscus. The valve is 
very large, the radiating lines much shorter than in the other 
species ; the puncta within the compartments disposed, appa- 
rently, in an irregular double series, and extend as far as the 
termination of the lines. The whole central space is covered 
with numerous large puncta, as in the preceding species. 

Stictodiscus Rotula (Ehr.), Grev. — Puncta equal, remotely 
scattered over the blank centre of the disc, those within the 
compartments irregularly (?) disposed ; rays 20. 

Discoplea ? Rotula, Ehr., ' ]Microgeol.,' pi. xxxv, a. 22, 
fig. 7. 

Cyclotella Rotula, Kiitz., 'Sp. Alg.,' p. 19; Ealfs in Pritch. 
' Inius.,' 4th edit., p. 840. 
Hab. Southern Ocean. 

GrevillKj on New Diatoms. II 

A very small species compai'cd with the preecding, but 
evidently closely allied to it, the prominent character of the 
scattered central puncta beinj:^ distinctly exhibited in Eiircn- 
berg's rude fignre. The small number of rays at once 
separates it from all the others. 

Stictodiscus Johnsoninnns, n. sp., Grev. — Pore-like puncta 
of each compartment ecpial, forming a short linear scries; 
rays 50; diameter -(K).'!!.". (PI. IV, fig. 3.) 

Hab. Deposit at South Naparima, Trinidad; Christopher 
Johnson, Esq. 

Not less beautiful than Stictodiscus Buryanus, and well 
distinguished by the single series of puncta in each compart- 
ment, which extends from the margin to about a third of the 
distance between it and the centre. Other puncta are scattered 
over the surface of the disc, as in the two previous species. A 
single example only has been found, for the possession of 
which I have again to acknowledge the kindness of INIrs. 

Stictodiscus insignis, n. sp., Grev. — Cellules large at the 
margin, forming a raoniliform series in each compartment to 
near the centre; rays 46; diameter -0021". (PI. IV, fig. 4.) 

Hah. Barbadoes deposit ; very rare. 

A small but exquisite diatom, of which I have as yet only 
seen two indinduals. It will be at once recognised by the 
puncta, or in this instance rather cellules, which, commencing 
at the margin, continue in a moniliform series, and de- 
creasing gradually in size until they approach the centre, 
when they lose their radiating character and occupy the entire 

In this species we do not find the peculiar puncta scattered 
over the central portion of the disc, so characteristic of the 
three preceding species, while the centre itself is fully occu- 
pied Avitli puncta or minu^te cellules similar to those of the 
compartments. The valve is also much less convex. 

Stictodiscus dives (Ehr.), Grev. — Pore-like puncta in each 
compartment minute, equal, forming a single series ; rays 52 
(centre minutely punctate V). 

Discoplea? dives, Ehr. 

Actinoptychus dives, YA\r. 'Mierogeol,^ PI. xix, fig. 12; Ralfs 
in Pritch. ' Infus.' 1th cd., p. 810. 

CycloteUa dives, Kiitz., ' Sp. Alg.,' p. 20. 

Hab. Egina. 

The appearance of this disc, as far as we can judge fi-om 
Ehrenberg's figure, is sufficiently striking to justify its pro- 
visional admission into the genus. No central pnnctation, 
however, is exhibited in the figure. 

VOT,. I. KF,W SF.R. d 

4^ GiiEviLLEj on Neiv Diatouis. 


Coscinodiscus armatus, n. sp., Grev. — Cellules minute, equal, 
radiating, about 13 in 'OOl"; the disc furnished, towards the 
margin, with numerous, radiating, spine-like ridges. Diameter 
•0025" to -0035". (PI. IV, fig. 5.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; very rare. 

A curious species, resembling very closely, in the marginal 
ridge-like spines or processes, Brightwellia Johnsoni (Ralfs, 
MS.); one of the most beautiful of the many new diatoms 
which have been found in this deposit. When the disc is 
viewed in the position in which it usually presents itself, that 
is, vertically, these processes appear as short, thickened lines 
tapering towards the centre ; but an oblique view brings out 
their real character. 

Coscinodiscus tuberculatus, n. sp., Grev. — Disc with a deep 
pore-like umbilicus; cellules radiating, subequal, the longer 
series terminating in marginal tubercles; cellules 9 in "001"; 
marginal striae 25 in "OOl". Diameter '0025'' to -0035' , or more. 
(Fig. 6.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; frequent. 

Cellules hexagonal; those immediately surrounding the um- 
bilicus small ; the rest nearly equal till near the margin, where 
they become again smaller. The longer rays of cellules appear 
to be in pairs, and it is the line of separation between them 
which terminates in the tubercle. The latter, on an oblique 
view, is seen to form an obtuse process. The margin is dis- 
tinctly and rather broadly striated. 

Coscinodiscus biradiatus, n. sp., Grev. — Granules distinct, 
filling up the centre irregularly, afterwards radiating, large, 
prominent, somewhat quadrangular, gradually diminishing 
in size to the margin ; rays distant, the long ones alternating 
with a shorter series ; margin with a row of minute puncta. 
Diameter -0035". (Fig. 7.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; rare. 

An object of exceeding beauty and brilliancy. The disc 
is very convex ; and in taking a vertical view, and in passing 
the focus down the side of the disc, the effect is very 
striking ; the prominence of the granides being so great as to 
cause the rays, when so viewed in perspective, to resemble 
the ribs and tubercles of a Cardium. There is no umbilicus. 

Coscinodiscus elegantnlus, n. sp., Grev. — Gramiles minute, 
subequal, irregularly scattered over a central space equal to 
about a third of the diameter of the disc ; they afterwards 
form a siuglc series of distant, often somewhat curved, rays ; 
margin with a row of vcrv minute puncta. l")iameter 1)017". 
(Fig. ^'.) 

Grevillk, on Xeti: Dhdoiiis. 43 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit; rare. 

A very delicate, transparent little disc, easily overlooked, 
but well marked by its wide fringe-like rays. 

Cosciaodiscus Barhadensis, n. sp., Grev. — Disc divided into 
compartments by double lines of punctiform cellules, the 
intervals between the lines being so clearly defined as to pre- 
sent the appearance of rays ; cellules within the compart- 
ments less conspicuously radiate, subequal, except at the 
margin; 15 in '001''; diameter of disc •0025", (Fig. 9.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; very rare. 

Disc convex, very delicate, and apt to be overlooked even 
by careful observers. Under a moderately magnifying power 
it would scarcely be taken for a Coscinodiscus, as it rather 
suggests the idea of an Actinocydus (Ehrenberg, not Smith) ; 
but, under a higher power, the apparent rays are found to re- 
sult from the space left between two lines of cellules, which 
radiate from the centre to the circumference. Further ob- 
servations may determine the presence of an umbilical pore. 
One of my specimens is injured at that part ; and the other 
shows, although obscurely, an approach to such a character. 


Triceratium capitatum, n. sp., llalfs. — Valve with the 
angles much produced and capitate, and separated from the 
centre by a transverse line ; surface with indistinct, scattered 
puucta, and two spines. Distance between the angles about 
•0019". (Fig. 10.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit; extremely rare. 

" A small species, with very indistinct puncta. Valves, 
irrespective of the produced angles, straight or slightly con- 
vex." (Ralfs.) The frustule appears to be not unfrequently 
imperfect or mutilated. I had examined half a dozen ex- 
amples before I perceived any trace of puncta at all. ^Ir. 
Rylands then kindly communicated a specimen, in which, in 
addition to the central puncta, a few larger and more definite 
puncta were scattered on the narrow portion of the produced 
angles, and the surface was also furnished with two conspi- 
cuous spines. I have subsequently found two frustules 
myself, exhibiting very distinctly these characters. 

Triceratium IVestiaaum, n. sp., Grev. — Sides of the valve 
deeply and sharply concave ; angles forming segments of 
circles, separated from the centre by transverse lines ; margin 
of the angles with very short radiating lines ; surface strongly 
punctate; distance between the angles •OOIS." (Fig. 11.) 

Hub. Barbadoes deposit ; extremely rare. 

44 Gkeville, on New Diatoms. 

I have much pleasure in dedicating tliis remarkable and 
oruate species to my friend, ]\Ir. Tuffen ^^'est, the unrivalled 
illustrator of the Diatomaceaej and who is well acquainted 
Avith the nature of the objects themselves. It is allied to 
Triceralium castellatum, described by himself, from the same 
deposit, in the eighth volume of the ' Transactions of the 
Microscopical Society ;' but is, in several important cha- 
racters, perfectly distinct. Like most of the species of Tri- 
ceratia discovered in this mine of novelties, it is excessively 
rare. I have only met with six specimens. 

Triceratium Barbadense, n. sp., Grev. — Sides of the frustule 
gently concave ; angles broadly rounded, separated from the 
centre by transverse lines ; whole valve closely and minutely 
punctate. Distance between the angles •0016''. (Fig. 12.) 
Hub. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 
Allied to T. castellatum, but differs in the form ; the sides 
of the valve not being nearly so deeply concave, and the 
angles, instead of swelling into segments of circles, being 
merely broadly rounded. 

Triceratiuj/i nitidum, n. sp., Grev. — Sides of frustule rather 
deeply concave, angles ovate, separated from the centre by 
transverse lines ; whole valve punctate; puncta of the central 
space radiating, and becoming conspicuous as they reach the 
margin. Distance between the angles, "OOl-i". (Fig. 13.) 
Hab. Barbadoes deposit; extremely rare. 
I am not aware of any described species for Avhich this can 
be mistaken. A good character exists in the puncta of the 
centre, which radiate in single lines, becoming gradually 
larger and the lines more distinct as they approach the 

Triceratium celluloswa, n. sp., Grev. — Sides of the valve 
straight ; angles Avith pseudo-nodules, obtuse, separated froui 
the centre by transverse lines ; centre and angles coarsely 
and irregularly cellulose ; cellules of the former more or less 
ovate or oval, and disposed in a radiating direction, though 
not in lines ; those of the latter in rows parallel with the sepa- 
rating line. Distance betAv ecu the angles •OO.'iO". (Fig. 14.) 
Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; exceedingly rare. 
Large and robust, as compared Avith many of the Barbadoes 
species ; and so peculiar in its characters as to be instanta- 
neously recognised. Tlie cellules of the angles are somcAvhat 
quadrate, and hence those parts of the A'alve have a sort of 
cancellated aspect. The lines Avhicli separate tlie angles 
from the central area appear as linear spaces left unoccu- 
pied by the cellules. 

Murraylield, Edinburgh; January 15th, 18G1. 

Grevillk, on Xcw Diatoms. 45 

The Ibllowing new species of Triceratium have also been 
discovered in tlie Barbadoes deposit, and will be figured and 
more fully described in a future number. 

T. aculeatum, Grev. — Sides of valve gently and evenly 
concave; angles some\^'hat obtuse, with a decided pseudo- 
nodule; granules irregularly radiant; centre convex, with 
three spines. Distance between the angles •0022". 

T. cornutum, Grev. — Valve (in my specimen four-angled) 
with straight sides, and sharp angles furnished with strong 
horn-like processes; surface minutely granulose in radiating 
lines; centre with three spines. Distance between the 
angles -0015". 

T. productum, Grev. — Valve punctate; angles produced, 
capitate; centre divided into compartments by radiating, 
vein-like lines. Distance between the angles '0027". 

T. inconspicinun, Grev. — Minute, sparsely punctate ; valves 
(in my specimens four-angled) with the angles semicircular, 
separated from the centre by a transverse line ; centre bordered 
Avith a row of puncta. Distance between the angles "0005 '. 

T. delicatuiii, Grev. — ^Minute ; valve with slightly concave 
sides and broadly rounded angles, filled up Avith transverse 
rows of fine puncta ; centre containing a pale, obtusely tri- 
angular band, within which is a triangular spot bordered 
with puncta. Distance between the angles •0012". 

T. ornatum, Grev. — Valve with rounded angles and convex 
sides ; conspicuous pearly granules sparingly scattered in the 
semi-blank central space, and forming a broad marginal band 
of radiating lines, which are 7 in •001". Distance between the 
angles -002 1". 

T. labyrinthcEum, Grev. — Valve with rounded angles and 
slightly convex sides ; the centre occupied with a network of 
widely anastomosing, vein-like lines, from the boundary of which 
short lines are given off towards the margin ; spaces enclosed 
by the anastomosing lines finely punctate. Distance between 
the angles •0023". 

T. bluaditum, Grev. — Sides of valve (in my specimen 
four-angled) deeply concave ; angles sub-heuiispherical ; 
centre with a small blank space; granules conspicuous, sub- 
remote, equal, forming straight, eciuidistant, parallel lines, 1 1 
in •OOl". Distance between the an-lcs •0020". 


On the Metamorphoses of a Coccus found upon Oranges.* 
By Richard Beck. 

(Head March 13tb, 1861.) 

If the external surface of almost any of the sweet oranges 
be only cursorily examined, it will be found more or less 
spotted with small scales, the shields of a coccus or scale 
insect ; they are adherent to the rind of the orange, but can 
easily be detached ; and, on turning one of the larger ones 
over, it will be found, on examination under a low power, 
to present, as the most striking feature, a large accumula- 
tion of eggs lying beneath a cottony secretion (Plate V, 
fig, 1, b) ; very frequently these eggs are in the process of 
hatching, and, under such circumstances, we have the insect 
in its larva state (fig. 3) . 

The body is white, oval, and very flat : there are two 
antennse proceeding from underneath ; they are about one 
fourth the length of the body, rather hairy, and of eight or 
nine joints, two very small light-pink ocelli, or simple eyes, 
occur one on each side, at the very edge of the body, and 
about where the long curves of the oval commence ; consider- 
ably below the antennae is a proboscis, a long and apparently 
horny tube, proceeding from a conical base. These, with 
the exception of a few isolated hairs, are the only external 
organs of the head that are apparent. The legs are six 
in number, each consisting of, I think, four members; 
the terminal ones being provided with a hook, and two or 
more very small suckers hardly to be distinguished from 

* Tlie author considers these observations as very incomplete ; his 
object in laying them before the society in sucli a state was to aftbrd any 
member an opiiortuniLy of invesiiijaling the sutiject whilst the oranges were 
in season, having since found liiat the same coccus is iu great quantities 
on plants in this country, and that the eggs are now hatching; he would 
still call the attention of microscopists to the subject. 


48 BecKj on the Metamorphosis oj a Coccus. 

hairs. At the extremity of the body two exceedingly minute 
hairs trail behind for some considerable length ; and besides 
these are numerous setae and orifices, parts, I believe, of the 
organ for the secretion of the cottony substance and the hard 

The locomotive power of the larva — and this is the only 
time it makes use of it — is I believe very limited ; frequently 
it settles close to the parent home, and I imagine that when 
once the proboscis is inserted in the orange it is never removed; 
the insect thus located, the skin on the back changes to a 
darker colour, thickens, and ultimately becomes a cast skin, 
the coccus having retreated between the secretions of the 
hard shield, as a protection above, and the cottony substance 
as a close attachment below, but to neither of them is it 
ever adherent ; at this stage it also loses every trace of 
antennae, legs, and eyes, whilst, on the contrary, the proboscis 
is more fully developed : this is evidently the pupa state, and 
thus far I have been unable to detect any diflerence between 
male and female. 

The first indication that I have found of the male insect is 
the presence of two dark and rather diffused red spots in 
the head, and also a simultaneous disappearance of the 
proboscis (fig. 4). Then after a skin is cast, there is an 
entire disappearance of the organs for the secretions of the 
shield, which is completed of a long and narrow shape ; one 
stage more in advance and the ocelli are black and distinct, 
and there can be traced two long antennae and two wings at 
the side ; six legs are also in process of development, the 
two in front being directed forward, which is a peculiarity of 
the pupa of this genus ; and at the extremity of the body is a 
protuberance I imagine to be the male organ (fig. 5). 
Another skin is yet cast, and then there is a perfect male 
insect (fig. 6). The ocelli are four, two above and two 
below; the antennae, eight or nine jointed, very delicate, 
hairy, and nearly the length of the whole body ; the legs have 
four members, the terminal one of each being provided with 
a single hook and two or more delicate suckers ; the wings 
project considerably beyond the body, they are transparent, 
but covered with very minute hairs, and strengthened by a 
simple ribbing of two corrugations which unite at the base. 
The two halterers or poisers are oval, and terminate with a 
hair bent like a hook at the extremity; and that which I 
presume to be the male organ is long, attenuated, and 
attached at its base to, and immediately above, a truncated 
projection which has an apertru'e at its apex. 

We thus find in the male complete insect metamorphoses. 

Beck, on the Metamorphosis of a Coccus. 49 

1 am unable to say as much of the female, though I presume 
such must be the case, as only a perfect insect is capable of 
reproducing its species. I have not as yet paid as much 
attention to this sex, but so far as my investigations have 
gone, after it has changed into the pupa state all external 
organs entirely disappear, excepting those at the extremity of 
the body, and the pi'oboscis, which becomes stronger and 
larger (fig. 8) ; the secretion of the shield is continued until 
nearly four or five times the size of the male, and the body of 
the insect bears about the same proportion ; it then deposits 
its eggs, between one and two hundred in number, which are 
placed on end in great regularity, and the first ones will 
frequently be found hatching before the last are laid. 

The external surface of the shield of the male (fig. 7) gives 
very marked indications of the three changes that have taken 
place : first, there is the cast skin of the larva ; secondly, the 
shield for the pupa; and thirdly, a thin and short addition to 
the shield for the wings of the imago, which I believe is lifted 
up when the insect escapes. 

There are also three similar indications on the external 
surface of the female shield, and these may also warrant the 
conclusion that its metamorphoses have been complete. 

It is somewhat surprising that these cocci are to be found 
in a living state at all, after the change they must have ex- 
perienced in the climate ; it is, however, very evident that the 
larva and pupa states are much hardier than that of the 
imago; at least so far as the males are concerned, I have found 
it very difficult to obtain any alive after the external organs 
were fully developed. As it is, the circumstances under which 
they appear are very favorable to their examination ; one 
single orange, if well selected, will supply every condition I 
have mentioned ; and I imagine that from the fact of the shield 
being such a complete protection, the metamorphoses are 
more distinct in their development than under the more 
ordinary circumstances where the insect itself is exposed. I 
have invariably used Mr. Wenham's binocular arrangement 
with the microscope, and I can only say that for this class 
of investigations the results are perfectly maiTcllous. 


On the Microscopic Characters of the Crystals 0/ Arsexi- 
ous Acid. By William A. Guy, M.B. Cantab., Pro- 
fessor of Forensic Medicine, King^s College, London. 

(Read May 8tli, ISGl.) 

In submitting to your society this paper on the miscro- 
scopic characters of the crystals of arsenious acid, I have two 
principal objects in view. I Avish, in the first place, to 
illustrate, by a striking instance, the great value of the 
binocular microscope as a means of diagnosis ; and, in the 
second place, to give a more exact account than any at 
present in existence of the crystalline forms assumed by 
a very important poison. That to render such an account 
is not a work of mere supererogation, a reference to the 
descriptions of the crystals given in works of authority would 
readily prove. 

Most authors describe the crystals as regular octahedra, 
without recognising any other crystalline forms. Some 
writers, however, speak of the regular octahedron and its 
modifications, or of forms traceable to the octahedron ; and 
acicular crystals, long prismatic needles, triangular and 
hexagonal plates, and even tetrahedra, are to be met with in 
the descriptions of authors.^ 

I may add that, in illustrated Avorks, the octahedral 
crystals are usually figured in the form in which they are 
most readily identified ; the less usual positions of the octa- 
hedra and the rarer forms and modifications of the crystal 
being omitted. 

The imperfect and somewhat conflicting accounts thus 
given of the crystals of arsenious acid are, doubtless, to be 
explained, partly by the difficulty of examining them, whether 
by lens or microscope, when sublimed, as they were for- 
merly, in thick reduction-tubes of narrow bore ; partly to 
the great variety of lights and shadows presented by the 
crystals, especially when viewed by transmitted light ; and 
partly to the imperfect relief given to the crystals when 
examined by the monocular microscope. 

* Consult Pereira's 'Materia Medica,' 4th edition, p. 685, in which 
tlie tetialicdron is nieiilioiipd as one t'onn of the crystal; Miller's 'Elements 
of Cliemistry,' part ii, p. 961, in which mention is made of lonp prismatic 
neecles, isoinoiplious with those of oxide of antimony; and Taylor, ou 
'Poisons,' 2d edition, p. 3S5, in which equilateral triangular plates are 
S])eci(ied. Pereira cites a foreign anthority (AVohler) who found in a 
cobalt roast iiig-furnace arsenious acid crystullised iu hexahedral plates 
derived from a right rhombic prism. 

Guy. on Crystals of Arsenious Acid. 51 

The substitution of the modern form of reduction-tube, in 
which the vapours of arsenious acid are made to pass through 
a narrow glass tube with thin sides, has made the examination 
by the microscope more easy ; but the simple plan which 
I suggested about three years since, for obtaining the crystals 
on a Hat surface, has offered still greater facilities, of which 
it is but natural that I should have largely availed myself. 
The knowledge of the subject thus obtained may be said 
to have been completed by the use of the binocular micro- 

The most superficial and cursory examination of the 
first specimens obtained upon a flat surface sufficed to con- 
vince me that very much remained to be done before our 
knowledge of th3 true crystalline characters of arsenious 
acid could be placed on a level with the practical importance 
of such knowledge. In the first place, it was quite clear that 
those descriptions which spoke only of the regular octahedron 
as the one proper form of the crystal were wholly inade- 
quate; and that even those which recognised, not only the 
perfect crystal, but all the forms traceable to the octa- 
hedron were still insufficient. AVe ought to know what 
particular forms to look for. Again, it must be interesting, 
and might be practically important to know something more 
of the alleged acicular or prismatic crystals, of the triangular 
and hexagonal plates, and of the tetrahedra, described and 
figured in Pereira's work. The crystallographer, too, could 
scarcely abstain from speculating on the possible occurrence 
among these octahedra of those other members of the re- 
gular system, the cube and the rhombic dodecahedron. 
Some, if not all, of these questions I hope to be able to 
answer, without proving tedious to those who have not the 
special interest in this subject which I have myself. Re- 
verting to my early examinations of the crystalline deposits 
of arsenious acid as obtained on a flat surface, I may state 
that I encountered many forms and appearances which I 
was not able to explain to my own satisfaction. When 
viewed by transmitted light, a large proportion of the 
crystals wore the appearance of dark squares, a smaller 
number of dark oblong figures, a still smaller number of 
long, thick, black lines. These latter, the long lines, 1 took 
to be the acicular or prismatic crystals described in books. 
The dark squares and oblongs were not so readily explained. 
Then, again, I encountered among the crystals transmitting 
or reflecting light, in addition to forms which might be 
merely different attitudes or postures of the regular octahe- 
dron, or of the truncated octahedron, or of the lengthened 

52 GuY^ on Crystals of Arsenions Acid. 

octalieclronj well-formed triangular prisms^ terminated at 
either end by triangular facettes, also twin-crystals or mdcles, 
also equilateral triangles resting on half the adjoining 
triangle as a base. I will not take up your time further by 
specifying all the forms which at first puzzled and perplexed 
me. Suffice it to say that, in the full consciousness that I 
did not understand the things I saw, I determined to turn 
for awhile from nature on the small scale to art on the large. 
I procured octahedra of wood, and not being satisfied with 
them, prevailed on Messrs. Powell, of Whitefriars, to make 
me the crystals of glass now before you. By studying these 
large models, placing them in all sorts of positions, and \iewing 
them from different points and in different lights, I was pre- 
pared to understand most of the appearances under the 
microscope. The broader shadows of the transparent glass 
crystals were reproduced in the small crystals of arseuious acid, 
and the several postures which I caused the large crystals to 
assume were recognisable under the microscope. I found 
that the sublimed crystals adhered to the flat surface of 
glass by their solid angles, by their edges, and by their 
faces, as well as in positions less easily described. I also 
inferred that the dark squares were crystals (octahedra) 
adhering to the glass by their solid angles, in which position, 
as my glass model taught me, the play of lights and shadows 
was such as to occasion confusion and possible darkness. 
This suspicion, which was strengthened somewhat when I 
examined the sublimates by reflected light, became certainty 
under the binocular microscope. Under that admirable 
instrument, with reflected light, there are no dark masses, 
and no obscure forms. The meaning of the dark oblong 
forms and of the dark lines which I at first identified with 
the acicular or prismatic crystals of authors did not occur 
to me till later in my inquiries. 

I have mentioned the frequent occurrence of the three-sided 
prism with bevelled extremities. I do not mean the figure 
sometimes described as a lengthened octahedron, but a figure 
having the deceptive appearance of a triangular prism. Was 
this a distinct crystalline form, or might it not be some aspect 
of the octahedron ? It obnously could not be brought about 
by any attitude of the whole crystal; but my wooden model, 
supplied by Professor Tcnnant, is cut in half by a plane parallel 
to, and equidistant from, two of its faces, and these two equal 
halves of the-crystal are made to rotate on each other, so 
as to show the twin-crystal, or made. Here, then, without 
supposing any new form of crystal, there was new material 
for speculation. I had seen the t^nn-crystal, or made, in 

Guy, on Crystuh of Arsenious Acid. 53 

almost every specimen I examined. Hence, it was clear that 
half- crystals Avere among the possibilities of arsenious acid 
sublimed. Well, this half-crystal which I was soon en- 
couraged to have made in glass, when placed in a certain 
position, gave me the precise figure which had perplexed me ; 
it gave also the equilateral triangle with the half adjoining 
triangle for its base (one of the commonest crystalline forms) ; 
also, the half-triangle itself; also the hexagon, and the 
hexagon tipped with three small, dark, triangular facettes. 

Now this appearance of a triangular prism, terminated at 
each end with an equilateral triangle, is given by the tilting 
forward of the half-crystal ; and just as the whole crystal 
adhering by a solid angle becomes by transmitted light a dark 
square, so this half-crystal appears as a dark oblong. 

But the long dark lines which I had taken for needles or 
prisms, what were they ? Possibly not distinct and separate 
crystals, but only deceptive appearances like the dark squares 
and oblongs. Could they be the forward edges of large deep 
plates, owing their dark appearance to the same depth of 
crystalline mass? It was reserved for the binocular microscope 
to demonstrate this. On examining with this instrument a 
vast number of specimens, and passing under review thousands 
and thousands of crystals, I find many large hexagonal plates 
.with their edges thrown forward, but very few prismatic 
crystals. I also find triangular plates of various thickness, 
square plates also of varying substance, and a few rhombic 
and rhomboidal plates. But my catalogue is not yet exhausted. 
Before I made use of the binocular microscope, I thought that 
I had encountered one or two cubes ; but as the assertion that 
I. had met with cubes was received somewhat incredulously, 
1 looked for them in the field of the binocular with great 
interest. I found several figures which approached very 
closely to the cube, and in one instance encountered a perfect 
cuhical crystal. I say this without any sort of hesitation. I 
have also more frequently met with the rhombic dodecahedron, 
and its made, or twin-crystal. I have not yet seen a tetra- 
hedron; though in one specimen obtained from Scheele's green, 
and abounding in triangles less symmetrically formed than 
usual, I thought that I discerned the marks of the tetrahedron. 
Be thisas it may,I am quite surethat this form of crystal should 
,be set down among mere possibilities : I have not seen it in any 
one of many hundreds of specimens of crystalline deposit ob- 
tained from arsenious acid itself, or from the metal arsenic. 
It is probable that the deep triangular plates, which abound 
in some specimens, have been taken for tetrahedra. 

I have now briefly sketched the course of experiments, ob- 

54 Gly, on Crystals of Arsenious Acid. 

servations, and inferences by which I was gradually possessed 
of my existing knowledge of these interesting crystalline forms. 
Something I learnt from actual examination; such, for in- 
stance, as the common appearances of the perfect octahedron, 
and the fact of the existence of plates of various forms, as well 
as of crystals other than the octahedron. Something more I 
learnt by inferences drawn from the close examination of models 
of the crystal and half-crystal, opaque and transparent. I 
understood at once the twin-crystal, or made. I inferred that 
the equilateral triangle mounted on a half-triangle as its base, 
the hexagon with three-shaded points, and the triangular prism 
were merely phases of the half-crystal ; and I thought it 
likely that some of the detached equilateral triangles and 
some of the hexagons might be explained in the same manner. 
But I remained quite satisfied with the belief that a con- 
siderable number of the long narrow crystals were prisms. 
I was not quite satisfied of the existence of triangular plates 
or of hexagonal plates. I spoke doubtfully about cubes, and 
had not been able to make out the rhombic dodecahedron ; 
and I felt that my views concerning the large part played by 
the half-crystal, though highly probable, were still only pro- 
bable. But under the binocular microscope all my doubts 
were dissipated, all my errors corrected, some surmises con- 
firmed, and most of my inferences justified. That which had 
been a work partly of observation, and partly of reasoning, be- 
came a simple matter of sensation. If there is any one who 
doubts the value of this form of the microscope, or is disposed 
to treat it simply as a philosophical toy, I will ask him to ex- 
amine these crystals with the monocular microscope by trans- 
mitted light, and with the binocular microscope by reflected 
light; and I would especially commend to his attention the 
crystalline and globular sublimate (crystals of arsenious acid, 
and globules of metallic arsenic) shown in the capillary reduc- 
tion-tube. The fine relief and perfect roundness of the tube 
and its contents is, at one and the same time, a proof of the 
utility and of the faithfulness of the binocular microscope. 

With a view to give completeness to this paper, I will first 
briefly describe and illustrate by appropriate engravings, 
corresponding Avith the large diagrams and models shown at 
the meeting, the various attitudes and appearances of the 
entire octahedron and of the half- crystal, as deduced from 
the study of models of wood and glass, ■^ and then exhibit some 

* Since tlie paper was read, I liave added studies of tlie rlionibic dode- 
cahedron, similar to those of the octahedron wliich were shown in the 
diagrams exhibited at the meeting. This addition goes far towards ex- 
hausting the crystalUne forms of sublimed arsenious acid. 

GiY, on Cryslals of Arsenious Acid. 

of the leading forms as seen under the monocular microscope 
by transmitted light, and under the l)inocular microscope by 
reflected light. I also append^ at the desire of the editors 
of the Journal, a short account of the best mode of obtain- 
ing the crystals of arsenious acid for microscopic examination. 

1. The entire crystal. 

a. The crystal adhering by one of its edges, and 
displaying two sides (fig. 1). 

b. The crystal adhering by one of its faces, and 
displaying three sides (fig. 2) . 

c. The crystal adhering by one of its faces, and 
so seen as to display four sides (fig. 3). 

d. The crystal adhering by a solid angle, so as 

to show four equal faces (fig. 4). In this 
position the crystals appear by transmitted 
light as black squares. 

e. The crystal adhering by one of its faces, and 

showing the lights and shadows of the 
transparent model (fig. 5). 

2. The half-crystal. 

The regular octahedron may be divided into 
two symmetrical bodies — 

1. Bv a plane parallel to two faces of the crvs- 

The sections thus formed are bounded by a 
hexagon and by an equilateral triangle, 
and they have the appearance shown in 
fig. 7. 

2. By a plane passing through four edges of 

the crystal, each section being a four-side 
pyramid on a square base (Hg. 8). 

3. By a plane cutting the equilateral triangular 

faces of the crystal into two equal right- 
angled triangles, each section presenting 
a rhombic face (fig. 9). 


Guy, on Crystals of Arsenious Acid. 

The first section supplies the following forms : 

a. The equilateral triangle (fig. 10). 

b. The equilateral triangle resting on 

half the adjoining triangle as a 
base (fig. 11). 
This is a very common aspect of the 
half- crystal. 

c. The hexagon, (fig. 12.) 

d. The hexagon with the three small 
triangular facettes in shadow (fig. 

This also is a very common aspect of the 

e. The half-triangle (fig. 14.) 
/. The edge of the half-crystal tilted 

forward, so as to give the appearance 
of a triangular prism (tig. 15). 
This again is a very common aspect of 
the half-crystal. 

g. The made or twin -crystal, formed by 
the partial rotation of two half- 
crystals on each other (fig. 16). 
h. The same, with the triangular face of 
one half-crystal visible (fig. 17). 
second and third sections are of rare occurrence, and 
assume appearances requu'ing more minute description. 

do not 

3. The rhombic dodecahedron. 

a. Three sides visible, so as to resemble the 
perspective of a cube (fig. 18). 

b. Four sides visible, and a solid angle pro- 
jected forward (fig. 19). 

c. Five sides visible (fig. 20). 

d. Five sides visible ; another aspect of the 
crystal (fig. 21). 

Guv, on ('VystcilH of Arsenious Acid. 57 

e. Six sides visible (fig. 22). 

/. The made or twin-crystal of the rhombic 
dodecahedron (fig. 23). 

(/. The made or twin-crystal ; another \ie\v 
(fig. 24). 

Having now figured some of the leading appearances "which 
the models of the octahedron and rhombic dodecahedron, 
"with their half- crystals, may be made to assume by changes 
of position, I proceed to give a brief summary of the crystalline 
forms "which I have been able to distinctly recognise in the 
course of my examinations of the sublimates of arsenious 

1. The crystalline sublimates of arsenious acid consist of 
regular octahedra, rhombic dodecahedra, cubes, plates, and 

2. The regular octahedra may be entire and homogeneous, 
or they may be variously truncated and notched, mottled and 
figured ; and they may assume any of the forms depicted in 
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

3. The entire regular octahedron may also be 
modified as in the annexed engraving (fig. 25). 

4. The octahedron may present itself as a half- 
crystal in any of the forms depicted in figures 7 
to 15, inclusive. 

5. The half-crystals may be combined to form mddes, or 
twin-crystals, as in figures 16 and 17. 

6. The entire crystal and the half-crystal may 
have their edges notched, so as to yield figures 
resembling the trefoil, or fleur-de-lis, as in the 
annexed figm^e (fig. 26). 

7. The rhombic dodecahedron may present 

itself entire in any of the forms depicted in figures 18 to 22. 

8. The rhombic dodecahedron may present itself as a half- 
cr}'stal ; and two half-crj^stals may be united to produce the 
mddes, or twin-crystals depicted in figures 23 and 24. 

9. The cube is a very rare form among the crystals of 
arsenious acid. 

10. The plates present themselves as hexagons, equilateral 
triangles, squares, rhombs, and rhomboids ; and they may be 
of anv thickness, from that of thin iridescent films, to the 

58 Guv, 0)1 Crystals of Arsenlovs Acid. 

third or tlie half of the diameters of the faces of the plates. 

They may also greatly exceed in size the largest crystals of 

2 7 the groups in which they 

OA , 1 /\ A ry are found. The principal 
/ \ j I \/ M /_/ forms are shown in the 

annexed figure (fig. 27). 

11. Sometimes compound plates of large size 
and symmetrical form are found united at 
angles corresponding with those of the faces 
of the octahedron, as in fig. 28. At other 
times they are grouped with great irregularity. 
In other instances plates, such as the equi- 
lateral triangle, are found built up by a hexa- 
gonal plate symmetrically joined to three equi- 
lateral triangles, as in fig. 29. 

12. The prisms are either four-sided prisms of 
small size, or they are large four- sided rectangular 
prisms terminated bv four-sided pyramids 
(fig. 30). _ 

J 3. Sometimes the prisms are shorter, and 
present the form depicted in the subjoined figure 
(fig. 31). 

To this detailed description it is only necessary to add that 
there is great variety to be found in groups of crystals of 
arseuious acid produced at the same time and in the same way. 
In some groups the crystals are perfect, free from spot or 
blemish, transparent, and brilliant ; in others, notched or 
truncated, mottled and figured, and translucent; in some 
the regular octahedron is the prevailing form, other forms be- 
ing exceptional ; in others, plates predominte, and are nearly as 
numerous as the crystals themselves ; occasionally equilateral 
triangular plates occupy the whole field, to the exclusion of 
almost all other forms. The lithographic plate (PL VI) ap- 
pended to the paper, and showing the sublimates as they appear 
by the monocular and binocular microscope, by transmitted 
and reflected light, will give some idea of the variet}' of forms 
which the crystals assume. 

The best mode of obtaining the crystals of arsenious acid 
may be described in a few words. The apparatus required 
consists of a spirit-lamp with small flame, specimen tubes of 
small diameter and not exceeding an inch in length, and 
slides or discs of crown glass. A few grains of arsenious acid 
are placed in a clean and dry specimen tube, and this in a con- 
venient holder, consisting of a slip of copper or brass punched or 
drilled to receive it. The tube is to be held over the flame of 
the lamp till the acid collects as crystals, or as a whit€ powder. 

Reade, on a New Hemispherical Condenser. 59 

round the orifice of the tube. The slides or discs are then to be 
heated in the flame of the lamp, so as to drive off the 
moisture, and raise considerably the temperature, of the 
glass. The slide or disc, thus heated, is to be placed over the 
mouth of the tube, and kept there till bright spots appear on 
its under surface. The spirit-lamp is then to be removed, 
and the glass allowed to cool. The process may be conducted 
with the two hands over the lamp, or 
the holder may be supported on a retort- 
stand, as is shown in figure 3.2, and the 
spirit-lamp removed for a time after each 
operation. Good results can only be 
obtained when the slide or disc is heated ; 
but if too much heat is used, the crys- 
tals are dissipated as soon as formed. 
When the operation is quite successful, 
we obtain one of the most beautiful of 
microscopic objects, and one of the very 
best illustrations of the value of the binocular microscope 
as a means of identification and diagnosis.^ 

On a New Hemispherical Coxdexser for the Microscope, 
and its use in illustrating an important principle in 
Microscopic Illumination. By the Rev. J. B. Reade, 

(Read May 8th, 1861.) 

The condenser which I am now using has been so favor- 
ably received by several of my friends, that I am induced, at 
their request, to offer a description of it to the members 
of our society. I need scarcely say, that an unpretending 
single lens cannot be proposed as a rival to the almost per- 
fect combinations in use among us; but it may, perhaps, 
take its place as an efiicient adjunct to the microscopes of 
those observers who are disinclined, from one consideration 
or another, to procure more expensive apparatus. 

The condenser consists of a hemisphere of glass, about 
one and three-quarter inches in diameter, with an arrange- 
ment of stops by which difficult test objects are well defined 
under half-inch object-glasses of 90° aperture. It is set 
in a thin brass ring, and screws upon a cylinder adapted, like 
other fittings, to the opening of the sub-stage of the microscope. 

* Tor a more detailed description of tlie mode of obtainiiifij crystals of 
arsenious acid, consult a paprr in 'Beale's Archives,' No. nr, 1S58, and tiie 
second edition of my ' Principles of Forensic Medicine,' in which several 
of the forms depictea here will be found figured. 

60 ReadKj on a New Hemispherical Condenser. 

The hemisphere in question has been many years in my 
possession, though I did not apply it to the table micro- 
scope until February, 1860. It happened to be one of 
the lenses which Mr. Chamberlain, the optician, called '^ a 
sporting lot ;" and I may say, that on more than one 
occasion I have successfully used it in following optical 
game. In the year 1837 it did me good service when con- 
nected with the condensing lens of a solar microscope, inas- 
much as it gave me great light with little or no heat, and 
thereby prevented all risk in the use of achromatic object- 
glasses and objects mounted in balsam. 

The arrangement for this purpose is as follows : — A beam 
of solar light, containing both colorific and calorific rays, was 
transmitted through the condensing lens of the instrument ; 
and, owing to the different refrangibility of these com- 
ponents of the beam, we have a cone of light-giving rays 
formed within a cone of heat-giving rays, and the principal 
focus of heat is further from the lens than the principal 
focus of light. But when these rays cross the axis, the cone 
of heat-giving rays lies within the cone of light-giving 
rays ; and, if the hemispherical lens be placed in these 
second cones, at the distance of its own focal length from the 
principal focus of heat, it will be at a gi'eater distance than its 
focal length from the principal focus of light ; and, conse- 
quently, the rays of heat will be rendered parallel, while the 
rays of light will converge to a second focus, exhibiting great 
intensity of illumination, but without any sensible heat. 

I have approximately measured the heating power of the 
calorific rays in the second cone, when rendered parallel 
by the hemispherical lens; and I found, in the mouth of 
December, that the mercury in a sensitive thermometer, 
when placed in the second focus, did not reach 90° Fah., 
while, at the same time, the heat in the focus of the first 
cone was sufiicient to discharge gunpowder. 

The admirable drawing, by Lens Aldous, of the magnified 
head of a flea mounted in balsam, from which his well-known 
lithograph was made, is a good illustration of the practical 
value of this application of the lens ; and it is probable that a 
cemented achromatic object-glass was then, for the first 
time, used with safety in the solar microscope. 

I also used the hemisphere, with a central disc of tmfoil 
upon its plain surface, as a means of obtaining a black- 
ground illumination in the solar microscope ; and nothing 
can exceed the beauty of the brilliant tint of the Volvox 
qlobator and Hydra viridis under this ai'rangement. I found 
it impossible, however, to take a photograph of these objects 

Bead£^ on a New Hemispherical Condenser. 61 

under this illumination, though with direct solar light I 
had no difficulty whatever. 

It is probable that a similar application of the hemisphe- 
rical lens and central stop to the oxyhydrogen microscope^ 
which our variable climate almost compels us to use, would 
in like manner throw into the pictures on the screen the 
additional charm of natural colours, and thereby greatly en- 
hance the interest of the exhibition. 

Notwithstanding my use of the condenser in the experi- 
ments just described, it did not occur to me to extend 
the application of it, until I was, as it were, driven by 
necessity. My old parishioners and other kind friends pre- 
sented me with a valuable microscope at the commencement 
of last year ; and not having, in the first instance, any of 
the well-known condensers at hand, 1 used the light of two 
lamps placed at right angles to each other, and by means of 
suitable lenses I threw sufficient light on the rectangular 
markings of the P. acuminatum and other similar tests. I 
was much pleased with the eJBFect of this simple method of 
illumination ; and I am glad to find that Mr. Torakins has 
also used it, but with considerable improvement, by employ- 
ing two achromatic prisms, which give brilliant illumination, 
while the ^' mai'king shadows'^ are in deep relief. 

In order to obtain any proper definition of the markings, 
I found it necessary so to turn the valve of the diatom, that 
a line of markings might lie at right angles to a line of light. 
In fact, in any other position the markings are scarcely 
visible ; and the conclusion seemed forced upon me, that the 
ordinary spot lens contains in its circle of light a large 
portion of unnecessary, if not injurious, illumination. With 
this impression on my mind, it suddenly occurred to me, that 
my old friend, " the kettle-drum," as Mr. Gravatt calls my 
condenser, might play an important part, if its plain surface 
were covered with tinfoil suitably pierced at the circum- 
ference for the tranmission of two pencils of light at right 
angles to each other. I made the experiment, and happily 
I can fall back upon the testimony of well-qualified ob- 
servers as to the success which attended it. The direct illu- 
mination of only one lamp was now sufficient, and, instead 
of rotating the object — always a difficult process in the 
absence of suitable adjustments — it was easier to rotate the 
secondary stage which held the condenser, and so gain the 
proper position of the two points of light. It may be well 
to state, that by taking out the eye-piece, and looking at the 
points of light down the body of the tube, wc nuiy at once, 
by the rotation of the sub-stage, place them in the right posi- 

62 ReadEj on a New Hemispherical Condenser. 

tion for illuminating any rectangularly marked valve whose 
position on tlie stage of the microscope is known. One 
point of light must lie over the end of the valve for bringing 
cut the horizontal lines; the other will be opposite the 
side of the valve, and will act on the longitudinal lines ; and 
resolution into dots or squares will be immediately effected 
by adjusting the distance of the condenser. 

For oblique or diagonal markings, the apertures at the cir- 
cumference of the diaphragm must no longer be placed at 90° 
apart, but at such an angle as is indicated by the markings 
themselves. In the case of the P. angulatum, where there are 
three lines of markings, there must be three apertures, 
since with two apertures only, we should exhibit, according 
to their position, any two, and but two, of these three lines, in 
turn, and, at the same time, give a sort of unnatural elongation 
to the peculiar markings on the valve. The size of the 
apertures is 24° at the circumference and opposite side, and 
^oths of an inch in the direction of the radius. The 
latter dimension must be less in diaphragms for smaller 
hemispheres, and must never exceed half the radius of the 

In order to secure the best effect, the distance between 
the apertures must be adjusted with considerable accuracy. 
For this purpose I use a diaphragm of thin brass, or of strong 
tinfoil, having one aperture only, and by its rotation under a 
given valve of the P. angulatum, for instance, I bring into 
view the three lines of markings in succession, first the 
horizontal lines, and then the oblique lines, by rotating 
the diaphragm to the right and left, and thus the three 
points at which the apertures are to be made can be deter- 
mined with the utmost precision. If the aperture for the 
horizontal lines be made at the distance of 180° from the 
place thus obtained, these lines will be illuminated on their 
opposite sides, and the three apertures will be 120° apart, as 
in the diaphragm first cut out for me by Mr. "Waterhouse, 
who happened to be working with me at the time. But 
in practice I find it not only better, but indispensable, to 
illuminate all the markings on the same side, as by the first 
method, and preserve thereby that uniform direction of the 
shadows which is the key to accurate definition. A set of 
diaphragms thus obtained, and a diaphragm with a minute 
circular aperture in the centre only, for the central adjustment 
of the lens, complete the furniture of the condenser ; and a 
brass ring sliding outside the top of the cylinder on which the 
condenser is screwed conveniently holds the diaphragms in 
their place, and admits of their being readily changed. 

Reade, 071 a New Hemispherical Condenser. G3 

In the application of this condenser to the resolution of 
lined test objects, it -will be seen that the principle sought to 
!)e carried out is to throw the a\is of the pencil of illumi- 
nating rays in a direction at right angles to the line to be 
resolved. In all cases where the precise position of such 
lines is known, a supplementary diaphragm may be cut with 
the apertures in their correct mutual positions ; but as these 
position angles greatly vary in different diatoms on the same 
slide, my friend, Mr. Waterhouse, ingeniously suggests the 
use of a pair of similar diaphragms overlying each other, and 
capable of revolution round a common centre. For this 
purpose the diaphragm next the condenser must be fixed in 
position, and moveable with the lens, by means of the pinion 
motion of the sub-stage, while the other is attached to a deep 
hoop fitted upon the brass tube carrying the lens, so as to be 
conveniently rotated by the finger and thumb, applied to a 
narrow milled ring, but sufficiently small to pass through the 
opening of the second stage, when the condenser is required 
to be removed for other purposes. To carry out this sug- 
gestion, place two diaphragms together, and mark out on 
their circumference the positions of six adjacent apertui'es ; 
cut out one aperture, pass over two, and cut out the remaining 
three ; then turn them face to face, so that the small stops 
between the apertures may coincide, and, by the rotation of 
one diaphi'agm upon the other, the stop between two aper- 
tures, or little prisms, as they virtually are, may be made to 
vary fi*om about 30° to 120°. This will be ample scope for 
all bilinear, oblique, and rectangular markings. This 
method of arrangement also admits of the introduction of 
a third aperture for the P. angulatum, &e., and the whole 
diaphragm system is thus brought within the least possible 

The lens in its present form is simple, cheap, and easy of 
adjustment, though of course not free from chromatic aber- 
ration ; but the proper adjustment of the apertures to the 
object examined seems to prevent this error from being very 
apparent, and a pierced diaphragm beneath as well as upon 
the condenser has advantages in this direction, as well as 
occasionally in others. The central pencil of al)out -ro^h of 
an inch in diameter, which gains intensity from the con- 
struction, is itself virtually achromatic, and is also very 
effective for direct central illumination where obliquity is not 
required, or Avould be injurious. 

The angle of aperture of the lens is necessarily small ; and 
therefore I cannot help thinking, with Mr. Tomkins, that 
if it were possible by the application of rotating pierced 

VOL. 1. NEW SER. / 

64 Reade, on a New Hemispherical Condenser. 

diaphragms to stop out the light in the right place of a 
Gillet's, or perhaps still better, from its greater angle of 
aperture, a Powell's condeuscr, we should approach perfection 
in resolving difficult markings under the deepest powers. 

My old black-ground illumination, which led to the forma, 
tion of valuable condensers by Messrs. Shadbolt and Ross, 
may be produced with very good effect by the hemisphere and 
a single aperture ; and I feel sure that the members of our 
society will be much pleased with the brilliant definition and 
detail of a scale of Podura under this illumination and the half- 
inch object-glass. I have in my possession the same scale 
which my old and valued friend, Andrew Ross, saw with his 
first achromatic -ith, in his little workshop at St. John's, 
Clerkenwell, and I shall never forget the expression of his 
astonishment. But the present half-inch is superior in all 
respects to that -^th. 

It is now generally known that I offer the hemispherical 
condenser as the special adjunct of the new half-inch object- 
glass of 80° aperture. Mr. Thomas Ross sent me his first 
object-glass of this new construction, for examination and 
report; and I believe, like many others, he hesitated to give 
implicit credence to my account of its working. As he was 
ignorant of the power of the " kettle-drum condenser,^' he 
thought that the asserted resolution of that old microscopic 
nebula, the P. angulatum, under so low a power as a half-inch, 
even of large aperture, indicated the partiality of friendship 
rather than the severity of honest criticism. Accordingly I 
was summoned before a microscopic jury, consisting of Messrs. 
Leonard, Millar, Lobb, and Roper; and after sufficient and 
careful examination, Mr. Leonard, as the judge, decided that 
I might " take a rule nisi." 

As the half-inch and the condenser had not only not flinched 
from any fair work, but had even trespassed on the domain of 
the 4th and the J th, I thought that I would show at last what 
they could not do; and therefore, without the slightest expecta- 
tion of taking anything for my pains, I placed on the stage of 
the microscope a slide of the Amician test, the Navicula 
rhomboides, which was kindly presented to me by ]Mr. Powell, 
whose fine 'fi^th,'with its unequalled achromatic condenser, 
reveals the exquisite skill which is bestowed on this almost 
invisible work of the great Creator. It does one good, both 
mentally and morally, to review such a work as this ; and, to 
my astonishment and delight, I witnessed its resolution under 
my new arrangement. It is necessary, in this instance, to 
use a deep eye-piece for attaining the requisite amplification ; 
and as eye-piecea are instnimeuts for measuring the imper- 

Brady, on the Seed of Dictyoloma Peruviana. 65 

fections of object-glasses, this result led to a definite opinion 
as to the quality of the power employed. 

I Avill only add, that when combined with the hemispherical 
condenser and the whole series of eye-pieces, the new iialf-inch 
is a battery of microscopic powers, and will be a good substi- 
tute, in case of slender purses, for the T„th, To^h, -^th, and 
other fractions. I may therefore be permitted to congratulate 
our society on the valuable results consequent upon the 
attainment of almost unlimited aperture, combined with per- 
fect flatness of field, in powers as low as the \ and -roth ; and 
let it not be forgotten, that English opticians still take the 
lead in these improvements, which should yield honour as well 
as profit to themselves. 

On the Seed of Dictyoloma Peruviana, D.C, &c. 
By Hy. B. Brady, F.L.S. 

(Read June 12Lli, 1861.) 

There are few points of greater interest to the micro- 
scopist, or that better repay his attention, than the external 
character of the seeds of plants. Many, from their mere 
superficial beauty, have become popular show-objects ; but a 
deeper interest is awakened, and an almost boundless field 
of investigation is suggested, by such phenomena as those pre- 
sented by the peculiar spiral cells of the testa of CoUomia, 
Ruellia, or Salvia; the curious hairs from the seeds ofCobaea 
or Acanthodium ; the beautiful surface markings on those of 
Papaver, Lychnis, or Silene; the coma of Hoya and other 
Asclepiads ; or the membranous wings so common amongst 
the Bignoniacese. That there are many new and valuable 
facts to be gathered from a systematic study of these 
structures, no one who has given much attention to them 
can doubt, and I only regret that my own observations, 
though extending over a considerable time, have as yet been 
too desultory and disconnected to be of much practical 
value. Recently, however, a specimen was placed in ray 
hands so peculiar in some of its characters that I have 
thought it might properly form the subject of a short 

The seed of Eccremocarpus scaber, a half-hardy climbing 
plant, common in our gardens, is familiar to most as a 
microscopic object ; but as an acquaintance with this will 

66 Brady, on the Seed of Dictyoloma Peruviana. 

render the rest of my paper more intelligible, I may be 
allowed to advert to it in a few words. 

When mature, it is a roundish or kidney-shaped seed, about 
a quarter of an inch in diameter, thickest at the centre, and 
gradually thinner towards the outer edge, which we find ex- 
panded into a thin, membranous wing (PI. VII, fig. 5). 
Careful examination shows that the cells on the outer layer 
of the testa, which appear on the body of the seed in the 
form of irregular projections, are, towards the circumference, 
excessively developed, especially in length, and it is in this 
way that the expansion alluded to is formed. The side walls 
of these elongated cells become much thickened in the 
process of growth, thus affording to the wing the necessary 
strength and firmness, whilst the front and back walls retain 
their original transparency, being marked only by a very 
delicate subspiral deposit. A glance at the accompanying 
sketch (fig. 6) will supply any deficiencies of this verbal 

This introduction will, I trust, render intelligible the more 
complicated structure which is observable in Dictyoloma 
Peruviana. A general idea of this beautiful seed may be 
gathered from fig. 1. Endlichei'^s description of it, which 
is very defective and partially incorrect, runs thus ; — " Semina 
late reniformia, compressa, dor so in alas duas parallelas 
radiatim reticulatas, fibra marginali connexas expansa, sinu 
ventrali umbilicata." As we may infer from the above, 
it is broad, kidney-shaped, and flattened. Besides possessing 
a wing formed in a similar manner to that of Eccremocarpus, 
by the expansion of the testa round the edge, there are 
several succesively smaller, lateral wings in the same plane, 
the margins of which form a series of concentric rings over 
either surface of the seed. These smaller Avings lie close to 
the surface, and appear almost like a continuous coat of 
connected cells ; indeed, those nearest the centre seem to be 
more or less connected through their entire length to the 
seed itself, the outer extremities only being raised above 
the general surface, thus keeping up the appearance of con- 
centric rings above alluded to. The alje, as they approach 
the circumference, become successively larger, and to a 
greater extent fi:ee. The sectional sketch, fig. 2, represents, 
as nearly as I can make out from the small materials at my 
command, the arrangement of the wings. 

But perhaps the structure of the alae themselves is the 
most remarkable feature in the case. Each wing appears to 
consist of a series of radiating fibres connected at their outer 
margin, the spaces between them being left quite open. 

Grkviij.I', an New D'lutoins. 67 

Fig. 3 represents a portion of the outer sets oi" wings under 
a higlier magnifying power, and this sketch will also serve 
to show their position with regard to each other. I was 
some time before I could satisfactorily account for this 
singular character, and it is only after a number of obser- 
vations on other winged seeds bearing more or less on my 
specimen that I am enabled to speak with confidence about 
it. The separate wings seem to be formed in the manner I 
have just described in reference to Eccremocarpus. The 
cells of the outer layer of the testa are developed to a great 
length, and the side walls are thickened in the same way ; 
but the front and back walls, not being supported by 
deposit of any sort, are ruptured at a very early stage, and 
gradually disappear, leaving the side ivalls only as a sort of 
framework or skeleton. The frequent raggedness of the 
sides of the fibres is best accounted for in this way, and the 
appearance of one of the inner wings carefully removed from 
the seed (fig. 4) fully confirms this view, as it still retains 
portions of the delicate cell-wall only partially disintegrated. 
I had hoped that an examination of the ovules in a very 
early stage would have shown the outer' wings entire, but in 
the only flower which I have had an opportunity of dissecting 
the ovary was too immature to throw any light on the 
subject. Altogether, the specimen I have described reminds 
one strongly of the leaf of Ouvirandra fenestralis, and 
though botanically the phenomena are not identical, it loses 
nothing in interest by such association. 

In conclusion, I must acknowledge my thanks to my 
friend. Professor Oliver, for the specimen from which this 
notice is written, and Mr. Tuffen "West for memoranda from 
seeds in his own collection bearing somewhat on the present 

Descriptions of New and Rare Diatoms. Series II. 
By R. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E., &c. 

(Head June 12tli, 1861.) 

Rylandsia, n. gen., Grev. and Ralfs. 

Frustule simple, disciform, cellulose ; disc with smooth 
rays, dilated at their base, and not reaching the centre. (No 
umbilical lines nor hyaline area.) 

68 GrevillEj on New Diatoms. 

This remarkable genus appears to belong to the group re- 
presented by Asterolampra, but differs essentially in the ab- 
sence of umbilical lines and of the hyaline area, so conspicuous 
in all the discs referred to that genus. In the only known 
species of the genus now proposed, the valve is cellulose, very 
much in the manner of Coscinodiscus radiaius ; and the rays, 
two in number, have their dilated bases separated by a con- 
siderable interval, and have no connection whatever with each 
other. This singular diatom is worthily dedicated to my friend 
Thomas George Rylands, Esq., of Heath House, Warrington, 
a very acute observer, who communicated it to me soon after 
its discovery by Mr. llalfs. 

Bylandsia hiradiata, n. sp., Grev. (PI. VIII, fig. 1). 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit, very rare ; John Ralfs, Esq., T. 
G. Rylands, Esq., Dr. Greville. 

A considerable number of specimens of this curious disc 
have now been seen, and it is satisfactory to know that it is 
quite constant to its characters. The cellules in the centre of 
the valve between the bases of the rays are large ; they then 
suddenly become smaller, and decrease gradually in size as 
they radiate to the circumference. The rays are broadly 
cuneate at the base, and linear as they reach the margin ; 
they appear to be tubular, as in Asterolampra, and a faint 
shadow indicates the continuance of this structure through 
the middle of the dilated bases. In a single instance the two 
valves occurred in situ, the rays of the lower crossing those of 
the upper valve. 


Coscinodicus symmetricus, n. sp.,Grev. — Granules radiating, 
distinct, all equal and equidistant ; seven of the radiating 
lines extending from the centrical granule to the circum- 
ference; margin striated. Granules 10 in -100' ; marginal 
striffi 15 in -001". Diameter -0031". (PI. VIII, fig. 2.^ 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

One of the most beautiful of the granuliferous group of 
Coscinodisci, and well characterised by the equal distribution 
of the granules. It is also distinguished by the manner in 
which the radiating lines are arranged. From the central 
granule proceed seven long lines, and within the compart- 
ments so formed the next two longest are disposed, one on each 
side, so as to form two equal sides of the triangle, and so on 
until the whole space is filled up. 

Creswellia superba, n. sp., Grev. — Valves hemispherical. 

Greville^ on New Diatoms. GO 

depressed, vvith a broadly expanded hyaline mary,iii ; areolo- 
tion large; connecting processes robust, spine-Iike, situated 
nearer to the margin than the apex. Diameter •0024" to 
•0D54'. (PI. VIII, figs. 3, 4, 5.) 

Hub. Barbadoes deposit ; frequent. 

A splendid species, with very large areolation. Average 
specimens possess from six to eight connecting processes, but 
examples occur with from four or five, up to the giant repre- 
sented at fig. 5, with nineteen. I have never seen Ehrenberg's 
Stephanopyxis diadema ; but if Kutzing's definition be 
correct, " disci medii depressi annulo dense denticulato" — my 
present diatom must be distinct. Kutzing, besides, gives the 
number of teeth in the crown as thirty, whereas it is a very 
rare circumstance indeed to see so many in CresswelUa su- 
per ba as appear in fig. 5. 


Euodia Barbadensis, n. sp., Grev. — Frustules semilunate, 
ends slightly produced, lower margin straight ; surface cellu- 
lose, with a small, irregular, central blank space. Distance 
between the angles -0015" to '0020". (Figs 6, 7.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; extremely rare. 

Valve yellowish j short, vein-like lines are given off from 
the margin, sufficiently conspicuous in the larger specirxiens, 
but less so in small ones. The upper margin is conical-con- 
vex, so as to give the frustule very much the outline of a 
cocked hat. Cellulation rather large, but under a low power 
appearing as granules. 


Triceraiium cornutum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve (4-aDgled?) 
with straight sides and sharp angles furnished with strong, 
horn-like processes ; surface minutely granulose, in lines ra- 
diating from the centre, on which are three spines ; granules 
at the margin 15 in -001". Distance between the angles 
•0015". (Fig. 8.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

The only frustule, a very perfect one, which has come under 
my notice, has four angles with exceedingly strong, horn- 
like processes, which, as they cast a dark shadow, render the 
frustule conspicuous. The graniJes are very minute in the 
centre, but increase in size as they radiate to the margin. It 
is quite distinct from the few species already described, having 
spinous lateral surfaces. 

Triceratium productum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve punctate ; 

70 Greville, on New Diatoms. 

angles produced, capitate ; centre divided into compartments 
by radiating, vein-like veins. Distance between the angles 
•0027". (Fig. 9.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

This beautiful species is evidently related to T. truncatum 
and T, venosum ; to the former very closely, while, at the 
same time, it is abundantly distinct ; the truly capitate, pro- 
duced angles taking the place of the broad, truncate angles 
of that diatom. 

Triceratiutn inconspicuum, n. sp., Grev. — Minute, sparsely 
punctate; angles of the valve semicircular, subtruncate, 
separated from the centre by a transverse line ; centre 
bordered with a row of puncta. Distance between the angles 
•0005". (Fig. 10.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit; excessively rare. 

Of this exceedingly minute species I have seen half a 
dozen specimens, all of which have four angles. In its cha- 
racters it comes very near to some varieties of T. brachiatum, 
but is separated by its size alone, which scarcely exceeds 
that of T. exiyuum. 

Tnceratiuni dtlicatum, n. sp., Grev. — ^linute ; valve with 
slightly concave sides and broadly rounded angles filled up 
"odth transverse rows of fine puncta; centre containing a 
pale, obtusely triangular band, within which is a triangular 
spot, bordered with puncta. Distance between the angles 
•0012''. (Fig. 11.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

A minute species, difficult to define in few words. The eye 
is first impressed with the pale (blank), triangular band, 
which exactly fills up the centre of the valve by the angles 
reaching to the concave margin, and, consequently, separating 
the angles of the valve fi'om the parts within. In the central 
spot, which is edged with a row of distinct puncta, I liave 
been unable to trace any particular structure. A peculiar 
feature in this little diatom is a considerable space between 
the sides of the pale band and the transverse rows of puncta 
which occupy the angles. These puncta also gradually de- 
crease in size as they approach the apex. 

Triceratium labyrinthceum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with 
rounded angles and somewhat couvcx sides, the centre 
having a network of flexuose, widely anastomosing, vein-like 
lines, the inclosed spaces being finelv punctate. Distance 
between the angles -0023". (Fig. 12.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively raie. 

Of all the curious Triceratia which have been discovered 
in this inexhaustible deposit the present species is one of the 

(jREViLi.E, 071 Neio Diatoms. 71 

most remarkable. About half a dozen examples have been 
observed. The interval bcitwecn the margin and the central 
labyrinth of lines is blank, with the exception of a few short, 
vein-like lines given off from the central network, some of 
which nearly reach the margin. In this, as in many other in- 
stances, a figure will convey a better idea of the object than 
the most elaborate description. 

Tricei'atium areolatuni, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with slightly 
concave sides and acute angles ; surface covered with rather 
large, circular areolae, while very short, vein-like lines project 
from the sides of the valve. Distance between the angles 
•0026". (Fig. 13.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; extremely rare. 

I do not know any member of the genus with which this 
diatom can be compared, unless it be T. acutum, Ehr., yni\\ 
which it agrees in the rather peculiar areolation. From that 
species, however, it diflers in the sides of the valve being 
decidedly, although slightly, concave, and in the angles not 
being in the smallest degree elongated. The short, vein-like 
lines present, in addition, a conspicuous difierential cha- 
racter. Nevertheless, I am not certain of its being distinct. 

Tricerathmi tessellatum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with straight 
sides and rounded angles, somewhat convex in the centre ; 
surface filled with subquadrate, large, more or less concentric 
granules, becoming smaller at the angles ; margin with a row 
of minute granules, 11 in -001". Distance between the angles 
•0025". (Fig. 1-1.) 

Hab. Deposit on the banks of Pertuxent Kiver, near Not- 
tingham, Maryland, United States. 

Distinguished by the large size and more or less square 
form of the granules, especially those of the convex centre. 
Smaller granules completely fill up the angles. In some ex- 
amples the convexity of the centre is scarcely at all apparent. 

Triceratium robustum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with straight 
or very slightly concave sides and rounded angles with 
pseudo -nodules ; surface filled with irregularly shaped, coarse 
granules, those in the circumference of the convex centre and 
at the angles small, the rest large. Distance between the 
angles -0030" to -0040 '. (Fig. 15.) 

Hab. Cove, Calvert County, Maryland, United States. 

A strong, coarse-looking species, with a large, clear, pseudo- 
nodular space at the angles. The granules are very irregular, 
small ones being often mixed with the large ones. Some- 
times a concentric arrangement is conspicuous, but in other 
cases it is very partial, being most distinct between the con- 
vex centre and the angles, where also the largest granules 

72 Gbevillk, on New Diatoms. 

occur. This diatom is subject to occasional distortion, 
several examples having occurred to me in which the sides 
were of very unequal lengths. 

Triceratium Browneanum, n. sp., Grev. — Small; valve with 
straight sides and rounded angles with obscure pseudo- 
nodules ; surface filled up with small, round, equal, irregularly 
disposed granules. Distance between the angles about 0020". 
(Fig. 16.) 

Hub. In mud, Savannah, Georgia, U.S. 

Probably not a rare species, as it occurs tolerably abundantly 
in a slide kindly communicated to me by my friend, Mr. 
George Mansfield Browne, of Liverpool. It is well marked 
by the equal size throughout the entire valve of the round 
granules, which, although not crowded, are rather closely 
situated. The angles are thickened, but can scarcely be said 
to possess a pseudo-nodule. 

Triceratium ? blanditum, n. sp., Grev. — Sides of valve deeply 
concave ; angles broadly rounded ; centre with a small, blank 
space; granules conspicuous, subremote, equal, forming 
straight, equidistant, parallel lines. Distance between the 
angles in the four-angled frustule 0020". (Fig. 17.) 

Hah. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

A very striking object, which I introduce with some hesita- 
tion as a Triceratium. Ainphitetras, however, is now ad- 
mitted to be separated from that genus by a very slender 
line. I have seen only two frustules, both of which are 
four-angled, and very conspicuous for the equal size of the 
granules, their equidistance, and the perfectly straight, 
parallel lines in which they are arranged. The small, circular, 
blank space is only defined by the absence of granules. 
There is also a small, vacant space opposite to each concavity 
of the valve. This species may have some afiinity with 
Amphitetras parallela of Ehrenberg, found in a fossil state 
in Greece. 


Cocconeis Grantiana, n. sp., Grev. — Aery minute; valve 
elliptic, smooth, with a slender median line and nodule, the 
margin furnished with a moniliform row of large, oblong 
granules. Length -0011". (Fig. 18). 

Hab. On marine shells, ]SIacduft'; John Grant, Esq. 

A beautiful little object, the smooth disc rendering the 
marginal row of brilliant, bead-like granules more conspicuous. 
Mr. Grant, to whom I am indebted for a specimen, aptly 
compares the entire frustule to a jewellex*'s ornament set 
with gems. 

Grevillk, on Xtiv Diatoms. 73 

Cocconeis grunulifera, n. sp., Grev. — Minute^ elliptic- 
oblonoc, with a median line and rather larije nodule ; disc 
with remote radiating lines of large, oval granules (three in 
each line), reaching from the median line to the margin. 
Eadiatinglines5in-001". Length -0015". (PI. VIII, fig. 19.) 

Hub. On Pectens, Carrickfergus ; John Grant, Esq. 

The characteristic features of this little species are the very- 
large granules, the small size of the valve being considered 
(three only being found in each line), and the distance 
between the radiatmg lines themselves, there being only 
about thirteen on each side. Both this and the preceding 
appear to be clearly distinct from all described species. 

Pescriptions of New and Rare Diatoms. Series III. 
By R. K. Greville, LL D., F.R.S.E., &c. 

(Read June 12tli, ISGl.) 

Brightwellia, Ralfs. 

BrightweUia elaboraia, n. sp., Grev. — Cellules of coronal 
circle roundish; border composed of uniform, radiating lines, 
connected by numerous transverse lines. Diameter ■0034". 
(PI. IX, fig. 1.) 

Hub. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

This exquisite diatom bears a considerable general resem- 
blance to BrightweUia Johnsoni of Ralfs, MS., being of the 
same size and having a very similar coronal circle of large 
cells. But an essential difference is found in the structure 
of the border. 1\\ B. Johnaoni it is composed of radiating 
lines of round cellules, which decrease in size from the corona 
to the margin, where they are quite minute; while at irregular 
intervals dark, strong, radiating lines occur, which appear to 
project like a spinous ridge, as in my Coscinodiscus arinatus. 
In the present species, on the contrary, the border is formed 
by a close series of straight, uniform, radiating lines, connected 
by transverse (or concentric) lines or bars, which thus pro- 
duce rows of quadrate cellules, increasing in size from the co- 
ronal cii'cle to the margin. Two of the radiating lines, with 
their connecting bars, might not unaptly be compared to a 
microscopic ladder. 

74 Gkeville^ oh New Diafoi/is. 

This beautiful genus appears to be a ven^ natural one ; its 
characteristic feature being the coronal circle of large cellules, 
and the curved or spiral arrangement of the cellules within 
the circle. The typical species, B. coronata, has never, I 
believe, been found entire, the greater portion of the border 
being always absent. On two occasions only have I obtained 
a fragment in which, along with part of the corona, was a 
portion of perfect margin. Do the coronal cells in this species 
invariably retain their oblong character ? Examples have 
certainly come under my notice in Avhich they were more round 
than oblong, but I unfortunately omitted to mark them. It 
is, however, by no means improbable that the valves referred 
to may belong to an undescribed species. 


Triceratium notabilis, n.sp., Grev. — Large. Valve punctate, 
with straight sides ; angles broad, much produced, dilated, 
oblong or somewhat rhomboidal, with a conspicuous pseudo- 
nodule ; centre convex, with radiating puncta and several 
spines. Distance between the angles '0025'' .to '0040". 
(Figs. 2, 3.) 

Hub. Barbadoes deposit ; rare. 

Of this fine diatom above a dozen examples, including 
broken specimens, have come under my observation. It is 
evidently related to T.coniferum, but is a much larger species, 
and conspicuous for the very produced angles, which are equal 
in length to the straight sides of the valve. The prevailing 
form of the angle is rhomboidal, but it is occasionally oblong, 
as in fig. 3. The centre of the valve is convex, and the 
puncta radiating as in T. conifertim, a character omitted to be 
brought out in the figure of that species in the ' ^Microscopical 
Journal.' The centre is also furnished with spines, no 
fewer than seven being present in fig. 3, while in the specimen 
represented at fig. 2, two are situated at the base of each 
angle. The Barbadoes deposit has yielded me several other 
frustules, which form ahighly characteristic little group, of which 
T. coniferum may be regarded as the type, but whether some 
of them ought to be considered species or mere vai-ieties is 
extremely difficult to say. They all agree in the radiating 
punctation, convex centre, spines, and pseudo-nodules, but 
difier considerably in form and relative proportions. Of these 
diatoms figures will be given on a future occasion. 

Tricerat'nnn micruci'jj/ialum, u. sp., Grev. — Valve with con- 
vex sides and slender, produced, subcapitate angles, furnished 
with pseudo-nodules ; entire surface, except a small, central, 

Greville, on New Diatoms. 75 

circular space, minutely punctate. Distance between the 
angles -0026". (Fig. 4.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 
In general outline this species bears a close resemblance to 
T. productuni of my Series II, but differs essentially in the 
absence of all vein-like lines. From T. capitatum of Ralfs it is 
removed by the much larger size, shorter angles, the absence 
of spines, and by the minute and close punctation of the 
whole surface. 

Triceratium insignis, n. sp., Grev. — Large. Valve with con- 
cave sides, and broadly rounded angles, furnished with 
minutely punctate pseudo-nodules ; surface filled with radiat- 
ing lines of minute, distinct granules, except a small, central, 
blank space; margin with short, broad strise, 9 in 'OOl". Dis- 
tance between the angles -OOSk (Fig. 5.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit; excessively rare. 

A remarkably fine and ornate species, possessing most dis- 
tinctive characters. At first sight the angles have the appear- 
ance of being separated from the centre by a transverse line, 
but this is not the case. The effect is produced by the radiat- 
ing lines of granules curving up the prominent angles, and 
being 'saewed, as it were, in prospective, the extremities of the 
lines form a transverse row of dark points. A very con- 
spicuous feature in the valve is the termination of what are 
doubtless strong, broad strise in the front view, and which are 
curved over the edge of the valve in the side view. The ra- 
diating lines of granules which closely cover the surface do 
not quite reach the margin, but leave a narrow, blank space. 

Triceratium rotundatum, n. sp., Grev. — Small. Valve •svith 
deeply concave sides and broadly rounded angles, the ends of 
which are filled with minute puncta, bordered with a few 
larger ones; centre blank, surrounded by an irregular, tri- 
angular band of still larger granules, between which and the 
granules of the angles is a transverse, blank space ; concave 
margins, with a few distant, large granules. Distance between 
the angles -0020". (Fig. 6.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit; extremely rare. 

About the size of T. castellatum and T. Westiamim ; but 
the angles do not form segments of circles as in those species, 
being merely broadly rounded. About six gi'anules compose 
the marginal row in the concavities of the valve. 

Triceratium amcpnum, n. sp., Grev. — Small. Valve with 
straight sides and rounded, inci'assated angles ; centre some- 
what convex, with subrcmotc radiating puncta, which gradu- 
ally increase in size from the centre to the circunifcrcuce. 
Distance between the angles about 0021". (Fig. 7.) 

76 GiiEviLLE, on New Diatoms. 

Hah. Nottingham deposit, Mainland, U.S. 

Not rare, yet I cannot refer it to any described species. 
It is a neat and brilliant little diatom. Thepuncta or minnte 
granules are rather distant, the largest being those imme- 
diately external to the raised centre ; in the angles they 
again become smaller. The angles themselves are frequently, 
though not invariably, slightly dilated, as in fig. 7, and are 
thickened in substance, but no distinct pseudo-nodule is 

Triceratium obscurvm, n. sp., Grev. — Small. Valve thin 
and delicate, with nearly straignt sides and rounded angles ; 
puncta equal, very minute, radiating in straight lines. Dis- 
tance between the angles -0024". (Fig. 8.) 

Hub. South Naparima deposit, Trinidad. 

Contour exactly resembling that of T. condecorum, but the 
radiating lines of puncta are perfectly straight. The puncta 
are also somewhat more minute. 

Triceratium Harrisonianum, n. sp., Norman and Grev. — 
Large. Valve with convex sides and slightly produced, 
rounded angles ; pearly granules forming a marginal band of 
radiating rows, and thinly scattered over the ample central 
Bpace, in which is a conspicuous network of large, elongated, 
radiating cellules, sending down lines between the rows of 
granules to the margin ; rows 4 in •001". Distance between 
the angles -0070". (Fig. 9.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit (Springfield Estate); exceedingly 
rare ; George Norman, Esq. 

A truly splendid diatom, belonging to a small, very natural 
group, and, as is frequent in such cases, extremely difficult to 
define satisfactorily. It may be, indeed, that most of them 
constitute but one species; and if so, it becomes all the more 
necessary that they should be carefully figured and described. 
This I hope to be able to do in a future series. T. mar- 
garitacevm, described by Ralfs in the last edition of Pritchard's 
Infusoria,' is the only one hitherto published, and, as the first 
known, may stand as the type. It is comparatively a small 
species, the distance between the angles being only about 
•0030", often less. All the members of the group, however, 
possess the same stnictural arrangement, the central portion of 
the valve being composed of large, radiating, elongated cellules, 
which towards the margin become smaller and quadrangular, 
each of the quadrangular cellules containing a round, pearly 
granule. In none of the species are these characters seen so 
conspicuously as in our new T. Harrisonianvm. The outline 
of the valve in these species varies considerably. According 
to Ralfs, the sides of the valve in T. margnrifoceum are straight 

Greville, oa New Diatoms. 77 

or slightly convex, and the angles rounded. In all the speci- 
mens 1 have seen they are straight or very nearly so, but 
other valves in my possession have the sides decidedly con- 
vex, along with a generally distinct aspect at once appreciable 
by the eye, but difficult to convey in words. Among other 
characters, the value of which I do not at present venture to 
estimate, is the slightly produced angle in combination with 
the more or less convexity of the side, as seen in the present 
and following species. This feature has not been observed in 
T. margaritaceiim, and may eventually be found to facilitate 
the diagnosis of these most perplexing diatoms. 

We have much pleasure in dedicating this fine species to 
Mr. Harrison, of Hull, who has devoted much attention to the 
microscopical investigation of the Dialomacea. 

Triceratium giganteum, n. sp., Grev. — Large. Valve with 
slightly convex sides, and rounded, somewhat produced, 
angles ; pearly granules, forming a marginal band of radiat- 
ing lines ; central space filled with minute, scattered spines. 
Distance between the angles •0066". (Fig. 10.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; exceedingly rare ; Christopher 
Johnson, Esq., George Norman, Esq. 

Scarcely less splendid than the preceding, and more 
remarkable on account of the singular spinulose, central 
surface. It is a robust species, with large, round, somewhat 
flattened, granules, and a very strong margin. For the 
specimen in my cabinet, from which my drawing was made, 
I am indebted to the kindness of my friend, Mrs. Bury. The 
only other frustule hitherto discovered, so far as I know, is 
in Mr. George Norman's collection. 


Amphitetras minuta, n. sp., Grev. — Minute. Valve with 
deeply concave sides and rounded angles; lines of very 
minute puncta, radiating from the centre to every part of the 
circumference. Distance between the angles '0014". (Fig. 

Hab. Nottingham deposit, Maryland, Lnited States. 

I have seen several frustules of this inconspicuous little 
diatom, which is extremely liable to be overlooked. All are 
four-angled, and I venture to place it provisionally in the 
present genus. 


Descriptions of New and Raue Diatojis. Series IV. 
By R. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E., &c. 

(Read June 12tli, 1861.) 


Stictodiscus Calif ornicus, n. sp., Grev. — Puncta equal, large, 
in rows of a single series; rays obscure, terminating in 
conspicuous, linear-oblong bases within the broad margin; 
central puncta somewhat remotely scattered. Diameter 
•0038'. (PI. X, fig. 1.) 

Hab. ISIonterey stone. 

A genuine Stictodiscus, distinguished from S. Johnsonianus 
(which it resembles in the puncta, being arranged in single 
rows) by tlie obscure and much shorter rays, by the broad 
margin, and linear-oblong bases of the rays. Although the 
latter are decidedly obscure compared with the same parts in 
the other species, a careful adjustment shows their presence, 
as well as the anastomosing lines towards the centre, which 
exist in S. Buryanus and S. Johnsonianus. When the sur- 
face of the disc is exactly in focus, the puncta appear simple ; 
but by slightly lowering the focus a pore becomes visible in 
the middle of each punctum ; and on viewing the valve from 
within, the pores are very conspicuous, and placed on the 
summits of little circular convex cavities (plane on the outer 
surface, convex on the inner surface, of the valve), strongly 
resembling the discs in the woody fibre of the Coniferre, 
which are themselves little, plano-convex boxes, with an 
orifice. The border of the disc is bounded by a row of 
minute puncta. The number of rays is upwards of forty. 

Stictodiscus Kittonianus, n. sp., Grev. — Disc umbonate, 
with a central nucleus ; rays numerous ; puncta minute, 
equal, forming a double series in each compartment, and 
closely covering the central space. Diameter about •0020". 
(Figs: 2, 3.) 

VOL. IX. g 

80 Greville, on New Diatoms. 

Hub. Nottingham deposit, Maryland, U.S.; Richmond, 
Virginia, F. Kitton, Esq. 

A small but beavitiful species, with very numerous puncta 
of equal size throughout, and especially distinguished by the 
umbonate surface and central nucleus of the disc. The rays 
terminate simply at the margin, which is unmarked by 
puncta or striae of any kind. My best thanks are due to 
Mr. Kiiton for a specimen exhibiting the front view, which 
forms a very interesting object. It shows the frustule to be 
composed of two unequally umbonate valves, each of them 
furnished with a broad, folded-down edge, as in the lid of a 
pill-box, which edge is divided into large, square cellules, 
corresponding in number with the rays and compartments as 
seen in the side view. These cellules are the more con- 
spicuous from being destitute of any kind of sculpture. Mr. 
Kitton informs me that, in addition to the localities above 
recorded, he has observed this diatom in the Pescatawaj', 
Rappahannock, and IVIonterey deposits. 


Coscinodiscus patellceformis, n. sp., Grev. — Central granules 
minute, round, numerous, from which proceed a number of 
rays, terminating about half way between the centre and the 
margin in an irregular circle of minute, dark, spine-like 
tubercles, beyond which are radiating lines of sub-contiguous 
granules increasing in size to the circumference; margin 
with a row of minute puncta. Diameter about •0034". 
(Fig. 4.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; very rare. 

This curious diatom has much the appearance, under a 
low magnifying power, of Coscinodiscus biradiatus, with some 
adventitious matter adhering to the disc. Indeed, I passed 
over several specimens imder this impression ; but I was at 
length induced to examine them more carefully, and per- 
ceived that several important characters indicated a distinct 
species. The radiating lines which occupy the outer half of 
the disc are composed of coarse granules ahuost touching one 
another, and increasing in size as they approach the margin. 
But a more remarkable feature is found in another series of 
radiating lines, occupying not exactly the centre, but what 
may be termed the crown of the disc, and terminating about 
half way down. These have all the appearance of a separate 
structure, closely united to the original one, the whole 
bearing a strong resemblance to some of the PatelUe. The 
last-mentioned scries, or, as they may be called, the coronal 

Grkville, on Neiv Diatoms. 81 

rays, ai*e somewhat irregular in lengtli, and consequently do 
not form an exact circle. They terminate in one or oc- 
casionally in two spinous processes, which are evidently 
analogous to tliose with which some of the rays in C. armatus 
and other diatoms are furnished. 


The first seven of the following species constitute a very 
interesting and exceedingly natural little group, and present 
an excellent illustration of the difficulty of distinguishing 
between closely allied forms. Without attempting to dog- 
matise upon the questio vexata of " What is a species?" we 
may safely venture to figure and describe, with benefit to 
science, such organisms as we have reason to believe exhibit 
characters by Avliich they may at any time be identified. 
Such characters are necessarily sometimes minute, but are not 
thereby of less value. In a systematic work the species 
about to be described would arrange themselves at once into 
two sections — the first containing those whicli have simple 
(not striated) margins and the central triangular space 
filled up with radiating lines ; the second those which have 
striated margins and the central triangular space blank. 
There is another peculiarity, also, which separates the two 
sections. In the first the angles of the central triangle are 
lengthened out until they reach the pseudo-nodule ; in the 
second the angles are not lengthened out, but each is kept 
with a short strong line which never reaches the pseudo- 
nodule, but terminates in a fork more or less connected with 
other vein-like lines. I have not satisfied myself about the 
nature of the short line referred to. In T. jmlcherrimum 
(fig. 6) it takes the form of a small spine, distinctly seen 
within the pseudo-nodule. In T. marginatum it may also be 
seen, but with some difficulty, through the intervening lower 
pseudo-nodule. These little spines must be regarded as 
analogous to the short lines holding a similar relative position 
to the angles of the inner triangle in the species of the 
second section. In some instances, especially in T. varie- 
gatum, I have observed the short line to be slightly raised, 
suggesting the idea, which is confirmed by the position of the 
spine in the species of the first section, that this organ 
belongs properly to the framework of the inner triangle, and 
that the lines which a])pcar to emanate from it belong to the 
system of costte or vein-like lines which divide the border of 
the valve into compartments. 

Triceratium marginatum, Br. — Valve with slightly convex 

82 Greville^ on New Diatoms. 

sides, rounded angles, double pseudo-nodules, and simple 
margin ; centre a triangular space, filled with radiating moni- 
lif'orra lines ; border divided by transverse lines into punctated 
compartments. Distance between the angles, about •0026". 
(Fig. 5.) 

Triceratium marginatum, Brightw., 'Mic. Journ.,' vol. iv, 
p. 275, pi. xvi, fig. 13. Rails, in ' Pritch. Infus.,' 1861, 
p. 854. 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit, chiefly from Cambridge Estate ; 
extremely rare ; T. Brightwell, Esq., E. Kitton, Esq., Dr. 

Although this fine species has been, in all essential points, 
correctly figured in Mr. BriglitwelFs paper quoted above, I 
have a twofold purpose in introducing another illustration in 
this place. It is very desirable that the student should be 
able at once to compare with it the new and allied species I 
am about to describe, most of which I have received under 
the same name. I wish, besides, to represent a structural 
arrangement which does not appear in INIr. Brightwell's 
figure. This consists of a circular, blank space surrounding 
the apex of the angle of the inner triangle and the inferior 
pseudo-nodule. It contains no puncta ; and several faint, 
shoi't lines, and two dark and longer ones, radiate from it. 
It is probable that this character may be more or less obsciire 
in some individuals, as it is by no means conspicuous in 
Mr. Kitton^s specimen, which he has kindly permitted me to 
examine. It Avould appear that no dependence can be placed 
on the number of lateral costse. In ]\Ir. Kitton's example 
there are two on each of two sides, and three on the other. 
In ray own the number on two sides is similar, but there is 
onlv one on the third side. ]\Ir. Briohtweirs figure shows 
four on each of two sides and three on the other. With 
regard to the radiating lines of the inner triangle, I am in- 
clined to consider them as modified costse. Much depends 
upon the angle at w'hich they are Aaewed. In my own 
specimen they have all the appearance of lines of puncta, 
but in Mr. Kittou's valve the costate character comes clearh'' 
out, Avith the addition of bciug nodulose, especially as the 
cost?e approach the margin of the inner triangle. 

Triceratium pulcherrimum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with 
slightly convex sides, rounded angles, and simple margin ; 
centre a triangular space, filled with radiating costae ; border 
divided by transverse lines into punctated compartments, 
which arc continued round the large, oblong pseudo-nodules. 
Distance between the angles 'OO-lo". (Fig- 6.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit, C. Jolmson, Esq. ; exceedingly 

Grevilli;, on j\'eic D'udoina. 83 

One of the most beautiful diatoms known, and closely 
allied to the preceding. In this case the radiating lines of 
the centre are genuine costse, each of which, as it terminates 
at the margin of the inner triangle, becomes capitate, pro- 
ducing an exquisitely ornamental effect. The pseudo- nodules 
arc large, flat, and oblong ; and an approach is made to the 
double pseudo-nodule of the preceding species, by their 
being traversed by two fine oblique lines, which, meet at the 
apices of the angles of the inner triangle ; and what brings 
the approach still closer, is the fact that it is the division 
next the angle of the valve only which is punctate. A re- 
markable peculiarity consists in the pseudo-nodules not being 
situated in the extreme angle, as in the other species of the 
group, but leaving space for the lateral costse to be visibly 
continued round them. These costse are widely separated 
throughout the greater length of the border, but increase 
rapidly in number as they turn round the angle, so that 
there are about twenty on each side. The angles of the 
inner triaugle are lengthened out until they enter the punc- 
tate portion of the pseudo-nodule, and terminate in a short 
spine. In this and the preceding species the puncta in the 
lateral compartments are rather widely scattered. 

Tricerathim Abercrombieanum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with 
nearly straight sides, obtuse angles, and striated margin; 
centre a blank triangular space ; border divided by transverse 
costse into punctated compartments ; a short line from each 
angle of the central triangle terminating in a wide fork with 
incurved apices, a faint, undulating line passing along the 
middle of each border. Distance between the angles, about 
•0023". (Figs. 7—9.) 

Hub. Barbadoes deposit, C. Johnson, Esq., Dr. Greville; 
extremely rare. 

At a hasty glance this might readily pass for a variety of 
the preceding species ; but the presence of a striated margin, 
and the totally different centre, immediately dispel the 
impression. The pseudo-nodule, besides, is single; and 
although in one instance (fig. 9) the fork of the apex of the 
short line terminating the angles of the central triangle forms 
an enclosed, roundish space, instead of remaining open, it is 
unconnected with the pseudo-nodule, and contains puncta. 
A remarkable character in this species is a faint undulating 
line w^hich passes along the middle of the border, commencing 
at the outer angle of the fork above mentioned, and ending 
at the corresponding point in the opposite angle of the valve. 
This line, Aviiich, although faint, may be traced without any 
difficulty, I have found uniformly present in the four specimens 

81 Greville^ on Neiv Diatoms. 

wliicli I have had an opportunity of examining. By a reference 
to the plate it will be perceived that some variation is liable 
to occur in the lines at the angles, as well as in the number 
of the lateral costae. The puncta are considerably more 
numerous than in T. marginatum. I have much pleasure 
in dedicating this diatom to my acute correspondent, Dr. 
Abercrombie, of Cheltenham. 

Tnceratium inopinatum, n. sp., Grev. — Yalve with nearly 
straight sides, rounded angles, and striated margin ; centre a 
blank triangular space ; border divided by transverse costse 
into minutely punctated compartments; a short line from 
each angle of the central triangle terminating in a small, 
roundish compartment, joined to the pseudo-nodule; no 
undulating line along the border. Distance between the 
angles -0020". (Fig. 10.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; extremely rare. 

The only question which can arise relative to the validity 
of the present species is whether it be not a variety of the 
preceding. Had the separation been proposed on account of 
the apparently double pseudo-nodule alone, I should have felt 
some hesitation. It might have been said that in one of the 
varieties of T. Abercrombieanum the short lines proceeding 
from the angles of the central triangle terminate in enclosed 
spaces, owing to the incurved apices of the fork becoming 
united ; and that if these enclosed spaces had been pushed 
forward to a junction with the pseudo-nodule, we should just 
have the appearance exhibited by the diatom now under 
consideration. It may be remarked, however, that the 
enclosed spaces above mentioned preserve their relative dis- 
tance from the pseudo-nodule, as distinctly as if the apices of 
the fork had remained open. In the present species there 
is, at first sight, the appearance of an actual double pseudo- 
nodule ; but it is an appearance only, the second one being 
merely the fork of the short line meeting at the base of the 
pseudo-nodule, and thereby indicating a different relative 
position of the parts fi'om what occurs in the preceding 
species. In addition to what has been said, the total absence 
of the unduhiting line so remarkable in the border of that 
diatom seems to confirm the view I have taken of the pro- 
priety of regarding T. inopinatum as distinct. 

Triceratium approxiniatum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with 
straight sides, obtuse angles, and striated margin; centre a 
blank, triangular space; border divided by transverse costoe 
into punctated compartments ; a short line from each angle 
of the central triangle terminating in a Avide, shallow fork ; 
pseudo-nodule single, sending out two spurs from the base ; 

Greville^ nn New Diatoms. 85 

no undulating line in the border. Distance between the 
angles -0029". (Fig. 11.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; excessively rare. 

A fine species, coming nearest to T. Abercrombieanum, but 
wanting the undulating border line. The fork referred to in 
the specific characters here assumes a P«/er«-like form. 
Whether any dependence can be placed on the two little 
spurs at the base of the pseudo-nodule, a character I have 
not observed in any other species of the group, it is impossible 
at present to say. The puncta are numerous. 

Triceratium gratiosum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with slightly 
convex sides, obtuse angles, and striated margin ; centre a 
triangular, blank space ; border divided by transverse costse 
into closely punctated compartments ; a short line from each 
angle of the inner triangle terminating in a fork, from the 
centre of which spring two other lines, curving outwards to 
the margin. Distance between the angles, 'OO^O ' to •0035". 
(Figs. 12, 13.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit ; extremely rare ; George Norman, 
Esq., Dr. Greville. 

A very elegant species, closely and conspicuously punctate. 
The arrangement of the vein-like lines at the angles is pecu- 
liar, and serves at once to distinguish it from all its allies. 
Two lines spring from a point within the fork already men- 
tioned, near its base, and curve gracefully outward until they 
reach the margin. In the examples which I have examined, 
the lateral costa3 alternate more or less regularly with im- 
perfect ones, extending about half-way across the border. 

Triceratium variegatum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with straight 
sides, obtuse angles, and striated margin ; centre a blank, 
triangular space ; border divided by transverse costre into 
very minutely punctated compartments ; a short line from 
each angle of the central triangle terminating in a deep, 
campanulate fork, the lines of which reach the margin. 
Distance between the angles, •0027". (Fig. 14.) 

Hab. Barbadoes deposit; excessively rare; George Nor- 
man, Esq. 

Of this beautiful diatom I have seen only a single specimen ; 
but it differs so materially from all the preceding, that no 
doubt whatever can exist regarding its claim to being ranked 
as a distinct species. It will be recognised at once by the 
graceful campanulate or vase-like compartment at each 
angle of the valve, which is very minutely, yet nuire dis- 
tinctly punctate than the border. A very minute, dcHexcd 
line may also be seen given off externally on each side from 
near the base of this compartment. 

86 Greville, on New Diatoms. 

Triceratium nebulosum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve with concave 
sides and broadly rounded angles, the ends of which are 
filled with a cloud of minute puncta ; centre occupied with 
an indefinite cluster of small puncta, while larger ones are 
remotely scattered over the rest of the space. Distance 
between the angles -0032". (Fig. 15.) 

Hub. Barbadoes deposit; exceedingly rare; George Nor- 
man, Esq. 

This species bears some resemblance in general outline to 
T. trisulcum of Bailey, figured in Pritchard's ' Infusoria,^ 4th 
edit., pi. viii., fig. 27; but there are no transverse lines 
separating the angles from the centre. It is otherwise nearly 
allied to the same diatom, in the angles being crowded with 
minute puncta and in those of the centre being remotely 
scattered. These latter, however, are more numerous than 
in Professor Bailey's species, and there is, besides, a marginal 
line of irregularly disposed and more closely approximated 
puncta in the concave sides of the valve. It is also allied to 
my T. rohmdatum, a much smaller species, from which it 
differs in the sides being much less deeply concave, in the 
absence of the single lateral row of large granules, and in the 
arrangement of the central granules generally. 


AmjMjjrora conspicua, n. sp., Grev. — Front view broadly 
winged, much constricted, truncated at the ends; a row of 
linear nodules at some distance within the margin ; striae 
conspicuous, about 18 in -001". Length -0046". (Fig. 16.) 

Hub. Sieri'a Leone, F. Kitton, Esq. 

The finest species, perhaps, of the whole genus ; allied to 
A. alata, but quite distinct. In the first place, the frustule 
is far from being equally hyaline ; and instead of the strije 
being perceived with some difficulty, they are rather coarse 
and very conspicuous. Then, 'in A. alata the number of 
strise (which I have been unable to ascertain satisfactorily for 
myself) is given by Smith as 42 in '001", which is adopted 
by Ralfs in tlie last edition of Pritchard's ' Infusoria ;' but in 
our new species they may be set down at 18 in '001". I 
have found them vary a little, but I assume this number as 
the average. Again, a certain number of the strise swell into 
a sort of linear nodule at some distance within the margin, 
and the line thus formed, following the marginal curve, con- 
stitutes a most peculiar and striking cliaracter. There seems 
to be no fixed rule as to the proportion of striae which exhibit 

GrevillEj on New Diatoms. 87 

this feature. Sometimes it is evciy fourth; at others every 
third stria3. In addition to these differences tlicre is yet 
another, in which the diatom under consideration agrees with 
A. pulchra of Bailey ('Mic. Obs. in South Carolina, &c./ 
p. 38, pi. ii, figs. IG — 18), the striae near the margin being 
punctate. The surface of the valve is undulate, so that a 
portion only is in focus at one time, and the strite conse- 
quently appear to decussate obliquely in waving lines. I 
may add that, although I have seen a number of specimens, 
I have never observed one in the twisted state so common in 
A. alata. 




Adiiioci/di'S, Eiir., 27. 
Adiiiopii/chus dives, Elir., 11. 
Addison, "William, oti clianges of 

form in the red corpuscles of 

liuman blood, 20. 
Aniphiproi'a, 8G. 

„ Conspiciia, Grcv., 80. 

Aniphitetras, ELr., 77. 

„ minuta^ Grev., 77. 

Arseiiivus acid, William A. Guy, on 

the microscopic characters of the 

crystals of, 50. 
Aslrolanipa stella, Norm., 6. 
Aulacodiscits SoUittiaims, Norm., 7. 


Beale, L. S., ou a portable field or 
clinical microscope, 3. 

]?cck, Richard, on the metamor- 
phoses of a Coccus found upon 
oranges, 47. 

Blood, William Addison, on changes 
of form in the red corpuscles of 
human, 20. 

Brady, II. B., ou the seed of Dicli/- 
oloiiia I'eruvica/a, D. C, 65. 

Brif/htirclIUt, llalfs., 73. 

„ clahomta, Grev., 73. 

Cncconns, Elir., 72. 

„ Brifflilicdlii, Edw., 20. 
„ Grandana, Grev., 72. 
„ rjranvlifem, Grev., 72. 
Corr/is, found upon oranges, Richard 
Beck on the metamorphoses of a, 
Condenser, for the microscope, -f. B. 
Reade, on a new hemispherical, 59. 
Coscixoffiscvs, Ehr.. 43, 58, 80, 

Coscinodisci's urmalus, Grev., 42. 

„ Jiarbadcnsis,GTt\., 43 . 

„ hi'i-adiaius, Grev., 42. 

,, degantaliis, Grev., 42. 

,, J'kscus, Norm., 7. 

„ f/emmifer, Ehr., 27. 

J, ///;/<??, Ehr., 27. 

„ palellceformis, Grev., 


,, sytiimeiriais,GYe,^.,&S. 

„ ti>.bercuh(tvs,Grt\,,^'i. 

Crestcdiut^ Grev., C8. 

„ superha, Grev., 6S. 
Q/lotella rota., Kiilz, 40. 

„ roh'.lo, Kiitz, 40. 


Diatoniaceie, George Norman, on 
some undeseribed species of, 5. 

„ mounted by E. Samuels, 

for the ]>oslon (I .^.) Society of 
Natural History, and presented to 
flic xMicroscopical Society of 
London ; report on, l)y Charles 
Stodder, 25. 

Diatoms, R. K. Grevillc, descriptions 
of new and rare, series L 39. 
,, ir, 67. 

>, m, 73. 

Bidyolouia Pc-t'cicaia, D. C, H. B. 

Brady on the seed of, 05. 
Disroplcd, Elir., 41. 
,, rotnla, Ehr., 40. 
i-nfn. Ehr., 40. 


Eccreruocarpvs scaler, 65. 
Enpodiscv.x fiilvus, W. Sow., 27. 

„ oralis. Norm.; *^. 
Kiiodia, 69. 

,, Bcfrbade//si.i, 09. 




Grcville, R. K., descriptions of new 
anil rare diatoms, series I, 39. 
„ 11, G7. 
., 111,73. 
Guy, TV. A., on tlie microscopic 
characters of the crystals of 
arsenious acid, 50. 

Lobb, on the self-division of 3ficras- 
terias deniicvlata^ 1. 


Micrustenaa denticulata, Lobb on the 

self-division of, 1. 
^ricroscope, James Smith on a dis» 
secting, 10. 

„ F. H. Wenham, ou a new 

compound binocular and single 
microscope, 15. 

„ Lionel S. Beale, on a 

portable field or clinical, 3. 
Microscopical Society, annual meet- 
ing of, 29. 
„ „ auditor's re- 

port, 30. 
address, 31. 



Navicola ballata. Norm., 8. 
Nitzschia Amphioxi/s, 5. 

. „ vitrea, Norm., 7. 
Norman, George, on some undc- 

scribed species of Diatomacese, 5. 


Odontidium Baldjlckii, Bright w., 5. 


Readc, J. B., on a new hemispherical 
condenser for the microscope, 59. 
Rylandsia, Grev. and Kalfs, G7. 
„ biradiata, Grev., G8. 

Smith, James, on a dissecting micro- 
scope, 10. 
SUtui'optera aspera, Ehr., 28. 
Slic/odiscus, Grev., 39, 79. 

,, Cali/ornicus^ Grev., 79. 

,, Bitrijanus, Grev., 40. 

,, dici'Sf Grev. (sp.), Jl. 

,, insiff/iis, Grev., 11. 

Slietodiscus rota, Grev. (sp.), 40. 

,, rolula, Grev. (sp.), 40. 

Stodder, Charles, report ou slides of 
Diatomaceae, mounted byE. Sam- 
uels, for the Boston (U.S.) Society 
of Natural History, and presented 
to the Microscopical Society of 
Loudon, 25. 
Surinella Baldjickii, Norm., G. 
Synedra Hennedyana, Grev., 30. 
„ magna, Edw., 26. 
„ pacijica, Edw., 26. 
,, vndv.lata, Greg., 26, 


TnceraUim, Ehr., 43, 69, 74, SI. 

., Abercrombieai'Hm^ Grer., 


„ aculeadim, Grev., 45. 

,, amceimm, Grev., 75. 

„ areolatum, Grev., 71. 

„ Barbadense, Grev., 44. 

„ blanditum, Grev., 45, 72. 

., Brotcneanum, Grev., 72. 

„ capilatum, Grev., 43. 

„ eellulosum, Grev., 44. 

„ circv.lare, Edw., 26. 

„ comuhim, Grev., 45, 69. 

,, delicatutn, Grev., 45, 70. 

„ f/lr/a/iteum, 77. 

,, (jraiiosum, Grev., 85. 

„ Uarrisoiiiannm, 76. 

,, inconspiciatm, Grev., 43, 

70, 84. 

„ Jabyrinthceum^ Grev., 45, 


„ wrt/yt««/«;/7, Bright w., 8] . 

„ iiiicroccjjIuiliiiiijQivev., 74. 

„ nebnlosum, Grev., 86. 

,, nolabile, Grev., 74. 

,, obscuriiiii, Grev., 76. 

,, ornaium, Grev., 45. 

„ iiisifftw, Grev., 75. 

,, j/rodi{cl!/!m,GvcY., 45, 69. 

,, pttlcherrimuiii, Grev., SI. 

„ robustum, Grev., 71. 

„ rotunda tian, Grev., 75. 

„ fessellatiii.i, Grev., 71. 

,, rariegatum, Grev., 85. 

,, uiidafioii, Edw., 26. 

,, Westianum, Grev., 43. 


Wenham, F. H., ou a new compound 
binocular and single microscope, 

dmru. Mc^ybo ^dlNSS' 

^^^^^y^ ff^: 






<-: ■>"" 






TTi£fen"West EC 

"%n/fest 11151 



Illustrating Mr. LobVs paper on the Self-division of Micras- 
terias denticulata. 

1. — Micrasterias denticulata in the first stage of self-division. 

2. — „ „ in the second stage of self-division. 

3. — „ „ m. the second stage of self-division, the endo- 

chrome coming in differently to what it 
does in figure 2. 

4. — „ „ in the third stage of self-division. 

5. — „ „ in the fourth stage of self-division. 

6. — „ „ in the fifth stage of self-division. 

7. — „ „ self-division completed. 



Illustrating Mr. G. Norman's paper on some Undescribed 
Species of Diatomacese. 

1. — Asterolampra Stella. 

2. — 'Surirella Baldjikii. 

3. — Coscinodiscus fuscus. 

4. — Nitzschia vitrea. 

5. — Aulacodiscus Sollittianus. 

6. — Eupodiscus ovalis. 

7. — Navicula bullata. 

All magnified 400 diameters. 


CNicT.W.del. TWsc 

ALL ^00 A 



I'lff > 

O ^ 

Q J ^ ^ 

w d 


5mJ.JMyr'JKMlKS MM^ 




#■!» ^ 

^ # 


i> W ^ 

Rg 4 


h- oX 

2|, D 


WMie\ TuffeaWest sc. 



Illustrating Mr. Addison's paper on Changes of Form in the 
Red Corpuscles of Human Blood. 


1, — Natural forms of the red corpuscles of human blood. 
2.— Alkaline forms, produced by saline and alkaline liquids. 
Z.— Acid forms, produced by the action of weak acid liquids. 
^,— Tailed forms, produced by Sherry wine, &c. 



H.XCreviUe del. T.West sc. 



Illustrating Dr. Greville's paper on New Diatoms, Series I. 

1. — Sliclodiscus Biinjanus, focused for tlie radiating linos. 

2. — The same, focused to show tlie plicate character of the disc. 

3. — S. Johiisonianus. 

4. — S. iusignia, X 600. 

5. — Coscinodiscus armafus. 

6. — C. tuberculatus. 

7. — C. biradiatus. 

8. — C. eleganlulus. 

9. — C. Barbadeusis. 
10. — Triceratium capilatum. 
11. — T. IFestianum. 
12.— r. Barbademe. 
13. — T. nitiduiu. 
14. — T. cellulosu,\. 

All the figures are X 400, except fig. 4, which is x GOO diameters. 

The Barbadocs species are described from a fine series of slides supplied 
by Mr. J. T. Norman. 

^In^n n 




/ — 



u %--^- #a^'. 


i^/', /. 


^ h 

Fill: 5. 









Illustrating Richard Beck's paper on the Metamorphosis of 
a Coccus found upon Oranges. 

1,— Female. 

2. — Egg taken from one of the above, 

3. — Young Coccus sliortly after breaking from the egg. 

4. — Male insect at tlie earliest period at which any traces of sexual charac- 
ters can be distinguished. 

5. — A male insect further advanced. 

6. — „ „ mature. 

7. — Shell of a male Coccus, with indications of its formation at three dis- 
tinct periods, — the larval covering, the pupal covering, with a 
subsequent addition' for the protection of the wings of the imago. 

8. — Mature female removed from the shell. 

In all the figures where letters are employed, a represents the upper, 
b the lower surface. 



Illustrating Dr. Guy's paper on the Crystals of Arsenious 
Acid, showing the sublimates as they appear by the 
monocular and binocular microscope by transmitted and 
reflected light. 


Fuj 'L 

•^'^ruJim^'M'^llGiMJ^. VIl 



IBB.aAmt del, T^a£fialW«st ac. 

WWest 123a: cirl 



R-KG aeL luffealtfest x. 



Illustrating Dr. Greville's paper on New Diatoms, Series II. 


1. — Rylandsia biradiata, X 600. 

2. — Coscinodiscus symmetricus. 
3 — 5. — Creswellia superba. 
6, 7. — Euodia Barbadensis. 

8. — Triceraiium cornutum, 

9. — T. produclum. 
10. — T. inconspicuum, X 800. 
]1.— r. delicatum, X 600 
12. — T. labyrintheeum. 
13. — T. areolatum. 
ll. — T. tessellalum. 
15. — T. robustum. 
16. — T. Browneanum, 
17. — 1\ (?) blanditum. 
18. — Cocconeis Graniiana, X 80ft. 
19. — C. ffranuli/era^ X 600. 

All the figures are X 400 except where the contrary is ineatioaed. 



Illustrating Dr. Greville's paper on New Diatoms, Series III. 


1 . — Brighlwellia elaborata. 
2, Z.—Triceratium notahilis. 

4. — T. viicrocephaluni. 

5. — T. insignis. 

6. — T. rotundatum. 

7. — T. amoenum. 

8. — T, obscuriim. 

9. — T. Harrisonianum. 
10. — T. giganteiim. 
11. — Ampkitetras minuta. 

All the figures are X 400 diameters. 


BX.C-W. T-,:flEet.'v'.c- 


-^^mJ(i//rifk. %{JXNSm.I. 

R. K G. del. Tuffen West.oc 


Illustrating Dr. Greville's paper on New Diatoms, Scries I^' 


1 . — Stidodiscus CaliJ'ondcus. 
2, 3. — 8. Kiltoiiiatius, x COO. 
4. — Cosciiiodisctis palelUpJbrittii. 
5 . — Tiiceradum marginatum. 
G . — T. ptdcherrimum . 
7 — 'J.— y. Aberci'OMbieauiiiii. 
10. — T. inopiuahtm. 
11. — T. approxmaluiu. 
\i, Vo. — T. gratiomm. 
11. — T. vanegalum. 
15. — T. nebtdosum. 
16. — Aiiiphiprora conspici'.a. 

All the figures except 2 and o are X 100. 

Errata in bcrics 111. — lor Triceratiam notabilis and T. insignit, read 
T. nolabile and T. indgne. 






A N U 

GEORGE BUSK, F.R.C.S.K., F.R.S., Skc. L.S. 

VOLUME I.— New .^kkiks. 
ttotit^ ^llnstrntions on (iillooD antr ^tonr. 




On the Marine DiATOMACEiE of Northumberland^ with a 
Description of Several New Species. 13y Arthur 
Scott Donkin, M.D., L.R.C.S. Edin., Lecturer on 
Medical Jurisprudence in the Ncwcastle-on-Tyne Col- 
lege of Medicine, in connection with the University of 

In my previous communication"^ on this subject, I believe 
I was the first to point out to observers, that in many locali- 
ties on the sands of the open shore, marine Diatomacese, in a 
living state, can be collected in great abundance ; and several 
to whom I have sent slides, or gatherings, have had oppor- 
tunities of judging of their richness and purity ; amongst 
whom I may mention my friends, Dr. Gre\dlle, Mr. Roper, 
and Mr. Okeden. Since the publication of VL\y former con- 
tribution, the ample experience of three consecutive sum- 
mers has led me to arrive at the conclusion, that the presence 
of Diatomacese on the sandy beach of still bays is not an 
accidental occurrence, or the result of peculiarities of season ; 
but, on the contrary, that such localities are the natural habi- 
tat of the free species belonging to this highly interesting 
class of microscopic organisms, and that, in such localities, 
these species are annually, during the spring and summer 
months, generated in surprising abundance. But my 
observations have led me to infer that certain conditions are 
essential to their propagation on the open shore. These are — 
1, a clean sandy beach ; 2, a still or calm condition of the 
water by which this beach is washed ; 3, a certain degree 
of warmth in the sand. 

On the first of these conditions I may remark, that mud 
seems to be inimical to the propagation of free marine 
species ; for in muddy localities, otherwise favorable to their 
propagation, they are either entirely absent or very thinly 
scattered over the surface. As to the second condition, they 
are never found on such portions of the beach as arc subject 

* ' Trans. Micr. Soc. London,' vol. vi, p. 31, new series. 
VOL. I, new ser. ■ A 


in ordinary weather to the influence of breakers, but only 
in sheltered quiet nooks, where the tide creeps up and retires 
again without producing waves, which, beating against the 
surface of the sand, soon dissipate its tiny occupants. For 
this reason, the collector may traverse miles of the shore 
otherwise suitable, Avithout observing a single specimen, 
until he arrives at some sheltered cove, such, for example, 
as serves to protect the boats of the fishermen from the 
violence of the storm. In such favoured spots, the furrows 
left on the sand by the receding tide will be found to be 
covered by a chesnut or olive coloured stratum of Diatomaceae, 
which may be collected in the manner described in my 
former paper. It is necessary to add, that these habitats 
should not be visited by the collector, except during the con- 
tinuance of calm weather, as immediately after a storm all 
traces of Diatomaceae will have disappeared. The third con- 
dition, however, seems to be as necessary as the other two ; 
consequently, Diatomaceae are only observed on the beach 
between the latter part of April to the beginning of Sep- 
tember, as a general rule, when not only the stillness of the 
sea, but the warmth which the sands acquire from the direct 
rays of the sun during ebb-tide, favours their propagation. 
From September to April, the low temperature and the 
waves of winter prevent their development and aggregation. 

I will only here remark, on the propagation of the Dia- 
tomaceae, that although it has not been shown that they 
form gonidia, yet I have reason to believe that gouidia, in 
the form of still, or resting spores, are the sources from which 
the new crop originates on the beach each successive spring. 
This opinion I have formed from the following facts. First, 
amongst the myriads of specimens of marine Diatomaceae 
I have examined in the living state, I have never observed 
the process of conjugation. Secondly, I have, as a general 
rule, found the same species luxuriating in the same circum- 
scribed locality (extending, in many cases, over only a few 
square yards) which yielded it in the previous summer. The 
presence of a particular form, year after year, in the same spot, 
would therefore appear to be due to the propagating cause 
remaining buried in the sand during the winter, through the 
course of which not a diatom is to be found. AVere the 
crop of each succeeding spring due to the subdivision of a 
single frustule, or of a few, accidcutly left by the tides, the 
same locality would produce, in all probability, widely 
different forms each returning season. 

I may mention as a fact of some importance, that I have 
generally found the species nK)st commonly met with on the 


bcacli, arranged in distinct zones, in the lower of wliicli 
(that near the low water margin) the Toxonidea, PI. lanceo- 
latum, PL falcatum, N. lyra, N. forcipata, &c., occur 
abundantly. In the upper zone, or that near high-water 
mark, the predominant forms are Cocconeis excenlrica, N. 
palpebi'alis, Amphiprora j)'^silla, Ep. marina, Nitz. viryata, 
Nitz. spathulata, &c. ; in the middle zone, A. arenuria, N. 
granulata, N. humerosa, N. Clepsydra, N. Northumhrica , N. 
truncata, &c., are abundant. 

Before proceeding to describe the new species which I am 
about to introduce, I consider it necessary to make a few 
observations in defence of some of those already published 
in my previous contril)ution. Professor Walker Arnott has 
asserted that the two species forming my new genus 
nidea, T. (rregoriana and T. insignis, are mere twisted or 
distorted conditions of Pleiirosiymata, the former of PL 
angvlatum, the latter of PL astuarii or PL lanceolatum, 
Dr. Arnott observes,^ " In Pleurosigma I have seen no 
instance in which the living frustule is twisted" -x- -J^- * " the 
S. V. is sigmoid with the median line nearly equidistant 
from the two sides ; but after the valves are detached from 
the connecting zone, they often become slightly twisted, and 
as they cannot then present a flat surface to the eye, the me- 
dian line appears to approach nearer to the one margin than 
the otlier.^ This is a confession and explanation of views, on 
the part of Dr. Arnott, in itself fatal to his hypothesis ; for 
it shows that the twisting or distortion, which he avers the 
Toxonidece have been subjected to, is not a vital change 
found in the living frustule, but is the result of boiling in 
acid, and of drying the valve on glass slides. To prove the 
inaccuracy of this assertion, I have only to observe, that I 
have examined numberless specimens of both Tox. Grego- 
riana and insignis in a living state, moving in their native 
element ; and that the shape of the valve, and the relative 
position of all its parts, in each species, is exactly that repre- 
sented by me in my descriptiont and figures of them. To 
my own testimony I may be allowed to add that of my 
friend, Dr. Greville, to whom I sent a living gathering, 
abounding in these species. In nearly all the very numerous 
gatherings I have, from time to time, made on the Nor- 
thumbrian shore during the last four summers, 1 have found 
the Toxonidcai in some localities in great abundance, and in 
all they preserve a rcnuu'kable iniiforniity of contour and 
markings. PL anyulatunt, on the contrary, is not a shore 

* 'Micr. Journal,' vol. vi, p. 109. 

t 'Trans. Micr. Snc. Loml.,' vol. vi, p. 10. new scrips. 



diatom, as I have ascertained hy ample experience in searching 
after li^dng forms. It is not even a marine species, its 
habitat being the brackish water of the tidal estuaries, where 
it occurs abundantly. On the open shore, free from the 
influence of streams, its occurrence is very rare and accidental. 

PI. lanceolatum Dr. Arnott considers to be " a form of 
PL cestuarii, Sm., peculiar to clean sand.^^ — ' Micr. Jour.,^ 
vol. vi, p. 197). "These two forms," he says, "have not 
been sufficiently isolated to permit any positive deduction to 
be drawn.'^ This reads somewhat paradoxical ; but I must 
reply, first, that PL lanceolatum is a very much larger form 
than PL aestuarii, and has not apiculate extremities; the 
colour of the valve is rich salmon, while that of the latter 
is bluish inclining to purple ; secondly, that both are found 
in the typical state developed under the same conditions in 
the same localities, on the surface of the clean sandy beach ; 
and thirdly, that I have gathered each form singly in separate 
localities. Dr. Arnott seems to found his opinion of the 
identity of these two species on the assertion of Professor 
Smith, that PL astuarii is frequently " direct." It is pos- 
sible, however, that Professor Smith has confounded the two 
forms together. 

Some observers have objected to Epithemia marina, that it 
is a Nitzschia ; but with this opinion I cannot agree : it has 
neither the compressed frustule nor the keeled valve of that 
genus ; on the contrary, its valve is inflated, and I have been 
able to detect on it a median line with central and terminal 
nodules, which is best seen in dry specimens, when the 
ventral surface of the F. V. is carefully brought into focus 
under a high power and good illumination. These charac- 
ters of the valve, taken in connection with the ornamented 
appearance of the hoop, would prove the species in question 
to belong either to the genus AmpJwra or to be a member 
of a new genus ; to the one or the other of which, it and the 
following closely allied forms, Nitzschia viryata, Roper, 
Nitz. Amphioxys, Sm., and Nitz. vivax, Sm., ouglit to be 
referred. In all of these the striae are punctate. 

In the first two sections of the following list, I have in- 
cluded all the species enumerated under Sections I and II of 
my former paper. 

Section I. — Species described in Professor S7nith's Sy)wpsis. 

a. Brackish Water Species. 

Epithemia Musculus, Kiitz. Epithemia Constricta, De 
„ Westermanii, Breb. 

Kiitz. Amphora affinis, Kiitz. 


Campylodiscus parvulus, Sm. 
Siirirella lata, Sm. 

„ Gemma, Sm. 

„ fustuosa. Elir. 

„ BrUjJitwelli, Sm. 

„ ovata, Sm. 

„ solina, Sm. 
Tryblionella maryinata, Sm. 
„ punctata, Sm. 

„ acuminata, Sm. 

Nitzschia sigma, Sm. 

„ bilobata, Sm. 
Navicula convexa, Sm. 

,, Jenncrii, Sm. 

,, Westii, Sm. 

„ punctulata, Sm. 

„ jMsilla, Sm. 

„ Amphisbcena, var., 

Navicula elegans, Sm. 
Pinnularia peregrina, Ehr. 
Stauroneis crucicula, Sm. 
Pleurosigma distortum, Sm. 

,, fasciola, Sm. 

,, litorale, Sm. 

^, HippocampuSy 


„ Balticum,, Sm. 

,, quadratum, Sm. 

„ angulatum, Sm. 

Synedra tabulata, Sm. 
„ gracilis, Sm. 
Amphiprora alata, Kiitz. 

„ constricta, Ehr. 

„ vitrea, Sm. 

Amphipleura sigmoidea, Sm. 

i. Salt-water Species. 

Cocconeis scutellum,, Ehr. 

,, diaphana, Sm. 
Eupodiscus crassus, Sm. 

„ fulvus, Ehr. 

Actinocyclus undulatus, Kiitz. 
Coscinodiscus radiatus, Ehr. 

„ excentricus, 


„ concinnus, Sm. 

Triceratium, favus, Elir. 
Campylodiscus Hodgsonii, 

„ Ralfsii, Sm. 

„ clypeus, Ehr. 

Nitzschia spathula, De Breb. 

„ reversa, Sm. 

„ closterium, Sm. 
Synedra superba, Kiitz. 
Navicula liber, Sm. 

„ pygmcBa, Sm. 

„ Smithii, De Breb. 

„ humerosa, De Breb. 

„ Crabro, Ehr. 

Navicula didyma, Kiitz. 

^, palpebralis,De^reh. 

„ Lyra. Ehr. 

„ Kennedyii, Sm. 

,, retusa. De Breb. 
Pinnularia Cyprinus, Ehr. 

„ distans, Sm. 

„ direct a, Sm. 

Stauroneis pulchella, Sm. 

t;ar. pi. 19, fig. 1948. 
Pleurosigma transversale, De 

„ Nubecula, Sm., 

„ formosum, Sm. 

„ elongatum, Sm. 

„ delicatulum, Sm. 

„ strigosuju, Sm. 

„ (esfuarii, Sm. 

Doryphora Boeckii, Sm. 
Amphitetras antediluvianum, 

Biddulphia aurita, De Breb. 

„ Bailey a, Sm. 


Biddulphia rhombus, Sm. Grammatophora marina, 
„ turgida, Sm. „ Kiitz. 

Gomphonema ynarina, Sm. serpentina, Kiitz. 

Achnanthes brevipes, Ag. Mehsira nummuloides, Kiitz. 

„ suhsessilis, Kiitz. Orihosira marina, Sm. 

Rhabdonema arcuatum, Kiitz. Isthmia enervis, Ehr. 

„ minutum, Kiitz. Schizonema cruciger, Sm. 

Section II. — Species discovered since the publication of 
Professor Smith's Synopsis. 

Eupodiscus sparsus, Greg. Trans. Micr. Soc. vol. v, pi. 
1, fig. 47). 

Eupodiscus tesselatus, Roper. (Micr. Journal, vol. \i, 
pi. iii, fig. 1). 

Coscinodiscus concavus, Ehr. (Greg, in Trans. Royal Soc. 
Edin. vol. xxi, part iv, pi. 2, fig. 47). 

Coscinodiscus nitidus, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 
vol. xxi, part iv, pi. 2, fig. 45). 

Coscinodiscus ovalis. Roper. (Micr. Journal, vol. \\, pi. 
3, fig. 4). 

Amphiprora plicata, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. 
xxi, part iv, pi. 4, fig. 57). 

Amphiprora complexa, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 
yol. xxi, part iv, pi. 4, fig. 62.) 

Amphiprora maxima, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 
vol. xxi, part iv, pi. 4, fig. 61). 

Amphiprora pusilla, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. 
xxi, part iv, pi. 4, fig. 56). 

Amphora Grevilliana, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 
vol. xxi, part iv, pi. 5, fig. 90). 

Amphora cymbifera, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. 
xxi, part iv, pi. 6, fig. 97). 

Amphora robusta, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. 
xxi, part iv, pi. 4, fig. 79). 

Amphora Icevis, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. xxi, 
part iv, pi. 4, fig. 74). 

Amphora lavissima, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. 
xxi, part iv, pi. 4, fig. 72). 

Navicula granulata, De Ereb. (Trans. ]\Iicr. Soc. Lond. 
vol. vi, pi. 3, fig. 19. 

Navicula clavata, Greg. (Trans. Micr. Soc. Lond. vol. 
iv, pi. 5, fig. 17). 

Navicula angulosa, Greg. (Trans. jNIicr. Soc. vol. iv, pi. 
5, fig. 8). 

Navicula rectangulata, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. 
vol. xxi, pi. i, fig. 7). 


Navicula nitescens, Greg. (Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. 
xxi, part iv^ pi. 1, fig. 16). 

Navicula formosa, Greg. (Trans. Micr. Soc. Lond. vol. 
iv, pi. 5, fig. 6). 

Navicula rhombica, Greg. Trans. Micr. Soc. Lond. vol. 
iv, pi. 5, fig. 1). N, libellus, of the same author, is obviously 
a variety of this form (see Trans. Royal Soc. Edin. vol. xxi, 
part iv, pi. 6, fig. 101). 

Navicula forcipata, Grev. (Micr. Jour. vol. vii, pi. 6, 
figs. 10 and 11). 

Nitzschia virgata, Roper. (j\Iicr. Jour. vol. ^-i, pi. 3, 
fig. 6). 

Attheya decora, West. (Trans. Micr. Soc. vol. viii, pi. 7, 
fig. 15). This form I gathered in abundance at Cresswellj so 
long ago as June^ 1857. That is long before ]VIr. West or 
]\Ir. Atthey were aware that Diatomacese were to be found on 
the beach there. It is horny, and not siliceous in its struc- 
ture, and will therefore not bear boiling in acid. 

From the above list I have excluded the following forms 
contained in the corresponding section of my former paper : 
Navicula latissima, Greg., a variety of N. granulata; N. Max- 
ima, Greg, identical with N. liber ; N. Barclay ana, Greg, a 
large form of A'', palpebralis ; Amphiprora lepidoptera, Greg., 
which I inserted erroneously; and Cocconeis distans, Greg., 
of which 1 have only seen an imperfect specimen. 

Section III. — Species new to Britain. 

1. Eupodiscus teneUus, De Breb. (Fig. 16). ("Diatom. 
Marin, du Littoral de Cherboiirg,^^ memoires de la Societe 
Imperiale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg, tome ii, 

Disc colourless, slightly convex, granular ; granules monili- 
form, arranged in convergent lines ; surface of disc dinded 
into eight compartments by eight equidistant lines of coarser 
granules, reaching near to the centre ; lines on either side of 
these interrupted a short distance from the margin; pseudo- 
nodule marginal. 

Of this form De Brebisson justly remarks : 

" L^ouverture marginale de eette espece delicate est si 
peu distincte, et se confond tellemcnt avec les granules, qu'il 
serait pcrmis de doutcr qu'elle appartint fl ce genre, si la struc- 
tui'c nou ccllulcusc et la disposition de ses granules n'obli- 
geaient ^ I'y rapporter.^^ 

Section IV. — New Species. ■ 
■ 1. Pleurosigma falcatum, n. sp. (PI. I, fig. l). — Form of IVus- 


tule linear on S. V. ; on F, V. falcate, or gently arcuate. V. 
pale straw colour, on S. V., narrow, linear, slightly sigmoid ; 
extremities rounded ; median line strongly sigmoid ; on F. V. 
twisted laterally and falcate. Length from •0060" to •0070", 
breadth of S. V. about "OOOG" ; stride oblique, fine. 

The peculiar form of this singular species is owing to the 
entire frustule being twisted laterally on its loi^y axis, and to 
its being curved in the form of an arc. The frustule has, 
therefore, one valve curved forward, and convex on its outer 
surface ; the other bent backwards, and concave in its outer 
surface. The peculiar lateral twisting of the valve is well 
seen in its F. V. (fig. 1, c). 

When examined in the living state, this species has all the 
appearance of a Toxonidea, between which genus and the 
Pleurosigmata it forms a connecting link ; it is, however, a 
genuine Pleurosiffma, in which the twisting and curvature of 
the frustule are natural and not accidental conditions. To 
examine the entire frustule in a prepared state, the material 
must be macerated in alcohol and ether, and afterwards roasted 
on a thin glass cover. 

Hab. Cresswell and Boulmar Bay ; plentiful, June to Sep- 
tember, 1858 and 1859. 

2. Navicula Trevelyana* n, sp. (fig. 2). — Form on F. V. 
elongated quadrangular, constricted laterally ; on S. V. linear, 
extremities rounded, margins slightly bulging out near the 
extremities and middle ; valve exceedingly convex, inflated, 
with large orbicular vnstriated space aromid central nodule ; 
median line curved ; striae coarse, costate, strongly convergent 
around central nodule, stronglv divergent near extremities. 
Length, from -0040" to -0050" ; breadth of S. V. about •0008". 

This beautiful species I have found in gatherings with 
N. rectangulaia, Greg., to which it is closely allied, but twice 
as large, and widely diftercnt in specific characters. 

Hab. (-resswell and Duridgc Bay. Mav, June, and Julv, 
1857, 1858, and 1859. 

3. Navicula clepsydra,\ n. sp. — Form on F. V. elongated 

* Dedicated to Sir Walter Calverley Treveljan, Bart., Wallington, 

f 1 have ))lAced this species, as well as the new species o^ Navicula ■vi'iih. 
costate stria, described in this contribution, in the genus Xavicula, because 
I believe the genera Slauroneis, Elir., and I'hniularia, Ehr., to be merely 
sections of the genus Navicula, and the characters on which they are estab- 
lished of a purely i^pecijic nature. Even the late Prof. Smith di^ not adhere 
strictly to the definition of tiiese two genera, as given by Ehreuberg, for we 
find in the 'Synopsis' that he places in the genus Vumularia species which 
have the features of Slauroneis, i.e., P. divergens^ P. iiiterrupfa, and P. 
Sfanroiiei-foDiiis. In like manner Piiinularia Johnsoiiii, Sni., is a Navicula 
in the acceptation of Ehrenberg. 

DOXKI.\_, 0.\ DIATOMACE/H:. 9 

quadrangular, constricted laterally; S.\. linear elliptical, 
extremities rounded; vahe convex, compressed laterally, uitli 
an imperfectly orbicular stauros not reaching- to the margin ; 
striaj coarse, moniliform, monilse irregular elongated. Length, 
from -0025" to -0350"; breadth, from -0008" to -0010'. 

This species I have named from the hourglass-shaped out- 
line of the F. V. ; it is a very al)undant littoral form, being 
present in the greater numl)cr of gatherings I have made 
i'rom time to time on the Northumbrian shore ; it is very 
little subject to variation in outline and striation ; and though 
closely allied to Stauroneis pulchella, it difters from that 
species in being a much smaller form, in the outline of the 
r. v., in the much greater convexity of the valve, in its 
striation, and size and shape of the stauros. The var. of 
S. pulchella, figured by Professor Smith {' Synop.,^ vol. i, 
pi. xix, fig. 191', Z*), is common on the Northumbrian shore, 
and seems to take the place of the typical form, which is 

Hub. Cresswell, Druridge Bay, Tynemouth ; coast of 
Normandy, Dc Brebisson. 

4. Nav'tcida truncata, n. sp. — Form on F. Y. rectangular, 
constricted laterally, angles truncated. On S. \. narrow, 
linear elliptical ; extremities subacute ; valve convex, com- 
pressed laterally ; stride costate, coarse, j)araUel, reaching 
nearly to the median line. Length, from -00.25" to 'OOSi^" ; 
breadth of S. Y. about -0005". 

Hab. Boulmar Bay, Druridge Bay, Cresswell, Tyne- 
mouth, abundant. Frith of Clyde, the late Professor 

5. Navicula Northnmhrica, n. sp. — Form on F. Y. broad, 
quadrangular, with gently rounded angles, and slightly con- 
stricted laterally ; striie delicate, moniliform ; those opposite 
and on either side of central nodule coarse and opaque, 
forming a dark bar, extending from nodule towards the 
margin of valve; valve highly convex, and compressed 
laterally, from the margins toA^ards the median line, into 
a keel. S. Y. narrow, lanceolate acute. Length, from 
•0018" to -0030"; breadth of F. Y., from •O0L2" to •0018", 
of S. Y. •OOOr. 

The delicate moniliform stri;i2 and opaque line op])Osite 
the central nodules, as seen on the F. Y., readily distinguish 
this form from its allies. The narrov,' acute S. Y. is also 
very rcmarkabic ; for, owing to the valve being so strongly 
compressed and convex, its margins and median line cannot 
be brought into focus at the same time with a .'i-in. or a 



I ohiective ; so that the striae can only be examined on the 
F. V. 

Hab. Very abundant on the Northumbrian shore, in 
several localities, from May to September, 1857, 1858, 
and 1859. Coast of Normandy, Do Brebisson. 

G. Navicula hyalina, n. sp. (fig. 6). — Form on S.V. 
gracefully elliptical, valve colourless, median line bordered 
on either side by an opaque, shadowy line, broad, gradually 
widening on either side of central nodule, and suddenly con- 
tracting near terminal nodules. Strias very fine and delicate, 
probably 75 in •0001". 

The gracefully elliptical outline, hyaline appearance of the 
valve, and its striation, more delicate than most of the finely 
marked P/e2<ros?^?nG/a, sufficiently distinguish this species from 
any of the marine Navicula with which I am acquainted. It is 
a severe test-object for the best objectives below a one-eighth 
inch focus. 

Hab. Cresswell and Boulmar Bay, from July to September, 
1858 and 1859. 

7. Navicula cruciformis, n. sp. — Form on F. V. oblong, 
constricted laterally, extremities truncate. S. V. linear 
elliptical ; valve convex, compressed laterally, colour brown ; 
striae costate, about 35 in -001", reaching to median line, 
absent from centre, so as to leave a stauros reaching to the 
margin. Length, about -0030"; breadth of S. Y. -0006". 

The marine habitat alone, independent of structural pecu- 
liarities, distinguishes this species at once from N. Brebissonii, 
Ktitz. [N. Stauroneiformis, Sm.), which is often gathered 
at very high altitudes, and which it somewhat resembles 
in its general appearance. 

Hab. Boulmar Bay and Cresswell, abundant. 

8. Navicula arenaria, n. sp. — Form on F. V. oblong, 
extremities truncate ; on S. V. naiTOw, lanceolate, acute ; striae 
costate, coarse, slightly convergent opposite central nodule, 
reaching to the median line; length from •0012" to •0012". 

This small form is the most abundant of the littoral 
species with which I am acquainted, with the exception of 
N. gregaria, the next form to be described, which, however, 
is more restricted to certain localities. 

Hab. Boulmar Bay, Druridge Bay, Cresswell, Lyne Mouth, 
Newbiggin, Tyncmouth. 

9. Navicula gregaria, n. sp. — Form on S. V. broadly 
lanceolate, apiculate ; striae obscure. 

This exceedingly minute form is very abundant in localities 
Avhere small streams pass over tlie sandy beach into the sea^ 


below the liigli-water level. In such situation it is therefore 
covered with fresh water for a short period durinji; ebb tide, 
and with salt water for several hours during the liow. It is 
not_, however, confined to the beach, but forms an olive stratum 
on the surface of the piers, stones, and piles of our harbours, 
between the high and low water level, and may be looked 
upon as the species which occurs in most abundance on oiu' 

In the gatherings I have made of this species I have 
observed that all the specimens, in a very short space of time, 
congregated and adhered around anyextraneous matter present 
in the gathering, and that the groups thus formed adhered 
"with wonderful tenacity. This phenomenon I have frequently 
observed under the microscope, and have been astonished to 
observe numberless individuals simultaneously directing their 
course towards the same object, as if controlled by an in- 
fluence higher than physical force, to which alone the move- 
ments of the Diatomaceai have been referred by many ob- 

Hub. Chibburn mouth, Druridge Bay, Lyne oMoutli, Blyth 
Harbour, Tyneraouth. 

10. Amphora ocellata, n. sp. — Form on F. V. broad, 
rectangular, extremities very slightly rounded, colourless; 
hoop on dorsal surface transversely and very delicately 
striated ; valve inflated, finely striated, Avith a broad, hyaline 
band extending across it from posterior margin to central 
nodule ; central nodule indefinite, marginal. Length, about 
•0028" ; breadth, about -001 1". 

The hyaline, transverse band gives rise to an opaque, eye- 
shaped spot on each margin of the frustule, when seen on the 
F. y. From a comparison of specimens of both forms, I feel 
satisfied that this species is distinct from A. Icevis, Greg. 
('Trans. 11. Soc. Edin.,' vol. xxi, part iv, pi. iv, fig. 74). 

11. Amphora naviculacea, n. sp. — Form on F.V. rectangular, 
angles slightly rounded, valve highly convex, median line 
gently curved; strire on dorsal or outer half of valve continuous, 
and nearly parallel ; an inner or ventral half coarser, inter- 
rupted, and absent opposite central nodule, strongly divergent 
on either side of it, and strongly convergent near terminal 
nodules. Length, from 0030" to -0035" ; breadth of F. Y. 
about -0011". 

This species strongly resembles a NavicuJa in its F. V., 
though the Avant of symmetry of the valve on either side of 
the median line, even observable in this view of the frustule, 
easily determines its generic position. 

Hab. Crcsswcll, common, May, 1858. 


12. Ampliora lineolata, n. sp. — Form on F. V. nearly 
rectangular, slightly convex laterally. Hoop with several 
longitudinal plicae^ finely striated transversely ; valve slightly 
convex, arcuate on dorsal and linear on ventral margin, with 
delicate transverse stride ; median line gentlv curved. Length, 
about -0030" ; breadth of F. V. -OOl^". 

Hub. Cresswell and Druridge Bay? May to August, 1857 
and 1858. 

Systephaxia, Ehr. 

"Frustules orbicular; disc cellulose, neither septate nor 
radiate, with an external circlet of spines or an erect mem- 
brane on the disc, not on the margin ; cellules in parallel 
rows. The spines are subalate, and not imlike the peristome 
of a moss,^' (Pritchard's ' Infusoria,^ 4to edition, p. 832.) 

Such are the characters given by Ehrenberg to a genus of 
which he has described three species, namely, S. aculeata, 
distinguished by its few spines (12 to 15) and coarse cellules 
S. corona, Avith nvmierous spines (-10 to 50) and finer cellules; 
(about 11 in -001") ; and S. diadema,v,-\ih.i\um.exo\\s incurved 
spines and still finer cellules (about 13 in -001'). These three 
species have only been found, hitherto, in a fossil state in the 
Bermuda earth. 

13. Systephania Anglica, n. sp. — Valve circular, finely 
punctate; punctse exeentric; spines about nineteen, acute, 
and curved about the margin of the valve. Diameter, from 
•0012" to -0015". 

I am glad to be able to add this most curious form to the 
list of British species ; it is the only living representative of 
the genus hitherto discovered, and from the description above 
given it will be perceived it diftcrs from (S. aculeata, S. corona, 
and S. diadema in the number and nature of its spines and 
the minuteness of its areolae. These are only ^-isible, as ex- 
centric lines of punctai, witli a superior English one-fifth or 
one-eighth objective, and suitable illumination, and would, 
therefore, have been perfectly invisible by the glasses used by 

Ilab. Cresswell, ]\[ay and June, 1858. Although this 
species is rare, I have examined several specimens from this 


DruridgiA;* nov. gen., Donkin. 

Filaincnt free, compressed, of two (or few?) frustulrs; 
frustulcs oblong or cllijjtical, geminate by tlie persistence 
of the connecting membrane; valve compressed, elliptical, 
punctate, siliceous throughout. 

Tliis new genus I have established to refer to it a species 
whose characters cannot be reconciled cither to the geniis 
Podosira, iu which the filament is attached, the frustule 
spherical or cylindrical, and the valve hemispherical, Avith 
an absence of silex fromits apex; ovio Melosir a, in av Inch the 
filament is composed of numerous cylindrical frustules, with 
hemispherical valves. 

*14. Druridgia geminata, n. sp. — Filament of two frustules j 
cingulnm transparent, delicate ; frustule on F. V. oblong, 
with rounded angles, approaching to elliptical, brown when 
dry ; hoop absent, or restricted to a mere line ; valve com- 
pressed, on S. Y. elliptical, minutelv and obscurelv punctate. 
Length, from -0007" to 0016"; breadth, -0004". 

In the living state the endochrome presents a large, dark, 
circular spot at each angle of the filament. 

In the j)revious number of this Journal ]\Ir. West has 
described and figured (vol. viii, PI. YII, fig. 11) a form, 
under the name of Podosira ? compressa, Avhich seems, from 
his description, to be identical Avith Druridgia gemi- 
nata ; if so, ^Ir. ^Vest has represented the puncta to be 
much coarser and more scattered and distinct than they 
ought to be. So much so, that I feel assured that specimens 
could not be identified by his figure. !Mr. "West states that 
his P. comj/ressa and Atheija decora Averc found iu Druridge 
Bay and at CressAvell by ^Ir. Athey, of "West Cramliugton, 
from whom he derived his materials. Concerning the publi- 
cation of these two forms by ]Mr. AVest, I think it just to 
observe that he was avcU aAvare, from a call he made mc iu 
December, 1859, that I had iu my possession a large luimber 
of ncAv MSS. species, discovered by me at CressAvell and 
other localities on the Korthumbrian shore, all of which 
I intended shortly to publish, and only a fcAV of which I had 
time to shoAV to him on that occasion. Now, bearing 
this fact in remcmljranee, I hold that Air. West^ before 
publishing the two species in question, ought to have 
in(iuircd Avhether they Averc amongst the number of 
MSS. species. If he had done so, I Avould have in- 
formed him that I discovered them both at CrcsswcU, 

* From Druridgc, Nortlmmbcvlaiul. 


SO long ago as tlie month of Jmie^ 1857, at a time, in 
short, when neither Mr. Athey nor any one else in this country 
knew that marine diatoms "were to be found on the sands in 
such localities. 

Navicularetusa, DeBreb. (fig. 17). — Form on F.V. oblong, 
angles rounded, constricted in the middle ; S. V. linear, nar- 
row, extremities rounded. Valve convex near the margin ; 
strise parallel, costate, subdistant, short, not reaching to 
the median line, shortest opposite the central nodule ; me- 
dian line delicate ; middle third of valve hyaline. Length, 
from -0020" to •0025' ; breadth, about -000-1". 

Concerning this form, much confusion prevails amongst 
observers. I have thought it necessary to give a figure of it, 
to show more clearly the points of difi:erence between it and 
N. truncata and N. Northumbrica, to which it is closely allied. 
The description I have above given of N. retusa corresponds 
with that of Prof. Smith, given in the appendix to the 
' Synopsis,' and also with the description of the S. Y. given 
by De Brebisson ; it differs from its nearest allies, especially 
in the linear outline of its S. V., in its short thick striae, cut 
short at a considerable distance from the median, line, so 
that the middle third of the valve is hyaline. The F. Y. 
figured by De Brebisson C' Diat. Litt. de Cherl.,' fig. 6) be- 
longs to a different species — to N. truncata — although his 
delineation of the S. Y. is correct in outline. 

What the late Professor Smith meant by N. pectinalis, 
Breb., is now somewhat uncertain. According to Professor 
Arnott, it was unknown to De Brebisson {' Microscopical 
Journal,' vol. vii, p. 177) ; its striae, according to Smith's 
description, are 16 in "001", and therefore as coarse 
as those of N. retusa, but much coarser than those of 
N. truncata and N. Northumbrica. Professor Arnott, how- 
ever, appears to be acquainted with N. pectinalis, and 
would confer a benefit on the science by describing and 
figuring it. 

15. Amphiprora fulva, n. sp., Donkin {' Trans. ]Micro. 
Soc. Lond.,' n. sp., vol. vi, PI. Ill, fig. 48). — Form on F. ^'. 
oblong, extremities rounded, gradually and deeply constricted 
in the middle ; S. Y. narrow, lanceolate, apiculate ; valve 
slightly alate, compressed laterally ; median line straight ; 
striae fransverse, fine, probably GO in -001" ; dry valve of a 
rich salmon colour. Length, from •0050" to -0055". 

In my previous contribution (op. cit.), I described and 
figured the F. Y. of this species as that of PI. lanccolafuni ; 
but I have since discovered that, in doing so, I have com- 
mitted an error, and use the present opportunity of correct- 


ing it. The F. V. of PL lanceolatum is tliat of a typical 
member of the genus, and is, therefore, not constricted in the 

Hab. Cresswell and Drui'idge Bay, plentiful. 

Contributions to the knowledge of the Development of the 
GoNiDiA of Lichens, in relation to the Unicellular 
ALGiE. By J. Braxton Hicks, M.D. Lond., F.L.S. 

Fasciculus II. 

In the former fasciculus I endeavoured to show that the 
green cell-growth everywhere covering trees, walls, palings, 
&c., which was commonly called " Chlorococcus,-" and 
ranked as an alga, was really, as had been suspected by 
some botanists, the gonidia of lichens, Avhich, for an inde- 
finite time, continuing to undergo segmentation, ultimately 
extended over considerable surfaces. I also showed that the 
lichen-gonidium and the chlorococcus-gonidium both went 
through the same changes of segmentation, and ultimately, 
by the production of a fibre, became a soridium, within 
which, again, certain conditions of segmentation went on till 
it became a thallus in miniature. I mentioned that, though 
these were the changes common to the generality of lichens, 
yet that there were some notable exceptions, one of the 
most remarkable being that found in the subject of the 
present contribution. 

Although the following remarks have reference princi- 
pally to Cladonia j)i/xidafa, yet it must not be supposed that 
the changes are confined to it, for I have found them in at 
least two other species ; besides Avhicli, as will be again 
noticed, they are to be found in other lichens of a different 
genus. I had proceeded some way with these observations 
when I had the pleasure of reading a communication on the 
same subject in the ' Botanischc Zeitung' (January 5th, 1855), 
by J. Sachs, accompanied by figures, in which he ponits out 
the origin of Gleocapsa from Cladonia pyxidata. He has 
noticed it as proceeding from the ends of the felted fibres on 
the surface of the thallus. Isly observations go further than 


his, and also point out that it arises from v/ithin the sori- 
dhmi, and that, under varied circumstances, tlie changes 
which the lichen-go nidium undergoes arc far more diversi- 
fied than has been hitherto suspected. 

If we ol)serve carefully the fjon'id'ia on Cladoma pyxiduta, 
we find them, generially at least, passing through the seg- 
mental stage in the same way as those of Parinelia, for 
instance, and in the same way as in Chlorococcus /"^ and to 
proceed, in course of time, to the formation of soridia, by 
similar stages ; and this holds if this lichen be growing in a 
dry position, or during a hot or dry season ; but should the 
weather become damp, or the plant grow in a moist situa- 
tion^ or be removed to one, then the changes which form 
the basis of this fasciculus appear very constantly. I have 
noticed it in specimens from so many parts of the south of 
England, that it may, without hesitation, be said to be a 
normal condition. 

To observe the early changes it will be necessary to break 
up the soridium by pressure, or otherwise ; after a time 
the contents escape from one side of the soridium^ or break 
up the whole simultaneously. 

The first change observable is, that some of the segments be- 
come enveloped by a layer of mucus, inside of which subdivi- 
^on still further proceeds, the portions in most cases possess- 
ing, after a little time, each a separate mucous envelope. This 
is shown in Plate II, at figs. 4, G, 7. Thus, we have all the 
elements of a Gleocapsa (Kiitzing) growth. At first, com- 
monly, the subdivision is maintained on the binary plan, 
which may continue for some time, as at fig. 7. Frequently 
the quaternary plan prevails, as at fig. 10. After a while the 
subdivisions become separated, each with a mucous layer, as 
in the smaller cells at fig. 8, the process of segmentation 
being arrested. Again, in some the mucous envelope of 
the original cell does not dissolve away Avhilc segmentation 
proceeds within, so that many of the Gleocapsiform cells 
have from one to three common envelopes (fig. 11, «, it, fig. 
14, a, a, &c. &c). A condition being thus produced similar 
to Hassall's Hannutococcusrupestris [Gleocapsu jiohjdcrinatica , 
Kiitzing). In the same mass — the produce of the Cladonia- 
soridia — will be found every variety of subdivision, each 
form constituting a mass of a greater or smaller extent; 
generally, I may observe, (and this is a point v.orthy of 
notice,) but not always iiuliseriminately mingled, as if a 
2^articular kind having once commenced, it would, circum- 

* Sec rusciculus 1, ' Microscopical Journal,' Oc!., ISGO. 


stances continuing the saraCj proceed ill the same direction for 
an unlimited time. 

]\Iin^led with the al)ove, avc find some larj^e cells, gene- 
rally glol)ular, sometimes however oval (mother cells), with- 
out any mucous coat, which contain a number of very small, 
green cells (fig. H, b, c). When these are set free by the 
bursting open of the mother ecU-wall, they gradually become 
surrounded with a mucous envelope, and then appear as the 
other (Tleocapsa-forms above noticed. These may produce 
ultimately mother cells, or may go on to any of the other 
forms. They are shown at fig. 8, d, fig. 9, b, in different 
conditions of growth. The oval mother cells sometimes arc 
developed early, as seen at fig. 5, b. They may be solitary, 
as fig. 11, b, enveloped with a mucous layer, or even two 
layers, as at fig. 11, c; or combined within a common enve- 
lope, in groups of from two to twelve, or even more, as 
shown at fig. 9, a. The contents of these cells, on dispersion, 
become like those of the naked, round mother cells at 
fig. 8,6. 

When the soridia undergoing this transformation are 
placed in water, the mucous envelope becomes much increased 
in diameter, the cells become more numerous and smaller, 
and assume the appearance of Hcematococcus alpestris {frus- 
tridosus, Hassall (fig. 15). It proceeds sometimes to such 
extreme division that the process seems almost indefinite, 
and the results resemble Hcematococcus theriacus and iinnu- 
tissimus, Hass. (fig. 16, a). Segmentation here goes on in 
various Avays, as seen in figs. 15, 16. The proportion the 
mucous coat bears to the cell is exceedingly variable, as 
shown in fig. 15. 

Another result of this process is the formation of a group 
of large, oval cells, precisely similar to Fahnoglaa, Kiitzing 
{Cylindrocystis, !Meagh., CoccocJdoris, Hass.), each of them 
being surroimded by a mucous layer. At first, they are con- 
tained in a common, firm mucous envelope, of a purplish- 
brown colour, Avhich, at first, extends between the various 
cells, as shown at fig. 12. The groups vary in number, from 
two to sixteen, or perhaps more. After a time, the outer 
purple coating breaks up, or dissolves away, and the con- 
tained Pubnoykece escape, and segmentation proceeds as in 
the above cases (fig. 14, b, b). 

Each of the oval cells contains one or two distinct nuclei, 
as in Palmoghea Bn'bissoni'i. After they have remained in 
water some time they assume the appearance represented at 
fig. 13, a, b, c, where tlie chlorophyll contents have acquired a 
round form, but of smaller size. These cells agree in every 


particular with the marks of the genus Coccochloris, Has- 
sall, and seem \'isually identical with C. Brebissonii. I 
have not had any opportunity of testing whether they, like 
it, possess the property of conjugating ; it is an interesting 
question for future investigators ; nor is such a process hy 
any means impossible, when it is remembered that it is 
merely an act of fusion, not of impregnation. 

It will be seen that the mass (" frond") is at first definite, 
but becomes indefinite as soon as the common envelope is 
broken up or dissolved. After this these Palmoglaea-cells 
may multiply as Palmogl(E(E, till a large mass is formed, and 
then, circumstances changing, the cell-development proceeds 
in one of the other modes, which will account for the mass fre- 
quently possessing more or less of a uniform character through- 
out its whole extent. I have seen cells precisely similar to 
these amongst aquatic algse, and which are possibly of the 
same origin. I say possibly because, from observations in 
other du'ections, I have good reason to believe that other 
vegetable organisms do, in some of their phases, form masses 
of Gleocapsa-like cells. 

What other changes take place under varying circumstances 
in the Cladonia-gonidium it is impossible to say, but I am 
disposed to consider that by no means have all been noticed. 
Nor are they confined to Cladonia alone ; I have found all 
the early changes sparingly in Lecanora, Parmelia, and one 
or two others : also the Palmoglcea-gvovi'ih. in Parmelia ; and 
it is very probable that future observations may extend it to 
many others, for I shall, in a future contribution, show that 
there is considerable tendency in the gonidium to vary in 
other directions than those just mentioned. 

The next point I wish to remark upon is, that about and 
amongst these masses of Gleocapsu, Pahnogkea, &c., fine fibres 
are to be found (tubular, jointed occasionally, and branching), 
which dip in between the component masses and cells, as I 
have drawn in figs. 11, 14 c, 17 «, and 18 ; such have also been 
noticed to exist in the masses classed under Palmellaceae, and 
supposed by Thwaitcs"^ and others to belong to the cells. 
Under the Ijclicf that the Palmellacca; were distinct alga?, 
their existence was very inexplicable, and their connection 
doubted. From the above remarks, however, the matter will, 
I think, be very easy of solution, for, as I noticed in the 
former fasciculus, the branches of the fibre of the soridium 
passed inwards, between the segments of the soridium. Now, 
when the Gleocapsa-formation takes place, these fibres (pro- 

* * Anuals of Natural History,' Second Series, vol. iii, pp. 241, 243. 


bably under the influence of the same moisture) elongate, be- 
come more delicate, and as the soricliij/m 1)reaks up they become 
detached, Avhilst their origin is rendered obscure. I have seen 
them gradually become very delicate, and dipping between the 
mucous covering of the Palmoglaa-iovm. cells in almost every 
specimen. This, I think, clears up the mystery hanging over 
these delicate fibres, which have been a source of much dis- 
putation amongst some of our best observers in this branch. 
If the reader will refer to my former contribution on this 
subject, he will observe that it Avas remarked that the 
" Chlorococcus " of any given neigh1)ourhood varied very 
constantly with the prevalent lichen of that spot, and this 
remark applies peculiarly to localities Avhere Cladonia prevails. 
If any old wall where Cladonia is growing be observed care- 
fully, it will be found that Avhere the Chlorococcus has gone 
on to the formation of soridia (provided the Aveather be damp 
and moderately Avarm) that all the changes mentioned above 
are taking place Avithin the latter. It Avill be seen that, sooner 
or later, over a considerable surface originally covered by Chlo- 
rococcus, the latter has been supplanted by a Palmella-i'orm of 
growth, forming broad patches of a gelatinous " frond," and 
these groAvths proceeding rapidly, the stratum soon acquires 
considerable thickness. By comparing and tracing the 
formation of the Claclonia-gonidium, and its spreading aAvay 
from the parent lichen to form a Chlorococcus, and by 
noting the subsequent changes it undergoes till it forms a 
broad ])atch of a Palmella-torm. growth, I conceive it Avill 
readily be conceded by any one taking the pains to observe 
that the origin of the latter so-called alga is as above 

What are the required changes of circumstances Avhich tend 
to direct cell-groAvth into this or that form of subdivision is 
still inexplicable ; it suffices here to state a palpable con- 
dition ; but Avhatcvcr changes of form and appearance they 
may undergo, I have no doubt, from numerous observations, 
that even these Gleocapsce, &c., do, by the condensation or 
desiccation of the mucous sheath and by the enlargement of 
the green cell, ultimately revert to tlie form of the original 
gonidiuni from Avhich they arose. 

Perhaps the best exani])le in support of the aboA^e remarks 
is to be found on i\\c j^odet'ta of Cladonia pyxidata, Avhere, by 
Avatehing from time to time the gonidia as they appear on the 
surface, the whole process may be observed. It may also be 
noticed at one and the same time on different parts of the 
jwdctia ; for in the sc?/p/ius, or cup, are found the Chlorococcus 
stage and soridia ; half-Avay down, the Gleocapsa stage; and 


at the base will be seen the latter changing into a small 
thallus — a squamulc. 

1 have kept patches of Clilorococcus from the neighbour- 
hood of Cladonia on the bark of trees and under glass till 
soridia appeared, and then it became in every respect a mass 
of Gleocapsa. I have never found Cladonia pyxidata without 
it, except in very dry situations ; but when they were removed 
to a moist atmosphere the Gleocapsa appeared. The Cliloro- 
coccus from heathery places, where Cladonia alone grew, 
always produced the same results. 

Besides the origin of Gleocapsa, Palmoglaa, Sorospora, 
&c., from the soridia, and besides the mode set forth by H. 
Sachs, there is another way in which the above organisms 
spring from Cladonia. In this latter the whole of the goni- 
dial layer of the thallus sometimes becomes converted into 
them ; the finest masses of Pahnoglcea I have met with came 
from this source. In this condition the mucous layer of the 
cells is at first of small thickness, and more or less angular 
by mutual compression (being much as is seen in Palmella 
cruenta, only of a green colour) , but as segmentation proceeds 
they overcome the resistance, expand, and become more 
globular. The resulting forms are then as I have above de- 
scribed as arising from the soridia. In some I have noticed a 
condition precisely like thatof HassalFs Coccochloris variabilis. 
When all the gonidia of a thallus assume the Gleocapsa 
change the separate masses of each variety are of larger 
extent, but they even then are so blended as to preclude any 
doubt as to their common origin. In Plate II, fig. 18, I 
have shown a portion of these masses. 

The felted fibres are more or less mingled with the Gleo- 
capsa and other forms, and their presence in a mass of 
unknown origin will indicate its parentage. 

It will be readily seen from the abo\'e observations that 
these facts have an important bearing upon the independent 
existence of many of the unicellular algic. 

In the accompanying plate Avill be observed almost every 
form of what has formerlv been called Hamatococcus, Agrardh, 
and more recently Gleocapsa, Kiitzing. All these forms 
have been named as distinct species, but how unsatisfactorily 
so I leave the best observers to testify. 

If it be a fact, as appears to me very evident, that all 
these forms can and do arise from one cell, then their 
existence as distinct species and genera is at an end, and 
in this I go further than Sachs, and consider that we must 
exclude Coccoc/iloris, Spv. [Pahnoyhea, Kiitzing), (for the 
growth found after immersion or in very damp situations pos- 


scsscs every character of that genus), and Sorospora virescens, 
Ilassall [Microhaloa , Kiitzing). 

Distinctions drawn from a defined or undefined condi- 
tion, cither at first or subsequently, of tlic mucous portion 
of tlie mass, 1 liohl, as the result of numerous observations, 
to be valueless as a specific character, and the same may be 
said of the persistence of the parent mucous envelope to tbe 
second or third generation, such as forms the character 
of Hamatococcus, Agardh {Gleocapsa pohjdermut'ica, Kiit- 
zing), for in the plate accompanying this paper, and in that 
illustrating Sachs' paper, "^ every variety may be seen so inti- 
mately blended, that one can, by no possibility, deny their 
common origin. 

Whether Palmoglaa Brebissonii, Avhich may be frequently 
seen conjugating, be identical with the Cladoiuu-Pahnoylcsa, 
requires further observation to determine. The remainder of 
the ]5ritish species of Palmoghea or Coccoc/i/oris can certainly 
be produced from Cladonia. Nor do I consider the size of the 
cell of any importance as a specific character. From the re- 
marks I have already made, and which I repeat here, it may be 
noticed, that the size of cells in a state of subdivision, how- 
ever produced, depends on the rapidity of the segmentary 
process compared with that of the growth of the individual 
cell. When the former process is very active, then the 
resulting produce is small ; but when it proceeds slowly, 
then the individual cells are larger, and continue to grow (so 
long as the segmentary process is kept in abeyance) till they 
arrive at full maturity. 

As far as my researches have extended, the following 
forms, hitherto distinguished as species, have been observed 
to spring from the sorkUum of Cladonia pyxidata : 


Heematococciis rvpestris. Gleocapsa pohjdermatica. 

„ granosus. ,, yranosa. . 

,, alpestris. 

„ frustidosus ? 

„ urenarius. 

,, hina/is. 

» furfuraceus. 

„ livhlus ? 

,, (cruf/inosiis. ,, (enir/inosa. 

„ theriacus. 

* Op. cit. 



H(smatococcus viilgai'is. Gleocapsa vulgaris {Chloro- 

coccus vulgare, 
,,, microsporus. „ montana. 

„ minvtissiinus. „ confluens. 

Coccochloris protuberant. Palmogl(jea. 

,, variabilis. 

„ nmscicola. 

,, hyalina. 

„ depressa. 

„ rivularis. 

,y Grevillii. 

„ obscura. 

,, Brebissonii ? 

Sorospora viresccms, Microhaloa. 

And if we regard those similar forms of a red colour as 
merely a ivinter condition of those of green colour, which is 
now pretty well certain, then we must add to the above list, 
probably, Palmella cruenta, Hassall ; Hcematococcus insignis 
and sanguineus, Hassall ; and some forms of Protococcus 
nivalis, Hassall. 

It is very possible that, as observations extend, other lichen- 
gonidia may be found, yielding explanations of the life-history 
of many kindred forms. At the same time, because we 
have shown that the lichen-gonidium can produce Gleocapsa, 
Palniogl(ea, &c., it is not hence, by any means, intended 
to be asserted that such is their sole origin ; on the contrary, 
there can be little doubt but that other vegetable growths 
are, during certain vegetating processes, capable of giving 
rise to very similar cells. In either case, it seems we can 
no longer assign them that position they have hitherto held 
as separate existences ; but they must fall before the extended 
study of the life-history of plants into the rank of but one of 
the many alternations Avliich, it becomes more evident every 
day, many families of the vegetable kingdom periodically 
pass through. 

The relation of the lichen-gonidium to Nostoc and its 
allies will form the basis of Fasciculus III. 


Some further Experiments and Observations on the ^Mode 
of Formation and Coalescence of Carbonate of Lime 
Globules, and the Development of Shell-tissues. By 
G. Rainey, M.R.C.S., Lecturer and Demonstrator of 
INIicroscopical and Surgical Anatomy at St. Thomas's 

As I believe it is generally admitted, especially by those 
who have examined my specimens of carbonate of lime, as it 
occurs in shell-tissues, and compared them with the analogous 
artificial forms, that both are formed in the same manner ; 
and as in this case the experimental investigation of the arti- 
ficial process will furnish the best clue to a precise and certain 
knowledge of the natural one, by showing more clearly how 
much is due to physical agency, I have been anxious to ex- 
tend and improve my former process for obtaining the globular 
form of carbonate of lime by making the conditions more 
like the natural ones, and by so performing the experiments 
that the changes, which the carbonate undergoes in its pas- 
sage from an apparently amorphous state to large globules, 
may, as they are taking place, allow of being examined by the 

The process about to be described is the same in principle 
as that given in the " Transactions of the Microscopical So- 
ciety,'^ published in the ' Quarterly Journal of ^Microscopic 
Science' for January, 1858. It consists in employing a very 
shallow cell, open at both ends, for the decomposition of the 
salts of lime contained in gum-arabic by subcarbonate of 
potash. This cell is made by cementing two ledges of thin 
glass, about two inches in length and a quarter of an inch in 
width, placed parallel Avith one another, to a microscope-slide, 
and placing upon them a thin glass cover, fixed in its place 
by thick gold-size. At one of the ends of this cell a very 
thick and clear solution of gum-arabic is to be introduced by 
capillary attraction, sufficient in quantity almost to fill it, and 
at the other a small quantity of still denser solution of gum, 
saturated with subcarbonate of potash, sufficient, Avith the first 
solution, entirely to fill the cell. The alkaline solution should 
be sufficient to fill about a fifth of it. The excess of gum is 
then to be removed from each end, after which they are 
to be closed up by very thick gold-size, or some similar 
cement. The cell thus cliargcd should be kept in a horizontal 
position, and examined by the microscope as occasion may 
require. The rapidity Avitli which the globules will be formed. 


and afterwards increase in size, Avill depend npon the densi- 
ties of the solutions. If they are not very dense, globular 
particles will be apparent in a few hours ; but if they are as 
thick as they can be, to admit of being attracted into the 
cell, the carbonate will remain in an amorphous state for a 
week or two. The best results are produced when the solu- 
tions are as thick as possible. In this case the globules will 
go on gradually increasing in diameter for four or live months, 
and I have no doubt but the experiment might be so per- 
formed that this period would be greatly prolonged, as it will 
depend upon the relative proportions of the simple and alka- 
line solutions of gum, so tiiat the globules would keep growing 
so long as there is any simple solution to furnish the earthy 
carbonate, and alkaline solution to decompose the salts of 
lime it contains. At first, the globules increase rapidly, but 
afterwards slowly, and ultimately they acquire even a larger 
size than those formed according to the first process. The 
great advantage of this mode of experimenting is that, by 
the employment of the micrometer, the progressive changes 
taking place in the form and shape of the globules can be 
accurately measured. And, besides, such experiments require 
but little time, and may be said to be attended with no ex- 
pense. The mechanical conditions, also, under which these 
globules are produced resemble more those in shell-tissues. 
I may add, that the solutions ought to be made perfectly 
clear by repeatedly filtering ; if not sufiieiently thick, they 
must be further inspissated. On a careful examination of the 
contents of these cells as above prepared, the first appearance 
is that of a cloudiness of the fluid in the cell where the solu- 
tions are in the act of mixing, Avhich, if the solutions are 
very dense, remain so for several days, after which it becomes 
slightly granular ; if, on the contrary, a thin solution of gum 
is employed, minute globules and dumb-bells appear in a few 
hours. The same amorphous condition of the carbonate -with 
gum is obtained by mixing intimately strong alkaline and 
simple solutions of gum together, and filtering the mixture 
through blotting-paper. After four times filtering, I 
have found amorphous matter in the filtered fluid, which 
afterwards passes into globules and dumb-bells ; ])ut globules 
formed in this manner do not increase much, but remain 
small, and nearly all about the same size. 

The globules which form on the part of the floor of the cell 
covered with amorphous deposit have in their centre a quan- 
tity, more or less abundant, of granular, amorphous matter, 
sometimes surrounded by a granular layer or two (see 
Plate lY, fig. 1). As these globules increase, the amorphous 


deposit around them partially disappears, leaving only 
minute erystals of oxalate of lime. The disappearance of 
this matter is best seen by examining it from time to time 
where it exists between two globules, and noticing particu- 
larly the amount of diminution during stated intervals. 
As the globules increase in size the crystals also increase, but 
more slowly than the globules, so that one part of this 
amorphous matter appears to be attracted by crystals and 
another by the globules, a fact Avhich seems to indicate that 
each has a kind of specific attraction, exerted at sensible 
distances. As the globules get larger, the carbonate wliich 
their surface receives is clear, being probably now the fresh 
carbonate attracted by them, without first collecting in suf- 
ficient quantity to appear in an amorphous shape. See 
fig. 2, Avliich shows two globules, with the amorphous 
matter between them, and fig. 3, the same two globules 
examined a week later, from between which all this 
matter has disappeared. During this interval both globules 
had increased in diameter. If globules form where there is 
no amorphous matter, as on the cover of the cell, they have 
no granular matter in the centre, but are clear throughout. 
In some cases, a portion of the granular matter remains 
attached to the floor of the cell, without passing into globules 
or dumb-bells. The form of the globules is very much influ- 
enced by that of the surface of the glass. If this be rendered 
rough, and thus the points of attraction be increased, the 
number of globules will be increased accordingly, but their 
size diminished ; but if the surface be coated with shell-lac, 
a repellent action will be exerted upon the solution of gum, 
and globules of a larger size Avill result ; lastly, if the car- 
bonate be formed only in very small quantities, it will be 
attracted by the glass in minute but separate globules, and 
the interstices betMcen them becoming gradually filled up by 
subsequent additions, a film of coalesced globules will be 
formed, covering the sm-facc of the slide, similar to some 
forms of shell-tissue. All the appearances above described 
are best seen when the solutions of gum are as thick as 
possible, in Avhich case, as before stated, the time required 
for their production will be slow. I have not noticed in 
those globules wliich have an amorphous nucleus that this 
nucleus has, in three or four months, suffered any A-isible 
change, either in size or appearance. In some globules the 
central part is made up of an aggregation of small globules, 
whilst the peripheral one is more or less clear and lami- 
nated, as represented in fig. 4. These bear a strong re- 
semblance to the otolithes of small fishes in an early stage of 



development. See fig. 5, which is a representation of the 
otolithe of a young stickleback, and fig. 6 of one from a 
very small whitebait. These bodies are formed by the 
deposition of carbonate of lime in small sacs, which car- 
bonate seems to go through the same changes of form as in 
shells, but I have not found the globules presenting so well- 
defined a cross under polarized light as in some forms of 
shell. With respect to the manner in which the calcareous 
globules, in the artificial process, acquire their increase of 
size and become coalesced into one mass, I may notice 
that the explanation given in my first paper is founded on a 
theoretical error, which more accurate experiments and 
more careful observations have since enabled me to correct. 
In my first method of obtaining the globules of carbonate of 
lime with gum, the diff"erent changes which these bodies 
underwent being produced in bottles, were entirely out of 
the reach of direct observation, and therefore the manner 
in which these forms were produced must be, to some extent, 
a matter of inference. The larger must either have resulted 
from the incorporation of smaller ones, as globules of a liquid 
would unite, or they must grow by addition to the surface. 
The various appearances which they assumed, especially 
those of the dumb-bell forms, seemed to be best accounted 
for on the first hypothesis ; and as certain lenticular calcare- 
ous bodies occurring in the scales of fishes, similar to the glo- 
bules of carbonate found in the incipient stage of shell- growth, 
had been described as undergoing a process of complete fusion 
or incorporation, I adopted this hypothesis in respect to the 
artificial products, as appearing to me to be the right one. 
However, Dr. Gladstone, on examining some specimens which 
I showed to him, considered that these globides were produced 
according to the super-position theory, and Mr. Warrington 
and Mr. Brooke, who saw them afterwards, were of the same 
opinion. As I had great confidence in their opinions on this 
subject, and as my only wish was to know the truth, and, 
moreover, as I considered, in experiments so completely phy- 
sical and chemical, and admitting so easily of being brought 
within the reach of direct observation, certainty upon this 
point was attainable, and no doubt need remain respecting 
it, I proceeded to perform the series of experiments above 
detailed, which I will now briefly apply in explanation of 
the manner in which the calcareous globules acquire an 
increase of size, according to the super-position hypothesis. 
Though these experiments, so far as this point goes, may not 
show anything new, yet they will have the advantage of 
removing all doubt as to the manner in which the analogous 


forms of carbonate of lime are produced in orj^anized bodies, 
to which the same decisive mode of testinpj this fact could 
not be so easily applied ; and in physioloji^ical science posi- 
tive, experimental evidence is especially needed. In merely 
describing the different characters of the calcareous globules 
in the glass cells before alluded to, this subject has been 
anticipated, and therefore it only remains to show, by the 
measurement of these globules dui'ing their growth, how 
their increase of diameter and their coalescence takes place. 
Two globules attached to the floor of a cell containing the 
two solutions of gum, in which decomposition and the 
formation of carbonate of lime were slowly going on, were 
measured by means of the micrometer eye-piece on the 27th 
of August, 1860, and their distance apart accurately deter- 
mined, which was 05*00 of ai^ inch, that is, four spaces between 
the lines of the micrometer, each space being -ir-^^,^ of an 
inch. On the 29th instant, the interval had bc^come dimin- 
ished ^ijV(J of an inchj and the diameter of the globules 
increased accordingly. On September 10th, it had dimin- 
ished another -03^5^ of an inch, with a proijortionate increase 
of the globules ; a^/^yo of an inch were now left, Avhich were 
gradually filled up between the present time and the 27th of 
November, when the globules had acquired such an increase 
of size as to be in contact. Similar measurements were made 
of other globules, with a like result, and the experiment is so 
easily performed that any one can, without either much trou- 
ble or sacrifice of time, verify its correctness. As the inter- 
val between two or more globules is in progress of being filled 
up, none of the particles of the carbonate of lime which are 
being added to their surface are visible, and the surface itself 
appears perfectly smooth and sharply defined. These obser- 
vations are best made on the globules which form on the 
cover of the cell, these being more clear than those on the 
floor, and if the cover be sufficiently thin, a lens of ^ or ^V of 
an inch focus can be emjjloycd in the examination. The 
invisibility of the increments which these globules receive 
during the time ordinarily employed in the examination of 
any mimite part of an object, supposing that time to be one 
minute, will admit of an obvious explanation, on considering 
the entire space between two globules, divided by the number 
of minutes contained in the time required to fill it up, and 
the extreme minuteness of each of these dinsions. In the 
above experiment, a space equal to -1^5^,7 of an inch was filled 
up in seventy-eight days ; hence the size of the particle added 
to each globule in one minute would be more tiian the two- 
hundred millioneth of an inch in diameter. This would be 


on the supposition that the increments which each globule 
received in equal spaces of time arc equal^ but as the filling 
in of this space takes place more slowly as the globules in 
these experiments get nearer together, the degree of minute- 
ness of the particles in question would far exceed that above 
mentioned. In this case, their size, when the globules were 
on the point of actual contact, would be several thousand 
times smaller than that of the smallest particle of matter 
visible by any known power of the microscope. But how- 
ever small these particles are, they have, doubtless, a defi- 
nite size, otherwise the surface of the increasing globules 
would, most probably, not be so sharply defined, but gradually 
shaded off". Besides, it can be shown, by dissolving out the 
earthy component, and leaving the gum one, that the layer 
of a globule last formed is the densest. For this piu'pose, it 
is only necessary to put the slides on which these globules 
have been deposited into a solution of gum, which, either 
being itself an acid or from the free acid it contains, 
gradually dissolves out all the carbonate with eflferves- 
cence, and leaves the gum-element insoluble, and more or 
less of the form of the original globule, this depending 
very much upon the relative quantity of gum in com- 
bination with the earthy matter. Hence the globules 
which have been made in a strong solution of gum are 
the best for demonstrating this fact, and those made in 
the bottles according to the first process are necessarj' for tliis 
experiment. The gum-constituent, thus prepared, presents 
under the microscope the appearance of a nucleated cell ; but 
that which appears to be a nucleus is rather a vacuity, and in 
these globules, when examined by the microscope by 
polarized light, in which the carbonate is only partially re- 
moved, the central part is generally dark, without having a 
cross, showing either a very small quantity or a total absence 
of the cirbonate of lime. In many globules thus treated the 
exterior gum-layer appears quite like a dense husk, enclosing 
the parts within. These gum-residua, Ijcing insoluble, can 
be kept in glycerine, but if any of the carbonate had been 
left in them it becomes gradually removed. I have noticed 
in my paper on the dental tissues the same fact taking place 
in the calcareous globules of a delicate film of calcifying 
oyster-shell. Now, two facts arc obvious from these expe- 
riments — one is, that the particles of gum and carbonate of 
lime are combined in these globules in inconceivably miniite 
quantities ; and the other, that the gum becomes insoluble 
in water. In these respects, gum in plants bears an analogy 
to albumen in animals. With respect to the globular form 


of carl)onate of limc^ I may state that 1 am perfectly aware 
tliat there are other cases in which carbonate of lime may be 
made to take the <^lolnilar form. In this respect it seems to 
l)c a compound like salicine, asparagine, and some others, in 
Avliich the force causing the crystalline form is feeble, and there- 
fore easily overcome by that which causes particles to become 
globular ; but this docs not in the least affect the fact of car- 
bonate of lime, M'hen formed in a sufficiently strong solution of 
gum or albumen, becoming globular, or its applicability to the 
organism in which this compound is produced, as experi- 
ment shows that it is in such a state of combination as this 
that it occurs in organic tissues. To show the effect which 
gum has in determining the form of carbonate of lime, slides 
were put into bottles containing the same alkaline solution, 
which in all was as much inspissated as possible to be fluid, 
but the simple solution of gum was of different densities m 
each bottle. The slides were removed from the solutions in 
about four weeks. The carbonate on those which had been 
in the densest solution was all either in globules or dumb- 
bells. There were no crystals, Avhilst that deposited on the 
slides taken out of the weakest solution was in globules 
below, that is, near to the surface of the dense alkaline solu- 
tions, but in crystals above, where the quantity of gum in the 
solution was smallest. Ail these crystals examined from 
above downwards were seen gradually to lose their crystalline 
form, having their angles gradually rounded and their sides 
variously curved ; after that they assumed the character of 
dumb-bells of different forms, and lastly they became globules. 
Fig. 7 is an accurate representation of the forms of carbonate 
of lime on one of these slides. The other slides presented 
various forms of carbonate intermediate between those 
extremes, but fully confirming the correctness of the conclu- 
sion that the globular form is due to the gum, and that the 
various modifications of the crystalline forms, as shown in 
the figure just referred to, arc dependent upon the relative 
quantities of gum and carbonate of lime entering into their 
composition. Now, it is worthy of remark that all these 
various forms exist in calcified tissues. In some, the crystal- 
line form prevails, especially in the densest shells, and in 
those parts of the less dense ones which are the hardest. In 
others, the globular form most abounds, and especially where 
the shell is in an incipient stage of growth, and before the 
membrane on which the carbonate is formed is entirely 
covered by coalesced particles; and lastly, there arc shells, as 
that of the shrimp and prawn, which present both globules 
and modified crystals near together. 


The cause of these modifications of form produced by the 
difierent proportions of gum in combination Avith the eartliy 
ccmstituents, seems deducible from the facts ah'cady men- 
tioned, namely, that these elements become intimately mixed 
together in inconceivably minute quantities, and that the 
gum in the mixture is rendered insoluble, so that the par- 
ticles so fonned and their elements being thus combined, 
would be under the joint influence of the forces which each 
element by itself would have been acted upon, and by which 
its form would be determined. The particles of pure carbonate 
of lime, being under a force which disposes them in straight 
lines, would take the crystalline form ; whilst those of gum or 
albumen, in which the tendency to attract one another is 
probably strong, as indicated by their tenacity, would, by 
their mutual attraction, be brought into the globular form. 
Hence, in the mixture composed of the carbonate element in 
great excess, the crystalline form would prevail, whilst in 
that in which the viscid element preponderated the globular 
form would predominate, and of course intermediate forms 
would result from such different proportions of these elements 
as might between these extremes. Sorae compounds formed 
in gum do not become globular^ as, for instance, oxalate of 
lime. It remains beautifully crystalline, and increases by 
the addition of fresh invisible particles to the surface of the 
crystals, just as the globules do by the addition of particles 
of carbonate and gum to their surface. This probably arises 
from the oxalate not combining Avith the viscid substance and 
solidifying it in the manner that the carbonate does. If the 
particles of carbonate become deposited on a crystal of oxalate 
of lime, they coat it with a globular, and not with a crystal- 
line, layer, so that it would appear that these particles in their 
•very earliest state are spherical. Besides, the fact of the par- 
ticles of carbonate thus combined Avith gum, when so small 
as only just to be visible with the highest magnifying powers, 
being also spherical, is in favour of this conclusion. All the 
globular forms of carbonate of lime are considered by some 
to be crystalline, and are called globular crystals. In some 
of these forms there is a slight appearance of a crystalline 
structure ; in others, where either the gum is small in quantity 
or Avhere the form of carbonate is mixed Avith some other 
crystalline compound, or is a carbonate of lime of a more 
highly crystalline character, this appearance is more strongly 
marked ; Avhilst there are those carbonate globules com- 
bined with so large a proportion of gum as to present no 
appearance AvhatcA'cr of crystallization, Avhich, notAvith- 
standing, exhibit a distinct cross under polai'ized light. Noav, 


how far these ought to he looked upon as crystals, I shall not 
attempt to decide ; I may ohserve, however, that the physical 
force producing- globular shapes is, without doubt, the very 
opposite of those which produce crystalline ones, and that, 
even in those cases in which globules are made up of a 
spherical conglomeration of minute crystals, it may only be 
where there has been an arrest of that force (attraction) 
which, though sufficient to bring these crystals into a globular 
form, would, if its action had extended to their ultimate 
atoms, also have arranged them in globules. I have now to 
introduce the account of some very interesting experiments on 
the reparation of shell-tissue, made by Mr. C. Stewart, of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, confirmatory of observations of the 
manner in which this class of structures is formed, published 
by me some years ago. Mr. Stewart's mode of experimenting 
is entirely his own. The following is a verbatim copy of his 
letter to me : 

'^'^Dear Sir, — Having repeatedly found that snails, which 
had suffered from an injury to their shells, had repaired them 
by the formation of new shelly matter, I thought that they 
would afford a good opportunity for examining the process by 
which the shell naturally grows. I accordingly removed a 
portion of the shell of an Helix asper'sa, Avithout injuring the 
animal. I then found, that in a few hours an extremely 
delicate and perfectly structureless membrane covered the 
surface of the mantle, and was attached to the edges of the 

" On examination at the end of two days, the membrane was 
seen to be covered externally with crystals of phosphate of 
lime, and also with some compound globules of all sizes, 
undergoing coalescence into larger ones, as well as very minute 
particles of lime, of various and more or less regular forms, 
exactly like those of the carbonate of lime produced artificially. 
These, no doubt, are formed on the outei' side of the membrane, 
in consequence of its extreme delicacy, allowing the fluid 
secreted by the mantle, in which the salts of lime are in solu- 
tion, to percolate through it. 

" On the third or fourth day, the new shell (which is colour- 
less) is rendered sufficiently strong, by the addition of fresh 
particles of lime, to allow of the animal being withdrawn from 
the shell without breaking it. The process of repair now 
])rogresses very slowly, it taking months, or even years, to 
form a perfect and coloured lip, if the injury be to that part. 
The colouring of the shell I believe to be owing to the pig- 
ment contained in the cells of the mantle being discharged, in 


consequence of their having arrived at maturity, and blending 
with the calcareous element, the colouring of the margin of 
the mantle being similar to that of the shell. Probably, this 
process is slightly modified in some instances by an especial 
gland providing the pigment incidentally to other functions it 
may have to perform. Instances of this might, perhaps, be 
found in those animals in Avhich the shell, having arrived at 
maturity, the lip is uniformly coloui'cd. 

^' From these facts I am led to believe, and, I trust, not 
without sufficient reason, that the shells of these animals are 
formed by the coalescence of minute particles of lime on the 
inner surface of a previously formed animal layer (epidermis), 
being attracted to it before they have time to form globules 
by their attraction to each other, it being the inner, instead 
of the outer, surface of this membrane, in consequence of its 
greater thickness preventing the fluid passing through it. 

" This idea is, I think, strengthened by the fact that globules 
of lime, in considerable quantities and of all sizes, are found 
in the mucus, on the surface, and also imbedded in the free 
edge of the mantle of Paludina vivipara, and probably in those 
of other moUusca, if carefully examined. 

" Yours truly, 

" C. Stewart. 

"St. BaktholomeVs Hospital; 
"Nov. 20, 1860." 

Besides the crystals above noticed, there are others which 
I hope to describe in a future number of this Journal, my 
present occupations taking up so much time as to render it 
impossible now to prolong this communication ; I hope also 
to extend the subject to the structure and development of 
striped muscular fibre. 


Remarks on the Glossiphonidje, a Family of Discophorous 
Annulata. By the Rev. W. Houghton, M.A., F.L.S. 

I AM induced to offer a few remarks on the above-named 
family, in the hopes of drawing the attention of microscopists 
to the structure and development of a small group of animals 
Mhich appear to have been almost neglected by JJritish 
naturalists, and although I have nothing to add to what M. 
Grube has published in his valuable memoir on the develop- 
ment of these animals — for he appears to have almost exhaust- 
ed the subject, while the researches of De Filippi, Midler, 
&c., have acquainted us Avith much that relates to their struc- 
ture and habits — yet, perhaps, as the members which com- 
pose this family are but little known, these few remarks will 
not be deemed altogether superfluous. 

With the exception of some observations of the late Dr, 
Rawlins Johnson and a few incidental remarks on some of 
the species of this family in the pages of the ' Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History,^ all that we know of the 
Glossiphonidae is derived from the works of Grube, De Filippi, 
O. F. Miiller, F. Miiller, and Moquin-Tandon. I can hardly 
speak in too high praise of Grube^s memoir ('Untersuchungen 
liber die Entwickelung der Clepsinen,^ Konigsburg, 1844) . 
Having taken up the subject of the development of these 
Annelids before I had seen the memoir above named, I am 
able, from independent observation, to confirm almost every 
point which that naturalist has advanced. 

The late Dr. Rawlins Johnson, of Bristol, was the first to 
establish on satisfactory grounds the genus Glosslphoniu and 
to separate it from that of Hirudo, under which genus it had 
been, since the time of Linnseus, generally comprised ; this 
was in 1816, but, strangely enough, in the following year this 
writer altered the very appropriate name of Glossiphonia into 
that of Glossipora, without any improvement in the term 
proposed ; it is, however, but fair that one of these names 
should be allowed to stand in preference to the ambiguous 
one of Clepsine, proposed by Savigny in 1827, although this 
latter term, in violation of the acknowledged laws of zoological 
nomenclature, has been generally adopted. The Glossiphonidiii 
are all inhabitants of fresh water, although Mr. Gosse, in his 
' Manual of Marine Zoology,' has erroneously admitted one 
species, G. rachana, W. Thompson, into the catalogue of 
marine worms. 

The genus coritains the following British species: — G'. biocu- 
lata, G. complanata, G. hyalina, G. verrucata, G. tessulutu, 


G. marginata, and G. rachana* G. complanata, hyalina, 
bioculata, appear to be common everywhere ; tessulata and 
marginata, which latter species I have lately added to our 
English Fauna {' Annals and Magazine of Natural History/ 
vol. V, No. 28, third series), are rarely found. G. tessulata, 
which is the largest British species known, approaches in its 
form and consistency to the genera Hirudo, HcB/nopis, &c. 

All the members of this family are interesting objects for 
microscopical study, owing to the extreme transparency of 
young individuals and the facility with which specimens may 
be procured. Some of the species, as G. coniplanata, G. mar- 
ginata, and G. tessulata, deposit their ova upon the under surface 
of submerged stones, pieces of wood, &c., sitting upon them 
until the embryos are hatched ; they may thus literally be 
said to incubate, which they do with an assiduity not inferior 
to some of the higher orders of animal life I know not who 
was the first observer to record this singular habit, but 
nothing of the kind occurs in any other animal so low in the 
scale of creation ; one is reminded, indeed, as Grube has 
observed, of the somewhat analogous case of Coccus, 
the wingless female of which sits over her ova, but in this 
case what is life to the new progeny is death to the parent, 
whose dead body forms a shield-like protection for her young; 
but the Glossiphon, though she shows a thin and emaciated 
appearance after the "lying-in," in time recovers her strength 
and usual figure. 

The Glossiphon is a leech-like animal, with a dilated and 
depressed body; the upper surface is more or less convex, and 
in some species beset with rows of small, conical, semi- 
transparent papillae ; the under surface is either flat or con- 
cave ; the anterior extremity, which in a few of the species 
may be said to form a distinct head, is always less obtuse 
than the posterior ; the mouth, which is situated nearly at 
the apex of the anterior extremity, is transverseh^ elliptical, 
two-lipped, and furnished with a strong, muscular, protractile 
proboscis, on which peculiarity Dr. R. Johnson formed the 
name of the genus which so appropriately characterises it ; 
the number of eyes varies in ditierent species, there being 
either one, two, three, or four pairs, generally of a black or deep- 
claret colour, disposed in two longitudinal series, but slightly 

* The names of five other species are given in Johnston's unpublislied 
'Cataloj^ne of Britisli Annelida,' viz., G . fava, G. granift-ra, G. circuUnis, 
G. lineata, and G. vitriiia ; the first, wjiich is described by Dalzcll, is evi- 
dently G. marginata, the last appears to be a variety of G. tessulata, a most 
variable species ; the claims of the three remaining species rest on very 
insufficient evidence. 


converging towards the anterior extremity ; in some indivi- 
duals, and frequently in the species G. hyalina and G. com- 
idaaala, the anterior pair are wanting, and the order of 
arrangement is confused. The posterior acetabulum is large 
and round ; the genital openings, of which the male is the 
upper, occur somewhere between the twenty-fifth and twenty- 
eighth ring of the body \ the digestive system consists of a 
stomach, having from five to seven pairs of gastric cseca ; the 
intestine has uniformly four cfeca. All the British members 
of this family are strictly oviparous ; one is surprised to read 
in Diesing's ' Systema Helminthum' (vol. i, 446), "utplurimum 
vivipara." They are incapable of swimming, and move from 
place to place like the caterpillars called geometric ; this is 
particularly the case in the species G. tessulata and G. mar- 
ginata, which are very active in their movements. Most of 
the species roll their bodies up like Onisci if taken out of the 
"water and handled. They inhabit brooks and ponds ; and 
though all the species above enumerated are, as stated by 
Diesing, " aquarum dulcium incolce," they are frequently found 
in water which is anything but sweet. None of the British 
species can be truly said to be parasitic, though any of them 
may be occasionally found upon the bodies of aquatic animals, 
on the juices of which they feed. I purpose now to make a 
few observations on — 

1st. The structure of the Glossiphons. 

2dly. Their mode of increase, and the development of 
the embryos. 

1st. The normal form of the body, when at rest is pear- 
shaped, the posterior extremity being rounded and obtuse, 
the body narrowing somewhat suddenly towards the anterior 
extremity, but different species vary slightly inter se ; the 
mouth, which is always subterminal and bilabiate, and with- 
out teeth, leads to the proboscis by a delicate, transparent, 
membranous oesophagus, with which it is continuous, and by 
which it is included; this membrane is dra\vn back over the 
proboscis, when it is extended, in a manner similar to the 
unfolding of a glove from the finger ; the form of this exsert- 
ile tube is cylindrical, minutely lipped or segmented at the 
apex, and commonly bulbous at the base; it is of a sub- 
cartilaginous consistency, and supplied with powerful mus- 
cles, by means of which it is worked ; under the microscope, 
the reticulated, muscular structure is observal)lc, more espe- 
cially on the bulbous portion of the proboscis. It is by 
means of this tube tliat the animal pumps out the juices of 
its victims, its lal)iated apex seeming to act the part of a 
mouth. There arc some slight modifications of form iu the 

36 Hou(;nT()N, on the glossiphoxid.e. 

different species, but tlie prineiple of mechanical action is 
the same in all. G. h'wculata, the smallest British species, 
if i)nt into the palm of the hand, has the habit of thrusting 
out its proboscis to the length of, perhaps, a third of its 
own body. I have not noticed this habit in any other 
species. Connected and continuous with the bulbous base of 
the proboscis is anotlier, transparent, hollow membrane (the 
continuation of the oesophagus), which, Avhen the proboscis 
is not exserted, twists and rests upon itself. At the base of 
this membrane is the commencement of the " stomach, the 
Avails of which are attached to the surface of the body of the 
animal. The stomach is furnished with five or seven pair of 
gastric cieca, which are either simple or forked at their 
extremities; there are also, in some species, very small caeca, 
in advance of the large sacs, which, perhaps, have a kindred 
function. The last pair of cseca, which is always the largest, 
is directed downwards towards the posterior extremity, 
while the rest are nearly at right angles to the mesial axis 
of the body. De Filippi {' Lettcra al Sign. Rusconi, sopra 
I'Anatomia e lo Sviluppo delle Clepsine,' Pavia, 1839) 
asserts that he has observed between the digestive canal and 
the blood-vessels a special communication, by means of 
which animal juices sucked by the Glossiphon pass almost 
im mediately into the blood-vessels, and that thus, by trans- 
fusion, as it were, the snail-leech acquires a supply of blood. 
I have never noticed anything of this kind in the numerous 
examples I have submitted to patient investigation. The 
intestine in these animals is furnished uniformly with four 
pair of cxcvL, the two anterior pair of which are directed 
upwards ; the anus, which is more readily recognised when 
the animal is out of the water, is round, and situated just 
above the juncture of the acetabulum and trunk of the body. 
In young specimens, and more especially in those of the 
beautiful little species G. hyolina, the digestive cteca are 
frequently found to be of a brilliant-red or vermilion colour. 
"Whence is this red colour derived ? Moquin Taudon 
(' Monograpliie de la Famille des Ilirudinees,^ 1846) has 
figured a young G. stwocuhita [complaiiata] with these blood- 
red ea'ca ; he says the specimen had sucked the blood of an 
Hannopis. But if this colour be derived solely from blood 
which the aninnd has swallowed, how can we account for the 
fact that it is always, as far as I remember, in the young 
individuals that the red colour is observed? Full-grown 
specimens do not exhibit this appearance. I have reared 
individuals from ova which had been deposited in vessels in 
which it was impossible for the young ones to have obtained 


red ])loo{l, l)ut it was a common tliirif;^ to remark that speci- 
mens of about three lines long, and seven or eight weeks 
old, had their digestive system thus beautifully coloured. 
The suljject is worthy of further investigation. 

The circulation in the (jlossiphonidjc may be most readily 
watched in the young of any of the species, and in achdt 
individuals of G. b'wculata and (i. Jiyal'ina, but from the 
transparency of the circulating fluids and from the com- 
plexity of the vascular system, Avith its numerous network of 
vessels which communicate with the dorsal and lateral ones, 
it is extremely difficult to make out with satisfaction the 
true and complete course of the vital fluid. This much, 
however, I have been al)le to notice. There is a large and 
tortuous dorsal vessel, a ventral vessel, two lateral vessels, 
with innumerable other small ones, which form almost a 
network of communication between the grand central and 
lateral canals. The dorsal vessel is furnished, at intervals, Avith 
valve-like processes, which are arranged alternately on cither 
side of it; it is contractile and heart-like in its functions. 
Tliis group thus differs in a very important particular from 
the true leeches Avhich form the genera Hirudo, Hamopis, 
Aulostoma, Trochetia, and Nephelis, in all of which the 
side vessels, and not the dorsal, are contractile, and act the 
part of a heart. I have carefully studied the mechanical 
action of these valve-like processes alluded to above, and 
believe that they are designed to propel a large portion of 
the vital fluid to the sides ; this they do by partly closing a 
section of the dorsal vessel, and thus stopping a certain quan- 
tity of the blood from flowing up it ; this section of the 
dorsal vessel contracts and forces a portion of the blood into 
the numerous branching channels which communicate with 
the dorsal and lateral vessels ; indeed, the dorsal vessel may 
be considered to consist of several hearts, each one of which, 
so far as its functions are concerned, being formed by the 
space included by the valves, which, simultaneously with the 
contraction, swing on their narrow bases, by which they 
are attached each to the; opposite side of the dorsal vessel, 
and thus partially close it, not entirely, hoAvever, for even 
Avhen tlie valves are closed corpuscles may be seen to pass 
through the narrow portal from one of the dorsal cham- 
bers to another; in this manner a large portion of the 
blood finds its Avay through the intercommunicating chan- 
nels to the grand lateral vessels, for the purpose, as Avill be seen 
by and by, of becoming oxygenated. F. jMiiller {' Dc Hiru- 
dinibus circa Bcrolinum observatis^) supposes these valves 
are merely intended to prevent the vital fluid from flowing 


down the main dorsal vessel, instead of vp it. I feel 
confident, however, that they have such a function as I 
have endeavoured to explain. 

Respiration in the Glossiphonidse is, no doubt, in some 
measure carried on by the entire skin, as in the true red- 
blooded leeches, the vital fluid being oxygenated by fresh 
currents of water, which the animal is careful to create by 
attaching itself by the two extremities, and waving in an 
undulatory manner the intermediate portion of its body. 
There is, however, another and a very important method 
by means of which the respiration is performed. All 
the members of this group have the margins of the body 
much dilated and very thin. Careful focussing of the micro- 
scope will enable the observer to recognise the presence of 
minute channels down each side, which lead from the two 
main lateral vessels to the extreme verge of the margin ; 
into these channels the blood flows, describing a kind of a 
circuit, and returning again to the lateral vessels; the 
extreme tenuity of the margins must thus allow the blood to 
be freely and rapidly renewed in those vessels which per- 
meate it by the contact of the water Avhich surrounds the 
vessels, and which is thus brought into close proximity with 

The nervous system in these animals is readily recognis- 
able by dissection ; it lies on the ventral surface, and consists 
of a nervous cord, or, as it is usual to say, of two nervous 
filaments united together, ha\dng a large, ganglionic, oesopha- 
geal ring, with about twenty ganglia situated at irregular in- 
tervals one from the other, the last ganglion being the largest. 

The generative organs are represented in Plate III, fig. 11. 
In the spring of the year a long, white band may be discerned 
through the integuments of the abdomen, reaching some way 
down towards the posterior extremity; these are the testes, 
which descend as lengthened filaments and then turn back again, 
the ascending and descending lines being entwined together. 
The spermatozoa are arranged in curious, curved, wedge- 
shaped masses, and, at the proper season, an immense quan- 
tity of these may be seen. The female organ is just under- 
neath the male. The ovaries arc two sac-like, membranous 
lobes, within which, at one period of their development, are to 
be seen several round vitelli, which are attached on either side 
of a long, tortuous cord ; these are, of course, detached from 
the funiculus before exclusion. Notwithstanding most 
attentive observation, I have never witnessed anything like 
a generative act in any of the numerous individuals Avhich I 
have had under inspection. F. Miillcr, however, has proved 


that this act docs take place in the case of G. tessulata, l)ut 
further observations on this point are needed before we can 
decide whether all these animals are self or mutually im- 
pregnatinjj, or how far the presence of two individuals is 
necessary for the purpose of generation. 

If specimens of these worms be procured early in March, 
and kept in vessels of water, ample facility will be afforded 
of noticing the manner of depositing the ova, the period of 
incubation, and the gradual development of the young from 
the vitellus to the perfect individual ; and the extreme trans- 
parency of very young individuals renders a study of their 
structure easy and delightful. 

G. hyalina and G. bioculata do not sit upon their ova, but 
carry them about Avitli them on the abdominal surface. The 
ova and young of G. bioculata are very effectually protected 
bylmeans of the folding inwards of the sides of the parent, 
which are thus made almost to meet and to form a sort 
of pouch ; this fact will, I believe, explain the error of some 
who have asserted that the Glossiphons are, in some cases, 

The young are hatched, i. e. the partially developed embryo 
leaves its pellucid, gelatinous envelope in about ten days 
after the ovum is deposited ; the number of vitelli in each 
envelope is variable, not only in the diff"erent species, but in 
individuals of the same species and in the indi\adual itself. 
In G. complanata and G. marginata three to fifteen vitelli 
may be contained by the delicate covering. G. tessulata is 
the most prolific of all the species ; I have counted a hundred 
and twenty young ones attached to the parent. The young, 
for some little time after they are perfectly formed, continue 
tied to their " mother's apron-strings," which they generally 
leave when they are about six weeks old. 

The Glossiphons, like all other animals, and especially 
such as are aquatic, have their external and internal parasites ; 
upon the curious, horn-like plate of membrane in the neck of 
G. bioculata it is a very common thing to find a species of 
Epistylis firmly attached to it. I have never observed this 
parasite either on any other Glossiphon or on any other 
part of G. bioculata but on the cervical plate. If it has 
never been described, I propose to call it Epistylis Glossi- 

I am quite unable to form the most remote conjecture as 
to the use of the plate referred to above. It is situated and 
opens out at the upper part of the neck. This membranous, 
cup-shaped body is characteristic of G. bioculata. 


An Account of some Parasitic Ova found attached to the 
Conjunctivae of the Turtle's Eyes. By Edwin Canton, 
F.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Charing Cross Hospital, and 
Lecturer on Surgical Anatomy. 

(Reprinted from the ' Dublin Medical Press.') 

In July last, while engaged in the microscopical examina- 
tion of the tissues of the eye of the common Turtle, I dis- 
covered a large number of parasitic ova attached to all parts 
of the conjunctiva, with the exception of the modified portion 
of this membrane which extends across the cornea. The ova 
were equally numerous in both eyes. I repeated the examina- 
tion, and, in five consecutive instances, met with these cystic 
bodies, in the same situation^ in the two eyes of each of the 
turtles. In a sixth specimen, however, the ova were entirely 

The turtles were lively at their death, which was of a sud- 
den and violent character, and took place in the city. I 
could discover no epizoon on any part of their heads which 
were sent to me. 

With such fixedness are the ova adherent to tlie conjunc- 
tiva, that not even roughly scraping off" the thick, slimy, 
secretion which covers this tunic detaches them. I de- 
tected them once within a few hours after the death of the 
animal they infest, and, in this instance, found them present 
in large numbers on the eyes of a turtle weighing upwards 
of a hundred pounds. As I have already stated, they were 
seen on all parts of the palpebral and sclerotic, but not on 
the corneal conjunctiva. 

So minute are these bodies, that they are undistinguishable 
to the naked eye. 

Subjoined is a magnified -vdew of them, in a group, as 
shown under the microscope, and drawn by the end of the 
camera lucid a. 

Form. — Elongated, unequally ovate ; at each extremity 
the body is prolonged into an infundibuliform appendage, 
one of which is about a third of the length of the long dia- 
meter of the body, and terminates in a fine point, abruptly 
curved so as to constitute a short hook, whereby secui'c 
anchorage to the conjunctiva is cftccted ; the other is larger 
and longer, nearly equalling in length the whole ovum, and 
ends also in a fine point ; it is curved at the terminal point, 
so as to form a coil, which often presents one or two turns ; 



this may be regarded as tlic suctorial portion. The body is 
a simple sac, entirely destitute of internal organs. 

Size. — For the convenience merely of stating the following 
measurements, I may refer to the different parts of an ovum 
as head, neck, body, and tail. Some of the ova are rather 
smaller than others, but the annexed has reference to one of 
larger and more ordinary dimensions : 

Total length 

Length of neck . . . . 
body . . . . 

„ tail . . . . 

Breadth of head . . 
Neck a little below this . 

„ at origin from body 
Body at its Avidest part 
Tail at origin . . . . 











Colour. — The colour of all the ova is yellowish ; or, per- 
haps, it may more ccfl'rectly be said to be a light, ochreish- 
yellow ; this tint pervades uniformly every part. 

Consistence. — The chitinous shell-membrane appears to be 
tough and resistant ; for when, in examination, an ovum has 
been irregularly compressed, it is thrown into large and 
sharply-angled iblds, — no fine wrinkling is to be observed. 

Arjjjreuation. — The ova are comniouly found to be solitary 
or in pairs ; more rarely arc they gregarious 


but when in 


groups, there are five, eight, or sometimes ten, collected to- 

In all the eyes examined, with the exception of those of 
the sixth turtle, I discovered a second form of ovum, not dif- 
fering, however, in any material degree, from that already 

The body is elongated, but not so swollen as in the pre- 
ceding variety, though it is still unequally ovate. The 
shorter filament, which terminates one extremity, is less 
regularly infundibnliform ; its thinnest portion is rather sud- 
denly bent at an acute or right angle to the body, and ends 
in two hooks, joined by their convexities. From the oppo- 
site portion of the body the suctorial filament passes, and is, 
relatively to the corresponding part in the first-mentioned 
ova, longer and more thread-like ; slightly funnel-shaped at 
its commencement, it soon contracts, and, after a more or 
less flexuous course, ends by a rather sudden expansion into 
a flattened disc. 

These ova are exceedingly few in number, and are generally 
smaller than those first described; they are, for the most 
part, found solitary : I presume them to be the same as those 
previously mentioned, only in an earlier stage of development. 

Dr. Spencer Cobbold has obligingly examined my speci- 
mens, and I am indebted to him for the favour of the following 
communication : — " After a careful examination, I have ar- 
rived at the conclusion that the foreign cystic bodies adherent 
to the conjunctiva are the ova of an cctozoon, the latter 
being parasitic, either upon the turtle itself, or upon some 
crustaccous epizoon likewise infesting the turtle. 

" These ova differ in appearance from any I have hitherto 
encountered, and are especially interesting in the circum- 
stance of their presenting filamentary appendages at both 
ends. The hook-like filament is, probably, distinctive of the 
species of parasite to ^\ liicli the ova may be referred. 

"Tlie eggs of various forms of entozoa, and also in the 
allied ectozoa, display fiUuueiitary appendages at both ends 
of the chitinous shell-capsules ; these processes generally re- 


sembling each other, as may he seen, e. ij. in Monostoma 
ven'ucosinn miciA'wi^, the fox, in Tcenia ci/ai/iiforr/ns hclonj^ng 
to the swallow, and in Tcenia variabilis of the gambet. In 
some cases, where the filaments are shorter, the eggs more 
closely resemble those to which you have directed my atten- 
tion. This is evident in the ova of a curious trcmatode — 
Octohothrium lanceolatinn — attached to the gills of the com- 
mon herring, and likewise in the eggs of the still more eccen- 
tric-looking parasite — Pohjstoiaa appendiculata — found on the 
branchiffi of various marine fishes. 

" In all probability, the entozoon from which the ova you 
have found proceed is closely allied to those forms of trcmatode, 
or fluke- worm parasites, whose eggs display only one thread- 
like appendage, or ' holdfast.'' For example, the eggs of 
different species of Dacfi/lof/tjrus infesting the gills of the 
pike exhibit ova of this kind (a good representation of this 
is given by Guido Wagoner in ' Siebold and Kolliker's Zeit- 
schrift,^ vol. ix, plate v, fig. 8). The eggs of Diplozoon pa- 
radoxum are also especially worthy of notice, as, from G. 
Wagener's recent Prize Essay {' Beitrage zur Entwicklungs- 
geschichte der Eingeweidewiirmer'), it would appear that the 
single filament is liable to vary in length ; whilst (as Van 
Beneden, Dujardin, and other observers have shown) the 
end of the filament is ordinarily coiled upon itself in a man- 
ner precisely analogous to that noticeable in the ova from the 
eye of the turtle. 

" On the whole, therefore, I think we may safely conclude 
that the ova under consideration are referable to a parasite 
more or less allied to the well-known Diplozoon paradoxum 
of Nordman ; and I have little doubt that — if not already 
known to some Continental helminthologist — we shall, ere 
long, discover them in the oviducts of some species of Poly- 
stoma, Tristoiiia, Octohothrium, Dactyloyyrus, or other allied 
genus of trcmatode worm.^^ 



Note on Triciiixa spiralis. By Professor Yiiiciiow, 

('Comptcs lleudus,' July 2, ISfiO, p. 13.) 

I HAD tlie honour last autumn of communicating to the 
Academy some of the first results of my researches respecting 
the development of Trichince introduced into the animal 
economy through the digestive passages. 

Since then the Academy has been made acquainted with 
the researches of Professor Leuckart, which . appeared^ in 
contradiction to mine^ to show that Trichoceplialus was a 
stage in the regular development of Trichina. 

Subsequent observations have proved that Trichina repre- 
sents a distinct genus of entozoa^ and Professor Leuckart 
has himself recognised the truth of my first observations. 

It is in rabbits that I have been able to trace the develop- 
ment of the Trichina. When a rabbit has been made to 
eat meal containing Trichince, after three or four weeks it 
will be perceived to become emaciated; its strength is sensibly 
diminished, and it dies about the fifth or sixth week after 
the ingestion of the trichinized food. The voluntary muscles 
of the deceased animal AviU be found filled vrith millions of 
Trichince ; and there can be no doubt tliat death has ensued 
from a progressive muscular atrophy, consecutive upon the 
migrations of the Trichince into the system. 

In one case I was myself witness of the animaPs death. It 
was so weak tliat it could not stand on its feet ; lying upon 
the side, it exhibited from time to time slight struggles ; at 
last the respiratory movements ceased, whilst the heart con- 
tinued to beat regularly; death took place after a few con- 
vulsive movements. 

By this method of feeding I liave obtained four generations 
of cntozoa. I first fed a rabbit with living Trichince occupying 
a human muscle ; it died at the end of a month. I then 
administered to a second rabbit son." f^^ the licsh of the 


former; it also died at the end of a montli. Tlie flesh 
of this ra])bit was used to infect three otliers at the same 
time^ two of which died three weeks afterAvards, and the third 
at the end of a nioutli. I then fed two others, the one with 
a good deal and the other Avith a small quantity of the flesh 
of these three. The first died at the end of eight days, and 
in this case nothing was revealed on the autopsy beyond an 
intestinal catarrh ; the second died six weeks after the com- 
mencement of the experiment. 

In all these animals, with the exception of the last hut one, 
all the red muscles, save the heart, contained such a quantity 
of Trichina, that every portion examined under the micro- 
scope exhibited several, sometimes as many as a dozen. 

We have here, then, to do with a mortal afifeetion. 
Attentive observation of the phenomena presented in these 
animals, as well as in others, afforded the following results. 
A few hours after the ingestion of the diseased flesh tlie 
Trichince, disengaged from the muscle, are found free in the 
stomach ; they pass thence into the duodenum, and afterwards 
advance still further into the small intestine, where they 
become developed. From the third or fourth day, ova or 
spermatic cells are found, the sexes in the meanwhile 
becoming distinctly marked. Shortly afterwards the ova are 
impregnated, and young, living entozoa are developed Avithin 
the bodies of the female Tncldnte. The young are expelled 
through the vaginal orifice, which is situated towards the 
anterior half of the worm, and I haA'c noticed them, under the 
form of minute Filarice, in the mesenteric glands, and more 
especially, in consideraljle number, in the serous cavities, 
particularly the peritoneum and perieardivma. According to 
all appearance, they had tra\'ersed the walls of the intestine, 
following, probably, the same course as that pursued by the 
Psorospermia, according to the researches of one of my pupils, 
T>r. Klebs ; that is to say, they penetrate into the epithelial 
cells of the intestine. Further than this I have been unable 
to discover them either in the blood or circulatory system. 

Continuing their migrations, they penetrate as far as the 
interior of the primitive muscular fasciculi, where they may 
be found, as early even as three Aveeks after the alimentation, 
in considerable numbers, and so far developed that the young 
entozoa have almost attained a size equal to that of the 
TrichiiKE contained in the flesh Avhich had been administered. 

In order to be certain that before the experiment the 
animal had no Trichince in its muscles, I have, on several 
occasions, before administering the trichinized flesh, examined 
a portion of muscidar tissue excised from the back, in which 


not a trace of the parasites could be discerned, where after- 
wards they would be found in such great numbers. 

The TrichincE progressively advance into the interior of the 
muscular fasciculi, where they are often seen, several in a 
file one after the other. Behind them the muscular tissue 
becomes atrophied, and around them an irritation is set up, 
and from the commencement of the fifth week they begin to 
become encysted. The sarcolemma is thickened, and the 
contents of the muscidar fibres exhibit indications of a more 
active cell-growth; the cyst consequently is the product of 
a sort of traumatic irritation. 

In the dog, the development of the TricMnce in the intes- 
tine may be very readily followed, but they do not pass into 
the muscles, either because the intestine or the digestive 
secretions of the dog present oljstacles to the migration or to 
the ulterior development of these worms. 

I have to thank Professor Zencker, of Dresden, for the 
muscles of the woman with which I began this series of 
researches. In this case death had occurred under circum- 
stances precisely similar to those which I observed in my 
rabbits ; the autopsy disclosed no lesion beyond the presence of 
innumerable Trichince in the muscles, and neither here nor in 
the muscles of the rabbits were they visible to the naked eye. 

From these facts, then, it results, that fatal cases of 
infection by Trichin(E may take place, in which the cause 
of death caimot be recognised except by the microscope; 
and that, up to the present time, no other cases had been 
observed except those in which the entozoa had not only 
become encysted, but in which the greater number of the 
cysts had already reached a very advanced stage of cretifica- 
tion ; for it is in this condition only that they become visible 
to the naked eye. 

Moreover, since the cysts are not formed before the fourth 
to the sixth week, nor does the cretification take place, pro- 
bably, till after the lapse of some months, it may be con- 
cluded that, up to the present time, cases of this affection 
have not been recognised in the human subject until it 
had undergone a sort of cure, the symptoms belonging to 
the recent evolution of the Trich'nue having been long for- 
gotten. If the antecedent conditions in patients who have 
experienced the symptoms above cited were accurately 
noted, Ave should probably soon see the number of cases of 
trichinization increased. 

Besides the merit of having proved the existence in 
man of the Trichimc which I had found in the intestine 
of the dog, experiments with reference to wliicli I have 


communicated to the Academy, Professor Zencker has dis- 
covered the source of the Trichince which had infected his 
patient, and thus been able to throw great light upon the 
etiology of this affection. As the patient had been brought 
to tlie hospital at Dresden from the country, Professor 
Zencker instituted inquiries, and found that, four weeks 
previously, a pig containing Trichime had been killed in the 
same dwelling ; that the ham and sausages made of the flesh 
of this animal contained a great number ; and lastly, that 
the butcher who had slaughtered the pig, and had swallowed 
the TricJwKB in the recent state, as several other persons 
also did, had, as well as they, presented rheumatic and 
typhoid symptoms of greater or less severity; but the 
patient who was sent to Dresden was the only one who fell a 
victim to the ingestion of the flesh of this pig. 

This condition therefore now involves questions of great 
hygienic interest. 

1. The ingestion of pig's flesh, fresh or badly dressed, con- 
taining Trichince, is attended with the greatest danger, and 
may prove the proximate cause of death. 

2. The Trichinm maintain their living properties in de- 
composed flesh ; they resist immersion in water for weeks 
together; and when encysted, may, without injury to their 
vitality, be plunged in a sufficiently dilute solution of 
chromic acid for at least ten days. 

3. On the contrary, they perish and are deprived of all 
noxious influence in ham which has been well smoked, and 
been kept a sufficient length of time before it is consumed. 

New Experiments on Heterogenesis, hy means of the 
Air contained in the Closed Cavities of Plants. By MM. 
N. JoLY and Ch. Mussey. 

(' Comptes Reudus,' Oct. 22, ISGO, p. G27.) 


At the beginning of the year, the authors communicated to 
the Academy the result of some experiments instituted with 
the view of satisfying themselves with respect to the origin of 
the ]\Iicrophytes and ]\ricrozoa, which are always and every- 
where produced in infusions of organic matters. After new 


experiments, continued uninterruptedly for six months^ they 
are prepared with fresh evidence in the cause now at issue 
"between the partisans and the opponents of heterorjenesis. 

As, in fact, the cardinal point of the question is reduced to 
the means we may have of obtaining air of extreme purity, 
that is to say, completely deprived of the germs which are 
said to float in the atmosphere, they conceived the idea of 
experimenting with the air or gas contained in the closed 
cavities of organized bodies. The swimming-bladder of 
fishes, the fruit of the bladder-nut, the fruit of the piment 
ufinuel, the enormous cavity in the culinaiy Cucurbitacese, 
&c., afforded, as it may be said, exactly what was desired. 
They then proceed to detail the results of an experiment of 
this kind made with the Pumpkin. 

They boiled for two hours in distilled water some pieces of 
sheep's liver. They then took a tube, blown into a pear- 
shaped bulb at one extremity, open and drawn out at the 
other. This tube was heated for half an houi', until the glass 
was softened, and at this moment the open end was hermeti- 
cally closed with the blowpipe. "When cold, the point is 
plunged into the boiling decoction and broken off below the 
surface. A portion of the fluid enters the tube, which is 
immediately placed on burning charcoal. Ebullition recom- 
mences, and the tube is again closed whilst the steam is 
escaping. The continuance of the ebullition, sometimes for 
more than a quarter of an hour after the removal of the tube 
from the fire, shows that the vacuum is as perfect as possible. 
When the apparatus is cooled, the point of the tube is inserted 
in the flesh of the gourd, and broken off after it has entered 
some distance. On its reaching the cavity of the fruit, a small 
quantity of air enters the tube containing the decoction. In 
order to take every possible precaution, a thick layer of copal 
varnish, thickened with vermilion, was placed around the 
wound made by the entrance of the tube. A criterion 
apparatus was placed alongside, as a term of comparison. This 
experiment, simple as it may appear, nevertheless presents 
considerable difficulties in the performance. The authors 
succeeded well twice, but made several other attempts in 
vain ; being baffled sometimes by one cause, sometimes by 

At the end of six days' attentive watching, they examined 
the decoction, and perceived in it ni/Dwroiis Bacteria, ^lany 
were already dead, and the survivors in a languid condition ; 
a very natural result, if we consider, — 1, that the air contained 
in the pumpkin abounds in carbonic acid, of which it holds 
about four per cent. ; 3, that only a few bul)blcs of air entered 


the decoction, wliicli otherwise contained very little ; 3, that 
the air was not renewed. 

The criterion apparatus presented the same animalcules, 
but they were far more numerous and more lively, which is to 
he attril)uted, without dou])t, to the more abundant supply 
and easy renewal of the air in contact with the decoction. 

In support of these results might be cited those which were 
obtained on the authors repeating, with the utmost care and 
with some modifications of their own, the experiments of 
Schultze, of Schwann, and of Mantcgazza. 

In the experiment performed according to the methods of 
Schultze and of Schwann, they obtained both ^licrophytes 
and Microzoa in the one case, and ^Nlicrozoa only in the 
other, although the air employed had been purified by 
sulphuric acid, potass, or heat, and sometimes by two of these 
agents. With respect to ISIantcgazza's experiment,"^ which the 
authors think has been too little regarded in France, it has 
aflbrded in then* hands rcsidts very nearly identical with those 
stated by that physiologist ; that is to say, abundance of 
Bacterium termo and Bacterium catenula. 

* Vide 'Giornale del R. Istituto Lombardo,' torn, iii, p. 467, " Ricliciche 
suUa Generazione degli Infusoria di P. Manteeazza," Milauo, 1S5L 



The Honey-Bee, its natural history, habits, anatomy, and 
microscopical beauty. By James Samuelson, assisted by J. 
Braxton HickSj M.D. London : Van Voorst. 

The author of tins little work, and liis able assistant, Dr. 
Hicks, are well known for a former attempt at making known 
the structure of some of the more frequent forms of the lower 
animals around us. We spoke very highly of ' The Earth- 
worm and the Housefly,^ Avhen they appeared ; and we feel 
called on to give the same meed of praise to ' The Honey-bee.' 
Although Mr. Samuelson has gone over much ground that 
was previously well trodden, in his account of the structure 
and history of the habits of the bee, he has succeeded in 
making the subject his own, and treating it in a way that 
demands our praise in a literary point of view. The general 
structure of the bee is highly interesting, and we do not know 
of any descriptions of the minuter points of the anatomy of 
these insects which can claim to be more minute and accurate 
than those contained in this little volume. As much of the 
matter contained in this department of the volume has not 
appeared before in a popular form, we take the liberty of 
making rather a long extract from the chapter descriptive of 
the eyes of the bee. The author expresses himself as in- 
debted for this part of his work to the labours of Dr. Hicks, 
who is Avell known to the cultivators of microscopical science 
for the extent and accuracy of his observations. 

" In order to afford some idea of the general cliaracter and operatioQ of 
one of these eonipound eyes, we sliall compare it to a bundle of telescopes 
(3500, remember !), so grouped together that the large terminable lenses 
present an extensive convex surface, whilst, in consequence of the decreasing 
(fiameter of the instruments, their narrow ends meet and form a smaller 
concentric curve, 'ii'dw, if you can imagine it possible to look through all 
these tclescojics at one glance, obtaining a similar effect to that of the stereo- 
scope, you will be able to form some concei)tion of what is probably the 
operation of vision in the Bee. This comparison, however, presents but a 


crude and imperfect idea of the organ in question, and we shall now accu- 
rately describe one of these ' telescopes,' as \vc have popularly termed them. 
"Each of the eyelets or 'ocelli' which, aggregated, constitute the com- 
pound eye of a Bee is itself a perfect instrument of vision, consisting of 
two remarkably formed lenses, namely, an outer ' corneal' lens and an inner 
or 'conical' lens. The 'corneal' lens is a hexahedral or six-sided [)rism, 
and it is the assemblage of these prisms that forms what is called the 
''cornea' of the compound eye. 

" This 'cornea ' may easily be peeled off, and if the whole, or a portion, 
be placed under the microscope, the grouping of the beautiful lenses becomes 
distinctly visible. 

"Eut, stay ! we must not yet part company with tlie corneal lens of the 
Eee's eyelet ; for, on closer iuvesligation, we shall perceive that it is not a 
simple but a compound lens, — a fact of considerable importance, that has, 
we believe, been overlooked by ]>hysiologists. It is composed of two plano- 
convex lenses (that is, as you doubtless know, lenses having a plane and a 
convex surface) of dill'ereut densities or refracting powers, and the plane sur- 
faces of these lenses being adherent, it follows that the prismatic corneal 
lens is a compound double convex lens.* 

" The effect of this arrangement is, that if there should be any aberration or 
divergence of the rays of light during their passage through one portion of 
the lens, it is rectified in its transit through the other. Now it is nothing 
new to find in the eye of an animal lenses of different densities, but we do 
not recollect ever having heard of any other instance where one compound 
lens has been found consisting of two adherent ones of this description.f 
How remarkable, then, that we should discover such a phenomenon in so 
humble an animal as the Bee ! Aye, reader; and how remarkable, too, that 
we should find such a contrivance adopted by man in the construction of 
what he at present considers the most perfect microscopic lens ! 

"With untn-ing patience and perseverance his mind was directed to the 
attainment of this end, namely, to correct the aberration of light, which 
caused his lenses to colour and distort the objects under investigation, until 
he found that, by employing compound lenses of varying densities, this evil 
effect was counteracted ; and now we see that the Creator had, probably 
before man was brought into existence, constructed the eye of the Bee on 
the same principle. 

"There is one thought that cannot fail to present itself to the reQecting 
mind in connexion with this analogy i)etween the eye of the Bee and the 
achromatic lens, confirmatory of the great declaration that 'God made man 
in Ilis own image,' — Has not man invented what He no doubt suggested, 
but not alone through the medium of the external senses ? for man knew 
nothing of the compound lens in the Bee's eyelet when the idea occurred to 
him to construct an achromatic lens for his microscope, and yet it is obvious 
that he hit upon one of the most perfect means of attaining the desired end ! 

" A word more regarding the corneal lenses of the Bee. 

"It appears to us questionable whether the normal shape of these lenses 
is hexagonal, or whether this form is not rather a necessity of growth ; that 
is to say, we think they are normally round, but assume the hexagonal 
shape during the process of development in consequence of their agglomera- 
tion. If this surmise be correct, it applies equally to the compound eyes 
of all insects, and our inference in this respect is drawn — 

* "We believe the credit of this discovery is due to Dr. J. B. Hicks, 
t It is not unlikely that the eyes of other insects arc similarly con- 


" 1. From the exceptional character of hexagonal or any other than cir- 
cular lenses in the eyes of all animals, and from the fact of the simple eyes 
of insects themselves being circular. 

" 2. From tlic circuiiistanee that, in the insect races, the conical lenses 
of the ocelli (to be described presently), whicii do not impinge one upon 
another, are not hexagonal but round. 

"3. Because iu the posterior angle of the compound eye of the worker- 
bee we often find some of the conical or external lenses of a smaller size, 
and not adliereut, but having a little intermediate space surrounding each, 
and these facets are invuriaUij round. 

" From tlie fact that in one in-ect at least, the sheep-tick {Melophagus 
ovi/ins), whicli ranks very low in llie scale of development, we find all ihe 
external facets of the compound eyes non-adherent and circular.* 

"So much, then, for the corneal lens of the ocellus of the Bee, a com- 
pound hexahedral prism with double convex surfaces. Following the course 
of a ray of light after it has passed through this lens, we find that it tra- 
verses a vacant space before entering the conical lens, this space being sur- 
I'ouuded by the dark pigment already referred to, and constricted or nar- 
rowed midway into the form of a round hole, on the same ])rinciple as the 
diaphragm in the eye-piece of a microsco|ie or iu the Coddiugtou lens. 

" This natural diaphragm is so formed, that the amount of light which 
is permitted to pass is to some extent limited, and any remaining tendency 
to aberration in this wonderful instrument is thereby completely corrected. 
The same layer of dark colouring-matter is continued downwards between 
the conical lenses, so that these are effectually isolated, and the rays cannot 
become confused by passing from one lens to the other. The conical lens 
is curiously shaped, but simple iu its structure, not being compound, as is 
the corneal lens, but of the same density throughout. It is also double 
convex, the base as well as the apex (from which the point is removed) pre- 
senting rounded surfaces. 

"At the apex it comes into contact with the bulbous expansion of the 
optic nerve, which receives the image of the external object, and this nerve 
proceeds downward in a line continuous with the axis of the ocellus, until it 
meets the nerves of the other eyelets. These then unite and form a com- 
mon trunk that communicates with what we may popularly call the insect's 
brain (strictly sneaking, the 'cephalic f/a/iglia'). 

"But you mavj perhaps, be puzzled to understand how so many small 
images, as must necessarily enter the comjiound eye of the Bee, can become 
amalgamated and comi)ine to form a single picture of the external field ; 
the ellcct will, however, be perfectly clear to your mind, if you only con- 
sider the action of our own two eyes, which convey to our brain not two, 
but only one distinct image of the surrounding objects ; and supposing 
that, instead of two, we had a considerable number of eyes properli/ dis- 
posed, the ultimate effect would be just the same. Kow, an examination 
of the external lenses of the compound eye of the Bee shows that their 
surfaces, especially the inner ones, are not all of equal convexity, .ind 
there appears to be, as we might expect, such an arrangement and disposi- 
tion of the whole mass as to ensure the most perfect co-operation between 
each lens and the surrounding ones. "We also find regularly scattered over 
the surface of the cornea — in fact, one between almost every lens aud its 
neighbour — a great number of long hairs, and these also aid, no doubt, in 

* A careful examination of the eye in the pnpa, whilst in process of 
development, confirms the opinion here expressed. 


tlic stoppage or diversion of indirect rays that migLt tend to confuse the 
common image. 

" In a former work* we expressed the opinion that the object of these 
numerous facets in the compound eyes of insects is to render tlie external 
field clearer when the insect has occasion to enter the dim hollows of flowers 
and other dark places in search of food, through the formation of a single 
picture by the union of a great number of smaller images ; and this view 
would appear to receive striking conQrmation from the organs of vision in 
the Bee, which spends a considerable portion of his time iu the corolla; of 
flowers, or in the darkened hive." 

After this lengtlicncd extract, wliich will give our readers 
a good idea of the style and the matter of the work, wc can 
only say that many other points in the anatomy of the bee 
arc treated in the same way. The functions of the bee are 
examined in detail, not omitting the curious question of the 
parthenogenetic origin of the male or drone bees. The ques- 
tion of the original form of the cell, as to whether it be hexagonal 
or cylindrical, is discussed ; and the author is inclined to adopt 
the view of jNIr. Darwin that they are originally cylindrical. 
The drawings illustrating the anatomy of the insect are admi- 
rably done, and they will be found invaluable to those who 
wish to mark, with microscope in hand, the beautiful structure 
of these familiar creatures. This volume is a worthy com- 
panion of 'The Earthworm and the Housefly,^ and is, in fact, as 
far as matter and treatment go, superior to that volume. 
There are other " humble creatures" whose history might be 
profitably told in the same way, and we hope Mr. Samuelson 
and Dr. Hicks will be encouraged to go on in the interesting 
path which they have thus far so successfully trodden. 

* ' The Earthworm and Housefly.' 


A History of Infusoria, including the Desmidiacea and 
Diatoiaacece, &c. By Andrew Pritchard, M. R. 1. 
Fourth Edition. Enlarged and revised by J. T. Arlidge, 
W. Archer, J. Ralfs, W. C. Williamson, and the 
Author. Forty Plates, pp. 068. 

When a work has reached 2i fourth edition, it may be con- 
sidered in most cases to have passed beyond the domain of the 
reviewer ; and Pritchard's ' Infusoria^ has been so long before 
the world, and, as the number of editions through which it 
has passed shovfs, so well appreciated by microscopical 
observers, that it might now fairly be expected to have 
escaped any further critical ordeal. But the fact is, that 
although the old title, and a considerable part of the contents 
of former editions, are retained, the present may, in all 
essential respects, be regarded as a new and, to some extent, 
an original work. As such, we cannot but congratulate the 
world of microscopists upon its appearance. The names on 
the title-page are sufficient guarantee for the value of the re- 
spective portions they have contributed to the contents; and we 
have no hesitation, after a careful survey, in saying that we 
regard Mr. Pritchard's work, in its present guise, as a valuable 
contribution to science, and well calculated to afford to those 
who are interested in the subjects upon which it treats a satis- 
factory and lucid compendium of nearly all that recent 
observations have brought to light. 

Nothing is more striking in the progress of biological science 
than the daily increasing extent to which the subdivision of 
labour is carried ; whilst, at the same time, for the advance of 
real knowledge nothing has become more indispensable. The 
indefatigable and continual labours of collectors and ob- 
servers have so multiplied the objects of natural history in 
all branches, that it is now quite impossiljle for any indi- 
vidual, however acute his perceptive faculties, or however 
retentive his memory, to embrace more than a very limited 
range of sul)jects. This is obvious enough even in the case of 
the higher and specifically less numerous classes of animals and 
plants ; and in the lower, the multiplicity of forms is so vast, as 
to render even extreme sul)division imperatively necessary for 
their accurate study. And the same considerations apply in 
their fullest force to those lowest forms of living organisms 
which constitute more peculiarly the subjects of microscopic 
study. We consequently find, that althougli Ehrenberg, but 
a few years back, Mas able, like a second Linuicus on a small 


scale, to embrace the whole of the then known microscopic 
world, at the present time anything like a sufficient view 
of it, even in a general sense, requires the concurrence of 
several observers, each of whom has made a particular depart- 
ment in it the subject of his special attention. The present 
work is a favorable instance of what may be effected by this 
scientific co-operation. 

The work is divided into two parts ; the former comprising 
a " General History," and the second a " Systematic History, 
of the Infusoria," as they are termed. But this term, it must 
be understood, is here used in a wider sense than that in which 
it is now usually accepted. Mr. Pritchard, we presume, 
for the sake of keeping up a uniformity of title with the former 
editions of the work, retains the terra " Infusoria" in the wide 
or Ehrenl)ergian sense; Avhilst most recent writers confine it to 
a particular class or division of the rather vague sub-kingdom 
Protozoa, corresponding pretty nearly with the " sub- section" 
here (p. 266) termed Ciliata. The necessity of adhering so 
closely to the old title of the work may, in a commercial 
point of view, have been considered imperative, but in a 
scientific, it is much to be regretted ; for in science — and this 
applies as strongly to science presented in a popular form as 
in a more rigid guise — precision in the use of terms, it is 
perhaps needless to insist, is of the utmost importance. The 
Infusoria, then, as the term is here employed, are sub- 
divided into — l,Bacillaria; 2,Phytozoa; 3, Protozoa; 4, Rota- 
toria, or Rotifera ; and 5, Tardigrada ; and the mere sight of 
these names is sufficient to show the confusion that must 
arise in the non-scientific mind, when it finds organisms of 
such extreme diversity embraced under any common term, 
and especially when it discovers that that term has, within a 
few years, been employed to distinguish a group of organisms 
regarded almost as an equivalent to a sub-kingdom of animals. 
In this sense it has long been discarded by all naturalists, and 
it is much to be regretted, as it appears to us, that a work so 
deservedly popular as the present will undoubtedly become 
should have a tendency, from the want of due explanation, to 
perpetuate a grievous error. 

With respect to the mode in which the different sections 
of the work have been elalxiratcd l)y the respective editors 
or authors, as they might properly be termed, avc can 
only repeat that it is in the highest degree satisfactory. 
The care and judgment with which the most recent 
observations and views have been collected, condensed, and 
in many instances commented upon, are deserving of the 
highest commendation. And as regards the general ai'range- 


meiit and execution of the book, our verdict would be equally- 
satisfactory, although some space, perhaps, might have been 
saved by the omission from the "second part'^ of many par- 
ticulars concerning different groups which either are or might 
have been embraced in the first part, or General History, 

The additional illustrations, filling twenty-one new plates, 
appear to have been well selected, and equally well executed. 

Without any special reference to the present work, which, 
it must be confessed, is sufficiently bulky already, we would 
remark upon the strange circumstance, that in most works 
devoted to microscopic objects, scarcely any notice is taken 
of one of the most numerous, varied, and beautiful class of 
microscopic creatures — viz., the Polyzoa. Not only arc the 
beauty and variety of form presented in these animals as great 
as in any others of those which more commonly come under 
the observation of the amateur microscopist, but in a scientific, 
and more particularly in a geological point of view, their 
study is fully as important and interesting as is that of the 
DiatomacecB and Foraminifera. We hope therefore, in time, 
to see these brought more conspicuously under popular notice 
in works expressly devoted to the entertainment and instruc- 

Notes on the presence of Animal Life at vast depths in 
the Sea, with Observations on the Nature of the Sea- 
bed as bearing on Submarine Telegraphs. By G. C. 
Wallich, M.D., &c. 

Dr. Wallich has just returned from an arduous under- 
taking. At a very short notice, animated by the ardent zeal 
by which he is distinguished, he started as naturalist on 
board the Bulldog, commanded by Sir L. ]M'Clintock, and 
employed in the survey of a proposed telegraphic route to 
North America. The first-fruits of this expedition, in anti- 
cipation, doubtless, of a further and more detailed account of 
his observations, have been printed by Dr. AA'allich, under the 
above title ; and a very interesting communication it is. It 
is scarcely too much to say, that Dr. AVallich's observations, 
on this voyage, will have the result of considerably modifying 
the views of naturalists, as to the necessary limits placed by 
depth ill the ocean to the existence of animal life. The 


results of former observations of the soundings obtained in 
the survey of the route for the Great Atlantic Telegraph 
showed the strong probability, if not the absolute certainty, 
that animal life could be maintained at the enormous depth 
of between four and five miles ; in fact, that the bed of the 
ocean, throughout a vast tract, was composed of a soft bed, 
formed of the sliclls of defunct and living Foraminifera, for 
the most part Gloh'ujerina ; — a fact perfectly in accordance 
with what might have been concluded from our knowledge 
of the composition of Chalk, and other similar formations of 
a more recent date ; as for instance, that which occui's near 
Oran, in Algeria. But Dr. Wallich^s late dredgings, if the 
term can be used, have shown, that not only can the lowly 
organized llhizopod exist far ^' removed from light of day,^' 
and under a pressure of many tons on the square inch, but 
that creatures of the high type of organization presented in 
the Echinodermata are also capable of existing at a depth 
of 1200 fiithoms, or in water condensed under a pressure of 
about 4000 lbs. on the square inch and what is more mar- 
vellous still, that animals of that complex structure can bear 
to be suddenly brought to the surface, without apparent 
injury. Besides this, '^ on two occasions, living specimens 
of Seiyula, one from 680 fathoms, and in conjunction with 
a living Spirorbis, other free Annelids and two Amphipod 
Crustaceans were also taken alive at 445 fathoms.'^ 

Here, then, as Dr. Wallich observes, " there is a fresh start- 
ing-point, in the natural history of the sea. At a depth 
of two miles below the surface, where the pressure must 
amount to at least a ton and a half on the square inch — 
where it is difficult to believe that the most attenuated ray 
of life can penetrate — we find a highly organized species of 
radiate animal living, and evidently ff ourishing ; its red and 
light pink-coloured tints as clear and brilliant as in its conge- 
ners inhalnting the shallow waters, Avliere the sun's rays 
penetrate freely. '' 

The circumstances recorded leave no doubt that the 
Ophiocoma in question, of which numbers were brought up, 
must have resided at the depth mentioned; and this fact 
might be concluded even from the contents of its stomach, 
Avhich consisted of Globigerina shells, more or less com- 
pletely freed of their soft contents. 

The little brochure contains many other highly interesting 
observations, and especially some having reference to the 
value of microscopic soundings in the determination of the 
course, &c., of oceanic currents — a subject which had at- 
tracted the attention of the late lamented Professor Bailey, 



and whicli promises to afford important results in the hands 
of future observers, who will now have the advantage of 
being armed with an ingenious contrivance for the bringing 
up of deep soundings, for which naturalists are, we believe, 
mainly indebted to the ingenuity of Dr. Wallich. 

Chemistry in its Relations to PJujsioloyy and Medicine. 
By George E. Day, M.D. London : Bailliere. 

Although the science of physiology cannot be fully com- 
prehended, unless studied in connection Avith the organs which 
perform the functions of life, there can be now little doubt of 
the vast importance to be attached to the chemical. constitu- 
tion and changes which the organs of liWng bodies undergo. 
In fact, the great development, in recent years, of physiological 
science has been in the direction of chemical inquiry. It is 
the object of Dr. Day, in this book, to set forth more par- 
ticularly the relations of chemistry to physiology ; and he has 
produced a work of great practical value. We have been 
previously indebted to him for having translated Simon's 
work on ' Animal Chemistry' and Lehmann's ' Physiological 
Chemistry,' and no one could be better fitted for giAnng a 
view of the Avhole subject than Dr. Day. But whilst it is 
easy to separate the chemistry of life from any detailed ac- 
count of the morphology of the organs of living beings, it 
is impossible to treat this subject satisfactorily, without 
describing the histological structure of the organs and 
secretions. Hence the necessity for the use of the microscope, 
and the examination by its aid of the various tissues and 
secretions. Whilst, therefore, writing a book expressly 
devoted to the chemistry of life, Dr. Day has felt himself 
compelled to refer constantly to the nature of those living 
products Avhicli can only be detected by the aid of the micro- 
scope. The work is accompanied b}- five plates, illustrative 
of the microscopic structure of the crystals and histological 
elements foimd in the blood and secretions. These illustra- 
tions arc got up in the style of those published in Funk's 
' Physiological Atlas,' and will be found of great value to the 
student wlio is beginning to work at tins subject. 

Dr. Day lias divided his work into three great heads or 
departments : 1, The organic substrata of the body; 2, The 
chemistry of the animal juices and tissues; 3, The great zoo- 
chemical processes. It is in the second part more particularly 


that the student of the microscope will find the subjects of 
his study more specially treated of. The subjects there 
successively taken up are the digestive fluids, the blood and its 
allies, the fluids connected with generation and development, 
the secretions of the mucous membrane and the skin, the 
urine, pus, and the solid tissues of the body. To those who 
wish to make the use of the microscope subservient to the 
study of physiology, we confidently recommend Dr. Day's 
volume as one of the most trustworthy guides in our language. 



Atmospheric Micrography.— Under the above lieading, there 
appeared in No. XXII of the ' Microscopical Journal' the 
translation of a paper by Professor Pouchet^ of Rouen^ pur- 
porting to be the description of an instrument termed the 
aeroscope, but which, at the same time, revived what some 
might call the exploded theory of spontaneous generation. 

As it appears to me that this question cannot be said to be 
finally disposed of, but as the learned professor's arguments 
in favour of the theory are somewhat biassed, it may not be 
inappropriate that the attention of microscopists should be 
once more directed to the subject. 

By most advanced naturalists, the theory of spontaneous 
generation has been discarded as absurd, or, at least, as highly 
improbable, and mainly, I believe, on two distinct grounds, 
viz. — 1st, that it is directly opposed to the accepted theory 
that, for the production of a new individual, in either the 
animal or vegetable kingdom, there must be a conjugation of 
the " germ" and '^ sperm" cells (pre-existent, therefore) ; 
and 2dly, in consequence of the Avell-known experiment of 
Professor Schultzc with filtrated and unfiltrated air upon de- 
composing animal substances."^ 

Neither of these grounds suffices, however, for the final 
rejection of the theory ; for in a great many of the Protozoa 
conjugation has never been traced, and, so far as they are 
concerned, the sexual theory is, to some extent, hypothetical ; 
and secondly, I do not recollect having read or heard that 
Schultze's experiment has ever been confirmed by any English 
or foreign microscopist or chemist of note, although the 
complete confirmation of this experiment would eftectually 
dispose of the theory. 

Having thus given fair play to the advocates of the theory, 
I shall now proceed briefiy to examine Dr. Pouchet's argu- 
ments in its favour. 

* See • Carpenter on the Microscope,' p. 4S5, &c. &c. 


His evidence consists, ou the one hand, of the fact stated 
by him, that his investigation of the atmosphere "svith his 
aeroscope has not enabled him to detect the " ova of infu- 
soria ;" and, on tlie other hand, that ^vhen " suitable'' infu- 
sions are exposed to the air, millions of " infusoria" are sure 
to make their appearance in it. 

(I ■would draw especial attention to the words in italics.) 

At the same time, he declares that the " ova" are " infi- 
nitely rare," even in situations where they might be expected 
to occur. 

In the first place, it is right that I should remind your 
readers of the fact (of which I can hardly suppose Dr. Pouchet 
to be ignorant), that the term " infusoria,^^ formerly applied 
by Ehi'enberg and others to a great variety of forms belonging 
to the Protophyta, Protozoa, Annuloida, &c. &e., is now 
restricted to that group still denominated '^ Polygastrica," by 
Dr. Pouchet. 

As before stated^ in many of these forms, conjugation of 
the " germ" and " sperm" cells has never been traced, and I 
think I am correct in saymg no " ova" have been discovered. 

It is therefore not surprising that Dr. Pouchet should not 
have been able to detect the " ova" of Polygastrica (so called) 
in the atmosphere, granting even the utmost perfection to 
his apparatus ; and I should be much surprised if I heard 
that even the highest powers of our microscopes had revealed 
the dried germs of these organisms in their earliest stage. 

This brings us to the second phase in Dr. Pouchet's evi- 
dence. He says, that whenever a suitable infusion is employed, 
and placed in contact Avith not more than a decimetre of air, 
millions of infusoria are almost sure to make their appearance. 

He does not state of what his " suitable infusion" consists, 
nor what are his infusoria. 

In No. XVII (October, 1856) of this Journal, you pub- 
lished an abstract of my paper, read before the British Asso- 
ciation, in which I described an experiment tried by me with 
an infusion of chlorophyll. This consisted of the juice of 
cabbage mixed Avith a solution of gum, and baked at an in- 
tense heat over a furnace, so that all traces of life must have 
been destroyed ; the chlorophyll cake thus obtained was dis- 
solved in distilled water, and this formed the infusion. 

I found, on exposing this compound to the air, that in a 
day or two, a few of the forms known as " Glaucoma scintil- 
lans" made their appearance; and these multiplied with 
incredible rapidity. The conclusion at which I arrived from 
this experiment Avas, that the dried zoospores, or germs, 
floated about in the atmosphere ; and I had at least as good 


reason to believe so as Dr. Pouchet has for assuming that 
when a suitable infusion is exposed to the air, the " ova" of 
infusoria, or the infusoria themselves, spring into life byspon- 
taneous generation. The value of this portion of his evidence 
■would have been better appreciated if he had stated accurately 
of what substances his suitable infusion consisted, Avhence 
the substances were obtained, what species of infusoria made 
their appearance, and after what lapse of time the first ap- 

Dr. Pouchet, as a physiologist, would not wittingly seek to 
uphold an erroneous theory simply because he had formerly 
espoused it as correct. 

No doubt he and others will again give it an unprejudiced 
trial, and it appears to me that there are various ways of 
arriving at a satisfactory conclusion. 

Any one, even -without a laboratory at his disposal, may 
verify or controvert the statement of Professor Schultze. 

The exposure of various dissimilar infusions to the atmo- 
sphere in the same place, and of similar infusions in different 
places (care being taken in every case that the germs of life 
are extinct in the substance exposed), and the examination of 
the li^^ng forms that appear in them, would also aid in sohing 
the problem. If the latter expedient be resorted to, it would 
be as well to bear in mind that, in the infusion of cabbage 
juice and distilled water exposed by me in the neighbour- 
hood of Hull, the form that presented itself (alone, so far as 
my memory serves) was Glaucoma scintillans. 

Without reference to the question of '^ spontaneous genera- 
tion,^^ I feel satisfied that good results would follow from a 
repetition of these experiments ; for the observer must neces- 
sarily watch the development of different forms of animal and 
vegetable existence, and in so doing he would not only obtain 
a clearer insight into this organisation, but would, in all pro- 
bability, be able to add to the small stock of information that 
we possess on this interesting branch of natiu'al liistory. — 
James Samuelson. 

thin Stage for the Microscope. Constructed by Thomas 
Ross.— D D is a dovetail plate affixed to the main body or box 
of the instrument. In this works the fitting c, wliich has a 
strong bar, e e, at right angles to it (all one casting). ^lotion 
is given to the fitting, c, by means of the screw b. a, milled 
head fastened to screw ; this screw Avorks in a spring box, 
which prevents loss of time. On the bar, at right angles to 
c, moves a strong-fitting box, k k, to which motion is com- 
municated by the milled head and pinion g. Surmounted on 



box, K K, is a plate, 1 1, supported by two strong curved 
brackets^ n s, Avhich give great strength and support to the 

plate, 1 1, in which a circular plate is fitted, and to which the 
top stage-plate, l, is also fixed. By means of the circular 
plate the upper stage may be rotated. 

This form of stage is exceedingly convenient, and, applied 
to the more portable instruments, will enable them to work 
with the same illuminating apparatus as the larger ones. The 
entire thickness does not exceed one quarter of an inch, and 
the support brackets are so constructed as to prevent tremor. 

Oscillatoriaceae. — When going over some of these organisms, 
a few days ago, I observed one coiled up like the accompanying 
diagram, ni which it will be observed that both extremities of 
the filament ai'c pointing in the same direction. 

The filament thus coiled continued to revolve steadily upon 


the centre of the coil^ in the same direction^ viz., from left to 
rightj for half an hour_, at the expiration of which time I Avas 

obliged to leave it ; on my return, 
in about a quarter of an hour, it had 
vanished, and could not of course be 
reeoj^nised among its numerous 
brethren, when uncoiled. 

If I do not err in supposing that 
a motion of this kind in Oscilla- 
toria has not been recorded, I beg 
you will be good enough to '^make 
a note of it" in your columns for 
this purpose. 

The filaments of this species are 
transparent tubes, sparsely studded with small granules, 
that appear brown, or reddish brown, by transmitted 
light; their diameter is l-6000th of an inch; the length 
varies, but amounted in the longest to l-50th of an inch. 
No markings or segments were visible with lloss's quarter. 
I did not use any higher power. They were gathered from 
the bottom of a very muddy pond, nearly dried up, Avhcn 
searching for the '^Tank-worm." — J. Mitchell, Lieutenant, 
Madras Veterans, 

On preparing the Shells of the Polycystinse, from Springfield, 
Barbadoes,— Through the kindness of one of our members, 
Admiral Duff, I. was put in possession of some of the Barbadoes 
earth from Springfield estate. The shells arc in countless 
multitudes, but imbedded in a light porous substance resemb- 
ling discoloured chalk. As the shells are kn(?wn to be sili- 
ceous, some of the earth was boiled in hydrochloric acid, some 
in nitric, and some in sulphuric, but no eflcct was produced. 
Some was boiled in caustic soda, but the shells dissolved as 
freely as the matrix. As it is needless to describe numerous 
failures, I shall proceed at once to the process which succeeded. 
There Avas procured — 

1. A large glass vessel such as gold-fish are put in; 3 or 4 
quarts of ordinary pipe water were put into this. 

2. A new tin saucepan, holding about a pint. 

3. Two thin precipitating glasses, holding about 10 ounces 

Take about 3 ounces of Barbadoes earth (lumps are best), 
and break them with a piercer into tolerably small fragments. 
The earth should l)c quite dry. Put 3 or ■!• ounces of common 
ivashinf/ soda into the tin, and half fdl the vessel with common 
water. Set on a clear fire until it boils stronirlv ; then throw 


in the earth, and let it boil for half an hour or more ; take off the 
fire and pour about nine tenths of -what is in the saueepan into 
the large glass vessel holding the cold Avater. The undissolved 
lumps -which remain in the tin may now be gently crushed 
vrith a soft bristle brush, soda and Avater added as before, 
and boiled again ; pour off as before, and repeat the pro- 
cess imtil ['nothing of value remain in the tin. Then take 
an ivory spatula, and stir round and round the conteuts of the 
large glass vessel; let it stand for about three minutes, and then 
pour off gently nine tenths of the contents, a considerable 
quantity of a sandy-looking substance Avill be found at the 
bottom. These are the shells partially freed from the 
matrix, but still very unclean. "Wash out your tin, cover 
the large glass vessel, and the shells will keep for the next 
leisure evening. 

Second process. — Put common -washing soda, as before, 
and water into your tin ; transfer all your shells into the tin, 
and boil as before for an hour or more. Transfer all into 
the large glass vessel containing water, as before, and after 
standing one minute pour oft' the muddy contents ; add a large 
quantity of cold water, stand for a minute, and pour off. 
The shells may now be transferred to one of the precipitating- 

Each washing brings^over more and more of a kind of flock, 
which seems to be the skins of the sareode bodies of those 
minute creatures. 

We are now ready for the third process. 

Drain off the water from the shells Avhich arc in your 
precipitating-glass until not more than half an ounce of Avatcr 
remains above them ; add about half a tcaspoonful of bi- 
carbonate of soda, which will dissolve perfectly with a little 
warmth; then pour in gently about an ounce of strong 
sulphuric acid. The violent effervescence acts as a purge on 
the shells, blowing out the softened contents, and liberating a 
large quantity of sareode flock. The acid also (which is in 
gi*eat excess) dissolves the iron colouring-matter, making the 
shells beautifully transparent. All that remains now to do is 
repeated Avashing, during Avhich process the shells can be 
sorted. Thus, fill the precipitating-glass having the shells 
in it Avith Avater, let stand for three quarters of a minute, and 
pour the Avater into the second precipitating-glass; let the 
second glass stand for two minutes, ami throw away Avhat still 
remains suspended ; repeat this, and all the smaller sliells will 
find their Avay into the second glass, and all the larger ones 
will remain in the first. If the large shells are not perfectly 
clear, repeat the boil in soda, the acid, and the Avashing. 


It is true, this method destroys a few of your larger globes ; 
iDut you can aflford to lose them, as they are too large for the 

You can examine the shells from time to time by a drop-tube, 
letting a single drop fall on a glass slide placed horizontally on 
the stage. An oblique light shows them best. — Thomas 
FuKLONG, 10, Sydney Place, Bath. 

Further Notes on Finders.— At the conclusion of a letter on 
" Finders'' (inserted in your Journal for last July), I en- 
deavoured to impress upon opticians the desirableness of 
directing more attention to the subject of the Binocular 
Microscope than they have hitherto done ; and it appeared 
to me a singular coincidence, that the very number contain- 
ing my suggestion should also contain what looked like a 
precise answer to it. I allude, of course, to the intensely 
interesting essay by Mr. Wenham, at page 154 of the 
'Transactions.' On reading that paper, I felt quite satisfied 
that the ultimatum, or something very near it, had at length 
been attained ; and immediately commenced a correspondence 
with Mr. Wenham upon the subject. Nothing could possibly 
exceed the kindness with which that gentleman took up the 
matter ; even offering to send me his own instrument for 
examination. But this I declined, as it was clear to me that 
the mode he had adopted must answer. I, according, re- 
quested him to supervise the adaptation of one of his prisms 
to a double tube added to my miscroscope. 

And now that this has been done, and I have had time for 
a fair and deliberate examination and trial of it, I should 
consider myself very deficient in duty to my brother micro- 
scopists, if I delayed another moment to recommend it to 
them, as by far the greatest advance that has been made 
upon the instrument since the invention of achromatics. It 
is, indeed, a very magnificent improvement. The comfort 
(or, I may truly say, the luxury) of using both eyes equally, 
when both are equally good, is very delightful ; but that is 
not the only nor, indeed, the chief point of superiority. It 
is the entire relief from all that unpleasant optical fatigue 
produced l)y the old practice of using one eye at a time. "With 
the binocular arrangement the observer may go on hour 
after hour Mith perfect impunity, feeling no worse than if 
he had merely been reading a book through a binoculai* 
hand-glass or a common pair of spectacles. But after long 
use of the one-eyed tube, it is not so. It produces more 
or less feeling of pain, confusion, megrims, giddiness, &c., 
and, in the course of years, is pretty sure to eftect some 


degree of permanent injury to the chiefly used eye^ as I can 
testify from experience. It would have been a j^reat boon 
to me if I could liave had the Wcnham Binocular thirty years 
ago ; and, therefore, I consider it, as I have said, a duty 
to recommend it to those who arc commencing their micro- 
scopic career. 

Now, with regard to its '^performance'^ (as the opticians 
say), I almost fear to write all 1 think, lest my own words 
(in my letter alluded to, page 201) should he retaliated upon 
me, and I should be accused of giving a ''flaming account !" 
I would, therefore, rather express my ow^l opinion in the 
words of one of the firm of Smith, Beck, and Beck, who 
adapted the prism, and made the brass-Avork, &c. He says, 
in a letter which was privately shown to me, " I am de- 
lighted with it. For injections it is glorious ! I do not 
wish to see any thing better.'' And, in a letter to me, 
since sending the instrument, he writes, " I am getting to 
like it more and more." The latter remark is wonderfully 
borne out in practice ; for, as a prisoner who has long hobbled 
in shackles is, when relieved of them, some time before he 
comes to the full enjoyment of the natural use of his limbs, 
so a microscopist who has for years been in the habit of 
poking and straining through his /ift/f-microscope with one 
eye, while he winks and blinks, and squeezes up the other, or 
(as I have seen multitudes do) holds down its lid with 
his fingers, is really some time before he comes to the full 
enjoyment of using both eyes in a natural manner. This, 
however, is, when the eyes are good, soon surmounted ; and 
then commences what may truly be called " the real binocular 
delight !" 

But here an objector may put in, " Fine talking, sir ! but 
I have heard that, altliough these new-fangled double- 
barrelled affan's may do for low powers (inches and two 
inches, &c.), in order to exhibit "^ pretty things' as a raree- 
show for young people, &c., yet they Avill not do for high 
powers, and are quite insufficient for ' test-objects' of every 
kind," &c. 

I reply, never was there a greater mistake. The new in- 
strument certainly has a clearer field with a low power, and 
with the one-inch objective and lowest eye-pieces I can dis- 
tinctly read the Lord's Prayer, which was written for me with 
Mr. Petcrs's machine (' jNIicroscopical Journal,' No. XII, p. 
55) within a circle of the one fiftieth of an inch. AVith the 
half-inch it is as legible as pica print. AVith the quarter-inch 
I can beautifully exhibit what were, not very long since, 
considered '' high tests ;" such as the delicate markings on 


the scale of the Podura, and the lines and cross-bars on the 
fan-shaped scale of the Morpho Menelaus. 

This is as far as most persons care to go. Nevertheless, I 
do not deny, that beyond this there does exist a very limited 
class of what I call '^excruciating objects" for which "the 
Binocular" is not so well adapted ; and for such profoundly 
erudite researches the determined observer may keep an old 
single barrel, which can be adapted, in place of the double 
one, in less than half a minute. It should be contrived to 
pack into the same case, and should be called " the excru- 
ciating tube." 

By its means, together with a Powell's one sixteenth or a 
Wenham's one twenty-fifth, he may possibly be enabled to 
solve such infinitesimally argute problems as whether the scale 
of Pontia brassica has, or has not, diagonal as well as longi- 
tudinal lines; and whether the dots on Pleurosigma angu- 
latum are of a round shape, as represented in ' JNIicroscopical 
Journal,' vol. \\, PI. XII, or hexagonal, as revealed in Dr. 
Carpenter's 'Revelations,''^ p. 307; — researches which, to 
use the quaint words of Dr. Goring, are " about as profitable 
to ourselves and our fellow- creatures as if we were engaged 
in the sublime and important occupation of determining 
whether the small star of e Bootes is of a greenish blue or 
bluish green, or whether some nebula is very gradually, or 
very suddenly, much brighter in the middle.^t — Hexry U. 
Jansox, Pennsj'lvania Park, Exeter. 

* It is to be rej^rctted ilmt it should liave been stated in that work that 
there is a difficulry in adapting the Wnnhani binocular to " the varying 
distances of the eyes of dill'erent individuals." The truth is, the said adap- 
tation is one of tlie best things about it, and consists merely in drawing out 
or pushing in the two eye-tubes. 

f ' Microscoi)ic Illustrations,' p. 211. 



Microscopical Society, October \Qth, 1860. 
Dr. Lankester in the Chair. 

C. T. Simpson, Esq., and Dr. Betts were balloted for and duly 
elected members of the Society. 

The following papers were read : — '' On the Self-Division of 
Micrastcrias denticidata," by Mr. Lobb (' Trans.,' p. 1). 

" On a portable Field or Clinical Microscope," by Dr. Beale 
('Trans.,' p. 3). 

" Description of the Objects in the tSlides of Diatomacese," 
presented by the Boston (U. S.) Natural History Society. 

November Uih, 1860. 
Dr. Lankester in the Chair. 

L. C. Baily, Esq. ; Thos. "Wain, Esq. ; P. J. Mitchell, Esq. ; John 
Burton, Esq. ; and IM. By water, Esq., were balloted for and 
duly elected members of the Society. 

The following papers were read: — "On a New Form of Dis- 
secting Microscope," by Mr. Smith ('Trans.,' p. 10). 

" On New Undescribed Species of Diatomacese," by Mr. Norman 
('Trans.,' p. 5). 

December 12th, 1860. 
Dr .^Lankester in the Chair. 

Geo. "Western, Esq. ; Jas. H. Steward, Esq. ; Alexander Fitz- 
gerald, Esq. ; Peter Jones, Esq. ; P. J. Firmin, Esq. ; Jas. Samuel- 
son, Esq. ; and "W. L. Freestone, Esq., were balloted for and duly 
elected members of the Society. 

The following papers were read : — " On a New Form of Bino- 
cular IMicroscope," by Mr. AVenliam ('Trans.,' p. 16). 

" On the Corpuscles of the Blood," by Dr. Addison (' Trans.,' 
p. 20). 



Presentations to the Microscopical Society. 

October lOtk. 

Observations on the Genus Uuio. By Dr. Lea 
Description of Eiglit New Species of Unionidfe. 

By Dr. Lea .... 

rirst E-eport of a Geological Reconnoissance of the 

Northern Counties of Arkansas during 1857, 1858. 

By David Dale Owen 
List of Diatomacese found in the neighbourhood of 

Hull. By George Norman 
Annuaire de rAcadeuiie Boyale do Belgique 
Bulletins ditto ditto 

Transactions of the Academy of Science of St Louis, 

for 1857 . ' . 

Ditto ditto ditto for 1858, Nos. 1, 2, 3 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society. 

Supplement to Vol. IV — Zoology 
Recreative Science, Nos. 11, 13, ] i 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Nos. 30 — 34. 
Proceedings of tlie Literary and Philosophical Society 

of Liverpool, No. 1-i . " . 

The Canadian Journal of Industry, Science, and Art . 
Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Pield Club. 

Vol. IV, part 3 . 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Piiiladelpliia . . . . 

Journal of the Geological Society, No. 62 
Photographic Journal, Nos. 98 to 101 
Britisli Dental Journal, Nos. 48, 49, 51 . 
A Box containing slides of American Diatomacerc, from 

the Boston Natural History Society . 

Presented by 
The Author. 




Tlie Society. 



The Editor. 

The Society. 


The Editor. 

Tlie Society. 

November \Mh. 

The British Diatomacepe. By the Rev. W. Smith, ") 

Vols. I, 11,1853,1856 . . )■ 

Ralf's British Desmidiffi, 1 SIS _ . > 

Pritchard's History of Infusorial Animalcules, 1852 . 
The whole of the Quarterly Journals of Microscopic 

Science up to the present time 
The Select Works of Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Vols. 

I, II, ISOO to 1807 
Swammerdam Ilistoria Insectoruui,Vols. I, II, 111,1737 
Hookc's j\Iicrographia, 1C67 
Adam's Essays on the Microscope, 1787 . 
Esperienze interno alia generazione dcgl' insetti fatte 

da Francisci ]{edi do Animalcules 
On the Foraminifera, T. R. Jones and W. R. Parker . 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. XVI, 

parts 3, 4 

Hackney Micr. Soc, 
per F. C. S. Roper, 



Dr. Millar. 


The Authors. 

The Society. 



Tlie Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 35 Purchased. 

The Canadian Journal of Science and Art, No. 29 . The Editor. 

Tlie Piiotographic Journal, No. 102 . . Ditto. 

Recreative Scieuce, No. 30 . . . Ditto. 

Six Microscopic Slides . . . J. F. Norman, Esq. 

Two iMicroscopic Pliotograpbs . . . G. Jackson, Esq. 

December \Wi. 

Researches on the Eoraminifera. By Dr. Carpenter, 
from 'Phil. Transactions,' June 17th, 1858 

Researches on Tomopferis oniscifonnis. By Dr. Car- 
penter, from ' Transactions of Liunean Society,' 1859 
and JS60 . . . ' . 

Eigiit Slides illustrating the Development of the 
Comatula .... 

Six Slides of Bryozoa from Arran 

Journal of Recreative Science, No. 17 

Photographic Journal, No. 103 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, 
Vol. Y, No. IS 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 36 

Notes on the Presence of Animal Life at vast Depths 
in the Sea, with observations on the nature of the 
Sea-bed, as bearing on submarine telegraphy. By 
Dr. G. C. Wallich ^ _ . . '_ 

Observations on the Neuration of the Hind Wings of 
Hymenopterous Insects, and on the Hooks which join 
the Fore and Hind Wings together in flight. By Miss 
Staveley .... 

British Journal of Dental Science, six numbers 

One Slide of Insect .... 

The Author. 


Dr. Carpenter. 
The Editor. 


The Author. 


. S. C.'Whitbread, 

W. G. Skarsox, Curator. 

The Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Neill Medal. 

At the opening meeting, on 5th curt., for session 1859-60, of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Neill medal and prize was 
presented, through Professor Balfour, to W. Lauder Lindsay, 
M.D., F.L.S., for his • Memoir on the Spermogones and Pycnides 
of filamentous, fruticulose, and foliaceous Lichens,' read to the 
Society during the last session. In addition to awarding this 
prize, the Society is expending a considerable sum in publishing 
the memoir in question in the forthcomiug part of its ' Transac- 
tions' (vol. xxii), and in engraving the relative illustrations, exe- 
cuted by the author, which consist of twelve plates of between 400 
and 500 drawings. 

73 proceedings of societies. 

Hull Micro-Philosopiiical Society. 

The first meeting of the sessional course of this Society took 
place on rriday evening last (21st September, 38GO), at their 
rooms in the Royal Institution, on which occasion Mr. P. Bruce 
delivered a lecture on the " Use and Construction of the Mi- 
croscope," in the course of which he congratulated the Society 
on its progress, and on the resolution of the previous meeting to 
form a microscopic library and m.useura. Mr. Bruce alluded to 
the fact of the introduction by him of the achromatic 
microscope into Hull, and to his discovery (liitherto attributed in 
all microscopic works to Mr. SoUitt and Mr. Harrison) of the 
delicate markings on certain Diatomacese.which have since become 
the almost universal test for a good instrument ; if, indeed, they 
have not contributed greatly to the production of the present 
high quality of the achromatic object-glass. An animated discus- 
sion took place on the various subjects connected with the lecture, 
which occupied the meeting till the usual hour of separation. — 
Hull Packet. 

Islington Literary and Scientific Institution. 

A microscopical soiree was held at this institution, iS'ovember 
1st, 18G0. About fifty microscopes were exhibited by Mr. Thomas 
Eoss, Messrs. Powell and Lealand, JMessrs. Smith and Beck, and 
other makers, and several members of the institution. 

Among the objects exhibited were the rotatory circulation of 
the sap of the Valisneria sjnralis, exhibited by Mr. Lobb ; the 
circulation of the sap in the hairs of the petal of the Tradescantia 
and of the blood in a small water-newt, by ^lessrs. Powell 
and Lealand ; the ciliary action of a portion of the gill of a bivalve 
mollusc, by Messrs. Smith and Beck ; some curious microscopic 
photographs of a thousand-pound note, the Lord's Prayer, the 
Creed, and several views of cathedrals, &c., by Mr. Dancer, of 
Manchester ; and also some beautiful crystals by polarized light, 
by some of the members of the institvxtion. INlr. Thomas Ross 
exliibited some new microscopic objectives, which were remark- 
able for their large aperture and accurate defining power. 

Mr. Hislop delivered a lecture on the construction and uses of 
the Microscope, illustrated by diagrams of Ross's large Mi- 
croscope, and of the earliest Achromatic ^Microscope, which was 
manufactured by Mr. Tulley, of Islington, one of which is now in 
the possession of Dr. Bowerbank. 

This institution lias, in connection with it, a class for the study 
of the microscope, and the following ]iapers ai-e announced to 
be read during the ensuing session : — '• On Entomosti'aca and 
the Eyes of Insects," by Mr. T. W. Burr; '« On Marine and 
Presh-water Polyzoa," by ]\[r. "W. Hislop; " On Fresh-water 
Alg<T," by Mr. Mestayer ; "On the Vegetable Cell," by Mr. 
R. Moreland, jun. ; " On the Organization of Insects." by Mr. 
Reiner; "On Foraminifora," by Mr. Slade ; "On Polarizing 
Crystals," by ]Mi\ Thomson. 


Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Microscopical Section. 

April IGth, 1860. — The Secbetaet read a paper, by Mr. 
Hepworth, " On Preparing and Mounting Insects." 

Mr. Hepworth first destroys life by sulphuric ether, then 
washes the insects thoroughly in two or three waters in a wide- 
necked bottle ; he afterwards immerses them in caustic potash or 
Brandish's solution, and allows them to remain from one day to 
several weeks or months, according to the opacity of the insect ; 
with a camel-hair pencil in each hand, he then in a saucer of clean 
water presses out the contents of the abdomen and other soft 
parts dissolved by the potash, holding the head and thorax with 
one brush, and gently pressing the other with a rolling motion 
from the head to the extremities, to expel the softened matter : a 
stroking motion would be liable to separate the head from the 
body. The Author suggests a t^mall pith or cork roller for this 
purpose. The potash must afterwards be completely washed 
away, or crystals may form. The insects must then be dried, the 
more delicate specimens being spread out or floated on to glass 
slides, covered with thin glass and tied down with thread. "When 
dry they must be immersed in rectified spirits of turpentine, placed 
under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump. When sufiiciently 
saturated they will be ready for mounting in Canada balsam, but 
they may be retained for months in the turpentine without injury. 
Before mounting, as much turpentine must be drained and cleaned 
oif the slide as possible, but the thin glass must not be removed, 
or air would be readmitted. Balsam thinned with chloroform is 
then to be dropped on the slide so as to touch the cover, and it 
will be drawn under by capillary attraction. After pressing down 
the cover, the slide may be left to dry and to be finished off". If 
quicker drying be required, the slide may be warmed over a spirit 
lamp, but not made too hot, as boiling disarranges the object. 
Vapoiu"s of turpentine or chloroform may cause a few bubbles, 
which will subside when condensed by cooling. 

Various specimens, beautifully mounted by this process by Mr. 
Hepworth, were exhibited. 

]\Ir. Mosley read an account of a INIicroscopical Examination 
of Flour, illustrative of the commercial advantages which may be 
occasionally derived from a knowledge of the use of the mi- 

Mr. Dancer exhibited Diatomacea and Poraminifera, obtained 
from deep soundings in the Atlantic and from the Red Sea. 

Mr. Lyndc exhibited pupa cases of Insects, from the Gold 
Coast of Africa. 

Mr. Hepworth sent for inspection an ingeuious diatom box, 
constructed for a friend going to travel on the Continent. 



Annual Meeting, May 21st, 1860. — The following gentlemen 
were elected Officers of the Section for the ensuing session : — 

President, Professor "W. C. AVilliamson, P.E.S. 

fE. W. Bi>-NET, P.E.S., r.G.S., 
Vice-Presidents, «| W. J. Eideott, 

[ Joseph Sidebotham:. 
Treasurer, J. G. Ltnde, M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S. 
Secretary, Geoege Moslet. 

Mr. Lynde presented two slides of pupa cases of insects, called 
Gold Shells, from the Gold Coast of Africa. He also exhibited 
the circulation of the blood in the tail of the stickleback. 

Mr. Latham presented to the Section, and also to each member 
present, a portion of sand, from Aden, in the Eed Sea, containing 
Poraminifera, Spicula, &c. 

Mr. Dancer exhibited a number of slides of various new and 
interesting objects. 

June 20th, 1860. — The Secretary read a few extracts from a 
private letter from Mr. Frembly, of Gibraltar, in which he refers 
to the rotifera found in that neighbourhood : they differ very 
little from the British species described by Carpenter, Henfrey, 
«fcc. He found with them, free vorticella with spiral stalk or tail, 
whilst in England the free vorticella is generally found without 
tail. Its utility in the case of those living with such neighbours 
is manifest, for the vorticella would now and again become in- 
volved in the eddy made by the cUia of the rotifera, but invariably 
before coming in contact did they succeed in escaping by the 
muscular power of the tail, which by suddenly coiling enabled 
them to throw themselves out of the influence of the current. 

Mr. Prembly had found one of the Algae of the chlorosperm 
order, which was new to him, and of which he had not found any 
description. He intends to send specimens for examination. 

A letter was read from Mr. Hepworth, of Crofts Bank, accom- 
panying specimens of Sarcina, injected kidney, spores of Equise- 
tum, Euglena, Batrachospei'mum. moniliformis of two kinds, some 
diatoms, &c. 

Mr. Samuel Hardman, of Davyhulme, presented a few well- 
mounted specimens of the larva of the wire-worm, mllow moth, 
Cimex, and Curculio. 

Mr. Mosley exhibited the living (so-called) skeleton larva and 
pupa of the Corethra pluinicornis (Pritchard), pupa of Ephemera, 
marine Gammarus from Gibraltar, and aquatic Gammarus from 
near Northendeu, almost identical with each other ; the shell or 
scales of the marine animal being most transparent. 

Mr. Brothers exhibited the tongue of a cricket, circulation 
in the chara, SiC. 

Mr. Dancer sent for exhibition a specimen of Topaz, with 


natural cavities containing fluid and gases, which on boiling 
present curious phenomena; also a box of objects, two micro- 
scopes, &c. 

September Vltli, 1860. — A specimen of envelopes was exhibited 
by the Secretary, such as were proposed to be sent to captains of 
vessels, in which to preserve the soundin<^3 they obtain in different 
parts of the world, for this section. The envelopes were much 
approved of, and were thought likely to be productive of future 
interest to the section, and to microscopists in general. 

Mr. Latham referred to ]\lr. Hepworth's method of mounting 
insects in Canada balsam, and described his own experience of the 
same. Mr. Latham spoke in very favorable terms of the facility 
with which slides can be washed off and finished. He found that 
the balsam should be as thick as possible, almost even to dryness ; 
then dissolved in chloroform, to a consistence only thin enough to 
flow easily under the thin glass ; the object having previously been 
mounted by Mr. Hepworth's process, under thin glass tied on with 
thread, exhausted of air, and saturated with turpentine. After 
heating over a apirit-lamp the balsam sets hard almost as soon as 
cool, when the slide, after cleaning with alcohol, is ready for the 
cabinet. Mr. Latham exhibited several slides thus mounted, with 
specimens of the gizzard of a cricket, the saw-fly, entire trachea 
system of the silkworm, ichneumon-fly, spiracle of the silkworm, 
goldfish scale, leaf of wheat showing spiral vessels. 

Mr. Lynde exhibited a fine Plumatella living on the shell of a 
large Lymnea or water-snail. 

Mr. Mosley exhibited specimens of Hydra and other aquatic 

October 15/^, 1860. — A circular was read, addressed to cap- 
tains of vessels, with a request that they will preserve the pro- 
duce of the soundings they make wlien abi'oad, in the envelopes 
sent therewith. — A letter was read from Mr. Hayman, of Liver- 
pool, to the effect that circulars and envelopes have been supplied 
to the captains of eight steamers belonging to Messrs. John Bibby 
and Sons, in the Mediterranean trade ; three of Messrs. INI'Iver's 
steamers, plying between Liverpool and New York ; to the steamer 
Armenian, for Madeira, Sierra Leone, Calabar, <tc. ; to the JMarco 
Polo, and two otlier vessels to JNIelbourne ; as well as to vessels 
which have gone to Woosung in China, Bombay, Alexandria, 
&c., &c. 

The Chairman made some observations in praise of the plan, 
which he liad no doubt would be productive of advantage, and add 
to the interest of the meetings of the section. 

It was suggested by Mr. Brothers that a special subject, pre- 
viously fixed upon, should be discussed at each meeting ; the 
suggestion was at once adopted. The subject for discussion at the 
next meeting will be, "Upon the Best INIethod of Preparing and 
Mounting Diatoms, &c., obtained from Soundings and other 


Sources." It is requested that the members of the section will 
meanwhile obtain and communicate all the information they can 
on the subject. 

Mr. Lynde exhibited a specimen of a small insect allied to the 
Podura, which he found leaping about on the surface of the water 
in his aquarium. Mr. Lynde had never seen a description of such 
an insect, nor was it known to any of the members of the section 

Mr. Brothers exhibited the Hydra viridis, &c. 

A few S2)ecimen3 and parts of flowers obtained at the Botanical 
Gardens were exhibited by the secretary. In the tank of the 
Victoria Eegia little minute animal life could be discovered during 
a short visit. A specimen of Cetochilus was sho\vn, which was 
found there, as also a few diatoms not fully examined. 

November IQth, 1860. — A letter was read from Mr. E. D. 
Darbishire, relative to the deposits from the raised sea bottom 
found at Capell Backeu, Uddevalla, near Gottenburgh, in Sweden. 
He observes that " the hill side from a height of about fifty feet 
above the level of the sea to that of about two hundred and tliirty 
feet, consists of layers of fossil shells, varying from ten to thirty 
feet thick, alternating with beds of more or less coarse gravel and 
clayey sand." Mr. Darbishire contributed, for the use of the 
members, a parcel of washings from shells, and a box containing 
dry sieved soil for microscopical examination. 

A letter was read from Mr. John Hepworth, of Crofts Bank, 
describing his method of washing and mounting calcareous and 
siliceous shells, dry and in balsam. Mr. Hepworth also presented 
to the Members of the Section, for mounting, a piece of injected 

A paper by Mr. J. B. Dancer, P.RA.S., was read, '• On clean- 
ing and preparing diatoms obtained from soundings and other 

The Secbetaet exhibited a portion of sea-weed from the Gulf 
Stream, in which were found a few diatoms, remains of entomos- 
traca, &c., contributed by Mr. A. da S. Lima, of London. 


Description of New Polyzoa, collected by J. Y. Johnson, 
Esq., at Madeira, in the years 1859 and 1860. Bv G. 
Busk, F.R.S. 

{Continued from. vol. viii, p. 285.) 

I. Cheilostomata. 


Gen. 1. Scrupocellaria. V. Ben. 

1. S. 3Iaderen8is, B. PI. XXXII, fig. 1. 

Having, upon furtlier search, met with a tolerably good 
specimen of this species, which is described in the last part of 
" Zoophytology" (vol. viii, p. 280), I now give a figure of it, 
sufficient to facilitate its recognition. 

Fam. 2. Membranipokid^. 

Gen. 2. Membranipora. Blain, S. 

1. 11. irregularis, D'Orb. PI. XXXIII, fig. 3. 

Cellulis distaniibus subovalibus, incequalibus irregulariter dispotitis ; mar- 
gine (jranulato, inermi ; aviculariis (?) 

Cells distant^ mostly oval or suborbicular, very irregular in size, and placed 
irregularly ; margin granular, wholly unarmed ; no avicularia. 

M. irregularis, D'Orbig., (Am. Merid., pi. viii, fig. 6). 
(?) M. simplex, D'Orbigny (ib., figs. 7 — 9). 
(P) M. Lacroixii (var.), Aud. ; Bk. ; Alder. 
(?) Flustra distans, Hassall ; Johnston ; W. Thompson. 

There arc two or three species with which the present 
might be confounded, and, in fact, from which its absolute 
distinctness is by no means certain. 

These are : 

1. M. imbellis, Uincks. 

2. M. Lacroixii, Aud. 

3. M. simplex, D'Orb. 


From the former, which, with the greatest deference to 
Mr. Hincks' opinion, I am disposed to regard simply as an 
unarmed variety of M. Flemingii, M. irregularis differs 
principally in the more oval or rounded shape, and more 
irregular disposition, and inequality in size of the cells. 
From worn specimens of M. Lacroixii it would be difficult 
to distinguish M. irregularis, excepting by the total absence 
of any marginal spines and of any vestige of avicularia; 
whilst between M. irregularis and M. simplex, D'Orbigny, 
I am unable to perceive any important diversity. 

Gen. 2. Lepraliuy Jolinst. . 

1. L. muUispinata, n. sp. PI. XXXII, fig. 5. 

Cellulis suberedis, immersis, inferne ventricosis, supenie coardatls ; super- 
fide granulosa ; orifido arcuato, labio inferiori redo integro ; peristomaie 
produdo crasso, antice excavato ; spmis marginalibus 8 — 10. 

Cells suberect, immersed and veuiricose below, contracted above ; surface 
granular ; orifice arched, with an entire, straight lower lip ; peristome raised, 
thick, forming a cup iu front of the orifice ; 8 — 10 marginal spines. 

Hab. — Madeira, on shell, /. 7. /. 

Fam. 3. Celleporid^, B. 

Gen. 3. Cellepora, 0. Fab. 

1. C. ampullacea, u. sp. PI XXXII, fig. 4. 

Cellulis ovatis ventricosis; superfice sparse •perforata, vel pundaid ; orificio 
orbiculari : peristomate tenui, integro; aviculariis 0. 

Cells ovate, ventricose; surface smooth, sparsely punctured, chiefly in 
the upper part of the cell, or dotted ; orifice circular ; peristome thin, an- 
nular ; no avicularia. 

Hab. — Madeira, on shell, /. T. J. 

Fam. 4. Eschakid^, B. 
Gen. 4. Eschara, Ray. 

1. E. tubulata, n. sp. Plate XXXIII, fig. 1. 

Polj/zoario e ramis linearibus subcompressis, tenuibus, curvatis composito 
Cellulis tubulatis, produdis, superficie delicatule granulosa ; orificio orbiculari 
mandibulo semicirculari ascendenti, intus armato ; peristomate incrassaio 

Polyzoary composed of linear, curved, slender, subcompressed branches. 
Cells tubular, produced above ; surface finely granular ; orifice orbicular, 
with an avicularium just within the lower border, the semicircular mandible 
looking upwai-ds and backwards ; peristome thickened. 

Uab. — Madeira, /. Y. J. 

A species of Eschara occurs in the Egean Sea (of which I 
have specimens collected by E. Forbes), having the polyzoary 
constituted of slender, subcylindrical branches, and the cells 
produced in a tubular form above, and which consequently iu 
acme respects corresponds with the present species, but ou 


closer comparison the two will be found quite distinct. In the 
Egean form (of which a figure and description, under the 
name of E. cervicorids, are given in " Zoophytology" (' Quart. 
Journ. Micr. Soc./ vol. iii, p. 322, PI. IV, figs. 4, 6). The 
cells, are in the first place, more or less ventricose below, 
whilst the orifice is not quite circular, and presents a small 
denticle on the lower border, and has no avicularium within it. 

Gen. 2. Psileschara, n. g. 

Poli/zoario erecto, e ramls linearitus subcontpressis composito ; cellulas in una 
faciei tanticm gerente ; cellulis quincimcialihuSy in seriebus lonc/iludiaalibtis 

Polyzoary erect, branclied, branches linear, compressed ; cells opening on 
one side only, quiucuncial in longitudinal series. 

1. P. Maderensis, n. sp. Pi. XXXII, fig. 2. 

Cellulis superne liberis subtubulosis, ad basin immersis, margine elevato cir- 
cumdatis; ad lalera punctatis^ superficie granulosa, avicularium mandibulo acuta 
ascendente, infra orificium medio gerentibus. 

Cells free and subtubular above, immersed below, surrounded with a 
raised border, and punctured on the sides; surface granular. An avicula- 
rium immediately below the orifice in the middle and front; mandible acute, 

/Ta*.— Madeira, /. T. J. 

In a list of some fossil Polyzoa, collected by the Rev. J. E. 
Woods in South Australia, given by me in 'Quart Journ., Geol. 
Soc' (vol. xviii, p. 261), 1 have enumerated two species of 
Escharidae, which difler from the other members included in 
that family in having a simple, branched, not reticulated, 
polyzoary, constituted of a single layer of cells, that is to say, 
in which the openings of the cells are all on one side of the 
branches, the opposite surface presenting only the backs of 
the cells. To these two fossil forms is now to be added a third 
living one. The Family Escharidae will now include — 





Psileschara, and 

Caleschara, only known at present as a fossil form. 

II. Cyclostomata. 

Fam. I. LoMONEiDiE. 
Gen. 1. Hornera, Lamx. 

1. H. pectinata, n. sp. PI. XXXIII, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Tolyzoarium parvum, basi diffusa affinim, irregulariter ramosum rami/s- 
culis teretibus ; cellularum orificia exserta, denticulato ; superficie anteriari 
sparse punctata, palita, irregulariter sulcata ; posteriori sparse punctata. 


Polyzoarium small, branched, attached by an expanded base, branches 
irregular terete ; tubes exsertcd, border of orifice toothed ; surface sparsely 
punctured, porcellauous, irregularly sulcata ; posterior sparsely punctured 
like the anterior. 

IT^i.— :Madeira, /. F. L. 

This Hornera appears, from the specimens furnished, to be 
of small size, probably not exceeding an inch at most in height. 
The erect, irregularly branched growth arises from a wide, 
expanded, discoid base, and the branches taper toAvards the 
ends. The character of the surface and the pectinate border 
of the orifice suffice at once to distinguish it from any other 
species, recent or fossil, with which I am acquainted. 

{To be continued.) 



1, — Scrupocellaria Maderensis, p. 65. 

2. — Psileschara Maderensis, p. 67. 

3.— „ (back). 

4. — Cellepora avipullacea, p. 66. 

5. — Lepralia multispirata, p. 66. 

6. — „ X 50 diam. 


1. — Eschara tubulata, p. 66. 

J. — „ (orifice X 50 diam.) 

3. — Membranipora irregularis, p. 65. 

4. — Hornera pectinata (nat. size). 

5. — „ X 25 diam. 

6, — „ portion of back. 

Plate XX TFT. 


•T" ■>?■'■, 


A %/? 




^-'- f 






P» - 

GBnsk del. 

WWest iini> 

Plate ZXXm 






^■1 i:ij 1 



^'•■KfT-'' ' %' 



^'^'. ~ 

^ ''€^< 


111?. 4. >-' 




Oit Chanrfcs of Form in the Red Corpuscles of Human 
Blood. By William Addison, ^I.D., F.R.S. 

In the natural history of plants and animals, the relations 
between different parts of the structure of an individual 
have, on many occasions, been established by the study of 
malformations or irregularities. 

In botany, the relation of stamens and petals to leaves has 
been made out by irregularity in the structure of the flower; 
and in human anatomy, the relations and uses of an organ 
have been illustrated by some malformation — some departure 
of it from the normal form. 

In any effort made to distinguish the relations subsisting 
between the two principal elements of blood, and between 
these and outward things, it must be remembered that the 
corpuscles are in contact with the liquor sanguinis, and 
that they come into contact with air in the lungs. Also that 
the liquor sanguinis is replenished by diet — food and drink, 
and that the corpuscles of the blood sv»im in it. 

The offices of the stomach arc more closely associated with 
the liquor sanguinis than with the corpuscles ; whereas the 
office of the lungs has chiefly do Avith the corpuscles. 

These several relations (1) betv.cen the two parts of the 
blood, (2) between articles of diet and tlie liquor sanguinis, 
and (3) between the corpuscles of blood and the air, are 
sketched in the following diagram : 




Liquor sanguinis. 


It follows that the corpuscles may have their properties 



changed or interfered witli by substances in solution in the 
liquor sanguinis, and also by substances in solution in the 
air; and that the liquor sanguinis may have its jn'operties 
altered by substances taken into the stomach, also by matter 
■which may be discharged into it from the corpuscles. 

Bearing upon the relations subsisting between the liquor 
sanguinis and the corpuscles of tlie blood, an interesting 
example of malformation or irregularity of structure in point 
has been narrated by Mr. Ericlison, and -we ground our argu- 
ment in part upon the results of his experiments. 

Thomas Furley, aged thirteen years, an intelligent but 
sickly-looking lad, has been afflicted with extroversion of the 
bladder from birth. The inner surface of the posterior 
aspect of the bladder protrudes through an opening in the 
abdominal wall, and forms a tumour the size of half an 
orange. At the under surface of this tumour are the orifices 
of the ureters. " I eagerly seized this opportunity,'' says 
Mr. Erichson, " of making some observations and experi- 
ments respecting the length of time that elapses between 
the introduction of different substances into the stomach 
and their appearance in the urine. The substances experi- 
mented with were the yellow ferrocyannret or prussiate of 
potass, infusion of galls, of rhubarb, of madder, of uva ursi, and 
decoction of logwood ; the citrates of soda and potass, tartrate 
of soda and acetate of potass." 

The experiments with prussiate of potass, galls, and uva 
ursi were pcrforined, by receiving the drops of urine, as they 
fell from the ureter, into a glass coutaining a solution of per- 
sulphate of iron ; those with rhubarb, by receiving the urine 
into a dilute solution of potass ; and those with the citrates, 
tartrates, and acetates of potass and soda, by testing the urine 
with litmus or turmeric paper. 

Ten experiments were luadc with prussiate of potass, the 
quantity taken at a time varying from 20 to 10 grains. The 
period which elapsed l)etwcen taking the salt and its appear- 
ance in the urine depended upon the state of the stomach ; 
when no food had been taken for some hours, the salt could 
be detected in the urine in two minutes after it had l)ccn 
swallowed ; whereas -when it was taken shortly after a meal, 
it required from six to forty minutes for its passage from the 
stomach into the urine. The time required for the vegetable 
substances to make their appearance in the urine varied from 
sixteen to thirty-nine minutes. The citrates and tartrates 
of soda and potass made the urine alkaline in from twentv- 
eight to forty minutes, and greatly increased its flow."^ 
« 'London Medical Gazette,' vol. i, 1S45, p. 363. 


In the year 183:J nuinevous cases of epidemic cholera were 
treated witli saline liquids^ injected into the bloody not only 
■\vithont detriment to the patients, but in many instances the 
injected iiuid evidently conduced to the preservation of life. 
In the ' Provincial ^Medical JournaP of October, 1811, eight 
cases of cholera treated by injection ai*e reported, in one of 
■which (case J) ten quarts of a saline liquid were thrown into 
the circulation in fourteen hours, and the patient recovered. 
A very remarkable case is reported in the ' Lancet,^ in which 
five gallons of a saline fluid were injected by a vein in the 
course of four days. At seven in the morning of the 29th 
of May an injection of ten pounds of the fluid, with ten 
grains of sulphate of qnhnne, was made ; and on the 2d of 
June six drops of a solution of morphia were added to the 
fluid used for injection."- 

Xow 'Slv. Erichson does not state that the substances given 
to Furley in any way impaired his health. The only evidence 
of their passage through the blood was that they were frjund 
in the urine. And, with respect to the cholera cases, there 
is abundant evidence that the condition of the patients was 
improved by the liquids forced into the blood. Knowing, 
then, the great importance of tlie red corpuscles of the blood 
in the functions of life, the natural infereiice is that they 
were not injured in their essential properties by the proceed- 
ings in either of the two examples. And it would seem that 
prussiate of potass is a salt which may pass through the 
liquor sanguinis "without disturbing either the corpuscles of 
the blood or the cellular elements of any of the fixed organs, 
except perhaps those of the kidney. 

Dark or venous blood, inclosed in a moist bladder and 
exposed to the air, soon assumes the bright arterial tint. 
The change of colour has reference to the corpuscles, and 
the experiment proves that these bodies do not lose this, 
one of their most striking properties, until at least some time 
after their withdrawal from the body. 

In the preceding number of this Journal, (January, 1861) 
we have described and figured certain changes of form or 
outline Avhich blood-corpuscles spontaneously undergo when 
just withdrawn from the human body (p. 20, Plate III) ; also 
the changes of form they experience by mingling weak 
saline, alkaline, and acid fluids with tlie liquor sanguinis. 
Moreover, we have shown that corpuscles which have been 
thus changed may be restored to their normal form and 
appearance by a counteracting agent. Acids restore them 

* 'Lancet,' 18.31-32, vol. ii, p. 718. Also, for auothcr rcmarkuble case, 
see 'Laucet/ 1831-32, vol. ii, p. 275. 


when tlipy have been altered by an alkali, and vice versa. 
That is to say^ corpuscles -which have assumed the rough or 
alkaline outline regain their natural aspect under the influ- 
ence of the diluted hydrochloric acid, and retain it for a 
longer or shorter space before assuming the form charac- 
teristic of the acid influence. (Plate III, figs. 2 and 3.) We 
have made a saline solution similar to that used for injection 
into the blood in cholera cases, and avc find it gives the 
corpuscles a rough outline, as do other saline and alkaline 
fluids; but the altered corpuscles are very readily changed 
back again to the normal form, upon the addition to them of 
an acid. In a solution of prussiate of potass, in the propor- 
tion of a grain of the salt to one fluid drachm of water, the 
corpuscles undergo the same changes as they do in weak acid 
fluids (Plate III, fig. 3) ; and they recover their normal form 
very readily upon the application of liquor potassffi. In 
this experiment — as I have said of others — the liquor potassse 
destroys numerous corpuscles ; but when it is diluted with the 
required amount of liquor sanguinis, there the changes we 
refer to take place {ante, p. 23). 

Again, when sherry wine is mingled with the liquor san- 
guinis, the corpuscles exhibit actions of a very curious kind. 
A molecular matter exudes from them, floating off into the 
liquor sanguinis ; and long tails, with a singular movement, 
are projected from the interior of the corpuscles. In all 
these phenomena it is the quality, and not specific gravity, 
of the fluids which governs the effect. Changes of form thus 
wrought in blood-corpuscles by mingling extraneous matter 
with the liquor sanguinis is additional evidence that, not- 
withstanding their withdrawal from the body, they still pos- 
sess special properties; and so long as the changes thus 
produced are of the same kind with, and do not exceed those 
which the corpuscles spontaneously exhibit, and as long as 
they retain the property of recovering their normal form and 
appearance by the application of a counteracting agent, so 
long Ave may presume they are not greatly injured. "When 
viewing the circulation of blood in the frog's foot, we may 
see many corpuscles bent, elongated, and squeezed into all 
manner of shapes ; but they regain their natural form when 
the restraint or oljstacles are overcome, and the auimal suflPcrs 
no detriment from the temporary alteration in the corpus- 
cular forms. 

Likewise, it may be argued with respect to the action of 
sherry wine, that so long as the corpuscles retain the pro- 
perty of projecting moveable tails, thus long they retain 
their active qualities. That the action in this case is an 


exhaustive one, and tlie corpuscles are ultimately destroyed by 
it, does not vary the argument that the projection of the 
tails is an exhibition of a species of reaction on the part of 
the corpuscles, produced by the vinous fluid uhen mingled 
"with the liquor sanguinis. 

Now, on repeating our experiments, we have found that 
quinine, morphia, and strychnine do not vary the pheno- 
mena. They do not prevent corpuscles which have sponta- 
neously changed their form, nor those which have been 
altered by a saline or alkaline liquid, from resuming their 
normal form under the influence of an acid. Nor do these 
vegetable alkaloids interfere with the action of sherry wine, 
even when they are in the proportion of a grain to a fluid 
drachm of the wine. "Whereas, if only the one eighth of a 
grain of the bichloride of mercury be added to a fluid drachm 
of the wine, not only is the projection of tails from the 
corpuscles prevented, but also those corpuscles which have 
changed their outline are rendered incapable of restoration 
to their normal form. 

Experiment. — Nine grains of reflned sugar were dissolved in 
half a fluid ounce of water, and an experiment was made in the 
manner described in our former paper (page 20, ante). The 
corpuscles Avhich Jloated out into the fluid had a smooth 
outline. A mixture was now made of four parts sugar solu- 
tion and one part laudanum. Upon using this mixture there 
were numerous corpuscles with a rough or prickly outline, 
mingled with smooth ones. But liquor potassse rendered the 
corpuscles with smooth outilnes prickly ; and diluted hydro- 
chloric acid restored the prickly forms to their normal shape, 
just the same as if no laudanum were present. 

It would appear, then, that substances which are poisonous 
to the brain and nervous matter have no particular effect, 
no marked action, upon the corpuscles of the blood. 

A parenchymatous organ (the brain, liver, salivary glands, 
and kidney) is composed of cellular particles to which the 
*jyedf// function and susceptibilities of the organ are attributed. 
And in medical practice it is well known, that one organ 
may be influenced by a medicine or remedy taken by the 
stomach, to the exclusion of other organs. 

The corpuscles of blood are cellular particles of an ana- 
logous kind ; and that they should possess analogous pro- 
perties — a measure of indift'erencc or even of resistance against 
some substances in the liquor sanguinis, and a special sus- 
ceptibility to other substances — is no more than miglit have 
been expected if they be bodies with the properties of cells. 
In every department of nature, cellular bodies, whether 


fixed or moveable, so long as tlicy preserve their \'ital proper- 
ties, have special susceptibilities; they are not at the mercy 
of every inorganic element which may assail them. In 
every experiment we have made with the corpuscles of 
human blood, some have been found more altered in outline 
than others, although swimming side by side in the same 
current ; because, as we apprehend it, amongst a great 
multitude of these bodies some are more susceptible than 
others. We would avoid laying too much stress upon micro- 
scopical observations ; but when their evidence points in the 
same direction with that of other facts, they are entitled to 
full consideration. 

The whole of the evidence concurs in indicating that the 
most striking distinction between the active elements of a fixed 
parenchymatous organ and the active elements — the cor- 
puscles — of the blood is that the former are grouped in fixed 
positions and irrigated by the liquor sanguinis, whereas the 
latter are mobile, in circulation, swimming in the liquor 
sanguinis. And inasmuch as all cellular bodies, whether 
fixed or moveable, have a vital or physiological property of 
resistance in common, so therefore v.e look for e\ideuce of a 
resisting power in the corpuscles of blood.* At all events, 
we know that morphia and laudanum may be taken by the 
stomach so as to act upon the brain, without any known 
evidence of disorder in the corpuscles of the blood. Our 
microscopical observations show that neither morphia uor 
laudanum has any interfering effect upon the corpuscles of 
blood ; and the conclusion Ave draw from oui" investigation 
is that — 

The liquor sanguinis may be altered in various ways — by 
an unwholesome diet, by medicines and poisons, by sub- 
stances taken into the stomach, so as to influence the elements 
of some fixed organ — before interfering with the properties 
of the corpuscles of the blood. 

Supposing this conclusion established, how, it may be 
asked, arc we to know when the corpuscles of the blood are 
interfered with? AVhat are the signs or !>ymptouis of an 
injurious action iipon these bodies as distinguished from the 
liquor sanguinis? These questions we hope to attempt to 
answer on a future occasion. 

* Gulstoniaii Lectures, lSo9. vide 'Bntisli MedicalJouniai," April, Muv, 
&c., 1S59. 


On Amphipleura pellucida. 
By Wm. IIexdry, Esq., Surgeon, Hull. 

Being favoured with the published results of Messrs. Sul- 
livant and "VVormley's investigations on the subject of Nobert's 
test-plate and the stride o^ Amjjhipleura pellucida, and in sup- 
port of my views heretofore advanced in the 'Microscopical 
Journar (July, 1860) relative to a coarse striation of many of 
these diatoms, I now transmit the measure of a series con- 
tained in several slides in my present possession, as under; 
having rejected every aspect of ambiguous character, and 
exercised due care in the micrometer adjustment. 

I have selected purposely a comparative coarse striation, 
in contrast to the high numbers promulgated by !Mr. Sollitt, 
whose 135 strife in "001" said to be counted, and whose 
175 in '001" reputed to be visible, are beyond my compre- 
hension and experience ; at the same time I believe myself 
prepared to compete in the exhibition of the finest visible 
striation, using for my own part a -^jth objective made by 
Dallmeyer, optician, of London. 
Slides. Strise. 

in 'OOl" Amphipleur a pellucida. 

No. 1 


. 43 



. 40 



. 40 



. 40 



. 42 



. 38 



. 38 



. 35 



. 49 



. 45 



. 45 



. 34 



. 40 



. 40 



. 39 



. 39 



. 24 



. 48 



. 41 



. 40 



. 34 

In the measurement of the above, as on all other occasions, 
I have found it convenient to tabulate the adjustments of 


objective to diflereut foci; thus the index being marked 5, 
10, 15, 20, the rcAolution of index occasions circumstances of 
importance in actual practice. 

Eyepiece Mi- 

Cfoni., lines 



at 10 



value .17,500 



a little open 





more open 










tending to close 





nearly closed 








It is hence evident that, with index at 10, the micrometer 
value may be either 17,500ths or 16,000ths of an inch, and so 
also of any other term of indices ; and hence the necessity, 
in every case of measurement, that the objective should be 
removed from the body of the instrument, and carefully ex- 
amined as to the relations of the index to being wholly or 
partly covered or uncovered, when differences will be thus 
obtained materially affecting the value of observations, espe- 
cially in dealing Avith fine striation. 

In slide 9 the lines are not fully developed, or rather dis- 
played, but exhibit tops and bottoms, id est, marginal mark- 
ings so regular as to leave not a shadow of doubt of their 
being of the true nature of striae ; in no one instance have I 
ever been able to resolve a coarse striation oi Amj). jjellucida 
into dots, like angulation, &c. I suppose such transverse 
stria3 to partake of the character of canaliculi. 

Slide 11 exhibits a singular development of lines, the dark 
colour of which, together with the intermediate spaces of 
light, surpass any diatom I have hitherto seen; and thus 
leaving not a shade of doubt as to truthful interpretation by 
the most sceptical regarding the existence of veritable stria- 

I believe the severity of test to depend not so much on the 
number of lines in •001 ', as on degree of development. For 
example, compare Nobert^s test-plate, 1-lth and 15th bands, 
with the Fasciola; and both these, again, with the lines upon 
Nit~schia angidaris ; all of which range from about 52 to 5G 
in -001'', but differ widely in facility of resolution. Neither do 
the highest powers invariably exhibit the highest markings 
equally distinct with powers somewhat inferior; penetration 
being required in some cases even at a sacrifice of amplitication. 
Observe Nitzsdiia sigmoidca, for example, with ^th and -j'^th 
objectives. So also with Amph'ipleura pcUucida ; and although 


I have never used the -j'^tli or ^^i^tli inch objectives, or any ac- 
cessory apparatus, I deem such of no utility for the object of 
the present research. 

In surveying a slide for the more shallow or difficult mark- 
ings, almost every shell lying in a proper position should be 
carefully examined with an Jth or -,'^-th inch objective, and 
B eye-piece ; and when indications arc observed, then all at- 
tention, both to direction and precise focus, must be paid; 
which will not unfrequcntly open out a striation when not 
expected, and which is "far from illusory ; for with such latter 
appearances I do not, for my own part, profess to deal, 
leaving others to answer for themselves, in reply to Messrs. 
Sullivant and AYormley. 

I believe there is yet much to overcome in the preparation 
(boiling, &e.) and mounting of slides.,^ The observer should 
not trust too much to the apparent beauty of his slide, nor yet 
suppose that because of the great brilliancy of a coarser 
diatom, the finer should be necessarily resolved, if re- 
solvable at all ; such a result does not always follow in practice, 
for the vapours of asphalt, siliceous precipitation, altered 
refraction, and other causes, yet unknown, may possibly 
interfere to foil every effort in observation. 

I am fully satisfied as to the ready resolution of the true 
striae of AmpMpUura pellucida, and in the several slides 
above referred to can bring out fifty other shells when re- 
quired. I am equally satisfied that Jmphipleura pellucida 
presents, in opposition to ^Messrs. Sullivant and AVormley's 
views, a ivide numerical value in striation, in common with 
some other diatoms, as Nitzschia sigmoidea, for example; 
and were I to aljandou these views, I should be at once ready 
to account the indications of the microscope for the most 
part fallacious ; believing, however, that these views, honestly 
set forth, will be ultimately confirmed and adopted. 


Contributions to the knowledge of the Development of the 
GoxiDiA o/LicHEXSj in relation to the UxiCELLrLAR Alg.?:^ 
&c. By J. Braxton Hicks, M.D. Lond.^ F.L.S.^ &c. 

Fasciculus III. 


Before entering vipou the subject I" have proposed for con- 
sideration in the present contribution, it will be needful to 
remark that, in 1851, H.Itzigsohn,inthe ^Botanische Zeitung' 
(" "Wie verhalt sich Collema zu Xostoc und zu Nostochineen) " 
page 521, and J. Sachs, in the same journal, in 1855, 5th 
January (" Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Collema, &C.'''), 
insisted upon the origin of Nostoc from Collema ; and they 
have pointed out one method by which Nostoc springs from 
that lichen; namely, from a small ball of the jelly-like mucus, 
enclosing a few of the beaded cells, which becomes extruded 
from the parent thallus. AVhen one such ball becomes 
free, it may take one of two modes of development : 1st, 
it may produce the continuous colourless threads, and thus 
pass into Collema (fig. 7) ; or 2nd, without any tendency to 
the formation of these fibres, the ball will increase in size 
and transparency, become less dense, while the green beaded 
filaments increase by subdivision, and the heterocysts common 
to the Nostochacese are found at intervals. This latter is 
Nostoc, and this is one method by which it may arise. 
In the same condition the development may continue for an 
indefinite period. The first stages are shoAvn at PL V, figs. 5 
and G. 

But there are other modes by which Nostoc may spring 
from Collema ; I am not aAvare of their having been noticed 
before, and they form the subject of these remarks. H. 
Itzigsohn has gone further than any botanist in considering it 
highly prol)ablc that all the Nostochaceaj are derived from 
lichcn-gonidia. Be this as it may, there are many points 
in his observations Avliich arc worthy of more careful con- 
sideration and folloA\ ing out than they have hitherto received 
in this country ; the more so, as some of his instances had 
already been agreed upon by other excellent observers. How- 
ever, I shall revert to this subject presently. 

The Collemas, like the other lichens, expel certain gonidia 
from their surface, which can be recognised even within the 
thallus as larger and lighter green than the others. 'When 
they arrive on the exterior, thoy appear to undergo segmenta- 


tion as the so-called Chlorococcus ; but generally they are 
small and delicate in appearance (fig. 1 a). For how long a 
period this process may proceed I am not in a position to show^ 
except that I have not met Anth any considerable mass 
of Chlorococcus from this source. No doubt in most 
instances they begin to assume a change Avhich is analogous 
to Cladonia-Gleocapsa, for we find the results of segmenta- 
tion become included in a common mucous envelope, such as 
Gleocapsa possesses. But there are these differences at first; 
that while in Cladonia-Gleocapsa the mucous layer is colour- 
less and delicate, that in Collema is more dense and solid, and 
coloured more or less of a bluish-green hue. Also, while in 
tlie former growth the results of segmentation are nearly 
always symmetrical, in Collema they are generally irregular, the 
outline of the protoplasm being indistinct at the commence- 
ment of these changes. This is shown at figs. 1 b, 2 a, 8 a. 

After these early stages the growth proceeds on various 
plans. In one method the vrhole mass, both cell-contents and 
the mucous layer, are of a dark purple colour ; each cell 
undergoing binary division is surrounded by its own mucous 
layer, the whole being included in a common one (fig. 2 b). 
After a while the purple coating becomes colourless and fused 
into one ; while the cell-contents become green, and the 
divisions separated (fig. 3). As segmentation proceeds, the re- 
sulting cells assume a linear tendency, till at last a number of 
mouiliform filaments are formed, having here and there the 
vesicular cells [heterocysts) found in the XostochacCcC (fig. 4). 
Thus Collema passes into Xostoc. A second manner is repre- 
sented at fig. 8. At a, the early changes above alluded to are 
shown ; the protoplasm and the mucous coating becoming of 
a bluish-green hue ; but after the segmentary process has 
proceeded a little, the latter becomes more transparent, coloiu'- 
less, and highly refractive (fig. 8 6). Sooner or later there is 
a disposition shown in the subdivisions of the cells to arrange 
themselves linearly, v.hereby a small Nostoc-niass is pro- 
duced ; the vesicular cells appearing about the same time (fig. 
8, c, d). Thus again Collema passes to Nostoc. 

Bat the connection between the two is more clearly shown 
in tlic fact, that the gonidia o( Xostoc pass thvow^h pt'eciseli/ 
the same criaiiycs; so tliat a description of them would be super- 
fluous, being a repetition of the facts just stated. 

]\[any variations occur during the formation of the above 
into the mature Nostoc. 

For instanc(% when the development has arrived at the stage 
indicated at fig. 8 c, and the vesicular cells arc just forming, 
the mass becomes converted, in part or entirely, into the 


forms indicated at 9 b, each of which consists of a ^•esicular 
cell, having an oval mass of bluish-green mucus extending on 
one side, containing a single or double row of four or five cells, 
the green contents and mucus not being distinctly separated 
from each other. These may develop themselves in the linear 
direction, as at 9 a, and idtimately pass into Nostoc through 
the forms indicated at 9 c. Whether they may continue 
growing in the linear direction I have no direct evidence 
to prove, l)ut consider it highly probable. They may also pass 
directly from the forms at 9 b, to those shown 9 c. The 
variations, however, are numerous, some consisting of two 
or three portions united by the vesicular cells. These do not 
originate from the simpler form at 9 b, but consist of a larger 
portion of a beaded thread which includes two or more of the 
vesicular cells. 

Whether the forms at 9 6 can arise directly from the 
Nostoc- or Collema-gonidia without passing into the early 
condition of a Nostoc, or, in other terms, whether the 
vesicular cell can arise at so early a period of the change as 
at 8 «, I have not been able to satisfy myself by direct e\\- 
dence ; still I have every reason to think it highly probable. 

When these forms are compared with the change which 
sometimes takes place in the beaded filaments of the Nostoc 
shown at fig. iO, the similarity of the plan upon which 
each passes into Nostoc will be sufficiently evident to show 
how strong a connection exists between CoUema and Nostoc. 
Whether the state of the Nostoc filaments, as shown at 
fig. 10, should be called a " sporangium " seems questionable ; 
because, at least in this particular instance, it can scarcely 
be said to produce spores, that is, free spores. 

At 8 e, is a form in which the cells undergo binary di^'isions, 
and appear similar to the cells of the beaded filaments under 
a similar condition (fig. 11 a). 

Besides those instances, the gonidia .may undergo this 
Gleocapsoid change within the parent thallus, as I have 
noticed in the thallus of Cladonia (see Fascicidus II) ; 
this is by no means a very unusual condition, and is recog- 
nised easily by the dark-green balls visible upon compressing 
the frond. At fig. 13 is shown a section of a thallus in this 
state. After a while the thallus by extrusion, or more com- 
monly by solution, sets them free, when they assume in some 
CoUemas a Gleocapsa state, the protoplasm being of a very 
bright green colour, and the mucous sheath colourless and 
of increased thickness (fig. 13 a). 

In many the subdivisions assume a quartcrnary form 
(fig. 13 c), although they may go on to produce large masses 


(fig. 13 b). The quarternary forms have a resemblance to the 
''tetraspores " of the algje, and may possibly be homologous 
with them. It would be worth mIuIc extending this observa- 
tion to Lichina. 

Having thus shown various lines of development through 
which the Collema- and Nostoc-gonidia pass into Xostoc, I 
shall now bring forward instances in Avhich it will be seen 
that Nostoc, by producing the colourless fibres and the so- 
called epidermic layer, tends to revert to its parent Collema. 

In old masses of Nostoc, especially where they have been 
removed to a dry situation, it will not be difficult, by careful 
search, to find within its substance portions, here and there, 
in which fibres are developed possessing every character of 
those in Collema. I have represented this condition at fig. 
II, which was taken from a large mass of Nostoc. The pre- 
cise origin of the fibres I did not make out — whether from 
the vesicular cells or not ; but they were unmistakeable in 
their appearance. Again, in Nostoc derived from those Col- 
lemas which have a so-called epidermis, I have found them, 
by keeping in dry situations, to have a tendency to produce a 
similar layer — evidently from changes in the vesicular cells 
in the mode represented at fig. 12. The various vesicular 
cells in a neighbourhood become enlarged, lobed, or branching, 
and jointed; when these portions come into contact, and so pro- 
duce the appearance of a reticulated epidermis of the Collema. 

If, in addition to this, we refer to the remarks I made at 
first, that the Nostoc balls which were extruded from the 
thallus of Collema (figs. 5, 6) had so strong a disposition to 
throw out these fibres, that very soon they passed into Col- 
lema (fig. 7), the connection is thence apparent; for retard 
the fibre-growth at the same time that the gonidial growth 
proceeds, we then shall have a mass of Nostoc. 

Thus a connection is established in both directions between 
Nostoc and Collema. 

But, as I have before alluded to, the power of producing 
Nostoc is not confined to Collema. 

One instance I have met with, in which the gonidia of a 
gymnoearpous lichen, whose apothccia, with theea and spores, 
are figured at fig. 15, a, b, developed themselves into Nostoc 
balls while still beneath the apotheeia, and within the thallus, 
which was crustaeeous. 

Fig. 14 represents a section of an immature apothecium, 
tlie gonidia beneath being unchanged. Fig. IG shows a por- 
tion of the thallus, in which one gonidium is under":oinir 
the Gleocapsoid change, as at figs. 1 b and 8 a. Tiic further 
changes which the gonidia pass through, in order to arrive 


at Nostoc arc indicated in figs. \7, 18, 19. Comparing these 
with the changes in CoUema-gonidia, the similarity is evi- 
dent. At fig. 15 a is shown a perfect apothecia, where all 
the gonidia are now fully developed Nostoc halls. 

Prom the evidence just hrought forward, in addition to 
that advanced hy Itzigsohn and Sachs above spoken of, I con- 
ceive we can no longer consider Nostoc as an alf/a ; but that 
we must, in company with Gkocapsa, Pahnoglcna, &c., confide 
them to the care of lichenologists, and thus add a new field 
for their observations, and a new phase in the life-history 
of those curious organisms. 

Hitherto the origin of Nostoc has only been traced up to 
Collema, and to the gymnocarpous lichen above mentioned ; 
but as researches have only been recently made in this direc- 
tion, it is by no means improbable that other instances may 
be added to their number. 

There is one point to which I wish to draw the attention 
of observers, namely, to watch the changes which the Col- 
lema- and Nostoc-gonidia may undergo; for, from what I 
have shown above, it surely cannot be considered an impos- 
sibility that the}^ may assume a great variety of conditions, 
and thus give rise to many of the Xostochaceaj. Indeed, it 
has been stated by Itzigsohn* as his opinion that all the 
Nostochacepc are, in all probability, derived from the gonidia 
of lichens. AYhether this be the case, partially or wholly, 
or not, from what has been shown at figs. 8, 9, 10, 11, such 
a condition is possible ; for if the beaded threads of Xostoc 
can become modified into such forms as are represented at 9 a, 
the mucous coating becoming broken up at the same time, 
setting them free, it certainly cannot be considered beyond 
the range of physiological probability for them to develop 
themselves into one of the linear Xostochacefe ; for let us 
suppose, instead of a short portion of a Nostoc thread be- 
coming changed, as at figs. 10 and 11, that a long portion 
was so aftected, or that the short portion so aficctcd con- 
tinued to segment linearly, and reproduce the altered state — 
a process Avhicli obtains in other vegetations — then we should 
liavc forms allied to, if not identical with, the Nostochaceoe. 
Supposing such a condition proceeded intermittently, how 
could it be recognised from such forms as Tricltormus, 
Spluerozyga, Spermosira, DoUcliosperminn, &:c. ? I am not, 
from direct observation, prepared to assert that such is the 
origin of these growths ; but the following fact seems to be 
strongly confirmative of Itzigsohn^s opinion. 

* 'Botan. Zeitung/ 1851, p. 521. 


At fig. 20 I "have figured a Kostoc ball, in the interior of 
•which is a long, bluish-green, articulated thread (a), -which 
has its origin in a vesicular cell (hcterocyst) b ; as do many of 
the ordinary beaded threads of Nostoc. The -whole was unmis- 
takcably icithin the mass, and dipped towards the centre, 
and evidently could not have ])cen derived from -without. 
Besides, it is -\vorthy of notice, that jSTostoc balls are always 
remarkably free from extraneous matter ; a condition to be 
explained by their mode of increase. Hence -v^^e may con- 
clude that this gro-^vth had its origin from the Nostoc- 

There is another fact -which may perhaps help us, 
namely, that in contact with some Kostoc balls are to be 
found many forms of these linear Nostochaceae ; they are so 
intimately united, and so mixed up with tliem, as must to 
any observer be suggestive of an ultimate connection. Such 
forms I have represented at figs. 21 and 22 ; and if we admit 
the articulated thread at fig. 20 to have had a Xostoc origin, 
then there is no difficulty in accepting a similar source for 
those at figs. 21 and 22 — a form allied to Scliizosiphon. In 
the same position I have seen Scytonema. 

For these observations I do not -\nsh to claim more import- 
ance than they deserve ; still they bear strongly upon the 
opinion advanced by the author above named. 

In the papers of Itzigsolm* on the diamorphosis of 
ChroococcKs and Ghocapsa, and on the relation of Nostoc and 
the Kostochacese to Collema, there are many remarks which, 
although they may not be immediately assented to by English 
observers, yet are worthy, to say the least, of careful con- 
sideration ; and as he is in part supported by Kiitzing, and 
by some observations of Y. Flotow on the Ephebe pubesccns, 
many points which he has advanced should scarcely be passed 
aside, without good negative evidence, m ith such remarks as 
these, " AYe do not place much reliance on the statements of 
Itzigsohn.^^t To enter into the whole question of the rela- 
tions of Lymjbya, Ulothrhv, &c., is not within the inten- 
tion of the present contributions ; but, the possibility l)cing 
granted upon ordinary physiological grounds, we should be 
prepared to put aside our former notions upon any well- 
proved fact appearing. Besides, there is nothing difiicult in 
supposing that some forms of Fahnella cruenta, for instance, 
represent the uniccUar condition of some of the Oscillatoria?, 
which have broken up into single cells; and then that these latter 

* ' Bot. Zeitung,' 1854, pp. 520 and 642. 
f 'Micrograph. Diction., 2d edit., p. 496. 


are, in tlieir turn, capable of undergoing segmentation, and 
thus multiply in that phase. Such changes are in accordance 
with well-kncwn conditions in other vegetables. 

Of course, Avhilst admitting the probability of these points, 
we should be very careful that the connection is fairly traced 
out, and assume nothing as intermediate stages without 
ocular proof, or such circumstantial evidence as cannot be 
escaped from. Thus the life- history of one, carefully traced, 
will be worth a hundred new forms without any history. It 
is to be observed, that the fact of these structures under con- 
sideration having been included among the algse by algeolo- 
gists is not to be considered any proof of their really being 
so ; for, their life-history not having been followed out by 
the observers of species, they can only be considered as pro- 
visionally so placed ; as indeed must all organisms, vegetable 
or animal, whose various states, both vegetative and sexual, 
have not been carefully watched throughout. 

That many of the above points are now clear and have had 
their exceeding ambiguity in some measure explained, vnll, 
I think, now scarcely be denied. Doubtless a large field is 
open in this direction, if care and patience be bestowed upon it. 

As I have before remarked, we must not look upon Gleo- 
capsa, &c., as arising only from lichens. From facts which 
have come under my notice during the observations now 
brought forv>ard, other origins also are to be given these 
growths, that is to say, forms iindistinguishable from them ; 
and hence it follows that the study of their life-history is the 
only means of assigning them their true position. At present 
all the so-called unicellular algre, and some Confervoide?s, are 
on a most inisatisfactory l)asis;nor can any arrangement 
possibly take place till more extended researches are carried 
out in the directions above indicated. I have placed in a 
tabular form the different phases of the lichen-gonidium, 
according to the observations included in these contri- 


00 K ■ 

o 5 _^ 

O = c r-i 

tj = ~ _ 

o .z c = 




•«> C 





rs "3 X * rt s 

'« <n w c • - — ^ :^ 


_= o 

6 Ja 



.2 3 



Ecstiiig Cliloio- 
cocciis and Lichcn- 


Eestinj; Goiiidium of 



On Ophryodendrox abietixum. 
By T. Strethill Wright, ]\LD. 

%. very curious protozoon appeared about five years 
aga iu a limited locality, near Granton, on tLc southern 
shores of the Frith of Forth, from whence it spreads upwards 
towards Cramond, and now infests the Sertularire [S. pumila) 
which abound for miles along the coast. I described it 
iu September, 1858, iu a letter to Dr. Arlidge, one of the 
editors of Pritchard's ' Infusoria,' who has introduced it into 
the last edition of that work, under the title of Corethria 
5er/«/«;'?Ye (Wright). I have also given a rough sketch of it 
in the ' Edin. Phil. Journal' for July, 1859. Professor 
Claparede, however, has informed me, that he and Laeh- 
raann had previously deposited an account of it Avith the 
Academy of Sciences of Paris. It will be found referred to 
as Ophryodendron abietinum, in tlieir recently published 
studies,* and it is to be more fully described in the con- 
cluding number of that excellent work. 

Both Claparede and Lachmann and myself have inde- 
pendently placed this creature among the Aciuetinians, but 
not without considerable doubt, as it differs so widely in 
shape and habits from all others of tliat family. Dr. Arlidge 
writes to me, that " there is something so bizarre about the 
organism that I cannot interpret it." 

The body of the animal consists of an oblong mass attached 
to the polypidom of the Sertularia (Plate VI, fig. 1). From 
one end of the mass arises a closely wrinkled appendage or 
proboscis, surmounted by a tuft of short tentacles. Such is the 
general appearance of the animal ; but a second appendage 
is frequently present, which appears to be a gemma, as it 
is sometimes found separated from the animal, and at- 
tached to the Sertularia. 

When I described this proto/.oon in 1859, I had not seen 
any motion in the proboscis ; but, during the last summer, 
Avhen I kept a number of Ophrijodendra inlai'ge vessels of sea- 
water, I was surprised to find the organ in constant motion, 
sometimes almost withdrawn into the body, and again, at 
other times, extended to an astonishing length, until it 
became a clear glassy Avand, thirty times as long as tlie body, 
and clotlied at its upper end by about forty scattered tentacles, 
wliieh twined about in most violent motion. The aniuial 

* 'EUuIcs sur les LifiisoiiTs ct Irs Kliizopoilrs,' par Eilonard Claparede 
et Jolianiies Lnclinianii. 


seeiiicd to ])0 constantly scarcliing tlie water around it for })rcy, 
rind occasionally to press the tentacles firmly to tlic body 
of the proboscis, as if to imbed some matter in the substance 
of the latter. I -was unable to detect any opcninj* at tlic summit 
of the organ. 

As Ophryochndro)! now exists iu great abundance in the 
neighboui'hood of se^■cral eminent niicroscoi)ie observers, we 
must hope that its anatomy and mode of reproduction Avill be 
worked out during the ensuing summer, and that it may be 
discovered in other localities. Claparede and Lachmann de- 
scribe it as found on Campanularias; but I have never seen 
it on any of that class of zoophytes, even when they have 
been growing intermixed with Serti'lar'ui. T have only found it 
on one species of Sertularia, S. jjiniiila. 

On the Embryology of Asteracaxthion violaceus (L.) 
Bv Professor Wyville Thomson, LL.D., F.R.S.E., 
M.R.I.A., F.G.S., &c. 

Sars, in his wonderfully suggestive ' Beskrivelser,' &c., 
published in Bergen in 1835, threw the first ray of light 
upon the structure of the singular provisional appendages 
which have been since found to accompany the embryonic 
condition of most, if not all, of the Echinoderms. We arc 
indebted to the same naturalist for several subsequent com- 
munications on the same subject; the most important a 
detailed description"^ of the early stages in the development of 
Echiiuister nangiiinolentus (SIxAXqx), and a shorter notice of 
the same process in Asteracanihion Mii.Ueri (Sars). These 
observations are so Avell known, that T need only refer to 
them brietly. 

Sars found that in those two species the mode of repro- 
duction conformed pretty closely to the usual invertebrate 
type. Complete segmentation of the yelk took place, and 
the greater part of the mulberry mass was then moiddcd into 
the endjryo Star-fish. 

The process presented, however, this peculiarity. A 

club-shaped appendage, with three or four short radiating 

processes, each terminated by a sucker, was dcAcloped from 

one part of the surface of the embryonic mass, and remained 

ched to the embryo during the earlier stages of its 

*" ' Fauna littoralis Novvegirp,' Part i, Cbristiauia, ISiO, 


growth, withering and disappearing when the permanent 
external form and internal strueturc of the embrvo hecarae 
well defined. 

The appendage was attached to the dorsal surface of the 
embryo in Ediinaster sancjiiinoloitus, and apparently towai'ds 
the oral aspect in Aster acunthion MiUkri. Sars' impression 
w^as that the cicatrix indicating the point of separation was 
the madreporiform tubercle. Sars observed an opaque tubercle 
in the centre between the four terminal suckers of the pedun- 
cular appendage, but could detect no mouth-opening in this 

Desor ('Proc. Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist./ February, 1818) 
describes a mode of development slightly different, but on 
precisely the same type, in an American Star-fish. In this 
case the peduncle is simple, and depends excentrically from 
the oral surface of the embryo. Desor regards the peduncle 
as a vitelline sac, and believes it to be directly connected 
with the digestive system, into whose general cavity its con- 
tents are gradually absorbed. 

Agassiz C^ Lectures on Comparative Embryology,' Boston, 
1849) confirms Desor's observations, but gives no definite 
opinion on the relations of the accessory appendage. 

Busch {' Beobachtungen iiber Anatomic und Entwickelung 
einiger wirbellosen Seethiere,' Berlin, 1851) describes the 
development of Echinaster sepositus. The embryo of this 
species closely resembles that of Ech. sangidnolentiis, de- 
scribed by Sars. Busch, however, figures the peduncle as 
disappearing at the oral surface, and he describes a mouth 
in the centre of the peduncle, between the four suckers. It 
is unfortunate that Johannes ]Muller, the great authority 
on echinoderm development, had no opportunity of observ- 
ing any of this group of embryos alive, all his observations 
having been made on swimming larvas taken with the towing- 
net in the open sea; he examined, however, carefully, 
specimens sent to him in spirits, could detect no mouth- 
orifice to the peduncle, and concluded that the hollow 
suckers had no immediate connexion with the stomach, which 
was developed as a distinct sac at some distance from their 
point of attachment. 

According to Busch, the plan of development in Asfera- 
canihion (jlac'iaVts (Ij.) is somewhat different, associating 
itself apparently with the very interesting type described by 
Koren and Danielssen (' Fauna littoralis Norvegiiv,' part ii, 
Bergen, 185G) in Pkraster mUitaris (M. and T.), to which I 
shall have to refer hereafter. 

Several w'riters, and particularly Dr. Carpenter, in his 


valuable compilations on Coi)iparati\c Physiology, have 
suggested a eoiTespondeucc between the provisional append- 
ages of the Eehinodernis and the temporary vascular appa- 
ratus of the vertebrate embryo. This view I l)elicve to be 
correct, and capable of more accurate defiuitiou, as will be 
seen in the sequel. 

A series of careful observations which I have had an 
opportunity of making during the last few months upon 
a conniion littoral species of AateracantJiion, agree in almost 
every particular with the observations of Sars, which, in 
this as in all the other investigations of that most distin- 
guished naturalist, are singularly clear and faithful. 

I was fortunate, however, in selecting for study a species 
in whicli the provisional absorbent and respiratory vessels are 
much more fully developed than in Echinaster sanguino- 

The whole organism seems to be paler and more trans- 
parent, and the relations and development of the internal 
organs are accordingly more easily traced. My results are, 
to a certain extent, at variance with those of some later 
writers, and particularly Avith those of Dr. W. Busch. I 
must state, however, that the plasticity of the tissue of 
which these temporary embryonic appendages in the Echino- 
derms are formed seems to be almost infinite. So capri- 
cious are the variations in a structure essentially the same in 
all, that it is impossible to anticipate its form in any parti- 
cular case from the analogy of even the most closely allied 

Early in December of the present winter I procured several 
specimens of Aster acanthion violactus (L.) (PI. VII), in the 
peculiar pregnant condition so graphically described by Sars. 
The disc was raised into a hump, and the rays drawn closely 
together at the base, to form over the mouth of the star-fish 
the " marsupium" for the protection of the young, diverg- 
ing at the tips, to attach themselves to a stone or to the 
glass wall of their prison. All the eggs or embryos in 
a single marsupium were nearly at the same stage of deve- 
lopment. In the least advanced the eggs were undergoing 
the later stages of yelk-segmentation, while in others this 
process had been completed. In other individuals the 
embryos were partially or fully formed, while in tlie most 
matm-e the outline of the five-rayed star was i)erfcct, and 
the echinoderm structure well marked by the development 
of the oral ring of the ambulacral system and of the rudi- 
ments of the vertebral (ambulacral) and dorsal calcareous 


Impregnation seems to take place before the eggs are 
placed in the pouch. 

I placed a specimen in whose marsupium a goodly mass of 
eggs, sixt}^ to eighty in number, v.cre least advanced, in a 
separate jar of water, and examined the embryos at first 
daily, and afterwards at intervals of one or two days, 
checking my observations on this brood by the examination 
of many other individuals in all stages, the progeny of two 
or three other mothers of the same species which were 
bringing up a numerous family in another vessel. 

Segmentation appears to take place in this species in tlie 
way usual in the class, and to involve equally the whole yelk. 
I had no opportunity of observing the earlier stages or of 
determining the presence of the so-called " directing cells ; 
these, however, probably exist, as they are veiy evident in 
some other Echinoderms. After segmentation the embryonic 
mass is at first spherical, finely granular, and still invested 
by the vitelline membrane. The membrane soon disappears, 
and within a few liours the embryo seems perfectly homo- 
geneous, regularly oval, and of a delicate fiesh colour. I 
could not detect tlie slightest trace of cilia on the surface. 
Four or five hours later the oval form is still more marked, 
one end has become slightly dilated, and towards this end 
there is an accumulation of the denser part of the granular 
substance. The Avhole embryo is now invested by a delicate, 
structureless, gelatinous layer, which is thinner and less ap- 
parent towards the narrower and more transparent end of the 
oval ; at the broader end it invests a dark, consistent gra- 
nular layer, of consideral)le thickness, formed of oil-globules 
and compound granular masses and cells, which lines a central 
cavity filled Avith a clearer granular semi-liquid, in mIucIi 
there are traces of molecular or ciliary motion. 

The emln'yo now becomes club-shaped, and there is a 
decided aggregation of the great mass of the granular matter 
to the thick end of the club, whose transparent investing 
membrane becomes still more distinct, and the internal 
granular layer thicker. 

The transparent investment of the narrow end protrudes 
one and then two more tubercles, Avhich rapidly declare 
themselves as three transparent tubular processes, tAvo turned 
in one direction, narroAV, four or five times longer than their 
Avidth — the other turning in an opposite direction, shorter and 
thicker, and probably, from its form and its tendency to 
divide at the extremity, repi'csenting a second pair. The 
iuA'Csthlg membrane of the tubes is transparent, delicate, 
transversely Avrinkled, and highly contractile. Each tube is 


dilated at the free extremity into a slightly opaque, rounded 
tubercle, Avhich at length takes the form of a sucker, undis- 
tinguishable from the ambulacral suckers of theyoung star-fish. 
The dark granular fluid of the emljryo still passes freely into 
the tuljular processes, through their wide, common base. 

This common base now contracts somewhat, and lengthens, 
and this narrower portion of the clavate embryo is separated 
by a distinct line of demarcation from the broader mass, 
which gradually assumes a still more rounded and definite 
form. The whole embryo, during all these changes, increases 
rapidly in size, partly by the imbibition of water through its 
walls, and partly by the assimilation of organic matter 
through its general surface. 

The dark upper part of the embryo is now rounded or 
rudely pentagonal ; a thin, transparent, structureless layer, 
Avith scattered oil-cells and bodies resembling eudoplasts, 
covers the whole surface ; a dark granular band lines the 
transparent wall ; and the central space, lighter in colour and 
more transparent, is filled with a mucilaginous liquid, turbid 
AA^th oil-globules, granules, and compound granular masses. 
The lower end consists of a wide, transparent, contractile tube, 
prolonged inferiorly into three, or sometimes four, wide 
tubular branches ; and in the centre of the common peduncle, 
between the branches, there is a whitish tubercle, resembling 
in structure the substance of the suckers, and which 
certainly has no central orifice. 

The peduncle and tubular appendages now assume their 
definite and final form ; all the specimens resembling one 
another closely, except in the form of the thickest tube 
foot, which is sometimes bifid at the point, that is to say, 
provided with tAvo suckers, and rarely bifid through nearly 
its whole length. A slight constriction cuts off the peduncle 
into which these processes unite from the main embryonic 
mass. The contents of the peduncle and tubes become more 
and more transparent, till they consist merely of a clear, 
colourless fluid, in which chyle-corpuscles, of the usual form, 
move and circulate, with the motion peculiar to such particles 
in the vessels of the Echinoderms, and which would seem to 
he produced by cilia, though the cilia themselves have not as 
yet been detected. 

The embryo adheres to a foreign body by the suckers at 
the end of the tubes, and moves along in a peculiar uncouth 
manner, by the contraction and expansion of the three feet. 
At this stage the peduncle is attached to the lower surface of 
the pentagonal rudimentary star-fish, slightly excentrically 
and midway Ijetween two of the projecting angles. The star- 


fish, tliough now only about once and a half the size of the 
peduncle, has asserted distinctly its cchinoderm character. 

The angles of the pentagon project still further, forming 
the rudimentary rays. The transparent external layer 
becomes thicker, and its scattered oil-cells and endoplasts 
more numerous and distinct. The inner organized granular 
layer increases in thickness till only a small central space is 
filled with granular tluid, while between it and the external 
layer, or in the external layer itself, small plates of the cha- 
racteristic calcified areolar tissue are irregularly scattered. 
The star-like form now becomes still more distinct, a regular 
series of calcareous plates are developed on the dorsal surface, 
one large and rapidly expanding plate at the end of each ray, 
and a smaller one at each of the re-entering angles. On the 
lower surface, a pair of plates, each with a concave edge 
towards the point of the ray, and a convex one towards the 
centre of the star, are formed at the base of each arm, so that 
the two plates of a pair unite in the centre of the ray, while 
their free ends meet the free ends of the adjacent plates of 
the next pairs, forming a calcareous inter-radial angle, \no- 
jecting into the central space. These plates are rapidly 
followed by a double row of almost linear plates with double 
concave edges ; which extends towards the point of the ray, 
leaving between every two pairs, two opposite apertures for 
the passage of the pedal vesicles. 

AVhile these plates are being developed, a tubercle appears 
on the oral surface at the base of each arm, and a delicate 
circular vessel forms a slightly raised ring round the centre. 
This ring, in one part of its course, passes under or blends 
with and is lost in the base of the peduncle. 

The tubercle at the base of the ray now takes a crescentic 
form, and shortly the crescent resolves itself into three 
tubercles, two opposite and occupying either side of the 
median line of the ray, the other in the centre of the ray and 
connected with the circular ring by a delicate straight tube. 
This central tubercle next becomes slightly crescentic, and 
resolves itself into three tubercles, which arrange themselves 
like the first three, and in this way a central vessel, proceeding 
from the ring, follows the development of each ray, with a 
row of tubercles on either side. These tubercles are shortly 
developed into suckers like those of the tubular feet of the 
peduncle, and supported by precisely similar transparent 
contractile tubes, filled with the same fluid, in which chylo- 
globules revolve and circulate in exactly the same way. 
During these changes the peduncle remains unaltered. The 
embryo stands upon its tlirce feet like a miniature three- 


clawed drawing-room table. Circulation of granules takes 
place rapidly in the peduncle and appendages, but pressure 
applied to the star- fish will no longer send the granular 
contents of the disc into the peduncle, while pressing the 
peduncle does not inject the general cavity of the star^ but 
only renders turgid tlie circular canal and' the radial ambu- 
lacral vessels, A change now begins to take place in the 
peduncle. It becomes more flaccid, and frequently portions 
of the tubular feet are separated by deepening constrictions, 
and shortly all that remains is an infhitcd sac hanging to the 
under surface of the disc. The further development of the 
disc, however, has in the mean time made the connections 
of this sac more apparent. The integument has been in- 
verted in the centre of the disc, and the inversion, gradually 
deepening, has formed a mouth communicating with the 
digestive cavity, and the vascular ring surrounding the 
mouth has become more distinct. Five well-marked vessels 
branch from this ring, each to the end of a ray, and the sac is 
distinctly seen to join the ringbetween two of the radial vessels. 

A delicate opaque thread may be traced along the inferior 
surface of the circular and radial vessels, and to end near the 
point of each ray in a bright-red, double granular spot. 

I have mentioned before that early in the development 
of the star-fish, five small plates make their appearance at 
the re-entering angles of the rays on the apical surface of the 
disc. These plates, without extending much in diameter, in- 
crease in thickness by the development of an irregular 
upper layer of calcareous tubing, so as at length to form five 
porous calcareous masses. No difference is perceptible at 
this stage in the structure of the five masses. Tufts of 
paxillae appear at the cuds of the arms and above the 
axillary and central calcareous plates, and the I'ows of 
spines begin to be developed, which afterwards fringe and 
fold over the ambulacral grooves. Up to this period the 
integument of the dorsal surface, between the calcareous 
plates, is continuous, and uniformly granular. There is no 
anal aperture, and there are no apparent respiratory ])orcs. 
The five inter-radial plates appear to rise through the mem- 
brane, and I imagine they allov,- the water to filter through 
them into the general cavity of the body. It is not till long 
afterwards that one of these plates is developed into the 
madreporic tubercle, and becomes connected by a special 
membranous tube with the central ring of the circulating' 

It is difficult to form an accurate idea of the length 
time occupied by this process of development. In tlie 


of one brood, reared in a jar in a warm room, the temporary 
appendage entirely disappeared, the rudiments of the princi- 
pal plates on both surfaces of the embryo assumed a definite 
arrangement, and the permanent mouth of the star-fish was 
formed between a fortnight and three Aveeks after the seg- 
mentation of the yelk. In other instances, however, develop- 
ment took place more rapidly, the greater rapidity depending, 
I believe, upon a more plentiful supply of organic matter in 
the water. All the broods reared in the house left the mar- 
supium early, while the peduncle was still attached ; but in 
other specimens which I have procured from time to time 
from pools at low-water mark, the pouch has been filled with 
fully formed embryos with the peduncle entirely gone, six 
sucking feet on each ray, and the permanent digestive system 
of its normal character. 

It would appear from the foregoing observations, that the 
first step in the development of this form of Echinoderm 
embryo is the differentiation of a portion of the yelk into an 
investing layer of structureless " sarcode ;" that the layer 
gradually increases in thickness ; and that, finally, from one 
part of its surface a branched peduncular process is produced 
as an extension of the same transparent structureless material. 
The branches of this organ are terminated by suckers, and 
serve, among other functions, as organs of locomotion. When 
fully formed they are undistinguishable in structure and 
function from the ambulacral feet of the star-fish ; a fluid un- 
distinguishable from the chylaqueous fluid of the ambulacral 
system moves in them with the siune characteristic motion. 
The peduncle is closed externally, no communication except 
by transudation existing between its cavity and the sur- 
rounding medium. At first it communicates with the general 
cavity of the embryo, but afterwards it becomes connected 
with, and part of, the ambulacral circulating system. "When 
the ambulacral vessels and suckers of the young star-fish 
become fully developed, this provisional Aascular tuft withers 
and disappears, leaving no apparent scar. 

In the species described, the peduncle is not connected in 
any way with the madreporic tubercle, which is not developed 
till long after its disappearance, and then on the opposite sur- 
face of the body. 

T believe this peduncular appendage to be essentially a 
provisional development of the ambulacral vascular system, 
and to be functionally analogous, not to the vitelline sac, 
but to the omphalo-mesenteric and umbilical vessels of the 
higher groups. 

I believe, however, tliat it is endowed with a greater 


amount of versatility of function, corrcspoudinj^ to that of the 
vascular system of which it is a part, and to a great extent 
dependent upon the peculiar vital properties of the suhstancc 
entering into its structure. The provisional assimilative 
appendages are formed upon a type essentially lower than 
that of the permanent digestive system of the Echinoderms, 
and to understand their relations fully, I believe we must 
keep in view the mechanism of nutrition in the classes inferior 
to the Echinoderms in the zoological scale. 

In the suh-kingdom Protozoa, the entire body consists 
solely of " sarcode,'' a gelatinous substance which, though 
apparently structureless, possesses active vital properties. 
" Sarcode" alone, then, without the differentiationof any special 
tissue or organ, may perform effectively the functions of 
assimilation, respiration, and of voluntary motion ; and con- 
sequently a layer of this substance investing the germ of a 
higher organism, or an appendage formed of it, might answer 
the same purpose, though, perhaps, in a lower degree, as if 
the germ Avere provided with special provisional organs for 
the performance of these functions. 

I shall confine my remarks at present entirely to the 
Echinodermata ; though I believe they woukl apply with 
equal justice to some other invertebrate groups. 

In the Echinoderms the eggs are extremely small, pro- 
vided with only a thin layer of albumen — frequently v.-ith 
none at all. Segmentation of the yelk is complete ; the 
Avhole substance being reduced to a smooth granular mass, 
which is moulded into the form of the embryo, or of the 
embryo Avith its temporary nutrient ai)peHdages. A consi- 
derable time elapses before the differentiation in the embryo 
of the permanent assimilative tract; yet during this period 
the embryo increases rapidly in size, frequently attaining 
ten or twenty times its original dinunisions. In nu^ny cases 
this increase seems to take place by simple absorption of 
organic matter through the entire external surface of the 
embryo ; but, in order to the temporary performance of this 
function with such nnusual activity, the structure of the 
surface midcrgoes a remarkable nujdilication. The entire 
embryo is invested with a thin layer of " sareode.'' 

In some cases the sarcode merely forms a thin continuous 
layer, ciliated cither generally or in bands or patches, over 
the entire surface of the embryo. In others, as in the case 
of Pteraster inilitaris (M. and T.) and of the Crinoids, the 
ciliated layer investing the embryo is locomotive and respi- 
ratory ; Avhile at one point a ciliated oral ap(M-ture opens into 
a short digestive tube, passing through the substance of the 


sai'code, and indicating a surface especially dedicated to 

By a third modification, of -which Asteracaathion viola- 
ceus is an example, a portion of the sarcode layer is deve- 
loped into a group of transparent tubes, Avhich act as a tem- 
j)orary assimilative and respiratory apparatus; and in a 
fourth series, e.ff. in the species producing the "Bipinnaria" 
and " Brachiolaria" larvse, the whole of the segmented yelk, 
or the whole with the exception of a small granular nucleus, 
is shaped into a mass of sarcode, which forms a complicated 
organ provided with locomotive and respiratory appendages, 
a mouth, and short intestine; eventually, however, this or- 
ganism declares precisely the same relations to the embryo 
as in the former case, withering finally, as a cast-ofl* pro- 
visional appendage of its ambulacral system. 

Regarding the embryonic appendages in the Echinoderms 
as a provisional development of the ambulacral vascular 
system, the analogy between them and the embryonic vas- 
cular appendages of the vertebrata becomes extremely simple. 
In the liigher group, simultaneously with the first appear- 
ance of the embryo, a temporary system of vessels is pro- 
duced for its nourishment. These vessels originate round 
the outer edge of the area vasculosa, at some distance from 
the embryo and quite distinct from it, though in a continua- 
tion of the same layer of segmented yelk (the germinal 
membrane). They then approach the embryo, uniting and 
forming two or more symmetrical vascular trunks, which at 
first seem to open into the general cavity of the embryo, but 
afterwards coalesce with its special vascular system. 

The minute linear embryo presents at this time a form 
quite as anomalous as that of the most aberrant Bipinnaria 
or Pluteus ; flanked on either side by a large, crescentic, 
vascular lobe. As development advances, the vessels are 
carried backwards from the embryo with the nascent germinal 
membrane till the whole yelk is inclosed is a delicate, anas- 
tomosing, absorbent network ; other vessels and tissues are 
subsequently formed, but it is unnecessary here to trace 
their complicated morphology. 

"With reference to the earliest stages it has been already 
shown that almost the same language would apply to Echino- 
derm development. 


Remaiiks on the Binocular Microscope. 
By F. 11. Wen HAM, Esq. 

I HAVE been frequently asked Avhy I liave not termed my 
binoeular the '^ Stereoscopic ^Microscope V" I may reply that 
the prevailing idea of stereoscopic vision is more connected 
with the combined cft'ects of two separate objects, or pictures, 
than the solid appearance of a single body, having bulk or 
thickness. What I should term a " Stereoscopic ^Microscope" 
would be literally two microscopes, with their object-glasses, 
placed side by side, like an opera glass, with similar adjust- 
ments for the distance between the eyes. If such an instru- 
ment -were furnished Avith erccting-glasses and drav.-tubes, 
for varying the magnifying power, only one power of object- 
glass would be requisite, and I have no doubt that in many 
applications it would be found serviceable, as for the detec- 
tion of forged trade-marks, &c., and irregularities of pattern. 
Two single lenses, of about l|-inch focus, afford some 
curious results. Taking for example such objects as the 
similar titles of two different advertisements from a news- 
paper, or the headings from the various pages of a book in 
large type, the letters will appear in some places to rise up 
hill, and in others to fall away, or lay all aslant in a most 
fantastic manner, indicating that the type has not all been 
cast in the same matrix, and that the spaces are irregular, 
both in parallelism and thickness. Two postage-stamps also 
afford good objects. Many will be found so nearly alike 
that their combined images appear quite flat, but very fre- 
quently the head appears like a bust, cither above or below 
the matted ground, accordingly as they are transposed either 
to the right or left, thus showing that there is considerable 
irregularity cither in the plates or the mode of printing. 

The numerous microscopes that have been altered into 
binoculars in accordance with my last principle, and also the 
large quantity still in the course of manufacture, will, I think, 
justify me in making the assertion without presumption, that 
henceforth no first-class microscope will be considered com- 
plete unless adapted with the binocular arrangement. Tak- 
itig this for granted, it will be to the interest of our best 
makers to get up their object-glasses in future so as to give 
every possible advantage to the requirements of the principle. 
There have been some complaints that, with the highest 
powers, as the -jVth and |th, and in some instances (but 
not always) the ith or ^th, a portion of the field of view is 
obscured, rendering it almost impossible to use the two 



highest powers. This does not arise from any defect in the 
principle or in the construction of tlie prism^ for this, if 
neatly and properly made, divides the pencil with a knife- 
like precision and with no appreciable loss, for the total re- 
flection is perfect and 'effective quite up to the sharp edge. 
The obscuration of part of the field is caused by the long dis- 
tance of the back lens from the prism, and it will be found 
experimentally that when this distance is increased by 
adapters, or otherv/ise, a still greater portion of the field is 
lost. In the low* powers, including the -roth, the posterior or 
conjugate focus is long, and the back comlnnation of large 
diameter; consequently, in a relative sense, the prism is com- 
paratively much closer to the back lens, and any small section 
of the field cut off is beyond the limits of the lowest eye- 
piece. The annexed figure Avill demonstrate the reason of 
this dark portion appearing, as it does, more or less with the 
highest object-glasses, a is the object-glass of a compound 
microscope taken as a semilens for the simplicity of the illus- 
tration. The rays from this half, if unimpeded, will fill the 

whole of the field-lens [h) of an 
ordinary Huygenian eye-piece, 
but supposing a stop on the prism 
(which acts precisely as a stop 
for either half) bisecting the aper- 
ture be raised from contact with 
the back of the object-lens to the 
position c, it then appears that the 
rays from the diameter cannot 
reach the side of the field-lens at 
d; and as we continue to raise 
the stop, with its edge to the axis, 
more and more of the field of 
view and of the object is cut off, 
and finally, when the prism arrives 
close to the eye-piece, we should 
get merely half the field of view 
and half the object in eacli eye, 
and in this position it would be 
impossible to see the same spot iu 
the object, with both eyes at once, 
with any of the object-glasses; the 
object being simply divided into 
I two separate portions. 

It is obviously impracticable 

to bring the lower face of the 

prism quite close to the back of the object-glass ; but I 


would earnestly recommend tlic makers to construct the set- 
tings of the highest powers in future as short as they safely 
can, in order to obviate this want of field as far as possible. 
I can ofter no other suggestion, and the remedy is solely in 
their hands. 

I have before stated that the employment of a strong 
direct light should be avoided for 
the illumination of objects ob- . _ 

served with the l)inocular micro- ^ j 

scope, as direct rays tend to de- ^^ — ^ 

stroy the stereoscopic effect. For v y 

this reason I recommended the ^ ^ -^ 

use of diffused light. The an- \ 
nexed figure shows a form of ^\^^ ^ 

illuminator that has been found 
to give an excellent effect. It 

consists of three plano-convex lenses of the diameters 
and radii shown; it condenses a very large urea of light, 
and consequently gives great intensity. The final emer- 
gent pencil has an angular aperture of 170". Just above 
the top lens of the com])ination there is a sliding-eap, 
the crown of which contains the diffusing film. For this I 
have had some difficulty in finding a perfectly white and 
homogeneous, and at the same time partly transparent, 
material. What I now employ is the beautiful snow-white 
powder obtained from turning glass with a diamond turn- 
ing tool. This may be procured from the opticians, and 
should be well washed, to free it from tlie larger particles. 
A thin film of this impalpable powder is then compressed 
between two discs of thin glass, and fixed in the top of the 
sliding-eap, which is to be raised or lowered till the most 
intense light is obtained on the film. This illuminator 
is employed in the position of the achromatic condenser. I 
generally place a disc of slightly coloured neutral tint glass 
below the bottom lens, as it increases the purity of the light, 
and gives greater distinctness to objects. The eft'ect of this 
difiiising film is sometimes enhanced l)y condensing light 
down on the object from above as Avell as below. In fact, 
in the use of the binocular microscope, I am constantly in 
the habit of placing the light so as to illuminate l)oth as a 
transparent and opaque object at the same time, so that each 
method is ready to be used separately or together as may be 
found requisite. 


On Nobeut's Test-Plate and the Stri.i: of Diatoms. 
By W. S. Sullivant and T. G. "Wormley, 

(rioin die' Aincricuii Journal of Science and Arts' for January, ISGl.) 

The limit of the rcsolvability of lines, or how small a 
space can exist between lines and still admit of their being 
separated nnder the microscope, ai)pears to be an undecided 
point. Professor Qucckett (' Treatise on the Microscope/ 3d 
ed., p. 238, 1855) asserts that '"'no achromatic has yet been 
made capable of separating lines closer together than the 
.^_L_ th of an inch.^^ In the same work, p. 215, it is 
stated that Mr. Ross found it impossible to ascertain the 
position of a line nearer than the ^ „ ,', „ „th of an inch. "We 
find also on p. 512, that Mr. De la Eue, in his extended 
examination of Nobert's test-plates, was unable to resolve 
any lines closer than the ^.-j-^th of an inch. In Professor 
Carpentei-'s work ('The Microscope,' 2d ed., p. 189, 1859) 
this sentence occurs : " The well-defined lines on Nobert's 
test-plates have not yet been resolved when they have ap- 
proximated more closely than the -^-,',7^th of an inch.'' 

From the foregoing it appears that actual experiment fixes 
the limit of rcsolvability at about ^ , ,', „ ,^ th of an inch : 
this does not, as is said, vary widely from the deductions of 
Fraunhofer and others, based on the physical properties of 
light. In this connection the remark (op. cit., p. 47) of 
Professor Carpenter may be cited, "there is good reason to 
believe that the limit of perfection (in the objective) has now 
been nearly reached, since everything which seems theoreti- 
cally possible has been actually accomplished.'^ 

On the other hand there are authorities who assert that 
lines much closer than the 5— ,' , -th of an inch are resolva- 
ble. A few years since Messrs. Harrison and Sollitt pub- 
lished ('Microscopical Journal,' vol. ii, p. 61, 1854-) their 
measurements of the strife of several diatoms, assigning to 
Amphipleura pellucida striie as close as the -, .^ ^ ^ ^ -,7th to 
___i_---th of an inch. These measurements have recently 
been repeated, and Avith exactly the same results, by ^Ir. 
Sollitt alone ('Mic. Jour.,' viii, p. 51, 1859), who furthermore 
expresses the opinion that stria? as close as the -)-- ,'„ of 
an inch can, with proper means, be seen. Mr. Sollitt's 
measurements have been adopted in the ' Micrographic Dic- 
tionary' (1860) and most of the modern works on the 
Microscope — no one. Professor Carpenter (op. cit., p. 188) 
excepted, suggesting a doubt as to their accuracy ; on the 


contrary, their correctness seems to be expressly recognised 
by Dr.* G. C. Wallich ('Ann. and :\rag. Nat. Hist.' for 
February, 1800). 

Such being the conflicting testimony and opinion of dis- 
tinguished microscopists on the capacity of the modern ob- 
jective for separating lines, it is somewhat surprising — in 
view of the higli state of perfection now attained by the 
microscope — that so few experiments have been made bearing 
on this interesting point. 

As a contribution toward that object, we propose to offer 
presently an analysis from actual measurements, as far as we 
wei'c able to carry them, of one of those '^ marvels of art," 
Nobert's test-plates. In such investigations the quality 
of the instruments used being all important, we would state 
that the oi)tical apparatus at our command was ample, con- 
sisting of a first-class Smith and Beck microscope-stand, 
a Tollcs' ^V;th objective of IGO^ angular aperture — an ob- 
jective of rare excellence in all respects — besides -iVrths 
and Toths of other eminent opticians, both English and 
American ; also a solid eye-piece micrometer by Tolles, and 
an improved cobweb micrometer of Grunow's accurate Avoik- 
raanship. Smith and Beck's stage scales furnished the 
standards for fixing the micrometrical values of the eye- 
pieces. By means of Tolles' amplifier, an achromatic con- 
cavo-convex lens between the objective and the eve-piece, an 
amplification (by the standard of 10 inches) as high as 6000 
times obtained. This high amplification, Avith sunlight 
variously applied after passing through a small achromatic 
lens of long focus, was clfectivc in resolution, and essential to 
the distinct coiuiting under the micrometer of the lines of the 
test-plate. Tlie test-plate used consisted of thirty bands of 
lines, each band varying but little from the --oVt-rrth of an 
inch in width, and having its lines a uniform distance apart. 
On one end of the plate is engraved by Nobert, in parts of 
the Paris line, the distance apart of the lines composing the 
first band, and thence on, the distance between the lines of 
every fifth band, as in the .'2d aiul 5th columns of the follow- 

ing table 


Par. line. 


English inch. 


4 9 4 3 
4 TTo 'j"7 


Par. line. 

English inch. 








6 7 4 13 

VOL. I. 




We add the 3d and Gth columns, giving the distances in 
parts of the English inch found by multiplying tlie decimals 
in the 2d and oth columns bv -088815. 


lahjsis of Nobert's Test-plate Oj 

f Thirty Ba 


Lines in each 

Parts of an 



Lines in c.'icli Parts of an 



F.njjiisli inch. 


English indi. 






i 7 6 I a 













n 2 I » ■> 






6~3 8'2 « 



"202'24 1 









6 goi"! 



1 1 



tTs Til 















_ 1 _ 

■I Off 3 u 



I . 




1 TTjOuF 

1 26 


fif i"o« 



[ iTSTI 






1 3"()'oU0 


44 ? 




'• oHoIlU 


R u .1 :i * 



'■ 1 _ 

1 4 /. it y 


The figures in the od and 6th columns, showing the dis- 
tance apart of the lines in each band, are the mean of numer- 
ous and slightly variant trials, particularly on the higher 
bands. Up to the 26th band there was no serious difficulty 
in resolving and ascertaining the position of the lines ; but 
on tliis and the sul^sequent ones, spectral lines,'" that is, lines 
each composed of tvi o or more real lines, more or less pre- 
vailed, showing that the resolving power of the objective was 
approaching its limit. By a suitable arrangement, however, 
of the illumination, these spurious lines were separated into 
the ultimate ones on the M'hole of the 26th, and very nearly on 

* The iciuleiicy of lines near the limits of the objective's icsolving 
power to run into each other, and produce spectral or spurious lines, is 
readily shown by a low objective on the lower bands, jtcnce the mere 
exhibition of lines is not always conclusive evidence of their ullimatc reso- 
lution. A practised eye will generally distinguish the false from the true. 
Tlecourse to a higher objective often accomplishes the same ; but when 
these fail, the micrometer only, together with a previous knowledge of the 
actual position of the true lines, can determine whether the lines exiiibited 
are real or spurious. A \-12 or 1-1(5 will show the ." or 4 highest bands on 
this plate regularly and beautifidly striped with lines much conrser thnu the 
true ones ; the same with the i-lio on the last band. 


the -whole of the 27th baud ; but ou the 28th, aud still more 
on the 29th, they so prevailed, that at no one focal adjust- 
ment could more than a portion (a third or a fifth part) of 
the Avidth of these bauds be resolved iuto the true lines. 

The true lines of the 30th baud wc wore unable to sec, at 
least with any decree of certainty ; still, froru indications, we 
have no do\d)t they are ruled as stated by Nobcrt. 

It will be observed that our measurements of the lines on 
the 1st, 5th, lOth, 15th, 2()th bands vary somewhat from 
Nobert's registration on the plate as given in the first taljle 
above. Such discrepancies are to be expected, aud by niicro- 
scopists familiar with o])cratious of this kiud are looked upon 
as unavoidable ; but that on the 25th band is rather large to 
be accounted for in this way. AVe arc unable to explain it, 
and can only say that our repeated measurements of it were 
very carefully made. 

These experiments, together with those of others before 
noticed, induce us to believe that the limit of the resolvabi- 
lity of lines, in the present state of the objective, is well-nigh 
established ; but that this limit may be carried somewhat 
higher we are not prepared to doubt, since the handsome 
advance lately achieved by ]Mr. Tolles in his -j^th — combin- 
ing wide aperture, fine definition, aud high amplification — • 
shows that the objective had not, as we were inclined to 
think, reached the stationary point. 

The theoretical view of this cpiestion, that is, what may be 
the closest approximation of lines consistent with their 
separation under the microscope, we leave to those com- 
petent to the task, by whom, it is to be hoped, we may 
be favoured with further information on this point. 

With regard to the striation of diatoms, an opinion 
generally prevails that the number of striro on a given portion 
of a frustule varies among individuals of the same species, 
within wide extremes. This opinion is probably traceable in 
part to one of the earlier pul^lications on the subject, the 
paper of Messrs. Harrison and Sollitt before referred to, 
wherein (as in the more recent paper of Mr. Sollitt) measure- 
ments of several diatoms are given shov.'ing great variable- 
ness in their striation. To these gentlemen much credit is 
due for their discovery of high markings, before unsuspected, 
on certain diatomaceous frustulos ; their measurements, how- 
ever, aud the alleged variableness of these markiugs, we have 
uot been able to verify, as will be seen by the followiug extract 
from our paper published (this Journal, ^Earch, 1859) on the 
subject : 



11. and S. 

Sill. Svn. 

S. and W. 

GO to 111 



50 to 90 


52 to 56 

40 to 80 







jS'uniber of stri* in 001''. 

Navicula rhomboides . 
Pleurosigrna fasciola . 
Pleurosigma strif/osum 
NitzscMa sigmoidea 

Many frustules of these species, from different localities^ 
have been measured by us, and always with the same results. 
Plevrosigma fasciola has been specially designated by Mr. 
Sollitt, and also by Dr. Wallich, as very inconstant in its 
markings. Of tliis diatom we are fortunate in being supplied 
with abundant specimens, from various localities in England, 
particularly from the neighbourhood of Hull. Several 
hundred valves, not a few under .riutli of an inch in length, 
were measured, and on no one were found striae less than 52 
or more than 56 in "OOl", much the larger number being 54. 
A similar uniform striation has always lieen observed among 
the individuals of many other species examined by us."^ 

To such uniformity of striation AmpMpkura pellucida 
forms as j^et no exception ; this diatom is still a "res vexata" 
among microscopists ; ^either the striation nor the structure 
of its fiustule is at all satisfactorily understood. The record 
of its striation is found to be thus: — In 1854 Messrs. Harrison 
and Sollitt's measurements made its striie 120 to 130 in 
•001". Prof. Carpenter (1850) first suggests the proliability 
of some error in these measurements ; the vrriters of this 
paper declared themselves (this Jour., March, 1859) unable 
to "glimpse'' the strice. Mr. Sollitt ('Mic. Jour.,' Oct., 1859) 
measures them again, and finds them still as low as 120 to 
130 in •001", but gives it as the opinion of ^Ir. Lobb that 
" even those figures are too low, and that they ought to be 
set down ^at 140 in •OOl"." In the same number of the 
' Microscopic Journal,' Mr. Rylands sees " stria;, but much 
more distant than the 130 in -OOl" of the Hull microscopist." 

* It is well knowa tliat ainouii' iiulividuals belonging to the same species, 
and on the same slide, some are much more diilicult of resolution than others. 
This is owing to the j)Osition of the valves, thickness of covering-s,dass, depth 
of balsam, &c., and not to a supposed dilTerence in the number of tiieir 
slriic, as the micrometer will readily demonstrate. 

Estimates of tlie number of strire based on a visual comparison with the 
known striation of other species are seldom reliable : instances of the vague- 
ness of this method are seen in the valuable jiaper of Dr. Donkin ou 
Northumbrian Diatomacca; (' Mic. Journal,' ISoS), where adopting PleurO' 
sujina aiif/ulatum as a standard, he estimates the stria' of his Pleurosigrna 
lanceolafnrii at about 70, and those of his ToxoinJca i>/si///iis at about 75 to 
80 in 'OOl", whereas in both cases actual measurements show the strife 
(transverse and diagonal) to be only 57 in tiie same space. 


Lastly, Mr. Hendry states (' Mic. Jour./ July, 18G0) that he 
has " come to a satisfactory conclusion, that it is a sad mis- 
reprcsentatiou to set down the lines so hioli in the scale as 
130 in •001", and that on a few shells lines may be counted 
at 42, and many at GO, 70, and 80 in "OOl".^' A perplexing 
record, truly ! — reminding one of the celebrated Tor bane 
Hill coal case (^ Mic. Jour.,' ii, p. (>1). 

It is our impression, not\vithstandiug these confiicting 
statements, that the diatom before us presented to all these 
gentlemen the same appearances, but their interpretation of 
these appearances have been widely different. 

The testimony of our oljjectives, as we understand it, seems 
to indicate that this diatom has a minutely and irregularly 
broken-up surface, which even on the same valve can be 
made to show an apparent striation, varying from moderately 
coarse to extremely line, according to the obliquity or inten- 
sity of the illumination, and to the grade, whether low or 
high, of the objective used, thus proving beyond question 
that the exhibition is illusory. In numerous trials, par- 
ticularly on fine English specimens from Hull, sent us by 
Mr. G. Norman, we have entirely failed, with glasses too of 
unsurpassed excellence, to bring out regular, distinct, and 
unmlstakeable striie such as would be at once so recognised by 
an eye practised on tlie striaj of other diatoms. 

After all, it is not improbable that true strise, yet unre- 
solved, may exist on the valves of this species ; and further- 
more, that the apparent strife of difterent observers may be 
similar to the spectral or spurious lines before noted as 
occurring on the bands of Nobert's test-plate, when 
examined by an objective incapable of resolving them. 

A summary of the foregoing may be briefly stated thus : — 
that our experiments lead us to believe — 

1st. That lines on Nobert's test-plate, closer together than 
about the ^-'„-f^,th of an inch, cannot be separated by the 
modern objective. 

2d. That no true strict have yet been seen on the valves of 
A inpliijjh'ura peUucida . 

3d. That the alleged variableness in the striation of diatoms 
among individuals of the same species has been greatly ex- 
aggerated ; on the contrary, we find a remarkable iniiforniity, 
thus sustaining the opinion of Prof. Smith (' Synop. 13r. 
Diat.,' V. 2, Introd., p. 2G), that for characterising species 
''striation is the best guide." — Columbus Ohio; Nov. 18G0. 



New Experiments relating to what is termed Stoxtaneous 
Generation. By M. L. Pasteur. 

('Comptes reudus,' Sept. 3, 1860, p. 3i8.) 

Since the author's last communication to the Academy 
on the subject of tlie origin of '' ferments," and on what is 
termed " spontaneous generation/'' his attention has been 
directed to several points of particular interest in the question, 
and which are still attended with great difhculties, although 
their explanation is comprised in his previous labours. 

Moreover, so long as the doctrine of spontaneous genera- 
tion can present a single serious ol)jection to the opposite 
doctrine, we may expect to find it constantly reappearing; 
for it maintains its hold over our minds, lui known to our- 
selves, from its relation with the impenetrable mystery of 
the origin of life on the surface of the globe. It is one of 
those questions which may be compared to the fabled monster 
whose many heads were unceasingly renewed. They must all 
be destroyed. 

An essay of the celebrated (iay-]jussac, now become 
quite classical, has exerted a singular influence upon the 
minds of men, on the subject now under consideration. 
Having been charged w^ith the examination of the methods 
of preserving provisions of Appert, which Avere nothing but 
the industrial application of the experiments of Needham 
and Spallanzani on the so-termed spontaneous generation, 
Gay-Lussac uses these expressions: — "It is evident when 
the air in the bottles in which the substances have been well 
preserved is analysed, that it no longer contains oxygen; and 
consequently, that the absence of that gas is a necessary 
condition for the conservation of animal and vegetable sub- 

In the same work Gay-Lussae relates the experiment since 
so frequently cited, of grapes which, having been crushed 
under mercury, did not undergo ferineutation unless they 


were brought iato coutiict witli pure oxygeu or with 
common air, even in a scarcely perceptible quantity. 

These experiments, which liave only a comparative exact- 
ness, have never been contested. By degrees, without 
bringing to these delicate researches all that critical pre- 
cision which they demand, authors liave extended the prin- 
ciples of Gay-Lussae to the organisms which arise in infusions ; 
and at the present day, every one, partisan or opponent of 
spontaneous generation, admits that the smallest possible 
quantity of common air brought in contact with an infusion 
causes, in a sliort time, the birth of Mucedinece or of Infu- 

This opinion has always been sustained, at any rate indi- 
rectly, by the habit followed and considered indispensable by 
observers, of preventing, Avith infinite precautions in all their 
experiments, the access of atmospheric air. Sometimes they 
recommend its calcination ; sometimes its subjection to the 
most active chemical agents ; frequently they begin by passing 
it through the vapour of water at -IVl^ ; lastly, they operate 
at other times with artificial air : and should it happen, under 
any one of these various conditions, that the experiment 
results in the production of organisms, they do not hesitate 
to affirm that the experimenter has been uualjle completely to 
avoid the introduction of a small quantity of common air, 
however minute it may be. Whence the partisans of spon- 
taneous generation hasten to remark, and not Avithout reason, 
that if the minutest portion of ordinary air develops organisms 
in any kind of infusion, this must arise, if the organisms are 
not spontaneous, from the circumstance that the minute por- 
tion of air in question contains the germs of a multitude of 
different productions; and lastly they say, if this be the 
case, the atmospheric air, to use M. Pouchet's expression, 
must be loaded with organic matter enough to render it 

This reasoning, it must be confessed, is very sensible, and 
the more so since all the lower species which appear to be dis- 
tinct seem really to be so, and consequently to be derived 
from dillercnt germs. Here then w(^ are met Avith a serious 
and, to all appearance, a real difficulty. But is it not an 
exaggeration, and a deduction from facts more or less erro- 
neous ? Is it true, as is presumed since Gay-Lussac, that 
the cause of the so-termed spontaneous generation is con- 
stantly in oi)cratiou in the atmosphere ? Is it quite certain 
that tlie smallest quantity of common air does suffice for the 
development of organized productions in any kind of infusion? 
Lastly, what amount of confidence can be placed in Gay- 


Lussac's results, or rather in the interpretation of them that 
has been given, and which has been not only accepted, but 
exajjgerated ? 

The following experiments answer all tliese questions. 

In a series of flasks containing ^50 cubic centimetres, the 
author introduces the same putrescil^le liquid ^ in quantity 
sufficient to occupy about a third of the total volume of the 
vessel. The necks of the flasks are drawn out in the spirit- 
lamp, and the liquid is made to boil, the slender extremity of 
the neck being closed duinng the ebullition. A vacuum is 
thus produced in the flask. He then breaks off" the points in 
a given locality. The air enters with violence, drawing along 
with it all the dusty particles it may hold in suspension, and 
all the principles, known or unknown, associated with it. The 
flask is then immediately closed with the blowpipe and placed 
in a stove heated to 20° or 30° C, that is to say, in the best 
conditions for the development of animalcules and mucores. 

The results of the following experiments are not in accord 
■with the principles generally admitted, l3ut they are perfectly 
in agreement, on the other hand, with the idea of a dissemina- 
tion of germs. 

In most cases, in a few days the liquid begins to decompose; 
and in the flasks, although they may be placed in identical 
conditions, organisms of the most varied kinds will be seen to 
arise — far more varied, in fact, especially as regards the Muce- 
dinece or Torulacece, than would have been produced if theliquids 
had been exposed to the common air. But, on the other hand, 
it often happens several times in each series of experiments 
that the liquid remains absolutely unaftected, whatever may 
be the duration of its exposure in the stove, and just as if it 
had been filled with air that had been exposed to a red 

This sort of experiment appears to the author as simple as 
it is unobjectionable, in order to demonstrate that the atmo- 
sphere is far from constantly aflbrding the cause of the so- 
termed spontaneous generations, and that it is always possible 
to procure in a given localit}', and at a given moment, a con- 
siderable A'olume of commou air Avhieh has undergone no sort 
of physical or chemical change, and which is nevertheless 
wholly inca})able of giving rise to Inftiaoria or Miicedinete iu 
a liquid which undergoes decomposition very rapidly, and in- 
variable when in free contact with the atmosj)here. The 
pai'tial success of these experiments shows sufliciently well 
also that, owing to the movement of the atmosphere, there will 

* Albuniinous water iVom the yeast of beer; albuminous water conlain- 
ing sugar, uriuc, <S:c. 


ahvays reach the surface of a li(iuid, phiced whilst boiling in an 
uncovered vessel, a quantity of air sufficient to convey to it 
germs litted to become developed in the liquid in the space of 
two or three days. 

It has been said that the organisms produced arc more 
varied in the flasks prepared as above than if the contact witli 
the atmosphere had been freer ; and nothing can be more 
natural than that it should be so. For when the quantity of 
air admitted at one time is limited, and the admission is 
repeated a number of times, the atmospheric germs are 
caught, as it were, in all the varieties under which they exist 
in the air. 

The small number of germs contained in a limited quantity 
of air are not hindered in their development by other germs, 
either existing in greater numbers or gifted with a more 
precocious fecundity, and capable of occupying the whole field, 
and leaving no place i)ut for themselves. It is for this reason 
that Pemcillium yhnicuin, whose spores are vivacious and 
widely diffused, appears alone, at the end of a very few days, 
in the same liquids not enclosed, which, when exposed to 
limited quantities of air only, would, on the contrary, have 
afforded a great variety of organisms. 

Lastly, the author cannot omit noticing the differenceswhich 
arc observed in the numl)cr of negative results in these experi- 
ments, according to the varying conditions of the atmosphere ; 
a circumstance which affords a striking confirmation of his 

Nothing, in fact, is more easy than to augment or diminish 
either the number of flasks in which organisms arc produced, 
or the number of flasks in which they shall be totally absent. 

The author confines himself to the relation of experiments 
which he was enabled to undertake in the vaults of the Paris 

In this place, as the vaults are situated in the zone of equal 
annual temperature, the perfectly calm air Avould evidently 
allow every particle of dust to fall to the ground, in the 
intervals of the disturbances which might be caused by the 
movements of the observer, or by the objects introduced by 
him. Consequently if every precaution be observed when the 
experimenter enters the vault to procure portions of the air, 
the number of flasks which will ultimately aftbrdno organisms 
ought to be considerably greater than in the case where they 
may have been filled, for example, with the air in the court of 
the* Observatory. This is what takes place; and the con- 
clusions to be drawn from the results of experiment, from the 
agreement it shows with nature, or the multiplicity greater or 


less of the precautions taken to avoid the accidental introduc- 
tion of foreign dust, compel the admission that if the flasks 
were opened or closed in the vaults, -without tlie operator be- 
ing obliged to carry them thence, the air in the vaults "vvould 
invariably prove to be as inactive as air heated to the tempera- 
ture of red-hot iron. This does not arise, however, from the 
circumstance that the air itself, and owing to the conditions 
under which it is placed, has a special inactivity. On the 
contrary, it being saturated with moisture, and the lower 
organisms not requiring light for their existence, this air has 
always appeared to the author more fitted than that on the 
surface of the ground for tlie development of those organisms. 

In conclusion, we find that the ordinary atmos{)hcric air 
only here and there, and without any constancy, presents the 
conditions necessary for the first existence of the so-termed 
si)ontaneous generations. In one situation germs exist; close 
by, none at all ; at a greater distance, some of a different kind. 
They are abundant, or the reverse, according to the locality. 
Rain lessens their number. In summer, after a succession of 
fine days, they abound ; and in places Avliere the atmosphere 
has been perfectly calm for a long time, the germs are entirely 
absent, and putrefaction does not take place, at any rate in 
the liquids upon which the author has experimented. 

But how is it, it may be asked, that in Gay-Lussac's expe- 
riments with grapes, Toruhi ce/"er/.S7Ve is produced by the intro- 
duction of a very minute quantity of air ; and that if the same 
experiment be repeated with different infusions, we see these 
uiulergo decomposition in contact Avith the smallest possible 
quantities of air, and more than that, on the introduction of air 
hat has been heated or artificially made ; for the experiments 
of M. Pouchet in the mercurial bath are exact, whilst those of 
Schwann, of the same nature, are almost always erroneous? 
This arises simply from tlie circumstance that the mercury 
itself is profusely filled Avith germs. This fact the author has 
already stated with reference to experiments which will be 
detailed in his memoir ; but in the present communication he 
contents himself with giving a proof of this assertion which, 
he says, will astonish every one. 

He takes some mercury whicli is poured without any par- 
ticular precautions into the bath, in any laboratory ; and, in 
the mode described in a former part of his memoir, he intro- 
duces, in the midst of an atmosphere of air which had been 
heated to redness, a single globule of this mercury, about the 
size of a pea, into the decomposable liquid. Two days after- 
wards, in every experiment he has made, organisms of various 
kinds have been produced. But if the same experiments be 


repeated, comlucted in a similar manner, and without any 
change in the manipulation, and with a portion of the same 
quicksilver, but which has been previously heated, not a 
single living organism will be produced. 

On the Anatomical Constitution of the Nerves of Sense 
in the Genus Aplvsia. By M. Martini. 

(' Comptes reiulus,'" Oct. 22, 18G0, p. 635.) 

It is well known that the integuments, tentacles, and 
mouth of these Gasteropods are extremely sensitive to the 
least mechanical stimulation. I have also noticed the eft'eets 
of a weak galvanic current applied to the organs of sense ; the 
excitation of two closely approximated points, beyond the 
oesophageal ring, induces the contraction of nearly the entire 
muscular layer of the integument and foot. This fact shows 
that not only the ganglia of the oesophageal ring, but the 
other ganglia also are capable of reflecting centripetal into 
centrifugal actions, and of becoming the central pole of a 
nervous circulation, as has been proved by ]M. Flourens from 
physiological proofs, and by M. Jacubowitsch from anatomi- 
cal facts. 

Moreover, the nerves of the organs of sense, that is to say, 
in Aplysia, the nerves of the integument, of the tentacles, and 
of the mouth are furnished with numerous ganglionic enlarge- 
ments. In the cutaneous nerves these are found at almost 
every point of the ramifications and anastomoses, and in the 
nerves of the tentacles also in the course of the branches and 
of the extreme fihiments. 

The ganglionic enlargements are of considerable size, 
relatively to the branches of the nerve. They are of a yellow 
colour, and composed of ganglionic cells, Avhich are, for the 
most part, unipolar. 

It should be remarked, that in the nerves of the tentacles 
ganglionic cells are always present, even in nervous filaments 
in th'.! centre of the fibres ; and that the terminal nervous 
plexus is formed chiefly of multipolar C; Us. Lastly, the gan- 
glionic structure extends to tlie primitive fibres of the sen- 
tient nerves, which are furnished from point to i)oint in their 
length with nucleated cellular enlargements. It should be 
stated that these ganglionic enlargements do not exist in the 
nerves which are distributed to the nmsclcs of the foot. 


On the Terminations of the Nerves at the Periphery and 
in the different Organs, or the Terminations of the 
Nervous System in general. By M. N. Jacubgavitsch. 

(' Comptes rendus,' May 7, 1860, p. 859.) 

I. Ie a portion of the mesentery of the cat; Avith the Paci- 
nian corpuscles contained in it, be placed for twenty -four 
hours in some of Moleschott^s solution (alcohol and acetic 
acid), and then spread out upon glass, and submitted to the 
microscope under a magnifying power of from 180 to 200 
diameters, it will distinctly and clearly exhibit not only the 
Pacinian corpuscles, but also the vessels of every kind 
surrounding them, as well as the cellular -tissue-corpuscles 
with their nutrient vessels ; in fact, the whole of the histo- 
logical elements composing the mesentery will be seen. The 
Pacinian corpuscles are composed of two capsules, an external 
and an internal. The nerve itself usually divides, before 
entering the corpuscle, into several branches, Avhich retain 
their medullary substance and their neurilemma until they 
reach the corpuscle, and even until they have penetrated 
the external capsule and reached the internal, whence the 
axial cylinder, now completely isolated, continues its course to 
the summit, where it terminates in a very distinct cell, and 
even into the nucleolus itself of the cell. In one case I was 
fortunate enough to witness the rupture of the internal capsule, 
and the escape of the cell with its membrane and contents — 
the nucleus and nucleolus, — a fact Avhich establishes in au 
evident manner their existence as a termination of the 
nerve. Moreover, I would farther remark, that in many 
preparations 1 have seen not one cell only forming the 
termination of the nerve, but even several. 

II. a. When the corpuscida tacttis, properly so termed, 
arc treated with Moleschott's solution, they not only become 
transparent, but the elements of Avhich they are constituted 
arc disintegrated. Thus, in the frog's thumb, we see elon- 
gated, fusiform, distinctly nucleated cells, in the form of a 
cup, into which the nerve enters, losing its medullary sub- 
stance on its entrance, and retaining, as in the case of the 
Pacinian corpuscles, only its axial cylinder, in order to 
terminate in a nerve-cell, and, as in that case, in the nucleus ; 
and iu such a way as to show the existence of an essential 
analogy between the Pacinian corpuscles and the corpuscida 
tact us. 

b. The nerve having entered the cutaneous papilla, after 


dividing several timcs^ turns upon itself aniouji; the blood- 
vessels, and again quits the papilla, in order to join the 
nervous plexus, -which I am about to deseribe. 

c. The nervous plexus is constituted in the following 
manner : — The bundles of nerves Avith a double contour 
(motile), as well as those with a simple contour (sensitive), 
which run beneath the integument in various directions, 
divide several times, and then their primitive fibres become 
slenderer and slenderer, so that, at last, they come to resemble 
axial cylinders, which are interlaced, so as to constitute a 
true nervous plexus. The loops which enter the cutaneous 
papilkc, and which I have just adverted to, cuter into the 
composition of this plexus. I would designate this peculiar 
distribution, this peripheral expansion of the motile and 
sensitive nerves, under the name of ^je?7////<??*o/ cajnllary 
nervous plexus. It corresponds, in all respects, with the 
plexus which we find at the periphery of the cerebrum and 
cerebellum, and must be regarded as a special peripheral 
termination of the nerves. A similar condition of parts is 
readily seen in the tongue and on the nipples ; on the one 
the termination of the nerves of taste being in the nucleus of 
nerve- cells, and in the other the peripheral capillary plexus 
being continued into the muscles existing in the part. 

III. The retina. — The first and innermost layer is the peri- 
pheral nervous expansion of the optic nerve, in which this 
peculiarity may be remarked — that the nervous fasciculi end 
in becoming confounded Avitli the axial cylinders which ter- 
minate in the nucleus of a nerve-cell. The second layer is the 
cellular layer, properh' so termed ; it is formed of several 
superimposed layers of cells. The form of these cells is more 
or less rounded or oval, and they vary much in size. The 
external and superior are the largest, w hilst the inferior cells 
are no bigger than the nuclei of those placed more super- 
ficially. In this layer it may be seen how the axial cylinders 
arc curved at the horizontal surface, in order to reach 
the neighbouring cells, and thence the more remote cel- 
lular layers, until they attain to the third layer (nuclear 
layer), which is next in order. ^Vith higher magnifying 
powers there may be seen in this layer douljle nuclei, and 
even fai'ther subdivision of the nuclei, as has been also 
noticed by other observers as well as by myself, at the 
periphery of the cerebrum and cerebellum, and especially in 
the optic thalami. From this circumstance 1 have been led 
to regard this last layer of the retina as the site where the 
evolution of the cells takes pkice, that is to say, as a situation 
where the nuclei must be regarded as future nerve-cells, and. 


conseqnentlVj, as being the place where new cells are conti- 
nually formed and developed. With respect to the cones, I 
regard them simply as axial cylinders of tlie optic nerves, 
bent round so as to terminate in nerve-cells, and which become 
the more apparent and the longer in proportion as they pene- 
trate more deeply into the inferior layers ; whence it arises 
that tlieir form and length are more or less varial)le. 

As regards the liacillar layer, it does not constitute an 
essential part of the nervous elements, properly so termed, of 
tlie retina ; but is rather to be regarded as belongmg to the 
pigment-cells, of which it is the direct continuation. In the 
eyes of fish and of frogs it may be readily separated and 
obtained in horizontal, lateral, and transverse sections. 

IV. In the heart, lungs, ^kidneys, and in the submucous 
layer of the bladder and intestine, there may be distinctly and 
clearly observed in the course of the nervous fasciculi groups 
of nerve-cells, which, from their form, I take to be gan- 
glionic cells; and in which the axial cylinders may be 
distinctly seen to terminate, not, iu this case, in the nucleus 
of the cell, but in the body of the cell altogether, 

TIius, in recapitulating the results of my researches on the 
peripheral nervous system, I arrive at the following results : 

I. That every nerve, of whatever kind it may be, originates 
from a nerve-cell in the central organs of the nervous system, 
and terminates at the periphery or in the interior of an 
organ — 

a. Either in a nerve-cell, and, in the case of the nerves of 
sense, in the nucleus itself; 

b. Or in the body of a cell, in the interior of the organs, 
in the case of the ganglionic nerves ; or, lastly, 

c. In the formation of a capillary nervous plexus, in which 
the anatomical differences disappear, the axial cylinders 
mutually running into each other and becoming confounded 

II. That the nervous system — both central and peripheral 
— constitutes a Avliole, which, like the circulating system, 
pervades every part of the organism, forming a web as it 
were among the different parts, and thus reaching the ulti- 
mate elements of the tissues, Avithout, at the same time, 
becoming lost in a vague and confused manner. 

III. That the nervous elements — the cells as well as the 
axial cylinders — are always in a course of development both 
in the central organs and at the periphery, 

IV. That the office of the nerve-cells, at the periphery or 
in the interior of the organs varies : they either preside over 
special functions, as those belonging to all the organs of 


sense, or subserve the proper conservation of the organs 
themselves, as the nerve-cells of the glandular organs, and of 
the mucous membranes ; whilst the physiological functions, 
properly so termed, of the organs, depends upon the con- 
nexion of the nerve-cells Avith the central ])ortions of the 
nervous system. 

V. That although anatomical difierences disappear in the 
peripheral capillary nervous plexus, from the circumstance 
that the axial cylinders become fused together, this is not 
the case with their physiological distinctness, which remains 
unaffected ; a condition similar to that which exists in the 
capillary blood-vessels. 



Compendium of Human Histolor/y. Bv C. ^Morel. Translated 
and Edited by W. II. V'vx Bike.v, M.D. Nen- York : 
Builliere Brothers. 

TiiK original of this work is written by Professor !Morel, of 
Straslmrg, and translated by Dr. Van Buren, Professor of 
Anatomy in the University of New York. It has been 
selected for translation by the latter on account of its con- 
ciseness and the excellence of the plates with which it is 
illustrated. These plates, twenty-eight in num1)er, ai'e cer- 
tainly got up in a very superior manner, and the original 
plates arc reproduced in the American edition. Tiicy have 
Ijeen drawn by Messrs. Morel and Villemin, and lithographed 
with great care and accuracy by ]M. Simon, of Strasburg. 
We have carefully looked over them, and although we cannot 
observe any addition to our knowledge of the intimate struc- 
ture of the organs of the human body, we can cordially 
recommend these illustrations as more carefully engraved in 
their details than any continuous series on the same subject 
Avith Avhich we are acquainted. 

The text of the work is really little more than an extended 
description of the beautiful plates. At the same time we 
think it may be foui.d more useful ibr the student attending 
lectures and demonstrations than the nuire diti'use treatises, in 
which elaborate discussions are entered into, and which are 
better adupted for the advanced student or teacher. Dr. 
Van Buren is, however, Avell posted up on the subject of his- 
tology, and in the notes which he has added has supplied 
the student with copious references to original papers and 
the larger works of Kolliker, Todd and Bowman, and others. 


Catalogue of Transparent Injected Preparations. Sold by 
Smith and Beck, London. 

Messrs. Smith and Beck having sent us up a selection from 
the transparent injected preparations which they now have 
on sale, we feel we shall be doing a service to our readers 
by calling their attention to them. We believe these prepa- 
rations are not made in this country; but from whatever part 
of the world tliey are obtained, they claim the merit of being 
the most successfully mounted microscopic preparations that 
have yet been offered to the public for sale. In the catalogue 
the preparations are arranged under distinct heads, according 
to the part or organ of the animal system from which they 
are obtained ; and, perhaps, we cannot give our readers a 
better idea of the natiu-c and variety of these preparations, 
than by referring to them under the various subdivisions 
adopted in the catalogue. 

Nervous system. — In this series we have sections of various 
parts of the nervous system. A highly interesting and in- 
structive series is one of six transverse sections of the me- 
dulla elongata, from its commencement up to its union with 
the corpora quadrigemina. These are made from the rabbit. 
There are also preparations of the human brain and of the 
human optic nerve. It must, however, be borne in mind, 
that in these preparations the principal part of the structure 
elucidated is the distribution of the smaller blood-vessels. 
It is, in fact, in the extraordinary delicacy of the injections 
that one of the great merits of these preparations exists. 

Eye. — The whole series devoted to the eye are exceedingly 
delicate and beautiful. It begins with several preparations 
of the human eye, as the eyelids, the cornea, sclerotica, and 
conjunctiva, the iris, ciliary processes, and choroid. The pre- 
paration of some of the structures of the eye in situ, as illus- 
trated in the preparations from the rat, are very instructive. 
In one of these the distribution of the various branches of 
the posterior ciliary artery, and of the circular artery of the 
iris, is seen ; whilst in another the whole of the ramifications 
of the capsular artery on the posterior surface of the lens is 
exhibited. In another preparation fi'om the rabbit, the whole 
of the vascular part of the retina is given. Dissections of 
the new-born cat's eyes display the pupillary membrane. 
These preparations of the eye will be found exceedingly valua- 
ble to the student, as supplying to him for permanent ob- 
servation those parts in the structure of the eye, which cannot 



be seen at all except by those who have the power, Avhich Ijiit 
few possess, of making injections for themselves. 

S/cin, — The preparations of the skin are not numerous. 
They are entirely from the human subject, and present sec- 
tions from the head, showing the hair-follicles. These might 
be increased with advantage. Examples of the perspiratory 
glands, with the capillaries of the true skin, and of follicles 
with Demodex in situ, would be interesting, as supplying 
objects not always easily obtainable at present. 

Tongue. — These preparations consist of several sections 
from the human tongue, and that of the rabbit, cat, and 
mouse. They are interesting as exhibiting the lingual gland 
and the constitution of the blood-vessels in this organ. 

Organs of digesiion. — In this series we have no prepara- 
tions from the human body. There are, however, very in- 
structive sections From the stomach of the mouse and rabbit, 
and also preparations exhibiting the structure of the mucous 
membrane in the large and small intestines of the guinea-pig, 
the rat, the mouse, and the cat. We have seen but one pre- 
paration of the liver, and tliat from the rabbit. There is also 
mentioned in the catalogue the spleen of the rat, exhibiting 
a longitudinal vertical section, with the vessels of the Alal- 
pighian bodies and of the pulp. 

Urinary organs. — These all come out very beautifully. In 
the human kidney the I'clation of the glomeruli to their cap- 
sules is seen. In the kidney of the rabbit, the rat, the mouse, 
and the snake, very interesting varieties of structure are seen. 

Organs of respiration. — The lungs aftbrd a very fine oppor- 
tunity to the maker of these preparations, and in the perfec- 
tion of the injection of the vascular network in the air-cells 
we have seen no better illustration than these. It is probable 
that a larger stock of these than the two mentioned in the 
catalogue — the ra1)bit and the mouse — may be in the posses- 
sion of the preparer, and we should think a series of these 
would lie highly interesting to the general or professional 

Reproductive organs. — Of these there is also a deficiency in 
the cat;vlogue. The only two mentioned are the human 
placenta and the corpus luteum of the pig. A large series of 
these would be highly instructive if prcpai'ed as carefully as 
the parts Ave have ah'cady commented on. 

Development of the organs. — The parts of animals represent- 
ing the states of organs at different periods in their develop- 
mental history are always most difficult to procure. In these 
preparations dirt'ercnt portions of the embryo of the sheep, the 
cat, the rabbit, and the rat, are exhibited. In onlv one in- 


stance do we fmd the age of the embryo mentioned. Tliis is 
a matter of importance, and, if possible, sliouUl l)e attached to 
the slide. An experienced ol^scrver would undoubtedly be 
able to make out the age of the embryo from the structure of 
its organs; but as these preparations are mainly intended for 
students, this is an important point to be attended to. 

Patiiological anatomy. — The principal subjects illustrated 
under this head are epithelial cancer, the granulating surfaces 
of ulcers, and the cicatrices of united wounds. 

Such a collection of anatomical preparations as these are 
very suggestiA'c of the applications of the microscope. Here 
in these few slides we have a perfect museum of histological 
structures, and the student with these at hand and his 
microscope can form a better idea of the nature of an organ, 
and the functions it possesses, than if he spent years amongst 
preparations in spirits with nothing but his eye to direct him* 
This is even more remarkably the case with pathological 
specimens. The mere superficial examination of a morbid 
part with the eye can furnish but little real information with 
regard to the nature of diseased structures, but let the micro~ 
scope be applied and the distinctions and resemblances become 
obvious at once which had before been hidden. 

With regard to the scries of preparations before us_, we 
would suggest that it would be very desirable that the speci- 
mens should be mounted on slides which will fit our English 
cabinets. None of them require the clumsy width of glass 
which they now occupy, and would be much improved for 
examination if they were on narrower slides. \Ve would 
also suggest to ]\Iessrs. Smith and Beck that they should get 
some one to translate the contracted Latin in which the 
names of the specimens are written on the slides, into English. 
It is not very easy to make out the Latin always as their 
catalogue indicates, but it would be Avortli au efi'ort to make 
these beautiful preparations as widely useful as they deserve. 



Gutta-percha Troughs —In case it should be thought Avorth 
notice, I beg to ofter the following suggestion. 

In Mr. James Smithes paper "On a Dissecting Microscope," 
in the last number of the ' Journal ' (Trans., page 13), it is 
remarked that diHerent-sized objects would requu-e the slips 
of glass at the bottom of dissecting troughs to be of different 
widths, and therefore necessitate the employment of several 
troughs, or else a glass trough furnished with several false 
bottoms of gutta-percha, fitted with various-sized slips of 
glass. I would venture to suggest that one gutta-percha 
trough might suffice, if the aperture and glass fitted into it 
were made ivedye-sliaped instead of paralled-sided, thus pre- 
senting various widths at different points. An opening, an 
inch and a half long, diminishing from half an inch in Avidth 
at one end to nothing at the other, Avould accommodate 
various-sized dissections, and admit, if required, of their 
being operated upon the same time. — G. Guyon, Richmond, 

Microscopical Notes.— I inclose sketch of a Triarthra, of which 
I found several in a duck-pond at Chipstead, in Surrey, last 

August. As nothing like it is described in the ' Micrographic 
Dictionary,' nor in the last edition of Pritchard, it may be new. 



The other sketcli represents a group of Vaginicoloi (?), of 
wliicli several were found in a glass trough ; but they con- 

tradict the assertion that Var/inicola are solitary or merely 
double. The gelatinous case in ^yhich these were lodged was 
very irregular, and with no trace of separate cells. — Henry J. 
Slack, 34, Camden Square. 

An Astronomer's Protest.— ^lien :Mrs. Malaprop said that 
" comparisons were odorous," she only gave ungrammatical 
enunciation to a truth which must be admitted by everybody ; 
and the recognition of which might have spared us from Mr. 
Henry U. Janson's peroration in his " Further Notices on 
Finders/' in your last number. Had that gentleman ever 
read Arago's ' Popular Astronomy,' he would have learned 
that the determination of the exact tint of a star may lead 
to the resolution of very remarkable physical questions; 
while the study of the works of the two Herschels would 
have shown him that upon the sudden or gradual conden- 
sation of a nebula may hinge the interpretation of cosmical 
phenomena so stupendous that the most brilliant discoveries 
of the microscope pale in insignificance before them. I yield 
neither to ^Ir. Janson nor to any one else in my appreciation 
of the instruction and amusement to be derived from the 
microscope, but must protest against such a comparison as 
he makes, even though he may shield himself behind a parade 
of Dr. Goring's ignorance of astronomy. — A Fellow of the 
Royal Astronomicaj. and Member of the Microscopical 


The Sinocular Microscope.— Having, in my desire to keep 
up with the progress of improvement, procured a microscope 
constructed on the principle of Mr. Wenham's last invention 
(Transactions^ p. 15), I feci it ray duty to declare that I have 
fully verified every statement made in the paper alluded to 
with regard to " the new combined binocular and single 
microscope.^' I should call it an w/i^er-statement. In short, 
all 1 said of the former one (Memoranda, p. 66) will apply 
to the latter with redoubled force. That was excellent, but 
this is swjaer-excellent ! 

The microscopic world is deeply indebted to ]Mr. Wen- 
ham ; but he very liberally awards me a share in the merit ; 
for^ in a letter to me, he says : — -"Whatever I may have done 
in the invention, great credit is due to you for having started 
the thing, and brought it into notice; for, such would have 
been my own apathy, and that of the makers, that probably 
the only one ever made would Jiave been that in my own 
possession. There is not one person out of a thousand that 
would have had the 'pluck' to order a thing of this kind 
that he had never seen V 

Mr. Wenham's account of his instrument (in the January 
number) is so complete, that very little remains to be said in 
the way of explanation ; nevertheless, I should like to add a 
few words for the benefit of those who may not perfectly un- 
derstand why the last Binocular INIicroscope is so decidedly 
preferable to the former ones. Mr. Wenham has explained 
the reason to be that, instead of the whole light having to 
undergo prismatic refraction, as in the former instruments, 
one half is now simply transmitted in the usual manner ; but 
probably very few, even of experienced microscopists are 
aware how very nearly the half of an object-glass comes up 
to a whole one in actual performance, especially in the lower 
powers. This is beautifully illustrated by an eclii)sc of the 
sun; for it has been truly observed, that though a total 
eclipse is everything, a partial one is nothing. Even when 
a full half or more of the sun's disc is concealed, no one 
would suppose, from lookirig at the prospect around him, 
that anything Avas wrong with the sun. This may also be 
shoAvn in the case of " the combined binocular and single 
microscope," by the following experiment. 

Get some friend, for the frst time, to look though the 
Binocular, having previously placed a small opaque disc be- 
neath the cap of the left-hand cyc-piccc, the prism being 
withdrawn. He will then see the object, whatever it be, 
in the usual way ; and will probably say, " Beautiful I" 
*' splendid !" or words to that cftect. Then, while he is 


looking, with an instautuncous tuucii of the finger you slily 
j)op in tiic prism. "Now, liow docs it lookV" lie will pro- 
bably say. " Oh ! just the same ; unless that I think you 
have slightly altered the light." " True ; but you see every 
part of the object as wall defined as before?" "Yes, quite 
as well ; and I should say even more acjreeabbj, for I fancy 
there is not quite such a <jlare of light." " Ah ! then you 
will not readily believe that I have actually cut off one half 
of the entire disc of the object-glass." " You don't say 
so !" " Perfectly true^ however." The next step is to remove 
the opaque disc, and, for the first time in his lifcj submit to 
his astonished gaze — binoculau visiox ! the double ray 
uniting in the cerebrum, to form one distinct and beautiful 
image, exhibited, moreover, with the most marvellous ste- 
reoscopic effect ! 

I assure you it actually compels people to shout with 
amazement ! ! "' Well, I never beheld anything equal to 
that ! It is most magnificent ! I seem to see part behind, 
part hi real perspective !" (This effect^ by the way, is ad- 
mirably shown by a t/ood s))ecimeu of hypersthene, with a 
1-inch objective and Lieberkulm reflector.) Xow, the best 
part of the practical joke remanis. After allowing your 
friend to luxuriate for some time over this gorgeous spec- 
tacle, and while he is still earnestly gazing at it, you sud- 
denly withdraw the prism ; w'hen he will probably as sud- 
denly Avithdraw^ his head, exclaiming, " Dear me ! how is 
this? Why, 1 appear suddenly to have lost half my eye- 
sight. How very unpleasant ! What have you done ?" 
" Done, sir; why, I have merely brought back the micro.- 
scope suddenly to its ordinary state. Can you, now, believe 
it? — that is really the way you have been using the instru- 
ment all your life !" 

And now a few parting words on another topic. My last 
communication on the above subject was, by some trifling 
editorial inadvertence, I suppose, headed " Further Notes 
on Finders;" which, 1 have been informed, puzzled a good 
many. But I must take the present opportunity of confess- 
ing my error in supposing myself like Columbus (No. 
xxxii, p. 201), for I have since had the mortification of 
finding myself forestalled ; for the "douljle no>e-piecc" is 
recommended as a finder by Dr. (7ar[)enter, in his excellent 
work, 'The ^Microscope and its Revelations,' paragraph 51. 
I was utterly unaware of this when I scut the coinmuniea- 
tion. No. xxxii, p. 198. But I do not regret having done 
so, as it has been the means of drawing the attention of 
many to the subject. ^Moreover, every microscopist may 


not li.'ive a copy of the said work, though every one ought. 
My opinion still remains the same. The ]Maltwood finder 
works tolerably up to one eighth ; but, Avith a sixteenth 
(which I chiefly use with the Diotomaceous tests), the figures 
become so fearfully diluted and nebulous that they require a 
finder, i. e., lower power, to find them ! 

I have recently discovered another useful application of 
the nose-piece. It does admirably for comparing two achro- 
matics of the same power, in order to ascertain which is the 
best. The ordinary tedious mode of screwing and unscrew- 
ing is very objectionable, as so much time is lost that the 
observer cannot satisfactorily bear in mind the two effects. 
With the nose-piece the change is made in an instant ; botli 
are brought, as we may say, close together, and may thus be 
very accurately estimated. 

In this way I have been carefully comparing two recent 1 h 
inch achromatics by two of our first makers ; and the result 
is, that no perceptible difference can be detected : which 
shows, by the way, how Avonderfully our opticians loork up to 
each other. On the other hand, if we thus compare an 
achromatic of the present day with another of the same 
power and maker, but constructed, perhaps, only a year or 
two ago, it strikingly shows the rapid improvement made in 
achromatics ; every slight alteration of curve, density of 
glass, variation of combination, &c., having been productive 
of more or less benefit. When shall Ave get to the top ? — 
Henry U. Janson, Pennsylvania Park, Exeter. 

Binocular.— In answer to numerous private inquiries for ad- 
vice, and a recommendation of the makers Avho will apply 
my binocular adaptation to microscopes generally in the 
best and most efficient manner, I have to state, that after a 
careful examination of the instruments of the three who 
have, up to this time, professed to construct them, I can pro- 
nounce the definition of the binocular arrangement equally 
good in all ; and as each is determined in making the new 
instruments as perfect as possible, I feel assured that I can- 
not do better than strongly recommend parties requiring 
their instruments to be altered to send them to the original 
makers, who will certainly be best qualified for applying the 
binocular arrangement to their own particular instruments. 
I am sure this will be most satisfactory in the end to micro- 
seopists, as well as the opticians, and prevent the possibility 
of any invidious comparisons being set afloat at the expense 
of other instruments, for the purpose of obtaining business 
by a self-assumed superiority of construction ; a course of 


procecdiiifc, Avliich, I take it for granted, none of the op- 
ticians with whom I have at present the pleasure of being 
acquainted would wilfully pursue. — F. H. Wenham; March 
20i/i, 18G1. 

Histological Lectures.— The Pioyal College of Physicians of 
London is about to open its halls for evening instruction. A 
short course of lectures on the Structure of the Tissues of 
the Human Body, with observations on their growth, nutri- 
tion, and decay, is announced for deliveiy by Dr. Lionel Beale, 
the Professor of Physiology at King's College. These lectures 
will be delivered on ]\Ionday evenings, at half-past eight 
o'clock, commencing on Monday evening, the 8th of April. It 
is very gratifying to find the College of Physicians thus endea- 
vouring to meet the spirit of the age, and it is to be hoped that 
such encouragement will be given to tiiis course of lectures as 
to induce some of the other distinguished members of that 
body to give the result of their experience in the form of short 
courses of lectures. 



Mic.noscopiCAL Society, January dlh, 18G1. 
R. J. Farkaxts, Esq., in the Chair. 

John Mackrell, Esq., A. J. Dumas, Esq., and Alfred Aubert. Esq., 
were balloted for and duly elected members of the Society. 

Mr. H. Deane made some observations in reference to some new 
diatom discs exhibited in the meetins:, which had been forwarded 
from an old member of the Society, Mr. John Coates, now resident 
and in medical practice at South Yarra, near Melbourne, where the 
siliceous shells had been found. 

In the course of some works, in which a swamp emptying itself 
into the Iviver Yarra had to be crossed by an embankment, the soft, 
boggy earth in which the sliells were found was brought up from a 
considerable depth. Dr. Ralph first found therein many infusorial 
organisms, which led this gentleman and Mr. Coates to work at 
them together very actively. Mr. Coates read a paper on the sub- 
ject to the Royal Society in Melbourne, and exhibited some beau- 
tiful preparations of the objects in the microscope. The bog is 
estimated to be sixty feet deep ; but it has not been determined how 
low these organisms extend. 

Among the forms, there is found in great abundance a disc ap- 
parently new, which Mr. Coates proposes to call Coscinudiscus 
Jiar/ili/i, after the governor of the district, Sir H. Barkly ; who is 
the president of the Royal Society in Melbourne. They found, 
also, three kinds of Pleurosigma, three of Canqn'lodisous, several 
Navicula) and l*innulariie, and Surirella in abundance. 

Mr. Coates had found jNIelosira iialf a yard long in the River 
Yarra ; and expected, as the season came round, to find the new 
disc also, in a filamentous condition, in its early states of growth. 


Fehruary I'^tTi, 1861. 


^v. LaNkesteu in the Chair. 

Reports of the Council and Auditors of the Treasurer's Accounts 
were read. 

An address, drawn up by the President, showino^ the progress of 
the Society during the past year, was read by the Chairman. 

F. Bezant, Esq. ; J. H. Urown, Esq. ; G. H. Lewes, Esq. ; W. H, 
Westwood, Esq. ; Charles Gilbertson, Esq. ; Charles Fox, Esq. ; 
E. W. Jones, Esq. ; J. B. Winslow, Esq., were balloted for, and 
duly elected members. 

The annual ballot for Officers and Council then took place, whei^ 
the following were declared duly elected : 

President: — R. J. Farrants, Esq, 

Tieasttrer : — N. B. Ward, Esq. 

c, . . C G. G. Blenkins, Esq. 
Secretaries ^ ^r t t t;^ ■ 

( M. J. Legg, Esq. 

Four Members of Council. 

H. Perigall, Esq. | Rev. J. B. Reade. 
J. N. Tomkins, Esq. | F. H. Wenham, Esq, 

in the place of 

Dr. L, Beale | R. J. Farrants, Esq. 

J. Iv. Muiiiuiery, Esq. j Dr. Wallich, 

who retire in accordance witii the regulations of the Society. 

March Viih, 18G1. 
R. J. Fauiiaxts, Esq., President, in the Chair, 

E. C. Buckland, Esq. ; Wm. Emmens, Esq. ; and J. T. Tapholme, 
Esq., were balloted for, aijd duly elected members of the Society. 

The following papers were read: — "On a Species of Coccus m- 
festing Oranges," by U. Beck, Esq. 

" On some new Species of Diatomacea'," bv Dr. Grevilie. (Trans. 
p. 39.) 

The President announced that the soirve had been lixcd for Wed- 
nesday, April 3d. 


Upon subsequently applying to the authorities at King's College, 
it was found that, in consequence of another engagement, the rooms 
could not be obtained on that evening. The soiree was thertfore 
unavoidably postponed until Wednesday, April 10th. 

Islington Literary and Scientific Society. 

Microscopical Class. 

November 2'ith, 1860. 

Mr. Noble in the Chair. 

Mr. T. W. Burr read his second paper, " On the Entomo- 
fitraca," in which he continued the detailed account of some of the 
families of these animals, describing particularly the BrancMpus 
fttagnaJis, a beautiful shrimp-like creature, one inch long, found in 
fresh water, and the very similar but smaller Artemia salina, 
which inhabits the'most concentrated brine collected in the salterns 
of Lymington and Hayling Island, in Hampshire, and other ana- 
logous salt-making works ; specimens of which had been brought 
from Hayling Island by the author, and studied by him during 
the six weeks they continued alive. The paper next dealt with 
the well-known family of the Daphniae, of which the common 
Dajihnia jnilex, or water-flea, had its organization, habits, and pecu- 
liarities of structure minutely described ; further details of 
the Entomostraca being reserved for another communication. 
The paper was illustrated by the exhibition of living Daphnia, 
mounted specimens of the other animals referred to, and diagrams. 

January 26th, 1861. 

Adjourned Annual Meeting. 

Mr. Noble in the Chair. 

The report of the Committee was read aud received. 

The folloAving officers were elected for the year : — President, 
Charles Woodward, Esq., F.E.S. ; Secretary, Mr. T. W. Burr, 
F.E.A.S., F.C.S. 

Committee: — jNIessrs. Harker, Hislop (F.R.A.S.), Mestayer, 
Reiner, and Thomson. 

After the usual votes of thanks, the business of an ordinary 
meeting commenced. 

A paper, by Mr. Legg, Secretary of the Microscopical Society 
of London, " On the Foramiuifera," was then read by the 
Secretary, iii which, after adverting to the beauty of these objects. 


he mentioutd tliat at one time they had l)een included in the 
MoUusca, but had now, in consequence of the discovery of their 
true character, been reduced tea much lower class ; their animal 
structure consisting of a simple mass of " sarcode," or animated 
slime, exhibiting no trace of digestive apparatus or reproductive 
organs ; and their position, according to the latest authorities on 
the animal kingdom, being that of lihizopods closely allied to 
sponges. The calcareous skeletons common to these animals 
having been noticed, the various systems of classitying them were 
referred to, and the orders into which they are divided by 
D'Orbigny, dependent on the forms of the shells, detailed, and a 
minute description of the animals taken from his works given, at- 
tention being directed to the modes of growth of the shells in 
segments, their being pierced for filaments or tentacles, and 
their material being sometimes opaque and sometimes transparent. 
The paper concluded with an account of the various localities in 
■which these organisms are found in the recent or fossil state ; the 
sea-sands and bed being covered with the former, and large tracts 
of the latter existing in Italy, America, and other places. The 
author also recommended sponge-sand, as containing enormous 
numbers of Foraminifera. Mr. Legg subsequently gave an oral de- 
scription of a great number of diagrams and specimens, and ex- 
plained his method of separating the shells from sand by sifting 
through wire gauze of different degrees of fineness. 

Literary and Puilosopiiical Society^ Manchester. 

Microscopical Section. 

December VJth, 1860. — Letters were read from Sir Leopold Mc. 
Clintock, Mr. J. W. Eead, of the Adiniralty, and Dr. Wallich, who 
accompanied the former in the Bull Dog, in the late expedition to 
the North Seas. Dr. Wallich kindly presented to the section a few 
copies of his pamphlet on "Life in the Deep Sea," now circulating 
amongst the members. 

A letter was also read from Captain M. F. Maury, of the U.S. 
Navy, promising to supply envelopes for soundings amongst the 
sperm whalers and other vessels trading to the Pacific Ocean, &c. 

Specimens of incrustations from the boilers of the steamer Edin- 
burrjh, trading from Glasgow and Liverpool to New York ; from the 
steamer Rhone, from Liverpool to Venice, Trieste, &.C.; and from the 
steamer Minho, from Liverpool to Lisbon and Oporto, were received 
from Mr. W. A. Hayman, of Liverpool. The incrustations are as 
hard as marble, breaking with acr^-stalline fracture, and showing, by 
different-coloured strata, the crust obtained from harbours and from 
the open sea. Mr. Dale stated that the component parts of the in- 
crustations are sulphates of lime, magnesia, &c.; he recommendtd 


inaceration in bicarbonate of ammonia to obtain ealfarcoua sbells, 
and in ^eak acids or muriate of bar\'tes to obtain siliceous shells. 
Various; members took speciriiens for examination. 

A letter was read from Captain Anderson, of the Canard steamer 
Canada, from Liverpool to New York, accompanying specimens of the 
soundings taken during his last vovage across the Atlantic. Captain 
Anderson was kind enough to send the soundings by post from 
Queenstown, by which means they arrived just before the ineeting. 

Mr. W. H. Heys, of Hazel Grove, exhibited his newly invented 
Kaloscope, by means of whicb he obtains refracted and reflected 
light of different colours at the same time upon objects under the 
microscope, producing beautiful effects in some cases. 

January 21s/, 18G1. — Letters were read by the Secretary fi*om 
Professor Huxley and from Mr. W. K. Parker, respecting soundings. 

Mr. Heys, of Hazel Grove, read a Paper " On the Kaloscope," 
his newly invented instrument for the use of coloured light in the 
examination of objects under the microscope. This the author 
effects by two sets of four discs each of differently coloured glass, 2^ 
inches in diameter, nlouhted on a stand 12 inches high, one set of 
which is placed between the light and the bull's-eye condenser, and 
the other between the light and the mirror underneath the stage, 
each disc having an independent motion, so that the light can be 
transmitted through one or more of both sets at the same time ; when 
the object appears of the colours refracted and reflected through the 

One of the important uses of the instrument is the protection of 
the ej^e from injury occasioned by the use of common artificial light. 

Many objects v/hich do not polarize, by the kaloscope are made 
to disclose the beauties of polarized light; for instance, the anthers of 
the mallow, with their pollen, when viewed by means of red light 
below the stage, and at the same time green light (the complementary 
colour) through the condenser, appear of a beautiful green colour on 
a red or crimson ground. 

The author observes that some objects, viewed by means of the 
kaloscope, appear in such relief that they might be supposed to be 
seen through a stereoscope ; these are anthers, jointed hairs, oiU 
glands, and vegetable sections in general. The cal3'x of the moss-rose 
is alluded to, under ordinary illumination, as a mere entanglement of 
fibres with dark beads ; but by this method it is transformed into a 
stereoscopic branch, with glittering glands at its extremities. 

Sections of wood, spines of echini, &c., will be found as beautiful 
as with the polariscope ; but, by another arrangement, details are 
brought out not observable with the latter instrument. A black 
surface being placed below the stage, coloured light is thrown very 
obliquely from the mirror, and the complementary colour through 
the condenser ; hairs on the edges of leaves, petals, and filaments of 
stamens, &c., then appear illuminated by the light of the condenser 
of one colour, and fringed with the opposite colour on an intensely 
black ground. The author gives a list of the botanical names of 


Objects advantageously illuminated by this method. A single- 
coloured disc may be also used to advantage witli white liglit from 
the buU's-eye lens. Details of structure are observable by means of 
this instrument, which the author observed are inconspicuous with- 
out its aid, and thinks that its efTieacy in connexion with such a 
variet}^ of purposes cannot fail to render it of value to the scientific 

The reading of the paper gave much satisfaction to the members 
of the section, and it was resolved to communicate the same to tlie 
Society, with a recommendation that it should be printed in extenso 
in its Memoirs. 

The Secretary read a paper, " On Preparing Objects found in 

Having suggested the means of obtaining soundings from com- 
manders of vessels, by distributing envelopes for their preservation 
and transmission, the next point to be ascertained is the simplest 
and most effectual method of separating the objects sought, from 
the tallow in which the}'- are usually imbedded and brought up 
from the depths of the ocean. 

Mr. Dancer's paper on this subject, read at the Novembef meet- 
ing of this section, describes an excellent method of so doing, bv 
melting the tallow in hot water; skimming it off when cold, and 
repeated washings with hot v.'ater and ammonia ; but it appeared 
desirable, if possible, to discover a simplef plan, and one which 
should secure the preservation of the smaller organisms, which are 
so liable to be lost amongst the tallow and in the repeated wash- 
ings. It occurred to me that the melted tallow could be passed 
through filtering-paper ; and this I effected by means of a jet of 
steam from a common kettle, furnished with the necessarj'^ tubes, 
soldered into a tin lid, for ingress of water and egress of steam, 
with distilled water into the filter, in which was placed the mass of 
tallow with its contents ; the tallow was immediately melted, and 
rapidly passed through the paper, leaving, however, a small re?idue, 
which, even with the assistanc* of alkalies, could not be entirely 
removed ; traces of grease or soapy matter obstinately adhering to 
the particles, and preventing free separation from each other. 

To obtain a better solvent, I consulted one of the members of 
our Council, whose practical chemical knowledge and inventive 
genius are perhaps unequalled, and he at once suggested the plan I 
now describe ; which, for novelty, simplicity, and effect, will, no 
doubt, prove to be all that can be desired. Time and experience 
are, however, required to test the fact ; only one operation on Friday 
last having been effected. 

Mr. John Dale, " On a Process for TaIIow Soundings." — It is 
how well known that one of the products obtained from the 
naphtha of coal tar is a volatile, oily substance, termed benzole (or 
by French chemists, benzine), whose boiling point, when pure, is 
nbont 180° Fahr., and is a perfect solvent for fatty substances. In 


a capsule, previously warmed on a sand bath, Mr. Dale mixes witli 
the tallow soundings benzole, whose boiling point may be about 
200°, until sufficiently diluted as to run freely, pres.sing the lumps 
with a glass rod until thoroughly mingled ; the solution and its 
contents are then poured into a paper filter, placed in a glass 
funnel ; the capsule is again washed with benzole, until the whole 
of the gritty particles are removed into the filter. A washing- 
bottle is then supplied with benzole, and the contents of the filter 
washed to the bottom until that liquid passes oflF pure — which may 
be tested by placing a drop from the point of the funnel on a warm 
slip of glass or bright platinum, when, if pure, the benzole will 
evaporate without residue or tarnish ; if grease be present, the wash- 
ings must be continued until free of it; and after rinsing through 
weak acid or alcohol for final purification, the calcareous forms will 
be ready for mounting. 

The filter and its contents may be left to dry spontaneouslj'-, 
when the latter can be examined by the microscope. Should time 
be an object, rapid drying may be effected by any of the usual 
methods ; one of which, recommended by Mr. Dale, is to blow a 
stream of hot air through a glass tube held in the flame of a 
Bunsen's burner. The lower the boiling point of the benzole, the 
more readily can the specimens be freed from it. A commoner 
quality may be used, but is more difiicult to dry afterwards. 

Pure benzole being costly, this may appear an expensive process, 
but, with the exception of a trifling loss by evaporation, the whole 
may be recovered by simple distillation. The mixture of tallow 
and benzole is placed in a retort, in a hot water, a steam, or a sand- 
bath ; the benzole will pass into the receiver, and the tallow or 
other impurities will remain in the retort. When the whole of the 
benzole has distilled over, which is ascertained by its ceasing to 
drop from the condenser, the heat is withdrawn, and the retort 
allowed to cool, before the addition of fresh materials. Half a 
dozen to a dozen filters, each with its specimen, can be in process at 
the same time ; and the distillation of the recovered benzole pro- 
gresses as quickly as the filtration, which was practically proved 
on the occasion named. Great caution in the use of benzole is to be 
taken in the approach of lights to the inflammable vapour. 

After the Foraminifera and calcareous forms have been removed, 
the residue may be treated with acids and levigation in the usual 
manner, to obtain siliceous forms and discs, if any ; but to facilitate 
their deposition, and to avoid the loss of any minute atoms sus- 
pended in the washings, I would suggest the use of filtration. The 
conical filter is unsuitable, as the particles would spread over too 
great a surface of paper ; but glass tubes, open at both ends, sucli 
as broken test-tubes, will be found to answer; the broad end 
covered with filtering-paper, and over that a slip of muslin tied on 
with thread, to facilitate the passage of the water, and prevent the 
risk of breaking the paper ; suspend the tube over a suitable vessel, 
through a hole cut in thin wood or cardboard ; pour in the washings, 
which can be thus filtered and then dried. The cloth must be 
carefull}' removed, the paper cut round the edges of the tube, and 


the diatoms on the paper disc may be removed by a camel-hair 
pencil or otherwise, ready for mounting. Thus many objects may 
be preserved which would be either washed away or only be avail- 
able by a more tedious process. 

Mr. J. B. Dancer, F.R.A.S., "On Cleaning and Preparing 

Diatoms, &c., obtained from Soundings." — The first operation 
generally required is to separate the soundings from the tallow 
or fatty matter which has been employed to bring them up 
from the bottom. 1 may here mention that Lieutenant Stell- 
wagen, an American officer, has invented a sounding-lead which 
does iTot require grease. It has a trap at the bottom for col- 
lecting the soundings. I am sure our section will join with me 
in the that the soundings which our worthy Secretary 
hopes to receive from various parts of the world may be collected 
with an apparatus of this kind. The grease involves a considerable 
amount of trouble, and some loss. The mass of soundings and 
grease is to be placed in a basin or an evaporating-dish, and boiling 
water poured on it ; the melted fat rises to the surface, and when 
cold can be easily skimmed off". This operation may be repeated 
until the sediment appears free from grease ; to insure this, draw 
the water carefully from the sediment, and pour liquor ammonia on 
it; I prefer it to potass or soda; this will combine with the grease, 
if any remain, and form a soapy solution. This may now be 
treated with hot water for the final washing. The sediment must 
be allowed to settle quietly for an hour or two each time before the 
water is carefully decanted or drawn off with a syphon ; otherwise 
the minute forms of Diatomacese will be lost, and the operator 
greatly disappointed in the result of his labour. Having now 
cleared the soundings from all extraneous matter, the next opera- 
tion is to ascertain, by the microscope, the nature of the objects 
thus obtained. Take up with a glass tube some of the sediment, 
draw the contents of the tube along a slip of glass, and examine it 
with a low power. If Forarainiferas or large Dlatomacea) are pre- 
sent, they may be removed by means of a split hair or a bristle from 
a shaving-brush, gummed or fixed in a cleft in a slip of wood, and 
then placed on a clean slip of glass for further examination. If you 
have a considerable quantity of mud or sand under the operation, 
with an abundance of Foraminiferse, as is frequently the case, they 
can be separated by first drying the soundings, and scattering them 
on the surface of water in a basin ; the heav\' particles of sand will 
sink, but the light Foraminiferae will float for a time, and can be 
easily collected. Another mode is to stir up the sediment, and 
then pour off the lighter articles into test-tubes or wine-glasses. In 
this manner, by having a number of glasses, you can separate the 
varieties according to their specific gravities. If the Diatomaceae 
obtained are recent and abundant, they should be separated from 
the calcareous portions of the sounding?, and boiled in hydrochloric 
acid ; and if not sufficiently cleaned, they may be boiled in nitric 
acid. The contents of the diatoms can be removed by burning 

VOL. I. — NEW SER. X* 


them. Place them between two thin pieces of talc, and submit 
them to the flame of a spirit-lamp. Some use thin glass to support 
them when cleaning a quantity. I have burnt them in a small 
platinum crucible with success. It is advisable to mount specimens 
dry, and also in balsam, for careful microscopic examination. Those 
mounted dry show the markings most distinctly. There is one 
difficulty which the slide-mounter meets with on his first essay, 
and which I will briefly allude to, viz., retaining the object in its 
proper place on the slide whilst the thin glass is being pressed 
down on the balsam. Some operators place the thin glass on the 
objects, and allow the balsam to flow gradually between the glasses 
by capillary attraction. Professor Williamson employs a little gum 
in the water which contains the Diatomacese ; this fixes them when 
dry, and the balsam does not remove them. Some objects, such as 
Foraminifer£e, require a long soaking in spirits of turpentine to dis- 
place the air from their chambers. By using an au'-pump this 
process is much facilitated. A solution of balsam in chloroform will 
doubtless be an improvement in mounting this class of objects. It 
is needless to take up the time of the section by entering minutely 
into the details of mounting all the various objects which may be 
met with in specimens of soundings. Those interested may consult 
Quekett, Carpenter, and Hogg's works on the microscope ; and 
Smith on Diatomaceae. I must now apologise for taking up so 
much time on a subject which many present may be conversant with. 
P.S. — Since the above was written, several engravings, with de- 
scriptions have appeared in the ' Mechanics' Magazine,' December 28, 
1860, of the deep-sea-sounding apparatus invented and used on 
board the Bulldog during the sounding expedition in the North 
Atlantic Ocean, under the command of Sir F. L. M'Clintock, with 
one of these machines. Twenty-four ounces of ooze w^as brought 
up from a depth of 1,913 fathoms. 

Mr. Brothers presented to the section a very old microscope, 
date unknown; he also exhibited the Actinophrys Eichornii, a species 
oi Melicerta, sea weed with Lepralia, &c. 

Mr. Hardman, of Davyhulme, presented three mounted specimens 
of the wire-worm, and a number of dissecting-needles for the use of 
the members ; he also exhibited a mounted fly, one of the Panorpidae, 
which he states feeds upon leaf-rolling caterpillars. The proboscis 
and feet of the insect are peculiarly adapted for dragging its victims 
from their concealment and holding them whilst extracting their 
juices, the feet being provided with combs similar to those of the 

Mr. R. D. Darbyshire presented a quantity of mud, &c., from the 
washings of shells from the raised sea-bottoms at Uddevalla,in Sweden. 

Mr. Dancer exhibited a new 3-inch object-glass, with a large and 
flat field of view ; also specimens of gold quartz from Wales, large 
Curculia, and other objects. 

Mr. Whalley exhibited some specimens of injections obtained 
from Germanv, which were considered the best vet exhibited, 


Mr. Latham exliibited various specimens of sand and mud from 
the East Indies, portions of which were distributed amongst the 

Felruary 18^,1861. — Letters were read from Captain Andersen, 
R.M.S. Canada, and from Dr. Wallich, respecting the pamphlet, 
' On the Presence of Animal Life at Vast Depths in the Sea.' 

Mr. Sidcbotham described his experience in mounting Desmidiae, 
and the difficulty he found in discovering a suitable medium for 
their preservation. He had tried syrup, Goadby's fluid, and a 
number of other chemical preparations ; but the specimens, in course 
of time, were spoiled from one cause or other. The fluid which has 
best withstood the effects of time is simple distilled water ; the cells 
being made of gold size and Japan black. Mr. Sidebotham exhibited 
Desmidice, mounted in distilled water, in the years 1842 to 1846, in 
which the chlorophyll is comparatively little altered. 

Professor Williamson observed that Dr. Carpenter had mounted 
starfishes in glycerine, and had found the colours were well pre- 
served. He himself had used a mixture of glycerine and distilled 
water for volvox, and had found it to answer well. 

Mr. Sidebotham also exhibited specimens of DiatomaceaJ, mounted 
in 1844. The specimens {Isthmia enervis, Biddidpliia, &c.) were 
obtained fresh, immersed in spirits of wine to absorb the water, and 
mounted in balsam ; the green colour of the cell-contents is yet 
perfectly preserved. 

Professor Williamson exhibited some scales of fish, prepared by 
Dr. KoUiker, of Warzburg, containing remarkable examples of 
fusiform lacunae. He also pointed out how these and other similar 
discoveries, to which he referred, confirmed his previous conclusions 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' viz., fusiform lacunse were 
not characteristic of reptilian bones, as some had supposed, but that 
they existed in many fishes ; he especially referred to the Salmonidae 
as presenting this oblong form of bone-corpuscle. 

Mr. Brothers exhibited a modification of the kaloscope, and 
objects to illustrate the same. 

Soundings were received from the steamers Canada, from New 
York ; Armenian, coast of Africa ; Tagus, from Lisbon ; and from 
several vessels of war, from different parts of the world ; which were 
duly acknowledged. Incrustations from the boilers of several sea- 
going steamers were also preseiited by Mr. W. A. Hayraan, of 

March ISfh, 1861.— Mr. Ai-thur M. Edwards, of New York, pre- 
sented several papers on Diatomacea3 and other microscopical subjects, 
published by the Boston Society of Natural History, &c. Mr. 
Edwards's kindness was duly acknowledged. 

A communication from Captain Anderson, II. M.S. Canada, written 
at sea on his homeward voyage, excited considerable interest. He 
states that Dr. Wallich 's pamphlet would be communicated to 
the Boston Society of Natural History, by Professor Agassiz, who 


was particularly interested in the Ophiocoma found at so great 
a depth. The Professor is now enga<:^ed in preparing a work upon 
the natural history of that class of Eehinoderms, which he has 
studied for many years, and claims to have the finest collection 
of these animals in existence, made on the coasts from Greenland 
and Labrador to Mexico, and round Cape Horn to California, 
Since the publication, in 18-18, of ' The Principles of Zoology,' by 
Agassiz and Gould (a copy of which is presented to the section), 
the Professor has ascertained that the system of tubes or water- 
pores, described at page 123, exists in all animals, which much vary 
their depths of water in the sea ; and in the lierring, they may be seen 
with the naked eye along the side of the neck. With reference to the 
removal of tallow from soundings, Dr. Hayes, the assayist for the 
State of Massachusets, stated to Capt. Anderson that heated tur- 
pentine poured amongst the soundings will remove all the tallow 
with it tlirough filteiing-paper ; the operation should be twice 
repeated, and the residue finally washed with sulphuric ether. 

The Boston Society of Natural History presented to the section, 
through Capt. Anderson, a copy of its proceedings for ISGO, and 
expressed great willingness to interchange information and speci- 

Dr. J. Bacon presented a copy of his report upon the chemical 
composition and microscopical characters of the Pearl said to have 
been formed in the interior of a cocoa-nut at Singapore, in the 
possession of Frederick J. Bush, Esq., and exhibited by Dr. 

Capt. Anderson, in a very able manner, gives the outline of a 
plan which has occurred to him for rendering available to science 
the services of commanders of merchant vessels and seamen 
generally, in collecting scientific information and specimens of 
natural history', for which they have such facilities in all parts of 
the world, for the use of those scientific institutions which may 
desire to join ; and also with a view to elevate the mercantile marine 
of England in the social scale, by stimulating a taste for know- 
ledge amongst seafaring men. The consent and co-operation of 
shipowners will, of course, be necessary ; and Capt. Andersen 
seeks to obtain also the additional influence of merchants and 
scientific bodies. The subject met with the unanimous approval of 
the members present; and it was resolved that the portion of 
Capt. Andersen's letter relating to it should be published at the 
expense of the section, and circulated, for the purpose of eliciting 
opinions upon the feasibility of the scheme, and upon the best 
practical method of carrying it into execution. 

Commander M. P. Maury, of the U. S. Navy, forwarded a copy 
of a letter from Lieut. John M. Brooke, the' inventor of the de- 
taching deep-sea-sounding apparatus, enclosing a number of sound- 
ings for the section, which were obtained with small twine and 

* Pajre 290, vol. vii, 'Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 


spherical weights of about 70 lbs., which were detached and left at 
the bottom of the ocean. Lieut. Brooke observes, *' tliat nine con- 
secutive ca.sts (soundings), varying from 2000 to 2000 fathoms, 
were made with the same piece of twine and detaching apparatus, 
which last weighed less than 1 lb. yh the specific gravity of 
a tcet flax line is nearly that of tvafer, a line that can be pulled 
down by a weight may be pulled tip by hand, provided the toeight 
be detached at the bottom. One of the specimens obtained in 3030 
fathoms, nearly 3^ miles, in the Pacific Ocean, is the greatest depth 
from which material has yet been brought up from the ocean bed. 
A few specimens were taken in shallow water on the east coast of 
Niphon, Japan, by Lieut. Brooke, during his boat voyage from 
Simoda to Hakodadi, in 1855, under the orders of Commander 

Mr. Binney described to the section the appearance of certain 
nodules found in the middle of a seam of coal in the lower part of 
the Lancashire coal-field, which are composed of fossil wood asso- 
ciated with marine shells. Specimens of the former were exhibited 
to tlie members ; the most perfect of which was that of Sagenaria, 
the old Lepidodendron elegans, in transverse, parallel, and tangential 
sections. The marine shells associated with the fossils belong to 
the genera Aviculopeeten, OEthoceras, Nautilus, &c. 

Mr. Brothers exhibited a section of pearl, Isthmia nervosa, in- 
fusoria, &c. 

Mr. Whalley exhibited living Diatomacese from Southport. 

Bedford Microscopical Society. 

This Society was established some months ago, and based upon 
the plan of the Wakefield Society. Yot the advantage of any 
other societies about to be established, we forward the twelve rules 
which have been adopted, and found to be very simple. In the 
"Wakefield Society the possession of a first-class achromatic instru- 
ment is a sine qud non of membership ; but in smaller towns it will 
probably be found desirable to dispense with this rule. 


1. — The Society shall be called the "Bedford Microscopical 

2. — The object of the Society shall be the cultivation of those 
branches of science which require the aici of a microscope. 

8. — Tiie election of members sliall be by ballot, the candidate to 
be proposed at one meeting, and balloted for at the next; the elec- 
tion to be unanimous. 

4. — Any member, unable to attend a meeting, may send his vote 
in writing to the Secretary. 

5. — The number of members shall be limited to twelve. 


6. — Meetings shall be held on the third Friday evening of every 
month, at the residence of each member in rotation. Tea to be pro- 
vided by the member at whose house the meeting is held, which 
shall be placed on the table at six o'clock, and removed at seven 
precisely ; the business of the meeting to close at half-past nine. 

7. — The expenses of the Society shall be defrayed by equal con- 
tributions from each member as required. 

8. — The business of the .Society shall be managed by a secretary-, 
who shall send out notices to each member, stating where the next 
meeting will be held, the subjects to be discussed, the names of any 
candidates to be proposed for membership, and the names of can- 
didates to be balloted for. The secretary shall also keep a minute- 
book, in which shall be recorded the pi'oceedings of each meeting oi 
the Society. 

9. — Each member shall be expected to bring his microscope to 
every meeting, together with an}' illustrations he may possess re- 
lative to the subject of inquiry for the evening. 

10. — Notice of any proposed alteration in the rules shall be given 
at the previous meeting to that at which is to be discussed. 

11. — The member at whose house the meeting is held may intro- 
duce friends for the evening. 

12. — The member at whose house the meeting is held shall be pre- 
sident for the evening, shall choose the subject for investigation, 
and provide objects, lamps, &c., that may be necessary. 

The following subjects have been investigated at successive meet- 
ings, namely, " Spiracles and Tracheae of Insects;" " The Starches;" 
"Sections of Wood and Echinus Spines;" "The Ocelli of In- 
sects." At one of the meetings an interesting specimen of a 
blighted kernel of wheat was exhibited. After being soaked for 
some hours in warm water and torn to pieces, a number of micro- 
scopic eels were seen coiled up in a membrane ; after awhile the 
membrane burst, and the eels were observed to be moving about in 
a very lively manner. The subject for next month is " The Coenurus 

These microscopical reunions have not only been instructive, but 
also agreeable ; and several visitors who have been invited have 
participated with the members in the advantages of the meet- 

West Kent Miceoscopioal Societt, Annual Meeting, 
Felruary 20M, 1861. 

John Flint South, Esq., F.L.S., President, of the Koyal College 
of Surgeons, Vice-President, in the chair. 

The ConnciVs Report. — The Council of the West Kent Micro- 
scopical Society, in presenting this, their first annual report to the 


members, fuel that tliey may with confidence congratulate them on 
the very satisfactory position which it now holds. 

About a year and a half ago a few lovers of microscopical science 
proposed to form themselves into a society, in order to assist each 
other in the prosecution of their pursuits by mutual intercourse, 
aided by the collection of a library of reference, with the inten- 
tion of holding their meetings in rotation at each other's houses. 
When, however, it became known that such a society was in course 
of formation, so many gentlemen expressed a wish to join it, that it 
became necessary to alter the original plan, and to find a room 
spacious enough to receive the increased number of members ; and 
with this view the Blackheath Lecture Hall was engaged by the 
Council. So much interest has been taken in the objects of the 
society, that in the short period since its formation seventy-one 
gentlemen have had their names entered as members on its books. 

The meetings have generally been well attended by the mem- 
bers and their friends. A considerable number of instruments, 
mostly of a superior class, have been supplied by the members, and 
the President has placed his large one, by Smith and Beck, at the 
disposal of the Council for the use of the Societ3^ Some very in- 
teresting objects have been exhibited, and two papers have been 
read by gentlemen kindly introduced by the Vice-President, One 
of these was read by Sydney Jones, Esq., Lecturer on Anatomy at 
St. Thomas's Hospilal, " On the Deposit of Silver in the Human 
Body, with microscopical illustrations;" the other by Thomas 
Howard Stewart, Esq., " On Echinida and Asteriada, illustrated by 
some beautiful drawings, dissections, and microscopical prepara- 
tions," the conclusion of which has been, however, unavoidably 
deferred by Mr. Stewart's illness. A hst of the different varieties 
of Diatomaceaj, found in this district during the past summer, was 
drawn up and read by Mr. Clift. 

At the suggestion of several members, the Council engaged Dr. 
Lankester, in February, to deliver an address " On the Structure 
and Use of the Microscope." This meeting was very fully at- 
tended by members and their friends, and the address gave general 

The Council, finding the Blackheath Lecture Hall by no means 
well adapted for their purpose, and learning that the proprietor had 
increased his charge for the use of it, determined to seek for accom- 
modation elsewhere, and the Hall of tlie Mission School (in which 
the last few meetings have been held) having been very kindly 
offered, they at once availed themselves of it, and feel sure the 
members must rejoice at the change. 

The Library. — The Council think they may report with e.^pecial 
satisfaction on the state of the library ; for though of course as yet 
not extensive, it contains some very admirable works on microsco- 
pical science. They have received a few donations of books, and 
they recommend that the Secretary should subscribe to the Ray 


Society tor five of the past years ; and b}' this means they have 
become possessed of some of the best works published by it. They 
hope that in the present year they may have funds at their disposal 
to enable them greatly to increase the library; and they would 
suggest to the members that, by donations of bocks on natural 
science, they will greatly aid the Society in carrying out its 

Plate XXXIV 

G.Busk dd.. 



Descriptions o/New or imperfectly known Polyzoa. No. 1. 


Fam. 1. Membra5Ipobid^, B. 

Gen. 1. Membranipora. Blain. 

1. 3/. delicatissiniu, n. sp. PI. XXXIV, fig. 1. 

M. membranacea, inennis ; cellulis cblongis aperlura permagna, ovali ; 
margiiiejenui, Icevi. Orijicio semi-orbiculari. 

Membranaceous, unarmed ; cells oblong; aperture occupying almost the 
entire area — oval; margins thin, smooth ; orifice semicircular. 

Hub. — St.?'George's Sound, South Australia, on the fronds of Amansia 
finnatijida, W. Harvey. 

This delicate and elegant Membranipora appears to occur 
exclusively on the slender, lignlate fronds of Amansia pinnati- 
fida, which we believe is rarely seen without its gauze-like 
parasitic covering. 

Fam. 2. Flustrid.«, D'Orb. 
Gen. 2. Spiralaria, n.g. 
Polyzoario ramoso ; ramis cylbidncis e lamina angustd spiraliler contorta 
constitutis. Cellulis ad facie in siiperiorem tantum spectanlibus, marginalibut 

Polyzoarium composed of short, cylindrical branches, attenuated at. each 
extremity. Tlie branches are constituted by a narrow lamina, twisted spi- 
rally round au imaginary axis, and having the openings of the cells on the 
upper surface only; the marginal cells arnicd with sessile avicularia, 

1. S.JIorea, n. sp. PI. XXXIV, fig. 2. 

JIab. — Australia. 

For this species, which is perhaps one of the most beautiful 
and curious of the Polyzoa, we are indebted to ^Ir. "W. Flowers, 
of Croydon, whose name has suggested the specific appellation. 
He procured it from Australia. The light and feathery 
polyzoary is irregularly branched, and forms a tuft of au 


inch or two in height, the branches being from a quarter to 
three quarters of an inch or more in length, each articulated, 
as it were, to that from which it rises by a slender _point of at- 
tachment. They are composed of a thin and narrow lamina, 
which is twisted spirally with the utmost regularity round an 
imaginary axis, and the outer or marginal cells each support a 
strong sessile avicularium, besides which are other avicularia 
scattered irregularly among the cells on the upper surface of the 

The cells themselves (in S. florea) are irregularly oval in out- 
line, and usually much attenuated below, and on the right- 
hand margin of each, close to the top, is a blunt, hollow, mar- 
ginal spine, filled apparently with a granular material. No 
indication of ovicells is observable in the only specimen we 
have seen. 

i'am. 3, Cellepokid^, B. 
Gen. 3. Cellepora. 0. Fab. 

1. C. edax, B. PI. XXXIV, figs. 3 and 3«. 

Volyzoario massivo, crasso, viamillato, concha pana turbinata /(yrmam 
gerente ; celbilis ovatis, rhomboid alibus erectis sen stibdecumbentibus, umbO' 
natis, stiperficie scabrd, piincturatd. Odio supra-arcuafo, medium tersi'.s 
eonstricto, itlrinque deiiticulato, labia inferiori recto. 

Polyzoaiium forming a dense, tliick, botryoidal mass, having the form of a 
small turbinate shell ; cells ovate, rhomboidal, erect, or subdecumbent, 
umboiiate ; surface punctured, rough ; mouth rounded above, contracted 
below, the middle, with a small denticle on each side ; lower lip straigiit. 

Hab. — Coast of Devon, on a small turrited shell. (Fossil) Coralline 
Crag, on a species of Natica and Turritella. 

This curious and interesting Cellepore, which constitutes 
one of the links between the British Fauna of the period to 
w'hich the Coralline Crag of Suffolk and Norfolk belongs and 
that of the present time, is described and figured in our 
' Monograph of the Crag Polyzoa ' from fossil specimens. 
We now give a figure taken from a recent Devonshire speci- 
men, for the opportunity of inspecting which we are indebted 
to the kindness of the Rev. ^Mr. Hineks. The following ob- 
servations occur in the work cited : — " This is a very peculiar 
and interesting form. The rather dense crust, which has a 
botryoidal aspect, appears to have been in all cases formed by 
superimposed layers of cells, covering, most usually, small, 
turbinate Xatica-Mke shells, in most instances of the same 
species, but in other cases it invests a small Turritella. These 
specimens consequently are all much alike, resembling small, 
thick, univalve shells, with a comparatively small, circular 
mouth. But it is curious that it is extremely rare to find in 
these masses any remains of the original shell. In by far the 

Plate XXXV. 

■a: i 


H-'^ \ Ys. ^'^^^ ^ 

CBudi del. 

WWest. lop 


greater number of instances this appears to have been entirely 
removed, the sides of the spiral canal being formed by the backs 
of the polyzoan cells, nsually disposed in parallel rows, much 
as they arc on the concave surface of some Lunulites. "^Yhen 
any remains of the original shell are found, it appears to be 
reduced to extreme tenuity, and its outer surface to have been 
eaten away, as it were, by the parasitic incrustation/' 

The recent form presents the same aspect as the fossil, 
having been moulded apparently on a species of Turrit ella, 
which, and this is especially worthy of remark, is, so far as 
can be seen, as completely remo\ed as it is in the fossil 

Fam. 4. VivcoLAHllD^, B. 
Geu. i. Vincularia. Defrance. 

1. V. ornaia, B. PI. XXXIV, fig. 4. 

F. oniata, B. ' Brit. Mus, Cat.,' Part I, p. 96, pi. Ixv, fig. 2. 

2. V. fieozelanica, u. sp. PI. XXXIV, figs. 5 and 5'. 

Polyzoario siiupllci i^er tahos radicales basi affixo; cellularum areis sub- 
pyriformibus ; pariete atiteriori perforalo ; margiiiibus lavibus ; orijicio sitpra 
arcuaio, labih inferiori medio deniiculaio. 

Polyzoarium simple, rooted at the base by radical tubes ; areae of cells 
sub-pyriform; antenor wall perforated; margins smooth; orifice arched 
above ; lower lip with a broad central denticle. 

//ai— New Zealand, Dr. Lyall. 

Two or three other recent species of Vincularia are noticed 
by M. D'Orbigny ('Yoy. dans FAmer. Merid.^), amongst 
which the only one with which either of the above could possi- 
bly be confounded^ is Vincularia degann, which differs, how- 
ever, from V. neozelanica iu the absence of the median denticle 
on the lower lip, and of the pores in the front of the cell, as well 
as in its branched growth. M. D'Orbigny's Cellaria ornaia is 
a SaIicornaria,2L\\([ otherwise quitedistinct from V.ornata, mihi. 

Pam. 5. Pakciminaiuid-e, B. 

Geu. 5. Farciminaria, B. 

1. F. dichotona, v. Suhr. (sp.) PI. XXXV, figs. 1 and 1'. 

Folyz'jario dichotomo, ramulis cylindricis rjracilibus ; inenaibus ; ccV.ulis 
clausis ventricosis ; osfio promincnie. 

Polyzoarium regularly dichotomous, much brauclicd; branches slender, 
cylindrical, unarmed; cells quite transparent and membranous; ventricose ; 
orifice prominent. 

Venucularia dicholoma, v. Sidir, ' Flora,' lS3i, p. 7~'3, tab. i, 
fig 9, a, a. 

Hub. — Port Philip (Australia), Kircheiipauer. 


2. F. Binderi. Harvey ? PI. XXXV, figs. 2 and 2\ 

Volyzoario irregulariter ramoso ; ramis compressis, ligulatis, npinis sparsis, 
armatis ; cellulis ttirgidis, memhranciceis. 

Polyzoariiim irregularly branched ; brandies flattened, ligulate, furnished 
with scattered, horny, aculeate spines; cells bulging, wholly membranaceous. 

Hub. — Sidney, Harvey? 

F. Binderi appears to attain a large size, spreading four or 
live inches in all directions, very irregularly branched, and of a 
deep-olive colour. The cells themselves closely resemble those 
of F. dtchotoma,hvii the size, habit, and compression of the poly- 
zoarium, whose branches are sometimes more than one-eighth 
of an inch wide, amply serve to distinguish the two at a glance. 

The extraordinary resemblance to Fuci born by both these 
species is so very remarkable, especially in the case of F. 
Binderi, that by the unaided eye it would be almost impossible 
even to guess that they belonged to the animal kingdom. 
They appear, of all the Cheilostomata, to be those in which the 
tissue of the polyzoary contains the least amount of calcareous 

We have been long acquainted with Farciminaria dichotoma, 
though not aware till very recently that it had been anywhere 
described. Our knowledge of this fact and of the reference 
to V. Suhr's notice of it in the Ratisbon ' Flora,^ as well as of 
the existence of the second species, we owe to the kindness of 
Senator Kirchenpauer, of Riitzibiittel, who, among many other 
interesting species of Sertulariidse and Polyzoa which he was 
good enough to send to us, included fine specimens of the 
two Farciminarise now described. "We have appended Dr. 
Harvey's name to F. Binderi on M. Kirchenpauer's authority, 
but are unable at present to cite the work in which that 
learned algologist has adverted to it. 

It seems doubtful whether these two species should be re- 
ferred to our genus Farciminaria, but we have thought it 
better provisionally at any rate to place them in it. Should 
it be thought advisable to separate them from F. aculeata, 
there appears to be no reason against the adoption of v. 
Suhr's name of Verrucularia, notwithstanding his having 
placed the genus among the Fuci. 


Ow the DiAMORPHOsis of Lyngbya, Schizogon'ium, and 
Prasiola, and their connection with the so-called Pal- 
MELLACE.E.* By J. Braxton Hicks, M.D. Loxd., 
F.L.S., &c. 

•No one can doubt but that the present discussion on the 
origin and properties of species, will produce a marked 
bene;lt on the study of natural history. Already its influence 
has been considerable, and as the minds of naturalists more 
fully appreciate the points involved in the question, upon 
whichever side tliey may rally, the fruit it will produce will 
be much more abundant ; probably beyond our present an- 
ticipations. And this effect Avill be exerted quite as much on 
the opponents of Darwin's theory, as on the supporters, not 
only by making them more careful to determine the amount 
of variation any species may permit, if it be really limited in 
this respect ; but, also, it Avill urge them to the much more 
extended study of life-history. Thus, doubtless, many genera, 
and even families, will be erased, while the elevation of va- 
rieties into species will be much checked. Nothing shows the 
want of care in the two points here indicated more than the 
study of the lower forms of vegetation ; much has been done, 
but much yet remains ; indeed, as 1 have already expressed 
myself, nearly the whole require revision by the study of their 
entire existence. So long as colour and size are lield as 
specific, and even generic signs, while their diamorphoses are 
unnoticed, so long must the extreme confusion that meets one 
at every step, exist. 

From what I have already brought forward regarding the 
passage of the gonidia of lichens into many genera of what had 
hitherto been classed as alga?, we might be prepared to expect 
that a similar condition might obtain in the gonidia of other 

* It is to be noted that, when oell-forniation or mult i|ilication is alluded 
to, any theory as to the mode by wliich it takes ])lace is not intended to be 
expressed. However, it may be remarked that abundant evidence exists to 
show that, in the subject ot this pajicr, the presence of a nucleus is by no 
means necessary to the formation of a new cell. 



tribes of lower vegetable life. This I have found to hold good in 
those to which 1 have more particularly directed my atten- 
tion. How far upwards in the vegetable scale the gonidia- 
produciiig property is found, I cannot here say, but there is 
abundant evidence of its existence in mosses. Once gonidial 
segmentation having commenced^ it may continue for an in- 
definite time, varying with external influences. Thus, surfaces 
of considerable extent may, by the continuous segmentation of 
the terrestial kinds, be covered with growths of cells, hitherto 
classed together as the Palmellacese. 

Therefore it becomes of importance to determine what are 
the varieties and limits to this segmentation, and how the 
linear form of growth can arise from a single cell. This 
latter process is more difficult to decipher than the change 
from the linear into the single cell; but it is hoped that the 
observations which follow will tend to throw some light upon 
it. The facts brought forward below will, I hope, form an 
apology for so lengthened an introduction to the description 
of a single plant, inasmuch as the tracing the course of its 
development brings us to facts bearing on the principles of 
laws of growth and classification of the lower vegetable tribes. 

The groAvths named in the heading of this communication, 
have been variously classed : the Lyngbya (Agardh) amongst 
the Oscillatoriacese ; Schizogonium, or Bangia (Kiitzing), and 
Prasiola (Meneghini) as genera of Ulvacese. Lyngbya mu- 
ralis is represented at fig. 1. In its active and normal mature 
form of growth, it distinctly shows a tubular sheath, of a dia- 
meter of about -j-p'^^th of an inch, containing a number of 
cells, each with green contents^ of a diameter of , ..,\,o ^^ P^^*^ 
of an inch. These contents are generally granular, and in 
some conditions are disposed^ as in many algae, in bands of 
various forms, leaving colourless spaces between them (va- 
cuoles) as at fig. 2. In other stages and conditions the cell- 
contents are homogeneous, and the septa of the cells are some- 
times not placed directly transverse, but are more or less 
curved (fig. 3). Sometimes the contents are absent from one 
or more cells, either from injuries or other causes ; the 
cells nearest these on either side form a rounded end, 
while the tube or sheath remains healthy. It is not un- 
usual for such appearances to be present in many parts of 
one thread, sometimes more or less regularly intermittent. In 
various modes do these conditions vary, but, in all, the outer- 
most cell, or even the last two, form rounded ends within the 
transparent sheath. Thus in many cases, especially where 
the cell has disappeared, Lyngbya seems to consist of a trans- 
parent tube containing a number of separated centres of 


growth. The diameter of the Lyngbya varies much even after 
it has assumed the mature appearance. 

The formation of free gonidia from it, next claims interest. 

If we observe a batch of Lyngbya in its first appearance in 
spring, and also at other times, wc shall find many of the 
threads throwing off from one extremity its terminal cells, 
which, relieved from pressure, become globular. Watching 
these, and carefully tracing their history by keeping them 
under continuous obsei-vation, I find that they undergo 
segmentation in the same manner as the so-called Palmella- 
cccc. I have represented the principal varieties of their sub- 
di\dsions at fig. 4. It will l^e seen that this process assumes 
the same type as prevails in the gonidia of lichens, proceed- 
ing in various manners till, in some instances, the subdivisions 
are very minute. By means of this gonidial increase, con- 
siderable surfaces are covered with a palmeloid growth, and 
it has constituted one of the forms included under the term 
Protococcua viridis ; and thus gives another example of the 
temporary nature of that order. 

The mode by which these small cells assume the linear 
form of segmentation is as follows : — Generally after proceed- 
ing to their last stage, they assume an oval shape ; a septum 
appears in the centre, and the divisions elongating form the 
first appearance of a thread. These two cells segment simi- 
larly in their centres, and thus a thread of many cells is pro- 
duced (fig. 5). The contents are at first homogeneous, but at 
a very early stage they may become fasciatcd (as at fig. 6), 
or even with an apparent central nucleus (fig. 7). Sometimes 
the linear segmentation assumes a form very like the threads 
of a Nostoc (fig. 8). The length of the cells is very variable, 
depending upon the rapidity of the process of linear sub- 
division, compared with the rapidity of individual cell-growth. 
Sometimes the rate of the former is so much in excess that 
the cells arc no thicker than the septa ; the thread appearing 
to consist of alternate narrow green and colourless bands ; 
again, sometimes the cells are three or four times longer than 
broad. All these various stages can be viewed at one time in 
different threads in such a gentle gradation as to point uu- 
mistakeably to their common origin; but, perhaps, the most 
powerful confirmation is, that they may occur simultaneously 
in the same thread. 

The method above described is pmbably that by which all 
the algffi revert from the segmenting gonidial to tlie linear 

Let ITS now recur to the mature thread of Li/nr/bi/a mu- 
rnlis. In certain cii'cumstances there is a strong tendency 


for the cell- division to extend laterally instead of linearly^ so 
that the thread is seen dividing, as it were, into two, though still 
united by a transparent colourless substance, of the same nature 
as that of the septa. This may take place either equally 
througliout the whole length, or at one end first, and then 
gradually extend to the whole, so that the different stages can 
be seen at one time (fig. 9). After a time the secondary 
threads pass through the same change, so as to produce a 
band of four rows of cells ; often, indeed, before the secondary 
rows are fully formed the commencement of their lateral seg- 
mentation is discernible (fig. 10). By the continuation of 
this process a band is formed, consisting of numerous rows of 
cells, more or less parallel, betraying, however, the peculiarity 
of the lyngbya-thread in the tendency to the rounding of the 
ends, which is observed very curiously sometimes at any point 
of injury (fig. 11). Sooner or later the process of sub-divi- 
sion assumes the quaternary form, or its multiples, and thus 
we have groups of 4, 8, 16, &c., indicated on the/rond, by a 
rather broader line of intercellular substance (fig. 13). Yet, 
even in this state there is a general tendency to mark the 
original linear origin of the frond ; though this is by no means 
constant, tlie quaternary, &c., form of segmentation overcom- 
ing it, so that the interspaces in some specimens are of uni- 
form width throughout, and sometimes so narrow as to be 
almost imperceptible. 

It is seldom that the quaternary segmentation occurs Avitli 
equal rapidity throughout the band ; but more particularly at 
one end, whereby a fan-shaped frond is produced, which, by 
the great rapidity and irregularity of the process, becomes 
waved and crumpled. Should any part be arrested in growth, 
then the other portion curls round so as to fill up the vacant 
space, producing somewhat of a radiate disposition of the 
cells (fig. 12). The rapid origin of a frond of 1 to 3 inches 
in breadth, from a thread -niVoth of an inch in diameter, is 
easily explained, when it is remembered that every cell in it 
undergoes continual segmentation in geometi'ic ratio. 

The condition of the cell-contents varies throughout the 
whole of these stages. As I have mentioned before in Lyng- 
bya they are granular, possessing a few of the chlorophyle 
utricles (Naegele) in each cell ; but as they tend towards 
lateral segmentation they become more homogeneous, which 
is generally continued through the whole period of growth of 
the frond. This, however, is not necessarily so, for the con- 
tents in a part, or throughout the whole, may be decidedly 
granular, as is shown at fig. 15. 

After a certain time, and along one or more of the outer 


edges of tlie wavy frond^ the cells, ])y the solution of the in- 
tercellular substance, become free, still preserving the tendency 
to segment, so that bygenerating the l)inaryorfiuaternaryform, 
they pass through changes which belong to tl^e ^onidia derived 
from the linear form (Lyngbya), and, like them, form one of the 
groups, classed hitherto as Palmellaccae (fig 12 a). In some 
of them the cell-wall is well marked, the contents arranging 
themselves in a crucial manner, apparently indicating the 
future segmentation (fig. 12 Z*). Whether these revert through 
minute subdivision to the linear form, as I have already de- 
scribed in the Lyngbya (fig. 4 a), I am not able to say ; but 
in their maturity they have a very strong tendency to undergo 
the linear form of segmentation — at fig. 14 the cells about to 
become free are shown in this state ; some are already free 
and proceeding on to Lyngbya rapidly, while others are still 
attached to the margin of the frond. But this condition is 
not confined to its edge. I have seen the whole of the cells 
of a large portion still in position, having taken on this 
action to the extent of four or five cells. Considerable 
variety is shown in this process, and it is seldom that 
one part of every frond does uot show some indication of 
it. That these threads pass to Lyngbya can be observed 
very readily. 

Thus it will be remarked that a constant struggle is 
going on between the linear and lateral mode of growth; 
and between either of these, and the gonidial, Avith its 
changes; the balance seeming to be always uncertainly 
suspended between them. This power of the cells of the 
wavy frond to assume the linear growth should be com- 
pared with the similar condition seen in the cells of the 
Lyngbya, which I have drawn at fig. 16, under various 
aspects. The gonidia remaining within the tube, but more 
or less distinct from each other, have changed in precisely 
the same manner as shown at fig. 14. 

There are some other conditions of the growth of the 
cells of Lyngbya, shown at fig. 17. The state indicated at 
a appears to be similar to mother-cells ; the large green 
cell becomes free, and, I believe, gives rise to numerous 
small cells. In fig. 17 6 the gonidia have segmented, and 
each division has increased, possibly to form mother-cells. 
Thus I have pointed out a series of existences : 

1. The mature Lyngbya. 

2. Its gonidia and their segmentation. 

3. Their recurrence to Lyngbya. 

4. The lateral segmentation of the cell of Lyngbya, in part 
or wholly, passing ultimately to the formation of broad. 


wavy fronds, the cells being held together by colourless 
intercellular substance. 

5. The formation of gonidia from these fronds, and their 

6. The assumption of linear growth by these cells. 

The whole of these changes are so palpable, can be observed 
so constantly, and are, at the same time, so simple in their 
relations to one another, that one can scarcely imagine how 
they can have been separated, not only into distinct species 
but into different families of alga?. Thus the linear stage is 
called Lyngbya ; the early stage of collateral segmentation, 
the Schizogonium ; the adult stage, Prasiola ; while the 
gonidial growth has been classed under Palmellaceae. And 
this has been done by most algologists. ]\Ieyen, indeed, had 
pointed out a connection between them;'^ but his opinions 
were denied by Jessen,t and ignored by most others. It is 
a striking instance of the insuperable tendency of some to 
look upon every distinct form as a separate species. 

And this tendency has in itself a power of checking further 
research ; for as it is assumed at starting that a given form 
has unalterable limits, or only a definite amount of variation, 
of necessity all other forms exceeding those limits are excluded 
without compromise, and without inquiry beyond ; and 
hence it is that life-history, and laws of variation, are fre- 
quently neglected. So easy a plan is it of surmounting the 
difficulties which necessarily attend such studies, that one 
perhaps ought not to be astonished at its prevalence ; how- 
ever, there can be no doubt but that it has tended very much 
to the confusion now existing in the simpler classes of life. 
Had the attention hitherto given to the multiplication of 
species been devoted to the study of the life-changes, the 
state of our knowledge on such points woidd have been very 
different to what it now is. 

That these remarks may not seem out of place, and to 
show how unphilosophical has been the arrangement of the 
algae mentioned in the heading of this paper, I adduce the 

The characters are stated to be of — 

Lyngbya. — Filaments elongated, simple, distinctly articu- 
lated (intus laxe annulata, Agardh and Lyngb.) ; with a 
distinct cellulose tube, giving off gonidia (motionless spores), 
capable of dividing laterally into a small expansion, by double 
or quadruj)le series (Jesseu, Meyen). 

* Mcyeii, ' Liniiffia,' 1S27. ii, p. 3S8. 

f Jessen, 'Prasiolae Monograph Kilire,' 18-iS, p. 19. 

nicics, ()\ Tiir: diamorpiiosts or i.YNfiiiY.A, irrt . IG'^ 

Schizof/oniufn. — When younj^, filaments simple articulated, 
with a distinct tube. The cells subsequently by collateral 
subdivision^ produce two, four, or cij^ht paj'rdlel rows, formed 
of a single layer of cells, arranged in si:;,;-!.' or compound 

Prasiola. — Fronds either filiform, formed of a siugle layer 
of cells arranged in simple lines ; or membranous, formed of 
cells arranged in compound lines, or in groups multiple of 
four. Spores (gouidia) formed of the whole contents of the 
cells, motionless. 

The only real difference between the first two is, that 
whereas Lyngbya is a tube containing distinct cells within, 
which, when old, undergo collateral subdivision, to form a 
})and of two, four, or eight rovrs of cells ; Schizogonium is a 
band of two or eight rows of cells, which when young was but 
a single row, contained in a tube ; which is only two different 
ways of stating the same facts. The comparison of the last 
two is of the same kind. For as Prasiola, when old, is com- 
posed of many rows of cells, but which arose from a single 
row, there must have been a time in its life when it had two, 
four, or eight rows, and thus have been a Schizogonium, for 
there is no other structural difference between the two. 

Besides, if it be granted that collateral subdivision could 
extend to two, four, or eight rows, why should it not be 
admitted, that it could by the same power, go on beyond that 
limit ? what is there in our knowledge of cell-multiplication 
to form any obstacle to the supervention of quaternary sub- 
division, or any multiple of it, upon a binary form. 

The distinctions between Prasiola and Ulva, as insisted 
npon by Jessen, are equally unstable, both in regard to the 
regularity of the areas and lines of cells ; as well as to the 
homogencousness of their contents. Not only may be seen 
in Prasiola every variety of form and arrangement of the 
cells, but sometimes the cells are so close to each other as to 
obliterate botli intercellular lines and the distinction of areas 
produced by the kind of segmentation. I have seen the cells 
of Prasiola "granulated ^'^ throughout the whole frond, as 
before mentioned (fig. 15), and in the cells which are about 
to be set free (gonidial spores). I have, at fig. 12 c, shown 
that they possess a central nucleus. The only ditl'crence 
that seems for the present established between Prasiola and 
Ulva is, the formation of zoospores in Ulva, and their mode 
of escape by means of openings in, and not by solution of, 
the intercellular substance. 

* Ulvarum ctWnXvi granulatic ; P/-ffs/o/</r?/w blastcmate ^owojr^^tfa rcpletsB. 
Jeasen, op. oit , p. 10. 


I have not been able yet to observe tbe formation of 
zoospores in the Prasiola derived from Lyngbya muralis: still 
future research may be more successful. It might be a 
question, upon which it would be out of place to enter here, 
whether the formation of zoospores be a sufficient generic 
sign, or rather, if it should not be considered a non-essential 
variety of vegetative growth. 

The relation of Lyngbya and Prasiola to the Palmellacese, 
by means of the gonidia and their changes, I have already 
pointed out; and I shall only mention that ]Meyen's paper* 
seems to have had no effect in leading to the study of the 
history of these simple organisms. Jessen even remarks, 
that if Prasiola produces Protococcus viridus, " Protococcus 
viridus in Prasiolam certe transit. ^^ The remarks of Itzigsohn 
upon some forms of these simple cells, and their relations 
to the lichens, have produced no effect in this country, but I 
hope these remarks, with those I have already brought 
forward in this Journal, and others I have yet to bring forward, 
will lead to their further study. 

Thus it seems that Ave cannot but conclude that Lyngbya 
mm^alis, Schizogonium, and Prasiola, are but diflerent stages 
of the same organism, which, with the segmentation of their 
gonidia into the Palmelloid cells, form a cycle of phases, each 
of which has a powerful tendency to recur in shorter cycles 
to the form which preceded it. 

This leads one to the interesting question, which is the most 
perfect condition in the chain ? 

This can scarcely be answered till we know in what relation it 
stands to other plants. Is it an independent growth, or has it 
another origin yet unsuspected ? And if we decide in favour 
of the former we may, I think, very reasonably ask — are there 
any other links to the chain ? For as yet we have no sexual 
stage. If we consider carefully the mode of growth we shall 
see there is really very little difference between any of them ; 
the essence of all being the segmentation of the cells, linearly 
in Lyngbya ; collaterally, and held together by cellulose 
in Schizogonium and Prasiola; while it is free in the gonidia. 
If the same processes be compared with that of the gonidia of 
the Lichens, shown in this Journal,* there is nothing in them 
that may not be included within the varieties of gonidial seg- 
mentation. Not that by these remarks I am asserting it is 
not a separate existence, but there seems to me to be an 
equal probability of its being a gonidial stage or stages. At 

* 'Die Metamorpliose des Protococcus viridis in Priestleya vclr^'oides und 
Ulva terrestris.' 'Liuusea,' 1827. 
•f •Microscopical Journal,' Nov., 1S60 ; .lanuavy and April, 1S61. 


all events there is nothing in it that would prevent our 
accepting any direct evidence on this point. 

Many of those organisms, whose sexual condition is ap- 
parently Av anting, must be judged of according to the number 
and kind of stages they are capable of passing throuijh ; 
in other words, according to its whole life-history, rather than 
by any one portion, however enlarged or apparently compli- 
cated it may be, or however persistent : for in these lower 
forms of vegetable life the duration of any one of the stages 
seems indefinite, and dependent upon outer circumstances. 

In the growth of Lyngbya, here described, there are many 
points bearing on variation of size, and, indeed, upon the 
apparent essentials, not only of species, but of genera. 

If we gather specimens from numerous localities, perhaps 
the first thing that will strike us is the variable condition of 
the width of the whole thread, as also of the cells individually. 
We shall find these differ remarkably, not only in specimens 
from different parts, but amongst threads of the same 
specimen ; and, further, in different portions of the same 
thread. It is this latter fact which gives complete evidence 
of the common origin of the diff'erent forms. 

The diff'erence between specimens from diff'erent parts is 
sometimes so uniform, that one might at first sight be in- 
clined to regard them as different species ; yet a little care 
will seldom fail to supply all the gradations of growth, and 
in so uninterrupted a chain that there can be no doubt that 
they are but one form, the different ages of which will easily 
account for the variation of size. The same remarks will 
apply to the appearance of the cell-contents. 

Thus, two specimens, taken from different localities in 
different stages, would undoubtedly be ranked as distinct 
species, if the specific distinctions employed by some algolo- 
gists were observed. For instance, look at the growing stages 
of Lyngbya shown in figs. 5 — 8. In some the contents are 
homogeneous, in some granular, in some nucleated in the 
centre. These points cannot, therefore, be considered as of 
any specific value. Again, let any one refer to Kiitzing's and 
Hassal's genus Oscillatoria. "What distinction is there besides 
that of size, and some slight variations in colour, between 
their numerous species ? The whole question of size between 
these so-called species rests upon age, rapidity of growth, or 
external circumstances. 

The I'elation of the length of each cell to their width 
depends merely upon the rapidity of linear segmentation, 
compared with the individual cell- growth. Thus, that a mass 
from one locality should varv in size from that from another 


is nothing more than would a priori have been expected ; and 
it will be found actually to be so : the extenial conditions and 
position seem very distinctly to regulate the state of the 

The innate tendency of any one form to continue and to 
multiply in that form is well shown in all stages of this 
plant ; Avhether in the free segmenting gonidial stage, in the 
early, half-grown, or mature linear, or later on in any stage 
of the collateral mode. Of this fact proofs may be obtained 
in every specimen. This property, probably, is possessed by 
most, if not all, the lower algaj ; and it is this which has 
doubtless tended to divide into distinct species and genera 
forms which should have been but the links of a single chain. 
And the knowledge of this should have a strong influence on 
our manner of studying these lower forms. 

Notwithstanding that this tendency is frequently observed, 
there is no doubt but that, the circumstances under which the 
plant is placed altering, a change of the kind of growth may 
be readily induced in it, which again Avill continue till other 
disturbing influences affect it. 

In regard to the lower forms of life it may with good reason 
be asked, " What, then, is a species?" Before an answer 
can be given, another question must be answered — "Through 
what cycles of variation in form, colour, and mode of growth, 
can an organism pass?" The study of the entire life- 
history is the only means towards its solution of the value of 

Ofi Changes in the Properties 0/ the Red Corpuscles of 
Human Blood in relation to Fever. Bv William 
Addison, M.D., F.R.S. 

All animal secretions are produced by the agency of cells 
or cellular-bodies. 

To establish this proposition it is not necessary to discuss 
the merits of the Cell Theory, to inquire whether the pre- 
dominant force which determines secretion resides in the 
membrane, the nucleus, or granulous contents of the cell. 
It is sufficient, if cells or cellular bodies be absent, that 
secretion, and necessarily the qualities which individualize 
secretion, are absent too. 


It has been declared upou authority that, " Epidemic, 
endemic, and contagious diseases are those in which the 
blood is, probably, in the greater number of thera the pnmary 
seat of disease ; and they are considered the result of specific 
poisons of organic origin, either derived from without or 
generated within the body." — Hippocrates, Sydenham, 
Sprengel, Villerine, Jl'iUiams, Liehhj, Ozanam. ' Regis- 
tration of the Causes of Death,' General Register Office, 

The smallpox disease is a contagious fever. It may arise 
in a healthy person from inoculation of the smallpox virus; 
also from inhaling an infectious atmosphere. In whichever 
of these ways the disease is coramunicat€d, numerous pustules 
appear on the body, each containing a secretion of contagious 
quality, viz., the smallpox virus. This secretion must have 
its origin in some cell-agency ; the question is, to what class 
of cells it is to be ascribed. 

Liebig's hypothesis respecting the actions which succeed 
the introduction of the smallpox virus into the blood is well 
known ; he speaks of particles of blood undergoing trans- 
formation, but he does not specify them. 

First, — As respects inoculation. A quantity of matter 
so small that it may be borne on a pin's point is sufficient to 
establish the disease. But this small quantity cannot well 
be supposed sufficient to infect the whole of the fluid part of 
the blood — the liquor sanyuinis. Granting it is sufficient ; 
still the main phenomenon — the reproduction of the virus — 
would have to be accounted for. It is not the diffusion of 
the A-irus used, it is the regeneration of it a myriad-fold 
which is in discussion. 

It may be said the new virus is formed in the pustules ; 
but the pei*son suffers illness, general distress, and fever, 
before the pustules appear — before they contain any virus, 
^loreover, it is admitted that the primary seat of the disease 
is in the blood. 

Colourless corpuscles, or white cells, exist in the blood in a 
comparatively very small number — too few, it would seem, to 
account for the very large reproduction of the smallpox virus ; 
and in states of disease where the number of these white 
corpuscles has been enormously increased, the symptoms 
are not those of fever. 

Dismissing then the liquor sanguinis, because the question 
entertained is the reproduction of the smallpox virus — a se- 
cretion which requires cellular action ; dismissing also the 
cells of the pustules, because the inquiry has reference to some 
determinate action in the blood ; and lastly, deeming the 


white cells of the blood too few in number to account for the 
large amount of reproduced virus, — we proceed to discuss the 
properties and circumstances of the red corpuscles of blood. 
And here the number of special particles corresponds with 
the usual severity of the disease, and with the large amount 
of virus reproduced. The red corpuscles exist in blood in 
countless millions. 

For inoculation to succeed, the inserted rirus must come 
into contact with some of the red corpuscles of blood. The 
point of the instrument bearing the virus must open some 
vessel circulating blood. On the other hand, in all examples 
of punctured wounds with a poisoned instrument, the pro- 
bability of infection is diminished, if the flow of blood from 
the wound be copious. If little or no blood be lost, infec- 
tion is more sure. Sucking a poisoned wound seems, on 
many occasions, to have prevented blood-infection. That is 
to say, if -all the blood-corpuscles which have had contact 
with the inserted virus flow or are drawn away, blood-infec- 
tion does not follow ; but if some of them, infected by 
contact with the virus, continue in circulation, they carry 
infection with them, and communicate abnormal action to 
the rest of the corpuscles by contact. Some explanation 
of this kind may be provisionally admitted, — its value to be 
determined when the other facts of the inquiry have been 

Secondly, — As respects an infectious atmosphere. In the 
lungs the corpuscles of blood come into contact with air, 
and with the substances in solution in the air. The change 
of colour which blood experiences in the lungs is from action 
in the red corpuscles. 

In acute pneumonia the interchange between the red 
corpuscles of blood and elements of air is interrupted, and 
the symptoms are general distress, exalted temperature, 
quickened pulse, thirst, and delirium. The same symptoms 
are features of smallpox fever. And if, in two different dis- 
orders, a class of symptoms can, in one of them, be traced to 
a particular element of blood, it is an argument that the 
same element of blood stands in close relation with the same 
symptoms in the other. 

The red corpuscles of Ijlood are not all equally affected 
upon contact Avith injurious substances. 

When observed wiih the microscope in contact with ex- 
traneous fluids, some of them are seen much more altered in 
outline and appearance than others, and some resist change 

If corpuscles of blood from the same person differ in sus- 


ceptibility, those of different persons must differ to the 
same, probably to a greater, extent. 

In correspondence with this inference, it is ■well knoAvn 
that a number of persons may be inoculated with a poison, 
or breathe at the same time an infectious atmosphere, but 
only a few of them may take the specific or epidemic disease. 
The outbreak of smallpox fever in a particular individual is 
dependent not upon Avliat is in the air, nor upon the quan- 
tity of virus inoculated, but upon some action in the blood 
which the poison induces. If, upon breathing an infectious 
air, or upon inoculation of a poison, no fever follows, the fact 
is explained if the blood has resisted the poison. When a 
poison fails to affect the person, it must have failed to affect 
the blood. In smallpox, should the attack be slight, the 
result would be so, if a majority of the elements of the blood 
have resisted or escaped contagious action ; greater or less 
severity in the symptoms denoting differences in the amount 
of action in the blood. 

We are not compelled to conclude that smallpox virus 
exists in the air when the disease occurs sporadically. On 
the contrar\^, the presumption is, that the aerial miasm, tlie 
action in the blood, and the matter of the pustules, are three 
distinct things. 

There is, then, nothing in the history of smallpox incom- 
patible with the proposition that the red corpuscles of blood 
are influential elements of the fever Avhich precedes and 
accompanies the regeneration of the smallpox virus. 

The necessity of distinguishing in pathology the fluid from 
the corpuscles of blood is insisted upon, because diseases of 
unwholesome diet are forms of local inflammation which 
commence and go on without fever, viz., gout, scurvy, 
diarrhoea, and eruptions; whereas, diseases of unwholesome 
air are ahvai/s fevers. 

All the cellular or parenchymatous elements of the body, 
including the corpuscles of blood, have in various degrees 
properties of resistance ; and if, from unwholesome diet, me- 
dicine, or poisons, local effects appear before or without fever, 
it is because pai'cnchymatous elements of the coats of the 
vessels of the affected part are influenced by change in the 
liquor sanguinis before the corpuscles of the blood. The 
weakest resistance is the soonest overcome."^ But let us 
continue the discussion with reference to other contagious 

It must be conceded that the corpuscles of blood may be 

* ' Gulstoniaii Lectures,' 1859. 


injured by contact with hurtful substances ; and there are four 
ways or avenues by which such contact may be accomplished, 
viz. inoculation, respiration, circulation, and immersion in 
a morbid liquor sanguinis. 

First, of Inoculation. — In all cases of punctured wounds, 
where poisonous matter is introduced into and takes effect 
upon the blood, forms of fever are primary, and forms of in- 
flammation and abscess (away from the pimcture) secondary 
results. The examples are smallpox, already discussed, and 
traumatic fever. 

Secondly, of Respiration. — There is a special intercom- 
munion in the lungs between elements of the air and the 
red corpuscles of blood ; and the atmosphere is the most 
usual vehicle, or avenue, of fever. In all examples where a 
poisonous miasm in the air takes effect upon the blood through 
the lungs, forms of fever arise. The prominent examples in 
this climate are, smallpox, scarlet -fever, and typhus. 

Thirdly, of Circulation. — When blood traverses places of 
unhealthy or degenerating disease, whether of joints, bones, 
or lungs — the wound of the parturient womb occasioned by 
separation of the placenta, or chronic ulcers in the mucous 
membrane of the bowel, from severe distress and privations — 
in all such cases the corpuscles of blood are exposed to injurj'^ 
from contact Avith putrid or poisonous matter, when passing 
through the diseased textures ; and in all such cases forms of 
fever, more or less intense, are apt to arise — hectic, puerperal, 
typhoid, and traumatic fevers. 

" Simple fever, as well as rheumatic and typhus fever, are 
associated Avith necrosis of bone ; and are made to appear, as 
they are often supposed to be, the cause of the bone disease, 
instead of being regarded as the constitutional effects of the 
local disorder. ... In the case I have related, the fever 
was at first supposed to be rheumatic, then it was regarded 
as typhus ; but suppuration at the shoulder-joint, and the 
protrusion of necrosed bone, declared the true nature of the 
case." (" Clinical Lectures,'' Mr, F. Le Gros Clark, ' Medical 
Times,' 1861.) 

" In fatal cases of ovariotomy the symptoms and condition 
of the patient resembled those observed in puerperal fever.'' 
(Dr. Graily Hewett, ibid., 1861.) 

We are not prepared with any microscopical evidence 
demonstrative of change in the corpuscles of blood in con- 
sequence of their passing through the vessels of diseased or 
damaged textures ; but the absence of direct proof has not 
much weight against the argument, when we call to mind in 
all cellular bodies, which haA'e not spontaneous movement, 


how impossible it is to judge by the eye of change of proper- 
ties — of relative vigour or weakness, or even between life and 
death. But generally, as respeets the association of symptoms 
of fever with some changed action in the red corpuscles, 
peculiarities in the colour of the blood (which can have 
arisen only from some change in the corpuscles) ha\e been 
observed upon by writers on epidemic fever in all parts of the 

Fourthly, of the Liquor Sutiguhiis. — In the last paper 
(p. 85) prominence was given to the fact that the elementary 
particles, or cells of different organs, have peculiar suscepti- 
bilities, whereby, of substances in solution in the liquor san- 
guinis, some affect specially one organ, others another organ. 
Mercury, opium, prussiate of potass, and several saline and 
vegetable solutions were brought forward as examples in 
point. As it is with medicines and poisons, so also with un- 
wholesome substances taken as food ; these, also, often have 
a local sphere of disturbance. An unwholesome but full diet 
occasions gout ; an unwholesome but deficient diet gives rise 
to diarrhcea, dysentery, and scurvy. Gout, scurvy, and con- 
tagious fever are all reputed blood-diseases. But how 
different the phenomena ! Neither gout, nor scurvy, nor 
diarrhoea, commence with symptoms of fever ; nor do they 
entail the generation of a contagious virus. The explanation 
is, that an unwholesome diet acts first upon the liquor san- 
guinis. Substances taken as food impart their qualities to 
the fluid of the blood, and affect some local part before dis- 
turbing the normal action of the corpuscles of blood. 

But the corpuscles of blood are in contact with the liquor 
sanguinis — they swim in it ; and, though exercising a measure 
of resistance against injurious matter in solution in the fluid, 
the resistance is but limited ; and when the limit has been 
reached — when the special susceptibility of the corpuscles 
becomes implicated — symptoms of fever appear. By thus 
keeping in view the distinction between the fluid and cor- 
puscles of blood, we can suggest a reason M'hy symptoms 
of fever supervene on disorders of diet — gout, scurvy, diarrhoea, 
eruptions, &e. ; viz., because morbid qualities of the liquor 
sanguinis, first proclaimed by local disease, may at length 
afteet the normal action of the corpuscles of the blood. 

Also, it enables us to understand why forms of inflam- 
mation are siiju -.added to fevers, viz., because the cor- 
puscles of blood are excreting bodies, and morbid matter 
thrown off from them must disturb the quality of the fluid 
into wliich it pas:?(.s, and altered qualities in the liquor san- 
guinis are causes of local inflammation. 


The several ways, then, by which injurious matter may come 
into contact with the corpuscles of blood are all ways or 
avenues of fever. 

Lastly, — There are some fluids which, when mingled with 
the liquor sanguinis, and brought into contact with the red 
corpuscles, cause these bodies to exude or eject matter that 
may be either prolonged into tails or float away from the cor- 
puscles as molecular particles insoluble in the liquor san- 
guinis [vide experiments, p. 22, ante). In these experiments 
the liquor sanguinis is ^isil)ly disturbed by an action of the 
corpuscles. Should any action of this soi't take place in the 
living body, any kind of matter be discharged from the cor- 
puscles into the liquor sanguinis, and be insoluble in it, such 
matter must appear in the fluid as minute particles ; any other 
form would be incompatible Avith the force and rapidity of 
the circulation. 

In blood drawn by venesection from persons labouring 
under fever, we have seen with the mici'oscope multitudes of 
molecular particles swimming in the liquor sanguinis. Two 
cases have been published in the ' London Medical Gazette,^ 
1811 and 1842, vol. ii. 

It is impossible to say whether or not, molecular particles 
seen in the fluid of blood withdrawn from the living body, in 
cases of fever, come from the red corpuscles; but the behaAnour 
of these corpuscles under the influence of certain fluids is 
evidence upon the point not to be overlooked. 

We have said that inoculation of a poison, or a miasm of 
the air "inhaled by the lungs, may or may not produce con- 
tagious fever ; so likewise it is not every unhealthy or putrid 
wound, nor every degraded liquor sanguinis, that is followed 
by fever ; and conditions which may or may not be followed 
by the sequent cannot be raised to the rank of antecedent. 
The ways by which poisons reach the blood, then, are not the 
antecedents of fever. The true antecedent of contagious fever 
must be some element of the living body ; it must be of the 
cellular class, — of universal distribution, — and have, in a 
measure, properties of resistance against injurious agents. 
All these requirements are combined in the red corpuscles 
of the blood. 

If we review the ways by which poisons may reach the 
corpuscles of blood, in other words, the avenues of fever, we 
shall find they may be resolved into two categories. For 
fever from inoculation, or from respiring a poisonous atmo- 
sphere, may occur to persons previously in good health ; 
whereas fever occasioned by the circulation of blood through 
unhealthy wounds or ulcerations, or from a morbid liqiaor 


sanguinis, implies that the person, before symptoms of fever 
appear, is already the subjeet of disease. In the former 
examples the conditions are independent of, in the latter they 
are a part of the person ; and as all eontagious fevers observe 
certain times and stages, indicative of cellular action, so it 
is to be expected that these periods would be more marked 
and regular in fevers of the first class — -which arise frora 
things without, and where the patient has only the fever and 
its concomitants to overcome — than in fevers of the second 
class, which arise from things within the person, and where 
he has a previous disease and the fever, with its efteets, to 
battle with. Smallpox, scarlet-fever, and typhus are more 
regular in tlicir phenomena than hectic, puerperal, traumatic, 
and typhoid fevers ; a consequence, it would seem, of the 
conditions upon Avhich a proposed classification of fevers is 

If the proposition, that the red corpuscles of blood are 
special elements of fever be established, it would seem to 
follow that fever, from whatever source, may generate a 
contagious virus, — that is to say : fever from the circulation 
of blood through places of unhealthy local disease in one 
person, may originate fever in a healthy person by inoculation, 
or infection through the air; in other words, a fever of the 
second class may generate a fever of the first class. This is 
in correspondence with the facts, that fever (a typhoid fever) 
supervening on chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, or scurvy, 
occasions typhus in the healthy attendants on the sick ; that 
traumatic or ei*ysipelatous fever may give rise to puerperal 
fever, and that puerperal fever may be propagated amongst 
puerperal women. 

Let us give some illustrations. In overcrowded habitations 
when distress or famine prevails, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, 
Rcurw, and other diseases from impoverished and un- 
wholesome living, abound. The anatomical lesion of chronic 
diarrhoea and dysentery is ulceration in the mucous membrane 
of the bowel. 

Under such circumstances, it is very usual for forms of 
fever to make their appearance amongst the sick ; and if no 
epidemic atmosphere be present the first case of fever must 
be referred to the circulation of blood through the degene- 
rating local lesions; that is to say, the avenue of fever is 
within the person ; it is fever of the second class, and the 
stages or periods will probably be ill-marked and uncertain. 

ikit if subse(|uently, and as a consecjucnt of the first case of 
fever, fever makes its appearance among the healthy at- 
tendants upon the sick — then this second case of fever differs 

\0\.. 1. NEW SER. X 


materially from the first case. It has arisen not from the 
circulation of blood through places of local disease, not by 
an avenue Avithin the person, but from without ; some form 
of inoculation, or from inhaling an atmosphere rendered 
poisonous by the first case of fever. This, therefore, is a 
fever of the first class ; and the person, prior to the fever, 
being in good health, its stages and periods we may expect 
will be better marked., and its issue the more hopeful. 

Again, a powerful mental shock, or some other accident, 
may be productive of unhealthy action in the recent wound 
of the parturient uterus ; the discharges are oftensive, and 
puerperal fever may follow from blood circulating through 
places of degenerating anatomical lesion. Upon the same 
principle as before, this we should consider as a fever of the 
second class, complexioned by the puerperal state. But 
shoald another case of puerperal fever follow in the same 
building or locality, as a consequence of the first case, this 
Avould arise not through blood infection from a prior lesion 
within the person, but from inoculation or through the air. 
The latter case would diflFer, therefore, in an important par- 
ticular from the first case, and we should consider it under 
the first category. 

Upon the whole subject, then, phenomena of contagious 
fevers corroborate the proposition in discussion. To distin- 
guish a pathology of the fluid from disease of the corpuscles 
of blood, is warranted by their very different properties. It 
recognises the relation of the blood-corpuscles to other 
cellular bodies, and is a means of interpreting some of the 
difficulties which appertain to the consideration of blood - 
diseases. It gives us a clearer view of the domain of thera- 
peutics, because it is applicable in explanation of the action 
of food and air — medicines and poisons upon the blood. 

To recapitulate : Substances taken into the stomach — 
diet, medicines, and poisons — communicate their qualities to 
the fluid of the bloud. Air, and n)iasms in solution in the 
air, afl'ect specially the red corpuscles of the blood. Gout, 
scurvy, diarrhoea, eruptions, and other local inflammatory 
disorders Avithout fever, occasioned by unwholesome diet, 
arise from changes in the quality of the fluid of the blood. 

Fevers consequent upon inhaling an infectious atmosphere 
upon inoculation or contagion, arise from injury to the cor- 
puscles of the blood. 

Symptoms of fever are superadded to diseases of \inwhole- 
some diet when morbid qualities of the liquor sanguinis, 
pronounced at first by local inflammation, implicate the 
corpuscles of blood. 


Forms of inflammation arc superadded to fever, because 
reaction or counterworking in the corpuscles of blood, which 
are cellular excreting bodies, must disturb the qualities of 
the fluid in which they swim, and into which the morbid 
matter they throw off must pass. 

The conclusion is that : — The generation of contagious 
poisons in the blood arises from reaction in the corpuscles of 
blood against injurious agents. 

The argument and conclusion of the preceding paper are 
grounded on microscopical observations, therefore its publi- 
cation in the pages of the ' Microscopical Journal' is con- 
sidered appropriate. 

Description of a New jNIicroscofe. 
By E. G. LoBB, Esq. 

A, Three strong legs, so arranged that the whole instru- 
ment is suspended by them with the most perfect steadiness. 

B, Socket, in which the quadrangular bar f works, and 
into which at 1 slide the side reflector and small condensor. 

c. Brass circle, very strong and steady, at the top of which 
is a plate of gun-metal, very finely graduated in quadrants. 

D, Appliance for the under stage, strongly affixed to the 
brass circle c, ha\ing rack and pinion motion in connection 
with the milled head 2. 

e, Mirror three inches diameter, plane and concave, with 
treble arm for oblique illumination. 

F, Quadrangular bar working in socket b, by rack and 
pinion motion in connection with milled heads 3, one only 
to be seen. 

G, Arm containing the mechanism of the slow motion, 
worked by a very fine screw in connection with milled head 
4, Avhich is graduated, the arm itself being strongly affixed 
to the quadrangular bar f by the screw 5. 

H, Compound body, with spring tube 6, for applying the 
object-glasses, and coniiected with the fine motion worked by 
milled head 4. Inside the compound body is a draw-tube 
graduated to four inches in the tenths of an inch, the eye- 
pieces sliding into the draw-tube. 

I, Huyghenian eye-piece, of which five are supplied by the 


J, Achromatic object-glass^ of which thirteen are supplied 
by the makers, viz., two inch, one and a half inch, one inch, 
two thirds of an inch, one half of an inch, four tenths of an 
inch, three of one quarter of an inch of varied apertures, 
one fifth of an inch, one eighth of an inch, one twelfth of an 
inch, one sixteenth of an inch. 

Powell aud Lcaland's New Compound Achromatic Microscope. 

K, Axis of the instrument firmly working on the supports 
of the two front legs, so that the entire instrument is capable 
of any inclination from vertical to horizontal, remaining 
perfectly steady without clamping, in whatever position it 
may be placed. 


L, Upper stage, with three quarters of an inch rectanguhir 
motion l)y screw and pinion connected Avitb tlie milled heads 
7, 8, 9, the last not seen; this stage has a siuling plate and 
spring clip for the objects, also a clamp to lix it, and gradu- 
ated scales to act as a finder, in order to register any 
particular object ; the rotary motion of this stage is in con- 
nection with milled head 10. 

M, Under stage, witli rotary, rectangular, and vertical 
motions ; milled head 10 for rotary motion ; milled heads 
12 and 13 for rectangular motion ; milled head 2 for vertical 

\, Achromatic condenser of 170° aperture, the -working 
powers of which are admirable, easily resolving the Amician 
test in squares with one twelfth and one sixteenth object- 
glasses ; it has a diaphragm with eleven apertures and three 
stops, capable of being placed in any position. 

The object of the makers in producing the present instru- 
ment, was to make a microscope possessing a very thin stage 
for the oblique illumination of the most delicate diatomacese 
either by the mirror or prism, and at the same time to have 
a rotating stage; this desideratum they have acconiplished in 
a very satisfactory way, and all that possess the instrument 
are much pleased with it, from the steadiness of its motions, 
its freedom from tremor, and the convenience with which all 
the milled heads for the various motions are placed. The 
stand is like those usually employed by the makers, a strong 
tripod, but made larger and heavier than usual to meet the 
requirements of the other parts of the instrument, which it 
bears with remarkable steadiness in whatever position it is 
placed. The bar that carries the compound body, instead of 
being triangular, is qnadrangnlar, like that employed by 
Mr. Ross, but not rectangular like his, it having two obtuse 
and tAvo acute angles; the makers consider this theoretically an 
improvement, and practically I can say that nothing can be 
steadier than this instrument is, even Mith the T^th object- 
glass. The bar is worked as usual, with rack and pinion, and so 
nicely adjusted as hardly to require the fine movement with 
the 4-- The head of the sIoav motion is graduated as in 
Ross's, and Smith and Beck's. The bore of the body is 1^ in. 
in diameter, which gives a very large field of view with the lower 
eye-pieces ; it has a draw -tube, which is graduated to the 
extent of four inches into tenths of an inch. The brass 
circle which carries the motion for the rotating stage, is 
firmly screwed to the main part of the instrument ; and at 
the top is attached a circle of gun-metal, which is graduated 
into 3G0" in quadrants ; an index is Hxed to the stage move- 



ment_, and working on 

this gun-metal plate acts as a 
goniometer^ and useful also in 
many other respects. The stage 
itself has all the usual move- 
ments, and is strongly screwed 
to that portion of a circle which 
works in, and entirely round 
the large brass circle, and this 
movement is so delicate that 
an object can be kept in the 
field of A'iew during an entire 
revolution with the Vy^ object- 
glass, &c. 

I have had Wenham's bin- 
ocular arrangement added to my 
microscope, by INIessrs. Powell 
and Lealand, whose method of 
doing it is highly satisfactory. 
They remove, for this purpose, 
the single body entirely, and put 
on a double body firmly screwed 
together, (it does not of course 
prevent the single body being 
used when required,) this en- 
ables them to make a great im- 
provement, which is the rack 
and pinion movement to the 
draw-tubes for adapting cor- 
rectly the width of the eye- 
pieces to the eyes, it being 
essential to the due performance 
of the binocular microscope, 
that the centres of the eyes and 
eye-pieces should coincide, and 
the correction for this purpose is easily made by the rack and 
pinion movement ; they have also retained their large field of 
view, which for some objects is most desirable. 



Hyalodiscus subtilis {Syti. Craspedodiscds Fraxk- 
LiNi). By William Hendry, Esq., Sur^.on, Hull. 

Having in possession several slides of this diatom presented 
me through tlie kind libcralitv of ^Tr. Harrison and George 
Norman Esq., of Hull, eontaininj^ entire shells and fragments 
of exqnisite beanty, some of whicli constitute part of a gather- 
ing obtained from seaweed direet from the hands of the late 
Professor Bailey (Harrison), and having examined my entire 
stock with all care and attention, and under varied modes of 
manipulation, reversing the slides, and thus obtaining several 
aspects of each particular shell, so necessary in the examina- 
tion of all fine and complicated striation, having also referred 
to Professor Bailey's published plates ('Smithsonian Contri- 
butions,' vol. vii, Feb., 1854), furnished me by ]\Ir. Harrison, 
as well also to my subscription copy of Pritchard's ' Infusoria,' 
plate V, fig, 60, both these latter being magnified by a hand 
lens of I to 1 inch focus, I find circumstances attending the 
subject which appear worthy of a more extended inquiry, and 

Hyalodiscus subtilis (s>/u. Craspedodiscus Franklini). 
Arc of Radiation. 

Axis of Illumina- 

tioa and 


Axis of Illumina- 
tion and 

Arc of Radiation. 

to merit a rigid examination by more able and experienced 
microseopists than myself, who may possibly possess speci- 
mens more favorable for conclusive interpretation, than 
such as with the few materials I have at command, I am alone 
able to submit on the present occasion. 


Dr. Bailey figures Hyalodiscvs svbtilis witli tlirec sets of 
striation, id est, one set radiating, and two others of contrary 
curvilinear description, the three sets collectively and their 
several intersections constituting a most rare, elaborate, and 
beauteous design. 

Neither Bailey nor Pritchard represent any striation over 
the cential umbilicus, but figure this portion as being merely 
coarsely granular, whereas I would dii'cct more particular 
attention to the varied appearance of this central part under 
different foci and illumination, as an index to the entire 
phenomena throughout the disc, for just as striation is seen 
upon the umbilicus, whether radiating or curvilinear, so does 
it prove, on closer examination, indicative of tlie course or 
direction of striation found upon the outer border, and it is 
in a measure the varied intersections upon this part, which at 
times yields a comparative coarse and confused granular 
aspect, although the central and exterior markings will be 
ultimately found to be continuous, or prolongations one of 
the other. 

The granular condition of the umbilicus contrasted with 
its superficial striation, would in some instances, seem to con- 
stitute a substratum ; a granular condition being also fre- 
quently found to pervade the entire shell, as if arising from 
some abnormal development, or as having been subjected to 
some accidental or extraneous agency ; and it is much this 
condition of things so frequently existing amidst these pro- 
ductions from certain localities, which detracts so greatly 
from the beauty of structure, and lessens interest attached to 
this peculiar diatom, or otherwise there exists other species 
not exhibiting the curvilinear markings of Professor Bailey. — 
A matter of no little importance suggests itself; do tlie 
figures represented by Bailey and Pritchard refer to the 
entire group of lines Avith their several intersections as 
capable of being seen under the objective simultaneously, at 
any one given portion of the shell, or merely as being in part 
and variously de\eloped on several different portions, thus 
rendering it necessary, ideally to build up, by collecting or 
associating such diversified representations to constitute a 
whole ? For my own part, I have not hitherto been enabled 
to resolve the threefold delineation completing the figure at 
any single point at one and the same moment, that is to say, 
the two diverging (decussatnig) and the radiating lines one 
and all simultaneously intersecting ; but have always occasion 
to resort to the expedient of revolving the slide so as to ])re- 
sent the object under ditlcrcnt aspects relative to illumination, 
whereupon alone I have succeeded in obtaining a striation 


compliniental to tliat ))rcvionsly exhibited only iu jjart, and 
then with a (iehl of decussation or intersection but limited in 

AVhen surveying an entire sliell, well calculated for observa- 
tioUj the following characteristic features present themselves, 
— the two decussating and diverging portions of the threefold 
series of lines are to be found only in the direction of the 
axis of illumination, and also at the opposite extremity of the 
said axis, while the radiating portion of the scries will be found 
at either extremity of a line at right angles to the foregoing, 
{id est), that each alternate quadrant of the circle is the seat 
of decussating or otherwise radiating portions of the series, 
the decussating always being on the line of axis of illumina- 
tion, and the radiating at right angles to these, and upon re- 
volving the slide through an arc of 90 degrees, the previous 
radiating now become decussating, and the previously de- 
cussating now become radiating, and so ringing the changes 
throughout the disc; the same phenomena are consequent 
vipon manipulation with any fragment howsoever, possessing 
a readily visible striation, as well as upon the entire shell ; 
indeed, for ordinary observation, I have found some fragments 
of greatest interest, — upon two or three of which in my 
possession the markings are so vividly displayed through 
peculiarity of shell structure, that with a Dallmeyer's -j^^ inch 
objective of 165° angle of aperture, I am easily enabled to 
command any measure of amplification of the same, within 
the limit of four thousand diameters, [id est, 120 x by 30 
(eye-piece objective) = 3'()00 + axis extension := 4000, a fact 
•which I hereby employ to signify the value and brilliancy of the 
shells in question, concluding hence that Avith choice of such 
a range of magnitude and distinction, every existing feature 
ought to be fully and fairly elicited, — somewhat warranting 
the conviction, that the previous representations of authors 
are exaggerated; and whatever may constitute the normal shell 
structure, the direction of illumination plays no unimportant 
part in the display of varied phenomena; nevertheless, there 
exists undoubted beauty, well worthy of the keenest research. 
Radiating lines, if those were uninterruptedly continuous 
from the centre to the circumference, they must necessarily 
diverge, and produce wider interspaces towards the border of 
the shell, which is not apparently the case; for some speci- 
mens exhibit a peculiar mottled appearance, occasioned pro- 
bably (as seen evidently on other discoidal diatoms) Ijy the 
insertion of other shorter lines, shortening still as their suc- 
cessive insertions approach the periphery, thus presenting a 
series of zones, and so occasioniu'r the markings at the peri- 



phery in point of measure or numerical value, to be about 
the average or mean of these obtained on other more central 
portions of the disC;, the value of which I have estimated at 
about 66 to 70 in -OOl", or much about the same as obtained 
on Fleurosigma mukrum, chiefly by white cloud illumi- 

Professor Bailey gives the relative proportion of the um- 
bilicus of Hyalodiscus subtilis as being about one third the 
diameter of the entire disc. I hence subjoin a series of 
measures Avhich may possess some share of utility, although 
great variations are found to exist. 

Hyalodiscus subtilis and its Associates, &c.. 
Upon Four Shells of each Slide. 

rrom whence, associated 
witli — 

California, Monterey, "1 
Prof. Biiiley . . J 

Ditto ditto 

Yarra Yarra, Campylo- 1 
discus, Eupodiscns . J 

California, Aulacodis- 
cus ore^anis, Trice- 
tarium arcticum 

Kotzbue Sound, Rhab- 1 
donema Crozieri . J 

Ditto ditto 

Yarra Yarra 

California, Biddulphia 
Roperi, Aidacodis- 
Ciis oreganis . 

Ratio of umbilicus to entii'e disc in parts of an inch. 



J 298 
J 194 






No. 2. , No. 3. No. 4. 






292 I 311 
1173 1677 







1 737 

1 378 

Mean. =._2 

} " { 
\ .. \ 















entire shell : 306 1 { 
umbilicus 1169/ 
2901 I 
212 -I 

376 r I 

r 1901 
tj 400/^ 

fl 225 1 
I 516/ 

r 216 1 
t 533/ 
r 2661 
1 479/ 



/ " 1 1 521 J 

It hence appears that Hyalodiscus subtilis by no means 
uniformly possesses an umbilicus, as formerly stated, at 
about one third that of the entire disc, and so far as relative 
proportion goes, can form no distinguishing feature from 
Hyalod. Icevis, said to be about one half, see slides, 3, 4, 5, 
6, 8 ; and that as regards a fracture-like insertion of the 
umbilicus, a reputed characteristic feature of Hyalod. 
Icevis also, such insertion is found likewise in slides No. 3 
and 7 specimens of Yarra Yarra, these are matters, therefore. 

1)11. nEALE, 0\ THE TISSUES. 183 

for future consideration, being hitherto too speculative ac- 
cording to present observation. 

The slides most remarkable for clear and well-defined 
markings are Nos. 2 and 8, which I most higlily prize. I 
cannot, however, record the associates of No. 2, being picked 
out specimens, but Avhomsoever may possess, or be enabled to 
obtain Hijalodiscus subtllis, Californian specimen, associated 
with Biddalplda Rojieri, and Aidacodiscus oreyanis, as per 
slide No. 8, may account himself fortunate, and will find 
therein ample field for exercise both mental and manipula- 
tive, and in the end discover it hardly possible to lay the 
subject aside, without contemplating for what purpose the 
Supreme Architect of Nature builds up such inconceivably 
minute forms, in such vast abundance, so widely diffused, 
and with such superb embroidery, and yet to be almost 
beyond human gaze with all the resources and appliances of 
modern art at command. Do the lowef existences behold 
these hidden gems, and wonder and give praise ? 

p. s. I must state, also, that I have satisfactorily seen the 
decussations &c., upon No. 4 slide, and also upon an ad- 
ditional slide. 

No. 9, Californian, associated with Rhizosolenia. 

An Abstract of Dr. Beale's Lectures on the Structure and 
Growth of the Tissues of the Human Body. Delivered 
at the Royal College of Pliysicians, April — ^Nlay, 1861. 

Lectures I & II. 

After alluding to the great interest of studying the 
structure and growth of the tissues, and the important 
bearing of this investigation on physiology and medicine, the 
lecturer observed that the history of the changes which occur 
in the tissues from the commencement of man's existence to 
its natural close, is a history which can never be made perfect. 
We can hardly hope to see the outline of such a work as this 
firmly established on well -ascertained facts; but how could 
our time be more usefully employed than in collecting and 
arranging materials, and urging on by every means in our 
power researches which may assist in furthering the progress 
of this never-ending but most important inquiry ? 

Were the elements of physical science as generally taught 
as the elements of arithmetic, we should not have to deplore 
the influence exerted by the table-turners, the spirit-rappers, 
and the whole class of medical impostors. These men live 


by flattering the conceit and fostering the ignorance of people 
who have never learned to think. By encouraging to the 
utmost of our power the study of physical science, we shall 
be more serviceable in protecting the public (since every man 
acquainted ^nth the elements of physical science would pro- 
tect himself) from imposition, than by endeavouring to in- 
crease the stringency of our laws. 

Advance in medicine has at all times been so intimately 
associated Avith, if not absolutely dependent upon, the progress 
of certain collateral sciences, especially anatomy ancl animal 
chemistry, that it is to be regretted that these pursuits are 
not more generally prosecuted by physicians in this country. 
That scientific investigation in connection Avith medicine is 
not carried on under the superintendence of the physician to 
a much greater extent is, in a great measure, to be attributed 
to a serious defect in all our hospitals. Many physicians 
must have felt the want of well arranged scientific work- 
rooms, where various microscopical and chemical investiga- 
tions could be carefully carried out under their direction. 
It Avas to be hoj^ed that the time is not very far distant Avhen 
this defect will be remedied. In the minds of some persons 
there is undoubtedly an impression that such inquii'ies cannot 
be conducted without disadvantage to the patient ; and there 
is a tendency in the public mind to draw a distinction between 
the so-called " practical " doctor and the scientific man who 
thinks and theorises, but is not up to the direct means of 
giving relief to a patient in pain. We are, however, all aware 
how much Ave have learnt during the last few years from the 
investigations into the secretions in health and disease, which 
have been lately carried on both in this country and on the 
continent. We should make every eflbrt to establish such a 
department in connection Avith our large hospitals; for surely 
a very important part of our duty is to work out and seek to 
establish principles Avhich, Avhen acted upon, may increase 
the physical development and mental A'igour of those who 
come after us. 

During the last few years, the love for such work seems to 
have revived ; and if the taste be as widely diftused and en- 
couraged as this College desires, the position Avhich avc shall 
occupy in Europe and America, as prosecutors of scientific 
medical inquiry, Avill not be inferior to that Avhich is generally 
accorded to us in questions relating to the practical treatment 
of disease. 

Tenns employed. — The only terms which ai'e not generally 
used in quite the same sense in Avhich they Avill be employed 
in these lectures, are the folloAving : — 


Elementary parts, into Avliich every structure may be 
dindcd. A particle of epithelium is an elementary part. 
The elementary part consists of matter in two states. 

Germinal matter. — Matter in a state of activity^ or capable 
of assuming this condition, possessing inherent powers of 
selecting certain inanimate substances, and of communicating 
its properties to these, exists in all living beings, and from it 
every tissue is produced. It was proposed to call this ger- 
minal matter. A certain portion of the germinal matter of 
many elementary parts is comparatively quiescent, but is 
capable of assuming an active state at a subsequent period. 
These portions are the so-called nuclei and nucleoli ; they 
are new centres of growth, and new nuclei and nucleoli will 
make their appearance within them when they have grown 
into ordinary elementary parts. 

The matter on the external part of every elementary part 
exists in a passive state, as — 

Formed material, which was once in the condition of ger- 
minal matter, but it has now ceased to be active. It cannot 
communicate its properties to lifeless matter. Its composition, 
form, and properties, depend upon the powers of the germinal 
matter from which it Avas produced, and which it often pro- 
tects by its passive nature. 

Secondary deposits. — Those are insoluble matters which 
vary in form and composition in different cases, and may be 
considered to result from changes in formed material which 
has been deposited amongst the particles of germinal matter. 
Deposits may accumulate here to such an extent as to cause the 
germinal matter to form a very thin layer between them and 
the formed material.^" 

These Mere the only terms Avliich Dr. Beale would require 
in describing the changes occurring during the development 
and growth of every tissue, vegetable as well as animal, in a 
state of health and in disease. 

Tlie microscoj^e. — The arrangement of the microscope with 
which the tissues were to be demonstrated, was then described. 
The instrument was made after the manner of a telescope 
Avith draw-tubes ; the object Avas fixed across a stage below 
the object-glass by a spring Avhich pressed against the back 
of the slide. By this arrangement any part of the specimen 
could be easily placed under the object-glass, and by means 
of a little screA\ -clamp it could be fixed firmly in the exact 
spot Avhich Avas to be examined. The object Avas brought 
into focus by screwing down the middle draAV-tube to the 
proper position, and the more exact focussing was effected by 
* Sec explanatory note on page 195. 


draAvinnj the tube to -nhicli the eye-jnece was attached back- 
wards aud forwards. In this arrangement the preparation 
was held firmly in its place, and it was scarcely possible to 
alter its position if ordinary care were used. The apparatus 
enabled objects to be examined under the tenth aud twelfth- 
of-an-inch object-glasses. The microscope was firmly fixed 
in a stand provided with a small oil-lamp giving a good light. 
The focus could be altered by drawing the tube to which the 
eye-piece was attached in and out, until the object Avas seen 
perfectly clearly. 

Germinal matter : formed material. — In the preparations 
shown, the part of the tissue which is active, and which 
possesses the highest powers of increase, was tinged of a dark- 
red colour by carmine. This, Dr. Beale termed germinal 
matter. It exists in all living beings, and at e\er\ stage of 
their growth, but its proportion varies according to the age 
of the tissue. The youngest tissues consist almost entirely 
of germinal matter, while in the oldest textures little exists. 
Those tissues which grow rapidly and change much, contain 
a large proportion of germinal matter ; while, in those which 
grow very slowly, comparatively little is found. The tissues 
which possess such different properties were all once in the 
condition of germinal matter, and the properties which the 
tissue possesses in its fully developed state, depend upon the 
powers of the germinal matter from which it was formed. 
Tissues which are remarkable in their adult state for the 
large quantity of so-called intercellular substance, exhibit but 
little during the early peiiod of their development, while in 
their earliest condition there is no intercellular substance 
at all. 

The tissue or formed material is not coloured by carmine ; 
and, if by prolonged maceration it be stained by it, the stain 
may be removed by soaking in glycerine, but the tint still 
remains in the germinal matter. Dr. Beale believed that, in 
every living being, by the action of an aramoniacal solution 
of carmine, and subsequent soaking in glycerine, we can posi- 
tively distinguish the ^g;v«///«/ matter from the formed material. 

Prejmration of sj)ecime)is. — In most of the preparations the 
capillaries have been filled with a transparent Prussian blue 
injection containing a little alcohol and chromic acid; so that 
while the vessels are filled with colouring matter, the adjacent 
textures become permeated with a fiuid which prevents de- 
composition, and many transparent albuminous textures are 
rendered just sufficiently granular to enable their arrange- 
ment to be seen distinctly. 

By these methods of preparation several minute points 


have been detcrminod, such as the relation of the cells of 
the liver to the terminal hranches of the duet ; the ultimate 
distribution of ncrvc-fibrcs in several different tissues ; the 
structure of the ganj^Ha of the sympathetic ; the relation of 
the terminal branches of the nerves to the dentinal tissues. 
Nerves have been readily traced and microscopical ganglia 
demonstrated in the fibrous tissue of the pericardium, in the 
submucous tissue of the epiglottis and pharynx, in the trans- 
verse fissure of the liver, and in the substance of the tongue ; 
the formation of bone and dentine has been studied under 
the highest magnifying powers. The tissues may be pre- 
served permanently, and examined with the highest powers. 

The lecturer had been led to difler in opinion upon some 
very important questions, from many of the highest au- 
thorities; for instance, as to whether certain appearances 
depend upon the presence of solid bodies in the tissues, or 
are spaces containing fluid ; whether certain delicate lines 
are fibres or tubes ; Avhich is the oldest and which is the 
youngest part of a tissue ; and also as to the offices performed 
by tissues, &e. 

He thought that many of the most difficult questions can 
only be solved by studying very carefully the circumstances 
under which the tissues in question may be examined, so as 
to display their characteristic peculiai-ities in the clearest 
manner possible. The following specimens were selected for 

Specimens passed round. — No. 1. An injection of some 
simple papillse of the human tongue under a magnifying 
power of 130. Three separate ones Avere seen. The epithe- 
lium had been removed and the capillaries fully injected with 
Prussian blue. Oval bodies, consisting of germinal matter, 
tinged bright red with carmine, passed in various directions 
in the papillae, and were very numerous at the summit of 
eacli. Of these oval bodies, some were connected with the 
capillary vessels ; but the great majority were connected 
with the nerves forming a sort of network lying on the 
surface of the capillary vessels, and imbedded in a transparent 
tissue. No. 2. A thin section removed from the central part 
of the tongue of a white mouse, prepared as the last specimen, 
and placed under a power of 215. The muscular fibres were ob- 
served with eai)illarics ramifying over them. The oval nuclei 
were principally connected with the capillaries and nerves. 
These specimens iilvistrated the general appearance of the ca- 
pillaries when injected with Prussian blue, and the oval bodies 
when stained wil!i ( armine. No. 3. A thin section from the 
tongue of a mouse just killed, placed in a little weak gl\ce- 


rine, and magnified 130 diameters. The smaller vessels 
could not be discerned. Nuclei were seen, but very indis- 
tinctly, and in smaller number than they existed. The want 
of definiteness about the structure would cause one to 
conclude that, in this specimen, areolar or connective tissue 
predominated over every other tissue; and that the nuclei 
were connected with the fibres of the areolar tissue, although 
an absolute connection between the fibres and nuclei could 
not be seen. No. 4. Another specimen from the central part 
of the tongue of the mouse, from the same part as the last 
section, but injected and soaked in carmine. The "con- 
nective tissue" of the last specimen was seen to contain 
numerous capillaries and nerve-fibres. The nuclei seen in 
the section were clearly connected w^ith the nerves and 
capillaries. Nerve-fibres, not more than the one ten thousandth 
of an inch in diameter, could be traced to and from the 
ganglion. The nuclei on the surface of the ganglion, usually 
considered as the nuclei of the connective tissue surrounding 
its cells, belonged to the nerve-fibres growing from the cells. 
This specimen was magnified 250 diameters. 

There is, however, no organ which shows the importance 
of difi'erent processes of preparation in so marked a manner 
as the liver. 

On the termination of the hepatic ducts. — Upwards of six 
years ago. Dr. Beale succeeded in injecting the ducts of the 
liver, and believed that he had demonstrated that the ducts 
were continuous with tubes containing the liver-cells. He 
regarded the liver as the most perfect type of gland, because 
the largest quantity of secreting structure and blood were 
brought into the closest relation, wliile they occupied the 
smallest possible space. The preparations proved that in- 
jection passed directly from the ducts into a network of tubes 
with very thin Avails, which were occupied with the liver-cells. 
The coloured injection passed between the cells and the walls 
of the tube, insinuating itself through very narrow channels, 
but nevertheless forcing its way along for a considerable 
distance, and sometimes it reached the centi*e of the lobule. 
As injection could be forced thus artificially in a direction 
the reverse of that in which the bile flows during life, the 
possibility of the bile flowing between the walls of the tube 
and the cells was fully proved. These conclusions were 
published in a paper in the ' Phil. Trans.,' in 1856 ; and, after 
an interval of several years. Dr. Beale could now speak with 
far greater confidence. 

Professor Budge, of Greifswald, has curiously distorted 
ouc of Dr. Beale's drawings. He (Dr. Beale) did not believe 


that any one who was himself accustomed to microscopical 
work would have considered that the merest tyro could have 
made such a mistake as the one which he was credited with 
by Professor Budge. He exhibited his own drawing of the 
specimen, and Professor Budge's inference from the drawing 
of the appearance of the specimen, which he had never seen, 
and the preparation itself. Specimens, No. 5, preserved for 
seven years was then sent round. It was magnified 215 di- 
ameters. The blue injection was shown amongst the cells in 
the tubes, and not the faintest indication of the tubes around 
each cell delineated by Professor Budge, was to be seen. 
No. 6. A corresponding preparation from the human liver, 
magnified 130, showing the ducts just at the edge of a lobule, 
and their continuity with the tubes of the cell-containing 
network. — No. 7. Also from the human liver, showed the 
capillaries injected blue, and the cell-containing network 
alternating with them, and haN-ing in all parts of the lobule 
exceedingly thin walls, but quite distinct from the capillaries. 
This preparation was magnified 215. 

Perhaps, however, the most perfect demonstration of the 
cell-containing network, and its continuity with the ducts, is 
obtained from the examination of the liver in cirrhosis, in 
which disease the cells and tubes shrink, the change com- 
mencing at the portal aspect or circumference of the lobule, 
and proceeding gradually towards the centre. — No. 8. A 
section of a healthy liver under an inch object-glass. The 
portal vein was injected with carmine, and the hepatic vein 
with Prussian blue. The capillaries of the lobule were filled 
with the colouring matter — those in the centre of each lobule 
being blue, Avhile those at the circumference are red. The 
interlobular fissures were very narrow, and in many places 
the capillaries of one lobule were continuous with those of 
adjacent lobules. The interlobular spaces were clearly 
destitute of any areolar or fibrous tissue. They were occupied 
by branches of the portal vein, and branches of the artery 
and duct, and lymphatics, which had not been injected in 
this specimen. — No. 9. A specimen of cin*hose liver in which 
the vessels had also been injected. Here a wide space existed 
between the contiguous lobules, of which but very little, and 
only of the central part of the lobule, remained in many 
cases. Vessels and tubes were observed in the substance of 
the tissue usually stated to be fibrous. — No. 10. A specimen 
of a cirrhose liver, magnified 130, soaked in carmine. The 
shrivelled cells could be seen within the narrowed tubes, and 
the network was very distinct. — No. 11. A specimen from 
the same liver put up in water. Not a vestige of anything 



but " fibrous tissue " was to be seen where we noAV know 
numerous tubes and cells and vessels are actually to be 
demonstrated. By immersing a delicate preparation in 
water, the appearance of the presence of a large quantity of 
fibrous or connective tissue could often be produced. 

These specimens would serve to show the great importance 
of preparing tissues ; for it had been clearly proved that many 
structures ordinarily invisible may be demonstrated most 
distinctly by certain special processes. Illustrations might 
have been taken from almost any other tissues of the higher 
animals, or from the lower animals or plants ; but those 
which seemed to bear most directly upon that department of 
microscopical inquiry, which Avas of the greatest interest to 
practitioners of medicine had been chosen. 

Minute size of living particles. — When we attempt to ex- 
amine the structure of the simplest forms of living beings, we 
cannot but regard the extreme minuteness of many inde- 
pendent organisms which live, and grow, and increase their 
kind, with the utmost astonishment. So also, in all other 
living beings, the actual living particles by which the active 
changes are effected are, there is reason to believe, far too 
small to be seen. The smallest organisms and living par- 
ticles which can be distinguished by the highest power yet 
made (1700 diameters) had been growing probably for a long 
time before they were large enough to be seen. 

Structure and growth of living particles. — Of the structure 
of such organisms and particles, we have as yet learnt nothing 
by direct observation ; but from carefully investigating the 
structure of larger bodies closely allied to these, as ordinary 
mildew, for instance, some conclusions as to the manner in 
which growth takes place may be arrived at. 

Growth in all living structures occurs in the same manner ; 
the matter to be animated passes in the same direction in all ; 
the living particles invariably pass through certain stages of 
existence, and end by giving rise to material totally difierent 
in composition from the living particles. This may be further 
altered, but it cannot reassume its former characters, pro- 
perties, or powers. The differences in the results of the life 
of different living organisms depend upon their powers, which 
they have derived from their predecessors. 

Living particles cannot be distinguished from each other 
by microscopical examination, and, in consequence, it is utterly 
impossible, from the structure of a living particle, to predicate 
its office, or the results of its living, nor can we thus tell 
whether it has belonged to one of the lowest or highest 
organisms, to an animal or to a plant. 


The word living was used in a general sense, meaning that 
active changes, some of which can be explained by physics or 
chemistry, while others cannot, are taking place, or are capa- 
ble of taking place, under favorable conditions; and by dead 
was to be understood matter which had already undergone 
these changes, and which was brought again under the un- 
controlled influence of physical and chemical forces. The shaft 
of a hair, and the particles of the epithelium on the surface 
of the cuticle, are just as dead before they are detached from 
the body as afterwards ; but there are constituent elementary 
parts of every age leading uninterruptedly from these dead 
particles, which have no power of increase, to those which 
have only just commenced their existence, which are nearest 
the vascular surface, and are undergoing rapid multipli- 
cation. It is as impossible to indicate the precise moment 
at which a living particle ceases to be able to produce 
particles like itself, as it is to announce positively the day 
or hour of our lives when we cease to ascend towards the 
highest point of vital activity we are to attain, and begin to 

Structure of elementary parts. — Every elementary part con- 
sists of germinal matter, and of formed material which was 
once in the state of germinal matter. Just as, in the cuticle 
on the surface of mucous membranes, and in certain glands, 
eleraentaiy parts exist of every age, so every tissue and organ 
in the body is composed of elementary parts in every stage of 
existence, and arrangements exist by which the oldest /ormec? 
material may be removed. Some formed material is resolved 
into simpler compounds, and removed very soon after its for- 
mation ; while in certain tissues the formed material is very 
permanent ; and it is doubtful, if, in certain cases, the formed 
material which now exists in our bodies will not remain in 
much the same state as long as we live. Most important 
changes may be brought about by the fluid in contact with 
this formed material. In health it is bathed with a fluid 
which preserves its integrity ; but in certain cases the com- 
position of this fluid is so altered that the formed material 
undergoes changes closely resembling those which may be in- 
duced in it artificially, if kept at the temperature of the body, 
in a fluid which will not protect it from the influence of 

Structure of mildew. — If the spore or any segment of the 
stem of a simple fungus be examined, it will be found to con- 
sist of an external capsule, inclosing some very transparent 
matter. The outer capsule is comparatively firm, and hard 
and unyielding; but the internal substance is soft, perhaps 


almost diffluent, and is easily destroyed. It may be washed 
away and removed ; while the external capsule will retain the 
same characters which it possessed before it was disturbed. 
The new matter is certainly not added on the external sur- 
face ; for if this were the case the outer membrane would in- 
crease in thickness, while the mass within would remain of 
the same size as when it was first seen. In some instances 
the outer membrane increases in tnickness, and the matter 
within also increases; but sometimes the outer membrane 
remains very thin, while the matter within is seen to undergo 
a considerable increase. After the whole mass has reached a 
certain size, it divides ; and the process is repeated in each 
of the resulting structures. Very soon, perhaps, millions of 
minute organisms are produced. When this division does not 
take place very rapidly, the external membrane of each particle 
is observed to increase in thickness, and generally, it may be 
said that the sloAver increase occurs the thicker this becomes. 

Is the new matter added just within the outer membrane ? 
If this were so, at one time matter like that of which the 
membrane is composed would be formed, and at another the 
inner soft material must be produced. It would follow, too, 
that in some cases the material must be entirely converted 
into the one substance, and in others it must give rise alone to 
the development of the other. The thickening of the external 
membrane is often produced at the expense of the germinal 
matter within. 

Is the external hard material formed around the internal 
substance ? This question has been already answered nega- 
tively. From a consideration of numerous observations. Dr. 
Beale was convinced that the new matter — the pabulum, the 
nutrient material — which is about to become a part of the 
living mass, passes through the external membrane, and 
amongst the particles of which the central mass is composed. 
He believed it passes into the interior of these particles, and, 
having been brought into very close contact with theii' com- 
ponent particles, becomes endowed with the powers they 
possess, and is then living. 

Supposed structure and movements of living particles. — 
The doctrine which results from these observations is shortly 
this — that the smallest living particles of all living beings 
are spherical ; and it is believed that these are com- 
posed of spherical particles ad infinitum. The inanimate 
matter passes into the spherical particles, and there becomes 
endowed with their wonderful powers — in fact, becomes 
living. The living spherules move in a direction from the 
centre towards the circumference of each spherule to which 


tUey belong. Their tendency to divide is due to t}ie same 
force^ which compels them to move constantly /rom the centre 
where they became living. Each particle is preceded by 
those which became living before it, and succeeded by others 
which were animated since it commenced to exist. This 
movement outwards occui's in the living particles of all 
living beings, and its rapidity determines the rate at which 
the structure grows. 

The particles, in passing outwards, gradually lose' their 
power of animating matter ; and at last, having arrived at a 
considerable distance from the centre, where they became 
living, undergo most important changes, and are resolved 
into substances ha^nng properties very different from those 
which the li%'ing particles possessed during the earlier periods 
of their existence. The particles now cease to move ; they 
lose their active powers, and perhaps coalesce to form a firm, 
hard substance, like the external membrane of the mildew; 
or they may become resolved into compounds which are 
completely soluble in fluid, which are perhaps veiy soon de- 
composed into substances of a much simpler composition. 
This outer substance, resulting from changes occurring in the 
oldest particles of the inner matter, is the formed material ; 
and the living matter within, which may increase in the most 
rapid manner, which gives rise to every tissue, and is in fact 
the growing living part of every structure, from which all 
new structures originate, is the germinal matter. The cha- 
racters of the formed material depend upon the powers of 
the particles of the germinal matter, and it is affected by the 
conditions under which these grew. The powers of the 
germinal matter depend upon those of the germinal matter 
which gave it origin. As the composition of the formed 
material depends entirely upon the properties of the germinal 
matter which produced it, the substances resulting from 
the disintegration of the formed material, and the com- 
pounds resulting from the action of oxygen on these are 
peculiar, and differ materially from each other, just as the 
properties of the formed material differ in the various tissues 
and in different li\4ng beings. It is, therefore, very doubtful 
if these substances Avill ever be produced independently of 
living matter. Undoubtedly, if the component elements 
could be brought within the sphere of each other's action 
under the same condition as in the living organism, the same 
compound would result ; but, as these conditions cannot be 
brought about artificially, and cannot be conceived to exist 
except in living bodies, this is not saying much. Every living 
particle can alone spring from pre-existing particles; and 


every particle of albumen, casein, fibrine, &c., is produced 
under conditions which can only exist in living particles. 

Of nuclei and nucleoli. — In many cases, certain of the 
particles of the germinal matter grow more slowly than 
others, and remain perhaps for a long period in a compa- 
ratively quiescent state. These masses are generally spherical 
or oval^ and they have a power of resisting the action of ex- 
ternal circumstances which would destroy the active portion 
of the germinal matter. These are the so-called nuclei, and 
from them new structures may spring, even if the germinal 
matter in which they lie be destroyed. "When they become 
active, certain minute particles within them may become 
new nuclei, while the particles of the original nucleus in- 
crease and pass through the various stages of their active 
existence, and at last become resolved into formed material. 
Generally, when the conditions under which an elementary 
part is placed are very favorable for the growth of the 
germinal matter, the most rapid increase in size may be 
observed to occur in the particles just within the envelope of 
formed material; and not unfrequently numerous spherical 
masses of germinal matter may be seen in close contact with 
the membrane, and therefore as near as possible to the 
nutrient matter. 

Secondary deposits. — In some cases, after a layer oi formed 
material has been produced externally, and the Avhole mass 
has reached a certain size, certain particles of the germinal 
matter become resolved into formed material, which collects 
as one mass, or in the form of several separate particles, 
which may accumulate amongst the particles of the germinal 
matter. If this process continue for some time, the germinal 
matter forms a thin layer between this mass of formed 
material, which Dr. Beale proposed to call secondary deposit, 
and the outer membrane or envelope of formed material, a 
position in which the germinal matter (primordial utricle) of 
the vegetable cell and that of the fat -vesicle (nucleus) are 

Regarding a growing spore of mildew as an elementary 
part, it consists externally of formed material, within which 
is the germinal matter. Certain portions of the germinal 
matter are not in a state of great activity like the remainder ; 
and these are nuclei from which new growth may proceed, if 
the formed material and the remainder of tlie germinal 
matter should be destroyed. If tiiere be no nuclei, no 
future elementary parts could, under these circumstances, 
be formed ; and the death of the germinal matter renders it 
impossible that new structures can result from the mass. 


The action of carmine on germinal matter and formed 
material. — Alkaline colouring matters have no eflect on the 
formed material, but colour the germinal matter very strongly. 
In some very interesting specimens^ coloured by immersion 
in an ammoniacal solution of carmine, obtained from certain 
fibrous textures, there is no distinct line of demarcation be- 
tween the germinal matter and the formed material. Most 
externally is the formed material quite colourless ; then 
comes a layer of very young and imperfectly hardened formed 
material, which is slightly tinted ; next, germinal matter, 
darkly coloured, and amongst this nuclei most intensely 
coloured. The structure which is most intensely coloured \» 
farthest from, and that which is not coloured at all in imme- 
diate contact with, the colouring matter. The carmine can 
be made artificially to pass through the layers of formed 
material, unaltered by them, to the germinal matter, where 
it becomes precipitated, probably in consequence of the acid 
reaction of the germinal matter. 

Note. — It is desirable to'state here, that it was not possible to insert in the 
text the terms in ordinary use, equivalent to germinal matter and formed 
material; because iu some cases the germinal »?ff^^e;- corresponds to the 
"nucleus," in others to the "nucleus and cell-contents," in others to the matter 
lying between the "cell-wall," and certain of the "cell-contents;" while the 
formed material, in some cases, corresponds exactly to the " cell-wall " only, 
in others to the "cell-wall and part of the cell- contents," in others to the 
" intercellular substance," and in other instances to the viscid material which 
separates the several "cells, nuclei or corpuscles," from each other. In the 
abstracts of the succeeding lectures these points will be fully considered, 
and illustrated with examples ; but it may, perhaps, be well to remark at 
once — 

That the "nucleus" of the frog's blood-corpuscle \% germinul matter ; the 
external red ])ortion (cell-wall and coloured cowi&wis), formed mat trial. 

That the white blood-corpuscle, the lymph and chyle corpuscle, and the 
pus and mucus corpuscle, are composed entirely of germinal matter, with a 
\tv^ ihmW'^ftx o\ formed material ; the viscid matter between the mucus- 
corpuscles \s formed material. 

That the " nucleus " of an epithelial cell of mucous membrane, or of the 
cuticle is germinal inatter ; the "cell-wall and QtW-aowitxA^" formed material. 

That the ' cell-wall " of a fat-cell or of a starch-holding-cell is formed 
material; the "nucleus" of the former, and the "primordial utricle" of 
the latter, 2iVG germinal matter ; while the fat and the starch are secondary 
deposits, produced by changes occurring in particles of germinal matter iu 
the central part of the mass. 

That the germinal matter is always coloured red by carmine, while the 
formed inateriat and secondary deposits are not ; and thus the diil'erence 
between matter iu these dillereat states can always be positively demon- 

J 96 


Oh Gyrodactylus elegans, Nordmann. 
By Dr. G. R. Wagener. 

(From Reichert and Du Bois Reymond's ' Archiv. f. Anat.,' 1860, p. 768.) 

The curious phenomena connected with the reproductive 
process in Gyrodactylus render it a most interesting object 
of study to the physiologist. Till very lately, we are not 
aware that it was known to occur in this country ; but 
Mr. C. L. Bradley having shown that one, if not two, species 
are very abundant on fish taken from the ponds on Hampstead 
Heath,"^ it will probably be found elsewhere. We have 
therefore thought it might be interesting to those of our 
readers who may meet with it, and be disposed to investigate 
the structure and development of this remarkable creature, 
to have before them the excellent account of Gyrodactylus 
given by Dr. Wagener, who has added so much to our know- 
ledge of the subject in the present paper, which we have 
translated in all important particular very nearly in its 

Since the discoveiy, by Nordmann, of this remarkable 
parasite on the gills of the perch and other fish, it has been 
subjected to fresh examination by Creplin, Dujardin, and 
more recently by Von Siebold, the latter of whom more 
particularly has confirmed Nordmann's representations of 
the organization, and added observations of the most sur- 
prising nature as to the development of Gyrodactylus elegans. 

He showed that a young Gyrodactylus arises in the interior 
of the parent animal from a self-dividing cell, that it becomes 
fully developed in the same situation, and whilst still itself in 
the embryo condition, produces a second offspring within 
itself To these observations he added further statements 
respecting the organization of the animal, and especially 
pointed out the absence of any spermatic organs. 

From the latter circumstance Von Siebold felt himself 
compelled to regard Gyrodactylus as a. "nursing" animal; 
and in accordance with this view, he named the cell from 

* 'Journal of Proceedings of Linncan Society,' vol. v, pp. 209 and 257. 


which tlie " daughter " individual is developed a " gerui- 
cell/' and sought the terminal member of the series of gene- 
rations among the Polystomuta. 

In the following observations the sexual reproduction of 
Gyrodactylus eleyans will be proved^ and, at the same time, 
some of the points in its organization, as described by 
Von Siebold, will be more fully elucidated. 

Habitation. — Gyrodactylus elegans is found on the gills of 
all the Cyprinoid fishes brought to the Berlin market ; it 
also occurs on the fins and abdominal surface of the fish, and 
may be obtained by scraping off the slime. Up to the 
present time^ it has been found in the following species of 

Esox lucius The Pike. 

Cyprinus Carpio .... „ Carp. 

„ Gohio .... „ Gudgeon. 

„ Bruma .... „ Bream. 

„ carassius . . . „ Prussian Carp. 

„ phoxinus .... „ Minnow. 

„ erythrophthalmus . „ Rudd, or Red Eye. 

„ alburnus .... „ Bleak. 

Cobitis fossilis „ Pond Loach. 

„ barbatula .... „ Loach. 

Gasterosteas acideatus . . ,, Stickleback. 

„ lavis . . „ „ 

And from a drawing kindly furnished to me by Dr. Semper, 
a species very similar to, if not identical with, G. elegans, 
appears to occur on the gills of Cyclopterus Lumpus (Lump • 

Presuming that Nordmann's figure is correct, specific 
distinctions would seem to exist between the hooks of the 
species noticed by him and that which has formed the subject 
of my observations ; but I have reason to believe that these 
diff'erences arise merely from trivial inaccuracies which it is 
very difficult to avoid making in the representation of the 

Size. — The largest individual observed by me was about 
■i- mm. = — J,-^ inch in length, and its greatest breadth might 
be about ^ mm. = -^[,-^ inch. 

Form. — The form of the animal is flattened and tongue- 
shaped, with rounded borders. The cephalic extremity 
is divided into two short, slightly ventricose lobes, and is 
about -yV mm. := -jp^^ inch in width. To the somewhat 
attenuated caudal extremity is attached, obliquely, a mem- 
branous, subtriangular suctorial disc, the concavity of which 


is on the ventral aspect. The middle portion of the animal 
is usually enlarged, the enlarged portion corresponding to 
the situation of the uterus. Should this organ contain no 
ovum, nor any embryo, the vesicular elevation is produced by 
a clear fluid with vehich the uterine cavity is distended. 

The cephalic lobes are separated from the root from -which 
they spring by a shallow groove on the ventral aspect, which 
leads to and ends in the mouth. Frequently, also, a groove 
exists on the ventral surface, close above that border of the 
caudal disc which is unfurnished with hooks. The borders 
are continuous with each other, in the middle line of the 

The external integument presents no definite structure. 
Occasionally, in certain states of contraction of the animal, 
very delicate transverse lines, formed of extremely minute 
points, might be seen crossing the surface at regular in- 
tervals, especially in the caudal portion. Around the mouth, 
when the eight pharyngeal papilla are protruded, fine longi- 
tudinal folds are often visible on the ventral aspect of the 
cephalic extremity. Below the mouth these folds become 
more and more distant from each other, and gradually dis- 

Muscular system. — Three parallel longitudinal lines may be 
seen at the border of the body of a Gyrodadylus. The external 
and middle of these lines belong to the integument. The space 
between the middle and inner lines is rather the narrower, 
but equally transparent with the other. The innermost 
line represents the outer border of the Adsceral mass, in 
■which delicate longitudinal lines may often be remarked, 
which appear to radiate into the caudal disc ; and may, 
probably, be regarded as representing muscular fibres. A, 
radial striation is very ob^dous in the caudal disc itself. 

Similar fine lines may be seen entering and terminating 
in the lateral process or appendage of each hook. In the 
same way the transparent substance inclosing the central 
pair of hooks of the caudal disc exhibits strise running 
parallel with its borders, and which are also, probably, to be 
referred to contractile elements. 

The opening for the penis-like organ afterwards to be 
described, like the sexual aperture of Octobothrium lanceo- 
latum, is surrounded with minute booklets, from the base of 
each of which two striae proceed, which are, probably, 
muscular fibres. 

A very remarkable phenomenon may be seen in Gyrodac- 
tylus, shortly after the birth of an embryo. Folds and club- 
shaped villi arise over the whole surface of the animal, into 


the formatiou of which, besides the integument, the visceral 
fleshy substance of the body occasionally enters. Oil-drops 
of greater or less size are scattered through the entire body, 
and are very manifest in the perfectly fresh animal, which, 
in that condition, may be said to be as clear as glass. The 
opacity, which very soon comes on under the microscope, is 
connected, for the most part, with endosmotic conditions of 
the external integument. 

The caudal disc presents a central and a peripheral 
portion. It corresponds, in every particular, with the syno- 
nymous organ of some species of Dactyloyyrus, with the one 
exception that, in these cases, the points of the hooks are 
directed towards the dorsal, whilst in Gyrodactyhis they 
look towards the ventral aspect of the body. 

The central part of the caudal disc is constituted by a 
fleshy bundle, very finely striated longitudinally, which com- 
pletely surrounds the large hooks with their two lateral 
processes. The point of each hook corresponds to an open- 
ing in this sort of cushion, and on the edge of this opening, 
towards the body of the animal, a slender streak, curved into 
the form of a V, forms a partial border to the orifice. 

The hook apparatus of the central part of the disc consists 
of two large flat hooks, each with its two transverse lateral 
appendages. They lie on the edge, and are curved upon it, 
the base being enlarged towards the edge in an irregular way 
difficult to describe. On the sides of the hooks, looking 
towards each other, are two projecting sub- parallel folds or 
elevations, corresponding to which are depressions on the ex- 
ternal surface. These folds are short, of a circumflex form, 
and run from behind and abore, forwards and downwards. 
That portion of the base of the hook which is not incumbent is 
somewhat thickened, and the terminal part of the free point 
is curved gently upwards. 

The upper of the band-like appendages, which are placed 
transversely above the base of the hook, is the stronger and 
broader of the two, and it has an ii'regularly undulating 
border. The points of these appendages are bent down- 
wards, rather over the hooks, and are truncated obliquely 
from without to within. The sui'face is slightly plicated. 
The upper and imder borders of the appendages are also fre- 
quently thickened, and the latter border is continuous with 
a broad, apron-like fringe, which gradually becomes very 
thin, and has a narrow edging, or hem, on both its lateral 
margins, and corresponds in form to the space between the 
hooks into which it is inserted on either side. As the hooks 
are cuned on their flat surfaces towards each other in the 


form of an italic S, so as to inclose a heart-shaped space^ the 
attached base of the apron-like expansion just described is 
necessarily wider than the free marginj which reaches almost 
to the point where the hooks begin to curve outwards. 

The lower appendage is very narrow ; its inferior border is 
produced into a very thin membranous fold, whose lower 
margin is slightly incised in a crescentic form. This appendage 
resembles a short curved thread or ware, resting on its free 
slightly ascending extremities on both hooks. The central 
disc presents a V-shaped transverse section, which towards 
the bases of the hooks expands in a single plane. 

The peripheral portion of the caudal disc is very motile. 
At the periphery, except at the upper border, are placed six- 
teen minute booklets, at equal distances apart ; and according 
to the protrusion and retraction of these organs, the border 
of the disc varies much in appearance. When the booklets, 
together Avith the fleshy substance in which they are imbedded, 
are protruded in a finger-like form, the intervals between them 
are often considerably retracted, each interval exhibiting two 
uniform incisions. On the other hand, when the booklets 
are strongly retracted, the intervals appear to be slightly 

Each booklet is individually motile. It may be retracted 
deeply into the finely striated fleshy envelope with which it 
is encompassed, so that even the very point is concealed ; or 
it may be protruded to such an extent that the whole of the 
booklet is exposed, resembling a finger armed with a claw. 

In each of these little booklets three portions may be dis- 
tinguished — the booklet itself, its stem, and an appendage, 
of which parts the latter two are subservient only to the 
motions of the organ. 

The booklet is flattened, strongly bent on the edge, and 
very sharp. The base is produced before and behind into 
two short wings, which are also placed upon the edge ; the 
hook portion is seated upon the narrowest spot of this biscuit- 
shaped figure. One of the wings in question lies on the 
dorsal, and the other on the ventral aspect of the disc. 

To the latter wing is attached, in a manner not yet ascer- 
tained, a very slender, elastic peduncle or stem, eight times 
as long as the hook, and slightly knobbed at the free ex- 
tremity. Though often much bent by the contraction of the 
caudal disc, it quickly and readily straightens itself again on 
the cessation of the movement. 

The wing corresponding to the under side of the disc serves 
as the point of attachment to a faintly defined elongated 
appendage, which is about half as long as the stem, and has 


attached to it two strong, striated, fibrous bundles, which 
proceeding towards the centre of the disc are there lost. 
How this appendage is connected with the wing is not ap- 
parent. If we suppose the peduncle to be protruded, and 
the appendage drawn backwards, the point of the hook, which 
is somewhat moveable upon both, is elevated; whilst if the 
stem be retracted, the hook is withdrawn. 
'■' The transverse oral fissure, which is placed on the ventral 
side of the animal, close to the roots of the cephalic lobes, 
leads to the digestive apparatus. 

The oral opening forms the lower termination of the 
shallow groove between the cephalic points, and leads into a 
short pyriform sac, with very thin walls, in which a longitu- 
dinal striation may sometimes be perceived. 

Attached to the bottom of this sac, exactly as in Diplozoon 
or Diporpa, lies a protrusile pharyngeal organ, which, if the 
examination be awkwardly conducted, may even be forced 
altogether out of the oral orifice. This turban-shaped 
pharynx consists of two parts. 

The upper, which projects free into the oral cavity, has 
eight points, which, as remarked by Von Siebold, can be 
moved against each other, like jaws. The conical summits 
of these eight divisions of the pharyngeal organ is finely 
striated longitudinally. The small jerking movements which 
take place in these parts give them the aspect of hard 
bodies. But when they are protruded beyond the mouth, 
they expand into an eight-rayed star ; the fine longitudinal 
striae disappear, and they rather resemble a structureless, 
tough substance. 

The lower portion of the pharynx, upon which the eight 
cones are seated, is of a flattened spheroidal form. It is 
composed of eight cell-like segments, separated from each 
other by as many meridional grooves. Upon each is placed 
a pointed process, which is also separated from it by a 
groove. These transverse grooves, forming a circle around 
the pharynx, divide it into a superior and an inferior 
portion. The eight cellaform bodies have fine granular con- 
tents, in the centre of which may be 'perceived a very clear 
spherical cavity filled with fluid, and containing a globular 
opaque nucleolus. 

The pharynx of many Distomata is formed in a similar 
manner, except as regards the conical processes. "Within 
the longitudinal and transverse striae, which are usually re- 
garded as belonging to a muscular structure, may also be 
noticed transparent, nuclear, sharply defined spaces, inclosing 
each a nucleolar corpuscle. 


The intestine of Gyrodactylus, which is bifurcate and 
csecal, communicates with the pharynx by a short oesophagus, 
and is of uniform structure throughout. In individuals as 
yet uninjured by examination, the central space of the intes- 
tine and of the oesophagus is filled with a clear fluid, by 
which the walls are kept asunder. I have never seen this 
fluid resembling blood, as it does in Dactylogyrus monenteron. 
In the large, beautiful Gyrodactylus of the loach, the 
intestine was always charged with a clear, yellowish fluid, 
which served the purpose of an injection in the examination ; 
in appearance this fluid resembled the yellow, homogeneous 
pigment by which the integument of the fish is coloured. 

Two layers may be distinguished in the intestinal tube ; 
the outer of which is, in appearance, structureless. The 
inner is much the thicker, and consists of a uniform layer 
of a fine, granular substance, in which, here and there, 
transverse lines may be observed, which appear to indicate a 
cellular structure. In general this layer is soon broken up, 
and it then fills the intestinal canal. The course of the in- 
testine is exactly the same as in many Distomata. It runs 
on the sides of the body immediately beneath the dorsal 
surface. The two csecal sacculi meet in the middle line, 
making a short turn in order to effect the junction. The 
distance apart of the somewhat enlarged extremities of the 
intestinal canal depends upon the degree of distension of the 
uterus. In length it occupies about the two middle fourths 
of the animal. It embraces the ovum, the uterus, the testis, 
and rests upon the ovary ; the upper enlargement of which, 
however, projects somewhat beyond it, on the outer side. 

The vascular system is found not on the dorsal, but on the 
ventral side of the body. Its thin walls inclose a clear fluid, 
and the finer branches are furnished with distinct ciliary 
lobes. Four principal trunks may be seen lying in paii*s on 
either side of the animal, close together, and corresponding 
with each other in their course. 

In the caudal portion of the animal, near the upper border 
of the suctorial disc, and close below the ovary, the two pairs 
of vessels turn towards the mesial line. The two corres- 
ponding superficial vessels from each side join to form a short 
but not larger trunk, which bends so abruptly from the 
observer as to present a perfect transverse section. "Whether 
it perforates the wall of the abdomen, or opens on the dorsal 
surface, as may well be supposed, could not be made out. 

The other two corresponding vessels on each side, which, 
on the whole, are less distinctly seen, are apparently lost 
in more slender branches, which, together with branches from 


the loops, proceed towards the caudal disc. In the latter part, 
between the fourth and fifth hooklets on each side, and close 
to the border, are two very large, active, ciliary tags, ■whose 
free apices point directly inwards. It may also be noticed 
that an opening exists at this spot, on the somewhat swollen 
margin of the disc. "Whether this opening communicates 
with a caecal cavity or a canal remains undetermined. 

The two pairs of vessels in their course towards the head 
make two principal curves, by which the space circumscribed 
by the vessels is subdivided into three portions. 

The lowermost of these divisions extends from the confluence 
of the vessels to the lower border of the testis. At tins point 
the vessels bend suddenly outwards, but with a rapid curA-e 
again approach each other on a level with the lower border of the 
uterus, then again bend a little outwards, and with a gently 
undulating course run immediately on the pharynx, on whose 
sides they continue -visible as far as the oral orifice, after 
which they gradually diminish in size until they ai-e lost to 

On the spot where the vessels override the upper border of 
the intestine, a couple of minute ramuscules are given off on 
the inner side. Another far larger branch curves outwards, 
and pursues a winding course upwards and downwards 
through a mass of cells corresponding in form to unicellular 

These unicellular glands, as they may be termed, are situated 
in each side of the head, on cither side, constituted of a superior 
and an inferior collection. The upper is the smaller, and 
consists of from six to twelve retort- shaped corpuscles, some 
of which always contain a transparent nucleus, together with 
a corresponding opaque nucleolus. 

The inferior and larger glandidar mass consists of from 
eight to twelve far larger cells. Each of these presents a 
clear nucleus and an opaque nucleolus, which, as in the 
superior glandular mass, lies in the midst of a more or less 
brownish, opaque, fine granular substance, with which the 
entire cell is filled. 

From each of these bodies proceeds a finer or coarser 
filament, filled with a similar material, towards the cephalic 
lobe on the same side, at the border of which it tenninates. 
These filaments are not of uniform diameter throughout, 
having here and there enlargements upon them. The 
glandular bodies themselves are placed on the dorsal side of 
the aniuial ; but the f'hinK'uts, united into a brownish sub- 
spii'al bundle, run on the ventral aspect. In the cephalic 
lobe each filament becomes much dilated. Its course mav 


be traced through the structureless integument. At the 
apex of the cephalic lobe, a glutinous, ^dscous matter may 
often be seen escaping, which in appearance may be closely 
compared to the filaments by which the structureless 
integument is traversed. Immediately behind the inferior 
larger granular body, beneath the dorsal surface of the 
animal, are situated twelve to fifteen cells in close apposition, 
like those of tesselated epithelium, on both sides of the animal, 
and covering the outer side of the intestine. The uppermost 
of these cells are the largest, and they gradually become less 
and less downwards, so that it was impossible to determine 
the inferior boundary of the cellular layer. The nucleus and 
nucleolus of the cells resembled those of the glandular cells 
above described. The contents were quite colourless and 
finely granular, but very transparent. 

Besides these unicellular glands, as they may be termed, 
three other similar, very minute aggregations of cells are 
placed on each side of the oral cavity, from which three 
brown, fine granular streaks proceed transversely to the mesial 
line of the animal, above or on the dorsal aspect of the oral 
cavity, terminating with a slight curve outwards. 

On the back, rather higher than the mouth, I noticed four 
large, clear, fine, granular, cellaeform bodies, close together, 
but whose nature remains quite obscure. 

All these cellseform bodies, or unicellular glands, would 
seem to be comparable with those which are met with in the 
cephalic lobes of the species of Dactylogyrus. The four 
cellaeform bodies last mentioned probably correspond with 
those lying above the mouth in Dactylogyrus, and which 
from their brown hue present a very peculiar aspect. 

With them also may be associated the bodies existing in the 
integument of many Trematodes and Cestodes, first described 
by me under the name of " villi," or '^ villiform bodies." 
These also are furnished with a process filled vrith a brown 
granular material, arising from a sacculus in which a clear 
nucleus and opaque nucleolus may very frequently be seen, 
and terminating in the integument. 

In the Cestodes it may be readily observed that an oil-drop 
is gradually formed at the spot corresponding to the termina- 
tion of the cell-process in the integument, and that this drop 
of oil, gradually enlarging, is at last detached, a new drop 
appearing in the same place. The contents of the sac, in 
consequence of this, are rendered clearer, the number of fine 
granules is lessened, the nucleus appears to float loosely in 
the clear fluid, containing minute particles of the granular 
material ; whilst a delicate, double contour line indicates the 
wall of the sac. 


The sexual system consists of the single testis, and a horse- 
shoe shaped ovary. 

The testis is a usually spherical or sometimes heart-shaped 
sac, the base of which is directed upwards. It is situated 
beneath the back of the animal, between the two branches 
of the ovary and of the intestine, its base reaching the horse- 
shoe shaped commissure of the former. Its upper wall 
slightly overlaps the oviduct, where the ovum is delayed 
before its entrance into the uterus. The wall of the testis 
exhibits a double contour line ; the vas deferens is a short 
tube, which appears to penetrate the upper wall of the 

The common sexual orifice — that is to say, of the oviduct and 
testis — constitutes a papiUeeform elevation, projecting from 
the inferior wall of the uterus into its ca\dty. 

The contents of the testis are sometimes composed entirely 
of cells; sometimes half of the sac is filled with a clear fluid 
containing either active spermatic filaments in tumultuous 
motion, or the well-known mulberry-shaded globules beset 
with spermatic filaments, associated also with immobile 
filameutary bodies. Occasionally, also, an apparently virgin 
ovum may be seen in the oviduct surrounded with spermatic 
filaments, some of which may likewise be now and then 
perceived in the uterus itself, before its cavity is entirely 
occupied by the ovum. 

The spermato/.oa themselves are simple filaments, having 
no distinguishable cephalic extremity, except that one end 
seems to be a little thicker than the other. 

The ovary is of large size, and occupies almost the entire 
lower half of the animal ; it is very transparent, and usually 
of a horse-shoe form. Its upper extremities reach above the 
lower wall of the uterus, to an extent corresponding with the 
degree of distension of that organ. 

The length and breadth of these glandular lobes depend 
upon the state of development of the ovary ; and the upper- 
most of them, occasionally slightly hollowed, expands so as 
to embrace the intestine which rests upon it. 

The gland is situated beneath the neutral surface. It is 
subdivided by shallow grooves into segments, which vary in 
different individuals, and are probably due to the formation of 
the ova. Each segment consists of a very clear matrix, in 
which transparent nuclei with nucleoli of pretty uniform size, 
though at irregular distances apart, may be noticed. Near 
the oviduct, a portion of the matrix appears separated from 
the surrounding substance by a circular line, encompassing 
and concentric with a nucleus. Tlie oviduct a])pcars to 



arise from both lobes of tlie ovary. It constitutes a mem- 
branous canal which runs in close apposition with the wall of 
the uterus, transversely from one lobe of the ovary to the other 
in a straight line. The vas deferens as before said^ appears 
to enter its upper wall. 

The utenis consists of an oval cavity surrounded with a 
strong membrane. It lies between the limbs of the intestine, 
which are in contact with its walls on all sides, except the in- 
ferior, which rests upon the oviduct. 

The size of the uterus depends entirely upon its contents. 
If it contain a fully developed embryo^ it distends the entire 
circumference of the animal on both the dorsal and ventral 
aspect ; and whilst pushing back the testis and ovary, it may 
reach almost the whole length of the limbs of the intestine. 
Immediately after the birth of an embryo it shrinks to 4 or 
4- its former size, and remains distended with a clear fluid, 
which may be said to be poured out suddenly into its cavity. 

This rapid emptying is accompanied with a simultanpous 
shortening of the animal, in consequence of which also the 
testes and ovary are made to occupy a rather higher position 
than before. 

During the gradual distension of the uterus when pregnant, 
the papiUceform elevation through which the ovum and sper- 
matozoa enter the uterine cavity, appears finally to be entirely 
obliterated. After the birth this orifice is usually seen again to 
project veiy prominently into the interior, though it some- 
times happens that it remains invisible among the folds of the 
uterus, so as to render its existence doubtful. 

But, however uncertain the existence of a pennanent oinfice 
of this kind may be, that of an opening for the escape of the 
young is still more uncertain. The spot at which the birth 
of the embryo takes place is perfectly definite, close beneath 
the penis -like organ afterwards to be described, but I have not 
yet succeeded in detecting any special indication of an open- 
ing at this point. 

Immediately after parturition, the integument is thrown 
into folds, and a slight opacity of the organ ensues, which 
renders it extremely difficult to detect the maternal orifice.* 

The inner siu'face of the uterus is always covered with a 
fine granular layer of irregular thickness, with which the 
upper and lower points of the cavity are as it were, plugged. 
In this layer may sometimes be seen minute cellaeform bodies ; 

* Mr. Bradley (1. c, p. 210), states that, "while observing these animals 
with Dr. Bowerbank, they saw the young creature free itself by tearing 
through the parental envelope, and coutainiiig within itself the progeny of a 
third generation." 


and during the formation of the embryo it disappears alto- 

To the sexual system must also be referred a peculiar penis- 
like organ which has not been noticed by v. Siebold. 

It is placed close behind the pharynx, beneath the integu- 
ment on the upper boundary of the intestinal tube ; and con- 
sists of a sacculus inclosing the proper penis, and having 
attached to it three peculiar sacciform organs. 

The penis-sac is of a pyriform shape, or almost spherical ; 
and it appears to be perforated at the obtuse point by which it 
is in contact with the integument, and this orifice is sur- 
rounded in a radial manner with from eight to sixteen hooks, 
the uppermost of which is distinguished by its size and figure. 
The points of all the hooks are directed towards the common 
centre, the apparent orifice of the sac ; their bases are en- 
larged and spoon-shaped, the broad surface being applied upon 
the wall of the sac ; and from either side of the base of each 
hook a streak proceeds in a meridian direction upon and im- 
mediately beneath the sm-face of the sacculus. 

The large hook appears to have two lateral processes, 
by which it is affixed upon the obtuse angle of a triangular 
basal portion. 

On the bottom of this armed sacculus lies a minute 
pyriform body, perforated in its longitudinal axis, and occu- 
pying about a quarter of the sacculus, with which the middle, 
sacciform organ, which is distinguished by a thick membrane 
and opaque granular contents, appeal's to be immediately 
connected. The sacculus is somev.hat convoluted, and pre- 
sents a constiiction such as may usually be observed in the 
vesicula serninalis externa of the Distomatce. 

I never noticed spermatozoa in it, nor could any channel 
be traced between it and the testis. On either side of this 
sacculus, which may be compared to a rudimentary vesicula 
serninalis, are placed two double follicles or sacs. 

The two upper are elongated, and smaller than the two 
lower spherical ones. Their contents consist of a fine gra- 
nular matter, and each division presents a clear nucleus, 
and opaque nucleolus. These organs cannot be compared to 
the vesicles connected with the penis of Dactylogyrus fallax, 
which are fitted with a viscous brown material, and situated 
on either side of the seminal vesicle, i 

The ovum of Gyrodactylus elegans, after its detachment 
(an act which it may be remarked has not yet been observed, 
owing, as it would seem, to the great slowness with which 
it takes place), is a transparent globule or cell with a nucleus, 
as clear as water, and sharply defined, though the nucleolus, 


as well as the vitellus^ is slightly opalescent. In the nucleolus 
may occasionally be seen a second globular body, as clear and 
well defined as the nucleus itself, the nature of which is un- 
known. In the oviduct may occasionally be perceived very 
minute ova (particularly in small Gyrodactyli) , of hardly 
one third the usual size. It is possible that these may grow 
while still in the oviduct, which never contains more than 
one (full sized) ovum. 

Whilst the ovum is lying in the oviduct changes go on in 
it, which have usually been referred to the influence of im- 
pregnation. The nucleolus, at first sharply defined, loses its 
definite outline, and the spot sometimes noticed in it is no 
longer visible. As the dissolution of the germinal spot proceeds, 
the nucleus becomes more and more transparent, the space 
which it occupies being increased in like proportion. At 
length the perfectly clear nucleus of the ovum is rendered 
turbid, from the remains of the germinal spot floating about 
within it. 

I happened, on one occasion, to observe an ovum iu this 
stage make its entrance into the uterus.^ 

The appearances presented iu this transit may best be 
compared with the passage of a viscous substance through a 
naiTOw orifice. The drops of vitellus gradually increasing in 
size, which was protruded from the papilla into the uterine 
cavity, appeared every moment as if it would be torn off. 
The nucleus or germinal vesicle was forced towards tlie 
entrance of the uterine papilla by the contractions of the 
animal, which are, apparently, the effective agents in the 
process. The lower part of its periphery during this, was 
still surrounded with a pretty thick layer of vitellus. The 
nucleus or germinal vesicle thus compressed assumed every 
possible shape, every inequality in the pressure causing a 
change of form. It appeared to oppose great difficulties 
to the passage of the ovum. Suddenly it burst, and the 
ovum rushed into the uterus. 

When the entrance was thus effected tliere was seen, not 
as might have been supposed from the violence of the pro- 
ceeding, several di'ops of matter, or an irregular amorphous 
mass, but the uterus was occupied by a large, dark, opalescent 
globular body, whose perfectly uniform aspect resembled 
very closely the rather lighter yelk of the uninjured ovum. 
In the case in which the above observation was made the 
animal perished before segmentation commenced. 

Thus it appeared as if the altered contents of the germinal 
vesicle became intimately mingled with the vitellus, or that 
the same process takes place with the germinal vesicle and 


vitelhf.'f, as previously occurs with the vesicular spot in the 
§^erminal spot and itself; and somewhat later with the 
germinal spot and germinal vesicle. 

The following process also was directly observed. A 
globular body, in every visible property precisely like that just 
described, occupied the uterus, whilst almost in the middle of 
the oviduct, which was otherwise empty, projected a small 
ovum, still retaining its connection with the ovary. Suddenly 
the first segment globule [ovutn] lying in the uterus, threw 
out an elevation on its upper side, whose base enlarging in 
the direction of the greatest vertical diameter of the ovum 
rapidly advanced, forming a progressive constriction, which 
gradually increased in size and depth. When this groove 
had reached the middle of the ovum it ceased to extend, and 
visibly becoming deeper and deeper appeared at last to bisect 
the ovum. 

Further observation was prevented by the commencing 
decomposition of the animal, at the end of four hours, during 
which period the two coherent segment spheres remained 
perfectly motionless. 

The further process of segmentation, as already remarked 
by Von Siebold, takes place with great irregularity. 

Perfect cells do not appear to be formed until after this 
first division of the ovum. Whilst in other cases a nucleus 
and nucleolus are usually seen to be formed in the o\'um or 
first segment-sphere, and to precede the second division, in 
the present instance the formation of a nucleus and nucleoli 
does not commence until after the first constriction has taken 

The mode in which nuclei and nucleoli originate, is difficult 
to follow. It appears as if in the interior of the ovum a 
[difi'erentiation or] separation of the fluid from the solid 
elements took place, since a sort of breaking up of the substance 
may occasionally be remarked in the interior of the substance, 
manifested by its coarsely granular aspect. Sometimes this 
appearance might be attributed to the existence of very 
minute, clear, closely contiguous nuclear vesicles with cor- 
responding nucleoli, but sometimes this condition was not 

The nucleus and nucleolus, seen in the two segment-spheres, 
are of very different sizes. The nucleus is always clear, sharply 
defined, occasionally round, sometimes oval, or even more or 
less regularly biscuit- or sausage-shaped. The nucleolus is 
only more opaque ; in other respects it resembk s the nucleus 
in form. When the nucleolus has attained a certain size it 
may become elongated aiul irregvdarly bent, whilst shallow 


constrictions on its surface plainly indicate an incipient mul- 
tiplication by division. 

When the number of cell nuclei which arise in every part 
of the segment-spheres, as well at the periphery as in the 
centre, has increased, they necessarily approach the surface, 
on which they cause visible protrusions. This appears to be 
the commencement of the exit of the cells from the segment- 
spheres. The nucleus must derive something from its nidus 
because bare nuclei with nucleoli are never seen attached in a 
very irregular manner to the segment-sphere [vitelline mass], 
but always cells. The opening through which these cells 
escape, owing to the. viscous condition of the ovum above 
noticed, of course closes so as to be invisible. 

The embryonal-cells adhere to the ovum only by a very 
small part of their periphery, although I have never seen 
them to become wholly detached, however active the move- 
ment of the animal might be. 

The cells do not at first, any more than the segment- 
spheres, occupy the entire uterine ca\'ity. Both float in a 
very clear fluid. At a later period the cells increase in 
number^ whilst at the same time they diminish in size. 
The remains of the segment-spheres [of the vitelline masses] 
which are also reduced in size, retain the spherical form, untU 
finally the cells cover them cgmpletely. The fluid at the 
same time disappears, and the uterus closely embraces its 

In this condition the embryo represents an egg-shaped 
mass of cells, which, within certain limits, are variable in 
dimensions, and have a very clear nucleus, an opaque, oval or 
rounded nucleolus, and equally opaque contents. 

The remains of one or both of the segment-spheres, usually 
of both, rarely of one only, remain still visible for a considerable 
time. They are always found in the situation where the 
uterus of the embryo is afterwards formed. They are both 
still present, when, under a strong magnifying power, the 
commencement of the large hooks and of the sixteen small 
points around the caudal disc may be plainly seen at the lower 
end of the cellular and as yet perfectly oval embryo. 

But this appears to be the limit to their future development. 
About this period one only of them is visible, surrounded 
with cells at its lower border, which may be distinguished 
from those constituting the parenchyma of the embryo by 
their being encompassed by a fine elliptical line. These cells 
are of very various sizes, representing in miniature the 
irregular process observed in the large segment-spheres. 

At a later period the remains of the other segment-sphere 


aUo disappear, when the booklets and hooks of tlie caudal 
disc may be viewed even with a low magnifying; power, and 
the egg-shaped mass, now composed of uniform large cells, 
is seen of considerable size in the interior of the embryo. 

In the further development of the embryo the cells con- 
stituting the future cephalic portion are the first to be 
reduced to the smallest size. A furrow which commences as 
a shallow lateral groove, and gradually increases in depth 
whilst advancing in an oblique direction from below to above, 
marks off the cephalic portion. 

A transverse furrow indicates the boundary of the caudal 
disc ; and fine lines mark the limits of the various organs, 
amongst which the ovary and the so-termed unicellular 
glands are distinguished by the size of the cells composing 
them, Avhilst the cells which constitute the cephalic extremity 
of the animal gradually lose their distinctness. 

The mature embryo lies in a curved posture in the uterus, 
the head and tail being placed together, touching with their 
neutral surfaces. 

The uterus of the embryo, even at this time, contains a 
second progeny in the shape of an embryo, whose booklets are 
already pedunculate, although it still manifestly consists only 
of cells. The rudiments of the organs begin to be visible 
here and there, and the situation of the ovary is indicated 
by some cells remarkable for their size. 

In the interior of this second embryo, in the situation where 
the uterus is placed, even at this time may be seen an oval 
aggregation of cells, which manifestly presents at its lower 
end sixteen radiating booklets ; behind which are ^'isible the 
two points of the large hooks, 

AVithiu the second embryo also, with some attention will be 
perceived an elliptical marking, Avhich likewise corresponds to 
the situation where the future uterus is to appear. At this 
spot the cells are somewhat larger, but of very unequal size. 

An embryo of this kind, at the period when an ovum is 
perceptible in the oviduct, spermatozoa in the testes, and in 
which all the organs are fully formed, is ripe for expulsion. 
The utei'us, whose much distended walls are no longer covered 
with the granular layer, embraces it closely. The act of 
partui'ition is very sudden ; and the embiyo escapes on the 
ventral aspect of the body close to the penis, through an 
orifice which, as before said, closes immediately. 

The newly born perfectly mature Gyrodactylus resembles 
its parent in every respect, except that it is a little smaller. 
In its uterus may be distinctly seen two successive generations 
lodged one within the other, and easily recognisable by the 


liooks. 111 favorable cases indications of a third generation 
even may be perceived within the second. 

From the foregoing observations it is obvious that Gyro- 
dactylus produces at least one generation in the sexual way. 
How the second and third embiyo arise has not yet been 
cleared up. 

[To these observations succeed some remarks upon the 
question as to how the contained embryos of the second and 
third generations arise, which, however, we omit for want of 
space, merely stating the propositions, which appear to the 
author to require elucidation. 

1 . The second and third generations may arise like the first 

in which they are contained ; that is to say, in a sexual 

2. Or it may be that portions of the original vitellus or 

uterine ovum from which the first generation was pro- 
duced, remain over, which, even when contained in the 
embryo, repeat its formation. 

3. Or the second and third generations are to be regarded as 


For further information respecting Gyrodactylus, refer to : 

V. Nordmann. — ' Mikrographische Beitrage,' i. p. 106 ; Tab. 

X, figs. 1,2;' Ann. d. Sc. Nat,' tom. xxx, pi. xix, fig. 7. 
Creplin. — ' Erscli and Gruber's Encyclopadie,' xxxii, p. 301 ; 

Froriep, ' Neue Notizen,' viii, p. 84 ; "Wiegmann's 

' Archiv,' (1839) p. 164. Bd. ii. 
Dujardin. — ' Histoire naturelle des Helminthes,' p. 480. 
V. Siebold. — ' Zeitschrift fin* Wissenschaft. Zoologie,' i, p. 

347. (1849). 
Diesing. — ' Systema Helminthum,' i, p, 432, 641, 651; 

' Fitzungsherichte der Math. Naturw. Klasse der K . K. 

Akademie in Wien,' xxxii, p. 375, (1858). 
Wagener. — ' Natuurkund Verhandeling.' Haarlem, xiii, p, 

51, 54. 
Van Beneden. — ' Memoire couronne sur les A'ers intestinaux,' 

p, 63. 
Bradley C. L. — ' Journal of Proceedings of Linnean Society,' 

v, p. 209, (I860).] 


Researches an the ]\1()de of Nutrition of the Mucedine^. 
By ^I. L. Pasteur. 

(' Comi)tes renJus,' vol. li, p. 709.) 

About eighteen months since the author communicated to 
the Academy an experiment on the subject of yeast, which 
attracted the particular attention of physiologists. When an 
almost imponderable trace of the yeast-fungus was soAvn in 
pure water, holding in solution certain crystallizable and, as 
it may be said, inorganic principles — that is to say, sugar- 
candy, an aramoniacal salt, and some phosphates — the minute 
globules of the yeast-fungus might be seen to multiply, pro- 
curing their azote from the ammoniacal salt, their carbon 
from the sugar, and their mineral constituents from the phos- 
phates, the sugar at the same time undergoing fermentation. 
The absence of any one of the three aliments prevented the de- 
velopment of the yeast. Subsequently, M. Pasteur extended 
his researches, with the same result, to the lactic ferment. 

The above experiment was conclusive as to the organized 
nature of beer-yeast, which Berzclius, even in his latest writ- 
ings, always regarded as a chemical precij)itate of a globular 
form. It moreover afforded a manifest proof of the concealed 
relations which exist between the ferments and the higher 

All the previous labours of the author, communicated to 
the Academy for some years past, concur in the estal)lishing 
of the principle, that all fermentations have their origin in 
mycodermic plants occupying the lowest place in the scale of 
being. The result of the author's more recent researches 
now made public will add a new support to this opinion. 
Taken with the results of his former experiments on the sub- 
ject of yeast, they will show a great analogy between ferments 
and the lowest as well as the highest forms of plants. The 
author, consequently, liopes that physiologists will find in 
similar researches a new method of inquiry opened to them, 
fitted for the rigorous and easy examination of various ques- 
tions respecting the nutrition of plants. 

In pm'e distilled water he dissolves an acid, crystallized 
ammoniacal salt, some sugar-candy, and the phosphatic salts 
procured by tlic incineration of yeast. He then sows in the 
liquid some spores of Pcnic'tUlum, or any muccdinous fungus. 
These spores readily germinate, and in a short time (only two 
or three days) the liquid is filled with flocculi of the mycelium 
of the fmigvs, of which a great many quickly spread them- 


selves on the surface of the liquid and there finictify. The 
vegetation exhibits no symptoms of languor. By taking the 
precaution of employing an acid salt of ammonia, the deve- 
lopment of infusoria is prevented, the presence of which would 
soon arrest the progress of the little plant, owing to their 
absorption of the oxygen of the air (contained in the water), 
and which is indispensable to the well-being of the fungus. 
The whole of the carbon of the plant is derived from the 
sugar, its azote from the ammonia, and its mineral elements 
from the phosphates. As regards, therefore, the assimilation 
of the azote and phosphates, a complete analogy exists be- 
tween ferments, the mucedines, and plants of a more compli- 
cated organization. And that this is the case, is further 
proved in the most decisive way by the following facts. 

If, in the experiment above related, any one of the soluble 
elements is suppressed, the vegetation is arrested. For ex- 
ample : the mineral matter is that which would seem to be 
the least indispensable for organisms of such a nature ; but if 
the liquid contain no phosphates, vegetation is no longer pos- 
sible, whatever may be the proportion of sugar and ammoniacal 
salt. All that can be said is, that the germination of the 
spores may just commence under the influence of the phos- 
phates contained in the spores themselves in infinitely minute 
quantity. In the same way, if the ammoniacal salt is sup- 
pressed, the plant is not developed at all. There is merely 
the abortive commencement of germination, due to the pre- 
sence of the albuminoid matter in the spores, although there 
may be a superabundance of free azote in the surrounding 
air, or in solution in the liquid. Lastly, the same result fol- 
lows if the sugar or carbonaceous aliment is absent, notwith- 
standing there may be any amount of carbonic acid in the 
air or in the liquid. The author has ascertained a fact, that, 
as regards the origin of their carbon, the mucedines dift'er 
essentially from phanerogamic plants. They do not decom- 
pose carbonic acid, nor do they evolve oxygen. On the con- 
trary, the absorption of oxygen and the evolution of carbonic 
acid are necessary and permanent acts of their vitality. 

What, then, are the consequences of the results of expe- 
riments above stated ? In the first place, they afford precise 
ideas respecting the mode of nutrition of the mi^cedinous 
fungi, with regard to which science possessed only the ob- 
servation of M. Bineau, refuted to the Academy by M. Bous- 
singault on a pre\'ious occasion.* Secondly — and this is, 

* The interesting experiments of M. Bineau show tliat the nitrates and the 
ammonia disappear from tlie rain-water in wliich they were held in solution, 
under the influence of cryptogamic vegetation. It is well known that rain- 


perhaps, of still p'eater importance to remark — these results 
indicate a method by means of which vegetable physiology 
will be enabled to attack, without difficulty, the most difficult 
questions respecting the life of these little plants, so as to 
lead the way surely to the study of the same problems in the 
higher plants. 

Even should it be feared that it may not be possible to 
apply to the larger plants the results afforded by organisms 
apparently so low, still great interest will equally attach to 
the resolution of the difficulties which arise in the study of 
vegetable life, when we commence with those plants whose 
less complex organization renders our conclusions easier and 
more certain. In their case, the p/ant is reduced in some 
measure to the condition of a cell ; and the progress of science 
shows more and more that the study of the most complicated 
actions performed under the intluence of either vegetal)le or 
animal life is reduced, in its ultimate analysis, to the discovery 
of the phenomena proper to the cell. 

water affords nitrates and ammoniacal salts containing assimilable azote, tof^e- 
tlier willi salts ot" potass, soda, and lime, all favorable to vegetation; but 
another element, equally indispensable, was always found to be wantinp: — 
phos[)lioric acid, which, in spite of numerous researches, had not been dis- 
covered in rain-water. M. Boussingault states that this lacuna in the 
fertilizing elements of rain has just been supplied by M. Burral, who has 
recently ascertained the existence of phosphates iu rain-water. 



Micrometers.— Few subjects have been more frequently dis- 
cussed among microscopists than that of the relative value of 
the various micrometers in common use ; and^ some time ago, 
I remember a stricture upon Mr. Quekett for having in his 
' Practical Treatise/ &c., said of Ramsden's micrometer (the 
double cobweb) that, " as its accuracy depends entirely on 
that of the glass micrometer used in finding the value of its 
divisions, the measurements made by it are by no means so 
delicate as they appear to be." 

There is truth in the above : nevertheless it would have 
been better if, instead of the word, " delicate," he had used 
satisfactory. The fact is, all micrometers on the principle of 
Ramsden, Jackson, &c., must remain unsatisfactory if we 
have no ready means at hand of proving the accuracy of the 
glass micrometer itself; for though an exhibitor may tell his 
friend " the divisions on this glass micrometer are exactly the 
one hundredth of an inch," nothing is more likely than that 
his friend will say, " But how do you knoiv that l!" To which 
we may reply, " I had the glass micrometer from a first-rate 
London optician, who, I am confident, would not supply a 
defective article," &c. But to this many would answer, 
" Ah ! that does not satisfy me. I should like to see some- 
thing like proof, and not mere statement," &c. 

This is but reasonable ; and therefore it is ray opinion that 
every user of our favorite instrument, to whom expense is 
not an object, ought to have by him a means of proving the 
accuracy of his graduated glasses ; and for this purpose I 
believe nothing is better than the mechanical stage micro- 
meter I alluded to in the note, p. 270, in your Journal for 
last October. It is not only a good micrometer in itself, but 
it also enables us to prove the accuracy of all others. So that 
though I have all the micrometrical apparatus I have ever 
heard of — Ramsden's, Jackson's, Nobert's, &c. — and a variety 
of glass micrometers by various hands, yd I consider the 


mechanical stage micrometer as the basis of them all ; because 
it is the means oi proving the accuracy of all the rest. 

Transparent Injections.— I quite agree with your remarks on 
''the clumsy width " of the glasses on which these injections 
(German^ I am told) are mounted (sec Journal for last April, 
p. 131) ; but I should like to be allowed to inform your 
readers that I have found the said objects remarkably easy to 
re-mount. One of them (human eyelid) having been acci- 
dentally fractured, I heated and separated the glasses, and 
found that the object could be re-mounted, with fresh glass 
and balsam, as easily as a bee's wing ; which is commonly 
one of the objects recommended to a young practitioner, when 
first trying his hand at a " balsam object. '^ 

But, except in case of fracture, or when the original glass 
is very bad, this process is not needed ; all that is requisite 
being to slice off, with a glazier's diamond, a piece from each 
side and end, so as to reduce the glass to the English 
standard size of three inches by one, and then polish off the 

These trifling operations every microscopist should be able 
to do ; as he ought to be an illustration of old Ben Frank- 
lin's definition of a man, viz., " a tool-using animal." I have 
either cut down or re-mounted eight of these awkward slabs 
of glass ; and they are now, as you say, " much improved for 

The Astronomer's Protest— I have been told that I ought not 
to notice the attack in the April number, p. 133, as the writer 
shoots from behind a corner ! But I feel it a duty to do so, 
on account of his depreciation of poor Dr. Goring, to m hom 
we microscopists owe so much, and who he accuses of " ig- 
norance of astronomy ! " 

A very intimate friend of his, and who is, very righteously, 
indignant at the derogatory remark, has just written to me 
that his knowledge of that science was such as to render him 
well worthy the name of an astronomer. It was a favorite 
study of his. 

His astronomical apparatus was magnificent, and his largest 
telescope (a Newtonian of great excellence) was one of the 
best of the day. So much inii)ortance was attached to it that 
the Astronomer lioyal went to tiee it. The Doctor also pub- 
lished on the subject. 

Among other things he furnished a valuable paper (m im- 
provements in telescopes, to the ' Quarterly Journal of the 


Royal Institution.' In shorty the probability is that his 
knowledge of astronomy was equal to that of " A Fellow of 
the Royal Astronomical Society ; " but he had sensus com- 
munis enough to know that in point of real profit (that is to 
say use) to man, the revelations of the telescope pale in insig- 
nificance before those of the microscope. And this leads me 
to remark that I earnestly wish some one, capable of the 
task, would give us an elaborate paper, in your journal, upon 
the subject of the really practical use of the microscope. I 
have met with numerous gleanings in various works, but we 
sadly want a digest of them all ; such as its importance in 
diagnosis, and the determination of the nature of diseases. 
Its forensic importance ; such, for example, as the decision 
of the questions, whether the red matter upon the knife with 
which it is supposed a murder has been committed, is or is 
not human blood, — whether certain fibres adhering to it are 
of linen or cotton, &c. At what station on the railway a box, 
&c., was filled with sand, after its contents had been sur- 
reptitiously abstracted ; also in the detection of poisons, 
and various adulterations. Then its discoveries in geology, 
botany, and natural history in general, are immense. In 
short, it would require considerable space even to enumerate 
all the points of real use — the question at issue — in which 
the microscope beats the telescope completely out of the 

Moreover it is really a contracted view that the marvels of 
the telescope are so much more mighty and grand than those 
•of the microscope ; for the words great and small have reference 
only to man's poor and finite notions. The Creator makes 
no such distinctions. A great authority assures us that with 
Ilim one day is " as a thousand years, and a thousand years 
as one day.'" (2 Peter iii, 8.) 

And it may as confidently be stated that the sun and a 
monad, the planet Saturn and a diatom, &c., are the same 
in the great view of that Being, 

" Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, 
A hero perish, or a sparrow fall ; 
Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, 
And now a bubble burst, and now a world." 

All equally show creative power ; for it is equally as im- 
possible for man to create a single particle of sand as the 
whole solar system. From what I have said all really in- 
telligent readers will see that microscopic objects are just as 
great, in the true sense of the term, as telescopic objects ; 
and, therefore, have no need to "pale in insignificance" 


before them ; and are, at the same time, of far more practical 
utility.— Q. E. D. 

Hypersthene. — A correspondent has written me that though 
he has examined this object together with one of our first 
London opticians, yet " we could not make it that wonderful 
object you speak of/' Very probably not; for among the 
different specimens I have examined, I have not seen another 
equal to mine ; and this leads me to remark that I wish our 
object-preparers would turn their attention more to it ; for, 
being of a crystalline texture, a good deal may depend on the 
angle at which it is cut. When it is first-rate, and exhibited 
as described (April number, p. 135), with inch objective and 
Lieberkiihn {side re^exion will not do), and at night by intense 
lamp-light, without a " modifier," I think it stands quite at 
the head of what may be called '^ the gorgeous class " of 
objects ; and I find it more frequently elicits that rapturous 
OH ! ! ! (which sounds so delightfully at a microscopic 
soiree) than any other of that class ; e.g. peacock copper, 
ruby copper, needle antimony, iron ore from Elba, elytron of 
Curculio regalis, &c. Before quitting this subject allow me 
to correct a slight error. Your proof-reader, by altering my 
stop, has altered my meaning. I wrote, " I seem to see part 
behind part," &c. ; just as in looking at the sky we see cloud 
behind cloud ; or, in a forest, tree behind tree, &c. This is the 
case more especially when we use the binocular microscope. 
The mention of " microscopic soiree " leads me to write a fcAv 
words on the subject of the 

Microscopic turn-tables, which are such an admirable aux- 
iliary at those friendly meetings. Very handsome ones are 
made of iron, walnut, &c., expressly for the purpose ; but, as 
many may not choose to incur the cost of them, it is well to 
mention (what may possibly not occur to every one who 
possesses the article) that one of the ordinary revohing 
tables, with drawers and knobs (without which a gentle- 
man's library is not considered complete), answers the pur- 
pose to admiration. 

The usual size admits eight sitters comfortably, and the 
perfection of the "round game at microscope," as I call 
it, would of course be to have as many instruments as there 
are players. 

But as this would be too costly a game for many pockets 
(unless, as in a " pic-nic," each was to bring his own quota), 
I find it best to place the instruments (whatever number there 


are) at equal distances. I have three microscopes, viz., a 
first-rate RosSj ditto Smith, Beck and Beck ; and a Powell, 
somewhat antiquated, but still a fine instrument. The fourth 
place I fill up with a first-rate table stereoscope. These are 
placed on the table in correspondence with the four cardinal 
points, with one sitter before each, and one between. 

Thus there are four lookers and four waiters simultaneously. 
The table is turned, not by the power of " electro-biology,'' 
but in the way that Dr. Faraday would approve of, viz., by 
the hands applied to the drawer-knobs, which answer admir- 
ably for the purpose. 

Each time a microscope, &c., passes the exhibitor he 
changes the object, and sends it on again. 

I have found every one delighted with this new kind of 
" table-turning,'' and it is admitted to be an immense im- 
provement upon the old "round games," where the "objects" 
are only ivory fish, and speckled bits of paper. I hope to 
live to see the game become quite common. 

On one point, however, I must off'er a small caution. When 
the microscopes used in the round-game are all " binoculars," 
as we hope all will be ere long, the noses of the spectators 
being placed between the two tubes, the exhibitor (who is, of 
course, the chief table-turner) must beware of applying his 
hands to the knobs until they (the said probosces) are all 
withdrawn ; otherwise his friends may receive a rap on the 
olfactory protuberance which is anything but agreeatile ! 

I have found the best watchword on these occasions to be 
— NOSES !— uttered in an audible manner; it acts like elec- 
tricity ; and the velocity with which the said projections are 
instantly chucked back (especially those which have had a 
little experience), is irresistibly ludicrous. — Henry U. Jan- 
son, Exeter. 

Blood Corpuscles.— The paper in the January number of 
the ' Microscopic Quarterly Journal,' " On the alteration of 
the form of blood-corpviscles treated by certain substances," 
seems to ofler an explanation of the cause of death from 
snake-bites, and other animal poisons. 

The form of blood-corpuscle may be altered to such an 
extent by the injection of a poisonous fluid, that the circula- 
tion in the capillaries may either be stopped or seriously 
retarded. I offer this suggestion to those of your readers 
who may have an opportunity of procuring the poison of the 
viper, or other snakes, for experiment. — W. T. Suffolk, 



MicBoscopiCAL Society, April lOth, 1861. 

This evening the annual soiree was held, at which about 700 
persons were present. 

May Sth, 1861. 

E. J. Faerants, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

W. R. Milner, Esq., and Jas. Cro\^-ther, Esq., were balloted 
for, and duly elected members of the Society. 

The following papers were read : — " On a new Hemispherical 
Condenser," by the Rev. J. B. Reade. (Trans, p. 59.) 

" On the Microscopic Characters of the Crystals of Arsenious 
Acid," by Dr. Guy. (Trans, p. 50.) 

June 12M, 1861. 
R. J. Faeeakts, Esq., President, in the Chair. 

The President announced, that Mr. Peters had informed the 
Council that he was willing to present to the Society his machine 
for minute microscopic writing, and that the Council had decided 
that the munificent offer of Mr. Peters should be accepted, and 
the warmest thanks awai'ded to him for his valuable present. This 
announcement was received by the meeting Avith acclamation. 

John Waterhouse, Esq. ; Thos. Dell, Esq. ; E. B. Grreen, Esq. ; 
J. R. Wells, Esq. ; F. T. Griffiths, Esq. ; G. G. Hardingham, 
Esq. ; D. Pidgeon, Esq. ; W. W. Collins, Esq. ; Captain Lang ; 
and Dr. "W. A. Guy, were balloted for, and duly elected members 
of the Society. 

The following papers were read : — " On the Seed of Dictyoloma 
Peruviana," by EL. B. Brady, Esq. (Trans, p. 65.) 

" On the Circulation in the Tadpole," by J. "Whitney, Esq. 

" Descriptions of New and Rare Diatoms," Series II and III, 
by R. K. Greville, LL.D. (Trans, p. 67.) 

The meeting was then adjourned until the second Wednesday 
in October next. 



Presented by 
On the Origin of Species by means of Organic AflBnity. 

By H. Freke, M.B. . The Author. 

Recreative Science, No. IS . . The Editor. 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Liunean Society The Society. 

Canadian Journal, No. 30 . Ditto. 



lleport of the Council of tlie Art U;;ioii of London 

Presented by 
The Society. 

for 1860 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 

37 • i . . . Purchased. 

Si.\ Slides of " Salicin " . . . Mr. J. T. Norman. 


Histoire Physique, Politique et Naturelle de Tile de 

Cuba. Par M. Ramon de la Sagra. Witli 12 Plates 
Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalist's Field Club, 

Vol. IV, Part 4 . . . ^ 

Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. G5 . 
Recreative Science, No. 19 . 

The Photographic Journal, No. 105 
Tiie Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 

38 . . . . . 

Ray Society. Blackwall's Spiders of Great Britain 

and Ireland, Part 1, 1861 . • . 
Researches on the Intimate Structure of the Brain. 

By J. Lockhart Clarke, Esq., F.R.S. 
Further Researches on the Grey Substance of the 

Spinal Cord. By J. Lockhart Clarke, Esq., F.R.S. 
Three Slides of Foraminifera and Infusoria 


United States Exploring Expedition — Botany. By 

W. S. Sullivant, Esq. 
Nobert's Test Plate and the Striae of Diatoms. By 

W. S. Sullivant, Esq., and T. G. Wormley, Esq. . 
On some Oceanic Entomostracae, collected by Cap- 
tain Power. By John Lubbock, Esq. . 
On Spliserularia Bombi. By John Lubbock, Esq. 
On Cystic Entozoa of the Human Kidney. By T. H, 

Barker, Esq., M.D. 
Severe Urticaria, produced by some of tlie Setaceous 

Larv£e. By T. H. Barker, Esq., M.D. . 
Observations on the Genus Unio. By Dr. Lee. Vol. 

VIII, Part 1. . 

History of Infusoria, including the Desniidiacese and i 

Diatomacese, British and Foreign. By Andrew j 

Pritchard, Esq. Fourth Edition 
Die Gattung Cornuspira unter den Monothalamien und 

Bemerkungen iibcr die Organisation und Fortpllau 

zung der Polythalamicn. Von Prof. Max Schultze 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. XI 
Canadian Journal of Industry, Science, and Art, No 

31 . 

Proceedings and Progress of the Academy of Natural 

Sciences of Philadelphia 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 39 
Loudon Review, Nos. 32 to 30 . 
Journal of Dental Science, Nos. 54 to 56 . 
Twenty-four Slides of Diatoniacerc from Warwick 

M. S. Legg. 

The Society. 
The Editor. 



The Author. 


J . R. Freestone,Esq. 

The Author. 






. Ditto. 

. Ditto. 

The Society. 




The Editor. 


J. Staunton, Esq. 

AV. G. Seaesok, Curaiof. 

proceedings of societies. 223 

Makchestee Literary a>'d Puilosophical Society. 
Microscopical Section. 

Aj}fil 15th, 1861. 

Mr. Joseph Sidebotham in the Chair. 

Mr. Beck, of LondoB, exhibited two of his binocular microscopes 
on Mr. Wenham's principle ; also a great variety of first class 

The members were struck with the advantages of the binocular 
system for low and medium powers, and the manner in which it 
presents in full relief the various parts of objects ; they were also 
pleased with the beauty of certain injected preparations — as the 
eyes of small animals, sections of tongues, &c. ; the binocular 
displaying the variety of structure and the smallest blood-vessels 
filled with a bright red, and transpai*ent injected substance — 
in situ — distinctly to be traced one above another, instead of 
appearing, as with the single microscope, a tangled mass all in 
the same plane. These instruments and objects strongly mark 
the rapid advance microscopy is making at the present day. 

Mr. Hardman, of Davyhulme, presented a number of dissecting 
needles with turned liaudles, which were thankfully accepted by 
the members. 

Mr. Mothers exhibited infusoria of various kinds from his 

Mai/SOth, 1861. 

Annual Meeting. 

Professor AVilliamson in the Chair. 

The third annual report of the section was read and approved. 

The following officers were elected for the session 1861-2 : — 
President, W. C. AVilliamson, F.E.S. ; Vice Presidents, Edward 
W. Binney, F.E.S., F.G.S., J. B. Dancer, P.E.A.S., Joseph 
Sidebotham ; Treasurer, James G. Lynde, F.G.S. 

Of the Council :— Joseph Bexendell, P.R.A.S., John Dale, 
James Dorrington, Arthur Gr. Latham, J. AV. McClure, T. H. 
Nevill, E. A. Smith, Ph. D., F.E.S., F.C.S., S. W. Williamson ; 
Secretary, George Mosley. 

Professor AVilliamson called the attention of the meeting to 
the structure of the Caelorhynchus from the older Tertiary strata 
of England and America. This structure he had already de- 
scribed in a paper published in the ' Philosophical Transactions,* 
(part ii for 1819, p. 471), and in a second memoir (part ii for 
1851, p. 667), reasons were advanced for concluding that the 
fossil was the dermal spine of one of the Balistina; of the family 
of Ostraciont Fishes. Subsequently, at a meeting of t he G cological 
Society of Manchester, Professor Williamson advocated the same 
views, basing his argumeqts on physiological data ; nevertheless 
the fossil still appears in the latest edition of ' Lyell's Manual of 


Geology ' as tbe " prolonged p rem axillary bone, or sword, of a 
fossil sword-fish." Professor Williamson showed that the 
Cselorhyuchus consisted wholly of a pure form of dentine, without 
any Haversian canals or other indications of bone-structure ; whilst 
the premaxillary bones of the sword-fish consist entirely of the 
same membraniform bone as is seen in other parts of the endo- 
skeleton of that fish ; and besides this special discrepancy, he 
suggested, that there was no instance of an osseous element of the 
endo-skeleton being replaced hy one consisting loholly and entirely 
of dentine. They were frequently in juxta-position, dentine being 
developed upon an osseous basis, but if the prevailing opinion 
respecting Caelorhynchus be correct, the anomalous admission 
must be made that pure hone may he replaced in the endo-sheleton, 
hy equally pure dentine — a conclusion which physiology does not 
appear to sustain. 

Professor Williamson having recently called the attention of 
Dr. KoUiker, of Wurzburg, to this question, quoted the following 
extract from a letter he had recently received from that dis- 
tinguished physiologist. 

" With regard to Cselorhynchus, I am quite and decidedly of 
your opinion. I examined carefully the accompanying sections 
which I got from you, and compared the structure with that of 
the spines of the Balistini, and convinced myself that the structure 
of both is the same. I am therefore quite of the same opinion as 
you, and have not the least objection, if you should find it 
necessary, to make this, my adhesion to your views, publicly 

Mr. Sidebotham exhibited a new binocular microscope, by 
Dancer, which in several respects was considered superior to any 
binocular yet exhibited here. 


The third annual report of your Council presents an oppor- 
tunity for congratulation upon the steady progress of the 
Section, especially on the more regnlar attendance at the meetings, 
and the more interesting nature of its proceedings. The difficul- 
ties attending its establishment appear to be overcome, and a 
career of usefulness is opening to it, which may prove important 
to the progress of microscopical investigation. 

During the past year two members have been removed by 
death, Mr. Thompson and Mr. Long. The former had few 
opportunities of attending the meetings of the Section, but he 
took great interest in its proceedings. Mr. Long was a member 
of yoixr Council ; he was an ardent follower of scientific pursuits, 
and his loss is deeply felt by all who knew him. One resignation 
has been accepted. Three new members have been elected. 
Several gentlemen have become members of the Parent Society 
in order to be qualified for joining the Section, and the name« of 
eix candidates are now before vou for election. 


Youl" Secretary has been elected a member of the Council of 
the Parent Society, which may be regarded as a compliment to 
the Section and a proof of the estimation in which it is held. 

The Treasurer's report for the year commences with a balance 
in hand of £7 Os. 2d. The receipts were £14 0*. Od. ; the 
expenditure £V7 8s. 4id. ;. and there is now a balance in hand of 
£3 11^. lOd. 

During the session the Section has held two summer and eight 
ordinary meetings, at which several papers have been read, much 
valuable information communicated, and many specimens ex- 
hibited. A pleasant excursion was made to Croft's Bank, at the 
invitation of Mr. Hepworth, whose kind reception, display of 
objects, and solid microscopical knowledge, will long be remem- 
bered by those who partook of his hospitality. 

Papers have been read by Mr. J. B. Dancer, F.R.A.S., " On 
cleaning and preparing Diatoms, &c., obtained from soundings." 
Mr. W. H. Heys, " On the Kaloscope." And by your Secretary 
upon " Mr. Dale's process for the separation of tallow from 

Addresses have been given on important subjects by your 
President, by Mr. Binney, Mr. Sidebotham, and others. Many 
contributions have been received from gentlemen who take an 
interest in the prosperity of the Section ; amongst whom may be 
named Capt. ]\I. F. Maury and Lieut. Brooke of the United 
States Navy, Capt. Anderson, Mr. W. K. Parker, Dr. Wallich, 
Professor Agassiz, Dr. Bacon, Mr. Edwards of jN^ew York, Mr. 
Hepworth, and other distinguished scientific men, whose assist- 
ance has been highly valued and duly recorded. 

The thanks of the Section are due to Mr. Dancer for the 
unremitting kindness with which he has provided microscopes 
and objects for use at the meetings ; and the Council wish parti- 
cularly to record their appreciation of his valuable assistance. 

Tour Secretary has originated a method of collecting specimens 
of the sea-bottom obtained by captains of vessels from the 
soundings they take in ascertaining their position on approaching 
land ; and many shipmasters have been furnished with envelopes 
in nhich to preserve those specimens for this Section. The plan 
promises to be highly successful ; upwards of eighty specimens 
have been received from different parts of the world, such as the 
English Channel, Mediterranean and Eed Seas, Coasts of Portu- 
gal and Brazil, deep Atlantic and deep North Pacific, Coasts of 
Japan, &c., &c. Amongst those of the Pacific Ocean are the 
deepest soundings from which materinl has yet been brought up 
from the sea-bottom, say 3030 fathoms, or nearly 3J miles ; the 
quantity of material is necessarily small ; and so far as yet 
examined, in this specimen no trace of organic bodies has been 
found. Arrangements are in progress for the scientific exami- 
nation and mounting of these soundings, some of which will be 
laid before you this evening. About 1200 envelopes have been 
distributed, mostly amongst captains now out on di.'»tant voyages, 


to the East and West Indies, Coasts of Africa and Australia, aa 
well as to some of the Pacific and Sperm whalers and traders ; 
a few of which may in time be returned with interesting material. 
It is encouraging to know that other societies are following this 
example, so that our knowledge of the sea-bottom -will soon be 
vastly increased. 

Eesults of unexpected magnitude are likely to follow these 
humble efforts to obtain specimens from the deep sea. Amongst 
those captains who vrere solicited to preserve their soundings 
was Captain James Anderson, then of the Cunard steamer 
" Canada." In the course of correspondence with your Secre- 
tary, this enlightened sailor developed a long thought-of plan 
for the social advancement of his fellow-mariners, to induce 
them to study natural science in its various branches, and to 
render their assistance available to scientific institutions through- 
out the country. Captain Anderson asked for your assistance to 
carry out his views. All who heard his letter read were so 
convinced of the importance of the project that it was unani- 
mously determined, as a first step, the letter should be printed 
and circulated at the expense of the Section. This has been done 
to a limited extent, and in consequence a meeting of a few friends 
was held in the Liverpool Town Hall on the 30th ultimo. The 
Mayor, H. S. Graves, Esq., presided. There were present 
Colonel Wm. Brown, Dr. CoUingwood, Captain Anderson, Mr. 
B-athbone, Mr. INIackay, and other eminent shipowners and 
gentlemen favorable to the scheme. After Captain Andei-son 
had explained his views, your Secretary endeavoured to point 
out how societies in interior towns could contribute to its success, 
and participitate in its advantages ; how shipmasters woixld 
improve themselves by the collection of specimens, and the 
study of the natural sciences in general, but more particularly 
that of meteorology, to enable them to shorten voyages, and to 
reduce the losses shipowners and underwi-iters now constantly 
sufier. All were deeply impressed with the advantages to be 
derived if a good working plan could be organised. ^N'one could 
at once be formed Avithout some objections ; but a committee 
was appointed to take the subject into consideration, and report 

It will be a source of gratification to this Section if, through 
its instrumentality, the first steps were taken to commence a 
work the importance of which, if thoroughly carried out, will be 
considerable. To promote scientific researcli amongst a numerous 
class of men and youths whose opportunities of collecting speci- 
mens, and making scientific observations in all parts of the 
world are unequalled, is an object worthy of our attention ; 
and although another generation may be required fully to develop 
its usefulness, some good may be done even in our day. 

With such purposes in view, the future prospects of our 
Section are encouraging; and although in the highly scientific 
branches of microscopical research we have done but little, it is 


to be hoped that our professional members may, Iroiu their 
stores of experience and study, contribute more liberally to the 
general fund. 

Before the next session is far advanced the members of the 
British Association and many distinguished foreigners will be 
amongst us, and it behoves one and all of our members to make 
every exertion that this Section may worthily represent the 
microscopy of the day, and the city to which we belong. 

The following circular has been issued by the Microscopical 
Committee on the prospect of the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science at Manchester. 

Sir, — This sub-committee, having been charged with the orga- 
nization of a Soiree, to be given to the members of the British 
Association, in the Free Trade Hall, on Thursday evening, 
September 5th, will feel obliged if yon will forward to the 
Secretary a list of the microscopes, microscopical drawings, and 
special objects you may be willing to place at the disposal of the 
sub-committee for selection and exhibition on that evening. 

Loans of microscopes and microscopic gas lamps are specially 
requested for the evening, and the greatest care will be taken of 
them whilst under the charge of the sub-committee. 

It is particularly requested that replies may be sent in on or 
before the 20th July. — I am, Sir, yours respectfully, Geoege 
MosLEY, Honorary Secretary of thia sub-committee. 

MiCEOSCOPiCAL SocrETY OF Xewcastle-on-Tyke. 

In October, 1850, a few gentlemen interested in microscopical 
pursuits formed a class in this town for mutual improvement in 
the use of the microscope. Thirty-eight ladies and gentlemen 
were enrolled members ; the class met weekly for twelve weeks, 
and, at the close of that period, the members resolved upon the 
formation of a Microscopical Society. Eighteen members were 
enrolled, out of which number an executive ^ro. ^em. was selected, 
and provisional rules passed. The Society, with eighteen as a 
nucleus, met fortnightly in its rooms, 79, Clayton Street, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, and, at the termination of the first year of its 
existence, seventy-four members had been entered on the books. 
At the first anniversary, held on Tuesday evening, January 15, 
1861, Dr. McNay, the first year's President, occupied the chair, and 
twenty-four members were present. On that occasion the Secretary 
read a report of the proceedings of the past year, of which the 
foUowing is an abstract. After alluding to the recent formation 
of the Society, and the interest now felt in microscopical studies, he 
stated that the Society met fortnightly, that it numbered seventy- 
four members ; theaverage attendance of whom at each fortnightly 
meeting having been twenty ; that a large number of excellent 
works had been purchased during the year for the use of the 


members, and that papers had been read or addressed, delivered 
by the following members of the Society, on the subjects annexed 
to their respective names. 

Mr. Mason Watson, " The Microscope as an instrument of 
research, and as a means of detecting Adulterations in Food." 

Mr. Joseph Davidson, " Fresh-water Animalcules." 

Mr. John Brown, " Polarized Light." 

Mr. Geo. Hodge, "The Zoology of Seaham Harbour." 

Dr. Donkin, " Mounting of Microscopic Objects." 

Mr. John Brown, Sen., " The Microscope and its Appendages." 

Mr. Murray, F.E.C.S., "Cells and Ciliated Epithelium." 

Dr. McNay, "The Eye." 

The Treasurer's report exhibited an increase for the first year of 
£15 5*., and disbursements amounting to £18 12*. Td. 

The following gentlemen were elected the executive for the en- 
suing year : 

President, Dr. A. S. Donkin; Vice-President, Mr. D. H.Goddard; 
Treasurer, Mr. Joseph Davison ; Secretary, Mr. T. P. Barkas, 49, 
Grainger Street ; Committee, Mr. John Brown, Mr. Ellis, Mr. 
M. Watson, Mr. W. W. Proctor, Mr. Davis, and Mr. B. Proctor. 

The Society held its annual soiree and conversazione on Tues- 
day evening, March 19, 1861, in an elegant suite of rooms in 
Welckes' hotel. Twenty-seven microscopes were exhibited, and one 
hundred ladies and gentlemen attended the reunion. 

The admission was by ticket, and tea, coffee, and other refresh- 
ments, were provided. Miss Harbutt kindly gave her services at 
the piano-forte, and, at intervals during the evening, played excel- 
lent and elaborate pieces of music. The whole proceedings passed 
off to the entire satisfaction of the executive, and of those who 
were present. The Secretary will be glad to receive contribu- 
tions of books and slides for presentation to the Society. 

Islington Liteeart and Scientific Society. 
Microscopical Class. 

Felruai-y 23 J, 1861. 

Dr. Camplin in the Chair. 

Mr. W. Hislop read a paper on fresh water Polyzoa, in which, 
after some remarks on the extensive distribution and graceful 
forms of the Polyzoa in general, he mentioned that the fresh water 
species are less striking in appearance, and less known, than the 
marine forms. There are 21 species of fresh water Polyzoa, 
16 of which are British, 1 Belgian, and 4 North American, 
being all found in the north temperate zone. They are usually 
found in shallow water not exceeding four feet in depth, and 


attached to stones or floating bodies, and while some prefer sluggish 
or stationary Avaters, others are found in swift rivulets and clear 
lakes. They generally shun the direct rays of light, and with one 
exception (the Cristatella), are incapable of locomotion. The 
remainder of the paper consisted of a minute description of the 
typical form and internal organization of these animals, and a de- 
tailed account of the genera and species, and was illustrated by 
a number of photographs enlarged and shown by the lime-light 

Aj)ril 21th, 1861. 
Dr. Camplin in the Chair. 

Mr. Slade read a paper on the Confervas, in which, after refer- 
ring to these plants as the tangled masses of bright green threads, 
so common in aquaria and other collections of fresh water, he 
mentioned that their name is derived from Conferruminare, to con- 
solidate, and that the ancients considered them useful in healing 
fractured limbs. The filaments are of indefinite length and un- 
symmetrically branched. Under the microscope they are seen to 
consist of long cells, containing numerous green granules and some 
colourless larger ones. The number of species is very considerable. 
Henfrey forming two natural orders out of the genus, and Lindley 
numbering sixty-six genera, and 368 species of Confervre. The 
diagnosis of the class is as follows : — Plants with a filamentous, 
membranous, gelatiuous or pulverulent thallus growing in fresh or 
salt water, or on moist substances, of green or more rarely (often 
temporarily) red colour, reproduced by zoospores discharged from 
the ordinary cells of the thallus, or from spores formed in these 
cells after impregnation ; by combination of the contents of two 
cells, either by conjugation or by the transference of spermatozoids 
into the parent ceil of the spoi-e — the spores passing through a 
stage of rest before germination. The motion of the zoospores 
was tlien more particularly adverted to, and an interesting de- 
scription by Agardh of the germination of a Conferva, as seen by 
him, quoted. JNlr. Slade then entered on a detailed account of the 
various points of structure, indicated by the general description of 
these plants previously given, and concluded with some remarks 
on the allied forms of gory dew {Palmella cruenta) and red suow. 

The paper was illustrated by numerous diagrams, and after a 
discussion which turned principally on the question whether the 
same germ could become one of the algje, a lichen or a fungus, 
according as it might fall upon water, air, or decaying organic 
matter, as held by some naturalists, — the class adjourned for the 
summer recess. 

The Bradford Microscopical Society. 

The moTithy meeting of this Society was held April 1th, at the 
Infirmary, R. H.Meade, Esq., F.R.C.S., President, in the chair. 


At this meeting, whicli was numerously attended by mem- 
bers and friends, Mr. F. M. Eimmington, Honorary Secretary, 
read a paper, " On the History and Principles of Construc- 
tion of the Binocular Microscope," tracing the progressive 
improvements of the different binocular arrangements, from 
the first announcement of Professor Riddell's to the last beauti- 
ful achievements of Wenham. The paper excited considerable 
intei'est, and, at the conclusion, an animated discussion on the 
subject took place. The author of the paper afterwards tested 
the powers of the new arrangements, by exhibiting to the members 
a variety of objects. 

Mat/ 9th. — At this meeting the Secretary read a paper, " On 
Adulteration of Pood." 

June Qih. — This meeting was numerously attended, and an 
interesting paper was read by G-. Grraham, Esq., M.P.C.S., " On 
the Parasites of Man ;" after which he exhibited some interesting 
specimens of many of the parasites. 

West Kekt Micuoscopical Society, 

Since our last notice several meetings have been held, and 
some interesting papers read. The Society has lately received a 
great accession by the amalgamation with it of the Greenwich 
!N"atural History Club, and will, therefore, in future, be known as 
The West Kent Natural History and Microscopical Society. 

This Society gave its first soiree on Wednesday evening, the 
5th June, at Blackheath, which proved most successful in every 
respect. Upwards of forty microscopes were supplied by the 
members and their friends. Among the many objects of natural 
history we can only notice a few of the more prominent. A 
number of very beautiful hot-house plants, lent by the President, 
John Penn, Esq., attracted universal attention, as did the very 
superb collection of ferns and sea-weeds, both exotic and English, 
belonging to J. Jardine, Esq. The beautiful collection of insects, 
lent by ISI. B. Eagleheart, Esq., and the fossils and other geolo- 
gical specimens by Flaxman Spanell, Esq., were very much 
admired, and many other rare and beautiful objects too numerous 
to mention. 

Mr. Ladd also exhibited, during the evening, the " spectrum 
analysis." Refreshments were provided for the visitors, who 
numbered about 300. 



By W. Hendry, Esq., M.R.C.S., Hull. 

Few diatoms are more generally distributed amongst mi- 
croscopists than Navicula rhonihoidts, for, being found in abun- 
dance in a fossil condition, and holding a place high in the 
rank of numerical striation, it has evidently been eagerly 
sought after, and as readily supplied, as though its resolution 
bore the strongest existing e^ddences of the power and quality 
of lenses. However, there exists no difficulty in showing 
that N. rhoinboides is the most variable in its dimensions, 
irregular in its form, indistinct in development, and possesses 
a striation more extended in its range than any other kno^\ n 
and measured diatom, thus totally unfitting it to take rank, 
under any circumstances, as a test-object. As to its figui-e, 
it is as oftentimes arched or lanceolate as it is angular in its 
outline, and in either case presents the same characteristic 
median lines and nodules, with transverse distribution of 

Median line straight, with dark ground and double-light, 
coloured inner bands, forming an X-like junction at the cen- 
tral nodule when approaching focus, the angles of which 
being thus continuous with the bands, the latter terminate 
distinct and within the apices of the diatom in light-coloured 
small, conical nodules, having their bases central, a third 
luminous, middle band likewise in some instances appearing. 

If we attempt comparison with other diatoms, it Avould 
tend but to confusion, as with N. gracilis, N. rhotti- 
bica, N. cuspidatu, &c. I hold some London slides of N. 
rhomboides synonymised American test, N. gracilis, so 
that it is somewhat difficult at times to give a correct in- 
terpretation to language. 

Facts are stubborn things, and as our subject will not bear 
too much of the spccidative or conjectural, I herewith sub- 
join a series of measures of these diatoms, as they arc pre- 



sented to observation upon several slides in my own posses- 
sion, furnished through the kindness of Mr. Harrison, of 
Hull, and others ; the first three slides representing the pro- 
duce of Connecticut in America, and the fourth, that of 
Lancashire, in England. 

I have on this occasion also, as heretofore, selected a com- 
parative coarse striation in contrast to the high numbers so 
usually assigned to this diatom on past authority, only won- 
dering myself that when such great painstaking could have 
been endured in searching, marking, measuring, and record- 
ing fine delineations and high numerical quantities, that the 
coarse, or lower measures, and bold developments should 
appear never to have entered the field of the microscope or 
to have attracted the attention of reputed acute observers, 
even although the great mass of rhomboides partake of this 
latter description, or are of low numerical value contrasted 
with the assumed standard of 85 in •001. 

A^. rhomboides, 

Slide I.- 


(America) . 



In parts of 

an inch. 





41 in 



















N. rhomboides, 

Slide II. 

— Connecticut 





111 parts of 

an inch. 





47 in 

I -001 








































































N. rhomboides, Slide III. — Connecticut (America). 



In parts of 

an inch. 





50 in 



1 2393 



























Slide IY. 

— Lancashire (En 




In parts of 

an inch. 





46 in 

t -001 























There are indiWduals who object to the appellation of striae 
to coarse exhibitions wherein a finer striation is usually 
ascribed, and who maintain also that upon such coarsely 
marked diatoms two sets of striation must necessarily exist, 
could they only be seen, id est, the coarse as already assented 
to when present, and the finer yet in obscurity ; but although 
I must oftentimes ere this have seen the finest visible as well 
as the coarse, 1 have hitherto no e^-idence to induce the sup- 
position of a twofold sti'iation of the kind upon the same 

Amidst the ordinary objects of our observation in nature 
she is, undoubtedly, at times, exceedingly capricious, hence ; 
why should we hesitate to accord to her a broad latitude in 
the development of more minute forms, so far surpassing 
the greater in beauty of design and exquisite delicacy in 
workmanship as in the diatoms under consideration? 

In the accompanying tabulated measurements it will be 
observed that no numerical striation bears any definite rela- 
tion to the magnitude of the shell ; that upon Slide II, 
Diatom 11 and 16, the smallest registered exhibits only 34 
stria; in '100, while the largest registered thereupon exhibits 
34 striae in -100 also. 


Upon Slide III the same remark holds good^ for No. 6 
diatom^ being the greatest in size, measuring -^-^rd of an 
inch in length, and bearing 47 strite in '001 ; upon the same 
slide, No. 1 diatom, being the smallest^ and the length of 
which is only i-^th of an inch, exhibits only 50 striae in •001. 

The two preceding specified slides are undoubted Ameri- 
can, and if we refer to No. -i slide, a truly English specimen, 
all ambiguity upon this matter is set at rest by the gather- 
ings or deposits so widely apart yielding to the same con- 
clusion ; for while the smallest frustules thereupon, being 
Nos. 2, S, and 9, yield respectively lengths of 3-7roth, ^-^th, 
and 34-T7th of an inch, their strise are, 46, 46, and 50 in *001, 
whereas the largest diatoms, being Nos. 6 and 7, and of 
lengths xTTrtli a^d -rhfth, exhibit stride of only 43 in "OOl ; and 
not having witnessed the more subtile markings upon the 
smaller species, whether English or American, it may be 
chiefly upon the larger developments of either that a finer 
striation may be carefidly sought for. 

In seeking for stride in this class of objects it is abso- 
lutely essential that the slide should be well filled, in order 
to obtain every advantage of position, &c., the diatoms 
thoroughly cleaned, uniformly distributed, and mounted free 
of all vapour and moisture. I owe much in these respects to 
the examples furnished me, from time to time, thi-ough the 
kind generosity of Geo. Norman, Esq., of Hull, whose gene- 
ral attention and mastery over these details is without a 

And now, having turned our attention to several diatoms, 
as Amph'ipleura pellucida, Navicula rhomboides, and others 
thus placed at the extremity of our ordinary list of test- 
objects because of their supposed numerical value and uni- 
form character of striation, and believing it to be impossible 
to evade or to gainsa}- the conclusions at which I have arrived, 
the question yet remains, — "Whence shall we in futm*e derive 
oui' standard test-objects? 

Shall wc cling to diatoms still, if, peradventure, we may 
find a species in form, development, and striation, more con- 
stant ; or hence, quitting natm-e's treasuiy, shall we fall back 
upon the resom'ccs of human skill ? 



An Abstract of Dr. Beale's Lectures on the Structure and 
Growth of the Tissues of the Body. Delivered 
at the Royal College of Pliysiciaus, April — May, 18G1. 

Lectures III, IV, and V. 

In his second lecture Dr. Beale endeavoured to show that 
mildew, and all such simple living structures, were composed 
of matter in two states, germinal matter and fonned material. 
He tried to prove that the formed material, of which the ex- 
ternal envelope was composed, was once in the state of ger- 
minal matter, and that the inanimate matter, which formed 
the pabulum or nutrient substance, passed through the outer 
covering of formed material into the germinal matter, in the 
particles of which it became living. Here all those wonder- 
ful powers, which the germinal matter itself possessed, are 
communicated to the inanimate particles. Facts were brought 
forward to show that the germinal matter was composed of 
spherical particles, and these of smaller and still smaller 
spherules. Tliese spherical particles always move in a direc- 
tion from centre to circumference. The formed material 
differs as much from the germinal matter in its structure as 
in its properties. The germinal matter alone grows and is 
active, and can alone animate inanimate matter. The pro- 
perties of the foi'med material depend upon the powers of the 
germinal matter from which it was produced. These powers 
were derived from the germinal matter, which gave it origin, 
and so on from the beginning. The germinal matter possesses 
the power of infinite growth, by which was meant that this 
material will continue to increase as long as it is placed imder 
favorable conditions and supplied with the proper pabulum 
or nutrient substances. The germinal matter is coloured by 
alkaline colouring matters, especially by carmine, while the 
formed material remains perfectly colourless, althoiigh it is 
much nearer to the coloured sokition than the germinal mat- 
ter. We are not able to form any opinion as to the size of 
the smallest particle capable of independent existence and 
endless increase, but there can be no doubt that the smallest 
living particles we can yet discern have been growing for some 
time before they Avere large enough to be seen through our 
most perfect microscopes. We have now to consider how far 
these conclusions arc applicable to the tissues of the higher 

Every tissue composed of elementary parts. — However large 
and complex the organism may be, it is very easily separated 


into certain parts and organs which are set apart for the per- 
formance of distinct offices. The body of a vertebrate animal 
contains, as we all know, bones, muscles, fat, the liver, kid- 
neys, the brain, and nerves, &c. 

Eacli of these may be resolved into elementary organs. An 
entire bone may be regarded as consisting of an assemblage 
of certain small portions, each of which contains every struc- 
ture essential to the constitution of bone^ and necessary for 
its growth. A lung, or a kidney, or the liver, may, in the 
same manner, be shown to consist of elementary lungs, 
kidneys, or livers, although these cannot always be perfectly 

In different animals, the size of these elementary organs 
differs, but not the same extent as their number. An organ 
of a large animal, like the whale, differs from the correspond- 
ing organ of a small one like the mouse, enormously as to the 
number of elementary organs of which it is made up, but in 
a much less degree as to the size of each of these. 

Each elementary part is composed of several structures 
having very different properties. An elementary lung is 
composed of a delicate, transparent membrane, with elastic 
tissue, vessels, a prolongation of the bronchial tube. These 
structures are themselves compound. Connected with the 
smallest arteries we find nerve-fibres, elastic tissue, muscular 
tissue, and epithelium. The nerve-fibres, muscular fibre, and 
epithelium, are composed of elementary parts, and each elemen- 
tary part consists of matter of two states — germinal matter, 
active and growing, capable of multiplying itself ; formed ma- 
terial, passive and incapable of multiplying itself, which was 
once in the state of germinal matter. An elementary part 
(cell) of the liver in the same way is composfed of the germinal 
matter within and the formed material externally — the outer 
part of the formed material is gradually altered, and at last 
converted into bile and a substance easily converted into 

An elementary part of bone consists of a mass of germinal 
matter, external to which is formed material, which gradu- 
ally becomes impregnated with calcareous salts from without 
inwards, channels (canaliculi) being left, along which fluids 
pass to and from the germinal matter, which gradually be- 
comes inclosed in a space (lacuna). 

An elementary part is seldom more than the 1 -1000th of 
an inch in diameter, and it may be less than the l-20,000th of 
an inch. In the adult organism it is often difficult to recog- 
nise the elementary parts in all cases, in consequence of 
changes having occurred in the course of their growth, but 


in the early life of every creature they are distinct enough iu 
every tissue. In the higher animals these elementary parts 
are arranged in certain collections which possess very differ- 
ent endowments. 

In some of tlie simplest living beings the entire organism 
may he regarded as consisting of one elementary part. 

Every elementary part comes from a pre-existing elemen- 
tary part ; but it does not follow that its endowments are to 
be the same as those of the elementary part from which 
it sprung. 

We must not look upon the elementary parts of a tissue as 
bodies which, having assumed a definite form and reached a 
certain size, remain perfectly stationary, but as structures 
which are continually undergoing change — not a single par- 
ticle of Avhich they are composed is still. It is true the move- 
ments occur so slowly in some as to be imperceptible, except 
after long intervals of time, while we can scarcely conceive 
the rapidity Avith which change takes place in others. But 
movements must occur in all, and they take place in the same 
direction. The elementary parts, which we examine in our 
microscopes, were undergoing change just before thej^ were 
removed from the living structure. We have stopped the 
changes at a certain point, and, as the ages of the elementary 
parts differ materially, by carefully comparing the appearances 
in several, we may obtain, after numerous observations, data 
which enable us to form something like a connected history 
of the life of one of them. 

The cell-wall not a constant or essential structure. — These 
elementary parts are usually termed cells, and the cell is de- 
fined as an organ, consisting of a ivall permeable to fluids, 
with certain contents within, and iisually, but not constantly, 
a nucleus. In the process of secretion it is believed that 
certain materials pass through this wall into the interior of 
the cell by endosmose, and then become altered by powers 
existing in the cell or resident in the nucleus, and, having 
undergone conversion into new substances, pass through the 
wall of the cell by exosmose, and constitute the special 
secretion. In tissues it is believed that the cell exerts a 
peculiar action on the matter which surrounds it, by reason 
of which this manifests certain peculiar and characteristic 

It is the exception rather than the rule to find that the con- 
tents of a cell are in a fluid state, and when this is so, numerous 
living particles are generally suspended in it. In the liver- 
cell the contents arc certainly tolerably firm. In the kiduey- 
cell they present the same characters. Their consistency 


generally is such that it is impossible to conceive the flowing 
in and out which is imagined. Again, if endosmose continued 
for a time, and then the contents remained stationary, and 
afterwards exosmose occurred, we ought to be able to see the 
alteration in the size of the cells taking place within a very 
short period of time ; but no such change has been observed. 
It is difficult to conceive endosmose and exosmose occurring 
at the same moment at all parts of the surface of the cell- 
wall, for the physical conditions which would lead to the one 
are absolutely incompatible with the other. Cyclosis in 
plants has been accounted for by endosmose ; but it would be 
impossible to cause any particles to pass round and round a 
closed vesicle in a constant direction by currents flowing in 
towards the interior from every part of the surface. There 
are other difficulties in the generally accepted theory which 
would be tedious to follow out, and as the cell-membrane is 
not a constant structure, it is unnecessary to show that the 
changes occurring in the formation of secretions could not be 
explained by endosmose and exosmose through such a struc- 
ture, supposing it to exist. 

According to the generally received theory, the cell-wall is 
considered a most important structure ; but it does not exist 
constantly. There is a very large class of the lower animals 
from whose bodies protrusions may be formed in different 
parts, and these protrusions may meet here and there. "Where 
they touch, they coalesce. Clearly, then, there can be no 
investing membrane here ; neither is a living structure of 
this kind confined to the lower animals. It exists in man 
himself. Dr. Beale has seen such protrusions from mucous 
particles both from the nose and also from the bronchial 
tubes, under a power of 1700 diameters. A portion of the 
mass slowly extends itself outwards ; perhaps three or four 
such outgi'owths may be seen in different parts of the mass. 
If detached, they assume a spherical form ; but if two come 
into contact they coalesce. These movements only lasted for a 
minute, or less, after the mucus was transferred to the glass 
slide. Protrusions may be often observed to occur from the 
white blood-corpuscles, and in rare cases the red blood-cor- 
puscles adhere so intimately to each other that it is difficult 
not to believe that the outer part of their walls consists of a 
soft, viscid matter, which runs together when several come 
into contact.* 

It is clear, therefore, that the cell-wall is not a constant 
structure, and that living organisms and elementary parts of 

* A case is mentioned, and a drawini? given, at page 26 1 of the ' Micro- 
scope in its Application to Clinical IVIedicine.' (2nd ed.) 


living organisms may exist without it. Again, in the 
younger, so-called cells, of the cuticle, contents and a cell- 
wall are figured and described by authors generally ; but in 
the old cells the contents become altered and incorporated 
with the wall in a manner which has not been explained. 
The liver-cell is usually appealed to as an excellent example 
of a cell ; yet who has proved the existence of a membrane ? 
Seven years ago, long before the lecturer had attempted to 
form any general views of structure, he tried to prove the 
existence of this cell-wall, but utterly failed, and was obliged 
to mention this in his work on the liver .''^ 

The appearance of elementary parts (cells) from the liver 
of the mouse was then described. JNIany were seen to contain 
two of the so-called nuclei, and some contain three or four. 
Nuclei are observed of all sizes, and the amount of formed 
material is very different in the different masses. In some 
elementary parts the outline is sharp and well defined ; in 
others, it is rough and angular ; and in some, the outer part 
seems to be undergoing disintegration. No cell-wall is to be 
demonstrated around these masses. The outermost part of 
the formed material gradually becomes disintegrated and re- 
solved into soluble substances. The largest of the so-called 
nuclei are, in fact, becoming elementary parts ; and what 
would be called their nucleoli would then become nuclei. 
Some of the masses are very irregular in shape, angular, and 
often much elongated, as if they consisted of soft material 
which had been moulded in a tube. 

In the next specimen elementaiy parts from the liver of 
an old man, aged 74, were seen. The liver appeared 
healthy. The elementary parts are, for the most part, small; 
and there is not that very distinct line of demarcation be- 
tween the germinal matter and the formed material which 
was seen in the last specimen, and which is in part due to 
the method of preparation. Oil-globules and particles of 
colouring matter have been precipitated amongst the formed 

In a specimen containing elementary parts from a cirrhose 
liver the quantity of formed material was much greater than 
in the last specimen ; depending probably on the difficulty to 
the free esca})e of the bile caused by the wasted, contracted 
state of the tubes of the network at the outer part of the 

But, it will be stated, there can be no doubt as to the cel- 
lular nature of the red blood-corpuscle. This is admitted by all 

* 'On the Anatomy of tlie Liver of Man and Vertebrate Animals,' 1S56. 


to consist of a membrane with certain fluid coloured contents. 
A nucleus is to be demonstrated in some, although not in the 
adult human blood-corpuscle. The opinion generally received 
is certainly that the human red blood-corpuscle is a cell with 
red contents, the nucleus of which has disappeared, or else 
it is the free nucleus of a cell, — and here the question is dis- 

But the blood-corpuscle may also be regarded as a cor- 
puscle consisting of matter of diff'erent density in different 
parts, being firm externally, but gradually becoming softer, 
so as to ay)proach to the consistence of fluid towards the 
centre. Dr. Dalton, of New York, has expressed this opinion 
of the structure of the blood-corpuscle in his published lec- 
tures, and some few other observers entertain similar views. 

Dr. Beale had never succeeded in seeing the cell-wall said 
to exist, neither had he been able to confirm the oft- repeated 
assertions with regard to the passage of liquid into the in- 
terior of the corpuscle by endosmose, its bursting, and the 
escape of its contents through the ruptured cell-Avall. When 
placed in some liquids, many of the corpuscles swell up and 
disappear, but the ruptured cell -walls could not be discerned. 
The red blood-corpuscles from the same animal differ in 
character in a much greater degree than observers generally 
seemed disposed to admit. Some are darker and harder than 
others. Some are so transparent as to be invisible without 
the greatest care, and corpuscles may be found which are 
not more than the fifth or sixth of the size of an ordinary 
blood-corpuscle. The lecturer had failed in his attempts to 
colour the red blood-corpuscles drawn from capillaries or from 
a vein, with carmine, but he had succeeded in colouring many 
in clots taken from the vessels after death; and, in some 
instances, certain of the corpuscles within the capillaries of 
a stained tissue have been coloured. These corpuscles were 
very much smaller than the white corpuscles, which are 
always very readily coloured, and did not exhibit the well- 
known granular appearance characteristic of the latter. It was, 
therefore, inferred that they were young, red blood-corpuscles. 

The majority of the red blood-corpuscles of the human sub- 
ject are certainly not to be coloured by carmine, the same pro- 
cess being employed as that by which the white corpuscles are 
always so readily coloured. The granular or nucleated corpus- 
cles of the embryo are readily coloured. The nuclei of the cor- 
puscles of the frog become coloured, but the external portion 
w hich is coloured naturally is not tinged by carmine. In winter 
the capillariesof the frog contain numerous oval corpuscles, sur- 
rounded by a very thin layer of the external coloured portion, 


SO that they are not more than half the dimensions of the 
corpuscles when the animal is active. Dr. Beale concludes 
that the nucleus of the frog's corpuscle consists of germinal 
matter, and the coloured porti(m o^ formed material; and that 
when the animal is active, this formed material is gradually- 
being dissolved away at the surface, while the new-formed 
material is produced from within ; the oldest part of the 
formed material being at the surface of the corpuscle, the 
youngest in contact with the germinal matter from which it 
was formed. 

Of the red corpuscles of mammalian animals, some are 
destroyed by certain chemical reagents which have scarcely 
any action on others ; and they are not all altered in the 
same degree or with the same rapidity by the action of water, 
weak alcohol, syrup, and various fluids, which probably only 
produce a physical change. Neither do all the particles in a 
drop of blood undergo the same changes immediately after it 
has been drawn from the living body. 

The red corpuscles of man are formed from tlie germinal 
matter of the white corpuscles. A particle set free in the 
current of the blood would appropriate the nutrient material 
and would grow. During this period it Avould be coloured 
by carmine. Gradually, however, the formed material in- 
creases, and the germinal matter in the centre dies. The 
corpuscle now undergoes another series of changes. It begins 
to be dissolved away at the surface, and at last is, without 
doubt, entirely converted into substances which are dissolved 
by the serum, and its place is taken by a new corpuscle. 

But the fact which seems to Dr. Beale to prove most con- 
clusively the nature of the mammalian red blood-corpuscle is 
this : — Guinea-pig's blood, as is well known, crystallizes very 
readily in tetrahedral crystals, and, if the ])roeess be carefully 
watched in a drop of blood which has been treated with a 
very little water, and covered with thin glass, and sometimes 
even without the addition of water, certain corpuscles will be 
seen to become angular, and four or eight prominent angles 
will be observed, while others will exhibit the stellate appear- 
ance familiar to every one. In this remarkable case, then, the 
entire blood-corpuscle may be seen to crystallize. 

The author has seen one corpuscle gradually become one 
tetrahedron. Now, how can there be a membrane here? 
The whole process seems inconsistent with the existence of 
such a structure. The crystals coalesce and larger crystals 
are formed ; but no membranes can be seen. Two crystals 
may come into close contact and gradually become incorpo- 
rated, which could not take place if they were invested with 


a membrane. It is true, that some of tlie blood-corpuscles 
are incorporated in the crystalline mass, and may be seen 
for some time amongst the red crystalline matter, but these 
are entire corpuscles — probably young ones — not merely 
cell-walls. These facts permit us to take a veiy simple 
view of the development, nature, and offices of the red 

Appearance of a cell-ivall produced artificially. — In the 
kidney, and indeed in many other structures, tliere is the 
same difficulty in satisfying oneself as to the existence of a 
cell-wall. The well-defined outline exhibited when elementary 
parts are placed in water, which is received by many as 
evidence of the presence of a cell- wall, can be exactly imitated 
artificially. The urea having been separated, filter off* a little 
of the remaining constituents of urine vdt\i the extractive 
matters, and when this solution is moderately concentrated, 
add nitric acid, so as to be quite sure that no living structures 
can exist, evaporate the mixture to the consistence of syrup, and 
you will very frequently find a number of bodies which might 
be readily mistaken for cells. It would be very instructive 
to make a series of such artificial products in different ways, 
for many forms closely resembling the so-called animal cells 
would be found. Such facts as these, and the changes which 
he has observed to take place in particles precipitated from 
fluids, have caused Mr. Rainey to come to the conclusion. 
Dr. Beale thinks prematurely, that the growth of bone, and 
even of some of the soft tissues, may be explained on physical 
and chemical grounds alone.* 

These observations of Mr. Rainey's are most interesting 
and most important ; but in all the tissues which the author 
had examined he has had no difficulty in demonstrating the 
existence of living matter, and without this living matter the 
tissue never could be formed. Indeed, he would assert, with- 
out fear, that in every living tissue there is germinal matter 
and formed material. The germinal matter may die, when 
the formed material has reached a certain thickness; but this 
formed material was, in all cases, once in the state of ger- 
minal mattei*, and coidd never have been produced except as 
the result of changes taking place in living particles. 

Although in many structures it is difficult to prove the 
existence of a cell-wall, in others there can be no question as 
to its presence. In the mildew it is distinct enough ; but it 

* 'On the Mode of Formal ion of Sliells of Animals, of Bono, and of 
several other Structures, b_v a Process of ^lolccular Coalescence, demonstra- 
ble in certain artificially formed Products,' by George Rainey, M.R.C.S 



was observed that in the rapidly growing parts of the plant 
the layer was exceedingly thin — so thin that its existence 
could hardly be demonstrated ; while in other specimens the 
thickness of the formed material was very great indeed. In 
the first instance the germinal matter was rapidly extending 
itself. In the last, in consequence, probably, of the existence 
of conditions adverse to the free growth of the plant, the 
germinal matter had slowly undergone conversion into formed 
material — a certain amount of nutrient matter was aljsorbcd, 
so that the Avhole mass had increased in size — but had the 
conditions been favorable, many times the quantity of formed 
material Avould have been produced in the same period of 
time ; but this Avould have extended over a very much larger 
surface, and, of course, a greater proportion of germinal 
matter would at the same time have been formed. 

Theories generally held. — Cell theory; Woljf's theory, as 
modified by Professor Huxley ; Vlrchow's view , Dr. Bennett's 
view. — Dr. Beale had endeavoured to show that in some in- 
stances a cell-Avall exists, and that in many there is no cell- 
wall at all, while in others it is impossible to distinguish 
between the cell-wall and the so-called cell-contents. The 
idea of Schleideu, accepted by Schwann, that the nucleus 
was precipitated from a fluid like a crystal, and the cell-wall 
afterwards deposited around it, has been often contradicted 
by actual observation, aud it is difficult to see what object 
could be fulfilled by such a process. 

A modification of Wolff^s view has lately been strongly 
advocated by Professor Huxley, and has been made by him to 
harmonise with the notions entertained with regard to the 
nature of the iutercellular substance. It is supposed that 
originally a clear, homogeneous plasma is produced, in which 
spaces (vacuoles) are formed, and these contain, in the 
interior, the endoplast, consisting, in fact, of the primordial 
utricle of the vegetable cell, the cell-contents, and the 

The walls of these spaces are composed of the original 
plasma altered, which is termed the periplast, or periplastic 
substance. The greatest importance is attached to the peri- 
plast. It is supposed to possess the active power of growing 
in and forming partitions, when division of the cndoplasts 
occur, and of becoming differentiated into very important 
stinictures. The intercellular (periplastic) substance is con- 
sidered thoughout Germany as a most important structure, 
and it is generally believed that its peculiarities are not 
dependent upon the cells it contains, but are due to powers 
residing in it. Mr. Huxley's views may be gathered from 


the following extract : — " The encloplast grows and divides ; 
but, except in a few more or less doubtful cases, it would 
seem to undergo no other morphological change. It fi'e- 
quently disappears altogether ; but, as a rule, it undergoes 
neither chemical nor morphological metamorphosis. So far 
from being the centre of activity of the vital actions, it 
would appear much rather to be the less important histologi- 
cal element. 

"^ The periplast, on the other hand, under the names of 
cell-wall, contents, and intercellular substance, is the subject 
of all the most important metamorphic processes, whether 
morphological or chemical, in the animal and in the plant. 
By its differentiation, every variety of tissue is produced ; and 
this differentiation is the result, not of any metabolic action 
of the endoplast, which has frequently disappeared before the 
metamorphosis begins, but of intimate molecular changes in. 
its substance which take place under the guidance of the ^ ns 
essentialis,' or, to use a strictly positive phrase, occur in a 
definite order, we know not why." 

Virchow, on the other hand, attaches the greatest import- 
ance to cells, which always come from cells, but believes, 
nevertheless, that " It is not the constituents w^hich we have 
hitherto considered (membrane and nucleus), but the con- 
tents (or else the masses of matter deposited without the cell, 
intercellular) , which give rise to the functional (physiological) 
differences of tissues." The cell is '' a simple, homogeneous, 
and very monotonous structure, recurring with extraordinary 
constancy in living organisms." It is the other contents, 
not the nucleus or membrane, which occasion the physiologi- 
cal action of parts, ^^irchow considers that the nucleus is 
concerned in maintaining and multiplying li^•iug parts, and 
that while fulfilling its functions it remains itself unchanged. 

Dr. Hughes Bennett, of Edinburgh, holds, on the con- 
trary, that cells can grow from a clear exudation ; and he 
considers that granules first make their appearance, and that 
a cell-wall is afterwards formed around these. 

It is very difficult to express briefly the differences and 
resemblances between all these conflicting Aaews ; and it 
would be quite out of place, in a course like the present, to 
show in detail the several points in which the author agreed 
wdth or differed from, those Avho had Avritten before him. 

The author's conclusions did not permit him to agree with 
any of these theories. He had already alluded to the diffi- 
culty of demonstrating the existence of a cell-wall, and had 
shown that this is not a constant structure. So far from 
regarding the intercellular substance as the seat of essential 


changes, he would endeavour to show that it is the least 
active part of the tissues, and that it does not possess forma- 
tive power at all. Neither did he think that cells eflected 
any alteration in the substance external to them. Living 
structures were, he believed, quite incapable of exerting any 
important action on matter at a distance from them. He 
could not think that the cell (elementary part) could be 
formed from a fluid exudation, but believed, with Virchow, 
that in all cases cellular elements must have existed wherever 
cells were found. He believed that every organic compound 
in the body was once living, or had been derived from a living 
structure. Albumen in the blood, as such, was not living, 
but it had been formed by living matter, and might again 
become living if appropriated by a living structure. 

Appearances actually observed. — Some of the appearances 
connected with the structure of elementary parts which might 
be readily demonstrated were then enumerated. It was re- 
marked that any theory proposed should be equally applicable 
to all these different cases ; and if it would not account for 
the phenomena, it should, at least, not be incompatible with 
any one. 

1. The presence of a distinct membrane (cell-wall) , perme- 
able to fluids, forming an investment to each elementary part, 
and containing Avithin clear, transparent or gi-anular matter, 
at rest or in motion. 

2. The absence of any such membrane over every part of 
the surface, so that protrusions occurring from different parts 
extend to a considerable distance, and where they come into 
contact coalescence takes place, and then the most varied 
forms are produced. 

3. A very thick external investment, perfectly homo- 
geneous, granular, or in distinct layers, varying in thickness 
and density, or resembling each other in these particulars. 

4. The formation of insoluble substances, as well as the 
presence of matter in solution amongst the living matter 
within the external membrane. 

5. The presence of a large or small quantity of a peculiar 
material, homogeneous, granular, deposited in laminae, or 
fibrous (intercellular substance), between the so-called cells 
or nuclei. 

G. The absence of such a structure in another part of the 
same tissue. 

7. Elementary pai'ts with nuclei and nucleoli, or destitute 
of both. 

8. The formation of fibres projecting from the envelope of 
the elementary part. 


9. The formation of fibres clearly prolonged from the sub- 
stance of the elementary part, and composed of the same 

10. Elementary parts may begin their existence as minute 
masses of granular (germinal) matter. At a later period a 
membrane may be demonstrable. Afterwards the membrane 
may become very thick indeed, so that a small caAdty alone 
remains in its centre. 

The length of this already long list might be increased, but 
it was sufficient to prove that the doctrines at present taught 
W'ould not explain all the phenomena Avhich were observed ; 
indeed, some of the facts mentioned were altogether incom- 
patible with the favorite theories now entertained. 

Changes in an elementary part. — An elementary part may 
commence its existence as a very minute granule, too small 
to be seen even wnth the highest powers. It grows, and 
then exhibits an outer portion of different character to the 
material Avithin. Changes may then occur in the inner 
material. Small bodies may appear, from which new growth 
may proceed at a subsequent period,'and within these smaller 
particles may be evident. These clearly arise one within the 
other. The central mass may divide, and the resulting por- 
tions may divide and subdivide, until an immense number of 
masses are produced. These may be quite separate from each 
other, or they may be included within the original capsule. 
In other cases there is no capsule, and the division and sub- 
division take place in a transparent, and more or less viscid 
substance, which lies between each resulting mass. In all 
cases the whole mass, and each component particle, consists 
of germinal matter and for^ned material. The latter forming 
a hard or soft external envelope, varying in structure, or a 
fluid or viscid substance external to the germinal matter, and 
sometimes also deposited amongst it. 

The power of growth of the germinal matter of man and 
the higher animals, like that of the lower, is, there is reason 
to believe, quite unlimited. Although this cannot be proved 
absolutely, facts will be advanced which justify this statement. 
The conditions necessary for the growth of the germinal 
matter of the tissues of tlie higher animals are, however, so 
complicated that the vitality of the germinal matter is much 
more easily destroyed, and it is therefore more difficult 
to study the changes produced in the elementary parts by 
alteration of the circumstances under which they grow ; 
still, by a minute examination of the morbid changes occurring 
in tissues in disease, or induced artificially, most important 
general conclusions have been arrived at, and there is the 


greatest eucouragement to continue the same course of in- 

Clianges occvrriny as eleuientary jjurts grow. — If we ex- 
amine the elementary parts near the vascular surface of the 
skin, or a mucous membrane, mc shall have no difficulty in 
convincing ourselves of the following facts : 

1. That they are much smaller than those near the sur- 

2. That, although very small, the proportion of the ger- 
minal matter to the formed material is very much gi-eater 
than in the older elementary parts. 

3. That the formed material gradually increases as the 
elementary part grows towards maturity, the germinal matter 
absolutely increasing; but in projDortion to the formed material 
it is relatively diminished. 

After the elementary part has reached maturity, and has 
advanced some distance from the vascular surface, where it 
commenced its existence, t!ie outer part of the formed material 
perhaps shrinks and becomes harder and drier, while the 
germinal matter gradually undergoes conversion into new 
formed material, until the proportion becomes very small, 
and the remainder, noAV at a long distance from the vascular 
surface, and separated from any nutrient matter by a hard, 
dry mass of formed material, as, for instance, in the cuticle, 

Specimen No. 17 showed a portion of the epithelial cover- 
ing of a papilla from the tongue of a girl aged ten years. 
This is to illustrate the growth of the epithelium. The 
deepest layer consists of masses oi germinal matter separated 
from each other by a very thin layer of formed material, 
which is not coloured by the carmine. These are for the 
most part spherical or oval, some are undergoing division into 
two. The formed material of the deepest series is seen to be 
continuous with the formed material of the dermic structure. 
At the outer part elementary parts are seen which occupy as 
much space as six or eight of the youngest ones. Eacli con- 
tains a dark-red mass of germinal matter, larger than that of 
the youngest particles, but bearing a proportion to the entire 
elementary part considerably less than that belonging to the 
youngest particles. It is, therefore, clear that in the growth 
of these elementary parts the germinal matter and the formed 
material have both increased. The whole of the nutrient 
matter absorbed has passed through the stage of germinal 
matter, and become formed material which has gradually 
accumulated. The oldest elementary parts are removed from 
the specimen, but the proportion of germinal matter gradu- 

VOL. I. — NEW SER. ^ 


ally diminishes, and in tlie hardened scales which are about 
to be cast oflp not a trace can be shown to exist by soaking 
in carmine. 

The rapidity of division of the germinal matter near the 
nutrient surface, and the formation of new elementary parts, 
is especially influenced by the amount of nutrient matter 

The next preparation shown was a thin section of the 
tongue of a foetus at the seventh month. The arrangement 
of the muscular fibres is atcII seen, and the papillae are 
already developed as little, simple elevations from the general 
surface. All the tissues consist principally of germinal 
matter, and in every part of the specimen the number of 
these masses coloured by carmine is remarkable. The inter- 
val between the mucous membrane and the point of insertion 
of the muscular fibres corresponds to the corium and sub- 
mucous tissue of the adult tongue. It is occupied entirely 
by oval nuclei, many of which are observed to be in lines, 
and these can be shown to be connected with the capillary 
vessels and nerves. Xo fibrous appearance whatever exists, 
and the quantity of formed material existing in connection 
with the germinal matter is very small. 

This specimen of the tongue of a foetus at the seventh 
month was contrasted with No. 19, which was a con-espond- 
ing section from the tongue of a child ten years of age. 
Both were under the same magnifying power. In the first, 
eight papillae, with the submucous tissue, could be seen in the 
field at once, as well as many bundles of muscular fibres. 
In the other specimen, three papillae only, and a layer of 
submucous tissue and corium five or six times thicker than 
that in the fcetal tongue were to be seen. The field was 
only large enough to take in just the pointed insertions of 
the muscular fibres, although the epithelium had been en- 
tirely removed, which greatly diminished the thickness of 
the specimen. The masses of germinal matter were numerous 
in the simple papillae, of Avhich the three large ones in the 
field were composed ; but in the base of the large papilla*, 
and throughout the corium, a number of transparent spaces 
or areolic were observed, which were bounded by lines of small, 
oval particles of germinal matter, the so-called nuclei of the 
areolar tissue. The space which looked so transpai'ent Mas 
occupied by a tissue which possessed a fibrous appearance, 
which was firm and unyielding, and which yielded gelatine 
by boiling. The whole of this tissue was generally called 
connective or areolar tissue, or " biudegewebe," and those 
nuclei Avhich were seen bounding the transparent spaces have 


been christened areolar or connective-tissue-corpuscles. They 
are supposed to take part in the nutrition of this structure, 
which docs not exist in the eml)ryo, but which increases with 
age, and undergoes condensation as life advances. In the 
sixth lecture the connective tissue question will be discussed 
at some length. Dr. Beale then directed attention to the 
fact that many of these corpuscles were connected with 
arteries, veins, capillaries, and nerves; and he stated that 
there is reason for believing that some of the more spherical 
particles, coloured red by the carmine, are lymph-cor])uscles 
in the lymphatic vessels, and white blood-corpuscles in the 
capillaries. The linear arrangement of the nuclei in the 
papillae, external to the capillary vessels, -and immediately 
beneath the epithelium, should be noticed. These are un- 
doubtedly connected with nerve-fibres, and from their posi- 
tion it follows that if the capillaries were congested, these 
corpuscles would be subjected to slight pressure. In the 
areolar tissue there are also a number of masses of germinal 
matter, which ultimately become fat-cells. 

The changes which occur in elementary parts, when the 
conditions under which growth takes place in a normal state 
were modified, were then referred to. 

Modification of elementary juirts produced by altered con- 
ditions. — Preparation No. 20 showed the elementary parts 
situated in the middle of the cuticle of the arm, about twelve 
Lours after the application of a blister, at the time when the 
superficial layers were being separated from the deeper ones, 
and fluid was accumulating in the interval betwen them. 
In the part of the preparation now shown several elementary 
parts were seen invested with a moderately thick layer- of 
formed material, but to the left of the field were some having 
but a very thin layer indeed. Several spherical masses of 
germinal matter were observed in close contact with the inner 
surface of the softened external substance, and these Avere 
evidently in a state of active growth. They seemed to be 
growing through the formed material. They were multi- 
plying in number. If set free, and nutrient material con- 
tinued to be abundant, they would soon increase in size, 
and multiply very fast. The layer of formed material, in- 
vesting each, would be exceedingly thin. The masses first 
resulting from the growth of the germinal matter set free 
from the epithelial particles would be invested with a layer 
of formed material, and would resemble a young cell of 
cuticle ; but as they multiplied faster and faster, there would 
not be time for the formation of the layer oi formed material, 
and at last corpuscles resembling pus would result. 


This last stage is seen in another preparation, which was 
obtained from the same blister twenty-four hom's after it had 
risen . 

These specimens are most important, as they show the 
manner in which the formed material is produced, and how, 
under certain altered conditions, the germinal matter may 
increase quickly, and a vast number of separate masses may 
be rapidly produced. The preparations just described also 
prove that the thickness of the layer of formed material (cell- 
wall) is determined by the rapidity of increase of the germinal 
matter, which, in great measure, depends upon the proportion 
of nutrient matter present. 

Formation of pus. — If the germinal matter of a structure 
grows unusually quickly, particles resembling the pus-cor- 
puscle, which contains very little formed material, are produced. 
Conditions favorable to the rapid increase of germinal matter 
are adverse to the formation of formed material. The form- 
ation of pus from epithelial cells has been demonstrated by 
Virchow ; but he does not seem to have observed the altera- 
tion in the proportion of the germinal matter (nucleus and 
cell-contents) to the formed material (cell-wall) alluded to. 
He attaches by far the greatest importance to the formation 
of pus in the areolar-tissue-corpuscles ; and considers that 
from these bodies various morbid processes, which may afiect 
other tissues, start. 

The first stage in the process seems to be the more rapid 
multiplication of the elementary parts and the formation of a 
diminished quantity of formed material, the tendency being 
t Dwards the production of similar elementary parts. The forma- 
tion of these is, hoAvever, prevented by the abundance of 
nutrient material, and the rapid increase of the germinal mat- 
ter. In certain fibrous textures, in which growth occurs more 
rapidly than in the normal state, only soft, spongy fibres may 
be formed; and if the process were to continue, the fibrous 
material Avould be less and less, until the rapidly growing 
spherical masses of germinal matter were produced. There 
can be no doubt that germinal matter may even grow and 
multiply, so to say, at the expense of its own formed material. 

Pus is not a special formation always produced from the 
same substance, or in a particular kind of cell, but it may 
result from the germinal matter of any tissue, and its charac- 
ters arc modified according to the circumstances which have 
already been alluded to. 

The living germinal matter of an elementary part may be 
set free by the destruction of the formed material, as ia a 
scratch, perforation by the sting of an insect, or other niecha- 


nical injury, or by softening of the formed material, caused 
by an alteration occurring in the composition of the fluid 
which bathes it, or induced artificially by various chemical 
compounds. When germinal matter comes into contact with 
nutrient material under favorable circumstances, its power 
of infinite multiplication becomes apparent. Inanimate mat- 
ter near it is absorbed by the several particles, and their 
active powers are communicated to it. If the nutrient mat- 
ter be very abundant, the particles will consist almost entirely 
of germinal matter ; but if not very abundant, time will be 
allowed for the formation of a certain amount of formed ma- 
terial. The germinal matter of any tissue in the body is 
capable of growing in this way. Every particle of germinal 
matter possesses the power of infinite growth. Whether 
a texture with a smaller quantity of formed material than 
in the normal tissue, and hence a soft, spongy tissue, or 
a substance composed almost entirely of small, spherical 
masses of germinal matter (pus-corpuscles) is to be produced, 
will depend mainly upon the quantity and character of the 
nutrient matter. If we look at suppuration in this light, 
the cause of the different characters of pus becomes evident. 
The germinal matter of any tissue in the body may grow in- 
finitely. In the normal state it multiplies under certain 
restrictions, and as it grows, the formation of formed material 
gradually proceeds, and the germinal matter becomes sepa- 
rated farther and further from the nutrient fluid. The formed 
material is prevented from undergoing any but slow change, 
and the removal of the small quantity of products resulting 
from this change is sufficiently provided for. But if the ger- 
minal matter be set free, active changes immediately com- 
mence, the inanimate nutrient matter around is soon taken 
up and becomes living, and the process will continue as long 
as the above conditions last. And if this were not the case, 
what would happen 1 Why, clearly, the fluids set free, pre- 
vented from undergoing the incessant change which is pro- 
vided for in the normal state, would rapidly putrefy, and the 
products resulting from the putrefactive changes would soon 
cause the death of the tissues immediately surrounding. The 
process would go on, and a considerable quantity of tissue 
would be destroyed, and the death of the whole organism 
would result. In gangrene the germinal matter is killed; 
in suppuration it grows freely, and if this process did not 
occur, there are cases in which the death of the tissues must 

At the higli temperature of the higher vertebrate animals, 
moist organic matter, in which the fluid is not perpetually 


changing, rapidly putrefies ; but in the lower, cold-blooded 
animals the putrefactive change occurs very much more slowly, 
and hence there is not the same necessity for the rapid con- 
version of the dead tissue into living germinal matter. In 
them the process which we know as suppuration does not 
take place, the changes, although they are the same in their 
essential nature, do not go to the same extent. Dr. Beale 
alluded to specimens of the growing elementary parts of the 
cuticle of the frog, after injury, which correspond exactly 
with those from the human skin. 

The pus-corpuscle, as would be supposed from the above 
remarks, is well coloured by carmine. 

The specimen of pus was to be compared, with a prepar- 
ation showing the elementary parts of a rapidly growing fun- 
gus, which reached the size of a small pear in a single night. 
There was no absolute membrane of formed material sur- 
rounding each mass of germinal matter. The rapid increase 
of such a structure is marvellous, but it cannot hve long, be- 
cause there is no provision for the equa1)le distribution of 
nutriment to all parts, or for removing the substances result- 
ing from the death of the particles of germinal matter. The 
consequence is, that the entire structure, having reached a 
certain size, very soon dies. 

The free growth of the germinal matter in such cases is 
very interesting, and the readiness with which we can, by the 
action of colouring matters, distinguish the germinal matter 
from the formed material, will, I think, enable us to regard 
various morbid chaiiges Avhich appear now very complicated 
from a much simpler point of view. 

From the examination of the above specimens, it appears 
that the germinal matter of elementary parts, growing under 
certain conditions different to those existing generally, will, 
if pabulum be abundant, multiply very freely. A number of 
masses result, each of which is capable of producing new ones 
by division, but only a very thin layer of formed material in- 
vesting each will be produced, or it may not be possible to 
demonstrate an investing membrane at all. On the other 
hand, masses of germinal matter, which, in the normal state, 
multiply very rapidly, and are therefore not surrounded by 
formed material, nuiy produce it, if placed under circum- 
stances not favoral)lc to their free increase. The white blood- 
corpuscle_, in a state of rest, and freely supplied with n\itricnt 
matter, may even form weak fibres. In coagula of fibrin, 
white corpuscles, from the surfaces of which fibres of consider- 
able length pi'ojected, have been demonstrated, and it seems 
probable that the relation of this fibrous material to the ger- 


minal matter is the same as in other structures. Dr. Beale 
has seen white blood-corpuscles entangled in the coagulated, 
transparent matter of the casts of the uriniferous tube, 
undergoing multiplication, and in the same case, between the 
capillary loops and the membranous capsule of the Malpi- 
ghian body, some long, soft fibres, with a body in the centre 
exactly resembling a Avhite blood-corpuscle, were observed. 
White blood-corpuscles had accumulated considerably in 
the capillaries in every part of the kidney in this case. 

So that germinal matter may multiply very fast, and produce 
less formed material than in the normal state, or germinal mat- 
ter, which in the normal condition produces very little formed 
material, may be placed under circumstances ivhich favour the 
accumulation of a considerable quantity of formed material 
around it. It is, therefore, very essential to study the con- 
ditions which eftect these very striking modifications in the 
germinal matter of different structures. 

Alteration in the relative proportions of germinahnatter and 
formed material in elementary parts as they increase in age. — 
Preparations showing the relation existing between the germi- 
nal matter and formed material of the tendon of a kitten, and 
in the true skin from a foetus, at the seventh month, were then 
passed round. 

The first is a structure in which the changes are exceed- 
ingly slow; the second is one in which we know changes are 
occurring constantly, and with comparative rapidity through- 
out life. It will probably be admitted that the germinal mat- 
ter, in the one preparation, corresponds to that in the other 
— fibrous tissue being the result of the growth of the germi- 
nal matter of the tendon — nerves, capillaries, fibrous, elastic, 
and adipose tissues being formed from the particles of the 
germinal matter in the last specimen. The relation of the 
germinal matter to the formed material, in quick and slow- 
irrowino- tissues, is well seen in the foetus from the sixth to the 
ninth month. 

On examining the bulbs of two or three hairs from the 
foot of a kitten, it was observed that the bulb Avas much 
wider than the shaft of the hair. The eleraentry parts, 
in this region, are composed almost entirely of germinal 
matter. Higher up, the formed material increases, and each 
elementary part undergoes condensation. ]\Iuch of the water 
of the elementary parts is absorbed, and the whole, conse- 
quently, contracts and becomes firmer. The manner in which 
the formed material is produced is seen very beaiitifully by 
examining the elementary parts at different heights in a 
specimen of hair prepared with carmine. According to the 


language generally employed, the nucleus gradually dimi- 
nishes while the cell increases in extent, as we ascend from 
the deep part of the bulb upwards towards the shaft, until, 
when we arrive at the dry part of the hair, the cells (cor- 
tex) are destitute of nuclei. The change is explained very 
simply by the author's view, and follows of necessity, because 
the supply of nutrient material to the elementary parts 
gradually diminishes from below upwards. 

The structure of morbid growths. — A thin section from a 
tumour which grew very rapidly was the next specimen. It ap- 
peared at the lower angle of the scapula of a boy, aged twelve 
years, and when firat noticed Avas about the size of a bantam's 
egg. In six months it measured twenty-seven inches in cir- 
cumference. It was firm and hard, and was intimately ad- 
herent to the scapula. The case occurred in the practice of 
Dr. Elin, of Hertford. The friends would not consent to 
have the mass removed, and it continued to groAv for about 
twelve months after its first appearance, when hgemorrhage 
occurred from some large veins on the surface of the tu- 
mour, and the boy died of exhaustion. The mass was of 
the same character throughout. Dr. Elin says: — "It sur- 
rounded the scapula, which was partly absorbed. The bone 
was very brittle, breaking like a piece of glass. I have no 
doubt that the tumour originally spread from the perios- 
teum of the margin of the scapula." An aunt or cousin of 
the boy seems to have died of a similar tumour several 
years ago. The relation of the germinal matter to the 
formed material is well seen in this specimen, and the free, 
but irregular, mode of growth of the elementary parts is 
also well shown. 

In a section of a tumour, about the size of a walnut, 
connected with the parotid gland, the remains of some of 
the gland-follicles were seen, and as the elementary pai'ts 
in them were dead and undergoing disintegration, they 
were not coloured by the carmine. On the other hand, 
the actively groAving tissue contained a large amount of 
germinal matter, every separate mass of Avhich was darkly 
coloured. The growing tissue insinuates itself in every di- 
rection, and where the parts of the growth first formed are 
becoming old and are losing their vital activity, otfsets 
from the more recently developed parts may be seen in- 
vading them. 

In tlicse morbid growths Ave have no ditficulty in demon- 
strating the existence of germinal matter and formed material, 
and even cursory observation of the tissue attbrds abundaut 
evidence of its wonderful poAver of rapid groAvth. Although 


it would not be possible to distiuguisli a single elementary part 
of one of tliese growths from an elementary part removed from 
certain healthy tissues, the striking irregularity of the structure, 
the absenceof that orderly arrangement exhibited by all healthy 
textures, and the great extent of tissue exhibiting precisely the 
same characters, aftbrd conclusive evidence as to the nature of 
the structures under consideration. 

If the elementary parts of a tissue multiply to an unusual 
extent, and thus overstep the limits assigned to them in the 
normal state, a growth is produced which may only differ from 
the healthy tissue with respect to its bulk, with reference to the 
position which it may occupy or to which it may spread, aiul in 
the relation it bears to other textures. Adipose tissue, fibrous 
tissue, cartilaginous and bony tissues, often form tumours of 
considerable size in direct continuity with the normal struc- 
ture. It would seem that just at the point where these out- 
gro^\ths originate, the restrictions under which growth occurs 
uormall}^ are to some extent removed, and here we see the 
power of unlimited growth, which is a property of the germi- 
nal matter of all tissues, manifesting itself. 

In the normal state there is reason to believe that, of the 
nutrient material distributed to the tissues, a certain propor- 
tion is absorbed by the germinal matter, and at length under- 
goes conversion iuto tissue, while any excess is probably taken 
up by lymph-corpuscles, and, perhaps, by the white blood- 
corpuscles, Avliich increase in number, and is at length re- 
stored to the blood. It is probable that, in many of the tex- 
tures in the interior of the body, a balance of nutrition is thus 
maintained in the healthy state. If, hoAvever, the active 
powers of the germinal matter of the tissue be impaired, in con- 
sequence of some inherent deficiency, or thi'ough the influence 
of a pabulum not fitted for its nutrition, or by some change in 
the formed material which separates the germinal matter from 
the nutrient fluid, the tissue must suft'er ; and, as new mate- 
rial is not added to it as fast as the old is removed, it must 
Avaste. In this case a large proportion of the nutrient mat- 
ter Avill be taken up by lymph-corpuscles, which will rapidly 
increase in number, and the pabulum, which ought to 
have been made into tissue, Avill be again restored to the 

It seems not unreasonable to assume that a result, corre- 
sponding to that which is effected in the skin by the removal 
of the superficial layers of the cuticle and hair, and by the 
escape of the secretion of the sebaceous and sudoriparous 
glands — in mucous membranes, by the falliug off of the 
superficial layers of epithelium, and in glandular organs by 


the conversion of formed material intothe secretion — isbroui^ht 
about in tissues distant from such surfaces as the muscles, 
nerveSj and some other textures, by the little masses of active 
germinal matter known as the lymph and white blood-cor- 
puscles, and thus the debris is again restored to the blood, to 
be resolved into matters which may serve as pabulum, and com- 
pounds which must be eliminated. 

An abnormal or morbid growth may originate in any tissue 
in the body. If it commences in a tissue of simple forma- 
tion, it will retain, to a great extent, the character of this 
structure, but if it arise in one of the higher tissues it will 
soon become so modified that it would not be possible to de- 
termine its origin from its microscopical characters. 

The character of a morbid growth will, therefore, in great 
measure, depend upon the tissue in which it originated. Not 
unfrequently it Avould be quite impossible to distinguish a sec- 
tion of a morbid groAvth from one of the healthy tissue in 
which it commenced. In other cases an important modifica- 
tion in the elementary parts will have taken place. The mus- 
cular fibre-cells around the pylorus, and in other parts of the 
intestinal canal, sometimes increase enormously in number, 
leading to the formation of a firm, unyielding tissue, which is 
almost as firm as fibro-cartilage (sometimes described as scir- 
rhus of the pylorus) . As the contractile element increases 
it loses its contractile power, and the Avliole mass appears to 
be composed of a form of fibrous tissue, in which the separate 
fibres are very distinct, and arranged parallel to each other in 
concentric layers. 

A specimen of the uterus of the mouse, in which the con- 
tractile elementary parts of organic muscle are seen, at the 
margin of the bundles, to shade into those of fibrous tissue, 
was shown. Up to a certain period the germinal matter of 
these might have produced organic muscle, but the contrac- 
tile tissue not being produced, a lower form of tissue is, as it 
Avere, formed in its stead. Since such a transition may be 
demoustrated in the healthy state, we shall not be surprised 
at finding what amounts to a very exaggerated change in dis- 
ease. The elementary parts have multiplied enormously, but 
they have developed, not their characteristic contractile tissue, 
but a lower and simpler form of formed nuiter'ial, not possess- 
ing the peculiar endowments of the normal structure. 

If the restrictions under which a soft, healthy tissue grows 
be removed, a soft and often very i*apidly growing structure 

Those structures which in the healthy organism growfastest, 
and pass most rapidly through the various stages of their 


existence, as would be supposed, give rise to the formation of 
the most terrible and uncontrollable of morbid growths. An 
irregular growth of a part of the secreting structure with the 
vessels, for instance, of the liver, kidney, mamma, sweat-glands, 
&c., may lead to the formation of a very soft, spongy, and 
highly vascular growth, which will attain a very large size, 
and appropriate the nutrient material which propei'ly belongs 
to other textures. After a time, perhaps, it reaches the sur- 
face of the body, and fatal luemorrhage may take place from 
its superficial vessels. In many such morbid growths we can 
distinguish the elementary parts which have descended from 
those taking part in secretion, although they have become 
much modified, from the elementary parts which are connected 
with the vessels prolonged into the structure. The former 
constitute the "cells," or "cellular elements" of the morbid 
growth, and the latter, with the vessels themselves, form the 
" matrix " or walls of the areolae or spaces in which the cells 

When we consider what a very slight derangement of the 
elementary parts at an early period of development would 
infallibly lead to the suppression or exaggeration of normal 
structures, which are their direct lineal descendants, is it not 
wonderful that morbid growths (irregular growth of one 
or more tissues) or monstrosities (exaggeration or suppression 
of series of elementary parts from which numerous different 
tissues, entire organs, or limbs, are produced) are not of yet 
more frequent occurrence than they are ? 

iNlany healthy structures may be removed from the 
part of the body Avhere they have been developed to a 
distant part, and will nevertheless grow there. Skin, hair, 
teeth, and other tissues, have been successfully transplanted, 
but perhaps the most interesting, and not the least useful, 
instance of this kind which could be adduced is the trans- 
plantation of growing bone. M. Oilier has removed a por- 
tion of the periosteum from a bone, and planted it in a dis- 
tant part of the body — under the skin, for instance — and 
bony tissue has been produced. The periosteum contains 
bone-germs, which only require nutrient material to undergo 
development into ordinary bone. The practical surgeon will, 
of course, soon apply so important a discovery to the treat- 
ment of certain cases. Some textures retain their vitality 
after they have been separated from the parts where they grew 
for a much longer period of time, and have a much greater 
power of resisting destructive agencies, than others. 

In some of the lower animals, so active is the tendency to 
growth, and so strong the power of resisting Avhat would seem 


to be adverse conditions, that mechanical separation into nu- 
merous parts serves but to increase the rapidity of the pro- 
duction of separate, independent organisms. 

When we consider how very greatly the normal tissues of 
the higher animals vary in structure, properties, and power, 
we shall not feel surprised at the gi-eat differences observed in 
the morbid growths which originate in them. Some of these 
grow very slowly, others very rapidly — some form circum- 
scribed and comparatively isolated masses, while others bur- 
row in every direction, invading every tissue in their imme- 
diate neighbourhood, and growing at its expense. A part of 
a morbid growth may be cut off from nutrient material by the 
growth of the rest, and may die. Into this dying or dead 
portion part of the living mass may grow, and, as it were, 
live upon the very tissue which once formed a living part 
of the Avhole, and of which, in fact, the last is a direct extension. 

The larger the growth becomes the greater seems to be its 
powers of resistance, and the more readily do the normal struc- 
tures yield to its advance. The least particle of it will spread 
rapidly, its increase appearing to be limited only by the sup- 
ply of nutrient material. The faster it grows the more irre- 
sistible the power of growth seems to become, and, especially 
in cases where the growth is composed of a number of loosely 
connected portions, even a very small piece detached and 
carried to a distant part will readily grow. In not a few 
cases a very minute portion of the germinal matter of one of 
these structures may be carried away to a distant part of the 
body, and so powerful is its tendency to animate any form of 
nutrient matter in the organism, so unrestricted the condi- 
tions under which it grows, and so increased is its power of 
resisting the action of conditions which would doubtless have 
destroyed the germinal matter from which it originally sprung, 
that it will grow wherever it may chance to become station- 
ary. An elementary part, or even a little of the germinal 
matter, may be detached from the original mass, and removed 
to distant parts by the movement of organs one on the other, 
or it may be carried a long way from the point where it origi- 
nated by the lympathic vessels, and, there can be little doubt, 
by the blood-vessels also. 

These morbid structures may ultimately be found growing 
in connexion with healthy tissues with which they have no 
characters in common. A bone-germ, detached from a soft, 
I'apidly growing, spongy, bony tumour, may take root even in 
the pulmonary tissue, and tiius several hard, solid, separate 
masses of bony structure, which may attain considerable size, 
may groAV in different parts of the lung. 


lu all these cases the vessels grow with the other elements 
of" the tissue, and thus the eoiiclitions for unlimited increase 
without order, in an irregular manner, and without advantage 
to the organism, are present, and may persist. These results 
appear to depend more upon the circumstance that the restric- 
tions under which the growth of the tissue occurs normally are 
removed, than upon any special peculiarities of the morbid 
growth itself. The conditions favorable to the development 
of such structures are not the result of accident, but dcjoend 
upon changes which have occurred at an earlier period of 
time, ane^ these may, in the same manner, be referred back. 
The hereditary natui-e of many of these growths^ and the 
symmetrical character of certain morbid processes, receive 
something like au explanation from the view above given. 

Dr. Bcale had endeavoured to indicate very briefly some 
of the circumstances which probably determine the different 
characters of various morbid growths, including those 
tumours which have received the very inappropriate term of 
benignant, and the numerous intervening forms which pass 
by almost insensible gradations into those of a malignant 

On vegetable tissues and starch. — A few specimens of 
vegetable tissues were then examined in order to ascertain if 
their structure and growth could be explained by the same 
general doctrine which Avill account for the appearances ob- 
served in the tissues of the higher animals, both in a state of 
health as well as in disease. 

The characters, of mildewy one of the simplest structures 
in the vegetable kingdom, have been described, and a prepara- 
tion of another fungus has been alluded to. In these, as in 
the animal tissues, the germinal matter was coloured red with 
carmine, and the formed material remained perfectly colour- 
less. It is, however, desirable to examine the tissues of one 
of the higher plants. 

A portion of the young leaf of the common mignonnette, 
showing the germinal matter coloured red with carmine, and 
a piece of the epidermis from the same plant, showing 
numerous stomata, and in the youngest elementary parts 
masses of germinal matter, stained with the carmine, were 
then passed round. 

A small piece of the rootlet of the mignonnette was also 
exhibited. The elementary parts in this specimen were very 
beautifully coloured. A section of a common potato, near 
the point at Avhich a bud was being developed, was submitted 
to examination. In many of the elementary parts, the pri- 
mordial utricle, and the nucleus (germinal matter), are well 


coloured, and in many cases the central part of the germinal 
matter is occupied by numerous small starch-grains. The 
matter deposited amongst the particles, or in the central part 
of the germinal matter, Dr. Beale proposed to call secondary 
deposits. The germinal matter will always be found between 
these and the so-called cell-wall. It is possible that these 
substances are precipitated in consequence of certain changes 
having occurred in the formed material in the interior, of a 
different nature to those Avhich led to the formation of the 
envelope or cell-wall on the external part of the mass. In 
many cases the secondary deposits accumulate as long as any 
germinal matter remains in a living state. 

We may, then, conclude that the elementary parts of all 
tissues, vegetable as well as animal, are composed of matter 
in two states, germinal matter and formed material, and that 
all growth takes place through the intervention of the ger- 
minal matter alone, which possesses the power of growing 

It appears that in certain cases, both in animals and in 
vegetables, the formed material, or insoluble substances result- 
ing from certain changes effected in it, may be deposited 
upon the external surface of the germinal matter, or it may 
accumulate amongst the particles of the germinal matter 
itself. The deposit in the latter case would take place, first 
of all, in the fluid which intervenes between the spherical 
particles of germinal matter, and this process, having once 
commenced, might proceed until a very considerable accumu- 
lation had taken place. 

In many structures the substance which is precipitated 
amongst the living particles in an insoluble form is pre- 
vented from escaping through the outer layer of formed 
material or membranous capsule (cell-wall) within which 
the germinal matter (primordial utricle) and the substances 
which have been termed secondary deposits (a part of the 
so-called cell-contents) arc found. The escape of these sub- 
stances, which are precipitated in an insoluble form, can 
never take place without the destruction of the whole mass, 
or the formation of an opening. If the products so formed 
were fluid they would coalesce, and at length a mass of con- 
siderable size might be produced, and the actively growing, 
or germinal, matter would form a layer between the insoluble 
substance and the inner surface of the wall of the capsule, 
the position which the primordial utricle occupies iii the 
vegetable cell, and the germinal matter (here called the 
nucleus), in the fat-vesicle. "When these changes commence 
in the fat-cells, a little oil-globule is sometimes seen in the 


centre of a mass of germinal matter, and this might be mis- 
taken for a nncleolns, but it is not coloured by carmine; and 
by carefully examining several masses in different stages of 
growth, its true nature can be made out. In other cases the 
fatty matter is deposited on one side of the germinal matter, 
"Nvhich gradually becomes pushed to the opposite part. In 
both cases the relation of the germinal matter to the in- 
vesting membrane and tlie secondary deposits is precisely 
the same. 

Sometimes particles in all parts of the germinal matter 
rapidly grow, pass through their stages of existence, and 
become resolved into a substance allied to that which is ordi- 
narily applied to the thickening of the outer membrane. In 
this case the germinal matter will be found partly just within 
the membrane, and partly amongst the insoluble particles in 
the interior. lu the large, starch-holding cells of the potato 
the living germinal matter is seen to be in contact with the 
inner surface of the capsule, while the starch-granules accu- 
mulate, for the most part, in the centre. 

There is no dilRculty in finding starch-granules in every 
stage of formation ; and careful examination will lead the 
observer to the opinion that the starchy material is deposited 
in successive layers, so that the inmost are the first, and the 
outermost the last layers which have been formed, and the 
deposition has taken place more rapidly at one part than at 
another, as shown by the different thickness of the layers at 
different parts of their circumference. 

The following very interesting point will also be observed 
by careful examination of sections of potato : — Insoluble 
matter has been deposited in successive layers on the inner 
surface of some of the large capsules, producing a laminated 
appearance exactly resembling that of a starch -granule, but 
spread out, as it were, over an extended surface. It is also 
important to observe that, at short intervals, thei*e are open- 
ings in these transparent lamellse through which nutrient 
material passed into the interior of the capsule. These are 
more correctly described as spaces, or channels, which 
probably are closed on their outer surface by the thin mem- 
brane of the original cell-wall. Here the deposition of 
insoluble matter has never taken })lace, and through the 
spaces, currents of fluid pass to the interior, and continue as 
long as any living matter exists within in an active state. 
The mode of deposition of this insoluble matter can be very 
satisfactorily watched in these capsules."^ In many other 

* Tliese insoluble lamellae are not starch, although tliey refract and polarize 
like this substance. Tlie peculiar cells contain very little starch, and there 


vegetable starch-holding cells the lamellse and pores above 
described may be seen. 

According to this view, the starch-granule is formed on 
the same principle as a calculus, and the deposition of the 
starchy matter from solution is purely physical, but {informa- 
tion depends upon the peculiar properties of the particles of 
germinal matter, which select and combine substances in a 
special manner Avliile passing through the various stages of 
their existence. At last their active powers cease, and their 
constituents become resolved into starch amongst other sub- 

Starchy matter in animal tissues. — One of the most in- 
teresting points which has been demonstrated during the last 
few years, in connection with the chemical changes occurring 
in animals, is the discovery that matters nearly allied to 
starch and cellulose were formed in them as Avell as in 
plants. C. Schmidt, in the year 184-5, proved the existence 
of a substance of the cellulose series in certain Aseidians ; 
and Virchow, about the year 1854, made the very important 
discovery of an amyloid substance in the human subject. 
This was found in the form of roundish bodies in the deep 
layers of the membrane lining the cerebral ventricles, and 
that which lines the canal of the spinal cord. Since this 
time amyloid matter has been demonstrated in many other 
situations. In the liver it is found in considerable quantity, 
and, as Dr. Pavy has shown, is a substance which is so 
easily and rapidly converted into sugar after death, that 
Bernard was led to conclude that sugar was actually formed 
in the liver in considerable quantity in health. In certain 
cases of disease a substance containing amyloid matter accu- 
mulates to an enormous extent in the lobules of the livei', 
especially in their central part, giving rise to the amyloid or 
waxy degeneration (scrofulous liver, albuminous liver, spek- 
krankheit). This amyloid substance is one of several com- 
pounds into which the formed material of the liver elementary 
part is resolved. In health it is carried away in a soluble 
form, and probably is soon converted into other compounds, 
which are at last resolved into carbonic acid. In diabetes it 
is converted into sugar, and in certain scrofulous cases it 

can be no doubt that the changes which usually lead to the formation ot 
starch have iu these instances been modified, so as to cause the altered mat- 
ter to be deposited in a difFercnt position. 

* Tiie opinions generall}' iield on the formation of the starch-Ejranule aie 
different to the conclusions in the text ; vide a paper by Islr. Busk, in vol i, 
New Si'ries of tlie 'Trans, of the Microscopical Society,' 1S53, p. 5S; and 
Professor Allmaii, "On the Probable Structure of liie Starch-Granule," 
' Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science,' vol. ii, p. 163. 


accumulates in the liver, and in other tissues of the body, in 
an iusolnole form. It is probable, however, that this amyloid 
materiaj i.s uct alone produced in the liver, tor in disease it is 
found in connexion with almost all the tissues, especially in 
the coats of the arteries. 

Busk and Bonders stated that the so-called amyloid bodies 
in the brain, and other parts of the nervous system, were 
actually composed of starch. Mr. Busk described tiieir con- 
centric lamime, and stated that they behaved towards polar- 
ized light and iodine just as starch does. Of late, however, 
doul)t has been thrown upon many of these statements by 
the detection of starch almost everywhere, and it has been 
hinted, or actually asserted, that in many cases in which 
starch had been detected it had an extraneous origin. Un- 
questionably there are cases in which this mistake has been 
made. Several have come under my o^nl observation ; but I 
feel sure that Busk and Donders were quite alive to the 
possibility of such an origin of the starcli, and Yirchow has 
especially cautioned observers against mistaking starch and 
cellulose accidentally present for the substances actually 
formed in the living animal tissue. 

It seems a pity that anyone should record negative results 
in an examination like the present, especially as, where is avcU 
known, there is some difficulty in obtaining a uniform action 
from the test, unless he has devoted considerable time to all 
the little niceties which experience proves to be necessary in 
employing chemical tests in minute investigations. 

Within the last few days Dr. Beale had received a specimen 
of a cancerous liver, which weighed upwards of thirteen 
pounds, containing numerous bodies exactly resembling starch- 
granules. These bodies exhibited the concentric layers, and 
were coloured dai-k blue by iodine and sulphuric acid. The 
evidence here against the accidental jiresence of starch is 
most positive. — 1. From the testimony of Dr. "Webb, of 
Wicksworth, by whom the specimen was sent for examination. 
2. From the fact that these bodies wxre found in sections 
cut from the very centre of the mass. 3. That the starch 
bodies may be seen in the specimens actually imbedded in 
the tissue, and they may be removed with fragments of the 
tissue of the liver adherent to them. 

The specimens have been preserved ; and it is believed they 
will keep for years. 

Under certain circumstances, then, it api)cars that the 
formed material produced by the germinal matter of certain 
elementary parts, both in vegetables and animals, may become 
resolved into starchy and other substances. The starchy 

VOL. 1. — NEW SER. T 


matter may be deposited aroimd granules, layer after layer, 
until a mass of considerable size is produced ; or a material 
allied to starch, and formed from the same germinal matter 
as this substance, may be deposited upon the inner surface of 
the investing membrane (cell-wall) of an elementary part in 
thin laminse. 

Tliere is every reason to believe that in this case of cancer 
of the liver the cell-containing network* of the lobules had 
been encroached upon by the cancerous growth, growing 
principally in the interlobular fissures. The excreting chan- 
nels which carry off the bile would soon become occluded, 
and the distribution of blood to the substance of the lobule 
much diminished. Nevertheless, some of the masses of ger- 
minal matter of the original elementary parts still retained 
their vitality, as was proved by their being coloured by the 
carmine ; and a certain amount of formed material under 
these disadvantageous circumstances was produced. We may 
assume that this, being placed under very adverse conditions, 
did not undergo precisely the same changes which occur in 
the normal state ; and, amongst other substances resulting 
from tlie changes induced, was this starchy matter, which 
was prevented from escaping, and was slowly deposited in 
the insoluble form, the amyloid masses gradually increasing 
in size by deposition on their exterior. 

On the Generative System of Helix aspersa and 
HORTENSIS. By Henry Lawson, M.D. 

(Read before the Natural History Society of Dublin, December, 1860.) 

The following observations upon the reproductive system 
of Helix aspersa, our commonest Irish snail, are given as the 
result of a series of dissections and microscopic examinations, 
made duriug the past summer. The object of the paper is 
twofold — first, to supply a deficiency in our text-books on 
zoology and comparative physiology, by publishing the de- 
scriptive anatomy of the species of Helix most widely dis- 
tributed in Ireland, and of thus aftbrding to the student of 
natural history an opportunity of verifying by dissection the 
descriptions given — a circumstance too much neglected by 
writers upon the subject, who prefer the less difficult task of 
quoting, Mholesale, the investigations of Cuvier, which were 
made upon that species [Helix pomatia) most abundant in 


his own neighbourhood. Secondly, to put for^A•ard uiy own 
opinion concerning the relations of function of the parts 
which compose this system. 

The generative organs of this animal are hermaphrodite in 
their nature, and excessively complicated in they- arrange- 
ment. They occupy a larger volume of the body compara- 
tively "svith the other systems than at first one Avould be 
inclined to suppose, extending from one extremity to the 
other, and seeming more or less closely related to every organ 
in the economy of the creature. They present an external 
aperture adjacent to the right upper tentacle, and terminate 
at the ovary, in the final spire of the shell. For convenience, 
they may be divided into four groups : 

1. Female. 

2. Male. 

3. Androgynous. 

4. Appendicular. 

Of these, the female organs form by far the largest portion, 
and extend over the greatest surface. They consist of an 
ovary, oviduct, albumen-gland and uterus. The ovary is a 
small, rather compact, fan-shaped gland, spread over the last 
lobe of the liver, and, with it, included in the terminal 
volution of the shell ; its broad or basal extremity is most 
external, the narrow portion being directed inwards, to ter- 
minate in the commencement of the oviduct. When sepa- 
rated fr5m its attachments, it measures at its widest part 
about three eighths of an inch ; whilst from within outwards, 
it is about a quarter of an inch. It is composed of numerous 
branching cseca, or lobules, of a light-yellowish colour, bound 
together by folds of a delicate areolar or fibrous membrane. 
A portion placed under the microscope presents the appear- 
ance of a follicle, secreting from its inner wall numerous 
oval or spherical, nucleated cells, and having occasionally 
within it, and rather near its mouth, a few isolated zoosperms 
— no trace whatever of a second sac invaginated by the 
former can be observed. The ducts of the various lobules 
unite towards the apex of the organ, and form a common 
channel — the oviduct. This vessel bends its course in a 
spiral direction from the ovary to the albumen-gland. It is 
simple at both extremities, but very much convoluted in the 
interval. It is about seven eighths of an inch in length ; 
and before it terminates in the sinus of the albumen-gland 
it makes a slight spur-like turn backwards. (I have not seen 
any of those decided projections on its convoluted portion 
which Professor Goodsir has described as existing {wLymnevs 


involutus.) Examined microscopically^ nothing resembling a 
second tube included within the duct is to be seen. The 
albumen-gland is a large, homogeneous-looking structure, in 
shape like a boat, situated in the first spire of the shell, of 
which it occupies one half. It lies beneath the lung, rectum, 
heart, and urine-gland. Its concave surface embraces the 
second spire, whilst its keel is bounded externally by the 
liver, into which its apex or prow also projects, its base or 
stern being attached to the upper extremity of the uterus. 
It measures about an inch in length, and is composed ap- 
parently of two distinct portions, an opaque and a translucent. 
It is very difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain its minute 
structure. A central duct traverses its substance, which 
would seem to collect from others more minute the peculiar 
gelatinous secretion. Viewed under the microscope, a con- 
fused chaos of spherical albumen-globules and minute fibres 
is observed. I have not found any zoosperms in this organ. 
The sinus is a membranous expansion, formed at the point ol 
junction of this gland with the uterus ; into it the oviduct 
passes, after having been lodged for some short distance in 
the substance of the albumen-gland. The uterus is a sac- 
culated duct, measuring usually an inch and a half in length, 
and being fully one eighth of an inch in calibre. Starting 
from the last-named gland, it makes two or three zigzag 
turns, and ends as a cylindrical vessel in the vagina. It is 
closely adherent along its whole length to the testis, which 
lies on its left border, and which, being shorter than the 
uterus itself would be if isolated, has the efl:ect of producing 
the various sacculi above described ; so that the two together 
have not been inaptly compared to the intestine supported by 
its mesentery. It is situated upon the powerful muscles of 
the foot, and has the gullet and salivary glands on its left. 
At the period of depositing the eggs this vessel becomes 
enormously distended, the sacs appearing mucli more distinct 
than usual, each containing its large ovum, and separated 
from its neighbour by a well-marked constriction. I am 
inclined to agree with Turpin, in believing that the uterus 
secretes those beautiful rhombic crystals of carbonate of lime 
seen on the egg of this animal, inasmuch as I have not found 
them upon those ova which had just entered the upper sacculi, 
whilst those situate in the lower ones were invariably studded 
with them. 

The male organs lie to the left of the female, and include 
the testis, vas deferens, and penis, with its flagcllum. The 
first, as before mentioned, is closely united to the uterus, 
commencing and terminating with it ; nevertheless, it is a 


very distinct and extensive structure, and deserves far more 
attention than has been heretofore bestowed upon it. It 
consists of a central duet, closed at its posterior extremity 
(as shown by the obstruction to liquids introduced as injec- 
tions), which is beset on its sides by two rows* of long, white, 
granular-looking follicles. These are observed, under the 
microscope, to open into the central channel, and to contain 
those oval and elliptical, epithelial-like cells, usually de- 
scribed as the parents of zoosperms. The central vessel 
now leaves the testis at the point of the union of the uterus 
and vagina, and is continued as a simple duct for a distance 
of an inch and a half, or thereabouts, when it terminates by 
a rounded aperture in the penis. It is this portion to which 
the term vas deferens has been applied. The penis is repre- 
sented by a long, attenuated tube, wide, and of rather thickish 
consistence at its base, which is perforated and communicates 
with the generative outlet, cseeal at its apex, which is ex- 
tremely delicate, and situate deeply in the mass of viscera. 
It communicates with the vas deferens by a small aperture, 
distant from the basal opening about an inch and three 
eighths, and measures, from end to end, when extended, 
about three inches and a quarter. The blind extremity, 
from its fancied resemblance to a whip-lash, has been termed 
the flagelliform portion. About the junction with the vas 
deferens there exists, attached to the penis, a strong mus- 
cular fasciculus, which probably performs the function of 
drawing back this organ after it has been averted in copu- 

The androgynous gi'oup includes the vagina, vas differens, 
and sperm-sac, with its duet and cseeum. 

The vagina is usually described as the termination of the 
uterine portion ; but from the direct continuation which it 
forms with the copulative vessels, and its almost rectangular 
connexion with the uterus, it seems more correct to look upon 
it as the dilated extremity of the former. Viewing it thus, 
both may be said to constitute a tube, leading from the dart- 
sac, on the one hand, to the sperm-sac, on the other, Avider 
at its proximal than at its distal end, about one inch and 
three eighths in length, and one sixteenth of an inch in 
diameter, following a backward course, beneath the superficial 
viscera, toward the anterior margin of the liver, where it 
expands abruptly into a spherical or pyriform bag — the 
spcrmatheca, or sperm-sac. This vesicle, whose office appears 
to be the storing up of the semen received during coition, 
varies in its dimensions under different conditions. Thus, 
immediately after union of the sexes, when distended by its 


seminal contents, I have often found it attain tlie size of a 
large swan-drop, being more than a quarter of an inch in 
diameter; whilst in specimens examined some time after the 
performance of the sexual function, it has rarely exceeded the 
bulk of a grain of sparrow-shot. I have had many oppor- 
tunities of observing the nature of the contained zoosperms, 
yet I have never succeeded in seeing them isolated ; they 
were invariably in enclosed bundles or sperm atophora. The 
caecum is an appendage whose fuuction_, so far as I am aware^ 
has not yet been investigated. It is a duct, springing from 
the copulative tube, at about a quarter of an inch from its 
union with the uterus. It measures three inches in length, 
is of slightly greater calibre than the tube, and terminates, 
by a blind extremity, at the point of jvmction of the uterus 
and albumen-gland. It is closely attached to the sinus before 
described, and, to a superficial observer, would seem to convey 
thus the male element to the female. It seems homologous 
with the duct connecting the sperm-sac and ovary in Doris 
and Eolis, which Messrs. Alder and Handcock have described 
in their anatomy of the Nudibranchs. 

The appendicular group comprises the dart-sac, dart, and 
multified vesicles. The dart- sac is a pyriform vesicle, bear- 
ing in miniature a decided resemblance to the human uterus ; 
it is situated at the anterior extremity of the animal, to the 
right of the testes and penis, and is quite superficial, being 
covered only by the outer integument and loose fibrous tissue 
which involve the other organs. It is about half an inch in 
length, and in diameter a little above a quarter at its base or 
fundus, and is provided Avith very dense and apparently mus- 
cular walls, which are pierced on the left, close to the ex- 
ternal opening, by the termination of the vagina ; it com- 
municates ^rith the generative cloaca by a small, circular 
outlet, which is guarded by two delicately constructed lips. 
These may be traced from their point of union on the right 
side of the orifice, passing round and approximating on the 
left, where they leave a small portion unprotected. I would 
be cautious in hazarding an opinion upon their function, but it 
seems to me not unlikely that they may direct the penis in 
entering the vagina, and so prevent the possibility of its being 
lacerated by any existing remnant of the dart ; while, on the 
other hand, by opening in a valve-like manner externally, 
they thus offer no obstruction to the cxsertion of the latter. 
Springing from the fundus of the sac is observed a fieshy, 
conical projection, armed at its fi'ce cud with a calcareous 
spicule — the dart or stilette. This projection, or papilla, is 
about one eighth of an inch in length, and is distinctly tulDU- 


lar, being connected at the base with a small follicle, situated 
between the lasers of the dart-sac. The stilette appears to 
be the secretion of this papilla ; it is perfectly transparent, 
about a quarter of an inch long; tapering from base to apex, 
it is tetrahedral in form, the sides being trenchant ; a trans- 
verse section appears like a square, upon each of whose 
external sides an equilateral triangle had been constructed ; it 
is perforated throughovit, and at its papillary extremity is 
funnel-shaped, the lips also being slightly everted, or trumpet- 
like. Thus it would seem to have the power of conveying 
the product of secretion of the follicle (if any) through the 
dart, and in this way by inoculation of inflicting the " love- 
inspiring wound. ^^ I believe it has been asserted on all 
hands that the stilette never penetrates beyond the integu- 
ment of the animal against which it is projected; that such 
an assertion is correct I must, with all deference, deny, as I 
have in several instances observed it lying deeply imbedded 
among the viscera, whilst a second, quite distinct, existed in 
its normal position within the sac; nay, more, from one 
specimen, which I examined at the period of depositing 
the eggs, I succeeded in extractmg two almost perfect 

The multified vesicles are a number of branching caeca, 
produced by the dichotomous division and subdivision of two 
small ducts, whose orifices are situate upon each side of the 
vagina, adjacent to its union with the dart-sac. In all, there 
are about forty cseca, and each group extends for about half 
an inch in the lateral direction. As yet no distinct function 
has been assigned to them. 

The cloaca is the canal which leads from without to the 
two great orifices of the genital organs within ; it is, of all, 
the most anterior ; it is a very flexible vessel, about a quarter 
of an inch in length, and one eighth in calibre ; it terminates 
externally in a vertical slit, closed during life by a sphincter 
of elastic membrane. This, which is sometimes termed the 
generative outlet, lies at the distance of a quarter of an inch 
from the upper tentacle, on the right side, in a plane posterior, 
and a little inferior, Near this outlet is the communica- 
tion with the penis, whilst at the further extreme of the 
cloaca is observed the orifice of the dart-sac before men- 

It will be seen by the foregoing remarks that I have taken 
a view of the parts composing the generative system different 
from that heretofore put forward on the matter. The older 
supposition was that the liver-imbedded gland represented 
the ovary, whilst the tongue or boat-shaped structure per- 


formed the part of testes;"^" more recently it has been con- 
ceived by Henrich Meckel, Siebold, Gegenbaur, and Moquin- 
Tandon_, that the so-called ovary of the older writers is in 
reality an hermaphrodite gland, each lobule of which has 
contained within it a second^ the external secreting ova, the 
internal zoospores, the oviduct also having a second vessel 
invaginated by it. Of these four, however, the two latter, 
who have been the latest to write upon the subject, deny 
that any included sac or duct exists. Moquin-Tandon, 
moreover, follows Van Beneden in his ideas concerning the 

The following are some of the reasons which urged the 
adoption of the view I have now put forward. 


(a) Arguing merely from authorities, I feel inclined to 
agree with Cuvier and his disciples, inasmuch as his oppo- 
nents, though men of great research and vast fame, are 
but few in number, and are equally divided in a matter of 
observation, upon which, in fact, their argument is wholly 

(b) I have carefully, from time to time, examined single 
lobules under the microscope with the aid of the compressor, 
and never have I succeeded in bringing any contained sacculi 
into view; although, when I placed several lobules in the 
compressor, I had an appearance produced somewhat resem- 
bling invagination, but evidently the result of some lobule 
becoming superimposed, and then pressed into the substance 
of another. 

(c) There being no invaginated duct leading from the ovary, 
the zoosperms, if there secreted, would have a greater tendency 
to pass into the normally widened uterus than into the con- 
stricted vas deferens (indeed, the latter passage could not be 
effected, as there is no communication of the vas deferens 
with the uterus), and so would pass away externally, and 
be lost; but such a state of things could not reasonably 

(d) From my own observations I may make use of Mr. 
Handcock's most ingenious argument applied to the Nudi- 
branchs, that, as the zoosperms were found in a condition of 
imperfect development in the sperm-sac, and fully matured 

■* This was Cuvier's idea, and also that of J. F. Meckel, Cams, ErdI, 
Sister, Bendach, Pappenheim, Bcrtheleii, Fyfe, aud llymer Jones. Van 
Beneden also held it ; but he considered that gland a prostate, which is here 
maintained, to be in the spevm-secreting organ. 


and isolated in the lobules of the ovary, they could not have 
proceeded from the latter ; for had they been there secreted, 
they would have been observed in process of development 
in the ovary, and fully formed and unconnected in the 


(a) As there is but one gland in connexion with the vas 
deferens, and that so extensive as to rival the ovary in size 
and structure, we may fairly conclude that, if a testis exists 
at all, it is most probably its representative. It seems to me 
very unreasonable to term this gland, as Van Beneden has 
done, a prostate ; such a mode of applying names to parts is 
more to be deprecated than the barbarous terminology of 
human anatomists, who not unfrequently call an interesting 
and peculiar structure innominata, when, to quote the lan- 
guage of a well-known author, " their little puddle of inven- 
tion has been used dry.^^ I cannot conceive what resemblance 
it is supposed to bear to an appendage found in another sub- 
kingdom, and whose function is so much unknown that of 
two of the most distinguished physiologists of the day one 
thinks it little more than a mass of muscles, — the other that, 
most probably, it is the part in the male homologous with, or 
representing, the uterus of the female. 

(b) The generative organs of the Nudibranchiata, which 
have been so exquisitely delineated by Messrs. Alder and 
Handcock, bear, on the whole, so great an analogy to those of 
the Pulmonifera, that it is very likely, as the sperm and germ- 
producing organs are isolated in the former, so are they in 
the latter. The vas deferens in Helix, with its continuation, 
the testis, which is attached to the border of the uterus, 
holds the place of the greatly elongate corresponding vessel 
in Eolis, there being, however, less distinction or separation 
of parts. 



A. The entire reproductive apparatus, natural size — a, albu- 
men-gland ; c, caecum ; d, dart-sac ; o, ovary ; ov, oviduct ; 
p, penis; ou, outlet; v, vagina; vm, multified vesicles; s, sperm- 
sac; sd, spermatheca-duct ; /, testis; ii, uterus; vd, vaa 

B. Vertical section through the dart-sac, enlarged, repre- 
senting the follicle, papilla, dart, protective valve, and orifice 
of vagina. 

C. Outline view of the testis, greatly magnified. 

D. A lobule of the ovary, enormously enlarged, exhibiting 
the absence of included lobule, and the isolated zoosperms at 
the aperture. 

E. Transverse section through the stilette, exhibiting the 
trenchant outline and central perforation. 


Berthelen. — Ann. des Sci. Nat. 

BuRDACH. — Quelques considerations sur le nidamentum. 

Carus. — Beitrage zur genauern keuntniss der geschlichts- 

organe und functionen einiger Gasteropoden. INIiill. Arch., 




CuviER. — Le Kegne Animal. Tome v. Mollusques. 
Erdl. — Beitrage zur Anatomic cler Helicen. Miill. Arcli. 
Fyfe. — Outlines of Comparative Anatomy. 1831. 
Gegenbaur. — Yergleichenden anatomic. 1851). 
JoxEs, R. — Animal Kingdom, and Article Gasteropoda, 

Cyclopredia of Anatomy and Physiology. 
Lister. — Exercitatio anatomica. London, 1684. 
Meckel, H.— Mull. Arch., 1844, p. 483. 

J. F. — Ucber ein neues Geschlect der Gasteropoden. 

MoQuiN Tandon. — Histoire Naturelle des Mollusques terres- 

tres et fluviatiles. 
Pappexheim. — In Miill. Arch. 
SiEBOLD. — Wiegemans Arch., 1836, i, p. 51. 
Van Benedex. — Memoire sur Vanatomie de THelix Algira. 

Bn;x. 1836. 

0)1 the Form of a Doubly-reflectixg Prism, and its appli- 
cation to the Microscope. By Peter Gray, F.R.A.S. 


A PARALLEL pencil of light, of given magnitude, is incident 
at right angles on one of the sides of a quadrilateral prism of 

glass; entering the prism, it meets one of the adjacent sides. 


at which it is reflected to the opposite side. It here under- 
goes a second reflexion, and falling at right angles on the 
side opposite that of incidence, it finally emerges, forming 
Avith its original direction a given angle. Determine the 
form of a prism which shall best fulfil the prescribed con- 

Let ABCD be a section of the prism, and RSTV the 
axis of the pencil, entering the prism at the side AD at 
right angles, and emerging, also at right angles, at the side 
BC, after two reflexions, at the points S and T. Let the 
angle TVR, made by the emergent with the incident pencil, 
which we call the deviation, = d. 

Produce CB, DA, to meet in E. 

ED, EC, being respectively at right angles to RV, TV, 
the angle contained by the former two lines is equal to that 
contained by the latter ; that is, z CED= Z TYR=c?. 

Denote the angle of incidence at S by i,, and that at T by 
ijjj hence, the angles of incidence and reflexion being equal, 

z IlST=2i„and z STV = 2i2. 

Now, z RST= z STV + / TVS ; 

or, 2ii=2i2 + c?; whence i.y=.i^—\d. 

The angle of incidence at S is complementary to the angle 
ASR, and so also is the angle SAD. Hence the angle of 
the prism at K=-i^', and, for a like reason, the angle at 
C = ?:.,=ii — If/. 

Also the 'angle at B = 180°- z EBA = 180°— z BAD + 
zBEA = 180°-f, + c?; and the angle at D = 180°- zDCE- 
z CED = 180°-i2-^=180°-i,-^c^. 

The sum of these four angles is 360', as it ought to be. 

Were the sides AB and DC produced, they would meet at 
an angle which would obviously be supplementary to the 
sum of the angles at A and D, and the value of which 
would therefore be \d. This property may be enunciated as 
follows : 

The angle contained by the transmitting sides is double of 
that contained by the reflecting sides. 

We have no immediate concern with this property, but 
possibly it may aid in the practical construction of the prism. 

The four angles of the prism are thus determined, in terras 
of i, and d. Of these d is given, and ?i remains disposable. 
Inquire, therefore, whether there is reason for preferring 
for ?j any particular value, to the exclusion of others. It is 
desirable that the prism should not be larger than it needs 
be, since, the loss of light by absorption being proportional to 


the length of the path traversed by the pencil in the prism, 
the shorter we can make the path the less Avill be the loss of 
light. The sides of the prism ought, therefore, if the arrange- 
ment is practicable, to be just suthcient to receive and trans- 
mit the given pencil, and no more. 

Let RjA, KoB be the extreme rays of the pencil, and its 
diameter R|l\o=7^. Now, AB is obviously equal to ]) sec. i,, 
and, the pencil being the same diameter at emergence as at 
incidence, BC ought to equal p. In order to this, R B 
ought to be reflected to C ; in other words, ST, the axis of 
the pencil, must be parallel to BC, which it will be if the 
angle AST be equal to the angle B of the prism. 

Now, zAST=zASR+ z RST = 90°-ii + 2/i = 90' + ?, ; 
and the angle B = 180 — ?j + d. Equating these, 

we get, Zi = 45° + lf/. 

Employing this value of ?j, therefore (which gives 45° for the 
angle io, and also for the angle C), the prism will be the least 
possible, and the loss of light h\ absorption will consequently 
be a minimum. 

The angles of the prism will now be — 

A= 45" + i</, 
B = 135° + ic?, 
C= 45^ 
D = 135°-^. 

Sum . 360°. 

From the values of A and B above, and also from that of i^, 
we learn that 90^ is the greater limit of d ; so that we may, 
by means of such a prism as is here described, obtain any 
amount of obliquity or deviation short of 90\ The value 
obtained for i.2, the less of the two angles of incidence, namely, 
45°, is an admissible value, being sufficiently removed from 
the critical angle in a prism of glass (about 41° 28) to aftbrd 
total reflexion. 

It would, I believe, be practicable to assign the values of 
AD, DC, the remaining sides of the prism, in terms oi p and 
d ; but the angles, and the tAvo adjacent sides, AB, BC, now 
known, suffice for its geometrical construction; and it will 
be, perhaps, quite as easy specially to compute the remaining 
sides, if they should be required, in any particular case to 
Avhich the formulae may be applied. 

A prism of the form now under consideration was first nsed 
in connexion with the microscope by M. Nachet, for the pur- 


pose of illuminating the object by oblique light. A figure 
and description of this prism will be found in Quekett, 
3rd edition, pp. 141, 142, and in the ' Mic. Trans. ,^ 1st series, 
vol. iii, pp. 74 to 81. The pages last cited contain a mathe- 
matical investigation of the form of the prism by ]\Ir. Shad- 
bolt, with whose results, so far as he has given them, mine 
agree ; but it will readily appear that I have made no use of 
his investigation. 

The next application to the microscope of the doubly-re- 
flecting prism is by Mr. Wenham. The purpose of Mr. 
Wenham's prism is distinct from that of M. Xachet. Being 
placed behind the object-glass, it receives a portion (say half) 
of the emergent rays, and deflects them into a supplementary 
body, attached to the principal body at an angle correspond- 
ing to the angle of deviation of the prism. These deflected 
rays form, in the supplementary body, an image, which, while 
syynmetrical with that formed by the remaining rays in the 
principal body, possesses yet such an amount and kind of dis- 
similarity as to afford, when the images are viewed simul- 
taneously by the two eyes, the effect of perfect stereo- 
scopic vision. It is the interest excited amongst microsco- 
pists by the wonderful and startling eff'ect of this binocular 
arrangement (numerous inquiries on the subject of the prism 
having been addressed to me) that has induced me to enter 
upon the present investigation. 

The two prisms are identical in principle, and the pre- 
ceding investigation and formulae apply equally to both. 
Their diflerences (apart from the lens cemented on the upper 
surface of Nachet's) are matters of detail, the diflerent pur- 
poses to which the prisms are applied requiring diff"erent 
values of ^ and d. 

Before illustrating the 
formulae by their applica- 
tion to iNIr, Wenham's 
prism, I give a geometrical 

In the indefinite straight 
line EF take AG =7^. From 
G draw the perpendicular 
GB, and from A draw AB, 
making with AG an angle 
equal to 45° + ^c?, and intersecting GB in B. Also from A 
draw AH, making the angle GAH = f/, and from B draw BC 
parallel to AH, and equal to kG=p. From B let fall BH at 
right angles to AH. Join CH, and produce it to D. ABCD 
is the figure I'cquired. 


Now to apply the formulse. In Mr. AVenliain's prism p 
will be equal to the semi-diameter of the back lens of the 
largest object-glass with Avhich the prism is to be used. (If 
made to suit the largest, it will suit the smallest about equally- 
well; but the converse of this does not hold.) The back 
lens of the 3-in. and 2-in. being about 4- ii^- in diameter, 
we may take for j) -25. The value of d depends on the 
length of the bodies (measured from the point where the axis 
of the deflected pencil intersects the axis of the principal 
body) and the distance of the eyes apart. If the length be 
10 inches and the distance 2\ inches, then will d equal 
twice the angle whose tangent is •125 = 2 [7^ 8') = 14'^ 16'. 

Hence the angles of the prism are — 

A= 45° -f 7° 8'= 52° 8' 
B = 135 -h 7° 8=142° 8' 
C = 45° 0' 

D = 135 -14°16'=120°44' 

Sum . . 360° 0'; 

And the sides — 

AB = -25xsec. 52^ 8= -25 x 1-6291 = '4073 
BC =-2500 

If the other sides are wanted, they may be computed as 
follows : 

In the aEBA (fig. 1) the angles are known, and also the 

side BA. 

TT T7TJ AB sin BAE lq^^q 

Hence LB = — : — =-pr- — = 1'3048, 

sm BEA 

and EA=^i^ig^=10145. 

sm BEA 

Again, in the a ECD the angles are known, and the side 
EC = EB-hBC = l-3048-f- -2500= 1-5548. 

XT T7TA EC sin ECD , o^rki 

Hence ED= — : — — — - — =1-2791, 

sm EDC 

, ^-r, ED sin CED ...^ 

and CD= . — — = -4408. 

sm ECD 

Therefore AD = ED-EA = l-2791-l-0145 = -2646. 

Or they may be otherwise computed thus : — If A and C 
(fig. 1) be joined, the quadrilateral ABCD will be divided into 
two triangles, ABC and ACD. In the former two sides and the 
included angle are known, whence the angles at A and C, 


and the remaining side AC, may be determined. In the 
latter triangle, ACD, there will now be known the angles 
and the side AC ; whence the sides AD, DC may be found. 

It will be for practice to determine with what amount of 
rigour the indications of theory Avill require to be carried out. 
And it may be worth while to remark, finally, that the pencil, 
as emergent from the object-glass and incident on the prism, 
is not strictly parallel ; but it would serve no useful purpose 
to take account of the slight amount of convergency it 

Note on the Ovicells of the Cheilostomatous Polvzoa. 
By the Hev. Thomas Hixcks, B.A. 

(Read at the British Association, September, 1861.) 

Most of the Cheilostomatous Polyzoa (Polyzoa furnished 
with a moveable lip, which closes the mouth) exhibit at certain 
seasons external capsules, of various forms, which are situated 
generally at the upper extremity of the cells, and overarch 
the orifice. It has long been known that in these ovicells 
ciliated embryos are matured, which, after making their 
escape and passing through a free existence of longer or 
shorter duration, become fixed and are developed into 
the perfect Polyzoon. A question has been raised, how- 
ever, as to the birthplace of the ova which originate these 
motile embryos, and Professor Huxley has adopted the 
theory that they are produced within the cell itself, either 
in an ovarium attached to the side of the cell- wall 
(endocyst), or on the cord (funiculus) which in some 
species connects the body of the polypide with the bottom of 
the cell. He supposes (or did suppose in 185G, when his note 
on the subject was connnunicated to the ' ^Microscopical 
Journal,^ vol. iv, p. 191), that the ova, after impregnation in 
the perigastric cavity, pass into the ovicell, and " there, as iu 
a marsupial pouch,^^ undergo their further development. 
In the same paper Professor Huxley remarks that " the 
general idea, that the ova are developed within the ovicells," is 
" wholly an assumption.^' 

This very plausible conjecture has been virtually accepted 
as the true explanation of the function of the Polyzoan ovi- 
cells, and has not been challenged, so far as I am aware, in 
any published work. My object in this notice is to give a 
brief account of observations whicli I have made en the deve- 


lopraent of the ciliated embryo and its relation to the ovicell, 
and which are, I believe, conclusive against the marsupial 

I may remark, however, in the first place, that the common 
opinion could not be correctly represented as a mere " assump- 
tion," even Avhen Professor Huxley's paper appeared. For 
as early as 1845 Professor Reid, in a communication to the 
'Annals,' vol. xvi, p. 385 (" Anatomical and Physiological 
Observations on some Zoophytes "), had recorded the results 
of his examination of the ovicells of Flustra avicularis and 
the contained ova, and had clearly pointed out that the latter, 
in the first stage of their growth, " adhere to the upper end 
of the lining membrane of the capsule," and are enclosed in 
a sac formed by a reflection of this membrane. In his 
account of the structure of the Polyzoa in the ' British 
Zoophytes,' Dr. Johnston has referred to Professor Reid' s in- 
vestigations, and adopted his views. 

My own observations, repeatedly made on several species, 
completely agree with Dr. Reid's, and leave no doubt that 
the ovum, which is ultimately developed into the ciliated 

embryo, is produced within the ovicsll, in an ovarian sac, 
which buds from the endocyst, at the upper extremity of the 

I shall briefly detail the various points which have come 
under my notice, and trace tlie growth of the capsular ovum 
from its first appearance to its final exit. 

The species upon which my observations have been made 
are Bugula flabellata (the Flustra avicularis oi Reid), B. turbi- 
nata, and Bicellaria ciliata. In all these forms the ectocyst is 
strengthened by the deposition of calcareous matter. The 
ovicell is a stony receptacle, lined by an extension of the en- 
docyst or inner coat, which constitutes the wall of the peri- 
gastric cavity and encloses the body of the poh^pide. This 
lining membrane, according to Dr. Reid, " stretches across 
the aperture in the capsule." 

The examination of a number of ovicells enables us to deter- 
mine the following stages in the development of the ovum. It 
appears at first as a minute mass of granular substance, in 
contact with the endocyst, at the top of the capsule, and 
enclosed by a well-marked sac, formed by a reflection of the 



lining membrane, stretching from side to side (fig. 1). At this 
stage the ovum has not attained any very definite form. It is 
simply a mass occupying the space between theendocyst and the 
wall of the ovarium. The first change which I have noticed 
seems to consist in a slight concentration of the matter at the 
centre of the nascent ovum. Gradually it assumes a circidar 
form, and segmentation takes place, the mass being divided 
into four and afterwards into more numerous granules 
(figs. 2, 3). I have not detected a germinal vesicle. On 
the disappearance of the segmentation the ovum exhibits 
a marginal band of large and somewhat oblong cells, sur- 
rounding a central, opaque, granular mass, and changes its 
circular for a more or less oval figure (fig. 4) . As the growth of 
the ovum proceeds the membranous partition which encloses it 
is pushed downwards, and the sac at last occupies a consider- 
able portion of the ovicell, suspended, as it were, from the top, 
and reaching towards the aperture. Its wall is also thick- 
ened, and shows very distinctly. Indeed, from its first differ- 
entiation it may be detected without difficulty. 

Subsequently the ovum increases in size until it nearly 
fills the cavity of the capsule, and the containing sac would 
seem to be ruptured and to disappear. Cilia are at last de- 
veloped on the surface, and the embryo moves restlessly about 
the interior of the ovicell, and at last makes its escape through 
the aperture."^ 

I have never seen spermatozoa within the ovicell, and am 
unable to throw any light on the way in w hich impregnation 
of the capsular ova takes place. 

Dr. Ileid mentions having wntnessed the division of an 
embryo into two portions, one of Avhich immediately escaped 
from the capsule, the other remaining in it for the time, but 
nothing of the kind has occurred to me. 

A word now as to the ova, Avhich are produced within the 
cells, and which Professor Huxley supposed to make their 
way into the OAicell, for the purpose of accomplishing the 
later stages of their development. 

They are commonly present in cells bearing capsules from 
which the embryos are being discharged. Professor Huxley 
has described them as they appear in Bitgula avicularia, and has 
pointed out the respective positions of the ovary and testicle. 
They present one very distinctive character. They are never 
ciliated. No observer, I believe, has professed to detect cilia 
upon them at any stage of their development. Van Beneden 

* I do not ofTer tlie forcgoiii!:: as a complete account of the development 
of the ovum, but only as an enumeration of certain successive stages of it, 
which have come under my notice. 


asserts that on one occasion he saw an ovum escaping through 
an orifice near the tentacular rim from the cell of Lagiincula, 
but he distinctly states that it had no cilia. His observation, 
however, has not been confirmed. Xo such orifice as he sup- 
poses has, I believe, been detected by any other naturalist. 
On the contrary, these non-ciliated ova may very commonly 
be met with in the cells after the disappearance of the poly- 
pides, and everything seems to showthat they are only liberated 
when the soft portions of the Polyzoa have quite perished. I 
haverepeatedly found specimens in which the polypides had all 
disappeared, Avhile in nearly every cell there was one of the 
red, circular bodies of which I have spoken. In the case of 
Flustra foUacea, Van Beneden remarks that the eggs (round, 
deeply-coloured bodies, and perfectly motionless) " appear to 
be hatched in the empty cells,'' for that he had seen very young 
individuals in the cells of adults. 

It would seem, then, that we have in this class two kinds of 
reproductive bodies — the ciliated, actively moving embryos, 
produced in the ovicells, which are liberated in immense 
numbers, and diifuse the species far and wide ; and the non- 
ciliated ova, produced in the cells, which are only removed 
from the polyzoarium after the death of the polypides, and 
may, perhaps, require a longer period for their perfect de- 

It would be very interesting to know the complete history 
of the last-named bodies, and 1 trust the subject will receive 
the attention of those who may have the opportunity of con- 
tinuous observation. 

On the Motionless Spores (Stato- spores) of Volvox 
GLOBATOR. By J. Braxton Hicks, M.D. Loud., F.L.S., 

I believe that the condition of the zoospores of Volvox 
have not been observed beyond the time when, in the autumn, 
the imperfectly or partially formed daughters in their early 
segmenting stage, or in their encysted state (testing spores), 
are set free by solution of the parent envelope. I shall, in 
the following lines, be able to show that there is yet another 
stage through which they pass. 

These observations were made by keeping a large quantity 
of Volvox, gathered late in autumn, in water in a glass vessel 
for upwards of three months, watching very carefully and 
very frequently ; after which time an accident unfortunately 
prevented my extending them further. 


It is well known that towards tlic end of autumn the 
zoospores^ instead of tending in the usual manner towards the 
formation of the gemmules after the parent type, become 
irregularly developed in that direction, and also into a condi- 
tion which might, perhaps, be called an arrest in development, 
being in this state set free by the destruction of the old 
Vol vox. 

Let us take up our examination at the point where, in the 
usual order of gemmule growth, the division of the zoospore 
has continued to the formation of about thirty-six cells within 
the common cell-wall (PI. IX, fig. 1). These, in the ordi- 
nary way, would pass on to further subdivision, producing 
almost from this point ciliated cells, which, again rediWding, 
would produce the ultimate zoospores held together by the 
hollow, spherical membrane, or, in other terms, the ordinary 
Volvox. Instead, then, of the subdivision forming the ciliated 
cells, which tend towards the exterior of the mass, motionless 
spores or gonidia are produced, which do not tend outwardly, 
but svhich retain their position, except that they become more 
separated from each other by the increase of the intervening 
mucus. Watching these throughout the period above men- 
tioned, I found that the segmentation continued in various 
modes till the masses became one eighth of an inch in dia- 
meter, preserving more or less of a globular form, but inde- 
finite so far as any investing membrane was concerned. 

At first the division went upon the binary plan (fig. 2), 
after which some of them di^'ided into three or four segments, 
— the di\dsion being cruciate — while others extended them- 
selves in a linear series, with their short diameters in a line 
(fig. 3). These are shown magnified, with nuclei, at fig. 3'. 
Some of the divisions, instead of subdividing, increased in 
size, producing a green cell much larger than the rest (fig. 3'). 
At fig. 4 arc two pairs of cells enclosed in a common mucous 
envelope, much larger than the ordinary size. I have shown 
at fig. 4 — 11 difterent varieties of the segmentation of 
these motionless gonidia, forming in the last (fig. 11) a mass 
not dissimilar to that of Tetrasjjora. 

The mucus whicli formed around these cells m as at first 
more or less definite in boundary, but after segmentation had 
advanced to some degree its outline was irregular, and at last 
quite indefinite. The outer edge never possessed more 
solidity than the mucous envelope of Cladonia gleocapsa. 

It is worthy of note that this condition I have seen to 
commence loithin the parent Volvox, before separation. 

Some of these forms Avill be recognised as analogous to 
those which occur during the growth of Pandorina and in 


Stephanosphsera (Cohn), and serve to establish another link 
between thera. 

It would be very interesting to extend observations beyond 
the point I have carried mine, and those interested in these 
reseai'ches would do well to secure as many Volvox as possible 
this autumn. 

ThuSj there seem to be two modes by which the life of 
Voh=ox (which ceases as such on the approach of winter) can 
be perpetuated, namely — 1, by the encysted cell {ivinter spore, 
Mjpno spore), which Cohn conceives to be of the nature of an 
oospore (impregnated yyinnospore) ; 2, by the above-described 
form of motionless segments of the zoospore, which clearly 
has its homologue in many alga?, and for which, perhaps, a 
more appropriate name may be found in " stato-spore," not 
sleeping, but free from motion, because without ciliae, and 
thereby distinguished from zoospore. 

There is also a striking analogy between these and the 
segmenting gonidia of lichens, especially of Cladonia. 

On a neio IIydroid Polype belonging to the Genus Cordy- 
LOPHORA, Allni., discovered by Senator Kirchenpauer, 
of Ritzebiittel. By George Busk, Esq., F.R.S. 

In a letter recently received from Senator Kirchenpauer, 
to whom we are already under great obligations of the 
same kind, he encloses specimens and drawings, together 
with the description, of a Hydroid Polype, " which," he says, 
" seems to be new. It belongs to Professor AUman's genus 
Cordijhphora, and as it differs from C. lacustris, Allm., the 
only species that has been published, I have named it 
C. albicola. I found it three years ago, and since then every 
summer again, on some of the buoys moored in the mouth of 
the Elbe. Description and drawings were sent to the Ham- 
burg Naturwissenschaftliche Verein." 

Earn. TuBULARiAD.E. Gen. Cordylophora, Allm. 

(Polyparium corneum,tubulosum,fibris tubulosis reptantibus 
aflfixum, erectum. Polyporum capitula in apice ramulorura, 
conoidea, teutaculis sparsis nee capitatis munita.) 


1. C. laciistris, Allm. 

C. ramulis brevibuSj alternis, Isevibus; capitulis conoideis, 
acuminatis ; tentaculis filiformibus; (fluviatilis). Branches 
short, alternate, smooth ; capitula conoid, acuminate ; ten- 
tacles filiform ; (fluviatile) . 

2. C. albicola, n. sp. Pi. IX, figs. 1, 2, 3. 

C. ramulis alternis, annulatis; capitulis conoideis, trun- 
catis ; tentaculis crassis, granulatis ; (submarina) . Branches 
alternate, ringed ; capitula conoid, truncate ; tentacles thick, 
granulate; (submarine). Hab. Mouth of the Elbe, on 



On the MoKPHOLOfiY of the Copepoda. By C. Claus. 

(From Wiirzburger, Nuturwissenschaftliclie Zeitschrift. I, p. 20. 1S60.) 

I. A Case of Monstrosity in Cyclops (Plate X, figs. 1 and 2). 

The observation of a minute Cyclops, scarcely two thirds 
of a millimetre in length, and yet furnished with ovisacs con- 
taining developed embryos, made me suppose, at first sight, 
that I had fallen in with a new species of the genus. Closer 
investigation, however, showed that this sexually developed 
individual represented a stunted or arrested form of growth, 
which, from the variety of similar cases among the Ento- 
mostraca, is worthy of notice, and the more especially 
so since the known processes attending the free metamor- 
phoses in Cyclops throws some light upon the origin and 
cause of this malformation. 

The essential morphological distinctions of the sexually 
mature Cyclopida are derived from the definite number and 
regular articulation of the somites and their appendages. 
The same value which in the Vertebrata attaches to the 
number or form of the vertebroe in the characterization of 
the various regions of the body, also attaches to the number 
and differences of the segments in the diff'erent divisions of 
the body in the Arthropoda. However numerous and 
various may be the differences under which the numerous 
modifications in form and structure of the arthropod body 
are exhibited, equally regular appears to be the division of 
the body in the various orders and families, and as constant 
and immutable the number and relative size of the somites 
within the more restricted compass of the genera and species. 
"With respect to the Cyclopida, I endeavoured in a former work 
('Zur Anatomic und Entwickclungsgeschichte der Copcpodcn. 
Archiv f. Naturg.,' 1858) to determine the law of uniformity 
in the morphological development of the body, and to this 


work I must refer in the explanation of the present abnormal 
instance. This differs, chiefly, in the number of the somites 
and their appendages from the normal arrangement in the 
fully formed Cyclopida, inasmuch as in the cephalo-thorax the 
fourth thoracic ring, and the appendages belonging to it, are 
entirely wanting. The abdomen, on the contrary, preserves 
its full number of somites, and in its whole structure renders 
the specific identity of the form with C. semdatiis probable ; 
a supposition which is also supported by the size of the 
caudal setse. On the other hand again, the first pair of 
antennae is so short and compressed that the animal appears 
far rather to belong to a form arising in the cycle of develop- 
of a species of Cyclops characterised by seventeen-jointed 
antennae. These organs possess only eleven joints, and, in 
fact^ of the same proportionate size by which, at the stage of 
development when they consist of eleven rings, the first pair 
of antennne is characterised (1. c, tab. ii, fig. 32). The three 
pairs of feet, of which the first arises from the common 
anterior division of the cephalo-thorax, support, it is true, 
double branches ; but, nevertheless, appear to correspond 
in the degree of development, since the branches are com- 
posed of only two rings (fig. 2). The rudimentary pair of 
feet is indicated by a simple hook, supporting a single 
seta, and thus differs essentially from the same part in C. 

Although the deficiency of a thoracic somite and pair of 
feet is in itself sufficient to indicate that the abnormal con- 
dition must have arisen in an early stage of development, 
the incomplete larval state of articulation in the segmental 
appendages which do exist places it beyond doubt that we 
have to do with an instance of arrested development. But 
when we call to mind the process of development through 
which the young Cyclops must pass after it has gone through 
the Nauplius-like larval condition (1. c. p. 70, the tabular 
summary), and remember the morphological characters 
which are presented in the successive phases in the articula- 
tion of the appendages appropriate to each stage in the seg- 
mentation of the body, we are led to refer for the explanation 
of the form now before us to deviations arising in tlie very 
earliest stages of its development. For even in the immature 
form, characterised by the existence of only five somites, we 
find rudiments of parts which are equivalent to the absent 
fourth thoracic somite and its pair of appendages. These 
parts, therefore, must either have been entirely wanting, or 
at the next slougliing of the integument, accompanied with 
the simultaneous failure of the new difterentiation, instead of 


the absent succeeding ring, must have become the origin of 
the rudimentary (fifth) thoracic somite and its pair of feet. 

Now, whilst in the further course of development the 
segmentation of the abdomen proceeds to its normal termi- 
nation, the antennae and pairs of feet remain in one of the 
last stages of development, and never attain to their complete 

The morphological stage, therefore, of the form in question, 
in respect of the articulation of the appendages, corresponds 
to one of the latest stages of development; whilst the absence 
of the fourth thoracic ring, and corresponding pair of feet, 
must be explained by reference to the differentiation being 
interrupted at an early period. But the duplex characters of 
the separate parts of the body remains a remarkable fact, and 
I cannot but express the notion that I may be describing a 
form produced from two distinct species, in whose duplex 
nature must at once be sought the cause of the deviations in 
development. It is to be hoped that further investigations 
may serve to solve this not uninteresting question. 

II. On the Structure o/Nicothoe (figs. 3, 4, 5). 

Besides Audouin, and Milne-Edwards,"^ Kroyer,t Ilathke,J 
and Van Beneden § have contributed to our knowledge of 
this Copepod, which is parasitic on the branchise of Astacus 
marinus. Although the above zoologists have studied the 
subject at different periods, and to some extent under 
different points of view, their observations collectively afford 
a tolerably correct account of the structure, development, and 
habits of this interesting parasite. At the same time there are 
still some points, particularly with respect to the form and nature 
of the oral organs, which, owing to the difficulty attending 
the examination, have remained almost unnoticed, although 
the importance of a knowledge of these organs for the proper 
estimation of the systematic position of the animal is sufficiently 
obvious. More recent examination, moreover, has shown that 
even its structure has not been described in all respects ex- 
actly as it is, and that that part of the subject is by no means 
exhausted ; I am, therefore, induced to think that there is 
some justification in my attempting to correct and complete 
what has been already done in it. What has especially 
induced me to draw the attention of naturalists again to the 

* 'Ami. cl Sc. nat.,' i, ser, torn. ix. 

t ' Nalurhistoribk Tidiskrit't,' Bd. ii. 

X 'Nov. Act.,' torn. XX. 

§ ' Aun. d. Sc. uat.,' iii, Ser, toni. xiii. 


subject of Nicothoe is the discovery of the male form, which 
has hitherto escaped observation. Tlie creature, at any rate, 
regarded by Van Benedcu as the male Nicothoe has probably 
no connection with our species, and perhaps represents 
another Entomostracon, found accidently associated with the 
female Nicothoe. It must be confessed that no direct proof 
of the male nature of the form about to be described, and 
which was discovered by Prof. Leuckart on the branchiae of 
Nicothoe, and submitted to me (in a microscopic pi'eparation) 
for examination, has been afforded by observation of sexual 
congress, or the discovery of the male organs. Nevertheless, it 
appeared to agree so completely with the female Nicothoe in 
all the principal characters, including even the absence of the 
alseform thoracic appendages, that no doubt can be retained 
as to their specific identity. But since, according to Rathke's 
observations, rudiments of the thoracic alse in the female exist 
even in the earlier stages of development, and, on account of 
the growth of the sexual organs, constitute an important and 
never-failing character of the female, and as, moreover, the 
observed form possesses the full number of somites, and thus 
represents a perfectly mature sexual condition, it can only be 
regarded as the male of Nicothoe. 

In the first place, with respect to the segmentation of the 
female body, which, in its general form, has been sufficiently 
well described by the writers above cited, I have to remark that, 
up to the present time, the structure of the head and thorax 
has not been rightly understood. That portion of the body 
which projects free above the alaform lateral appendages by 
no means represents the head alone, but is, in fact, consti- 
tuted of the head together with the first thoracic ring, fro)n 
Avhich the first pair of bifurcated, swimming-feet arises. The 
three following somjtes, therefore, which remain distinct only 
on the dorsal surface, in the form of three corresponding 
zones, represent not the three first thoracic somites, but 
the second, third, and fourth, whose fully jointed feet are 
attached close to each other, immediately behind the first. 
Another segment, from protrusions of which, according to 
Van Beneden, the monstrous alas are constituted, does not 
in general (uberhaupt) exist. I have fully satisfied myself 
that the lateral sacs are developed from the ventral and 
lateral surfaces of all the three free thoracic rings, whose 
original distinction from each other is recognisable only in the 
three dorsal zones just mentioned. The last thoracic segment 
is rudimentary, like the corresponding fifth thoracic ring in 
Cyctops, and is represented by a narrow zone distinguishable 
only on the ventral aspect, and from which the single-jointed 


abortive feet of the fifth pair arise. The abdomen is, in like 
manner, identical^ as regards the number of somites, ^vith 
the corresponding part in Cyclops. The first and second rings 
are fused into a common, considerable-sized division, charac- 
terised by the opening of the sexual organs. This is suc- 
ceeded by three gradually smaller and smaller rings, the last 
of -nhich supports the fork ^vith the caudal setae. The seg- 
mentation of the body, therefore, in Nicolhoe corresponds in 
all respects with that of Cyclojjs. And precisely the same 
may be said of the form assumed to represent the male 
Nicothoe (fig. 3), vrhicli differs fi'om the female of the same 
length chiefiy in the absence of the lateral thoracic projec- 
tions. The external integument constitutes a thick chitinous 
carapace, which in some parts is perforated by pore-canals, 
disposed with bilateral symmetry. These are most clearly 
seen in the frontal region, and exist, in fact, in the same 
number, and arranged in the same manner, as they are in the 
analogous situations in the female. These openings serve, as 
perhaps do all the larger canals in the carapace of the Arthro- 
poda, for the insertion of cuticular organs, and, in the present 
case, of short, delicate chitinous filaments connected through 
the pores with the tissue of the matrix. Otherwise, also, the 
carapace is by no means of uniform constitution, seeing that, 
especially at the points of insertion of the limbs, various 
thickenings of the chitinous covering, such as plates, ridges, 
&c., afford firm supports to the lateral appendages. At the 
fore part two spherical elevations of the carapace represent 
the refractive parts of the visual apparatus, formed alike in 
both sexes. This consists, as in the Saphirince, of a simple 
cornea, but which in the present case is immediately suc- 
ceeded by the pigment body with the percipient nervous part. 
The other thickenings of the carapace are confined to the 
ventral aspect of the cephalic and thoracic portions, on which, 
owing to their constant and symmetrical arrangement, they 
mark out definite regions to which, Avitli as much reason as in 
the various regions of the body in the Deeapoda, special 
designations might be assigned. The most complex of these 
regions are the arcfe between the pairs of feet correspond- 
ing with the so termed ventral vertebrae (Bauchwirbeln) of 

Of the appendages, are first to be noticed the first pair of 
antennae, which project from the frontal region (fig. 3 a), and 
which in both sexes possess the same number of joints, con- 
sisting, as correctly represented by Kroj^er, of ten rings. 
Within their insertions spring the second antennjc (fig. 4 b), 
in the form of three-jointed appendages, Avhieh are formed 


into a kind of pincers, by the insertion of a moveable seta at 
the base of a styliforra process on the terminal joints. Van 
Beneden has also noticed this pair of appendages correspond- 
ing to the inner antennse, but has described it as the first 
pair of jaw-feet, following ]\Iilne-Edwards. {' Ann. d. So. 
Nat.,' tom. xxviii, " Sur TOrgauisation delabouche chez les 
Crustaces sn9eurs.") The oral organs were very coiTectly 
understood by Rathke, although that observer was unable to 
obtain a satisfactory view of their form, and consequently has 
given no figure of them, as he himself states. They repre- 
sent, as was first recognised by Rathke and Van Beneden, a 
suctorial proboscis, to which succeed two pairs of clasping 
organs, representing the jaw- feet. The suctorial proboscis 
(fig. 4), as compared with the corresponding parts of the 
mouth in the Siphonostomata, appears short, and compressed 
into an acetabuliform organ, in Avhich I have in vain sought to 
trace its original composition out of a labium and labrum, as 
can be so readily made out in Pandarus, Nogayus, and 
Caligus. I must particularly state, that the more intimate 
relations of this suctorial disc have not been rendered perfectly 
clear; all that I can assert positively is, that two pairs of 
appendages are concerned in it — two serrated jaws (fig. 4 c) 
and two setigerous palpi (fig. 4 d). The former appear to be 
curved at an obtuse angle, and in the skeleton are affixed by 
peculiar chitinous rods, which project symmetrically on the 
sides of the acetabulum, below which they are united by an 
arched, horny piece (fig. 4). The palpus is inserted next to 
the piercing seta ; it is also based on a firm, chitinous rod, 
and appears as a single-jointed papilla, which, together with 
several short points, supports two considerable- sized curved 
setse. The two pairs of jaw-feet occupy the lower half of the 
cephalic portion, and they are separated from each other by 
hard skeleton-plates, of a defined symmetrical form. Those 
of the first pair are constituted of two joints, and support at 
their apices two strong clasping-hooks ; whilst the second, as 
I, in contradiction to Rathke and Van Beneden, must assert, 
is five-jointed. The last three joints, furnished each with a 
liook-like seta, might easily, it is true, be taken for a single 
joint, particularly in the female, in which it is only under a 
strong magnifying power that they can be recognised as 

With respect to the constitution of the other limbs, and 
the structure of the abdomen, 1 sliall reserve what I have to 
say for a more detailed account, since the figures here given 
will suffice to show the peculiarities. 


III. On the Division of the Body, and on the Oral Organs 
of the Parasitic Crustacea (figs. 6 — 12). 

Notwithstanding the valuable researches in recent times of 
Burmeister, Rathke, Kroycr, Van Beneden, and others, in 
the subject of the parasitic Crustacea, we are by no means, as 
yet, fully acquainted with the structure and morphological 
divisions of the body in these creatures. It is only by ex- 
plaining the significance of each division of the body, and of 
each member in every genus and species, that we shall be 
enabled to lay a foundation for any correct estimation of the 
relations between the parasitic Crustacea and the free Cope- 
pods, as well as of the mutual relations of the separate forms 
to each other. With this object in view, I endeavoured, on 
a former occasion {vide my work, ' Ueber den Ban und die 
Entwicklung parasitischer Crustaceen,' Cassel, 1858), to ex- 
plain the structure of Chondracant/ius from the morphological 
conditions presented in the young condition, and, at the same 
time, approached the subject of the division of the body in 
Lernanthropiis and Kroyeria. But I was rinsuccessful in 
indicating the relation of the oral organs to the corresponding 
parts in the Copepoda ; and was also unable, from the limited 
amount of materials at my disposal for observation, to arrive 
at any general considerations embracing the separate families. 
These deficiencies have been supplied in the following obser- 

It is Avell known that Milne-Edwards and Audouin have 
attempted to point out the existence of a definite law govern- 
ing the number oflimbsinthe Siphonostomata — a term under 
which, since Blainville, have been included the higher, dis- 
tinctly annulated parasitic Crustacea"^ — starting with the idea 
that the differences in the formation of the limbs in the 
Crustacea arise only in modifications of similar (or homolo- 
gous, parts. ]\Iost Crustacea, it was said, lead a free life, and 
feed upon solid substances, and are, therefore, provided with 
masticatory organs ; the parasitic forms, on the contrary, 
are nourished only on fluids, and consequently must have 
the homologous organs transformed into a suctorial appa- 

* The proof of tlie incorrectness of this term, which lias been overlooked 
by Milne-Edwards ('Hist. K;it. des Crustacces'j, although it had been pointed 
out by Wicgimum ('Grnndriss der Zooloi^io,' JSoi?), is derived simply from 
the oral armature of the Lernteopoda and Lcunitie, which have an equally 
good title to be termed Siphonostomata. * 


But as almost all theories respecting tlie limbs, Mhich have 
been propounded in the case of the Arthropoda, have broken 
down from the circumstance that the original equivalence of 
the whole body has been assumed a priori for all the Arthro- 
poda, or, at any rate, for considerable sections of them, and 
the observed modifications made to fit into the scheme so 
constructed ; so the fault of every observer has consisted" in 
this, that they have imagined all the Crustacea to be seg- 
mented according to the same plan, and have consequently 
taken the number of segments in the Malacostraca as explana- 
tory of the entomostracan structure. If we wish to arrive at 
a correct theory of the limbs, we shall have first to obtain, in 
each case, the proof from development that a similar plan is 
followed in the construction of the body, and shall have to 
set out from groups of limited extent, and in these to trace 
the identity of structure, before we can arrive at more general 

Milne - Edwards and Audouiu have drawn the parallel 
between the limbs of Pandarus and those of the Decapoda ; 
and have applied, in reference to the prehensile organs 
(second antennae), the hypothesis first started by Oken, that 
the jaws were feet advanced towards the head. They 
declared that the maxillary organs existing in and around the 
suctorial proboscis (composed of the labium and lahrum) were 
the equivalents of the mandibles and two pairs of maxillse ; 
the hook-like clasping organs to be the backwardly placed 
first pair of maxillary feet ; the four claspiug-liooks anterior 
to the eight, and thoracic feet, as the second and third pairs of 
maxillary feet, assuming at the same time the abortion of the 
second antennae. 

Erichson probably had this attempt at an explanation 
before his mind when he formed his scheme from the limbs 
of the Ilexapoda, which, according to him, was to be found 
repeated in subordinate modifications in all the other groups 
of Arthropoda, and Avhich, in the case of the Entomostraca, he 
employed by regarding the second antcnnoe of Cyclojjs as 
advanced thoracic feet. 

The views of Audouin and ^lilne-Edwards, respecting the 
oral organs of Pandarus and the Siphonostomata, otherwise 
met with no general reception, llathke was as little disposed 
to agree Avith them as Burmeister, who very properly assigns 
to the Entomostraca their own place among the Crustacea ; 
whilst Van Benedcn, and even GerstJicker (" Beschr. zweier 
neuer Siphonostomen," Troschel's 'Archiv,' 1851), it would 
seem, without adducing any proof, held the opinion that the 
second antennte 'were advanced jaw or thoracic feet. But 


since it has been shown, as the indubitable result of numerous 
researches in the Entomostraca, that they have nothing in 
the nvimbcr and conformation of their somites common with 
the Malacostraca, the notion of the French observers would 
at once be contradicted. On the other hand, when we regard 
the relation of the pai-asitic Crustacea with the free Copcpods, 
and their exact correspondence in the mode of segmentation 
and number of somites, as we have shown to be the case, for 
instance, in Nicothoe and Cyclops, it Avill not be in vain to 
attempt to draw a parallel between the limbs in the two series 
of Crustacea, and at the same time to explain, morphologi- 
cally, the differences in structure observable in the various 
families and genera. 

In all the Copepoda which present a distinct division of the 
body into the full number of somites, we may distinguish 
four pairs of oral organs — two mandibles, two maxillse, and 
four jaw-feet, the latter fulfilling the functions of seizing and 
masticating the food. The same number is also found to exist 
in the Sapkiri/Ke {vide ' Beitm^^e zur Keuntniss der Entomo- 
strakeu,^ 1 Heft, 1860, ]Marburg), which may be regarded to 
a certain extent as stationary parasites {Saphirina saJpa, in 
the branchial cavity of the Salpse), and as constituting in their 
habits the transition between the free Copepods and the para- 
sitic Crustacea. These forms, it may be remarked, all possess 
the characteristic labium in the form of an azygous plate 
partiallv overlapping the jaws. 

In Nicothoe we may also count four pairs of oral organs, of 
which the four maxillary feet (fig. 3 e,f), in conformation 
and position, precisely correspond with the jaw-feet of the 
Copepoda. There remain, therefore, the two piercing setae 
and the palpi, whose homology with the mandibles and^ 
maxillse might at first sight be doubted, although one might be 
justified in explaining the differences in form, as associated Avith 
the diversity in the mode of life, on the assumption that they 
were functional differences. But since we are able in numer- 
ous parasitic Crustacea to reduce the oral organs not only to 
the same number, but also to demonstrate a gradual approach 
in the form of the piercers to the mandibles, and of the palpi 
to the maxilke, it would seem no longer possible to doubt the 
correctness of our explanation. The CaUfjince and Pandariuoi, 
whose oral organs, as I have satisfied myself in the case of 
Calif/us, Noyayus, Pandurus, Cecrops, &c., were very well and. 
accurately known, as regards their number and structure, to 
Burmeister, in the construction of their oral armature have 
a general resemblance to Nicothoe. Besides the conical pro- 
boscis, the altered oral hood of the lai'va, which in the present 

291 CLAUS^ ox THE 

case is constituted of a labium and lahrum, which surrounds 
the oral orifice as a sort of groove, we find four pairs of 
members in the piercers, the pair of palpi and the small and 
larpce jaw -feet. But the homology of these parts with those 
in Nicothoe can the less admit of doubt, since the whole divi- 
sion of the body follows the same law, and the number also 
of the antennae and thoracic feet in the groups above named 
corresponds. The morphological peculiarities, which distin- 
guish these families of parasites from the Cyclopidse, are 
limited to the incompleteness in the number of abdominal 
segments, and the shield-like shape of the thoracic carapace."^ 
In the Dichelestiniinai, also, we meet Avith the same form and 
development of the oral armature, and may be satisfied of the 
existence of a similar degree of segmentation, inasmuch as 
the abdomen may be seen to become gradually more and 
more abbre\dated {Lamproglene, Krdi/eria).f But in this 
family we may perceive still another retrogression. The 
arrest in the morphological completion, if I may be al- 
lowed to use such a term, is no longer limited to the abdo- 
men, but invades the thorax, whose segments in Dichelestium, 
though still, it is true, distinct, nevertheless are deficient in 
the last pair of members, or, in Lernanthropus, are even fused 
together into a continuous division of the body, sharply de- 
fined from the interior part of the cephalo-thorax, and on 
which the two first thoracic feet are supported in the form of 
two branched swimming- feet ; whilst the two last are 
elongated into sacciform eminences. 

In Cluvella, lastly, a genus which has hitherto been ad- 
mitted into the family of the Chondracantha, although in the 
oral armature it corresponds with Dichelestium, the last two 
pairs of limbs are entn'ely wanting on the thorax ; and in 
this instance all the thoracic somites are fused together, only 
the two first rings of the thorax, which are furnished with pairs 
of feet, being separated from the succeeding ones by a con- 
striction. Hence the abdomen appears to be completely 

With respect to the family of Chondracantha,X we have on 
a former-occasion referred to the genus Chondr acanthus, from 

* Tlie numerous processes and appendages on the ceplialo-tlioraeic 
portions of the CaligincE^ &c., whicli formerly led me to conclude that ihe 
antennae and oral members were subdivided inio a great manv lateral and 
median pieces, are, for the most part, to be referred to chitinous processes 
of the carapace. 

f Vide Rutiike on Dichelestium slurioiiis, as well as my "Observations on 
Kroi/crid, LeniaiUliropus, Clavella." 

% The other forms included in this family appear almost all to belong to 
other groups. 


its structure, to tlic Copepoduj luid observed that tlie degree 
of segmentation presented in it corresponded with that of 
Lerncinthropvs. But^ as marking a further stage of retrogres- 
sion, Ave see also tlie anterior pairs of feet transformed into 
misshapen, unjointed saeculi, which participate in the produc- 
tion of the reproductive materials. 

In this case, in the oral organs, the beak-like proboscis is 
wanting, and, as in the t^ajj/iirhae, they are composed of 
pointed, more or less curved, chitinous rods, whose number 
we could not estimate at more than three pairs. Since the 
two loANcrmost paii-s, from their whole aspect, arc jaw-feet, 
and the first in form correspond with the mandibles, we find 
that the jyalpl or maxillce are wanting. Closer examination, 
however, shows the existence, between the mandibles and the 
first pair of jaw-feet, of a rudimentary appendage, which, 
although it Avas formerly noticed by me, and even described 
us a paipv.s, I, nevertheless, did not then regard as the 
equivalent of the second maxillary pair. But the explanation 
of the palpi as the second pair of oral members may be 
regarded as the more certain, since they not only correspond 
with them in position, but because the preceding cephalic 
members are homologous with the two pairs of antennae. 

The Lernjeopodic stand at a still lower stage of morpho- 
logical completeness, as in them, as a rule, all division of the 
body into somites is wanting. In rare cases (very clearly in 
Lcnueopoda Go.lei), it is true, the first thoracic somites may 
be distinguished as separate rings, but in this family the 
thoracic members in general are no longer developed ; al- 
though the rudiments of them are present in the early larval 
condition, in the form of swimming-feet,'^ in the full-grown 
Lernseopod they are no longer to be found, even in the form 
of unjointed processes. The limbs which do exist represent 
the antennae, maxilhe, and jaw- feet, and consequently are all 
cephalic members, althougli in a very retrograde condition. 
The first antcnnie are simple and few-jointed appendages, and, 
in opposition to the antennae of the second pair, have inter- 
changed the external insertion with the internal (fig. 7 a), 
The latter, that is to say, are situated on the frontal region, 
on both sid(>s of the anterior antennje, and constitute two- 
jointed, clasping organs, supported on strong, chitinous frames 
(fig. 7 b), which have been described by jSordmann as 
"Kiefer" (jaws), and by A'an Beneden as " maehoires." 
.Moreover, that these parts ecrrespoiul with the second pair 

* Kollar's •'Aiiiiul. il. Wicii. >ruseunis/ ami Nordmaim's 'Mikio- 
grapliische Bcitiage,' -2 II oil. 

VOL. I. NEW %YA\. X 


of antennae;, which in many of the Siphonostoniata are also 
converted into clasping organs^ is shown beyond doubt by the 
circumstance that the latter in some instances present two 
branches^ and consequently resemble in some degree the pan* 
of two-branched members which exist in the larval stage of 
life. But in Lernceopoda Galei (fig. 10), I find that the 
second pair of antennse are two-branched ; and the same is the 
case, according to Nordmann's figures, in Tracheliastes poly- 
coljjus and Achtheres percarvm, and, according to those of 
Kollar, in Tracheliastes stellifer and Basanistes Hiichonis, 
being regarded by both authors as pincer-like jaws. To this 
clasping apparatus succeed the proper oral members, consist- 
ing of the mandibles enclosed in a conical beak, and armed 
towards the point Avith a definite number of lateral teeth. 
As toAvards the base they expand into a broad surface, they 
approach in their general form the mandibles of the Cyclopidie, 
between which and the slender piercing setse of the Sipho- 
nostomata they constitute a sort of intermediate form (figs. 7, 
8 c, 9 c). On the sides of the conical beak, which, like that 
of the Siphonostomata, consists of a flattened labium and a 
curved labrum, arise the equivalents of the maxillfe, the palpi, 
which also in their form gradually approach those members, 
and are produced into several setigerous processes (figs. 8 d, 

The anterior jaw-feet in the difl:erent species, which are 
sometimes close to the oral orifice {Anchorella, Lernceopoda , 
'Brachiella) , sometimes inserted as the base of the clasping 
arms, and at a considerable distance from the mouth 
{Achtheres, Basanistes, Tracheliastes), present, in their mor- 
phological constriiction, in all respects the characters of a 
first pair of jaw-feet (fig. 7 e). Behind these arise the last 
pair of limbs of the Lcrnseopoda, which, like the sacciform 
thoracic feet in Chondracanthus, are wholly unjointed, andare 
fused together, either throughout their entire length or at 
the point, into a common organ of attachment. 

These arm-like members, to Avhich the family of the Lernce- 
opoda OAves its appellation, correspond homologically Avitli 
the jaw-feet of the second pair. The same transformation of 
the segmental appendages into unjointed processes extends 
CA^eu to those of the head. That tliis is the correct explana- 
tion of them is already rendered probable, by that of the 
members above noticed ; but it is fully confirmed by the 
structure of the dAvarf male, and of the NaupHus-\\kc larva. 
The male Lcrnwopods, Avith Avhich I am acquainted, belonging 
to several species [L. Galli, AncliorcUa inicinafa, Brachiella 
Triglce), from my oavu researches, do not differ very far iu the 


structure of the antennae and oral organs from the correspond- 
ing females; it is only in the formation of the jaw-feet that 
they present any considerable difference. "Whilst in them the 
arm-like clasping organs of the female are wanting, there 
succeeds to the hrst pair of maxillary feet, which are like 
those in the female, a second pair, which correspond with the 
preceding in structure (fig. 6/), and in their position supply 
the place of the coalesced arm-pair. ]\Ioreover, it may be 
remarked (besides Kollar), V. Nordmann has made us ac- 
quainted with young forms of Achtheres and Tracheliastes, 
which, besides the first antennse, are provided with three pairs 
of clasping-feet,the second autennje,and the four maxillary feet. 
From this the distinguished observer concludes that the first 
pair is transformed into the jaws (second antennse), whilst 
the last pair grow together at the point, and become the arm- 
like appendage. The mandibles and palpi on the conical 
beak have unfortunately been overlooked ; but, as I perceive 
from Kollar's figures, they are always present at this stage. 

From these considerations, if we now endeavour to establish 
characters for the interesting family of the Lernseopoda, in 
the first place we must give up as a character the absence of 
any segmentation of the body, which has been taken by 
Milne-Edwards as a distinction between the Chondracanthce, 
Lernceojioda, and LerncEce, and the Siphonostomata, since in 
Lei'neeopoda Galei the first two thoracic rings are manifest 
as distinct segments ; and, besides this, in all the genera the 
anterior division of the cephalo-thorax appears sharply 
defined from the posterior. We have, indeed, to consider 
the slight, incomplete articulation of the body, the more or 
less complete fusion of the rings ; but, together with this, 
especially the abortive condition of the abdomen, the absence 
of all thoracic limbs, the coalescence of the second jaw-feet 
in the female into an arm-shaped organ of attachment, as 
well as the conformation of the oral organs allied to that 
existing in the Siphonostomata. It appears to mc, also, that 
the structure of the second antennpe, which project in the 
form of pincer-like clasping-hooks on the sides of the frontal 
region, is common to all the genera and species belonging to 
this subdivision. 

Lastly, in the family of the Lernaite we meet wdth the last 
and lowest stage in the morphological development of the 
body and of the limbs existing in the group of parasitic 
Crustacea, or even, it may be said, in the whole type of the 
Arthropoda. It is true that, according to V. Nordmann and 
Milne-Edwards, vestiges of thoracic members are present in 
some species, as, for example, Peniculus and Penella, and 

:i98 CLAUS, ox THE 

some analogy iu tlie whole habit may be perceived with souie 
Siphoiiostomata ; but the true Leriia?ce^ and Lernceocera 
decidedly occupy a lower stage than the Lernieopoda^ since, 
together with a complete Avant of segmentation iu the body, 
the cephalic members more closely approach the larval con- 

In Burmeister's figui'es of Lernoioceru cyprhiaceu, 1 Hud, 
in the cephalic members, that the second pair of autcnuce is 
composed of many-jointed branches, and are consequently 
almost identical with the second pair of feet in the XavjAhis- 
form. In the oral organs, on the other hand, the jaws 
lodged in the suctorial tube appear to be formed like the 
mandibles of the Cyclopidte, and the contiguous palpi are 
also of considerable size. The jaw-feet, on the contrary, 
appear to be replaced by those two pairs of arms, the smaller 
of which corresponds to the maxilla, whilst the second and 
larger two-branched pair corresponds to the jaw-feet. If wc 
imagine the two external fleshy arms to be grown together 
at the points, we shall have the attachment-organ of the 
Lcrnffiopoda, and which, moreover, in some forms^ e. tf., 
BrachieUa iinjmdica, also supports lateral appendages. The 
absence of articulation has also extended to the first jaw- 
feet. The oral organs in Lenicea hraDchial'is would also, 
perhaps, admit of a similar explanation ; of which organs, it 
must Ijc confessed, we are at present in waut of an accurate 
representation. In the genera Peniciduft, Penella, and Ler- 
lueonerna, the cephalic members are still more simplified; 
at any rate, neither Xordmann {Penella sayitia, Peniculus 
piftula) nor Y. Benedcn [LenKeoneiiui. MusteVi) have pointed 
out definite oral members in the female sex, although the 
aiitenna3 of both pairs are replaced by corresponding appen- 
dages. In the genus LopJioura Edwarchi [Lepidoleprus 
coelorhyachv.s), of which Professor Kolliker has sent mc for 
examination the only specimen as yet met with, I did not 
lind the least trace of oral members ; the antennje assumed 
the form of unjointed pi'ocesses; the mouth appeared to be 
surrounded l)y stunted chitinous rods (figs. 11 and 12). 
fjastly, we find among the Lerncece creatures which, together 
with a Avholly unjointed body, are also deprived of antemice, 
and in their outward form present a striking resemblance 
to the Treniatoda : I mean, tlie parasitie ^acndina, Thomps. 
(Pclfof/asler, Kathke) which is attached to the abdomen of 
tlie Payur'i and anourous Crustacea, and wliich Avas regarded 
iiy Diesing as a Trcniatode under the gcjioric name Pachyob- 
dt'Ua. It Avas the observation of the Kauplius-like lai'va, 
witii Avhieh, in fact, (^avolini was ar(iuaintod in the last 

MoKriioL'H.v or TiiK oorEronv. ;2(ir) 

century, togcllici; with tlio investigation of its organization 
[I'lHe particularly 11. Jjeueliurt, '']Oinige BemcrknnL':en iiber 
SnccvVina, Thoraps/' Troselicl's ^Arcliiv,' 1859), -whieli iirst 
afforded the proof of the Lcrna'au nature of this remarkable 

Conseqnently, in the nudtiple forms of parasitic Crustacea 
we iind an almost nninterrupted series of gradnal transitions, 
from the stage of organization presented inthefree-s>vimming 
Copepods down to the sacciform SaccAilina, -which exhibits no 
trace of segmentation nor of segmental appendages. The 
segmentation of the Cycloi)idce is most completely represented 
in the himily of the ErgasUina, in Nicothoe, Bomolochus, Er- 
yasiln.s, &c. Bomolochus, l)or/dtco/a, and Chalinius, inthescn- 
tiforni development of the thorax, point to the families of the 
Caliginffi and Pandarinfe ; whilst ErgasUus, Pagodina, Evdac- 
tylina, NotojjferojjJioy-fis, and Notodelphis, from the more 
delicate structure of the carapace and more extended form of 
the body, approach the Dichelestiniinre. At a lower stage we 
find a fusion of the ahdomiiial rings and abortion of the abdo- 
men, as in Kroyeriu, CaUr/i's', ScmnopMlus, Nogagus, Dine- 
mura, Pandarus, Cecrops, Lnemargus, LamprogJene . A further 
retrogression is manifested in — 1, the absence of thoracic feet, 
with a complete segmentation of the thorax itself — DicJielestium, 
Anthosoma ; 2, in an imperfect division into somites of the 
thorax, a, accompanied with transformation of the last pair 
of limbs into saccular processes — Clavella ; c, with a simulta- 
neous transformation of the anterior thoracic members into 
imjointed sacculi — Chondracantlais. In a still further stage of 
degradation, together with the complete absence of an abdo- 
men, the thoracic members are entirely wanting — LeriKPopoda, 
— whilst the last cephalic members, the second jaw-feet, are 
degraded into an nnjointed appendage, and fused into the 
well-known adhesion-organ. At first the two anterior thoracic 
somites are still apparent as distinct rings — Lernmopoda Galli ; 
but all appearance of division in the thorax disappears, which is 
distinguishable from the head only by a sharpish border, as in 
t\ic.Chondracanf/ue, TraclieUustres, BracMella, Anr/toreUa,kc. 
In the Lernffiocerai and LernsecC, the anterior jaw-feet are 
also reduced to hook-like prominences, whilst the fusion and 
transformation of the posterior pair into an organ of adhesion 
no longer exist. But, beyond this, the complete dis- 
appearance of both these members, together with that of the 
maxillai and palpi, marks the transition to the last and lowest 
stage, which among the parasitic Crustacea is represented by 
the Trcmatode-like SaccuHini, Thomps. 

If Avc throw the results of our considerations into a general 


form, the morphological differences among the fully formed 
parasitic Copepoda will appear to l)e similarly connected with 
those with which we have l)ccorac acquainted in the separate 
stages of development of the free Copepoda. In the same 
way that the latter, by a continual multiplication of the seg- 
mental appendages and segments of the body up to the highest 
subdivision of the abdomen, proceed one from another, in like 
manner we perceive in the former almost similar degradations, 
until at last the organization of the earliest larval form is, as 
it were, presented as the result of the continued retrogres- 
sion, ^vhich ultimately reaches even to the complete loss of 
the Arthropod character. 

On the Common Nervous System (Kolonialnervensys- 
tem) of the Bryozoa (Polyzoa), exemplified in Seria- 
laria CouTiNHii, n. sp. By Fritz Muller. 

(From Wiegmauii's ' Arcliiv.' 1S60, p. 311.) 

In animals living associated in a common colony or stock, 
movements of the entire growth or of indi-sddual animals may 
often be observed — movements which, thongli spontaneous, 
do not appear to depend upon the will of the individual, but 
to be carried out by them in obedience, as it were, to a com- 
mand from a higher quarter. This is the case with the Poly- 
zoa. In a species of Pedicellina, in which the cell is supported 
upon a rigid peduncle, 3,V mm. long, affixed by a thicker 
moveable socket, the motion of the peduncle continues un- 
changed for a whole day after the removal of the animal itself. 
In a far smaller species of the same genus, which frequently 
occurs as a parasite upon other Polyzoa and Hydroida, the 
peduncles, which arc moveable throughout their entire length, 
begin to move in the most active manner at a time when the 
animal at the summit is scarcely distinguishable in the form 
of a bud. I also remember noticing in MunoseUa gruciUs, 
Hincks, common and simultaneous movcunents of the disti- 
ehously arranged cells. ]S[ow,since in these animals, as in other 
Polyzoa, the existence of nerves has been demonstrated, it 
may reasonably be supposed, that a nervous system exists not 
only in each Polypidc, as the agent of its individual sponta- 
neity, but that a similar system also exists for the performance 
of the common or associated movements of the polyzoary 


The demonstration of this nervous system^ it is true, will be 
excessively difficult in the majority of the Polyzoa; the diffi- 
culty of course being increased in proportion with the diminu- 
tive size, greater amount of calcareous matter, and consequent 
want of transparency in the test, and diminished under the 
opposite conditions. In this respect there cannot perhaps be 
a more favorable subject than a species of Sericdaria, by no 
means rare in the sea of Santa Catharina, whose polyzoary 
consists throughout of thin-walled, almost perfectly transpa- 
rent joints or internodes, an inch or more in length. In this 
species, in fact, a general or common nervous system is more 
plainly manifest than I remember elsewhere to have met with, 
except in the case of the Salp<e. 

As the sole object of the present paper is the exposition of 
this system of nerves, I shall confine myself, in describing the 
animal, simply to the particulars necessary for the recognition 
of the species and the due understanding of what follows, and 
shall, therefore, pass over the intimate structure of the poly- 
pide. The branched polyzoary of Serialarla Couiinhii, Miill, 
spreading on seaweeds over a space of three or four inches, is 
composed of cylindrical joints, which attain a length of more 
than 40 mm., and a breadth of 1"35 mm., the successive 
joints gradually diminishing in thickness until the terminal 
twigs are not more than O'l in diameter. The branches divide 
trichotomously, in such a manner that from the extremity of 
each branch three twigs of unequal size arise, the two thicker 
ones being continued in nearly the same plane with the pri- 
mary branch, whilst the third and smaller one stands at an angle 
of about 60° Avith the others. The mode in which this kind 
of branching arises is readily seen in the extreme ramifications 
of the polyzoary. At the extremity of a l^ranch, in the first 
place, a solitary bud arises, forming, as it were, simply a con- 
tinuation of the branch (PI. XI, fig. 1 a) ; but this is subse- 
quently pushed more and more to one side (fig. 1 a) by a second 
bud (fig. 1 b), which soon makes its appearance close to the 
former, the angle between the branches thus formed often 
exceeding 1,20". The third, still younger branch (fig. 1 c), 
arising between the other two, and growing in a direction per- 
pendicular to the plane in Avhich they lie, usually does not per- 
ceptiljly interfere with their direction, so that they remain 
pretty nearly in the same plane with the primary branch. 
Occasionally, though in all cases at a much later period, and 
long after the former branches have already themselves 
become branched, a far smaller fourth branch makes its 
appearance opposite the third (fig. 1 d), and very rarely 
even a fifth may arise, but I liave never seen the number to 


exceed this. The relative age of tlie Ijraiichcs is u!?uall}- 
clearly manifested in tlieir comparative thickness and len{2:th. 
as well as in the amount of their subsequent branching. 

The joints themselves are soft and flexible, bvit at the same 
time elastic, not nulikC;, in this respect, portions of intes- 
tine distended with water and tied at each end. The delicate 
but strong walls^A-. hich,from tlieir insolubility in boiling caustic 
potass, are probably composed of a chitinous material, arc, as 
well as the contents, nearly as clear as water. A slight 
degree of yellowisli opacity is caused by the presence of a 
pigment with which the inner surface of the membrane is 
coated. The youngest branches appear the least transparent, 
whilst in the older ones the view is often intercepted by 
animal and vegetable parasitic growths of various kinds. 

From observations on other Ctenostomatous Polyzoa, I am 
induced to think that the individual joints or internodes are 
separated by transverse dissepiments. 

The polyzoary adheres to fuel, &c. by means of much- 
branched radical filaments, which arise sometimes at the 
extremity of a branch in place of a twig (fig. 2 o.), some- 
times at indeterminate points of the stem, especially between 
the cells (fig. 3 h) ; at their extremity they expand into 
flattened lobes, which spread out on the surface of the sea- 

The cells are placed in longitudinal series at the upper parts 
of the branches, the lower portion of which is left bare through- 
out a greater or less extent. The series of cells are sometime^ 
closely crowded and continuous, sometimes interrupted by a 
i'cw short intervals, whilst in some cases again (in the oldest 
branches) the cells are placed in only a few isolated groups. 
On the youngest terminal ramuscules, the rovr of cells is 
usually placed on one side only, as in Serialoria cornuta and 
*S'. leinlir/era, Lam. ; but in the others they form two series, 
more or less exactly opposite. 

The cells are membraneous, and when full grown about 
OG mm. long, of an attenuated form, diminishing gradually in 
diameter from 0-2 to 01 mm. They arc seated on a rounded 
base, in an oblique position, leaning towards the extremity 
of the branch; and they are furnished at the summit, where the 
wall is ccmtinuous witli the tentacular sheath, with a circlet of 
delicate, flattoncfi, colourless seta? from 0*0 i to OOomm. long. 
^Mien the polypide is forcibly retracted, fully a third of the 
cell is inverted, and it then assumes more of an oval shape. 
The old, uninhabited cells, whose summit is always inverted, 
are thicker and shorter, and of an ellipsoidal form. 

The animal [polypide] is furnished Avith eight tentacles 


0-3mm. in length ; and it is so placed in the cell that the sid.- 
on -which the intestine is situated looks towards the distal 
end, and that on ^hich the pharynx lies towards the origin 
of the branch. AVhon the polypide is strongly retracted, thr 
invaginated portion of the cell !•< directed obliquely towards 
the intestinal side, where it comes in contact M'ith the middle 
of the uniuvaginated cell-wall. From this point the tentacular 
sheath passes transversely towards the pharyngeal side, along 
which it descends to the bottom of the cell. 

Attention to these positions, as well as to the direction in 
which the new cell-buds are formed, greatly facilitates tin- 
appreciation of the true position of parts in small fragments 
as they lie in the field of vision of the microscope. The other 
relations of the polypides do not concern the comprehension 
of the colonial nervous system, to the description of mIi'i'i 
I shall now turn. 

The nervous system of each hi'cuich consist of — ].v/, (( ro,/- 
siilerahle-sized f/anqJion situated at its origin : "idly, of u 
nervous trunk runniuy the entire length of the branch, at the 
upper part of ivhich it subdivides into branches, going to the 
ganglia of the inter nodes arising at this part, and 3dly, of a 
rich nervous plexus resting on the trunk, and connecting the 
ganglia just mentioned, as ivell as the basal ganglia of thi- 
in di v i du al po hjp i des . 

The basal ganglia of the branches (figs. 3 — 5 g) arc placed 
exactly at the line of separation between the primary and 
secondary branches and the axis of the latter. They ar.- 
usually of a globular form, or slightly elongated and fusi- 
form, and of a granular (minutely cellular ?) structure. Pale 
and transparent in the youngest ramuscules, they soon 
assume a faint yellowish colour, and lose their transparency. 
In size they vary from 0*03 mm. in diameter (as measured in 
a very young twig, not more than 0-2 in length) to mow- 
than O'l mm. 

From the basal ganglion a nerve-trunk, of nearly uniform 
thickness (from 001 to 0-05 mm., according to age), runs in 
a. straight line nearly to tlie end of the branch (figs. 3—5 s), 
though not in its axis, but more or less near that side on 
which the first row of cells is produced, and mIucIi may 
briefly be described as the superior. The trunk is in most 
cases single, but occasionally divided into two closely con- 
tiguous or, in parts, slightly separated cords. !Morc rarely 
(in old branches) it is broken up, for a greater or less extent, 
into a long-meshed plexus, composed of three or four prin- 
. cipal cords. The nerve is of a pale colour, and presents a 
delicate, smooth contour. 


The basal ganglia and the nerve-trunks, with favorable 
illumination, may often be readily seen, even 'svith a pocket 

On the upper side of the trunk, sometimes closely cover- 
ing it, sometimes spread over it in wide reticulations, rests a 
plexus of more delicate nerves (figs. 3 — 5 p), -which spreads 
out laterally towards the line of origin of the polypide cells, 
and is richly developed, especially at the extremity of the 
branch between the basal ganglia of the succeeding inter- 
nodes. In this terminal plexus, however, besides the branches 
going to the ganglia above mentioned, at least one arch 
appears to be formed between each two of the branches 
springing from the smooth main nerve-trunk (fig. 1 //) . The 
nerves composing the plexus are distinguished from the main 
trunk principally by the circumstance that then- surface is 
rendered uneven, and more or less nodulated or tuberculated, 
by the presence of nucleated cells. Chromic acid causes the 
disappearance of these cells ; and the nerves, in consequence, 
acquire sharper and even outlines, upon which, however, the 
nuclei of the dissolved cells may still be perceived in the form 
of minute, strongly refracting granules. This plexus is par- 
ticularly well developed on those parts of the branches upon 
which the cells are placed; and it is especially complicated in 
the older branches, in which a series of successive generations 
has taken place. Towards the origin of the branch, the 
plexus does not usually spread laterally beyond the nerve- 
trunk, from which it can then hardly be distinguished. In this 
case, on viewing the nerve from above, it will be found to 
present an uneven border on either side ; whilst on a side 
view, the uneven contour of the plexus will be seen above, 
and the smooth liorder of the nerve-trunk beneath. In this 
sterile portion of a branch, sometimes no peripheral nerves 
at all can be perceived, sometimes only a few isolated fila- 
ments, usually passing in a backward direction ; and occa- 
sionally even a tolerably Avell developed plexus may be 
noticed, which, however, in this case spreads vertically up- 
wards from the trunk, whilst the expansion of the plexus in 
the neighbourhood of the cells is more or less horizontal. 
With respect to the latter plexus, it may also be remarked, 
that occasionally, though by no means constantly, its fila- 
ments may be seen to coalesce into a somewhat stronger 
cord running beneath the line of origin of the cells. 

It remains to notice the connexion of the above described 
common nervous system Avith the individual polypides. 
This connexion is not always readily made out, which arises 
from the circumstance that in order that the region under 


examination sliovild not be concealed by the cells, which, in 
most cases, are closely contiguous, the latter must be so disposed 
as to lie on the side. But in this case the part to be examined 
is brought, in the first place, close to the border of the cylin- 
drical branch, and secondly, into almost the same plane with the 
cutaneous pigment ; and, consequently, for both these reasons, 
it is often nearh^ opaque. The stomach, moreover, of the 
retracted polypide is usually in the way of a distinct view. 
Nevertheless, in almost every branch, one or another polypide 
or, more readily still, budding cells will be found, in which 
the nervous connection in question \nU be unmistakably 
presented. At the point of junction between the cell and 
branch, and projecting half into the one and half into the 
other, a spherical ganglion, from 0"0i to 0-05 mm. in 
diameter (smaller in young buds), will be seen lying. This 
ganglion is connected, on one side, with the nerves of the 
plexus, whilst from the other I have several times, in the 
full-grown polypide, fancied that T could see a nerve pro- 
ceeding to the intestine ; and this is certainly the case in 
the buds. A connexion between this basal ganglion and the 
oesophageal ganglion of the polypide may be supposed to 
exist, but this T have not been able to trace. 

The radical fibres, also, whether they arise at the extremity 
of a branch, or in the line of a series of cells, or elsewhere, 
also have each its basal ganglion and longitudinal nerve-trunk. 
At their first appearance the polypide-cells and the branches 
of the polyzoary are not distinguishable from each other in 
any essential particular beyond their place of origin, whilst 
as regards the radical fibres even this distinction does not 
obtain. In these three structures may be perceived a happy 
exemplification of Lcuckart's doctrine of polymorphism. 

It may be expected that a similar common nervous system 
will be found in other Polyzoa, in which the cells are seated 
on a distinct rachis ; '''' Avhilst in those forms in which one 
cell springs from another [Cheilostomata and Cyclostomata] 
ganglia may be supposed to exist, at any rate, in the base 
of each cell, and connected with each other by nerve-fila- 

[The author adds that, since the above was written, he had 
found the basal ganglia of the branches and the nerve-trunk 
in various Ctenostomuta, Busk ; but that up to the present 
time he had failed to discover any indubitable trace of a 
common nervous system in the other Polyzoa.] 

* [All the Ctennstomata.] 



Outline of British Fungoloyy. By tlic Kev. ^\. J. IjERKti.i.y, 
M.A. Loudon : Kccve. 

I.v Lis preface the author says, "The object of this work Is 
to furnish materials for the correct determination of the larger 
British fungi, and such only as require nothing more than a 
common lens for their examination. In consequence, all 
microscopic details have, as far as itwas possible, been avoided." 
At the same time, any work issuing from the pen of Mr. 
Berkeley demands a notice from us. Even the largest and 
commonest forms of fungi cannot be fully understood without 
the aid of the microscope, and the more completely they are 
investigated by its aid, the more instructive they become. AVe 
would call the attention of our I'cadcrs to the fact, that a largo 
field of interesting inquiry lies before them in the investiga- 
tion of the structure and functions of the fungi. ^linutc or- 
ganisms, M'liich play an important part in the great operations 
of nature, belong to this group of plants, and it is only by the 
application of the microscope that we can hope to discover 
the nature of the laws wliicli regulate their existence and 
development. Mr. Berkeley, in a few introductory chapters, 
gives a sketch of the various points of interest which the inves- 
tigation of the fungi, as a family, presents to th(> student 
of nature. 

The habitats of fungi are very curious, and, as they have 
been found under the most unlikely circumstances, the pur- 
suit of this department of inquiry otters a subject of consider- 
able interest to the microscopic inquirer. ^Mr. Berkeley 
concludes this part of his work v.ith the following remarks : 

'' Two other circumstances, however, require a few lines 
before I close this chapter. The first of these is the oc- 


(.unencc of mould in the inside of bread a few liours after it 
is baked. This "was at one time notoriously the case with the 
coarse ' pain de nutrition/ or barrack-bread, at Paris. A 
beautiful red mould appeared in its very centre within an 
incredibly short space of time. It Avas, however, found that 
the spores of certain fungi would bear moist heat equal to 
that of Ijoiling' water Avithout losing their power of germina- 
tion. They have also considerable powers of resisting frost, 
but the exact limits in either case under varying circum- 
stances have not at present been ascertained. 

" The other point is the apparently sudden development of 
fungous matter on cooked provisions, whether animal or vege- 
table, in very hot weather. As the fungus thus produced is 
of a bright blood-red, and often spreads in little jets as 
spirted from an artery, it has been supposed to arise 
from a rain of blood. The production is not, howcAcr, so 
uncommon as is supposed, and maybe seen almost every year 
on some of the larger and more peifect fungi Avhen in a state 
of decay, though in small quantities. AMien in abundance it 
is Acry beautiful, and in hot Aveatlicr it may be cultivated 
with great ease on rice paste. The growth of these produc- 
tions is, however, very capricious, and 1 have this autumn in 
\ ain attempted to cultivate it, which is the more proA^okiug, 
j's its real affiidtics and structure are at present very obscure."^ 

Tt may be added, in conclusion, that the fungi which attack 
nuiund substances are for the most part far from nice in their 
choice of a place of growth ; but some m liieh produce disease 
in animals are attached to particular insects, and a few which 
grow on decaying hoofs, horns, bones, feathers, wool, or hairs, 
are never found in any other situations. Leather for a long 
time seemed to be exeiiqjt from any fungi save the commonest 
species of mould, but .Messrs. Broome and Currey have lately 
found a pretty Ascoholns on this substance when exposed to 
decay. '^ 

The subject of the propagation of fungi has often been dis- 
cussed in these pages, and many of our readers may be glad 
to read in Z^Ir. lierkeley's own Avords his vicAVS on this sub- 
ject. After speaking of the propagation of fungi by pores and 
sporidia as homologous with the Inuls of higher plants, he says : 

" Besides these jn-opagative bodies, other extremely minute 
bodies are produced either on threads or in distinct perithecia 
or cells in certain fungi, as BuJf/oria InquinanK, Hystenvin 

■-•■ Together with llie blooil-rain, gclatiuoiis spots of a brij^lit yellow, blue, 
jjiuk, giay, white, &c., gftcii appear on the rice paste, ideiuical in structure 
with the red. The matter which appears on meat in damp weather seems 
tij be similar. The whole subject rerpiires lurther investigation. 


Rubi, &c., which from analogy are supposed to have some- 
thing to do with the impregnation of the normal fruit. In 
this case the organs which contained them are called anthe • 
ridia, or spermogonia^ and the bodies themselves spermato- 
zoids. It is very doubtful at present whether the cells Avhich 
project from the gills in Agaricus, Coprinus, Boletus, k,c., are 
of the same nature^ but it must be remembered that in many 
cryptogams the mode of impregnation far more closely re- 
sembles that in animals than that in ph^enogams, and there- 
fore it does not follow that a more perfect type may not exist 
amongst the lower than amongst the higher fungi. Some- 
times amongst the ascigerous fungi, as in Nedria inaurata, 
there are asci containing, the one eight sporidia, the other a 
multitude of minute granules. These secondary asci may 
perhaps with as much justice be considered antheridia as the 
bodies mentioned above. It is observable, however, that in 
the other eases the spermatozcids are always produced at the 
tips of delicate threads or their branchlets, while these little 
bodies are produced freely in the sacs like sporidia. It is to 
the Messieurs Tulasne that we are chiefly indebted for this 
knowledge, as also for the curious facts which I am about to 

" In many of the parasitic fungi, belonging to the same 
section as the wheat mildew and bunt, a very cui'ious process 
takes place. The reproductive organs, which from analogy 
arc commonly called spores, do not directly propagate the 
plant. These bodies however germinate, and often at definite 
points, exactly after the fashion of pollen- grains, and after a 
time produce on their threads secondary and sometimes ter- 
tiary spores capable of germinating. It is by these that the 
plant is really reproduced 

" In the bunt the process is easily observed. If a portion 
of the spores be laid on a piece of damp flannel or on a slip 
of glass, and properly secured from evaporation, a white floc- 
cose matter is soon seen upon them, and when examined by 
the microscope it is found that the spore first gives out an 
obtuse thread, which produces at the apex a coronet of curved 
delicate appendages like the spores of a Fanisporiinn, to which 
genus they were referred before their true character was 
ascertained ; these soon become connected by lateral threads, 
and ultimately produce little oblong, somewhat oblique cells, 
which germinate and reproduce the plant. The analogy 
between this and the dcvolopment of pollen-grains on 
the one hand, and the formation of the prothallus in the 
higher cryptogams, is very curious." 

The following paragraph contains a useful hiut^ which we 


hope our medical friends will consider well. By the precipi- 
tancy with which they have described every fungoid growth 
they have observed as a ncAv species of fungus, they have done 
much to bring discredit on the Avholc inquiry of the relation 
of these organized bodies to diseased structures : 

" A large treatise "^ has been written by Robin, relative to 
their effects on animals, and there are multitude of scattered 
memoirs on the same subject; but, unfortunately, the fungi 
which occur in the diseases of man, or other members of the 
animal kingdom, have seldom been examined by persons inti- 
mately acquainted with these fungi, so that the species or 
even genera in question are often doubtful. It is, however, 
certain that many of those which are found on different parts of 
the mucous membrane of animals, in a more or less advanced 
stage of growth^ are, like the fungi of yeast, referable to com- 
mon species of mould. It is not probable that in tliese cases 
fungi originate disease, though it is pretty certainthat they fre- 
quently aggravate it. The spores of our common moulds float 
about everywhere, and, as they grow with great rapidity, they 
are able to establish themselves on any surface where the 
secretion is not sufficiently active or healthy to throw off the 
intruder. AVhere the spores are \evy abundant, they may 
sometimes, like other minute bodies, obstruct the minute cells 
of the lungs, but there is no reason to believe that they induce 
epidemic diseases, such as cholera or influenza, according to 
an opinion once somewhat prevalent, Avhatever their abundance 
may be, or however easily they may be collected, as some 
assert, at the mouths of sewers, or in other situations likely 
to produ.ce miasma." 

There is no doubt that some definite forms of fungi, as, for 
instance, Sarcina Ventriculi, inhabit the human body ; but ex- 
periments are yet Avanted to show that many other forms 
referred to as species really deserve that position. Of course 
it is important to record all forms which those fungi assume, 
as at particular stages of their development they may become 
diagnostic of disease. 

The cultm'c of fungi appears to be as certain as that of 
most plants, and even those minuter forms on Avhich the mi- 
croscopist may be expected to exercise his skill. Thus Mr. 
Berkeley says : 

" As regards matters of science or curiosity, the reproduc- 
tive bodies of many fungi can be made to germinate very 
readily by placing them in fluid in an insulated cell, or by 

* ' Histoirc Natuiellc ties Vegctaux Parasites qui croisscnt sur I'Homuie 
et sur les Auimaux vivauts.' Paris, 8vo. 1853. Par Charles Robiu. 

.'310 XLACKj ON rONLt LIIL. 

simply putting them upon a slip of glasf> under an air-tight 
)ie]l-glass. In cases Arhere they do not germinate^ there is 
^omc fault in general either in the temperature or degree of 
moisture; or sometimes because mere water is not sufficient, 
without an admixtnre of sugar or some other organic matter. 
Many species of mould may be raised very easil}- npon paste 
made with gronnd rice under a bell-glass, and some fnngi may 
be brought to perfection on rotten Avood in the same condi- 
tion. The well-known ergot may be induced to produce its 
very curious perfect form (pi. 23, fig. 7), by simply sowing 
the infected grains in a garden-pot, and avoiding extremes of 
dryness or moisture.* Even some of the species which are 
parasites on living leaves may be propagated either by direct 
sowing of the spores on the young leaves, or watering the 
soil in Mhich the plant proposed to bear the parasite grows, 
as in the case of the yellow rose rust, with water in which 
infected leaves have been duly steeped." 

The Introduction is full of interesting matter on the sub- 
jects to which we have alluded. "We heartily Avish the present 
volume a successful sale, so that we may hope to see the 
author encouraged to produce an equally interesting volume 
on the microscopicid forms of British fungi. No one knows 
so much a1)out them as he does, and it is really a disgrace to 
the boasted intelligence of our age that the knowledge which 
men have acquired by great labour and peculiar genius should 
not be disseminated, for the Avant of a government or a public 
to appreciate the value of their work. 

Marvels of Pond Life; or, a Y('<(r\s Microscopic Recreations. 
Hy lli:.\nY J. Slack. London: Groombridge. 

^In. Slack has kept a diary of his ol)seivations with the 
microscope, and has dared to publish the result. We say 
'• dared,^^ because we think it required a little courage on his 
j)art to publish a series of observations which many persons 
more competent than himself would have shrunk from. Yet 
the beginner with the microscope will be grateful to Mr. 

••'• Jlr. Cunev iias iudiicfd (he ergot of the conmion rccd to fnictify b.v 
k(>())ing the stem iinincrsed in water. 


Slack for all the details which he has presented to him in 
this little book, and which the more dignified philosopher 
might think almost entirely beneath his notice. What 
really interests the great mass of the world is not the 
advancement of science, but little peeps at the wonders of 
nature, for which alone their limited or one-sided education 
has fitted them. It is not because a man has been educated 
at one of our universities, that he requii'es for his delectation 
in natural science short descriptions of natural objects in 
Latin. No, he too must begin Avith the child ; and, if he 
would learn the mysteries of organization, must take his 
dipping-bottle to the pond side, and feel an interest, in com- 
mon with Mr. Slack, in marvelling over the structures he has 
thus secured. We shall not, therefore, attempt to be critical 
on Mr. Slack^s volume, but express our welcome at the 
heartiness with which he enters into microscopical work, and 
the interest he has succeeded in throwing into his researches. 
Of course, as his investigations were confined to fresh 
water, the great mass of his observations are on the infusorial 
animalcules and the rotifers. Here is his account of catching 
one of the rarer forms of the last class : — 

" When the Floscules or other tubicolar rotifers are specially 
sought for, the best way is to proceed to a pond where slender- 
leaved water-plants grow, and to examine a few branches at 
a time in a phial of water with a pocket lens. They are all 
large enough to be discerned, if present, in this manner, and 
as soon as one is found others may be expected, either in the 
same or in adjacent parts of the pond, for they are gregarious 
in their habits. With many, however, the first finding of a 
floscule will be an accident, as was the case last April, when 
a small piece of myriophyllum was placed in the live-box, 
and looked over to see what it might contain. The first 
glimpse revealed an egg-shaped object, of a brownish tint, 
stretching itself upon a stalk, and showing some symptoms 
of hairs or cilia at its head. This was enough to indicate the 
nature of the creature, and to show the necessity for a care- 
ful management of the light, which, being adjusted obliquely, 
gave quite a new character to the scene. The dirty brown 
hue disappeared, and was replaced by brilliant coloui's ; while 
the hairs, instead of appearing few and short, were found to 
be extremely numerous, very long, and glistening like deli- 
cate threads of spun glass. 

" Knowing that the Floscules live in transparent gelatinous 
tubes, such an object was carefully looked for, but in this 
instance, as is not uncommon, it was perfectly free from 
extraneous matter, and possessed nearly the same refractive 



power as the -svatcr ; so that displaying it to advantage required 
some little trouble in the "svay of careful focusing, and many 
experiments as to the best angle at which the mirror should 
be turned to direct the light. "When all Avas accomplished, 
it was seen that the floscule had her abode in a clear trans- 
parent cylinder, like a thin confectioner's jar, which she did 
not touch except at the bottom, to which her foot was 
attached. Lying beside her in the bottle were three large 
eggs, and the slightest shock given to the table induced her 
to draw back in evident alarm. Immediately afterwards she 
slowly protruded a dense bunch of the fine long hairs, which 
quivered in the light, and shone with a delicate bluish-green 
lustre, here and there varied by opaline tints. 

'' The hairs were thrust out in a mass, somewhat after the 
mode in which the old-fashioned telescope hearth-brooms 
were made to put forth their bristles. As soon as they were 
completely everted, together with the upper portion of the 
floscule, six lobes gradually separated, causing the hairs to 
fall on all sides in a graceful shower ; and when the process 
was complete, they remained perfectly motionless, in six 
hollow, fan-shaped tufts, one being attached to each lobe. 
Some internal ciliary action, quite distinct from the hairs, 
and which has never been precisely understood, caused gentle 
currents to flow towards the mouth in the middle of the lobes, 
and from the motion of the gizzard, imperfectly seen through 
the integument, and from the rapid filling of the stomach 
with particles of all hues, it was plain that captivity had not 
destroyed the floscule's appetite, and that the drop of water 
in the live box contained a good supply of food." 

Mr. Slack has illustrated his remarks Avith woodcuts, and 
several very beautifully executed jjlates accompany the 
objects he describes. We recommend ]Mr. Slack's volume 
as a gift-book for the encouragement of young microscopic 

Lectures on the Diseases of the Kidney. By S. J. Goodfellow, 
M.D. London : Hardwicke. 

"We do not notice Dr. Goodfellow's book for the purpose of 
criticising or recommending his diagnosis or treatment of dis- 
eases of the kidney, but to draw attention to the fact that he lias 
appreciated and used the microscope in ascertaining their 
nature. Although this may be saying nothing more than ought 


to 1)c said of tlic production of every intelligent physician^ yet 
we feel that so large a proportion of medical literature de- 
voted to the exposition of disease is utterly worthless for 
the want of microscopic investigation^ that we are glad to be 
able to notice a work in which the microscope has been em- 
ployed as a necessary instrument of research. In fact, no 
class of diseases ilhistratc more fully the use of this instru- 
ment than those A\hicli affect the kidney. It was not till 
Bowman, by the aid of the microscope, had elucidated the true 
structure of the kidney, and pointed out the functions of its 
different parts, that the full significance of Bright' s discovery 
of the relation between the composition of the urine and the 
morbid conditions of the kidney, began to be fully understood 
and apjn'eciated. Nor has microscopic investigation been 
confined to the structure of the kidney or it might have been 
more difficult to connect the living indications of diseased 
structure with the nature of such structure observed after 
death ; but the microscope has been applied to the urinary 
secretion, and this product constantly passing away is made 
to indicate not only the diseased conditions of the kidney, 
but their progress from hour to hour and day to day. It 
Avill be, therefore, e^-ident that those Avho attempt to treat 
disease of the kidney without the use of the microscope are 
really practising in the dark, and, for all the good they are 
likely to do, they are only on a par with any i;ninstructed 
person who would undertake to treat disease without under- 
standing its nature. Of course Dr. Goodfellow^s book will 
not teach those ignorant of the use of the microscope how to 
employ it, but those already capable of using the instrument, 
will find in his volume the points indicated in which it be- 
comes indispensable to the use of the medical man v,ho Avishes 
to understand the nature of the diseases he treats. 

A Manual of Botany. By Robert Bentley, F.L.S. 

London : Churchill. 

After the valuable manuals of Liudley, Balfour, and Hen- 
frey, the critic may be forgiven for asking, "What need could 
therebe for another ? AYe imagine that this is a question Avhicli 
the publisher rather than the author ought to ansAver. If the 
publisher, Avho is the great middle-man between the author 
and the public, thinks that another manual of botany will 
pay, then it is his business, and all the critic has to do is to 
see that the public is likely to get its money's Avorth. Now, 


Churchill's manuals have been a great public benefit, and they 
would have been imperfect without a manual of botany. The 
editor of an encyclopaedia might as well omit the article botany 
because it had been done in all other encyclopsediaSj as for ~Sh'. 
Churchill to omit a manual of botany because so many good 
ones exist. Having said thus much as an apology for both 
publisher and author, we would now draw attention to the 
histological portion of Professor Bentley's manual. As in all 
other parts of his book, Mr. Bentley does not present him- 
self as an original observer or discoverer, but as a teacher of 
what is known upon the subject ; and in turning over the 
various parts of the manual devoted to microscopic investiga- 
tion, we must confess that he has given a very fair interpre- 
tation of the facts in the structure and functions of plants 
which are elicited by the aid of the microscope. Mr. Bentley 
has evidently been more anxious to make his book an ortho- 
dox volume, available for all classes and examinations, than a 
work representing or attempting any advance in the science of 
botany. We think, however, he might have consulted more 
frequently original papers — and many such have appeared 
in our own pages — with advantage. 

This work is got up in the same excellent style as all 
ChurchilFs manuals, and is illustrated with upwards of eleven 
hundred wood engravings, executed with great skill by Mr. 

Common Objects of the Microscope. By the Rev. J. G. 
Wood. London : Routledge. 

The great feature of this book is a series of illustrations by 
Tuifen West, but they are so croAvded together as to render 
them exceedingly inconvenient for use, nor arc they printed 
so well as to do justice to INIr, West's celebrity as a microsco- 
pic artist. The objects have not, hoAvever, been selected for 
the pm'pose of illustrating " common objects " alone, but of 
offering to the public the largest number of illustrations at 
the loAvcst price. The text has been written as an explanation 
of the plates; and AvheuAve say that above four hundred objects 
are described, as Avell as an account given of the microscope 
and hoAV to use it, in 127 pages, it will be seen that little 
space has been given for that kind of description Avhich a 
beginner requires. Indeed, we think too much has been 
attempted in this volume ; and that had there been fewer illus- 
trations, aiul more letter-press, it Avould have l)ctter served the 
demand for a cheap introduction to the microscope. 





May Sth, 1861. 

Presented hy 

Bulletins de I'Academie Royale de Belgique, 1861 . The Academy. 

Annuaire de rAcademie Royale de Belgique, 1861 . Ditto. 

Transactions of the Linueau Society, Vol. XXIII, 

Part 1 . . . . _ . The Society. 

Journal of the Proceedings of the Linneau Society, 

Vol. V, No. 19 . . . . Ditto. 

The Photographic Journal, Nos. lOi, 106, 107, 108 . The Editor. 

Recreative Science, Nos. 21, 22 . . . Ditto. 

The Loudon Review, Nos. 37, 38, 39, and 40 . Ditto. 

The American Journal of Science and Art . . Ditto. 

Notes on the Generative Organs, and on the For- 
mation of the Egg, in the Annulosa, Part 1. By 

J. Lubbock, Esq. .... The Author. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Nos. 

40 and 41 ... . Purchased. 

June Xath. 

C.Woodward, Esq., F.R.S., On Polarized Light. Third 

Edition .... 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, No. 66 
Recreative Science, No. 23 
Photographic Journal, No. 109 . 
Loudon Review, Nos. 45 to 49 . 
The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 42 

The Author. 
The Society. 
The Editor. 

W. G. Seaeson, Curator. 

EoTAL Society. 

On the Stbuctuee and Geowth of the Tooth o/ Echinus. By 
S. James A. Saltee, M.B. Lend., F.L.S., F.G.S. Communi- 
cated by Thomas Bell, Esq. Eeceived Marcla 5, 1861. 

The author commences his paper by stating that the researclies 
upon which it is based were made more than four years since, and 
then without the knowledge that the structure had been pre- 
\-iously investigated by others. 

An abstract of the literature of the subject (contained in very 
narrow limits) is then given. 


111 18il Valentin, in Agassiz's 'Mouograpli on the Echiuo- 
derms ' {Aiiatomic des Ecliinodertncs), published a description and 
many good figures of the minute anatomy and growth of the 

Professor Quekett, in his ' Lectures on Histology ' (1854), re- 
ferring to the minute mature anatomy of the organ, states its 
idtimate structiire to resemble bone and dentine of vertebrata. 

Dr. Carpenter, in his work ' On the Alicroscope,' speaks of the 
tissue of the tooth as essentially of the same nature as the shell 
of the Eehinidse generally (1856). 

Lastly, Professor W. C. "Williamson describes the subject more 
fully than his predecessors, entering into the question of the 
development of the tooth both generally and histologically (though 
apparently in ignorance of Valentin's Essay), in a paper on the 
" Histology of the Dermal Tissues," &c., in the ' British Jom-nal of 
Dental Science,' 1857. 

The coarse anatomy and relations of the Echinus-tooth are then 
described, and the question is discussed as to how far the organ 
resembles and how far it does not resemble the incisor tooth of a 
Rodent Mammal, to which it has constanth^ been likened. 

Some remarks then follow on the method of investigation, which 
the peculiar phvsical characters of the structure render verv 

Before describing the histology of the mature tooth, the author 
premises some succinct remarks upon the several elementary parts 
that are formed at its growing extremity, and by which its com- 
plex structure is built up — showing how the shape and plan of 
these elements determine the microscopical appearances of the 
several regions of the tooth as seen in different sections. 

These elementary parts are — (1st) the Priviari/ plates, which 
consist of a double series of triangular sheets of calcareous 
matter, and which constitute the physiological axis of the tooth, 
about which and connected with which the four secondary elements 
are developed. These latter are (^xi.([) the Secondary plates, \si\)- 
pets of similar calcareous sheets attached to the outer edge of 
the primary plates ; (3rd) tlie FlahcUiform processes, elaborate 
reticulations of calcareous fibres ending in tan-shaped extremities ; 
(4th) the Keel Jihres, certain long cylindrical rods with club- 
shaped ends of the same chemical nature, which pass towards the 
enteric region of the tooth in their growth ; and (5th) the Enamel 
Hods, which ai'e minute, very short developments of the same 
character, and which are formed in the opposite direction. Thus 
far a primary and secondary stage of formation are represented : 
a third stage, tliat of consolidation, now occurs in tlie develop- 
ment of (Gth) the Solderincj particles, multitudes of minute discs 
of carbonate of lime Avhich appear over tlie whole surface of the 
previously formed elementary parts, and by which they are 
soldered together, the intervals between these (in a certain sense) 
constitutins; the tubular cliaractcr of the mature tissue. 


The primary plates, yecoudary plates, and tlic proximal portion 
of the Aabelliform processes are stated to constitute the body cjf 
the tooth— tlie distal extremities of llie llabelliform processes the 
al-irtinfj.s of the enteric regiou of tiio body of tlie tooth ; the keel 
fibres wholly form the keel; while tlic sliort enamel rods compose 
the thin white layer on the dorsal surface of the tooth — the 

The histology of the tooth is remarkable as exhibiting apparent 
inconsistencies in diftereut lines of section. A vertical section of 
the tooth presents the appearance of vertebrate bone, lacuna*, 
canaliculi, and lamelLi? ; Avhile a transverse section displays some 
regions resembling dentine (the body of the tootli). and otliers 
having the closest similitude to an oblique section of the shell of 
some Mollusca, such as Pinna. 

The author then proceeds to describe in detail and with par- 
ticularity the form and progressive growth of the several elem.eut.; 
of the tooth, as they are met with in examining the growing 
extremity, and proceeding from it towards the mature structure, 
as long as the elements are susceptible of isolation and individual 
examination. The anatomy of the soldering particles, and their 
relation to the production of the cavitary structure of the tooth, 
is specially dwelt upon. The soldering particles are supposed to 
be isolated at first, l3ut as they enlarge they become connected by 
a thin film from their upper and under faces. This occurs before 
the final consolidation of the tissue, and before the soldering 
particles are indissolubly connected with, and themselves in- 
dissolubly connect, the contiguous elements of the tooth. At 
this stage these particles are still susceptible of isolation, and they 
may be separated en masse, being held in relative position by the 
films that connect them. The soldering particles and the con- 
necting films thus constitute a tubular system, which has an 
independent existence before the final consolidation of the tissue, 
and this tubular system is inti'oduce^d between, and interpolated 
among, the previously existing elementary parts of the tootli. 

The author concliules by expressing a coincidence of opinion 
with Dr. Carpenter, that the minute structure of the tooth is 
essentially of the same nature as that of the shell of the Echinidte 

Hull Miceo-Philosopiiical Societi', 

The annual meeting of this Society was held in the connnittie- 
room of the Hull Literarj- and Philosophical Society, on tl;e 
6th Septcmbei', preliminary to the fourtli sessional course of 
microscopical exhibitions and discussions, vrhen George Korir.rn, 
Esq., was re-elected President, and the other officers were appointvd. 
The number of members is already twenty-two, being at present 
limited to twenty-five. The Society progresses steadily in tb.e 


cultivation and diffusion of microscopical science. The subjects 
approved for the sessional course of 1861-62 are " On the Markings 
of Diatomacese," &c. &c. 

The instruments and lenses of this Society are usually by the 
first makers, and a cabinet is in course of preparation for the 
deposit of specimens illustrative of the most interesting and 
important subjects, for the use of its members ; whereby affording 
every facility for the cultivation of a department in science of 
such a practical and general application in the age in which we 

The members of the Society assemble at a quarter before eight, 
p.m., once every fortnight during the winter, and only monthly 
during the summer, separating usually about ten, p.m. Eefresh- 
ments of all kinds excluded, as interrupting the legitimate objects 
of so brief a period of sedentary and refined pursuit. 

Once or twice during the summer the members indulge in some 
distant excursion for the day, mostly selecting some locality 
abounding in microscopic objects, animal or vegetable, as forest, 
lake, estuary, &c., &e. ; occasions generally attended with joyous 
anticipations and consummation. 

Wm. Heis'det, JSon. Sec. 

The Bbadfoed Micbosoopical Society. 

At the meeting, July 4th, E. H. Meade, Esq., exhibited some 
fine entomological objects with the binocular microscope, which 
shows this class of objects to great perfection. jMr. Sands also 
showed some slides of mummy-cloth. 

A resolution was passed, that the members have an excursion 
to some of the neighbouring localities. 

August 1st. — The President (E. H. Meade) read a very 
interesting paper " On the Structure of the Eyes of Animals." 

September 5tli. — At this meeting it was resolve