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PH. DR., F.S.A. 

There are cases in which more knowledge, of more value, may be conveyed 
by the history of a word than by the history of a campaign. 

COLERIDGE dids to Reflection. 



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MODERN Works on Etymology are open to several 
objections : 

1. They omit many important words. 

2. Too many paragraphs conclude with " root 
doubtful," "root unknown," "etymology unknown," 
" of uncertain origin." 

3. Some derivations are idle; among others, absinth 
from L. absinthium; laburnum from L. laburnum; bonnet 
from Fr. bonnet. Research would have shown that 
absinthium, say a\jnv9iov, is found written <nrt.v6t.ov = the 
undrinkable, from a, hot, TIVO> to drink; that, the 
laburnum being a deciduous tree, it is not too much 
to conclude that the word was formed from labor, to 
decay, perish, fall away; whilst the word bonnet is 
from Gaelic boineid, compounded of beann-eididh 
summit or top dress. 

4. Absurd or specious attempts at etymology, as 



dais from SKTKOS, a disk; robin (the bird) from the 
Christian name Robin ; whist (the game) from the 
interjection commanding silence; hussar from Swiss 
huss! usz! uszu! cries used in setting on a dog; lozenge 
(the confection) from Sp. losa, a paving-stone, or from 
Gr. Aoos, oblique ; wizard, " one thought or pretending 
to be wise," from O. Fr. guischard, prudent, sagacious, 
which we are told is an Icelandic-French compound ; 
jacket from the Christian name Jack ; calumet (the 
N . American Indians' emblem of peace and hospitality) 
from calamus, a reed ; the lateen - sail from L. Latin ; 
Whit Sunday (properly Whitsun Day), from an Icelandic 
compound signifying White Sunday. 

5. The giving certain etymologies without a proper 
explanation, as amethyst from a/0ixrros, a "remedy 
against drunkenness;" whereas, if Pliny, Columella, 
and Plutarch had been consulted, it would have been 
found that the precious stone in question was so called 
because in colour it resembled a very sober wine (a 
sort of petit bleu) called a/i0wros, from a privative, and 
to be drunken. 

6. Resorting to the Keltic, Friesic, and other lan- 
guages for the etymology of words which claim for 
themselves a Greek or Latin origin. 


7. Notwithstanding the large number of words 
which have had their origin in onomatopoeia, the 
small number traced thereto. 

8. Boycotting all etymologies which are not con- 
sistent with euphonic change. 

9. Paucity of words shown to have been formed by 
growth (prefix, infix, suffix), decay (aphseresis, syncope, 
apocope), and inversion. 

10. Some words, correctly derived from Proper 
Names, followed by a lame attempt to derive such 
names : thus, we are told morocco leather is so called 
from Morocco, and that the latter had its name from 
the Moors ; and that sherry (the wine) was named 
from Xeres, near Cadiz, where it is made, and that 
Xeres was named after Caesar ; whereas the proper 
spelling of Morocco is Marocco, an appellation cor- 
rupted from the Arabic ^-aft^ < ^t*, Maghrib-el- A ksa, 
"The Furthest West ;" whilst Xeres (now Jeres)was 
anciently called Sherish Filistin, " from having been 
allotted to a tribe of Philistines," a name probably 
formed from the Hebrew pnu^G-um, Shdresh-Pelishtin, 
" the seat or fixed dwelling of the Philistines." 

I have in the following pages endeavoured to give 


the etymology of many words not found in other 
dictionaries, and also to rectify many erroneous ety- 
mologies, and to give explanations when necessary. 
Not wishing to include undisputed derivations, I 
have, generally speaking, compared my MS. with 
several modern dictionaries, and, if any well-recognised 
etymologies are found in the present work, the fact of 
their recognition has been overlooked, or they have 
been derived by myself from independent research, and 
are generally accompanied with a reason for the deri- 
vation. A great many of the best works have been 
consulted. A list thereof will be found at page xiii. 
The reader will do well to compare now and then the 
body of the work with the Corrections and Additions 
at the end thereof. 

R. S. C. 








Accad Accadian 

Alem Alemannic 

A.S Anglo-Saxon 

anc ancient 

Ar Arabic 

Armor Armoric 

augment augmentative 

Barb. Gr. ... Barbaric Greek 

Basq Basque 

Bret Breton 

Chald Chaldee 

Chin Chinese 

compos composition 

Copt Coptic 

Corn Cornish 

corrup : corrupted, corruption 

D Dutch 

Dalm Dalmatian 

Dan Danish 

dim diminutive 

Egypt Egyptian 

Eng., E English 

Esth Esthonian 

f., fern feminine 

Finn Finnish 

Fr. ,. French 

Franc Francic 

Fries Friesic 

G German 

Gael Gaelic 

Goth Moeso-Gothic 

Gr Greek 

Gyp Gypsy 

Heb Hebrew 

Hind Hindustani 

Icel Icelandic 

Ir Irish 

It Italian 

Jap Japanese 

Jav Javanese 

L Latin 

Lapp Lappish 

lit literally 

Low G Low German 

Low L Low Latin 

M.H.G Middle High 


Mag Magyar 

Mai Malay 

Mandsh Mandshu 

masc masculine 

Med. , ,. Medical 



metath metathesis 

Mex Mexican 

Mong Mongol 

N. & Q. ... Notes and Queries 

N. O Natural Order 

Norm Norman 

Norweg Norwegian 

O Old 

O.D Old Dutch 

O. Fr Old French 

O.H.G. ... Old High German 

O.N Old Norsk 

orig originally 

P. or Pers Persian 

Priv privative 

Plat Plat-Deutsch 

Pol. .. Polish 

Prov Province 

Provenc Provencal 

Ptg Portuguese 

Russ Russian 

Sp Spanish 

Skt Sanskrit 

Su.-Goth. ... Swedish, gene- 
rally Old Swedish 

Sw Swedish 

Syr Syriac 

Tart Tartar 

Tib Tibetan 

Turk Turkish 

Uig Uigur 

var variously 

Votj Votjak 

Z... ..Zend 


ADELUNG (J. C.) Gram. Krit. Worterbuch der Hochdeutschen 

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ARMSTRONG (R. A.) Gallic Diet., Lend. 1825, 4*0. 
AMYOT (M.) Diet. Tart.-Mantschou-Franc., Par. 1789-90,410. 
BAYLEY (N.) Diet. Britann., Lond. 1736, fo. 
BAXTER (W.) Gloss. Antiq. Brit., Lond. 1719, 8vo. 
BOCHART (S.) Opera Omnia, Lug. Bat. 1714, fo. 
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Brit.-Lat), Amstel. 1654, 4to. 
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COLES (E.) Diet. Eng.-Lat. &c., Lond. 1772, 8vo. 
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Du FOUILLOUX (J.) La Venerie, Par. 1614, 4to. 
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FABRETTI (A.) Gloss. Ital. (containing Umbrian, Sabine, 

Oscan, Volscian, and Etruscan Words), Torino, 1860, 4to. 
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FURETIERE (A.) A la Haye, &c. 1690, fo. 
GAISFORD (T.) Etym. Magn., Oxon. 1848, fo. 
GELLIUS (Aulus) Noctes Atticae, Lond. 1824, 8vo. 
GODEFROY (F.) Diet, de 1'Anc. Lang.Frang., Par. 1881-88, 

GRIMM (J. and W.) Deutsches Worterbuch, Leipz. 1854-80, 


HESYCHII ALEXANDRINI Lex. (Schmidt), Jena, 1858-64, 410. 
HEXHAM (H). Eng. and Netherdutch Diet. (D. Manby), 

Rott. 1675-78, 4to. 

IHRE (I.) Gloss. Suio-Goth., Upsal, 1769, fo. 
ISIDORE, Orig. Lib. Viginti, Basil. 1577, fo. 
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1'Anc. Lang. Frang., Par. 1875-82, 4to. 
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marque), Saint-Brieuc, 1850, 4to. 


LENNEP (J. S. van) Etym. Ling. Graecse, Traj. ad Rhen. 

1808, 8vo. 

LEXER (M.) Mittelhochdeutsches Worterbuch, 1872-78, 8vo- 
LHUYD (E.) Archaeol. Britann., Oxf. 1707, fo. 
LITTLETON (A.) Lat. Diet., Lond. 1735, 4-to 
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Le Orig. della Ling. Ital., Genev. 1685, fo. 

MEURSIUS (J.) The Elder, Opera Omnia, Flor. 1741-43, fo. 
MINSHJEUS (J.) Ductor ad Linguas, Lond. 1817, fo. 
MULLER (W.) and ZANCKE (F.) Mittelhochdeutsches 

Worterbuch, Leipz. 1854-66, 8vo. 
PLUTARCHI CHCERONENSIS Quae Supersunt Omnia, &c., 

Tubing. 1791-1804, 8vo. 

O'REILLY (E.) Irish-Eng. Diet., Dub. 1817, 4to. 
PUGHE (W. O.) Diet. Welsh Lang., Denbigh, 1832, 8vo. 
REMACLE (L.) Diet. Wallon, Liege, &c., 1857, 8vo. 
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SALMON (N.) Stemm. Lat., Lond. 1796, 8vo. 
SANDERS (D.) Worterbuch der Deutschen Sprache, Leipz. 

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SCALIGER (J. C.) Ad M. T. Varronis Assert. Analog. 1851, 


SCHELER (A.) Diet. d'Etymoiogie Franc.., Brux. 1873, 8vo. 
SCHMIDT (IJ.) Mongol-Deutsch-Russ. Worterbuch, St. 

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SKEAT (W. W.) Mceso-Goth. Gloss. 1868, 4to, 

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STEPHANUS (H.) Thes. Graecae Linguae, Par. 1831-65, fo. 
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Gothicae, Upsala, 1691, fo. 
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Vossius (G.) Etym. Ling. Lat., Neap. 1762-63, fo. 
WACHTER (J. G.) Gloss. German., Lips. 1737, fo. 
WEIGAND (F. L. K.) Deutsches Worterbuch, Giessen, 

WILLIAMS (Sir Monier) Sanskrit-Eng. Diet., Oxf. 1872, 410. 


ABDOMEN. (L.) According to some, contraction of 
adipomen, from adeps, fat, as though named from its fatness. 
Others say, from abdo to hide, and omen for omentum (adipose 
membrane), to which some object, and say it would be 
abdimen, like regimen from rego ; but it is more probable that 
the last syllable is merely a termination, and that the word 
is from abdo, to hide, because it hides its contents, or 
because it is the place where the food is secreted. But see 
also Celsus, 4. i. 

ABSINTH. Wormwood Fr. absinthe L. absinthittm, 
apsinthium Gr. aij/ivOiov, which some derive from P. & E. 
Aramaean afsinthin (say P. afsintin\ but the reverse is the case. 
Nor is the word from a priv. and rj/ivfloe, as Hesychius says ; 
nor, as others assert, from a and ^jvso-Sai ; but it is from aTTivdUv, 
id. a priv., viva to drink TTIW or TTIOCO Skt. pa. 

ACAJOU. The cashew-nut tree, growing in Brazil, used 
in cooking and in preparation of chocolate Braz. acajaiba 
Mai. jli, kdyu, tree. 

ACANTHUS. The Egyptian thorn, which produces gum 
Arabic ; so called on account of the prickly nature of its 



leaves or stems (L.) Gr. cocavSog, axav9a, a thorn axi;, a 
point, edge. The acantha of Virgil is the garden herb 
described by Dioscorides under the name of cocavSa. 

ACONITE. A poisonous plant "L.aconitum Gr. axovtrov, 
but probably not the same plant as that mentioned by 
Dioscorides and Theophrastus. According to some, so called 
from growing about Aconai, in Bithynia. Others say, from 
growing on steep sharp rocks (ev O.K'JVLQ] ; but ax.ovij is a 
whetstone. Again, others derive the word from a priv. 
and KOVJJ dust, from requiring but little earth ; or from ajcwv, 
a javelin, dart, because darts were dipped into its poisonous 
juice: "quod olim barbari sua tela illinebant veneno," says 

ACORN. Fruit of the oak A.S. cecern, acorn, which 
some derive from CBC, oak, and corn, corn or fruit of the oak. 
Others render cccern fruit of the field cecer, a field. The 
A.S. word is probably from dc, oak, ern, both an adj. ter- 
mination and a place. Conf. Franc, eichel, an acorn eiche, 
an oak. 

ACRE, AKER. Originally any field, whatever its super- 
ficial area A.S. acer Goth, akrs L. ager Gr. a.y%<jg, field, 
ground, land Skt. ajra, as, a field, plain. 

adder, viper A.S. naddete, nadre, nedre, an adder, snake 
(O.H.G. natra, W. nei'dr) L. natrice natrix, a water-snake; 
probably the Coluber natrix of Linnaeus (cur Deus tantam vim 
natricum viperarumque fecerit ? Cic. Acad. 2,38) natum 
nato, to swim no, id. Skt. snu, to flow. 

AFFIDAVIT. A written declaration upon oath=he hath 
made oath ; 3rd p. sing, of a perf. t. of Low L. affido L. ad 
to, fido to trust -fides, faith. 


AFTER. Placed behind A.S. after Goth, aftaro, from 
behind, behind af, of, from. 

AGE. Lit. period of time O. Fr. aage, edage (var. eage, 
eded, ae, ee, Prov. atge, aige, aehe] Low L. atate- (Bias czvilas 
cevum xiFujy anwv, a period of time 

AGITATE. To put in motion L. agitatus, tossed, 
moved agito, freq. of ago, to drive (Gr. ayo>) Skt. aj, to go, 
drive, propel. 

AGNATE. Any male relation by the father's side. 
L. agnatus, a kinsman or cousin by the father's side ; lit. 
growing upon or to a thing ad to, nascor to be born ; of 
Skt. origin. 

AGNOMEN. Additional name or epithet conferred on a 
person (L.) ad to, nomen a name ; of Skt. origin. 

AGOG. In a state of desire Fr. a gogo ; etre a gogo, to 
live in ease (gfgqye, raille, plaisante). Littr6 gives also Picard 
a gaugau, a cceur joie ; and says, " Le Picard semble indiquer 
pour etymologie gau, radical du Latin gaudere, se rejouir, mais 
1'orthographie ancienne est par o, et Diez le rattache &gogue,'' 
an old word for plaisanterie, divertissement, which Littre com- 
pares with Bas Bret, goguea, tromper, se moquer ; Cymric 
gogan, satire. See also Larchey, Diet. Hist, d' Argot. 

AIL. To suffer >A.S. aidlian,\.o ail, be sick adl, disease, 
grief, pain. Conf. Heb. bin, hadal, to leave off, forsake, cease. 

AIR, EIR. Atmosphere Fr. air L. aer Gr. a.r,p Copt. 
0.77/3. Conf. Syr. aar, Chald. aur, Ar. aiyar. 

AIRY, AERIE, EYRY, EYRIE. An eagle's nest 
OF. airie, aire, a nest of hawks Bret, er, erer, eryre, an eagle. 
Conf. Icel. an, O.G. ar, W. eryr, an eagle ; as eryr euraid, 
golden eagle, pysg-eryr, the osprey. 

ALAN. A dog for the chase, of which there are three 


sorts O. Fr. alan, var. aland, alant, allan, alland, allant 
Low I^.alanus, "canis species veteribus nota alano, Nebrissensi 
molossus" L. alanus, of or belonging to the Alani, a warlike 
Scythian nation upon the Tanais and Palus Maeotis. 

ALE. The liquor A.S. ealu Dan. ol Icel. ol, id. ; gene- 
ral name used by the ancients for any intoxicating drinks, 
says Cleasby. 

ALLODIAL. Pertaining to land, &c., without any 
acknowledgment of a feudal superior; held, not by feudal 
tenure, but independently Low L. allodialis, formed by 
inversion from UDAL, q.v. 

ALNUS. The alder tree ; applied to two different plants, 
the common alder and the black or berry-bearing alder (L.) 
alatur amne, it is nourished or grows by the river. Conf. 
Isid. 17, Orig. 7, 42. Others derive the word from Heb. 
vb, allon, an oak. 

AMBUSCADE. The military term Sp. emboscdda 
emboscdr, lit. to retire into the thickest part of a wood 
in in, bosque a woody place. Conf. It. imboscdta, bosco. 

AMETHYST. The precious stone L. amethystus, a 
stone of a violet purple colour, said to be a remedy against 
drunkenness Gr. a^sSyo-roe, not drunken, without drunken- 
ness a priv., n/,0ucy to be drunken with wine. Brande says 
some of the ancient vases or cups are composed of amethyst, 
and the Persians were of opinion that wine drunk out of such 
cups would not intoxicate. Pliny in one place says, " the 
falsehood of the magicians would persuade us that these 
stones are preventive of inebriety, and it is from this they 
have derived their name;" but in N. H. lib. 57, c. 48, he 
says " the name which these [the amethyst] stones bear 
originates, it is said, in the peculiar tint of their brilliancy, 


which, after closely approaching the colour of wine, passes 
off into a violet without being pronounced ; or else, accord- 
ing to some authorities, in the fact that in their purple there 
is something that falls short of a fiery colour, the tints fading 
off, and inclining to colour of wine." Columella says, " never- 
theless the black Inerticula (the sluggish vine), which some 
Greeks call Amethyston, may be placed, as it were, in the 
second tribe, because it both yields a good wine and is harmless ; 
from which also it took its name, because it is reckoned dull, 
and not to have spirit enough to affect the nerves, though it 
is not dull and flat to the taste ;" and the translator (M. C. 
Curtius) adds in a note, "Inerticula nigra. The Greeks call it 
aasSuirrov, from the little effect that its wine has to make one 
drunk. Pliny says there is more reason to call it the sober 
wine, and that its wine is commendable when it is very old." 
Conf. Columella, in, 2, 24; Stephanus, Thes. Ling. Graec. 
Aju,9o<rroe was also the name of a kind of herb. Plutarch, 
Quaest. Conviv. lib. in, 21, in, 10 (6) says, "But those that 
imagine that the herb amethyst (aae9ycrrof) and the precious 
stone of the same name are called so because powerful 
against the force of wine are much mistaken ; for both 
receive their names from their colour, for its leaf is not of 
the colour of strong wine, but resembles that of weak diluted 
liquor. And indeed I could mention a great many which 
have their names from their proper virtues." See Holland's 
Translation, p. 568. 

this word from Basque anchoa, anchua, antzua, dry, as though 
dried fish. It comes from Sp. anchova, anchoa L. apua (thus, 
apua, aphua, ahua, achua, anchoa] aphya, a fish supposed by 
some to be the pilchard Gr. a<{>yij, commonly supposed to be 


the anchovy or sardine, but according to Yarrell and Adams 
the mackerel-midge (obs.) Gr. atpvw a priv., <pvou to beget, 
both vocables being of Skt. origin. 

ANCILLARY. Subservient, subordinate, ministering 
L. ancillaris, pertaining to a handmaid ancilla, a handmaid, 
dim. of ancula, fern, of anculus, dim. of ancus. See 

ANEMONE, ANEMONY. A genus of plants belonging 
to the order Ranunculacese L. anemone Gr. avs^covij ; so 
called, according to some, because its flowers are easily 
moved by the wind. Others say, because it only opens when 
the wind blows, or because it grows in situations much 
exposed to the wind ; avspos, wind. 

ANT. Insect so called. Corrupted from emmet ; thus, 
emmet, emet, amt, ant. 

ANTENNAE. Feelers of insects L. antenna (less cor- 
rectly antemnce}, pi. of antenna, a sail-yard, which some derive 
from avaTzivw, to spread out ; but the word is simply from 
ante, before, like sociennus from socius. 

ANTIRRHINUM. A genus of plants of the order 
Scrophulariaceae (L.), snap-dragon Gr. avrtftvov, so called 
because the flowers of most of the species bear a perfect 
resemblance to the snout of some animal (a calf, say some 
Latin authors) avtt, equal to, like ; piv, a nose. It is also 
called in L. anarrhinon, Gr. avappwov, piv prefixed by avo. 

APPLE. The fruit. A.S appl, appil (Anc. Brit, appilew, 
Apnor. & W. aval, Ir. abhal, Dan. cell, Sw. ceple, G. apfel}. 
Some derive all from Heb. bli', y'bul, produce of the earth ; 
'yy, j'dbal, in Hiphil, to lead, bring, carry, produce, bring 
forth (as the earth). Others give P. ibhal, the juniper or 
sabine tree and fruit. De Theis says that apt, the Keltic 


name of a fruit of the same kind as the pear, is the origin of 
the Gr. amoe , the G. apfd, and our apple. According to 
Rees, api is even the name of one sort of French apple. 
Wachter says, those who originated language named the 
apple from its round shape ; and he derives the G. and other 
words from an augmentive a and bal, bol, round = very round. 
He gives as the reason that in all dialects a like name has 
been given to any fruit of round shape. 

AQUA VIM:, AQUAVITE. Brandy or spirit of wine, 
said to be equal to " water of life ; " on which account the 
Gaels made their wisge-leatha, water-life, by corruption 
usquebaugh, then whisky. The word in It. is found written 
acquavita, acqua vita, acquavite, acqua vite, acqua di vite, and 
aqua di vita ; and is from L. aqua vitis, i.e. water or spirit 
of the vine. 

ARENA (L.) An amphitheatre or place where masteries 
were tried and prizes contended for ; any place of fighting, 
originally strewed with sand to drink up the blood; lit. sand, 
gravel, shore, formerly harena for hasena the Sabine fasena. 

ARGOSY, ARGOSIE. An ancient ship of great burthen, 
whether for merchandise or war. Some derive the word 
from Argo, name of Jason's ship, but it has been 
corrupted from Ragusa. "Those vast caracks called 
Argosies, which are so famed for the vastness of their 
burthen and bulk, were corruptly so denominated from 
Ragosies, ie. ships of Ragusa, a city and territory on the 
Gulf of Venice, then tributary to the Porte." Rycaut, 
Maxims of Turkish Polity, ch. xiv. 

ARGOT. French slang. Some derive the word from 
argoter, L. argutari, to dispute ; others from ergo, therefore, 
because the arguments of dialecticians end with that word ; 


or from Gr. ispa,, the sacred language ; thus iepx, epya, erga, 
ergot, argot ; or from Argos, because, as they assert, most 
of the argot words are of Greek origin. Again, Duchat 
derives the word from Ragot, " capitaine des Gueux dans 
les Propos Rustiques de Noel du Fail." But conf. Larchey 
(Lor6dan) ; Le Careme Prenant, Les Joyeuses, &c., ed. by 
L. A. Martin ; a paper on French Slang in Sat. Rev. of 
1 8 Feb. 1879; and works of Selvar (A.), Fournier (E.), 
and Michel (Francisque). 

ARROWROOT. The farinaceous substance. According 
to Bentley (Manual of Botany, p. 669) the name was 
originally applied to this plant from the fact of its bruised 
rhizome being employed by the native American Indians to 
counteract the effect of wounds inflicted by poisoned arrows. 
Others say it owes its name to the scales which cover the 
rhizome, which have some resemblance to the point of an 
arrow; and, again, others from ara, the West Indian name of 
the plant. 

ASP, ASPIC. A serpent O. Fr. aspe (Mod. Fr. aspic] 
L. aspide, aspis Gr. ac-me, an asp, the Egyptian cobra ; lit. 
a round shield. The asp may have been so called because 
the Egyptians imagined that it guarded the palaces which it 

ASPERITY. Sharpness, lit. unevenness, roughness 
Fr. asperite L. asperitate L. asperitas asper, rough 
Gr. acrrtopog, growing wild, lit. not sown, not seeded, 
growing wild a neg., o-n-eipw to sow. 

substance L. asphaltum Gr. a<r<paATov a priv., cnpaAAco to 
cause to fall. 

ASPIC, ASPICK, ASPIK. In cookery, a savoury jelly 


Fr. aspic, so called because as cold as an aspic ("froid 
comme un aspic") O. Fr. aspe. r. of ASP, q.v. 

ASS, ASSE. The animal A.S. assa Sw. csna, or Ice). 
asni L. asinus, which some derive from Gr. acnyre, innocent, 
because Xenophon says " ov 01 <wivoi euro'/" but asinus is 
rather from a word OOVOQ for ovoc, probably from Heb pn, 
dthon, a she-ass. 

ATROCIOUS. Wicked in a high degree, enormous 
L. atroci or atroce atrox, terrible to see or hear, horrible, 
hideous ; lit. not prepared for eating, raw, uncooked Gr. 
arpwKTos arpo, not eatable ; a not, tpuryco to eat. Conf. 

AUGUR. A soothsayer, conjecturer, a diviner, he that 
foretelleth the results of affairs by the flying, singing, or 
feeding of birds L. augur, auger, a diviner. Forcellini 
says, in inscriptions augur is found aucur, and in Greek 
letters avyovp ; that some think augur is of Etruscan origin, 
and that the first syllable may, like G. auge, be from 
oculus, and the final syllable may form a verbal substantive, 
which would make it i.q. seh-er, spd-er. Fabretti gives 
Etruscan av (atfo), whence avgar, avcur, and av in aufero and 
afugio. The most probable derivation of the word is from 
avgar, from avium garritus, chattering of birds. Some, how- 
ever, derive augur from augurium, from same root. Servius, 
ad Virg. ^En. V. 523, says, "Augurium is avigerium, quod 
aves gerunt ; " Festus, " qu6d felix augurium crederetur si 
pascerentur aves." 

AURICLE. The external ear L. auricula, lobe of the 
ear, so called from remote resemblance of its appendices to 
the ear of a dog ; dim. of auris, the ear Gr. ov$. 

AUTUMN. The season L. autumnus, auctumnus ; lit. 


the thing or season pertaining to increase, because men's 
wealth is increased by the harvest (quod tune maxime augean- 
tur hominum opes, coactis agrorum fructibus, says Festus) 
auclo (anno) augeo, to increase Skt. vaksh, to increase, 

AYAH. Ordinary appellation of Anglo-Indians for a 
nurse for children, or a lady's maid Ptg. aia (Sp. dj'a), 
a governess or gouvernante ; also a chamber-maid, fern, of 
dio, corrupted from L. adjuio, adju/us, aid, help. 

AX, AXE, EAX. The instrument A. S. ax, eax, Goth. 
akwisi L. ascia Gr. ativ-r) acy, fut. of ayvupi, to break. But 
conf. Ethiop. hatzi, an instrument, usually of iron, for hewing 
timber and chopping wood ; Chald. & Syr. hatzina, an axe ; 
Ar. hazza. to cut. 


BABEL. A confused mixture of sounds, a continuation of 
discordant utterances. So called from the confusion at the 
Tower of Babel, in Heb. !?2i, Babhel (in Assyrian Babilu], 
which Simonis derives from balbel, confusion, from baldl, to 
pour over, pour together, and compares with wy^ta, to 
confound, Gen. xi. 7 ; others from P. bdb-bal, gate or court 
of Bel or Belus ; but the word is rather from Chald. ?^, 
babh-dl, gate of God. 

BACALHAO. The fish called poor Jack, ling, cod-fish ; 
also salt fish Ptg. bacalhdo (Sp. bacalldo) ; said to have been 
so named from Bacalhao, an island off the S.E. coast of 
Newfoundland, where it is caught. (" Llamose' <foca/7<z0 por 
el pais en cuya mar se pesca, que tiene este nombre." Dice, 
de la Acad. Espafi.) But it is probably the reverse, and the 
word, which in It. is written bacald, Basq bacalaiba, D. 


bakkeljauw, G. bakaliau, is an inverse of D. kabeljaaw, kabbel- 
jaauw, kabbeljauw, Dan. kabliau, S\v. kabeljao, E. kabbelow, Fr. 
cabillaud, cabliau, in France a name for fresh cod ; probably 
so called, like the pollard, from the great size of its head Gr. 
xepaAoe ; a large-headed sea fish, according to some a kind 
of mullet. Conf. Low L. cabtllawus, Piscis marini genus 
Asellus, Gall, merlus, cabillau. Charto Phil, comit. Flandr. ann. 
1163, &c. &c. ; also Littleton under cephalus, a pollard ; and 
capito, which he renders a jolt-head, jobbernol, or grout-head : 
also a kind of cod-fish, a pollard ; and Tommaseo (It. 
Diet.) under cefalo, Dal. Gr. xepaAij, capo. 

BACCARAT. A game of cards brought into S. of France 
from Italy, in which the cards are played between a banker 
and a certain number of punters (Fr. pontes) ; properly 
baccara, "jeu de hasard dans lequel les points de 10, 20, et 
30 sont nomme's baccara, d'ou le nom du jeu." See Bouillet, 
Diet. Univ. Par. 1884. 

married man ; one who takes his degrees at the university in 
any profession ; a knight of the lowest order. Many derive this 
word from Low L. bacca-laureatus, crowned with laurel, from 
laurus, the laurel or bay-tree, because, according to Cale- 
pinus, students on gaining the B.A. degree were crowned 
with a garland of laurel or bay berries : a statement, 
says Hunter, resting on very doubtful historical authority. 
Wedgewood says bachekr, bachelier, bachelard was at first a 
young man, an aspirant to knighthood, an apprentice to 
arms or sciences ; then a bachelor of arts, a young man 
admitted to the degree of apprentice or a student of arts, 
but not a master ; then an unmarried man ; and he derives 
the word from W. bachgen, a boy. Fauchet (L'Origine des 


Chevaliers, liv. i. ch. i) thinks bachelors were so named 
quasi bas chevaliers, because they were lower in dignity than 
the milites bannereti, with whom, though behind them, they 
were allowed to sit. And he adds, " car encore en Picardie 
bachelier et bachelette sont appelez, non pas les enfans ou 
fillettes de dix ans, ains les jeunes garcons de seize et de 
dix-huit ans, et les filles prestes a marier." Barbazon is of 
opinion that Low L. baccalia, a shrub which bears fruit, might 
have given birth to bachelier, and he adds, "un jeune apprentif 
est un jeune arbrisseau qui a deja porte" du fruit, mais qui 
n'est pas venu encore au point ou il aspire. Le Lat. bacca 
signifie toute sorte de graines et meme arbrisseaux; que sont 
autre chose les jeunes gens, les 6tudians, sinon des jeunes 
plantes qui ne sont point encore form 6es ?" Roquefort gives 
O. Fr. bacheler, bachelard, bachelier, bachelor (rime), "jeune 
homme, adolescent, qui n'est pas parvenu au degr6 qu'il 
d6sire, qui n'est point forme", qui n'est pas encore parvenu a 
l'age viril ; mineur qui ne jouit pas de ses biens ; gentil- 
homme qui, n'etant pas chevalier, aspire a 1'etre ; apprentif 
soit dans les armes, les sciences, les arts, ou tel metier que 
se soit ; aspirant, 6tudiant, homme dont 1'education n'est pas 
form6e ; en Bas L. baccalarius, en Picardy bacheler, en 
Dauphine bachelart, en anc. Prov. baceldjhee" Diez thinks 
the primitive signification of the word was that of proprietor 
of a farm, grange, or manor (baccalarid] ; and Scheler adds, 
" elle s'e"tendit ensuite au jeune chevalier, qui, trop pauvre 
ou trop jeune pour avoir sa propre banniere, se rangeait sous 
celle d'un autre ; puis au jeune homme qui avait acquis la 
dignite inferieure a celle de maitre ou de docteur; en dernier 
lieu le terme (surtout 1'Anglais bachelor] est devenu synonyme 
de gar9on." Littr6 would derive bachelier from a word bachelerie, 


which might mean a sort of rural domain, from Keltic 
bachall, bacal, baton. The most probable derivation is from 
L. baculus, as a sign of office or dignity. Caseneuve says 
bachelier a baculis. Pancirole (Illustres Interpretes de Droit, 
liv. 2, ch. i) says, " Primo fiunt Baccalaurei, id est bacca 
laurea digni ; qui quadriennio studuerunt: et Lytse vocantur; 
tanquam juris nodos solvere incipientes. Sed ex vetens 
Parisiensis Academiae usu Bacillarii appellantur ; dicti a 
bacillo ipsis exhibito; quod signum est auctoritatis dicendi, 
quam consequuntur ; " and Menage is of the same opinion. 

BACILLUS. A name for the insect, i.e. the microbe, 
found in cholera ; so called from its rodlike shape (L.) ; 
dim. of baculus, a staff; perhaps from Heb. bpD, makkel, a 
rod, staff ; properly a twig, sucker. 

BACKGAMMON. A game of great antiquity in England, 
where it was formerly known by the appellation of the 
"Tables." (See Morris's Chaucer, iii. 7, 172.) Some 
derive the word from W. bach-cammawn, little battle, in 
contradistinction to the great battle or game, i.e. chess. 
But the name is more probably from back-game, because the 
performance consists in the two players bringing their own 
men back from their antagonist's tables into their own, or 
because the pieces are sometimes taken up and obliged to 
back that is, re-enter at the table they came from. Conf. 

BACON. Flesh of a hog salted and dried O. Fr. bacon; 
cochon, lard, jambon, chair de pore, viande se"chee a la 
fumee (Prov. bacon, Low L. baco, bacco] ; O.G. bach, wild 
hog, also a domestic hog; bach, back. Wachter, referring 
to synonymous words, says, " Cuncta per synecdochen a bach, 
tergum, sensu a tergo ad porcum, a porco ad petasonem, 


a petasone ad lardum translate. Sane nomen totius saepe 
adhaeret parti praestantiori, et vicissim nomen partis prae- 
stantioris saepe communicatur integro. Dubium autem non 
est, quin tergus sit major et melior pars porci, sicut lardum 

BAD. Opposed to "good." Home Tooke says from 
bayed, p. p. of bay, to bark at or reproach ; Thompson and 
Webster from P. bad, bad, evil ; Junius from Goth, baulks, 
insipid. The word is more probably from Flem. quade, 
Belg quad, or D. quoad, bad. 

BADIANE. A ratafia made of brandy, bitter almonds, 
sugar, rasped lemon peel, cloves, and cinnamon (Janin, 189) 
Fr. badiane, name for the ratafia de Boulogne (Bologna) and 
the " anisette de Hollande ; " made from seed or fruit of the 
badian, a tree of China and Tartary. 

BAN. A title of the governor of Croatia, Slavonia, and 
Dalmatia; formerly that of the wardens of the marches of 
Hungary. Serv. ban, master, lord root of Khan. 

O. Fr. banqueroutte O. It. bancarotta, broken bench ; so called 
because, when, in Italy, the money-changers in the streets 
failed, their benches were, or were said to be, broken ; banca 
a bench, rotta broken L. rupta. M6nage, quoting Coquille 
sur 1'art. 205 de 1'Ordonnance de Blois, says, " Banqueroute et 
Faillete sont dictions Italiennes ; car en Italic d'anciennet^ 
estoit accoustume' que ceux qui faisoient trafic de deniers 
pour preste'r, ou pour faire tenir et changer, avoient un bane 
ou table en lieu public. Quand aucun quittoit le bane, que 
les Latins disent foro cedebai, se disoit que son bane e"toit 
rompu. Fallito au mesme langage signifie banqueroute. Et 
banqueroutiers et falliti se disent ceux desquels le credit est 


failli." Even at the present day buyers of copper coins may 
be seen at their tables in some towns of Italy. 

BANSHEE, BANSH1. A fay, elf, a supernatural being 
believed in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands to intimate 
the early death of some member of the family, whose domain 
it nocturnally visits ban (Ir. ben) a woman, sith (Ir. sigh} a 

BARGE. A sort of boat (O. Fr.) Gr. /3a/>is, /3apiSos, a 
kind of ship or barge Cop. ban, a little pleasure boat drawn 
by a raft Sah. ba, palm branches, Copt, ri for iri, to make. 
Or the word may mean " boat of the sun " oua or ua (pre- 
ceded by b) a boat, re sun. 

BARK, BARQUE. The three-masted vessel Fr. barque, 
or It. barca, r. of BARGE, q.v. 

BARON. A degree of nobility next to a viscount O. Fr. 
baron, baroun, varon, faron, man in general, mari, homme fait, 
titre de noblesse Low L. baro, barus, varus, varo, viro (Anc. 
Prov. bar, baro, Sp. varo, homme fort, vaillant, vigoureux, 
O.G. bar] L. vir, man. Roquefort, who derives the word 
from vir, says, " Dans les lois des Lombards, ainsi que dans 
les lois ripuaires, baro et barus sont pris partout pour vir, 
ainsi que dans la loi salique et dans celle des allemands ; 
au titre 34 de la loi salique, il est oppose a mulier ingenua. 
Ce qui me confirme encore que cette Etymologic est la seule 
veritable, c'est que dans nos anciennes po6sies le mari est 
souvent appele par sa femme mon baron ; usage qui s'etoit 
conserv6 en Picardie et dans la Flandre." 

BARON OF BEEF. The two sirloins not cut asunder, 
but left joined together by the end of the backbone. Accord- 
ing to some, it was applied in jocular allusion to the sirloin, 
a baron being higher in rank than a Sir or Knight; but 


Dr. Brewer says, " so called because it is the baron (back 
part) of the ox, called in Danish the rug; and indeed in 
several English dialects the back part of a cow is called 

BARREN, BAREIN. Bearing no children O. Fr. 
baraigne, braheigne (L'un est braheigne, et rien ne porte ; 1'autre 
en fruit porter se deporte. Roman de la Rose, vers. 6085), 
corrupted from Belg. be-barende = A.S. un-berende, unbearing, 
unfruitful, barren, sterile (unberynde, barrenness). 

BASSINETTE. Properly a wicker basket with a hood 
over the end, in which infants are placed. From a 
word berceaunette, corrupt dim. of berceau, a cradle ; so called 
because made of osier. O. Fr. ben, osier, Low L. bersa, 
rendered " claie d'osier, treillage dont on environnait les 
forets de chasse." 

BATZ. Small copper coin with a mixture of silver, bearing 
the visage of a bear, formerly current in some parts of Ger- 
many and Switzerland, value i^d. Swiss bcetze, a she-bear. 
Conf. G. batze, canicula, canis fcemina, E. bitch. 

BAWN. In Ireland, the intrenched or walled enclosure 
surrounding square towers, into which the cattle were 
driven to secure them from wolves or neighbouring chief- 
tains. See T. Crofton Croker, Res. S. Ireland, 266 (1824). 
Richardson renders bawn, any habitation dwelling or edifice, 
whether constructed of stone, mud, earth, &c. The word is 
from Gael, babhunn, a bulwark, rampart, tower enclosure, 
a place for milking cattle ; or Ir. bdbun, properly baboun* 
an enclosure for cattle, a town. 

BAY. Opening into land, where the water is shut in on 
all sides except at the entrance (Latham) Dan. bugt, gulf, 
bay ; lit. an incurvation, something bent ; bugte, to bend. 


BAY RUM. A fragrant liquor obtained by distilling the 
leaves of the bay-tree. Here rum is said to be from G. 
rahm, cream ; but see Notes & Queries. 

BAYADERE. An East Indian dancing girl Fr. bayadere 
Ptg. bailadeira, a female dancer baildr, to dance. 

BAYONET. Dagger-like weapon for fixing on end of 
a musket Fr. bayonetle, ba'ionette (Sp. bqyoneta}, a sort of 
poignard said to have been invented at Bayonne during the 
siege of that town in 1523, and used in the army by Martinet 
in 1674 > b 11 * ^s employment was anterior thereto, because, 
in a letter written in 1571 by Hotman to Jacques Capelle, it 
would seem that this arm was used in his time, and it was 
manufactured at Bayonne in 1640. The word is more 
probably a double dim. of O. Fr. baye, which Roquefort 
renders " Coutelas, e'pe'e courte bay, de couleur brune, 
rousse Low L. bagus (var. bagius, baius}" which Dufresne 
renders " color equi, qui Latinis badius, spadix, phcenicus, 
dicitur rutilus" as though /3aiSios, from /3ais, pa(38o<; 
<poivixoc. Conf. Bayonet with Brown Bess and Brown 

BEAKER, BIKER, BYKER. Flagon O.S. likera or beker 
Low L. bicarium (also peccarium), a wine-glass (vas, calix, 
cyathus, vel mensura potoria) Gr. /S*xoe, an earthern wine 
vessel ; according to Liddell & Scott, a word of Oriental 

BEAN, BENE. The legume A.S. bean L. faba ; thus, 
/aba, fabana, fabeana, beana, bean. White & Riddle think 
faba may be for fag-ba (like fames from fag-mes), from a root 
fag Gr .<f>ayw, to eat Skt. bhaksh, edere, vorare. Isidorus, 
Orig. xvii. 4, derives faba from faga from <ay<D, and 
adds, " primum enim homines hoc legumine usi sunt." 



BEAN-GOOSE. A variety of the wild goose, so called 
from the likeness of its bill to a horse-bean. 

BEE. The insect A.S. led, U (Ice. by), O.H.G./w 
L. apis, in Codex Gvelferbytanus abis Skt. bha, probably 
onomatopoetic, says Monier Williams. 

BEEF-EATER. One of the yeomen of the royal guard, 
first raised by H. VII. in 1485. Steevens derives the word 
from beaufetier, one who attends to the sideboard which was 
anciently placed in a beaufet. Max Miiller substitutes buffetier 
for beaufetier, but neither is found. Todd derives the word 
from beef and eat, because the commons is beef when on 
waiting. Skeat quotes Ben Jonson as using eater in the 
sense of " servant," as in " Where are all my eaters ?" Silent 
Woman, iii. 2 ; but is finally of opinion that the word actually 
means beef-eater. If so it requires some explanation. It 
may have been the general opinion that one fed on beef 
would be a fine strong fellow. White Melville in his " Good 
for Nothing " speaks of the Goths as " beef-devouring 
gladiators ; " and in his " The Queen's Maries, a Romance 
of Holyrood," I find " My servant saving your grace's 
presence, a beef-fed knave, from Smithfield." And in " Out- 
ward Bound" (pub. 1838, p. 19) "beef" is used for " man.'' 
Again, Strutt (Manners and Customs, &c., of England, 1776, 
vol. iii, p. 116) says, "In a M.S. in the Harleian Library 
(insig. 293) I find a fragment of the Household Book, which 
book did contain ' Orders of Prince Henry's House, as it 
was by him signed the gth of Maye, an. 1610.' The Pryses 
of Fleshe, as the Prince Henrye payethe, as they are agreed 
with the purveyors. An ox shold waye 6oo/$. the fowere 
quartires, and commonly costethe gl. los. or there abouts : 
a mutton shold waye 44$. or 46$. and the cost by stone 2%d., 


cache stone being 8 pound: vealles [calves'] go not by wayght, 
but by goodness only; their price is commonly 17^. : lambes 
at 6s. 8d. the peece." Now, considering the value of money at 
the time in question, there would be a great difference between 
the price of mutton and beef. It is probable, therefore, that, 
while the inferior attendants and servants had to put up with 
mutton, the body of foot guards for the protection of the 
king's person (vulgarly called beef-eaters) were allowed beef. 

BEER, BERE. A.S. bear (D. & G. bier, Ice. bj6rr) t O.H.G. 
bior, pior. Bellenden Kerr, however, derives the word from 
D. bier (properly $/'i?r=foamer, fermenter, blower bien, to blow 
up or send up froth (bubbles), to form scum or froth ; " so 
that," says he, " beer is a fermenting liquor, or that which 
becomes fit for use by passing through a state of fermenta- 

BEET ROOT. Plant of genus Beta, valuable as a 
culinary and agricultural production. (L.) Some derive Beta 
from Boetis, a river of Spain, which gave name to ancient 
Boetica ; but Columella derives it from the Greek letter 
/?Ta (/3) from its resemblance thereto when swollen with 

BEIK. In Scotland, a cant word for a person, as an auld 
beik, a queer beik, &c. ; also for a man's mouth, by way of 
contempt ; lit. the beak or bill of a fowl Gael, beic, a point, 
nib, the bill of a bird ; a word, like Belg. btck, Fr. bee 
(rostrum), It. becco, L. beccus, a beak, bill, of Gaulish origin. 
" Beccus significat rostrum apud Gallos." Suetonius, Life of 
Vitellius. Conf. Ed. Rev. vol. xiv. (1809), 130. From this 
Sco. word we probably have the slang word beak for a 
magistrate, judge. 

BELFRY. Orig. a tower erected by besiegers to overlook 


a place besieged. The derivations from Low L. belfredus, 
from bell, id., that which makes a noise ; and from G. bell, 
freid (freide\ peace ; and from L. bellum war, fero to bear 
or carry away, are all improbable. The word, which in 
M.E. is found written berfray, berfrey, beffroy, in O. Fr. 
berfroit, berfreit, belefreit, in M.H.G. berefrit, berefrit, berchfrit, 
and in Low L. berfredus, berefndus, belfredus, bilfredus, 
baltefredus, is derived by some from M.H.G. berc, pro- 
tection ; frit, frid, a place of security. The M.H.G. 
words properly mean " town protection," from berg for burg, 
town, citadel ; frieden, to defend, protect. Wachter, under 
friede, securitas, gives "burg-friede, securitas quam prsestat 

BELT, BELTE. A girdle, a band around the body A.S. 
belt (Gael, beilt, beilte L. balteus (balteum'} ; according to Varro, 
an Etruscan word. Fabretti gives Etruscan balteus, cingulum 
militare; but, as the O. Gaelic has bait, bailt, the word may be 
of Gaulish origin. 

BENT. A coarse kind of grass growing on hilly ground 
(Lightfoot] ; the open field, the plain (S.Douglas} M.H.G. 
binuz, binz, a bent, a grass (also O.G. bintz, bins, Belg. bies, 
biez] binden, to bind (likejuncus, fromjungo), "quia sportas, 
sellas, fiscellas, et similia ex juncis conteximus," says 

BEZIQUE. A game of cards analogous to brisque or 
marriage Fr. besigue, var. bezig, besy, besi, beze, lit. twice ; 
perhaps because played with two packs of cards. Others say 
from L. bijugum, bijugus, two yoked together, in allusion to 
the result produced by the reunion in the hand of the same 
player of two valets de carreau and two dames de pique bis 
two, jugum a yoke. 


BICKORN, BICKERN. An iron ending in a beak or 
point ; a term formerly used in jousts or tiltings (obs.} a 

BIFFIN. A flattened dried apple prepared in Norfolk 
from a variety properly called Beaufin Fr. beau, perhaps 
= very ; fin, fine. 

BIG, BUG. Great in bulk. Corrupted from bulk, bolke, 
magnitude, size, mass, quantity Icel. biilke, a heap. 

BIGAROON. A kind of cherry ; the large white-heart 
Fr. bigarreau, a sort of cherry, red on one side, white on the 
other Fr. bigarre, variegated bigarrer, to variegate L. bis, 
two, in a bad sense variare, to diversify. 

BIJOU. Something small and very pretty ; properly a 
jewel, trinket Fr. bijou Arm. bizou, bezou, bezeu, a ring biz, a 

BILE. A fluid secreted by the liver L. bilis, which some 
derive from Gr. x ^- 7 /? id. > others from <avAos, worthless, 
scil. succus. 

BILIVERDIN, BILIVERDINE. A green substance ob- 
tained from the green dejections of children Fr. bile-veri, 
green colour. 

BISK. A soup made by boiling together several kinds 
of flesh Fr. bisque ; an esculent potage, so called, according 
to some, because first invented in Biscay. But the word 
is more probably from L. viscum, because it is sticky, 
and contains only a small portion of bouillon JEo\. FICTKOS 

BISON. Animal of the ox family L. bison Gr. fiivov ; 
according to some, of Teutonic origin. The O.H.G. has 
wisunt, Icel. visundr, A.S. wesent, Prov. bizon, It. bizonte, 
Byz ovisavSpos; but /Jicrwv is properly /?ICTTOJ/, and was so called. 


according to Oppianus (2, 159), from Bistonia, in Thrace, 
which, Lempriere says, had its name from Biston, son of 
Mars and Calirrhoe. See also Herodot. 7, no; Plin. 4, 14 ; 
Lucan 7, 569. 

BISTOURI, BISTOURY. A surgical instrument for 
making incisions O. Fr. bistouri, which Littr6 derives from 
Low L. bistoria, sorte d'arme, baton, massue r. of Sp. baslon, 
in Low L. bastonus, baculus, fustis. But the French and 
Low L. words are rather from It. bistort, from Pistoria, anc. 
name of Pistoja, in Tuscany, where the bistouri was first 
manufactured. Tommaseo says of Bistori, " Secondo Huet e 
Duchat, il suo nome proviene della citta Pistoja, ove una 
volta era un' eccellente fabbrica di tali strumenti che si 
chiamavano Pistolienses gladii" 

BYTOURE. Sub -genus of family of herons Fr. butor 
(Flem. putoor, Lieg. & Wall, puttoir, Low L. bitorius, 
lutorius] L. butio, for bubo, whence bubo, to cry like a bittern. 

BLADE. A leaf, also the flat of a sword A.S. bleed 
(Icel. blath, Sw. Dan. D. blad), a leaf, blade Gr. TrAarvs, 
wide, broad. 

BLATHERSKITE. A blustering, noisy, talkative fellow ; 
term much in use in Western States of America Sco. blather, 
blether, bladder, to talk nonsense G. blattern, bladern, blodern, 
plaudern L. blatero, to babble, prate ; and query Sco. skit, a 
kind of humbug, nearly allied to modern cant term quiz ? 

BLIND. Deprived of sight A.S. blind blendan, to 
deprive of sight blandan, to mix, blend, mingl.e. Conf. E. 
blend; Fr. blinde, blind, dents blindes ; also Dan. blande, 
O.H.G. plantan, to mix. 

BLOOD. The animal fluid so called A.S. blood, blod, 


blode bledan, to bleed ; or from G. blut, from a word flut 
fliessen, to flow. 

BLUE, BLOO, BLEU, BLWE, BLO (Sco. blue, bid, bide, 
O.G. blaw) O. Sw. bio, black G. TreXos, dark or dark-blue 
colour, brown, black ; others say from a word violaw (whence 
violaceous] viola, a violet. 

BOGUS. Sham, counterfeit, false. Corruption of Borghese, 
a very corrupt individual, who, twenty years ago or more, 
did a tremendous business in the way of supplying the great 
West and portions of the South-West with counterfeit bills 
on fictitious banks. Bartlett (Diet. Americanisms), quoting 
Boston Courier of 12 June, 1857. 

BONNET. A covering for the head, in common use 
before introduction of hats. Planche says, " coverings for 
the head were little cared for by the hardy Celtic and 
Teutonic tribes ; but a cap or bonnet (cappan or boined), 
answering the double purpose of a hat or helmet, was occa- 
sionally worn by their chiefs, as much for distinction as for 
defence." The word is from Fr. bonnet (Low L. bonnela, 
Sp. bonete, O.G. bonnit, Armor, boned) Gael. boineid(\r. boinead, 
a cap or bonnet) =beann-eididh, a summit or top dress. 

ARANG. Missile weapon used by the natives of Australia 
bumarin in the extinct language of St. George's River ; 
perhaps etymologically connected with wo-mur-rang, name of 
a club in Port Jackson language ; wo-mer-ra, throwing-stick, 
which some erroneously identify with the boomerang; and 
with womrd, a St. George's River word for throwing-stick. 
All these names have had their origin from the sound in 
throwing or returning, or perhaps both. According to 
Threlkeld the Hunter River name was tur-ru-ma ; in the 


Cornu dialect, spoken on the N. bank of the Darling, 
worn-ah. See Collins, Port Jackson Words. 

BOOT, BOOTE, BOTE. Advantage, profit A.S. hot, 
Goth, botjan, to help Gr. fiorjOav, to aid, assist. 

BOTS, BOTTS (i H. IV. ii. i, n). Small worms found 
in the intestines of horses ; from to bite, because they bite and 
gnaw the intestines. 

lit. the ground of anything A.S. butm Gr. TrvO^rjv, the 
bottom, foundation Skt. budhna, budhnas, base, basis. The 
Gael, bun, bottom, base, foundation, is from same root ; but 
through Dan. bund and ~L.fundum, the bottom of anything. 

BOUGIE. In Continental Europe, a candle (Fr.), formerly 
a wax candle. From Bugie (now Boujah, Eng. Bougiah), in 
Algeria, whence the French at first imported both their wax 
and their candles. Hence the surgical instrument, usually 
or originally made of slips of waxed linen coiled into a 
cylindrical or slightly conical form. 

term for fish boiled in fresh water, with a sauce made of 
onions, oil, and saffron, and served up separately Prov. Fr. 
bouillon abaisse, bouillon reduced by evaporation. 

BOWEL, BOUELE. Intestine O. Fr. boelL. botellus, 
a sausage, dim. of botulus, which Vossius derives fiom Gr. 
POTOO-, cibus, or ftvraXov, farcimen (neither of which is found) ; 
or from Gr. <J>VCTKOV, a sausage. Festus derives it from bolus. 
" Botulus, genus farciminis, propter connexionem a bolis sic 
appellatur." Bolus comes from /3o>Aos, a mass .or lump of 

BRAE, BRAY, BRA. A bank slope, incline Sco. brae, 
a hill Gael, bruach, a bank, steep precipice. 


BRAIN, BRAYNE. The soft mass or viscus in the 
cranium or skull A.S. brcegen, bregen (D. brein) Gr. /?pey/m, 
/3/>e/xa, front part of the head, as being soft and moist in 
infants /?pcw, to wet, moisten. 

BRANK. Old name for buckwheat, still cultivated in 
Norfolk and Suffolk. Some derive the word from Gaulish 
brance. Camden (Gough) says, " Gaul (according to Pliny) 
produces a kind of corn which they call brance, which among 
us is sandalum, a grain of the finest kind. Among the 
Britons also a species of very bright grain is called guineth 
vranc, and in Norfolk among us brank." According to 
F. Hardouin, however, all the MSS. read brace, not brance. 

BRAHUN. Flesh of a boar prepared in a peculiar manner 
L. aprugna, i.e. caro aprugna, boar's flesh ; lit. of or relating 
to a wild boar aper, a wild boar Gr. /cairpos the boar. 

BRAY. To make a roaring noise Fr. braire L. barrire, 
to roar like an elephant barrus, an elephant (a word of 
Chaldaic origin). 

BREASTSUMMER. A piece in the outward part of a 
wooden building into which the girders are framed ; Gwilt 
says, " A summer or beam placed breastwise for the support 
of a wall." The word is probably a metathesis of Low L. 
summaria trabes summaria, highest, most prominent or im- 
portant ; trabes, a beam. 

BRIAR-ROOT PIPE. The wooden smoking-pipe so 
called. Commonly, but erroneously thought to be made of 
the briar. The word is from Fr. bruyere, heath O. Fr. bruere, 
Bas Bret, brug, bruk. In Paris shops one notes pipes 
marked " Bruyeres" and " Bruyeres basques." 


BRIGAND. A robber, bandit, outlaw O.F. brigand, 
Bret, brigant W. brigand, a Highlander, depredator; lit. the 
summit, from brig, the top, summit. Hersart de la Villemarque 
(Diet. Franc.. -Breton) says, " Brigant. Ce dernier nom 6tait 
celui d'une ancienne peuplade de Pile de Bretagne ; il signifiait 
primitivement et signifie encore montagnard, dans le pays 
de Galles. II est devenu synomyne de pillard, par suite 
des depredations que les habitants des montagnes avaient 
coutume de cornmettre dans les plaines." 

BRISTLE. Stiff hair of swine D. borstel (A.S. byrst, 
Sw. borst, Icel. burst, G. borste) L. vibrissa, hairs growing in 
the nostrils (pili a naribus hominum, dicti quod his evulsis 
caput vibratur, Fest. p. 370) vibro, to shake, agitate Skt. 
vep, to tremble, shake, move about. Woods, on " Lion," 
P. Cyc. 1839, p. 29, speaks of a claw or prickle in the tail of 
leopards and lions, like the bulb of a bristle or vibrissa. 

BRITANNICA. A plant, a sort of sorrel, esteemed by 
the Romans as antiseptic. The word in Gr. is ppcTawiKi) 
and fipeToviKrj (Diosc.) ; and in Vulg. Arabic ...aJulS- j 
birtdniky; and, according to Mayne, is said to be from the 
Frisic, and to signify " fixing loose teeth," in reference to 
its beneficial effects on the gums of scorbutic patients, as 
experienced by the Romans in the country of the Frisii ; but 
the word is rather from Vetonica (betony), so called from the 
Vetones,Vettones, orVectones, an ancient people of Spain who 
occupied the prov. of Estremadara. In Mod. Gr. the word is 
found written Berrovi/c^. Conf. Vullers ; Simonet, 288, and Dozy. 

BRUSQUE, BRUSK. Rough, rude, unceremonious Fr. 
brusque, rude It. brusco, rough, sharp, sour, corrupted from 
L. acrus, lit. (to the taste) sour : thus, acrus, acruscus, cruscus, 
ruscus, bruscus, brusco. 


BUCK WHEAT. A plant whose seed is used as a grain 
(also called branK] G. buch-weizen, beech-wheat, so called 
from the resemblance of the seed to that of the beech-tree. 
It is called wheat because, when ground, it produces a fine 
farina which resembles that of wheat. 

BUFFET. The space set apart for refreshments in public 
places ; lit. a cupboard or sideboard, closet. Diez renders 
buffet " table de parade, qui tient a buffer, bouffer, pris dans le 
sens de s'rnfler, etre orgueilleux ;" and he compares it with 
buffoi, faste, orgueil. Ducange gives Low L. bufetagium, 
bufetaria, " impot, accise sur la boisson = Fr. buvetage, 
buveterie ; with which he compares the Fr. buffet. But buffet, 
like Sp. bufete, is still used for a desk or writing-table. 
Menage derives buffet from It. buffdre, and he says, " Les 
premiers buffets e"tant d'une figure courte et grosse, et, pour 
user de ce mot, d'une figure enfle'e ;" and he thinks the French 
and Spanish words are derived from the Italian buffetto, from 
buffdre, enfler. Scheler says "buffet semble s'appliquer en 
premier lieu a un petit meuble superpose a un autre, qu'il a 
1'air de renfler." Littre says " buffet signifiait dans 1'ancien 
fran9ais un coup sur la joue, et aussi 1'ustensile a souffler le 
feu, et venait d'un radical signifiant enfler les joues, et 
qui se trouve dans bouffer. II est difficile de passer de la 
a 1'acception qui nous occupe. Pourtant, en modifiant un 
peu 1'opinion de Manage, qui y voit le meme mot, on pent 
croire que 1'ustensile dit buffet a servi, par une assimilation 
quelconque, a signifier un bureau, un comptoir;" and he 
adds, " dans le sens de partie de casque couvrant la joue, il 
tient a buffe, buffet, bouffer, mots qui se rapportent en effet a 
la joue." 

BUG. The insect. Some derive the word from bug, a 


walking spectre ; others from Gr. fipovKos, /Spovxos, a locust 
without wings, which is from (3pvK(D, to eat, gnaw; but the word 
comes rather, by changes of v to b, from Dan. vceg-lus vceg 
wall, luus louse. Conf. Sw. vcegge-luus, Icel. veggjalus, G. 
wegelaus, wandluis, D.weegluis, wandluis. The bug deposits its 
eggs, not only in the crevices of bedsteads and other furni- 
ture, but also in the walls of rooms. In the Scandinavian 
provinces the house walls are usually constructed of wood, 
which are seldom covered with paper. 

BULLACE, BULLIS, BOLAS. Sort of wild plum 
Fr. belloche, belloce, beloce, baloce, id. ; also rendered " chose 
de peu de valeur, peu consid6rable ; " a word probably of 
Norman origin. Gaelic bulas, a prune, is a borrowed word. 

BUMPER A glass filled to overflowing. Said to be from 
O.F. bonper, boon companion, from bon good, per from parilis, 
equal ; but more probably from Fr. au bon pere, the English, 
when they were good Catholics, being accustomed to drink 
the Pope's health in a full glass every day after dinner " au 
bon pere." But see Spencer's Anecdotes ; and Quar. Rev. 
No. 63 (June, 1825), p. 243. 

BUNNY, BUNNIE. Name for a rabbit ; dim. of Sco. bun, 
bunn, the tail or brush of a hare (" I gript the malkings be 
the bunns, or be the neck." Watson's Coll. i, 69) Gael, bun, 
bottom, foundation r. of BOTTOM, q.v. 

BUREAU. Lit. an office containing a bureau (Fr. bureau), 
properly a table covered with the thick woollen stuff called 
bureau; Low L. burellum (burellus, tabula, index, also pannus) 
O. Fr. bure, a thick woollen stuff of a red colour Low L. 
dura, deep brown colour; through a word bureus or burius, 
from the old word burrus, ruddy, red Gr. Trvppos. 

BUST. Properly the trunk of the body without the head 


" Quinque hominum bus/a, sive capite casso " (Annal. Me- 
diolan. in Muratori) ; earlier, a dead body ; before that, the 
grave in which a body was buried ; earlier still, the place 
where the bodies of the dead were burnt. It. busio, id. 
Low L. bustum, id. buro for uro, to burn. 
BYNIN. Liquid malt Gr. fiwrj, malt. 


CABERFEICH. A word applied by Highland sportsmen 
to the head and antlers of a stag Gael, cabaer-feidh, a deer's 
horn or antler cabar, a deer's horn, antler; feidh forfadh, a 
fallow deer. ; 

CAGOT. Name given to a degraded race inhabiting 
France, especially in Beam and the Basque district Fr. 
cagoi^Lovj L. cagotus], Michel (Hist, des Races Maudites, ii. 
p. 284) says " Des Goths et des Arabes, s'6tant re'fugie's, 
sous les derniers Merovingiens, au pied des Pyrenees, re^urent 
des habitants le nom injurieux de Cagots, c'est-a-dire canes 
goihi, chiens de Goths." The name is rather from O.F. 
caas-golhs, of the same meaning. The term seems to have 
been applied to the Goths as early as 507 on account of their 
attachment to Arianism. 

CAISSON, CAISSOON. i. In military affairs, a 
wooden chest in which bombs, and sometimes gunpowder, 
are put, to be laid in the way of an enemy. 2. A chest 
used in laying foundation of the pier of a bridge (Fr.), lit. 
a coffer, augmentive of eaisse, a case, box L. capsa Gr. 
KO.\I/O. Ka/!Ai//-a, a case or basket made of twigs Kcrn-rco, to 
bend, curve. 

CALCEOLARIA. A genus of plants, slipper-wort, so 


called from the resemblance in the bilabiate corolla of the 
best-known species to a little shoe or slipper L. calceolus, 
dim. of calceus, a shoe. 

CALCULATE. To ascertain by computation L. 
calculatum calculo, lit. to make use of pebbles in teaching 
or practising calculation, as did the Romans calculus, a 
pebble, dim. of calx, -cis, a stone. 

CALF. The young of kine and some other animals 
A.S. cealf (D. & Sw. kalf, Dan. kalv, Franc. & Alam. chalp) 
G kalb, id. ; lit. foetus. Others derive the word from A. 
Gaulish galba, a calf, also fat. Conf. O.G. galba, galbha, 
hard, vigorous, stout, brawny. 

CALUMET. Pipe of the American Indians, used for 
smoking tobacco, and as a symbol of peace and war. (Fr.) 
Some derive the word from L. calamus, a reed, which is 
improbable. The term is found in the works of Ferdinand 
de Soto as early as 1538, and is derived from one of the 
languages of N.W. America. In that of the Nez Percys it 
is kelemot, Tcalamet ; in the language of the Wallawallas, 
t$aldmot, tceldmot ; in Tshinuk, t$eldmot ; in Upper Tshinuk, 

CAMARILLA. Band or company of conspirators, a cabal, 
clique; lit. the audience -chamber or private room of a 
monarch or ruler Sp. camarilla, a small room, dim. of 
cdmara, a chamber L. camara, id. ; lit. a vault or roof 
Gr. Kapapa, of Arabic origin. 

CAMEO. A precious stone carved in relief (It.) Low 
L. camceus= Barb. Gr. Kap-arov, work, labour, toil Gr. Ka^veiv, 
to work. Littr6 gives also Ka/Awrt/cov, ouvrage fait a la main ; 
XiOoKap.wfjievo's, orne" de pierreries ; xa/xeiov, atelier d'ouvrier en 
fer ; and he says camee, signifying properly a thing made by 


the hand, has finally come to be used in a particular sense, 
as is frequently the case. 

CANARD. An extravagant and ridiculous fabrication. 
Lacombe (Diet, de 1' Industrie, Par. 1776) accounts for the 
word thus : " On lit dans la Gazette cT Agriculture un precede 1 
singulier pour prendre les canards sauvages. On fait bouillir 
un gland de chene, gros et long, dans une decoction de sene 
et de jalap ; on attache par le milieu a une ficelle mince, 
mais forte ; on jette le gland a 1'eau. Celui qui tient le bout 
de la ficelle doit etre cach6. Le gland avale purge le canard, 
qui le rend aussitot ; un autre canard survient, avale ce meme 
gland, le rend de meme ; un troisieme, un quatrieme, un 
cinquieme s'enfilent de la meme maniere. On rapport a ce 
sujet 1'histoire d'un huissier, dans le Perche, pres 1'etang 
du Gue-de-Chausse'e, qui laissa enfiler vingt canards ; ces 
canards, en s'envolant, enleverent 1'huissier. La corde se 
rompit, et le chasseur cut la cuisse cassee. Ceux qui ont 
invent^ cette histoire auraient pu la terminer par une heureuse 
apotheose, au lieu de la terminer par un denoument aussi 
tragique." Larchey (Diet. Hist. Argot, Par. 1881), adds: 
" La grossierete de cette histoire, comme dit notre cita- 
tion, 1'aura fait prendre comme type des contes de gazette, et 
canard sera rest6 pour qualifier le genre entier. On trouve 
' donner des canards, tromper,' dans le Dictionnaire d'Hautel, 

CANOE, CANOA. Boat made by hollowing out the 
trunk of a tree Sp. canoa, said to be a word of W. Indian 
origin. Conf. Tshinuk ekdnem, kanem ; Upper Tshinuk, 
ekdnem, a canoe, boat. 

CANON. In N. America, a narrow tunnel-like passage 
between high and precipitous banks formed by mountains or 


table-lands, with often a river running beneath (Bartleti] Sp. 
canon, a tube or pipe, augmentive of cdna L. canna, of 
Arabic origin. 

CAOUTCHOUC Indiarubber, vegetable substance ob- 
tained from the juice of various plants, natives of S. America 
and India (Fr.) W. Indian cahuchu or cauchuc caochu, star- 

about length of a pilchard, in form like a ling, used as a bait 
for cod Fr. capelan, caplan Sp. capelan. 

CAPERCAILZIE. A mountain-cock Gael, capull-coille, 
horse (properly mare) of the wood capull mare, coille wood. 
Capull comes from L. caballus, a horse /ca/JaAA^s /ca/3aAAa> 
Dor. Kara/JaXXw, to throw down, "ab injiciendis oneribus; ut sit 
jumentum dossuarium, raXae/ryos, cui oppon.," says Littleton. 

CAPON. " I have a letter from Monsieur Biron to one 
Lady Rosaline. . . . Boyet, you can carve ; break up 
this capon" (L. L. L. iv. i, 50 60), substitution for Fr.poulet 
= a billet-doux. 

CARAPA. A genus of trees whose seeds yield an 
oil called carap or crab oil, suitable for burning in 
lamps. Probably same word as Sp. cardpa, oil of a nut, 
fruit of an American tree, said to cure the gout, a word of 
Guiana origin. 

CARBOY. Large globular glass vessel, protected with 
wicker-work, used for containing sulphuric acid and other 
corrosive liquids Gael. & Ir. carb, a basket L. corbis 
curvus, crooked, because bound with crooked twigs. 

CARD. Instrument for combing wool Fr. carde Low L. 
cardus L. carduus, thistle, teasel caro, to card wool, because 
used for that purpose. 


CARIBOU, CARRIBOU (in French Caribou, Cariboux). 
Species of Arctic reindeer. The Canadians call it Carr- 
boeuf, which might translate sledge ox (from Fr. carree), but 
the word is found written macaribou. 

CARMINATIVES. Medicines which disperse wind- 
Low. L. carminativa, so called because they act as if by 
enchantment L. carmen, an incantation ; lit. a poem casmen. 

CARNATION. Species of clove-pink, having flowers of 
a carnation colour, i.e. flesh-colour Fr. id. L. carnatione 
carnatio, fleshiness came caro, flesh. 

CARNEDD. In Archaeology an artificial hillock W. 
carnedd, heap of stones, tumulus car, a heap. 

CAROTID. Pertaining to two great arteries of the neck, 
which convey blood from the aorta to the head and brain. 
So called because the ancients believed sleep was caused by 
an increased flow of blood to the head through these vessels 
(" parcequ'on attribuait le sommeil a la compression de ces 
arteres," says Larousse) Gr. KapomSes (s. s. as /capom/ccu 
apnjptai) /capoa), to cause a heavy sleep or drowsiness, to 

CARP (i). The fish Fr. carpe (It. Sp. cdrpa, Sw. karp} 
Low L. carpio L. carpio, to prey or feed upon. 

CARP (2). To find fault with L. carpo, id., lit. to pluck 
off, crop, gather Gr. Kapirov. 

To cut meat at table A. S. ceorfan, to carve, cut carpo, to 
divide into parts r. of CARP (2), g.v, 

CASCARILLA. Name given by Spanish-Americans to all 
kinds of tonic barks, and in Peru to the different kinds of 
cinchona ; but in England confined to one kind of bark, 
imported from equinoctial parts of America. So called 


because it arrives in Europe in short, thin, brittle roils 
Sp. cascarilla dim. of cdscara, rind, peel cdsca, bark for 
tanning leather cascdr, to break into pieces. 

made of the faecula obtained from root of the tapioca plant 
Sp. cazdbe Haytian kambi. 

CASSOCK. Under-vestment commonly worn by clergy- 
man Fr. casaque It. casdcca ; properly a coat worn in casa, 
i.e. within doors. 

CASSIS, CASSES. Kind of ratafia made from the fruit 
of the cassis or cacis, a tree growing on banks of little 
streams, called in France cassis. 

CAT. The animal A.S. cat, which some derive from 
L. cautus, cautious, sly ; but the word is more probably from 
Gr. Karra, a cat, ferret (in Horn, by contrac. KTIS), perhaps 
an imitative word. Conf. A. \, kitt, a cat. 

CATGUT. Cords made of the twisted intestines of 
sheep. Corruption of gut-cord. 

GATES. Provisions, food, victuals ; especially delicacies, 
dainties O.E. acates, all kinds of victuals except bread and 
drink purchased O. Fr. acat, achat, buying, purchase. 

CAUDINE FORKS. A not uncommon expression for 
being caught in a trap Furcula Caudiruz = cul-de-sac, defile, 
so called from Caudi or Caudium, town of the Samnites 
(now the village Airola), where the Roman army, under 
T. Veturius Calvinus and Sp. Posthumius, was obliged to 
surrender to the Samnites and pass under the yoke with the 
greatest disgrace. Conf. Liv. 9. i. &c. ; Lucan 2, 138; and 

The plant O.E. col O. Fr. col, a cabbage L. caulis, a 


cabbage ; lit. a stalk Gr. xauXo?, a stalk ; flory O. ^t.flori 
fleuri, that which is in flower -fleurir, to flourish. Landais 
says " chou-fleur, sorte de chou, dont on mange la fleur, qui 
est blanche et ferme. On disait autrefois chou flory, dont on 
a fait chou-fleur." Littre', "chou dont les rameaux et les 
fleurs naissantes se mangent." Bescherelle, " Les chou- 
fleurs ont une organization singuliere ; les pedoncules des 
grappes de leur fleurs sont rapproche's de leur base et gen6s 
les uns contre les autres. Avant la floraison, ils se deTorment, 
se soudent ensemble, et deviennent charnus." (Diet. d'Agr.) 
CAUTION. Prudence, as it respects danger L. cautione. 
cautio, syncope of cavitio cavitum, supine of caveo, to take 
care, take heed cavus, cavum, hollow; and so for (in} cavum 
eo, to go into a cave, which the ancients did for safety (ut sibi 
caverent). Conf. pessum eo, exsequias eo, suppetias eo. 

CAVE, CAUE. A hollow place 0. Fr. cave L. cavea 
cavus, hollow Gr. x a ^s X au)S > abyss x aw to g a P e > be 
open, contain. 

CAVIL. To raise captious and frivolous objections 
Fr. caviller, id. L. cavillari, to jeer, abuse, make sport 
caveo (like sorbillo from sorbeo), to prevent, obviate. 

CEDRATY. Fragrant variety of the lemon species, grow- 
ing chiefly in Italy and S. of France Fr. cedrat (It. cedrato], 
species of citron-tree L. cedras Gr. Ksfyos. 

CELEBRATE. To perform or keep with solemn rites 
L. celebratum, known, famous ; lit. customary, usual, frequent 
celebro, lit. to frequent celeber, much frequented creber, made 
to increase ere (r. of cresco, to grow) Skt. kri, to do, make, 

CELIBATE. An unmarried man L. ccelibatus, single 
life, state of a man or woman unmarried ccelebs, unmarried 


or single person KoiXuff Koirrj XCITTW, carens lecto. Conf. 
atyiXn/^, carens capris ; KepKoXuj/, carens cauda. See also Litt., 
Fest., Hier., Prise., Isid., Quint. 

CELT. The bronze chisel or instrument used by the 
ancient Keltic inhabitants of Europe, large numbers of 
which are preserved in public museums and private collec- 
tions. From L. celtis, a chisel from ccelo, to engrave. 

CHAFFINCH. The bird ; thefincke and bo-fincke of the 
Fauna Suecica, the wine of the ancient British. Said to have 
been so named from delighting in chaff, although it rather 
delights in grain. In G. it is var. fink, buch-fink (beech 
fink), edel-fink, garten-fink, gemeine-fink, roth-fink, schild- 
fink, wald-fink. See FINCH. 

CHAGRIN. Vexation, grief, sorrow Fr. chagrin, which 
Diez derives from chagrin (D. segrijn, N.H.G. zager, li.zigrino, 
in dialects of Venice and the Romagna zagrin, E. shagreen, 
shagrin), the grained leather so called. Scheler says, 
" comme on s'est servi des peaux de chagrin ou plutot de 
phoque, a cause de leur rudesse, pour faire des rapes et des 
limes, on con9oit aise"ment que 1'on ait me"taphoriquement 
employ^ le mot chagrin pour designer une peine rongeante ; 
le mot lima en Italien, et scie en Frangais, presentent des 
me'taphores analogues, et viennent a Fappui de cette 

CHAMOIS, SHAMOIS. Only antelope found wild in 
Europe Fr. chamois O.G. gams, gems (Mod. G. gemse, 
It. camozza, Sp. camuza, gamuza, Sw. gumse, .vervex, aries 
castratus) Gr. /ce/xas, a fawn, roe, kind of antelope, II. x. 361 ; 
also and Ke/z.</>as. 

CHAR. Delicious fresh-water fish, finest of which are 
found in the Westmoreland and Cumberland lakes. Said to 


be from Gael, cear, blood, because of its red belly ; whence 
it is called in W. torgoch, lit. red-bellied (tbrgochiad, a red 
char fish, a red-bellied one). 

CHARADE. Sort of riddle Fr. charade, which some 
derive from Prov. charrada, a cart, from char, a car ; fig. 
used for a heap, a charretee de bavardages, a cartload of 
prattling. The word appears to have been in use in the 
1 8th Century. Sebastian (Diet, de la Litte>ature, 1770) says 
it originated in Languedoc, and signified originally a dis- 
course to kill time. He adds, " On dit en Languedoc 
aliens faire des charrades pour aliens passer 1'apres- 
soupe, ou allons veiller chez un tel, parceque, dans les 
assemblies de 1'apres-soupe, le peuple de cette province 
s'amuse a dire des riens pour passe-temps." 

CHARIVARI. A serenade of discordant or rough music, 
kettles and drums, used originally to annoy widows who 
married a second time at an advanced age, but also used on 
other occasions when the performers desired to annoy or 
insult anybody (Fr.) O. Fr. caribari, chalivari, calivaly, 
chalivali Low L. charivarium, charavaritum, charavaria. Diez 
thinks chari or chali is from L. calix, vase, pot ; others derive 
the Low L. word from L. chalybarium, from chalybes, objects in 
steel ; or from Norm, charer, Languedoc chara, to converse, 
to pass the time, to amuse oneself with (whence charrada 
chit-chat). Scheler gives O. Fr. caribari, chalivali Low L. 
chanvarium, chalvaricum Pic. queriboiry Dauph. chanavari 
Mod. Prov. taribari. He says the vocable vari is found in 
many popular expressions denoting bruit, d6sordre, as in 
hourvari, boulevari ; and he thinks the first syllable has been 
formed by assimilation to the second, and that it represents 
a word for some utensil used in cuisine, serving as an instru- 


ment of music. After referring to the Wallon pailtege = 
charivari, from/tfz7/:=poele, he thinks the etymological sense 
of charivari = " bruit de poelons." He quotes Phillips iiber die 
Katzenmusiken (1849), and refers to his own work, Glossaire 
de Lille, p. 24. 

CHARM, CHARME. Spell, enchantment Fr. charme. 
an enchantment L. carmine carmen, verse, poem, song 
casmen casno (whence cano, like dumus for dusmus], to sing; 
whilst carmen, a card (for wool or flax), is from caro, to card 

CHARNECO. A sweet wine mentioned by Shakespeare, 
Beaumont and Fletcher, and others. Here's a cup of 
charneco, 2 H. VI. ii. 3. So called from Charneca, a village 
near Lisbon, where it was made. 

vestment worn by priests in saying mass Fr. chasuble 
Low L. casabula, casubla, cassibula (It. casipnla, casipula, 
casupola], a hooded garment covering the person like a little 
house ; lit. a little hut or cottage, dim. of It. or L. casa, a 

CHAT. To talk in a light familiar manner ; abbrev. of 
chatter O.E. chateren Fr. caqueter, to prattle, chatter; lit. to 
cackle, said of hens and geese. 

CHAUVINISM. Enthusiastic unreflecting devotion to 
any cause, especially absurdly exaggerated patriotism or 
military enthusiasm Fr. chauvinisme ; lit. sentiments of 
Chauvin, i.e. Nicholas Chauvin, principal character in a 
French comedy played with success at the time of the 
Restoration. He represented a ragged veteran of the 
Empire who was continually talking of his achievements 
at Austerlitz and Jena, and his determination to take a 


brilliant revenge for Waterloo. Since then a Chauviniste has 
come to mean a man who is always seeking quarrels with his 
neighbours, and will not admit that any one is brave or great 
but himself. He cares little under what government or for 
what cause he fights, so long as it gives him the opportunity 
of fighting, and thereby obtaining gloire, which is the lasting 
object of his life. He is at the same time by no means 
indifferent to more material considerations. 

CHERT. Name often applied to hornstone and to any 
impure flinty rock, including the jaspers (Dana) Ir. ceart, a 

CHOPIN. A French half-pint liquid measure, nearly 
equal to an English pint Fr. chopine, dim. of chope, a sort of 
goblet inform of a truncated cone; or direct from G. schoppen, 
a pint measure, perhaps allied to schopfen, to draw water. 

CHUM. Close companion, bosom friend, intimate; in 
var. dial, a bedfellow. The derivations from A.S. cuma, 
guest, and Fr. chomer, to rest, are improbable. Bailey renders 
chum " a chamber-fellow to a student at the university;" and 
the word has been corrupted from chamber-fellow. Conf. 
Fr. camarade de chambre, a chum. 

CICATRICE. Scar of a wound (Fr.) L. cicatrice 
cicatrix, a wound healed over, scar coeco, to shut or close up ; 
others say from KLKWO, valeo ; or KIKVS, vis, robur. Isid. 4, Orig. 
8, 23, " cicatrix est obductio vulneris, naturalem colorem 
partibus servans, dicta qu6d obducat vulnera, atque obcoscit." 

CINDER. Remains of any substance burnt but left in 
form Fr. cendre, or A.S. sinder, scoria, slag, with infixed d 
L. ciner cinis, ashes Gr. /covts, dust. 

CLAP. Venereal infection (Latham) O. Fr. clapier 
(clapoir, clapoire), lieu de d6bauche (Le Monastere des Corde- 


liers de Paris, qui est le plus fertile clapier de moines qui sont 
d'ici a Rome: Lanoe 141. Ce clapier-ci est par d'aucuns 
appe!6 gerene, toutefois improprement : O. De Serres, 412); 
properly a place where rabbits hide to deceive the dogs ; 
according to some from clapier (Prov. clapiera), tas de pierres 
clap, tas, monceau, or Low L. clapus, i.q. clapa, acervus, 
congeries lapidum, hara cunicularia Kymric dap, clamp, 
mass, heap ; or from Icel. klaupp (kleppf), a rock. Manage, 
on the authority of Le P. Labbe, derives clapier from lepus, 
thus ; lepus, lapus, lapinus, lapinarium, lapiarium, clapiarium, 
clapier. Conf. also O. Fr. clapises, public resorts of infamous 
character; and see Saint Foix, Essais sur Paris, (Euvres, 
t. iii. p. 73, dans Pougens. 

CLASP, CLASPE, CLESP, CLAPSE, Hook for fasten- 
ing Gael, clash, clasba, or Ir. clasba. Conf. Belg. ghespe, 
fibula ; ghespen, fibula nectere. 

CLEMENT. Gentle, calm, placid, still L. clemente, 
which Vossius derives from clino, to bend, bow ; mens, mind. 
According to others, clemens is quasi lenimens (with common 
prefix c] lenis, soft, gentle, mild ; and mens. 

Gothic architecture an upper storey or row of windows in a 
church, tower, or other erection. So called, as some say, 
from rising clear above the adjoining parts of the building. 
In French it is called cleistere, datr-elage, and dair-vqye ; in 
Italian chiaro piano. Bailey renders the word clear (in 
architecture) " inside work.'' One meaning of dear is 
"open;" the Low L. dareria signifies a window (fenestra), 
in O. Fr. esclaire, esdairier, lueur, clarte\ fenetre, soupirail d'une 

CLERK. Properly a clergyman, minister O. Fr. derc 


L. clericus Gr. K\.r)piKos, of the clergy ; originally pertaining 
to casting of lots /cXr/pos, a casting of lots, a lot, transp. 
of Heb. i>TU, gorol, a lot, little stone to decide lots. 

CLIMATE. Region or tract of land differing from 
another by the temperature of the air Gr. K\LJJM, so called 
from the country inclining towards the Pole ; lit. declivity, 
slope, inclination KAtvw, to incline; lit. to make to bend, slope 
or slant. 

CLINICAL. A word used in connection with instruction 
communicated to students at the sick beds of hospital or 
other patients ; lit. pertaining to a bed Fr. clinique 
L. clinicus Gr. /cAivi/cos, id. K\IVTJ, a bed, couch xAivo), to 
recline. See CLIMATE. 

CLOWN. Lit. a countryman, rustic L. colonus, a country 
fellow at service, herd, husbandman ; properly, one who 
cultivates hired land, who tills land colo, to till, labour. 

CLUMSY. Awkward, wanting dexterity; lit. without 
grace of shape, &c. Sw. klunsig, shapeless Aluns, a knob. 
Ihre renders Su. Goth, kluns, massa quavis conglomerata ; and 
adds, " Nos inde, quod vel obesum vel alias prae mole sua 
informe est, klunsig appellare solemus. Angli clumsy hand 
dicunt manum praegrandem." 

COACH. Carriage having seats fronting each other 
O. FT. coche (O.G. kotsche, cotschy, gotschi, gutscht, gulsche, kutze 
It. cocchio Low L. coccius, currus, Pol. kocz, Hung, kocsi}, 
said to have been named from Kocs or Kotsi, Hungary, where 
it was first made, and whence it was first introduced into 
France. The word is more probably from L. cisium, a carriage 
or chariot with two wheels, for men only. Bullet (Dissert. 
sur les Origines des Carrosses, 1826, &c., 8vo, p. 484) says 
" le cisium etait une espece de char fort 16ger, a deux roues ; 


dans lequel on mettait une caisse de bois ou d'osier, ou 
s'asseyait 1'homme qui allait sur cette voiture. II tir6 
par trois mules; on s'en servait quand on voulait faire 
diligence. Dans les passages des auteurs qui parlent du 
cisium, ce sent toujours des homines qui vont dans cette 
voiture, et jamais des femmes." 

COAL, COL. The common fossil fuel A.S. col O.G. 
Tcole a word KtAos KeXaivos K/z.eAas //,eAas, black. 

COBRA DE CAPELLO. Species of snake Ptg. cobra 
de capello, snake with a hood. Cobra is a corruption of 
L. colubra, fern, of coluber, a serpent, which Vossius derives 
from colo, " quia nemora (add. tecta) incolit;" Scaliger from 
KoXvpfiav, " quia subeat cavernas." Capello is from It. capello, 
lit. skin of the human head L. capillus. 


COCK-A-LEEKIE. Scotch soup made of winter leeks 
and old cocks. 

COCKLES. Common name for the venous and arterial 
channels above and around upper portion of the heart. 
Latham thinks the term was derived from the likeness of the 
heart to a cockle-shell, and in the zoological name for the 
cockle and its congeners being Cardium, from /capSia, heart. 
It may have been so called from a fancied resemblance of such 
channels to the shell-fish called cockle Fr. coquille, a shell. 

COKNAYE. Native or resident of the City of London. 
Wedgwood derives the word from Fr. coqueliner, to pamper, 
spoil ( properly chant du coq) ; others from Fr. coquin, an idle 
person, citizens generally living a less active life than country 
people ; or from cocker, to fondle ; or from Fr. coquine, or Low 
L. coquinatus coquinare, to serve in a kitchen L. coquina, a 


kitchen. The Fr. cocagne is a land of milk and honey, a 
plentiful country. Minshew relates a story of a very ignorant 
person, son of a citizen, who whilst riding with his father out 
of London heard a horse neigh, and, having asked his father 
what the horse did, the answer was " The horse doth neigh." 
On riding further and hearing a cock crow, the son said, 
" Doth the cock neigh also ? " See Blount's Glossographia 

COD, CODDE. The fish L. gadusGr. yaSos. Conf. 
G. gadde. 

CQECUM. First portion of large intestine ; blind gut 
(properly intestinum caecum} ccecus, blind, from its being open 
only to one part. 

COG. A boat; fishing-boat W. cwch, boat; lit. a round 
concavity : hence dim. coggle, a little boat, a cock-boat ; also 
cock (Ir. coca, It. cocca, D. & Dan. kaag], now cock-boat, 


COIL, QUOIL. In Temp. i. 2 ; G. V. i. 2 ; M. N. D. 
iii. 2 ; Ham. iii. i ; M. Ado iii. 3 ; v. 2 ; A. W. ii. i ; C. of E. 
iii. i ; John ii. i ; Tim. i. 2 ; T. A. iii. i ; R. & J. ii. 5, 
trouble, tumult, bustle. Bailey renders the word a clutter, 
noise, or tumult ; also the breech of a great gun ; and he says 
to keep a coil is to make a noise, clutter, or bustle, perhaps 
from Teut. kollern, to chide. Richardson renders coil, to make 
any bubbling, bustling, confused stir or noise. He says 
G. kollern or kolleren signifies increpare, objurgare, and he derives 
it from holier, to seize one by the collar. 

COIN. Metal stamped for currency (Fr.) L. cuneum 
cuneus, a wedge, first currency of metal being, in all pro- 
bability, in the form of wedges. Others derive the word from 
Gr. KOIVOS, common. 


COKE, COAK. Fuel made by burning pit-coal under 
earth, and quenching the cinders. Low G. koke, Catal. coca, 
cake. Others say from L. coctus, for carbo coctus, baked coal 
r. of coquo, to bake. 

COLONY. Originally a number of people (coloni) 
transferred from one country or place to another, where lands 
were allotted to them. The meaning of the word was 
extended to signify the country or place where colonists 
settled Fr. colonie L. colonia colonus r. of CLOWN, q.v. 

COLD-HARBOUR. Name of a great many localities in 
England. Sir R. C. Hoare says he always found this term in 
the vicinity of a Roman road. The term has been derived 
from Brit, col hill, arbhar an army. (Ir. arbhar is host, army ; 
coll is a head). Others derive the word from Brit, cail- 
ervawr, the great fold, i.e. for sheep. Conf. Gent. Mag. for 
Dec. 1844, July 1849, and Nov. 1849; and Archaeologia for 
ii Jan. 1849. 

COLLIE, COLLY, COLLEY. Variety of dog Sco. 
collie, colley, coly coll, colle, common name for a dog, or culyze, 
term used in calling to a whelp, voc. of Gael, cuilean, a whelp, 
puppy, cub, vulg. culean. Conf. Ir. cuileann, coilen, coilean; 
Corn, coloin, Arm. colen, Manx quallian, W. celyn. 

COLOCYNTH. The bitter apple, kind of cucumber 
L. colocynthvs Gr. KoXocw0is, properly KoXoKwrr), wild gourd, 
according to Hehn so called from its colossal size, and said 
to be from root of COLOSSUS, q.v. 

COLD, KALD. Without heart or warmth A.S. kald 
M. Goth, kalds L. gelidus, cold as ice gelu, icy coldness, 
frost, cold Sicilian yeXa, hoar frost formed into ice, whence 
Gela, name of a city in Sicily. Conf. Steph. Byz. 

COLOSSUS. A gigantic statue (L.) Gr. KoXoo-o-os, id. 


originally a large statute in ancient Rhodes representing a 
giant, which Curtius derives from /coAexavos, /coXaxavos, long 
and lean. 

hollow between two hills A.S. comb, cumb (Fr. combe, Sp. 
Low ~L. combo], a valley Anc. Brit.kum, cuum (W.cwm, Corn. 
cum) a hollow, dale Gr. Ku/u,/3os, a cavity, hollow, recess. 

COMEDY. Humorous dramatic representation Fr. 
comedieL. comoedia Gr. KwpoSia, a play, comic poem, per- 
formance invented by the Dorians, and at first represented in 
country villages Kwfj-rj a village (a Dorian word), ooS?; a song. 
Others render the word revel, song KW/XOS, a revel ; or derive 
it from the god KW/AOS, who presides over revels. Conf. 
Bentley's Phalaris, 337 sq. ; Arist. Poet. iii. and iv. 

COMPANION. In ships the framing and sash-lights 
upon the quarter-deck or round-house, through which light 
passes to the cabins and decks below ; a raised hatch or 
cover to the cabin stair of a merchant vessel O . Sp. compana, 
an outhouse. Hence companion ladder, companion way. 

COMPOUND. In India, a term applied to the yard or 
inclosed space surrounding a dwelling Ptg. campinho, a little 
field, dim, of cdmpo L. campus. 

CON, CONN. To know or make known, to know how 
to do, to study over, dwell upon (Chauc. : to be able to 
answer) O. E. conne, to know A.S. cunnan, to know, know 
how to do. 

COND. To guide a ship in her right course, give the 
word of direction to the man at the helm (found in Chaucer) 
abbrev. of conduct. 

CONDAMINE. Along the Mediterranean shore, from 
Marseilles to Genoa, a name given to a small level space near 


the sea or on the slopes ; a neutral ground belonging 
originally to the neighbouring lords, or alternately to one of 

been any idea of re-establishing the European control (in 
Egypt) or the Anglo-French condominium" "The mainten- 
ance of a condominium, which in future can only cause us 
every kind of embarassment." D. Tel. 14 Oct. 1882, p. 5. 
Ducange says " Condamina, vel condomina, Narbonensibus 
Condomine, quasi Condominium & jure unius Domini dicta, vel, 
ut alii volunt, quasi Campus Domini, nam in Occitania, 
maxim versus Sevennas, Camp, aut Con, Campum sonat, ubi 
hse Condominse ab omni onere agrario immunes censentur." 
See N. & Q. 6th S. vi. 326, 522 ; vii. 475. Migne gives 
Low L. " condominus, conseigneur, celui qui est seigneur 
conjointement avec quelque autre, d'un pays." 

CONDOR. A species of vulture of S. America, largest 
of the kind fSp.) cuntur, in language of the Incas. 

CONGER. The sea-eel Gr. icoyypos, in ancient times a 
much-esteemed fish. 

CONSULT. To advise with L. consul to, to consult, 
deliberate, freq. of consulo con for cum, with ; salio, to spring, 
leap Gr. aXXo^au, id. Forcellini says, "ut proprie dicatur, 
cum plures eadem de re, quasi consilientes, sententias et 
consilia sua conjungunt ; " and Martinius, <l quia qui consulunt, 
rationibus in unam sententiam quasi saliunt." 

CONUNDRUM. A riddle the answer to which contains 
a pun ; according to others " a loose jest, quibble, mean 
conceit (a cant word) " Ford (The Lover's Melancholy, 
1629, ii. 2) gives a verb conumdrumed; "you are but whimsical 
yet, and conumdrumed, or so." In Fuller's Abel Redivivus 


(1651, p 61), we have conimbrum: "But these conimbrums, 
whether reall or nominall, went downe with Erasmus like 
chopt hay." The word does not occur in Coles's Eng. Lat. 
Diet. (1679 1772), but is found in Fielding. In Pembroke- 
shire condrim is used for perplexity, confusion of mind, 
trouble A correspondent of Notes & Queries says, " with 
some the conundrum is a sorry joke ; with others, a witty 
saying ; the proper or true conundrum must indicate an 
imaginary or fanciful agreement between some two objects 
that have no real congruity. This similarity of the two must 
of course be expressed in the answer, which is to the 
conundrum what the point is to the epigram ; but still with 
this pecularity, that it (the answer) always suggests some 
amusing feature of resemblance common to the two incon- 
gruous objects indicated in the question. This feature, then, 
common to the two objects and expressed in the answer, 
which is the essence of the conundrum, might in G r eek be 
termed KOIVOV Svoiv (commune duorumj ; substitute the L. duorum 
for the Gr. &VOLV, or, more briefly, koinon d'rum, whence 
conundrum '' The same correspondent also suggests that the 
word might come from conventum, an agreement, found 
conuenlum, which, by gradual corruption, might become 
conundrum. Other derivations are from D. kond random 
(random kond), " known round about ; " and also from L. co- 
nandum, " something to be attempted. Conumdrum may also 
have been corrupted from a word conning-drum, from drum, 
an assembly or party ; and conning, from conn, which Bailey 
renders "to learn or get without books" A.S. connan, to 
know. It might even come from Fr. calembour (a pun, 
witticism), by change of cal to can, con ; and hour to bre, dre, 
dru ; thus calembour, canembour, canember, canumber, conumbtr, 


conumbrum, conundrum. For etymology of calembour, see my 
Verba Nominalia. Conf. also Notes & Queries, 2nd S. vii. 
29; 6th S. ii. 348, 470; iii. 114; iv. 154; v. 96. 

CONVOLVULUS. A plant, bindweed (L.), so called 
because many of the species roll round and twine about 
other bodies convolve, to wrap or wind about, roll together. 
Hence convolvulus, a caterpillar that rolls itself up in a leaf. 

CONY, CONEY, CONI. A rabbit O. Fr. conilL. 
cuniculus (whence Mod. Gr. /cwi/cXos), dim. of cuneus, a wedge, 
because the rabbit burrows into the earth wedge-like (" quia 
cunei instar findit terrain"). See also Varro, Pliny, and 
Littleton (Diet.) 

COPECK. A Russian copper coin, looth part of a rouble 
Russ. kopejka Pol. kopijka, a little lance, because the old 
copeck resembled one. Conf. OBOLUS. 

CORAL. A hard substance, now held to be a skeleton 
of a congeries of animals belonging to a class of Polypi 
Gr. KopaXXiov, KovpaXiov, according to same, dim. of Kovp-rj, Ion. 
for Koprj, a name of Persephone Koprj, a maid ; others say a 
dim. of Kovpa (Ion. Kovpr)*), shearing Kopeuw, to shear, clip, 
because it is chipped off in the sea ; " quoniam Kopemu ev TT; 

CORK. Bark of the cork tree, used for stoppers 
Sp. corcho L. cortice cortex corium, bark, skin ; /ego, to 
cover. Isid. 17, Orig. 6, 15, says cortex was anciently corux ; 
and adds, " Dictus autem cortex qu6d corio lignum tegat" 
Corium may be from Heb. Tiy, 'or, the skin. 

of a mountain in which, on account of the snow there lying, 
the vegetation is often more luxurious than in the lower 
ground Gael, corrach, steep, precipitous. 


meeting of the tribes to dance and sing to same air composed 
by a gifted creature who is suspected of magical art, and is 
en rapport with the spirit of evil. Sat. Rev. 17 Sep. 1881, 
hence " corrobories for rain," &c. The word is derived from 
the Cornu cool-a-booro, God; properly "Master of all the 
Blacks and created things." 

CORRODY, CORODY. Allowance of meat, drink, or 
clothing due to the king from an abbey or other religious 
house for sustenance of such of his servants as he may select 
to receive it Low L. corrodium, corredium, conredium, conredum 
O. Fr. conroi, conrqy, provision, repast, care, which Roquefort 
derives from L. cura, care. He gives avoir conroi, prendre 
conroi, avoir soin, faire cas de quelque chose. But qu. rather 
from con with, roi king. 

CORVETTE. Advice boat ; a small sloop of war (Fr.) 
Ptg. corveta (Sp. corbeta, Mod. Gr. KopySerrov), a slow-sailing 
ship of burden L. corbita, id. (Homines spissigradissimos, 
tardiores, quam corbitce sunt in tranquillo mare ; Plaut. Posn. 
iii. i, 3); opposed to celox, swift-sailing ship, a cutter, yacht 
lit. the thing provided with a basket corbis. (" Corbitce 
dicuntur naves onerariae, quod in malo earum summo pro 
signo corbes solerent suspendi " (Fest. p. 30) curvus, because 
woven together with crooked twigs. 

COS. Variety of lettuce introduced from Isle of Cos, 
belonging to Turkey. 

COSHER, COSHERER. In Ireland, one who pretends 
to be an Irish gentleman and will not work, free-feaster, free 
guest Ir. cosair, feast, banquet ; fear, man. Hence to cosher, 
coshery, coshering. See Times, n March, 1865; Sir James 
Ware, Antiq. Hibern. ; Notes & Queries, 3rd S. vii. 257, 



391 3, 450 ; O'Reilly's, Begley's, O'Connell's, and O'Brien's 
Irish Diets. ; and Shaw and Armstrong's Gaelic Diets, under 
" Cosair." 

COSSAK, KOSSAK. Light -armed Russian soldier. 
The Cossacks were so called because, for want of arms, 
peasants at first used their scythes Russ. kosetsa, kosake, 
kasake, a scytheman kosd, a scythe ; Turkish kasdk is a 
borrowed word. 

COSSET. A lamb reared without aid of the dam ; a 
lamb brought up by hand. The etymology is doubtful. It 
may be a dim. of O. Fr. cos, cors corps, body L. corpus ; or 
a dim. of a word cos O. Fr. cors, court, petit L. curtus ; or a 
dim. formed from Low L. cossio, porcellus Fr. cochon. 

COSTARD (i). A round bulky apple, from a word cosse, 
dim. of a word cosset, dim. of O. Fr. cosse, a head, properly the 
envelope of certain leguminous grains (Mod. Fr. cod, husk, 
shell ; E. cod, codd, husk, envelope or pod in which seeds are 
contained) ; ard, like. Littr6 compares Fr. cosse with Namur 
cose, Rouchi cossiau, which he derives from Flemish schlosse, 
Low G. schote. 

COSTARD (2). "Take him over the costard with the 
hilt of thy sword." Rich. Ill, i, 4. A head ; so called 
from resemblance to the costard apple. See COSTARD (i). 

COTTON, GOTTEN. To unite, like, agree, adhere to ; 
previously to go on prosperously, to succeed. Bartlett claims 
the word as an Americanism. Others say to cotton on to a 
man is probably from the finishing of cloth, which, when it 
cottons, or rises to a regular nap, is nearly or quite completed. 
It is often joined with geer, which is also a technical and 
manufacturing term. But see Nares, quoting B. & Fl. Mons. 
Tho. iv. 8; Lyly, Alex., and Camp, iii. 4, O. PI. ii. 122; 


Family of Love, D, 3 b ; Hist. Capt. Stukely, B, 2 b ; Bee- 
hive of Rom. Ch. R, 2, 7 ; True Tragedie of Ric. III. 1594. 

COUNSEL. Barrister abbrev. of counsellor Fr. con- 
seiller consiliarius r. of CONSULT, q.v. 

COUSIN, COSIN. Son or daughter of an uncle or aunt 
Norm, cousin, couson (Prov. cosin, cozin, Low L. cosinus], 
which Littre' derives from L. consobrinus, child of a mother's 
sister cum with, sobrinus cousin, said to be a contrac. of 
sororinus soror, sister. Menage derives the word from 
congeneus (say congem's), " ex eodem genere ;" thus, congeneus, 
conginius, conginus, congin, cousin. It comes rather from 
consanguineus, lit. a kinsman from the same blood by the 
father's side; a brother by the same father; a cousin-german 
con cum, with, together ; sanguineus, of blood sanguis, 

COVE. Small inlet, creek or bay A.S. cofa, an inner 
room, a den (W. cwb, a hollow place ; Icel. kofi, a cavern) L. 
cavus, hollow r. of CAVE, q.vl 

COWARD. One destitute of courage. The word has 
been variously derived from " cow and G. aerd, nature, q.d. 
cow-hearted, or of the nature of a cow ; " from O. Fr. coiiard 
coue, a tail ; from Belg. koud-hert, cold heart ; from caudatus 
(that hath a tail, tailed) ; and from culvert, a poltroon culum 
tail, verto to turn. Most probable derivation is from It. 
coddrdo coda tail, ard like. Ferrari derives the word from 
coda simply, thus coda, codarus, codardus ; and says, 
" Quia post principia lateat, et in extrema acie quae veluti 
cauda agminis est;" and Manage (Orig. Ital.) adds, "Dalla 
coda che fra le gambe portano i cani paurosi, dicono gli 

COYOTE, CAYOTE. Mexican name for the American 


jackal Sp. coyote Ind. (Nahiiatl) cqyoil. Hence the Califor- 
nian miners' term " cayotting," to indicate tunnelling or 
driving into a hill as the cayote does. Conf. N. and Q , 6th 
S. x. 428 ; xi. 37. 

GRANTS. A garland or wreath (Ham. v. i, 255) Dan. 
krands (O.D. krants, Mod. D. krans, a garland, wreath, Sw. 
and Belg. krans, G. kranz) Gr. jcopows, a wreath, id. 

CREAM. Unctuous or oily part of milk Fr. crime Low 
L. crema (lactis) or cremum by change of meaning L. cremor, 
thick juice or milky substance proceeding from corn or fruit 
when soaked or pressed, thick broth, barley broth Gr. ccpi/xvov, 
barley, spelt, and wheat coarsely ground Kpi for KpiOr), barley. 

CRETIN. In the Valais and other Alpine valleys, name 
given to one suffering from a particular kind of idiocy 
prevalent there Fr. cretin, one affected with cretinism, i.e. 
complete idiocy (" individu affect^ de cr6tinisme, c'est-a-dire 
d'idiotisme complet, et d'une difformite' physique caracteris6e 
par des goitres, plus ou moins volumineux, le long du cou "), 
which some derive from Romance creh'na, " creature, i.e. 
miserable creature." Genin says from christianus, " a cause 
que les imbeciles 6taient considers comme des personnes 
innocentes et chretiennes." Bescherelle says, " par contr. 
du mot chretien par excellence, parcequ'on croit les cretins, 
qu'on nomme aussi cagots, incapable de commettre aucun 
p6ch6, n'ayant aucune conscience de ce qu'ils font. Scheler 
derives the word from L. creta, craie, a cause de la couleur 
blanchatre de la peau des cretins ; " others again from G. 
kreidling, id. ; from kreide, chalk, from same root, with which 
Littr6 agrees. 

CRETONNE. Kind of cotton fabric made in Normandy, 
named from the maker. 


CREWEL, CRUEL. Yarn or worsted wound on a ball 
D. kluwen, lit. clew, clue. Hence crewel-work. 

CRIBRATION. In pharmacy, the act of sifting or 
riddling drugs L. cribrum, a sieve, strainer, colander, &c. 
cribrare, to pass through a sieve cerno, to separate akin to 
Kpivta Skt. kri, to separate ; lit. to do, make, prepare. 
Hence cribiform, resembling a sieve or riddle ; term applied 
to the lamina of the ethmoid bone, through which the fibres 
of the olfactory nerve pass to the nose (forma, form). 

CROCODILE. Huge reptile resembling a great lizard 
L. crocodilus Gr. jcpo/coSAos, id., also a lizard. Some 
assert that Kpo/coSoAos was the name given by the lonians to 
a lizard common throughout Greece, and was afterwards 
applied by them to the crocodile in Egypt after they had 
travelled in that country (Conf. Herod, ii. 69). Others 
derive the name from Kpo/cos saffron, SeiXos fearing, because 
the land crocodile fears the sight or smell of saffron, which 
the Egyptians placed before their bee-hives to protect them 
from this animal, which is fond of honey. Others again derive 
the word from SetXiaw to fear, xpoia) the shore, because the 
crocodile fears falling into snares or traps on the sea-shore 
or at the mouths of rivers, or because its feet are sadly cut 
in passing over stony ground. Conf. Stephanus, who also 
writes the word /cep/coSeiAos. 

CROMLECH. In archaeology, term applied to large flat 
stones laid across others in an upright position, frequently 
found in Great Britain and Ireland, Bretagne, Denmark, 
Germany, Spain, Jersey, and even in Asia and America. 
Armstrong derives the word from Gael, crom-leac, lit. " stone 
of bending or of worship." Pughe gives W. crom-llech, which 
he translates, " a stone that is of a flat or concave form, or 


that inclines or bends downwards." Le Gonidec (Villemar- 
que") derives Bas. Bret, kroumlec'h, which he, however, renders 
"monument des Celtes compose" de pierres plantees en 
cercle," from kroumm, courbe, courbe* ; lec'h, leac'h, or lia<?h, 
pierre sacree. 

CRONE. An old woman (in Chaucer also an old ewe) 
Gael, crion, old Gr. ^povos, age. 

CRUDE. Not brought to perfection, unfinished, im- 
mature, undigested ; lit. raw L. crudus KpuwS^s, icy, chill, 
Kpuos, icy-cold, chill, frost; eiSos, form. 

CRWTH. Fiddle, violin W. crwth, or Gael, or Fr. cruii 
L. corda, string of a musical instrument G. xP<fy- 

CRUMPET. Kind of soft cake or bread crumb-bread, 
bread baked without crust. 

CSARDAS, National Hungarian dance Hung, csdrdds, 
lit. an aubergiste on a heath csdrda, cabaret on a heath. 

CUCUMBER, CUCUMER. Name of a plant and its 
fruit L. cucumer (cucumis), which Furlanetto derives from 
prset. pass. K.Kvp,ai KVW, tumeo : " Significatur enim herba 
quaedam cujus fructus in ventrem crescit oblongum." But 
Varro, 5, L.L. 21, derives the word from its crookedness: 
" Cucumeres dicuntur a curvore, ut curvimeres dicti." 

CUFF, Blow with the fist ; corrupted from Gr. *coAa<os, 
a cuff, buffet, box on the ear. 

CURACAO. A liqueur flavoured with orange-peel, 
cinnamon, and mace, said to have been so named from 
Curasao or Cura9oa, an island in the Caribbean Sea, 
belonging to the Dutch, where it was first made. By the 
bye, Ptg. curacdo signifies " cure or curing of any distem- 


CURMUDGEON. Miserly, niggardly person. Some 
derive the word from Fr. cceur heart, mediant wicked ; but it 
is found written cornmudgin, and is from corn-mudgin, hoarder 
of corn mudge, to hoard O. Fr. mucer (mucier, muchier], to 
hide L. amicire, to veil, cover, wrap up ; properly, to throw 
around am, amb for ambi, around ; jacio, to throw, cast. 
Muciez is found in Fable du Lion Malade, par Marie de 
France ; and muchier in Servantois, MSS. de N. D. No. V, 
fol. 305 et 306. 

CURRACH. Anciently, a boat made of hides stretched 
on a keel and ribs of wood, much like the boats still used by 
the Greenlanders Gael, curach, boat, skiff, small boat of 
wicker covered with hides (Ir. corrac ; Sp. euro, a small boat 
used on the Garonne). 

CUTTER. Vessel with one mast, having fore and aft 
sails. So named from cutting through the water, sailing 

CYCLAS. In antiquity, an upper garment made of rich 
stuff or silk, which did not become a military garment till the 
reign of Edw. II. KVKXas, female robe of ceremony ; lit. that 
encircles, that is round. 

CYGNET, CIGNET. Young swan ; dim. of Fr. cigne 
L. cygnus, cycnus Gr. KVKVOS. According to Scheler, O. Fr. 
cisne, Sp. & Ptg. ctsne, are from a different root. 


DAD. A word used by children for father. That this 
vocable was formed by onomatopoeia is proved by the follow- 
ing : O.G. cetle, Low G. taite, tatte, O.D. teyte, Fries, tayte, 
heyte, hayte, Goth, atta, W. & Armor, tad, Bret, tad, tat, Ir. 


daid, O. L. /a/a, L. atta (whence attavus], Sp. & Ptg. /a//a, 
Gr. Tttra, arra, Lapp. #/#<?, Finn, taata, Esth. /aa/, Votj. at of, 
Ostj. a/a, Boh. <?/?, Dalm. otees, Mag. a/yzra, Basq. aita, Skt. 
/a/a, Proto. Med. a/a, aa^a, Accad. aoV, aaVa, Hind. c^U> 'A 
Turk. t^, a/a, Gyp. a'aa', daaa, Mex. taki, Sioux o/a^, Moxa 
/a/a, Poconchi tat, Othomi tak, Tuscarora a/a, Totonak //a/, 
Greenland atdtak, Kadjak attaga, Chukchi a//a, attaka, Aleutian 
athan, Kinai tadak, Jap. tete. 

DAFFODIL. Plant of the lily kind O.E. affodill, 
affodille O. Fr. affrodille, aphrodille, asphrodile (It. asfodillo, 
Sp. asfodelO) D. affodile) L. asphodelus Gr. ao-^oSeXos, 
according to some for <r<oSeXos, from cr^oSuXos or o-<ovSuA.os, 
a vertebra, joint of the backbone, head of the artichoke 
<rc/>ov8vA77, a root resembling sulphium, Att. for oTrovSiAr/, 


DEINTIE, DEYNTE. A delicacy O. Fr. dainte, daintie, 
deintie, deintiet, detnte, dente, bon morceau, friandise (also 
dainiiee, daintie, dentee, beau morceau, fig. joie, plaisir) dent, 
tooth, because dainties are grateful to the tooth, fig. the 
palate. Conf. W. dantaeth, a dainty, what appertains to the 
tooth (dant}. 

DAIRY. Place where the milk is kept or prepared for 
butter, cheese, and the like M.E. dairie, dayrie, deirie, deyrye, 
deyery ; in Chaucer, deyrie. Some derive the word from Fr. 
derriere, the back, i.e. of the house. Minshew says, " Dairie, 
dayrie, olim deirie, forte Gal. derriere, i. post, behinde, quia 
lactarium semper erat in posteriori parte domus," because 
the milk -house was always at the back of the house. 
Dufresne gives " daeria seu casei, butiri, vel daeriae," quoting 
Fleta, lib. 2, cap. 82, sec. 3 ; also " dqyeria, dqyri, Anglis vel 


dairi, cella lactaria, Gall, laiterie, seu locus ubi butyrum 
caseumque conficiuntur ; " quoting Antiq. Ambrosden. 588, 
ad ann. 1425, and Kennetti Gloss. Junius says, " Dairie, 
lacticinia, dame-maid, famula lactaria, Saeipa, et per syncopen 
vel erasin SOU/DO, Hesychio exp. Sa^/iwv, c/ATreipos gnara perita." 
The word is from O.E. deye, a milkwoman (Chaucer, deye, a 
dairy-keeper, Sco. dey, dei, a dairy-maid, Sw. deja] day, an 
old name for milk (mentioned in Fair Maid of Perth). Conf. 
Icel. dy, Dan. di, die, mamma ; dia, dy, O. Sw. di, to milk, 
deggia, to give milk, suckle, Skt. duh, to milk, milk out, 
squeeze out ; dughda, milk. 

DAYSYE, DAYESYE. Native flower so called A.S. dages 
edge, eye of day. Rees (Cyc.) says, " the name is derived 
from day and eye, alluding to the eye-like form of the flower, 
and its expansion in the day, and in bright weather only, 
when it presents its point to the sun, following his course 
till the afternoon, when the flower closes, but opens again 
for many successive mornings." 

DALE. A vale O.S. or Dan. dal (G. thai, dahl, Goth. 
dal, dais, valley, ditch, Franc, tal, ihuol, Anc. Brit, dol, 
Vandal dol}. Helvigius derives thai, dahl, from Gr. 0aAAu, 
vireo. "Est enim vallis locus a^idaX^, i.e. locus undique 
virens." Wachter says the antiquity of the word appears in 
Belg. dalen, to descend ; and he adds, " Nee non ex aliis 
Argentei Codicis vocibus, cujusmodi sunt, dalath, deorsum, 
Matth. viii. i ; iddalja, descensus, Luke xix. 37. 

DAMN, DAMME ! Interjection (Damme in Defoe's 
Col. Jacque), properly dame Fr. dame, lady, i.e. Our 
Lady, i.e. the Virgin. Conf. " Mais, dame, oui ; oh ! dame, 


The plum O. Fr. damaisine Gr. Aa/xxxa-KTyvos of Damascus, 
in whose neighbourhood the tree was first known. 

DAN, DOM (in compos. Dam}, found as a title of English 
and French surnames O. Fr. dan, dom, dam, dame, seigneur, 
maitre, chef, homme 61ev6 au-dessus des autres par son 
m6rite ou par son pouvoir et ses richesses ; like Sp. don, 
Ptg. dom, corrupted from L. dominus, a lord. 

DANDEPRAT. Small coin struck by H. 7 (ofo.) ; lit. a 
dwarf coin dandiprat, a little fellow, dwarf. Some derive the 
word from dandy and brat, child; Skinner says from D.danten to 
sport,praet trifles. First part of the word may be from E. dandle. 

exfoliation of the cuticle ; pityriasis ; applied particularly to 
the scurf at the roots of the hair of the head. Somner derives 
the word from A.S. Ian a spreading eruption, drof filthy. 
Lye renders tan vimen, vigultum, germen, tenus ; also 
mentagra Gr. ravo, to stretch, extend. 

DANGER, DAUNGERE. Risk, hazard, peril (" Come 
not within his danger by thy will ; " Shak. Ven. & Ad.) 
O. Fr. dangler, danglers, dongier, which Roquefort renders 
" difficulte, obstacle, crainte, empechement, contradiction, 
peine, soupon, d61ai, retard, contredit, defense, con- 
testation, traverses." Le Dictionnaire de Trvoux in 
one place derives the word from indulgere, and in 
another from dominari (to be lord and master, to rule) ; 
Manage says from damnum genre; Littre", from dominium, 
" car dominus donne a la fois dom et dam, et domina, dome 
et dame. Dominiarium satisfait a 1'autre condition, puisqu'il 
signifie possession et pouvoir." Littre" adds, " maintenant, 
comment, de ce sens, le mot a-t-il pass6 a celui de p6ril ? 


On le comprendra en examinant, par exemple, ce texte de 
Froissart oil il est dit que les cardinaux taient au danger des 
Remains ; s'ils 6taient au danger, c'est-a-dire au pouvoir, des 
Remains, ils e"taient aussi par la en p6ril ; la est la transi- 
tion." The Low L. dangerium is the right of the suzerain in 
regard to the fief of the vassal ; thus, " fief de danger," a fief 
held under strict and severe conditions. 

DAPPER. Clever, neat, spruce, light ; originally good, 
valiant D. dapper (O.G. taphar, valiant) Boh. dobry, good. 
Conf. Russ. dobro, good. 

DAVIT, DAVITT, DAVYD, DAVIE. A piece of timber 
or iron to hoist up and suspend one end of a boat over the 
side of a ship. Littre" says the word is of unknown origin ; 
" a moins qu'on n'y voye un diminutif daviet de David, qui a 
te le nom d'un outil de menuisier ; des noms propres et des 
noms d'animaux 6tant parfois donne's a des outils." 

DAW. Smallest of the British crows O.H.G. tdha, so 
called from the noise which it makes. " They have gained 
a familiar name, the particular form of which has been 
prompted by the reiterated call-note of their young, closely 
resembling the word ' Jack ' as pronounced in many English 
dialects." Yarrell, Hist. British Birds, ii. 206. 

beloved, loved A.S. deore, dyre L. carus, dear, precious, 
valued, esteemed Dor. KO.SOS /ojSos, care or concern for ; lit. 
trouble, sorrow /ojSw, to trouble, distress, vex. 

DEASIL. Motion from east to west Sco. deasoil, deisheal, 
Gael, deis-iull, a turning from east to west in direction of 
the sun ; also a prosperous course dets, deas, south, right ; 
tut, iuil, way, course, direction. Armstrong says it was a 
term descriptive of the ceremony observed by the Druids of 


walking round their temples by the south in the course of 
their divinations ; and according to Pliny the custom pre- 
vailed among the Gauls as early as his time. Conf. Jamieson, 
quoting Hist. B. xxviii. c. 2. 

DECOY. Properly a cage for trapping wild ducks D. 
(1793) ende-kooi (now en-kooi, kooi-eend], duck O.G. anit 
(now ente) L. anate anas Skt. hansa, a goose, gander, 
swan, duck, and D. kooi, cabin, pen, fold T. of CAVE, q.v. 

DEMON. An evil spirit O. Fr. demon L. d&mon G. 
Saifjitov, good or bad genius Sa^/wyv, knowing, experienced 
in a thing Saw, to learn, teach. Or Sai/iwv may come from 
Saico, to distribute destinies ; lit. to divide Skt. da, ddmi, 
dyami, to cut. 

DEMPSTER, DEMSTER. In Scotland, i. A judge. 
2. The officer of a court who pronounced doom or sentence 
definitively, as directed by the clerk or judge A.S. dema, a 
judge or umpire; lit. a deemer, thinker deman, to deem, 
think, judge ; and termination ster. " In the Isle of Man all 
controversies are decided without process, writings, or any 
charges, by certain judges whom they choose among them- 
selves, and call deemsters" Cam. Brit. tit. " Brit. Islands." 

DENGUE, DINGEE, DANGA. Name of a kind of 
rheumatic fever which appeared in the W. Indies in 1827 
and 1828, and which prevailed at Charleston in summer 
of 1850, and also in the Savannah ; the Dunga bouquet of 
Calcutta. In French and Italian the name is found written 
dengue, and in doctor's Latin denguis. In the W. Indies the 
English name is dandy fever, in Philadelphia it is called 
breakbone, whilst the Spaniards style it dengue, but whether 
dandy is a corruption of dengue or the reverse is doubtful. 
In Connelly & Higgins's Sp. Diet, dengue is rendered " me- 


lindre mugeril ; prude, a woman scrupulously nice, prim, 
and with false affection;" also "cierto ge"nero de mantilla 
de muger : mantilla, a short veil worn by women." 

DEUCE, DEUSE. An evil spirit, the devil ; an excla- 
mation of astonishment or comparison ; corrupted from L. 
diabolus the devil Gr. 8ia/?oAos, lit. accuser, slanderer, 
calumniator 8ta/?oAA;, to accuse, &c. ; lit. to dart or pierce 
through Sia and ySoAAo;. 

DIABETES. Disease in which, by an inordinate discharge 
of urine, the nutriment appears to pass through the body 
Gr. Bia(3rjrr]<i Sta^aivca, to pass through Sia through, @awoo 
to pass. 

DIASCORDIUM. Name for the electuary of scordium 
Gr. 8ia through, a-KopSiay water-germander. 

DIET, DYETT. An assembly of the States or circles of 
the German Empire, and formerly of Poland. Menage 
derives O. Fr. diette from Gr. SUZITO, " dans la signification de 
salle ou Ton fait des festins." He adds, " De laquelle signi- 
fication il a passe ensuite en celle d'une assemble d'Etats : 
les anciens allemans aYent de coutume de traiter d'affaires 
publiques au milieu des festins," &c. Le Duchat derives Fr. 
diete from Low L. dieta, " fait, dans cette acceptation, de 
dies, jour, journee. Dieta se dit en effet de toutes les 
journees destinies a parler d'affaires, a plaider, &c. ; et les 
allemands donnent encore, a ce que nous appelons diete, le 
nom de reichstag, journee imperiale." Littr6 derives diete from 
Low L. dieta, from dies (day); and he adds, it is always 
employed for the day of assembly, in G. Tag, Reichstag, 
Tagsatzung. The word comes rather through Low L. diceta, 
conventus publicus [conventus apud Germanos celebrior, 
Dufresne] from O.G. deut, teut, people, gens, populus, vulgus 


(Goth, thiuda, A.S. theod, thiod, Franc. thiat, thiot, thiut, Alam. 
diot, Icel. thot, Gloss. Keron. plebis deota ; Gloss. Lips, thiat, 
gens, Verel. in Ind. thiod, populus, vulgus), from deuf, teut, 
terra. Conf. Notkerus apud Schilterum in Gloss, judon diet, 
populus judaeorum ; Hut dieto, populus gentium ; dietpurge, 
patrise gentium. 

DIGIT. A finger L. digitus, from a word SCIKCTOS Gr. 
SeiKoo (SaKw/u) to show Skt. dis, to point out. Others 
derive digitus from 0eKopu, to grasp, receive. 

Principal meal of the day Fr. diner O. Fr. disner. Some 
derive the O. Fr. word through It. disinare, desinare, or Low L. 
disnare, from a L. disjejunare, to discontinue fasting dis 
from, jejunare to fastjejunus, fasting. According to Henri 
Etienne, the French word is from Senrvetv, to eat, take a 
repast. Roquefort, under digner, disgner, says, " Le diner, 
repas ainsi nomme' de la priere qui se faisoit avant, et qui com- 
me^oit par ces mots Dignare, domine; en bas Lat. dignerium, 
disnerium, disnarium ; " and in his Supp. he gives " dingnet, 
diner, d'ou le verbe digner, dingmr, dispner: faire le repas de 
midi." He quotes Fabl. de 1'Escurial, v. 143, " Si s'en 
dignast a cest matin;" and Comple de 1'Hospital des Wez, 
de 1350, " et ly autre los fu pour le jour au dingnet" The 
most probable derivation of the Fr. word is from It. designdre 
desinare, to cease, i.e. from work, dinner being the time of 
ceasing from labour. M6nage (Le Orig. It.) quotes Le 
Glosse Antiche, "desinator, a/JoTjTos;" and adds, " E fu cosl 
detta quel mangiare del mezzogiorno perche a questa ora 
1'uomo si riposa, mangiando o dormendo : laborare desinit." 

DIRK. A dagger Sco. durk Gael, durc, durca, a clumsy 
knife Belg. dolk, like G. dolch, from L. dolo, a stick or whip 


in whose handle a dagger was concealed ; or direct from Gr. 
SoXwv, a secret weapon, poniard, stiletto SoAow, to beguile, 
ensnare. Wachter (Gloss. Germ.), after referring to 
derivations by Junius and others, says, " Potius est, ut 
credamas omnium originem esse, a verbo obsolete dolen, 
occultare, qu6d hodie apud Suecos, quibus dolia, fordolia est 
celare, abscondere, occultare ; fordold, absconditus, occujtus, 
clandestinus ; fordolias, latere. Hinc scil. vetustas varia 
flexione efformavit dol, dolg, dolch, quod vi originis telum 
absconsum significat. Islandis dolgur non solum pugionem, 
sed etiam hostem occultum, et dylgiur tectas inimicitias, et 
dul quicquid occultari potest, denotat." 

DISMAL. Dark, gloomy, clouded, dull, melancholy, 
unhappy ; originally a noun, e.g. " I trow it was in the 
dismall" (Chaucer). In the Faerie Queene it is used as an 
adjective, as in B. ii. 51, " Paynim, this is thy dismall day," 
where it means fatal. Some derive the word from r. of 
dismay, or from dies malus, evil day. Prof. Skeat thinks it 
may refer to tithing-time L. decimalis, relating to tithes 
decima (O. Fr. disme), a tithe decem, ten. The most probable 
derivation is from dies mali, day of evil, 

DOCH-AN-DORRACH. In Scotland, a stirrup cup, 
parting dram Gael, deock-an-doruis (Manx deouch-a-dorus), 
door-drink deoch a drink, an of, dorus door. Armstrong 
says it is also called deoch. "Chloinn Donnachaid, the drink of 
the Robertsons, or the children of Duncan ; so called from 
Donnach Crosd, a son of MacDonald of the Isles." 

DODO. A large bird belonging to the Columbidae, 
incapable of flight, which inhabited Mauritius, but which 
has hjsen long since extinct. In Dutch authors the name is 
found written dod-eersen, dod-darsen and dod-aers. Tradescant 


calls it dodar, Brontius dronte. The word is derived from 
Ptg. doudo, mad, fool, out of his senses. Hence in Low L. it 
is called Didus ineptus, 

DOG, DOGGE. The quadruped. Junius derives the word 
from Gr. Savvey, to bite, because of Seucos or BaKerov, an animal 
whose bite is dangerous; others say from tike (North E. 
tyke), a dog, cur ; or from Sw. tik, a bitch, Icel. tik, a bitch, 
cur ; or G. dachs L. taxus, a badger. But Anc. Brit, dogghe 
is rendered canis major, molossus, and the Sw. dogg is a 

DOGGER. Small fighting vessel D. dogger, or Icel. 
dugga ; whence duggari, crew of a dogger. 

DOIT, DUYT. Small piece of money (obs.) ; Sco. penny, 
twelve whereof were = penny sterling ; originally a Dutch 
copper coin, the duit or duyt = ^d. Wedgwood derives the 
word from Venetian daoto (a piece) of eight (da oio soldi} ; 
others from D. duit or duyt, from Fr. d'huit, of 8, i.e. the 
eighth part of a stiver or penny. The Dutch word is more 
probably from Fr. doigt, a finger, from r. of DIGIT, q.v. The 
original meaning was probably as much as could be covered 
by the tip of the finger. Doit is rendered digitus in Little- 
ton's L. Diet., and Roquefort gives doight, doid, digitus. 

DOLABRA, DOLABELLA. Another name for the 
archaeological term celt L. dolabra, an axe dolo, to cut or 
hew asunder. See also Dr. Smith's Diet, of Greek & 
Roman Antiquities. 

DOLABELLA. A dim. of DOLABRA, q.v. 

DOLL. A puppet or baby for a child idol L. idolum, 
image, form, spectre, apparition, ghost, idol eiSwAov etSos, 
form, shape, figure. 

DOLMEN. Breton name for a chambered variety of 


cromlech Bret, taol, table L. tabula \ men, maen, mean, 

DOLPHIN, DOLPHYNE. The cetaceous animal 
O. Eng. delfyn L. delphinus Ar. ^jJiJj> dulfln (in Alcala 
dilflri); so called, according to Lane, from being a mammal 
duluf, a she-camel dalafa, to walk or go gently or slowly. 

DOMINOS, DOMINOES. The domino, i.e. the 
hood or black capuchon (more often called carnail] " worn 
by priests as a protection against the cold in great buildings," 
is said to have been named from a passage in the Liturgy. 
The word is Low L., from dominus, the Lord. The 
masquerade habit formerly worn by men as well as women 
was so named from its primitive resemblance to the priestly 
garment. The game of dominoes was so called from the 
under part of each domino being of the colour of the hood 
in question. Littr6 says, " Le jeu a et6 ainsi nomine 1 a cause du 
revetement noir que chaque de porte en-dessous." Bouillet 
remarks, " On appelie domino une sorte de papier peint et 
imprime' de diverses couleurs, dont on se sert pour differents 
jeux, tels que jeu de dame, jeu de 1'oie, jeu de loto." He 
adds that the fabrication of this paper is the object of an 
especial industry called dominoterie; that a good deal of it is 
made at Rouen, and that it is used in the provinces to 
ornament the interior of coffers and coffrets made of card- 
board or leather. Burgess says, " With respect to the origin 
of the game and the date of its invention but little is known 
positively. It has been claimed variously for the Egyptians 
and Arabians, but the authority for these statements is very 
doubtful. It made its appearance in Italy when Venetian 
commerce was at its height, and dates from the era when so 
many new games were introduced into Europe. It passed 



from Italy into France, where the date of its introduction is 
said to be the middle of the iyth Century. It speedily 
became popular with our French neighbours. The game 
passed over the Channel, but as to the date of its introduction 
into England we know but little authoritatively. The oldest 
box of dominoes I have met with was made by the French 
prisoners of war at Norman Cross, in Northamptonshire ; 
and I have but little doubt that, if the history of these cherry- 
wood boxes could be traced, they would be found to owe 
their origin to the skill and industry of the French emigres 
or their compatriots, the prisoners of war." By the bye, the 
Chinese call dominoes " dotted cards " (teen tsze pae] \ and 
Monier Williams has Sanscrit words for domino, a long 
cloak used as a disguise, and also for an oblong piece of 

DORMOUSE. A small rodent mammal that is usually 
torpid during the winter (mus dormiens) E. dorm, to doze 
Fr. dormir to sleep, and mouse. Conf. Fr. loir : " il dort 
comme un loir." 

DOUBT. To question, be in uncertainty O. Fr. 
doubter L. dubitare, to waver in opinion, lit. to think of two 
things at the same time, as, for instance, which of them be 
preferable to the other ; probably through an obs. duito, from 
duo, two. Others derive dubito from duo, through an obs. 
dubo, like Sotao) (to consider in two ways) from Soioi (two), 
and G. zweifel (doubt) from zwei, two. 

low hill A.S. dun, a hill Gael, dun a word Sowos for /?owos, 
hill, height, heap, mound. See MOUNT. 

DRAPER. Seller of cloth O. Fr. draper drap (It. 
drdppo, Sp. trdpo, Low L. drapus, drappus, trapus, cloth ; 


Ptg. trdpo, clout, rag), cloth r. of E. trap, to drape, adorn. 
Others derive the word from Gr. Tpairw, to tread or press 
together close or firm, press in, " nam calcando concilia- 
bant lanam ;" or from Corn, darbary (Armor, darbari, 
W. darparu), to prepare, which is from prefix dar, and pary, 
to prepare. 

DRAT ! Mild form of oath ; as " drat it!" God rot it 
Conf. Numb. v. 21, 27; Prov. x. 7. 

DREGS. Lees, sediment Belg. droge, dreck, dirt (cxnum, 
stercusj Gr. rpvyos rpu|, dregs. 

DRINK. To swallow liquors A.S. drincan G. trinken 
(Franc. & Alam. drinkan, trinchan, D. drinken, Sw. dricka, 
Dan. drikke, Icel. drekka, Goth, driggkan, drigkan). Accord- 
ing to some, the word may have originated from trink or 
trinken, the sound made in knocking glasses together in 
company. This is confirmed by O. Fr. trinquer, boire en 
choquant les verres, et en se provoquant 1'un 1'autre. Richard- 
son says, to drink is to draw in at the mouth and swallow 
any liquid. According to Wachter, trinken was anciently 
used for drinking and eating ; and he quotes the Anglo-Saxon 
Version, Matt, xxiii. 24, and drincath thone olfend, et glutitis 
camelum ; and he adds, " ergo trinken est gula attrahere, sive 
potus sit sive cibus," and he derives the G. word from trecken, 
to draw ; " nam trecken est trahere, et sensu ad bibentes trans- 
late bibere, quia potiones attrahunt." 

watery fluid in the natural cavities, or in the cellular areolae, 
or in both hydropisy O. Fr. hydropsie L. hydropisis Barb. 
Gr. vSpwrruro Gr. vSpwi/r, dropsy, which some derive from 
vSwp water, oi/ns appearance ; or <a\j/, aspect, appearance ; but 
according Littr6 (Diet, de Med.) wi/f indicates a collection, as 


in aifjtaXunf/. The last part of the word may be merely a 
termination. Conf. 6vpaX<j>\l/. 

DRUID. A priest or minister of religion among the 
ancient Keltic nations in Gaul, Britain, and Germany. 
Druidtz is found in Pliny, and Druides in Csesar ; and 
Donnegan gives the pi. AputSai. The Druids are said to 
have been so called from performing their rites, &c., in 
places where oaks grew, and the name has accordingly been 
derived from Spu?, an oak; but the word Druid is more 
probably of Keltic origin, viz. from W. derwydd (Gael. & 
Ir. druidh, Bret, drouiz], which Pughe renders, one who has 
knowledge of or is present with ; a theologian, a Druid, 
from dar and gwydd. But here is some confusion, for dar is 
rendered the tree of presence, an oak, and gwydd is a 
state of recognition or knowledge, presence. Archdeacon 
Williams (Gomer) derives the word from gwydd wise man, 
derw oak. The W. derw is from Gr. Spus, an oak Skt. 
dru, us, a wood, tree, branch (Zend dru, dduru, wood, spear). 

DRUM. A noisy riotous assembly of fashionable people 
at a private house ; a rout. " Not inaptly called a drum, 
from the noise and emptiness of the entertainment." 

DRUNKARD. One given to excessive use of strong 
drink = drunkish, somewhat drunk drunk, and ard, like. 

DUCASSE. In Artois and Flanders name for a village 
fete. Roquefort renders the word " fete du patron d'un 
lieu;" and he derives it from L. dux, chief. Littr6 gives 
Rouchi ducasse (Wallon dica.ce, Namur dicauce\ fete patronale, 
abbrev. of dedicace (dedication) Low L. dedicacia L. dedicare, 
to dedicate. 

DUDGEON, DUDGIN. Haft or handle of a dagger ; 


properly, a small dagger, dim. of Fr. dague, daigue (Bel. dagge, 
It. dagga, Bas Bret, dac, G. degen, Low L. daga, dagua), sort 
of poniard or short sword. 

DUGAZON. French theatrical term; as premier dugazon, 
jeune dugazon, mere dugazon ; so called from the celebrated 
actress, Louise Rosalie Lefebvre Dugazon (wife of an actor at 
the Theatre Frangais), born at Berlin in 1755. There is a 
monument to her in Pere-Lachaise. Conf. Biog. Univ. 

DUODENUM. First portion of the small intestine, 
extending in the lower animals, which alone were dissected 
by the ancients, to about twelve fingers' breadth L. duodent, 
twelve each duo two, deni ten each. 

DURSLEY. Blows without wounding or bloodshed ; 
vttlgb dry blows G. durre, schlage. 

DWAS-LIGHT. Ignis fatuus A.S. dwas-likt, a false 
light dwas, foolish (fatuus) dwelian, to deceive, and liht. 


AIKER, ACKER. The bore in a river Icel. agir, the sea, 
ocean, main ; or A.S. egor, the sea. 

EARL, ERL. A title of nobility, third in rank O.S. erl 
(Mod. S. eorl, O. Dan. iarll, baron, Sw. iarler) Gael, iarla 
(Ir. id., W. iarll, Corn, arlatk] contracted from iar-fhlath 
(pron. iarrl\ viceroy, feudatory lord, a lord dependent on a 
greater ; lit. a secondary noble or chief, one next to that of 
king tar, after, second in order ; flath, lord, prince, com- 
mander, hero, champion. 

EARTH, ERTHE. Soil, dry land A.S. eorthe Goth. 
airlka, according to Bopp from Skt. ir-tha t weak form of 


ar-fha, pass. part, of ir, to go. He compares it with Skt. vdrf- 
man, way, road, path, track, from vart, vrii, to go ; but vrif 
is turning round mit, vart, to turn round ; and the Goth, 
word is rather from Chald. ih era, the Earth, i.q. p erets, 
or from Syr. ar'o. 

EARWIG, EARWICK. An insect commonly supposed 
to creep into the human brain through the ear. In other 
languages the same error is preserved, as in Svr. or-mask, 
G. oren-hohler, ohr-wurm, Fr. perce-oreille. The insect was 
so called because it eats the ears of corn, fruit, &c. 
The word is from A.S. edr-wiega, from ear, ear of corn ; 
wicga, kind of worm, fly, beetle. Littr6 says of the error 
in question, " dite perce-oreills par suite d'un prejag6, car 
cet insecte est inoffensif ; il ne peut percer que les fruits." 

EASE, ESE, EISE, EYSE. State of rest or quietness 
O. Fr. ese (var. eso, ase, aze, ais, Wall, dhe, Namur auje, 
O. It. asio, Gael, athais) obs. L. ocio ocium otium ; lit. 
time which one can use as he likes, and so leisure usus 
(sum) utor, otor, cefor, to enjoy ; lit. to use. 

EASEL. Stand on which a painter fixes his canvas 
G. esel, wooden frame with legs, stand, machine by which 
anything is supported ; lit. an ass, so called jocularly from 
bearing or carrying. (The proper G. name is staffelei staff el, 
step, degree.) Conf. E. horse (i.e. clothes-horse), so named 
from supporting ; Fr. chevelet, dim. of ckeval. 

EAU DE VIE. Brandy (Fr.), said to mean lit. water of 
life. It is rather an attempt to translate AQUA VITJE, q.v. 

EBRIETY. Drunkenness; intoxication by strong 
spirituous liquors Fr. ebriete L. ebrietate e&rielas ebrius 
intoxicated e for ex, out of, from ; bria, kind of drinking- 
vessel (scyphos, brias, pateras depromite, Arnob. vii. post 


med. p. 295, ed. Herald) /fyvw, to pour out. A drunkard 
is one " qui multas haurit brias" 

ECARTE. Game of cards analogous to triomphe, in 
which players reject or throw out the cards they do not 
require (Fr.) ecarler, to reject, throw out. 

EISTEDDFOD. In Wales, a congress for election of 
chief bards (W.); lit. a sitting, meeting, assembly etstedd, 
sitting, act of sitting ; bod, dwelling. 

ELAND. Species of S. African antelope D. eland, an 
elk r. of REIN (-DEER) q.v . 

ELDING, HELDING. An old word for firewood, fuel 
A.S. (Bid, (Bled (Sw. eld, Icel. elldr], fire telan, to kindle, 
set on fire, burn. 

ELECTUARY. Medicine made up to the consistency 
of honey, which dissolves in the mouth O. Fr. electuaire 
Low L. eleduarium, a medicine that melts in the mouth ; 
corrupted from Gr. eKAeiy/Aorapiov eKXet^w, to lick up. Others 
derive it from eligo, to choose or pick out, select. " Electua- 
rium dicitur ab electione rerum e quibus conficitur," says 
Joann. de Janua. 

ELEPHANTIASIS. Name of two distinct diseases, 
the Grecian and the Arabian (L.) Gr. eXc^avrtao-ts eXe^as, 
the elephant. Latham says, " so called from covering the 
skin with incrustations like those on the hide of an elephant." 
According to Dunglison, elephantiasis Arabica most frequently 
attacks the feet, and gives the lower extremity a fancied 
resemblance to the leg of an elephant, whence its name. 

EMBERS, EMERES. Hot cinders-Dan, emmer (M.H.G. 
eimurja, Belg. amereri), pi. of em,jem. 

A.S. czmetle, izmet O.G. ameisse, artieis, which Wachter renders 


"animal otio expers a, neg.; meisse, i.q. musse, otium ;" 
but the G. word has been more probably corrupted 
from L. formica ; thus, formica, fromica, arnica, ameisse. 

END. A word frequently found in place-names in 
England; as Crouch End, Gravesend, Southend. Its original 
meaning was that of dwelling, habitation corrupted from 
in, inn, lit. a dwelling A.S. inn, in, lit. within. 

ENSILAGE. A system which consists in preserving 
green forage plants in a pit for winter use, or during a dry 
season, without their turning mouldy or rotten (Fr.) en, in ; 
O. Fr. silo Sp. silo, a subterraneous granary where wheat is 
kept, or any cavern or dark place L. sirus, id. Gr. o-tpos, 
a pit, esp. for keeping corn. 

EPERGNE. Ornamental stand with branches for a 
large glass dish O. Fr. esperne, espairne, espairgne espargner, 
to spare, save from wear and tear. 

ERR, ERRE. To make mistakes, blunder; lit. to 
wander from the right way Fr. errer L. errare Gr. eppw, 
to go slowly pew, to flow, run Skt. n, to go. 

ERGOT. Disease of rye, maize, &c., in which the seed, 
besides becoming black, grows elongated so as to resemble 
a cock's spur Fr. ergot, a spur L. artus, a joint Gr. ap<a, to 
join, fit ; thus, artus, articus, articottus, arcottus, argottus, argot, 
ergot. Conf. It. artiglio L. articulus; also Fr. herigoture, 
" marque qui se pr^sente quelquefois aux jambes de derriere 
des chiens," which implies an obs. herigot. 

ERYSIPELAS. Red eruption of the skin Gr. epvo-iTreAas, 
which some derive from epvOpos, red ; TreXXos, brown, livid, 
and so = livid redness ; or from epvOpos and TreXXa, skin, deri- 
vations suggested, no doubt, by its other names, as Icteritia 


riibra, Rubra icteritia, Rosea, and Fr. & Sco. Rose. The proper 
derivation is from epvw to draw, ireAvs near, " expressive of its 
tendency to spread." This is confirmed by Mayne, Dungli- 
. son, Tanner, and others. Conf. also the maladies called 
erysimum and erysiphe. 

EYSELL. Woul't drink up esil ? " Ham v. i. In the quarto 
of 1603 it is vessels; in later quartos esill, in the fo. esile. 
According to some, the word refers to Yssell, Issell, or Izel, 
the most northern part of the Rhine, but eysell (later, eiseF) 
is found in Sonnet CXI. as " Potions of eisel 'gainst my 
strong infection," and no doubt signifies vinegar O. Fr. 
esil, aisil, aizil, arzil, which some derive from oxalis, sort of 
sorrel, garden sorrel Gr. 0^0X15 oos, sour wine, also vinegar 
made therefrom; or from L. acidum (acidum vini) ; but the 
word is rather from aceium, lit. the sharp-tasted thing; or 
say aceium vini, wine vinegar aceo, to be acid or sour 
(whence acidus). Conf. Corn, eysel, vinegar, G. essig, Franc. 
& Alam. ezzich, A.S. eced, ceced, acted, Plat, etig, Goth, akeits, 
Dan. & Icel. edik, Sw. attikia. 

ETESIAN. Stated, blowing at stated times of the year, 
periodical, annual ; as Etesian winds L. etesice, properly the 
N. winds that blow annually during the dog-days for forty 
days Gr. en/<ruu (sc. avc/ioi, winds) enyo-ios, for a year, 
annual CTOS, a year Skt. vatsas, id. 

ETIQUETTE. Conventional forms of ceremony or 
decorum. Bourdelot and Huet derive etiquette from Gr. 
O-TIXOS, a row, order, line (ort^os, stichus, stichettus, stichetta, 
etiquette). Littr6 says etiquette signifies properly chose fix6e, 
and is of same origin as It. stecco, piquant, and from same 
root as Hainaut stique, ep6e, Champenois stiquer, piquer dans, 


Wall, stichi, piquer, and that it is of G. origin. He refers 
to Flem. stikke, tige pointue, " mot qui est celtique aussi : 
gaelique stic, un baton." The word was at first applied in 
France, when Latin was in use in law procedure, to a little 
ticket or label attached to sacks containing legal proceed- 
ings, files of papers, &c. Hence the proverb juger, condamner 
sur V etiquette du sac = juger, condamner 16gerement, sans un 
mur examen. The word is a corruption of Est hie qucest., for 
Hie est qucestio, here is the matter or case. 

EUCALYPTUS. Genus of tall trees, of which there are 
nearly 100 species (Med. L.) so called because of the 
peculiar lid which in these plants covers the calyx and 
encloses the organs of impregnation Gr. eu well, ^aAvm-os 
covered. " Le caractere distinctif de ce genre de Myrtace"es 
consiste dans 1'espece de coiffe qui recouvre la fleur avant 
son e"panouissement, et tombe lorsque les 6tamines la poussent 
en se developpant : de la le nom g6n6rique." Larrousse, 
Grand Diet. Univ. 

EYRL, EIRE. A journey or circuit, as justices in eyre 
O. Fr. eire, journey, way contract, of L. itinere iter, a 
journey eo, to go Skt. z, to go. 


FACTOTUM. Servant employed alike in all kinds of 
business ; a doer of all work L. fac Mum, do all -facto to 
do, Mum all. The word probably had an ecclesiastical 
origin. In Cavendish, Wolsey, p. 42, we read, " He was 
Dominus fac totum with the King." 

FALAISES. Steep and rugged rocks bordering the sea- 
coast. Falaise, in Normandy, occupies the summit of a lofty 


platform bordering on a rocky precipice L. falesia, which 
some derive from G.fels, a rock ; but it may be from its root, 
Gr. <eAAeus, any rough rocky place. Also name of a rocky 
district at Athens. Conf. Ar. Ach. 273, Nub. 71. 

FALCHION. Short crooked sword It. faldone 
L. faldone -falx Gr. TreA-exrus r. of PELICAN, q.v. 

FALLACY, FALLACE. Illusory mode of reasoning. 
Yr.fallace L. fallacia -fallo, to deceive, from a word sfallo 
s^aXXoj, to fail, err, go wrong ; lit. to make to fall, over- 
throw, ruin ; perhaps originally to quiver, palpitate Skt. 
sphal, to tremble, quiver, throb, palpitate, beat (sphul, to 
tremble, throb, vibrate). 

FANE (i). A temple L. fanum, sanctuary, temple 
metathesis of Gr. vapov Gr. vaov voos veuco, to dwell. 

FANE (2). Small flag of a ship Sw. /ana Goth, id. 
L. pannus, cloth, piece of cloth Dor. Travos TTCVOS. 

FANGLES (as "new fangles"). Trifles, silly fancies, 
crotchets, new whimsies evangelia, gospels, q.d. new gospels, 
says Dr. Thos. Henshaw. Others make the word a dim. of 
fang, to take. 

FARTHINGALE. A hoop formerly used to spread out 
the petticoat Fr. vertzigadin (also verlugade) vertugardien = 
virtue-guard. The word is also found written vertugale and 
vertugalle. Roquefort says of the latter, " Ce bourlet avoit 
ete invente par les courtisanes pour cacher leur grossesses : 
Voy. la Satyre M6nipp6e, torn. ii. p. 351." 

FASCINATE. To bewitch, enchant L. fasdnatus 
fasdno, to enchant or bewitch by the eyes, &c. -fasrinum, a 
bewitching, enchantment Gr. /Jcur/caviov, id. /Jcuwuva), to 

FEMALE, FEMELE, FEMELL. Not male in the way 


of sex O. Fr. femelle L. femella, a young woman, dim. of 
femma, lit. any female r. of FEMININE, q.v. 

FEMININE. Belonging to women O. fr.feminin L. 
femim'nus,-woma.n\y -femina,fcemina, a woman; lit. any female ; 
according to some, from femur, upper part of the thigh, 
" quod ea parte a foemina sexus viri discrepat." Isidore 
says, "femina a partibus femorum dicta, ubi sexus species 
a viro distinguitur ;" Heb. nnpJ nkabdh, says Forcellini ; 
and Gesenius gives n'kabdh, a woman, female (a genitalium 
figura dicta). Others again derive femtna direct from an obs. 
feo, to beget Gr. <ew </>vw, which is from Skt. bhu, to be 
born or produced. 

FERRET (i). The animal O. Fr.fuiret (Mod. Fr./rc/, 
G. frett, D. vret, It. furetto, W. fured] Low L. furetus (also 
furectus), dim. of an obs.furus Low ~L.furo, a ferret. 

FERRET (2). Kind of narrow tape made of woollen 
thread, sometimes of cotton or silk ; corrupted from Fr. 
fleuret, coarse ferret, silk ; dim. of four, flower. Littre" renders 
fleuret, " sorte de soie tire"e de la bourre qui est aux environs 
du cocon, et qui est comme une fleur que le ver & soie a 
produite avant de former son ouvrage." 

FERVENT. Hot in temper, vehement ; ardent in piety, 
warm in zeal ; lit. hot, boiling -O. Fr. fervent L. ferventus 
ferveo, fervo, to be hot or heated Gr. trap, fire, or tfcpw, to 
warm, make warm. Others derive fervo from </>/>w, to bear 
Skt. bhara, bearing. 

FETID. Stinking, rancid ; having a smell strong and 
offensive Q.T.fetidefcetidusfceteo, to have an ill smell 
foetus, fetus, the young of all animals : quoniam foetando 
matres polluntur," says Perottus. Vossius renders foetus, 
" infans, qui immundus esse solet." 


FEVER, FEUER. Disease so called O. Fr. fcvreL. 
febre -fcbris, which Raspail derives fromfervere, bouillir, avoir 
une Ebullition du sang. Varro, in Nonius, says, " appellamus 
a calendo calorem, e fervore febrim." 

one who lets dogs loose in a chase (pbs.}fewter, feuter, a 
sort of dog Fr. vautrier, viaultre, a hound (Low L. veltrus, G. 
welter, It. veltro, Barb. Gr. /?eXrpov) Low L. vertraha, vertracus, 
a kind of hound for deer and hares properly veltraha, 
veltrahus, veltraga, veltragus, veltracha G. feld field, brack a 
hound. Hence, from fewterer, Fetter Lane. Conf. Brach. 

FIASCO. A ridiculous failure ; a breakdown in a 
musical or other performance. Larousse says, " pour tout 
dire, nous devons ajouter qu'on a imaging une anecdote, 
comme on en a une pour expliquer toutes les locutions dont 
1'origine est inconnue. Ici, c'est un Allemand qui regarde 
travailler des verriers VEnitiens. ' Rien n'est plus facile,' 
s'e"crie-t-il. Et il demande a souffler a son tour. II souffle, 
mais il ne sort de sa carme qu'une sorte de bulle informe, 
un fiasco grossier, au lieu du flacon elegant qu'il s'attendait a 
produire. De la 1' express ion Italienne, fare fiasco, qu'on 
ne trouve nulle part." The term is derived from " ola, 
ola fiasco !" which Italians cry out when a singer makes a 
false note or fails. They say, "L'opera nuova ha fatto fiasco; 
cantante che ha fatto tre fiaschi consecutivi ; ha fatto un 
fiasco come una damigiana, gran fiasco. Tommaseo (Diz. 
della Ling. Ital. Tor. 1865, 4) says, " Far fiasco dicesi 
del non riescire in quello che altri si proponeva, o 
dalla fragilta o dalla forma enfiata, che ha troppo vano 
dentro, o dal suono imit. della voce che dice fiacchezza. 
Chi sa non rammenti Amphora ccepit. . . . urceus exit?" 


A writer, in the Encyc. des Gens du Monde, after giving 
instances of a fiasco, says, " rien de plus commun que ces 
demi-talents qui ressemblent a des ballons gonfls d'air, mais 
flasques du moment ou le remplissage factice s'en 6chappe." 
Fiasco is from Low L. flascus, a wine or other bottle made of 
goatskin or leather; perhaps from Gr. ^Aao-Ktov, which 
Hesychius renders " species poculi." But conf. Pol. flasha, 
Boh.flasse, Hung, palaczk. 

FIBRE. Small thread or string Fr. fibre L.fibra, fibre, 
filament, lit. the extremity of anything, according to Vossius 
from finis ; according to Salmasius from faftpos for $t/2pos, 
soft, delicate (tener, mollis). 

FID, MAST-FID. Bar of wood or iron to support 
weight of top-mast when erected at head of lower mast 
lt.fitto, fixed (?). 

FITHUL, FYDEL, FYDYLL, FYTHEL. Stringed instru- 
ment, violin A.S. fithele, according to some from Low L. 
vidula, vitula, a viol, fiddle ; but the A.S. word is rather like 
O.G. fidel, from O.H.G. fidula L. fidicula, small stringed 
instrument, small lute or cithern, dim. of fides, id. ; lit. a 
gut-string, string (of a musical instrument) Gr. <r<iSes, pi. 
of <r<f>i&r), gut. 

FIERCE, FERS. Savage, eager for mischief O. Fr. 
fers ~L.ferus, wild,, wild beast ^Eol. ^p 
0r)p, id. 

FIG. Fruit so called Fr. figue L. ficus, by change of 
s to f, from Gr. O-VKOV, fruit of the a-vKerj, fig-tree. 

PHILIBERT, FIB-BEARD. Nut so called. Some derive 


the word from the name Phillis. Wright says the L.(Low L. ?) 
should bQfillis; and he gives " filberde-tree, phillis (Prompt. 
Parv.) ; " and adds, " Gower (Confes. Amant. vol. ii. p. 30, ed. 
Pauli) has misrepresented the story of Phillis and Demophoon, 
in Ovid, in order to give a derivation of the word. 

And Demephon was so reproved 

That, of the Goddes' providence, 

Was shape suche an evidence 

Ever afterward agein the slowe, 
That Phillis in the same throwe 

Was shape into a nutte-tre, 

That alle men it might se, 

And after Phillis philliberde 

This tre was cleped in the yerde. 

According to others the nut derived its name from St. 
Philibert, King of France, but there is no evidence of the 
existence of such a king. Bailey writes " filberd, of full and 
beard, the skin thereof being covered with a down like the 
first appearance of the beard upon the skin." Wedgwood 
says the word is fill beard, because the nut just fills the cup 
made by the beards of the calyx. In a vocab. of the loth 
Century we read, " abellanus vel columns, hcesl avilina hnuiu" 
In Archbishop Alfric's vocab. of same century we have 
" abellance, haesl, vel haesl-knut." In a metrical vocab. of 
perhaps the I4th Century avelana is confounded with the 
walnut, being rendered " bannenote ;" and in the dialects of 
the W. of England a walnut is universally called " bannut" 
In an English vocab. of the i5th Century we read " hec 
avelana, a e walnut-tree;" and in a Nominale of same date, 
" hec avelana, a walnutte and the nutte ;" also, " hie fullus 
a fylberd-tre." Littleton renders a filbeard, " avellana, nux 
Pontica ;" and Pliny, under " Nux Pontica," says " Ita die. 


quia e Ponto in Graeciam et Asiam avellanse venere. . . . 
abellina ab Abella, Campaniae oppido, diet., quae nunc 
Avellana;" and he adds, "a filberd, or hazel nut;" and 
there is no doubt that this nut, as well as oth'er fruits, 
abounded in Abella or Avella (Conf. Sil. 8, 454 ; Virg. vEn. 
vii. 740). Again, the O. Fr. has aveline, in Mod. Fr. aveline, 
and the Latin name is nux Avellana. The word may have 
come thus : Nux Avellana, avel-nut, vel-nut, fel-nut, fil-nut, 
and, by change of n to m and m to b, fil-mud, filbud, filberd, 

FINAL. Ultimate, last L. finalis, id. finis, boundary, 
limit, end ; according to Is. Vossius from Gr. avw, s. awa>, 
perficio, &c. ; but Ainsworth gives the primary meaning as 
the intent or purpose (of a thing done), and Jul. Scaliger 
derives it from fio, to be done, and says " cum fit id cujus 
gratia aliquid sit." 

FINCH. Name formerly given to all birds of the kind 
A.S.Jinc, so called from their oft-repeated cry, fink, fink. 

FISH ( i ). Member of the division of vertebrate animals 
so called ; flesh of same r. of PISCES, q.v. 

FISH (2). Counter or marker at cards Hind, paisd, 
var. pysa, a small East Indian coin, value about ^d. 

FISH-PLATE. In railway-laying, a plate used to secure 
ends of adjacent rails ; perhaps from fish, to catch or lay 
hold of. In P. Cyc. (Railway, p. 255), however, we read of 
"fish-bellied shape ;" and also offish-bellied rail, originally 
used on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 

FISTULA. Kind of ulcer, in form like a pipe L. 
fistula, sort of ulcer (Cels. 7, 4; Plin. 20, 9, 33; id. 24, n, 
51), lit. a water-pipe, quasi <f>vo-r)X6a </>v<raw, to blow into, 


distend with blowing. According to others fistula is from 
findo, to cleave ; or is as if hiscula, which is from hiasco, to 
gape, open. 

FIVES. Distemper in horses, said to differ but little 
from the strangles Eng. word vives O. Fr. avives (Anjou 
& Lower Normandy avivres] = eaux vivres, because (ieste 
Nicot) produced by drinking fresh running waters (" comme 
on voit a Etampes," says Menage) pi. of eau vive L. aqua 

FLAG. Paving-stone. Like Icel. flaga, from Keltic 
llech, flat stone, flag, slate ; lit. what lies flat. 

FLANNEL. The light woollen fabric O.E. & Sco. 
flannen W. gwlanen gwlan r. of wool, i.e. L. lana Dor. 
Axxvos Xv;vos, id. Gr. has also Xa^vos, Xa^yr). 

FLAT. Level, smooth Sw. flat (Dan. flad] Gr. irXarus. 

FLEECE, FLEES. The woolly coat of a sheep A.S. 
flys (G.fliess D. vlies) L. vellus, a fleece, lit. wool shorn off 
vello, to pluck or pull, i.e. to deprive of the hair, &c. 
Gr. cA/cw, to drag. 

FLESH, FLESCH, FLEISCH. Muscles distinguished 
from the skin, bones, tendons ; animal food distinguished 
from vegetable A.S. lie, liec, flesh, a body living or dead 
G. leich Goth. leik. In all places where the Gothic inter- 
preter has leik. the A.S. renders it flcesc. In Codice Ang., e.g. 
Luke iii. 6, we read, all leike gasaihwit nasein Goths, omnis caro 
videbit salutare Dei ; Mark x. 8, twa am leik, duo una caro. 

FLEUR DE LIS. A flower borne in the arms of France ; 
in heraldry, distinguishing mark of the sixth brother of a 
family. The usual derivation of the term is from Fr. fleur 
flower, de of, Us lily; from Low L, lilium. Others derive the 



term from fleur de Louis, badge adopted by Louis VII. of 
France when he joined the Crusaders, which flower, however, 
was an iris (Iris pendacorus), represented by the yellow flag 
flower, with which we are familiar in our wet meadows and 
along the margins of our winding streams. Others say 
Louis adopted it from being called Ludovicus Floras, or the 
Young ; or from the name of a flower which grew on the 
banks of the Lys, which separates Artois from Flanders. 
Roquefort says of the word Leye " Le lis, plante bulbeuse 
dont il y a plusieurs especes ; lilium. Cette fleur est celebre 
par 1'idee ou Ton est commune'ment que c'est elle qui a servi 
de modele pour les armes de nos rois : ce qui me ferait 
croire que Ton s'est tromp6 en admettant cette opinion, c'est 
que les fleurs de lis qu'on voyoit dans les armes, et surtout 
au bout du sceptre, des rois de France, ressembloient beau- 
coup plus a la fleur de 1'iris qu'a celle du lis ordinaire ; et 
ce qui me confirme encore dans ce que j'avance ici, c'est que 
les Francs, nommes depuis les Frangais, habiterent (avant 
d'entrer dans la Gaule proprement dite) les environs de la 
Lys, riviere des Pays-Bas, dont les bords sont encore couverts 
d'une espece d'iris, ou de flambe de couleur jaune, ce qui differe 
deja du lis commun, et se rapproche davantage des fleurs 
de lis employees dans nos armes ; or, il me semble fort 
naturel que les rois des Francs, ayant a choisir un symbole 
auquel on donna depuis le nom d'armoiries, prissent pour le 
composer une fleur belle et remarquable qu'ils avoient sous 
les yeux, et qu'ils la nommassent, du lieu ou elle croissoit en 
abondance, fleur de la riviere de la Lys ; qu'ensuite, pour 
abr6ger, on se contenta de dire fours de Us" Others, again, 
would derive the term from flors de glay, a sort of yellow iris 
much esteemed by the ancient French people ; and they tell 


us that romancists and ballad-writers never wrote on the 
subject of the spring without mentioning the flors de glay. 
Mr. Holcombe Ingleby (N. & Q. yth S. v. 478) would derive 
Us from Lois, name of the youth who was changed into a 
lily. After referring to Le P. David's derivation from fer 
de lis, and Le P. Jourdan's from fleur du lie (lien) which 
he demolishes, Bullet derives the last word from Keltic ly, 
king ; and he says, " lorsque 1'usage des armoiries s'etablit, 
nos rois prirent ces fleurs (lis] pour leurs armes. Ayant 
constamment conserve" ce symbole de pere en fils, les autres 
princes, qui jusque-la avaient aussi porte les fleurs de lis sur 
leur sceptre, sur leur couronne, sur leur sceau, crurent devoir 
laisser en propre ces fleurs de souverainte a notre monarque, 
que Mathieu Paris, e"crivain Anglais, appelle le roi des rois." 
But the term in old English writers is found written, not only 
flower de luce, flower deluce, flowre deluce, flower delice, but 
also flowre Delice, flowre de delice, flower-de-delice. Conf. Ws. 
T. vi. 3 ; H. V. v. 2 ; i H. VI. i. i ; 2 H. VI. v. i ; ib. i. 2 ; 
M. W. W. i. i ; and Drayton's Polyolbion, s. 15. In Spenser, 
The Shepheards Calendar for April, we find, "And the 
Chevisaunce shall match with the fayre flowre Delice ; " and 
the Glosse has "Flowre delice, that which they use to mis- 
terme flowre deluce, being in Latine called Flos delitiarum" 
Dufresne gives Flos deliciarum, quoting Instrum. ann. 1423, 
Hist. Harcur. torn. 3, p. 761 ; and mentioning a manorial 
custom held upon condition of rendering a Flos deliciarum on 
the Feast of St. John the Baptist at Rouen. 

FLUKE. In billiards, an accidental successful stroke ; 
corrupted from luck. 

FLY. Kind of light carriage for rapid motion -fly, to 
move with rapidity, like a bird, &c. 


FOIST. Pinnace or small ship with sails and oars ; 
light and fast-sailing ship ; corruption of FUST, q.v. 

FOLK. People, nations, mankind A.S.fok, from a word 
volgus L. vulgus, the great mass, the multitude, the people, 
public JEol. foX^os (Cretan iroXxps, on coins, Monnet, Descr. 
2, 26), metathesis of o^Xos, moving multitude, mob, throng, 

FORD. In some geographical names, not from A.S. 
ford, vadum, but from Anc. Brit, fford, passage, road, way 
ffor, opening, pass. 

FORGE AHEAD. In maritime language, to shoot 
ahead ; corruption of fore-reach. 

FORK, FORKE. Instrument divided into two or more 
prongs A.S. fore L. furca, two-pronged fork ; according 
to some, from a word fericafero, to bear or carry, or from 
Gr. 7T<vpKa, pret. of <f>vpa<a, to mix ; or from -upx?), " instru- 
mentum in quo nautse onera bajulant," says Hesychius. 
Conf. Lob. Paral. 34. 

FORM, FORME. External appearance of anything 
O. Fr. forme L. forma, metathesis of Gr. p-op^r], form, shape 
/xop<ao), to shape, fashion, mould. 

FORMIC. Pertaining to ants L. formica, an ant, 
emmet, by change of b to /"from a word ySup/A^Kos = fivpnyt; 
fivpp-7]^, the ant. 

FOUNT. A spring O. Fr. funt L. fonte (fons} 
fundo, to pour out : " quod fundat aquam," says Festus. 

domestic cock A.S. fugol, a fowl, bird Goth, fugls, id., 
from a word vicellus vicella, for avicella, dim. of avis, a bird 
r. of AVIARY, q.v. Conf. G. vogel. 


FOX (i). Animal so called A.S. fox Goth, fawo 
(M.H.G. vohe) L. vulpes Gr. ^aXwTr^ (Lith. lapukas] 
aAwTTT^ Skt. lopdsa, a jackal, fox or similar animal lopa, 
robbing, plundering, lit. breaking lup, to break. 

FOX (2). Cant word for a sword. " O Signieur Dew, 
thou diest on point of fox!" Hen. V. iv. 4. So called, 
according to Staunton, because Andrea Ferrara, and since 
his time other foreign sword cutlers, adopted a fox as the 
blade-mark of their weapons. The same author adds, 
" swords with a running fox rudely engraved on the blades 
are still occasionally to be met with in the old curiosity 
shops of London." 

FRAGARIA. The strawberry L. fragraria (vesca) 
fragra, fragrant things r. of FRAGRANT, q.v. 

FRAGRANT. Odorous, sweet of smell -fragrante 
fragmns, sweet-scented fragro, to emit a scent or smell 
Skt. ghrd, to smell. Others derive fragro from flagro, to 
flame -flo, to blow. 

FRAYLE. Light basket made of rushes or matting, much 
used for fruit Norm, fraile (O. Fr. frele, fraiel, frayel 
Low L. fraellum], lit. fragile, small L. fragilis, lit. soon 

FRANK. Liberal, generous, free O. Fr. franc LowL. 
francus Q.H.G. frank (franko, a free man) -fret, free; enke, 
free servant, one of liberal condition, a youth. But see 

FRAUD. Deceit, cheat, trick, artifice O. Fr./raude 
L. fraude, fraus (in inscrip. phraus\ deceit, guile, fraud, 
deception -fraudo, to cheat of anything, which some derive 
from a word <e/>aw <epw, to carry away as booty or plunder ; 


others from <pou8os, gone away, clean gone ; of things, gone, 

FREQUENT. Often done, seen, or occurring O. Fr. 
frequent L. frequente frequens, which Forcellini derives 
from an obs. fraco, frago, orfrango; "a quo est frequenta- 
\\vw3\fraxare, ut frequens sit, qui saepe fragit, i.e. interrogat, 
ut taxare & tagere, i.e. tangere" 

FRIDAY. Sixth day of the week A.S. Frig-dceg, Frige's 
day, day on which so-called heathens worshipped Friga 
Freja (goddess of love, and consort of Woden) -frige love, 
dceg day. 

FRIGATE. Small ship of Avar. Some derive the 
word from Friga or Frega, Scandinavian Venus. Manage 
tweedles it from L. remus, an oar. The word comes 
from It. fregata, originally a Mediterranean vessel in 
form of a galley, the larger sort having a deck and 
twenty-four rowers, the smaller only six. The Italian word 
is a sailor's or carpenter's corruption of L. apkractus, 
aphractum, an uncovered ship, a ship without a deck 
Gr. a<paKTos, unarmed, unsecured, unprotected ; lit. not 
hedged or hemmed round a priv. ; <poo-<rco to shut up, 
hedge in. Jal (Gloss. Nautique 719) says, " La Frigate, 
petit navire a rames de la famille des galeres, du XIV e ou 
XVII I siecle, fut souvent d6couverte ou non pont6e: cette 
circonstance nous autorise a penser qu'elle 6 tait une tradition 
de /' 'Aphractum antique, dont elle avait gard6 le nom, 
corrumpu par les charpentiers et les marins italiens." .... 
" Fr6gate, le navire qui portait ce nom dans la Mediterrane'e, 
etait un tres-petit batiment a rames, quelquefois pont6, plus 
ordinairement d6couvert. Au XVI e siecle, et au commence- 
ment du XVII 6 , il avait 1'importance d'une chaloupe, et 


souvent on appelait Fregate le canot d'un navire. II y avait 
des Frigates, qui n'avaient de chaque cot6 que six banes et 
six rameurs ; les plus grandes (et celles-la taient ponte"es) 
avaient douze banes et douze rameurs ; c'est-a-dire, vingt- 
quatre rameurs en tout." 

FRITH, FIRTH. Strait of the sea Dan. fiord, Sw. 
fjdrd, or Icel. fiorthr L. fretum, a narrow sea between two 
lands, arm of the sea, the straits metathesis of fervefum, 
or obs. supine of fertum, raging, swelling (" quod ferveat 
propter angustias ") -ferveo, to be hot, boil, ferment, seethe 
fervo Gr. 0epw, to make hot. 

FRITILLARY, FRITILLARIA. Genus of liliaceous 
plants ; so called from resemblance of the corolla to a dice- 
box, i.e. fritillus, for a word fritinnus, perhaps so named from 
the sound made in throwing dice. ConL/ritinm'o, to chirp 
or twitter (said of a bird). 

FROND. A combination of leaf and stem L.fronde 
frons, a leafy branch, green bow, foliage, anc. fruns, also 
frus or fros Gr. irpwvoe -n-pwv, anything that juts forward, 
vertex Trpo, before. 

FRONT. The forehead O. Fr. front L. fronte -front, 
the forehead, brow, front, which some derive from <povis for 
<J>povr)(Ti<s, intelligence, or from <poj/Tis, cogitation. The more 
probable derivation is from Skt. bhru, the eye-brow bhram, 
to move to and fro. 

FUDGE. A made-up story, stuff, nonsense, exclama- 
tion of contempt; so called from Captain Fudge, commander 
of a merchantman, who, on return from a voyage, however 
ill fraught his ship, always brought home to his owners a 
good cargo of lies ; so that now, aboard ship, sailors when 
they hear a great lie told cry out, " You fudge it." Conf. 


Remarks upon the Navy, Lond. 1700 ; and Brit. & For. 

FULCRUM. That part of a lever from which motive 
power is transmitted to parts to be moved L. fulcrum, 
a stay or support -fulcio, to support, sustain Gr. </>iAao-<ro>, 
to preserve, maintain ; lit. to watch, guard, defend. 

FULVID. Yellow, tawny fulw'dus, yellow fulvus, deep 
yellow, also tawny, which Vossius derives from fulgeo, to 
glitter, glisten ; others fromflavus, a bright yellow like gold ; 
or from furvus, dark, dusky, for fusvus -fus, r. of fuscus, 
dark, swarthy, dusky. 

FUNK. Great fear and shrinking back ; a term said to 
have arisen from one Peter Funk, who was employed at petty 
auctions to bid in order to raise the price, and who then no 
doubt slunk away. See Webster's Diet. Append. 

FUNNEL. Implement for pouring liquid through a 
narrow orifice Bret, founil (O. Fr. enfouille) Prov. en- 
founil L. infundibulum, a funnel ; lit. that which serves for 
pouring in in/undo, to pour into in in, fundo to pour. 

FUNNY BONE. Popular name for that part of the 
elbow over which the ulnar nerve passes, a blow on which 
causes painful tingling in the fingers ; facetiously derived 
from its being the extremity of the humerus (humorous). 

FURBELOW, FURBELOE. Plaited border of a 
petticoat or gown. The Fr. has falbala, a flounce, in 
Hainault farbala. The It. falbala, falpala, is a furbelow, 
and falda a fold, plait. The word in Parma and Cremona is 
frambala, in Piedmont farabala. In Sp. falbdla and farfdla 
are rendered furbelow flounce. The Ptg. falbald is a fur- 
below, flounce ; the Sw. has a pi. falbolauer, the Dan. a pi. 
falblader. The G. falbel is a flounce or furbelow, and falb is 


grey, pale. Littre, after referring to Ge"nin's derivation from 
Sp. falda, habit de femme, thinks the word is most probably 
from our word ; from fur and below. Some, however, derive 
the English from the French. Le Duchat derives the Fr. 
word from G. fald, plait, which Leibnitz renders jupe plisse'e. 
Miiller thinks the forms containing r anterior to the others ; 
and he derives from the Roman farfalla, papillon. Tommaseo 
derives the It. word from falda, and says it is i.q. falpala. 
The most probable derivation is from an E. compound, fold- 
below^ or O.E. fold-biloogh. Conf. philibeg, the Highland 
kilt, from Gael, filleadh fold, fheag little. But see also 
anecdote in Menage, referred to by Littre. 

FURNY CARD. A court, i.e. a coat, card, but not an 
honour Fr. fourni, in complete fashion, in full equipage ; 
lit. furnished, prepared, sorted. Conf. Chatto, Playing Cards, 

FUST. A low but capacious armed vessel, propelled with 
oars and sails, which formerly attended galleys (Smyth} 
Low L. fusta Sp. fusta ; lit. thin boards L. fustis, a long 
piece of wood. Jal (Gloss. Naut.) says, " tout navire re<jut 
d'abord, par metonymie, le nom de fusta, de la matiere dont 
il etait fait. C'est ainsi que Legno avait nomm6 le navire 
en general ; puis, des navires, tout ce qui n'etait pas nef ou 
grand vaisseau ; puis, une espece particuliere de batiment a 

FYLFOT. The heraldic charge compounded of the 
Greek letter Gamma (r) several times repeated O. Eng. 
fete, many ; M.E./0/, foot. It is sometimes called Gammadion, 
a modern dim. of 



GABARDINE, GABERDINE. Coarse frock or loose 
outer dress O. Fr. gabardine, galvardine, galverdine, gualverdine, 
calvardine, which Roquefort renders "espece d'habillement de 
paysan, manteau pour la pluie;" perhaps originally a cover- 
ing for the head ; formed from calvaire, summit of the head 
L. calvaria, brain-pan, skull (of man) ; lit. belonging to the 
calva, i.e. the scalp without the hair. 

GADDY. Ox goad with a rowel (Whitaker's Craven, 
338, obs.} O.E. gadde, gade, gad, a goad A.S. gad, id. (Sw. 
gadd, a sting). 

GADLINGS. Sharp points of steel fastened between the 
joints of the gauntlet (Meyrick, Crit. Mag. vol. ii. p. 32), 
dim. of GADDY, g.v. 

GAGE. Variety of the plum. According to Loudon, it 
was named by Mr. R. A. Salisbury after his friend Sir Thomas 
Gage, a great amateur of botany. Others say it had its name 
from Viscount Gage, who brought it from the Chartreuse 
monastery, near Paris ; or from Sir W. Gage, of Hengrave, 
Suffolk, who introduced it into England before 1725. This 
variety may possibly have been introduced into England by 
one of the Gage family, but it does not follow it had its name 
from him. Besides, we have the black gage, golden gage, 
purple gage, red gage, white gage, yellow gage ; and it is 
most probable that the word gage is a corruption of G. 
quetschen, pruna damascena (var. zwetschen, zwetsche, zwelschken, 
zwetschke, zweschpen, zwesperi), probably named from its pleasant 
taste, from Keltic chwaith, according to Boxhorn = sapor, 
gustus. Conf. Low G. kwets, a plum ; Bavar. zwespe, Lothr. 
quoeches, a damson. 


GAIN. To obtain, get, receive O. Fr. gaigner, gaaignier, 
gaaigner, waignier, waingnier, waegnier, waengnier, faire du profit, 
gagner; "s'est ditparticulierementchezles plusanciensauteurs 
des gains faits a la guerre, et s'est ensuite applique" a toute 
sorte de profit," says Godefroy. The French word is probably 
from O.G. gewinnan, to fight, strive, earn (A.S. winnan, to 
fight, struggle, try to get) G. winnen, var. acquirere, vincere 
labore Gr. evww, to arm oneself. Hence Enys, goddess of 
war, called by the Latins Bellona. Conf. G. wi'gen, bellare, 
belligerare O.G. Wig, Mars. 

GALGAL. In France, a great cairn or mound composed 
entirely of stones, of which there a great many in dep. Isre ; 
supposed to be the tombs of Gaulish or Roman warriors 
reduplication of O. Fr. gal, a stone. 

GALL. A gall-nut O. Fr. galle L. galla, oak-apple, 
gall-nut, which Pliny derives from the River Gallus, in 
Phrygia, " cujus aqua aequ6 perniciosa ut hujus succus." 
But galla is more probably a syncope of a word yoAavos for 
/3aA.avos glans. Conf. Forcellini. 

the floor on to which the doors of the apartments open 
O. Fr. gallerie, which De Caseneuve derives from galer, se 
rdjouir; Diez, from Gr. yaX?;, sorte de galerie ; Covarruvias, 
from galere, a cause de la resemblance qu'a une galerie avec 
une galere. Nicot says, gallerie is quasi allerie, from aller, to 
go. The Low L. has galeria, a long portico, a gallery, which 
Littre seems to think may be from Galilaa, porche d'e"glise, 
portique, in O. Fr. galilee. 

GALLEY, GALEIE. Vessel impelled by oars, rather 
than by sails O. Fr. galie, gallee, galee (galiace, galee, galie, 
galiote, gallic, vaisseau long, navire ou galere dont les bords 


sont plats) Low L. galea, a very fast kind of ship men- 
tioned in Will. Brit, in Vocab. M.S., i.q. galea, i.q. the 
gth Century yaXta, yaXea, ^Eol. of yaXr/, a weasel, polecat, 
also sometimes a cat. The galley was perhaps at first a 
small light vessel, and we can easily understand such a 
vessel made to surprise merchant ships might be compared 
to a cat, which hides to surprise mice and rats, and attacks 
them on a sudden. Conf. Jal, Gloss. Naut. ; also i2th 
Century ships named catta, cattus, chat, gatus, gattus. 

GALLIGASKINS. Large open hose or trousers formerly, 
worn by the French Basques Calliga Gallo-Vasconicce, 
i.e. hose, stockings, buskins, or harness worn by the French 

GALUN. Liquid measure of four quarts O. Fr. gallon, 
galoingnie, gaulon, jallon, jalon, augment. otjalle,jaille(L.O'w L. 
galo, galetum) L. gaulus, kind of drinking vessel Gr. yavXos. 

the Western Islands a heavy-armed foot-soldier Ir. galloglach 
gall, a stranger, foreigner; oglach, youth, servant, vassal 
og young, loach servant. 

covering stuffed with wool, and quilted in parallel lines, 
worn under armour O. Fr. gambison, gambaison, wambeison, 
wambais, wanbais (Low L. gambeso, gambiso] M.H.G. wambeis 
O.H.G. wamba, the belly, womb Goth, wamba, id. 

GAMELAN. In Java, a band of musical instruments 
Jav. gamdlan (Mai. id.) 

GAMIN. In France, a neglected and unruly child in the 
streets ; " Petit garcon qui passe son temps a jouer et a 
polissoner dans les rues;" lit. "petit gar9on qui aide les 


ouvriers dont 1'art a quelque analogie avec celui du magon, 
les poeliers, les fumistes, les briquetiers, &c. (Littre) r. of 
YEOMAN, q.v. 

GANDER, GANDRE. Male of the goose A.S. 
gandra for ganser, or from D. gander for ganser gans, goose 
r. of GOOSE, q.v. 

GARB. Clothing, clothes, manner, also fashion or mode 
O. Fr. garbe, looks, countenance, grace, ornament ; also 
adresse, fierte, orgueil (Norm, garbs, clothes, dress ; It. 
& Sp. gdrbo), which some derive from O.H.G. garawr, garwt, 
ornament, dress ; but the word is rather from It. gdrbo, gracia, 
maniera, gentilezza Gr. -yavpov, haughty, disdainful Skt. 
garv or garb, to be or become proud or haughty ; thus, garv, 
garvum, gabrum, by metathesis garbum, garbo. 

GARQON (Rouchi garchon). A waiter ; lit. a male child 
O. Fr. garson (Berry dialect gasin, gasoit], dim. of gars, garz 
(garce, garse, fille en general, servante) Berry gas Bas 
Bret, gwas, a male. Conf. W. gwas, youth, lad, young, 
tender, page, servant. 

GARLAND, GERLOND. Crown, wreath of branches 
or flowers O. Fr. garlande, guirlande (Low L. garlanda, 
Sp. guirndlda) It. ghirldnda, which Manage derives from 
~L.gyrus, a circle Gr. yvpos, round ; thus, gyrus, girus,girulus, 
girulare, girlare, ghirlare, ghirlandus, ghirlanda. 

GARRAN, GARRON. Small horse, Highland horse, 
hack, jade, Galloway Sco. garron, gerron Gael, gearran, 
little farm-horse, work-horse, hack Sw. gurr, a mare; or 
Icel._/or, a stallion (G. gurr, gorr, horse). 

GAUFFERING. Mode of plaiting or fluting frills, &c., 
in which the plaits are wider than usual gauffer, to plait, 
crimp Fr. gaufrer, to print certain figures upon stuffs, 


papers, and other objects, with irons made hot for the 
purpose gaufre, honeycomb, wafer, sort of pancake made 
between two irons Wall, waf (Pic. offre, Low L. gafrum) 
r. of E. wafer, G. waffel, i.e. Wall, wade, ruche de miel. 

GAUNTLET. Iron glove O. Fr. gantelet, dim. of gant, 
a glove (Armor, gwaint, id., O. Sw. wante, Low L. wantus, 
wanto, guantus) O. Fr. guaine, scabbard, sheath VAGINA, q.v. 

GAYN-PAYNE. Name for a long sword without point 
used in tournaments in the Middle Ages ; so called from 
being the bread-earner of the soldier O. Fr. gagne-pain, 
gaigne-pains, gain-bread. 

" Dont i est galgne-pains nommee, 
Car par li est gagnie's li pains." 

Pelerinage du Monde, par Gaigneville. 


A dog which hunts by sight, not by scent, as a greyhound ; 
said to be from gaze and hound ; but Oppian, Cyn. 473, 
has ayoo-oreus, either a harrier or a beagle, probably the 

GAZETTE. A newspaper O. Fr. gazelle li. gazella ; 
according to some a dim. of gdzza, a magpie ; and if so from 
Gr. Kioxra, Att. Ktrra, a jay, magpie. Others say from gazzetta, 
a Venetian coin = a soldi = i\d., the price of a number of 
the journal. Tommaseo (Diz. Ling. Ital.) adds, " Siccome 
un giornale, un foglietto, un foglio d'avvisi, pagavasi una 
gazzetta, di qui presero il nome tali scritti o stampe." If 
Tommaseo is correct, gazzetta for a " coin " was probably 
formed from the Persian coin called gaza, so named from 
having been first made at Gaza ( $T, Ghazah), in Palestine 
Mela (i. n) renders it, "pecunia regia, quam gazam Persae 


GEMINI. Name of a sign of the Zodiac L. gemini, 
twins geminus, twin-born, lit. brought forth or born (with 
another), for genminus gem (r. of gigno] yev Skt.jan, to be 
born or produced. 

GENOVINA. A coin of Genoa, both in gold and silver 
Geneva, Genoa. 

GEPHYRALOGIA. Historical account of bridges Gr. 
ye<v/)a, bridge ; (sj yew <epet, it conveys to the land ; Xoyos, 

GHETTO. The quarter of certain towns in Italy, 
Germany, &c., where Jews reside. The word probably 
means a place cut off from the rest of the town Talmudic 
TO, gadah, or Yti, gddad, to cut off; perhaps allied to taJ, 
get, the act of divorce among the ancient Jews. 

A spirit A.S. gast, gcest, id. ; lit. the breath, i.q. G. geist, 
heist, lit. wind, from a verb signifying to blow ; as " Der Geist 
geisted wo er will," the wind blows where it wills. 

GIANT, GEANT. Man of extraordinary size or bulk 
O. Fr. geant L. gigante gigas Gr. yiyas ; lit. born of Fata 
(Earth), spouse of Uranos, mother of the Titans, Cyclops, 
and other monsters (poet, for yrj, the earth), and yaw, to be 
born. Conf. Soph. Trach. 1805 ; JEsch. 351, 677. 

GLEN. Narrow valley between two hills Sco. glen 
Gael, gleann (Manx glion, Corn. & W. glyn, Armor, glon), lit. 
the stream which flows through a valley Keltic llyn, that 
flows Hi, a stream. 

GOB-DOO. Term for a mussel Manx gob, beak, web, 
bill, mouth (in contempt) ; doo, black. 

GOBBAG. Name for the dog-fish Gael, gobag, id. ; 
also a little bill, dim. of gob, beak, snout. 


GOITRE. Morbid enlargement of the thyroid gland 
Fr. goitre Low L. gutteria gutter, the gullet, throat. Conf. 
gutturosus, that has a tumour in the throat, whence Fr. 

GOOSE. Bird of genus Anser A.S. gos Sw. gos (D. 
gans G gam Skt. hansa; var. a goose, gander, swan, duck, 
flamingo. According to Unadi-s, from r. han. L. Anser and 
the de in decoy are from same root. See DECOY. 

GORILLA. Fine species of ape, inhabiting Africa 
properly the name of a tribe mentioned in the Periplus, 
some members of which Hanno, the Carthaginian, unsuc- 
cessfully invited to accompany him to Carthage. Conf. 

G O R S E D D. The Welsh assembly so called ; the 
embodiment of the poetic and literary idea of Wales W. 
gorsedd, the highest seat or place of assembly (also a throne, 
tribune, tribunal, court of judicature) gor, high, superior; 
sedd, seat. 

GOTCHBELLY. Every large tumour developed in the 
abdomen that is neither fluctuating nor sonorous ; also exces- 
sive corpulency gotch, a large pitcher, belly. The disease is 
also called physconia Gr. <VO-KOV, fat paunch. 

GOUT. Inflammation of the fibrous parts of the joints. 
It was formerly regarded as a catarrh, and had its name from 
Fr. goutle, a drop L. gutta, because thought to be produced 
by a liquid, which distilled, goutte a goutte, drop by drop, on 
the diseased part. 

GOWAN, GOWEN. (i) In Scotland, generic name of 
daisy. (2) Used singly, the common or mountain daisy 
Gael, gugan, a bud, flower, daisy guc, a sprout, bud, germ. 

GOWN, GOUNE. Long loose upper garment It. gonna 


or O. Fr. goune, var. gonne, gone (W. gw n, Corn, gun, Ir. gunn, 
Gael, gun, Manx goon Low L. gonna, gunna, gouna, Barb. 
Gr. yawa, a fur-lined garment) L. gaunacum, vestimentum 
crassum ; also couverture, manteau velu gaunace, id. Gr. 
Ka.wa.K-r), KawaKTjs, a Persian fur garment made of the skin of a 
species of weasel. Aristoph. Vesp. 1176. 

GRADELY, GRAIDLY. In the Lancashire dialect, 
well, right, worthy, good, handsomely, as a gradely felly, 
a gradely mon. Conf. A.S. gerad, considered, instructed, 
skilful, expert, prudent, suited, conditioned ; gerad, con- 
sideration reed, counsel, advice; G. geradlich, gerade, straight, 
right, honest. See also Gloss, to Tim Bobbin, View of the 
Lancashire Dialect, by Thos. Collier, of Rochdale. 

GRAIN, GRAYN, GREIN, GREYN. Corn in general 
O. Fr. grain L. granum, a grain, seed ; for a word geranum 
gero, to bear. 

in bulk or size A.S. great L. crassus, thick, close, dense, 
gross, coarse, quasi carassus caro, flesh ; or creassus- icpeas, 
id. Conf. eras and gross, from same root, 

GREAVES. Metal armour for the legs O. Fr. greves 
grefves, grevettes, armure de jambes, bottines Sp. grebas, 
pi. of greba, ancient armour for the leg Arab. (^jj^>- jawrab, 
a shoe, sandal, stocking. 

GREENGAGE. Variety of plum. See GAGE. 
Chaucer, GREWHOWND, GREWNDE. Variety of the 
common dog. Dr. Bosworth has A.S. grig-hund, a grey- 



hound, quoting Cotgrove, 173; and grcegis grey. Nemnich 
gives Canis Grajus. He derives first part of the word grey- 
hound from GrcEcus or Grajus (of or belonging to the Greeks). 
Minshew says, " Graecus, q.d. Greek hound, because the 
Greeks were the first who used such dogs in hunting. The 
O.E. has gray, a badger ; G. grnu is grey, and grauhund is a 
greyhound ; the Icel. has grey-hunde, and grey, a greyhound, 
and grey, a dog. Caius thinks the name was derived from 
the degree of estimation in which the race was held. He 
says, " qu6d praecipue gradus sit inter canes." It is most 
probable that the A.S. word is from Gracus, and the 
Icelandic word from Graius or Grajus. 

GRILSE. Name for a young salmon, somewhat larger 
than a salmon peel Sw. gra-lax, gray salmon. 

GRIMALKIN. Term for an old cat ; for grey malkin 
grey, and malkin, name for a cat Malkin, little Mai ; i.e. 
little Mary ; or miaul-kin miaul, to cry as a cat Fr. 

GROIN. Ridge of pebbles on the sea-shore W. groyn, 
dim. of gro, pebbles, coarse gravel, an aggregate of pebbles 
formed by water on the shore, a beach. 

GROIN, GROYN, GROYNE. A pig's snout (in N. 
Yorkshire gruin) Gr. pw, a snout, prefixed by g. 

GUILE, GILE, GYLE. Deceit, craft, cunning, artifice, 
duplicity O. Fr. guile, ghile, gile, ruse, tromperie, superche- 
rie,. deguisement, fourberie, finesse, moquerie, mensonge 
L. vilis, base, of no value or account, of little price Gr. 

</>auAos, id. 

GULL. Genus of natatorial birds W. gwylan (Corn. 
gwilon, gwilan, gullan, Bas Bret, gwelan, O. Fr. goeland] L. 
gulo, a gormandizer. 


GURNET, GURNARD. A sea fish of several species, 
whose head is loricated with rough lines or bony plates 
O. Fr. gournaut Keltic guirned = W. pen-gernyn, or Corn. 
pengarn, horn-head or iron-head. Pughe gives pengernyn, 
a gurnard (also called penheiernyn and penhaiarri], dim. of 
pengarn, the hard part of the head of some animals. 



HA-HA, HAW-HAW. Fence or bank sunk between 
slopes, and not perceived till closely approached. Some 
think the word arose from a person suddenly coming up to 
such a fence whilst riding, and naturally exclaiming, Ha ! 
ha ! at being so suddenly stopped in his progress. The 
term more probably arose from a strong guttural pronunciation 
of A.S. haga, hedge, haw, small quantity of enclosed land. 

HACK (i). To cut, mangle, O.E. hakkenD. id. aks, 
an axe. 

HACK (2). Horse let out for common hire ; also a 
family horse used in all kinds of work O. Fr. haque (Sp. 
hdca), properly a Hungarian horse L. equus, a horse Gr. 


out for hire O. Fr. haquenee, hacquenee (Sp. hacanea, O. It. 
achinea), jument de prix, cheval de parade pour les dames 
r. of HACK (2), q.v. 

HACKNEY-COACH. Fr. coche-a-haquenee. See COACH, 

HAG, HAGGE. Witch, sorceress A.S. hagtis haehiis 
Gr. <ar?7s, one who prophesies ; lit. one who speaks <ao>, 
to speak. (Conf. Sp. hierro and hijo with \*.ferro an 


Wright (Gloss.) renders pythonissa, helle-rune vel haegtesse. 
By the bye, witch, whore, and harlot were originally mascu- 
line as well as feminine. 

HAGGARD. Properly wild, not domesticated, as hag- 
gard hawks. Some derive the word from G. hager, lean, 
lank, haggard ; or Gr. ayoios, rustic, wild ; Huet, from G. 
hag (Low L. haga], a hedge. Fr. hagard is one who is wild 
and savage, like a haggard falcon, which, having been taken 
after first moulting, is not easily tamed. Littre" says, " un 
auteur du XIV e siecle dit que le faucon hagard est celui'qui 
est de mue de haie. C'est dans le sens de oiseau hagard qu'on 
trouve muier de haie. . . . Le faticon hagard est le faucon 
qui mue de haie ; c'est-a-dire, dans les haies, et non en 

halberdiers of Hungarian nobles and attendants in German 
courts ; in Hungary, formerly a foot-soldier ; also a footman 
dressed in Hungarian costume appointed to attend a carriage 
or sedan-chair Hung, hajdu, yeoman of the guard, garde 
du corps. 

HALBERT, HALBERD. Sort of pole-axe G. helbcerd 
(D. hellebard, Sw. hillbcerd, It. alabarda), which some derive 
from barte an axe ( barien, to cut Gr. ir/n^eiv, to saw), halle 
hall of a palace, and so " palace axe." Preiskerus renders it 
" heroic axe" held, hero ; Vossius, bright or shining axe 
hell, bright, shining. Wachter derives the word from helle, 
hille, battle hellen to fight, and barte axe. Hence, he 
says, it is also called streit-axl = battle axe. Kilian's helmbard 
is a different word altogether. 

HALLOO, HALLOA, HALLOW. Hunting term- 
Norm, hah le loup, au loup or a lou loup, shout to set dogs in 


pursuit of wolves, the wolf being formerly as common in 
England as in France. Conf. Gent. Mag. vol. lix. p. 785. 

HALLUCINATION. A wandering in the mind 
L. halludnatio, allucinatio, alucinatio, var. foolery, carelessness 
of behaviour, trifling, buffoonery allucinor, alucinor, hallucinor* 
to be careless, thoughtless, play the fool, trifle (to blunder, 
mistake : Ainsw.\ which Festus derives from allus or hallus, 
the great toe ! He says that hallucinor or allucinor at first 
meant pedem illidere, offendere, impingere, and afterwards 
aberrare, falli. Others derive the verb from a priv., lux light, 
said of those who wander from the light ; but alucinor is 
rather from Gr. aXvo>, to wander in mind, be ill at ease. 

HALPAS. At close of reign of Hen. 8 kind of dais at 
upper end of ancient halls O. Fr. haul-pas, lit. high step 
haull high, pas step. It was also called foot-pace. 

HAMIR, Scottish Guard of the French kings, was insti- 
tuted about middle of I5th Century. When sentries were 
changed at Versailles the answer to the challenge was Hamir, 
corruption of " I am here." Conf. Rev. of Hist, of Scotland 
by Mackenzie, p. 521. 

HAMMOCK. Swinging bed Sp. hamdca Carib. amaca 
Conf. Hawkins (R.) Voy. to S. Sea. 

HAMPER. Large basket in which articles are packed 
and transported; formerly hanaper ; so called from hanaper, 
basket in the Court of Chancery in which certain fees were 
anciently kept Low L. hanaperium hanapus (var. hanappus, 
hanaphus, henaphus, anapus, anaphus O. Fr. hanapier, hanaps, 
hanap, hanas, henas, henaz, drinking-cup made of tin or 
copper L. ahenus, brazen anus, brass <zs, brass, copper, 

HANDSAW. "When the wind is southerly I know a 


hawk from a hand-saw :" Ham. ii. n. "He knows not a 
hawk from a hand-saw :" Ray, Proverbs (ed. 1768), p. 196. 
Corruption of HERNSHAW, q.v . 

HARICOT. Stew of mutton, properly made with haricot 
beans (Fr.) O. Fr. harigot, stew made of bones of the feet 
or of the shins of kids or lambs, and beans ~L.faba, a bean ; 
thus, faba, fabarius, fabaricus, fabaricotus, faricotus, haricotus, 
harigotus, harigol, haricot. 

HARK FORWARD ! Huntsman's cry. Forward is here 
a corruption of O. Fr. forhu, forhue, or fourbur. Littr6 has 
" forhu, term of chase ; cry or sound of the horn to call the 
dogs ;" and " forhuer, forhuir, to sound an instrument to call 
back the dogs " fors out, huer to cry. La Curne de Sainte 
Palaye (Diet, de 1'Ancien Lang. Frangois) gives "forhu, for 
hue, le cri que font les chasseurs avec le cor pour appeler 
les chiens. Furetiere (Diet. Univ. Mots Frangois tant Vieux 
que Modernes, &c., torn, ii.) }*&$, fourbur, terme de chasse qui 
se dit lorsqu'on fait venir les chiens oil Ton veut par les cris 
et par le sonner." Roquefort gives forbeu, forvoie, hors de la 
voie -foras forth, and via way. Hence mettre forbius, envoyer 
en exil. Again, fourbure is rendered " maladie du cheval qui 
le met ordinairement hors d'etat de pouvoir tenir la voie." 

HARLEQUIN. Buffoon, who, dressed in party- 
coloured clothes, plays tricks, &c. Fr. harlequin, arlequin. 
Manage derives the word from the name of a celebrated 
comedian, who, under the reign of Henri III., so much 
frequented the house of M. de Harlay de Chanvelon that 
his companions used to call him Harlequino, after the 
manner of the Italians, who often give the name of their 
masters and patrons to clients. In confirmation he refers 
to M. Guyet, and to M. Forget, Grand-maitre des Eaux et 


Forets d'Orldans. Again, F. De Domville (Mille et Un 
Calembours, &c.) gives the following : " Comme on lui 
[1'Abbe Quille] demandait lequel il preTe"rait de Lekain ou 
d'Arlequin, il re"pondit que tous deux 6taient certainement 
de grands acteurs, mais qu'Arlequin avait un art que Lekain 
n'avait point." " Arlequin, parlant de la noblesse, disait, 
' si Adam s'^tait avise" d'acheter une charge de secretaire du 
roi, nous serions tous nobles.' " " Arlequin, dans une come'die, 
contrefaisait la voix de 1'ane. Un spectateur du parterre se 
mit a braire encore mieux. Arlequin se tut, en disant, ' Ou 
est 1'original, la copie n'a plus rien a faire.' " 

HARLOT. Prostitute, common woman. Webster gives 
W. herlawd, stripling ; herlodes, hoyden her to push, or chal- 
lenge, llawd a lad. He says the original signification was a 
bold stripling or a hoyden, and was formerly applied to males 
as well as females. According to Dr. Johnson, the mother 
of Wm. i of England, a farrier's daughter of Falaise, whose 
name was Arlotta (others say Arletto), was of so infamous a 
character that our term harlot was derived from her. 
Camden also derives the word from Arlotta, concubine of 
Wm. the Conq. In Scripture (Is. i. 3) one who forsakes 
the true God and worships idols is called harlot. Shak- 
speare uses the word for a servant, rogue, cheat ; also for 
wanton, lewd, low, base ; and Milton as a verb for to practise 
lewdness. The Mod. It. arlotto is a glutton, greedy eater, 
cormorant, blockhead, stupid fellow ; arlotta is a disgusting 
woman. The O. Fr. has harlot, arlat, herlot, Prov. ditto. 
Roquefort renders arlot fripon, coquin, voleur, but the 
French word is said to be derived from the English. 

HARO, HAROW, HARROW. Cry anciently used in 
Normandy as a call for help, or to raise a hue and cry 


harau, karon, hareu, hari, harol ha-Raoul (Harold), invoca- 
tion of the name of Raoul. Roquefort says, " Ces mots 
viennent de ha (the interjection) et de Raoul, a cause de 
Raoul, premier Due de Normandie, qui se rendit celebre et 
cher a ses sujets par son amour pour la justice et sa 
s6vrit6 a la rendre." Voyez son 6pitaphe rapporte"e dans le 
Journal de Verdun, fe"vrier 1757, p. 130. 

HART, HERT, HEORT. Stag or male deer that has 
attained age of five years A.S. heart (Dan. hiort} Sw. hjort, 
id. hjord, a flock, because these animals feed in flocks. 

Time of reaping corn A.S. harfest, herfest, h&refist, h&rfest, 
autumn O.H.G. herbist ar yearly, fesi feast (Wachter says, 
and fest, from /on, to take). Others say the word has been 
corrupted from Icel. haust, or O. Sw. host, August. 

HATE (i). To detest A.S. kalian, formed from L. odi 
obs. odo. Gr. o8uo> (oSuo-o-o/xai), to be angry with any one 
(Conf. G. hass hatred, hassen to hate, with L. odisse). 

HATE (2). Hatred, ill-will A.S. hete Dan. hadL.odio 
odium, hatred r. of HATE (i). 

HAUTBOY. Sort of strawberry. The name is said to 
be from Fr. hautbois, which, however, is not found in French 
dictionaries for a strawberry. Hautboy (from Fr. haul high, 
bois wood ?) would seem to be an attempt to translate Fraga 
collina (the green strawberry), native of Switzerland and 
Germany, also called hill strawberry. The hautboy probably 
came from Hungary and Bohemia, but it has been found wild 
in Herts and Sussex. It is often overlooked for the wood 
strawberry. By the bye, the Royal hautboy, not the common 
hautboy, is thought to be a hybrid between the hautboy and 
some variety of F. collina. 


HAVOC, HAVOCK. Waste, spoil, great slaughter, 
destruction ; so called from cry of the marshal of the army 
permitting troops to plunder A.S. havfoc, a hawk, the de- 
stroying bird. 

HAZEL, HASEL. The shrub. Martinius derives G. 
hasel from hase, hare, " quod nucamenta sint ceu villi pedum 
leporinorum ;" Skinner, from casula, " ita ut haslenut proprie 
sit nux casularis ; hoc est, agrestis, non hortensis," The 
Gothic has hasel and harsel, O.H.G. hasala, O. Sw. hassel, 
O. Icel. harsel, Mod. Icel. hasl, hasli. The E. word is from 
A.S. hasel, by change of c to h and r to s from L. corylus, a 
hazel-tree Gr. icopvXvs. 

HEAD, HED, HEFD, HEVED. Uppermost portion of 
the body A.S. heafod Goth, haubith L. caput, allied to 
Gr. K<J>a\rj. Conf. Franc. & Alam. houbit, haubtt, G. habbt, 
D. hoofd, O. Fries hdved, hdfd, had. 

above, expanse of the sky (Latham) A.S. heofon (i.q. Plat. 
heven, O. Icel. hifin) hafen, what is raised or elevated, p.p. 
of hebban, to raise, says Bosworth. Tooke derives from A.S. 
heafan, to heave, thus : heafan, heaved, heaft, by adding n, 

hedhfore hedh, high ; fear, bull, ox Q.H..G. farri,farro, far, 
ox Heb. 1Q, par, a bull. 

HEINOUS, HAINOUS, HAYNOUS. Hateful, odious, 
atrocious O. Fr. hainous, odious haine (whence Chaucer's 
ham, hayne], by dropping d and change of m to n L. 

HELIANTHUS (Bot. Lat.) The sunflower Gr. 77X105, 
the sun ; avOos, flower, blossom. " The name of the order 


of plants called Helianthus originated from the resemblance 
which its broad golden disc and ray bear to the sun ; and is 
rendered further appropriate by its having the power of 
constantly presenting its flowers to that luminary " (Rees). 

HELIOTROPE. A fragrant plant, also called tournesol 
or girasole L. heliotropium Gr. yXiorpoTriov v/Aios the sun, 
rpoirrj a turning or inclination, because, says Dioscorides, 
it turns its leaves round with the declining sun. Rees adds, 
" whether he means the leaves of the plant or the corolla of 
the flowers may admit of doubt, but the latter is generally 
supposed ; yet these blossoms are too inconspicuous, and 
their change of position, one would think, too trifling, to 
have attracted notice on this account, as so many flowers 
more evidently exhibit the same phenomenon." 

HELLEBORE, ELLEBORE. Name of various plants, 
all poisonous, but used as remedies in mental diseases 
O. Fr. ellebore L. helleborus Gr. eAAe/3opos, which some derive 
from eAeiv, to kill, overcome ; ftopa, food (irapa TO eAew TTJ 
fiopa, quod esu perimat: Steph,*) H. niger or H. officinalis must 
not be confounded with cAAe/Sopos /x-eAas of Dioscorides, lib. 
iv. cap. 151, which Melampus is said to have employed with 
great success in the treatment of madness, 1400 B.C. 

plant A.S. hemlic, hymlic (Bosworth hemleac, hemlyc), so 
called because the greater hemlock and also the common 
sort grow on the sides of banks and roads hem margin, ledc 

attendant, page, follower,. " Hench-boys " occurs in both 
Ben Jonson and Glapthorne. A hench-boy is a boy servant 
or attendant ; a hench-man, a man servant or attendant. The 


word is from O.G. encho, eincho, anchio, enko (M.H.G. enke, 
Fries, inka). Wachter renders enke, servus, non coactae, sed 
liberae conditionis ; servus nobilior. All these words are 
from Sabine ancus, servant of the family, help Gr. ay^i, near 
(prope, juxta), or from ayxwvw, which Hesychius renders 
diaconus, minister. Conf. ey/covis, a maid-servant, ey/coveu, to 
be quick and active in service Kovew, to raise dust KOVIS, 

HERMAPHRODITE. A brig that is square-rigged for- 
ward and schooner-rigged aft ; so called from a fancied 
resemblance to an animal of both sexes hermaphroditus 
Gr. ep//,a<poSiTos, partaking of both sexes Ep/ (Mercury), 
A(/>po8m; (Venus). 

HERNIA. Rupture L. hernia, id. epvos, branch, bough, 
twig. Conf. L. ramex, rupture or kind of rupture, e.g. an 
oscheocele ; lit. a thing having branches ramus, branch. 

Chaucer heron-sew es}. Young heron 0. Fr. heronceau 
or haironceau heroncel Low L. heroncellus dim. of heron 
or hairon. Conf. Hurstmonceux (Sussex) Fr. Monceux 
monceau monticellus, dim. of mons, -Us, mountain, hill ; also 
cottacel (of land) cot. 

HERRING, HERING. The fish. The common deri- 
vation of this word is from A.S. here, an army, because these 
fish visit the coasts in such immense numbers (see P. Cyc. 
1837, vol. vii. 276). The word comes through A.S. hcering, 
haring (O. Fr. hcereng, hierenc, hieren, haran, harence) Low L. 
harenga (var. harengia, harengus, harengium, (Erica, irica) L. 
alex (var. alec, allec, hatec, halex, in Colum. viii. 8, ed. Gesner ; 


also dim. allecula, hallecula], properly any thick pickle or 
sauce prepared from small salted fish Gr. oXs, salt, thus: 
oXs, oXos, aXas, aAa, alex, halex, halecis, by change of / to r 
harecis, harece, harence, harenge, harenga, haring, herring. 

HERSE. Instrument formerly used in fortification, similar 
to the portcluse or portecullis Fr. herise, which Meyrick 
thinks was probably an adj., and signified a bristled portcluse 
or gate cover. The word is not found in either Littr6 or 
Roquefort. Conf. Fr. herisse, bristling herisser, to bristle. 

HETMAN, ATAMAN. A Cossack commander-in-chief 
Pol. hetman (Russ. ataman) G. hauptmann, head man, 
chieftain haupt head, mann man. 

HIDALGO. Spanish nobleman of the lowest class Sp. 
hidalgo, which a commentator on Las Siete Partidas defines, 
" son of a noble and of a mother not of noble origin, and 
married or unmarried ; and so from hijo de dlgo, son of 
somebody. Gregorio Lopez impugns this, and says the word 
comes from Italico, because the Italians who settled in Spain 
were exempt from tribute. He says, "Et quia Hispania capta 
fuit 4 Romanis eisque subdita, multae coloniae Italicorum 
in earn venerunt, et pluribus civitatibus Hispaniae jus Italicum 
consessum fuit circa immunitatem tributorum, et immunes a. 
tributis dicebantur juris Italici ; inde ergo corrupto vocabulo 
dictum fuit hidalgo ab Italico ;" and he refers to Sarmiento, 
lib. i, Selectar. cap. 15; y Covar. cap. 4, num. n. (Conf. 
Las Siete Partidas Del Sabio Don Alonso, ed. D. T. V. Perez, 
1843 ; Partida 2, tit. 21, ley. 2 ; and Glossadas de Gregorio 
Lopez, Mad. 1829, tomo i, p. 585, note 8.) Others write 
fidalgo, and derive the word from fide (abl. of fides with a 
termination ; or from Sp. fijo de Godo, son of a Goth. But 
the more probable derivation is from hijo de dlgo, one meaning 


of dlgo being property (caliddd), so that hijo de dlgo would 
be = hijo de bie"nes. 

HIGH, HEIGH, HEAGH, HEAH. Long upwards 
A.S. hedh Goth, hauhs ; corrupted L. altus. 

language, bombast : usually derived from D. verlouten, but 
Dutch has no such a word. Bartlett derives it from high- 

HILL, HIL, HULL. Small mountain A.S. hyll, which 
some derive from L. collis, high ground, said to be allied to 
celsus and cello, whence excello and prcecello (see Forcellini and 
Isid. 14 Orig. 8, 19 ; but the word is more probably a cor- 
ruption of O.G. hiigel, a hillock, dim. of hoeg, id., like 
W. uchel, high, lofty, from uch, being over or above. 

HILT. Sword-handle A.S. (Icel. hjalf), id. Tooke 
says hilt, helt, gehilt, holt, hylt, is " the held part, the part 
which is held," from A.S. healden, to keep, hold. If so, 
O.H.G.Aelza (It. helsa] is from L. ansula, dim. ofansa, a handle ; 
or from Gr. eA.i|, anything which assumes a spiral shape ; 
also curved, twisted. 

HIND. Female of the stag A.S. hind (M.H.G. hinde, 
O.H.G. hinta], by, as respects animals, not uncommon 
change of sense, from Gr. twos yivos, a jennet. But conf. 
Hesychius under twos, LWTJ = maid. 

HIPPOCAMPUS (JElisaa. iv. 14). Fabulous animal, sea- 
horse, whose head resembled that of a horse, and its tail 
that of a fish, on which sea-gods ride Gr. tTnro-Ka/tTros, 
sea-horse ITTTTOS horse, /cajUTros sea-monster ; or say from 
nnroKapTrr) ITTTTOS and Ka/wn?, flexura, from the curvature 
of the tail. 

HOAR-STONE. Landmark stone, stone of memorial 


describing boundary of property, whether of public or private 
nature, as used in almost all countries from patriarchal era 
down to present generation Anc. Brit, ot (Ir. oir, ur, Old 
Ir. or, A.S. ora), limit, boundary, margin, brim Gr. opos, 
landmark, frontier, boundary-stone opos, mountain Heb. 
in, har, id. For names compounded of hoar see Hamper's 
Disquisition in Archaeologia, vol. 25. 

HOAX. Practical joke played to trick a person ; by 
some derived from HOCUS-POCUS (q-v.}, but Dr. Bosworth 
gives A.S. hucse, husce, huex (Plat. jux\ hoax, irony, slight, 
ironia; mid hucse, with slight, Cd. 107; thurh hucz, per iro- 
niam, Cot. 186. 

DE-HOY. Stripling, youth between 14 and 21. "Why! 
he's a mere hobbledehoy, neither a man nor a boy : " Swift, 
Polite Conversation. " The next keepe under Sir Hobbard-de- 
hqy :" Tusser, Four Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, 
p. 57, 1580. The word is said to be from Sp. hombre de hoy, 
man of the day, but why is doubtful, and the term is not 
found in Spanish. 

HOCUS-POCUS. Juggler's trick. Some derive the 
term from W. hoced, a cheat or trick ; bwg or pwca, hobgoblin ; 
others from Fr. hoc, sort of card game ; lit. that (is] L. hoc, 
that. Sharon Turner (Hist. Anglo-Saxons, Append, to b. ii. 
c. 31) derives the term from Ochus-Bochus, a magician and 
demon much feared in the North of Europe (of course 
in ancient times). But hocus-pocus (D. hokus-bokus] is 
properly the gibberish repeated by the juggler, in all parts 
of Europe, whilst performing his tricks. D'Israeli (Amen. 
Lit.) says it originated in derision of the words, " Hoc 
est [enim] corpus meum" (for this is my body), slovenly 


pronounced by the mumbling priest in delivering the 
emblem as the reality. Tillotson was of the same opinion. 
His words are, " In all probability these common juggling 
words are nothing but a corruption of ' Hoc est corpus,' 
by way of ridiculous imitation of the priests of the Church 
of Rome in their trick of Transubstantion." 

HOICKS ! Hunting term Norm, haut-icy, -tccy, high 
here ! 

HOLT. Small wood, woodland, woody hill, grove, 
refuge, shelter A.S. holt (Su. G. hull}, according to some 
from helan, to cover, but perhaps rather, by dropping first 
letter, from L. salt-us, wooded chain of mountains, also a 
forest, or its r. aAo-o?, grove, wood, forest. 

HONEY. Sweet liquid secreted by bees A.S. hunig 
(G. honich, Franc, honang, and, in Gotho-Teutonic languages, 
among nine other forms, hunang), said to be from a word 
hvning, hyfning or hyfening, about = produce of a hive A.S. 
hive, id. Last part of the word is probably a suffix. First 
may be from oivov, wine. By the bye, in Mark of Branden- 
burg sweet new beer, and in other parts of Germany spice 
also, are called honiken.. 

HONOUR, HONOR, HONURE. Respect, esteem, 
high estimation O. Fr. honnour, honur L. honor, anything 
by which a person or thing acquires respect honos Gr. 
ouvos, praise ; lit. a tale, story. 

HOOF. Hard horny substance on feet of graminivorous 
animals A.S. hop O. Sw. hop Gr. mrX-rj, id., by dropping 
termination, after Scythic manner, from OTT\OV, shield. 

HOP. The plant D. hop (Belg. hop, hoppe, happe, Wall. 
hubillon, Flem. hummel, O. Fr. haubelon, Low L. humulus, 
humulo], said to be from happen, to climb ; but the D. word 


has more probably been formed from L. lupus, the hop-plant 
(lupus herba): thus lupus, lup, hlop, by syncope hop. The word 
lupus for hop was so called " because, just as the wolf preys upon 
other animals, so this plant, by immoderately impoverishing 
the soil in which it grows, starves its vegetable neighbours." 
The Low L. words are from the O, Fr., and the latter, the 
Wallon, and Flemish forms have come from a word lupulus 
(dim. of lupus*}, by change of / to h, and p to m. 

HORNBEAM. Genus of trees (Carpinus betulus), whose 
wood is white and of a fine close texture ; a name said to be 
corrupted from its G. appellation wonne-baum, i.e. delight, 
pleasure, or joy tree ; but hornbeam more probably means 
horn-wood, so named on account of its hardness ; or it 
may be a corruption of iron-beam, i.e. iron-wood, that 
being one of its names. Conf. IRON. 

HORSE-CHESTNUT. The tree and its fruit f&sculus). 
It is said to derive its name from the likeness of the fruit to 
that of the chestnut, and from its being used by the Turks 
as food for horses that are broken or touched in the wind. 
In England horses will not eat the horse-chestnut, and 
indeed some are of opinion that the term " horse " was 
given to it to express coarseness. The old name for horse- 
chestnut was Hippocastanum, Castanea equina. sEsculus is 
from L. esca, food. We get the tree from the Levant. It was, 
however, brought from the northern parts of Asia into Europe 
about 1358. 

HOSE. Close-fitting breeches or trousers reaching to 
the knees A.S. hosa (Icel. & Franc, hosa, Dan. & G. hose, 
D. boos, Low L. hosa), a stocking by change of / to s from 
O.G. hiiten, to cover, according to Wachter. 

HOUSE. Place of human abode A.S. hus Goth. hus. 


like O. Fr. hius, huiz, hus, uis, porte, entree L. ostium, a 
door, mouth or entrance of anything os, mouth Skt. as, 
to eat. Conf. USHER. 

HUB. Projection or protuberance ; central point of a 
wheel to which spokes are subservient i.q. hob, nave of a 
wheel. Conf.G. hwb, a heaving, lifting; W.hub, anything which 
rises or swells out. Hence, from hub, " Hub of the universe," 
name applied to Boston, U.S., and sometimes to Calcutta. 

HUMBUG. Plausible deceit. Some derive this word 
from hum, to cheat, hoax; bug, a bugbear; hence, a false 
alarm, sham, bugbear; or from Irish uim bog (pronounced 
oombug), soft copper, pewter, brass, or worthless money, such 
as was made by James II. at the Dublin Mint, ios. of 
which was worth about only 2.d. sterling. It is asserted 
that the term was at first applied to worthless coin, and in 
time became applied to anything false or counterfeit. Others 
say that in former years there resided in the neighbourhood 
of the Mearns, in Scotland, a gentleman of landed property 
named Hume or Home, whose estate was known as the 
Bogue ; that, from the great falsehoods Hume of the Bogue 
was in the habit of relating about himself, his family, and 
everything connected with him, it soon became customary, 
when persons heard anything that was remarkably extrava- 
gant or absurd, to say, "That is a Hume o' the Bogue;" 
that the expression spread like wildfire over the whole 
country, and those who did not understand the origin of the 
phrase, and applied it only to any extravagant action or 
saying, contracted and corrupted it to humbug (see my Verba 
Nominalia). Others, again, derive the term from Hamburg 
("news from Hamburg"), because in war times news from 
that city, being frequently false, was looked upon with 


distrust ; or from Hamburg, distinguished chemist of the 
court of the Duke of Orleans, who, according to a passage 
from Bishop Berkeley's Siris, was an ardent and successful 
seeker after the philosopher's stone. The most probable 
derivation is from L. ambage ambages, a long circumstance, 
tedious tale to no purpose, preambles, impertinences, beat 
about the bush, &c. &c. am ambe or ambi, about ; ago, to go. 

HUNGER. Craving for food A.S. hungor, hungur 
O. Sw. hunger, id. hungra, to long for. 

HEROCANE. Violent storm of wind. The word has 
been derived from O. Sw. hurra, to move rapidly ; and from 
Basq. uracan, collection of waters urac, waters. We have 
the term through Fr. ouragan, Sp. huracdn, from a W. Indian 
word huracdn, signifying the four winds blowing at the same 
time one against the other. 

HUSO, HUSE. The beluga or isinglass sturgeon, a 
very large fish which inhabits the great rivers that fall into 
the Black and Caspian Seas, and from the bladder of which 
isinglass is made O.D. huyzen, derivation of which is doubt- 
ful. The name of the fish in O.H.G. is huso, Hung, visa, 
Slovak vyza, Bohem. wyz, wyza, Pol. wyz. The D. huis is a 
house, the Turk ^u!, uzun, long ; but the Turkish word 
or isinglass is bdlik lutkdli, i.e. fish glue. 

HUSSIF (pr. huzzif). Sempstress's case for needles, 
thread, &c. ; lady's companion ; corruption of housewife, used 

HYACINTH. The flower Fr. hyacintheL. hyancinthus 
Gr. vaKuvBos, the iris, gladiolus, and larkspur, which has been 
derived from vw, to make wet, such plants growing chiefly in 
humid soils. According to some poetic fictions, however, the 


flower sprang up from the blood of Hyacinthus (YAKIIN0O2), 
or from that of Telemon Ajax (AIA3) ; and botanists think 
they can decipher on the petals the letters YA or AI, the 
initials of such names respectively. Putting aside the fable, 
according to Linnaeus all the flowers named have marks 
more or less resembling the characters mentioned. The last 
part of the word is from avOos, flower, with medial k for 
euphony. The precious stone called vaiuvOo<s (whence our word 
jacinth) was doubtless so called from resemblance of colour. 
But see Ov. Met. 10, 211 ; Mosch. 3, 6 ; and Sprengel. 

HYMEN. Virginal membrane (L.) Gr. vft-ijv, skin, 
membrane, pellicle, genius presiding over marriage ; akin to 
v(f>rj, web ; v<j)(ui), -u^an/co, to weave Skt. ve, id. 

ICE, YSE, IYS, IIS. Water or any other liquid made 
solid by freezing A.S. is, iss (O.G. is, Dan. & Sw. is, Icel. MS, 
D. ijs}, corrupted from L. glades (by dropping the gl), quasi 
gelaquies, i.e. congealed water gelu and aqua, Conf. L. 
ecdesia, in Basq. reduced to elisa. 


ICTERUS. Another name for jaundice (L.) Gr. ixrepos, 
id. ; lit. bird of a yellowish-green colour, by looking at which 
a jaundiced person was cured, the bird dying. Conf. Plin. 
30, ii. The same was believed of the xapaS/nos, yellowish 
bird dwelling in clefts. The sight of it was held to be a cure 
for jaundice. Conf. Plut. 2, 681 ; C. M\. N. A. 17, 13. IKTC/JOS 
may be connected with IKTIS, yellow-breasted marten, found KTIS. 

The conjunction = granting or allowing that, in case that 
A.S. gif, imp. of gifan, to give. 


ILIUM. Third or last portion of small intestine, named 
from its convolutions (Low L.) Gr. etXcw, to turn about. 
Hence etAeo?, disease of the intestines, causing patient to 
twist or writhe ; the iliac passion. 

ILLUSION, ILLUSIOUN. Mockery, false show L. 
illusions ittusio illusus illudo, to make sport of in irj, ludo 
to play ludus, play, sport, pastime ; so called from the Lydii 
or Ludi, who brought games with them into Etruria, which 
the Romans afterwards practised. Hence ludicrus, ludicrous ; 
and, by aid of prefixes, allude, allusion, collude, collusion, 
delude, delusion, elude, interlude, prelude. 

IMBECILE. Weak in respect to mental power O. Fr. 
imbecille, feeble L. imbecillis, imbecillus, properly inbecillis, 
weak with respect to body ; lit. not being able to walk without 
a staff in, into, against, upon ; bacillus, dim. of baculus, staff. 
Conf. Isid. 10 Orig. 129. But see Forcellini and Riddle 

IMPEDIMENT. Obstruction to passage L. impedimen- 
tum impedio, to hinder, entangle ; lit. to wrap feathers about 
the feet of fowls, &c., to hinder them from going away 
in upon, pedes feet. Conf. Gr. c/x7ro8oo-/x,a ev, upon, before, 
TroSa TTOVS, foot. 

INANE. Empty, void, silly L. inanis, id. inanio, to 
empty Gr. ivea>, id. 

INCONGRUOUS. Unsuitable, inconsistent, not fitting 
L. incongruus, id. ; lit. not congruous in, not ; congruus, 
agreeing, fit, suitable congruo, to agree with ; lit. to flock 
together as cranes do, who never separate whether in flying 
or feeding con for cum, with, together ; grus, a crane gr, 
noise uttered by them. 

INCONY. "My incony Jew!" L. L. L. in. i. 138; 


" Most incony vulgar wit !" ib. iv. i. Bailey translates this 
word " wit, mimicking wit." Grose says conny is brave, fine, 
the same as canny, a word in Scotland very variously applied, 
but plainly an E. word, cunning, i.e. knowing, clever. The 
term has also been rendered var. sweet, pretty, delicate, fine, 
and been derived from the Northern canny or conny, pretty, 
comely; and in, an intensive particle. Warburton would 
read, " My incony jewel," and says incony or kony in the 
N. signifies fine, delicate, as a kony thing, a fine thing. 
Keightley says, " This is usually understood to mean fine, 
delicate, pretty, but the following passage in the old play, 
' The Shoemaker's Holiday,' gives the true sense and origin 
of it : ' There they shall be knit, like a pair of stockings in 
matrimony : there they shall be in conie.' Cony, like lamb y 
mouse, &c., was in fact one of the endearing terms then in 
use between married couples ; so that to be in cony was to be 
in a state of matrimonial endearment. Then in cony or incony 
gradually came into use as an adj. of endearment in general, 
just as in life became alive and live (as an adj.) " In old 
authors the word is found written inconie and incony. A 
correspondent of N. & Q. ($rd S. v. 231) says the word is 
probably a corruption of O. Fr. inconu, unknown, unheard 
of ; a phrase answering very much also to our own vernacular, 
" no end of." The passages would then mean " such a Jew 
as never was heard of ; " " no end of vulgar wit." 

INDULGENCE. Act of indulging (Fr.) L. indulgentia 
indulgenti indulgens indulgeo, to be courteous or com- 
plaisant, to humour, from a word indulceo in in, dulcis sweet 
Gr. yXvKvs. 

INDUSTRY. Diligence, assiduity Fr. Industrie L. 
industria, painstaking industrius indostruus, active, dili- 


gent endo for in, within ; s/ruo, to arrange, dispose, prepare, 
build. "And so, qui semper aliquid struit," says Riddle, 
" indusirium, quod veteres velut indostruum dicebant, quasi 
qui, quicquid ageret, intrd strueret et studeret domi, est 
enim industrius, studiosus, vigilans, callidus, says Festus." 

INEBRIOUS. Intoxicated L. inebriosus (?) inebrio, to 
make drunk in intensive particle, ebrius drunk r. of 
EBRIETY, q.v. 

INFLUENZA. Kind of catarrh It. influenza, influence ; 
so named because the phenomena were thought to be due to 
the influence of the stars (see Tanner, Pract. of Medicine, 
i. 205) Low L. influentia y lit. a flowing into r. of influence, 

INGLE, INGIL. Flame, blaze, a fire or fire-place 
(Sco.) L. igniculus, dim. of ignis, fire Skt. agni. Conf. 
Gael, aingeal, eingeal, fire, light, sunshine. 

INGLUVIUM. Essential principle of the gizzard of 
chickens and ducks, used, in medicine, as a stomachic in 
vomiting and pregnancy, in indigestion, dyspepsia, and 
flatulency L. ingluvies, crop, craw, or gorge of birds, stomach 
or paunch of ruminant animals for inguluvies, from intensive 
particle in, and gula, gullet, swallow. 

INGUINAL. Relating to the groin L. inguinalis, id. 
inguen, groin, which Vossius derives from O.L. ingeno, to 
engender in in, gigno to beget. 

INHABITABLE (Fr.) Sometimes = not habitable. 
Shak. R. II. i. i 

And meet him, were I tied to run afoot 
Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps, 
Or any other ground inhabitable. 

" The divine Providence so ordering all, that some parts of 
the world should be habitable, others inhabitable" (Holland}. 


L. inhabitabilis, that cannot be inhabited or lived in in = 
non, not ; habitabilis, that may be dwelt in r. of habitdbk. 

INSECT. Class of animals so called, from the divided 
appearance of the body; or, as one writer says, "from 
a separation in the middle of their bodies, whereby they 
are cut into two parts, which are joined together by a 
small ligature, as we see in wasps and common flies " Fr. 
insecte L. insectum inseco, to cut into in into, seco to cut. 
Conf. Gr. oro/to. (sc. wa), insects ; lit. cut into ev in, re/wo 
to cut. 

IPECACUANA, IPECACUANHA. The medicinal root 
Ptg. ipecacuanha, according to Pouchet a Brazilian word 
signifying " streaked or striped root " (racine rqyee). 

IRIS. In botany, typical genus of order Iridaceae (L.) 
Gr. ipis ; so named on account of the various and somewhat 
concentric hues of the flower, which gave an idea of the 
rainbow tpis rainbow cipw to tell, because it was supposed 
to announce the rain ; " quod pluvias denunciet," says 

YZEN. Metal so called A.S. iren, which, when compared 
with Icel.jarn, Sw. iarn, Ir. iaran, iarrunn, Gael, iarrunn, 
Manx iaarn, Armor, houarn, uarn, W. haiaru, Corn, hoarn, 
Sp. hierro, Ptg. & It. ferro, suggests that the word has been 
corrupted from L. dat. or abl. ferro. By change of r to s 
came also A.S. isen, isern, O.H.G. isarn, Goth, eisarn, Eng. 

ISTHMUS. Neck of land joining a peninsula to a 
continent (L.) to-0/u.os, lit. a neck, any narrow passage or 
connexion = ctcrci/xt, to go into s into, ei/u to go. 

IZZARD, IZARD. Name for the ibex Fr. isard, ysard 


(Provenc. uzarn, Catal. isart, sicarf], which M. Rouillon 
derives from the hissing of the animal through its nostrils 
O.G. hissen, to hiss. But Littr6 adds, "D'un autre cote, 
la forme provengale, qui a une n, fait penser au germanique 
isern, eisern, gris de fer," iron-grey. 

IVY. The evergreen A.S. efig O.G. var. ebah, ephi, epfi, 
ephew ; perhaps etymologically same as YEW, q.v. 


JACK. This word, which means a young pike, a pitcher, 
&c., and is found in many compounds, is not derived from 
Jacques (James), but from a dim. of John ; perhaps thus : 
John, Jan, Jannock, Jack. 

JACK, JACKE, JACQUE, JACOBI. Kind of defensive 
armour for the body, made of prepared leather, the lorica of 
the ancients ; defensive upper garment probably from G. 
jack, a hunte/s vest. Conf. Meyrick ; and see JACKET. 


JACKANAPES. Coxcomb, fop, upstart, conceited fel- 
low. Dr. Johnson derives the term from Jack and ape; 
others say napes was a term of derision signifying a knave, 
from A.S. cnapa (properly a boy, servant, young man), and 
that Jackanapes would seem to be = Jack Cnapa, Jack the 
Knave. They add that the Duke of Suffolk was designated 
by the cant term of Jac Napes. This, however, is not satis- 
factory. The French term for knave in cards is valet, which 
was formerly used, not for servant, but for a young nobleman 
holding an appointment at court. Mistaking the meaning of 
valet, Jack was used to denote a serving-man, like Dutch Jan, 
whilst napes is without doubt from Sp. naipes (word of Arabic 


origin) = cards ; so that Jackanapes is = " Jack of Cards." 
Conf. Chatto on Playing Cards, pp. 231-5. 

JACKET. Short coat extending to the hips ^r.jaquette 
dim. of jaque, jacque, coat of mail O.D. jacke (Mod. D. 
jakje), small jacket kajacke kasacke r. of cassock, i.e. Fr. 
cosaque It. casdcca, great coat L. casa, covering, house. 

JADE. Sorry nag, old woman Sco. yaud, old mare 
Icel. jalda (only in poetry; Prov. Sw. jalda), mare, in gen. 
joldu, as Joldu-hlaup, mare's leap, local name in N. of Ireland. 

JARGON. Gibberish. Skinner derives this word from 
It. chierico (cherico ?), a clergyman ; " for, when the laity 
heard the Latin tongue, unknown to them, used in the 
liturgies and prayers of the church, they called that, and all 
other tongues which they did not understand, chiericon, q.d. 
clergymen's language," says Bailey. The Fr. has jargon, 
O. Fr. jergon, Pic. gergon, O. Sp. girgonz, Mod. Sp. zerga, It. 
gergone, obscure cant of thieves, also gergo, gerga and zerga. 
Tommaseo rejects Skinner's derivation, and also three other 
derivations, viz. from L. barbaricus, It. Greco, and Celtic garg, 
rough, hard ; and derives It. gergo from L. ergo (therefore), 
whence, he says, Fr. ergoier, to use pedantic and strange 
language (say, to cavil, dispute). See ARGOT. 

JAVELIN. Sort of spear made of wood and pointed 
with steel Sp. jabalina, spear chiefly used for hunting wild 
boars jabali, wild boar found on mountains Ar. Jjc>-, 
jabal, mountain. 

JAY. The bird O. Fr. jai, gay, gqye Low L. gains, 
so named from gay colours of the bird, from a word vaius 
L. varius, variegated. Many Latin writers call the jay pica 


JECUR. Old name for the liver (L.) Skt. jakrit, liver. 
Hence adj./rava/. 

JEJUNUM. Second portion of small intestine, pro- 
perly jejunum intestinum, so called because thought to be 
always empty, which is not the case, though after death it 
contains much less than the rest of the intestine -jejune, 
empty, scantily supplied with food L.jejunus, that hath not 
eaten, which Martinius ap. Voss derives from Gr. u/eo>, to 
empty. (Conf. Cic. ad Div. ; Isid. 2 Orig. i. 131 ; Gels, 
iv. n) ; others, from Skt. yanyamyam, to restrain. 

JENNY. Spinning machine invented by Jacob Har- 
greaves ; properly genny, for ginny, dim. of a word gin, for 

JEROBOAM. Scotch wine and spirit measure, as a 
Jeroboam of claret or whisky. Some say it contains eight 
bottles ; according to others it is a jar holding a bottle and 
a half, but a Jeroboam of whisky is a nip of whisky. It 
appears Jeroboam was originally a nickname given in Scot- 
land to smuggling vessels, perhaps from the name of a 
vessel engaged in the trade. The Scotch are fond of using 
Scripture names ; witness Joppa, appellation of two places in 

JERRY HOUSES. Houses erected with bad materials, 
and sometimes on plots of land that have been used as 
"laystalls" for garbage and filth. "Wheresoever London 
stretches one of its numerous antenna into the open country 
there will be plots of lands where ' rubbish is shot ; ' and on 
these plots of land will jerry builders erect houses, outside 
fair to view, with porticoes and ' Queen Anne ' balustrades ; 
inside literally formed of dust and ashes." Conf. St. James's 
Gaz. Jan. 26, 1884, p. 5. The slang term "jerry shop," 


properly Tom and Jerry shop, for a low drinking shop, is so 
used in allusion to Pierce Egan's characters in his Life in 

JESUS. Sort of French paper whose mark formerly 
bore the name or Jesus. " Terme de papeterie. Papier nom 
de jesus, ou, simplement, papier je'sus, sorte de papier de 
grand format, qui s'emploie principalement dans rimprime- 
rie, et dont la marque portait autrefois le nom de J6sus 
(I.H.S.):" Littri. 

JIGGER. Troublesome insect of tropical regions, found 
written chigger, chegir, chigre, chegre, chigoe, chegoe, chiggre, and 
in Fr. chique. Some say it is a W. Indian or S. American 
word. Others derive it from Sp. chico, small. 

JOHN DORY, DORY, DOREE. Small gold-coloured 
sea-fish Fr.jaune doree, golden yellow, also doree, i.e. gilt (sc. 
la poisson, fish). Littri does not give the French word for the 
fish, but he says, " dore se dit des objets qui sont d'un jaune 
brillant, jaune dore." Bescherelle says the poets have often 
used or for the colour/a#e d'or, and dore for the colour jaune. 
C.onLjean-de-gand,jean-le-blanc, name of two birds. 

JOKE. A jest L. jocus, a jest, joke ; according to 
Vossius fromy'wjw, to delight, amuse ; and if so, as Martinius 
says, jocus for jucus. Others derive jocus from ta/c^os ta^os, 
clamour ia^w, to cry, cry out. 

JUNIPER. A coniferous evergreen shrub or tree L. 
juniperus -junior or junisjuvenis young, pario to produce, 
" quasi pariens semper juniores, since black or ripe berries and 
green ones are always hanging together on it," says Riddle. 

JURY-MAST. Temporary mast in place of one carried 
away. Thompson derives the term from a \vordjoure, about 
= temporary Fr. jour, day ; or from L. juvare, to assist. 


Jal (Gloss. Naut.) says, "II nous semble que dans jury, 
appliqu a un mat, on pourrait voir/amz oujarro, nom que le 
bois de chne portait aux XIIP et XIV e siecles, comme 
1'atteste le Gloss, de D. Charpentier. Unjarion etait un gros 
baton de chene, une perche de chene. Tout espece de bois de 
chene aura pu etre a.ppe\6jarion,jari,jury, puis par extension 
un espare de sapin ou d'autre bois aura pu retenir ce nom." 
The word is more probably from old ore (now oar), thus : 
ore-mast, hore-mast, jore-mast, jury-mast. Conf. jacinth, from 
hyacinth ; and WHERRY. 


KALAMANCO CATS. A Lancashire term for tortoise- 
shell cats ; so called from a fancied resemblance of the skin 
to the narrow stripes on some kinds of calamanco, a woollen 
stuff. The stuff has been going out of fashion since 1819. 
Calamanco comes from Low L. calamancus Mod. Gr. 
KafjujXavKiov, head-covering made of camel's hair Gr. Ka/^Aos, 
a camel. 

KEEL, KELLE, KELE, CULE. Bottom of a ship- 
Dan, kjol (Sw. kol) G. kiel kele, cavity kel, hollow Gr. 
KotXos, id. 

KEELSON, KELSON, KELSINE. The piece of timber 
over the keel of a ship, next above the floor timber (Dana] 
Sw. kdlsvin, Dan. kjdlsviin, or Norweg. kjollsvill, which some 
derive from G. kielschwein, keel-swine, which is absurd. 
Others translate last part of the word " son," and render it 
" son of the keel," " proceeding from the keel." It comes 
from Dan. sven, a swain (Sw. svend, also a servant). Jal (Gloss. 
Naut.) renders the word " le servant de la quille, son esclave, 
lajriece qui la suit, la defend, la couvre de son corps." 


KERSEY. Species of coarse wollen cloth ; coarse stuff 
made chiefly in Kent and Devonshire. According to some the 
word is a corruption of Jersey, whence this cloth originally 
came. Others derive the word from Kersey, near Hadleigh 
(Suffolk), where the woollen trade was formerly carried on, 
and which was once a considerable manufacturing place. 
Bailey gives Teut. karsaye, Fr. carisee, Sp. carica, q.d. coarse say 
(serge), but the word is not found in Sp. The Sw. has carsay 
and carsai, the Belg. karsaye. Webster gives also D. karsai, 
Fr. carisel ,cariset, cresau, Sp. carisea, G. kersey, kirsei, Sw. cariset. 
Littre" renders cariset " e"toffe de laine croise"e, qui se fabrique 
en Angleterre et en Ecosse." The Norm, cresau is from 
croiser, to cross, and kersey is most probably from serge croisee. 

KERSEYMERE. Thin stuff generally woven plain from 
finest wools KERSEY (q.v.J, and mere, entire, unmixed, pure 
L. merus, pure, unmixed, entire, neat. 

sauce ; now made from mushrooms or walnuts ; earlier a 
liquor extracted from mushrooms, tomatoes, walnuts, &c. 
Some derive the word from Hind, kachchap, a tortoise, 
turtle ; but the original ketchup was a kind of East Indian 
pickle (see Encyc. Perthensis) ; and the word, by aid of a 
prefix and suffix, is probably derived from Hind, dchar, 
pickles, or its root, Pers. dchar, which Johnson renders 
" powdered or salted fruits preserved in salt, vinegar, honey 
or syrup, particularly onions preserved in vinegar ; also the 
pickle or liquor which these meats or fruits are preserved in." 
For prefix conf. the name Chilperic from JElfric, childe from 
hild. It may have come thus : achar, kachar, kacharp, 
kecharp, ketchup. Or the last letter may have arisen thus : 
achar, kachar, kacha, kachau, kachav, kachap, ketchup. 


KETTLEDRUM. A tea-party held by fashionable people 
between lunch and dinner; another word for drum, a tea 
before dinner ; properly a rout, evening party at which card- 
playing was carried on. " Specially noisy drums were called 
drum-majors " {Hunter). 

KEY, KEYE, KAY. Instrument to open or shut a 
lock A.S. cceg, cage, or O. Fries, kai, kei; corrupted from 
L. clavis (whence Fr. clef, cle) Gr. (cAefis /cAeis, key, lock, 
bolt K\to), to shut, close, bar, lock. 

KIBOSH. Nonsense, stuff, humbug; as, "It's all 
kibosh." To " put on the kibosh " is to put the stopper 
upon one. You effectually put on the kibosh when you 
prove to another that what he asks you to do will benefit 
neither party. Some think the term may have been formed 
from a Talmudic word for a small coin of little value, but it 
is more probably a growth of Cut bono ? Cassius laid it down 
as an axiom that, in examining conflicting evidence as to 
which of two parties had perpetrated a crime, we should be 
guided in forming our suspicions by inquiring which party 
becomes a gainer by the crime : cut bono ? to whom is the 
act for an advantage ? Who gains ? The maxim was thus 
applied by Cicero to the inculpation of Clodius and the 
exculpation of Milo, and in Cicero's defence of Milo we 
have it handed down to us as the "Cassian maxim." 

KID. Young goat (Dan. kid], by change of h to k from 
L. hcedus Heb. ^J, g'di, a kid ; or from Skt. huda, us, a ram 
But conf. Wachter under kitz, kutz. 

KILT. Kind of short petticoat, reaching from the 
stomach to the knees, worn by Scottish Highlanders and 
by children of the Lowlands Gael, ceilte, p.p. of ceil, to 


KINGFISHER. The bird, so called because chief of the 
land birds that feed upon fish. See Willoughby (Ornithology), 
ed. by John Ray. It bores a hole in the ground, and makes 
a nest of fish-bones. 

KIRBY HOCK. Swelling or enlargement of hind leg 
of a horse a few inches below the hock Fr. courbe, curved, 
bent. Youatt writes the term curb, 

KIRK. Archaeological term for circle Gr. Ktp/cos, a 
circus, ring, circle (L. circus}. 

KISTVAEN. Chest composed of several large slabs of 
stone set upright and protected at top by a large slab placed 
horizontally, which contained relics of a person deceased 
W. cist-faen for cist-maen, stone-chest or chest-stone. See 
further Gent. Mag. Feb. 1822, in a paper by Sir Rich. Hoare ; 
also introduction to Beauties of England, p. 90. 

KITCHEN-MIDDEN. Term applied to heaps of oyster- 
shells and rubbish found in Scandinavia Dan. kjokken, 
kitchen ; modding, muck-hill, dunghill ; formerly mog dynge, 
mog, dung, soil, muck ; dynge, heap, hoard, mass, pile. 

KITE. The bird (Milvus)A.S. cyta Gr. i/mv, kite, 
falcon. Hence, the light frame of wood covered with paper 
for flying in the air, which at first resembled the bird. 

KLOOF. In S. Africa, a ravine, gully D. kloof, split, slit, 
clink, crevice, rent, tear kloven, to split, cleave, rent, divide. 

KNAVE. Petty rascal. Properly a boy-servant, but used 
by Shakspeare for both boy and rogue. The word is from 
A.S. cnafa, cnapa, boy, O.G. knob, slave, boy, youth, tyro, 
in Gotho-Teut. dialects found knabo, knapo, knappo, knappa, 
kneppe, knave, knafe, chnabe, cnave ; perhaps etymologically 
connected with KNIGHT, q.v. 

KNIGHT. The title A.S. cniht, cneoht, boy, youth, 


attendant, servant (O. Sw. knecki) i.q. O.G. knet, knit 
Gr. Kovrjrrj<;, servant KOVCW, to make haste, lit. to raise dust, 
esp. by swift running KOVIS, dust. 

KNOT, KNOTTE. Complication of a cord or string. 

a liquor made by fermenting mares' milk ; favourite drink of 
the Kirghiz or Sara-Kai'ssaks, i.e. the Cossacks of the Steppe 
(Fr. koumiss, G. kumiss, kumys, kymys} = Russ. kumfyjisfej, in 
Marco Polo (Travels among the Tartars) kemiz ; in some 
works kuniyss, koumeez ; in Rubruquis, the French missio- 
nary who wrote in 1253, cosmos. 

KUMMEL. Liqueur made in Germany, Russia, &c., 
flavoured with caraway seeds, &c. G. kummel, caraway (Russ. 


LABRUS. Genus of fishes, the wrasse L. labrus, kind 
of ravenous fish Gr. Aa/3poe, voracious Xao>, to look at 
eagerly (with a view to seize). Others derive labrus from 
labrum, a lip, because the lips are fleshy aud conspicuous. 
Conf. Nemnich (Allgem. Polyglott. Lex.), and Ovid. Met. 
iii. 224. 

LABURNUM. Ornamental deciduous tree (L.), so 
called from its fleeting flowers ("arboris genus in Alpibus 
crescens, diet, qudd habet flores labiales," says Littleton) 
labo, to give way, be ready to fall, decay. Conf. labilis, fig. 
perishable, transient. 

LEVEDY, LHEVEDI, LAFDIGH. Lit. a woman of high 
rank r. of LOAF, q.v. 


LAITONS, LAITOONS. Tokens issued by the trades- 
men of Nuremberg, and formerly used in England as counters 
in casting up reckonings (Gent. Mag. June 1842, p. 562) ; 
another spelling of latten, kind of bronze used in the 
Middle Ages for crosses, candlesticks, &c. Fr. laiton, loton 
L. luteum, i.e. as luteum, yellow brass. 

LAMA. In Thibet and Mongolia, name applied to head 
of monastery, and to higher classes of priests. Tib. Ua-ma, 
an ecclesiastic, priest, is a title about = our D.D. Ua-ma, 
superior, spiritual teacher, father confessor ; lit. higher, upper. 
Hence the Mongol-Thibetan compound Ta-lai Bla-ma, great 
Lama ; lit. Ocean Lama ; whence Dalai Lama. The proper 
Thibetan term is Bla(ma) cen-po, great Lama. 

LAMB, LOME. Young sheep A.S. lamb Goth, lamb, 
in G. dialects found written lam and lamp. Some derive 
the A.S. word from Gr. a/nvos (male lamb) preceded by /; 
others, from A.S. hlemman, to make a noise, or O.G. limmen, to 
cry as a sheep or calf, to bleat, baa. Le Gonidec renders 
Bret, lamm, saut, action de sauter ; and lammont, sauter ; and 
Ihre, under O. Sw. lamb, says " apud Aremoricos lamma notat 
sal tare, quod non male huic generi animalium convenit." 

LAMINA. Bone or part of a bone resembling a thin 
plate ; lit. very thin piece of metal, &c. L. lamina, lamna, 
any thin piece of metal, wood, marble, horn, plate, leaf Gr. 
fXao-fjM, plate of metal eXawo>, to draw, make a ductile work, 
beat or hammer out. 

LAMPAS, LAMPASS, LAMPERS. In horses, swelling 
of the fleshy lining of the roof of the mouth It. lampasco 
O. Fr. lampas, id. ; so called, according to some, because it 
was formerly removed by burning with a lamp or hot iron. 
Others say from empas, gonflement au palais des chevaux, with 



/ prefixed L. impede, to impede ; but the word is more 
probably from tempos, popular name for the palate (see 
Lafontaine's Paysan), because the disease attacks inside of 
the mouth. Again, lampas is said to be so called because it 
is the place through which the drink is poured, i.e. " quand 
on lampe," i.e. when one drinks large glasses of water. 

LAND, LANT. Urine A.S. hland, hlond (Icel. hland}, 
lotium, urina. Hence hlond-adle, urinalis dolor, dysuria, 
stranguria Kelt. Ian, Ion, water. Conf. Grose, under " Land, 
Lant;" Med. Quadr. 10, 2; and Cot. 176. 


" You are abus'd, and by some putter-on, 
That will be damn'd for'tj would I knew the villain ! 
I would land-damn him." 

W.'s T. ii. I. 

Walker thinks it should be live-dam. Collier reads lamback, 
to beat, belabour. In one place Steevens thinks we might 
read, " I'd laudanum him," i.e. poison him with laudanum ! 
According to Dr. Johnson it perhaps meant no more than 
" I will rid the country of him, condemn him to quit the 
land." Rann would translate land-damn, condemn to the 
punishment of being built up in the earth. Malone thinks 
we should read land-dam, i.e. kill him, bury him, bury him 
in the earth. But Sir T. Hanmer's suggestion is most 
probable : he renders land here lotium, ovpov. Conf. LAND, 

LARBOARD, LARBOORD. Left side of a vessel to 
one standing aft and looking forward. Some derive this word 
from D. lager, lower, because lager-hand is used for left hand 
in contradistinction to kooger-hand, right hand. Richardson 
thinks lar may be contrac. of laveer, and that that side of the 


ship was so called because it la-veers or lies obliquely to the 
starboard. In 1598 the word is found written leereboord, and 
the first part of the word is from O.E. leer, left (" His hat 
turn'd up o' the leer side too:" B. Jonson, Tale of a Tub, i. 4. 
" And his hat turn'd up with a silver clasp on his leer side : " 
Ibid. ii. 4), contracted from N. Fries, leefter, left (as in leefter 
hand, left hand) O. Fries, leeft, id. r. of LEFT, q.v. ; and 
Plat, board, board (side of a ship). Conf. leer with ster (from 
stedr) in Leinster, Munster, Ulster ; W. caer from Gael. 
cat hair; Fr. frere from /rater. 

LARGE. Of great size (Fr.) L. largus Gr. Xavpos, 
broad, much, copious Aa/?pos, huge, mighty. 

LARK, LARKE, LAVEROCK. The bird A.S. Idferce, 
lauerce, Idwerce D. keuwerck O.G. lerehha L. galerita 
{galeriia avis) ; because one species has a tuft on its head 
galeritus, that wears a hood. Conf. Gr. KopuSaXos, crested lark 
/coprSos, id. Kopus, helmet. 

LARKSPUR. English name of plants of the genus 
Delphinium, so called from fancied resemblance of the long 
spur of the flower to the talon of a lark. Its classical name 
is Delphinium, and it was so called, says Dioscorides, because 
the slender segments of its leaves resemble dolphins : " a 
resemblance," adds Rees, " rather to be found, according to 
the vulgar idea of that fish, between the curvature of its body 
and the horned nectary of the flower ; and Dodonasus 
suggests, on good authority, that the passage is so be under- 

LARVA. Insect in the first stage of metamorphosis, a 
caterpillar (Latham) ; so called, says Linnaeus, because its 
first stage in a manner masks its ultimate form L. larva, a 
mask, properly a spectre, phantom which frequents certain 


localities lar, a deity that presided over cities and private 
houses ; an Etruscan word which Arnobius derives from 
, street, quarter of a town (vicus, platea). 

LARYNX. Upper part of windpipe (L.) Gr. Xapvyg 
to receive. 

LASCIVIOUS. Lewd, wanton, lustful ; formed from 
Fr. lascif L. lasctvus, from a word laxivus laxus, loose. 

LATEEN, LATIN. Triangular sail carried by zebecs, 
polacres, settees, and other vessels navigated in the Mediter- 
ranean ; not from Latin, i.e. Roman sails, as some say, but 
from Fr. latine It. latino, corrupted from a la trina, at three 
angles L. trina, triple trinus, thrice tria, ires Gr. rpcis 
Skt. tri. 

LATH, LAT, LATTE. Slip of wood A.S. latteQ.G. 
latte Franc, lidon, to cut. Conf. Gloss. Fez. 

LAUD, LAUDEN. To praise L. laudare laude 
laus, praise ; lit. that which one hears of oneself duo, to 
hear oneself called Gr. /cXucu Skt. sru, to hear. 

LAUGHEN, LIGHE, LIKE. To make that noise which 
sudden merriment excites A.S. hlehhan, hlihhan Goth. 
hlahjan Gr. yeXactv, word derived by sound. 

LAUGHING-STOCK. One who or that which is an 
object of ridicule. " Pray you let us not be laughing-stocks 
to other men's humours:" M. W. W. iii. i laughing and 
stock, a stupid or blockish person, who is as dull and lifeless 
as a post ; lit. something fixed, solid, and senseless ; a post 
A.S. stoc, siocc, stock, trunk, block, stick. 

so called Fr. laurier L. laurus, bay-tree ; formerly laurea 
laudta laude laus, praise. Isid. 17 Orig. 7, 2, " laurus, a 


verbo laudis dicta. Hoc enim cum laudibus victorum capita 
coronabantur." But see also Juvenal 7, 19 ; Tibullus 2, 5, 
63 ; and Martinius. 

LAW, LOW. Mound, hill A.S. hldw, hla>w Goth. 
hlaiw L. divus JEol. xXiTrvs Gr. K\ITV?, declivity, ridge or 
slope of a mountain K\ITOS, id. jcXij/w, to decline or go 

LAWINE. Snow-slip, avalanche G. lauwine, lawine, 
great mass of snow L. labor, labi, to fall, move downwards. 

LAWN, LAWND, LAUND. Properly an extent of 
untilled land between woods O. Fr. lande (W. llari], corrup. 
from L. planus, level, flat, plane. 

LEAD, LEED, LED, LEDE. The metal A.S. lead 
Dan. lod D. loot Gr. XUTOS, that may be dissolved (" nihil 
enim facilius solvitur ac liquescit quam plumbum," says 
Junius) Xvw, to loose, dissolve. 

LEAGUE, LEAGE. In England, a distance of three 
statute miles. O. Fr. legue (Low L. leuca, lego) Gaulish 
kuca, properly a stone which marked the distance. [" Men- 
suras viarum quas nos milliaria dicimus, Graeci stadia, Galli 
leucas: " Isid. in Dief. Celtica.] Bret, led, lev, tiu. Conf. W. 
llech, flat stone, Gael. & Ir. leac. 

LEAM, LIAM, LIME, LYAM. A collar or string (Fr. 
lien, cord or string) L. ligamen, band or tie ligo, to bind, 
tie obs. Gr. Xvyo> Xvyow (whence Xvyiw), to tie fast. 

LEASON. In cookery, a thickening or binding Fr. 
liaison, binding Her, to bind L. ligo, id. 

LEATHER, LETHER. Prepared skin of an animal 
A.S. lether (Sw. Idder, Dan. lether; G. Belg. & D. leder ; D. 
leer, Icel. lethr), said to be from W. llethr (Armor, ledr, Gael. 
leathar) ; but the word more probably denotes the skin which 


covers the cutis A.S. kltd, cover, tegmen, velamen, oper- 

LEFT, LIFT, LUFT, LYFT. Side opposite right 
A.S. left (Fries. leefl\ formed from L. Icevu* Gr. Aaifos 
Aaios, the left. 

LEMON. Name of a sole,, sometimes called lemon dab ; 
larger than the common dab Fr. limonde, dab, flounder, 
mud-fish, poisson de mer fort plat li?non, mud L. limus. 

LEMURES (L.) In antiquity, ghosts of departed persons 
supposed to wander over the world after death, and to disturb 
the peace of its inhabitants, terrifying the good, and haunting 
the wicked for Remures, so called after murdered Remus, 
whose ghost troubled Romulus. Conf. Ovid, Fast. v. 421, 
who says the Festival Remuria was instituted to appease the 
ghost of Remus. He calls it Nocturna Lemuria. 

LENTIL. Leguminous plant O. Fr. lentille L. leniicula, 
dim. of lens, -tis, id. ; according to Isid. xvii. 4, from lentus, 
slow. He says " lens vocata (est), qu6d humida et lenta est, 
vel qudd adhseret htimi." Pliny (18, 12, 31, sec. 123) says 
" lens amat solum tenue." 

LESION. Hurt, injury (Fr.) L. Icesione lasio Icedo, to 
hurt, metath. of S^Xcw. 

LEVEN). Lighting "burning levin:" Reynolds, Seamstress, 
p. 24. Qu. Scot, levin, levyn, (i) lightning, flash of fire ; 
(2) light of the sun ; (3) scorn, contempt, as with levin, in a 
light manner ; O.E. " leuyn, coruscatio, fulgur, fulmen ; lightyn 
or leuennyn. Coruscat." Prompt. Parv. 

LEWIS, LEWISSON. Instrument formerly used by 
builders to raise stones of more than ordinary weight to upper 
part of a building. It was revived by a French artisan in the 


reign of Louis XIV. Playfair (Algeria, p. 297) speaks of 
triangular lewis holes being cut in their exterior faces in the 
amphitheatre of El-Djem. 

LICHAVEN. Two upright stones supporting one across 
them W. llech-faen, a flat stone llech-maen llech flat, and 

LIGNEOUS. Woody L. ligneus lignum, wood (like 
lignum from tego) lego, to gather, because it is collected in 
the fields for the fire ; or, as others say ligo, to bind, because 
it is bound up in the fields. But conf. Isid. 19, Orig. 19, 3 ; 
Varro, Vossius, Nunnesius, and Littleton. 

LIGURE. Precious stone (mentioned in Ex. xxxvii. 19 ; 
xxx. 12) L. ligurius Gr. Xiyvpiov, said to be a gem; a 
reddish amber, but more probably the modern jacinth. 
Some derive the word from Avy/cos ovpos, from the vulgar belief 
that it was petrified lynxes' water (Conf. Diosc. 2, 100). It 
was more probably called Xiyvptov as coming from Liguria, 
whence the Ligures had their name. But see Plin. 37, 2 ; 
Strabo, 4, p. 202 ; Joseph. A. J. in. vii. 6 ; and Stephanus, 
under Xiyvpos. 

LILLIKIN. Small kind of pin dim. of Kile, for little. 

LILT. To sing or play cheerfully and merrily (Sco.) 
Su. Goth, lulla, to sing. Conf. G. lullen, to lull a child to 

LING, a termination of nouns, as in codling, gosling, 
riddling, stripling, is not, as some assert, a double diminutive. 
It is a diminutive formed from the patronymic ing, originally 
= young, with / prefixed for euphony. 

LINSEY. Cloth made of linen and wool mixed ; so 
called from Lindsey, near Hadleigh, Suffolk, where it was 
first made. Hence linsey woolsey, kind of flannel of which 


the woof only is composed of wool, the warp being thread. 
Woolsey is probably meant for rhyme. 

LIST (i). Border or edge of anything ; wooden border on 
doors and windows Sw. list, moulding, cornice, plat-band, 
border (Dan. liste, D. lijst, A.S. list, Fr. lice). Manage derives 
Fr. word from licia, fern, of licium, filum (thread, string, cord). 
From the same root are L. h'cece, and Fr. lice, lieu ferine" de 

LIST (2). Desire, pleasure, wish A.S. lyst, desire, love, 
admiration lust, desire, pleasure, delight, exultation Dan. 
lysi Goth, lustus, pleasure. 

LITTER, LYTERE. A brood litter, to be brought to 
bed ; lit. to strew or straw a bed O.E. litere, a bed O. Fr. 
litiere (Sp. litera), a litter L. lectus, bed, couch Gr. \exos 
obs. Xe^o), to lay oneself down (to sleep). 

LIVID. Discoloured, as the flesh by a blow ; of a leaden 
colour, black-and-blue Fr. livide L. lividus, bluish, blue 
liveo, to be bluish or blue ; according to Nunnesius, by trans- 
position, from Gr. -n-eXcios, niger, fuscus, lividus. 

LLAMA. The quadruped ; a Peruvian word signifying 
cattle or sheep ; as huanaca-llama, greater cattle, &c. ; paco- 
llama, smaller cattle, &c. 

LOACH, LOACHE, LOCHE. Small fish allied to the 
minnow Fr. loche (Sp. loja, locha, loche]. According to some 
the fish derived its name from its restlessness and vivacity 
Fr. looker, e"branler, vaciller, mouvoir ; " est enim piscis 
admirandae pene vivacitatis," says Minshew. A writer in 
P. Cyc., under " Cobitis," says, " The loaches are extremely 
restless during stormy weather, when they generally rise to 
the surface of the water, which from their restlessness is kept 
in constant agitation." But the stone loach probably had 


its name from Bret, liac'h, leac'h, a stone (Gael, leac, flag, 
flat stone, W. llech). 

LOAF, LOOP, LOF. Shaped portion of bread A.S. 
hldf (Goth, hlaifs, hlaibs]; lit. raised hlifian, to raise. 
Hence hldf and ord (L. ortus ?} hldf-ord, properly of 
exalted origin ; by corrup. loverd, by contrac. lord. Again, 
from hldf, with part, termination hlafed, by contrac. hlafd ; 
with an adj. termination hlafdig, by dropping first letter 
lafdig; lit. one raised or elevated, i.e. to her husband's rank ; 
then lady. 

LOBBING. Loitering ; as lobbing cabs to lob, to hang 
languidly, allow to droop. 

LOBLOLLY-BOY. Derisive term for one who, on board 
a man-of-war, attends the surgeon and his mates, and com- 
pounds medicines loblolly, sea term for groat gruel or hasty 
pudding ; lit. gruel or spoon meat ; allied to lollypop, for 

Nautical term for an olla podrida of salt meat, biscuit, 
potatoes, onions, spices, &c., mixed small, and stewed (in 
Sweden Lappscouse) lob, something thick and heavy; 
course, the dishes placed upon the table at one time. 

LOCUS (L.) A place Etrusc. stlocus sistlocus, probably 
a dim. formed from sisto, to stand still, stay. Conf. Us 
stilts ; and see Quint. Inst. Orat. I. iv. 15 ; Fest. Qu. xiv. 18, 
p. 313 (Paul. p. 312). 

LOCUST, LOCUSTE. The winged insect ; also a shell- 
fish and a tree (called St. John's Bread) L. locusta, lucusta, 
the insect, also a kind of lobster, which Isid. (Orig. xii. 18) 
derives from L. longa hasta, long spear, qu6d pedibus sit 
longis veluti hasta ;" and he adds, "unde et earn Graeci, tam 


maritimam quam terrestrem, astacon appellant." But see 
also Vossius, who derives locusta from locus ustus ; and Pliny, 
H. N. xi. 29, post med. S. 35. 

LOO. Name of a game of cards ; shortened form of 
lanterloo (Mod. Fr. lariurlu, lanturelu}, rendered " le jeu 
de la bete dans quelques provinces : refrain d'un fameux 
vandeville du temps du Cardinal de Richelieu, et dont le 
nom, pris adverbialement, a servi pour indiquer soit un refus 
meprisant soit une re"ponse Evasive. ' II lui a r6pondu Ian- 
turlu? " Conf. the Russian game of cards called Eralaje, 
which resembles whist, and signifies absurdity, nonsense. 

LONG. Extended, drawn out A.S. long, lang L. longus 
.^Eol. Xo^i^os for ^oXi^os. 

LOOT. In Hindustan, to plunder Hind. ci>J, lut, 
plunder, robbery, pillage Skt. lut. 

LORD, LAVERD, LOVERD. Nobleman or peer of 
Great Britain; lit. one possessing supreme power or authority 
r. of LOAF, g.v. 

LOSSAN. Luminosity of the sea (Smyth) Manx lossan, 
a flame, blaze. 

LOUT, LOWT. Mean awkward fellow, bumpkin ; lit. 
one of the lower orders A.S. leod, countryman ; lit. people 
O.G. leut, a man (pi. leute), also plebs, vulgus Sw. lyda, to 
obey. Conf. Wachter under " Leute." 

genus Ligusticum, sometimes used as an aromatic stimulant 
D. lavas (O. Fr. levesche, Mod. Fr. liveche) L. levisticum for 
ligusticum, so named because some of the species grow or 
grew in Liguria. 

LOW. See LAW. 

LOZENGE, LOSENGE. Confection, sweetmeat 


O. Fr. lozenge Sp. lozdnje Ar. ^Ju ;J, lawzinaj, confection of 
almonds lawz (H. nV, luz), almond. 

LUCRE. Pecuniary gain or advantage (Fr.) L. lucrum, 
gain, profit ; lit. that which serves for paying luo, to pay ; 
lit. to set loose Gr. Auw. 

LUDICROUS. Burlesque, merry, exciting laughter 
L. ludicrus ludus (var. loidus, loedus, lydus), a game, play, 
show; so called from the Lydii (Lydians). Isid. (18 Orig. 
16, 2) says, " Ludorum origo sic traditur. Lydii ex Asia 
transvenae in Etruria consederunt, duce Tyrrhene, qui fratri 
suo cesserat regni contentione. Igitur in Etruria, inter 
ceteros ritus superstitionum suarum, spectacula quoque 
religionis nomine instituerunt. Inde Romani accersitos 
artifices mutuati sunt, et inde ludi a Lydis vocati sunt." 
Conf. Forcellini (Lat. Lex.) Hence, indirectly, from ludus or 
ludo, allude, allusion, collude, collusion, delude, delusion, 
elude, elusion, illude, illusion, prelude. 

LUG -SAIL. Four-cornered sail bent to a yard, which is 
slung at a point two-thirds of its length Dan. lykke, fortune. 
It is i.q. Fr. voile de fortune. Jal says " voile de fortune ou 
treou. Par une extension du sens primitif, on a nomine" 
lug-sail la voile au tiers." 

LULLABY. Song to lull or compose children to sleep ; 
orig. lallaby, la ! la ! used by nurses for that purpose. Hence 
Sw. fallen, to hum, lull Dan. lulle, Eng. lull, to compose to 
sleep by a pleasing sound. Conf. Junius under lullaby ; 
Turnebus, liv. xx. ; and Menage ; also L. lotto, to sing lulla, 
lalla, as to a child when going to sleep, to sing a lullaby as 
the nurse doth. Conf. Pers. iii. 17; Hieron. Ep. ad Heliod. 

LUNT-FECHT. Name given to the numerous fierce 
and sanguinary skirmishes which took place about Edinburgh 


between May and September, 1571 Sco. lunt, torch, flame 
of a smothered smoke which suddenly bursts into a blaze, 
column of flaming smoke ; also to blaze, flame vehemently ; 
fecht,facht,f aught, fight, battle. 

LUPINE. The plant L. lupinus, said to derive its 
name from lupus, a wolf, because it penetrates the soil with 
wolfish eagerness and exhausts it Gr. XVKOS Skt. vrika, 
vrikas ; lit. seizing, rapacious vrik, to seize. Others say 
from X.vTnj, grief, whence Virgil's epithet, tristes lupini, from 
the fanciful idea of its acrid juices, when tasted, producing a 
sorrowful countenance. Both suggestions are from Vossius. 

LURES, LUREN. In archaeology, certain remarkable 
war trumpets, formed of molten brass. (See Worsaae, Prim. 
Antiq. of Denmark, p. 33 ; Smith's Cork, vol. ii. ; Gough's 
Camden, iv. 231) O. Fr.loure, grosse musette, instrument a 
vent L. lura, mouth of a skin or leather bag, skin, leathern 
sack ; lit. that which is cut Skt. lu, to cut. 

LYMPH, LYMPH A. Water, transparent colourless 
liquor L. lympha, id. ; also water and a water-nymph - 
Gr. w/ji<f>r), id. ; lit. newly-married bride. 

LYNCHET. Line of green sward separating ploughed 
lands in common fields ; dim. of linch, ledge, rectangular 
projection A. S. hlinch, balk, ridge of land left unploughed 
as a boundary. 


MAGPIE. The bird -pie (Fr.) L. pica, and mag, to 
talk. Littleton renders pica, a py, py-annet, mag-py, or 

MAIL, MALE. Conveyance by which letters, &c., are 
carried ; lit. bag for conveyance of letters O. Fr. male, bag, 


wallet M.H.G. malhe O.H.G. malaha, leather wallet, i.q. 
Sp. maleta It. valigia r. of wallet. 

duck O. FT. mallard, malard, mallart, malart, maslart (Bret. 
mailhard), id. Low L. mallardus, contrac. of a word mascu- 
lardus L. masculus (and ard like), dim. of mas, a male. 

A horse disease consisting of a scurfy eruption on the inside 
of the hock, or a little below it, as well as at the bend of the 
knee. It is called mallenders in the fore leg, sallenders in the 
hind leg (Fr. malandrie, malandre, It. malandra, Berry malandre, 
malady in general) O. Fr. malandres L. malandria, blisters 
or pustules in the neck (esp. in horses), which some derive 
from malleus, a disease of cattle; others from Gr. //.oAAos, 
soft, then infirm, things which are soft being generally infirm 
and weak ; or from //.aAis, a disease of horses, kind of asthma ; 
thus /AO.A.IS, /toXas, /xaXaiTo?, //.aXavSes, //.aAavSpos, malandra. 

MANATEE, MANATI, MANATIN. Haytian name of 
the manatus, gregarious aquatic animal like the whale, but 
herbivorous, found about tropical S. America ; the sea-cow 
Sp. mandti, mandto (N.L. manatus), said to be so called 
because of its hand-shaped flipper or fore fin mano, hand. 
" The vestiges of nails are observable on the edges of their 
flippers, which they use dexterously enough in creeping and 
carrying tkeir young. This has caused these organs to be 
compared to hands, whence the name Manati or Manatee." 
(P. Cyc.) By prefixing the feminine instead of the masculine 
article, it is called in the Antilles, both in French and 
English, lamantin, lamentin. According to others, lamantin 
is the native name, being derived from the Guarany (Tupi) 
or one of its numerous dialects. 


MANDOLINE, MANDOLIN. Musical instrument of 
the lute kind, but smaller It. mandoline (vulg6 mandorlino], 
dim. of mandola mandora, corrupted from L. pandura 
Gr. TravSoiyjo. 

MARE, MERE. Female horse A. S. mere, fern, of 
mearh, a horse Icel. mar, id. Low L. mare L. mas, of the 
male sex ; probably, by prefixing m, from apprjv or apa-rjv, mas, 
masculus, as Mars from Mavors, says Riddle. 

MAROON, MARRAON, MARRON. Brownish crimson 
or claret colour Fr. marron, chestnut-coloured marron, a 
large chestnut Sp. moreno, brown, a dark colour, inclining to 

MARY. Fine and delicate fat contained in the hollow of 
bones A.S. mearg, merg, mearh, mearu, mearwu, soft. Conf. 
O.G. mark mar, soft. 

MARSUPIAL. Term applied to animals having a pouch 
to carry immature young L. marsupium, pouch, purse Gr. 
/iapcrvTTtov //.apcriTrioj/, pouch, wallet, pocket, purse, satchel 
fjiapr] hand, O-ITTUT; bag. 

MARTYR. One who by his death bears witness to the 
truth (A.S.) L. martyr Gr. paprvp, a witness papi), hand, 
the hand being usually extended when testimony was given. 

MASTIS. Variety of dog of an old English breed. 
Chambers (Inf. for the People) says the mastiff is supposed 
to have been produced betwixt the Irish greyhound and the 
English bulldog. Pennant thinks the variety called matin in 
French is a descendant of the Irish greyhound. Menage 
has " metis ou metif, chien entre le matin et le levrier." Man- 
wood (P. Cyc.) says the word is derived from " mase thefese, 


because it is supposed to terrify thieves by its voice, which, 
when the animal is excited, is fearfully deep and loud." 
Whatever the breed, I take it that the English and French 
words are from the same root. Covarruvias says, Sp. mastin 
is from mixtus, " the matins being ordinarily dogs produced 
from two species." Roquefort has " metice, metif, metis, metive, 
mulet, mulatre, enfant produit de deux races." Dufresne 
gives " mestizus, Hispanis et Americanis mixtum natus est." 
Manage derives metis (Sp. mestizo, Anjou metif} thus : 
Mixtus, mistus, mistitius, m6tis. Our word probably came 
thus : Mixtus, mixtivus, mestivus, O. Fr. mestif, mastiff. 

MASTODON. Large fossil animal, akin to the ele- 
phant ; so named from the crowns of the teeth, large conical 
points of a mammiform structure /mores, teat ; oSov 0805, 

MAUND, MAND. Formerly a hand-basket A.S. mand, 
mond (D. mand, A.S. mond} Prov. G. mand, mande, manne 
Fr. manne, basket of osier Bret, manne, man, id. L. manus, 
hand. Conf. W. maned, hand - basket, Low L., Pic., & 
Hainault mande, Wall, mante. 

MAVIS, MA VISE. Song-thrush ; sometimes the red- 
wing O. Fr. mauvis, mauveis, mauve Bret, milvid, milwit, 
milfid, milfit, milhuit (Low L. malvitius) L. malum vitis, 
scourge or plague of the vine, because it injures the grape. 

MAZAGRAN. In France common term for black coffee 
served in a tall glass with water; so called because at the 
siege of Mazagran, in Algeria, the French soldiers were 
advised to drink it thus in lieu of brandy. " Mazagran, 
breuvage dont le nom et 1'usage datent de I'h6roique defense 
de Mazagran, en Alg6rie, par le capitaine Lelievre; on sert, 
dans un verre profond, du cafe noir, avec une cuiller a long 


manche, pour meler le sucre et 1'eau, et quelquefois l'eau-de- 
vie que le consommateur ajoute." (Littre.) 

MAZURKA. Polish national air and dance, more pro- 
perly applied to the dancer Pol. mazurkha, fern, of Mazur, 
a Mazovian or Masovian, i.e. of Mazovia or Masovia, prov. 
of Poland. 

MEAT, MEATE, METE. Flesh to be eaten, food in 
general A.S. mete, mate, met, meat, food (Sw. mat, victuals, 
O.H.G. maz, food, Goth, mats, id., Alam. muas, Sp. mueso] 
O.G. mat, food mus, food, nutriment Keltic mes, a portion, 
a meal ; mast, acorns, this fruit, as well as fern roots, having 
been used as a substitute for bread by the ancient Britons. 

MEDICINE. Physic, any medicine administered by a 
physician O. Fr. medecine L. medicina, relating to physic, 
i.e. curing of diseases, &c. medicus, healing medeor, to heal, 
cure Gr. ^Sojaat, to deliberate, devise, consult for /u^Sos, 
care, counsel. 

MEDULLA (L.) Marrow in bones, pith of plants or 
vegetables, from a word mediola medius, middle, " quia in 
medio ossis," says Littleton. 

MELITARSY. Another and better name for diabetes, 
invented by late Dr. Golding Bird Gr. /*eXi, -ITOS, honey, 
saccharum or sugar of the ancients ; pew, to flow. 

MEMBER. Limb, part appendent to body Fr. membre 
L. membrum Gr. /xeXos, limb, thus : /x.eXos, fifi(3X(K, p.fp- 
{tpos, membrum. 

MENAGERIE. Orchestra of a theatre (slang), so called 
because in Shakespeare's time plays were frequently acted in 
bear-baiting courts Fr. menagerie, place for keeping wild 
animals ; properly, place where animals of a household are 
nourished manege, household masnage. 


MENDICANT. A beggar L. mendicante mendicans 
mendico, to beg mendicus, beggarly, beggar manu with the 
hand, dice to say, to speak, because it was anciently the cus- 
tom among beggars to extend the hand, whilst shutting the 

MENHIR. Great unhewn stone in form of an obelisk 
set upright Bret, men-hir, long stone men stone, hir 

MEPHITIC. Offensive to the smell; foul, poisonous, 
noxious Fr. mephitique L. mephiticus, pestilential mephitis, 
noxious pestilential exhalation from the ground, said to be 
so called from Mephitis, Mefitis, the goddess who averted 
pestilential exhalations, which Scaliger thinks is an Etrus- 
can word borrowed from the Syr. mSD. But see Fabretti 
(A.) Inscrip. Ital. Antiq. under " Mefitaiiais," referring to 
Mommsen and Fiorelli. Conf. also Plin., Virg., Pers., Tac., 
and Lempriere. 

MERCURY, MERCURIE. Quicksilver. Pereira 
(Materia Medica) says " it has been called mercury from 
Mercury, messenger of the gods, on account of its volatility; 
and, indeed, Mercury is represented as being extremely quick 
in all his movements." According to others, it was named 
after the planet Mercury because of its quick motion, for, 
while the earth moves in its orbit 68,040 miles an hour, 
Mercury moves 109,360 miles Fr. Mercuric L. Mercurius, 
god of merchandise merces, merchandise. 

MERE. Word frequently used by Shakspeare in a 
sense different from that in which it is now generally used ; 
as " My friend to his mere enemy," M. of V. iii. 2 ; " Your 
mere enforcement," R. III. iii. 7 ; " Second childishness and 
mere oblivion," A. Y. L. I. ii. 7 ; " This is mere madness" 



Ham. v. i ; " The mere perdition of the Turkish fleet," Oth. 
ii. 2. In all these instances mere means either absolute or 
entire L. merits, var. alone, only, simple, nothing else, pure, 
clean, genuine, real, unmixed ; lit. alone, divided from others 
Gr. p.upw, to divide. 

MERINGUE. Confection made of whites of eggs and 
powdered lump sugar, usually garnished with whipped cream 
or comfits. Scheler thinks the word may be from Sp. melindre, 
sort of fritters made of honey (miel] and flour ; but M.. Simdon 
I.uce is of opinion that it had its name from Mehringen (in 
Anhalt, Germany ?), which exports a great deal of pastry. 

MERLE. Blackbird Fr. merle L. merula, which White 
and Riddle render the " deserving one," in reference to its 
melodious note mereo, to deserve. It was rather named 
from the fact that it is wont to fly and feed alone. Varro, 
L. L. iv. 2, says, " merula, qu6d mera, id est sola, volitat : 
contra ab eo graculi, quod gregatim." And Festus, " merum 
antiqui dicebant solum : unde et avis merula nomen adcepit, 
qu6d solivaga est, et solitaria pascitur." 

MERLING. Small fish, the whiting L. merula, a salt- 
water fish, said to be a species of whiting or merling ; pro- 
bably from r. of MERLE, q.v. 

MERMAID. Sea-woman ; an animal with a woman's head 
and fish's tail O.G. meer-maid meer, the sea Goth, marei 
L. mare, and O.G. maid, used in poetry for maid. The 
A.S. word is mere-men. 

METAPHYSICS. Ontology; doctrine of the general 
affections of substances existing O.E. metaphysic L. meta- 
physica. According to Clemens Alexandrinus the term is = 
supernatural ; and he is said to be confirmed by an anony- 
mous commentator, whom Patricius translated into Latin, and 


styled Philoponus. But Gr. /u,era signifies after, next, next 
to ; and there is but little doubt the term was first used by 
Andronicus of Rhodes, who, out of the materials employed 
in compiling the Physics of Aristotle, set down after them, 
and designated as " /xcra ra <wiKa," whatever he found 
unsuited for insertion under Physics. Conf. M'Mahon's 
trans, of Aristotle's Metaphysics, Lond. 1857, 8vo, p. i, 
note i. 

MIDGE, MIGGE, MYGGE, MYGE. Gnat A.S. miege, 
mycge (G. mucke, mucke, small fly ; Franc, mucca, Icel. my, 
D. mug) Gr. /xwa /iva>, to buzz, whizz. 

MIGRATE. To remove from one country to another 
L. migratus migro, to change one's place or habitation 
Heb. TUD magur, a travelling about gur, to travel. Others 
derive migro from meo, to go ; agro, from the land. 

MILK, MVLK, MELK, MELKE. Liquor with which 
animals feed their young from the breast (Latham] A.S. 
meolc (O.G. milech, milich, miluch, milih, miloh, miluh) Goth. 
miluks. Conf. Gr. /xeXxa, a cooling food made from sour 
milk ; a/xeAyw (a/ia together, yaXa milk), to milk. 

MILLET. Name of a plant Fr. millet dim. of mil L. 
milium, so called from the abundance of its seeds mille, a 
thousand. Conf. Festus, Isidorus, and Rees (Cyc.) under 
" Milium." 

MINCE, MINCEN. To cut up Fr. mincer mince, small 
L. minutus, id. minuo, to make small or less. Conf. L. 
minutim comminuere, to break small. 

MINIUM. Red lead (L.), which some derive from 
Sp. mina, a mine ; others from Minius (Minho), river of 
Portugal. According to Justinius, xliv. 3, however, the river 
was named from the quantity of minium that it holds. 



Amiddis sawe I Hate ystonde, 

That for the wrathe and ire, and onde 

Semid to be a minoresse, 

An angry wight, a chideresse. 

CHAUC. R. R. 149. 

Urry says minoresse may be fern, of miner, an underminer, but 
Speght considers right reading to be moveresse, a stirrer of 
debate ; for, says he, so it is in the French verses in the 
oldest written copies. If so, moveresse is from O. Fr. mover, to 
stir up, move L. movere, id. 

MISER. Niggard ; lit. miserable person, one wretched 
or afflicted L. miser, wretched, pitiful, miserable obs. Gr. 
fjLia~r]po<s /AWTOS, hate, hatred juurew, to hate. 

MITE. Very small portion A.S. mite (G. miete, mieihe, 
Dan. mid, Sw. matt) metath. of tom-us, cut, piece, bit 

Gr. TO/AOS T/X,V(0, tO CUt. 

MITRAILLEUSE. Weapon designed to fire a large 
number of cartridges in a short time (Fr.) O. Fr. mitraille, 
small shot ; lit. old bits of copper and iron, and nails, for 
charging cannon on board ship mitaille mite, very small 
piece of money Flem. mijte, 

MITTEN, MITAINE, MYTENE. Sort of glove with- 
out a division for each finger O. Fr. mitaine, var. defined 
coarse glove for the winter, glove that covers the arm without 
covering the fingers (Low L. mitana, Bret, mittain ; Mod. Fr. 
mitaine, gant pourl es quatre doigts, avec une separation pour 
les pouces) Proveng. mitan, mitaine, half-glove demi, half 
L. dimidium. Conf. Fr. mi for demi. 

Indian shoe made of soft leather, without a stiff sole ; from 


one of the Algonkin dialects signifying shoe or shoes. In 
the dialect of the Shyennes and Miamis the word is respec- 
tively written ntkasiu and i-md'k-ct in the singular. In the 
other dialects, viz. Illinois, Knistinaux, Old Algonkin, East 
Chippeway, Massachusetts, Narragansett, Minsi, and Nanti- 
cok, it occurs in the plural ; as moscasin, macktssin, maukissm, 
mahkissina, machksen, mohkisoonah, mocussinas, meckissins. 

quadrumanous animal A.D. manneken, dwarf, small man ; 
dim. of man, a man ; " nihil enim homini similis," says 
Skinner. Others derive the word from Gr. p.ip,<a, ape ; thus, 
/xi/Aw, mimomus, mimoina, moina O. It. moina, mona, ape, 
monkey ; dim. Low L. monicus; dim. Low L. moniculus; 
It. monichio, monkey. Conf. Manage and Tommaseo. 

MOONSTONE. An ornamental stone, very pure limpid 
variety of felspar, so called on account of the light exhibited 
by the arrangement of its crystalline structure. Mine- 
ralogists also call it adularia, from Mount Adula, in the 

MORAINE. Debris of rocks brought into valleys and 
ravines by glaciers (Fr.) Low L. morena, bank or mound of 
stones ; It. mora, heap of stones. 

MOREL, MORELLE, MORIL. Species of mushroom, 
now seldom used in cookery Fr. morille (Pic. meroule, 
merouille] O.H.G. morhila mor (mohr\ black; so called, 
because when cooked it becomes black. Conf. Saumaise, 
Homon. des Plantes, ch. 114, p. 206. 

MORGLAY. Two-handed broadsword ; inverse of clay- 
more Gael, claidheamh mbr, broad sword ; corrupted from L. 
gladius sword, major greater. 

MORSE, MORSSE. The walrus, sea-horse ; inverse of 


Norweg. ros-mar, sea-horse. Dan. rosmer is a borrowed 

MORSEL. Mouthful, bite O. Fr., id. Low L. morsellus 
(morsellum, pars, portio), dim. of morsus, bite mordeo, to bite 
Skt. mrid, to grind, pound, bruise, crush. 

MORT (i). Female, woman, sometimes a prostitute. 
" Male gipsies all, not a mort among them " (B. Jonson). 
'' Belitresse, a woman beggar, a doxie, morte, base queane" 
(Co/grave} ; a cant or gipsy word Ar. $_*}, amrdt, woman, 

MORT (2). Great quantity or number. Grose gives 
" mort or mot, many, abundance, a multitude ; a mort of 
money, apples, men, &c. (Kent) ; and mortal, mortacious, 
mortally, indeed, very ; a mortal good doctor, mortacious 
wholesome (Kent)." Mort is probably abbreviated from 

MORTAL. Deadly O.F. mortal L. mortalemortalis 
morte mors, death. Gr. /xopos. Conf. fioipa, man's doom, 
fate, destiny ; also Skt. mrita, dead mri, to die. 

MOSE. Disorder in horses, by some called mouning or 
mourning in the chine. 

" And like to mose in the chine." 

SHAK. Tarn. Sb. iii. 2, 

like Fr. morve (which, however, is a somewhat different horse 
disease) L. morbus, a desease. 

MOTTO. Sentence or word added to a device It. motto 
(Fr. mot, Sp. mote), word L. muttum, id. Gr. pvOov fivOos, 

MOUNT, MUNT. Hill L. montemons, by change of 
b to m from Gr. /Sowos, hill, rising ground /3aivw, to mount, 


MUCH, MUCHE, MOCHE. Great in quantity or 
amount ; like Sp. mucho, corrupted, by change of // to c h, 
from L. multus, much, great, many moltus moles, anything 
that is big and heavy, huge bulk mola, i.e. lapis molaris, 
which is never small, " q.d. res magni ponderis," says 

MUDGIN, MUDGEON. One who hides anything. See 

MUFF. Silly, soft, spiritless fellow D. mof, boorish 
and coarse fellow muf, musty. J. H. Van Lennep says 
the Dutch call all foreigners, especially Germans, by this 
name, and that in Holland the German is sometimes saluted 
with the interjection "mof" or " groene mof." He says also 
" in Holland the cultivated classes judge all Germans by the 
Westphalian specimens, who, as regular as storks, annually 
migrate to mow our meadows. These are pronounced to be 
as green as grass (zoo groen ah gras], or green muffs (gras- 
moffen)." " But," he adds, " perhaps it was at first only 
designed for the Russians, whose national dress in fur and 
muffs (D. mof} may have elicited the designation, as the 
fusty smell of Russian morocco may have (been ?) deemed 
muf by Dutch noses." Conf. N. & Q. 3rd S. i. 56. 

MUFFIN. Round cake so called ; contrac. of a word 
moufletin dim. of O. Fr. mouflet, soft bread. 

MULBERRY, MOOLBERY. The fruit and tree 
M.H.G. mulber O.H.G. mulben murperl morperi, by change 
of r to / from L. morum, a mulberry (morus, the tree) Gr. popov 
(/utopea, the tree) ; properly the black mulberry (but also the 
red and white sorts), so called because, when ripe, the fruit 
is black; and O.H.G. peri, a berry. Conf. Ov. Met. iv. 165, 
" Nam color in porno est, ubi permaturuit," where morus is 


said to be referred to. See also ^Esch. Fr. 107; Soph. 698; 
Ath. 51 B seq ; and see Fr. mure, murier. 

MULL (i). Snuff-box made of small end of horn (obs.) ; 
also cape, projecting headland, as Mull of Galloway Gael. 
maol, maoil, promontory, cape. 

MULL (2. To soften, heat, sweeten, and enrich any 
liquor with spices, &c. ; as to mull wine L. mollio, to soften. 

MUSE (i). Gap in a hedge, fence, wall, through which a 
wild animal is accustomed to pass. O- Fr. musse ; terme de 
venerie, passage e"troit d'un fort ou d'une haie, pour les 
lievres, les lapins, et autres gibiers musser, to hide oneself 
i.q. mucer, mucier, id. ; to veil oneself. 

MUSE (2). Commencement of the rut in stags, a hunt- 
ing term. See MUSE (3). 

MUSE (3). To rut, i.q. to desire to come together, said 
of stags Fr. muse mus Low L. musus in a text of 8th 
Century museau, muzzle, snout or nose of an animal 
Gr. puns, the nose. Littre", under " Muse'' terme de ve"nerie, 
le commencement du rut des cerfs, quotes the following 
from Charles IX., De la Chasse, p. 4 : " Us [cerfs] entrent 
dans le fort de leur rut, et ne demeurent en aucune place, 
ains ne font que cheminer et musser, c'est-a-dire mettre le 
nez en terre, et sentent par ou les biches ont passe, et les 
poussent et chassent de cette maniere devant eux." 

MUST, MAST. Excitement which affects elephants for 
a certain period annually {Hunter]. " When a state of must 
overtakes an elephant he is most dangerous" (Bartlett}. 
Hind. L ^^..,^ f) mast, ruttish, lustful, wanton; lit. drunk, 
intoxicated Pers. id. 

MUSTARD, MOSTARD. Condiment made by mixing 
ground seeds of the plant Sinapi with vinegar or water. 


Scaliger derives the word from muttum must, ardor ardour ; 
Skinner, from mustum ardens. We have it from O. Fr. 
mostarde, moustarde (It. & Ptg. mostdrda) L. mustum, must, 
which was first used by the Germans and French in making 
the condiment ; and G. or Fr. ard= like. 

MUTTON, MOTONE. Flesh of sheep; lit. a sheep; 
found motion O. Fr. multon, a castrated ram Prov. multo 
(Cat. molto, It. moltone), or Low L. multo, id. Grisons mult, 
castrated L. mutilus, mutilated, maimed r. of mutilate. 
Conf. O.G. hamel, hammel, wether, castrated ram ; hammeln, 
to castrate ; hamm, mutilated. 

MYOSOTIS. The plant forget-me-not Gr. /Avoo-oms; so 
called because its leaves resemble a mouse's ear /u/us, mouse ; 
wTos ovs, ear. The term was also applied by the ancients, 
and also by modern botanists, to several plants whose leaves 
in their shape and soft hairiness resemble myosotis. 


animal found in the Northern Seas Icel. nd-hvalr for northr- 
hvalr, northern whale. 

NASTURTIUM. Garden plant of foreign origin (L.), 
quasi nasiortium, qu6d nasum torqueat (because it irritates 
the nose), says Cicero ; say, because the nose is irritated in 
the process of bruising the seeds L. nasus, nose ; tortum 
torqueo, to twist awry, torture. 

NEPIAN. "Similarity in nepian songs" (Halliwell, Popular 
Rhymes, &c.) Gr. V^TTIOS, childish, infantine ; met. foolish, 
lit. unable to speak VTJ priv., CTTOS a word. 

NEPETA. A genus of plants including the cat mint and 


ground ivy L. nepeta, so called from being good against the 
stinging of scorpions nepa, a scorpion (an African word). 

NICHE, NICE. Cavity in a wall to hold a figure, &c. 
Fr. niche (G. nische) It. nicchia dim. of a word nidiculus, 
dim. of nidus, receptacle or case for books, lit. a nest Skt- 
riida, id. 

NICK. The evil one. Ford, in the Guide to Spain, 
would seem to suggest that Old Nick was so called after 
St. Nicholas, who, besides being patron of schoolboys and 
portionless virgins, was also patron of robbers ; but the 
most probable origin of the nam e is from Nykr, in the 
Northern Mythology, an evil spirit of the waters. Sharon 
Turner calls him Nechus, and says he was a malign deity 
who frequented the waters. According to Nares, Nick and 
Old Nick are from northern languages Icel. Sw. or Dan., 
where Nicka, Nicken, and Nicker mean the devil. Sir W. 
Temple (on Poetry, vol. x. p. 431) says Old Nick was a 
sprite that came to strangle people who fell into the water. 
Cleasby gives Icel. nykr, " the nick," a fabulous water-goblin, 
mostly appearing in the shape of a grey water-horse, emerg- 
ing from lakes, to be recognised by its inverted hoofs ; and 
he adds, in Mod. Norse tales a water-spirit is called nykk or 
nok (riokken). Rev. C. Rogers, D.D. (Social Life in Scotland, 
p. 203), says the popular term for the devil is derived from 
Dan. niken or necken, to destroy ; and he adds Knicker was 
one of the names of Odin, the destroying or evil spirit. 
Conf. Ed. Rev. for March 1827, and my Verba Nominalia- 
Macaulay (Essay on Machiavelli) says that, while the Church 
of Rome has pronounced Machiavelli's works accursed, Eng- 
lishmen have coined out of his surname an epithet for a 
knave, and out of his Christian name a synonym for the devil, 


but he admits there is a schism on this subject amongst anti- 
quarians or philologists. Still, his explanation is as old as 
Hudibras, whom he quotes : 

" Nick Machiavel had ne'er a trick, 
Tho' he gave his name to our Old Nick." 

(Conf. Sat. Rev. May 7, 1877, p. 644.) 

NODE. Hard swelling generally arising out of the bone 
or the periosteum. See NOOSE. 

NOOK, NOK, NOKE, NEUK. Corner, recess r. of 

NOOSE. Running knot L. nodus, knot ; by change 
of x to d, from nexus, a tying necto, to join together. Node 
and knot are the same word, only the former comes direct, 
the latter through A.S. cnotta. 

NORTH. The cardinal point A.S. north vepOev, vepOe, 
below, beneath, in lower regions, under (yen?;? vepOe, II. 14, 
204; vepOev, Od. II, 302) = evepOe, evepdev below, beneath cv 
in, cpa the earth. 

NUPSEN (in Ben Jonson and Grose, Nupsori). A fool, 
simpleton. Conf Webster's nup, a fool ; Sco. nupe, protuber- 
ance ; noup, nups, a round-headed eminence ; nub, knot, 
round head of a staff, round wooden handle ; L. nuptus, which 
Littleton renders a man in woman's clothes, married instead 
of a woman, a male bride (?) : Gr. wi/<ios, husband, bride- 

NUT, NOTE, NUTE, NUTTE. Fruit of certain trees 
A.S. hnut (O. Sw. not, nyt, nutt) L. mix; by dropping 
guttural (as in nosco, natus) from a word gnux, from a word 
gnodus r. of NODE and NOOSE, q.v. 



OAK, OOK, OK. Tree so called. A.S. etc, ac (D. eek, 
eik, Sw. ek, Dan. egg, eg,. Platt. eke, G. eiche, eich, Ice. eik), 
by dropping first letter from <f>r]yo<s, an oak (also its fruit). 

OAR, AR, OOR, ORE, OARE. Instrument for rowing 
A.S. dr Dan. arre Skt. aritra, oar, rudder, helm ; lit. 
propelling, driving ri, to move. 

OBOLUS (L.) In ancient Greece, a small coin of iron or 
copper in form of a spit or dagger Gr. o/3oAos, o/2eAos, 
spit /JeAos, dart. It is now represented by the AeTrra, lit. 

OBSCENE. Indecent, offensive, disgusting, filthy L. 
obscenus, obscoenus, "quia turpia immunda sunt" obs for ob, 
upon, near; ccenum, dirt, filth, mud. But see Varro, 7 L. L. 5 ; 
Priscian, 9, p. 872, Putsch, trad.; Verrius apud Fest. in Oscum, 
p. 198 (Miiller) ; Vossius, and Forcellini. 

OCEAN, OCEANE. The great sea. L. oceanus Gr. 
toKcavos WKOS, swift, rapid ; vao>, to flow. 

ODIC. Pertaining to the peculiar force or influence 
called od, which some derive from the Scandinavian deity 
Odin, who was supposed to be the all-pervading spirit of 

OGHAM, OGUM, Occult manner of writing used by 
the ancient Irish, one species of which is said to have been 
invented by Ogma, son of Elathan, King of Ireland. Conf. 
O'Donovan (John), Diet., Dublin, 1845, 8vo, introd. xxxvii. 

OGRES. Imaginary Eastern monsters which figure in 
many fairy tales ; so called from the Ogurs or Onogurs, 
savage Asiatic horde which overran part of Europe about 


the middle of the 5th Century; whence the Hungarians 
derived their name ; thus, Ogur, Ugur, Unger, Hungarii. 


OLEANDER. The tree O. Fr. oleandre, said to be 
corrupted from Low L. lorandrum. But its Low L. name was 
arodandarum (var. arodandruni), and, according to Isidore, 
lorandum was substituted for arodandarum because its leaves 
are like to the laurel (laurus). Again, arodandarum is a 
corruption of rhododendrum, which was adopted by Linnaeus 
from Dioscorides, whose poSoSevSpov is, however, merely a 
synonym to his vfpiov (our nerium], the poSo8a<f>vr] of the 
modern Greeks. Conf. Isid. Orig. lib. 17, cap. vii. sec. 64 ; 
and Papias, MS. Bituric. 

OLFEND. Old word said to mean camel, but properly 
elephant alfyn (var. alphyn, alfino, alphino, aufin, awfiyn, 
alphilus, alferez, arfil, alfiere\ original name for the bishop in 
chess, a word borrowed by the Spaniards from the Moors 
r. of ELEPHANT, q.v. See also Sat. Mag. 27 Feb. 1841, on 
origin of names of chessmen. Conf. also Goth, albandus, a 

OLIVE, OLYVE, OLIUE. The fruit of the olive-tree 
Fr. olive oliva, olea, the fruit and tree Gr. cXaia, id. ; said 
to be from Skt. li, to melt, liquify ; but the Skt. has a word 
for the' tree and the berry. 

OMBRE, HOMBER, HUMBER. Game of cards played 
by three (O. Fr.) Fr. hombre Sp. hombre, game said to be so 
called on account of the thought required to play it ; a game 
worthy of man (hombre L. homo}. But the game was rather 
so called from the player, hombre, " the man," who enters the 
pool (Sp. polla] against the others (" Sp. hombre, en el jue'go 
se dice el que entra la p611a, por jugarla solo contra los 


otros "). Hence we read, " L'hombre a gagne". Qui est 
1'hombre ? C'est lui qui est 1'hombre. M. N. est 1'hombre." 
Conf. Richelet (Diet, de la Lang. Frang. 1769 ; Ch. de M6re", 
le Livre du Jeu de 1'Hombre; Dice, de la Accad. Espan. > 
and Bescherelle, Diet. Frang. 

OMEN (L.) Sign, good or bad ; prognostic (Latham). 
Fisher (115, ed. Miiller) says omen is for oremen os, oris, 
mouth " quod fit ore augurium, quod non avibus aliove modo 
fit." Varro (L. L. 7, 71, sec. 76) says omen is for osmen, lit. 
the thing spoken;" omen, quod ex ore primum elatum est, 
osmen dicitur." Osmen is from os, mouth ; lit. eating thing 
Skt. as, to eat. 

OMNIBUS. The public vehicle (Fr.) L. omnibus, for 
all omnis, all, for a word ominis Gr. o/x,as, o/x-aSos, whole 
(aTro TOV oju-a>s, simul). 

ONAGER. Wild ass of the Asiatic deserts (L.) Gr. 
ovaypos ovos ass, ay/nos wild. 

ONE. Person conceived or spoken of indefinitely, as in 
phrase " One says " O. Fr. on, var. ons, ome, omme, hon, 
hons, horn, home, horns L. homo, a man. Conf. Fr. on dit, 
G. man sagt. 

ONEYERS. " I am joined with no foot-land rakers, no 
long-staff sixpenny strikers, none of these mad mustachio 
purple-hued malt-worms ; but with nobility and tranquillity, 
burgomasters and great oneyers, such as can hold in." H. IV. 
Pt. i. ii. i. The first 4to has oneyres ; second and subsequent 
copies, oneyers. Sir Thos. Hanmer reads owners; Dr. John- 
son, great ones, with cant termination " great oneyers, or great 
one-eers, as we say privateer, auctioneer, circuiter." Capell 
reads great mynheers ; Pope suggests great oneraires = trustees 
or commissioners. Theobald, on authority of Hardinge, 


reads, great money ers, and says "a money er (found momyors, 
moniers] is an officer of the Mint who makes coin. Moneyers 
are also taken for bankers, or those that make it their 
trade to turn and re-turn money." Malone writes " onyers" 
public accountants, men possessed of large sums of money 
belonging to the State;" and he suggests a probable origin 
of the word, which is also found in Cowel's Law Diet. 
(1727) under " O. NI. :" "In the Exchequer, as soon as a 
sheriff enters his accounts for issues, amerciaments, and 
mean profits, they set upon his head (sic) this mark O. NI., 
which denotes Oneratur, nisi habet sufficientem exonerationem ; 
and thereupon he forthwith becomes the king's debtor, and 
a debet set upon his head, and then the parties peravayle 
(lowest tenant) become debtors to the sheriff, and discharged 
against the king; Co. 4 Inst. fol. 116." Malone adds, "To 
settle accounts in this manner is still called in the Exchequer 
to 'ony;' and perhaps hence Shakspeare formed the word 
onyers." See also Ruding (Annals of the Coinage of Great 

OPINION. Sentiments, judgment L. opinions opinio, 
opinion, judgment obs. opinio^ to think, judge, suppose Gr. 
VTTL voeu), to think secretly, conjecture wrw, under, in, with ; 
vocw, to have in the mind vous, mind. 

OPOPANAX, vulgb OPAPONAX. Gum resin formerly 
used in medicine Gr. OTrovava^, juice of plant rrava/ces, 
all-healing TTO.V all, aKew to cure. Conf. Theoph. Hist. Plants, 
lib. ix. c. 12 ; Diosc. lib. iii. 55. 

OPPIDAN. Inhabitant of a town ; lit. relating to a town 
L. oppidanus oppidum, oppedum, opidum, any town, any besides 
Rome ; lit. a walled town, so named because those who flock to 
it become wealthy, or because in towns they bring together 


their wealth, or because a town is built for wealth, or to 
protect it ope ops, wealth, riches Skt. pa, to obtain. Conf. 
Paulus apud Fest. p. 184 (Miiller) ; Cic. apud Festus ; Varr. 
L. L. iv. 32 ; Pomp. Dig. 50, 15, 239, sec. 7 ; and Forcel- 

ORCHID. British plants so called, chiefly of the genera 
Orchis and Ophrys (Latham) ; properly orchis, old name 
alluding to testicular shape so remarkable in roots of many 
species ; indeed, the resemblance caused these roots to be 
used as an aphrodisiac or restorative L. orchis G. 
(Conf. Theoph. H. p. 9, 18; 3 Dios. 3, 141.) Hence 
kind of olive, so called from its shape. 

ORDEFF, ORDEF. Word frequently used in charters of 
privileges for a liberty whereby a man claims the ore found in 
his own ground. It properly signifies ore lying under ground 
(just as a del/or deff ot coal is coal in veins under ground) 
A.S. or ore, delfan to dig. 

ORGANZINE. Corded or thrown silk that has passed 
twice through the mill Fr. organsin(G. organsin, die organ - 
seide) It. organzino organo, mechanical instrument fitted 
for a particular use. 

OS SACRUM (L.) Bone which forms posterior part of 
pelvis, the sacred bone ; so called because it contributes to pro- 
tect genital organs, which were considered sacred, or because 
it was offered in sacrifice. Conf. DUNGLISON. 

OSCILLATE. To swing or sway to and fro L. oscillatus 
oscillo, to swing (whence oscillum, a swing) obs, ob, towards, 
to, before ; cillo, to move, put in motion do, to move 
Gr. KIW, to go eta, id. 

OUNCE, UNCE. Unit of weight O. Fr. unceL. undo. 
Gr. ouyyia, ovy/aa Ar. ajJjU, wdkiyah. 


OVEN, OUEN. Place for baking bread, &c. A.S. ofen, 
ofn (Goth, auhns}, by change of p to f from Gr. nrvov 
ITTVOS, oven, furnace. 

OVATION. Any extraordinary and spontaneous exhibi- 
tion of honour paid to a public favourite L. ovatione ovatio, 
inferior kind of triumph ; according to Plutarch and Servius 
from ovts y a sheep, because the general sacrificed a sheep on 
the occasion. The word comes rather from ovo, to celebrate 
or keep such triumph ; lit. to exult, rejoice, shout " Evoe" at 
the festival of Bacchus ; like euoi, natural sound. 

OVERSLAUGH. Bar of a river, in the marine language 
of the Dutch (local, N.Y., Bartlett}M.o&. D. overslag, a 


by Scandinavian and German antiquaries to a variety of the 
bronze instrument known as celt, a name which Mr. Thorns 
recommended for adoption by English archaeologists. Ogilvie 
defines it as " a wedge- or axe-shaped weapon united to a 
cleft haft, used by Celtic nations. But see Archasologia, 
vol. ii. p. 74, which gives a representation of a variety of the 
paalstav still used in Iceland, and there called by that name. 
The word is from Icel. pallr stake, stafr staff. 

PACE (L.) Lit. with the peace, i.q. the tacit consent, of 
the person addressed pax, peace r. of peace. 

PAGAN. Heathen, idolater; lit. countryman L. paganus, 
lit. belonging to the country or to villages pagus, a village 
Gr. Trayos, rocky hill, because villages were built on hills. 

for the cowslip. Minshew says, of cowslip of Jerusalem, 



" paralytica, qu6d paralyticos sanet : because it is good against 
the palsie, G. schwindel-kraut" Another medical writer says 
of paigil peagle, " the flowers are used in infusion, and are 
supposed to be antispasmodic and anodyne." Again, Lindley: 
" the flowers of the cowslip (P. veris) possess well-marked 
sedative and diaphoretic properties, and make a pleasant 
soporific wine ; its root has a smell resembling anise, and 
was formerly used as a tonic nervine, and also as a diuretic." 
Again, the French names for cowslip are herbe a la paralysis, 
herbe de paralysie, and fleur de paralysie ; and the W. has parly s 
for palsy, and llsiaifr parlys, the herb or plant palsy, the 
oxlip. I derive paigle thus: Paralysis, parlys, palys ; by 
change of y to g, and by inversion, paigles ; then paigle. 
Conf. my note in N. & Q. 6th S. viii. 249. 

PAIL, PAILE, PAYLE, PEAL. Vessel in which milk or 
water is carried Gr. TreAAa, TreAA?;, milk-pail. 

PALUMPOUR, PALINPORE. Indian covering for a couch 
or bed ; Indian cotton bed quilt or hanging ; embroidered 
shawl or robe worn as a sign of rank ; so called from 
Palampur, town in Kangra district, Punjab ; or Palanpur, 
name of a native state, and of its chief town, prov. Guzerat, 
Bombay. Conf. my note in N. & Q. 6th S. viii. 387 ; ix. 72. 

PALATE, PALET. Roof or upper part of mouth ; taste, 
relish O. fr.palat L. palatum, id. ; properly the fed thing; 
thing, or rather part of thing, affected or influenced by feed- 
ing or food Gr. iraw, to feed Skt. pd, to drink, swallow up. 

PALETOT. Loose overcoat Fr. paletot pizletoque (Sp. 
paletoque, Bret, paltok), peasant's garment, properly garment 
with a cap or hood L. palla, garment worn by Greek and 
Roman ladies ; and Fr. toque, cap. 


PALL. Covering thrown over the dead O. Fr. poelle, 
which Nicot renders " un dai's ou ciel quarr6 a pente es 
quatre costez frang^es ou non, port6 a chascun des quatre 
coings sur un baston, dont on use es processions et entries 
de roys et princes en leur villes" L., pallium, a pall, curtain 
palla, id. 

PAMPAS. Name given to the extensive plains in the 
southern parts of S. America (Sp.) Quichua pampa, a 

PAMPERO. Wind from the pampas of La Plata. See 

in Low L., in accusative case, PANFLETOS and PAM- 
PLETOS. Small book sold unbound, and only stitched- 
The earliest-known (1344) spelling of the word is the pi. 
panfletos, which was no doubt formed from a word panflet* 
corrupted from a Low L. compound pagina-fileta, a stitched 
leaf (of paper). In N. & Q. (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 7th 
S. passini) are found twelve more suggestions two from 
surnames, and the rest from the Greek, Latin, French, 
Spanish, and Dutch languages. The least objectionable is 
that from Sp.papelefa, dim. of papel, paper, from which, with 
an infixed m, pamphlet might have been formed. 

PANT, PANTEN. To palpitate imitative word, like 
Fr. panteler. 

(L.) Gr. 7rav0i7p, variety of the leopard inhabiting Africa 
and India ; about = wholly ferocious rrav all, Oyp beast. 

PANTRY, PANTRIE, PANTERY. Room or closet for 


provisions O. Fr. paneterie Low L. panetaria, place where 
bread was made pane/a, maker of bread L. pant's, bread 
Gr. Travos, bread, word of the Messapii (also an epithet of 
Jupiter, yschyl. Eum. 997) Traw, to feed. See PALATE. 

PAP. Food for infants ~L.papa, word uttered by infants 
in calling for food. Var., ap. Non., 81, 4, says, " cum cibum 
ac potionem buas ac papas vocant." 

PAPAYOTIN. Vegetable ferment from the papaw tree 
(Carica papaya) used in diphtheria, but with no very definite 
results. Conf. Lancet, n July, 1885, P- 86, col. 2. 

called, of genus Selinum O. Fr. persil Low L. petrosillum 
L. petroselinum (whence O. Fr. persiri) Gr. TrcrpocreAti/ov, not 
parsley that grows on, but amongst, rocks Trerpos rock, 
creXivov (whence celery) kind of parsley. The Greek word 
is found in Dioscorides and Galen. It relates to the Mace- 
donian parsley, whereas our parsley or smallage is thought 
to be the eAetoseXtvov and o-eXivov lopratov, i.e. marsh parsley 
and garden parsley of the ancients, according to Alston. 
By the bye, Sanskrit name is aja-moda, goat's delight. 

PAUNCH, PAUNCHE. The belly O. Fr. panche 
pance L. pantice, pantex, id., so called because it receives all 
foods Gr. Travra, all things. 

PEAL, PEEL. Name for a salmon under 2$. weight 
Sco. peelie thin, meagre ? 

PEAR, PEARE, PERE. The fruit so called A.S. pera 
L. pirum, pyrum irvp, fire, in supposed allusion to its 
pyramidal form. 

PECTEN. Scallop, genus of Ostreidae L. pecten, kind 
of shellfish ; so called because its shell resembles a broad 
comb pecten, a comb. It is probable that the large comb 


worn by English ladies at back of the head resembles that 
formerly worn by Roman ladies. 

PEDE. Where's Pede ? " M. W. W. v. 5. The fo. of 
1623 has Bedt\ that of 1632 and the quartos, Pead\ Malone 
and Theobald, Pede ; Collier, JBede. According to some, 
the name was chosen to indicate the smallness of the fairy, 
or that it might be the same as " Kate's a pretty peat ! " in T. 
of S., where it is^by some rendered pet, fondling, darling, in 
both of which cases it would be from Fr. petit. But conf. L. 
pcetus, rendered by Littleton pink-eyed, that has little leering 
eyes. " Si poeta est, Veneris similis" (Ov.) In Plautus and 
Horace pcetus signifies one that has a cast in his eye, and 
Cicero has the dim. pcetulus. 

lineage, account of descent. The earliest spelling of the 
term is pe de gres, which might translate foot of descent, 
degree, generation, or ladder O. Fr. pi, foot; gre, gres 
L. gradus. Other suggestions are, from par de gres, gres or 
degres des peres, par de grez, pes graduum, petendo gradum, and 
pied de grue, foot of the crane, " because the crane rests a 
long time on one leg" (Thierry}. See also Roquefort, 
Dufresne, Godefroy (Die. Anc. Lang. Fran$), Encyc. Metrop., 
P. Cyc., Prompt. Parv., Thierry (Norm. Conq.), Littre', and 
N. & Q. 2nd S. iv. ; 3rd S. viii. ; 6th S. i. 

PEED. Blind of one eye (N.C. obs.) ; perhaps from 
pee, to look with one eye, still used in Cumberland. " He 
pees, he looks with one eye " (Ray}. Or it may be allied 
to peep. 

PELICAN. Aquatic bird remarkable for the great length 
and breadth of its bill L. pelicanus, pelecanus Gr. 


so called because the bill, which is broad and flat, has a faint 
resemblance to a hatchet 7reAe*eus, axe, which some com- 
pare with Skt. para$u, ax, hatchet ; but the Gr. word is 
more probably from Heb. >*}, palag, to cleave, divide, 
whence TreAayoe, the sea. 

PELVEN. A stone smaller than the menhir, but, like it, 
placed upright. Qu. from W. pil shaft, Corn, ven stone, or 
vean little. 

PENGUIN, PINGUIN. Aquatic bird. Some derive the 
name from Bret, pen gwenn, white head, but the bird has 
usually a black head. The word, which in Fr. is pingouin and 
pinguin, in It. pinguino^ in G. ptngutn, also fettgans, fat goose, 
is from L. pinguis, fat (like densus from Sasvs) Gr. ira^vs, id. 
By the bye, the name pingui has been applied to quite a dif- 
ferent bird found in an islet under the Equator. 

PERDITION. Destruction, ruin, death (Fr.) L. 
perditione perditio perditus perdo, lit. to destroy, ruin Gr. 
7rep0<o, to waste, destroy. 

PESSARY. Instrument to prevent or remedy prolapsus 
of the uterus Fr. pessaire L. pessarium, Theod. ; Prise. 3, 5 ; 
pessum (pessus) Gr. 7rnros (Trctrcrov), Theoph. ii. P. 8, 20, 4; 
Dios. i. 142, 2, 66 So called from the shape, says Donnegan, 
resembling a stone or die used for playing at draughts. 

PETTY. Small Fr. petit, lit. something so small that 
it must be sought pelitus, sought peio, to seek after. 

PHRENES. Ancient term for the prsecordia and dia- 
phragm, both of which were supposed to be the seat of the 
mind Gr. ^p^vrjs, pi. of <[>prjv, diaphragm, also the mind, 

PIBROCK. Wild irregular sort of music peculiar to 
Scottish Highlanders Gael, piobaireachd, pipe music piobair, 


Highland bagpiper ; lit. piper of any sort piob pipe, fhear 

PICAROON. Ship so called, properly pirate corsair 
Sp. picaron, great rogue, villain ; augment, of picaro, rogue, 

PIE. A pasty ; corrupted from D. or O.G. pastei 
Low L. pastata O.F. paste, r. of paste. 

PIGEON ENGLISH. Jargon used in Chinese ports 
between English and American merchants and native traders ; 
whose vocabulary is principally corrupted from English, but 
contains some Chinese, Portuguese, and Malay words, and 
whose grammar is Chinese. Chinese corruption of business 

PILLORY, PILORY. Frame erected on a pillar, made 
with holes and moveable boards, through which the heads 
and hands of criminals are put (Latham) Fr.pilori (O. Fr. 
pellori, pillorit, D. piloriin} Low ~L>. pilloricum (also pilloriacum, 
piloria, pilorium, spilorium, spillorium) L. pila, which Manage 
translates a great mass of wood (properly a pillar); thus, 
pila, pilula, pilura, pilurica, piluricia, piluricum, pilori. Low L. 
has also collistrigium (collum and strigens} for a pillory. 

PINE. The tree A.S. pin, or Fr. pin L. pinus, id. ; 
corrupted from a word TTTWT; TTITVS, id. 

APPYLLE. The fruit so called from resemblance to the 
cones of the pine-tree. 

PINK. To work in eyelet-holes, to pierce with small 
holes ; indirectly from L puncius pungo, to prick. 

PINK, P1NKE. Ship with very narrow stern, used 
chiefly in the Mediterranean O.D. pincke (Fr. pinque] late 
L. pincce, pinks or small ships pictce (Pictse Britannis sunt 


scaphse exploratione : Vegetius], small swift vessels used by 
the Britons, and rowed with many oars ; properly picatce, 
scil. naves, i.e. ships covered with pitch. 

PINNACE. Small boat navigated with oars and sails 
Ptg.pmdca (Sp. pindza, Fr. pinace, pinasse), so called because 
originally made of pine pinho, pine-wood L. pinus. 

PIP, PIPPE, PYPPE. Disease of fowls O. Fr. pepie 
L. pituita, id. ; lit. phlegm, rheum Gr. irrvw, to spit out 
or up. 

PIQUET. A game of cards. There are several sugges- 
tions as to the origin of the term. Some say it was named 
from its inventor ; according to others, twelve cards are given 
to each player, who, up to a certain number, chooses the 
cards he wishes to keep, and throws out the others ; and 
from such choice the game was originally called piquo, 
which in Keltic signifies to choose (Conf. W. pigo, to pick, 
choose). J. B. Bullet (Recherches Historiques sur les Cartes 
a Jouer, 1757, P- J 43) savs > "si l e premier qui joue compte 
30 points sans que son adversaire en compte aucun ; alors il 
compte 60 au lieu de 30 : cela s'appelle Pic. Le Repic c'est 
quand on compte 30 sur table, sans jouer les cartes : alors on 
compte 90. Pic en Celtique signifie double : Repic signifie 
ce qui se redouble, ce qu'on double une seconde fois. C'est 
la pr6cis6ment le sens de ces expressions." Chatto (Playing 
Cards) says, in the time of Pere Daniel the coat cards were 
divided into suit kings, queens, and valets : the suit com- 
prised cceur, carreau, trifle, pique; and piques and carreaux 
signify magazines of arms, which ought always to be well 
stored. He adds, cceurs (hearts) signified the courage of the 
commanders and the soldiers ; and that trifle or clover plant, 
which abounds in the meadows of France, denotes that a 


general ought always to encamp his army in places where he 
may obtain forage for his cavalry. 

PITH, PITHE. Soft and spongy part of stems and 
trunks of trees A.S. pitha D. peddick {peddick int hout = 
medulla in ligno) Prov. G. peddick G. peek (Mod. D. pit, 
pek, pitch) L. pice pix, pitch Gr. irura-a, Trirra, id. 

PISCES. Twelfth sign or constellation of the Zodiac ; 
lit. fourth class of animals of order Vertebrata of Cuvier ; fishes 
L. pisces piscis, from word AX#US 1 X^ VS > l ^- ^ vs straight, 
Ion. & Ep. form of Att. >0us, id. 

PLANE, PLANE-TREE. From Fr. plane platane 
L. platanus Gr. TrXaravos ; so called on account of its broad 
leaves TrXarus, wide, broad r. of broad. 

PLAUSIBLE. Specious; lit. deserving of applause 
L. plausibilis, id. ; lit. clapping of hands in token of approba- 
tion plaudo, lit. to clap, strike, beat plodo, word formed by 

PLOD. To toil, drudge ; especially, to study heavily, with 
steady diligence ; lit. to labour earnestly in a business D. 
ploeghen, to plod, lit. to plough (ploegen en zweeten, to toil and 
moil ; ploeger, plougher, toiler, plodder). 

PLUMB, PLOMBE, PLOMB, PLOM. Leaden weight 
let down at end of line Fr. plomb, lead L. plumbum, 
metath. of Gr. //,o\v/3Sov /xoAv/3Sos, lead. 

POETASTER. Petty or paltry poet, pitiful writer of 

" Let no poetaster command or intreat 
Another, extempore verses to make." 


Sp. poeidsiro, bad poet poeta, poet; astro (fern, dstrd) 
denoting inferiority with contempt = Fr. dtre. Conf. Sp. 
file/astro, hijdstro, madrdsta, medicdsiro, padrdsto. 


vessel of three masts terminating with long point It.' poldcca, 
poldcra (Fr. polaque) Gr. TTO\V much, axpa point. 

PULCAT. Animal akin to the marten ; so called because it 
makes havoc in the poultry yard O.E. poll, polk, to strip, 
plunder, and cat ; or, as others say, from Fr. poule hen, and 

Sort of coarse cloth or canvas, sort of sail-cloth, first made 
at Poldavid (formerly Pouldavy), town of Bre"tagne on 
Douarnenez Water. Conf. my Verba Nominalia. 

POLKA. Polish dance Pol. polka, lit. Polish woman 
polkak, Polish man. Conf. Polonaise, the dance. Fr. for a Polish 

PONGO. Popular name for Simia satyrus, often applied 
to other anthropoid apes. An African word. Conf. Zulu 
im-pongo, he-goat, also a person with a protruding fore- 

PONTIFEX. In Rome, a priest who had the super- 
intendence of religion and ceremonies. The pontifices are 
said to have had their name from having built the Pons 
Sublicius, to enable them to perform sacrifices on both banks 
of the Tiber. But the bridge in question was built by Ancus 
Martius, second king after Numa. Whether they were called 
pontifices before or after the building of the bridge in question, 
it is probable they got their name from the fact that their first 
duty was to make and repair a bridge or bridges pons bridge, 
facere to make. Moreover, Greek and Latin writers some- 
times translate the word pontiff by ye<upo7roioi, i.e. bridge- 
makers. Conf. Varro, De Ling. Lat. iv. 83, ed. Miiller ; 


Livy, i. 33 ; Dion. lib. ii. 83 ; and see also Gottling, Gesch. 
d. Rom. Staatsv. 173; and Dr. Wm. Smith, Gr. & Rom. 
Antiq. 940. 

PONY, PONEY. Small horse Fr. puis-ne, younger 
puis afterwards, ne born L. post natus. 

POOL, POL. Small body of water A.S. pol, pool, marsh 
L. palus, pool, lake, standing water ; also moor, fen, marsh 
Dor. iraXos 7717X05, mud. 

POPLIN. Silk and worsted stuff, first made at Avignon, 
formerly part of Papal territories Fr. popeline O.Fr. papeline 
Pape, the Pope Low L. Papa, id. See my Verba Nomi- 

POPPY, POPY. Name of a flower A.S. popig, corrup. 
from L. papaver, which De Theis derives from Keltic papa t 
soft food containing poppy seeds given to infants to make 
them sleep. Vossius derives papaver from papare or pappare 
(to eat), " quod in cibo ejus usus sit multus." Meursius says 
from papare, to eat, " quia indebatur adversus insomniam." 

POPRIN. Name of a pear in R. & J. ii. (of the old 
copies) ; and in Chaucer and elsewhere written poperin, 
papering, popperin ; perhaps introduced into England by John 
Leland ; so called as coming from Poperinghe or Poperingen, 
in W. Flanders. 

PORK. Flesh of swine, fresh or salted 'L.porcoporcus, a 
pig Old| Attic Trop/cos, hog (Plato, Soph. 220 C), according 
to Varro, L. L. iv. p. 28 Ed. Bipont. Lycophr. 74. 

POSNET. Little basin, porringer, skillet, saucepan; 
according to some, dim. O. Fr. pos, tor pot. 

POSTULATE. In logic, position supposed or assumed 
L. postulatum, thing demanded postulo, to desire to have 
a thing of any one, which Riddle thinks may be from posco, 


to ask for, for poscitulo obs. supine poscitum ; or from postum, 
contrac. thereof. 

POTATO. Esculent plant of genus Solanum Ptg. batata 
(da terra) ; corrup. from papas, Quinto name of American 
epenawk, original of our potato. 

POTEEN, POTHEEN, POTTEEN. Irish whisky made 
in pots in the mountains, sometimes called "quiet still" 
Ir. poitin, small pot ; dim. of pota, potadh, pot or vessel. 

POUT. To sulk Fr. bonder, id. Conf. Rouchi boder, 
gonfler ; Piedm. fe'l bodou, avancer la levre infdrieure ; Mod. 
Prov. boud-enfld, boud-oufld, boud-ifld, gonfler. 

PROMULGATE. To publish; lit. to spread abroad, 
make publicly or commonly known L. promulgo, to spread 
forth in presence of the multitude pro, before ; mulgo for 
vulgo ; to spread among the multitude vulgus r. of 
FOLK, q.v. 

PROUD, PROUT, PRUD, PRUT. Arrogant, haughty 
A.S. prut, prit (Dan. prud, Su. Goth, prud, magnificent, 
adorned, W. pred, valuable, precious, dear) O.G. breti, 
proud, lit. broad, "quia superbi limites suos excedunt, et just6 
latius se extendunt," says Wachter. Others derive proud from 
nyxoros, first, foremost, contrac. of Trpoaros irporepos, before, 
in front, forward. 

PROVINCE, PROUINCE. Region, tract; lit. a 
conquered country, a country governed by a delegate (Fr.) 
L. provincia, country gained by the Romans by conquest, 
inheritance, or in any other manner; being subject to them, 
paying them tribute, and ruled by a governor sent from Rome 
every yearprovznco, to conquer before pro before, vinco to 
conquer : Fest. apud Paul. Diac. p. 226 (Mull.) " Provinciae 
appellantur qu6d populus Romanus eas provicit ; id est, 


ante vicit." See also Voss. in Etym. ; Isid. 14 Orig. 5, 19, 
and Forcellini (Tot. Lat. Lex.) 

O. Fr. proesse, prouesse, prouesce, proesce prou, brave, from a 
word probicia, from a word probitia L. probus, good, excellent, 
virtuous, whole ; contrac. of probatus, tried, tested, proved 
probo, to try, test. 

PRUDE. A woman over nice and scrupulous, and with 
false affectation O. Fr. prude, prode, preude, proude, femme 
vertueuse, femme forte prudens (fcemind), foreseeing. Roque- 
fort gives also prodefemme, femme honnete, vertueuse, remplie 
de merite, from same root. 

PTARMIGAN. Rare species of moor fowl seen on tops 
of highest Highland hills Gael, tarmachan, corruption of 
termagant, so called because all males of this genus fight 
furiously for their mates. 

PUCE. Colour between russet and black. Some derive 
the word from Fr. puce, a flea. It is more probably another 
form of puke, colour between black and russet Gr. Trey*?/, 
the fir-tree ; according to Buttmann from obs. TTUKO), to prick, 
" from the form of the leaves." 

of dirty water ; dim. of pool, with infixed d L. palus, pool, 
lake or standing water. Conf. Corn, pen, pedn ; guin, guidn ; 
van, vaddn Gr. TreXos, mud (lutuni). 

PUPIL, PUPILL. Apple of eye Fr. pupilleL. pupilla 
pupula, ball, apple or sight of the eye ; lit. little girl, because 
of the small image which appears therein, dim. of pupa, 
young girl, fern, of pupus, little child r. of puppy. 

BLYNDE. Near-sighted, dim-sighted. Skinner thinks that 


pore-blind may be from v. to pore, which Richardson renders 
" to peep, peep closely, minutely ; to look closely, earnestly ; 
perhaps same as peer or pere." First part of the word might 
also come from Trwpo?, blind ; but purblind is more probably 
a corruption of O. Fr. berlue, made sand-blind (Mod. Fr. berlue, 
faible lueur ; It. barluem, id.) ber, bar, used in a depreciative 
sense bes L. bis, twice ; and lue, for lueur, light. 

PYRAMID. Solid figure whose base is a polygon and 
whose sides are plain triangles, their several points meeting 
in one ; so named from the Egyptian structures L. pyramids 
pyramis Gr. Trvpa/xts. Some derive the Greek word from 
Trvpos, wheat, on the assumption that the pyramids were made 
for granaries ; others from irvp, fire, because of the pointed 
shape of a pyramid ; Kenrick, on the authority of Athenaeus 
(p. 646), from the cake called, which he believes was 
pyramidcal in shape ; and Rawlinson in confirmation says 
the words cr^taipa, KV/?OS, /cuXivSpos, KOVOS are all derived from 
familiar objects. But the word is more probably of Egyptian 
origin, not as Brugsch says, from pir-am-us = the edge of the 
pyramid, but, as Ignazio de Rossi says, from pe-ram " the 
lofty." If so, the word is derived from the Sahidic or 
Bashmuric article pe and the Coptic rama, which Tattam 
renders sublimitas, altitude (Kirch, p. 49), and compares 
with Heb. DVI, rum, altum esse. He adds " Arabes * j&, 
haram, pyramidem appellant." 


QUANDARY. State of difficulty or perplexity, doubt, 
uncertainty. Bellenden Kerr derives it from D. ghewaend 
deere, distress in fancy, imaginary mischief, supposititious 


disaster, evil hatched in the imagination ghewaend, p.p. of 
waenen, waanen, to fancy, imagine ; deere, dere, deijre, hurt, 
injury, mischief. It comes more probably from Fr. qu'en 
dirai-je ? what shall I say ? 

QUAY, KAY, KEY, KEYE, KEIE. Mole toward the 
sea for loading and unloading vessels O. Fr. quai, caye 
(Low L. caium) Armor, kae, quay, enclosure (Brit, cat, 
enclosure D. kaaie) L. cavea navium, enclosure for ships 
r. of cave and cage. See CAVE. 

QUERCITRON. Inner bark of Quercus tinctoria, used 
in tanning and in dyeing yellow Fr. quercitron, name said to 
have been given to it by Dr. Edward Bancroft on account of 
its colour L. quercus, oak ; and Fr. citron, citron. 

QUERCUS. Genus of trees, the oak (L.), contracted from 
Kara and Epxeios, epithet of Jupiter, guardian of enclosures, 
whose altar stood in middle of the court ; Soph. Antig. 488 ; 
also of halls, Herod, vi. 68 ep/cetos, pertaining to an enclosure 
or court ep/cos, enclosure. 

QUID, QUIDE. As a quid of tobacco. Ward's Diary, 
Ruler of Stratford-on-Avon, ed. by Dr. Severn, gives "a bark 
of a tree, which apothecaries call nescio quid: itt was first 
brought over to bee used by dyers, but, not answering 
expectation in their facultie, itt was made use of to scent 
tobacco ; itt gives a fine fragrant scent " (see Lit. Gaz., Ap. 
1839.) Others say quid means something chewed, a cud. 

QUITTER. Formation of little sinuses between crust 
and hoof of horses, by means whereof purulent matter se- 
creted from a wound makes its escape quit. 



RABBIT, RABBETT, RABET. Well-known burrowing 
rodent ; properly a cony in his first year. There are several 
suggestions as to origin of this word. Skinner derives it 
from L. rapidus, on account of its agility and swiftness. 
Minshew, after giving Belg. (D. ?) robbe, robbeken, thinks the 
animal got its name on account of its fecundity Heb. ym, 
rabah, coire. Junius says rabbet was formerly robbet, and he 
thinks the word a corruption of roughfet (rough foot, say 
D. rouwvoet}; and he compares it with Gr. SCUTUTTOUS (rough 
foot), a hare. I do not find robbe, robbeken, in Hexham's 
Dutch Diet. (1675), but he gives robbeknol, a little person 
with a great belly (perhaps compounded of knol, a turnip). 
Again, the Wallon has robett, a rabbit; tro d' robett, rabbit 
warren ; robett di geott, cabbage rabbit, i.e. domestic rabbit, in 
contradistinction to a warren rabbit ; also rdb, rdble, back of 
a quadruped ; and Littrd gives Fr. rabouilliere for a rabbit 
burrow, which he derives from Wallon robette (sic) lapin. 
Perhaps, after all, the word rabbit, or say rabet, was formed, 
like lapin and lapereau, which M6nage traces to lepus, leporis, 
by change of the genitive case, to lepi, lapi ; thus lapi, dim. 
lapittus, lapettus, by change of / to r and p to f to rapettus, 
whence Rabet. 

RACE. Tribe, family, people Fr. race (It. rdzza, Sp. 
rdza} L. radice radix, foundation, origin, source ; lit. root 
Gr. paSt, shoot, twig. Conf. stirps, progeny, race, family, 
lineage ; lit. stock, stem, root. 

RACEME. Cluster Fr. raceme L. racemo or racemi 
racemus, stalk of a cluster (of grapes, &c.) Gr. payos pa, 
berry of a grape, &c. 


RACHITIS, RHACHITIS. Disease of the bones, espe- 
cially of the vertebrae Gr. pa^ms (voo-os; see Stephanus), 
because supposed to originate in a fault of the spinal 
marrow ; lit. spinal marrow pa^is, spine. Conf. It. rachitide, 
Sp. raquitis, Fr. rachitis. 

RADICAL. In politics, an ultra-Liberal. " The applica- 
tion of the term Radical in politicks arose about 1818, when 
the popular leaders, Henry Hunt, Major Cartwright, and 
others, sought to obtain a Radical Reform in the representative 
system of Parliament. It never was applied to the Whigs as 
a party. Its origin may probably be traced to the writings of 
Lord Bolingbroke, who, in his Discourses on Parties, Let. 18, 
employs the term in its present accepted sense. He says, 
' Such a remedy might have wrought a radical cure of the 
evil that threatens our constitution.' " See Richardson's Diet. 

RAG, RAGGE. Tatter Gr. paicos, rag, i.e. what is rent 
or torn ; ragged garment ^Eol. payo>, to break, sever. 

RAM. Ancient military engine used for battering down 
walls ; translation of aries, its original name. The aries as an 
instrument for battering walls is said to have been invented 
by Artemanes of Calzomene, Greek architect who flourished 
441 B.C. The machine is thus described by Josephus : 
" It is a vast beam, like the mast of a ship, strengthened at 
one end with a head of iron, something resembling that of a 
ram, whence it took its name." Conf. Encyc. Brit. " Aries." 

RAMONEUR. Chimney sweep (Fr.) ramoner, to sweep 
a chimney ramon, a broom, word still in use in Picardy and 
some other parts of France obs. L. ramo, ramonis, augment, 
of ramus, branch, twig, because brooms were usually made of 
branches or twigs. 

RANCHERO. In Mexico, a herdsman; peasant em- 



ployed on a rancho Sp. ranchero; lit. the steward of a mess 
(rancheria, a hut or cottage where several labourers meet to 
mess together, horde ; rancheadero, place containing huts ; 
ranchedr, to build huts, to form a mess) rdncho, small hamlet 
or large farming establishment for rearing cattle and horses 
(thus distinguished from a hacienda, a cultivated farm or 
plantation) ; lit. a mess, a set of persons who eat and drink 

RANUNCULUS. Genus of plants including the crow- 
foots, kingcups, buttercups (L.) ; lit. a little frog, dim. of 
rana, id.; lit. one that utters a sound ranco, racco, to cry 
out. The reason for the name is doubtful. According to 
some, it alludes to the native habitat of the plant in bogs 
and watery places such as frogs frequent. Three species 
(lanuginosus, muricatus, and aquatilis) do so. but the (3a.Tpa.xiov 
(dim. of ySaTpa^os, a frog) of Dioscorides, the Ranunculus 
Asiaticus or garden ranunculus of Linnaeus, does not grow in 
wet places, but inhabits corn-fields. Ambrosianus hints at a 
resemblance between the root of the plant and the foot of a 
frog, which, however, is by no means apparent. Rees thinks 
it possible that in all these plants the leaves may have sug- 
gested the idea of a frog's foot, which is confirmed by the 
English name crowfoot. Latham says, " ftarpa-^iov, name of 
the plant, that, either from growing in the water or from 
being spawned over by frogs, suggested a connexion with that 

RARE. Scarce, uncommon, not frequent (Fr.) L. raro 
rarus, few, rare ; lit. not thick or dense, thin Gr. 
thin, slender, lean, slight a priv., and paios, i.q. paos 
light, easy. 

RASHER. Thin slice of bacon for broiling, &c., a word 


manufactured from L. rasura laridi, a shaving of bacon 
rasum, a shaving rado, to shave. The proper Latin word for 
rasher of bacon is lardi ofella, i.e. a collop of bacon. 

READY, REDY, REDI. Prompt, not delayed, prepared 
A.S. rcede Dan. rede, ready, prepared (O. Sw. rad, quick, 
prompt ; O.D. gereedt, ready) Gr. paStos, prompt, ready, ac- 
tive ; lit. easy. 

REAL, RE ALL. Actual, true, genuine O. Fr. real 
Low L. realis, belonging to a thing L. res, lit. anything 
thought rear, to think. Conf. words for thing in Hebrew, 
Greek, and German. 

REAL. Small Spanish coin, value about i\d. Sp. real, 
anc. redle redle, royal, i.e. royal money; perhaps so called 
from being stamped with the royal arms L. regalis, royal ; 
lit. pertaining to a king rex. 

RECTUM. Third and last portion of the large intestine ; 
properly intestinum rectum, straight intestine, because straight 
in its normal state, i.e. when foodless. 

RED, REED, REEDE, REOD. The colour A.S. redd 
Goth, rauds Gr epvOpos ; or through obs. L. rudher Skt. 
rudhira, red. 

REED. Aquatic grass of genus Arundo A.S. hre6d 
(G. ried, rief] L. retce, trees standing on the bank or in the 
bed of a stream. 

REEL, REILL. Lively Scottish dance Sco. reel, ret/, 
re ill Gael, ruidhil, id. ; lit. a hurl, wheel. 

REGATTA. Kind of boat-race (It.) Venet. regdta, 
contrac. of remigdta It. remigdre, to row L. remigare remus, 
an oar Gr. C/SCT/AOS c^erro* Attic of cpeo-crw, to row, move, 
impel ; L. ago, to act, move : thus e/ier/xos, remus, remus-ago, 
remigo, remigare, remigdta, regdta, regatta. 


REINDEER, RAINDEER. Species of deer, native of 
northern parts of continents of Europe and Asia G. rennthier, 
lit. the animal (thier) called renn Sw. ren, Tungusic oron, 
reindeer. Conf. Mandshu oroun, a propos of which Amyot 
says, " C'est le nom d'une espece de cerf dont la femelle 
ainsi que le male ont des comes . . . On apprivoise 
facilement cet animal, et on s'en sert comme d'une bete de 
charge ; on le bride : on dit aussi iren" Conf. also Mongol 
and Buriat oron, Kamstchatkan cerucehm, Mordwin olen (Russ. 
olen, deer). Hence G. elen-thier, elend-thier, Fr. elan ; and, 
by prefixing T and infixing 8, Gr. r-apav-Sos, L. iarandus. 

REINS, REINES, REYNES. Kidneys, lower part of 
back O. Fr. reins L. renes r. of PHRENES, q.v. 

RELEAT, RELEET. An Essex word for a spot where 
three roads meet three-to-leaf (found eleet, elite'} A.S. gelcste, 
a going out, exitus latan, to let go, leave. In Essex they 
also use four-to-leat and fi-to-leat, to indicate the point of 
junction of four or five roads. Conf. my Gloss, of Essex 

RELIGION. System of doctrine and worship regarded 
by its adherents as of Divine authority ; properly the prin- 
ciple which acts as a restraint on the conduct of men (Fr.) 
L. religione religio religo, to bind (" qu6d mentem religet," 
says Servius) re back, ligo to bind. But conf. Lucretius, 
i. 931; iv. 7; Cic. Invent, n, and N. D. u, 28; Gell. 4, 9, i; 
Lactantius, 4, 28 ; Augustine, Retract, i, 13 ; and Forcellini. 

REN (L.) Kidney Gr. <J>pr)v r. of PHRENES. q.v, 

RESEDA. Genus of plants, one species, R. odorata, 
being the plant mignonette L. reseda (but not same plant), 
the assuager reseda, to assuage, heal re again, sedo to allay, 
calm ; lit. to cause to sit. Pliny says the plant is known in 


the neighbourhood of Rimini, and is used for dispersing 
tumours and all kinds of inflammations ; and that the person 
who applies the medicine says "Reseda" allay all those 
diseases, and spitting at same time. 

RETALIATE. Lit. to return like for like Low L. 
retaliatum L. reta.Ho, id. re back, talio like to like (sine 
talione, with impunity: Martial, xii. 64, 10) talis, such, of 
such nature or kind, such like, from a word tamalis tarn, so, 
in such a degree. 

narrow web of silk worn for ornament Low L, rubanus 
rubus, red, because anciently the most beautiful ribbon; 
were of a red colour. Conf. Menage and Becherelle (Diet. 


Rode forth, to sompne a widewe, an old ribibe, 
Feining a cause, for he wold have a bribe. 

CH. C. T. 6, 895. 

An old bawd ; orig. small musical instrument, kind of fiddle, 
a rebec It. ribebba Ar. i_*\.*, , rabdb, or Pers. rubdb, sort of 

RIDDLING. Kentish name for a small shrimp ; dim. of 
riddle, a sieve, because very small shrimps will pass through a 

RIFE, RIF, RIVE, RYFE, RYVE. Prevalent, abundant 
O. Sw. rif, rife (Low G. rive, abundant), a word of Keltic 
origin. Conf. O.W. rhwf, too much, redundancy, excess ; 
rhy, rkwy, over much ; Mod. W. rhef, thick ; rhy, too much > 
Corn, re, Armor, re, ra, Gael. Ir. and Manx ro, Ir. ra, ru. 

RILL. Streamlet L. rivulus, little brook, dim of rivust 
RIVER, q.v. 


RIOT, RIOTE. Wild and loose festivity, sedition, up- 
roar O. Fr. riot, riote, bruit, tapage, combat, duel ; corrupt, 
from L. rixa, quarrel, brawl, dispute, contest, strife, con- 
tention : thus, rixa, riscum, riscotum, ricofum, riotum, riota, 
riote, riot. 

RIVER. Large stream L. rivus Gr. pcco, pixo, to flow 
Skt. ru, id. 

ROBIN, ROBBIN, ROBYN. The redbreast, named 
from the colour of its breast L. robus red. Conf. O. Fr. 
rubeline, Anjou rubiette, Maine rubienne, Low L. rubecula, a 

ROCK, ROCKE, ROKKE. Large stone or crag O. Fr. 
roke (It. rocca), by change of p to k from rupe rapes, cliff 
or steep rock. Conf. L. equus with Gr. wra-os ; L. aqua with 
Skt. ap, apa. 

ROCKET. Cankerworm L. eruca ruga, wrinkle, furrow, 
because it creeps into cabbages, gnaws them, and makes 

ROCKET, ROKET. Plant having a peculiar smell, used 
in Italy as an aphrodisiac It. ruchetta, dim. of ruca L. 
eruca (Brassica eruca), quasi urica uro, to burn. 

ROD, RODDE. Long twig Gr. pa/?Sos, staff, rod, 
wand paTriSos pa.m<s. rod, stick. 

ROGUE, ROGE. Knave, tramp, vagabond, sturdy 
beggar. Lambarde derives the word from L. rogafor, an 
asker or beggar, with which derivation Home Tooke and 
Dr. Johnson agree ; but the word is more probably from the 
Gaelic, through the Scotch. Extracts from Hyeway to Spytal 
House show that roger was in use in 1535 among the vaga- 
bond classes ; rugger occurs in a description of the Western 
Isles of Scotland in 1549. Jamieson renders ruggair, rugger, 


a depredator, one who seizes the property of others by force ; 
the Gael, ruagair (Ir. ruagaire] is a persecutor, pursuer, 
hunter, outlaw ruaig (Ir. ruag\ a flight, pursuit, chase. 

RORQUAL. Genus of large cetaceous mammals ; so 
called from the folds under the chin and throat Sw. ror, lit. 
reed or cane ; hval, whale. 

ROSE OF PROVINCE. Name of a rose used in 
Austria and Hungary for protection of railways from snow- 
drifts ; properly Rose of Provins, commune and town of 
France, dep. Seine-et-Marne, in whose vicinity roses are 
cultivated for perfumery and medical purposes. 

ROSS, ROSE. In geographical names in Cornwall, 
Wales, &c. Corn, ros, moor, mountain, peat land, common ; 
O.W. ros, Mod. W. rhos, Armor, ros, Gael. & Ir. ros, pro- 
montory, isthmus. 

ROSSIGNOL. The nightingale (Fr.) O. Fr. lousseignol 
L. lusciniola, dim. of luscinia (luscinius]. Salmon derives 
luscinia from lugeo to lament, bewail, and cano to sing (quia 
lugens canit) ; others from luscus and cano, or lucus, a grove, 
and cano, " quia canit in lucis." Manage says, " luscinius for 
luscinia luscus, blind of one eye. Isid. Orig. 12, 7, 37, 
derives luscinia from lux, light, because the bird sings at 
dawn. White and Riddle say, " the etymology from luscus 
and cano commonly assigned to this word (luscinia) cannot 
be so rightly, as that would give 'the blind or one-eyed 
songstress,' not, as it is interpreted by those who adopt this 
etymology, ' the twilight songstress,' or ' the bird singing at 
night.' Neither can the etymology from lux and cano, to 
which Isidore refers it, be correct, as the bird sings in the 
evening, and all night through, and sometimes in the day, 
not merely at dawn ; " and the same authors render luscinia, 


luscinius, liquid songstress ; lit. the loosened or flowing 
singing luo, to loosen. 

ROUND ROBIN. Originally a written petition, memo- 
rial, or remonstrance signed in such a manner that no name 
heads the list, the signatures being in a circle, and perhaps 
at first edged with a ribbon. Some derive the term from Fr. 
rond round, ruban ribbon ; but if of French origin it would 
be from ruban rond; and it is more probably from round 


And playen songes on a smal rublble. 

CK. C. T., Tht Millere's Tale, 145. 

Al can they play on giterne on rublble. 

Ib. The Coke's Tale, 32. 

Small musical instrument ; dim. of RIBIBE, q.v. 

RUE. The herb of grace Fr. rue L. ruta, the bitter 
herb, rue Gr. pvrr) pvo>, to free, because it frees from 
certain maladies. 

RUFF, RUFFE. A fish, which in its habits resembles the 
perch ; corrupted from L. orphus, a sea-fish Gr. op</>os, Att. 
op$<i, kind of perch that keeps concealed during winter 
(Aristoph. Vesp. 423) op<o)s, without light op ou, not ; <us 

RUM. Spirit distilled from cane-juice, &c. Fr. rhum, 
rum (It. rum, Port, rom, Sp. ran) L. saccharum, sugar collected 
from reeds Gr. o-ax^apov, r. of sugar. 

RUMMER, ROMER. Glass or drinking-cup O.D. 
roomer (O. Sw. remmare) ruym, large. 

RUPIA. Disease characterised by numerous isolated 
flattened bullae ; so called from bad smell of parts affected 
obs. Gr. pun-OS, dirt, foulness (sordesj. 


RURAL. Pertaining to the country L. ruralis rus, 
country Gr. apouo-a, ploughed or cultivated field, land, earth 
(apoupcuos, rural) apowo, to plough, epa the earth. 

RUSK. A brittle sort of biscuit Low G. rusken, to 
crackle (?), whence Sp. rosca de mar, sea rusks. 


SAINFOIN, SAINTFOIN. Native plant akin to peas, 
clover, &c., used and cultivated as fodder. Scheler derives 
it from saint holy, foin hay, because the Germans call it 
heilig-heu ; Latham, from sanctum holy, or sanum wholesome ; 
foenum hay. Onobrychis (of which sainfoin is the type) is 
from ovos ass, ySpv^w to bray, because its smell or taste makes 
the ass bray. Conf. Tournefort; Diosc. 3, 170, Galen, B. 

SALIVA. Spittle (It. & Sp. id.) L. saliva; accord- 
ing to Pliny so called because it has the taste of salt (sal) ; 
according to Isidore, because it leaps or springs in the 
mouth (" Qu6d in ore saliat"}. But saliva is rather from a 
word criaA/ov o-iaXov, spittle laAAw, to send forth. 

SALLOW, SALWE. Kind of willow A.S. seal, sealh 
(Fr. saule) L. salix Arcadian cXi/o;, with prefixed sibilant. 

SALTIER, SALTIERE. An ordinary in form of St. 
Andrew's cross or the letter X F r saltier, saltire O. Fr. 
saultoir, sort of stirrup used by knights to leap upon a horse 
saulter, to leap L. saltare. 

SAND, SOND. Fine particles of flint A.S. sand O.G. 
dialects sant, sond, samat, samad, samd Gr. /ra/xa0os, id. 
j/ratu, to make small, bruise small, pound. Conf. 
grains of sand ; a/mtfos a/xos, a/x/xos, sand. 


SAPPIOR. In Cornwall, name given to men employed 
in working and separating the tin from refuse of old stream- 
works and leavings of stamping-mills ; so called from moving 
up and down in the budles or buddies like dancers. See 
Carew's Cornwall, p. 28. The word is not found in Cornish : 
it may be a corruption of Fr. sauiier, leaper. 

SARN. Ancient British word for pavement or stepping- 
stones Conf. W. sarn, causeway, stepping-stones. 

large flat blocks of sandstone found on the chalk flats of 
Wiltshire, &c. ; according to some, for Saresyn (Saracen), 
i.e. heathen stones. Godfrey Higgins (Celtic Studies, v.), 
on the authority of Stukeley, says sarsen is a Phoenician 
word meaning a rock, and what is now understood by sarsen 
is a stone drawn from the native quarry in its rude state ; 
but the stones at Stonehenge are not unhewn, and the word 
is not found in Phoenician. The Hebrew has ~i, tzor, 
i.q. Ti tzur, a rock. Conf. N. & Q. ist S. xi. 494 ; 3rd S. vi. 
456, 523 ; vii. 43 ; and Geol. Mag. 1873, p. 199. 

SASKIN. Old piece of money Flem. seskin, piece of 
6 mites. See Snelling, View of Silver Coin of England. 

SATELLITE. An obsequious dependant, subordinate 
attendant, subservient follower O. Fr. satellite, sergeant, 
catchpole L. satellitis satelles, one that serves any person ; 
servant, attendant ; lit. one that guarded the prince's person. 
Vossius derives the L. word from Syr. btoo, satel, side, 
because a satellite keeps close to the side (qui latus stipat); 
others, by change of f to s and r to /, from Homer's 
fera-ip, -os, companion, comrade, which comes from /Vnjs, 
kinsmen and dependants of a great house ; lit. one of the 
same age. 


SCAR, SCARRE, SKAR, SKARRE. Mark of a wound 
O. Fr. escare L. eschara, scar Gr. eoyap, id., scab or 
eschar on a wound caused by burning ; lit. hearth, fire-place, 
grate etr^w, for r^w, to hold. 

SCINTILLA. Spark, glimmer ; lit. a little spark ; a 
term used in law, as scintilla juris ; according to Vossius, 
for spinthilla Gr. tnrivOrjp, scintilla ; but perhaps rather for 
scindilla scindo, to cut, because the flames appear as though 

SCORBUTIC. Relating to or affected with scurvy, from 
doctor's Latin scorbutus : not from D. scheur-buik, venter ruptus, 
as some assert, nor from Belg. scherpte or Dan. skarphed, 
acidity (acrimonia), but from O.D. scheur-buyck, which 
Hexham renders " the scurvie in the gumms " scheuren, to 
rend, crack ; buyck (now bek\ properly the jaw L. bucca. 
Conf. Low G. scormunt = rupta bucca, or rupta os, Gr. srcyt- 
KaK-q, scurvy of the gums. See also Me'nage under " Scorbut," 
quoting De Thou, Hist. torn. v. lib. 117, p. 719 ; and Wachter 

Extreme and passionate contempt or disdain O. Fr. escarn, 
derision It. schema, mockery, raillery, effront schernire, to 
scorn, ridicule, which Me'nage derives from L. spernere, to 
scorn ; at the same time comparing It. schiena and schiuma 
with L. spina and spuma. 

SCRATCH (OLD). Jocular term for the devil Icel. 
skratti, skrati, devil, imp, giant, ogre ; anc. wizard, warlock, 
goblin, monster (vatna skrafti, water-sprite, sea-monster), 
akin to Sw. skratia, to laugh loud and harshly. 

SCRAW. Surface, cut turf fobs.} Gael, sgrath, turf, 
green sward ; lit. peel, skin, rind of anything, bark of a tree. 


SEA, SEE, SE. Ocean A.S. s<z, se, siew Goth, saiws, 
id. eo>, to boil, seethe, be hot; because the sea is, as it 
were, &ov vSwp, aqua aestuans. 

SEDULOUS. Assiduous and diligent in application or 
pursuit L. sedulus, busy, diligent, zealous, careful ; lit. 
sitting fast, persisting (in some course of action) sedeo-, to 
sit Skt. sad, to sit ; lit. to sink down, lie down. 

SEENY. " Seeny-seed, whereof mustard is made " 
(Littleton) L. sinapi, mustard Gr. o-ivo.? O-U/O/ACH, to 
injure, " quod laedit oculos," says Littleton. 

SEGH. Species of wild deer. West (Hist. Furness) 
says that Furness forests abounded with bucks, does, 
wild boars, and seghs ; that Scofe was noted for a breed of 
large deer or seghs, and that in an old Glossary segh is 
interpreted "savage deer." See Whitaker*s Hist. Manchester, 
p. 277, 288. The word is from Ir. or Gael, segh, buffalo, 
moose- deer. 

SENESCHAL, SENESCHALL. One who had the care 
of feasts, domestic ceremonies, in great houses, &c. O. Fr. 
seneschal, rendered in French "premier officier ou surinten- 
datit de la maison du roi ; chef-d'armes, premier ministre, 
commandant de troupes, chef de la noblesse d'une province ; 
celui qui charge" de recouvrement des deniers d'une 
seigneurie ; which Prof. Skeat properly derives from Goth. 
sins old, skalks servant ; but the word probably came through 
Low L. senescallus, senescalcus, siniscalcus, prefect of a royal 
house, one next to the king; orig. chief of the servants, 
springing from them. Conf. G. ellerknecht, oberknecht. 

SENIOR. Older (L.) senex, old man, old ; contrac. of 
seminex, half dead, half slain semi, half Gr. ijfu ; and L. 
nex, death Gr. ye/cos. 


CYNET. Short flourish of trumpets (see Shak. Hen. VIII. 
ii. 4, and J. C. i. 2) O. Fr. senne, which Roquefort renders 
" annonce d'assemblee fait au son de la cloche qu'on 
appelloit seign " L. stgnum, sign. 

SENSE, SENCE. Faculty or power by which objects 
are perceived sensus, feeling, perception sentio, to feel, 
whether by senses or not ; according to Nunnes. ap. Voss., 
in Etym., by transposition from aia-OavofjMi, to perceive ; if so, 
from aurOa), to breathe out aua, to breathe. 

SEPULCHRE, SEPULCRE. Tomb, grave, burial-vault 
O. Fr. sepulcre L. sepulcrum for sepultum (like fulcrum for 
fultum, ambulacrum for ambulaturn] sepultus sepelio, to bury 
sepio, to enclose, hedge in. Others derive sepelio from se 
aside, pello to drive, thrust ; or from Gr. <rrrr\ka.iov, cave, grotto ; 
or Heb. shdfal, to be low, " ut sit humili loco condere." 

SERIOUS. Grave, solemn L. serins, grave, earnest ; 
according to Nonnius Marcellus, from sine risu, but rather 
corrupted from severus. See SEVERE. 

SEVERE. Serious, strict O. Fr. severe L. severus, lit. 
serious, earnest, which some derive from a word o-e/ifypos 
<re/3o/>uu, to venerate ; others from s&vus and verus. Isid. 10 
Orig. 250, says, " severus quasi SCEVUS verus ; tenet enim sine 
pietate justitiam;" Ainsworth, severus, qu. secus, i.e. juxta verus, 
vel qu6d satis verus" (Secus, nigh to ; juxta, even, alike, all 
one; satis, enough, sufficiently.) 

onion O.F. eschalote, corrup. from escalogne Sp. escaluna L. 
ascalonia (ccepa), a shallot Ascalonius, of Ascalon, where the 
plant grows wild, as it does in many parts of Syria. Pliny, 
Strabo, and Athenaeus tell us that the Romans imported 


allium ascalonium from Ascalon. Calmet adds, " the ancients 
praise the shalot, which takes its name from Ascalon." 

SHAWL. Article of dress, in Europe worn by females 
only Hind. (Pers.) JLs shdl, shawl or mantle made of very 
fine wool of a species of goat common in Thibet : also coarse 
mantle of wool and goats' hair, worn by dervishes, and a 
small carpet. The Persian word may have had its name from 
Shawl (Quetta), town and valley of Beluchistan, centre of 
traffic between Shikapoor, Kandahar, and Kelat. The town 
is not at present celebrated for its shawls, but carpets and 
blankets are made there in considerable quantities. 

SHEEP, SCHEEP. The animal A.S. sceap, seep (O.H.G. 
schaaf) L. ove, with sch prefixed ovis (Lith. avis) Gr. o^ts, 
ots Skt. am', is, sheep, ewe. 

SHIELD. Buckler A.S. scyld, sceld (D. schild, Dan. skidld, 
Icel. skjoldr, Goth, skildus) scylde, p. of scyldan, to protect, 
defend. Conf. O.G. schilt, skill skyla, to cover, protect ; 
O. Sw. skiol, a shield skyla, to cover; Icel. hlif, shield, 
protection hlifa, to protect ; Pol. sczyt, Boh. ssijt, shield 
O.G. schuten, to protect, cover. 

SHILLING. The coin A.S. sailing, scylling, scil (Dan. 
& Sw. shilling, Goth, skilligs, G. schilling}, scylan, to divide. 
Turner (Hist, of Ang. Saxons, vol. n.p. 132), who also suggests 
this derivation, concludes that the word means so much 
silver cut off, as in China, and that it was originally a certain 
quantity of uncoined metal. Conf. rouble, ruble Russ. rubite, 
to cut. 

vessel A.S. scip, scyp r. of SKIFF, q.v. 

SHRINE, SCHRIN, SCHRYNE. Place or object sacred 
from its history or associations ; an altar A.S. serin, a box 


L. serinium, lit. a wooden case for keeping papers, books, 
escritoire ; according to Vossius, from ypovy, cavern, grot, 
with prefixed s ; according to others, formed from L. scribo, to 
write ; but more probably, as Perottus suggests, from a word 
secernium, a place in which precious and secret things are 
put away secerno, to put apart. 

SHOULDER-SHOTTEN, Tam of S. iii. n. Sprained, 
dislocated in the shoulder shotten, shot out of its socket, p.p. 
of shoot. Conf. shotlen herring, a herring that has ejected its 

necting arm with body A.S. sculder, sculdor O. Sw. skuldra 
skyla (now skiule), to cover; or from skioldur, a shield, 
because resembling that piece of armour. 

SIGN. Mark, proof O. Fr. signe L. signum, any mark 
or sign Gr. i^yov ixvos, a mar k, with a prefixed sibilant. 

SIKE. A provincial word for a furrow A.S. sic, sich 
L. sulcus Gr. O\KOS, with a prefixed sibilant. Conf. stke, in 
the Lancashire dialect, a gutter, small stream ; Low L. sica, 
sicha, a ditch ; sichdum, sikettus, a little current of water 
which is dry in summer= wady. 

SILENCE. Stillness, quiet (Fr.) L. sUentiasilens, 
still sileo, to speak nothing; by change of g to / from 
Gr. o-iyaw, to be silent. 

A.S. seolfor, silfor O.S. silufar, silubar, silobar (O.G. silabar, 
silbar, silapa, O. Sw. silfwer, Goth, silubr), probably named 
from its white colour, like gull (gold) from its yellow colour 
Gr. oA<os (white), preceded by a sibilant. 

SIMPLE. Plain, artless ; lit. single, not complex (Fr.) ; 
contrac. of L. simplice simplex sine without, plica a fold. 


SINCERE. True, honest ; lit. pure, unmixed Fr. sincere. 
L. sincerus, natural, pure, entire sine cerd, without wax 
like honey which was not allowed to be mixed with wax 
(" ex sine et cerd, ut mel purum die. qu6d cera non est per- 
mixtum," says Ainsworth). Others say from a word crvy^/ws, 
without wax, because honey which still contains the wax and 
is freshly cut out is the most natural and genuine ; others, 
again, from <rw icrjpi, with heart. But conf. Donatus ad 
Ter. Eun. i. ii. 97; Ov. Met. iii. 199; Riddle (Scheller), and 
Forcellini (Lat. Lex.) 

SINGLE. Sole, separate, alone L. singulus, single, 
separate sine without, alius another ; or sine and ulus, for 
ullus, any, any one ; in both cases by inserting g. 

SINISTER. Unlucky, inauspicious sinister, unlucky, 
unfortunate, lit. that is on left hand ; from a word sinisterus, 
corrup. from Gr. apicrrcpos, the left, on the left. Other deriva- 
tions will be found in Vossius, Papias, Varro, and Cicero. 
See Riddle and Littleton's Diet. 

SKEANE. Short sword or knife used by Irish and Scottish 
Highlanders (hence skainsmates, Shak. Rom. & J. ii. 4) 
Ir. sgian (also scian ; Gael, sgian, W.jys&'en) Ar. ( jj^L sikkm 
(Heb. pttf, shakin, a knife) ; so called, says Lane, because 
it stills the animals slaughtered with it; and if so from 
sakuna, to become still. 

SKID, SCHIDE. Thin piece of wood put under a wheel 
A.S. scide (Icel. skith] Gr. crx&i], cleft piece of wood, 
splint, splinter O-KIW, to cleave, split. 

SKIFF, SKIFFE. Small flat-bottomed boat O. Fr. 
esquif (O.H.G. ski/} It. scdfa, id. L. scapha Gr. vKafy-q, 
id.; lit. a trough, tub, basin, bowl o-/ca<os, anything dug 


or scooped out <TKO.TTTU, to dig, excavate. Conf. Mod. It. 
piroscdfo, a steam-boat (from irvp, fire). 

SKIPPER. Master of a small merchant vessel Dan. 
skipper (Sw. skeppare), a captain skib (Sw. skepp\ ship r. of 
ship and SKIFF, q.v. 

SLAVE. Serf, bond-servant Fr. esclave (G. sklave), 
M.H.G. slave ; so called from Slav, a Slavonian, of which 
a great many were taken captive by the Venetians and 
Germans ; a name usually derived from Slovak sldva (Pol. 
Boh. slawa), glory ; but the name Slav is more probably 
derived from Slovak slow, word. Max Miiller says, " It takes 
time before people conceive the idea that it is possible to 
express oneself in any but one's own language. The Poles 
called their neighbours the Germans Niemiec, from niemy, 
meaning dumb ; just as the Greeks called the barbarians 
Aglossi, or speechless ; " and Miiller gives Slovak Nemek, 
Deutscher ; Nemeky, Deutsch ; Nemekko, Deutschland ; nemy, 
stumm ; nemet, stumwerden ; Russian Njemez, a German ; 
njemyi, dumb. 

SLEUTH-HOUND. Blood-hound Sco. sleuth slewth 
slouth sloith-hund, blood-hound sleuth, track of man or 
beast as known by scent (E. slot, strictly track of a hart) Ir. 
sliocht, tract or impression. 

SLIEVE. In Ireland, a hill, mountain Ir. slidbh (in 
Gael. var. hill, mount, mountain, moor, heathy ground). 

SLIME. Soft mud A.S. slim (Icel. id., D. slijm, Dan. 
sliim, G. schleim] L. limus, mud, lime, with a prefixed 
sibilant, from a word iXv/*a Gr. iXvcr, mud, mire, Horn. II. 
xxi. 318. 

SLOJD. Name of a system of education practised in 
Sweden with great success. It teaches dexterity and pliancy 



of figures in manual work, and trains the mind's power of 
observation and perception. It is a development of F rebel's 
Kindergarten system, as it was intended to be by its 
author. In Sweden Slojd work is carried on in wood, iron, 
and paper ; working in wood is judged the most useful. The 
word is derived from Sw. slojd, mechanical art, manufacture, 
work in wood slog, handy, dexterous. Conf. O. Sw. slog, 
opera, fabrilia, opificia ; slogda, opera, fabrilia, exercere. See 
also 111. Lond. News, Nov. 22, 1884, p. 491. 

SMELT. Small fish allied to the salmon A.S. smelt 
Dan. smelt smaa, small. 

SMILAX. Typical genus of Smilaceae L. smilax, yew- 
tree, kind of ash ; lit. bindweed Gr. o-fiiAa, the yew /mAal, 
dim. of /uAos, the yew. 

SMOCK, SMOCKE, SMOK. Chemise, woman's under- 

But such a smok as I was wont to were. 

CHAUC. The Clerkis Tale, 91. 

A.S. smoc, i.q. O. Sw. smog, circle. The Angermanni, i.e. 
the people of Angermannland, prov. of Sweden on Gulf of 
Bothnia, call a circle smog, and the malady called shingles 
(herpes) ettersmog, i.e. poison circle. Conf. Ihre, Gloss. 

SMITH. One who forges with his hammer A.S. smith ; 
lit. any one who strikes or smiteth with a hammer smithian, 
to forge, produce work as a smith. Conf. O.G. smii, smid 
schmiden (Weigand schmied, der metall mit dem hammer 
bearbeitende handwerker ; schmieden = metal mit dem 
hammer bearbeiten, M.H.G. smiden, O.H.G. smidon). 

SOAP, SOPE. Alkaline substance used in washing 
A.S. sdpe (Sw. sape, G. seife) L. sapo (Gr. <ra7ro>v). The word 


is also found in Chald. tzaphun, later spun, in Syr. tsapant, in 
Malay sdbun, and in Arabic and Hindustani sdbun; but it is 
probably of Keltic origin, for Pliny and Martial tell us that 
a like substance made " ex sebo et cinere " (from tallow and 
ashes) was the invention of the Gauls. Conf. Martialis, lib. 
viii. Epigr. 33. 

SOBER, SOBRE. Temperate, abstemious Fr. sobre 
L. sobrio sobrium, sober so for se sine, and ebrius. See 

SOCK, SOCKE. Kind of short stocking A.S. sou 
(Dan. sokke, D. sok, O. Sw. socka, Fr. soque) L. soccus, kind of 
low and light shoe worn by comic actors Gr. o-uKxas, O-UKXIS, 
o-u/c^os, kind of shoe (Conf. Phanias, An. ii. 52 ; Anth. p. 6, 
294, and Suidas) perhaps from Heb. TDD, sakkad, to cover. 

SOLACE, SOLAS. Comfort in grief O.F. solas (solais, 
soulas, solaz, soulaz) L. solatium, a soothing solatus solor, 
to comfort, console solus, alone, because one is eased by 

(Sula bassana). Martin (Voy. to Kilda, p. 27) says some 
derive the Scottish soland horn Ir. sou' Jen, denoting its remark- 
able power of vision, in spying its prey from a great distance ; 
and that Sibbald derives the name from Sw. solande, lingering, 
loitering, part, of soela, procrastinare. The word in Gael, is 
found written sulaire, in Ir. suilaire, in G. solandgans and 
Schottische gans, in Norweg. sula and hafsula, in Icel. 
sula and hafsula (sea sula). Baxter (Antiq. Brit. 248) says 
Vectis (I. of Wight) was formerly called Solenta; and that 
the Solent, the sea which flows between the isle and the 
mainland of England, had its name from Brit, mor salen = 
mare salsum. Hence, says he, the Scoto-Saxon term salen- 


geese. The bird is also called Sula bassana (in G. Bassaner 
and Bassanergans, in D. JBassanergans, in Yr.fou de Bassan 
and oie de Bassan), from the remarkable trap rock called the 
Bass, at mouth of the Firth of Forth, which the bird fre- 
quents : it is also called Booby and Sala Booby, from its 
stupidity when attacked by man, or the frigate bird. 

SOLE. Alone, only O. Fr. sole, fern, of sol L. solus, 
alone, only O.L. sollus, whole, entire, unbroken Gr. oAos, 
whole, entire, with prefixed s. 

SOLO. Variation of game of whist, which is played by 
not more nor less than four persons, in which game there are 
many declarations, one of which can be played by one person 
against the other three ; hence it is called solo L. solo 
solus, alone. 

somnolence L. somnolentia, sleepiness somnulentus, sleepy 
somnus, sleep, from a word CTUTTVOS, for Gr. VTTVOS. Conf. 
Skt. svap, to sleep ; svapnas, L. somnus. 

SONTICK. Hurtful L. sontico sonticus, id. sonte (sons'), 
guilty, criminal, faulty Gr. a-ivrrjs, noxious, destructive 
o-tvofuu, to injure, harass, lay waste, destroy. 

SORT. A kind, species, lot Fr. sor/e, id. sort, lot, fate, 
luck L. sorte sors, lot, chance, fortune (\\kefors -fero~) sero, 
to connect, join, bind together Gr. pco, to fasten together, 
join, connect, with prefixed sibilant. 

SOT (i). A blockhead, dolt, numskull. (2) Habitual 
drunkard, toper, tippler O. Fr. sot (D. zot, Sp. zote, Low L. 
soltus, stolidus, bardus) L. stullus, foolish; like fr.sotie, sottise, 
from stullitia.* Others derive sot from L. azotus, dissolute 
man Gr. acrom>s, abandoned, prodigal, wasteful, having no 
hope of safety, in desperate case. 


SOUL. Immaterial spirit of man A.S. sdwl Sw. sjdl 
Goth, saiwala; formed from G. aw, to live, by inserting /. 

SOUR, SOURE, SOWER, SOWRE. Sharp or pungent 
to the taste A.S. sur, corrup. from L. severus (in Hor. sharp, 
sour, demure ; lit. ROUGH, q.v.) 

SPA, SPAW. General name for a mineral spring, or for 
the locality in which such springs exist. All the Spas have 
been so called from Spa, near Liege, in Belgium. The place- 
name is found written Spaa, Spay, Vicus Spadanus, Fons 
Spadanus, and Spatha. Some derive the name from a 
word espa, which in the language of the country signified a 
fountain, perhaps etymologically connected with Lempriere's 
Arimaspi, a name derived from Scythic arima one, spu an eye ; 
and with spi, spa, which, according to Pezron, had the like 
meaning in Old Keltic. Conf. also the river-name Spey ; 
Gael, sput, spout of water, torrent, cascade ; dim. spu/an, 
fountain ; speid, mountain torrent ; Sco. spait, spate, speat, 
spyet, flood, inundation. It may here be noted that in some 
languages the same word is used for both fountain and eye, 
or relating thereto. Conf. Gr. 70/717, fountain, corner of 
the eye ; Heb. py, yayin, eye, fountain ; Pers. chashm, an 
eye ; chashmah, fountain, source, spring ; Chinese ian, eye, 

SPADASSIN. Bravo, hired swordsman (Fr.) It. spa- 
daccino spada, sword ; " Dicesi per isch6rno a chi porta la 
spada ; ed anche a chi facilmente mette mano alia spada." 
Tommaseo (Diz. Ling. It.) 

SPALPEEN. (See Tales from " Bentley," 1839, vol. i. 
p. 33) Ir. spailpin (Gael, spailpean, mean fellow, rascal, 
stroller), dim. of spailp (Gael, spailp, spailpe), a beau, pride, 


SPAR AD RAP (ods.) Cerecloth (Fr.) O. Fr. cspardn 

(It. sparadrdppo, N.L. sparadrapa, sparadrapum], rendered 

' 6tendre, frotter, enduire le melange agglutinatif sur une 

oande de toile " L. spargere, to spread upon ; and Fr. drap, 

band of cotton or other tissue. 

SPARLING. In Wales, name for the fish called smelt 
(Sco. sparlin, spirting) G. spierling dim. of spier, fig. little, 
nothing ; lit. piercer. 

SPAY. To castrate female animals; but applied by 
Shakspeare (M. for M. ii. i) to males L. spado, geld- 
ing, man or beast Gr. orraSwv oTracu, to draw out, pull 

SPEED, SPED. Quickness, celerityA. S. sped, speed, 
haste (Plat, spud, D. spoed) O.S. spad Gr. (nrovSrj, haste, 
speed, readiness (m-evSco, to hasten ; lit. to urge on. 

SPELT. Inferior kind of wheat ( A.S.) L. spelta (totidem 
speltas, so many grains of spelt. Remn. Fann. de Pond, et 
Mensur. 12 ; Hier in Ezech. i. 4, 9). 

SPLEUCHAN, SPLEUGHAN. Tobacco-pouch; also 
pocket or pouch generally Gael, spliuchan. 

SPLUTTER. To speak hastily and confusedly; an 
imitative word, like sputter. 

SPOOK. Normal and orthodox generic word for ghosts 
and things ghostly throughout great part of American con- 
tinent ; German corrup. of i/^x^ soul, spirit. Conf. Sat. 
Rev. ii Dec. 1886, p. 773. 

SPOON, SPOONE, SPON, SPONE. Vessel for sipping 
liquids A.S. span (D. & Dan. spaan, Icel. spdan, sponn, Sw. 
span], a chip, splinter of wood ; "and," says Richardson, "a 
spoon may have been a broad splint used for ladling, now 
improved by scooping or hollowing out the end." The A.S. 


word is from G. span, chip, splint, splinter ; from old v. 
spanen, to divide. 

D. sprot (G. die sprotte) spruit, sprout, sprig, shoot. 

SPUTA. Saliva ; also an expectoration, or that which is 
coughed up from the chest and spat out (L.) spuo, to spit, 
spit out, spew r. of spew, spue. 

STALE - MATE. In chess, position of the king when 
he is unable to move without placing himself in check. 
Mr. Thos. Wright says, "in chess-playing stale has its primary 
meaning (i.e. a state fixed), a stale or staled mate being that 
in which the king cannot move but into check." But the 
term stale-mate seems to have been formed on the supposition 
that mate in check-mate meant mate, a companion, whereas it 
signifies defeated or dead, and is of Persian origin. Conf. 
A.S. stal, place ; O. Fr. estal, id. ; A.S. stealian, to have a 

formed, like all the Gotho-Teutonic words of same meaning, 
from the sound made. 

STEMSON. Incurved piece of timber fixed within the 
apron of a ship to reinforce the scarf ( Wright}. So named 
from receiving scarf of the stem, and son. The French render 
it marsouin tfavant. See KELSON. 

STEVEDORE. One whose occupation is to stow goods, 
&c., in a ship's hold Venet. Ancon. stivador (It. stivatore, 
Sp. estivador, Low L. stivator} stivar, to load a ship O. It. 
stiva, stowage, and the place where it is stowed Mod. Gr. 
sri/Ja, whence sri/3aa), to pack. Conf. Sp. estiiva, stowage ; 
estivdr, to stow. 

STIVER. A Dutch coin = about Eng. penny D. stuiver 


(Sw. styfwer, stuyuer), formerly stuyver stiff, stiff, firm. 
Others derive stuyver from Low L. stupherus (in Erasmus 
stuferus, from Gr. o-ru<e\os, solid, hard, rough ; or from scu- 
ferus, an ancient money; contrac. of scutoferus= scutum 
ferens, alias scutatus. 

STIZOLOBIUM. Genus of plants whose pods are 
covered with trifid hairs Gr. <rrto> to prick, Xo/?os pod. 

of alimentary canal O. Fr. estomach L. sfomachus ; lit. 
orifice, aperture augment, of Gr. oro/io, mouth, whence it 
receives its food. 

STOT. Stallion, bullock Icel. stutr, or Sw. stut, bull 
Gr. OTTKO, in venerem erigo. Conf. Ducange under " Stuot," 
Wachter under " Stut," and Chaucer's slot. 

STUDY, STUDIE. Setting the mind or thoughts upon a 

subject O. Fr. estudie L. studium, zeal, study ; by change of 

p to / from Gr. <nrov$r], study, zeal ; lit. haste r. of SPEED, q.v. 

STUM. Old word for must or new wine (D. stom), 

corrup. rrom L. mustum, id. 

STUTTER, STOTEN. To stammer ; formerly stut, stutt, 
imitative word. Conf. Icel. stauta, D. stotteren, G. stottern, 
Low G. stotern. 

SUBLIME. Lofty, exalted (O. Fr.) L. suUimis, also 
sublimus, lofty, elevated, high, on high ; according to Vossius 
from sublimen, a lintel, threshold (sub under, limen threshold); 
others say from sublevo, to lift up from beneath ; "sublimem est 
in altitudinem elatum," says Festus, p. 306. But suMimus is 
more probably from supra above, limus slime, mud Gr. Xvpa, 
filth, dirt, defilement, impurity. Conf. elimo, to cleanse; illimis, 
clear, without mud or slime ; oblimo, to cover with mud. 

SUZERAIN. Lord, sovereign, supreme, highest ; from 


a L. word suzeranus or suseranus, for surseranus sursum for 
supersum super ( Gr. virep Skt. upari], above ; versum 
vertere, to turn. Other suggestions will be found in N. & Q. 

SWAIN. Young man, peasant, rustic youth, lover Icel. 
svein, boy (Dan. svend, bachelor, servant, attendant, journey- 
man ; Belg. veyn, vent, juvenis ; svente, virgo, juvencula), corrup. 
from L. juvenis, young ; thus, juvenis, juven, ven, sven, 

SWAN. The bird (A.S.) G. schwan O. Sw. swan, which 
Wachter derives from W. gwynn (gwyn, fern, gwen), white, and 
adds, "avis candore insignis." The Sw. word is more pro- 
bably derived thus : Gr. KVKVOS, L. cygnus, cygnum, sygnum, 
swygnum, swygnam, swgnam, swan. 

SWEAT, SWETE, SWOOT. Moisture from the skin 
A.S. swat sw&tan to perspire L. sudo Gr. iSiw, id., with 
prefixed sibilant iSos, sweat, heat ; akin to vSos, i.q. vftup, 
water r. of water. 

a pleasant or agreeable taste A.S. swete swoti L. suave 
suavis Skt. svddu, sweet svad or svdd, to be sweet ; lit. to 
taste su, prefix = good, well, excellent, corrup. from vasu 
rich, sweet ; dd, to eat. 

SWIFT. Bird of passage closely allied to the swallows 
and martins ; so named from flying swiftly. 

SYCOPHANT, SICOPHANT. Base parasite; lit. in- 
former, false accuser L. sycophanta Gr. oo>/co<avr>7s, id., one 
who gains livelihood by litigious charges or false accusations; 
according to some, originally an informer against those who 
stole figs from the sacred grove at Athens ; more probably 
informer against those who exported figs from Attica at a 


season of great scarcity, contrary to an obsolete law ; lit. fig- 
shewer crwog fig, ^avriys shewer <<uvw, to show, make 
known, indicate. 

SYLVAN, SILVAN. Pertaining to or inhabiting a forest 
L. sylvanus sylva Gr. svXfa v\r], wood, forest (preceded 
by a sibilant). 

SYMPHYTUM. Genus of plants (one called comfrey) 
said to join the edges of wounds Gr. OT;/X</>UTOV O-U/A<VTO?, 
grown together (as a wound) o-uju,<vw, to grow together 
crw, with, together; <vw, to grow. It is also called solidago 
solido, to make firm. 

SYPHILIS. The malady, variously derived from Gr. 
cn.(Aos reproach, and <tXeo> to love ; <n>s hog, <t\io. love ; 
and crw with, together, and <f>iXia or <iAeo>. The name was 
first given to this malady by Fracastoro, a celebrated physi- 
cian of Verona, who, in 1530, published a Latin poem entitled 
" Syphilis, sive morbus Gallicus." In an episode of the third 
book the author says that the malady was invented by the 
gods to punish an impious shepherd named Syphilus ; a 
name no doubt derived from crw and 0t\ew. 

SYRINGE. Instrument through which any liquor is 
squirted Fr. syringue L. syringe syrinx, reed, pipe Gr. 
crvpi|, lit. any pipe or tube <rvpw, to draw out. 


TABARD, TABERD. Ancient close-fitting garment, 
open at sides, with wide sleeves reaching to elbows O. Fr. 
tabard, tabart, tribart, a short cloak worn by warriors ; perhaps 
from tabar, prop, stay, support (soutien, appui, bouclier). 

TABES. Disease accompanied by loss of flesh (L.), lit. 


wasting away tabeo, to waste away; lit. to melt, to melt 
down or away, by change of k to b from ra/cw -njKta, id. 

TABLE. Flat surface supported by legs L. tabella 
dim. of tabula, id. ; lit. a board, plank, dim. of an obs. taba. 
Others derive tabula from a word trabula, from trabs, beam of 
a house, which is from Gr. Tpa-n-r]^, beam, post, stake. 

TACIT, TACITE. Silent Fr. taciteL. tacitustaceo, to 
be silent, from an obs. meaning of Gr. a/cew, to heal, cure (whence 
axewv, silently), with prefixed /. Conf. Stephanus, under cuojv; 
Eustath. 307, post med. ; Heynius, t. 4, p. 558 ; Apollonius, 
Rh. ii. 1087 ; in. 659 ; and cucctov in Homer passim, used for 
stilly, softly, silently. 

TAIL, TAYL. Hinder, lower, back or inferior part of 
anything A.S. tagel, tcegl (Goth, tagl, hair) Gr. 0?7yaA.os, 
pointed, sharp Orjyw, to sharpen. 

maker of clothes O. Fr. tailleur tailler, to cut It. taglidre 
(Catal. tallar, Sp. talldr, taldr, tajdr'] L. taleare (Nonius 
Marcellus has taleo, incido), to cut talea, slip of wood Gr. 
0aAAos, sprig, sprout, sucker. 

TALAYOT. In the Balearic Isles, name given to certain 
cylindro-conical constructions attributed to the Phoenicians, 
perhaps thought to have been watch-towers ; dim. formed 
from Sp. ataldya, watch-tower which overlooks adjacent 

country and sea-coast Ar. <3xjJi,, tattat, picket, advanced 
post, spy, scout taVat, aspect. 

TALLY-HO! TALLIO. In hunting, a shout or cry 
raised by him who first marks or catches a view of the game ; 
the huntsman's cry to urge on the hounds. Urquhart says, 
" the rallying-cry of the Arabs is Talla-hu, Tally-ho, which 
was doubtless brought to Europe by the Crusaders." If so, 


the term is probably derived from Ar. $\j, T 'Allah, By 
God. The O. Fr. terms Tya-hillault or Thia-hillault were 
used in the chase of the stag. They are to be found in La 
Venerie de Jaques du Fouilloux, circa 1561, under " Musical 
Notes." The last-named author says, " il doit commencer a 
forhuer, et sonner de la trompe, cryat Ty a Hillault pour le cerf, 
et Valecy, aller pour le lieure ; " and further on, '' mais quand 
il (le veneur) verra que le cerf commencera a dresser par les 
fuytes, lors qu'il en aura cognoissance certaine, pourra sonner 
pour chiens, en cryant, Tya-hillaud, faisant suyure son limier 
tousiours sur les erres et fuytes, criant et sonnat iusques a ce 
que les chiens de la meute soyent arriuez a luy, et qu'ils 
commenceront a dresser." But it is quite possible that the 
French term may have been borrowed from the Arabic. Conf. 
also La Curne de Sainte Palaye, Hist, de 1'Ancien Lang. Franc, 
torn. 10, p. 114; Urquhart, "The Pillars of Hercules;" 
Gent. Mag. vol. 39 (1789), part ii. p. 785 ; and Athen. Ap. 6, 
1850, p. 368. 

sieve Fr. tamis (Sp. tamiz, D. teems) Low L. tamisium, 
sieve in which ground corn is sifted ; so called from the stuff 
or hair from which it was formerly made r. of famine, 
tammin, i.e. stamin, stamine. 

TAN. Bark of oak, willow, and other trees abounding in 
tannin Fr. tan, bark of a young oak Bret, tann (G. tanne 
for tanne-baum, fir-tree ; Gloss. Fez. abies tanna), an oak tan, 
fire, because it easily takes fire. Conf. L. t<zda, a torch Gr. 
SaSiov SaSta, ace. of Sais, torch made of pine. 

TANKARD. Large vessel for liquors O. Fr. tankard 
(D. tanckaerd, tanchaerd] tankard, tank-like. Thomson 
derives the Fr. word from etain, tin ; quart, id. Duchat is of 


the same opinion, because it holds a quart. Richardson 
observes that a tankard contains a quart. 

TANSY, TANSAYE, TANASIE. Common name of 
plants of genus Tanacetum O. Fr. tanasie athanasie L. 
athanasia Gr. aOavaarta, immortality a not, OavaTos, death 
obs. Oavw, now 6vr)<TK<j), to die. According to some, the name 
expresses a durable, unfading, or everlasting flower, which is 
but little applicable, at all events, to our tansy. It was pro- 
bably named for its real or supposed medical properties. 
Pereira (Mat. Med. n. pt. n. 26) says the young leaves of 
Tanacetum vulgare are occasionally employed by the cook to 
give colour and flavour to puddings, and in omelets and 
other cakes. In medicine, the plant is rarely employed by 
the regular practitioner, but it has been recommended in 
dyspepsia, intermittents, and gout, and its principal use is 
that of a vermifuge. 

TAR BERT. In Scotland, a peninsula Gael, tairbtart 
(Ir. tairbheart), id. tir land, bior water. 

TARENTELLA. Rapid Neapolitan dance, said to be a 
remedy against bite of the Tarentella spider It. tarantella 
O. It. tardntola ; so called from Tarentum (now Taranto), in 
Italy, in whose vicinity the insect is found. It was from the 
bite of this spider that the malady called tarantismus (chorea) 
is erroneously said to be caused. 

TA RGE, TAI RGE. To rate, scold, reprimand, exercise, 
catechize, cross-examine severely. " And Linda, though she 
was taken more frequently to the house of worship which her 
aunt frequented, and targed more strictly in the reading of 
good books " (Linda Tressel, by A. Trollope) Fr. targe, or 
A.S. targe, targa, shield r. of target, a word of Arabic origin. 

TARTAN. Chequered woollen stuff, much worn in the 


Scottish Highlands Gael, tartan Fr. tiretaine (var. tirtaine, 
tredaine, tridaine), rendered, sorte de droguet de drap grossier, 
moitie" laine, moiti6 fil Sp. iiritana, sort of thin silk ; thin 
woollen cloth, so called from the sound made in rubbing 
(" dicha del sonido que haze ludiendo una con otra, por la 
figura onomatopaja," says Covarruvias). 

TAW. In the N, of England, a whip ; in Scotland, a 
whip, lash, instrument of correction Sco. taw, the point of 
a whip (tawis, tawes, tarns, a whip, lash) ; corrup. from taug, 
tag, pliant twig, thong, rush. 

TEAT, TEET, TETE, TITTE, TIT. Nipple of the 
breast A.S. tit, Gr. TIT#OS Skt. duh, to milk, milk out, 
squeeze out. Conf. Goth, tiuhan, to tow, tug, pull. 

TEFULA. Bishop Colenso uses this word for to speak 
as the Zulu, amaTefula, i.e. using y for /, &c. He says also 
it is " the general name for certain tribes who tefula in their 

TELPHERAGE. All modes of transport effected auto- 
matically by electricity ; properly telephorage Gr. r^Ae, at a 
distance ; <opa, carrying, transporting, conveying. 

TEMPLES. Upper part of sides of head ; by change of 
r to /, from tempora (pi. of tempus, time) ; so called because 
the temples are distinctly diagnostic of age, especially in old 
persons, whose veins on the surface are distended. Isidore 
and Varro give two other reasons. 

TEMULENCE, TEMULENCY. Intoxication, drunken- 
ness Fr. temulence L. temulentia, from a word , ternetulentus, 
dim. formed from temetum, any intoxicating drink obs. temum 
(whence abstemium), corrup. from Gr. ptOv or p.e6r), strong 

TENACES. The stalks of apples L. tenaces, bands, 


stalks, pedicels (of fruit, &c.) ; lit. things that hold fast, 
pi. of tenax teneo, to hold fast. 

TENCH. The fish O. Fr. tenchelu. tinea tincta, 
coloured lingo, to colour; "tinea, qu. tincta, qu6d, propter 
colorem, quasi tingi videatur," says Gellius. Conf. Auson. 
in Mosell. 125. 

TENNES, TENYS, TENYSE (in Sco. Tennise, in Law L. 
Tenisiae). A play or game in which a ball is driven to and 
fro by several persons striking it alternately, either with the 
palm of the hand, naked or covered with a thick glove, or 
with a small bat called a racket. It was very fashionable 
in France during the reign of Charles V., and was introduced 
into England in the I3th Century. Some derive the term from 
Fr. tenez! hold ! a word which the French, who excelled in the 
game, used when they hit the ball. Skinner says from Fr. tente 
L. tentorium, because it is mostly played under tents ; others 
from tens, pi. of 10, " as the game is closely related to the game 
called fives." Strutt, after stating that in the i6th Century 
tennis courts were common in England, says, " in the Voca- 
bulary of Commenius we see a rude representation of a tennis- 
court divided by a line stretched in the middle, and the 
players standing on either side with their rackets ready to 
receive and return the ball, which the rules of the game 
required to be stricken over the line;" and in a note he 
adds, " Hsnce the propriety of Heywood's proverb, 'Thou 
hast stricken the ball under the line,' meaning he had failed 
in his purpose." The term, therefore, was most probably 
derived through the Law L. tenisice, from Eng. tense or L. 
tensus, stretched. See Komensky (Commenius, J. A.), Orbis 
Sensualium Pictus, 1859 ; Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, book 


ii. p. 74 ; Cowel's Law Diet. ; Hist. Croyland Abbey, co. 
Lincoln, contin. p. 500; Minshew, Junius, and N. & Q. 
6th S. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. passim. 

TESTICLE. Gland secreting the semen L. testiculus, 
id. ; so called from being a witness of manhood (" ad Keren 
tcsticuli dicti, qu6d testes sunt virilitatis," says Littleton) 
dim. of testis, lit. a witness. Conf. Gr. o/j^is, a testicle, and 
op/cos, the witness of an oath, an oath, what restrains, binds. 
The word for this gland is formed on the same principle in 
Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, and Coptic. The Arabic word is 
dual, the Coptic singular. Conf. Gen. xxiv. 2, 3 ; Kalisch, 
Kirch, p. 78 ; Gesenius, Heb. & Chald. Lex. by Tregelles ; 
Tattam's Lex. ^Egypt.-Lat. ; and Voltaire, Diet. Philos. 

Fr. theatre L. theatrum Gr. Oearpov, place where games and 
plays were publicly exhibited on solemn occasions ; originally 
a public place where, in all cases of political emergency, the 
people assembled for public deliberation Oeaofuai, to see ; 
originally to look with awe or wonder Att. 0eo//,cu, to wonder, 
be astonished, alarmed or terrified data, id. 

THORP, THORPE. Group of houses standing together 
in the country, a hamlet, village ; term very common in 
Lincolnshire A.S. thorp (Icel. thorp, dorp, Sw. torp, G. dorf, 
W. tref, tre~) O.S. thorp, tharp Dan. torp, from L. tribus, 
division of the people, a tribe ; orig. a third part of the 
Roman people tri, /res, three. 

THOUSAND. Ten hundred A.S. thusend,. said to be 
from Icel. thusund (var. thushund, thushundrath), which 
Cleasby thinks might translate, " a swarm of hundreds " from 
an obs. thus crowd (conf. his thys-holl, a crowded hall, in 
Aka-Kirtha ; thyss, an uproar, tumult from a crowd). But, 


if last part of the Icelandic word is from hund, a hundred, 
which would seem to be confirmed by the form thushundrath, 
it would perhaps be more reasonable to derive the word from 
a compound, tius-hund, euphonic for tiu-hund, ten hundred. 
It is, however, quite possible that thushundrath is a later 
form, for, if the word is of Icelandic origin, all the synonyms 
in the Gotho-Teutonic languages, viz. O.S. thusint, Dan. 
tusind, Sw. tusen, Goth, thusundi, O. Fries, thusend, dusent, 
D. duizend, Franic thusunt, O.H.G. thiisunt, tiisunt, diisunt, 
must have been borrowed from the Icelandic, which is hardly 
probable. If the word is of Gothic, say Mceso-Gothic, origin, it 
might have been formed thus : Taihun-hunda, 1000, taihuns- 
hunda, taihs-hunda, tus-hunda, thusundi. Lye endeavours to 
show that Goth, hund (pi. hunde) has been corrupted from 
taihun taihund, 100 (lit. lo-ioths) ; but the word has pro- 
bably been corrupted from L. centum (like hund, a hound, 
from cam's} Skt. santa, -am. 

TIBIA. Large bone of leg (L.) ; lit. a straight pipe 
(made of bone) tubus, a pipe. Tibiae vocatae quasi tubae ; 
sunt enim et longitudine et specie similes. Isid. 2 Orig. i. no. 

TIC. Neuralgia Fr. tie, a convulsive movement ticq, 
formerly tique, ticquet, tiquet, which Cotgrave defines "a disease 
which, on a suddaine stopping a horse's breath, makes him to 
stop and stand still;" said to be derived from the sound 
made by a horse troubled with this disease in knocking his 
head against the manger. 

TIDE, TYDE. Alternate rise and fall of the sea ; lit. 
time, season, hour (Icel. tith, D. tijd, G. zeif) r. of TIME, q.v. 

TIFFIN, TIFFING. In India, a luncheon or slight repast 
between breakfast and dinner. Some derive the word from 
Hind. (Kr.}tafannun, amusement, relaxation, diversion -fann, 



to be of a different kind ; or from Chinese cKih fan, eat 
rice ; but the word is rather from Grose's tiffing, which, 
among other meanings, signifies eating and drinking out of 
meal-times. Conf. obs. tiff, a draught of liquor, small beer ; 
and our word tiff, to take off a draught. See Athen. 3 July 
1886, p. 3, col. 3 : rev. of Work by Yule. 

TIME. Measure of duration A.S. tima, corrup. from 
L. tempus ; lit. section, portion, division Gr. re/xvo), to cut; 
" quia sit res, etsi materialiter continua, tamen formaliter 
discreta," says Vossius. Conf. Fr. temps, direct from tempus. 

TIN. The metal A.S. tin (O.G. zin, zien, zihn; Sp. estano, 
It. stdgno} L. stagnum, which no doubt originally meant tin 
as well standing water stannum, tin sto, to stand, because, 
in the furnaces, it first flows, and then stands still like water 
in ponds, says Pliny. 

TINKER, TYNKER (prov. TINKLER). Mender of 
pots, kettles, &c. Dr. Johnson derives it from link, because 
their way of proclaiming their trade is to beat a kettle, or 
because in their work they make a tinkling noise. The word 
is rather from Sco. link, to rivet, a Roxburgh gipsy word. 

TINY, TINE, TYNE (N. of Eng. TEENY). Very 
small Icel. teinn, a twig. Conf. Cleasby, Icel.-Eng. Diet. 

TIRO, TYRO. Beginner, novice; lit. newly-levied 
soldier, young soldier, recruit L. tiro, tyro, id. ; also name of 
the learned freedman of Cicero tero, to rub, "quia se primun 
terit," says Cicero ; " hoc est, exercet," adds Vossius. 

TIT. Anything small ; small horse or child Fr. petit, 
lit. something so small that it must be sought L. petitus 
peto, to seek. 

bird of genus Parus ; the tit or tomtit lit small, mdse a 


mouse; like G. metse, Plat, meese, D. mees, from Gr. yu.eios, small; 
whence a form /more/ao?, in Epigrammata Graeca (Kaibel, 
Berl. 1878), 588, 2. See TIT. 

TOAD, TODE, TOODE, TADE, Reptile of genus 
Bufo A.S. tddige, tddie O. Sw. tossa, which Ihre, after 
referring to the derivation from Icel. tad (tath ?J, stercus, 
thinks to be from Gr. TO&KOV, poison, because the toad was 
commonly thought to be a poisonous animal. 

TOAST. In festivals, a person or topic in whose honour 
the guests all drink together ; at first, perhaps, a lady. 
Figaro, 4 Aug. 1888, gives the following: "A la cour 
d'Henri VIII., roi d'Angleterre, il e"tait d'usage d'emplir une 
coupe d'eau du bain de la reine, pendant que celle-ci y e"tait 
plongee, et de tremper dans la coupe une tranche de pain 
roti (toast) ' . Le roi buvait le premier, et passait la coupe a 
ses gentilhommes ; le dernier mangeait la rotie. C'etait la 
ce qu'on appelait ' porter un toast.' Un jour, I'ambassadeur 
de France, ayant refuse de boire a la coupe, s'en excusa en 
disant au monarque Anglais, ' Sire, je laisse le liquide a vos 
gentilhommes, et, si votre majeste m'y autorise, je me r6- 
serverai le toast.' Or, le toast qui, ce jour-la, se trouvait 
dans la baignoire e"tait Anne de Boleyn en personne. 
Henri VIII. trouva la repartie si galante et si spirituelle 
que, le lendemain, il envoya la Jarretiere a I'ambassadeur 
Francais." See also anecdote in Skeat's Etym. Diet. ; and 
LTntermediaire des Chercheurs. 

smoking ; of genus Nicotiana Sp. tabdco, properly name of 
the pipe used by the Indians of Guahani for smoking the 
plant called cohiba. Two last English forms of the word 
are from the Flemish. Conf. N. & Q. 7th S. iv. 412. 


drawn by dogs, used in travelling over snow in Canada, and 
by the Hudson's Bay Company ; a sledge used for sliding 
down snow-covered slopes in Canada Ind.-Amer. odabagan. 
Conf. Bartlett (Diet. Americanisms), and Scribner's Monthly 
for Aug. 1877, p. 523 ; Red River Exploring Expedition, 
vol. i. p. 84 ; and Montreal Cor. Provid. Journal, 2nd July, 

TOIL, TOYLE. To labour, work at A.S. tilian, to 
labour ; earlier, to till, cultivate, plough. Conf. O.D. teelen, 
to till the ground 

TOLL. A tax A.S. toll (D. /<?/, Icel. tollr, Dan. told, 
O. Sw. lull, G. zoll, Anc. Brit, toll, telonium} Low L. toll; 
also felon, tolnetum, teloneum, rendered " tributum de mercibus 
marinis circa littus acceptum " (L. telonium, toll-book) ; formed 
from Gr. reXos, tax, duty, toll ; lit. fulfilment or completion 
of anything TeAeco, to complete, fulfil, accomplish. 

TOMBOY. In sarcasm, a romping girl ; properly, a 
rude, boisterous boy A.S. tumbere, tumbler, dancer, player 
tumbian, to tumble, dance, play the tumbler. See also 
Verstegan and Somner, under " Tumban." 

TONGUE, TUNGE, TONGE. Organ of speech 
(Latham) A.S. tonge Dan. tunge, by change of d to / from 
L. dingua lingua, for linga ligo, to lick (" qua lingimus" 
says Littleton ; " nomen a lingo, quia unicum est linctus 
instrumentum," says'Forcellini) Gr. Act^u, to lick. 

TONSILS. Two round glands on sides of basis of 
tongue Fr. tonsille L. tonsilla, id. ; according to Festus, 
dim. of toles, tolles, tumour in the fauces (waxing kernels, 
swellings of the almonds of the tongue," says Littleton) 
tollo, " quo tollantur et tumeant," says Festus. But according 


to Isidore toles is a Gaulish word. After all, tonsilla may 
come from tonsilis, that may be cut or clipped tondeo, to 

TOOL. In Kent, a clump of trees W. tool, what is 
rounded, a tuft. 

TOOL, TOL. Instrument for manual labour A.S. tool, 
tohl, tol (Icel. pi. tol, toli\ from, or from r. of, Fr. outil, in 
O. Fr. found oultil, oiltil, util, hoiil, ostil, oustil, us til, hustil, 
every instrument of work used by artizans ustensile Low L. 
utensils L. utensilia, id. >utensilts, useful utor, to use, make 
use of. 

TOOTH, TOTH, One of the small bones of the jaw 
used in eating A.S. toth O.S. land L. dens, -tis Skt. danta, 
dat, id. da, to cut. 

TOP -GALLANT. Mast, rigging, and sail next above 
topmast ; corrup. of top-garland. See Cotton MSS. 

TOPSY-TURVY. Upside down top side the other 

TOTEM. Family mark on coat -of -arms of the N. 
American Indians ; corrup. of Algonkin dodaim ; properly 
name or symbol of a " clan" animal, signifying lit. that which 
particularly belongs to him. 

TOY, TO IE. Plaything, bauble, gewgaw O.D. tooi, 
ornament tooijen, to adorn, attire, 

TRAMWAY. Wooden or iron linear way for cars ; 
originally tram-road and dram-road ; so called because made 
of logs or beams Prov. Eng. tram (Sco. tram, O. Sw. tram, 
/rum, Low G. traam, O.H.G. tram, dram), a beam, bar L. 
trabem trabes, a beam, a timber. 

TREACLE, TRIACLE. The spume that rises from 
sugar in process of refining ; so called from resembling the 


old compound which was believed to be capable of curing or 
preventing effects of poison, especially that of the serpent 
Fr. triacle L. theriaca Gr. 0r)pia.Ka <f>ap[jMKa, antidotes against 
bite of venomous animals tfiypicucos, of wild orvenomous beasts 
OrjpLov, poisonous animal, reptile, serpent ; lit. wild beast, 
dim. ofOrjp, beast. Trench (English Past and Present, loth ed. 
292) says "Treacle, or triacle as Chaucer wrote it, was origi- 
nally a Greek word, and wrapped up in itself the once popular 
belief (an anticipation, by the way, of homoeopathy) that a 
confection of the viper's flesh was the most potent antidote 
against the viper's bite. Waller serves himself of this old 
legend, familiar enough in his time, for Milton speaks of the 
' sovran treacle of sound doctrine,' while ' Venice treacle,' or 
'viper-wine,' was a common name for a supposed antidote 
against all poisons ; and he would say that regicides them- 
selves began to be loyal, vipers not now yielding hurt any 
more, but rather a healing medicine for the old hurts which 
they themselves had inflicted. 'Treacle,' it may be observed, 
designating first this antidote, came next to designate any 
medicinal confection or sweet syrup, and lastly that particu- 
lar syrup, viz. the sweet syrup of molasses, to which alone 
we restrict it now." See also Acts xxviii. 4; Augustine (Epp. 
Pelag. iii. 7). 

TRET. Allowance to purchasers for waste or refuse of a 
commodity L. tritus, worn ; or attritus, rubbed or worn away ; 
or formed from Sp. tdra (word of Ar. origin), whence tare in 
tare and tret. 

TRINKET, TRINQUET. Top-gallant, highest sail of 
a ship Fr. trinquelte, triangular sail, sort of lateen- sail Sp. 
trinquete, fore-sail Iriquete, dim. formed from L. ires, three. 

TRIPE. Edible part of stomach of a ruminant animal 


Fr. tripe (O.D. trupen, Sp. iripa, It. trippa, id. ; also an 
intestine) Gr. Tpim-aw, to bore, pierce through ; because the 
omasum, i.e. the third stomach, like the rest of the intestine, 
seems as if it were perforated. 

TROLLEY, TROLLY. Costermonger's name for a sort 
of narrow cart ; also a railway truck that can be tilted over 
W. trol, small cart ; lit. cylinder, roller prefix ty; and rhol, 
cylinder, roll. 

TROUT. Delicate spotted fish inhabiting brooks and 
rapid streams A.S. truht (Fr. truite, It. irota, Sp. trucha)- 
Low L. trutta, trocta, tructa Gr. rpwKTijs, a sea fish (a/x,ta) 
with sharp teeth ; lit. devourer rpwyoo, to eat, devour. The 
trout is a very voracious fish. 

TUMBLER. A glass without a foot O. Sw. tumlare 
(D. tumling], so called because, after drinking, the ancient 
Northern nations used to roll their glasses round the table 
to show that they were empty (gar-aus, all out) tumla, to 
roll. Conf. Ihre (Lex.) under tumlare ; and see also Toller's 
Bosworth's Diet. 

TUMP. Little hillock ; in co. Hereford, a mound upon 
which buildings have once stood W. twmp, mound Gr. 
TU//,/:?OS, mound of earth. Hence from tump, v. to tump, in 
gardening, to form a mass of earth or a hillock round a 
plant, as to tump teasel ; tumped, surrounded with a hillock 
of earth ; tumping, raising a mass of earth round a plant. 
Conf. N. & Q. 3rd S. vi. 498, 540. 

TURMERIC. Root of an E. Indian plant, Curcuma 
longa, which affords a yellow powder, and is used both as 
a medicine and as a dye-stuff; properly zurmeric Pers. zur 
yellow (lit. gold); marich, pepper. 

TYRANT, TIRANT, TYRANNT. Cruel, despotic, and 


severe master O. Fr. tyrant L. tyranno tyrannus Dor. 
rupawos, one who had subverted liberties of a people and 
ruled by arbitrary power ; originally a sovereign or prince ; 
by change of K to T from xoipawos, leader, chief, prince, 
ruler, master /cvpios, lord, head /cupos, that which is princi- 
pal or chief /capa, the head. 


UDAL. Term applied to the right in land which pre- 
vailed in Northern Europe before introduction of the feudal 
system. Udal tenure still prevails in Orkney and Shetland. 
Cleasby renders Icel. othal, nature, inborn quality, property; 
but the Icelandic word may be of Swedish origin. Conf. 
O. Sw. od, ancient, or aud, oed, possession ; all, all ; also 
odaljord, that which has been long in possession ; odalsmadr, 
a man who possesses an ancient property ; odalboren, one who 
has by birth possession of an ancient property ; odalby, pri- 
mitive and ancient village, i.e. one built by first inhabitants 
of a country, as distinguished from those erected in later 
times. Hence from odal, by inversion,. Low L. allodium 
and allodialis, and our allodial. See also Jamieson's Scot. 

ULLAGE. Unfilled part of a cask O. Fr. eullage, action 
of filling that which is not full emitter, to fill to the eye or 
bung-hole (ceuil] of a cask. Conf. Fr. ceil, trou, ouverture, 
bouton, bondon, grosse cheville de bois qui ferme la bonde, 
le trou d'une futaille, &c. 

UMBRAGE. Offence, suspicion of injury O. Fr. taci- 
turn, suspicious, sombre (pmbrage, obscure, hidden) umbbre, 
shadow, appearance L. umbra (found humbra), shadow 


Gr. o//,/3pos, shower of rain, because showers obscure the sun's 
light, says Isidore. 

USHER, USSHER, USCHERE. One whose business 
is to introduce strangers, or walk before a person of high 
rank ; lit. a door-keeper O. Fr. ussier, uissier uts, door, 
gate, opening, entree L. ostium, gate, door os, opening; 
" quia ostium est os domus," says Vossius. 

UTERUS. The womb (L.), which Riddle thinks from 
uter, a leather bottle ; Vossius, from obs. Gr. oSepos, venter, 
uterus. But uterus comes rather, by dropping the cr, from 
Gr. vo-repoa, the womb, fem. of wrepos, later in respect to 
place, coming after Skt. ut-lara ; as, a, am, later, following, 
later, posterior ; lit. upper, higher, superior. 

UVULA. Soft round body suspended from the palate 
over the glottis (L.), so called from its resemblance to a 
grape ; dim. of uva, grape ; lit. the moist thing uveo, to grow 
or become moist. Hence, from uva, the uvea, or nervous 
coat of the eye, so called from resemblance in colour to an 
unripe grape. 


VACCINIUM. Genus of plants, N.O. Vaccinacesj ; 
corrupted from va/av#os. See HYACINTH. 

VAGINA. Canal leading from external orifice to womb 
(L.) ; lit. a sheath, scabbard ; according to Vossius, for vacina 
vacare, to be empty or void, and so " i.q. vacuum illud in 
quo gladius reconditur." Isid. (18 Orig. 9, 2) says, from 
bagina, so called because the sword is carried (bajuletur] in it ; 
and therefore, says Forcellini, vagina is quasi bagina, from 

VALERIAN. A plant whose root is used in epilepsy, 


nervous complaints, and convulsive and hysterical diseases 
Med. L. valeriana, so named from one Valerius, who first 
described it. 

VALET. Waiting-servant. See VASSAL. 

VAMOS, VAMOSE. To depart or go off quickly Sp. 
vdmos, let us go. Conf. N. & Q. 6th S. x. 428. 

VAMPIRE, VAMPUR. "Pretended demon which 
delights in sucking human blood, and in animating bodies of 
dead persons, which, when dug up, are found florid and full 
of blood " Fr. vampire (D. vampyr) G. vampyr, vampir 
Servian wampir, wampira (Pol. wampir, by corruption upior ; 
Slovak upior, upir) Hung, vampir, corrupted from vad-ember, 
a wild or ferocious man, rendered in French " le sauvage." 
This is perhaps confirmed by Kiss Mihaly, who renders ogre 
(a word also of Magyar origin) vadember. 

VARLET. Scoundrel ; lit. page or knight's follower ; 
servant or attendant. See VASSAL. 

VASSAL. Slave, low fellow ; earlier, subject, dependant ; 
lit. one who holds of a superior lord. The words vassal, 
varlel, valet are etymologically the same, viz. from Bret, gwaz, 
vassal (celui qui releve d'un seigneur, a cause d'un fief ; sujet 
qui est sous la domination d'un roi, d'un souverain ; serviteur, 
domestique, says Legonidec) gwdz, goaz, man, in opposition 
to woman (W. gwas, youth, lad, page, servant), whence dim. 
GAR9ON, q.v. This is confirmed by Bullet (Recherches 
Historiques sue les Cartes a Jouer, 1757, p. 61), who says 
that up to the gth Century the Keltic word was applied to 
both domestics and gens de guerre. He adds, " Depuis ce 
temps il ne s'est pris que dans ce dernier sens jusqu'au regne 
de Francois I. On ne soudoyoit point autrefois ceux qui 
composoient les arme'es, ainsi qu'on le fait aujourd'hui. Le 


prince ou le seigneur donnoit une terre ou fief a charge du 
service militaire. Celui qui, a raison de cette terre ou fief, 
e"toit tenu de venir a 1'armee, s'appeloit vas ou vassal. Comme 
il n'y avoit alors que ses vassaux qui portassent les armes, on 
les nomma aussi ?nilites, guerriers. Lorsqu'on eut institu6 la 
chevalerie, on qualifia chevaliers ceux des vassaux qui 1'avoient 
rec.ue ; et on appela vasselets, vaslets, valets, varlets, vallez, les 
fils des vassaux des plus grands seigneurs, des souverains 
meme, qui n'avoient pas encore 6t6 arme"s chevaliers. On 
donnait aussi a ces valets le nom d'6cuyers, scutarii ; parce 
qu'ils portoient 1'ecu ou bouclier du chevalier auquel ils 
s'attachoient, pour faire leurs premieres armes. Dans les 
dernieres armees du regne de Charles V., varlet ou valet se 
prenoit pour e"cuyer et pour domestique. II conserva ces 
deux sens (Chronique de Petit Jehan de Saintre) sous 
Charles VI., sous Charles VII., et tant que durerent les 
compagnies d'ordonnance formees par ce prince. Ce terme, 
a present, ne signifie plus qu'un serviteur" 

VAUDEVILLE. In the French theatre, a short piece 
whose dialogue is intermingled with light or comic songs ; 
originally satirical ballads upon individuals or events, rhymed 
on a common or well-known air ; so called from being first 
sung in the Vau-de-Vire, a valley of Normandy. 

Le malm vaudeville, a-nant de 1'epigramme, 
Brille de cet esprit dont s'afflige un bon coeur : 
Sur 1'aile des couplets vole le trait moqueur. 


Les Vaux-de-Vlre, 

Qui sentent le bon temps, nous font encore rire. 


Bescherelle says, " Olivier Basselin, ouvrier foulon, de Vire, 
en Basse -Normandie, composait, vers 1450, des chansons 


satiriques qui coururent bientot le Val ou Vau-de-Vire, et qui, 
en s'e'tendant plus loin, en conserverent le nom pendant un 
certain temps, au bout duquel 1'e'tymologie fut oubli6e, et le 
nom chang6 en celui de vaudeville" Conf. Basselin (Olivier), 
Vaux-de-Vire, ed. by Louis du Bois, Caen, &c. 1821, 8vo. ; 
M6nage (Diet. Etym.) ; Dibdin's Tour in France, &c. Lond. 
1829, vol. i. p. 289, et sq. ; Bescherelle (Diet. National, 
Paris, 1857) ; and my Verba Nominalia (Lond. 1866). 

VEDETTE. A sentinel on horseback Fr. vedette, 
properly small lodge in a fortress for a soldier to see who 
passes by ; sentry-box (echauguette] It. vedetta vedere, to see 
L. videre. Conf. Littre', Bescherelle, Landais, Manage. 

VERBENA. Extensive genus of herbaceous plants L. 
verbena, a bough or branch of laurel, olive, or myrtle used for 
crowning altars ; for herbena herba bena, i.q. herba bona, good 
herb. Conf. verbenaca, vervain, called also hierabotane Gr. 
iepa POTO.VY], sacred plant. 

VEER. To allow a ship more cable, to turn or change 
Fr. virer, to veer, tack about, turn, wind about (Provence 
virar, Sp. birdr), to turn up and down ; by not uncommon 
change of g to v, from L. gyrare, to turn in a circle Gr. 
yvpeuw, ib. yvpos, a circle. 

O. Fr. venim L. venenum, according to Cicero so called 
because it goes quickly through the veins, " quod cit6 per 
venas eat ;" but venenum is rather a corruption of belenum, a 
herb with which the Gauls anointed their arrows Gr. ficXepvov 
/3eAos, a dart. Hence also It. veleno, O. Fr. velin. Conf. also 
ro^iKov, poison for smearing arrows ro|ov, a bow ; and see 
Isid. Orig. xii. 4 ; and Forcellini. 

VERMUTH. The stimulating liquor Fr. vermouth, 


Vermont O.G. wermut (Francic uuermot} r. of WORMWOOD, 

VICE, VYCE. Course of action opposed to virtue Fr. 
vice L. vitium (in many MS. Codd. bitium), violation, hurt ; 
with prefixed digamma Gr. amov, hurt, harm, injury, fault; 
(noxa, culpa), lit. charge, accusation. 

VICTIM. Person sacrificed to the selfishness of another; 
lit. a sacrifice L. victima, id., lit. an animal (e.g. a calf) offered 
in sacrifice on occasion of a great victory vinco, to conquer, 
because sacrificed for conquered enemies. " Victima pro 
victis, hostia pro superandis" (Cathol. Diet.) 

VILE. Base, mean, despicable Fr. vile, f. of vil L. iritis, 
bill's, cheap, common, abundant r. of FOUL, q.v. 

VINCULUM. A link. (L.) vincio, to bind, tie up 
vieo, to bind with twigs Skt. ve, to weave, interweave, braid, 

VIOL. Ancient stringed instrument of same form as the 
violin, but larger, and of which there were three sorts- 1 the 
treble, tenor, and base ; from viola, generic name of all the 
family of bow instruments r. of FIDDLE, q.v. Hence, from 
viola, dim. violino ; whence our violin. Hence also It. aug- 
ment, violone, great viola, whence dim. violoncello, sometimes 
abbreviated to cello. 


And the King paused, but did not speak : 
Then he called for the -voidee-cup. 

ROSSETTI, King's Tragedy. 

Perhaps = doch-an-dorus or stirrup-cup. Conf. O. Fr. vuid- 
pot, vodiere, tavern term ; voide, vuide, vuyde, empty. 

L'ung secouru, 1'autre ayd6, 
L'ung est chasse, 1'autre -vuyde. 

Rog. de Collereye, p, 59. 


See also La Curne de Sainte Pelaye, Diet. Hist. 1'Ancien 
Lang. Frang. Par. 1875 82, 4- 

VOIDEN. To empty (Chauc.) void, to empty void, 
empty O. Fr. voide. 

VOLAPUK. A universal phonetic language invented by 
Johann Martin Schleyer; from Volapuk zw/a, gen. ofvol, world, 
universe; piik, language, whence piikat, discourse, conference; 
pukatel, orator; pukav, linguistic philology; ptikofik, eloquent, 
&c. &c. See Sjhleyer, Diet. Volapiik-Frangais &c., Par. 1887. 

VOLSELLA, VULSELLA. Pair of tweezers or nippers 
to pluck out hair by the roots L. volsella, for vulsella, dim. 
of vulsus, plucked vellor, to pluck. 

VOMER. Small thin bone in median line forming par- 
tition between nostrils ; so named from its close resemblance 
to a ploughshare L. vomer, a ploughshare, so called because 
it casts up the earth vomo, to throw up, vomit. Conf. Varro, 

v- 44. 3 1 - 

VOUSSOIR. Wedgelike stone or other matter forming 
one of the pieces of an arch Fr. voussoir, perhaps another 
form of the architectural term voussure, which, according to 
Littr6, supposes a verb vousser, vosser (found in VVallon), 
which, according to Scheler, represents a fictive form vol- 
iiare volutus (rolled or rolling) ; whence voute, arched 

VOYOL, VOYAL. Large rope used in raising an anchor 
when common method by messenger is insufficient ; the 
block through which the messenger passes.. Jal (Gloss. 
Naut.), under " Voyal," refers to messenger and viol, which 
he renders tournevire (voyol] ; and he thinks it may be from 
A.S. wiold, part, of wealdan, to govern, conduct. 

VULGAR. Plebeian, suiting to the common people 


L. vulgaris, of or belonging to the great mass or multitude 
L. vulgus r. of FOLK, q.v. 


WAR, WARRE, WERRE. Struggle between states by 
force of arms A.S. werre (O.D. werre, O. Fr. werre, Mod. Fr. 
guerre) O.G. ger, war, also missile, weapon (gar, weapon ; 
wer, id.) weren, to defend. 

WART, WERT, WERTE, WRETE. Small horny ex- 
crescence of the skin O.D. warte, wratte (A.S. wearle, Dan. 
vorte, Sw. varta, Icel. varta, G. warze, Fr. verrue~] L. verruca, 
var. derived from verrunco, to change a thing for the better ; 
and verro, to pull away, make clear. " Verruca a verrunco, quia 
opera danda est, ut averruncetur," Vosstus ; " a verrunco, qu6d 
quae supereminent averruncari debeant," Perottus; " a verrendo, 
qudd quae supereminent verri solent," Pliny. 

WASP, WASPE, WAPSE. Insect of genus Vespa, akin 
to the hornet A.S. wcepse, wesp(D. wesp, G. wespe] L.vespa, 
corrup. from Gr. <r</>7;. 

WATER. One of the so-called four elements D. water 
(A.S.ztwA?r, G. wasser), indirectly from Gr. vSw/a Skt. uda, -a?n, 
water ud, to flow or issue out. 

given to military commanders in various Slavonic countries, 
and afterwards to governors of towns and provinces Slav. 
voyna war, vodit to lead. Conf. Pol. wojna war, wodz leader. 

WAYZ-GOOSE, WAY-GOOSE. A printer's annual 
dinner or feast. It was formerly kept about Bartholomew- 
tide, and till the employer had given this feast the journey- 
men did not work by candlelight. The term (now usually 
shortened to Goose) is said to mean stubble-goose, from an 


old word wayz, a bundle of straw, i.q. waze, a wreath of straw 
O. Sw. wase (later vase, Icel. vast), a sheaf, allied to wass, 
which Ihre renders " arundo. quasi herba aquatilis." See also 
N. & Q. 2nd S. iv. 91, 192 ; 4th S. x. 120 ; also Timperley's 
Diet, of Printers, 1839, quoting Moxon's Mechanick Exercises, 

regions of the air A.S. woken, wolcn (G. wolke, D. walk], 
air, sky, cloud, transp. of Gr. a/xi^X??, mist, fog, cloudlike 

WELL, WELLE. Spring, fount A.S wella, a spring 
(D. wet, Dan. vceld, O. Sw. kcella, O.G. quell] weallian (Icel. 
vella), to well up ; an imitative word. 

WEST. The cardinal point of the compass A.S. west 
G. id. O.G. wese, wise, going down, setting. Conf. L. occiduus, 
western ; lit. going down, setting. 

WHALE, WHAL, QUAL. Large aquatic mammal of 
order Cetacea A.S. hwal, hwcel (Icel. hvalr, Dan. hval, hval- 
fisch, D. walvisch, Platt. wal, walfisk, G. wal, wallfisch}, O. Sw. 
hval apocope of L. balcena Gr. <aXeuva </>aXXcuva, a whale. 
Some Greek dictionaries give also <f>a\rj for a whale, and 
<f>aX\.r] is found in MSS. of Lycophro, 394. 

WHERRY, WHERRIE, WHYRRY. Small boat used on 
rivers for carrying passengers ; the oare of our early writers 
L. oria, orya, horia, small skiff. 

WHIST. The game. Nares, under " Whist," an excla- 
mation enjoining silence, says, that " the name of whist is 
derived from this is known, I presume, to all who play or 
do not play. Dr. Johnson says, " whist, a game at cards, 
requiring close attention and silence, vulgarly pronounced 
whisk" The same is said to differ but little from the old games 


called Ruff and Honours, and Ruff and Trump. The names 
of these were afterwards changed to Whisk and Swabbers. 
Swift says, " the clergymen used to play at whisk and swab- 
bers." Chatto (Orig. of Playing Cards, p. 161) says, " It was 
then [in the very beginning of the present century] played 
with what are called swabbers, which were possibly so termed 
because they who had certain cards in their hands were 
entitled to take up a share of the stake, independent of the 
general event of the game. The fortunate, therefore, clearing 
the board of the extraordinary stake, might be compared by 
seamen to the swabbers (or clearers of the deck), in which 
sense the term is still used." Again (p. 164), after referring 
to the common derivation of the term, Chatto says, " The 
name, however, appears more likely to have been a corrup- 
tion of the older name of Whisk. As the game of Whisk and 
Swabbers was nearly the same as the still older game of 
Ruff and Honours, it would seem that the two former terms 
were merely the ludicrous synonyms of the latter, introduced 
perhaps about the time that Ruffs were going out of fashion, 
and when the Honours represented by the coat cards were at 
a discount. The fact that a game so interesting in itself 
should be so slighted, as it was by the higher orders, from 
the reign of Charles II. to that of George II., would seem to 
intimate that they were well aware of the ridicule intended 
to be conveyed by its popular name of Whisk and Swabbers. 
Looking at the conjunction of these terms, and considering 
their primary meaning, there can scarcely be a doubt that the 
former was the original of Whist, the name under which the 
game subsequently obtained an introduction to fashionable 
society, the Swabbers having been deposed, and the Honours 
restored. In playing the game, swabbers seems to have signi- 



fied either the honours or the points gained through holding 
them. At the older game of Ruff and Honours ruff signified 
the trump. It would appear that, when the ruff was called a 
whisk, in ridicule of the ruff proper, the honours, or points 
gained through them, were, in concatenation accordingly, 
designated swabbers." Bailey renders whisk a brush made 
of osier twigs ; also the sound of a switch ; and a sort of neck- 
dress formerly worn by women. I may add that Roquefort 
gives- wiske as a game of cards. 

WHISTLE. Pipe to whistle with A.S. hwistle, whistle 
L. FISTULA, q.v. 

WHITEBAIT. Small delicate fish, Clupea alba, fry of 
the herring ; so named from its silvery white colour. Whether 
bait is here used in the sense of " food " or of " enticement 
to bite," is doubtful. Fishermen of the Southampton Water 
say whitebait may be caught there, but that the fish is of no 
use except as bait for whiting. Conf. N. & Q. 4th S. i. 222. 

WHITING. The well-known small fish of the cod tribe, 
Gadus merlangus ; so named from the pearly whiteness of its 
finny muscles. Cuvier describes it under Harengale blanquette, 
remarking that the fish is of most brilliant silver-white colour, 
and that its fins are pure white. The termination ing is here 
= to our ish in whitish. In Flanders the whiting is called 

WHIT SUNDAY. Festival of Whitsuntide; properly 
Whitsun Day, first part of the day-name having been cor- 
rupted (like G. Pfingst, Pfingsten, Whitsuntide ; Dan. Pintse, 
Corn. Pencast, id.) from Gr. TrevrrjKoa-rf], " the fiftieth," i.e. the 
fiftieth day after Easter. This is confirmed by Dr. John 
Mason Neale (Essays on Liturgiology, Lond. 1867, 2d ed. 
p. 524), who says, " Whit Sunday. It is curious that this 


name should be so mistaken. It is neither White Sunday 
(for, in truth, the colour is red] nor Huit Sunday, as the 
eighth after Easter; but simply, by various corruptions of 
the German Pfingsten, the Danish Pintse, the various patois, 
Pingsten, Whingsten, &c., derived from Pentecost. The cor- 
ruption is easy and plain enough : if more proof were wanted, 
note i. That, as it is not Easter Sunday, but Easter Day, 
so it is not Whit Sunday, but Whitsun Day. 2. Although 
the barbarous corruptions of Whit Monday and Whit Tuesday 
are now in vogue (they do not occur in the Prayer Book), yet 
no one ventures to speak of Whit week, or Whit-tide, or 
Whit holidays, but Whitsun week (just as Pfingsten woche, in 
German), &c. If the derivations were from White, was it 
utterly impossible that the unmeaning syllable should here 
have got in ? Who ever heard of Easter-sun week or Easter- 
sun holidays ?" Further, in W. T. iv. 3, we read of Whitsun 
pastorals; and in K. H. V. n. sc. 4, of Whitsun morris- 
dance; and we have also Whitsun ale and Whitsun farthings. 
Here note, that the Icelandic Hvit-Drottings-dagr, White 
Lord's day (Dominica in Albij, is a day altogether different 
from Whitsun Day; having reference to the first Sunday after 
Easter, which is called Low Sunday and Quasimodo Sunday. 
Conf. Dr. F. G. Lee's Glossary of Ecclesiastical Terms and 
Cleasby's Icelandic Diet. 

WHITSUNTIDE. Feast of Pentecost ; properly tide or 
time of Whitsun. See WHIT SUNDAY and TIDE. 

WHOLE, HOLE. All, total, containing all A.S. Ml 
Gr. oXos, whole, entire. See SOLE. 

WHORE, HORE. Harlot A.S. hure, \&.hyre reward, 
or hyran to hire. Conf. O.G. hur, Sw. & Dan. hora, O.D. 
hoer, harlot, from verbs signifying hire, or to hire oneself for 


pay ; L. meretrix, from mereo, to get, gain ; prostibulum, from 
pros/o, to sell oneself ; Gr. iropvt] from 7repvo/, to sell ; Goth. 
kalkjo, perhaps from ^aX/cos, brass. Plautus (Mil. Glorios. n. 
sc. 3) describes a harlot as " quae ipsa sese vendebat." 

WICKET, WIKET. At cricket, three stakes fixed upright 
in the ground, and supporting a cross-piece or bale ; orig. 
small gate O. Fr. wiket guichet, little gate obs. huisset 
(uisset), dim. of huis for uis r. of USHER, q.v. 

WILLOW, WILOW, WILWE. Tree and shrub of genus 
Salix A.S. welig, prefixed by w Arcadian eAi*, so called 
from its remarkable flexibility ; lit. winding, twisting C\IKOS 
eXi, a twist etXew, to turn round. 

WINE. Fermented juice of grape A.S. win L. vinum 
^ol. Gr. FOLVOV otvov (oivos) Heb. f", yqyin, id. obs. p% 
javan, bubbling up, being in a ferment. 

WITH. The preposition A.S. with (Sw. & Icel. vid, 
Dan. ved, D. met, O.H.G. miti, G. mif] mith, mid Goth. 
mith, mid Gr. //.era, with, in connection with, along with ; lit. 
in the midst of (connected with, /wo-os) Skt. madya, middle, 
in the middle. 

WITHERNAM. A Dutch scholiast asked the Admirable 
Crichton, "Are goods taken in withernam irreplevisable ?" 
In law, withernam is a second or reciprocal distress because 
of goods or cattle that have been eloigned; counter-distress; 
a reprisal A.S. wither-name, which Dr. Bosworth renders a 
taking away; but it rather means a contrary taking wither, 
against, contrary to, opposite ; name, taking or seizing (goods) 
nam, took niman, to take. For fuller definition of wither- 
nam, see the Law Diets, of Tomlins, Wharton, and Bouvier. 

Conjurer, magician, enchanter; corrupted from O.D. waer- 


seggah (Mod. D. waarzegger), id.waer, true ; seggen, to tell, 
tell fortunes, soothsay, foretell. 


WORK. Toil, labour, employment A.S. wore, weorc, 
were (I eel. & Sw. verk, Dan. vcerk, Plat, werk, wark, O.H.G. 
werch, Franc, wercho] Alem. uuerk JEol. Fcpyov epyov 
Ion. epyw, to do work. 

WORLD. The universe, whole system of created things ; 
to the earth, a globe, the human inhabitants, the countries 
regions of it (Richardson) A.S. world, woruld, weorutd (Icel. 
verold ; O. Fries, wrald, wrauld, warld, rauld, ruald ; O. Sw. 
werld; Dan. verdon, a syncopated word with suffixed article ; 
D. wereld; Alem. uuerilt, uuerolt, uueruli,uorolt; Franc, uueroli, 
uuorolt, O.H.G. weralt, werolt, werelt, worald, werlt. Kilian de- 
rives werelt from weren (wdhren), to last, endure ; but Adelung 
considers such an idea too abstract. The primitive meaning 
of the Francic forms was saculum, ovum, as appears by 
Otfrid, lib. i. cap. iv. 79 ; v. 79 ; and the secondary meaning 
mundus, as appears , by lib. n. cap. i. ab init. The Heb. 
nVu>, olam, which signifies lit. hidden time, long eternity, 
perpetuity, is also used figuratively for " world," whilst the 
Gaelic saoghal means var. world, life, existence, lifetime, an 
age, generation (from L. seculum}. Wachter, after referring 
to Otfrid, renders the Francic word the age of man, the 
longest age of man, from wer man, old (alt} old ; Miiller and 
Zancke render the O.H.G. forms zeitalter du menschen (i.e. 
the generation of man) and zeitalter, seculum, age (i.e. of the 
world. Junius also says that A.S. weoruld was first used to 
denote seculum, and subsequently mundus ; and that " the 
application was made from the unceasing motion and cir- 
cumvolution of ages;" and he derives it from "w<zrl-an, 


li-wcerl-an, to pass ; ymb-wczrlan, to pass or go, or to turn 
round." Other suggestions as to etymology of the word are 
found in the works of Adelung, Frisch, Grimm, Leibnitz, 
Lescu, Lye, Minshew, Miiller and Zancke, and Skinner. 

WORMWOOD. Plant of genus Artemisia, having a 
bitter nauseous taste (absinthium) A.S. ivermod, wormod 
O.G. wermuota (Francic uuermota) wcermde, warmth, heat 
wtzrmen, to make warm, on account of the warmth that it 
produces in the stomach. 

WRASSE. Fish of genus Labrus, sometimes called old 
wife; eaten in many parts of Great Britain, but not to be 
recommended W. y wrack; so named on account of its 
ugliness gwrach, a withered old woman, a hag. 

WRATH. Anger, fury, rage A.S. wrath, wrath (Dan. 
vrede, Sw. wrede), angry, enraged wurath, id. L. iraius, 
angry, angered, enraged p. of irascor ira, anger, wrath, 
rage Gr. epts, contention. 

WYCH, WYCHE, WICH, WICHE enter into com- 
position of names of places where salt is found, or where 
there are salt works, as in Droitwich, Nantwich. Nash 
(Hist. Worcester) thinks the word might be from wi, wye 
(say A.S. wig}, holy, " the northern nations attributing great 
sacredness to waters impregnated with salt ; but the word is 
rather from r. of wich, viz. A.S. wic, Norsk vig, primarily an 
abode, dwelling-place L. vicus Gr. FOLKOS OIKO?, perhaps 
Skt. ves'a. Sir J. A. Picton says, " the vigs or hamlets being 
usually in an inlet or bay, the term vig came to signify the 
bay as well as the hamlet ; and then, these bays being after- 
wards used for the manufacture of salt from sea water, the 
term vig, wick, or wych was naturally associated with the 
place of production ; and subsequently, when brine springs 


were discovered inland, the familiar name of wych, identified 
with the salt manufacture, was applied to them, and the salt- 
pans were called wych-houses." Conf. N. & Q. 5th S. n, 
185, 249, 369 ; X. 87, 158, 317. Hence bay salt. 


YANKEE. Popular name for the citizens of New Eng- 
land, but frequently applied to all the inhabitants of the United 
States. There are several suggestions as to the origin of the 
term. Thierry says it is a corruption of Jankin, dim. of 
John, nickname given to the English colonists by the Dutch 
settlers of New York. A writer in N. & Q. (ist S. v. 258) 
says, " When the New Colonies were first settled, the inha- 
bitants were obliged to fight their way against many nations 
of Indians. They found but little difficulty in subduing them 
all except one tribe, who were known by the name of 
Yankoos, which signifies invincible. The remains of this 
nation (agreeably to the Indian custom) transferred their 
name to their conquerors. For a while they were called 
Vankoos, but, from a corruption common to names in all 
languages, they got in time the name of Yankee." Another 
writer, Mr. Bartlett, says the name Yankees is another 
spelling of Yenkees, Yengees, originally given by the 
Massachusetts Indians to the English colonists, being the 
nearest sound they could give for English. It was after- 
wards adopted by the Dutch on the Hudson, who applied 
the term in contempt to all the people of New England. 
This is perhaps the most reasonable suggestion as to the 
origin of the name. See New York Gazette, June i, 1875 > 
and Bartlett, Diet, of Americanisms. 


YAWL, YAUL. Decked boat carrying two masts 
(Latham); small ship's boat usually rowed by four or six 
oars (Webster) Dan. jolle (G. id., Sw. julle, Mod. Icel.jula, 
Gael, geola, O. Fr. iole, Mod. Fr. yole, It. iold] L. gaulus, 
"a round merchant vessel" Gr. yavXos, id., a word of 
Phoenician or Syriac origin. Conf. Herod, iii. 136, sq. ; 
Paula ex Fest. p. 96 (Miiller) ; Gell. x. 25, 5. Hence, from 
yawl, jolly-boat, a sailor's corruption. 

YEAR, YEER, YER. Period of 365 days A.S. gear, 
ger (D.j'arr, Dan. aar, Sw.Jr, G.jahr) Goth.jer era, which 
Ihre shows was formerly used in Gallia Narbonensis for 
annus ; perhaps from L. ara, an era or epoch from which 
time was reckoned ; lit. a given number according to which 
a calculation is to be made ; earlier, counters ; pi. of as, 
brass ; or the Goth, word may come direct from Gr. wpos, 
time generally, and so specifically a year. Conf. Plut. 2, 
677 D. ; Diod. i, 26; Coraes Heliod. 2, 314. 

small freehold estate A.S. gemcene, common, general Goth. 
gamains L..commum's, common, public (conf. O.H.G.gametne, 
common ; Francic gemein). Frederick Wm. IV. of Prussia, in 
April, 1847, granted a constitution to his people, the Diet to 
consist of three orders i. Nobles ; 2. Burghers or citizens ; 
3. Gemeinde, commons. Conf. Spelman and Verstegan. 

The evergreen tree A.S. iw. Wachter gives eiben-baum, the 
yew-tree, and thinks it was so called because used for making 
bows ; and he renders eibe a bow. Henisch (Thes. Ling, et 
Sapient. German, p. 819) has also eibe, armbrust, arcubalista, 
scorpio manualis ; but I know of no other authority for such 
a word, and, looking to the character of the tree, the word 


eiben has most probably been formed from O.H.G. iwa^ the 
yew, from ewe (whence ewrg), everlasting Goth, aiw id. du 
aiwa, in perpetuum, John viii. 35) L. (zvum r. of AGE, q.v. 
Ivy may be etymologically the same word as yew, inasmuch 
as one of the oldest G. forms of the word is iwa, and 
in Plat Deutsche it is ewig. See also the various forms 
of ivy and yew in Gotho-Teutonic, Keltic, and languages of 
Latin origin. 


ZEPHYR. Soft gentle breeze Fr. zephyr L. zephyrus 
Gr. e<vpos, west wind {on; life, <epw to bear. 


i. Copper ore, copper; 2. Bronze {Hunter) L. CBS, 
var. brass, copper, steel, iron ; also the unit of the coinage 
standard as, piece of such brass, unity, unit Tarentine as, 
unit, one, unity Dor. ais Gr. as, one. 

APHIS. The vine-fretter or plant-louse, insect of genus 
Hemiptera ; so called because, failing to discover sex of 
aphides, old authors concluded they were true hermaphrodites 
r. of ANCHOVY, q.v. Conf. Dufresne under "Apis," and 
the works of Leuuwenhoek, Reaumur, Bonnet, Trembley, 
Buckton, and Sir Richard Owen. 

ARGENT. Term used of the silvery colour on coats of 
arms ; earlier, silvery-white, silver Fr. argent L. argentum, 
metath. of Skt. rajata, silver; lit. white, whitish, silver- 
coloured, silvery arj, to shine, be white ; allied to raj, to 
shine, glitter. 

234 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. Supplementary. 

AYAH. Add : For L. adjuto adjutus, read adjuta, f. of 
adjutus. Ayd is found in Hindustani, but it has most pro- 
bably been borrowed from the Portuguese. 

BLARNEY. Flattering speech. " Blarneyed the land- 
lord" (Irving). Some derive the word from Fr. bativeme, 
idle talk or story, whence baliverner, to trifle, tell idle stories ; 
but the term was without doubt derived from the blarney 
stone built into the wall of an old castle in the village of 
Blarney, near Cork, according to Carlisle situated on the 
river (rivulet ?) of the same name. But here is one of the few 
instances of a river having been named from a place, for the 
village name is found written Blarna, which is a dim. of bldr, 
a field. Conf. Gael, blaran, dim. of bldr, blair, a plain, field, 
a green. 

BODY. Material substance of an animal A.S. bodig 
W. bod, a being or existence. 

BOOBY. Dull, heavy, stupid fellow Gr. (Sovrans, big 
boy /3ou, in compos, great /2ovs, ox ; TTCUS, boy. 

BRACH. In Shak. a kind of hound brache O.Fr. brache 
braque, kind of short-tailed setting-dog (D. brak, blood- 
hound ; G. brack, O.H.G. bracco, It. brdcco, Low L. braccus, 
bracchus, brachus, Sco. rache, bitch ; Eng. rack, A.S. race] Sw. 
racka, bitch raka, to run after, rove about. 

BUSS, BUS. A kiss; according to some from L. basium, 
which White and Riddle say is for savium, from suavium, a 
kiss, love-kiss ; lit. the sweet or delightful thing, and so 
from suavis, sweet ; but Eng. bus, Sw. puss, L. basium, as well 
as Ar. bows and P. bos, are all probably imitative words. 

CALTHA. Genus of herbaceous plants belonging to the 

Supplementary. NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. 235 

Ranunculaceae L. caltha (calthum\ so called on account of 
the resemblance of the corolla to a basket calathus, wicker 
basket Gr. Ko.Aa#os, vase- shaped basket. 

CARTILAGE. Gristle (Fr.) L. cartilago, gristle, e.g. in 
the human body, for carnilago carni caro, flesh, with a 
termination = like to. 

CEREBELLUM. Portion of brain beneath posterior 
lobes of cerebrum (L.) ; dim. of cerebrum, the brain ; lit. that 
which is carried in the head or skull Gr. Kapa, head Skt. 
siras (orig. saras), id. 

CHAPE. Transverse guard of a sword for protection to 
hand ; metal tip or case that strengthens end of scabbard or 
termination of a belt or girdle. 

" And the practice in the chape of his dagger." 

A:S W. iv. 3. 

Sp. chdpa, thin metal plate which serves to strengthen or 
adorn work it covers. Hence, " As an old rusty sword ta'en 
out of the town armoury, with a broken hilt, and chapeless" 
T. of Shrew, iii. i. 

CHARADE. Add : Others say it had its name from 
the idler who invented it. See Encyc. Perthensis. 

Sharp-hooked nail of a bird or beast A.S. claw (D. klaauw, 
Dan. & Sw. klo, Icel. klo, G. klaue}, properly nail of a fowl's 
foot L. clavus, a nail, said to be from claudo, to shut or fasten ; 
but more probably from clam's, a key, because it fixes into 
(anything) like a key to a lock. 

CLAY, CLAI, CLEI, CLEY. The unctuous and tena- 
cious earth so called A.S. dceg (D. ktet, Fries, klat, Dan. 
; by dropping first letter, and change of / to g, from 

236 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. Supplementary. 

L. lutum, clay ; lit. mud, mire. Conf. river-name Clay, for 
Lay, from W. Hi, a stream. 

CLUB, CLUBBE, CLOBB, CLOBBE. Heavy staff or 
stick Dan. klub (Icel. klubba, Sw. klub] L. clava, club, baton, 
so called because like to knotted branch (of a tree) JEol. 
K\a(3a Gr. accus. KXaSa /cXoSos young branch (of a tree) 
K\aw, to break off (a young shoot). 


COLLOGUE. To converse or confer confidentially, 
especially with evil intentions (an old word) L. colloquor, to 
talk together, converse, hold a conversation con for cum, 
with ; loquor, to talk. 

COMPRADOR. In China, native trader managing for 
European merchants or residents ; agent Ptg. comprador, 
buyer, purchaser, chapman, purveyor comprdr, to buy, 
purchase, get, procure for money. 

CONUNDRUM. Add: Perhaps the most probable 
suggestion is that from conning-drum. 

CORRIDOR. Gallery or passage round a quadrangle, 
leading to the several chambers connected with it (Fr.) It. 
corndore correre, to run, in sense of to go L. currere, to 
run. Conf. Targumic toTD, rahtt, rendered, aedificium quod 
sit in domibus altis ad currendum de una domo ad alteram 
rahat, to run. See also Pagninus (Santes) Epit. Thes. Ling. 
Sanct. Lvgd. Bat. 1588. 

CRATE. Large wicker case for crockery L. crates, 
wicker-work, hurdle ; lit. that which is tied Skt. srath, to tie. 

DECOY. At second line, before duck, insert, id. ende ; 
and at end add, conf. A.S. aned, a duck, drake ; Low L. 
aneta, id. ; O. Fr. anete, anede, anette, annette, a female duck. 

Supplementary. NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. 237 

See also D. lok-end, a decoy ; endvogel, a duck ; lit. a duck 

DESPOT. Irresponsible ruler or sovereign Fr. despote 
Low L. despotus Gr. SCSTTOT^?, master, lord Skt. des, 
country, district, place, region, vernac. of desa; pdti, is, master, 
owner, lord, governor, ruler, sovereign. 

used at dessert ; formerly a sort of woollen stuff named after 
Doyley, first maker, who lately resided at 346, Strand. See 
my Verba Nominalia, Lond. 1866. 

DRAKE, DRICK. Male duck ; aphseresis of O.G. mterich 
(I eel. andriki Dan. andrika, Sw. anddrake) ente duck (r. of 
de in DECOY, q.v.}, reich leader; lit. rich, powerful. Wachter 
renders entereich, anterich, "masculus inter anates, proprie 
ductor anatum." 

DRAY. Car on which beer is carried L. traha, trahea, 
vehicle without wheels, drag, sledge ; lit. a dragged thing 
traho, to draw. 

DRINK. Add : Conf. It. trincdre, to drink, quaff, tope, 
carouse ; trinca, a drunkard ; Fr. trinquons, let us drink 

FAY. In shipbuilding, to fit any two pieces of wood so 
as to join close and fair together. The plank is said to fay 
to the timbers when it lies so close to them that there shall 
be no perceptible space between them. Corrup. from fadge, 
to come close, to fit A.S.fegan, to join, unite, fit together. 

FIDDLE. Read o-^tSes for o-<i8at. 

FIR. Tree of genus Pinus A.S. furh (G. fohre, Dan. 
fyr) O. Sw./ure, furo, i&.fyr, fire, because it soon takes 

238 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. Supplementary. 

FLACCID. Limp Fr. flaccide L. flacddus, hanging 
down, drooping, flabby, feeble, languid flaccus, loose, flag- 
ging, with ears hanging down /3Aa/a/cos, lazy, stupid ; or its 
r. /3Aa, -KOS, lit. slack (in body and mind). 

FOIN, FOYN, FOOYNE. Polecat, fitch etO.Yr./oint, 
fqyn,fqyne,foqyne,faine(Wa.\\onfawme, Cat. fagina, Sp.futna, 
Ptg. foinha) L. faginus, of beech, because, says Bochart, 
this animal delights in beech-trees; and Littre adds, the pole- 
cat is also called "marten of the beech-trees (fagus, a beech- 
tree). Hence foins, sort of fur taken from a weasel or ferret. 

FOUL. Filthy, nasty A.S. ful (Dan. //, Sw. //) 
Goth.fu/s Gr. <avAos, base, mean, vile. 

GALE. Aromatic root of the rush Cyperus, used as a drug, 
and as a seasoning for dishes O. Fr. galingal Ar. ..Isjjj^rs. , 
khultnjdn, Pers. khulanjdn (in Karnata and Marathf culanjan, 
in Hindi culmjan, culdjan, in Hindustani kholinjdn) Skt. 
kulanjana, kulanja, the plant Alpinia galanga. It is also 
called in Skt. gandha-mula, fragrant root. But conf. Malay 
name langkwe, langwas, and langkd, a name for Ceylon. 

GAMMADION. Sacred symbol properly pertaining to 
the Eastern Church ; compounded of letter gamma several 
times repeated. It was used very frequently in decorations 
of the Greek Church, as also occasionally of our own. In 
after times this symbol retained an heraldic charge, and was 
known as the Fylfot Gr. yap.fjut.TLov dim. of ya//,/x.a. See 
Archaeol. Jour. iv. 68. 

GANNET, GANET, GANTE. The Solan goose A.S. 
ganot, like O.D. gent, O.H.G. game r. of GOOSE, q.v. 

GOBLET. Kind of cup or drinking vessel without a 

Supplememarjt. NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. 239 

handle Fr. gofalet, dim. of O. Fr. gobel, cup Gr. *wreAAov, 
cup, bowl, dim. of Kv-rrt), for K vp.^. Conf. Skt. kumbha, as, 
jar, pitcher, water-pot, ewer. 

GONDOLA. Small Venetian boat; It. gondola; by 
change of c to g, and b to d, from L. cymbula, little boat, skiff; 
dim. of cymba Gr. Kvpfirj, boat *o;//,/3os, cavity. Hence also, 
from cymba, It. gonda, rendered " sorta di barca." 

GOOD, GODE, Deserving of approbation generally 
A.S. god (D. goed, Dan. & Sw. god) Goth, gods, corrupted 
from Gr. a-ya#-os, id. ; from a word yaflos, preceded by eu- 
phonic a ya0eco, yrjOeta, to rejoice. 


HAG. Add : Conf. also It. fitonissa, fitonessa, divineress, 
sorceress, witch ; L. saga, wise woman, sorceress, witch, hag. 

HARE LIP. The congenital malformation ; so called 
from lip being split or divided into two parts, like lip of 

HARLOT. Add : Tommaseo (Diz. de la Ling. Ital.) 
thinks Arlotto or Arle"tto may have been derived from the 
French town of Aries, where the overflowing of the Rhone 
renders the people poor and coarse. " Arlotto, prov. Arlotz, 
in orig. Pitocco ; forse da Aries, dove il Rhodano, stagnando, 
faceva povera e grossolana la gente." " Per unita fatto nome 
di battesimo, come Guittone, e sim." " Pievano Arlotto, del 
secolo xv., fatto proverbiale per le sue facezie ; e titolo d'un 
giornale che sberlava certi Arl6tti e Arlecchini." 

HOGO, HOGOO. High savour, relish (obs.} Fr. haul 
gout, for haut goust. 

IBIS. Kind of stork (L.) Gr. i/fo, the Abou Hannes of 

240 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. Supplementary. 

Bruce ; beautiful scarlet bird of stork kind, corrup. from 
Ar. IXs-y j)\, Abu Yuhanna, Father John. The Arabs also 
call it Abu Minjal, Father Sickle. The Coptic names are 
uoure, noun. 

IMPEDIMENT. Add : Conf. e/wroSifr), to impede, 
obstruct, entangle ; lit. to entangle the feet, to fetter (Herod, 
iv. 60) e/A7roSov, a fetter. See also Littleton's Lat. Diet. 

JANISSARY, JANIZARY. Soldier of Turkish foot 
guards Turk, yenicheri, new militia or armyyeni ( Uigur 
yenghi), new ; cheri, militia, army ( Uigur tscherik, war leader, 

LABYRINTH. A confused arrangement of paths or 
passages leading nowhere ; the best authenticated one being 
in a temple at Arsinoe, near Lake Mceris, in Egypt Gr. 
Xa/?vpiv0os, for which three etymologies have been suggested 
viz. one from the Greek, which is improbable, and two 
from the Egyptian. According to Bunsen, the labyrinth at 
Arsinoe had its name from Mares (the Mares of Eratosthenes, 
popular pronunciation of Ra(n-}ma = Mara, for, says he, the 
Egyptian name was Ra-Mares, the gate (habitation, i.e. tomb) 
of Mares, which became La-mares, La-bares. But this does 
not account for the termination u/0os. Brugsch derives the 
name from Egypt. Rape-ro-hunt, or Lape-ro-hunt, " the temple 
at the sluice of the canal ;" which is compounded of Saludic 
rape, temple ; Coptic ro, door, mouth ; hunt, canal. 

LEMON. For limonde read limande. Littre' derives li- 
mande from L. lima, a file, on account of the roughness of the 
skin. The fish is called in Rondeletius (319), and in Gesner, 
pise. (665), passer asper, sive squamosus. 

Supplementary. NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. 241 

LIGHT (as to weight) A.S. leoht Goth, leihts, corrap. 
from L. levis Gr. \ct- r os \etos, smooth to the touch. Conf. 

of fine bread ; orig. bought bread, in contradistinction to 
that of a coarser quality usually baked at home O. Fr. 
michette, dim. of miche, small loaf, round loaf. Conf. Flem. 
micke, rendered pain de froment, large et 6pais ; D. mik, farine 
de seigle. In some manors in England miches or white loaves 
were formerly paid in lieu of rent. 

MERLE. Add : In the Languedoc, at Marseilles and 
Nice, merle bleu, merle de roche, are called passa solitari, 
soulitari, soulitaria. 

TOE, MISSELDEN, MISSELDINE. Parasitic plant of 
genus Viscum A.S. misteltdn (G., Sw., & D. mistel, in Dan. 
also mistelteen) Icel. mistilteinn, the mistle-twig, the fatal 
twig by which Balder, the white-sun god, was slain (Voluspa 
36 seq. ; and the Legend in Edda, 36, 37), says Cleasby. 
The first part of the word in the Gotho-Teutonic languages 
has been formed from L. viscum, mistletoe, birdlime JEol. 
/SISKOS Gr. i|os, the mistletoe, the mistletoe-berry, birdlime 
prepared therefrom, any sticky substance. The last part, 
Icel. teinn (A.S. tan, Dan. teen), comes through Goth, tains, 
from O. Scythic tenus, little twig. 

MOUNT. Add : Through A.S. munt. 

OLD (as to years). A.S. eald (D. oud, G. all) Goth. 
altheis L. altus, old, ancient, remote; earlier, high; lit. 
grown or become great by nourishment, support, care, &c. 


242 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. Supplementary. 

alo, to support, maintain. Conf. altum, vetus, antiquum 
(Nonius MarcellusJ ; altus, ab alendo dictus (FestusJ. 


" This woful lady ylerned had in yowth, 
So that she werken and embrowden kowthe, 
And weven in stolen the radevore, 
As hit of wymmen hath be woved yore. 

CHAUCER, Legende of Goode Women, 124. 

Speght makes two words of radevore, and renders it tapestry, 
loom work. Cowel says "radevore, i.e. tapestry, such as is 
usually hanged in a small house Sax. rad, consilium (council) ; 
fore, ante (before)." Skinner gives " Radevore, exp. tapistry 
or loom work, sc. ille tapes vel ilia tapetis species quae in 
senatu ornamenti gratia proponi solet ; a Belg. raed, Teut. 
rath, A.S. rad, rede, rade, consilium, senatus ; et Belg. wore, 
Teut. wor, A.S. fore, ante." It has also been suggested that 
first part of the word might be from Fr. ras, name of several 
stuffs, and last part from name of a town ; conf. ras de 
Chalons, ras de Gennes, ras de St. Maur. There is a town 
in Languedoc called La Vaur ; Lavaur in Dordogne ; and 
Lavaur in Tarn. " Fabr. de bonneterie, filature de coton et 
de soie, teintureries, minoteries." In a review of Chaucer in 
Edin. Rev. for July, 1870, p. 44, the writer says, " If not two 
separate words according to the printing of the early folios, 
rode vore is a compound, and Mr. Morris is, we believe, the 
first who has offered any rational explanation of either term 
or part of the phrase. In his glossary he gives as the mean- 
ing of rade vore, 'striped stuff, tapestry;' and this, though 
unsupported, is certainly a probable conjecture, for, as Ritson 
points out, rei'edwas used for 'striped cloth of divers colours. 

Supplementary. NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. 243 

No one has, however, ever attempted to explain the other 
word or part of the compound, vore. The word is, we believe, 
entirely unknown both to editors of Chaucer and to our 
English lexicographers. Nevertheless, though wholly over- 
looked, vore does exist in the language, and has precisely 
the meaning which the context here requires. It is familiarly 
used in the iyth Century for print or pattern, and no doubt 
it existed in Chaucer's day in the same sense. The following 
passage from Bateman's translation of Glanville will illustrate 
both the existence and meaning of the word : ' By the opinion 
of the common people, the circle Galaxias is the vore of the 
passing of the sun, that the sun leaveth after him when he 
passeth in that circle. But Aristotle sayth that this is false, for, 
if Galaxias were of the imprinting of the passage of the sun, 
then must this printing be in the signes, in the which the 
sunne passeth with other moveable starres.' Again, the word 
is used for the print of the finger after the pressure has been 
removed. Referring to an imposthume, the writer says, 
'And, if thou thrustest thy finger thereupon, it denteth in, for 
the running matter withdraweth, and letteth not the finger to 
enter, and then in the middle is a pit, as it were the vore of an 
hole ; and when the finger is awaye the matter cometh againe, 
and filleth all the place.' In these passages it will be seen 
that vore is exactly equivalent to print, impress, or pattern ; 
and the interpretation of rade vore would thus be striped print, 
or figured pattern, which, it need scarcely be added, is just 
the sense required. The meaning of the line would thus be 
to weave in the loom the figured pattern." Roquefort (Supp.) 
gives " wre, al!6e, passage;" citing Grand Registre de 1'hostel 
de ville de Douai, cot6 N, fol. 87, V- " Et fut devis< expresse- 
ment que ladite vore se feroit au deseure de la riviere de trois 

244 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^). ^uffltmentary. 

a quatre pie's de largue, et a durer ledicte vore, tante que ladite 
demiselle sera vivans, 10 Mars 1435." Bosworth (A.S. Diet.) 
hasfar,fer, for, journey, way, going, going together, assembly, 
meeting; fore, access, journey, going together, an assembly, a 
sign ; and Coleridge's Glossary gives fore = track (A.S. for). 
Again, Diez translates vore, orlo, which doubtless refers to It. 
orlo, a hem, selvage, edge ; and one of the meanings of 
selvage is a woven border, or a border of close work ; if so, 
the rendering " striped border " might not be far from the 

RAUNING POLLACK. A name given to the adult 
coalfish by Cornish fisherman ; so called on account of its 
voracity; corrup. of ravening, from raven, to eat with voracity. 
Conf. Yarrell, Brit. Fishes, i. 556. 

RUPEE. The silver coin in use in British India, 
nearly 2s. Hind, rupiya Skt. rupiya, stamped coin, silver 
or gold bearing a stamp or impression ; lit. wrought silver ; 
primarily, having a beautiful form or appearance rup, to 
form, mould, model. 

SHAD, SHADDE. A fish resembling the herring, 
except in size, and sometimes called mother herring A.S. 
sceadda (Ir. sgadan, a herring) r. of SKATE, q.v. 

SKATE, SCATE, SKEAT. The fish Norweg. ska/a 
(Icel. id., Ir. sgat} L. squaius (dim. squatina} ; syncopated 
from squamatus, scaly so called becaase it has a rough skin 
squama, scale. Conf. G. piv-rj rendered squatina ; properly 
shark with a rough skin, so called because the skin is used 
for polishing wood and marble ; lit. a file or rasp. 

TASSEL. Hanging tuft of silk &c. G. zottel, woollen 

Supplementary. NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^. 245 

flocks, shaggy tufted wool dim. of zotte, shag, rag, tuft of 

TEA, TEE, CHA, CHAU. Prepared leaves of Thea 
sinensis ; the infusion Chin, cha, tea, the infusion. Hence 
BOHEA, from Woo-e, name of the hills in Fuh Keen, where 
the plant grows, and whence black tea is chiefly brought ; 
CHOOCHA, aphaeresis of chinchoo-cha, pearl tea chinchoo, a 
pearl ; CONGOU, from kung foo, work, so called because it 
requires much labour in cultivation or preparation ; HOWQUA, 
named after a celebrated Hong merchant ; HYSON, from 
he chun, blooming spring ; PEKOE, from pih haou, white down 
(haou, long, soft, small, pointed hair or down); POUCHOXG, 
so called from being folded up in paper parcels, from paou, 
to unfold ; chung for chun, a bundle, or from che, paper ; SOU- 
CHONG, from seaou chung, said to mean little sprouts, from 
seaou, &c. 

TOPAZ. The precious stone L. topazos, topazon, topazion 
Gr. T07ratos, sc. Ai0os; so called from having been formerly 
found in isle of Topazos in the Red Sea, according to Pliny, 
on authority of King Juba, situate 300 stadia from the main- 
land of Africa. In Dr. Win. Smith's Atlas of Ancient Geo- 
graphy it is placed between isles Ophiodes and Agathonis, but 
according to Diodorus Siculus the original name of Topazos 
was Ophiodes. Ptolemy says the isle had its name from a 
promontory (aKpov) called /3atov, according to Jablonski 
prefixed by Coptic tap = cornu. The latter writes the name 
in Roman character Tap-badseini ; in Coptic Tap-Abageini or 
Tap-Bagenini. Conf. Strabo, b. xvi. c. iv. s. 6 ; Plin. xxxvii. 
8 ; in. s. 32 ; Diod. Sic. iii. 39 ; Ptolem. 4, 5, et 8 ; Stephanus 
Byz. de Urbibus etc. Fragm. L. Bind. ; Fosterus Mantiss. 
Egypt, p. 121, sq. ; Jablonski Panth, Egypt, pars, i, 1750. 

246 NUCES ETYMOLOGIC^). Supplementary. 

TRAFFIC. To trade, barter, carry on commerce 
Fr. trafiquer It. traficdre (Sp. traficdr, (rafagdr) Low L. 
traffigare, to carry on business transfegar, to pass over the 
sea ; corrupted from L. trans fretare, id. trans, across, over, 
beyond ; /return, the sea ; lit. a strait. 

WEESELL. The carnivorous animal A.S. wesle (Dan. vcesel, 
Sw. wessla, Icel. visla, O.G. wisel, Low L. visela), said to have 
been named from slight hissing sound which it emits ; but 
the word has more probably been corrupted, by change of m 
to v, and v to w, from L. mustela, id. ; an augment, formed 
from mus, a mouse. Conf. Lorraine word moteile, Romance 
mostela, Catalan mostela, mustela, Sp. mustela, It. mustella. For 
other suggestions as to the etymology see Junius, Minshew, 
and Wachter. 

WHERRY. At end add : Small coasting-boat L. ora, 
shore, coast ; or Gr. opios, relating to boundaries. Horia and 
oria are found in Plautus, Rud. iv. 2, i, and iv. 3, 81 ; and 
horiola and oriola in Trin. iv. 2, 100. See also Gellius, lib. x. 
line 25 et seq. 


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