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Full text of "Nuclear survival manual : BOSDEC--the concrete curtain"

NUCLEAR 
SURVIVAL 
MANUAL 

BOSDEC The Concrete Curtain 



JAMES R. FAIRLAMB 




From the collection of the 

z n 
z m 

o PreTinger 

I a 

v AJibrary 



San Francisco, California 
2006 



NUCLEAR 

SURVIVAL 

MANUAL 



BOSDEC - The Concrete Curtain 



NUCLEAR SURVIVAL MANUAL 

BOSDEC - THE CONCRETE CURTAIN 



BY 
JAMES R. FAIRLAMB 



FIRST EDITION 



PUBLISHERS 
DREXEL WINSLOW & FARRINGTON 

P. O. BOX 55 BUTLER, N. J. 



COPYRIGHT, JAMES R. FAIRLAMB 1963 



All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this 
book or parts thereof in any form in any language. 



Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 63-21932 



Printed in the United States of America 

TKe Colonial Press Inc. 

Clinton, Mass. 



CONTENTS INDEX GUIDE 

PAGE 

Dedication 19 

Foreword 21 

CHAPTER 1 
Surviving Immediate Effects of a Nuclear Explosion 27 

SURVIVAL FOR ONE MINUTE 
THERMAL RADIATION 

Flash 

Fireball heat 

Afterwinds 

Firestorms 

Vaporization 

INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 
BLAST 

Overpressure 

Air blast 

Mach front 

Blast wave 

Overpressure and wind velocity decay 

Blast winds 

Ground shock and Shockwaves 
FALLOUT 

Early fallout 

Delayed fallout 

CHAPTER 2 

Types of Nuclear Weapon Explosions 35 

AIR BURST 

Thermal radiation effects of an air burst 
Nuclear radiation effects of an air burst 
Blast effects of an air burst 
Timing of effects of 1 MT air burst 

7 



PAGE 



GROUND BURST 

Thermal radiation effects of a ground burst 
Initial nuclear radiation effects of a ground burst 
Blast effects of a ground burst 
Fallout radiation effects of a ground burst 

SUBSURFACE BURST 

Thermal radiation effects of a subsurface burst 
Initial nuclear radiation effects of a subsurface burst 
Blast effects of a subsurface burst 
Fallout radiation effects of a subsurface burst 

CHAPTER 3 
Thermal Radiation 39 

THERMAL RADIATION 
HEAT 

Heat reflection and absorption 
BURNS 

Flash burns 

Flame burns 

Hot gas burns 

Burn ranges for exposed persons 
EYE INJURIES 

Permanent 

Temporary 

CHAPTER 4 
Nuclear Blast 43 

INJURIES DUE TO BLAST 

Direct causes of injuries due to blast 

One MT wind velocity, positive phase duration and 

peak OP 

Peak overpressures at maximum distances from G Z 
Probable fatality percentages for estimated OP ranges 

8 



PAGE 



Indirect cause of injuries due to blast 
CRATERS 

Crater zone guide 

Observable crater 

Rupture zone 

Plastic zone 

True crater 

Maximum crater dimensions 

CHAPTER 5 
Nuclear Radiation Guide 51 

TYPES OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS 

Fission 

Fusion 
TYPES OF NUCLEAR RADIATION 

Alpha particles 

Beta particles 

Gamma rays 

Neutrons 

UNITS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION ENERGY AND BIOLOGICAL 
DAMAGE MEASUREMENT 

MEV million electron volts 

Roentgens 

Rads 

Rems 

RBE 

Radiation conversion guide 
INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 

Prompt gamma rays 

Delayed gamma rays 

Initial nuclear radiation dose range 

Initial gamma ray dose range 

Time and percentage for initial gamma radiation received 



PAGE 



RESIDUAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 

Early fallout 

Fallout size and percentage of radioactivity carried 

Estimated fallout dose from 20 MT ground burst 

Early fallout pattern for 1 MT ground burst 

Decontamination by earth moving techniques 

Conversion of known dose rate to that of any other 
time 

Residual radiation decay table 

Long half life radioisotopes 

Fallout cannot induce radioactivity 
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION 

lonization 

Symptoms 

Radiation by inhalation 
NUCLEAR RADIATION SHELTER TIME GUIDES 

Nuclear radiation dose rate time guide 

Nuclear radiation allowable stay time guide 

CHAPTER 6 
Nuclear Radiation Protection Shields 69 

BARRIER SHIELDING 

Half value layer thickness 

Material shielding efficiencies 

Equivalent half value layer protection factors 

Protection factor 

Fallout protection factor guide 

Tenth value layer thickness 

Equivalent tenth value layer protection factors fallout 

Equivalent TVL protection factors initial radiation 
GEOMETRY SHIELDING 

Geometry shielding protection examples 

Neutron barriers 

10 



PAGE 



TIME SHIELDING 

Nuclear radiation time decay 
Lifetime nuclear radiation computation 

CHAPTER 7 
Nuclear Explosion Survival Range 79 

Minimum survival ranges (from GZ) 

Thermal radiation 

Blast 

Initial nuclear radiation 

Crater 

Survival precautions 

Square and cube root table 

Squares and cubes table 

CHAPTER 8 83 

Shelter Building Controversy 

COMMUNIST OBJECTIVES 

POPULAR CLICHES 

ANALYSIS OF POPULAR CLICHES 

"I don't want to live " 

"If everything will be blown down " 

"Some people are going to have guns " 

"We should forget about shelters " 

"Building shelters may precipitate a nuclear attack " 

"I can't afford a shelter -" 

CHAPTER 9 

Getting to the Shelter 89 

STRATEGIC WARNING 
TACTICAL WARNING 

11 



PAGE 



ENEMY OBJECTIVES 

Possibility of a complete surprise attack 
DAY TIME ATTACK 
NIGHT ATTACK 

NEAR project 
PROTECTION AT WORK 
PROTECTION AWAY FROM SHELTER 

CHAPTER 10 
Nuclear Attack Possibilities 93 

ESTIMATES OF COMMUNIST ATTACK CAPABILITY 
NUCLEAR ATTACK WEAPON SIZES 
NUCLEAR ATTACK PATTERN 

Possible methods of bomb delivery 

Nuclear attack timetable 

Possibility of invasion 

Targets 

Chance of survival 

CHAPTER 11 
Essentials for Survival 97 

AIR 

Oxygen concentration in air 

Carbon dioxide concentration in air 

Air supply methods 

Carbon dioxide removal by soda lime 

Carbon dioxide removal by Zeolite 
WATER 

Water and radioactivity 

Reservoir water 

Shelter water sources 

12 



PAGE 



FOOD 

Food warehousing 

Food supply requirements 
FIRE AND HEAT ENERGY 

Electricity 

Public utility electricity 

Generator electricity 

Battery electricity 

Propane and natural gas 

Coal 

Wood 

Charcoal briquets 

Alcohol 

Candles 

Kerosene 
CLOTHING 

Adults 

Men 

Women 

Teenagers 

Children 

General shelter clothing suggestions 

SHELTER FROM THE ELEMENTS 

HAND TOOLS 

MEDICINE 

Medical supplies 

CHAPTER 12 
BOSDEC 109 

BOMB SHELTER IN DEPTH CONCEPT 
BOSDEC SYSTEM PRINCIPLES 

Primary shelter 

Secondary shelter 

13 



PAGE 



Shelter lock 

Collateral BOSDEC advantages 
BOSDEC basic requirements 
PRIMARY SHELTER SPECIFICATIONS 
Primary shelter design features 
Primary shelter ventilation 
Primary shelter air changes 

CHAPTER 13 
How to Meet BOSDEC Specifications 1 1 5 

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION 
PRIMARY SHELTER CONSTRUCTION 

Emergency escape hatch 

Generator and blower instructions 

PRIMARY SHELTER COMPARTMENTS 
Primary shelter floor plan 
Primary shelter living quarters 
Primary shelter storage room for food and tools 
Primary shelter air intake and filter room 
Primary shelter ventilation motor blower 
Chemical ventilation 

FILTERS 

Precipitator electric filters 

Air purifier filters 

Primary shelter water storage 

Air intake and filter compartment equipment 

PRIMARY SHELTER GENERATOR AND AIR EXHAUST ROOM 
Fractional horsepower motor current draws 
Electrical appliance current draws 
Generator area equipment 
Electric supply schematic guide 
Automatic-Electro utility system 

14 



PAGE 



SECONDARY SHELTER 

Secondary shelter floor plan 

Secondary shelter sanitary facilities 

Secondary shelter ventilation 

Secondary shelter equipment 
SHELTER LOCK 

Shelter lock floor plan 

Shelter lock equipment 
SHELTER PREPARATION PROCEDURES 

Water shutoff 

Water supply schematic guide 

Electricity shutoff to house 

Air shutoff 

Generator electric current draw 

Primary shelter electric control panel 

CHAPTER 14 
General Food Information 137 

UNAVAILABLE FOOD 
SELECTING FOOD 

Food preparation 

New commercial frozen food storage 
SEQUENCE OF FOOD USE 

Fresh food 

Foods in deepfreeze 

Canned and long shelf life foods 
FOOD PREPARATION SUGGESTIONS 

Utilization of cans and cartons 

Primary shelter food 

Secondary shelter food 

Serving food 

Kitchen utensils for shelter use 

Kitchen supplies for shelter use 

Secondary shelter food list 

15 



PAGE 



CHAPTER 15 
Primary Shelter Menus 145 

CALORIE INTAKE 
MEAL TIME CYCLES 
SELECTION OF FOOD 

Cost of meals 
BREAKFAST MENUS 
LUNCH MENUS 
DINNER MENUS 
SHOPPING LISTS FOR PRIMARY SHELTER MENUS 

Condiments, staples, spices, coffee and tea, etc. 
EMERGENCY TRAVEL FOOD 

CHAPTER 16 
Shelter Equipment and Supplies 153 

Personal sanitary needs 

Shelter housekeeping supplies 

Hardware supplies 

Portable mechanical and electrical equipment 

General purpose equipment and supplies 

CHAPTER 17 
General Radiation Information 157 

RADIATION DETECTORS 

Survey meters 

Dosimeters 

NORMAL RADIATION EXPOSURES 
RADIATION DOSES AND RECOVERY TIMES 

Safe roentgen dosages under emergency conditions 
EMERGENCY EXCURSIONS FROM SHELTER 

Leaving shelter 

Returning to shelter 

16 



PAGE 

CHAPTER 18 
Emergency Shelter First Aid 161 

BLEEDING 

BREATHING PROBLEMS 

BURNS 

FRACTURES 

PREGNANCY 

IDENTIFICATION TAGS 

CHAPTER 19 
Basic Nuclear Physics 163 

ELEMENTAL STRUCTURE 

Elements 

Atoms 

Nucleus 

Protons 

Neutrons 
ISOTOPES 
FISSION 
IONIZATION 

Ionizing radiation 
RADIATION 

Radioactive atoms 
BIOLOGICAL NUCLEAR EFFECTS 

Internal radioactive poisoning 

CHAPTER 20 
America After a Nuclear Attack 171 

ABSORBED RADIATION 

Areas of intense radiation 
Radiation weathering effect 

17 



PAGE 



RECONSTRUCTION AND RELOCATION PROGRAMS 

Military leadership 

Registration 

Area certifications 
RADIATION BANKING CONCEPT 

Deposits and withdrawals 

Older people 
RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS 

Basic Materials 

Heavy manufacturing 

Medicine 
Clothing 
GOVERNMENT PLANNING 



Glossary 1 79 

Bibliography 135 

Equipment and Food Sources 187 



18 



DEDICATION 

This effort is dedicated with love to all the chil- 
dren of the world. With it goes the fervent 
prayer that their parents will use more wisdom 
in making the life or death decisions coming up 
in the future than they did in getting our world 
into such a predicament. 



19 



FOREWORD 



In the year 1963 the two way power struggle between the free 
world and Russia became a three way contest. By 1965 China will 
probably have accomplished a nuclear reaction; by 1970 China 
will have nuclear weapons; and by 1980 China will have a nuclear 
attack capability. Red China, those simple agrarian reformers, 
have already announced long and loud that they intend to exter- 
minate capitalism the moment that they can gain more than they 
will lose. Chinese strategy may well be to defeat Russia ideologic- 
ally and/ or militarily and then take on the free world. As the 
ultimate aim; Red Chinese domination of the world! The first act 
must be the subjugation of India as a flank protection. You 
have witnessed the opening ploys. Let us not be completely and 
thoroughly naive. 

The simple minded man who doesn't have sense enough to 
come in out of the rain has been the bench mark of stupidity for 
a long time. He is about to lose his place to the man who "doesn't 
have sense enough to come in out of the fallout." 

Many people use the stock expression "I don't want to live like 
a mole or a rabbit and dive into a hole when in danger." In effect 
these people are saying that they don't have as much sense as 
a rabbit. 

Why should people be subjected to ridicule for a natural desire 
to seek protection from danger? A nuclear attack would turn our 
entire country into a war theatre. Each citizen would become a 
soldier in a battle for survival. Every army in modern history has 
dug in for protection. Has any stigma ever been attached to a 
command to dig foxholes or trenches? What is so sensible about 
standing out in the open and inviting destruction? 

An embattled population would necessarily play a passive role 
in a period of nuclear attacks. Certainly all civilians will auto- 
matically seek shelter. Whether they duck under the kitchen table 
or into a planned shelter is just a question of degree of protection. 
The principle is the same. To cope with this problem it will be 
necessary for most persons to discard ideas gleaned from scary, 
ill informed articles and to study the actual facts. 

If you decide to build a shelter you will want to judge for 
yourself the degree of protection necessary or possible for you and 
your family. The purpose of this manual is to make all known facts 

21 



available to you in one complete reference so that your decisions 
will be based on facts not on the opinions of others. 

One of the main facts to consider is this if you build a pro- 
tective shelter and never use it during a nuclear attack you may 
lose several thousand dollars. If you don't build it and a nuclear 
attack occurs you may lose your life. 

It doesn't seem logical to trust to luck or some one else's pre- 
digested opinions on such a vital matter. It makes just as little 
sense to design and build a shelter for fallout protection only, when 
a combined blast and fallout shelter can be built with a little more 
effort and money. You will need a strong shelter not a bargain 
basement. 

We are all afraid of the unknown. Fear is a poor basis for 
intelligent planning. This is the main reason why a clear under- 
standing of nuclear problems is so necessary to the average man. 
This manual is not intended to solve your problems. It is designed 
to give you the basis for wise decisions. After all, it is your problem 
your decision and no one can make it for you. You are entitled 
to facts not salestalks, not piecemeal information, not communist 
propaganda or cabdriver opinions. 

Nuclear energy is a fact of life. It cannot be ignored or side 
stepped. Yet that is what people are trying to do when they say 
that they don't want to live in a nuclear world. They might as well 
say that they don't want to live in a world where cancer and blind- 
ness are a part of life's risks. Facts must be faced as they always 
have been faced. 

Hundred of thousands of public spirited persons have volun- 
teered for Civil Defense and Disaster Control duty. The vast 
majority serve their country without pay and unfortunately, with 
very little thanks. They work very hard to plan the protection 
and conservation of our citizenry in any kind of disaster. They 
have been terribly handicapped by official apathy at the national 
level, lack of intelligent and much needed laws with teeth in them 
and money. 

For instance, sixteen years after exploding the first nuclear 
bomb, our government still has not made a real effort to decentral- 
ize industry or make mandatory shelters in our schools. What an 
opportunity we have missed to protect our most valuable asset 
our children. All of the schools built since 1946 could have had 
combination shelters and cafeterias in their basements had some- 
one been far sighted enough. This could have been done with very 
little additional expense. Think of the peace of mind that would 

22 



have resulted from just a little intelligent planning at the proper 
level. 

A diligent search of government literature failed to disclose 
one instance where an underground family bomb shelter has been 
built and tested near a nuclear test explosion. Why hasn't this been 
done? Since only persons associated with the government and the 
government itself have access to basic nuclear weapon data, all 
tests must be done by the government. Obviously all nuclear data 
in any book on the subject must be based on government released 
information. 

Fortunately President Kennedy has given many indications 
of his awareness of the problems and has taken initial measures 
to do something about them. In the past two years several very 
interesting and informative books have been published. Let us hope 
that the effort is expanded and that the flow of really useful 
information needed will be supplied. 

Have you ever had a vague, uncomfortable feeling that inter- 
views and speeches to which you listened are selling defeatism? 
That you are being softened up by a well organized line of pro 
communist propaganda featuring no shelters, complete unilateral 
disarmament, peace at any price, etc. Overlooked is the fact that 
our past gestures of cooperation were taken as signs of weakness 
or stupidity. This line is epitomized by the typical fellow traveler 
slogan "better red than dead." Just a few thousand well placed 
and highly articulate fellow travelers can make more noise and 
influence more people than the overwhelmingly vast majority of 
Americans who feel otherwise. The aim of this propaganda is 
confusion and division of our citizens in times of crisis and decision. 

America must realize that even capitulation to communism 
would not be a guarantee against nuclear war. What happens when 
the Chinese produce a nuclear weapon? When the Russians and 
the Chinese start warring among themselves? The entire world 
will become radiation contaminated in various degrees and there 
is very little we can do about it by ourselves. The implications of 
nuclear problems to come stagger the imagination. To attempt to 
solve these problems by unilateral disarmament would be like 
atttempting to reduce crime by firing the policemen. 

Human nature has not changed very much in centuries. Yet 
it is man's supreme egotism, reflected in each generation that his 
generation is different. That human nature has changed drastically 
in the 20 or 30 years of his generation when it has not, indeed, 
changed much in the past 2,000 years. Little has been learned from 

23 



history or from the men with a desire to rule the world and with 
so little time on earth to accomplish this dream: Genghis Khan, 
Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler. How short or convenient is our 
memory! The more we placated Hitler, the bolder and hungrier he 
became. Finally, under the most adverse conditions we had to face 
the truth. The meek will some day inherit the earth but at this 
stage of our evolution only the strong and resolute can remain free. 

What we call Communism today is actually Fascism. It enlists 
the aid and support of some simple minded, even well intentioned 
people and mistaken malcontents alike. They then spend half their 
lives damning Fascism and the other half serving it under the 
delusion that they are helping their fellow men. 

Magazine articles, newspaper ads and talks given by pre- 
sumably well intentioned but uninformed persons have bombarded 
you with information of sorts. This purports to show that you will 
be blinded by a nuclear explosion, maimed or killed by hurtling 
debris including bodies, incinerated by fires and tossed around by 
blast waves. Of course, they seldom mention that all of these dire 
predictions are based on the assumption that you will not have an 
adequate shelter and will be, in fact, out in the open. These articles 
quote barbers and taxicab drivers and probably boost circulation 
but they do not contain any useful information. They are emotional 
appeals to the natural desire of everyone for peace and safety and 
they ignore facts. Several excellent, factually informative mag- 
azine articles have been conspicuous by their objective and helpful 
approach. 

Individual scientists and groups of scientists have been par- 
ticularly vocal on the subject of shelters. Some say build shelters 
and others say it is useless. This advice comes from men with 
comparable scientific backgrounds. Their political and philosoph- 
ical backgrounds usually differ. However, the fact that a person 
is a scientist is not proof that he is particularly competent to judge 
other affairs with superior ability. 

Much of the information in this manual was developed from 
Office of Civil Defense, Department of Defense and Atomic Energy 
Commission publications. Some of the statistics are based on data 
obtained by extrapolation, interpolation and the application of 
scaling laws. The subject of nuclear weapon behavior is so complex 
that the use of these methods is sometimes necessary. The results 
of these computations should not be construed as exact figures, 
because of the many conditions and forces which differ with each 
nuclear explosion. Because many figures presented are approxi- 
mate for any given weapon explosion, they serve as planning guide- 

24 



lines and should be verified and confirmed by radiation instrument 
checks under the actual conditions prevailing at any given time. 
With so many variable factors involved it was considered essential 
that every effort be made to use maximal figures for most weapon 
effects to present the worst possible conditions for each statistic. 
Therefore, these figures may vary in different degrees from other 
statistics covering the same area of interest. 

This manual is not intended to provide the electrical, plumbing 
or carpentry details of shelter building. No effort has been made 
to explain how every bolt is to be set, every electrical outlet placed, 
every yard of concrete poured or every reinforcing bar placed. It is 
intended as a guide for shelter construction, a reminder and a 
checklist not a detailed blueprint. 

With a combined ceiling mass of seven feet and space equal 
to 500 cubic feet per person you can wait out the explosion, 
thermal radiation, firewinds, blast including an overpressure of 
100 psi and early fallout and still be more than 90 <% safe two and 
one-half miles or more from the ground zero of a fifty megaton 
explosion. You will not be incinerated, barbecued or hit by hurtling 
bodies if you are in a well designed shelter. You can take intelligent 
steps to increase your chance of survival. 

The purpose of this manual is not to consciously sell the idea of 
building a shelter. If you decide to do so, remember that you can 
eliminate the generator, well and other desirable but non-essential 
features that are expensive and still have the same degree of pro- 
tection but not the same amount of convenience. 

There is something slightly ridiculous about expecting in- 
telligent citizens to protect themselves from nuclear explosions 
crouched in makeshift $50 leantos covered with sandbags. Prac- 
tically all officials seem reluctant to tell the people that they must 
spend more than the cost of a television set for nuclear protection. 
Our purpose is to explain the problem and avenues of solution. 
If at times the solution seems involved and redundant it is because 
the problem is involved and all known means of planning a shelter 
are presented. For instance, three types of air filtration are shown 
in the BOSDEC concept but only one is necessary. We believe 
you can make your choice if you have the information available. 
That is what we are trying to do. 

Your main problem may not be to survive a nuclear attack 
but to survive a nuclear war and to just exist in the immediate post 
attack world until that war is won. The BOSDEC system would 
then prove to be much more than just a nuclear bomb shelter. 

25 



Many questions you may now have regarding this concept would 
be answered at that time. 

It would be tragic if America built a nuclear weapon to win 
a war and instead lost a civilization. 

Our most fervent prayer is that you will never use your shel- 
ter under the conditions for which it was designed and that a 
true peace, honorable and just to all mankind will come to the 
people of the world. If it does not, our main protection from the 
iron curtain and the bamboo curtain may well be survival shelters 
the concrete curtain. 

Illegitimi non carborundum! 

James R. Fairlamb. 



26 



CHAPTER 1 

Surviving Immediate Effects 
of a Nuclear Explosion 

SURVIVAL FOR ONE MINUTE 

All nuclear weapon explosions produce basic reactions. The ex- 
act degree is dependent on variables. But at the instant of an ex- 
plosion several events start to occur. They will be mentioned in the 
order observed or felt. These effects are covered in greater detail 
in chapters three, four and five. 1.01 

Irrespective of location, three nuclear weapon explosions 
would probably be the maximum to which any one person would 
be subjected. If he survived these three possible bursts he would 
have survived them all. Whether 50 or 500 bombs were delivered 
in an attack is academic where the immediate personal effects of 
an attack are concerned. 

1. The flash is over in less than one second. 

2. The thermal radiation is over in less than one minute. 

3. The blast or Shockwave is over in less than one minute. 

4. The initial nuclear radiation is over in less than one minute. 

5. The early fallout is over in less than one day. 

6. Outside radiation is reduced to 1/100 in two days. 

7. Delayed fallout is mostly over in less than one week. 1.02 

THERMAL RADIATION 

About 35% of a burst's energy consists of thermal radiation. 
During surface or air bursts (below ten miles) it is delivered in 
two phases or pulses. The first phase is an ultraviolet flash repre- 
senting 1% of the radiant energy. The second phase carries 99% 
of the thermal radiation, lasts about 30 seconds for a 10 megaton 
burst and is the main cause of skin burns. Bursts above a 20 mile 
altitude emit thermal radiation in a single, one second pulse. The 
heat effect produced by an explosion in the first minute is called 
"prompt thermal radiation". 1.03 

FLASH 

The flash or initial phase of thermal radiation is many times 
brighter than the sun. It travels at the speed of light, 186,000 miles 
per second, and lasts for just a few millionths of a second. Anyone 
looking directly into this flash would be blinded. Sunglasses do not 

27 



provide protection against this eye damage. The blink reflex takes 
0.15 second, so the flash is over before the eye can blink. Ultra- 
violet radiations cause more eye damage than visible or infrared 
rays and permanent eye injury may be expected by persons look- 
ing directly at the fireball. But the ultraviolet flash is so brief 
that any protection, a newspaper for example, could prevent blind- 
ness. If caught in the open or near a window, action should be 
taken to minimize burn injury before the maximum of the second 
pulse. Up to this time only 20 percent of the thermal radiation 
will have been received. A large proportion can be avoided if shel- 
ter is obtained before or soon after the second thermal pulse max- 
imum which is 3.2 seconds after burst for a 10 megaton explosion. 
It occurs more slowly for larger weapon yields. 1.04 

FIREBALL HEAT 

For several seconds after an explosion the core of the burst is 
so bright it cannot be looked into with the naked eye. Called the 
fireball, this core is millions of degrees in temperature and between 
3.5 and 4.5 miles in diameter for a 10 megaton or a 20 megaton 
explosion. The heat travels at the speed of light, lasts about 30 
seconds for a 10 megaton air burst, and is mostly infrared. The 
fireball rises at a rate of about 250 to 350 feet per second and 
reaches its maximum diameter in approximately one to one and 
one-half minutes. Both the flash and the fireball can cause serious 
burns to exposed skin within up to 30 miles from ground zero 
(guide 3.10). 1.05 

AFTERWINDS 

The strong updraft of the hot fireball creates inflowing winds 
called "afterwinds" which are largely responsible for sweeping 
dirt and debris up into the stem of the fireball. This debris is 
irradiated and later descends to earth as fallout. 1.06 

FIRESTORMS 

The flash and the fireball heat also start fires and may cause 
"firestorms". Firestorms are generated when air rushes in to re- 
place superheated rising air and fans the flames of many small 
fires. Closely built up areas or dense forests are necessary for 
transmitting fire from one object to another before a firestorm 
becomes possible. The firestorm which badly damaged the German 
city of Hamburg during the second world war, reached tempera- 
tures of up to 2500 F. However, a properly designed and equipped 
shelter, with air intake and exhaust ports kept closed so that the 

28 



firestorm would not draw the air out of it, would experience a tem- 
perature rise of only a few degrees under the same temperature 
conditions. Firestorms appear to reach a maximum two to three 
hours after an explosion and would decrease to moderate about six 
hours after the burst. 1.07 

VAPORIZATION 

The fireball's intense initial heat is rapidly dissipated as it 
moves outward from ground zero. The speed of this movement is 
so great that the burst's initial heat lasts less than one minute. 
However, in that fraction of a minute the fireball will vaporize al- 
most everything above ground within about a 2.3 mile radius of 
a 20 megaton burst. It will burn everything above ground within 
a wider range depending on size and type of weapon, height of 
burst, etc. Heavy concrete structures have been known to resist 
vaporization within the area of the fireball. 1.08 

INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 

Between 3% and 5% of nuclear explosion's energy is wrapped 
up in the initial nuclear radiation. It is that part of the nuclear 
radiation that occurs within one minute after the explosion. The 
time is the same for all weapon yields. At the instant of explosion, 
radioactive products of the bomb itself bombard the earth with 
initial nuclear radiation which creates induced neutron radioac- 
tivity at and near the crater site. 1.09 

Included in this radiation are nearly all the neutrons and 
prompt gamma rays, both being released within one second after 
the burst. The initial nuclear radiation covers an area about the 
size of the fireball which is 4.5 miles in diameter for a 20 megaton 
weapon. It is most dangerous within two miles from ground zero. 
Within one minute practically all the weapon residues will have 
risen to such a height that appreciable amounts of initial nuclear 
radiation cannot reach the ground. The effects of this type of ra- 
diation are generally afforded little attention since within the area 
directly under the fireball, where initial nuclear radiation is pos- 
sible and most dangerous, the blast and thermal effects are an 
equal or greater hazard to inadequately protected persons. 1.10 

BLAST 

About 50% of the explosive energy is expended in producing 
the blast effect. This effect follows the flash, heat and initial nu- 
clear radiation very closely. It travels more slowly and is not felt 
as quickly as the heat and light. A fraction of a second after the 

29 



burst this high pressure wave develops and leaves ground zero 
at about 2,000 miles per hour. It quickly decelerates to about the 
speed of sound, 760 miles per hour. In 10 seconds (for a one mega- 
ton burst) it is about 3 miles from ground zero. At 50 seconds 
after the explosion it has progressed to about 12 miles from ground 
zero. This blast wave creates very strong winds called "blast 
winds" (1.21). These blast winds start at velocities of hundreds of 
miles per hour but slow to hurricane speed at about 10 miles from 
ground zero. 1.11 

OVERPRESSURE 

The energy of a blast wave is measured by the amount of 
overpressure created. Overpressure is the amount of pressure oc- 
curring in excess of normal atmospheric pressure which is 14.7 psi 
at sea level at 70 F. A given pressure occurs at a distance from 
the ground zero of a nuclear burst in proportion to the cube root of 
the bomb energy yield. 1.12 

At a little more than three miles from ground zero a 10 mega- 
ton explosion creates a 15 psi overpressure. A 100 megaton burst 
creates a 15 psi overpressure seven miles from ground zero. This 
is about twice the distance of the 10 megaton burst for the same 
overpressure. In other words a weapon with ten times the yield of 
any other just about doubles the radius of equivalent overpres- 
sure. 1.13 



AIR BLAST 

Air blast in the form of a blast wave has little effect below 
the surface of the earth. When a blast wave hits the earth most of 
its energy is reflected. This reflected wave can cause damage. The 
direct (unreflected) and reflected waves merge into a "Mach front" 
at a distance from ground zero about equal to the height of the 
explosion. 1.14 

MACH FRONT 

The overpressure of a Mach front is usually about twice that 
of the direct blast wave. In a building the direct pressure of a blast 
wave might be reflected from the walls and then could be twice 
the unreflected pressure. A person's location against a wall could 
be the most dangerous so far as direct blast effects are concerned 
because the reflected overpressure is then at its peak. On the other 
hand a location away from the wall, while decreasing this hazard, 
increases the possibility of body displacement. 1.15 

30 



BLAST WAVE 

The blast wave is actually divided into two phases. The com- 
pression or positive phase and the suction or negative phase. The 
compression phase lasts for about two to four seconds for a one 
megaton explosion, depending on the distance from ground zero. 
The compression phase will reach a point 5 miles from ground 
zero in about 20 seconds for a one megaton burst. It is the most 
dangerous phase of the blast wave. The suction phase lasts longer 
(about 2 or 3 times as long as the compression phase) but does 
not vary as much (about 4 psi under the ambient pressure) from 
normal pressure. One particular hazard of the suction phase is its 
ability to suck air out of a shelter unless the shelter air intake 
and exhaust ports are closed and secured. Government shelter tests 
show that animals in a shelter survived when the outside over- 
pressure was 90 pounds per square inch. 1.16 

Blast and overpressure from any megaton range weapon will 
crush almost all above ground structures within about a three mile 
radius from ground zero. Reinforced, heavy, poured concrete struc- 
tures stand a chance near the periphery of this three mile radius 
depending on weapon size, terrain and other variables. 1.17 

A shallow (top of earth cover equal to original grade) buried 
concrete arch, with a 16 foot span and a central angle of 180, 
consisting of 8 inch thick concrete with a 4 foot earth cover was 
only moderately damaged (could be used) at 160 psi to 220 psi 
overpressure. It was lightly damaged at 120 psi to 160 psi over- 
pressure. 1.18 

At about 12 miles from ground zero the blast effect is almost 
gone and the overpressure reduced to that prevalent during a very 
high wind. The overpressure and wind velocity decay for a 20 
megaton ground burst is shown in guide 1.19. 1.19 

OVERPRESSURE AND WIND VELOCITY DECAY 
20 MT GROUND BURST 

Overpressure (psi) Wind Velocity (mph) Distance from GZ (miles) 



TOO 


1400 


1.8 


70 


1100 


2.0 


40 


850 


2.8 


20 


600 


3.6 


10 


310 


5.1 


5 


165 


7.6 


3.5 


120 


10.0 


2 


75 


15.2 


1.3 


45 


20.0 




Guide 1.19 






31 





At distances more than three miles from ground zero each 
one psi of overpressure equals about thirty to forty miles per hour 
wind velocity. Since the blast and blast winds follow the thermal 
radiation by a few seconds any fires started by the intense heat 
may be either fanned into greater activity or snuffed out by the 
blast winds depending on the type of fire, location, time of year 
and weather conditions. 1.20 

BLAST WINDS 

The passage of a blast wave or the Mach front resulting from 
it, creates very strong winds called "blast winds" which accom- 
pany the blast wave. Blast winds are much stronger than the 
afterwinds accompanying the updraft of the rapidly rising fire- 
ball. Blast winds blow away from ground zero during the compres- 
sion phase and blow back toward ground zero during the negative 
or suction phase. 1.21 

GROUND SHOCK AND SHOCKWAVES 

Shock from a ground burst transmitted solely through the 
earth is usually small compared with shock of the air blast waves 
from the same explosion, which passes over the surface. When the 
blast effect occurs underground or underwater it is called a shock- 
wave. Underground bursts expend much of their energy in trans- 
mitting groundshock and digging a crater. Craters produced may 
be as wide as 3500 feet and as deep as 800 feet depending on the 
size of the weapon and the ground material at the crater site. Am 
underwater explosion at a depth of one hundred feet creates waves 
of the magnitude shown in guide 1.22. 1.22 

WAVES CREATED BY 100 FT. DEEP UNDERWATER EXPLOSION 

Weapon Size (MT) 1 Mile from GZ I'/z Miles from GZ 



5 


40 ft. 


25 ft. 


10 


45 ft. 


30 ft. 


20 


50 ft. 


35 ft. 




Guide 1.22 





FALLOUT 

A 10 megaton explosion must occur at an altitude of less than 
7000 feet for appreciable fallout to be generated. A one megaton 
burst must occur below 3000 feet to create significant fallout. 1.23 

32 



About 10% to 15% of all nuclear explosion energy is in the 
form of early and delayed fallout. The composition and rate of 
decay of radioactive fallout depends upon the basic materials used 
to construct the weapon. Since the fallout consists of weapon 
residues plus the dirt and debris sucked into the ascending fireball, 
the size of the individual fallout particles will also depend par- 
tially on the type of ground material at ground zero (rock, sand, 
clay, etc. ) . The fallout from one 15 megaton explosion consisted of 
particles from about 25 microns to about 500 microns or from one 
thousandth to one fiftieth of an inch in diameter. Fallout descends 
in two stages ; early fallout and delayed fallout. 1.24 

EARLY FALLOUT 

Early fallout contains about 60% of all fallout energy. It falls 
within 24 hours after the burst. Depending on location relative to 
ground zero of the explosion, the early fallout will start to fall 
about one half hour after the flash. This is mostly fallout that had 
been swept up into the fireball and contaminated. It is the most 
dangerous fallout and can contaminate large areas with an inten- 
sity sufficient to create an immediate hazard to people within those 
areas. 1.25 

Naturally the largest fallout particles fall first. They are 
about the size of grains of sand or sugar i.e. within a 20 to 2000 
micron range. Directly under the fireball and close to its periphery 
some of the fallout may be up to one half inch in diameter. The 
density of fallout is about 2.5 grams per cubic centimeter or ap- 
proximately that of dry sand. A human hair is 75 microns in 
diameter. 1.26 

All early fallout descends within one day. The two types of 
hazards that these fallout particles represent are: 

1. Actual contact of radioactive material with the skin which 
can cause "beta burns". Beta burns are caused by beta par- 
ticles. They should be washed off immediately. 

2. Continuous body exposure to scattered and direct gamma 
rays emanating from fallout particles. 

Early fallout is another very good reason for remaining in a shel- 
ter for at least the first day or two after an explosion. 1.27 

DELAYED FALLOUT 

Forty per cent of all fallout is the delayed type which falls 
more than 24 hours after the explosion. This delayed fallout is 
buffeted about by high altitude winds and will usually settle in low 
concentration over wide areas. 1.28 

Rain or snow may cause delayed fallout particles, that are at 

33 



an altitude of less than 20,000 feet, to be deposited in greater con- 
centrations in some localities. Areas in which rain or snow pre- 
cipitate above average amounts of fallout are called "hot spots". 
Potential fallout from megaton range explosions ordinarily attains 
altitudes above 20,000 feet, and spends little time below that height 
in the area where rain and snow usually occurs. 1.29 

Most delayed fallout will descend hundreds or even thousands 
of miles away and will take months or years to eventually settle 
to earth. It will represent a long term hazard. In the meantime the 
delayed fallout radioactivity will be steadily decaying. 1.30 



34 



CHAPTER 2 

Types of Nuclear Weapon Explosions 

There are three general types of nuclear weapon explosions. 
Each type produces different effects and creates a different set of 
dangers. If and when a decision to build a survival shelter is made, 
the hazards of each type must be recognized. Always remember 
the three factors that can work in a shelter occupants favor ; time, 
space and barrier shielding. 2.01 

AIR BURST 

An air burst is simply a nuclear explosion in the air during 
which the fireball does not touch the surface. 2.02 

THERMAL RADIATION EFFECTS OF AN AIR BURST 

An air burst creates about 25% more thermal radiation than 
a surface or subsurface explosion. Flash and heat is dispersed more 
widely and with less obstruction than is the case with the other 
two types of explosions. Air bursts at altitudes of more than 20 
miles reduce the chance of exposed people being burned. However, 
a burst occurring at this altitude would increase the incidence of 
flash blindness just as far as a person can see. Atmospheric haze 
and smog tends to lessen the thermal radiation effect of an air 
burst by interposing a natural shield between the heat and light of 
the explosion and the earth. 2.03 

NUCLEAR RADIATION EFFECTS OF AN AIR BURST 

Intense initial nuclear radiation is emitted by an air burst. 
This can be dangerous within about a two mile radius of the fire- 
ball core. At three miles from its source, this initial radiation is 
negligable even for a 10 megaton explosion. Alpha and beta par- 
ticles cannot reach the ground from an air burst. An air burst does 
not create early fallout. 2.04 

BLAST EFFECTS OF AN AIR BURST 

An air burst creates the most powerful blast effect since it is 
relatively unimpeded by the atmosphere through which it passes. 
Some of the air blast wave energy may be translated into ground 
shock if the air burst is close enough to the ground. 2.05 

35 



TIMING OF EFFECTS OF I MEGATON AIR BURST 
ALTITUDE 6500 FT. 



Time After Explosion 
(Seconds) 


Distance 
Effect From GZ (Miles) 


1.8 


Fireball is 6300 ft. in diameter 




1.8 


Blast wave 


1.0 


4.6 


Mach front forms 16 psi OP 


1.3 


11.0 


Blast wind 180 miles per hour 


3.2 


11.0 


Mach front 6 psi OP 


3.2 


37.0 


Blast wind 40 miles per hour 


9.5 


37.0 


Mach front 1 psi OP 


9.5 




Guide 2.05 





Summary: An air burst usually produces a most effective blast 
wave, about 25% more thermal radiation, intense initial nuclear 
radiation, negligible groundshock and much less fallout than a 
ground burst. An air burst does not create a crater. 2.06 



GROUND BURST 

A nuclear explosion occurring on or very close to the earth's 
surface either land or sea is called a surface burst. If it occurs 
on or over land it is a ground burst. In any event its fireball touches 
the surface. 2.07 



THERMAL RADIATION EFFECTS OF A GROUND BURST 

A ground burst causes thermal radiation to be directed up- 
ward and outward. Therefore, it creates only about 80% as much 
thermal damage as an air burst. The earth or water absorbs much 
of the thermal effect that is directed downward. The flash or heat 
of a ground burst .does not have the damage potential of an air 
burst i.e. an unobstructed path to possible unprotected victims or 
structures. The burst must also pass through or around natural 
and man made barriers not encountered by an air burst. This 
lessens the ground burst thermal radiation damage potential. 2.08 



INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION EFFECTS OF A GROUND BURST 

The initial nuclear radiation is less of an immediate hazard 
when emitted by a ground burst. More of it is absorbed by the 
earth or water and less consequently finds a human target. 2.09 

36 



BLAST EFFECTS OF A GROUND BURST 

A ground burst creates less blast than an air burst at con- 
siderable distances from ground zero. However, close to ground 
zero the blast is greater from a ground burst. The ground shock 
of a ground burst is more intensified than that of an air burst since 
more of the full power of the explosion is transmitted or absorbed 
by the ground in the process of digging the crater. Ground shock 
damage can extend out to a distance equal to about two crater di- 
ameters. Primary blast and reflected shock, which together form 
the Mach front, occur at almost the same instant during a ground 
burst. 2.10 

FALLOUT RADIATION EFFECTS OF A GROUND BURST 

A ground burst creates the greatest fallout hazard. Its fireball 
and blast originate at or near the ground. Thus, accompanying 
afterwinds suck much more dirt and debris into the ascend- 
ing nuclear cloud for radiation and eventual distribution as fall- 
out. 2.11 

Summary: Ground bursts generally produce less effective blasts, at 
considerable distances from ground zero, than air bursts. How- 
ever, close to ground zero more blast is produced by ground bursts. 
They create less thermal radiation and less immediately dangerous 
initial nuclear radiation. Ground bursts generate much more 
ground shock and many times the amount of fallout created by an 
air burst. Ground bursts dig craters. 2.12 



SUBSURFACE BURST 

Subsurface bursts are underground or underwater explo- 
sions where the burst occurs considerably below the earth's sur- 
face. 2.13 



THERMAL RADIATION EFFECTS OF A SUBSURFACE BURST 

Thermal radiation created by a subsurface burst would be 
minimal or non-existent depending on the depth of the explo- 
sion. 2.14 

INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION EFFECTS OF A 
SUBSURFACE BURST 

During a subsurface burst the initial nuclear radiation is gen- 

37 



erally absorbed by the surrounding earth or water (water is an 
excellent radiation shield) as the case may be. There is less initial 
nuclear radiation for a subsurface burst than for a comparable 
ground burst. 2.15 

BLAST EFFECTS OF A SUBSURFACE BURST 

A subsurface explosion of the underground type would pro- 
duce considerable ground shock ; more than an air or ground burst. 
The possibility of an enemy exploding a weapon underground is 
remote. It would be pointless. Underwater bursts could be a very 
likely and important mode of attack; a method calculated to kill 
defenders and leave the buildings and equipment virtually un- 
harmed; a method comparatively easy to use; weapons easy to 
deliver-say by fishing boats. A burst 2700 feet underwater will 
produce a tremendous shock-wave. The resulting waves would be 
20 to 50 feet high and would fan out, at ever decreasing size waves, 
to about 100 miles. The implications for residents of tideland areas 
are particularly serious. Not only would the danger of flooding 
exist, but the water would be radioactively charged. 2.16 

FALLOUT RADIATION EFFECTS OF A SUBSURFACE BURST 

A moderately deep underground burst produces very little fall- 
out. The amount would be roughly in proportion to the depth of 
the burst. Underwater bursts can produce fallout laden rain. Here, 
again, the amount of contaminated rain so produced would de- 
pend on variables including depth of explosion, weather conditions, 
size of weapon, etc. 2.17 

Summary: Subsurface bursts create very little thermal radiation 
or initial nuclear radiation. Underground bursts produce consid- 
erable Shockwaves. Underwater bursts create potentially danger- 
ous fallout and extremely dangerous Shockwaves. 2.18 



38 



CHAPTER 3 

Thermal Radiation 

Thermal radiation is felt as heat and the ultraviolet flash can, 
of course, be seen. The heat lasts less than one minute. At one 
mile from ground zero of a one megaton explosion complete pro- 
tection from the thermal radiation would be provided by two feet 
of concrete. 3.01 

HEAT 

Two factors cause thermal radiation heat energy to decrease 
with increasing distance from ground zero of a nuclear explosion: 

1. The heat from the thermal radiation is absorbed over in- 
creasing areas as it moves away from the burst. 

2. Attenuation of the thermal radiation as it passes through 
air. The thermal dose is inversely proportional to the 
square of the distance from the explosion. Four miles from 
the ground zero the heat energy would be only one quarter 
that received at two miles or one half the distance from the 
same explosion. Attenuation is due to two factors 

a. Absorption : Atoms and molecules in the air absorb, and, 
thereby, remove part of the heat from a nuclear explo- 
sion. 

b. Scattering: Heat is diverted from its normal path by 
means of oxygen and nitrogen in the air. Another im- 
portant form of scattering is the reflection and bending 
of light rays by smog and dirt particles in the air which 
causes diffusion rather than direct transmission of 
thermal radiation. 3.02 

The scattering effect is very important. Ordinarily thermal 
radiation will travel in a straight line from the fireball especially 
after an air burst. Much of the thermal radiation arriving at a 
target from fairly long distances will have been scattered. This 
heat will then arrive from many directions. Clouds can reduce the 
amount of thermal radiation received at a point on the ground. 
Dense smoke or fog interposed between an air burst and the tar- 
get can reduce to as little as one tenth the amount of heat which 
would have been received with clear visibility. 3.03 

HEAT REFLECTION AND ABSORPTION 

Thermal radiation is emitted quickly. The intensity rate is 
high on the surface but the conductivity is low. The extent of heat 
absorbed or reflected depends on the type, color, thickness, tem- 

39 



perature and moisture content of the material or object. Thermal 
radiation absorbed by a material produces the heat that deter- 
mines the damage done to that material. The length of time of the 
heat exposure and the degree of heat are very important factors. 
Highly reflecting and transparent materials will not absorb much 
thermal radiation. Even a thin material can often transmit a large 
proportion of the heat and thereby escape damage. However, the 
heavier the fabric or material, the better the protection from heat. 
Providing the color is the same, wool provides more protection 
than cotton. 3.04 

Dark materials will absorb much more thermal radiation than 
the same material when light colored. Dark materials char more 
readily than light colored fabrics. When charred, a light colored 
material assumes the same characteristics as a dark material. 
Light colored fabrics reflect or transmit up to 90% of thermal 
radiation to which they are exposed. They absorb very little. 3.05 

Surface damage to building materials can be minimized by the 
use of light colored paints and hard varnishes to reflect the ther- 
mal radiation. A number of modern plastics including Bakelite, 
cellulose, acetate, Lucite, Plexiglas, polyethylene, Teflon and vinyl 
plastic withstand heat so well that more than sixty calories per 
square centimeter are necessary to produce melting or even dark- 
ening. This is many times the amount of heat that would cause 
dangerous human burns (3.10) . Glass is highly heat resistant. 3.06 



BURNS 

Thermal radiation has one very dangerous capability. It has 
the intensity necessary to inflict fatal damage to the human body 
in the form of burns. A building or survival shelter strong enough 
to protect against blast will provide sufficient protection from di- 
rect heat. Earth is an excellent heat absorber. 3.07 

Thermal radiation causes three main types of burns: 

1. Flash burns are caused by direct exposure. They are not 
deep burns because of the short exposure duration. Flash 
burns can be most severe when intervening clothing is 
drawn tightly against the body at points such as the elbows 
and shoulders. Loose fitting clothes with some air space 
next to the skin minimize flash burn injuries. 

2. Flame burns are caused by thermal radiation originated 
fires. These burns would be usually deeper and consequently 
more serious than flash burns. In fact, they would be much 
like burns resulting from fires of non-nuclear origin. 

3. Hot gas burns which are dangerous even when protected 
from flash or flame burns. Hot gas burns are a particular 
hazard if superheated air is inhaled. 3.08 

40 



The larger the nuclear weapon yield, the more thermal radiant 
exposure required to produce an equivalent effect. The lower yield 
weapons deliver their heat in a very short time (less than one half 
second). The more powerful weapons require as much as several 
seconds. Generally the longer the exposure time for a given thermal 
dose, the less damaging is that dose. A thermal dose of seven cal- 
ories per square centimeter of skin area from a one megaton ex- 
plosion can produce a second degree (blistering) burn. It takes 
about nine calories per square centimeter (cal/cm 2 ) from a ten 
megaton weapon to cause a similar second degree burn. Four calo- 
ries per square centimeter from a ten megaton burst will cause 
first degree (redness) burns. Third degree burns destroy the full 
thickness of the skin. 3.09 

The unit used to express the degree of thermal exposure is the 
"calorie per square centimeter (of skin area)". This is abbreviated 
to "cal/cm 2 ." Thermal radiation doses between 3 and 4 cal/cm 2 
cause first degree burns (redness) ; between 6 and 10 cal/cm 2 cause 
second degree burns (blisters) and over 10 cal/cm 2 cause increas- 
ingly severe burns which may be classified as third degree burns 
(charring) depending on circumstances. Thermal exposure to over 
12 cal/cm 2 will cause third degree burns. 3.10 

BURN RANGES FOR EXPOSED PERSONS - AIR BURST 

CLEAR ATMOSPHERE - DISTANCE FROM EXPLOSION 

THERMAL RADIATION RECEIVED 



Explosion 
Yield 


Third Degree 
Burns (Charring) 
Miles Cal/cm 2 


Second Degree 
Burns (Blisters) 


First 
Burns 


Degree 
(Redness) 


Megatons 


Miles 


Cal/cm 2 


Miles 


Cal/cm 2 


1 


8 


12 


11 


6.5 


15 


3.1 


2 


10 


12 


15 


6.7 


20 


3.2 


4 


14 


12 


19 


8 


25 


3.3 


5 


17 


12 


20 


8.2 


27 


3.4 


7 


18 


12 


23 


8.5 


30 


3.5 


10 


20 


12 


27 


9.1 


35 


3.6 


20 


29 


12 


32 


9.6 


45 


3.8 



Guide 3.10 

EYE INJURIES 

Most thermal radiation burns would be similar to those which 
would result from fires of non-nuclear origin. The big exception is 
the possibility of serious eye injury. There are two main types of 
thermal radiation eye effects : 

1. Permanent injury from chorioretinal burns. 

2. Temporary injury or flash blindness from explosion flash. 

41 



Permanent eye damage can be caused if the focusing action of the 
eyes causes them to concentrate enough direct thermal energy on 
the retina. The fireball must be in the field of view before focusing 
can take place. Should this occur, permanent eye injury may be 
suffered at distances from ground zero greater than the distances 
at which heat causes skin burns. 3.11 

If the retina receives more light than it needs for seeing, but 
less than the amount which would cause a burn, flash or tem- 
porary blindness can ensue. Flash blindness is apt to occur at 
greater distances at night since the pupil is enlarged and the eye 
is adapted to the dark. During the daylight hours the pupils are 
small and the range within which flash blindness can occur is 
correspondingly shorter. Atmospheric conditions also affect the 
distances at which eye damage can occur. 3.12 

Scattered thermal radiation (3.02) does not cause perma- 
nent damage to the retina of the eye. It can contribute to flash 
blindness resulting from the dazzling effect of bright light. Burns 
near the center of the eye can cause considerable loss of vision. 
However, if a chorioretinal burn is mild, eyesight may scarcely 
be affected. This is also true if the burn is around the outside 
edge of the retina. 3.13 

Among Japanese survivors of the Hiroshima nuclear bomb at- 
tack on August 6, 1945 and the Nagasaki attack on August 9, 1945 
only one case of retinal injury was reported although there were 
many cases of temporary blindness lasting up to 2 or 3 hours. 
It is a fair assumption that only a small proportion of people 
would be facing a nuclear explosion in such a way that the fire- 
ball would be in their field of vision at any given instant. 3.14 



42 



CHAPTER 4 

Nuclear Blast 

The blast effect of a nuclear explosion behaves like a wall of 
pressure leaving the core of the fireball in a wave at very high 
speed. The passage of this blast wave creates turbulance in the air 
as it pushes outward from the burst. This turbulance is called a 
blast wind. The blast wave consists of a compression and a suc- 
tion stage (1.16). This tremendous force causes blast injuries 
which can be divided into two general categories. 4.01 

INJURIES DUE TO BLAST 

The two types of injuries resulting from a nuclear explosion 
are: direct injuries caused by the high air pressure injuring lungs 
and tissues ; indirect injuries caused by flying objects and by phys- 
ical movement or displacement of the body. 4.02 

DIRECT CAUSES OF INJURIES DUE TO BLAST 

Direct blast injuries are affected by three blast wave factors. 

1. The peak overpressure in effect during blast wave passage. 

2. The rate of pressure rise of the blast wave. 

3. The duration of the compression stage of the blast wave. 
Guide 4.03 provides information on peak overpressures and com- 
pression stage durations. 4.03 

If the pressure rise is at a rapid rate (the time rise period 
is short) the blast wave will have greater damaging effects on the 
body than that of a slowly increasing pressure. This is similar to 
the effect of exerting an equal pressure in the form of a punch 
or a shove. A pressure increase in stages is less dangerous than a 
single sharp pressure rise. 4.04 

An increased duration time will increase the possibility of 
damage for a given peak overpressure ; but only to a certain point. 
When this point, which could be a duration of from 30 to 400 milli- 
seconds according to body size, is reached it is only the amount 
of peak overpressure that is important for a short rise time blast 
wave. The compression stage positive phase duration for a given 
peak overpressure varies with the weapon energy yield and explo- 
sion height. 4.05 

For explosions in the megaton range the duration of the com- 
pression phase of a sharp rising blast wave lasts so long that the 
peak overpressure is the primary factor to be considered where 
direct injury is concerned. Any nuclear attack is almost certain 
to involve megaton yield weapons. 4.06 

43 



1 MT WIND VELOCITY - POSITIVE PHASE DURATION 

PEAK OP - ARRIVAL TIME PEAK OP 
10 MT PEAK OVERPRESSURE - PEAK OP ARRIVAL TIME 



Miles 
From 
GZ 


1 MT Wind 
Velocity 
(MPH) 


1 MT Positive Peak OP Peak OP Arrival Time 
Phase Duration (psi) (sec) 
(Sec.) 1 MT 10MT 1 MT 10MT 


1 


900 


1.75 


50 


150 


2.5 


1.5 


2 


464 


2.25 


18 


48 


6.5 


5. 


3 


278 


2.69 


9.4 


29 


11 


9.5 


4 


177 


3.02 


5.5 


18 


15 


13 


5 


117 


3.24 


4 


13 


20 


16 


6 


89 


3.40 


2.6 


8 


24 


21 


7 


72 


3.43 


2.1 


7 


28 


26 


8 


60 


3.44 


1.7 


6 


32 


30 


9 


51 


3.45 


1.4 


5 


36 


34 


10 


44 


3.45 


1.3 


4.5 


42 


37 


20 


35 


3.45 


1.0 


2 


90 


83 



Guide 4.03 

An important factor which could affect the damage a blast 
wave might do is "dynamic pressure". This is air pressure result- 
ing from the drag from blast winds acting on structures and ob- 
jects. Dynamic pressure is influenced by peak overpressure, 
duration of compression (positive) phase and shape of object. At 
overpressures less than 70 psi the peak overpressure is more than 
the dynamic pressure. The 70 psi overpressure occurs at about the 
time the blast winds have a velocity of less than 1100 miles per 
hour. Therefore, for practical purposes, the peak overpressure 
is the governing factor in considering underground survival 
shelters. 4.07 

Studies indicate that a peak overpressure of 35 psi with a 
positive pressure phase duration of 400 milliseconds could be fatal 
provided the rise time was short. Lung damage can occur at over- 
pressures as low as 15 psi. Eardrums could rupture at overpres- 
sures from 5 psi to 40 psi. There could be eardrum rupture in 
about one-half the instances where the overpressure is between 
20 psi and 30 psi. 4.08 

Loose objects, including occupants, within an underground 
shelter, could be tossed around by the effect of part of a blast 
wave being translated into ground shock. This tossing effect could 
occur even though the shelter showed no signs of damage. The 
amount of ground shock would be proportional to the OP of the 
blast wave. All objects which might be subjected to this type jolt 

44 



within the shelter should be secured, possibly by automobile seat 
belt type apparatus. 4.09 

PEAK OVERPRESSURES AT MAXIMUM DISTANCES 
FROM GROUND ZERO 



Peak 
OP 

(psi) 


Blast Wind Air Burst 
Velocity Distance in Miles 
(MPH) 1 MT 5MT 10MT 20 MT 


Ground Burst 
Distance in Miles 
1 MT 5MT 10 MT 20 MT 


1 


35 


10.0 


17.0 


21.0 


27.0 


8.2 


14.0 


18.0 


22.0 


2 


75 


7.0 


11.5 


14.4 


18.0 


5.3 


9.0 


11.4 


15.0 


3 


100 


5.5 


9.0 


11.4 


14.4 


4.0 


7.0 


9.0 


11.0 


4 


130 


4.5 


7.0 


9.7 


12.0 


3.3 


5.6 


7.0 


9.0 


5 


165 


4.0 


6.7 


8.4 


11.0 


3.0 


5.0 


6.0 


7.6 


6 


190 


3.5 


6.0 


7.5 


9.5 


2.6 


4.4 


5.6 


7.0 


7 


215 


3.2 


5.5 


7.0 


9.0 


2.3 


3.9 


5.0 


6.2 


8 


240 


3.0 


5.0 


6.2 


8.0 


2.2 


3.8 


4.7 


6.0 


9 


270 


2.7 


4.6 


6.0 


7.3 


2.0 


3.4 


4.3 


5.4 


10 


300 


2.5 


4.1 


5.2 


6.5 


1.9 


3.3 


4.1 


5.2 


15 


400 


1.5 


2.4 


3.0 


4.0 


1.6 


3.0 


3.5 


4.3 


20 


500 


1.0 


1.7 


2.2 


3.0 


1.3 


2.2 


3.0 


3.5 


25 


580 




1.2 


1.5 


2.0 


1.2 


2.1 


2.6 


3.3 


30 


670 




1.0 


1.1 


1.4 


1.1 


2.0 


2.4 


3.0 


40 


850 






1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


.7 


2.2 


2.7 


50 


940 












.5 


2.0 


2.4 


60 


1050 












.4 


1.7 


2.2 


70 


1100 












.3 


1.7 


2.1 


80 


1300 












.2 


1.6 


2.0 


90 


1400 












.2 


1.5 


1.9 


100 


1500 












1.2 


1.5 


1.8 



Guide 4.07 



PROBABLE FATALITY PERCENTAGES FOR ESTIMATED 
OVERPRESSURE RANGES 



Probability of Death 
(Percentage) 


Estimated Overpressure Range 

(psi) 


1 


35 to 45 


50 


45 to 55 


99 


55 to 65 




Guide 4.08 




45 



Thoracic (chest) and abdominal cavity areas are prone to feel 
the effects of compression and decompression caused by blast 
waves. Damage also occurs at the junctions between tissues and 
air containing organs. Hemorrhage and rupture of the organs are 
the main consequences. Lungs are affected by edema (fluid in the 
lungs). Body damage of these types should be handled with min- 
imal bodily activity, since death can occur in many cases that 
otherwise might recover. Brain injuries would usually be the result 
of flying debris or body displacement rather than the over- 
pressure. 4.10 

INDIRECT CAUSES OF INJURIES DUE TO BLAST 

The indirect nuclear blast injuries caused by the blast wave 
and blast winds are similar to those caused by cyclones or hurri- 
canes. Depending on the velocity of the wind and the weight of 
the object, the blast wave will pick up almost everything in its path 
and hurl it through the air. The only protection against being hit 
by flying objects or becoming a flying object is to be underground. 
It is as simple as that. 4.11 

Tests conducted with a 165 pound dummy in a 5.3 psi over- 
pressure area (about 170 mph wind velocity) showed that it at- 
tained a maximum velocity of 21 feet per second within one-half 
second after the blast wave arrived. The dummy traveled 13 feet 
before hitting the ground and then slid or rolled another 9 feet. 
Under similar conditions a prone dummy did not move. This em- 
phasizes the advantage of taking prompt action at the instant of 
explosion to secure some protection from the blast in the interval 
before the blast and blast winds arrive. This protection may best 
be secured by falling prone with the head directly away from the 
explosion. Even with the head directly toward the burst the body 
area exposed would be minimal and the possibility of body dis- 
placement likewise reduced. 4.12 

Available data indicates that an impact velocity of 10 feet per 
second would probably not be fatal in most cases ; between 10 feet 
and 20 feet per second some fatalities might occur; at velocities 
more than 20 feet per second, death would result in a sharply rising 
percentage of cases. 4.13 

CRATERS 

The blast of a ground explosion expends much energy in dig- 
ging a crater. The crater depth decreases with increasing height 
of the explosion. Cratering becomes insignificant long before a 
burst height is reached at which the fireball just touches the 
ground. A significant crater will not be formed unless the height 

46 



of the explosion is less than about one-tenth the maximum fire- 
ball radius. 4.14 

Multiplying the radius or depth of the crater formed by a ten 
megaton explosion by the cube root of ten provides the crater 
radius or depth of a 100 megaton explosion. This radius or depth 
would be about twice the value of a ten megaton burst. This rule 
is valid for other bomb yields. 4.15 

The formation of a crater is deceptive. There are actually 
three zones or areas involved. Two of these zones spread out fan- 
wise from the observable crater or third zone and are under and 
around it. These three zones are the observable crater, rupture 
zone and plastic zone. 4.16 



CRATER ZONE GUIDE 



MUSHROOM HEAD 



RUPTURE ZONE, IVfc X Crater Radius 

TRUE CRATER, 2 X Crater Radius 

PLASTIC ZONE, 2'/ 2 X Crater Radius 




RADIAL 



CRACKS 
COMPRESSED EARTH 



TRUE 
CRATER 



OBSERVABLE CRATER 

The observable crater is that part of the total crater that can 
readily be seen. 4.17 

RUPTURE ZONE 

The rupture zone is that part of the true crater which is di- 
rectly adjacent to the observable crater. Explosion stresses not 
powerful enough to blast material out of the ground, but which 
exceed the strength of the earth in the rupture zone, create radial 
cracks. The rupture zone including the observable crater has a 
diameter of about one and one half times that of the observable 
crater. 4.18 

PLASTIC ZONE 

The plastic zone is the third area affected by the cratering 
action of a nuclear ground burst. It is directly adjacent to the 
rupture zone. The plastic zone consists of earth which has been 
subjected to sufficient dynamic strain to deform it, but not enough 
to dig a crater or cause radial cracks. The line of demarcation be- 
tween the rupture and plastic zones is somewhat arbitrary since 
the two zones blend together. The plastic zone has a diameter of 
approximately two and one half times that of the observable 
crater. It is in the plastic zone that the first hope of survival from 
blast in an underground BOSDEC type shelter is possible. 4.19 

Survival in the plastic zone is a possibility especially if the 
shelter is designed to take advantage of the soil particle's tendency 
to lock together in the form of an arch in the plastic zone. This 
arching effect permits stresses to be transmitted around a prop- 
erly designed shelter instead of through it. Such a buried reinforced 
concrete arch type shelter would suffer only light damage at over- 
pressures between 120 psi and 160 psi. Reflected pressure build-up 
at the interface of the soil and an underground shelter is very 
small. 4.20 

TRUE CRATER 

All of the observable crater and rupture zone plus about one 
half of the plastic zone may be referred to as the true crater. It 
has a diameter of roughly two times the observable crater. Within 
this true crater area there would be almost complete destruction 
caused mainly by direct ground shock and partially by shock in 
the ground induced by blast waves above the surface. In the area 
beyond the true crater the effects of ground shock are unimportant 

48 



but blast waves may damage weak underground structures or 
shelters not sufficiently buried. A small, well designed under- 
ground shelter would suffer only light damage such as slight 
cracking and severance of brittle pipe connections at a distance 
from ground zero equivalent to two and one half observable crater 
radii. 4.21 

MAXIMUM CRATER DIMENSIONS 
(APPROXIMATE - FEET) 

Observable Crater 1 MT 5 MT 10MT 20 MT 

Depth - Dry soil 300 500 650 800 

Depth - Rock 240 400 520 640 

Radius -Dry soil 650 1100 1400 1700 

Radius -Rock 520 880 1120 1360 

Rupture Zone 

Depth - Dry soil 450 750 975 1200 

Depth - Rock 360 600 780 960 

Radius -Dry soil 975 1650 2100 2550 

Radius -Rock 780 1320 1680 2040 

Plastic Zone 

Depth - Dry soil 750 1250 1625 2000 

Radius -Dry soil 1625 2750 3500 4250 

NOTE: There is practically no effect of blast in rock in the 
plastic zone. 

Guide 4.21 

The statistics shown in Guide 4.21 are for maximum radii 
and depths. Authoritative estimates for these effects, under the 
same conditions, range down to about 50% of these values. The 
more conservative estimates, while appearing high, are used here 
to present the maximum danger potential. 4.22 

Approximately one half the dirt displaced from a nuclear ex- 
plosion crater is thrown out of the crater. The balance is com- 
pressed into the walls and floor of the crater by the force of the 
burst. 4.23 



49 



CHAPTER 5 

Nuclear Radiation Guide 

TYPES OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS 

FISSION 

The fission process consists of splitting the nucleus of a heavy 
element such as uranium 235 or plutonium 239 into two lighter 
nuclei. The splitting releases the binding force which holds the 
nucleus of the atom together and results in the release of great 
energy. Fissionable atoms release neutrons which strike other fis- 
sionable atoms causing them to split apart. This releases more 
neutrons thereby continuing the chain reaction. Neutrons produced 
in fission are almost all high energy or fast neutrons. 5.01 

FUSION 

The fusion process consists of combining two light (hydrogen 
isotopes) nuclei into a nucleus of a heavier atom and thereby re- 
leasing tremendous energy. Fusion requires a temperature of mil- 
lions of degrees only attainable by fission. Fission triggers fusion 
and the result is a thermonuclear explosion. Weight for weight 
a fusion explosion is about three times as powerful as a fission 
burst. Generally the total energy of a thermonuclear explosion 
is attributable one half to fission and one half to fusion. More high 
energy neutrons are created by fusion than by fission. 5.02 

TYPES OF NUCLEAR RADIATION 

The complete utilization of one pound of uranium or plutonium 
in fission releases energy equal to that of 8000 tons of TNT. 
About 125 pounds of fission products per megaton of fission energy 
are produced by a nuclear fission explosion. They decay by the 
emission of beta particles often accompanied by gamma rays. 
This radioactivity is large initially but falls off at a rapid rate as 
a result of radioactive decay. 5.03 

There are only two ways by which the surface of the earth 
and objects upon it may become contaminated as a result of a 
nuclear explosion; by induced radioactivity following the capture 
of neutrons by various elements present in the earth or sea and 
by fallout the descent of radioactive particles from the mush- 
room head and stem formed by a nuclear explosion. Because of the 
particulate matter involved, fallout has a tendency to collect on 

51 



horizontal surfaces such as streets, roofs, tops of vehicles and on 
the ground. The simplest way to remove it is by hosing it down 
if water is available. 5.04 

The amount of radioactive contamination and its distribution 
is mainly dependent on the energy yield of the explosion, the rela- 
tive contributions of fission and fusion to the total yield, the height 
of the burst, weather conditions and the terrain over which the 
explosion occurs. About 90% of the total radioactivity is contained 
in the mushroom head of the fireball and 10% in the stem. Megaton 
range explosions seem to have most of the radioactivity in the 
lower third of the mushroom cloud. 5.05 

Depending on the elements used in constructing a nuclear 
weapon, a wide and varied mix of radiation is involved. There are 
four types of nuclear radiation created by a nuclear explosion. 
These are the products of the changes that constituent elements 
of the weapon undergo before losing their radioactivity and 
becoming stable (19.12). 5.06 

ALPHA PARTICLES 

Alpha particles have a positive electric charge and have mass 
and weight. They are usually emitted by the heavier radioactive 
elements such as polonium 210, 214 and 218, plutonium, radium 
226, radon 222, thorium 230 and uranium 234 and 238. Alpha par- 
ticles cannot penetrate the outer layer of unbroken skin. They lose 
their energy just passing through two or three inches of air or 
even a piece of paper. They are potentially dangerous only when 
they are ingested by means of radiation contaminated air, water 
or food. 5.07 

BETA PARTICLES 

Beta particles have a negative electric charge and have mass 
and weight. They are physically identical with electrons which are 
subatomic particles moving at high speed. Beta particles are usu- 
ally emitted by light to medium radioactive elements. They cannot 
penetrate heavy clothing and have a range of about ten or fifteen 
feet in air. They can cause "beta burns" when in direct contact 
with the skin. Beta particles are potentially dangerous mainly 
when they are ingested by means of contaminated air, water or 
food. 5.08 

GAMMA RAYS 

Gamma rays are pure energy consisting of short, highly pen- 
etrating electromagnetic waves and have neither mass nor weight. 

52 



They are much like X-rays and are emitted by many materials 
at the same time that alpha and beta particles are being thrown 
off. Gamma rays leave a radioactive nucleus at 186,000 miles per 
second, the speed of light. The penetrating power of a gamma ray 
is related to its energy measured in MEV (5.15). Generally, the 
higher the energy the more powerful the radiation force striking 
a barrier, and the thicker that barrier must be to reduce the 
amount of radiation passing through it by a given factor. 5.09 
To reduce the effect of gamma radiation by a factor of one 
hundred would require the following approximate densities for 
these several MEV penetrating powers. 

GAMMA PENETRATION 
MEV ENERGY VS. DENSITY SHIELDING 

Factor of 100 

V2 MEV 1 MEV 2 MEV 

Concrete 12 inches 15 inches 20 inches 

Earth 20 inches 24 inches 30 inches 

Guide 5.10 

Gamma radiation from fallout originates from many energy 
sources. These rays vary in energy up to a maximum of about 3 
MEV. The net average penetrating effect of this energy mix is 
roughly equivalent to the 1 1 A MEV average energy of cobalt 60. 
The approximate energy of gamma rays created by nitrogen cap- 
ture (5.13) is 6.5 MEV, while that from fission products within 
one minute after a nuclear explosion is about 2 MEV. 5.10 

Gamma rays striking a barrier are either absorbed, partially 
scattered and trapped within the barrier or passed through the 
barrier unchanged in direction after being partially absorbed. The 
degree to which these gamma rays are attenuated is a function 
of their power measured in MEV. Gamma radiation is also halved 
by passage through about twenty-five feet of air. 5.11 

NEUTRONS 

Neutrons are neutral particles having mass and weight but 
without an electrical charge. They are present in all atomic nuclei 
except light (ordinary) hydrogen. Neutrons are needed to start 
the fission process and many neutrons are produced by fission 
and fusion reactions in nuclear explosions. 5.12 

Neutrons may be divided into two general types : fast or high 
energy neutrons and slow or low energy (thermal) neutrons. Many 
fast neutrons may be slowed down and slow neutrons captured 

53 



during the neutron-nuclei interactions following a nuclear explo- 
sion. These interactions can be classified in two categories : absorp- 
tion (capture) and scattering. As fast neutrons pass between the 
weapon and the ground, many of them collide with the relatively 
light nuclei of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere and are 
slowed down. The resulting slow neutrons and others of low energy 
may then be captured and removed by nitrogen nuclei collisions. 
Usually they emit gamma radiation in the process. This gamma 
radiation is easier to attenuate than the neutron radiation. 5.13 
Scattering collisions either result in conversion of neutron 
energy into gamma radiation for fairly fast neutrons or transfer 
of neutron energy to the interacting nucleus without change and 
without creating gamma radiation for many high and low energy 
neutrons. The fast and slow neutrons that escape nitrogen capture 
or scattering collisions may be driven into the ground creating, by 
interaction with soil elements, "induced radioactivity". 5.14 

UNITS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION ENERGY AND 
BIOLOGICAL DAMAGE MEASUREMENT 

MEV - MILLION ELECTRON VOLTS 

The energy or penetrating ability of nuclear radiation is meas- 
ured in units of MEV or million electron volts. The amount of 
material required to produce this energy is measured in curies. 
A curie is the amount of radioactive material in which the radio- 
active atoms are disintegrating at the rate of 37 billion atoms per 
second. The amount of material is not important here. The pene- 
trating ability is important. 5.15 

ROENTGENS 

Roentgen is the unit of exposure dose which measures the 
ability of gamma rays (and X-rays) to produce ionization in air. 
The abbreviation of roentgen is r and of roentgens per hour is 
r/hr. 5.16 

RADS 

Rad is a unit of any radiation absorbed dose. 5.17 

REMS 

Rem (roentgen equivalent man) is a unit of biological dam- 
age making it possible to use one unit to measure all types of 
nuclear radiation. 5.18 

54 



RBE 

RBE (relative biological effectiveness) is a unit which con- 
verts rads of different types of nuclear radiation into rems. This 
unit is necessary since a rad of one type radiation may cause 
more or less biological damage than a rad of another type of 
radiation. 5.19 

RADIATION CONVERSION 

Many authorities believe that the radiation value for neutrons 
is RBE equals 1.0, but other sources, also authoritative, feel that 
neutrons should be assigned a higher RBE value. There is also 
some diverse opinion on alpha particles. The higher value in each 
case has been used in the following guide 5.20. 

RADIATION CONVERSION GUIDE 
Type of Radiation Rads X RBE = Rems 



Gamma 


1 


1 


Beta 


1 


1 


Alpha 


20 


20 


Neutrons (slow) 


5 


5 


Neutrons (fast) 


10 


10 



Guide 5.20 

The formula is rads x RBE = rems. The figures in guide 5.20 
for alpha particles and neutrons may vary depending on the nuclear 
radiation energy involved. 5.20 

INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 

All nuclear radiation that occurs during the first minute after 
a nuclear weapon explosion is called initial nuclear radiation. All 
nuclear radiation occurring more than one minute after the explo- 
sion is called residual nuclear radiation. 5.21 

Deep underground or underwater explosions do not create 
initial nuclear radiation. Air and ground bursts produce four dif- 
ferent nuclear products that are emitted within one minute after 
the explosion. They are neutrons, gamma rays, alpha and beta 
particles. Initial nuclear radiation is a relatively greater menace 
with a low yield explosion than with a higher yield burst. The 
greater the yield the higher proportion of blast and thermal 
injuries. 5.22 

The initial nuclear radiation includes: 

1. Nearly all the neutrons. These neutrons, which include the 

55 



"prompt" neutrons that are released in one millionth of a 
second, travel a shorter distance through the air than 
the initial gamma rays before being attenuated by the 
same factor. The attenuation ratio is about 5 to 3. Damp 
earth and water have very high efficiencies as barriers 
against neutrons. Neutrons are greatly slowed down and 
captured by weapon residues or by the air through which 
they pass. However, enough escape to become a hazard at 
considerable distances from the burst. This is also true of 
gamma rays. Near the explosion center the neutron dose 
is greater than the gamma dose. With increasing distance 
the neutron dose decreases more rapidly than the gamma 
dose, and beyond a certain point the gamma rays predomi- 
nate. Ultimately the neutrons become a negligable factor 
in comparison to gamma radiation. 5.23 

2. All of the "prompt" gamma rays. These are all released 
in the first second after a nuclear explosion. They are 
gamma rays that have been produced in fission and as a 
result of neutron reactions. Most gamma rays accompany- 
ing the fission process are absorbed by weapon materials 
and converted into other forms of energy. Only one per- 
cent succeed in penetrating any great distance from the 
explosion. Gamma radiation decay is greatest at the be- 
ginning. Gamma rays continuing after the prompt emission 
are called "delayed" gamma rays. Both prompt and delayed 
gamma rays are a part of the total initial nuclear radia- 
tion. Delayed gamma rays suffer little absorption by 
weapon residues. Delayed gamma rays, and those resulting 
from the nitrogen capture of neutrons in the air, contribute 
about 100 times more nuclear radiation than the prompt 
gamma rays to the total nuclear radiation received at a 
distance from an explosion during the first minute after 
the burst. The initial gamma radiation dose from a surface 
burst is about two thirds that from an air burst at the same 
distance. 5.24 

Gamma rays, in a vacuum, move in a straight path at the 
speed of light (186,000 miles per second). In the atmosphere these 
rays are scattered by interacting with oxygen and nitrogen. They 
then may reach their target from all directions. Most of the dose 
will come from the direction of the explosion but a considerable 
amount will come from other directions. This effect is called "sky- 
shine" or "scattering". The more changes in direction a gamma 
ray undergoes, the lower its energy. 5.25 

The initial nuclear radiation dose measured in rems for var- 
ious ranges from the ground zero of an air burst is shown in 
guide 5.26 

56 



INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION DOSE RANGE 
AIR BURST 

Radiation Dose (rems) 1 MT (miles from GZ) 10 MT (miles from GZ) 

100 1.8 2.4 

500 1.5 2.1 

1000 1.4 2.0 

6000 GZ 

Guide 5.26 

A one megaton air burst creates an initial nuclear radiation 
dose of 35 rems at 2 miles from ground zero and only one rem at 
3 miles from GZ. A ten megaton air burst produces approximately 
a 3 rem dose at 3 miles from ground zero. 5.26 

The approximate initial gamma radiation range for various 
doses from one, five and ten megaton explosions is shown in 
guide 5.27. 

INITIAL GAMMA RADIATION DOSE RANGE 

DOSE IN ROENTGENS RANGE IN MILES 

Yield 3000 r lOOOr lOOr 30 r 



1 MT 


1.3 


1.5 


1.8 


2.0 


5 MT 


1.6 


1.8 


2.3 


2.5 


10 MT 


1.8 


2.0 


2.3 


2.5 



Guide 5.27 

The total unshielded initial gamma radiation dose for a 5 
megaton explosion would be about 4500 roentgens at a distance of 
one and one-half miles from ground zero. 5.27 

The percentage of the 5 megaton, 4500 roentgen dose (5.27) 
which would be received as a function of time is given in guide 5.28 
percentage of radiation, seconds after explosion. 

TIME AND PERCENTAGE FOR INITIAL 

GAMMA RADIATION RECEIVED 
5 MT EXPLOSION AT 1.5 MILES FROM GROUND ZERO 

Seconds 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 15 20 
Percentage 5 10 17 20 30 42 50 60 76 80 90 98 100 

Guide 5.28 

It is apparent from guide 5.28 that if shelter can be taken 
within one or two seconds after observing the explosion flash a 
person can avoid a big percentage of the initial gamma radiation. 
The greater the energy yield of the explosion, the slower the rate 

57 



of gamma ray release and the better your chance of avoiding 
most of it. Initial gamma radiation has much more energy than any 
other gamma radiation except that which occurs in the very ear- 
liest stages of fallout radiation decay. Since practically all neutrons 
are released in the first second, protective action taken against 
initial gamma rays (5.28) would be useless with regard to neutron 
effect. While less than one percent of the total nuclear explosion 
energy is in the form of neutrons, they represent much more of a 
hazard than would be indicated by this small proportion. 5.28 

RESIDUAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 

All radiation occurring more than one minute after a nuclear 
explosion is called residual nuclear radiation. It consists of three 
separate stages of contamination: 

1. Induced radioactivity which is induced at the crater and 
directly under the fireball by neutrons driven into the earth 
at the instant of explosion. These neutrons are captured 
by various elements in the soil, especially sodium and man- 
ganese. This radioactivity decays much more rapidly than 
fallout radiation. It extends less than one mile from ground 
zero. 

2. Early fallout is that which falls to earth within one day 
after the explosion. 

3. Delayed fallout is that which falls to earth more than one 
day after the explosion. 5.29 

FALLOUT PARTICLE SIZE AND PERCENTAGE 
OF RADIOACTIVITY CARRIED 

Size of Fallout Particles Percentage of Radioactivity 

(microns) Carried 

Less than 20 microns 12% 

20 8 

25 10 

32.5 10 

37.5 18 

50 12 

62.5 8 

75 6 

87.5 4 

100 5 

125 3 

150 3 

200 1 
Guide 5.30 

58 



EARLY FALLOUT 

Fallout descends in particles of various sizes. Naturally the 
heaviest particles fall first. These particles are measured in 
microns. A micron is one-millionth part of a meter and a meter is 
39.37 inches. Particles with a 75 micron diameter fall at the rate 
of one mile per hour. Guide 5.30 shows the percentage of total 
fallout radioactivity carried by each size particle. This information 
is useful for filter system planning. 5.30 

The fallout dose from a 20 megaton ground burst has been 
estimated to be as shown in guide 5.31 for the first hour after an 
explosion. 5.31 

ESTIMATED FALLOUT DOSE FROM 20 MT GROUND BURST 

Miles From Ground Zero Roentgens 

2 up to 15 miles 10,000 r down to 1000 r 

15 up to 75 miles 1,000 r down to 100 r 

75 up to 120 miles 100 r down to Or 

Guide 5.31 

An estimated statistical contour of probable early fallout be- 
havior has been developed based on observation and partly on 
computations. The reference dose rate must be adjusted propor- 
tionately for known dose rates. 5.32 

EARLY FALLOUT PATTERN FOR 1 MT GROUND BURST 
15 MPH WIND 



Reference Dose Rate 
r/hr 


Downwind Distance 
miles 


Maximum Width 
miles 


3000 


23 


6 


1000 


42 


10 


300 


74 


12 


100 


120 


18 


30 


210 


30 


10 


300 


42 


3 


390 


50 


1 


440 


56 


0.3 


500 


60 


0.1 


530 


62 




Guide 5.32 





Fallout particles are not only an immediate danger to exposed 
persons but they can contaminate clothing, rugs, curtains and 
upholstered furniture at considerable distances from ground zero. 

59 



When this occurs these items must be either buried or stored in an 
isolated location pending sufficient radioactive decay. Laundering, 
dry cleaning or vacuuming or a combination of all three methods 
may then further reduce the radioactivity. 5.33 

DECONTAMINATION BY EARTH MOVING TECHNIQUES 

There are several protective measures that may be taken near 
a survival shelter to reduce the fallout radioactivity. Most people 
will not have the necessary equipment available. The government 
may have the equipment but probably will have more urgent uses 
for it. This is what must be faced. About 50% of the fallout dose 
rate at a shelter will come from within a radius of 50 feet. About 
75% will come from within a radius of 200 feet. These figures are 
based on a dose rate measurement three feet above ground in the 
center of a large, flat, uniformly contaminated area. A 250 foot 
strip when decontaminated will reduce the radiation dose rate by 
a factor of ten the dose rate would be only one tenth that pre- 
vailing if the strip was not decontaminated. 5.34 

One method that could be used to decontaminate the area 
surrounding a shelter would be to scrape off or otherwise remove 
a one foot layer of the contaminated soil. It must then be buried 
or dumped at a safe distance. Another method would be to cover 
the ground surrounding the shelter area with a one foot layer of 
uncontaminated earth. Removing earth from within a 200 feet 
radius reduces nuclear radiation to one fourth. 5.35 

A hole three feet in diameter and four feet deep will provide 
a protection factor of 40 (6.08) even if the fallout is up to the 
edge. If a radius of four feet from the hole is kept clear of fallout 
a protection factor of 100 will be effected. 5.36 



CONVERSION OF KNOWN DOSE RATE TO DOSE RATE 
AT ANY OTHER TIME 

The rate of early fallout radioactive decay for various times 
from one hour to 10,000 hours is shown in guide 5.37 based on a 
theoretical reference starting dose rate of 1000 roentgens per hour 
measured one hour after the explosion. The residual radiation per- 
centage of the total radiation that has been and will be received 
to infinity is shown in the two right hand columns. The dose rate 
for any given time up to 1000 hours can be determined by pro- 
portionment if the actual dose rate for any one time is known. 
For instance, if the dose rate at 10 hours after the explosion is 21 
roentgens per hour; what would be the dose rate 100 hours after 
the burst? Since the known dose rate at the end of 10 hours is 21 
roentgens per hour or one third of the guide 5.37 dose rate which 

60 



is 63 roentgens per hour; the 100 dose rate would be one third of 
the guide 5.37 rate (4 r/hr) or 1.33 roentgens per hour. Guide 5.37 
also shows that 88% of the total nuclear radiation to infinity would 
have been released by the end of this 100 hour period. 5.37 

RESIDUAL RADIATION DECAY* 



Residual Radiation Decay 
Time After Dose Rate Percentage to Infinity 
Explosion (Reference) Percent Already Percent to 
Hours or Days R/Hr Received be Received 


1 




1000 


55 


45 


l ] /2 




610 


59 


41 


2 




440 


62 


38 


3 




230 


66 


34 


5 




130 


69 


31 


7 




100 


71 


29 


10 




63 


75 


25 


15 




40 


78 


22 


24 


1 


23 


80 


20 


36 


iy 2 


15 


82 


18 


49 


2 


10 


83 


17 


72 


3 


6.2 


86 


14 


100 


4 


4 


88 


12 


200 


8 


1.7 


90 


10 


343 


14 


1.0** 


91 


9 


400 


16 


.70 


92 


8 


600 


25 


.42 


94 


6 


1000 


41 


.24 


95 


5 


2000 


83 


.13** 


97 


3 


10,000 


416 


.017** 


99 


1 


*Residual 


radiation is 


nuclear radiation 


emitted more than 


one minute 


after the 
**See 6.18 


explosion. 












Guide 5.37 







An infinity radiation dose is the amount of nuclear radiation 
that would be received from continuous exposure to fallout for an 
infinite time. The two columns in guide 5.37 showing these "per- 
centage to infinity" figures are based on the assumption that early 
fallout is complete and that, except for normal radioactive decay, 
the contamination status does not change. By using guide 5.37 in 
conjunction with information in paragraph 6.20 it is possible to 
compute the dose which would be received for any given time 
period. It is only necessary to know the dose rate at any one time 
more than one hour after the explosion. 5.38 

If all the early fallout from a nuclear explosion arrived in a 

61 



specific locality within 6 hours after the burst, the total dose re- 
ceived would be about as shown in guide 5.39 assuming that the 
sixth hour dose rate was 100 roentgens per hour. By using pro- 
portionment the total dose for other radiation values can be 
computed. 

TOTAL RADIATION DOSE RECEIVED - DOSE RATE 100 R/HR 

6 HOURS AFTER BURST 
FALLOUT COMPLETE 6 HOURS AFTER EXPLOSION 

At End Of Total Dose Received 

1 Day 900 Roentgens 

2 Days 1200 Roentgens 
5 Days 1600 Roentgens 

Guide 5.39 

Though the dose rate would be decreasing steadily, the total 
accumulated dose would keep increasing. Since the first few days 
are the most dangerous, shelter protection is most urgently re- 
quired during this time. If a person was sheltered for just the first 
48 hours after the completed fallout, he would avoid most of the 
first 1200 roentgen dose. 5.39 

Fallout released from a one megaton explosion into a 15 mile 
per hour wind has provided some interesting information about 
radiation conditions 22 miles downwind (Guide 5.40) and 100 miles 
(Guide 5.40A) downwind from the explosion. 5.40 

LONG HALF LIFE RADIOISOTOPES 

Before most of the delayed fallout reaches the ground the 
short lived radioisotopes will have decayed almost completely. 
Those having long half -lives will remain. Two of these, strontium 90 
with a half life of 27.7 years and cesium 137 with a half life of 
30.5 years, have great biological importance. Cesium 137 is a prin- 
cipal hazard from delayed fallout because it is a gamma ray emitter 
even more than one year after a nuclear explosion. These two 
radioisotopes make a negligable contribution to the external radia- 
tion dose when compared with that from the early fallout. Their 
importance lies in the possibility that they may get into the body 
directly by way of fruits and vegetables or indirectly by eating 
meat from animals who have eaten contaminated vegetation. 
Roughly ten percent of all atoms undergoing fission eventually 
form strontium 90 or cesium 137 atoms. 5.41 

FALLOUT CANNOT INDUCE RADIOACTIVITY 

There are several very important points about fallout that 

62 



should always be remembered. Fallout cannot induce radioactivity. 
Radioactivity can only be induced by neutrons released by fission 
or fusion. This only occurs within about one mile of a nuclear ex- 
plosion and in the first second after the burst. Fallout radiation 
causes rearrangement of orbital electrons in atoms which can cause 
ionization in the body. This ionization can result in complicated, 
dangerous body cell changes. Fallout radiation does not affect 
atomic nuclei and therefore cannot induce radioactivity. For this 
reason water and food are not spoiled by exposure to fallout. Cans 
containing food should be washed before opening and consuming 
the contents, if they have been exposed to fallout dust. This mini- 
mizes the possibility of fallout radiation getting into the body. 5.42 

FALLOUT FROM 1 MT BURST - 22 MILES DOWNWIND 
15 MPH WIND 



Time After 
Explosion 


Conditions 


Dose Rate 

(r/hr) 


Total Dose 

(r) 


1 hour 
1 to 2 hours 
6 hours 
18 hours 


Fallout had not arrived 
Main fallout has arrived 
Decay has started 


10 
1000 
300 
80 


Very little 
1000 
3000 
4800 



Guide 5.40 



FALLOUT FROM 1 MT BURST - 100 MILES DOWNWIND 
15 MPH WIND 



Time After 
Explosion 


Dose Rate 
Conditions (r/hr) 


Total Dose 

(r) 


1 hour 


Fallout had not arrived 








6 hours 
9 hours 
1 8 hours 


Fallout begins to arrive 
Fallout essentially complete 
Fallout decay starts 


1 
5 


1 
80 




Guide 5.40A 







BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION 

In most cases the biological effects of a given total radiation 
dose decreases as the rate of exposure decreases. 1000 rems in a 
single whole body dose would be fatal. The same dose, if absorbed 
over a period of thirty years, would probably not have any notice- 
able external effects in the majority of people. 5.43 

IONIZATION 

The main cause of body damage by neutrons is due to ioniza- 

63 



tion, caused by interaction of fast neutrons with hydrogen and 
nitrogen in living tissues. Soil and rocks contain some ionizing ra- 
diation materials that occur normally in nature; potassium 40, 
uranium, thorium and radium. The character of mutations in future 
generations is not changed by ionizing radiation. It is the frequency 
of these mutations that is increased. 5.44 

SYMPTOMS 

The shedding of hair is one of the most reliable indications of 
exposure to radiation. Loss of hair usually occurs two weeks after 
receiving a 300 rem dose. If the hair grows back it is a sign that 
the patient will recover from most of the immediate effects of 
radiation. Conversely, if the hair fails to grow back, it is an indi- 
cation of serious damage. Usually the only immediately pefceptable 
reaction to a large radioactive dose is an itching or tingling sen- 
sation. 5.45 



RADIATION BY INHALATION 

Inhalation of fallout particles would probably be a small haz- 
ard. Almost all particles over 10 microns in diameter and over 
90% of those particles more than 5 microns in diameter would be 
prevented from entering the body by the nose. Most early fallout 
particles having the greatest radioactivity will be considerably 
more than 10 microns in diameter (5.30). However, air that is 
suspected of containing fallout particles should not be directly 
inhaled. A dust filter type respiratory mask should be used. 5.46 

Early fallout fission products are mostly oxides. Many of 
these do not readily dissolve in body fluids. This is fortunate since 
the amount of absorption of these products through the intestine 
walls is dependent to a large degree on the solubility of par- 
ticles. 5.47 

The oxides of strontium and barium are soluble. They enter 
the bloodstream more readily and find their way into the bones. 
Where healthy or fully developed bones are involved less absorp- 
tion takes place. Iodine is also present in soluble form and soon 
enters the blood and is concentrated in the thyroid gland. Even 
under these conditions only about ten percent of the strontium 
offered to the body is absorbed and retained. Actual tests made 
on a group, after an accidental exposure resulting from a nuclear 
test explosion, showed only iodine, strontium, barium and the rare 
earth group in the body in appreciable amounts. 5.48 

The most radiosensitive parts of the body are the lymphoid 
tissue, bone marrow, spleen, reproductive organs and the gastro- 
intestinal tract. The moderately sensitive parts are the skin, lungs 

64 



and liver. The least radiosensitive body parts are the muscles, 
nerves and adult bones. 5.49 

The shorter the radioisotope half life, the stronger, more in- 
tense is its radiation. Therefore the isotopes representing the great- 
est potential internal hazard are those with short radioactive half 
lives and long biological half times. The biological half time is the 
time required for an element in the body to decrease to one half 
its original value by the natural biological process of elimina- 
tion. 5.50 



NUCLEAR RADIATION SHELTER TIME GUIDES 

The government has prepared and published* two guides which 
can provide information of extreme value after a possible nuclear 
attack. Both guides are tools with which you may have to plan 
post attack survival. Due to the complexity of nuclear weapon be- 
havior and the many variables possible, and in fact almost inevi- 
table, they are approximate for any given explosion. Both guides 
are predicated on the fact that two factors must be known. First, 
the elapsed time since the explosion and second, the dose rate at 
one given time after the explosion. These guides are valid only if 
the contamination status remains unchanged, except for normal 
radioactive decay, for the time period involved and if the fallout 
is complete. They should never be substituted for radiation 
instrument measurement of both dose rate and total accumulated 
dose. 5.51 



NUCLEAR RADIATION DOSE RATE - TIME GUIDE* 

Using guide 5.52, at a location where the nuclear radiation 
dose rate at a given time is known, the approximate dose rate at 
any other time can be computed. Assume that the known dose 
rate is 35 roentgens per hour two hours after a nuclear weapon 
explosion. The information required; when will the radiation dose 
rate have decayed to 5 roentgens per hour? To determine the 
answer, use the extreme left hand column and find the two hour 
figure. Using a straight edge follow the two hour figure horizon- 
tally until the figure closest to 35 is found. Follow that column 
vertically down to the figure closest to five. In this instance the 
applicable figure is 5.1 and the further use of a straight edge 
going back to the Time column at the left shows that the dose rate 
will reach 5 roentgens per hour a short time before the tenth hour 
or about nine hours and fifty minutes after the explosion. 5.52 

Providing the dose rate for a given time is known, the radi- 
ation dose rate for any time before or after can be determined by 
using guide 5.52 again. For example, the known dose rate is 35 

65 



roentgens per hour at 2 hours after the explosion. First find the 
2 hour figure, follow it horizontally to the 35 r/hr figure and read 
up or down that vertical column. By going back horizontally to the 
time column from the chosen roentgen per hour figure the neces- 
sary time and dose rate will be shown. Thus it will be seen that 
the dose rate was 182 r/hr at 30 minutes after the burst and 
would be 1.8 r/hr one day after the explosion. 5.53 

NUCLEAR RADIATION ALLOWABLE STAY TIME GUIDE* 

One of the major problems of sheltered persons may be that 
they may have to leave the shelter to spend time in contaminated 
areas. This could be necessary for rescue missions or for moving 
to more protected or less contaminated areas. Let us assume that 
a radiation dose radio report has been received. By referring to 
guide 5.52 it has been determined that a person may be exposed 
to a lethal radiation dose if he stays in his present location. He 
must find out how long he can remain outside without serious ra- 
diation exposure. First he would verify the radiation level in his 
immediate vicinity by using a radiation survey instrument. We 
will further assume that an authority has advised that he may 
receive an allowable dose (AD) of 30 roentgens without danger. 
The dose rate (DR), at the time of entry into the contaminated 
area, is 50 roentgens per hour ten hours after the explosion. He 
wants to know how long he can stay in the area without absorbing 
more than 30 roentgens. If he knows the dose rate at time of entry 
and the elapsed time since the burst, he can use guide 5.54 to 
figure his allowable "stay time". Here's how. The allowable dose 
(AD) of 30 roentgens is divided by the dose rate (DR) of 50 roent- 
gens per hour at entry time to provide AD/DR or 30/50 equals .6 
now .6 is found in the first column and followed horizontally to 
the right with a straight edge until the vertical column headed 
10 hours is reached. The allowable stay time is shown as 37 min- 
utes. The same formula may be used to determine allowable stay 
times for other values. 5.54 



*Figures used in guides 5.52 and 5.54 are from "Effects of Nuclear 
Weapons", United States Department of Defense, Atomic Energy 
Commission 1962. 



66 



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68 



CHAPTER 6 

Nuclear Radiation Protection Shields 

There are two distinct types of nuclear radiation. Protection 
from both types should be considered. These types are: 

1. Initial radiation includes both neutrons and prompt gamma 
rays. To attenuate (reduce) this type radiation requires 
especially thick barriers. The attenuation of initial radia- 
tion is further improved by using specially mixed con- 
crete (6.15). 

2. Fallout radiation does not need as thick a barrier as that 
required to attenuate initial radiation. 

It must be remembered that nuclear radiation is only one 
phase of the protection problem. Thermal radiation and blast 
protection are equally urgent. All three types of protection can 
be analyzed, computed and planned. However, the final decision 
must take into account the necessary amount of barrier to protect 
from the worst possible condition. This depends on distance, but 
would be either blast or initial radiation for an underground 
shelter. 6.01 

There are three forms of nuclear radiation protection. Bar- 
rier shielding which consists of placing a barrier between the 
radiation source and the target. Geometry shielding which simply 
means that the greater the distance from the radiation, the less 
the dose received. The third form of protection is entirely auto- 
matic. Time shielding consists of time and the natural radioactive 
decay that is always working in our favor. Essentially the solu- 
tion to the survival problem is to put as much mass, distance and 
time as possible between the explosion and the target. 6.02 

BARRIER SHIELDING 

A material used for a survival shelter has a different value as 
a barrier when used to attenuate initial radiation than when it is 
used to reduce the lower energy fallout radiation. The exact guide 
headings should be carefully noted when the guides are used. 6.03 
Different materials have different barrier effects in stopping 
nuclear radiation. The efficiency of any material is the product of 
its density (mass) and its thickness (area). In addition, where 
initial radiation is involved, the constituent elements of the material 
are a big factor. The more dense the material, the more it will 
weigh per cubic foot and the greater will be its ability to stop 
nuclear radiation. 6.04 

69 



HALF VALUE LAYER THICKNESS 

One method of relating this ability to stop fallout gamma 
radiation among different materials is to show the thickness of 
each material that is needed to stop one half the gamma rays 
emitted by a specific source. This factor is called the half value 
layer or HVL. Each HVL thickness added to the first reduces the 
gamma ray penetration by an additional one half. If the unshielded 
radiation dose is lOOOr, one HVL thickness would reduce it to 
500r; the second HVL would reduce it to 250r and the third HVL 
to 125r, etc. 6.05 

The shielding efficiencies for several materials are shown in 
Guide 6.06. 

MATERIAL SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES 

Material HVL (inches) Pounds per Cubic Foot 



Lead 


.3 


710 


Steel 


.7 


480 


Concrete 


2.2 


144 


Earth 


3.3 


TOO 


Cinder block 


5.0 


66 


Water 


5.3 


62 




Guide 6.06 





EQUIVALENT HVL PROTECTION FACTORS 



No. of Protection 
HVL's Factor(PF) 


MATERIAL 

Radiation 
Reduction 
Factor 


FIGURES IN INCHES 

Cinder 
Steel Concrete Earth Blocks 


Roentgens 
Per Hour 


1 


2 


0.5 


.7 


2.2 


3.3 


5. 


500.0 


2 


4 


.25 


1.4 


4.4 


6.6 


10. 


250.0 


3 


8 


.125 


2.1 


6.6 


9.9 


15. 


125.0 


4 


16 


.0675 


2.8 


8.8 


13.2 


20. 


62.5 


5 


32 


.03375 


3.5 


11.0 


16.5 


25. 


31.25 


6 


64 


.01687 


4.2 


13.2 


19.8 


30. 


15.625 


7 


128 


.00843 


4.9 


15.4 


23.1 


35. 


7.8125 


8 


256 


.00421 


5.6 


17.6 


26.4 


40. 


3.9062 


9 


512 


.0021 


6.3 


19.8 


29.7 


45. 


1.9531 


10 


1,024 


.00105 


7.0 


22.0 


33.0 


50. 


.9765 


11 


2,048 


.00052 


7.7 


24.2 


36.3 


55. 


.4882 


12 


4,100 


.00026 


8.4 


26.4 


39.6 


60. 


.2441 


13 


8,200 


.00013 


9.1 


28.6 


42.9 


65. 


.1225 


14 


16,400 


.00006 


9.8 


30.8 


46.2 


70. 


.0612 


15 


32,800 


.00003 


10.5 


33.0 


49.5 


75. 


.0306 


16 


65,600 


.000015 


11.2 


35.2 


52.8 


80. 


.0153 


Guide 6.07 








70 











By using guide 6.07 it is possible to find out the approximate 
degree of protection provided by several materials which might 
be used in survival shelters. It is not necessary that just one ma- 
terial be used for shelter construction to use the HVL table. Let 
us assume that the shelter has a roof and walls of concrete 11 
inches thick. Further assume that there is 33 inches of earth over 
and around the shelter. Eleven inches of concrete equals 5 HVL. 
Thirty-three inches of earth equals 10 HVL. Adding the two num- 
bers of HVL totals 15 HVL. By checking in the left hand columns 
of guide 6.07 it will be seen that the shelter has a protection factor 
of 32,800. 6.07 

PROTECTION FACTOR 

The protection factor or PF of a shelter is the ratio of a dose 
which would be received without protection to the dose that would 
be received by a person in a sheltered location. For example, a 
protection factor of 10 means that you would receive 10 times 
more radiation if you were unsheltered. Conversely you are re- 
ceiving only one tenth the radiation in the shelter compared to the 
radiation outside. Guide 6.08 shows a useful system for relating the 
total mass thickness of a material in pounds per cubic foot directly 
to the protection factor required. Providing the density of any two 
or more materials is known, they may be combined to compute 
their protection factor. 6.08 

FALLOUT PROTECTION FACTOR GUIDE * 



Mass Thickness 
Pounds per Cubic Foot 


Protection 
Equals Factor (PF) 




20 


5 




40 


10 




60 


20 




100 


50 




125 


100 




160 


200 




200 


500 




220 


1,000 




260 


2,000 




300 


5,000 




330 


10,000 




360 


20,000 




420 


40,000 




480 


80,000 



Guide 6.08 

NOTE: *The figures shown in Guide 6.08 for protection factors are 
approximate due to the many variables involved. 

71 



TENTH VALUE LAYER THICKNESS 

Another widely used method of judging the approximate 
ability to attenuate fallout gamma rays among different materials 
is to show the thickness of a given material that is required to 
attenuate these gamma rays by a factor of ten. This system is 
much like the HVL. It is called the tenth value layer thickness or 
TVL. Each TVL thickness added to the first reduces the radiation 
penetration by an additional factor of ten. The first TVL reduces 
the radiation to one tenth, a second TVL added reduces it to one 
hundredth, and a third TVL added reduces it to one thousandth, etc. 
The accuracy of this TVL method decreases with each additional 
layer. Here are the shielding efficiencies for concrete and earth 
expressed in terms of TVL thickness. 6.09 

EQUIVALENT TVL PROTECTION FACTORS 
CONCRETE AND EARTH 

FALLOUT RADIATION 



Number of TVL 
Thicknesses 


Protection 
Factor 


Concrete 
(inches) 


Earth 
(inches) 


1 


10 


8 


12 


2 


100 


16 


24 


3 


1,000 


24 


36 


4 


10,000 


32 


48 


5 


1 00,000 


40 


60 




Guide 6.09 







Neutrons and prompt gamma rays that are part of the initial 
nuclear radiation have a much higher MEV energy (5.10) than 
fallout radiation. They require much more shielding to be attenu- 
ated to the same degree. The amount of concrete and earth neces- 
sary to provide equivalent protection factors is given in guide 6.10. 
A person would be comparatively well protected from the initial 
nuclear radiation of a one megaton air burst one mile away by 
being sheltered by a barrier consisting of either about one foot of 
steel or four feet of concrete. However, at this distance of one mile 
from the explosion the shelter must be of a special blast resistant 
design to survive the blast. 6.10 

Three methods of computing fallout protection have been 
displayed; half value, mass thickness in pounds per cubic foot 
(protection factor) and tenth value layer. Guide 6.11 shows the 
relationship between these three methods, using concrete as a 
common denominator. While the figures are as shown in the three 

72 



tables (6.07-6.08-6.09), they reflect the approximate character of 
the basic tables. The protection factors of 10 and 100 show a 
lower mass thickness than is indicated by the HVL and TVL 
thicknesses. However, the other values are remarkably close. Al- 
ways use the most conservative figure. 6.11 

EQUIVALENT TVL PROTECTION FACTORS 
CONCRETE AND EARTH 

INITIAL RADIATION 



Number of TVL Protection Concrete 
Thicknesses Factor (inches) 


Earth 
(inches) 


1 
2 
3 
4 


10 

100 
1,000 
10,000 

Guide 6.10 


18 
36 
54 
72 


26 
52 
78 

104 



EQUIVALENT PROTECTION FACTORS - CONCRETE 

HVL - MASS THICKNESS - TVL 

FALLOUT RADIATION 



Protection 
Factor 


HVL (inches) 
Thickness 


Mass 
Thickness (PCF) 


TVL (inches) 
Thickness 


10 
100 
1,000 
10,000 
100,000 


8 
15 
22 
30 
37 


40 
125 
220 
330 
480 


8 
16 
24 
32 
40 



Guide 6.11 



GEOMETRY SHIELDING 

The exposure rate for a single small area of high radiation 
can be computed if the dose rate at the source is known. This 
can be done taking into consideration only the geometry shielding 
effect of distance. The formula used to do this is called the "in- 
verse square law". To determine the exposure rate at a given point, 
square the distance in feet from the radioactive source and divide 
that figure into the known source roentgen rate. More simply: 
When the distance from the radiation source is doubled, the ex- 
posure rate is quartered. Here is an example of a practical applica- 
tion of this information. A person is standing 10 feet away from 
a radiation source. If he stays there for one hour he will absorb 

73 



an almost certain fatal dose of 1000 rems. If he steps back just 
10 more feet, his dose in the same time would be 250r providing 
him with an almost certain chance to recover. The main problem 
with using geometry shielding computations such as shown in 
guide 6.12 is that they are not accurate for dispersed or scattered 
radiation. 6.12 

GEOMETRY SHIELDING PROTECTION EXAMPLES 
SINGLE SOURCE 



Radiation at Source 
(Dosage Rate r/hr) 


Distance From 
Source (feet) 


Square of 
Distance 


Exposure Rate 

(r/hr) 


500 
1,000 
1 0,000 
1 00,000 
200,000 
200,000 
200,000 


20 
500 
1,000 
5,000 
50 
100 
200 


400 
25,000 
1,000,000 
25,000,000 
25,000 
10,000 
40,000 


1.25 
.04 
.01 
.004 
80. 
20. 
5. 



Guide 6.12 

Fallout gamma radiation is attenuated by a factor of 1000 
by passage through one half mile of air and is halved by passage 
through only 25 feet of air. 6.13 

NEUTRON BARRIERS 

Shielding protection from neutrons poses several special 
problems. The mass density that attenuates gamma rays so readily, 
is also effective for reducing neutron radiation. However, to really 
have maximum protection from neutrons requires different, more 
difficult shielding. Elements having a low atomic weight such 
as water provide the best neutron shielding. The hydrogen and 
oxygen constituents of water both meet this requirement. The 
interaction between neutrons, hydrogen and oxygen during the 
attenuation process creates gamma rays. Protection from this 
gamma radiation must be provided. Concrete and damp earth 
provide good protection against neutrons and gamma rays. This 
is true since concrete and damp earth have hydrogen to slow 
down and capture neutrons and calcium, silicon and oxygen to 
absorb gamma rays. 6.14 

A very special type of concrete can be used to attenuate neu- 
tron radiation. It is called "heavy" concrete and includes in its 
mix iron (oxide) ore (limonite) and small pieces of iron scrap. Seven 
inches of this heavy concrete can reduce the neutron flux by a 
factor of ten. Eighteen inches of ordinary concrete would be 

74 



needed to provide the same degree of attenuation (6.10). Two other 
effective aids to neutron attenuation can also be added. They are 
the mineral barytes (a compound of barium) , and colemanite which 
contains a high proportion of boron. Boron has an unusual prop- 
erty; it absorbs neutrons without becoming radioactive. Coleman- 
ite, incorporated in a concrete mix, captures slow (low energy) 
neutrons readily and releases low intensity gamma rays which 
are fairly easy to attenuate. 6.15 

TIME SHIELDING 

Nuclear radiation is a mixture of many different radioisotopes, 
all of them decaying at different rates. Some of them have a half 
life of a few seconds, others a half life of hours, still others have 
half lives of days, months and years. Several have half lives of 
thousands of years, up to about one million years. The half life of 
a radioisotope is the time needed for the radioactivity of a given 
isotope to decay to one half its original intensity. The mixture of 
these radioisotopes, emanating from a nuclear explosion, has been 
calculated to decay according to a formula (6.18). 6.16 

Fallout radiation will decay from one minute after a nuclear 
explosion to one day after the burst by a factor of 3000. At the 
end of one week the radiation dose rate will be one tenth that of 
the rate at the end of one day. The total decay factor from one 
minute after the explosion to one week after it will be 30,000. At 
three months after an explosion the radiation intensity will fall to 
about 0.01% (one ten-thousandth) of its value at one hour after 
the explosion. 6.17 

Nuclear radiation decreases by a factor of ten as time in- 
creases by a factor of seven. A radiation dose rate of 1000 roent- 
gens per hour at one hour after an explosion would decay in seven 
hours to 100 roentgens per hour. Forty nine hours after the explo- 
sion (7x7) the rate would be 10 r/hr (factor of 10). This 10 r/hr 
would decay to 1 r/hr by 343 hours (7 x 49) after the explosion. 
This formula can be inaccurate by as much as 25% for the first 
two weeks and 50% for the period from two weeks to six months. 
After six months the dose rate decreases at a more rapid rate 
than the generally applied formula given here. Other examples of 
the use of this rule are: at 14 hours after an explosion the dose 
rate will be one tenth that prevailing 2 hours after the burst; at 
21 hours the dose rate will be one tenth that at 3 hours, etc. 6.18 

With a 100,000 r/hr dose rate outside, a shelter with a pro- 
tection factor of 10,000 would reduce it to 10 r/hr inside the shel- 
ter. Seven hours later the 10 r/hr dose rate would decay to about 
1 r/hr a comparatively safe radiation rate which would still be 
rapidly decaying. 6.19 

75 



NUCLEAR RADIATION - TIME DECAY 



Time 
After Explosion 


Reference Dose Rates 
Roentgens Per Hour 


1 


hour 




1000 


5000 


10,000 




7 


hours 




100 


500 


1,000 




49 
343 
2352 


hours (2 days) 
hours (2 weeks) 
hours (14 weeks) 


10 

1 

0.1 


50 
5 
0.5 


100 
10 

1 




98 


weeks 




0.01 


0.05 


0. 


1 



Guide 6.18 

LIFETIME NUCLEAR RADIATION COMPUTATION 

A simple method of computing the expected lifetime dose to 
which a person would be exposed after a nuclear explosion has 
been used by the government. It is based on the assumption that 
the person remains in the same location, under the same conditions 
for the rest of his life. Fallout is complete and the only change is 
normal radioactive decay. The dose rate for the first hour in the 
area is multiplied by the elapsed hours since the explosion and the 
figure obtained is multiplied by a factor of five. Any dose rate be- 
tween about 100 r/hr and 200 r/hr during the first hour in the area 
would indicate a possible eventual fatality unless the exposed per- 
son moved to a more protected or less contaminated location. The 
situation of this theoretical person would become more dangerous 
if the 100 r/hr dose rate was effective more than one hour after 
the explosion. Whenever different methods of computing lifetime 
doses are used, the maximum figure should be used as a planning 
guide. 6.20 

LIFETIME NUCLEAR RADIATION COMPUTATION EXAMPLES 



Exposure First x 
Hour in Area 


Elapsed Hours 
Since Explosion 


x Formula _ 
Figure 


Total Expected 
Lifetime Dose (r) 


50 r 


1 


5 


250 


6 r 


12 


5 


360 


10 r 


24 


5 


1,200 


3 r 


30 


5 


450 


0.5 r 


40 


5 


100 


0.1 r 


400 


5 


200 


0.025 r 


343 


5 


43 




Guide 


6.20 





There are several ways to use the information which can be 

76 



developed by computing expected lifetime doses (6.20). Several 

typical uses follow: 

Example 1. A nuclear attack creates a dose rate of 
6000 r/hr at the end of one hour. A shelter having a 
protection factor of 10,000 is occupied. What would 
be the expected lifetime dose for the occupants if 
they remained in the shelter ? The exposure dose rate 
would be 0.6 r/hr in the shelter. 0.6 x 1 x 5 = 3 roent- 
gens lifetime dose. Obviously people cannot stay in a 
shelter for a lifetime. Assuming that the occupants 
stay in the shelter for two weeks and then emerge, 
what will be their radiation status ? The outside radi- 
ation will have decayed from 6000 r/hr to 6 r/hr 
(6.18). The anticipated outdoors lifetime dose at this 
point is 6 x 343 x 5 = 10,290 roentgens. The shelter 
occupants must plan to move to a less contaminated 
area. They will be safe enough in their shelter 
while they make plans; that is if the food and 
water hold out. 

Example 2. These people are fortunately five or six 
miles from ground zero. The outside radiation is 300 
r/hr for the first hour. They wait two weeks (343 
hours) then emerge. Their anticipated lifetime dose 
will be .3 x 343 x 5 = 515 roentgens. This situation 
is marginal. They can go back into the shelter or 
move to an area where the dose rate is lower i.e. 
further away from ground zero. If they have a bull- 
dozer (and fuel) they could remove a one foot depth 
of topsoil from a 250 foot radius of the shelter and 
attenuate the radiation by geometry shielding. This is 
most unlikely of course. Actually their plight is not 
critical. They could spend only one half their time in 
the shelter and still absorb less than 300 roentgens 
in a lifetime. Since most of the figures for practically 
all of the tables shown are approximate, they should 
be used as a guide for planning purposes. The execu- 
tion of all plans must be based on accurate radiation 
survey and dosimeter readings if they are avail- 
able. 6.21 

You can do nothing about time shielding or time. You cannot 
start it. You cannot stop it. If you are alive, it will help you after 
a nuclear attack ; if you are dead, it will mean nothing to you. You 
can do nothing about geometry shielding before or during a nuclear 
attack. You cannot pick the target much less the actual ground zero 
of an explosion. Even though the odds are fantastically in your 
favor that any nuclear weapon explosion would be more than two 
miles from you, you cannot be absolutely certain. The only possible 

77 



step you can take to protect yourself is to build or have available an 
adequate shelter. Then if you survive the acute, sharp jab of ini- 
tial radiation, blast and heat in that first critical minute after a 
burst, you may take advantage of geometry and time shielding 
against the chronic, nagging attrition of fallout radiation. 6.22 



78 



CHAPTER 7 

Nuclear Explosion Survival Range 

It is possible to put together the facts that have been assem- 
bled in preceding chapters and use them to assess the chances of 
nuclear explosion survival in a BOSDEC type shelter. 7.01 

MINIMUM SURVIVAL DISTANCES FROM GROUND ZERO 

GROUND BURST 



Effect 




1 MT 


5MT 


10 MT 


20 MT 


Heat (fireball radius) 
Blast (100 psi overpressure) 
Initial Radiation (1000 rems) 
Crater (observable radius) 
Crater (rupture zone radius) 
Crater (plastic zone radius) 


.8 miles 
1.0 miles 
1.5 miles 
650 ft. 
975 ft. 
1 625 ft. 


1.2 miles 
1.2 miles 
1.8 miles 
1100ft. 
1 650 ft. 
2750 ft. 


1.8 miles 
1.5 miles 
2.0 miles 
1 400 ft. 
2100ft. 
3500 ft. 


2 

1 
2 

1 


.3 
.8 
.2 
.3 
.5 
.7 


miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 
miles 



Guide 7.01 



THERMAL RADIATION 

The fireball radius of a 20 megaton weapon is about 2.3 miles. 
This is the greatest distance, of any dangerous effect, from the 
ground zero of a ground burst. All other effects shown in Guide 
7.01 occur less than 2.3 miles from ground zero. It has been estab- 
lished that survival is possible, in a well designed shelter, under 
the periphery of the fireball. We will assume, however, that the 
shelter is just outside the fireball area. The heat will not be a 
problem in a BOSDEC type shelter. 7.02 

BLAST 

The blast from a 20 megaton explosion will generate an over- 
pressure of 100 psi at 1.8 miles from ground zero. The BOSDEC 
shelter will provide ample protection from this overpressure. Ac- 
tually the overpressure would be only 60 psi at 2.3 miles from 
ground zero and BOSDEC can withstand more than double that 
60 psi overpressure. Blast will not be a problem. 7.03 

INITIAL NUCLEAR RADIATION 

Initial nuclear radiation at 2.2 miles from a 20 megaton ground 

79 



burst would be about 1000 rems per hour and rapidly decreasing. 
With a protection factor of only 1000 (against initial radiation) 
the shelter occupants would see a dose of less than one rem. No 
problem here. 7.04 

CRATER 

The plastic zone would extend out to 1.7 miles from ground 
zero. Beyond that point there would be very little shock. At 2.3 
miles from ground zero there would be even less. Definitely no 
great danger from ground shock. 7.05 



Summary: About the only conclusion that can be drawn is that 
survival is not only possible in a BOSDEC shelter 2.3 miles from 
the ground zero of a 20 megaton explosion, it is practically a cer- 
tainty. Indeed, an occupant of such a shelter would have an excel- 
lent chance of survival at two miles from the explosion. Using the 
fireball radius as a limiting factor, survival appears probable at 
1.8 miles from the ground zero of a 10 megaton burst; 1.2 miles 
from a 5 megaton explosion and about one mile from a one megaton 
explosion. These figures indicate that survival is probable 4.8 miles 
from the ground zero of a 100 megaton burst. 7.06 



SURVIVAL PRECAUTIONS 

The things which should be considered are these: 

1. Be certain to plan a shelter to provide the basic pro- 
tective features. 

2. If you must use the shelter be sure the intake and 
exhaust ports are closed and secured. 

3. If you are in an area where firestorms are possible, 
stay "buttoned up" for 12 to 18 hours. BOSDEC sys- 
tem provides enough air and the firestorm should be 
past its peak in about 6 hours. 

4. Do not leave anything loose in the shelter. The over- 
pressure transmitted into and through the ground may 
turn loose articles into projectiles inside the shelter 
even though the shelter itself is not damaged. This is 
the reason for the admonition no glass in shelters. 
Bunks should be securely fastened to the wall. Auto- 
mobile seat belts may be utilized for a short time if 
conditions indicate an immediate need. 7.07 

80 



SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS - SQUARES AND CUBES 

Since computing many weapon effects involves the use of 
square and cube roots and inverse square roots, these figures are 
given below for ready reference. 7.08 

Number Square Cube Square Root Cube Root 



1 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.5 


2.250 


3.375 


1.225 


1.145 


2 


4.000 


8.000 


1.414 


1.260 


2.5 


6.250 


15.62 


1.581 


1.357 


3 


9.000 


27.00 


1.732 


1.442 


3.5 


12.25 


42.88 


1.871 


1.518 


4 


16.00 


64.00 


2.000 


1.587 


4.5 


20.25 


91.12 


2.121 


1.651 


5 


25.00 


125.00 


2.236 


1.710 


5.5 


30.25 


166.4 


2.345 


1.765 


6 


36.00 


216.0 


2.449 


1.817 


6.5 


42.25 


274.6 


2.550 


1.866 


7 


49.00 


343.0 


2.647 


1.913 


7.5 


56.25 


421.9 


2.739 


1.957 


8 


64.00 


512.0 


2.828 


2.000 


8.5 


72.50 


614.1 


2.915 


2.041 


9 


81.00 


729.0 


3.000 


2.080 


9.5 


90.25 


857.4 


3.082 


2.118 


10 


100.00 


1000.0 


3.162 


2.154 


20 


400.00 


8000.0 


4.472 


2.714 


50 


2,500.00 


125,000.0 


7.071 


3.684 


100 


10,000.00 


1,000,000.0 


10.000 


4.642 



Guide 7.08 



81 



CHAPTER 8 

Shelter Building Controversy 

There has been so much printed in newspapers and magazines 
about the pros and cons of survival shelters that an examination 
of the controversy seems in order. The problems and possible ben- 
efits of nuclear power will be with us for eternity. Yet, the whole 
question of what to do about it has been treated by many people 
as something that can be handled or rather ignored by using a 
few childish stock phrases. 8.01 

Consider the first few automobiles that appeared on the dirt 
roads of America a comparatively few years ago. The only re- 
sponse of many people was "get a horse". Had someone predicted 
that within a short time vast highway systems would be built and 
the whole mode of American life changed, he would have been 
labeled insane. If this person had the preception to predict that 
someday every home would incorporate a garage, that big 
cities would have huge garages, many of them underground, for 
the sole purpose of parking these automobiles, they would have 
been packed off to a psychiatrist except that psychiatry was 
largely unknown then. The point was and is: we live in a rapidly 
changing world. 8.02 

Certainly millions of Americans must have enough vision and 
imagination to understand that the nuclear weapon problem can- 
not be solved by sweeping it under a verbal carpet of trite cliches. 
Practically all the comments against survival shelters follow the 
same general pattern. They are repeated endlessly by persons un- 
familiar with nuclear power, shelter theory and communist ob- 
jectives in the cold war. 8.03 

COMMUNIST OBJECTIVES 

Communist objectives are generally agreed to be these: 

(a) To force America to capitulate without a fight. 

(b) To promote the idea that communism is inevitable. 

(c) To set Americans against Americans. 
Divide and conquer. 

(d) To force America into spending itself into bankruptcy. 

(e) To get America to disarm without adequate inspection. 

(f ) To talk America out of building survival shelters. 
This will leave us a fit subject for nuclear blackmail. 

This is an easily recognizable pattern. Everyone must agree 
that if these communist aims are achieved we will lose our liberty 
without a missile ever being launched from an enemy pad. 8.04 

83 



POPULAR CLICHES 

Now consider the popular cliches in use, always bearing in 
mind the communist aims. These cliches are used by millions of 
fine, loyal anti-communist citizens but the basic conception and 
impetus is supplied and fostered by many misguided people who 
wittingly or unwittingly play into the hands of communists. 

(a) I don't want to live in a world which has been devas- 
tated by blast, firewinds, radiation and hurtling debris. 

(b) If everything will be blown down or burnt within 30 
miles of a nuclear explosion, why should I try to 
save myself ? 

(c) Some people are going to have guns in their shelters 
and they won't be shooting communists. They will be 
shooting women, children and neighbors. 

(d) We should forget about shelters and spend all of our 
effort and money on backward nations and on out- 
lawing nuclear war. 

(e) We shouldn't build shelters because this will worry the 
communists and they may attack us with nuclear 
weapons. 

(f) I can't afford a survival shelter. 

These remarks with variations are heard everywhere. 8.05 

ANALYSIS OF POPULAR CLICHES 

If every citizen had a shelter we would have a great deterrent 
force. Why? Because then we could not be blackmailed when the 
moment of decision arrived. The communists respect only strength 
and preparedness. The emergence of America from lethargy will 
inspire a stepped up tirade of ridicule. What a terrible thing it 
would be if we end up talked out of the precious liberty for which 
Americans have fought and died. 8.06 

"I DON'T WANT TO LIVE -" 

Of course the people saying this want to live. In fact they will 
probably be the first ones trying to get into someone else's shelter. 
Ironically the choice whether or not they want to live is not theirs 
to make. The enemy will decide that to a certain degree. One won- 
ders whether these people have a moral right to say in effect, that 
they don't want to live and that therefore their wives and children 
must die too. 8.07 

Once enough of this type people think that they are resigned 
to dying, they become a perfect target for communist propaganda. 

84 



They do not have to die. All they must do is accept capitulation to 
communism and they can live. That is why this cliche is so vicious. 
These people seem to get most of their mental exercise jumping at 
conclusions. Have they ever considered that every American has 
a duty to protect his family, himself, his country and the free 
world? 8.08 



"IF EVERYTHING WILL BE BLOWN DOWN OR BURNT -" 

This statement ignores one basic fact. An underground shelter 
cannot be blown down or burnt. Potentially dangerous blast and 
thermal radiation merely pass over a properly designed and built 
shelter. Heat requires time for destruction. A pan of water can be 
placed over a fire for one second and it will not heat the water 
appreciably. Thermal radiation from a nuclear explosion lasts much 
less than one minute. 8.09 



"SOME PEOPLE ARE GOING TO HAVE GUNS -" 

This type of trash about shooting women and children has 
been quoted by a high churchman and also a reporter for a national 
magazine. Judge for yourself how sensible and responsible these 
people are if that is their real opinion of their fellow citizens. This 
type statement usually is voiced by people who are not too bright, 
who are merely reflecting their own probable reactions or who, for 
reasons of their own, are trying to discredit the protection con- 
cept. 8.10 

As for shooting neighbors trying to force their way into a 
shelter what kind of neighbors are these? Are these the people 
who would rather die than come out into a devastated world? If 
a person built a five person survival shelter for his wife and three 
children, and someone tried to force his way in by throwing out 
two children occupants so the intruder and his wife could move 
in then he should be shot. 8.11 

If someone walked into the minister's or reporter's home and 
took over, what would they do? Communism constantly strives to 
stir up controversy, sow discord, encourage weakness and promote 
panic. When an article is read think ! What is the author trying 
to do? What message is he trying to get across? What are his 
reasons and his logic? Most of these statements will be found to 
be emotional appeals to every normal person's longing for peace 
and security and revulsion toward the use of force. Even though 
almost everyone recognizes that the shooting of women and chil- 
dren is far-fetched and unlikely, it does promote a negative re- 
action. That is all it is meant to do. 8.12 

Police protection would, of necessity, come practically to a 

85 



standstill during a nuclear attack. Each person must then take 
the responsibility for protecting his family and home from criminal 
elements. No thinking person would deny that he had the right 
and duty to keep armed hoodlums out of his home. This right is 
guaranteed to all Americans. 8.13 

There is no reason, moral or otherwise, why an individual 
should work, plan, save and build a shelter for his family and then 
let anyone come along and put him and his family out of it. In the 
event of a war the government would have its hands full. In a 
land of present plenty all can plan to feed and protect themselves 
if they are foresighted. There are certain things every person must 
do for his family and himself. 8.14 



"WE SHOULD FORGET ABOUT SHELTERS -" 

Since when can peace be secured by unilateral disarmament 
and a posture of weakness. Lack of adequate survival shelters for 
our citizens in a nuclear world is a real weakness. Have we learned 
nothing from our dealings with Hitler? Nothing from the plight 
of peaceful India? How can any reasonably intelligent person ex- 
pect a proven bully to change his ways because his intended victim 
refuses to protect himself? 8.15 

One may as well try to eliminate automobile accidents by 
cancelling his collision insurance and donating the premiums to a 
school for poor drivers, as to insure peace by donating money to 
backward countries. Yet this suggestion has cropped up. The idea 
of helping backward countries may have some merit but not as a 
means of insuring peace, and certainly not as a substitute for 
building shelters. 8.16 



"BUILDING SHELTERS MAY PRECIPITATE A NUCLEAR ATTACK" 

Remember, communists respect just one thing strength. 
A nation protected from nuclear attack is much stronger than one 
whose citizens are unsheltered. Just as long as the communists 
realize that they will not gain as much as they lose they will 
never attack. A well armed, survival sheltered America is needed 
to deter a nuclear attack. 8.17 

A government believing it might lose 80% of its citizens would 
be far more compliant than one that knew that 80% of its citizens 
would survive. Communists have always attacked at a time and 
place of their own choosing. The theory that a shelter program 
would cause them to change their timetable can be discarded. It 
will deter any possible attack. 8.18 

If we must die as a result of a nuclear attack, let us at least 
die fighting for our lives and freedom and not just lie down in 

86 



the open without even the wits to dig a hole into which to retire 
for protection. 8.19 

"I CAN'T AFFORD A SHELTER" 

Maybe the person who says "I can't afford a shelter" really 
means it. The chances are that this is just a quick and easy way 
to defer or brush off an unpleasant decision. Millions of Americans 
live in apartment houses and other places that preclude the possi- 
bility of building individual shelters. They have a very special 
problem. Let us hope the government steps in and makes possible 
adequate shelter protection for them. 8.20 

For the majority of citizens the decision must be a personal 
one. The FHA guarantees loans for shelters, payable over long 
periods of time. A good shelter program is financially possible. If 
a person can afford a $4,000.00 car, a $20,000 home or a recrea- 
tion room, hi-fi or color TV set and wall-to-wall carpeting he prob- 
ably can afford a survival shelter. 8.21 

Isn't it slightly ridiculous for a person to spend thousands of 
dollars for a garage to protect an automobile and then balk at 
spending an equal amount to protect his family ? A survival shelter 
in normal times can be used for many purposes ; storage space for 
food, clothing, household supplies and deepfreeze which otherwise 
would take up valuable present space. The uses to which a shelter 
may be put are only limited by a person's ingenuity. 8.22 



Summary: Unless the decision to protect your family is made on 
the basis of common sense and logic, you may well wake up some 
day to find out, along with all other citizens, that our country has 
been talked out of free and independent existence and into a com- 
munist state ; that this was done without the launching of a single 
missile from a communist pad; that freedom will have vanished 
and that we all can then say and really mean it, "I DON'T 
WANT TO LIVE IN A WORLD LIKE THIS". 8.23 



87 



CHAPTER 9 

Getting To The Shelter 

If a person has a shelter, the big question is whether he and 
his family will have time to get into it. This depends on many 
factors that cannot be foreseen; such as geographical location, 
time of attack, proximity to the shelter, size of community in which 
he lives and degree of warning. There are two types of warnings 
that must be considered. 9.01 

STRATEGIC WARNING 

A typical example of a strategic warning occured on October 
22, 1962, the day the United States blockaded Cuba. All Americans 
were aware that there was a possibility, however remote, that a 
nuclear attack could follow this action. A strategic warning is 
signaled by events which in themselves are not sufficient to con- 
stitute a war threat but which contain an element of dangerous 
consequences. This type warning concerns interpretation of events 
and could provide hours or even days of warning. 9.02 

TACTICAL WARNING 

A tactical warning is based on information which does not 
require interpretation. In the event of a nuclear attack, a tactical 
warning would probably come from our outlying early warning sys- 
tems. This would provide up to fifteen minutes warning. However, 
the almost inevitable strategic warning coupled with the tactical 
warning would be of tremendous significance if intelligent plans for 
such an eventuality had been made. A tactical warning is not con- 
cerned with whether or not there is an attack, but solely with how 
much time is available before the explosions may be expected. 9.03 



ENEMY OBJECTIVES 

The very first objective of any enemy attack would be to 
knock out American retaliatory capabilities. This strategy is essen- 
tial. Missile launching sites are more dangerous to attackers than 
civilian populations. Our Strategic Air Command bases, Polaris 
submarines, hard, soft and foreign missile pads all must be neutral- 
ized before the enemy could afford the comparatively unrewarding 
luxury of bombing American cities. 9.04 

89 



POSSIBILITY OF A COMPLETE SURPRISE ATTACK 

There is little chance that any aggressor could mount a 
nuclear attack on the United States and make all the preparations 
necessary to brace themselves for the inevitable devastating 
counter attack without tipping their hand. Here is why. A potential 
enemy must do these things: 

(a) Move all their naval vessels into position. 

(b) Deploy military forces to exploit the tactical advan- 
tages resulting from a surprise attack. 

(c) Reinforce garrison troops in presently occupied coun- 
tries or face uprisings everywhere. 

(d) Bolster homeland defenses for the swift disaster that is 
certain to be visited upon them. 

(e) Recall all high government officials abroad at the time. 

(f ) Prepare all missile and aircraft bases for maximum use. 
In addition for the next few years a potential enemy must 

use aircraft to deliver nuclear weapons. This makes impossible the 
task of completely concealing an attack. All weapon carrying air- 
craft must be dispatched hours ahead of the missiles so that the 
delivery on all targets would be coordinated. These targets would 
include hundreds of different locations scattered in Europe and 
North America. 9.05 

The timing of such an attack would require almost unbeliev- 
able planning, accuracy and good luck to succeed in hiding all 
the preparation activities from diplomats and other information 
sources. Our modern technology is such that it would require a 
miracle for a complete surprise to be achieved even if all other 
information sources failed. 9.06 

A warning time of many hours would only be important if a 
person already had a shelter. It allows time to use a shelter not 
to build one. 9.07 

Vast areas of America are so geographically situated that 
even hundreds of nuclear weapons would not knock out towns in 
those areas. From the Mississippi River to the Pacific coast states 
and almost the entire mountainous parts of southeastern and 
northeastern United States are practically invulnerable to a 
knockout blow. 9.08 

DAY TIME ATTACK 

Throughout the country a high percentage of housewives 
and pre-school children would be at home or close to it at any given 
minute of the day. With thirty minutes warning it might be pos- 
sible to pick up school children very close by and get them into 
the shelter. Here, again, preplanning and a thorough knowledge 

90 



of local civil defense regulations will pay off in the event of 
an emergency. 9.09 

There would probably be fifteen to thirty minutes with a 
tactical warning. For people employed in suburban or rural areas 
who work within several miles from home, there is an excellent 
chance of getting home in time. 9.10 

A no-warning day light attack will force everyone to take 
whatever cover is at hand wherever they may be. School children 
will be in the care of their teachers. At this time a terrible price 
may be paid if a community has planned and built schools without 
adequate shelters. 9.11 



NIGHT ATTACK 

Depending on the hour, from 75% to 95% of all Americans 
would be home if an attack came at night. Due to the time differen- 
tial between the United States and the Soviet Union, the American 
night time is the Russian day time. It would seem logical that an 
enemy attack would occur early in the evening to permit them to 
absorb the counterattack during their daylight hours. 9.12 

With just a few minutes warning, a family could be shepherded 
into a shelter at home. With no warning, even in a target area, a 
person observing the flash of an explosion twelve miles away would 
have one minute to get into a shelter, before the blast 
wave arrived. 9.13 



NEAR PROJECT 

In order to be certain that even sleeping persons can be 
alerted, your government has perfected a device which plugs into 
any electric outlet serviced by a public utility. This box emits a 
very distinctive signal when our warning system determines that 
enemy missiles or aircraft are on their way for an attack. It will 
probably sell for a nominal price. The system is called the NEAR 
project. Some power stations have already been equipped to trigger 
the signal. Others are being similarly equipped and the entire sys- 
tem should be operational in the near future. The signal device is 
automatic and performs the function of a nuclear attack alarm 
clock. A person's chances of survival are enhanced by the careful 
planning and preparation which will enable him to make the best 
possible use of whatever warning time is available. 9.14 



PROTECTION AT WORK 

If a person works for a farsighted employer he may have a 

91 



shelter in his office or plant in which he can spend the first critical 
minute after a nuclear explosion. He may then be able to get home 
in thirty minutes before fallout starts, providing he has a planned 
route which does not conflict with Civil Defense regulations. 9.15 

PROTECTION AWAY FROM SHELTER 

If a person should be caught far from home in strange sur- 
roundings when a warning signal sounds, there are several things 
that can be done to increase chances for immediate survival. 9.16 

Try to get inside. A basement corner is best since if offers 
protection from building collapse. Lie down, curl up and face away 
from glass or loose objects. Face the wall if in a corner with no 
windows. Face away from the wall if not in a corner since this in- 
creases protection to face and eyes. 9.17 

If in the country, try to crawl into a culvert or any low spot 
protected by the terrain. Get under one end of a bridge or into a 
ditch. As a last resort slide under a car. 9.18 

Anyone remembering to count the seconds between the initial 
flash and the arrival of the blast wave, can divide that figure by 
five and the result will provide the approximate mileagp from the 
ground zero of the explosion. 9.19 



Summary: Even if a family is somewhere else when an attack 
occurs, a home survival shelter is a worthwhile haven, a meeting 
place in which to ride out the storm of a world gone crazy. The 
peace of mind that goes with at least making the effort to protect 
a family makes the project well worthwhile. That is the pessimistic 
side of the coin. At best the shelter will provide protection for 
members of a family who are home or close to home in the event 
of an attack. The alternative is a simple, duck under the kitchen 
table and pray situation. A shelter will provide a family with as 
much physical security as can be obtained in a nuclear world. 9.20 



92 



CHAPTER 10 

Nuclear Attack Possibilities 

Building a nuclear survival shelter is something like buying 
insurance. It's a good idea to investigate the reason for the policy, 
its cost and the extent of protection or coverage that can be ex- 
pected. On the basis of available information, certain estimates 
can be made about the form an initial nuclear attack might take 
and the general outline an ensuing nuclear war might follow. 10.01 

ESTIMATES OF COMMUNIST ATTACK CAPABILITY 

An Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (now called the 
Office of Emergency Planning) study in 1959 showed an attack 
pattern presumed to involve the use of 263 nuclear weapons by an 
enemy. The study assumed each bomb to be 20 megatons or smaller 
with a total attack force of about 3,000 megatons. These 263 bombs 
would be aimed at 224 targets. 10.02 

Other United States government sources have estimated that 
the communists would have from 300 to 1,000 intercontinental bal- 
listic missiles (ICBM's) by mid 1962. In 1961 another government 
authority thought that the communist arsenal contained 35 to 50 
nuclear tipped ICBM's. By the end of 1962 the nuclear weapon 
stockpile was estimated to contain 80 nuclear bombs and associated 
delivery hardware (ICBM's). Intercontinental ballistic missiles 
are not in themselves a threat. They are the means of delivering 
nuclear warheads on target. 10.03 

NUCLEAR ATTACK WEAPON SIZES 

The effectiveness of a nuclear weapon does not progress 
geometrically according to size or yield. A 50 megaton bomb is not 
2 ] /2 times as devastating as a 20 megaton bomb. Therefore, the 
chances are that smaller yield bombs would be used in an attack. 
The largest to be expected ; 20 megatons. 10.04 

Twenty megaton bombs are less expensive, use less precious 
nuclear material and are easier to deliver than 50 megaton bombs. 
A 20 megaton weapon will do about two thirds as much damage 
as a 50 megaton bomb. 10.05 

NUCLEAR ATTACK PATTERN 

An estimate that appears to be possible for the next few years 
would comprehend the delivery of between 300 and 500 nuclear 

93 



weapons by an enemy. These would be delivered in a mixture of 
air and ground bursts. Each bomb would be 20 megatons or 
smaller. They would be aimed at about 300 target areas. These 
areas would include all missile sites, military bases and probably 
basic steel, chemical and oil industrial complexes. 10.06 

POSSIBLE METHODS OF BOMB DELIVERY 

In the immediate future (until 1965) these weapons would 
probably be delivered about 40% by missiles and the balance by a 
combination of aircraft and probably some seacraft. After 1965 
the percentage of bombs delivered by missile would increase fairly 
rapidly until practically all weapons used in an attack would be 
delivered in this manner. This appraisal of the delivery technique 
possibilities is just one persons opinion based on information 
available to everyone. 10.07 

NUCLEAR ATTACK TIMETABLE 

It would seem self evident that in the event of a nuclear war 
a big percentage of an enemy's nuclear weapons would be launched 
immediately. This must be done in an effort to achieve a knockout 
blow. However, if all the weapons were fired in the initial attack 
and something went wrong the assailant would be a sitting 
duck. Therefore, a kind of balance must be maintained by an 
aggressor. 10.08 

The percentage of weapons fired in the first hour or day of 
a surprise attack would probably run about 50% to 70% of the 
total available to the enemy. These weapons would be used for 
strategic purposes. The balance of the bombs would be divided 
into two categories. About 20% to 40% to be used during the first 
30 days of the war for tactical purposes. Tactical targets would 
include targets still intact after the initial attack and other 
locations which posed a problem to the attacker. 10.09 

The approximately 10% of weapons remaining would probably 
never be fired. To do so would completely denude the attacker 
militarily. With even a few bombs left they would be in a position 
to use nuclear blackmail even if almost completely wiped out. With 
these bombs they might try to place America in the same position 
that we occupied after the Korean war. You will remember that 
we then achieved the almost impossible we snatched defeat from 
the jaws of victory. 10.10 

POSSIBILITY OF INVASION 

If communist agents reported that enough of our people and 

94 



facilities were destroyed, and if there were enough enemy sur- 
vivors, an invasion of our country might be attempted. This must 
be done before we had a chance to bring our resources to bear on 
the problem and after the radiation had subsided or decayed to a 
reasonably safe level. This would be approximately between two 
weeks and six weeks after the initial attack. 10.11 

There are other invasion risks that must be considered, and 
which could form the basis for an entire book. This is neither 
the time nor place to go into detail about them. However, there 
are so called neutrals who might take advantage of a weakened, 
tormented America to try what they would never dream about 
while the United States was powerful and strong. While some of 
these neutrals are genuinely friendly to us, they are subject to 
political developments which could change their attitude prac- 
tically overnight. Cuba is a typical example of this type of change. 
We cannot afford to overlook any eventuality when our very life 
as a nation may hang in the balance. 10.12 

TARGETS 

Every attack target must be counted on to receive at least 
one bomb. Many of them may receive a second bomb if they are 
extremely dangerous to the enemy. The absolute limit that any 
target would be likely to receive would be three bursts. There 
would be few, if any, of these areas. In a suitable shelter, a person 
will be safe unless he is less than about two miles from ground zero 
of one, two, or at most, three nuclear bomb explosions. The enemy 
is more noted for the power of their ICBM's than for the accuracy 
of their missile guidance systems. 10.13 

Out of a total of between 224 to 300 target areas, the enemy 
could not spare more than one or two weapons for any one target. 
Within a radius of 30 miles from ground zero there are 2,800 square 
miles. The area in which there would be almost complete devas- 
tation from a 20 megaton explosion would be only 28 square miles 
(3 mile radius). 10.14 

CHANCE OF SURVIVAL 

A majority of people living in a target area and over 90% of 
all other Americans can survive a nuclear attack if they are in 
suitable shelters. Persons protected in a shelter anywhere within 
30 miles of a target would have a 100 to 1 chance to survive one 
nuclear burst. Obviously the odds decrease the closer anyone gets 
to the target and increase further away from the target. 10.15 



95 



CHAPTER 11 

Essentials For Survival 

Air, water, food, fire (heat energy), clothing, shelter (from 
natural elements), tools, utensils, medicine and electricity are 
essentials for survival. These are generally considered to be neces- 
sary for man's survival under any circumstances. We can 
exist without the last four items on the list. Mere existance 
is not enough if we are to rise up after an attack and re- 
build our civilization. 11.01 

The first three essentials (air, water and food) must be 
available in order to remain alive. The second four (fire, clothing, 
shelter and tools) are almost as necessary. But it is conceivable 
that we could survive for some time without them. The last two 
items are comparatively new to our civilization. 11.02 

A survival shelter should have as many sources as possible 
for each of the first four necessities. In planning survival facilities, 
arrangements must be made for adequate supplies of each neces- 
sity before the need arises. A person must know how neces- 
sary they are, how difficult they may be to obtain and the 
estimated time before they may become available to citizens 
after an attack. 11.03 



AIR 

The most essential element of life is air. A person can live for 
only about five to eight minutes when deprived of air. 11.04 

Air is abundant; it is free, it is everywhere. It does not 
normally need processing. It does not need to be grown, trans- 
ported, cooked or purchased. It merely requires filtration by well 
known, simple methods to insure its availability during and after 
a nuclear attack. 11.05 



OXYGEN CONCENTRATION IN AIR 

A minimum oxygen concentration of 16% in air is necessary 
to sustain life. An oxygen concentration analyzer is available which 
provides oxygen concentration percentages. It is simple to operate 
but is expensive. 11.06 



CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION IN AIR 

A carbon dioxide concentration in excess of 3% in air can be 
fatal. A carbon dioxide test unit is available to provide concentra- 

97 



tion information. It is inexpensive but complicated to use. 11.07 

AIR SUPPLY METHODS 

Survival shelter air can be supplied by several methods: 

(a) A blower powered by public utility electricity. 

(b) A blower powered by generator electricity. 

(c) A blower manually operated by a hand crank. 

(d) Emergency oxygen cylinders, commercially available. 
Oxygen cylinders contain 244 cubic feet of 99% pure oxygen. 
They would be quite expensive for shelter storage due to the 
cylinder cost. 11.08 

CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL BY SODA LIME 

It is possible to insure a supply of good air in temporarily 
sealed shelters by using soda lime to remove excess carbon dioxide. 
This technique in conjunction with the use of makeup oxygen from 
cylinders can be used in times of emergency. Soda lime regenerates 
itself continuously by chemical reactions. Eventually it becomes 
completely saturated and can no longer regenerate. It must then 
be discarded and replaced. The indicating type which changes color 
from white to pink when it is becoming saturated should 
be used. 11.09 

CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL BY ZEOLITE 

Another system, for removing waste gases from a sealed 
chamber containing three people (a spacecraft), has been de- 
veloped by a large chemical company. During a period of 720 hours 
(30 days) more than 210 pounds of carbon dioxide (1.1 pounds 
per person per day) can be trapped by a substance called Zeolite, 
which may be used indefinitely. The carbon dioxide when trapped 
may be expelled from the chamber or shelter. This system, if it is 
made available for shelter use, could solve one of the biggest air 
purification problems when used in conjunction with a supply 
of cylinder oxygen. 11.10 

WATER 

Man can survive only a few days without water or substitute 
liquids. Water is less abundant than air. It is normally available 
in a potable form from lakes, rivers, streams, rainfall and from 
underground reservoirs called water tables which may be tapped 
by wells. 11.11 

98 



WATER AND RADIOACTIVITY 

Water shares one peculiarity, among others, with air. In a pure 
state neither can become radioactive. Only impurities consisting of 
fallout made radioactive by the nuclear explosion can radioactively 
contaminate air and water. Dust particles in air and solids sus- 
pended in water can and do become radioactive and thereby 
transmitters of nuclear radiation when they have been directly 
charged by the nuclear explosion products. Fortunately the earth 
acts as a gigantic and effective filter. Water from a moderately 
deep well will usually be free from radiation and can be safely used 
due to its underground source. 11.12 

RESERVOIR WATER 

If reservoirs are a persons main water source there is a chance 
that his supply may become contaminated. Regular normal water 
treatment including coagulation, sedimentation and filtration tech- 
niques will remove contamination. 11.13 

When reservoir water is merely chlorinated it may be unfit 
to drink for several days after an attack. Dilution and natural 
radioactive decay will cause the contamination to decrease with 
time. 11.14 

WARNING Boiling fallout laden water is of absolutely no 
value in removing radioactivity. 11.15 

SHELTER WATER SOURCES 

Shelter liquid supplies can be made available by these methods : 

(a) A 550 gallon or smaller water storage tank. 

(b) Water extracted from shelter atmosphere by the de- 
humidifier. 

(c) Canned water, fruit juices, soft drinks and broths. 

(d) Contents of the hot water heater if the tank was shut 
off from the usual supply before the nuclear attack. 

(e) A well. 

Water may also be available from a supply previously stored 
in plastic containers shortly before an emergency. 11.16 

FOOD 

All food must be grown. This takes time. It is not possible to 
speed up the process appreciably. Much that we eat today must be 
dug or picked, processed, transported, warehoused, distributed 
and purchased. 11.17 

In a normal peacetime economy this is a time consuming 

99 



process. Imagine how much longer it would take to do all these 
things after an attack. Then the whole process would be compli- 
cated by special soil tests and preparation, partially destroyed 
processing facilities, crippled transportation, burned out ware- 
houses and sharply curtailed distribution facilities. 11.18 

Consider these examples. It takes anywhere from 3 months 
to 3 years to bring meat to market. Vegetables spend as much as 
6 months in transit to the consumer. This is the situation in peace- 
time with everyone cooperating, everything going smoothly and a 
surplus of food in almost every category. 11.19 

We must assume that most of our foodstuffs will go up in 
nuclear smoke in the event of an attack. Some will be burned, some 
blasted to pieces and much will be contaminated. A lot will just rot 
for lack of refrigeration, transportation, warehousing or people 
to process it. 11.20 

FOOD WAREHOUSING 

Remember that almost all processed food is stored in ware- 
houses located close to large population centers for rapid and easy 
distribution. Unfortunately this logical peacetime system makes 
our food supply extremely vulnerable in the event of a nuclear 
attack. 11.21 

To lessen this danger to our vital food supply the government 
might encourage the building of underground warehouses. Fast 
depreciation tax write off certificates have been issued to business 
in the past for far less important facilities. 11.22 

There is one place where food, already admirably packaged 
for warehousing, can be stored safely, conveniently and econom- 
ically in a person's own home. More specifically in his own 
survival shelter. 11.23 

FOOD SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS 

As an absolute minimum, a 90 day supply of food is rec- 
ommended. A six month supply is more realistic. A 24 month supply 
would not be beyond the realm of common sense. This does not 
mean that a person and his family would spend 3, 6 or 24 months 
in a shelter, but they will need food from their own supply when 
they do emerge from the shelter. (See Chapter 15 for complete 
shelter menus and shopping lists.) 11.24 

By sound planning, and possibly after making a few minor 
sacrifices, anyone can gradually build up a reserve supply of food. 
A reserve which will see them through any emergency up to and 
including a nuclear calamity. 11.25 

This type planning should give a person great peace of mind. 
It will also ease the tremendous burden his government will bear 

100 



in feeding others who could not or would not prepare for a 
nuclear emergency. Again, remember, the better prepared we are 
the less susceptible our government will be to nuclear blackmail. 
Our efforts will also help to decentralize and disperse food sup- 
plies which in turn will aid in eliminating wartime distribution 
problems. 11.26 

FIRE AND HEAT ENERGY 

Fire or heat energy consists of heat energy for cooking, for 
maintaining a comfortable atmosphere and for lighting. Heat 
energy for these three purposes is not as abundant as air or water. 
It is more abundant than food. In normal times there are many 
sources of heat energy: electricity, propane or natural gas, wood, 
coal, charcoal, alcohol, candles and kerosene. These possible sources 
of emergency energy are reviewed below. 11.27 

ELECTRICITY 

Electricity is useful for all three purposes of cooking, heating 
and lighting. It is the only source of energy that meets all three 
requirements. It provides the best illumination and shelter cooking 
energy. When used for cooking it does not burn valuable oxygen. 
It has one major drawback; it cannot be conveniently stored. 
There are two possible sources of readily usable electricity in a 
survival shelter. 11.28 



PUBLIC UTILITY ELECTRICITY 

Public service utility electricity may, and probably will, be 
subject to frequent interruption if not outright power failure in 
the event of a nuclear attack. Whenever it is available this power 
should be used for lighting, heating and cooking in a shelter. This 
source should be first choice for use with electrically powered 
utensils such as hot plates, frying pans, heating pads and 
coffee makers. 11.29 



GENERATOR ELECTRICITY 

Generator electricity is an excellent replacement for public 
utility electricity. It should never be used when utility power is 
available because generator power can be stored in the form of the 
fuel oil upon which the generator operates. When a generator is 
used the energy expenditure for heating, ventilation and cooking 
should be planned so it runs for the shortest possible time. All 

101 



electrical chores should be arranged and charted to get maximum 
power usage for a limited time each day, up to the limit of the 
generator capacity. This conserves fuel. All electrical needs except 
lighting may be taken care of in one hour a day or in a short time 
as possible. Care must be taken in planning generator use to make 
certain that generator capacity is not exceeded. 11.30 



BATTERY ELECTRICITY 

The third source of emergency shelter electricity is battery 
power. It should be used mainly for emergency lighting and for 
powering portable radios. While batteries have the advantage of 
being storable, they are not long lived enough to count on for 
much more than a few days use unless they are used for occasional 
service. Then they may last for a few months. They are useful and 
necessary but they also have serious limitations. There are 
several exceptions. 11.31 

Flashlights that can be recharged by plugging into an elec- 
trical outlet seem to be a more dependable source of emergency 
lighting. Main utility or generator electricity must be available 
often enough to make recharging feasible if rechargable flash- 
lights are to be of much service. 11.32 

A storage battery can be useful for radios, emergency lighting, 
generator starting and other light or intermittent electrical chores. 
A storage battery may be kept charged by plugging it into an 
electrical outlet when either utility or generator power is available. 
This requires a battery charger unit. Another device which is 
pedaled like a bicycle is on the market. It permits charging the 
storage battery solely by foot power. 11.33 



PROPANE AND NATURAL GAS 

Gas is useful for cooking and heating under normal conditions. 
Natural gas cannot be stored. Propane can be stored but the chance 
of an explosion due to the possible heat of a nuclear burst makes 
the storing of gas in or near a shelter hazardous. Gas burns 
precious oxygen in a shelter. The use of gas in a survival shelter 
is not recommended. 11.34 



COAL 

Coal has just one advantage. It can be stored. It is hard to 
ignite, control and extinguish so that it can be reignited. It burns 
precious shelter oxygen and gives off noxious gases. No coal 
in a shelter. 11.35 

102 



WOOD 

Wood is abundant and excellent for cooking, heating and in- 
cidental lighting. It can be stored. It burns oxygen and requires a 
flue. Wood may be useful in the shelter lock (12.07) for post attack 
use when radiation levels have decayed to a safe level but before 
normal organic fuels are available. Wood cannot be used in the 
primary shelter. 11.36 

CHARCOAL BRIQUETS 

Charcoal can be stored and contains more heat energy per 
cubic foot than wood. It consumes oxygen and in a shelter gives off 
noxious gases. While it would be excellent for post shelter use it is 
definitely dangerous for shelter cooking. 11.37 



ALCOHOL 

Alcohol must be considered the first choice substitute for 
electricity for use in cooking. It is available in canned solid form 
in stores and is easily and conveniently stored in small containers 
which are easy to ignite, extinguish and reignite. It does burn 
oxygen. Alcohol may be used for emergency shelter cooking when 
electrical services are unavailable. 11.38 



CANDLES 

Candles are easily stored. They are useful for emergency 
lighting and for heating small quantities of food. They burn oxygen. 
Long thin candles are best for lighting and short thick candles for 
heating food. They may be used in a shelter in the absence of 
anything better. 11.39 



KEROSENE 

Kerosene is mainly useful for lighting. It is dangerous 
to store, burns oxygen and can create smoke. It is not for 
shelters. 11.40 



CLOTHING 

Clothing is a subject to which much thought should be given. 
Not only for the comparatively short period of actual attack but 
for the intermediate period after the attacks and before a return 
to nearly normal sources of clothing. The discussion of clothing 

103 



here is divided into three groups; adults, teenagers and children. 
Generally all clothing should be selected for its warmth and du- 
rability not its style or fashion. 11.41 



ADULTS 

Adults should not be too much of a problem. Having achieved 
their full growth, most adult sizes become to a degree static. Most 
adult outer garments are discarded for esthetic rather than 
functional reasons. They are out of style or worn. Very seldom do 
they stop being a protective covering shielding the wearer from 
the elements. Most adults could get by in an emergency for 2 or 3 
years with the clothes they have. 11.42 



MEN 

Men should have on hand a 36 months supply of the following 
articles : 

Undershirts Handkerchiefs Belts 

Shorts Sweaters Scarves 

Socks Shoes Gloves 

Shirts Overshoes Raincoats 

Pajamas Jackets Slacks 

Hats Overcoats 

11.43 



WOMEN 

Women should have on hand a 36 months supply of the follow- 
ing articles: 

Scarves 

Sweaters 

Slacks 



11.44 



TEENAGERS 

Teenage clothes would be the same general types worn by 
adults. Denims and other long wearing, inexpensive and easy to 
maintain materials should be favored. Teenagers should have a 
36 months supply of clothes with due consideration for growth 
possibilities. 11.45 

104 



Panties 


Girdles 


Overcoats 


Brassieres 


Jackets 


Raincoats 


Blouses 


Shoes 


Skirts 


Stockings 
Slips 


Overshoes 
Handkerchiefs 


Gloves 
Night clothes 



CHILDREN 

Children's clothes would be similar in types to adult clothes. 
There are some special needs of infants and very small children. 
These needs are listed below: 

Diapers Rubber pants Sweaters 

Shirts Vests Night clothes 

Hose Shoes Hats 

Coats Coveralls Gloves 

Special care must be exercised in gauging probable child 
growth over a 36 months period. This is especially true of these 
articles for children: shoes, socks, underwear and trousers. It is 
much better to store clothes on the large side since oversize gar- 
ments are more comfortable than undersize ones. Children can 
always grow into oversize clothes. 11.46 

GENERAL SHELTER CLOTHING SUGGESTIONS 

Shoes Sneakers or comfortable slippers would be especially 
suitable for shelter wear for the entire family. Since activity would 
be somewhat restricted (that's the understatement of the year) 
the usual shoe problem of normal existence should be less acute. 
Preference should be for thick soled, long wearing shoes for pro- 
tection when it is safe to leave the shelter. These shoes definitely 
should be on the large side for children. They may then be worn 
over slippers or padded by wearing extra socks to get maximum 
use from them. 11.47 

White Coveralls These coveralls mentioned elsewhere (Guide 
16.03) are especially suited for wear outside the shelter. Large, 
and many small, particles of radioactive dust can easily be seen 
on them and brushed off. The one piece type construction keeps 
out much fallout laden dust. 11.48 

Old Suits and Overcoats Men, especially, should keep 
suits and overcoats which would ordinarily be discarded. Reason: 
It may be necessary, at some time immediately after an attack, 
to leave the shelter for a few minutes for a dire emergency. 
Clothing exposed to such high radiation should be discarded and 
not brought back into the shelter. An old suit or coat will provide 
as much protection from radiation as a new one. 11.49 

After an attack we do not know what we will find when we 
finally leave our shelters. Maybe the government will not be able 
to provide food, medicine and clothing for some time after an 
attack. It may have to concentrate on defense hardware. It will 
be up to each of us to have on hand the dozens of small items 
upon which we depend to live, but which we take so much for 
granted in our normal everyday life. 11.50 

105 



HAND TOOLS 

There are certain hand tools that are inexpensive and prac- 
tically indispensable. These and other very useful tools and items 
of equipment are listed below as a checklist. These tools should 
enable anyone to make minor repairs, remove debris and perform 
general utility chores. The 12 foot ladder makes an excellent 
emergency stretcher and a good bridge if one is needed. 11.51 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 

14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 



HAND TOOLS 



hoe 

crowbar 

wrecking bar 

sledgehammer 

pick (point & chisel) 

coal shovel 

axe 

hatchet 

block & tackle 

claw hammer 

hacksaw w/10 blades 
1 pair wire clippers 
1 -'50 ft. length Manila rope 

C/2") 

1-12 ft. ladder 

1 -50 ft. water hose 

1 ball peen hammer 

1-2 man manual wood saw 

1 spade 

1 pr. rubber insulating gloves 

2 steel wedges 

1 soldering (non-electric) iron 
1 monkey wrench 



23. 1 crescent wrench 

24. 1 set open end wrenches 

25. 1-6-ft. carpenters rule (folding) 

26. 1 measuring tape 

27. 3 assorted screwdrivers 

(slotted) 

28. 1 carpenters crosscut saw 

29. 3 assorted screwdrivers 

(Phillips head) 

30. 1 hand drill 

31. 1-1" augur bit 

32. set drills 

33. set wood chisels 

34. cold chisel 

35. adapter, water hose to basin 

36. set files 

37. 1-24" stillson wrench 

38. 1 pair vise grip pliers 

39. 6 ft. 5000 Ib. close link chain 

w/grab hook and ring 

40. 1 putty knife 

41. 6 brainard tel-o-posts 

(telescopic jack posts) 



Guide 11.51 



MEDICINE 

There are certain medical supplies so basic that they would be 
found in almost every medicine chest. These items plus others 
useful for handling minor aches, pains, cuts and bruises are listed 
as a reminder for persons stocking a shelter. Don't forget to include 
special medicines presently required or that may be required in 
the foreseeable future. 11.52 



106 



MEDICAL SUPPLIES 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 



Sleeping pills (for children) 24. 

Aspirin 25. 

Baking soda 26. 

Boric acid 27. 

Petroleum jelly 28. 

Anti-acid powder 29. 

Band aids 30. 

Laxative 31. 

Hydrogen peroxide 32. 

Burn ointment 33. 

Toothache drops 34. 

Milk of Magnesia 35. 
Non-habit forming pain pills 36. 

Ammonium ampoules 37. 

Styptic pencil 38. 

Bandage scissors 39. 

Rubber gloves 40. 

Elastic bandage tape 41. 
Eye drops with dropper 

Water purification tablets 42. 

Medicones 43. 

1 roll gauze bandage 44. 
4 triangle bandages 



3 ace bandages 

2 padded splints 

1 tourniquet 

6-4 x 4 gauze pads 

6-2 x 3 gauze pads 

%" wide adhesive tape 

Tongue depressors 

Q-tips 

Baby powder 

Baby oil 

Sanitary napkins 

Red Cross First Aid Book 

Home medical book 

Hot water bag 

Antiseptic solution 

Salt tablets 

Vitamins 

Medium first aid dressings 

8" x 7V2" 

1" adhesive compress 

Tweezers 

Assorted tubular bandages 



Guide 11.52 



SHELTER FROM THE ELEMENTS 

Shelter from the elements refers to shelter in its basic pre- 
nuclear meaning. Shelter from rain, cold, snow, sleet, hail, heat, 
tornados, cyclones, floods and hurricanes. Fortunately a properly 
designed survival shelter automatically protects against almost 
all the natural elements. 11.53 

There can be problems with heat and cold in a survival shelter. 
Since most shelters are covered by considerable earth and concrete, 
the range of temperature should be comparatively narrow due to 
the natural insulating qualities of these two barriers. In some 
deep mines the temperature seldom varies more than a few degrees 
from 75 F regardless of surface temperatures. In a shelter without 
artificial heating or cooling, the temperature should never go below 
50 F or above 85 F. The actual range of temperature in a BOSDEC 
type shelter is estimated to be between a low of 60 F and a high 
of about 80F. 11.54 

The shelter should have a wool blanket for each occupant. 



107 



While shelter temperatures may not always be cozy by normal 
standards, the shelter would be livable without any artificial 
heating or cooling. 11.55 

The exact temperature of any shelter depends on many 
variables including the following: 

(a) Depth of shelter. 

(b) Barrier materials used. 

(c) Time of year. 

(d) Size of shelter. 

(e) Number of occupants. 

(f) Amount of heat generated by cooking, etc. 

(g) Part of country in which the shelter is located. 11.56 



108 



CHAPTER 12 

BOSDEC 



To understand this new shelter concept it may be necessary 
to discard many preconceived notions about survival shelters 
gleaned from other sources. There is no such thing as an econom- 
ical bomb shelter. One might just as well talk about an economical 
war. Neither exist. The object of a shelter is not to save money. 
It is to protect and save lives. This does not mean that intelli- 
gent planning must be abandoned in favor of thoughtless 
spending. 12.01 

Conditions for each family, each home will differ markedly. 
Terrain, type of original house construction, financial resources, 
size of family and geographical location all bear directly on shelter 
requirements. Perhaps no one will want to build a shelter 
and equip it in exactly the manner described here. This does 
not matter. 12.02 



BOMB SHELTER IN DEPTH CONCEPT 

Instead of dogma the BOSDEC or bomb shelter in depth con- 
cept provides building block units of safety and convenience. How 
much of the system you will need or use is entirely up to you. 
The decision is yours alone. The ultimate responsibility for the 
safety and security of your family will also be yours. From 
BOSDEC it is hoped you will find enough information, in factual 
form clearly explained, to make the proper decisions. 12.03 



BOSDEC SYSTEM PRINCIPLES 

BOSDEC is based on the centuries old defense in depth 
principle used by ancient Roman legions and modern armies alike. 
Basically the plan places a shelter within a shelter and provides 
dual barriers between the weapon effects (blast, heat and fallout) 
and the shelter occupants. Maximum application of this principle 
will protect shelter occupants from the hazards of air or ground 
nuclear bomb bursts created by a 20 megaton weapon at any point 
more than 2.3 miles from the shelter. The BOSDEC shelter will 
provide complete protection even closer to ground zero of smaller 
yield nuclear bomb bursts. It provides both geometry and barrier 
shielding. BOSDEC consists of three sections or areas. 12.04 

109 



PRIMARY SHELTER 

The primary shelter is the center or heart of the system. It is 
the place where you and your family will ride out the effects of a 
bomb explosion, direct nuclear radiation, thermal radiation, fire- 
winds, blast wave and early fallout. The primary shelter occupants 
can safely stay in this section for up to 24 hours with all ventilation 
intake and exhaust ports closed. This can be done without using 
supplemental oxygen supplies and without the necessity of carbon 
dioxide absorption. The primary shelter is sunk five feet below 
the surface of the ground. It is surrounded on three sides by 
earth. The fourth side opens into a basement room called the 
secondary shelter. 12.05 



SECONDARY SHELTER 

The secondary shelter is directly below the home and has 
most of the protective features of the primary shelter. One main 
exception; the secondary shelter does not have an earth cover. 
Both the primary and secondary shelters have two feet thick rein- 
forced concrete ceilings. But the primary shelter has a five foot 
thick earth cover over the concrete ceiling. A one foot reinforced 
concrete ceiling plus seven feet of earth cover would be just about 
as effective and much less expensive. The secondary shelter has a 
protection factor of 2000 (6.07) and could be occupied as soon as the 
outside nuclear radiation level has decayed enough. Since it is an 
integral part of the home, it could be occupied in normal times by 
a member of the family as a self contained apartment. The sec- 
ondary shelter is connected to the outside by another basement 
room called the shelter lock. 12.06 



SHELTER LOCK 

The shelter lock is the third section or area of the BOSDEC 
system. It contains a fireplace for heat and cooking after safe 
radiation levels are reached but before complete return to normal 
outside conditions. The shelter lock may also be stocked with a 
supply of firewood to service the fireplace. Shelter refuse, well 
sealed pending permanent disposal by burial outside, may be 
placed in the shelter lock temporarily. The shelter lock can have 
any type ceiling but a minimum of four inches of reinforced con- 
crete is recommended. 12.07 

The net effect of these three sections of the BOSDEC system 

110 



is to provide a weather tight concrete apartment that contains 
rooms providing varying degrees of nuclear explosion protection 
in event of attack and also permits near normal living in the post 
attack intermediate period. This apartment may be all that remains 
if the residence overhead is destroyed. 12.08 

COLLATERAL BOSDEC ADVANTAGES 

There are certain other advantages to the BOSDEC principle. 
Ready access into one's basement is important to persons with 
claustrophobic tendencies. Children may use the primary shelter 
as a playroom in normal times. These factors are especially im- 
portant since the more familiar one becomes with the shelter, the 
less disturbed he will be when the need arises that forces him to 
use it for survival. 12.09 

BOSDEC BASIC REQUIREMENTS 

The BOSDEC system requires that certain criteria be met if 
a person is to take full advantage of all the provisions of the 
maximum features designed into it. To use a presently existing 
home it must have a below grade, windowless basement surrounded 
on at least three sides by earth. The basement should be at least 
20 feet by 30 feet, preferably larger. The ceiling should be 90 inches 
high and at least 4 inches thick reinforced concrete, preferably 
thicker. The walls must be concrete or concrete block. 12.10 



PRIMARY SHELTER SPECIFICATIONS 

Ideally, the BOSDEC shelter system should be built into a 
new concrete or concrete block type house perched on a hillside. 
The basement should be reinforced poured concrete. The basement 
layout should provide adequate space for the secondary shelter 
and shelter lock and the necessary construction features which 
BOSDEC requires. Shelter walls and ceilings could be incorporated 
in the foundation construction and basement planning. The excava- 
tion for the primary shelter could be accomplished at minimal 
expense if done at the same time. The primary shelter must be at 
least a few feet above the water table. Unfortunately all these ideal 
conditions will not exist for most of us. Existing homes must be 
analyzed to determine what parts of the BOSDEC principle can be 
used. This much is certain; almost every home can use some of 
the BOSDEC features. 12.11 

111 



PRIMARY SHELTtR DESIGN FEATURES 

The primary shelter is designed to provide : 

(a) Sufficient air for four occupants for 24 hours or for six 
occupants for 16 hours without outside ventilation or 
resort to mechanical or chemical methods of air 
supplementation. 

(b) Protection from an overpressure of 100 psi (a 50 mega- 
ton burst creates 80 psi at two miles from ground zero) . 

(c) A roentgen reduction or protection factor of 10,000. 
Actually the maximum BOSDEC system insures a pro- 
tection factor of several times 10,000. 

(d) 600 cubic feet of space for each of four occupants. 

(e) 90 square feet of space for each of four occupants. 

(f ) 15 cubic feet per minute of fresh air for each of four 
occupants. This air to be supplied by an electrical 
blower with a manual override and incorporating a 
glass filter on the intake port. 

(g) One gallon of stored water per day for each of six 
occupants for ninety days. 

(h) Space for storing a ninety day supply of food for six 
occupants. 

(i) An alternate escape route to the surface. 

(j) A baffled entrance, surrounded by an 18 inch high con- 
crete water barrier dam to keep possible water from 
entering primary shelter area from the secondary 
shelter area. 12.12 



PRIMARY SHELTER VENTILATION 

The BOSDEC system is designed to permit complete closing 
of ventilation intake and exhaust ports for a period of from 16 to 
24 hours without requiring any other method of oxygen supply. 
This is desirable to insure protection from thermal radiation, fire- 
winds and the positive and negative stages of the blast wave and 
its accompanying blast winds. 12.13 

Automatic check valves should be installed on all external 
stacks such as intake and exhaust ports, etc. These check valves 
should also embody provisions for closing and locking them closed 
manually from within the shelter. 12.14 

It is necessary to know the net cubic feet of space required to 
safely permit a specified number of occupants to stay in a shelter 
for 24 hours and shorter periods without outside ventilation. This 
information is given in guide 12.15 

112 



PRIMARY SHELTER AIR CHANGES 



Occupants 


1 Air Change 
Per Day 


2 Air Changes 
Per Day 


3 Air Changes 
Per Day 


2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


1200 cubic feet 
1800 cubic feet 
2400 cubic feet 
3000 cubic feet 
3600 cubic feet 


600 cubic feet 
900 cubic feet 
1200 cubic feet 
1500 cubic feet 
1800 cubic feet 


400 cubic feet 
600 cubic feet 
800 cubic feet 
1000 cubic feet 
1200 cubic feet 



Guide 12.15 




SHELTER LOCK 



SECONDARY SHELTER 



PRIMARY SHELTER 



Cross Section of BOSDEC System 
Guide 12:16 



113 



CHAPTER 13 

How To Meet BOSDEC Specifications 

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION 

The best nuclear survival shelter is provided by reinforced 
poured concrete heavily framed with steel and designed to be 
earthquake resistant. It is better able to withstand blast than 
brick and cinder or concrete block. Poured concrete produces much 
less flying debris than either brick or block when damaged. Even 
an aboveground reinforced poured concrete building will be only 
moderately damaged by overpressures up to 10 psi, which is the 
overpressure created 5 miles from ground zero of a 20 megaton 
burst. Good building factors are resilience and ductility of frame, 
strong beam and column connections and plenty of support and 
diagonal bracing. All concrete should have a compressive strength 
of 3000 psi or more. Concrete construction should conform to the 
specifications of "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Con- 
crete (ACI 318-56)". A copy of this publication may be obtained 
from "The American Concrete Institute, P. O. Box 4754, Redford 
Station, Detroit 19, Michigan." Price one dollar. 13.01 

Concrete costs about $55.00 per cubic yard including cost 
of forms and eight pounds of reinforcing steel per cubic yard. 
If cinder blocks are used for survival shelter construction, they 
should be filled with earth for greater density and more barrier 
shielding. 13.02 

PRIMARY SHELTER CONSTRUCTION 

The two foot thick roof of the primary shelter can be built 
in two 12-inch layers. The first layer is the ceiling of the 
shelter and is structural and should be reinforced. The second 
12-inch layer is used as a radiation shield only and need not be 
reinforced. 13.03 

The top of the shelter roof should be at least five feet below 
a well tamped and seeded grade. The use of an aerodynamic mound 
contour can reduce the incidence of blast reflection. This earth 
cover serves to buttress the shelter. The roof, outside walls and 
floor of the primary shelter should be protected by a vapor barrier 
consisting of six mil black polyethylene insulating plastic. Inside 
and outside walls should be further protected on both sides by a 
moisture resistant coating. The ground above the shelter should 
be sloped one half inch in each foot for effective drainage unless 
an aerodynamic mound contour is used. The walls should be 16-inch 

115 



and the floor 18-inch reinforced concrete. The hermetically seal- 
ing entrance door should be reinforced concrete in a gasketed 
steel frame. 13.04 

All electrical wiring in the BOSDEC shelter should be installed 
through conduits. The primary shelter should have a baffled 
entrance with no fewer than two right angle turns. This is im- 
portant since radiation, like light, has a tendency to travel in a 
straight line. A floor drain or sump in the center of a gently 
sloping primary shelter entrance area may be useful depending 
on circumstances. When built into a shelter, the drain should lead 
through good drain pipe to a dry well prepared prior to building 
the shelter. 13.05 

Under certain conditions it may be desirable to install a 24-inch 
or 36-inch thick by 4-inch square shelter observation window. 
Properly placed it would allow outside observation with safety. 
The window is also an effective radiation shield. Gamma ray 
absorbing, special windows are made by adding a large percentage 
of lead oxide to the glass. This can increase the weight of the glass 
to 390 pounds per cubic foot or almost the weight of steel (480pcf). 
Ordinary glass with excellent visual characteristics has been made 
up to 141 inches (11M> feet) thick. 13.06 



EMERGENCY ESCAPE HATCH 

There is always a possibility during a nuclear attack that the 
main shelter entrance might become blocked by debris from a 
collapsing house or other material. To guard against such a 
catastrophe an emergency exit should be incorporated in the pri- 
mary shelter. This can be done by embedding several securely 
joined sections of 48-inch diameter reinforced concrete sewer or 
water supply pipe in the shelter wall or ceiling. The type with 
rungs for climbing up or down should be specified. 13.07 

This pipe should extend straight up or outward at an angle 
of about 30 degrees to permit easy ascent by an average person. 
The pipe section coming to grade should have a water and air tight 
gasketed metal cover which covers the exit end of the pipe about 
one inch below the outside grade. The surrounding grade should 
be sloped one half inch in each foot for drainage and should be well 
tamped and seeded. A gasketed metal cap or cover should be placed 
at the inside shelter terminal and kept in place by suitable stainless 
steel bolts. The entire length of pipe can then be filled with clean 
dry sand preferably on a very dry day. A package of food or other 
vital necessities may be placed in a sealed plastic container and 
stored in the sand near the exit end of the pipe. This package 
could always be reached from outside the shelter in the event the 
owner could not get into the shelter. 13.08 

116 



GENERATOR AND BLOWER INSTRUCTIONS 

Complete and detailed instructions on how to operate, adjust 
and make minor repairs to the generator, air intake motor blower, 
filter and exhaust systems should be posted in the primary living 
quarters and also in the generator and air intake rooms. Special 
instructions for servicing the air filters, including how often to 
change them, should also be posted. The exact location of replace- 
ment filters and spare parts should also be listed. This can be 
extremely important. 13.09 

PRIMARY SHELTER COMPARTMENTS 

The primary shelter should be divided into four compartments 
or rooms, the walls of which should be load bearing. These four 
rooms are the living quarters, including the storage section for 
food, tools and supplies; the air intake and filter area; the water 
tank compartment; and the generator and air exhaust room. 13.10 

PRIMARY SHELTER LIVING QUARTERS 

The primary living quarters should contain the following 
items. Control valves and switches should be grouped together and 
clearly marked as to function : 

1. Water supply control valve for residence. 

2. Water supply control valve for shelter. 

3. Electric switch for main utility power for residence. 

4. Electric switch for controlling generator. 

5. Control valve for fuel supply tank to oil burner. 

6. Control valve for fuel supply tank to generator. 

7. Control valve connecting well to water storage tank. 

8. Electric switch controlling motor driven well pump. 

9. A 24 or 36-inch thick by 4-inch square observation 
window. 

10. A radiation detection and survey meter. 

11. Two dry chemical fire extinguishers.- 

12. A 1300 watt electric wall heating panel. 

13. A wash basin with hot and cold running water. 

14. Toilet with sewage ejector. 

15. Telephone extension. 

16. Two foldaway double beds with mattresses or convert- 
ible sofas. 

17. Four chairs (one a rocking chair). 

18. One folding table. 

19. Deepfreeze. 

20. 100-gallon electric water heater. This heater normally 
supplies the residence above. 

117 



21. Electric outlets for: 

a. Air blower for generator room 

b. Cooking 

c. Radio (make certain it works in a sealed shelter) 

d. Lights 

e. Spare outlet 

f. Television 

g. Air purifier 

h. Hot water heater 

i. Deepfreeze 

j. Well pump 
k. Air blower for living quarters 

1. Dehumidifier 
m. Wall heating panel 
n. Oil "burner 
o. Storage battery charger 

22. Manual crank for motor driven air blower. The blower is 
in the air intake and filter room. 

23. Instruction card for operating, etc. motor blower, gen- 
erator and exhaust and filter systems. 

24. A well with two casings. One connected to a motor 
driven electric pump for use when electricity is avail- 
able. The other connected to an old fashioned manual 
pump handle. Both pipes to be connected to the 550 
gallon emergency water storage tank for replenishing 
water supplies. 

25. An exhaust port to atmosphere from the primary living 
quarters should be installed to vent stale air. A positive 
pressure of one quarter to one half inch of water should 
be maintained in the living quarters to facilitate venting 
stale air and to keep out fallout. This pressure is built 
up in the shelter by the air intake blower and permits 
automatic venting without a mechanical exhaust system. 
The intake and exhaust openings should be far apart to 
enhance circulation and to keep exhaust fumes from 
being drawn back into the shelter by the intake. 

26. A dehumidifier. In a shelter, humidity and heat may be 
two big problems. Most people can only stand exposure 
to high humidity and 95 F heat for about ten hours. A 
healthy persons may tolerate high humidity and 90 F 
heat for about 100 hours. 13.11 

PRIMARY SHELTER STORAGE ROOM 
FOR FOOD, TOOLS AND SUPPLIES 

The storage section for food, tools and supplies is actually a 
part of the living quarters; somewhat like a closet. The physical 

118 



arrangement of this storage space can be planned individually 
according to that part of the BOSDEC system being used. 13.12 



PRIMARY SHELTER FLOOR PLAN 



MAIN WATER SUPPLY 




Guide 13.11 

119 



PRIMARY SHELTER AIR INTAKE AND FILTER COMPARTMENT 

The air intake and filter compartment is the part of BOSDEC 
which draws in outside air by a motor operated blower, removes 
fallout laden dust particles by means of glass filters and delivers 
clean air to shelter occupants. Access from the primary shelter 
living quarters to the air intake compartment should be through 
a one half inch gasketed, air tight steel door. The barrier wall be- 
tween the two rooms should have a mass thickness of 60 pounds 
per cubic foot. 13.13 



PRIMARY SHELTER VENTILATION MOTOR BLOWER 

Unfortunately a shelter occupant is always under a threat of 
power failure. In many cases this possible loss is not critical. When 
the power failure affects the shelter ventilation the matter becomes 
serious. Therefore, a motor blower with a manual override should 
always be selected for shelter ventilation. Since this one piece of 
equipment is so important, consideration should be given to the 
purchase of two blowers. One motor operated and the other man- 
ually operated. There could easily be circumstances when two 
blowers would be very useful. For example, mechanical failure or 
temporary shelter overcrowding. 13.14 



CHEMICAL VENTILATION 

During a nuclear attack it would be extremely dangerous to 
have any outside ventilation ports open. The risk that they could 
not be closed and secured in time to avoid the vacuum cleaner 
effect of the negative phase of a blast wave is great. The risk run 
by shelter occupants who may be in a locality where firestorms are 
possible is likewise great. They may find that superheated air is 
being forced into the shelter. 13.15 

The only logical protection from these two hazards can be 
obtained by sealing the shelter (closing and locking the ventilation 
ports). In a BOSDEC shelter of the maximum protection type, 
ventilation would not be a problem for 16 to 24 hours. Under these 
conditions chemical ventilation has many advantages. 13.16 

It is possible for six or even more people to live in the primary 
shelter for days without outside ventilation. Six people need seven 
cubic feet of pure oxygen per hour if the carbon dioxide is being 
removed by 2.3 pounds of soda lime at the same time. 1.2 pounds 
of activated charcoal per hour will absorb the pollutants and body 
odors from six people (guide 13.17). Commercial oxygen that is 
pure enough for human use is available in 244-cubic feet cylinders 
and soda lime in 25-pound pails. One cylinder will suffice for six 

120 



people for about 40-hours when used with 81 pounds of soda lime 
for carbon dioxide absorption. 13.17 



OXYGEN, SODA LIME AND CHARCOAL REQUIRED 
FOR SEALED SHELTER 

People in Shelter 
2345 



Pure Oxygen (cubic feet per hour) 


2.3 


3.5 


4.6 


5.8 


7.0 


Soda Lime (pounds per hour) 


.8 


1.2 


1.6 


2.0 


2.4 


Activated Charcoal (pounds per hour) 


.4 


.6 


.8 


1.0 


1.2 


Guide 13. 


17 











Obviously this method is cumbersome, expensive and com- 
plicated but it does permit sealing the shelter against blast and 
f irewinds during the most vulnerable periods. A chemical air recon- 
ditioner for shelter service is reputed to be planned by a company 
that designed a portable chamber for Astronauts. (11.10) 13.18 

FILTERS 

There are three general types of filters that are involved in 
shelter ventilation. The most important form of filtering involves 
the trapping of dust particles. This minimizes the chance of fallout 
penetrating the shelter. For this purpose glass filters are recom- 
mended because of the danger, however remote, that paper filters 
might ignite- as a direct or indirect result of thermal radiation. 
Wherever filters are used the filtering media should be so located 
as to make servicing easy. 13.19 

The other two types of filters are in a sense not filters. They 
are activated charcoal which absorbs odors, and silica gel which 
absorbs moisture. Each of these substances is useful under certain 
conditions and will be mentioned later in this chapter. 13.20 

PRECIPITATOR ELECTRIC FILTERS 

An alternate or supplementary method of filtering is available. 
It is done by precipitators (electric air cleaners). They are more 
than 92% effective in preventing passage of radioactive particles 
down to a size of .001 of a micron. Dust from delayed fallout 
averages 0.1 to 10 microns in diameter and early fallout is much 
larger and consequently much easier to trap. A human hair is 75 
microns. Precipitators are very effective against germ warfare and 
are used in atomic and military installations. Their main drawback 
is that they require electricity. 13.21 

121 



AIR PURIFIER FILTERS 

Recently an inexpensive air purifier has been placed on the 
market. The specifications of the unit indicate that it may work 
very well in a small shelter. There may be some question about its 
capacity for use in larger shelters. It weighs 20 pounds and is 7y 2 
inches high by 2iy 2 inches wide by 12 inches deep. It uses a 3/8 
inch washable foam filter to catch most visible dust and dirt par- 
ticles. Smoke and particles down to a 0.03 micron size are then 
trapped by a 3/8 inch glass fiber filter with an efficiency between 
90% and 100%. A 3/4 inch thick activated carbon bed weighing 
2y 2 pounds removes 90% to 100% of all odors. A motor and 5 inch 
diameter air blower then distribute 44 cubic feet of clean air per 
minute into the shelter or room over an 18 inch ultraviolet lamp. 
It sells for less than $60.00 and its use might eliminate the need 
for a precipitator or even a separate intake blower and filter under 
the proper conditions. This unit requires electricity (100 watts). 
It is most efficient in a sealed room and is very quiet in operation 
(54 DB). Under conditions of average air contamination the unit 
will function effectively for about 2000 hours (roughly 12 weeks 
constant use) before filters need replacement. Dissembly and 
assembly are simple and do not require tools. 13.22 

PRIMARY SHELTER WATER STORAGE 

A 550 gallon stainless steel water tank should be placed in 
the water tank compartment. If outside water sources fail, this 
stored water would probably see shelter occupants through even 
prolonged emergencies. It should be plumbed into the normal house 
water supply system and connected to the well for emergency 
replenishment. 13.23 

To insure gravity flow, the water tank could be raised onto a 
concrete cradle. A plastic water level indicator should be located 
in the primary shelter living quarters. Sufficient freeway around 
the tank should be planned. Since the house water system would 
be connected through this emergency water tank, all plumbing 
connections would be directly to the hot water heater, primary 
and secondary shelter wash basins and toilets, and the secondary 
shelter shower stall and bath tub. 13.24 



AIR INTAKE AND FILTER COMPARTMENT EQUIPMENT 

The air intake compartment incorporates a plenum chamber 
to protect the filter from blast. The air line must have a right 
angle bend in the plenum since radiation would travel in a straight 
line into the living quarters from the filter trap otherwise. The air 
intake compartment would contain two principal pieces of equip- 

122 



ment. An electric blower, with a manual crank for use in event of 
power failure, is the heart of the ventilation system. It should have 
a minimum capacity of sixty cubic feet per minute. The hand crank 
should be located in the living quarter compartment. If this is not 
feasible a blower must be placed in the living quarters. 13.25 

The second, equally important, item is an absolute type filter 
system with a capacity of sixty cubic feet of air per minute. An 
absolute type filter is 99.97 percent efficient when tested with 
particles of a 0.3 micron diameter. The main filtering media should 
be fiber glass. The system can incorporate a bed of activated char- 
coal to remove odors and a bed of silica gel to control or at least 
minimize humidity. The use of activated carbon is dependant on 
whether provisions, such as a supplementary cylinder oxygen 
supply, for "buttoning up" the shelter are planned, and if so, to 
what degree. The same is true of silica gel. The filter will be located 
between the air intake port and the blower. Particulate filtering 
(fiber glass) will always be necessary. Activated charcoal and silica 
gel usage will be selective. Therefore these two chemical filters 
should be arranged to permit bypassing them when their action is 
not needed. Activated charcoal and silica gel may be renewed by 
heating. The silica gel then regains its absorption efficiency and 
the charcoal is reactivated. When there is no noticeable reduction 
in the odors of a closed room for a period of from 12 to 24 hours, 
the activated charcoal filter is probably saturated and should be 
reactivated or replaced. Since heating the charcoal reactivates it 
by releasing all previously absorbed odors, it should never be done 
in a closed, unventilated place. Do not use a charcoal filter when 
cleaning agent, insecticide or grease generated odors are present. 
These odors will quickly saturate the charcoal and minimize its 
usefulness for more important tasks. 13.26 

An air intake line connecting the outside to the blower through 
the filtering media is an important part of this system. The inlet 
port should be thick walled, three inch inside diameter stainless 
steel pipe. It should extend at least one foot above the surface to 
keep water out and be bent to a 90 angle (radiation has a tendency 
to travel in a straight line). An automatically closing blast check 
valve with provision for manual closing and locking the port from 
within the shelter should be used. The inlet port opening should be 
screened to keep out insects and protected by a guard cage to 
prevent debris from damaging it. A lead from the radiation survey 
meter may be located at the inlet port. By subtracting the shelter 
radiation reading from the inlet port reading the efficiency of the 
filtering system can be readily checked. To insure a safety 
double check on radiation levels, another lead from the survey 
meter can be placed between the filter and the blower, if one 
is available. 13.27 

There is another method of placing survival shelter air intake 
ports. If the home above the shelter is built solidly of fire resistant 

123 



materials, the inlet may be located inside the house over the sec- 
ondary shelter. The air coming into the shelter would be cooler 
in summer, warmer in winter, less contaminated and less humid 
at all times. 13.28 

Retractable intake and exhaust ports may be a very valuable 
ventilation feature since they eliminate the chance of blast winds 
snapping ventilation stacks off. 13.29 

PRIMARY SHELTER GENERATOR AND 
AIR EXHAUST COMPARTMENT 

The purpose of a separate compartment for generator and air 
exhaust use, within the primary shelter, can be stated in one word 
isolation. A generator may be run on gasoline or fuel oil. If gas- 
oline is used a potentially dangerous fire hazard is created. To a 
lesser degree fuel oil is a hazard. Fuel oil can also be used in normal 
times with an oil burner for residence heating. The generator and 
air exhaust compartment serves to isolate the noise and noxious 
exhaust fumes of the generator from the primary shelter living 
quarters. The generator room should have its own filtered 
air intake.. 13.30 

The main public utility electric line should be brought into the 
residence above the shelter, through the generator compartment. 
A relay should be arranged so the generator will start when the 
main house power fails and will shut off when public utility power 
is restored. In addition a separate shut off switch for the generator 
should be located in the primary shelter living quarters. This shut 
off must be used if the shelter is sealed. The generator needs 
air to function. 13.31 

A storage battery should be used for automatic generator 
starts. This battery can also provide excellent emergency lighting 
for short periods. This battery should be kept in the generator 
room. There is a company that makes a "Shelter Cycle" which will, 
when peddled one hour every three days, keep a storage battery 
charged. The battery may also be charged through a battery 
charger connected to main utility power when available or con- 
nected to the generator when public power fails. 13.32 

The air intake, filter, blower and exhaust port servicing the 
generator compartment would be similar to that used for the pri- 
mary living quarters. Of course there is no need for activated car- 
bon or silica gel in the generator room system. 13.33 

Access to the generator compartment from the living quarter 
should be through a one half inch steel, gasketed air tight door. 
The wall separating these two compartments should have a mass 
density (protection factor) of 60 pounds per cubic foot. 13.34 

The information given in guide 13.35 is helpful when figuring 
generator wattage loads to prevent overloading. It covers the power 

124 



draw of different size fractional horsepower motors. Always start 
the largest size motor first. 13.35 

FRACTIONAL HORSEPOWER MOTOR CURRENT DRAWS 



Motor Size (H.P.) 


Starting (Watts) 


Running (Watts) 


1/8 hp 

1/4 hp 
1/3 hp 
1/2 hp 
3/4 hp 


500 
1000 
1500 
2000 
2500 


300 
550 
700 
750 
1050 



Guide 13.35 

The approximate current drain for some common electrical 
appliances is shown in guide 13.36. This permits rapid calculations 
insuring more efficient use of generator power. The wattage shown 
is averaged for equivalent appliances made by different man- 
ufacturers. 13.36 



ELECTRIC APPLIANCE CURRENT DRAWS 

Appliance Watts Appliance Watts 



Hot water heater 


3000 


Dehumidifier 


240 


Rotisserie- broiler 


1400 


Blanket 


200 


Radiant heater 


1300 


Blower 


200 


Hot plate 


1250 


Sump pump 


130 


Frying pan 


1250 


Radio-phonograph 


110 


Toaster 


1110 


Trickle battery charger 


100 


Coffee maker 


850 


Air purifier 


100 


Egg cooker 


500 


Radio 


80 


Well pump 


340 


Heating pad 


60 


Deep freeze 


300 


Precipitator 


60 


Television 


260 


Shaver 


15 


Oil burner 


260 


Clock 


2 


Refrigerator 


250 


Electro-luminescent light 


2 



Guide 13.36 



GENERATOR AREA EQUIPMENT 

A 3000 gallon fuel oil tank should be placed about three feet 
underground to service the residence oil burner in normal times 
and the generator during emergencies. The line from the storage 
tank to the oil burner and generator should be a very good grade 
of flexible metal tubing. Ground shock affects (4.21) unyielding 
pipe connections even though storage vessels themselves may be 
unharmed. The fuel storage tank must supply the oil burner and 

125 



the generator by gravity flow to insure availability when electricity 
for pumping is unavailable. Fill and vent pipes for the oil tank 
must be laid to the surface. The fill pipe must be capped by a 
screw-on airtight cap. The vent pipe should extend one foot above 
grade to keep out surface water, should be bent to a 90 degree 
angle to minimize radiation penetration, screened to keep out 
insects and protected by a guard cage to minimize damage by 
falling trees or other debris. It would be similar to the primary 
shelter living quarter air intake port. It should have a damper type 
automatic check valve capable of being closed and locked in the 
closed position manually from within the shelter. 13.37 

A positive pressure of one quarter to one half inch of water 
should be maintained in the generator compartment to facilitate 
exhausting stale air to the atmosphere and to keep out fallout 
particles. This pressure will be built up in the generator room by 
the intake blower. It permits automatic venting without a mechan- 
ical exhaust system. The intake and exhaust ports should be kept 
far apart to enhance circulation and to prevent exhaust fumes 
from re-entering the shelter. 13.38 

. The generator and air exhaust room should contain the follow- 
ing equipment: 

1. A 4000 watt (four kilowatt) diesel generator. This should 
be installed, serviced and maintained according to the 
manufacturers instructions. 

2. An air intake system that supplies all necessary air for 
generator operation. This includes an air blower with 
sufficient capacity to supply the system. 

3. A filter with fiber glass filter material. 

4. An exhaust port for venting exhaust fumes from gen- 
erator to atmosphere. This port located so that these 
fumes will not be drawn back into any part of the 
shelter. The outlet at the surface should be bent, 
screened and caged for reasons mentioned previously. 

5. One lead from the shelter radiation survey meter should 
be located in the generator room to double check any 
possibility of a filtering system malfunction. 

6. A storage battery for automatic generator starts and 
emergency lighting should be placed in the generator 
compartment. 13.39 

AUTOMATIC-ELECTRO UTILITY SYSTEM 

An automatic-electro utility system especially designed and 
built for shelter service is commercially available. It contains the 
following units: 

1. Electric generator from 2000 to 6000 watts for fuel 
oil use. It is available with an automatic switch-over 

126 



when utility power fails. The 6000 watt model uses 0.7 
gallon fuel oil per hour. 

2. Comfort cabinet contains four items. 

(a) Air conditioner with sealed unit. 

(b) Heater radiant type. 

(c) Dehumidifier provides two quarts of water 
per person, per day for washing, etc. 

(d) Refrigerator 

3. A sump pump for waste water ejection. 

4. Fresh water supply tank connected to present supply. 

5. Multiple fallout air separator for filtering intake air. 
Air circulation is adjustable, with positive exhaust sys- 
tem. Manual blower override supplied. 

This system may be placed in relay with house electric supply 
in normal times to provide house electricity during peacetime power 
interruptions. 13.40 



ELECTRIC SUPPLY SCHEMATIC GUIDE 



MAIN UTILITY LINE 



LINE SWITCH 



LIGHT 




SWITCHES 




SECONDARY SHELTER 



TV -J 
WELL 
RADIO -J 
LIGHTS ' 
HOT PLATE J 
DEEP-FREEZE -J 

AIR PURIFIER ' 

WALL HEATER 
DEHUMIDIFIER 
SEWAGE EJECTOR 

"NEAR" OUTLET 

AUXILIARY OUTLETS 




AIR INTAKE AREA 
PRIMARY SHELTER 



WATER TANK AREA 
PRIMARY SHELTER 



LIVING AREA 
PRIMARY SHELTER 



Guide 13.39 

127 



THE SECONDARY SHELTER 

The secondary shelter of the BOSDEC system is directly under 
the house. It is on a different level than the primary shelter, closer 
to the surface. Since the secondary shelter does not have an earth 
shield it cannot provide as much protection as the primary shelter. 
It does have a protection factor of more than 2000 plus a certain 
amount of barrier and geometry shielding contributed by the roof 
and walls of the house overhead. 13.41 



SECONDARY SHELTER FLOOR PLAN 



SHELTER 
LOCK 



SHOWER 



WASH 
BASIN 




TOILET 

LIGHT 



CHAIR 



o 



TUB 



o 



LIGHT 



LIGHT 



o 



18" HIGH WATER DAM BARRIER 
CHARCOAL 
AND 
ELECTRIC 
BROILER ELECTRIC RANGE REFRIGERATOR 



PRIMARY 
SHELTER 



O O 
O O 



FOOD PREPARATION 

RADIO 
EXT. | | 



Guide 13.41 

128 



Since the secondary shelter does not contain a generator and 
well or have an earth cover, it lacks the convenience and 10,000 
protection factor of the primary shelter. The addition of an air 
intake blower, exhaust port and storage space would convert it 
into a primary shelter with a protection factor of 2000. The further 
addition of a generator and well would provide all facilities usually 
planned for a primary shelter. The secondary shelter is furnished 
for extensive cooking and fairly normal living. Millions of Ameri- 
cans live in localities unlikely to be targets. They could have fallout 
problems, but the expense of the complete BOSDEC system or 
even a major part of it would be unwarranted. They must weigh 
all the facts; is the investment for the 10,000 protection factor 
and added conveniences worth the extra cost? 13.42 



SECONDARY SHELTER SANITARY FACILITIES 

The secondary shelter has a bathtub and shower, wash basin 
and a toilet located near its entrance. This location permits rapid 
showering for fallout removal, after essential trips outside the 
shelter, without possibility of fallout scattering inside the shelter. 
Discarded clothes may be quickly placed in the shelter lock until 
radiation decay can reduce their contamination to safer levels for 
clothes laundering, etc. 13.43 



SECONDARY SHELTER VENTILATION 

The entrance to the secondary shelter from the shelter lock 
should be baffled by no less than two right angle turns in the same 
manner as the primary shelter entrance. One important advantage 
of using the complete BOSDEC system should be noted. When out- 
side nuclear radiation has been reduced to one tenth the first hour 
level (seven hours after weapon burst) the door connecting the 
primary and secondary shelters may be opened to permit the sec- 
ondary shelter air to replenish the primary shelter atmosphere. 
This extends the time the shelter can remain sealed against possible 
firestorms, etc. After the fire and high radiation danger has 
passed, the primary shelter ventilation system will provide air for 
both primary and secondary shelters. 13.44 



SECONDARY SHELTER EQUIPMENT 

The secondary shelter contains the following items of equip- 
ment: 

1. Wash basin connected to deep dry well. 

2. A bathtub and shower connected to dry well. 

129 



3. Toilet with sewage ejector connected to deep septic tank. 
A check valve should be placed in sewage line. 

4. Electric range. 

5. Refrigerator. 

6. A fire brick charcoal pit, waist high with a stainless 
steel grill rack and a manually and electrically operated 
spit. 

7. Dry chemical fire extinguisher. 

8. Electric outlets for: 

(a) Lights 

(b) Range 

(c) Refrigerator 

(d) Radio 

(e) General utility 

(f) Food preparation appliances 

These items will vary according to what part of the BOSDEC sys- 
tem is used. 13.45 

THE SHELTER LOCK 

The shelter lock is on the same level as the secondary shelter 
and is part of the house basement. The shelter lock should have a 
four inch thick reinforced concrete ceiling. This is a sufficient 
barrier since the shelter lock will not be occupied while outside 
radiation levels are high. It is the connecting room or link between 
the secondary shelter and the outside world. From the shelter lock 
an occupant would step out into the world to survey the results of 
a nuclear attack for the first time. 13.46 

The walls between the shelter lock and the secondary shelter 
should be sixteen inch thick concrete. The door into the secondary 
shelter from the shelter lock should be one half inch steel, gasketed 
and airtight. 13.47 

SHELTER LOCK EQUIPMENT 

The equipment and contents of the shelter lock are a matter 
for personal choice. Certain essentials should be included and are 
listed below: 

1. A fireplace for cooking and heating. It should utilize 
a "heatilator" type construction with built-in air intake 
and heated air outlets for circulating warm air. Old 
fashioned iron pivots should be installed in the fire- 
place to provide means of suspending cooking utensils. 
An adequate supply of firewood should be stored in the 
shelter lock. The fireplace could be used after the return 
to near normal conditions when radiation levels were 
low enough. 

130 



2. A wall opening should be provided in the shelter lock 
wall which faces the earth surrounding the basement. 
This opening should be large enough to accept medium 
size cartons. It should have a heavy metal hinged door 
leading to a chute which ends in a predug pit outside the 
shelter lock. The use of this chute permits the rapid 
disposal of cases (14.14) containing sealed cans, which 
in turn contain primary shelter refuse. Use of this dis- 
posal feature eliminates the need for going outside the 
shelter with the resultant exposure to radioactivity. 
Disposal can be accomplished in a few seconds away 
from the primary or secondary shelter. This is important 
when radiation levels are high outside. Failure to incor- 
porate this feature in the shelter lock might make 
necessary valuable time consuming trips outside. Holes 
at least one foot deep must be dug to bury waste, radio- 
active or otherwise. Unless this is done, dogs, other 
animals or rodents might find, dig up and eat this refuse, 
spreading disease far and wide. 13.48 



SHELTER LOCK FLOOR PLAN 
Guide 13.47 



GARBAGE 

DISPOSAL 

(Radioactive) 




LIGHT 



CHUTE 



SECONDARY SHELTER 



TO RESIDENCE OVERHEAD 



LIGHT 



o 



FIREPLACE 
PIVOT 



l_l 

8 



131 



SHELTER PREPARATION PROCEDURES 

It must be assumed that a family having a BQSDEC type 
shelter will keep it in shape to be used at a moments notice. Any- 
thing less than complete survival preparedness may be tempting 
fate. The generator, air intake electric motor blowers, filters and 
other equipment should be checked every month to be certain they 
are in perfect operating condition. Children who are old enough 
should, take turns familiarizing themselves with the chores they 
may have to do some day. 13.49 

When the decision to go to the shelter has been made, certain 
things should be done immediately. The necessary controls for 
these actions should all be located in the primary shelter living 
quarters, so that it will not be necessary to tarry upstairs. 
Basically there are three main items requiring control; water, 
electricity and air. 13.50 



WATER SHUTOFF 

First make certain that the shelter water storage tank and 
other water containers are full. Then shutoff the main outside 
water supply valve to the house and shelter, and drain the house 
water lines. If the house was designed with this contingency in mind 
the drain problem will be simple. The house water supply lines 
would be at their lowest point in the secondary shelter in the base- 
ment. A faucet type drain valve incorporated in the line at its 

WATER SUPPLY SCHEMATIC GUIDE 



STREET 
SECONDARY SHELTER 



PRIMARY SHELTER 




Shutoff Valves 



lowest point would permit easy drainage and when drained, rapid 
closure of the valve without tools. Drained water could be caught 
in plastic containers and saved for shelter use. Turn off the water 
tank and heater supply to the residence. The next step may be 
taken when convenient. Turn on the valve connecting the shelter 
water storage tank to the shelter water system. 13.51 

ELECTRICITY SHUTOFF TO THE HOUSE 

Switch off the main public utility electricity to the house. 
Shutoff the fuel oil supply to the oil burner and make certain the 
fuel supply to the generator is assured. Since under normal con- 
ditions it may be desirable to use the oil burner and the generator 
at the same time, the control valve should be a three-way type. The 
third position would permit fuel supply to the oil burner and gen- 
erator simultaneously. The generator should be wired with a relay 
so that it would automatically cut in when outside power fails and 
would shut off when public utility current is restored. There should 
be a separate switch for shutting down the generator when it is 
not needed. All switch and control actions should be practiced 
frequently until all prospective shelter occupants are thoroughly 
familiar with them. 13.52 

AIR SHUTOFF 

All air intake and exhaust ports should be kept closed and 
secured at all times before actual shelter use, except when par- 
ticipating in shelter use drills. This eliminates the possibility of 
forgetting to close the ports during an actual nuclear attack. The 
port may be opened at any time after an attack if circumstances 
permit. If all shelter doors are kept open in normal times there 
will be enough fresh air circulating. Leaving the doors open also 
allows faster entrance to the shelter in an emergency. It will only 
be necessary to close the doors as you pass into the shelters. 
Ample air for many hours will be available even with the shelter 
' 'buttoned up." The generator needs air to operate. It cannot be 
used with inlet and exhaust ports closed. There will probably be 
utility electricity right up to the instant of nuclear attack and 
possibly afterwards, depending on geographical location and other 
factors. 13.53 



GENERATOR ELECTRIC CURRENT DRAW 

A safety margin of at least 10 percent of the capacity should 
be maintained when using a generator. A 4000 watt generator 
should not service appliances or outlets drawing more than 3600 

133 



watts. The available or useable current should be enough to cover 
all appliances, equipment and outlets in normal use plus the largest 
single cooking appliance. Of course the two heaviest current users, 
the radiant wall heater and the water heater should have separate 
switches and should be turned on only by switch when enough of 
the other appliances are not in use. The two heaters should not be 
on automatic (thermostatic) control. 13.54 



PRIMARY SHELTER ELECTRIC CONTROL PANEL 


PRIMARY SHELTER SWITCHES 


LIVING AREA-CONTINUOUSLY 


GENERATOR AREA 




"ON" 






wra 


G Battery charger 


100* 


G "NEAR" ALARM 10* 


G Motor blower 


200* 


G Electro-luminescent light 10* 


G Light 


100 


G Lights 300* 


G Generator 




G Deepfreeze 300* 






G Radio 80* 








AIR INTAKE AREA 




LIVING AREA-INTERMITTENT 






"ON" 


G Motor blower 


200 




G Light 


100 


G TV 260 


G Precipitator 


60 


G Dehumidifier 240 






G Air purifier 100 






G Sewage ejector 130 


WATER TANK AREA 




LIVING AREA-OCCASIONALLY 


G Light 


100 


"ON" 


G Well pump 


340 


G Toaster 1110 






G Hot plate 1250 






G Fry pan 1250 


G Wall radiant heater 


1300 


G Auxiliary outlets 


G Water heater 





SECONDARY SHELTER SWITCHES 


G Radio 80 G Range (2 burners) 


2500 


G Lights 200 G Refrigeration 


250 


G Food preparation G Rotisserie 


1250 


G Auxiliary outlet G Auxiliary 





G SHELTER LOCK MASTER SWITCH 




G SECONDARY SHELTER MASTER SWITCH 




G PRIMARY SHELTER MASTER SWITCH 




G RESIDENCE MASTER SWITCH 





Guide 13.54 

134 



To effectively use the available current, a chart showing 
appliance current draw may be used. Such a chart (or control 
panel) for the shelter described in this manual, is shown in Guide 
13.54. The appliances or equipment marked with an asterisk (*) 
are "on" continuously when the main utility or generator power 
is available. This does not mean that they will necessarily draw 
current all the time. For example, the battery charger will only 
draw current when the battery needs charging; the deepfreeze 
will be on and off in cycles. Appliances listed on the chart as inter- 
mittent would be turned on frequently. Other appliances would be 
used occasionally at most once or twice a day. 13.55 

By totaling all appliance current draws shown in Guide 13.54, 
except the cooking appliances and wall and water heaters, it will 
be noted that the current draw totals 2630 watts. This 2630 watt 
current draw plus the 1250 watts for the fry pan or toaster totals 
3880 watts and indicates a 5000 watt (5kw) generator since it is 
too close to 4000 watts to provide an adequate safety margin. For 
practical purposes a 4000 watt generator would be satisfactory. It 
would be most unusual for lights to be on in the generator, air 
intake and water tank areas while at the same time the well pump, 
motor blower and both precipitator and air purifier were in use. 
The TV would probably not be operating after a nuclear attack 
and few people would have a precipitator and an air purifier. It 
would be a simple matter to arrange power use in such a manner 
as to make the simultaneous use of these units practically impos- 
sible. These examples are shown as a guide to the type of planning 
necessary. 13.56 



135 



CHAPTER 14 

General Food Information 

There will be many problems concerning survival shelter 
food. Some can be anticipated. Others are unforeseeable. They will 
vary from one family to another and from one location to another. 
The food that will be stored will depend largely on size of family, 
religion, geographical location, eating habits, money and space 
available. One thing is certain, there are at least three staples 
which will not be available during, and shortly after, a nuclear 
attack. 14.01 

UNAVAILABLE FOOD 

The following conditions will probably prevail in the event of 
a nuclear attack and its immediate and intermediate (90 days to 2 
years) aftermath. Fresh milk will be impossible to obtain and 
either canned evaporated or dry powdered milk must be substi- 
tuted. Fresh eggs, for which there is no home substitute available, 
are another food staple that will be scarce in most parts of our 
country. However, chickens have a great tolerance for radiation 
and fresh eggs will probably be one of the first staples available 
after a nuclear attack. The third staple missing from our diet will 
be butter. There is no easily storable substitute for butter as a 
spread. For cooking purposes vegetable shortening or bacon grease 
may be used. 14.02 

For some time after a nuclear attack these fresh foods will 
be scarce or completely unavailable: meats, fowl, seafood, vege- 
tables, fruits and eggs. Since most of these may be obtained 
as canned foods, no insurmountable problem exists in this 
respect. 14.03 

SELECTING FOOD 

There are several useful rules to keep in mind when shopping 
for shelter food supplies. Buy only foods that would be enjoyed 
under normal conditions whenever possible. This is much easier 
on shelter occupants who will be under emotional stress. It also 
enables the family to eat the food regularly and thus rotate the 
more perishable foods such as frozen vegetables, frozen meats, pack- 
aged sugar, flour and crackers as well as the canned foods. All food 
bought for shelter use should be dated when purchased to simplify 
rotation. Buy the same quality food that would ordinarily be used. 

137 



In a shelter under attack no one will be in a mood to experiment 
with new, economical or strange foods. 14.04 

When buying shelter food select the proper size containers 
for the family to be fed. Careful selection will help eliminate left- 
overs that might be difficult to preserve. For example, don't buy 
large cans of food for two people or small cans for a family of six. 
Buy foods in case lots for convenient storage and watch the 
specials. 14.05 

FOOD PREPARATION 

All foods to be prepared and eaten in the primary shelter 
should require no more than plain heating or at most heating in 
water. When the family can safely go into the secondary shelter, 
broiling, roasting and baking may be attempted. This would only 
be feasible in the absence of imminent attack when electricity or 
wood and suitable food and additional adequate ventilation were 
available. 14.06 



NEW COMMERCIAL FROZEN FOOD STORAGE SYSTEM 

A new process "Liquifreeze" developed for use by transporta- 
tion companies, keeps "in transit" foods such as frozen meat, vege- 
tables and other foods safe for periods up to thirty days. It is not 
presently available for home use. Food to be kept frozen is sprayed 
with liquid nitrogen. A device automatically sprays the food when 
the temperature approaches a preselected point. The food is cooled 
to one hundred twenty degrees below zero (f). If and when a home 
unit is marketed, frozen foods may be kept really deep frozen for 
a month or more without electricity. The commercial unit is so 
small that it fits on top of a highway trailer and is supplied by 
cylinders of liquid nitrogen. Since gaseous nitrogen is inert, and 
the spray device works within a closed container, it should be 
safe. 14.07 



SEQUENCE OF FOOD USE 
FRESH FOOD 

When planning menus for a survival shelter it is sensible to 
use whatever food is available in a logical order. It would not be 
wise to prepare canned foods when fresh vegetables were available. 
All fresh vegetables, fruits, meats arid bread, etc., would be served 
first. If this is not done they may spoil or become stale. Even fresh 
fruits and vegetables that have been subjected to radioactivity may 
be eaten if properly prepared. They should be well scrubbed and 

138 



peeled to remove the contaminated outer skin or leaves. Absorbent 
type foods such as cauliflower or broccoli cannot be decontami- 
nated in this manner. They must be discarded by burial. 14.08 

FOODS IN DEEPFREEZE 

All food in the deepfreeze may and probably will be subject 
to interrupted electrical service. If the deepfreeze is kept tightly 
closed, even without electricity, most of the food can be cooked 
and eaten a week or more after the electricity shut-off. Thawed 
foods may be prepared in advance for another few days. Good food 
management could permit living out of the deepfreeze for about 
two weeks after electric supply failure. 14.09 

CANNED AND LONG SHELF LIFE FOODS 

Canned and dehydrated foods, bought for use when the 
dangers of nuclear attack and resulting radiation have passed, are 
used last. This food would be eaten in the intermediate period after 
the attacks but before normal productivity and distribution facili- 
ties are available. It would probably be prepared in the secondary 
shelter. 14.10 



FOOD PREPARATION SUGGESTIONS 

It is unlikely that electricity or other heat energy suitable for 
food preparation will be abundant in a survival shelter during the 
first crucial few days after an attack. It should be conserved. As 
much food as necessary should be prepared as quickly as possible 
for any one meal. If and when electricity is available heat enough 
water for coffee, tea or cocoa and soups to cover needs for the 
entire day's menu. Then store these liquids in vacuum bottles or 
jugs until used. A small night light should be kept plugged into an 
easily observable electric outlet. It uses little power and will alert 
occupants to the availability of electrical power. 14.11 

UTILIZATION OF CANS AND CARTONS 

A good sturdy wall type can opener should be used to open 
cans with a clean cut, folded under edge. Save the can tops. 
Cans may be used in emergencies for drinking purposes; water, 
coffee, tea or soup. Use care in drying them thoroughly after 
each use. 14.12 

Empty cans may be filled with refuse. The refuse laden cans 
may be covered by the original lid using the widest size masking 

139 



tape available (up to three inch width). Place the can top first on 
the gummed side of the tape then place the lid on the can and tape 
is securely in place. This will seal in odors. 14.13 

These sealed refuse cans should then be repacked into their 
original cartons and the cartons resealed with masking tape. They 
may then be discarded outside the shelter (13.48) as soon as con- 
ditions permit. Cartons should be opened with care to permit their 
use in this manner. 14.14 



PRIMARY SHELTER FOOD 

Food recommended for use in the primary shelter was selected 
because, in most cases, it could be eaten cold in an emergency. 
Canned ham, canned bread and chow mein are good examples of 
this planning. 14.15 



SECONDARY SHELTER FOOD 

Food suggested for use in the secondary shelter usually re- 
quires more preparation and more involved cooking. For instance, 
packaged macaroni and spaghetti both requiring cooking in 
precious water and the use of sauces. Obviously they would not be 
too suitable for primary shelter use. 14.16 



SERVING FOOD 

Heat and moisture resistant plastic coated paper plates, cups 
and bowls should be used for survival shelter food service. It is best 
to try out the type which may be used in the shelter before buying 
a supply. Good water would be wasted washing dishes, especially 
under nuclear attack conditions. Fresh plates may be required for 
each meal, but if they are not too soiled they may be cleaned and 
reused several times. 14.17 

Carefully used cups may be reused a number of times. Here's 
how. After draining the last drop of coffee or tea, drink half a cup 
of water. This will help satisfy water intake requirements and 
freshen the cup for further use, at least for the rest of the day. 
When a cup has been used for a hot liquid, make certain it is still 
strong enough to hold another hot liquid. If not, use it for cold 
water or cereals. To insure that each member of the family reuses 
the same cup, plate or bowl, buy them in different colors or designs 
and assign a color or design to each shelter occupant. 14.18 

140 



KITCHEN UTENSILS FOR SHELTER USE 

There are certain kitchen utensils and other items of kitchen 
equipment that are absolutely essential. Other utensils are very 
convenient. All are listed in guide 14.19 as a reminder. Unless 
otherwise specified, all utensils should be stainless steel if possible. 
The plastic dishes listed are for use after the attack but before our 
country returns to a nearly normal status. They are unbreakable 
and therefore safe. 14.19 



KITCHEN UTENSILS 

Quantity Item Quantity 

1. 2 2 qt. saucepans 22. 1 

2. 2 rubber spatulas 23. 1 

3. 1 combination bottle opener 24. 2 

4. 1 salt shaker 25. 1 

5. 1 pepper shaker 26. 1 

6. 1 sugar bowl 27. 1 

7. 1 8 inch iron skillet 28. 8 

8. 1 large cooking spoon 29. 8 

9. 1 large kitchen fork 30. 8 

10. 1 large kitchen knife 31. 16 

11. 1 small kitchen knife 32. 2 

12. 1 graduated mixing cup 33. 8 

13. 1 nest mixing bowls 34. 8 

14. 1 pressure cooker 35. 8 

15. 1 stainless steel pitcher 36. 8 

16. 1 large pr. kitchen tweezers 37. 8 

17. 1 grease can w/strainer top 38. 2 

18. 1 candle holder for heating 39. 1 

19. 1 can opener (wall mounted) 

20. 1 can opener (hand type) 40. 1 

21. 1 Hibachi charcoal grill 



Item 

carving set 
pair kitchen scissors 
small vacuum bottles 
large vacuum jug 
funnel 

vegetable peeler 
table knives 
table forks 
soup spoons 
teaspoons 
serving spoons 
salad forks 
plastic cups 
plastic saucers 
plastic dinner plates 
plastic soup bowls 
plastic serving bowls 
large plastic garbage 
pail w/cover 
large old fashioned 
iron pot w/handle 



Guide 14.19 



KITCHEN SUPPLIES FOR SHELTER USE 

While the kitchen supplies listed in guide 14.20 are mostly for 
use in the primary shelter, many of these or similar items will also 
be needed in the secondary shelter after the critical nuclear attack 
period. This becomes a matter of personal decision. The items listed 
represent one months supply for a family of two or three as 
captioned. 14.20 



141 



KITCHEN SUPPLIES FOR PRIMARY SHELTER 

One Month Supply Family Size 

Item & Type 2 People 3 People 

1. Paper plates plasticized moisture & heat resistant 120 180 

2. Paper cups and dispenser (9oz) moisture & heat 

resistant 120 180 

3. Paper bowls moisture & heat resistant 60 90 

4. Paper towels (rolls) 2 3 

5. Paper napkins 180 270 

6. Aluminum foil (rolls) 2 3 

7. Sponges 1 2 

8. Saran wrap 1 2 

9. Hot pad holders 1 2 

10. Chore boys 1 2 

11. Detergent (plastic bottle) 1 2 

12. Candles (for light) 30 30 

13. Candles (for heat) 10 15 

14. Dish towels (cotton) 2 3 

15. Twine (balls) 2 2 

16. Cleanser 1 2 

17. Solidified alcohol 15 20 

Avoid the use of glass containers whenever possible. 

Guide 14.20 



SECONDARY SHELTER FOODS 

Meat & Seafood (canned) Miscellaneous 

1. Bacon 15. Au gratin potatoes 

2. Corned beef hash 16. Spaghetti (packaged) 

3. Sausages 17. Macaroni (packaged) 

4. Meat balls 18. Buckwheat mix 

5. Chili con carne 19. Canned cheese 

6. Tamales 20. Tomatoes 

7. Chipped beef 21. Brown bread 

8. Salmon steaks 22. Flour 

9. Crab meat 23. Relish 

10. Shrimp 24. Maple syrup 

11. Clams 25. Oatmeal 

12. Oysters 26. Various hot cereals 

13. Smoked bologna 27. Baby foods (as indicated) 

14. Country cured ham 

Guide 14.21 

142 



SECONDARY SHELTER FOODS 

There are many delicious canned foods on the market which 
for one reason or another are not deemed suitable for the limited 
facilities of a primary shelter. However in the period between the 
close, mandatory confinement in the primary shelter and before 
food supplies return to normal there will be occasions when the 
family would enjoy a change of diet. The foods shown in guide 14.21 
can be stored, prepared and served in the secondary shelter with 
its expanded cooking facilities. The amount of each listed food to 
be bought is left to one's discretion. Of course, all food listed for 
primary shelter use can also be served in the secondary shelter. 
It might be sensible to keep a few packages of vegetable seeds in 
the shelter for a do-it-yourself post war project. 14.21 



143 



CHAPTER 15 

Primary Shelter Menus 

CALORIE INTAKE 



Shelter occupants need a well balanced diet with a proper 
calorie intake. Equally important is the need for tasteful, pleasant 
food. For this reason all purpose wafer type nutrition has been 
rejected here as a basis for shelter feeding. An inactive adult can 
easily live on 1500 calories per day. One authority states that an 
inactive adult can live on half of that or 10,000 calories for two 
weeks. The menus in this section of the manual are designed to 
supply a well balanced diet with an average intake of 2000 calories 
per day. 15.01 



MEAL TIME CYCLES 

These menus are planned for a ten day cycle with different 
food every meal, every day for ten days. At the end of ten days 
the cycle may be repeated. These are suggested menus subject 
to change or improvement according to personal tastes. All food 
stocks have been figured generously so that the food supply could 
be stretched considerably without starving anyone. The shop- 
ping lists are based on the theory that it is better to have too 
much than too little. All foods should be stored in a cool dry 
location. 15.02 



SELECTION OF FOOD 

Foods for shelter use were selected not only on the basis of 
nutrition value but also because they have almost universal appeal 
to the American appetite. Other foods which might be interesting 
to fewer families were listed under "Secondary Shelter Foods" 
(14.21). All foods selected for either shelter have one thing in 
common; they do not require refrigeration. Primary shelter foods 
were limited to those items of the heat and eat type. One point to 
watch, be sure to get the two pound canned ham that does not 
require refrigeration. Some canned hams do need refrigeration. 
Do not under any circumstances discard liquids canned with 
vegetables or fruits, etc. This valuable source of shelter liquid 
could safely sustain life for weeks in a dire emergency. 15.03 

145 



COST OF MEALS 

The average cost of all food on the following menus is about 
35 cents per person per meal. All stored foods should be clearly 
dated so that food may be rotated to insure a fresh supply always 
available in the shelter. Place all packaged foods in polyethylene 
bags and tape or heat seal them for protection from moisture, etc. 
This should be done preferably on a day when the humidity is very 
low. This would not be necessary if food packers would can several 
staple food items. Some of the main staples that should be available 
canned are: sugar, flour, rice, salt, butter, pancake mix, dry 
cereals, au gratin potatoes and dehydrated eggs. The menus in this 
section provide for about 20 ounces or VA pounds of food per 
person per day. It is easy to figure the total weight of all the food 
to be stored in the shelter; 1 : 4 pounds x occupants x days supply 
of food. 15.04 

BREAKFAST 

All cereals are eaten with evaporated milk diluted by equal 
parts of water. This milk is also used with coffee, tea and cocoa, 
unless instant hot chocolate is used. Milk for drinking is prepared 
from evaporated milk in the same proportion. Some of the cereals 
listed are made with a sugar coating and do not need additional 
sugar. Breakfast servings allow for about 4 ounces of fruit 
juice, 2 ounces of cereal, 8 crackers and 2 ounces of jam or jelly. 
Coffee, tea, milk, cocoa or hot chocolate are included in every 
breakfast. 15.05 

BREAKFAST MENU 



Day 


Juice 


Cereal 


Supplement 


Jam with 
Soda Crackers 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Pineapple 
Orange apricot 
Grapefruit 
Prune 
Orange 
Apricot nectar 
Pear nectar 
Grape juice 
Apple juice 
Tomato 


Cheerios 
Cornflakes 
Grapenuts 
Wheaties 
Shredded wheat 
Grapenut flakes 
Rice Krispies 
Sugar pops 
Frosted flakes 
Raisin bran 


Grape 
Elderberry 
Orange marmalade 
Strawberry 
Peach 
Currant 
Plum 
Crabapple 
Raspberry 
Cherry 



Guide 15.05 

LUNCH 

Lunch consists of hot soup, a light supplement and coffee, tea, 

146 



milk, cocoa or hot chocolate. Every third day, or oftener, a meat, 
chicken, fish supplement or spread is planned. Lunch servings allow 
for 5 or 6 ounces of soup, 2 or 3 ounces of supplement (depending 
on type of supplement) and 6 or 8 Ritz type crackers. Deviled 
ham or boned chicken would not be served in the same size por- 
tion as, for instance, applesauce. 15.06 

LUNCH MENU 



Day 


Soup 


Supplement Ritz Crackers And: 


1 


Clam chowder 


Apple butter 


2 


Chicken noodle 


Whole cranberries 


3 


Bean and bacon 


Deviled ham 


4 


Lentil 


Peanut butter 


5 


Vegetable 


Applesauce 


6 


Mushroom 


Boned chicken 


7 


Pea 


Jellied cranberries 


8 


Minestrone 


Tuna fish 


9 


Pepper pot 


Cheddar cheese dip 


10 


Cream of chicken 


Sardines (skinless & boneless) 


Guide 15.06 






DINNER 



Dinner, of course, is the main meal in the shelter as it is in 
normal everyday life. It should be served and eaten in as normal a 
manner as possible. The pychological effect on the entire family 
will be well worth the trouble. The menus may be switched if per- 
sonal religious observances are better served by so doing. Dinner 
servings are based on 6 to 8 ounces of entree, 4 ounces of each 
vegetable and 4 ounces of dessert. Coffee, tea, milk, cocoa or hot 
chocolate are also served. 15.07 

DINNER MENU 



Day Entree 


Vegetables 


Dessert 


1 Chicken a la king 


Rice Green beans 


Peaches 


2 Ham (canned) 


Mashed pot Corn 


Pineapple 


3 Beef stew 


Small pot Carrots 


Vanilla pudding 


4 Chicken stew 


Rice Succotash 


Plums 


5 Salmon 


Mashed pot Peas 


Pears 


6 Meatballs 


Spaghetti Asparagus 


Gelatin (raspberry) 


7 Frankfurters 


Beets Baked beans 


Apricots 


8 Chicken chowmein 


Fried noodles Lima beans 


Cherries 


9 Lamb stew 


Spanish rice Spinach 


Chocolate pudding 


10 Pork loin 


Sweet pot Applesauce 


Fruit cocktail 




Guide 15.07 






147 





SHOPPING LIST FOR PRIMARY SHELTER MENUS 

To implement these breakfast, lunch and dinner menus it is 
necessary to break down all meals into components and then calcu- 
late the requirements for each size family. This has been done and 
the list of food needed is shown in guides 15.08 and 15.08A. The 
third column "ounces per portion" gives the basic food allowance 
used. The fourth and fifth columns show the amount of each item 
required by a family of two or three using the foregoing menus 
for one month. To ascertain the amount of food required by a 
family of four just double the amount for a family of two. To 
figure the needs for a family of five, add the amounts for a family 
of two and a family of three, etc. To find the amount needed by a 
family of three for six months, multiply the one month supply by 
six. Several items such as rice, instant mashed potatoes and apple- 
sauce are listed more than once since they appear on the ten day 
menus more than once. 15.08 



SHOPPING LIST FOR PRIMARY SHELTER MENUS 



Item No. 


Food 


Ounces 
Per Portion 


Ounces of Food 
for One Month 
Family of 
2 3 


1 


Pineapple juice 


4 


24 


36 


2 


Orange apricot juice 


4 


24 


36 


3 


Grapefruit juice 


4 


24 


36 


4 


Prune juice 


4 


24 


36 


5 


Orange juice 


4 


24 


36 


6 


Apricot nectar 


4 


24 


36 


7 


Pear nectar 


4 


24 


36 


8 


Grape juice 


4 


24 


36 


9 


Apple juice 


4 


24 


36 


10 


Tomato juice 


4 


24 


36 


11 


Cheerios 


2 


12 


18 


12 


Corn flakes 


2 


12 


18 


13 


Grapenuts 


2 


12 


18 


14 


Wheaties 


2 


12 


18 


15 


Shredded wheat 


2 


12 


18 


16 


Grapenut flakes 


2 


12 


18 


17 


Rice -Krispies 


2 


12 


18 


18 


Sugar pops 


2 


12 


18 


19 


Frosted flakes 


2 


12 


18 


20 


Raisin bran 


2 


12 


18 


21 


Grape jelly 


2 


12 


18 


22 


Elderberry jelly 


2 


12 


18 


23 


Orange marmalade 


2 


12 


18 



148 



24 Strawberry jam 2 12 18 

25 Peach preserves 2 12 18 

26 Currant jelly 2 12 18 

27 Plum preserves 2 12 18 

28 Crabapple jelly 2 12 18 

29 Red raspberry jam 2 12 18 

30 Cherry preserves 2 12 18 

31 Clam chowder 6 36 54 

32 Chicken noodle soup 6 36 54 

33 Bean & Bacon soup 6 36 54 

34 Lentil soup 6 36 54 

35 Vegetable soup 6 36 54 

36 Mushroom soup 6 36 54 

37 Pea soup 6 36 54 

38 Minestrone soup 6 36 54 

39 Pepper pot soup 6 36 54 

40 Cream of chicken soup 6 36 54 

41 Applebutter 3 18 27 

42 Whole cranberries 3 1 8 27 

43 Deviled ham 2 12 18 

44 Peanut butter 2 12 18 

45 Applesauce 3 18 27 

46 Boned chicken 2 12 18 

47 Jellied cranberries 3 18 27 

48 Tuna fish 2 12 18 

49 Instant cheddar dip 2 12 18 

50 Sardines 2 12 18 

51 Chicken a la king 6 36 54 

52 Ham (canned whole) 6 36 54 

53 Beef stew 6 36 54 

54 Chicken stew 6 36 54 

55 Salmon 6 36 54 

56 Spaghetti & meat balls 8 48 72 

57 Frankfurters 6 36 54 

58 Chicken chow mein 8 48 72 

59 Lamb stew 6 36 54 

60 Pork loin 6 36 54 

61 Minute rice 2 12 18 

62 Instant mashed potatoes 4 24 36 

63 Whole potatoes 4 24 36 

64 Minute rice 2 12 18 

65 Instant mashed potatoes 4 24 36 

66 Beets 4 24 36 

67 Fried noodles 2 12 18 

68 Spanish rice 4 24 36 

69 Sweet potatoes 4 24 36 

70 Green beans 4 24 36 

149 



Item No. 


Food 


Ounces 
Per Portion 


Ounces of Food 
for One Month 
Family of 
2 3 


71 


Corn (kernalettes) 


4 


24 36 


72 


Carrots 


4 


24 36 


73 


Succotash 


4 


24 36 


74 


Peas 


4 


24 36 


75 


Asparagus 


4 


24 36 


76 


Baked beans 


4 


24 36 


77 


Lima beans 


4 


24 36 


78 


Spinach (chopped) 


4 


24 36 


79 


Applesauce 


4 


24 36 


80 


Peaches 


4 


24 36 


81 


Pineapple 


4 


24 36 


82 


Vanilla pudding 


3 


18 27 


83 


Plums 


4 


24 36 


84 


Pears 


4 


24 36 


85 


Gelatin (raspberry) 


3 


18 27 


86 


Apricots 


4 


24 36 


87 


Cherries 


4 


24 36 


88 


Chocolate pudding 


3 


18 27 


89 


Fruit cocktail 


4 


24 36 



Guide 15.08 

CONDIMENTS, STAPLES, COFFEE, TEA, ETC. FOR SHELTER 

Certain foods are difficult, if not impossible, to plan for on a 
per person basis. These items must be obtained for use with the 
menus and are actually a continuation of the "Shopping List" 
(15.08). There are probably some foods which your family likes 
that are not on this list. By all means include them if they do not 
require refrigeration or extensive preparation. Vary amounts to 
suit individual tastes. 15.08A 

Ounces of Food for One Month 

Family of 
Item No. Food 2 3 



90 


Evaporated milk 


240 


360 


91 


Sugar 


120 


180 


92 


Soda crackers 


100 


150 


93 


Ritz crackers 


100 


150 


94 


Salt 


16 


16 


95 


Pepper 


4 


4 


96 


Mustard 


6 


6 


97 


Ketchup 


28 


42 


98 


Coffee (instant) 


48 


72 


99 


Tea 


24 


36 



150 



100 Hot chocolate 

101 Mayonnaise 

102 Chocolate syrup (for children) 

103 Canned candy 

104 Canned nuts 

105 Brown bread 

106 Date nut bread 

107 Canned bread (white, raisin, rye, etc.) 

Guide 15.08A 



16 



24 



EMERGENCY TRAVEL FOOD 

There is always a possibility that one or more of the shelter 
occupants must leave the shelter for a few days or longer due to a 
dire emergency. The following kit is planned to feed one person 
for two weeks or four people for four days. It is not intended to 
do more than sustain life until the traveler can return to the 
shelter. All of the food may be eaten hot or cold while on the go. 
The entire supply can be packed easily into one medium sized 
carton and sealed. The approximate weight is 25 pounds. 15.09 



EMERGENCY TRAVEL FOOD 



No. Quantity Item 



No. Quantity Item 



1 


1 


Small saucepan 


17 


1 


1 Ib. can chicken stew 


2 


1 


Sterno stove 


18 


4 


3 oz. cans tuna fish 


3 


3 


Cans sterno 


19 


4 


6 oz. cans boned 


4 


15 


Books matches 






chicken 


5 


10 


Plastic spoons 


20 


1 


15oz. can frankfur- 


6 


10 


Plastic forks 






ters 


7 


14 


Paper cups 


21 


1 


13 oz. can chicken 






(plasticized) 






a la king 


8 


14 


Paper plates 


22 


2 


7 oz. cans corn 






(plasticized) 


23 


2 


7 oz. cans peas 


9 


1 


Can opener 


24 


2 


7 oz. cans string beans 


10 


16 


Tea bags 


25 


2 


7 oz. cans spinach 


11 


1 


Can instant coffee 


26 


2 


7 oz. cans baked 


12 


2 


Cans evaporated 






beans 






milk (small) 


27 


2 


7 oz. cans carrots 


13 


60 


Individual sugar 


28 


2 


7 oz. cans lima beans 






packs 


29 


3 


Packages soda 


14 


1 


Salt shaker 






crackers or saltines 


15 


2 


8 oz. cans beef stew 


30 


6 


Packages dehydrated 


16 


1 


Can spaghetti and 






chicken soup 






meatballs 












Guide 


15.09 






151 



CHAPTER 16 

Shelter Equipment And Supplies 



No one knows just what the condition of a post nuclear war 
world would be. Many items listed here and elsewhere in this 
manual may seem out of place. They would be if shelter occupants 
could be sure that they would spend two weeks in a shelter and 
then come out to find their home and its contents intact and un- 
damaged. Remember, the equipment and supplies taken into 
the shelter and the shelter itself may be the only material posses- 
sions shelter occupants would have when they emerge to face 
the future. 16.01 



PERSONAL SANITARY NEEDS 

There are certain personal sanitary and grooming supplies 
that everyone uses; tooth brushes, tooth paste, soap and toilet 
paper are examples. Other supplies are used specifically by men 
or women. In addition, individuals have certain items which they 
prefer to use. Most of these classes of needs are listed in guide 16.02 
which list may be expanded by adding individual specific re- 
quirements. 16.02 



PERSONAL SANITARY NEEDS 



1. 


Toothbrushes 


16. 


Shaving soap 


2. 


Toothpaste 


17. 


Shaving brush 


3. 


Toilet soap 


18. 


Nail clippers 


4. 


Dental tape 


19. 


Bobby pins 


5. 


Combs 


20. 


Hair nets 


6. 


Hair brushes 


21. 


Hair combs 


7. 


Whisk broom 


22. 


Hair pins 


8. 


Hand brushes 


23. 


Cold cream 


9. 


Shampoo 


24. 


Face lotion 


10. 


Deodorants 


25. 


Lipstick 


11. 


Hair oil 


26. 


Pumice stone 


12. 


Pair manual hair clippers 


27. 


Waterless soap 


13. 


Nail files 


28. 


Toilet paper 


14. 


Safety razor 


29. 


Kleenex 


15. 


Razor blades 


30. 


Sponges 




Guide 16.02 








153 







SHELTER HOUSEKEEPING SUPPLIES 

A list of essential supplies, including some items that are just 
plain handy to have on hand, is appended (16.03) for use as a 
checklist. The family must decide which of these items to stock 
and how many of each. No one can do more than make suggestions. 
If an encyclopedia is available, it would be a very interesting and 
informative asset in the shelter. 16.03 

SHELTER HOUSEKEEPING SUPPLIES 

1. Masking tape 22. 1 mop 

2. Scotch tape 23. Sheets 

3. Rubber bands 24. Towels 

4. Button assortment 25. Pillow cases 

5. Book matches 26. Face cloths 

6. 1 mirror 27. Soap powder 

7. 1 calendar 28. 3 assorted zippers 

8. 4 dozen pencils 29. Thimble 

9. Writing paper 30. Pillows 

10. Heat applied patch assortment 31. Chairs 

11. Household oil 32. Dust pan 

12. Sewing needles 33. Blankets 

13. Thread 34. Playing cards 

14. 2 lighters 35. Glue 

15. 6 cans lighter fluid 36. Disinfectant 

16. 6 spare light bulbs 37. Old newspapers (for wrapping) 

17. 1 spare night light bulb 38. Old magazines (for reading) 

18. Old fashioned iron 39. White coveralls for each 

19. Straight pins occupant 

20. Safety pins 40. Chess set and board 

21. 1 broom 41. Checkers 

Guide 16.03 



HARDWARE SUPPLIES 

A suggested list of hand tools for equipping a shelter is in- 
cluded in guide 11.55 under the chapter heading "Essentials for 
Survival." Most of the hardware supplies listed below have obvious 
uses. For instance, putty and sealing graphite for plugging cracks 
or holes and nails or screws for making minor repairs. Two items 
listed are very important ; yellow and red lumber marking crayons. 
When searching through the debris of collapsed houses, etc. a red 
X mark means there is danger of further collapse. A yellow X 
means "this location has been searched." For some obscure reason 
it is called a "giraffe mark." 16.04 

154 



HARDWARE SUPPLIES 



1. Nails 11. Manufacturers recommended spare 

2. Wood screws parts for generator 

3. Sheet metal screws 12. Manufacturers recommended spare 

4. Nuts and bolts parts for blower 

5. Concrete rawl plugs 13. Manufacturers recommended spare 

6. Electric insulating tape parts for chain saw 

7. Fuses for electrical system 14. Yellow and red lumber marking 

8. Sealing graphite crayons 

9. 100 empty burlap bags ]5 Solder and flux 
for sandbagging (60 Ib. 

bags) 16 ' Wood P utf y 

10. Sakcrete 17. Glaziers putty 

Guide 16.04 



PORTABLE MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL 
EQUIPMENT 

Most of the fixed type mechanical equipment, such as the 
motor blower, etc., to be used in the shelter is listed in Chapter 13. 
There are six items, necessary or useful, that should be in the 
shelter. Four are mechanical and two electrical. The mechanical 
items are: 

1. A 20 ton hydraulic jack for moving heavy debris. 

2. A 5 ton screw jack for moving debris. 

3. A bicycle for rapid emergency transportation. 

4. A liquid fueled power chain saw and a fuel supply. 
The chain saw would be extremely useful for felling trees and 

sawing firewood when outside radioactivity has decayed suffi- 
ciently. The fuel supply, in a safe container, should be either buried 
outside the shelter or possibly stored in the shelter lock. 16.05 

The two electrical items are the electric dehumidifier and the 
storage battery charger that were described in Chapter 13. Both 
pieces of equipment are extremely important and relatively inex- 
pensive. It should be noted once again that humidity can be one 
of the most annoying hazards in a shelter. 16.06 

GENERAL PURPOSE EQUIPMENT 
AND SUPPLIES 

There are many items that should be placed in a shelter. Some 
of these are difficult to classify. They are grouped here under 
the heading "General Purpose Equipment." All items listed have 
obvious uses. 16.07 

155 



GENERAL PURPOSE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES 



1. Flashlights 

2. Flashlight batteries 

3. Portable radio 

4. Radio batteries 

5. Radiation detector 

6. Batteries for detector 

7. Citizens band radio or walkie 
talkie 

8. Batteries for radio or walkie 
talkie 

9. 3 chemical fire extinguishers 

10. 4244 cubic ft. oxygen cyl- 
inders 

11. 12 25 Ib. pails indicating soda 
lime 

12. Pencil sharpener 

13. 23 way electric sockets 

1 4. 2 extension cords 

15. 1 stapler 

16. 3 boxes refills for stapler 

17. 12 air intake filters 



18. 1 penknife 

19. 1 hunting knife 

20. Fishing line 

21. Fish hooks 

22. 1 waste basket 

23. 1 hunting rifle 

24. Ammunition for rifle 

25. Storage battery 

26. A clock 

27. Identification tags for each 
family member 

28. 1 canteen 

29. 1 adjustable plastic hat 

30. A supply of clean rags 

31. 1 Martindale mask 

32. 1 thermometer 

33. 1 Bible 

34. Pair of dosimeters for each 
shelter occupant 

35. 1 reading device for dosi- 
meters 



Guide 16.07 



156 



CHAPTER 17 

General Radiation Information 

RADIATION DETECTORS 

Radiation measurement devices may be divided into two 
general types; survey meters and dosimeters. Survey meters are 
calibrated in roentgens per hour (r/hr) and dosimeters in 
roentgens (r). The term roentgen relates to the effect of radiation 
on air. The equivalent term relating to the effect of radiation on 
human tissue is the "rem" or roentgen equivalent man. Since there 
is a nearly constant relationship between the energy absorbed per 
gram of air and the energy absorbed per gram of tissue over a 
wide range, the term or unit of roentgen is used to measure radia- 
tion damage to tissue. Alpha radiation is not included in overall 
roentgen readings. Beta and gamma types of nuclear radiation are 
included. 17.01 

SURVEY METERS 

Survey meters detect and measure radiation dose rate. When 
survey meters are used to measure contamination of people, food, 
water, equipment and living quarters they must be capable of in- 
dicating very small amounts of radiation. Therefore, survey meters 
with a range of to 50 roentgens per hour should be used for 
this type of survey. 17.02 

If a survey meter is used to measure external radiation, read- 
ings up to 500 roentgens per hour may be necessary and a meter 
with a range of to 500 r/hr should be used. Even a survey meter 
calibrated for this range should be capable of giving indications of 
higher dose rates, otherwise there might not be any way to become 
aware of doses exceeding 500 r/hr. 17.03 

Certain radiation measurement instruments are designed to 
be used in shelters, but to provide dose rate information from points 
outside by means of cables extending to the outside. These meters 
should indicate gamma dose rates up to 1000 r/hr. One such device 
has provisions for four cables which will show outside (or inside) 
radiation levels at four different points (five including the meter). 
The value of such an instrument can scarcely be overestimated. 
Several possible locations for these remote cables in a BOSDEC 
type shelter are mentioned in Chapter 13 (13.27). Other possible 
locations could include the secondary shelter, shelter lock and 
the house overhead. 17.04 

157 



DOSIMETERS 

Dosimeters detect, measure and register total accumulated 
gamma dose. Some direct reading types indicate radiation accumu- 
lations by color changes. Other types consist of film badges with 
a piece of X-ray film in a metal holder. This film is sensitive to 
radiation and when developed by standard methods, film is dark- 
ened in proportion to amount of radiation received. The film is 
compared with various control films from the same lot of film 
that have been exposed to a known amount of radiation. The film 
badge must be worn at all times by the person to whom it is 
assigned. No one else may wear it. It must be developed before it 
can be read. While the total accumulated dose is not known imme- 
diately, the record is permanent. 17.05 

There is another type dosimeter which records radiation when 
electrically charged, starting with zero. Some of these can be read 
by holding them up to the light. Others must be read in a reading 
device designed for this purpose. The electrical type could give 
false readings due to electrical leakage caused by dropping or other 
damage. They are usually worn in pairs. Neither film badge 
nor electrical pocket dosimeters will register alpha radiation. 
This is not important since external alpha exposures are not 
a hazard. 17.06 

NORMAL RADIATION EXPOSURES 

The average person receives about 15 roentgens of nuclear 
radiation in a lifetime from natural sources plus small amounts 
from medical and dental X-rays. A tiny amount may even be ab- 
sorbed from wrist watches. The main sources of this radiation are 
in order of magnitude; medical procedures, natural causes, cosmic 
radiation, fallout from nuclear tests, TV tubes and watch dials, etc. 
and industrial exposures. 17.07 

RADIATION DOSES AND RECOVERY TIMES 

The human body can absorb up to 100 roentgens in a short 
time without any probable immediate ill effects. It can take some 
radiation damage and repair it without serious permanent effect. 
Radiation sickness is not contagious. Occasionally people under 
very severe strain may appear to have the same symptoms. 17.08 

The absorption of 100 to 200 roentgens would cause some 
slight ill effect in most people. The recovery time would be about 
two weeks. However, a dose of 200 to 600 roentgens would cause 
severe illness or death within five to seven weeks. If not fatal, 
recovery time from most of the apparent illness would be about 
ten to sixteen weeks. A whole body dose of over 600 roentgens 

158 



received in a short time would probably be fatal. However, these 
same dosages would not be as dangerous if absorbed over a long 
period. 17.09 



SAFE ROENTGEN DOSAGES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS 

There are four possible ways that radioactive materials can 
get into the body; by breathing, swallowing, breaks in the skin 
and absorption through the skin. Certain radiation exposure dos- 
ages would be unthinkable under normal circumstances and the 
risk considered unacceptable. However, under emergency con- 
ditions these following dosages would be tolerable as a maximal 
limit ; less than 300 roentgens in a lifetime, less than 100 roentgens 
in a month, less than 25 roentgens in one day and less than 10 
roentgens in an hour. 17.10 

EMERGENCY EXCURSIONS FROM SHELTER 

LEAVING SHELTER 

If it ever becomes necessary to leave the shelter under con- 
ditions of substantial but comparatively safe radioactivity, the 
following procedure should be used. First check outside radiation 
dose rate and time. 

1. Dress in old clothes. Put on white coveralls over 
the clothes, overshoes, plastic hat, gloves and 
Martindale mask. 

2. Put the following articles in the coverall pockets 
for emergency use: 

(a) Matches 

(b) Pocketknife 

(c) Bandaids 

(d) Soap 

(e) String 

(f ) Safety pins 

(g) Tissues 
(h) Clean rags 

3. Take a canteen of water. 

4. Seal coveralls as follows: 

(a) Place rubber bands at wrists and ankles. 

(b) Seal wrists and ankles with masking tape. 

(c) Seal pockets with masking tape. 

(d) Seal zipper with masking tape. 

(e ) Wrap rags around shoes and secure with 
heavy rubber bands. 17.11 

159 



RETURNING TO SHELTER 

When returning from emergency excursions outside shelter, 
check carefully elapsed time since leaving and outside radiation 
dose rate. It is especially important to use great care in undressing 
in the "Shelter Lock," washing and removing the Martindale mask. 

1. Before undressing or removing the mask, brush 
off thoroughly or wash down if necessary or pos- 
sible in the shelter lock or outside. This removes 
most of the contamination. 

2. Remove coveralls, outer clothing, hat, boots and 
shoes. 

(a) Keep mask and gloves on while doing this. 

(b) Clothes should be left in "Shelter Lock" for con- 
tamination check later. 

(c) Hold breath and remove mask and then gloves. 
Leave mask and gloves in "Shelter Lock". 

(d) Wash hands thoroughly in cold water paying 
special attention to finger nails. 

(e) Take a cold shower not a bath, using plenty of 
soap. Put on clean clothes. 17.12 



160 



CHAPTER 18 

Emergency Shelter First Aid 

Every home and shelter should have a late edition of the Red 
Cross First Aid Manual. A few simple suggestions, in outline form, 
are listed here for quick reference when a First Aid manual is not 
available. Immediate emergency measures for handling bleeding, 
breathing problems, burns and fractures are outlined. It would be 
worthwhile to memorize these basic first aid procedures. 18.01 

BLEEDING 

To stop bleeding apply pressure at once hard and fast. 

1. Use hands, bandage or clean cloth. 

2. Do not stop to wash wound. 

3. Bring edges of wound together. 

4. Apply pressure for 30 minutes if necessary. 

5. Use tourniquet as last resort unless skilled, 
in its use. 18.02 

BREATHING PROBLEMS 

Remove mucous, debris, food, dentures, any obstruction or 
foreign material from mouth. 

1. If breathing, place head to one side to keep blood or fluids 
from flowing into air passages. 

2. If not breathing, apply mouth to mouth insufflation. 

(a) Tilt head to sword swallower position using 
pillow or blanket under the shoulder. 

(b) Pinch patient's nose shut. 

(c) Place your open mouth over patient's mouth. 

(d) Inhale through nose. 

(e) Exhale into patient's mouth 12 to 16 times per 
minute for adult, 20 times per minute for child. 

(f ) Keep this up for two hours or more. 

(g) Upon revival adjust your breathing rhythm 
to patient's efforts. 18.03 

BURNS 

Light burns (reddening of skin) leave uncovered. 
1. Treat pain with pain relievers or leave alone. 
Deeper burns (blisters and skin destruction) cover with clean 

161 



dressing without ointments or salves. 

1. Don't puncture blisters unless likely to break. 

(a) If necessary make small sterile incision 

at blister edge. 

Severe burns should be handled same as deeper burns. 
1. Patient should drink solution of one teaspoon salt 
in one quart water. One gallon of this solution may 
be drunk in first 24 hours. 18.04 

FRACTURES 

Splint fractures without moving patient. 

1. Firmly support broken limb. 

2. Simple fractures can be recognized by tenderness 
to touch. 

(a) Also by unnatural shape of part. 

(b) By swelling. 

(c) By change in color of skin. 

3. Compound fractures are indicated by broken skin 
and/ or protruding bone. 18.05 

PREGNANCY 

Married couples who are or may become expectant parents 
should have some basic instruction on how to handle an emergency 
delivery. A visit with the family physician or members of a local 
first aid squad should provide much useful information. 18.06 

IDENTIFICATION TAGS 

Each member of a family should have a stainless steel tag to 
be worn at all times for identification purposes. This information 
should be inscribed (preferably engraved) on it 

1. Name 

2. Address 

3. Phone Number 

4. Birth Date 

5. Blood Type 

6. Allergies 

7. Religion 

8. Alternate Address 

9. Social Security No. 

The alternate address would probably be that of a close 
relative. 18.07 



162 



CHAPTER 19 

Basic Nuclear Physics 

ELEMENTAL STRUCTURE 

Practically all materials in our world consist of elements or 
combinations of elements called compounds. 

1. An element is a substance all of whose atoms have the 
same atomic number but not necessarily the same atomic 
weight. 

Examples are: 

a. Lead 

b. Gold 

c. Hydrogen 

2. An element cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical 
means. A compound can be decomposed. Examples of 
compounds : 

a. Water H 2 O 

b. Salt NAC-L 19.01 

ELEMENTS 

An element is formed when a large number of identical atoms 
are bound together. When atoms are grouped together in certain 
numbers and combinations they form molecules. Many molecules 
consisting of identical atoms form an element if different atoms, 
they form compounds. 19.02 

ATOMS 

All atoms contain a nucleus with a heavy dense core sur- 
rounded at a relatively great distance by electrons which orbit 
around the nucleus at high speed. These electrons are small, almost 
weightless and have a negative electrical charge. 19.03 

NUCLEUS 

Nuclei consist of balls of matter larger and heavier than elec- 
trons. These balls are called: 

1. Protons have a positive electrical charge. 

2. Neutrons do not have an electrical charge. 

3. The atomic weight of a substance is the sum total of the 
number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. 

163 



When you weigh yourself you are actually ascertaining the 
sum of the weight of all the nuclei in your body. 

The nucleus of each atom is held together by a force called 
binding energy. 

1. Some of this energy is released when a nucleus is 
split in two by fission. 

a. This is due to the fact that it takes less binding 
energy to hold together the two fragments result- 
ing from the split than to hold the original nucleus 
together before fission. 

If a mothball was made of nuclei it would weigh almost 
30,000,000 tons. That is how heavy a nucleus is for its size. 19.04 



PROTONS 

For each proton in a nucleus there is one negatively charged 
electron in orbit around the nucleus. A proton is approximately 
equal in weight and size to a neutron. 

1. The number of protons in the nucleus determines the 
number of electrons in orbit. 

2. The number of protons also determines the nature of the 
element and its atomic number. 

3. Proton's positive electrical charge equals the negative 
charge of the electron. 

Natural elements exist with the number of protons ranging 
from 1 (hydrogen) to 92 (uranium). 

1. Whenever the number of protons change, a differ- 
ent element is formed. 

Certain elements not existing in nature have been created by 
man. 

1. Their atomic numbers range from 93 to 102. 

2. Since uranium is 92, these manmade elements are called 
transuranic elements. 

a. They are all radioactive. 

b. Plutonium (94) used for nuclear weapons is very 
important. 19.05 



NEUTRONS 

Neutrons are the balls of matter in the atomic nucleus which 
do not have an electrical charge. They are about 1800 times heavier 
than electrons. The number of neutrons in a nucleus ranges from 
to about 150. In certain elements different atoms of the same 
element have the same number of protons but vary in number 
of neutrons. 

164 



1. Since chemistry is concerned with orbital electrons, these 
are chemically the same element. 

a. Since all these atoms have the same number of pro- 
tons, they will have an equal number of electrons 
in orbit. 

b. Since they have a different number of neutrons 
in the nucleus, the various atoms of the same ele- 
ment will not all weigh the same. 

2. Nuclear physicists and physical chemists view these as 
different substances of the same chemical form. 

a. They vary in atomic weight. 

b. They are called isotopes. 19.06 

ISOTOPES 

Most isotopes are unstable, therefore radioactive. Some are 
stable and not radioactive. The first element hydrogen has 3 iso- 
topes, and tin the fiftieth element has 25 isotopes. There are more 
than 1200 known isotopes. 

1. Two isotopes of the same element will have the same 

atomic number but different atomic weights. 
An example of how materials become radioactive isotopes in 
a reactor, using cobalt as an illustration, is shown. The ordinary 
cobalt is inserted into an opening in the reactor. 

1. Natural cobalt has 27 protons and 32 neutrons. 

a. A rod of cobalt is inserted into the reactor. 

b. Billions of cobalt atoms are bombarded by billions 
of neutrons. 

I. This flow of neutrons is called the "neu- 
tron flux." 

c. A few of the cobalt atoms, possibly one in a billion, 
captures a neutron and then has 27 protons and 33 
neutrons. 

I. These atoms have changed from cobalt 59 
to radioactive cobalt 60 which gives off 
strong gamma and some beta radiation. 

II. Cobalt 60 has a half life of 5.3 years. 

III. It was made radioactive by a process 
called "neutron capture". 

IV. Substances are made radioactive only by 
"neutron capture". 19.07 



FISSION 

Fissionable refers to those atoms which can be split apart by 
nuclear bombardment releasing large amounts of energy in the 

165 



process. It means that the material must be capable of sustaining 
and multiplying the chain reaction process so that a large number 
of fissions can be made to take place in a very short time. The 
terms fissionable and radioactive are not equivalent. 

1. Only two readily available materials are capable of sus- 
taining and multiplying a chain reaction. 

a. Uranium 235 used as fuel for atomic reactors. 

b. Plutonium a man made element created by a 
nuclear reaction in an atomic reactor, used mainly 
for nuclear weapons. 

These fissionable materials bring about a chain reaction in the 
following manner: 

1. They emit bits of elementary matter neutrons. 

a. These neutrons strike other atoms of the same 
material causing them to break open, emitting 
more neutrons and releasing binding (fission) 
energy. Neutrons produced in fission process are 
mostly high energy or fast neutrons. 

I. For a neutron to penetrate an atom to 
cause fission it must be slowed down. 
Slowed down neutrons are called "thermal 
neutrons". They are most liable to nitro- 
gen capture and removal from nuclear 
radiation. This capture usually creates 
gamma radiation which is easier to at- 
tenuate. 

II. Water, graphite and other materials will 
slow down neutrons so as to produce 
fissioning. These are called "Neutron 
Moderators". 

b. Regrouping of split atomic material creates new 
atoms called fission products. 

I. Many of these are radioactive. 

II. Energy and new atoms result. 

III. This is a chain reaction. 

c. The quantity of a fissionable material which will 
provide a self sustaining chain reaction is called a 
critical mass. It is necessary to have a small sur- 
face area in relation to mass to be critical, other- 
wise more neutrons would escape by the surface 
than would be produced in the mass. 

I. The quantity of a fissionable material not 
sufficient to do so is called a subcritical 
mass. 

II. As soon as one more neutron is being 
made than is being lost, the mass is 
critical. At this point the multiplication 

166 



of the chain reaction starts to increase at 
a fantastic rate. 

d. Controlled fissionable energy is produced by atomic 
reactors. 

e. Uncontrolled fissionable energy results from the 
explosion of nuclear weapons. 19.08 

IONIZATION 

All radioactive materials emit ionizing radiation. Ionizing is a 
term used covering forms of radiation which cause rearrangement 
of orbital electrons in the atoms of a substance through which the 
radiation passes. The end result being formation of ion positive 
and negative pairs. In living tissue these can cause biological 
damage. There are many nonionizing forms of radiation: 

1. Heat 3. Radar 

2. Light 4. Radio 

These do not have enough energy to affect orbital electrons 
and damage from these forms of radiation is usually confined to 
the outer layers of the body. 

1. Damage is usually apparent and protective measures can 
be taken such as in the case of sunburn. 

2. This is not true of ionizing radiation since electron re- 
arrangement in the body cannot be felt. 

a. Biological damage is not apparent until it may 
be too late. 19.09 

IONIZING RADIATION 

There are three types of ionizing radiation: 

1. Gamma short electromagnetic pure energy rays having 
no mass or weight. 

a. Gamma radiation originates when the discharge of 
one of these alpha or beta particles from a nucleus 
doesn't take enough energy along with it to leave 
the nucleus in quite a contented state. 

I. If the particle leaving the nucleus doesn't 
take with it all the energy that the atom 
wants to get rid of, it throws off some of 
the energy in the form of gamma radia- 
tion. 

(a) Therefore, gamma radiation can 

be given off by many radioactive 

materials in addition to giving off 

alpha or beta radiation. 

II. Gamma radiation is stopped by electrons. 

167 



2. Beta elementary particles carrying negative electrical 
charges identical with an electron. 

3. Alpha relatively heavy atomic particles. 

a. Each particle contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons 
bound together. 

b. They are identical with the nucleus of a helium 
atom. 19.10 



RADIATION 

Radiation is a common expression for energy emitted in both 
wave and particle form. Actually it should apply only to the trans- 
mission of electromagnetic waves. Small amounts are emitted 
naturally by many radioactive materials by means of the decay 
process. Radiation cannot be detected by the human senses, there- 
fore, radiation detection and measurement instruments must be 
used. 

Materials cannot be made radioactive by being subjected to 
radiation. They are only made radioactive by being subjected to an 
intense "neutron flux" which results in "neutron capture". 19.11 

RADIOACTIVE ATOMS 

The nuclei of radioactive atoms contain excess energy and are 
referred to as being in an "excited" state. 

1. They rid themselves of this excitation by emitting the 
excess energy in the form of radiation. 

a. All nuclear radiation falls into two general classes. 
I. Rays 
II. Particles of subatomic bits of matter. 

2. The more electrons in a material, the more gamma radia- 
tion will be stopped. 

a. A heavy element must be used to stop neutrons. 
I. Hydrogen 
II. Paraffin 
III. Water 

3. The process of getting rid of excess energy is called 
radioactive decay. 

a. Some radioisotopes decay directly to a stable state 
in one step. 

b. Others decay through a series of steps or chains 
forming different radioactive elements called 
"daughter products" before finally reaching a 
stable state. 

I. They emit radiation during each step of 
the process. 

168 



II. The type of radiation can vary during 
each step. 19.12 



BIOLOGICAL NUCLEAR EFFECTS 

The body consists of mostly empty space. To us it seems fairly 
solid but considering that one drop of water contains 6 sextillion 
(a 6 with 21 zeros after it) atoms it must be realized that all things 
that seem solid are actually porous. The rays that pass through a 
body without hitting anything are the means of registering X-rays 
on film. Each ray penetrates to a different depth before finding its 
target and producing its effect on the body. 19.13 

The rays from radioactive materials do not hit the nucleus in 
large numbers. Few of them have enough energy to penetrate or 
change the nucleus. They hit the electrons orbiting the nucleus and 
the energy of the ray is spent. The energy from the rays is trans- 
ferred to the electrons ejected from the atoms. This is the process 
called ionization. 19.14 

Atoms in their normal state are electrically neutral they 
contain the same number of electrically negative electrons in orbit 
as they contain electrically positive protons in their nucleus. When 
radiation causes displacement and rearrangement of these elec- 
trons, positive and negative ions are created. These ion pairs in 
sufficient quantities can cause complex changes in body chemistry 
which result in degrees of sickness or death depending on amount 
of ionization caused. The radiation effect goes on all the time. 
Bodies are constantly being bombarded by cosmic rays and rays 
from radioactive materials in the structure of our life. 19.15 

When an electron is knocked off an atom, the cell of which 
the atom is a part is damaged. The body repair mechanism repairs 
the cell. This radiation may be bad or it may be good. No one really 
knows. We have learned to live with it since the beginning of 
man. 19.16 



INTERNAL RADIOACTIVE POISONING 

There are two radiation problems ; external radiation exposure 
and internal radioactive poisoning. This section will take up the 
ingestion of radioactive particles. The body is actually a chemical 
processing plant. It normally processes food and air, converting 
them into energy, body tissue, bone and other body requirements. 
It absorbs most things through breathing and swallowing. Since 
many of the body needs are chemical in form it has a problem 
when radioactive substances are introduced into it. For instance, 
the bones use calcium. Radium is chemically very much like cal- 
cium. Therefore, when radium is taken into the body the bones 

169 



have a tendency to accept it and radium is deposited in the bone. 

1. Much that is inhaled is immediately exhaled. 

2. Materials which are not soluble when swallowed are 
rapidly excreted through the feces. 

a. Soluble materials go into the bloodstream. 

I. The bloodstream carries them to dif- 
ferent parts of the body in accordance 
with its usual procedure of supplying 
body needs. 

(a) Each part of the body responds 
chemically to the material offered 
and accepts it because it is similar 
to materials it ordinarily uses or 
rejects it. 

(b) If radioactive iodine is offered the 
thyroid gland will pick it up. 

3. Sodium, hydrogen and potassium are widely used in the 
body and these elements are widely distributed through- 
out the body and picked up whether radioactive or not. 

a. The body reacts to substances chemically whether 
or not they are radioactive. 

b. If none of the organs accept the substance it passes 
on to the kidneys and then out of the body. 

I. A very healthy body with no calcium or 
other deficiencies may not accept as much 
radioactive substances. 

The biological half life of a radioactive element is the period 
of time which it takes for one half of it to be excreted from the 
body by natural processes. Combining the radiological half life with 
the biological half life gives the effective half life of the material 
in the body. 19.17 



170 



CHAPTER 20 

America After A Nuclear Attack 

One can only guess at the way of life of Americans in a period 
immediately following a nuclear attack and war. Obviously we 
could expect no mercy whatsoever from the communists in the 
unlikely event that they were victorious. We would then sink into 
a dull, zombie like existence with all the well described frustra- 
tions of a police state. We would probably face a small fascist con- 
trolling group with a rubber stamp legislature of fellow travelers 
operating under the guise of phony democracy. If America is 
resolute and strong well armed and well protected we will not 
come out second best. It's useless to talk of winning a nuclear war. 
There will not be a winner. 20.01 

ABSORBED RADIATION 

After the bombs have dropped and the debris of war has been 
cleared away there will still remain one big unavoidable problem. 
Radiation and people who have absorbed radiation. Let us assume 
that 1000 nuclear bombs have been delivered on American targets. 
The majority of these will have fallen on three main types of tar- 
gets; military installations, cities and critical industrial areas. 

Assume further that no two bombs have fallen in the same 
total destruction area. This means that no bomb has fallen within, 
let us say, three miles of another bomb. Since the total destruction 
area of a nuclear weapon of large size is about 30 square miles, we 
will have 1000 bombs times 30 square miles or 30,000 square miles 
of total destruction and of dangerous initial (neutron induced) 
radiation ground radioactivity. 20.02 

AREAS OF INTENSE RADIATION 

This means that out of the 3,000,000 square miles in the 
continental United States, 30,000 or roughly 1% of the country will 
be intensely radioactive for long periods of time possibly a life- 
time for many of us. Included in the 1% will be cities containing 
miniscule proportions of total area but large percentages of total 
population. People living in these city targets must be relocated 
and quickly. All the industrial capacity in the world will mean 
nothing without people to run the machines and use that capacity. 
Military targets will not necessarily face loss of life and human 
damage comparable to big city losses. The surrounding ground will 
be just as deadly radioactive and must be evacuated perhaps for a 

171 



period of up to 50 years. The same is true of the huge metropolitan 
centers. These three classes of territory must be evacuated. New 
housing for the people evacuated must be built in relatively radia- 
tion free parts of the country. 20.03 

No one can say how long it would be until people could return 
to prewar homes, military bases and factories. It is thought by 
many authorities that present methods of long range radiation 
decay computation are pessimistic and that radioactive decay pro- 
ceeds at faster rates than indicated by formulas presently used. 
More data on this subject would be obtained over the post attack 
years by actual surveys of bombed areas. 20.04 

RADIATION WEATHERING EFFECT 

The weathering effect of rain and snow, when better under- 
stood, may indicate huge carry offs of radioactive surface mate- 
rials by rivers, streams, sewers and other means. When emptied 
ultimately into the ocean, the vast dilution of such dangerous 
materials might speed the habitability of otherwise dangerous 
areas. 20.05 

New techniques, to neutralize fallout radiation, by plowing 
under one foot of top soil in critical radioactive areas and the 
gathering and burying of contaminated debris all may mean 
speedier returns to pre- attack locations than would be indicated 
by present methods and calculations. 20.06 

RECONSTRUCTION AND RELOCATION PROGRAMS 

All this relocation and rebuilding must be done under adverse 
conditions with equipment shortages, in radioactive atmospheres. 
Obviously a completely unique and dynamic program must be 
planned. It may well be that reconstruction will be under the super- 
vision of the Army Corps of Engineers. Unfortunately, all Ameri- 
cans are not shining knights and even as it is in peacetime, so will 
there be looting, thievery and other crimes committed. Since local 
and possibly even regional police protection will be spotty at best, 
the military probably will have to maintain order throughout the 
country. 

This type of activity gives rise to the often heard complaint 
that we will come out of a nuclear war with a fascist police state 
run by the military. This is said with the implication that this 
would be worse than turning into a communist state. 20.07 

MILITARY LEADERSHIP 

The military leadership of our country has always had the 

172 



unpleasant task of providing protection, always in time of danger, 
to our citizens. This requires firmness and disciplines that are 
necessary to get the job done in wartime emergencies. It is nat- 
urally repugnant to freedom loving peoples. It will be necessary, 
during and after a nuclear war, to impose many restrictions and 
regulations upon the citizenry for not only their own protection 
but also for the benefit of the country as a whole and the majority 
of the population. This is inevitable. 20.08 

Army, navy and airforce officers by their training, heritage 
and customs, represent one of the best types of American citizen. 
If we must have regimentation, how much better it will be to have 
a temporary, American directed effort under civilian control than 
to have a permanent one directed by commissars solely interested 
in alien philosophies and problems. 20.09 

REGISTRATION 

One of the first post war projects must be a complete registra- 
tion of all citizens. Time will be short and speed absolutely essen- 
tial. Registration will be on a basis of radiation exposure and age. 
There will emerge from this registration a new class system 
not one as we now think of it, but classes divided according to 
radiation absorbed. 20.10 



AREA CERTIFICATIONS 

The country must be radiation surveyed and divided into zones 
or areas according to radioactivity remaining in each zone. With 
these two compilations completed an immense program to relocate 
all people with high radiation absorbed doses in low radiation areas 
must be undertaken. At this point the question of age becomes all 
important. Young people with high radiation absorbed doses must 
be given an emergency expedited status and rushed to the lowest 
radiation areas. Old people with high radiation absorbed doses will 
not be in quite as precarious a position for reasons to be covered 
later. 20.11 



RADIATION BANKING CONCEPT 

To properly assign all people to classes according to radiation 
dose absorbed will require a formula. No doubt the ' 'banking" 
formula or a variation of it will be employed. This formula is based 
on the fact that as we go through life we can absorb a certain 
amount of radiation each year and not suffer any immediate ill 
effects. This amount is credited to an individual's "radiation bank 
account" each year. As radiation is absorbed by the same person, 

173 



his radiation bank account is debited. The balance in his bank ac- 
count is the total radiation that he can absorb or withdraw without 
any immediate ill effects. The exact value of the deposit each year 
and the withdrawals are a matter of question at this time. Author- 
itative sources differ on these values. Further, these values differ 
according to whether normal peacetime industrial radiation prob- 
lems are at issue or whether emergency wartime life or death 
conditions are considered. 20.12 



DEPOSITS AND WITHDRAWALS 



For the sake of discussion we will say that the amount of 
radiation that could be credited to a person's account each year 
would be 8 roentgens or 640 roentgens for an 80 year life span. 
The allowable bank withdrawal may be 5 roentgens per year within 
certain limitations which result from the fact that some deposits 
are "time .deposits" which may not be withdrawn ahead of time. 
The time limitations might be these maximums. Not more than 10 
roentgens may be withdrawn in any one hour, or more than 25r in 
any one day. The limit for one month would be lOOr and for a 
lifetime 300 roentgens. (17.10). 20.13 

The one big drawback to the use of a commonsense system of 
citizen conservation is that very few people have dosimeters, let 
alone shelters. Therefore, estimates must be made in a post war 
period. The only possible way to eliminate guesswork will be to 
develop a method of testing designed to show total absorbed 
dose, possibly by rate of cell mitosis (cell growth) or ionization 
counters. 20.14 

As an example let us take a man 40 years old. He has a "bank 
account" of 320r and has received a total accumulated dose of 120r. 
His bank balance is 200r and deposits will be made at the rate of 8r 
per year for the rest of his life. Assume that he will live to be 80 
years old. His maximum bank account in his eightieth year will be 
520r. He may be assigned to an area where the average yearly dose 
rate for the next 40 years, will be 13 roentgens per year. Since this 
is the average rate over a 40 year period, the starting dose rate 
at his time of entrance to his assigned area might be considerably 
higher than 13r per year. These and other figures and examples 
are not necessarily based on facts. They are intended to convey an 
idea of what type of system might be used. The principle must be 
to make assignments to areas by age and absorbed dose. Otherwise 
the wasteful practice of assigning someone 60 years old, with no 
appreciable absorbed dose, to an area where the dose rate is 2r per 
year could occur, while a person 30 years old with an absorbed 
dose of 240r might end up in an average 20r per year area. 20.15 

174 



A certification of age and absorbed dose for each person would 
be almost mandatory in a post war world. A complete continuous 
record for each person will be maintained in order to make area 
assignments intelligently. 20.16 

OLDER PEOPLE 

In previous history it has almost always been the young men 
of America who died for their country in perilous times. We may 
see the position reversed. Older people with small absorbed dose 
certifications will be able to go into higher radioactive areas and 
operate the bulldozers and other decontamination equipment with 
the least harm to themselves, and the most benefit to their country. 
Time will run out for many older citizens. That is, they will ap- 
proach the end of life with substantial unused absorbed dose 
credits in the "bank". They will be able to volunteer for extremely 
hazardous duty in highly radioactive areas without paying the 
penalty exacted from young people ; a lifetime spent with marginal 
radioactive absorbed dose credits. We may yet live to see the day 
when grandfather comes clanking back home from the "front" 
on a bulldozer in a parade of decontamination veterans to the 
cheers of the crowd lining the decontaminated curb on Fifth 
Avenue. 20.17 



RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS 

When the radiation survey of all habitable areas of the United 
States has been completed and the registration and rad certifica- 
tion of all people in our country has been done, we can then decide 
what products and services should have priority. Basically the de- 
cision will be ; what do we need and where can we make it. 20.18 

Obviously food, water, shelter and clothing needs will have top 
priority. Soap, medicines, tools and utensils will come next. After 
these primary needs will come bulldozers, plows, machine tools, 
hardware such as nails and screws, generators, tanning equip- 
ment, cement mixers, blockmaking equipment, radio and broad- 
casting apparatus. 20.19 



BASIC MATERIALS 

Practically all manufacturing is predicated on the availability 
of certain basic raw materials such as iron ore, coal, oil and bauxite 
(for aluminum). These materials will have a top priority. A certain 
amount of these essentials will be immediately available in transit, 
in storage or otherwise stockpiled and in various stages of pro- 
cessing in places difficult to wipe out with a nuclear attack. 20.20 

175 



Mines and oil wells are, by their nature, scattered all over the 
map. This is a disadvantage under normal conditions but it would 
be a big asset during and after a nuclear attack. Transportation 
might be somewhat of a problem in getting these resources to steel 
mills and refineries. Water transportation and pipelines would 
probably be least affected by a nuclear attack. It would appear 
that basic materials and their transportation, while presenting 
difficulties, would be delivered to facilities left intact or at least 
operable. 20.21 

HEAVY MANUFACTURING 

Our post attack economy will require the tools of reconstruc- 
tion and decontamination as well as the essential supplies for 
existence. Items such as tractors, diggers, compressors, generators, 
trucks, pumps, electronic communications equipment, motors, pack- 
aging equipment and heavy generating facilities all require steel 
and all must have a high priority. The area diversification of many 
of our big companies with dozens of plants scattered widely will be 
a tremendous asset. Even plants used for making conveniences 
may be converted to the items urgently needed. 20.22 

Very few Americans have ever seen the United States as a 
whole. Almost 10,000 towns and cities over 700 population. Thou- 
sands of them containing one or more factories or manufacturing 
facilities. Many of these facilities are for processing farm supplies 
but a surprising number, especially in the midwest, make a large 
variety of equipment. A nuclear attack, no matter how big, could 
not knock out our manufacturing capability completely. 20.23 

Reservoirs, housing and factories mining and steel mill ma- 
chinery plus cement making facilities, all these needs must be met. 
The interrelationship among all these activities is so complex that 
one can not say with authority just where the cycle starts but 
start it must. 20.24 

MEDICINE 

Fortunately, many of our leading pharmaceutical companies 
are located in rural areas not likely to be destroyed by nuclear blast 
or heat. This circumstance can do much to alleviate the inherent 
health problems inevitable in the aftermath of a nuclear war. 20.25 

CLOTHING 

Much of the material, used for fabricating clothing, comes 
from mills scattered in dozens of small towns in predominately 
rural areas. This may prove to be a plus factor in solving clothing 

176 



problems under post war conditions. It would be almost impossible 
to knock out all mills in our country or even the majority of them 
with the most intense nuclear attack possible for many years. 20.26 

GOVERNMENT PLANNING 

Our government, which has spent over many years millions of 
dollars on obscure projects of interest to very few people, must 
certainly have investigated thoroughly possible post attack con- 
ditions and planned for them. These plans are understandably 
secret. However, anything less than a complete survey of facilities 
and their capabilities for producing necessities of life outside pos- 
sible target areas, would be an inexcusable dereliction of responsi- 
bility. Done now, this would be a simple matter. Delayed, a terrible 
price may be paid. 20.27 



177 



Glossary 



Afterwinds Winds created by the fireball updraft. They are 
drawn inward and upward and are less powerful than blast 
winds. 

Air Burst A nuclear explosion occurring at a sufficient height 
to keep the resulting fireball from touching the ground. 

Alpha Particles A form of radiation lacking energy enough to 
penetrate even the outer layer of skin. Usually emitted by 
naturally heavier radioactive elements such as uranium, ra- 
dium and thorium. 

Barrier Shielding A mass placed between the fallout and the 
shelter occupant. The density and thickness provide the shield- 
ing effect. 

Beta Particles A form of radiation that can be stopped by 
less than 100 feet of air or by heavy clothing. They are 
more powerful than alpha particles but not as penetrating as 
gamma rays. 

Biological Half-time The time required for the body to rid 
itself, by natural biological means, of one half the initial 
value of an element taken into the body. 

Blast The initial shock generated at the instant of bomb burst. 

Blast Wave The wall of pressure moving outward from the 
blast created by a nuclear bomb burst. 

Blast Wind The air movement of hurricane type winds that 
are caused by, and accompany the blast wave. 

BOSDEC Abbreviation of Bomb Shelter in Depth Concept. 

It consists of three areas. A primary shelter surrounded on 
three sides, also top and bottom, by a minimum of one foot 
of reinforced concrete and five feet of earth. The fourth side 
opens into a secondary shelter connected to the outside by a 
shelter lock. 

Burst The explosion of a nuclear bomb. 
CFM Abbreviation of Cubic Feet per Minute. 

Combined Shielding Radiation protection combining geometry 
and barrier shielding into the total shield. 

Crater The hole in the ground created by a nuclear ground burst. 

Cube Root The number or quantity of which a given number 
or quantity is the cube. The cube root of 8 is 2. 

Curie The amount of a particular radioactive substance which 
undergoes 37 billion radioactive transformations per second. 

179 



Delayed Fallout Consists of dirt and debris which has been 
swept up into the fireball, becomes radioactive, is carried 
aloft by the explosion and high altitude winds and then re- 
turns to earth more than 24 hours after the explosion. 

Direct Nuclear Radiation Alpha, Beta, Gamma and neutron 
radiation emitted by the products of a nuclear explosion at 
the time of the burst. It is effective for less than one minute 
and only within a radius of 2 or 3 miles from the explosion. 

Dose Rate The amount of radiation to which a person is ex- 
posed, expressed in units of time. 

Dosimeters - - A meter used to detect and register the total 
accumulated exposure to ionizing radiation to which a person 
has been exposed. 

Early Fallout Heavier pieces of radioactive debris that descend 
to earth starting about 30 minutes after the burst and con- 
tinuing for up to 24 hours. 

Energy Yield - - The effective energy generated by a nuclear 
explosion. 

Fallout Dust and dirt particles which have been made radio- 
active by the nuclear products of a burst. 

Fireball The intensely hot and brilliant ball of fire which starts 
to form at the instant of explosion. The heat lasts 10 seconds 
to approximately one minute depending on weapon size. 

Firestorm - - A phenomenon caused by many small fires, usu- 
ally in cities or forests, combining into one superheated con- 
flagration. This heat generates inrushing winds that supply 
additional oxygen that intensifies the fire but also limits its 
spread. 

Firewinds Created by the action of extremely hot fires burn- 
ing up atmospheric oxygen which causes a vacuum into which 
cool air is drawn at high speed. 

Fission A method of creating a nuclear explosion by splitting 
nucleus of a heavy element such as Uranium 235 or Plu- 
tonium 238. 

Fissionable Materials Materials capable of self sustaining chain 
reactions. 

Flash The initial ultraviolet flash from a nuclear explosion 
which lasts a few millionths of a second. 

Fusion Fusion creates a nuclear explosion by causing two light 
nuclei to unite into one heavy element. Fusion is roughly 
three times more effective than fission as a producer of 
energy. It requires the millions of degrees of fission tempera- 
ture to trigger the fusion explosion. 

180 



GZ Abbreviation of Ground Zero. 

Gamma Rays The highly penetrating electromagnetic rays 
emitted by the products of a nuclear bomb burst. 

Geometry Shielding The term used to describe the fallout pro- 
tection inherent in distance from the fallout. The greater the 
distance from the radiation, the less danger from the same 
fallout. 

Ground Burst A nuclear explosion taking place at or very close 
to the ground. 

Ground Shock The shock or blast effect transmitted through 
the ground as a result of a ground or underground nuclear 
bomb burst. 

Ground Zero The center of a point at which a ground burst 
occurs. Also, the point on the ground directly under an air 
burst. 

HVL Thickness Abbreviation of Half Value Layer thickness. 

Half Life The point at which an alpha or beta particle and 
gamma ray will have lost one half of its radiation by radio- 
active decay. Since radioactive materials do not decay at an 
even rate the whole life of these rays will be much longer 
than twice the half life. The decay rate is accelerated at first 
but slows down gradually. 

Half Value Layer Thickness The thickness of any particular 
material which will stop one half the gamma rays from pass- 
ing through it. 

Hot Spot Zone of radioactive contamination containing more 
radioactivity than adjacent areas. 

ICBM Abbreviation of Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. 

Initial Nuclear Radiation Nuclear radiation occurring during 
the first minute after a nuclear weapon explosion. 

MEV Abbreviation of Million Electron Volts. A unit of meas- 
urement indicating the penetrating power of gamma rays. 

MPS Abbreviation of Maximum Protection Shelter. 
MT Abbreviation of Megaton. 

Mach Front The combined forces or pressures of a Shockwave 
(blast) and reflective shock. 

Mass Thickness The product of the unit weight and thickness 
of a wall or slab which determines its protection effectiveness. 

Maximum Protection Shelter A shelter with a Roentgen reduc- 
tion factor of more than 10,000 and capable of withstanding 
an overpressure in excess of 100 psi. 

181 



Megaton A unit of energy equivalent to 1,000,000 tons of TNT. 

Micron A unit of measurement equal to one millionth part of a 
meter. A meter is 39.37 inches. A human hair has a diameter 
of 75 microns. 

Mil One thousandth of an inch. 
Millicurie One thousandth of a curie. 

Milliroentgen One thousandth of a roentgen. 

Mutual Shielding The barrier shielding supplied by adjacent 
buildings or other masses. 

NEAR Abbreviation National Emergency Alarm Repeater. A 
unit being developed by the Government to plug into AC elec- 
tric outlets to provide an automatic attack warning. 

Neutron A particle without an electrical charge. Part of the 
nucleus of an atom. Neutrons are needed to start the fission 
process. Many neutrons are produced by fission and fusion 
explosions. 

OP Abbreviation of Overpressure. 

Overpressure The amount of pressure in excess of normal at- 
mospheric pressure which is 14.7 psi at sea level. 

PCF Abbreviation of Pounds per Cubic Foot. 
PF Abbreviation of Protection Factor. 

Plastic Zone The zone immediately adjacent to the rupture zone 
of a nuclear explosion crater area. The earth is subjected to 
enough stress to deform it, but not enough to produce a crater 
or radial cracks. 

PSF Abbreviation of Pounds per Square Foot. 
PSI Abbreviation of Pounds Per Square Inch. 

Primary Shelter In the BOSDEC system this shelter is at the 
center of a protective mass and is the place where imminent 
attacks, actual bursts, thermal radiation, Shockwaves, fire- 
winds, initial high radiation and early fallout would be waited 
out. 

It is the basic, most highly shielded protective core of the 
BOSDEC system and may only be entered by going through 
a shelter lock and a secondary shelter. 

Primary Shock Initial blast originating at the instant of the 
nuclear explosion. 

Protection Factor (PF) This term expresses the relative amount 
of radiation that would be received by an occupant of a shelter 
compared to the amount he would receive if unprotected. This 
factor is computed by dividing the outside radiation by the 

182 



shelter radiation both measured in roentgens per hour 
which, of course, reflects the protective effects of combined 
barrier and geometry shielding. 

r Abbreviation of Roentgen. 

r/hr Abbreviation of Roentgens per hour. 

RAD Abbreviation of Radiation Absorbed Dosage. A unit of any 
absorbed nuclear radiation dose. 

RBE Abbreviation of Relative Biological Effectiveness. A for- 
mula for relating rads of different radiations to that of 
gamma rays. 

REM Abbreviation of Roentgen Equivalent Man. The biological 
damage one roentgen will do to a human. Used to express all 
types of radiation damage in one term. 

Radiation Reduction Factor This is the reciprocal of Protection 
Factor. If the protection factor is 1000 the radiation reduction 
factor would be .001 or one thousandth. It consists of the 
fraction of external radiation which passes into the shelter. 

Radioactive Decay A process during which radiation decreases 
by a factor of ten when time increases by a factor of seven. 
Many of the radiation emitters are short lived and much of 
the radiation decays rapidly at first, leaving the longer lived 
emitters which slows down the total decay rate. 

Radioactivity A condition precipitated by nuclei spontaneously 
undergoing atomic disintegration by the emission of alpha and 
beta particles and sometimes the electromagnetic radiation of 
gamma rays. 

Radioisotopes (Byproducts) Materials which may be made ra- 
dioactive in an atomic reactor. 

Ratemeter The same as a survey meter. 

Reflective Shock A blast wave striking the ground, a building 
or some resistant surface produces a reflective pressure which 
may double the unreflected peak overpressure. 

Roentgen A unit of gamma ray exposure dosage measurement 
named for a German physicist, Dr. Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, 
who discovered X-rays in 1895. All normal atoms have at least 
one electron orbiting around the nucleus. Roentgens are a 
measure of the number of electrons which the radiation 
knocks out of orbit. 

Roentgens Per Hour The measurement of a radiation exposure 
dose rate is expressed in roentgens per hour (r/hr) which is 
the amount of radiation to which a person would be exposed 
in one hour. 

183 



Rupture Zone The area immediately adjacent to the crater of a 
nuclear ground burst. The ground is subjected to enough force 
to create radial cracks, but not enough to produce a crater. 

Secondary Shelter - - In the BOSDEC system this shelter leads 
into the Primary Shelter and serves as the intermediate area 
between the shelter lock and the Primary Shelter. The sec- 
ondary shelter contains many of the requirements for post 
attack life. It will have a PF of about 2000 with a two foot 
thick concrete ceiling. 

Shelter Lock The outer shelter connecting the outside with the 
Secondary Shelter in the BOSDEC system. The Shelter Lock 
has a low protection factor. 

Shielding The combined effects of barrier and geometry shield- 
ing plus the radioactive decay time factor determines the cu- 
mulative roentgen radiation dose in a shelter when the out- 
side radiation readings are known. The shielding alone deter- 
mines the PF. 

Shockwave Another term for blast wave. Usually refers to un- 
derground or underwater bursts. 

Skyshine Radiation reaching a target from many directions due 
to the scattering effect of oxygen and nitrogen in the air. 

Square Root The number or quantity which when squared will 
produce a given number or quantity. Three is the square root 
of nine. 

Subsurface Burst A nuclear explosion occurring under the sur- 
face of the earth. 

Surface Burst A nuclear explosion occuring at or very close to 
the surface of the earth. 

Survey Meter -- A radiation meter which detects and measures 
the radiation dose rate in roentgens per hour (r/hr). 

Tenth Value Layer Thickness The thickness of a given material 
that will reduce radiation to one tenth of its unshielded value. 

Thermal Radiation -- The heat radiation from a bomb burst. It 
comes in two phases. The initial ultraviolet flash and the fire- 
ball with its mostly infrared heat. 

Thermonuclear Explosion A fusion type explosion requiring fis- 
sion temperatures to trigger it. 

TVL Thickness Abbreviation for Tenth Value Layer thickness. 



184 



Bibliography 

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS: 

Fallout Shelter Surveys : Guide for Architects and Engineers 1960, 
Pub. NP-10-2 

Fallout Shelter Surveys: Guide for Executives, Pub. NP-10-1 

Family Fallout Shelter 1959, Pub. MP-15 

Civil Defense Technical Bulletin 1958, Pub. TB-5-3 

Windowless Structures A study in blast resistant design 1952 
TM 5-4. 

Rescue Techniques and Operations 1953, Pub. TM 14-1 

Effects of Nuclear Weapons, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 
U. S. Department of Defense 1962 $3.00 

Clay Masonry Family Fallout Shelters 1960, Pub. MP-18 
Advisory Bulletin No. 243 OCDM August 24, 1959 

First Aid: Emergency Kit, Emergency Action FCDA (OCDM) 
L-2-12 1958 

Fallout Protection OCD Dept. of Defense H-6 1961 

Peacetime Radiation Hazards in the Fire Service 

Basic Course - - Resource Manual OE-84019 and OE-84020 
Instructors Guide Circular No. 657 U. S. Dept. Health, Educa- 
tion & Welfare and U. S. Atomic Energy Commission 1961. 

Living With Radiation: Fire Service Problems No. 2 
U. S. Atomic Energy Commission 1960 

Basic Civil Defense OCDM 1959 1G-3-2 

Nature of Radioactive Fallout and Its Effects on Man, Part 1 and 
Part 2 1957 

CD in Industry by Virgil L. Couch, Director 
FCDA Industry Office April 1956 



185 



RECOMMENDED COLLATERAL READING 

You Can Survive the Bomb by Col. Mel Mawrence with John 
Clark Kimball. Published by Avon Book Div. of The Hearst 
Corporation, 959 Eighth Avenue, New York 19, N. Y. 1961. 
50. Contains much detailed and useful information. Highly 
recommended. 

Fallout Shelter Handbook by Chuck West 

Published by Fawcett Publications, Inc., Greenwich, Connec- 
ticut 1962. 75^. Contains 20 pages of construction information 
which is worth the cost of the entire book. Best information 
available on this subject. 

Nuclear Attack and Industrial Survival by McGraw Hill Pub- 
lishing Company, 330 West 42nd Street, New York 36, N. Y. 
January 1, 1962 issue of Aviation Week and Space Technology 
(and all other McGraw-Hill Magazines.) Reprints available at 
200 each. A completely unbiased and objective appraisal of 
Nuclear hazards and problems obviously prepared and pub- 
lished with a great sense of responsibility to the American 
people. A must! 



186 



Equipment and Food 
Selection Service 

The equipment and supplies that 
are mentioned in this manual were 
selected with considerable care. As a 
reader, you are entitled to know what 
products were used in compiling the 
checklists and menus in this book. 
All foods and menus were tested in 
actual practice. As an author we con- 
sidered it unethical to mention brand 
names in the manual unless the prod- 
uct could not be easily described in 
any other way. If you are interested, 
you may fill in the attached form 
with name and address and enclose 
it with a self addressed, stamped en- 
velope in an envelope addressed to 
the publisher. In return you will re- 
ceive a list of equipment, supplies 
and foods which were used in com- 
piling the manual. Please feel free to 
comment on your opinion of the book. 
The brands chosen were selected on 
the basis of quality, packaging, uni- 
formity, ease of preparation and 
availability. Our selection of a certain 
brand does not necessarily mean that 
it is superior to other brands or prod- 
ucts, nor does it constitute a recom- 
mendation to buy such a product. It 
is for information purposes only. 
Many fine products were eliminated 
from consideration as shelter sup- 
plies because they were not available 
nationally. 

The items chosen for the list were 
compiled without the prior knowledge 
of any equipment manufacturer or 
food processor. 

187 



I 
I 



- Jr, 

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I 



NOTES 



189 



NOTES 



190 



NOTES 



191 





Donner Library 

ince Radiation Laboratory 

University of California, Berkeley 



7600-94689 (REV. 9/6&)