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l r~ — \
Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) / Berlin 1929
Printed by J. J. Augustin in Gliickstadt and Hamburg.
The words tabulated here have been collected from every source to
which I have had access during the four and one-half years I have spent
Words have been given me by other missionaries, those contained in the
school books as well as those which I have learned directly from the Nuers
themselves during my residence among them, have been listed.
After the first draft of this dictionary was made, every word was reviewed
with the help of from one to six Nuers and this book as published is the final
All words marked with an asterisk are spelled as given me by Prof.
D. Westermann of the International Institute of African Languages and
Cultures who worked with one Nuer man at the Rejaf Language Conference
at Rejaf, Sudan in 1928.
The singular form of nouns is first given, followed by the plural form
All open vowels have been marked in this dictionary because it is for the
use of the European but I do not urge the marking of the open A, I, and u
in books for the Nuer as the eight vowels — a, e, i, o, u, e, o and o are
The Nuer tribe is large and various estimates are made as to their number.
At the Rejaf Language Conference in 1928, their number was given as
They occupy a large area in the southern part of the Anglo-Egyptian
Sudan, along the Sobat liver in the Nasser and Abwong districts and on the
Zeraf island and along the Nile river.
Little has been published about this pagan tribe by those who have lived
among them for any time. But little has been done to reduce the language
of this illiterate tribe to writing. There are several dialects but the diffe-
rences are slight. This language is rich in folklore. The words given here
are but a small portion of what one may hope to find.
I am deeply indebted to my Nuer teachers, especially to Dhiel Rwac
and Pec Kak for their patience, to Reverend W. J. Adair of the American
Mission at Nasser for his constant encouragement, and to Prof. D. Wester-
mann of the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures for
his valuable advice and assistance in preparing this book for the publisher.
American Mission Nasser, Sudan-
Nuer alphabet as adopted at the Rejaf Language Conference April 1928
and used in this book.
b as in English.
d as in English.
g as in English "go" and "got".
k as in English.
I as in English.
m as in English.
n as in English.
p as in English.
r trilled lingual r.
t as in English.
w as in English "water".
y consonantal as in English "yet".
c palatalized t, almost as ch in "church".
j palatalized d, approaching j in "judge", resembling dy.
dh interdental d.
th interdental t.
nh interdental n.
ny palatalized n as gn in French "Boulogne".
I) velar n.
Y velar fricative voiced resembling Arabic ghain.
a as in Italian; e, i, 0, u are close vowels.
e open e as in French "pere", or in English "let".
open o as in English "not" as distinct from "note".
central vowel resembling e in English "father".
Long or doubled vowels are represented by doubling the letter.
When a word changes when a suffix has been added, the original spelling
has been retained in most cases.
When needing a very slight u, have used w.
When needing a very slight i, have used y.
Besides the sounds described, above the language has an open i and u as in
"fit" and "put", they are represented by I and u, and the sound of u
in "but", this is rendered bv A.
a, kwa let (sing.) a ku te — you let it
alone; (pi.) kwa te — you let it
a participle, sign of passive voice,
abe, abeeni lie is coming.
ay an exclamation.
allA exclamation of surprise.
alenu what is it?
a math slow, slowly.
arath for a long distance.
athin there is.
mi au ci kaq kwony full moon.
au cuol evening about 7 p. m.
au mai fishing season.
awui cry of distress or sorrow, used
by men only.
bailoc one class of Nuers, now old
men about 60 years old.
bak to call to go together.
bak early morning before sunrise;
bal (cike jc bal) to go on ahead of.
bal to overleap.
bal to pass by.
ban to run; fast; speed,
bany prosperous; rich.
bany piny to leave on ground; to
bai) excuse (cue bar) CO cap) he plotted
excuse; empty; free; false; for
bai), barjni veranda; porch,
barjbel one kind of white dura.
bap breast, including chest and
bap to fall forward; to run aimlessly.
bap milual redbreast.
bap rar to break down.
bar, ban good dancer.
bar, bareni long, longer.
bar Anuak (ran bar, jl bar); large
bar to shoot; to run away; to fly;.
to flee; to send for; to send a
thing; bow and arrow.
— 6 —
baro seven; constellation of seven
bat to mark; to check with pencil;
to cross out with pencil; to
jl bat A fishhook and line.
bath to be lost.
ram mi bath bath deserter.
bau war evening or morning star.
bA shall; I shall.
bAbur steamer; boat.
bAk to cut open; to split open.
b A ken Ike seeing them or visiting
them for awhile.
bAk ke to divide in parts.
bAk- wic headache.
bAl, b All donkey; mule.
bAlle thu very tasteless.
be dowry, when they bring all the
cattle to bride's place.
bee uncomfortable feeling; to hurt;
bee to spy out; to long for; to yearn
bee wanted to kill ox in village in
order to keep meat for self.
berj kernel in groin or axilla.
ber line; rafters; window casing,
be would; shall (3d. pers. sing.);
also 3d. person singular of bir.
bel, poss. beel dura; kaffir corn.
bel to make peace beleni ro (they
make peace themselves); to lick;
(ku ro bel, jin karo) used to
mean it is your own fault.
bel n. arbitration.
bl ben ke bende to come on one's own
bet to shake as ca tetdA bet (I shook
Beth lee m Bethlehem.
bi, bieni clothes; garment.
bi mi te maan best clothes.
bi mi yath yath sackcloth; mourning
bi mi yual woolen goods.
bie big mound in Lau part of
Nuerland made by £?underj,
blown up by government in
bier markings on body for beauty;
v. to mark body for beauty.
bier- (biereni je) to bind house with
biel, biel color; biel mi mer purple;
mi yen yellow; mi lit brownish
black; mi lual red.
biel duop mouse.
biet to keep silence; bin I 2nd. pers.
sing, imperative; biete 2nd.
pers. pi. imperative.
bil cut (used for smaller cuts).
bil blacksmith; potter: fault.
bil to taste: to open, used as CI
nhial bil meaning the clouds
scattered leaving the sky clear,
bim to eavesdrop.
bio club with head.
bi, bike will.
biam to waylay; to lie in wait.
bldit, bldit quack of wild ducks.
blkA will become; cikA became.
bir 2nd. pers. sing, imperative.
— 7 —
bea* come, 2nd. pers. pi. impe-
bia come, 2nd. pers. pi. impe-
bir cor come closer imperative (sing.)
bit- to curse.
blth fishing spear.
boam to hug.
bol was heated and smells; coals of
boll sunbeams; sun near sunset.
bon long dance dress.
bon, bunni pelican.
bony* to go under water; to dive;
one kind of red dura.
bor lap of person; white; to hover
both* to lead.
bou fruit of sunt tree, Nuers pound
fruit and make pancakes.
bo ye white; bright.
bo ye pAk very white.
bor kwe thorns put on calf's mouth
to keep it from sucking.
bot- to menstruate.
bot, boni sore, wound, abscess;
jl buoni the ones who have sores.
both* to lead with a rope.
both tockA to drag.
both e nak hungry; both ke nak
both nei nak; they are hungry,
we are hungry; both ye nak you
bua chapped; cold sores caused by
buau, poss. buokA sunt tree;
bue, bui bell made from doleib nut.
bum able-bodied; courageous; hard;
bum etet, bumketet very hard; very
buok rotten (used with things in
buol to rot.
buokA cai) middle of afternoon.
buon, buonni group; herd; crowd;
buor grass at bank of river; buor- to
make fun of.
buor windbreak for fire.
buot tree, possibly shrub; cotton
armlet; certain ornament.
buoth to crawl; to creep.
buoth, buorjl goat.
buoye, buoyeni fishnet.
bup to turn upside down.
but to stay all day.
but ke luai to file in slowly.
but but bush with thorns.
buth small melon; manure pile.
buk to assemble; to throw at; to
besmear; to thrust; to spread
buk ethur to make commotion.
bul to heat or roast over hot open
fire; to toast; to roast; festival;
toast; trunk of body.
bul bul- wasp nest (Nuers moisten it
with water and feed to cow for
bul, poss. bwol dance, drum.
bul thuor dance but not wedding
bure, bure to call pussy, pussy.
— 8 —
buth to deceive; to plaster; smash
as of falling body hitting floor,
(used with big things only).
buth sterile (female only).
bwony to dive.
bwum when part of generative
organs are undeveloped.
cac abreast in a row.
Cagi Abbysinians, part of whom
cai exclamation of surprise.
cai yAtni class of Nuers, tribal marks
made in 1925, also called wum
cak- to put; milk.
cam north; left hand.
cam- to eat; to cheat.
cam cam iodine.
can destitute; forlorn; sad; poor.
can € can entirely full.
cai) sun*; even if.
caije right now.
CI cai) nei luot sunshine warmed us.
ci cai) rode bAk about 1 p. m.
pai cai) thai warm a little in sunshine.
cai) kany sunrise; east.
caqke to refuse them when there is
cai) kwony sunset; west.
cany bad food; to abhor; bad;
finicky about eating; to sort
out the best.
canyc jc to refuse to have anything
to do with person on account
of sores; prissy.
gwan canyA abhorrer.
cap plot; fault.
cap cap to plan: to plot.
car to view: considerate; to con-
sider; to look around; to pon-
der; road; thought; worry;
car kler big aquatic animal, fine skin.
mi car, ticar black.
carboc one class of Nuers now about
30 — 35 years old.
carl twok wic table set the table.
cau to make splashing sound; cikc
WA cau they went splash or
as we say made a splashing
CAk creator; formation; creation;
CAk to fabricate; to create; to make;
to start a fire.
CAk kwoth freak.
CAk- cuk to parade; to drill.
CAl, cai groin.
CAl, CAt resembles, is like.
cai), mn day.
cai) cdan, (pi.) nm ti kon one day
awhile back; from 5 — 8 days
CAl) kel sometime in future.
cai) jec lat Monday; cai) lat da-
reudlen Tuesday; caij lat
dyokdien Wednesday; CAl) lat
nwandien Thursday; CAl) lat
dhyecdicn Friday; caij lat mitot
Saturday; CAl) kwoth Sunday.
mi cAr cAr level as rol mi cAr CAr
CAt, to slip; (3d. per. sing, past)
CAt CAt slippery.
— 9 —
eel, poss. cecl big fish.
cei) to live at; to abide.
ccij- bi pwony to dress.
cerjA life; cei)AdA my life.
ceij-ro a gwaa to visit nicely;
ciel to peel cane or cornstalks.
ciem- to kiss.
ciemani his family; ciemori your
family; ciemandlen their fa-
mily; ciemari my family; cie-
manniklen their families.
cien pity; compassion.
ciene very small fish, (like thAn).
cier piethA southern cross.
cier comet; planet; animal resem-
bling cat that always bites at
everything it touches.
cieth dung; feces.
cili), ciiqni village; town.
jl cili) villagers; inhabitants.
cim- to whip.
CI sign of negative; sign of past,
cic, ceni the same as.
cieke, pi. cuie smaller, shorter.
Clep long grass skirt.
clkA became; bik a become.
Clkc; cuo they.
Cll, del elbow.
cin, cin bowels; intestines.
Cll) bad as when fish is rotten; used
for very bad as spoiled fish
Cin mi cuo cuo small intestine; cin
mi dhok dhok large intestine.
cir cir, cir cirni centipede.
Clt, Clteke, cite, CAt equally; like;
the same as.
Clthe diarrhea; to have diarrhea.
CO and, connecting sentences.
CO husband; (her) coade; urine; WA
com lac to urinate.
coi very nice: very good.
col- to return borrowed money.
conyict fiance; bridegroom.
cop dura planter (stick with one
end like spoon for making holes
for planting dura); to reach,
ci pi cop piny water covered ground.
cor, cur, adj. cor blind.
COriAl black and white ox without
horns; animal like waterbuck.
cok image: stingy; small black worm
that eats dura.
col- to call.
col open part of ear; part of snail
cot, cot, poss. cotnl boys who have
just had the tribal marks cut.
cot cotnl cow without horns, will
turn into Let.
cot-ro to line up single file.
cotdul one kind of red dura.
cot riAl, cot ri All zebra,
cu, cwaye negative, do not.
cuac to drive.
cuak, cuAk, poss. cuAkni twins.
cual, cuah sack.
cual poor dancer.
cuane do not (includes person
speaking) l 8t- pers. pi.
cuai) to be perplexed be wiede cuai);
to kill time te cuai) cuai)-
cuai] e cuar)
— 10 —
cuai) e cuai) continually changing
cuatcuor certain class of Nuers of
long ago, all dead now.
cuath fat; to start a fire; to make a
cue, ce he; she; it.
cue, cui leech.
cuel penis; to squat.
cuer one kind of white dura,
cuer, ram mi cuer, nei ti cuer thief.
cueth place where guinea worm
comes out of; moonbeams;
sunbeams; reached the ground.
cull to be very tired of; to be worn
cult to hiss; to insert.
cuk part of; earthern cooking pot.
cuk, cukni foot,
cul clear water in river or well so you
can see bottom.
cul a god, sender of dreams,
cul cuek calf of leg; muscles of arm
or lower part of leg.
cum cum sweet, delicious.
cume dear; delicious; tastes good,
used with other things than
cui) to stop; to draw up; correct.
cut) A height.
cui) cui) good; straight.
cui) -dor to hide.
cui] epic straight; perfect; absolutely
cui) (jok) to sit up; — (cuk) to stand
cui)ni, curje you keep quiet.
cui) tet ligament.
pwanykien cuo cuo very muscular.
cuok to press upon; to crowd; to sit
close, touching; to bump into
cuo I revenge; recompense; dirt; to
cuol, cul e cue darkness; very dark.
wai)- cuol to be blinded, as when
going into dark room out of
cuom to encourage; savour.
cuom angry now, afterwhile will be
very angry; quarrel.
cuo cuoni bronchial tubes; capilla-
cuop (cuk) ankle area; (tet) wrist.
cuoth- to rub; to polish.
cuorj; goie righteousness.
cuor mi rial very large buzzard.
cuor when hair is partly grey.
cuot large intestine; to put in an
cup to reach; to arrive at.
cur n. blind.
cut, cuut name.
cut to drag; to fall; to call; re-
cut ryai smokestack of boat.
cut piny to be lost.
cuut- pacifier for child.
cum snail; snailshell.
cumcie fine copper wire.
cwa buom sacrum and coccyx.
cwa jok vertebral column.
cwa leet dorsal vertebrae.
— 11 —
cwaye tender as meat is tender.
ewe one kind of worm.
cwec south; right hand.
cwei* gravy; soup.
cwel to circumcise.
cwol name of man.
cwoth guinea worm: disease carried
by guinea worm.
CWOIJ to abate; smoothly; straight.
cyai)* habit; mid it patience.
cyat] cyai)* daily.
cyek* man, poss. cyik, mam wife.
cyek fertile; chain; anklet; bracelet;
wristlet; finger ring.
cyek cyek short, small of stature.
cyek jok widow.
cyek mi kau young woman as yet
cyo(k)de* his foot.
dai dai warm: lukewarm, as pi tl dai
dai warm water.
dai vacant; no one there; A Ia dai
dak cannot reach; to pillage; to tear
down; to plunder; to destroy;
to abolish; to put out; to
dak ro to get a divorce.
dak n. divorce; heartburn.
dak piny to scatter; to disperse.
dai to rub.
dai) wedding stick.
dai)e puffer fish that is slippery, has
false and true skin.
daqkeni to sorape all flesh off of
hide so it will dry well.
dai) ro some come: some go.
dap n. birth; to give birth (used for
humans only); to bear children.
dap jor to abort.
dapni right now.
dar amidst; middle; zenith.
dar, poss. dwar idiot.
dar dwar* or dar doar middle of
field; desert; uncultivated area;
uninhabited place; wilderness.
dare top of head.
dany- to hold out hands in
-dA suffix meaning my.
-dAn suffix meaning ours.
d Af) to remove bad part; to operate.
dArjdl how much; to the number of.
mi dAr red.
dAr one kind of red dura.
dA(r)dar greedy; stingy.
ram mi dA(r)dar elorj sponger.
dAt sore between cow's toes.
de able; can; should; would; shall;
might; could; fruit.
de jiath fruit of tree.
dec n. wrinkles.
dec- to choke; to strangle.
dec- to overcome you because too
der to hold burden on head without
-de suffix meaning its, hers, his.
del, det, poss. deel, deet* sheep.
del kwoth butterfly. [things).
del del thick, big, large (used with
deman, demani brother; demar,
deman my brother; demor,
do i)- ro
demon your brother; dcmandicn
dcqcck bad snake, green and white.
dcp- to annoy; to fish; to accuse;
to implicate; to tease.
dcp n. rope.
gwan dcp, poss. deep fisherman.
dep wan shoestrings.
deth- to carry.
diar gourd with neck.
diem the country that lies beyond;
dieq to fish (with spear and string).
dier iron beams used to support
diem to strain as strain milk.
dier wild animal; to fill in low places
dier, dicn pig.
dieth to beget; to calve; to give
birth to (used with animals).
dicthke parents; ancestors.
run tl diethke Jithath life of Jesus.
run tl kon tl dicthke jc life.
dil to stop up crevices; to fill up;
to mend; numb.
dil dil cannot see.
dioq to mix; grass which is cooked.
din inlet in river (not natural).
dit, diit song.
dit, di(t)ni roofer.
dit, comp. ditni big; large; great.
dit grown up; anxious; to esteem;
greedy in every way dit loc;
dit', dif, poss. din bird.
ram mi dit Iwac covetous person.
diu- to doubt.
-dlcn suffix meaning theirs, (added
to all numerals except 'six'
where -hen is used, to make
adjective out of noun as making
dlk certain grass, seed used for
dil perhaps; complete; persistently;
master; favorite; aristocracy of
Nuers, certain family and all
din now: surely: exactly.
dil) to sink.
dir to fertilize; to entice; to tempt;
to make trial; to obstruct; nose
stopped up; cold in head or
lungs; return of feeling after
numbness; deaf; always con-
cerned about others; respon-
do, de the young of anything;
offspring; lamb do dcel; de deet;
calf do yaij, de yok; core of sore.
doc to wither.
dor, poss. dar dwar* (or) doar steppe:
bush: open spaces; wilderness.
dol- tok to laugh.
dominyal calf with red spotted body.
dompiny night dance.
dony to crush; to nudge; to step on.
dony bul kingfisher.
do; dot) perhaps; maybe.
do bwol small drum.
dodicn, kokien other; another.
dok bead, large, white, oblong.
dolcni thulbuk collecting taxes.
doij- ro to roll about; to be restless.
dongoqkA class of Nuers about
40 years old now.
doq- to rap; to sift; to collect the
good only out of anything.
dor) bracelet made of many little
rings of ostrich shell.
doi), poss. duq n. knock; rap.
dop- to start fire.
du, dwaye do not.
du, ce wa du (it went calm) or (it is
calm) no wind; calm.
-du, -dun suffix meaning yours.
dual to nod.
duany- to beckon by winking.
duany ni pon (may nothing harm
you) special blessing.
duaq, mi duaq duaq aged; old.
dual) tet tendon in elbow.
duar to refuse what is offered; same
as "brother" when speaking to
due to dodge.
dui try me out.
dul long hair; cornsilk; dirt; clod
dulc bleached hair.
dull bricks to hold pot off fire.
dun to fall or ebb; dry.
duq of; very; if.
duq, nyin belonging to; belongings;
duol store; to assemble; n. congre-
duop flesh in bridge of nose.
duor to hold tightly.
du(r)dur early morning; dawn.
dut, poss. dwot grass used for roof-
ing, also called geu.
duth child which is weaned; to wean;
free gift; to pull stick out of
spear; to dance; to take up
dwac to beat; to whip.
dwac gcr to eat.
dwal to fear; to be afraid; fear.
dwal sheepskin as garment, worn
over woman's shoulder.
dwalc lazy; dwal pwony to be
ram mi dwal dwal coward.
dwany, dwanyi born a cripple.
dwany- to bend; entirely good.
dwaq breeze; air.
ram mi dwar fool.
dwek, dwlk common people.
dwi dwi small, black insects in water.
dwil, dwill house: (your) dwillu:
dwil bie, dwil bieni tent.
dwil gorA or dwil gorkA school,
dwil jail hotel, inn. [academy.
dwilwAl clinic; hospital.
dwir, dwiri sin; to sin.
gwan dwiri, jl dwiri sinner.
dwop, dup road; highway; path;
(use dup when exact path is
dwop dier iron bridge.
dwop mi gon gon winding road.
dwok to dress hair in fashion of
dwoq, duq shell of ostrich egg.
dwoq dancing because happy (used
with wedding talk only).
dwor, sing, thing; qwak, qwani
dwoth to relinguish; remainder;
bl dwothkien jik to subtract;
gur dwothkien to subtract.
dwcth jo k
dwoth jok person who is passed on
dwoth, dwoth large, black fish.
dyeny, dyenyi* baby basket; manger.
dhal- to astonish; to be dismayed;
dham dham idle; nonsense.
dhar, dhar I jar, large earthern pot.
dhar that earthern cooking pot.
dher) to bleed; to hemorrhage;
dhek dhek throbbing; ticking.
dhem bridge between fishtraps.
dhiel to lessen pain; to return to
place of; to return with; person
who stays in wilderness; one
who refuses to quarrel.
wal dhiel A sedative, opiate.
dhim to squeeze to take water out.
dhlai to dissolve.
dhlap to consume; brittle; very old.
gwan dhiatni one who boasts of self.
dhik dhik sound of footsteps.
dhlk- to constantly refuse to help.
dhol, dhoii, wic dhulA island.
dhol to abuse; to despise.
dhom to commit adultery.
ram ml dhoti not a real man; cie
dhor to hold tightly because afraid.
dhoc entirely full; to lean over in
front of*; to push or crowd
dhoal to call you for nothing.
dhol, dholl poss. dhol* boy.
dholi gorkA, ji gorka students.
ran dhop, ji dhop leper.
dhot- to doubt.
dhual to call to fight.
dhuc pouty person.
d hue to run fast; to jump high.
dhuk kile like turkey beard.
dhuk dhuk (or is it dhok dhok) fat.
dhuol to bring bride to home.
dhuor sorry (as when they throw
themselves on the ground and
cry because of grief).
dhuon, dhon small piece of.
dhur splash; bang; big ox.
dhur gwic rope net left to catch
foot of giraffe.
dhwor to get away.
e, en is.
ebuth, yot- ebuth to slap or to hit
edan one day sometime ago.
edhek to spurt out as ce WA edhek (it
e gik e gik stamping sound made by
ekuek at once.
eh k bang.
elli)- very (when used with full as
el or)* much; (very) or elurj-
eluk with a big slapping sound.
en I or an I where.
eno so; like this.
e ijuan what, same as eiju.
e ou e ou jingling.
epuc certainly; surely.
erac* very bad.
erau hazy like a mirage.
criath when all flee.
et et scratching sound; teke et et it
has scratching sound.
etyat to break in pieces; ce pen etyat
it fell in pieces.
eterj, entirely finished; ce WA eter) it
was entirely finished.
ethur to bang with stick as buk
ewa they say. [ethur.
ewac to revive.
ewic entirely; all of them.
eyat entirely: finished.
eyum entirely: very.
gaac* to be amazed; to be asto-
nished; to be surprised.
gak quarrel; to quarrel; vexed; to
gal to throng; to press upon.
gam to sing solo part; to help; to
assist; to deliver mother of
gan gankA generations to come;
gany to prickle as with needles in it.
gany, ganyni land crocodile.
gai) to protect; to guard; to turn;
protector; front part of wo-
man's dress made of narrow
strips of sheepskin tied together.
gar person who cuts tribal marks;
Nuer tribal marks; mark; man.
kwoth mi gar gar omnipresent god.
gat, gaat* child; gat mi kA firstborn;
gur ka kA second child; gaati
dan between second and last
child; gat mi gur youngest
child now; gat ml pek last
gat gankA generation ;• descendant;
gaat gankA (pi.).
gat gwani child of father or of uncle.
ci gat kam rar to abort.
gat kwan prince.
gat kel mi cedieth karo only begotten.
gat mi pai dap, gaati ti pai dap
gaum flower; (bud) gaum mi rul.
g Al to dally; to halt; to hesitate;
gAn large grass.
geu eaves; roofing grass.
geugenkA cr gegekA to recline.
gekA neighboring; nearby; at a
little distance; jl gekA neighbors.
ge(k)ni on all sides.
gel bony; gel (used for man) surroun-
ger comb of hen; to spread apart;
to separate; to steer or row a
boat; batwing Shullik hairdress.
get to bake, to fry.
geth- to scrape.
giAk to stutter; gikl do you stutter?
git to keep punching with spear.
git e git to be entirely finished with
giek beside. [food.
gil persuaded and persuaded; to
refuse; to argue; n. ebony.
gir to be hungry.
giric, gireni piaster.
gith to dip out water.
go good (pi. of migwaa).
gor- to write: gori bakel ke gwath
dareu to multiply; n. writing.
ji gorkA scribes.
gok, gokni monkey.
gok shell used for ornament; grass,
seed of which may be used for
gok butkA scab of sore.
gol to pass by; to go around; small
smudge fire in barn; home.
gol, gwath, poss. gollA, gwathni
jl gol the people of my place; as
ji gol I A the people of my place.
gon- to hold or carry in hand.
goi) blue beads used as headband;
to bend; to serve guests with
gop to remove top part; to take off:
to take a crosscut or bypath.
got got to be fidgety as teke got got.
goth to stand erect as ce jecde goth
he stood erect.
gu after while; exactly.
gual to go into fire ; to sing part song.
guan- to beg; to refuse to leave
guar], gwath mi la guai) cavern.
guar place where roof and walls
meet; chest and breast.
guat fruitlessly; kept fishing but
caught none; to go away on
river; to scrape a dish; also a
guath to remove scales from fish.
gueny to separate sticks in making
gu guk sheltered; gwath mi guguk
guk purse; bag; pocket; to retch.
guk raven; dove.
guk kwoth, gok kwoth prophet.
guk nyitni pleural cavity.
gul to be surrounded (used for
animals); traveler; to go ahead
of; wants it also duij gul e.
gul- to cool hot water by adding cold.
ml gul gul round with hole in center.
gule, gulke different.
gum not quite full; n. big gourd
with small opening in top.
gumut, gumuni owl.
gun string of bow; n. handle; skunk;
guny* to witness.
gunykA n. witness; jl gunykA wit-
gut) to stoop; ce ro gui) he stooped
gwath mi Ia tor
guocc, guoceni sword.
guok Adam's apple; to shut up; to
guok stiff, ci yetkA guk as my finger
guorj, guob guinea fowl.
guorj to widen when making fishnet.
guot, guotnl insect something like
grasshopper but back like big
gut to reach all the territory it
wanted to and to accomplish
gut pik pouty; to pout.
gur spitting snake; to search: to
seek: to want; to hunt; to wish.
guth act of standing on tiptoe; to
take by hand and drag out;
side of neck.
guwek* guwekni spoon.
guwek Iwac cartilage at end of
gwaa* pi. tigo good.
gwac to make a mistake; to connect;
to meet; to pass; n. mistake.
gwac- to be cross at each other.
gwac A pardon me; I am mistaken.
gwacni kc to exchange.
g wad in sir.
gwal corral for cattle; to bow; to
exchange; to take turns at work;
to relieve of burden.
gwal ken I rwac debating.
gwan father; (my) gwar; (your)
gur; (their) gwandicn; (our)
gwan barjni lucky person.
2 Huffman, Nuer-English
gwan bokm librarian.
gwan canyA person who is particular
about food; one who is prissy.
gwan deet, jl deet shepherd.
gwan dhomni adulterer.
gwan dhotA boaster,
gwan dor) grandfather.
gwan duothni person who smiles.
gwan kac liar.
gwanlen- uncle on father's side.
gwan liAkA boaster.
gwan nyakni unstable person: one
who is constantly changing
gwan riet mine lawyer.
gwan tielA hypocrite: miser: crabbed
gwan tietkA genius.
gwan thok* interpreter.
gwan thu father-in-law.
gwan thwokni humble person;
gwan wal quack doctor; medicine
gwai) axillary; sound of fish in
gwap rweini to slobber because
talking too fast.
gwath com bladder.
gwath mi dai stand or high place.
gwath kukA store.
gwath kwonykA grave.
gwath laakA, pi. gwath laakni
gwath mi luij lui) deep place.
gwath mi nAn nAn distant place.
gwath mi I a te thin abode.
gwath mi thAp valley; low place.
gwath ml I A tor honeycombed place.
gwathwAl hospital; clinic.
gwAr girl about puberty; to grind.
gwe bark of a dog.
gwec, gwic giraffe.
gwec kwoth prophecy.
gweny to step aside; to make way;
to separate; root of lotus, may
roast and eat it.
gwei) tiep small shrub, used as
gwce, gwi gravel.
gwel gwel to talk mixed languages.
gwet to attain; to scrape out.
gwet gwet to be undecided; locdA
te gwet gwet my heart is un-
gwi ice; hail.
gwic to see; to watch; to perceive.
gwice gwik to be still hungry.
gwi gwic insects, biting cattle before
gwi I to look for; to see; to examine.
gwilik small white headed bird.
gwir to touch; limit; to comb hair;
name of certain village.
gwit to rake.
gwith pride; stubbornness: proud:
gwith Iwac imagination.
gwop skin of person.
gwop bum hump on cow.
gwop waij eyelid; (upper lid) gwop
nhial; lower lid gwop piny,
gwok upper part of ear.
gwoi) hollowed out; to hew out: to
hull; ce jokde g wo I) to be tardy.
gwoi), gwoij hedgehog.
gwoij cuk flesh on upper part of leg.
gwoi* person who always goes by
self; chase; elephant; rock
rabbits; next; to pursue; to
gwoi", gwor mole.
gwor ivory armlet.
gwori short hair,
gwor jail armlet same as made of
gourd but made of different
thing, very white. Found at
Toe, none at Nasser.
gwor ken armlet made of gourd.
gwuij to stoop a little; to be bowed
gwuth- to pick fruit; to pull out
rei yaa* m * ne world.
yac, yAC fisherman.
yac to carry on head.
yai to swell up like rice in water.
yar* to spread.
yAn en I am here.
yer* to urge to take; large container
yoc* to be damp; to be wet; to warm
yoie pelvic region; hip; lumbar
yom trap as hole dug to catch
yor to revive; to restore; n. restorer,
yok* to push.
yok* cattle (pi.) of yai)-
yol* roofing grass.
yon* help me; tc try.
— 19 —
yon* to test; to measure.
yui to crawl on hands and feet with
back next to ground.
yuk* gourd with hole in top.
yunh to return from journey.
yur cupping to get blood out, small
cuts are made and then place
cow horn over cut and suck on
it to get blood out.
yut, yutni shelf; ledge.
yuth propeller; to journey.
IC, le no.
id I how.
imei fishing season ahead.
in-, tin- prefixes specifying parti-
cular — ; the.
in in which.
mbor, tinbor the white — .
indAn the thing that we were — .
inene like this.
I no thus.
mono the same.
intot, tintot the small — .
irun tomorrow; sometime in future;
indefinite time ahead.
ithiaij this afternoon.
ja it; him; her.
jac to reach; nhial to look up, to
shoot, (when thing shot at is
jacni first came to. — as jacni Gwir
first came to Gwir.
jaiA to want to leave, 1st. pers. sing.
jai ni jc to deny (falsely).
jakok crow; mirol crow with white
jak pany top of wall.
jal nausea; to belch.
jal to walk; to journey; visitor; WA
to rinse: a math to walk slowly;
jor to overflow: ke mal to
crawl; ke jok jok to walk
backwards; thok yiir to wade
in water at river bank; ibis;
jalAb, jalAbni arab merchant.
jalany bran soaked in water and
jany shallow; to prolong; to dally;
jai) to take.
jaij, jaai) servant.
jath to be sorry; sorrow as ci locdA
jath am sorry.
jath, jen; poss. jiath, jien tree; jath
dun, yar also called jath yai) is
a certain club.
jAk to jump up and down; to shake;
to churn; to send a person.
JAr, JAN shoulder.
jec to scrape the black off.
jec, poss. jic* abdomen; stomach;
je her; him; it.
jec* to stand up; nhial to lift up.
jen he; she; it.
jen badak eighty.
jen badak wicde kel eighty-one.
jen badak wicde reu eighty-two.
jen badak wicde dyok eighty-three.
jen badak wicde ijwan
en badak wicde ijwan eighty-four.
en badak wicde dhyec eighty-five.
en badak wicde bakel eighty-six.
en badak wicde baro eighty-seven.
en badak wicde badak eighty-eight.
en badak wicde baijwan eighty-nine.
en bakel sixty.
en bakel wicde kel sixty-one.
en bakel wicde reu sixty-two.
en bakel wicde dyok sixty-three.
en bakel wicde ijwan sixty-four.
en bakel wicde dhyec sixty-five.
en bakel wicde bakel sixty-six.
en bakel wicde baro sixty-seven.
en bakel wicde badak sixty-eight.
en bakel wicde baijwan sixty-nine.
en baijwan ninety.
en baijwan wicde kel ninety-one.
en baijwan wicde reu ninety-two.
en barjwan wicde dyok ninety-three.
en baijwan wicde ijwan ninety-four.
en baijwan wicde dhyec ninety-five.
en baijwan wicde bakel ninety-six.
en baijwan wicde baro ninety-seven.
en baijwan wicde badak ninety-
jen baijwan wicde baijwan ninety-
jen baro seventy.
jen baro wicde kel seventy-one.
jen baro wicde reu seventy-two.
jen baro wicde dyok seventy-three.
jen baro wicde ijwan seventy-four.
jen baro wicde dhyec seventy-five.
jen baro wicde bakel seventy-six.
jen baro wicde baro seventy-seven.
jen baro wicde badak seventy-eight.
jen baro wicde baijwan seventy-nine.
jen dhyec fifty.
jen dhyec wicde kel fifty-one.
en dhyec wicde reu fifty-two.
en dhyec wicde dyok fifty-three.
en dhyec wicde ijwan fifty-four.
en dhyec wicde dhyec fifty-five.
en dhyec wicde bakel fifty-six.
en dhyec wicde baro fifty-seven.
en dhyec wicde badak fifty-eight.
en dhyec wicde baijwan fifty-nine.
en dyok thirty.
en dyok wicde kel thirty one.
en dyok wicde reu thirty two.
en dyok wicde dyok thirty three.
en dyok wicde ijwan thirty four,
en dyok wicde dhyec thirty five.
en dyok wicde bakel thirty six.
en dyok wicde baro thirty seven.
en dyok wicde badak thirty eight.
en dyek wicde baijwan thirty nine.
ene it is here.
en ijwan forty.
en ijwan wicde kel forty-one.
en ijwan wicde reu forty-two.
en ijwan wicde dyok forty-three.
en ijwan wicde ijwan forty-four.
en ijwan wicde dhyec forty-five.
en ijwan wicde bakel forty-six.
en ijwan wicde baro forty-seven.
en ijwan wicde badak forty-eight.
en ijwan wicde barjwan forty-nine.
ereu wicde kel twenty-one.
ereu wicde reu twenty-two.
ereu wicde dyok twenty-three.
ereu wicde ijwan twenty-four.
ereu wicde dhyec twenty-five.
ereu wicde bakel twenty-six.
ereu wicde baro twenty-seven.
ereu wicde badak twenty-eight.
ereu wicde baijwan twenty-nine.
eth to wade across; to cross over.
— 21 —
ji clatter; noise.
jiai the people ,of.
jie to sting as when hand touches ice.
jith to stop raining.
jiu, jiuni, poss. jio well.
jl, ye you.
jl gekA neighbors.
dui) jic, nym jic abdominal.
jlk* to find.
jl ke people; relations.
j 1 1 chaff.
jin, yen (nom. form); jl, ye (ob-
jin to lie down: to rest; to lie awake.
jli) thui strong grass used for
jl tietkA yaa prophets.
jlth Iwac auricle.
jo voice; sound.
jom wind; season of cool winds; to
jo I) to forget for a minute.
jony itches; to scratch; n. juny.
jop to fell; to chop.
jop to shrink, ci ro jop it shrunk
b A joe I will see about it (used in 1st
tet joe crippled (without one hand).
joe to be stranded; somewhat dry
but not entirely.
jok bones of cervical region; back
(poss. jok)*; surely; behind;
certainly; ghost; of a truth;
cattle and sheep disease but
they are different.
jok, jokni week.
ce ben kA jok tardy.
jok wee back of village.
jol in succession.
jo i) to lie down ce rode jorj as he laid
jor (ajor) absent; to be lost; outside;
to run outside alone.
jot kel one pound Egyptian; ten.
juak udder; one kind of red dura.
juan (bi ci ro juan) to wrinkle; (the
cloth wrinkled itself).
juat feather; kot- feather fan.
judol red and white ox.
juik aluminum hearts made to wear
juk thuom crossbar of fiddle.
juk thill k, juk thillkni bicycle.
juk (mtot) dog; (indit) horse.
juk- to plaster part way up wall
(CA juk ke cement).
juk lee fish that bites.
juk mwon top (toy for children).
juk nyApec coyote; wild horse.
Jul only living child ; one kind of fish.
Jul certain headdress for woman,
4 turfs of hair left on head to
show she has but one child.
Jul A to pick a quarrel.
jum cheek; jawbone.
juntoc black and white ox with
green head (extinct now).
juoc to chase; to run off.
riem be juoc to bruise.
juok- to jump in (cike ro juokni yir)
they jumped in river).
— 22 —
juok cukA metatarsal.
juol, jol hip joint.
jup, jupni ax.
jur, juri sore coming without any
cause seemingly and dis-
jurr, jurr foreignor.
jut to annoy; to urge persistently; to
tease; to pester.
jut, ju It old maid.
juth Jews; ran Juth, ji Juth Jew.
juk- to say; to reply.
jur) very hot water but not boiling.
jur), jur) a very high platform; rack
for dura heads; shelter for
jwac, rei jwa(c)ni grass; rei juol in
certain kind of grass.
ram mi jwar grasping.
jwath one kind of fish.
jwath tet, jwath tetni forearm.
jwe, jwath poss. jwathni sickness;
disease, illness; jl jwathni the
jwot long stick with ambatch head
that is carried by newly gar- ed
jyarj- to skin animal.
jyek* bad; dirty; (Iwac) mad; a
locdu CI jyek cheer up; jyek e
jyek very bad; gwan jyekni, ji
jyekni* devil; demon; jyek
erac* very bad.
ka or; but: to.
kaam gateway or passageway.
kac to sting; to pinch one's body
between wood; to lie; to deny;
to bite; n. lie.
ml kac kac bitey (like peppers).
kac- nh lam to pass another on path,
kac piny to alight; to step down;
kac riem artery.
kai satisfied (used with water only);
to quench thirst.
kak, kak, poss. rei kakA, rei kakni
kak to hunt.
kal, kaal fence; wall around yard.
kal kal small skin for rug; hot water
kal Iwac fatty covering of heart.
kam pamni valley.
kam puothni ke nyiet pleural cavity.
kam ral cartilage.
kan to appropriate; to escape; to
save; to take; to steal; to go
kan, kenne used with negative; not.
kany to rise; rising.
kany car) east.
kany dwil to come in.
kany- to want to take hold.
kany i)uok north winds; winter
kany rar to jump in or down.
kai) kwar, kai) kwari kingfisher.
kai) to deceive; to fool.
kar) cornet; whistle: mouth organ;
kap forceps; pliers; thong.
kap(de) tail of fish.
kapeni shaking dura to get fine out;
kap tick sing, kapni tick pi. hinge.
kap rac n. catch (of fish).
kap yie, kap yieni food which may be
eaten raw while awaiting cooked
kar branch or bough of tree; to cut
in long strips as cutting meat.
kar A, karo; karo I only; only; they
kat, kat bird like hawk.
kat, katnl sleeping place for women
in fishing camp.
kat A meat and mush eaten together
but cooked separately; salt.
kat kat to be very sharp teke kat kat.
katipe vegetable like potato.
cyek mi kau, man ti kath bride;
newly married woman.
kA, ke seed and fiber in gourd; pulp.
kAk reputation; report; to cleai
one's throat; to split.
kAk to spread apart as ce cukke
kAk piny he spread his feet
kAl to court a girl; ce WA kAl he went
kAlam Nuer hoe.
kAm to give (when one must walk to
get it, use kAm; when hand it
kAp to catch; to take hold of; to
el piny kAp calm.
kArakon jail; prison.
kAr kAr, kAr kAN spider; web.
kAth bile; breast of cow; rust; mold;
to stumble on (ca cukdA nak
ke kAth); gallbladder.
ke path between neighbors.
kea certain herb.
kec to be angry; quarrel which
started with play.
keel to urge to go.
kec I kA to call off dog; big talk; loud.
keu reedbuck; bushbuck; chest.
key A certain grass, women eat it
cooked, young men refuse it,
old men eat it.
ke with; and; from; them.
keac wooden beads.
keac, kec dura birds.
kedl how many.
kek to draw lines on paper: to
scratch (ce ya kek) it scratched
kek, kekni, poss. kik* dike.
keloi), keloijni squash; pumpkin.
ken, kan, ci not; sign of negative.
kendial all of them.
kendial ewic every one of them.
kenke sign of negative pi. not.
ker to awaken; to scratch on ground
as bith mi ker ran piny fishing
spear which one scratches on
ground; to cut little cuts on
body to let blood out; nail worn
in upper lip of Nuer girl and
in lower lip of Anuak girl.
ker foundation of house.
ker, ken gourd.
ker ker, ker ken lizard.
ker u I) w An morning; in the morning.
ket burnt work on gourd.
ket to swim; to sing; to shake rattle
— 24 —
to quiet child; club; bird with
long, red legs, white breast,
brown back; walking stick (pi.
kete surely; now. to laud.
keteth red peppers, also called ml
keue to declare (falsely); to ask
emphatically is it I ?
kick (ca wicdA kick juat) to put
ornament in or on head; put
feather on my head,
kieldokral bird with beard, long legs.
kicr certain kind of club; name of
tree; loss of appetite today;
when rainy season wants to
kil saddle billed jaribu; maribou.
kirn, kimni doctor; physician.
kir to bloat; gas rumbling in bowels
(ci jecdA kir).
kit ke tok to laugh heartily.
-klcn pi. suffix meaning theirs; sing.
kll, kill rhinoceros.
kin I incessantly; repeatedly.
kir, kin, poss. klir river.
kith cow urine.
kith to sprinkle; to sow; to plant
koc cold; to sew: to mend; weak as
koc c te.
kocdlcn the first of them.
kok to ache.
kom to husk; to thrash.
kom, kuam worm.
kom yak A mushroom shaped thing
that gTows in ground, not
kop (Ia dwopde e kope), as mole
kok, gwath kokA grave.
kok all broken up ci rol kok keliu
all the country broken up or
destroyed; to buy; to sell; to
barter; to be stranded; to
trade; to be kind; to comfort.
kokien pi. of dodlen others.
kol to dodge; to fan; tallow; horse-
tail used as fan.
kom, komni chair; Nuer pillow for
kom bie, kom bieni our kind of
kon, (nom.), ko (obj.) we.
kon; kone first.
kondial kel all of us together.
kone I and — .
koij to welcome; to hasten to; big
kop to distend as balloon blown up;
to be swollen, used for ground
and dead animals; certain grass
kor, kur war.
kor after; behind.
kor qaii), kori big fight between
kot to hang up; to climb; vine with
kot nhial to fly.
koth to fertilize.
ku seems to express habitual action.
-ku, -kun suffix meaning yours.
kuak trap for animals.
kuAk to grab unexpectedly; kAp €
kuAk to grab when they are not
kual, kual calf.
kuaq intoxicating drink.
kuat to hide.
kuath to tie together with grass.
kuc n. sewing; to restore.
kuit, kui(t)ni ivory armlet.
kuk kindness: to utter a series of
kuk, poss. kukA hole as hole in tree.
kuk kwoth sacrifice.
kul skin to sleep or sit on; Nuer bed;
disease which draws one's body
ku lo nien a gwaa (sing.) goodby;
kwa lo nien a gwaa (pi.) goodby
(when bidding several goodby).
kul yo metal rug.
kum husk of corn; eggshell; pod; to
kum, kumni hat; lid; cover.
kum jiath bark of tree.
kumekumto keep hitting; sound of
sticks as they hit fish.
kum lai) steel helmet.
kun, kwoan pi. poss. kwoanni rat.
kul) n. race; to race.
kuoc buffalo that goes off by itself;
to run off by oneself.
ram mi kuoc stingy man; miser;
kuom grunt; to cast a shadow.
kuon to refuse to eat with one
because they have quarrelled,
ci mith kuon.
kuok to be faint from hunger; to die
kup kupni mush well cooked.
kur cleaver; finger joints; to scratch
ram mi kur proficient or clever
ran kur, nei tl kur warrior,
kurrien their war.
kur dAf) reu two hundred; kur dyok
three hundred; kur dArj ijwan
four hundred; kur dArj dhyec
kur 1 1 bath dor all large numbers.
kut, kuni shield; step; cane along
river; place of the buffalo.
kut beside; dry.
kut kut, kut ku(t)ni colt; pup.
kuth tall grass in swamp; reed.
kuth midit swampy.
kwA little, scant.
ml kwA car] erne sometime soon.
kwac kwac* soft.
kwac, kwacni leopard.
kwac yir kingfisher.
kwac spotted ; to scratch : to sharpen,
used for pointing big things, not
used for pencils ; to dig out roots
of trees; bead, oblong, thin,
many colored, worn singly; fin.
kwai seeds for planting as seedcorn.
kwak sore which persistently stays
bad ram mi teke kwak (person
who has persistent sore).
kwakA, pi. of twok dishes.
kwal to steal.
kwal tot finger or toe nail.
ke kwal stealthily; secretly.
kwallan, kwallani one kind of bird,
kwan kwan, kwan kwannilobeofear.
kwany to pick up; to collect; to
gather; to rake.
kwany cuk to learn to walk as baby
kwany kwany to walk carefully.
kwaqle to float or to swim on back.
kwar, kwaar chief.
kwat small pimples on neck where
hair is shaved.
kwAl part of husk of dura.
kwAr to gather.
kwAt, kwAtni nerve of body.
kwe, kwith fishing eagle (or is it
kwe bot bot cuckoo.
kwec-, do not know kwac-, l 9t pers.
sing; kwic- is also used in 3d.
kwec to hoe grass; to hoe ground
when no rain as yet.
kwer to wrestle, kwir is one form.
kwer no grass.
kwe wanting to return.
kwek to husk; to hull; to peel.
kwel to be spongy.
kwel a yok certain constellation of
yaq mi kwelitA cow, brown body,
kwem disease something like yaws.
kwen to wear upper and lower
bracelets; to count; to find;
(amath) talk slowly; (jo) read
aloud; ci nhiemde kwen to bind
hair on account of sorrow.
kwen* to marry.
kwen ku nyuor when wedding talk
kwet, kwet tortoise; turtle.
kwet to kick.
kwet calf that is weaned.
kwi for; small elephant; why.
ram mi kwi mithde one who eats
kwic side; yonder; across.
kwicimi opposite side,
kwiel small hiding place.
kwieny (pi bi kwieny pwonyde) to run
off as water when body is
greased (water will run off his
kwik eagle. [body).
kwiny to toss about; to move about;
to bully; to torment; to pick
up with hand.
kwiny kwiny fussy; ashamed (teke
kwiye, kwike few; scant; too small;
kwi a smaller.
kwi I, kwel hole in anything: star.
kwi I A yuk little dipper.
kwil Clke ro luai certain constellation
kwil le jok milky way.
kwir to fall; threw spear at him.
kwir kec to wrestle until they are
kwit male lamb.
kwit- v. beating of heart; n. heart
kwith to curse; n. curse.
kwith kwal (ram mi kwith kwal)
one brave about hunger.
kwoan (ce kwoan) to be mad, (he
kwoc, kwoc instep.
kwom to cover up; (piny) to cover.
kwony (can) setting sun; to bury.
kwor, kur hundred.
kwor kel one hundred; kwor kel
wicde kel one hundred one;
kwor kel wicde reu one hundred
two; kwor kel wicde dyok one
hundred three; kwor kel wicde
wal one hundred ten; kwor kel
wicde wal wicde kel one hundred
eleven; kwor kel wicde jereu one
hundred twenty; kwor kel wicde
jereu wicde reu one hundred
kwoth a small fish; to snort; to
whistle as ci ryei kan. kwoth;
as the boat blew whistle.
cak kwoth monstrosity.
kwoth, kuth* God.
kwok, kwi, poss. pi. kwini thorn; fork.
kwok must; to force one to; occiput.
kwol wristlet of black and white
beads worn by man whose wife
is pregnant to protect him from
sores and cuts.
kwor joint of finger.
kwore piny to count age less than
kwot to adorn body in order to
attract one of opposite sex.
kwot, kwotnl ardeb tree.
kwut, kwuni suitor.
labith, labitheni fishhook.
lac to defecate; menses.
lajok one class of Nuers; (of long
ago, all dead now).
lak to graze; to wash; to slobber;
to foam at mouth.
bl wicde lak ke pi kwoth to baptize.
lak lak e ke to dream.
lal- to pierce.
lam to curse: to imprecate.
lambA lamp; candle.
Ian Ian very good.
lany* to put ashes on hair to bleach
laij lai), poss. Ian laqni swing.
laijerep, larjerepni Sudani bed.
lapA adv. like.
lap a bitl to be still and refuse to
lar to tell; to say; to go slowly.
lar lar to go to tell the news.
I at work; job; to work; to speak.
lat e wicde karo to support, literally,
(work is on his head only).
lat ke lat to visit.
lat mi bee bee hard work.
lat- luar working for pleasure.
lat- riak working for necessities of
lath to put; to call; to entice; to
tremble; to put on airs; affec-
lath corns as on feet.
lath ken soldiers.
lath- lieth wic- to anoint.
lath puk to sift ashes.
lau- one section of Nuerland.
laue of soft consistency like prepared
I A always; -I A suffix meaning my,
used with nowns ending in 1.
I At) to request; to beseech; to
petition; brass bracelets; ring;
lAp to be very hot as sun is hot;
v. to lap.
lAt, let, poss. leet, leni orge.
I At comb.
lee, lee tooth.
lecke nyieny to make a face when
eating something bitter,
lei, lei, poss. leini wild animal.
lek- to shut.
lek, poss. lek certain large fish,
I eke to ruminate.
te lek lek to rock.
lei- to eat; to do; to make.
thlle ml lei it makes no difference.
lenye, lenyke comparative form;
leu tuber resembling potato.
leu, leuni oar; bamboo.
le repeatedly but not always; again;
-le suffix meaning its, hers, his
used with nouns ending in 1.
lem lem to go a little ways, stop, then
go on; te lem lem.
lei) almost fell.
Icp to open.
lep, leep tongue.
Icp lep strips: shreds; to eat skin
that is blistered.
lep tot fangs of snake.
ler to roll; awhile.
let, poss. leet waist; dorsal vertebrae.
leth perspiration; hot.
lia, poss. Math death.
Mac dried fish.
Mac pregnant, used with cattle.
liak to praise; to commend; to
praise with words ; (ro) to boast.
gwan MakA, ji MakA boaster; hypo-
Mam to mix; to spy out; to mingle
Mai)- to open mouth forcibly.
liAk to tickle.
MaI to peek at when provoked; to
lide kel same form.
lieny harpoon used by Anuaks to
lieny kwoth judgment of God.
Mel, liell stream; tributary of river.
Mel jok backbone.
lier- to cut.
Met (ci pi Met A cikA gwi) to freeze,
the water froze when it became
Meth grease of any kind; fat; oil;
place to tie cattle.
lik heart throbbing (c I loeda WA lik)
my heart throbbed.
Ml- to drink all of it; to empty; to
liny, linyni flea.
lip-, to wait. 2nd. person, sing.
Mpni, 2nd. person, plural liape..
lip nyal fiance.
liu to perish; to die.
I lap to mix together.
Iiap hap to blink as teke hap hap
he is blinking.
I I ail chronic illness.
-hen suffix added to nouns ending
in 1, meaning theirs.
— 29 —
llercni class of Nuers whose tribal
marks were out in 1926.
Ilet, poss. Iltk A sand.
Mm to beg; when cold winds start
and then warm weather comes
lime sweet. [again.
Iim Mm delicious.
liny to sort out.
Ill) to throw down as in wrestling.
Ill)- to hear.
WA III) entirely full.
line kA biete dumb but not deaf.
lip fishing bird.
lire to melt.
Iith (biel mi lith) tan.
Iithgaac intot, hthgaac indit- classes
of Nuers. The Iithgaac intot is
about 20 to 25 years old now.
The Iithgaac indit is about
25 or 26 years old now.
lok trigger of gun; belt of cane
stalks worn by newly gar- ed
lony* to loosen; to untie.
lony* poss. luony lion.
lop to cock; to put food on fire to
lou big water animal much feared
(now extinct, possibly mythical)
lou white hair.
loc* luc, poss. Iwac*, lucni heart;
loc cuk center of sole of foot; loc tet
center of palm of hand,
locdaa hearts of all of us.
loip- fever; to be feverish.
lok to blow away.
lok lok when food is cooking and
spatters out of pot; teke lok lok.
lokothiai, lokothiaieni mosquito net.
lol to take out; to pluck out; place
where the river is deep.
loi)- to rest.
loi) gut crooked staff.
loi) ro never mind,
lor- to go to meet.
lore empty; naked.
lorke to sacrifice.
lot heart beat.
loth cotton; thread.
lotkero to follow after.
lok-* to refuse; n. refusal; ci ro lok
to commit suicide; ce lok eloi)
to abhor; lok- to search; to go to
one place and then another.
-lu, -lun suffix for nouns (ending in
1), meaning yours.
lua to always come when person is
luac gum of tree; wax.'
Iliac luac spongy.
luai to file in; to lower (may also use
luak, luek barn.
lual skinned place that hurts.
lualdit poisonous snake, red, also
luai), luai) fly.
luai) luai) to stroll slowly.
luar to recede.
luc, luc cattle stakes.
luc to change mind; to return from;
elevated; n. sterile (man).
luc ke thok to translate.
luek to admonish; to reason with;
to reprove; n. peacemaker.
luck, lulk discipline.
luel to exchange; to replace.
luei) to assent; to poison: n. poison.
lull to exchange things of equal
luk to hunt; to spread; n. navel.
luk locdu ke yA forgive me.
luk luk tadpoles.
lukni- to go along river instead of
lum prayer; lover; to court,
lundur machine gun.
luny* to return.
luny bi pwonydu put your clothes
on; to dress.
luny- loc to forgive; to have mercy.
luny nhial fish that falls with rain,
luny (or) luony to leak.
luny thieni moles.
luny wicde jor to overflow.
lui) tuber like potato, requires much
lui) ro stand on your head.
lui) artificial respiration; deep.
lui) lui) steep.
luoce to repeat.
luoc luoc higher slope, not a hill.
luoi, nei ti luoini person who cannot
luoke to fly over.
luom courtship; small dance; news
of dance; to slander.
luor tree with red trunk, thorny; to
be tied loosely.
luot to be afraid; impregnation when
child is not weaned; muscles of
back; abscess; east; west;
CA ro luot they match.
CI ro luot piny as snake going in hole.
luot to be partly cooked.
luoth early morning.
lut to impregnate when child is
nursing as ce gat lut.
lut to advance head down; to put
head to ground; to belch.
luth elephant trunk.
luth fish that stays in swamp or dry
land, makes cacoon.
luth- to tell bad — .
luthrun morning rain.
Iutke(nyure lutke) to be idle; unused.
luth, luth bell.
lUAk to help.
lui)* to call.
Iwak, Iwek snail; mussel; oyster.
Iwany* to soak.
Iwai), ci locde ku Iwai) to be happy.
IwAi) to help; help; aid; able.
Iwceth* to suckle ci man gat Iwccth.
Iweth* gat cc man Iweth to nurse.
Iwilwi, Iwilwini duck.
lyec to look upward.
ma(r) mother, directly addressed.
maath*pl. maathni friend; friendship
mac gun; labor pains; to cheat.
mac din shotgun.
do mac, de mac shell for gun ; n. shot.
mad in title for older woman,
mai to fish.
mai tei A to fish by wading in swamps.
mal greeting; easy; light; peaceful;
male sound; in good shape; safe.
mall, malu, male direct greeting
mam to hit.
mamero to change mind right now.
man, poss. mani mother; women
(pi. only as cyek is singular
mandoi), mardoi) grandmother; my
man gAnke daughter-in-law.
man l car] kel never.
mani jak never.
mani pai I co lee never (emphati-
cally) used when there is great
manlieth, manhethni hawk.
man pAlek, man pAle(k)ni hen;
manyan, honored surname among
Nuers for girls.
manytAp, manytApni maize; corn.
mai), poss. maijkA wave.
mar, mor my mother; your mother.
thile ke mar, duqdien gak what we
call jealousy among men (li-
terally, they no friendship, be-
longing to them quarrel).
mar- to guess; to speak false rumors
marAk to call with loud voice tc
place where fish are found.
mare family of brothers and sisters.
mar man riddle; trick.
mar nhial thunder; lightning.
marthu, morthu, manthu my mother-
in- law; your mother-in-law;
mat to fold; to multiply; to add.
math to reconcile as math nei ro; we
math* to drink.
math to absorb; to ally with;
mA slang 'kid', used by men
mAt to go outside and afterwhile
me introducing time clause of
mei poss. mai fishing season.
me; ml if.
meAt n. plot,
meedan* sometime ago.
meepan ke caqdAr yesterday noon.
mek- to choose.
mekanA machine gun; engine; sewing
nicker one class of Nuers, now about
50 — 55 years old.
me me this.
men to weave as a fishnet; to turn
as winding road; bl candle WA
men to put top on.
mepethlth district commissioner.
mer to opine that it surely did look
like — ; to lighten as with lamp;
to stay absent; tears; vitreous
mer mer dazzling.
merun the next day.
met to taste; to plot; to deceive; to
fool; to beguile.
met never; anus.
mewalkA, mewmkA, mcwin, mewal
mi giraffe hair.
miak, miakni insect always biting
mien to pinch; to slam ci thok dwil
ro mien; the door of the house
miei) deaf, dumb or both, n. mir).
mier y&a. sunset.
miet to catch hand in door; to tread
on each other; to shut as
mi (et) ni yetku; shut your
hand; ca thukkien miet their
mouths were shut.
mile glutted; satiated.
min min muscles of upper arm.
miot, mioni hoof.
mit, mieni fireworm.
mit, mit firefly.
mith food; to eat.
mi which; introducing relative
mi bar, or mi bar bar tall; very tall.
mibor, tibor white.
micor, ticur blind.
midit, tidit; big.
milual, tilual red.
ml mi this (when thing is at a little
m I n since ; when ; to fight very much.
mmdan awhile ago.
mm war last night.
minwArui) this morning.
mil) to sorrow.
mir to remember; to hit, same as
mir to refuse to lend to friend.
au mir evening; WA mir to go at
mir mir faintly.
mirnyin head band of beads.
mit, mm mini big limb of tree.
mit smudge fire in barn; fireplace in
mit to snap fingers.
mitath big (used with spear only).
mi thar last year.
mi thar ke je year before last.
mi tlth red.
mi toe green; yellow.
mi toe yil green.
mi yil blue.
mi yil car brown.
ml yil lual seal brown.
mi yil liet purple.
mi wal mei last fishing season.
mo sign of emphatic action.
moc to give; to sting ci pien e moc.
moc, muc n. gift.
moc-pwony ke bi to dress.
mom piny unexpectedly; surprised.
mok to rise as river rises.
molA* day after tomorrow.
molA dodlen day after day after
molthin to cover over,
mo mo that.
mon, to visit; visit.
gwAth mon,k A visiting room or space,
mony to blow and spit on one when
greeting one ; also a work of t he
mor to massage with hot water.
nei ni dial
mor eastern part of Lau country,
opposite section called Guny.
mor mor certain kind of large ant.
mot to be faint.
moth secretly; plot.
muac to mention name of one's pet
steer when praising; to call
muany- to husk by rolling grain in
ram mi muc generous person.
mill carbuncle; boil; cartilage.
mul, mull mule.
mum, muomni roan antelope.
mun, poss. mwon* dirt; ground.
muom to run away ci jin e muom
you ran away.
muoc to spatter out of kettle; to
muok part of fish that is bad.
muol, mual knee.
muol to cover as cover seeds with
ground; to press dirt over seed
muol muol gentle.
muor to slumber lightly.
muot sightless; blind.
muot A coi very sharp.
muoth- to sharpen; to bite hard food
as toast; to gnaw.
muoth atlth to eat but not finish
meal; to eat raw food.
rei muoth in the darkness.
murkir tail of gourd.
mut, muni spear.
mut name of Nuer god; blinded; to
splice; to sacrifice on account of
death of person; to leave off
mourning; to shave; something
3 Huffman, Nuer-English
about menstruation; sexual in-
muth dark of moon.
mual to crawl.
mUAm to swallow as fish does bait.
muath muath silently; to whisper.
muk to reverse as ci ro muk jok
it reversed itself.
mul, mull enlarged knee.
mum to eat; small pieces.
muon to faint
mwaa* to drown.
nac cow which has not yet calved.
nai to wrap around; to twine around.
nak n. death; to kill.
nam to accompany.
nai) to take away.
nar uncle on mother's side.
nar mwon fishworm.
naye- to climb as a vine.
nAk sour milk; buttermilk; to eat;
shelf; to be entirely finished
with food as ce nAk piny.
nAn nAn at a distance.
nApec disease of cattle and sheep.
nedial, nadial everybody; all the
neeke* his people; disciples.
nei* we; it is.
nei, na people.
nei ni dial all of the people.
nei ti bor
nei tl bor white people; Caucasians.
nei tl dit adults.
nei tl luek, helpers; partners; nei tl
lue(k)ni helpers; partners.
nei ti nath Nuers.
nei tl wal people of long ago.
nei tl yAni yellow people.
nenike descendants; generations yet
ner to salute.
ncn* to see.
ncn, nenni mirror.
nie din dim immediately; now.
nien sleep; to sleep.
nicn ke wil interrupted sleep.
ci nicnu, nicn gaatku a gwaa gree-
tings do you sleep well; are
your children well.
nict wax in ear; dirt which collects
on bodv; rust.
nie tame pany immediately; now.
nieth to be senseless; obstinate;
nin nights; to pass the time.
nil) very narrow; when one is
smaller or undeveloped as CI
cuk NyApini nirj (the foot of
NyApini is undeveloped or
noc- to sweep up dirt in dustpan.
no mm bel when dura is very fine.
nompiny- class of Nuers of long ago
all dead now.
nor]- to bring.
nor Old Nasser.
nor- to pound it fine; to bruise.
nuai meat and mush cooked to-
nil an quite dirty; very bad.
nuanc tough as meat is tough.
nuar certain kind of white dura.
nuer- v. people of murdered person
never eat with relatives of mur-
nuir to never die; to live forever.
nuk to fish with fishing spear.
nuk, nukm blue heron.
nuoi) to travel, same as uth.
nuor to fall to pieces; tender.
nuor; nuon tired.
nuor- to kill.
nuor, nur trunk of dom palm.
nup flour; finely pounded dura.
nup to invite; to send word.
nhial heaven; sky; up.
ran nhial, ji nhial angel.
ci nhial dAm to rain.
nhial gil a dAm to rain steadily.
nhial ci mar to thunder and light-
CI nhial ijok rainy season stopped.
nhiam face; forward; in front of;
nhian well nourished.
nhiem pieth short hair; bobbed hair.
nhiem thok mustache; whiskers.
nhir, nhir water tortoise.
nhir- lat perfect work; no mistakes;
nhir-rwac perfect words; no mis-
mi nyu nyu
nhlt to use a cane.
nhok to agree; to be willing; to
acquiesce; to be satisfied.
nhok* to love; to assent.
nhok* n. love; assent; order.
nyac harvesting season; teke nyac;
to have but little vision.
nyak to throw away something you
are very fond of; to take away;
n. jealousy, used with women
nyakai) poisonous snake.
nyak war, daughter of chief; princess.
nyal, nyier girl.
nyal can girl who has never deve-
loped and cannot bear children.
nyal co sterile woman.
nyaleci ual certain kind of white dura.
nyalotkwok certain kind of white
nyal lual variegated red.
nyal pam daughter of mountain.
nyal pini slime on top of water.
nyam, nyier; nyiti (directly addres-
nyam mi dik dik nice girl.
nyam mi rier rier flirt.
nyA nyade, nyA gatde girl grandchild.
nyA nyiman, nyA deman niece.
nyancek certain kind of white dura.
nyai) to be saturated; soaked; to
wallow in; brown.
nyai), nyur) crocodile.
nyaijgeri spears used by Anuaks to
pay for wives.
nyar gum of mouth.
nyawuthgul certain red dura, very
nyeu, nyeuni cat.
nyeth to imitate; to mock; to echo.
nyiAm lower front teeth which Nuers
nyieny- mad; fighting.
nyith, nyith mosquito.
nyier dwil gcrkA schoolgirls.
nyier tl jiet fully developed girls.
nyik, nyikni the fellow wife.
nyikarj certain kind of white dura.
nyiman, nyimani sister; (my)
nyimar; (your) nyimor.
nyin property; belongings.
nym jalA baggage.
le nym nathi where is your faith?
nyin yar name of yellow cow.
nyipatl certain kind of white dura,
nyir n. hate; to hate.
nyireu certain kind of white dura.
nyith to try.
nyith person who has all they need
but is continually asking for
nyith nyith naughty.
nyor to warm a portion of body.
nyok to repeat.
nyok, nyok louse.
nyok ke lep to reopen.
nyole to cry repeatedly.
nyai) to climb or twine as vine.
nyop- to knead; to mix.
nyop to be lazy; (ram mi) lazy
nyot to stir; to mix.
mi nyu nyu small, like small writing.
— 36 —
nyuac to long for.
nyuak to eat roasted part of partly
roasted fish; man who will
inherit wife; one who eats with
mi nyuany to have teeth as fish
nyuany gau cameleon.
nyuani white beads.
nyuat name of tree used for splicing
nyuAr sprinkle of rain,
nyuen en in to stampede.
nyuen, nyueni spiked bracelet.
nyueny animal somewhat like land
nyuer to notch ornaments.
nyuer, nyueer raindrop.
nyuit to touch in passing.
nyurj- to strain intoxicating drink
nyuon to wrinkle up.
nyuoi), also nyuij to wrap around; to
nyuony disease somewhat like yaws.
nyuoth- to show; to point out.
nyuothkA n. showing.
nyur- to sit.
nyur- amath peaceful.
nyur mul mull to knell.
nyur ke nyurrien to sit quietly as
they sit quietly cike nyur ke
nyum nyum, nyum nyumni canni-
nywei* to chew; to masticate.
ija, eija who.
ijaac* to milk.
ijaac del female lamb.
qac* to know.
i)ac momo ke Iwacdu do you believe
rjak man! (exclamation).
i)ak nom to argue; to contradict.
I) ale large bracelet; thin wristlet;
wristlet with two prongs.
i) am to open as open mouth; to
yawn; to cook dura whole
without pounding ci bel rjam.
n,ai) to growl as dog growls ;to fool one.
nap to hang up.
nap ro ke dhot. qap ro ke dhotni bat.
ijar to play; sour; all very sorry;
artery in neck throbbing; game.
ijar rjar crying, almost in tears.
came ijar i)ar thokdA something in-
visible bites my mouth.
Ijat to peel; oblong, thin, white
bead, worn singly.
ijath* trust; to trust; ijath ke Iwac
(to trust with heart) to believe.
ijath when a person is very happy
over present not yet received.
ijAr, rjAr gazelle.
ijec bird something like guinea fowl.
rjec afterwhile; dew; second course
ijeny ijeny always angry.
qek to cut body to let blood out.
i)er to head dura; secretly; secret;
the people had plenty to eat
and just wanted to lie around;
to soak to become soft; curse,
if a thief steals my things and I
curse him, he being absent.
qer qer happy, ci locdA qer qer m y
heart was happy.
qet fragment of broken dish ; piece of.
[jien to sift.
qiu to cut with sharp razor.
QIC teacher; knew (past tense of
1)1 n to carry on head.
i)ip to sob; sob.
ijir ijir bright and shiny, teke rjir qir.
i)0C to call with loud voice; swampy;
last of October.
[)0C€, rjec strengthen (imperative).
tjok to vomit.
ijok- yie ijok- to sigh.
ijom, qomni, poss. quom knife.
qop to breathe in.
ijok rubber tree; Dinka.
rj ol first ; not late ; right away ; to spit.
tjol, ljuit crippled; lame; (ram ml)
cripple; (nei tl ljuit) cripples.
ijot, ci wicde rjot crazy.
ijote still; yet.
rjuarj to pry up; to strike mildly but
not let go stick.
rjuat not yet finished with food.
rjuat ljuat to talk thru nose.
rjueny to pick up mud or dirt;
cloddy ground; to mix with
grass rjueny piny rei kakA; to
race ci ne € ijueny ke ran we
raced with a person.
quet fishhook and pole together
quet ke guari.
ijui poorly as mac pete rjui fire burns
te war) ke qui qui blinked.
quit to scratch.
quk to pass at right angles; to see
at a distance; vomitus.
qukA as kwi qukA why.
qui cuk heel.
qui puk to put ash on.
qun-handto — . used when something
close by is wanted.
rwacke e qun qun to whisper.
quon to twist and make armlets;
to hunt one up rjuone je ciiq
emo hunt him in that village.
quok to interrupt; to divide; to
judge quok rwac; to cut.
CA quok piny the conference is
finished; to disperse.
quot to cut off; to cut; n. boil.
CI quot have you passed menopause ?
quot, qut female.
qut to ask about wedding feast;
big dance; wedding dance; fish.
qut to sharpen bl pencil qut
(cutting toward you).
qut I these things (when name
qwaaq* worn out physically; tired;
used as tired of my sins.
qwac to smell of; to sniff.
qwak*, qwak neck,
qwak* pi.; (sing.) dwor, many
qwal to borrow; loan; debt.
qwale quth bad.
qwan four; much.
qwani (pi.), dwor (sing.) things.
qwanke enough; abundant; many.
— 38 —
teke pau pau
ijwath* to nurse or care for; (ram mi)
ijwen to provoke eiju ijweni yA mo
what do you provoke me (for).
ijwcny to escape.
ijwet*, ijweni* suitor; bachelor;
I) wet* to pull in fishline.
I) wet* scratch.
qwoth to stink; to smell badly; to
ijyec to teach.
qyeceni rode practicing.
-0 as suffix of nown means first to
one and then to another.
-0 added to verb means interro-
oam to tempt.
oam, oamni n. temptation.
oi* to fall off.
om when swollen place, being
pressed, is slow to regain shape.
or A to sympathize or A ke pAr to help
e ou e on tinkling of anklets.
91, Ol hip bone.
ol* to pound dura.
on* alright; yes; well!.
ot- to pound dura.
3th to be undecided eiju othl jia mo
what are you undecided for.
paal* to come to surface.
pac newly; new.
pac- to grunt.
pace medium good, used with food
pai egg white; moon.
pai dap woman who has just given
birth to child, called this for
year or more.
paidieth cow which has little calf.
pak, cuke pak thin to stay 1 day
and 2 nights.
pak- to be absent.
pak pakni dandruff.
paki, pakini merchant.
pal* to pray.
ci palu greeting.
pal kwoth church service.
pam, pamni stone; rock; mountain.
pan volunteer crop of dura; also
reoccurrence of yaws.
pankeje day before yesterday.
pankeje dodien day before day before
panomkA slope but not very high.
pap to prepare or spread as table for
par to mourn; to sympathize; to
par, pare, parke similar; same as; on
pari k A to jump because frightened.
pat to pat; fan used to separate chaff
pau to bleed profusely; profusely; to
jump because frightened ce wa
pau he jumped because fright-
teke pau pau fear; alarm; to twitch.
pay€ mut when not yet married
pay pay splash.
pAl* to leave alone.
p Al to ask for counsel; to pierce
pAm leaves fallen to ground; leaves
of tree which they eat if very
p At to sharpen.
pAt grass tray to shake pounded
dura in; bran.
pAt cukA, pAt cukni bottom of foot.
pAt tet, pAt tetni metacarpal.
pAte pAt, CI au pAtc pAt earth is full of
pAth spirit, usually evil; evil eye;
to hasten; to hurry; to stop;
pec- to seize; to raid.
peet collar bone.
pek amount; share; end; number;
pek yaa horizon. [limit.
pek rwitkA term of pregnancy.
pek runikA life.
mi th 1 1 pek everlasting; eternal.
pel cunning; n. cunning; deceitful;
pel pel, pel pell rabbit; sandfly.
ram mi pel pel, brilliant person:
deceiver; nei tl pel pel (pi.).
pen* to fall.
penh* to forbid; to withhold.
pet, peet small, black fish.
pet- to burn; n. January (when
grass is burned).
pi, poss. pin I water, always used in
plural form only.
pic to twirl; to spin; (bi mac) to
pick when grass is moved by fish so
you know they are there and
can spear them.
pick- to stable.
pien wasp; poisonous green snake
pier, pier sty or ulcer in eye.
pier, pien fish trap,
pik to adorn; funnel.
pil rolling pin; stone used to grind
dura on; d 3 pil small stone used
pim to hit with hand; to hit with
spear and cannot release spear.
pith to grow up; growth.
pith, pilthni maternity belt.
piu sweet milk; fresh.
piwit, piwi(t)ni slingshot.
piar, plan scar.
pi I) to listen intently; to be silent;
no grass; bare ground,
piny* down; ground.
CI piny kAp no wind; calm,
pith to splice.
poan, poss. pun rice stalk; headpad
made of ricestalks.
poc to wipe; to sweep with hand,
ce pok e pok entirely finished with
pon to gather lots of fruit,
po lit rain during dry season.
pal to be ashamed ci ran pol a person
pol pol winner.
pot to leave because afraid; to break;
potekA to put on.
poth smooth; (e te) very smooth; to
poth poth level; smooth.
poth € poth
ram mi bee iwac
poth € poth to be entirely finished
pual rested; to give food to newly
puat side meat; fat of meat.
puath small cow.
puath, puoth, poss. puothni lung.
puc to be ashamed; shame; cike
puoc they are not ashamed.
puk to pour into another pan.
puP, pul', poss. pwol pool.
pul potato; small hole in ground in
which head rests while tribal
marks are cut.
pulke to float.
pum wai) cheek bone and forehead
pun, certain kind of fish.
pun I bead girdle worn by men.
puom to pick one here and one there.
puon to gather cotton; to pick out
puok to be finished.
ram mi puol puol fast runner.
puote excelling; surpassing.
puot made him afraid; to play
instrument; to beat drum.
puot to jump away; to slip away; to
puot puot small animal.
puot rar to cast off.
puotc angry, puoteni nei toto we are
angry at those people.
puoth gift, used with food only; to
bless; n. blessing.
puoth thok tongue-tied; cannot
pur skull; hoe; mark or track; to
pur JAr, pur JAri shoulder blade.
puth to cover; to smell badly; to
give many descendants; small
piece of animal skin,
puth to pull apart; to pick; flesh on
lower part of thigh.
puth puth bad; very dirty; foul
puth to fasten.
puk, poss. pukA cow manure ashes.
pulukA row boat.
pun, punni, poss. punA or punkA
triangular piece of sheepskin as
woman's loincloth, worn in
pwar to swell up; to boil; to rise; to
ferment; cloud; sky.
pwar, pwor waterbuck.
pwony*, pwany body.
pwony- to praise with song.
pwok* to bathe.
pwolc to be healthy; to steal food;
to be light of weight; to be
mi pwol pwol- light of weight.
pwolkA sound (adj.).
pwol pwony jok exceedingly safe and
pwot, to swell; put is one form.
pwoth to husk; to shuck.
pwoth tet clean hands.
ram, ran, pi. rem person.
rami person who.
ram mi bac slovenly person.
ram mi bee Iwac thief.
ram mi cak
ram mi cok stingy person.
ram mi cum cum lovable person.
ram midit, nei tidit adult.
ram mi ket, nei ti ket, ji ketA
ram mi kwil, nei ti kwil thief.
ram mi kwiny bully.
ram mi ce dwor lokelorj abhorrer.
ram mi luake, ji lueke helpmeet;
ram mi mith mith one who eats lots.
ram mi muc cheerful giver.
ram mi Ia nup, nei ti Ia nup messen-
ram mi pel pel clever person; artist;
ram mi raij one who shoots well.
ram mi riarj rial) rich person.
ram mi nij ni) one who hurries.
ram mi rio very fat man.
ram mi roth one who seemingly does
underhand work; bully.
ram mi thek worshipper.
ram mi ca yen, nei ti ca yen prisoner.
ram mi yuoi] drunkard.
ran buth guide.
ran gorkA, ji gorkA pupil; student.
ran JAl, jl j Al visitor; traveler.
ran lat, jl lat worker; employee.
ran moijA, jl moijA, jl moijk A visitor;
ranh close by; yet to come; still
outside; wants to come bl yAn
ranh dwil (I want to come in the
ran, temporal region.
rai) flash of lightning; light.
wa rarj to make a shadow.
raij one who shoots well.
rar abroad; away; outside; limitless.
rathe very small fish that little boys
rAk, rAke nyal when two men want
rAl tendon; vein; ligament; artery.
rAl cwoth guinea worm.
rAl dual) tendon of Achilles.
rAl wuom bridge of nose.
rAm long-legged insect.
rAl) scar where skin has not gotten
rAp rAp membrane; tallow; covering
rAth to hasten; to come and go
rec, rec, poss. rac, fish.
rec pacifier; to pacify; to make
rec cua when first child a boy.
rec nyal when first child a girl.
reet* to tear.
rek poss. reek* enclosure.
rek- rwac to interrupt conversation.
rel white ants that like wood and
rel hillock; different; no resem-
remde his soldiers.
rep to add to; to give repeatedly; to
increase; n. increase; worm.
rep rep sheer; thin; soft (material).
ret to pass through; to go ahead.
ret, retni, poss. reet orphan.
ret, reet razor blade.
ret- part to go one path, part an-
other, meeting later.
ret ke tok
— 42 —
ret ke tok to laugh heartily.
rial) abundance; plenty; rich;
enough; to abound.
riaij rial) shiny; rich,
riar to perish; fool: unclean: sense-
riar cai) almost sunset.
riau to scatter as to go to different
homes: to dazzle: to light up.
riAl. ri All half dollar; two shillings.
riAl- to let come to ground slowly
to clear away; to prepare.
riAl bek, riAl bekni bird with red bill,
larger than maribou.
ric age or class: peacemaker: to
rie to twist; to roll: to return.
riec to be curly (ca ro riec) it twisted
rieke, riakA he is busy; I am busy.
mi riel color.
riem blood; child one month old or
riem gwac- abortion; to abort.
riep to hurry.
riet to be silent (ce bl riet) he will
not rule (or talk).
riet, rietnl law; order; rule.
rio coarse part of dura; bran,
rit to turn.
loc rit to repent, ci loc rit he repented.
be rill to leave regular path and go by
riu name of tree; to turn part away;
to hurt inside; to blink as
blinded by sun; breadth; (yaa)
north; (yaa) south.
riak crested crane.
riak work; business; false trust;
concern ; to be concerned about ;
to work; to be busy.
rial) k A sandy place.
rik, nkni n. row.
ril to run or pierce into flesh.
riny to straighten out; to extend.
ril) meat; to hurry.
ril) duo l) meat without bones.
riijl n. running.
rini nhiAl flight.
rip very tall; very big; to refuse to
do assigned work.
rip certain insect; bug.
rip, riup finger or toe nails; claws.
rir poisonous snake, red and brown;
restless ; to fly away (used with
nth to make a shadow.
ro, ruth hippopotamus.
ro ro certain kind of ant.
roan bath famine.
roc to swallow; to devour; fishspear
with hook to catch fish.
rok cell; segment.
rok cow with spreading horns, tips
rol, rul, poss. rol* country.
rol throat; alimentary tract ; pimples.
rol childless woman; sterile woman,
will not adopt child unless
Rol Bunyni Abbysinia.
Rol Ker Dinka Land.
Rol Rip Egypt.
rol rol in haphazard way; when food
is not cooked well teke rol rol.
rom to hold; to care for; to guard.
rom gat guardian.
rom locdu cheer up.
rop to string beads.
ro, ro* self.
roath, roth ear of corn.
rok, ruk kidney.
rok to entangle.
rok, poss. ruok grass rope.
rok, rokni grasshopper.
rol withered; dried up.
rorj, rorj seed; pit.
rorj to squeeze in; to fit in.
ror big lizard.
ror child not yet weaned.
roth whirlwind; cyclone; axilla.
roth to plaster with mud.
ram mi roth, nei-ti roth idiot.
rol when tribal mark scars will be
big someday bike rol.
rual flock; herd.
ruam, rum seroot fly.
mam, poss. ruamni big sheep.
man opening at back of nose.
ruany, rony cane stalk.
mat to snore.
mau- to jump high in dancing; to
rub A quarter dollar; shilling.
ruec, cikc ro ruec they crowded
against themselves; to crowd
against; (wic-) to forget.
ruck to put on.
met to shine in ci car) waijdA ruct the
sun shone in my eye.
ruct to take armlets and anklets off.
ruit to drink milk.
ruk to tie grass across path so one
will trip over it; to splice but
connecting place shows.
ruk, ruk double tooth.
rum to meet (always takes pi.
subject); to splice.
rumcidwar, rumcidwan porcupine.
rum ka(k)ni boundary line,
rum puth, rum puthni ibis; sacred
rui] to give to all; to distribute to all.
ruony to point out with tongue; to
feel way in dark; to protrude
ruot when cow wont let milk down.
ruok to pay fine for illegitimate
child, (4 cows are paid and then
father may claim child).
ruok ruok noise of boiling.
ruon. rui). piny c ruoi) run. earth is
ruoth to fight; to bite and throw its
body; to spear; (ruth is one
rup, rwop, poss. rwop* forest.
rup rup working or walking hard or
rut to cry; n. cry.
rut jec gas rumbling in bowels.
rwac* word; to speak; speech; to
rwac kwen betrothal.
rwac parkA parable.
rwath* young ox.
rwath thak mi puath small steer.
rwei* spittle; saliva.
rwei kak phlegm.
rweth to drink milk.
rwil Nile perch, white fish, delicious.
rwil spring; planting season; first
rwit* to be pregnant.
rwith certain kind of fish.
rwit k A pregnancy.
rwon* run year.
rwot* boy's name.
ryei, ryath poss. ryai, ryathni* boat.
ryei nath dugout canoe.
ryei nhial aeroplane.
tac, tec ant.
teke tai wrinkled.
tai wee wrinkles.
tak to braid; pain and swelling in
tak A tike, teke I have, you have,
tame pany immediately.
tanye- to rub dry.
tar), turj long stick.
tap tobacco; unfertile ground.
tap tl nuor nuor fine tobacco which
tar bottom; under; (wi(c)dli) hold
head back; foundation.
tar bAp white bead worn by men.
tat, tatnl hipbones.
tayou- big lake.
tAk muol, tak muall kneecap;
tAl, tel calf of leg.
tAt on purpose kan yith ke tAt (I did
not spear on purpose.
tAth to mold; to form; big spear;
te are; is; to abide; to stay.
ten to be finished ci retni dial wa ten
the razor blades are all finished.
ten I nhial very far away in sky.
teno many days ahead.
teny to ache, used with earache.
teny sun shining after rain.
tea* to hide; to deceive.
teeth* to be happy; (Iwac) happiness.
tek, tekni silver or lead bracelets.
tek tek to have none left at all.
tel when grass moves showing there
is something in it; to wag.
tern to bring part of them; to kill
fish; to cut; to separate (wA
tern); to fish at river early
a. m.; n. cut.
tenh* to start out on return trip.
tel) papyrus; crack of lightning; to
pound to get dust out: to dust:
to shake: to free himself: to
tel] to execute this rite which is
ter, jl teer enemy.
ter to distend as balloon blown up
tet to dig. [as ce ter.
tet, tetni hand.
tetAr certain kind of fish.
teth* to start; to fall.
tier to fish with fishing spear only;
to stomp in water so fish will
think there are other fish there
tiel white-eared cob; miserly.
tiel jealous; jealousy used with
women only; cyek mi teke tiel,
wife who has jealousy.
WA tiel to have plenty; enough;
ce WA tiel he had plenty.
tiep wooden shield (not ambatch)
carried in dance.
tier to remember ci wicdA tier,
tiet, poss. tietkA understanding:
wisdom: sorcerer; (lat) sorcery.
tieth to pour a little on — .
tieth e cuet very hot; red hot.
tik, poss. tikA- chin.
tlk tik or tek tek ticking of clock.
tik, tiak beads.
til A clear; to see thru clear water.
tim to revere: to be homesick for:
tim to remember.
tiol twaar sugar.
tiak yolk of egg.
tial, til earring.
tiam to be famished; to starve;
tiap, poss. tipkA shade; shadow.
tiar to come and find it already
in progress (used with dance
tiat pulp or fiber.
tiath to break (as dishes).
tiath- to itch.
tie spirit (of heart); crystalline lens;
(waij) pupil of eye; sight.
tiec to pull; buildings; (jok) to
shrink; close to ground; to
draw up closer.
tlek finely pounded dura.
tlep tlep fertile as fertile ground.
tlk, poss. teekA life.
t iked I a me chin whiskers.
til, til person who knows Nuer well.
CI nhial dAm e tim tim tosprinkle
tin pi. of in- the.
tl nor) piny somersault.
tin win those of the past; long ago.
tl nyin go very fine; very good.
tl nyin ijwan* many; abundance.
tl nyin tieni many little.
tok, poss. tokA jabiru; bird that
stays 'rar' in desert or uninha-
CI to I ll greeting (secondary).
torn- to put mouth to water to
torn torn broad bladed grass growing
along river; noise of fish as rec
teke torn torn,
tony, poss. tuny pipe.
tor white ants that eat wood only;
toe certain kind of white dura ; to lie
mi toe green; (yil) green and yellow;
(mi yil toe) blue.
to l) manure pile used as smudge in
barn; to be born dead; to die;
to pierce grass into ear as CA
jlthdA tor) I pierced my ear.
toij, till) wood to burn; sticks;
handle of spear; fuel.
tor) manytApni, tun, manytApni corns-
toi) ewer mushroom. [talk.
tor) rul trachea.
toroi), toror) tonsil.
tot planting season; from May to
September; croak of frog.
mitot, titot; tl torn; tl nyin tieni
toto, those; tlti those at a distance.
tuac to put to bed as to put child to
bed; to not butt in; value.
tual to blister; n. blister.
tUAl, tuAh lotus (or is it thual (V)).
tuany certain kind of fish.
tuat grass used to make rope.
tuc to pop out; to spring out; el pi
tuc spring of water (literally
water sprang out).
tuk to order out; to discharge (one
form is tuok); to finish.
tuk tuk to pop; to have popping
sound as teke tuk tuk.
tuk tukni popcorn.
tul to break (used with wood); does
not mean to shatter.
tul to pick dura by the handsful or
to gather dura heads by hand.
tul- to make; to cut wood certain
size; to gather as tuli many-
tap ni; you gather corn.
turn to butt into.
turn turn Adam's apple; trachea.
tuny to smoke out ca nyith tuny ke
mac I smoked mosquitoes out
tun. perfect place (th lie mi jyek thin);
false fear; cob; vacant as no
tut), tuoi] horn of animal.
tuij baijto false fear.
tuoc to count.
tuom to disperse; to turn back to
back; to pierce but not thru
tuok to start.
tuol smoke; CA tuol I hunted and
tup to be very rich; sufficient; to
tur sandstorm; dust; to scare up
lots of animals.
turuk, turukni light colored
tut, poss. twot male; ox.
tut deel ram.
tut gar name of Nuer omnipresent
tuth to protect blade of spear; to
join together as bike yua WA
tuth will join grass skirt to-
tutluet brother of the fox.
tut man palck, tut man palckni
twac, twacni, poss. twackA skin of
animal; loincloth of skin.
twac kwac* leopard skin.
twai twai spinal cord.
twai) wee top of head where hair
twany to make pressure,
twar* dates; honey; syrup; to chant;
to sing dance song.
twAt, twAni wild goose.
twer to scrape burnt or dried food
out of kettle; to curette (one
form is twir).
ce twer e twer entirely finished with
twiny to pinch.
twil to blister; to break promise,
twith A sorcery; the work of medicine
man as lat twith A.
twith, twithni drumstick.
— 47 —
twoc, poss. twickA box made of mud.
twom, turn, poss. tumkA hypodermic
or intravenous injection.
twoi), tui) egg.
twok, kwakA dish.
twok- to sing child to sleep; to
praise; to comfort child.
twol to reoccur as ce le nyok it
reoccurred or el botde twol the
twoth to polish.
tha clock; watch.
thac mist; vine; moisture; dew;
headpad; Nuer pillow for wo-
men; also pillow for newly
thactt, thacitni sudani washtub.
thadup hand dipping irrigation
thagiA waterwheel for irrigation.
thai nyany to be magnified.
thak ox; cooking pot; v. to carry in
thaklai) metal dish; finger bowl.
thai to heat; to cook.
thalcAl) middle of morning.
than part of; some.
mi thar last year.
ml thar ke je year before last.
mi thar ke rwil last spring.
tharAl, tharAli camel.
thar bAp big, white bead.
thar lee root of tooth.
that- to put food on fire; to cook.
thAn certain kind of fish.
thAp below level of surface.
thee to splash; to dip out; much
afraid; to tremble ce dwal A CI
jecde WA thee he feared so his
thek to worship; holiness; hallowed;
holy; v. to menstruate.
them basket to measure dura in.
ther to whittle; to sharpen; to bless;
man whose wife is pregnant;
enmity; pregnant woman.
thi- to strain: to filter.
thiAm, thim sneeze; v. thiAm- to
thiarj afternoon; v. to fill; antelope;
name of rite used to appease
god when woman is impregnated
when child is still nursing; full.
thiap to examine; to touch.
thiau ke mer to cry tears; te war) ke
thiau thiau tearful.
thiec, thieeni question.
thiec- to ask.
thiet grass used to make grass skirt.
thiel temple of head.
thier grass used to make doors.
thik, thiAkni door.
thim to cut off pieces; ca rirj thim
I cut meat in pieces.
thio thio always winking eyelids;
thiol fat of meat.
thiarj ciirj nath hartebeast.
thill I k wire; wireless station.
thin, thin female breast.
thin there is, (contraction of at hi n).
— 48 —
thip to limp; to change one's mind;
to distribute; to relinguish; to
divide among; to give one's life
thir, thier pillar of house; rafters.
thok, thuk valve; message; letter;
thok, thuk language.
thok jak, thok jakni blanket.
thok JUOC harelip.
thok kAl gate; gateway.
thok kwe old but still good.
thok Iwac pit of stomach.
thok nhiAl; thok piny upper lip;
thok thin, thuk thinni nipple.
thok war) swamp.
thok wan mouth or bank of river,
thoi), poss. thurjkA place where dura
thoij to murder; to heap up.
thol to collect; to summon; sound of
hard wind in spring.
thor to mix; to sharpen; to dilute
thou same as wild dates.
thol to bend and bend.
thol- to sit in sunshine outside; to be
thol- to put it on as tholl mith wic
tebAl, put food on table.
ce ro thol as old person, whose
strength is gone.
thoij, thon. wildcat.
thor brittle; crumbly; swampy
thot to be silent.
thot to pass gas.
-thu -in-law; bAlie thu unseasoned;
thuac large earthern vessel to store
thuak finished (used with food),
thuany certain deep sea animal.
thuc to hoe part of field and leave
part not hoed.
thuc manytApni ear of corn,
thuk to destroy; to be fulfilled; to be
thu I klir bends of river.
thun jor to never reach,
thuny to push.
thuij to jump out and away; murder;
already; dead; to receive fines
for murder cases.
thuokklen their beginning.
thuom small crowd; organ; musical
thuol to search; to spy.
thuop poss. thuopA yeast; bricks.
thural, thurall pants; trousers.
thure to sound in order to find hidden
door; to destroy.
thut- one class of Nuers, possibly
75 — 80 years old now.
thut to tow; to tug; to stretch; to
pull harpoon back.
thut, thutni nail.
thut kul certain constellation of
thuk, thuk Iwac, thuk indit aorta.
thwaar* to float: dates: honey.
thwom sterile woman.
thyake* close by: easy.
thyake el in. brimful.
thyeke eliqo very strong.
uy in order that; since; because.
uth big basket like bushel basket.
waale this year.
waao* to burn.
waat, waatni whip (like blacknake
wac wet; to be wet.
pi ti wac wac acid.
wacc tart; sour.
wac rac part of fish.
wai-, wath relative.
wak to pluck: to ache: to call
loudly; clatter: to balk: to
throb: to cry out.
wal or dAf) wal ten.
wal wicde kel eleven.
wal wicde reu twelve.
wal wicde dyok thirteen.
wal wicde ijwan fourteen.
wal wicde dhyec fifteen.
wal wicde bakel sixteen.
wal wicde baro seventeen.
wal wicde badak eighteen.
wal wicde baijwan nineteen.
wal wicde kellien eleventh.
wal, wall puddles.
4 Huffman, Nuer-English
wal medicine; charm; amulet.
wal dhicU opiate; sedative.
wal ml kop kop incense; perfume.
wal nuirkA medicine as charm to
wal mi qwanyke perfume; incense.
wal dwar or wal doar laxative.
ni wale in a very short time.
wan to surround: to steal: to be
very dirty: to wither so they
die; fox; thief; new grass that
has just come up.
wany when sky is cloudy; clouds
wany to move; to replace; to
exchange; rope or belt around
wany piny to roll over on ground.
waij, nym eye.
waij wrath: swamp: grain; waij
I wac anger.
waij kwurA, wan, kwun wrist.
waij cwa, waij cwani joints of body.
warjdA idiom meaning my body.
waij pumkA riverbank; waij pumkA
kwicimi opposite river bank.
wai) cuopkA ankle bone.
cue lar I ml waij to affirm emphati-
loc wai) to be wrathy ci locdA wai)
my heart was wrathy.
cwa wai) cheekbone.
war night; wardar, ci war dit (the
night is big) midnight.
war lip about supper time ci war lip
the night waited.
war war little morsels.
wat to take dirt out of hole.
tc wat wat
tc wat wat illegible like 'chicken
wat to push into; to take out; to
watAk certain kind of white dura.
wath horsefly; one who always
wants to fight; inlet in river;
landing place for boats; tall
grass; watering place at river;
wath pus came out. as oe wath pus
wau wauni glossy ibis.
waudc grass in cow's stomach.
WA went; bAn WA we two will go;
bAne WA I and all of you will go;
WAdin title of respect used by older
person toward younger man:
same as gatdA (my son).
WAl fruit: garden products: to be
WAl to be disturbed (el pi ro WAl)
(water moved itself); to be
moved; to chew cud.
WAn you and I go; wane (pi.), you
(pi.) and I go.
WAr certain vegetable; grass that is
WAr- to search.
weA girls to be dancing before men
Clkc we A they danced before
wee village with cattle but no fields :
wc to answer: to say: to exclaim: to
get: to call out.
Wea* go, 2nd. pers. pi. imper. of
wcl to be finished CA ro wel it was
wer* to sow: to scatter.
wernyin, wernyinni window.
Wet to beckon.
weth disease, somewhat like syphilis
but of different origin.
wet wet to go to fight ce te wet wet
he went to fight.
wi to warn; to call all the people.
wic on; above.
wic, wieni, poss. wee village.
wic, wath, poss. wee, wathni head.
wi(c)-ruec to forget.
wi(c) car to think.
wic dwil, wath dwilli roof.
wic JArA clavicle.
wic mwon grave.
wic wukA, wath wani shoulder.
wie to cry; n. warning.
will Nuer god.
Wll to play; to deny; to be distrust-
ful ; to circle around ; to encircle ;
to go around ; to make repeated
trips; to fear each other wile ro.
wile nath to fool people as sound of
win to go around (not on regular
wir, wea, wa to go.
Win long horned (cattle) yok tl Win.
Wit to sharpen.
With, wi(th)eni club with big head.
wituorj on edge of crowd.
woe to put out; to empty out.
WOC dhol to make the tribal marks.
ci riem woe to abort.
wor chase; race; to chase; to race;
sore on heel, possibly bruised
originally, gwath ml ca yieth,
cc k bee place which I pierced,
it hurt again,
ou noise of boat coming; chug
wok baldheaded; to fade as ci bid c
wok the color is faded.
wok, wok upper arm.
wop to sprain.
WOth misfortune will come; to be
spilt; blood flowed to ground,
ci riem woth.
wuc to break out in heat,
wul* to lean against; to open path.
wum, wuum, poss. wuom nose.
wum juoc cleft palate.
wum kcluqkA neck of squash; class
name given boys whose tribal
marks were cut in 1925 (also
called cai yatni).
wum kiir head of gourd,
wun to distend.
wuony to disagree; to argue; to
wuok to loosen by working it back
wuoth to locate open place for
entrance; to tiptoe; to quake.
wut, wum poss. wutkA man.
wut poss. wot* ostrich.
wut mi bee miser.
wut kur warrior.
wuth to cut; to make small opening.
wun dark clouds; cloudy.
yai exclamation of disgust.
yak to discard; to throw away; to
upset; to run the washing
yak, yaak hyena.
yak- to sift; to shake dura to get
yaktoi certain very thin fish.
yal to tangle up; to jumble up.
yal to exclaim; to refuse cc yal, he
yal, to be crosseyed; ci waijke yal,
his eyes crossed.
yal yal to roll the eyes as tekc yal yal.
ro Ic yal to go to bad place.
yal dwil eaves of house.
yam to walk where there is no road;
yaij, yok, poss. yande, cow.
yai) mi mAr dark red cow.
yar mad; to refuse: worn out: sterile
(used with people only).
yar- leckc teke yar- spaces between.
yat- to soil as rat soils clothes.
yat rough as yat jok rough back;
butter; married womans dress
made of sheepskin a two
piece suit (see yet),
yath yath region between hipbones
yath stroke; grass used for tying;
tender grass ; to keep hitting or
yath high jumping fish.
yath to snatch away, yuth is one
form; to kneel as ce mal- yath
piny, he knelt on ground.
01 ro yAl to want exact information.
yAm yAtn scratchy.
yAt, yet finger; toe.
yec yec expression of surprise or
— 52 —
yeny to extinguish.
yeny to dry dishes; to wipe.
yek, poss. yikA grass mat.
yd to chase.
yem to strike at; cu ken e yem they
yen to bandage; to dress a wound;
to tie: to imprison.
yene you and, as jin yene Dei), you
yet married woman's dress, yet-
triangular piece of sheep skin
worn in back, pun- triangular
piece of sheepskin worn in front.
yeth ciiq newly made village.
yeth to go on; to be unacquainted
with path; to move; to remove;
yeth A rough.
yic to be dumbfounded; to be
bewildered; to be dizzy,
yien to stop; to herd; shepherd.
yik Nuer altar.
yio certain kind of red dura; fish
with three horns.
yi, ye you (pi.).
yiAth to sacrifice.
yie spirit; (e bee) to breath heavily:
to sigh yie ijok; breath; air.
yiec, yieeni to sweep: broom.
yier, yien garner.
yier- to grease.
yik to destroy; to be empty handed;
to go aimlessly.
yik pual to be ashamed to eat in
front of sweetheart.
yik yik rattle for child; te yik yik
has rattling (sound).
mi yil light green; blue.
yil yil twirling.
yil to spear at fish and miss; leaf of
lotus, may be eaten: yil nhial
yilblth certain class of Nuers of long
ago, all dead now.
mi yil wal purple.
yir, yiri, poss. yier river,
yir to anoint; much pain or suffering.
yit game played with mud balls.
waij yitkA, yit mud balls to play
yit- to throb or to sting.
yith, yo, poss. yoni money; metal.
yitklen head of dura minus grains.
yo spear and fishing spear; wea-
yo dwop toll tax.
yoc to drag.
yor- to throw.
yoij cry of crow; madman; to be
yoi) yoij mad; crazy; cike nij yoi)
yoi) they ran like mad or crazy.
yot to shoot; to strike; to throw at;
to hit; to pull trigger.
yot- to make dry skin (on body)
yot yot membrane.
yot yot, yot yotni page of book.
yoth to yearn for; to be eager for.
yua short grass skirt.
yuac to drag out; to tow; to caress
and praise; to pull out.
yuai to feel with hand.
yuak to move as leaves move in
wind, teke yuak.
yual to yell; to exclaim.
yuanke branches of tree.
yuc to go to gather wood.
yum, yumni, poss. yumkA dish made
yum mathA cup.
yum ryei nhial aluminum.
yuop to favor.
yuop- ro to guard self from evil.
yuot topknot of bird,
yuot to kill.
yuothcikcrwacdcyuoth to interrupt;
cike rwacde yuoth they in-
terrupted his words.
yure to take hold.
yut, yutni certain small, short bird.
yuth to pull; to anticipate words;
yup- to puff; to pant.
Notes on Grammar.
Formation of plural.
By adding suffix -m to singular form.
miak miakni insect
nen nenni mirror
nyeu nyeuni cat
nyik nyikni the fellow wife
Nouns ending in k may form the plural by adding the suffix -ni
the fellow wife
By adding the suffix 1.
(The suffix I seems to be used only with nouns ending in r or I as far
as I have found examples.)
By change in intonation.
instep of foot
By change of vowel.
bell made from doleib nut
— 55 —
By substituting u for wo.
kwoth kuth god
kwor kur hundred
dwop dup path
twom turn hypodermic injection
dwoi) dun. shell of ostrich egg.
Nouns whose singular form ends in t, may drop the final t before adding
the suffix -ni to form the plural.
mut muni spear
gumut gumuni owl
kwut kwuni suitor
ijwct ijweni bachelor
dit dim roofer
Some nouns form their plurals irregularly.
yai) y 3 ^ cow
twok kwakA dish
yith yo money or metal
wai) nin eye
cyck man wife
Gender is often indicated by stating whether the thing mentioned is male
tut male ljuot female
wuni men man women
dhol boy nyal girl
The word tut may be placed before the word to indicate gender as tut dccl
male sheep, or they may say del athin, e jcn quot meaning there is a sheep,
it is a female.
The prefixes nya- and nyan- always indicate feminine gender.
River banks, the earth and the sky are all considered masculine if one
it to judge from the riddles they ask as mar tut tidit dai) reu (guess two big
males) is answered by riverbanks or the earth and sky.
The moon is often called nyapai which would indicate feminine gender.
Nouns ending in k, add the suffix -A for the singular form and -ni for the
plural when used as object of a preposition.
— 56 —
The suffix -ill, added to the singular form of the noun, is used to form all
cases in the plural.
kak kakA ka(k)ni field
guk gukA gu(k)ni pocket
cuk cukA cukni foot
kok kokA ko(k)ni grave
Nouns whose vowel is € form these cases as object of a preposition by
lengthening the €.
del deel sheep (singular)
det deet sheep (plural)
ret reet razor blade
eel ceel certain fish
Some nouns whose vowel is u, form these cases in the singular number
by substituting wo for u, the plural cases being formed by adding the suffix
-ni to the singular form of the noun.
rup rwop rupni forest
mun mwon ground
tut twot tutnl male
Many nouns may be governed by these rules but there are many, the
rules governing which, I have not yet found.
Declension of Personal Pronouns
Nominative y*n I kon we
Possessive -dA, -Ia, -kA my -dAn, -Un, -kon our
Objective y A me ^0 us
-kA and -kon in the possessive indicate a plural noun.
Nominative jin you yen
Possessive -du, -lu, -ku your -dun, -lun, -kun
Objective jl you ye
-ku and -kun in the possessive case indicate a plural noun.
Nom. jen he, she, it ken they
Poss. -de, -le, -ke his, hers, its -dien, -lien, -klen their
Obj. je him, her, it ke them
-ke and -klen in the possessive case indicate a plural noun.
— 57 —
The possessive forms -Ia, -lu and -le in the singular and -Un, -lun and
-lien in the plural are used when the final consonant of the noun they
follow is I.
-dA and -I a indicate that both the possessor and the possessed are singular.
-kA indicates that the possessor is singular and the possessed plural.
-dAn and -I An indicate that the possessors are plural and the possessed
-kon indicates that both possessors and possessed are plural.
No gender is recognized in the pronouns, the same form being used for all.
The personal pronoun may be used as a suffix to the root form of a verb as
First person -A gurA I want
Second person -I gun you want
Third person -€ gure he wants
First person -kon, -ko gurkon, gurko we want
Secons person -e gure you want
Third person -ke gurke they want
In these cases, no other subject need be expressed unless desired.
mi often introduces a relative clause. If ml is the subject of the relative
clause, it is followed by CI or bl.
c jcn thokde citke rip mi bi nyith kc yok rei gwop leini, (it is its mouth
resembling a needle which the mosquito pushes in the animal's skin.)
ml is often used with a time clause of future condition.
mi jin bi yai) jik, noni je.
(If you find a cow, bring her.)
mi condition meaning "if".
mi dwul lapm dial citeke dwil erne, kwoan dial bike liu,
(If all rice houses resembled this house, all the rats would die.)
me introduces time clause of completed action.
me ci lony ben, Debid ce iju lei?
(When the lion came, what did David do?)
The comparative form of adjectives is formed by adding the suffix -ni
to the positive form. The superlative is formed by using the phrase
"surpassing them in (quality mentioned)".
surpassing them in goodness
he is bigger than all of them.
lenye kc ke goie
ditni jen ke kcndial
Adjectives usually follow the nouns they modify as —
dwil inbor e dwil midit.
House the white is house a big.
The white house is a big house.
in- (singular) and tin- (plural) are prefixes used to designate some
particular quality as —
yai) inbor the white cow
yok tinbor the white cattle.
in and tin usually follow the noun and preceed the adjective they
ml (singular) and tl (plural) are prefixes used when nothing definite is
yai) mibor a white cow
yok tlbor white cattle
They occupy the same position in the sentence as in and tin.
Regular form of conjugation.
gur- to want
I want gurkon, gurneini
1st. person gur- a
you want gur- e
he, she, it, wants gur- kc
The 1st. person plural gur nei ni is often contracted to gureni.
1st. person CA gur I wanted
2nd. person ci gur
3d. person cc gur
ci yen (e) gur
1st. person bA gur I will want bako gur
2nd. person bl gur be gur
3d. person be gur bike gur
we will want
— 59 —
The object of the verb is usually placed between the two words which
form the verb as
ca je gur mccpan
bA je gur irun
cal- to call
luak- to help
lak- to wash
I wanted him yesterday.
I will want him tomorrow.
qac to know
ger to row
gor to write
and many other verbs are conjugated in this same way.
Conjugation of irregular verbs.
I come, I am coming
you come, you are coming
he, she, it, is coming
we are coming
you come, you are coming
jen € is often used in the 3d. person singular when person is nearby.
Literally, it means "he is".
bA, yAn abceni
bir, jin abceni
bea, yen abeeni
CA ben I came
cako ben, ci kon ben, ci nei ben
ci yen ben
bl Y An ben I will come
bi j in ben
bl jen ben
— 60 —
1st. person bako ben, bl nei ben we will come
2nd. person bl yen ben
3d. person bike ben
2nd. person singular bir
2nd. person plural bca (used when people are nearby).
2nd. person plural bia (used when people are at a little distance).
Conjugation of e to be
1st. person e yAn or y An e I am
2nd. person e jin or jin e you are
3d. person e jen or jen e he, she, it, is
1st. person kon e we are
2nd. person yen e you are
3d. person ken e they are
1st. person y An e WAneme meedan I was here awhile ago
2nd. person jin e WAneme meedan you were here awhile ago
3d. person jen e WAneme meedan he, she, it, was here awhile ago
1st. person kon e WAneme meedan we were here awhile ago
2nd. person yen e WAneme meedan you were here awhile ago.
3d. person ken e WAneme meedan they were here awhile ago
Some word expressing past time is used as meedan in this case.
bl yah e
I will be
bl jin c
you will be
bl jen e
he, she, it, will be
bl kon e
we will be
bl yen e
you will be
bi ken e
they will be
— 61 —
Some word expressing future time is usually used as
Bi kon e wAneme irun
we will be here tomorrow.
Verbs — Formation of Negative forms.
The negative form often to European ears resembles the regular form of
verb, the only difference being in intonation.
Cl'ke' WA X they went cf ke' wa' they did not go
CA' wa' I went CA V wa' I did not go
ca' gur v I wanted ca x gur v I did not want.
In other cases, kan and ken (not) and their various forms are used.
Negative Form of Conjugation.
Present or future tense.
1st. person CA bi ben I am not coming, or I will not come.
2nd. person CI bl ben you are not coming, or you will not come.
3d. person ce bl ben he, she, it, is not coming, or will not come
1st. person kon cane bl ben, kanko ben we will not come, or
have not come
2nd. person yen CA bl ben you will not come
3d. person ken cike bl ben they will not come
1st. person yAn kan ben I did not come
2nd. person jin ken I ben you did not come
3d. person jen kene ben he, she, it, did not come
1st. person kon kanko ben we did not come
2nd. person yen kene ben you did not come
3d. person ken kenke ben they did not come
The possessive form of the noun is used to indicate when the noun is
the object of the preposition "of" as
wic wot head of ostrich
— 62 —
This same form of noun is used when the noun is the object of anv
preposition but in most cases the preposition is expressed.
tree of forest
ke kwi rwop
bel kak a
dura of field
ke kwi kakA
cc wa kA dwil gorkA.
He went to schoolhouse.
The preposition may be omitted while the noun takes the form required
Jen e (rei) dwil gorkA.
He is (in) schoolhouse or
is in the schoolhouse.
Formation of Sentences.
The object of the verb often preceeds the verb.
Ci wan rwacdien hn.
The fox heard their words.
wan is the subject.
CI III) is the vexb.
rwacdien is the object.
As in the above sentence, when CI introduces a sentence, the first noun
following is the subject, the second noun is the object and both preceed
In sentences where ce is part of the verb form, the subject is always
expressed first, being separated from the object by ce, the verb being last.
wan ce rwacdien III).
The adjective usually follows the noun it modifies as
Nyai) ce yarj inbor cam
crocodile cow the white ate.
crocodile ate the white cow.
The verb may be omitted as
mecdan thlle ticl meaning "long ago no jealousy."
— 63 —
ku and kule are used in narrative for rhythm only and always preceed
Cu wan ku wa rei yikA.
fox went in grass mat.
Ce y a kulc, juk „wir nhiam".
He me said, "go ahead".
mo is used for emphasis.
C jen thwok mi bA larA ji mo.
Is it truth which I will tell you.
It is truth which I will tell you.
-0 as suffix to a verb means interrogation.
Jin ci rwacdien hqo?
You their words heard ?
Did you hear their words.
-0 as suffix to noun means first to one and then to another.
Ce wa kA ramo, cc wa kA ramo.
He went to a person, he went to a person.
He went to one person and then another.
In a series of names, use ke for "and" except for the final "and", use mani.
Pec ke Dhiel ke Nyaq kc Dak mani Gaac.
Pec and Dhiel and Nyaq and Dak and Gaac.
(In this instance, the ke takes the place of a comma.)
Sentences are short, new sentences being used instead of using many
Ci kun le ben. Cue thik thiap.
The rat came again. It examined the door.
Cue jik a bum etet. Cue pAl.
It found it very hard (or tight). It left.
A fact is often stated negatively, modifying it by the next sentence.
Ci gatdA liu.
My child died.
Ci dwothni yie mi durj tit.
Is left spirit a very little or a very little life is left.
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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY
PL Huffman, Ray
8576 Nuer-English dictionary